(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Highways and hedges; or fifty years of western Methodism"

4^ -'. 



^ 



j5 ^-^ 



/e^.e-^.^ c57 yy^^l^^:iU. 



-2/ 



/< 



t^ 



4<^t 



olcuc-^^r^-^ '^^^^^ 




^ /^L^^ 



J4^ ;^^ //// 

/ ^ 



,/ 



V V 



~ r\ K\ 



X.;^ KJT^v^ "i^^ 



ASTOH. LENOX .^ND 

Itildei^ foundations 





\ 





/ 



^^ 



^^/^l^yi^ 




o 



r orri 




HIGHWAYS AND HEDGES; 



OR, 



FIFTY YEARS OF WESTERN METHODISM. 



BY 



REV. JOHN STEWART, 

OF THE OHIO CONFERENCE. 



-«»- 



- - • f 



C INC INN A TI: 
HITCHCOCK AND WALDEN. 

NEIV YORK: 

CARLTON AND LAN A HAN. 

1870. 



^ 



TO T 


» 1 




, 


p^TP' • 








t l(i 




A 




AS'^OTT 


T •» 




^i!) 


til; 




AT IONS 1 


R 


1U24 




L 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1870, 
BY JOHN STEWART, 



In the Office of the Librai ian of Congress, Washington. 



t J 



Z' 



Peeface 



rpiIE time was when the publication of a book was a 
-^ notable event, and only men of great ability were 
expected to become authors. Now, however, the facili- 
ties for book-making are so multiplied, and the popular 
taste for reading so developed, that the annual crop of 
books is looked for with as much regularity as the crop 
of corn. But as in aorriculture, so in book-makino:, the 
fondest hopes are sometimes cut short by an " untimely 
frost." It has been said by some one that '^ an author, 
like a fat man in a crowd, must elbow others out of the 
way to make room for himself." Not being a fat man, 
and now within four years of four-score, I can not jostle 
much with others in the crowd. A half century spent 
mostly upon horseback, traversing large circuits and 
districts in the States of Ohio, Virginia, Kentucky, 
Pennsylvania, Indiana, and Illinois, has brought me in 
contact with most of the men and measures that have 

molded the institutions, and gathered the membership 

3 



4 PREFACE. 

of till" Mt'tliOflist Episcopal Chuixli (^n tliis continent, 
aii'l wliicli liMve sent its streams of influence to Europe, 
Asia, and AlVir:!. Krum the store-house of my memory 
1 have endeavored to record some things ^vhich I 
thought 'svould V»e of interest to tlio present generation, 
and of value to the future historian. I have also ven- 
tured some opinions in regard to men and measures, 
and some counsels to miTiisters and laymen. I am con- 
scious of the decay of memory, and, doubtless, other 
powers of mind, less observed by myself than otliers, 
arc failing also; hence it becomes me to ask forbear- 
ance for Avhatcvcr errors may be found in my book, con- 
sequent upon the infirmities of age. I have never kept 
an extensive journal, and only the brief notes of my 
circuit " diaries " to prompt my memory. The book, 
such as it is, has been called out by the partiality of my 
friends, and I doubt not they will treat it with the same 
courtesy that they have so long extended to its author. 
At the close of my Jiftielh year in the regular work, 
in obedience to a request of my Conference, I delivered 
a semi-centennial sermon before that body. My breth- 
ren had the kindness to spread the following upon their 
journal : 

" Resolved^ Tliat having heard with much pleasure, and, we 
trust, with profit, the very interesting and instructive semi-centen- 
nial sermon, delivered this day before the Conference, by our ven- 
erable and beloved brother, John Stewart, we do hereby very re- 
spectfully request hiui to have it published, in such form as he may 
think best, for our benefit, as well as for the interest of those who 
were not present at its delivery. B. N. Spahr.". 



PREFACE. 5 

This was followed up by solicitations from 1113^ friends 
tliat I would prepare and publish an autobiography. 
After a good deal of hesitation I have yielded to that 
solicitation, and here is the result of my effort. 

I have given the names of those admitted on trial 
into the Ohio Conference from the ^^ear 181(3 to the year 
1866, a period of fifty years. I have also given the 
names and brief biographical notices of those of her 
members that have fallen in death during that period. 
This arransjement o-ives somewhat of a monotonous bc- 
ginning to the several chapters, but will be convenient 
for reference. Though I have expressed my views fully 
of the characteristics of my colleagues and presiding 
elders, and the many preachers who have been associated 
with me during the years of my pastorate and presiding 
eldership, yet I have been so fortunate in these associa- 
tions, that there have been very few of them of whom 
I found it necessary to say aught but good. 

If my book shall meet the reasonable expectations of 

my friends, and above all if it shall be made a blessing 

to others after I shall have gone to join ray comrades 

in the Church above, I shall not have labored or prayed 

in vain. 

THE AUTHOR. 

Monroe, Wis., June 10, 1870. 



Coi^tejn^ts. 



CHAPTER I. 



Birth and ancestry — Father heads a small colony and emigrates to 
the Hockhocking Valley, in Ohio — Incidents of the journey — George 
Barris — Builds a cabin — Establishes Sabbath services in his cabin — 
Travels twenty-five miles to class-meetings — Induces Revs. Jacob 
Young and George C. Light to visit the Hockhocking Valley — They 
establish the first permanent societies in the region — Xames of mem- 
bers of first class at Daniel Stewart's — Class at South Town — Family 
religion — The subject of this narrative converted — Eliphalet Case — 
Hunting and praying — Philadelphia Case — Rev. Marcus Lindsey — 
Rev. Joseph Pownell — Revival — Singular mode of appointing new 
leader — E. T. Webster attends class and is awakened — The subject 
of this narrative is licensed to exhort — Appointments : Smith's, 
M'Keever's, Pilcher's, and Lotridge's — Doings of mother Ruter — 
Rev. T. A. Morris — Glorious time at Milton Buckingham's — The 
young exhorter becomes tempted — He eludes his companion and 
starts for home— Meets Lindsey at Athens, and counsels with him — 
Teaches school and holds prayer and class-meetings — Licensed to 
])reach — Visits a camp-meeting near Circleville page 15 

CHAPTER II. 

Ohio Conference at Louisville, Kentucky, October 3, 1816 — Appear- 
ance of the preachers — List of those received on trial — Vast bounda- 
ries of the Conference— Appointments of the preachers — The writer 
employed as assistant on Letart Falls circuit — Struggle and decision — 
Reception by collengue and peojile — Opens his work at King's, at 
mouth of Mill Creek — Large circuit r'partly in Ohio and partly in 
Virginia — Twenty-eight appointments every four weeks— Sketch of 
first sermon — Revivals — Received for year's labor $25 in depreciated' 
money — Question as to life-work — The farm and plenty, or the circuit 
and poverty — Decides for God — Recommendation carried up to the 

Ohio Conference page 27 

7 



8 CONTKNTS. 

CHATTKR III. 

Conference, nt Znnesville, Oliio, Oc((»l)or ;{, 1817 — Birthnp ]i<ibortfl — 
List of persons received on trinl — The writer the only snrvivor of tlio 
class — Bishop R^iherts's sermon on Sabltnth — Samuel Parker sent as 
missionary to Natchez — Ilia feeble health, and afTcctionatc parting 
with his brethren — The writer ap|>nintefl to Little Kanawhn circuit — 
Dan of circvut — Writer's views of preaching and other duties — lie 
and his colleague blaze their pioneer path through the forest — Rude 
but cheerful hospitality — Amusing experiences — Bear meat and bear 
skins — " Not all gold that glitters" — Preacher deceived by outward 
ap])earances — Pevs. David Smithers, Samijel Brigg8,and PeeseWolf: 
their i)eculiaritie8 and worth as local preachers — Transferred to Fair- 
field circuit — Jacob Young's notice of the change in his autobi- 
ogrnphy — Mistakes corrected — Rev, Michael I^llis — Ilis fatherly 
welcome — Reminiscences of appoinlmenta and fellow-workers — 
Charges that have grown out of this circuit — Some of the local 
preachers were men of great ability and Avorth — Biographical sketch 
of Rev. Michael Elllis — The quarterly-meeting of those days — Writ- 
er's first sermon in presence of his colleague — Rev, J. M'Mahon's 
criticism — Rev. James Quinn's amusing experience — Conference year 
two months shorter than usual — Round exchanged with Rev, Job 
Baker page 33 

CHAPTER IV. 

Conference at Steubenville, Ohio, August 7, 1818 — Persons received 
on probation — Conference business — William Burke — Mahoning cir- 
cuit — First call — Rev. Shadrach Bostwick — Revival — Horatio Day — 
Conversions — Erie Circuit — Dr. Samuel Adams — Dr. D, I), Davisson — 
Rev. Alfred Brunson — Dr. Menarey — Revs. Smith, Leach, and Miller 
usefullocal preachers — Great revival and ingathering — Exchange one 
round with Rev. Isaac C. Hunter, the supply on Lake circuit, New 
York — Accompany Rev. J. B. Finley to Chautauqua can)i)-nieeting — 
Large circuit -Erie — Waterford -M'Conn elsvi lie— Mead ville— Mer- 
cer — Rev. Samuel Gregg's mistakes corrected — Horseback journey 
to Cincinnati — Proposition to found an institution of learning agi- 
tated — Indian missionary work — Delegates elected to General Con- 
ference — Persons admitted on probation — Ordained deacon — Postpone 
matrimonial engagement in view of missionary work — Sketches of 
J. Young and J. B. Finley page 4i 

CHAPTER V. 

Volunteers for frontier work — Blue River circuit, Indiana — Mar- 
riage and retirement of my colleague — Bishop Roberts moves into 
the bounds of the circuit --Character and popularity among the peo- 
ple — Experience with a young Calvinistic missionary — Lewis Rob- 
erts and family — Wedding scenes— Muskatatack camp-meeting — 



CONTENTS. y 

The jerks -List of appointments — General Conference, and exciting 
scenes page 61 

CHAPTER Vr. 

Mt. Carmel circuit, 111. — Conference at Shiloh, 111., September, 
1820— Bishop Koberts presiding in bed — Camp-meeting— Received on 
trial — Plan of Mt. Carmel circuit — Leading Methodist families of 
1821 in that circuit — Camp-meetings — Remarkable conversious--Ohio 
Conference, and list of persons received on trial page 72 

CHAPTER VII. 

A horse-thief pursued, captured, and punished — Societies organ- 
ized for protection — Returu to Ohio page 85 

CHAPTER VIII. 

Vincennes circuit, Indiana — Marriage — Conference at Lebanon, 
Ohio, September, 1821 — Persons admitted on trial — Camp-meeting 
en Mt. Carmel circuit — Conference at Cape Girardeau, Missouri — 
Camp-meeting — Persons a<lmitted on trial — ^^Ordination to elder's 
orders — Sickness — Vincennes —General Harrison — Representative 
Methodists of the circuit — Birth of a son — Plan of circuit page 97 

CHAPTER IX. 

Sketch of the early life and Christian experience of Mrs. Stew- 
art PAGE 106 

CHAPTER X. 

Ohio Conference at Marietta, September, 1822 — Transfer to Ohio 
Conference — Madison circuit, Indiana — Delegates to General Confer- 
ence — Preacher's family to ''board around" — Local preachers — 
Route of travel — Controversy with Baptists — Camp-meeting — Val- 
uable families from Ohio — Canip-ineeling — Bishop Roberts's great 
sermon page 120 

CHAPTER XI. 

Muskingum circuit, Ohio — Conference at Urbana, September, 
1823 — Death of Rev. Charles Trescott — Rev. Thomas Beacham — Plan 
of circuit — Membership — Salary — Wife teaches school — Local preach- 
ers — Rev. C. Springer — Visit from Bishop Roberts and Rev. Martin 
Ruter — Delegates to General Conference — Presiding elder question — 
Lay delegation discussed page 126 

CHAPTER XII. 

Marietta circuit, Ohio — Conference at Zanesville, Ohio, 1824 — De- 
ceased preachers — Incident of travel — Revival — Waterford — Parks — 



10 CONTENTS. 

Itinerant feature of Church polity — Whitney — Crawford — Daniels — 
Birth of second eon — Plan of circuit paqe 133 

LilAl'TLR XIII. 

Guyandollt! circuit, Virginia — ConfiM-onro at C«»luinhu8, Ohio, Octo- 
ber, 1H25 — Xnthan Walker deceased — Rugged niountnin ride — Search 
for a house — Sheep turned out and sliephrrd turned in — Outline of 
the circuit — Local preachers — Spurloek — M'Conms — Barboursville — 
Ladeley— Public whij)ping-po3t and characteristic scenes ...paok 140 

CHAriER XIV. 

Deer Creek circuit, Ohio -Conference at Ilillsboro, October 1, 1826 — 
John Walker deceased — Ilev. John Ferree — Kev. Russel Bigelow-- 
Conversion of a young skeptic — Parsonage at Dry Run — Kind neigh- 
bors — Domestic incidents'— Serious illness of wife and jirayer an- 
swered in her recovery — Dr. Deniing— Third son born — Radical 
excitement— Anecdote of father Timmons Camp-meeting — Confer- 
ence at Cincinnati, September 19, 1827 — Delegates to General Confer- 
ence — John Sale deceased — Returned to Deer Creek circuit — Move to 
Greenfield — General Conference and its exciting questions — Nicholas 
Snethen and Thomas Bond page 146 

CHAPTER XV. 

Miami circuit, Ohio — Conference at Chillicothe, September 18, 
1828 — Camp-meeting— William R. Anderson — J. M. Trimble's first 
Conference exhortation — The great Freemason excitement — List of 
appointments — Prosperous year — closed with camp-meeting — Confer- 
ence at Urbana, September 3, 1829— Returned to Miami circuit with 
James Laws for colleague — Camp-meeting — Incidents of the meet- 
ing — First daughter born page 159 

CHAPTER XVI. 

Oxford circuit, Ohio — Co)iference at Lancaster, Ohio, September 8, 
1830 — Pleasant year — Build parsonage in Oxford — Conference at 
Mansfield, Ohio, September 8, 1831— Michael Ellis deceased— Dele- 
gates elected to the General Conference Returned to Oxford circuit — 
Miami State University — Second daughter born — Rev. Moses Crume — 
Local preachers — Aaron Powers and the Mormons — Names of pre- 
cious memory — Camp-meeting — Collision with Kidwell of the "Star 
of the West" page 167 

CHAPTER XVII. 

Bellefontaine circuit, Ohio -Conference at Dayton, Ohio, Septem- 
ber 19, 1832— Bishop Emory— Rev. J. G. Bruce and Peter Sharp— 
Camp-meeting— Local preachers and model private members-Kind- 



CONTENTS. 11 

ness of brother Messick — Deputation from the Flat-Head Indians 
this year resulted in founding a mission among them page 173 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

Troy circuit — Conference at Cincinnati, August 21, 1833 — Rev. 
John Ulin deceased — Arza Brown — Eichard Brandri If— Local preach- 
ers and lay members page 177 

CHAPTER XIX. 

Adelphi circuit, Olm Conference at Circleville, Ohio, August 20, 
1834 — Sargent and Callahan deceased — Plan of the circuit — Haunted 
house — New parsonage — Great camp-meeting — Incident — Camp- 
meeting near the falls of the Hockhocking — Conference at Spring- 
field, Ohio, August 19, 1835 — Philip Gatch, William Page, and Russel 
Bigelow deceased — Delegates to General Conference page 181 

CHAPTER XX. 

Athens circuit, Ohio — Conference at Chillicothe, Ohio, 1S36 — Wil- 
liam Phillips deceased — Return home— Conference at Xenia, Ohio, 
September 27, 1837 — John A. Waterman and Erastus Felton de- 
ceased — Ohio State University page 190 

CHAPTER XXI. 

Felicity circuit, Ohio — Conference at Columbus, Ohio, September 
26, 1838 — Rev. J. B. Finley deceased- -Augusta College, its profess- 
ors, successes, and downfall — Hon. David Fisher — Holly Raper — ■ 
John Patterson— James Armstrong — Erection of church in Augusta — 
Church in Higginsport page 198 

CHAPTER XXII. 

Georgetown circuit, Ohio — Conference in Cincinnati, Ohio, Septem- 
ber 18, 1839 — Preachers deceased — Delegates to General Conference — 
Protracted meetings— Camp-meeting— Conference at Zanesvillc, Ohio, 
September 30, 1840 — Persons admitted on trial — Charles R. Baldwin 
and Jeremiah Hill deceased — Controversy on baptism — Protracted 
meetings — Camp-meeting — Decease of venerable mother — Sickness 
of daughters- Incidents and triumphant death of tlie girls — Local 
preachers — Prominent laymen page 204 

CHAPTER XXIII. 

Bainbridge circuit — Conference at Urbana, Ohio, August 25, 1841 — 
R. W. Finley deceased — Pleasant year — Closing camp-meeting near 
Bainbridge- Conference at Hamilton and Rossville, Ohio, September 
28, 1842 — William B. Christie and Isaac C. Hunter deceased— Pro- 
tracted meetings — AVonderful outpourings of the Spirit — Building a 



12 CONTENTS. 

ohurrh — Kovivnl inoidonts Writor'« scconfl son licensed, and rec- 
ommended to (he traveling eonnection paok 219 

CHAPTER XXIV. 

Knnnwhn district, Virginin ronforonco ni Cliillimthp, Ohio, Sep- 
tember 23, 1843— Rev. A. Ilance deceased — Appointerl presiding 
elder — Delegates to General Conference — Territory and population 
of the district — Preachers — Charges— Great Variety — Amusing anec- 
dote — General Conference at New York, May, 1H44 — Plan of separa- 
tion — Intense excitement — Ohio Conference at Marietta, Ohio, Sep- 
tember 4, 1844 Bishop Soule — J. W. Kanaga deceased — Bishop's 
cabinet — Inside view — Stormy times — "Abolitionism " — Conference 
at Cincinnati, Ohio, September 3, 1845 — Exciting times — Bishops 
Soule and Ilamline — Brothers Collins, Jones, and Farnandis de- 
ceas^ed Doctrines of the Church on slavery — Position of the writer — 
Outrage at Parkersburg — Correspondence with Bishop Soule— State 
of the district page 233 

CHAPTER XXV. 

Portsmouth district— Conference at Piqua, Ohio, September 2, 
1846 — Deaths — Preachers on district — Residence — Conference at Co- 
lumbus, Ohio, September 1, 1847— Delegates to General Conference — 
Journey to Pittsburg- -Session of General Conference — Dr. Dixon — 
Conference at Newark, Ohio, September 27, 1848 - James Quinn and 
William Parish — Preachers on Portsmouth district — Kentucky work 
included — Cholera — Kentucky hospitality — Conference at Dayton, 
Ohio, September 26, 1849 — Deaths reported — Pew question — Visit to 
Iowa — Reminiscences page 261 

CHAPTER XXVI. 

Deer Creek circuit, Ohio — Conference at Chillicothe, Ohio, Sep- 
tember 18, 1850 — Pleasant charge — Conference met at Springfield, 
Ohio, September 17, 1851— Deaths — Returned to Deer Creek circuit — 
Colleague, Samuel Middleton — Sickness of wife — Reminiscences 
and reflections — Delegation to General Conference page 279 

CHAPTER XXVII. 

London circuit, Ohio — Conference met at Zanesville, September 1, 
1852 — Deaths — Colleague, Rev. James Brown — Appointments — *' A 
mere garden spot"— Gracious revivals, and a happy year — Conference 
met at Lancaster, Ohio, Sej^tember 7, 1853 — Deaths— Returned to 
London circuit — Colleague, Rev. J. Crum — Revival fires spread over 
the circuit — Incidents — Washington Withrow's conversion — Buys a 
horse for the preacher — Names of noble-hearted laymen — Critical ill- 
ness of wife -Prayer prevails — Journey to Wisconsin page 281 



CONTENTS. 13 

CHAPTER XXVIII. 

Pickerington circuit and Lancaster district — Conference met at 
Portsmouth, Ohio, September 6, 1854 — Xo deaths reported — Journey 
to Wisconsin— Settlement at Pickerington — List of eight appoint- 
ments — Pleasant home and surroundings — Xauies of some of those 
excellent families — Conference met at Athens, Ohio, September 5, 
1855 — Death — Pleasant Conference — Delegates to General Confer- 
ence — Returned to Pickerington circuit — Rev. J. L. Grover resigns 
the district — The writer appointed to fill the vacancy — The work and 
the preachers— Pleasant and profitable year page 291 

CHAPTER XXIX. 

Jackson district — Conference met at Xewark, Ohio, September 3, 
1856— Deaths — The field and the workmen on Jackson district — Live 
at Jackson— Conference met at Chillicothe, August 26, 1857 — List of 
those received on trial — Death — Preachers for Jackson District — 
Sickness and death of venerable father — Conference met at Marietta, 
Ohio, August 25, 1858- -List of preachers for Jackson district — Con- 
ference met at Columbus, Ohio, August 31, 1859 — List of those re- 
ceived on trial — Bishop Morris's Sabbath sermon — Preachers on 
Jackson district — Pleasant years — Stewart Chapel page 297 

CHAPTER XXX. 

Minister at large — Western tour —Conference at Gallipolis, Ohio, 
September 19, 1860 — Deceased, Jacob Young and Samuel Harvey — 
Semi-centennial celebration resolved on — Permission to travel at 
large during the year — Visit Chicago, Monroe, Madison, Freeport, 
Rockford, Burlington, Mt. Pleasant, Fort Madison, West Point, 
Chambersburg, St. Louis, Springfield, Indianapolis, Cincinnati, Cov- 
ington, Columbus, etc.— Preached about one hundred sermons and 
visited a multitude of friends— Impressions of persons and places 
visited— Programme for memorial services page 305 



'O* 



CHAPTER XXXI. 

Frankfort circuit — Conference held its fiftieth session at Circleville, 
Ohio, September 11, 1861— Semi-centennial celebration — Colleague, 
W. W. Cherington — Old friends - Xine appointments — Attended many 
funerals — War excitement — Cherished names page 319 

CHAPTER XXXII. 

Deer Creek circuit and Chillicothe district — Conference at Zanes- 
ville, Ohio, September 3, 1862— J. W. Clark, Uriah Heath, and John 
P. Calvert deceased — Historical succession of preachers on Deer 
Creek circuit from A. D. 1800 to 1863— Colleague, Rev. T. J, X. Sim- 
mons ; Z. Connell, presiding elder— Conference at Lancaster, Ohio, 



14 CONTENTS. 

Soptcmbor 3, 1863 Neither probationcfs nor rloathfl Rnturncd to 
Deer Creek circuit — Dcntli of proHiding elder — Writer Appointed to 
the district — The work aud workmen <>n tlic district — Continued mil- 
itary exri lenient i'aok 322 

CHAPTER XXXIII. 

"West Rushville circuit — Conference at Chillicothe, Ohio, October 
8, 1864 — Eilward Estell and Zachnriah Connell deceased— Reunion 
of the members ol Cincinnati and Ohio Conferences- Grand patriotic 
address of Bishop Simpson — Circuit plan of four ai)pointnient8 — 
Mode of pastoral work— Rebel 8ym])athizer8 — Neighbors and choice 
spirits PAGE 329 

CHAPTER XXXIV. 

Royalton circuit, Ohio — Conference at Columbus, Ohio, September 
21, 1865 — John C Havens, Henry Wharton, and Leonidas L. Ham- 
line deceased — Kind attention from brethren and Conference — Re- 
quest of Conference that the writer should deliver semi-centennial 
Bermon at its next session — Colleague, Rev. John W. White — Nine 
appointments — Meditations page 333 

CHAPTER XXXV. 

Superannunted life — Conference at Columbus, Ohio, September 26, 
1806 — Semi-centennial sermon made the order of the day for Mon- 
day, 10 o'clock — Conference request publication — Superannuated — 
Resolution of respect — Journey to the North-west — Settled at Monroe, 
Wisconsin — Welcomed — Letter of welcome from Dr. Brunson — Rev. 
Aspinwall — Called on to preach — Letter to Ohio Conference— Assist 
son on Joliet district, Rock River Conference— Concluding adieu 
to Methodists page 337 



APPENDIX. 

I. Commemoration Sermon -Delivered by request of the Ohio Confer- 
ence on the occasion of its fiftieth anniversary, at Circleville, Ohio, 
September 16, 1864 page 345 

II. Semi-centennial Sermon — Delivered by request of the Ohio Con- 
ference on the completion of half a century in the regular work, 
at Columbus, Ohio, October 1, 1866 page 377 



HIGHWAYS A^'D HEDGES: 

OR, 

Fifty Years of Western Methodism. 



CHAPTER I. 

BIRTH AND EARLY LIFE. 

I WAS born in Sussex county, New Jersey, June 8, 1795. 
My ancestors, on my father's side, were of Scotcli origin. 
My great-grandfather, Daniel Stewart, emigrated to Amer- 
ica at an early day, and settled in Litchfield, Connecticut, 
My father, Daniel Stewart, was born November, 1762, in 
Litchfield, Connecticut. Before he had reached his major- 
ity the Revolutionary War broke out. He warmly espoused 
the cause of the stru2:2;lin2; colonies, and ofi'ered himself for 
the service. He was accepted, but being too young for the 
ranks was put in charge of a wagon. His position was one 
of hardship and danger, but he endured cheerfully, and had 
the pleasure of lining to see the country that he had as- 
sisted in wrestino; from British domination takini; a front 
rank in the great brotherhood of nations. He married 
Miss Ruth Fulford, and settled in Sussex county, New 
Jersey. About the beginning of the present century he 
formed the acquaintance of a man who owned a large tract 
of land in the valley of the Hockhocking, in the then wilds 

15 



IC HIGHWAYS AND HEDGES. 

of the Ohio Territory. Tlie man wa3 very anxious to dis- 
pose of tlic property, and my fatlier jturcha.scd it, and 
dctormincd to emigrate to tliat place and oj^cn a farm. One 
of liis brothers, Archclaus Stewart, determined to accom- 
pany him. The two families commenced making their 
arrangements. My father sold off his personal property at 
public auction, and as lie was compelled to give a credit to 
the purchasers, he removed his family to New York city 
and engaged in temporary business. AVhen the sale notes 
were due we returned to Sussex, closed up the business, 
made a short visit among old friends, and then set out upon 
the long journey. Kind neighbors bid us good-by with 
many tears, and shuddered in view of the hardships we 
were to encounter on the journey and after we should reach 
our destination. We had two wagons and five horses. In 
view of difl&cult roads and the amount of our load, it was 
necessary that some of the company should walk most of the 
time. Though only seven years old, I walked almost the 
entire journey. At the difficult mountain ascents we 
doubled teams, and thus, though our progress was slow it 
was sure. After more than a month of weary marching we 
caught our first view of the beautiful Ohio River at 
Wheeling. We purchased of Mr. Palmer, who kept the 
ferry at Wheeling, an old ferry-boat. One of the party 
took the horses through by land. We packed the goods 
on the boat and floated down the river. The scenery was 
wild, but beautiful and exciting. As we were floating qui- 
etly along one day, one of our company saw an object 
reclining on the limb of a tree which overhung the water. 
A closer inspection revealed the fact that it was a huge 
bear lazily enjoying the sunshine. With a trusty rifle in 
hand, one of the party landed and soon brought old bruin 
down with a deadly shot. When we reached the mouth of 
the Hockhocking we landed, and after providing ourselves 



BIRTH AND EARLY LIFE. 17 

with suitable barge-poles, commenced the laborious work of 
poling our boat and cargo up that stream to the place of 
our destination. The knowledge of the fact that we were 
so near to our new home inspired us all with fresh courage, 
and we worked with a will. The first day of January, 
1803, we tied up our boat at the mouth of Federal Creek, 
and were made welcome to the hospitalities of the log cabin 
of George Barris. The land which my father owned was 
in this immediate vicinity, and with his usual promptness 
and enterprise, he gathered a sufficient force to put up with 
great dispatch quite a pretentious cabin for those days. I 
shall not indulge in many reminiscences of those pioneer 
days at present, as I shall have occasion to refer to them 
frequently as I progress with my narrative. Though we 
were in the dense forest, where the wild whoop of the 
Indian was a more familiar sound than that of the church- 
going bell, yet we were at home, and we addressed ourselves 
to the task of making that home as attractive as possible. 
My uncle built his cabin a few miles further up the river. 
The settlers were few and far between, and school and 
Church privileges far away. My father and his brother and 
their wives were the only Methodists within the bounds of 
what now constitutes Athens county. They acknowledged 
God, and erected the family altar in their houses. They 
also met regularly at my father's house on the Sabbath- 
day, at twelve o'clock, to worship God publicly. The serv- 
ice consisted of singing, prayer, and the reading of one of 
Mr. Wesley's sermons. In view of seniority and superior 
education, my father usually read the sermons. Though 
they enjoyed times of refreshing at these family gatherings, 
a-nd realized the faithfulness of God's promises to two or 
three gathered together, yet they longed for the ministra- 
tion of the "Word from God's living ministers. In the 

course of time my father learned that there was Methodist 

2 



18 HUiHWAVS AM) HKDGES. 

circuit preaching at or near Rev. Recce Wolfs, tlircc miles 
above l*arkersl)urjj, Va., a distance of twenty-three miles 
from our houf^e. JMy father went, found that preaehin^- 
j)lace, handed in his letter, and attende<l the service, mak- 
ini^ the journey ol" I'orty-six miles eaoh time with more 
of fidelity than many professors attend religious duty who 
live within a stone's throw of the liousc of God. It was 
impracticable, however, for the families to attend, and at 
length, by earnest solicitation, the preachers consented to 
make a tour of observation up the valley of Hockhock- 
ing. Jacob Young, then a single man, in the vigor and 
ambition of early life, led the way. The scattering pioneers 
received him so gladly, that he determined to expand the 
already enormous boundaries of the Little Kanawha circuit 
to embrace these Ohio neighborhoods. Rev. Geo. C. Light, 
the junior preacher followed in his turn, and the result was 
the establishment of several classes. The first was organ- 
ized at my father's house, and comprised six members, 
namely : Daniel Stewart, Ruth Stewart, Archelaus Stewart, 
Lydia Stewart, William Pilchcr, and Letta Pilcher. Not 
lung afterw^ard Harrison Long and Lydia Long, Job Ruter 
and wife, parents of the Ruter family, brother and sister 
Case, Rev. John and Palace Green, and others, were added 
to the class. Another class was organized in what was then 
called Southtown — now called Alexander — about six miles 
south of where xVthens now stands. Those pioneer socie- 
ties still live, and they who planted them and they who 
were the original members of them live also, but not on 
earth — the pioneer preachers and the pioneer members are 
now safe at home. 

My father had a large family — nine sons and five daugh- 
ters. He opened up a large farm on heavily-timbered land, 
and educating his family to habits of industry and economy, 
accumulated a large property. During more than sixty 



BIRTH AND EARLY LIFE. 19 

years of membership in tlie Methodist Church, I never 
knew him to omit family prayers, morning or evening. He 
usually had a good many hands about him, but it mattered 
not what was the press of business or who were present, he 
neither omitted or abridged the service. He read a chap- 
ter — usually in course — sang a hymn, and offered prayer. 
For many years the regular preaching was on week days. 
He gave all his hired help privilege to attend, without any 
deduction from their day's wages. 3Iy mothel* died in 1839. 
She was a strong-minded, kind-hearted, noble, Christian 
woman, having been a faithful member of the Methodist 
Church about fifty years. My father married again in his 
eightieth year. The woman that he selected, Mrs. Lovica 
AVillard, was an excellent Christian woman, and they lived 
together some sixteen years, being a great help and comfort 
to each other. During the last j^ears of my father's life he 
was nearly blind and unable to kneel, but his wife would 
read the chapter and then read a hymn, after which she 
would kneel down, and father would lead in prayer, sitting in 
his chair, or call on his companion, or the hired girl, if a 
Christian, or any praying visitor who might chance to be 
present. This punctuality in the maintenance of the exer- 
cises of religion in the family had a salutary influence on 
the whole household. All of my brothers and sisters cm- 
braced religion in early life, and the most of them made a 
permanent home in the visible Church. In his ninety-sev- 
enth year my father fell asleep in Jesus, and about one 
year afterward my step-mother was called to her rest, in 
the eightieth year of her age. 

As my father's house was a home for the traveling 
preachers and the preaching-place, I was early brought 
under the influence of their public and private teacliing. 
The Holy Spirit strove with me, and deeply convicted me 
of the necessity of a change of heart. I often commenced 



20 HIGHWAYS AND IIKDGES. 

8cckiii[]; it, and often p;avc up scckinj^ it, as T p.issod up from i 
cliildliood to nianliood. I'lic restraints thrown :iiiiini(l mo I 
wore so nuniertuis and stronjj; tliat I was kept I'roni ninnin*; 
inio o|i(ii wickedness. I was kept williin tlie }»ounds of 
wiiat tlie superficial of this Wfirhl call molality; hut in my 
most careless state 1 never tiiouulit tiiat morality would 
save me. When- I was ahout twenty years of age the 
Sjiirit called me a^ain with iircat earnestness, and I deter- 
mined, not without a severe struggle of mind, to give up tlic 
amusements which so engrossed the young, and enter upon 
the work of seeking my soul's salvation with full purpose 
of heart. I sought the Lord by day and by night, read 
the Scriptures much, spent much time in secret prayer, and 
realized that though I was doing the work of repentance 
and faith, the work was delightful to me in some respects 
though painful in others. I was distressed with the re- 
membrance of my long procrastination, but comforted with 
the assurance that I was now honestly and earnestly seek- 
ing God. After several months of seeking, it occurred to 
me that I might find helps iu the Church that would be of 
value to me. On one occasion I remained for the class-meet- 
ing after preaching. Before the preacher commenced to lead 
it, he asked the leader if any person had remained who was 
not a member. His attention was directed to me, and he gave 
me such counsel as suited my case. The preacher was Rev. 
Marcus Lindsey, a man of precious memory, who turned 
many to righteousness. I did not join that day, but began 
at once to persuade others to come to the Savior that I so 
much desired to serve. On one occasion Eliphalet Case 
came to our house, intending to go out with my brother 
Charles hunting that night. Charles not being at home, 
Eliphalet remained and lodged with me. After we had re- 
tired I told him that I was seeking religion, and that I in- 
tended to be a Christian if none of my young companions 



BIRTH AND EARLY LIFE. 21 

would go witli me. I talked on until I supposed he had 
gone to sleep, but as soon as I ceased talking lie ex}»iessed 
his pleasure that I had introduced the subject, and }»roniiHed 
that he would joiu me in the enterprise. Soon after this 
we went one night together to the woods as though we were 
going hunting; we had a precious time in prayer. I now 
think that had I been more thoroughly instructed I would 
have made a profession of the love of God that night. A 
few days after this, Philadelphia Case was on a visit to our 
house. As I walked home with her in the evening, while I 
was cxhortinu' her to become a Christian, she burst into tears 
and promised that she would from that time commence seek- 
ing the Lord. When brother Pownell, the junior preacher, 
came round I joined the Church, and two weeks from that 
time, when brother Lindsey came, these two young friends 
joined. My withdrawal from the dancing circle and join- 
ing the Church produced a profound impression through the 
w^hole circle of our acquaintance. Many of them came to 
class to see and hear, and within a few months the society 
had so enlarged that the preacher thought it best to divide 
it and appoint another leader. Brother Lindsey told the 
society that he was going to appoint another leader, and 
that if they wished to advise him of their wishes, each per- 
son might come up and whisper the name of their choice in 
his ear. In that way I was nominated for leader. He ob- 
jected at first to appointing me, as I was a probationer, but 
when it appeared to be the wish of the young converts so 
generally, he acquiesced and appointed me. It was a great 
undertaking for me, but I went forward in the fear of God, 
and he greatly blessed me. Ebenezer T. Webster, then 
a wild young man, heard that T was to lead the class at 
Wm. Pilcher's, and though he had spent the previous night 
at the card-table, he resolved to attend the class- meeting. 
lie did so, and before it closed he dolcrmincd to give his 



22 HIGHWAYS AND HEDGES. 

Ijonrt to (uh\. lie nftorward entered the ministry, and pro- 
claimed tljc Gof<pel witli a t()n;,^uc of Ore lor many years. 
One day, as the conjijregation was assembling for preaching, 
brother Lindscy took nie out one side and sat down on a 
log; and after talkinir with mc a little while, he handed me 
a license to exhort, and said, "You must go and do the 
best you can." I tried to excuse myself, but lie insisted, 
and that day announced four appointments for me, each of 
which I was to fill every four weeks. The appointments 
were as follows: 1. Smith's, at Wesley; 2. M'Keever's, on 
Federal Creek; .3. Wm. Pilcher's, on Hocking; and, 4. 
Lotridge's, in Carthage. I afterward learned that Mother* 
Ruter, the mother of Calvin and Martin Ruter, had been 
moving in the matter, urging the pastor to thrust me out 
into the work. We all had unbounded confidence in him. 
Indeed, Marcus Lindsey was one of our denominational 
giants. Standing full six feet in his boots, and weighing 
two hundred pounds, his commanding presence instantly 
arrested the attention of a con2Te2:ation. He had keen, 
black eyes, and a strong voice, full of melody. He was a 
master in song, exhortation, prayer, and preaching. He 
excelled, too, as pastor, administrator of discipline, and in 
looking after the general interests of the Church. Taking 
him in all the relations and responsibilities of a Methodist 
preacher, he had few, if any, superiors. In the Spring he 
went to Baltimore to attend the General Conference, and left 
the circuit in the care of Rev. T. A. Morris, now well known 
to the Church, but then a supply under the presiding elder. 
At his request my father consented that I should accom- 
pany him around the circuit. The first appointment was at 
Carthage. We stopped at Milton Buckingham's, and while 
I was leading in family prayer the power of God came 
down and we had a wonderful blessing. Brother and sister 
Buckingham shouted all over the house. We went on to 



BIRTH AND EARLY LIFE. 23 

Lotridge's ; then to Stubb's scliool-house; then to Smith's, 
on Tupper's Plains; then to Jacob Humphrey's, where we 
were to spend the Sabbath. Brother Morris had preached 
at each place, and I had attempted to exhort, but at each 
appointment I had less and less liberty, until now I seemed 
to be completely shut up. I went out into the woods Sab- 
bath morning, and threw myself on the earth and pleaded 
with God to help me if he had work for me to do; still I 
was enveloped in darkness, and had no liberty. I begged 
brother Morris to let me go home, but he insisted that I 
should go on. At Xewberry and at Daniel Goss's it was 
the same way. On our way to Marietta we were overtaken 
with a terrible thunder-storm. I was seized with the im- 
pression that God was displeased with me, but brother Mor- 
ris calmly and delightfully discoursed upon the grandeur of 
the lightning's flash and the thunder's roar. That niglit 
we lodged at brother Whitney's. I still pleaded to go home 
but he would not consent. At the mouth of Duck Creek 
we separated, with instructions that I should meet him next 
day, but as soon as he was out of sight I mounted my horse 
and fled for home. On my way home I learned that brother 
Lindsey had returned from General Conference and was at 
Athens. I turned my horse toward Athens, and finding 
brother Lindsey told him the whole story. He gave me a nar- 
rative of his experience — he had started too soon — his way 
closed up — he waited until it opened, and then went forward. 
He said, "John, you are called to the work of the minis- 
try, but the time has not come. Keep yourself unencum- 
bered and in due time the way will be clear." I returned 
home, and aftef a little time took charge of a school, taught 
two terms, seeking all the time to improve myself, and do 
all the good I could holding prayer and class meetings. 
The members of the Church were still urging their convic- 
tions that I should enter the work of the ministry, and 



24 lilGllWAVS AND III.DCLS. 

notwitlistandiiiL:; my natural timidity and ,'i jir()r(»und sense 
of my unwdrtliincss. sucdi w(>rc tlic movinf^s of tlic Spirit 
ujiun my heart that L did not dare to commit myself per- 
manontly to any otlicr vocatioji in life. 

AVluMi the ])roaeliers started to Conlerencc they instructed 
me to attend to the ajijiointments during:; tlieir absence. I 
consented to do so, and started to fuliill the promise. Find- 
ing, however, that tlvc appointments liad not been announced, 
and hearing of a camp-meeting near Circleville, 0., I turned 
my course toward that ; and, indeed, my steps seemed to be 
directed by a kind Providence. I was desirous tliere to 
obtain instructions and help such as I needed. An im- 
mense concourse of people had gathered, and many preach- 
ers of a high order were present to labor, such as Wm. 
Swazey, Moses Trader, and Michael Ellis. Swazey was a 
great revivalist, and was here in his element, lie had 
charge of the meeting, and managed it with much wisdom 
and energy. But the pulpit giant of the meeting was the 
venerable Ellis. Physically of almost giant proportions, his 
head whitened by the frosts of more than seventy Winters, 
many years of close communion with God and success- 
ful labors in his vineyard had made such an impress upon 
his commanding countenance as attracted the attention and 
awed the hearer at first siglit. When I first saw him stand- 
ing before the great audience, on Saturday, at 11 o'clock, 
A. M., he seemed to my mind to answer Daniel's descrip- 
tion of the ancient of days — I was spell-bound from the 
beginning. As he read his hymn he spake as a man of au- 
thority, and the people catching the inspiration of the occa- 
sion, lifted up their voices and made the grand old forest 
reverberate with their singing. He kneeled to lead the 
devotions of the people, and it was apparent that he was 
addressing one with whom he was intimately acquainted and 
on terms of closest friendship. The windows of heaven 



BIRTH AND EARLY LIFE. 25 

were opened in answer to his prayer, and heavenly influ- 
ences were poured out upon the people. When he rose to 
announce his text all eyes were fixed upon him, and large 
expectations were evidently awakened. He read 1 Cor. i, 
30 : '• But of him are ye in Christ Jesus, who of God is 
made unto us wisdom, and righteousness, and sanctification, 
and redemption." It was soon evident that he was a work- 
man that needeth not to be ashamed, and that the hiuhest 
expectation would be fully met. His words were well chosen 
and fitly spoken, like apples of gold in pictures of silver; 
they were uttered in tones of thunder, and seemed to emit 
flashes of livinj:; lisht. With the theme of holiness he was 
evidently thoroughly familiar, theoretically, practically, and 
experimentally, and as he unfolded it a Divine power at- 
tended his utterances. It far excelled any thing I had 
heard before. It seemed to me that in that discourse he 
had exhausted that great theme. The work of awakening, 
and conversion, and sanctification went on with great power. 
That night was one never to be forgotten. The hour of 
midnight found the worshipers at their places with unabated 
interest. But admonished that it was needful that they 
must take some bodily rest preparatory to the duties of the 
Sabbath, they formed in line and marched around the en- 
campment, singing the triumphant songs of Ziou. The pro- 
cession more than circled the whole encampment, and then 
with happy hearts we returned to the tents for repose. 

At the break of day the trumpet sounded to call the peo- 
ple up; then it sounded again to call them to family prayers 
in the tents, and then, after an unostentatious breakfast was 
dispatched, the trumpet called the congregation, at eight 
o'clock, to hear the preaching of the Word. The people came 
with promptness to their places in the congregation, evi- 
dently hungry for the Word. The sermon was attended with 
power. Tlie hour of eleven came around, and the great 



2G IIK.HWAVS AND IlEUCiES. 

8al»1):itli cMinfxro'jfntion. surLniiir :iiiil exrit(Ml. ciowdtMl the 
forest temple. At the sdundini; of tlie tiuiiiput tlie vciiei- 
ablc f^llis appeared a'j:aiii on the stand. His text on tliis 
occasion was Jfdin xv, 1: ''T nni tlio true vine, and my 
Fatlier is the liusli.indman." In tlic midst of tlie excite- 
ment of this great hour of the meeting, lie stood before tlie 
vast audience more n;rand and impressive than on Saturda}'. 
He appeared indeed a fit embassador from the court of 
heaven. His theme was again Indiness, and though it had 
appeared to nie on Saturday that he liad exhausted the 
theme, it now seemed clothed in IVesh beauty and grandeur. 
I was lost in wonder, admiration, and delight. The sermon 
and the influence produced by it beggars all description. 
No doubt its fruits will be seen in eternity. The Sabbath 
night was spent as Saturday night, only with increased 
power. I had never witnessed or enjoyed such a meeting 
before, and although I have since witnessed vaster audi- 
ences and larger numbers of conversions at camp-meetings, I 
have never heard the theme of holiness so ably expounded 
and earnestly advocated by one who seemed such an em- 
bodiment and exposition of the doctrine as the venerable 
Ellis. I returned to my home a better man, better under- 
standing the doctrines and the privileges of Christianity, 
and more than ever feeling the importance of the mission 
of the Christian minister. Hitherto my mind had been in 
conflict in regard to my future. Possibly it will appear in 
eternity that this meeting was the pivot on which my life 
turned. A few months after this Rev. Cornelius Springer 
carried up from the society to which I belonged a recom- 
mendation to the quarterly conference, and I was licensed 
to preach. 



MY FIRST CIRCUIT — LETART FALLS. 27 



CHAPTER II. 

MY FIRST CIRCUIT— LETART FALLS. 

1816-17. 

OCTOBER 3, 1816, the Ohio Conference met in Louis- 
ville, Kentucky. There being no railroads in those days, 
the great majority of the preachers came on horseback, 
many of them giving evidence, by their homespun and 
threadbare garments, that they had had hard work and poor 
pay. Their happy countenances, however, gave evidence 
of devotion to their work, and satisfaction in the prosecu- 
tion of it. Since the last session of the Conference, the 
venerable Asbury had gone home to his reward, and the 
General Conference, which had held its session in Baltimore 
during the month of May, had elected Enoch George and 
Robert R. Roberts to strengthen the Episcopacy. These 
were men of rare talents and piety, and with MKendree, 
who the Western preachers almost worshiped, made an able 
and efficient Board of Bishops. The Ohio Conference, on 
this occasion, was favored with the presence of all of the 
board. The session was a pleasant and profitable one. 
The principal matter of the Conference was the distribution 
of the laborers over the vast fields to be cultivated. This 
great wheel of the itinerancy which is central to our ecclesi- 
astical system, has always imposed the gravest responsibility 
on the superintendents, and tried most thoroughly the self- 
sacrificing spirit of both the preachers and the people ; yet 
it seems to me that in those days, when the greatest sacri- 



28 HIGHWAYS AND HLDGES. 

ficoa worn made, tlio wliorl movrd witli as little friction as 
now. There was but little <lisjM»siti()n to interfere in rc<j;ard 
t(i the .'ijtpointnicnts cither on the })art of the }»rcachers or 
the people, hnt }>oth looked to God in earnest prayer and 
strong faith, .-ind reL^•lrded the appointments as coming from 
liim. 

From this Conference J. T>. Finley, then a young man, 
full of courage and fire, led forth into the Ohio district, as 
his helpers, Hatton, Goddard, Baker, Booth, Davidson, 
Dixon, Westlakc, M'Elroy, Knox, and Kent. 

David Young, then physically, as well as intellectually 
and morally, a noble specimen of a "man, led forth into the 
Scioto district, as his helpers, Ellis, Hooper, W. Westlake, 
R. A. Finley, Swayze, Peter, Truitt, Tivis, Waddle, Glaze, 
Samuel Brown, and T. Sewcll. 

Moses Crume, a man of large physical proportions and 
great moral worth, led into the Miami V^alley Cummins, 
Goddard, W. P. Finley, Bigelow, Lawrence, Hunt, Sale, 
Brooke, Griffith, Williams, Strange, Pavery, and Sharpe. 

Jacob Young led forth as his helpers to the Muskingum 
district, Somerville, Solomon, James Quinn, John M'Ma- 
hon, Watterman, Carr, Euark, Springer, Thomas A. Mor- 
ris, Graham, Hamilton, and Lane. 

Samuel Parker led forth into the Kentucky district 
James Simmons, Hunt, Chenowith, Lakiu, Baker, Linville* 
Dumint, West, Cunningham, Holdman, and S. Spurlock. 

Under the leadership of these presiding elders these men 
were soon scattered over the large Conference then compris- 
ing all of the State of Ohio, and large portions of Ken- 
tucky, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, and soon forest and vil- 
lage was vocal with the earnest appeals and invitations of 
these men, determined to win the people to Christ. 

The following preachers were received on trial at this 
session of the Conference: Ezra Booth, Thomas A. Morris, 



MY FIRST CIRCUIT LETART FALLS. 29 

William "Westlake, Thomas Carr, Stephen Spurlock, Samuel 
Glaze, Samuel Baker, Daniel D. Davisson, John C. Brooks, 
William AVilliams, William Iloldman, Samuel Demint, John 
Lindville, Simon Peter. Of these Thomas A. Morris, now 
senior Bisliop of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and 
Daniel D. Davisson are still living. 

Having been licensed to preach, as previously stated, 1 
started the first day of March, 1817, under instructions 
from the presiding elder, Rev. J. Young, to assist Rev. 
John Summerville on the Letart Falls circuit. I dared not 
refuse, though I felt that of myself I was utterly inade- 
quate to the greatness of the work. I knew He who com- 
missioned the first band of Christian missionaries had said 
to them. "Go," and "lo, I am with you." Taking fast 
hold on this promise, I mounted my horse and turned my 
face toward my life-work. Little did I then think that 
half a century of itinerating was before me, or that I would 
be still upon the walls of Zion when the hosts of Method- 
ism should celebrate the close of the first hundred years of 
the history of this wonderful spiritual movement on this 
continent. The Rev. John Summerville received me with 
kindness, and gave me the plan of appointments, commenc- 
ing at King's, at the mouth of Mill Creek, near Buffing- 
ton's Island, on the Ohio River. We took a line of appoint- 
ments along both sides of the river down to Burlinoton, 
making twenty-eight appointments in the round, allowing 
less than one rest day per week during the whole year. 
The scope of territory occupied was about equal to a pre- 
siding elder's district at this time in that portion of the 
Ohio Conference. I preached my first sermon at brother 
King's, at the mouth of Mill Creek. Brother Summerville 
preached at noon and announced for me at night. The 
people as well as the preacher in charge came together at 
night, with more or less of curiosity to hear what kind of 



80 HIGHWAYS AM) IIKDGKS. 

a yonii'i m.'in the presiding elder li;id .«(Mit to assist in (he 
work. UikUt a jiainful sense of responsibility, I announced 
for my text, *' Mary has chosen that j^ood part." 

After pressing upon the congregation the fact that each 
probationer has life and death placed before liini, and is 
loft to make a deliberate and intelligent choice of the "good 
part" ■which secures the favor of God, or of the part which 
hypocrites and unbelievers have in the lake that burneth 
with fire and brimstone, I dwelt upon the impotency of 
any power on earth or in hell to rob the faithful Christian 
of the good part. But I apprehend that my outline was 
not very clearly brought out, and that, to my more experi- 
enced colleague, there was not in the sermon much promise 
of excellence in pulpit performance. I inferred this from a 
gentle hint he gave me after we had retired to bed at night. 
"Brother John," said he, "if I bad not known what your 
text was I should not have gathered it from any thing that 
you said in your sermon." This remark was certainly not 
much calculated to flatter my vanity. 

The circuit being so large, and our time so fully occupied, 
the preachers had but little opportunity of being together. 
Yet we occasionally crossed each other's patlis, and I re- 
ceived counsel and instruction from my superior. During 
the six months that I labored on the Letart circuit I had 
the privilege of seeing some good revivals of religion, the 
evidences that we had not labored in vain. After an absence 
of forty years I returned to travel over much of the same 
territory as presiding elder, and found great satisfaction in 
calling up the memories of the scenes and associations of 
those days of my itinerant life. If I should record here 
the names of the officers of the Church, or the kind people 
who welcomed me to their homes and gave me the best fare 
which their pioneer cabins afforded, there are few now living 
who would be found upon the roll. I fancy, however, that a 



MY FIRST CIRCUIT LETART FALLS. 31 

host of tlieiii who have passed over the river are waiting to 
welcome me to the mansion-house above, when the time for 
my departure shall come. To the few who still linger in 
the Church below I would extend my hand, and bid them 
be faith lul until we hail the sainted above. 

At the close of the year I returned to my father's house 
to report the labors of the year, and to enjoy a brief re- 
union with my former classmates and the friends of my 
boyhood. 

The session of the Conference, to be held at Zanesville, 
Ohio, was near at hand, and I had been recommended to 
be received on trial as a traveling preacher. My pecuniary 
prospects were not particularly bright in the direction of an 
itinerant life. Six months of hard labor had brought me 
only twenty-five dollars, or about four dollars per month, 
and that in depreciated currency. On the other hand, my 
father was a large land-owner and very prosperous farmer, 
and, with my strong hands and willingness to labor, there 
could be but little doubt of success in making money, 
should I give up the ministry and devote m^'self to secular 
pursuits. I had not, however, any serious struggle of mind 
in regard to this. I think I chose as honestl}- and fairly as 
did Moses, having "respect to the recompense of reward." 
And gow, after more than five decades of sacrifice and toil 
in the rougher departments of Methodist preacher life, I 
am prepared fully to indorse the faithfulness of the Savior's 
promise to Peter when he inquired, "What shall we have 
therefor?" He assured them that they should have mani- 
fold more in this life, besides the priceless rewards of the 
life to come. I doubt whether any young man who gives 
himself up to the work of preaching the Gospel ever loses 
any thing, even in a pecuniary seu.^e, by so doing. "There 
is that giveth and yet incrcascth" applies not only to those 
who give money, but who give up the opportunity of making 



32 lIK.nWAYS AND Iir.DGES. 

money, for tlio sake of CliriHt nii<l liis kinLrilcmi. To rcfiiso 
to preach llio CJospcl ))ccau.sc it docs not promise to pay 
pecuniarily, or to (urn aside from tlie work of tlie ministry 
for the purpose of makin;^ money, is usually lo array our- 
selves against the plans of the CJreat I Toad of the Church, 
who is the God of providence; if then we make muncy, is 
it not after he has said, "Let him alone, lie is joined to his 
idols?" I stood there on the threshold of decision. The 
spirit of this world seemed to say, "On one side is the farm, 
a settled home, future wealth, and ease and comfort; on the 
other side a wandering life, poverty, and continual pri- 
vations." ]5ut my heart said, "The Savior says go, the 
Church says go, and if I can be successful in rescuing one 
soul from the jaws of death and hell, it will be a life spent 
more grandly, it will bring a happier termination and a 
more glorious hereafter, than could I have all that heart 
could wish of this world's goods, but spend life out of the 
path of duty. My decision was taken, and I offered myself 
to the Ohio Conference to become a traveling preacher, 
so long as God and the Church should have need of my 
services. 



LITTLE KANAWHA CIRCUIT. 33 



CHAPTER III. 

LITTLE KANAWHA CIRCUIT, VIRGINIA AND OHIO, 
AND FAIRFIELD CIRCUIT, OHIO. 

1S17-1S. 

rpHE Conference met in Zanesville, Ohio, October 3, 1817. 
-*- Bishop Roberts presided with great dignity and accept- 
ability. On Sabbath he preached a powerful sermon from 
" Behold the Lamb of God," etc. At this Conference Rev. 
Samuel Parker, who was a man of superior ability and 
much popularity, was appointed to go as missionary to the 
Natchez country. In view of his feeble health, and the un- 
healthy character of the region to which he was going, the 
parting scene was a very tender one. Alas ! it turned out 
as many feared — we saw his face no more. He fell far 
away from home, but he fell at his post, with his harness 
on, and his history will be precious as long as the history 
of the Church endures. 

The following preachers were received on trial at this 
Conference: Bennet Dowler, Ira Eddy, Allen "Wiley, Peter 
Stephens, Calvin Ruter, Philip Greene, John Stewart, Job 
M. Baker, John P. Taylor, Thomas Lowry, and Richard 
Corwine. None of this class survives except myself. 
The venerable Greene has fallen asleep in Jesus since I 
commenced this narrative. Why the Master spares me be- 
yond the rest of my class I know not. May I watch, and 
wait, and be ready ! 

I was appointed as junior preacher to Little Kanawha 



34 HIGHWAYS AND HEDGES. 

circuit ill ^ irL'iiii;i. Mv\. Joliii (Ir;ili;im w.'is nppnintcd to 
the cliarpc ot the circuit. He \v,is ,iii Ili^ll^lan, of rcspect- 
nltlc prenrliin'^ talent, afta]»le in liis iiianiiers^ and being one 
of tlie sweet sinners of Israel, he made a fine impression 
amoni; the people. The circuit embraced an immense field, 
being about five hundred miles in circumference. It was the 
nucleus of what grew up into the Kanawha district, and was 
afterward widely known and as widely dreaded by the young 
men of the Ohio Conference as " Brush College." It em- 
braced a very considerable portion of what is now the 
West Virginia Conference. 

Our route commenced at Bellville, about ten miles below 
I^arkersburg, on the Ohio River, and extended up the river 
to the mouth of Grave Creek, a little beloW Wheeling; 
thence down the river aeiain to the mouth of Middle Island 

O 

Kiver; thence up the latter stream to near its head; thence 
over to Hews River, to brother Thomas Cunningham's; 
thence across over on to the head-waters of Little Kanawha 
River; thence down it to the mouth of Reeder Creek and to 
Elizabeth ; thence over on to the waters of Elk River, and 
thence across to the Ohio River at Bellville, the place of 
starting. The mind now sweeps around that vast field 
almost without an effort ; but to climb its mountains, and 
ford or ferry its streams, and penetrate its pathless forests 
more than fifty years ago, rer|uired much of courage and 
endurance. It was a five weeks' circuit, and we had about 
thirty- five appointments, or an average of one for each day. 
In modern times protracted meetings have come much into 
use, and the preachers generally regard them as making a 
heavy draft on the strength of the pastors ; but so far as 
the preachers were concerned, in the days of which I am 
now writing, it was a protracted meeting from the first day 
spent on the circuit until we started for Conference. In- 
deed, the preachers generally — bishops, presiding elders, 



LITTLE KAXAWPLV CIRCUIT. 35 

and circuit preachers — expected to preach every day if 
there was opportunity. This daily vocal exercise, accom- 
panied with daily horseback exercise and coarse diet, was, 
doubtless, far more favorable to health than the habits of 
the present day. Now the majority of the pastors are shut 
in in their studios, at hard mental labor during the week, 
and take but little vocal or bodily exercise, and then on 
Sabbath preach twice or three times. No wonder that so 
many constitutions are prematurely broken down. I am 
not sure but a return to the circuit system, notwithstanding 
the embarrassments that are in the way of it, would prove 
a blessing to both preachers and people. If, however, this 
may not be, let the pastors, for the security of their own 
health, as well as the spiritual interests of the Church, 
spend at least one-half of each day in pastoral visiting, and 
a large measure of the time devoted to these visits in vocal 
prayer in the families visited. If this is done, ministerial 
life will be prolonged and ministerial efficiency greatly in- 
creased. 

Some of our rides between appointments were forty miles 
and more, and much of the way no roads. AVe would carry 
the tomahawk with us, and blaze our path on the trees 
throuo-h the forest, or follow the blazed tracks that had 
been made by our predecessors. Notwithstanding the utmost 
care, we would frequently lose our path. Being a pretty 
good woodsman I seldom lost much in distance, and would 
come out near the place aimed for. I would often reach 
the neighborhood of my appointment after a hard day's 
travel, weary and hungry, and well prepared to appreciate 
the rude but cheerful hospitality extended to me in the 
cabins of the pioneers. 

I remember one cabin to which I was welcomed, in which 
there was neither chair, nor bedstead, nor table, nor floor. 
To do me special honor, they set out the iron bake-oven, 



36 HIGHWAYS AND I IK DOES. 

and puftinc; tlio lid (in it, c^ave it to mc for a scat, wliilc 
tlicy L;Mtlu>ro(l a])()ut nic with wonder and kindness, to hear 
the news or receive such instructions as T liad to imparl. 
They spread for me, in due time, a sumptuous repast oi' 
licar-mcat and corn-bread. Wiien tlie evenin<^ was far 
spent, we gathered al)out the family altar and spent a time 
in devotion. Tlien one of the family climbed up to the 
loft and tlirew down a quantity of robes, taken from the 
wild animals that the liunter had gathered. These were 
spread on the ground-floor before and on^ each side of the 
spacious fire-place, and soon parents, and children, and 
preacher were hid beneath the robes, and wandering in the 
mysteries of dream-land. There was, however, considerable 
difference in the style of living among our people in those 
days. There were many, and some in almost every neigh- 
borhood, who had emerged from the rudeness of the scene 
above described, and whose houses presented many of the 
conveniences and embeliishments of the older settlements. 
The external appearance of the people at meeting was not 
always, however, an infallible index to the state of things at 
their homes. I learned this the next day, after enjoying the 
rude hospitality above described. There was a lady in my 
congregation very neatly dressed, and her general appear- 
ance suggested the idea that if she should invite me to go 
home with her, I should be glad to accept the invitation. 
At the close of the services I threw myself in her way, and 
secured the invitation. I accompanied her, and was treated 
■with marked kindness, but I had no sooner entered the 
house than I found that I had made a grand mistake. I 
would have changed back again for the ground beds and 
bear-meat, But I will not particularize. The people gave 
us as good as they used themselves, and seasoned their 
hospitality with the heartiest welcome and good wishes. 
At the end of six months I was changed from this to 



FAIRFIELD CIRCUIT. 37 

what in some respects was regarded a much more desirable 
field of labor. As the Little Kanawha was a five weeks' 
circuit, six months only took me three times around this 
vast circuit. During: that time, however, I liad formed a 
great many acquaintances and friendships, which are still 
green in memory. 

Among the local preachers was the Rev. David Smith- 
ers, an able minister, and a man of genuine devotion to 
the cause of God ; also, Rev. Samuel Briggs, a man of 
marked eccentricities of character, and the Rev. Reese 
Wolf, a man of marked peculiarities, but truly a man for 
the times. He was a thorough Methodist, well acquainted 
with our doctrine and Church polity. He was fearless and 
efficient, widely known, and deservedly popular. In after 
years he moved to Ohio, where we shall meet with him 
a sain in the course of our narrative. 

FAIRFIELD CIRCUIT. 

At midwinter the mail brouo-ht me an order from mv 
superior — Rev. Jacob Young, presiding elder of the dis- 
trict — to leave Little Kanawha and go to Fairfield circuit, 
Ohio. In his autobiography he makes this brief allusion 
to the chanofe : " Brother McMehati wished to retire from 
the work for reasons best known to himself. I deem it 
the worst step he ever took ; so it turned out, and he re- 
gretted it for many years. I let him go, and put the well- 
known John Stewart in his place, then a lovely boy, full 
of zeal and good works. He and brother Quinn worked 
together in great harmony." The venerable author makes 
a mistake in regard to my colleague. The preacher in 
charge was not James Quinn, but Rev. Michael Ellis, one 
of the grandest men that ever accupied an American pul- 
pit. The reader has already been informed, in a pre- 
ceding chapter, of my journey of a hundred miles to the 



»f 



o 



8 IIIGIIWAVS AND HEDGES. 



Pickawn}' rnmp-mecting to lionr this innii of God expound 
the way of salvation, .md huw my young soul was blessed 
under Ills ministry. My heart bounded with joy that I 
should now be assoeiated with him, and liave him for my 
teacher and friend. 'Die venerable man had passed his 
threescore years and ten, and had been the people's mouth 
to God and God's mouth to the people already for between 
thirty and forty years. 

On Christmas day I closed my labors on Little Kanawha 
circuit, and on New-Year's day — January 1, 1818 — I opened 
my mission on Fairfield circuit. The venerable Ellis re- 
ceived me as a son in the Gospel, and gave me his godly 
counsel and benediction. We had from twenty-five to 
thirty appointments, the names of some of which have 
passed from my memory. Among those now remembered are 
Lancaster, Nimrod Bright's, James Collins's, on Raccoon ; 
David Dutcher's, below the falls of Hockhocking ; Zeller's, 
Rushville, Peter Black's, Somerset, Jesse Cartliche's, Re- 
hobeth, Chilcoat's, Springer's, Asbury's, Dillen's Furnace, 
Flint Ridge, Clay Lick, Pitser's Hog Run, David Swazy's, 
Baker's, and Thornville. This was one of the old, and one 
of the best, circuits in those days. Out of it have grown 
the following charges : Lancaster, Logan, Baltimore, Reho- 
beth, Somerset, Maxville, Asbury, Lexington, and East and 
West Rushville. The following were among the local 
preachers on that circuit: Alexander M'Craeken, Jesse 
Cartlich, Jesse Stoneman, Noah Fidler, David Dutcher, 
Aaron Young, George Gardner, Nimrod Bright. Some of 
these were men of mark, and had done and were still doing 
good service for Christ and his Church. Stoneman and 
Fidler had been efficient traveling preachers. 

In the bounds of this circuit there was much of wealth 
and refinement, and the Methodist Episcopal Church had 
taken a strong hold upon the people, her membership on the 



FAIRFIELD CIRCUIT. 39 

circuit already numbering eight hundred and eighty-four. 
I applied myself diligently to my studies as my circum- 
stances would allow, and stimulated by the influences of my 
colleague, .was inspired with a lofty and increasing ambition 
to accomplish successfully my mission. We did not wit- 
ness the extensive ingathering that we desired, but had 
times of refreshing from the presence of the Lord. 

My heart prompts me to spread on these pages a still 
further record of my appreciation of my excellent col- 
leasue. Kev. Michael Ellis was stationed in Baltimore as 
early as 178-4, and was that year ordained deacon at the 
same Conference that Asbury was ordained to the Episco- 
pacy. After traveling a few years in Virginia, he found it 
necessary, in view of the support of his famil}'. to retire 
from the regular work for a time, and give a portion of his 
attention to secular affairs. About the year 1810 his name 
appears on the Conference roll again. His children had 
now grown to that age that they could support the family, 
while he gave himself to the work again. Finley, in his 
Sketches of Western Methodism, thus speaks of him after 
his readmission: "He was appointed to the West Wheeling 
circuit, in the bounds of which he had labored for many 
years as a local preacher with great acceptability and use- 
fulness. The next year he was returned to the same cir- 
cuit, and such was his increasing popularity, even in the 
vicinity of home, that he would have been gladly received 
another year but for disciplinary restrictions. He was a 
Bible student, deeply versed in the science of salvation, 
and one of the soundest, clearest doctrinal preachers we 
have ever heard. He studied divinity in the school of 
Christ, and was trained under the professorship of Wesley 
and Fletcher. His heart was deeply imbued with the grace 
of God, and having obtained the fullness of the blessing 
of the Gospel of Christ, the perfect love that swelled hia 



40 nir.nwAvs and hedges. 

licart rolled out to bless mankimi. W'c. doubt whether he 
ever preached a sermon in wliidi be did not introduce the 
doctriiio of Christian perfection, as tau^^lit in the IJiblc and 
preached by Wesley .■nid Fletcher. T( was the plain, old- 
i'ashioncd, unvarnished doctrine of entire sanctification, 
without any reference whatever to the philosophy of the 
intellect, the emotions, and volitions — a simple faith that 
brought into the soul the life and love of God. One of 
liis favorite texts in tlic latter days of bis ministry was, 
'Jesus Christ, who is uuido unto us wisdom, and righteous- 
ness, and sanctification, and redemption.' These doctrines 
he compared to a ladder, the foot of which rested on earth 
and tlie top reached into heaven. Justification, sanctifica- 
tion, and redemption were the successive rounds of the lad- 
der over which the soul passes in its course to heaven. lie 
would clearly describe the doctrine of justification by show- 
ing the nature and condition thereof, and its attestation by 
the Holy Spirit. Then he W'Ould describe the nature and 
condition of sanctification, and, finally, what the Bible 
teaches in regard to redemption and glorification in heaven. 
He seemed to be the living impersonation of his theme, 
passing through all the successive stages of his theme to 
its close, when he would give a shouting peroration that 
would make every heart feel that the preacher knew and 
felt what he preached." 

The doctrine of entire sanctification was recocrnized in 
those days as a distinctive feature of Wesleyan theology, 
and multitudes of professors of religion in other branches 
of the Church regarded the doctrine as unscriptural and 
dangerous. But now, thank God ! the evangelical Churches 
have come to recognize the doctrine as Scriptural, and very 
many of their preachers and members preach and profess 
it. Let us, as Methodists and the successors of Wesley and 
Fletcher, hold fast to the doctrine, and urge entire purity 



FAIRFIELD CIRCUIT. 41 

of heart upon ourselves aud all with whom we have to do. 
Holiness to the Lord is the grand secret of success aud 
power. 

The few months spent on Fairfield were months of enjoy- 
ment and profit to me, and I found on return that I had 
been correcting some pulpit habits which threatened to be 
of disadvantage to me. The circumstance that first called 
my attention to these habits was somewhat amusing, and a 
good deal annoying to me at the time. It was the first 
Sabbath that I spent on Fairfield circuit, and was a quar- 
terly meeting. A quarterly meeting in those days was so 
difi'erent from what they are in these days, that many of 
my readers, I presume, have but little idea of the intere.-t 
that gathered around such a meeting half a century ago. 
Fancy a circuit spreading over half a dozen large counties, 
and local preachers and exhorters, stewards and private 
members coming on horseback on Friday to stay over Sat- 
urday and Sunday, on purpose to worship God and advance 
his cause. 

The meeting here referred to was held at Rushville, 
and embraced the first Sabbath of the new year. Rev. 
Jacob Young, the presiding elder, Eev. James Quiun, 
Rev. Michael Ellis, the preacher in charge, and Rev. J. 
M Maliuu, the eloquent preacher, who was about retiring 
from the work, and whose place I was to supply, were all 
there. With such an array of talent and experience about 
me, the announcement that I was to preach Sabbath night 
almost overwhelmed me with embarrassment. I announced 
for my text Isaiah iii, 10: "Say ye to the righteous that it 
shall be well with him," etc. I was badly frightened, la- 
bored hard, and sweat profusely. In the morning Rev. J. 
M'Mahon came to my bed and said, "Well, brother John, 
how often do you suppose that you said 'it appears' last 
night while you were preaching?' I was mortified above 



\2 ITIfillWAVS AM) IIICUGES. 

measure, niul pnui-cd out luy conijjl.iinf to brutlicr Quinn. 
lie paw (liat I needed encouragcnieut, aud lie gave me a bit 
of his own cxpcrionrc. "Do you sco," said lie, "(li.it T 
have no pocket flaps?" "Yes, sir." "Well, T lind uneon- 
sciously lallon into a lial)it of putting my hands into my 
pockets and taking them out again until it attracted atten- 
tion. Some one took occasion to count the number of times 
that I put my hands into my pockets wliilc preaching a ser- 
mon. Afterward he told me of it, and to break myself of 
the habit I had the pockets removed. It cured me, and 
brother M'jNIahon's criticism will do you good." It did do 
me good, not only in that particular habit, but in causing 
me to give closer attention to my pulpit habits. Whenever 
a minister falls into any peculiarity of style in the pulpit, 
whether of language, tone, or gesture, which diverts the at- 
tention of the hearers from the message to the messenger 
there is a loss of efficiency. The most enviable efficiency is 
secured when the people forget the preacher in his theme, 
and go from the sanctuary revolving the thoughts that have 
been brought out in the sermon. In those days we had few 
of the advantages of ministerial association that are enjoyed 
by the preachers of the present day, and if we, who formed 
our habits on vast circuits and among comparatively uncul- 
tivated people, contracted some mannerisms it is hardly to 
be marveled at. The young men of this day have no 
apology. •' 

The Conference was to meet at Steubenville, Ohio, Au- 
gust 7th. This arrangement made the Conference year two 
months shorter than usual. My library, wardrobe, and 
effects generally being packed into my saddle-bags, I made 
my way to Athens county, to visit my parents and friends 
during the session of the Conference. In those days the 
Conference probationers were not expected to attend the 
Conference, but were expected to keep up the appointments 



FAIRFIELD CIRCUIT. 43 

during the absence of the preacher in charge. On this 
occasion I exchanged one round with brother Baker, his 
parents living in the bounds of my circuit and my parents 
living in the bounds of his circuit. 



44 HIGHWAVb AND HEDGES. 



CHAPTER IV. 

MAHONING CIRCUIT AND ERIE CIRCUIT. 

1818-10. 

rpiIE Conference at Steubenvillc, which met August 7, 
J- 1818, was one of power and glory. Bishops M'Ken- 
dree and George were present in the spirit of the Master. 
The preachers seemed to have a peculiar unction in the 
pulpit labors, and a gracious revival of religion broke out 
among the people. That was not an unusual state of things 
at our Annual Conferences in those days. Happy would it 
be for us if we had more of the revival power at our Con- 
ferences in these days. On the Sabbath-day Rev. John 
Collins thrilled the audience by singing a popular melody 
called the " Market Song," and he and Asa Shinn preached 
with wonderful power and eifect. Joshua Soule, at that 
time Book Agent, was with us, to represent our publishing 
interest. That interest was then in its infancy, and was 
rather a system of colportage among ourselves than the 
mammoth publishing establishment having to do with the 
*book market of the world, as now. The case of Bev. Wm. 
Burke — one of our greatest men, but unfortunate in some 
of his movements — caused some lively discussion, but the 
business of the Conference was conducted with a good de- 
gree of harmony and dispatch. At this session of the Con- 
ference the following preachers were admitted on trial: 
Samuel Adams, Samuel Brockunier, Ed. Taylor, James Smith, 
Dennis Goddard, Charles Elliott, Thos. M'Clarv, Green- 



MAHONING CIRCUIT AND ERIE CIRCUIT. 45 

berry R. Jones, J. Whittaker, H. Holla nd, Henry Matthews, 
Z. Connell, L. Swormstedt, J. T. Wells, Arthur Elliott, A. S. 
M'Clain, B. Spurlock, J. Harber, J. Farrow. When, at the 
close of the session, the Bishop stood up before the Confer- 
ence with the list of appointments in his hands, but few, 
besides God, the Bishop, and the presiding elders, knew 
any thing of the contents of the paper; but preachers and 
people lifted up their hearts to God, asking that he would 
give them a new baptism of the itinerant spirit, and send 
them to their work full of heavenly fire. I was appointed 
to "Mahoning circuit" with Calvin Ruter. I was well 
pleased with the appointment and my colleague. Within 
the past ten months I had swept over much of the south- 
eastern and central part of the State, and now my field 
spread out over the Western Reserve. I should have more 
of the Yankee element in my congregations, but expected 
to find Methodism substantially the same as among the 
more emotional people farther south. Calvin Ruter and 
myself were linked together by peculiar ties. We had been 
brought up together in the same neighborhood, belonged to 
the same society, commenced our ministerial life as supplies 
under the same elder the same year, were received on trial 
in the traveling connection at the same Conference. We 
were now happy to be associated as. colleagues. Soon after 
Conference we set out together to our new field of labor. 
AVe went in the spirit of our commission, and all things 
were propitious. Our first call was ordered of Providence. 
Doubtless the misfortunes of a Conference year have often 
resulted from unfavorable impressions made by the first 
contact of the preacher with the people of his new charge. 
A cold, formal, or repulsive reception has thrown its dark 
shadow over the whole year, while a hearty and smiling 
welcome has thrown sunshine and blessinir throuirh all the 
months of the year. Our first call was upon the Rev. 



46 HICiHWAYS AND HEDGES. 

Shadracli I>ost\viok, .1 man of God, wlinsc name is written 
in sunbeams on tliousanils of liearts. lie entered the trav- 
eling connection In 171M. Tn the year ISOIJ he came "West 
as a missionary, and after plantrnir Methodism in the AVest- 
cni Keserve, lie married and located — located .so iiir as Con- 
ference relation was concerned, but in no other sense. Skill- 
ful and popular as a praoticin^^ physician, he was industri- 
ous and successful as a preacher of the Gospel. He was 
not jealous of the popularity of the circuit preachers, or 
inclined to complain and embarrass. lie welcomed us to 
the circuit and his home, gave us advice and co-operation, 
and inspired us with assurance of success. We sent out 
our appointments, and as we went along the line the Spirit 
of God assisted us, and a mighty w^ork of salvation visited 
the people. The revival fire spread over the circuit, and 
sinners were awakened daily. Upward of two hundred 
were added to the Church during the year. 

I shall never forget how the God of crace revealed him- 
self at Deerfield. I was to preach in a school-house. At 
the appointed time a large congregation crowded the place. 
While I was preaching the power of God came down, and 
the people, young and old, fell like men slain in battle 
until the floor was almost literally covered with the slain of 
the Lord. Among them Horatio Day was stretched upon 
the floor at full length. I heard his cry above that of 
others, saying, "God be merciful to me a sinner!" Ap- 
proaching, I found him in deep distress. Turning his eyes 
toward me he exclaimed, "Do you think the Lord will have 
mercy on me? I am an old sinner and a great sinner." I 
replied, "Christ is a great Savior; he has a 'balm for every 
wound and a cordial for every fear.' 

'His blood can make the foulest clean, 
His blood availed for me.' " 

The broken-hearted man had reached an extremity of 



MAHONING CIRCUIT AND ERIE CIRCUIT. 47 

extremities. lie was evidently in a region lying between hope 
and despair — bordering on hope, also bordering on despair. 
I endeavored to keep the promises before his eyes; now 
urging him to claim them and now dictating pra3'er. Sud- 
denly his change came, and he exclaimed in rapture, "0 
how light it is !" He sprang to his feet, then mounted the 
bench, then leaped on to the table. Heaven seemed to 
beam in his countenance as he exclaimed, " I do not think 
that the people in heaven can look more beautiful than the 
people in this congregation." True, the change that had 
passed on the congregation was great, but it was chiefly the 
change that had been wrought in his own soul that made 
all around wear an aspect so lovely. Old things had passed 
away, and all things had become new. 

At the next door from where the above scene occurred 
lived a young lady of fashion and fortune, who moved in 
what are called the "higher circles" of society — higher, 
indeed^ in the sense of self-exaltation, but obnoxious to that 
teaching of the Book, " He that exalteth himself shall be 
abased." This young lady had opportunities to test the 
ability of the world to satisfy the longings of the immortal 
mind beyond what falls to the common lot. She had ea- 
gerly passed along the avenues that promise happiness, but 
had found nothing substantial and satisfying. She listened 
to the testimony of those who declared that they had found 
real and permanent enjoyment in the religion of Jesus 
Christ. As she mused with herself she said, " These are 
persons in whose truth and sincerity I can rely." She re- 
tired to her bed full of anxiety about her soul. Sleep 
passed from her eyes and slumber from her eyelids. The 
night passed slowly away, and the morning found her among 
the most unhappy of probationers. At the break of day, 
however, she deliberatel}" resolved that she would seek 
Christ. Taking the Bible in her hand, she repaired to a 



48 



TTTr.inVAVS AND IIKDOES. 



iicigliboiini^ forest witli tliis dtisjiorate resolve, that she 
Avonld not return to tlic house, cat, drltik, or sloop until she 
had nia<lo hor peace with CJod. Having penetrated the 
shadows of the forest, she selected the spot where she in- 
tended to die if she failed to obtain the mercy of God. 
The day passed wearily and painfully. Now she was search- 
ing the Scriptures as for hidden treasures, and now upon her 
knees in broken-hearted supplication. All seemed to be 
blackness overhead and all around. She felt that she was 
stumbling upon the dark mountains, and feared that she 
would go down to the pit. But she was not*»so far from the 
kingdom of Christ as she feared. Already the angels were 
rejoicing in heaven as her sighs, and tears, and prayers, and 
confessions evidenced her repentance. After the turn of the 
day, the family, having missed her since morning, became 
uneasy. An alarm was made, and the neighborhood turned 
out to search for her. To do the work effectually, they 
organized into companies and districted the territory to be 
searched over. Just as the sun was going down, the time 
hallowed by the incarnate Savior by wonderful deeds of 
mercy, He appeared to her the chiefest among ten thousand 
and the one altogether lovely. He spake her sins forgiven, 
her sky serene ; he turned her night to day, her hell to heaven, 
and set the captive free. About this time one of the search- 
ing parties thought they heard the distant sound of a female 
voice. They paused and listened ; it was surely the voice of 
singing; it was one of the songs of Zion, and it was the 
voice of the lady for whom they had been so anxiously 
seeking. They hastened to her, and she talked to them in 
the language of Canaan. The joy that had commenced 
in heaven had come down to earth, and the glad acclaim, 
"The dead's alive, the lost is found!" kindled rapture 
on earth. This incident gave a new interest to the w^ork 
in the neighborhood, so that there and clscAvhcrc the work 



MAHOXIXG CIRCUIT AND ERIE CIRCUIT. 49 

of God weut ou grandly, and much people Averc added to 
the Lord. 

The relations between the ministers, traveling and local, 
and between the preachers and people were most happy, and 
we looked forward almost with regret that one short year 
in all probability must sunder these ties of association. 
For in those days very rarely did unmarried men remain 
more than one year on the same circuit. In the midst of 
these musings, however, a letter from the presiding elder, J. 
B. Finley, fell like a bomb-shell among us. The letter an- 
nounced that he had directed Dr. Samuel Adams, of the 
Erie circuit to take my place on Mahoning circuit, and he 
now directed me to take Dr. Adams's place on Erie circuit. 
The reason of the chano-e was that Dr. D. D. Davisson, 
Adams's colLeague had married, which made the burden on 
Erie circuit too great as to support, and as Ruter and myself 
were both single men, this arrangement would equalize the 
burden on the two circuits. I could not murmur, yet I 
parted from my colleague, and the the young converts, and 
the fathers and mothers in Israel who had lavished so much 
kindness on me, with a sad heart. 

