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HINDI GRAMMAR 



BY 



EDWIN GREAVES 

LONDON MISSIONARY SOCIETY, BENARES 




PRINTED AT THE INDIAN PRESS. Ltd. 

1921 






i^. 



PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY APURVA KRISHNA BOSE, 
AT THE INDIAN PRESS, LTD., ALLAHABAD. 



5r- '• 



CORRIGENDA. 

(All that can be offered in the way of extenuation 
for this lon^ Corrigenda is the fact that the author was 
in England while the Grammar was passing through the 
Press in Allahabad, consequently correction of proofs 
was very limited.) 



Page. 


Line. 


hoR 


KBAD. 




7 


2 




r 


16 


19 


•^^x 


5^ 


18 


2-1 


o 


of 


32 .. 


14 


The second I^ 


is badly printed 


34 


2 


rost 


frost 


49 


1 


omit " so" 


• 


52 


last 


* 


• 


58 


10 




3%*t 


62 


24 


%TCT sig; 


IcrcV z\^ 


75 


heading 


Faminine 


Feminine, 


i 


80 


7 


W^^^j book un( 


der second colun^ 


m 


84 


11 


Class 1 


Class II 




92 


12 


Genetive 


Genitive 




101 


heading 


Cases 


Case 




101 


last 


% 


%T 




108 


10 


^^ 


f^ 





2 



Page 


Line 


For 


Read. 


119 


3 


regard 


regarded 


120 


22 


Genetive 


Genitive 


126 


14 


more 


more more 


129 


heading 


^ompound 


Compound 


133 


8 


43 


143 


153 


7 


prefixes 


suffixes 


158 


5 


^^^\, 


^^^T. 


162 


9 


alone 


alone is 


175 


17 


n essitates 


necessitate s 


175 


23 


Th 


The 


185 


heading 


^oerelative 


Correlative 


185 


18 


konvv 


know 


186 


23 


Wha 


What 


.188 


19 


% jJTlW't. 


% m^^ ? 


197 


17 


^ 


f^ 



(As the later printed sheets did not reach Enpland 
in time, these corrections could only be carried as .ar 
as page 208.— E. G.) 




PREFACE. 



Dr. Kellogg's " Grammar of the Hindi Language " 
is the standard work on the subject and occupies a position 
of unquestioned supremacy. The very fulness of the work, 
however, detracts somewhat from its value for a student 
commencing the study of Hindi, and thus there is room for a 
Grammar of less pretentious size and scope. 

In 1896, my " Grammar of Modern Hindi " was published 
by the .te Dr. Lazarus at his "Medical Hall Press," Benares. 
Another edition, revised and slightly enlarged, was published 
at the same Press in 1908. Finding that the second edition 
was nearly exhausted, I decided not to revise and republish 
the old work but to prepare a new Grammar. Over 20 years 
of further residence and work in India ought, I felt, to enable 
me t produce a better book. Such an attempt has been 
made. A comparison of the two Grammars will make 
ma? ifest the fact that there are great differences in the two 
books, and it is hoped that these changes are for the better 
in it way of clearness and simplicity. 

Apart from a few notes on the Braj Bhasha, no attempt 
has been made to treat of dialectical differences, and Urdu 
has not been included. The language dealt with is modern 
Hindi in the form that many of its best friends are endeavour- 
ing to standardize it, a self-respecting Hindi which is not for 
ever parading its aristocratic ancestry by filling its pages 
with Sanskrit words, nor affecting modernity by the cultiva- 
tion of Persian vocabulary and idioms. 



IV PREFACE. 

The hope is entertained that the present volume may 
more than fill the place of the book which has done ever 
20 years of service and may now be allowed to retire 

EDWIN GREAVES. 



CONTENTS. 



Chapter I. 

The Hindi Language 

Hindi, Urdu, Hindustani ... 
Modern Hindi 
Tatsamas and Tadbhavas 

Chapter II. 

The Hindi Alphabet 



PAGE. 



SECTION. 



1 

2 
3 



Hindi terms ... 




4 


Hindi and Sanskrit Alphabets 




5 


Hindi letters ... 


6 


, 7 


Pronunciation: Vowels ... 




8 


Visarg ... 




9 


Anusvar and Anunasik 




10 


Consonants. Nasals 




11 


Aspirated letters 




12 


General ... 




13 


Cerebrals and Dentals 




13 


Classification of letters ... 




14 


The Hindi Syllable 




15 


Closed Consonants 




16 


Initial, Medial and Final forms of Vowels 


17, 


18 


Conjuncts 


19, 


20 


Sandhi 


21- 


-23 


Other Changes of letters ... 




24 


Abbreviations... 




25 


Punctuation ... 




26 


Accent 


27, 


28 


Other Alphabets. Kaithi 


29. 


30 



VI 



CONTENTS. 



Chapter III. 



PAGE, SECTION, 



Divisions of Hindi Grammar. Parts of 

Speech. Substitutes for the Article 46 
Hindi terms ... 
Method of Hindi Grammarians 
Main Divisions of Hindi Grammar 
Parts of Speech 
Substitutes for the Article 

Chapter IV. 

Declension of Nouns, Pronouns and 

Adjectives. The Eight Cases ... 52 

Hindi terms ... ... --... 

The Eight Cases 
Inflectional changes 
Case Endings 

Chapter V. 

The Noun ... ... ... 58 

Hindi terms ... 

Divisions of Words and Nouns 

Gender, Number, Cases, Compound Nouns 

Gender 

Masculine. According to ending ... 
,, According to meaning 

Feminine. According to ending ... 

Exceptions 

Gender indicated by different words 

Gender of Compound Nouns 

Gender of Urdu Nouns 
Number 

The Four Declensions of Nouns ... 

Irregularities 



3\a 

3lb 

32 

33 

34 



35 

36—44 

45 

46, 47 



48a 

48/;, 49 

50 

51—53 

54—60 

61—65 

66—76 

77, 78 

79 

80 

81 

82 

83—88 

89b 



CONTENTS. VII 

PAGE. SECTION. 

Special uses of Singular and Plural 90, 91 

Formation of Plural by jiuj, ^^, 51^ 92 

The Eight Cases. Classification ,.. 93 

Table of Declensions ..., ... 94 

Nominative ... ... 95, 96 

Accusative... ... ... 97 — 101 

L Dative ... ... ... 102—105 

Instrumental ... ... 106 

Ablative ... ... ... 107 

Genitive ... ... ... 108—128 

u Locative ... ... ... 129—132 

;.,Vocative ... ... ... 133 

Compound Nouns ... ... 134 — 140 

Chapter VI. 

Syntax ... ... ... 132 

Agreement of Noun, etc., with Verb ... 141 

Nominative and Verb ... ... 142, 143 

Accusative and Verb ... ... 144 

Accusative and Adjective or Participle 145 

Nouns in Oblique Cases and Case Signs 146 

Order of Words in Sentences ... 147 

Oratio di recta and Oratio ohliqua ... 148 

Repetition of Words ... ... 149—152 

Chapter VII. 

The Adjective ... .,^ ... 150 153 

Inflected Adjectives ... ... 154 

Uninflected Adjectives ... ... 155 

«T, ^^m, silfl^, ^ ... ... 156—161 

Comparison of Adjectives ... 162 



Vni CONTENTS. 

Chapter VIII. 

PACE. SECTION. 

The Pronouns ... ... ... 160 163, 164 

1st and 2nd Personal Pronouns ... 165 — 170 

Pronoun to be used in addressing God 171 

Omission of Pronoun ... ... 172 

Demonstrative and 3rd Personal Pronouns 173 — 175 

Honorific and Reflexive. ... ... 176 — 179 

fflrsi, mmi ... ... ... iso, isi 

Relative, Correlative and Interrogative 182 — 187 

Indefinite ^t| and ^^ ... ... 188, 189 

Compound Pronouns ... ... 190 

Chapter IX. 

Pronominal Adjectives ... ' ... 192 191, 192 

Pronominal Adjectives of Quantity or Number. 193 

Quality ... 194 

Other kindred Adjectives... ... I95 

Chapter X. 

The Verb ... ... . 197 

Technical terms ... ... igg 

Paradigms ... ... ... 197 

Remarks on ... .. 198 

The Substantive Verb " to be," ... 199 

5>JII .-. .-. ... 200 

Intransitive Verb ending in a conson- 
ant, goRI ... ... 201 

Transitive Verb ending in a consonant, 

c^^SI'lT ■•• '.• ••• AyjJ, 

Intransitive Verb, with an open stem, 

(?n) wsn ... ... 203 

Note on the Verb 5ii;iT... ... 204 



CONTENTS. IX 

PAGE. SECTION. 

Transitive Verb, with an open stem, 

(sil)f^^RI ... 205 

Transitive Verb ^^T .-• ••• 206 

Transitive Verb ^^qi ... ... 207 

The Passive Verb ... ... 208 

Classification of Verbs 

According to meaning and usage ... 209 

According to form ... ... 210 

Verb stems ... ... ^.. 211 

Moods and Tenses ... ... 212 

Tenses formed from the Perfect Parti- 
ciple, and Nom. with % ... 213 
Tenses formed from the Perfect Parti 

ciple, and Nom. not used with % .., 214 

General view of the Tenses: Stem ... 215 

Parts of a Verb ... ... 216 

Tenses and other parts of the Verb ... 217 

The Infinitive... ... ... 218 

As a Verbal Noun ... ... 219 

^-— Compounded with another Verb... 220 

As an Imperative ... ... 221 

Imperfect and Perfect Participles ... 222 

With or without |?iT ... 223 

Various uses of the Participles ... 224 

The Imperfect Participle ... 225 

The Perfect Participle... ... 226 

The Conjunctive Participle ... 227—230 

The Noun of Agency ... ... 231 

The Contingent Future •- 232—237 

The Absolute Future ... ... 238—242 

The Imperative ... ... 243 

The Twelve Tenses from the Participles 244 



CONTENTS. 



PACK 

The Indefinite Imperfect ... 

The Indefinite Perfect 

The Present Imperfect 

Perfect 

The Past Imperfect 

Perfect 

The Contingent Imperfect 

Perfect ... 

The Presumptive Imperfect 

Perfect ••• 

The Past Contingent Imperfect ••. ^ 

Perfect ••• J 

The Impersonal Verb 

The Passive-Neuter Verbs -•• 
Causal Verbs 

Formation of ••• 
Verbs formed from Nouns 
Onomatopoetic Verbs 
Compound Verbs 

Close Compound Verbs... 

Synonymous and Alliterative Com- 
pound Verbs 

Causal Compound Verbs 

Loose Compound Verbs ... 

^^'^T, 5^^T, ^^m 

t^T, TRT, ^?m 

Noun. Verbal Compound Verbs 
Syntax of the Verb... 

CHAPTER XI. 

Prefixes and Suffixes. Verbal and other 

Compounded Nouns ... 345 313 321 



SECTION. 

245—251 
252—256 
257 
258 
259 
2(S0 
261 
262 
263 
264 

265—267 

268 

269, 270 
271—273 
274—278 
279 
280 
281—306 
282—289 

290 
291 
292—304 
294—296 
297, 298 
299-304 
305, 306 
307—312 



CONTENTS. Xt 

PAGE. SECTION. 

Prefixes ••• .•• ... 3136 

Suffixes ... ... ... 314 

Verbal Nouns. ^^??l ... ... 315 

Noun Compounds, ^f^ • • ••• ^^^ 

CHAPTER XII. 

Adverbs ... ... 358 322 330 

Pronominal Adverbs ... ... 324 

Adverbs of Place and Direction ••• 325 

Time... ... ... 326 

Manner ... ... 327 

De^'ree ... ... 328 

Miscellaneous Adverbs ... ... 329 

Adverbial Phrases... ... ... 3 30 

CHAPTER XIll. 

Postpositions -•• ... 373 331 

CHAPTER XIV. 

Conjunctions ... ... 385 332—339 

CHAPTER XV. 

Interjections ... ... 391 340 — 342 

CHAPTER XVI. 

Numbers, Divisions of Time, Weights and 

Measures ... ... 395 343-362 

Numbers ... ... ... 344—352 

Nubmers, Cardinal and Ordinal ... 344 — 346 

Proportionals, Collectives ... ... 347 — 350 

Idiomatic use of Numbers ... ... 351 

Fractions ••• ... ... 352 

Divisions of Time ... . . ... 353 — 357 

General Names ••• ... 353 — 356 

Eras and Epochs ... ... 357 



Xll CONTENTS. 

PAGE. SECTION. 

Weights and Measures ... ^.. 358-360 

Weights ... ... 358 

Measures of Length ... ... 359 

Land Measures ... ... 360 

Coinage ... ... ... 361 

Addition, Subtraction, etc. ... 362 

Chapter XVII. 

Prosody ... ... . 426 363—385 

Technical Terms ... ... 363 

Hindi Poetry . 364 

vim and f^^m ... .. 365 

W ... ... 366 

^^f^R. Metaphors and Figures of Speech 367 

^^etre ... ... . sgg 

z(\^^ and m^^ ... . 369 

^JJlf ... . . ... 370 

TT^ ... ... ... 371 

g?lffTl and JTif^^ ^^ ... ... 372 

Caesura or Pause, R[%Tm and qf^. ... 373 

^^ ... ... ... 374 

Rhyme, 5^ or ^^PrT ... ... 375 

Lucky and Unlucky Letters ... 376 

Dialects used in Poetry ... ... 377 

Divisions of lines, etc. ... ... 378 

Metres .. . . . 379 

^^rfrT ... ... ... 380 

^f^TT ... ... ... 380 

JIIH^^J^ ... ... ... 381 

Doha ... ... ... 382 



CONTENTS. XUl 

PAGE. SECTION. 

Soratha ... ... ... 383 

Chaupai ... •• ... 384 

Kundaliya ... ... ... 385 

Chapter XVIH. 

Braj Bhasha ... ... ... -159 

Appendix. — Hindi Grammatical Terms ... 469 

English Index ... ... 480 

Hindi Index ... ... ... 499 



Chapter I. 

THE HINDI LANOUAGE. 

1. Hindi, Urdu, Hindustani. 

These three names are used very loosely by many 
writers and speakers, and possibly no definitions are 
possible which will compel general acceptance. 

It might be wise to discard the use of the word 
Hindustani as applied to literature and confine its appli- 
cation to the language so widely spoken throughout India 
and employed in the ordinary affairs of business and 
social life. Most of the words included in the vocabulary 
of this lingua franca are common to both Hindi and 
Urdu. 

Hindustani might, with some measure of fitness, 
be used of one class of literature affected by certain 
writers who employ a vocabulary which is largely Urdu, 
but have the works printed in the Nagari character. 

Hindi may stand for those forms of the language 
which are the outcome of the languages which the 
early Aryan settlers brought with them, combined with, 
and affected by, the languages of Madhya-desh or 
Mid-India. It would seem that from the commingling 



2 THE HINDI LANGUAGE. SECT. 1. 

of these came into being various so-called Prakrits 
(and Sanskrit). From the former of these were evolved 
what Sir George Grierson terms the Apabranshas (i.e., 
fallen or corrupted ). Prakrit may be taken to mean 
" natural " or " colloquial " as contrasted with Sanskrit 
which is the polished language burnished up for liter- 
ary purposes. The Apabranshas were later modifica- 
tions of the Prakrits, and from these came the various 
forms of Hindi current since, say, about the twelfth 
century. 

Urdu may be appropriately used of the language in 
which the verbs and many other words are common to 
both Urdu and Hindi, but are supplemented by a con- 
siderable vocabulary of Persian or Arabic origin. Urdu 
is generally printed in the Persian character, but quite 
a considerable literature has grown up, largely used by 
the Christian communities, which is printed in the 
Roman character. 
2. Modern Hindi. 

In the beginning of the 18th century two pundits in 
Calcutta, Lallu Ji Lai and Sadal Misra, instructed and 
inspired by the European head of the college in which 
they were professors, initiated, or to speak more exactly, 
developed, a movement which is largely responsible for 
the existence of modern Hindi. The endeavour was made 
to draw on the Prakrits or Apabranshas and, to some 



SECT. 2. THE HINDI LANGUAGE. 6 

extent, on Sanskrit, for the vocabulary, and to exclude, 
as far as practicable, Persian and Arabic words not 
already naturalized. Combined with this was the endea- 
vour to standardise certain verbal and other forms in- 
stead of perpetuating dialectical differences. 

In recent times Hindi has suffered not a little in the 
house of those of its friends who are eager to crowd their 
pages with pure Sanskrit words. A few parade the range 
of their learning by introducing Persian and Arabic 
words, thus still further increasing the trials of their 
readers. 

The Prakrits and their descendants differed widely 
in different parts of India, The aim of modern writers, 
more or less consistently carried out, is to perfect and 
make current a language freed from provincialisms and 
suited to be a literary vehicle for the use of all who 
speak any of the dialects of Hindi. 

The whole question of the rise of Hindi is discussed 
with great ability, though necessarily not very fully, 
by Sir George Grierson in his chapter on the " Languages 
of India," in Vol. I of " The Indian Empire" — one of the 
four volumes written as introductory to the Imperial 
Gazetteer of India. There is also an interesting little 
book on the subject in Hindi, " Hindi bhasha ki Utapatti " 
(The Birth of Hindi), by Pundit Mahabir Prasad, 
published at The Indian Press, Allahabad. 



4 THE HINDI LANGUAGE. SECT. 2. 

It should be recognized that the Hindi represented 
in this Grammar is to some extent an artificial language 
used chiefly in literature. It is the language which 
writers are endeavouring to make the common literary 
medium for all the Hindi-speaking peoples. The collo- 
quials which they use in their own homes and in social 
intercourse may differ widely from this and vary much 
in different parts of even the same Province. For 
literary purposes, however, the language dealt with in 
this Grammar may, be regarded as generally accepted 
not only in the United Provinces, but also in Bihar, 
Central India and Rajputana. 

By some this language has been called High Hindi, 
but this term should rather be kept sacred for the pro- 
ductions of those who delight to cram their pages with 
high-sounding Sanskrit words. 

Up to the time of Lallu Ji nearly all, and even 
since then many, works were written in verse. In these 
the language is very different from modern prose. The 
Braj Bhasha, Avadhi and other dialects were used. The 
Sur Sagar of Silr Das and the Ramayan (Ramcharit 
Manas; of Tulsi Das stand out as two great models of 
this class of literature. 

During recent years the endeavour has been made 
to popularise poetry written in the standardised modern 
Hindi, but even to the ear of a foreigner the successes, 



SECT, 2. THE HINDI LANGUAGE. 5 

achieved up to the present, appear doubtful, the verses 
lack the swing and sweetness of the poetry written in 
the dialectical forms. However, the " Khari boli" poetry 
has probably come to stay. 

The study of the Hindi given in this Grammar is 
essential for every student of Hindi, as it is increasingly 
the standard language. Every one, however, who is 
brought into contact with the people, especially in rural 
districts, will have to familiarise himself with the dialect 
of the District in which his lot is cast. 
3. Tatsamas and Tadbhavas. 

Words closely akin to the Sanskrit forms are called 
Tatsamas cRH^ (like that). The term Tadbhavas ^"^ 
{produced from that) is applied to those words which 
have been modified from their original forms in their 
transition through the Prakrits and Apabranshas. 

Purism in Hindi is sheer folly. Words of Persian 
and Arabic origin, and words imported also from English 
and other languages, have made their home in Hindi, 
and it is futile to try and oust them from their place. 
Pedants, who have struggled to exclude all such words 
and to supply their places by unfamiliar Sanskrit words 
or manufactured compounds, have done not a little to 
stay the progress of Hindi. The wise writer or speaker 
is the man who selects with discrimination his words 
from the already available material. There is a large 



6 THH HINDI LANGUAGE. SECT. 3. 

vocabulary awaiting his use, furnishing words which 
will probably well express his meaning and convey it to 
the ordinary reader or listener. 



Chapter 11. 
THE HINDI ALPHABET. 









Alphabet. 

A group of related 5 conso- 
nants ; gutturals, palatals, 
etc. 

Letter. 

Its form. 

Its pronunciation. 

The part of the mouth from 
which the sound is pro- 
duced. 

^^^ Vowel. 

o?r5T*f Consonant. 

^jl'a-^gfY'^ ( * ) Anusvar or Nasal. 

■f^p^ The name of the sign ( ' ) 

>M*l«i iRiNi ( ) Anunasik or Nasalization. 

^?5f^?^ o r ^^^^-^ The sign (^ ) 

j^ ^Tf ( *, ) Visarg. The final aspiration. 

-rr-r A consonant with no vowel 

sound following it. A 
closed consonant. 



S THE HINDI ALPHABET. SECT 4. 

S^?^ A word terminating with a 

closed consonant. 
■^^^ { \ The sign under the conso- 

nant to indicate that it is 
"hal." 

■sr^^ Short vovvei. 

^Tf Long „ 

tf^ Extra long vowel. 

j |^g^[ A syllable or " instant." 

^^TT ^^^ JoJnJog of two or more 

consonants. 
tl^rh ^IT^nC o*" Compound consonant thus 

W^TfiT^i joined. 

5, The Hindi Alphabet differs but slightly from the 
Sanskrit. Indian grammarians are not unanimous 
in their views as to the number of the letters. 
For practical purposes, the number of the letters may 
be taken as 46, i.e., 1 1 vowels and 35 consonants. 
The 3 vowels ^ ^ ^ ri, Iri and Iri, are pure Sans- 
krit and have no place in Hindi. ^ and ^ are added 
to the consonants, as they are quite distinct in sound 
from ^ and ^. Anusvar, Anunasik and Visarg are 
not strictly letters, and are therefore not included in 
the 46. . 



SECT. 6. 



THE HINDI ALPHABET. 



THE HINDI ALPHABET. 



«. The Vowels. 






Initial Form. 


Medial or Final 

Form. . ^ 


Initial. 


Medial or Final 


a. ^ 


(unwritten) 


a 5n 


T 


'• ^ 


f 


'■ i 


■^ . 


u. 3 


N» 


U. ^ 


e\ _, 


ri. ^ 
e. ^ 




ai. '^ 


•^ 



o. 



au 



Nasal ( ^g^^?: ) 
Nasalization (»H«THIlf%^) 
Final aspiration ( T%'^r^ ) J 
7. Consonants. 



^ 



Gutturals 

Palatals 

Cerebrals 

Dentals 
Labials 



^ k T^ Uh IT g ^ gh "^ 11 
^ ch ^ chh "ST j ^ ,jh ^ h 
Z ^ '3 f'h ^ d ^ dh l|f n 



^ r ^ rh 

  ^ 

■q p ^ ph ^ b Vr bh ^m 



T 

t 

r 



Semi-Vowels^ y T f ^ ' 
Sibilants '^ sh TST sh ^ s 
Aspirate ^ h 



^ w or V 



c 



^^ THE HINDI ALPHABET. SECT. 7. 

By the use of a dot written under a letter, a few 
other sounds are indicated. 

^ q 3^ kh IT gh ^ z -qj f 

These five stand for sounds found in Urdu words ; 

^ for J)- ; Tf for ^ ; IT for ^; y[ ior y ^ and j ; 

t|? for o. The last two are fairly represented by 

the English z and /; the first 3 are gutturals having 

no equivalents in English. 

'^ and ^ or ^ are sometimes included as letters 
of the alphabet, but this is incorrect ; they are conjunct 
letters: ^ = ^ + ^ and "^ = ^ + 1^. 

Modified forms of some of the letters are used in 

some fonts of type, e.^^., 3? for ^, <fr for VT, ^ , 

for ^ etc. 

PRONUNCIATION. 

8. Pronunciation of Vowels. 

In seeking to acquire a correct pronunciation, it 
may be well to consider three points : 1. The pronun- 
ciation must be learned from the lips of an Indian 
teacher : watching attentively the speaker as well as 
listening to the sounds, is a matter of much importance ; 
every endeavour should be made to ascertain HOW the 
sounds are made, where the tongue is placed, etc. 
2. The pronunciation of the letters should be learned as 
the letters occur in words. 3. It is still better to group 



SECT. 8. 



PRONUNCIATION. 



u 



the words in phrases or short sentences, for sounds do 
not assume their true balance and power until they take 
their place as parts of words and sentences. What 
foreigner would learn the pronunciation of " the "' until 
he had learned it as part of a sentence ? 

The Hindi alphabet is peculiarly scientific, as will be 
discovered by carefully studying the " classification of 
letters " chart given later on. Phonetics is no modern 
discovery in India. 

It should be noted that each Hindi letter has its own 
proper sound, there is not one symbol for several differ- 
ent sounds as in English, e.g., how different is the sound 
of a in such words as lad, lace, lard, call. 

While insisting on the importance of what has been 
written above about learning the sounds from the lips of 
an Indian, a few remarks are offered on some of the 
sounds as subsidiary helps. 

^ represents a sound approximately like the 
English a in the words arise, avert or // in suggest. 



^TT is much like the a in the English father, mart. 



i 



3 
^ 
^ 



i 


... fit, xcrist. 


ee ov ea 


... feel, seat. 


u or oo 


. . . put, foot. 


00 ... 


. . . pool, fool. 


ri ... 


... drink, bring 



12 THE HINDI ALPHABET. SECT. 8. 

The vowels^ and Sjf^ require great attention and 
care. It is sometimes stated that they correspond with 
the English «and o in such words assume and so. This 
is misleading, as the sounds mentioned in English are 
much more drawled than the Hindi ^ and ^ft; they 
commonly are pronounced in English with what is called 
the " glide," a prolongation of the vowel sound and a 
gradual dying away of it. In Hindi, though not clipped, 
these sounds are single and sustained until they sudden- 
ly close without any drawl. Possibly the first a in the 
phrase " Davidic Psalms/^ and o in the words opaque 
and oration are about as near as the English language 
will furnish. 

Let the student ask his pundit to repeat again and 
again the two phrases ^ ^ and ^ ^. It will at once 
be evident to the ear how very widely these sounds 
differ, not only in the consonants of the second, but in 
the vowels of both, from the English lay low and dado 
<room decoration ). 

$ ( ^ + ^ ) and ^TT ( ^rr 4- ^ ) somewhat 
approximate to the ai and on in the words aisle and stout; 
but in Hindi the amalgamation of the two elements of 
the diphthong seems to be more complete than in the 
English sounds, and the ^ and ^TT "^etain more of their 
power. The difference may be felt by listening to an 



SECT. 8. PRONUNCIATION. ' \'S 

Indian's pronunciation of g^ (7);///ocA-) and comparing 
this with the sound in English ais/c or pi /e, or ^pif:5T 
(boy) with the Eng. pound. 

When final in a word, after a consonant^ "? and ^ 
are sometimes very short, e.g., in such words as ^^^f^T 

The long vowels ^ and ^H" ^'^^ ^'^o very much 
shortened at times, especially in verse, e.^-.^fe ^Tf%. 
The shortening is so marked in some instances as to lead 
to the vowel being reckoned as short instead of long, 
(compare the sound with o in molest.) 

9, The Visarg can be easily disposed of. It is infrequent 
in Hindi. It can only be des cribed as an aspiration at the 
end of a syllable. It is almost like an English ha reversed, 
as though,"e.^., halloo, should be pronounced backwards ool- 
lah. The sound must be learned from an Indian speaker. 

As illustrations of its use, take XncT:^^. morning ; 
*M Tl :^^^ mind. 

10. Anusvar and Anunasik. 

Some would contend that both these are simply 

nasalizations of different degrees, and that Anusvar is 

distinct from the nasal letters. It seems, however, to 

\the writer that this is not so ; there are not two 

yiasalizations and the five nasal letters distinct from 

"•oth, bdt one nasalization (the Anunasik), and the 



14 THE HINDI ALPHABET. SECT. 10. 

five nasal letters which may be represented by the Anus- 
var at the option of the writer. The nasalization repre- 
sented by the Anunasik may vary in intensity ; but there 
is no room between them and the nasal letter sounds for 
another nasalization. That there are degrees of intensity 
in the nasalization, will be very evident if attention be 
given to the pronunciation of the three words, ^^. ^^1^1 
and >>| i^oil the nasalization increases in the order in 
which the words are given. 

The difficulty in this matter is increased by the fact 
that much inconsistency exists with reference to the 
writing and printing of Anusvar and Anunasik, Very 
frequently the former ( ) is found where the sound 
of the latter (^ ^ is correct. The student may be assured 
that there is little practical difficulty in the matter. 
After a short time it will be found that the correct pro- 
nunciation, nasal or nasalization, will come quite natur- 
ally and the reader will scarcely notice whether the 
Anusvar or Anunasik be printed. 

The use of Anusvar as the equivalent of one of the 
five nasal letters, must be treated in a separate paragraph. 
11. The Pronunciation of the Consonants. *■ 

The Five N's. Although these do not take the first ^l 
place among the consonants, it may be well to deal with of 
them at once so as to conclude the consideration of the ^^^ 
subject raised in para. 10. ■"^"* 

I i> an 



SBCl. 11. PRONUNCIATION. 15 

Five nasal letters may be regarded as an unneces- 
sarily large supply ; but a little consideration will disclose 
the fact that English comes little short of this though it 
is more economical in its symbols to represent them. 
The English " n " stands for :§: ^ and wf  " m " for 
"IT; the Hindi ^If has no eqivalent in English. 

It will be noticed that there is a nasal for each of 
the five groups of gutturals, palatals, etc. ; and the nasal 
naturally assumes its proper sound when joined to any of 
these letters. It is on this ground that in so many 
cases the special " n ' is not printed, but the more simple 
Anusvar used instead. This becomes, with the letter 
following it, a conjunct consonant, and the second letter 
decides the pronunciation to be given to the Anusvar. 

Some illustrations are appended which should be 
carefully practised with a pundit. 

^ with one of the gutturals. >Jl|ch ci mark ; 



a member of the body ; ^y(i^i to doze. Com- 
pare with these the English ink, longer. Note that in 
other words, such as »i| |ic( 't is Anunasik, not Anusvar; 
the sound is a nasalization, not a letter, 

5T with a palatal. "q"^^ a committee of five ; "^^ 

* * 

a bird; jsH^H. collyriiim ; ^THH", evening. As an il- 
lustration of the inconsistencies existing with reference 
to the use of the AnusvAr and the Anunasik, the words 
I 



16 THE HINDI ALPHABET. SECT. 11, 

• >& 

^^ and ^J^ may be noticed ; although, etymologically, 
very closely allied in ty^ the sound is unmistakeably 
the full nasal letter ; while in xyj^ as pronounced by 
most speakers, there is only a nasalization. 

TJI with cerebrals. In some words there is clearly 
a full nasal letter; e.g., "^RCT, a gotig; "S^W^y egg; 
\af4^tfl»H to empty out ; but in many cases the sound is 
only a nasalization : e.g., ^^ camel ; 6||<i,HI. to dis- 
tribute; ^SC\y ^" ^^^^5 1T?7, lip', TT^, ^'"o^ In the 
word 'S'^[«n. 't w*'^ be found that on the lips of some 
speakers, the sound is a full nasal letter, with others hardly 
more than a nasalization : very frequently the word be- 
comes ^S*TT» '" which case there is only a nasalization. 

With the two letters, ^ and ^. the sound is per- 

* • I 

•St 

haps always only a nasalization, i.e., Anunasik. ^X^ 
a hull ; §if^ or %T^XT, ^ gourd. 

vl" with the dentals. In this series there is some 

variation. In such words as ^<r^ a devotee or saint; 
T^^^ a path ; ^^^^ beautiful ; ^CT^^T, blind ; ^?>T^^ 
a pledge, there is a full nasal"; but in other words, such 
as c^lH, tcoth ; l\J^w{[ to bind, it is only a nasaliza- 
tion that is heard. 

With the labials, the full nasal T{ is often found, 
as in ^TTT^ ^ certain flower ; ^T^T^^ connection ;. 



SECT. 11. PRONUNCIATION. 17 

^jTVn^nTT '^ support. Compare the English impossible, 
impolite, immoderate. In English, however, the " n " is 
frequently not changed to " m " before a labial, e.g., 
unpolished, unborn, unburnt. 

In Hindi, before the labials, there is often only a 
nasalization, e.g.,'^X^^ a snake; ^"nTfTj ^o commit to 

the care of. 

With reference to the other letters. It will be 
found from the classification of letters to which group any 
letter belongs, the Anusvar before a letter commonly 
assumes the nasal belonging to that group. No rigid 
rule, however, can be formulated : sometimes 
Anusvar is used, sometimes the Anunasik. As examples 
of the use of Anunasik take the following : — ^|4| 
breath ; *^JM tears ; ^T^, bamboo ; ^T^, arm ; ^nR^TT, 
brown or dark colon red. But it is the Anusvar in the 
following : — ^vl| |4| |, a devotee ; (c/. English o«/o«j ; 
^T^rn^ theuniverse;{cf.E.ngl\sh unsafe) ; ^f^T, a portion; 
(cf. bunch); T%1S', dlion ;{cf. English unholy). This word 
f^3 is not uncommonly pronounced as though written 

The exact pronunciation of these nasals must be 
acquired from an Indian ; as a matter of fact, however, if 
the pronunciation of the following letter be already 
acquired, there is no great difficulty as in anticipation 



tb,M 



18 



THE HINDI ALPHABET. SECT. IK 



of the following sound, the organs of the mouth prepare 
themselves and the nasal appropriate to it is formed. 

When followed by a vowel, the nasals have their 
fullest sound. The two ^ and ^ are "ot used in this 
way ; «T and Tf are about equivalent to the English 
n and m. Compare the Hindi 7^1^^ /?awe, with English 
name or nasty, and ^HT^T, ^^ strike, with English mart. 
The Hindi ^IJ has no equivalent in English, Practise such 
words as ^T^H, '^ foot ; TTTO", ^ host ; ipfji^ quality. 
12. The aspirated letters ?f ^ ^^ ^^ m^ etc. 

These may be treated of in one section, as, so far as 
the aspiration of the letters is concerned, the same prin- 
ciples are involved. The combinations in English, ch, ph 
rh, sh yield no help as the h is not aspirated. In the 
English words church, cholera, philosophy, rhetoric, ship 
we have somewhat the equivalents of ^ ^ the Urdu 
Tjy T and I^J. The English words (thost and which 

» 7 7 

do render some assistance, as these words, as pronounced 
by some speakers, do give a distinct aspiration to the h. 
Perhaps the nearest equivalents to the Hindi sounds 
to be found in English are in those cases where one oy 
two words ends in one of the consonants referred to and 
the following word begins with h. If the earlier part of i & 
the first word be eliminated and only the last letter be 1 slij 
pronounced in close conjunction with the second word 



SECT. 12. PRONUNCIATION. 19 

beginning with //, we get something suggestive of these as- 
pirated Hindi letters. Take the following as examples :— 
(si) ck-hound pronounce khound T^TS" 
(bi) g-hound ... ghound vff^ 
(tou) ch-hole ... chhole ^<cf 
(spon) ge-house ... jhause )^^T^ 
(u)p hill ... phill TO^ 
(ca)b-horse ... bhorse ^♦♦^ 

(a) bhorrent ... bhorrent T*** 

Of course, in Hindi the two letters bcome more unified 
into a single sound than occurs in these illustrations from 
the English words, but the illustrations may start the stu- 
dent on the right lines for acquiring these Hindi sounds. 
13. ^ and 1\. 

About equivalent to the English k and g (hard), in such 

words as kill (f^<f|) gum (l^)* the Hindi letters are, 

however, formed further back towards the throat than the 

English sounds and the tongue is slightly broadened out. 

^ and^. These two letters are about the same as 

the English ch and j or soft g in cheap (^J^) and gin, 

' CT^W). Probably in the Hindi the tongue touches the 

palate a little further back than in the production of the 

English sounds. Even in Hindi, however, there are 

slight differences in the pronunciation of the letters, e.g., 

the ^ in (^HMf (^o cry out), seems« to be some- 



20  THE HINDI ALPHABET. SECT. 13 

what sharper than the same letter in ^Tf (be silent), 
probably because of the vowel sound which follows the 
^ in the second word being formed further back in the 
mouth than the earlier word. 

The Cerebral and Dental letters. The pronunciaton 
of the letters in the "^ and rf series is found difficult 
by some. Often this only arises through insuf^cient care 
in studying the method of producing these sounds. 
The part of the palate used by the tongue for producing 
t and d in English is about midway between the parts 
used for the enunciation of X ^ and H ^. Some 
teachers of Hindi write of turning the tip of the tongue 
upwards and backwards against the roof of the mouth 
to obtain right pronunciation of ^ and ^ but it seems 
to the writer that this is incorrect ; the tip of the 
tongue is rather broadened out and lumped together, 
pressed against the palate rather far back, and then 
somewhat sharply brought away as the sound is uttered. 

It is worth while calling the attention of the stu- 
dent to the fact that all speakers do not produce sounds 
in identically the same way. 

Indians consider our t and d nearer to ^and^ 
than to rf and ^^as in transliterating English words into 
the Nagari character the ^ and ^ are used. Listen to an 
uneducated Indian using the word |^'c#^'^ or "^^^^ {ticket 



I 



SECT. 13. PRONUNCIATION, 21 

and boat). Or, to take an illustration already used in an- 
other connection, listen to the word ^c[T* ^"^ notice the 
distinction between that and the English dado. 

It is worth much trouble to acquire the correct 
pronunciation of these two groups of letters, and with 
attention and practice there is no serious difHculty. 

^and^ These are cerebral r and rh, and are 
produced in the same way as that mentioned above for 
the production of the other Cerebrals. 

For the enunciation of the ^ and ^ series the 
tongue is brought forward against the upper teeth, or 
even between the teeth (some say at the junction of the 
palate with the upper teeth). These sounds are distinctly 
softer and more dental than the t and d in English. 

Xf and ^- These are very similar to English p and 
b. Compare English ^z<^/ with Hindi TT^ a bridge, ^nd 
bin with t^^, icithouf. Possibly in Hindi the lips are not 
quite so tense as in the production of the English letters. 

73[ is the equivalent to the English y. Compare^ and 
youth. Possibly in Hindi the tongue is a trifle more 
forward against the palate. This letter is often pro- 
nounced by the less educated as ^ and is not infre- 
quently so printed : e.g., ^^X for Jlf an age. 

^ is crisper and not so dull as the English r. Indian 
grammarians class it as one of the Cerebrals ; but the 



22 THE HINDI ALPHABET. SECT. 13. 

writer is disposed to think that it should be placed 
among the Palatals. The tongue is placed well forward 
against the palate just behind where it joins the teeth. 
Compare English rip with f^U an enemy. 

^ is not so thick and muffled as the English /. It 
is produced further forward. It will be noticed that it is 
classed as a Dental. The English / is often pronounced 
as a Palatal sometimes as a Cerebral. Compare 
English loam with Hindi ^^v^' a fox. 

^ is somewhere between the English v and w, but 
nearer to xv. The lips, however, are not so pressed 
together as in the production of xv, in fact scarcely touch 
one another. 

It should be noticed that in words brought into Hindi 
from the Sanskrit, ^ is largely replaced by ^ even in 
printing, and still more so in pronunciation. 

TOT and Tf. The distinction in pronunciation 
between these two letters is not generally maintained 
even by Indians. There is, however, a distinction, ^ 
being classed as a Palatal, ^ as a Cerebral. Some 
suggestion as to the difference may be found in the 
pronunciation of the two English words, sheet and shoot. 
In the former, the tongue is thrown further forward, in the 
latter, further back : this is on account of the vowels which 
follow and affects to some deijree the sound of the sh. 



■SECT, 13. PRONUNCIATION. 23 

^ is sometimes pronounced T^ and sometimes 

printed so, e.g., mi^\ andl^J^ for >jm| and T^^W- 

^ is practically equal to the English s, though 

slightly more dental. Compare ||j|4j|ch| a sob or sigh 
with sister. 

"S corresponds with the English h. Compare 
^|lh^ to pant, with English half. 

The following table, shewing the classification of 
letters according to Indian grammarians, is worth very 
careful study. It indicates very clearly the highly 
scientific character of the Alphabet and the at- 
tention which has been given to phonetics. The 
classification given by Indian grammarians has been 
adhered to ; but it seems toUhe writer that '^ and ^ are 
more strictly Palatals than Cerebrals ; the cerebral r is 
^ Again, ^ is perhaps rather a Palatal than a Labial. 



24 



THE HINDI ALPHABET. 



SECT. 1 4. 



CD 



o 

ce 

o 

• I— < 
CO 

CO 

cS 



O 



Is 

I 



en 

>J 

o 
> 



^W 



^ ^-Ivn^ 



I? lu^ 



•a^Hjjdsy lie 



>ft^|j.>>?< -sjaAvoyY-iuias JO spmbi-^ 



S[BSBf^ 



It^ \F 









s;uBi|qis g asaqx 



•s;uB|iqis 



5 "J 

X 5 



ftvlKI^N- -pa^BJidsv I ^ 



< o 






cT 



CO 

3 



O 0- 



fcr 

I 

I- 
rr 



en 

d 

IS 



SECT. 14. 



PRONUNCIATION. 



25 



W 



I 







IE? 




w 


IT 


tr 


h9 


!r 


IB- 


l«9 


h^ 


fcr 


tr 




lo 


fir 


If 


10 


ic 


tr 




c4 



CO '^ LC 



It IT |g 



O 'X 



CS 

O 



0) c 



rt 



OJ 



C/3 

■i-i 

c 

Q 



CS 









c 



26 THE HINDI ALPHABET. SECT. 15. 

VARIOUS. 

15. The Hindi Syllable. 

It is important to understand the divisions of words 

in Hindi which roughly correspond with our Engish 
syllables. This matter of syllables or ^| v^ | is of chief 
importance in Prosody but is well to briefly notice it here. 
The Hindi 4{\^ | consists of a vowel alone or of a 
consonant, simple or compound, with its accompanying 
vowel. To make the distinction between the English and 
Hindi method as marked as possible, take the following 
word, insiippressible. In English, the division would be 
in-sup-pres-si-ble, in Hindi i-nsu-ppre-ssi-ble. Apart from 
its being a closed letter, no syllable ends in a consonant, 
tJcft one, is not one syllable, but two '^ + ^ (e-kaj ; 
^^^ narrow is not sak-rd, but sa-ka-rd. We should 

be tempted to divide ^c^dT thw^—i-kat-tM, it is i-ha- 
tthd. 

16. Closed consonants. Viram. 

When a consonant is not followed by a vowel, it is 
said to be closed, S^ and the fact is indicated by the 

sign called f^^Q^ being written under the closed 

consonant. Thus 'S'^ is not ha-la, but hal. 

The hal has another use besides that of being 
written under a final consonant. It is sometimes writ- 
ten under the first of two consonants which form a 
conjunct consonant when they are not compounded into 



SECT. 16. VARIOUS. 27 

one form, thus indicating that there is no vowel sound 
between the two letters, but that they are to be regarded 
as a conjunct. 5I^^T^^» ^^^^ ^^V ^^ printed ^[^'^T5T 

17 Use of the Initial and Medial or Final forms of the 

Vowels. 

The fuller forms of the vowels are used when they 

I commence a word or follow a vowel ; when following 

a consonant, the contracted forms are used. Thus 1. 

^TWT. to come ; 2. ^"RT. ^o bring ; 3. ^T^TT, « yoke ; 

4- ^ft^, hail ; 5. ^ft^^ if-on ; 6. ^^5t, you will 

come. 7. %T^^. they will sleep. In 1. & 6. 1^^ full 

i form because initial ; in 3. because following another 

vowel ; in 1 . 2. 4. 5., etc., contracted form because following 

a consonant. So i^ full form in 4. because initial, and in 

6 because following another vowel ; short in 5. because 

following a consonant. 

No contracted form for ^ exists. The full form is 

used in the same way as the full form of the other 
vowels. ^ is understood in all cases where a consonant 
bears no other vowel, where the consonant is not the 
first member of a conjunct consonant, and where it has 
not the sign of viram under it. In all these cases, though 
unwritten, the jjf is understood and sounded. Thus 
Sr^f = a forest, ^ + JIT + *T + ^Tt I^M ^1 1 H . cremation 



28 THE HINDI ALPHABET. SECT. 17. 

ground, ^ + 3jT'i-icr + ^n + 5T + 53ar; ww^, t^"^^' ^ 
+^ + ^ + ^ + ^ + ^. 

Where the fuller form of a vowel follows a conso- 
nant, this fact indicates that the ^ is understood 
between the consonant and the vowel, otherwise the 
short form would be used. Thus ^^ = 11 + ^ + ^^ 

If the word were simply ^ + ^,'t would be printed T^, 

In many cases, the ^ sound is very slight, but, with 

care, can be distinguished ; sjH^I* f^ieir, is not sounded 

exactly like ^^T, nor ^nTrTT '''^e ^fTT. 

It should be noted that an anusvar and the following 
consonant constitute a conjunct consonant, therefore 
^ is not understood between them. IJf^ = ^ + ^ + 

53r, not ^ + 5;T + ^ + ^ + ^. 

Very occasionally an initial jjf following a vowel is 

indicated by the sign 5, t?.g.,5rT^Sg^rK, according to 
order. 

18. Note that the contracted form for "S is w^'itten be- 
fore its consonant, although read after it. Thus f^ = ^ 
+ ^ J ^ + ^ would be printed '^. The forms T "^ *t !^ 

are written after the consonant ; are written 

under, and above. 

Where a consonant has anusvar or the shortened 
form of ^ above it, the upper part of *y or x is thrown 
back a little, e.g., ^^ x^* ( ,^4. ^ + ^ + ^+ ... y 



SECT. 18. CONJUNCTS. 29 

This also appllies to ...and which are written above 

their consonant. 

CONJUNCTS. 

19. When two consDnants are to be sounded together 
without the occurrence of any vowel between, they must 
be joined together, otherwise an inherent ^ would be 
understood after the first. The only two exceptions to 
this are : — 

1. When there be an Anusvar on the first conso- 
nant. That and the consonant following are regarded as 
a conjunct, although the two letters are not joined to- 
gether, e.g., ^[fT 's ^^® same as though it were printed 
^BT^fT* ^'^'j ^<^^i "O^ sanat. But it should be noted that 
there is the inherent jJT between the ^ and the Anusvar. 
2. If the Viram be found under the first consonant. 
In this case, the consonant marked with Viram and the 
following consonant become a conjunct. Thus ^fT|?T 
would be read as though written "F^H, (praise.) 

In being joined with another consonant, the letter ^ 
entirely changes its form. If the first member of the 

compound, it assumes the form (called then X^^ 

and is written over the following letter ; if the second 

member, a small stroke is joined to the letter after which 

r 
it is sounded. ^^ = ^ + 3^ + T T + ^ITj l""->t ^f?^ is 

= ^^ + 5T + TT + ^. 



30 THE HINDI ALPHABET. SECT. 19. 

Attention should be directed to the letters ^^ HJ 
\f the forms of which are considerably modified when 
they appear in conjuncts. The conjunct H" appears as 
though it must stand for ^4"^, instead of, as it is, ^ 

In two other conjunct letters the forms are so 
changed as not to be recognizable, ^=:^ + Tf and ^ 

= ^ + ^. Some Grammarians print these with the 
alphabet as separate letters. The conjunct ^ =: rf + ^. 
20. A list of the principal conjuncts is appended, 
arranged in alphabetical order. To save space, illustra- 
tive words are not given : 
Initial ^. |g 1^1<, ^^ l<kh, tK kt, cfT{ km, ^^ ky, 

^ kr, ^ kl, ^ kw, ^ or ^ ksh, ^, 

or ^^ kslitn, "^ kshy. 

^. ^^ khy, T?^ khw. 
„ ^. "^ gg,^^ gdh, r^ gn, 71T gy,!! gr, 5^ gl, 

I^gw. 

M '^. "ST gli"' "ST g^i''- 

„ ':^. ^ nk, ^ nkh,^ ng, 1= ngh (The^^however, 

is generally printed as anusvar on the 

*  » 

previous letter) thus, ^T^^ ^JTI* ^^^H- 

„ '^. 'S'or^S^ chch, x^ chh., ^^ chy. 

„ ^. ^^jj,^^jjh, ^or -^ (:5T + 5T. This con- 



SECT. 20. CONJUNCTS. 31 

junct is pronounced like 1^ gy, and is not 

infrequently so written and printed.) ^^ jm, 

„ ^^ g nch,^^ nchh, >^ nj, >VR njh. The ^^ 
however, is generally printed as anusvar on 
the previous letter ; thus, 3JJ7^^ "^"^1^ 

„ ^. ^ clg, ^dcl. 

M ^. ^ nt, T[^ nth, ?!;^ nd, THT ny. The TIJ is 

often printed as anusvar over the previous 
letter. 

„ fT. r^ tk, tT tt, rfj tth, ^ tn, rq tp, rTT tm, 
r?T ty, =r tr, r^ tw, r^ ts. 
^. ^ thy, 'C^thw. 

^. ^or *^^ dd, ^ ddh, ^ dbh, ^ dy, 5[ dr, 
5 dw. 
„ ■^. Wdhy.-JT dfcw', \3^ dhw. 

„ •T. ^rT nt, ?f?T rity, ?^ ntr, ?^ nth, w^ nd, 
?5 nduf^^X^ndh, ?^ ndhy, g* nn, ?^nm, 
"T ny, ^ nw, 5:ia' nsh, ^ ns. The 5f 

is often printed as anusvar over the previous 
letter. ^ 

,, '^. JT pt, JT pn, -OTpp, ^ py, 3T pr, i:^ ps. 



32 THE HINDI ALPHABET. SECT. 20. 

„ ^. S^ bj, S^ od, 5^ bdh, 5^ or J bb, ^ by, 

^br. 
„ ^. Vq- bhy, ^ bhr. 
,, ^^ Tty mp, ^ mn, ^ mb, T>T mbh, T^ mm, 

"T my' 5 "■'''' ^'5T "il; ^ mh. The J{ is 

occasionally printed as anusvar over the 
previous letter. 
,, ^. These conjuncts are numerous, but need not 
be enumerated ; they are all written in the 

r r 

way already explained ^^ Tf . etc. 

„ ^. ^^ 11<, ^^ Ip, ^^ Ini, ^!^ ly, ^^ or ^ 11, 

^Ih. 

^. ^^ wy, o^ or ^ WW. 

TJ. T^ or ^shch, T^ shn,^^ shm, "grq* shy, 

IJT shr, T^shl, "5^ or *^ shw. ~- 
» '^. "^ ^> ^ shth, ^^ shn, V^ shp, "S^ 

shph, r^ shm, "^ shy. 
„ ^- ^^ sk, ^tT St, ^rT sty, "^str, ^^ sth, 

^^ sn, ^ sp, ^Tfi sph, ;^ sm, ^ sy, 

^ sr, ^ sw, ^^ ss. 

„ ?. ^ hm, ^ hy, "^ hr, ^ hi, ^ hw. 

Some of these conjuncts are only necessitated by 
words derived from the Arabic and Persian. Others are 
being[formed and brought into use as occasion demands. 






SECT. 20. SANDHI. 33 

Thus cf^ may be met with to do service in ^c|'t|'^ 

(Lecture). 

SANDHI. 

21. Sandhi me^ns junction, combination, and is used 
technically to indicate those changes which occur in 
the last letter of one word and the first of a second when 
the two words are combined into one. In Sanskrit such 
euphonic changes occur not only in the formation of 
compound words, but may more or less apply to all 
the words in a sentence. Whole lines assume the form 
of one long compound word, and apart from some 
knowledge of the rules of Sandhi it is impossible to know 
where one word terminates and another commences. 

These Sandhi changes are found not only in, strictly 
speaking, compound words, btft in cases where a prefix 
or suffix is added to a simple word. 

Most of these changes are effected in the Sanskrit 

before the words are imported into Hindi, but this is not 

always the case. ,Tftis;be*ng so, though it may not be 

necessary for thfe student" of Hindi to enter upon the 

full consideration of all the elaborate rules of Sandhi 

found in Sanskrit grammars, yet it is wise to understand 

the general principles and gain some knowledge of the 

fundamental rules which operate in effecting the changes. 

Apart from other considerations, it is a distinct advantage 
3 



34 THE HINDI ALPHABET. SECT. 21. 

to be able to recognize the constituent elements of a 
word, to know, e.g., that Himalaya is from f^^J, Xrost, 
ice and ^TT^T, abode. 

The changes are mainly of three kinds. 

1. A letter may disappear, being merged into 
another, e.g., Mf^+Jir+ll, the supreme spirit ; the inherent 
^ at the end of v^^^ has been merged in the initial 
^J of ^Tr^. 

2. The two letters brought together may be combined 
into another letter, e.g., in M<+( ^'H,, t^'e Supreme God ; 
the inherent ^ in "q^j^ and the initial \ of ^"SC^ 
are combined into '^, 

3. One letter may be changed so as to euphonize with 
the other, e.g., ^J|«j|^ from ^T'TfT, 'world, and 
«^7^j lord. The ff being changed into •TjSO as to accord 
with the following 7{ 

A few of the principal Sandhi changes are given below. 
The full rules and their numerous exceptions are far too 
elaborate to be included in a small Hindi Grammar. 

22. Changes of vowels. 

Two similar vowels, whether both short, both long, 
or one short and one long, become the corresponding 

long vowel, e.g., SJf + ^jr or ^TT + ^TT, or^ + ^fT be- 

come ^n. Similarly with ^, %, ^, ^, etc. Thus 



SECT. 22. 



SANDHI. 



35 



13^ + ^01 ^=^5 e.g., ^nr + ^v«5i i: = ^ ^1 iw <, 

Lord of the xi-'orld. 
Help of another. 



Chief Saint. 



^ or ^T + ^ oi ■^ = ^ ,,f%fT-»-^lfi- = i%^^, 

Well-wisher. 
^ or 3CTT + ^ or ^ = ^ 

^T + I or f = ^ 

,, "^ or ^ = ^ or ^ 

Great Saint. 
■? or ^ followed by a different vowel is changed to ^ 



35 55 



3 or ^ 



♦< 

^ 



5ft 



eg; "1;^ + ^if^ = ^T^f^, etcetera; 






an 



^^R = JTr^5 each one ; ^^ + ^^rTT = T^£l*-d?., 

age of 4,320,000 years. It will be noticed that, according 
to the " Classification of Letters " table, ^ has 



36 THE HINDI ALPHABET. SECT. 22. 

close affinity with ^^ '^^ ^^ "^^ and ^ with ^ ^ 
Sjh", jSh; ^ ^"<i ^ ^'^^ closely related. Thus in the 
case or many words such as Tf^ and 7(^wf eye, and 
5n?rTT ^^^ 4mdli, incarnation, both forms are 
found. 

23. Changes of Consonants. 

Nothing beyond a few general principles can be 
given under this head, as the consonantal changes are 
very numerous and complicated and belong more properly 
to Sanskrit Grammar. 

a. It is generally the last letter of the first word 
that is assimilated to the first letter of the second, or 
moderated in some way, not the reverse, e.g., ^rfT + 
^*|' s tl^^H, a good person. 

b. A hard consonant may be changed to its corres- 
ponding soft letter before a soft consonant, e.g., "^^ -h 

f^f^lf^ s f^pc(^^, world-wide conquest ; T(^ + "^Tf^ 
— T|»^d^l ?r, ^^^^ sj;c systems {of philosophy). 

c. Or it may be changed to its corresponding nasal 
before another nasal, e.g., ^ITfT^ + •TT^ = ^nT3"T^, 
Lord of the world. 

d. In numerous cases the changes are greater 
than those indicated above, a letter being changed 
to one of another class. A few examples are ap- 
pended : 



SECT. 23. OTHER CHANGES OF LETTERS. 37 

^ + f%(J + »HM«-< = 'Hr^4M»"< Existence, 

thought, joy, 
f^TW + ^F^ = f^:^^:^ Without doubt. 

T^M + chMt*, = f^^^^TC Without hypocrisy. 

f^pgr + ^?r = f^^nr without wealth. 

f^W + 'Srf^ = f%:^^ Without doubt. 

The above paragraphs must suffice to indicate the 
general principles. The English reader may be remind- 
ed that such changes are not foreign to the English 
language, though they are perhaps more commonly 
found in the addition of prefixes and suffixes than in 
the formation of compound words. It may be also 
remarked that the euphonic changes are not so scienti- 
fically worked out. We have unmoved, but immaterial ; 
impolite, but unproved. 

OTHER CHANGES OF LETTERS. 

24. Many other changes of letters occur in Hindi, 
which are neither sanctioned by Grammar nor subject 
to grammatical rules. These are common in colloquial 
speech and are also found in literature. ^ is often 
used for ^ ; ^ for ^ ; ^ for "StT ; ^ fo'' "'I ; •T 
for ^. Thus ^IT for ^p^, suitable ; ^^ for ^TtJ, 
power ; f^fT^ for f^Tf ^ poison ; T|<r| for V|<4Jly 
foot. 



38 THE HINDI ALPHABET. SECT. 24. 

Sometimes ^ is substituted for ^ e.g., ^'|^«^| 

^MHI, fo f^g^^f ; ^ or -^^ tor "^j 3CT^^[^. ^^^, 

indestructible. The letters ^ and ^ are sometimes inter- 
changed, e.g., T^:^ ^mI, '^rt sfl^l, commonly 
used of the language freed from provincialisms. 

Among the illiterate, letters are sometimes reversed 
in a word, thus SJTI^T^ foj" >i||^4{T, '«««• Other 
corruptions are very frequent, but have perhaps no right 
to a place in a Grammar. 

ABBREVIATIONS, PUNCTUATION, ETC. 

25. Abbreviations 

The sign „ indicates that the word is contracted,^ 
just as in English tr. for translation, or etc., for et cetera, so 
in Hindi ^'' stands for ^T^, Doha ; '^° for f^^, 
the Christian Era (A. D. ); l^" for T^Rls^rC, Pundit, 
etc. In a book where any word is repeated again 
and again, a contraction may be adopted, though it may 
not be a widely recognized one, e.g., '3" for ^dt^l^iUI 

(example). 

A figure printed after a word indicates that the 
word is to be repeated that number of times, e.g., 

fw^^ ^ ^ TfT t i-^-^ ftl^fW^^T, 

the view of this or that one is The words "^n" Vt signify 

that the honorific title "^n* 's to be repeated five 



SECT. 25 ACCENT. 39 

times after such a person's name, '^n' ?0C is, we believe, 
the limit in this matter. It is suggestive of so many- 
guns. 

26. Punctuation 

Until recently the only marks of punctuation com- 
monly used in Hindi were | and {{ called ^^ ^T% 
and ^ ^TTx- ^^^ latter is placed at the end of a line 
of poetry or couplet, the former is less intensive and 
marks the conclusion of the first half. In prose the 
double line marks the end of a paragraph, the single 
that of a sentence. 

Of recent years there has been an increasing 
readiness to adopt many of the English signs for punc- 
tuation, etc. The comma aud full-stop (tjf^ d4^^|Tf) 
are very much used, the semi-colon and colon very 
much less. The note of interrogation is widely used. 
Perhaps still more popular is the note of exclamation ; 
a few writers appear to have a perfect passion for ! ! ! ! !s. 
Inverted commas and parenthetical marks are not uncom- 
monly used, sometimes the latter not very correctlyT] 

ACCENT. 

27. Accent in Hindi is not so common as in English, 
but is by no means absent. Very misleading statements 
have been sometimes made on this point by writers 
and teachers, and the writer must confess to have been 



40 THE HINDI ALPHABET. SECT. 27. 

guilty in this matter in his Grammar written years ago. 
As a matter of fact, accent, both on words in sentences 
and on syllables in words, is quite common. Possibly 
no rules can be formulated for the latter, as we recog- 
nize that in English no rule can be relied on. In manly, 
dentistry, pungent, the accent is as clearly on the first 
syllable as it is on the second in indent, restrict, domain. 
The general rule about the accent being on the antepen- 
ultimate in polysyllabic words, is by no means universal 
in its application. Under these circumstances, there is 
no reasonable ground for complaint if the accentuation 
in Hindi has to be learned by practice, not by rule. 

Accent of words in sentences. In Hindi, as in 
English, this largely depends on the meaning to be 
conveyed, e.g., ^ ^^ ftv^ ^ ^TfV, T^ 5^ ^. 
It belongs to no one else, it is his, the accent naturally falls 
on 3^ ^j his. Again, %T^ rf^ ^-TfTT, ^o one 
hears, the stress comes on ^|d. In the sentence 

•T %T^ ^*T^T •T %r^ mKfi h "^^ o«e listens no one 
obeys (lit. " does"), there is practically no accent on any 
special word, but in ^ ^HHI rft f ^ *<H^ *T^, 

He hears indeed, but doesn't do (it), the accent is clearly 
on ^Hrll, hears. 

The use of accent or stress on words in sentences 
varies greatly. Some speakers go evenly on their way 



3ECT. 27. ACCENT. 41 

and leave their sense to be elucidated by the structure 
of the sentence; others pursue the exactly opposite course 
and, so to speak, underline and italicize very many of 
their words. In some cases tone and emphasis are very 
necessary, if the exact meaning of the speaker is to be 
-conveyed to the hearer, e.g., in ^^ ^^J|| He will 

do {if), and ^^ 'c|^<,JJ|| ? the meaning depends more 
on tone; but if the point be as to whether he or some- 
body else will do the work, then stress or accent comes 
in. ^^ ^'^^TJJ may be so pronounced as to indicate very 

plainl)' that it is he who will do it, not another person. 
In printing, as underlining is little used, the sentence 
would probably appear <^^' chilli . 
2,S. Accentuated syllables in words. 

That accent on syllables exists widely cannot be ques- 
tioned. In %^j cf^j mine, thine, the accent is distinctly 
on the first syllable; in SITTTT. HI^^TTT* ours, yours, as 
distinctly on the second. In ^i^TTj^i^ll, ^ '^'^'^^^ ^^ ^^^)> 
He will die, however, although these are three-syllabled 
words, the accent is not on the second, but on the first 
syllables. The matter of long and short vowels evidently 
does not decide the matter as to which syllable is to 

receive the accent. In ^^ITTvTT to be contained, the 

accent is on ^j but in the word ^^jMlT; ^^ '^ "°^ °" 

"^J7, ^^^ o" ^he ij^r that the accent falls. 

In Verbs the general tendency is for the accent to fall 
on to the stem rather than on to the termination. Thus in 



42 



THE HINDI ALPHABET. 



SECT. 28. 



^^TT, t "^ill do ; ^TTT, ^^^ died ; ^t^TH", He will cry ; 
in^''Tj They will sing, the accent is on ^ ^^ ^Q^ 1|X. 

In Causal Verbs the accent generally falls on the 
second syllable of the stem. Compare ^fTJJ If '^^'^s 

affixed, with \^A\\ (Imperative from ^TTT'TT) o»' ^^T"^ 

^ He affixes it. In the first the accent is on ^ 
in the second and third on IJ]". Compare also ^^ 
sit down, and ^^T^jft, ^^'^^ {another person). In the 

first, the accent >s on "Sf^ in the second on ^T- 

The ear at once distinguishes between the non- 
accented 1^ in ^^^X ^'""-^ the accented g in Rg^flty 
a riddle. In "'Tf^, husband, the accent is on T^ in 
^fka'cTT o" the f?T, 

Accent on. Accent on. 

^TTrrrr, .^ood neics ^ IT^MT, >^pices, etc. ^ 

afSQT'^r, prosperous ^ 5^'^? disorderly icalk ^f 
f*\r^[, laden ^ 

W^T, cThvays ^ 

^^H^ mercy ^ ^^'^T, a merciful one ^J 

^^IIJ, I «'/// speak ^ HIT, I '^^'i^^ *^^^ ^ 

^77T, ^"-^ ''^f'^'''^^d ^ ■^Trf'PR, '■connected with 

the Piirans ^ 

Illustrations need not be multiplied. The student 
must exercise his ear and imitate. To say >>1 1 ^^ 1 1 , with 



^fTTT, help 



V 



SECT. 28. OTHER ALPHABETS. 43 

a strong accent on ^, is about as indicative of ignorance 
or carelessness as to say ini-;ntc-al instead of in-im-i-cal 
in English. 

The accent in Poetry will arise for consideration in 
the special chapter on Prosody. 

OTHER ALPHABETS. 

29. Besides the Nagari alphabet, used generally in writ- 
ing and printing Hindi, modified forms are in use, e.g., the 
Baniouti used by Baniyas or shop-keepers, the Mahajani, 
adopted by bankers, and the Kaithi, very widely used by 
patwaris and others, especially in Bihar. The Kaithi is a 
rough script modified from the ordinary Nagari, with the 
upper line omitted. Like handwriting in English some 
of the letters may vary. Note, e.g., how differently g,k,p,s, 
etc., are written by different people. For speed and ease 
of writing Kaithi has distinct advantages. The writer 

has used it for many years and found it a real saving of 
labour. It means re-writing for the Press, but a copyist 
can generally be easily procured. 

Several books have been published in Kaithi. Quite 
well printed books may be obtained from Macmillan & 
Co., Calcutta, the Kharg Bilas Press, Patna, and other 
presses. There is quite a good specimen of Kaithi to be 
obtained at the Bible Society, 23 Chowringhee Road, 
Calcutta, viz., The Psalms. I — XLI. Price 1 pice. Some 
books have been published as Kaithi which are not 
genuine Kaithi ; let the student beware of such. 



44 THE HINDI ALPHABET. 

30. The Kaithi Alphabet. 



SECT. 30. 



IT 


^ 




^ 


-M 3 


^ 


4]1 T 


^1 


\ 


?^ 


^ 


-q^ 


T t 


^ 

^ 


1 


ol 


V\ 


^ 


t ^ 




"\ 


^ 


<^ 


^ 




n3 


N3 


o1 




^ 


^ c 


^ 


e\ 








^ . 




6 


^ 


^ 


^ 


^ "^ 


H 


N 


"5 


^ 


T 


t -^^^ 




•^ 


^ 


\5 


^ 


^> 


*ll 


^ 


^ 


<i 


^ 


-^^ 


^1 ^ 


<il 


W 




•SF 


^ 




"^ 


ri 


^ 


"^ 


^ 


m 


^ 


^ 


^ 


•^ 


n 




^ 


8 


^ 


TI 







^ 


^ 




^• 






■^ 


A 


¥ 






SECT. 30. OTHER ALPHABETS. 45 

1. It is safer perhaps to use the ordinray Nagari X^^ 



3. This too much like ^^ t^ is preferable. 

4. It is important to begin ?H well to the left and, Vi welljto 



I 



the right V^ 'l j Vf ^j otherwise ** and i-{ 

easily mistaken for one another 



are 



Chapter III. 

DIVISIONS OF HINDI GRAMMAR. 

PARTS OF SPEECH. SUBSTITUTES 

FOR THE ARTICLE. 

31a. Grammar, o^icy^^t^i. Prefix and Suffix. 

Part I. Letters. ^t^rft^TT. ^T^^PT, JTf^^. 

„ II. Words. it^jotjf^TlK. 

,, III. Sentences, ej (cfil |c|t(K' 
Etymology. oJrTRT. 

Composition and Syntax. T'^'TT, c4|c|'I|| ^^ 

The three divisions of the Parts of Speech : 

1- ^T^T Including Nouns, Pronouns and Ad- 
jectives. 

2. f^fm Verb. 

3. );T^^^^ (Uninflected). Including Adverb, 

Postposition, Conjunction and Disjunction, Interjection. 
Noun. W^n. 

r 

Pronoun. ^^HI'M. 

Adjective. f^V^N^. 

Verb. fifm. 



SECT. 31a. TERMS OF HINDI GRAMMAR. 47 

Adverb. f^lftrST'TO. 

Postposition. ^IS^P^^T^^^. 

Conjunction & Disjunction, tl^l"^^; |c|^|^qi. 

Interjection. f^^-M^Tl^^T^^. 

31b. As this is a Hindi Grammar for English-speaking 
students, it would be unwise to attempt to write it from 
a purely Hindi standpoint; at the same time it is believed 
that it will prove of considerable assistance to the stu- 
dent to have his attention directed to the divisions of 
Grammar recognized by Indian Grammarians, to adopt, 
in some measure, their order in the presentation of the 
various matters to be considered and to give the technical 
terms which they use. The knowledge thus gained will 
be helpful in later reading and study. 

We are not disposed to follow their method too 
closely, nor adopt all their divisions and sub-divisions, 
which are sometimes traditional, fanciful and conven- 
tional and of small practical service. Too much atten- 
tion has been given by many of the writers of Hindi 
Grammars to Sanskrit Grammar and too little considera- 
tion to the actual principles and rules which prevail in 
modern Hindi. 

32. The 3 main divisions of Hindi Grammar are : 1. 
^^IT^*^!^ — ^^^ consideration of the letters. 2. ^S3 
|e|'T4i^ — the consideration of words. 3. c4 I^^T%^1^ 



48 DIVISIC'^NS OF HINDI GRAMMAR. SECT. 32 

— the consideration of sentences. Under 2, might come 

fc^rHT^ 5 Etymology. Under 3, comes ^^rjHT making, 

or q|cr«)| ^fH" ^C^cfT, which may be considered to 

cover both Composition and Syntax. Prefixes and 

r 
Suffixes, ^tJ^fTf ^"cl Tf^Tl^ may be included under 2. 

A short chapter will be devoted to this important sub- 
ject. 

For the most part, the Syntax of Hindi will not be 
dealt with separately, but included in the various sections 
as the subjects arise with which the different rules of 
Syntax are connected. 

33. The Parts of Speech are divided into 3 classes : 1. 
^^T, which includes the Noun, Pronoun and Adjective. 

2. Isd^l, Verb, and 3. 4{ o^ ^ , [i.e., unchanging, not 
liable to inflection), in which are included Adverb, 
Preposition, (or better, Postposition), Conjunction, (or^ 
as the Hindi Grammarians wisely put it. Conjunction 
and Disjunction), and Interjection. 

1. ^^T, Noun. There is a growing tendency 
among Indian Grammarians to confine the use of this 
word to mean Noun and not to include Pronouns and 
Adjectives under the term. It is not difficult to under- 
stand how the Pronoun should have been included in 
the term ^^T 'that which names or designates), as 
the Pronoun takes the place of a Noun, but it is not so 



<:ECT. 33. PARTS OF SPEKCH. 49 

S0^asy to find the ground for the Adjective having been 
included. Possibly the fact that many Adjectives are 
used as Nouns may give some clue. 

2. tiq-ll+l, Pronoun. ^T^TTTTT, etymologically, 
means all -{-name, i.e., a common name applicable to all. 
Pronominal Adjectives will also be treated under the 
Pronoun. 1| M M'mT ^substitute) is sometimes foynd 
for Pronoun. 

3. M U>m ill , Adjective. That which distinguishes. 
The Hindi 'JTTn^T^^ '^ ^'^^ found to designate the 
Adjective. 

4. f^^, Verb, the doing). 
^- f^^'lfcj iti M m , Adverb, (that which specializes 

or discriminates). 

6. ^7?^?\7^^^ (that which indicates connec- 
tion;, corresponds in many respects with the English 
Preposition, but, as in Hindi it does not precede but 
follows its Noun or other word, it is more appropriately 
called Postposition. 

7. M*^|^% and M*4l^<^ 'that which connects 
and that which separates). These may well be called 
Conjunctions and Disjunctions. 

8. f^^innf^#t>T^, Interjection. (That which 
indicates dismay, or wonder, etc.) 



50 DIVISIONS OF HINDI GRAMMAR. SECT. 34. 

SUBSTITUTES FOR THE ARTICLE. 

34. There is not only no term for the Article in Hindi. 
but no words which correspond with the English a and 
the. Equivalents for them are, however, found. 

1. Very frequently the Noun is used without any 
addition, e.g., His mother ica.s a icidow, would be simply 
's^ljchl Tn f^r^T^ Wi. A good man never lies, 
^Sr^m ^5^^ ^^ ^3 ^f tMrlT. What was the 
cause of it ? ^W^T WWt ^X^ ^ ? He was the 
greatest of them all, ^^ ^^ ^ % ^^ ^J, The king 
began to enquire, XVWi ^^T ^T. 

2. Not infrequently '5^^ (one) is used where "ct" 
would occur in an English sentence- "^^ 7T«T^^ •? 
g^. A man said. "^TTT^ T "^^ WW^ 3T^?^ 
^|ch< ^cF^ ^ ^ ^ f^ ^, Once on a time 
Dasharath, having been pleased, had given Kehayi tico 
boons. T[^ 5^^ ^ ^ r^<«*l %, /" ^ ^^ook this 
is written. 

3. Occasionally, %J'^ may be about the equivalent 

of "a," e.g., %T^ ^ft ^n^vC ^^ ^nft, A uoman 
came and said. But this might also be rendered, A 
certain woman. ^T% has generally something of the 
force of, a certain one. or some one. or anyone- chl^l 
' ^Sf 3^Wm{ No one came ; lit., Anyone did not come. 



SECT. 34. SUBSTITUTES FOR THE ARTICLE. 51 

4. For the Definite Article ^'^, t^'i-'^, or "Sf^ that, 
that one, may sometimes be used, but only in cases 
where the English the carries somewhat of the same 
force. There are sentences in which the English the is 
quite definite, and yet any equivalent in Hindi might 
be unnecessary, e.g., The house is far from here, might 

well be rendered "Tpi^ TST ^ 3T 6 - ''""^ f^ct 

that some particular house was being referred to, would 
be understood from the context. On the other hand, 
in such a sentence as, the man is a fool, meaning some 
particular man, the Hindi would probably be l^'S T{7KT^ 
"^ t o'' W^ Tg^'T |r^ f. Similarly, ^^ -^X^ 
f^% g^ ICTT^^ ^ WFT ^ Tjm ^, The king 
who've son-s did not possess a knowledge of the sacred 
hook. Here the l^nglish rendering might equally well 
be, tliat king. In Hindi, the more usual construction 
of the sentence would be. f^f^ ^T^T % ^TW StfT^ 'T 

WT^ ^^ ^5^ % ^ , Of which raja the 

sons he.. Such a phrase as. The man uho 

went, died, would be ^f^" TpH ^J Tp^ ^m. I" both 
the English and the Hindi it is not perfectly clear whe- 
ther the man referred to is some particular man, or whe- 
ther the statement is a general one. 



Chapter IV. 