Amono- the ministers resident in this circuit, and whose 
acquaintance I had formed, and from whom I had received 
welcome and help, were Dr. Bostwick, of whom I have 
already spoken ; Eev. Alfred Brunson, who still — 18G8 — 
stands ou the walls of Zion, a young man then, diligently 
plying his trade as a shoemaker, and, as he had opportu- 
nity, proclaiming the acceptable year of the Lord. He 
was a young man of vigorous intellect, inclined to take 
large views of his subject, and to treat it with a decided 
and earnest logic. Afterward he gave himself fully to 
the work, and upon the broad prairies of the Xorth-west 
did much of pioneer work, and connected himself with 

almost every active movement iu Church and State. His 

5 



50 



IT I r; 1 1 WAYS A\n ni:nr,ES. 



litciHry and tlicoloiiifal alliiiinnciits wore rcooiriiizcd in the 
conferrinir of tlic dc<ic>'cc of Doftor of Divinity upon liini; 
and n«»w. Avliilo I writo tlicsc lines, the venerable Doctor is 
picsidin<j; over tlie metropolit.in district of the West Wis- 
consin Coufcrcnce. Dr. iNIenary, and brothers Sniitli, Leach, 
and 3Iiller were all local preachers — good, true, and useful. 
]*romisinf^ to visit the (diargc again on my way to Confer- 
ence at the end of the year, I responded to the command 
of my superior in office, and turned my face eastward to 
Erie circuit. 

ERIE CIRCUIT. 



Rev. D. D. Davissou, the pveaclier in charge of Erie 
CIRCUIT, received me with great kindness, and I found liiui 
to be not only an able theologian and faithful pastor, but a 
kind and profitable colleague. The Christian friendship 
thus formed strengthened w'ith years, and shall be renewed 
and perpetuated in heaven. The circuit had not the revival 
spirit equal to the one that I had left, but I entered upon 
my work feeling that I was in the path of duty, and that 
God was with me. 

The first quarterly meeting held on the circuit after I 
came to it was a camp-meeting. An immense concourse of 
people attended. Eev. J. 13. Finley, the presiding elder, 
preached with great power, and all the preachers seemed to 
be anuointed for the work, and entered into it with heart 
and soul. The fires of reformation burned brightly, and 
before the meeting closed the hallowed influences pervaded 
the congregation, and many were gathered to Christ. 
Those who were blessed at the meeting carried the good 
influence to their home communities, and so spread it, in a 
measure, all around. 

Kev. Isaac C. Hunter, the supply on Lake circuit, in 
the State of New York, attended this camp-meeting. Hia 



ERIE CIRCUIT. 51 

friends lived in the bounds of this circuit, and as he desired 
to remain and spend a little more time with them, he pro- 
posed to exchange one round with me. After consultation 
with tlie presiding elder in regard to the matter, it was so 
arranged, and I spent a month pleasantly and profitably, I 
hope, in preaching the Gospel to the people of his charge. 
The engagement ended, each of us returned to our ap- 
pointed field and work. 

During this year brother Finley invited me to accompany 
him to the Chatauque camp-meeting. The invitation was 
the more cheerfully accepted by me as the Rev. John Sum- 
merville, my first colleague, was the preacher in charge on 
that circuit, and I should thereby have the pleasure of 
visiting with him again. My former colleague received me 
with great kindness, and after hearing me preach, flattered 
me greatly as to my proficiency since we traveled together 
on the Letart Falls circuit. I preached a sermon from 
1 Timothy iv, 10: "Therefore we labor and suffer reproach, 
because we trust in the living God, who is the Savior of 
all men, specially of those that believe." It was greatly 
blessed to the congregation. The following is substantially 
the outline of the sermon: 

I. AVe shall speak of the living God as a Savior. 

1. The living God. There is one Being, self-existent and 
self-dependent — who exists, and can not but exist. If there 
ever was a time when that Being did not exist, that time 
would be now, for no being can be the author of his own 
existence. God lives. lie has life In himself. He imparts 
life to all his creatures, both celestial and terrestrial, 
whether vegetable, animal, or rational. He exists under 
three adorable distinctions, as Father, Sou, and Holy Spirit. 
The fact we believe because it is clearly revealed, but the 
mode of the fact transcends our reason, and is enveloped in 
mystery. 



52 iiir.nwAVS and iii:i)(;f.s. 

2. This God is u Savior — tlic only Savior — ;im all-sufficient 
Savior — able to save to tlu' uticrniost! 

The lop-cabin Episcopal ]);irsonnpc occupied by Bishop 
Huberts was within the bounds of tliis circuit, and the in- 
fluence of the good man was all-pervading. It was a large 
circuit, and swept over a considerable portion of Western 
Pennsylvania. Among the prominent iipjiointments were 
Eric, Watcrford, MConncllsville, IMcadville, and Mercer. 
As I was only a few months on this circuit, and that time 
broken by the visits above referred to, I shall refrain from 
entering into much detail of names and circumstances, lest 
I should make mistakes. 

llev. Samuel Gregg has written an interesting history of 
the growth of Methodism in the bounds of the Erie Con- 
ference. In his notice of myself, however, he has fallen 
into several mistakes. He states that I was received into 
tiie Ohio Conference on trial at Zauesville, Ohio, September 
3, 1817, ordained deacon in 1819, ordained elder in 1821, 
and then transferred to the Missouri Conference. In this 
he makes a mistake, for I was transferred at the same time 
that I was ordained deacon. I was transferred back to 
Ohio after three years of missionary work. He further 
states that I itinerated effectively forty-three years and 
superannuated; he should have said fifty years. He falls 
into error, also, in regard to the time that I have served in 
the presiding eldership; he should have said thirteen years. 
They are not matters of any great importance, and yet such 
inaccuracies in a work professing to be history tend to 
weaken confidence in the reliability of the work. 

Closing up my work on this circuit, I visited Mahoning 
circuit, according to promise, on my way to Conference, and 
we had a joyful time together. How sweet and strong are 
the bands that unite the hearts that have been touched 
with the loadstone of Divine love before the mercy seat! 



ERIE CIRCUIT. 53 

Blessed memories come crowding upon my heart, and I 
anticipate a glad reunion with those cherished friends in 
the mansion-house on liiah. Its crlitterin"; dome rises be- 
lore the eyes of my faith, and the light streams from its 
windows, and I fancy that the hands of its inmates are 
stretched out to beckon and welcome me there! 

About the 1st of August brother Ruter and myself 
started in company toward Cincinnati, where the Confer- 
ence was to meet on the 7th. We had time to review our 
past history, and lay plans for the future. To us both it 
was a time of peculiar interest, in view of the fact that we 
were both expecting to be received into the Conference, 
and ordained to the office of deacons in the Church of God. 
Bishops George and Roberts assisted, and business of varied 
character and vast importance came before the Conference, 
and was dispatched much more rapidly than business is 
dispatched in other than ecclesiastical bodies — the matter 
of foundino- an institution of learnincr of a hiii'h grade to 
meet the growing want of our people, the support of the 
wonderful work amons: our Indian tribes which had so 
strangely commenced under the self-appointed missionary 
labors of a colored man from Marietta, and the vexed ques- 
tion of slavery. Besides this, we had to elect delegates 
to the General Conference, which was to meet the follow- 
ing May. The delegates chosen were John Collins, Jacob 
Young, J. B. Finley, William Dixon, Alexander Cummins, 
Jonathan Stamper, James Quinn, and Walter Griffith. To 
me the events of greatest importance at this Conference 
were my ordination to the order of deacon and response 
to the call for volunteers for frontier work. The vows of 
ordination were solemn and searching, and the service was 
peculiarly impressive. The Macedonian cry came from Mis- 
souri and Illinois, and the Bishops pleaded earnestly and 
pathetically for volunteers. My mind was intensely exer- 



54 Hlf.inVAV.S AM) HEDGES. 

cised ill rcg.-ird to tlio iii.-iffcr. A iD.ifriiiionijil contract of 
four years' 8tandin<^ I li.id expected to consunnn.ite after 
taking the order of deacon and coining into full connection 
in tlic Conference. To place myself in a position that 
would almost necessitate the further postjtonement of that 
engagement, without having the opportunity of consulting 
with the other party to the contract, was a matter of no 
small embarrassment. On the other liand, I knew her devo- 
tion to the cause of CMirist so well that I was persuaded 
that she would desire that I should go wherever my labors 
could conduce most to the upbuilding of the cause of 
Christ. With this conviction, I placed my name on the 
roll of volunteers, and was transferred to the Missouri Con- 
ference, with the promise of a transfer back to the Ohio 
Conference after two years of missionary labor. During 
the two years and a half that I had itinerated I had expe- 
rienced much of toil and much of triumph, and felt to be 
fully committed to the itineracy as my life-work; but, could 
I have consulted my own preference, I should not have 
severed myself, even for a year, from the companionship of 
that noble band of men belonging to the Ohio Conference. 
My presiding elders and colleagues were specially dear to 
me, and it was like leaving liome, and father, and brothers 
to be separated from them. 

Rev. Jacob Young, my first presiding elder, was a man 
of marked and strong points of character. He was born 
in Pennsylvania in 177G, a few months before the Declara- 
tion of Independence, but emigrated in early life, with his 
parents, to the wilds of Kentucky. He had become profane 
and wicked, but soon after their settlement in their new 
home, he was powerfullly awakened, and, after a desperate 
struggle, soundly converted to God. To his surprise his 
father, who had been brought up an Episcopalian, was 
highly displeased when he learned what had transpired. 



ERIE CIRCUIT. 55 

and complained bitterly that his son should have so dis- 
graced the family in a strange land. The only defense 
that Jacob made was to take up the Bible, and after read- 
ing a lesson, kneeled down in the midst of the family and 
lifted up his voice in prayer. That voice they had often 
heard in outbursts of anger and profanity, but never before 
had it thrilled them as now. Before he rose from his 
knees the whole family was moved, and melted, and recon- 
ciled. Very soon afterward, through his instrumentality, 
his parents and nearly all the family were converted, and 
joined the Methodist Episcopal Church. Samuel Parker, 
who afterward became a prince in Israel, was at that time 
the bader of the cla?-s with which Jacob was connected, and 
he and others soon became convinced that God designed the 
young man for the ministry, and urged him into the work. 
In 1802 he commenced his itinerant career on Wayne circuit. 
He rose rapidly in the estimation of the Church, and soon 
occupied a commanding position. In ISIG, when I became 
one of his assistants, he being presiding elder of the Mus- 
kingum district, he was looked up to as one of the master 
minds of the denomination. Without either the advantages 
of a classical education or the graces of rhetoric, such w^ere 
the clearness of his theological views, the strength of his 
logic, and the earnestness of his ministrations, that multi- 
tudes listened to him with pleasure and profit. He was a 
progressive man, identifying himself with every movement 
in the Church promising to promote the education and sal- 
vation of the people. His name was frequently placed upon 
the list of delegates to General Conference, and the Indi- 
ana Asbury University conferred upon him the degree of 
D. J). In 1855 having so far failed in health as to preclude 
his i'uither labors in the regular pastoral work, he took a 
superannuated relation. In a note to one of his friends, ho 
thus expressed his feelings in view of his surroundings at 



56 



^I(iIl\\A^■s AM) iii".nr;F.s. 



tJiat timo : ''After liaviiig gone in .-ind uut liefoic tlie 
Church liir lirty-four yearn, T :nii imw compclh;!.! to retire. 
I nin now in flic ncighhorliood oi' t(tt;il Idindiicss. INIy 
stroniitli is ebbing out with great rapidity. I shall soon be 
done with life and its cares. While you arc actively and 
successfully doing the wf>rk of your great Master, I shall 
be sitting in my lonely cottage, repenting of all my former 
wrongs, believing in Jesus Christ, and trying to love God 
with all my heart. How gloomy is the end of human lil'o 
unconnected with that which is to come! My highest en- 
joyment in time, next to religion, will be in going to the 
house of God. I have spent a long life in trying to do 
good, and am anxious to do good to the very last hour of 
my life. My trust is in my lledeemer." When the time 
for his departure came he was ready, and he graduated full 
of honors and went up to wear his crown. 

Eev. James B. Finley, my second presiding elder, was 
born in the State of North Carolina, in the year 1780, in 
the mouth of July. His life from early childhood was full 
of romantic interest ; and throughout all the wide field of 
his travels as a Methodist preacher, multitudes of hearts 
have been thrilled with his weeping narratives of his youth- 
ful wickedness, his remarkable conversion, and the labors 
and triumphs of his itinerant life. He had been educated 
by his Calvinistic parents in the sternest doctrines of their 
confession of faith, his father being a minister in the Pres- 
byterian Church.. His mind, however, early revolted against 
the doctrine of unconditional election and reprobation. One 
Sabbath, at the close of the usual family catechetical in- 
struction, his father said to him, "James, do you pray?" 
He replied, " No, father, I do not." " Why do you not 
pray, my son?" " Because I do not see any use in it. If 
I am one of the elect, I will be saved in God's good time ; 
if I am one of the non-elect, praying will do me no good, 



ERIE CIRCUIT. 57 

as Christ did not die for them." The exercises of his iiiiud 
on this subject had well-nigh landed him in permanent in- 
fidelity. During this period of mental perplexity, he carce 
in contact with a treatise on the final redemption of all 
from hell. This doctrine he grasped with avidity, and at 
once became a defiant advocate of the doctrine. One of 
the elders of the Church of which his father was pastor 
undertook to reason him out of this heresy, when the fol- 
lowins; conversation occurred : 

''Did Christ die for all men?" 

"No, he did not die for any but the elect." 

" Will the reprobate be damned ?" 

" Yes, God for the praise of his glorious justice has de- 
creed his damnation." 

"For what is the reprobate damned?" 

" Because it is so decreed, even so according to the good 
pleasure of God's will." 

" But the Scriptures say that the reprobate is damned for 
unbelief. ' He that believeth not shall be damned.' Now, 
if Christ did not die for him, according to your system he 
is to be damned for not believing what is in itself not true. 
In other words he is to be damned for not believing a lie." 

In this unhappy state of mind — a source of great grief to 
his parents and Christian friends — he gave way to the de- 
pravity of his nature, and excelled in wickedness. When 
his parents had emigrated to the West, they had settled for 
awhile in Kentucky, and his father had been pastor of a 
Church at Cane Ridge. Now, hearing that a camp-meeting 
was to be held within the bounds of his father's old parish, 
he determined to attend it. He was now married, and 
lived at New Market, in Highland county, Ohio. Having 
invited a friend to accompany him, they went to the meet- 
ing. The immense multitude assembled — estimated by 
some to number twcnty-tivc thousand — was in a state of 



58 iTininvAvs and hedges. 

tlic greatest cxoitemcnt. Tlio ridiso w.-is like the roar of 
Nia^'nrn. lie counted f^eveii preacliers addressing different 
portions of tlie multitude at the same time, having for their 
])ulpit eitlier a stump, wagon, or fallen tree. Tlie wonderful 
phenomenon of sinners falling as dead — rising as from death 
ill transports of joy — produced a profound impression on 
his mind. lie remained until he could endure it no longer, 
and tlien, in company with his friend, started for home 
again. Both deeply absorbed in their own thoughts, they 
rode mostly in silence until they came to the Blue Lick 
Knobs. Ilis feelings now overmastered him, and he ex- 
claimed, " Captain, if you and I do n't stop our wickedness 
the devil will get us both!" His deep emotion found 
response in the heart of his companion, and they both w^ept 
bitterly. They stopped that night at Mayslick, and spent 
the night in weeping and prayer. At daybreak he retired 
to the woods to pray, and soon fell to the ground, and cried 
to God in such agony that the neighbors heard him, and 
gathered about him. Among them was a converted German, 
who enjoyed religion. He took Finley to his house, and 
prayed and sang with him in German and in broken English 
until about nine o'clock, when God revealed his pardoning 
love. He laughed and shouted, to the amazement of all 
but the Dutch brother. Now, with a happy heart, he 
pressed his way on toward home, and told his young wife 
what great things God had done for him. He soon became 
perplexed in regard to a Church home. He could not sub- 
scribe to a Calvanistic creed, and, after turning toward the 
Newlights and Shaking Quakers, he could find no people 
who held the truth as he now believed it, and thus failinir 
of the Christian fellowship that he needed, he, after a time, 
relapsed into carelessness, and then into sin, and at length 
plunged deeper into rebellion than ever before. After sev- 
eral miserable years, he was persuaded by his wife to 



ERIE CIRCUIT. 59 

accompany her to a Methodist meeting. His prejudices 
against that people were very strong, and he went reluc- 
tantly. But during the class meeting his prejudices gave 
way, and the Spirit of God again came to him in mighty 
awakening power. To the questions of the leader he only 
answered by sobs and tears. The next Thursday he set 
apart as a day of fasting and prayer, and spent it mostly 
alone in the forest, with his Bible and God. About mid- 
night, kneeling by a poplar-tree, he was enabled to take 
hold of Christ with a heart that believeth unto " rijihteous- 
ness," and then he went home filled with peace. The next 
morning he obtained the witness of his acceptance in such 
demonstration that he fell his full length in the snow, and 
then, springing to his feet, went shouting the high praises 
of God, and declared to his wife what God had done for 
him. He now felt that he had a work to do for God, and 
commenced to hold prayer and class meetings in his own 
house. A Methodist preacher came and organized a class, 
and recognized Finley as a worker, and encouraged him to 
extend his missionary endeavors, and even to try to preach. 
In 1809, at the urgent request of Rev. John Sale, presiding 
elder, he consented to go around the Scioto circuit. He 
opened his more public labors at the house of brother 
Lucas. He was licensed to preach at the camp-meeting at 
Benjamin Turner's, in Paint Creek A^alley, the next August. 
He was recommended by the same quarterly conference to 
the traveling connection, received at the approaching Con- 
ference, and sent to Wells Creek circuit. 

Having extended my account of the early experience of 
brother Finley far beyond what I had intended, I shall 
only add a few general remarks in regard to his ministerial 
career, in this part of my narrative, and will have more to 
say of him when I come to the time of his death. In cun- 
sequence of his native ability and remarkable adaptation to 



60 TlTCnWAVS AND ITKDGES. 

the work to wliicli lie was called, lie toi.k at once lank 
amoni: his hrcthrcii. TT(^ was fcarloss, and indef'ati'rablc, 
and oldfjuont. "Willi tlic Inniler; or legislator, or the wild 
Indian he could make himself at home, and generally be- 
fore the interview ended lie became the center of attraction 
and interest. Whether as junior preacher, preacher in 
charge, presiding elder, delegate to General Conference, 
missionary among the Indians, or chaplain to the State- 
prison, from iicry youth to venerable and honored age, he 
was a man of mark. He was not equal to some of his 
brethren in critical exposition or consecutive argument, 
but he liad few superiors in the impressive application of 
Gospel truth, and in the effectiveness of his flashes of 
logic. He seldom perhaps carried the fortifications of the 
enemy by a regular siege, but he usually took them by 
storm. At the time that I first became associated with him 
he was approaching the zenith of his popularity, and his 
mighty voic, whether in its plaintive and pathetic wail or 
in its thunder tones of exhortation, seldom failed to pene- 
trate to the very citadel of the soul. Doubtless while I, 
now an old man, write this brief memorial of James, he 
"shines as a star in the kingdom of God forever." 



i 



BLUE RIVER CIRCUIT, MISSOURI CONFERENCE. Gl 



CHAPTER V. 

BLUE RIVER CIRCUIT, MISSOURI COXFERENXE. 

1819-20. 

CONFERENCE met at Cincinnati, August 7, 1S19, and 
the following persons were admitted on trial : John 
Mauary, Isaac C. Hunter, Abner Goif, James Gilruth, 
Thomas R. Ruckle, Josiah Foster, Peter Warner, James 
Murray, John Kinney, Henry S. Farnandis, Andrew Kinear, 
Adbel Coleman, Benjamin T. Crouch, Moses Henkle, Thos. 
Ilitt, Wm. H. Raper, Robert Delap, Isaac Collard, Horace 
Brown, David Dyke, John P. Keach, John P. Durbin, 
Francis Wilson, Nathaniel Harris. This class has furnished 
the Church some of its ablest administrators and advocates, 
and one of them. Dr. Durbin, still holds a position of respon- 
sibility and honor second to none in the gift of the Church. 
The followins; were elected deleirates to General Conference: 
John Collins, Jacob Young, James B. Finley, Wm. Dixon, 
A. Cummings, I, Stamper, Jas. Quinn, and W. Griffith. 

In response to the Macedonian cry from the lips of the 
eloquent Bishops George and Roberts, Calvin W. Ruter, 
Job M. Baker, John Everhart, Samuel Hamilton, and my- 
self volunteered for pioneer missionary work without any 
missionary appropriations, and were transferred to the 
Missouri Conference, which then spread over the States of 
Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas. 

I was appointed to Blue Rn'Eii circuit, in the State 
of Indiana, as preacher in charge, the Rev. Joseph Pownell 



r»L' HIGHWAYS AND HKDGES. 

being tlic junior jironflu^r. My lionic was across the 
State of Ohio eastward, wliilc my circuit L'ly across the 
State of Tn<linna westward. Were you to fancy the young 
itinerant, with carpet liair in hand, luirrying down to the 
depot to fly across the State and say good-by to the loved 
ones at home, and then across two States to report for serv- 
ice the next Sabbath, tlic scene would indeed be a fancy 
one. The scream of a railroad whistle had not then been 
heard in the valley of the Mississippi. The locomotion 
practiced by the itinerants of that day was on horseback. 
To have visited home before going to my distant field of 
labor would have consumed weeks of precious time. With 
my vows, of ordination fresh upon me, and my heart full 
of zeal, I mounted my horse and turned my face toward the 
field of future labors. I anticipated enjoyment and profit 
in my association with brother Pownell. He had received 
me into the Church, as stated in a previous chapter, and 
we had a warm attachment for each other. I learned, how- 
ever, before reaching the circuit, that he was about to be 
married, and that he had expected to take a location. As 
he was not present at the Conference, however, and the 
presiding elder not being fully informed in regard to his 
wishes, and knowing that the people of Blue River circuit 
desired his return the appointment was made. Upon my 
arrival on the circuit he welcomed me, and invited me to 
perform the marriage service for him. Having been ordained 
to the office of deacon at the recent Conference, this was 
the first time that I had officiated in this way, but, after 
preparing myself thoroughly, the parties gave me the credit 
of acquitting myself very satisfactorily. The woman to 
whom he was married, Miss Arnold, was a lady of intelli- 
gence and piety, and made him an excellent companion and 
helpmate. He gave me a liberal fee, which I presented to 
his wife. During the year they gave me valuable assistance 



BLUE RIVER CIRCUIT, MISSOURI CONFERENCE, Go 

and encouragement in my work. Afterward they settled 
near Columbus, Indiana, where they maintained an excellent 
Christian character. Though they have long since crossed 
the river, the recollections of them are precious to me. 

Bishop Koberts, who had been living in the bounds of 
Erie circuit, Penn., my last field of labor, moved to Bono, 
on White River, in the bounds of Blue River circuit, at the 
beginning of this year. This was peculiarly gratifying to 
me. He was gentlemanly, afi'able, and exceedingly conde- 
scending and communicative. I can never cease to remem- 
ber and appreciate him as a citizen, a minister, and a 
Bishop. He gave us invaluable help during the year, both 
in the pulpit and otherwise. His praise was in the mouths 
of all, and through his instrumentality Methodism took a 
higher position and received a mighty impulse. 

At one of our quarterly meetings, held at Paoli, he gave 
us very efficient help. Rev. Samuel Hamilton, the presid- 
ing elder, then in the full tide of popularity, was with us, 
and we had a time of interest and power Saturday and Sat- 
urday night. The love-feast on Sabbath morning was a 
time of refreshing. At the close of the love-feast it was 
reported to the presiding elder that a Presbyterian mission- 
ary, just from the East, was tarrying over the Sabbath in the 
place and wished to preach to our congregation. Brother 
Hamilton, with great meekness, not knowing that Bishop 
Roberts would be present, gav^e the stranger the eleven 
o'clock hour. The missionary took for his text, "What 
think ye of Christ?" His discourse was a cold, dry, theo- 
rizing disquisition. He manifested none of the unction es- 
sential to success, and the disappointed congregation endured 
it as patiently as could have been expected. Soon after he 
commenced, Bishop Roberts entered the house and seated 
himself near the fire. The meeting was in the court-house, 
and the preacher occupied the judge's desk. As soon as 



G4 IIICHWAVS AND HEDGES. 

he had finished lii.s diseonrse, the presiding elder arose and 
informed tlic eon^repration tliat one of the superintendents 
of tlie M(^thodist, Kpiseopal Cliurdi was present, and tliat he 
would in a few minutes address the congregation. Soon he 
was erect, and slowly moving toward the stand he was to 
occupy. As very few of tlie con;i;rcgation had ever seen a 
IMethodist Bishop they were all eye and all ear. His ap- 
pearance was venerable and commanding. As he announced 
his hymn the worshipers began to partake of his own devout 
spirit, and sang with the spirit and the understanding. 
They kneeled in prayer, and as he spake to God in their 
behalf the whole congregation felt shocks of Divine power, 
and realized that they were in the presence of Grod. Prayer 
ended, he announced for his text, "Wherefore seeing we 
also are compassed about with so great a cloud of witnesses," 
etc. He commenced by saying, "You have just had a the- 
oretical discourse, and I now propose giving you a practical 
one." Immediately every eye and every ear was under his 
control, and the audience was spell-bound for an hour and 
a half. The court-house was crowded, and such overwhelm- 
ing power attended the "Word that the audience rose en 
masse and stood with open mouths each to receive his por- 
tion. The effect was wonderful and never to be forgotten. 
I thought the visiting clergyman departed a wiser man, 
possibly entertaining corrected views of the mission and 
power of the pulpit. 

The home-life and arrangements of Bishop Roberts were 
as simple as his ministry was mighty. The following rep- 
resentation of his episcopal palace will give the reader a 
good idea of the magnificence of his new episcopal resi- 
dence: When he moved into it it consisted of rough log 
walls, clapboard roof and sleepers, and had neither chim- 
ney, door, windows, floor, or loft, or furniture. His brother 
Lewis had erected it, but it remained in this unfinished 



BLUE RIVER CIRCUIT, MISSOURI CONFERENCE. 65 

condition when the Bishop moved his family into it. Tlic 
first meal ♦consisted of potatoes, roasted in the ashes, and 
served to the family on one of the sleepers instead of a 
table and dishes. With his family gathered about the sim- 
ple meal, he devoutly asked the blessing of God at the be- 
ginning and returned thanks at the close of the repast. At 
night the wolves gave them such an equivocal serenade, 
that a large fire was kindled in front of the opening of the 
cabin to deter them from entering. Having made their 
beds on some puncheons, and having committed himself 
and family to the watchcare of the Almighty, they laid 
them down and slept sweetly. He commissioned me to 
purchase some furniture for him, which I did, and in due 
time the cabin was supplied with what was deemed sufl&cient 
for pioneer life and comfort. Perhaps the moving cause of 
his establishins; his home here was the fact that his brother, 
Lewis Roberts, had settled here some years before. Lewis 
was a man of large natural endowments, a good historian, 
and an excellent Christian gentleman, universally respected. 
Though gifted in conversation and able to command the 
attention of any company,* yet so timid was he that he 
could never be prevailed upon to pray vocally even in his 
own family circle. He was accustomed, however, to read 
the Scriptures, and then the family would kneel and spend 
a time in silent family prayer. 

The traveling preachers were always welcomed and al- 
ways benefited by their sojourn at the houses and in the 
families of these noble brothers. A day spent at the epis- 
copal parsonage always did me great good, for, while Bishop 
Roberts never compromised the dignity and purity of the 
Christian Bishop, and gave needful advice and instruction 
to his junior brethren, he could adapt himself to the wants 
of the company he entertained, and so completely disem- 
barrass them that they would feel at home and hnppy. He 

6 



CG IIIGIIWAVS AND HEDGES. 

was often cheerful even to pleasantry. I shall never forget 
the niirth-provokinj:; manner in ^vlli(•h he narrated to me 
his first experience in the business of solemnizing marri- 
ages. One of Lewis Kobcrts's sons was about to be married, 
and had invited his uncle, the Bishop, to officiate. Know- 
ing, however, that the Bishop might be called away on more 
important business, I was invited to be present also, so as 
to supply any lack of service. At the time appointed, as I 
was on my way to the place, I fell in company with the 
Bishop, also on his way to the wedding. He said to me, 
"I suppose that you are to marry them." 
" Only in case you failed to be present." 
" I would prefer," said the Bishop, " that you do it." 
"In no case could I consent, as you are to be present." 
"Are you not authorized to perform the marriage serv- 
ice ( 

I reminded him that he had ordained me at the last ses- 
sion of the Ohio Conference, and told him that I had com- 
menced my practice upon my colleague, Bev. Jos. Pownell. 
"You," said he, "had a high beginning," and then, with 
a musical smile, added, "I had the privilege of beginning 
with a colored couple. When I was ordained deacon," 
said he, " I was appointed to Baltimore, and soon after was 
called on by a colored man to marry him. At the appointed 
time I went to the place, and found the man and woman 
sitting together. In a few minutes I requested them to 
stand up. As they rose she took fright, and breaking away 
from her affianced, rushed out of the back door and disap- 
peared in the garden. The would-be husband pursued her, 
but after some time returned, saying that he could not 
catch her, and seemed greatly mortified. I returned home, 
but after an interval of some days the colored man returned, 
and requested me to come again, assuring me that she 
would stand now. I went, and to the great joy of the anx- 



BLUE RIVER CIRCUIT, MISSOURI CONFERENCE. G7 

ious man she stood until the ceremony was performed, and 
they pronounced man and wile. That,'' said the Bishop, 
with his inimitable smile, "was my start in that line." 

During this year we had a camp-meeting at the forks of 
the Muskatatack, near Brownstown, which was numerously 
attended. A good religious influence pervaded the congre- 
gation from the bes^inninsr to the close of the meetinir. 
Bishop Roberts was present, with his excellent wife, and 
during the meeting he preached several sermons of great 
power. He preached a sermon from the text "How shall 
we escape if we neglect so great salvation?" which had a 
thrilling effect on the audience. That mysterious exercise 
called the jerJcs prevailed to some extent. Saints and sin- 
ners both were affected by them. In fact it was not con- 
fined to the people, but dogs and hogs took them. I saw 
both dogs and hogs so exercised with the jerks, that as they 
passed around it could hardly be perceived that they 
touched the ground at all. This exercise was to us unac- 
countable. I have often, on that and other occasions, seen 
persons under the influence of the jerks go through exer- 
cises beyond all comprehension. It would seem impossible 
for any one to pass through such exercises and live. For 
example, women, under this influence, would remain upon 
their feet for hours, the whole form convulsed from head 
to feet, throwing the body to and fro, so that the head 
would almost touch the floor, both forward and backward. 
The hair would soon become disheveled, and the violence 
of the motions was such that it would crack like a whip- 
lash. AYhen, after hours of this kind of violent exercise, 
the influence passed oft', they experienced neither soreness 
nor fatigue. My old friend Jacob Young, however, re- 
cords a case where the neck of one of the victims of the 
jerks was dislocated, of course producing instant death. 
I simply add my testimony to the fact and strangeness of 



G8 HIGHWAYS AND HEDGES. 

these phenomena, and shall not spend any time in specu- 
latini; in roirard to it. 

limthcr ]*()wnell was also at tills camp mcctinjr, and an 
incident tr.-mspiicd duriii;j; it of special interest to him 
During the exercises of the meeting one night, sister Pow 
noil requested me to speak tn hor hiisl)and to come to her 
They immediately retired to the house of brother Evans 
near at hand, politely requested Bishop Roberts and wife 
who had already retired, to accommodate sister Pownell 
with the use of the room and bed, and a few minutes there- 
after they rejoiced in an addition to their family. 

We had another excellent camp-meeting on Cooley's 
camp-ground, near Salem. This ground had been occupied 
several successive years, and commanded a large attend- 
ance of people. Rev. Samuel Hamilton, presiding elder, 
superintended the meeting. Revs. John Cord and Thomas 
Sewell, who had for many years been useful traveling 
preachers, were present and gave valuable service. Thomas 
Milligan, Peter and Christopher Monarchal, and brothers 
Jenkins, Andrews, and Harber — beloved brethren, held in 
high esteem for their work's sake — labored manfully for the 
success of the meeting. The result of the meeting was 
highly gratifying, many being awakened and soundly con- 
verted, whom I hope to meet in the kingdom of God. 

The Blue River circuit then embraced Washington, Jack- 
son, Orange, and Lawrence counties, and the county seats, 
Salem, Brown, Paoli, and Bedford, were preaching places. 
We had appointments in many other smaller towns, such as 
Bono and Orleans. Our strongest societies were at or near 
Salem, Paoli, Bono, and at the forks of the Muscatatack. 
It was a four week's circuit, and I performed the labor with- 
out a colleague. My salary was one hundred dollars, which 
was paid in full. Truly God was with us, and we had a 
year of success in our religious movements. At one time 



I 



BLUE RIVER CIRCUIT, MISSOURI CONFERENCE. 60 

during the year some of our members, by some means, be- 
came tinctured with Pelagianism, and I had apprehension of 
a schism in the Church. We did, however, what we could 
in the way of doctrinal teaching and pastoral attention, 
and by the blessing of God the tide turned favorably, and 
our erring members returned to sound doctrine and evan- 
gelical experience. 3Iy predecessor reported five hundred 
and six members, and I had the pleasure of returning to 
the conference five hundred and eighty-nine — an increase 
of eiffhtv-three. 

The residence of Bishop Roberts in my charge, afforded 
me excellent opportunity of being posted in the general 
history of the denomination, and as the General Conference 
met tliis year, the denominational news was of unusual 
interest. The Conference held its session in the city of 
Baltimore, commencing May 1, 1820. Bishops M'Kendree, 
George, and Roberts were in attendance. Bishop M'Ken- 
dree, however, was so feeble in health that the Conference 
gave him virtually the privilege of superannuation, allowing 
him to do such work as in his own judgment he could 
safely perform. The matters which occupied the most of 
the time, and called out the most discussion, related to the 
mode of selecting the presiding elders ; the adjustment of 
difficulties that had grown out of the war of 1812 between 
societies of the Methodist Episcopal Church and those of 
the Wesleyan body in Canada ; the establishment of denom- 
inational schools ; the transfer of the powers and duties of 
the quarterly conferences touching local preachers to a new 
body called district conferences ; and instructions designed 
to control the manner of procedure in building houses of 
worship. Some of these questions elicited very earnest and, 
in some instances, impassioned debate. The Conference 
having ordered that presiding elders should thereafter be 
elected to their office by the Annual Conference, so violent 



70 HKillWAYS AND HEDGES. 

was tlic oppoHition of the niin(»rily to that action tliat Rev. 
Jo.shua 8oulc, who liad been a few days previously elected 
to the Episcopacy, declined to accept the office unless that 
offensive act was rescinded, lie was obstinate, and Bishop 
M'Kendree favoring his views the Conference ultimately 
yielded. 

The Rev. John Emory, one of the purest and ablest of 
our ministers, was commissioned to bear the fraternal regards 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church to the British Confer- 
ence, and to secure such adjustment of the matters of dif- 
ference between our societies in Canada as would promote 
harmony and the success of the common cause. He was 
happily successful in securing prompt and fraternal action 
on the part of the Mother Church. 

The General Conference was much perplexed over the 
question of education. Repeated efforts to found liberal 
institutions had met with disaster, until those who had la- 
bored hard and sacrificed much in this direction were dis- 
couraged. But they determined to open the way and give 
official indorsement to efforts upon the part of the Annual 
Conference to found such institutions within their bounds 
as they might deem practicable. The district Conference 
arrangement was an olive-branch to the local ministry, 
many of whom thought that such a Conference would be 
promotive of great good. Though it failed to meet their 
anticipations and was afterward abandoned, yet it exhibited 
the disposition of the General Conference to meet the 
wishes of the petitioners, and in that regard, doubtless, al- 
layed dissatisfaction, and for the time being promoted peace 
and harmony. In regard to the building of houses of wor- 
ship, the Conference ordered that they should not be com- 
menced until three-fourths of the amount necessary to de- 
fray the expense had been secured ; and that they should 
be erected with free seats. Neither of these regulations, 



BLUE RIVER CIRCUIT, MISSOURI CONFERENCE. 71 

however, resulted in producing mucli practical change in 
these matters. The people of New England continued to 
rent their seats as usual, and the societies generally acted 
on their own judgment in regard to the financial manage- 
ment of the Church building. 



72 HIGHWAYS AND HEDGES. 



CHAPTER VI. 

MOUNT CAKMEL CIRCUIT, ILLINOIS. 

1820-21. 

IN the month of September, 1820, the Missouri Conference 
met at the Shiloh meeting-house, in St. Clair county, Il- 
linois, some ten miles from St. Louis. Bishop Roberts was 
the presiding officer. It would not be correct to say that 
lie occupied the chair, because he was so sick as not to be 
able to sit up, and a bed being made for him in the church, 
his noble frame struggled with disease, while his masterly 
mind gave direction to the business of Conference. Ar- 
rangements having been made for camp-meeting in the ad- 
joining grove, the work of revival went on while the busi- 
ness of the Conference was being transacted within doors. 
Preachers were detailed for the day services, while the 
whole Conference took part in the services at niglit. There 
for the first time I sounded the Gospel trumpet to an Illi- 
nois audience. The grove then echoed with the masterly 
logic of the commanding M'Allister, and with the eloquent 
and earnest appeals of Edward and Samuel Mitchell, David 
Sharp, Samuel Hamilton, and many others ; but their voices 
are long since still in death, and, so far as I know, I am 
the sole survivor of the band whose voices were heard from 
that platform. 

The following persons were received on trial : W. L. 
Hawley, Elias Stone, Samuel Bassett, Francis Moore, William 
Cravens, John S. M'Cord, W. W. Bcdman, H. Yredenburg, 



MOUNT CARMEL CIRCUIT, ILLINOIS. 73 

David ChamberlaiD, George K. Hester, James Siumis, Isaac 
Brook-leld, Levin Green, Henry Stephenson, and Gilbert 
Clarke. 

At the close of that Conference the following appoint- 
ments were made for the great State of Illinois : 

Illinois District — D. Sharp, presiding elder. Illinois cir- 
cuit, Alexander M'Allister; Okaw, Hackaliah Vredenburg; 
Cash River, Francis Moore; Wabash, Thomas Davis; Mount 
Carmel, John Stewart; Sangamon, James Simms; Shoal 
Creek, Josiah Patterson. 

With the prayers of our brethren, and looking to the 
great Head of the Church for wisdom and grace equal to 
our trials and opportunities, we sallied forth to find and oc- 
cupy the fields assigned us. Every thing about us beto- 
kened that we should have to do with laying the very foun- 
dation of society. Illinois had been recently erected into a 
State, and her first governor. Bond, was serving his first 
term of office. 

The stream of time has borne away on its rapid current 
nearly the entire generation of those who were engaged fifty 
years ago in laying the foundation of the social and eccle- 
siastical institutions of our State. Few of those whom I 
shall mention in these reminiscences now live to read them. 

Mount Carmel circuit in 1820 and 1821 spread over the 
counties of Crawford, Lawrence, Wabash, Edwards, and 
White, embracing seventeen preaching appointments, and 
was what was called a " three weeks' circuit." And now, 
friendly reader, provided with a good horse, comfortable sad- 
dle, capacious saddle-bags, let us start on the round of the 
circuit. Our first Sabbath we spend in Mt. Carmel, preach- 
ing in the school-house, morning and night. Before leaving 
here it is proper to call up the reminiscences of the founding 
of this town which gave its name to the circuit. The orig- 
inal proprietors were Dr. MDowcll, from Chillicothc, Ohio; 

7 



74 HIGHWAYS AND HEDGES. 

Jiulirc Scohy Stow.irt. ni" Xcw Jersey; Rev. Thomas S. 
Iliiidc — wlio used to be a cdntrilmtor to our periodical 
press, undor tlic nam dr pinmr of 'IMi(M)plr',us Ariiiinius — 
and Stiil)l»s, from one of the Carolinas. Tliese gen- 
tlemen having purchased a large tract of land, and propos- 
ing to inaugurate a village enterprise, they employed as 
their financial agent Rev. William ]5eauchamp, a scholarly 
and clo(£Ucut Methodist preacher, of whom we shall have 
more to say hereafter. The proprietors being influential 
jMethodists, and their agent being so extensively and favor- 
ably known by the Methodist public, it is not strange that 
the 31ethodist Episcopal Church had every encouragement 
in the town, and that the elements of a good society rapidly 
gathered there. 

At the Ilinde's, and Russell's, and BQauchamp's, and Stew- 
art's, and Tilton's, and other houses, the itinerant felt that 
he had real sympathy and reliable backing in every good 
work. 

Having preached in Mount Carmcl on Sabbath and spent 
Monday in the pastoral visitations of the class, the circuit 
ride commenced on Tuesday morning. Ten miles down the 
Wabash, and at noon he finds at John Grove's a small 
congregation, to which he breaks the Bread of Life. He 
diverges a little from his course at this point to visit a 
strange community, under the leadership of Mr. Knapp. 
They were located at a place called Harmony, on the Indi- 
ana side of the river. Men and women lived separately, 
until the seventh year, when the family relation was ac- 
knowledged. They were distributed to the several useful 
trades and vocations according to the wisdom of their 
leader, who had such supreme influence over them, that in 
accordance with his teaching they thought eternal damna- 
tion would be the punishment that would overtake any one 
of them who abandoned their leader and the community. 



MOUNT CARMEL CIRCUIT, ILLINOIS. 75 

I found them an honest and honorable people to deal with, 
and could always depend upon getting an article good in 
quality and reasonable in price. But we must hurry on to 
our Wednesday appointment, which is at brother Ham- 
ilton's. 

We are here, only twenty-two miles from Mt. Carmel, 
and yet we already see cause for grave apprehension in 
regard to the spirit of the people. An aged colored man, 
emigrating with his wife, camped in this neighborhood for 
the night. They were harmless, well-behaved old people. 
Yet such was the hatred for free negroes that their camp 
was visited in the night, and he was shot to death in cold 
blood. Nor did the civil authorities regard it necessary to 
give any official attention to the matter. The conviction 
from that time became deeply seated with us, that, if Illi- 
nois is saved from the curse of slavery, the Methodist 
preachers and people have a work to do. The candid his- 
torian will be prompt to give Methodism due credit for 
doing a large measure of the work in preventing the estab- 
lishment of slavery in this beautiful commonwealth. 

Thursday, at noon, we are addressing a congregation 
twelve miles further on, in the residence of John Hanna, a 
Carolinian, possessing a large lauded estate, and glad to 
open his mansion for the itinerant and the Gospel which 
lie preaches. Having shared his hospitality for the night, 
and having but five miles to ride to our noon appointment 
at brother Withron's, we pass leisurely through the beauti- 
ful savannas. But, while we are delighted with its fertility 
and beaut}^, we are somewhat startled by the evidence of 
recent earthquakes. These deep cracks in the earth, which 
still look so ghastly, could they speak with their broad 
mouths, would tell of the terrors of many an ungodly man, 
and of the anxiety of many a lukewarm Christian, as they 
supposed that the great day of His wrath had come. In 



7G HIGHWAYS AND HEDGES. 

tlio congrcgalion nt Wifliron's wo roini tlio ;irfiuaii)tnnce of 
two valun])le local prcacluMH, Kcvm. Saimicl and Charles 
Sloc'uni. Though Samuel lias idoutifiofl himself witli the 
movement to incorporate slavery itito tlie organic law, lie 
assures us that he rcirards tliis as the surest and speediest 
way of ridding tlie country of slavery. "Let us," says lie, 
"spread it out so thin that it will exhaust itself and die." 
His motives are honest, but we can not subscribe to his 
logic. 

A ride of nine miles, Saturday morning, brings us to our 
noon appointment at Henry Jones's. This is the extreme 
point of our circuit down the river, and is nearly fifty miles, 
by the route we have traveled, from Mt. Carmel. The kind 
family urges us to stay here for the night, but we have 
thirty miles to make by noon to-morrow, and we prefer to 
spend the night as near as may be to our Sabbath work. 
The scattered settlers will come together from a distance, 
and, as we will have a larger percentage of unconverted 
persons to address than we meet in our week-day appoint- 
ments, w^e would be fresh and vigorous to meet the respon- 
sibility. Saturday night finds us at brother A. Driger's, 
and Sabbath at noon we are delivering a message from 
God to the people gathered at the house of brother George 
Mickles. Monday, at noon, four miles further north, we 
preach at brother Wheeler's. Though it is wash-day, the 
hungry people come together to get the Word of Life. 

Tuesday, at noon, we are at brother Jacob Shrader's, 
fourteen miles from the last appointment. We shall hence- 
forward always anticipate with pleasure the hospitality of 
this kind family. Here the itinerant j^^^^" excellence finds a 
home. Brother Shrader gives his son John to the work, 
consecrates his house as a preaching-place, and, with an 
open purse and a warm heart, co-operates in every good 
work. In this neighborhood we form the acquaintance of 



MOUNT CARMEL CIRCUIT, ILLINOIS. 77 

the Scotcti Curry family, of •whom Rev. "W, Beauchamp 
makes such eloquent mention in his notices of the triumphs 
of grace in the West. "We shall have more to say of them, 
however, and of their son-in-law, Piev. John Scripps, when 
we come to speak of the camp-meeting, at which they find a 
home in the Church. Ten miles brings us to our Wednes- 
day noon appointment, at James Ryan's. 

Thursday we are in the saddle again, and, after ten miles' 
travel, reach the Ellison Prairie appointment, and at noon 
preach the Word to the people. Here the cotton-fields 
spread out in their whiteness. Yincennes, Indiana, looms 
up in the distance, and the landscape is one of surpassing 
loveliness. But we can not linger here, as we have to push 
forward twenty-two miles to our Friday noon appointment 
at brother Snipp's. We lodge at Rev. John Fox's, a super- 
annuated member of the New Jersey Conference, and his 
counsel, and prayers, and sympathy do us good. The Sat- 
urday noon appointment is only four miles distant, at Union 
Prairie. On Sabbath we are at Palestine, eighteen miles 
from the last-mentioned appointment, and here, in the 
school-house, we deliver our message to a congregation of 
considerable refinement and pretensions. 

Tuesday, at noon, we are twenty-five miles away, preach- 
ing at brother James Johnson's. This venerable man and 
his excellent companion, living twelve miles from Yincennes, 
on the road to Mt. Carmel, give us a welcome so cordial, 
and enter so thoroughly into all the works of the young 
itinerant, that we shall always feel toward them as did Paul 
toward the house of Onesiphorus. At noon on Wednesday 
we address the people in the next neighborhood, eight miles 
distant, at the house of an estimable local preacher. Rev. 
John Ingersoll, a brother-in-law to Judge Scoby Stewart. 
Thursday, at noon, we close our round of appointments, 
within four miles of Mt. Carmel, at brother Charles Riggs's. 



78 H Kill WAYS AND IIKDGES. 

lie l>eiDg Jill ;H'(ju;iiiit:iii((' u\' ours IVoiii ^\'t;.stenl Virginia, 
we enjoy the renewal (»!' tliat ac(|uaiutancc here, where 
mountains arc out of siglit .-iikI tlio ;itmosphcrc of freedom 
is about us. 

Here, glancing backward, we find that during the past 
nineteen days we have preaclicd eighteen times, besides 
leading the classes, marking the class-books, instructing 
the children, and visiting the people. We have swept over 
five counties, making a journey of between two and three 
hundred miles. We have enjoyed it immensely, but the 
repetition of these travels and labors every three weeks, 
when the Fall rains, and the Winter snows, and the Spring 
mud comes, will test our powers of endurance thoroughly. 
But it is an easy circuit in comparison with some we have 
traveled. We have a good horse, a comfortable saddle, a 
strong umbrella, a sublime mission, and we would not 
change places with the Governor of the State or the Presi- 
dent of the Union. They are laboring for the common- 
wealth, backed up by a majority of the people; we for the 
kingdom of God, appointed and supported by him. 

Our hopes for the year were fully realized. We com- 
menced with one hundred and fifty members; expected to 
gather fruit while we scattered seed at every appointment. 
At the close of the year we reported three hundred mem- 
bers — an increase of one hundred per cent. One hundred 
of these had joined at the regular appointments, and fifty 
of them at the camp-meetings with which we wound up the 
year's labors. As these camp-meetings were among the 
grandest of their kind, we propose to give our readers our 
reminiscences of them. 

The camp-meeting was an institution in those days greatly 
prized by our people, because greatly honored of God in 
carrying forward his work. During this year on the Mt. 
Carmel circuit I had two camp-meetings in two successive 



MOUNT CARMEL CIRCUIT, ILLINOIS. 70 

"weekti, both of which proved to be meetings of" great power 
aud glory. The fir.st one commenced the 20th of August, 
1821, near Carmi, on the Little Wabash Piivcr, thirty-five 
miles below Mt. Carmel ; the other commenced the 27th of 
the same mouth in brother 31anlove Beauchamp's neighbor- 
hood, near Mt. Carmel. 

Before I narrate the circumstances of these meetinos, it 
may be interesting to the reader to obtain a general idea 
of the arrangements and regulations of camp-meetings in 
those days. In selecting grounds for camp-meetings we had 
respect not only to shade for the camp, water for the con- 
gregation, aud j^asturage for the horses, but also the char- 
acter of the surrounding neighborhood, preferring a com- 
munit^" that would appreciate the meeting, and assist in the 
maintainance of good order. The tents were mostly made 
by inclosing three sides and covering wdth boards, and leav- 
ing the side that faced the audience ground open, to be 
closed at nio-ht with blankets or sheetin";. The o-rounds 
were lighted at night partly with fire-stands, which were 
elevated platforms covered with earth, and upon which a 
fire, fed -with light, dry wood, was kept burning during the 
night, or until the hour appointed for retiring to sleep. In 
addition to the fire-stands, candles were fastened to the 
trees by the auger-hole candlestick instrument, and each 
tent was expected to keep one candle burning in front. 
The time of retiring; to bed aud of rising in the morniun;, 
also the time ot" taking meals, and of family prayers, and 
public service w^ere all announced from the stand at the be- 
ginning of the meeting. It was explained how the trumpet 
would signal these things, that all might conform promptly 
to the order of the meetins;. As the signal for risiniz; in the 
morning the trumpeter marched around the camp, sounding 
the trumpet at the door of each tent; then, after giving suf- 
ficient time for dressing, the trumpet sounded from the stand 



80 iiiGiiWAVs AM) hi:ix;es. 

for family prayers in tlir tents. Tlic voice of .soiil,^ and prayer 
then rose from every tent at tlu^ same time, and .sometimes 
the power of God descended, and tlie day commcuced with 
tlio sliont of a kino; in the camp. Tliorc was servioo at the 
stand at ci_t;ht, eleven, three o'clock, and at "candle light- 
ing,"' the intervening time being largely occupied with 
praycr-mectiug at the stand or in llie tents. At the 
blast of the trumpet calling the congregation to the stand 
for public worship, the occupants of the tents were expected 
to leave the tents and come into the congregation. The 
cooking was nearly all done at home before the meeting 
commenced, and all arrangements made, so that men and 
women could spend their time, not in serving tables, but iu 
feasting upon the AYord of God or ministering it to others. 
The meetings generally commenced on Friday and continued 
about four or five days. By commencing on Friday all 
that intended tenting arranged to be on the ground at the 
beginning of the meeting, and four or fivQ days was about 
as long as food prepared at home would keep in proper 
condition for use. The attendance was not large as com- 
pared with the attendance on such meetings in older and 
more populous settlements, but as compared with the thin 
population of the country it was very large. At the camp- 
meeting on Mt. Carmel circuit in 1821, soon after the State 
of Illinois had laid off its territorial garments, the attend- 
ance was about one hundred on Friday, three hundred on 
Saturday, six hundred on Sabbath, three hundred on Mon- 
day, and one hundred on Tuesday, to hear the closing 
sermon. 

At the meeting near Carmi, on the Little \Yabash Kiver, 
I was assisted by brother Wm. Beauchamp, Charles Slocum, 
and Samuel Slocum, and brother M'Henry. They all did 
good service and preached with a holy unction, but brother 
Wm. Beauchamp was the master spirit. He preached once 



MOUNT CARMEL CIRCUIT, ILLINOIS. 81 

each day. He was peculiarly blessed in the opening, and 
Sabbath, and closing sermons of the meeting. On the Sab- 
bath his text was Romans v, 1-4: "Therefore being justi- 
fied by faith," etc. It was a sermon never to be forgotten. 
The workmanship was masterly, and the power attending it 
was overwhelming. The expectation of the congregation had 
been elevated to a lofty pitch during the opening sermon 
of the meeting, but it continued rising. The members of 
the Church took advanced ground ; the sons of Levi became 
mightily charged with the spirit of their station, and all 
labored together earnestly in the work. The closing dis- 
course was on the '■'■inheritance of the saiiits,'^ and was a fit- 
ting climax for the meeting. I had always seen brother 
Beauchamp great, but had seldom heard him soar with the 
soul-inspiring and heart-melting eloquence of that occasion. 
Many were awakened and converted during that meeting, 
and some twenty united with the Church on the ground; 
others carried the arrows of conviction deeply infixed in 
their consciences and hearts as they sadly returned to their 
places of abode; and as they have nearly all passed the 
bounds of probation long since, I fondly hope that they 
have entered upon the possession of that inheritance that 
fadeth not away. 

The next Friday we commenced the other camp-meeting, 
near brother Manlove Beauchamp's, in the neighborhood of 
Mt. Carrael. It was also a quarterly meeting, and Rev. 
David Sharp, the presiding elder, was present, and took 
charge of the meeting. The preaching and prayer-meetings 
were attended with great power, and some forty-Jive professed 
conversion and twenty-three joined the Church. Of the 
number that joined was a Scotch family that is deserving 
of special mention. This family had lately emigrated from 
Scotland, and settled in the neighborhood of Jacob Shra- 
der's. They had been educated in the observance of the 



82 HIGHWAYS AND HEDGES. 

Sabballi alter the strictest Scotch fashion, and now, having 
none ol' their own people witli wliom to a.ssociatc, tliey com- 
lucnccd atlcndinj^ prcacliing at brother Slirader's. Previous 
to the quarterly meeting, according to our custom, I read the 
General llulrs in each society, and once a year I read and 
explained the rules to the whole congregation. On one of 
these occasions this family remained to hear the rules read 
and explained. At the close of service they invited me to 
accompany them to their home. I accepted the invitation, 
and so enjoyed the opportunity of further conversation with 
them. Their home and its surroundings indicated neatness, 
industry, and thrift, while the family proved to be intelli- 
gent, serious, and very hospitable people. They volunteered 
to inform me that they approved of our General Rules and 
the exposition that I had given of them, and desired to form 
a more intimate acquaintance with our usages and people. 
During the conversation they startled me with the following 
question: "Would you regard it as proper to read the Old 
Testament Scriptures on the Sabbath-day ?" Their educa- 
tion had been such that they had scruples of conscience on 
this point, and as they had seen professors of religion not 
only reading the Old Testament but secular books on the 
Sabbath, it had somewhat staggered them. I gave them 
such explanations of the law of the Sabbath and of appro- 
priate Sabbath conduct as I thought proper under the cir- 
cumstances. The family consisted of eight persons; namely, 
the parents, three daughters, two sons, and a nephew. The 
woman had professed religion in Scotland. The family at- 
tended the camp-meeting above described, and the remaining 
seven were converted. They were all bowed at the altar as 
seekers of religion at the same time, and within one hour all 
were soundly converted to God, and testifying of his won- 
drous grace. When the doors of the Church were opened 
they all came forward together and applied for membership. 



MX. CARMEL CIRCUIT. 83 

Their application was received, and they welcomed amid 
the rejoicings of the people of God. Brother Curry and 
his family became at once efficient working Christians. 
The family was indeed a model family, and proved to be a 
valuable accession to the Church in that part of our Zion. 
Agues Curry, one of the daughters, was afterward married 
to Kev. John Scripps, one of our able and popular preach- 
ers, and my successor on the Blue River circuit. I can not 
well pass the name of brother Scripps without digressing 
long enough to record my recollections of his peculiarities 
and excellencies. He was by birth an Englishman. As a 
minister of the Gospel he was emphatically a JItfhodist, 
every thing being done after the strictest method. When 
he started around a new circuit he would copy into his 
hand-book a complete list of the members of the Church, 
writing the names of the females with red ink and of the 
males with black ink. He would also map out on his 
hand-book the route from appointment to appointment, so 
that every cross-road or fork of the road were indicated. 
At each visit to each appointment he revised and perfected 
the class-book, making it and his own correspond, and when 
he left a circuit he left to his successor complete informa- 
tion in regard to every interest of the Church. He was 
once, if not oftener, a delegate to the General Conference — 
small in stature, but large in intellect, and valuable in 
labors. 

But to return to the camp-meeting. It was a glorious 
winding up of the Conference year, scattered the hallowed 
fire all over the circuit, and left it in a blaze of revival, 
brother Beauchamp, and brothers Hiude, Ingersoll, and 
Sharp were among the honored laborers in this camp-meeting. 
A glowing account of these camp-meetings appeared in the 
magazine, from the pen of one of the ministers present on 
the occasion. 



8-1 lUCnWAVS AND HEDGES. 

Tlic rcjiult (.(■ jli(> l;il)(»r.s (A' the year were liiglily satis- 
factory. 1 liad tlie lioiior of recording; a])out one liundred 
and fifly names on the roll of Clmicli nieuibersliip, and liavc 
the satisfaction of believing that many of tliem are now re- 
joicing in the sanctuary above. 

I had, during this year, a singular experience with a 
band of horse-thieves, who at tliat time were defying law and i 
order in that whole region of country. As the narrative 
will be of interest, as throwing light on the state of society 
at that time, and show how the people rose to protect them- 
selves when the ordinary officers and process of law seemed 
inadequate, I propose to give it in the next chapter. 

I did not attend the session of the Ohio Conference in 
the Fall of 1820, but as I intend recording the names of all 
received on trial in that Conference, from year to year, I 
will here insert the names of those admitted at that session. 
This is the more proper as some of them will appear again 
in subsequent pages of the narrative. They were, Alfred 
Brunson, William Crawford, Charles Thorn, James Collord, 
Daniel Limerick, Charles Truscott, Nathan Walker, Wil- 
liam I. Kent, William Simmons, Henry Knapp, Zarah 
Costin, James Havens, James Jones. 



HORSE-TIIIEF CAPTURED AND PUNISHED. 85 



CHAPTER VII. 

A HORSE-THIEF CHASED, CAPTURED, AND PUNISHED. 

THE good people of Illinois and adjoiuing States -were 
greatly harassed about the year 1819-20 with horse- 
thieves and counterfeiters. It was my misfortune to be vic- 
timized by one of the former, during the latter year. 
Sometime in the month of May I was spending a night at 
Jacob Shrader's. Observing that the shoes of my horse 
were loose, I took him to the shop and had them removed, 
and then put him in the stable. Xext morning the stable 
door was bolted as usual, but my horse was gone, and we had 
no difficulty in reaching the conclusion that somebody, either 
angry at me on account of my denunciation of sinners, or 
covetous of my noble horse, or possibly influenced by both 
motives, had stolen him. As the horse was shod behind, 
sharp, and without shoes on his forefeet, there was no diffi- 
culty in following the track. I immediately started on 
foot, and followed some miles, when the track suddenly dis- 
appeared. I made out finally that the thief had taken the 
back track, and that he had been maneuvering by grazing 
the horse along the fence corners, to make any one who 
might pursue him think that the horse was loose, and ram- 
bling at his pleasure. After operating in that way for 
some time, he left the fence, went out into the prairie, and 
performed some circling, as does a honey-bee before it 
takes its course. He then took his course toward the Wa- 
bash River, which was some ten or twelve miles distant. 



8G HIGHWAYS AND IIKDGES. 

Following on T found f1i;i( ho had rcacdicd the ferry a little 
before daylifjht, for the d(»gs having aroused the ferryman 
he ascertained that some stranger had taken the boat and 
ferried over, and then sent the boat adrift. It was now 
evening; I had been pressing on all day, and at night 
found myself where the thief had been before daylight in 
the morning. I halted for the night at the house of brother 
Armstrong. He entered into full sympathy with me, and in 
the morning brought out two of his best horses. I mounted 
one and he the other, and we started on the track again. 
After crossing the river, instead of following the track we 
commenced investigating whether the thief had recrossed 
the river above or below the ferry. After satisfying our- 
selves that he had not, we immediately struck across to 
White River to see if he had crossed that. We, however, 
spent the wbole day without getting any information. We 
now saw that we had committed a great blunder in not stick- 
ing to the track and following it in all its meanderings. 
We put up for the night much discouraged, but not in the 
least inclined to give up the chase. 

Next morning we tried to make a bee-line for William 
Hawkins's ferry on White River, going much of the time 
through the forest. As we were jogging along through the 
woods, reflecting how much the thief had the start of us, 
and the strong probability that he was already beyond our 
reach, we would at times become despondent, and had about 
concluded that if we should get no further information 
against night we would abandon the hunt. Suddenly, in 
the midst of our gloom, and here in the pathless forest, we 
struck upon the well-known track of the stolen horse. It 
was indeed a sudden transition from despondency to hope. 
Our horses, that had appeared as dull as ourselves, caught 
the contagion, and pranced along with new life and vigor. 
A few miles brought us to a house where we obtained 



HORSE-THIEF CAPTURED AND PUNISHED. 87 

valuable information in regard to the object of our search. 
In answer to inquiries, the man informed us that '' last 
night, just as the stars were beginning to shine, a stranger 
rode up and inquired if there would be any chance of cross- 
ing the river below the ferry. I told him the river was 
high, and it would be dangerous to attempt it. He said he 
could swim his horse by the side of a skiff or canoe, but I 
advised him," said our informer, " to go to Hawkins's ferry, 
as it was only three or four miles distant, and told him that 
if he hurried he might reach there before the ferryman had 
retired to bed." He said the man left in haste in the direc- 
tion of the ferry. 

We were greatly encouraged ; the thief evidently thought 
that he had outwitted his pursuers, who were onlj" one day 
behind him. Providence seemed to favor us ; we thanked 
God and trotted on cheerily. AYe soon reached the ferry, 
and from the ferryman obtained full information iu regard 
to the name, description, and plans of the thief. His con- 
duct on reaching the ferry had been such as to excite sus- 
picion at first, and then the ferryman recognized him as an 
acquaintance, and drew out of him, without appearing to 
have any design in the matter, his destination, and the route 
he intended to take. The information he gave us was 
about as follows: "About bed-time a man rode up and sat 
on his horse near the ferry for a time, as though he was 
half inclined to take a ride on his own account. After a 
little he rode up the river a short distance, hitched his 
horse, and then came down near the house and stood listen- 
ing, perhaps to ascertain whether we were awake in the 
house. He then returned to his horse, mounted it, and 
rode down to the ferry and called for the ferryman. I 
asked him" said the ferryman, '-if he could make change. 
He said he had nothins; smaller than a five-dollar bill. I 
told him to come in and have it chamred. He alighted 



88 . HIGHWAYS AND HEDGES. 

from his liovsr nnd (•.inic to llio door, but as soon as the 
(h)or opened he iec()p;ni/«'(l me and darted bnek, snying that 
his eyes were sore and tlic liglit hurt them. lie handed in 
the bill, keeping his face out of sight. I recognized him 
as one William Baker, of Powell's Valley, over the Cumber- 
land Mountains. I told my family that I knew "Baker, and 
that he always carried counterfeit money. I handed back 
the bill, telling him that I eonld not change it, but not in- 
timating any suspicion of the money. Baker was urgent to 
get over, and offered me his jack-knife, for which I agreed 
to set him over the river. I called him by name, and 
claiming acquaintance, we entered into familiar conversa- 
tion. I admired his horse, which was a splendid fellow, 
and he told me that he paid one hundred and fifty dollars 
for it. I inquired after his relations, with whom I was . ac- 
quainted, and talked without any apparent reason, and in 
the course of the conversation I learned that he intended 
going to Owl Prairie to visit his uncle H., and thence to Mt. 
Sterling to visit his uncles 0. and R., and thence to his fa- 
ther's residence in Powell Valley." Possessed of such mi- 
nute information, though Baker was two days in advance of 
me, I was confident of success in capturing him. After 
thanking Mr. Foster for the information, Mr. Armstrong and 
myself hurried on to Washington, and put the matter into 
the hands of the sheriff of the county. Selecting two men as 
assistants, the sheriif started off in hot pursuit, and by 
traveling all night, they reached the residence of Baker's 
uncle H., just at the break of day. To their chagrin, how- 
ever, upon inquiry they found that Baker had left there just 
at daybreak, twenty-four hours in advance of them. Tlie^ 
reported that he had gone to Mt. Sterling, which agreed 
with his plan as given to Foster at the ferry. The sherifi" 
returned to Washington where I had remained, and reported 
progress. Armstrong returned home. The citizens of 



HORSE-THIEF CAPTURED AND PUNISHED. 89 

Washington furnished me another, horse, and I started alone 
and pushed my journey until near midnight, when, in vie\Y 
of the darkness and my ignorance of the country, I was 
compelled to stop and wait for morning. I was in the sad- 
dle with the break of day, and at four, P. M., had got 
within twelve or fifteen miles of Mt. Sterling. I rode up 
to a house, and the occupant coming out at once recognized 
me as a preacher, and besought me to remain and preach 
for them that night. A plan immediately presented itself 
to my mind which I adopted and acted upon. The invita- 
tion was accepted, the congregation gathered, and a sermon 
preached. At the close of the sermon, I took the brother 
in whose house I preached to one side, and requested him 
to select out of his neighbors present four or five men whom 
he could trust, and brino- them to me. He did so. I stated 
my case, and inquired whether we could not surround the 
house of Baker's uncles 0. and K., before morning, and 
capture the thief. They all entered heartily into my inter- 
est and plans, and being acquainted with the localities, were 
sanguine of success Soon after w^e started, however, the 
rain began to descend. It became very dark and muddy, 
and they advised that we put up till morning, and I con- 
sented. In the morning, when we came to one of those 
houses, we saw the fresh tracks where the horse we were 
seeking had just been taken from the stable. We were 
confident that the thief had not more than one hour the 
start of us. Our horses seemed to partake of our sanguine 
and eager spirit, and we anticipated swift success. Soon, 
however, the traces indicated that the thief was maneuver- 
ing to deceive his pursuers and cover his flight. And he 
succeeded so well that a whole day of hard work in trac- 
ing his route had only brought us four miles from where 
we struck the track first in the morninir;. We were now in 

the immediate vicinity of 3It. Sterling. The intelligence 

8 



00 iiKinwAVs Axn m.nciES. 

had prcccilcd hh to ll»o village that we wore in pursuit of 
a horse-thief. When we entdrcd Esq. Asbury and one of 
the constables of the place met nic and told me that a man 
and Ikusc answering; the description I gave, were seen at 
nine o'clock in ihe niorninir, fifteen miles on the road to 
Kentucky, by way of .'Mack's ferry, and eighteen miles be- 
low the falls. They proposed to me to remain and rest in 
Mt. Sterling, and they would go for the thief; and they 
said they would not return without him. "Rest ea.sy," said 
they; "we will bring him back if we have to go to Nova 
Scotia for him." They were so hearty in the matter, that 

1 consented, and they started. After they had gone I 
learned the reason of the maneuvers of Baker that had de- 
tained us so much. It appeared that during a visit he had 
made to this uncle not long before, he had attended a party 
dressed in women's clothes, and had committed misdemean- 
ors, on account of which a State warrant had been issued, 
which was now in the hands of the constable. He had 
been notified of this fact, and that was the occasion of his 
maneuvering to cover his course. But to pursue the narra- 
tive as given by Esq. Asbury after his return. At Mack's 
ferry Baker had tried to pass a counterfeit five-dollar bill 
on the ferryman, but he detected it, and would not take it. 
He said he must cross, and took the shoes ofi" the hind feet 
of the horse with which to pay his ferriage. They pushed 
on to Hardin, in Kentucky. He had been seen to enter the 
town, and the horse with the bobbed tail and roached mane 
had attracted attention, but no one could be found that had 
seen him go out of town. They were here baffled for a 
day : the shoes having now been removed from the hind 
feet of the horse, they could no longer track him as before. 
But after a day of delay and inquiry a boy was found who 
had seen a man with such a horse go out through a certain 
alley while the people were at breakfast. From this time 



HORSE-THIEF CAPTURED AND PUNISHED. Ol 

they had no difficulty iu keeping his route. The bald-i'uced 
horse, carryiug a high head, aud tail bobbed and roached, 
had been seen all along the way. So on they pushed over 
the Cumberland Mountains into Carniel county. At Jacks- 
boro, as they ascended an eminence, they saw a man down 
•in the valley, off his horse, taking a drink. On seeing them 
he sprang into his saddle, and without putting his feet into 
the stirrups, moved off at full speed. They jogged on with- 
out appearing to notice or take any interest in him. Grad- 
ually his fears seemed to subside. Thus they jogged on 
some fifteen miles, sometimes near to each other, and some- 
times further apart. They knew they were approaching a 
stream of water, and anticipated that his horse would want 
to drink there ; and they planned to enter the water, one 
on each side of him, and when in right position to seize 
him. Their plan proved a success. Their careless manner 
had thrown Baker completely off his guard. As all the 
horses were drinking, their's stepped along until one was on 
the right and the other on the left. The iron grasp of one 
of the men took hold of the collar of the thief; the horses 
parted, and they came down together ; the other man sprang 
over the stolen horse and lighted astride of the thief. Now 
a prisoner, he confessed his guilt. They pinioned his arms, 
tied him on the horse, and took the back track. At the 
first blacksmith-shop they reached they had irons put on to 
him, and then with all convenient speed returned to Mt. 
Sterling, the place where the party had left me. 

By this time the whole region embraced in my extensive 
circuit liad become aroused on receiving intelligence of my 
loss, and different parties had organized and started out in 
different directions in pursuit of the thief. The excitement 
extended to adjacent counties in my former (Blue River) 
circuit. The thief had passed through Paoli. As soon as 
it came to their ears, Mr. Liulcy, the sheriff, started in 



02 HIGHWAYS ANn HEDGES. 

pursuit, and i\\ lli<> next county scat, 31 r. Tiirkor, the sheriff 
(tf tliat county, joinc«l in the cliasc, and tlicy started to- 
jrctlicr \n Ml. Stcrlinj' to liave an interview witli inc. [ 
liad found tlie I'uiij stispense too irrcat to allow me to re- 
main inactive, and had started on in that direction. They 
told nic that they believed they eould overhaul the thief 
before Ksq. Asbury and the constable, at all events they 
would make the attempt. On they started, and were mak- 
ing good time toward the mountains, when, somewhere in 
Kentfleky, they met the returning party, having the thief in 
irons. The four returned to IMt. Sterling in company. 
Thay paused in the suburbs of the village to prepare for an 
imposing entrance. One of them took off his red flannel 
shirt, tore it up, and made flags- of it; then they marched 
into town with flying colors. fThey Went to the tavern and 
i ordered diirner, lodged the prisoner in jail, and then dis- 
j patched a messenger for me. The messenger soon concluded 
' that I had gone further than they anticipated and they would 
■ not be able to wait until my return, so he returned and 
I made his report. At a preliminary consultation, in vi6w 
\ of the fact that the State of Illinois had no, penitentiary, 
""•^ and the county in which the crime was committed had no 
jail, they decided to give him the benefit of an immediate 
trial and summary punishment. Calling in five other citi- 
zens, making nipe in all, they organized a court, found him 
guilty of horse-stealing, and sentenced him to receive fifty 
stripes on the naked back. Eight of the men were to lay 
on five stripes each, and the ninth man to lay on ten stripes, 
making the fifty in all. A constable, who had in hand a 
State warrant for Baker, on account of the former outrage 
perpetrated by him in that community, volunteered to lay 
on the final ten stripes, and assured the court that it should 
be well done. About midnight they went to the jail, took 
the prisoner out, and conducted him about one mile from 



HORSE-THIEF CAPTURED AND PUNISHED. 93 

the village, stripped him of hat, coat, jacket, and shirt. 
"Now clasp your arms around that gum-tree!" He did so, 
and was securely tied in that position. Sheriflf Linlcy was 
stationed by him, with a knife in one hand, and a candle in 
the other. " William Baker, you have been convicted of 
the crime of stealing a horse, and sentenced to receive 
fifty lashes on your bare back. You are now to receive that 
punishment, and if you make ayy ado I shall cut your 
throat from ear to ear." The sentence of the court, as thus 
communicated, was brief but sufficiently emphatic. The 
sharp blade of the knife shining in the flickering light of 
the candle was significant of the stern purpose of- the 
speaker. The other eight men were stationed about eight 
rods from the prisoner. At the signal one of them marched • 
up and delivered his five stripes. The party exclaimed, ^ 
"Well done; your elbow must have been well greased!" 
As this one returned to the party, he was met midway by * 
the second, who received at his hands the cowhide. He 
advanced and delivered his five, and he too was applauded 
as having acquitted himself handsomely. As he retired, ' 
the third man met him, received the cowhide, and advanced 
to his work. The prisoner, writhing under the severe treat- 
ment, and not without good reason, thorouglily alarmed as 
to the probable result, had drawn his body partly around 
the tree, so as to be somewhat protected by a sapling that 
grew near it. A severe cut on the ankle with the cowhide, 
which the executioner said was not to be counted, brought 
him out of his fort, and the five lashes were laid on to the 
satisfaction of the listeners. They applauded as before. 
The prisoner had now received thirty lashes, beside the one 
not to be counted, when he suddenly got loose, and through 
the darkness made his escape. AVhether the sheriff" had 
been moved to pity by the severe punishment, and feared 
that the poor fellow would be killed outright and so cut 



04 Hir.IIWAVS AND IIKDGES. 

liiiM litos(\ or wlictlicr tlic prisoner broke loose, no ono 
could (•'11. Tlie attempt to recapture liini was ineffectual, 
and thus, without hat, coat, jacket, or shirt, and with a 
bloody back, he reached his uncles, who lived near by, and 
by thcni probably was assisted in getting away. In the 
morning the company called on these uncles, O. and K., 
and iiKjuircd of them, "Have you seen any thing of a 
young man without a shirt, and with his hat in his bosom?" 
The parties inquired of were mum with alarm. "We had," 
rejoined the visitors, "an interview with such a young man, 
and he informed us that you are connected with the com- 
pany of horse-thieves and counterfeiters that have been 
preying upon the people for this some time past, and now 
we give you just ten days to take yourselves beyond our ju- 
risdiction. If you are within our reach at the end of that 
time you may expect similar punishment to that inflicted on 
your nephew." It proved to be a moving address. This 
duty performed, the party returned to town, and were re- 
ceived with demonstrations of the wildest rejoicing on the 
part of the citizens. The best carriage that could be ob- 
tained was brought out, and the four men who had brought 
Baker to town were seated in the carriage, and the jubilant 
crowd escorted them around the village with the most de- 
monstrative enthusiasm. It had transpired that Baker was a 
kind of messenger among the thieving gang, carrying the 
implements of counterfeiting, and conveying intelligence from 
one place to another. It was hoped that his punishment 
and this demonstration would exert a salutary effect upon 
all concerned. At the conclusion of the triumphal march 
the sheriffs returned to their homes. 

Soon after they had left the town I arrived. The town 
was still in a high state of glee. The crowd gathered 
about me and congratulated me upon the recovery of my 
horse, and Esquire Asbury and the constable narrated to 



HORSE-THIEF CAPTURED AND PUNISHED. 95 

me the facts of the pursuit, capture, return, trial, and pun- 
ishment substantially as narrated above. They insisted that 
I should go with them and see where the punishment was 
inflicted. They showed me the tree where he was tried, 
the spot occupied by the eight men, and the hat, coat, 
jacket, and shirt of the prisoner, hung up by the road-side. 
I now came to look at my horse, and my gladness at his 
recovery was greatly marred by the evidences of cruel 
treatment he had received. When he was taken from the 
stable at brother Shrader's he was in full flesh, round, 
sleek, and full of life; now he stood almost a skeleton, 
jaded and downcast. Instead of the cheerful sign of rec- 
ognition with which he was used to welcome me, he paid 
not the slightest attention to my caresses. Poor fellow; he 
had traveled five hundred miles — and, if the windings and 
maneuverings were counted, much more than that — in seven 
days, while his feeding had, in all probability^, been irregu- 
lar and scant. If the reader can fancy how much a young 
itinerant, without family, and hundreds of miles from home, 
with little property except his horse, and fortunate in hav- 
ing a superior one, prized his horse, he can fancy how I 
pitied the noble creature, as I stood stroking his flabby 
hide, which lay in wrinkles, not having had time to adapt 
itself, as yet, to his suddenly reduced flesh. I spent a few 
days at Mt. Sterling, resting my horse, and then returned 
to Mt. Carmel. I was received with a hearty welcome and 
many congratulations. When I started ofi" on foot in pur- 
suit of the thief some of my friends had said, "Stewart has 
perseverance, and he will not return without both horse 
and thief." It was my good fortune to sustain the opinion 
they had expressed. The horse rapidly recruited, regained 
his flesh and life, and for four years longer gave me excel- 
lent service. 

This incident had thoroughly aroused the people, and 



06 Hir.invAVS and iikdges. 

(letcnuiiiod thrni to make common oaufc np;.iinst the bands 
of lawless men known to ])e perpetrating erime systematic- 
ally. A public meetinj]; was called and a society organized. 
Certain men were appointed, whose business it was to start 
in immediate pursuit when any act of theft was reported; 
others were to attend to the work of these parties durifig 
their absence, and tlieir expenses were all to be paid by the 
society. The organization increased rapidly, and its influ- 
ence was extensive and salutary. Soon after this another 
society was formed, further north, that talked great swelling 
words, but gave unmistakable evidence that it was in sym- 
pathy with the opponents of law and order. The tide of 
popular sentiment, however, had reached such a pitch that 
the lawless began to quail before it. 

The two months that remained of my year on Mt. Carmel 
circuit passed quickly and pleasantly. The quarterly con- 
ference, by formal vote, requested my return for another 
year; but, having accomplished the two years of frontier 
labor that I had volunteered to do, and having postponed a 
matrimonial engagement of several years' standing, I felt 
myself, both in honor and inclination, bound to return to 
Ohio. I therefore respectfully declined the invitation, and 
made my preparations for my journey to Conference. 



VINCENNES CIRCUIT, INDIANA. 97 



CHAPTER VIII. 

VINCENNES CIRCUIT, INDIANA. 
1821-22. 

THE thought of a reunion with loved friends at home 
relieved in great part the pain that I would otherwise 
have experienced in bidding adieu, to those I loved so 
dearly on Mt. Carmel circuit. Turning eastward, I soon 
lost sight of the beautiful plains of Illinois, and making 
but a brief visit among my old friends of Blue River cir- 
cuit, I swept rapidly across the growing State of Indiana, 
and on to the eastern limits of Ohio, in the valley of the 
Hockhocking. I found myself in the enjoyment of a hearty 
welcome from parents, and brothers and sisters, and old 
classmates. A few miles from my father's residence resided 
a pious young woman who awaited my coming, and I was 
not long in finding my way thither. When we entered 
into matrimonial engagement five years before, I had not 
then decided fully upon my life-work; even after I was 
enrolled amone: the itinerants in the field it was not certain 
that I would find it my duty to continue permanently in 
that work. The work had been arduous, and the pay, 
speaking after the manner of men, had been poor. It was 
not the hardness of the work, nor the poorness of the pay, 
that was to decide the (question. The question was, '-Is 
this my vocation?" "Will God make me the honored in- 
strument in turning the people to God?" I could no longer 

hesitate in regard to this. The great Head of the Church 

9 



98 HIGHWAYS and hedges. 

h;j(J ])los>{(l 1110 in every field 1 liiul l)cen sciif to cultivate, 
imtliiiLi; his seal to iiiv ministry. These matters all talked 
over, on the lOlh of August, 1821, ^vith the full consent 
aii<l approhation of parents and relatives on both sides, I 
led to flic altar Miss S. Long, and we were united in the 
h(dy boiuls of niatriniony. A few days after our marriage 
we went to Lebanon, Ohio, to attend the session of the 
Ohio Conference. 

The following brethren were admitted on trial: W. 
Hughes, James T. Donalioo, Kichard Brandriff, George W. 
Maley, John Pardo, John Walker, William Tipton, William 
H. Collins, llobert Dobbins, Henry S. Farnandis, and Piatt 
13. Morey. 

I had expected Bishop lloberts, according to promise, 
to re-transfer me to the Ohio Conference. He regarded 
the demands of the work in the Missouri Conference so 
pressing, that he entreated me to consent to spend another 
year in that work. I promised to lay the matter before 
my young wife, and if she was willing I promised to go. 
She had given all to God and the Church when she married 
a Methodist preacher, and was ready to go wherever the 
authorities of the Church should appoint. In view of this 
unexpected return to the Missouri Conference, it would have 
been agreeable to me to have been returned to Mt. Carmel 
circuit, but as I had anticipated remaining in Ohio, I had 
recommended brother llobert Delap, a young preacher of 
my acquaintance, to that circuit, and he had already, by 
my suggestion, asked the Bishop for that appointment. 
I could not now honorably interfere. 

From Lebanon we proceeded direct to Mt. Carmel, where 
we spent a month, attending camp-meeting, and going once 
round the circuit before the meeting of the Missouri Con- 
ference, The camp-meeting was a time of power, and the 
greeting of my friends, on account of my unexpected return, 



VINCENNES CIRCUIT, INDIANA. 99 

were refreshing to myself and wife. Leaving Mrs. Stewart 
at the hospitable residence of brother Scoby Stewart, Samuel 
Hamilton, David Sharp, and myself started to M'Kendrea 
Chapel, Cape Girardeau county, Missouri, where the Con- 
ference was to meet. The preachers from these widely 
scattered fields came together, and ready to report progress 
and receive marching orders. As was not unusual in those 
days, a camp-meeting was held in connection with the ses- 
sion of the Conference. Divine power attended the preach- 
ing of the Word, and all that country round about realized 
that the times of refreshing had come from the presence of 
the Lord. 