DECLENSION OF NOUNS. PRONOUNS 
AND ADJECTIVES 

THE EIGHT CASES. 

35. The Ei^ht Cases. ^\X^ 

Nominative. T^^^T (boy.) 

] * ..^ .s' Sometimes call- 



Accusative ^ ^^ — 



^rrf, 'the doer.i 'j ^-^^ ^ ^j ^^e Agentive 

Case.) 

— -_-^ ithat which is <( * 

^^' done.) i^f^T 

Dative. 

_ . _i (to whom, or for -3 -*t ^¥ 

^ ' whom given.) 

Instrumental. 

(producing, -^^ ^ 

^ causing.) 

Ablative. 

^"TT^T^, Italiing from.) ^r^% % 

Genitive. 

' related.)  

Locative. 

^iV^?:'n, (placing upon.) ^=r^ W. ■'TT, etc. 

Vocative. 

^rr^hrST, 'calling to.) ^T^^ 



SKCT. 36. THE EIGHT CASES. 53 

36. Much in the way of detail regarding the forms 
and uses of the Cases, must be left for consideration 
until the following chapters, hut, inasmuch as the broad 
principles apply equally to Nouns. Pronouns and Adjec- 
tives, it seems wise to deal with these broad principles 
at once. 

37. The Cases are indicated by the addition of suffixes, 
T^H ItK, C'I' postpositions, Hr^^- The original form 
may or may not undergo change before such addition 
be made. This Case declension maj- not be carried out 
with complete consistency, but is carefully worked out, 
and presents a striking contrast with the elements of 
declension to be found in Pronouns and Nouns in 
English. In Nouns, the " s" is all that can be brought 
forward. In Pronouns, we are better off, but far from 
complete. My, thy, his, its; our, your, their; me, us, 
thee, him, them. It is true that in Hindi we have not a 
special form for each Case, but there is a complete 
system, by the use of the fe(4{lTh. 

The form with vT, given under the Nominative, is 
sometimes reckoned a separate Case, and called the 
Agentive. There is some justification for such a course, 
as the use of the form with % leads to a reconstruction 
of the sentence in which it occurs ; but, in spite of this, it 
is practicall} the subject of the sentence and so. in 



54 NOUNS, PRONOUNS AND ADJECTIVKS. SECT. 37. 

common with Indian grammarians, we include it with 
the Nominative, regarding it as a special form of that 
Case. 

38. That form of the Accusative which is identical 
with the simple form of the Nominative will be explained 
in the chapter on the Noun. 

39. The form of the Dative is identical with the form 
of the Accusative with %X- This leads to some con- 
fusion at times. In not a few instances a word which is 
regarded by some as a second Accusative is in reality a 
Dative. 

% f^Tq (for, for the sake of) is used sometimes 
with the Dative instead of "^J. 

40. The forms for the Instrumental and Ablative are 
exactly the same and, in instances not a few, to decide 
whether the IJ indicates the Instrumental or Ablative 

Case is not easy. In ^T^T ^ ^"^ 'T^^^ ^ "3^%T 

TC^T ^ST^T, ^^"'' ^''"'A' ^^^"'■^' ^^'"^ h' ^"•'^' ^^''^''^ ""•'"' '*^ '^ 
clearly the Instrumental. In ^^Jf ^ Kf^T^T ^M I 
SJJ If icas taken out of the sea, there can be no question, 
it is undoubtedly the Ablative ; but in such sentences as 
^TT *T ^^n HT^ ^ y^l, The icoinan asked her 
brother : ?r^ ^3^H %T^T ^, This is smaller than that, 
it is not so immediately evident under which Case it 
should come. 



J 



SHCT. 41. THE EIGHT CASES. $5 

41. For the Genitive Case, the Hindi name ^T^'?^ 
is peculiarly suitable, signifying any relation or connection 
which may exist between two or more persons or things 

3^raiT ^ZJ, ^'^ ^o" ; ^ rft ^^ ^w ^ 3^^ t 

This is a one pice book ; '^^^ "3^ -cjvrft, ^ silver bangle, 
are simple illustrations of the use of the Genitive. The 
relations covered in the use of this Case are exceedingly 
numerous. 

42. The Locative with ^ ///, and T^ upon, sweeps a 
wide area. It has reference to place, time, and logical 
sequence. 

43. The Vocative is the Case used when a person or 
persons are directly addressed. 

44. The following sentence includes all the Cases. 

% %!# %T ^n^Fix ^n: ^ Twi* % ^r^vm, <^h <juru i 

1 gave command to the raja.s servant to hring the horse 
from the city and fasten it up by a rope to the house. 

45. Inflectional changes. 

A special form of the word does not exist for 
each Case. With some Nouns, no change of form 

occurs at all in the singular, the Case being indi- 
cated by the addition of the Case-suffix or f%VTTW. 
In all Nouns, the Plural has an inflected form differing 
from the Nom. This may be called the oblique stem, 



56 NOUNS, PRONOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. SECT. 45. 

or inflected stem. The same name is appropriate 
for the stem in the sing, when such a changed stem 

is used. The inflectional changes are greater with the 

Pronouns than with Nouns. 

46. Case endiugs. 

Some of the Case endings may he regarded as words, 
such as ^j ill ; tf^ upon ; others partake more of the 
nature of suffixes, having no meaning by themselves. It 
might, of course, be urged that the postpositions also are 
incapable of expressing an idea unless joined to other 
words in a sentence. It will, however, be felt that 
there is a distinction between ^7T, ^pfl, ^?t ^nci TT, ^IT ? 
even as in English we should not call " ".s " in " thud's " 
a word, nor ''...ship" in "partnership," but we do call 
" 7/7. " " upon '" words. 

47. Case endings. How written. 

The opinion of Hindi scholars as to the correct wa}- 
of writing the Case endings is not unanimous. Should 
they be joined to their word or written separately ? 

It will be found that generall}- the following rules 
are accepted. In the case of Nouns, the Case endings 
should be printed separately from the words, but should 

be united with the Pronouns. Thus  — ^rT^TiTT n 

g^^^. TTsrr^, 'ttr^, "^^Ir, "^t^^t ^, 



SECT. 47. THE EIGHT CASBS. 57 

f^^%T, ^3^%, etc. 

Details concernini* the Cases will be t^iven in the 
several chapters dealing with Nouns. Pronouns and 
Adjectives. 



Chapter V 
THE NOUN 

48a. Noun ^^1 
Word ^5^ 

Wot:d with its Case suffix TJ^ 
Case ^Xl^ isee for list, previous chapter.) 
Case suffix f^*Tf^ 
Affix ^tp^JT, 3Tf^^ 
Gender f^IT 

Mascuhne ^1^^ 

Feminine ^^tt^TT 

Neuter inot used in Hindi. ) rfUflch T^T 
Number ^^5T 

Singular "^^^"^^ 

Plural ^g^^^H 

Dual (not found in Hindi. T^^T^'T 
Compound word ^TfJ^ 

^Sb. The various divisions of words and Nouns adopted 
by Indian Grammarians is not a matter of supreme 
importance for the foreign student, nor of great practical 
moment, but is well worthy of some consideration. 



SECT 48b. THE NOUN. 59 

Sounds are said to be of two kinds : 1 . \,c(r<<Xr+|ch, 

i.e., mere sounds as made by animals. 2, SfTrnTT^, 
i.e., composed of letters. This definition must be taken 
for what it is worth ; words exist long before letters are 
invented to make a record of them possible. This 2nd 
class of sounds is again divided into : 1 . "^m df^^ possessing 
iiieaiiing, and 2. fi^^^r^, xcitlwitf meaning. 

Grammar, of course, only deals with this second 
class, with Words. Words are classed according to 
their origin or the character of their formation. 

1. «^T%. A word which is a simple original sound; 

 

an arbitrary sound possessing a definite meaning, as 
^•T^^"^ a man. 

2- ^flT'T^l. A word formed from combined roots. 
Here the word is no longer an arbitrary sound, its mean- 
ing rests on its etymology, e.g., "T^T^j <^ worshipper, 
from tj"^ relating to worship and ^ contracted from 
^^rff, to do. Thus tfN^I'cfi means, one xcho does worship. 

3. qTJ|^l%. These words are ^JmT^ forasmuch 
as they are derived from roots giving meaning accord- 
ing to etymology, and are ^|% because the meaning 
of the word when it has heen tonned is attached arbi- 
tranly to some special object, e.g., tf^^^ a lotus, from 
trgp;^ ntifd, and ^^ born of. The meaning is plain from 
the etymology ; but to attach the word to the lotus must 



60 THH NOUN. SECT. 48b. 

be regarded as arbitrary, as there are other mud-born 
things besides the lotus. 

4- ^^Wr^ Compound word, is not always included 
in these divisions, but appears to belong here. It ditters 
mainly from ^X pl^h ^vords, in that rt is formed from 
two words rather than from two roots. Example, Tf^- 
TT^, ^ .^''<-'<it ^^'^"^' fi'om IT^T, g''e^f^ and^^T^T, '^ '''"'^' 

49. Nouns 

A three-fold division of Nouns is generally adopted. 

1. ^STTTH^f M^. Common Noun. One of a class 
as "mj, aiiijimf : "t^^T. ^ ^^'^'^ '■ W^, '■^ ^''^''^' 

2. o^frf^ci 1^^, Proper Noun. From oq"l%F, cm 
individual, e.g.. ftf^HT, the god Vishnu : TfTTT, ''"-' ''^•^'^'* 



Ganges. 



'S' 



3. ^Tt^TT"^^. More or less corresponding with 
the English Abstract Noun, but covering more than can 
be strictly included in that term. ^<^<HI, ''^^"0"' 's 
abstract, but another example given, r/s., *H <, H 1 6 j 
striking and cudgelling, must be regarded, by at least 
the recipient, as not strictlj' abstract. 

There are various other divisions of Nouns adopted 
by some Indian grammarians such as those indicating 
rank or office, e.f'., ^T^TTT- '^ head man : those indicating 
relationship, e ^'., VfJ"^^ hrofhcr : measure or weight, ^^^ 



SKCT. 49. THK NOUN. 61 

a xceii^ht of about 2 lbs. ; occupation, ^^S^, carpenter; 
Collective Nouns, ^^T, an association or assembly. 

There are many N'erbal Nouns in Hindi, e.g., the In- 
finitive is a Noun in very frequent use, ^pJ^Tf]", to do, the 
doini^. This is called in Hindi the TiRTT^T^ ''SfWT 
Another group bears the name of S^rfrri. These include 
such words as ^^tT^T^T, ^ doer. 

The Infinitive is fully capable of inriection as regards 
Case, Gender and Number. 

50. There are four matters calling for special atten- 
tion in connection with Nouns. These will now be dealt 
with: 1. Gender. 2. Number. 3. Cases. 4. Compound 
Nouns. 

GENDER. 

51. The Gender of Nouns is, in Hindi, a matter of great 
importance and of about equal difficulty. Its importance 
rests on the fact that the gender of the Nominative often 
affects the form of the Verb ; also the gender of the Noun 
affects the form of the Adjective or Participle. The 
difficulty arises from this that, as there is no neuter gen- 
der in Hindi, every noun is either masculine or feminine, 
though so many must obviously be quite devoid of any 
sex distinction. The termination of the Noun may at 
times afl^ord some help, but no reliable rule can be formu- 
lated on that basis. For instance, from the fact that l^fj 



62 THE NOUN. SECT. 51. 

and ^ are the characteristic terminations, respectively, 
of masc. and fern. Adjectives and Participles, and also 
of many parts of the Verb, one might naturally be led to 
conclude that Nouns ending in 3IT|" and '^ would like- 
wise be masc. and fern. Such a conclusion would be 
very misleading ; probably something like 75 per cent, of 
Nouns ending in ^f are not masc. but fern., and a very 
large number of Nouns ending in ^ are masc. 
52. After stating that living creatures of the male sex 
are masc. and of the female fem., the only general prin- 
ciple or tendency that can be laid down is this, that 
larger things are commonly masc. and smaller things 
and abstract nouns fem., but this is only a broad principle, 
not a rule. 

Indian writers often set forward this statement as 
a help to the student, — Nouns ivhich require the uiasc. 
form of the Adjective are masc, those ivhich require the 
fem. form are fem. This statement is obviously correct, 
but, we are at first inclined to conclude, as obviously 
futile, as it begs the whole question. The statement, 
however, is quite serviceable for the Indian student and 
yields a suggestion for the foreign student of consider- 
able value. The Indian student will try words by his ear. 
.He will say "^TCT^,"^ large island ,"%:T'err 2:1^," 
and will decide that the former is right, the second im- 



SfcCT. 52. GENDER. 6iJ 

possible, in the same way that we repeat a sentence and 
by the ear conclude what is correct and what incorrect. 
The suggestion that is forthcoming is this : Let the 
foreign student, instead of attempting to commit to me- 
mory the genders of long lists of words, learn to associate 
with each Noun an Adjective, or to connect it with other 
words in a phrase, in which the form of the Verb or some 
other word will settle the gender of the Noun. In this 
way, he will not only be fixing the gender of the Noun in 
his memory but, at the same time, enlarging his voca- 
bulary, e,o.. >a"^^ ^^, Uood fntif ; trfil^H ^TT WTT^ 

^ c •v 

^^«=fT , S/ieic honour to the man of learning ; ^^C^fT ^ 

>3gHTl" ^ 5 ^y God's grace : ^T^\ ^^T, ^ ^ong arm ; 
Tp"% ^ ^JW ^^ T^, The eyes of the boy 
opened : Xl'^T «R^ ^T , ^he king's mercy. This is a 
far more effective method of learning that Mh<fl , *i1 IC^t, 
and lJT«Tir^ ^^'^ masc. and ^^T, ^TH^ ^^^ ^*l\ 
fern, than the bald memoriter system. 

53. Some general rules about genders may prove of 
some service, but the student must remember that they 
are only general, 

MASCULINE. 

54. According to ending. 

1. Ending m ^ . Many of these are somewhat 
adjectival in their formation and meaning. Not a few of 



64 THK NOUN. SHCT. 54. 

them can be used as either Adjectives ov Nouns, L'.,i,'.. 
%X^ an avaricious man : ^TVTT J^ ; ^^'^ avarici- 
ous teacher. So again, ^IT^Rn, ^ Bengali : ^Ml^t 
f^l^^l^j Bengali sweetmeat. This remarU applies to 
many other Nouns as well as those ending in ^. 

a. Many Nouns in which ^ is added as a suffix to 
a Noun signifying some quality, and thus means the 
possessor of that quality, c.i^., 

TI"J"tfx a sinner. ^PTSTT -^ counsellor. 

JT^TT one who loves. ^JT^TT^TT -^ transgressor. 
^^i an enemy. ^|<^ | a learned man. 

^T^Tl an avaricious man. 

One exception may be noticed. ^J^TTT 's dejection, 
3i^|tl, '^ dejected man. This is similar to the Urdu in 
which it is the quality which ends, in '^ • the possessor 
of the quality has not the "% at the end. Thus : — 
'TTT^T ^*r!r^? poverty ; Tf^^, a poor man. 
^rrf^T^rt 'S^r'^^ > helplessness ; >J{Im1^, a helpless one. 
Such Urdu words ending in ^ are fern., and retain 
their Urdu gender when used in Hindi. 

b. A Class of Nouns used of members of castes or 
trades. 

It should be borne in mind that membership of a 



SECT. 54. MASCULINE. 6S 

caste does not necessarily involve that the member 
should follow the occupation of the caste. Mr. Glover is 
not in all cases a maker or seller of gloves. To a large 
extent, however, the members of the caste do follow 
the occupation, and identification with the caste cannot 
be evaded. 

|dcj(^, iTT^TTt two classes of Brahmans. 

^^TTTT ^ temple priest. 

^ifJ'^X a washerman. 

^^^ I tfTl ^ betel-leaf seller. 

^X^X a shoemaker. 

c. Indicating nationality, place of residence of 
the person, etc. 

^TT^, ^rar^tV, **{|Ni«fi, a native of Bengal, 
Cashmere or Kamaun. 

^M^*5lt, One who belongs to the race of Raghu. 

^T^, A resident of, as q^l^lqltfl, a resi- 

dent of Kashi. As we may say, " He 
is a Plymouthian," i.e., a resident 
of Plymouth. 

d. A class of Nouns of which the second part is 
formed from a verbal root and conveys the idea of a 
possessor of, or doer of, that which is contained in the 
first part of the word. 



66 THE NOUN. SECT. 54 

cttfllrchlll, An oppressor (doer of violence.) 

■3^chl0, A benefactor (doer of help.) 

*J{ ^chlit. An injurious person (doer of injury.) 

e|'chc| Ic^l , A chatterbox (a garrulous person.) 

^ r^ •^ I dl A truthful person (a speaker of the truth.) 

^^4||4{| A fellow-traveller (a goer with.) 

^^ct)<M I A fellow-worker (a worker with.^ 

^I^<il^ A troubler (a giver of trouble.) 

xi^j| J One who gives happiness to others. 

55. 2. Ending in ^TT. 

»grj is a very characteristic masc. termination, but 

of Nouns ending in ^J pi'obably not less than about 75 

per cent, are fern. 

a. Verbal Nouns formed by adding ^T^TT *^'' l^TTT 

to the inflected form of the Infinitive. These become fem. 

by changing *^ info ^. 
ch<^<4I^T A doer. 

^|H<4|^1 ^^ne who goes, or is about to go. 
^T'H ci I <^ I ^'"''^ ^vho comes, or is about to come. 
<»i<fl^l A giver. 
The termination ^T^CT 's little used in modern Hindi. 
h. Nouns indicating family relationship. 
ftrTT, /.7//a'r : %^, son : ^^, ^TRT, paternal 

and maternal grandfather ; Tf^^l^ grandson : Tn^TrTT, 



SECT. 55. MASCULINE. 67 

^iireat iimndson ; ^Fl^, ^^, MiHl, ^^Hly ^Hl, 

various kinds of uncles, according as they are on the 
father's or mother's side, actual uncle or only the aunt's 
husband. 

As will be pointed out in the section on Number, 
many of these Nouns are not inflected in the singular. 

c. A few ending in '^^J, indicating occupation. 
JN^^I, a singer ; ^T^r^TT, a thatcher ; 
^f^TTT, headman ; ch<c4^^| or ^t«<^T, ^ doer. 

li. Many others which it would be difficult to 
classify, e.f>., 

TJ^^i a king ; ^tf'^m, a translation ; T^X^^ a pil- 
lar ; %T^T, a body ; ^ichlTT, ^deliverance ; ^^J^ a tent ; 
TT^TT, a festive gathering of people ! W^TTTj ^'^'P 5 
%RT, gold ; %TfT, •'-on. 
66. 3. Ending in ^. 

This ^ is connected with ^^rffj and conveys the 
idea of a doer of. Thus TST^^, both tutor and pupil, 
one who either imparts or receives fW^Tj instruction. 
m<ffch, o"e who nourishes or protects. <«^i^cf> 
a writer; tjejch, a servant. 

Not all these Nouns are personal. We have, for 
mstance, T!l^^, that which is tasty ; ^?\T^, a pledge. 



68 THE NOUN. SECT. 57. 

57. 4. Ending in r^. 

These are Abstract Nouns. MijMr^j manliness. 
prowess ; 4^f]c>i(rq, the quality of humanity : -H^rq, 
greatness ; "^J^r^^ the condition of servitude. A feu- 
end in T^, e.g., Htc|, essence, element. 

58. 5. Ending in >i|'1^. 

These are of the nature of Verbal Nouns, and have a 
meaning somewhat similar to that conveyed by the use 
of the Infinitive as a Verbal Noun. Examples : ^^T^, 
bending ; P^^T^, attraction, tension ; tJ^rfX^, regret : 
^^m being saved; as in such a sentence as '^^^J 
^Trllel r|^| ^H^l, If '^'^'iU not he possible to save him : 
d^|c<j the being thrust hack. 

59. 6. Ending in ^. 

Sometimes this ending conveys much the same 
meaning as the ^TTW S'ven above. 

^iM^I^, productiveness ; T^T^, eating ravenously, or 
a glutton ; f^T3i, falling : ^^TT^ , '^loping. 

Words ending in »^C[^ and ^ masc. and ^^ fern. 
have much in common. 

60. 7. Ending in tpT. 

These also are Abstract Nouns. ^l<niM*1, simpli- 
city ; ^s^bhMH, childhood • MHI^MH, madness ; 
 ' ' ' 

'Hldrl^H, thickness ; ^fTT^n^T'T, blackness. 



SECT. 61. MASCULINE. 69 

61. According to meaning. 

1. Many natural objects, especially if large, are 

masc. ^Tm, ^X^, ^"'^ -^'"^^ ' ^T*^, ^^TT, ^^^ 

moon ; ^i^u^ the universe ; "SfTprT, the world ; 

r 
TTTTT, « star : >i{|chl^, ^^^^ firmament ; ^Tf, heaven ; 

c( |U, ^//e a/r ; ?T^, ^^ continent ; ^^ i7 country ; 

MI^II, /'^'^t^, pond ; »T^j a ;'it;er. 

But yr^cn, fhe earth ; ^RH"? '^ ''^^'^'' ' *in^j 
a shalloxc lake, are fern. 

62. 2. Minerals and precious stones, e.g., ^T?T, 
a /n//iem/ ; ^^J, gold ; ^TH, silver ; %T^, 
/a-o;/ ; rfTT^j copper ; iDrftfl, /?nr.ss ; ^^r^T, a precious 
stone : ^?CT, '^ diamond ; 4{||ijl|eh, '? '■"^3'. 

But •cJT't^, silver, and words for earth, 4{d|, 
fijg^", ^f^^, are fern. 

63. 3. Parts of the body. 

^^5 ^5' ^'^^J ^1^1, body ; >^j //-i^w/j ; f^^ 
ftrC, head : g^^ ^, face ; ^J^n, ^^^''^^ ; ^T^, 
(generally plural.) /lair ; ^T«T, ^''''' ; TRT, cheek ; 

sh)ulder ; ^J^^ ^^^^ ^f^, /Jt?n^ ; ^, belly ; t^^, 
^^^ ; ^T^, foot ; Ttr^, a corpse ; and many more 



are masc. 



70 THE NOUN, SECT. 63. 

But grf^, ^frff^, ioiiis or waist : ^Liniy 
breast ; ^f^, ^T, ^f"^  HiWlj neck. ^STTOr ^■^''^ ' 
^3TTH. tongue : Hlf^^tl, "«se, are fern. : ^T^, corpse t 

^fcrn" oi' %TM^5 skull, also are fern. ^^, hoJy, is 
geiaerally fern., but occasionally masc. 
64. 4. Divisions of time. 

TT^, 44^1hI, "^^ ///o;?^// ; ^^, t? periodoffwo months ; 

fs|^|ri| morning ; "T^X? c( period of three hours, are all 
masc. 

But ^rT, Trftr. '"^^'^ : ^^, evening ; "^T^. 
a period of 24 minutes, are fern. 

65 5. Some emotions and mental states. 

JUT, ^^5 '«^'e ; 3iT^. TT"^, '^"i^''^'' ' ■^T'^^, 
5IT^*«hl<", ^RtTT^, T^, /" '^t; ; vTT^f^, avarice ; 
^ETTfT^, ^, 5p^, joy, pleasure : ^:^, pain ; "SfT^, 

But many such qualities, especially those represent- 
ing the more tender feelings, are fem. 

FEMININE. 

66. I. Ending in ^. The termination ^ is character- 
istic of the fem., even as ^H" 's of the masc. ; but Nouns 



SKCT. 66. FEMININE. 71 

ending in ^ are by no means exclusively fern. Probably 
quite as many are masc. 

A. The ferns, of correspondin.jf Nouns in masc, 
ending in jjn. 

a. Indicating relations. ^^, *TT«TT, paternal and 
maternal }frandmothey. ^^^^ daughter : HlHT, grand- 
daii^i/iter [son's dciif}i/itcr\.: qiT^Rl, ^^T, aunt (father's 
brother's wife.) ; ITT^, ^T"'f (mother's brother's wife.); 
XRTjfj (f?/;/f (father's sister. ):^J^[jj cr/n/^ (mother's sister.) 

It is interesting to note that, while a son's daughter 
's ^TfTT ^ daughter's daughter is not (generally) r||f|| 
but rTTlH^T. The word rfXHT 's reserved for the mean- 
ing of a relative of any kind, a kinsman. The form tTTHT 
is appropriated for daughters son, and the fern, of this is 

•limn. 

b. Nouns of Agency. 

J a hearer. 

c. Other Nouns. 

disciple : ^^n (or ^Fh^T), '' ^"'^c/? : ^^^, a she-goat; 
Qj^ a mare. 

T^hese Nouns are not very numerous, nor are they 



^2 THE NOUN. SECT. 66. 



«*v» 



consistently worked out. ¥(^T 's a buffalo, but the fern. 
is not VT^, but ^^. ^^ is not a female elephant 
but a male. The fern, is ^12|«fl . ^^ is a female slave, 
but there is no masc. ^^T, 't is ^TO . 

So the masc. of J^, daughter, is n^^ son. 
,, ,, ^^, female sheep, is ^:g. 

5? J J ^fr^, female deer, is ^R^l. 

A few Nouns for inanimate things are found with a 
masc. in IJfl and a corresponding fern, in "^ . These 
latter are generally diminutives, or regarded as inferior 
in some way, 

<^^1, >'ope ; masc. T^^^. 
J^r^l^, hatchet ; „ ^^s^j^. 

^rat, iJ drain ; „ ^\k^\. 
Often a masc. in SJ^J is not found, e.g., vT^, river, 
corresponds with ^fH", ^ "^^O' large river. We have 
I^^Mll for a small window or door, but no such word 

^s l^N^'chl 'S in use. 

67. B. A certain number of words ending in >i{|'^^ 

having, in many cases, an abstract meaning. 

^-oTJI ' l , truthfulness : >itfil^, prosperity : ^^T^, 
greatness ; ^<||, depravity ; ^T^T^, length ; %^Tf , 
hreadfii . 



SECT. 67. FEMININE. 73i 

Such forms as g'^^TrTT^, heaufy ; Trf^^rTrt, 
holiness, should be avoided ; the '^ is quite redundant, 
the fTX already fully conveying the abstract idea. 

68. C. A number of words indicating cost of labour of 
various kinds, and sometimes the work itself. 

^^T^, price of washing, washing. 

r . ^ 

^Hl^, price or carrying, porterage. 

'cf^^l*^, price of reaping, cutting. 
M?"^!^, pj^'ce of sewing, sewing. 
ch*ll^, earnings. 
T^gff^, cooking. 
^rU^, tillage. 
Also feTT^, '^^^T^, f^^^, cost of weaving, mak- 
ing, grinding, and many other similar words. 

69. II. Ending in ^. 

Of words ending in ^ very many are fern. Of these 
many are distinctly abstract in meaning. 

>:TT^ r'c'lif^ious fervour : OJ^^ bodily fitness ; syiT+i, 

power : ^^m, ndvancemenf \ 'S^'^'^uTK, decline ; 

erfe", wisdom : Wi^, creatinif : TT^? vision ; 5UiW-rf, 

tranquillity ; ^f?T, praise ; ^f^, ^TTm, method ; 

VTT'T, 1^1^ ground. 

A few mascs. in ^ are found. ^T^, *1M, s<»Jw^ ; 
^X^, monkey : ?[TT^, '^ heap, etc. 



74 THE NOUN. SECT. 70. 

70. III. Ending in ^[J. 

A. Some of these are the names of moral qualities. 
A few are Collective Nouns ; a considerahle numher 
must he classed miscellaneous. 

CT. ^^^^, coiiipassioii : <\^T, mercy : ^^, 

favour ; '^^51, contempt-, >M T ^ I , expectation ; jCTT^^T^T, 
^i^l, desire ; ^^^TT, ^hame :"^;^, envy : 'Sf^T, doubt. 

b. ^¥{T, ^" association or assembly '• JI^T, subjects 
of a K'inii. cf. the English "this people." ^^] an army. 

(-'■ r=l«UI, learning \ JHT^T, praise : ^^^, 
abuse, insult : ^f^lTT, f^lory ; t^T{JT, direction. 

'>Hli3T, command ; VTTTT, lingua ge or dialect ; 

%^j service ; ^TS^lT, <^ sicoo;? ; T^j protection ; 

f^r-flTj thought, anxiety ; ^TTTTj fJoic (of a stream); 

gr^n, hindrance : CT^FH", '^ commentary ' TTT^^, 
intoxicating drink. 

<^ii^gh T,c7g/;/; Trf^^n, ch-M^I, ^T^^T, i co;;?a« ; 

3T^, c?/.s^o;;; ; irf^TWT, pfomise ; ^N^, number. 

71. B. There is a very large class of Ahstract Nouns 
ending in 7^, Indian writers tacU this ffX on to well 
nigh innumerable words. The suffix has much the force 



SECT. 71. FAMININE. 75 

of "ness" in I-i!nglish, as in sn-cefness, goodness, fresliness. 
A few examples are given : — 

>JT^T*TrTT, ignorance. ^cf^ril, oneness. 

^f^^rTT, excess. ^M^rH, softness. 

>H"5^^rn', pricelessness. ^^^^ ability. 

>n"T=n?nvTr, iJtdispensab/eness. *T5"fTT, softness. 

^TT^fTT, e.xccUcnce. Xp^r^TTT, pl^'asure. 

3^TTrTI, liberality. ^'^rTT, ./'"''"^•^■v 

72. C. A considerable number of fern. Xouns ending in 
cfT including a few in J^. These Nouns have generally 
somewhat of a verbal force, the doing of. Examples : — 
m^^J^^i'ayer. supplication, ^rj ^ | ^ make, workmanship. 

>M1<I ^T^T, i<<>rship. ch^MHI, flioitghf, imagining. 

^trr^RT, icnrship. ^rWTR^Tt, possibility. 



eh[44?T T, '^''•'^■^•''t'. ^ -civil, information. 

VliHI, occurrence. ^S(|qV||, placing. 



rfl'^wi'i, chastisement. TfTW(, instigation. 

fcf^T^rd, discrimination. 

73. IV. Ending in ^, >M|^?f, ^ or TJTRT. 

These are mostly formed from masculines. Very 
many of them are caste designations. 



76 THE NOUN. SECT. 73. 

A, a. From mascs. endinj? in e, 

"Vllqi fern, of "Mlsn, washerman. 

TTra^T ,, <Hm1, gardener. 

H'*'«n mi ,, H+-^l<?n, betel-leaf seller. 

h. From mascs. ending in '^^. 
Sometimes the ^J is retained before the addition of 
"^TT 5 sometimes dropped. 

^T^*II^H 'f^ni. of «IMA|T, shopkeeper. 

^PTTT^^T " ^M^l, wool-carder. 

^^Tk^ ,, ... 63<;T, brass- worker. 

^%f^^ „ -•• ^%n, copper- worker. 

c. From mascs. ending in a consonant. 

%TH I Rh fem. of %T'nT, goldsmith. 

^*ilKH " ••• tJTIK, leather- worker. 

^Tfrfr^ " ••• %TfK, blacksmith. 

This "^^ may be jJT*T ''"> some instances : c.^., 
f^^TT for fern, of f^^^T ip^^i'^ter) . %T^kH for 
^ 1^1 HH f'^'''i- of <^Jri|?[ [blacksmith). 

d. In some cases, there is an alternate feminine, e.g., 
^44 |^*T foi* ^TTtT*T, and a few more. 

74. B. Ending in ^TT^^. These are from mascs. 
of various endings. 



SECT. 74. THE FEMININE. 77 

j[^>nT^ or g^>MiHl 

fern, of ^^, a religious teacher. 

■^fferTT^ .» "Tft^rT, a learned man. 

also ^Ji<Hl, 3^^l*ll ^^, ^ landowner, etc. 

75. C. Ending in ^^ ^^^ and >|||«f)- 

It should be noticed that a long vowel in one of the 
syllables of the masc. is sometimes shortened in the 
formation of the fern. 

These Nouns are not only the names of castes, but 

for other classes of words, relatives, animals, etc. 

r r 

a. Many are from mascs. ending in ^ the ^ being 

changed into ^rfj. 

fHTflf^*^ fem. of f^n^TT^, a beggar. 

^nrrrftr^ft „ ■^^TT^, a transgressor. 

Trfwi' » "^TPTV, a sinner. 

T^^T^ HT, ov ir^ITI+l*fl , a woman whose stately 

walk is compared with the gait of 
an elephant. 

b. From mascs. ending in a consonant, etc. 

^^4 I R«il fem. of ^^^TT, a distiller. 

^^Tpf^ '. "5^, ^ certain class of 

Brahmans. 

fadi ^ " %^, ^ banker. 

^^iffT M ^ST^TTfT, a weaver. 



7S THE NOUN. SECT. 75. 

^OI*1l, ^vife of a woman's husband's elder brother 

^cff^MT „ younger....,, (^WK) 

'TtPT'TT fti'ii. of ^TT, a snake. 

^6HT " ••• '^3v3', ^ camel. 

TtlV4*1l " ■•• m'A or "RT^, a lion. 

^^hI ' •• fT^, an elephant. 

76. D. Ending in 3. 

These have often somewhat of an abstract meaning, e.^., 
Nd^chl ^<3lNi %^% ^JT^ ^j //s /;;aA't^ //^(or or/u?- 
meiiial ^ef up) is icorfli looking at. 
WaKI^^", perturbation. 

^r§T^3, rottenness. 

c<1|c«^, make. 

^^Mdri weariness. 

ir^cf^STl^^, smoothness. 

41 1 ^^ sound of a footstep. 

77. The above general rules and illustrations must 
suffice. . As is natural, where no neuter gender exists, 
uncertainty attaches to the whole question of gender. 
Any rules framed can only be of a general character, 
having many exceptions. Indian writers differ as to the 
gender of various words. This is partly due to local 
usage, e.^., iff^ boiiy, is generally fem. ; but in some 



*< 



SECT. 77. THK I-EMININB. 79 

parts masc. The word ^^^^, hook, used to be masc. 
It is now invariably tern., probably owing to the tact 
that the Urdu word for booU, kitrib, is fern. Again, 

the word '^TrTT, ^pi^'it, though still generally masc., is 
used as fern, by some writers. This, likewise, is probab- 
ly due to the influence ot Urdu, the word " ;'?<//," spirit, 
being fern, in Urdu. 

One word, ?^T^, '^ both masc. and fern., and the 
meaning differs as the masc. or fern, is used. As masc, 
it means " trace,'" as fern. " search^ ^^^H" %T^ ^KTT 
Search for it. T^T^T HW| T^T^5TTj "^^ trace of it was 
found. The word Ijft^ direction, is used both as masc. 
and fem.; a note on this will be found later in the 
Grammar 

Careful observation and frequent recourse to the 
Dictionary is the only course. In accordance with 
the suggestion already made, let the student train his 
ear by associating other words with Nouns and thus 
accustom himself to feel what gender a Noun is. 
78. A few words are given below as worthy of special 
note : 

Masculine. Feminine. 

»H|^<1, hope, (but >H 1 ilM of somewhat similar 

meaning.) 
Tpft, water. rRfV, bread. 

3nfr, question. TT^TT, »'Osary, garland. 



^0 THE NOUN. SECT. 78. 



Fem. 



Masc. 

^tTT, answer. ^Tf^lTT, Jj'ory. 

"Sn, life. mIv^I, pain. 

ftl^TT^j faith. ??3"j cleath. 

^nrTT, spirit. ■^TRTj f'l'e. 

%Trft, pearl. ■gfg root. 
5^^^ book. 

Ml^^l, bird, and ft^T, eat, are both fem. ; but 

are commonly used for birds and cats, regardless of sex. 
The same might be said about certain other words. 

7a. Gender indicated by different words. 

In some cases, a feminine Noun, pairing off with a 
corresponding masculine, is not a modified form of the 
latter, but a distinct word, e.^., 

father, |l(r1l mother, ^J^T 

brother, %YC% sister, ^T^«T 

man, ^[^T^r woman, ^pft" 

Another word for man, ?T*1^'M, 's often used with a 

generic force as including woman, in the way that man 
is used in such a phrase as " man is mortal." 

king, TrSTT queen, TX^ ov XJ^ 

A masc. ^CTTT ov i^mjij is used for king in some 
parts of India. 

bullock, ^^ cow, 4||<| 



SECT. 79. NUMBER. 81 

<rj|"^ and Wf^nrr* t"'*''^ ^^^^ female of a certain 
small bird, 

80. Gender of Co.npouiid Nouns. 

The last word in a Compound Noun decides its gender^ 
the earlier word simply qualifying the latter. Thus 

»HT'«T4i^^, a fire-pit, ^.re masc, although IfSTT, ^T^T 
and >>f'W*f at'e fern. 

In the same way, ^T^^TPTT, capital ; ^Sf^nTT^, [^ 

voyage, are fern., although ^l^T and ^5T^ are masc. 

81. Urdu words do not come under the general rules 
given above ; they retain their own genders when brought 
into Hindi. Very many Urdu words ending in ^f and 
^ are masc. many ending in ^j cj and '^^ are fern. 

NUMBER. 

82. There are two Numbers in Hindi, Singular anJ 
Plural. A Dual Number exists in Sanskrit but has not 
been brought into Hindi. 

Only the Nominative Case will be referred to in this 
section ; the forms of Oblique Cases vvill be dealt with in 
the section on the Cases. 

The majority of masculine Nouns do not possess a 

different form for the Nominative Plural ; consequently, 

it is only by the forms of other words in the same 

sentence, or by the context, that it can be decided 



82 THE NOUN. SECT. 82. 

whether a Noun be sin^. or plural. In not a few 
instances it is the context alone that can make the 
matter clear. In the sentence, ^T^T '^^^ r", it is 
impossible to tell whether the translation should be " the 
king has come' of " the kings Jiave conic." The verb is 
in the plural, but this would be quite appropriate if only 
one king were referred to, the plural verb being honorific. 

83. The Four Declensions of Nouns. 

In dealing with Number and Cases of Nouns, we 
may place the Nouns in 4 classes : 

I. Some mascs. ending in "^J. 

II. All other mascs. Some ending in "^"J must 
be included in this class, those ending in any 
other vowel, and those ending in a consonant. 

III. Fems. endmg in ^^ "^^ 3, "3\. 

IV. Fems. ending in any other letter. 
84<. For deciding whether a masc. Noun ending in 
I^TT, should be included in the 1st or 2nd class, the rule 
has been given that Tadbhavas in ^fj" belong to Class I, 
Tatsamas to Class II. It is evident, however, that such 
a rule is worthless to any but an advanced scholar. The 
best course to take is to try and fix the mascs. ending in 
jjn* that belong to II (and they are quite limited in 
number), the rest may then be regarded as belonging 
to Class I. 



SECT. 85. NUMBER. 

85. I. Mascs. ending in ^TT belonging to Class II. 
a. A few indicating relationship : 
pTrf T, father ; 

^ic^l, paternal grandfather; 
'TT'TT, maternal grandfather ; 

5^^^ o'' 5^^^' ancestor; 
^^X or '^T^T, uncle : 

^7n, grandson ; 

and a few others. 
h. Other Nouns not easily classified as regards meaning 

<.l^l, a king. ^ini, a learned man. 

TT^ or XTW{, a king. ^TrTT, a giver. 
T^^TrTr creator or disposer.^'^flj a speaker. 

^tTT, doer, Creator. J^rl |, a hearer. 

^rTT, ^^ ^od. T^firrTT, a" author 

WTrTT, spirit. 'ft^TT, ^ warrior. 

■^T^I^nr^, gfeat spirit. ^T^T, a companion. 

^rrf, protector. j^^ a young man. 

^|6(T, a term of respect to 
the aged. 
•TfTT, a leader. 
i>j1 M *H I , a guide or fore- 
runner. 



83 



84 THE SOVS. SECT 86. 

86. II. Mascs, ending in other vowels come under this 

Class II. (See sections 54 and 59.) 
Under this come such Xouns as "^"n^i ^^n^Ty 
^TT^, ^^iWT^, 5!%, "5T^, '^ robber: 1^^ 
a teacher ; jSTmi^, ^ gut^i^t. 

87. III. Mascs. ending in consonants. Such as : — 
*rpT, name : ^f^^ race ; ^^^^ stone : ^Sfpfj 

place ; yjfjcH', sorrow : M^? disease : cTtT, arrow ; 
tN, ^eg ; TTTT, sin : ^^^, POol ; ^Z, ^^'t : %^j 
eye ; \^m^ arrangementor device. 

With all these Nouns in Class I, the Nom. PI. is the 
same as the Nom. Sing., and the form does not undergo 
any change in the oblique cases in the singular. 

88. Class I. Mascs. ending in ^JT. 

This Class is so miscellaneous as regards meaning 
that no classification is attempted : 

^Zrr, a son ; 
^"^WTT, boy ; 
JTrTT, dog ; 
■q^^j trace, clue ; 

\f^T5fX» cleception ; 
•f^TrfT, invitation ; 
^T^j spell ; 
and the numerous words ending in grT^TT, such as^ 



SECT. 88 NUMBER. 85 

These Nouns make their plural Nom. by changing 
15rr '"to ^j /t., %%, ^"5%, ^n^, etc. The same in- 
flection is made before adding the Case endings in the 
oblique forms of the singular. 
88b. Class III. 

This class includes feminine Nouns ending in w and 
'^. They form their Nom. pi. by changing both ^f and 
"^ to ^^ and adding jJfT- 

^J, woman T^T^T. women. 

^T^, river. •tl^**!, livers. 

Om, method- O Ml^T, methods. 
^^^ companion- ^f^^T ? companions. 

Occasionally, the termtnation "^^ is found. Thus 
^rfisF^ , companions : T^^ , women ; ^^TT%^ , 
stories. 

Nouns ending in ^TTT generally form their Nom. pi. 
by the simple addition of anunasiU. Thus T^rTZ^TT, i't^le 
daughter, pi. f%f^i|T. For f-cj|^^|, l->ii'd, both plurals 

are used MI^^T ^^'^'^ 'Ml^^l^- 
* * 

89. Class \y. .411 other feFtiinines must be included 
in this class. 
The oblique cases of the singular are uninflected ; the 
Nom. pi. is formed by adding "^ to the sing. Nom. : 



86 





THE 

t 1 


NOUN. 

1 1 




SECT. 89. 


g^T^, 


book, 


plural 


g^% 




MTfT, 


word, 


5» 


^T^^ 




rTT^, 


wave, 


'» 






HTf, 


root, 


>> 






*- , 


^rmy. 


7) 


«v. ^ 




^Hl. 


^HIM 




^TT^T, 


journey, 


>) 


^^T^ 




"^m, 


thing, 


f> 







89b. Irregularities. 

There are many inconsistencies to be met with in 
the formation of plurals. The form ^T%, ^^t>m. pi,, 
instead of ^TWTj '^ ^^ ^^ found in the works of thoroughly 
good Hindi writers. c(^^ for ^"^fT^ is occasionally 
met with, and for the stem of the oblique cases in the 
plural 8<^r|*f instead of ^fl-H >in" . It has been noticed 
in the last paragraph that the forms f^q , Wv^T'T^ 

(and so with, other similar Nouns), are used by some 
writers. 

A measure of uncertainty exists with reference to 
some mascs. ending in ^JfT as to whether they should be 
included in Class I or Class II, e.^^., "^fr^J a iirandson ; 
«n Vjl ^ Jand measure. 

All Nouns are inflected for the oblique stem of the 
cases of the plural. The forms will be found in the next 
section, that on the Cases. 



SECT. 90. NUMBER. 87 

90. Special uses of Singular and Plural. 

Singular form icifh Plural Dieaiiing. \n Hindi, it is 
not uncommon to find the sing, form used where the 
meaning is evidently plural. This principally occurs 
with the Nominative Case, but not exclusively so. 
^^ "^T ^f^R^ ^ ^^nrr, -'^^^ tliL^ iconwn became greatly 
heivildered. J^ "cT^T ^^ ^Jrff^ Sonic liours passed 
in tins way. Wt^^ ^ TT^T ^rft f , There are sixteen 

instants (in each line), '^^rf ^T ^^H ^^ ^, There 

are many things like this. 

^^ ^ ^'1'3R ^TT"^? ifl^T, ^^^ learned several lan- 
guages. "^XT ^7f^ % ^trTT, The giver of the four fruits. 
^JrT ^T ^"^^T ^t1%^, ■I/'^M' rupees are needed. 
^^ fipT ^, ^" ^rfeic days. ^fV ^f^% T^%, ^fl^r 
exactly six months, ^^^f^ "^m "TXcf ^5:^X^>^, 
Having bound his hands and feet. 

Occasionally, the Verb remains in the sing, where 

the Nom. is evidently to be understood as pi., e.g., 

Wr^ ^f TfT ^T, Tears were fiowing. f^f*T ^ ^T^TT" 

^rf ^n" •TTT ^'nrr B, whatever kings' names are 

mentioned. ^ ^TTT^ ij'M^T 3^^ ^^^ ^ TTT, Seve- 
ral lakhs of rupees ivere spent in that. 
JJl. I'lural used where sing, would be used in English. 

In some of the instances given as illustrations it will 

be noted that in English the plural is intended, though 

the singular form of the Noun is retained. 



^•"^ THE NOUN. SECT. 91. 

With articles of food where the names of j^rain are 
referred to : 

-etTq^rn cFT^ift^T, Having washed the rice. 'VTT%t 
^ ^^, Fiehfs of rice. The plural is used also with the 
word ?^^, fyarched grain, ^^T ^%t ^ ^"^TWT ^T, 
Having hiid the gram roasted. With this compare the 
English, '■ Having had the chick-peas roasted.^' 

ly i<[r ■'/'-% 's generally used in the plural, possibly 
with the idea of vital functions, centres of life. Ti^ch 
inW W^ T^, m^ lif*-' i^'^s saved. ^TWT %T Wi^ 

»>■ ».. •< •s.* 

"^rrglT Tf^ It fell to the king to give up his life. *T WPT 
TT STTO %^ ^5 ^^'^'<^f sort of a life mine is, is not to be 
understood. ^^T nT ITim e|^l<), / saved your life. 

Similarly, with ^fW, breath. 3^f^ ^n% ^^ ^:^ 
■^n", He wa^ panting for breath. The word ^f^^^ blood, 
is also found used in the same way. ^|VT ^^ T% ^ 

Wood tioxced. 

q|<;ft, hair.^ is generally used in the plural. ^fjJH 
cfl^ ^(ol T'^" 6, He haslet his hair i^row lo}W. 

^PT, price, is often in the plural, g^ ;^ ^PTT ^ 
^^ SItrf i, He sold {the wood) for a high price. 

^^, sight. fTT^T ^ n^tr^^'^sft % ^^^ 

^1*1 J Wt' shall get a sight of Ram Chandra ji. This word 
is generally used with this sense in the plural, but not 



SECT. 91. NUMBER. 89 

invariably so. Probably the variation in use depends 
upon the idea as to whether there is to be one peep or 
a more prolonged *' look " or " looks." 

WTT^TTy intelligence. This is not in any way an 
equivalent to the use of the English word " news: " that 
is only plural in appearance. ^M \'f\\K 'S used both in 
the sing, and plural, though more often in the latter 

He canned Raja Bhoj to hear all the good nexvs;. Later, 

in the same story, we have the sing. " ^fk\ W^TT^fTT" 

''Cf. the Hng. tidirtgs.) Ht^PT, food, is sometimes 

used in the plural, ^r% *f|"^f?T •T^ "fiR^, >''"' -^^^t-^ 
>wf tahen food. 

^?§r, hunger. ^ ^^ ^T^ ^'^ They arc dying 
of hunger. As though repeated fastings ^unwilling 
fastings) were referred to. 

^TTT, fortune. This is occasionally used in the pi. 

^T^ ^rnff %rr ^tt ^tt^ ^nrr, tie began to throw 

blame on his fortune. 

92. The formation of plurals by the use of ^HfT ^I'^tl 

The words ^nff, multitude, and i^nf , people, are 
sometimes added to Nouns as sufH\X!?. giving them a 
plural meaning, with something of a collective force. 
"ST^, perfion, is occasionally found similarly used. 



90 THE NOUN. SECT. 92. 

^TT^^'T^, readers. M leich-Trfichll^, readers, 
men and ieoiiicn. ^1^^J<|<|,|, women. 5^11^ ntjlflT 
^sft^*T %T ^Ppmi ^%, Su^i>i-ii\i .sent the monkeys 
to seare/i for Sita. "Sf^ ^:p ^^^W ^f^HTO ^T 
HT^TW M*1 l^rT ftj^ ^^, Great gods and saints and 
holy men were invited. ^ ^K ^^ % 3^%T 
^^•cti'Ml, 7' lev; or three caused him to reach his de.sti- 
iiation. 

A fem. of ^|J|, viz.. ^TH^, is occasionally used. 

men and icomen, /iavini> abused them. 'TT'^t^H, 
sinners, t:^ I'of^, xcomen. '^^"^^'T, hinsfollc. 

Notice that these are not true Collective Nouns ; 
they generally take a plural verb. 

THE CASES. 
93. The classification already made for Nouns under 
Gender holds for the Cases also. 
The names of the eight Cases have been already 
given in Ch. IV. Under Gender, the Norn, plural has 
been considered. We have now to note the inflectional 
changes made for the Oblique Cases, and the use of 
these Cases. The Vocative Case will be referred to 
under its own head, as regards the inflection as well as 
its idiomatic use. The following particulars apply to 
the remaining six Cases. 



SECT. 93. THE CASES. 91 

In Classes II, III and IV there is no inflectional 
change in the sing. In Class I the 'S^ is changed to 

 '  

In the plural, the termination J^n* 's common to all 

the 4 Classes : some slight modification in the stem may 
occur. 

In Class I, jJTT is changed to j^TT — ^TS^TT, <ft ^^T- 

,, II. generally no modification. ^FTTT, THfll 

— ^Tlft. f^"Rff ; 

but ^ is changed to ^?ff — 'TT"'ft, "Tlf^M. 

III. The ^ and "% are changed in the same way as 

indicated under Class II. 

IV. In words ending in a consonant, and in ^T, the 

j^rt o"lv is added ; the ending ^ is changed to jjft, 
(^■g-, '^, daitg/ifer-in-lau\ sf^^. 

This classification probably covers nearly all the 
ground. Possibly a few words do not conform to the 
foregoing remarks, and inconsistencies occur among 
writers and speakers. 

It will be seen by the table of Cases here given that 
there are two forms of the Accusative, and a second 
form of the Nominative for some Verbs, in some of their 
Tenses. 



92 



THE NOUN. 



SECT. 94 






CC 



H- — .- o 



U 



\^ \^ 



/tr 



IS 



^ ^ 



a» 



'" "^ »- c- r- •- W ** 



'^ /IT 4r 






W 



Jir 



n 



c 
a 
o 



u 



CD 



CO C3 

C5 •< 



u 






O 



/fr 



tc re 
it £ 



f 



^ ^W /tr 






M 



^t^ ^ ^ ^ ^\^ ^ 
te). fip. !«?♦ ^ 

rr Is^ ^ f^ 






^ o 



It lE^ 



1 



— c 

c o 

c/3 ;?: 



.o 
> 

i ''tr 

a' 

> 

r R5 
en 

y 

o 



1^ 

o 



o 



'U 



w ^f 









^ M 




SECT. 94. 



THE CASES. 



95 



'J. 
■J. 



'-J 



U 



'J 






U 



/tr ^ 






— ♦> 



i tP 









ic 



=^ It i"^ 



^ 



18^ |y 






/Iff 



^ 



ic It 



^ /S 



IT 15^ 



^ /Ir <^ 

H- 
Iff 

r^ #s c^ 

m 

/It /Ir ^^ 
Iff 

r^ #s »^ 

^ r^ «^ 

/iff 

iW /It ^ 



•4-' 







w 

XT 



/tr /fP^ 



^ 



CJ 



6^" 






/Iff - 
Iff K 



:: |i9« 
IT 



u 
3 






O 

Z 



> 
c 



> 

3 
CJ 



o 

z 



cS 



> 
Q 


c 

3 

s 


> 

< 


4) 
> 

'S 

a 


0) 

> 

w 

o 


> 

o 

o 

> 



94 THE NOUN. SECT. 95. 

THE NOMINATIVE. 

95. There are two forms of the .Nominative Case. 
The second with % is often called the .-Xi^entive Case : 
but for all practical purposes it is a second Nominative. 
It is not, like the second form for the Accusative, an 
alternative form which may be used or not at the dis- 
cretion of the speaker or writer ; with certain Tenses of 
certain Verbs it innsf be used. With all the Tenses 
formed from the Perfect Participle of Transitive Verbs, 
its use is compulsory. Further particulars concerning 
this very important matter will be found in its appropriate 
place in the chapter on the Verb. By some writers on 
Grammar this form is regarded as a Case quite distinct 
from the Mom., its \'erb being used with an impersonal or 
passive force. Thus ^^^TT ^ <|^| ^ff ^^T, would 
mean, By tJw minister there icas a seeing* of the raja ; 
but it is far simpler to look upon TT^'^T *T ^s a Norn. 
Case. Thus we have for the Present Tense 1T?^T 
TT^r §rr ^t^rrr f , ^nd for the Past ^?^ ^ TX^J 
%T ^^TT, ^^'^ iiiiiiisfei' aees the J^iiiff ; The minister 
saw the king. The minister is the subject and the 
Nom. in both cases. 

This form of the Nom. is used with the following 
Tenses : — 

Indefinite . -p^ -tttt^ -t.-? T^ . *^ . .. He saw his 

Perfect. ^ ' brother. 



SECT. 95. THH NOMINATIVK. 



95 



Present ^„^ -tttt^ -o^prS^ ^^ ^.„^ ^ He has seen 
Perfect ^^^^^'T ^f ^T ^T^T f . , . , ^ 

P^«^ Per. ^^^ He had seen 

feet " " " ^^^ ^T- I • . ^u 

"='-'^' his brother. 

Contingent ^ ^ Should he 

i^errect. ^ have seen 

his brother. 

Presumptive *< ,«s ,_ He must have 

Perfect. " " " ^^ ff^T. ^^^,, ^_^ 

brother. 

PastContin- j^^ ^ »s If he had 

gent Per- " 77 ^ v ^^^^ j^,j, 

feet. brother. 

96. The Nominative Case is mucli used, but little ex- 
planation concerning its use is necessary, as, apart from 
the Nom. with «T, its use is exceedingly simple. 

7. As the Siihject of the Verb. ^t»ft ^T^ ^^T^ 
^ ^'^ %■ ^T^ ^H ■%, ^f'^^' hrof/iers had become tired 
thn)ii}>h the toil of traveUiiii*. 3?^ ^ ^^X f^T^T, 
They did so. XX^J ^^ ^T^'T, ^^^'^ ^'"'"S ■'^''"'/ H^^ ^''- 
^^o/Tov.TTfrr^fT ^ ^f^ TTirl" ^rfV f, Thepundifs 
icisdom has been smitten, i. e., He has lost his senses. 

2. Predicatively. Either with the \'erb " to be, " 
with a Passive Verb, also with some other X'erbs. ^ 

TTrft f , J '7'" a\sinner. ^[T^rf^f *ilM<IVjft flJ^T 

^|rlT ^, Ram Sinha is reckoned a transgressor. 

^ f^ ^% ^^ ^TT ^T^TS^T ^?^ (j,^<l^ l 



yt> THE NOUN. SECT. 9(>. 

^m, After a tune another man was appointed prime 
fniniater. ctl^Cl <^^ ^1T |5=(ch^ The three servants 
turned out to be thieves ^T^n ^ % ^T ^*T ^^ 

Fighting on they became warriors. 

The question of agreement between Subject and 

Verb, as regards Number and Gender, will be considered 

m the chapter on the V^erb. 

THE ACCUSATIVE CASE. 
97. The Accusative Case may take the form of the Nom.^ 
or the form to which ^^ is attached. To form a rule, or 
ruJes, by which it can be decided which form should be 
used in each individual instance is impossible. No rule 
exists on the subject, and not in all cases can it be said 
that the matter is regulated by idiomatic usage, for 
sentences could be, given which in other respects 
thoroughly correspond, yet 5Rt is used in one, but not 
in the other. It is, in not a few sentences, a matter of 
taste, one writer affecting a larger and another a smaller 
use of this or that form. 

Having made such a statement, it must be carefully 
guarded and restricted in its application. It should be 
fully recognized that in many cases idiom does decide 
that not only is one form distinctly better than the other, 
but that one is right, the other practically impossible. 

There are certain broad principles which may be 
helpful. 



li 
1,1 



SECT, 97, THE NOMINATIVE CASE. 97 

a. With Pronouns, the form with ^R^ is very general- 
ly used, 

?f^ ^^%T ^^^5 ^ saiv him, is right ; 5^ ^ ^T^^ 
it would be difficult to find in, perhaps, any writer. 

b. The form with ^^ is very widely used with proper 

names. TTT^tT ^ ^td \ *^ , Call Ram Datta. 

c. The form without ^n" '^ found more often with 
lifeless things and with animals than with persons, e.g., 
TT^T *T "^T. |r%, ^^''^ ^"^S worshipped his feet. 5flp% 
^ft^ "^<«1|M ^, ^ had driven on the horses. On the 

other hand, we find ^:^ ^, i!|^Hl ^, "^TS ^. 

d. Where a Dative is used in the same sentence, and 
no other equivalent takes the place of cl^ with the 
Dative, the Accusative is generally used in the Nom. 
form, thus avoiding the occurrence of two ^ft s in the 

same sentence. 

e. Where the connection between the verb and the 

Noun is very close, the g^ is often omitted, ^^f^ % 
I ^^ ^n^ W«fT, '^he woman heard this word. Many 
words joined closely up with ITTTtTT have the Accus., 
without the ^^ ^"^ ^^^ Noun indicating the person 
struck, with the ^. This is probably a Dative, 
though many prefer to call it a second Accusative. 



98 THE NOUN, SECT. 97 

^n^ n" ^r3^ ^^ <rllH ^TTT, ^^^^ horse kicked the 
boy. According to Hindi, it is the " kick " that the 
horse strikes, not the " boy." The boy is the recipient 
of the kick and, therefore, in the Dative. Compare the 
EngHsh phrases, "He struck a bargain with the man" 
and " He struck the boy a blow.'' 

/. While the omission of ^7t '""^y suggest closeness 
of connection between the Verb and Noun, the use of 
Gpt has a tendency to indicate stress and emphasis. 

98. Double Accusatives. Double Accusatives do occur; 
but in many sentences which might be brought forward 
as illustrations, careful consideration will possibly lead 
to the conclusion that one of the so-called Accusatives 
is more strictly speaking a Dative. 

Take the following as illustrations of the genuine 
Double Accusative : <|'^ | ^ ^nft^q"! ^ ^"T^ 

i I ^ ^ I *Tl olHl^f ^''^ king made Ayodhya his capital. 

^^ ,3i?Tf^^ ^"^^ ^ WT^ TPTT^ ft^m ^fxK. 

Having appointed Kiitiib-ud-din Aibak his chief man. 
In such sentences, the principal Ace. bears the ^f^. 
In the two sentences printed above, it is Ayodhya and 
Kiitiib-iid-din which are the principal Accusatives ; "his 
capital " and " his chief man " are, in a sense, predicat- 
ed of these. 



II 



SECT. S8. THK NOMINATIVE CASE. 9& 

In sentences like the following, the word with 3^^ 
is more strictly a Dative than a second Accusative : 

^IT ^TH^RT '^T%«TT ^K, Having had his sons 
and daughters clothed with the very choicest clothes 
and jewels. What the king had put on was the 
clothes and jewels — on to his children. ^^^ n <*i^^ 
^n ^Sfn "^T%^T T^^5 ^^'^ servant put shoes on to the 
hoys feet. Here the f^^ shews that ^^g^" ^ is a 

true Dative. ^^ ^nW^ H^T^ %T %^rTT ^^SH, 

He sent an invitation to 84 kings. " To the kings " is 
clearly Dative. So, again, in ^^T^H^ '^^^ *Tfft% 
^Rt ^nrn", He entrusted the kingdom to his nephew. 

It is similar with the two Nouns after such words as 
fe^T^, ft^TTT, ^rf^^TT, etc. What is caused to 
be eaten, or drunk, or explained, is the food, the drink, 
the matter, these are the Accusatives, the people who 
do the eating and drinking and have the matter explain- 
ed to them are the recipients, they are in the Dative 
Case. 

99. Where there are two Accusatives, one complement- 
ing the other, the Case sign, the ^ntj '^ used only after 
the second; the first is generally written in the Nom. form. 

Taking his four sons and daughters-in-law with him. 



100 THE NOUN. SECT. 99. 

Notice that IJp| is not only in the Mom. form, but 
in the sin^i»ular, although the meaning is plural. 

100. Accusative of place 

The Accusative is often used of the place to which 
motion is directed or the place which is reached. 

Having slain them in battle, lie sent them to the realm of 
Death. "^[^ *jflT ^ ^ 'HTT, {He) tool; him off in a 
certain direction. 

Sometimes the Case sign is omitted, e.^., "^^ »HHn 
>imH "^T ^% T^, They all went off, each to his men 
house. 

101. Accusative of time. 

The Accusative is similarly used with reference to 

time, ^iff ^> ^T^ ^ 5:^ ^1^ ^ "^ t, 

There is the fear of trouble coming to the people hereafter. 
41 M TTrT ^ ^ fe^ ^FK ^"5 ^T, Sit carefully con- 
cealed for the night. 

With time also as with place, the ^ is sometimes 
omitted. "^^ mm ^ft^ ^T^ %, At this time there 

is no one {here), 

THE DATIVE CASE. 

102. The usual sign of the Dative, as of the Accusative 
Case is ^?t The Dative, however, may be indicated 
in other ways, e.g., by % ra%, % PTT'TtT, % ^fSl. 



I 



SHCT. 102 THE DATIVE CASES. 101 

There is one use of the Infinitive with a Dative of 
the Noun in which the "Snt '"^y be omitted, although 
the construct, stem is retained, e. q., ^^ ^<c(*) '^'^J 
He went to see. This might also be expressed— ^^ 
^^^ %T— or ^?^^ % f^ — Tmj. 

Another form for the Dative of Pronouns exists, but 
the consideration of that will come in the chapter on 
Pronouns. 

The Dative has various uses, but they may probably 
be fairly comprised under three headings. 

103. The Dative of the recipient 

The l'ini> i^ai-c many villages to both the brothers. 

3^ ^ m< ^ f^, He gave five rupees to one 
hoy and ten to his elder brother. 

104. The Dative of Possession or Acquisition. 

This covers not merely material possessions, but also 
mental and moral qualities and responsibilities. Many 
of these uses are met in English by the word " has " or 
had.' We can say that a man has a cat, or a cold 
or a conscience, a garden or a bad temper, a great Joy, a 
sense of responsibility , a suspicion. 

The following illustrations will suggest the wide use 
of which the Dative is capable : "R"^^ "T^T^ % ^^ 



102 THE NOUN. SECT. 104. 

^IH ^, ^« i^^^ days of old the mountains had \i-in<is. 

■fti^ %T ^TT fir^ wnr, ^/ '?«>' ^//e .i>t^/ ivork. 

iVo child had been born to any of the queens. «5IT'Tt ^T 
^^"V ^^T^rTT ft^rft" ^, People are ^^reatly helped. 

Z(T{ *T ^T, ^^"^ learned men of ancient India had no 
special love for history, ^iff §JT ^^T% ^^^ "Cf^ ^^"^T 
^T l^«HcCl^ *T Wr^5 ^^" their testimony people will 
not readily believe (it). ^^ ^^ %T ^'^T TT^T 
%TrTT f, ^t seems so to us. ^^^ %! T^ ^ T^ ^- 
^yj?f?^ '3'^X A great joy filled his soul. (Lit. to him, 
in his heart of hearts great joy became.) 
105. The Dative of purpose. Duty, Responsibility, etc. 
For this, the Infinitive is very largely used. This will 

be more fully treated of when the Infinitive is brought to 
our notice. Two or three illustrations are given here : 

Let this suffice, ice have merely to state this. "^"^ HT^ "^xj 
''TT^^ ^^^T 'T^rTT ^, -^f /^^//s to the elder brother 
to support {her). ■^t::^T^ ^ffH $iT f if^ 3Tpft 
"CT^Tft, Harm icill befall your sister. (Lit. To your sister 
it icill befall that she must fake up injury). "^^ chl^ % 
ftr^ ^^^t% ^^ 3^^TTt ^T 5^1, They chose a stu- 
dent for this xvork. \l^ %T T^ ^, "^^'^J have gone to see. 



SECT. 105. THE INSTRUMENTAL CASE. 103 

If an Accusative with ^^ occur in the same sentence, 
% m^ may be used for the Dative. ^: g% ^^^| 

 

^^3"% % f^T^ T^ ^, The boys have gone to see it. 
Or the Dative sign may be dropped altogether, thus, 
Tr«T f^^ %T ^^ "T^ ^TTrn" %, ^ yetcr/ does not 
go in search of anyone. 

Very occasionally, two Datives with %y may be found in 
the same sentence, eg., s^n^l 't^'T^^T ^Kl *TT •T^ 
|4{cHHT "^T, They could not even get any fodder to eat. 
Many writers would avoid the two %T^ ^y writing the 
sentence thus — 3'^s' <^ |H oRT, ^tc. 

THE INSTRUMENTAL CASE. 

106. The particle ^ is used with both the Instrument- 
al and Ablative cases. It is probably this fact and the 
difficulty of deciding in many instances under which case 
a word should be classified that has led to the two cases 
being united under the name " Ablative " by some 
There appears, however, no sufficient justification for 
adopting this course. Undoubtedly, it is not easy to de- 
cide in all instances under what case a certain word with 
^ should be placed, but it is perfectly clear that the two 
cases are not identical. There are many instances 
where a word is Instrumental ( chilli ) ' ^"<^ it could not 
be classed as Ablative without great violence. 



104 THE NOUN. Sect. 106, 

Under the Instrumental may be included such sen- 
tences as the following : — 

a. By means of a person. "^^ ^^ W «l6n ^TT^ 

ffirfx Much harm will come through stich a fool. 

No fault was committed by the boy. <H^^T ^ •T^T 
fWiTT ^TT^T^T ^^ can't be done by a girl. 



b. By means of other than a person. n3«-^|*1 ^^ 
tjf^^TT ^ i^^l They accomplished it with great 
labour. "^"^ T^^ V^^lrf ^^T W, Through carefully con- 
sidering this. ^TT-f^^T^^rrf^ ^TRT % ^f W^^f , 

We can speak of this by such names as "Science of Wealth.'^ 
^^ % ^ mr{ ^W^^ f%^ |i t, Through 
investigation it is proved that this is founded on a delusion. 

3^% ^.ymH ^T^ ^ I^^T, ^^ ^^^ ^f "''^^' '"•''' ^^'''■^'" 

hand. 

c. Various ; answering to English " with," etc. \{t\ \ 
5^^ ^ ^^ % ^PT %^J mr^ f , The rich 
amass wealth with great difficulty. ^ ^3^ ^^^ d [^ 
% cpt^n %, They looked at him with a contemptuous 
glance. jf^jf^ % ^^ ^ $^ % ^^ ¥^1?%^ 



SECT. 106. THE ABLATIVE CASH. 105 

%T T^ ^ ^(^ T^nTT, yndhishthir ivith great affection 
clasped Bhimsen to his neck (lit. by the throat.) 

The following is a very good illustration of the use 
of the Instrumental : ^C^ ^^Tf %T, H^H %, ^ttf 

^^CTT ^, ^ '■'<-■/' man is ahcays liviui^ in fear either 
of the king or of thieves or enemies or his oicn people, 
of birds and beasts or of beggars, of death or of himself. 

Instances where it is doubtful whether they should 
be assigned to the Instrumental or Ablative Case, will 
be noticed under the Ablative. 

Sometimes the % is omitted. "i^jVi ^'^l ^"^•TT 
^rnrt *T1^ ^^ ^% ^, Whatf icere yon not observing 
{it) with your oxen eyes '■' ^T^T ^TTW W ^TRT T^, 
On this account they fled. »HMHT ^TT '^HT'T ^T^ 
^T chf,n ^. ^f^ did his icork icith his oxen hands. 

THE ABLATIVE CASE. 

107. Under this Case must be included not a few 
sentences in which the idea of " ablation ' can only be 
reached in a very roundabout way, and yet seem to be 
more connected with the Ablative than with the Instru- 
mental Case. As a matter of fact, the ^ alone seldom 
represents the true and full sense of the Ablative ; it 



106 THR NOUN. SECT. 107. 

only corresponds with the English " from " or " than." 
The full " Ablative," i.e., " out of '" is generally expressed 
in Hindi by the combination of the Case endings for 
both the Locative and Ablative, i.e., by IT ^. ^s will be 
seen under division '' a ' following. 

a. The true Ablative. WT^Tl WHU ^ % f^^^TrTT 
■^j Gold conies out of mines. J^^ fTT^ ^flT^^ T 
% ^^^ ^ 3r^f^ %Trfl" f , In the same xcay that 
the lotus sprini^s up out of the mint. ^Tf m'^ft ^ % 

fe^ % fk^i^ ^ 3& ^^MlrT ^r^, He has no 

partisanship for any one of the three. '^^^^ %^ ^ ^ 

Wrirr^f ^ TT'^TT f^^Ml, He took a pearl neck- 
lace out of his pocket. 

Sometimes ^ alone is used to convey this full abla- 
tive meaning, e.g., ^J^ ^ %T^ ^ rT^ '^^ % 

{•Ifcmfiri I 'S', Silver also comes out of a mine as does 

gold. 

In the following sentence both idioms are used: 

%7f W^ ^5mf ^f^ ^f f % ^ fir^T^fTT fT, 

This comes out of the earth, but there is no place in our 
country xohence it can be obtained. 

b. " From," icith reference to place, etc. 

^^ % HH *W\A ^\ I Where have you come from .^ 



«ECT. 107. THE ABLATIVE CASE. 107 

^ ^r^ 3^% ^ fV Tfrft f , She alu^ays dicells 
far from him. ^^ % 5^ l[^j ^"^^^ distance from 
there. ^% >jrRT ^K^| % T51 ^fi ^HrTT, 

/ can't get up from my bed to-day. 

c. Applied to time. " Since:' ^rT f^»ff %, 
ince many days. rT^ W >H |^ fT^, From then until 
to-day. ■^TT^^'T^^j Before to-day. 

d " From "' a.s received from a person J^^ 'T'5 W 

f *r^ ^q-T ftr^T ^ f— ^f if^^, ^^^^'^^ teaching 
J have received from ivhich teacher, — Listen to this. 

iVo one had to ask anything from anyone. 

e. With Verbs of asking, etc ^"3^^ % ^^1" ^fV 
3rnT*TT ^, This is my prayer from God. "^^R" >MH*1 
%^^ % g;^T, Fie asked his servant. ^T{J^ ftl^ 
^^ TTTT I From whom can the poor feUoic ask any- 



thing ? 



f. For marriage with, ^^^j^ % f^^Tf ftii^, 

He married Sitaji. 

g. Separation from. ^ ^J^ RlMl^l ^•TT W 
jJT^Ty ^J Tfq" Tico or three soldiers became separated 
from the army. 

h. ^ is regularly used ivitJi the Verb ch^nT, 



108 THE NOUN. SECT. 107 

to spcal:, though the ahlative idea is not at all ohvious. 
J^ % ^rT% ^<*rt % ch^l, ^^'^ teacher said to his 
pupils. 

/. Of manner, used Adverbially. ^T{ '^, //; order. 
^■R?^ % ^Tt^TK feri, '^''' accepted it Joyfully. 

j. Indicating the lotjical ground, ■ff^fl % ^ ^^T^T 
■a* Therefore, I say. 

k. Various. ^^ ^T>nf^ % ^ff rT f^^^ . 

Havinq hccotne free from passion, anqer and the rest. 

 • ^ 

//; ijoing beyond which there is danger of the work going 
ivrong. 3?ft% ^^^^ ^tT % 3Tft"^T ^, They 
promised Bhagwan Datta. q"^ fsR^ % "fe^ ^^ ^, 

This is not hidden from any one. 

I. For comparison. "^^T^ ^T^TWTf ^T ^^ 
^^ ^ ^TtT % »i4 "^AT ^5 Association with wild ani 
Dials is better than felloivship icit/i the despicable. 
^nft % ^ m'ft ^rf^ ^ ^f^, The fame of 

even the niost renoivned poet. '^^tTT ^ "^tTT, The 

best of all. (lit. best than the best.) 



SECT. 107. 



THK GENITIVE CASE. 



109 



The uses of this and the Instrumental Case are very 
numerous and various. The foregoing* illustrations will 
indicate the general lines of those uses. 
THE GENITIVE CASE. 
108. There are three forms for this case, viz., ^TT,^!, 
qR. The form assumed depends on the word which 
follows, not on that which precedes. In ^fx ^ftj ^T., 

The xc()iiiaii\s house (lit., of the woman, the house), the 
form of the Gen. affix depends on the gender of house ; 
the matter is not affected by the gender of the possessor 
of the house. 

^n* is used when the following Noun is Masculine, 

Sing., and Nominative. 
^n is used when the following Noun is Feminine, 
Sing, or PI. of any Case. 

"Sfi is used when the following Noun is Alas. PI. of 
any Case, and also when a Sing. Masc. Noun 

in an Oblique Case follows. 
Thus : — 



^^ra or 

or 
or 
or 

or 

or 
or 



or fem.) son. 
^T ^^Tl, The giver's daughter. 
^^ %f^^f ^^^ giver's daughters. 

' daughter. 

daughters. 
^ ^c", The giver's sons. 

^ <^<^l ^iT, To the giver's sons. 



no THE NOUN. SECT. 108. 

t%WT% or ^^r^ % ^ ^, '^h^ giver s son's 

book. 

The r^r\<:{ \rr\j or (^H <4 |<f(t ^^eing in the Genitive 
Case, the^T^TT 's changed to the construct, stem before 
adding the Case sign. In the case of ^T^H- there is no 
change of stem, as in fems. the stem is the same through- 
out in all the Cases in the sing. The form of the Case 
sign 3KX, ^fn", %, is regulated b}- the Gender and 
Number of the following word. 