At that Conference the following brethren were admitted 
on trial : P. Randle, James Bankson, John Blasdel, A. W. 
Cassed, James Keyte, James Armstrong, James L. Thomp- 
son, Abraham Epler, Dennis Willey, John Granville, and 
Ebenezer T. Webster. The following persons were ordained 
elders at this Conference: Alexander M'Calister, John Wal- 
lace, John Harris, Job M. Baker, and myself. To me the 
solemn service of ordination was profoundly impressive, and 
in the depths of my soul I felt the "vows of God are upon 
me." The same day that I was ordained I was seized with 
sickness. Conference adjourned, and the preachers, with 
saddle-bags in hand, pronouncing mutual blessings on each 
other, were starting for their fields of labor. I could not 
bear the thought of being left behind, so rallying all the 
force possible I was placed in the saddle, and kept along 
with my company during the day. The night was one of 
terrible suffering. The fever was succeeded with a dreadful 
night-sweat. The tedious hours, however, wore away, and 
morning found me alive. It seemed almost madness for me 
to leave my bed, but when the horses were brought out for 
starting I called for mine, and T succeeded in keeping the 
saddle during the day. And thus, with the assistance of 



100 IIIC.IIWAVS AM) lIEr3GES. 

my travolin-; rnnipanions, uiid tlic blessing of God, I readied 
Mt, Carnicl. }\c^\^ the niodic-al attendance of Dr. Beau- 
champ, tlio kind nursing of niy excellent wife, and the 
prayers of God's people in iny behalf, succeeded in throwing 
off disease, and in about a month after Conference I was 
able to report at the post of labor. 

I was again in the Indiana district, Rev. Samuel Ham- 
ilton, presiding elder. The following plan of the circuit 
indicates my twenty-three appointments, their distance 
apart, the hours of preaching, the numbers in the classes, 
and the usual stopping places, or preachers' homes. This 
circuit embraced Knox and Davis counties, and large por- 
tions of Martin, Green, and Sullivan counties. The year 
before it had extended up the Wabash River as far as Terre 
Haute, but the upper portion of the circuit had been cut 
off and called Honey Creek circuit. I had remaining, how- 
, ever, as shown by the plan, twenty-three appointments, and 
a ride of one hundred and seventy-five miles every four 
wrecks. Vincennes, the old territorial capital of the State, 
was one of my preaching places. It had been the residence 
of William Henry Harrison, commander of the North- 
western army in the War of 1812, the excellent Governor 
of the Indiana Territory, and afterward the honored Presi- 
dent of the United States — a man equallj'^ honest and sin- 
cere whether fighting for his country, treating with the 
Indians, occupying the Presidential chair, or kneeling at a 
Methodist mourners' bench. 

Methodism early gained a footing in that place. Among 
those who assisted in building up Methodism and Chris- 
tianity there was D. Bonner, a merchant, doing a large busi- 
ness, and commanding the respect of the community far and 
near by his rectitude in business and his activity and con- 
sistency as a Christian. His noble wife, though reticent in 
her habit, was intelligent, discreet, devotedly pious, and a 



VINCENNES CIRCUIT, INDIANA. 101 

helpmeet for such a man. She was of the Reynolds family, 
of Urbana, Ohio, a family widely known and as widely 
esteemed, 3Iay their good name remain on our Church 
roll for many generations! David Brown, who lived near 
Yincennes, was a Methodist of the old Baltimore type, and 
devoted to the interests of the denomination. He was the 
most prominent steward of the circuit, and being a man of 
energy and excellent business ability, his influence pervaded 
the circuit, and he w\is regarded as a leading spirit among 
the hosts of our Israel. 

Wesley Harrison, a man of fine education, extensive 
property, and, better than all, of deep piety, lived at Car- 
lisle, lie was emphatically a man of God. It is, doubt- 
less, the duty and privilege of every Christian to pray with- 
out ceasing. Brother Harrison had learned this secret, and 
lived in a heavenly atmosphere. Between forty and fifty 
years ago he graduated from the school of Christ on earth, 
but his name is retained in affectionate remembrance, and 
is truly as " ointment poured forth." Rev. Samuel Hamil- 
ton married a sister, and Bev. Job M. Baker, a wife's sister, 
of brother Harrison. 

Abraham Miller lived near Carlisle. His house was 
opened for preaching and for the entertainment of the trav- 
eling preachers. It was a charming home for the weary 
itinerant, and I regarded his as a model family. Bev. John 
Miller, long a laborious and faithful preacher, was a son of 
his. Hugh Ross, Esq., a good lawyer and acceptable local 
preacher, married one of his daughters. 

Washington, the seat of Davis county, was about the cen- 
ter of the circuit. It was a pleasant and thriving town. 
We occupied the court-house as a preaching-place, and had 
a good congregation and society. 

At Bethel, a little south of Washington, resided Rev. 
John Wallace, a venerable minister, long identified with the 



102 HIGHWAYS AND IIICDGES. 

work, and nmcli l)el()VC(l. Kvcry circuit tliat know liim was 
more tlian willing to have iiim as its preacher. He had 
raised a family that was an lionor and blessing to him. In 
the same neigliborliood lived the Jones family and the 
llorrell family, numerous, respectable, and influential. 

While I can not call special attention lo but a few of the 
many excellent families of tliat circuit, I must not fail to 
mention Wm. Hawkins, the owner of Hawkins's ferry, on 
^yhite Kiver. lie was a man of great moral worth, a sub- 
stantial member of the Church, and having been blessed of 
God with property, he liad learned the secret of getting the 
largest amount of enjoyment from it; namely, by dedicating 
it to the Lord, and using it for the promotion of his glory. 
I have abundant reason to remember his kindness. He 
welcomed me and my wife to his home, and made it truly a 
home to us. There our first-born, John Wesley, was given 
to us. At the end of the year, when we inquired for our 
board bill, he assured us that we were welcome to all they 
had done for us. This favor was the more appreciated by 
us as we had not received one-half of our disciplinary al- 
lowance for the year. The year was one of new experi- 
ences, new trials, and new joys. Though I had not gathered 
as many sheaves as on some former charges, yet I had been 
sowing good seed, and I committed the matter to the Lord, 
in hope that he would water it, and another, if not myself, 
would gather the harvest. 

It was definitely understood when I was appointed to 
Vincennes circuit that at the close of the year I was to be 
transferred to the Ohio Conference. We made our arrange- 
ments to return in time to attend the session of that Con- 
ference. Myself, wife, infant son, and a small packing-box 
stowed away in our gig, behind our famous horse, we bid 
tried and faithful friends good-by, and started on our long 
and tedious journey. It proved, indeed, more tedious than 



VINXEXNES CIRCUIT, INDIANA. 103 

we had anticipated, and in several instances we found our- 
selves exposed to extreme peril, and but for providential 
interference should have met with disaster. I shall only 
have room to record two or three of these. We crossed 
the east fork of the White River above the falls at Hindu- 
stan. The bridge was below the mill, and the bank was 
very high and steep. To lighten the load I walked and led 
the horse. When about half way up the hill he stalled and 
commenced backing. On my right hand was a perpendicu- 
lar precipice of fifty feet, and below this a depth of proba- 
bly fifty feet of water. The terrible plunge seemed to be 
inevitable. Down and down with increased velocity rolled 
the gig to the very brink of the precipice. It seemed for a 
moment that my wife and child were doomed to perish, and 
no one can fancy the horror of that moment to me. But 
God stretched out his hand. He had in his plan work for 
that woman to do, and that infant boy was to have a period 
of probation before he should be called hence. Just on 
the brink of the precipice the wheel struck an insignificant 
bank, the horse gathered up, and we were saved. With 
hearts full of gratitude we pressed our boy to our hearts, 
and thanked Grod for his preserving care. 

Dr. Austin lived about five miles from this place, and we 
were anxious to reach his house that night. The road was 
mountainous, and we were not without anxiety in regard to 
our success. By and by we came to a mountain so long and 
rugged that we both got out to walk up. About half way 
up the horse again stalled and commenced backing. The 
gig soon gained such velocity as completely to overmaster 
the horse, and turning aside it thundered down into a deep 
ravine, overturned and tangled the horse in the harness, so 
that he lay utterly- helpless. I cut the harness, and with the 
assistance of my wife succeeded in getting the horse up, 
righted the gig, ascended the mountain, and after hard toil- 



10-i IlKiHWAVS ANP iir.ncFs. 



iug at K'li^tli roaclu'il llir jtl.icii for ^^•lli(•ll \\r were ainiing. 
Every day brouglit ns nearer lioiiic, ami ;it List we f'ouiKl 
ourselves again in flic (juicf valley of" (he Ihjckhockiiig, at 
lionic and happy. 

As tills chapter has infroduecd my companion lo (he 
reader, I propose in ihe next cliapter to give an account n{' 
her early life and Christian experience. I think it fi((ing 
to do this for several reasons. For nearly lialf a century slie 
has shared with me the toils and trials as well as enjoy- 
ments ul' itinerant life. Much of my success, during that 
time, as a pastor, has been attributable to her prudence, ac- 
tivity, and acceptability as a helper. In the good provi- 
dence of God we have been spared to each other, and now, 
(1870,) both of us passed over three-score years and ten, 
are still striving to help each other to serve God and get 
ready to meet him. The narrative was communicated by 
her to my son. Rev. W. F. Stewart, at his earnest solicita- 
tion, in a series of letters some twenty years ago. 

I will close this chapter with the plan of the Vincennes 
circuit, and as it is a fair specimen of the mode of making 
the plans in those days, I shall insert it in its original form, 
as handed to me by Rev. Job Baker, my predecessor oq 
the circuit. 



VINCENNES CIRCUIT, INDIANA. 



105 



PLAN OF VINCE.NNES CIRCUIT. 



S Neighborhoods where preaching 



is held, and places to pat 
up at. 



1 Vincennes, D. Bonner., 

2 David Brown's 

3|Rest 

4| George Gitrrel's 

Oj Thomas Jordan's 

6 Tevebaii^h'sf 

7|Capt. Joiin Horrel's 

8 Hawkens's Prairie 

9i Washington 



10 

ni 

12 
1.3 
U 
15 
16 
171 

19! 
20 
21 

22 

23 



Fatlier Wallace's 

Rest 

Fatlier Stone's 

Ballot's 

Mt. Pleasant 

Meri day's 

Dutch tjettlement 

Owl Prairie 

Rest 

Month of Eel River 

Black Creek, Fullem's. 
Abraham Miller's 
Judge Latshaw or 

M'Cinre's.t 
Bruceville 



}... 



Places where Preaching 
is held. 



Times of holding 
pre.U'liing. 



Court-House., 
Barackman's. 
Rest 



■}•■■ 



Meeting-House 

Thomas Jordan's 

Solomon Tevebaugli'.s... 

School -House 

Jo! Ill Hawkens's 

Brotlier Cosby"s, or 
Conrt-House. 

Bethel 

Rest 

Father Stone's 

Scliool- House 

J. Hattens 

Meriday's 

Mires's & Robertson's. 

Slenker's 

Rest 

Soalsburry's 

School -House 

A. Miller's 



Judgp Latshaw's or 

M'Chn-e"s. 
Richard Posey's 



Sunday 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednes'day. 
Thursday.... 

Friday....' 

Saturday 

Sunday 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday. 
Thursday.... 

Friday 

Saturday 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday. 
Thursday..'.. 

Friday 

Saturday 



Back to Vincennes after three weeks' absence. 



3 
3 
7 

11 
G 

3 

3 

"o 

9 
12 
13 

8 
12 

m 

10 

7 

14 



175 



15 
11 

12 
19 
25 
21 
19 

11 

80 

U 
21 
10 
8 
24 
14 

i4 
12 
24 

No 
Class. 

6 



360 



Amount of quarterage 

Number of Whites in Society 352 

Number of Colored in Society 8 

Distance round the circuit 175 miles. 



t There is a dispute here where the preaching is to be held ; you must 
fix it. 

J If Judge Latshaw should refuse preaching, move it to M'Clure's. 



lOG 



IIIGHWAVS AND IIKDGES. 



CHAPTER IX. 

LETTERS FROM MRS. SARAH STEWART TO REV. \V. F. 

STEWART, CONTAINING AN ACCOUNT OF HER 

EARLY CHRISTIAN EXPERIENCE. 



Kanawha Salines, Va., ) 

January 2()th. ) 

MY DEAR FLETCHER,— I received your very interest- 
ing and kind letter of the 15th on yesterday, and was 
much gratified with the majority of its contents. It brings 
very charming news. While I sympathize with you in your 
pulpit embarrassments, I have no doubt that it is all de- 
signed for your good. If you live humble and faithful, 
trusting in the Lord and looking to him alone, he will sus- 
tain you, and give you liberty in preaching, and in all the 
labors of your holy calling, when he sees it is for your 
good. I am praying that the Lord may make you a pol- 
ished shaft in his quiver, and that you may be very suc- 
cessful in tearing down the strongholds of the Prince of 
Darkness, and in bringing many, very many souls, for whom 
Christ has died, into the kingdom of righteousness and 
peace. I am much pleased with your complimentary men- 
tion of the fine abilities of your excellent colleague. I 
hope the Lord will continue to bless, abundantly bless, 
your united labors in his vineyard. I rejoice to hear of 
the success of brothers Meharry and Webster. Well done 
for Bourneville ! Amen ! May the fire burn farther and 
deeper, wider and higher ! I ha\*e to regret that I have no 



LETTERS FROM MRS. SARAH STEWART. 107 

revival intelligence to give you. The preaeliers in this dis- 
trict, as all along the border of slave territory, now have 
serious obstacles to contend with. This is not at present a 
land of peace, but a field of war, if not in outward action, 
it is in feeling. Pray for us that the God of battle may 
direct our arms and get the victory to himself. There is 
but one symptom that gives me any hope of a revival here, 
and that is the unusual burden of concern that rests on my 
own heart and upon the hearts of some of my pious inti- 
mate friends. I conduct a female class in my own room at 
two o'clock on Friday, also a female prayer-meeting each 
week at the same place. Pray for me that my feeble labors 
may be blessed, and that my own poor heart may be filled 
with the perfect love of God. We have received but one 
letter from W. since Conference. He expressed much dis- 
appointment that you did not visit him during the Confer- 
ence vacation, and some solicitude in recrard to his moral 
condition. I believe the Spirit is working about his heart. 
Let us continue to remember him, especially in our " even- 
ing prayers." I would like to comply with your request 
in regard to the subject of our correspondence, but having 
never kept a diary, I should not be able to gather up any 
thing like a minute account of my experience. If, how- 
ever, such an efi"ort will prove of any advantage to one for 
whose happiness I have always prayed and labored, I feel 
willing to make the attempt. As I have no manuscript, 
and shall have to rely upon a faded memory, overgrown 
with the thorns of many sorrows, disappointments, and 
crosses, you will not expect more than a very imperfect ac- 
count of my early experience. 

Though I did not make a profession of religion until I 
was fifteen years of age, my religious impressions and pur- 
poses are connected with my earliest recollections. My 
parents, during my earl}" childhood, were not members of 



108 IIir-.IIWAYS AND HKDGKS. 

any Church, or professors of rdi^rioii ; yet ir.y motlier always 
taught nio to pr.iy from tlie tiiiic I could Hpcak. I was 
about seven years old when my parents botli embraced re- 
ligion and joined tlie Church. The family altar was erected, 
and morning and evening was it sprinkled with the tears 
of repentance and thanksgiving. My young heart was 
deeply afTcctcd, and I tlien resolved to be a Christian. My 
mother frequently and faithfully instructed her children in 
the knowledge of the commandments of God and their duty 
to obey them. These early lessons had made indelible im- 
pressions on my young mind and heart. I fully believed 
religion to be the most valuable treasure ; the very word 
" religion " was a word of sweetest sound to my ear. 

Now, my dear son, I have made a beginning. Write me 
a full letter as soon as you get this. Your father is now 
at Guyandotte, looking after the interests of the district. 
Neither of us in very good health just now. Remember 
your mother. Sarah Stewart. 



Kanawha Salines, Va., | 

February itJu ) 

My Dear Son, — At your request I continue the narrative 
of my experience. " Religion," as I said in the closing of 
my former letter, was a word that sounded sweet to my ear. 
It suggested to my mind a beauty and richness which no 
pencil could paint or language describe. Yet I tremblingly- 
hoped that it might be sought and found by me. Yet so 
deeply did I feel my unworthiness that it seemed almost 
presumptuous for me to hope that I could ever be the pos- 
sessor of such a treasure. For weeks at a time I would 
regularly attend to secret prayer, and try to be obedient to 
my parents, and kind to my brothers and sisters. I was at 
those times very scrupulous about all of my conduct, lest I 



LETTERS FROM MRS. SARAH STEWART. 109 

Bhould do something to offend ray Lord. I often enjoyed 
much comfort from the approval of conscience, and some- 
times thought the Lord regarded my prayers. At one time, 
in particular, I thought I received an immediate answer. 
My oldest sister, Catharine, was enduring exquisite suflfer- 
ing from an attack of earache. Every means that we could 
use failed to relieve her, and such was her suffering that I 
feared she was going to die. I thought that God could 
help her; so I retired to secret prayer, and poured out my 
request to my Heavenly Father to cure her, I returned to 
the room and found her perfectly composed. 0, how my 
young heart was filled with humble gratitude to God ! I 
was then about eight years old, and took much delight in 
secret prayer. At some tinies I became much excited in 
that exercise. Once my father sent me to drive the birds 
out of the field. While in the field I kneeled down by a 
stump to pray. While praying I became so excited that 
my voice grew louder and louder, so that one of my sisters 
heard me and came to where I was. When I ceased pray- 
ing and rose from my knees she stood by me weeping. I 
said, "0, sister Peggy, I am determined not to go to hell!" 
I then thought that God loved me, but I did not know that 
that was religion, and being uncommonly diffident, commu- 
nicated my feelings to no one. We were living at that time 
in Hardy county, Ya. The place where my parents at- 
tended class-meeting was some seven miles distant. They 
frequently took me with them, and at such times I was so 
exercised that I was sometimes afraid that I would cry out. 
I have no doubt that had I enjoyed the advantages and in- 
structions now afforded to children, I should at that early 
age have been a happy Christian. I do not remember to 
have spoken to any one concerning my exercises until I was 
twelve years old, except to my sister at the time above re- 
ferred to. When T was about ton vears old mv parents 



110 IIIGIIWAVS AND Tir.DGES. 

removed to ()liio. and settled in Athens eounty. In our 
new home wc enjoyed better religious advantages, and 
in the eourse of a year or two a revival of religion broke 
out in our neighborh(»od. My oldest sister, Catharine, 
joined the Chureh. 1 was not at meeting when she joined, 
and lint knowing that she was at all exercised on the sub- 
ject, my mind was filled with strange feelings, sorrow min- 
gled with joy, I rejoiced that she had started, but felt 
more than ever discouraged in regard to my own case. I 
liad been trying all my life to get religion, and now my 
heart seemed harder than ever. My sister seemed to be so 
far in advance of me, though so far as I knew she had 
never been exercised on the subject before. I would then 
think of the many resolutions I had formed and promises 
made to be a Christian, but it appeared to me that I had 
gone backward rather than forward. My desire was to follow 
the example of my sister and join the Church ; but then I 
thought every body will say I just did it because she did, for 
nobody knew any thing of my life-long mental exercises. 
One night at the meeting I ventured to the mourners' 
bench, but to my surprise and mortification I found that my 
father was displeased about it. This was so entirely unex- 
pected that it completely overwhelmed me with discourage- 
ment. He supposed that I acted under an impulse of feel- 
ing, and without proper thought and understanding. how 
careful parents should be not to discourage their children 
in their early attempts to be religious ! and how should 
they watch for the indications of the presence of the Spirit 
working with their children, and encourage them to accept 
Christ at once ! Thought I, " My father has no confidence 
in my sincerity, and of course no one else has." It seemed 
to me that I was despicable in the eyes of every body, and 
almost hated myself. I ceased making any public effort to 
seek the Lord. At some times I prayed in secret, and then 



LETTERS FROM MRS. SARAH STEWART. Ill 

again relapsed into a measure of indifference. I got so far 
astray as to indulge in playing and hunting birds'-nests on 
the Sabbath. Again my convictions would return so pow- 
erfully that I would be afraid to go to sleep at night, lest I 
should wake up in hell, I now felt that I must engage 
more earnestly in seeking my soul's salvation. About this 
time there was a camp-meeting appointed to be held on the 
land of Moses Hewitt, near the present town of Athens. 
My father was persuaded to allow me to go. I went on 
Friday. David Young had charge of the meeting, and 
brother Isaac Quinn was preacher in charge. I was earn- 
estly seeking, and Sabbath night was so exercised that I lost 
my strength, and was carried to the tent. My heart will al- 
ways swell with gratitude when I remember the interest 
that good people now took in my case ; for my soul was 
verily near the borders of despair. Acquaintances and 
strangers all appeared equally concerned for me. To en- 
courage my hopes and reconcile me to leave the camp- 
ground, they told me that the Lord could, and probably 
would, pardon my sins on my way home or at home, assur- 
ing me that the Lord was not confined to any place or cir- 
cumstances, but that whenever and wherever I gave my 
heart to the Savior, then and there I should find him. 
After we reached home my father took great pains to en- 
courage me, and, as I had unbounded confidence in him, I 
appreciated these attentions very highly. For about five 
days I gave myself almost continually to prayer. During 
that time some of the members of the Church visited me, 
and tried to comfort and encourage me. One good old sis- 
ter, Mother Case, tried to persuade me that I already had 
religion if I only believed it, but I was scrupulously afraid 
of being deceived. I could not find any evidence that I 
had received pardon, or in any degree enjoyed the favor of 
God. I determined never to rest short of the evidence. 



112 TTir.nwAvs A\n hedges. 

Kvcry (lay I made ficijucut visits to tlio grove to pray. 
Sometimes liopc would sprinc^ up in my lioarf, ntid then 
afrain T would almost despair. Tlir thought that 1 liad been 
seeking religion from early chihlhood, and was still appar- 
ently as far from Ood and as destitute of his favor as ever, 
very much discouraged me But I knew that to give up 
was death and eternal ruin, and I was fully determined never 
to cease seeking. One day, as I was coming from the grove, 
perhaps more discouraged than at any former time, I was 
pouring over my lost and ruined condition, Satan whispered 
into my ear, "You are too insignificant and unworthy to 
attract the notice of the great and holy God of the uni- 
verse." Just at that moment of the blackness of dark- 
ness another voice, a still, small voice, spake to my troubled 
heart, and in language sweeter than any thing that my heart 
had ever conceived, said, " God is just as willing to bless 
you as he is to bless the most refined and cultivated lady 
in the world." In an instant my soul was filled with joy 
unspeakable and full of glory. For some time I stood still; 
my soul, filled with awe and wonder, adored the condescen- 
sion of that God who had stooped to take away my load of 
sin, while my heart bounded with strange and new joy, rich, 
yes, richer far than my feeble mind had ever been capable 
of contemplating. "0," thought I, "is this treasure mine?" 
My tongue was filled with praises. Every thing looked 
strangely beautiful. Gloom was all driven away by the 
brightness of the glory of God. I said, "Is this religion — 
the long sought treasure — the prize after which my soul 
has been aspiring so long?" 0, what a sense I had of the 
approbation of God ! It seemed that every thing on earth 
loved me, and that every thing on earth was smiling on my 
account. The world seemed new, and yet, when I reached 
the house, I had not courage to tell what the Lord had 
done for me. In a few minutes I returned to the grove. 



LETTERS FROM MRS. SARAH STEWART. 113 

Often had I prayed there and then returned with a gloomy 
heart, but now every thing there seemed to be smiling on 
account of my translation from darkness to light, and from 
the bondage of sin and guilt to the liberty of a child of 
God. For some time I prayed and praised. Every thing 
my eyes looked upon was clad in unearthly beauty. Every 
forest leaf and every spire of grass had a voice to tell the 
wondrous change that had passed on unworthy me. From 
the grove I went to the corn-field, when every stalk of corn 
seemed to join with me in wondrous praise to Him whose 
impress it bore. Thence I went again to the house. Father 
discovered in my countenance the change that had taken 
place in my feelings, and we praised the Lord together for 
what he had done for me. 

The next Sabbath was the regular preaching day in our 
neigborhood. I joined the Church that day, and in that 
act God blessed, so that I shouted aloud the high praises 
of my Heavenly Father. For three months after that I 
could say, 

"Not a clou J doth arise 
To rliirken my skies, 
Or hide for a moment 
The Lord from my eyes." 

I had constant communion and basked in the smiles of his 
face. The subjects of death and the resurrection were 
most pleasant to my meditation. I could sing, 

"Now I can i-ead my title clear 
To mansions in the skies, 
And hid farewell to every fear. 
And wipe my weeping eyes." 

Now, my son, with a mother's expression of sympathy 

with you in your work, and prayer for your success, I pause 

in my narrative, and will resume it in my next. May 

God bless you! is the prayer of your mother. 

Sarah Stewart. 
10 



114 IIKiHWAYS AND HKDGES. 



Richmond 

Decent be 



ALK, Ohio, ) 

er 13, 1847. ) 



My Dear Son, — INIy last letter closed with an account 
of the happy state of mind consequent upon my conversion. 
AVhen I joined the Church I found few persons of my 
own acre as reliirious associates. There were but two un- 
married persons in the iici<j;hborhood wlio were professors : 
William Stewart, an elder brother of him who afterward 1 
became my husband, and Lydia Bastow, a very pious young 
lady. I found, however, what I needed, nursing fathers 
and nursing mothers, to whom I shall ever be greatly in- 
debted for the care they took in my spiritual education. I 
was early taught that the way of the cross was the way to 
the crown of life. It was the custom in that society for 
the female as well as male members to pray in the public 
prayer-meetings. In this way I was immediately called 
into activity. I often trembled much under the cross, but 
never dared to refuse to bear it, and in the bearing of the 
cross was often powerfully blessed. On these occasions 
sometimes my strength would be taken away, and such were 
the transports of joy that I experienced that I would shout 
the high praises of my adorable Lord and Master. These 
seasons of rejoicing were often succeeded by seasons of 
sore temptation. It would be suggested to my mind that I 
ought to have restrained my feelings, and that I had perhaps 
offended some of those present by my conduct. Thus 
would Satan buffet me until I would almost resolve never 
to give such expression to my feelings again ; but so long 
as I attempted to carry out that purpose a cloud hung over 
my sky, and I failed of full enjoyment. But when again I 
would promise not to quench the Spirit, and it was again 
poured into my soul without measure, I would think that 
I would never again listen to the suggestions of Satan. At 



LETTERS FROM MRS. SARAH STEWART. 115 

times I would open my heart in regard to this matter to 
the older members of the Church, and they would exhort 
me to resist the temptation of the adversary. They assured 
me that it was just as much the duty of a Christian to 
praise God when he filled the soul to overflowing with his 
Spirit, as it was their duty to pray for a blessing. I found 
that if I would enjoy the happiness springing from a sense 
of the Divine favor I must deny myself, take up my cross, 
and follow Christ through evil report as well as good report, 
and this I resolved, by the grace of God, to do. I had re- 
solved that I would never refuse to pray when called on. 
It was customary in the society to give an opportunity for 
persons to pray without being called on by name. The 
leader would say "Will some brother or sister pray?" 
"When I took up the cross upon such an invitation I hardly 
ever failed of a blessing, and it seldom failed to produce a 
powerful impression on the congregation. I told my class- 
leader, William Gamble, that if he would not call on me I 
would always pray voluntarily when I felt it to be my duty. 
"You promise faithfully ^^' said he, "and I will not call on 
you." At first I thought the cross would not be nearly so 
difficult to bear, but soon found that it seemed to be my 
duty to pray even oftener than the leader had accustomed 
to call on me, but having promised I dared not shrink from 
it. Though I could deceive my leader, I could not deceive 
God, who reads the heart. I went back to my leader, and 
said to him " I rue bargain, and throw myself again in your 
hands, and I will try and* be obedient to the order of those 
who have the rule over me." I found that the more I 
exercised in praying and speaking in public, in the class- 
meetings, prayer-meetings, and love-feasts the more I was 
blessed of God and strenc-thened. 

I remember on one occasion when the cross was peculiarly 
heavy on account of the presence of a Mr. Farnsworth, a 



IIG TIIf.HWAVS AND HEDGES. 

gcntloMi.in wlio li.id l>ut recently moved into tlic ncighbor- 
liood, ;iM(l licing accounted a ni;in of sujiorior intolligencc, 
and a nicnilter (if tlie I'resltyterian Cliurcli, it was antici- 
pated that lie would criticise our exercises, as it was known 
tliat lie dis;ij)proved of females jM-.-iyinLi; in ]»u))lic. I felt 
such a shrinking from the cross that if I could have escaped 
from the liouse unobserved I should have done it, but that 
was impossible. As I sat trembling the class-leader called 
out, ''Sister Sally Long, pr;iy." As I kneeled before the 
Lord all fear left me ; a deep solemnity en me over my 
spirit, and as I realized the presence of the Lord Jehovah 
I lost all thought of the presence of any criticising mortal ; 
there was a mighty power rested on the congregation, and 
I experienced wonderful enlargement of soul as I talked 
with God in prayer. At our next preaching meeting our 
Presbyterian neighbor came and requested the privilege of 
uniting with our Church. lie said he had never believed 
that it was right for females to pray in public until he at- 
tended the meeting spoken of above. That meeting had 
removed his prejudice. He shook me cordially by the 
hand, and told me that it w'as through my instrumentality 
that he had been brought to see the right way. This 
humbled me in the very dust before God, and I resolved 
that I w^ould never shrink from the cross again. In after 
experience I have learned that when the cross seems the 
heaviest then was it most important for me to bear it, both 
for my own good and for the good .of others. 

About two years after I joined the Church a powerful 
revival brdke out in the neii-hborhood, which ran and 
spread until nearly all the young peopl*i were brought 
within the pale of the Church. He who afterward became 
my husband was one of the subjects of that revival. As 
soon as he became a meml)er of the Church, the impression 
pervaded the members of the Church that it would be his 



LETTERS FROM MRS. SARAH STEWART. 117 

duty to give himself to the work of the ministry. It was 
ascertained in a short time that already the Holy Spirit 
was making a similar impression upon his mind. In a few 
months he was called into ofl&cial relationship to the Church, 
and thenceforward became a laborer in the great harvest- 
field. 

During" and after this meetino; I was often astonished and 
humbled in the very dust on account of the attentions paid 
to me, not only by the young converts and those of my own 
age, but also by the aged and dignified. The circuit preach- 
ers frequently called on me to make the prayer after the 
sermon in the public congregation. Though I dared not 
refuse, and though I was often much blessed in bearing the 
cross on these occasions, yet I seldom escaped being se- 
verely tempted by Satan afterward. The limited circum- 
stances of my parents had prevented them from afi"ording 
me any educational advantages. I was painfully sensible 
of my deficiencies in this respect. When the Rev. T. A. 
Morris — now Bishop — had charge of the circuit, he ap- 
pointed a female prayer-meeting in our neighborhood, and 
laid upon me the duty of conducting it. I had never at- 
tended such a meeting, and thought that my youth and 
want of experience, education, and ability all seemed to 
make it the height of presumption for me to attempt it. I 
plead to be excused, and nominated others, in my estima- 
tion better fitted for the work ; but my excuses were of no 
avail. He took a vote of the society, which was unanimous 
in support of my appointment. I was sorely pressed in 
spirit. If the meeting had been appointed only for the 
young folks, the cross would have been heavy, for I re- 
garded many of them as far in advance of me in qualifica- 
tion for such a duty, but the meeting was designed for the 
old as well as the young. I went to some of the older 
members of the Church and laid the matter before them, 



118 HKinWAVS ANH HEDGES. 

nn<l tliry nssurrd mo flint my misgivings were only the 
temjitations of tlie adversary, and tliat I must, say "Get be- 
liind me, Satan." I prayed much for courage, but after all, 
when the time for the meeting arrived, a?id I started to the 
plaee, feeling that it was more than I could bear, I tried to 
get sister Lois Stewart to take my plaee. She declined, 
but promised to take a seat near me, so that if I became 
so embarrassed as to be unable to proceed, she would assist 
me. The congregation was assembled, and I essayed to do 
my duty, and succeeded in reading a chapter, but when I 
attenipted to read the hymn I became so embarrassed that 
the good sister had to come to my assistance. But by the 
help of grace divine I was enabled to meet the responsi- 
bility laid upon mc, and the Lord came down among us in 
great power, and we had truly a time of refreshing from 
his presence. Heretofore I had labored to support myself 
and to assist in the support of ray father's family, so that I 
had but little time to employ in mental culture. Finding an 
opening to teach a school of small children, I embraced the 
opportunity, and commenced in right good earnest, trying 
to improve my mind. I was well aware that all that I ever 
could be must be the result of my own efforts and the bless- 
ing of God. I deeply felt the importance of living near to 
God, and knew that to do this my time should be divided 
and my life regulated by rule. I therefore adopted the fol- 
lowing rules for my religious life : Three times each day a 
portion of time was spent in secret devotion. One day in 
the week was set apart as a day of fasting and special 
prayer. All the social and public means of grace I at- 
tended punctually, not only for conscience' sake, but because 
I had a keen appetite for them, and found them to be to me 
more than my ordinary meat and drink. The companion- 
ship of Christians was exceedingly precious to me, and I | 
desired no other society. Between the duties of my school 



LETTERS FROM MRS. SARAH STEWART. 119 

and the privileges of the means of grace, I had the com- 
forting assurance that I was getting some additional prepa- 
ration to meet the responsibilities that might come upon 
me in future life. ........ 

Let these extracts suffice to record the early conversion 
and devotion of my dear companion, and I shall now return 
to my narrative. 



120 HIGHWAYS AND HEDGES. 



CHAPTER X. 

MADISON CIRCUIT, INDIANA. 
1822-23. 

rpiIE Ohio Conference met at Marietta, Bishops M'Kcn- 
-*- dree and George present, September 5, 1822. I was 

welcomed back by my former Conference associates, and felt 
really that I had got home again. In an interview with 
the Bishop I stated to him the facts in my case. I had not 
only performed the two years' frontier labor for which I had 
volunteered, but, at the solicitation of Bishop Roberts, I 
had spent a third year in that work, and had now returned 
to work in the Ohio Conference. He urged me to consent 
to one more year, in the Missouri Conference, but finally, 
after consulting with Bishop M'Kendree, he conceded that ~ 
I ought not to be urged to return again. He transferred 
me back to the Ohio Conference, and the session passed 
very pleasantly to me. When, however, the appointments 
were read out, I found myself announced as preacher in 
charge on Madison circuit, Miami district, Indiana. The 
Bishop supposed that I had not moved from Yincennes, 
Indiana, and that an appointment on the western borders 
of the Ohio Conference would accommodate me. When 
he learned that I had moved my family and eifects to my 
father's, in South-eastern Ohio, and would now have to move 
back several hundred miles, he explained the matter to me, 
so that I was disposed to bear without complaint what at 
first appeared to be an unreasonable requirement. 



I 



MADISON CIRCUIT, INDIANA. 121 

The following persons were admitted on trial : Billings 
0. Plimpton, John Crawford, Albert G. Richardson, Orin 
Gilniore, Solomon Mancer, John Jean, Aaron Wood, Jas. 
Rowe, Geo. Gatch, Jas. C. Taylor, X. B. Griffith, Levi 
White, Wm. Westlake. 

The followinc; brethren were elected delecrates to General 
Conference : Chas. Elliott, J. F. Wright, G. R. Jones, M. 
Ruter, C. Waddle, J. B. Finle}^ J. Young, Juo. Sale, Jas. 
Quiuu, John Waterman, R. Bigelow, D. Young, John 
Strange. 

Soon after the adjournment of Conference we packed up 
again, and made our tedious journey of three hundred 
miles to Madison. The circuit was a large and strong one. 
There were thirty-one appointments to be filled in five 
weeks, and some eight hundred and ninety-three members 
to be looked after. The following constituted the round 
of appointments : 1. Madison; 2. Crooked Creek; 3. Cope's; 
4. Mitchell's; 5. Overturfs ; 6. Hiatt's ; 7. Brown's; 8. 
Versailles; 9. Hukel's ; 10. Cole's; 11. Frazier's ; 12. 
Clark's; 13. Downey's; 14. Coiner's; 15. Alleuville ; IG. 
Oakes's; 17. Buche's; 18. Green's, or Quaker's Grove; 
19. Davis's; 20. Cooper's; 21. Camel's; 22. Miller's; 23. 
Lee's; 24. Martin's; 25. Davis's; 2G. Heddy's ; 27. Vevay; 
28. Ashe's; 29. Brown's; 30. Gray's; 31. Ilulm's. In 
filling the appointments we arranged to spend two weeks in 
the neidiborhood of Madison, and then a three weeks' tour 
visiting the more distant appointments. 

Though the circuit had a large membership it had no 

parsonage, and to save expense it was proposed that the 

preacher's family should "board round" among the people. 

We consented to this arrangement, not without misgiving 

and reluctance. Though our family was small, we having 

only one child at that time, yet we knew that this mode of 

living would be far from desirable. My wife was especially 

11 



122 IIIC.IIWAVS AND IlKDGES. 

anxious to enjoy moro privaoy for stndy nnd dovotion, and 
better opportunity for cducatioLr lur l)<>y tliau islic could 
have niixinij in witli so many faniiiy circles, some of whom 
took tlicir turn k('{'j)iii_i^ tli(> ])roa(dier's family rather in tlic 
liL^lit (if duty than otherwise. I»ut we made the best we 
couhl of (tur eircumstanccH, and trictl to do tlie best we 
could for the cause of God. 

Nchemiah B. Griflith was my colleague. He was a holy 
man of God, able and willing to do his full share of the 
work assigned to us. I was truly grateful tliat in the 
providence of God I was favored with such a helper in the 
work. His race in the itinerant work was short, but he 
made his mark, which will stand to his credit in all after 
time — yea, beyond the bounds of time he shall shine as a 
star forever and ever. Alexander Cummins was my pre- 
siding elder. He was a first-class man, clear-headed and 
sound to the core, and not to be excelled in the administra- 
tion of discipline. He was at that time in feeble health. 

As I call up the list of local preachers, I dwell upon 
their memory with great pleasure. Some of them were men 
of renown. In those days, growing out of the fact that the 
support of the preachers was so meager, many of the best 
preachers, who had f\imilies to support and children to edu- 
cate, found it necessary to locate and go into some secular 
business. As a rule, however, they retained the spirit of 
the itinerancy, and co-operated with the traveling preachers 
cordially, and greatly to the advantage of the work. 

Joseph Oglesby w^as a man of superior talent. He had 
settled in Madison, and engaged in the practice of medicine. 
As 'he had been successful and popular during his itinerant 
life, so was he now successful and popular as a practicing 
physician and local preacher. John Green had also trav- 
eled in the New England Conference. He was brother-in- 
law to Calvin and Martin Ruter. He was a dignified, 



MADISON CIRCUIT, INDIANA. 123 

devoted, and useful local preacher. He llVed near Quaker's 
Grove. Old brother Woodfield, who had worn himself out 
in the itinerant ranks in Kentucky, lived near Madison, and 
was highly respected. Joel Havens also honored God, and 
worked faithfully for the Church as a local preacher. 

The society in Madison had many strong men con- 
nected with it. Among them I call to memory such as 
Taylor, Comstock, Gale, Wallace, "Wilson, Robertson, Bas- 
set, Green, Pew, Oglesby, etc., a host whose names are re- 
corded in the Book of Life. Xo wonder that the Church 
has expanded and strengthened with years, and continues 
to be a power for good in that community. The good men 
were not all found in Madison, but they were scattered all 
over the circuit. As my mind sweeps round that vast three 
weeks' tour, startins: north to Mitchell's. Versailles, down to 
Langhra's, Allenville, Jacksonville, Quaker's Grove, York, 
Vevay, and then down the Ohio to Madison, I call up the 
names of men and women of sreat moral and reliirious 
worth. 

During my labors on this circuit I was much annoyed 
by the Baptists. They were constantly prating about the 
subjects and mode of baptism, and evidently regarded them- 
selves so strongly fortified that their position was invulnera- 
ble. Their attacks upon the denominations who differed 
with them on these points were bold and severe. "Believ- 
ing penitents are the only proper subjects, and immersion 
the only proper mode of Christian baptism." This they 
asserted constantly, and challenged contradiction. I deter- 
mined to master the subject, and for this purpose spent 
several weeks in its thoroufrh investiiration. The result of 
my study was to settle my mind thoroughly in the convic- 
tion that infants, as well as adults, are entitled to thq sacra- 
ment of Christian baptism, and that sprinkling and pouring 
are modes supported as fully by reason and revelation as is 



124 HK.IIWAVS AND iiF.nr.F.s. 

immersion. I wen! into llic field of controversy, and deliv- 
ered a scries of Hermoiia tliat were blessed by the Great 
Head of ihc. rhnrrh in dninL'. as T trust, much crood in the 
cstablisbinont and maintenance of sound doctrine. As the 
result of these discourses many came and cast iu their lots 
with us who had been connected with tliem. 

Durinp: tliis year my dear companion rendered p:ood serv- 
ice to the cause, though the care of our son Wesley and 
our inconvenient manner of livino; embarrassed her a good 
deal. God greatly blessed her in the exercise of prayer 
and speaking in class and love-feasts, and in her intercourse 
with families her life was so conscientious and devout as to 
exert a silent but powerful influence in all places. 

Sometimes she accompanied me to the distant appoint- 
ments. On our way to the camp-meeting at Quaker's Grove 
we were traveling on horseback, and had to pass through 
the Beech Swamp. The road, for some distance, was almost 
impassable. At one time my horse floundered in the mud 
so that I thought he would certainly come down. Fearing 
that my son John Wesley, whom I was carrying in my arms, 
would be hurt, I selected with my eye a place where there 
was a soft bed of mud, and tossed him as far from me as I 
could. After getting my horse extricated I returned and 
found the child in position and apparently fully content 
with his location. The camp-meeting was attended with 
great power. It being also a quarterly-meeting occasion, 
the presiding elder. Rev. A. Cummins, took charge of the 
meeting. He was in such feeble health that he could not 
speak loud enough for a large congregation, but selected 
for himself the eight o'clock morning appointment. On 
one of these occasions, from the language of Jude, "Keep 
yourselves in the love of God," he preached a sermon of 
special unction; it was, indeed, melting afid sweet. He 
was a man greatly beloved, and always preached a sensible 



MADISON CIRCUIT, INDIANA. - 125 

and profitable sermon. This was probably one of the last 
camp-meetings that he attended. It fell to my lot, by his 
appointment, during- the meeting to preach each day at his 
hour. My voice was then clear and strong, so that I could 
be heard at a distance of one and a half miles. My soul 
was fully in the work, and God blessed me greatly. "We 
met at this meeting some who we had known years before 
in Ohio. This reunion was especially gratifying to my wife, 
and added greatly to her enjoyment of the occasion. These 
were the Ruters, and Greens, and Wellses — noble Christian 
families, whose influence extends down to this day. 

AVe had another camp-meeting near Madison, which was 
attended with great success. Bishop Roberts was with us, 
and, as usual, preached with great power. On one occasion 
his text was, "If they hear not Moses and the prophets," 
etc. It was a sermon never to be forirotten. The slain of 
the Lord were many, and during the meeting a goodly 
number turned to God. 

This circuit became very dear to me, and when, at the 
close of the Conference year, the people requested my 
return for another year, I should have gladly consented, 
had we not felt it our duty to return to that portion of 
Ohio where our large circle of family connection resided. 



126 men WAYS and hedgks. 



CIIAITER XL 

MUSKINGUM CIRCUIT, OHIO. 

lS23-ai. 

rpilE Conference met September 4, 1823, in Urbana, 
J- Bishop R. 11. Roberts in the chair. Tlie Ibllowing were 
admitted on trial : Sylvester Dunham, George Waddel; True 
Pattee, John A. Baughman, Robert 0. Spencer, Job Wil- 
son, Thomas Beacham, Alfred M. Lorrain, Thomas Ilewson, 
Elijah tl. Field, James M'Intyre, Isaac Elisbury, Robert 
Hopkins, Silas Colvin. 

At this Conference we recorded the death of brother 
Charles Trescott. He was born at Sheffield, Mass.; joined 
the Ohio Conference in 1820. On Sabbath, October 6, 1822, 
he departed in triumph. He was a systematic preacher, 
earnest and successful. 

During the session we presented our first-born, John 
AYesley, then an infant fifteen months old, for baptism. As 
the venerable Bishop took him in his arms and administered 
to him the solemn sacrament of the Church, and as that de- 
vout congregation of pastors and people made hearty re- 
sponses to the prayers offered, with hearts thrilled with the 
deepest and tenderest emotions, we gave him to God, prom- 
ising that we would try to bring him up in the nurture and 
admonition of the Lord. 

My desire in regard to my appointment was gratified, as 
Muskingum circuit joined the one in which our parents re- 
sided. We went from Conference direct to our circuit, and 



MUSKINGUM CIRCUIT, OHIO. 



127 



established our home in Putnam, on the Muskingum River, 
opposite the city of Zanesville. 3Iy colleague, Kev. Thomas 
Beacham, was a young man of superior parts, self-possessed, 
and an admirable preacher. Unfortunately he allowed his 
mind to be burdened and divided with too many things, 
and so weakened his effectiveness. 

The following list of twenty-four appointments, to be 
filled every four weeks by each of us, shows that our field 
was an extensive one : 



PLAN OF MUSKINGUM CIRCUIT. 

Made August 29, A. D. 1S23. 



Dbv of the 
Week. 



Sunday 

Mnndity ...... 

Tuesday 

Wednesday. 
Thursday.'.. 

Friday 

Saturday 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday. 
Thursday.... 

Friilay...' 

Saturday 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tueschiy 

WfMlnesday. 
Thursilay.... 

Friday 

Saturday 

Suii'iay.' 

.Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday. 
Tliursday.... 



Friday 

Saturday. 
Sunday.... 



D.iy of t'.;e 
Mouth. 



<( 

Oct. 



Preaching-places, 



Sept. 21 
" 23| 

" 2i; 

" 25! 
" 2ti 



28 

29 

30 

1 

2 

;5 

4 

5 

(i 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

1:! 

U 

lo 

ii; 
If, 

17 
18 
19 



Putnam's 

Rest 

Headley's 

Simpson's 

Re.st 

Rest 

Rest 

Dielcerson's 

Rest 

Gard'.s 

Wiggenbottom's . 

Sain's 

Spruiger's 

[..enhart'.s 

.\sbury Chapel.... 

Hiteheock's 

Teal's 

Fate's 

Chaplin's 

Harris's 

Hopkins's 

Aikins's 

Sailor's 

Edwards's , 

Weslevan Cliapel 

Wilson's 

Heail's 

Haniet's 

Butt's 

Putnam aj^ain , 



^ 


n 











^ 


= 


-' 


s 


X! 


— 


.H 


— 


X* 


s» 
















X 


11-4 


... 


12 


.") 


12 


4 


ii 


10 


12 


"4 


12 


4 


12 





12 


(i 


12 


4 


11 


G 


12 


12 


12 


•7 
1 


12 





12 


12 


2 


12 


12 


(; 


11 


12 


12 


7 


12 


."> 


12 


8 


10 


G 


3 


3 


12 


f; 


11 


5 




6 



OFFICIAL LIST. 



ler- 



Deacons. 



Stewards. 



Alex. M'Cracken, | ^, , 

.John Wilson, f ^''' 

Samuel Wdson, 1 „„„„„, „„„ 

Samuel Aikins, F^^'^^''^'«- 

Jolm Goshen, 

.Martin Fate, 

•John Wilson, 

Thomas Ijams, 

Elijah Ball, 

Sam' I Chapman,^ 

John Jordan, 

Wm. .\rmstroiig, 

Wni. Heath, 

Elijah Collins, 

David Fate, 

Jona. Withain, 

Robert Aikins, 

David i:d\vards,* 

Davi<l Butt, 

!\Iann'g Putnam, 

Davi<l Sherad, 

James Kelley, 



Number of Members, 700. 



* Recommended to the lo- 
cal conference for license to 
preach. 



Exhorters. 



As the travel was extensive, so the heavy membership 
demanded a large amount of pastoral labor. We had seven 
hundred and sixty members, all of whom I expected to 



128 HIGHWAYS AND HEDGES. 

visit at (Ijrir rcspcrtivc homes. My constant practice was 
to meet the classes after preaching, so tluit twenty-four ser- 
mons and twenty-four class-moctinirs, besides extra appoint- 
ments and pastoral visitiiifr, made it a protracted meeting 
the year throui^h. About the middle of the year, at the re- 
quest of tlie (junrtorly conference, my colleague was removed 
to another field, ami assisted l»y a noble band of local 
preachers I kept uj) all of the ajipointments during the rest 
of the year. 

It will sound strange to the present generation of Meth- 
odists to learn that so large a membership only paid the 
pastor one hundred and thirty dollars with which to sup- 
port his family. Many regarded the word " quarterage " as 
indicating the amount to be paid by each member. To as- 
sist in meeting our current expenses, my wife opened a pri- 
mary school, and between the labors of housekeeping, hos- 
pitality, the school, and her share of the care of the Church, 
her hands were as full as mine. As she commenced her 
school at eight o'clock in the morning, she had to do most 
of her cooking at night and washing on Saturdays. It 
would have been an easy matter for those seven hundred 
and sixty members to have afforded us a support that would 
have allowed us more home comforts, and my companion 
more time for purely evangelical labors ; but we committed 
ourselves to the Lord and went forward in his name. The 
year, notwithstanding its severe toil and sacrifices, was 
withal a very pleasant year to us. We were sustained by 
noble men, who themselves labored gratuitously and en- 
dured many sacrifices for the cause of Christ. The names 
of some of these I propose to place upon record. Alexan- 
der M'Cracken gave us valuable assistance; talented and 
devoted to the work, he was held in high estimation, and 
his preaching did much good. John Goshen resided in 
Putnam, and was the father of Methodism in that place. 



MUSKINGUM CIRCUIT, OHIO. 129 

He possessed a strong miud, a strong will, and a large 
heart. Always ready to work for tlie Church with tongue, 
or hand, or purse, he was, nevertheless, so tenacious for the 
old forms, that he became sensitive in regard to innovations 
in religious forms or style of living to an extent that often 
disturbed his own enjoyments, and possibly sometimes dimin- 
ished his power for good. When the Rev. Jacob Young — 
some years after the time of which I am now writing — 
was presiding elder on the Zanesville district, he took a 
house for his family residence in Putnam, and was neighbor 
to brother Goshen. Havins; been old-time friends, brother 
Youns; wondered that his old friend did not call on him. 
At last he determined if possible to ascertain the reason. 

" Brother Goshen, why do n't you come to see me ?'' 

" You have that thing they call a melodeon in your house, 
and I can 't conscientiously come to see you." 

" My dear brother Goshen, come," said the good elder, 
"and I will carry the little thing out into the shed while 
you are there." 

But every body had unbounded confidence in the integ- 
rity of brother Goshen, and doubtless many will rise up in 
eternity to call him blessed. 

George Fate was also a local preacher of talent and effi- 
ciency. John and Samuel Wilson, who were brothers and 
Irishmen, and brother Samuel Aikins were all passable local 
preachers. These three last mentioned, however, became 
infected this year with the leaven of the radical agitation, 
and suffered damage thereby. The radical excitement was 
now raffin"; in the East, and was developinGj with a ecood 
deal of bitterness at some points in the West. Some, 
doubtless, were influenced by sincere convictions that the 
government of the Church was defective and needed modi- 
fying, and others disappointed in not receiving the promo- 
tion that they thought themselves entitled to, hoped to 



loO IlICillWAVS AND HEDGES. 

mount ((» a liiL,'ljcr level on llic w;ivcs of tliis agitation. 
Sonic suspected Kcv. Cornclitis Springer to be one of this 
latter class, and were not backward in declaring their opin- 
ions* that elevation to the more desirable positions in the 
Church would have fully realized liis views of reformation. 
It was thought that the fact that Samuel Plamilton, who 
had been associated with Springer in their early life and 
early ministry, had outstripped him, and was now occupying 
the post of presiding elder, was chafing to the feelings of 
Springer, and had much to do in inclining him to the side 
of the so-called reformers. As Cornelius Springer was 
preacher in charge at the time that I was licensed to preach, 
and recommended to the traveling connection, I had a high 
regard for him, and looked up to him with a good deal of 
reverence. This feeling, however, met with a severe shock 
some years after this, when he and brother Aikius came to 
visit me for the purpose of proselyting me to the new doc- 
trine. I was residing at the time at Athens. They came 
with much confidence that I would unite with them, and 
so carry over to their standard a large portion of my circuit. 
When brother Springer opened to me his mission and ex- 
pectations I was thunderstruck, as I was not aware that I 
had ever given any one ground to think that I was not in 
the completest harmony with our Church polity. Regard- 
ing brother Springer as my supei:ior intellectually, I at first 
attempted to play oif a little. Referring to the fact above 
stated, he reminded me in a pleasant way that " he had 
made me and had a claim to me." "But at that time you 
were a Methodist Episcopal preacher, and so far as you made 
me you made me a Methodist Episcopal preacher." I 
waxed bold to ask him a few questions, and soon found 
that he was weak like other men. The whole interview 
was conducted in good feeling, and we parted in friendship ; 
and though wc diverged in our Church path, he trying the 



MUSKINGUM CIRCUIT, OHIO. 131 

new and I continuing in tlie old path, yet I hope that we 
will meet again at the end, where we shall see as we are 
seen and know as we are known. 

But to return from this digression. Among the excellent 
of this circuit I must mention Mrs. Hamilton, mother of 
Rev. Samuel Hamilton, already mentioned. She was given 
to hospitality, a mother in Israel, making the weary itin- 
erant always feel at home when under her roof. Mrs. J. 
lames — pronounced Imes — daughter of Mrs. Hamilton, and 
sister to Samuel Hamilton, and former wife of Rev. Robert 
Manley, was a master-spirit of her sex, extensively known, 
loved, and esteemed by the denomination. Methodism in 
that region was greatly indebted to her. 

At Putnam we had a good society, embracing such as 
Russell, 3Ioore, Chapman, Manning, Putnam, Wilber, Mizer, 
and many others equally worthy of record. Thus memory 
crowds upon us, and we shall hope to be welcomed by them 
when after a little while we cross the river. I can yet 
hardly realize it, but I must be getting to be an old man, 
for now I remember that my son, Rev. W. F. Stewart, who, 
sixteen years ago, served Putnam station as its pastor, and 
who has been preaching the Gospel more than a quarter of 
a century, was not born until the year after I closed my 
labors on that circuit. Dear Father, give me grace that 
will qualify me to meet the responsibilities of old age, and 
secure to me a peaceful evening, a calm sunset, and an 
abundant welcome to the skies ! 

The Conference sat in Zanesville, on the opposite side of 
the river from my home, and I requested to remove to 
another charge, which request was granted. Removals 
usually occurred at the end of one year ; and though my 
circuits had almost invariably requested my return, thus 
far I had preferred to spread the Gospel in the regions be- 
.yond. At the close of the Conference the venerable Bishop 



I'd HIGHWAYS AND HLUGES. 

K()))cit.s, in company willi Ivcv. Mail In Puitor, vi^<ited us to 
give us tokens of affection, and to pjive his blessing to our 
boy (liat be liad liajttizcd the year i^clorc. 

On the first day ul' 3Iay, during this Conference year, tlie 
General Conference luet at Baltimore. Our Conference was 
represented by the following brethren, viz : Charles Elliott, 
John F. Wright, (Jrcenbury K. Jones, Martin Iluter, 
Charles Waddel, James 13. Finlcy, Jacob Young, John Sale, 
James Quinn, John Waterman, llussel Bigclow, David 
Young, and John Strange. This large and able delegation 
took an influential part in the proceedings. The presiding 
elder question, which had met with such a sudden interrup- 
tion by the stand taken by Joshua Soule in 1816, was again 
brought forward, and the proposition to make the office 
elective was defeated, and Soule was again elected to the 
episcopacy. This difficulty now being out of the way, he 
accepted, and he and Rev. Elijah Hedding, after a sermon 
by the venerable Bishop M'Kendree, were solemnly set 
apart to the work of general superiutendency. The question 
of admitting lay delegates to the Conference was also dis- 
cussed ; but while the memorials asking for that change in 
our economy were answered by a respectful and candid ad- 
dress, the Conference, with much unanimity, declined the 
proposition. 



MARIETTA CIRCUIT, OHIO. 133 



CHAPTER XII. 

MARIETTA CIRCUIT, OHIO. 
1824-25. 

BISHOP ROBERTS presided at the session of the Con- 
ference which met at Zanesville, Ohio, September 2, 
1824. He was assisted by Bishop Soule, who had just been 
elevated to the general superintendency by the late General 
Conference. As we had all been familiar with the ftict of 
his election four years before, and his declination, as stated 
in a preceding chapter of this work, we were anxious to see 
and hear him. Our impressions were decidedly favorable, 
and we welcomed him with great cordiality. The class of 
probationers received at this Conference was not large, but 
embraced some who have rendered the Church long and 
valuable services, as will be seen from the following list : 
John Chandler, Arza Brown, Jacob Delay, xVugustus Eddy, 
Wm. C. Henderson, Homer J. Clarke, David Dutcher, An- 
drew F. Baxter, Wm. Runnels, Joab Ragan, Jos. S. Barris. 
Of several of these I shall have frequent occasion to speak 
more hereafter. 

The Committee on Memoirs reported on the death of two 
of the preachers, Rev. A. Cummins and S. Baker. I have 
had occasion to speak in former chapters of Rev. A. Cum- 
mins. I was intimately acquainted with him, and enter- 
tained, as did the whole Conference, an exalted opinion of 
his piety and ability. He was born in Albemarle county, 
Virginia, September S, 1787. He entered the traveling 



]34 HIGHWAYS AND HEDGES. 

connection in ISOO, .'iihI made full proof of his ministry 
until tlic time of his deatli, which occurred September 27, 
1823. 

Kev. Samuel Baker was born September 13, 1793, in 
Baltimore, Maryland, and died September 20, 1823, obtain- 
ing his crown just one day in advance of brotlier Cum- 
mins. Tie had been a faithful itinerant about seven years, 
and closed up his career with the triumphant exclamation, 
"Glory! glory to God and the Lamb! There is victory in 
death!" 

Bishop Roberts favored me with an appointment still 
nearer to our parents and family connections. In fact, Ma- 
rietta was the circuit from which I started, though since 
the time of my starting the Athens circuit had been organ-^ 
ized, taking that portion of the original territory in which 
my parents lived. As the Rev. Daniel Limerick was returned 
to the circuit for the second year, I was associated with 
him as junior preacher. He w^as a man of fine preaching 
ability, and was both popular and useful on the circuit. 

After the adjournment of Conference I lost no time in 
packing up and moving to my new work. An incident oc- 
curred on the journey, which illustrates what strange provi- 
dences sometimes attend the founding of societies and the 
salvation of' souls. In accordance with the usual customs 
of hospitality in those days, I had furnished me a list of 
places where I would be welcomed along my route. Aniong 
these was the name of Mr. Sawin, a Presbyterian, whose 
house was always open, with ungrudging hospitality, for the 
preachers and their families of either of the Churches. It 
was about 11 o'clock, A. M., the day that we reached his 
house. As soon as I introduced myself he gave me a cor- 
dial welcome, and requested us to make ourselves fully at 
home. After dinner he informed me that there was a lady 
in another room, who had been bleeding at the nose for 



MARIETTA CIRCUIT, OHIO. lo5 

several days, and as there was no hope of her recovery, or 
even of her being able to be removed to her home, he de- 
sired that I would converse and pray with her. I had been 
walking all the forenoon over a mountainous road, and found 
myself so reduced in vitality that I did not feel at all pre- 
pared to perform such duty properly. It would not do, 
however, to decline, under the circumstances. He conducted 
me to the room, where I found her indeed in a sad condi- 
tion. Several of the neighbors were about her couch. I 
talked with her, and then we kneeled in prayer. I had no 
freedom in prayer, as I thought; seemed embarrassed both 
in thought and expression. I was deeply mortified, and 
thought that they would never desire to see me again. I 
bade them good-by, and went on my way. About a week 
after that, just as I was getting settled in my new home, 
Mr. Sawin came to see me, and told me that there was 
great anxiety in his neighborhood that I should send them 
an appointment, and come and preach for them, and said 
that those who were present when I prayed for the afflicted 
woman thought they had never heard so powerful a prayer. 
I was greatly surprised at this, and authorized him to pub- 
lish an appointment for me. 

At the appointed time I went and found a large congre- 
gation, to whom I preached as best I could; and, indeed, 
the Word was not bound, but had free course and was glori- 
fied. I never had greater liberty in publishing the Gospel. 
At the close of the sermon I proposed to speak to each 
person, as I was accustomed to do in the class-meetings of 
my denomination, but gave opportunity for any to retire 
who might not wish to be conversed with in regard to their 
salvation. Nearly, if not all, remained. We had a time 
of deep feeling, and, after speaking with each one, I ex- 
plained to them our mode of organizing societies, read the 
rules to them, and then invited nil who were disposed to 



1-^0 men WAYS and iikdges. 

join tlio ]NI('lli<)(list Kpiscopnl Clmrrli on trial to Hi^nify it 
by giving nic their Ijands aiitl names, ^oiiu' tliirty-three 
responded to tlic call, among whom was Mr. 8awin, his 
excellent wite, and several members of his family. The 
now society was at once incorporated into our circuit, and 
1 enjoyed many seasons of refreshing with it during the 
Conference year. IJrother Sawin afterward removed, with 
his family, to Illinois, and settled in the neighborhood of 
Quincy, where they were ornaments to the cause of God 
and Methodism. 

This singular introduction to part of the territory over 
which I should travel during the year was very gratifying 
to me, and I regarded it as evidence that my appointment 
was providential, and as an earnest of a gracious harvest. 
As the preacher in charge occupied the parsonage at 
Marietta, I obtained a home for my family at Waterford. 
Brother Parks let us have part of his house, and his family 
greatly endeared themselves to us during the year by con- 
stant acts of kindness. 

The following list of appointments indicates how extensive 
the bounds of the circuit still remained, notwithstanding 
the formation of Athens circuit. Commencing at Marietta, 
w^e had appointments at Nixon's, Lynch's, Goss's, Rainbow, 
Sprague's, Featherstone's, Callahan's, Miller's, Palmer's, 
Smyth's, Lake's, Barlow, Forks of Hocking, Daniel Goss's, 
Decatur, Newbur}'^, Belpre, Moore's, Bridge's, and then back 
to Marietta. It was a four-weeks' circuit, and our time was 
fully occupied in preaching, class-meetings, pastoral visita- 
tion, and extra appointments, such as the one referred to 
above. In one view it seemed to be routine work, repeat- 
ing itself over and over again from the year's beginning to 
its end, but it was not monotonous. It was full of interest, 
life, and enjoyment. Friendly faces crowded our congrega- 
tions and attentive ears drank in our sermons, and as in 



MARIETTA CIRCUIT, OHIO. 137 

the class-meetings we recounted our hopes and fears, in- 
structing and exhorting each other, we learned each other's 
cares, and were enabled to bear each other's burdens. We 
felt Christ's yoke to be easy and his burden to be light. 

One of the special pleasures of the year to me was found 
in the privilege of mingling with my early associates in 
Christian fellowship. The memory of my conversion and 
recommendation to the ministry, and the counsel, and pray- 
ers, and co-operation of those who had encouraged me when 
a penitent, and had assisted in bringing me into the work, 
made it a year of unusual interest. Such was the enjoy- 
ment of the year, and such its success, that, for the first 
time in the history of my life as a traveling preacher, I 
desired to be returned for another year. For reasons, how- 
ever, which were not explained or known to me, this desire 
of mine was not gratified. At this I did not murmur. I 
heartily indorsed the itinerant feature of our economy, and 
I knew that in its workings changes must often occur that 
could not at the time be pleasant or even understood by 
those aflfected by them. I knew that He who stood at 
the helm could see and control all its workings, and that 
through all its workings he would have an eye to my good 
and to the good of the Church. Neither then nor ever 
since then have I been tempted to take my cause out of 
his hands. A long experience and extended observation 
has satisfied me that those ministers who interfere least 
with the established machinery of the Church in regard to 
their appointments are, as a class, the most contented and 
successful. 

There was a band of working members on this circuit 
both in the laity and oflficiary, of great worth. Among 
them I might mention the powerful James Whitney, whose 
influence was not only felt in Port Harmar, where he lived, 
but extended to the outermost boundary of the circuit. 

12 



138 HIGHWAYS AND HEDGES. 

John Crawfoitl, a local preacher, residing at the sanio 
place, excited a wonderful influence for the building up of 
llie interests of the Church. Tliouj:;]! they have passed 
away from earth, their influence still lives to honor God and 
bless his Church. IJrothcr Daniels, a local preacher, resid- 
ing in .^1 arietta, honored his relation, and was highly 
esteemed. And now the names, and friendship, and deeds 
of scores of God's dear ones, who then labored and suffered 
for him, but who now rest and reign with him, come crowd- 
ing upon my memory. The Gosses, and Guthries, and 
Knowleses, and Hoaglands, and IVrGlochlins, and Kidwclls, 
and Smiths, and Palmers, and Buels, and Lynches, and 
Protsmans, and Lakes, and those of like spirit and worth, 
were there — yea, blessed be God! I shall hail them by and 
by in the kingdom of God. 

During this year our second son, William Fletcher, now 
a member of the Rock River Conference, was born. We 
q:ave him to God in Christian baptism at a quarterly meet- 
ing at Newberry, Rev. John Brown officiating. 

At the close of the year I was seized with typhoid fever, 
and for weeks, at my father's house on the Hockhocking, 
my life trembled in the balance. 

The plan of appointments for the year, which we give on 
the next page, will show the reader how fully the time of 
the preacher was occupied. 



MARIETTA CIRCUIT, OHIO. 



139 



PLAN OF MARIETTA CIRCUIT. 




HOUR. 



PLACE. 



Tuesday — 
Wednesday 
Thursday... 

Friday 

Saturday ... 
Sunday 



Tuesday 

Wednesday. 
Thursday.... 

Friday 

Saturday .... 

Sunday 

Thursday.... 

Friday 

Saturday .... 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday. 



10, 


A. 


M 


Xi, 


:^ht 




1*^, 


M 
P. 




2, 


M 


1?, 


P. 




2, 


M 


2, 


P. 


M 


11, 


A. 


M 


4, 


P. 


M 


1?, 


M 
M 
P. 




1"^. 




2, 


M 


T^, 


M 
P. 




3, 


M 


11, 


A. 


M 


1, 


P. 


M 


l?r, 


M 
A. 




T^, 




11, 


M 


2, 


P. 


M 


1^, 


M 
M 




12. 





Marietta. 
Port Harmar. 
Xixon's. 
Lynch's. 
Goss's. 
Rainbow. 
Sprague's. 
Featherstone's. 
Watterford's Landing. 
Callahan's. 
Miller's. 
'Palmer's. 
; Smith's. 

iLake's School-House. 
Barlow. 

Forks of Hocking. 
Daniel Goss's. 
Decatur. 
Xewberry. 

Belpre, Ann's School-House. 
Moore's. 
Jacob Bridge's. 



140 HIGHWAYS AM) HEDGES, 



CHAPTER XIII. 

GUYANDOTTE CIRCUIT, VIRGINIA. 
1S2.1-26. 

rpiIE Conference met at Columbus, October 12, 1825. 
J- Bishops George and Roberts presided. We had an 
interesting session. The Bishops of the United Brethren 
Church attended, hoping to make arrangements by which 
the class-meeting of the Methodist Episcopal Church 
should be open to the members of the United Brethren 
Church. Our Bishops, however, not having the power to 
change our rules, nothing could be done in that direction in 
the Annual Conference. 

The following preachers were admitted on trial : John 
Hill, Absalom D. Fox, John W. Clarke, wTlIiam B. Chris- 
tie, Samuel P. Shaw, John C. Havens, John Ferrce, Henry 
0. Sheldon, John W. Gilbert, Philip Strawther, and John 
W. Young. In this list the reader will discover the names 
of some who afterward became princes in our Israel, and 
whose memory is embalmed in a multitude of hearts, but 
the indefatigable Clarke, and the eloquent Christie, and the 
pathetic Ferree, and others of them have graduated to their 
rest above. 

We recorded the death of Nathan Walker. He was 
born in Montgomery county, Maryland, October 20, 1795, 
and died August 26, 1825. He was received on trial in 
1820. His last charge was Deer Creek circuit, and he died 
at the house of Mrs. Butler, at Oldtown. He was diligent 



GUYANDOTTE CURCUIT, VIRGINIA. 141 

and faithful as a preaclier, and lei't a clear and honorable 
record. At this Conference I received my appointment to 
Guyandotte circuit, Virginia. The Kanawha district had 
just been formed, mostly of circuits which, by a change of 
Conference lines, had been transferred from the Kentucky 
to the Ohio Conference. The appointment was by no means 
a desirable one, in view of my prostration from sickness. 
As soon, however, as I was able to venture out of the 
house, we packed up and started for our field of labor. By 
the persuasion of our friends we left our oldest son, John 
"Wesley, to spend the Winter with our parents. 3Iy horse 
was full of life and very restive, and I had so little strength 
that it was with the greatest difficulty that I could manage 
him. AYe reached the Ohio River in the midst of a severe 
storm of rain and snow. The ferry-boat was half full of 
water and snow; the horse was frightened, so that we had 
to get out of the carriage and stand on the wet ground 
nearly two hours, while the ferryman was getting his boat 
iu order to take us across the river. My wife, with our 
youngest child in her arms, and he a very delicate babe, was 
severely chilled, and weak as I was it was a severe draft 
on my vitality. In process of time, however, we found 
ourselves comfortably seated by a cheerful fire in the tavern, 
on the Virginia side. The kind hostess felt great anxiety 
in regard to our health, and especially in regard to the del- 
icate babe. She would walk the floor, back and forth, so 
excited that she really thought that the child was dying. 
We enjoyed, however, a comfortable bed, a good night's 
rest, and, by the blessing of God, in the morning found 
ourselves none the worse for our exposure. The landlady 
was greatly gratified, and fell so much in love with the babo 
tliat she went and purchased several presents for him before 
we left the house. 

After prospecting my work I found nothing to change 



142 lllGilWAYS AND HEDGES. ' 

tlic gloomy impression 1 Ii.kI received in reo^ard to it. I 
had bcl'urc luc a ruumjd ride ol' two liuiidrcd and fifty miles 
eacli round of my circuit, through a wild and mountainous 
region, about twenty-five preaching places, no parsonage for 
my family, but few rest days in the year to spend with 
my family, and a prospect of a very meager support. 
IMy wife, who had never faltered in meeting any of the 
duties or sacrifices incident to our work, now passed 
through a severe ordeal of temptation. Her loneliness in 
view of the absence of one of the children, her solicitude 
in regard to my health, her dread of being so much alone, 
and surrounded by a slave population, all combined to 
throw a dark shadow for the time along the path of the 
future. 

The search for a bouse resulted in the offer by an excel- 
lent brother. Dr. Paine, of the log-cabin about a mile 
from Guyandotte, which he had formerly occupied, but 
which for years past had been occupied as a sheep-fold. It 
seemed to be the best that, under the circumstances, could 1 
be done. So the sheep were turned out, that the shep- 
herd might be turned in. After days of cleaning, scrubbing, 
and fixing we were settled in our new home, and my excel- 
lent companion, determining to make the best possible out 
of existing circumstances, proposed to open a school for 
children, and so assist in gaining a support for the family. 
And it was well she did, for while that great circuit gave 
us but sixty dollars quarterage during the year, she earned 
eighty dollars in her teaching, and putting both together 
we succeeded in keeping the wolf from the door. 

The following is a brief outline of the route of my cir- 
cuit: From Guyandotte, the starting point, I went up the 
Guyandotte River to Barboursville ; then on to Mopin's 
tavern and Black's tavern; thence to Miller's, in Tey's 
Valley; then on to the mouth of Coal River, on the Big 



GUYANDOTTE CIRCUIT, VIRGINIA. 143 

Kanawha. Pushing on up the Coal River some distance, 
I crossed over to Mud River ; thence across to the falls of 
Guyandotte River; thence over to Twelve-Pole; thence 
over to the Big Sandy River, which I followed down to its 
mouth; then I followed up the Ohio River to the mouth 
of Twelve-Pole, and on up the Ohio to Guyandotte town, 
at the mouth of the Guyandotte River. 

The people received me with great cordiality, and treated 
me with marked kindness, as they always did their preach- 
ers. Though they lived in a rough country, and many of 
them were rough in their style of living, yet they had 
warm hearts, were proverbial for their hospitality, and 
seldom failed during the year to develop an affection as 
between pastor and people as made each loath to say good- 
by to the other when the year's work was accomplished. 
Nor were the people all rude and uncultivated. There 
were at different appointments of the circuit many families 
of culture that would have 'adorned society anywhere. I 
had on my list of local preachers some persons of marked 
ability, men devoted to the doctrines and discipline of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, and who were a tower of 
strength in her counsels and in her pulpits. Among these 
I w^ould mention Burwell and Stephen Spurlock. They 
were brothers. Burwell was the ablest and most popular 
pulpit man, but both were men of great influence and ac- 
ceptability. AVilliam ]M'Comas, also, was an influential 
local preacher. He had been a leading and popular politi- 
cian, having represented the people both in the State Leg- 
islature and the National Conirress. He had a son. William 
Wirt M'Comas, a young man of great promise, who was 
afterward licensed, and recommended to the Ohio Confer- 
ence, under my administration. I prized the counsel and 
friendship of these very highly, and profoundl}^ regret that, 
in the prosecution of this narrative, wc shall have to find 



141 HIGllWAVS AND lU.DGKS. 

these same persons luarslialinjj: witli tlio bitterest foes of the 
C'hiircli, and in tlic interest ol" Aniericun j^laxory preparing 
the minds ol' the people for rel»cllion against tlie supreme 
power of the State. Had any one then sufrgest^d the pos- 
sibility of such a state of things, both they and myself, 
with equal indignation, would have said, "Is thy servant a 
dog, that he should do this thing?" 

During the last hall' of this year we lived at Barbours- 
villc. There was but one member of the Church at that 
place — an old colored brother — and the place abounded in 
iniquity ; but there were a few families there solicitous to 
secure the services of my wife as school-teacher. As they 
offered her au advance on the waj>;es she was receivins:, it 
was thought best to make the change. Mrs. Ladeley, the 
wife of a respectable lawyer of the place, was chiefly in- 
strumental in bringing about this arrangement; and thou'>h 
she did not at that time profess to be a Christian, she 
proved to be a good neighbor, find used her influence to en- 
courage the establishment of preaching in the place. We 
rented part of a large brick tavern,, which well accommo- 
dated us for both residence and school-house. The tenants 
in the other part of the house were at first quite disgusted 
with the idea of a Methodist preacher so near, but they soon 
dismissed their prejudices and became good and pleasant 
neighbors. 

There was one feature of our new residence that was any 
thing but pleasant to us. The public whipping-post was 
directly in front of our door, and not unfrequently we there 
had demonstration that the way of some transgressors even 
in this world is hard. This mode of punishment was not 
confined to negroes and the most degraded classes of crim- 
inals. There was a man who had been regarded as honest 
and respectable convicted of theft, and sentenced to be put 
in jail for a certain length of time, and once in so many 



GUVAKDOTTE CIRCUIT, VIRGINIA. 145 

days to receive a complement of stripes on his naked back 
with a rawhide at the hands of the sheriif of the county 
Sheriff M'Ginnis, though a generous and warm-hearted 
Virginian, yet when as the executor of the commands of 
the people, it might be said of him in truth he bore not 
the cowhide in vain. But it was horrible to see a man 
tied up to the post and bared to the skin, and the blood 
follow^iug the rapidly descending strokes. Usually the 
crowd of idlers gathered to witness the spectacle, but in 
the case of the one referred to above, in view of his previous 
good standing, the people seemed to sympathize with him 
and to avoid adding to his mortification by their presence. 
A merciful Providence attended us during the year, and 
though we entered upon it with many misgivings and in 
great physical weakness, we found ourselves at the close of 
the year in good health, and had the consciousness that our 
labor had not been in vain. "We commended the people to 
God and the word of his grace, when the year's work was 
done, and turned our faces toward Ohio again. 

13 



146 HIGHWAYS AND HEDGES. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

DEER CREEK CIRCUIT, OHIO. 
l«t»«-27. 

n^HE Conference which met at Hillsboro, comraencing 
-L October 4, 182G, was presided over by Bishop Hedding. 
A cloom was thrown over the whole Conference in conse- 
quence of charges brought against the moral character of 
one of the most popular preachers of the Conference, Rev. 
Charles Waddle. He had been honored in the pulpits of 
the Conference, and had been elected by his brethren as 
one of the dele^-ates to the General Conference of 1824. 
The charges were sustained and he was expelled. 

The following persons were admitted on trial : George W. 
Walker, AVeslcy Browning, Cyrus Carpenter, Benjamin 
Cooper, Adam Sellers, James Callahan, Adam Poe, John 
Ulin, Amos Sparks, David Whitcomb, Stephen A. Rath- 
bone; a class some of whom became men of might in the 
Church. 

We recorded the death of Rev. John Walker. He was 
born in Hampshire county, Va., February 28, 1797. He 
entered the traveling connection in 1821, and was a faithful 
laborer until the close of his life. As he stood on the 
borders of the spirit-world the veil seemed to be drawn 
aside, and with his expiring breath he exclaimed, " I have 
fought a good fight." 

My appointment to Deer Creek circuit was altogether 
agreenble to my feelings. The travel was less laborious 



DEER CREEK CIRCUIT, OHIO. 147 

f 

than the mountain circuit on which I had labored the past 
year. This was one of the oldest and strongest of the cir- 
cuits. It was organized in 1808, and thou2:h its ori^irinal 
boundaries have been curtailed from decade to decade as 
circuits and stations have been separated from it, it has for 
more than sixty years maintained its identity and honorable 
record on the Conference roll. As I shall have occasion to 
return to this circuit again far down in the narrative, when 
I shall preach the Gospel to the grandchildren of those 
who are my hearers in 1827, I will postpone to that time 
what I have to record in regard to the history of the cir- 
cuit. Ill 1827 I found the following list of appointments: 
Waugh's, Riley's, Salem, Knight's, Hayes's, Inglish's, Upper 
Egypt, Lower Egypt, Brown's, Fisher's, Rector's, Little- 
ton's, Dry Run, Oldtown, Moberry's, Ely's, Given's, Bethel, 
Buckskin, and Durflinger's. My colleague was Rev. John 
Ferree, a young man of deep and uniform piety whose 
whole soul was consecrated to the work of soul-saving. He 
was indefatigable in the prosecution of such studies as 
would better prepare him for his work, and his pulpit min- 
istrations were characterized by a simplicity and tender- 
ness that seldom failed to reach and move his hearers. All 
ages respected him, and I found him to be a most valuable 
fellow-worker. 

Our presiding elder this year was Rev. Russel Bigelow, 
one of the 5:randest men ever associated with the Methodist 
pulpit. His powerful ministrations gave wonderful intere.st 
to our quarterly meetings and camp-meetings. Many per- 
sons of education and refinement who had little acquaint- 
ance with the Methodist Episcopal Church, but who were 
strongly prejudiced against both our doctrine and usages, 
abandoned their prejudices after hearing a sermon from 
this mighty man. 

On a certain occasion a young man of culture and fine 



148 HIGHWAYS and hedges. 

moral scnsil)ill(ios was iniporlunod to attnnd a iMcthodist 
eanip-nicctinj;. lie utterly refused, regardiTig such gather- 
ings as pernicious, and having a horror of Methodism. He 
was induced, however, to go to sec a patient on the camp- 
ground. Before he was ready to leave the ground the horn 
sounded for public service, and he sat down to listeu to a 
discourse. We extract the account which he afterward 
gave of the man and the occasion: 

"I dreaded," says he, "the occasion, but had always 
been educated to venerate religion, and had never seen the 
day when I could ridicule or disturb even a Mohammedan 
at his prayers or the pagan at his idol. In the pulpit were 
many clergymen, two of whom I knew and esteemed — the 
one a tall and majestic man, wiiose vigorous frame symbol- 
ized his noble mind and generous heart; the other a small, 
delicate, graceful gentleman, whom nature had fitted for a 
universal favorite. Had I been consulted, one of them 
should have occupied the pulpit at that time. 

"All was stillness when the presiding elder stepped for- 
ward. Never was I so disappointed in a man's personal 
appearance. He was below the middle stature, and clad in 
coarse, ill-made garments. His uncombed hair hung loosely 
over his forehead. His attitudes and motions were exceed- 
ingly ungraceful, and every feature of his countenance was 
unprepossessing. Upon minutely examining him, however, 
I became better pleased. The long hair that came down to 
his cheeks concealed a broad and prominent forehead; the 
keen eyes that peered from beneath his heavy and over- 
jutting eyebrows beamed with deep and penetrating intel- 
ligence; the prominent cheek-bones, projecting chin, and 
large nose indicated any thing but intellectual feebleness, 
while the wide mouth, depressed at its corners, the slightly 
expanded nostrils, and the t<mt-enseinble indicated sorrow 
and love, and well assorted with the message, 'Come unto 



DEER CREEK CIRCUIT, OHIO. 149 

iiie all ye that labor and are heav}' laden, and I will give 
you rest.' 

"As he commenced I determined to watch for his faults, 
but before he had closed his introduction I concluded that 
his words were pure and well chosen, his accents never mis- 
placed, liis sentences grammatical, artistically constructed, 
and well arranged both for harmony and effect, and when 
he entered fully upon his subject I was disposed to resign 
my&elf to the argument and leave the speaker in the hands 
of more skillful critics. Having stated and illustrated his 
position clearly, he laid broad the foundation of his argu- 
ment, and piled stone upon stone, hewed and polished, until 
he stood upon a majestic pyramid, with heaven's own light 
around him, pointing the astonished multitude to a brighter 
home beyond the sun, and bidding defiance to the enemy 
to move one frairment of the rock on which his feet were 
planted. His argument being completed, his peroration com- 
menced. This was grand beyond description. The whole 
universe seemed animated by its Creator to aid him in per- 
suading the sinner to return to God, and the angels com- 
missioned to open heaven and come down to strengthen 
him. Now he opens the mouth of the pit and takes us 
through its gloomy avenues, while the bolts retreat, and 
the doors of damnation burst open, and the wail of the lost 
enters our ears. And now he opens heaven, transports us 
to the flowery plains, stands up amid the armies of the 
blessed, to sweep, with celestial fingers, angelic harps, and 
join the eternal chorus, 'Worthy, worthy is the Lamb!' 