Perhaps the clearest was- to regard the matter is to 
treat the first related word with its affix as an Adjective, 
and such it is in some respects. As we say, ^TT^fT 
^fy^gl a black horse, ^n^TT "^TT^T, ^ blade mare, 
^Tr% ^^5 black horses ; so we say. i^T^T ^T ^TT^T 
or mj "^sSI, llie king's horse or ;/;v horse ; TTWT 
^Fn" ^n"^ or ^^ "^T^^, fke hiwfs mare or my 
mare; TJ'W[ % "^T^ or ^TT "^t^, the hiiuis horses 
or my horses. The ^H", ^iT, % depend on the sex and 
number of the horses, not in any way on that of the 
possessors. 

109. An exception to the rule about changing the 
^H" to % before a Noun (or Infinitive used as a Noun) 
should here be noted. 

It not infrequently happens that the form gfff 
remains unchanged, where a change to the construct, form 

1 / 



SBCT. 109. THB GENITIVE CASE. Ill 

might be anticipated. Take some instances. ^^TTT 

♦v •v •s 

appearance of the moon ; but ^^'^ ^^ ^TT^ "TT, 
C'/)o/? ///s goino. Again, "pT^^T ^ TT^PT ^^ ^, 

//; observing the rule. \^J{ ^'T ^^ R ^^^ ^t% ^, 

In the exact observance of duty (or righteousness). 

^flH ^'T, f'T'O" our giving up our prowess the enemies 
will of a surety conquer us. ^^ ^^ ^TT ^^M 
^ifn ^T ^"R" ^ ^^^T^ ^^ ^TTrfl', Greatness does 
not come through being of a Jagh race and high e<Jste. 
On the other hand, we find 3W% '^TT^^rr^ ^ 9T<c| J{ 
"^^^ cFT ^TfT Zi^ "^^ ^, ^^e *'f/ea o/ /?er fallinq 
iwfo t/?e mouth of crocodile was judged to be correct. 
Both idioms are used by writers of good standing. 

It would appear that where the ^H" 's not changed, 
the whole phrase is regarded as one piece and only the 
last case sign is changed, the other words in the phrase 
being not interfered with. In such a sentence as the se- 
cond one quoted above, we can quite see that, as the ^X. 
throws the preceding T^?*f | ^T^X '"^o *he construct, 
form, that again throws the ^^T^RJ '"to the construct. 

si4j^. This is the only explanation we can offer for the 

alternative idioms. 



112 THE NOUN. SECT 1 10 

110. When it is remembered that this Case is called 
in Hindi ^T^^VJ" c^i^ch i <-•, the Case of relation or 
connection, and not merely Possessive or Genitive, as 
in English, it will be seen at once that it must neces- 
sarily cover a very wide ground. 

To attempt to classify all the relations for which the 
Case can be used, is practically impossible. All that we 
can attempt is to point out some of the principal classes, 
to give a few illustrations of others which may suggest 
the variety of relations which may be covered bj' this 
Case, and to note some special idiomatic uses of the Case. 

111. The Genitive of Possession. 

a. This may be the possession of material things. 
TT^Sn % ^'T t^T^ ^ Wi^l ^fV, There is 
■no limit to the kings xvealth and grandeur. ^TS^T 

in the haniya's house. 

b. It may refer to parts of the body. '^^ % ^T^ '^ 
^^ Ty^ff^ ^^ There is a book in his hand. ^T^TT "T 

The raja looked thoughtfully toivards the <jirl's face. 
^^ ^ >^r^ ^^ ^^, The xcomans eyes opened. 



SECT. 111. THE GENITIVE CASE. 113 

c. Or, to mental qualities, good or had. 3^«fil WW 
^T ^T^FHTW ^ *T^j ^^^ Z^^*" ^^ ^^*'^ "^* without 

cause. ijm\ % 3^T?: ^ifhc ^F^r^ gwf ^ jmi? 

^^T % f^, The jiower of the kijigs rjenerosity and 
prniseu'ortliy qualties is such that ^^^J d^m >i|T7. 

TT^ t 1 ^y^ai is his fault ? ^TT^T^ ^T ^ ^T^ 

^TT^TTV^ %, '^'hi^ fault of Ram Lai is natural to 
him. 

112. The Genitive of Relationship Kinship.) rn%f 
^^^ ^^ ^TT^rT ^ "T^ W, The three hoys are sons 
()/ a poor man. f^ ^ WTrTT f % >^^ ^, 
Blessed are they loho have mothers. ^^ U'^SFV 
chl«T '^ ? What relatio)i is she to him ? ^^% ^X 
*TT^ ^TTT TTT ^T. The hoy's brother had fled. 
Ty5[Wt ^ ^TW "3^^T ^'n^ ^ift, RajanVs 
vi other- in-law hegan to scold her. 

113. Genitive of Office, etc. ^"PT^^ gpfj ^l^dltfl 

The head police oijieer of Rampur. X\'<7[{ ^ ^T*Tf 
'H'-^T ^T^?T ^^"l ^nr, The king's two ministers 
came and said. 5flf H4<^|<'| %^^ ^, / am your serva)it. 

T/ie king's suhjects lived there with great joy. 

114. Genitive of Price and Quantity. ^ Tf^ g^ 

8 



114 THE NOUN. SECT. 114. 

I|?:r|ch §, ^f ^s a two-pice book. tTPC ^t% ^ ^^TT, 

It is a piece of latid of four highas. ^:g- ^ ^T^ % 
cl^'sf , Very expensive clothes. ^^ ^^ qcf'^ "^ ^ 

^r^rt "^ '^ ^^ tr^rr ^, ^«c?i 6oaj iy('/j7//s 2 or 2h 

maunds. s^i^ fticnft ^TT^tI ^^T^ f ? 

W^at is its length and breadth ? ^^ ^^ ^TTT^ 
^tpff ^JJ ^TTT> That must be worth ten or ticelve 
rupees. 

115. Of Material of which made, or maker. ^^ 

fM^MT %T% ^ ^, ^^ ^"«^ ^ ^^^^ <^**P- "^THT % 

^TtTT % ^XrfY IT, ^'^^ baskets made of leaces of betel. 

^i^^ ^T "mz ^f^K ^t ^tt f, The steps of 

the temple are made of stone. ""^^ ^1 ""T^TT, 
A garland of flowers. H^^TT^TW ^T ii'Ml^Jm, 
The Ramayan icritten by Tidsi Das. ^ \^^ "^ 
qj^^^l ^? By rchom loas tJiis made? %T^ ^ 
^^^^ An ironnaiL 

116. The Genitive of Time. ^ ^ ^X^ ^ 
tr|^eh^ ?fV, ^^^^^ it-asrt girl of ten years of age. ^^ ^t 
^TTB grV ^pTfT W 7V//i.s happened two years ago. 
^ «fT^ % ""^'R^T ^rr ^^, The fruit of the toil 
of several years. gFTrftf^TO ^T W^P^. The time of 
Kali Das, i.e , In his days. Tf^ % ^CTTW^^ % ^TT, 
The people of here and now. \ 



SECT, 117. THE GKMTIVE CASE. IIS 

117. Of Residence ^ItT ^ % ^ft^ 1^ ^, 

The people of various countries assembled. ^ntfV 
^ T^^n "TWnrt ^Tn, As many ajjUiating 
priestfi as there arc in Benares. ^9 f^^ j [ |'e( ^ff 
^•is(| ^, He is a Kunhi from some villarje. 

118. Various. ^^T^ ^TT^ ^ ^T^T ^ ^uft, 

The order was rjiven to bring him. l\^{ Zf\l ^^^FilT. 
cf><V|T vdHchl 5^^ ^nr Wl, ^o help his subjects was 
his chief xvork . ^tjlchl ^^fJ ^iM ^^, He xvas much 
injured, or suffered much loss, ^ J^l|^ ^^ >^T ^T 
^\\ ^^TTT ^KT ^^n ^, They are able to reform their 
country and religion. ^(Tn" "^-TIT ^ ^F^ ^HTW ^, 
What is the reason of so much love ? x^TJrf^y ^^ gj^ 
^|J^ri), Fitness for imparting instruction, vj*^ ^ 
^Rr^^ ^ MMCn ^, Among them was reckoned 
Kali Das. X}^ ^ ^^Kdl ^ ^W'T, ^« account 
of the king's liberality. ftTrTT ^ ^TT ^ "^K ^ ^T^l" 
^RiST € i Where is that loving hand of my father ? 
^^ W^ ^♦'^ ^' ^^ ^5 This is a matter causing 
great trouble. "^^^ *TTT ^RT ^^ rf(^ ^j There is 
a Wve/' called the Sarju. ^^T ^ ^CTT^T ^ ^m '^TTH 
^jTpf What good will result from the coming of nuch f 
3^r% WnC% ^T %^T ^fH", ^^ endeavoured to do if. 
119. intensive. To give the idea of conifileteness or 



116 THE NOUN SECT 121 

thoroui*hness, a word is followed by ^T (or ^T or 
%^ and then repeated, ^g- % ^^^^ all. ^% $i ^^, 
whollij exposed. ^^ ^T ^ ^X ^ThV ^T ^T^, 
The milk pure milk, the icater pure water. '^Xr{ ^H" ^T^^ 
^j In a moment. "^^J^"^ '^H" ^T^, Swarms of (flies or 
any Fem. Noun). With a masc. Noun ^J or ^ 
must be used. '^^TT^ ^T ^W!^ would rather mean, 
the icliole swarm. H?^^ ^ ^T5, ^lo-ny swarms. 

120. Separation of related words. Not infrequently, 
one related word may be separated from the other. 
gTT ^^ ^W ^^ % ^^ ^T^ ^T t, There is 
great fear of the secret gettiiuf out. % ^^^HT^^ ^'^ 
^''^T ^ ^T^T, These are yours, not another's. VTT'T^n" 

In tlie Introduetio)! there ivill he a short account of Chand 
and of his hook, ^n ^^^ >JT^^^T ^T ^HT ^T 

TJT^WT ^ ^ ft^ ^T ^^^T UTTW f^^T t, 

I have obtained a clear proof of his having heen about 
80 years of age. 

121. Omission of the related word. Sometimes the 

related word is not given after "^xi but is understood. 
y S5* ft?^ ^ ^f¥ TT^ ^, The hoys icon't obey 
any one, (/. e., the word of any one). ^T^T n 3^^n" 
rfrill* Vvfl, The king did not hear him (i.e., his word). 



SECT. 121. THE GENITIVE CASE. 117 

I do not know ivhat a fair of that htekless wreteh I upset. 

We must understand ^T^ after ^?^T5^ , or 

some such word. ^^ Sf^ ^TT ^FH •T^, Thi.^ is of 
no use. 

122. The use of % where ^H" or^T "light be expected. 
Probably, closely connected with the above is an idiom 
which may present some difficult}- to the beginner. Not 
infrequently, ^ is found where ^J or ^j is looked for. 
TT^T % ^TT" Tlftl^f W^, ^^'he kin<j had four queevs. 
The explanation generally offered is undoubtedly the cor- 
rect one. Some word, understood, must be regarded 
as omitted. In the foregoing sentence, probably 
'^' tJl", i.e., In the house of the hmg loere four queens. 
So 3^% ^^ ^1' 'Sn, ^ie had one wife. %|^ ^3" 
^'^T^ "T^f , li^ ^^as no son. ^^ff ^ %^^ % ^ZTT ^ 
^7^ J'^T % %*2ft, Of the two, one has a fion, the other 
a daughter. 3^ f%^TT % ^? vft ^f^, ^he poor 
creature lins no one belo7iging to hiw. 3^'^ 
%T^ ^^rr •T^ ^, ^^ ^^a^ lio daughter. J^^^ 
^H«TT ^*T ^T, fde icho had so much wealth. 3*T^ 
^FTT^ ^'PffT'T »T W\, He had no offspring. ^W 

^^^^Tf nfif^ % I^T ^^T f^ ^^ ti^T, you 

shall have a world conquering son as Sharniishfha had. 

123. Infinitive as Noun. One of the related words is 
frequently an Infinitive used as a Noun. (^|tjl % >H in 



nS THE NOUN. SHCT. 123. 

Xp^^ Upon the arrival of the servant, x^tj^ ChlH ^ 
^T^ <^14^'m ^VT, 7"^'^ reason of his doing so was this. 

purpose of the minister so doinq must he this. 
124. Alternative of Genitive or Accusative. In some 
sentences, an alternative construction presents itself, the 
Genitive may take the place of an Accusative. The two 
following sentences are taken from one book, from the 
same page 3?ft% 3Tf7ffTtV ^t ^^ % ^T% ^ 
"^n^TT c(T, He ordered the chamberlain to bring the bird. 

■?t, As thoiKjh he had stretched out his hands to 
measure the heavens. In the first sentence, we might 
have %T instead of %, and in the second. TCTjT^^ ^ 
i f H J^ would be quite idiomatic. There are instances 
where the meaning might be dubious, e g., 3^^ ^^TPT 
% ^Fm ^TTT, might be translated, " What i.-< the 
good of railing him?" or, -What is the good of his 
calling'r i.e., calling someone else. If the former be 
the meaning intended and this be not perfectly clear 
from the context, the Accusative construction should 

be adopted. 

One or two additional illustrations are given : 

^:3ff The father sent a .^errant to icake him. 



SECT. 124. THE GBNITIVB CASE. 119 

^''i^^ ^T'n^rr, '^^^ bre'ikiwj of this command of your 
fdther which ijou regard as tvrong. ^^ ^r^% % 
ol-clH %» ftf^, To save this hoy. ^t^ $? %|v^ 1^% 
^ Through giving up stend fastness. ^^TTT %TT 

a//(i not .'<tnve to pay it off. 

The followini]« sentence illustrates the fact that in 
such sentences the % and ^ are not always alternative: 

% %^|. Upon the king scolding and explaining for a 
loiiq time, Keknyi said. The Hindi inight mean, after 
Kekaiji had explained to the King, etc., but does not. 
Had that been the meanini^, %T would have been the 
«afer idiom ; because ^RT could only have yielded one 
meaning*, % could not have replaced it. 

125. Where the question of a.iireement of the Case 
ending with two or more words is involved, the general 
rule, perhaps, is for it to agree in gender with the 
nearest, but it may be in the plural and masc, so as to 
cover all the words involved. Thus <o^eh| «T HT^ ^ 
♦T ^1%^, fl^ has neither hrother nor si.-^ter. This 

might equally well be written, or better, ^^f|ch wf 

(in accordance with the idiom mentioned in Sect. 122.) 



^2^ THE NOUN. [sect. 125. 

Their father and mother and relatives Lived in rjreat 
fear. 

In the following two sentences, the ^ft"^TH and 
TTrfTMrfT are probably regarded by the writer as 
Compound Nouns and therefore have the gender of the 
latter, ^^f ^T ^Tf f if^^PT "^ |, There is 
no injury or advantage to others. f^T^r% ^TTrTTft'rn' 
•1" ^^ T^nTT, He whose father and mother did so. 

126. A strong- negative. The following idiom to ex- 
press a strong negative is worth noting : Tf T^H^'^ 
^T«T ^ *T^T, These men wont <jo. ^f^ ^*T ^T T^, 
^1*1 ^T ^, Re is not a man to give, he is for getting. 
3^r^ fS" ^7^ ^ ^TfV, His ohstinacy will 
never he given up. 

127. The Genitive with Postpositions. 

The inflected form % is much used with Postposi- 
tions. The chapter on Postpositions will give fuller par- 
ticulars about this point. 

128. Much more might be written about the Genetive 
Case, but the above must suffice. To be able to use free- 
ly, but discriminateh^ the various idioms connected with 
the Genetive is a good test of a student's grasp of Hindi. 

THE LOCATIVE CASE. 

129. The word Locative very inadequately defines the 
functions of this Case. The Hindi term, jJTj^^j;^?^ also 



SECT. 129.J THB LOCATIVE CASE. 12l 

falls short. jSTT^ means " over " or " upon." The case 
with Its two Case signs ^ /h. and tfTJ^^ ou, iipox, has to 
do not only with place but with time, with mental quali- 
ties and with logical relations and conditions. 

Other Postpositions are said to put their accompa- 
nying Nouns into the Locative Case. These must be left 
for consideration until the chapter on the Postpositions 
Some of the Postpositions certainly appear to be as 
closely connected with the relations covered by this 
Case as do the Case signs ^ and Xf^^ c.u., ^T^'^ above. 
?n%, rrar, ^'erieath. f%^;j^ near, trj^, rery near. 
TT^. %t, up to, etc. 

.A rough classification of the uses of the Locative 

with ^ and q"T "ii-ist be attempted, and illustrations 
given, 

130. A. With ^*. 

^^ *T^T TT'Tn" ^, In this country people do r,ot 
accept such a thing as this. XX^T ^^X^ ^tV ^ ^T^ 
Ki)iri J)r,.sharath arrived in the city. '^T ^ %T^ T^^f 
^, There is no one in the house. 

2. Of mental states. ^^^ ^ vft ^^'^ ^^T f , 
In Arjun also li'hat mercy therein. ^^ ^ft>J ^ $^ 
"^TT^ ^T T^T, -^^ became so mad in his anger. 



122 THE NOUN. [sect. 130. 

In valour, in steadfastness, he was like Mount Sumeru. 
^ ^IfT ^^ fV ^T>^ ^ WT ^STTrft f, This is 
easily understood. fe(cUI T 3f^ "^♦l H 5»|^ T 
"SIX -^''^ learnin(j noie icas liis equal. 

3. 0/ tivw. ^^ -^ ^fX^ ^ ^K ^H ^ 
alTT^'n TT ^%5 ^" ** single year, four or jive hundred 
people died. ^fT% ^ ^' ^^ ^^ ^tficfl^ >jrr^, 
Meanu-hile seccral stiirdjj felloics came. «<*4| v€6(«1 Tf 

^ J^^J ^T 3^ '53|'y /^ irus onJjf a .sliorf time to t^iin.ser. 

4. Various. TfT^^ ^ $^T fe^T f. '^ '■' -'^ 
irrith'n iv n phnj. 3^ 3''T^T^ ^ ^f^^ ^TT^ 

^^' ^^ ^ ^\m %, ^" '^"•^' '"^^'^'^ '^'^'^''' '•"'■ '' •''^^''■/ 
of a u-o)nan named Snkhini. ^tj | ^T*T IT T^ 
:gTira:f ^7^3 /" -"^'i doiiiff, flicre e.omes ahont tins hari)i. 

^f ^m i|^T^ ^K ^^ % ^^ ^ ^T wrm f, 

Wlien tliis eoiiu's betn-een us and the .<<iiii. "^j^^Rj 

God. ^TTT ^T^M ^ ^T^^T ^f T fV ^f ^, 

There teas qreat mntnal lone between the four brothers. 

the eldest son of till iras I ) ar ijodha 1 1 . ^^^ l^^-c^l ^ 
ftfi^^fl %, // is u-ritten in simple Hindi. T^f^^ 
S j ai ^ »H ' B^<=h T < %, ^" "'hose hand there is authority 

^ ^ If ^fT^ ^ff ^ ^, '^^'^ '^■'^'''' •^'•""^^^' ^" 



SECT. 130.] THE LOCATIVE CASE. 123 

[They) drank toddy from vessels made of leaves. 

5. Adverbial. 1JJ( IT, secretly. S[T\^ ^^ openly. 
^TT ^, hriefly. 

6. Sometimes ^ and ^ occur together, with the 
meaning, from (urwng. Thus, 3»TT ^ ^T^ 3tTW ^, 
77i/x 7.S' the best of them. 

131 Omission ot J{ 

Sometimes the :fj is not expressed, though under- 
stood. 

^^ ft^^T I %r Vnrf % '^ ^^ t, There 
?.s- a yudoir lolio lives in her brother .<< liouse. '^rf T^^vf, 

/// the.^i' d<iy.s. ^^ ^^s:t 5ri"*<^l ^T3%f % ^^ 

«, The accoinf>li.shme)it of this (Icsirr is in the. hands of 
the readers. 3^ ^JW ^ ^T, Gaceit onihe very instant. 
^^ % "^T l^T, Thi^ took plnce at the dhohi's 

hijiise. 

132. B. With -qx- 

J- Of place. ^^riTrlT ^t ^ T^TBar :^ ft^TT 

^Jr\ '^ I n ^X "K^ ^, Standin(i on the platform two 
men 'ire (-arryiiuj nn a conversation. w{\\\ ^T^ %T5 
1^1 1*1 tfl I, ^o oui' iras found on the l-oat. "^"^^ ^l^ 
*T^ W? ^r^ T^ '^•T ^'T, The tu-o brotheri< took up 
their abode by the bank of the river. "^^ "^X ^WPC 
■^t^RX, Havin'j mounted a horse: 3^ T^^ rff^ ^T%, 



124 THE NOUN. [sect. 132. 

Having looked at him. ^F^J ^ ^J^ ^X. ^ "Wl 'rWT T. 

Am I on earth or iu heaven. 

2. Of menial slates, et'-. '^^ ^JrT ^^' ft^T 
cJ«|4^wTT ^TI^H, ^^ ■'•''' necessary to consider tln.^ matter. 
Xmi "^^^K ^TT^^T^T^^rft^, The queen placed 
full veUanee o]i him. 3T^T ^*T ^^T*T TT^T "^ 
^5^tF ^fV. -^^^ ^'^TT vft ^3^% ^|rT 3T^?^ |. 
ISJot only are hi>i subjects derated tn their Innr.i. hix nrmy 
also is pleased iritli him. 

3. Vdvions, inclndinq tenijinral sequence. ^^ T^"^ 
W^ ^Ri^*T ^^T, Whereupon he J^eijan to say. f^rT TJ^ 
f^?T, ^«.'/ ^<Jter day. ^^% ^% ^SfT^ tTT % ^V^ 
T *M Jm , C*)* /a's f/or?i(y away tliey came iido the room. 
TWt ^^ ^K ^ WTrft f , A rope o>/ being pidled 
Ijreaks. 3^% T^^ <R^V ^^rfT, ^'^ ?)en?.C' broken cannot 
be joined. ^ §% XfX f^T^ ^^rfT f, ^^^ c«" ^'(^ 
obtained for ten yice. "^^ »ii |H "^' ^T^, ^^<' niust be 
on the point of arriving. ^^^^ ^^f "q^ 7^% ^^T, 
As /ie ^t•a.s about to go this happe)ted. (Or, it might be 
" just after he had left") 

4. Sometimes ^ follows T^^ as is the case with J{. 

%^ -qX % ^^T^T % >JrT*jft, Take.iit) from the table 
and bring (it) along. 

5. Omission of TJ^ 



SECT. 132.] THE LOCATIVE CASE. 125 

Occasionally, we must conclude that T^ or some 
similar word has been omitted from a sentence (being 
understood) ^^ ^j^ ^^j *JTq^T^ ^Tf JTT, 
Great blame )nil[ rest, oil mil head. ^^ fH^'(^ *JTT^1^ 
^T^^T ^TtTT ^^cTT ^, I C'Omc near you and talk for 
hours together. ^J^^ ^j sft^ f^ f^?T Tf H f , 
Our bodies last l>ut for a few days. 

THE VOCATIVE CASE. 
133. ^ or some other Interjection may be used to 
indicate the N'ocative Case, but this is not essential : very 
frequently the Vocative is used without any Interjection. 

When the Noun belongs to Class I, the ^J may be 
changed to ^ for the Vocative, but this is frequently not 
done. In the other three Classes of Nouns, no oblique 
form exists in the singular. Thus in a great majority 
of instances, in the singular, the Locative is the same as 
the Nominative. 

In the plural, however, the Vocative form is in com- 
mon use. The form is the same as the oblique stem for 
the other Cases, with the exception that the anusvar 
is dropped. Thus we have ^^^RT, Oh. boys. TT^T^n, 
Oh kings, ^^^f^^, Girls ! wf%^T, Sisters ! 

COMPOUND NOUNS, ^m^ 
13 4. The first point to consider is, — What Nouns 
should be included under this heading ? Some would 



126 THE NOUN. [sect. 134. 

include all Nouns which are in any way compounded, 
that is to say, which are made up of any addition or 
additions to the basis modifying in any degree the 
meaning of the original word. According to this, such 
a word as *Jf"S! I"»T^ would be considered a Compound 
Noun, forasmuch as the privitive ^ changes the mean- 
ing of "5j|5T<H'|. Similarly, -ejMrll itself might be re- 
garded as a Compound, because the suffix cTT has given 
an abstract meaning to the original. 

Undoubtedly all such words are Compounds but, on 
the whole, it seems better to leave words compounded 
in such a way for consideration in the chapter on Pre- 
fixes and Suffixes and to confine our attention here to 
those Compounds which are made up of two or more or 
less complete words, as, e.g., T1^H4^, kings house, 
palace. 'Wfi^''^^''^^-'^^Ti The worship of the feet 
of the mother-in-law and ftither-in-law. 

There still remains the difficulty of deciding whether 
words placed in juxtaposition, but not modified in any 
way as regards form and meaning, should find a place 
under the heading of Compound Nouns ; such pairs of 
words, for instance, as TTfT f^T, night, day. ^M 
J^T^rnC, thought, consideration. The fact that the Con- 
junction has been dropped between such pairs of words, 
does constitute some small ground of justification for 
their inclusion, and we therefore give them a place. 



SECT. 134.] COMPOUND NOUNS. 127 

Mention may be made also of some other words which 
have a feebler claim to be called Compound Nouns, but 
for the consideration of which no more suitable place 
may be found. 

The Compounds which are to be considered may 
consist of two, or more, Nouns, or of a Noun, compound- 
ed with an Adjective, an Adverb, a Verbal Noun, or some 
other Part of Speech. 

Some of the words so compoimded, are strictly 
speaking Adjectives, but are also used as Nouns. 
135. I. Compounded of two Nouns 
TflSJ I^T, cow-house. ^rhl^T^. jDcarl- necklace. ^^- 
fi\*W, the ocean of existence. 

The words which make up these Compounds may be 
variously related. 

^ __Xhe first word may be of the nature of a Gene- 
tive in relation to the second word, as TTT^T^T^n, 
A dorij of Ham (commonly applied to any long " yarn.") 
^^-aPf^-^t^, Enemy of the tribe of the Kshatris. 

^*WT^5^ 77ie globe of the earth. 

/,. — The first word may stand in an Accusative rela- 
tion to the second. 33f^«T^Trrr, ^^ ^'^^^ O^"^'"^ grain, 
i.e., God as the giver of our daily food. ^nT^TfTT, 
Be who delirer.H the world. IJET Jl| g'Sf^, A fire-worship- 
per. g t rfx^Jl^^, ^ seeker of salvation. WFm^^, 



128 THE NOUN. [sect. 135. 

A miser. A man willing to suck a fly which has fallen 
into the milk or similar substance, so as not to lose 
anything. 

c. The first word may stand in a Dative relation 
to the second, as ^^H^f'T'PT, '^^^^ treasury of 
mercy for the distressed. 

d. These and various other relations are found 
between the two words. ^^f^T^TT, -^ dweller in Bra/. 

5^5"^^^, -^ 'J^<^(^>' ^f ^oofZ qualities. ^mH*t><t- 

An ear-ring. *TT^^^T^, ^^^^ abyss of hell. ^'^T^T. 

^^^T, Fish, animals, i.e., Goer in the tcater or on 

the earth. '^^^^, Horseman. 

e. Perhaps under this head should be mentioned 
pairs of words which, owing to the omission of the 
Conjunction between them, may be regarded as loosely 
compounded. 

(1 }. Some of these pairs of words are practically 

identical in meaning. ^^iIT^gT TT^, Quarrellinq and 

*  '  

wrangling. ^Z ^rfl. Insects and flies. %T^fw^TT. 
Thought, co)isideration. 

(2). Others are pairs of Nouns closely related in 
meaning, the second conveying something of the idea. 
' and such like." 



*\ 



SECT. 135.] OMPOUND NOUNS. 129 

TT^lfMHT, MofJier and father. HT^^^, Bro- 
thers and kinsmen. ^T^^f^, Food and drink, lit., 
grain and water. 

(3). Some are contrasted words, carrying some- 
what of the idea of inclusiveness. FdHilHj and 
TTrrre«T ^^11 '^"'^ night ; continualbj . ^TP^ fQ(d|r| 
Evening and morning. t||^|^<^j Moving and unmoving, 
i.e., the entire creation, things which have life and move- 
ment and tliose which do not move. 

136. II. Compounded of a Noun and Adjective, or 
Participle, or a second Noun used with Adjetctival force. 
In some words, the Adjective comes first, in others last, 

^P ^^^, ^^"'^ creature. ^Hd*^"^, Disguise, lit., 
deceptive dress. Xl^vk, Kinu of sages. 7/^r\ U ^rt 
Demon-seize'], possessed. T(^X.^'^ Captivating the 
mind. ^JTT^fT, One possessing great glonj. ^ l^n, One 
ichose glory has been smitten. 

137. III. Compounded of a Noun and one of the 
lS(^^j ^-Sj tl^^ undeclinable Parts of Speech. 
These should be, perhaps, included under Compounds 
formed by adding Prefixes and Suffixes, but may be 
mentioned here. 

V|4i^rf^ A man devoid of righteousness, zr^l^hl^, 

2'he suitable time. ^iUi^lTrh, Great strength. 

138. IV. Compounds whose meaning derived from 



130 THE NOUN. [sect. 138^. 

the words has been appropriated to some special person 
or thing. >M mO^Ij Oonsuviption, lit,, severe disease.. 
^Jlrfm, Mirage, lit., deer-thirst. t^UjMH, Eavan, 
i.e., the ten-faced one. 

139. V. Compounded of a Noun and some numeral. 
T^HZfTT, The four ages. '^TH^^, Brahma, the four- 
faced. t3%^j ^ caste of Brahmans : one who kiwics 
two of the V edas . "^^fY^, The three worlds. 

140. VI. Jingling words thrown together, because of 
similar sound or meaning. ITliMId, Striking and 
thumping. td^lH^, Fighting. "^TW^^f^^ Neighbour. 
v|'f4|V||^ Name and residence. 

In some of these words, the second has practically 
no meaning : it is simply added to jingle with the first. 
There are a great number of such words current in 
Hindi. Not infrequently, the second is a repetition of 
the first word, with ^^H* or ^ substituted for the first 

letter. T^^TS^nTTS^, Breaking. Hl^i^T^, ^ croicd. 
cO^lJT, Exertion. T^^SfTpTTST, Seeking. ^ttfT^fm, 
A hat, or hats, ^'^f^^^ tahles and such things. 
<^M^NM^T, Clothes. I have heard the word 
^I'dFcfd? fo** ^^^ English " girder,'' iron beam. 

This classification is neither exhaustive nor detailed, 
but may serve to indicate the line upon which the Com- 



SHCT. 140.] COMPOUND NOUNS. 131 

pound Nouns are constructed and the place they take 
in Hindi. They are greatly used both in literature and 
in current speech. Indians have a peculiar relish for 
assonance and alliteration. 



Chapter VI. 
SYNTAX, cdcfifi ^ T^^TT. 

AGREEAIENT. ORDER OF WORDS. ORATIO DIRECTA. 

REPETITION. 



AGREEMENT OF NOUN, ETC., >MTH VERB. 

141. To treat of the Syntax having reference to the j 
Cases of Nouns alone is quite impracticable, as it is only 
when Nouns are brought into relation with X'erbs and 
other Parts of Speech that any question of Syntax arises. 
Accordingly, in this chapter, some points will be brought 
forward which are as closely connected with the Verb j 
and with other Parts of Speech as with Nouns. Further- 
more, some matters may be touched on which do not 
properly belong to Syntax. 
142. I. Agreement of Nominative and Verb. 

a. Where there are two or more Nominatives, the 
Verb may agree with the nearest in Gender and Num- 
ber. 

^^ ^ITIT ^JTTT^^^ ri>H|, Jo;j and astonishment 
arose. ^^ ^^Hl ^^ ITSTT ^r^^rf ST^ ^, 
All the gods and the subjects of the kin-jdoni heeamc 
greatly pleased. -^^XK W^W\ ^^tX ru^ ^f^l^y^f 
"a^ Fonr sons and three daughters were born. ^T{\ I 



SKCT. 142.] AGREEMENT 133 

Forgiveness <ind eternal life and sfdcatioii icere secured. 
^ 3^^^^^ ^1^^ ^nV, '^ hundred sons (imd 
a daughter irill he horn. ^¥?TrlT ^Rl "^^^TkT ^flT 

37i<2 progress of civilization and the development of the 

hraiv go together. 

143. h. Or, the Verb may be in the plural, agreeini^ in 

Gender with the nearest Nominative, or being made 

masculine. 

^ ^TrTT pTrTT vft tfH %, / had a mother and 
father, i.e., My parents were living. 'S'^ ^JHT Rl*TT 
vfX Wf T T^^rT 6, There even air and nater are sold. 
5?^ ia man s name) ^?: ^^J Tlfe^ ^JTT^ ^, 
Sundar im.) and Hira, the woman gardener, are coming 
along. ^^ %CT 33^ ^ ^Z^ 3r^^^ ^^, One son 
and two daughters ivere horn. ^^ 1^^ ^^T *^^ 
t^l '^% T^) One man and one wov^an were created. 

In the following sentence, although the two Nomina- 
tives are gathered together under the ^f^ yet the \^erb 

is made to agree with the nearest Nominative in Gender : 

^^^ ^^^ "^l^rfT WT, ^^ many saints and tlieir ivives 
as there were, they all loved them much. 

c. In modern Hindi, the most usual course to take, 



134 SYNTAX. [sect. 143. 

where there are two or more Nominatives, is to gather 
hem up into a ^rjl, f{|rjj^ ^T*?? o'' some such 
word, and then use the masculine plural Verb. 

"^rtf??T ^^7 J nnned lately fear and astonislimoit both 
sprang up in my mind. ^t\^ ^JlJWm, ^f^-qT 

^T Si5»<l1 ^ rft^ <|Ih^T ^, tif ^^^'^ ^li^'ee queens, 
Kaiishilya, Siimitra and Kaikeiji. wf^ TTH^^^ c^cffn 

^23^ ^f^ W^ d'l.^l^ %Tr l^iT^ ^, Sar/^.9, men, 

gods- and demons, all serre thee. '^^ >M^9& ^T^^ 

Having obtained, siich good sons, the liing and, the queens 
were all very glad. y](^\ ^ft^ ^^ ^"^ ^^ ^ 

^^T t^^, liich and. poor, hiijh and Imc, all did so. 

d. Where there are two Nominatives, the second of 
which is more or less predicative of the first, the \'erb 
agrees with the first in Gender. 

To mingle ivith the dust u-as an easy matter. ^^ (f. ) 
^^1T ^ ^rj ^ c*iI<W J^» ^'>'' <'('G(^me the 
cause of the death of BhUhma. ^re* ^\T\ jtW ^ 
*.Htj[«-rilM ^RT etllt^^l IS^, This became a cause 
of discontent to Dron. 3WT ^T^ W ^TTTT •TIT 



«ECT. 143.] AGREKMKNT. 135 

From that time Agra began to he regarded as the eapital 
of the Moghal Empire. 

e. Sometimes, at the conclusion of a sentence, 
where the Verb requires a Nominative with ^^ this 
Nominative remains unexpressed, being understood 
from a Nominative without "^ in an earlier part of 
the sentence. 

Some people came together and, having thought over the 

matter resolved, that i.e., ^ft'ff *T 6^il^l* I" the 

following sentence, the last Verb requires *Tj but the 
'Sf^ of the earlier part of the sentence has to suffice. '^^ 

^ffT ftt g|rr f%?: g?n ^^ fwR ftim, 

She irept mnch, heat her head violently and gave way to 

l'->me)it"tion. 

144. II. Accusative and Verb. 

In most instances, no difficulty arises, as the Number 
and Gender of the Verb is regulated by the Nominative, 
not the Accusative : but with Transitive Verbs, in those 
Tenses which require the Nominative with^ difficulties 
may arise. 

(1) a. If there be only one Accusative, and that be used 
in the form without ^^ the Verb agrees with it 



136 SYNTAX. [sect. 144. 

in Number and Gender, t^i ♦T ^HMHT ^T ^-^f. 
The icoman left her house. ^'^TrT "^^y "^^^^x 
MM ^, Re bought a l>ouk. ^ ^ rn*T ^^ ^^ 

VS^j I sent three horses. 

h. If there be two Accusatives, the verb is generally 
made to agree with the nearest in Number and Gender. 

3^^ ^^T ^Tlfx^ ^ TNrrTT f^^ll, He 

manifested great prowess and valour. >i{ m cfx "^J^ 

flitfidl ^ifk ^nr^ ^FT^J -^^ W^ rT^ Hff 

<^>^ I He has not yet left off his crookedness and deceit- 
ful dealing with you. 

(2) Where the Accusative form with ^R^ is used, the 
Verb is always in the singular Nominative form. f^fJ^TT 

% ^r§^ ^ O' ^^ W^ ^ or <fis^chS gft or f^T^f 

* « 

^?t- ^^^j Some one saw a hoy, or a tvoviun, or 
boys, or women. 

If there be more than one Accusative, the Verb is not 
in any way affected, but the form of the Accusatives may 
be. Generally, only the last is changed to the cons- 
truct, form of the stem, the earlier Accusative remaining 

in the Nominative form, ^fijjrf >imH <*|^4> ^^NiM*t 

  

^^ ^[^ IcfilXj He forsook his lioys and girls. 

(3) With the Accusative, as with the Nominative, 



SECT. 144.] AGREEMENT. 137 

it is usual, when there are more than one, to gather them 
up into an inculsive ^T^. or other appropriate word. 
This may assume the form with ofn", or remain without it. 
In such construction, the Accusatives included are in 
the Nominative form, not the inflected. 3^n" ^TT 

g?hT ^H ?ftf ^^ >jfh: tf^t f^ ^ff w^^ %t 

^IH T^^I K, These six enemies, hist, wrath^ cove- 
tousiie>'-'=!. infatuation, mad passion, envij, he has conquered 
^?ft^ TTT % 1^ TTTfTT pTrTT ^rif ^ TT^ f^ 
>JTTf^ WH^ |i^ ^^ f^T, For the sake of Ram, then 
have forsaken everiitltinrj. mother atid fatlier, hrothers, 
ioife, the pleasures of the royal court, and the rest. 

wtn^ >jftT ^^^ ^^ %T ^m ^wm, i ^in 

satisfy both my life and my eyes. 

(4). Where a second Accusative is predicative of the 

first, it does not affect the form of the Verb, that is regu- 
lated by the principal Accusative. *M"<r<4 iTi ^TT n 

TJie Goswami has made Bharal to he the very reiiectio)i 
of Ram in all particulars. ^r^wf lUitfTj^^ ^T 

^-fe made Fataliputra, the capital of his loide empire. 
145. Ill The gender of Predicative Adjective or 
Participle after Accusative. 

When an Adjective or a Participle is used predica- 



138 SYNTAX. [sect. 145. 

tively of Nouns in the Accusative, with %T it is gene- 
rally made singular and masculine, irrespective of the 
Number and Gender of the Nouns, but not invariably 
so. Th us f^?T ^Trff %T W iTf^ ^'^T ^'PfifTT 
W[ >JT^5i^ |tV m^^ tlfft f, The things 
mhicJi I (itjiriit regarh'd as good now ajppeav to me as bad. 

('Ic^^ ^ n e see tlv^se stars shining in tlic lieaccns. 
^IS'Jjff %T rT^TT g^T T'^^FT, Having placed both the 
arms in <i)i ontMtretched po.-^ition. 

But -•^^ ^'^^ ^ ^^ %t gf^ ^t% %fe^, 

To fill up the dejicieney of this thing W^ ^^«TT 
^^TR^C^^rTT^'t %T 56" ^T ^n, We shall ^atisfg 
our needs. TT^f%^ ^ JJ^ ^ ^T^ ^r^T^T %T 
^T^^^ T ^^^ f^^T, Itajsinha again erected the 
red, standard of Jiis race in the field of active icorh. 

^^ -^^ rft^ %T ^^ %^^ ^RT^T, fi'' made 
tJie three of them liis servants. 

When the Accusative form without ^Rpf i'^ used, the 
Adjective is generally made to agree with it in Gender 
and Number. ^^^ ^| ^ ^ff^ ^^f % ^T^T^ 

^^^ cfi^^dT, fie ^et 'fp Ihe iron image in front of them. 
TT^T % ^^ ^T^nfV 1^5*^ ^^ ^, The hing 
eolleeted all the materials. '3'^^n" TT n '3^r%T T^ 



SECT. 145.] AGREEMENT. 139 

l(cfc|\x cfrlX f^^rr ^, ^^^'' ^^^other has made her tJiorough- 

ly icell prepared. 

146. IV. Nouns in the Oblique Cases and their Case 

signs. 

a. When two or more co-ordinate Nouns, in Cases 
requiring the oblique form, occur, one Case sign gene- 
rally suffices, and the earlier Nouns are kept in the 
Nominative form. 

^R ^% ^jfk ^^ % "Sfi" ^, ^" ^^i^ m'inds of 
hoth fjreat and i^mall. '^T^ ^^J MMchl T^ 

ICT *T ^X There's no reckoning the elephants a)id 
horses, the pall^ is and chariots and hands of innsic and 
banners (large and small). T^\^T^ "TT'^T'T^ W 
^^^ ^rrf^ ^T^T? To treat alike the foUon-ers of 
ones oani atni other religions. 

b. Very often the Nouns are gathered up into a 
^^ or other appropriate word. 

TJie destruetion of both mind and, hnoicledge takes 

place, ^m m 3^^ vr^ ^T %rt ^T%f 

He acquired a hvoiclcdge of l>ol]i kinds of policy, — 
good and bad. f^Tf ^ ^TpTT ^^rT^ ^"^T rft^ 



140 SYNTAX. [sect. 146 

^^T5TT ^f ^ ^r^^ ftr^RTT %^^T ^^ft 

cTT^* ^?^"ff^ ^^rT ^^ W^T^ ^^5 TJieij quiddy 
learnt to write and read, to ic resile and xlwot arrows, 
and to ride and hunt. (Here the Accusatives 

are in the Nominative form throughout.) ^JTIT^T 

^Jnf^ % ^^r ft ^ft^^ ^'f fTT f , The courtyard 
i^ always crowded unth thousands of royal churiots and 
horses and elephants and other Note that ^ 

•s. 

and l^r both serve for several Nouns. 

c. Not infrequently, however, the Case sign is re- 
peated to give distributive force, 

(Ram and Sugriva are entering into a covenant; Ram 
is to establish Sugriva as king : Sugriva is to go in 
search of Sita ftfn: TX^ % WlWt %T ^K ^ift^ 

^T '^TT^^^ JTlrfSjT ^Fn, Then they mutually promised, 
Ham to slay Bali and make Swirira king, Sugriva to 
institute a search for Sita. "^J f^^ «RT ^^^ ^ •TfT 
f^TrfT, 3^%T 3^^^ ^ff ^m, ^ 3^^T 5^ 

3^^T^f?T ^f¥, % ^W ^^%7T^ f. <A literal 
translation of this passage would not give the real 



SECT. 146.] A(}REE.MENT. 141 

meaninj*, a free translation is given to make the mean- 
ing clear). Those loho do not deliver others from trouble 
(ind (fire them sound advice are their foes. The oue who 
m acts is neither a true teacher nor a good kinsman, is not 
a good father or mother o)- god-like friend or husband. 

^ ^^T ^^ 5^TTj ^^'-' ^'<^^«ietZ the .'itorij of Situs 
abduction and of his own fight with Ravan. 

THE ORDER OF WORDS IN SENTENCES. 

l^T. 1. The Nominative comes first, the Verb follows 
it. Generally speaking, the Verb is the last in a sen- 
tence. ^:§r^T ^^ T^T, The bojj fied. 

2. The Accusative comes between the Nominative 

and the Verb. ^f^T J^^ ^ ^f T f, ^^^^^ ^'^^ 
U reading a hook. So with an Accusative of place. 

^^^T ^K ^W[. L^he boy has gone home. 

3. Where there is a secondary .Accusative, this 
follows the principal Accusative. ^T^T *T W^TTTT %T 

%*TT^f^ ^^THTT -^^'^ king appointed, Balram 
general. 

4. A Dative generally comes before the accusative. 
^^ % 5r^% %T ^^Hcf> ^5 T^^^ teacher gave the 

boij a book. 

5. A second Noun, used predicatively, follows the 

iirst and comes before the Verb, ^"^f^^m"  T^^T 
"T^ f , Rajwauti is his wife. "J^TSF^ -qr^ X^l^rTt 



142 SYNTAX. [sect. 147. 

« His wife is Rajwaidi. There is, of course, a very 
great distinction between these two sentences. In the 
first, Rajwanti is referred to, what her status is ; in the 
second, the subject considered is. Who did the man 
marr\- ? 

6. The Instrumental Case ordinarily comes im- 
mediately before the Accusative. ^^ "^^% H^T^ 
% tJi^ZJ ^nn^T ^ '^/"-' iitn^ou is fixing the door- 
frame loith mortar. 

7. The Ablative holds a similar place in the sen- 
tence. ^ ^nT% ^X % ^"^ ^TFTT f , ^^t' luis 
come from his house liere. 

8. The position of the Locative Case cannot be 
defined. The tendency is, perhaps, for the Locative with 
IT to come early in the sentence, for that with tf^ to 
come late. It is only a tendency, the position will de- 
pend on the relation of the Nouns in the Locative Case to 
other Nouns in the sentence. "^^T^ ^^ »T^V ^ 
There is nothing hi this. ^^ 3^fT^ ^15? "^X "T^ 
?^^, This book was lying on the ground. 

9. As in English, an attributive Adjective is com- 
monly placed before its Noun, when used predicativel}', 
after it. ^ ^J^ \)'|^ '\^^ 5r|^, Two roan horses 
were sold. TTTT^rFT ^fH %T^T ^TT^ §, Shy am 
Lai's horse is roan. 



SECT. 147.] THE ORDER OF WORDS. 143 

10. Relative and correlative. In English, the corre- 
lative often comes before the relative ; in Hindi it is 
exactly the reverse. Eng. " The man will be punished 
who steals." The Hindi for this would be ^f)" rj^^^' 

gpf^TfX %T ^^^ MI^^Uj ^•^•' ^^'/*o steals that man loill be 
punished. This matter cannot be enlarged on here, but 
it is one that should have the very careful attention of 
the student. It is one of those matters where it is very 
easy for a learner to get into the way of writing English- 
Hindi and not realising that it is so. Unfortunately, 
many a teacher would not point out a matter of this 
kind, for there is no absolute rule on the subject. In 
thoroughly good Hindi, the correlative does sometimes 
come before the relative. 

Let us take one more sentence. " The man whose 
house is near mine is my brother." The Hindi of this 
is not ^ ^^^ TmH^[, etc , but f^ijchl ^X ^ 

^T ^ ^m I ^^ ^TT Hit f. 

11. This must suffice for the present in the way of 

rules about the order of words in a sentence. It must 
be clearly understood that the order indicated is only a 
" general instruction," There is no absolutely fixed order. 

12. In some interrogatory sentences and under cir- 
cumstances in which special stress is to be laid upon a 
word, the order of words in a sentence may be complete- 
ly changed, even to the extent of placing a Verb before 



144 SYNTAX. [sect. 147. 

its Nominative, e.g.. ^|^ ^T^T, Js " Who will do 
it ? '" In ^■J^'Tn" ^I^T, t'lti idea conveyed is that there 
are plenty of people ready to promise to do it, but who 
is the man who will not only promise, but actually do 
the business. 

Two or three illustrative sentences may be useful, 
% TT^ % ^: ^^%" T^*T, li^ if^'^nt with the idea of 
Maying for six ntontlis. The idea conveyed is that he 
went off long before, or long after, he had intended : 
he intended to stay for six months, but only stayed for 
perhaps a few days. -S^T^*^ ^^\ ^"^T ^t^ "Sft ^^T 

Ris condition null he that of the ma)) rvlio ;/ar'.s' to take 
the jeirel from a s)iake's head. ^X^ ^T'^ H4-^ K ^^ 

Tf ^ ^T^T, ^^'ho 0)1 ijouv side is jit to do it? The order of 
words suggests the answer, " No one." -^^ ^^ { WK 

W[^ fT^ %Tf ?:T"3TT I^T ft ^f¥, Up to the 

present time there has heen no ki)i(] in)j equal. ^TT^ ^T^ 

(Under such ciren)nsta}ices) if yoii don't get angry, tJieyi 
when will yon ? 

Very frequent changes from the ordinary order of 
words occur, and often they are very forcible as regards 
their meaning. .A considerable familiarity with Hindi, 
however, must be acquired before bold ventures are 



SECT. 147.] THE ORDER OF WORDS. 145 

made in this direction. Some changes of order may 

prove disastrous. 

DIRECT AND INDIRECT NARRATION. 
148. A matter of no little importance in the con- 
struction of Hindi sentences is the use of the Oratio direc- 
ta. This is far more used in Hindi than in English. 
Where we should say, " He said he would come," the 
Hindi would be sifjH ^^ T^ W ^Ml^"*!!, ^^ ^^^^ 
that I irAll come, jOr, as we should print it, He said, 
" I will come.'" The J^\ takes the place of the invert- 
ed commas, the English quotation marks. 

Take two Hindi sentences as illustrations : v^tj*) 

^W% 5^ f^ Wm W[r^ ^, He asked him, " What 
is the matter?" In English, we should generally say, 
" He asked what the matter was." Again, 3^'R' 4{MH 

ml % ^f f^^ ft? VTTf gpfr^ ^T ^HT^ ^ 

^j He said to his hi'other, " Brother, this is not a time 
for anger." 

In reporting conversations or sending messages, it is 
necessary to exercise considerable care if misunderstand- 
ing is to be avoided. In reporting that we sent a 
servant yesterday to tell someone to come to-day, we 
might be tempted to say in Hindi, ^f^ "Sf^^ 

^rr^ 41 N. This is English-Hindi, not Hindi. The 

10 



146 SYNTAX. [sect. 148. 

sentence should run something like this, ch'^H ^ % 

At the present time, some modern Hindi writers 
have been so influenced by their English education that 
they are more inclined to use the orafAo ohliqua than was 
the case in days gone by. Again, some use the quota- 
tion marks instead of the 7^ ; some use both. A few 
writers have adopted the use of — . The following are 
from Hindi books : — 

ing 'ftT% ^t^ ^ ^5=f T 

Hanuman said, " O mother, give me some token." 

TT^TT % ^^ — "^'it ^^"FT," The king said, 
"Looh here, Diwan.'' 

The use of f% is not confined to quotation ; it is used 

also in narrative, ^flf ^ JHTf^T ^ f^ ^ ^l^^i^U, 

I promised to go. ^ tJI^cI ^ ft? ^T ^ ^f^ 

{The king) desired that the minister might reaeh the same 
conclusion that he himself accepted. Lit., He desired that 
luhat inference I am deducing the minister also may deduce 
that inference. 

THE REPETITION OF WORDS. 
149. This subject is connected with Idiom rather than 
with Syntax, but maybe allowed a corner in this chapter. 



SECT. 149,] THE REPETITION OF WORDS. 147 

The repetition of a word — Noun, Adjective, Pronoun, 
Adverb, Participle or Verb — plays quite, an important 
part in Hindi composition. The repetition of the Verb 
may be left for the present and reference only made in 
this section to other Parts of Speech. 

It should be remembered that the matter now 
treated of is quite distinct from the doubling of words 
referred to in the section on Compound Nouns. Here 
we are speaking of the repetition of exactly the same 
word. This repetition has a force of considerable power. 
The force differs with different words, and in different 
sentences. The following rough classification and illus- 
trations will perhaps sufficiently indicate the main prin- 
ciples of this idiomatic repetition of words. 
150. I Giving Distributive Force. 

T^ ^T ^T^ T^^T Wnr, If 25 years he 

allowed for each generation. y^>^x n ^^ Uch 

^T^ % iU<l< ^ rrhr rft'T ^TW TIT, Dhruva 

I pierced the body of each Yaksh until three arrows. 

i ^ ^ ^ ^ W^ ^^ WT^ fr^!T ^^ ^TTfft, 

They go ojf together a hundred and two hundred at a time. 
%T %T ^T^TT %T %T MH^II, Whoever goes will 

obtain, ^f^ ^ $J7^ ^TR"^^ ^ ^f ^TfT ^IM^M, 

Wherever any one may go, this will everywhere he seen. 



^^ ^R^ 



148 SYNTAX. [sect. 150. 

Tf:g" ^j In every house, ten or txcelve 'people arc lying 
ill. "Sfwf ^ 1TK Mhi, They wandered about in forest 
after forest. 

The following also belong to this group, but are 
limited in their scope owing to the words used • — 
^^ ^"U ^ T^tjl I '^ In one or another province 

3TT^?fT 'T of tl^i-'i country. 

Here and there. In some 
places. 

^^ ^^ "^^ ^ .S7?i<77/ extent. A 

»^ c ♦^ r little. 

^\\% ^1^ One here and there. 

151. II. Giving' Intensive Force 

This includes exactitude, magnitude, multiplicity and 

the reverse of these. ^ ^ ^rff % h1J[ % ^^ vft 
f ^ TT^W ^cTT %j From, the proximity of the vrij 
greenleaves that also appears to be (jreev. ^^^ *fTM" 
T{^ In very big cities. ^^T ^ "^if^^, J '-'-^^ (^ "^'\V 
little is needed. ^5% ^ ^^ ^1" ^K H^r{ f*, Little 
mites of children can do this. ^TTW R ^^ ^ITn ^, 
They were going along sticking close together. l|T|| tprj 
^^ T^, ^^ w^ot'* «^^ distributed. sTTTS'^T % ^^^ 
IT -Z^^^ ^'^i^-' "^^'2/ middle of the garden. "^^ ^TrT ^FTT 
^"HT cTl^i ^ ^^i ^rCT, IT' /^ai «s known concerning 



SECT. 151.] THE REPETITION OF WORDS. 149 

this matter is not exact knowledge. T^m ^ , Very 
close. ^ITfT^ 1^ ^ ^ ;^ ^^ ^rm, He 
went limping along very slowly. 

152. III. Sometimes the sign of the Genitive, 3R| 
IS inserted between the first and second writing of the 
word ; sometimes ^ is so written (or spoken.) These 
belong to Class II rather than to I. 

WTT ^T WKT, ^TTT ^T ^TTTT, The whole, the 

entire lot. ^^ ^J J^, Somewhat. ^^ % ^^T^, 
Great quajitities, e.g., ^^ % ^^^ % ^^1| ^ 
^^j Having seen the great numbers of newly planted out 
trees. ^J^ % ^^^l!^, Whole herds, fftrff ^ Trf?T 
^ HTm* Whole lines of parrots. ^;sf ^"^^fffH^f 
^ MlfflMf, Whole lines of horses. ^:?^ ^ 5»^7 
Intense pain. ^^ ^ ^^, Dust, dust ; completely 
reduced to dust. '^wf CT J{7{ U(^ I7] his heart of 
hearts, i.e., his real thought or feeling. T^J^ T^J ^"S 
^T 'TTT ^ •TTT ^T { (Over her bones) there was just 
the hare name of flesh and blood. 



Chapter VII. 
THE ADJECTIVE. 

153. For Adjective, the Hindi is fe( ^1 M ^ - ^li|e| |'c|c|> 

is also sometimes used ; this word, however, is appli- 
cable to other Parts of Speech, besides the Adjective, 
meaning simply any word that predicates quality. 

Many Adjectives have the masculine and feminine 
terminations 1^ and ^j and are then inflected in ac- 
cordance with the Nouns they agree with in Gender, 
Number and Case, with some modifications. Other 
Adjectives are not subject to any inflection, e.g., M^K ^ 

clever. 

154. Class I. Adjectives subject to inflection. 

These end in ISCl for the masculine, \ for the feminme, 
and are inflected in the same way as Nouns masc. of Class 
I and Nouns fem. of Class III, with this exception that 
1. the Case sign is attached to the Noun only, not to 
the Adjective, and 2. the ^ of the fem. remains un- 
changed throughout ; thus we have ^K'o^ ^TST^ImT 
^ J^fTO , ih-^ ^ook belonging to the good girls, not 

The changes by inflection may be thus tabulated. — 



SECT. 154.] THE ADJECTIVE. 151 

Masc. Norn. Sing. *^^^[ ^V^i^FJ, ^ §00^ t)oy. 

„ Oblique Cases Sing. |>H-o% ^T^ to a good 

|%T, ^, %, boy, etc., etc. 

„ Norn. PI. "SIT^^r^, good boys. 

„ Oblique Cases PI. |^x% ^rf%f, to good boys, 

|%T, ^, %, etc., etc. 

Fem. Norn. Sing. W^S^ ^^^ a good girl. 

„ Oblique Cases Sing. f^JT^^ ^Tp^, to a good 

|%T, «, %, <^'^'' ^''■' ''''■ 
., Norn. PI. ^^^ ^T^ftrq"! good girls. 

 

,; Oblique Cases P. [^!T^^ ^^f^^i to good 

(%T, ^, %, S'l^'s. etc., etc. 

Participles and the Nouns of Agency, formed from 
the inflected Infinitive by the addition of e||^| and ^Klj 
are, for all practical purposes, Adjectives, and are inflect- 
ed in the same way as indicated above. 

When these are used as Nouns, they are fully inflect- 
ed Thus ^^^T%^T% ^^^^i % 1^ , but 
^^I%^T%f % f^t% ; so also with an Adjective used 
as a Noun, e.g., "S^ ^ ^W^ ^ ^ ^TT f , What 
is this in the estimation of the great ? 



152 THE ADJECTIVE. [sECT. 154. 

Some Adjectives, ending in a consonant, possess a 
form for the fem., ending in "^(J ^ or "^ e.g. — 

flT^d'44, heloved „ ftr^Jf^TT 

^J^^j heautiful „ ^'^Tt 

5^^, of « gracious „ ^^^T 
disposition. 

Such fem, forms are affected by some writers, but 
more generally the masc. form is used as a common 
gender and made to do service for both genders. Not 
infrequently, the form in the fem. ending in ^ is used 
as a fem. Noun. 

155. Class II. Uninflected Adjectives. All other 
Adjectives may be regarded as not subject to inflection ; 
such are — 

v^tI'M, excellent. TTf%^, monthly. 

TH'^j supremely excellent. ^f^^, daily. 

i^IdH, difficult. s|<rtcilH, strong. 

T^j fi'*'^- sRT^'rT, strong. 

There are a few endings in vowels ; in "^Tf^ as »ii|dffi^ 

matchless, without a second ; T^T^'TO'fT'T* worthy 

of trust : in ^x, as ^TT^, merciful ; ^MIH, gracious : 
in ^ as '^ll'cf))' mournful. Those ending in ^ and 
^ are often used as Nouns. In such cases the masc. 



SECT. 155.] THE ADJECTIVE. 153 

^ becomes ^^^jflfo*' fe"^o ^-g-, jJTT^^Tmj ^*<^^^ ! f^"^- 
4(fv|^"||<Un ; ^MchlO, '^lelyer ; fern. viMchlRilH. 

156. Adjectival use of ^J (^, %), ^0<^i 
and ^TJ^. 

These cannot strictly be called suffixes, forasmuch as 

they are usually not joined to the words which precede 

them, yet they have very much in common with prefixes. 

They convert the words with which they are used with 
into Adjectives. 

157. ^^ ^^ ^^ This ^ with its fem. ^ and 

plural ^ (this form being used also for the oblique 
Cases of the masc. sing.), is declined in the same way as 
Adjectives of two terminations, agreeing with the 
Noun which follows it, and which it qualifies, e.g., 
"T^^ ^^TT '^^n* ^ picture-like looman, i.e., what we 
should call " like a statue," devoid of movemen': or 
other indications of life. The ^^ agrees in gender with 
the fem. ^^n" which follows it, not with the masc. f^^, 
to which it is added. If the word qualified were 4| ^ ^^, 
it would become '^^^ ^T ^Ht^, or pi, T^^ % 

A few illustrations are appended : 
5^ ^ 'Tg^ ^W ^rm % ^T^T HfV t, lit., 
A you-like man is not ft for this work, i.e., a mav like 



154 THE ADJECTIVE. [sBCT. 157. 

you. ^^ 5j-T7% VTT^ %T sjT^^nT^T ^ WT ^T^n, 

Se found his brother lying as it were half-dead.' 
^^TT ^ ^^ f^^l'^ ^^T ^' Something like smoke 
api^ears. ff^^nT TWZ WT fn" ^TT, ^'^^ yietures be- 
came as though blotted out. J^^ "^j ^Jcf\X.' ^She) be- 
coming angry-like, i.e., pretending to be angry. "^^TT^ 
W% WT, (She) as it were laughing. >i( \l\ % qf%^j 
Eoly as you. ^^^ ^ ^ % "^f^^ % TT^W 
T^^^ ^. In appearance they ar^ like Kshatriyas. 

fi^chiUI Wl HTf, i;?5r5ftrT ^ 5^, ^ brother like 
Kumbhakaran, a son like Indrajit. The idiomatic use 
of the ^5T '^ slightly different in the following sentence : 

^nfr ^TT 4if^ ^1^ Having started up like one sud- 

denly aroused, she sat up and having opened her eijes 
wide like one mad or bewitched. 

158. There is another use of '^ which must be re- 
ferred to. Dr. Kellog considers this to be derived from 
another root. In use it certainly differs somewhat from 
that already given, but there are also great similarities. 
It is to a large extent pleonastic, adding little or nothing 
to the meaning of the word to which it is added. Take 
two illustrations : $||s^T ^fX vrflT, ^ little land. ^ 
^nT% ^T5I ^^ ^ ^^* % ^%' ^^^^^ passed along, 



SECT. 158.] THE ADJECTIVE. 155 

taking many things with them. If by the use of '^T ^'^y 
force be added to the words ^^ and s^dH, it is of 
the nature of intensive force. 

Occasionally, this T^J has the meaning of " . . . ish" 
in English, e.g., ehl^l Wl^ I'lachish. 
^^^* WrnWT (%,, ^ )• The form and force of this 
is practically the same as that of ^J. 

The following sentence illustrates the use of ^p^|^| 
and of the second use of ^T : cHT ^T^ ^^ c(^H 
W '^^ T^Th" 6, ^'^'^ have seen many such like as you. 
^5T *i|^n ^nCT^ ^^'T, 'I'hese npctar-lihe icords. 

ch^'n, Stueh people as we take no concern iclintever about 
these things. ^^ ^TtK^T ^^f %T ^31^, Seat such 
hiimhle people as J am. 

In the following two sentences the use differs 
slightly, approximating more to the Postposition : 

% HMi^ or ^ ?TTf . ^^ %TT ^FkW^ ^% 
'l^^ ^^5 ^^^ ^^^^ P^^IP^^ blossomed out like lotuses. 
^ ^ ^ ^r5% ^TT, He will die like you. 
160, r|194cf> The use of this is quite simple. Instead 
of such a phrase as, A city named Shripur, the form, 
A Shripur- named city, ^TT^JT*TTT^ *fJJ<^ is used. So 
we have, f^rfif % frrf^ ^TT ftrf^ % ^R^ 



156 THE ADJECTIVE. [sECT. 160. 

•TTT^ '^^ ^^j ^ ^^^ '^'^f^'^^d Mitlii was horn to Nirai, 
and to Mithi a son 7iamed Janak. e(4<|'^ % tfX^ s(ij^ 
^l^c^ TT^ ^'^ ** ut'^lagie called Basai near to Bombay. 

Occasionally, the form •TTTT 's found, with two dif- 
ferent forms for the fern. r(|4J| and •TTTT- 

When rTTT is used instead of 7f |4|c|^ it is generally 
in the Genitive Case, vfi<^%H ^THT ^ ^^ TT^T, 
A king of the name of Bhimsen. '^^'^K. Hl'"*l ^H" ^^ 
'ch«^L A damsel of the name of Sundar. ni^'chl •?!!? 
^iT TT^T^rt, -^ female demon named Taraka. 
161. ;^lf) The special use of this word suggests a 
doubt as to whether it should be noticed under Adjec- 
tives. As ^^ means "form" or "shape," one might 
naturally expect that '^T^ would be an Adjective, mean- 
ing, form-possessing, and that ^T^^M I *ilP'T would 
mean, Fire possessing the form of, being like to, lorath, i.e., 

»i|'pr| being the Noun and ^ft^T^IT'TT i^s qualifying 
Adjective, meaning " possessing the form of anger. ' 
It, however, works out the other way, meaning " Anger 

which is like fire. " Thus f^<JJ|^tft JS^T, Learning 
lohich is like riches. JTSTT^'TT "^"^T ^ "TT^PT ^fTTT, 

Care for your subjects who are as sons. "^^ '^iMT^^t 

•niT ^ TTSn ^, Mind is the king of the body ichieh is 
like a city. 



SECT. 161.] THE ADJECTIVE. 157 

Occasionally, a writer may be found using the words 
in the reverse way, e.g., >^iJ|rl^MT 3'^^|^, where, 
apparently, the author's meaning is not, Nectar which is 
like good teaching, but. Good teaching which is like nectar, 
and should, therefore, according to the generally accepted 
idiom, be xiM^^l^lft >H^r\, 

In a recent book, by a very good writer, is the follow- 

Knoicledge is manlike and devotion ivomanlike. 
162. Compapison of Adjectives. 

No system of the Comparison of Adjectives exists in 
Hindi corresponding with that in use in English, but 
there are idioms by which the results of a comparison 
can be readily expressed. 

A few Sanskrit Comparatives and Superlatives are 
imported ready-made into Hindi, e.g., ch|cS5THi,'* 'more 
difficult : ^TT^"^, most wealthy ; fjT^'^IT, most beloved ; 
but these are stray words, and do not indicate any such 
system in Hindi. 

The most general way of expressing the Com- 
parative is by throwing the person or thing with which 
the comparison is made into the Ablative Case, with ^ 

and using the simple Adjective. Thus "'T^'^ ^^TT W 
^ VI A I H S, A man is stronger than a ivoman. ^JH^ ^HC 
3W ^ vi\Tj { « This house is higher than that. 



158 THE ADJECTIVE. [SECT. 162 

Other idioms also are current, e.g„ by the use of 
^^^^ the Conjunctive Participle of '6|<^viL to go 
heyond. ^ ^{T^ If ^3^ % ^f^vC %r| WT^ft 
r|ri| R, There is no more learned man in the city than 
he. By the use of >i{l)\^|, ^^^ ^JP^"^ ^ ^^T 
W This is greater than that, or, lit., /n com-parison with 
that this is great. 

Perhaps the most common way of expressing the 
Superlative is by adding ^[^ to the Noun with which 
the comparison is made and converting it into the 
plural form, retaining the Ablative %j as with the Com- 
parative. Thus Comparative. T(^ TTWT 3^ TT^T "F 
'q|>^ 1 «, This king is greater than that. Superlative : TfW 

TT^ '^r^ TT^TRff % ^^T t, '^^^^'^ ^^^^ ^^ greater 
than all kings. This is not peculiarly satisfactory, as it 
is inexact ; for it involves logically that he is no longer 
a king or that he is greater than himself. A more cor- 
rect idiom is also employed: ^ is used instead of %j thus, 

^5r^ iMI^Tf ^ Tf TrSTT ^r^ % '^^«^'' ^^^9 *'« among 
all kings the great one, i.e., the greatest. For fulness and 
exactness, the followmg is perhaps the best idiom of all : 

^5r^ xtm-mi ^, 3^ ttstt % %t^ ^t ^ t, 

Among all kings there is none greater than he ; or 5^f^ 
Amo7ig alt kings there is none his equal. 



SECT. 162.] COMPARISON. 159 

There are other ways of expressing something equi- 
valent to the Superlative, e.g., by the use of such 
words as — 

>|{^^ ^ *H^<^|, Good than the good, i.e., best of all 

^tT^ % ^tHT, do do. 

grf^^ % *fi' ^Ff^^, Hardest of all. 

^rRl^Tf^^, ^ost exceedingly. 

W^ % W^, Very great (pi.) 

%T% % %T%, Very small (pi.) 

Or, by the addition of an adverb before the, adjec- 
tive, e.g., ^irfn, ^Tr^r^rf, ^^^r^ e.g., ^Tm ^'ii 
Very high. *l\r^^r{ sJi^l, Exceedingly high, cj^rl 

«|v^l Very large. 



Chapter VIII. 

163. THE PRONOUNS 

c 

Pronoun. ^^«TTT 

r 
Personal Pronoun J^^^T^^ ^^TW 

1st person ("I") 3tT^ J^^T 

2nd „ ("Thou^') TT^^r^ 5^TT 

3rd „ (He, she, it.) ] (^) ^^ ^"^ 



Remote (Demonstrative. or 

Pronoun.) j^^^ „^ 

Near Demonstrative Pro- 1 ft^^^^T^^ t!c|«H^ 
noun J or #%rT?T'?^ ^T^TTT 

Indefinite Pronoun(^f;) S^rf^^^TWr^^ WWTTT 
Interrogative Pronoun (^jrf) JTT^WT^^ ^^«n^ 
Relative Pronoun (^) ^^^^T^^ ^TW^TTfT 
Honorific Pronoun (^JTT^) ^T^Tlf^^^ W^^TnT 

Reflexive Pronoun(:jn"^) f^T^T^T^^ H'^HIT 
J64. Hindi has an advantage over English in 
possessing an Interrogative Pronoun, ch|c{ and a 

Relative, %X* whereas in English " who,'' has to answer 

for both. On the other hand, Hindi possesses no Per- 
sonal Pronoun for the 3rd person. ^^ is simply " that 

(one) "' and has to do duty for he, she, it. In the same I'' 



SECT. 164. FIRST AND SECOND PERSONAL PRONUNS 161 

way, 'TS', *he Proximate Demonstrative Pronoun, cor- 
responds with this man, this woman, this thing, 

FIRST AND SECOND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 
165. ^ I, and r^ Thou, are thus declined : 

Singular. 
Nominative. I. ^RT, Wn Thou, g, fT% 

Constructive Base. W^> HH? 

Accusative. Me. g^, ^P^R%T Thee. g%, g^J%T 



}j j> 



Dative. To me. „ ., To thee. 

Instrumental. By me. W^> % By thee fTH^ % 
Ablative. From me. „ „ From thee. ,, „ 

Genitive. My, mine, ^Hj^Xt Thy, thine, ^^j^^ci", 

Locative. In me, on me, etc. In thee, on thee, etc. 





5^> If, ^, etc. 


rT^lf, ^,etc. 




Plural. 




Nom. 


^, ^^ 


giT, giT% 


Constr. Base. 


^ 


3^ 


Ace. 


^, ^^T%T 


g^,g^%T 


Dat. 


>» i> 


J> ), 


Instr. 


^"^ 


<F^ 


Abl. 


>> 




Gen. 


g*^i\i, n, t 


Log. 
11 


^ ^, ^Kf etc. 


^'T 'Jf, ^, etc. 



162 THE PRONOUNS. SECT. 166. 

166. In the plural, there are some additional forms 
which are little used : 

Norn, l^^fl^, 3^^^ ^"' ^^^ ^^^' ^"•"^^ 

Instr. and Abl. lf^%,^*^l% Locative ^^T 'T, 

167. The Constructive Base — When the Pronoun is 
in apposition with another word or loosely compounded 
with it, the Constructive base alone is used, the Case 
sign being appended to the second word, 

g^ ^m^ % ^'n ^ ^chdl t ? What can a poor 
wretch like me do ? WVR jJCfXJ^ W^T %T THchl^T ? 
* Will you turn me, your son, out'?^^^ HTTT Vfl^^l %T 
\i^«f ^^THTTj ^^ called us three brothers. 

Instances occur where the Genitive, instead of the 
Constructive base, is used in this way, frfT^^qp^" %T5 
^<HIM Wl ^V^nn ^ , Verily there is some one as great 

a sufferer as I. ^TTTT $% ITP^Vrf^f %T » ^o t^iose 

as ill-fated as we are. Even such forms as ^TT" «liV 
^RT %5 ^TRT %r ^^^ occasionally met with; but such 
forms should not be imitated, 

Scholars differ as to which is the better form for 

the Nom. with ^ when compounded with another word,. 

^'g-y W trwr % T^ ^rrar ^, or ^h? ?i^ % ^ 






SECT.. 167. FIRST AND SECOND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 163 

>i||^| C^j /, the king, gave this order. Opinion appears 
to be about equally divided. 

Sometimes ^ is joined to this Constructive base. 

This is equivalent to the addition of ^t, giving stress to 
the Pronoun, but not quite as strong as the full 
^. Thus -^^ ^^T §JT HHUI ^T, It came 
about that even we had to take flight. f|TrfT <dl'^T 
t^ ^JtC ^TPTT, O^^ >^o» people the blame will fall. 

^^ %r T^ ^nff ^j ^ot only to us, to all 

168. The Accusative and Dative. — The forms for the 
Accusative and Dative are identical. Whether there be 
any difference in the uses of the two forms, and what 
the difference be, if any exist, it is not easy to under- 
stand. The forms without %T ^^^ used for the Accusa- 
tive, but probably it will be found that there is a ten- 
dency to use these forms more for the Dative, and the 
forms with "^f^l for the Accusative. 4^|vg|j Tf fl''^ 3^T^ 
% T%% ^I^ i^«lj J The king gave a house for you to 

stay in. ^ g?^ mRr^liMch ^^l , ^^ «'i^^ give 

yo« a reward. ^J^ ^T%^ ftfWf % ^^Ncfl Ri^ffl, 

/ have received help from many friends. H^ TJT^T 
HI^IHI M^^n, ^<^ shall have to endure trouble. In the 
following, this form is used for the Ace. HT^ Hi "WT^ 
I'^n ^rr^fT, They will go, taking you along with them. 



164 THE PRONOUNS. SECT. 169. 

169. The Genitive. — It will be noticed that for the Geni- 
tive, the Constructive base is somewhat changed ; in 
the sing., it becomes % , a , >" the plural ^9{|, 
H5PBTy and to these bases are added ^ , ^ ^ i. 
Thus formed, the Genitives are inflected exactly the same 
as Adjectives of two terminations. They are, in fact, to 
all intents. Adjectives. It must be remembered that this 
termination as regards gender is regulated by the gender 
of the person or thing possessed, not by that of the 
possessor. TTTT ^t^ , ^V horse. T[^ U^ri4l ^ ^y hook. 
The gender of horse and booh determine the gender form of 
4^ 1^1 and nTTj not the gender of the owner of these things. 