"As he closed his discourse every energy of his body and 
mind were stretched to the utmost point of tension. His 
soul appeared to be too great for its tenement, and every 
moment ready to burst through and soar away as an eagle 
toward heaven. His lungs labored, his arms rose, the per- 
spiration, mingled with tears, flowed in a steady stream 



150 HIGHWAYS AND HKHGES. 

upon ihv floor, and every tiling about him seemed to say, 
*0 that iny head were waters!' But the audience thought 
not of the struggling body, nor even of the giant mind 
within, for they were paralyzed beneath the avalanche of 
thought that descended upon them. I lost the man, but 
the subject was all iu all. I returned from the ground dis- 
satisfied with myself, saying within mc, '0 that I were a 
Christian!'" 

That young man afterward sought admission into the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, was called to the work of the 
ministry, was elevated from one post of responsibility to 
another, until he occupied a place on the Episcopal Board, 
and became honored and loved throughout the whole de- 
nomination. 

But to return. It is not at all strange that, with such 
pulpit ministrations, our quarterly and camp-meetings wore 
looked forward to with large expectations. But there were 
other circumstances that gave the quarterly meetings of 
those days decidedly the advantage of those of the present. 
The circuits then extended over a large scope of country, 
and the majority of the societies had preaching only once 
in two weeks, and then on a week-day ! A Sabbath and sac- 
ramental service had powerful attraction, and they thronged 
from these distant appointments to spend two or three days 
in their spiritual Jerusalem. Then, the presiding elder not 
having more appointments than he was able to attend in 
person, he was able to be present at four quarterly meetings 
on each charge each year. We had on Deer Creek circuit, 
at this time, nearly a thousand members scattered through 
some twenty-odd oppointments. The reader may fancy, 
then, what a moving there would be toward the place of 
quarterly meeting after they had once enjoyed the ministra- 
tions of Bussel Bigelow. 

The parsonage on this circuit was in a country place, on 



DEER CREEK CIRCUIT, OHIO. 151 

Dry Run. It -was a hewed Jog-Louse, and embowered in a 
beautiful maple forest. The nearest neighbors were about 
a quarter of a mile distant, so that, except when the forest 
was stripped of its foliage, we were entirely out of sight of 
any other human habitation. The neighbors were constant 
and lavish in their attentions to ni}^ family, sending in sup- 
plies almost daily of what was needed for our comfort, and 
usually some one of the neighbor girls would come to stay 
with the family at night when I was absent ou the circuit. 
On Sabbath, too, some one of the neighbors would call to 
assist the family to church. But, with all this kind atten- 
tion, the isolated location of the parsonage caused us much 
inconvenience. 

On one occasion, in my absence, my companion was 
waked at midnight by the difficult breathing of our second 
sou. She found that he was suffering with a very severe 
attack of croup, and before it was possible for her to pre- 
pare any such remedy as was within reach he appeared to 
be gasping in the very embrace of death. It was imprac- 
ticable to send to any of the neighbors. But, by the bless- 
ing of God on her endeavors, the violence of tho disease 
was arrested, and the child recovered. 

On another occasion, while the little boys were playing in 
the forest near the house, one of them by accident severely 
wounded the other with a tomahawk. The screams of the 
boys, one of them screaming with fright and the other with 
pain, soon called my companion to the place. She carried 
the wounded one in her arms to the house, and held the 
mangled member tightly in her hands, so as to prevent as 
much as possible the flowing of blood, until the oldest son, 
a little boy only six years old, ran to the nearest neighbor, 
a quarter of a mile distant, and obtained assistance. The 
spring from which we obtained water was about eighty rods 
distant, and when we were without older company to care 



152 HIGHWAYS AND HEDGES. 

for tlic little ones, their mother innJe this arranj::emeat with 
thciii to prevent them gettinjj; into danger in lier absence to 
get water: Tlie oldest boy was put at the cradle, with in- 
structions to rock the cradle, and the second boy took his 
station by the side of a chair, to which he was tied with a 
string, lie became so well accustomed to this performance 
that as soon as he would see his mother get the watcr-pail, 
he would hurry to hunt up the string and place himself in 
position for his temporary imprisonment. It was impossible 
for me so to arrange my plan as to avoid being absent from 
home very much of the time. In this retired place our 
third son, Daniel Asbury, was given to us, a lovely babe, 
but destined to be soon transferred to the companionship 
of the blessed above. 

About the middle of the year my wife was taken down 
with typhoid fever. One of the most skillful physicians 
attended her, and was most faithful in doing all that he 
could do, but she grew worse and worse, until the physician 
despaired of her recovery. He said that he had never read 
of but one case of recovery where the symptoms were so 
bad as hers. He left expecting that she would die that 
night. 

The impression had been strong upon her mind from the 
beginning that she would not recover, and being exceed- 
ingly happy in the presence of the Savior and the hope of 
heaven, she was much averse to taking medicine. At her 
request the children were brought to her bedside ; she em- 
braced them, and gave her dying counsel and charge to the 
boys, then gave me directions in regard to her burial. She 
requested that brother Bigelow should preach, and selected 
as the text, " Be ye therefore also ready," and sent as a 
message to her parents and friends the triumphant language 
of Paul, " I have fought the good fight, I have finished my 
course," etc. Ah who can tell the feelings of my heart! 



DEER CREEK CIRCUIT, OHIO. 15 



r.O 



• 



Now I had no place to go to but to the great Physician. 
His eye was upon me and upon these little ones. He could 
sanctify the most simple remedies for the accomplishment 
of the most wonderful cures, or he could work independent 
of means. And if in answer to prayer he raised up Paul's 
friend lest he should have sorrow upon sorrow, why should 
he not hearken to me ? He did, and that night she began 
to amend. The physician learning that she was still living 
returned to see her, and she recovered rapidly, so that in a 
few weeks she was able to resume the care of her house 
again,. But before she was thoroughly recovered, the infant 
was seized with cholera infantum. Dr. Denning, the noble- 
hearted and skillful physician at Oldtown — now Frank- 
fort — invited us to bring the child to his house, where he 
could give it more constant attention. We did so, but it 
pleased the Lord that little Daniel -Asbury should be trans- 
ferred to a better home than he could have on earth. On 
the day that he would have been nine months old we laid 
his remains away in the village cemetery. And now we 
realized a pang incident to our itinerant vocation that we 
had not known before. The forms of our loved ones are 
destined to be scattered^ and we shall not have the sad 
privilege of often visiting the graves of our loved ones. 
But then, thank God! there will be a resurrection of the 
dead, and the fragments of the family shall be gathered 
again in that great day. 

Dr. Denning, the physician above referred to, who at- 
tended us. in sickness, gave us the freedom of his house, and 
spared no pains or expense to alleviate our suflferings and add 
to our comforts, was an able and valuable man and physi- 
cian. I had the honor and unspeakable pleasure of leading 
him to Christ, and of recording his name on the roll of the 
visible Church. Some years after this he removed his 
family to Lafayette, Indiana, where he died. Before he 



154 lilGUWAViJ AND HEDGES. 

died he rccjuestcd that a chair should be left standing at 
tlic licad of bis j^ravc. Could it be my privilege to visit 
that grave niethinks 1 could spend hours in profitable med- 
itation, as I would recall the memories of the past, and 
dwell upon the brevity and vanity, the dignity and sublim- 
ity of life. 

Among those that I received into the Church during that 
year, besides the one above-mentioned, and who proved to 
be valuable accessions to the Church, I recall with peculiar 
pleasure the names of Tillman llittenhouse, who afterward 
served his country faithfully and honorably on the judicial 
bench, and David Reed, who afterward became an able and 
popular minister in the Ohio Conference. How my heart 
swells with gratitude to God, now while I am writing, that 
the great Head of the Church put such honor upon me as 
to give me such men as my spiritual children ! But all 
three of them have outstripped me in the race and have 
lauded on th3 other shore. 

The following local preachers were on the plan of my cir- 
cuit, and gave me assistance during the year : Rev. Joseph 
Hays had been an able and efficient traveling preacher, but 
his wife having died, he found it necessary to give more of 
his time to the care and education of his children. He re- 
mained a widower, and brought up his children with great 
respectability. Brother Atherton followed school-teaching 
as a profession. He was a scientific man; his preaching 
was of an intellectual type, and was listened to with much 
interest. William Hughey was a good preacher and much 
appreciated by the people, but he committed the great mis- 
take of running with the radical excitement and connecting 
himself with the so-called " reformers." John Jenkins 
was also infected with this excitement, so as to damage both 
his enjoyment and usefulness for the time being, but in 
after years he settled down, and spent the evening of his 



DEER CREEK CIRCUIT, OHIO. 155 

days feeling at home in the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
When many years after this, my son, a stripling boy eight- 
een years of age, was sent on to the Frankfort circuit, he 
found a hearty welcome and valuable encouragement at the 
house of brother Jenkins. Rev. Jesse Bowdle was of a 
large and respectable family, and as a Christian and min- 
ister he was sound to the core. Stephen Timmons had been 
in the regular work, both in the East and in the West. He 
was father of Rev. F. A. Timmons, of the Ohio Conference, 
who came into full connection in the Church under my ad- 
ministration that year. He had marked peculiarities, and 
the country was full of amusing anecdotes setting forth his 
eccentricities. He greatly admired humility, and detested 
any thing that looked like pride in the traveling preachers. 
In 1814 H. B. Bascom was the junior preacher on the cir- 
cuit, and on the occasion of one of his visits to brother 
Timmons, the latter brother is said to have adopted the 
followino; mode of takins: the starch out of the clothes and 
the blacking off the boots of the young ^preacher. Just 
before time for the preacher to get ready to go to his ap- 
pointment, brother Timmons turned his horse into a large 
corn-field, when a muddy chase of an hour after the frol- 
icking horse, in a field full of burs, effectually did the 
work as far as outward appearances were concerned. Rev. 
Reuben Roe had been in the regular work, and was a val- 
uable and acceptable preacher. Brother 3Iaddox was also 
a good worker, loyal to the Church and esteemed by the 
people. 

Then among the laity there were the M'Neils, and Rit- 
tenhouses, and Browns, and Bowdles, and Withgots, and 
Hursts, and Crabbs, and Waughs, and Robbinses, and 
Blacks, and Augustuses, and Shepherds, and Rectors, and 
Littletons, and Hossletons, and others, a noble host, never 
to be forgotten. 



156 HIGH WAYS AM) ]n:UGES. 

M V liad a uraiul oainp-inccting near tlic close of tlic year, 
in the ncigliborlioud ul" Oldtuwn. Tlierc was an immense 
gathering of the people and an able corps of preachers, and 
the meeting resulted in much L-^ood. llcv, Zachariah Con- 
ncll preardicd a very able sermon on, " Is there no balm 
in Gilcad?" etc. Kev. E. (J. Wood preached a valuable 
sermon on "The Highway." llcv. H. 0. Sheldon gave effi- 
cient ludji, and manifested much ingenuity in his mode of 
reproving the rowdies. As they were so boisterous one 
night as to prevent sleep, the people were called up at mid- 
night for preaching, and brother Sheldon took the stand. 
Pointing with his finger as though he had his eye on some 
one in the distance, he exclaimed, " Friend, how earnest 
thou in hither, not having a wedding garment?" He said 
there was an old tradition that in the beginning of our race 
the Creator, having made a number of bodies, put them 
out to dry preparatory to furnishing them with souls, and 
that a few of them ran away in that unfinished state. He 
then suggested the query whether those persons that were 
howling through the forest, to the annoyance of sensible 
people, might not be descendants of those unfortunate soul- 
less people. 

The Conference met September 19, 1827, in the old 
Stone Chapel, in the city of Cincinnati, Bishop M'Kendree 
presiding, assisted by Bishops George and Soule. It was the 
time of the quadrennial election of delegates to General 
Conference. We received on trial John Wood, Gilbert 
Blue, Jesse Hoe, Frederick Butler, William T. Snow, and 
James Armstrong. We elected the following brethren to 
represent our Conference in the General Conference, which 
was to meet at Pittsburg the first of May next : Jacob 
Young, David Young, J. B. Finley, J. F. Wright, R. Bige- 
low, G. B. Jones, James Quinn, John Collins, Moses Crume, 
Leroy Swormstedt, John Brown. AVe recorded the death 



DEER CREEK CIRCUIT, OHIO. 157 

of Rev. John Sale. He was a native of Virginia. Entered 
the travelino: connection iu 1796. He died at tlic house 
of brother French, near Troy, Ohio, January 15, 1827. 
He commenced his itinerant labors in the North-west in 
1803, and had the honor of laying the foundation of 
Methodism in many places. By some, the honor is attrib- 
uted to him of forming the first society in Cincinnati, but 
we have gone with what seems to be the main current of 
evidence in giving that honor to Rev. John Collins. 

I was returned to Deer Creek circuit, with Rev. Adam 
Sellers for my colleague, and Rev. John Collins for my 
presiding elder. My colleague proved to be a fliithful 
preacher, and a superior business man. The presiding 
elder, though not the intellectual giant that his predecessor 
was, yet as a man of power among the masses of the peo- 
ple, had few equals, and, perhaps, no superiors. He was 
emphatically a " son of consolation," and it might be said 
with equal emphasis that he was a " son of thunder." He 
had a remarkably sweet voice, a prepossessing appearance, 
was full of incident which, in the most simple and happy 
manner, he wove into his sermons. Whenever becoming 
animated in his discourse, he would throw his massive head 
to one side, and begin to shrug his right shoulder, then 
those who were acquainted with him expected to hear some 
of his overwhelming bursts of eloquence. The eficct of his 
happiest efi'orts was wonderful beyond description. As he 
had traveled Deer Creek circuit some years before, and his 
labors had been greatly blessed, his return as presiding 
elder was hailed with delight by the people. 

During this year I lived in Greenfield. My family had 
more society, and we had a pleasant and profitable year on 
the circuit. 

The General Conference, as before stated, met at Pitts- 
burg, the first of ^fay, 1828. The session was an excitiiisj 



158 



HIGIIWAVS AND HEDGES. 



one. The question of i^^rcatcst interest related to the de- 
mand for chan«j;es in our (M)urcli polity, and the proper 
course to be pursued with those who were thoroughly eom- 
niittcd to the proposed changes, and whose efforts were 
constantly employed in agitating the Church on these ques- 
tions. In the bounds of the Baltimore and Pittsburg 
Conferences the agitation had already reached a crisis, 
and some of the leaders in the agitation had been dealt 
with by the authorities of the Church. llev. Nicholas 
Snethen, a local minister of great eloquence and intellectual 
power, became the leader among the agitators, and Rev. 
Thomas Bond, a local preacher also, became a leading 
champion of the existing polity. When the matter came 
before the General Conference it was very thoroughly dis- 
cussed, and the voice of the Conference was not only em- 
phatically against the innovations, but indicated with equal 
clearness that the policy of the Church would be to bring 
discipline to bear against persistent agitators. We expected 
that the agitation would lead to secession in many places, 
as it also came to pass. Many ambitious and disappointed 
men went out regai-ding themselves as not appreciated, and 
many good and conscientious members separated themselves, 
thinking that the position of the General Conference waa 
wrong and severe. 



MIAMI CIRCUIT, OHIO. 159 



CHAPTER XV. 

MIAMI CIRCUIT, OHIO. 
1828-30. 

SEPTEMBER 18, 1828, the Conference met at Chilli- 
cothe, only a short distance from my field of labor. In 
view of this, I had arranged to hold a camp-meeting near 
Oldtown during the session of the Conference. The mem- 
bership of the circuit was all aglow from the effects of the 
camp-meeting just closed, and came up to this one with 
enlarged expectations, and well prepared to do battle for 
God. Able and earnest members of the Conference came 
out each day to assist, and the Word was attended with 
great power, and a multitude witnessed to the efficacy of 
the blood of Christ to save. Among those who joined at 
this meeting was William R. Anderson, who afterward be- 
came a standard-bearer, and for many years stood shoulder 
to shoulder with the honored members of the Ohio Confer- 
ence. The meeting, like its predecessor, was a grand suc- 
cess. In consequence of attention to this meeting I could 
not give much attention to the business of Conference. 
Bishop Roberts presided, full of grief at the recent death 
of Bishop George; and the following persons were received 
on probation, namely: Jacob Hill, Thomas Thompson, 
Thomas Simms, Joseph Hill, William Herr, Leonard B. 
Gurley, Alvin Billings, James W. Finley, George Huffman, 
Joel Dolby, Joseph M. Trimble, Henry Colclazer, and David 
Cadwallader. The names of several of these have long 



IGO HIGHWAYS and hedges. 

been as houseliold words in our Zion. At tins Conference 
T first heard the voice ol" J. iM. Trimble, one fif the fore- 
going list, lie followed one of the preachers in exhortation, 
and inspired both preachers and pcoj)le with large expecta- 
tions of his usefulness as a standard-bearer. 

Considerable excitement occurred at this session on Free- 
masonry. A ]Mr. ]Morgan, who had declared himself a 
member of that fraternity, and had revealed what he de- 
clared to be the " Secrets of Masonry," had suddenly dis- 
appeared, and popular rumor claimed that the Masons had 
inflicted upon Morgan the penalties of the order. "What 
became of Morgan is a mystery to this day, many still be- 
lieving that he was murdered, and others thinking that the 
whole procedure was a shrewd mode of advertising his 
book, and that he enjoyed pecuniary profit from the excite- 
ment that resulted from his sudden disappearance from his 
home. The excitement that pervaded the country reached 
the Conference, and resulted in a "compromise," in which 
the Masons pledged themselves to abstain from attending 
the lodges, except on very special occasions, and the "anti- 
masons" pledged themselves to cease their bitter assaults 
upon the fraternity. The excitement passed away after a 
few years, and neither party seemed very conscientious in 
keeping the pledges of the compromise. At diiferent times 
since then this controversy has been measurably revived. 
There have been enthusiastic Masons, who have appeared 
to give Masonry and the lodges the place in their thoughts 
and affections that belong to Christ and his Church. On 
the other hand, there have been enthusiastic antimasons, 
who have regarded the institution as antichristian, and its 
members antichrist. Between these extremes, however, the 
great mass of Christians and citizens have been content 
that individuals should make it a matter of individual con- 
science as to their personal connection with societies of 



MIAMI CIRCUIT, OHIO. 161 

the kind. As it has been charged by the extremists first 
named that the majority of the clergy are connected with 
such societies, the mass of intelligent people have con- 
cluded that that fact, if a fact, was presumptive evidence 
that the society neither taught doctrines nor practiced cere- 
monies that Christian ministers could not subscribe to and 
participate in. And if a word from an aged minister ot 
the Gospel, now nearing my four-score years, and expecting 
soon to be done with all of this life, could tend to remove 
the trouble of any on this subject, I would say that I have 
been acquainted with Masonry for nearly half a century, 
and while I have never been so wedded to the institution 
as to incline to neglect any religious duty or Church priv- 
ileae to visit Iodides or associate with Masons, yet I can 
cheerfully record my belief that the principles and teach- 
ings of the order emanate from the Scriptures, and that any 
man living up to those teachings, and his promises, will be 
a eood moral man and a ^lood citizen. And I will further 
add, that I have never known Masonry to be employed for 
the purpose of influencing Conference action, or the matter 
of appointments of the preachers. And now to return from 
this long digression. 

I was appointed to the Miami Circuit, with Eev. Wm. 
Simmons for my colleague, and Rev. Greenbury R. Jones, 
presiding elder. As brother Simmons was on the circuit 
the year before, and now returned for the second year, he 
was very properly preacher in charge. I found him to be 
a competent, zealous, and enterprising Christian minister, 
commanding the confidence of the Church and people, and 
proposing no compromise with the world, the devil, or the 
Pope. I moved into the parsonage at Chester, where the 
people received me with great kindness. The circuit in 
those days, as compared with others, was regarded as rather 

a small and casj' circuit, but as compared with the circuits 

U 



162 HIGHWAYS AND HEDGES. 

of the present clay, it was a vast field of labor. We had 
twcnty-ei<^ht appointments, embracing a nicnibership of 
nine hundred and twenty-nine, and occuj>ying all the terri- 
tdvy between the iMianii Kivcrs, fVoni the Ohio lliver back 
to Lebanon, except Cincinnati and Hamilton stations. The 
following is a list of the appointments : Chester, Spring 
Meeting-house, Monroe, Pisgah, Palmyra, Union, Price's, 
Penton's, Montgomery, lleeder's, Madison, Armstrong's, 
Salem, Weatherby's, Wood's, Spark's, Blue Rock, Brown's, 
Clcves, Ebeuezer, Cheviot, Shaw's, Williams's, Gregg's, 
AVood's, Maddox, Liberty, and Columbia. 

We had a prosperous year; the attendance on the public 
and social means of grace was good. If any proved delin- 
quent, we exercised the discipline promptly, but kindly, and 
generally succeeded in restoring the delinquent to duty and 
enjoyment. 

We closed the year with a camp-meeting seven miles 
back of Cincinnati. A multitude of people attended. We 
had also an abundant supply of able ministers, whose 
hearts were in the work, and the meeting proved to be a 
success. We carried up a good report to the Conference. 

September 3, 1829, the Ohio Conference met at Urbana, 
Bishop Roberts presiding. The following persons were re- 
ceived on trial : Thomas D. Allen, Joseph A. Reeder, Wil- 
liam Sutton, Adam Minear, Jesse Prior, Elijah H. Pilcher, 
Amos Sparks, Samuel A. Latta, Henry E. Pilcher, Homer 
J. Clarke, Wesley Wood, Elmore Yocum, Erastus Felton, 
William Sprague. Some of these are still ably working 
for God. Homer J. Clarke had been admitted several 
years before, but had retired to secure an education, and 
now came into the work again fresh from the university. 

I was returned to Miami circuit, with Rev. G. R. Jones 
continued as presiding elder, and Rev, James Laws as my 
colleague. I had regarded brother Laws as somewhat self- 



MIAMI CIRCUIT, OHIO. 1G3 

opinionated, and feared that he would be dissatisfied to 
labor as second preacher on the circuit, especially as he was 
my senior both in age and in the ministry. But he entered 
upon the work with me, and exhibited great versatility of 
talent, and proved to be an efficient co-worker. He was 
ready as a preacher, spirited in exhortation, powerful in 
prayer, a sweet singer, and almost unsurpassed in his power 
of endurance. The membership was in good working or- 
der at the beginning of the year, and continued so during 
the year. 

Near the close of the year my circuit proposed to unite 
with the churches of Cincinnati in holding ^a camp-meet- 
ing. The proposition was accepted, and ground on Mill 
Creek, about three miles from the city, selected. Extensive 
preparations were made, and a general interest was felt in 
securing the success of the meeting. Revs. J. B. Finley 
and W. Browning, the pastors in the city, brought out their 
working host, and our membership well represented the 
several appointments en the circuit. Curiosity moved the 
great mass of population^ and the attendance was very large 
indeed. 

We were unexpectedly favored with the services of the 
Rev. Stephen G. Roszel, of the Baltimore Conference. He 
had come West to visit his son, then a student at Augusta 
College, Kentucky, when, being invited to visit Cincinnati 
and attend this meeting, he consented to do so. His repu- 
tation was sufficiently known among the preachers to excite 
large expectation ; and then his giant and commanding 
physical proportions, as soon as he entered the pulpit, ex- 
cited similar expectation upon the part of the vast multi- 
tude. He announced his hymn, which was sung with spirit. 
We kneeled in prayer, and his commanding voice seemed 
to penetrate the very heavens as he led in a prayer of won- 
drous power. When he arose to announce his text, every 



16i HIGHWAYS AND HEDGES. 

eye aiiJ car was fixed in attention. It was soon apparent 
to all that an intellectual giant occupiod the pulpit. For 
about two hours that vast multitude was held spell-bound. 
Shocks of divine power accompanied the Word, and, at 
times, the more spiritual in tl^e audience, overcharged with 
the heavenly electricity, would give vent to their feelings 
and make the grand old woods ring with their rejoicings. 
Seldom has a congregation been so profoundly stirred under 
the preaching of the Word. The work went on steadily, 
and that Saturday night was a night of power. It was gen- 
erally expected that lloszcl would preach again on Sabbath, 
and expectation had reached the highest pitch. He filled 
the appointment and fully met expectation. Again, for 
more than two hours, he held the mighty mass of humanity 
and swayed them as the wind sways the forest. In the 
midst of the intense excitement, he called the congregation 
to their knees before God. 0, my soul! what a sublime 
bowing before the Lord was that! For some time the con- 
gregation lingered before God, thrilled with the shocks of 
power that had accompanied the preached Word. I had 
witnessed many demonstrations of power before, but I had 
never witnessed any thing superior to this. We placed 
upon the muster-roll of the militant Church, before the 
meeting closed, the names of between three and four hun- 
dred who purposed to enlist for the war. I trust, when the 
war is over, and the conquering legions are called home, 
that I shall meet many of them, to talk over the victories 
of that great camp-meeting. 

There were many valuable men in the laity, as well as 
in the ministry, on Miami circuit. Joseph A. Reeder was 
then working at his trade, as tailor, in Montgomery, and 
keeping the post-office. He had very great influence over 
the masses of the people, both in and out of the Church, 
which influence he used wisely. During this year we 



MIAMI CIRCUIT, OHIO. 165 

licensed him to preach, aud he soon became an effective 
traveling preacher. William Parish, then a private mem- 
ber, resided in West Chester, and carried on a tannery. 
He was a man of sterling Christian character. He had 
taken strong hold of the confidence of the people, and 
promised large usefulness in the Church. He was afterward 
licensed to preach, and did the Church valuable service. 

James Conrey, of a numerous and very respectable family, 
lived near West Chester. He was the father of Rev. Jona- 
than F. Conrey, and was at that time in a sad state. He 
was in a state of despair as regarded his prospects of sal- 
vation. He said that there had been a time when he might 
have been saved, but that time had passed forever. He 
recognized intellectually the importance of salvation, but 
said that he had passed the boundaries of feeling, and was 
left without concern. His neighbors, feeling deeply inter- 
ested for him, besought me to put forth some special effort 
in his behalf. I entered into his case, and determined to 
do all I could to foil the devil in his attempt to ruin this 
man. The tempter had done with him as he has done with 
so many others. For years he had said to him, "Time 
enough yet, time enough yet," and had thus robbed him 
of years of his term of probation; and now he had turned 
upon him and said, "It is too late now; you have rejected 
so long that there is no mercy for you now." I visited him 
frequently, and urged him to commence reading the Bible 
and praying, and assured him that, though he might expe- 
rience no feelings of tenderness at first, it could do him no 
harm, and I had faith that the spirit would visit him again. 
He undertook to follow my advice. After days of effort, 
he said that he had no feeling as yet. We urged him 
to persevere in the effort. He did so, and in less than 
a month he be";an to feel encouraged, and before three 
months had passed the snare of Satan was broken, and he 



lOG HIGHWAYS AM) HEDGES. 

was rojoicin;^^ in (nul liis Savior. lie developed iuto a use- 
ful and exemplary Christian, was licensed to preach, and 
for more than thirty years witnessed a good profession in 
the Church and before the world. 

Danforth Wcatherby and Aarou I^urdsal were neighbors, 
living some eight miles back of Cincinnati. They were 
local preachers of good standing, and used their talents to 
advantage for the cause of the Master. About eight miles 
west of Cincinnati lived brothers Biddle and Gosling, who 
were local preachers, both from New Jersey, and both 
highly appreciated in their relation to the Church. The 
names of a great many members of the Church scattered 
over that large circuit still linger in my memory and my 
heart. There was Price, and Vantreese, and Conrey, and 
Elliott, and Flinn, and Williams, and Short, and Cline, and 
"West, and Shaw, and Brown, and Reader, and Ward, and 
White, and Sackett, and Williamson, and Wood, and Mad- 
dox, and Dr. Beach, and Legg, and such. But out of 
nearly a thousand members, the great mass of whom were 
living Christians, I shall not be able to go through the 
enumeration of their names. 

It was during this year that God gave us our JSrst daugh- 
ter, Sarah Jane, a child destined to be a joy in our 
household for a few years, and then to precede us to the 
heavenly home. 



OXFORD CURCUIT, OHIO. 167 



CHAPTER XVI. 

OXFORD CIRCUIT, OHIO. 
1830-32. 

SEPTEMBER 8, 18.30, the Ohio Conference met at Lan- 
caster, Bishop Soule presiding. There was a full attend- 
ance of the preachers, and many of them came up in the 
fullness of the blessing of the Gospel. God blessed them in 
their pulpit ministrations, and a precious revival broke out 
about the third day of the Conference, which increased stead- 
ily until the close of the meeting. Some of the preachers re- 
garded it as one of the most spiritual Conferences they had 
ever attended. The following were received on trial : Brad- 
ford Frazee, John M. Goshorn, William M. Sullivan, Her- 
bert Bayard, John C. Hardy, Joseph Leedom, Bernard A. 
Casset, Levi P. Miller, William Morrow, William Young, 
Ebenezer B. Chase, James Gurley, Allen D. Beasley, Asa B. 
Stroud, Ebenezer Owen, Charles C. Lybrand, Noah Hough, 
Abram Millice, Benjamin Boydston, Elnathan C. Gavitt, 
Elam Day, Ezekiel S. Gavitt, and Leonard Hill — a good 
class, that has rendered long and valuable service to the 
Church, 

I was appointed to the charge of Oxford circuit, with 
Rev. G. R. Jones presiding elder, and Rev. A. D. Beasley 
for my colleague. The following was ray list of appoint- 
ments: Oxford, Owen's, Dover, Loop's, Riner's, Deem's, 
Miitonville, Draper's, Marsh's, Harrison, Swearingen's, New 
Haven, Venice, Lehigh, Younian's, Stewart's, Alhand's, 



168 HIGllWAVS AND JILDGES. 

Fay's, Oickinaon'.s, Tirown's, lliizloton's, Ebcnczcr, Butlcr'.s, 
jukI Woudiuffs. These twcuty-loni' ;ij»poiiitments occupicdj 
an extensive territory, but we had upon the whole a pleas- 
niit field of l:ihnr. My colleague was a worker in the pul- 
pit and out of it, and we labored together in harmony and 
affection. The people gave us a warm welcome, and wo 
had the gratification of seeing the pleasure of the Lord 
prosper in our hands. The greatest drawback to ray enjoy- 
ment was the want of a parsonage for my family to live in. 
Brother Charles Stewart gave us the use of an unoccu])ied 
house on his farm, and though it was not a very comfort- 
able place, yet the great and constant kindness of that] 
noble Christian family went very far to reconcile us to the 
discomforts of the house until we could do better. With^ 
the approbation of the ofiicial members of the circuit, I' 
opened subscriptions for the erection of a parsonage atj 
Oxford. The people responded cheerfully, and the house 
was built and put in order, ready for myself or whoever 
should serve the charge tlie next year. 

The Conference met at Mansfield, Ohio, September 8, 
1831, Bishop Hedding presiding, who preached a sermon 
of great power on the Conference Sabbath, The following 
persons were admitted on trial : James F. Davidson, Elias 
M, Daley, Joseph M. Matthews, Adam Miller, Benjamin L. 
Jefferson, George Elliott, Charles W. Swain, Michael Mar- 
ley, Henry Turner, Thomas Wiley, Jesse Prior, John G. 
Bruce, George C. Crum, Jacob Martin, Lorenzo Bevans, 
Philip Wareham, Benjamin Allen, Stephen M. Holland, 
and David Kinnear. This, too, was a good class, and some 
of them rose to great prominence and became widely known 
as able representatives of Methodism. 

We recorded at this Conference the death of the venera- 
ble Michael Ellis. He was one of the grandest of our 
pioneers. He was ordained deacon at the same time that 



OXFORD CIRCUIT, OHIO. IGO 

Bishop Asbury was ordained Bishop. Having spoken of 
him more at hirge in another part of this narrative, I shall 
not enter upon any detailed account of this man of God in 
this place. , 

As the General Conference was to meet the first of May 
next, we elected our delegates at this session, and the lot 
fell on the following brethren : David Young, Russel Bige- 
luw, J. Quinn, J. F. ^Yright, L. Swormstedt, W. H. Baper, 
A. W. Elliott, J. B. Finley, Z. Council, Curtis Goddard, 
John Collins, W. B. Christie, Charles Holliday, and G. B. 
Jones — a very large and a very able delegation. 

I was returned to Oxford circuit, and associated with a 
new presiding elder and assistant. Of my new presiding 
elder, Bev. James B. Finley, I have already spoken at large 
in a former chapter. I was sorry to separate from brother 
Beasley, who had proved to be such a faithful assistant. 
My new assistant, however, Bev. James F. Davidson, 
though just entering the life of an itinerant, was well re- 
ceived, and fulfilled his duties creditably to himself and 
satisfactorily to the people. I moved into the new par- 
sonage at Oxford, and was much better situated, both for 
family comfort and for the advantages of personal improve- 
ment. The Miami University, one of the State institutions, 
being located at Oxford, its influence pervaded the whole 
social atmosphere, to a greater or less extent. So much 
did I become exercised on the subject of education myself, 
that could I either have set myself back in age a few years, 
or had my sons been old enough to enter upon the prose- 
cution of a collecriate course, I believe that I would have 
entered the University, and abandoned the itinerant field 
until I should have secured a liberal education. As it 
seemed impracticable under all the circumstances for me to 
gratify my desire in this direction, I resolved to make what 
proficiency my opportunities should aftbrd me, and to lay 

15 



170 IIIGinVAVS AND HEDGES. 

my pl;ins (o secure to my sons the advantages of a thor- 
oiii;li oducatiuii. 

DuviiiLr tliis year our lil'tli :iik1 last cliild, llutli Kliza. 
was born, rnid now our faniily consisted of two sons and 
two dau^litcrs willi us on earth, and one son with our 
Father in heaven. 

I{cv. Moses Crunie, that venerable and precious man of 
God, who had worn himself out in the Master's work, was 
now on the retired list, residing in Oxford. I valued him 
as a friend and counselor. Danforth Weatherby and Col- 
])reth Hall were both acceptable local preachers, belong- 
ing to the society at Oxford. Joseph A. Waterman was 
licensed to preach, and recommended to the traveling con- 
nection from this charge this year. He became an intel- 
lectual giant, and, had he been a well-rounded man and 
fully imbued with the spirit of the itinerant work, inferior 
to very few in the denomination as a Methodist preacher. 
Brothers Merrell and Stout were appreciated by the people 
as faithl'ul local preachers. They both lived on the college 
lands. Brother Aaron Powers was an active and valuable 
local preacher, living in the neighborhood of Charles Stew- 
art's. After I left the circuit he became infected with the 
Mormon vagaries, and going to their community consorted 
with them for awhile, intending to unite with them. After 
a short time Jo. Smith, havina- learned that Powers had 
property, informed him that he had a revelation from the 
Lord directing that he should give to the Church one-half 
of his property. "When," inquired Powers, "when did 
you have have this revelation from the Lord?" The so- 
called prophet mentioned the time. " Then," responded 
Powers, "I have had a revelation from the Lord since then 
that I should do no such thing." The brothers Comstock, 
senior and junior, were both respected local preachers and 
practicing physicians, and exerted a healthy influence in the 



OXFORD CIRCUIT, OHIO. 171 

communities where they were known. Rev. John Deem, 
at that time an acceptable local preacher, afterward entered 
the traveling connection. Brother Lincoln, in Harrison, 
and brother Kitchen, of Oxford, were also local preachers, 
acceptable and worthy, and by me much beloved. Mat- 
thew and William Morehead were veterans in the cause of 
God. George White and Peter Butler, and Bussel, and 
Bartlett, and Youman, and Turner, and Melone, and 
Marsh, and Einer, and William Crume, and a host of 
others, are dear to me, whose works will praise them in the 
gate. 

Near the close of this year we had a camp-meeting near 
Charles Stewart's. It proved to be a grand gathering of 
the hosts of the Lord ; and though Satan came also, and 
attempted to distract the work, yet God was there in power. 
Many were awakened and converted, and the saints went to 
their homes strong to do and suffer for the Master. 

It was during this year that I first came in contact with 
Mr. Kid well, a noted champion of the doctrine of Univer- 
salism, and editor of the Star of the West. Our contro- 
versy was brief, but spirited, and occurred on this wise : 
Having occasion to notice the doctrine of Universalism in 
one of my discourses, I had stated that if the teachings of 
tliat doctrine were true that God had seemed to show par- 
tiality toward the wicked. He had swept the wicked inhab- 
itants of the antediluvian world suddenly into heaven, and 
had left the few righteous to be shut up in the ark, tossed 
upon the waves of the flood, and to remain for years longer 
sufferers in this world of disappointment and afflictions; 
and suggested, further, that if the teachings of that doc- 
trine were true, it miiiht be a work of benevolence to mas- 
sacre all who were in any circumstances of want or suffer- 
ing here. Such an act would immediately introduce those 
massacred to heaven, and thouirh men mitiht call it murder, 



172 lIIGinVAVS AND IIKDGES. 

it couM in u<» way joopavdizc tlic salvation of the murderer. 
Kidwell became excited, and answered nie in his pa})er, and 
challcnsrod mo to meet him in public debate. He said that 
if he believed as 8tewart did, that all dyinu; in infancy are 
saved, he should esteem it an act of benevolence to kill off 
all the children in infancy, so that they might not come to 
years of accounta])ility to hazard their salvation. Believing 
that pu])lic controversies seldom resulted in much profit, I 
had intended to treat his challenge with contempt. Some- 
time after this I casually met him, and was introduced to him 
iu the post-ofl&ce by Rev. Moses Crume. I then told Mr. 
Kidwell that I had not seen his paper, but that I had 
heard of his strictures, and of the challenge that he had 
extended to me, and said, " I intended to pay no attention 
to your challenge ; and as regards the massacre of the inno- 
cents, consistently with your doctrine you can murder them 
and not endanger your salvation, but I can not." He 
stammered for an answer, but was taken so by surprise that 
he left the office in confusion. A gentleman present com- 
plimented me by saying, "You certainly took the bull by 
the horns." 



BELLEFONTAINE CIRCUIT, OHIO. 173 



CHAPTER XVII. 

BELLEFONTAINE CIRCUIT, OHIO. 
1832-33. 

THE Conference met at Dayton, Ohio, September 19, 
1832, Bishop Emory presiding. This was the first and 
only time that he presided at our Conference. He was a 
first-class presiding officer, and made a most happy im- 
pression in all his intercourse with us. ^Ye received on 
probation Obadiah Johnson, F. A. Timmons, L. L. Ham- 
line, Daniel G. Dector, John Kinnear, Luther D. Whitney, 
Daniel Poe, Robert Cheny, Samuel G-. Patterson, Joseph M. 
M'Dowell, Edward Thomson, Marcus Swift, ijliakim Zim- 
merman, Peter Sharp, David Reed, Edward D. Roe. H. 31. 
Shaffer, John Hasty, Andrew Dixon, William Westlake, II. 
Dodds, George Smith, Arthur B. Elliott, Zachariah Games, 
William P. Strickland, Benjamin Ellis, and William S. 
Thornburg. Two of this list have since been promoted to 
the episcopacy, and many of them have accomplished their 
ministry and gone to their reward, and others of them arc 
still doins: valuable service. Two of them I had received 
into the Church and was happy to meet them here. 

When the appointments were read out, I learned that I 
Dot only had a long move to make, but one of the most la- 
borious frontier circuits to serve. Bellefontaine circuit had 
at that time some thirty appointments, a membership of 
twelve hundred and thirty-six, and a territory of vast ex- 
tent. Rev. William H. Raper was my presiding elder, and 



174 



iiir.invAvs AND iir.nr.ES. 



Revs. J. (I. T^rucc and J'ctcr Slunp my colleagues. Though 
1 would not have desired that appointment, yet I was in thol 
strength of manhood and felt no dispo.sition to oomplaiu.j 
As promptly as jiractieablc I moved my family witliii; the 
bounds of the circuit. Tlicrc being no parsonage I sccurcdJ 
the best temporary shelter for my family that could bo] 
found, and addressed myself at once to the work. Afterj 
prospecting the field, I reported to the presiding elder thai 
if he had suitable work elsewhere for one of my colleagues! 
I would rather reduce the work to a four weeks' circuitl 
than to run the awkward machinery of a six weeks' circuit. 
He approved my suggestion, and transferred brother Brucoj 
to another work. Brother Sharp was willing and eJ0&cient,j 
and during the year, by the blessing of the Lord, we each] 
preached over thirty sermons each month, besides meeting 
the classes, visiting the people, and responding to extra 
calls for ministerial service. 

Our closing camp-meeting, which was held in the neigh- 
borhood of jbrother Messick's, was an occasion of great in- 
terest and uncommon power. Added to the ordinary at- 
traction of such an occasion, it had been announced that; 
brother Syms, the missionary among the Wyandott In- 
dians, would attend with a detachment of the converted 
Indians, so an immense concourse of people gathered. The 
missionary and the Wyandotts came as was expected, and 
added greatly both to the interest and profit of the meeting. 
These recently converted children of the forest had thrown 
away the tomahawk and the scalping-knife, and now, with 
the greatest simplicity and fervency, worshiped God and re- 
joiced in his salvation. Their prayers, and songs, and ex- 
hortations, and shouts made an impression never to be lost 
by many who, perhaps, would not have been reached by any 
ordinary instrumentality. 
» Among the local preachers whose co-operation and friend-' 



BELLEFOXTAINE CIRCUIT, OHIO. 175 

ship I remember with pleasure were Rev. David Kemper, 
then a single man, diligently applying himself to study to 
secure a proper qualiScation for the life-work in which he 
has since been honored and blessed; Rev. John 310 ruder, 
more advanced in years, and efficient and respected in his 
sphere of labor. Brother Casebolt also did good and ac- 
ceptable service as a local preacher. 

Among the private and official members there were many 
noble spirits. There was George Messick, whose name de- 
serves to be recorded in golden capitals. He had " a soul 
as biir as all out-doors."' The latter half of the Conference 
year he brought my family and divided his house with us, 
furnished us with a cow, and, indeed, there was no end to 
the kindness of himself and fiimily to the preachers. May 
the blessing of the great Head of the Church rest upon his 
posterity forever ! Joseph Bowdle, whose name I recorded 
amonij the o;ood men of Deer Creek circuit, had settled near 
Roundhead, and contributed liberally of money, labor, and 
influence to extend the borders of Zion about his new 
home. Noah Z. MCuUoch, the clerk of the court in Belle- 
fontaine, was a solid member of the Church, a nian of un- 
flinching integrity and devotion to the cause of God. Then 
there were the Balies, and MFarlands, and Carters, and 
Pools, and Brookses, and a great many more of kindred spirit 
and worth whose names are graven on preachers' hearts, and 
I trust also in the Book of Life. 

The following is the list of the principal appointments 
on the Bellefontaine circuit: 1. Bellefontaine ; 2. Richard's; 
3. Roundhead; 4. Rutledge's ; 5. Brooks's; 6. Richard- 
sou's; 7. Timber; 8. Parkerson's; 9. Liberty; 10. Monroe's; 
11. M'Farland's; 12. Fine's; 13. Gregory; 1-1. Stephens's; 
15. Salem; 16. Robertson's; 17. Antioch ; 18. Musselman's; 
19. Sidney; 20. Laramie; 21. Harden; 22. Hathaway's; 23. 
Burdctt's; 2-1. Quincy; 25. Newman's; 26. Mcssick's ; 27. 



176 HIGHWAYS AND HEDGES. 

George's; 28. rowcH's; 29. Wood's; :]0. Spry's; an.l a few 
others the names of which Ijavc p;one from my memory. 

Our proximity to the Indian ^lission, as referred to iu 
preceding pnges, had drawn out our sympatliics this year 
much for that people ; and tlic attention of the whole de- 
nomination had been aroused in behalf of Indian evan<rcli- 
zatioo by an incident that occurred this year laying tlic 
foundation of our missions beyond the Rocky Mountains. A 
deputation from the Flathead Indians had made a journey of 
between two and three thousand miles from their home near 
the Pacific Ocean, and presented tlicir plea to Mr. Clark, the 
Indian agent in St. Louis, for knowledge of the white man's 
God and religion. The Advocate and Journal published 
the account, accompanied with a cut of one of the heads of 
the strange people. Jason and Daniel Lee volunteered to 
go as missionaries, and such was the influence of the move- 
ment that the missionary collections for the year nearly 
doubled the amount for the previous year. 



TROY CIRCUIT, OHIO. 177 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

TROY CIRCUIT, OHIO. 
1833-34. 

AUGUST 21, 1833, the CoDference met at Cincinnati. 
Bishop Roberts presided. As the cholera had been 
prevailing in Cincinnati, many of the preachers declined 
attending the session. The following persons were received 
on trial : Joseph A. Waterman, John Alexander, William H. 
Lawder, Benjamin F. Myers, James Parcels, Cyrus Brooks, 
Samuel Harvey, Granville Moody, F, H. Jennings, Henry 
Maynard, S. A. Rathburn, Samuel Allen, Joseph Newson, 
Samuel Lynch, William H Brockway, Duncan McGregor, 
David Burns, James Wheeler, Paul Wambaugh, James B. 
Austin, Robert Graham, Richard Lawrence, T, A. G. Phil- 
lips, Philip Nation, John Donalson, Alexander Morrow, J. 
W. Cooley, Lester Janes, Lorenzo Waugh, Henry White- 
man, Charles R. Lovell, Henry Camp, James Webb, John 
C. Hardy, James Courtney, Zephaniah Bell — a large class, 
some of whom are among the most valuable workers in our 
Zion at this day. We recorded the death of Rev. John 
Ulin. He was a man of brilliant parts, and was stricken 
down suddenly with cholera, July 13, 1833. He had been 
successful and was much beloved. 

The Troy circuit, to which I was appointed, was organ- 
ized at this Conference out of part of the Piqua circuit. I 
regarded it as a small and very easy circuit, it having only 
nineteen appointments — one-third less than my last circuit. 



178 



HIGHWAYS AND HKDGES. 



Ju'v. W. II. l{;ipor remained on ihv district, and Kev. J. G. 
Jirucc was luy colleague. He was the same young man who 
was appointed with mc to BcUerontaine circuit, but having 
been removed, as stated in mv nnnativc heretofore, 1 liad 
not rnrnicd his acquaintance to any great extent. He 
proved to be a man of fine preaching ability, well adapted 
to and faithful in meeting the responsibilities of the work. 
I was well pleased with my appointment and associate, and 
anticipated a pleasant year. 

Soon after Conference I was comfortably settled in the 
parsonage at Troy, and enjoyed a hearty welcome from a 
whole-souled membership. The cholera had been sweeping 
many into eternity, and still lingered to some extent, but 
the violence of the dreadful visitation had passed before we 
came to Troy. I had for my nearest neighbor in the pas- 
torate Kev. Arza Brown. He was at Piqua, and was then 
in his prime — a man who never failed to endear himself to 
the people that he served, and who left his mark in the 
person of living witnesses, raised up, through his ministry, 
to declare the power of the Gospel to save. 

Though myself and colleague applied ourselves industri- 
ously to our work, we did not realize the revivals and 
in-gatherings that we had hoped for. This failure to realize 
our expectation was not traceable to any Church difficulties 
or any want of co-operation on the part of our membership. 
I have learned, however, both by experience and observa- 
tion, that present visible success does not always attend the 
most faithful and anxious labor. There are times when the 
spirit of awakening pervades whole districts and continents, 
and the Word runs and is glorified without much apparent 
efi"ort on the part of ministers. The pool seems to be 
troubled; times of refreshing are come, and the conviction 
penetrates all hearts, "Now is the day of salvation." There 
are other times when labor, however faithfully performed, 



TROY CIRCUIT, OHIO. 170 

yields no immediate visible fruit. It is, however, the duty 
of each laborer to sow good seed, and to sow it in abun- 
dance ; to sow it in the morning and to sow it in the even- 
ing, as he knows not which shall prosper most, this or that, 
or whether both shall prosper alike. He must trust God 
for the increase, who can give thirty-fold, sixty-fold, or a 
hundred-fold. He has promised that our labor shall not be 
in vain in the Lord, and though we go forth weeping and 
bearing the precious seed, we shall doubtless return again, 
rejoicing, and bringing sheaves with us. 

Associated with us as supernumerary was Rev. Richard 
Brandriflf. He was living in Troy, in impaired health — a 
good preacher and much respected by the people. He 
afterward committed the great mistake of quitting the 
Church of his choice and uniting with the " True Wesley- 
ans." They made much of him, but I am inclined to think 
that his latter da^'s were neither as cheerful nor useful 
as they would have been had he remained in the communion 
in which he had spent his strength. Brother D. Dyke was 
also living in the bounds of the circuit. He had been a 
useful traveling preacher, and exerted a good influence 
among the people. Brother J. Goddard was a good local 
preacher. Very humble in his own estimation, he had a 
high place in the esteem of his brethren. Brother J. 
Mitchell was also an acceptable local preacher, and was lis- 
tened to by the people. 

Among the lay members at Troy, D. Sabin and Levi Hart 
stood very prominent. The former was an able and suc- 
cessful medical practitioner. He was a thorough Meth- 
odist, able to grasp the whole economy of the Church, and 
to defend it against any adversary. He was thoroughly 
posted, and a man of great mental power. The preachers 
found in him a steadfast friend, and he always extended to 
them faithful professional services, free of charge. Brother 



180 HIGHWAYS AM) HEDGES. 

li.irt \vn?5 acfivo in iiirrtiiiL' tlie rospo)ifsil)ili(ics of liis cifTicial 
relations, and did liis ^\^\rk iiitclli<^cntly and llioroUfMy. 
Ill fact tlic ullicial lioard of tlic Troy circuit, as a wli-dc, 
was a very diLrnified, stronp^ and efficient body. Such vras 
my attacliincnt to tlieni and tlie people generally of the 
charge, that I would gladly have remained another year. 
There were other reasons, too, why it would have been 
agreeable to my family to have remained another year. My 
oldest son, John Wesley, had commenced learning the 
printer's trade, in the office of brother Tullis, who published 
and edited the " Troy Times," and we would have been 
gratified to remain, so that he could have still been a men\- 
ber of our family and under our influence. We, however, 
submitted to the order of the properly constituted authorities. 
As I omitted to record the list of appointments in the 
proper place, I will insert it here: 1. Troy; 2. Crisman's; 
3. Muhurou's; 4. Chambersburg ; 5. M'Fading's; G. Pisgah ; 
7. Lee's; 8. Gearheart's; 9. Mitchell's; 10. Bethel; 11. 
LefFel's ; 12. Sim's ; 13. Rector's ; 14. Arney's ; 15. Spring 
Meeting-house; 16. Crary's; 17. Clarke's; 18. Lamb's; 
11). Carlisle. 



ADELPin CIRCUIT, OHIO. 181 






CHAPTER XIX. 

ADELPHI CIRCUIT, OHIO. 
1834-35. 

AUGUST 20, 1834, the Conference met at Circleville, 
Ohio, Bishop Soule presiding. The following per- 
sons were admitted on trial: Joseph 0. W. Cloniuger, 
David Kemper, Charles R. Baldwin, Reuben S. Plummer, 
John Morey, Lorenzo Davis, John Rodgers, John F. Gray, 
Edward Estell, Jonathan E. Chaplin, James Brooks, Moses 
A. Milligan, Richard Haney, William Morrow, James A. 
Kellam, Stephen P. Heath, McKendree Thrapp, Frederick 
A. Seborn, David Warnock, George Armstrong, Daniel M. 
Conant, Robert F. Hickman, Zachariah Wharton, Alanson 
Fleming, Dudley Woodbridge, Robert S. Kimber, John T. 
Kellam, John Bronaugh, Wesley Rowe, Hiram Gering, 
Orin Mitchell, William I. Ellsworth, Sylvester F. Southard, 
Mark Delany, Sheldon Parker, Lucien W. Berry, Wesley 
Brock, Richard Doughty, James Wilkinson, John W. White, 
Wesley C. Clarke, J. A. Brown, William B. Bradford— 43. 
Some of these I have recently met in the great North-west, 
occupying leading positions in their Conferences, and some 
of them are known throughout the denomination. 

During the past year two of our preachers had been trans- 
ferred from the Church militant to the Church triumphant; 
namely, Thomas F. Sargent and James Callahan. Brother 
Sargent had occupied a high position in the East, and was 
transferred to the Ohio Conference and stationed in Cincin- 



182 HIGHWAYS AND HEDGES. 

iiati. Hr died l)({'cinl)or 2J), 1833, before the close of his 
first year among us. lie was ;i iii.in of diversified and 
extensive attaimncnts, and was lamented by a large circle 
of admircMs and friends. Brother Callahan died of pul- 
monary consumption at the residence of his father-in-law, 
brother Burlingham, near Marietta, Ohio, November 9, 1833. 
II is father. Rev. George Callahan, had given him to God 
early in life. He embraced religion early, entered the 
traveling connection in 182G, and his talent, devotion, and 
success, during the few years of his ministry, had given 
promise of great usefulness. But He who sees "the end 
from the beginning" transferred him to the brighter clime 
above. 

My removal from Troy, as intimated in the last chapter, 
was contrary to my wishes, and, as I had reason to believe, 
contrary to the desires of the members of that charge. It 
was not only contrary to our mutual wishes, but altogether 
unexpected. When the Bishop had made his address, and 
commenced reading out the appointments, I sat easily in 
my place, expecting to be returned, but w^hen he reached 
that appointment he read: "Troy, J. Laivs, W. I. Ells- 
worth. R. Brandrfff, sup." The thoughts of my sick wife, 
my boy just commencing to learn a trade, and all the embar- 
rassments in the way of a removal, flashed through my 
mind and I was somewhat disconcerted. But I yet hoped 
that I might find myself stationed on some adjacent charge. 
The Bishop read on and finished that district, and on 
through the third, and the fourth, and fifth, and sixth, and 
seventh, and eighth, and at the last appointment of the 
eighth district read: "Adelphi circuit, John Stewart, J. 
W. White." A move of about one hundred miles, and a 
large, rugged four weeks' circuit of twenty-eight appointments 
was before me. I was driven to my wits' end to be recon- 
ciled; but I never had rebelled, and I determined to go to 



ADELPIII CIRCUIT, OHIO. 



183 



my work and not let any body know that it was not just 
the work that I desired. I never asked any expLmation of 
brother Raper, the presiding elder, and he never volunteered 
to give me any, so I do not know to this day why the change 
was made. Since then, however, my experience in the 
Bishops' cabinet has instructed me that changes sometimes 
need to be made for the reasonable relief of individuals, or to 
secure the general interest of the work, that could not be 
anticipated, and that could hardly be explained to all the 
parties concerned so as to appear altogether satisfactory to 
them. The system of Methodist Church polity is one of 
mutual sacrifice, to secure in its ultimate results mutual 
advantage and the largest amount of efficiency with a given 
amount of men, and means, and labor. 

PLAN OF ADELPHI CIRCUIT. 






Sabbath ... 

Tuesday . 
Sabbath .. 
Wednes... 
Thursday 
Sabbath .. 
Monday... 
Tuesday . 
Wedne.s... 
Saturday. 
Sabbath... 
iMonday... 
Tuesday.. 
Wednes... 
Friday 



Sabbath... 

Tuesday. 

<( 
Wednes... 

Thurs(h\y 
Friday ... 
Sabba'th... 

Monday_. 
Tuesday . 

Friday 

Saturday 



Pbf.aching-Pl.\ce,- 



.\delphi 

Widow Low's , 

William Dawson's. 

Dowd'-s 

D. Culbertson"s 

Mc.\rthurstown 

Lovinji's 

S. Redteru's 

Comer's S. H 

Londonderry 

Concord M."H 

S. Hanson's M. H.. 

Rout's , 

Bookwalier's S. H, 
Monett's M. H 



Tarlton 



Jesse Cartlich's. 

David Fate's , 

Woodward's S. 

Mannie's 

.Aaron Youmr's. 
Webb's JI. H... 

Logan 

Pitcher's 

Brown's 

Cave's , 

Thoinass 

Rice's M. H 



H.. 



o 



Ross. 



.\thens. 



Jackson. 



Ross. 



Pickaway 



Hocking.. 



Athens.... 
IIockiuK.. 



20 



11A.M. 

11 " 
Night... 
.SP.M 
11 A. M 

11 " 

12 M .... 
11A.M. 
11 " 

3 P.M. 
11 A. M, 
11 " 
11 " 
11 " 
11 " 

11 " 



11 



Pickaway 



3 P. M. 

11 .A.M. 
3P.M. 

2 " 

12 M 

11 A.M. 

3 P. M. 
10 11 A. M 

7 11 " 
5 2P.M 
4 11 A. M 



f f. Class-Leadees. 



51 

21 
10 

20 
12 

5t; 

2.3 
27 

:m) 

57 
85 
•Xi 
15 
24 
29 



48 

If. 
20 
10 
14 
37 
Gl 
30 
55 
2;i 
22 
48 



/George Will, 
JA. Gartlich. 
Pastors. 

Bro. Westcoat's. 
D. Culbertson. 
James Johnson. 
A. Hortoii. 
S. Redlern. 
Brother Comer, 
A. Gordon. 
David Gundy. 
John Gundy. 
Brother Rout. 
Pastors. 
J. Monett. 
(J. Shoemaker, 
J Brother Roby, 
( \. Ly brand. 
( George Fate, 
( I. Cartlich. 
Pastors. 

Bro. Woodward. 
'Bro. Biosgerstatf. 
'James Young. 
ITliomas Webb. 
jS. S. liright. 
Broliier Sellers. 
Brother Conrad. 
M. Caves. 
Brother Wheeler. 
Willi.im Rice. 



181 



HIGHWAYS AND IIKDGES. 



The followinf;^ names were reported as exhortcrs, local 
preachers, and circuit stewards : K.rhor/rra — .Jolm nrcssback, 
Isaac Cartlich, Dr. Hilibard, A. Carflicli, J. Drcssback, F. 
Fate, and I). Fate. Lorn/ Prmrhrrs — ]). Culbcrtson, S. 
Kedfcrn, T). Dutchcr, .1. Monctt, John Kodgcrs, Joseph 
iStarlincr, Aarou Young, 'i'honias Webb, Natlian Bro^vn, and 
Henry Brown. Circuit Sfnoarth — George Will (recording 
steward), John Patterson, James Johnson, A. Gordon, Geo. 
Binkley, S. S. Bright, and William Rice. 

This is the plan as given to me by my predecessors, Rev. 
AVilliani Wcstlakc and Philip Nation. The only addition 
that I have made to the plan is to add the counties in 
whicdi the appointments were located. In a few instances, 
■where they were located near the county lines, I may not 
be entirely correct. It will be observed that the circuit 
extended into five counties, and embraced a membership of 
nearly one thousand. 

The first year that I traveled the circuit, Rev. Au^^^ustus 
Eddy was my presiding elder, and John W. White was my 
colleague. The second year, Rev. John Ferree was my 
presiding elder, Wesley Rowe my colleague, with all of 
whom my associations were both pleasant and profitable. 
Of the presiding elders I have already spoken in former 
chapters. My colleagues were botli young men just enter- 
ino- the work, and both gave unmistakable promise at the 
outstart of extensive usefulness in the Church. Brother 
White had a lively imagination, a ready utterance, a large 
share of magnetism in his nature, and his ministrations 
w^ere much blessed to the people. Brother Rowe was 
prompt to duty and reliable in every relation. He had 
great social powder, and was an interesting and profitable 
preacher. His sermons were brief, practical, and jaften 
pathetic. They have both fulfilled the high hopes that I 
entertained of them, the former still standing on the walls 



ADELPHI CIRCUIT, OHIO. 185 

of Zion, and the latter having passed on to the Church 
triumphant. 

I had some difficulty in finding a house to live in, as the 
circuit had no parsonage. The best we could do for some 
mouths was to occupy an old house connected with a tan- 
nery, in the suburbs of x\delphi, which, according to popular 
rumor, was the resort of " spooks," and therefore a great 
terror to the young. AYe had some difficulty in educating 
our children to overcome the timidity occasioned by these 
stories. After a few months brother Mouett invited us to 
occupy a vacant house near him on his farm, where we were 
; very pleasantly associated with his excellent family. I ad- 
dressed myself, however, to the work of providing the cir- 
cuit with a parsonage, and had the privilege of occupying it 
in Tarlton my last year on the charge. In each of these 
neighborhoods my family had the attention of first-class 
Methodists, and we and the people of the charge became 
mutually greatly attached. Each Conference year wound 
up with a glorious camp-meeting. The one at the close of 
the first year was held in the Concord neighborhood, on 
Walnut Creek. It was an immense gathering, and proved 
to be a meeting of large results. Among those whose min- 
istrations were greatly blessed at that meeting were Rev. 
Augustus Eddy, the presiding elder, then in the strength of 
his physical manhood and the palmy period of his pulpit 
I'liwer; Rev. David Lewis, full of love and zeal and faith; 
Rev. Evan Stevenson, of Kentucky, a man of lofty enthu- 
siasm and almost consuming zeal; Rev. Philip Nation, one 
of the sweetest singers and most powerful exhorters; and 
J. AV. White, my colleague, of whom I have already spoken. 
The great altar was at times crowded with penitents, and as 
the converting power descended we witnessed some scenes 
thrilling and grand beyond description. It was at this 

meeting that my son, who afterward became a minister, 

16 

I 



186 TTir.llWAVS AND HEDGES. 

joined the (Muucli. lie w;»s a l)i<l Imt ten ycarh of age ; 
Avliilo tlic call was being made for vnlmitrers, lie stood back 
in the congregation, leaning against a tree, "weeping. One 
of the ministers on tl«c platform saw him, and conjecturing 
his feelings, approached. " Bui), do you want to join the 
Church? If you do, you may." And without waiting for 
an answer, he gathered the child up in his strong arms, and 
pressing him to his great warm heart, he literally carried 
him into the visible fold of Christ, 

The camp-meeting which closed the second year on that 
circuit was held in the neighborhood of Logan, and about 
one mile from the falls of Ilockhocking. It, like the other, 
was a powerful meeting. As the circuit was this year at- 
tached to Marietta district. Rev. John Ferree, presiding 
elder, was present during part of the meeting, preaching 
with his usual unction on such occasions. Rev. David 
Lewis was again with us doing efficient service, but as the 
meeting was distant from any other pastoral charge, we had 
but few ministerial visitors, and myself and colleague had 
to perform a good deal of the pulpit labor. I was much 
blessed preaching on Sabbath night on " Surely I come 
quickly." 

As the time drew near for me to leave this circuit I 
found that the bauds that bound me to the dear people of 
my charge were very strong. They had given me a warm 
welcome and hearty co-operation, and the most liberal sup- 
port that I had ever received. I received this year two 
hundred and forty dollars, which was forty dollars more 
than I had received on any other charge. 

At that time Adelphi circuit was blessed with a very able 
and efficient corps of local preachers. Among them I would 
mention the venerable Jesse Cartlich, a good man, possess- 
ing a large fund of useful knowledge, and a rare facility in 
communicating in a most interesting way that knowledge, 



ADELPHI CIRCUIT, OHIO. 187 

either in the social circle or the pulpit. Four of his sons 
became preachers, two of whom, Abraham and Isaac, served 
the Church as acceptable members of the Conference. Rev. 
David Dutcher had been a man of popularity and power in 
the regular work. While he performed the labors of a cir- 
cuit, one of his sous took charge of home interests and 
supported the fiimily. The sudden death of that son by 
accident had necessitated the location of brother Dutcher. 
But while local in form he itinerated in fact much and 
very usefully to the Church. Brother Solomon Redfern was 
a useful local preacher, and gave a son to the traveling 
ministry, of whom much was anticipated, but the Master 
soon called him to the rest above. Of brother Monett I 
have already spoken. He was a minister highly esteemed 
by all who knew him, and was blessed of God with a model 
family. His descendants have inherited his spirit, and some 
of them are known among the excellent of the Church. 
Before the close of my time on the circuit, he removed with 
his family to Marion, where he made fortunate investments 
in lands. Rev. Nathan Brown, venerable for years and 
prized for his moral worth, was still abundant in every good 
word and work. He also gave two sons to the ministry, 
John, long a valuable member of the Ohio Conference, and 
Henry, who was an acceptable local preacher on this cir- 
cuit. There, too, were brothers Rodgers and Starling living 
at Tarleton, both doing good service as local preachers. 
We had a working class of exhorters, too, whose names ap- 
pear in the "plan" of the circuit, several of whom after- 
ward became preachers. The Cartliches, and Dressbacks, 
and Fates are all deserving of honorable mention. "We had 
an able board of stewards. Will, Patterson, Johnson, Gor- 
don, Binkley, Bright, and Rice were men devoted to the 
cause of God and Methodism. The recording steward, 
brother George Will, was a man of remarkable executive 



188 ITKIHWAVS ANH IIF.DGES. 

talent. 1 have .seldom known lils equal in efficiency as a 
steward, and it was to nic a source of jirofound grief when, 
under temptation, he withdrew from the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church. l>ut Ijc afterward united with another branch 
of the (.'hurch. I hope to meet him and many of his ex- 
cellent family where there are no jiartition walls and no 
tempter. 

I will close this chapter with a reference to the session 
of the Conference Avhich occurred at Springfield, Ohio, 
August 19, 1835, at which Bishop Andrew presided. I 
should have mentioned it sooner, as it was from this Con- 
ference that I w^as returned to the circuit for the second 
year. 

Among the matters of interest at this session was the 
visit of Rev. 11. B. Bascom. He had started in the Ohio 
Conference, but for many years had been absent from us, 
laboring in other parts of the work. He now appeared 
among us like a blazing meteor, and electrified the Confer- 
ence and audience with his amazing eloquence. His sermon 
on Sabbath from the Scripture, "The law shall go forth 
from Jerusalem," etc., brought the audience to their feet, 
and held them spell-bound during the delivery of the dis- 
course. 

We received on probation the following persons: Silas 
H. Chase, Wm. T. Hand, Werter R. Davis, William Met- 
calf, Andrew Carroll. Rufus F. Blood, Augustine M. Alex- 
ander, Thomas Barkdull, John 0. Conway, Larmon Chat- 
field, William Nast, Uriah Heath, Joseph A. Morris, John 
Blanpied, Jehiel Porter, Thomas Hesson, John H. Pitezel, 
Washington Jackson, Solomon Howard, Harvey Sweney, 
Abraham Buckles, John W. Young, Thomas Dunn, Wes- 
ley J. Wells, John Quigley, Henry AYharton, Jonathan 
Anthony, James Hooper, David Gray, Osborn Monett, 
Michael G. Perkhiser, Lewis Smith, John Reed, Martin 



ADELPHl CIRCUIT, OHIO. 189 

P. Kellogg, James Frees, Stephen F. Conrey, Robert 
Triggs-37. 

On this roll are the names of men who were destined to 
be giants in our Israel, and whose names will be handed 
down through all the history of the Church as men greatly 
liilled and honored of God. 

AVhen the Committee on Obituaries came to read their 
report, it appeared that the great Head of the Church had 
called from labor to rest and reward some of the most 
princely and saintly men of our Conference. Philip Gatch, 
William Page, and Russel Bigelow, had accomplished their 
ministry and gone up on high. Brother Gatch commenced 
itinerating in 1773, and had done the work not only of a 
pioneer, but of a hero, and had almost been honored with 
the crown of a martyr. He settled near Cincinnati in 1798, 
and from that time until the 28th of December, 1835, the 
time of his death, he labored as an itinerant local preacher. 
He did much work and did it well. 

Brother Page was born in Monmouth county. East Jer- 
sey, September 2, 1772; joined the traveling connection in 
the city of Philadelphia at a Conference held in 1793. In 
1811, having previously located, he removed to Ohio and 
settled in Adams county. He re-entered the traveling con- 
nection in 1820. He was a valuable and esteemed minister 
of the Gospel, and after a long and useful ministry died 
peacefully November 15, 183-4. 

I have spoken of that peerless man, Rev. Russel Bigelow, 
at length in another part of this narrative. 

We elected the following brethren as delegates to Gen- 
eral Conference : Thomas A. Morris, Jacob Young, David 
Young, W. H. Raper, Leroy Swormstedt, John Ferree, J. 
B. Finley, W. B. Christie, James Quinn, J. F. Wright, A. 
Eddy, J. H. Power. 



Ly y-i 



100 HIGHWAYS AND HKDGKS. 



CIIArXER XX. 

ATHENS CIRCUIT, OHIO. 
1836-38. 

rpiIE Conference met at Chillicothe, September 28, 1836, 
-^ Bishop Soule presiding. The following persons were 
admitted on trial : Daniel Wainwright, John Steele, 0. C. 
Shelton, George Fate, Maxwell P. Gaddis, William H. 
Fyffe, James Brooks, Jeremiah Hill, John Hasty, David 
Kinnear, John W. Stone, Joseph Gassner, Mighill Dustin, 
Evan Stevenson, Martin Wolf, William B. Anderson, 
Justus Brewer, Ancil Brooks, Jos. W. Smith — 19 — not 
as large a class as the one received a year ago, but the list 
contains some valuable and well-known names. 

We recorded the name of one dear brother, William 
Philips, as having died August 4th, 1836. During the few 
years he had belonged to the Conference, he had exhibited 
a diversity and strength of talent which inspired the Church 
with great hope. In the pulpit or the editorial sanctum 
he was equally at home. His work exposing the errors of 
Campbellism gave proof of his ability in the department of 
polemical divinity. His death was a great loss to our 
Conference. 

From this Conference I had my appointment to Athens 
circuit, with Bev. J. Ferree for my presiding elder, and 
Rev, Mighill Dustin for my assistant. Brother Dustin was 
a devoted and faithful itinerant worker, and rapidly gained 
the confidence and affections of the people. He was a man 



ATHENS CIRCUIT, OHIO. 101 

strong in his convictions and uncompromising in the main- 
tenance of what he regarded as right and duty. He has 
been gradually rising in. influence in the Church ever since 
that time, and now occupies a high position among his 
brethren in the Cincinnati Conference. 

I experienced mingled emotions when my appointment 
was announced. I was both pleased and embarrassed — 
pleased to return to my home and worship with my parents 
and former associates, embarrassed in view of the responsi- 
bility of becoming the pastor and teacher of those who had 
been my teachers, and who had known me from my child- 
hood. During the twenty years that I had been in the 
itinerant work, I was accustomed to visit home usually as 
often as once a year, and had so kept up acquaintance with 
the people generally. They had continued to call me 
familiarly "John," and among them I always regarded 
myself as a boy. My parents and my wife's parents were 
all living, and the associates of my boyhood were there. 
So soon as I reached the circuit, however, the people gave 
me such a kind and hearty welcome that my embarrassment 
soon left me, and I spent two years on the circuit, which 
were among the most pleasant' and successful, in some 
respects, of my ministry. 

At that time Athens circuit embraced twenty-six appoint- 
ments and had nearly eight hundred members. Its quar- 
terly conference was composed of able and valuable men, 
such as Hon. Calvary Morris — brother to Bishop Morris — 
J. Reynolds, A. Cooley, Jonas Smith, Enos Thompson, 
Stephen Pilcher, John Minton, George Bean, John "Walker, 
Isaac Humphrey, Elijah Pilcher. They received me as 
God's messenger, and gave me cordial moral and material 
support. 

For a brief sketch of the founding of Methodism within 
the bounds of this circuit, the reader is referred to the first 



192 IlIf.IlWAVS AND HEDGES. 

chapter in the narrative. The name of tlie circuit and its 
boundaries had been changed froin time to time. At the 
time of whicli I now write, it expended along the Hock- 
hocking a distance of forty miles, from Meeker's Bottom to 
the mouth of the river. The preaching-places were as fol- 
lows : 1. Daniel Stewart's; 2. Elmore Rowel's; 3. Mouth 
(•r Hocking; 4. Coolville ; 5. Bethel; G. Lotridge's ; 7. 
Frost's; 8. Penmore's; 9. Veit's; 10. McCulm's; 11. Gates's; 
12. Center Stake; 13. Woodyard's ; 14. Dickson's; 15. 
Bunion's; 16. Harris's; 17. AValburu's; 18. Bolen's; 19. 
Leetown; 20. Minton's ; 21. Beynolds's ; 22. Wolfs Plains; 
23. Ross's; 24. Athens; 25. Canaan; 26. Harrison Long's. 
These twenty-six appointments were regularly filled by each 
of the preachers every four weeks, thus securing regular 
circuit preaching to each society every two weeks. Then 
we had a noble band of local preachers and exhorters, who 
supplemented our labor so as to secure service every week 
to the most important points. I hardly dare commence 
putting the names of the excellent spirits of that circuit on 
the record, because while it will be impracticable to trans- 
fer the whole roll, I may seem to be partial in my selection. 
I will mention a few as a sample of the many : Justus, 
Isaac, and Eli Reynolds were brothers and men of Christian 
influence ; tW'O of them were local preachers of respectable 
talents and efficiency. Then there were the Cooleys — 
Simeon, Asahel, Caleb, and Herman — all men and Chris- 
tians of the first order. Asahel was one of the most 
excellent exhorters. John Minton was a man of great 
power in exhortation. He was listened to with profound 
interest, and hundreds of slumbering consciences have been 
thoroughly aroused by his thundering appeals. 

The Conference met September 27, 1837, at Xenia, Ohio. 
Bishops Hedding and Soule presided. One of our preach- 
ers, Gilbert, was convicted of immorality and expelled. 



ATHENS CIRCUIT, OHIO. 193 

Wc received on probation William Parish, Solomon How- 
ard, David Smith, Ebenezer Owen, James L. Grover, John 
Fitch, Alfred Hance, Matthew Scovel, Madison Ilansley, 
Jesse M'Mahon, Andrew Murphy, Richard Doughty, 
George W. Bowers, Jonathan ¥. Courey, Jedediali Foster, 
Jonathan Anthony, Calvin W. Lewis, Benedict Hutchinson, 
Elijah Y. Bing, Luman H. Allen, Randolph S. Foster, 
Thomas Chesuut, Joseph S. Brown, John Kiger, John W. 
"Weakley — 25 — a good class, furnishing material for all the 
departments of ministerial labor. From it have been taken 
men to preside over important stations, and districts, and 
institutions of learning, and it may yet have its representa- 
tion in the Board of Bishops. 

We tliis year recorded the death of Rev. John A. Water- 
man and Erastus Felton. Brother Waterman was one of 
our ablest ministers. He was licensed to preach at Athens, 
0., and joined the Conference in 181^. When the Pitts- 
buro; Conference was oroanized he fell into it, where he 
traveled until 1832, when he was transferred back to the 
Ohio Conference. He was one of the ablest metaphysicians, 
and obtained the rank of a first-class pulpit orator. He 
died peacefully at Oxford, 0., August G, 1836. 

Brother Felton entered the Conference in 1829, and died 
on Roscoe circuit, June 25, 1837. He was a preacher of 
great zeal and fidelity. He professed, illustrated in his life, 
and preached to the people the doctrine of perfect love. 
Death found him fully prepared, and when he heard the 
call he mounted the chariot and ascended to his mansion 
home on high. 

In accordance with my preference and the desire of tlie 
charge, I was returned to Athens circuit. Rev. Samuel 
Hamilton succeeded brother Ferree as presiding elder. I 
loved them both. Brother Hamilton and myself had volun- 
teered in 1819, as heretofore narrated, for Western mission- 

17 



104 HIGHWAYS AND HEDGES. 

;uy Wdik td^oflior, nnd ))y loiii; .-icquMiiitanrc mid symj)athy, 
wove closely united to each otluM-. lie was a man of more 
popular pulpit power than brother Ferrec, but they both 
had the power of reaehini; the human heart. The influence 
of the Gospel, as preached by brother Ferree, came gently 
as the dew; but it continued to come until the minute par- 
ticles accumulated into dewdrctps, and every spear of grass, 
and bud, and flower, and leaflet, bowed its head with its bur- 
den of tears. When Hamilton became fully aroused iu a 
sermon, his burning words and glowing imagery swayed the 
audience with wamdrous power. He, too, had his melting 
moods. Thousands who have enjoyed his ministry, remem- 
ber his sermon on the " prodigal sou." When the young 
man began to contemplate a return home, he wrote to his 
father. And then the preacher represented the father's 
anxiety about his absent profligate son. The father receives 
at the hand of a messenger a letter — the preacher takes up 
a letter — opens it, puts on his spcctagles, and commences 
reading. His heart is moved with the penitence of his 
unhappy boy. Glancing over the spectacles, he looks down 
the lane and sees an object approaching; it is a man — 
familiar in his movements — is it not my son? He starts; 
they meet and embrace. The whole scene passed before 
the audience so natural and life-like, that the result was 
overwhelming. 

My colleagues this year were Rev. W. H. Anderson and 
Matthew Scovel. The former, a young man of rare promise, 
shone as a bright light for the few years that he stood 
on the walls of Zion, but he was transferred early to the 
paradise of God. Brother Scovel was subject to seasons of 
great depression, indicating a tendency to mental disease, 
but he was a man of sterling piety and worth, and com- 
manded the sympathy and respect of the people. He retired 
from the regular work after a few years. 



ATHENS CIRCUIT, OHIO. 195 

The priucipal importance of Athens was found in the fact 
that the State had founded a University at that place. As 
a perpetual endowment for the support of this institution 
two townships of land were set apart and called college 
lands. These lands were to be appraised and then leased; 
the lessees were to pay six per cent, on the valuation, and 
that was the revenue to belong to the University. Deacon 
Wyatt, John Brown, and Daniel Stewart were appointed by 
the Legislature to appraise the lands, which they did. As 
the lands were occupied the revenue developed, and the 
school extended its reputation and efficiency. Able men 
have had charge of the institution, such as Jacob Lindley, 
Dr. Wilson, Dr. M'Guffey, and Dr. Sol. Howard. Hun- 
dreds have been educated there who have proved to be 
valuable workers in the different honorable departments of 
life. Some have attained to eminence. Among its early 
graduates was Thomas Ewing. He was a poor boy ; paid 
for his board at first as an errand boy; then alternated 
between the salt-works of Virginia and the school, working 
awhile, and then going to college until his money was gone. 
"Tom, the Salt-boiler," was afterward, when he appealed to 
the people for their suffrages, a soubriquet that gave him 
great popularity. Whether as a lawyer, a judge, a senator, 
or member of the President's cabinet, he was eminent in 
every position. In after years, one looking at his aristocratic 
residence and surroundings, would hardly believe that he 
commenced his career in the obscurity of poverty, reading 
on the cabin floor by the light of the blazing fire. But 
such is the genius of our country, and such the aids that it 
extends to its youth, the child of poverty may climb to sit 
among princes and presidents. In the ministry of our 
Church, Rev. E. B. Ames, now one of the Bishops; Joseph 
M. Trimble, D. D., late Assistant Secretary of the Mission- 
ary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and who 



llMj HKillWAVS AM) IIMUGES. 

lias faithfully and liotiorably scrv<'<l the Church in the^ 
various relations of Professor of iMalhematics iu Au<>;usta 
College, Kentucky, pastor of the most important city churcliea, 
and presiding elder for many years; Kev. K. W. Sehon. for 
many years an eloquent and favorite preacher iu the Ohio 
Conference, and for years past among the leading niiiiistera 
of the jNIcthodist Episcopal Cliurch South; Rev. William 
Herr, for a long time one of the agents of the American 
Bible Society; llev. Homer J. Clark, for a long time editor 
of the Pittsburg Advocate, and President of Alleghany 
College at Meadville, Penn., and a long list of valuable 
men came forth from the halls of the Ohio University at 
Athens. 

At the time that I traveled Athens circuit, Dr. Wilson 
was President, Rev. Dr. Daniel Reed and Dr. Ryors were 
professors, and Dr. Andrews had charge of the preparatory 
department, and Rev. M. Marvin of the English grammar 
school. For many years the University was under the con- 
trol of the Old School Presbyterian Chuwli, and served all 
the purposes to them of a denominational school. After 
the Methodist Episcopal Church had founded the Ohio 
Wesleyan University at Delaware, and demonstrated the 
success of the enterprise, it was suggested by some not sat- 
isfied with the management of the State institution at 
Athens, that it would be advantaged by getting the Method- 
ist Episcopal Church in some way more closely allied to it. 
Leonidas Jewett, Esq., and others began to agitate the mat- 
ter, and my son, Rev. W. F. Stewart, stationed in Athens at 
that time, interested himself, and nominated as suitable per- 
sons for professorships Rev. Dr. Joseph S. Tomlinson, and 
Professor J. Gr. Blair, and brother 0. M. Spencer. The 
Legislature elected some new trustees favorable to the influ- 
ence of the Methodist Episcopal Church ; the board sent 
up a formal request to the Ohio Conference at its session in 



ATHENS CIRCUIT, OHIO. 197 

Zanesville, to extend its patronage to the institution. Thus 
the University became entirely friendly to the xMethodist 
Episcopal Church. Afterward, Solomon Howard, D. D., a 
scholar of great moral and ministerial worth, whom I had the 
honor of welcoming to the Methodist Episcopal Church 
when traveling the Miami Circuit, was made President and 
practical manager of the institution. 



VJS mr.invAvs and hedges. 



CHAPTER XXI. 

FELICITY CIRCUIT, OHIO. 
18:58-:$*). 

rpHE Conference met at Columbus, Ohio, September 26, 
-L 1838, Bishop Waugh presiding. We received on trial 
the following persons: Peter Sclimucker, John Miley, An- 
drew Irvin, A. B. Wambaugh, Jeremiah B. Ellsworth, 
Samuel Maddux, Samuel Bateman, 0. P. Williams, Joseph 
Baringer, Isaac N. Baird, Juba Estabrook, and Isaac Cart- 
lich — 12 — a small but good class. 