The other cases require no special notice. 

170. The use of the Singular and Plural Personal 
Pronouns. A matter of special importance is the right 
use of the Pronouns in addressing persons, or in speaking 
and writing about them. It will be well to anticipate 
slightly and to consider here not only the use of the 
1st and 2nd Personal Pronouns, but also the Demons-] 
trative, so far as it has to do for the 3rd Personal 
Pronoun, and the Honorific Pronoun, ^TFT. 

As regards the 1st Person, the Plural may be, and is, 
to no small extent, used for the singular. Thus, ^4||0 
^T^p^^, In my judgment ; ^ ^fT^'t , / w/// go ; ^ 
^t ^TT^m ^ need if. There is an increasing ten l 



I 



SECT. 170. FIRST AND SECOND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 165 

dency, however, among the more cultured and educat- 
ed classes, to use the singular form in speaking about 
oneself, and it may be taken as an utterly safe rule to 
always use the singular in referring to oneself. Let it 
be recognized, at the same time, that the use of the 
forms ^^ and SIHTT is not atall equivalent to the "we'* 
in English used as the "plural of majesty," or the "editorial 
we." In past days, the[plural forms were far more used for 
the singular than they are at present; and this accounts for 
the fact that in many places tfU^I is added to '^^, to 

indicate the plural, where the context might not clearly 
shew whether the singular " Ij" or plural " we " were 
meant. 

For the 2nd person, there are three Pronouns avail- 
able, r^ J g^ ^ '4\m . >J^m is really a 3rd person, 
necessitating the Verb in the 3rd plural, but is never- 
theless greatly used in direct address for the 2nd person. 
In English, we have a similar idiom, but such uses are 
generally reserved for those persons who possess spe- 
cial dignity, " Your Majesty," " Your honour," " Your 
reverence ;" whereas the jjnfXf is used in Hindi for very 
ordinary people. 

rf is very little used, and, when it is used, has often in 
it something bordering on contempt for the person so ad- 
dressed. It may be wisely excluded from the foreigner's 



166 THE PRONOUNS. SECT, 170. 

working vocabulary. There is a use for the word far 
removed from that indicated above. A man may use 
it to his wife or child with as much kindliness and 
affection as a Quaker would use " thou." In Hindi, 
however, the use of the word is confined to those who 
are younger or in a more "protected" position than 
the speaker. It may sometimes be used to a servant, 
indicating a certain familiar relationship of the patriarch- 
al type rather than contempt. A teacher may also use 
the word to his disciples, indicating something of the 
nature of paternal affection and care. 

3^ and 41 m ^t'e the alternative words, in the dis- 
criminating use of which the foreigner may experience 

some difficulty. To adopt H^^ where 4(m is the appro- 
priate word, is to be guilty of a great breach of etiquette ; 
to use >>f |<4 where ^ra* would be the right word, may 
be taken for sarcasm, even as, " Will you be graciously 
pleased to ... " might be so taken, if addressed to your 
butcher or baker. 

fMT may be used to servants and to children and 
young people who would be addressed by their Christ- 
ian names in English. It may also be used in speaking 
to workmen and petty shopkeepers. Among Indians of 
equal standing it may be used in familiar intercourse, 
in somewhat the same way that the " Mr. " is dropped 



SECT. 170. FIRST AND SECOND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 167 

among Englishmen where there is considerable fami- 
liarity. The foreigner will, however, need great care 
in venturing on the use of the R^ in this way. ^TFT 
may be regarded as the general Pronoun to use to- 
wards equals, towards those in a superior position and 
also to subordinates, with whose names we should retain 
the " Mr." in English. If in doubt, use >i(|l4. 
171. Pronouns to be used in addressing- God. What 

r 

Pronoun should be used in addressing God, or in refer- 
ring to Him ? Should it be >i{ |tf and ^ with the Verb 
in the 3rd plural, or rf and ^^ with the 2nd and 3rd 

singular ? Hindi is only discussed here. cT in Urdu is 
perfectly correct and needs no discussion. 

In this paragraph, the writer uses " I," as he is 
fully aware that, on this important question, a consider- 
able majority of missionaries differ from him. As re- 
gards the translation of the Bible, I regard it as perfectly 
sound to retain the singular. The attempt to discri- 
minate between the adoption of r{ and H^ and >||m 
would continually be involving the translator in the 
responsibilities which belong to the commentator. A 
simple translation of the Pronouns for God and for all 
persons is the easy and safe course. When, however, 
the question arises of how to address God in prayer 
• and worship, and how to write or speak concerning 



168 THE PRONOUNS. SECT. 171. 

God, it seems as appropriate to use 4||l| in direct ad- 
dress and % in writing or speaking, in Hindi, as it does 
to'spell " Him " with a capital " H " in English. In 
my reading for many years, I have given particular 
attention to the matter ; and the conclusion which I 
reached a long time since has been fully confirmed. 
The matter stands thus. Most missionaries, and, follow- 
ing them, the majority of Indian Christians, use H, 
Some, however, of the well-read Indian Christians do 
not approve of this, and a few missionaries do not. By 
some Hindus, probably through education in Mission 
Schools, H has been adopted, but speaking generally of 
Hindus, the view is clearly that H is very inappropriate, 
H^ is slipshod and lacking in reverence, »|| |Cf and q 
are the correct Pronouns to use. I have accepted and 
adopted this for many years, and to me ^ and ^^ 
sound as grating as does " you " when used to God 
in prayer in English. 

I could easily produce very many quotations to back 
up the statement made. I will satisfy myself with giving 
just some few. H'^MTH ^TT^ ^TT ch<^cil<ft ^ ! 
What is God about to do to-day ! ^ mM d^lH 

O most merciful God, ftdfil my desires that are right. 



SECT. 171. FIRST AND SECOND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 169 

t M<*iil«l< ! 5CTT^ ST^TO ^:^ f , O God, Thou art 
the image of light. And on tbe same page, eh)|^^ and 
41 M^ '" address to God. ^ jm J ^^ ^HT 
chll^M, O Lord I Grant such grace. ^^C^ ^FTl 
^^^tf J What xvill God do ^ %ytjd^K % 'H Jf|^«il 

^5Trn f ft; t ¥^ 3Rt g^^ ft ^^ tCT $*, 

1 pray God that He may give to all a son like you, I 
note in one book : | f^;^ J gi^ W^ Tm ^ 
^<fli^'fT •T cftO, O God, do not bring any stigma upon 
your name ; but on the same page, v^^ch) V^J ^*\4M 

^Kn ^, God protects him. And a few pages away, 

H^l ij^l^n f , ^oes not the heart-knowing God under- 
stand the disposition of your holy heart ? ^\fM, hT 
^^ ^U ft'^H ^^^ ft f , Verily God thinks of all. 

In one book, in which the plural is elsewhere used, 
we meet in one place with the singular, ja^cj4^ ^^RTT 
T^^ ^, God is his protector. 

I give one more quotation from a writer on Hindi 
composition. Having stated that j^TT ^^ for great res- 
pect, HIT to indicate equality or relationship and fami- 
liarity, ^ to indicate disrespect, he proceeds : ^Jff H 



170 THE PRONOUNS. SECT. 171. 

Here and there people use " tii " for equals also and 

for the little folh ; here and there devotees use " tu " for 
God also, e.g. — 

" Oh God ! protect us.'' " What are you up to, you 
scoundrel? " " Chanda, zchere will you go ? '' 

Whether it is a misprint, or whether a slip on the 
part of the writer, is not clear, but >^ m should cer- 
tainly have cRiT^^ , not. ^"U- Occasionally, such 
loose writing is met with ; but one would not expect it 
in a book on Composition. 
172. Omission of Pronoun. 

The Pronoun is sometimes unexpressed. In Hindi, 
this is in many cases quite safe, as the form of the Verb 
in many of the Tenses indicates the Gender and Number 
of the subject. Take the following examples : ^X ri'M 

^^ ^^Rv'C ^^ ^^ ^ flil'TTi: ^% , Having 
gone two or three miles, {ice) arrived at a piece of water. 

Having reached the other side of this hill, when (we) 
reached the other side. ch^T T^f) ^TTT ^IH" 1^ ^ 



SECT, 172. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 171 

^T^ ^T Wm I^^T Sa>', what did (yoii) do about 
the work (you) went {to do)? z^r^^j^ 7f^ il^Rf^ ^ 
^ TF^ ^^T'sItt > V^i'y '^^'^^^ ^^'^" ^^> '^^^^ ^^^^^^ 
Rajsinha minister. ^^^ rft ^ ^ T ^ KHT, ^/ (>'^"> ^^^^ 
speak the word, I will ^o. 

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS AND 3RD 
PERSONAL PRONOUN. 

173. In Hindi, there is no Personal Pronoun for the 
3rd person, but the two Demonstrative Pronouns, near 
and remote, quite efficiently supply the place. That 
these Demonstrative Pronouns ( IfS" and ^^ , this, 
that) do not indicate the gender, is a defect which they 
share in common with the real Personal Pronouns for 
the 1st and 2nd persons. In English also, the 1st and 
2nd persons (/ and you) do not indicate gender, but the 
3rd does, he, she, it. 

These two Demonstrative Pronouns not only render 
service as Personal Pronouns, but also as Correlatives. 

Proximate. Remote. 

Singular. 

Nominative, n^ ( 1^, Tf^, ^ ( |f , ^^ ) 



172 THE PRONOUNS SECT. 173. 

Proximate. Remote, 

Constr. base. ^^ ("^l^) 3^ ( 3^ )jj^ 

Accus. f 9^, ^$, ^^ 3^^, 3$, ^% 

Instr. & Abl. f^ ^^Ir 

Gen. fW^, ^, % 3^^T, ^"V, % 

Loc. ^^j -q^ 3^, ^ 

Plural. 

Nominative. %, ^?^f% ^, ^•■^il 

Constr. base. '^•T, ^?^ 3*T , '3'^T 

Ace. & Dat. ^^ %T, ^?^ "35=^ ^, 3*^ 

Instr. & Abl. f ?^t ¥, 1^% 3^t %, 3^1% 
Gen. ^?|t ^T, ^, % 3?tt ^T, ^, % 

^T ^T, ^, % "^H*!, ^, % 

^ If, ^?: ^, ^ 

® This addition of ^ may be added to all the Cases 
in the sing., except the ^% 3% forms of Ace. and 
Dat. It corresponds with the ^ in the plural. It may 
indicate a measure of emphasis, but not necessarily 
so. The additional ^ in the plural is more commonly 
used in some of the Cases than in others, e.g., it is 



SECT. 173. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 173 

much preferred in the Norn, with ^ The form ^^n 
is practically not used. 

Such forms as ^?^, ^^^ ^'ff %, are also met 
with ; these must be regarded as the addition of the 
emphatic ^ to f^TI 

When these Pronouns are used with Adjectival force 
before another word, in a Case requiring the oblique 
form, the Constr. base is used, but not the Case ending, 
that is added to the later word, e.g,, ^m '^wpSf!( w( 
^^, That man said. "^ ^^riefi ^- ^HT, The price 
of this booh. 3^" 44H(kl)i ^ ^^j Those men said. 
^ ^^n5»i ^ ^TO", The price of these books. 
174. Use of Singular and Plural. When used as Per- 
sonal Pronouns, ^and % may be substituted for q^ and 
^ as honorific, and the Verb will then be in the Plural, 
e.g., of a king, ^ ^T^ >^J^ ^^ He has now come ; of 
a rishi, g* c|^^ WT^'T, He will go to-morrow. 

On the other hand, in the Nominative, the singular 
forms 7(^ and ^^ are sometimes found with a plural 
meaning, this being indicated by the plural form of the 
Verb being used. This is due to the influence of Urdu, 
in which this idiomatic (and sometimes catchy) use of 
'^^ and c^ greatly prevails. In Hindi, this idiom is of 
quite recent times, and is by no means generally accept- 



174 THE PRONOUNS. SECT. 174 

ed. It is just a trick of fashion and serves no useful 
purpose. 

175. Idiomatic uses of ^^^ and ^^. 

71^ and cfff as this and that, are used in reference 
to a very wide range of subjects, ^^ referring to the 
present, or historic present, ^f^ to the past. They may 
refer not only to a person or thing, but to an incident, 
a whole group of circumstances or a logical argument, 
also to time, e.(j., 3W% ^T^^tTTj ^ft^'' that, ^ij^ 

WT^, ^fte>' t^^is. ^^ -q^ ^^ trrnr, ^'ow tMs a 

will be evident. 

In reporting conversations and incidents, 7^^ and ^^ 
are conveniently used for two persons or things, as 
" one,'' " another,'' or " the other." in English. When 
so used, the terms " proximate " and " remote " 
largely lose their significance. It is by no means un- 
common to find that a person referred to early in a 
paragraph as ?T^ is referred to later on as cf^, 6,^., in 
a biography, we have the father's name given, then 
^•1^ ^ rill 3^ ^j -^^'^^ '"^^^ ^^'^^ these three sons. A 
little later, one of these is referred to as % V|l|c| r''^ 

^ He was a great devotee. Then, v^r|^ ^c^ ^v^'| 

5nT ^^ 5^ ' ^"'' ^^^^T J^ , Two children were 
born to him, a daughter and a sou. 



SECT. 175. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 175 

It has already been mentioned that these Pronouns 
are much used in the Const, base form, before other 
words with Adjectival force. ^^ ''^^ ' ^ ^^3^ ' 
this man, that man. ^ f^%T, ^5»T f^'li, In these days, 
in those days. 
176, Honorific and Reflexive Pronouns. 

These two must be very carefully distinguished. 
Exactly the same in form, one is a Pronoun of respect 
used in speaking to, or of, a person ; the other is mere- 
ly a reflexive, applicable to all three persons, cor- 
responding to the English " self or "own. ' If ^HT^, 
/ myself. gTT 3^1^ ^"PTn ^5 You yourself know. 

'^'^^^ 5^rich %^ "^"Rrt, Come, bringing your own 
hook. 

111. The Honorific ^TR. This has already been 
referred to in Sect. 170, In construction, it is 3rd person, 
and necessitates the Verb in the plural, but is used for 
a single individual person, being either addressed to 
him, or referring to him. It corresponds, in use, 
with " your honour " in English, as regards grammatical 
form, but not in meaning, as it is far more generally 
used. 

The word is subject to no inflectional changes. The 
plural is expressed by the addition of %T1T i ^-go, ^THT 
%TTr n W^ ^TTT, You people will have heard. 



176 THE PRONOUNS. SECT. 177 

Though we often find the word translated in English 
by " yoiw honour,'' in a majority of instances, " you " 
would better represent the meaning of the word. >t{m 

^1^ WI^T, When will go? might be used to a 

member of the nobility, to your uncle or aunt, to an 
ordinary acquaintance, to a clerk in your office, to any 
business man of some education and position. 

It is used in all the Cases, the word itself remaining 
unchanged, but taking the Case signs. >|||^ ^T ct1^«1l 

"SJ^ %, What you say is correct. ^TPT ^FJT l+I^^M, 
You will get it. *}\\V[ %PTT % cfl'^l, ^^^ong you. 

The principal use of '^X^ is in direct address, but it 
is used, in referring to the same person, to a third person 
(present) or to another person not present. Thus, 
while at all times, in form and construction, it is a 
3rd person, it is used for both 2nd and 3rd persons. 
»^IH gfjT ch^HI, would more commonly mean, What 
you say, but it also may mean, What he says. ^T^ ^TT 
T^TTT^T % ^3m ^ ^^«4T ^W[, may either mean, 
The Maharaja on one occasion sent to call you, or, to call 
him. In the following '>i|m is used for the 3rd person, 
^TFT ^T ^^ ^0 ^30^ ^ ^iCTT ^T, He was horn 

in 1706 ii.e., A. D. 1763). %nT ^CTTT ^ {^^N ^T^ 

^4>n W, People render special honour to him. 



SECT. 177. HONORIFIC & REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS 177 

As already stated, the principal use of ^TTT is in 
direct address, but this second use, for the 3rd person, 
must not be overlooked. In modern Hindi, this second 
use is more general than it was. 

>>im , in direct address, is occasionally found with 
the second person of the Verb. »||m eh\T Please do 
{this), This is careless writing and not grammaticially 
defensible. 

178. The Reflexive "S^V^. 

The consideration of this Pronoun raises some diffi- 
culties, both as regards its forms and its uses. 

Norn. ^rrT , ^f^ ^srnr. 

»Hm^, or ^rnr alone after the 
subject, with *!', 
Ace. and Dat. ^tj% %| , ^HT^ rT^ , »HrM^ 

Instr. and Abl. ^IMH %, W^ ^TT'T %. 

Gen. ^^T^, '3!T^m, ^T^, occasionally 

Loc. 5rq% ^, -q^ ; ^t|% jgarrr ^, ■^. 

In both forms of the Norn,, that with, and that 

without, ^y it generally follows the rrue subject of 

the sentence, much the same as in English we have, 

"He himself went." Thus, HWT ^T^ ^^ % 5^ 

12 



178 THE PRONOUNS SECT. 178. 

5nt, The king began to question the messengers himself -^ 
or, KX^T "T ^"TT ^'^T, The king himself saw. 

The form, >||TfH ^n^j '^ "*^* much used in the 
Nom. In the following sentence, j^HT^ >^ |^ has pro- 
bably more affinity with the lustrumental or Ablative 
Case than with the Nominative : ^t| K ^H *H^r( 

t^r^ 4iM^ ^TTT ^nf %T T^ ^ , The marvellous 
order flit, make) of the universe has come about of itself. 
Both 41 1|^ 'JTT^ ^^^ >MmH, with the Case signs, 
are used in the Oblique Cases. We have jJ|Xf^ ^T^ 
%T ^^PTT, To forget oneself. <M^fT ^T "^^ ^T^ 
%T H^ Th The Rajf)uf warriors forgot themselves, 
i.e., were so engrossed in fighting as to lose all con- 
cern about their own safety. ^^ ^^TT ^JH"^ W ^T^T 
"SfSK, ^f^\ ^rr ^^ '"^^ driven him crazy. Lit., Had placed 
him outside of himself. ^1^ ^?^ >|{l|H ^ ^^ ^t^TT 
^ J It draws them into itself. ^Tf%f n^fJilTT >MM^ 
% ^% ^pff ^T ^T^ ^FHC^ ^ , The two princes I 
rendered honour to those who were greater than them- 
selves. 

jjrnr ^ ^nr means " spontaneously." ^TtpT >){ m 

may be similarly used. Thus, ^ra* ^TTSTT ^TT^ >|{|^ 

^^ 16 I S , This instrument is playing of itself. 



SECT. 179. HONORIFIC & REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. 179 

Connected with this Pronoun is the word >l4mV 
mutual. '^'[^^ ^ ^^ ^'^ ^»^j Having seen that they 
were quarrelliiiff among themselves. ^ j^iqu* ^ ^ ^ j 

'^^ x^^ ^ , ^^^'^y ^^^'^^^^^ ^'^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^'^'t much- s^ m^ 

^ ^f?=^ 4*^* ^ m^ ^rar, They broke the treaty 
that had existed beticeen them. 

179. The Genitive >M^H|. This ^^w{J may, in 
all respects, be treated as an Adjective of two termina- 
tions, agreeing in Gender and Number with the Noun 
which it qualifies. It must be remembered that it has 
no connection whatever with the Gender and Number 
of the subject. ^:^^ ^^% ^1!^ %T ^^ T^ f ^ 
The girl is calling her brothers. <r|>^ch| >l1M«j| s^frfcff 
%T ^^rr TWl B, ^^'^ boY is calling his sisters. 

jJftfvfT is used with all three persons, and generally 
refers to the subject of the main Verb in the sentence, 
^F^f^ ^^^ 'tH^^ %T ^^ f^^ , ^^O' sew^ their 
own servants. This sentence remains the same, whether 
^*^H »"efers to a masc. or fem. " they," and the latter 
part of the sentence would remain the same if " he," 
" she " or " it " took the place of '* they." If the servants 
belonging to some other person be intended, then some 
other Pronoun, or Noun, must replace the >X4ni, 
e.g., if A sent the servants of B, then the sentence 



180 THE PRONOUNS. SECT. 179 

must run. ^^ ( i.e., A ) ^ ^3^ i i.e , B ) ^ vf^e^if 
%T ^^ f^^T , ^ "^^"^ ^^'-'^^ servants, or 3^% ^^ 
«||ehO %T ^^ |c^i||, ^<^ s^"^ ^f^y servants. 

sjnj«TT does not always refer to the main Verb. It may 
belong to a secondary Verb. ^^T^T ^T^T ^HTn 
^rf%t %T Wr^ %^ ^Trf ^ ^?5T, ^^ saw f/zew 
coming along bringing their children with them. Here the 
^fT|*T refers not to the main Verb of the sentence, but 
to the subject of the participial form of ^i^ ^TT5TT- 
In the following sentence, although as regards construc- 
tion, the IJT^r^ might refer to c^iIP^h) 4f)^»f, 
it does not but to the subject of the main Verb. The 
man was not staring at himself, but at the Pundit. 

vnft ^ % ^K ^TK m^ ^ ^F!K ^f T , Having I 
seen Kaniini Mohan looking towards him again and again 
with a look full of despair, the Pundit said. 

Note also such sentences as the following : ^f^lf 

When their wages appear to the workmen to be too little 
^ "SJ^rV *ft" 5^ 'T^ ^5 ^^ t<^^^s  «o thought q 
himself. ^1^ ^rT J3T^ ^^ ^ ^^ ^, Defeat an 
victory are not in one's otvn power (lit. hand.) ^f^ TTf jt. 



SECT. 179. HONORIFIC & REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. 181 

*T ^ |<||, When the king, at night, came into the cham- 
bers, he did not find the queen in her own place. Here 
the )^l|rj|" has no Verb to the subject to which it refers, 
but the meaning is quite evident. So, in the following, 

We will make the king taste the fruit of his own doings. 
These instances, and many more of a similar character, 
do not, however, diminish the general value of the rule 
given about the >hMH| referring to the subject of the 
main Verb. 

180. T^^. Occasionally, f^^ is added to aJftJ^TT to 
strengthen it, giving to it something like the force of 
the English " one's very own.'' >i{l|r) f%^ ^TJ ^ 

^5^^ ^ 3% ^^ ^T^l^ W*^i ^^'^ arriving in 
his own country he experienced great joy. 

Sometimes \w{^ is used without >t(l|vf I e.g., ^5" 

^ITl m^ ^T ^, She is my very own. ^ ^T^ % 
pT^ % ^TT ^, They are your very own people. 

181. tf^m. This word is an Adjective, not a Pronoun ; 
but its right to mention in this chapter is quite as strong 
as that of >!{ M«i I , and its consideration here is quite as 
appropriate. As iCT'TTT means one's own, so t^^CtTT 
stands for another's. It is declined as an Adjective of 
two terminations, -q^ xft^ % f^^ehl gfJ^^TT 



182 THE PRONOLNS. SECT. 181 

*T^T cKW^hH I ^s whose heart does not suffer at the pain 
of another. ^^ 7{ ^^ f^^ fft ^TJ^ "^T 
^STPTT ^T ^, ^^"^ of these days she will have to go to the 
house of another. m^[M ^T^ ^, ^X ^^^ hand of an- 
other. (If it were "another hand,'' the Hindi would 

be ^ ^m % ). fti^ %T ^rcRT ^KPn ^ ^fj 

"^J, A'^o one recognized what was his own, what an- 
other's. 

Occasionally, a writer is found using an additional 

Genitive sign. (It must be remembered that Hll^T 's 
already a Genitive " of another "). Thus l|^|l| ^H^T^'^I 

^W^ Mn^T •T^ chifl, They do not injure or 
abuse another. This is incorrect, unless the meaning of 
the writer be (which is quite possible) that they do not 
injure or abuse the people of another person's household. 
That would then equal q^J^ ^f^ % fgR^ ^ f^, 
etc. 

RELATIVE, INTERROGATIVE AND CORRELATIVE 

PRONOUNS. 

182. It may be well here to call attention to the fact 
that related groups of Pronouns, Pronominal Adjectives 
and Adverbs are characterized by initial letters which 

mark them ofT with considerable distinctness. ^ in- 
dicates Relative ; ^ both Indefinite and Interrogative ; 



SECT. 182 RELATIVES AND CORRKLATIVBS. 183 

^ or a kindred vowel, Proximate Demonstrative ; ^ or 
a kindred vowel, Remote Demonstrative. 

According to the Paradigms printed in some Gram- 
mars, ^ might be taken as indicative of the Correlative ; 
but all the paradigms must not be taken too seriously. 
Many of such forms are added to adorn the pages 
of the Grammer, but may be seldom met with in the 
pages of literature. The Demonstrative Pronoun and 
kindred words largely discharge the duties of Correla- 
tives. 

As Relatives under ^, may be noted "^H, I^HHl, ^f^ 
„ Indefinite ... ^Tf, ^i^, f^HHI , 

„ Interrogative ... ^^, ^^T, ftjrfJTT, 

,, Prox. Dem- ... ^^, IrTTT^ %^l 

«"^^''- - '^ff, 'TfV, ^W, 

„ Remote Dem- ... ^f, ^fTRT, ^^, 

It is interesting to note that we find characteristic 
initial letters for similar groups of words in English. 
Thus, for Demonstrative " th," as in the, this, these, 
those, them, then, there, thence, thither. For Interro- 



184 



THE PRONOUNS. 



SEC. 182 



gative " wh," who? what? whose? where? whence 1 
•when ? why ? ' 

RELATIVE AND INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. 



83. Relative. 


Interrogative. 


Sing. 




Norn. 


^n" ^ho, which 4||r| who ? 




f^4J ^ VhH % 


Const. Base. 


r^^ r^H 


Ace. 


Wt, ftl%, f^ %T (^5T), T^H , 




ftW %T 


Dat. 


f^T%, f^RT %T fti%, T^H %T 


Instr. 
Abl. 


f^ % ftpT % 


Gen, 


^W^5%, 3Rt 1*^1^,%,^^ 


Loc. 


f^W ^, ^^^ Ut\H If, etc. 


Plural. 




Norn. 


%F ^M«T. 




ftr^ %, I^HH fti^^ %. 


Const. Base. 


^5T, fw^T ft»5T. 


Ace. & Dat. 


ftr^f , ftR %T, fti-f , f^ %T, 




ftf^ %T f^^fi I;t. 



SECT. 183 RELATIVE AND COERELATIVE PRONOUNS. 



185 



Instr, 
Abl. 



ftR %, f^*^|T % fts^ %, fti^ %. 



Gen: f^ gPiT, ftl^lr fti^ ^T, ftpfff 

Loc. f%R ^, f%?|*T ^ fiR^T ^, ftv^^T ^. 

The plural forms of ^T^ are little used. 

184. The Relative. 

It has already been pointed out that, whereas in 
English the Correlative comes first, followed more or less 
closely by the Relative, in Hindi the Relative usually holds 
the first place, the Correlative coming later and in a sepa- 
rate sentence. Eng. He who has been to a place knows 
what can be obtained there. Hindi. %X ^^ '^'^J 

The Relative Pronoun ^Sft niust not be confused 
with ^n* ^^^^ as a Conjunction, e.g.. ^ft *5TT^ fT^ 
*H<a^ ^1T, // they come, it will be known ; but ^f ^T^ 
■^ ^1*1 jThey who come will konic. The Conjunction ^fx 
is often followed by ff^ or f^. 

185. The Correlative. The one true Correlative is 

%T, ^ ^y ^ft ^[*irll %T ^^, ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ '^'^^^ knows 
speak. Usually, the Correlative is a Demonstrative Pro- 
noun. ^ sarlMrll ^ ^^ ^^, Who knows let him speak. 



186 THE PRONOUNS. SECT. 185 

Occasionally, a Correlative is altogether wanting. %X TT 
ITT ^ ^fWl ^T ^4tHI, ^hat can a dead man do ? 
But this is not generally approved ; a Correlative of some 
kind is necessary. 

In some Grammars is given a full paradigm of the 
various Cases of %Jj smguiar and plural ; the stem of the 
sing, being fj^ and of the pi. f7r«T, fd*^- ^^ re- 
gards modern Hindi, such paradigms are largely fictitious. 
In old Hindi, however, and in poetry, forms moulded 
on these or similar stems occur, e.g., for Rel. and Correl. 
in Ace. sing., we have in the Ramayan, >^|rf f{|k | 
for the Gen. WT^, *^T3", Nom. pi. "^^ ff^ and Ace. 

186. The Interrogative. The various forms given 
in the paradigm are, by analogy, probably correct ; but 
some of them may be looked for in vain in modern 
literature. For the Nom. pi., the sing, is sometimes 
repeated, ^T*T ^|r|. This carries something of a dis- 
tributive force as well as being for the plural. Some of 
the other pi. forms are also current. 

^|«{ may be used alone as a Personal Pronoun, 
with the meaning, Who ?, or it may be used in conjunc- 
tion with a Noun, $|r| TIH^ $WT «h<HI ^, ^Vha 

man does so ? ^|r| $T*T T^^^ $^ ^'C^ ^, What 
men do so ? 



SECT. 186 RELATIVE AND CORRELATIVE PRONOUNS. 187 

^^ ^ means, What sort of ? e. g., T(^ ^»T ^ 
^^n" R What sort of a woman is this ? ^^ ^T^rT ^H" 
^^ ^ ^ ^^ ^ ^ Ni^M ^5^, Of ichich kind 
of the splendours of this mountain shall I write ? 

The Nom. form of $|«T is sometimes found for 
Oblique Cases e. g., ^f?!' ^T«T ^KUTf W, From what 

causes ^j^ ^THT ^K^ ^TK ^T^ ^ 5RT% ^"T fj 

Which work is fit to be done and which is not ? 

Besides the purely interrogative use of this Pro- 
noun, it is sometimes found carrying the meaning of a 
loose Relative Pronoun (with or without a Correlative). 

T^ ^\l'% H^l ^TTTHT ^, Who has gone and to which 
people he has gone, this no man knows. 
187. The Interrog-ative ^TfJ. This indeclinable word 
should be considered in connection with ^JT, ^^ the 
uses of the two words overlap one another. The dis- 
tinction between the two words is sometimes said to be 
that ^TT is appropriate for persons, ^^JT for things 
(and animals.). This is largely true, but does not ap- 
pear to reach the essential difference in the use of the 
two words. The real distinction seems to be that %T«T 
individualizes, ^fHfJ is more indefinite and groups things, 
e- g; %R ^rnn f , ^Vho has come ? 7^^ ^^ ^^^^ 



188 THE PRONOUNS. SECT. 187 

^, What hook is this ? ^3" ^ZfX ''T"^^^ ^ rather sug- 
gests, What class of literature does this book belong to ? 
What is it about ? ^j^f ^Tf ^^^ ^ ^^ c^NT '^^, 

What work shall that man do and ichat this ? But 
% cPlJ ^?T ^T ^ %, ^^'h^Jf ^'ork are they doing ? 

Sometimes ^3f^J is very vague. ^?T cf q | ^'K, 

What can we do ? At times, it is more of an exclama- 
tion than an interrogation. cf^J ^^, Hoiv good f 

Now and again, it conveys a relative force. ^^ ^^T ^T^" 
TT %T^ rfrfY ^J»I^T, What he will do no one knoics. 
Sometimes, in writing, it simply expresses what would 
be done by a tone in speaking, or by the " ?," in 
English. In printing, simply ^ >^ |c(Tf would not 
necessaril}' mean a statement or a question ; it might 
mean either. If the context does not indicate which 
should be understood and a question be intended, 
then the sentence should be cfqi q jJIT^'Tj 
Will they come ? At the present time, it might often 
appear as ^ JJTTW^. 

The following idiomatic use of two ^Fm '^ (o'' more) 
may be noticed ^^T^TTSI^'TT ^^ ^m^^ ^^f^ 
% ^T^ % >Kc|y;^ 411^71', Whether to-day or to-mor- 
row or after ten or twenty days, come they surely will. 

The occasional use of such phrases as ^tje ^T, 



SECT. 187 INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. 189 

^lT% ' 41 ^f^ Wherefore ? are certainly not classicah 
They do not come within the range of Grammar. 
188. The Indefinite Pronouns %Tf and ^^, 

The Indefinite Pronoun ^1% is thus declined : — 
Nom %Tf , fti^ % 

Cons. hase. iqitll 

Accus. & Dat. "few^ ilT 

Instr. & Abl. f^i^ % 

Gen. fti^ ^, ^, % 

Loc. T<hH\ ^,'^X 

This Pronoun has no plural form. To express 
the pi. %T^ is sometimes doubled. %T^ %T^ '^«j[C^ 

^pfrftj^T % 3Tm^<fl %, So???^ men are opposed to 

female education. ^\^ % %T^ ^Tff ft'^'PT ^^ 

«^, Some of the learned men of Europe say. In this 
pi. use of the word, there is no small distributive force. 

Somewhat similar in sound and use is ^5^ or ^f^ 
^^ Several. 

Very frequently two ^T?" s are used in following 
clauses, meaning, "one" "another." ^X% 

>5(MH ^TT ^ T%5 %T^ ^^^ ^^j ^"^ ^^^y remain 
in his own country, one may go to another country. 

Sometimes the two chip's are used in the same 



190 THE PRONOUNS. SECT. 188 

sentence without a plural meaning, but distinctly distri- 
butive, 3;^ 1;^ fti^ ft,^ ^;[^ g^T 5f af^ |{^ 

^3^ 'HIT, W hereupon the face of this or that one of 
her companions began to droop somewhat. 

Somewhat similar is the use of the twi %TS s, with 
rf in between. The meaning is then, exactly, if not one. 
then another. %T^ ^ %T^ chi^FT, Someone or the 
other will do it. 

^^\ followed by a negative equals the Eng. no one. 

189. The Indefinite ^^. 

3{^ as a Pronoun means practically a part, more 
generally, a small part ; as an Adverb, partly. Although 
principally applied to a part of a mass of material, it 
may also be applied to parts of masses of men- SK^ in 
both cases signifies some part of the whole, (cf. the 
Eng. " the one part were Sadducees," " of the Phari- 
sees' part," Acts 23 : 6, 9.) 

also. ^^ Tg^^ ^W^ ^T^ ^Tf^ ^5 51^ 

terms), a part was averse {to doing so). 

The following uses may be noted : 3;^ T^, Clo- 
thing, ^rar *ft ^T^, nothing whatever. ^^ ^^^ a very 
little. ^^ *T Ji^, a very little, or, something or other. 



SECT. 190 COMPOUND PRONOUNS. 191 

COMPOUND PRONOUNS. 
190. Two Pronouns used together, or one closely 
connected with some other Part of Speech, often yield 
very idiomatic and useful meanings. A few such com- 
binations are appended. 

%T %T^ Whoever. In the Oblique, '^p^f 

Vki4\ %T, etc. 
%X ^^ Whatever. 

^TT %Tf Another (Additional). 

^T^ ^nr ••• (Somewhat adversa- 

tive). 
Similarly, with ^K Jl^ and ^^ jJTR;; 
lara' %T^ AH. 

%K %l^ Each one. Every one. 

'^^ ^^ The whole. ^^r{ J^, A great 

amount of. 
%T^ ^ TIT So;«e/eit;. (lit., some two or four.) 



Chapter IX. 
PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVKS- 

191. Pronominal Adjectives of Quantity ."qf^TTPn^^^. 
Pronominal Adjectives of Quality. ^|d S^^cl |^4t. 

The Pronominal Adjectives are, as the name sig- 
nifies, Adjectives formed from the Pronouns. In many 
instances, they are used alone, with a Noun understood ; 
in such cases, they are declined as Nouns, otherwise as 
Adjectives of two terminations. In not a few instances 
these words are distinctly Adverbial in their use. 

The first series of these Pronominal Adjectives 
indicate Quantity or Number, the second Quality. Their 
initial letters are characteristic of their meaning, in the 
same way as those of Pronouns, referred to in section 182, 

192. Quantity or Qualityc 

Number. 

Proximate De- ^rT»TT This much, or ^^T This-like. 
monstrative- this number. 

Remote De- ^rTTf That much, or ^4J1 That-like, 
monstrative. that number. 

Relative. f^riHT As much as, or >31tjk Which-like 

as many as. 



SECT. 192 PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. 193 

Correlative. IdHHT So much, or H^l Such-like. 

so many. 

(Generally supplied by v^rlHI and q^T)- 

Interrogative. |4ldHT How much ? or ^^ What-like ? 

How many ? 

(l^n^ll and cR^X have sometimes a loose Relative meaning). 
193. Pronominal Adjectives of Quantity or Number. 

When Quantity (How much), is referred to, the 
singular generally suffices : for Number, the plural form 
is necessarily required. 

^TT ^rT^T >^iH cRH" ^ ? Why do you fear so 
much .' ^^ f^rT^TT fir^TT ? ^oxc' much did he obtain ? 

^^T ! %T *TT ^^T irfr^T fsR'n Sir ^R ^tRT 

^^ §T What ! I 've laboured so the whole day, and now 
you give me jnst this much. |^n*1l iTHl ^cTTT ^«H^ 
^fT^lf^, Take ichat you have received, and go. f^^^ 

fkrRT *rr»^ trrTT t, ^If^ ^ ^ ^fRT f^ ft^TrTT 

S Just what measure is written in the fortune of any 
one, that measure of fruit he obtains. ^c|^n*1 ^TT TT^TT ? 
How much did you obtain it for ? J^frTT ^T^T ^ 3H^T 

%iT ^K ^l«h< ^n^ ^a^ ^ ^jfiiHT ^T5T, All 

the warriors there were being defeated had to return, each 
one to his own country. (chrlHl ^tifl^h ^T'TTj ^ow 

many books do you suppose there are .' ch^i^ ^rnTT, 

Only so many. 
13 



194 PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. SECT. 193^ 

Sometimes |4i(4'«|| is used in the way of exclamation 
rather than in that of interrogation- l^vrTn ^ W^f 'i 
^l, (TFTT ^l^^i ^ ^TT, ^Vo matter Iwiv many there 
may be, they will not be satisfied. 

In colloquial speech, |^ffn is occasionally contracted 

into ^j and f^HH into ^, e.g., % f^ ^, Hon^ 
many days have elapsed ? ^ Jrf«T % ^e , ^cT^ 1^*1 3^ 

^lH*Ti' % «{|nj ^^'^ days they remained there passed 
in great comfort and happiness. 

The Adverbial use of these Pronominal Adjectives 
will be refern;d to in the Chapter on the Adverbs. 
194. Pronominal Adjectives of Quality. The Hindi 
name, ^IH^T, ^i^^ io, correctly describes the general 

scope of the meaning of this second class of Pro- 
nominal Adjectives. ^[^ ^H\ ^H^^ ^ 1 What sort of 
a man is he ? When the idea of manner or method is 
more prominent than that of resemblance, the words are 
more strictly Adverbs. Probably in more than half the 
occurrences of these words they are Adverbs, e. g., 
^"^T ^ ^t|l T^rm". Here the idea is not that he did 
something like something else (understood ), but that he 
did something in such and such a xvay. Here the idea is 
distinctly Adverbial. Something further will be written 
on this matter in the Chapter on the Adverbs. Here 
only the Adjectival use will be dealt with. 



SECT. 194 PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. 193 

The followini; sentence affords a good illustration : 

%T ^Trf W% ^T^ ^^ f ^^ ^ *|^^ll , 

I XV ill tell the matter just as I saic if. That the words 
^^ and q^^ are Adjectives, is indicated by the fact 
that they aj;ree in Gender with ^ff. Had the words 
been Adverbs, they would have appeared as ^T% and ^^ 

i^^ ^f , tm ^^^ Hit, W^ 3^ "^ % 

ftrrT^ f % ^«r % ^n ^% ^ ^ , ^'"^ brother is 
just like him, in tact, every member of his household is 
like him. %% %T«TT, ^% H^!^ , ^■^' '■^' ^^''-' sowing, so 
is the gathering. ?Jff ^^T ^T^T ^5 ^^ hat sort of a horse 
is this ? This sentence mij^ht also mean, What a fine horse ! 
$%t ^ ^^ ^ ^K«fft ^if^ , it is not fitting 
to sheic mercy to sucJi (men). 

The following sentences present special, but not 
uncommon, idiomatic uses of these words : — 

'SR^^ ^fTr^ % "^^ ^J, ^That her 
birth) took place in the house of such a mahatma as 
Janak. ^ ^ % rr% rft"5T ^^ H^ ^^ ^ , 
They (the notes for a book j were laid aside just as they 
mere for three years. ^'^TZ1 ftST %% ^T cWT l^TT, 
\rhere became again just such a silence (as there was before). 
%m m^T ^ f^^ ^^TfTT ^, ^e diverts his 
ind in such things. ^l\c\ pri^T ^5^ ^^ ^t •T^ 



196 PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. SECT. 194 

?fj Bhagawantiya xvas no common-place woman. 

HT^TT" ^''Hl J^^ , Stich a friend as you. 

195. Other Pronominal Adjectives. A few other 

words may be given which may be regarded as Prono- 
minal Adjectives, though, strictly speaking, the '' Prono- 
minal " should be omitted. 

'^^ . . . ^^ cf. Eng, One says {one thing), one 

, another). 
■^^R . . . ci4ji,| One says {this], another (that). 

^JK ... ^TTT ^% ^r ^K ^ Sk, T'his is one 

thing, that is another. 

>||44ch ^ certain one. About equivalent to 

" such and such an one.'' 

1^%^ Several. Lit., " more than one.'' 

3T?^^ All, with distributive force, each 

one, one by one. 
^, ^^ ^^ Several. 

^rT , ^cT ^(^^^y- So also ^^^, 

^r^ % ^^ All. " Thewholelot." 

^d^f^ m{^r{ All. With a collective force. 

^■j^ The whole. Used also in the plural, 

U4Tt4T The whole (of a thing, in the sense 

of unbroken, undivided). 
»jL||fc^ , ^nf^^ And the other, the rest. 

^f^llc^ I^iito, etc. 



Chapter x. 



THE VERB. 



c 

r 

r . 



fSR^T 



J) 

55 
55 



or 
or 
or 






196. Verb 

Transitive Verb 
Intransitive ,, 

Active ,, 

Passive ,, 

Impersonal ,, 

Causal 

Compound ,, ^d^f) 

Past, Future, Pre- ^^ .r , ^ 

sent. F^' Htw^s^(3[, ^Rmnr 

Tense. gRT^ (^T^ means " time.") There are 
no " Moods " in Hindi Grammar. Generally, any part 
of a Verb is referred to as such and such a f^^J 
(Verb), not such and such a ^T^ (Tense). 

Stem. For this, VsHfT ov ^^ is commonly given. 
Hindi Grammarians have been very loose in dealing with 
this matter. They very often use these words to signify 
the form of the word, when the «TT termination of the 
Infinitive has been cut off. This is, however, not the 
" root " of the Verb, but only the " stem:' Thus for 



198 THE VERB. SECT. 198 

" stem," there is no suitable equivalent in use. The 
words used, >JJfT and J{^. should be retained for their 
true meaning, viz., Etymological root. 
Infinitive. 

('^TfTT, fo eat) fjR^TRT^ H-sll, » ^■•. '^ Noun which 
gives a Verbal meaning. 

Imperfect Participle. (^IrTT <^'' ^TfTT J^^TT, ^'^''"i^-) 
f&^^T^jtcR? ^^T, '•^■•, A Noun (or Adjective) which 

displays a Verbal idea. 
Perfect Participle. 

('WT^T o*' '^X^J'^^fl^ having eaten, or having been 

eaten.) 

r J 

4)41^1'^ 41 ^r^TT, '■^■' A Noun (or Adjective), indi- 
cating the idea of the Passive Verb. 

Some confusion exists with reference to the name 
and fimction, or functions, of this Participle. Some 

would give two names, ^rf^^^ ^"^ ^^^tT and 

r 

Wl ^ TeTI -4^' ^^ t>^*T< , the 1st for the Past Part, of 

Intransitive Verbs, which have often an Active meaning, 
and the 2nd for the Past Part, of Transitive Verbs, 
which have frequently a Passive meaning. Note the 
possible difference between |c||||| ^jJTT and t^^TTTT 
^^TT o*' |ch^ I ^^T- The first is Active, the second 
frequently Passive. 



I 



V.SECT. 196 THE VERB. 199 

Conjunctive Participle. 
(^"R!T, etc., Having eaten) ^cjchTf^f^, Indicating 
that which is past or completed. 
Noun of Agency. 
(^^^frai, ^n eater) ^rf ^TJ e h ^^T, The 
Noun indicating the doer. 
Contingent Future. 

(^(l^, i^^ '««J e«^) ^T^rio^ ^rf^'nj, That 
which may possibly happen. A Contingent Future. 
Absolute Future. 

(<5lR^JT, ^e will eat) ^\^\w^ ^[^^4^ , Or- 
dinary Future. 
Imperative. 

(^, E<^i) T^iV, Injunction, command. 
Indefinite Imperfect. 

('^TfTT, ^^^ ^^^s' No general Hindi equivalent 

current. 
Indefinite Perfect. 

(i^l^l, he ate] WffTC^^ri, Ordinary Past. 

Present Imperfect. 

CWTrTT ^, He is eating) ^fim^ (Tr{<HM, Ordinary 

Present. 
Present Perfect. 

T^TTT^, He has eaten) 4||^r| Vfff^ Proximate Past. 



200 THE VERB, SECT, 196 

Past Imperfect. 

('^T^ ^5 He was eat- >i{U^| *T^, Incomplete Past. 
ing) 
Past Perfect. 

('^mr ^5 H^ ^^^^ ^^^- FW HfT, Completed Past. 

en) 

Contingent Imperfect. 

(4^ Id I ^, Should he be '^i;T!i^J^^ SpT^^, Possible 
eating) Present. 

Contigent Perfect. 

(^^TTT ST, Should he have ^V^X9fPf{rf, Possible Past. 
eaten) 

Presumptive Imperfect. 

(^^mr tTTT, H^^nustbe "^f^yf ^■l^jn7{, Doubtful 
eating) Present. 

Presumptive Perfect. 

i^mWl trtl, ^^ "^"^^ ^f^'^ ^, Doubtful Past. 
have eaten) 

Past Contigent Imperfect. 

(^^cTT tTrTT,) ^^^e he (at ^^[^ t^t^'^^^j 

some past Incomplete cause 

time) eating) & effect Past. 

Past Contigent Perfect. 

(^TTT tr^TT,) ^^^ f^<i eat- ^ tgtg'T^^^j 

efi) Completed cause 

& effect Past. 



SECT. 197 PARADIGMS. 201 

197. PARADIGMS. 

For future reference, Paradigms of the conjugation 
of some typical verbs will be given. 

1. The two special Tenses of the Substantive Verb 
" to be. " 

2. Full Paradigm of the Verb ^•TT, ^o become. 

3. do. do. Intransitive Verb tI^HI, 

to move, to go. Stem ending 
in a consonant. 

4. Concerning the Transitive Verb ^?^»TT, ^^ s^^- 

Stem ending in a conso- 
nant. 

5. do. Intransitive Verb 4ITv{| 

to come. Open stem, i.e.., 
ending in a vowel. 

6. do. Transitive Verb M|^|«^f 

to shew. Open stem. 
7- do. do. 'ic^vf I, to give. 

Open stem. 

8. do. do. eh<«il, ^^ do. 

Stem ending in a 
consonant. 



^02 THE VERB. SECT. 198 

9. Concerning the Passive Verb. jef)i|| ^TFTT, 

to he done, 
198. In reference to these Paradigms, a few explana- 
tory notes are furnished. 

^- ^T*TTj '" the sense of " to become,''' is complete 
in all its parts. This Verb serves, generally, also as the 
Substantive Verb " to be," " to exist ; " but for this 
latter, two special additional Tenses exist which do not 
appertain to ST«TT ''"' the sense of " to become.'" These 

two Tenses are a Present ^ he is : ^^, Jie icas. These 

are not interchangeable with the two corresponding 

Tenses of ^T*TT, f'> become, which are ^THT ^ ' ^^^ 

becomes ; sXfTT ^^J, ^^^ '^'^^ becoming. 

^ and ^IT and certain parts of the verb ^*TT 3**^ 
used as Auxiliaries in the conjugation of other Verbs. 

2. It is worthy of notice that throughout the Tenses 
the 2nd and 3rd person singular are exactly the same 
in form, also the 1st and 3rd plural. 

3. In some Grammars, 1st and 3rd persons are given 
under the Imperative. This appears to be incorrect. 
The Imperative can be used only in the 2nd person. 
The nearest approach to an imperative for the 1st or 
3rd person is " let me do so and so,'' " let him do so 
and so." This is not Imperative but Optative, and the 



SECT. 198 PARADIGMS. 203 

forms of the Contingent Future meet the need. To 
print these forms a second time, under the Imperative, 
is misleading. 

The only approach to a 3rd person under the 
Imperative are the special " respective " forms provided 
to use with the honorific >1{|1^ . This has the 3rd 
person in construction, but with the meaning of the 2nd 

person. 

4. In the Paradigms, the English translation is only 
given for one person, and that the 3rd person, this often 
being more simple and more commonly in use than 
the 1st person. The student will know that if the 3rd 
person be "he will go," the 1st and 2nd sing, and pi. 
will be " / will go,'' etc., etc. 

5. Full Paradigms are only given for «|<r|X and 

T|tf|vn- In the case of other Verbs, only the differ- 
ences from the normal forms are referred to. As a 
matter of fact, the conjugation of the Hindi Verb is 
exceedingly simple, offering comparatively few excep- 
tions to the general norm. 

6. The so-called Adverbial Participle ( ^p^f^ CT 
upon (his) going, or some similar meaning) is not in- 
cluded in the Paradigms. This is merely one use of 
the Imperfect Participle, and has no claim for demanding 
separate mention in the Paradigm of the Verb. 



204 THE VERB. SECT. 199 

199. [\). The two Tenses of the Substantive Verb 
"to ber 

Present. 
Singular. Plural. 

1. ^ S" I am. IffTf ^ We are, 

2. rT ^ Thou art. H^T %T You are. 

3. -^ ^ He is. ^ ^ They are. 

Past. He icas. 
1. 5flf ^, fern. ^ W^^f '^"^ ^ 

2 ^ m 'eft gT^ ^ 

200. [2). The Verb ^T«TT, ^'^ become. This Verb is 

also used, in many of its parts, as the Substantive Verb 
" to be.'' 

Infinitive- bJSTT to become. 

Imperfect Participle. ^TTTT (fem. ^TfTT; P'- 

masc. ^Tn >) ^^ 'W'^^o ^s becoming. 

Perfect Participle. "S^ITT i^^^'^- ^^t masc. pi. 

y^ ) , he who has become. 

Conjunctive Participle. ^T, %T^JT, %T% ^T^5^,'" 

having become. 

* Throughout these Paradigms, many alternative 
forms are given. Generally speaking, the earlier forms 
are the most common and the best approved. Each 
alternative form is not always repeated in each Tense 
and in each Paradigm, but in corresponding Tenses, etc., 
it may be understood. 



SECT. 200 PARADIGMS. 205 

Noun of Agency. ^H'e(|<«||, ^T^IT^T, f 1%^, 

^M^li / cUtfTl, etc.), he xvho is about to become. 
Tenses formed from the stem ( ^J Y 

Contingent Future. He may become. 

1 ^ ti^ 1 f^ It, trw, fT^, 

2. ^ I |t , fT^, ti^, 2. grr It or |mt 

3. ^) lit 3. tit, fit*, tT^,tT$ 

Absolute Future. He will become. 

(/ m) ImT, f FTT (/lit) 

^jtnTT, It^t, 2. giT |nr , tr^fi^ 

It^htt, It- (/ ^) 

^%\ %itt(/ ^1") 3. ^iT tftr , tr^'t , 

tTW'r,tT4[»t (/ ift) 



o 



3. 



Imperative, Become. 

- ^It 2. g?TtT 

Respectful forms used as 3rd pi. with the honorific 

TENSES FORMED FROM THE IMPERFECT AND 
PERFECT PARTICIPLES. 

Indefinite Imperfect. He becomes. 

(/. trrft) ( /. trrfif ) 



206 THE VERB. SECT. 200 

Indefinite Perfect. Be became. 
1-2. 3. f , g,^f , 1.2.3. ^,-^, t, 1^ 

W^ (.f- 1*) ( /• ft") 

Present Imperfect. He is becoming. 

1 f ttHr I (' trrft 1 fT tr^ f (f- trrfV 

V ^> 

2 ^ %im| (/ It- 2 giT %T?r It (/■ ^im 

;■ HVI) tr) 



Present Perfect. He has become. 



•^-v 



1. *rf^f('|?f) I f IT 1^ f ( /. ft f ) 

3. Wf! ^^  3. t|^f (-■.fll) 

Past Imperfect. He was becoming 

1. 2 3 if, ^, ^f , It- 1 ^ - f^ , 5^, t, 

Pas/ Perfect. He had become. 
1. 2. 3. i, ^, ^f, 1. 2. 3. ^, g^, $, 1^ 



SECT. 200 PARADIGMS. 207 

The next six Tenses are given in Hindi ; but no Eng- 
lish translation is attempted. It seems impossible to 
give a bald translation of some of these Tenses which 
will yield any clear meaning, though in actual composi- 
tion these Tenses, even in the Verb " to become," be- 
come distinctly possible, e.g., take such a sentence as 

the following : ^f^ ^^ ?Tff f ^T ftHT, ^ ^ 
^TTSnr ^^T^ vftT'TT ^fT ftrTT, ^^^^c/ he been here, 
he li'oulii surely have had to endure punishment. 

Contingent Imperfect. 

\ It) 

Contingent Perfect. 

3. wf ' |t It) 3. 1 1^ fr (/• || It) 

Presumptive Imperfect. 



1 



208 



THE VERB. 



SECT. 200 



2 g^fr^ft^r (/ ^ 

Presumptive Perfect. 

f f^n fm (/ fl 1. f^ 1^ |nt (/. |t 
pft) |nft) 



•^ 



I 



^f 



Past Contingent Imperfect. 



1. W 
3. ^ 



frmfrriT 



1 fT 



^t^ ^t^ 



(/ft?ftftrft) ' 1^ [(/.ftrftftrrf) 



1. 
2. 



1 



3. ^ 
Past Contingent Perfect. 



^T ftrTT 



1 fTT 






3. ^j ^ ^ 3. t j ^ ^ 

201. (3) Intransitive Verb T|^vi|, to move, to go 

Stem ending in consonant. 
Infinitive. ^^TTT 

Imperfect Participle. '^^TfTT or ^<»fni S»!JH (/• 

^^nft* m pi ^^ ) 



SECT. 201 PARADIGMS. 209 

Perfect Participle. ^^TT, or '^^T §^T (/• ^f^U; 

m. pi. ^% ) 
Conjunctive Participle. ^^ , ^^^^ , ^5T^T% , 

Noun of Agency ^^WT^T , "^^f KT i^- 

^^%^T^ ) 

Tenses formed from the stem ( ^^ ) 
Contingent Future. He may move ov go. 

1 T ^^ 1. f^^% 



9 



5 >_^ 2. g^'g^jt 

Absolute Future. He will move or go. 

1 f ^^m (^ ^^^'^ ) J f^^^ (/. ^^ift) 

3. ^f i ^ 3. ^ ^^n (/. ^^ift) 

Imperative. Move or go. 

2. ^^ 2. ^^ 

Respectful forms used as 3rd pi. with the honorific 

Tenses formed from the Imperfect and Perfect Participles. 
Indefinite Imperfect. He moves or goes. 

3. ^f j 3. t j 

14 



210 THE VEKH. SECT. 201 

Indefinite Perfect. He moved or went. 

«^« ^ ^ 

1. ^ , 1. ^1 

3. ^ j 3. t ] 

Present Imperfect. He is moving or i^oiiiff. 

(/• ^^frft f ) 

2. g 1 'i.g^^^^ft 

3. Wf J (/.^^ff^l) 

Present Perfect, f/e Jias moved or i>oiie. 
1 . ^ ^^T f (/ -^^"^ f ) 1 . f ^ ^^ t (^^^ f) 

Past Imperfect, /fe xcas moving or going, 
1 . 51 I ^ • fT i ^ •. 

3. ^; ^ 3.^ 1^ ^ 



Past Perfect. He had moxied or gone. 

1. f 1 . 1- f^T ^ 



3. ^f 






I o. 



J 



SECT. 201 PARADIGMS. 211 

Contingent Imperfect. Should he be moving ov going, 

(/. "^^Trft fNl) etc. (/. '^^TrfV ff ) 

2 ^ I'^^TrTT f> or 2. g^^^ftor ft^ft 

j It^ {/. ^^Trft |T) 

3 ^% [ (/ ^^rft It) 3. t ^^^ I T / ^^fft tt) 

Contingent Perfect. Should he have moved or ^o/^e. 
1 . ^ ^^T tr^ ^ fT ^ fT, etc. 

(/^^"t tr^) (f. ^Fft If) 

2 H I ♦. 2. ™ ^% It, 



etc 



( /• "^^T" tl ) 



'^^T %J or 

3. Wf J 3. ^^|r,etc 



(/ "^ If ) 

Presumptive Imperfect. He icill be moving or going. 

(/. '^r^fTft) ( / '^^rrft ft 3ft ) 

2. g^ ^^^ Ittt 

(/ ^^rft tnfl") 3. % ^^^ |tn 



2- 1 



3. ^ 



^ 



212 THE VERB. SECT. 201 

Presumptive perfect. He icill have moved or ^one. 



«^ 



^ 2. giT ^% tin 

(f. "^ tmi) 3 I ^% ^ 

( / ^^'^ ff jft ) 



2- S 



3. ^f 



Past Contingent Imperfect. Should he liave been mov 

ing or going. 



2 s . 



3. ^f 






1- fT 

2 g^ ^^^fti^ 



3. % 



(f^^fTt ftirf) 



Past Contingent Perfect. Should he have moved or 



gone. 



«^ 



'^- 5 






y 



3. Sff 



(/. ^=^^ ftrfV) 



3. 



frrflf) 



202. (4) Transitive Verb ^^tTT, ^o -see. Stem 
ending in a consonant. 

The only parts of a Transitive Verb differing from an 
Intransitive Verb having a similar stem, are the six 
Tenses formed from the Perfect Participle. 



SECT. 202 PARADIGMS. 213 

Something further will be explained about the rules 
of agreement between these Tenses of Transitive Verbs 
and their Accusatives, when the Nominative with wf 
is used, later on. For the present, the following statement 
may suffice. 

When the Nom. with ^ be used and the Accusative 

with %J then we have the following forms for the 
Tenses under consideration : — 

Indefinite Perfect ^.f, ^wf, '^^^, 

3*^m. J 

Present Perfect do. do. do. ... %X ^'l^T ^ 

Past Perfect do. do. do. ... %X ^TiT ^ 

Contingent Perfect do. do. do. ... %X ^T^J ^ 
Presumptive Perfect do. do. do. --^T^^T^^M 
Past Contingent Perf. do. do. do. ... %J ^^T^tffT 
If the Accusative without %J be used, that is, the 
Nominative form, then the Verb will agree with it in 
Gender and Number. 3^ % ^'^T, 3^ % $^, 3^ 
% ^%, and so on, to ^5^% ^T^T ftrTT, ^^ ftfft", 
%% ^t^, etc., etc. 

203. (5). Intransitive Verb jjijrijj to come. Open stem. 
Infinitive >^[w{{ 
Imperfect Participle Vlj \f{J 
Perfect Participle jJT'Pn' 



214 THE VERB. SECT. 203 

Conjunctive Participle ^J^^^ >JTT, ^T^T%, ^% 
Noun of Agency ^M^"RrT, etc. 
Tenses from the Stem (llfj) 
Contingent Future »i||'^ he may come. 

2 H 1 ^ 2. g^33TT3rft 

t. I ^T^5 ^T^5 ^T^ ^ sS ^. ^ 

3 Wf J ' 3 % 5n^, ^T^, ^T^ 

Absolute Future. He will come. 

3. wf :' 5n^nn G ^r^, 3 t ictt^^, ^it^, 

Imperative. 

2 ^T 2. ^n^ 

Respectful forms, used as 3rd pi., with the honorific 

Tenses formed from the Imperfect and Perfect 
Participles. 

The six Tenses formed from the Imperfect Participle 
>l| Ifl'l are in every respect the same as those of ^^t^J 
already given. The six Tenses formed from the Perfect 
Participle are as follows : — 



SECT. 203 CONJUGATION. 215 

Indefinite Perfect. He came. 

1.2. 3 wt^tC^ ^T'jft) 12. 3 ^n^^ ^T^ 

Present Perfect. He has come. 

or ^\i f ) (/. ^T^ f ) 

^■. 3. ^ ^T^ t 

Past Perfect. He had come. 

1. 2. 3. ^n^T ^T 1. 2. 3 ^TT^^ 

Contingent Perfect. Should he have come. 
1 If ^T^T fr^ 1. f^^TT^Il, etc. 

(f- mxwt It^ ) (/ ^jwt, or ^ii |i) 

2. 5 ^ ^ -u. 2 HW ^^ ft (f. 

or >jn^ f ) 

Presumptive Perfect. He will have come. 

1. ifsin'TTf'TT I f^ >jrT^ ff^r 

(/ ^rtV |q> ) (f. w[^i |T«fV) 



216 THE VERB. SECT. 203 

2. ^ 1 ^ 2. TO IHT^ tin 

Past Contingent Perfect, Had he come. 

1.2 3 ^nn tmr 12. 3. ^j^ ^^ 

( /. ^T^ tT?ft ) (/. ^1^ fTrfV) 

204. The very common Verb, ^U«TT ^" ^^' '^ conju- 
gated in the same way as 4| |v{T with the exception 
that the PerfectP articiple is irregularly formed, being 
/mi, instead of ^fPTT, as might be expected. 

The six Tenses formed from the Perfect Participle 
are, of course, all affected by this, and we have ^mjj 

T^ ^, ^W( ^, etc. 

205. (6). Transitive verb (c^i^gcjl to shew. Open stem. 

This corresponds with the conjugation of ^TT'TTj 
except in the six Tenses formed from the Perfect Parti- 
ciple. These are conjugated in the same way as the 
same Tenses in <^ie(H I (No. 4.), the Perfect Participle 

being f^^T^T. 

206. (7). Transitive Verb ^511, ^o give. Open stem, 

ending in '^ . 

The closing vowel of the stem, viz., "^^ leads to some 
modifications. These modifications are noted below : — 
Perfect Participle f^^TT • 



SECT. 206 CONJUGATION. 217 

Contingent Future. He may give. 



3. 



^f 



2 






^' ^^ 3. W ^, ^ 

Absolute Future, //e tcj// give. 

Imperative. Gire. 
2 ^ 2. ^,^> 

Respectful forms, used as 3rd pi., with the honorific 

The six Tenses formed from the Imperfect Participle 
"^^"f, ^^^ quite regular. 

The six from the Perfect Participle follow the same 
rules as apply to corresponding Tenses in (^l^| (No. 4.), 

excepting that the Perfect Participle is ^m fem. 

^5 pi. ^; plural masc. f^ . 

207. (8). Transitive Verb "Sf^^J, To do. 

This Verb, though the stem ends in a consonant, like 
'^T^JTT, differs in the formation of its Perfect Participle, 
and respectful forms of the Imperative. The Perfect 
Participle is \d^i\ | . 



218 THE VERB. SECT. 207 

Imperative. 
2. g^T 2. ^TT 

Respectful forms, used as 3rd pi., with the honoritic 

The six Tenses formed from the Past Participle are 
conjugated in the same way a?' those of X^TT- 

208. (9). The Passive Verb. The Passive Verb is 
formed by adding ^T*TT ^o the Perfect Participle of the 

Active \'erb. Thus ST^^Tj ^'* ^^^> becomes ^^T 
^ff*TJj to be seen. It is conjugated exactly the same as 
^fPfr (see Sections 204 and 203). The form of the 
Participle changes with the change of the ^X^fJ as 
regards Gender and Number. Thus HT^J ^T^ 

^ ^T^, ^% mi4, \^\ ^T^, ^^T ^TrTT f, 
^51^ ^TrlV t, ^% ^T^ I, etc. 

209. CLASSIFICATION OF VERBS. 

]. Ciassificatioii according- to meaning- and usage. 

The- first point to engage our attention is this classifica- 
tion, according to the general scope of the meaning and 
uses. There are, at the very least, the following classes : — 

(1) Transitive. (2) Intransitive. (3) Neuter. 
(4) Passive-Neuter. f5) Impersonal. ((S) Passive. 
(7) Causal. (.8) Compound. 

/ c 

(1). Transitive ( ^ch44ch ) . This class needs no 

special explanation. They are Active Verbs which re- 



SECT. 209 CLASSIFICATION OF VERBS. 219 

quire an object or Accusative (expressed or understood; 
to complete their meaning, e.g., nT^'TTj ^^ ^'vcfA' : 
IJfT^^n, ^(> f^^f ; ^^Hl, i" sec. Apart from something 
to break, to tear, or to see, there can be little meaning 
of sucli words in a sentence. 

(2). Intransitive (:JT^1T^)- This name gives one parti- 
cular phase of the classification, viz- , that it has no object 
or Accusative, It may, however, be that the Verb 
indicates activity on the part of the Subject, e.g., c^ 
33T S ^'^ ^^8 risen ; or, there may be involved a mere- 
ly passive state, as ^^ ^ftfTT ^5 ^"^ ^''^'^^ ' '3'tjcjn 
T%T T^^THT ^, ^'''^ head is aching. 

(3). Neuter. A Neuter Verb is not only intransitive, 
but, strictly speaking, implies a state for which the 

1 

subject is not responsible on account of any activity of 
his, e.g., ^ ^TrTT f , ^'^ i^ sleeping : ^^ ^^ T\^\ 
^ It is lying there. 

(4). Passive-Neuter. The Verbs belonging to this class 
must be dealt with in a separate section, as they play a 
very important part in Hindi. They are Neuter, they 
are also truly Passive, but in structure and force dis- 
tinctly differ from the ordinary Passive Verbs. 
(5). Impersonal (*TT^3T>TT^ f^^j). Though this is 
not a very numerous class, it is of real importance. 



220 THE VERBS. SECT, 209 

and has special features. It demands a paragraph to 
itself, and one is given later on. 

(6). Passive Verbs. These are much used in Hindi. 
They correspond very much with Passive Verbs in 
English, and require little notice. What would be the 
Object, with an .Active N'erb, becomes the Subject, and 
what would be the Subject, is thrown into the Instru- 
mental Case, ^iTTId, e.g., Act. ^TT^T'TJI'^rT^ % ^ 
^X ^^T, Bhagaxvan PrasJiad saw the house, becomes, 

^T^ ^T^TflT^^ % ^^T im, ^^'^ house was seen 
by Bhagaican PrasJiad. 

(7). Causal Verbs, These V^erbs constitute a very 
large class, and will need careful and full treatment later. 
These Causal Verbs convey the idea of causing that to 
be done which is expressed by the simple Verbs from 
which they are formed. In English, we say, The child 
eats, The mother feeds the child; or. The child fell, 
A man threic the child doicn ; or, A man caused the child 
to fall. In Hindi, the Causal Verbs meet all such cases 
in a very neat and effective way, e.g., ^<^^J "U(CT 

^mj I, The child eats bread. ^J ^:g% %T hz^ 

\l^t*[ IHT ^, ^^'^ mother feeds the child ivith bread. 

^f ^T PtTT, The child fell. ^^ ^Z^ % ^rf% 

^rr 'nTTnTT, ^ '"^^^ caused the child to fall. 

(8). Compound Verbs. These are very numerous in 



SECT. 209 



CLASSIFICATION OF VERBS. 



221 



Hindi, and are made up in various ways. This matter 
also must receive full treatment later on. 

210. 2. Classification according- to form. The con- 
jugation of the Hindi Verb is remarkably simple and 
regular. Apart from the changes effected in the struc- 
ture of those six Tenses which are from the Perfect 
Participle, the irregularities are very few. Even in 
the case of the Passive Voice, the endings of all the 
parts are quite regular, conforming closely to the Active 
Verb. 

As, however, some modifications do occur in the 
conjugation of certain Verbs, owing very largely to the 
final letter of the stem, some classification seems to be 
called for. The following division appears to fairly 
cover the ground : — 



Verb. 

1. Intransitive 

2. Transitive 

3. Intransitive 

4. Transitive 

5. General 

6. Irregular 



Stem end- 
ing in— 
a consonant 

do. 

a vowel 

do. 
the vowels 



Example. Paradigm. 






3 
4 

5 
(i 






1.2.5.8. 



i222 THE VERB. SECT. 210 

7. Passive ' ... .,. %T^t ^^ 

8. Passive-Neuter ... ... ^^WHI 9 

Spread out in this way, the list may appear somewhat 

formidable ; but any such impression will be dissipated 
on an examination of the very slight differences in the 
structure of the various classes given. 

The only difference between 1 and 2 is that effected 
in the six Tenses formed from the Perfect Participle. 
Nos. 3 and 4 only differ from Nos. 1 and 2 in the for- 
mation of the Perfect Participle, T[X being added to the 
stem, instead ofjJTT alone. 

Under 5, the list of Verbs is not large. ^«TT ^^ S^'^'^ ! 
%^J,fotake;'^^j{ or %^^T ), f<> roxv; tftsTT, 
to drink : ^*?X, ^^ seic ; ^T«TT ^^ live, ^T»TT, ^^ cry ; 
%T?TT, to sleep ; ^J^T, ^« ^^xv : ^T^TT, ^o lose ; -^TTT, 
to icasJi ; 'gT'TT, to carry : ^*fT, to touch. These are 
probably nearly all the \'erbs to be included in this 
class. Such modifications as occur, are few and simple. 
Th'ese modifications are mainly in the formation of the 
Perfect Participle. 

In ^q'X and ^SfT, ^^e have f^^T and ^^^J for the 
Perfect Participle ; and in those parts of the Verb where 
the stem is followed by a vowel, the "5^ of the stem 
and the following vowel are compounded into one 



SECT. 210 CLASSIFICATION OF VERBS. 223 

vowel. Thus, instead ot ^^TfT, '■^•^ "^5 ^HT, we 

have often HTTT ; so c[T^ for ^JjftT, ^^^- ^ee Paradigm 

Xo. 7. 

In %?fT the ^ is not changed in this way, but re- 
mains ^. Frequently, the form %^^T foi' this Verb 
is used, in which case it comes under the rules for the 
conjugation of a Verb, the stem of which ends in a 
consonant. 

Verbs, the stems of which end in ^^ have the ^ 
shortened into ^ and a ^ inserted between this ^ and 
the following :^J^ in the formation of the Perfect 

Participle. Thus tft^TT, f^^J ] ^•TT, ^^T 'not 
always shortened). The other parts are regular. 

With Verbs, the stems of which end in ^ft, ^^ is 

inserted between the final jjn" o^ the stem and the ^J. 

  »v 

in the formation of the Perfect Participle. Thus ?n*TT 

becomes XmJ ', %T«TT, %T^T, etc. Here also the 
other parts of the \'erb are conjugated regularly. 

With ^*TT the vowel ^ is shortened in the forma- 
tion of the Perf. Part. ; thus we have W^J. 

The four Verbs mentioned under No. (S are not very 
irregular. The full paradigm for ^Jr{J is given (Para- 
digm Nos. 1 & 2). Particulars concerning ^n*TT will 
be found under Paradigm No. 5 and Sect. 204. Those 



224 THE VERB. SECT. 210 

concernnig ch<*1T, under No. 8 Paradigm. ^4^^| be- 
comes 44>i{| for the Perf. Part. In the case of both 
ma^T and ITTTT, the forms ^T![ and :|prj are in 
use as well as |ch^| and ^4I7- This is especially true 

of mi. 

The conjugation of the Passive V^erb has been al- 
ready referred to under Paradigm No. 9. 

When the Passive-Neuter Verbs have the ^\w\ [ com- 
bined with them (and they very largely do), then they 
are conjugated in all respects in the same way as the 
Passive N'^erbs. The only difference between these and 
the Passive Verbs arises before there is any question of 
the conjugation of them. The Verbs come up for con- 
jugation in a different form, e.<j., m^ WTTT and ^T^TT 

WRT ; ^3 ^TRT and ^3T^ ^TTT. When ^TRV 
is not used with one of these Passive-Neuters, then it is 
conjugated as an ordinary Intransitive V^erb, e.g., 
^m t, ^^n ^, ^^TT, etc., etc. 
211, It will be noticed that the great majority of Verbs 
have a stem consisting of only one consonant and 
its vowel, or this plus one additional consonant. Thus 

VTPX, — "Srir^ — jHTT 5 etc., to which the 7{J is ad- 
ded to form the Infinitive. Some stems, however, have 



«ECT. 211 MOODS, TENSKS, ETC. 225 

three consonants, e.(j., i^<d«il, ^" "^'«^^' ^^^ «'^^^ A^ 5 
f^TC^i^T, ^'''' 'j<^ strewed ; HchK*fT, *o caU oitf ; 

'^S"^T«n', ^'^ amuse, divert. ; V(%^pTT, ^'> /Jii.s7z. There is 
also quite a large class of Causal Verhs which have a 
second vowel (jITT) added to the original stem. Thus 

^m^, ^nTMT; ^ar^^^n, ^st^t; ^^m, ^^trt. 

Sometimes an additional consonant is brought in : 

VERB: MOODS, TENSES, NUMBER. PERSON, 

GENDER. 

212- Moods. That Moods are represented in Hindi, 
cannot be questioned, but the Tenses are not arranged 
with reference to any Moods, and there is in Hindi no 
equivalent for the word. The matter may therefore be 
dismissed from consideration. 

Tenses. In Hindi, there is a term, ^|<rf which 
<:orresponds in meaning with the English " Tense," but 
the word is not largely used. A Tense is generally re- 
ferred to by the word x3f5^T, Verb. Thus we have such 
terms as " Imperative Verb, Possible-Future Verb, 
Absolute-Future Verb. etc. 