James W. Finley had died during the year. He was 
the son of Rev. John P. Finley ; had entered the traveling 
connection when about twenty-one years old, and had trav- 
eled usefully about nine years, when he was summoned to 
pass over the river. He was a young man of much prom- 
ise, and left the example of a Christian life and a triumph- 
ant death. On the 11th of June, 1838, he expired, with 
exclamations of "Glory! glory!" upon his lips. 

I had spent my full constitutional term on Athens circuit. 
My sons, John Wesley and William Fletcher, had com- 
menced a course of education in the University, and I was 
anxious to be appointed to some charge where they could 
prosecute their studies without interruption. W^ith this in 
view, I had an interview with Bishop Waugh, and requested 
that he would either transfer me to the Kentucky Confer- 
ence, or give me an appointment as near as might be to 
Augusta College. He promised to consult with his cabinet, 



FELICITY CIRCUIT, OHIO. 199 

and make such arrangement as they should recommend. 
The result was I was sent to Felicit}^ circuit as second 
preacher. Rev. AVilliam B. Christie was my presiding 
elder, and Rev. E. B. Chase, preacher in charge. The 
arranirement suited me well. I was relieved from the re- 
sponsibility of the administration of discipline, and was near 
enough to my family to spend part of my time at home. 
I moved my goods one hundred and twenty miles, from 
Athens, Ohio, to Augusta, Kentucky, with wagons, and 
my family in my private conveyance; bought a house on 
the banks of the Ohio River, in Augusta, and got my fam- 
ily comfortably settled as soon as possible after Conference. 
My two sons entered college, and my two daughters entered 
the Female Seminary. I seemed about to realize my hopes 
in regard to the education of my children, but, alas! I little 
knew what trying scenes I should pass through during my 
short sojourn on the shores of the Ohio River. 

Augusta College was then in its meridian popularity. 
Rev. Joseph S. Tomlinson, D. D., was the President. He 
was a man of extensive and varied scholarship, and a pop- 
ular pulpit orator. Rev. H. B. Basconi was Professor of 
Moral Science and Belles Lettres. He stood peerless as a 
pulpit orator at that time, and, attracted by his national 
fame, the young men of wealthy and ambitious families 
came from distant States to be under his care. Rev. Joseph 
M. Trimble, son of Governor Trimble, of Ohio, was Profes- 
sor of Mathematics, and abundant in labors, and exceed- 
ingly popular as a preacher of the Gospel. Rev. Burr H. 
M'Cown was Professor of Languages, and though not equal 
to his colleagues in pulpit power and popularity, he was an 
excellent preacher, a very competent teacher, and in every 
sense of the word a Christian gentleman. Rev. Josiah L. 
Kemp had charge of the preparatory department. The 
halls were well crowded. The reputation of the College at 



200 HIGHWAYS AND HKDGFS. 

lionic and al)ron(l was suoli as (o be creditable to the dc- 
iiomiiiation. Unfortunately the College was founded on the 
wronir side of the Ohio Jiiver — on slave instead of free 
soil. Had it been otherwise, perhaps to-day, instead of its 
blackened walls being desolate and forsaken, it niiirht have 
been taking rank with the oldest and best institutions of 
the land. But it did a noble work in its day, and the 
labors of its illustrious line of professors, lluter, and Dur- 
bin, and Fielding, and Finley, and Tonilinson, and Basconi, 
and Trimble, and M'Cown, and Johnson, and Elliott, and 
others, have not been in vain. It more than repaid to the 
Church and the country all that was expended upon it. In 
the ministry of our own Church we have its Foster, and 
Boring, and Smith, and Locke, and Fee, and Chalfant, and 
Lyda, and Stewart. Some of the superior lights of former 
days, such as Christie and Kavanaugh, were from its classes, 
and in all departments of honorable life it has its honora- 
ble representatives. It may be said of old Augusta Col- 
lege, though dead, it speaketh yet. 

The appointments on the Felicity circuit were as follows: 
1. Felicity; 2. Concord; 3. Childs; 4. Neville; 5. Moscow; 
G. Buckhannon's; 7. Calvary; 8. Fred's; 9. Bethel; 10. 
Clover; 11. Rounds; 12. Hamersville; 13. Leming's; 14. 
Foor's; 15. Higginsport; 16. Yates's; 17. Mt. Zion; 18. 
Wesley Chapel; and 19. Goodwin's — in all nineteen ap- 
pointments. The membership was one thousand five hun- 
dred and thirty-nine, it being one of the strongest circuits, 
numerically and otherwise, in the Conference. It had long 
been known by the name of Whiteoak circuit, and after this 
year returned to its old name. 

My colleague, Bev. E. B. Chase, was a very efl&cient 
man, efficient in many departments; he excelled in singing, 
prayer, exhortation and preaching, and he worked well to 
the pastoral and business interests of the charge. It was 



FELICITY CIRCUIT, OHIO. 201 

a jrreat satisfaction to me to see the charge of the work in 
such competent and faithful hands. There v^ere several 
men on this charge, both ministers and laymen, whoso 
names already have an honorable place in the history of 
the Church and country. Hon. David Fisher had emerged 
from obscurity through the religion of the Lord Jesus 
and the 31ethodist Episcopal Church. He developed a 
giant mind, and whether in theological discussion with Kid- 
well, or in political discussion with his opponents on the 
stump, or in the halls of Congress, he proved himself a 
great and a true man. 

Holly Piaper, brother to Rev. W. H. Raper, was an in- 
fluential layman, filling with dignity and popularity places 
both in Church and State to which his fellows-citizens and 
the authorities of the Church had called him. 

John Patterson, living on the hill near Higginsport, was 
an original character and a very good man. He used to 
relate with deep feeling his checkered experience at home 
with his family. His wife for years was not in sympathy 
with his religion, and for some time made active and per- 
sistent endeavors to annoy him and so induce him to aban- 
don his religion. When he would commence his fiimily 
prayers, she would mix with the sound of his voice the 
clang and rattle of chairs, and pots, and dishes. He en- 
dured it with great fortitude until patience seemed to prom- 
ise no victory. He changed suddenly his tactics, and com- 
menced praying earnestly that God would convert his wife, 
or if she would not be converted, to kill her and take her 
out of the way. She heard the prayer with dismay, and 
could hardly believe her own ears. But clear and distinct as 
a man would converse with his friend, he still pleaded, "O 
God, convert her or kill her." The prayer was answered. 
She was seized with a suelden sickness, and then she began 
to call lustily for mercy. Her husband prayed for her. 



202 IIICIIWAVS AM) IlKDdES. 

Slic was at last poworfully rnnvcitcd, sluuilcd tlic IiIl^Ii 
praises of God, and ever alter proved to })c a faithful Chris- 
tian, and seemed to enjoy it to hear her husband tell in 
love-feast how c:raoe had triumphed. 

He was au eccentric, good man, and many were the inci- 
dents that were current in rcjjard to his sini^-ular exercise. 
He was connected with the founding of the jNIethodist 
Episcopal Church at Augusta, Ky. It seems that while he 
was living at Augusta, working at his trade, iu his early 
life, he went off to attend a camp-meeting and was greatly- 
blessed. He requested one of the preachers to send an ap- 
pointment by him to preach iu Augusta. The preacher 
consented, and Patterson came home and published the ap- 
pointment. A short time before the preacher came, Patter- 
son went to James Armstrong, a merchant in the place, and 
said to him, " Mr. Armstrong, the Lord sent me to tell you 
that a Methodist preacher is to preach here, and that you 
are to go and hear him and join the Church." Armstrong 
was thunderstruck, but when the day came he went, and 
heard, and joined. The result was the organization of a 
class and the establishment of a preaching appointment at 
Augusta. Sometime after this James Armstrong put his 
head into the door of Patterson's shop and said, " John, 
the Lord sent me to tell you to go down street, and gather 
all the men you can find and meet me at" — a point that he 
mentioned, on the banks of the Ohio, in the upper part of 
the village. John, without gainsaying, did as he was re- 
quested, and soon had the available male force of the vil- 
lage at the spot designated. " Now," said Armstrong, 
addressing them, "I intend that a house shall be built for 
the Lord on this spot, and I want you to help me prepare 
for the foundation." They went at it with a will, and a 
neat brick church rose on that spot which served the people 
for more than a quarter of a century, and where, in after 



FFXICITY CIRCUIT, OHIO. 203 

years, Durbiu, and Bascom, and Tomlinson made some of 
their mightiest efforts, and where scores of students found 
mercy in the blood of Jesus. 

After brother Patterson had settled on the hill near Hig- 
ginsport, he became interested for the building of a church 
in that village. One day, putting on his coat and taking 
his ax, he said, " Boys, get your axes and come with me." 
The boys did as directed, and followed their father into the 
forest, wondering. After fixing his eye upon a tree that 
would make a beautiful stick of buildinof-timber, he laid 
his ax at its root and kneeled down. He told the Lord 
that if he would promise him to convert some of his neigh- 
bors in it, he would build him a house in Higginsport. The 
Lord promised, and he and the boys went to work. "With 
what assistance the people were disposed to give, he pressed 
the work to its completion. The Lord redeemed his prom- 
ise the first meeting that was held in it. Good brother 
Patterson was satisfied, and often assured the wondering 
people not to be alarmed at him, for he was " compos men- 
tis," and felt as if he could "rake the stars and kick the 
planets." I might fill many pages with anecdotes of this 
kind, but let these suffice. He commanded the respect and 
confidence of the people widely, and did much good in his 
day and generation. 



201 HIGHWAYS AND HEDGES. 



s 



CHAPTER XXII. 

GEORGETOWN CIRCUIT, OHIO. 
18:19-40. 

EPTEMBER 18, 1839, the Conference met at Cincin- 
nati, Bishop Soule presiding. The following persons 
were admitted on trial : A. W. Musgrovc, John Barton, 
Edward Williams, Lorenzo D. Huston, Thomas Ilurd, 
James H. M'Cutchen, Lovell F. Harris, Luther M'Vey, 
William Hays, Thomas Perkins, William M. D. Ryan, 
James T. Holliday, John Longman, Jacob G. Dimmitt, 
Noah Houah — a small class, some of whom have since been 
heard from in important positions in the Church. 

Death had been making unusual ravages in our ranks 
during the past year. No less than five of our traveling 
preachers had passed to their long home ; namely, Frederick 
B. Butler, Dudley Woodbridge, AYilliam D. Barrett, Moses 
Crume, George Fate. 

Brother Butler was born in Prince George county, Va., 
July 22, 1803; joined the Ohio Conference in 1827, and 
fell asleep in Jesus March 5, 1839. He was an earnest 
advocate of the doctrine of holiness, and feeling its power 
in his own soul, his ministry was abundantly successful. 
To a friend who visited him near his end, he said, " My 
body is fast sinking and will soon be housed in the tomb; 
but as it respects the state of my mind, all seems to be 
about right. My faith is the same, my hope is the same, 
my love is the same. My prospect is clear, and whether 



GEORGETOWN CIRCUIT, OHIO. 205 

you see me die or not, you may know that when I am gone 
all is well." 

Brother Woodbridge was born in Marietta, 0., and edu- 
cated at the Ohio University, at Athens. Some time previ- 
ous to his graduation, and during the memorable revival 
under the labors of brothers Farnandis and Spencer, he 
was converted and united with the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. He joined the Ohio Conference in the Fall of 
1834, and died January 3, 1839. He was a young man of 
remarkable amiability, of spirit, and life. Talented, cul- 
tivated, and having come to us to give his life to the trials 
of the itinerancy, although his worldly prospects would 
have been much brighter in the denomination with which 
his parents were connected, he had found a warm place in 
our aflfections. That affection had constantly increased as 
we marked his singleness of aim and his great success in 
the work of the Lord. Though thirty years have passed 
since that young man was called from us, yet his memory 
in all that country where he was known is still as ointment 
poured forth. 

Brother Barrett was of one of the pioneer Methodist 
families in Virginia. He became a traveling preacher 
in connection with the Virginia Conference in 1817. After 
traveling some years he located, emigrated to Ohio, and 
afterward, in the year 1830, joined the Ohio Conference, 
where he traveled until his death, which occurred February 
22, 1839. He was an earnest and successful preacher, and 
pushed the battle to the very gate. He had just prepared 
to start to an appointment, when arrested with an attack 
that brought him down to the irrave. He ceased at once to 
work and live. 

I was associated with brother Crume when I traveled the 
Oxford circuit, as he was a superannuated preacher, resid- 
ing there at that time. Having spoken of him in my 



20G IIIGIIWAVS AND HEDGES. 

iianativc there, I will only rejieat here my lii-^li appreeiation 
of liim as a man and minister of the Gospel. He lived to 
pur]>ose, and, T doulit not, many will rise up in the great 
day to claim him as their si)iritual fatlier. lie was con- 
verted in 1785 and died in 1839, liaving served God and 
his generation nearly half a century. 

Brother Fate was horn in Perry county, 0., about the 
year 1808, and died August 28, 1839. He was admitted 
to the Ohio Conference on trial, at Chillicothe, in 1836. 
He had a good revival on his first charge, and completed 
the work the Master had for liim to do on the second 
charge to which he was appointed. With almost his dying 
breath he exclaimed, " 0, there is a great fullness in 
Christ." 

Thus the great Head of the Church calls home the work- 
men — the gray-haired veteran, who has outlived his gener- 
ation and labored until bowed beneath the weight of years, 
and the young man in his prime and strength. But while 
he calls his workmen home, he carries on his work. 

We elected the following brethren as delegates to Gen- 
eral Conference : W. H. Eaper, W. B. Christie, J. Young, 
S. Hamilton, G. AV. Walker, L. L. Hamline, J. F. Wright, 
and K. 0. Spencer. 

I was appointed to Georgetown circuit, with Rev. Jacob 
G. Dimmitt for my assistant. It would have been agree- 
able to me to remain another year on the former charge, 
but the Bishop had a little more difl&cult work which he 
desired me to do. So far as convenience of travel was con- 
cerned, Georgetown suited me about as well as Felicity. 
The only drawback and the circumstance that inclined me 
to shrink from going to Georgetown circuit, was that its 
last preacher in charge. Rev. Reuben Plummer, had been 
convicted of immoral conduct and expelled from the Church. 
A sad event of that kind never fails to bring disgrace on 



GEORGETOWN CIRCUIT, OHIO 207 

the Church and cause the people to look with suspicion 
upon other ministers of the Gospel for a time. The Bishop 
aud his counsel selected me as the proper person to fill the 
gap, and I went to the work without murmuring. I had 
the utmost confidence in Rev. W. B. Christie, my presiding 
elder, and soon found that the Bishop had favored me with 
a most excellent fellow-worker in my colleague. He was 
a man who combined dignity, gracefulness, humility, elo- 
quence, and diligence in an unusual degree for one just 
starting out in the itinerant field. He grew in my estima- 
tion during the whole year, and as I have watched his 
record now for thirty years, he has fully met the large ex- 
pectations that I formed of him during that year. 

As my family was located in our own house at Augusta, 
we did not have to move, so that I was at my work imme- 
diately after the adjournment of Conference. We had a 
membership of eight hundred and forty-six, distributed 
among the following nineteen appointments; namely, George- 
town, New Hope, Ross's, Taggart's, M'Quittie's, Newmar- 
ket, Sugar Ridge, Sloan's, Niven's, Collins's, Winchester, Da- 
vidson's, Davis's, Jennings's, Russelville, Ashridge, Moore's, 
and Fincastle. The people received us very kindly and co- 
operated with us heartily. If the people looked upon us 
with any suspicion, growing out of the misdoing of my 
predecessor, they concealed it from us, so that we did not 
realize embarrassment from that source as we had feared. 
We held protracted meetings in difi'erent parts of the cir- 
cuit with much success. Many were converted and added 
to the Church, and the year was crowned with very cheer- 
ing success. 

At the close of this year we held a camp-meeting, which 
was made a blessing to many. In addition to the preachers 
of the circuit, we enjoyed the help of brothers Estill, 
Wharton, and Perkhiser. The last mentioned brother 



208 lIIullWAVS AND lIi:U(JES. 

preached a sennoii \vlii(;h made a deep and lasting impres- 
sion nil ;i mnltitndc of hearts, IVoni tliesc words: "If 1 re- 
gard ini((uity in my lieart,' etc. 

Several valuable preachers have been raised up from this 
circuit, some of whom I have already referred to, and others 
of whom shall have honorable mention as we advance in 
the narrative. 

The Conference met at Zanesville, Ohio, September 30, 
1840, Bishop Iledding presiding. The following persons 
were admitted on trial : Isaac Elbert, Asbury Lowrey, Ho- 
mer S. Thrall, George G. West, Joseph A. Bruner, Samuel 
Black, Addison Hite, James W. Southard, George Gonzales, 
John M. Rowland, William O'Connor, Richard A. Arthur, 
John Dillon, jr., Joseph Brooks, John W. De V^ilbiss, George 
A. Breunig — 16. 

Several of these in after time became tinctured with the 
leaven of slavery, and were finally swallow^ed up in the 
maelstrom of secession. But others stood true as steel to 
their Mother Church, and are now bright ornaments and 
influential laborers in her ranks. Some of them fought the 
battles of the Church bravely by my side in the mountains 
of Virginia, as the future of this narrative will show. 

At this Conference we made a record of the death of two 
of our number ; namely, Charles 11. Baldwin and Jeremiah 
Hill. Brother Baldwin was born in Stockbridge, Mass., 
March 17, 1803, and died at Parkersburg, Va., November 
9, 1839. Highly favored with such family connections, 
mental qualifications, and professional prospects as prophe- 
sied a brilliant future for him, he, nevertheless, counted all 
loss for Christ; and when he experienced the converting 
grace of God, he abandoned the law and devoted himself 
to the Gospel. He joined the Ohio Conference in 1834, 
and from that time until his decease his labors were in 
Western Virginia. His last charge was Parkersburg, where 



GEORGETOWN CIRCUIT, OHIO. 209 

he not only performed the duties of preacher and pastor, 
but took charge of a seminary located at that place under 
the patronage of our Church. He labored successfully, but 
sank under the overburden of responsibility. He lived in 
a holy atmosphere and died in sight of heaven. He had 
enjoyed the^blessing of sanctification for some six years, 
and from the very borders of the other world sent to his 
brethren this inspiring message: '-Tell the preachers of the 
Ohio Conference that the blessing of sanctification -which I 
have enjoyed and preached to others now sustains me in 
death." 

Brother Hill was born in the city of Providence, R. I., 
October 2, 1816, and died on Marion circuit, 3Iay 17, 1840. 
He was a faithful Methodist preacher, and died with the 
harness on. When informed by the physician that he must 
die, he calmly replied, "I am ready;" made arrangements 
regarding his funeral, etc., and then made the room vocal 
with his note of triumph as he anticipated the crown that 
glittered in his sight. 

I was re-appointed to Georgetown circuit with Eev. 
Jonathan F. Conrey as my assistant, and Rev. William H. 
Raper for my presiding elder. I would gladly have re- 
tained both the elder and colleague of the former year, as 
they were greatly endeared to me and the people ; but my 
new associates were excellent men, and were soon fully es- 
tablished in the affections of the people. Brother Conrey 
Avas a young man full of laudable ambition, and worked 
well and earnestly. Our ever-active Baptist friends agi- 
tated the public mind with their peculiar notions, until I 
found it necessary for the peace of our own Zion, that the 
question of baptism should be thoroughly discussed. The 
appointments fixed upon where these discourses should be 
delivered were "Nivens's," "Georgetown," and " Higgins- 

port." As soon as the announcements were made there was 

18 



210 IIIGIIWAVS AND in.nGKS. 

an excitement. Tlu' Hajttist friends sent for Kev. John 
Moore, tlieir eli;ini|ti(>n, to come to tlic rescue. lie came 
and deliverci] liiniself on tlic subject, greatly to the comfort 
of liis people, before the time of my ap])ointments arrived. 
At my first nppointmcnt I was invited to occupy the Pres- 
byterian church in the nci_iz:hboring village, that there 
might be acconnnodations for the crowd that was expected. 
The house was crowded, and among those present were 
several Baptist preachers, prepared to take notes of my dis- 
course. As I ascended the pulpit and looked upon the 
vast throng, a tremor ran over mc, and I was not sure that 
my courage would he equal to the occasion. In spite of my 
best endeavors, my voice trembled somewhat when I began 
to speak, but in a few minutes I lost all feeling of timidity, 

m 

and had remarkable freedom in the presentation of the sub- 
ject. I had the profound attention of the whole audience, 
and the assurance that the arguments that I was presenting 
were establishing in the minds of the people a conviction 
of the truth of my main propositions. I received the 
hearty congratulations of my friends, who expressed the 
opinion that the eloquent sophistry of the Baptist champion 
had not only been neutralized, but that those who had been 
undecided were now convinced that, first, believing peni- 
tents and infants have a right to membership in Christ's 
Church and to baptism ; and, second, that sprinkling and 
pouring are modes of baptism as well sustained by Scrip- 
ture and reason as immersion. The next discourse was de- 
livered at Georgetown. There, too, the audience was very 
large, composed of representatives of all the Churches; and 
here again I was highly complimented by my friends on the 
success of the discourse. The last discussion was at Hig- 
ginsport. Here the Campbellite wing of the Baptist no- 
tions became much excited, and occasionally boiled over as 
I poured out hot shot upon their strongholds. I had 



GEORGETOWN CIRCUIT, OHIO. 211 

abundant reason to think that these discussions were pro- 
motive of great good. Though the immersionists kept up 
a constant fire for some time, the people now had their eyes 
fully opened, and would not swallow the flimsy sophistries 
which aforetime had distracted them. 

Near the close of the year we held another camp-meet- 
in<^, which was attended with much good. The rowdies 
made some demonstrations, much to the annoyance of my. 
excellent presiding elder, brother Rnper. He was a mi\n 
of very tender sensibilities and a high sense of honor. I 
shall never forget an appeal he made one day to that class 
of men. He showed them how unmanly, and unpatriotic, 
and mean such conduct was. He assured them that in 1812 
h-e had gone forth to defend the rights of his country at 
the hazard of his life, and as he loved the Church of Jesus 
Christ even more than he did his country, he felt very 
much like showing such men that he could vindicate the 
cause of Christ against assailants with as much couraire and 
as srood conscience as he had fought the British. 

This year was one of great affliction to me, and yet one 
of great spiritual comfort and profit. Our Heavenly Father 
saw fit to lead us through deep waters and fiery trials, and 
I never more fully tested the faithfulness and preciousness 
(»f his promises than this year. On the 25th of December 
of this year my venerable mother departed this life, in 
Athens, Ohio, at the age of sixty-seven years. Her life 
had been one of toil and usefulness, true to the Church 
of her choice and devoted to her children. I felt that I 
had sustained an irreparable loss, but was comforted with 
the assurance that I should meet her again. 

During the following Spring our two daugters, Sarah 
Jane and Ruth Eliza, while students in the Female Semi- 
nary at Augusta, contracted colds from which they never 
recovered. For a time the physicians encouraged us that 



-12 TIir.HWAVS AND HEDGES. 

JiS soon Jis flic wc.itlirr sliould l)Ccoinc warm and settlod 
they would i>c aide f<» tlimw c.fT discaf^c. 'I'lic warm suii- 
bcaiiis and followers clotlicd tlic carlli in Itcauty, but <hoiigli 
buds and blossoms decked garden, and bill, and valley, the 
Autumn winds and IVosts were d()in<; tlieir sad work with 
these lovely flowers of our family. Tiicir disease bafiled the 
skill of the physicians. At last the confidence of the phy- 
sicians irave way, and they communicated to us their fears. 
Deep gloom gathered for a time about my spirit. I went 
to God for help, for 1 felt that vain is the help of man. 
He heard my cry and came to my assistance. He did not 
see fit to deliver us from the afiSiction, but he gave us grace 
to submit the case to his disposal, and to trust him that he 
would do right. But as day by day marked the slow, 
steady, sure progress of fatal disease, we were filled with 
anxiety and suspense. The girls themselves were the most 
composed and happy of us all. They fully realized their 
situation, and talked intelligently and familiarly concerning 
their approaching decease. On the seventh day of May 
the most beautiful month of the year, the clouds overcast 
the sky ; it was a dark and rainy day. On that day 
our youngest daughter, then aged nine years, fell asleep in 
Jesus. 0, how desolate our home appeared ! And now the 
thought of burying her in a slave State, and then re- 
turning to Ohio, where we could but seldom have even the 
sad privilege of visiting her grave, distressed us. Added to 
this the thought of placing her remaiut?, to us so lovely 
and so dear, in a cold and wet grave, w^as almost insupport- 
able. We went again to God, and he tempered the winds 
and the waves so that we should not be crushed. 

The next day the clouds were all gone, the sun rose in 
grandeur and beauty, and when we stood by the grave 
and looked down into it, I thought that I had never seen 
so beautiful a grave in all my life. We laid the lovely 



GEORGETOWN CIRCUIT, OHIO. 213 

dust of our dear child there, to remaiu until the morning of 
the resurrection. From the grave we returned to our home 
to minister to the other daughter, who was evidently follow- 
ing her sister. While there is life there is hope, and we 
inquired, Is there any thing that we can do that will be 
blessed of God in sparing to us this dear child ? The 
thouo-ht sucrorested itself to us that a chancre of air and 

O CO O 

scenery might do her good. The physicians encouraged 
the experiment. We shut up our now desolate home, 
crossed the Ohio River, and were soon in the midst of the 
dear sympathizing people of my charge. Xever shall I for- 
get or cease to be grateful for the great kindness of that 
people in the time of our deep affliction. This change and 
exercise for a time seemed to brace her up,- and we were 
full of hope and cheerfulness. Then again the symptoms 
changed for the worse; and when we were at Newmarket, 
forty miles from home, she commenced sinking so rapidly 
that hope again fled. Every body seemed to be interested 
for us. Dr. Boyd volunteered his service, and sat anxiously 
by her side, to afford whatever professional relief he could ; 
the keeper of the village hotel ^rged upon us the best ac- 
commodations of his house, and the good people were con- 
stantly coming and going, anxious to do something to assist 
or comfort us. Now that we gave up all hope of her get- 
ting better, I thought that I would give all my earthly 
prospects for the favor of getting her home alive, that she 
misht die in the same hallowed room where her sister had 
died. We now made that the burden of our prayer, and 
God heard and granted our request. Laying her on a soft 
couch in the carriage, we turned our face toward home. 
Three days of slow and careful moving brought us within 
sight of our cottage home. We thanked God, and felt that 
we could now leave the case submissively in the hands of 
our Heavenly Father. We crossed the river and entered 



21 i HK.llWAVS AND IIKDGES. 

our liitiiic, if seemed now more rheerful tliap when wc left 
it. The pliysicians were attentive .iiid lull of sympatliy; 
the ncighhors flocked in to express their gratitude that wc 
had readied home witli Inr nlive. T^ydia Haws and Jane 
Pharcs, two maiden ladies of remarkable gifts in song and 
prayer, and whose praise was in all tlie churches therea- 
bouts, came and remained with us, watching day and night 
with the now rapidly sinking sufferer. Their company and 
sympathetic assistance was valuable to us beyond all price. 
Brothers T. II. Lynch, J. L. Kemp, and B. H. M'Cown, 
of the Faculty of the College, were very attentive. A few 
hours before her death, as brother Lynch retired from the 
room, she said, " Pa, why did you not ask brother Lynch 
to pray?" I called him back, and while she was bolstered 
up in her bed, her parents and youngest brother, and the 
two ladies mentioned above, gathered around her bed, while 
the man of God conducted our devotions. She desired that 
he should not pray for her recovery, as she wished to go 
and dwell with her sister in their Heavenly Father's house. 
After singing a hymn we all kneeled down to pray. Brother 
Lynch had access to God in prayer. The frail dying girl 
was leaning forward in her bed, with her emaciated face in 
her little delicate hands, earnestly engaged in prayer. My 
eyes were upon her and suflfused with tears; my ears were 
open to hear her tremulous voice, as with increased fer- 
vency she prayed. Now she fell back, and straightening 
herself in her bed, a tremor passed over her frame. I 
reached over and touched her mother, and whispered, 
"Sarah Jane is dying." The prayer ceased, and we all 
stood around the bed, supposing that she was now crossing 
the river of death. Her countenance indicated that there 
was a struggle within ; suddenly her eyes opened, and her 
whole countenance was lighted up with such a heavenly 
glow as I had never seen before in human face, and she 



GEORGETOWN CIRCUIT, OHIO. 215 

exclaimed, "0 what a lovely place! I want to be there!" 
She seemed to be gazing right into the glory land. After 
awhile a cloud passed over her countenance, and it indi- 
cated the return of that inward struggle. Soon the cloud 
passed off again, and her countenance beamed as before, 
and again she exclaimed, "0 let me go? I want to go!" 
Turning her eyes to sister Lydia Haws she said, "Sing." 
" What shall we sing ?" " Sing, 

"What is tliis that steals upon my frame ? 
Is it death? Is it death ? 
If this is death, I soon shall be," etc. 

Sister Haws, with her sweet voice always in tune, sang, 
while the rest of us joined in as far as our emotions would 
allow. Glory seemed to fill the room, and the young, 
happy spirit was anxious to be released from earth and to 
go home, but our Heavenly Father designed that she should 
linger with us another day. I thought then, and I have 
thought ever since, had I no other evidence of the truth of 
the Christian religion than what was furnished in the 
experience of that dying Christian child, I could never 
doubt. During all the next day, as she lingered in weak- 
ness and pain, she gave assurance that she expected to go 
home at night. In the afternoon she wished to be out of 
the bed and on the floor with pillows, and while she 
changed from side to side and from place to place, no word 
of murmuring or complaint escaped her lips. At night she 
said to me, " Pa, you are tired ; go up stairs and rest." 
" No," said I, " daughter, I would rather stay with you." 
She yielded, and that night, August 9th, she calmly fell asleep 
in Jesus. So heavenly and triumphant had been the clos- 
ing scenes of her life, that while we felt we had sustained 
an irreparable loss, we felt, too, that our lovely daughter was 
now safe from storm and sin. ^Vo determined that the 
residue of our days should be spent more resolutely and 



2IG HIGHWAYS AND HEDGKS. 

cnrnosdy in working]!; for tlio ^Master and getting ready to 
join those who had gone before. 

In a cuiiviMsation with her niotlier a few days before her 
death, she liad expressed her wislies in regard to her own 
burial and that of the remaining members of tlie family. 
81ie desired that lier body sliould be buried by the side of 
her sister's, then in Col. Payne's cemetery, at Augusta; that 
if possible her brothers, when they should die, should be 
buried together, and that her parents should be buried in the 
cemetery at Oldtown, Ohio — Frankfort — where little As- 
bury was buried. She thought it would be pleasant in the 
morninc: of the resurrection for them to rise thus. Accord- 
ing to her request, we laid her remains by the side of those 
of her sister. We had altar- shaped monuments, with suita-; 
ble inscriptions, placed over their graves, and both inclosed 
with a neat paling. Though my fields of labor have usu- 
ally been remote from that place, I have made frequent 
pilgrimages to their graves. Now, since my age and failing 
strength have compelled me to desist from the responsi- 
bilities and labor of a regular charge, I have once more 
made the journey of a thousand miles to meditate and 
pray on the spot wdiere their ashes lie. 

The college edifice, which was once crowded with ambi- 
tious young life, is now a mass of ruins. The voices of 
the most of those eloquent professors who taught those 
students are now silent in the grave. The population of 
the village and country had greatly changed, but as I stood 
there by those graves, the past came back, and I lived , 
again in the scenes of other years. 0, that I, and my 
companion, and my sons may be as well prepared for our 
end and go as pedcefully and joyfully to our long home as 
did tjiose young disciples of Jesus ! They were respectively 
six and eight years of age when they gave their hearts 
to God and joined the Church, at the camp-meeting near 



GEORGETOWN CIRCUIT, OHIO. 217 

Alliens, Ohio, and thej were respectively nine and eleven 
years old when they passed through death triumphant home. 

The experience of this year was calculated to make a 
profound impression upon our lives, and the kindness of the 
people of Augusta and of our charge gave them a perma- 
nent place in our memories and hearts. Among the men 
eminent and usefal I should record the name of Rev. John 
Meek. He was a man of great pulpit popularity, and had 
been among the earliest pioneers in planting the standard of 
Methodism in Ohio. Rev. Daniel Hare was a large, ath- 
letic, and earnest worker for the Lord, enthusiastic as a 
Methodist, and always ready to exhort or preach. He gave 
to the ministry his son, Rev. M. H. Hare, who afterward 
became one of the master spirits in leading on the hosts 
of Methodism in Iowa. Brothers Manker, Taggart, and 
Ramsey were useful local preachers. Among the prominent 
and valuable men in the laity, I would mention brothers 
Gaddis, Ross, and Grant — all names identified with the 
history of Methodism in Ohio, and the last of which has 
become national, and in fact, through the fame of his hon- 
ored son, has been sounded to the ends of the earth. 
Brother Ross has one son in the Ohio and one in the Cali- 
fornia Conference, both honoring their parents, and brother 
Grant has a son sitting in the presidential chair of the 
nation. "When I used to be at brother Grant's home in 
Georgetown, Ulysses was a student at West Point. When 
he graduated, my son, AY. F., applied for the vacancy, but 
was providentially prevented from entering the military 
school. The voice of God was calling him to preach, but, 
like Jonah, he was endeavoring to escape in some other 
direction. 

During this year we formed the acquaintance of a local 

preacher, then a young man, prosecuting a literary course 

at Augusta College, without fortune or patronage, except 

10 



218 Hir.iiwAvs ANH tii-.nr;ES. 

liis willing hands and widowed mother's prayers. lie 
worked his way through college, graduated with lionor, 
joined tlio Oliin Conference, soon took nn lionorable posi- 
tion in that body, and was afterward transferred to the 
Rock River Conference, where he continues to labor success- 
fully for God. In the several positions he has occupied, as 
educator, pastor, presiding elder, or financial manager of 
public charities. Rev. Ezra M. Boring has made himself 
felt and has been appreciated. 



BAINBRIDGE CIRCUIT, OHIO. 219 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

BAINBRIDGE CIRCUIT, OHIO. 
1841-42. 

rnHE Conference met at Urbana, August 25, 1841, Bishop 
J- Roberts presiding. The following persons were ad- 
mitted on trial : Joseph Gateh, Thomas Gorsuch, Samuel 
Brown, Orin Stimson, Isaac AVhitnell, Richard Walker, 
Frederick Merrick, Philip A. Mutchner, Levi W. Munsel, 
George L. Creager, John W. Kenaga, Frederick Hum- 
phreys, Alexander Meharry, Daniel Breckley, Jacob J. 
Hibner — 15. Some of these I shall have occasion to speak 
of in the future of this narrative as we shall toil and suffer 
and triumph together. 

"We recorded at this Conference the death of Bev.. E. "W. 
Finley. He was born in Bucks county, Penn., June 9, 
1750; was educated for and entered the Presbyterian min- 
istry. In 1788 he emigrated to Kentucky, and in 1795, at 
the head of a company, he assisted in exploring the Scioto 
country, and in 1796 settled his family in the valley of the 
Scioto, near the present city of Chillicothe. He united with 
the Methodist Episcopal Church in the year 1800, and 
entered the traveling connection in 1811 or 1812. "When 
the Conference judged him to be superannuated, and placed 
him on that list, he being well on to eighty years of age, 
his missionary spirit rebelled against the idea of superan- 
nuation. He mounted his horse and penetrated to the wild 
region of St. Mary's, where he organized a circuit and held 



220 HIGHWAYS AND HEDGES. 

a camp iiicotlng. Tlio next Conference sent a missionary to 
his aid. Ho was an able and earnest expounder ol' Wcs- 
leyan tlieoloir'y. He died at lln- residence of his son, Rev. 
J. B. Finley, in (Jermantuwn, Uiiio, JJecember 8, 18-10, iu 
tlic 01st year of liis apjc. 

T was ajjpointed to Bainbridge circuit, with llev. iMichael 
Marhjy, for presiding elder, and Rev. J. W. Stone for as- 
sistant. My association with these dear brethren was of 
the most pleasant character. Brother Marlay was one of 
our ablest theologians, and when his soul became thoroughly 
engaged in his sermon, he preached with overwhelming 
power. Owing to the metaphysical bent of his mind, his 
ordinary sermons, and oftentimes the introductory part of 
his discourses, were regarded by common hearers as dry; 
but intelligent hearers always listened to his purely intel- 
lectual efforts and the least impassioned parts of his dis- 
courses with much profit. He was an excellent presiding 
elder, courteous and kind to his preachers, and firm in the 
discharge of official duty. 

Brother Stone was pious, zealous, and faithful ; an able 
divine, considering his years in the ministry. He com- 
manded the confidence of the people, and did efficient 
service on the circuit. We had nineteen appointments, of 
which the following is a list: 1. Bainbridge; 2. Bourne- 
ville; 3. Twinu ; 4.-Long's Hill; 5. Thomas's Hill; 6. John 
Haine's; 7. Martin Haines's on the "knobs;" 8. Salem; 9. 
Mt. Carmel; 10. Bethel; 11. Campbell's Meeting-house; 12. 
Sinking Springs; 13. Legg's; 14. Bristol's; 15. Cynthiana; 
16. Edmonson's; 17. Valley Forge; 18. Loudon; 19. Nessel's. 

We had a pleasant year and some meastire of prosperity. 
We closed the year with a camp-meeting near Bainbridge; 
the attendance was large; the preaching attended with great 
power, the result of which was the conversion of souls and 
additions to the Church. William M. D. Ryan, then com- 



BAINBRIDGE CIRCUIT, OHIO. 221 

ruencing liis ministry as junior preacher on an adjoining 
circuit, was ^yith us and exhorted with much power. 

September 28, 1842, the Conference met at Hamilton and 
Rossville, Bishop 3Iorris presiding. The following persons 
were admitted on trial: William J. Thurber. William I. 
Fee, David N. Smith, Jesse Botkin, James Hood, Charles 
Ferguson, Charles H. Warrington, Moses Smith, iVbraham 
Cartlich, John W. Fowble, Levi Cunningham, Charles Koe- 
uecke, Thomas Coleman, Nathan T. Ayres, J. G. Blair, 
Archibald Fleming, Wesley Webster, John Guyer, Daniel 
D. Mather, Barton Lowe, Alexander Dinkins, William R. 
Litsinger — 22. Out of this class I afterward had many 
valuable co-laborers in the most difficult field to which I 
was ever called. I shall have occasion to speak of them as 
I progress with my narrative. 

Two of our able and honored standard-bearers had as- 
cended during the past year, and their names are now 
recorded on the list of the beloved dead. They were Rev. 
William B. Christie and Rev. I. C. Hunter. Brother Christie 
was born in Wilmington. Ohio; educated at Augusta Col- 
lege, Kentucky; entered the Ohio Conference in 1825; 
rapidly rose to distinction in his Conference and the con- 
nection. During the later years of his ministry he had few 
superiors in pulpit power or ministerial influence. As I 
call up the recollections of the man and the grandeur of 
his life and labors, I hardly know how to pass him with so 
brief a notice. But he is well known to the Church, as 
but few contemporary Western Methodist ministers have 
failed to record the labors of our beloved Christie. 

Brother Hunter was born in Bellefonte, Center county, 
Fenn., August 30, 1798. He joined the Ohio Conference 
in 1819, and labored with unceasing ability and apprecia- 
tion until he died, the 27th of June, 1842. Whether in 
charge of circuit, or station, or district, he was faithful and 



222 HIGHWAYS AND HKDGKS. 

cfficiont, and liis prcadiing wai; witli ilciiionstration of llio 
Spirit and ^villl power. 

1 was returned to Bainbridge circuit, with Rev. Alexander 
Mcharry for my assistant. He came on to the work full 
of faith, and zeal, and power. Our souls united, and as 
we entered upon the year's work, expeetation soon pervaded 
the whole circuit, and many began to prophesy that it would 
be a year of extraordinary revival influence. We arranged 
for a series of two-days' meetings, intending to protract 
them as providential indications should suggest. The first 
meeting proved such a success that the members of the 
society at which the next meeting was to be held set them- 
selves to get ready, and as that progressed with power, the 
next society was busy getting ready, and thus the notes of 
preparation were heard all over the large circuit. The re- 
sult was, we did not have to spend days in urging the mem- 
bership to do their duty ; already the w^ ay of the Lord was 
prepared. The Word took hold of the people with mighty 
power. Sinners were awakened, convictions were deep and 
pungent, and they were heard to cry aloud, "God be mer- 
ciful to me a sinner !" As a result the conversions were 
clear and satisfactory. The flame spread so mightily that 
usually we found it necessary to protract one meeting up to 
the time of commencing the next. We would close our 
meeting late at night, and then move on to the next ap- 
pointment to commence at 11 o'clock, A. M., next day. If 
the distance was not too great many of the members and 
young converts would follow us up, and so become more 
thoroughly established in experience and labor. It turned 
out to be not so much a series of meetings as one contin- 
uous meeting, marching grandly and triumphantly around 
the whole circuit. Our custom was to gather the slain of 
the Lord into the Church — Christ's hospital — every day. 
We had none of that squeamishness that some seem to feel 



BAINBRIDGE CIRCUIT, OHIO. 223 

in regard to inviting people to join the 3Ietliodist Episcopal 
Church. As we found the Church to be to us a <rood and 
liappy home, so we conscientiously believed that those to 
whom we preached the Gospel would find it a good home. 
We told the people that the doors of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, like the doors of Gospel grace, " stand open 
night and day," and we invited them to come in. At the 
close of this great campaign we summed up results, and 
found, to the glory of God, that nine hundred and twenty-Jive 
had closed in with the offer of mercy and placed their 
names on the muster-roll of Christ's army. AYe felt to 
praise the Lord and to say, " And let all the people praise 
Him." 

The attendance upon these meetings was so great that 
the Church accommodations were too strait, and increased 
accommodations became a necessity. The people were just 
in the proper state of mind to move forward in this work. 
In one neighborhood a call was made to consider the pro- 
priety of building a house of worship. The attendance 
was good ; all saw the propriety of building at once. It 
was determined to build of hewed logs, as timber was abun- 
dant. They proceeded immediately to elect a suitable 
brother as chief manager. He divided his men into com- 
panies, appointing one company to fell the trees, another 
company to score and hew them, another to haul them to 
the building site, and another to get the flooring, doors, 
sash, etc., ready. All this was done ready for raising the 
first day. The second day the house was raised, roofed, 
floored, seated, and an altar and pulpit prepared, and at 
night it was lighted up, dedicated, and sinners gathered 
around its newly consecrated altar. Other neighborhoods 
hearing of this imitated the example. Thus they brought 
the tithes into the store-house and proved God therewith. 
The sisters, always ready to do their part — and, blessed be 



oo 



24 HIGHWAYS AM) HEDGES. 

God! in tlic Mctliodist raiiiily tlicy are recognized as fellow- 
workers — did their full part in these (Muireh enterprises as 
well as in the wor^liip of the sanctuary. (Jn these building 
occasions they came on the ground with all the api)liances 
for cooking, and spread upon the extemporized tallies 
hearty and inviting food for those doing the work ; and 
they did all eat their meat with singleness of heart, giving 
glory to God. The people did not look with more of won- 
der upon tlic invincible host that marched with Sherman to 
the sea, than did the people of Eainbridge circuit look 
upon this conquering host marching under the command of 
the Lord Jesus. And, unlike the armies in carnal warfare, 
the army of the Lord left not desolation, or blackened walls 
or wid(»ws, or orphans along its path, but smiling faces 
and happy hearts, and redeemed and united families marked 
the pathway of the conquering host. 

I will give a few incidents of these revivals, but it would 
require a volume to record them all. The first great revival 
broke out at Bourneville. We had there the walls of a 
church edifice W'hich stood in an unfinished state, indicating 
that they had begun to build and were not able to finish. 
The first time that my colleague preached there, he told 
them that if they would go forward and finish their house, 
he believed God would convert one hundred souls, and that 
if they did not go forward the curse of God would rest 
upon them. Fear stimulated some and faith inspired others; 
they took counsel the next day and determined to go for- 
ward. The prediction of the preacher was more than ful- 
filled, for one hundred and eighty joined the Church at that 
place during the year. The work commenced breaking out 
the very next Sabbath, first among the children. Judge 
M'Cracken meeting brother Meharry said, " You are catch- 
ing minnows." " Yes," said the preacher, " yes, we are 
catching minnows, and they are excellent bait." A few days 



BAINBRIDGE CIRCUIT, OHIO. 225 

afterward, wlien the work had made a break in the adult 
population, and the slain of the Lord were many, and 
among them a son and daughter of Judge M'Cracken, he 
met the preacher again and said, " You began with min- 
nows, but you are catching fish now." 

During this meeting the hotel-keeper of the village was 
seized suddenly with sickness, and sent for Dr. Hull to 
come and see him. The Doctor soon found that it was not 
bodily but spiritual disease that ailed him, and advised him 
to send for the preacher. He did so ; brother Meharry 
slipped out of the prayer-meeting — which was at brother 
Howser's house — and went over to the hotel to see him, 
and as soon as he ascertained the nature of the case, sent 
back a request that the prayer-meeting should adjourn to 
the hotel. It was done, and soon chairs were arranged in 
the sick man's room for mourners, and he was exhorted to 
get out of bed and down on his knees, and cry to the great 
Physician who could cure soul and body. He thought he 
was too sick to get up, but the preacher took hold of him 
and helped him out, and once down upon his knees he com- 
menced crying to God mightily for mercy. Some eight or 
ten others came forward for prayers, and at that meeting 
the converting power of God was present. Brother Snyder 
and his wife and the landlord were among the converted. 
There was to have been a dance at the hotel that night, but 
it was a meeting of a very different sort. A wild fellow 
who had come from some distance, and had not heard the 
news of the changed state of things, as he approached the 
hotel, heard the noise and supposed there was a fight. He 
dismounted and hurried in to see the fun. As he opened 
the door such a sight and such sounds as greeted him struck 
him with such alarm that he retreated, mounted his horse, 
and fled from the town as though Death was after him. At 
9 o'clock, P. M., the company adjourned from the hotel to 



226 HIGHWAYS and hedges. 

the cliurch to coninicncc the watch-niLjht service. It was 
a powciTul iiiectiiit]; ; several were converted, and brothers 
]*crill and Dill joined the Cluncli. Hefure tlie close of the 
next week ujjward of ninety had conic out on the Lord's 
side, and before the meeting finally closed one hundred and 
eight had joined, so literally and promptly had brother 
Meharry's prophecy been fulfilled. At this meeting broth- 
ers Thomson, and Dunlap, and Armstrong gave assistance 
in tlie pulpit and altar work. 

Our first quarterly-meeting was at Loudon. The princi- 
pal families in this neigliborhood were Virginians, and of 
Quaker extraction. Brother Marlay, the presiding elder, 
and the venerable James Quinn were with us at this meet- 
ing. We protracted it, and some forty new recruits were 
gathered within eight days. Brother Enos Gore, one of 
the noblest of men, had for several years been connected 
with the Church as a probationer, but to this time had 
clung to his Quakerism so far as to decline baptism. He 
now saw it to be his duty to be baptized, and on Sabbath 
morning, in connection with family devotions, I baptized 
him and his household, consisting of the parents and two 
children. It was a beautiful and impressive sight. 

The 25th of January we commenced at Mt. Carmel and 
continued seven days, when our previously announced plan 
required us to go to Bainbridge. At Mt. Carmel fifty-five 
joined, and the wave of influence was swelling rapidly, when 
we had to move on to attack the enemy at Bainbridge. We 
anticipated that at this latter point we should have our 
hardest battle. It was the citadel, and the enemy was or- 
ganized and strongly fortified, but a noble band of workers 
came up from Bourneville to our help, and on Wednesday 
night the battle turned, and the ranks of the enemy were 
completely demoralized. We pushed the battle to the gate, 
and within sixteen days one hundred and fifty were gatli- 



BAINBRIDGE CIRCUIT, OHIO. 227 

ered into the Church. Some were fearful of excitement, 
and one man who had made up his mind to serve the Lord 
waited until he thought he was perfectly calm and col- 
lected, and when the preacher announced a hymn, he arose 
and started the tune, and then walked up deliberately and 
joined. Another, while we were singinii; the stirrine: chorus, 

" For I can no longer stay away," 

started from the back part of the house, and, as the great 
tears ran down his cheeks, made longer and longer strides 
as he neared the altar, and in the intensest condition of ex- 
citement, enlisted in the army. The first of these did not 
hold out six months, while the last, up to my latest intelli- 
gence of him, was still shouting on his way to glory. An 
immortal spirit convinced of its awful danger, or assured of 
its escape from ruin, ought to be excited, and no condition 
of intelligence, culture, or purity needs to be afraid of relig- 
ious excitement, for it reaches to the very "angels of God." 

February 21st we opened our batteries at Sinking Springs. 
The meeting continued thirteen days, and sixty-two were 
added to the Lord. The last one that joined at this meet- 
ing was William Manlove, and he made the five hundredth 
recruit since Conference. He proved to be a good soldier, 
and " stood fast in the Lord." 

We had now been pushing the battle for more than three 
months almost without intermission. Our second quarterly- 
meetino: was at hand, and it was to be at Bourneville, the 
place where we had cora-menced our series of meetings. 
Some thouirht that it was now time to rest, and others that 
the harvest was fully gathered. March 25th the quarterly- 
meeting commenced ; Elder Marlay was with us in the spirit 
of the Master. The power of God rested on the congrega- 
tion. Rich and poor, old and young, came thronging to the 
altar, crowded the altar, and for nine days the wailing of 



228 HIGHWAYS AND HEDGES. 

penitents and the shouting of converts were familiar sounds 
in llie temple of the Lord. Upward of sixty joined, many 
of whom proved to l»c patterns of jiiety and way-marks to 
the kingdom of God. It was at this meeting that R. R. 
Seymour and his wife joined the Church. He was a wealthy 
farmer, living near Bainbridge, surrounded with every thing 
of tliis world that heart could wish. He was given to hos- 
pitality, and always delighted to entertain the ministers of 
the Gospel at his princely residence, but he had passed 
middle life neglecting the Savior, and it was feared that he 
would continue to neglect the most important interest. 
Great was the rejoicing when he came out on the Lord's 
side. He was decided and consistent, and immediately it 
was evident that his time, talents, home, and property were 
all dedicated to God. His tenants, hired men, business 
associates, and neighbors all saw the change, and many fol- 
lowed him to Jesus. The many happy seasons spent by 
myself and companion, religiously and socially, at the house 
of brother Seymour will never be forgotten. 

Judge Morris received a new baptism during this meeting. 
Many will remember his feeling remarks in one of our speak- 
inc: meetin<rs. He narrated how he had endeavored to be 
an infidel, and the reluctance of rich men to yield to the 
convictions of the Spirit. Said lie, "The rich are nearly 
always behind ; last to get to church, last to seek the Lord ; 
behind the poor in the measure of their liberality, in the 
support of the Gospel, and the erection of churches. I feel," 
said he, " like getting ahead and not remaining in the rear 
any longer." He was much blessed, and his experience and 
declaration of purpose were made a blessing to others. 
The converts of this meeting came out very clear and 
strong. 

There was a young man of great worth and promise who 
attended that meeting, and was almost persuaded to become a 



BAINBRIDGE CIRCUIT, OHIO. 229 

Christian. Indeed he confessed privately that his mind was 
made up, but that "just one thing was in the way of his 
starting now."' He resisted the Spirit, launched out into 
grander speculations, and by and by financial disaster, dissi- 
pation, divorce demonstrated what a terrible thing it is to 
trifle with the strivings of the Spirit of God. Had he ac- 
cepted then the offers of mercy, and united himself with 
the people of God, I have no doubt that to-day his 
home would have been one of the brightest, and his record 
one of the most honorable, for he was a man who would 
have been among the first in every good work had he given 
his heart to God. If he is still living I here record the 
prayer that he may yet be constrained to say, '• I will arise 
and go to my Father." 

April 6th, we planted the standard of the Lord at Cyn- 
thiana. Up to Saturday night, fifteen had enlisted. On 
Sabbath thirty-five came over on the Lord's side, and the 
meeting went on with great power. Wednesday I found 
myself so much exhausted that I suggested to brother Me- 
harry whether it would not be well to rest a few days, but 
he thought it was best for us to retain our vantage-ground 
and push the enemy to the wall. We did so. The after- 
noon prayer-meeting was a time of power, and at night we 
had a grand victory. The crowd that gathered was com- 
posed of all sorts of hard cases. Brother Meharry preached 
from Joshua vii, 25, "Why hast thou troubled us?"' The 
Lord helped him wonderfully. Some thirty sinners, among 
whom were old and hardened sinners, came out for the Lord 
that night. We closed up the next Sabbath night, having 
enlisted one hundred and twelve recruits during the meeting. 

Our third quarterly-meeting was at Sinking Springs, and 
was a good time. We held several meetings during the 
Summer at different points, at all of which the Lord was 
present to heal. 



230 HIGHWAYS AND HEDGES. 

The first of Scptcni]»cr I told my (ollcague that if he had 
faith he ini^lit no over to l?cth(!l. lie went, and after a few 
dnys' earnest hihor llio fire luoko out, and victory after 
victory was achieved, until u})ward of sixty had come out 
on the Lord's side. One poor sinner, pierced by an arrow 
of truth, went home, and taking to his bed tliought he was 
going to die. He sent for the preacher, who, when he came, 
ordered the man at once to get out of bed and kneel down 
if he Avauted him to pray for him. He obeyed, and soon 
"wound the Lord. 

September 8th, the fourth quarterly-meeting commenced 
at Baiubridge. As this was the last quarterly-meeting for 
the year, and as the revival fire had been burning all over 
the circuit and all through the year, the attendance was 
large. The quarterly conference was a very able and dig- 
nified body of men. We had five local preachers, each of 
whom had his peculiarities and excellencies — Lewis Holler, 
Frederick Curp, Archibald Lockard, Reese Wolf, and John 
Haines. Brother Wolf was a man widely known, eccentric, 
and loyal and faithful to the Church of his choice. We 
had occasion to mention him in the early part of this narra- 
tive as one of the pioneers in Western Virginia in an early 
day. Brother Haines was a man of great simplicity of 
character and purity of life. Blessed with a peculiarly 
tenacious memory, he applied it to the storing away the 
truth of God, and* he had large portions of the Word written 
indelibly on the tables of his memory. He could repeat 
for hours without interruption. Among our exhorters were 
Alexander Jester, Isaac Kelly, Joel Wolf, John L. Smith, 
Stephen Miller, Joseph Boss, and George Nessel, some of 
whom were soon after this licensed to preach. Then in 
other offices, as members of the quarterly conference, such 
men as Taylor, Manlove, Gore, Guilliford, Nellis, Easton, 
Keed, Fleming, Smith, Heaston, Elliott, and a host of others. 



BAINBRIDGE CIRCUIT, OHIO. 231 

My son, "William Fletcher Stewart, had just reached 
home, having completed his course of study and graduated 
at Augusta College. He had been licensed as an exhorter 
some time before, and purposed giving himself to the work 
of the ministry. But neither he nor myself had any thought 
of his entering immediately upon that work. He was only 
eighteen years of age, and apparently nearly broken down 
in health. The presiding elder, however, thought that by 
deferring the matter he might be diverted from the ministry, 
and that horseback- exercise was just what he needed Q^ 
bring him out physically. I had great confidence in brother 
Marlay, and deferred to his judgment in the matter. My 
son was willing to leave his case in the hands of the Church, 
preferring to waft a year, or consenting to go at once, as 
the Church might say. Before organizing the conference, 
the presiding elder called a leaders' meeting, which recom- 
mended the young man to the quarterly conference for 
license. He then organized the conference, and William 
Fletcher was licensed and recommended to the Ohio Annual 
Conference for the travelino- connection. This was to me an 
event of deep and grateful interest. My first and greatest 
desire in regard to my children had always been that they 
should be members of the family of God, and then I had 
felt that I could not only cheerfully give my sons to the 
Lord for the work of the ministry, but that I would rather 
have them in that work — if truly called of God to it and 
faithful — than to see them successful in any other avocation 
in life. I thought, in regard to this son, that if his days 
were to be but few on earth, if the Lord would make him 
instrumental in the efatherincir of some souls for Christ be- 
fore he called him hence, I would feel that my labor and 
expense in giving him the opportunities of education would 
not be spent in vain. 

The quarterly-meeting was a good one, and several more 



232 HIGHWAYS AND HEDGES. 

joined tlic Cliurch, After quarterly-meeting we had several 
two-days' meetings before Conference; one at brother Nes- 
sel's, conducted by l)rother Meharry, assisted by my son. 
There lie made his first attempt to preach — text Luke xii, 
32. The meeting was successful and resulted in several 
conversions and additions to the Church. September IGth, 
we commenced a four-days' meeting at Mt. Carmel. It was 
a noisy meeting — a time of great rejoicing on the part of 
the Church, and some conversions. September 24th, our 
winding-up two-days' meeting at Bourneville. We recounted 
all the way in which God had led us, and were made very 
happy. We had held eighteen quarterly and protracted 
meetings, besides attending the regular work of a large four- 
weeks' circuit ; had received on probation nine hundred and 
twenty-five, and should carry up to Conference a report of 
six hundred and forty-nine net gain for the year. Out of 
that large class of converts we were confident God would 
raise up some to preach the Gospel. My soul had become 
knit to my colleague, and I loved him as though he was 
my own son. 



KANAWHA DISTRICT, VIRGINIA. 233 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

KANAWHA DISTRICT, VIRGINIA. 
1843-46. 

SEPTEMBER 23, 1843, the Conference met at Chilli- 
cothe. Bishop Soule presided. Little did we think as 
we looked upon his manly and venerable form, and listened 
to his words of counsel and exhortation, and received our 
appointments at his hands, that the time would ever come 
when we should fail to welcome him as our presiding officer. 
He had long had his episcopal residence at Lebanon, within 
the bounds of our Conference, and he was particularly en- 
deared to us, but, alas! this was the last time that he was 
to preside over our Conference. 

This session was a pleasant and profitable one. The 
brethren of Chillicothe, proud of their long-established 
character as loyal and enthusiastic Methodists, gave the 
Conference a hearty welcome and extended warm hospitality 
I in their families to the preachers. Many of the preachers 
I brought excellent reports of the success of the past year. 
I believe that my circuit reported the largest net gain of 
any one, and it was no small gratification to me to see 
Bainbridge circuit elevated to the position of third in the 
whole Conference as to numerical strength. The banner 
charge was old " Whiteoak" — called Felicity the year that 
I traveled it. It had one thousand eight hundred and 
twenty-eight members. The second was Troy, one thousand 

seven hundred and three members ; and then Bainbridge, 

20 



234 HIGHWAYS AND IIKDGES. 

one thousand six Inuidicd :nid forty-seven nicnibera. Dur- 
ing the year tlirec prcarliers liad withdrawn from tlie iMcth- 
odist Episcopal Churcli ami connected themselves witli a 
pmall seceding body called "True Wesleyans;" namely, 
llichard Brandriff, Joshua Boucher, and Silas II. Chase. 
One faithful hrother, llcv. Alfred Hancc, liad been trans- 
ferred from the Church militant to the Church triumphant. 
From the time that he joined the Conference, in 1837, he 
liad been a pattern of industry and fidelity in the ministry, 
and his labors had been crowned with abundant success. 
His memory on M'Arthurstown circuit, where he fell at his 
post, will long remain as ointment poured forth. A little 
while before he breathed his last, one said to him, " You 
are sinking fast." To which the triumphant saint replied, 
"I am rising ! rising ! " 

We received a large class on probation, most of them 
vigorous young men, and some of them young men of more 
than ordinary education and culture. The following are 
the names : Andrew J. Lyda, William H. Sutherland, 
John W. Locke, Pearl P. Ingalls, Lorenzo D. M'Cabe, 
David H. Sargent, James F. Chalfant, Harrison Z. Adams, 
William F. Stewart, Alfred L. Westervelt, Charles H. War- 
ren, Isaac N. Mark, Moses T. Bowman, Henry Lewis, Abra- 
ham Thompson, Barzillai N. Spahr, George S. Stephenson, 
Jacob Pierce, James J. Dolliver, William Rutledge, Ezra 
M. Boring, Peter F. Holtsinger, John W. Keeley, George 
Han await, Peter Wilkins, Matthias Ruff, and John M. 
Hofer— 27. 

As I inquire after this class now, after the lapse of a 
quarter of a century, I find that they are greatly scattered ; 
several of them are occupying leading positions in the Ohio 
and other Western Conferences, and several of them have 
accomplished their work and gone to their rest on high. 

Very unexpectedly to me I was elevated to the very 



KANAWHA DISTRICT, VIRGINIA. 235 

lionorable and responsible position of President of Brush 
College. I received the announcement with no little trepi- 
dation, and was very sure that, as all my predecessors had 
experienced, so I should have " my ups and downs " from 
the besrinninG; to the close of the term. But before tlie 
close of my connection with the district, as my narrative 
will show, I had more serious ups and downs than the 
climbing of mountains and descending of valleys. The same 
influences that were to separate our beloved Soule from us 
I were to make the Kanawha district a terrible battle-field. 
Could I have drawn aside the curtain so as to get a 
glimpse of what was before me, I should have shrunk back 
appalled. 

The General Conference was to meet in the city of New 
York the first of May next, 1844, and we elected the fol- 
lowing brethren as delegates to that body : Charles Elliott, 
J. Mr Trimble, Z. Connell, V^\ H. Eaper, J. B. Fiuley, E. 
"W. Sehon. and Leonidas L. llamline. The last one on the 
list was destined to be the marked man of the General 
Conference. 

My first year on the district was far more pleasant than 
I had anticipated. I found that the labors and responsibil- 
ities of the presiding elder difi"ered a good deal from those of 
the pastor, but that the same God who is rich in grace to all, 
was ready to hear me and assist me in my new relation, as 
he had heard and assisted me in relations I had hitherto 
sustained. I found under my charge ten large circuits 
spreading over as many large mountainous counties in 
AVestern Virginia. I found, too, the extremes and all the 
intermediate grades of society : the wealthy in their splen- 
, did palaces, surrounded by their obsequious servants, and 
^ faring sumptuously every day, and the hardly tamed mount- 
aineer, making a precarious living by hunting and fishing. 
The district was so mountainous that it could only be 



236 IIICinVAYS AND HEDGES. 

traveled (»n foot or on liorscback. I>ut while the popula- 
tion (lifTcred so much in some things, they were alike in one 
thini:;, and that was in respect to preachers of the Gospel. 
In the wildest cahin and the stateliest mansion, whether pro- 
fessors or non-professors, the Methodist travelinpj prcacherH 
were welcome, on one condition, and that was, that they deal 
tenderly with the "peculiar institution." IJut the time 
was just at hand when Methodist preachers must say to 
that dcsolatinp; flood, "Thus far shalt thou go, and no 
further," and then will this hospitality in many places turn 
to the most bitter aud relentless persecution. 

But I am anticipating, for, as I have already said, my 
first year on Kanawha district was one of peace and pros- 
perity. I had a band of faithful preachers, and most of 
them were adapted to the work and efficient. I will men- 
tion their names in connection with the charges they served, 
and record the results of my acquaintance with them. 

Charleston circuit embraced much of the wealth of the 
Kanawha Valley, where the most valuable salt-works were 
operated. William T. Hand and John W. Fowble were 
the preachers on tuis charge. Brother Hand was a very 
popular pulpit man. He had, in an eminent degree, the 
" copia verborum " — a fine imagination — great tact in the 
relation of anecdotes, and withal a fine personal appearance. 
He attracted much attention, and made a strong impression 
upon the charge that he served. Brother Fowble, though 
young in his ministry, indicated a strength of intellect, 
mental culture, and devotion to his work that gave much 
promise of his future. The prophecy is being fulfilled. 

Point Pleasant circuit occupied the lower part of the val- 
ley and portions of the Ohio Biver bottoms, as well as 
adjacent mountain ranges. Thomas Gorsuch had charge 
of this work. Amiable, chaste, and graceful in all his inter- 
course with the people, and more than medium in his pulpit 



KANAWHA DISTRICT, VIRGINIA. 237 

ministrations, he drew the people to him, and did them good, 
I always thought I did well for the charge to which I 
nominated Thomas Gorsuch. He has completed his work 
on earth, and now sings with the saints and angels. 

Guyandotte circuit lay in Cabel, Logan, Kanawha, and 
Mason counties, embracing a portion of each, a very ex- 
tended and mountainous region. Michael G. Perkhizer had 
charge of this circuit, assisted by James G. Dolliver. The 
preacher in charge was a workman who needed not to be 
ashamed — always faithful and devoted. The junior preacher 
had just appeared on our Conference roll, and proved to be 
a valuable worker, "full of faith and the Holy Ghost." 
God gave him a tongue of fire, and blessed him very much. 

Logan Court-house circuit embraced Logan and part of 
Fayette and Kanawha counties. George G. West, who had 
charge of this rugged work, was a meek, quiet, studious, 
holy man. He preached faithfully and well, worked dili- 
gently and wisely. Those who knew him best, prized him 
most, and the circuit favored with his labors one year, would 
hardly fail to desire his continuance with them. 

Coal River circuit lay on the waters of Coal River, ruu- 
nins: through some of the counties already mentioned. 
Charles Ferguson had charge of this work. He was a 
many-sided man, and gifted in every direction. Whether iu 
Bong or prayer, or exhortation or preaching, he was a power. 
Never letting down the dignity of the minister, he remem- 
bered that he was the herald of a Gospel which should be 
preached to every creature, and he addressed himself to his 
work, publicly and privately, with abundant success. 

Fayette Court-house circuit lay mostly in Fayette county, 
and principally on the waters of Loop Creek. Isaac N. 
Whitnell had charge of this work. As a theologian and 
sermonizer, he compared favorably with many who far out 
stripped him in efficiency and success. He remained in the 



238 iiicinvAvs and hkdgks. 

rejriil.'ir ministry only a lew years, wIkmi, perhaps convinced 
that, he h.nl better adaptation for sonic other department 
of lahor, lie retired from the reguhir work. It seemed a 
pity tliat his excellent talent eonld not be made fully avail- 
able in the ministry. 

Summcrvillc circuit embraced Nicholas county. Jonathan 
F. Conrcy had charge of this work. Having enjoyed asso- 
ciation with him as my assistant on Georgetown circuit 
a few years prior to this, and holding him in high esteem 
as I did, it was very pleasant to me to have him in my 
district. The appointment to him was like "a clap of thun- 
der from a cloudless sky." He had been stationed in the 
city of Zanesville the year before, and was much disgusted 
at first with the idea of entering " Brush College," but he 
went to his work as a loyal Methodist preacher should, 
made full proof of his ministry, did a noble work for God 
and the Church among the mountains, and from their lofti- 
est crags and their deepest valleys often sounded the high 
praises of God. Though he has well and successfully sus- 
tained himself in the prominent positions of his Conference 
since then, I doubt not he looks back to that as one of his 
happiest and most successful years. 

Suttonville circuit lay on the waters of Elk River. Ad- 
dison Hite had charge of this circuit. He was a preacher 
whose consistent piety commanded the confidence of the 
people, and made him useful in the work. He, after some 
years, retired to the local ranks. 

Kipley circuit lay in Jackson county. James W. South- 
ard was the preacher in charge of this work. He was 
seized with the unfortunate idea that he was not appreciated 
by his brethren according to his merits, and so commenced 
casting about for some new home, where he might have a 
better chance. After another year in our Conference, he 
withdrew and united with the Protestant Methodists. 



KANAWHA DISTRICT, VIRGINIA. 239 

Between these men and myself existed the most pleasant 
relations. They treated me as a father in the Gospel. 
They were on my heart day and night, and I had much 
comfort in pleading for them at the throne of grace. Hav- 
ing but ten charges, I was able to attend all of the quar- 
terly-meetings in person. Preachers and people looked 
forward to these occasions with fasting, and prayer, and 
expectation. Many of them made long mountain journeys, 
to get to the quarterly-meetings, and God blessed us all 
together. Mountain cabin accommodations and fare were 
sometimes wild, and amusing scenes sometimes transpired, 
but beneath the coarsest garments often beat the truest and 
noblest hearts, and around those blazing hickory fires in 
the wide-mouthed fire-places, I have listened to the hunter's 
thrilling story of adventure, and the Christian's stirring 
narrative of Christian experience, and felt as happy as when 
enjoying the hospitality of the salt princes in the valley. 

Amusing stories were told of some of my predecessors on 
the district. It was said that when a certain brother was 
appointed to the district, some brother, with feigned serious- 
ness, had suggested to him that when he reached the mount- 
ain regipns they would feed him on wild-cats. He was a 
man of great purity and simplicity of character, and not 
being accustomed to indulge in a joke, he took the matter 
in earnest, and made up his mind that he would keep a 
sharp look-out in regard to the meat that he should eat. 
During the year, as he was in a wild portion of the district, 
one day he called at a certain brother's house, and as he 
passed through the yard from the gateway, he espied the 
paws of an animal where they had been chopped ofi* and 
lay by the side of a stump. He at once made a note of 
that in his memory. By and by dinner came, and after he 
was seated at the table the reverend host said : 

"Brother , will you take a piece of the meat?" 



i^40 ITir.inVAYS AND HEDGES. 

'' Th.nik you, brother," ropliod liis guest, "I don't eat 
wild-cats n)yscir." 

" 0, no," rejoined the astonislied mountaineer, " neither 
do we; this is not wild-cat." 

"You can't fool nic, brother. I saw the feet lying by 
the stump as I came through the yard." 

The incident was ludicrous enough, but it was all in sin- 
cerity and good humor, if the story is to be regarded as 
authentic. 

On the first of May, 1844, the General Conference as- 
sembled at New York city. It proved to be a memorable 
session. The fact coming to the knowledge of members of 
the Conference that Bishop Andrew had become connected 
with slavery, that question which had agitated the Church 
so long came up in a new and exceedingly embarrassing 
form. Bishop Andrew personally was much beloved, but 
the conscientious members, especially from the free States, 
thought that it would be disastrous to the Church if this 
matter was passed over. The result was, after long and 
earnest discussion, the passage of a resolution offered by 
members of our Conference to the end that the Bishop 
should cease the exercise of the functions of his office until 
he was released from slavery. The Southern preachers took 
fire at that and demanded a plan for the separation of the 
Church. A conditional plan was offered and agreed to. 
The Bishop declined a proposition of some friends to 
raise the money to purchase and manumit his slaves. In- 
tense excitement prevailed, and at the adjournment serious 
apprehensions pervaded the entire denomination. The 
Southern delegates went home, many of them to stir up 
the people and sow the seeds of secession. 

September 4, 1844, the Conference met at Marietta. 
Bishop Waugh presided. Bishop Soule was also present 
part of the time, but his evident want of sympathy with 



KANAWHA DISTRICT, VIRGINIA. 241 

the action of the majority in the late General Conference, 
and the decided position of the Ohio Conference greatly 
impaired the confidence that had hitherto been reposed in 
him. At an early period in the session the venerable 
Jacob Young ofi'ered a preamble and resolutions indorsing 
the course pursued at the General Conference by the ma- 
jority of our delegation. As Edmund W. Sehon had sym- 
pathized and acted with the South, he took alarm at this 
movement. The venerable William Burke espoused the 
cause of the South and became greatly excited. By motion 
of J. F. Wright, the resolutions were referred to a commit- 
tee of nine to consider and report. In due time the com- 
mittee reported in favor of the resolutions, and they passed 
triumphantly. 

The reports from the preachers indicated that this year 
had not been one of as great prosperity as the preceding. 
At Chillicothe we had reported an aggregate increase of 
six thousand seven hundred and eighty-six, while this year 
we reported a decrease of two thousand five hundred and 
fifty-five. 

One of our valuable young men, Rev. J. W. Kanaga, had 
died during the year. He was licensed to preach in 1840 ; 
received on probation in the Ohio Conference in 1841 ; was 
received into full connection at Chillicothe in 1843, and 
appointed to Clarkesville circuit, where he finished his 
work soon after his second quarterly-meeting. At that 
meeting he preached his last sermon from 2 Timothy iv, 
6-8: "For I am now ready to be ofi'ered, and the time of 
my departure is at hand," etc. He preached as though he 
had a premonition that it would indeed be his last sermon, 
and as though his triumphant spirit already caught sight of 
the glittering crown. The fever had already commenced its 
work. It soon assumed a malignant type, and baflled the 
skill of the physicians. He was rational to the last, and 

21 



242 HIGHWAYS AND HEDGES. 

pjavc abundant evidence of tlie sufficiency of grace to sup- 
port in death. 

Tlic following persons were received on trial : Klias II. 
Saltin, Dewitt C. Johnson, David Whitnicr, Kieliard Pitzer, 
William W. M C(»niMs, \';ilcntinc lieanier, Isaac Dillon, 
Christian Wittcubach, »Jolin IMaim, John Hopper, and 
Charles Shelpcr. 

T^]>on the whole this was a very interesting Conference. 
The preachers who liad not visited Marietta before, heard 
with interest the legends of the old " Ohio Company," 
which had established its head-quarters at this point in the 
earl}' years. Eemains of the old stockade and landmarks 
of the earliest pioneer times were still visible. 

I here took my first lessons in the mysteries and delicate 
responsibilities of the Bishop's cabinet. I found that an 
inside view differs largely from an outside view, but my 
experience during this Conference confirmed me in the 
opinion I had entertained for years, that the Bishop and 
his counselors, in studying the necessities of the whole 
work, endeavored sincerely and earnestly to secure such an 
adjustment of the laborers as would secure the greatest 
efficiency and success. It is utterly impossible that every 
charge can secure their preference in regard to their 
preacher, for here are several charges preferring the same 
man. It is equally impossible that every preacher can have 
his preference as to his field, for here are several preachers 
desiring the same field. Then there are good men who are 
really superannuated, either mentally or physically, but do 
not realize it ; others who possibly think of themselves a 
little more highly than they ought to think; others who are 
" constitutionally tired," and do not perform the amount of 
pastoral labor and pulpit preparation necessary to endear 
them to the people or secure success. And then there are 
others who have marked eccentricities, and men who ride 



KANAWHA DISTRICT, VIRGINIA. 243 

hobbies, and men whose time is partly engaged in purely- 
literary or other secular matters. There are preachers who 
desire especial accommodations on account of family mat- 
ters, pertaining to health, or education of children, or sup- 
port. And so I might go on to enumerate many more 
matters, all of which have to be taken into the account in 
the Bishop's cabinet. It is indeed a responsible work, and 
requires sympathy, and courage, and judgment, and faith, 
and divine illumination. Let those who have faith in God 
pray that the Spirit may always direct in the selection of 
Bishops and presiding elders, and influence their minds so 
that they may successfully meet their responsibilities. 

I took back with me to the Kanawha district, in the 
main, the same band of faithful men who had labored with 
me the previous year. I parted company, however, with a 
few whom I loved dearly, and welcomed others who proved 
to be faithful workers. I had this year, as my assistants, 
as follows: 

Charleston Circuit — Thomas Gorsuch and William H. 
Sutherland. Brother Sutherland was one of my new men. 
He was talented, very studious, and inclined to cultivate rigid 
system in the division of his time and labor. I prophesied 
a bright future for him, and have not been disappointed in 
my expectations. 

Parkershurg — Arza Brown. He was pure gold, a man 
of ripe Christian experience, and an able, advocate of the 
doctrine of Christian perfection. Feeble in health, but 
abundant in labors, he was to me a valuable counselor and 
efficient co-worker. His excellent companion, too, was full 
of holy fire and zeal in the cause of the Master, ready for 
every good word and work. Alter years of separation, I 
have had the privilege of meeting them, in 18G8, in their 
pleasant home, in Chicago. But the missionary fire still 
burned in their hearts, and they soon after sought work 



244 HIGHWAYS AM) IIKDCKS. 

among the ficcdnioii, in Jiouisiana, injitructing, exhorting, 
and preaching. 

Litilr Kai\(iu'h<i — Charles Ferguson and J). J). Mather. 
Tliis was lirolher .Mather's first year witli nie. He was en- 
dowed with largo intellcetual capacity, and was rapidly 
developing into an nhle preacher of the Gospel. He has 
long since taken a prominent ])ositiou in the ministry. 

Klphij — Samuel Black and Thomas K. Coleman. Broth- 
er Coleman was a young man of sprightly intellect, fine 
imagination, and tenacious memory, and made his pulj)it 
efi'orts very attractive. He was faithful to his trust, and 
did not sympathize with the preacher in charge, who this 
year espoused the cause of the seceders, and did all he 
could to hand the circuit over to the Church South. 

Point Pleasant — John F. Lon2;man and William W. 
M'Comas. Brother Longman was an Englishman, of good 
preaching ability. Had he felt fully the responsibility of 
the Christian ministry, and met his engagements punctu- 
ally, with the ability he possessed he could have done a no- 
ble work, I had licensed brother M'Comas to preach, and 
carried his recommendation to the Ohio Conference, think- 
ing that he would prove to be a valuable accession to our 
traveling ministry. He had extraordinary elements of power 
and usefulness, but he became tinctured with the leaven 
of secession, and turned his hand against his ecclesiastical 
mother with a fierceness and venom which was terrible. 

Guyandotte — William T. Hand. 

Wayne Court-liouse — James J. Dolliver. 

Logan Court-house — George G. West. 

Coal River — Jesse Botkin. He was a man of sterling 
worth, not so successful in gathering as some, but what he 
gathered into the fold he was apt to retain for the Master. 
He stood up for the Church against all opposers, at what- 
ever cost, feeling that it could not cost too dear. 



KANAWHA DISTRICT, VIRGINIA. 245 

Summerv'dh — Archibald Flemiiifr. He was a man whom 
any charge might deem itself fortunate to have as its 
pastor. 

Elk River — Isaac Whitnell. 

Suttonville was left to be supplied. I employed brother 
Chambers, a local preacher. 

This year the gathering storm began to burst upon us in 
its fury. To me it was indeed a fiery trial. During my 
first year on the district, every face had been the face of a 
friend, and every voice the voice of friendship. Though 
the fare was sometimes rough, and the labor always hard, 
yet I had been happy in the work. But this year there was 
a dividing. A few leading and designing men had raised 
the cry of '• xVbolitionism," and foreign " interference with 
the institutions of Virginia." Countenances that had al- 
ways smiled upon me now turned from me, or met me with 
the blackness of the thunder-cloud. Voices that had ad- 
dressed me with respect and afi'ection now railed out in 
accents of anger, or, behind my back, endeavored to poison 
others against me ; and homes where I had been welcomed 
and entertained as an angel of God would now have 
loathed my presence. Nor were these shafts leveled at nie 
alone. All of my assistants who were true to their ordina- 
tion vows, and all of the members who were true to the 
Discipline of the Methodist Episcopal Church — and they 
constituted the great majority — were sharers in the pro- 
scription and opposition. The most of my preachers were 
not only true as steel, but possessed the qualifications need- 
ful for such an emergency. In the midst of misrepresenta- 
tion, and slander, and threats of personal violence, the 
faithful itinerant said, "None of these things move me; 
neither count I my life dear to me, so that I may finish my 
course with joy." 

September 3, 1845, the Conference met at Cincinnati. 



24G HIGHWAYS AND HEDGES. 

Bishop L. L. TTaniUno presided. ]?isliop Sonic visited us 
again, aiid caused us a gond deal of trouble. We were 
justly proud of Bishop Ilamlinc, not only on account of his 
eminent scholarship, and eloquence, and piety, but because 
he had grown up religiously within our bounds, and was 
recognized as an Ohio Conference man. Probably he was 
never placed in circumstances more embarrassing than on 
the morning when Bishop Soule entered the Conference- 
room, and placed himself in position to be invited to occupy 
the chair. Could he ignore the venerable Bishop? Could 
he summon courage to invite him to the chair ajrainst the 
wishes of almost the whole body of preachers? lie did 
invite Bishop Soulc to the chair. Immediately upon Bishop 
Soule's taking the chair, a scene of confusion transpired; the 
Conference refused to do any business under his presidency, 
and he as resolutely willed that the business should go for- 
ward. When he found it utterly impossible to control the 
Conference, he called brother James Quinn to the chair, but 
still the tumult increased. Now Hamline stepped upon the 
platform, resumed the reins, and, with the hand of a master, 
restored at once the order of the Conference. 

Received on trial at this Conference: Henry E. Dreyer, 
Leonard Mulfinger, Christopher Keller, Moses M'Lane, John 
Myers, Paul Brodbeck, Ernst H. Pelens, John J. Hibner, 
Christopher Hoevner, James B. Morrison — 10 — a small class, 
and several of them for German missionaries. 

It was a time of peculiar tenderness and solemnity when 
a tribute of respect was paid to those who had died during 
the year. Three honored and venerable men had been 
called home — men who had labored long and well — men 
whose praise was in all the Churches, and who had turned 
many to righteousness. They were John Collins, Green- 
bury B. Jones, and H. S. Farnandis. 

In a previous part of this narrative we have spoken of 



KANAWHA DISTRICT, VIRGINIA. 247 

brother Collins as a man of God and a preacher of the 
Gospel. In no part of the Conference was he more highly 
prized than in Cincinnati, where our Conference was now 
holdius: its session. He had or2:anized the first class in the 
city, and laid there the foundation of Methodism. He was 
born in New Jersey in 1769; came to Ohio in 1804; en- 
tered the traveling connection in 1807; and died in the 
city of Maysville, August 21, 1845. ''His setting sun was 
without a cloud. His last words were, 'Happy! happy! 
happy!' and all was still." 

Brother Jones was a Pennsylvanian. He was admitted 
on trial in the Ohio Conference in 1818 ; superannuated in 
1832; was made effective again in 1839. He was a superior 
executive officer and an efficient worker, made full proof of 
his ministry, and died at Marietta, September 20, 1844. 
His last days were days of triumphant experience. 

Brother Farnandis was a Virginian. He was born in 
Loudon county, December 1, 1793. He entered the travel- 
ing connection in 1819. Though not remarkable for the 
shining qualities of the orator, he possessed such a combi- 
nation of gifts and graces as seemed to make him a favorite 
with God and men. He led a great many souls to Christ, 
and in his crown of righteousness will be found many stars, 
and stars of the first magnitude. During his last illness 
he was much blessed of God, and sent assurances to his 
brethren of the Conference of his joyful hope of immor- 
tality. He fell asleep in Jesus on the 17th of May, 1845, 
in his own house, in Rushville, Ohio, surrounded by loving 
family and friends. 

My three years on the Kanawha district constituted per- 
haps the most responsible as well as trying period of my 
whole ministry. As soon as I had taken my position, after 
the secession, the Southern press began to misrepresent me, 
and its whole power was used to crush me. Insinuation, 



248 HK.inVAYS AM) HEDGES. 

iiinnciulo, and <li)WiiriLr]it falsehood were used and ciiTulatod 
industriously by liot-bloodcd ai^itators and mischicf-niakcrs, 
but I i»ut my trust in God, and endeavored conscicrjtiously 
to do my duty. Since I commenced writing this cbapter, I 
have thoroughly reviewed the wliole controversy, and I am 
satisfied that I was not only true to the Church, but con- 
sistent with myself during the whole of my administration. 
The Methodist Episcopal Church at that time occupied con- 
servative ground on the subject of slavery, denouncing the 
principle as sinful, the system of American slavery as the 
"sum of all villainies," but allowing that the legal relation 
of master and slave did not necessarily, under all circum- 
stances, involve sin. 8hc prohibited, unequivocally, the 
traffic in slaves ; required her ministers who had become 
involved in the relation to emancipate their slaves when- 
ever the laws of the State would allow the emancipated 
slaves to enjoy their liberty. The spirit of slavery, however, 
true to itself, had for some time been steadily making ag- 
gressions, until quite extensively through the South the 
wholesome regulations of the Church were practically 
ignored. A traveling preacher in the Baltimore Conference 
set the Church at defiance. He was tried by his own Con- 
ference and found guilty. He appealed to the ensuing 
General Conference, and the decision of the Annual Con- 
ference was sustained. Bishop Andrew became the owner 
of slaves by marriage, and the facts coming before the 
General Conference of 1844, which sat in the city of New 
York, the Conference required that he should manumit his 
slaves or desist from the exercise of his episcopal office. 
It was certain that a slaveholdiug Bishop could not be 
acceptable as a presiding officer in the free States. Brethren 
anxious for a peaceful solution of this difficulty, proffi^red 
to put into the hands of the Bishop the value of the serv- 
ants, so that his wife's estate should not be injured. He, 



KANAWHA DISTRICT, VIRGINIA. 249 

however, acting under the advice of the magnates of the 
South, declined all such pacific overtures, and so compelled 
a direct issue. The Conference met the issue promptly. 
The Southern delegates consulted and handed in a ^'jyroiest." 
They expressed the conviction that a rupture of the Church 
would be inevitable if the majority did not recede, and 
demanded a plan by which the separation, if found inevita- 
ble, might be consummated peacefully. The result of a 
protracted and very earnest discussion was the adoption of 
the famous "plan of separation." It was granted on the 
part of the majority, as an "olive branch," and with the 
belief that the Southern delegates returning to their people 
and laying the matter honestly before them, would find the 
majority of them true to the Church and averse to separa- 
tion. These delegates, however, determined upon separation 
before they left the city, and went home, not to consult with 
the people and try to allay strife and save the unity of the 
Church, but to prepare the people to submit, unresistingly, 
to the disintegration of the Church. Up to the time, how- 
ever, of the final action of the Louisville Convention, many 
of us believed that in case a Southern Church was orsanized, 
it would maintain the old landmarks of Methodism, and 
carry out the spirit and letter of the plan of separation. 

It was claimed that the radical views of agitators in the 
North had created a feeling in the South that greatly em- 
barrassed our work in that section, and that the antislavery 
rules and spirit of the Church could be much more efli- 
ciently enforced if the cry of Northern interference could be 
arrested. There was plausibility in this position. We felt 
its force in the Kanawha district. Had the delegates gone 
home and represented the action of the General Conference 
in the true spirit by which it was actuated, my belief is 
that it would have allayed in great measure what discon- 
tent then existed. Or if, upon a calm and honest interchange 



250 HIGHWAYS AND HEDGES. 

of views, it liad boon docided to oriranizc a separate Cliurch, 
with the avowed jmrpose of iii;iintainiiig saeredly the ohl 
landmarks of Methodism, the separation might have been 
eonsuniniatcd in arrnrdnnro with the provisions of the plan 
without serious friction. 1 was invited to attend the Louis- 
ville Convention, but my duties were such as to make it 
impracticable for me to do so. I addressed the Convention, 
by letter, through Bishop Soule, expressing my convictions 
touching the interests of the Kanawha district. I then 
thought that should a separate Church be organized in good 
faith, in accordance with the plan, it would be best that 
all the territory within the slave States should be embraced 
in that Church. 

Immediately after the organization of the new Church, 
however, its animus indicated such a hostility to genuine 
antislavery Methodism, and such a determination to swal- 
low up the people in the new organization, without regard 
either to their wishes or the plan of separation, that I found 
I could not in conscience either be a party to any such pro- 
cedure, or allow such procedure within the bounds of the 
Kanawha district. I laid the question before the quarterly 
conferences, and, with scarcely a dissenting vote, they all 
decided to remain in the Methodist Episcopal Church. This 
greatly exasperated those in the interest of slavery^ and 
thenceforth a most persistent effort was made to get me out 
of the way, or destroy my influence among the people. One 
instance of the length to which those who became my ene- 
mies would go to injure me, will be all that I will place 
upon the record. 

In Parkersburg a minority, in flagrant violation of the 
plan of separation, not only received a preacher from the 
Church South, but took possession of the church edifice. 
Rather than resort to law or violence, our brethren went to 
work and erected, with great liberality and dispatch, a new 



^ KANAWHA DISTRICT, VIRGINIA. 251 

churcli. Eiforts were made to intimidate me from attend- 
ing my quarterly-meeting at that place, and a plan was 
concocted to involve me in difficulty should I come. G. 
Neal and H. Phelps were the most prominent actors in the 
matter. 

On Sabbath, as I was passing along the street, Mr. Phelps 
called to me, and then approaching me with a smile on his 
face, said, "How do you do, brother Stewart?" Having re- 
ceived a very insolent letter from him some time previously, 
and well knowing the man, I conversed with him civilly, 
but was careful to be on my guard. He invited me to visit 
him before I should leave the town. I answered perhaps I 
might. He urged me to do so, and I replied that if I did 
not leave town that day perhaps I would call next day. 
We then parted, and I called the attention of brother Jen- 
nings, who was with me, to the guarded manner in which I 
had replied to the invitation. 

I had expected to leave on Monday, but learning on the 
morning of that day that Phelps had what purported to be 
a copy of the letter that I addressed to the Louisville Con- 
vention, and that he was using it to my injury, and learning 
that several of the Southern preachers had copies of that 
letter which they read to their congregations, and commented 
on at great length to my prejudice, I determined to make 
an effort to see the copy, that I might satisfy myself whether 
it was genuine or counterfeit. Monday evening, taking 
brother Wolf with me, I sought an interview with Mr. 
Phelps, and asked for a copy of the letter he was said to 
have in his possession. He said he had it, but refused to 
give me a copy of it. I then expressed my wish that he 
would publish it. He said that he had intended to do so, 
but had ascertained that the cost would be more than he 
was willing to pay. I proposed that if lie would give it to 
me I would publish it. He declined that proposition, where- 



252 lilGIlWAVS AND HEDGES. 

upon brotlior Wolf and myself bade liini good-by and (crm- 
inatc'd (lie interview. 

Next morning' lie sent inc word that lie would meet me 
at any place that I would appoint for another interview. 
My friends were divided in their counsel as to the proper 
course to pursue, but T decided to see him, and so taking 
an excellent member of our Church, brother Maddux, with 
me, I proceeded to Mr. Phelps's office. I told liim that I 
had not come for controversy, but simply to ask for, and, 
if possible, obtain a copy of the letter said to be written 
by me which he claimed to have in his possession. After 
some conversation he absolutely refused to let me have it. 
I asked him if any other person had a copy. He informed 
me Samuel Black had a certified copy. ''Can I get a copy 
from liim?" I inquired. He answered emphatically, "No." 
As I was about to retire he stated that I had authorized 
him to publish it the night before at my expense. I told 
him to give it to me and it should be published at my ex- 
pense. Of course I could not consent to any other arrange- 
ment, and prohibited the publication of any thing at my 
expense, unless it went through my hands to the printer. 

Leaving Parkersburg, I proceeded by the way of my 
father's to Eavenswood, where my next quarterly-meeting 
was to be held. I arrived on Saturday, and the meeting 
commenced at eleven o'clock, A. M. The services, morninir. 
afternoon, and night, gave promise of an excellent meeting. 

Sabbath morning early Messrs. Neal and Phelps, of Par- 
kersburg, arrived by steamer. The former sought an inter- 
view with me, and manifested great friendship. He com- 
plained that I had not visited him while in Parkersburg. I 
told him frankly that I did not feel safe to do so. The 
quarterly-meeting was held at a private house, and I learned 
at the close of the love-feast that application had been 
made for liberty to address the congregation on an impor- 



KANAWHA DISTRICT, VIRGINIA. 253 

tant matter of controversy between the said Phelps and the 
presiding elder. The proprietor of the house informed them 
that he had given the use of his house to me for the quar- 
terly-meeting. They then requested him to ask niy consent. 
I told him that I had no controversy with Mr. Phelps, and 
if I had, this was neither the place nor the day for such 
business. 

"We had a time of refreshins: durinc; the love-feast. At 
its close I retired to the woods, to put ray case into the 
hands of God. After an intermission of fifteen or twenty 
minutes I commenced the public service. The Lord was 
with me indeed, and the Word wa*s clothed with power. My 
text was, "The Lord God is a sun and a shield," etc., and I 
truly felt that while his broad shield was over me I could 
say, " I will not fear what man can do unto me." I an- 
nounced a sacramental service for four o'clock, and preach- 
ino; at candle-liorhtinir. 

As soon as I pronounced the benediction, Phelps arose 
and stated that there existed a difficulty between himself 
and John Stewart, presiding elder of the Kanawha district, 
involving the important case of veracit3\ He had procured 
leave of Mr. Fetschur to settle the difficulty at his house, 
and that the presiding elder and congregation were requested 
to attend there for that purpose at two o'clock, P. M. 

As the people were assembling in accordance with that 
appointment, a steamer touched the wliarf, and brothers Wolf 
and Diltz, of Parkersburg, stepped ashore. I now saw that 
God proposed to vindicate my cause more promptly than I 
had expected. These good brethren, having learned provi- 
dentially that Neal and Phelps had embarked at midnight for 
Ravenswood, inferred at once that they had some malicious 
intent, and followed them by the next boat. Their arrival 
and presence in the congregation gathered by my enemies 
^Yas exceedingly opportune for me. As I did not attend 



254 HIGHWAYS AND HEDGES. 

the incetinir. of course I state wli.it occurred on the au- 
thority of my friends wlio were present. 

Neal and ]'liel])s botli addressed the congregation, the 
latter protracting his remarks at great length, apparently 
for the purpose of defeating the sacramental service of the 
afternoon. He read and commented on the copy of a letter 
which he had refused to give me. He also read two affi- 
davits, purporting to be from ]»ersons who had heard our 
previous conversation in regard to the publication of the 
said letter at my expense. One of them stated that I had 
consented that Phelps might publish and I would pay the 
cost. The other understood that I consented to publish it, 
if given to me, at my own expense. 

Brothers Wolf and Diltz then reported themselves to the 
congregation ; announced that they had personal knowledge 
of the fact; had just arrived from Parkersburg, and, if they 
could be permitted to do so, would state the facts in the 
case. My accusers would not allow them to speak. The 
people now began to open their eyes. 

Rev. D. Gr. Morrell, who was also a lawyer and com- 
manded great respect, asked the attention of the congrega- 
tion for one minute only. It was granted. He stated that 
they had been listening for hours to hear something that 
would fix a stain upon the moral character of their presid- 
ing elder. He has been charged with falsehood, and in 
support of the charge two affidavits, taken in his absence 
and without his knowledge, have been read. They are ex- 
parte evidence which would be thrown out of any court. 
Here are two men whose testimony would be competent 
evidence, who claim to know the facts and wish to state 
them, but they are not permitted to do so. The claim that 
the presiding elder would allow the publication of the letter 
without seeing it, at his expense, is unreasonable, and the 
accusers have utterly failed. He expressed the opinion that 



KANAWHA DISTRICT, VIRGINIA. 255 

the presiding elder had lost nothing in the confidence of 
the people by the prosecution. 

It broke down so utterly as to appear almost a farce. 
My accusers took their departure by the first boat, greatly 
chagrined, and my friends returned with them, happy that 
they had been able to foil a malicious purpose. I might 
have enlightened the people touching the moral character 
of Mr. Phelps and the experiences the Church had had 
with him, but I could w^ell afibrd to spare him under the 
circumstances. 

Having written to Bishop Soule during the session of the 
Louisville Convention the famous letter which afterward, in 
its various editions, became a sort of text-book for Southern 
border preachers, and having made repeated unsuccessful 
endeavors to get a copy of the said letter, I wrote to 
Bishop Soule again, April 28, 1846, taking care this time to 
preserve a copy of my letter. In it I gave him a detailed 
and faithful exhibit of the state of facts in the bounds of 
the Kanawha district. The following extracts from that let- 
ter may be of interest to the reader: 

" I saw, after a careful examination of the plan of the 
General Conference and the action of the Louisville Con- 
vention, that the line separating the two Churches was 
fixed, and could be altered only by a vote of a majority in 
a society^ station, or Conference on the border of the two 
Conferences ; and that if a majority of any society, station, 
or Conference on the border voted to belong to the Church 
on the other side of the line, then the line was changed so 
as to conform to that vote. It then became a permanent 
line, and each Church was bound by it. Interior charges 
were, therefore, to remain in the unmolested care of the 
Church within whose bounds they were located. I have 
no disposition to discuss the merits of the plan itself, but 
I assume that the Bishops of both Churches intend to 



250 HIGHWAYS and hedges. 

conform fo it. T do m.t believe that tlic l?is]>ops of cither 
Cluircli will knowiiiiily send men over the lines thus estab- 
lished. Now I wish to con)muni( ate to you the faets toueli- 
in«r the Kanawha district : 

"We have thirteen cireuits and one station, though the 
station is now attar-hod to the T>ittle Kanawha circuit. We 
have six circuits that border on the Ohio River, and four 
that border on the k^outhern Church. These latter are 
"Wayne, Logan, Coal River, and Fayette. In regard 
to these I wish to give you particular information, 

" Wayne circuit has from six to seven hundred members, 
not more than one hundred of whom have signified a wish 
to belong to the Church South. It has six societies that 
border on the Kentucky Conference. They are as follows: 
1. IlattoHs, three miles from the mouth of Sandy River. 
It has twenty-seven members, twenty of whom adhere to 
the Methodist Episcopal Church. 2. Round B<jitom, twelve 
miles from Ilatton's and fifteen from the mouth of Sandy. 
It is a Jarge society, and all the members adhere to the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. 3. Perry s^ three miles from 
Round Bottom, and eighteen from the mouth of Sandy. 
It is a large society and all remain. 4. Mill Crech^ nine 
miles from Perry's and twenty-seven from the mouth of 
Sandy. The society numbers forty-eight, and thirty-eight 
of them remain with the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
The fifth society is at the Falh of Tvgg ; a large society, 
and all but one remain in the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
and that one desires license to preach. The Falls of Tugg 
are eight miles from Mill Creek, and thirty-five miles from 
the mouth of Sandy. The sixth society is at Copley''s^ ten 
miles from the mouth of Tugg, and forty-five from the 
mouth of Sandy. That is a large society, and all remain 
in the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

"Next in order is LoGAN circuit. It stretches along the 



KANAWHA DISTRICT, VIRGINIA. 257 

line about forty miles. On that circuit, every society has 
resolved to remain in the Methodist Episcopal Church. At 
their last quarterly-meeting last year, the conference — say 
thirty in number — voted to remain, and I am informed that 
only three persons in the whole circuit would prefer to 
belong to the new Church organization. 

"The next on the border is Coal River circuit. It 
stretches along the line say thirty miles. The quarterly 
conference on this charge also passed a unanimous vote to 
remain where they they are. Xot an individual on the 
charge desires to adhere South. 

"The next charge is Fayette circuit. Brother Morrison, 
the preacher, has informed me that not more than ten in 
the whole circuit had expressed a wish to go South. 

" I have taken great pains to ascertain the facts, and to 
the best of my knowledge the foregoing are the facts in the 
case. Now to the point to which I desire especially to call 
your attention. 

"Notwithstanding the facts above stated, a Southern 
preacher has crossed these circuits, penetrated the interior 
of the district, and formed a circuit spreading across Wayne, 
Guyandotte, and Point Pleasant circuits. He has three 
or four appointments in the bounds of Wayne, six or seven 
in the bounds of Guyandotte, and three in the bounds of 
Point Pleasant. At some of these appointments he has 
majorities, and at some of them minorities. At seven of 
them the preachers of both Churches preach. The presid- 
ing elder of the Maysville district, Kentucky Conference, 
Church South, has held two quarterly-meetings for that 
new circuit so constituted. I have believed that this course 
has been pursued either without the authority of the Bishops 
of the Church South, or that they have authorized the for- 
mation of the circuit without a knowledge of the facts in 
the caso. I have believed, too, that Bev. Mr. Harrison, 

22 



258 HIGHWAYS AND HEDGES. 

tlio presiding cUlor, and Kov. ^Ir. M'Gcc, the circuit 
preacher, have been deceived, or tlicy would not have 
crossed tlie line in sncli palpahle violation of the law in the 
case. I could liavc penetrated tlie Kentucky Conference if 
I liad deemed it right to do so. One circuit, hy a nnaiii- 
nious vote of its quarterly conlcrcncc, de(;ided to remain in 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, but I have steadily de- 
clined acting otherwise than in strict conformity to the plan 
of separation. I will give you briefly the state of facts on 
the several charges on this district at the present time. 

" Parkersburg, of two hundred and one members, re- 
turned last year one hundred and eighteen ; are under 
the care of brother Dillon. On the Little Kanawha 
circuit, at my last quarterly-meeting, not more tlian one 
hundred had determined to connect themselves with the 
Church South. That is less than one-fifth of the member- 
ship. On Ravenswood no action has been taken this year. 
Perhaps one-fourth might prefer to go. On Eipley Sam- 
uel Black has been preparing the people, for nearly two 
years, to go South, and I am told that he has gone over 
with as many members as he could induce to go with him. 
It is a rough and broken circuit, but it lies in the center 
of tlip district, so that it would be very inconvenient for us 
to lose it, or for you to serve it. Perhaps three-fourths of 
its members would now prefer to go South. On Point 
Pleasant circuit perhaps one-fifth prefer to go. On Guy- 
ANDOTTE circuit six hundred and forty-five were returned. 
Of them sixty-six were colored people. Apart from them, 
brother Smith says, three hundred and fifty have signed 
resolutions to remain where they are. I have already 
spoken of Wayne ; perhaps one-seventh on Logan ; Coal 
River, not one in two hundred ; on Fayette, not one- 
sixth ; on Someryille, perhaps one-third ; on Sutton, per- 
haps one-third; on Elk River, none; on Charleston 



KANAWHA DISTRICT, VIRGINIA. 259 

circuit, not to exceed one-fourth. I believe that these 
estimates will be found very near correct. 

"I am aware that great effort has been made to mislead 
you in regard to the state of facts in this district. The 
two Spurlocks and the two M'Comases, all men of talent 
and influence, are working hard for the South. I have been 
much misrepresented, but I think I have been consistent 
with myself and the Church from the beginning. 

" With my best wishes for your personal welfare, yours 
most respectfully," etc. 

During this controversy the emissaries of the Church 
South were continually harping on the fact that the preach- 
ers of the Methodist Episcopal Church, supplying the Ka- 
nawha district, were from Ohio, and not in sympathy 
with the people of Virginia. The conviction gradually 
fixed itself upon my mind, that the interests of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church would be best promoted by the or- 
ganization of a Western Virginia Conference. Finding 
that my preachers, and the people with whom I consulted, 
agreed in this opinion, I began to shape matters for the 
securing of that end. In pursuance of this plan, I opened 
a correspondence with the presiding elder of the Rocking- 
ham district of the Baltimore Conference, and advocated 
the measure in the columns of the Western Christian Ad- 
vocate. The proposition met with favor, and I had the 
pleasure, at the next General Conference, of assisting to 
make it the law of the Church. The results have been such 
as I anticipated. The Church has not only maintained her 
ground, but has grown and prospered, and, when the spirit 
of secession developed itself against the flag of the Union, 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, in the bounds of the 
Western Virginia Conference, was sound to the core and 
true to the country. Their blood has fertilized their na- 
tive mountains, but some of them still live to recount the 



2^)0 HIGHWAYS AND HEDGES. 

conflicts, and rejoice in the victories they achieved over rebels 
and secessionists, both in Churcli and State. How it would 
pladdcn my heart could I once more J^rasj) the friendly 
hands of those brave men and women ! Be faithful, my fel- 
low-soldiers, and we shall soon greet each other where "the 
wicked cease from troubling, and the weary are at rest." 
Let us not cherish in our hearts any enmity against those 
who, in their infatuation, ill-treated us. They sowed the 
wind, and they have reaped the whirlwind. Let us pray 
that they may fly from the wrath to come, and find pardon 
and salvation in the merits of Him who has taught us to 
Bay, " Forgive us our trespasses as we also forgive them who 
trespass against us." 



PORTSMOUTH DISTRICT, OHIO. 261 



CHAPTER XXV. 

PORTSMOUTH DISTRICT, OHIO. 
1846-50. 

fTHHE Ohio Conference met at Piqua, September 2, 1846, 
-*- Bishop Morris presiding. Received on trial : John 
Phetzing, Stephen 31. Merrill, Oliver E. Peebles, Michael 
Sheets, Jacob Holmes, Joseph H. Creighton, Jacob Bonham, 
Charles 11. Lawton, W. W. Cherington, David A. M'Gin- 
nis, Richard L. Brooks, Charles Bauer, Charles Helwig, 
Frederick Heller, George M. Bush, Lewis Nippert, B. F. 
Deemer, Adam Cline, Conrad Gahn, John M. Hartman, Ja- 
cob Rothweiler, E. H. Peters, Thomas D. Crow, Charles D. 
Meredith, Thomas M. Gossard, Addison Nichols, Alexander 
Nelson, "William Porter, Allen W. Tibbits, Truman S. Cow- 
den, Sanford Haines, Banner Mark, William Wilson, William 
J. Quarry, Francis Guthrie, Lewis A. Atkinson — 36. This 
was a large class, and contained many valuable names. 
Some of them now occupy leading positions in the Church, 
and give promise of continued usefulness. 

The names of the following persons were recorded as 
having finished their work and gone to receive their crown : 
John Ferree, Jacob Delay, Benjamin Cooper, and William 
R. Anderson. 

Of Rev. John Ferree, the first on the list, I have already 
spoken in former parts of this narrative. We had been 
associated at difierent times, both in the pastorate and the 
eldership. I had known him intimately, prized him highly, 



OilO 



-<>- HIGHWAYS AND HKDGKS. 

and loved him dearly. Thoup^h some mny have cxecllcd 
him ill ^liininu; (jualities, speakitii^ after the manner of men, 
very few excelled him in solid worth ; and perhaps few will 
have a briL^hter erown tliaii he. He was born November 
22, 1792, ill J^aiicaster county, Penn., and died in Jackson 
county, Ohio, October 4, 1845. 

Jacob r>elay was born in Pennsylvania, Pecember 17, 
1781, and died at his residence in Jackson, Ohio, October 
18, 1845. While he was young liis parents settled in Pick- 
away county, Ohio, where he experienced religion under 
the preaching of the Rev. James Quinn. He was licensed 
as a local preacher, in which relation he served the Church 
faithfully for many years. In 1824 he was received as a 
probationer in the Ohio Conference, of which he continued 
a member, either on the effective or supernumerary list, until 
at last he fell at his post and was called home. His last 
days were peaceful and at times triumphant. Jn death he 
left this testimony: "The religion which I have preached 
to others for more than forty years supports me in this 
trying hour." 

Benjamin Cooper was born in Perry county, Ohio, June 
3, 1802, and died in Hancock county, Ind., May 13, 1846. 
He was a bright example of early piety, and was admitted 
as a probationer in the Ohio Conference in 1827. In 1836, 
his health having failed, he was superannuated. He then 
moved to Indiana, where he spent the residue of his days. 
His ministry was useful, his whole life an example, and his 
death a sublime illustration of the sufficiency of the grace 
of God. 

AVilliam E. Anderson was born June 21, 1810, in Ross 
county, Ohio, and died February 25, 1846. When a lad 
but fourteen years of age he gave his heart to God, and 
joined the Church at a camp-meeting held on Deer Creek 
circuit. In 1836 he joined the Conference. In 1837 he 



PORTSMOUTH DISTRICT, OHIO. 263 

was my assistant on Athens circuit. He was a young man 
of more than ordinary promise, and labored acceptably and 
usefully to the close of his ministry. When death came he 
was ready. Instead of needing to make preparation for 
another world, he spent his dying breath iu urging upon 
those who were neglecting the Savior to improve their 
present opportunity, and seek the Lord. 

The secession of the Conferences in the slave-holdinsr 
States was the leading topic of conversation among the 
preachers at Conference, and there remained among us a few 
brethren who had had sympathy with them. The preachers 
who officiated in the pulpit during the session had liberty, 
and administered the Word with power. Among the young 
men of the Conference, brothers R. S. Foster, J. Miley, 
Moses Smith, John Dillon, J. S. Inskip, and Joseph T. 
Lewis preached much to the profit of the people. Bishop 
Morris urged me to consent to return to the Kanawha dis- 
trict, but filially yielded to my solicitation and requested 
me to nominate my successor. I nominated David Reed, 
and he was appointed, and proved to be a wise selection for 
that work. I was appointed to the Portsmouth district. 
The district embraced the following appointments and 
preachers: 

Portsmouth — David Whitcomb. This station, located on 
the Ohio River at the mouth of the Scioto, was the princi- 
pal charge, and the preacher was the strong man of the 
district. He had clear perception, ready utterance, intimate 
acquaintance with the Scriptures and with systematic the- 
ology, was a close and strong reasoner, and had a rare power 
of making .error look ridiculous and loathsome, and of cloth- 
ing truth and righteousness with beauty and grace. 

GaUipoIis — Charles C. Lybrand. Gentlemanly in appear- 
ance, dignified in deportment, and respectable in pulpit 
ability, he always commanded the respect of the Church 



201 HIGHWAYS AND IIKnGES. 

and people, lit* lia<] adopted the opinion that one year 
was long enough for him to remain in a charge, and usually 
he packed his goods hefore Conference, ready to be shipped 
as soon as he should receive his appointment. 

Pikcton — David ISmith and Tiuiiiaii 8. Cuwdeu. As 
brother Smith was associated with my work in Virginia, I 
have spoken of him in that connection. JJrother Cowden 
was just commencing his itinerant life, and gave good prom- 
ise of becoming a valuable worker, which prophecy has been 
abundantly fulfilled. 

Waverlci/ — Joseph Barringer, Addison Ilife. • Brother 
Barringcr was one of our best critics, and excelled in the 
exposure of doctrinal errors. He was skillful and able in 
the management of controversy, and diligent and efl&cient 
as a pastor. I have spoken of brother Kite in connection 
with the Kanawha work. 

Richmond — Clinton W. Sears. He was a man of un- 
doubted piety, great industry, and superior pulpit ability. 
This was a year to him of much trial. He felt that he was 
not in the right place, and so failed to realize his usual 
success. 

French Grant — William R. Litsinger, Lewis A. Atkinson. 
Brother Litsinger was a man of superior natural ability, 
which compensated in great part for his lack of educational 
advantages. He made a fine impression among the people, 
and had his stability been equal to his other endowments, 
lie would have been of permanent value to the Church. 
The junior preacher, just beginning his work, was well re- 
ceived, and until his declining health in after years required 
him to superannuate, brother Atkinson was a worthy and 
beloved pastor. 

Burlington— WiW'idim T. Hand, W. W. Cherington. Of 
the preacher in charge I have spoken heretofore. Brother 
Cherington was a laborious, faithful, and useful preacher, 



PORTSMOUTH DISTRICT, OHIO. 265 

and looked well after the iuterests of the charges tvhicli 
were intrusted to his care. 

Fafriot — Alfred L. Westervelt. He was deeply pious 
and devoted to the work, and was made a great blessing to 
his charge. 

Gallia — Samuel Maddux, Andrew J. Lyda. I have spoken 
of brother Maddux heretofore. Brother Lyda was a A'ir- 
ginian ; educated himself at Augusta College by the avails 
of his own industry. He possessed those substantial quali- 
ties, industry, devotion to purpose, and indomitable perse- 
verance, which give surer promise of ultimate success than 
the rarest talent and genius without them. He was be- 
loved by the people on Gallia circuit, and has gone on in 
the even tenor of his useful way until he now stands 
among the most prominent members of the Western Vir- 
ginia Conference, of which he is now a member. 

JacJison — Charles Ferguson, M. Sheets. These brethren 
were blessed with a most extensive and glorious work of 
revival on this charge this year. Of the preacher in 
charge — a princely man — I have spoken heretofore. The 
junior preacher was an active pastor, diligent and successful 
in circulating religious literature among the people, preached 
good sermons, and did good work. 

Rochville — Samuel Brown. He, too, had been among 
my Kanawha preachers. On this charge he felt at home, 
and earnestly addressed himself to the work. 

My first year's experience on the district was altogether 
pleasant. The territory was somewhat broken and the 
roads bad. It being an iron region, the heavy teams cart- 
ing ore, and coal, and iron, and provisions, cut up the roads 
badly, but it was a great improvement over the Kanawha 
mountain rides. The population in the iron region was 
fluctuating, its ebb and flow being controlled by the pros- 
perity or depression of the iron interest. The preachers 

2:] 



26G hkjHwavs and hi:dges. 

ami }*c«>plc treated me with ninrkcd kindness, nnd it was a 
liaj)py year. At tlic <jnaiteily-iiiectinu;s ol' thusc brctlirea 
who had fought by my side on tlic other side of the river, 
we otijoycd a rare feast in ealling up the memnrics and 
recounting the stirring scenes of that warfare. 

As my companion spent a portion of tliis year traveling 
with my son, wlio was at that time out of liealth, I spent 
much of my time among tlie people on the work. We 
boarded part of the year at Gallipolis and part of the year 
at llichmondale. 

The Conference met at Columbus, Ohio, September 1, 
1847, Bishop Janes presiding. 

The following persons were admitted on trial: J. H. Sed- 
delmeyer, Frederick Schimmelpfennig, Henry Henke, Val- 
entine Ballduif, George F. Jahnke, Adolph Koelter, John 
Strauch, Charles Schelper, Nicholas Nuhfer, Benjamin St. 
James Fry, Moses G. Bennett, Samuel J). Clayton, James 
A. Taylor, James Mitchell, J. B. Prose, A. Head, II. S. 
Sellmau, T. J. M'Mahon, J. B. Hill, W. B. Jackson— 21— 
a class largely composed of Germans to supply that rapidly 
growing and very promising department of our work. 

Bev. Thomas E. Bond, editor of the Advocate and Jour- 
nal, was a visitor \at this session, and added to its interest 
by his genial spirit in the social circle and his able minis- 
trations in the pulpit. He preached a sermon of great 
clearness and strength on the " new birth." The election 
of delegates for the ensuing General Conference elicited con- 
siderable interest, and the following persons were chosen: 
James B. Fiuley, C. Elliott, Jacob Young, G. W. Walker, 
J. S. Tomlinson, William Nast, William Herr, J. M. 
Trimble, J. F. Wright, John Stewart. I had not antici- 
pated being elected, but in view of my intimate acquaint- 
ance with the necessities of the border work, I was grati- 
fied that I should have the opportunity to represent it. 



PORTSMOUTH DISTRICT, OHIO. 2.07 

The boundaries of my district were slightly changed by 
the transfer of Waverly circuit from it to the Chillicothe 
district, and the addition of M'Arthurstown circuit from 
the Marietta district. The district was manned this year 
as follows : 

Portsmouth, David Whitcomb ; Gallipolis, William T. 
Hand ; Piketon, D. Smith, L. A. Atkinson ; Piichmond, Jo- 
seph Barringer ; French Grant, William K. Litsinger, T. 
J. MMahon ; Burlington, Alfred L. Westervelt ; Patriot, 
Levi W. Munsell; Gallia, Orville C. Shelton, Michael 
Sheets; Jackson, Charles Ferguson, W. W. Cherington ; 
"Rockville, Samuel Brown ; M'Arthurstown, William T. 
Metcalf, Richard Pitzer. 

In the new men brought into my district I found some val- 
uable workers. The last one on my list, especially, greatly 
endeared himself to me by his untiring industry and un- 
flagging devotion to the work. In the Spring I took Mrs. 
Stewart to Athens county, to visit at my father's and among 
our family connections, while I should attend the session 
of the General Conference at Pittsburg. Taking a steamer 
at the mouth of Hocking, I was gratified to find on board 
Pvev. Joseph S. Tomlinson, D. D., and Rev. J. F. Wright, 
D. D., of our delegation. They were both able men and 
genial companions, and made the journey a very pleasant 
one. Saturday night found us at Beaver, and being un- 
willing to give our example in favor of Sabbath travel, we 
landed and spent the Sabbath in the village, and preached 
the Gospel to the people. Taking boat again on Monday 
we arrived at Pittsburg, and were soon assigned to com- 
fortable quarters. I had the pleasure of rooming with my 
earlv and esteemed friend, Rev. E. H. Pilcher. The Con- 
ference being organized and the committees raised, I found 
myself on the committee to examine the Conference jour- 
nals, which afforded me ample work. 



2G8 inr.iiwAVS and iir.nr.ES. 

The great accession occuj»ied imuh of the time of tlic 
Conference, and n\ times the discussion wiis impassioned and 
eloquent. A dclej^atitm fVom thr Mctliodist Kpiseopal 
Church South was in attcnihinco, hut was not recognized, 
the Conference feeling (liat tlic indorsomcnt of Hhivery hy 
tliat Church, as well as their ll;iL:raiit violation of the " }>hin 
of separation," made it impossihle for us to fraternize with 
them without giving indorsement to iniquity. Bisliop Soule 
sat in the gallery much of the time, and during some por- 
tions of the discussion, especially while Dr. Curry was ad- 
dressing the Conference, heard strictures upon his course 
that must have produced a profound impression on his mind 
in regard to his responsibility. Dr. Dixon, President of the 
"Wesleyan Conference of Great Britain, was with us, and 
added much to the interest of the session. In dignity and 
gracefulness of personal presence, and in strength, wisdom, 
and eloquence of pulpit ministrations, he had few equals. 
"When after his return to England he published his notes 
of the visit to us, we were much surprised and disappointed 
to find that his sympathies were evidently somewhat with 
the pro-slavery branch of the Church. This, from our 
English brethren who could hardly fraternize with us here- 
tofore on account of our connection with slavery, we could 
liardly understand. 

lleturuing to my district I found the preachers generally 
faithfully at their work, and the rest of the year was soon 
passed in the labors of my large and interesting field. We 
boarded this year in the family of brother Barringer, on 
the llichmond circuit, and enjoyed there the society of ex- 
cellent Christians and good neighbors, such as the Joneses 
and Drummonds, Davises, Ridenours, Gundys, Dawsons, 
Watsons, and Claypoles, from whom we received very fre- 
quent proofs of their kind regard. 

The Conference met at Newark, Licking county, 0., Sep- 



PORTSMOUTH DISTRICT, OHIO. 2G0 

tember 27, 18-48, Bishop Hamline presiding. The follow- 
ing persons -were received on trial : Benjamin P. Wheat, 
John W. Boss, Gilbert C. Townley, James F. Given, Joseph 
H. Creighton, Conrad Bier, John H. Westervelt, John 
Fickeu, Levi Heiss, Ferdinand A. Sander, Enoch West. John 
Hai"ht, Michael Kauffman, Samuel Middleton, Andrew B. 
See. William H. Black, Samuel M. Bright, James T. Bail, 
John W. Ferree, Joseph C. Harding, Isaac B. Fish, David 
A. Drjden, Hiram W. Curry, Smith Hill, Jacob Adams, 
Neriah Redfern, Joseph Blackburn, Timothy Wones, Lafay- 
ette Yan Cleve — 29 — a large and good class. 

The following brethren had died during the past year, 
and their memoirs were placed on the record at this Con- 
ference : James Quiun and William Parish. 

Brother Quinn was one of the pioneers of the Western 
Church, and one of the patriarchs of our ministry, having 
entered the ministry before the beginning of the present 
century, and having commenced his labors in the Western 
Conference in 1804. He was of Irish descent, born in 
Washington county, Penn., in 1775, and died at his residence, 
near Hillsboro, 0., December 1, 1847. In childhood his 
educational advantages were small, but such was his thirst 
for knowledge that he formed habits of reading and study 
which resulted in the accumulation of a rich store of knowl- 
edge. The class of appointments which he filled during 
his connection with the work in Ohio is evidence of his 
hiirh standing anions: his brethren. He was presiding elder 
twelve years, was stationed in cities six years, and was eight 
times sent to the General Conference. He was an able the- 
ologian and an admirable preacher. During his last illness 
he delighted in meditating upon the exceeding great and 
precious promises, and frec(uently quoted this passage from 
the Psalmist: " My flesh and my heart faileth, but God is 
the strength of my heart, and my portion forever." 



270 inr;n\vAvs and hedges. 

JJiDtlicr ]\iri>li was Ijoin near JiCxiiigton, Ky. Ho was 
admitted to the Oliio Conference in 1837, and died ;it llunts- 
ville, Butler county, Oliio, October 17, ^^\7. }\r was a 
man of warm sympathies .-iimI hi^li sense of honor, and 
preached the Gospel with zeal, ability, and success. Ilis l.ist 
sickness was protracted :md severe, but his confidence in 
God was unshaken, and his mind was kept in peace. About 
an hour before his departure, he testified, with great confi- 
dence, that the Gospel which he preached to others sup- 
ported him in the near a])proach of death. 

On reaching the seat of Conference, I was surprised to 
find the Bishop and all of his counsel, except myself, in 
session, and the work of stationing, except my own district, 
well-nigh completed. Bishop Hamline explained to me, 
that for the purpose of economizing time, he had sent no- 
tices to the presiding ciders to meet him a few days before 
the session of the Conference. The notice had failed to 
reach me, but, as they had dealt fairly with me in my ab- 
sence, neither my district nor my preachers had suifercd any. 
My work was supplied this year as follows : Portsmouth, 
P. P. Ingalls; Gallipolis, William T. Hand; Piketon, L. A. 
Atkinson and S. Parker; Bichmond, Samuel Brown; Wa- 
verly, D. Smith and J. T. Bail ; French Grant, James T. 
Halliday and M. Sheets; Burlington, A. L. Westervelt and 
J. W. Ferree; Patriot, W. W. Cherington ; Gallia, 0. C. 
Shelton and B. St. James Fry ; Jackson, Levi Munsell and 
Jacob Adams ; Maysville, J. F. Chalflint and C. G. Meredith. 

The boundaries of the district were this year greatly en- 
larged by adding to it the Kentucky work. This year the 
cholera prevailed extensively, and especially along the Ohio 
River there was great mortality, and, as my district lay 
along that river all the way from Maysville, Ky., to Galli- 
polis, I was much exposed and frequently threatened with 
the premonitory symptoms. I had a very dangerous attack 



PORTSMOUTH DISTRICT, OHIO. 271 

during one of my vi.-its at Portsmoutli, and probably, but 
for the skillful and unremitting care of Dr. W. H. M'Dowell, 
"I should not have survived it. So great were the probabil- 
ities that I would be carried off with the disease, that for 
I some months I made my arrangements each day and night, 
so that if I should be cut down in an hour, my preparation, 
in regard to things both temporal and spiritual, might be 
complete. I looked death squarely in the face, and rejoiced 
to know that if the earthly tabernacle should fall, I had a 
building of God on high. 

Several of the preachers in my district this year were 
DOW associated with me for the first time, but among them 
I found workers of great value and promise. P. P. Ingalls, 
though much younger than his predecessor, filled the charge 
at Portsmouth with great success. He had a clear intellect. 
a sweet spirit, a winning manner, an eloquent tongue, and 
good executive ability, and rapidly took position in the hearts 
of the people. To me he was like a very affectionate son 
in the Gospel, and both myself and companion are under 
lasting obligations to him and his excellent companion for 
manifold attentions. Brother Parker this year did more 
work and better than he had done for years before, and 
made himself of value to the charge. Brother Halliday 
fully sustained the recommendation that his former presid- 
ing elder had given him, and proved to be an efficient Meth- 
odist preacher. Brother Bail was a young man on trial. 
My experience with him this year was such as to produce 
the expectation that his itinerant course would be a success. 
Brother Ferree was a noble scion of a noble stock. He was 
lovely and beloved, but his race, though a bright one, was 
destined to be brief. Brother Fry was a young man, of 
great activity, both of body and mind. It was evident that 
he would make an able preacher, and a leading business 
man in matters pertaining to the interests of the Church. 



272 HIGHWAYS AM) ULDGLS. 

Broflior Ad.'inis was a noble hpcciineii of a (Miristiaii tirntlc- 
inan. A slight iiKinotony in liis t^tyUi of di^livery detracted 
soiucwliat fV'iin his jmljiit [lopularity, but, bating that, he 
was loved and jtrizcMl ])y all who were about him. 

Brothers ChalTant and ^Meredith, on the Maysvillc charge, 
wore both valuable men, and popular with the people. The 
preacher in charge was a remarkably ready and forcible 
preacher, and often rose to an elevated style of eloquence. 
My visits to the Kentucky work, though a great addition 
to my labors, were very pleasant. Having endured much 
persecution, the membership on that charge were generally 
bound to each other and to the Church of their choice 
with an ardent affection. They came long distances to at- 
tend the quarterly-meeting, and greatly prized these special 
means of jz-race. On such occasions we had a oeuuine ex- 
hibition of Kentucky Methodist hospitality. The residences 
of such as John Armstrong and M. A. Ilutchins, at Mays- 
ville, and the Bullocks, at Stew^art's Chapel and Orangevillc, 
and Uncle Jesse Ilambrick, at Canaan, were open to their 
utmost capacity. A bitter and proscriptive spirit had vented 
itself toward many of our people, and they were reminded 
of earlier days, when the disciples took joyfully the spoiling 
of their goods, and rejoiced that they were counted worthy 
to suffer shame for Christ's sake. 

One of my assistants, an earnest and holy man, Eev. A. 
L. WestcrveU, tliis year fell at his post, and ascended to 
heaven, but, as I have adopted the plan of giving obituary 
notices in connection with the Conference at which the an- 
nouncement of the death was made, I will notice this good 
brother further in that connection. The year, on the whole, 
had been one of prosperity. 

The Conference met at Dayton, Ohio, August 19, 1849, 
Bishop Waugh presiding. The following brethren were 
admitted on trial : Thomas Lee, Isaac J. Beall, Benjamin 



PORTSMOUTH DISTRICT, OHIO. 273 

Glasscock, "William Cheever, Edward P. Hall, George W. 
Brush, Asa S. M'Coy, George H. Reed, John M. Leavitt, 
Samuel C. Riker, Edward C. Merrick, William G. Smith, 
William B. Zink, Alanson Fleming, Stephen C. Frampton, 
James H. Hopkins, John Ellis, William Fitzgerald. William 
M. Smith, Dewitt C. Howard, Oliver M. Spencer, William L. 
Hypes, Thomas J. X. Simmons, John F. Loyd, Isaac Neff, 
James Peregrine, Isaac D. Bay, Christian Yogel, Benevil 
Browmiller, William Geyer, Peter Snyder, William Bressler, 
Charles Bierking, Frederick Heidmeyer, Conrad Muth, 
Frederick Becker, Philip Boerr, William Flocken — 38 — a 
large class, containing much valuable material. 

The followino: brethren had been transferred from the 
Church militant to the Church triumphant during the past 
year: Benjamin Lakin, Nathan Emery, Asa B. Stroud, 
Martin Wolf, Alexander Morrow, Alfred L. Westervelt — 
6 — the largest number that had ever been recorded upon our 
minutes as havins; died durino; one Conference vear. 

Benjamin Lakin was one of the fathers in our Israel. 
He was a native of ^Maryland, but settled in Kentucky 
when quite young. He commenced his career as a travel- 
ing preacher in 1794, and closed his labors early in Feb- 
ruary, 1849. Buring a considerable portion of that pro- 
tracted ministry his name stood on the superannuated list, 
but all of the strength given him was freely dedicated to 
God. In his early days in the ministry he preached with 
great power and success, and during his whole life occupied 
a high position as a Christian and a preacher of the Gos- 
pel. Though in the eighty-second year of his age, and the 
fifty-fourth of his ministry, when his last sickness arrested 
him he had several appointments outstanding. -He re- 
marked to a friend concerning one of them, "If I live I 
will fill it, and if I die it will have to M\ through." His 
work was done, and he went up to receive his reward. 



274 HIGHWAYS AND HEDGES. 

Nathan Einciy was another of tlic fathers in Israel. He 
was ])orn Au<rust 5, 1780, in ('uni])crland county, Maine ; 
coninionood traveling in ITD'J, and \vciit up to take his 
crown 31 ay 27, 1849. The largest portion of his active 
ministry was spent in New England, but from the year 
1821 to the tiuK) of his death ho rchidcd in Ohio, and j>art 
of that tinic traveled as a member of the Ohio Conference. 
Sweet and amiable in spirit, practical and earnest in labors, 
he was popular and useful. lie had often feared, or rather 
dreaded, the last conflict with the king of terrors. When 
convinced that death was near at hand, he besought the 
Lord for dying grace. Ilis prayer was answered, and the 
grace abundantly bestowed. Visions of glory passed before 
his enraptured soul, and gazing upward, with his last expir- 
ing breath, he exclaimed, "Up! up! up!" and he mounted 
the chariot of God. 

Asa B. Stroud was born April 11, 1807. He was ad- 
mitted to probation in the Ohio Conference in 1830, and 
spent the first years of his ministry on some of the rugged 
circuits of the Kanawha district. He afterward filled vari- 
ous appointments in Ohio, and filled them well. During 
his last year the cholera prevailed about him, but like a 
brave and faithful shepherd he cared for the flock, never 
for a moment shrinking from the post of duty. During his 
last illness he often said, " Good is the will of the Lord 
concerning me," and September 23, 1849, he sweetly fell 
asleep in Jesus. 

Martin Wolf fell at his post in the midst of a gracious 
revival of religion on his charge. He had in the begin- 
ning of his Christian life made sacrifices for the cause of 
God and Methodism, his parents having given him the 
alternative of abandoning home or Methodism. He gave 
up all for Christ, and thenceforth became an earnest Chris- 
tian. In 1836 he was admitted on probation in the Ohio 



PORTSMOUTH DISTRICT, OHIO. 275 

Conference, and after .an industrious and successful ministry 
was suddenly cut down with cholera, July 10, 1849. 

Alexander Morrow was born in Xorthumberland county, 
Pennsylvania, March 21, 1800; removed to Ohio in 1818, 
and settled in Ross county. He afterward removed to 
Crawford county, and in 1827, under the labors of Rev. 
Arza Brown, he was led to the Savior. In 1833 he joined 
the traveling connection, and continued to labor faithfully 
and successfully until February 27, 1849, when he was 
suddenly seized with sickness during his quarterly-meeting 
at Georgetown. Ohio. The meeting had been protracted, 
and the Church was all ao-low with the revival fire. He 
suffered six days, and then entered into rest. About two 
hours before his death he said, "It is getting dark," and 
then realizing that it was the shadows of death, he added, 
"I shall walk through the valley and shadow of death 
and fear no evil." After the power of speech had failed 
him he raised his hands and clapped them in holy triumph, 
and thus he passed away to his rest in heaven. 

Alfred L. Westervelt died of cholera, July 31, 1849, in 
the 29th year of his age. His attack was violent, and the 
terrible disease rapidly accomplished its work. At ten 
o'clock, A. M., he was well; at twelve, M., he felt unwell; 
at three, P. M., he was in a collapse state, and at eight and 
a half, P. M., he calmly fell asleep in Jesus. He was a 
humble, holy, and useful minister of the Gospel; met 
death without fear, counseled his companion in regard to 
her future course, and having taught his people, by precept 
and example, how to live, he now taught them how to die. 
I preached his funeral discourse to a deeply sympathizing 
and bereaved people, and we laid his remains away in sure 
and blessed hope of immortality. 

At this session of the Conference began the agitation of 
the " pew question " among us. Rev. George W. Walker, 



276 HIGHWAYS AM) HKDGKS. 

prosidin*:; elder of Dayton distriot, atid Kev. J. S. Inskip, 
the stationed ])rea('lier in tlic first i li.iri:*', n.iytoii, liad {onic 
in eoiiflict on tliis fjne.stiun. As yet tlierc was not a pcwed 
house in the ()hi(j Conference, and tlie preachers and people 
generally were much averse to the introduction of j-uch. In 
all of our churches the (dd practice of the men and women 
sitting apart prevailed, and to the majority of our people the 
proposition to deviate in any instance from this practice 
was fraught with peril to the Church. After the matter 
was canvassed, brother Inskip promised the Conference 
that he would cease to agitate the question, and if he should 
thereafter feel it to be his duty to agitate it he would retire 
from his Conference connection. 

I was returned to Portsmouth district, with the following 
corps of assistants: Portsmouth, P. P. Ingalls; Gallipolis 
Samuel Batemau ; Gallipolis circuit, James H. Hopkins, 
James A. Taylor; Gallia, L. W. Munsell; Piketon, S. Par- 
ker, J. W. Ferree; Richmond, Samuel Maddux; Ironton, 
James T. Halliday, Isaac Neff ; Wheelersburg, W. T. Hand, 
Dewitt C. Howard; Burlington, J. H. M'Cutchen, J. Adams; 
Patriot, W. W. Cherington ; M'Arthurstown, C. H. Warren, 
Asa M'Coy; Jackson, 0. C. Shelton, L. A. Atkinson. 

Several of the charges had been divided, so that much 
of the same territory appeared on the minutes under new 
names. The new pastors brought into my district proved 
to be good men and true. Brother Bateman this year had 
his first experience as a stationed preacher. He possessed 
unusual social power, and both in the pulpit and pastoral 
work succeeded. He was a choice man. Brothers Hop- 
kins and Taylor succeeded well. The junior preacher had 
just commenced his itinerant life, and the preacher in 
charge had brought from the local ranks, where he had 
long served the Church, both experience and ability. He 
was an excellent circuit man. Brother Neflf, a young man 



PORTSMOUTH DISTRICT, OHIO. 277 

just received on trial, was exceedingly modest and unas- 
suming. He failed in his pulpit eiforts again and again 
until the people consented that he should retire from the 
circuit. He still felt, however, that he was called to the 
work, and that God had work for him to do. He went 
home and gave himself to prayer and study, came back to 
the next Conference, received an appointment, went to it, 
and succeeded. Thenceforward his itinerant life was suc- 
cessful. Brother Howard was a young man of excellent 
natural ability and prepossessing manners. He succeeded 
well this year; afterward married Miss Rankin, of a leading 
Methodist family, at Newark, Ohio, and connected himself 
with the Rock River Conference, where he labored witli ac- 
ceptability and usefulness until the breaking out of the war> 
His supposed want of sympathy with the administration 
rendered him unacceptable, and he finally joined the Epis- 
copal Church and entered its ministry. The last that I 
knew of him he was earnestly engaged in the ministry of 
that Church, and doing good work. Brother ^Yarren was 
diligent as a pastor and successful as a preacher. He had 
a passion for the natural sciences, and had acquired very 
respectable cabinets in geology, mineralogy, botany, and 
zoology. He had a good head and a very large and warm 
heart. Brother M'Coy was a young man of much promise, 
and has since transferred to the Missouri Conference, where 
he has made his mark as a workman that needeth not to be 
ashamed. 

I had been exceedingly happy in my association with my 
preachers, and this year it seemed to me that I had about 
the cream of the Ohio Conference. 

As my son was this year traveling as agent for the Ohio 
Wesleyan University, I took occasion of his canvass of my 
district to make a visit to the West. He held one round 
of quarterly-meetings for mo, while my companion and 



278 HIGHWAYS AND IIKOGES. 

myself vi.sitcd onr friends in Iowa. Taking our horse and 
huLTgy to Cincinnati, wc eniharkrd on board the .steamci 
''Rainbow " for St. Loni.s. Tlicnce wc went by land through 
Illinois, visiting my brother-in-law, AVilliatn Ganililo, and 
other friends; then crossed into Iowa, at Fort INIadison, 
and visited my brothers, ^Villialll and Alexander Stewart, 
in Lee county, and my sister Sally, at Marshall, in Henry 
county, and a goodly number of old Ohio friends who had 
emigrated to the West. At Burlington I enjoyed a visit 
with Rev. I. I. Stewart, the pastor of the Church in that 
place, an old and valued friend of mine. We had expected 
our son, J. W. Stewart, at Burlington, but after remaining 
as long as we could, we left for home, and he, having 
been detained for w^ant of a steamer, arrived a few hours 
after we had started for home. We returned by carriage 
through Springfield, Illinois, Terre Haute and Indianapolis, 
Indiana, and Cincinnati, Ohio. It had been to us a pleas- 
ant vacation from the district work, and we returned to 
devote our renewed energies as best we could in getting the 
district in the best possible order for the closing up of our 
constitutional term on it. 

The four years on this district had been full of rich ex- 
perience and profitable fellowships. Were I to place on 
the record the names of all those who w^ere endeared to me 
on the several charges, I should swell this volume beyond 
reasonable bounds. The eastern portion of the district had 
belonged to "Letart Falls " circuit, which I traveled in 1816, 
■end a few survived with whom I could recount the scenes of 
those early days. Methodism had taken firm hold of the 
soil; had grown into a strong and vigorous tree, and mul- 
titudes were now enjoying the refreshment of its shade. 



DEER CREEK CIRCUIT, OHIO. 279 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

DEER CREEK CIRCUIT, OHIO. 
1850-52. 

THE Conference met at Chillicotlie, Ohio, September 18, 
1850, Bishops Morris and Janes presiding. The fol- 
lowing persons were received on probation : George Reiter, 
Gottlieb Xachtreib, Hughes Eehm, Peter B. Baker, Henry 
Lukemyer, Henry T. ^PGill, Thomas M. Thralls, Thomas 
CoUett, John F. Marlay, Joseph C. Reed, John ^Y. Cassatt, 
Amos Wilson, John C. Maddy, John J. Thompson, Silas 
Bennett, Thomas L. Lloyd, George W. Harris, Samuel T. 
Creighton, William Morris, Joseph Tiffany, Alfred Beall, 
James M. Cavin — 22 — a good class, in some of whom I felt 
a special interest, having introduced them into the ministry. 

Brothers Warrington and Williams had crossed the river 
of death during the past year, but they crossed at the 
" Christian's ford." Bev. C. B. Warrino;ton was born in 
Manchester, England, March 13, 1814; admitted to proba- 
tion in the Ohio Conference in 1842, and died, after a brief 
but painful illness, February, 1850. Brother Warrington 
was an evangelist, and many led to the Savior by him will 
doubtless rise up to claim him as their spiritual father at 
the cbming of the Lord Jesus. He was a man of cultivated 
mind, sweet spirit, great tenderness of heart, and a burning 
zeal for God. 

Rev. Oliver P. Williams was born April 13, 1814, and 
in 1838 went from the practice of medicine to the work of 



280 HIGHWAYS AND IIKDGKS. 

a Metho{li>f fravolin? preacher. He was a solid, unassum- 
inj;, faitlilul man. wliose li'jlit was sliiiiinjj as well iVnni liis 
daily walk as from the j)ulj»it j'lnm wliirh he preached the 
AVord. While on A'^euice circuit he was attacked with in- 
flammation of the brain, from (ho effects of which he did 
not recover until (ho j^reat Head nf the (Muirch culled him 
to his home ahove. 

At this Conference we again ha<l the question of " pewed 
sittings" up in a new and exciting form. As stated in a 
former chapter, Rev. John S. Inskip had promised to desist 
from agitating the question among the people of his charge, 
or retire from the Conference. He now came to the Con- 
ference charged with having failed to keep good his prom- 
ise. Dr. Tomlinson and James B. Finley espoused his 
cause, and Jacob Young and Oranvillc Moody prosecuted 
liim. The verdict of the Conference was a censure. Brother 
Inskip, however, appealed his case to the General Con- 
ference. 

I was appointed to Deer Creek circuit with Rev. David 
Sargent for my colleague, and Rev. James M. Jamison for 
my presiding elder. I was much pleased with both of 
them. The presiding elder was a very instructive preacher, 
and looked carefully after the interests of the Church in 
his district. Brother Sargent was a good preacher, and at- 
tended faithfully to his work. 

My appointment to this charge was grateful to my feel- 
ings on many accounts. The state of my wife's health 
made it important that I should be at home more than I 
had been for some years past. Here I found not only what 
we called light work, but we anticipated the revival of friend- 
ships and associations of long standing. Two of our most 
pleasant years in the itinerancy had been spent on this cir- 
cuit nearly a quarter of a century before. 

We moved into the parsonage at Clarksburg, and soon 



DEER CREEK CIRCUIT, OHIO. 281 

found that we had not reckoned too strongly on the pleas- 
ures of our new home. Very many, indeed, of those who 
were the pillars of the Church when we first traveled the 
circuit had passed away, but they had left a name behind 
them, and their children and grandchildren rallied about 
us and gave us cordial welcome, and renewed such atten- 
tions as we had been accustomed to receive from their 
parents. 

I found the circuit much smaller in its boundaries than 
when I first traveled it. Its present list of appointments 
were, 1. Dry Run; 2. Asbury ; 3. Locust Grove; 4. New 
Holland; 5. Hayes; 6. Williamsport; 7. Mount Pleasant; 
8. Littleton's; 9. Hubbard's; 10. Cedar Grove; 11. Hos- 
kins's Chapel; 12. Spring Bank; 13. Union Chapel ; 14. 
Brown's Chapel ; 15. 3Iouut Zion ; 16. Clarksburg. The 
distance between the appointments being short, and none of 
them being very far away from home, I was able to spend 
more of my time with my family than ever before. And 
this was providential, for my dear companion was sorely 
afflicted these years, so that much of the time we regarded 
her life to be in extreme peril. 

The Conference met at Springfield, Ohio, September 17, 
1851, Bishop Morris presiding. The following were re- 
ceived on trial: William Kaetter, Gottlieb Wahl, William 
Engel, Jacob Krehbiel, Charles Elder, John H. Damm, 
Gustafi" Bicker, Henry Wilky, Augustus Yerhoefi*, Wesley 
Dennett, Benjamin F. Morris, Samuel B. Sheeks, Jesse 
M'D. Robinson, William Q. Shannon, Henry F. Green, 
William Grange, James Kendall, David Mann, Isaiah A. 
Bradrick, David C. Benjamin, Robert C. Fulton — 21. 

The following brethren were recorded as having died dur- 
ing the past year: James A. Taylor, Joseph T. Lewies, and 
Philip A. Mutchner. 

Brother Taylor was received ou trial in the Conference 

24 



'2 82 HIGHWAYS AND HKDGES. 

in 1SI7, niid pcrfminod offiriont service from tli.it tinio until 
his labors closed on the Jackson circuit, Auirust Hi. js.")!. 
lie was several venrs under niy cliarirc, and I reiiarded liini 
as a ycnuvj; man of much j»r«»misc and worth. He had a 
sprightly iutellect, and his ministry was of a stirrinc; and 
awakenina; eharaeter. lie sent from his dyiiiLi; couch assur- 
ances to his brethren of the Coufercncc that he had victory 
over death, and requested them to meet hiin in the paradise 
of God. 

Brother Lewis was born in the city of Cincinnati, April 
8, 1824. He was received into the Ohio Conference on 
probation in 18-43, when in his nineteenth year of age, and 
immediately entered upon a brilliant and remarkably suc- 
cessful ministry. He was transferred the next year to the 
Rock River Conference, and the next year to Iowa. After 
serving several of the leading Churches in Iowa, he was 
transferred back to the Ohio Conference, where he continued 
to labor until laid aside by disease. He spent several years 
traveling, in the hope of regaining his health, for he had 
an ardent desire to live and labor for God. He died in the 
city of Philadelphia, November 3, 1850, full of peace and 
hope. He said to a brother who visited him near the close 
of life: "I would, were it God's will, desire to return home 
that I might die among my brethren, and my ashes rest 
beside kindred friends till the coming of Jesus," and then 
in calm submission added, " but I would not make a change 
if I could." 

Brother Mutchner was born in Butler county, Ohio, Jan- 
uary 10, 1817, and died in Darke county, Ohio, October 2, 
1850. He was admitted on trial in the Ohio Conference 
in 1841. He was studious in preparation for the pulpit, 
and faithful in the declaration of the Word of God. He was 
deeply devoted to the work to which he was called, and 
enjoyed in a high degree the consolations of religion. As 



DEER CREEK CIRCUIT, OHIO. 283 

he drew near the grave lie assured his companions that he 
was going home, and then peacefully closed his eyes in 
death. 

According to mutual expectation and desire, I was re- 
turned to Deer Creek circuit, with Kev. Samuel Middleton 
as my colleague. He proved to be a zealous and useful 
minister, and commanded the confidence and respect of the 
people. My associations with the excellent people of this 
charge during these two years were mutually pleasant and 
profitable, and we regretted the closing of our constitutional 
term. During my first term on the circuit, as recorded in 
the early part of this narrative, my companion had been 
sick nigh unto death, and God had raised her up in answer 
to prayer, and during my present term she had again been 
sweeping along close by the borders of the grave; and I 
now felt that if it must be so that I must be bereaved of 
my dear companion, there was no place on earth where I 
would rather that her grave should be than by the side of 
the dear Christian friends who had fallen asleep on Deer 
Creek circuit. 

Our Conference was represented -in the General Conference 
which met at Boston the first of 3Iay, 1852, by brothers 
William Nast, J. M. Trimble, J. Young, C. Elliott, G. W. 
Walker, G. Moody, J. F. Wright, U. Heath, Z. Council, 
C. Brooks, A. M. Lorrain, M. Marlay, and R. 0. Spencer. 



284 HIGHWAYS AND HLUGES. 



CHAPTER XXVII. 

LONDON CIRCUIT, OHIO. 

rnilE Ohio Conference met at Zanesvillc, Ohio, September 
-■- 1, 1852, Bishop Janes presiding, assisted by Bishop 
Simpson. The following preachers were received on trial: 
Lovett Taft, Cyrus Felton, Joseph D. Crum, Robert J. 
Black, Albert G. Byers, W. A. Prettyman, Henry H. Fer- 
ris, Theodore D. MartinJale, William S. Benner, William 
Catlin, E. H. Dixon, Elijah Fate, Joseph Cartlich — 13. 

At this Conference we recorded the names of two breth- 
ren who had died during the past year, both of whom were 
very dear to me; namely, Samuel Maddux and Ebenezer B. 
Chase. The former had labored by my side and under my 
direction faithfully and successfully amid the hardships of 
border warfare, and the other had been my colleague on 
the Felicity (Whiteoak) circuit. I have spoken of these 
dear brethren in the appropriate place in my narrative. 
They died in the faith and comfort of the Gospel. Brother 
Maddux was born in Ross county, Ohio, May 2, 1818, and 
died in Logan, November 19, 1851. 

I was appointed to London circuit with Rev. J. S. Brown, 
an able, talented, and zealous minister, for my colleague. 
Though I had but a short distance to move, yet such was 
the health of my companion that it was extremely doubtful 
whether she could survive it. She however encouraged 
making the effort, and, by the blessing of God, suffered less 



LONDON CIRCUIT, OHIO. 285 

than we feared. We received a cordial welcome, and were 
soon located in the parsonage at London. 

The circuit had the following list of appointments: 1. 
London; 2. Wesley Chapel; 3. Bethel ; 4. Concord; 5. Brush 
School-house; 6. Midway; 7. Bay's School-house; 8. Maple 
Grove; 9. California; 10. King's School-house; 11. Mur- 
phy's School-house; 12. Mt. Sterliug ; 13. Greenland; 14. 
Berry's School-house; 15. Yankeetown ; 16. Cook's School- 
house ; 17. Waterloo. 

Though as this list indicates it extended from California 
to Greenland, and embraced London and Waterloo, yet it 
was not in fact a very large circuit. It was a mere garden- 
spot in comparison with many that I had traveled. As, 
however, the health of my companion made it important 
for me to be at home at night, my traveling, especially my 
night traveling, was pretty heavy. I had always been accus- 
tomed to make promptness at my appointments, the leading 
of the classes, and visiting the people at their homes a 
matter of conscience; and while I doubt not the people, who 
sympathized with us so sincerely and generously, would 
have excused me if I had neglected much of this labor, 
yet it had so become the habit of my life and joy of my 
labor, that I cast myself upon God for help and went 
forward. 

We were blessed with an excellent revival of religion, 
and the year was one of prosperity. The circuit had a large 
and most excellent membership, who endeared themselves 
to us very greatly by their generous sympathy and constant 
attentions. Many, also, who were not members of the 
Church, vied with the membership in acts of kindness. 

The Ohio Conference held its forty-second session in Lan- 
caster, Ohio, commencing September 7, 1853, Bishop Mor- 
ris presiding. The following persons were admitted on 
trial : William Z. Boss, Thomas G. Boss, William H. M'Clin- 



286 HIGHWAVS AND HEDGES. 

took, Rcnjamin V. MKHVr,4i. M.irrus L. Kini:. Thomas H. 
H.ill, J(.hn T. Miller. Lcimirl F. Dnikc, ThoiuaH 11. rijil- 
lips, Saniiu'l Rankin, Edniuiid Mahcc, II. Q. 0. Fink, Henry 
Gortncr, Jo.scph Williams, David II. Chcrington, Daniel 
Tracy, William Tronc, John C. Gregp:, Robert D. Anderson, 
Russel R. Ronnctt, William S. Taylor, Samuel Tippctt— 22. 

Durini: (he pa.^t year the Rev. ►Samuel Hamilton and Rev. 
Henry 8nii(h Hill had died, and their memoirs were now 
spread upon the journals. 

I have had occasion to refer frequently to brother Ham- 
ilton in the preceding pages of my narrative. He was one 
of the able and influential members of the Conference. He 
was born in Monongahela county, Virginia, December 17, 
1791; joined the traveling connection in 1815; and peace- 
fully fell asleep in the arms of Christ May 4, 1853. 

Brother Hill was born in Ross county, Ohio, December 
12, 1820. In 1848 he was admitted on trial in the Ohio 
Conference. He labored faithfully and successfully until 
August 5, 1852, when he was summoned from labor and 
suffering to reward and rest. He was much beloved by the 
people to whom he ministered the AVord of life, and will 
long be remembered as a faithful minister. 

AVe were addressed at this session of the Conference by 
the Rev. Henry Slicer, agent for the Metropolitan Church 
at Washington City. That enterprise, after various advances 
and reverses, has finally — 1869 — succeeded, and the repre- 
sentative church edifice is now completed and dedicated. 

Monday morning, at ten o'clock, the regular order of 
business was laid aside to hear the semi-centennial sermon 
of the Rev. Jacob Young. His text was Psalm Ixxxvii, 2: 
" The Lord loveth the gates of Zion more .than all the 
dwellings of Jacob." He stood before us the veteran war- 
rior, worn and trembling, and almost blind, but full of the 
memories of the battles and victories of half a century, 



LONDON CIRCUIT, OHIO. 287 

and still full of love and zeal, and faith and power. O 
how our hearts thrilled as we looked upon him and listened 
to his words! 

Much to our satisfaction I was returned to London cir- 
cuit, and again favored with an excellent colleague, Rev. 
Joseph Cruni. We addressed ourselves to the work in 
right good earnest, and soon the revival fires began to break 
out and spread from appointment to appointment, until the 
whole circuit felt its influence. The most extensive work 
was at Wesley Chapel, 31t. Sterling, and Greenland. At 
these points the Lord was with us in power, and many were 
converted, and valuable additions made to the membership. 

Washington Witherow, a man of high standing and ex- 
tensive influence, was among the converts at Wesley Chapel. 
After the arrow of conviction penetrated his heart he 
wandered about some days, trying to throw ofi" these feel- 
ings. One night, however, when the power of God de- 
scended upon the congregation, and many were at the 
mourners' bench, he reached a decision in the matter, and 
came forward and cried aloud to God for mercy. Many 
were comforted, but he was still comfortless when the meet- 
ing closed. I accepted the invitation of sister Witherow to 
go home with them, hoping to assist them in establishing 
at once the family altar. He kindled a fire in the open 
fire-place, and as the flames began to extend up among the 
wood I saw a tobacco-pipe among the wood, and called his 
attention to it, but he made no answer. After a few mo- 
ments, hesitation, his wife remarked that probably he re- 
garded the pipe as one of his idols. Though this was a 
small circumstance in itself, yet it indicated the spirit of the 
man, and was prophetic of not only decision, but of deter- 
mination to serve God from principle, at whatever sacrifice 
of present gratification of the desires of the flesh. I was 
curious afterward to know whether his abandonment of the 



-88 HIGHWAYS and hedges. 

pipe was permanent, .ind was trrntifuMl to learn that it 
was. Tlicre is more heroism in al)andoning tobacco, wc are 
told, tlian those dream of wlin li.ive not been slaves to the 
practice, and vu\y the voice of (jod commanding, and the 
grace of God lielpiug, can enable some to get tlie victory. 
I5ut to return to the narrative. 

The next day brother Witherow was powerfully con- 
verted, and at once took standing as a man of God. On 
one occasion after this I had an exhibition of his generous 
spirit. While at his house my horse was violently attacked 
with botts, and died. Brother Witherow put one of his 
own horses before my buggy, and told me to use it until I 
was better supplied; and then he passed about among his 
friends, and in a short time raised funds to purchase an ex- 
cellent horse, which they presented to me. This kindness, 
both unsolicited and unexpected on my part, was gratefully 
received as an expression of their love. I knew that such 
things were not uncommon when the preacher was poor, but 
as it was known that I was independent in my temporal 
circumstances I had not expected it. Judging, however, 
from what experience I have had in such things, I am in- 
clined to think tliat Churches are gainers even more than 
the preachers when there is such kindness shown. Every 
cord that binds the hearts of preacher and hearer together 
makes the preaching more effective, and all the labors of 
the pastor more hearty and successful. 

We had on this circuit only two local preachers, and they 
were both venerable with years, and so infirm as not to be 
able to go forth as they had done in their younger days. 
But fathers Minshall and Gould still helped us with their 
influence and prayers. Among the excellent of the circuit 
was old brother Watson and his family, constituting quite a 
group, and presenting the delightful spectacle of a Chris- 
tian family. James Foster was a valuable man, acquitting 



LONDON CIRCUIT, OHIO. 289 

himself handsomely in the several offices thrust upon him, 
both in Church and State. He was blessed with ample 
means, and these he used ungrudgingly in aiding to pro- 
mote every good word and work, John Fisher, who was 
his neighbor, was a man of kindred spirit and worth. 
Jesse "Watson was another upon whom God was pouring 
wealth, and who was, with a liberal hand, devoting his 
means to worthy uses, Quinn Miushall, too, though not at 
that time in the Church, had generosity corresponding to 
his wealth, and afterward gave himself and all to God, 
May the blessing of Heaven be upon him and his ! Isaac 
Fisher, leader and steward at Mt. Sterling, and Isaac 
Moore, of the same place, Stephen Moore and John Dun- 
gan, of London, were all men esteemed and honored by the 
Church, and who met the official responsibilities placed upon 
them in a manner profitable to all concerned. Brother An- 
drew Johnson, of Midway, was a first-class exhortcr. Ilis 
labors were attended with an unction and success that was 
seldom excelled. But how shall I arrest my pen while so 
many names of never-to-be-forgotten friends come crowd- 
ing upon the memory, men of renown, such as the Bonds, 
and Pancakes, and Warners, and Lotspeiches, and Slagles, 
and a long list of such, whose names are in the book of life? 
During this year the affliction of my wife culminated. 
The most eminent physicians agreed in pronouncing it an 
"ovarian tumor." It had reached such enormous propor- 
tions that it was estimated that it would weigh twenty-five 
pounds. It already pressed upon the vitals, and, in the 
opinion of the physicians, only a surgical operation gave 
any hope of her surviving any length of time. She laid 
the matter before God in prayer, and received the impres- 
sion that it was not her duty to resort to such means, but 
that she should leave the matter in the hands of the Great 
Physician. She thus rested her case, and though a great 

2.-) 



200 



IIIGIIWAVS AM) IIKDGES. 



sufforor. slio wna very li;i).py. A cIkhVo circle of rhristi.-inj 
friends n);i(lc fpccial sup[ilications for licr recovery. Hrotlier 
"NVjirner, a very earnest Cliristian, assured lior tlial lie li:i(l| 
received direct answer tlint slie would recover. iMy son 
and liis I'aniily, wlni liad taken a transfer to tlie Rock River] 
Conference, visited us on their way tliither, and they united 
very fervently in these prayers. To the unspeakable satis- 
faction (tf licr friends she began to improve. A desire 
sprang up in her mind to accompany my son to the West, 
and visit our eldest son and family at Monroe, Wisconsin. 
She was carefully conveyed to the cars, and by the aid of 
pillows and wrappings made as comfortable as might be ; 
and, strange to say, she improved constantly, though slowly, 
from that time. As the tumor had been about six years 
coming, so it was about the same time disappearing. I 
place the incident upon the record here especially in recog- 
nition of my gratitude to Almighty God, who heard and 
answered prayer, and to encourage any who may be simi- 
larly afflicted. 



PICKERINGTON CIRCUIT, OHIO. 



291 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 

PICKERINGTON CIRCUIT, AND* LANCASTER DISTRICT, 

OHIO. 

1854-56. 

THE Conference held its forty-third session at Ports- 
mouth, Ohio, commencing September 6, 1854, Bishop 
Scott presiding. The following persons were received on 
trial: Carrai A. Van Anda, Levi Hall, Fielding Harper, Earl 
D. Fink, Uriah L. Jones, James W. Alderman, Robert D. 
Stephenson, James Q. Lakin, Noah Speck, John Kemper, 
John Q. Gibson, Stephen Ryland, AV. C. Filler, Asbury C. 
Kelley, J. T. Finch, J). Harlocker, Addison Nichols — 17. 

Our ranks, during the past year, had suffered no diminu- 
tion by the death of any of our traveling preachers, nor 
had any withdrawn, or been expelled. 

As I had spent four very pleasant years on the Ports- 
mouth district, I had the privilege during this session of 
the Conference of seein"; a larire number of old and cher- 
ished friends. I was appointed to Pickerington circuit, 
with Rev. Stephen M. Merrill for my colleague. 

After the adjournment of Conference I returned to Lon- 
don, moved my goods to the parsonage at Pickerington, put 
things in order, laid in supplies for living, and then went 
to Wisconsin, where my companion was visiting with our 
children, to accompany her home. I found her improved 
in health, and after a brief visit with the boys we returned 
to Ohio, and I entered upon my work. 



292 IIIGIIWAVS AND HEDGES. 

Brotlior 3Ionill, my colleague, was one of the strong men 
of tlic Conference, but so impaired was liis lieallli at tliat 
time that the presiding elder released him from the charge, 
and employed brother llannawalt, a good local preacher, to 
take Ills place. 

It was l)y far the lightest work I had ever filled, there 
being only eight ajipointments on the circuit; namely, 1. 
Pickerington ; 2. l*owell*.s Chapel; 3. Keynoldsburg; 4. 
Taylor's Station; 5. White Chapel; G. White Hall; 7. 
Winchester; 8. School-house. 

W^e had good meeting houses, good congregations, and 
good times on the circuits, and a good parsonage to live in, 
and good neighbors full of good ■will. AVe felt that the 
lines had fallen to us in pleasant places. The Lord poured 
out of his Spirit on the charge, and we had some glorious 
revivals of religion. At Pickerington and Powell's Chapel, 
especially, we had a good ingathering. The year was one of 
prosperity and enjoyment, and wound up very satisfactorily. 

A host of good people, the excellent of the earth, en- 
deared themselves to us on this circuit. And even now the 
Taylors, and Powells, and Fowbles, and Pickerings, and 
Fords, and Pattersons, and Stephensons, and a long list of 
such crowd upon my memory, and I seem to see their smil- 
ing faces, and hear their words of sympathy and affection, 
as in former years. May the grace of our Lord Jesus 
Christ be with them and their posterity through all the 
generations to come ! 

The Conference held its forty-fourth session at Athens, 
Ohio, commencing September 5, 1855, Bishop Morris pre- 
siding. The following were admitted on trial: Daniel La- 
mont, Charles Bethauser, Ezekiel Sibley, George W^. 
Nuzum, John J. Stillians, Samuel 'M. Donahoe, Jonathan 
W. Stump, William C. Holliday, Dugald Thompson, Alonzo 
Chapman — 10. 



PICKERIXGTOX CIRCUIT, OHIO. 293 

Rev. Henry Forest Green, a lovely young man of great 
promise, had fallen by the hand of disease during the past 
year. He 'was born in Somerset, Ohio, February 18, 1830. 
During the great revival at Bainbridge, Ohio, referred to in 
the preceding pages, Henry consecrated his heart and life 
to God and his service. He commenced the study of med- 
icine, but so strong were his own convictions and those of 
his brethren, that God had other work for him to do, that 
he left his medical studies and entered the Ohio Wesleyaa 
University to prepare more fully for the work of the min- 
istry. He was received on trial in the Ohio Conference in 
1851, and preached with great acceptability for several 
years. His last Conference appointment was to Zanesville 
^ City Mission. In the Spring of that year, however, he wasr 
sent to supply a vacancy which occurred in Portsmouth. 

I His health, however, soon began to decline, and he was 
persuaded to retire from labor for a time, with the hope of 
recruiting his health. But his pulpit work was now done. 
He suifered on until the 6th of Mav, when the Master 
said, " It is enough, come up higher." Shouting '' Glory ! 
glory! glory!" he closed his eyes upon earthly scenes to 
open them upon the brighter scenes of heaven. " He died 
as the Christian minister might well wish to die — mature 
in the grace of the Spirit." 

This session of the Conference was unusually pleasant to 
me from the fact that I enjoyed the society of many rela- 
tives and friends living at Athens and thereabouts. We 
elected the following brethren to represent us at the Gen- 
eral Conference, which was to meet the next May: Z. Con- 
nell, J. M. Trimble, S. Howard, J. M. Jameson, J. Young, 
"" and U. Heath. 

I was appointed to Pickerington circuit, with Charles 
Bethauser for my colleague, and Rev. James L. Grover for 
my presiding elder. 



294 I IK. 11 WAYS AND IlKDGES. 

Sou II iiftor my entrance upon my Wdik, 1 received ;i com- 
mission from Bishop Morris to take cliarj^c of the Lancaster 
district in place of J. L. Grovcr, resigned. I appointed 
hrothcr TTannawalt to succeed me on the circuit, and entered 
at once upon the work of the district. 

At Lancaster I found Kcv. J. M. Jameson in chariro. 
He had been my presiding elder for several years past, and 
now welcomed me in our changed relations. He had this 
year a great revival, and gathered more than one hundred 
souls for Christ. 

At West Rushville I found in charge my old friend Ilev. 
C. C. Lybrand, of whom I have spoken in preceding pages. 

At Baltimore, Samuel M. Bright, Henry Gortner, and J. 
T. Donahue, sup. Brother Bright had a clear logical mind, 
and discharged his duties with dignity and grace. Brother 
Gortner was a faithful worker, and gave evidence of a good 
mind, well improved. 

At Newark, Eastern charge, Joseph H. Creighton ; West- 
ern charge, A. B. See — both valuable men, but of different 
style of talent. Brother Creighton had a good memory and 
exuberant imagination, was always interesting, and often- 
times attained to lofty flights of eloquence, which carried 
all before him. Brother See, though not so brilliant, was a 
close student, well acquainted with Methodism, capable of 
defending her doctrines and Discipline against all objectors. 
His was not the rapid growth of the soft maple, but rather 
that of the rock maple. I anticipated that every year would 
add to his permanent value to the Church. 

At Granville I found that strong thinker and clear-headed 
preacher, Rev. Stephen M. Merrill, now editor of the West- 
ern Christian Advocate. 

At Alexandria, Banner Mark, a man tall in stature, and 
having in him more possibilities of usefulness than had ever 
been fully developed. 



LANCASTER DISTRICT, OHIO. 295 

At Johnstown, Abraham Cartlich and A. 31. Alexander, 
both good men and true — men who, if they ever took prom- 
inent position, you could be sure that it was without any 
wire-pulling or management upon their part. They were 
both modest and retiring men, best loved by those who 
knew them best, and possibly sometimes left in the humbler 
fields of labor because they were content, while others, less 
deserving, were promoted because they clamored for pro- 
motion. 

At Etna, Samuel Tippett, a man whose soul was in his 
work. He had a fine imaoiuation, and was an interesting 
and successful preacher. 

At Pickerington, Rev. George H'annawalt, a local preacher 
held in high estimation, took my place as preacher in charge, 
and did good work. The junior preacher, brother Bethauser, 
was just commencing his itinerant life. He was recom- 
mended to the Conference from Newark, and gave promise 
of being a successful Methodist preacher. 