The order and nomenclature of the Tenses adopted 
is that found in Dr. Kellogg's Grammar, with the ex- 
15 



226 THE VERB. SECT. ,212 

ception that, whereas Dr. Kellogg gives first the 6 Tenses 

formed from the Imperfect Participle and then the six 

formed from the Perfect Participle, the twelve Tenses 

are here given in six pairs. Indefinite Imperfect, Indefinite 

Perfect, etc. The names given to the Tenses well 

represent the functions of the respective Tenses, though 

for each one no single name could be found which would 

fully indicate the scope of its use. 

Number, Person and Gender. The Hindi Verb has 

two Numbers, singular and plural: three Persons: and 

two Genders, masculine and feminine. In most parts 

of the \'erb, the form is affected by Number, Person and 

Gender ; but in some parts, the influence of one or more 

of these does not affect the form : e.g. The Infinitive 

mmy be .affected by Gender and Number, but not by 

Person. The Contingent Future is affected by Person 

and Number, but not by Gender; so with the Imperative. 

The Conjunctive Participle is not affected by any of 
the three. 

Attention is again called to the fact that the 2nd 
and 3rd Persons singular of each Tense assume the same 
form, also the 1 st and 3rd plural. In the 6 Tenses, 
Indefinite Imperfect and Perfect, Past Imperfect and 
Perfect and the Past Contingent Imperfect and Perfect, 
all three persons of the singular are the same, likewise 
the three persons of the plural. 



SECT. 212 MOODS, TENSES, ETC. 227 

Generally, the subject of the Verb, is expressed by a 
Noun, Pronoun or some equivalent, but, in certain sen- 
tences, may be omitted, the person beini* indicated by 
the form of the Verb or by the context, e.g., the English, 
" W'il/ you go? I icill go,'' may be in Hindi ^l^jft^ ? 
^y ^l^dK^n, thus omitting both ''you" and "/." 

213. Tenses toiined from the Perfect Participle, and the 
Nominative icith wf. This subject has already been 
referred to in sections 95 and 202. The construction 
only affects Transitive Verbs, and of these only the 
six Tenses in which the form assumed by the Perfect 
Participle occurs, viz : — 

Indefinite Perfect, ^T^fT. Present Perfect, ^^T ^^ 

Past Perfect, ^T^J ^T, Contingent Perfect, H^X %T 

Presumptive Perfect, ^T^T ^TTT, a"" P^st Contingent 

Perfect, ^T^T tTrTT- 

No attempt will here be made to account for the 
origin of this peculiar construction. It may be that the 
N'erb is, in this construction, really passive, and that 
what would ordinarily be the Nominative Case becomes 
the Agentive, and what would have been the Accusative 
is changed into the Nominative, and remains Accusative, 
or is the Dative. For all practical purposes, however, 
it may be understood that what was the Nominative 



:228 THE VERB SECT. 213 

with the other Tenses, remains still the Nominative, 
though with a special form, viz., the addition of wf. 

Sir George Grierson points out to me, and Dr. Kellogg 
•takes the same view, that these Tenses have been 
formed from the Sanskrit Past Paiticiple, and that the 
construction found came over with them from the 
Sanskrit into Hindi. In Hindi, however, the Passive force 
of the Participle appears to have been lost in these 
Tenses, and, on the whole, for practical purposes, it is 
simpler to treat this construction, as has been indicated 
above. 

With these six Tenses, the use of this construction of 
the Nominative with »f is compulsory, but there is a 
choice in dealing with the Accusative. (Ij the form 

with ^J ma\ be used, in which case the Verb retains 
the form of the 3rd person, sing, masc, throughout, 
quite unaffected by the Gender, Number or Person of 
either subject or object, or, (2) the form of the Accusa- 
tive without ^X I or, as some would prefer to say, the 

Nominative), may be used, and then the Verb will agree 
with this in Gender and Number. 

«^*^ *S> *v •^ 

Thus, whether the Nom. be TJ"*?, rTTj 3^FT; ^MH 

H^»T, \i'rrf^% (or their equivalents), the form of the 



etc. 
etc. 



SECT. 213 MOODS, TENSES, ETC, 22& 

N'erb is quite unaft'ected, hut will agree with the Accu- 
sative without %X '" Gender and Number, thus : — 

By the alternative construction, these would all be 

^. Thus... % ^x %T ^T, etc. : ^r{^ %5T t^; 

As regards choice of these alternative constructions, 
nothing more deHnite can be stated than was given in 
considei-ing the choice of the two alternative forms of 
the Accusative, in section 97. 

214. There are just a few Verbs, with reference to 
which some uncertainty exists, as to whether this special 
construction should be used or not. One of these is 

^TT^'TT. Sometimes the ^ is used, sometimes not, 

<'-f7-' W ?TfV ^^H>T, ^ did not understand. g^% ^^)^T 

H^l, ^ "" did not understand. 



230 THE VERB. SECT. 214 

With the followinjj Verbs, this construction is not 
used, niz. — 

^^*TT, f'^ chaffer. ^^wfTj f<^ make a sound, to 

speak. 
95T5n, f^ forget. ^^TTT, /« ^'^'(^ birth to. 

^^T, fo hring. %^«n, ^o take. 

This last is not one Verb, but parts of two ; it is 
the Verb ^TTT, preceded by the Conjunctive Participle 
of %^T. Thus, ^^ ^:g% %T % nm, ^'•' took off the 
boy, is ^ ^^% %T %9RT TTT, written in a con- 
tracted form. In the case of ^TTTTj we have a similar 
construction, with this difference, however, that, where- 
as the construction of the rest of the sentence has been 
retained, the form of the Verb has been contracted in all 
its parts from % + JJCTTT to <f|MT. 

With reference to the two Compound Verbs... 
% ^*TT, '•'/- ch<H ^^ (Permissive Verbs), and... 
% ^T ^T , e.g., ^J^ mH\ ^Acquisitive Verbs), it should 
be noted that, in one case, this construction comes into 
use, in the other, not. With ^^J, the % is used, but 

not with THTT. Thus ^^f% ^^liT ^3n% f^^, 

He permitted him to go ; but ^^ 3^^T ^^^ ^ "THTT, 

He did not get a look at him. 



SECT. 215 GENERAL VIEW OF THE TENSES. 231 

GENERAL VIEW OF THE TENSES. 

215. The Stem. The Stem of the Verb is obtained 
by cutting off the »|X of the Inh'nitive. Thus the stems of 

^'t^^n, ^f^W{, ^, ^STFTT aie ^?^, ^nX, % ^. 

Stems ending in a consonent are called closed, those 
ending in a vowel, open. In a dictionary, a Verb is. found 
under the form of the Infinitive. 

216. Parts of a Verb. The verbal forms may be conve- 
niently divided into three groups ; . . 

I. Those having the force of Verbal Nouns or Ad- 
jectives. 

(1) The Infinitive. ^Tf^H, ^" '''''^^'• 

(2) The Imperfect Participle. ^^^TTT o^ <^^ni "^"^Tf, 

seeing. This may be used as a Noun, the person 
seeing, or, as an Adjective, ^^f^T ^ril, ^^?^ ^^''^ 

ing dog. It is also used in the formation of six 
of the last twelve Tenses of the Verb. 

(3) The Perfect Participle. ^?§T or ^^7 J^STT, 

having seen, or, that which has been seen. This is 
used in the remaining six of the twelve Tenses 
coming under No. HI group. 

(4) Conjunctive Participle. c^^^R^, etc., having seen. 

An explanation of the difference between the 
force of this " having seen '' and the same words 



232 THE VERB. SECT, 21 fr 

given under No. (M) above, will be given later 
on. 

(5) Noun of A<^ency, ^T^^^T^fT, ^^c., the one ivlio 
sees. This is generally used as a Noun, but 
may also be an Adjective. 

II. This group of three obtains its forms from the 
stem of the verb, supplemented by Tense endings, indicat- 
ing Person, Gender and Number in some places, but not 
in all. 



ri) 



Contingent Future. ^^, f may see. 



(2) Absolute Future. ^WI|J / shall see, formed 

by the Addition of Iffj Tfl" or Tf to the forms of 
the Cotitingent Future. 

(3) Imperative. 'S<c;| see. The respectful forms are 

3rd pi. in construction, but 2nd sing, in meaning. 

III. Under this head come the six pairs of Tenses 
formed from the Imperfect and Perfect Participles, assist- 
ed in ten of the Tenses by parts of the Auxiliary Verbs 

e|«i I and " to be.'" 

The names of the Tenses are given in the Paradigms, 
and fuller explanations of their forms and meanings in 
the detailed examination of the various parts of the Verb 
which will be given in the following sections. 



SECT. 217 TENSES. 233> 

TENSES AND OTHER PARTS OF THE VERB. 

217. We must now deal with the Tenses and other 
parts of the Verb, one by one. noting the forms they 
assume, their functions and idiomatic uses. 

The Infinitive. f^^W^ W^J. 

218. The Infinitive is formed by adding w^" to the 
stem of the \'erb. The Infinitive is called by Hindi Gram- 
marians fSRm^T^ ^T^T, '• '^■^ <^ Noun giving the 
meaning of a Verb, in other words, a Verbal Noun. 

One of the Principal uses of the Infinitive is that of a 
Verbal Noun or Gerund. As such, it is liable to declension 
in the same way as other Tadbhava Nouns ending in j^J 
and has the same Case modifications. It is mostly used as 
a masculine Gerund, in the singular Number, but is also 

used in the fem Tn" ^""^ the masc. pi %. 

Sir George Grierson points out that this form in rfj' 
is not only an Infinitive, but also a Future Passive Parti- 
ciple. This may account for the fact that the idea of 
futurity is markedly present in some of the idiomatic 
uses of this form ending in «^. 

As a Verbal Noun, it may sometimes be translated 

by the English Infinitive, e.g.. ^'^ ^^TT g'^fK f%^ 

^■^fX *TST, ^o .7^' there is not good for yon. In man}- 

instances, however, it is necessary to translate the Hindi 

Infinitive by one of the series of English words ending 



234 THE VERB. SECT. 218 

in " ing, " such as speaking, talking, singing, cuuiing, 
going, etc., these being equal to the Infinitive in meaning. 
In the above sentence, the Hnglish translation may be 
as given, or " Going there is not good for yon. " In many 
instances, however, no such alternative is open in trans- 
lating into English ; e.g., f^T3% % ^IT 'T^f^^TT, 
lite xcork cannot he effected by writing. Here '^writing " 
<:ould not be replaced by " to write.'' The form of the 
English Infinitive is not so pliable as that of the Hindi. 

The uses of the Hindi Infinitive may be divided into 
three groups : 

I. As a Verbal Noun. II. Compounded with other 
Verbs. III. As an Imperative. 

219. I. As a Verbal Noun. As stated above, the 
Infinitive may be used as a Noun in all the Cases (ex- 
cept the Vocativei. 

Nominative. ^T '^'TT >ii'c^l ^^ TT^T 
%TfTT %, ^o do thus docs not seem good, ^q" % ^^ ^ 

^f ^% % ^^ ^^ %T t^ SR^ f^^, His utterance 
of the exact truth cooled doxcn my mind. 

Accusative. ^^ % ^K ^"RT 3^ %Tp f^TT, 

He gave up going to other people's houses. 

Dative, -q^^ ^f Sin? ^1^% #iT THft 5T ^, 

At first she was not willing to marry. The %| is not 
infrequently omitted; ^^ "^^^ TTT, ^^ went to see. 



SfiCT. 219 TENSES. 235 

Instrumental. %T^ gR^% % ^^T ft% ^ f^T^, 

"^T ^^CT ^ >^M^I[r ^ "^T^TT, % thieving something 

may perchance be obtained, but at the last disgrace xcill 

come. 

Ablative. ^^ ^^ ^ ^^% % 3% g|^ yf^ 

IIT^ ^5fT, ^y trading (or money-lending) there, he 
gained great wealtli. (Attention is again directed to the 
way in which the Instrumental and Ablative Cases over- 
lap one another. In this latter instance, the Case might 
be regarded as Instrumental or Ablative, according to the 
working out of the exact meaning. If the wealth be 
regarded as having come by means of the trading, the 
Case would be Instrumental : if the trading be regarded 
as the source of the wealth, then the Ablative.) 

Genitive. 3^|j :jfT^ ^TT^ ^T '^^ ^fWFR 
^^T, ^^he result of his coming and going was this. 

"^^Tn ^ra[ ^»T ^ S^IH'Sil ^, ^'^ promised to give 
something. 

Locative. J^T^T ^R^ tfT ^^% WR ^ 
SJTT^T ^T^) ^Z*^" iher) entreaty, she obtained permission 
to go. 

The Infinitive is sometimes used in the fern. form. 
^•i^T STRTT ^TT%^, ^yc>u) must cause them to hear 

(this word), f^^ftf^t ^ ^CTT^ ^'ft ^^rft" f; 



236 THE VERH. SECT. 219 

(We) have to fake refuse icith foreigners: ^ ^TfT ch^^fi 
^y There are tico things to say. 

Also in the plural form. ^^ ^ g^ ^^ ^T%5f ! 
What qitalitles are needed ? ^if^T *ft" ^%^ ^i^Z 

^61*1 '^^j T/7c\- (7/,so hail to endure great hardships. 

These feminine (sin.^. and pi.) and masculine pltu-al 
forms have not uncommonly the idea of futurity in them, 
and ma\- thus be connected with the Future Passive 
Participle, referred to by Sii- (^leorife Grierson. Thus, 
^^ TR:^ ^ ^^n ^T^ t, There is to he the 
performance of a new play. ^^ f^^ ^R^ ^^ ^f?T 
K|r|| « One day this %ci'/ he the condition of all. 

shall Jiave to dn so uuiny kinds of leork. 

N'ery closely connected with this use of the Infini- 
tive, is its idiomatic use with ^ ll^^, '•'' which futurity 
is nece'ssarily implied. ^^ cRX ^T*^T ^T1%m", ^"" 

must go. ^JTvfi" ^^pTf ^R ^^ft- ^ff ^, If isneces- 
sary for-inore fightiug to take place immediately. 

Though used as a Verbal Noun, the Infinitive still 

retains its verbal power to govern another X<uin in the 

Accusative Case. T^ '^^ ftrGPTT 3T^T^ 5RT ^^, 

To display all this learning. This might equally well 

have the form of the accus.. with ^TT ; thus. ^^ ^Sf 



SECT. 219 TENSES OF THE VERB. 237 

ft^TT %T 3T^iT7I ^T ^TT. (>'% tht^ Genitive may 
be used with a similai- meaning : thus, ^^ ^^ f^"^! 
^n 3I^T3J ^^ ^^T • ''"' the tollowing sentence, we 
have both constructions. "^ rf ^^ ^JcT % ^;(% % 

f^% ^nr^ ^STT^T^TT ^tF^ ^ ^^m ^^, If you 

are not afraid to kiioic tinit iiiatfer which if is very 
necessary to know. 

220. II. Compounded with another V^erb. The Infini- 
tive, in its inflected or Lininflected form, is found loosely 
■compounded with other \'erbs, especially in the Incept- 
ive, Permissive, Acquisitue and Desiderative groups. 
As this use of the infinitive will come up foi' considera- 
tion in the sections on Compound Verbs, the following 
summary may suffice here : —  

a. With the Inceptives the infiected form is used, 

b Permissives ^^ ^^^ 

^(^J He allows (him ) to speak. 

c. ......Acquisitives ^f^^TTTrlT, 

He obtains permission, or, the opportunity, to speak. 

d Desiderative. ..uninflected ^^ ^^*TT 

"^^ffX ^j He desires to speak. This sentence may also 
mean, He is about to speak. 1^'ormerly, the inflected form 
was used' ^^ ^^"T ^T^fTT ^ J ^'>^^^ "t is now practically 






238 THE VERB. SECT. 220 

always used in the uninflected form. When the Verb 

^I^HT 's in the plural form, the previous Infinitive may 
assume the same form : that is probably because both are 

made to agree with the plural Noun, c'.^>., ^ ^TT^T '^T^^ 

^ They are about to (fepart. In the same way, both may 
be found in the fem. form, and probabh' for the same 

reason. Thus ^^ {/.) ^T^' ^^cfi" ^, She is about 
to arrive. Even in such sentences, however, the forms 
sar|1«i'| and >Kl|r|| would often be found. 

The use of the Infinitive with t^VI^^ was mention- 
ed in sect. 219 and will be touched upon again in 
sect. 221. 

221. III. As an Imperative. The Infinitive is often 
used as an Imperative. Its force lies somewhere bet- 
ween the other two forms generally in use. 4{||^^ 
is the very polite form, qf\f^\ is an ordinary command. 
The Infinitive chi«il ''^^ somewhere between the two. In 

some sentences, the element of futurity is stronger than 
in others. Of course, a measure of futurity must be 
involved in every order or request, by the nature of the 
case. In some sentences also there is a suggestion of 
continuity or repetition. The use of the Infinitive as an 
Imperative does not, however, necessarily carry the idea 
of either futurity or repetition. 



SECT. 221 TENSES OF THE VERB. 23^ 

^^f ?T ^RT, ^on'f go there- ^J^ ^^ gR^ 
^^tfj Do if fo-ii>(>rroic\ not to-day. 

What exact difference there is between ^^^n" ^"<^^ 

WfCTT "NII^H it would be difficult to say. 

IMPERFECT AND PERFECT PARTICIPLES. 

222. Imperfect Participle. i^^T^fT^ ^%T or 

^^*tT, '•('•. the Noun setting forth the Verbal idea- 

^ r r , 

Perfect Participle. HR(J^T^^ or ^^^T^^ ^f^J 

or ^1^?^, i.e., the Noun which explains the 

doing, or that which is done or being done. 

Possessing much in common, these two Participles, 

differ considerably. One very important difference is 

this that, while the Imperfect Participle is Active, the 
Perfect Participle, with rfjjHJ is often Passive, e.g., 

TH^T% "^^ ^TH, the taught icord. Though, according 
to the form, this might be active, it is as unmistaUeably 

passive as though it were written f%^TA T^H" ^TTtT. 

In the following sentence, the Participle of the same 
form is very probably active, ^ff >^l|v| T^ ^T iV^^ 
^THTT 6>i1 1 '^^^TC A* t| *| g^ , She, seeing that her sons 
had obtained the kingdom, xcas pleased. It may be safe 
to conclude that we have not here merely two different 
uses of one form, but two words which, though identical 
in form, are not so in origin, one having probably been a 
Sanskrit Passive Participle. 



^40 THE VERB. SECT. 222 

The Imperfect Participle is formed by adding lc{\ 

to the stem of tlie Verb, the Perfect by the addition of 

l^J. With both Participles, "W*^ may be added. In the 

case of the Imperfect Participle, it changes the meaning 
but very little, if at all. Similarly, the addition to the 
Perfect Participle affects the meaning little in many 
cases ; but, in some sentences, there is a distinctly passive 
meaning. Both Participles are declined like Adjectives 
•of two termmations ; masc. "^J. pi. ^, fem. W^ 

The names, Imperfect and Perfect, fairly represent 
the essential difference between the two Participles. 
The former, in HT, I'epresents an act or state as in 

process of being done or experienced, i.e., as not con- 
cluded. The Perfect Participle represents it as completed. 
^ ^^ fe^^ f"^ ite ^f T t, ^f^' '■s- -^^^Jf^-i^ icrifino 

a letter. f?T% ^^ ^^ 3^% ^"R ^ ^^'^j Having 
given into his Juiiid the letters which had been icritten. 
The latter sentence illustrates also the tendency for the 
Perfect Participle to assume a passive meaning. 

Mr. Platts, in his Hindustani Grammar (sections 
418-427, in the 1904 edition), has an exceedingly care- 
fully worked out note on the Participles, which, in 
the main, applies to Hindi as well as to Urdu. It may 
be doubted, however, if, in all cases, the exact force of 
the various uses of the participles, as there explained, can 



SECT. 222 TENSES OF THE VERB. 241 

be maintained. It would rather seem that, frequently, the 
adoption of one or other of alternative forms or con- 
structions, — the agreement of the Participle with its sub- 
ject in Gender and Number, or its use in what is generally 
called its Absolute form, with ^^X or without, etc. — 
depends upon the fancy or taste of the writer or speaker, 
and not on any rigid rule, just as, in English, one writer 
may prefer to write, "Going on his way, he was attacked,^' 
another chooses to write, " As he went on his way, he 
was attached." 

223. With or without "SJ^J, Agreeing ^vith subject or in 

Absolute fonn. A careful consideration of the numerous 
illustrations of the use of the Participles which will be 
found in the following sections, will, it is believed, tend 
to confirm the statement made in the last paragraph. 
Possibly, the forms with^^J do tend to suggest some- 
thing in the way of continuousness, but it is certainly 
not more than a tendency, and the same idea of continu- 
ousness is often present where the ^>i{ \ is not present, 

e.g., ^T f^^ 5^^ ^K^ ^T %n 5^ ^^^ g^ 

%T ^TT ^T^T ^, Spending money on me and seeing 

me happy, displeases you. The spending and seeing him 

happy refer not to one item of expenditure and one look 

at the happy youth, but to a continuous expenditure, etc. 
16 






242 



THE VERB. 



SECT. 223 



With the Perfect Participle of a Transitive Verb, the 
^jJTT frequently carries with it the passive meaning ; 
but its use does not involve this, nor does it have any 
such effect on the Imperfect Participle. 

The Participle ma}^ agree with the subject to which 
it refers, in Gender and Number, as '^^'([rn' "^^ TTfTT 

%T ^T^ ^X, Seeing her dying mother. Or, when used 
predicatively after an Accusative, with ^J it may be in 
the form of the masc. singular, irrespective of the 
Gender and Number of the subject of the Participle, e.q., 

^q^ 5^ ^"'" ^^^^ Tim 133TT (see previous sec- 
tion). Or, it may appear in the masculine constructive 
form. This is frequently called the Absolute form, though, 
strictly speaking, this word ought, perhaps, to be confined 
to those cases in which the subject of the participle is 
not the same as the subject of the main Verb in the sen- 
tence, nor of an Accusative governed b}' that main Verb, 



e.g., 



^T^ ^^ ^^ XV^ gfR^ ft T^j 



When he had 



been reigning for a long time. 

It would be impossible, we believe, to formulate any 
rule or rules stating under what conditions one idiom 
would be more correct than another. Undoubtedly, in 
some sentences, certain constructions are preferable, in 
some probably absolutely necessary; but in many instan* 
ces alternatives are open, and the choice depends not on 



SECT, 223 USES OF PARTICIPLES. 243 

rule, but on taste and custom. Different authors have 
their preferences. 

224. Various uses of the Participles. Perhaps the fol- 
lowing represent the main uses of the Participles : — 

1. As attributive Adjectives. 

2. As predicative Adjectives (see paragraph be- 
low). 

3. As Nouns. 

4. As Verbal Nouns. 

5. Compounded with other Verbs. 

6. Special uses and idioms. 

Frequently, the Participles do not assume the func- 
tions of Adjectives, but retain their verbal force, e.r/., 
^^ ^ ^^$5T ^m'i ^^^^1^ ^%J, The minister 
thinking him to be a sinful man^ said. Here it is ^^J* 

that is the Adjective, whilst the Participle, ^^)^;^ 3'wr 
can only be styled adjectival in a very loose sense. The 
Part, does not describe what sort of a man the minister 
was, but gives the thoughts which led him to say what 
he did say. The force of the Part, here is far more 
verbal than adjectival. The sentence might equally 
well have run, ^?^ WTH>^ % fe ^% T^^ ^^ 

^ ^ ^K^ ^^^T *T ^^. Thus written, we have 
an ordinary Verb to express that which is expressed 
by the Participle in the other sentence. 



244 THE VERB. SECT. 224 

As the idiomatic uses of the Imperfect and Perfect 
Participles differ considerably in some cases, it may be 
well to consider them separately. 

THE IMPERFECT PARTICIPLE. fk^T^ci^ 

225. To avoid multiplication of the divisions of our 
subject, we may now dismiss from consideration the 
question as to whether each Participle is attributive, 
predicative, or something else. 

1. The Participle, in agreement icith its subject in 
Gender and Number. 

(a) With the No7ninatice. 'CTfTT %"% '^^^H' ^IT 
t^'S^J The iceeping girl reached home. ^«T ^^ ^TTTY 
%T ^^m ^^T ^5^^ ^?:^ ^^, y^oimj all these 
things let the mnn remain steadfast, ^rf ^T^ff %T 

^ ¥rf^ % gi%x qi ^^^T % Ooiug these things, a 
man, even ichile living in his own Jionsp, hy devotion to 
God, can secure salvation. Tf'S vfy TlHT l^^lfn" ^•T" 
% "^J"^ ^T^§T , S/'r also weeping and cryi}ig ran out 
to them. ^T^T ^ gR^f^ ^^ cT^ ^^T^ft 3T^T %T 

^■'T^^ ^fTT g^ ^^T^ % , Up to the present time, the 
fame of the king abides, giving teaching to his subjects. 

% ^^t irmV "sft^ 1^ vfV iT^ % It ^i^ f , 



SECT. 225 TENSES OF THE VERB. 245 

They both, eaen while still alive, hecome as though dead. 
(Notice that with one participle the ^^ is used not with 
the second). 

(b) With the Accusative ayid other Cases. ^flT ^fT 

(He) saw a fire shilling 07' a lamp bumiiKj. ^^rf %f^ 
f ^ ftl^U^ ^T^%f %T ITKT t , lie has slain 
the sleeping innocent children. "^m^xJW^^ ^^ %T?[ 
^tTT ^^n ♦f^ ^"^j i never sair you doing any ivork. 
(^X^ >s pi., to agree with ^fq ). 

In the two following sentences, the Participle in a 
very true sense has for its subject the subject of the 
principal Verb, and yet it is an Adjective belonging 
to the word ^H^, 2^"^, as such, agrees with it in Gender 
and Case. It is the construct, form, sing, masc, because 
^'^^ is the Accuse, of time. ;[^ ^"J^ ^T(^ ^T^Tf , 
The woman at the time of her going away said, '^^n 
^^^ ^^ 'BT^'T ^TT, ^t the time of his going, lie 
began to thinJc. 

2. The Participle in its Absolute form, not agreeing 
with its subject in Gender and Number. 

(a) With the Nominative. j^if| % ^^% 3^ ^ 
ST^'^T ^^n ^^ ch^i^ Some one in praise of his reli- 
gious teacher said. The sentence is, literally, praisinq 



246 THE VERB. SECT. 225 

his teacher said, and might mean, irhiJe he iras praising 
his teacher, he said something about some other subject ; 
but the context would probably show that what he said 
was the very praising of the guru. ^S" ^i^« ^^^ ^^ 

^^\i^ Tl^ ^rnT; laying this again and again, she once 
more started crying. SJf^fvjjr ^5^ ^T*T >il i^, TJie limit 
appointed icas reaching its cotnpietion. 

(b) Willi the Acciisctive and other Cases. ^^^TWT*T 
^^%T^T^ '^^ ^^Tj ^Vltev. the liing sa/r him coming 

along, llfi^ ^ ftT^ || ^frff ^X f^^m 

^Xmi. Have faith in the ivords written in the Italy boolcs. 

both the girls asleep. 

3. Not infrequently, the subject of the Participle is 
not the same as the subject of the main Verb in the sen- 
tence. (This, of course, is also true of 2 b, but not in the 
same way). These instances correspond with the usually 
accepted meaning of the word " Absolute," as applied 
to the use of Parts of Speech. 

^f ^ ^f ^ 3^^ ^Trf ^^ Tf , He xcent on talking, and 
then his words ceased. Or, more lit., lie talking talking, 
his word stopped. ^ ^^ ^f ^ f^ ^T ^^T ^^T % 
\JBrm if T{1^ ^ IT'TT, Talking on thus, the mind of 



SECT. 225 TENSES OF THE VERB. 247 

the old lady became absorbed in the thought of God. 

^T5T ^^ScTT t fii ^^ f^^ ^^ ^T^ ^^ ^tT 

5^ ^T^^ ^^^ %T ^TT ^mcTT t, ^t appears to me 
tliat in spending money on my behalf and in seeing me 
happy you find unhappiness. ^^ ^T%«T ^T ^T^^TT 
^Tn" ^^T) U^/^t'/z he saiv his sister coming alone. 

^t^ ^T^ ^^ ^^ wm iTrfir |t ^^ ?:fV |, 

She sees a new state of affairs coming about before her 
very eyes. 

4. The Imperfect Participle xcith ^i . This has 
sometimes been called the Adverbial Participle. It is, 
however, just one use of the Part., the ^j conveying 
the idea that at the very time that the act xvas taking 

M-^ce ^-g- 5^!^ ^ ^^% W^ %% ^T^, As soon 

as ever they heard it, they all came running. ^^ T'^C^ 
^, upon my death. ?T^ ^q^ ^ ^fflV %T 
W^J ^^ ^T^T, ^'^ hearing this, Jahangir became 
very angry. 

5. Occasionally, the Participle becomes about equal 
to a Noun or the Infinitive. The following sentences 
illustrate these and similar points : — 

W W^ %T^ % *fV ^^ 3^ ^, / have not yet 
risen from sleep. ^Ts\J ^TT T ^R^rlTj ^Vhat will not 
a dying man do } ^^ % pT^ ^^ ^^i" ^^ 

*H I'MT, On receiving it, the thought of you came to me. 



248 THE VERB. SECT. 225 

gR% "^m ^^THT ^, ^ow can you go ? ^^ ¥?!• 

W«TX W, ^^^^ [anyone) heard of (anyone) doing (it) ? 

6. Compounded ■with other Verbs. Sometimes, the 
Impferf. Part, is compounded with ^^«|T or ^T»TT 
and then conveys the idea ot continuativeness, eg., 
^ ^^i^^'T Tf^ "^5 T^^^y ^^^^P on doing so. ^^ 

T^T^^T ^T^T S, ^^ keeps stumbling. 

There is one use of ^TrlT T^«TT which is distinct 
from the above, being an idiomatic way of expressing 
the idea of something having come to an end, e.g., 
^^ ^ ^"rft" ^'^^ ^Trft ^f^, All the brightness 

of the silver passed away. 

r f 

THE PERFECT PARTICIPLE. ^tH^^^ or ^^T^l^^ 

226. As already stated, one principal difference between 
the Imperfect and Perfect Participles is that tlie latter 
have often a passive meaning. The Participles are so 
important in Hindi composition that illustrations of the 
use of the Perfect Participles are given even where the 
use does not materially differ from the use of the Imper- 
fect Participle. 

1 . a. The Perfect Participle agreeing with its subject 
in Gender and Number. Nominative. 

^^^rr T^ rft l^f^T ^ ^ ^RTT f 5rx sn, Their 

mind was set on God. ^^ TJ^^ W J^ ^iT% ^TJ 



SECT. 226 TENSES OF THE VERB. 249 

W^l 'T^ ^, ^J^ having fought irith Ravan was lying 
dead, ^T5 % 3f T^ 1^ ^T^ ^f f rTf f ^prr 

T^Tl^T ^iTfT "^, ^^''^ iHnd-driveji clouds are ivandering 
aronnd in various directions hither and thither. (Notice 
that here the Part, is passive in meaning.) ^T^ ^K 
^T^ T^% f%^ 'I^^T^ ^Z ^, f?e is seated with his hands 
to his head and boxved head. {L\t., having hoived his head). 

ft ^R ^g^ %m ^ ^T^ \ki% t% ^^ qf ^ f , 

Two or three men appear to be sitting tJiere iritJi long 
staffs in their hands. 

1. h. The Participle agreeing uvth tJie Aeeiisnfive. etc., 
in Gender and Number. ^T^Jrf ^^f^ 9"f^wV'^TWTT 
^^J %^T ^^1. They sau) Jatayu lying dead on the 
ground. ^ rflTT^ ^^ %T^ % ^m^ ^^^m ^T, 
Tt luas shining like gold purified in the fire. (Passive 
meaning of Part.). ^^ ^;^^ J^T^lff t[^ ^^Z ^TfT^TT 
^n^TT, ^Vhen he kneic that calamity had come upon hif; 
life. (Notice the use of the pi. HJJ^ for ''life'), ^ff 
^^^ {^^ ^T ^^ ^T^ HlTTHT, This man will suffer 
the fruit of his own doing.'.: ^^ r{cfi 4t^K ^ f^^ 
^^^frtf cKt^Trf^, Until then icill thcij suffer the suff- 
erings inflicled on them by God {Pass.). n^F^vfV ^T^^ 

The king also having seen a Brahman who had come to 



250 THE VERB. SECT. 226 

his door for alms. J^^ ^^ ^'W «R^, Seeing that the 
day had brohen. 

It should be noted that, in addition to this use of the 
form of the Active Participle with a passive meaning, the 
true passive Participle is also used. ^TT^'^T^^'Th 

When the time eontes for nvy icor^' tliot hn^ heen eoin- 
meneed to he conipleled. ■^tJ»T ^T^5([ T^^ T^ >Hr^T- 

^l^t ^T '^^J'*T ^^51^ ft^^T, ^i*" ;/''""^ «" accowit of 
the injustice.-^ which had been inflicted on him. 

2. a. The PnrticipJe in the Ab.^ohde form, icith a 
Nomi n^itire .subject. T[^^^^^J^ ^T^f^%T fe^ J^ 
^K T "^^ST^, ^he .^taij.s ill the house ivith an oriJian 
child vhich she has browjht. T( ^TT^ ^^ §^ S", 
Hnniini icashed m a feet. I (im .Kitiinq here- ^^'^^i ^f^T 

T^Tl'j '^itfiiKj close to her sister, on nconnt of lie)- great 
weariness, she has fallen asleep- ^^ ^^TTT^T 'CT^T 
^T ^TW '^'^^ "^Ti J^ ^, Tlie maiden was icalldng 
about, hariiKj laid hold of the hing's hand. "3^^ ^^T 

jJTT^j The eldest girl, ivith her headhowcd dozen on account 
of bashfulness, came to him. 

In the following sentence, the Participle is in the 



SECT. 226 TENSES OF THE VERB. 251 

singular, although the subject is plural. This is in accord- 
ance with the rule about an Adjective used predica- 
tively and following an Accus. with %T. "^rf^T ^^ 

ju^ % ^^ ^^ ^fT ^ ^fl I^T in^ f , 

We find them lyiyvj ■' ii a field amidst dust and. dirt. 

2. h. The I'artLGiple in the (ihsohde form, unth 
Aceiisntive and other Gases- Ni*^T«T *JIM*1 ^T ^^^ 
^'TT ^ ^^T "^K ^^ THTT, ^^' found himself lying 

on a bed in a rooui. ^fTf *T^ IT^T % T^T^, ^or a 
traveller irho has lost his way. ^% ^SJ^T ^^ '^3 T^^, 

The rision came to hivi as he sat in his house. 

3. The folloiriiKj .sentence furnishes ns nith a good 
illustration of the full Absolute use of this form. Tf^ 

^ ^T^ ^% 1^ ^!^ 5ft% %T 5f f^ 1^ 
^■^•T *nT %T ^^ ^T, Having seen her brother with 
a. halter thronn round his neck and irith his face cast 
doum. 

4. Sometimes, the Perfect Participle is found having 
much of the force of a Verbal Noun or of the Infinitive. 

f^^T fe^ % ^t ^f ^ ^T 3RT^ ^T^ ^^, 

Without any one telling her, she started to do the work of 
the house. ^ f^T ¥^T ^^T ^TT% ^, Without 
fighting, they fled hither and thither- ^TT % ^J^ 

^JfT^ ^ ^W% %^ ^^ ^^^ f , ^^'kj do we become 
his enemies just because of 'people's chatter. 



252 THE VERB. SECT. 226 

5. In some cases, the Participle becomes practically 
a Noun. %^ c^^ »T^ 'R'^TfTT, ^^ hears not my spoken 
(word), i e., He does not obey me. Words formed from 
a jingle on a Verb, in its simple form, and its Causative, 
are used in this way 5^ ^«TT^ ( ^Trf ) equals 

" rumour/' '' hearsay.'' "^S^J ^^T^l is, more strictly 
speaking, an Adjective rather than a Noun, the article 
referred to being understood. The v^ord means ready- 
made, as contrasted with something made to order. 

6. The Perfect Participle, or another word bearing 
that form, is used in the formation of Compound Verbs. 
It is found with ^J^rff and ^^JfT • With the first, 

we have, e.g., ^^ fe^T ^T^rTT ^, ^i^ icishes to do it, 
meaning very much the same as ^^ ^T«TT ^^r!T ^. 
With the second, ^^ f^^T ^^fTf %, conveying the idea 
of continuousness or repetition. He keeps on doing it. 

Sir George Grierson and Dr. Kellogg consider that 
these forms are not Participles, but Verbal Nouns. ^^ 

or twenty ivomen are desirous of saluting the saint. ^ 
^^% Ji^ ^fl^^rTTFj ^ ^'^■^*^* ^^ ^^y something to 
him. lU^ ^TRTT ^^rfi" ^, ^'he tmin was on the 

point of cij?i6t//</. ^]rTf|^ g^ff %^iT ^"nrr^rnn 

^1^^ ^, /)«// «'?^ night many people keep coming arid going. 
^ {ch^l ^5TT, ^^^P ''" '^^oing this. 



SECT. 226 TENSES OF THE VERB. 253 

Note the following also. ^|" ^^J ^3^f%T ^^ T^ 

^3»^T ^if^^, What ! ought he to remain there doing 

nothing ? 

7. A few other sentences are given to illustrate some 

further uses of the Perfect Participle or of forms identi- 
cal with those of the Perfect Participle. 

It is some ten or fifteen years since he eanie and took up 
his ahode here. This is a common and very useful idiom. 

^^ 1^*T "^^ T^j ^^- '-^ ^^" f^(^y^ «.'70 that... 

b. ^^ IT ^% ^TrT ^, They are going along in 

the forest. ^^ ^vi" ^Tm ^, She teas (slowly) dying. 
Probably, neither these nor the forms in the following 
sentences are Participles. 

c. ^ ^^ ^T'ffl ^, ^i(^ is going along. |f g^ 
% ^^ ^t ^"^T ^, ^ ■'^<'U fJ'is to you. 

CONJUNCTIVE PARTICIPLE. ^qRlfe^ fe^T- 
227, Forms The Conjunctive Participle may con- 
sist of the stem of the Verb alone, or may have added 
to it 'Efx^^ %j or ^^%« Thus, from ^T^T, the forms 

are ^J^ ^T9R^, ^1%, ^^^^. Sometimes forms are 

met with ending in ^^^ ^^ and ^^ e.g.^ Wl^, ^T^%, 

cRl^. These must be regarded as dialectical forms, ra- 
ther than as standard Hindi. 

Of the forms given, that terminating with ^X. is 
the one most widely and commonly used at the present 



254 THE VERR. SECT. 227 

time. The form with ^ was far more used some 40 
or 50 years ago than at present. The simple stem form 

is by no means uncommon, and the ^^^ form is 
occasionally found. If there be any difference in the 
use of these various forms, it is this, that the stem form 
is preferred when the Conjunctive Part is very closely 
related to the following Verb. In some cases, the two 
might be taken for a Compound Verb, e.g., ^ jI?T*fT- 
This, we have seen, does become a Compound Verb in 
the contracted form ^g*f (. Notice ^ tj^t^X, having 

taken, go ; here, frequently, the meaning is, Take {it) 
along. 

The main advantage of having these alternative forms 
is not to convey any difference in meaning or force, but 
to afford variety where there are more Conjunctive 
Participles than one in a sentence. The following well 
illustrates this point. ^f^J f^^ ^T*T gW ^rf^ 

^^% ^ift ^T^ ^fi[:§^t ^T ^T^ fe^ t^tF^^^T 

^^% ^ft f^ ...One day, having bathed and perforvied 
n-orship, having given large gifts to the Brahmins, having 
satisfied deities and forefathers \j>y uorship), tal-iing saints 
and pundits (irith him), having approached the holy 
Vaishampayan, having haired down^ having stood and 
dapsed his hands, {he) began to speal:, saying 



SECT. 227 TENSES OF THE VERB. 255 

The Conjunctive Participle finds its main use in the 
avoidance of two N'erbs in the same sentence. Where we 
should say, " He went there, ealled a servant, and said,'' 
the Hindi would neatly express it by ^^T ^T ^T^^ 

%T f ^^^^ ^f T. 

228. Idiomatic Uses. 

Temporal. The Hindi name, ^^f^TTT^^ fiflTT* 

tlie verb ichich deals icith past time, is, on the whole, more 
correct than the English name, Conjunctive, for, gener- 
ally speaking, the fact referred to in this Conjunctive 
Participle is something which precedes the action of the 
main Verb, not something which occurs at the same 
time, ejj., ^^ ^J^^ ^^% "^^ ^W %T f ^^T 
|cti<||, Havinr/ rjone there, he gathered them all together. 
^ T{ '^^'^ci;^X ^^•T ^^T ^'^T, Having gone into 

the house, lohat did lie see ? ^T'^^T ^T ^^T^T 3'^*T 

^TJX, Having called the minister, he began to enquire. 
^7 ^^ H^ ^^ ^1h ^5 Whatever having seen you 
have come. 

This is the more common force of this Conjunctive 
Participle, but at times it does indicate something which 
takes place contemporaneously with the act indicated by 
the main Verb, or in another way declares what is con- 

veyed by the main Verb. Thus, ^^^H" ^T^T ^^ 

cfi^l He gave him to understand. It was by what he 



256 THE VERB. SECT. 228 

said that he tried to bring his hearer to his senses. ^tTT 

^^T W?T^T^j ^" ^*''s answer he exylained. He did 
not give him an answer, and then explain ; the answer 
was the explanation. 

229. Adverbial. The Conjunctive Participle is not 
infrequently used with Adverbial force. ^T^^J^T ^T^HC 
^^ bo it cciutiousLy, or loith great care. T^fTt^^ 
^^% ^t^T, ^^"Oif asmredly. J^^^ ^^%, Especially, 

as in fiflQTJ' ^?^% ^ *T ^S" ^^T, ^ made enquiries 
specialiy about this. 

23 0. One idiom is worthy of notice, viz., the use of 
M<o'"4i''l with the force of the comparative degree, e.g., 

^W 1^ ^ ^^ ^^^T 1^, 'S^'e is ever so much better 
than 1. ^^ % ^•f^X %t| ^f% ^fV ft^m, You 

u:ill find 110 qreater poet than lie. ??fl'T W ^^^^ 

"^1% ^^T ^TT *T^ S", i here is no meaner occupa- 
tion than beyyinu. 

A pleonastic use of ^fj^^ greatly affected by writ- 
ers, now and again, especially some commentators, etc., 
IS only noticed to warn the student against the adoption 

of it. ^^ g^% grR ^^r^ ^T ^|fT TT^ Sf^'V |, 

There is no great sin in a lie attached to the performance of 
one's duty. Such ungrammatical affectations should be 
shunned. 

Where a double Verb be used, ^t'T ^*ii, ^TH? 



SECT, 230 TENSES OF THS VERB, 257 

"Sf^kj etc., in this Conjunctive Participal form, the suffix 
is only added to the second Verb. ^ff^T ^^ ^f\K. ^?fH 
^^ T^KTT, He did it hnowingly, i.e., deliheratety. t^J 
tff^^ % ^T IT%, Having eaten and dru7ik, they went to 
deep. 

Two or more phrases, constructed in this way, may 
be used in the same sentence. In such cases, different 
forms are commonly employed, e.g., ^^^^cT «T ^*T^ 
f T5T % vrg^ ^ ^f ^ f^ ^ ^^9^ 33r^^T ^^T^i?: 

^^l^^^JIUT^^X, R^mehandra, having taken the bo7v 
from his hand and having strung it, fixed an arroio on^ 
the string. Sometimes, however, the same form is re- 
peated. 7^ ^^rchl^ c[^ ^^TTT ^R^^TfT ^ 
^«T^ ^"^ ^^ft ^^ ^^ T^, Having seen this 
wonderful feat, Farashiiram beeam< ashamed, greatly 
praised him, and went away. 

The subject of the Conjunctive Participle is general- 
ly the same as that of the following Verb, but not invari- 
ably so. Such sentences as the following are found. 
Ifff ^prT^^ ^^T "^TT^, Having heard this, mercy 
came (into his heart). 7^^ ^^ ^^ ^J^ 3^^ %^tT 
^in^RT "^rS TTT , Having seen all this, his face became' 

sallow (with consternation). ; .; 

17 



258 . THE VERB. SECT. 231 

r 

THE NOUN OF AGENCY. ^^H^T^^ ^^T. 

231. The form with ^1^ is not much used, that efcii- 

ploying the suffix ^T^TT 's the one generally current. 
This suffix is added to the inflected form of the Infini- 
tive. 

The Noun of Agency, in the case of Active Verbs, 
indicates the " doer ; " with Neuter Verbs, the one who 
experiences the state expressed by the Verb. This 
Noun of Agency is used for both persons and things, 
for masc. and feni., ^"J^n ^"cl ^T^U. Thus, T^T^n* 

^^T, ftr^^^TJ^ft, a writer : %T^^^T, %T%^T^'V, 

a sleeper. 

Actually, these words are Adjectives of two termi- 
natians, e.g., ^3W% ^M<4T^ ^^j ^^^^ servants who 
were going. But, in common with many Adjectives, they 
may become Nouns, and are then fully declined as 

Nouns. These Nouns of Agency retain their verbal 
power of governing other Nouns in the Accusative Case, 

e.g., ^^ ^icr ^ HT^ ^i%n^ ^ra S?T^fT^ 
<^|r|v)fcj||% Those whe hnoio the languages, dresses, 
manners and customs of many countries. 

One special use of this Noun of Agency calls for 
notice. It often carries with it the idea of immediate 
futurity. 1^^ ^fTn^T^TT ^, ^i^ i^ about to go. ^T^ 

about to make the journey to Simla this inonth. 

«' 1 



SECT. 231 TENSES OF THE VERB. 259 

It may be mentioned here that ^f^f is not only 
added to the inflected Infinitives, but to Nouns also, e.g., 
^fk^^{^%, Westerners. ^^Tc(l^i %!, 'To the 
people of that place, ^n^i^vfcf i^, that ... who lives 

at Brindahan. '3^«T% MJ^^I*^ 21"^^ 5 ^^'^ later hooks. 
Some may not approve of these forms, but they are at 

times used by quite good writers. 

^M^ll (contraction for sM^TTT) 's idiomati- 
cally used to express what must inevitably come to pass. 
It is also used of a person in the sense that, he^s a com- 
infj man, i.e., destined to become great. " 

THE CONTINGENT FUTURE. ^^VH^ VlJ^t^ rT. 
1 232. This Tense is formed from the stem of the Verb, 

with the additional endings given in the Paradigms. 
I With open root, ^ is often used instead of ^ e.g., 

^TPT, pi. '^^^J for ^T^, ^T^. The $ for "^^ as in 

^^ tJ<»( is a somewhat dialectical form, but is in 
frequent use by some writers. 

The Hindi name for this Tense, ^;:¥TTo^ *Tft^^<J, 

the Possible Future, well represents its general character. 
It expresses that which may be. 

Its main uses are probably included in the following 

division. It may express : — 

1. A condition. 

2. A possibility. 

3. A wish. — Optative. 

4. An interrogation. 



260 THE VERB. SECT. 232 

5. With the force of an Absolute Future. 

In modern Hindi, there is a very marked ten- 
dency to use either two Contingent Futures or two 
Absolute Futures in a sentence where logical exact- 
ness would demand one Contingent and one Abso- 
lute Fut., e.g., ^^1^ flT ^^"T , ^f tliey come, they will 

see. The ^J^ is conditional and quite problematical. ^ 
This uncertainty is rightly expressed by the Contingent 
Future, but the statement made, that if this conditition 
be fulfilled " they will see," has no uncertainty involved ; 
and therefore in this case, the use of the Absolute Future 
seems perfectly correct. Most writers, however, at the 
present time would in this sentence use either two 
Cont. Futures, ^ITT^fn "^^j or two Abs. Futures, >^ |(f ^ 
ff^ ^5^1 . 0"6 'S led to compare the corresponding 
disinclination in England to employ the Subjunctive, 
e.g., If he comes, 1 will see him, instead of, 7/ he come, 
I will see him. 

23 3. 1. Gonditionnl. The conditional clause may be 
introduced by ^f^, ^, if ; ^^^ifhen, or some similar 

word, or may stand alone. T^^ ^T^ ^ 3^ TT^T 
^J|T J If he go, he will ascertain. '^^ ^ITT^ W^f ^^^^ 

^ When he arrives, let me know. ^Sff^ cTT ^"^ // / 

go, 1 shall see. 

This Contingent Future in the protasis may be 

followed in the apodosis by an Imperative, an Absolute 



SECT. 233 TENSES OF THE VERB. 261 

Future, or by another Cont. Future. ^fJ[K W\^^ ^ 

W% ^^, if in speaking you he careful about these five 
things, you icill be saved from many troubles. (Notice 
that the second Cont. Fut. is equal in meaning to an 
Absolute Fut ) ^ ^^ni 3Ffr^ ItTT'rT 5T ft fft 
^nr^ fT % ^^, ^/ ?/^"^' aiufer does not calm down, 
then say to yourself, ^i^ fTT ^TT ^5", If I speak, what 
shall I say ? ^g- r!^ 3^%T ^^^ ^5T TntT ^ ^T 
fT^ rT^ gr^ % k[«T T ^R^ET, Until he seize and destroy 
Jn'm, the days will not pass happily. 

Sometimes, the conditional clause comes second in 
the sentence, ^fe^ ^^ % ^1^ t^T f^ ^^TW 

Therefore deal with others as you desire that they should 

deal with you. 

234. 2. Fossihility. That which >/(«// happen. ^rf^^JJ 

^H" ^pf^TT^^T Wi^ , ^yhat righteous deed have I perform- 
ed that 1 should have the possibility of passing my 
time in happiness ? ^T^T "3"^^! JTT'n ^%, The king 
may lake his life- '^1% ^^T^ ^T^T^T^^ ^TTf^ % 
m^j Wli ether he come today or after a few days. W{ 
^ '^. Whether il be so or not. ^fD^ ^ fiR ^Ui>^H 



262 THE VERB. SECT. 234 

^Tefj it IS possible that the pimdit may come. e| \f\ 

^<*l ^T^, This may mean, Should the matter become 

manifest, or, it may about equal the force of the Absolute 

■it 
Future, and mean, The matter icill out. ^^T "R^ ^*T 

^J^ As far as possible. 

235. 3. Optative. W ^TffTT f fe JW ^IQ^ ft, 

I desire that my son may become illustrious. T( 7{Wi 

-Clival fe ^^^ ^^fn ^^^ ^tm, I ^0 not wish 

that his progress should be hindered. ?ff f^^T f^TTT 

^H" ^TT^, 'J-'his a)id my other failings, if they be fit to 
be forgiven, then may they be forgiven. '|^r(H |S*T 3^ 

^n^ HTf ^5^^5ft % m^^ ^fr^ 3f!% f^ ^^tTT 

g^^^ WTW WT^ fti"^* ^ fj^Ki ^fx^mm ^, 

As long as you remain separated f^'om your hith andkiii, 
so long may the gods be ivitli you in your ivanderings and 

prosper you. ^ ^JT ^ f^^^JT^ ^, ^^hat- 
ever ivork he do, let him do it ivith discrimination. 

236. 4. lyiterrogative. 
^ ^^T, ^ow shall we do it ? f TT ^7^?^%^^ 

|[f5 H, Bow can I leave you alone. ? v^^eh) ^^7 JUfrh 

^%TTSf?T^^5n^%5 XV7iat power has he that he should 

be able to come here ? J{ ^tfj H^ f^^ ^^, ^Vhat ^ 

J 

J 



SECT. 236 TENSES OF THE VERB. 263 



neics shall I icrite and send 9 T( ^^, Shall I speah? 
^3T<T W^ Wm, Mcill /^6 noiv go ? 

237. 5, Equal to Absolute Fixture. It has been 
stated above that the Contingent Future is very largely 
employed in the apodosis where the Absolute Future 
might be expected, and where the meaning is that of the 
Absolute Future. There are other cases also where the 
Contigent Future appears to carry the force of the 
Absolute Future. fiT% ^ W 5 , If I get (it), I ivill 

T^T^iT ^^ ^TT^, ^^^ ^'^^^^ i^i^ 

together and acquire riches. (Unless this be taken as 
Optative, Let usjacquire icealth). 

In some instances, an immediate future appears to 



\S> 



be indicated, :5ft ^T ^T ^T%T fft ^^ ^TrT ^\ , 



If you ivill not take it ill, I icill speak one tcord- ^ ^J 
^5^ ^^ , I inll go and see. 

THE ABSOLUTE FUTURE. ^T^^ »(t^t^H . 
238. This Tense also is formed from the stem of 
the Verb. Iff^ masculine singular, ift, feminine, and tJ", 
masculine pi., are added to the forms of the Contingent 
Future. 

The uses of this Tense rnay be grouped as follows : — 
1 . The Definite Future. 
, 2. The Interrogative. 



264 THE VERB. SECT. 238 

3, The Conditional. 

4. Special use of ^J||. 

239. 1. The Definite Future. Little explanation is 
needed concerning this. It is the simple statement that 
a certain thing will happen. Necessarily, there is uncer- 
tainty about the future, but when this is intended to be 
made prominent, it is generally indicated by a subordi- 
nate phrase, e.(i., W ^•frfT ^ fe % ^5^ ^T^pt, 
I expect he will eome tomorrow. 

One or two illustrations are given. ^jH ^ft^ ^M 
^T ^'t ^ ^ ^ ^ ^5^ ^^TT, I'eo'ple will look at 
me (lit., in my direction), and then I shall not he able to 
do it. ^^ g-t^K ^T^ ^^FI", ^Ve will go with you. 
%'^ %^T % ^irt % 55 ^'T, We will fight with the 
loarriors of the army. ^^^ ^ft^ff % ftl^ ^TO" 
^^ ^ T^^rTT g^ ^ 'iil^JIT, ^or people out of 
work, anxiety in seeking work will he far removed. 

Generally, where this form is used to express the 
presumptive Future, the presumption is expressed in some 
way. H^ >3|Mch< ft? ^TR %T IfJ^ T^TT, Under- 
stnnding that you ivill he grievously troubled. This might 
also mean. Thinking tliat you must he in trouble. 

240. Interrogative. The simple interrogative 
calls for little in the way of illustration. % "^TfJ ^\^j 

What will they do ? ^^^\S(i^H\^l*[\jWhen tbill she come ? 



SECT. 240 TENSES OF THE VERB. 265 

^H% T|^ |4{<ft ^[%TT J ^'^^' ^'^ ^'2 obtained for that V 

Often, the use of the interrogatory form indicates a 
strong negative to the question asked. ^T^fT ^^1 

^^vt ? Will the king do such a thing ? The intended 

meaning is, Certainly not. ^r% yj^cf)^ HTT ^STT^'t J 

Will such doughty warriors fly ? Never. ^Txf MHi HT^ 

^nnj M t ch^l TT^iTT i Wliere shall I find a brother 
like Bharat in the trliole irorhl? The implied answer is 
" Nowhere." 

241. 3. The Conditional. This use of the Absolute 
Future has been referred to in treating of the Contingent 
Future (Sect. 232,. ^t!^ ^T^ ^^ ^'T^ 3^=1 ^^T 

fft 3^ r^^^^d ^ ^^KfTi '^^fW^j Should anyone 
see them at that time, he will -regard them as altogether 

uncivilized. T{ ^R H^ ^Um ^^m ^TO^ ^f^T ^ 

^W 3^^^^ ^^"^ ^^Wt , As long as 1 live, 1 will 
take care of you as 1 ivoidd of a little sister. In both 
these sentences, the meaning of the Hrst Future is that 
of the Contingent Future. 

242. 4. Special use of ^t^J. The form ^JIU is fre- 
quently used with the force of the Presumptive Imper- 
fect or Perfect. (3ften it may be considered as a 

contracted form of one of these Tenses. ^^ ^T% 



266 THE VERB. SECT. 242 

^\[ %F'^ ^T^^ ^T ^TTT, There must be some 
reason for the delay. ^"^ ^JJ ^ ^% ^TTT^ ^'t, 

Such poor people there must he in many countries. 
^^ W^T^ §iT^ f^TferT^T^^JTftlT, No other 
man of learning can be Ids equal. 

Not infrequently, stlTT is used in an answer with 
similar force, e.g., ^^ ^T. T ^ ? W^'^'^j -^^ ^^ "* ^^^ 
house ? He ivill he, i.e., I expect he if<, d^m |4)?jl' ^H\. 
^yij ^ ^^ mi|| slTT 1 %1T[' ^^i^^ there he such sinful 
beings in any other country ? Yes, there loill be. 

IMPERATIVE, ftf^. 
243. This also is from the stem of the Verb. The 
simple stem for the singular 'SIX go, for the pi. ^H", '^ 
-added, ^T^, go- 

It has been pointed out that the forms often given 
in Grammars for the 1st and 3rd persons do not belong 
to the Imperative. They are simply the forms of the Con- 
tingent Future copied out. They belong to the Con- 
tingent Future, not to the Imperative, being hortatory, 
not imperative in their force. 

The respectful forms, ckIHi^, ^f^l^T, ^- 

y%^T, though rightly included in the Imperative, are, 
strictly speaking, not imperatives. They convey not a 

command, but a request. In ch||^||J|J there is ap- 



SECT. 243 TENSES OF THE VERB. 267 

parent affinity with the simple Future as well as with the 
Contingent Future form, suggesting a comparison with 
such an English phrase as " Will your honour he pleased 
to do so." All three respectful forms presuppose the use 
of ^Srnr, o^' some similar title of respect. 

What has been written about the use of the Pro- 
nouns applies fully here, and practically covers the matter 
of the use of these Imperative forms. The 2nd singular 
rnay be wisely neglected as regards using it, although, as 
already stated, among Indians themselves, it is often used 
with children, pupils and others, as indicating affection 
and paternal regard rather than conveying any idea of 
contempt. The plural ^fffj' may be used in addressing 
servants and others in a similar position. Of the res- 
pective forms, ehl l^lj is the one most commonly used ; 

^ll^^TIX is generally reserved for persons of great 

dignity ; cH^f^ljl is but little used. In form, it suggests 

a 2nd person plural, and appears to be sometimes used in 

addressing numbers of people together. It is by no 

means, however, confined to this. I find it used by a 

girl, to her elder sister, and with ^, ri ^ ^I^hI, You 

go {ivith vie) also. Again, it is used by a king to his 
prime minister, and with him also ff is used, evidently 

indicating familiarity and regard, the forms ^f^^T 

and ^|^'4| being used. 

' ' One or two illustrations of the other forms are 



'^^^ THE VERB. SECT. 243 

given ^5R 5TrT ^T ^ 'grrt ^^ ^ftr^m, 

Be pleased to go ichoiever you are indined to- w{\^ tj^ 
^T%^, Be pleased to go on hoard. 

A servant speaking to his royal master says, ^fPT 
f5T^f^l^:7TT, Hear me. ^^ ^i^j^ ^y^J % f^ 

5^^ "^TT wT^^*lT, Pardon me for my harsh words. 

It should be remembered that the 3rd plural of the 

ordinary Contingent Future is also used hortatively. 

^rnr ^M" ^^NHT ^¥ , Render me help. 

The Infinitive is also used as a gentle Imperative. 
1^ chl«1l, ^^^^ ^^^^X please. 

With gR?[ and ^''u, ^"'^ corresponding forms of all 
the \'erbs, for the negative, IJTf is used. With the res- 
pectful forms, «^ is the correct word, though ^f| is 
occasionally found. 

THE TWELVE TENSES FORMED FROM THE 
PARTICIPLES. 

244. We have now to consider the twelve Tenses 
formed from the Imperfect and Perfect Participles, six 
from each. These twelve Tenses naturally fall into six 
pairs, the first of each pair representing the act as in- 
complete (the Imperfect Participle), the second as 
complete (from the Perfect Participle). In either case, 
the time referred to may be past, present or future, but 



SECT. 244 TENSES OF THE VERB. 269 

the action is either complete or incomplete, respectively, 
at the time referred to. The point can be easily illus- 
trated by English sentences. Re was making it ; He is 

making it; He ivill he making it: He had made it; He 
has made it ; He will have made it. These sentences in 
Hindi would be rendered by Tenses formed from the 
Imperfect and Perfect Participles, though, as a matter 
of fact, there is no Tense in Hindi exactly corresponding 
with the English Future- Perfect. It is true there is a 

literal equivalent, ^^^ 3^%T ^•TTTT ^TT, ^"<^ the 
literal translation of this might deceive one and give 
the impression that we had here an exact equivalent. 
The literal translation of the sentence is, " He will have 
made it,'^ not, however, with the meaning of the Future- 
Perfect, but of the Presumptive Perfect. The sentence 
does not mean in Hindi that at some future time he 
will be in the position of one who has done the work, 
but that the conviction of the speaker is that he has 
already made whatever is being spoken abont. This 
point is thus elaborated to make the student realize that 
the Hindi Tenses do not always exactly correspond in 
meaning and scope with English Tenses which are 
their nearest equivalents. The student will, however, 
find that Hindi is capable of giving very full and exact 
expression, through its Verb, of many niceties, as regards 



270 THE VERB. SECT. 244 

time, etc. When not capable of expression by the 
Tenses of the ordinary Verb, there are always available 
various Compounds, very pliable and effective. Take 
an illustration. We wish to say that a person is com- 
ing, meaning that he has already left his house and is 
actually on the way. ^3" jJTTHT i^. Re is coming, might 
express this, but does not necessarily do so, as the sen- 
tence is ambigucus, as ambiguous as the English, 
" Christmas is coming." The Hindi may might express 
what we wished it to, but might also mean that, he is about 
to come, or that, he is in the habit of coming. We have, 
however, only to use the phrase, ^^ jJfT ^^ ^, and 
all is clear as daylight. This means that the coming has 
been started and is still proceeding — he is actually on 
the road. 



As we consider the twelve Tenses one by one, it will 
become manifest that each one does not exactly carry 
out the functions which are arranged for it in the ad- 
mirable scheme presented. The symmetry is not quite , 
so exact as at first appears, e.g., the Past Perfect is not 
exactly equivalent to the English Pluperfect, *' he had 
gone," etc. It may mean that, often it does not. 
Recognizing these facts, the statement may still be 
maintained that the Hindi Verb is very scientific in its 



SECl", 244. THE INDEFINITE IMPERFECT. 271 

arrangement and most efficient. The twelve Tenses 
under consideration may be thus tabulated : 

From the Imperfect From the Perfect 

Participle. Participle. 

Indefinite Imperfect. Indefinite Perfect. 

^f ^TcTT, he eats. ^"^ ^T^T, 7^e ate. 

Present Imperfect. Present Perfect. 

^^ ^TrfT ^, he is eating. ^^Rf ^SfT^T ^, he has eaten 

Past Imperfect. Past Perfect. 

^5 '^fTT ^Tj h^ '^'^^^ eating. v^'^r| ^^J ^, he had eaten 
Contingent Imperfect. Contingent Perfect. 

^^^ffT^, should he be eating, ^^^T^FTT ^5 should 

he have eaten. 
Presumptive Imperfect. Presumptive Perfect. 

cT^^^fH ^tTT , he must be eating- TJ^ ^TTft^TT, he 

must have eaten. 
Past Contingent Imper feet. Past Contingent Perfect. 
^ WX^ ^trTT, had he been ^;^% J^J^J ^trTT , had 
eating. lie eaten. 

THE INDEFINITE IMPERFECT. 
245. That difficulties exist with reference to this 
Tense may be inferred from the fact that Indian Gram- 
marians appear to be unable to agree about its name. 
Much of the difficulty possibly arises from this, that the 



272 THE INDEFINITE IMPERFECT. SECT. 245 

form of this Tense is often used as a contraction for other 

Tenses. 

Some Hindi scholars have gone so far as to take 

the position that there is no such Tense as the In- 
definite Imperfect, but that this form is always a con- 
traction to express some other Tense and that its place 
is only assigned to it in the scheme of Tenses, for the 
sake of symmetry. We shall, however, see that the 
Tense is a real one and quite a serviceable one. 

The Tense refers to an action (or experience) as ac- 
tually proceeding, still unfinished, but contains no refer- 
ence to the time xvhen the action takes place ; it might 
have been going on in the past, it may be proceeding in 
the present, it may belong to the future. An English 
sentence may help to show how reference may be made 
to an action as actually proceeding, with no reference to 
the time of its occurrence. "A vkiu sijeculates, he he- 
comes involved in financial difficulties, he grows desperate^ 
he blows his brains out.'" It is a suppositious case o} 
what may have happened, what may be happening, what 
may happen at some future time. Somewhat similarly 
with this Indefinite Imperfect, but with important differ- 
ence. It is seldom used in a sentence like the above ; the 
Hindi has two clauses, the first conditional, the second 
indicating something in the way of the outcome from the 
condition referred to in the first clause, the Indefinite 



SECT. 245. THE INDEFINITE IMPERFECT, 273 

Imperfect being used in both clauses, ^fl" ^ff^T e|^' 

'Tll'ini, S^ "^^^0 goes knoics. There is no reference to 
time, let the condition be carried out, at any time, 
let a man ''go,'" and the /i'/?oi^Zerf^e will be gained. It 
is in such sentences that this Tense is mostly employed ; 
the application may be to universal truths or to circum- 
stances arising in the life of an individual. 

?r^ \^'^ T^ ( ^I^T understood in the second clause, 
but unexpressed, unnecessary with •T^t), ^^ ^*^''^^ does 
not give his Jting sound advice, is not liis friend. In the 
following sentence it is not a general truth that is given 
but the circumstances in an individual life. ^*T^I ^JH 

^rs^ qft^rT Fm^cTT ^ % ^ ^ JTSR ^iK^, 

Whenever he comes across a good pundit, lie asks him this 
question. A man speaking of the trouble that " clever " 
people bring about says, ^^Tt ^ ^f^-HI^ ^gcT •T 

If there icere not so many clever people in the world, how 

many matters icould hecome easy. 

In the following there may be a reference to the 

past ; if so, the Indef. Imperf. would be used for the Past 

Contingent, but the statement is fairly general and the 

Tense is probably the Indef. Imperf. ; it means, on your 
18 



274 THE INDEFINITE IMPERFECT. SECT. 245 

doing so and so, such and sucJi a rei^ulf icould come 
about. 7ff^ ^J-q ^^ ^ ^3^1 ^vC^ rfr IJ^ W^ 

If you only make the slightest effort, then the enemies will 
not escape from being entangled in a network of difficulties 
from all directions. 

Not infrequently, the sentence does refer to some 
special time, but the indications of that reference are not 
contained in this Tense, but conveyed in some other 
way, e.g., ^^ ftl^% f^^ % *Hd4t ^ ^f^ "T 

fft ^T^ ■^^rTT'lT -T "^^cU , Jf *'« i^'-e doings of past 
days he had not failed, or, let us say, had not icasted 
the time, then there icould not be the repenting of to- 
day. Here the fact that the reference is to past days 
is contained in fTT^% T^'ff, etc., not in ^T^^, ^^, 

The use of ^rTj-.-rn, '" sentences similar to the 
above, is very common. 

Occasionally, this Tense is used to express an earnest 

wish. % f^c^, If hV ^f^ ^^% ^f ^ ft ^im, 

Oh, God, if I also could become like him. 

246. Sometimes the force of this Tense is not alto- 
gether unlike that of the Contingent Future, the writer 
evidently having in his mind something vvhicli has refer- 



SECT. 246 THE INDEFINITE IMPERFECT. 275 

ence to the future and not to a matter which has no re- 
ference to any particular time. <||c^ ^ITT^ ^^ "^l^flT 
rit ^ 5n^ ^ ^*l5»T 5^ ^X ^5 ^^a^^ ^ ^^*e poiver, 
I iroiihi make you happy f/iis very day. Tfe rl^^'I'CI 

^ftf T *ft ^TH ftrTT fit f ^ f^T f^ ^ 5^ %T 
^TTn ^n, Tf '' u-ould he of the slicjhefit advantage to 
you, I would, without ani/thiny being said, let you qo to- 
day, 

24<7. Sometimes it is equivalent in meaning to the 
Present Imperfect. It should be noticed that some- 
times the form practically stands for the Present Im- 
perfect, because there is a 5irffJ in the sentence, and with 
cf^T the ^ may be idiomatically omitted. 3^% 

f^^%T 'TKH ^Tf g^rr §^ §^t ft ^TrH , 

Whoever he smites icith this that man is immediately 
shivered to atoms. ^F#^ % ^TT W^ wT^ ^ ^STTfTT 
55fk f#IT % ^^ 5TfV ft^Tf ^r?T ? By compa- 
nionivg with the good, who does not become great, and 
who does not go astray who eompanions with the bad ? 
248. Now and again it is about equivalent to the Past 
Imperfect rT^ fft f^'^^ % cTTp^T ^ >i<KT^ 
TT^ ^^K ^ % fTT^ -cufiifT, Then from whichever di- \ 
reetion they were hearing sounds of Taraka, thither they 
were shooting their arrows, ^frTT ^H14)< ^^•TT 



276 THE INDEFINITE IMPERFECT. SECT. 248 

5fn: ^f^ 35ft?: %T ^^nr ^y^ ^\m % ^^ht ^ 3% 

HT^TT^T^fT T "^nTTn, ^i^ ums earning It is living by 
making boots, and the time that was left him from his 
work he rras devoting to the worship of God. 

249. Sometimes, the Indefinite Imperfect is equal 
to the Past Contingent Imperfect or Perfect in force. 

^ft^lf ^ rf Tf ^ *f^ ^fm ^ ^fi^ffTfft ^m 

eh^HI, ^^"^ ^^^ -^'^ desired, he icould noi linve given 
utterance to unpleasant ivords but, lihe others, would have 
said sweet things that rvould please his master. ^7^ ^J^ 

VTRT ^T ^^ "^^^ fir^rTT, Hod there been such a 
ivriter at thai time, he icoidd. surely have written sometliing 
or the other in his oii:n language a)id- we slioidd have 
possessed, a specimen of the current language of that tiii,e. 

^ %^ nwT ^% ^ m^ ^^ eft If g^ ^T 

J^^T ftl^H"^ ^•TT ^T^ffTT, i^'^d not my king slain 

him, he {this one) would have made you his prey. T(J^ ^ 

^TRrft rft 5| ^ ^^Tf\ ^i^fft", ^^«^ ^ known, I also 
ivould have done likewi-se. 

250. Occasionally, this Tense becomes ahnost equal 

to an Infinitive or Verbal Noun. ^ ^ ^Ml«l ^. ^ 



SECT. 250 INDEFINITE IMPERFECT. 277 

fft ^^ 4)<r), m ^?rS ^^7 There were two expedients, 
either to eoneiliate or to punish (them). 

251. Very often, when the Past Contingent Future 

is used, the full form is not repeated in the second 

clause ; this Indefinite Imperfect takes its place. This 

will be illustrated under the Past Contingent Perfect 

Tense. 

INDEFINITE PERFECT. ^ITT'^^fT 

252. The most common use of this Tense is to 
express the simple fact that something was done, or that 
something occurred, in the past, without any indication 
as to the exact time when it occurred. The Tense 
might well be called " The Vague Past Tense." Any 
information about the time when, is indicated not by 
this Tense, but by some additional words of the sentence, 
e.g., SR^ ^ 'SnBr^ ^^? Upon hearing {this) he said. 
The Tense equals such English phrases as " he went,'' 
" he did it,'' "he said," etc. 

The uses of the Tense may be given as below : 

253. 1. Indefihite Past. "Sf^ M^'H % ^ftT 
'RX T^, Many people died there, ichfjl •? qi^l cht^k, 

Somewhei'e or other some one said. >^T|v) ^ ^J^ ^<U^ 
^!?^ *rnT TMj They left their houses and fled. 

Definiteness if often given by other words in the 



278 INDEFINITH PERFECT. SECT. 253 

sentence. 2f^ cf{^ ^^T TH He icent yesterdaij- ^^ 

^^ g^ <|>3il % ^^^ ^, T^t i^ ten years ago that 
the hing luenf up {against him), 

254. 2. Sometimes this Tense about equals the 
Present Perfect. ^TT^ % ^»^ % ^^TT fe TT'TR^ 

)!M 1*1 c||^ ^ f Since icheii liave you knoic that Ramanand 

uas coming ? The meaning is quite evidently, " have you 

hvown?'' not " did you hnow?" ^fm ^M* >lll's|l 

^^•T TTfr, Have you obeyed my order 9 

255. 3. Sometimes it bears a meaning in which the 
force of the Contingent Perfect plays some part. It 
really becomes a kind of Future Contingent Perfect, 
indicating the possibility of something that will have 
happened in the future. VJ^ ^R^ •f'T^ 'Tl TTT fft 

fiRT >Tm? Hr^i ^T^ i^ril, If in any way it shoidd 
have been obtained, apart from devotion it will not reuiain 
firm. ^TT ^T^ Wr 'TrT ^^TT rft 41'siM *H\^ 

Tprr • And. when such a religious position sliaJl have 
come about, then ignorance icill have come in. Tre TT^TT 

^ rft %Tt ^ fT^ hV -T ^fkm, Should he have 
become king, then no one will make the slightest fuss. 

256. 4. Closely akin to the above, is the use of 
the Tense as found in Proverbs and similar pithy 
sayings. The force then is, should such and such a 



SECT. 256 THE INDEFINITE PERFECT. 279 

thin^ have taken place. ^f^rT f^^H rft ^TT 'PTT, 

STT TTT m IT *\m, ^/ « wa?* /ia.s- if07« he has lost, 
if he has lost hes a dead man (referring to the fate of 
those who go to law). 

THE PRESENT IMPERFECT. ^|^|rq qn^HM 

257, In the case of perhaps all these Tenses 
which are formed from the combination of a Participle 
and some auxiliary, a consideration of the two parts 
separately often renders considerable help in under- 
standing the exact force of the Tense. Take the pre- 
sent, e. g., ^ftr^rrrf , ' e., ^^% + ftn^ffTT^^TT, 
i. e., He is. What is he doing ? writing. He is the man 
who is at present writing. 