At Groveport I found Rev. Francis A. Timmons and Ja- 
cob Martin. The preacher in charge, as I have had occa- 
sion to record in a former chapter, was of the old and 
excellent Methodist stock. Brother Martin was a well- 
posted theologian and a very valuable man, but his great 
modesty caused him to shrink from thrusting himself into 
any position of prominence. 

At Royalton, George G. West was preacher in charge, 
and John Kemper the second preacher. Of Mr. West, a 
good and useful man, I have already spoken. His assistant 
was in feeble health, but was faithful in the expenditure of 
what strength he had for the advancement of the cause of 
God. 

At Maxville, Levi Hall, Jonathan AV. Stump. They were 
both growing men, faithful and popular among the people. 

Brother D. Cadwallader had charge of the Wrhh Mission^ 



290 HIGHWAYS AND HKDGrS. 

)»nt tliis year closed his rniHsionary work and he went 
liome to his reward. More of him licrcaftcr. 

The year passed rapidly, so full was it of importaut and 
responsible work; it also passed pleasantly, as the brethren 
in llic ministry and the members of the Church gave mc 
hearty welcome, and the labors of the year were crowned 
with gratifying success. 



JACKSON DISTRICT, OHIO. 207 



CHAPTER XXIX. 

JACKSON DISTRICT, OHIO. 
18.16-60. 

rriHE Conference held its forty-fifth session at Newark, 
-*- Ohio, commencing September 3, 1856, Bishop Ames 
presiding. The following persons were admitted on trial: 
Elias W. Kirkham, Henry L. Whitehead, John W. Lewis, 
Elias N. Nichols, Frederick S. Thurston, William S. Taylor, 
John M. Shuly, Thomas M'Intyre — 9. 

During the past year the following had died : William 
Catlin, David Cadwallader, and Isaac D. Day. 

Rev. William Catlin was born in the State of Maine in 
1811; in 1852 joined the Ohio Conference on probation. 
His itinerant career was short, but he did his work faith- 
fully, and left among the people that he served the fragrance 
of a holy life. 

Rev. David Cadwallader was born in North Wales, 3Iont- 
gomery county. May 28, 1791, and died at his residence in 
Newark, Ohio, October 19, 1855. He became a Methodist 
in 1812, and commenced preaching the Gospel in 1814. He 
came to the United States and settled in Delaware county, 
Ohio, in 1821, and in 1828 joined the Ohio Conference and 
was sent forth as a missionary among the Welsh people. 
He continued his labors in that department, at intervals, 
during the rest of his life. He was a man of God, and a 
minister greatly respected and loved, and will doubtless 
have many stars in his crown in the great day. 



298 HIGHWAYS AND HEDGES. 

Bov. Tsnnc P. P.iy was horn in Potors}»uitr, Pcnn., April 
9, 1S09, and died at Dunioiitvillo. I'airficld county, March 30, 
185(1. lie served tlic CIhik li liiitlifnlly as a local preacher 
for several years, and tluii joined the traveling connection in 
1849, in which he continued to the end of his life. He was 
a good, plain, zealous preacher. He was more than ordina- 
rily gifted in prayer, and as a sweet singer he had few 
equals. His singing often produced a most thrilling effect 
upon the congregation. He died pcacel'ully, and doubtless 
rests with the redeemed on high. 

Bishop Ames put forward the business of the Conference 
with his usual dispatch, and yet had time for some social 
intercourse with his brethren. I recall with much pleasure 
his kind attentions to me. He invited me to his room to, 
talk over the reminiscences of our earlier life, as we were 
brought up in adjoining townships, in Athens county, Ohio. 

I was appointed to the Jackson district. From the list 
of charges in it, and the preachers supplying those charges, 
I found that I would be at home. Almost all of the terri-, 
tory had belonged to Portsmouth district when I traveled 
it, and many of the preachers had been associated with me 
either on that work or in Virginia. In the following list I 
shall only speak of the characteristics of the preachers now 
for the first time under my charge, having spoken of the 
others in former pages. 

Jackson — Charles H. Warren. Jackson circuit — Timothy 
Wones, F. S. Thurston. These brethren were both faith- 
ful, popular, and successful. Brother Wones, as I think, 
afterward made a great mistake in retiring from the work. 
No doubt there are circumstances, pecuniary and domestic, 
that sometimes justify a preacher while in good health and 
useful in the work to retire from it, but certainly it is a 
step that calls for searching self-examination and earnest 
prayer before it is decided upon. 



JACKSON DISTRICT, OHIO. 299 

Richmond— Edv^ard P. Hall. J. W. Alderman. Brother 
Hall was a man of superior pulpit popularity, and did val- 
uable work for the Church. Brother Alderman was a 
young man of attractiye and commanding personal presence, 
and made so favorable an impression on his congregations 
at his first efi"orts, that some feared he could not sustain 
himself up to that standard during the year. In this, how- 
ever, they were agreeably disappointed. They both grew 
upon the people, proved to be true yoke-fellows, and ac- 
complished a good work for that charge. 

3r Arthur — Joseph Morris. He had a glorious revival, 
from which I doubt not he will have stars in his crown. 

Ilamden — D. H. Cherington. With a manly, open coun- 
tenance, dignified Christian bearing among the people, and 
earnest faithful labor, he seldom fiiiled to have a revival. 
This year God poured out his Spirit abundantly upon his 
charge. 

Mount Pleasant — James T. HoUiday. During the year 
he went to Kansas, and I had to supply the work from the 
local ranks. 

New Plymouth — John Dillon, W. C. Holliday. Brother 
Holliday possessed good natural ability, and only needed a 
measure of heavenly lightning poured into him to have 
made him a man of power. 

Furnace — Uriah L. Jones. He was an efficient man, and 
usually had the honor of reporting the fruits of revival on 
his charge. It was so this year. 

KigervUle — John B. Prose. Unlike the brother last 
named, brother Prose seldom reported results from his 
labor. He was uniformly pious, and was also faithful to 
his appointments, but for some reason his ministry seemed 
to be unfruitful. Had he felt it to be his duty to retire to 
the local ranks, I would not have dissuaded him from that 
course. 



300 HIGHWAYS AND HEDGKS. 

Gnllijnilix — Thomas J. N. Simmons. ITo was prompt, 
active, (lignifu'il and aflalilo, and a workman that needed 
not to be ashamed. 

GallipuUs circuit — Daniel IJarlocker, William 8. Taylor. 
These brethren were of kindred spirit. They possessed 
rare adaptation to tho itinerant work. They won tlie hearts 
of the people to themselves without effort, and put forth 
all their efforts to lead them to Christ. They were knit to 
each either like David and Jonathan. 

We liad a pleasant home at Jackson, and the year was 
one of home enjoyment and district prosperity. 

The Ohio Conference held its forty-sixth session at Chil- 
lieothe, commencing August 2G, 1857, Bishop Morris presid- 
ing. The following preachers were admitted on trial : Ja- 
cob Hathaway, William P. Grantham, William Glenn, Peter 
V. Ferree, Joseph II. Adair, Isaac B. Brodrick, T. Welles 
Stanley, John AV. Dillon, William R. Copeland, John W. 
Wakefield, Jeremiah Slocum — 11. Some of these I had in- 
troduced to the Christian ministry, and felt much anxiety for 
their success. Thus far they are meeting my expectations, 
and give promise of continued usefulness in the Church. 

The venerable Abner Goff had closed his pilgrimage, and 
his memoir was spread upon the journal of the Conference. 
He was born in Vermont, November 4, 1782. In 1819 he 
was admitted on trial in the Ohio Conference, and continued 
a laborious, useful, and effective preacher until 1841. His 
health having failed, he was placed on the supernumerary 
list, and continued either on that list or the superannuated 
list, until he closed his life in the city of Columbus, March 
15, 1857. He was a good man, and maintained a high 
place in the confidence and affections of all that knew him. 

I was re-appointed to Jackson district, with the following 
list of charges and helpers : 

Jackson — Joseph Morris. He had a year of great pros- 



JACKSON DISTRICT, OHIO. 301 

perity. and gathered more than a hundred precious souls 
for the Master. 

Jachson circuit — William S. Benner, F. S. Thurston. 
Brother Benner was one of my new men, and proved to be 
a good and useful man in the work. 

Richmond — Peter Y. Ferree. Had brother Ferree en- 
joyed health so that his physical vigor had been equal to 
his mental ability, he would have accomplished much more 
than he did. 

M^ Arthur — Stephen C. Frampton. Brother Frampton had 
an investio;atino;. critical, and well-cultivated mind ; was 
constantly gathering the materials of greater efficiency and 
usefulness. 

Hamden — D. H. Cherington. 

Mount Pleasant — C. H. Warren, William R. Copeland. 
The junior preacher was brought into the Conference under 
my administration. Small of stature, a slight impediment 
in his utterance was somewhat against him at first; but 
such was his talent, and unction, and industry, that he 
surmounted those embarrassments, and succeeded well in the 
work. This year he had the advantage of one of the very 
best colleagues. 

Kcio Phjmouth — Uriah L. Jones, William G. Holliday. 

Furnace — John Dillon. 

Kygerville — John B. Prose. 

GalUpoVis — H. Z. Adams. Brother Adams was a diligent 
pastor; affable in his intercourse with the people, preposess- 
ing in his personal appearance, he was blessed with elements 
of success. 

GaUipolis circuit — J. W. Alderman, J. W, Wakefield. I 
had the pleasure of introducing brother Wakefield to the 
traveling connection. He was able-bodied and strong- 
minded, and willing to expend his strength in the vineyard 
of the Lord. 



302 iircnwAYS and hedges. 

Purinir a portion of tliis year my labors were much 
creased in conHefpiencc of tlie failing health of my vcucrablo" 
father. He was living at his old home on Hocking, where 
he had settled in 1S(I2. He had reached the great age of 
ninety-five years, and it was evident that his end was near 
at hand. It was his (fesire as well as my own that I should 
be with liiiu in his last moments. To secure this privilege, 
I made journey after journey on horseback over the hill 
country intervening Jackson and Athens. Though I was 
not allowed finally to be with him when he crossed the 
river of death, yet it was a great comfort to us both that 
we had enjoyed so much of each other's society during the 
year. He died calmly resting on the atonement, and went 
to join the loved ones in heaven. 

The Ohio Conference held its forty-seventh session at 
Marietta, Ohio, August 25, 1858, Bishop Janes presiding. 

The following were admitted on trial : William Chadwick, 
Isaac F. King, John E. Sowers, Bradford Crook, John N. 
Pilcher, John P. Calvert, Caleb W. Cherington, Edward I. 
Jones, Robert Callahan, Eli H. Taylor, Henry R. Miller, 
John A. Acton. Several of these had been licensed by 
quarterly conferences over which I presided, and I always 
felt special interest in the success of such. 

I was returned to Jackson district, with the following list 
of assistants : 

Jackson — Joseph Morris. 

Jackson circuit — D. H. Cherington, J. R. Prose. 

Richmond — C. H. Warren, J. W. Wakefield. 

M' Arthur — S. C. Frampton. 

Hamden — P. V. Ferree. 

Mount Pleasant — Daniel Harlocker, Caleb W. Cherington. 
The junior preacher was of good Methodist stock, and was 
licensed under my administration. 

New Plymouth — TT. L. Jones, William R. Copeland. 



JACKSON DISTRICT, OHIO. 303 

Furnace — John Dillon. 

Kygerville — W. S. Benner. 

GaUipoUs — H. Z. Adams. 

GaUipoUs circuit— J. W. Alderman, F. S. Thurston. 

Gallia — William S. Taylor, E. S. Jones. Brother Jones 
was a Welshman of education, refinement, and good preach- 
ing ability. I had the pleasure of introducing him into 
our traveling connection, and in so doing thought I was 
doing a good work for the cause of God, and was confirmed 
in that opinion by his subsequent course. 

The Ohio Conference held its forty-eighth session in the 
Town-Street Church, Columbus, 0., commencing August 
31, 1859. Bishop Ames presided, assisted by Bishop Mor- 
ris. The following persons were admitted on trial : Isaac 
Crook, Henry Bolby, "Wilder N. Middleton, William H. 
Mullenix, John P. Lacroix, George W. Isaminger, Robert 
W. Manley, Joseph Robinson, F. F. Lewis, William J. Grif- 
fith, Wellington Harvey, H. K. Foster — a good class, some 
of whose original licenses to preach I had the pleasure of 
signing. 

It was my privilege to enjoy the hospitality of brother 
Bartlett's excellent home, and of having Bishop Morris for 
my companion at this Conference. The Bishop preached us 
one of his characteristic sermons on Sabbath, from this pas- 
sage: "The common people heard him gladly." Mark xii, 
37. It was laconic, suggestive, finished, and full of marrow 
and good things. I was returned to Jackson district, with 
the following work and workers: Jackson, Stephen C. Framp- 
ton; Richmond, C. H. Warren and U. L. Jones; Jackson 
circuit, D. H. Cherington and J. W. Wakefield ; M'Arthur, 
Banner Mark ; Hamden, P. V. Ferree ; Mount Pleasant, 
Daniel Harlocker ; New Plymouth, F. S. Thurston; Fur- 
nace, John R. Prose ; Wilksville, Joseph Barringer and C. 
W. Cherington; Gallipolis, Edward P. Hall; Gallipolis 



304 



HIGHWAYS AND HEDGES. 



circuit, J. W. Alderman and J. W. 'Copeland ; Gallia, Wil- 
liam S. Taylor and E. S. Jones. We elected the following 
brethren as delegates to General Conference; namely, J. M. 
Trimble, Z. Connell, F. Merrick, J. M. Jameson, and D. D. 
Mather. 

The four years spent on this district were pleasant and 
profitable years. We lived in Jackson, where we formed 
many and endearing friendships. The society in this place 
contained some choice Christians, whose time, and intellect, 
and property were consecrated to God. They had projected 
and commenced the erection of a church edifice in Jackson, 
before I took charge of the district, which proved to be a 
heavy work, but they persevered, through years of toil and 
sacrifice, and at last had the privilege of seeing it completed 
and dedicated. They did me the honor of calling it Stew- 
art's Chapel. My constant prayer to God is that it may 
prove to be the spiritual birthplace of many hundreds of 
precious souls. 



r 



MINISTER AT LARGE — WESTERN TOUR. 805 



CHAPTER XXX. 

MINISTER AT LARGE— WESTERN TOUR. 

1860-61. 

f 

THE Ohio CoDference held its forty-ninth session in Gal- 
lipolis, Ohio, commencing September 19, 1860, Bishop 
Simpson presiding. The following persons were admitted on 
trial : Charles G. M'Cabe, William H. Wolf, Henry Berk- 
stresser, David H. Moore, William H. Gibbons, W. B. 
Guthrie, Wilson Gardner, T. H. Manley, S. R. Porter, Tim- 
othy S. Stivers, John F. Dickson, J. M'Kendree Shultz, 
George Murray, and James D. Fry. In this class was 
' choice and promising material. 

Though the announcement had already been made, through 
the organs and pulpits of the Church, that Be^ Jacob 
Young and Samuel Harvey had gone to join the fathers on 
the other side of the river, yet there was deep and solemn 
stillness in the Conference-room when the memoirs of these 
good and honored men were about to be read. 

Brother Young had been identified with the history of 
Methodism in the West from the very beginning of the 
century, and during the greater portion of that time he had 
been regarded as one of the strong, progressive, and most 
enterprising of our ecclesiastical leaders. Though for many 
years past he had struggled either with pecuniary embar- 
rassment or bodily affliction, yet he had always kept abreast 
of the great moral and religious movements of the age, and 
was ambitious that the Church of his choice should meet 
its full responsibility in every department of religious and 

26 



306 HIGHWAYS AND HEDGES. 

educational enterprise. We now felt indeed that a prince 
had fallen. Though the memoir spread upon the Conference 
journal was eloquent in its eulogies, yet we felt that it was 
none too strong. As I have spoken of brother Young at 
length in an earlier part of my narrative, I will not go into 
any further detail at this place than simply to record that 
on the 15th of September, 1859, after pronouncing his bless- 
ing upon those who surrounded his dying couch, he ex- 
claimed, " Sweet heaven ! sweet heaven !" and his happy 
spirit entered its rest. 

Brother Samuel Harvey was born in Mifflin county, Penn., 
February 15, 1806, and died January 30, 1860. He en- 
tered the traveling connection in 1833, and thenceforth be- 
came one of our most reliable and influential laborers. He 
had intellectual strength, and vigor, and culture sufficient to 
attract attention and make an impression, but in the gift of 
holiness he especially excelled. Large portions of his time 
were spent in secret prayer — close communion with God. 
He died just as we would expect such a man to die. When 
told by his attendants that he was dying, he inquired, "May 
not you be mistaken?" "No, brother Harvey, you are 
dying." He replied, " Well, be it so. I would like to have 
seen my wife and children." He then closed his eyes as if 
in reflection and prayer; then opened them, smiling, and 
exclaimed, " To die is gain. 0, what a gain !" and without 
a struggle or a groan he passed away. 

As the next session of the Conference would be its fiftieth, 
it was proposed that we should celebrate that occasion in a 
becoming manner. A committee was appointed to consider 
the subject and report. They presented the following re- 
port, which was adopted : 

" The committee to whom the consideration of the semi- 
centennial celebration of the Ohio Annual Conference was 
referred, beg leave to report that, in their opinion, it will be 



MINISTER AT LARGE — WESTERN TOUR. 307 

very appropriate and even advantageous to our cause to 
hold a semi-centennial celebration at the next session of our 
Conference, We have not had time nor opportunity to 
consider properly what would be appropriate exercises for 
such an occasion, but recommend the passage of the follow- 
insr resolutions : 

" 1. Resolved^ That the Ohio Annual Conference celebrate 
its Semi-Centennial at its next session at Circleville. 

" 2. Resolved^ That we invite all former members of the 
Ohio Conference to be present with us at the celebration. 

" 3. Resolved, That a committee of five be appointed as 
a Committee of Arrangements, who shall prepare a programme 
of exercises suitable to the occasion, and publish the same 
in the Western Christian Advocate before the next session 
of our Conference. 

Joseph M. Trimble, 
Benjamin St. James Fry, 

Z. CONNELL." 

The following Committee of Arrangements was appointed : 
Joseph M. Trimble, Z. Connell, Benjamin St. James Fry, 
John W. White, James M. Jameson. 

The Bishop appointed me to Midway circuit, with per- 
mission to spend any portion of the year that I might choose 
in traveling at large. 

The shadows of age were falling upon my pathway, and 
my companion and self had for several years desired the 
privilege of making a good visit among relations and 
friends scattered over the North-west, and of preaching to 
them once more before we should go hence. In the kind 
providence of God that opportunity was now offered us. 

Soon after Conference we started on our journey. Stop- 
ping a few days at Cincinnati, we enjoyed the hospitality 
of the kind families of brothers Langley, Ewan, Kilbreth, 
Mears, and our ministerial brethren. It was an exceedingly 



308 IlIGllWAVS AND HEDGES. 

pleasant commcuccincnt of our trip, and prophesied a year 
ul" i^rcat enjoyment. 

As the Rock River Cunlcrencc was al^oiit to hold its scs- 
.sion at the first Methodist Episcopal Church of Chicago, 
of which our son was pastor, we hurried there to enjoy that 
occasion. We were not disappointed in the anticipation we 
had indulged. Added to the glad welcome tendered us by 
our children, we formed many pleasant acquaintances 
among the preachers. Bishop Janes presided, assisted by 
Bishop Simpson. As I witnessed their manner of transact- 
ing business, I thought that I had not been introduced to 
any Conference in the connection composed of more compe- 
tent and ejQ&cient traveling preachers. 

My son had completed his constitutional term in charge 
of the first church, but as he had inaugurated in the city 
a temperance movement that appeared to be accomplishing 
much good, and had taken much interest in street preaching, 
and kindred missionary work, it was thought desirable that 
he should remain in the city and take charge of the city 
missionary work. As this appointment opened a wide field 
for the employment of the available unemployed ministerial 
force of the city and vicinity I entered into sympathy with 
it at once, and during the remainder of my visit there was 
no lack of opportunity to preach. Besides the mission 
points at which he organized Sabbath-schools, and main- 
tained preaching in view of developing Churches, he had 
services at the city Bridewell, the city hospital, in the city 
cemetery, the North and West Side market-houses, the 
Lake Park, in front of the armory, and at various other out- 
door places, where those who needed the Gospel were ac- 
customed to congregate. Through the influence of these 
meetings many who w^ere utter strangers to the interior of 
our church buildings were reached and saved. During my 
stay I had opportunity of preaching each Sabbath. 



MINISTER AT LARGE — WESTERN TOUR. 309 

Dr. Eddy, editor of the Xorth-Western, Dr. Tiffany, who 
took charge of the First Methodist Episcopal Church, Rev. 
brother Stone, pastor of the Des Plaine-Street Church, and 
Rev. brother Whipple, pastor of the Indiana-Street Church, 
showed me much courtesy and kindness, and brothers 3Iilner, 
and Hitt, and Hamilton, and Lawrence, and many others 
paid me such attention as added much to the enjoyment of 
my visit in Chicago. 

Having spent about two months, we journeyed on to 
Monroe, Wisconsin, to visit our other son. His family gave 
us a very hearty welcome. My son being a member of the 
State Senate, and that body then being in session, was at the 
State capital attending to his duties. After spending some 
two weeks, and twice filling the pulpit, and forming the ac- 
quaintance of the excellent pastor. Rev. brother Sweetland, 
and of brothers Ball, and Beers, and Xewton, and Evans, 
and White, and others who received me as a^ father in the 
Gospel, I went up to Madison to visit my son. 

To my surprise I found here at the capital of Wisconsin 
quite a company of cherished friends of other years: Yo- 
cum, and Farnandis, and Hood, and Spencer, and Chilcoat, 
and Reed. The first on the list was pastor of the church, 
and the last on the list was a Professor in State University, 
located in the suburbs of the capital. 

I was introduced to the Legislature, and invited to open 
one of its sessions with prayer. After preaching several 
times to the people of Madison, and enjoying my visit well, 
I returned to Monroe by the way of Janesville, at which 
place I spent a Sabbath, and supplied the pulpit in the 
absence of brother Jenne, the highly esteemed pastor. 

The war was making heavy drafts on both the ministry 
and membership of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Rev. 
Mr. Walters, presiding elder of the Madison district, and 
Rev. M. Tilton, presiding elder of the Janesville district, 



310 HIGHWAYS AND IIKDGKS. 

li.-ul l)otli frivrn up tlioir districts rit tlir rnll of patriotism. 
Tlioui^lj tli(^y were greatly loved, and could be ill spared 
from their ecelosiastieal posts, yet such was the loyalty of 
the people that they would not roni|dain. 

After spending a few weeks more at Monroe we set out 
to visit our friends in Iowa. On the way wc touehed at 
Freeport, Illinois, where we enjoyed the hospitality of Mrs. 
Streeter, and of Hon. Thompson Wilcoxon, formerly of 
Scioto count}^, Ohio. He had settled with his family in 
Stephenson county, Illinois, in an early day, and by real 
estate investments and energetic business operations accu- 
mulated a large property, which he was liberally using for 
public and religious uses. 

Passing through Burlington, Iowa, we reached Mt. Pleas- 
ant, and were warmly received by my sister, Mrs. Sarah 
Warren. In this beautiful town, the seat of the Iowa Wes- 
leyan University, and per consequence the rallying point 
for ministers and laymen of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, who wish to furnish their children with the best 
advantages for higher education, we spent several exceed- 
ingly pleasant weeks. I there found some of my former 
Conference associates, and some of my dearest ministerial 
friends. The venerable Charles Elliott, the world-renowned 
author, and editor, and educator, had his pleasant home 
here, though he was at this time editing the Church paper 
at St. Louis, Missouri. There the saintly Bishop Ilamline 
was living, in the simplicity and purity of a primitive 
Christian Bishop. Feeble in health, but mighty in faith, 
he was waiting the Master's call to the better home above. 
There was M'Dowell, and Ingalls, and Shelton, and Bradrick, 
and White, and Miller, and Reynolds — almost a Conference 
of splendid men. Such was their kindness to us, and so 
did we fall in love with the place and people, that we felt 
strongly iucliued to abide there. By the kind invitation 



MINISTER AT LARGE — WESTERN TOUR. 311 

of the pastors, I had the opportunity of delivering a mes- 
sage for mv Master to both of the conirresrations. 

At Marshall, fifteen miles north of Mt. Pleasant, we vis- 
ited a number of old acquaintances and family connections, 
who showed such appreciation of our visit as made us very 
happy — the Warrens, and Flemings, and Gardners, and 
Moreheads, and many others, who had in former years been 
members of my pastoral charges. We took much comfort 
in the family of Wheeler Warren, an old Ohio 31ethodist 
of the primitive stock, and were gratified to see that God 
had blessed him -with a numerous and very reputable fam- 
ily, and a goodly heritage in this world. Rev. brother 
White, the preacher in charge, gave me the free use of his 
pulpit during the two Sabbaths that I remained, and the 
people listened with much earnestness to the Gospel message 
that I brought them. 

Returning by the way of Mt. Pleasant, we journeyed on 
to West Point, where we visited my oldest brother, Colonel 
William Stewart. He had emigrated with his family to 
Iowa in an early day, and having brought with him both 
capital and business ability, he had made for himself prop- 
erty and influence. His children had grown up, married, 
and settled about him, until he seemed almost a patriarch. 
Alexander Stewart, a younger brother, also the head of a 
large and interesting family, resided in the neighborhood. 
Besides this extensive family connection, we found here 
Simeon and Asahel Cooley, and other cherished friends 
of our earlier days in Ohio. At the invitation of the 
worthy pastor. Rev. brother Williams, I preached to the 
people of West Point on Sabbath, and felt that God was 
with us of a truth. 

At Fort Madison, the county-seat of Lee county, a beau- 
tiful town on the banks of the Mississippi River, we visited 
other family connections and friends. The pastor of the 



312 HIGHWAYS and hedges. 

church, l^ev. J. G. Tli(>ni]i>(>n, and the cliaplain of the State 
prison, Rev. Mr. Tliouias, endeared themselves to us hy 
many very kind attentions. They were jointly engaged in 
a protraeted meeting at that time, and their labors were 
highly appreciated and rruitlul. I doubted somewhat the 
propriety of officiating as much in the meeting as they de- 
sired me to do, but felt indeed that my labors were not in 
vain. We visited the State prison, and were much pleased 
with the evidences of good management, and with the high 
estimation placed upon the labors of the chaplain by both 
officers and prisoners. Brother Thomas, if I mistake not, 
is destined to make his mark in the Church of his choice, 
as an able minister of the New Testament. 

At Farmington, twenty-five miles west of Fort Madison, 
we had the melancholy pleasure of visiting the grave of a 
beloved cousin, recently deceased, Fiev. William Arnold. 
He was a good man, and was faithfully serving his genera- 
tion, but in the midst of business and usefulness was called 
to a better seat above. A widow and three lovely daughters 
mourned their loss, and by the propriety of their lives were 
reflecting honor upon him and increasing their influence in 
society. 

After a pleasant visit with them and the Rainses and Kin- 
neys, we passed over into Missouri and visited some friends 
in Clarke county, in the neighborhood of Chambersburg. 
Among these were Captain Jesse Long, and the Reynoldses, 
and Colberts, and Pilchers, and Spencers, and many others 
from Athens county, Ohio. 

During this visit we attended a Baptist protracted meet- 
ing, and were not a little surprised to find the tone of the 
congregation in unmistakable sympathy with the rebels of 
the South. In their Sabbath-morning prayer-meeting they 
constantly reminded the Lord of the great misfortune he 
had allowed to befall the country in the recent election of 



MINISTER AT LARGE — WESTERN TOUR. 313 

Mr. Lincoln to the Presidency. As all in the congregation 
were invited to take part, I ventured to offer up prayer, but 
in a spirit so diflferent from those who had preceded me 
that they looked upon me with evident surprise and won- 
der. But no one offered to interrupt me in any way. The 
disloyal spirit, however, became so rampant afterward that 

tmy brother-in-law. Captain Long, and others who were un- 
compromisingly loyal, had to abandon their homes and 
property, and seek safety in other localities. 
After making a short visit with my old friend Hubbel 
t Reynolds, we retraced our steps to Fort Madison, calling 
by the way on Joel Bethel, an old Ohio friend, and touch- 
ing at Farmington, and West Point, and Knapp's. After 
spending a few days in company with the last-named con- 
nection, Jonas Knapp, a prosperous farmer and large-hearted 
gentleman, we passed up the river to Burlington, and 
thence, bidding good-by to Iowa, crossed the Mississippi and 
set our faces toward Chicago. 
L The visit had been a very pleasant one, and I thought 
that if God would only bless my ministry to the salvation 
of my dear relatives who are out of Christ, I would rejoice 
through all eternity that I had made the visit. 
^ We reached Chicago in safety, and found plenty of work 
in the department in which my son was engaged. He had 
r secured a large corps of helpers, and was pushing the work 
in the destitute and depraved parts of the city with much 
visror. 

While here, I received a communication from the com- 
mittee of the Ohio Conference requesting me to preach the 
memorial sermon at the coming semi-centennial anniversary 
of the Ohio Conference. Not without a good deal of hesi- 
tancy and misgiving, I accepted the honorable duty assigned 
me, and addressed myself to the work of preparation. 

The latter part of January, 18G1, leaving Mrs. Stewart, 

27 



oli IIIGJIWAVS AND HEDGES. 

with tlio cliildreii, in (Miira^o, I retunieil U) Oliio. (hi llio 
way 1 vi.Nitc'd my old IViiJuds llov. A. KJdy and liishop 
Ames, at Indianapolis, Iiid. With tlie fonnor I had been 
nssociatcd in the work in Ohio, and was ghid to see him 
once more in the fh'>li. I also called upon a very dear 
friend, Kev. Thomas 11. Lynch, formerly a prol'essor in 
Augusta College, Kentucky. lie had ministered consola- 
tion to us when the shadows of death rested uj)on our 
habitation, and he will always have a very sacred place io 
our affections. I also found there and had the pleasure of 
seeing that elect lady, Miss Lydia Haws, who was with us 
during the same period of affliction, and rendered us sym- 
pathy and kindness never to be forgotten. She was a 
remarkable woman, and will doubtless shine in the kingdom 
of God forever. 

llev. William I. Fee, pastor of the Christie Chapel at 
Cincinnati, gave me the hospitality of his house and the 
freedom of his pulpit. I protracted my visit for some time, 
and by the invitation of the pastors preached in most of 
our churches. I visited, in Covington, Jesse Grant, father 
of General U. S. Grant. I found him full of anxiety and 
confidence in regard to the efforts of his son, who was at 
that time thundering at the gates of Vicksburg. Brother 
Grant extended to me the same cordial welcome that he had 
been accustomed to do in former years when I was his pas- 
tor. He offered to secure me an appointment as chaplain 
in the army. The war excitement was now all-pervading; 
not only the young men and strong men, but tender boys 
and infirm old men were offering themselves for such posi- 
tions as they might be able to fill. My venerable friend, 
llev. J. F. Wright, had just taken a chaplaincy, and I was 
much tempted to do the same, but after mature reflection, I 
decided to expend what of strength remained to me in labors 
at home, and let the younger and stronger go to the field. 



MINISTER AT LARGE — WESTERN TOUR. 315 

L Early in February I left Cincinnati and made my way to 
Athens, visiting in my route Chillicothe, Jackson, Ports- 
mouth, and Pomeroy, at all of which places I met smiling 
faces and grasped warm and friendly hands, and at some of 
them had time to preach the Gospel to my old friends. 
P Again I turned my face toward the North-west, taking 
Springfield in route. About the middle of March I found 
myself again at the residence of my son in Chicago, and 
was grateful to God for the kind providence that had pre- 
served us all during our separation. AYe spent the remain- 
der of the month in Chicago, reading, writing, and helping 
in the city missionary work. The first of May I made a 
brief visit again to my son in Monroe, Wisconsin ; thence to 
' Freeport, Illinois, enjoying the hospitality of brother Wil- 
coxon; thence to Rockford, where I enjoyed the hospitality 
of that successful inventor and manufacturer, and faithful 
Methodist. J. B. Skinner. His plows and other farm ma- 
chinery are widely known and appreciated in the West and 
South, and he is liberally spending his revenue to sustain 
the institutions of the Church of his choice. May the bless- 
b ing of God be upon him and his family! Returning to Chi- 
K cago, I now gave myself more earnestly to the task that was 
I before me for the next session of my Conference. 
V The 10th of July we started south and passed through 
Springfield, the home of President Lincoln. I could but 
think of the rapid and wonderful changes that take place 
with men and things in this world. A poor young man, 
splitting rails for a living — the same man, self-made, presid- 
ing over the most powerful nation of the globe! A few 
small colonies struggling against the yoke of a tyrannical 
mother government — one-half of the States of a mighty re- 
public, sacrificing millions of treasure and rivers of human 
blood, to perpetuate slavery in a land called the " land of 
the free I" 



316 HIGHWAYS AND HF.DGES. 

At Virdcn, Illinois, "NVillijini (Inni)ilc, Esq., met us with 
liis family carriage and ronvcycd us to his pleasant home, 
fourteen miles east of tlint place. He had been a citizen of 
Illinois some thirty years, and settled about liini was a large 
family of cliiKlren, mostly married and all prosperous and 
respectable. We spent among these friends several very 
pleasant weeks, and during the time made many acquaint- 
ances among their neighbors. I*urposing to go from there 
to Carrolton, wliere another circle of their and our family 
connection were living, brother and sister Gamble took us 
in their family carriage. Here were several families who 
had come from Athens county ; namely, Rev. M. Osborn, 
and the Halberts, and Pilchers, and Caricoes, and Sim- 
monses, and Gambles. While we visited in this neighbor- 
hood we made our head-quarters at the residence of James 
H. Vanarsdale, son-in-law to the now sainted William 
Gamble. 

The latter part of July we bade adieu to these kind 
friends, and turning westward made a brief visit at St. 
Louis, Mo. We found our venerable friend, Dr. Charles 
Elliott, at his post and earnestly at work. The spirit of 
rebellion was rife in St. Louis, and it required no small 
measure of courage for the Doctor to throw to the breeze 
the stars and stripes, and declare himself and the " Central 
Advocate " uncompromisingly on the side of the Union, 
but he never faltered. Firm as Gibraltar, he not only in- 
spired his paper with the spirit of patriotism, but he filled 
the pulpit for the little band of Methodists who had not 
and would not bow the knee unto Baal. The Doctor gave 
me a warm invitation to spend the Sabbath with him and 
preach to the people, -but not feeling impressed with any 
special message for St. Louis, we determined to retrace our 
steps to Ohio. 

On the way we spent the Sabbath at Moore's Hill, a 



MINISTER AT LARGE — WESTERN TOUR. 317 

beautiful town, containing a population which indicated its 
excellence by the schools, churches, and college which they 
had gathered about them. Here resided some of our cher- 
ished friends, the Franklins, and Spencers, and Jenningses, 
and others. The visit was pleasant, and I had special en- 
joyment in ministering to them of the Word of Life. 

We spent a week in Cincinnati and Covington, preaching 
in each place and enjoying the kindest attentions from many 
friends. The first Saturday and Sabbath in x\ugust we 
spent at Mount Washington, visiting my friend Leroy 
Swormstedt, who so long and efficiently served the Church 
as Agent of the Western Book Concern. 

August 11th we arrived at Jackson, Ohio, having now been 
upon the wing for eleven months. These kind friends, 
among whom we had made a happy home while serving the 
Jackson district, welcomed us back, and, as we reviewed the 
labor and danger through which we had passed, and how 
God had protected and blessed us, we felt unutterable emo- 
tions of gratitude filling our hearts. We had not been con- 
scious of any miraculous deliverances, as from the wreck of 
blown-up steamers or collided cars, but we felt that God 
had so wonderfully directed our steps that we had not even 
taken passage upon steamer or cars that were destined to 
explosion or wreck. We erected here our " Ebenezer," and 
gave ourselves anew to God. 

x\fter resting for a few days at Jackson, we visited M'Ar- 
thur, Hamden, and Athens, where we visited until time to 
start toward Conference. En route I visited Chillicothe, 
Dryrun, New Holland, and Columbus, at the last of which 
places I called on brothers Trimble, Jameson, and Brush, 
and enjoyed the hospitality of brother Bartlett. From Co- 
lumbus I went to London, where I visited many of our old 
friends. From there I went to Springfield, and attended 
the session of the Cincinnati Conference, and at its close 



ol8 IlIGllWAVS AND HEDGES. 

rcturnod to London, and spent Sa}»l»nth, tlic Stli of September, 
preaclung lor tlie people. Moiid.iy I visited JanicH Foster 
and Rev. J. Martin, and dined at l^rutlicr Moore'8, of Mount 
Sterling, on my way to Circleville, where the Ohio Ton- 
ference was to commence its fiftieth session on the 11th. 

The session was one of interest and profit. I was able 
to report, in regard to my year's travels and laltors that I 
had delivered about one hundred sermons to nearly as many 
different congregations, scattered over a very large circuit, 
and that the year had been one of blessings to myself, and 
I had reason to think that God had made me, to some ex- 
tent, a blessing to others. 

This being the fiftieth session of the Ohio Conference, as 
before stated, arrangements had been made to celebrate it 
with suitable services. Rev. Zachariah Connell was to de- 
liver a historical sketch of the Western Conference, Rev. Dr. 
Trimble a historical sketch of the Ohio Conference, and I 
was to preach the commemoration sermon. 



FRANKFORT CIRCUIT, OHIO. 319 



CHAPTER XXXI. 

FRANKFORT CIRCUIT, OHIO. 
1861-62. 

rpHE Ohio Conference held its fiftieth session in Circle- 
-*~ ville, Ohio, commencing September 11, 1861, Bishop 
Janes presiding. The great and absorbing interest at this 
Conference was the semi-centennial memorial services. In 
accordance with the invitation sent out by the Ohio Con- 
ference, many of its former members were present to enjoy 
those services. Monday was set apart for this celebration, 
and with it came a great crowd of people. As the memo- 
rial sermon, which was assigned to me, was set for eleven 
o'clock, A. M., I entered the crowded audience with a good 
deal of tremulousness. The congregation, however, gave me 
very close attention, and at times such demonstrative evi- 
dences of their appreciation of the discourse as I had not 
expected. At three, P. M., the vast audience gathered again 
to listen to the essay of Rev. Z. Council on the " History of 
the Western Conference." It was an able and appropriate 
sketch, and gave much satisfaction to the hearers. At nij^ht 
they gathered again to hear " A Historical Sketch of the 
Ohio Conference," by Rev. J. M. Trimble, D. D. The task 
was accomplished in the style and with the ability of that 
popular minister. The day was one of great interest and 
profit. The memorial sermon will be found in the appendix 
to this volume. 

The appointment assigned me was Frankfort circuit, and 



320 HIGHWAYS and hedges. 

my rnllonj^uc W. W. Cliorinj^lon. Bcinj:; well acquainted 
with botli, 1 felt p;raterul to the Hisho]) for dealin*; so 
kindly with me. The circuit was a fragment of the territory 
cmhrarcd in Deer Creek circuit a8 it was in 182G-27. I 
liardly anticipated findinj^ many who were Jictive members 
iu that early day, but I expected to find their ehiblren and 
grandchildren. In thi.s I was not disappointed. The cir- 
cuit received us with great cordiality, and we settled down 
in Frankfort, near the dust of our little Asbury, who had 
been buried here some thirty-four years ago. The plan of 
appointments embraced 1. Frankfort; 2. P^stell Chapel; 3. 
Cline's School-house; 4. Morris Chapel; 5. Teeter's Chapel; 
6. Lattaville; 7. Roxabell School-house; 8. Mount Pleasant; 
9. Pleasant Hill. It was a year of considerable mortality, 
and it fell to my lot to preach a larger number of funeral 
sermons than I had ever preached before iu a single year. 
Among them were some of the early settlers, who had been 
in my congregations when I first preached there. Of those 
whom we buried, perhaps no one was more universally 
respected than Rev. Dennis Blacker, a local preacher. In 
earlier years he had at times been under the dominion of 
strong drink, and on more than one occasion it had been 
necessary to dismiss him from the Church on that account. 
But he would still return with so much penitence and hu- 
mility to ask another trial, that the Church always received 
him back with open arms. At length he gained complete 
victory over this besetment, was licensed as a local preacher, 
commanded the confidence of all classes of people, and 
labored very acceptably, diligently, and usefully as a local 
preacher for many years before his death. 

My colleague was a good man and true. We held pro- 
tracted meetings at all of the appointments, and had en- 
couraging results. 

We were now in the midst of the excitement of war times 



FRANKFORT CIRCUIT, OHIO. 321 

The great rebellion had commenced, and the loyal people 
of the land were rallying to the standards of the country. 
A.S our Church, with few exceptions, was intensely loyal, 
the volunteering made sad breaches in our classes. We 
furnished from our Church not only material for chaplains 
and officers, but companies of privates, many of whom were 
members that we would have been loth to spare for any 
other cause. Those of us who remained at home addressed 
ourselves to the work of raising supplies, and sending com- 
forts to our brethren and loyal fellow-citizens who had gone 
to the field. So constantly did our prayers and discourses 
indicate the deep anxiety we felt for the overthrow of the 
rebellion, that the few who were in sympathy with the 
South turned with loathing from Methodist Churches and 
pulpits. 

Bating whatever was unpleasant in these regards, we had 
a comfortable year, and take great pleasure in placing upon 
the record a few names of the excellent of that circuit as 
a sample of the membership. They were such as the 
M'Neils, and Hainses, and Smitherses, and Blackers, and 
Pancakes, and Blacks, and Hopkinses, and Snyders, and 
k Lattas, and Lucases. 



822 HIGHWAYS AND HEDGES. 



CHAPTER XXXII. 

DEER CREEK CIRCUIT, AND CHILLICOTHE DISTRICT, 

OHIO. 

1862-61. 

THE Ohio Conference held its fifty-first session at Zanes- 
ville, Ohio, commencino; September 3, 18G2, Bishop 
Morris presiding. The following persons were admitted on 
trial: William F. King, Thomas R. Taylor, E. C. Wayraan, 
and James L. Grover was re-admitted. Brother Grover, 
after trying the pasture in that ecclesiastical organization 
which claims to be the Churchy came back to the old pas- 
ture, and we gave him a cordial welcome. 

During the year three of our brethren had died; namely, 
John W. Clarke, Uriah Heath, and John P. Calvert. 

Brother Clarke was born September 21, 1803, in Mary- 
land, and emigrated to Ohio, and settled near Cincinnati, in 
an early day. In 1825 he entered the Ohio Conference, 
and died August 2G, 1862, at Mt. Pleasant, Ohio. During 
his ministry he was twelve years in the oflSce of presiding 
elder, and in every relation that he sustained he exhibited 
such qualities of mind and heart as caused him to be valued 
and honored as a minister of Jesus Christ. Near his last 
moments, he said to his colleague, " Tell the brethren of 
the Ohio Conference that we shall meet in heaven." 

Brother Heath was born near Xenia, Ohio, Apiil 11, 
1809, converted in his youth, and in 1835 was admitted to 
the Ohio Conference, of which he remained a laborious 



DEER CREEK CIRCUIT, OHIO. 323 

member until liis death. He served tlie Church iu various 
departments, and whether on a circuit, station, or district; 
whether gathering funds for school, churches, or tract 
distribution, his time and strength were given, and his labor 
was crowned with success. He died at his post in Zanes- 
ville, Ohio, March 28, 1852, and devout men carried him to 
his burial, and made great lamentation over him. 

Brother Calvert was born in Belmont county, Ohio, Oc- 
tober 23, 1833. He joined the Conference on trial at Ma- 
rietta, iu 1858. When the rebellion broke out six of his 
brothers enlisted to defend the old flag. In 1861 he felt 
that he could stay back no longer, and enlisted in com- 
pany K of the Seventy-seventh Ohio. He fell in the mem- 
orable battle of Shiloh. He was a faithful Christian worker 
in the army, as at home, and died a Christian patriot. 

We moved back to Deer Creek circuit, on which we had 
already spent two constitutional terms with much satisfac- 
tion. Our friends rallied about us, and congratulated us ou 
the greatly improved health of my wife. We were soon 
settled in the parsonage, and at our work. Colleague, Rev. 
T. J. N. Simmons; Z. Connell, presiding elder. In a former 
chapter promise was made to furnish some statistics of the 
history of this circuit, which promise it will be proper now 
to fulfill. 

Deer Creek circuit was formed from a portion of the 
Scioto circuit in 1808, so that it is several years older than 
the Ohio Conference. Perhaps, however, it will be gratify- 
ing to my readers to have the genealogy of the circuit 
traced back to its origin : 

Scioto Circuit — 

1800. Alex. M'Caine, P. E., Henry Smith, P. C. 

Scioto and Miami Circuit — 

1801. Win.M'Kendree,P.E.,Henry Smith. 

1802. " " " Benj. Young, E. Bowman. 



324 HIGHWAYS AND HEDGES. 

SoiOTO Circuit — 

1803. Wm. MKendree, P. E., Jolin Sale, Stephen Tiinmona. 

1804. Will. Bmko, P. E., Wni. Patterson, Nathan Parnea. 
180.'). " " " Luther Taylor, C. W. Cloud. 
180ti. John Sale, P. E., .lamcH Quinn, Peter f!artwright. 

1807. " " " Anthony Houston, Milton Ladd. 

Dekr Crkek Circuit — 

1808. John Sale, P. E., Benjamin Lakin, John Crain. 
1800. " " •' John ('(.llinH, Wood Lloyd. 

1810. " " " John Collins, Francis Travis. 

1811. Sol. Langdon, P E., Ralph Lotspeich, J. Haines. 

1812. " " » R. Cloud, C. Waddle. 

1813. James Quinn, P. E., Samuel Parker, Alexander Cummins. 

1814. " " " Alexander Cummins, H. B. Bascom. 

1815. " " " Isaac Quinn, Sedosa Baker. 

1816. " " " AValter Griffith, Isaac Pavey. 

1817. David Young, P. E., Charles Waddle, Samuel Glaze. 

1818. John Collins, P. E., Shadrach Ruark, R. W. Finley. 

1819. " " " William Swayze, R. W. Finley. 

1820. " » " John Brown. 

This year Chillicothe was taken from the circuit, and erected into 
a station. Brother Swayze reported a meml^ersliip of one thou- 
snnd five hundred and eighty-eight, and brother Brown reported 
one thousand three liundred and seveir, and brother J. Quinn, the 
first pastor of Chillicotlie station, reported a membersliip of 
three hundred. 

1821. Samuel West, P. E., William Stephens, A. Kinnear. 

1822. G. R. Jones, P. E., Andrew M'Clain, I. C. Hunter. 

1823. " " " Isaac Quinn, William Simmons. 

1824. " " " Zachariah Connell, J. T. Wells. 

1825. " " " James Collord, Nathan Walker. 

1826. Rus'l Bigelow, P. E., Jacob Delay, G. W. Young. 

1827. " " " John Stewart, John Ferree. 

1828. John Collins, P. E., John Stewart, A. Sellers. 

Brother Delay reported to me nine hundred and ninety, and I re- 
ported to my successor one thousand and five. For tlie plan of 
appointments, indicating the geographical area of the circuit, tue 
reader can refer to the appropriate chapter in this narrative. 

1829. John Collins, P. E., Francis Wilson, J. T. Donahoe. 

1830. " " " Francis Wilson, John Ferree. 

1831. " " " Adam Poe, Solomon Minear. 

1832. Aug. Eddy, P. E., J. H. Power, J. Gurley. 

1833. " " " David Lewis, Joseph A. Reeder. 



1840. 


U (( (( 


1841. 


U il (( 


1842. 


u a u 


1843. 


J. M. Trimble, P. E., 


1844. 


u u u 


1845. 


J. F. Wright, P. E., 


1846. 


(( U (( 


1847. 


D. Kemper, P. E., 


1848. 


U U ii 



DEER CREEK CIRCUIT, OHIO. 325 

Deer Creek Circuit — 

1834. John Ferree, P. E., David Lewis, C. C. Lybrand. 

1835. J. B. Finley, P. E., C. C. Lybrand, Edward Estell. 

1836. " " '• James Armstrong, Henry Wharton. 

1837. James Quinn, P. E., Wm. S. Morrow, F. H. Jennings. 

1838. " " " Wm. S. Morrow, Wesley Rowe. 

1839. Michl Marlay, P. E., Rob. Cheney, W. Rowe, J. F. Conrey. 

E. H. Field, W. M. D. Ryan. 
E. H. Field, B. A. Cassat. 
David Reed, Philip Nation. 
Z. Wharton, J. D. Webb. 
Z. Wharton, Alexander Meharry. 
Henry Wharton, B. L. Jefferson. 
H. Wharton, J. W. Locke. 
J. G. Dimmitt, C. C. Lybrand. 
J. G. Dimmitt, Wm. Sutton. 

1849. J. M. Jameson, P. E., A. Nelson, J. Laws. 

1850. " " " John Stewart, D H. Sargent. 

1851. " " " John Stewart, Samuel Middleton. 

1852. J. W. Clarke, P. E , D. Smith, H. F. Green, W. A. Prettyman. 

1853. " " " D. Smith, J. Williams, Lem. F. Drake. 
1854 " " " Samuel Bateman, J. Kemper. 

1855. " " " Samuel Middleton, Samuel Bateman. 

1856. J. M. Trimble, P. E., N. Westerman. 

1857. " " " N. Westerman, William Morris. 

1858. " " " Edward Estell, Wm. Morris. 

1859. " " " Edward Estell, E. H. Dixon. 

1860. D. D. Mather, P. E., R. Pitzer, A. Cartlich. 

1861. Z. Connell, P. E., R. Pitzer, F. A. Timmons. 

1862. " " " John Stewart, T. J, N. Simmons. 

1863. " " " " " " " 

Early in this year brother Connell died, and I was ap- 
pointed to supply the district. An examination of this 
lonjr list will show that Deer Creek circuit has had the 
services of many of the most distinguished ministers of the 
denomination. 

The Ohio Conference held its fifty-second session at Lan- 
caster, Ohio, commencing September 3, 1863. Bishop Ba- 
ker having failed to reach the place, Rev. Zachariah Con- 
nell, by appointment, opened' the session and presided with 



t-0 HIGilWAVS AND HEDGES. 

(Hu'iiily .'Uid officioiu'y during \hv first d.'iy of tlic session. 
]Ji>lioj) Baker arrivc<l the next day and took tlie chair. 

Wliat was rcniarkablc at tlii.s session was, tliat we neither 
a<linittiMl a probationer nor recorded a death. The fact tliat 
no probationers were admitted had its explanation in tlie 
rctnrn of the minister'^ who liad b«MMi in tlio arn)y. 

T was appointed to Deer Creek circuit, wifli llcv. Z. Con- 
ncll for jircsiding elder, and Rev. T. J. N. Simmons for 
colleague. Early in the Winter, however, our beloved pre- 
siding elder was called from labor to rest, and the Bishop 
appointed me to take his place on the district. I had sup- 
posed that my age would excuse me from any further serv- 
ice on district work, but as it seemed to be the desire of 
my brethren that I should fill the gap until Conference, I 
gave brother Simmons charge of the circuit, employed Rev. 
Z. Wharton to assist him, and entered at once on the duties 
of my new relation. The following is a brief outline of the 
field and the workmen: 

ChilUcothe — J. II. Creighton and I. F. King. Brother 
Creighton, of whom I have spoken in previous pages, had 
charge of the Walnut-Street Church, and brother King of 
the 3Iain-Street Church. They were prosecuting their work 
with diligence and perseverance. 

Washington — E. H. Dixon. He was a minister possessed 
of a clear perception of truth, and of a ready and forcible 
utterance. Self-possessed and logical, he was appreciated 
by the people and did good service. 

Bloomingsburg — A. Cartlich, Joseph Morris. Brother 
Morris went as chaplain to the army, and C. Phillips, a 
young man of promise, supplied on the circuit. 

Staunton — T. G. Ross, J. Q. Lakin. Brother Ross was 
an able preacher. His sermons were well prepared and well 
delivered, and furnished timely and nourishing food for his 
congregations. Brother Lakin was a strong and well-devel- 



CHILLICOTHE DISTRICT, OHIO. 327 

oped man physically, and though forty-five years of age, 
was putting forth commendable effort to develop his intel- 
lectual powers. He had good native ability, and was doing 
good service. 

New Holland — N. Westerman, J. B. Bradrick. Brother 
Westerman was a man of extensive reading, possessed a 
large fund of knowledge, both general and critical. A 
stranger would wonder why he did not occupy a more prom- 
inent position. The junior preacher possessed the elements 
that gave promise he would take rank among his brethren. 
He had a pleasant manner, his sermons contained good 
matter, and in his work he had that somethino- which the 
Western people call " snap," an element indispensable to 
the successful circuit or station preacher. 

Deer Creeh circuit — T. J. N. Simmons, Z. Wharton. 
Brother Simmons succeeded me in charge of the circuit, 
and administered the Gospel and Discipline according to 
his usual ability. Brother Wharton was an experienced 
and able minister, popular in his address, and capable of 
filling any pulpit, 

Franlxfori circuit — Edward Estell, C. H. Warren. These 
men were pure coin, and the circuit was fortunate that se- 
cured the service of either of them. Brother Estell finished 
his work this year, and died at his post with the harness 
on. His memoir will appear in the next chapter. 

Bainhridge — AVilliam H. M'Clintock, F. A. Timmons. 
Brother M'Clintock was an energetic and successful man. 
He seldom failed to have a revival. Of my friend of many 
years, brother Timmons, I have already spoken in previous 
chapters. 

MassieviUe — William Morris. In 1849, while in charge 
of the Portsmouth district, I had the pleasure of signing 
the license of brother Morris, and of carrying his recom- 
mendation up to the Ohio Conference. He had proved to 



328 HIGHWAYS AND IIKDGKS. 

be a good nmn for tlio work. Imt tliis year he Mi it his 
duty to go to the field of battle to defend liis loved country. 
I employed brother Moore to supply his place, and ho did 
well. 

Wavcrli/ and Shnronvillr — I). Tracy, a good preacher 
and able-bodied man ; he gave good satisfaction. 

Kitifjshm — Richard IMtzcr, W. W. Chcrington. Of the 
worth of these good men I have spoken heretofore. 

I had on my list of preachers the name of Rev. Wesley 
Prcttyman, missionary to Bulgaria. He was a man of mer- 
curial temperament, enterprising, efficient, and eloquent; of 
the best Methodist stock, and devoted to the Church of his 
fathers. 

The year was one of military excitement and intense 
anxiety, but of a good share of devotion to the cause of 
God, and was not without a measure of prosperity. 



WEST RUSHVILLE CIRCUIT, OHIO. 329 



CHAPTER XXXIII. 

WEST RUSHVILLE CIRCUIT, OHIO. 
1864-65. 

THE Ohio Conference held its fifty-third session in Chil- 
licothe, commencing October 8, 1864, Bishop Ames 
presiding. "We admitted on trial the following persons : 
William H. Scott, Francis A. Spencer, Francis S. Davis, 
Benjamin F. Thomas, James M. W^eir, Charles A. Phillips, 
John W. Baker. Henry Berkstresser. 

We placed on the list of our sainted dead the names of 
our dear brethren Edward Estell and Zachariah Connell. 

Brother Estell was born May 5, 1801, in Lucerne county, 
Pennsylvania, and died at the parsonage in Frankfort, Ohio, 
April 2, 1864. He embraced religion in early youth, and 
joined the Ohio Conference in 1834. During the thirty 
years of his ministerial life, the Ohio Conference had no 
more conscientious, faithful, and devoted minister than Ed- 
ward Estell. The work of God was the work of his mind, 
and heart, and hands. He was subject to seasons of de- 
spondency, doubtless, in a great measure, the result of dis- 
ea3ed condition; but he gave unmistakable evidence to the 
Church and the world that he was a man of God. Now, 
when he lay upon the borders of the spirit world, all gloom 
was dissipated, and he sent this message to his brethren of 
the Ohio Conference: "I feel that the hull is sinking, but 
the carsfo is insured." 

Brother Conncll was born in Conuellsvillc, Pcnu., Scptcm- 

28 



330 HIGHWAYS AND HEDGES. 

bcr 11, ITlU, and died Dcccmltcr i:i, 18fi3, in the foriy- 
nixth year of his ministry. Early in lii.-^ ministry his pul- 
pit and administrative abilities secured fur him a permaucnt 
position in the Ohio Conference. Tic was many years in 
chari^c of the most important districts and charges in the 
Conference, and was frequently elected to represent the 
Conference in the General Conference, lie was truly a 
Christian gentleman, and though at the time he was at- 
tacked by his death-sickness, he was almost three-score and 
ten years old, yet he possessed a mental and physical vigor 
that gave promise of continued valuable services for the 
Church of his choice. He died in the midst of friends and 
usefulness, and ascended to heaven. 

During this session of the Conference we enjoyed a rare 
treat in a reunion with the members of the Cincinnati Con- 
ference. That Conference was holding its session at Green- 
field, only twenty miles distant, and arrangements having 
been perfected through appropriate committees, on Tuesday, 
headed by Bishop Simpson, the Cincinnati Conference came 
to Chillicothe, and was welcomed by the Ohio Conference, 
headed by Bishop Ames and the venerable Bishop Morris. 
It was arranged that Bishop Simpson should deliver his 
address on the state of the country. The circumstances 
were such as to call out fully his great ability : two Con- 
ferences of Methodist preachers, strongly bound to each 
other in affection, and overflowing with patriotism; a vast 
concourse of lay members, running over with the same en- 
thusiasm ; a vast army of citizens, looking on with wonder 
and admiration. It was undoubtedly one of the greatest of 
Bishop Simpson's masterly efforts. 

Brother Moody addressed the vast audience at night, but 
it was as the shining of moonbeams after the setting of the 
sun. He is usually a master, but the excitement of the day 
and the overwhelming effect of the Bishop's discourse had 



WEST RUSHVILLE CIRCUIT, OHIO. 331 

been too intense. Human nature can not endure such ex- 
citement lono; until it be^iins to flas;. On other occasions I 
have heard the stately, and learned, and eloquent Moody 
when he seemed almost peerless, but this was not one of 
those occasions. 

I was appointed to ^Vest Rushville circuit, the smallest 
charge, geographically, that I had ever served. It was a 
two-weeks' circuit, having the following appointments: 1. 
"West Rushville; 2. Asbury Chapel; 3. Bremen Chapel; -1. 
Collins Chapel. This territory was embraced in the Fair- 
field circuit in 1817, when I traveled that circuit; but 
nearly a half century had intervened, and the stream 
of time had borne nearly all of my then hearers beyond 
the sea. 

I now had my first experience of a two-weeks' circuit, 
and found it well adapted to my age and growing desire to 
be as much at home as duty would allow. I transcribed all 
the names of my members into my visiting book, as had 
been my custom for years, and visited all the members 
methodically and Methodistically. It required unusual 
effort to keep the minds and hearts of the people stayed on 
God during the excitement and passions incident to the ter- 
rible war that had now been agitating the republic for so 
many months. 

Though the Methodist Church in both its ministry and 
membership was in harmony with the loyal spirit of the 
administration, yet there was occasionally a discordant 
string in both. "When J. F. Given was allowed to step out 
at the back door of the Church, the ministry was relieved, 
and the most of the members who had possessed the spirit 
of Given and such, had either withdrawn or had come to 
see that they had been misled, and deceived, and injured. 
There were noble men and women who appeared to sympa- 
thize with the rebellion during the early years of the war, 



332 HIGHWAYS AND HEDGES. 

wlio ucn^ loyal ;it limit. .'iimI when the oM prejudice or 
jiart}' (liscii>liiie tliiit Minded them was taken away, tliey 
jstood Kliouldcr to shoulder with tlic best friends of the 
country. Now that the war i.s over, we can well afford to 
throw the mantle of forgetfulness over the extravajj;ant say- 
inir.s and tlie bitter feelinjr.s that were then uttered and en- 
gendered. 

Wc had excellent neiglibors at West lUishville, and cher- 
ish the memory of many dear friends there and at the otlier 
appointments of the circuit. Among them I now recall the 
names of Dr. Evans, and brothers Jackson, and Miller, and 
Drivers, and Anderson, and Webb, and Deans, and Ilam- 
ocks, and Collins, and Gardner, and Melix, and Vanzant, 
and Ilutchens, and Ncely, and Kelsey, and many others of 
the same spirit, whose families showed us multitudinous 
kindnesses. May the richest blessings of God be upon 
them I 



ROYALTON CIRCUIT, OHIO. 333 



CHAPTER XXXIV. 

ROYALTON CIRCUIT, OHIO. 
1863-66. 

THE Conference held its fifty-fourth session in Bigelow 
Chapel, Portsmouth, Ohio, commencing September 21, 
1865, Bishop D. W. Clark presiding. Our veteran and 
model Secretary, Bev. Joseph M. Trimble, haTing, by the 
General Conference of 1864, been appointed Assistant Sec- 
retary of the Missionary Society, we consented, at his re- 
quest, to excuse him from the responsibilities he had so long 
and faithfully met at our table, and we elected as our Secre- 
tary Bev. S. M. Merrill. The following persons were re- 
ceived on trial : Charles B. Lewis, S. N. Marsh, D. H. Moore, 
A. H. Windsor, Thomas H. Braderick, John E. Moore, 
James H. Gardner, George L. Sites. Three more names 
were placed on the roll of those who had been discharged 
from the Church militant and gone to join the army of the 
skies. They were John C. Havens, Henry Wharton, and 
Leonidas L. Hamline. 

Bishop Hamline was born in Burlington, Conn., May 10, 
1797. In 1828, through sanctified affliction, he was led to 
Christ and joined the Methodist Episcopal Church in Zancs- 
ville, Ohio. In 1832 he was received on trial in the Ohio 
Conference. His extraordinary ability placed him soon in 
the very first rank of his brethren, and in 1844 he was 
elected to the Episcopacy. His humility grew as rapidly 
as he was promoted, and his zeal for the cause of God and 



.3.']4 HIGHWAYS AXn HEDGES. 

tlic Cliurcli of \vlii<li lu' liad been inmlc a cliicf pastnr was 
intcn.sc and almost consiuninjz;. In 1852, his hcaltli liavin^ 
failod, lie rc.sij;ncd liis office as Bishop and was granted a 
superannuated relation in tin; Oliio Conference. lie re- 
moved to Mount Pleasant, Iowa, wliere he spent the rest of 
his days. On the 22d of February, IS^If), lie entered the 
rest that remains for the people of God. Tie was a man 
who would have stood among the first in any department 
he might have selected. Possessed of genius, learning, and 
large pecuniary means, he counted all loss for Christ, and 
preferred to preach the Gospel on a Methodist circuit to 
sitting among the chieftains of the State. He now doubt- 
less realizes fully that his choice was a wise one. 

Brother Havens was born in Newark, New Jersey, in the 
year 1802. He was received on trial in the Ohio Confer- 
ence in 1825. Either as effective, supernumerary, or super- 
annuated he continued to labor for the Church from that 
time to his death. He was not a man of popular talent, 
after the standard of the world, but he was faithful in the 
work intrusted to him, and will doubtless have stars in his 
crown of rejoicing in the day of the Lord Jesus. 

Brother Wharton joined the Conference in 1835. He was 
a man of a meek and gentle spirit. The people were in- 
stinctively drawn to him, and his constant and greatest en- 
deavor was to lead them to Christ. His mild and amiable 
features, his musical voice, and all his bearing in the pul- 
pit tended to give efiect to his ministry. He aimed to 
reach the hearts of the people, and so spoke from the depths 
of his own heart. He was an eloquent preacher and a 
careful, diligent shepherd. Few of our brethren who have 
departed are more affectionately remembered by their 
charges than is brother Henry Wharton. 

At this Conference the brethren almost embarrassed me 
by their kind attentions. I had always regarded myself as 



ROYALTON CIRCUIT, OHIO. 335 

the least among my brethren, and only regarded myself as 
their equal in the ability to love them and pray for their 
success in the work of saving souls. They passed the fol- 
lowing resolution : 

" Resolved, That, as our venerable brother, Rev. John 
Stewart, will have completed his fiftieth year in the eifective 
ranks, should Providence preserve his life till our next an- 
nual meeting, he is hereby requested to deliver a semi-cen- 
tennial sermon at some suitable hour during the session, to 
be designated by the Conference. B. X. Spahr." 

I was appointed to Royalton circuit, with Rev. J. W. 
White for my colleague. His first year in the Conference 
had been associated with me as my assistant, and now, after 
a lapse of thirty years, I was to spend my last and fiftieth 
year in the efi'ective work as his assistant. As I had been 
accustomed to have charge of work for so many years, the 
change seemed somewhat awkward for a time ; but brother 
White was an able and efficient minister, and honored me as 
an affectionate son in the Gospel. The kindness of himself 
and his excellent family to me and mine has endeared them 
to me beyond the ability of my pen to write. May the 
great Head of the Church deal kindly with them and theirs 
through all of their generations! 

We found a pleasant home in Royalton. The following 
was the list of appointments: 1. Royalton; 2. Union; 3. 
Mount Zion ; 4. Wesley Chapel; 5. Fairview ; 6. Pleasant 
Grove ; 7. Amanda ; 8. Hedges Chapel ; 9. Bloomfield. 

I prepared my visiting list, and went to work with the 
earnest prayer that God would crown my last year in the 
efi'ective work with much success. My colleague was earnest 
and able in the pulpit, and we pushed the battle, but after 
all did not see the outpouring of the Spirit on the Churches 
as we hoped. We comforted ourselves with the assurance 
that we had sowed good seed, and had sowed it with a liberal 



336 HIGHWAYS AND HKDGES. 

linnd. God liad promised tli;it llio Word sliould not return 
void, nnd wo trusted liiiu for tlic rcsuit,s. 

Wc had one loeal jtreachcr on tliis cliargc, Kcv. Lewis 
Peters, a man of sterling wortli, and a host of laymen (d' 
intelligence, and generosity, and piety. I can only mention 
a few as a sample of tlic many. They were such as brothers 
AVilliamson, Strodes, Bolemliaugh, Peters, Kbright, Allan, 
Kaber, Hedges, and a long list of kindred spirits at .ill of 
the appointments. 

As I had been requested by tlic Conference to deliver a 
semi-centennial discourse at its next session, my mind was 
much employed in reviewing my ministerial life. It was 
difficult for me to realize that a half a century had passed 
since I threw my saddle-bags over my arm and went forth 
from my father's house to join the band of itinerants; but, 
as I traveled over the circuits in memory, year by year, they 
truly had been years of real travel, and real toil, and real 
sacrifice; but^ thank God! years, too, of real enjoyment, and 
some of them years of real triumph. 



SUPERANNUATED LIFE. 337 



CHAPTER XXXV. 



SUPERANNUATED LIFE. 

rpHE Ohio Conference held its fifty-fifth session at Colum- 
-^ bus, Ohio, commencing September 26, 1866, Bishop 
Janes presiding, assisted by Bishop Morris. The following 
persons were admitted on trial: John Y. Busk, W. W. 
Martin, Henry Gulp, Samuel Loomis, Joseph L. Durant, 
Levi T. Hannawalt, William F. Hughey. 

The following brethren were not with us to occupy their 
accustomed places in the Conference-room, they having been 
called during the past year to loftier seats among kings and 
priests: Henry T. Magill, William C. Filler, D. H. Chering- 
ton, and C. A. Phillips. 

The emotions of my heart in attending this session of the 
Conference were peculiar. With it would close the first 
century of American Methodism, and with it would close 
my itinerant efi'ective life, which had embraced the last half 
of the closing century. My brethren had appointed me to 
deliver before them a semi-centennial discourse; that duty 
performed, I would ask to be placed upon the superannuated 
list. The same indescribable feelino; of dread which came 
over my spirit fifty years ago, when I stood upon the thresh- 
old of an itinerant life, now stole over my spirit again as I 
was about to retire from the active field. 

The Conference set apart lOJ, A. M., on Monday, October 

first, as the time for the delivery of my discourse. With 

2n 



333 HIGHWAYS AND HKIXiKS. 

troniMiiiLr, at the nppointcd time I entered tlic erowJed 
sanctuary and ascended the pulpit. Casting myself iqxm 
God for help, he sustained me, and tlie great audience gave 
me vcr}' respectful attention as I tried to set forth the might 
of tlie Methodist Episcopal Church as one of the great 
evangelizing agencies ut the past century, and to show the 
source of her power. The Conference received the effort 
very kindly, and placed the following resolution upon their 
journal : 

" Kcsohcd, That having heard with much pleasure, and, 
we trust, with profit, the 'very interesting and instructive 
semi-centennial sermon, delivered this day before the Confer- 
ence by our venerable and beloved brother, John Stewart, we 
do hereby very respectfully request him to have it published 
in such form as he may think best, for our benefit as well 
as for the interest of those who were not present at its 
delivery. B. N. Spahr." 

This action of the Conference, followed up by the personal 
solicitation of many of my brethren of the ministry and 
membership, had mucli to do in deciding me to prepare the 
present vfork for publication. I did not flatter myself that 
my autobiography would have an extensive and permanent 
circulation, but after hearing the desires of personal friends, 
and revolving the question in my own mind, it occurred to 
me that if it could accomplish any good in strengthening 
the bonds of attachment to our Zion and to the Great Head 
of the Church, it would be a source of gratitude and thanks- 
giving to me. 

None but those who have had the experience can imagine 
my feelings when, in the examination of character, the Bishop 
called the name, "John Stewart." The presiding elder re- 
plied, "Nothing against father Stewart. He has completed 
fifty years as an active minister among us, and now asks a 
change of his relation. I move that he be granted a super- 



L 



SUPERANNUATED LIFE. 339 

annuated relation." The motion was carried unanimously, 
and then, in their great kindness, they spread upon their 
journals the following resolution : 

" Resolved, That as the venerable John Stewart, who, at 
our present session, has, at his own request, been placed 
upon the superannuated list, is about to leave our bounds 
to spend the remnant of his days with his sons in the West, 
we consider it to be but a just tribute to his worth to say, 
that for the last fifty years he has sustained an effective rela- 
tion to this Conference, and that during all that time he has 
maintained the highest character, not only for his honesty, 
veracity, and integrity as a man, but for his piety as a Chris- 
tian, and his prompt, faithful, and laborious services as a 
Christian minister. He leaves with our most heart-felt good 
wishes and earnest prayers for his welfare and happiness. 

B. N. Spahr, 
J. W. White." 

I served on several committees during the session of Con- 
ference, and had the satisfaction of contributing five hundred 
dollars as my Centenary offering toward the endowment of 
the " Morris Professorship " iu the Ohio Wesleyan University. 

Having made all my arrangements for the purpose, as 
soon as Conference closed, myself and companion started for 
the North-west. We left Columbus, Ohio, October 3d, at 
3 o'clock, P. M., and arrived at the pleasant residence of 
my son, J. W. Stewart, in Monroe, Wisconsin, at 6 o'clock, 
P. M., the next day. We received a warm welcome, and 
our dear children did all that lay in their power to make 
us feel at home. Though we had been endeavoring for 
some ten or twelve years to prepare ourselves for an en- 
trance upon superannuated life, we could not avoid a feeling 
of loneliness in entering upon a year without a pastoral 
relation and responsibility. 

I had been there only a few days, however, when I 



•340 IIIGIIWAVS AND HKDGES. 

received an .'ifTcctioiiatc letter rr<un Wcv. Alfred IJrun.son, 

D. P.. an (lid friend of niiDo. mikI ;i ]irnuiinenf minister in 
the Nurth-west. He gave me a very cordial welcome to my 
new home. Thouirh forty-five years hid passed since we 
had seen each other, yet his words of welcome were grate- 
ful, and ahated somewhat the feeling of loneliness that had 
crept over me. 

The first Sabbath that I attended church I experienced 
a feeling of awkwardness in my new relation. The pastor, 
llev. J. C. Aspinwall, was already in the pulpit with glasses 
on and book in hand when I entered. I however ad- 
vanced and introduced myself to him as a superannuated 
member of the Ohio Conference. He received me with 
kindness, and at once invited me to preach. I declined the 
invitation, but promised that at any time when sickness or 
necessary absence from the station should prevent his occu- 
pying his pulpit, I would be glad to assist him. Our ac- 
quaintance rapidly ripened into brotherly love, and we had 
many pleasant seasons together in the house of God. 

At the next quarterly-meeting I met my old friend, Eev. 

E. Yocum, the presiding elder of the district. He preached 
at lOJ o'clock, A. M., on Sabbath, and, by his request, I 
preached at night, and realized much enlargement of soul. 
The preachers and people of adjoining charges began to 
urge me to visit and preach for them, and soon I found 
myself itinerating and preaching on quite an extended 
scale. At the camp-meeting the brethren gave me such 
prominence as almost embarrassed me, but the Lord re- 
vealed himself in power, and we had a glorious time. At 
the end of my first year on the superannuated list I found, 
on looking back, that I had preached about one hundred 
sermons, besides holding frequent love-feasts and adminis- 
tering the sacraments of the Church. 

The time of the session of my Conference approached, and 



SUPERANNUATED LIFE. 341 

it was not without a feeling of sadness that I relinquished 
the purpose of attending. I however spent some weeks 
with my son, Rev. W. F. Stewart, at that time presiding 
elder of the Joliet district of the Rock River Conference, 
and assisted him in holding the quarterly-meetings on his 
district. As he had about two quarterly-meetings fur each 
Sabbath, the people received me gladly as his substitute 
when he could not attend. When I finally abandoned the 
purpose of going to Conference, I addressed the following 
letter to my brethren : 

"Joliet, Illinois, September 18, 1867. 
" To the Bisliop and Members of tlie Ohio Conference : 

"Dear Brethren, — For fifty years past I have enjoyed 
annually the greeting of my comrades in arms at the Con- 
ference. I am now upon the retired list, and am admon- 
ished by my great distance from you, and by the infirmities 
of age, that it will be prudent for me to sacrifice this en- 
joyment this year. 

" I find here an abundance of work to do, and I thank 
God for streno;th wherewith I am still able to do something: 
for Christ and the Church I love so well ! To both myself 
and my companion the year has been one of usual bod- 
ily health and personal enjoyment, and I trust our labor 
has not been in vain. Since December last I have preached 
some eighty sermons. 

" At the solicitation of my brethren, I have entered upon 
the work of putting upon paper the reminiscences of fifty 
years in the regular work. I have seen a host of giants 
fall out of the ranks, covered with victory, and I have seen 
a host of valiant young men step into their places and carry 
forward the work. Lewis, and Carper, and Ellis, and 
Brockunier have gone during the past year. There is with 
me a feeling of loneliness, in that they have left me behind, 



342 HIGHWAYS AND IlKUGES. 

but there is also a foclinj^ of gladness in tlic thought that they 
will be there to welcome me when T pass over tlic river. 

"By the blessing of God my companion ami myself are 
enjoying a contented and cheerful old age, and expect, be- 
fore long, to finish our course with joy. 

" Remember us, dear brethren, in your prayers, and may 
the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you always ! 
Amen. John Stewart." 

I have now been nearly four years in superannuated life, 
and what was the history and experience of the year just 
detailed lias been substantially that of the subsequent 
years. I have found a more open field, and have been 
blessed with more strength to labor than I had anticipated. 
After comparing Methodism in the latitude of Lake Michi- 
gan with Methodism in the Valley of the Ohio, I find that, 
while they difibr slightly in form and somewhat in the fer- 
vency of outward manifestation, they are, after all, substan- 
tially the same. I have sometimes thought I saw a cloud 
in the ecclesiastical horizon that boded no good, in a grow- 
ing indifference to the class-meeting and the quarterly- 
meeting. I have earnestly prayed to God to save me from 
being a croaker, and I have prayed, too, that he would help 
me with all fidelity to stand firm to the faith If I should 
venture a suggestion at all to my excellent brethren of the 
ministry and membership in the North-west, it would be to 
work earnestly and conscientiously all of the established 
machinery of Methodism. It is adapted to meet the wants 
of the people, and with faithful administration it will fill 
the land with righteousness and the habitations of the peo- 
ple with joy. 

May the blessing of the Father, and of the Son, and of 
the Holy Ghost abide with all who love our Lord Jesus 
Christ in sincerity, every-wherc, always ! Amen. 



A 



PPENDIX. 



APPENDIX. 



I. 

COMMEMORATION SER:\I0N.=^- 



I will remember the works of the Lord : surely I will remember thy wonder? 
of old. I will meditate also of all thy work, and talk of thy doings. Thy 
way, O God, is in the sanctuary: who is so great a God as our God? Psalm 
LXXVII, 11-13, 

IlKOM this portion of Scripture we learn that man may 
know something of God and of his doings ; that he 
may treasure up that knowledge in his memory ; that he 
may meditate upon it to his own advantage, and talk of it 
to the profit of others. 

He who asks your attention during the present hour 
claims to know something of God and of his doings ; that 
he has treasured up in his memory some of his doings; 
that he has found it profitable to meditate on that knowl- 
edge ; and he is anxious to edify and comfort others while 
talking about his doings; and now may we all feel as the 
Psalmist felt when he said, "Thy way, God, is in the 
sanctuary; who is so great a God as our God?" 

When, in the month of May last, in the city of Chicago, 
on the shore of Lake Michigan, I received a communication 
from your Committee of Arrangements, through Dr. Trim- 

'- Delivered by request of the Ohio Conference, on the occasion ofits fiftieth 
anniversary, at Gircleville, Ohio, September 16, 18G1. 

345 



i 



31<) ArrENDix. 

blc, requesting; nic to prepare a discourse suitable for this 
scmi-centciinial oecasioii, 1 realized, as I had never done 
before, the fact that I have dutlivcd my generation, and am 
now an a^^ed minister. I ran back in memory to the laying 
of the foundations of the Church and commonwealth in this 
goodly land. As the events of more than half a century 
came crowding upon each other, they almost overwlielmcd 
me ; my sensations were peculiar — sadness mingled with joy. 
A feeling of loneliness and sadness would come over me as 
I inquired, Where are those fathers and brethren who wel- 
comed me nearly half a century ago, when I, a youth, 
stood knocking at the door of the Ohio Conference? Your 
committee admonished me that I am now the oldest eifective 
minister upon your Conference roll. But again these feel- 
ings of loneliness gave way to those of joy and hope, when 
I remembered that as God had discharged my fathers and 
co-laborers, he has called others into the field to occupy 
their places. I see gathered around me to-day a band of 
ministers possessing as much learning, and piety, and devo- 
tion to the cause of God and Methodism as were possessed 
by those who have gone before. This record of the past 
gives me hope for the future. I trust that when another 
half century shall have passed, and some one of these young 
brethren who may commence his itinerant life with this 
Conference shall stand up to preach the centenary discourse 
of this Conference, he will still look around him upon a 
body of Methodist preachers as able and true as any of 
their predecessors ; and thus the line will be perpetuated 
through centuries, and till the Church militant shall have 
fully accomplished its mission upon earth. 

The nineteenth century opened amid thrilling excitement 
in the New World. The foundations of a great republic had 
just been laid, and savage tribes were receding before the 
march of this giant young reoublic. The most interesting 



COMMEMORATION SERMON. 34:7 

scenes were transpiring in the Mississippi Valley — a valley 
■which the early pioneers had already predicted must become 
the garden of the republic. There was the excitement of 
pioneer life, of fortune-hunting, and of Indian warfare, over 
the mountains, through the vast forests, and along the rich 
savannas, the eager multitude candying their effects or mer- 
chandise upon pack-horses, pressing their way, or floating 
down the majestic Western rivers on rafts and flat-boats. 

The hardy pioneers who had made their claims were 
erecting or occupying rude log-cabins or block-houses, de- 
signed for strength rather than beauty — to be a defense from 
the storms of heaven and the more pitiless attacks of the 
Indians rather than to court admiration. A pioneer thus 
describes the house in which he was living at that period: 
It was built of round logs from the forest trees, the first 
story made of the largest that the men could put up, the 
second story of smaller ones, and made to jut over two or 
three feet, so that no one could climb up to the top of the 
house. The chimneys were built on the inside of the house. 
The doors were made of puncheon slabs, six inches thick, 
and were barred on the inside by strong iron staples driven 
into the logs on both sides of the door, into which were 
placed strong bars. In the upper part of the house were 
port-holes, out of which an enemy could be shot; and as 
there were do windows allowed, these port-holes answered 
both for light and ventilation.* The house being thus 
strongly constructed, the pioneer, with his fire arms and am- 
munition, was always prepared for war. The Mississippi 
Valley was also full of religious excitement among the 
hardy pioneers. The history of the Church in modern 
times will not record a grander and more wonderful upris- 
ing of the people, at the call of the trumpet of the Gospel, 
than was witnessed at the beginning of the nineteenth cen- 

* Finley's Anfobiogiaj)hy, page 35. 