With Neuter verbs, caution is necessary' as to the 

may be correctly trans- 
lated, " he is going," but what exactly does this mean ? 
In English, the general meaning would be, " he is about 
to go, " and it might be, he is aetually moving on his loay. 
In Hindi, the latter is the true idea involved in the 
Tense, though it might mean the former. ^^ ^IfTT ^ 
may mean (1) He is actually on his way (2) He is 
in the habit of going (3) He is about to go. 

The following uses may be noticed. One sentence 



280 



THE PRESENT IMPERFECT. SECT. 257 



to illustrate each may suffice, as this is a very simple 
Tense. 

1. The Actual Present. (The action going on at 
the present moment). ^ ^^trTT f , He is sleeping 

2. The Habitual Present. ^ ^f^J ^^^ tRXxH 

^ ? What work does he do ? 

3. The Imminent Future. 5Rf ^jij ^^;^^ w SOT 

WTT ^«nt, ^T^ftj I am goimj ahead ; you collect the 
army and follow. 

4. The Historic Present. 3r^f% ^?TT ^^ f^R 

^[^ ^f ^fHT I, ^^ ^, ^TT ^^ % 'B^ ^rrr^ 

^ *K^I^| cRTn ^, What did he see ? One is saying 
this, another that, and they are all quarrelling among 
themselves. 

Very occasionally, the Present Imperfect is loosely 
used for the Contingent Imperfect, e. g.^ ^f^ ^^T ^^ 
'^^ >9||vini ^ rlT ■■■If your guriL hno'ws everything 
then (WTTfTT ^ 's evidently equal to ^TnTfTT ^). 

THE PRESENT PERFECT. ^Il^^^fi. 

258. Little need be said about this Tense ; its use 
is quite simple. It has not the same variety of idioma- 
tic uses which are common with some of the Tenses. 



SECT. 258 THE PRESENT PERFECT. 2Sl 



«W 



It is equivalent to the English Perfect. If ^Tm W, 
/'.e., {Here) I am, having come, i.e., I ha^^e come. 
^ ^^ ftn^T t %T ^ t, This is what: he has 
written. S^TPT ^ ^^ ^T^* ^^^f^ TrV ^, They 
have obeyed all your words. \\^\ *^m "^iM %^ The 
hirtg has now come. 

Occasionally, this Tense is used where we might 
expect to find the Indefinite Perfect. S^T^ cfl^r+nT^ 
% ^T^ ^^ ^, yyi'' came after Valmiki. As Valmiki 
passed away many centuries ago, one might have ex- 
pected to find OT not g^ ^ . Similarly, ^^ ^ % 

^ ^^ WIK ^'T^^ 'f fipt^ fj ^ ''"^^' ^''^' ""^^ '''' 
I Ucice in Gaivnpore. We should, however, notice here 

that, in English, we might use this, e. g., I have viet liim 
onee or twice, instead of I met him once or twice. 
Probably, the reason of the construction, both in the 
Hindi sentence and in English, is this that the point 
under consideration is not the actual meetings; but the 
present slight familiarity with the man that rests on the 
fact of having met him once or twice. The f^^ has 
more of its distinctly participial force than is usual in 
the Present Perfect. 

In many sentences in v.fhich the form at first sight 
appears to be the Present Perfect, a little consideration 



282 THE PRESENT PERFECT, SECT. 258 

will show that it is actually a Participle with the Pre- 
sent Tense of the verb " to be." Thus, ^J^ % ^ I^^H 
m t| jJn^Tl Wo W. This is not, Five men have 
seated themselves hefore the house, but. TJiere are fve 
men sitting (^^ "^^ ) '" j'>'ont of the house, ^J^ 
Q^rlch |chij ^nt J^i^ s, By whom va.s this hook 
written ? \^'43«j U^ffeh T^^T ^, ^^ ^'■"''^ written a 
hook. In the first sentence, j^(^| is the Participle 
( f^'Ml ^^ ). T^he sentence really means, ^^ |cf)4J 
^\ T^n^ ^% ^^7{^ S ? I" the second sentence, 
we have the true Present Perfect. 

THE PAST IMPERFECT. ^SWHcT 

259 This is perhaps the simplest and clearest of 
all these twelve Tenses. It bears two shades of mean- 
ing. 

1, ^1? II'^^I^T m, '^^ some past time he icas 
aetually doing it. 

2. The same sentence may mean, He was in the 
hah it of doing it. This would be more distinctly ex- 
pressed by W^ ^ i*^! chtni ^. 

Probably, all the uses of this Tense are included in the 
above, though si ght modifications of meaning or force 
may be introduced by means of other words in the 



SECT. 259 THE PAST IMPERFECT. 283 

sentence, e. </., ^^ ^^^ T^Hi %T ^f^ ^rTT ^ 1 

When did he ecer give anything to anybody ? The force 
of the Participle is here very weak, the meaning being 
that never did he do a generous act to anyone. 

r 

THE PAST PERFECT. jntTHfT- 

260. According to the scheme of the Tenses, this 

ought to equal the English Pluperfect. As the Past 

Imperfect represented the subject of the verb in the 

past as actually engaged in the action indicated by the 

verb, so this Past Perfect should represent him as being 

in the position of one who had already completed the 

action, i. e., Past Imperfect, he vjas-\~ivriting,i. e., he tvas 

wi'iting ; Past Perfect, he nxis + hoving tcriften, i. e.Jie had 

T 
written. The Hmdi Um4jfl' however, does not defi- 

nitely, express this ; it does not, generally, as does the 

English Pluperfect, express the fact that something had 

been completed before another event occurred, but 

simply states the fact that something did occur in the 

past. The main difference between this Tense and the 

Indefinite Perfect (4j |4||«^VTrT) is this that this JTW" 

HH indicates a more remote past. This Tense may, 

and at times does, equal the English Pluperfect, but 

does not do so as a rule. 



284 THE PAST PERFECT. SECT. 260 

The following sentence illustrates the use ot this 
Tense as a full Pluperfect. ^J^T^T W^ ^TR?^ ^^TT 

% ^5?! ^^RK ^^ ^ ^ ^n^i^ ft ^ f^ 

'mU{ 3T. They greatly rejoiced, for, since Ramehandra 
had come to Janakpitr, having seen Ramchandra, the 
desire of all had been that in some way or other Janki 
might he married to Ramchandra. 

In the following sentence, the addition of '^chHI 
indicates that the writer recognizes that the Past Per- 
fect alone does not necessarily carry the force of the 
Eng. Pluperfect. ^T^tPt ^^T^ ^K ^T^R" % -NRIcf^ 

^ srfH^ 5^ ft ^3f5V ^ ft^g ^^^ %t^. . ., 

Although by killing him, the promise of Ghanakya had 
been fulfilled, nevertheless he considered that 

In the following, the Tense is evidently used as about 

equivalent to the ordinary Indefinite Perfect. We have, 

3^r^t^ v^H^l WT^TTT ^T, and then, as the reply, 

^^^f% ^f T m ft; % TT^. Evidently, both indicate 

simply a somewhat remote past. He explained toher... 

6/if?.saifi... Again, v3^[%r fT^ ^T^ ^ StT ^tl<ni 
^ vfV fT %T ^^ ^T^r^ ^jnTT , I read that hook, 



SECT. 260 THE PAST PERFECT, 285 

and its style (jratly pleased me. The t^^J 'gn' and SJTT^T 
are apparently synchronous, and are evidently both the 
simple past. iil^l4i '^ ^cT^f ^^ ^j ^^^ context 
shows that, was horn in Sitapiir, is the right translation, 
not had been. So with the following : (^qril^T •? ^fjl^ 

^^^ ^^ ^^ 'n^n* ^R^ % 5^^T^ ^ f^T 

IZHiy ^'^'^ gods having been pleased, gave that bow to King 
Janok's ancestors. " Gave, " not " liad given,'' is the 
meaning. Let one more illustration suffiice. f^[^ WHT 
«M^\*M ^Kf % ^?3 ^2: ^^ W^ 3IT^ ^t ^ ^^ 

* 

^Wl ^W^ ^T«T ^^ ^T, ^^ tJie time ivhen countless 
warriors were cut to pieces and yielded up tJieir lives, at that 
time it seemed to me as though... Quite clearly, yielded 
lip and seemed, not, had yielded up, and, had seemed. 
CONTENQENT IMPERFECT. ^^T©^ ^cRTR". 
261. The Hindi name, " the Possible Present,' admir- 
ably expresses the functions of this Tense. The compon- 
ant parts, — the Imperfect Participle and the Contingent 
Future, — clearly indicate its general force ; the action 
indicated by the Participle may be taking place. Where- 
as the Contingent Future more often refers to the future 
than the present, this Contingent Imperfect more fre- 
quently has reference to something that may be occur- 
ring at the present time. ^ ^ ^ f^d ^4{44>HI 



286 CONTINGENT IMPERFECT. SECT. 261 

Gountry as holy where Godfs devotees may be living. In 
simple English, where God's devotees are living. 

The principal uses of the Tense are as follows : — 

1. It may refer to an action as possibly taking place 
now or in the future. The Dubious Tense. 

2. With a force closely akin to the Present Imperfect. 

§ JiTO ^% %T ^T^ ^, ^f ^y ^'^^ 'J'^^^^^9 ^f ^'*^ ^'/^ >^^y 

lord's good may be effected, then I am willing to (jive my 
life- ?Tf f%^T rT^ ?R ^ ^{fi 35nf!Tfi> % 

^^^^ ^T ^[^ H^ ^ ^TT'T^ ^, ^ eannot frame 
the thought in my mind that they slioidd not have even 
known what caste (or family) Sitrdds belonged to. "^T^ 
•^ 3^q "^^ "q^ *T ^^TfTT ^t, ^f^'^'^ though he should 
not be walking according to that {rule) himself. T%TT^ 

«T ^ffT ^, ^/ i' '^^ ^*ot contrary to 

2. Sometimes, the Contingent Imperfect is used in 
Hindi, where in English we should use the Present 
Imperfect. ^ I[J®^ 5T ^"R ^$ fe f^ ^ S^rSf^K 
fk«^ ^ 'T ftrTT ^, '^^^'^i "0 ^^''^^^ words may obtain a 
l)li'.ee the use of which may not exist in Hindi. We should 
say, in English, does not exist. 



SECT. 262 THE CONTINGENT PERFECT. 287 

THE CONTINGENT PERFECT. ^;:):T1o^)TfT 
262. This Tense sets forth the possibility of some- 
thing having been done in the past, not of being done, 
as with the Contingent Imperfect, but as having heen 
done. In the second place, as we have seen that the 
Contingent Imperfect sometimes about equals the Pre- 
sent Imperfect, similarly the Contingent Perfect in some 
sentences is about equivalent to the Present Perfect. 

1. Dealing with the possibility of something having 
happened in the past. ^^FH? $ fiR 3^ff ^ ^f%f^- 

M^d f^ TSC^'H^ "3"^ ^j ^^ '■'^ fossihle that he viaij 
have composed the Siirscigar shortly after the iSdhitya-lal>ari 
and that the thought of u-ritivg the >^ursdrcvn-al i ai-o-'ie 
in ///.s mind a long time later. T^S rfTST ^^T ^T 

r/iis cannot be mid thai thin change maij have cajr-e about 
suddenly. %T^^ fti^^^^ §^ H^" ^T ^, Which 
(iconderful deeds) no one may have ever seen or heaid of. 

^ ^^ %T 35^i1f % ^^ ^^•^ ftwTfr, 

Perhaps he may have approved of ihiti work. 

2. Very frequently tnis Tense occurs with similar 
force in conditional sentences. ^f| ^IfTSf 3^^% T^tT 'I 



288 THE CONTINGENT PERFECT. SECT. 262 

^T ^ 3*^^ ^ W^ ^^•T ^!K "The sentiments uhxch 
may have filled his mind, of these he may give a descrip- 
tion, irf^ 3^ ftim^ ^fe'lf ^RJ ^ T^ ff , 
// steps had been made by its side then.... , ^T^^X ^TTs 
f^rfT»n ^TfT 3^^^^ ^ HTT ^, No matter how 
great his ivrong may have been. 3?^ T ^^ flT^ *HI , 
^H ^f^ ^T^ vft ^, Should he even have uttered 

words of this character. 

3. Occasionally, the Contingent Perfect about equals I 

in meaning the Present Perfect. cht^^rT ^tjT «t^l 
^ ^ Wr ^J^% ^ ^Fhli- ft, There is no subject 
left nhich lie Jias not learnt. 

THE PRESUMPTIVE IMPERFECT. 4ff^^V4<4H'H M - 

263. This Tense and the Presumptive Perfect ex- 
press the inference that something is occurring, or has 
occurred. The two Tenses might be called the Inferen- 
tial Present and Inferential Past Tenses. 

Naturally, the presumption may vary in degrees of 
assurance, ranging from, / cannot but i)ifer that....- to 

I am utterly sure that ^^ TT^TT *^ In ^'1, 

The king will be coming just noiv. ^^ ^flfTT ^'TT, She 
will be sleeping. ^^T ^^ ^^ W ^JH^ ^^ ^i^ 
'^dln ^T, They will have arrived there and to-day be 
enduring great troubles. 



SECT. 264 THK PRESUMPTIVE PERFECT. 2j89 

THE PRESUMPTIVE PERFECT. ^f?7^¥TfT. 

264. The explanation with reference to the use of 
this Tense has been given above (Sec. 263). 

^^ ^n^-^^g WIK ^f\K ^T 'RT ft^, ^^ must 

have Jcilled soine liinnrj creature and eaten if. '7!^ *Rr 

fcha^ll ^♦^ ^^517 ^tTT, Having heard this, how 

(jreat miut have heen the grief. %^J % ^[o ^0^^ % 

v|^^ ^t N<ij| 4|H T^ ^TT, He must have lived before 

the sixth century of the Christian era. ^^ % ^% TI^ 
^^^T ^^, From tlii.^ he must have suffered great trouble. 

l|4l ^t^flj ■^^oic the might of money irill have reached 
your understanding. ^J^ ^^ ^^^ gijj ^^ -^^ 

'^m, An interval of something like twenty years must 

have elapsed. f^^T T ^*TT ^^T. Soine one must have 

heard. 

Slight modifications of the force of this Tense occur 

when found in interrogative sentences and in various 

other circumstances, but the above illustrations fairly 

cover the general scope of the uses of this Tense. 
19 



290 THE PAST CONTINGENT I Al PERFECT AND PERFECT. SECT. 265 

r 

THE PAST CONTINGENT IMPERFECT. jJ^OTf- 



tgtg'Tf^^- 



THE PAST CONTINGENT PERFECT. 



tgT^^- 



265. These two Tenses are conditional in their 
general use. In the protasis, the Tense is used to ex- 
press the condition, and in the apodosis to indicate what 
would have been the result had the condition been, or 
not been, fulfilled. In the apodosis, the form of the 
Tense is frequently contracted and sometimes another 
Tense may be used. To illustrate : — 

^ffl 1 or, it might he ^^^T?(T ^lone;, If he had not 
been looking, then ichy should he have hecome m disturbed ? 
Or. if the •! be omitted, If he had been looking, then why 
piliould he have become so disturbed ? Or. in the Perfect, 

^^ '^^^ ^T ^tTTT fit ^^ V«si<l^l ^ ^fTT, 

If he had loohed, he would not have been so disturbed. 

These Tenses are apparently only used when the 
condition is represented as not having been fulfilled (or 
if there be a negative in the conditional clause, then 
having been fulfilled.) In the protasis, ^f^ or some si- 
similar word, expressed or understood, will be found. 



SECT. 266 THE PAST CONTINGENT IMPERFECT, 291 

266. Illustrations of the Past Contini*ent Imper- 
fect, 

%^ wwppi ^\ g^ ^n: % ^frtf ^ ^ 5^ 

'T^^' ^ ^^ % sfirlfl' ^ , ^^ad you left jjour oioi 
people ami been living with others- as I have, then you 
icould have thowjht that the two month-'< passed like ttco 
years, ^f^ ^ ^^^T ^Wl ^l^lrfT ^trTT fft ^Hrft 

Had he been awake at that time, he uould assuredly have 
followed his sister like her shadow. 

267. Illustrations of the Past Contins»ent Perfect. 

^ri^ j'nr fen flrn eft %tt ^ i;'^ ct^ w^ 

5f^ ^ff I I Had I done good deeds^ then tchy should my 
house have thus been ruined- ? t(f^ ^^tHTSTW T 4ic4^ 

^JT ^[% cfi^n, ^(^'^ Keshavadas only written the Vig- 
ydn-gitd, ice xhoidd have called him a second-rate poet, 
^K^Kn^ ftcTT fft t^ ^ ^^fH! But if he had 

died, hole could he remain in a sitting posture .' ^f^ 

^^^^^ttI ^ftfft fFr 5n^ g'fi^T ^ 
5^ 5f ^ ^^ ^nnft ^rnr ^^fN[T^ ^ ^m, 

Were I not such an old man, having to-day seen your 
pretty face, I rrould give my life a sacrifice for you. 



292 THE PAST contingp:nt perfect. sect. 267 

Occasionally, neither the Past Contingent Perfect, nor 
an equivalent, is used in the apodosis. Tff^ ^^ 4fj|c|Vx 
^f ^f^^H^ jpci" ft irft ftrft ?ft pFT g^ 

c^^'vf I ^1 J 7/ in any way this denire of his had also 
been fulfilled, then lohat icas there to say ? 

Now and again, the Past Continc^^nt Perfect i«: not 
fully written in the protasis. ^JTJT 'T ^SfTT m >|{|^ 

fffi 5Rh) ^ ^ ^^<dtch ^^ f^ ftfTT, Had 

I desired, there looidd have been for him an arrival in 
the realms of death long enough ago. 

THE IMPERSONAL VERB. ^TTWITTR Qh^i . 

268. The Hindi Impersonal V^erb does not correspond 
with the English verb bearing that name, but cannot be 
denied a right to being so called. 

In form, it is the same as the Passive X'erb, the main 
Verb assuming the form of the Perfect Participle and 
-being followed by the Verb ^\w\\. As there is no No- 
minative for the Participle or N'erbal ending to agree 
with, the Verb always remains in the form of the 
3rd person, singular, masculine. Practically, the par- 
ticipal part of the Verb is the subject, and is equal 
to a Verbal Noun- 3^ ^\^\ •Tflf ^fTT, By him 
eating cannot be done. 



SECT. 268 THK IMPERSONAL VERB, 293 

A few illustrations of the use of this Impersonal Verb 
will probably be more helpful than further explanation. 
5*^>% ^T^ iRTT T^ ^fTT, I cannot sit here. (Lit. 
By me sitting here cannot he endured), ^ff ^^TT fflnl 
55r *T^ ^TTT ^Idl, Tlie three of them cannot keep 
an-ahe the whole ni<jht ^ V^^ ^ ^^^ 3W% "T 3^ 
vgilril T H^\ ^TrTT ^, Sei;/;/ very iccak, he can neither 
rise nor can lie bear (the pain). ^^ ^ •T^T ^^ '^T 
im\, I could not keep silence. ^*f\H *T^T ^^T ^TfTT- 
Practically, this comes to " / can't stand it.' ^tf^ 
Tj<rtl •T^ ^fTT. He cannot walk. 

This construction with the Impersonal Verb is not a 
verif common one, but cannot be called very uncommon. 
It is a construction which the student ought to be 
familiar with. 

THE PASSIVE-NEUTER VERB. 
269. We venture to give this name to a very 
numerous class of Hindi Verbs which are Passive, foras- 
much as the state of the subject of the Verb is brought 
about by something other than any action on the part 
of that subject, and yet forasmuch as the instrument 
of the action is not generally stated, or indicated, the 
Verb is not a trne Passive^ in the ordiriar}- acceptance 
of that term, but has more affinity with a Neuter Verb. 



294 THE PASSIVE-NEUTER VERB. SECT. 269 

e.(j. For the true Pas:iive, we may have ^^g T^^TTTr 
^ CHI C, The tree is being shaken. It may be mentioned, 
or not mentioned, that it is shaken by the wind or by 
some person, but the Verb is Passive and the indication 
clearly made that the shaking is caused by some person 
or thing ; but in the sentence, ^!g 1%^ ^STIrTT ^ (o>' 
f^^TTTT ^', the form of the Verb is the Passive-Neuter, 
and attention is drawn only to the simple fact that the 
tree shakes. It may be logically inferred that the shaking 
did not originate without some cause, but the Verb 
makes no reference to any cause and has no concern 
with the fact as to whether there was a cause or not. 
The one single import of the Verb is to set forth the fact 
that the tree shakes. In English, there are a few Verbs 
which are both Transitive and Intransitive, and thus 
lend themselves to a similar double use, e.g. The pipe 
burst. (No reference to, hoic\) The pipe was burst 
(suggesting that this was due to a sudden thaw, or 
something of the kind). Again, The papers ivere burnt; 
Passive, the mind of the reader naturally gathering that 

some one burnt them, or that in a general fire they had 

been burnt, or something of a similar character. The 
fire was burning. Here we have a pure Neuter Verb. 

In Hindi, we need not use the same Verb in two 



SECT. 269 THE PASSIVE-NEUTER VERB. 295 

ways, forasmuch as a very large number of Verbs is 
provided for which thel'e are two forms, an Active form, 
of which the Passive form can be used, and, from the 
same root as the Active, a Passive-Neuter form. Thus 
i^<«|r|| and <^(«|*i'l. LIsing the first, we may have the 
sentence R^>d|chT ^t^Tl IMl, The wieket was opened. 
VVe infer that some one opened it. f'^^^u <3tf| T^tt, 
The wicket opened. Here the thought is in no way di- 
rected to any consideration as to how the opening occur- 
red, the one fact to which the attention of the writer and 
the reader is directed is that the wicket became open. So, 
again, ^RFT^t^l^rnn'frT, The wood was burnt (Passive). 
<d4i^l ^^ ^l^i, The wood burnt CNeuter). ?|^ "SppT^ 
f^TTnTtT^, This matter was concealed. 71^ (^IJ 4|^|^ 
This iviaii) was hidden. Attention is simply drawn to the 
fact that the man disappeared ; no reference is made or 
suggested as to his being concealed by anyone. 

VV^ith the one series of Verbs, the forms, construction 
and meaning are those of the true Passive Verb : in the 
other, the meaning has close affinity with the true Neuter 
Verbs, and the form and construction are not Passive. 

One special feature of these Passive- Neuter Verbs 
demands notice. ^TT^TT '^ generally added to the Verb, 
though it is not invariably used in all the Tenses. With 



2^6 THE PASSrVE-NEUTER VERB. SECT. 269 

this 'STPTTj however, the form of the Perfect participle is 
not used (as is the case with the Passive Verb) but the 
stem, e.g., ^f^ WTTT, not ^T^TT ^TTTT- Thus we may 
have the two forms for the Passive- Neuter 4a«f|r|| 
or ?3^ ^TTT, f^ open. In the Indefinite Perfect, the 
form would almost invariably be U<*| 4(^1, but in the 
Future the form TS'^nTT ^vould probably be more fre- 
quently found than ^^ ^IT^TT • ^^it take another 
Verb, TJJCTT or T^^jr ^f|»n, the Indefinite Perfect would 
almost invariably be T^ ^fHTT, but in the Future T^ 
^mm would be far more frequent than tjy^TTT • Speak- 
ing generally, we find that the ^THTT '^ very much used 
with the Past Tenses, not so much with the Future. 

It may be asked, Why this addition of the >9(Ml ^t all ? 
Some might state, and do state, that the ^n*TT 's inten- 
sive. A careful consideration of a large number of sen- 
tences in which this ^X*TT occurs with these Passive- 
Neuters, will make it evident that, in most cases, this 
suggestion about intensity, has no support whatever. A 
more plausible suggestion is that, as ^|'r| \ is indicative 

of the Passive, its addition to these Verbs is appropriate, 
forasmuch as they are in one respect Passive. This 
appears to be a reasonable suggestion. The question 

still remains, How is it that sometimes the ^ffcTT addition 



SECT. 269 THE PASSIVE-NEUTER VERB. 297 

is used, sometimes not ? To this question, the only safe 
and sound answer appears to be, *' Because it is.' It is 
a matter of usage. Why is it that in English we may 
say " a big house,'' " a larcje house,'^ but, while allowed 
to say " a hirj girl,'* the phrase " a large girl " is not 
idiomatic (in England; ? 

A few illustrative sentences of the use of these Pas- 
sive-Neuter Verbs will now be given. 

Wl" 5ft% f'TT ^Hrft t, ^t fM^ <^oini. (Were it 
Passive,' it would be, fllTT^ ^T?^ e , 'i^ flung dowi}). 
^^m^ H^^-^^ ^^f ^^1 , Ones natural dis- 
position, of a truth, doesnot leave one. ^3^3" liTT^ ^ ^"=0 - 
5^ ^?T rc|«riT V^ 4{|^ , Immediately the thought 
of wife and son possessed him. The Neuter f^J^rfJ 
is used in preference to the Active ^^*n", because 
thoughts come involuntarily. "SJT^f 1{XJ W^''^'^ ^K 
Tnrr , Alas \ my all has gone, ^p^ ^ ^^ tf^ ^^ 

H^ 3^ ^ ^T % 'T^ Z^rftjHer form does not for a 

single moment pass from his mind. ^^ ^^ ^ ^ff^ 
T"tM^ T^ , ^'»e icas drawn towards the whirlpool. 

So general has become the use of these Passive-Neu- 
ter Verbs that they are sometimes found where the 
Passive would be more appropriate, as distinct reference 



298 THE PASSIVE-NEUTER VERB. SECT. 269 

is made to the cause of the state refeirrefl to, e.g., 

At the time of diimming {the luater in the coohing-pot), 
he?' haiuh and feet were scalded hy the rice-water. 
Here, however, one can see a measure of appro- 
priateness in the use of the Passive-Neuter, forasmuch 
as the instrument was not a conscious instrument. 
She suffered through the water, the water did not 
inflict the suffering. %r^T»^>alM %" ^ ^T^ ^"^ril 
^ Wkieh is proved to he right hy other proof >>, Here, 
again, we notice the instruments are not conscious 
instruments. 

Another indication of the favour which these Passive- 
Neuter forms obtain is found in the fact that some Verbs 
which are ah-eady Neuter assume a shortened form, 
more characteristic of the Passive-Neuters, (•.-/., >giHT*il 

and ^TT^TT, «.^ . ^^ ^f %Tcft[t n^ "^ ^^ 1^ 

^ ^^ ^TOT ^^ ^^m ^5 When she sleeps this hope 
remains aicake in her heart. So with ^TTTHT and 71{T( 

^TTT. *'^ fl^^- TTT TTT and VflJ IPTT are both used. 
No attempt can be made to give a complete list of all 
these Passive-Neuter Verbs : their name is legion. A few, 
however, are given below, showing the Active Verb from 
the same stem, the Passive form of which can be used in- 



SECT. 269 THE PASSIVE-NEUTER VERH. 299 

Stead of the Passive-Neuter, when preferred. In consider- 
ing the Causal Verbs an Active Verb may often be re- 
ferred to as the Causal Verb from one of these forms, e.g., 

c^v^lrii J to make, the Pass.-Neut. form being <4Hm , 
to he made, to become made, this, of course, being distinct 
from the true Passive, to be made, ^HT^T ^Ml> This 
matter will be referred to again in the section on Causal 
Verbs. 

270. Passive-Neuter. Active. Passive. 

^^^ ^TTT, to be root- 'gT^r§^ TMI^T ^TRT 

ed up. 
^Z ^^, to be distri SnZ^J ^TJT 

buted. 

g^R: ^T^T, to be put g>iKHT 5^nTT 

right. 
^^ ^TTT, to be stopped. ^T^I^T <|chl 

^ ^T5!T, to be shut ^^RT ^^T 

in. 
WTZ: ^TT^T, to be cut. ^CTT ^T^T 

3^*^ WRT, tobeentan ^^^^TT ^^^RJ^T 

gled. 

^^TT, to rise. 331^1 35T^T 

■^ "STTTT, to be dissolv-^^^T ^T^TT 



3J 



3J 



?> 



J) 



7? 



7) 



ed. 



JJ 



300 THE PASSIVE-NEUTER VERB. SECT. 270 

Passive-Neuter. Active. Passive. 

f^r^^ ^TT , to melt. iqvi^HI^ f^nmTTT ^TFTT 

%rT^T, to return to f^ffT^T f^FTT „ 

consciousness. 
fk^ ^'TT, to be pierced, ^^r^r %^ 

fiR ^STT^fT, to be picked ^^^TT ^TT 

out. 
f^^ ^TTT, to be conqu- ^fT^TT ^r|T „ 

ered. 
W^ ^T^, to be saved. ST'^'IT ^^FIT ,, 

This list could be greatly extended. A little observa- 
tion in the course of regular reading will show what 
a very important place this class of Verbs takes in Hindi, 
As indicated by one or two illustrations given above, 
the use of the Pass. -Neuters is not always sharply distin- 
guished from the use of Passives, but, generally speaking, 
where the attention of the reader is directed to the state 
itself, and not to the means by [which it is brought 
about, the Passive-Xeuter form is used, the Passive thus 
being left for cases in which the agents are to have 
attention directed to them. Thus, ^T^f^^ % H4|||^l 

lym^ By whom icas this ruined ? But 7^^ J^^^^Xm ^ 
^ 51^ ^TT ^T T^, This is ruined, itV fit for 
nothing. 



SECT. 27) CAUSAL VERBS. 30\ 

CAUSAL VERBS. Ij<4i||^eh [shm. 
271. The first point to notice in considering the 
Causal Verbs is that many Verbs which are causal in forni 
are not, strictly speaking, Causal Verbs, e.rj., (M^MT 
is a true Causal, it means, to cause to drink, the 
first form of the Verb being in''»TT5 ^^ drink ; but it is 
a misuse of language to call ^i^nTT, the Causal of 
fe^fRT or f^tfl ^T^fT- "^^^ former is an Active 
Verb, meaning, to pare, to scrape, to peel ; and there is 
a Passive-Neuter form of the Verb '(^^ ^TPTT, which 
means, to he pared, etc. The true Causal Verb indicates 
the causing of another to do something, instead of doing 
it oneself, e.g., '^K^\ (Trans.), to do, ^TCTfT (Causal) 
to cause aiiother to do ; but to call a Verb a 
Causal because it signifies that something is caused 
to take place, is rather a twisting of language and 

likely to cause confusion. ^vjTHT i^ Causal in form, 
but not so in meaning ; it simply means, to make. 
From the same stem there is a Pass.-Neut. Verb, ^vfcTX 
or ^^ >3||vt I, to he made. q|*||v|| is actually an ordi- 
nary Active Transitive Verb. And the Causal of this is 
8|«|e| 1*11, to cause another to make, to have something 
made hy anotlier. 

As in the present section, our chief concern is with 
the form of these so-called Causal Verbs, bearing in 



302 CAUSAL VERBS. SECT. 271 

mind what has been written above, we may accept 
the loose nomenclature and speak of Causal Verbs, even 
though they are not strictly so in meaning. We should, 
however, recognize that even as regards form it might 

be as correct, or more correct, to regard 8|*j|«{|^ to be 
made, as a shortened form of ^vTpfT, as to insist on 
the latter being the Causal form from ^?fvTT. For 
convenience of treatment, howevei . we accept the latter 
course and note the changes of form on that basis. 

272. For the sake of clearness, with reference to 
the force and meaning of these different classes of Verbs, 
it is suggested that the student might do well in the 
course of his reading to work out a tabulated list of Verbs 
on somewhat the lines adopted in the following table. 



SECT. 272 


CAUJ 




-L ^ ^ i- 


cc 


— s; 'a <i; 






'^ 


E SJ"^ = 


c 


CO 


Iro o c « =^ 




s ?i- 




-* <a 


4) . 




.5 rt 

3 « 


 "^ '^ C 




r -^ 








ro c o 



303 




IT 

r 






IT 






I 

18- 



c 






r^ 



rr 

17 



o 



IT 

r 



If - 
1^ ^ 



o) 



ii M 3 OJ 
3 CC <U > 



I 









I? 

IT 

ir 



50 



304 


CAUSAL 


VERBS. 




SECT. 272 


"ra 


H- ^_ 








U 

c 


It fr 


fr 

Rr 

IT 

ST 








~ •«J 6) 


^^ 


^ 






p C -C> 


■>• 


<ij 




a) . 


C3 ^ 


e 


^ 




Genuin 
Causal 


IT * - _r -• "^ S^ 

f^ r-* (^ |_ S _ 2^ 




o 

o 


It 

1 


• - 

1 j_i . ^ r-t 






;-« 




Orc1inar\', Ac 
in meaning 

Causal in fori 

1 


: • : : i-r- 


• 
• 

• : 




s. rr 1 




« • 


• 


• 


• 


■z, "m 


fc^  : - 


• 


• 


* • • 


o t 


rr p 








<; ?3 


1- -^ 








H 


15^ = 








1)' 








1 


> 








" 


tive 
isiti 


^ : 




• 
• 


• 
* • 


^ ^ 


rr ^ • 


r -S 




• 


c 




r ° 




1 


1 






1^ 




Neuter ", 
Passive 
Neuter 
Verb. 


— 3 






* 

» 1 



SaCT. 273 CAUSAL VERBS. 305 

273. The most simple form of the Causal Verb is 
in the case of a Verb, the stem of which ends in a 
consonant preceded by a short vowel ; the Causa is often 
then formed by adding ^J to the stem for the First 
Causal and ^J for the Second Causal. Thus : — 

^^•TT, to ascend, ^ST*TT, ^^ cause to ascevd. 
r{^c{ Ml, to cause another to cause a third person to 
ascend. ^^^T, ^^ ^'*''''^- si3MI, ^^ maJ:e another rise. 

As will be shewn, other stems, and even the stems 
spoken of above, may have the Causal form formed in 
other ways. 

In not a few instances, the idea expressed by the 
Causal form may be expressed by a single word in 
English, e.g., I4(^r|| to read; ^^T«TT, to cause another to 
read, that is, to teaeh\; ^nTTT, to wahe up ; ^fTlTTT, 
to icahe (another person). 

With some Verbs in the Causal form, the meaning of 

the Verb is modified in other ways, besides being causal. 

e.g., %T^*TT, to speah, or, to utter a sound ; Causal, 

^^flTTT, means to call ( ^^ %T ^^dl^iTl, ca/Z him) ; 

^^Hi«Tlj to understand, ^TT^FTTT '^^(^11 tnean simply 

to explain, but probably more often carries somewhat of 
20 



306 CAUSAL VERBS. SECT. 273 

the force of our slang phrase, " knocking a little sense 
into anyone.'' 

Second Causals are not in use with all the Verbs. 
It will be noted that, what appears as a Second Causal 
in form, may only be a First Causal in meaninq, e.g., 
•^<t|c|I^T, ^H«<MT; the earlier forms, ^aTT'TT and 
"5r«n*rr ^^^ "^t truly Causals in meaning, but Active 
Transitive Verbs, meaning to play (an instrument), to 
make. ^^^|*TT therefore, simply means, to cause an- 
other to play : ^^T^T^TT, ^^ cause another to make. That 
is, they are, in meaning, only First Causals. 

The question sometimes arises with regard to some 
of these Causals as to the Cases governed by them, e.g., 
in the sentences, ^r§% %T 'CTST T^^rTSn', or XTpn" 
ft^T^, do fe^TRT and Ttf^"RT take two Accu- 
satives, or only one? If only one, which is the Accu- 
sative, what case is the other word ? "J^TCT and "'TT'TT 
are the Accusatives; ^^^ ^T 's Dative. The bread is 
the Accusative, whether I eat it or cause another to eat 
it. The use of another Causal Verb may help to clear 
this matter. ^ ^ §iX <^|c<HT W, I see the house ; 5f, 

5r5% ^T ^ f^^^^rnrr ^, ^ •5'^'^''-' t^^ house to the hoy. 

The idiomatic use of TfT^TT involves a similar diffi- 
culty. We speak of striking a horse with a whip, 



SECT. 273 CAUSAL VERBS. 307 

making the horse the Accusative. In Hindi, the whip is 

the Accusative, the horse Dative. ^ ^ft%T %T ^T'^[^ 

41Kn ^5 They were heating the horses with lohips. The 
idiom really works out — They were striking the whips to 
the horses. Almost invariably, in Hindi, it is the in- 
strument with which the striking is done, that is in the 
Accusative, the person struck in the Dative. 

274. The changes made in forming these Causal 
torms will now be noticed and examples given. Again, 
the attention of the student is directed to the fact that 
it is the Causal forms that are now to be dealt with, not 

the meanings. 

1. Some of the Verbs, the stem of which ends in a 
consonant, preceded by a short vowel, form the First 
Causal by the addition of jJJTT ^^o the stem, the Second 
Causal by the addition of ^J to the stem. 

to be made to make, to have made. 

to hear totell to cause another to tell. 

Other examples, ^T^IrTT to hum, HT^^T to meet, 
;»TT to do, ^^^HT to fly, 33;n t^ rise, fjKHI to fall. 



308 



CAUSAL VERBS. SECT. 274 



In the same way, words with an extra syllable. 

to lay hold of. to cause another to seize, to cause to have 

seized. 
So also ^^9n^«TT fo understand, H6^*TI *^ U^ astray, 
^^•TT to change, f^M^iHl to stick {Neut.) TfHch«T1 

to shine. 
There are exceptions to this rule, e.g. : — 

ch^HI ch^^flHI or SRfRT ^)f^^^ 

to speak. to cause to speak, to name, to be called or 
to be named. named. 

275. 2. Other Verbs, with root ending- in a con- 
sonant preceded by a short vowel, form their First Causal 
by lengthening the vowel of the root. For the second 

Causal, the long vowel is again shortened and the usual 
m added to the root. 

to be cut to cut to cause to be cut. 

to be divided to distribute to cause to be distributed. 

fq^RT ^\H^\ Pt^RT 

to be oroiind to grind to cause to be ground. 

1. to be woven to iveave to cause to be woven. 

2. to be picked to pick to cause to be picked. 



SECT. 275 CAUSAL VERBS. 


< 


f^^^T tc^'TT 


ffe^^-RT 


to he pierced to pierce 


to cause to pierce. 


So also : — 






^VT^Tl to he bonnd 


^^^J 


^yfm^i 


TMiHT to he heat en 


Tte^TT 


T'^zwi^ 


^^^T to move 


^5RT 




^«^H 1 to he dug 


l^^FTT 


^^fl*!! to he opened 




<g<d«4HI 


^^w{X to he dissolved 
f^^wf I to be turned 






t^'Z'^J to he effaced 




flT2:WTm 


fl^ ^TT to he drawn 


or ^^^HT 


fii^<4T5;TT 


V^^vTl to be flung 




or ^^RTRT 


^«|HI to be pressed 


or ^dmT 


^CIIHI 


H^rfT to be weighed 


or fft^^T 


^^T*fT or 


Similarly, words with 


an extra syllable :■ — 


J^^'fT to he rooted up 


^m^^ 


^'^^^WT^ 



309 



310 CAUSAL VERBS. SECT. 275 

f^T^TT '« so bad fei^M^HI fsfT^TT^T 

•  • 

or finT^"PTT 

So xi"rlA*T I , ^^ descend, iH^^HI, ^^ ^'^ turned out, 
to go out, ^QH^^*TT, ^^ ^^ supported or strengthened. 
qC^«lT, ^o ^^ collected (Caus. ^^K'HT). 
4i^*H or ^^ Wr«!T ^o he seen : ^^^RT to see ; 
14^ HT or f^Tpf^rnrr or ^TWT^T ^o cause to see; 
with a second Causal f^^<f1^|«f| 

276 3. Verbs with root ending in a consonant, 

preceded by a long vowel 

The Vowel shortened for both First and Second 
Causals, and aJH" and ^T added to this modified root 
in the usual way. 

^TPRT or ■^PTT'TT ^»T^"RT 

to aicake {Kent.) to arouse or aicahen to cause to he 

aroused. 

^T^frTT to speak J^TRT J^TWT^T 

or ^^"RT 

gHdHi to pass {of time) I^HIHT ft rTTTSTT 

^irlHI to yoke ^HRI ^nqmi 



SECT, 276 CAUSAL verbs: 311 

Some of these verbs do noi: shorten the vowel, some 

insert ^ before the ^(J and ^f, others have no first 

Causal in use (or, it would be more correct to say that 
the First Causal takes the form of the Second Causal) 
Other irregularities also occur. 

Examples. 

^^^;TT fo run ^fmi i^^^WT^TT 

%^^T to spread T^^^Jcff ^^^T«TT 

§cr^T to sit msmj, ft^^TRT, or ^^M^TT 

^ffT to piay %^T5TT or p^^T^TT ^^^T^TT 

%T^ to soic %T^T5TT. 

^^T^n to send firSTWT^T or ^WRT 

^T^nn to throiv ^S^^T^ 

^K^T to strike ^WT^ 

Etymologically, ^RTT*TT is First Causal from ?T^?n" 
to die. Tf^^^TT to be angry Re(^<«|RI or ^'^\^T 
277. 4. Verbs with an open root. 

For the formation of the Causal forms, the vowel 
is shortened, and commonly ^ is inserted before the 
jJTT and en*. Many of these Verbs present some little 
irregularity. 
tf^TTT to drink ft^Pn Pm^T^ 

^Ifn to sleep g^TFTT ^<!t<^m 

%5n to give ferRT f<^<4HI 



312 CAUSAL VERBS. iSECT. 277 

More or less irregular, 
Wmx to eat p^^^TSTT ftr<HMHT 

&M1 to sow %T5rnTT 

%rfX to take f^ciMI 

ftTT to weep ^^TTT or ^'FT'RT 

^»TT to sew fw^T^TT ftr^^TTT 

^»n to touch 5^T^T or ^;5!"RT 

278. 5. Some few Verbs undergo a modification of one 
of their consonants when changed into Causals. 

|[^Xr to he set free W(f^J f fTRTT' 



or 



f^T^ 



5^^ to be broken ^^m ^\^^\^T or 

IhiHT to he rent or torn Hi1^*TT 

JiiHI to he broken %T^T Mll^^l^ 

ftr^RT to he sold ^t|HT f^RTTRT 



or 



^<f|«|| fo 6e xoashed ^sTTTT ^J^TPfT 

The total number of Causal Verbs is very large. 
Probably most of the methods of their formation are | 



SECT. 278 



CAUSAL VERBS. 



313 



illustrated in the rules given above ; but it is more than 

possible that some few may not conform to any 

of them. 

VERBS FORMED FROM NOUNS, ETC. 

279. Some few Verbs are found in Hindi formed from 

Nouns and other Parts of Speech. These Verbs are 

formed by the addition of >i| |r|T and remind one of 

such a phrase in English s^s " the play was staged/' 

for " putting on the stage. " 

These Verbs are found most largely in colloquial 

speech or in verse, but must certainly be regarded as 

part of the language. A few of them are given 

below. 



^IT^T or ^^HTT 

« 



To pain or to 
cause pain. 

To strengthen, 
establish. 

To separate. 

To make 
one's own. 

To draw near. 
do. 



From 



>j 



»> 



f? 

f^ 
5nfN 

(a corruption of •f^rfCT^ 
To pain. from tf^Tgr 

To become hot, or ,, 
angry. 

To feel shame, or ,, 



r 



make ashamed. 






314 ONOMATOPOETIC VERBS. SECT. 280 

ONOMATOPOETIC VERBS. 

280. Onomatopoetic words are abundant in Hindi. The 
Verbs are formed by the addition of »JTT*fT ^^ some 
word, or sound, representing the cry of an animal or 
some other sound. In this class of Verbs should be 
placed also the Verbs which do not attempt to imitate 
some sound, but seek to suggest by sound some special 
appearance, e. g., ^?Tt|4<|HT, to glitter : :g^^^-RT, 
to gloii' ; H^^^\r[\, to he in a flutter, or fluster. (Com- 
pare the similar English attempts in such words as, 
sparkle, glitter, dazzle, etc. ). To what extent these words 
convey through the ear what is seen by the eye, may 
depend in some measure on the imagination of the 
hearer. Indians seem to possess a perfect genius for 
inventing onomatopoetic words. ^{rQ^'9T*TT strikes one 
as a very successful attempt to produce an imitative 

Verb for, to xihisper. So with ^^^^5T*TT or ^p^^J^rfT, 

to grumble. 

It is interesting to note how nearly identical some 
of these Hindi and English onomatopoetic words are, 
e.g., T^ iMK V^ '" Hindi for expressing the murmuring 
of the wind in trees: in i^Hf^HHT' we have the neigh 
of English, only the " n " and *' h " are in reverse order. 
As this is a Grammar, not a Dictionary, no attempt will 



SECT. 280 ONOMATOPOETIC VERBS. 315 

be made to give a list of the Onomatopoetic Verbs so 
numerous in Hindi. A few are appended as illustrations. 

■^^tI^MI, To twitter, of birds. 

^i^^T^rr. To rap at, to rattle, a door. 

^^RT, To harl-. 

M^^'^Ml, To rumhle (as thunder). 

WTWTTTT, To whistle or ickizz. 

H?5T^im5n, To dang. 
^^^TT^TT, To shiver. 

T^V(14^*fT, To screcim, or shriek {also of the trum- 
peting of an elephant). 

"JJTjWlj To growl (of a tiger). 

6M<i>^ T*TT, To patter [^s. rain). 

^^4)^l*f L To crackle, or cackle. 
  

COIVIPOUND VERBS. ^tF fe^T- 
281. Compound Verbs abound in Hindi. They vary 
greatly in their formation and use, but it is not difficult 
to broadly classify them. 

I. In the first division may be included all those 
Compound Verbs in which two words are joined, giving, 
generally, one Verbal idea. The first Verb makes the 
main contribution to that idea, but the second may 
modify the force in some way. Of the earlier Verb only 
the stem is used. This is subject to no changes through- 



316 COMPOUND VERBS. SECT. 281 

out the conjugation, and thus the Compounded Verb 
becomes, both as regards meaning and conjugation, one 
compound word. Examples, f'TiCT ^T^T, f^ obliterate, 
to blot out ; TCm %«TT, ^o obey ; ^f^ ^3»TT, to Jlare up, 
either literally, as a fire, or metaphorically, in a rage. 

This class may be called Close Compounds. 

II. The second class may include those Compounds 
in which each Verb retains, more or less fully, its own 
proper meaning. The earlier is often used in its Infi- 
nitive form (inflected or uninflected), or the stem alone, 
the second member of the Compound only being subject 
to the usual inflectional changes. Examples, >ai|r| ^5fT 
to permit to go', X^^ ^^*TT, ^^ begin to weep ; ^^ ^^'^j 
to finish speaking ; ^^ ^^5115 ^'^ be able to rise. 

This second class may be called, Loose Compound 
Verbs. 

III, The third class includes those Compounds in 
which the first member is a Noun, or, occasionally, 
an Adjective, Adverb or Postposition. Examples, ^PFTT 
^^'TT, to forgive ; f^T^ ^-TT, to appear ; "q^^ <*>l*il„ 
to follow ; ""Vr^ ^^T, to put behind ; SJT^^T ^?^5TT, to 
heal, malte well. 

This third class may be called Noun-Verbal Com- 
pounds. 



SECT. 282 CLOSE COAIPOUND VERBS. 317 

I. CLOSE COMPOUND VERBS. 
282. Whether the origin of these Compounds must 
be placed side by side with that love of doubling a word 
which is a characteristice of Hindi, is a question which 
we need not attempt to decide. Certain it is that these 
doubles are widely prevalent in Hindi. The second 
member of the Compound may tone the force of the 
earlier word, or somewhat modify its sense, but it seldom 
makes any distinct difference to the meaning. In the 
partnership, the first word supplies the capital, the second 
is the working partner ; for, although the first dominates 
the meaning and power of the Compound, the conju- 
gational changes fall entirely on the latter. Perhaps 
the nearest parallel in English to this class of Compounds 
is in such colloquial phrases as, I'll give a look at it ; 
ril take a walk ; Til have a swim. 

Dr. Kellogg takes the form of the first word in 
these Compounds as the Conjunctive Participle, It 
seems, however, simpler and safer to regard it as the 
simple stem, as there is nothing of the force of the 
Conjunctive Participle in the use of the first word. 
This may be illustrated by the following. ?^ >g(|>l|^ 
has two possible meanings, 1. Having eaten ^ go. Here 
^X '^ ^^^ Conjunctive Participle, but the two Verbs 
do not constitute a Compound Verb. 2. Eat away. 



318 CLOSE COMPOUND VERBS, SECT. 282 

This is the Compound Verb, and in this there is no 
suggestion of the Conjunctive Participle. 

Sometimes, the second member of the Compound , 
may strengthen, intensify, or otherwise affect the force, 
of the earlier word, but in many cases it does not, 
but can only be regarded as an alternative way of 
saying what would be expressed by the simple Verb. 
In Compounds with ^T<ff«fTj ^^^ '^^•TT, *'^*^ 
difference is frequently very apparent. e.(j., ^[^ 
^|<f11, ^^^ said ; but ^^ %T^ 331, ^^ spoke up, or, 
spoke out. Take the following sentence also : <,y[M|f( 

Raghupati perfectly furious with anger burst out. In 
the following sentence, however, who can say that %5fT 
adds any additional force ? ^3RT 3f^ ^% ^ Zi^ ^ 
T%^rnC ^^ %fn ^, ^^ gives, in the first place, a 
very careful consideration to this matter. fif^TT ^"CHT ^, 
would give just the same meaning. 

283. Some examples of these Close Compound Verbs 
will now be given, and, where possible, a suggestion 
as to the force indicated by the addition of the 
second Verb. 

1. and 2. ^T and ^^TT. These roughly convey 



SBCT. 283 



CLOSE COMPOUND VKRBS. 



319 



the ideas of, }^ivhi}J out, and, taking, repectively. <^|^ | 
VTT and <f||<ir^HI a»*e ^^^d illustrations. The first 
means, to return a thing ; the second, to receive a thing 
hack again. 






^o give. 

to say. 

to bury. 

to throw 
down. 

to throw 
away. 

to send, 
to go. 

to do. 

to leave. 

to cause to 
heir. 

to efface. 
to collect, 
tn feed. 



% ^TT, to take, 

^l 5R7, to listen. 
T'HT %«7T, to obey. 



* 
"^"H %^, to sieze. 



to take back, 
to find out. 



to lay 
hold of. 



(the meaning 
depends on 
the context.) 



'"T^^T'T ^i»TT, to recognize. 
WT^ ^•TT, to understand. 
^[^ ^*Hj lo sack, to rob. 



mI^HI ^qr, to clothe. 



to put right. 

to give to 
drink. 



320 CLOSE COMPOUND VERBS. SECT. 284 

284. 3. ^fltTT. ^" some instances, this may have a 
slightly intensive force, but its use in the Passive Verb 
probably accounts for its general combination with 
the Passive-Neuter Verbs already referred to. To 
say that 7\i^ WTTT '^ " '"tensive of, or equals, IT^TT " 
appears to be somewhat futile. Tf^ >gi|<i| ^, TT^ T^TT, 
T^ ^"HHTT ^vill almost always be the forms found ; 
it would be difficult to find ?T^rTT ^, TrTT, JM^M. 

The use of ^n*TT differs somewhat with different 
Passive-Neuter Verbs, being invariably used with some, 
not so invariably with others. 

With Verbs other than, the Passive-Neuters, the 
addition of ^T«TT may suggest intensity, but not 
necessarily so. 
Examples : — 

Wr*T ^TTTT to (jet to know. "^^ ^TT'TT io forget. 

fir^T ^T»TT to meet with. TJ^ ^T^fT ^^ ^^*^- 

^ WHTT i(^ become. SSETf ^M^ ^^ arrive. 

%T ^rnrr ^^ 9^ to steep- ^i ^TPTT to drink. 

With such Verbs, the ^T*TT 's more frequently used 
with some than with others, e.g.^ ftFTT, ^^ ^^ ohtnined, is 
quite common ; with ITTTT the ^^fT 'S generally used, 

^ Tprr, not ^Kj, 



SECT, 284 CLOSE COMPOUND VERBS. 321 

No examples of Passive-Neuter Verbs have been 
given. They may be seen in sufficient numbers in 
sections 269, 270. 

285. 4. ^5T^r*TT. This Verb, meaning, to throw, 
to fling, is compounded with Verbs with which the idea 
of throwing, or of the addition of force, is appropriate. 

^IT^ ^l^ff'fT 'o flhig away tJn^ ^I^^T to srnash. 
TK ^T^nn to hill. TJJX^ ^MHT to rend. 

^T -^l<d*TT to squander. gRTS ^TT^fTT t^ eut, to hack. 

^T^^T^^ to .smash, ^ ^T^»f f to giveaway 
W[ ^M*il to devour. ^ ' 

286. 5. "qtpfT. The word l|s^r|l means, lo fall, 
to happen (c/., the English, hefall, or " it fell out "), 
also, to lie. These meanings are echoed in Compounds 

formed by the addition of ^^rf |. 

• 

^T^ ^T^»TT to be understood. 
^•T ^^*TT to he heard. 
^^ M^«lT to come into view. 
'^T ^^HT to be made. 

 

jjn" V§^T ^^ arrive. 

>9l|«l ^^5*n to be known. 

 

"^TJ TSTT to fall to a laughing. 
PtT tr§^ to fall. 

« 

21 



8(22 CLOSE COMPOUND VERBS. SECT. 287 

287. 6. vi^rH. Associated with the idea of, rising 
up, comes also that of suddenness . 

T^3T" 3^TT f'O Gry out. ^rnr "^^ITT ^o awake. 

^t^ 33^T *^ '^^^"^ **^ ^T^ ^T^T ^<^ start up. 

or ojtt. 

^T ^ZW[ ^'^ break ont ^^^ ^^^ to begin sud- 

crying. denly to 

tremble. 

^5f^ ^OT7 fo break out ^VT^ -^^Z^J to blase out. 
into anger. 

288. 7. ^(^r|T suggests the settUng down to 
something. 

TT qdHT to give way to grief. 

j^IX^ ^^rfT to persistently go astray. 

TJ^ '^T^^rfT to set to work to interrogafe someone. 

^«T ^^^T fohecome something, and to remain so. 

289. S. 9. 10 ^T^HT. 5jrFTT ^'itl f^ ^t fT?TT. 
These three are somewhat similarly used in such 
Compounds, hut are not so common as those given above. 

T^*TT. °3'3T T'WTT tx) lake up \responsibilit;j). 

rR? ^'fr^TT fo stop. 

^sgrt ^^*T1 fo arrange (a room, etc.) 

^^Xfi T^*TT fo nnderstnd. 



SECT. 289 CLOSE COMPOUND VERBS. 323 

^Pn. Mch^ ^rPTT ^o <^ome out. 
<fH6 ^THTT ^o return. 

^T ^TTTT to oeeome. 
fsf^i^RT. ^if^l^R^RT to come out. 
^T Mch^*il ^0 go out. 
^^ iHch^rtHI ^0 start off. 

The Compounds with <^r|| will be noticed under 
Class II. Some of them belong to this Class I, but it 
may be well to consider them all together. 

290. Synonymous and Alliterative Compound Verbs. 

There may be mentioned under [this Class I the 
Verbs Compounded of two stems, having similar mean- 
ings or similar in sound. Those brought forward here 
are generally used with the second stem having the 
addition of the sign of the Conjunctive Participle. It 
bears the meaning of this Participle also, and has 
Adverbial force in a sentence. Sometimes such Verbs 
are used in the Imperfect Participial form, and then 
the Participial termination is used with both stems, e.g., 
fS^n ^hl^H, ^-^'i leaping and bounding along. 

1. Two stems indentical or similar in meaning. 
>3iM ?^ch^, knowingly^ deliberately. 



324 SYNONYMOUS COMPOUND VERBS. SECT. 290 



^'t^ M l<dl4tC, eautiously, looking carefully. 

(ijINI "^toicri^, having instructed {them) carefully. 



with understanding, having 
thought it over. 



2. Sometimes, similarity of sound, especially in the 
way of alliteration, is combined with similarity of 
meaning, 

'^'^^ W^fi^5T, Understandinglw 

^^T*KT 5^T^lT, Having fnlly explained {to them). 

*^ "s — i^^ Having broken and smashed things. 

nrs MH^^K, (The Hindi of, " a bull in a China 

shop. ") 

291. Causal Compound Verbs Somewhat similarly we 
find an ordinary Verb followed by its Causal form, the two 
thus combined conveying a comprehensive and general 
meaning, e.g., ^ f^^MI, ^iT *ilHI, thus lU<i< 

t»|'l| // / remain alive (lit., if the body remain) then, 
halting performed or effected some expiation, 1 shall again 
become {ceremonially) clean. 

In such instances, the Causal is not usually pleo- 
nastic, the meaning intended and expressed being, 
whether done by the person himself or through another. 



SECT, 292 LOOSE COMPOUND VERBS. 325 

LOOSE COMPOUND VERBS. 

292. These Verbs differ widely ffom those just consi- 
dered, as regards their structure. The two Verbs in 
these Compounds are closely associated rather than 
compounded, and not only as regards structure but 
as far as meaning also is concerned, the union is not 
so close. One might say that each of the two Verbs 
retained its own full meaning, were it not for the fact 
that some of the Verbs used in these Loose Compounds 
do not possess or retain their definite meaning out- 
side of those Compounds. H^HI cannot be used 
alone, ^IJrfJ with its very wide range of meanings 
does not include " to commence. " except in these Com- 
pounds, -d^vfl in its Passive-Neuter form ^^ ^TTT, 
is used in the sense of " to be finished, " but is far 
more used in the compounded form than alone. 

293. In considering the Verbs used in these Com- 
pounds, we will at the same time note any other uses 
which are special to the words. The following Verbs 
will be considered. 



326 



LOOSE COMPOUND VERBS. 



SECT. 293 



Verb. 



(1) ^ihA\ 

(2) ^^l^J 

(3) ^HRT 

(5) trpn 

(6) giT5n 



(7) Tf^T 



(8) ^n^n 

(9) '^T^TT 



Form in which 

the associated 

Verb is 

used. 



Name given to the 

Compounded 

Verbs. 



With the stem. 

ditto. 

Inflected Infinit- 
ive. 

ditto, 
ditto. 



Potentials. 

Completives. 

Inceptives or In- 
choatives. 

Permissives. 

Acquisitives. 



With Gerund [ Frequentatives. 

(in the form | 

of the Perfect j 

Participle.) | 

With the Imper- 
fect or Per- 
fect Partici- 
ple. 

ditto. 



Continuatives. 



Uninflected Infi- 
nitive or Ger- 
undive form. 



Progressives or 
Continuatives. 

Desideratives. 



SECT. 294 LOOSE COMPOUND VERBSi. 327 

294. (1). ^^ff^cff^ Potentials. ^^gfi^fX »s added to the 

stem of the Verb with which it is associated, the earlier 

Verb remaining unchanged throughout, in the same 

manner as with the Close Compounds. ^^vfT y't^lds 

the meaning, to be able., and is conjugated as an ordi- 
nary Intransitive Verb. 

^f ^m ^K ^WirlT f , ^^^^^«^ c^« he do ? % ;?rf¥ 

^S ^^'T, They will not be able to go up. ^^(^( 

 

T^i *{^ ^T ^c|V|, l^is wife was not able to go, 

^g^ % ^f 'Rff^ f^W[ ^ ^^m |. Tim 

cannot be done by him. 

Occassionally, the inflected form of the Infinitive 
may be found used in this Compound, but this is anti- 
quated and should not be adopted. ^^ •TST T^^^fT 

295. (2). ^^e(T, Completives. A Passive-Neuter 
Verb ^^ ^n«TT, ^^ ^^ "^'^^ ^'P'> is in use, also the 
Causal ^cf^ivTf; ^^-'t the use of '^^•TT '^ mainly con- 
fined to use in these so-called Completives, ^^«TT 
being added to the stem of the earlier X'erb. The 
Compound thus formed becomes an ordinary Intransitive 
Verb, and indicates the completion of the act signified by 
the first word of the Compound. 



328 LOOSE COMPOUND VERBS. SECT. 295 

^ ^T 5^5 practically, He has finished his meal. 
^r^ % ^?T 5% ^FI", "^^ni "'i^^ ^t'^ve finished doing {it) 
by noio. T( ^f^ ^^ ^"^ / /^a^;e satri my say. In many 
instances, the English " finished " represents a more 
definite statement than the Hindi ^^«|| often carries. 
It is frequently used where we might use a simple 
past tense of the earlier Verh, e.g., T[ WSf ^^5T S, would 
often mean only, / have heard {it). ^ ^^RTT, ^t's done. 

296. (3) <*|^|r| I, Inceptives, occasionally called 
Inchoatives. 

<n*l*1l is not used alone, with the meaning of "to 
begin.'' 

In these Compounds, the exact meaning is not, to begin, 
but, to become engaged in. The inflected form of the 
Infinitive with which it is used, is probably the Locative 
Case, with the ^ unexpressed, and therefore ^W 1|^«) 

tf|4|| equals ^S ^Sn ^ ^T TTT, ^^^ became occupied 
in reading. 

These Compounds, in common with the two already 
mentioned, are conjugated as Intransitive Verbs, i.e., the 
Nominative with % is not used with them. 

In not a few sentences, the <f|^l*il though used quite 
idiomatically and correctly, is somewhat redundant, no 



secT. 296 LOOSE compound verbs. 329 

special :orce being indicated. In Hindi, ^f)3% ^T(J is 

often found where we should say, He said, not, He 
commenced to say. In the majority of instances, however, 
it does convey some idea of the commencement of 
some act, and in some cases has the full force of 
" commenced to.'' e.g., cf^ % ^ftT »!n% ^0% ^Ht", 
From that time people began to come and go, i.e., to 
visit, some person or place. 

297. (4 and 5) ^vf| and IfMT, Permissives and 
Acquisitives. These two sets of Compounds, though in 
one sense contrasted, have much in common, and may 
conveniently be considered tegether. They are used 
with the inflected Infinitive. This may be regarded as 
the Dative Case, with the %f or % f^T^ unexpressed. 

Thus ^^9f \d^4)| ^1% f^TI", might be more fully 

written, ^^% s^H^[ WR % f^ f^^TT, ^e 

gave {permission) to fiim to go, and so ^[^ WTT TRTT 
might, similarly, be more fully wrilten' \^4|v) ^fPT %T 
[ov ^TTn ^ T^T^) ...Ml^l, ^^^ ohtaiyied (permission) 
to go. 

An unexplained inconsistency is found in the use of 
these two Verbs, whereas the Nom. with rf is used in 
the case of ^«TT with Tenses formed from the Perfect 
Participle. XTPTT *^ treated as an Intransitive Verb, 



330 LOOSE COMPOUND VERBS. SECT. 297 

though, in meaning, it is as transitive as ^Jfl" ^^^ takes 
the same construction when not in a Compound. We 

find g^ ^rW-^i^^ %T f 1^ % 5T^ ^n% f^TT, 

You have not alloived profundity of meanmg to escape 
from your hand, i.e., You have not aJloiced your fluency 
to carry you away, but ^^«ff fch^jl ^^\A ^ ftjftf^ 
^^■ffy l^n ^l*^, The composition has not in any place 
allowed slovenliness to obtaiti a place. 

298. (6) ^TCTT, Frequentatives or Continuatives. 

In this Compound, ^i^rff is used with the Gerund 

having the form of the. Perfect Participle. % T^Trf ^^ 

^flST W5^^ W, ^''^^/y (i^i^cLys 'go on saying this. 

Frequentatives is a better name than Continuatives 
for this class of Compounds for even where the idea of 
continuity is present it is generally a continuity of repeti- 
tion, e.g., ^^^^ 5jrnri chiffl ^, she is in the habit of 

coming to the house. >Hm 55^ ^^ (^Idl T ^T^ 

^^ (g|J[ 4)<^f^ S'j In everything you thus go on cros- 
sing me. 

289. (7). T^SfT, Continuatives. 

This may be used with the Imperfect or Perfect 
Participle of the accompanying Verb. 2f? ^|<«| VJ^ 



SECT. 299 LOOSE COMPOUND VERBS. 331 

^fTF T^fTT "m, fie kept up his studies during the whole 
year. '^^ §^ <^4n, S/^t' xviU remain sweated. 

The question has been raised as to whether these 
are, strictly speaking. Compound Verbs, and not rather 
the ordinary use of t,6*1l '" close proximity to the 
preceding Participle. The question is one deserving 
consideration ; but, on the whole, the application of the 
word, Compounds, does seem justifiable ; there is not 
only proximity, but very close connection. In the sentence, 
^ ^^^TfTT ^5fT ^^ ^Irll ^, He goes on his xvay 
greatly perplexed, there are two distinct verbal ideas, 
namely, he is perplexed, he goes on his icay, he might do 
either alone. But in, ^ ^^rrTT K^rlJ %, He continues 
his Journey, no such separation is possible : the two Verbs 
have combined in one idea. Ifthe two were separated, 
we should have the meaning, he goes, he remains. 

Two or three examples of the use of this Compound 
are given. ^^ ^qTHrT ^ ^TH^ ^^T^n^ ^ 
\^n ^^ After this, the Brahman continued living at 
Gaoghat. ^^^J^ f|4.^Kl ^ ^^n^ ^, May God 
continue to maintain your righteousness. HT^T ^TT 
Riqi^ ^ini T^j That there remain sufficient support 
for the body. 3^ lft% ^0 ^^ ;gfi[7ft ^^ After 
that she remained alive for twenty years. 



332 LOOSE COMPOUND VERBS. SECT. 300 

300. <^«il '" Clone Compoimd Verb. Here may be 
noticed the use of ^^*{| in a Close Compound Verb. 
As regards construction {viz., with the stem of the 
preceding X'^erb), it is a Close Compound, but in meaning 
it is somewhat akin to the Loose Compounds, as the 
^ffrfT retains its very distinct force. It indicates that 
the action referred to in the earlier Verb continues, — 
it has commenced, it is still incomeplete. ^^ >3TT ^^T S, 
He is coming, i.e., is actually on his way, has started but 
not yet arrived. ^^ ^T^ ^1^ ^, She is dying. 

TX^ «R^ ^ ^, ^^'^' ^'"'fe '^^'^^ actualy speaking 

when 

In some sentences, the force of ^^«{| is weaker 
than in others, but the idea of continuation is generally 

present, l^f ^ ^'TT %T^ ^ ^, ^^^ ^^^<^'' ^^^' '^^^^^^ 

are you thinking about ? 

301. (8). >3i|r|j- Progressives or Contin natives. 

With ^TTfT, the preceding Verb is joined in its 
Participial form. Imperfect or Perfect, and agrees with 
it in Number and Gender. It is not easy to distinguish 
the exact difference in meaning between a Compound in 
which |^^r|| is the second N'^erb and one in which ^TTTT 
is used. It may be that with the former the emphasis, 
if emphasis there be, is on the continuation of the act 



SECT. 301 LOOSE COMPOUND VERBS. 333 

or the condition, with the latter there may be an under- 
lying* hint of persistence, something like the difference 
between The chihf continued crying, The child cried and 

cried. Examples. ^ ^ ^ ^7^ ^KrH WCrlT f , 

While seated he goes on working aivay. ^f^ n^^^| 

'HKffl ^TTrft ^ ^fm ftr^TfTT ^Tm f, ^h^ goes 

on heating the hoy and he goes on crying out. ^ ^^ ^TT^ 

^ %^ ^1^, ^^^'^y '^^''ff go on giving and these will go on 
taking. 

302. i9;. tII^HI, Oesideratives. The Verb com- 
pounded with ^^^^T, may be, 1, in the uninflected form 

of the Infinitive, or, 2, the Gerund having the form of 
the Perfect Participle. Formerl)' it was common to use 

the inflected form of the Infinitive, ^^ ^^T^ ''^ I ^'rl'l ^TT 

but of recent years the uninflected form is preferred, 

Very often this ^I^*n" with the other Verb forms 
a Compound rightly designated a Desiderative, but some- 
times it is imminence, not desire, that is indicated, e.g., 
^KJ ^f^U WCJ %\ ^TfTTT t, -^h- child is at the 

point o; death. ^^ ^^ ^^ J^lf ^JfT ^l^m f , 

A great evil is about to happen. 

The Infinitive may be in the feminine form, 
^FT tfH^n % 5^ fM^irO *<»fl ^T^, '^hose people 



334 LOOSE COMPOUND VERBS. SECT. 302 

wished to ask for soinethiti}^. ^^^ ^%t 4||>3t "^TT^ 
VK ^fTT ^^T^n ^T^ ^, Why did this man wish 
to thrust a knife into you to daij ? (Lit., «e/ his knife 
to work on you). It is, however, more generally in 
the macs. sing, s^^^ ^^T^T ^|^|, He desired to go. 

^ ^5TT ^T^ ^, They desire to take it. § H^Hi 
^ff^X ^, ^ item.) desire to hear it. 

Very occasionally, an Infin. with ^ is used 
before ^T^*TT, ^"^ ^^is cannot be considered a very 

approved idiom. %^ :5ft ^ ^Trff % M\^^ ^T 

TuecfT ^, '^0' heart longs to know these matters. 

This ^^iffT 's also used with the Perf. Participle 
form, or Gerund. ^Sf ^TPT ^T ^ ^^^Tm •TfV* 
^t^rn- ^ (fern.) do not wish to trouble your life. 
^^. . .'m^TTr ^l^fll ^^ He was wisJiing to get 
(something) written ^ g;F| ^iNrT^FT ^TfTn f, He 
wishes to entangle you. 

303. Reference has already been made to the use of 
^Tl%% ^s an Impersonal V'erb. It is a common and 
useful construction. The Infin. may be in the masc. 
or fem. form and also in the plural form. rTR ^t ^TS*TT 
T4||rf^, You must study {It is necessary for you 



SECT. 303 LOOSE COMPOUND VERBS. 335 

to Study.) ^^ ^^% ^'^ ^rfs^ ^<*fl ^T%%, 

W/ie« is it necessary to make a treaty loith him ? f]M^%{ 
^HTn U^^ ^*T3*T TlJlrfl^ Yon Jiiiisf read your own 
books. 

Sometimes a Verb is added after this T|||k^ g.^g., 

5^ ^rar H^ »T sft^RT ^f^ ^, it «^^^ "o^ neces- 
sary for me to say anything. 

304. To complete the references to the special uses of 

'^I^HI, we may repeat that ^T^ ...... -^j^ is 

used for, whether: or... Thus, f^g'Trff ^J ^f^ ^ 

fe ^rt ^T^ %TCT tr ^f ^f T, The view of 

the wise is that whether it he a little matter or a great 
matter. 

NOUN-VERBAL COMPOUND VERBS. 

305. These Verbs are also called Nominal Compounds. 
They are formed by adding a Noun, or other Part of 
Speech to the Verb ^^?T7 (or to some other Verb). 
As in English, we can say, to do penance, to do justice, 
to do homage or obeisance, so in Hindi they can say, 

to do worship, ^^j ^T^ ; or ^TTT^nTT ^TTT ; 

to do mercy, ^q-f ^T'TT ; fo do protection, j;^j 
"^nK^ ', to do food, ^^^ ^TTT ; ^"cl innumerable 
other do's. 



336 NOUN-VERBAL COMPOUND VERBS SECT. 305 

These Compounds are of two kinds. In one Class, 
the Noun and Verb are so fully compounded that they 
become one Verb atid can govern another Noun in 
the Accusative Case ; in the second Class, the com- 
pounding is less effectively carried out, and the Noun 
remains related to the other Nouns in the sentence 
as though it were not compounded with the Verb, 

and is itselt governed by that Verb. This distinction 

r 

may be well illustrated by ^^rf ^t^^TT, which is 

used in both ways. As fully compounded, we find, 

He related the story of himself and the goblin. Here 

r 

^l|!Fr and ^vCTT hzive become one 'Verb, and this 

Verb governs SJTtRT ^^ fq^^xT ^T ^TfT^fT in the 

Accusative (without ^fX). More generally, however, 
eCi^Iri '4^<vil '^ ""'^ ^"^'y compounded, and we should 
then have 3^% 5R^ ^^ pHUT^ % |tTT?^?T 

mi ^W*T t^JTF, I" the first case, we have, " he related 

the story/' in the second, " /?e did a relation of the 
story/ 

A few of these Compounds are used in both ways, e.g., 

^ft^TT ^ST^n. We find mf^ % 'TfPj ^ ^rrar 

^q)ef)|^ ^lll The brothers accepted the saint's command. 
Here the Verb is a true Compound and is fem., because 



SECT. 305 NOUN-VRBAL COMPOUND VERBS. 337 

of ilTT^T. '•■• the following sentence, ^^ JT^^ ^T 
^c||!:^'|^ ^T) ^^^ them accept this book, the Verb is not 
fully compounded, and so does not govern IT^^ in the 
Accus. The sentence runs literally, Let tliein do ac- 
ceptance of this hook. 

Another illustration from an actual occurrence of 
sentences in a book is given, as it is most important to 
have a clear grasp of the differences of construction in 
the use of these two classes of Compound Verbs. '^^ 

Hoiv far can I describe the excellences of this book ? 

r 
Here ^^CR" ehi^T 's a full Compound and governs 

jj^ll %T in the Accus. But in the following, from the 
same book and within a line or two of the previously 
quoted sentence, ^f^ 3^r$l 5%t ^T ^^ ^^5R 
f^JTT ^n^ ^f '■^ /"^' description of its excellences 
should he given (lit, "made"), the Verb is not fully 
compounded with ^^R"; otherwise the sentence would 

run ^rf^ 3^% 5^ ^^JR fiS^ ^TT^. The fti^ 

tgff^ would be plural, agreeing with ip^. As it is, it is 

r 
sing., agreeing with ^^JT* 

It is only a few of these Compounds which are used 

in both forms. TRHT eh<«il »s another of them. We 
22 



338 NOUN- VERBAL COMPOUND VERBS. SECT. 305 

may have "^^R ^T^^ %T TT^T Rh^l, ^^<^ nurtured 
the child. Or, ^^% ^:g% ^ m^^ f^^T, ^^ ^''' 

 

nonrishmenf of the child. So also^ IT^T ^T '^T'^'T 
^^TT, / ^^'ill cherish my subjects. 

r^T^ ^^T, ^o forsahe . ^3TT^>T ^T^T, to com- 
uience, and some others are used in both forms, but 
generally the Compound is either close or loose and 
used consistently in one way or the other. 

U^m ^'^T, to receive, or accept, f^^ ^?:5n, 

to farewell, to dismiss, ^^T ^TT*TF ^'^ forgive, are 
examples of the first Class, the fully Compounded Verbs. 
In the case of the great majority of the V^erbs now 
under consideration, the compounding is not fully carried 
out ; the Noun which is more or less joined to the ^^vfj 
is related to other Nouns in the sentence, as though 
it were not an integral part of the \'erb, and in truth 
it is not so. 

Among such not fully Compounded Verbs come 
words like ^^J ch<«TI, ^« display mercy : ^^TT ^T'TT, 
to afford protection  ^M\ cR^*TTj to offer worship ; 

W^TTtTT cfii^v^T, io render help. In English, we have 
what we consider an appropriate Verb to use with each 
Noun ; but, in Hindi, in spite of its wealth of words. 



SECT. 305 NOUN-VERBAL COMPOUND VERBS. 339 

ch^ff I may be used with countless Nouns ; and so we 
have above, to do mercy, to do protection, to do worship, 
to do help. 

Other Verbs are used in these Compounds, such as 

^^T, %5TT, tRT, mxm, ^TK^i but ^^srr is the 

favourite Verb for these Compounds. 

Not only are Nouns joined up in this way ; occa- 
sionally, an Adverb, or Adjective, or even Postposition 
may be joined up, e.g., ^T^^T ch<«il, to heal ; ^^TT 

^^«n> ^o do good ; ^ft^ ^1^«rr, to hasten ; tft% iniHl, 

to put behind ; ^X^[J ^TiKTT, to pursue. 

No attempt will be made to give lists of these Com- 
pounds. Dr. Kellogg, in his Grammar, gives quite long 
lists of some of them, with the right constructions (in 
sections 450-465), and Mr. F. Pincott, in his Hindi 
Manual, similarly, gives useful lists (pp 49-59 in the 
edition of 1882). 

It is very important that the student should learn 
which form is correct of these numerous Compounds, 
and also what is the right construction. Possibly, seeing 
jjij the phrase, WH? tf^ ^^ ^Hftf^, ^«ve mercy on me, 
j,J it might be concluded that ^jEfJ ^R^rfT was a full Com- 
fcl pound, and that therefore ^3"^% ^\^ T^T ^T {^l^l, 



340 NOUN-VERBAL COMPOUND VERBS. SECT. 305 

would be correct ; but it is not so. dm fhij'iJ, 's not a 

full Compound, and the sentence should therefore be, 

306. f^^T^ ^TT, ^tc- O"^ small class of Com- 
pounds demands a separate notice. A few Abstract 
Nouns, notably f^^^T^j a seeing, HtTT^, '■^ hearing 
(and a few others formed on the same principle), are 
formed with c[*lT into Compound N'erbs which are 
treated as Neuters, but have somewhat the force of Pas- 
sives. Occasionally, TJ^cff is found instead of ^»TJ. 

Then Chandragiipfs kingdom appears as though if had 
passed away. % ^^T^ % ^PTT fc^^^l^ ^ ^, 
WJiaf are those [things) like animals which are visible ? 
^W %Tt 5p^ f^^f »T f^T, VV//cn no man ap- 
peared. ^PI Itjoc^ 5*'T^ ^T^, ^^'t- shout of " Vic- 
tory !" was heard. ^JWFTf ^^ "S^J f^\t. TSrlJ %, 
Chanakya, seated, comes into view {i. e., when the curtain 

is lifted). 

SYNTAX OF THE VERB. 
307. The matter of agreement between the Verb 
and its Nominative and Accusative, has already been 
dealt with in sections, 142-144, and the position of the 
Verb, in the sentence in section 147. Many other points 



SECT. 307 SYNTAX OF THE VERB. 341 

have also come under consideration in the various sec- 
tions on the Tenses, etc. One or two other points, more 
or less related to Syntax, may now be noticed. 

Subject of the Verb unexpressed. The omission of 
the subject is more common in Hindi than in English. 
This is natural when it is remembered that in many 
parts of the Verb the Verb itself indicates whether the 
subject is sing, or plural ; masc. or fem. With those 
Tenses of Transitive Verbs which are formed from the 
Perfect Participle this is not the case. Another disabi- 
lity under which Hindi suffers is the lack of a 3rd per- 
sonal Pronoun. "^^ and ^^ have to serve for he, she 
and if. 

In the English sentence, Will you go ? / ivill, the 
Pronoun is used in the reply, the Verb is not repeated ; 
in Hindi, the Verb is repeated, but (often) no Pronoun is 
used ; H^T ^H^n'T ? ^Ivii^lt. For the English, People 
say, the Hindi will be, in many cases, simply, ch^H W. 
In the following sentence, the Pronoun, you, is omitted 

in Hindi, ftf^f ^T% ^^T^5T?r5 ^ ^TTT ^TT^T'ft, 

When iyou) are married, (you) icill know about mother-in- 
law and sister-in-law. 

Such omissions are quite common in Hindi. 

The position of the subject and Verb often does not 



342 SYNTAX OI- THE VERB. SECT. 307 

correspond with the position common in English sen- 
tences, e.g., The king pondered over it and became much 
perplexed. %T^^ %r^^ ?[T^T «r^ "^^^ T^. 

308. The use of a Participle instead of a second 
principal Verb. A Conjunctive Participle, or ordinary 
Participle, very generally supplies the place which a 
second Verb would occupy in a corresponding English 
sentence. Eng. He stood up in the assembly and said. 

Hindi. WHT ^ ^ tr^Tt ^^ ^^. Eng. They 
kept zialking on and became very weary. Hindi. 
^Hrl ^ ^ ^^ ^TcR T^. Eng. He icent to the 
shop, examined the- cloth, asked the price and came 
axvay without purchasing anything. Hindi. ^chlH "^X 

^TT ^TTpT t^ ^ ^T^ 5^ ^K f^^ ^^ fe^ 

309. Omission of Auxiliary. It has already been 
mentioned that, with some of the Tenses, the Auxiliary 
is sometimes omitted. 

Again, one Auxiliary often does service for two or 
more Verbs. ffpT Tt^ W^ ^T ^rlT ^T. ^^cT 
%gT chtdl ^ TO . . . H^ «'<?"^ ^^y h' day to the 
house and tried hard to 

310. Omission of ^ with *T^. In a sentence 
in which «f^| occurs, the ^ is often, perhaps we may 



SECT. 310 SYNTAX OF THE VERB. 343 

saj- generally, omitted. Some are of the opinion that 
q^ is a form qf plus ^. ^ Tf^ ^^ ^^ffT TO, 

I do not say this that ..... So ^^ ^^ qf^ ^TrfT, 

He does not go anywhere. 

311. ^j not an Auxiliary. Not, infrequently what 
at first sight may be regarded as a Present Imperfect 
Tense, etc., proves, on closer consideration, to be part of 
the Verb ^TTT, pi't^ceded by a Participle. Thus, ^ ^ST 
^3 ^ will generally prove to be, not. They have seat- 
ed themselves there, but, lliey are there, having seated 
themselves, i.e., ^^ "^^ ^ • and so with other Verbs. 

312. Repetition of a Verb. The repetition of a 
Verb generall}' indicates either repetition of an act, 
continuation of the action expressed by the Verb, or 
intensity. It is most commonly a Participle or the 
Conjunctive Participle that is repeated, not one of the 
ordinary Tenses. 

Implying Repetition, ^f^ ^J^ 3f^ f^^ ^T 
7|^f Doing if again and again he became very clever 

(at it). 5[^[^ ^, ^W^T 'Hl^g^'H ^^3T fe, t^y asking 
many questions he became aicare that 

Implying Continuation. 4H M W?^ ^ ^j^ 3|?r 

%T ^MH ^TT ^^ '^^ ivent on bathing, he thought over 



344 SYNTAX OF THE VERB. SECT. 312 

this qnesHon. ^^^ ^ ^ tf^^ ^T^f ^^ ^ ^f ^T, 

Going rigJit on he reached home at midnight. 

Implying Intensity. ^ ^ Wt^ T^ ^^ ^^^ 
^<j|^ <f|4|' They -went forward^ taking great care that 
the sound of their footsteps {should not be heard). 

* 
^^3n ^^ 'H^ ^TT'T ^'T, ^'* t^^^ thick darkness, feeling 
very carefully as they placed their feet on the ladder, they 
began to descend. ^l|^ ^^T% J^ ^r{ ^5T ^ ^, 
They were speaking very very soft.y. 

Sometimes, in, the repetition of the Verb, its form 
is slightly altered the second time. «TTW %T ^JU^ 
W^ ^!T ^3TFr «r^ % T^, Dragging the boat this way 
and that, they carried it forward. 



Chapter XI. 
PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES. 

VERBAL AND OTHER COMPOUNDED NOUNS. 

313a. ^T^^IT , Pi^eHx. 

3Tr^^ , Suffix. 

op)^«^ Nouns formed from Verbs. 

^ . rj -a- Nouns formed from other Nouns 
***■ ' by the addition of a suffix. 

This subject is a large and important one. To 
deal with it fully would not be possible in such a Gram- 
mar as this, as many difficult and intricate questions 
of etymology would have to be investigated. All 
that can be attempted is to give some of the more 
important and common prefixes and suffixes, to state 
their general force and meaning, and to illustrate this 
by giving a few examples of words thus compounded. 

T 

PREFIXES. NJl|4jJ|. 

313b. These are arranged, in the main, in alphabet- 
ical order, but, where there are two or more prefixes 
having similar meanings or cases in which they pair 
ol^" in the way of opposition or contrast, they are 
brought together for the sake of comparison. 



346 



PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES. 



SECT. 313b 



Prefix. Meaning. 



Examples. 



5CT 



negation. 






unrighteousness. 
jJT^l%^ unseemly. 
j^STrnrt^, yrieeless. 

^r?^T inner, mind, soid. *ii^(i^\-H\ , ^nrT^nTT j 

"pervading the spirit. 

the heart. 
%^TT , n-ithout icorli. 
^^f\lXM , without muse. 
33ETf?r^TH , '-(^ry powerful. 
5T^TT*T , disgrace. 

'^^^Jh , ill-conduct. 

»^^qe^e^| half-coolxcd, half- 
ripe. 

^Vr^Sjrr , half-dead. 

»^^ng<<rH half -blown {of 
' a flower.) 

SJTTPrft , '^ paralytic. 

a follower, a 
' disciple. 



^ 


negation. 


'ITf?T 


excess. 


^TT 


defect. 








' /?a//. 


^n^ 




r 




^^3 


inferior, after, 
according to, 



3^f*T superior, before. 



^rftr 



superiority. 



^I'l^UI^ , ?/2 t7?e presence of. 
*\\\HHM , pride. 



SECT. 313b PREFIXES. 347 

Prefix. Meaning. Examples. 

jjI^ opposition, substi- xyfj^^^^f , retaliation, 
tiitiov, repetition. 

Ajfci^^fl 'I'ecompense, re- 
' qiiital. 

3Tf?ff^ , f?«?/ ^y day. 



in ac- 



Compare »H«j<^^ 

cordance icitlt, and JJiTT- 
a^^ J contrary to. 
This i||f| has various mean- 
mgs. 
W^'^ another. >i1«^<^*ll , '^ foreigner. 

^^^ tie knowledge. 

i^^ diminution. ^^J^, ^^ defect, a vice. 

Compare ;^^4|]r|, il^diig 
doivn, deterioration, and 

3riFd, '■'St'' progress. 
^r^T^ 5 ^"P<-'''ior. 
 superiority, e.xcess. ^^I^T , perturbation. 

TXtr ;,,^ • w ~3^^*T. "^ garden, artificial 

OH inferiority, nearness >jt-» «5 .? 

(^/s-o e,vcm.) fo rest.^ 

r 
3| 6a(/. 5""^'^' '^" ^"^ course. 

1 ^, J^l 5*ri^^- '^/>''^""^^^^- 



3? 



1^ f : J l^'^ft^ . 



ill-bcliaviour 



348 PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES. SECT. 313b 

Prefix. Meaning. Examples. 

H't^Jl^H ^/ ^^^ disposition 

or conduct. 
^^H^, difficult to be crossed, 

1 good. gajV^ , o/ yoo^ disposition 

or conduct. 
P^ f^ ' f^^, Pifi*^, poicerless. 






negation. 



hi^H^m, i<^ it h o ut off- 
spring. 
T'Tt^''^^ '^-^'ithout doubt. 

M^4)Mdr li^ithoiit deceit. 

This must not be confused with another f^ an 

intensive particle. 

^ distant, ulterior, tJ^^^'SJx, '^ foreigner. 

exceeding, beyond. ___^_ ,, ^ , , 

"' ^«^T^ , f'ie next world. 

tj^5^ r the Supreme Being. 
^X^ intensive, the reverse, ^\i^\^^ poicer. 

MiM^, defeat. 

fw "^TTSRTT, circunianibitlation. 

t^TT ciround, excess. ^^ 

mRhim, .'/^^'^^ ''<-'«^- 

jy e.vcc^ss, intensive. J^^rrl , f/^^'^i e^brf. 

f^ disjunctive, intensive. f^T^, /o''<-^'g» country. 

^ conjunctive. W^f^, strong. 



SECT. 313b PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES. 349 

Prefix. Meaning. Examples. 

Compare fifViT^j ividoic, 

and ^^WT, f7 icoman 

wJiose husband is alive: also 

fif^lT, separate and l\^{A\ 

united. 

^pq equal Uhe. ^J^pf impartial, one xvho 

^^ i^^ifli^ ' ^(^oks equally on all, 

" ^^Tpft, a felloxv-tmvellei: 

'5^^'TT, <^ felloic-labourer. 
^r^ the li'hole, cf. ^^ ^^WT^ft, f^^^ Omin- 

scient. 
^^ rz >M M«i I , o;?e's own. ^^^^, o/?e's o^c';^ country. 

SUFFIXES. T(^^^ 
314. In dealing with Suffixes, it may be better to 
use another method than that adopted in the section on 
Prefixes. There we pursued the alphabetical order. It 
is proposed to throw the Suffixes into groups, so that 
some light may be thrown upon the systematic formation 
of the Compounds, which will now be considered, viz., 
Nouns and Adjectives (some of them used as Nouns) 

formed from a Verb or Noun base, by the addition of 
a Suffix. 

There are two main groups : I, called by Indian 

Grammarians d^^vri, which have a Verbal base, and 
II. rll^^, vvhich have a Noun as a base. 



350 PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES. SECT. 814 

Indian Grammarians have worked out the divisions 
and sub-divisions with great elaboration and much 
ingenuity. Pundit Aladhava Prasad Pathak, in his 
" Hindi Balbodh Vyakaran, " has done a very useful 
piece of work in this special section, and I gratefully 
acknowledge the help I have derived from him in the 
order here adopted. 

It has not been thought necessary to work out the 
details of the euphonic changes which often take place 
in the original word in adding the suffixes. They are 
interesting, but not absolutely necessary, for the student, 
who will hardly be expected to enter on the task of 
forming new words, but, for a time, at least, will content 
himself with ascertaining the meaning and use of those 
already formed. 

Many of the changes, and the suffixes themselves, are 
Sanskrit, but they belong to Hindi, forasmuch as the 
words are widely current in Hindi, and new words are 
being formed from time to time. 

VERBAL NOUNS. «f^??T 

315. These words are formed from a X'erbal base, 
supplemented by what is called a 3f^rT37^T^ i-^-, a Suffix 
which conveys a further verbal force to the word with 
which it is united. These S^^^rri ^^^ ^^so called 1^^117* 
WT^^ ^r^T, ^■^■, Nouns setting forth verbal ideas. 



SECT. 315 VERBAL NOUNS. 351 

Five classes are given. 

I gRTT ci I 'dcfi W^T ^^ouns which indicate the 
d ' Doer. 

II. ^^T^^ ^Wl. "^"'^ '^''"''• 

111. ^^^^^ ^^T- ^^'^^ ^y which the 

acf is accomplished. 

\V. ^X^^J^^^ ^yH fli<-' doing itself. 

V. fli^n^fT^ Wr ; thjdoerin the 

doing of the act. 

II. and V. need no further explanation ; they are the 

f- 

Perfect and Imperfect Participles, respectively, being 
formed from the stem of the Verb, by the addition of 
3CTT ; fern. % and pi. masc "^^ for the Perfect Participle; 
and <Tr, fTT) ^n^ ^ for the Imperfect Participle. These 
have been dealt with in Chapter X. 

We have, therefore, now to consider classes I. III. 
and IV. 

Class I. ^fj ^T^^ ^T^T. Nouns indicating the 
Doer. 

Under this head come the Nouns of Agency, formed 
by adding ^^T or ^T^J to the inflected Infinitive. 
These have been explained in the chapter on the Verb, 
Chapter X. 

Other Compounded Nouns are formed by the addition 
to, the stem of the Verb of such suffixes as ^ ^i\j 
%m, etc. 



352 PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES. SECT. 315 

m<f|c|i. a preserver. 5RT^^, ^ (foer. 

^r^^l, ^ setter of j excels. 

^^^1, a thatcher. Tf^^JJ^ a singer. 

f , 

Class III. ^j^^cTX^^ ^T^T. Nouns indicating the 

Instrument. 

Formed from the Infinitive by changing «TT to ^n"- 
>i|^r||, a handle for turning a spinning-xvheel . 
^T^'TT, hellows. 

Class IV. ^TT^^T^^ ^rWT- Nouns indicating the 
action itself. 

Some of these indicate the action, some the abstract 
idea of the action, and not a few words are found, 
formed in the same way, which stand for the price 
paid for work done. 

a. The stem alone. ^T^, sound, utterance- ^^, 
running, a race, ^^m^ understanding. 

b. The stem lengthened, "^^j ivalk. tff^^ read- 
ing (from q(S«il, M^«il, f^ ''^^'^•' 

c. The stem with JSTT^, or ^TT^, ^^TW, progress, 
increase. U^|'<4, deception (fr. ^^mi, meaning fo 
deceive. ) f|[T^T^, s/;etc', display. p5Knivai, serving 
food. 



SECT. 315 VERBAL NOUNS. 353 

d. The steam with ^T^. f%<^Tf, sewiii^i>; ^T^TT^, 
soicin^ ; |^«TT^, '^<-'eavini> ; ^ift^T?], Joining, especially 
of bricks in masonry: 6^«tq|^ making. 

Many of these words are also used to signify the 
price tor such work. 

e. The stem with '^^ or 3^ . ^rfl^^, mahe ; 
^^ff^3^^ adornment; '^^T^ZJj calling, summons; 

NOUNS (AND ADJECTIVES) COMPOUNDED OF A NOUN 
AND A SUFFIX. fff^rC. 

316. The word rrf^cT is from fTcf, tli<^t ; i.e., the 
original Noun, and Jg'ff t/iaf ichicli relates to, or suits ; 
fl'f^^ is applied to those Compounded Nouns which 
are formed from an original simple Noun, to which a 
suffix has been added. 

Such Nouns have been divided into five Classes. 

I. *imrMc|T^^. This word is from >HMoM, ojf- 
spring, and therefore is somewhat equivalent to the Eng- 
lish, patronymic. In Hindi, however, this group not only 
includes descendants, but followers. Names indicating 

nationality', also, are included under this head. 

r 

II. ^<7^1'^«lii. In this group are contained the 

Compounds indicating "doer of and names identified 
with the workers in different trades and crafts. 






354 PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES. SECT. 316 

III. VTT^^X^^. Abstract Nouns expressinjt^ the 
nature or character of a person or thing. 

I\^ ''T^'^T^^. These are, as the name indicates, 

adjectival in character, describini^ persons by the quali- 
ties they possess. Some adjectives, not used as Nouns, 
must also be included in this group. 

V, ^^cTf^^. From ^*T, '^''A'"'''^- Diminutives. 

317. I. Patronymics, etc. These may be formed by— ^ 

a. Lengthening the vowel, e. //,, iy^ a worshipper 
of Shiva, fr. T^^- "^^^^, ^ worshipper of X'ishnu, fr. 
ft^W. TR^^, the descendants of TT^^. TI'S'. a 

follower of ^^. 

b. Adding ^. TfYT^*TT^5'^/^^'^o"u'c'r o/ 

'ftT^'Tr^; ^^"^^5 belong i II <> to the tribe of q"? ; 
ty ^ l ^ one born in the Punjab. 

c. Adding ^J or ^^ e ., Vft^Sf^ft^TT, 
a resident of ^^^ ; ^^^T^ or ^STTTTT^, 

an important caste, descendants of j!TT|^. 

318. II. A large class, indicating doer of. These 
names are closely connected with trades and occupations, 
though, as has already been pointed out, a man often 
enjoys the caste name, when no longer following the 
occupation special to that caste. 



SECT. 318 COMPOUNDED NOUNS. 355 

The Noun of Agency ending in e||^i or ^TTT 
has been included in the previous section, d>|dvri i 
but some words formed from a Noun, by the addition of 

^T^T or f TTT, belong to this group. tldH^^l^l, 
a baker; ^^^J^J^ a milkinan ; q^TfR or ^^TH, 

a water-carrier. 

(b). Formed by adding such terminations as ^m, 

^, wT5f, ^n, ^n6r, ^^, ^mr, etc The 

last two are perhaps rather words than suffixes. 

"^^mTT, <'■ seller of salt ; '4|4^M^T, ^ dealer in 
butter; ^^^IJ^, <J- preacher or teacher; 7TT^«fM/ 
a carter ; ^^TK or %T»TTT, « goldsmith ; ^^TT, 
a blacksmith \ ^^JH^, cl gambler ; dKMM, agate- 
keeper ; ^g"c^TfTT, " giver of grain. 

319. III. Abstract Nouns, relating to both persons and 
things. 

Formed by adding the suffixes, f{J^ ^ofj ^j tf^T^ 

TT, ^ or ^T^, ey, ^r^^dl, holiness; x^rl^ril, 

excellence (These Abstract Nouns ending in ffT are 
very common) : TT«1^Mrc|, manhood ; <^| ^r'^, serfdom ; 
'^^T^, ^>readth ; ^H^^^* cleverness ; ^'eTTT, child- 
hood ; ^^^T, Q^d age ; ^Tk^, weightiness, dignity ; 
lf%n^, depth. 



356 PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES. SECT. .320 

820. ly. Adjectival Nouns and Adjectives. These 
describe the persons or things by the qualities they 
possess. 

Formed by the addition of such suffixes as ^T*T, 

^m, ^?r, g-rT, ^, g, ^, 3JTT, ^^T, ^^, 

^'TT^'T, merciful ; >Trr^T«T, ir e- a L t h y ; 
yj^^^l H, 'cise ; t^^^f^j animal-like, h e s t i a I. 
^'5f«(*n, an atJilete, siromj man : ^Tf{^ and ^tSfJ^^ 

compassionate ; ^3!|T^ merciful ; ^IT-ST^, '• '>i'<''ii'l<'r, 

quarrelsome person ; ^RiT, hungry ; '-mfJT, '^liirsty ; 
^^T or ^T^^T, ^"<^ MH^T or ^^^T, (}(^'>^>-Cstic and 
wild animals; f^J^^^^^'^, irortliy of trust ; JT^f^T'TT'T, 
worthy of praise; T{jf^^, monthly ; ^fr|ch, daily ; 
'^^^^, injurious ; ^T^IT?", aloofness ; ^rfsf^, very 

dense {of a forest) ; ^ftj^, very strong. 

Many other words and suffixes might be added, e.g., 
^f{ in such words as ^ToH, HT^?^, wielder ot a 
[<?H6l oi' of a ^7^ spear: ^rl in words like "StftfiFfT, 

grieved : ^y^rlj glad. 

There are many suffixes also which are more akin 

to words than simple suffixes, e.g., TJ?f full of ; 

e r 

^T'l'^'I, ^o?//2</ ; ^T^, gvcer of : J^^, with ; ^, 

full of; ^n^, jud, only ; JtF, vftfT ; ^T^T, etc. 



SECT. 321 COMPOUNDED xouxs. 357 

321. V. Diminutives. With a final ^, replacing i^, etc. 
T?F^, " rope^ smaller than ^^^ ; ^TTT, '^^ basket^ 
smaller than a ^|4^| ; with the termination ^^, ^f/-, 
^^Ml^'T, ■^ little girl : Tcfj^'TT, ^ funall hedstead. 

The lists of the suffixes given above are by no 
means complete, and lists of words have not been 
attempted, only a few illustrations given. The whole 
subject is a wide and important one. In Sanskrit, 
compounding is carried out to an extravagant extent, 
and that more than traces of this should have come 
into Hindi is not surprising. Many long Sanskrit 
Compounds are brought bodily into Hindi ; others are 
manufactured. Tulsi Das' " f'clVf^Tff^^T " affords 
many illustrations of long Sanskrit Compounds. 



322. 


Adverb. 


Chapter XI 1. 
ADVERBS. 

of time. 
„ place. 

„ manner, 

,, quantity or ] 
degree. J 


f*^iRilMui. 











323. The Hindi f^t^TftrSNC^ corresponds very 
largely with the English word Adverb : it means the 
word which qualifies the Verb. As in English so in 
Hindi, the Adverb in use covers more than its name 
signifies, aj and T^T, ^s affirmative and negative, 

words indicating time and place, such as ^ST, ^^T, 

3^^ ?TW, clo "ot appear in any special manner to qualify 
the Verb, and yet these and many other words do 
furnish information closely connected with that which 
the Verb conveys. To be informed when and where 
an act is done, is certainly related to the act itself. 

Perhaps the use of the Adverb in which it is most 
true to its essential character is that in which the 
English words ending in ... ly are found, setting forth 
how an act is performed, e.g., He fought bravely. But 



SECT. 823 ADVERBS. 359 

particulars connected with the verbal idea ma}- be largely 
widened, and thus we meet with Adverbs of Time and 
Place, and even a whole sentence, called an Adverbial 
Extension. 

It will be noticed that some words appear in lists of 

Postpositions which have already appeared as Adverbs, 

and some of these same words are Nouns also. Day is 

a Noun, and yet in the sentence, "He did it day by day," 

(daily;, it is truly an Adverb. Words do thus change in 

their character, as they are used in different ways. In 3^% 

•fv% WW[ ^, What is under it 7 v||^ is a Postposition. 

In the sentence, gf^ ;TT% mT^j ^^ .^^'^^ doicn, it is an 
Adverb. So, in ^\T[ ^%T, Go forward, ^Tl't is an 

Adverb. In ^7^ ^HT ^ ^ ft^^ ^%f f , 

Aftcd'l of them are both home and rest, it is a Post- 
position. 

As in English so in Hindi, we may have : — 

1. A simple Adverb. ^ vRt '^^nTT ^, ^e icas 

icaJking sloirly. 
1. Another word used as an Adverb, ^ff ^TT'T*^- 

5[W^ T^rTT ^, /?e lived joy f idly, or icith joy. 
3. An Adverbial sentence, ^^ ^HH I iifl^Hl % 



I 



360 ADVERBS. SECT. 328 

^'^^T ^T, '^<^ ^''■«« goi^^g ulontj so quickly that 
)io one 7i:a.^ able to lay hold of him. 
324. Adverbs may be noticed under three headings : 

1. Pronominal Adverbs. 

2. Adverbs. 

3. Adverbial Phrases. 

I. PRONOMINAL ADVERBS. 

We have ah'eady noted the series of Pronominal 
Adjectives in which the characteristic letters of the 
Pronouns appear and modify the meaning. In a similar 
way, we have a series of words adverbial in their force, 
and these have been suitably denominated Pronominal 
Adverbs. 

In the following lists, it will be observed that, 1. are 
related to the Proximate Demonstrative Pronoun ?Jff. 
2. to the Remote Demonstrative Pronoun ^^. 3. to the 
Relative Pron. %J. 4. to the Correlative ^^'\ under its 
somewhat obsolete infilected form f?T^. ^- to the Inter- 
rogative ^T*T. ^"cl ^- to the Indefinite ^t^. 

In some cases, not all the members of the series are 
in use. 

a. Of Place. 

1-. ^^, 'T^ l-^cre. 
2. ^^, ^^ there. 



SECT. 324 



PRONOMIxNAL ADVERBS. 



361 



^■'- ^^1 lohere, ir el alive). 

"^- rT^T '^isre, 'correlative). 

^ «R^T ivhere? 

^^- ^^ anyichere. 
h. Of Dipeetion. 

1 - ^^H! hither. 

'-■ 3^f; lliither. 

'^ (t^PTT) ii'hWier 

■^- (f^^t) thkhev. 



6. 



TO^^, whither 7 



and 



For f^Vr^ and f?rV|K, 
^IT^ and ff^ are 

almost invariably used. 

Even for ^^J^^ ^3VT, 

T^^T, ^^Tj c|^l, and ^^ are commonly used. 

t-ven as, in English, lohere are you going ? is far more 

commonly used than, loliUher are you going ? 

c. Of Time. 

f!^ or ^^ mpt, 

"^"Sf when. 
rra" ^hen. 

(/. Of Manner. 

1 . ^f , ^* thus. 

2. ^ obsolete, supplied by "3^ ?T^^. 



362 ADVERBS. SECT. 324 

3. ^^^, 3^ as. 

4. ??ft '<o. 



These are generally used of 
time, Just as, at that mo- 
ment. For manner, |^4J 



o. 



are more 
common. 

^^f , W^, ^ /'ov ? why ? 

6. 

Some of these Pronominal Adverbs are treated 
somewhat as Nouns, becoming subject to declension, by 

•it ^ 

the use of Postpositions, e.g., H^ ^fv^T ^T ^, ^f "^'fi^^t 
place is this {man) ? ^I'gf W WT^TT, Go away from here. 
^tS( rl^ T^^, Until xchen will you remain ? ^CT % 
*n7T^, In here. W[W $f M^, For the present. 

By repetition and combination, these Pronominal 
Adverbs yield other modifications of meaning : ^^T 

^3T^ rfff rT^. wherever in those places. ^^ 

"3TW rT^ rf^j ^Jienever Ihen. ^^ g^, whenever. 

^WV ^f^ft, sometimes, "^^ff ^=^t......^Jt ^ft, ./"s^ 

as. ..so also (especiallj^ in reference to succession in time.) 

^T ^T^ ^ fTff Tf ^^T, ^^'^''" "'«''^^" remained just 

as it xvas. ^fl^ 2F^ ^f % rT^f ^ T^ ^• 

Excellent books remain as they are (i.e., either unpublished 
or unsold- 



SECT. 324 PRONOMINAL ADVERBS. 363 

^Wt ^ ^WT, or ^pfl- ^i^^ occasionally. ^^ 
T cn^l, or dhi^l ^Ri^, somexi-here or other. ?raf ^anf 

Ae/-e C7;u/ there, r^ ^;^ xvherever. ^yif^ 3>^, or 
T^ ftV^, /?/V//er and thither. ^^^ rT^^ noic and again 
( ^T^ rT^ ^^•TT is idiomatically used, for " to procras- 
tinate'). ^^ r^^ occasionally. ^ ^^ or ^f 
^ r^T, exactly in the same state or condition. 

2. ADVERBS. 

325. A. Adverbs of Place and Direction. 
jITTT forward, or forwards. 
"^t^ backward, or backwards. 
"^^xTfK itpward, or upicafds. 
«TT^ doivmcard, or downwards. 

STT^T outward, or outwards. 

vfjH'C 'uicard, or inwards. 

T^JX. on the other side. Used after a Noun, followed 
by ^ or %j this word has very much of a prepositional 
force, but with a Demonstrative Pronoun in the cons- 
truct. State, it has an adverbial force. ^^ ^TTT, thisside; 
^^ TTT, ^^*«f 5■^^^^• 

^^ on this side. 



^^'^ ADVERBS. SECT. 325 

K. right through. Spoken, e.^^., of cutting 
^fC "m^^) right through anything. 

^*T^ (prop. ^?5J^^ in another flaee, elsetchrye. 

^^W in one place, or together. 

r . 
W^^ iyi all places, ubiquitous. 

m^^ near, ^TTO" cZose to, "^X. /<2^'> ^^^ "o^ P*"*^" 
perly Adverbs, though sometimes used with an adverbial 
force. 

326. B. Adverbs of Time. 

Under these will come words indicating different 
parts of the- day, and different periods of time, e.g., 

>H I ^ to-day, ^^ to-morrow. The more common of 

these are mentioned in Chapter XVI. 

33TXT hefcre. According to tae context, this may 
stand for past or future time, formerly or liereafter. 
The English word " before " is somewhat analogous, 
e.g. They used to do thishefore, i.e., previously. In the 
years that lie before let lis not do so. 

"nt^^ before, previously. 
TTOTH subsequently. 
f^^T5T finally. 
IJcfiST onee upon a time. 
<5^<i»f T{ nieanivhile 



SECT. 326 ADVERBS OF TIME. 365 

T^Trl or (ricM continually, always. 

^T'^n ^-ontinuaUy, from (jeneration to generation. 

Used of past time. 

^r^X iilicays. 

'^^^ aUcays {intensive of ^3T) 

r 
^^T ^^^ for ever and ever. 

J^RT once more, again. 

^^\aJX often, generally. 

'^^^K ^^^^ equivalent, often used in Hindi. 

^T ^^ or ^T"^!^ repeatedly, again and again. 

327. C. Adverbs of Manner^ 

^^■R^ or ^^^rr^^^ 

^ es suddenly. 

^*IH^ or ^chl^*T 

^IX ^T (intensive) 



g^^ 



or 



^ 



TH 



of^^ or 'Sf^^ {Urdu) 



> quickly. 



366 ADVERBS. SECT. 327 

ViH^ slowly. 'V .. 

^IT^ "^flT (intensive of above). 

^^or ^r^ truly. 

W^'T^ t^'idy. An intensive form of the above. 

^Tf^ truly. 

^T^^tTT Urdai equivalent. 

^ET^^JI necessarily. 

^t^ exactly, truly. 

Zi^ Zi^ or ) 

«N y Intensive forms of the above. 

^TtT or ^(i^rf gratuitously.. 
m^JTl manifestly, openly. 
tjl^^ easily. 

'*^^}'^J^ I'asily, H-'ithout effort^ 
^TWT or '^^'[ just as. 

H^T sO. Correlative of the above. 

_ r 
^2jj^ as IS fit, as is necessary. 

^f[Jwx^ uninterruptedly . 

3'5TT vainly, uselessly. ' . 

^% softly. 

^r^^-^ Ijohlly, with a crash. T 

T*T^T% according to ones loill. 

$%, f%, ^%, %%. See Section 194, where 



SECT. 327 ADVKRBS OF MANNER. 367 

^^j q^T, %^r, %^r are treated of as Pronominal 
Adjectives. In their injected form, these become Adverbs, 
and are much used. It is not uncommon to find the 
adjectival forms in jJ^T used where the adverbial forms 
in ^ would be more correct. 

It may be pointed out that many Adjectives may 
be used as Adverbs of Manner. 3"^*T ^Jpc^JT f^i^T 
3W^ f ^T ftj^TT, He did well He did badhj. 
328. D. Adverbs of Degree. 

^TT little. 
*i^ somewhat. 

^fn > very. 

I Sr^T 's an Adj. " great." but is frequently 
• ^ used as an Adverb. 

^fi^rf^ exceedingly. 

^^^ only, merely. 

|r|e|^c(tf1 Intensive of ^[W^. 

fsTTT entirely. 
^^ ^^ once. 

^ ^^ twice. 

dTH ^^ etc., thrice, etc. ' -: ; ' 



368 ADVERBS. SECT. 328 

As the Pronominal Adjectives ot Quality are used 
in their inflected form as Adverbs of Manner, similarly 
the Pronominal Adjectives of Quantity, l^'rfJfT, ^tc., (see 
Sect. 193) are used as Adverbs of Degree, but are not 
generally inflected. Adjectives also may be used in a 
similar wav. 

^X, sometimes '^, is an intensive Adverbial Par- 
ticle which may be added to many, if not most, words. 
The ^ often disappears, or rather combines with the 
previous letter, converting it into its corresponding 
aspirate, e.g., 5T^ just now, ivom ^^ + ^. 
Where the previous letter is already an aspirate, the 
^ is omitted ; thus ^^^^ from ^^^J -(. ^^ ^^ 

from ^H" + ^. This 5^ '"'i^iy be sometimes trans- 
lated by " even, " " indeed ; " at others, it only corres- 
ponds to a word which would, in English, be 
italicized in writing, or emphasized in speaking. 
5*kV ^ TT^T, ^Vill you strike even me? 
^^ ^ ^T tT^T, Indeed, he is not (here). 

The use of S"! with the Present Participle in the 
constructive form, called the Adverbial Participle, has 
already been noticed. Joined with parts of the Verb 
which have an auxiliary, it is inserted before the aux- 
iliary; thus ^TrfT ^ Wlj (while) he teas actually 



SECT. 328 ADVERBS OF DEGREE. 369 

going. With the Future, it is even inserted hefore the 
Conjuj:5ational termination, e.g., ^■pTST'T, they will 
assuredly go. ^^V^T, ^'<^ "^'^^^ assuredly give. 
329. E. Miscellaneous Adverbs. 

The propriety of classing one or two of the follow- 
ing as Adverbs may he questioned, but no more suit- 
able heading for their notice suggests itself. 

%T yes. 

fTT ^<^'5' N^t found in literature, but much used 
by villagers. 

Other words also are used for expressing assent, 
»Jr^^, very well ; M^^F^^, rcithout doubt, etc. 

»TST ^o, ''^ot. Used mostly with the Tenses, 
which would belong to the Indicative Mood, less com- 
monly with Tenses of the Subjunctive ; i.e., it is more 
common with the denial of a fact than the negation 
of a contingency or possibility. It is not used with 
the ImperativiR. It may be used absolutely, " xVo. " 

w{ No, not. Absolute " No, " also with the Verb, 
more especially for Subjunctive Tenses, and for the 
polite forms of the Imperative. 

Speaking generally, *f seems to be more abrupt 

and less formal than »T^, though it is less emphatic, 
24 



370 



ADVERBS. 



SECT. 329 



^•^M ^ ^vft •T^ WT^TT, '. e,, / will never do it. 
w{ would not generally replace rfS^ in this sentence: wf 
^T^TT •? ^^1T, ^ '^'^^^ neither come nor do it, 
might be said; but ^fH"! in both places would be 
still more emphatic. 

J{ff Not. Used only with the Imperative, '5fTrT, 
^I'jTfY don't go. It must not be used with the polite 
forms of the Imperative. 

f%f5T a colloquial equivalent for '^'c^. 

There are various idiomatic uses of these Adverbs 
of ne^^ation, w{^ eft, '/ ^'^^- ^*ft ^^, ^T^ rft 
q^ 5^r ^T ^^1T, '^^'''' '^^ once, if you don't {if not), I 
icill f<e)id f-'ome one el.se. 

^.«..«.^*..... ineitlier—vor—^T^ ^^rTT f T 



^fft.,..,.^ ^Timt, lie neither does {it), 

nor gets (it) done. 
^^J •T^ ^t'.S' lit. " IT //// not, " used in much 
the same way as the English ''of course;'' though, 
in many cases, it is used where in English the simple 
"yes" would be used. Thus, if a man be asked if hei| 
can do a certain kind of work, he will answer, ^^T •T^. 
This, of course, means literall'ji " ivh]/ not ? '" bufj 
idiomatically it is simply ''yes.'' 



SECT. 329 MISCELLANEOUS ADVERBS. 371 

SR^THT possibly, perchance. 

liP!^^^ Urdu equioalent. More common in Hindi 
than ^^rf^. 

^^TH namely, that is to say. 

'i\\w\ Urdu equivalent. Frequently used in Hindi. 

^^ST on the contrary. 

^TTTT^ *" short, briefly. 

Jll^i probably, usually, for the most part. (In 
the form T(m', ^^%, 't means often, generally, and 
is equivalent to the Urdu >i<q>^0. 

^J^ merely. Only used after another word, com- 
bining with it into a semi-compound, e.g., ^^5^ TTW 
merely a word. (This must not be confused with an- 
other use of ^X^ \ meaning, all, every, each, e.g., 
4i«^Cl| ?TT^j '■^U men, or eijery man. 

3. ADVERBIAL PHRASES. 

330. Adverbial phrases are very numerous, and are 
formed in various ways ; not a few are simply some 

case of a Noun with its Postposition. 

The Instrumental and Ablative Cases, with ^ or % 
added to a word already used as an Adverb, c.q., JTS 
^CHtT %, secretly, ^^^ %, easily, ^\f %, angrily, 
y[\X %, slowly, TO^ Sr^TT %, ^iow, in ivhat maimer ? 



372 . ADVERBS. SECT. 330 

•T3^rn W, gentlij. So for Adverbs of place, Sf^T W, 
^ff %, etc. 



•V* ♦sf 



The Locative Case in TJ". '^»tT ^ jinallu im^ 
^j mtniijestly, ayparently, ^\^^{^ ^^ in very truth. 

The Accusative Case, with or without %T '^•Q-' 
S-il^rT %T, jinalUi, ^^ ^^^^, at that time^ ^^ fi[iT, 
one day, i.e., on a certain day. 

The Conjunctive Participle is very frequently used 
as an Adverb. ^J^ ^^ % ^^^ fth^i, He did 
it wittingly. f^'^^X, secretly. -^^ :^^ ^PC%, singly. 

Various other ways of forming Adverbial phrases are 
also met with, e.g., ^ZX^ ^^ HTm, ^" ''^ snalce-lil'e way. 

^[^ ^^, unitedly. ^Wt rTTf , i" th^^ *^'a?/- §% ^, 

tn the same manner. 



Chapter XIII. 

POSTPOSITIONS, i 

[ or ^i:^?\;i^^^ >JT52T?T^ 

331. The Case-signs ^ftj ^T, ^j ^tc-> partake of 
the character of Postpositions. These have a special 
name given to them by Indian Grammarians, viz., 
IW^TtF It is not apparent what essential difference 
there is between tj'^^ as a Case-sign of the Locative, 
and •TT^, ^ Postposition. As a matter of fact, the 
i%^lr^T> or Case-signs are as truly Postpositions as 
those dealt with in the present Chapter : it is only their 
identification with the Case system that has led to their 
separation. 

These words correspond with the English Prepositions, 
but as they are almost invariably used after the word to 
which they are related, they have been appropriately 
called Postpositions. The Hindi name, ^T^;=^iT^^^ 
>^o«4<|, the particle indicating relation, is excellent. 

Dr. Kellogg has pointed out that many of these 
Postpositions were originally Nouns. This accounts 
for the fact that, with some of them, the related word is 



374 POSTPOSITIONS. SECT. 331 

used in the masc. Genitive, with others in the fern. ; the 
Postposition having been originally a masc. or fern. Noun. 
We have 3^r% •TT%, Beneath it, but ^^^ ^nft, 
In its place. 

Occasionally, a Postposition becomes a Preposition, 
i.e., it may be used before the related word. This is 
optional with some Postpositions. TW*TT '^ the out- 
standing example of freedom in this matter : it may be 
used before or after the related word, with % or without. 

In the following lists, the endeavour has been made 
to arrange the words according to meaning, so that 
synonymous words or those similar in meaning may be 
noted and differences of idiom pointed out. Many Urdu 
equivalents have been included, as they are so frequently 
found in Hindi books. 

Postpositions marked — 
*are preceded by ^. ^[^ % ^T^j Behind the house. 

t ^ ^"RT^ ^ ^^, Inthe place 

of tlie child. 
X are used without %q"T ^%rT, %^T KT^, 

% or ^ft- With [his) army. 

Without {his) army. 

* : may be used with or ^^ ^ ^J^, Near the house. 
without. 

^H ^TW, By him- 



SECT. 331 POSTPOSITIONS. 375 

It has been mentioned in Chapter XII that several 
 words are both Adverbs and Postpositions. 

^y^^»f ^ now more commonly written ^T^»T m 
front of. In addition to its literal use, this word has 
two idiomatic uses also. 1. Equal to " i?? liis esti- 
mationr -qX^T^K % ^T*^% f 'T mqi f , 1^'« are 
siujiers i)i God's sight. 2. To mdicate comparison. ^^ 
% ^7^^% ^tTT ^^ ^, What is a do(/ in comparison 
until a tiqer ? 

Notice the difference between ^*^*T '^nd jjnTf. 

^l^^H iiieans, in the presence of ; ^TT ahead. He 

stands before the hing, is ^^ XJW{ % WT^^n T^^ 

^, but, He lualks before the kiih/, i.e., ahead, of the king, 

* *ITT'r before- Used both of time and place. Notice 
in pi'evious Chapter about the possible reference to either 
the past or the future. For time, ^ as well as ^ may 
be used. 

* Hf^% before. Used chiefly of time. Though con- 
structed with its governed word as a Postposition, it is 
adverbial in force. Thus, ^^% '^1%%, before this, or 
previously. (This can also be used with ^^ o.g., ^^ ^ 

l| jV^ before that, previouslij). 



^^^ POSTPOSITIONS. SECT. 331 

* r 

^c| l>efore. Of time only. 

TTl^ hehind, after. Of place and time. 

^T3[ Urdu equivalent of tn%. Used of time. 

^•1*^^ after. Used of time occasionally, of logical 

succession. 

^^TKT^H (ifter. Of time. Occasionally in the 

sense of " in addition to" "moreover.'' 

*  , 
^l^ orer, ahove. 

Notice the distinction between TJ^ and ^tj^; the 
former is on, upon ; the second, over. An ornament 
is on, or, upon the mantelpiece, a picture is over it. In 
the first sentence, the word is TfX., '" tht^ second ^tj^. 
A man is on (^X) ^^'^ '""^^ ^^ 'i'^^ house, a kite flies 
ahove 0^^X) '^- This distinction is sometimes lost 
sight of, and quite recently it has become a fad to use 
\3f|^^ in many cases where tf^ is more appropriate, e.g., 
3^% ^"'TT ^^T ^^n ^, ^ie sliercs mercy on him, 
instead of using the word 1^^ as was practically always 
done in such phrases in past days. 

* «fV% }/neath, under. Of place and also of status. 
*+ f7% beneath, under. 

ikA'^t^hetween. Used of place and time, in the 



SECT. 331 POSTPOSITIONS. 377 

latter case, it may often be translated 
" rneanivhilc.'' Commonly followed by 
one or more of the Particle Postpositions, 

e.g., ^?f% sfV^ ^, amo7ig. T^^ % ^^ 

^j in the centre of the house. 3»T% ^^ 
H ^, from among, "^j^ f{ meanwhile. 
^TT^T, Urdu equivalent of above. 
^T^Tj outside. Sometimes written ^fS^- 3TT 
% ^JS^j outside the door. An idio- 
matic use of this word, with the governed 
word in the ablative, may be noted e.g., 
V^^^ % m%T, ^ {'-^hey) are outside of 
counting, i.e., cannot be counted. ^{ "^HJ^ 
^ ^^T % ^T^T ^, ichich is vot 
according to your vish. 
HT^T ■^"S'c?e, irithin. Used both of place and time, 
e.g., TJ^"^ gR HTHT, inside the curtain. 
^^ T^m % HtrlT, within a month. 
*i1*T^T, Urdu equivalent. 

1- TfJ^ hy, near to. Used both of position and 
motion to, e.g., ^^r% TI^ ^^ W^ ^5 
He is sitting hy him. 3^^ ''IT^ '^^ 
T^mi. He icent to him. It is also used 



POSTPOSITIONS. SECT. 331 

idiomatically of possession, %^ "qj^ 3J^ 
*i^l, / possess vothing. 
X^^T^ near. 

^^t^ near. 

* g\ 

•T^rfjcfij Urdu equivalent. 

rf*li^, Corruption of the above. 

T|^ heyond. (Used also with %) 

^n^T ''^^'S round about. 

iJTTW ^r^ near, round about. Used in such a 
phrase as the villages near the city. This 
can also be expressed by ^ ^|^* 

^5flT, or . . .^ ( or % ) ^T<f nV^, 

in the four directions, on the four sides. 

* 'KTS, Urdu equivalent. 

1" * ^5nT -^" ^^^^ direction of, side. 

A peculiarity of the word should be specially noted. 
In the sing, it is fern., in the pi. masc, e.f/., ^i\ jjft^ 
(J|c(chi! llaring looked in my direction. 7\11J % ^1«ff 

:^^, O)/ both side^ of the Ganges. ''^^'^JX^ i^-^^ 
On the four sides of the liouse. Probably this arises 
from the word having two meanings. As fern., it means 
direction, as masc, side. (Compare the same peculiar- 



SECT. 831 



POSTPOSITIONS 



879 



ity with reference to the word %T^ noticed in Sec. 
77). This suggestion receives some confirmation from 
the fact that with the meaning, side, this word is found in 
the masc. even in the sing, e.rt., ^^% ^^ ^ftT 
T^^rr ^ ^^^ ^, On one side of that icas Man- 
r/alafi JittJe shed. 

t rT^^j Urdu equivalent. 



+ 

+ 

t 

+ 
+ 

+ 



r 



Ujj to, as far as. Used of time, 
place and degree. 



rVery occasionally used without ^. 



A special use of ff^^ may be noticed, e.g., in the 

sentence, Jf^Ui cT^ 7T ^iiT^T, ^^ "•''?? "o^ -5^ 
much as enter. 

t ^^H ivith. Used without %, ^ >,., ^^ TT^ 
yf^ ^TTrT, ^t^^'t/i i«t/e, son and wealth. 

i * ^T%^ icitli. Used in the same way as the 
above. It is also often used with adverbial force, e.g., 
T^*^ tJl^rT, '^i^^tJi thought, i.e., tlioughtfnlly. 
Occasionally found with % (e.g., ^fir^f % Wffrf, 
rrith the saints), but better without. 



380 POSTPOSITIONS. SECT. 331 



X TT^^ (vitlwiit. The exact reverse of ^fs'H 
constructed generally in the same way, but occasionally 
with its Noun in the Ablative Case, e.g., ^^ 'm^ % 
^T^^ ^T^^, Having become devoid of all sins. 

Both ^^n and Tl%fT ^^^ "ot properly Post- 
positions, but their usage justifies their inclusion in 
this list. 

X y^^ intli. Used in much the same way as 

^f^cT and ^^. '^^^^ f?TTT^ J^^ ^^K % 

m^T^T ^TrfT ^, Kshapinak is being expelled from 
tlie city with. <li.sho)iour. 

J * T^»TT <"' J^^ TciUiout. When the governed 
Noun is not used with ^ this Postposition may be 
used before or after its Noun. It is also used with 
some parts of V^erhs. 

^^ fW'SC^T^ i%5^T, Apart from perfect (lit., 

fnll) fiiiili. fipTT ^^ ^^^5 Without changing his 

dress (or (ippcfwance). "^J 3^TJ*f ^^ 1^*TT >iiK 

^%^ 5%f % ^^t ftsn xr^ ^^m % 

That kingdom ichicli is acquired icithout one's own ex- 
ertion, and without the endiirance of many troubles. 
3^^ ^f^^ % ftTr, Without a second wheel. f%«^T 



SECT. 331 POSTPOSITIONS. 381 

Hh^r ^fenr ^ U^r^T %, Without any labour 
or effort. 

The form f%*T is mostly confined to poetry and 
proverbial sayings. 

* ef^K, Urdu equivalent of tc|^|", 

* ftr^ for the mhe of,] . A'thouoh the distinc- 

in order that. t'"" !" "''^ ''^'^^'''^>'^ ^^•'''^^- 

* ^T^ on account of.|'y ol^s^'-ved, tliere is a 

• J very real and exceed- 
ingly useful difference in meaning between these two 
words. f^T% rather looks to the future, in order that, 
^X^M to the past, because of, e.g., ^^ ^l^% % f^^ 
' jJI'Xq'X ^Jj He came in order that lie might •se^.-.f^cj'^ 

ft% % ^FJ^M ^ ^^ SJn^T ^, On account of 
his weakness he did not come. This point is worth 
careful consideration. 

With the phrase, ^^ f^T^, equivalent to therefore, 
% is not used. In ^ ^KTJJ, i.e., for f^ ^\[X^ 

% on account of this, "^JTJUi is a Noun, not a 
Postposition. 

X * ^TmT fov the sake of. Mostly used in poetry. 

* 1^ PTT'TtT for the sake of. 
t ^^mT, Urdu equivalent. 



382 POSTPOSITIONS. SECT. 331 

* "SH for (this) reason, or with persons, on 
behalf of. (More generally used as a Noun, e.g , "3^^ ^^ 
W, for this reason.) 

* ^IX on account of, by reason of. 

i '^T^tT, Urdu equiv. Generally used with De- 
monstrative Pronouns, etc.. in the Oblique Case, as 
^^ ^T^n, for this reason, T^W4\^H, for what reason? 

* f^^m or f^tpSf in the matter of, with re- 
ference to. Generally followed by ^ e.g., ^W% |e)T|^ 
l^j with reference to this [matter). Where ^ 

is omitted, e.g., '^^ f^^^ ^, iii this matter, J^'^Z( 
is a Noun. It is a Noun in all cases, but has come to 
be numbered with the Postpositions, and is as much 
a Postposition as many others included in the list. 

*iv VUrdu equivalents, " with reference to. " 

* ^TTT ''.'/ tneans of. Occasionally a pleonas- 
tic % is added, ^^ qR ST^^T W, ^U ^lisans of him. 

* X %V^ suitable for. q^ ^^^ % %jTq |, 
This is worth seeing. Not infrequently, the ^ is omit- 
ted. ^T§% T(JTTf |. 



SECT. 331 POSTPOSITIONS. 383 

' 3^^ h l^^^i^, equal to. 

t •TTf in the maimer of, e.g., fqrTT ^ TT^* 
^^ ^T^^ ^ g^ ^*)", He tooh care of the child 
as a father would. This word generally possesses an 
adverbial force. 

^T'T^Tj Urdu equivalent. 
*' ^T^'^TT^ according to, in conformity loith. 
'' 3;T*j«F^ according to. 
^* 3TT7f5>^ Adversative of the above. 
" ^^TPfii^, Urdu equivalent. 

* li\r{. t^i'oai its first meaning of Substitution, the 
meaning of the Postposition branches out into two 
uses: l.with; ^5r% 3rf?T, /.c, ^r^% ^T^, 2. for; 
^t'TT % STlTTj ^o?" a sich person, such and such things 
are necessary. 

t ^•rfl *"" f^x" place of. 

* q|^^ I Urdu equivalents, cjrt^ is often followed 

* 1^ I by ^, e.g., ^^% ^^ ^, in the 

place of this. 



384 POSTPOSITIONS. SECT. 331 

r- ^ r- rs \ '^Pposed to, on the contrary. 

M^^^ '" very occasionally 
found with an Ablative. 

^1% ^tItT, No custom 
shall be observed ivhich is 
opposed to your loish. 
* f^^TT^, Urdu equivalent. 

There are two inseparable prefixes, ^ with, and ^ 
without, which have a prepositional force. ^T^f^^T^ 
with (liis) household. ^T^^^ icith out fruit. These might 
be equally well expressed by Tfj^cf |< ^ff^rf and 



Chapter XIV. 
CONJUNCTIONS. 
Conjuivction ^^T^^ ilTSim. 
Disjunction f^V^T^^ ^Ho^^T, 

332. The English name, Conjunction, is exceed- 
ingly unsatisfactory, as it by no means covers the 
scope of the words included under the name. Indian 
Grammarians extend the scope by using two names, 
Conjuncton and Disjunction. Even this, however, does 
not fully meet the case. 

In the following paragraphs, the endeavour will be 
made to group the words commonly included in this 
class and to offer a few words in the way of explana- 
tion as to their meaning and use. 

333. 1. Cumulative Conjunctions. 

^\X (tnd. This is the simple copula for connect- 
ing words or sentences. With pairs of words it is 
often omitted, <'. r/., ^^^ft^, highaiidlow; ^l^lJJ^fT, 
king and subjects. Also with strings of words, e.g., 
THrU ftm >Tt| ^f%H ^^ % W^ 'TC T^, Mother 
father, brothers nvd sisters, all are dead. Or, for the 
sake of emphasis, it may be used between all the wordsj 

men ^ f^m ^r< ml §t?: ^f%?T ^^ 



386 CONJUNCTIONS. SECT. 333 

i!^\X 's «ften found written 3^|^ occasionally jJ{^ 
and sometimes "Sf is used. 

It should be remembered that there is another use of 
^T^j ''-'•> ^s a Pronominal Adjective. In the sentence, 



come, tclio che iciU come ? J^TT" '-^ -^ Pronominal adjec- 
tive : in the following. ^^ ^ ITTT f Sk ^^T ^, 

Helms eoine ami icill al.'io 7-emain, it is a Conjunction. 
Care is sometimes necessary lest ambiguity should 
occur, one being understood for the other. 

^ifV «'•''", moreover. % ^fi ^T^TT, ^^^^11 ^^^o will come. 
^?^f% ^T% %T ^f T # SJTT^'t ^, they promised 
to come, then will come also. Sometimes, it approximates 
in force to the intensive Adverb 9J^ and may then have 
to be translated by " even, " or some such word : iJq^ 
^^fj *T^Tj thei^e (is) not even one. Somewhat similarly, 
it may occur in a sentence with another Conjunction, 
^rfe ^TTW ^fv, should he even come. 

^^j Occasionally the Sanskrit "^^ takes the place of f 
^►n". Its meaning seems to hover between ^JfT and 

fi|l< again. Used as the English " again, " and in 

making an additional statement or be- M 



SECT. 333 



CONJUNCTIONS. 



387 



ginning a new point in an argument. Occa- 
sionally, this word assumes the form ^J^. 

1I»T^ the Sanskrit equivalent of the above. It is 

sometimes found in Hindi. 
^X*T. See the next section. 
334. 2. Adversative. 
t^ \ Of these, ty^ is frequently used with 

the force of an exceptive rather than 
with an adversative force. ffT 4| \^ 

but. T^ %^^ ^^ T^T, Two came, hut 
oitli/ one remained. 



^^*T or 
^^ or 



H^Trt is more 
strongly adversative, e.g., after re- 
lating how Ravan had tempted and 
threatened Sita, a writer states, "^^^fT ^rff. . .f^^TT^H 

»f ^^ hut Sita wnvered not. Again, a writer, after 

relating certain adverse circumstances, says, tf^^^w^fT ^ffe 
f^^TT ^R^ ^<3I WT^, ''wf if the matter he loohed at 
ihouqhtfulhi. '^^*T h^s often more of a cumulative than 
adversative force, vot only so, but also. w{ %^^ ^ '^•T 
WX^ ^ ^rm cT^ ^^'Tl'j '^^^' mere! I J for two daijs, I 
itill remain for two years. Sometimes, however, it has 
an adversative force. Ic^r-rt, is often equal to ^ <,*■«. 
Occasionally, it approximates in meaning to ^^^rf' 



388 CONJUNCTIONS. SECT. 334 

%ftvfT, ^T^ (corrupted to ^^chr| in the 

colloquial), 4{JK, Urdu equivalents. %{^)vT 
especially is very common in Hindi. 
rflHt nevertheless. 

335. 3. Alternative. 
gr These are used between alternative 

words or sentences. ^^ ^T^ >i(x^{|' 

, ^mtj ^TffV ^ TT ^f¥ , Are my icords 

^ aeeeptahle or not? but in the case of 

7U we may also have it in both sentences, IfT 'fH'...'^ 

fft, or, JTT fft. . "Wl, e.g., ^^^FTT TJST ^T fft ^^CT 
^t TT M^Mi^ ^TT, ^^^^ effort ivill either prodace an 
unexpected result (lit., will become turned) or become fruit- 
less. ( Cf. the old-English use of nor, "I whom nor 
avarice nor pleasures move.'') 

ft; or. ^n "^T^^ f fe •TfV, Do the people 
desire (it) or not ? See also the use of f^ under 
No 6 Explanative. 

•T^ '^ ^/ '^^^ ' followed by rft then (cf. § 329.) 

•r...«T neither, nor. w{ ^^rTT ^ ^T ^^TffT 

^ /ze neither hears nor speaks. Sometimes 



SECT. 335 CONJUNCTIONS. 389 

only one 7{ is given for both sentences, espe- 
cially in poetry. ^* ^^T ^T^T^ f ^ |^^ 

1^. I neither know nor recognize this gentle- 
man. Compare Eng. '' I^Jye, nor ear, nor mind 
ever tired hy these sandy dunes.'' 

^TT^ "^J^... whether or (cf. § 304). 

^2J"T . . . ef £| I . . . eifh er or. 

336. 4. Hypothetical. 

^Sft '/• Generally followed by ffY then. 

nf^ if- 

>^7{X Urdu equivalent. 

337. 5. Concessive. 

^cytM althougJ}. F"ollowed generally by ff|4(|' or 
TTTT^j nevertheless, and occasionally by fq^vfi, 

^T W, Although he is dwarfish, yet he is very 
strong. ^J^i^f^ ^T^P? ^^^Wr % ^CT 

I^Tl T ^«TT "C^j Although Sliakatdr was 
released from prison, yet the grief on account 
of the disgrace remained fixed in his mind. 

^fy VfX even if, if also, followed commonly by 



390 CONJUNCTIONS. SECT. 337 

fft^T, nevertheless. ^ ^T^ Hi, ^f^^n if ^^^ 



come. 



^T% should, though, even if, followed commonly by 

338. 6. Explanative. 

j^ that, in such sentences as, '^ he said tliat.. ...'" 
" he saiv that " " it came to pass that " 

jkf\ is also used of purpose, " he icent that he 
TTiight .s-ee." 

cfrUlPh or cf^iqi heeause, for, e.g., ^'H'T^ 3,^ 
"^TWTW f^^-'-^'^o)' apa7't from perfect faith. 

339. 7. Dependent, indicatinij Result. 

ff^ then. Introducing what will result, if certain 
conditions be fulfilled. Ijf^ ^^ JTT^ 3FT 

life he saved, tlien I will effect your deliverance. 



Chapter XV. 
INTERJECTIONS 

Interjection, f^^TT^lf^^^^ ^^^^ (I^it., fliat 
■ivhicli indicates astonifili.mtnt, etc.) 

34-0. The Hindi name for Interjection is very 
appropriate, as f%^^?T signiKes not only surprise, but 
also wonder and consternation. 

The following are the principal Interjections : — 

^ The common Vocative Interjection. 

^J More used towards inferiors. ^J fj^, Hallo 

yon ? 

41 ^T '^ used alone, not as an addition to a 
Vocative. It is used to call the attention of some one, 
something like the English, " / say,'' or to indicate 
slight surprise, " i4// .' "' 

^fv or ^T 5T '^ used rather in the way of 
assent or approval than as a pure Interjection ; but it 
may be called an Interjection, as it is frequently used 
when no question has been asked. It somewhat cor- 
responds to the '■ N'es, yes, " with which some hearers 
encourage a speaker. 

5T^ (with fem. 35|TTj generally indicataes (,1) sur- 
prise, sometimes impatience or anger, but may be used 



392 INTERJECTIONS. SECT. 340 

(2) as an ordinary Vocative Interjection. Though very 
commonly used, it is not regarded as an elegant word. 

(1) ^ ^T^^ ^ft^ TTfT ^f^K J 0, yon Brahman, 
dont fjet angry. ^JT^ ^T^T, ^^^•' -? se.P- " 3^ J" 
uttered by a man to himself on receiving a letter 
containing some startling news. 

(2) ^Tti" ^5T, sister ! ^ Jf^TT ^V^ \ 

Ijyj 7]^ My prince ! have yon come ? (Here there is 
some measure of surprise.) 

^ is a very different Interjection as regards usage : 
it is a Vocative Interjection, expressing contempt or 
disgust, e.g.,X ^STS 4C|<^ X^ J^, You fool ! remember 

that '^1^ ^ ^T6<!r*4 ^^j spoken of a person 

as though present. Oh that Kautilya! 

jJTST ^'^ 5rr^T expresses admiration or surprise. 
jjf^J expresses mingled surprise and sorrow. 
^f^jS^ vvonder and surprise. 

:^^ contempt. 

^^^ (or 55T^^^ ^o^ ^*^-) expresses sorrow (on 

receiving sad news). 

^T^, ^T^ or ^TT ^^nr 1 ., 
^T^orfP5rfT^ ) „ „Eng. "alas!" 



SECT. 340 INTERJECTIONS. 



393 



^ questioning surprise. 

>;i^| somewhat of surprise. 

T^: or ^Stl^tSLI, avaunt ! awaij with the thought ! 

fe: f^ ^=^ 5 5^ % vft ^rrq^f^^TT 

I ^l«irfT ^, Away ivith you, you fool ! lohat, do 

you know about religion better than the guru f 
^^ disgust. 

^T^ or 2fT^^^ may express nearly any emo- 
tion, the emotion being indicated by the tone in which 
the word or words are uttered. They may 
p convey the idea of admiration, astonishment, grief, 
disgust, etc. 

\\^ WM* '" addition to being used as a salutation, 

 is uttered on hearing any statement which the hearer 

would desire were not true, something like the English, 

''Don't say that!'" 

341. Other words also are used with the force of 
Interjections : — 

^Irfl"^ hear me ! help me ! or, more fully, >K1MchT 

^37^, ^ 'make my plaint to you. 
^Tra* mercy ! Shield me !  
%f ^ well ! all right ! 
^^ enough ! 



394 INTERJECTIONS. SECT. 341 

f^f^ or ^J^^TT, expressive of very strong dis- 
j;ust. With the Ace. of the person, almost equivalent 
to "a curse on him. " 

Vsf^^T >l|5rlj might almost be defined as a religious 
Eturrah ! It indicates exalted admiration and praise. 
lim o^-'^^ '^^ victory ! 

342. Ol: forms of salutation, the more common 
are : — 

' TTT TJT{ which may be taken as about equivalent 

to " God bless you.'' 
^[^ '' (jood IuqIi to you.'' 

reverential salutations, addressed prin- 
cipally to Brahmans. The return 

salutation is ^^^tn^n, I'l'Qsperity. 
•TT^^TT '""^^ become a very common salu- 
tation among equals, of recent years. 

V < ff^ rT salutation among equals, much adopted at 
the present time by members of the Arya 
Samaj. 

^^T^ pease .' sr^^lft ^'«?/ obeisance to you, ff^^- 
^Tff (connecte with ^FTT^) greeting ! are 
Urdu, but are occasionally used by Hindus, 
especially to Europeans. 






Chapter XVI. 

343. NUMBERS. DIVISIONS OF TIME. 
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 

In the present chapter, many mat ers are included 
which do not strictly belong to Grammar. As, however, 
the points may be very useful to the student, and as the 
information may not be available in compact form else- 
where, they have been brought together here. 

NUMBERS. 
344-. The Cardinal Numbers. The Numerals 
up to a hundred, must be committed to memor}-. In Kng- 
lish, after 20 is reached, only the tens need be learned, 
as the intervening numbers are added quite regularly : 
this is not so in Hindi : there is not one of the units 
which unites regularly with all the tens throughout ; 
^^ changed into ^^, does indeed consistently preserve 

its form, but ^^ +^^ becomes %^^ (21) ^ + 

^T^ft^ becomes f^^rn^^ ("^0, etc. 

., . , Alternate form, 

Numerical ,, . ,. , 

„ , , Name. and form used 

Symbol. , 

■^ m compounds. 

1 ^ ^^ ?^ 

2 ^ ^ 5 



396 




NUMBERS, ETC. 


SECT 344 


Numerical 
Symbol. 


Alternate form, 
Name, and form used 
in compounds. 




3 


^ 


rftsT 


frr,r^ 




4 


8 


^K 


tr 




5 


Sor 


^ ^H 


A^ 


t Notice the as- 


6 


^ 


^t 


^:,fe 


pirated^ through- 
out tor 6, thus 


7 


« 


WTcT X 


^rT 


distinguishing it 


8- 


qor 


c siTTd 


^T3 


from ^T^. Cf. 


^) d 


J "«, ^'• 


^ %T 


5T^ 


%^^ft^ (^^ 


10 


^0 


^^ 




H»HI<dt^ (46) 


11 


^^ 


^»^T?:f 


'-^n^f 


.]; Dis t i n g u i s h 
carefully between 


12 


X=^ 


^r^f 




^rTfT(7) and^rra 


13 


^^ 


^^f 




60). 


14 


\>i 








15 


^^ 


■^5f 






16 


^i 


^T^ 






17 


^3 


^Tli^ 


^^ 




18 


^^ 


>HgK^ 






19 


\i 


^^^V^ 


^^T"^ 




20 


^o 


^'BT 







SECT 


314 


NUMBERS. 

Alternate form. 


397 


Numerical 


n 










Name. an 


d form used 




Syi 


nbol. 


in 


compounds. 




2\ 


R^ 


^^^ 


^^^^ 




22 


R^ 


^\i^ 






23 


^^ 


H^ 






24 


R8 


%^^ 






25 


^H 


^^¥ 


^^1^ 


Notice the Si- 
milarit}' between 


26 


^i 


^sgft^ 




^^25 -q^TW 


27 


R^ 


^rTTf^ 


^TrSTl^ 


(50) and ^^Wt 


28 


^c 


^glt^ 


^STf^ 


(8;r. 


29 


Rd 


35Tf\w 






30 


|o 


fftw 






31 


^X 


*^^rfNr 


^^fft^ 


The real sound 


32 


^^ 


Mrft^ 


^Wt^ 


given in pronun- 
ciation is between 


33 


^^ 


mrt^ 


^^ PS 


the two vowels, ^ 


34 


^« 


ffriW 




and ^. 


35 


^'i 








36 


^^ 


^T^W 






37 


^« 








38 


^^ 


* 


^^fft^ 





398 NUMBERS, ETC, SECT. 344 

.. , Alternate form. 

Numerical ,, , - ,' 

„ , , Name, and torm used 

Symbol. , 

•^ m compounds. 

39 |d ^^rn^'hr 

40 80 ^T^W 

41 a^ li^rTFftw ^*dl^1^* *Cf. No. 31. 

43 8^ rrm^^ rTfTT^T^ 

44 88 ^T^"Rft^ ^^1^^ 

45 HI WfTT^^ 

46 ^i ^m^^ 

47 83 ^'rTT^Tr^ 

48 8C ^:5f!"Fft^ 

49 8d 3^T^ ^^^TO 

50 ^0 tf^l^ 

52 H^ m^^ 

53 H^ ^V^^ 

54 X« ^T^5T 

55 ^i'^ ^^^^ 

56 H^ ^■'T^ 



SECT, 344 NUMBERS. 

Numerical ^, Alternate form, 

Symbol. Name. and form used 

in compounds. 

60 ^0 ^T3 

64 in ^hz 

66 ii fkwi^z 

67 ^3 ^f ^^ W^W^ or ^rf3^3 

68 ^C ^:^^Z 

70 30 ^rf^ 

71 3^ I^fTTT TT^^^ 

72 3;^ ^frf?. 

73 3^ fTTfrTT 

74 38 %fTr^ 



399 



400 NUMBERS, ETC, SECT. 344 

X, , Alternate form. 

Numerical ,, jr. 

t^ , , i\ame. and rorm used 

bymbol. 
•^ m componnds. 

75 ax ^^tT^ q^frT^ 

76 3^ f^frTT 

77 as ^TrffrTT 

78 ac ^T^rfrTT 

79 3d ^^J^\ 3?TT^ 

80 CO ^^^i 

81 C"^ ^^T^ ^gPTT^ 

82 C^ ^^Wi" 

83 C^ ft^T^ 

84 C« %TT^ 

85 Cr( tr^^ IT^T^ 

86 c^ femw^ 

88 CC ^^T^*^ ^^T^ 

89 cd ^Tm\ 

90 do ^s^ «TS% 

91 ^^ ^^T^T^* ^^^T^ * The ^ is often 

92 d^ '^T^T% changed to ^ through- 

93 d^ f?n[T5T% OL't the 90's. 

94 d8 %RT^% 

95 d^ WR^ ^T^T^tI" 



SECT. 344 NUMBERS. 401 

Alternate form, 
Numerical ,-, . r . 

, , Name, and torm used 

Symbol. . 

^ m compounds. 

97 ds ^TrTR^ ^rlM^ 

98 (fc >m^h5 ^ETTHT^ 

99 dd Pt H M ^ fi1^?n5T% 

100 "^00 ^ if 

345. Beyond 100, the numbers proceed reguiarl}-, 
the units are added to the hundreds as in English, but 
"and" is not inserted. ^T^ ^ ^^ (101), '^^ ^ 
^ (102), -^^ ^ ^tW (120), etc. 

But ^r^^(125). t^ ^(130). tft%^^ 
(175). ^STT ^ ^^225), ^TfTf W^(250), lft% 
fft^ ;g^ (275), ^r^ rft^ ^, ^TT^ ffhr ^, WT^ 

^\i^ ^n", ^^^ ^o on. This same idiom is used with 
the thousands in like manner, %^ ^^^ (1,500), etc. 
(see § 352'. 

1,000 ^^^ (contracted sometimes into ^?^) 

100,000 ^rnw 

100 ^TT^, ^StTf or ^rptT, (i.e , 10,000,000). 

100 *0^,^T^ or »y<yf 



402 NUMBERS ETC. SECT. 345 



Numerical 
Svmbol, 



Alternate form, 
Name. and form used 
in compounds. 

100 ^^ T^ or ^?:^ 

100 T^i ;fhr 

100 ;ft^ ^^ or -q^^ 

100 -q^ ^l^, i. e., 100.000,000.000,000.000. 

The last three are seldom met with. »Hcj^ W^. are 

used mainly to convey the idea of innumerable, much 

as " millions and millions, " in English. ^5^^, especially 

in the reduplicated plural form, ^rt"^ ^'Ct^ 

* • 

is used in a similar way. 

346. The Ordinals. 

qf^T ov "q^^T First. ^I^T Fourth. 

^^^T Second. qf^^f ^^'i^^^^- 

fft^n Third. ^^f 1 ,.. . 

V bixth. 



From ^rT^t onwards, the Ordinals are formed 
quite regularly from the Cardinals, by the addition of 

These Ordinals are Adjectives of two terminations, 
^rr or ^T Masc. fwith ^ or "^ Const. Sing, and 
^ PI.) and ^ or ^* Fern. 