348 ArrKNDix. 

tiny. Toniplos made by hands were few and far between, 
but tljc people resorted to the primeval forests, the grand 
old woods, and there worsliiped the God of nature and of 
grace in his own temple. 1 am loth to leave this period 
without dwelling upon the liistory and results of the camp- 
meetings of that period. In view, however, of the many 
important events crowding the period that I am expected 
to review, I can only glance hastily at facts and scenes 
which will furnish to the historian matter for the most 
thrilling vohimes. Two brothers in Kentucky by the name 
of M'Gee, representing two denominations, widely different 
in doctrines and usages, began to labor together as evangel- 
ists. Forgetful of all those peculiarities of faith in which 
their denominations could not agree, they dwelt upon the 
great fundamental doctrines of depravity, atonement by 
Christ, and salvation by faith. The Word preached by 
them was attended with such power that multitudes flocked 
to hear them. Coming from a distance, the people would 
-^nd it necessary to camp out for the night, and then, under 
the powerful attractions of the Gospel, they would remain 
for several days. The meetings soon became known by the 
name of camp-meetings. In the Spring of 1801 William 
M'Kendree was appointed presiding elder of the Kentucky 
district; and after satisfying himself that, notwithstanding 
some extravagances incident to the excitement, the jrreat 
work itself was of God, he encouraged the people to attend 
them. Eev. Henry Smith thus describes them: "At the 
first camp-meetings but little preparations were made. A 
piece of ground was selected in some grove and cleared of 
underbrush; a rude stand was erected, and a few seats pro- 
vided near the stand. At some of the meetino-s two or 
three stands were erected, at which there was preaching at 
the same time, while singing and praying would be going 
on in circles at a distance from these stands. At first there 



COMMEMORATION SERMON. 349 

was strong opposition, and not a little disorder, as might bo 
expected. So many, however, of these violent opposers 
were 'knocked down,' as it was commonly called, that dread 
soon fell upon the multitude, and they were greatly re- 
strained. Many fell under the preaching and exhortations; 
some who were not willing to yield when seized with con- 
viction, ran to the woods to shake it ofif, but were pursued 
by the Spirit of God, and compelled to cry for mercy. It 
sometimes so happened that numbers fell about those first 
smitten, and the work extended over acres of ground. On 
such occasions little was heard but the loud cry for mercy, 
or the sinoino; and shoutins; of heaven-born souls, and of 
their friends, rejoicing with and over them.''^ 

Infidels and skeptical persons, not being able to compre- 
hend this phenomenon, were often in great perplexity. Fin- 
ley gives an account of one Dr. P., of Lexington, Kentucky, 
who was thus confounded. He had accompanied a lady to 
the Cane-Ridge camp-meeting. Having heard of the in- 
voluntary falling, and other exercises, they agreed upon the 
■way that, should either of them be thus strangely attacked 
or fall, the other should stand by to the last. It was not 
long till the lady was brought down with all her pride be- 
fore God, a poor sinner in the dust. The Doctor, agitated, 
came up and felt her pulse; but, alas! her pulse was gone. 
At this he turned pale, and staggering a few paces fell be- 
neath the power of the same invisible Hand. After remain- 
ing some time in this state they both revived rejoicing, 
went home happy in God, and lived and died consistent 
Christians. j" The most remarkable of these demonstrations 
of power was upon the part of wicked men and scofi'crs, 
who were stricken down in the very act of disturbing the 
worship of the people of God. The following instance oc- 

* Recollections of Rev. Ilenr)- Smith, i>nge 50. 
I Finiey's Autobiogiapliy, pnge 3f)5. 



3o0 APPENDIX. 

currcd at (ho snnic meeting referred to above, and is given 
ui)(>n tlie same autliority. A leader and champion of a 
party of disturbers and opposers, nmmitod a Inrpo wliite 
])(trso, .'Hid rndo intd tlio midst of tlic })rayiiig circle, utter- 
ing the most horrid imprecations. Suddenly, as if smitten 
by lightning, he fell from his horse. At this a shout went 
up from the multitude as if Lucifer himself had fallen. 
His limbs were rigid, his wrists pulseless, and his breath 
gone. Several of his comrades came to look at him, and 
they too fell like men slain in battle. For thirty hours he 
lay, to all human appearance, dead. During this time the 
people kept up singing and praying. At last he exhibited 
signs of life, but they were fearful spasms, which seemed 
as if he were in a convulsion, attended by frightful groans, 
as if he were passing through the intcnsest agony. It was 
not long, however, till Iws convulsions ceased, and springing 
to his feet, his groans were converted into loud and joyous 
shouts of praise. The dark, fiend-like scowl which had 
passed over his features gave way to a happy smile which 
lighted up his countenance.-!^ Such was the religious ex- 
citement amid which the nineteenth century had its birth, 
which, with the excitement of pioneer emigration, and fre- 
quent collisions with the Indians, made the period emphat- 
ically one of stirring events. 

In 1799 Rev. Henry Smith was appointed to the Miami 
circuit. He crossed the Ohio Uiver at the mouth of the 
Little Miami, on the 11th of September. Finding that 
brother Hunt wag still supplying the circuit, and looking 
over a vast field yet to be occupied, he determined not to 
build upon another man's foundation, but to break up new 
ground. On the 23d of the same month, therefore, he 
started up the Ohio River to form a new circuit. Com- 
mencing on Eagle Creek, he thence directed his course to 

=-'Fiiiley's Autobiography, }>ago.s 304, 3C5. 



COMMEMORATION SERMON. 351 

the mouth of the Scioto, and thence up the river to Chilli- 
cothe. In three weeks the Scioto circuit was formed. In 
the Spring of 1801 he was returned to the circuit, and con- 
tinued here till the Fall of 1801. Speaking of his adapta- 
tion to pioneer life, he says that he accustomed himself to 
eat any thing that was set before him, to sleep anywhere, 
and to accommodate himself to any inconvenience. His 
system, however, was not proof against the bilious and in- 
termittent fevers which then prevailed to a great extent in 
this country, especially in the rich river valleys. Occa- 
sionally, when the body was debilitated by disease, the 
hardships of this circuit life would become formidable, and 
for a moment the courage of the hero would fail. Thus, 
when recoverins: from a severe attack of the fever he was 
feebly making his way from Paint Creek to New Market, a 
tremendous snow-storm mixed with hail overtook him; its 
pitiless peltings were so severe that for a little while he be- 
came despondent, and gave way to tears. Soon, however, 
he met a poor fellow not so well clad as himself, and ex- 
posed to the same storm. Then said the itinerant to him- 
self, " He is not as well clad as I am, and he is out upon 
his own business; I am out upon the Lord's business." So 
he dried up his tears, and went on cheerfully to his work.^ 
The presiding elder who had charge of the Scioto circuit, 
traveled as far as the Holston circuit, in Tennessee, and em- 
braced all of Kentucky and all of the North-Western Ter- 
ritory west of this valley. By reference to the General 
Minutes, it will appear that in 1801 the districts took 
names, and that in 1802 the names of Conferences appear 
for the first time. The Scioto circuit, which embraced this 
valley and all west of this circuit, was connected with the 
"Western Conference. The Little Kanawha and Muskingum 
circuits, which embraced the territory of the present Ohio 

* Recollections of Rev. Henry Smith, pnge 65. 



I 



852 APPENnix. 

Conference cast of this valley, belonged to the Baltimore 
Confercnrc. 

llnving so briefly glanced at the foot-prints of the pio- 
neers who laid the foundation of the Church on the soil 
which we now cultivate, I come next to tlie organization of 
the Ohio Covfcrencr^ whose semi-centennial anniversary we 
commemorate to-day. It was organized at the first dele- 
gated General Conference, in the city of New York, in the 
month of May, 1812. Its boundaries embraced all the 
State o^ Ohio, and parts of the States of New York, Penn- 
sylvania, Virginia, Kentucky, and all the North-Western 
Territory not included in the Tennessee Conference. The 
year of its organization was also memorable in the his- 
tory of the country, on account of the breaking out of the 
war with Great Britain. It was feared that the drain of the 
membership in supplying the army would materially injure 
the work, but the ministers kept at their work, so that amid 
the excitement of martial music, military demonstrations, 
and the conflict of arms, the cause of God still went forward. 
In reviewing the history of our Conference during the half 
century of its existence, I shall, for convenience, divide it 
into five periods. We shall be gratified to see that each 
decade has made large accessions to our membership. It 
will also appear to the credit of our Conference that eaqh 
period of its history has witnessed the calling into existence, 
through its instrumentality, some new agency, or some grand 
movement for the conversion of the world. 

The Conference was organized, as above stated, in 1812, 
and held its first session in Chillicothe ; and from the Min- 
utes of that Conference we learn there were sixty-one 
traveling preachers and twenty-three thousand two hundred 
and thirty-four members. These sixty-one traveling preach- 
ers were generally regulars, well drilled in the exercise, 
ready and willing to do the work assigned them. They 



COMMEMORATION SERMON. 353 

fully and cheerfully submitted to the appointing po^ye^ 
which was lodged with Bishops Asbury and M'Kendree, 
the general superintendents of the whole bod}' of American 
Methodists. These holy men of God were anxiously looked 
for annually, to preside in the Conferences. Seldom, if 
ever, did they fail to meet expectations. By them the busi- 
ness appertaining to an Annual Conference was presented 
and disposed of in due form ; the reports of the doings and 
success of each preacher were heard by them in Conference, 
and their eyes were open to see for themselves, and their 
ears open to hear from others, both what should be done 
for the preachers and the charges. They were accessible 
both to preachers and people. It was understood by all 
concerned, that to go forward as a Church successfully and 
harmoniously, there must be upon the part of the preachers 
a full relinquishment of the right to choose their own 
charoes, and upon the part of the membership a full relin- 
quishment of the right to select their own preacher. With- 
out such surrender to the appointing power, disorder and 
dissatisfaction would be inevitable. Out of sixty-one preach- 
ers twenty might be specially sought after by the charges, 
and out of forty-five charges ten might be specially sought 
after by the preachers. The twenty preachers could not 
supply all the charges, nor the ten charges accommodate 
all the preachers ; but on the plan to which all should sub- 
mit the sixty-one preachers have work assigned them, and 
no charge is left without a preacher; every preacher is em- 
ployed and every charge supplied. It may so happen every 
year that some preachers and some charges are not so well 
accommodated as they could desire. They may feel that 
their lot is a hard one ; it may be so, and yet it may be for 
the best; some one must have this charge, why not I? 
All the preachers want work, and they all have it; all the 
charges want a preacher, and all have them. Thus the 

30 



354 ArrKNDix. 

work [;ocs on from year to ycnr. Fifty years have passed 
since the Oliio (^lllfercn^e commenced acting mh tlmt prin- 
ciple, and the cases of demur, either on tlic j»arf of the 
]>rcaclier or on the part of tl)C cliargc, have been ft'W and 
far between ; and in no case, as far as I have been capable 
of judging, has the rebel preacher or the rebel charge 
made that rebellion profitable, either to the Church or the 
rebel. It is to be hoped that the good reasons for intro- 
ducing such a policy will always be appreciated. It is not 
becoming in any preacher to insist on having a particular 
charge, or in any charge to insist on any particular preacher. 
There may be and often are good reasons known to the 
Bishop why such an appointment should not be made, and 
at the same time be improper for him to divulge those rea- 
sons. A conformity to the Golden Rule will always have 
a salutary eflfect ; that rule is valuable above all price, and 
all may profit by it. I assume the fact that the appoint- 
ments, under God, come from one who loves the Church, 
and intends, with the means in his hands, to advance, as 
best he can, the general good. 

The Conference had five districts and forty-five circuits, 
each of which included territory from four to eight times 
as large as that of districts and circuits of this day. Sta- 
tions had not then commenced among us. Our first set of 
presiding elders were all men of mark ; namely, David 
Young, Jacob Young, James Quinn, John Sale, and Solo- 
mon Langdon. David Young was then in the seventh year 
of his ministry, a man of undoubted piety and great zeal. 
His oratorical and reasoning powers were not surpassed by 
any. Jacob Young, then in the ninth year of his ministry, 
was a man of deep, uniform piety, sound judgment, and a 
great advocate and defender of Methodism. James Quinn, 
of precious memory, was in the thirteenth year of his min- 
istry, an able divine, efiicient in the work ; his name is 



COMMEMORATION SERMON. 355 

embalmed in the hearts of all who knew him. John Sale 
was in the sixteenth year of his ministry, and had given 
strong evidence of his ability, and of his devotion to the itin- 
erant work. Solomon Langdon, in the twelfth year of his 
ministry, was an excellent preacher — commanded great re- 
spect wherever he labored. Long since the powerful voices 
of most of the s:iants in our Israel have been hushed in death. 
The two Youngs lingered with us the longest, but they, too, 
hav^e now gone to join their co-laborers on the other shore. 
At that day, though there was great honor attached to the 
office of presiding elder, those men, though they gained 
character by it, did not suffer the office to depreciate in their 
hands. We are thankful that the office remains, and that 
worthy men in the main, from first to last, have filled it. 
The succession has been, and we humbly trust will be kept 
up, and that those only who are well qualified will be ap- 
pointed to it. There were others, many others of the sixty- 
one who received appointments at the first Conference, as 
worthy of honorable mention as those already named. Such 
were Samuel Parker, Alexander Cummins, James B. Fin- 
ley, John Brown, William Lamden, John Strange, Moses 
Crunie, Benjamin Lakin, Isaac Quinn, Marcus Lindsey, 
John Collins, Charles Holliday, AVilliam Burke, and others. 

The circuits during that decade continued large, the 
preachers having appointments for almost every day of the 
month, and in some instances more appointments than there 
are days in the month. With the preachers it was literally 
a protracted meeting from Conference to Conference. 

To give a definite idea of this, look at the boundaries 
of Letart Falls circuit, the first I traveled, in the year 
1817, and much smaller than some I traveled afterward : 
Starting from Letart Falls, I went up the Ohio River five 
miles, and crossed into Virginia, and preached at the mouth 
of Mill Creek ; from there to Statt's, eight miles up Mill 



35ti APPENDIX. 

Creek ; fioni tlicic took the back track, passed over Into 
Ohio, aii'l down to Lctart, there [(reached iSabbatli and 
8ab)»:ith niulit ; from there 1 crossed tlie Ohio Uivcr into 
A'^ir«j;inia, and took my course down across the flats and 
over tl»c mountains, crossing tlie ]V\<j^ Kanawlia, filling 
aj)])oiiitments on the way, till 1 got opposite the mouth 
of Big Eaccoon; then crossed tlic river into tlie State of 
Ohio, preached at Lanford's, at the mouth of Raccoon ; 
from there up the creek to where Patriot now stands; from 
there on to Syms Creek, and down it to its mouth, filling 
three appointments on the way ; from there down the Ohio 
lliver four miles below, where Burlington now stands; from 
there I passed on in a north-west course through the forest, 
to Oak Ilill, near where Jackson now is; from thence east- 
ward, to Buck's, where Centerville now is; from thence to 
Kirkpatrick's, near Ilidgeway; from thence to A. Donley's; 
from thence to William Cherington's, both not far from Gal- 
lipolis; from thence to Long's, near where Porter now is; 
from thence to Edmonson's, near where Ewington now is; 
from thence to Abraham Hawk's, near where Wilksville 
now is; from thence to Edward Williams's; from thence 
to Daniel Bathburn's, on Deeding Creek, .seven miles from 
its mouth ; from thence to Viniug's, up the creek ; from 
thence across the hills to Cowderey's, on Shade River, a 
small distance above where Chester now stands ; from 
thence eastward to Graham station, on the Ohio River; 
then up the Ohio to Letart Falls, the place of beginning, 
two hundred and fifty miles travel ; poor roads at best, 
much of the route no roads at all, many streams not 
bridged, oft high water ; still the journey was performed 
every four weeks, and twenty-five stated appointments filled, 
and frequently appointments at night that enter not into 
this account. The Methodist Episcopal Church has thir- 
teen charges w^ithin what was then Letart Falls circuit. 



COMMEMORATION SERMON. 357 

During this decade, at the General Conference of 1820, a 
branch of the Book Concern was established within the 
bounds of the Ohio Conference, at Cincinnati, and jMartio 
Ruter was appointed to its agency. The wisdom of this 
movement has been demonstrated by the wonderful prosper- 
ity and power of this agency among us for good. From a 
diminutive depository, with a single agent, it has grown to a 
mammoth publishing house, rivaled by none in the Missis- 
sippi Valley. It issues one monthly periodical, with a cir- 
culation of 39,500, and four weeklies, in two languages, 
with an aggregate circulation of 78,000 ; periodical sales 
amounting to $195,297.47, and book sales to §133,482.34, 
and upward of 4,000,000 pages of tracts. It employs a 
capital of $359,860.21, embracing its real estate, and a 
working force of ninety men and thirty women. 

At the same General Conference the Kentucky Conference 
was formed, and took from the Ohio Conference its terri- 
tory lying in that State, and fifty- five preachers and 13,526 
members. 

The great event of that decade, however, and that which 
will immortalize both the period and the Conference, was 
the rise of the Foreign Missionary Society, as connected 
with the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

The Ohio Conference had the honor of leadinf'- our Zion 
in this department of labor. In 1819, in the city of New 
York, at a meeting of preachers, a committee was appointed 
to prepare a Constitution, in view of the organization of a 
Missionary Society. The following preachers were present: 
Freeborn Garrettson, Joshua Soule, Samuel Merwin, Seth 
Crowell, Nathan Bangs, Laban Clark, Thomas Mason, Sam- 
uel Howe, and Thomas Thorp. A resolution in favor of 
forming a Bible and Missionary Society was passed, and the 
5th of April and Forsyth-Street Church selected as the time 
and place when the Constitution should be submitted to a 



358 ArpKNDix, 

puMlo nicotinic for discussion. Tlio liistorian pivcs us no 
intinirition of tlic numbers present at that meeting, or the 
zeal witli wliioh they entered into the work. A Constitution 
was adopted, the names of subscribers taken, and the f'ol- 
htwinji officers elected : President, William M'Kendree; Cor- 
responding; Secretary, Thomas Mason; Treasurer, Joshua 
Soulc. At the first meeting of the l>oard of IManagers, an 
address and circular, prepared by a committee appointed for 
that purpose, were adopted and ordered to be printed in the 
Methodist Magazine, and in pamphlet form. As the Con- 
stitution of the Society contemplated action upon the part 
of the oncoming General Conference, the subject came before 
that body at the session of 1820. An able report, prepared 
by the late Bishop Emory, was presented and adopted. That 
report opens with this language: "Your committee regard 
the Christian ministry as peculiarly a missionary ministry. 
'Go ye into all the world and preach the Gospel to every 
creature,' is the very foundation of its authority, and de- 
velops its character simultaneously with its origin. After 
referring to the missionary spirit as the life of the Church, 
and to the zeal and success of the Wesleyan Church in 
Great Britain in this department, it goes on to spread out 
the special field which this society should attempt at once 
to enter and cultivate. In that connection we find this lan- 
guage: "In a particular manner the committee solicit the 
attention of the Conference to the condition of the aborijr- 
inals of our country, the Indian tribes. American Christians 
are certainly under peculiar obligations to impart to them 
the blessings of civilization and Christian light. That there 
is no just cause to despair of success through grace in this 
charitable and pious undertaking, is demonstrated by the 
fact that there are already gathered into Church-fellowship 
about sixty members of the Wyandot tribe in the State of 
Ohio, and that a successful mission, under our direction, is 



COMMEMORATION SERMON. 359 

now in operation among them. Why might not similar suc- 
cess attend other missions anions other tribes?"* 

From this historical record tliese two things appear: 1. 
A foreign mission had been successfully planted before the 
organization of the Missionary Society; and, 2. That mis- 
sion was in the bounds of and under the care of the Ohio 
Conference. As this department of Christian effort has 
since grown to such colossal proportions, and produced such 
grand results, it is with honest pride that we trace the origin 
of Methodist Episcopal missions to our own Conference. 
Let us then pause for a little while to contemplate the cir- 
cumstances under which our first mission among a pagan 
people was planted. 

In the year 1816 a free colored man by the name of John 
Steward, residing in Marietta, Ohio, felt strangely impressed 
by the Spirit of G-od to travel toward the North-west, that 
he might preach the Gospel to the lost sheep of the house 
of Israel. He saw in his vision an aged Indian man and 
woman, with imploring countenance, looking to him for the 
Word of life. He communicated his impressions to his 
religious friends, but the scheme to them looked so unprom- 
ising that they gave him no encouragement. He could, 
however, find no rest to his mind except when he was yield- 
ing to those impressions. Finally, God having given him 
some special sign which he had asked, he determined to 
obey the call. By this time his- class-leader had come to 
sympathize with him in his strange impressions, and they 
spent a great part of the night preceding his departure 
together in prayer, that God's blessing might attend him. 
And what a scene wis that! I have read of great gather- 
ings in splendid temples on taking leave of missionaries, 
but I confess that the gathered multitude, the splendid 
temple, the eloquence and feeling of those occasions have 

-BangsV History of the Methodist Episcopal Cluuch, Vol. Ill, pages 143-145. 



360 APPENDIX. 

never, (o my mind, reached the Hu}»liiuily of that occasion, 
when tliis Imnible cohjred cxiiortcr and liin ch-jH.s-lcader 
were wrestling with God together, that In- wonld direct llic 
willing feet of liis servant to the place where he might shed 
liglit upon the minds of those sitting in the region and 
shadow of death. The handful of corn was about to be 
jilanted upon the top of the mountain, which, in the provi- 
dence of God, in after years should shake like Lebanon. 
Steward, with his little bundle in his hand, started on foot 
and alone in a north-westerly direction, sometimes pursuing 
his way through the trackless forest, veering to the right 
or left, according to the impressions made by his inward 
monitor. After some days he came to a settlement of In- 
dians at Pipctown ; he now supposed that he had reached 
his destination. He spent the night with them, and opened 
to them the Gospel. In the morning, however, he felt im- 
pelled to continue his journey. After some days he reached 
the Wyandot nation of Indians, in Upper Sandusky. He 
called upon Mr. Walker, a sub-agent of the Government 
among these Indians. He had no Episcopal credentials to 
present, nor educational endowments or personal presence 
to recommend him. He related to Mr. and Mrs. Walker 
his Christian experience, and how God had sent him to 
preach the Gospel to the Indians. They listened to his 
story, and being convinced of the purity of his motives, 
threw no obstructions in his way. His first sermon was 
preached to an old Indian woman. The next day tw^o aged 
Indians, a man and a woman, came to hear him. He took 
courage, for though his congregation was small at his first 
sermon, it had increased a hundred-fold in a day. But 
what gave him the greatest encouragement was, that he 
recognized the two persons who constituted his second con- 
gregation as the same persons he had seen in his visioa 
while passing through the singular mental exercise at Ma- 



COMMEMORATION SERMON. 361 

rietta. At the close of his sermon they came forward and 
gave him the hand of welcome. He was now fully assured 
that this was to be his field of labor, and so diligently and 
efficiently did he bring the Gospel home to the understand- 
ing of these two aged Indians, that they were soon con- 
verted to God. Around them soon gathered a congregation, 
first curious, then serious, then in deep distress, calling upon 
God for mercy, and finally joyful in the hope of the Gospel. 
Amono; these converts were several influential chiefs of the 
nation — Between-the-Logs, Monuncue, Hicks, and Scutash; 
also, two of the interpreters, Pointer and Armstrong. Noth- 
ing pleased the missionary more than the conversion of 
Pointer, the colored interpreter. At first this boy had per- 
formed the office of iuterpreter of the Gospel with a good 
deal of indifi'erence and reluctance. Sometimes after inter- 
preting a sentence he would add, "So Steward says, but I 
do n't know whether it is so or not, and do n't care." Now 
that he was converted, he would be more efficient and ear- 
nest as a helper in the good work. In 1819 the mission 
was taken under the care of the Ohio Conference, and at- 
tached to the Lebanon district, of which P\,ev. J. B. Finley 
was presiding elder. At the Conference of 1820, held at 
Chillicothe, deeply interesting interviews were had with a 
delegation from the Wyandot nation, who brought a peti- 
tion for the appointment of a missionary to their people 
from the Ohio Conference. The petition was granted, and 
llev. M. Henkle was appointed. 

My time will not permit me to follow this history further. 
This was the first of our missions among pagan populations. 
In less than forty years, behold what God hath wrought! 
Missions have been established among other Indian tribes 
upon this continent, and our missionaries have crossed 
oceans, planting the standard of the Cross on the shores of 
Africa, and among the vast pagan population of China and 



362 APPENDIX. 

India. Tlic Metliodint Kpiscopal Church has amonp; the 
ab(iii;:;iiials of lliis couiifry iM missionaries and 1,557 mem- 
bers; in India, 20 missionaries and 82 memljers; in Cliina, 
5 missionaries and 5(3 members; in Africa, 25 missionaries 
and 1.4y8 members. Tiie missionary contributions for the 
first year — 1820 — were $S23.0 i, and S85.7() expended. Tlic 
last year — 18G0 — the missionary collections were, as the 
Minutes show, 8258,810, and all expended; 810,384 of that 
amount iVum the Ohio Conference, to say nothing of amounts 
raised by other branches and oflfshoots of American Meth- 
odism. As though God would set his seal of approbation 
to this missionary movement, the same year was signalized 
by special revivals of religion withiu the bounds of the Ohio 
Conference. At Chillicothe 320 wore converted and added 
to the Church, among whom was the man who was erecting 
the Methodist church in that place, together with all his 
family, and all the workmen employed upon the house. 
During this first decade of our Conference history, the min- 
istry in the Church at large had increased from G88 to 891 ; 
and the membership from 195,357 to 281,146. The Ohio 
Conference had increased in the ministry from 61 to 88, 
and the membership from 23,284 to 34,178. 

I now pass to the second decade of our Conference his- 
tory. The year 1822 witnessed gracious outpourings of the 
Spirit of God within its bounds. Bangs's History makes 
special mention of that which attended the Scioto camp- 
meeting. This meeting was held at White Brown's camp- 
ground, within the bounds of what is now Deer Creek cir- 
cuit, and was under the charge of Samuel Parker and Alex- 
ander Cummins. About sixty of the converted Wyandots 
were present, and their thrilling and powerful experiences 
melted all hearts. Those who had been accustomed in 
other days to meet the Indians in their savage state on the 
bloody field of strife, were deeply moved by what they now 



COMMEMORATION SERMON. 363 

witnessed. The "Word of God powerfully prevailed, and 
the revival spread in all directions. 

During this decade, as of interest in the general history 
of American Methodism, should be mentioned the estab- 
lishment of the Christian Advocate and Journal, the parent 
of a now large and influential family of Advocates. The 
paper was issued in New York city, in the month of Sep- 
tember, 1826. The next year, namely, 1827, the Sunday 
School Union was organized. These appliances have exerted 
an incalculable amount of good since their establishment. 
Our denomination had indeed given some attention to Sab- 
bath-schools on this continent at an earlier day, but not till 
this period had the subject taken organic shape, or de- 
manded so lar^e attention. Durins; this decade, too, the 
polity of the Methodist Episcopal Church underwent the 
most thorough and searching investigation. The cry was 
raised that her government was not in harmony with the 
republican principles of the land. Giant minds came in 
conflict, and in some places the collision threatened to prove 
disastrous to the interests of the Church. The principles 
of our government were irrefutably defined by the able pens 
of Bond, Emory, and others, and firmly administered by the 
majority of our presiding elders and pastors. The incurably 
disaff"ected seceded and organized the Protestant Methodist 
Church. The heat of that controversy has long since passed 
away, and the historian will make up his verdict from the 
comparative success of the so-called Reformers, and the 
Church against whose government they so earnestly battled. 
If the Reformers improved upon the polity of Methodism, 
it is but fair to demand the proofs of this improvement in 
the history of the growth and success of the Church which 
they formed. They were led on by men of giant intellect, 
and whose names had been a tower of strength in the 
denomination for years. A careful examination of history 



3G4 APPKNnix. 

•will sufTiciontly tleinonstratc the wisdom of our fathers in 
their course. 

Duriuu; this period, namely, at the General Conference of 
1824, the Pittshurg Conference was organized, taking from 
the Ohio Conference all the territory east of the 3Iusk.inguui 
lliver, except Marietta and Zanesville, together with what 
then lay in Virginia, Pennsylvania, and New York. Ahout 
40 preachers and 12,0U0 members went with the territory. 

The important event of this period, which reflects honor 
upon the Ohio Conference, was an eff"ort to found an insti- 
tution of learning of a high grade. Before this time, sev- 
eral colleges and academies had been projected in other 
parts of the Church, but to this time no persevering and 
successful effort had been made to plant and endow an insti- 
tution of learning so as to give promise of permanence and 
extended usefulness. At the Conference of 1820, held in 
Chillicothe, a plan was agreed upon, and commissioners 
appointed to select a location. In consequence of the offer 
upon the part of the trustees of Bracken Academy, to loan 
the Church the use of $10,000, on condition of its location 
at Augusta, the institution was fixed at that point, in the 
State of Kentucky, and on the banks of the Ohio Biver. 
This location was also esteemed advisable in view of having 
the Kentucky Conference to unite in the founding and sup- 
port of the college. In 1823 John P. Finley was appointed 
by the Kentucky Conference in charge of the infout insti- 
tution. In 1825 a commodious college edifice was erected, 
and with the organization of an able faculty, the institution 
rapidly increased in popularity. Its students gathered from 
all parts of the land, and soon filled up its halls. For about 
a quarter of a century Augusta College accomplished a 
large amount of good. It enjoyed the labors, in its boards 
of instruction, in the prime of their days, of such men as 
Finley, Tonilinson, Fielding, Bascom, Durbiu, Buter, Trim- 



COMMEMORATION SERMON. 365 

blc, M'Cown, and others, men who had few superiors, cither 
in the recitation-room or in the pulpit. It survived to see 
its graduates in high places, both in Church and State, all 
over the land. AVhen at last a proslavery fanaticism struck 
the fatal blow at the old institution which had done so 
much for the development of the mind of the Mississippi 
Valley, it had the pleasure of looking over the land and 
witnessing how large a band of institutions had sprung up 
all around it to supply its place. Had this first successful 
Methodist college which the world ever saw been planted 
upon free instead of slave soil, it would doubtless have 
strengthened with years, and flourished for centuries. When 
the Kentucky Legislature repealed the charter of the Col- 
lege, commissioners were appointed by the Ohio Conference 
to close up its affairs, and so much of its endowments as 
could be saved by our Conference was loaned to the Ohio 
Wesleyan University, where they now constitute part of the 
endowment fund. AVhen Augusta College was founded, the 
State universities and colleges were generally controlled by 
other denominations, and it was not uncommon to hear 
remarks made touching educational enterprise which were 
by no means complimentary to our Church. Thirty-five 
years, however, have made a vast change in this respect. 
The Methodist Episcopal Church now has in the United 
States a larger number of universities, colleges, and semi- 
naries, and in their halls a larger number of students than 
any other denomination. Besides which, she now takes a 
leading part in the management of State and other non- 
denominational institutions of learning. She purposes hon- 
estly and faithfully to do her full share in the education of 
the youth of the land. She now has 2-4 universities and 
colleges and 126 seminaries. 

At the close of this decade, namely, 1831, there were in 
the Church 2,010 traveling preachers and 513,11-i members; 



36G APrENDix. 

and ill tlio Oliio ronforcnco tlioro were 1^2 trnvclitip: preach- 
ers and 34.178 nicinbcrs. The increase of traveling prca?h- 
crs was 1,110, and of nioin))er.s 231,908; in the mean time 
the increase in tlie Ohio Conference was 44 travclin"- 
preachers and 0,458 menihers; a fine increase, considering 
tlie number set off to l*itts})\n-<r. 

We now take up the tliird decade of our liistory. Tiie 
general spirit of the Churcli for the evangelization of the 
world was advancing. The Ohio Conference having set an 
example by sending missionaries to the pagan tribes on our 
own shores, the Church now followed that example by send- 
ing them abroad. In the year 1833 ]\Ielville B. Cox, a man 
of great firmness of purpose, meekness of spirit, and burn- 
ing zeal for the cause of God, offered himself as a mission- 
ary for Africa. It was feared by many that he would fall 
a martyr to the climate of that country. Being asked by 
some one what should be written on his tombstone, should 
he die in Africa, he replied, " Let thousands fall before 
Africa be given up." Though the brave missionary lived 
but a few months, he accomplished a work, under God, of 
incalculable value to the Churcli at home, and to the 
heathen abroad. The mission planted by him has grown 
and prospered till a Conference has been established, em- 
bracing 25 traveling and 33 local preachers and 1,566 mem- 
bers. The next year after Cox offered himself for Africa, 
Jason and Daniel Lee offered themselves for a missionary 
expedition to the Flat-Head Indians, beyond the Rocky 
Mountains. The call to which they responded was one that 
thrilled the heart of the Church. The Flat-Heads, having 
a tradition that away toward the rising sun there lived a 
people who could instruct them in the true religion, after 
discussing the matter in their council, determined to dis- 
patch a messenger to find that people and get that instruc- 
tion. The messenger made his tedious and toilsome way to 



COMMEMORATION SERMON. 367 

the valley of the Mississippi, and in response to the Mace- 
donian cry for help, the evangelical Lees turned their backs 
upon home and civilization, and scaled the Rocky Mount- 
ains, and proclaimed to the inquiring savages the Gospel 
of the Son of God. 

During this decade, namely, in 1836, the boundaries of 
the Ohio Conference were still further contracted by the or- 
ganization of the Michigan Conference. It took from us 
Michigan Territory, and four presiding elder's districts in 
the State of Ohio, and of our preachers 129, and of our 
members 23,867. 

The great event of this period, however, as connected 
with the Ohio Conference, and which we regard as one of 
the most important historical events of modern Christianity, 
was the founding: of missions amonsr the Germans. We 
would do unpardonable injustice to this Conference and this 
occasion did we not direct special attention to this sublime 
work. In the year 1835, after a somewhat protracted dis- 
cussion in the Ohio Conference, William Xast was appointed 
missionary to the German population of Cincinnati. The 
soil to be cultivated seemed to be barren and unpromising 
enough. The German mind had become deeply and widely 
poisoned with the infidelity of rationalism. The pantheistic 
philosophy had taken possession of leading German minds 
at home both in and out of the Church. And the masses 
of people who flocked to this country to make money gave 
poor encouragement for an evangelist. There was encour- 
agement, however, to that class of persons who felt that 
while the Gospel was a stumbling-block to some and fool- 
ishness to others, it still remained the power of God and 
the wisdom of God to every one who would receive it. 
William Nast had the demonstration of this in his own ex- 
perience, and he had hope for his countrymen. His fitness 
for the mission will appear from a consideration of his per- 



868 APl'KNDIX. 

ROn;'.l liistory, and from tlie rcsulf.s of liis plnns and efforts. 
He was born at 8tu(tg:irt, tlio capital of Wurtcni}>erp:, in 
Germany. Puring liis university course, he was in the 
labyrinth of })anthoisin. lie declined, therefore, entering; 
the three years' thcolojjjical course, which Ibllows the j>liil- 
osophical course, preferring to sacrifice all his property in 
paying back to the State what it had spent upon his educa- 
tion, rather than to enter the ministry, solemnly promising 
to preach doctrines which he did not believe. It was urged 
that many of those highest in the Church held and taught 
the same doctrine which he held ; but this would not sat- 
isfy his conscience. He positively declined to enter the 
pulpit. In 1828 he came to America, and some time after 
became tutor in a Methodist family. He there formed the 
acquaintance of several ministers of the Baltimore Confer- 
ence. He became deeply convicted for sin, but for a time 
he labored under the error of supposing that it was incon- 
sistent with the Divine justice that the sinner should be 
absolved from the guilt and penalty of sin without suffering 
in part liimself for his sins. He passed through mental 
struf]rf:;les dark and terrible as those which marked the ex- 
perience of the other great German Reformer. His case 
attracted attention, and many persons became deeply inter- 
ested for him. Some already seemed to have a premonition 
that he was designed by God for a special work, A pious 
old lady by the name of Patrick, while encouraging him on 
one occasion, said, "William, don't doubt, you will yet get 
the blessing. The Lord has a great work for you to do. 
You will yet take the Gospel trumpet and publish the Sav- 
ior's name to your countrymen." While occupying a place 
in the Board of Instruction at Kenyon College, he made 
several journeys to Zanesville, to converse with Bev, Henry 
S. Farnandis, from whom he received much encouragement. 
After this be attended quarterly-meeting in the town of 



COMMEMORATION SERMON. 3G9 

Danville, Knox county, Ohio, at which Rev. Adam Poe was 
the presiding elder. A powerful revival was in progress. 
lie went forward for prayers, but after praying long and 
earnestly, he arose discouraged, and started to leave the 
house. As he approached the door, he looked back upon 
the happy converts, and as he listened to them shouting the 
praise of God, suddenly these words, " There is bread 
enough in my Father's house," were impressed with divine 
power upon his mind. His spiritual eyes were opened to 
see the fullness of the merits of Christ. In a moment, 
thinking no more of his want of qualification, he resolved to 
approach the mercy-seat again. He hastened back to a 
corner of the house — fell on his knees to plead once more 
with Grod for mercy. But as he this time offered nothing 
but Jesus, the moment he opened his mouth to ask his 
prayer was answered. Happy in God, he returned to Ken- 
yon College, called the professors and students together, 
and after telling them what God had done for him, kneeled 
down and prayed with them, and gave thanks to God. Soon 
after this he was licensed to preach, and at the Conference 
held in Springfield, as above stated, he was received into 
the traveling connection, and appointed as German mission- 
ary to Cincinnati. Such, then, were the qualifications of 
the missionary — thoroughly educated, not only in general 
literature, but in those phases of infidelity which had swept 
the great mass of his countrymen from the true foundations 
of Christian faith ; a man of deep and genuine experience, 
and willing to give his time, talents, and life to the cause 
of God among his countrymen. If the man appeared to be 
the appropriate person for the work, the results of his labors 
have completed the demonstration. The limits of my dis- 
course prevent me from going into details of this stupendous 
work. The revival commenced in Cincinnati spread to other 
points within the bounds of the Ohio Conference, extending 



iVrO APPENDIX. 

to other Conferences, crossed tlic Atlantic Ocean, and made 
a profound impression upon tlie great German heart in the 
Father-hand. Wow l>r. Nast does not now stand .alone; 
but around liim L^1ther as his spiritual children, and the 
results of his labors and faith, 241 traveling and 205 local 
preachers, and 21,000 members in this country; and 18 
preachers and 1,854 members in Germany. To assist them 
in thoir work, two papers, with an aL'gregate circulation of 
2(3,000, are issued by the Cincinnati Book Concern. A tract 
publishing house has been established in Germany, and Dr. 
Nasi is now preparing and publishing an original comment- 
ary on the Bible in the German language. While we thank 
God for what has already been done, we can see that it is 
only the commencement of a revival destined to regenerate 
Germany. 

I come now to the fourth division of the history, reaching 
from 1841 to 1851. During this period the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church was visited by the most extraordinary revivals, 
and rent by internal dissensions. The net increase of the 
membership of the Methodist Episcopal Church for 1842-43, 
as reported by the General Minutes, reached the astonishing 
aggregate of 257,465. The year 1844 precipitated a collis- 
ion between that portion of the membership of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church which clung to the primitive doc- 
trine of American Methodism on the subject of slavery, and 
that portion of the membership w^hich had become, to some 
extent, leavened with the spirit of slavery. The slavery 
question had agitated the Church to a greater or less extent 
during its whole history. Stringent laws had sometimes 
been enacted, and then followed by compromises and at- 
tempts to conciliate those who professed to be aggrieved. 
Whatever of compromise or laxity of administration had 
marked any portion of our history, there was one place in 
tlie economy of the Church where slave-holding has never 



COMMEMORATION SERMON. 371 

been allowed. Our general superintendents had kept pure 
from this contamination. At the General Conference of 
184-4 it began to be whispered that Bishop Andrew had 
become the owner of slaves. Xo bishop was more dearly 
beloved, none had been more abundantly honored through- 
out the borders of our Zion. The question was started in 
many hearts as between duty and affection : Shall we arraign 
Bishop Andrew, or shall we wink at this thing? It was 
not, however, of difficult solution. Two men, both of 
Southern antecedents, both well known as strongly conserv- 
ative men — men, too. who were strong personal friends of 
Bishop Andrew — Rev. J. B. Finley and Eev. J. M. Trimble, 
offered a resolution requesting the Committee on the Episco- 
pacy to examine and report the facts in regard to the rumor 
of Bishop Andrew's connection with slavery. The report 
fully sustained the rumor, and the Bishop himself fully ex- 
plained the circumstances of the case. It is thought that 
he would have promptly resigned, but the Southern leaders 
supposing that they never would have the opportunity of 
discussing the general subject under more favorable circum- 
stances, insisted that he should maintain his position. After 
full and prolonged discussion, the Conference passed a reso- 
lution, setting it forth as the " sense of that General Con- 
ference, that Bishop Andrew desist from the exercise of 
his office till this impediment should be removed." What 
immediately followed, the protest of the minority, the an- 
swer of the majority, the plan of separation, and the means 
by which the great mass of the members of most of the 
Southern Conferences were induced to secede from the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, are matters of familiar history 
upon which I can not now dwell. As might have been an- 
ticipated, the Southern secession has continued to tend to- 
ward slaverv, till all of the old landmarks have been broken 
down, and her strong men have become principal champions 



'^^72 AITENDIX. 

(^r the (livino ritrlit of slavery. On the other hand, flic 
i^Iethoclist Kpiscopal Church lias continued to speak out 
with a clear and more emphatic voice at every General 
Conference, till to-day her influence in the hchalf of free- 
dom is more powerful than ever before. "Whatever of honor 
may attach in history to the General Conference of 1844, 
for taking so firm a stand, and arresting, so far as the 
Church was concerned, lax views and lax legislation on this 
vital question, a great part of that honor must belong to 
the Ohio Conference, leading members of whose delegation, 
as before stated, introduced the resolution which brought 
the matter to an issue. 

Upon the period extending from 1851 to the present I do 
not propose to dwell. Its scenes are fresh in the memory 
of us all. At its beginning we suffered a large bereave- 
ment of ministers and members, as well as territory, in the 
organization of the Cincinnati Conference. It took from us 
188 preachers and 34,239 members. The period has been 
marked with missionary zeal and liberality, educational and 
Church extension enterprise, and an encouraging degree of 
religious prosperity. The Conference today enrolls 178 
traveling and 248 local preachers ; 34,136 members ; 489 
churches, valued at $533,129, and 89 parsonages, valued 
at $74,340; 551 Sabbath-schools, 6,327 teachers, 32,708 
scholars, 104,994 books in library. The Methodist Epis- 
copal Church now enrolls 6,987 traveling and 8,188 local 
preachers and 994,447 members ; 9,754 churches, valued at 
$19,552,054; 2,674 parsonages, valued at $2,663,318; 
13,243 Sabbath-schools, 146,120 teachers, 793,131 schol- 
ars, 2,672,482 books in library. The rates of increase or 
decrease during each decade have been as follows : In the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, in the first, increase, 31 per 
cent.; in the second, 82 per cent.; in the third, 66 per cent.j 
in the fourth, the decrease was 15 per cent., owing to the 



COMMEMORATION SERMON. 373 

Southern secession of nearly 400.000; and in the fifth, in- 
crease 37 per cent. In the five decades, the per cent, of 
increase was 364. In the same periods the Ohio Confer- 
ence, first decade, increased 46 per cent.; the second, 19 
per cent.; the third, 33 per cent.; the fourth, 25 per cent.; 
the fifth, 49 per cent, decrease, by the heavy draw on its 
membership to form the Cincinnati Conference. 

Leaving this period to younger and abler pens, I turn 
now to review very hastily the past, and gather up some of 
the lessons with which this day and this occasion should 
impress us. The record of the Ohio Conference during the 
half century of its existence is one of which we need not 
be ashamed. We have seen that she has had honorable 
connection with many of the important moral and religious 
movements of the age. During her first decade she planted 
the first foreign mission of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
During her second, she projected and founded, in connection 
with the Kentucky Conference, the first successful Meth- 
odist college in the world. During the third, she started 
the great domestic missionary movement among the German 
population, which in its growth and success has equally sur- 
prised and delighted the Christian world ; and during the 
fourth period, through her delegation in the General Con- 
ference, she was instrumental in arresting the Church in her 
pro-slavery tendency, and to elevate her in the eyes of the 
world as ready to sacrifice every thing else for the preser- 
vation of her purity. In 1836 the General Conference 
selected one from among us for the work and office of a 
Bishop; and in 1844 selected another. The former is now 
the senior, and is an ornament to the bench; the latter 
served the Church in that office efficiently for eight years, 
and, in consequence of affliction, retired. They live, and 
will live, in the confidence and esteem of the Church. 
During the first fifty years past 872 persons have been 



374 



Aprr.NDix. 



adniittcU oi» trial into the 01»io Conference; 800 of them, 
after two years prohation. were received iiilo full connection. 
They came in classes varying' in numbers from three, the 
smallest class, to thirty-three, the lar^^est class. These 
liave all stood before the Conference, been i)ublicly exam- 
ined by the Bishops, according to the forms of our excel- 
lent Discipline. As only 72 out of the 872 were discontin- 
ued at the expiration of their probation, it would seem 
that the Conference has exercised commendable caution. I 
would earnestly call the attention of the Conference to 
this point, in order that all who arc added to the body be 
such as will add to its strength and efficiency. The door 
of admission both on trial and into full connection should 
be guarded with a watchful eye. During the half century 
168 preachers of the Ohio Conference have located. The 
causes of these locations are not matters of record; some 
of them had sufficient reason, and were prompted by pure 
motives, in retiring from the regular work ; others, possibly, 
were prompted by trivial or selfish considerations. Some 
of them, in after years, were re-admitted to the travel- 
ing connection. Others applied, but failed of being re- 
admitted. I have been a careful observer of these things 
for many years, but have seldom kno^Yn a preacher who 
retired from the fitild from other causes than a failure of 
health, to be either contented in his mind or prosperous in 
his business. I would ask my young brethren in the min- 
istry when tempted to leave the Word to serve tables, to 
weigh the matter well. The Conference may easily supply 
your place, but if your location is not in the order of God, 
all your fond anticipations will fail. 

Scattered along through the General Minutes are the 
memoirs of fifty-six of our fathers and brethren, who have 
died at the post of duty. Having taught the lessons of 
holy living, they taught also the lessons of happy dying. 



COMMEMORATION SERMON. 6tO 

Preachers die, and all must die. AVe may preacli the funer- 
als of others ; let us still bear in mind that others will soon 
officiate at our funerals, and let us be ready when the Mas- 
ter comes to call us. The youngest of those fifty-six was 
twenty-five years old at the time of his death, and the old- 
est was ninety-one. The average age was fifty years. The 
contemplation of the death of our fathers and brethren is 
in one sense sad. There is, however, one other item that 
we glean from our Minutes, unspeakably more sad than the 
death of the preachers. I refer to their expulsion on ac^ 
count of immorality. ^Yould to God that such an instance 
had never pained our hearts or tainted our records! But, 
alas ! in a few instances, Christ and his cause have been 
scandalized in the eyes of the world by wickedness among 
the ministers of the Gospel. During the history of our 
Conference nine have thus disgraced themselves, wounded 
the cause, and compelled us to expel them from the minis- 
try and the Church. I am unspeakably happy, however, 
to announce that all but one of the nine afterward gave 
evidence of deep repentance, and again found a home and 
consolation in the Church they had so greatly wounded. 
Some of them were eventually restored to the ministry, but 
they have never regained the position and influence from 
which they fell. 

My beloved brethren and sons in the Gospel, I know you 
will receive a word of exhortation from me on this interest- 
ing occasion. Let brotherly love continue; be not envious 
of each other's talents, or positions, or influence, but strive 
together in love, as also ye do, each esteeming others better 
than himself, and he that is ambitious to be the greatest, 
let him be willing to be servant of all. Deal kindly with 
those who have worn themselves out in the work. And the 
widows and orphans of those who have died in the work; 
see to it that they are cared for. You yourselves will be 



37n APPENPIX. 

aged by and l)y, or if called from your sphere of lalmr liorc, 
yon will leave faniilios in he rarod for by your brctliici) ; 
lot your kindness to the a<;ed and sympathies with the be- 
reaved be such as you desire may be meted out to you and 
yours. Give your best energies and thoughts to the work in 
which you arc engaged. Never let your work as Methodist 
traveling preachers be subordinate to any thing else. Lite- 
rature, politics, and money-making are all proper in their 
place; but all of them sadly out of place when they become 
the primary matters of solicitude or attention upon the part 
of a Methodist itinerant. Finally, brethren, be true to the 
Gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ, and to the Church through 
whose iustrumentality you have been saved and made what 
you are. Men of splendid parts have deserted and gone off 
from our communion, thinking to better their condition ; 
few of them but would have gladly come back again could 
they have hoped to wipe out the past and regain what they 
had forfeited. Cling to the Bible and book of Discipline, 
and keep your hearts richly baptized with the Holy Ghost, 
and then a glorious future awaits you as individuals and as 
a Conference. Brethren, the task you assigned me upon 
this occasion is about done, and yet my heart is full. It is 
possible, as I intimated in the beginning, that some of you 
may live to participate in another meeting like this, when 
another half century shall have passed. I' shall not. If, 
however, disembodied spirits are permitted to return to earth 
to mingle with those they have loved, and in whose success 
they feel interested, then may I come back fifty years hence 
to see the labors you shall have done, and the victories you 
shall have gained through the grace of Jesus Christ. 

May the peace of God, which passeth all understanding, 
abide with you forever ! Amen. 



II. 



SEMI-CENTENNIAL SERMON * 



J will tell of the glory of thy kingdom, and talk of thy power. Psalji cxlv, 11. 
Awake, awake, put on thy strength, O Zion, put on thy beautiful garments, 
O Jerusalem. Isaiah lii, 1. 

IT was the good fortune of the speaker to commence his 
itinerant career at an eventful period of the history of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church. It was in the year of our 
Lord 181(3. the middle year of the just closing first cen- 
tury of American Methodism. That year some of her 
grandest historical characters were just passing away, and 
some of her grandest institutions for the accomplishment 
of her mission were about coming; into existence. During 
that year her Asbury, and Jesse Lee. and George Shadford 
closed their pilgrimage and labors ; and within three years 
from that date her Bible and Missionary Society and her 
Tract Society were organized — societies that were destined 
to become mighty agencies in carrying forward the work of 
the Church. As that year (1816) was the closing year of 
the first half-century of American Methodism, it may be 
well to pause and spend a few moments in contemplating 
the departure of those moral heroes whose personal narra- 
tive makes up so much of the history of the times in which 
they lived. 

Bishop Asbury's eventful history, which had extended 

" Delivered by request of the Ohio Conference, on the completion of half a 
century ill the regular work, at Coliimlms, Ohio, October 1, 18GG. 

32 377 



378 ArpKNUix. 

tlirough fifty-five years of ministerial labor, I'orty-fivo of 
w^rrh he had spent in tliis country, was now about to close. 
In the Sprinir of tli.it yr;ir he reached llichTnond, Virginia, 
having traveled in his private carriage from Tennessee, 
throuirh South and North Caroliua. Worn )>v fatigue and 
reduced ])y disease, his friends saw that his end was near. 
They entreated liim to spare himself from further labor. 
The heroic man said he desired once more to deliver his 
testimony iu llichmoud. Unable either to walk or to stand, 
he was assisted from his carriage to the pulj)it, and seated 
on a table that had been prepared for that purpose. His 
text was Romans ix, 28: "He will finish his work and cut 
it short in riirhteousness, because a short work will the Lord 
make upon the earth." His debility was such that he was 
compelled to make frequent pauses in the course of his ser- 
mon, yet the audience was much affected by the manner in 
which he delivered his solemn message, but much more with 
his appearance, venerable with age, standing on the borders 
of eternity, pale and tremulous with debility, while the 
deep intonations of his commanding voice, rising with the 
grandeur of his subject, gave a solemnity to the whole scene 
of the most impressive character. Having so faithfully de- 
livered his last message, he lingered only a few days. On 
the 31st of March his friends saw that he was dying, and 
asked him if he had any communications to make. He 
replied that " he had- fully expressed his mind in relation 
to the interests of the Church to Bishop M'Kendree, and 
had nothing to add." How sublime that answer! Those 
whose lives have been of religious leisure are apt to be in 
a hurry when they come to die — much to do, and little 
time in which to do it. But those who, like Wesley and 
Asbury, have made life wonderful with its religious enter- 
prises and activities, when they come to die, have calmness, 
and leisure, and rest, on the borders of eternity. Sitting 



SEMI-CENTENNIAL SERMON. 379 

iu his chair, without a struggle or a groan, he passed from 
earth to rejoin his companions who had preceded him to 
the Church triumphant. He had seen the Methodist Church 
on the continent grow from a membership of 1,160 to that 
of 224,853. 

In the Autumn of that year the Ohio Conference met at 
Louisville, Kentucky. A goodly band of young men stood 
ready to fill up the ranks which had been thinned by death 
and locations. The following preachers were received on 
trial : Thomas A. Morris, John C. Brooke, Stephen Spur- 
lock, Ezra Booth, Samuel Glaze, William Holdman, William 
Westlake, Samuel Baker, John Linville, Daniel D. Davis- 
son, William Williams, Samuel Demint, Thomas Carr, and 
Simon Peter — fourteen. There not being enough, however, 
to supply the work. Rev. Jacob Young, presiding elder of 
the Muskingum district, called me out, and sent me to as- 
sist Rev. John Sammerville, on the Letart Falls circuit. 
Young, inexperienced, and trembling, I responded to the 
summons, and started forth in the name of the Lord to do 
the best I could. The race which I then commenced I 
have been enabled, by the blessing of God, to continue for 
fifty years, and now, a monument of God's mercy, am here 
to witness the closing up of the first and the commencement 
of the second century of American Methodism. At that 
time the Ohio Conference had about sixty-seven preachers, 
and the territory embraced Ohio, Kentucky, Indiana, and 
parts of Virginia and Pennsylvania. Within the same 
bounds there are now some ten or twelve Conferences and 
more than one thousand traveling preachers. There were 
then in the bounds of what now constitutes the Ohio Con- 
ference two districts, arranged and supplied as follows ; 

Mnslcingum District — Jacob Young, presiding elder. Le- 
tart Falls, John Summerville, John Stewart as supply; 
Fairfield, James Quinn, John M'Mahon; Zaucsville, John 



r>80 ArrKNDix. 

Watonnnii. Thomas Carr; Marietta, Cornelius Sprijicrer, 
Thomas A. Morris; Knox, Shadraeli Kuark. 

Srt'ofo District — David Yonnir, presiding ehler. Picka- 
May, Michael Kllis, Samuel lirown ; I'aint Creek, Jacob 
Hooper, William Westlake ; Scioto, Thomas SewcU, Ito})ert 
W. Finley; Columbus, William Swayze, Simon I'eter; IJrusli 
Creek, Klijah Truitt ; Salt Creek, John Tevis; Deer Creek, 
Charles Waddle, Samuel (ilaze. 

I have omitted from the list the charges tliat lay outside 
of our present Conference bounds, and have inserted the 
names of the supplies as far as they are known to me. 
When you called your roll at the opening of this Confer- 
ence, I listened attentively, but though you called over one 
hundred and fifty names, yet except my own I heard not 
one of the names that I have just read in your hearing. 
One other is still living, who is now the senior Bishop of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church ; but with that exception 
my old comrades in arms have all gone home — elders, dea- 
cons, licentiates — they have all gone. The same year, and 
only about a mouth after the decease of Bishop Asbury, 
the General Conference met in Baltimore, and now for the 
first time in its history did the superintendency of Ameri- 
can Methodism devolve solely on native American hands. 
Asbury had come forty-five years before, a missionary sent by 
AVcsIey, and had given his noble life, w^ith all its energies, 
to the work of founding and building up the Church on 
this continent. He had outlived most of his co-laborers, 
and now he, the last and greatest, had left the battle to be 
fought by others. 

The delegates from the Ohio Conference to the General 
Conference were James Quinn, Charles Holliday, Marcus 
Lindsey, Jacob Young, Samuel Parker, Isaac Quinn, David 
Young, John Sale, and Benjamin Lakin, all of them giants 
in their day. They assisted in electing Enoch George and 



SEMI-CENTENNIAL SERMON. 381 

Robert R. Roberts to strengthen the Episcopacy, which then 
had but one member, the saintly M'Kendree, and he in very 
feeble health. 

The Bishops elected, and our delegates who assisted in 
electing them, are all gone, and now, doubtless, mingle to- 
gether in the sublimer enjoyments of the better world ; 
possibly to-day as ministering spirits interested in this Cen- 
tenary jubilee, they may mingle with us, rejoicing in the 
results of one common toil. For so it is, the workmen who 
in their day seem to be essential to the continuance of the 
work are called home, but the work goes forward, steadily, 
surely, grandly it goes forward. As I stand here to-day, 
calling up the memories of the half century that has passed 
since T entered the itinerant field, and glance down through 
the vista of the on-coming century, I can hardly tell which in- 
terests me most. I think of what God has wrought for Meth- 
odism throughout the world during the past century, and I 
feel to " tell of the glory of his kingdom, and talk of his 
power." My heart grows warm as I antedate the possibili- 
ties of the future, and I cry out, "Awake, awake, put on 
thy strength, Zion, put on thy beautiful garments." If 
we and our successors sufficiently appreciate the available 
strength and responsibility of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, and will be true to our mission, our future will 
eclipse in grand results even the magnificent achievements 
of the past. The study of her history demonstrates that 
she has wielded wonderful strength ; an examination of her 
genius, polity, and ecclesiastical enterprises, shows that she 
has large resources of strength upon which to draw at pleas- 
ure ; these resources indicate her responsibility, and call for 
a girding of herself with all her possible strength for an- 
other campaign of a hundred years. Had [Methodism not 
possessed strength she could not have extended her lines 
against active and constant opposition, till her standards aro 



382 APPENDIX. 

plnntctl on all the populous portions of this continent; she 
could iidt have planted and sustained missionary stations on 
all the nmtinents of the irlobe ; she could not have erected 
on this continent 0,022 church buildings, building them 
during a portion of the time at the rate of one every day. 
»Shc could not have founded 77 seminaries and 25 colleeres 
and universities ; she could not have gathered into her fold 
928.320 members, and into the various branches of the 
Methodist family on this continent and the neighboring 
islands 1,986,420 communicants, and into her congregations 
nearly 8,000,000 of people. Wherein has slie this great 
strength? and where are the sources of her strength? Are 
they not found, first, in her discipline, or Methodism ; sec- 
ond, in the activity of her laborers, and that peculiar feat- 
ure of her economy — the great itinerant wheel — which puts 
and keeps the entire host in operation ; third, in the intel- 
ligence of her membership, and her multitudinous appliances 
for the dissemination of knowledge among the members and 
the people ; fourth, in the pure Gospel she always has, and 
always proposes to carry on all her banners, and publish to 
all her people ; fifth, in the vital piety or holiness which 
she teaches as attainable, and which she urges upon all her 
people as indispensable to the fulfillment of her mission as 
a Church and people? 

Allow me to spend a few minutes in illustrating these po- 
sitions. 

1. We have intimated that one of the secrets of the 
strength of our Zion, and one of the resources of her 
strength, is found in her dhcipUne^ that drill and discipline 
of her membership and ministry which enables her to marshal 
and direct and use her energies to the best advantage. 
3felhodisfs, so called at first, by their enemies, sarcastically, 
because of their methodical way of doing their work, drilled 
themselves and disciplined their successors in the doctrine 



SEMI-CENTENNIAL SERMON. 383 

and practice of each, doing work in the station and in the 
manner that the proper Church authorities should direct. 
Her muster-roll was called each week at the class-meeting. 
The absentees were marked, and then the leader himself or 
other members of the class detailed by the leader, hunted 
up the absentees, that they might be comforted if sick, 
brouo;ht back if strajrslers, court-martialed if deserters. In 

a CO ' 

a well-«liscipliued army, the officer in command needs only 
to give the order, " Take that battery," and the division 
receiving the command marches forward with fixed" bayonets, 
and if the work is practicable the battery is taken ; so has 
the Methodist Episcopal Church pulled down strongholds, 
and secured brilliant successes in consequence of this dis- 
cipline of her army. Loyal to authority, her members have 
responded to her class-leaders, her leaders to her pastors, 
her pastors to her presiding elders, her presiding elders to 
her bishops, her bishops to the General Conference, and all 
to the Captain of our salvation — the great Head of the 
Church. 

This discipline has never been irksome or galling to the 
speaker, but he has found the yoke of Methodism to be 
easy, and its burden to be light. In 1814 his name was 
placed upon her muster-roll by that efficient recruiting offi- 
cer, Rev. Marcus Lindsey. Never by any selection or 
electioneering of his own, but in response to the recognized 
voice of Church authority, he served the Church suc- 
cessively as class-steward, class-leader, exhorter, local 
preacher, junior preacher, preacher in charge, and presid- 
ing elder. Though I feel that I have unworthily filled the 
different stations assigned, yet by the blessing of God I 
have so filled them that no official censure is on record 
against me, and think I may say with sincerity, that with sin- 
gleness of aim I have endeavored during that long period to 
endure hardness .as a good soldier. It is doubtless to this 



384 ArpENDix. 

spirit of loyalty to (Miurrh nutliority, occiipyinfi; carefully 
and fjiilhfully the positions assigned to the nionibcrs and 
ministers, severally, that we have heretofore, and shall here- 
after, attribute much of our success. 

2. Wc have intimated that the secret of success is found 
in great part in the activity of her workers, and that one of 
the resources of her strcnu;th is found in that feature of her 
economy, the great itinerant wheel, which puts tho. whole 
host in motion. We have had illustrations in the history 
of our own country, that an army may be thorough in its 
discipline, and yet maintain a masterly inactivity, spending 
its time and energies in the exercise and parade of its drill- 
manual, but carefully avoiding any forward movement. The 
hosts of Methodism were never organized for garrison duty. 
Wesley, in the Old World, and Asbury in this, proposed the 
occupancy of the world-wide parish in the shortest possible 
time. Hence they ordered constant movement, and that 
constant movement a movement of the whole army, a for- 
ward movement ; nothing less than the conquest of the 
world for Christ was the aim, and each individual soldier 
was expected to be at the post of duty, and to do his full 
part in the campaign. It is said that during the late rebell- 
ion one of the commanding officers telegraphed to the Lieu- 
tenant-General, saying, " If we push the enemy I think wc 
can take him; what shall we do?" Back over the tele- 
graphic wire flashed the prompt and laconic reply, " Push." 
But no standard-bearer in the hosts of Methodism, under 
such circumstances, ever needs to telegraph to a superior 
officer for instructions ; when he received his commission he 
received a special charge and standing orders to " push the 
enemy and take him." Wherever there is a stronghold of 
Satan, pu^^'h and take it; wherever there is a rebel against 
the government of God, push and capture him; wherever 
there is a benighted heathen, push and rescue him. This 



SEMI-CENTENNIAL SERMON. 385 

she regards indeed as marchiog order No. 1, issued more 
than one thousand eight hundred years ago, by the Chief 
Captain, when he said, " Go ye into all the world and 
preach the Gospel to every creature. He that believeth and 
is baptized shall be saved; he that believeth not shall be 
damned." In response to this order the general superin- 
tendents strike their tents and start upon the grand cam- 
paign. They sound the marching orders down the lines 
through the presiding elders to the pastors, and they to the 
leaders and members, and the vast army, cavalry and in- 
fantry, throughout the mighty host, are moving to the charge. 
How rapid and resistless has been this movement let rec- 
ords of the past and the position of to-day declare. You 
will pardon the weakness, if weakness it be, of an aged 
itinerant, in glancing over the march of half a century in 
this army. In 1816 Jacob Young, then in the strength of 
early manhood, and a fearless and successful champion, 
ordered me to push the battle, a junior preacher on Letart 
Falls circuit; a circuit, however, of twenty-five appointments, 
and spreading over what now constitutes eleven pastoral 
charges. Beardless boy as I was, I packed my clothing and 
library into my saddle-bags, mounted my horse, and started. 
I have had the honor of traveling thirty circuits — six of 
them only six months each — and five districts — two of them 
only one year each; these I found in seven of the States. 

The circuits have usually been large ones, the largest 
having thirty-five appointments, and the whole list averag- 
ing twenty appointments to a circuit. If I had indulged 
in an estimate of my journeyiugs and labors during the 
half century, it is not to glorify myself, but in honor of 
that ecclesiastical system which so successfully keeps the 
wheels of its pastoral machinery in motion. I find, upon 
calculating the geographical boundaries of my several fields 

of labor and the number of preaching-places, and making 

83 



380 ArrKNDix. 

an estimate of the incjathering of souIh oil those charp^es, 
the following results: I have traveled not less than lt)l,000 
miles, mostly on horseback ; a journey which, if continuously 
pursued around the world, would have taken me six times 
around the planet, and I should now be 11,300 miles, or 
nearly half-way round again. I have preached in the reg- 
ular course of my appointments not less than 9,476 times. 
"Were I to add sermons preached at protracted meetings 
and funerals, and occasional sermons, the number would be 
much larger; and, best of all, I have had the honor of wel- 
coming into the Church of my choice not less than 5,000 
souls. After half a century I stand bleached, and stiffened, 
and scarred in the service, but I love it still. If the Chief 
Captain would so appoint, gladly would I enter with you, 
my younger brethren, upon another fifty years' campaign. 
But this may not be. I am content to step down into the 
ranks or be placed on the retired list, and perform any serv- 
ice that any one of my years and infirmities may be equal 
to. If I may not longer pass into the fight I may lift up 
my hands to God, praying that the great itinerant wheel so 
ejfficient in the past, may be increasingly so till the commis- 
sion is fulfilled and the world is saved. 

3. The secret of the strength of Methodism is found in 
part in the intelligence of her membership, and one of the 
resources of her strength is her multitudinous appliances 
for the dissemination of knowledge among the people. It 
is true that when I entered the itinerant field we had not 
on this continent a single college, or seminary, or Advocate, 
or Sabbath -school library, or large catalogue of books of 
our own publishing. But even then we had in every 
place where we planted our standards organized societies 
or classes, the work of whose members was to assist each 
other in obtaining the clearest and most thorough theo- 
retical and experimental knowledge of the plan of salvation. 



SEMI-CENTENNIAL SERMON. 387 

What books we had were sound and solid — each preacher 
regarded it as a part of his regular work to supply the 
people with such books as would make them intelligent 
Bible Christians. I need not say that the Methodists ia 
those days, though without colleges for the laity and Bib- 
lical schools for the ministry, were able to give a reason for 
the hope that was in them with a clearness and power that 
astonished and convinced their hearers. But they were not 
indifferent to these agencies with which God has so greatly 
blessed us in these later times. While I was on Fairfield 
circuit, in 1818, the Methodist Magazine, which still con- 
tinues under the name of Quarterly Review, was issued. In 
1823 a youth's paper was started; in 1826 the Advocate 
and Journal, the parent of the Advocate family, which now 
count their subscribers by hundreds of thousands and their 
readers by millions. The Book Concern, which had com- 
menced in the early history of the Church upon a few hun- 
dred dollars borrowed from one of her members, had been 
gradually and noiselessly growing up among the publishing 
houses of the country, sending out her childhood literature 
and solid theological works for laymen and ministers, till 
to-day it stands the largest religious publishing-house be- 
longing to any denomination on this or any other continent. 
It has an aggregate capital of $837,000, and the Agents in 
the last quadrennial report made an exhibit of sales for the 
last four years of 81,200,000. Who can tell how much of 
power is available to the Church through the more than 
thirty presses which are throwing ofif her millions of pages 
and papers? While her book and periodical interests have 
been developing, she has also given attention to secular 
education. 

All our efforts to establish institutions of learning during 
the first half century of our history proved to be failures. 
Not, indeed, till 1823 did we make a successful effort in 



388 ArrENDix. 

that direcfion. But the successful founding of Aupjusta 
C'ollcgc, in Auffusta, Kentucky, was followed by an enter- 
prise and success that has known no parallel in any age or 
country. In forty-three years she has founded one hundred 
and two seminaries, colleges, and universities, possessing 
endowments and other property to the amount of $3, (ir).'), 000. 
Thus, since she really entered upon this work, has she 
founded institutions of learning at the rate of more than 
one for every six months. Now she proposes, as a grand 
Centenary offering, to accumulate a connectional educa- 
tional fund which may greatly add to the magnitude of the 
source of strength. 

There is still to be added to these appliances for the 
spread of denominational and general Christian intelligence 
her great Sunday-school system. Her Sunday-School Union 
was organized in 1827, eleven years after I entered the 
work. Its growth has been amazing, and its accomplish- 
ments wonderful. It now reports 13,400 schools, 150,000 
teachers and officers, and 918,000 scholars, 19,000 of whom 
were reported as converted during the year preceding the 
last printed report. There are in her libraries 2,529,000 
volumes of books, and these schools are supplied every two 
weeks with 260,000 Sunday-School Advocates. And what 
must thrill every Christian heart with joy and thanksgiving 
in this report, is the item that within eighteen years last 
past 285,000 have been converted in connection with the 
Sabbath-schools of our Church. These statistics need no 
comment. Here in great part is the secret of our success 
and the resource of our strength. Her class-meetings for 
instruction in matters of experience; her Sabbath-schools, 
seminaries, and colleges, for her children and youth ; and 
her great Advocate family and publishing house for all, 
present a stupendous system — a system of appliances for 
sending light and influence every-where. 



SEMI-CENTENNIAL SERMON. 389 

4. The secret of her success has been, in great part, 
found in the fact that she has adhered with tenacity to the 
pure teaching of the Gospel, and has given its vitalizing 
truths constant prominence. 

At the time that Methodism arose the creed of the Es- 
tablished Church of Great Britain, as preached, differed 
widely from her faith as found in her books. Wesley 
found the pure doctrines of the Bible in the standard au- 
thors of the Church and preached them; but they were new 
doctrines to many of the Established clergy. How remark- 
ably this is true may appear from the following extract 
from an English Review, edited by a clergyman of the 
Church of England at the time that Wesley and helpers 
were having such grand success in leading the people to the 
Savior. The article from which I quote was on the causes 
of the "increase of Methodism." It presents the following 
grave charges against the Methodists : 

"1. The Methodists believe in a special Providence. 2. 
They believe in internal emotions wrought by the Spirit of 
God; that is, that the Spirit of God does produce spiritual 
emotions in the heart. 3. They are opposed to theaters, call- 
ing them hot-beds of vice, and to cards, dancing, and par- 
ties of pleasure. 4. They preach salvation by faith alone, 
and not by the works of righteousness. 5. They are desir- 
ous of making men more religious than the constitution of 
human nature warrants, 6. The doctrine of the Methodists 
is calculated to give power and influence among the poor." 

The reviewer goes on to say, that " if this fanaticism 
continues, happiness will be destroyed, reason deserted, re- 
ligion banished, and a long period of grossest immorality, 
atheism, and debauchery will succeed." The writer was 
much at a loss to find a satisfactory plan for the cure of 
this fanaticism. He recommends, however, " to ply it with 
ridicule." Either the writer was so ignorant of the faith 



390 Arrp:NDix. 

of the Established Church as not to know that tlic doctrines 
which he charcod upon Methodists were all round in the 
liturgy as well as in the Bible, or else he was so corrupt 
as to try to mislead the people and excite unwarranted lios- 
tility against the earnest men who were aecomj)lishing a 
wonderful reformation among the people. The accusation 
furnishes from the pen of an enemy a striking proof of the 
purity of tlie doctrines and the consistency of the morals 
of the early Methodists. 

In these respects, both in the Old and New World, has 
the Church of Wesley borne the same testimony. She has 
published from her pulpits, and in her standard writings 
and current periodicals, the depravity of man's nature, 
redemption by the Lord Jesus Christ, justification by 
faith, regeneration by the operation of the Spirit, the di- 
rect witness of the Spirit to the soul's relation to God, 
the completion of the work of sanctification in the full 
salvation of the soul. She has sounded the invitations 
of the Gospel to all as redeemed sinners ; she has warned 
all of the danger to which they are exposed while neglect- 
ing the invitations of the Gospel ; and while she has taught 
all Christians that it is their privilege and duty to be made 
perfect in love in the present life, she has faithfully warned 
them of the danger of making shipwreck of faith and of 
failing of the grace of God. She has uniformly set forth 
Christ Jesus, the God-man, the Savior of sinners, as the 
Alpha and Omega — the beginning and the end — the foun- 
dation and top-stone of faith, and hope, and joy. Her 
trumpets have given no feeble or uncertain sound. 

In the year 1833 Melville B. Cox carried these doctrines 
to Africa, and after planting the banner of the Gospel truth 
firmly, he laid his bones beneath the sods of that distant 
continent, connecting forever the heart of the Church with 
the salvation of the millions of Africa. In 1833 Jason 



SEMI-CENTENNIAL SERMON. 391 

Lee and others carried these doctrines to the Flathead In- 
dians, beyond the Rocky Mountains. Her sons and daugh- 
ters have carried these doctrines to China and India, and 
to the decaying Churches of the land of Luther and the Re- 
formers. Her great array of itinerants at home have sounded 
them from mountain to mountain, from valley to valley, 
from prairie to prairie, over all this wide continent — all 
preaching Christ Jesus; in him a present, free, and full sal- 
vation ; without him, no salvation at all. For a time the 
opposition of those who advocated predestination and limited 
atonement was active and positive. But long since that 
conflict has virtually ended, and nearly all the preachers of 
the Gospel in these States join in sounding the "whosoever" 
invitation in every pulpit and every place. It is a fact that 
has challenged attention and admiration, that while no other 
branch of the Church has been as lenient in doctrinal 
requisitions for Church membership, no other branch of 
the Church has had such unity of faith among her members, 
and such freedom from doctrinal wranglings and schisms. 
As she has not been ashamed of the Gospel, "which is the 
power of God unto salvation," so the Author of the Gos- 
pel has not been ashamed of her, and has given her won- 
derful success in the propagation of a pure faith. 

5. The secret of her strength has been found in part in 
her adherence to the doctrine of holiness, and the distinct 
and earnest manner in which she has urged its experience 
upon all her members as being attainable in the present 
life, and as being the duty of all ministers and members, as 
a preparation for the successful accompli?^hment of their 
mission. 

In the primitive Church, the disciples, by the command 
of the Master, tarried at Jerusalem to be endued with 
power from on high. So did 3Ir. We>^loy and his early co- 
luborcrs tarry for the same baptism. In the Conference of 



392 APPENDIX. 

1765, Ji little more than one hundred years a;:;o, Mr. Wes- 
ley a^ks the question, What was the rise of Methodism? 
and answers the question thus: "In 1720 my brother and 
I read the ]5ible; saw inward and outward holuicss therein; 
followed after it, and incited others to do so. In 1737 wc 
saw that holiness eomes by faifh. In 1738 we saw that we 
must be justified before we are sanctified; but still holiness 
was our point — inward and outward holiness. God then 
thrust us out to raise up a holy people." The writings of 
Mr. Wesley and other early Methodists furnish frequent 
illustrations of the earnestness with which the people sought 
this experience and the zeal with which the preachers urged 
it, and of the pentecostal baptism which they from time to 
time received. January 1, 1739, Messrs. Ingham, White- 
field, Charles Wesley, and about sixty others, at a confer- 
ence with Mr. Wesley at Fetter-Lane, about three o'clock in 
the morning, while they continued instant in prayer, the 
power of God came mightily upon them, insomuch that 
many cried out for exceeding joy, and many fell to. the 
ground. As soon as they recovered a little from the awe 
and amazement which the presence of the Divine Majesty 
had inspired, they thus broke out with one voice, saying, 
"We praise thee, God; we acknowledge thee to be the 
Lord." Whiteficld records a conference of some seven of 
these "despised Methodist" preachers not long after. They 
continued in prayer till three o'clock, and then departed 
with the full conviction that "God was about to do great 
things among us." How gloriously that "full conviction" 
has been realized, is shown in the remarkable biographies 
of such private members as William Carvosso and Hester 
Ann Rogers, and such ministers as Fletcher and a host of 

others. 

The Church has never retired this doctrine from its 
prominent position, or lowered the standard set up at the 



SEMI-CENTENNIAL SERMON 303 

beginning. Doubtless her continuous revivals for a century 
and a half are largely attributable to this. There is some- 
thing in holiness that profoundly impresses the world. 
When the hearer is penetrated with the conviction that the 
one who prays, or preaches, or exhorts is really holy, or is 
groaning after holiness, the prayer, the sermon, the exhor- 
tation is clothed with power. 

The world may be entertained by the sweet-toned instru- 
ment, delighted by the golden-tongued preacher, and influ- 
enced in some respects by wealth and social position ; but 
if there is no soil of holiness underlying it all ; no spirit 
of holiness permeating it all ; no inspiration of holiness in- 
spiring it all, it will fail to assault successfully the citadel 
of the soul. But where these really are, God will be recog- 
nized, and the presence and power of his Church confessed. 

Thank God ! the fire of holiness still flames upon the 
altars of Methodism. Her hosts still sing the holiness- 
inspiring lyrics of Charles "Wesley ; they still utter prayers 
panting after holiness as did the sainted Fletcher. Her 
ministers still recognize it as the mission of Methodism to 
spread Scripture holiness over all lands. The class-leader 
presses it upon the members in the social meetings. And 
as each candidate for holy orders stands before the Confer- 
ence the Bishop asks him whether he is groaning after full 
redemption, and whether he expects to be made perfect in 

this life ? 

In this position of the Church touching the doctrine and 
experience of holiness is doubtless found, in great part, the 
secret of her success, and here will continue to be the hid- 
ings of her power. 

I must now hasten to close. We have glanced briefly at 
some of the fticts of the past of Methodism. We are not 
ashamed of her history. Distinguished divines of other 
communions have been lavish in their praises of our enter- 



304 APPENDIX. 

prises anrl success, niul illustrious statesmen liave pro- 
nounced glowing eulogies upon our denomination. Dr. 
Chalmers pronounced Methodism to be " Christianity in 
earnest;" and the lamented Lincoln publicly recognized tlie 
^lethodist Episcopal Church as leading the Cliurches of tlie 
nation in patriotism and prayers. ]>ut let us be careful 
that we be not exalted above measure. Do all who carry 
the name of Methodist bring credit to that name? Arc 
there not some who ignore the class-meeting, and arc 
strangers to the prayer-meeting? Are there not some who 
give themselves irregularly and reluctantly, if at all, to the 
labor of the Sabbath-school? Are there not some who de- 
vote but little if any of their money to the support of the 
Methodist press or pulpit, or the educational or missionary 
enterprises of the Church? Would that each member of 
the Church, while reading her wonderful history, would in- 
quire, "What have I done to bring about these grand re- 
sults?" And if there is any one who has been a clog upon 
the wheel instead of a spoke in it, who has been a hinder- 
ance instead of a help, let such a one lay it to heart. 
Methodists will not be commended in the great day for 
what Methodism has done, but each individual will be com- 
mended or condemned in proportion as the individual has 
been faithful or false to responsibility. Had all our min- 
isters and members fully met their covenant obligations, 
our showing would have been far beyond what it is to-day. 
We will leave this train of thought for those to whom it 
may be appropriate. 

We are about to step upon the threshold of the second 
century of American Methodism. Not one of you, my 
brethren, will live to see its close. The majority of you 
will close your labors before it has run one-fourth of its 
course. I can hardly hope more than to see its commence- 
ment ; and yet each of us in fancy casts the horoscope of 



SEMI-CENTENNIAL SERMON. 395 

the century, and we see the teeming millioDS that sliall people 
this continent in 19GG. In less than forty years, according 
to the calculations of one Church historian, more than one 
hundred millions of souls will people this land — a popula- 
tion equal to the present aggregate population of England, 
France, Switzerland, Spain, Portugal, Sweden, and Denmark. 
In about sixty-six years, says the same writer — Stevens's 
Cent. Vol., p. 227 — this mighty mass of people will have 
swollen to the stupendous aggregate of 246,000,000, equal- 
ing the present population of all Europe. We shall not 
follow these calculations further, but raise the question, 
Shall we as a Church keep pace with this coming popula- 
tion ? If such fond anticipations are realized, it will be 
because you and your successors are faithful to your trust. 
The heir to fortune having received it without sacrifice or 
effort upon his part, frequently settles down to its enjoy- 
ment, and not only fails to add to his inheritance, but scat- 
ters it. It may be so with our successors. Our earnest 
and powerful ministrations may die down into pompous dull 
formalities, such as the Church Establishment of England 
was in the days of Wesley, as compared with the ministry 
of Latimer, and Cranmer, and Ridley ; such may be the 
Methodist ministry of 1966 as compared with its gushing, 
joyous, and powerful laborers of to-day. If we would write 
"success" upon the history of the oncoming century, let 
us adhere steadfastly to our doctrines, and our Discipline. 
We should cling to our doctrines because they are the 
vitalizing truths of the Gospel ; we should cling to our Dis- 
cipline, because a hundred years of trial has demonstrated 
its wonderful adaptation and efficiency. 

It is with hesitancy and trembling, my brethren, that I 
detain you with a single word of exhortation ; and yet, if I 
do not do it now, it is not probable that I shall ever here- 
after. My life-work is nearly done — would that it liad been 



30G APPENDIX. 

done better! yet f^ucli is my reliaiiec uj»oii tlie atoiiciiieiit of 
my Savior, and such my anticipations of tlio continued suc- 
cesses that shall crown your labors, that I am ready to say 
with Simeon, "Now lettest thou thy servant depart in peace, 
lur mine eyes have seen thy salvation." My soul pants and 
prays that the successes of the next century shall be much 
more abundant than those of the past; and surely this 
centenary year gives rich promise of it. What sweeping 
revivals, what extraordinary ingatherings, what extensive 
liberality has marked this year of jubilee ! Since I put my 
pen to paper in the preparation of this discourse, thousands 
have joined the Church, and millions of dollars have been 
laid on her altars as a thank-offering, by her grateful peo- 
ple. One of our eloquent Bishops, catching the inspiration 
of those facts, exclaims, " I wish I had the power to bring 
before this congregation the grandeur of the position. Why, 
sir, we have a million of soldiers in the field ; we have 
another million of cadets in our Sunday-schools ; we have 
thirteen thousand recruiting stations and eight thousand re- 
cruiting oflScers. There is not a district or circuit between 
the two oceans that is not organized and moving in the 
work. Why, sir, in this organization there is a powder to 
move the world ; and when this marshaled host shall make 
their stately steppings on the earth, depend upon it they 
will shake the very gates of hell." (Bishop Janes.) 

And now, my brethren, if our responsibility is to be meas- 
ured by our ability, the summit on which we stand to-day, 
while the eyes of earth, and heaven, and hell are upon us, 
is awful as well as glorious. Let us not forget that it was 
upon that high and holy place, the " pinnacle of the tem- 
ple," that Satan thrust sorely at our Master. 

May the blessing of the God of Wesley and of Asbury 
abide in your habitations and your sanctuaries through all 
the generations to come ! Amen ! ^