347. Proportionals. 

To express " two-fold, three-fold, " or " twice as muchJl ^' 

three times as mush," etc., ^WT or "^^J 's added to a- 



I 



SECT. 347 NUMBERS. 403 

Numeral. As the form of the Numeral is sometimes 
modified in the process of union, a list of those so 
affected is given. 



mucn. 



^•TT (f- ^), ^TFrVor ^T twice as 

|f1*l*lT or T^^'^T, ^Iso KfTfrft three times as much. 

t| I Jj r| T tour tmies as much. 

# 

"^^^•TT five times as much. 

^5[*^"^ ^'^ times as much. 

^rjJT^X eight times as much. 

The rest are formed quite regularly, ^rHT^^T, •H'T'TT, 

etc. ^75T or ^^^ is, lialf as much again. There is 
•  

a Verb, %^^T*TT, fo once and a half. 

These proportionals are treated as Adjectives of 
two terminations. 

^TM %T f g^ ^Tg% ^K ^^ ^K, Eaving sold 
the goods for twice or four times {their jwiee). H"^ ^T 
fng^ ^J^ %T TM^n, ('^^^ thinrj) sold for tico or three 
times its (usual) price. 

That, of which it is a proportional, is indicated by the 
Ablative Case. ^^TO^i" I^R % %g5;fl" WT ^^^T^ 

sT The syrup must be four or five times as much as 
the meal. 



404 NUMBERS, ETC. SECT. MS 

348. ^^ ^F^^, fk^ ^RK^, %T^T or 

5m<d ^T'TT, MT-«m<rl ^Xm, etc., are used of 

doubling or folding up cloth, etc., into so many thick- 



nesses. 



For the number of strands in a rope, or number of 
lengths in which it is folded (" double it, " etc., in Eng.) 
^fen or kTS^T '""^^y ^e used for two and three ; 
but the addition of <5T to the numeral is the more 
appropriate word, ^t^T, fftrT^T, %K^ or %^, 
etc. 

349. Collectives. 

A few words are in common use, corresponding to 
our "dozen," " score," etc, 

1T§T is " a four,'' e.g., ^^ IHTST, tivcnty fours, 
i.e., 80. 

This word is principally used in counting out cowries, 
also in reckoning the standard of a seer 
(weight) : thus there is a c||4j| 7py% ^ %^; 
and a %^^ 1T?J% gRJ %T, etc., i.e., weighind 
20x4 or 24-}- 4, in other words, equivalent] 
in weight to 80 or to 96 tolas. 

^o^ or i^lc|| ^I'cJis^' are also found for aggre* 
gates of four. 



SECT. 349 NUMBERS. 405 

4||^| "a jive " is used very largely in counting out 

the cakes of dried fuel brought into the towns 

for sale, also in connection with the buying 

and selling of mangoes, and in counting out 

quantities of small articles. 

^T\\ " a seven." 

Among the villagers, large numbers are practically 
very little used (nothing above 20); it is always 
so many " fours,"' so many " fives." I am 
assured that many of them not only use these 
aggregates in speech, but think in them ; forty 
mangoes are not even thought of as '' forty, " 
but as jjn^ ^n^', '.t\, eight fives. 

^rr§T '' o, score." t^H is also occasionally used in 

this collective way. ^if^^f ^M^l 41 ^fU 

^ini ^, scores of dialects are spoken. There 
is a proverb, "^g; ^^ ^\^ ^^ ^^^ 

One three score and one dxtij (Cf. " Six one and 
half a dozen the other "). 

tJch^SI « hundred. Used as we use hundred in such 
a phrase as " How much a hundred ? " ^^i;^ 
5!rRT ^t^^T, means " at the rate of one 
rupee four annas the hundred. 



406 NUMBERS, ETC. SECT. 349 



•5v 



It is perhaps worth noting that ^^^T is a varying 
quantity in different parts of a district, and 
for different articles (Cf. Eng. halwrs dozen). 
" A hundred mangoes " often means ^[o^^g* 
TT^T, ''•^•) ^^^' ^"^ i" some places it is 
^TSTT^W TT^j ^'""^^ over and above that, 8 
thrown m as ^^^FTT, thus makmg 148. 

^TT^ST or '%T^1 's always a fair, never simply two 

 • 

in the loose way that " couple " is sometimes 
used in English. 
S^T*T dozen, is gradually getting naturalized in 
Hindi. 

350. All the Numerals may be made to assume 
the character of Collectives (Dr. Kellogg very 
appropriately calls them Agglomeratives) by 
the addition of ^jff. Thus^t*ft ^'" *^'s case 
only, *T is inserted before the addition)^ ^T^ft, 
^Pf^ etc., the two, the three, the four. ^ra" 
is also used for '^J^j as '^^ ^SHT, "' «^^ 
four directions. These are used — 

(a) Of such persons and objects as have something 
of a collective unity, or are in some way 
closely connected. Thus, St^H" ^|^ the two 
hands. ffmt tfU^I, t^ic- three worlds. ^TO" 



SECT, 350 NUMBERS. 407 

JIT J the four ages of the v:orld. VJ"^^ rTr^, 



the i\ve elements, ^^ft ^^, the six fla 



vours. 



I 



(//) To designate persons or objects already referred 
to, or in some way distinctly marked out from 
others, as, in English, we say, the five prisoners ; 
the first eleven. ^^ ^^^ "TT^T %^ % 

^T^T^ff ^T When the kings of these five 

countries ft^^T^g ^if^ ?ft^ VTTl^f 
% ^^ '^".y ^^ ^^^' f^-hree brothers, Bishiudicasu 
and the others. 

(c) They are used also in a somewhat reduplicative 
sense, %^:pf ^TT W^^ Wi^ ^'t, They 
began to come along by hundreds and tliousands. 

Occasionally, this form is reduplicated with the 
addition of the Gen. Postposition ^ e.g., 

^T^ % ^T^ff , rft^ % rft-^, hath of them, 
all three of thew,. 

351. Idiomatic uses of the Numerals. 

We say, ten or twelve, eight or ten, but for the lower 

numbers take successive numbers, two or three, four or 

five. In Hindi, the former idiom is commonly adopted 

throughout. Thus ^ ^K, ^f^ ^^TTrf, two or four, 
five or seven. 



408 NUMBERS, ETC. SECT. 351 

The following also are common combinations to 
indicate a few, etc. ^^ ^T^, ten or Jive ; ^^ ^K^ 

ten or twdce ; ^'^^^ "^T^j fifteen or ticentij -, ^ ^^T^, 
between fifty and a hundred. 

Notice also such a phrase as ^J?" ^^ 4J^. which 
means 60?/h; ten or so. 4Jc|i is frequently in this way 
placed after a round number, to signify " ahout. " 

3^t^ sTT^ 's used to indicate a slight difference. 
If enquiries be made about any one who is ill, the reply 
may be made, ^^ sirj|4i sTt^, vvhich means Jie is some- 
what Jietier, really one-tirentieth. way towards reeovenj. 

Notice the following idiom : ^^ ^^ ^T^ "^^ 
^PTT% WTRTT ^TfTl^, they go on making twenty 
out of one, and keep on telling it to others (i.e., spread 
abroad, exaggerated tales). 

The repetition of a number has a distributive force. 

^^ra?V &t1w ^ ^ rft^T rfV^ ^T% ^ ft^ 
<5fI|T The caps she made began to sell at two and three 

annas apiece. ^^ ^^ ^»T$i & '^^ T^, '^^*<\V 
went away one by one. ^^ ^\^t %T ^ ^ fTl'^ 
riiH T'T^, They got two or three apiece. 

When the number is a compound one, only one 
part of the number, generally, is repeated, e.g., >M^I^ } 



SECT. 351 NUMBERS. 409 

>||(^|'| ^ q^ fir^TT You will get them for two 

hundred and fifty (rupees) apiece. ^4l*T ^ ^T ^tT 

^ITj They must weigh about a seer and three (quarters 
each. 

The following idioms are worth noting : — 

rfl^ ^^ ch<Hl, to scatter (transitive) ; cnTf 

^^^ ^T*n, to scatter, (neuter, i.e., to be scattered) ; 

^TTcT tN ^^T, to shilly shally ; ?ft ^ ^^^f 
TO, They scuttled of; ^HT 5R^ ^^^ ^ ^ 

'^TTT^ ^^, ^^^ moral and religions restraints went 

to the winds. 

352. Fractions. 

qmt or t[TW 
less tn«T or qT«T 
i more ^^T 



4 



4 



i m 



ore ^^ 



* 2 N^S 

As T^X^JU (commonly pronounced T^^t) is gene- 
rally used for ^ seer, it is safer to use %I^ or ^|{^|? 
or %rWr r^^^l for the quarter of other things. 



-110 NUMBERS, ETC. SECT. 352 

Three quarters of the hooks are not in the edition, ivhieh 
I 'possess, 

T^X»T signifies { less, and is placed before the num- 
ber, thus t|t%^(1|); ^T^rft^T^ (275). When 
used with ^^ the ^^ is commonly omitted, and 
"HT*T, not ^T is often used ; thus '^|«T ^^, [ of ^ 
yard, f^^ jyf^ if^f T %^ ("33) ^, ^^t' H*ndtts 
have increased at the rate of three-quarters in every 
hundred (77;, i.e., 75 ']'o. It is not used before 100 ; 75 is 
M-^^riT, not t|t^ ^. 

^^T alone is \\. Placed before numbers higher than 
I. it signifies j more, thus "^^J %^ U seer, ^^T ^ 
%^ 2i seers, ^^ cft^T ^ 325. 

^T^ is half of. -^rmT %T ^ seov ^m^TT TT^^, 

half of the lung dom. When used with a word which 
is not a number, it is generally written after the word 
and has the Genitive Case sign, e.g., '^^^T '^TT^TT 
3^%T ^5 Give half of this to him. 

^'|i^ is a half more, and is placed before the other 

« 

number. ^xS fft^ 34, ^T^ TT^ ^550. Notice 

* * 

that ^T^ is never used with 1 and 2. 



SECT. 352 NUMBERS. * 411 

%^ and ^^T¥ (or ^T^) are alicays used for 1^ and 

  . 

It is important to acquire facility in using these 
idioms ; ^ ^ "^'^T^ would sound to a Hindu as 
uncouth, as '' tico hunched and a half of one hundred " 
would to an Englishman. 

DIVISIONS OF TIME. 

353. General Names. 

Year, ^X^, also ^T^. For " ahont a year," "^XM 
J^rT, is a common phrase. T|^^J^ is last 
year, or 7iext year. ^JK^TK, ^^^^' one before 
or after that. 

For Century, the Urdu '^^T is commonly used, less 

commonly T^ri^, ^rTTS^, ^rT W^ 
Month, TTf^5TT or ^J^. 

Half a Month (which may be 14 or 15, occasionally' 

13 or 16, days), tf^ or qjl^. 
The first half, reckoned from the day after full moon, 

is called srf^, fj^^l^^ or ^f^VfJIKT ^^, 

the dark half. 

The second half, from new moon to full moon, is 
1^5 ^fJ'T^ '^ ^Hh^T^ TT^ (Colioq. 
jSrSJt^T;) the light half. 



412 ' NUMBERS, ETC. SECT. 353 

Although, for ordinary purposes, the months are 
reckoned from full moon to full moon, Pundits, 
for astronomical purposes, reckon from new- 
moon to new-moon. 

Week, f ^prr, occasionally 4|(S<4KI, or ^JTT^. 

Day, kTT^ is the ordinary term for a day of the 
week'. T^^^ also is in use, and the Urdu 

^^or O^. mr. 's used in the Compounds. 

* 

^TTWTT Moudaji, etc. 

For the dale, the day of the 'q'g' M st, 2nd, etc.), 
^jilj must be used. It should be noticed that 
it is the day of the fortnight or T^^ that is 
always mentioned, not the day of the wo)ilh. 

To-day, SCTT"^' Yesterday or to-morrow ^f\^. The 
day after to-morrow, or, the day before yester- 
day, t[^ (CoUoq. T^T). The third day from 
the present {i.e., next Friday, if speakiiig on 
Tuesday) is frC%t or %T^ f^iT. The fourth 
day from the present is wT^^^T, ^'^^ occa- 
sionally jITrrT%T' '^"-'^ these are seldom used. 
The Hindus always reckon the two boundary, 
as well as the intervening days. Thus, if a 
man, speaking on a Thursday, says, ^X^ jc^H 
^^ ^ >i{ m I he means, I cnnic on Moiulny. 



SECT. 353 DIVISIONS OF TIME. 413 

Night, HfT. (also TTW, TJ^, Kl'^y f^) 

Early moaning, fif?^^, f^f T^, fTf %, JnTT:- 
^T^, SP^ff, ^r%T, etc. 

Evening, ^J^^ ^^Wft^, ^^^TT^, etc. 

1^^ is the fourth part of a day or night, averaging 
therefore 3 hours. "^J T^g^ means noon. 
M^iTTfT sfln, about 9 p.m. (lit., ichen a 
foliar of the night shall h'lvc pasxcd). ^^K. 
Xm "K^j ahoiit 3 a.m. (i.e., ichcu a pahav of 
the night remains). So tfCT jS^ J^ of, 
3 jj.m. TJl^?r f^rf "^^ is ahonl 9 a.?». (lit. 
ichen one pahar of the darj ha^ ascended). 

^m^ was a fourth part of a ^^^, i-e., 45 minutes, 
but is now largely identified with the English 
hour. 

^:^ was a still shorter period (22fy minutes ?). 

 

" "^JZ ^%T. ^WS ^r^" The word ^(ft 
is sometimes used for hour, more commonly 
for watch or clock. 

The idiom for the time of the day is now accommo- 
dated to the English method of reckoning, 
^^X {strnck) being added to the numeral, ^^ 



414 NUMBERS, ETC. SECT. 353 

^^T, 10 O'clock. ^T ^^ % ^ Tt^Z 
"S^T ^^ having struck 20 minutes have 'passed, 
i.e., 20 past 9. ^^ ^^ ^K ^%, Exactly 
at jour. 

Sometimes the sing, is used. ^5!T, sometimes the 

pi ^%, e.g., KTrl ^ '^0 ^^ T^T m, 

ISJine has struck. 
354. Days of the week. 

Sunday frT^K or ^ft^T^, X^^WIK 

Monday %T^^K 

Tuesday ^ 1\^ 

Wednesday ^^ 

Thursday ^\^i or ^f^^Tifi 

Friday ^^ or ^^^K, ^^ 

Saturday W^ft^T «» ^CT^T, ^trf^^K 

Other names also are found, hut are mainly confined 
to literature. e.g.' jJTTl^r^WTT, Sunday ; 
^*5^'^' Moj^aa/y ; ^TTWTT, Tuesday ; 
n^^T, Thursday. 



SECT. 355 DIVISIONS OF TIME. 

355. Months and Seasons. 



415 



CoAiMON 

Name. 



.Correct 

Sanskrit 

Name. 



1. %rr (^w: ) 
i. If^Ttr ( t^T^ ) 

3. %3 ( ^^TS3 ) 



Corres- 
ponding 
TO, about. 

March. 
April. 



Name 
of 

RiTU. 



4. SJT^T^ 

5. ^TW^ 



May. 
June. 



6. m^, 



v& 



VTT^^ 



August. 



( ^T^T^ ) 

( ^T^^ ) July. 

7. ^^K ( ^ifir^R ) September 

8. ^riri^ ( ^f^^ ) October. 

9. "^^^T ( ^^^^ ) November. 
10. "^^ ( ■'^^ ) December. 

1 1 . ^TT^ ( TT^ ) January. 

12. "tRT^JT ( ^'iT^g^T ) February. 



i^^*Tl (Spring) 

I 

\^^T{ (Hot 

3 season) 



j-^trf (Rainy 

I 

{ season) 

"IJJ^S (Autumn). 

ter). 

ftfftl^ (Cold 

or Dewy Sea- 
son). 

«^ 
The Year begins with the second half of ^^ 

The Months are divided into six seasons, of two 
months each. The names of these are given above, but 
they are mostly confined to poetry. For practical 
purposes, there are three Seasons : ^T^ or ^STg^T^ 



4)6 NUMBERS, ETC. SECT. 355 

(occasionally, ItHrlchl^), The Winter. Ifjjf or OT"- 

chMI, Summer. ^^TcT or ^R^T^^ or <MU4)|<dl, 

The Rainy Season. These may be roughly reckoned as 
three periods of four months, beginning from cf)||ric|i. 

The Hindi Months are Lunar Months ; reckoned 
from the day after full moon to the next full moon. 
The year therefore is only about 354 days. To correct 
this inaccuracy, an extra month is added every three 
years or less. This extra month is known as 
TT^nrro, or ^BlinW, or ^fv|ch4||^ (occasionally, 

gnfej or ^TT*T ), a"<^ "T^y come in the first seven months, 
but not in the last five. For religious purposes, this 
month begins after the first t^^ of the month in which 
it occurs, and is followed by the remaining half of that 
month : but, for ordinary purposes, the month is doubled, 
and thus there is a 1st Chait and 2nd Chait, or 1st 
Baisakh and 2nd Baisakh, or whatever the month 
may be which is doubled. 

English reckoning is now very commonly adopted. 
The English months are written as follows (with varia- 
tions): — 



SECT. 355 DIVISIONS OF TIME. 417 

356. Days of the Month. 

The days of the q"^ bear Sanskrit names, and not 
the ordinary Hindi Ordinals. 



1st qft<^ 




8th ^^3^ 


2nd 5^ or 


^^ 


9th ^^ 


3rd rft-^ 




10th ^qflft 


4th %^ 




11th ^^T^ 


5th tf^^ 




12th JT^or ^T^^ 


6th ^5 




13th ^^ 


7th ^JJTft 




l-^th ^g^ or %i^ 



The day before the new moon is called >H 44 1 e( ^ 
the day of full moon, "g^^^TTT^ (occasionally, q^ j or 
F*TT ). They may occur on the 14th or 15th, or very 
occasionally on the 13th or 16th of the tf^. 

It is perhaps worthy of mention that in the case of 

such a short or long tlU, the day is not cut off or 

added at the end, but is arranged for, according to 

astronomif'.al calculations, at its proper place, so that 

a tf^ may have no 2nd (or other day), or may have 

two 2nd's, etc. 
27 



418 



NUMBERS, ETC. 



SECT. 357 



357. Eras or Epochs. 

There are now three Eras in common use for 

reckoning in India (exclusive of the Mahommedan or 

fff^f^ 1326 of which commenced in February, 1908). 

The word ^[^^(^ (prop. ^f^H ) '^ applied both to the 

Era, and to the year in that era. 

1. The most common Era in use among Hindus 
is that of Vikramaditya 56 — 57 B. C. This is used for 
most transactions. The year begins at the second-half 
of ^rT. The English January 1919 is ITT^ ^975, ac- 
cording to Hindu chronology. 

2. Another Era, which is used for transactions 
connected with the payment of rents for land, is called 
^W^fl" This year commences from the 1st of the month 

^■^irrC. The tjv^^n" year 1316 commenced on Octo- 
Der 5, 1908. 

3. The Christian Era also is now used for all legal 
documents ; for this the word, ^T^fT, is not commonly 

used. It is written ^^ ^^^ \^\^ or ^ ^o 
^d^C, i.e., 1918 A. D. 

An example or two of the way in which these dates 
are printed may be useful. 

^TRTf giF ^^^m<4K^*^TT \6^%, On the \2th 
day, Tuesday, of the light-half of A.'^drh, 1943. 



SECT. 357 DIVISIONS OF TIME. 419 

§5rr^ g^ 41^4) ^T ftrrf ^, The marriage 

is (fixed for)- the eightk day of the light-half of 
Baisdkh. 

This occurred in 471 B. G. 

There is still another Bra, occasionally used, viz,, 
yj |c|i 78 years later than the Christian era. 

i.e., 1877 A. D. 

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 

358 Weights. 

5 rfl^T = 1 ^rf^ A tola is the exact 

4 «^<!"rch = 1 "^IT^T or m^ weight of a rupee. 

16 ^CT^= or 1 %T 
4 T7T^ 

4 %K = 1 ^rtr 

40 %^ = 1 ^^ 

Considerable differences exist in different districts, 
and even in different markets in the same district, about 

weights. The rft^fT, WZl^, %T and ^fTrf, as 

given in the above table, are reckoned as flte standard, 
and are recognized as such even where they are not 

used. But, frequently for local purposes, other ^^ are 
in use, and there is che same variety in TT*T, "^T^, 



420 NUMBERS, ETC, SECT. 358 

and «4^0- The correct %^ is what is called the 
cH^ ITT5T ^ %T, '•<'•' 20 times 4 tolas, the weight 
of 80 rupees, i.e., 21bs. and about -^- of an oz., but in 
one district alone, known to the writer, there are current 
(m different parts) a 48, 72, 84 and 96 tola %;^. 

The fft^T ^"^ smaller weights are used mainly 
for precious metals, and the more valuable drugs, etc. 

There is no Measure of capacity widely used. Milk, 
oil, grain, etc., are all sold by weight, though frequently 
milk and other liquids are actually measured, not 
weighed. 

The word ^^ idiomatically used with weights, etc., 
e.g., ^^ ¥{?^ actually means full, but is purely idiomatic, 
giving no additional or exact force. 

359. Measures of Length. 

The Tf^ or ^T^ '^ ^ fraction over 40 inches, but the 
cloth-sellers take kindly to the English yard, and it is 
now largely used in the towns. 



The IJ^ is divided into 16 fjK^, or frfTT^, 



I.e., 



about '2h inches. 

The following are not standard measures, but are in 
common use for things not actually bought and sold : — 

>i{ji^ the breadth of a finger, something under 

an inch. 



SECT. 359 WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 421 

rT^ the breadth of two fingers, about 1^ inch- 
t^xIT ov ^TT%TfI ^ span, about 9 inches. 
"^ |cn Of ^^T is a measure of four fingers. 
^T^ from elbow to tip of middle finger, about 
20 inches. 

The following is found as a " table :" — 
^^ =z a grain of barley. • 

8 ^^ =1 5Tg^ 
24 3iTg^-i ^q 

For measuring the depth of wells, the word "T^TT 
is commonly used. It is the height a man can 
reach, including his height, i.e., about 7 or 
8 feet. 

The %TW (prop. %T^) 'S about 2 English miles. 
Tn^l" (the distance a bullet will travel) is generally 

used of any distance somewhere about half a 

mile, or less, or more. 

Both words, however, are very broadly used, as a 
traveller has often to experience. %T^ ¥J^ may be any- 
thing between 2 miles and 5, except when used by the 
driver of a hired conveyance, when it is vci'ij much less. 

The following is given as a " table " by some : — 

4 ^T^i - 1 ^?r5 



422 NUMBERS, ETC. SECT. 359 

2000 ^'CrS - 1 %TW 
4 ^W - 1 ^T^HT 

360. Land Measure. 

The^^X J" the U. P. (at least around Benares 
and Mirzapur), is 3025 sqr. yards, 55 yards, respectively, 
in length and breadth, i.e., about | of an English acre. 

20 ft^^Wft or ■^:=1 f^^T 
20 f^5^^=l ^T 

A If^T 's 2-| yds. in length, 

<!1 cT ?) ^2 51 " " 

20 IT^T or 10 <Hd^ —a ^rCt^, which is 55 yards 
ill length. The Square of this is a 4lMT' 

361. Coinage. 

3 inf = 1 wr ^r^^rr 's haif-a-pice. 

4 "^tWl ^ 1 ^T«n <J^n" ' two pice. 

16 »H [w{ { 1 ^qV (^m4\ "i^y be i or i 

of a pice. 

For the exact English equivalent to the rupee, re- 
ference must be made to the daily paper. 
There was a time when it was worth two shil- 
lings, it stood for some time at Is. 4d., recently 
(1919) it has been between Is. 5d, and Is. 6d. 

In some parts, two kinds of pice ( T^^ ) are 



SECT, 361 COINAGE. 423 

current : the ordinary government coin, called 
^l^l^<«li. "T^TT ^""^^ ^" uncoined, one not a 
very shapely bit of metal, called the <IK^^M 
"^^J The latter is less in value than the 
former, and has largely gone out of use during 
the last few years. 

The ^T^5T '^ small shell, Bng. Cowrie) is used for 

» 

buying small quantities of condiments, etc. 
The rate of exchange varies, but '^J^ T't^Tj 
i.e., 80 for a pice, may be taken as their 
average value. 
The names for a two-anna, four-anna, and eight-anna 
piece are, respectively, ^J^T^T (o** ^^^^t )j 
%T5T^ (or ^^^, also ^T )^ WS^ 
(sometimes among villagers jJfVJf^n" )■ 
The following illustrate the method of writing down 
rupees, annas, and pice : — 

For rupees, the number is written with this mark J 
after it. r^J --5 Rs. ^J =2 Rs. 

For annas, a small horizontal or oblique stroke 
signifies 1 anna, a perpendicular stroke 4 annas, written 

in the same way before the mark j. 

Thus ^ J or ^ J is 1 anna, ^ J or ^ J is 3 annas, 
\J is 4 annas, {^j is 6 annas, \\\0J is 15 annas, etc. 



422 



NMBERS, ETC. 



2000 l^^TS =i %TW 
4 ^W 1 ^T^ 

360. Land Masure. 
The^^T in tD U. P. (at leas 

and Mirzapur), is 3C5 sqr. yards, 55| 
in length and breadi, i.e., about f o| 

20 ft^#^ r ^=.1 f^^^ 

20 f^^^-1 fhrr 

A IT^T 's 2f ds. in length, 

20 ir^Tor 10!!^ -a ^fft^, 
ill lengthShe Square of thj 

361. Coinag-e 

3 ^ri = I'TOT 

For the exact inglish equivalent 
ference rust be made to 
There vvj 

lin'- 




SECT. 361 

current : the 

very shapely bit of aea.; 
WT, The latter m k» 
former, and has brjet p^, 
the last few years. 

^^^ ^^I'la small shell - 

buying small quanta « 
Therateofexcha«,r„^^^ 

average value. * 

The names for a two-anna. b,^^ 
piece are, respects, ^* 
^T^ or ^[ 
^^o-etimes among ,0^.^ 

The foliowmg illustrate tH.^^ 
rupees, annas, and pice.- 

f^^or rupees, the number is »^ 
after it. y J ^^ p„ -. '"'w*- 

^ \J ~o Rs. ^J=2Rs 

^""or annas, a small h- 
signifies 1 annp o 






Prose, 
the 19th 
ground and 
e of verse 
) to the end 
erature was 
-'Cts usually 
1 so treated 
with. Not 
ealing with 
subjects, as 
)uring the 
id though 
cts that an 
ing with in 
literature, 
is now 
rved 
»ns 




424 NUMBERS, ETC. SECT. 361 

Pice are indicated by similar horizontal strokes 
written to the right hand of this j. Thus j{\ is 2 
pice, jl is 1 pice. ^{\j is Rs. 2-8-0. »|| rjMI 's 
Rs. 4-10-9. 

It should be noticed that, in expressing Indian 
money in English, the number of pice is never written, 
but the number of pic. Rs. 5-4-3 means 5 rupees, four 
annas, 3 pies {i.e., 1 pice), not 3 pice. 

362. Addition, Subtraction, etc. 
The idioms for the four simple rules of Arithmetic 
will be sufficiently illustrated by the following : — 

Addition. ^T^'TT 5-1-8 qf^ ^T ^TT^ 

* 

Subtraction «(lch) f^T^'FRT 8—5 ^T3 ^ % TT^ 
Multiplication gTJIT ch<HI 8x5 ^JZ %T ^TT^ % 

Division mi\ ^rfT 40-^5 ^T^ftw ^ tN 

%r5j mchi, ^^0, ^T^TJT ^^^ ^'so used as shortened 

forms for Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, and Divi- 
sion. 



p 

SECT. 362 TABLES. 425 

The Multiplication Tables present peculiarities of 
their own. They begin froin once one is one, once two is 
p two, and differ from the English tables in having tables 
for one-and-a-half, two-and-a-half, etc. The words also 
for the cardinal numbers differ from those in general use. 
One table is given below to illustrate this: — 



» 



 



•v •^ 









Chapter 


XVII 


• 


PROSODY. 




363. 






Poetry 




M5J 


Prose 




'RT 


Word 




^s^ 


Word with its Case-endin 


g 


^t 


Syllable or letter 
Instant 




^m 




TTWT 


Loni> syllable or letter 




5^or^ 


Short 




^:^ o^'w^ 


Verse 




-q^ or T^T^ 


Line 




mFtH or ^ 


Half-line 




^?:^ 


Foot 




'TO 



Full pause at end of line or ^f^?U f^^TT 

Pause at end of ipjj ^Tf{ 

Poetry measured by number ofl r 

syllables. / ^"T^ 

„ by number of instants THT^^ ^F^ 

Rhyme. g^fj or ^^FpfT 

Rhythm or Cadence ^|7J" 

Arrangement of words sl^Hl 

Alliteration, etc. ^T^JTW 



SECT. 363 PROSODY. 427 

It should be understood that these are only ap- 
proximate, and not exact equivalents. 

364. Hindi literature is written in JJcJ^, Prose, 
and tj^j verse. Since the beginning of the 19th 
century, prose has been steadily gaining ground and 
may now ba considered to have taken the place of verse 
for the general diffusion of knowledge. Up to the end 
of the 18th century, practically all Hindi literature was 
written in verse. Not only were the subjects usually 
relegated to the domain of verse in English so treated 
in Hindi, but all subjects were thus dealt with. Not 
merely were there love poems and poems dealing with 
nature and human passions, but such prosaic subjects, as 
grammar and arithmetic, were done in verse. During the 
last century matters were steadily changing, and though 
verse is up to the present often used for subjects that an 
English writer would scarcely dream of dealing with in 
anything but prose, yet the main body of Hindi literature, 
history, biography, fiction, educational books, is now 
produced in prose, and verse is more largely reserved 
for religious subjects, for erotic writings, for descriptions 
of nature and the reproduction of episodes from the 
great works in Sanskrit, such as the Mahabharat. In- 
cidents also from the lives of Ram and Krishna are 
continually being produced in various metres. 



428 PROSODY. SECT. 364 

Considering the position that verse took in the past 
of Hindi literature and the place which it still occupies, 
Hindi Grammar would be very incomplete were Prosody 
to find no place in it. The subject is so wide that not a 
chapter but a volume seems called for, and it may be 
hoped that some really good comprehensive work on the 
subject may be produced in English. All that can be at- 
tempted here is to give a brief introduction to the subject. 

Dr. Kellogg has devoted some 39 pages to Prosody 
in his Hindi Grammar, This is possibly the best we have 
in English on the subject. In Hindi, Babu Jagannath 
Prasad of Bilaspur has written two very important works 
dealing with Hindi Prosody, the larger book, called 
^nsmnrr^T, aims at covering the whole ground, the 
smaller book, ^vSJITVn^T, treats of metre or ft(T|^. 
The latter has proved of great service to the writer of 
this Grammar, and he desires to acknowledge this, and 
to express his high appreciation of the work. Babu 
Jagannath Prasad is an enthusiast, and writes with great 
ability and judgment. 

There are three main divisions for us to consider : 
I. Vn? ^"t1 T^^ The Emotions and Styles 

(see below.) 
II. Metre, ^7^ or ftj^M. 
III. Mataphors and Figures of Speech, >i|^chTi. 



SECT. 365 THE EMOTIONS AND STYLES. 429 

m^ AND ?:^. 

(THE EMOTIONS AND STYLES). 

365. ^rni". It is not easy to find English 
words suitable to translate ^g[ and ^l^f. Emot{o)is and 
Styles are probably about the nearest equivalents. 

^f{Jcf may be regarded as the emotions which are 
to be expressed. ^^ originally means flavour or taste, 
the essence, or juice of anything which produces the 
flavour, and so, as applied to Prosody, stands for the 
Styles through which the emotions, or VTT^, '^I'e expressed. 
The ^^ is the appropriate medium for reproducing in 
the mind of the reader something like the emotions 
which have been stirring the mind of the writer. 

There is a natural bent in the Indian mind to 
elaborate in the way of dividing and sub-dividing a 

'^^ and Prosody is a fine field for such elaboration. 
There are not only *TT^j but T^*TT^, which apparently 
refer to the states of mind which precede the fully-blown 
¥TTW O'' emotions. There are also ^^HT^, which 
indicate the external expression of the emotions. 

VfT^ are of two kinds, ^^T^ and ^Tt|<| or oI|"fiT- 

V^l^. The former, eight in number, by some reckoned 
as nine, refer to the great fundamental emotions or 



430 PROSODY. SECT. 365 

passions which sway human conduct. The latter, gene- 
rally numbered at 32 or 34, are connected with the more 
fugitive or secondary or minor emotions or feelings. 

The eight ^^|^ ^TT^ ^i*^ ^ Desire, or amorous 
passion; 2. Mirth; 3. Sorrow; 4. Heroism; vT. Anger; 
6. Fear ; 7. Aversion ; 8. Astonishment. The ^tJ||^ 
Vf^ are generally numbered as 32, 33 or 34, but one 
writer reckons them as 41 , including in the number 8 
which apparently most writers on the subject regard as 
41«1^N- ^'' ^'""^ ^ ^-"^ included, then they form a 
separate class, called ff^f ^T^TCT ^TR", '■^•, bodily, such 
as crying, trembling, horripilation (the standing up on 
end of the hairs of the body), etc. The remaining states 
are called TT*T ^^M ^^, / «•, mental. This group 
is quite a miscellaneous company, including doubt, flurry, 
pride, lassitude, delight, dejection, siekness, and even 
death. 

366. The ^5^ afe nine in number, sometimes a 
tenth is added. 

1. 'JTITj ^^® erotic style ; 2. ^P^, the comie 
or humorous; 3. ^^t^JT, the style in which pathos 
prevails ; 4. ^T, ^^^ heroic style ; 5- Kt^, setting 
forth wrath ; 6. ^f^;^^, t^e terrible ; 7. ^P^r^, 
arousing disgust ; 8. SJTi^fT, arousing wonder; 9. ^ETTS^ff, , 



SECT. 366 THE EMOTIONS AND STYLES. 431 

the quietistie style : 10. <4lr^<HI, the style in which 
there is a tenderness, corresponding to that which parents 
manifest. 

METAPHORS AND FIGURES 

OF SPEECH. >l(^'chK . 

367. With Indian writers, this subject is treated in 
separate treatises, being considered too large and im- 
portant to be included with " metre." According to 
western taste, Hindi poets appear to run riot in various 
metaphors and devices of versification, but from the 
Indian standpoint it is regarded as essential that strict 
rules and canons should be applied to the use of 
>i{<|r|ch|<^ or ornamentation. 

Words are said to be used, 1. literally, 2. idiom- 
atieally, or imth a conventionally accepted meaning not 
strictly literal^ 3. figuratively, i.e., i)i a poetic sense. 

In the next place, >||t«fchlT ^''^ arranged under three 
heads according to 1. Sound VUoc^M^TT* 2. Sense, 
4I^?^*K, 3. The two combined, ^^^^chK- 

These are, again, sub-divided. 1. includes various 
forms of alliteration, the use of words with similar 
sound but different meanings, of equivocal words, etc. 
Under the second come well-nigh innumerable rules 
about different kinds of metaphors, of the common 



432 PROSODY. SECT. 367 

qualities which must be found in the thing compared 
and the thing with which it is compared, the consi- 
deration of suitable styles for praise, blame, irony, etc. 

In Vmi[|i|w*iH^^, edited by two brothers, Pundits 
Shyambihari Mishra and Shukadevabihari Mishra, 12S 
forms of SCT^f^nr, ^s illustrated in fij^^T^mxpU, are 

enumerated, and a further list of between 20 and 30 is 
given which were not illustrated in that work. 

For the further study of this subject, students may 
be referred to the book just mentioned, published by the 
Nagari Pracharini Sabha, Benares, price 12 annas, and 
also to a little book, ^T^T^nTJf^^, vvritten by Adhyapak 
Ramaratna and printed at the Shresth Printing Press, 
Agra, price 5 annas. 

METRE. ^^ or ftflT^. 

368. This subject is one with many ramifications, 
and cannot be treated with any fulness. All that can be 
undertaken is an endeavour to set forth some of the 
main principles and to offer a few details with reference 
to some of the very common metres and verses, 

369. ^ftj^ and ^|Mch^ These are two main 
divisions into which metres have been divided. ^^ 
is applied to both of these methods of reckoning metre 



SECT. 369 METRE. 433 

in versification, but the word ^v^^ is more particularly 

appropriated for those forms of verse counted according 

to their number of ^T^T- 't "1^3' be well therefore to 

write of TTTTW^ <^rd and use the word Hyf for metres 

worked out according to their ^JJg or syllables. ^^jr^TT. 

The first point to consider is the exact meaning or 

T 

use of these two words, ^^ and ^nWT- 

C f 

370. '^T^ or ^^. This word means, literally, letter, 

but in considering Prosody it must be taken to signify a 

mounded letter, not a written one. It may be a vowel 

alone, or a consonant with its vowel, or a compounded 

consonant with its accompanying vowel. It is that part 

of a word which is sounded at one movement of the 

vocal organs. This movement may commence with a 

consonant or not, but must conclude with a vowel (with 

very rare exceptions). Thus ^ is one ^TJf, so is j^, 

I^U also is but one ^T^. The essential of a ^T^ 

is one vowel sound, whether that vowel be preceded by a 

simple or conjunct consonant, or be alone. A vowe! 

_ r 
there must be in a ^?U and ouhf one. We may call 

this a letter or a sj/llable, but in neither case does it 
correspond with the English letter or syllable, e.g., in 

English, son, is one syllable, in Hindi it is two, ^ -(- ^. 

T 

i,e., ^ with its inherent jjf is one ^T^, and 7{ with its 

28 



434 PROSODY. SECT, 370 

r 

inherent ^ is a second ^ppj. On the other hand, in 

English, so is two letters, sea is three, slay is four, 
sercM, five ; but the nearest equivalent sounds to these 
in Hindi, %Tj ^j^ ^%, ^^, are each but one ^l|f. 

The ^tj]f are of two kinds, long and short, depending 
on the length of the vowel, not in any way on the 
number of the consonants. The long is called d|V| or 
•nK the short '^|-c| or ^f^ In indicating these long 
and short q^jj the long is represented by Jj the short by 

I It may be more convenient for us to keep to the 

r 
English signs — and — for the long and short ^^\ 

respectively. In Hindi, the phrase, ^iTT^ ^T ^Id ^, 

iror'k is acGomplished sloidy, would be written down 

r 
5 in 5 5 S I S, ie., 8^?5r, 5 of which are long, 3 short. 

We may express it thus^ — ^ ^~^ -^ — . 

The rfl^cl Of IT^ consists of one of the long vowels, 

SJTT, i, ^, % ^, ^5 ^5 standing alone, or preceded 
by a consonant, simple or compound. 

'^^^ ^^^ <^'' ^^ °^ ^"® °^ ^^^ short vowels, ^ 
■ff 3 ^ with, or without a consonant or consonants. 

The principal exceptions to the above are the 
following : — 



SECT, 370 METRE. 435 

1. A short syllable, followed by a syllable beginning 

with a Conjunctive Consonant, is reckoned 

long, e.g., in l||liv^fi, the syllable j^ would be, 
ordinarily, short, but as the following syllable 
begins with the Conjunctive, ^l^ this If is 
reckoned long, and the word would be repre- 
sented by  ^ i.e., "q-J^, ft^ = ^f^^ 

and 7f = ^^. 

2. A short syllable, followed by visarg, or by anusvdr, 

when it represents a strong nasalization, is 
reckoned long (for this nasalization, with its 
accompanying consonant, is practically a con- 
junct, consonant). Thus »Mri"^^T*f|', if reck- 
oned by vowel sounds, would be --^ ^ — , 

but, by the above rules, it becomes — ^ -^^ , 

because SJJ^ equals jJT'^cT and the Conjunct 
7''^ makes the preceding short vowel ^ equal 
to a long syllable. So ^If becomes — ^~-, and 

i;'3 - - . 

Anunasik does not affect the length of a syllable or 

3. Sometimes the conjunct, does not lead to the 
preceding vowel being reckoned long. This is 
especially the case when the second member 



436 PROSODY. SECT. 370 

of the Conjunct, is ^ or ^^ cji., Wf{ flj^ 
%Tf% *TtfT T^Rt ^T^, You are as dear to 
me, my brother, as {my brother) Bharat. Here J{ 
followed by j3J is reckoned short, not long, 
and the line scans — - ^ -— w — \ ^ .^ ^ 

— I -^ - — I — II So in the following: f^fv? 
?^^^ ^K'H ^jTT -HMl, (*i"/*o have yielded 
their hearts' devotion to the feet of Roghuhir). 
Here, although before the Conjunct. 7^ the 

f^ is reckoned short ; the line scans — -' -^ 

w _| ^ ^ ,^ w , ^ w _ I — II . 

4. The long vowels, ^ and 5n"j are sometimes 

reckoned short, e.g., in %f^ ^|l|'ch TTTTT 5? 

^T^n", (uuth which arrow I slew Brili). ■- ^ 

_ ^ ^ I _ _ I I _ II Here % is 

reckoned short. So is JJJ reckoned short in 
the following : f^ ^f^^ *rfl^ ^1% 
r|i^l, Oil the 'power of my own wisdom I 
have no confidence) — '-— ^-- — -— w|-^ — 

- I - - — I — II . 

5. Other exceptions may be summed up in the 
words of an Indian writer. ^|'^ %T ^pj^ 



SECT, 370 METRE. 437 

*TT ^r^ WFUj ^^^ */ poets read eoen a long 
syllable as a short one {then) understand that 
also to he a short one. Poets take considerable 
license in this matter, 

371. TTT^T. This is a standard of metric measure 

t r 

equalling a short ^rff^ the long ^J^ being reckoned 

as two m^ \. Lines are frequently measured not by 

r 

the number of ^^IJT* but by the number oi ^^^T. ^s a 

matter of practical working, while certain parts of the 

line may be regulated by long and short syllables, in a 

definite order there may be other portions of the line 

L where this is not so, but the number of ^TTWT "lust be 

correct. As an illustration, take the following doha : — 

^F^ff ^fVSr ^^ ^ifR ^ ?r ^iHT T ^TT I 

Why spend your energy in sueli a way that the worh 
idHI not he effected. Dig a well on a mountain I how will 
icater issue ? 

In the 1st and 3rd ^^TJf, there must be 13 ITT^T, 

6 + 4 + 3 =13; in the 2nd and 4th, 6 + 4 + 1 =11 m^J. 

The last 3 4JN> of lines 1 and 3 must be - -- >^ or 

"— — , not — — , but the 1st 6 ^TTWI, ^"^1 the 2nd group 

of 4 TTT^^ may be arranged in any way the poet chooses. 



438 PROSODY. SECT, 371 

The 1st — — — =6; the 2nd =4 ; 3rd =3 total 13. 

„ 3rd w w w w— =6 =4 ^— ^3 13. 

In the same poem we find the following arrangements 
for other lines : — 

The Ist - ^ www w =6 ; the 2nd — w — =4 ; 3rd ^ =3, toUl 13. 

w w _ _ =6 WW— =4 w _ :=3 13. 

372. We are now in a better position to understand the 
broad distinction between the two great divisions of Hind 

verse, ^^glri and ^|f^l^ «^»t^. The words, hroad 
distinction, are used advisedly, essential difference there 
is not. In ^I^J^IVf, ^^e length of the line is reckoned 
by the number of syllables or S|T|fj in 4|||^c|) ^^rS 
by the number of TTTWT; ^"^ forasmucn as there are 
invariably some regulations about long and short syllables 

and their order in some part of the x|^4|^| and also about 

r 

the number of 4{MT >" each ^<^j the •^^ildri 's not 

quite distinct from the TTTT^^ ^?^. Again, the Hlr^^ 
^•ti are never regulated simply by the number of ^f|^pj" 

there must be some observance of the arrangement of 

long and short syllables in some part of the line, and 

thus the 4411^ ch <^»rf are not completely different from 
r 



r 

the ^'OTarrT. All that can be said is that, in the one 



SECT, 372 AlETRE. 439 

r 

class, the stress is on the numher of syllables, ^^ in the 

other on the number of instants or ^(--(l. When the 
matter is carefully worked out, it transpires that the 
differences between the two great classes of Hindi poetry 
are not so great, nor so absolute, as the statements of 
some writers might lead us to expect. It must be self- 
evident to any one that the grouping of a number of 
lines, either with a certain number of instants or a certain 
number of syllables, could not be poetry, in the sense of 
metrical poetry. What is effected by accent in English 
verse is effected in Hindi, viore or less, by the arrange- 
ment of long and short syllables and the grouping of the 

words into tJ^^, Apart from this and rhyme, we should 
not obtain metrical composition, 

373. Cassura, Rest, or Pause. [^^|i| md^^'fif. Verses 
in Hindi poetry are of various lengths (two, four, six 
lines, etc., as in English), but these are mostly made up 
of various combinations of smaller divisions or groupings 
of syllables. The most common form of verse is one 
of four "Tfi^iy. An example before us will be useful for 
reference. 

^m^TTC ^ft Wfl^ ff^ ^ tH ^f ^TTf I 
^5fT? ^Tf qn^HPT^ 3^ ^f^ tft i%T ^Tf M 



^440 PROSODY. SECT. 373 

At that time, having heard the news 

Situ arose, in great distress 

Haijing gone ; to her mother-in-law's two lotus feet 

Boiaing her head in obeisance, she sat down. 

Here there is a full pause ( ||) at the end of the verse, 
a half- pause (|) at the end of the half-verse, and pauses 
(unmarked) at the end of the 1st and 3rd lines or T:|^iy. 
Before each of these pauses, a word is usually completed, 
- i.e., the pause does not occur in the middle of a word. 
We shall notice that within these ^f^i|| there are fre- 
quently minor divisions, between which there are 

unmarked and less distinguishable pauses. These pauses 

c 

must come at the end of a syllable or cfJ!J[. but not 

necessarily at the end of a word. The pauses at the end 
of these minor divisions are called ^f?!. 

374. ^^. The word ipj (corresponding in a general 
way to the English word " foot " as applied to poetry) 
is the name given to the minor divisions noticed at the 
end of the last paragraph. A 1\^ is a group of syllables 
or instants. 

a. As applied to c| 1(1^x1, the JmH of course, may 
stand for various numbers of syllables, but it 
is employed especially for the aggregate of 
3 syllables ; eight varieties of this Tpjf are 
possible, according to the order and number 



SECT.. . 374 



. METRE. 



441 



/Oi.il 



of long or short syllables. For these eight 
varieties, special symbols are used. 

Thus: — 

Value. English equivalent.* 
— Molossus. 



Symbol 



Name. 
fTTW 



Bacchic. 

Cretic. 

Anapest. 

Antibacchic. 

Amphibrach. 

Dactyl. 

Tribrach. 



For less than three syllables, I^ (short for IT^} and ^ 

(short for ^fTT ) are used. Thus q^ = ; 

<n<fl - ~ — etc. 

b. As applied to ^^Tfrf, the IJ^ stand for 

numbers of instants, not syllables. Symbols 
also exist for these : — 

Tit = 2 instants. 

^ = 3 



j> 



?> 



* I is not, of course, intended that these Knglish names exactly 
represent the Hindi 4Jiy or feet, but the long and short syllables of 
the latter do correspond, in no small measure, with the accented and 
unaccented sj-llables of English poetry. 



"^44 PROSODY. SECT. 376 

with either ^, ^, ^^ ^^ or ^ might spell disaster. 
Should, however, the poet, for some reason or other, feel 
greatly moved to begin his poem with a word commencing 
with one of the banned letters, he can mitigate the danger 
involved, if not absolutey nullify it, by using with it a 
long vowel or placing near the word the name of a deity 
or some other word of equal efficacy. 

377. Dialects used in Poetry. Even in English, the 
language of poetry is not quite identical with that of 
prose. Such words as morn, cce, erst, ope, eJiantieleer, 
the flight of time, and a thousand other words and 
phrases, are felt at once to belong to the realm of verse 
rather than to that of prose. In Hindi, however, until 
comparatively recently, the language of poetry was far 
more widely marked off from that obtaining in prose 
than it is in English. It is not perhaps so much in the 
vocabulary as in the forms of the words that the 
differences are most marked, especially in the forms of 
the Tenses of the Verbs. In prose, there has been the 
steady endeavour to eliminate dialectical differences, to 
" standardise " the forms ; in poetry, these dialectical 
forms are deliberately, if not always consistently, retained. 
Braj bhasha, Avadhi, Eastern Hindi or some other dialect 
may be selected, or forms from more than one dialect 



I 

I 



SECt. 377 DIALECTS. 445 

may be used in the same poem. Braj is the favourite 
dialect, but the large use of Avadhi by Tulsi Das has led 
very many to follow him in this respect as in many 
others. 

During recent years, a school of " Khan' boli " has 
grown up, whose aim is to adopt in poetry the forms 
commonly current in prose writing. Quite a large 
quantity of verse has been produced on these lines. 
Naturally, a foreigner might be expected to have a pre- 
judice in favour of the course advocated by the members 
of this new school, making, as it does, for simplicity, and 
lessening the difficulties of understanding the language 
of the poem ; but it must be confessed that there is a 
sweetness and a swing in the dialectical verses that one 
does not catch in the " Khari boli " lines. One of the 
great advantages of the dialectical forms is their pliabi- 
lity in the hands of a master ; they may be stretched or 
compressed or twisted or modified to meet the needs of 
the moment, remaining recognizable and wearing no 
appearance of grotesqueness or uncouthness. For in- 
stance, in the Ramayan of Tulsi Das are found no less 
than eleven different forms for the word ^^| • it may be 
one syllable ^T^, or two ^%j or three ^^^, according 
to the corner to be occupied. 
' ' At present, a somewhat heated controversy is being 



446 PROSODY. SECT. 377 

waged by the champions of the old and the new styles. 
Both styles are being used ; both have their merits. The 
new may grow, the old will not easily die. Probably 
both will live on side by side and flourish, each admired 
and adopted by many, both by some. 

378. Divisions of lines, etc. Not a little uncertainty 
exists with rej^ard to some of the technical terms used in 
Prosody, ^l*^ '^^^ ^^ used for a verse, but the word 
has other meanings and uses. t|^ or m^^ is perhaps the 
best equivalent for line, but is not an unequivocal word, 
as it is used in other ways "^X^ '^ the half line. The 
sub-sections within the ^^^W "'^Y ^^ fSIj ^^ they may 
not be so. If a certrin arrangement of long and short 
syllables within that sub-section be required, then the 
sub-section is a TfTjr, if not, but only the number of ^Hrj^Tf 
be laid down, then the name I|^ is not appropriate. 

The Caesura or Pause occurring at the end of a X(^ 
or ^^^ or sub-section is called a T(^f, 

Generally, a word is completed at the pause occurring 
in the middle of the line, i.e., at the end of the 1st ^4^|||* 

but this is not necessary at the pauses within the <^^m 

p 
i.e., at the ends of the sub-sections, hut a ^^H" must be 

complete at these minor pauses, i.e., if the ^^fJI be maie 

up of 13 instants orl^'X^X, arranged as follows, 6 + 4-f 3 



SECT. 378 DIVISIONS OF LINES, 447 

= 13, the last instant of each sub-section must be either 
a short syllable or the second half of a long one, it must 
not be the first half of a long one. For illustrating this 
point, take the second sub-section, i.e., the one containing 
four ^TT^T- These four must conform to one of five 
arrangements, 1. ^^ ^^ -— ^ ^^^ 2. — — ',3. —^ — — - 
4. ■— ' ^ — , or 5, — ^— --'. It must not be ------ -^ — 

for that would involve the second half of the last long 
syllable passing over into the following sub-section ; and 
this is not permissible. 

The sign | is used for the pause at the half line, or 
first line of a doha, U for the end of the line or doha. 

379a Metres. Very elaborate and exceedingly in- 
genious methods have been worked out for ascertaining 
how many different arrangements of long and short 
syllables are possible in a line containing a certain num- 
ber o^ TT^ or ^T^. The scheme for working this out 
is called ^^m. There is another scheme, called I^i^cTR! 
for working out the order in which these various 
arrangements will arise. By ^^t it can be ascertained 
how many varieties will end with a long vowel, how 
man' with a short one. By means of ^fep" may be 
discovered what number in the series, worked out 
according to JT^fTTC, ^"y particular grouping of long and 



448 PROSODY. SECT. 379 

short syllables will be. Other schemes for working, out 
other details are given, eight or nine in all. 

Of the ingenuity of these methods and their adequacyi 
to secure accurate results, it is impossible to speak too 
highly, but whether the ascertainment that in a line, 
containing 32 instants 3,524, 578 different arrangements 
of long and short syllables are possible is of great valu^ 
for those who desire to cultivate poetry, may be doubted 

by some. 

^ r 

380. Common to both Varnavritt and MatriU Chhand 
are the three sub-divisions : (1 ) ^f^T '" which are included 
all verses in which the four ^^^ or lines have an equal 
number of ^^^f '>'• 44MI; 2) ^^^iJ'H, m which the 
alternate lines or '^^TU agree : (3) f^'<^, under which 
are grouped all other varieties. 

Within these sub-divisions are almost infinite possible 
and actual varieties, according to the number of syllables, 

in varying order of long and short. Every group of 4 

r r . . 

^TST is capable of 16 varieties, with 16 ^TJJ 4,096 varieties 

r 
are possible. In the case of lines with 30 and more ^TH", 

the possible arrangements of long and short syllabled 

must run into millions. 

• •■'' As so many of tlie popular metres are composed 

according to the ^fnf^^ ^T^ method perhaps one form 



SECT. v380 METRES. 449 

of the ^IU^TtT, may suffice. The c^jcfrl is selected, as it 
is probably the best known ; though, in making this selec- 
tion, it should be pointed out that probably there is no 
other form of verse in this division which is so free from 
trammels as regards the observance of the order of long 
and short syllables as is the ^|%tT. I" this way, it is. 
not quite typical of this division of poetry. 

The poet who most excelled in this metre was Pad- 
makar ; Tulsi Das has also used it very effectively in his 
Kabitt Ramayan, 

The ^^if^^ contains 31 ^IJf in each line, arranged 
as follows : — 8-|-8 + 8-f-7 = 31. If possible, a word should 
close at each of the four pauses, but this is not absolutely 
essential. A word must close, however, at the 16th and 
31st ^fT!{. This condition and the further one that the 
last gr^ of the line must be long, are the only res- 
trictions placed on the full freedom of the poet; yet 
probably there is no more melodious measure in Hindi 
poetry than the Kabitt. 

Two specimen lines are given — 

1 ^Hi<^ 53n^ ^^ HT TPT ?TT TW 
ifldKH fArlKI*! ^RrTKPT ^f^. 

29 



^450 PROSODY. SECT. 380 

2. (As written) — 

(As read) ^f ty^T^l^ qft^tJ^T ^nf^^ ^ 

To illustrate the freedom of this form of verse, 
the metric arrangement of the lines 1 and 2 is placed 
one over the other, by which it will be seen how greatly 
they vary. 



In the first example, the words conclude at each of 
the four pauses, according to the strict rule ; in the 2nd 
it is not so, the tf ^ though belonging to the second group 
as regards meaning, is read with the first group, so as to 
make up the 8 ^IJ. So with the ^^ m the word ^JTW^; 
tout, as stated above, this liberty is allowed to the poet. 

381. Most of the Hindi poems which enjoy the widest 
reputation, are written in the styles which conform to the 

Matrik method of scanning. 

Generally, a poet adopts the use of several different 
metres in the same poem, something after the manner of 



«ECT. 381. METRES. 451 

Tennyson in his " Maud." Writers vary greatly in this 

matter. Occasionally, a poet exclusively, or almost 

exclusively, adopts one special metre, e.g., Girdhar Kabi- 

raya made himself master of the Kundaliya, and uses no 

other form of verse ; Bihari Lai's favourite was the Doha ; 

Padmakar excelled in the Kabitt ; Nilbha Das used the 

Chhappaya largely. Tulsi Das seemed greatly at home 

with all forms of verse ; but possibly the Chaupai was that 

in which he wrote with the greatest freedom. In his 

Ramayan, the general method is 4 chaupais (8 lines), 

followed by a Doha, with here and there a Soratha, and, 

scattered up and down the book, some Chhands of various 

metres. Some of these latter are very fine. 

It has been already noticed that in the MatrikChhand 

the lines are regulated by the number of instants or 

r 
^I^T, not by syllables, "EfT^. 

Three points should be noted. 

1. Sometimes only the number of the instants in 
the line or Charan is fixed. 

2. Sometimes certain sub-divisions within these 
Charan are fixed, with the number of instants in each 
sub-division. 

3. Sometimes the 7[^ in these sub-divisions are 
also fixed, i.e., the order of long and short syllables is 
definitely laid down. Frequently this only applies to 



452 PROSODY. SECT. 381 

certain parts of the line : it may be arranged that a long 
syllable must stand at the end of the Charan, or that 
certain JJTJJ must occur in this or that sub-division of 
the line. 

With reference to 2, it may very naturally be asked^ 
if the line be only measured by instants, what difference 
can it make whether it be said that the Charan must 
contain, say, 13 instants, or that it must have one foot of 
6 instants, another one of 4, and a third of 3, making 
a total of 13? The answer is that in the second way 
of stating it, a slight restriction is put upon the arrange- 
ment of long and short syllables ; a foot must always 
conclude with a completed syllable, and, therefore, under 
the second method, there must not be a long syllable 
for the 6th and 7th instants in the line, for then the 
first half of the syllable would belong to the 1st foot, 
and the second to the 2nd, which is not permissible, 
e-g.— 

t'. chM ire ^ft 411^ 1v^, 7'e who does to-morroia (the 

ivork) of to-day, is correct — —^^ — i 1 w v_. ^ 

II, i.e., 6 + 4 + 3, total 13 ; but were the Charan written, 
^rr^T ^ ^ (!hM IJT, the meaning would be the 
same, and the total number of instants the same, but 
they would not fall correctly as regards the feet ; 



SECT, 381. METRES. 453 

^n" would belong partly to the 1st foot and partly to 
the 2nd, which is not allowed, or the Charan would have 

to be scanned — -^ -w ^ — | ' i -— — " 7 + 3 + 3, or 

— -^ ^ ^ I ^ \ ^ — II 5-|-5-|-3^ neither of which is 

correct. 

382. Of the numerous species and varieties of Matrik 

Chhand, only a few will be explained and illustrated. 

1. Doha (tf|d|). The Doha consists of 4 Charans. 
The 1st and 3rd Charans contain 3 feet of 6, 4, and 3 ins- 
tants, respectively, total 13 ; and the 2nd and 4th Charans, 
3 feet of 6, 4, and 1 instants, total 11. The last foot of 
the 1st Charan must be either — w ^ or — — , but not 
— -- . The last syllable of the 2nd and 4th Charans 
must be short. 

__ .. - I w --- i ^ - -- II 6 + 4 + 3 

_ w ^ ^ — I I ^ II 6 + 4 + 1 

_ __-^ ^ , ^^-1^ - - 11 6 + 4 + 3 
._._. ^_|w II 6 + 4 + 1 • 

Ram is eternal, his attributes endless, lengthij stories 
(of him) innumerable ; having heard {them) they 
loill not regard them as astounding, whose under- 
standing is clear. 



454 PROSODY. SECT, 382 

This is the most common Doha ; other varieties are 
also found, e.g. — 

The heart, a pearl, milk, of these tlie nature is, that, 

ichen broken, they cannot afterwards he reunited, 

though myriads of devices he adopted. 

Here it will be noticed that, though there are 1 1 
instants in the 2nd and 4th Charans, the arrangement of 

feet is different, being apparently 4 + 6+1 or 4 + 4 + 3 ; 
it cannot be 6 + 4+1, as there is a long syllable at 
6,7. 

383. 2. Soratha ( ^Kdl )- The Soratha is a trans- 
posed Doha, the 1st and 3rd Charans of the latter be- 
coming the 2nd and 4th of the Soratha, and the 2nd and 
4th the 1st and 3rd. Thus, instead of 6 + 4 + 3 =13, 
6 + 4+1 —11, we get 11 instants in the 1st Charan and 
13 in the 2nd, and the rhyme also comes in the middle 
of the half-verse instead of the end. 
^ra ft^T "^^ ^ ?rf^ ^irT^ ^Wl W^R^ \ 

_,_-^_^|s_^_l^ II 6 + 4 + 1 

^^^ — ^1 — w^l^^ II 6 + 4 + 3 

v_ ^ ^ — - I - - — I -- II 6 + 4 + 1 

___ww| ^^1^^- II 6 + 4 + 3 



SECT. 383 METRES. 455 

Thus Jiamivj tlioiigJity steadfast in wisdom, putting 
away every evil counsel and doubt, worship Edm^ 
the hero of RagJtu^s line, the home of mercy, the 
excellent, the giver of peace. 

384. 3. Chaupai. ^'im^, i.e., four-footed. A Chaupai 
is made up of 4 Charans, each Charan containing 16- 
instants. The 2nd Charan rhymes with the 1st, and the 
4th with the 3rd. The last two instants must be — or 
^-^ - , that is to say, a long syllable must not precede a 
final — ' . As regards the earlier 14 instants of each 
Charan, various arrangements are possible and permis- 
sible. 

For the whole Charan perhaps, the most general 
arrangement is 6-f 4 + 4 + 2 =16. Other arrangements 
are also given. The following are quoted from Babu 
Jagannath Prasad's book already referred to. 

(1) 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2+2 + 2=16, e.g. W^J %7^J W^ 

(2) 2 + 2 + 3 + 3 + 2 + 2 + 2 =16, „ ^ ^^ ^TR 
(3)2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 3 + 3 + 2 =16, „ -gnT ^'M J^ 

aTTrnr^fii 

(4)3 + 3 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 =16, „ ftl^^^ q|% 

^^\H[ II 



456 PROSODY, SECT. 384 

(5) 3 + 3 f 2 + 3 + 3+2 =^\6, e.g. ^f^^HT ^ 

(6^ 3 + 3+3 + 3 + 2 + 2 =16, „ f^ ft^lft 

Take the following as an illustration of an average 
Chaupai. 

Wherefore I, having bowed viy head before the saints, 
will sing the glory of Hari, the giver of peace to his 
people, the sportive life he lived in Brij, of this will 
I tell something xvith joy. 
It will be noticed that the 3rd Charan of the above 
does not scan correctly; it is 6 + 5 + 3 + 2, instead of 
6 + 4 + 4 + 2 ; but there is no difficulty in reading it, 
because |ch^, though correcly -- — , reads more like — -^, 
the T seems to lengthen the previous J^ nearly into ^j^ 
and the SJn* lifter ^ does not get its full length, and 
becomes practically short. This example well illustrates 
how a poet is not a slave to rules, but trusts his ear. 
385. 4. Kundaliya (^TJ^M^ {). This is not an un- 
common verse, and is a good illustration of the pecu- 
liarities which some writers delight in. 



SECT. 385 METRES. 457 

Its peculiarity consists in this, that the first Charan 
of the third line must be the same as the second Charan 
of the second line, and the whole verse must close with 
the same words as it commences with. 

The Kundaliya consists of 6 lines. The first two are a 
doha, the last four a ^^TT. This ^T^T has four lines, 
with 24 M[^[ in each, the 1st Charan containing 11 
inWT, the 2nd 13. The 11th ^|^ must be a short 
syllable. 

'tlJ^rT I f^ TTlff f^^T %T ft^n fk^T^ M 

He xc'/io ac/^s without thouglif, zvill afterwards repent ; 

He will ruin his work and become a laughing-stock in 
the ivorld ; 

He will become a laughing-stock in the xi'orld, and xvill 
obtain no peace of mind, 

Eating and drinking, the courtesies of life and fes- 
tivities will yield no pleasure to his mind; 

Girdhar kabiraya tells you that trouble cannot be kept 
hack, try how you will. 



458 PROSODY. SECT. 385 

It comes hammering away at the life of the man wha 
has acted ivithout thought. 

In some Kundaliyas, the 5th and 6th lines scan 
13 + 11, instead of 11 + 13. 

Paltu Das, or, as his disciples prefer to call him, 
Paltu Sahib, wrote many verses, and among others 200 
(actually 198) Kundaliyas have been collected and 
published. He appears to have invented a Kundaliya of 
his own. Each verse contains nine lines, the first and 
last are identical, and the last half of the 1st line is 
repeated as the first half of the 2nd. 

This is but a brief introduction to a very large subject. 
Not only are there a very great number of different 
verses, but frequently numerous varieties of one form of 
verse, e.g., one writer speaks of 23 principal forms of 
the Doha. 



Chapter XVIIl. 

BRAJ BHASHA. 
386. For the study of the Braj Bhasha, few prose works 
are available. About the best is the <i>3iTf)iH of Lallu Ji. 
In modern editions of this, however, the tendency is to 
substitute modern Hindi forms for the more distinctly 
Braj forms. Probably the best edition obtainable is that 
published by the (Government) Board of Examiners, 
Council House Street, Calcutta. Rs. 3. It has useful 
notes. 

Sometimes, even by Indian readers, the Prem Sagar 
(also by Lallu Ji) is spoken of as written in the Braj 
Bhasha ; but this is not the case. It was put into the 
Hindi prose that was then being developed by Lallu Ji 
from a Braj original. The Braj forms are largely confined 
to the scraps of verse with which the prose is inter- 
spersed. Commentators on the Ramayan and other Hindi 
books not uncommonly aifect a style which approximates. 
in a larger or less degree, to the Braj dialect, but the 
true domain of Braj Bhasha is poetry. Hindi writers 
may adhere to modern Hindi in their prose ; but, as soon 
as they use verse, Braj is the dialect most frequently 



^60 BRAJ BHASHA, SECT. 386 

brought into requisition. It is therefore necessary for the 
student at an early stage of his reading to acquire some 
familiarity with the more common forms of the Braj 
declensions and conjugations. 

As Braj forms predominate largely in most Hindi 
works written in verse, it is needless to refer to many by 
name. The ^^f^^T^, by Brajbasi Das, would, I 
believe, be accepted as a good specimen. An exceedingly 
useful book is the '' Sabha Bilas." Of this a good edition 
was published at the Medical Hall Press, Benares, in 
1900 ; it has an English translation and full notes. A 
most helpful book for a student. (The price is about 
Rs. 6, I believe). 

In the following lists, no pretence is made to com- 
pleteness, and not every form given is to be taken as 
necessarily pure Braj. The charge of slavish purism 
cannot be fairly brought against the majority of Hindi 
writers. Tulsi Das wrote in Purabi Hindi, but was 
quite ready to use forms from other dialects, and, in 
<:ase of need, to make up new forms of his own. The 
glamour of Tulsi Das' style has so influenced poetry 
«ince his time, that few writers adhere strictly and 
exclusively to Braj forms, but introduce Purabi and 
other dialectic forms ; probably few could decide which 
are Braj forms and which belong to some other dialect. 



SECT. 386 



BKAJ BHASHA. 



461 



In these circumstances, it has been thought better to 
give some of the more common forms met with in poetry ,^ 
whether these forms be Braj or not. As the writer has, 
in a separate pamphlet, dealt with the more distinctive 
Ramayan forms, they have not been specially included in 
the following lists. 

PARTICLE-POSTPOSITIONS USED IN THE DECLENSION 

OF NOUNS AND PRONOUNS. 
387. High Hindi. Braj, etc. 



Accusative. 
Dative. 


} 


%T 


3^, ff 


Agentive. 




^ 


very seldom used. 


Ablative 




% 


H, %f 


Genitive. 




^ 


^t, ^^. With some of 
the Pronouns, W is used 
for the Genitive, e.g., ^|U 

i.e , ^'gr^T. 






^ 


% 






^"V 


^ 


Locative. 




« 














PLURALS OF NOUNS. 


388. As regards the Nominative Plural, there is nothing 


very special to 


note, 


except 


that, ivlien used, "^ is pre- 



462 BRAJ BHASHA. SECT» 388 

ferred to ^ for feminities— ^(T, not ^?T. In the 
Construct., Plural rf or f^ commonly takes the place of 
^, e.g. ^ftlR ^ (^nf ^), 5Wf^ ^ (3^ ^T), 

PRONOUNS. 

389, 1st Personal Pronoun, 

High Hindi. Braj, etc. 

Sing. Nominative. *t T, ^T 

Construct. Base. 5|HJ ^T,^^^''-, ^"RT (^H^tf^) 
Accusative. 5^^T ^T%, 5%? ^T^ 

Genitive. ^H ^^, ^K, T{^ 

Flu. Nominative. ^TT %'H 

Construct. Base. ^1T ^TT 

Accusative. ^4{%T ^ ^t, ^^f^ 

Genitive. f 'RKT ^TTT, f^^ 

2nd Personal Pronoun. 

Sing. Nominative. H ri 

Construct. Base. H^> nT 
Accusative. 5^1>%T ^if^, ^T^T 

Genitive. ^n ft^, ^K 

Plu. Nominative. H^ H^ 

Construct. Base. HTf H^ 

Accusative. g^%T <J^3ii, ^if^ 



SECT. 389 BRAJ BHASHA. 463 

High Hindi. Braj, Etc. 

Genitive. g^HT ^T^T, Ql^, 

3rd Personal Pronoun, and Proximate and 
Remote Demonstrative. 

Sing. Nominative. ?J^ l|? ^ 

Construct. Base, f ^ ^, |, e.g., ^TTK (^^ 

Plu. Nominative. % ^ ^ 

Construct. Base, "^wf ^»f 

Sing. Nominative. ^j^ ^^ ^jfj- 

Construct. Base. ^;t^ ^J 

Plu. Nominative. % ^ 

Construct. Base. ^w{ ^wf f^vf 

Reflexive Pronoun. 

Relative Pronoun. 

Sing. Nominative. %T ^, ^T^T 

Construct. Base, j^^ ^X 

Accusative. Hh^^T ^T^, %ff 

Genitive. 1^^*! "SU^, ^f 

Plu. Nominative. % ^^ ^j;;^ 

Construct. Base. f^T f^«T 



464 braj bhasha. sect. 389 

Correlative Pronoun. 

High Hindi. Braj, etc. 

Sing. Nominative. %T %T, rTT»T 

Construct. Base, f^;^^ ^^ ^^ ^j 

Plu. Nominative. 1^ % ^ ^ 

Construct. Base. fff;T, ^^ fTFT, ^5T, ft^ 

Interrogative Pronoun. 

Sing. Nominative. ^T^T ^, ^T'T, ^^^T 

Construct. Base. f^H? ^T 

Plu. Nominative. ^^ ^T, ^T^ 

Construct. Base. J^\r[ T^T 



Indefinite Pronoun. 


Sing. Nominative. %T^ 


%T2Ff, ^m 


Construct. Base. ich^fT 


^T| 


^^T 


^T, ^fT 


*^ 


^f 



390. THE verb "To be." 

Infinitive. %T»TT %T«TT 

Imperfect Participle. ^|ril ^T^ 

Perfect Participle. ^>|{ \ ^^ 

Conjunctive Participle. ^^, etc. ^T^^, ^i% 

Noun of Agency. ^M^KI ^TSTf T^, trf^fT^ 



M 



SECT. vS90 BRAJ BHASHA. 

* Present Tensr, 
Singular. , Plural. 

1. ?^ 1. 3. f 

2. 3. I 2, It 

Past Tense, 

1- 2. 3. ^^ 1. 2. 3. f^ 

or more commonly — 

1. T# 



465 



'^- -■ ^iftl 



from K^TT 



Contingent Future. 



Generally the same 
as High Hindi, but jITT 1- ^^nd 3. i^?T 

sometimes is substitut- 
ed for ^fTj c^o., ^j^ 

for ^t^, etc. 

Absolute Future. 

I. iT^lf, tf'^, iT^t -.3. tT?|,tf 

2. 3. It^I, If 2. |t^, IIt. 



IT 



2. 3. Ixg, |tH. 



Imperative. 

2. |t 

Indefinite Imperfect. 

1.2.3, tig, |t?t 



* From this point, the High Hindi forms will not be given. 



r.o 



466 braj bhasha. sect. 390 

Indefinite Perfect. 
1.2. 3.*T% 1.2. 3. ¥1^ 



Present Imperfect. 

2. 3 lig f. 2. Irg fr, tTcT fi. 

Present Perfect. 

1. vnftli 1. 3 ¥1^1 

2. 3. ¥R-> I 2. ^^ |t 

It is unnecessary to go through the remaining Tenses I 
of the Verb ; they are seldom met with, and, from the 
forms given above, will be readily recognized. 

391. A VERB with close root. 

Two courses were possible in illustrating the forms of 
the general Verb : (1) to give forms of different Verbs, 
as actually met with, in the various Tenses, etc., or 
(2) to apply these forms to one simple \'erb. The latter 
course has been adopted, as being less confusing to 
the student. 

 Infinitive. ^^nT 

Imperfect Participle. ^1^3, "qt^n 

Perfect Participle. ^^^ 

Conjunctive Participle ^^^ 

Noun of Agency. ^^^^K 



sect. 391 braj bhasha 467 

Contingent Future. 

1. -^^ 1. 3. -^ 

2. 3. -g^ 2. ^^ 

Absolute Future. 

Imperative. 
2. ^^^ ^% 2. ^^ 

Indefinit3 Imperfect. 

1. 2. 3. -^^g, ^^rT 1. 2. 3. ^^rT 

Indefinite Perfect. 

1. 2. 3. ^^. 1. 2. 3. -^^j 'g^* 

Present Imperfect. 

2. 3. ^^fT I 2. ^^TfT f^ 

Present Perfect. 

2. 3. ^^ I 2 '^^r f^ 

Past Imperfect and Past Perfect. 
In these Tenses, instead of the ordinary auxiliary 5JJ 

parts of the Verb ^^^j ^^e commonly used, ^l^ff or 
^^ for 1. 2. and 3. Sing., ^ for 1 and 3 Pi. and ^;^ 
for 2 PI. Thus ^^rT ^^^^fT^t, ^^^, 
^% ^^, etc. 



468 BRAJ BHASHA. SECT. 392 

392. With the above forms before him, the student will 
not experience much difficulty in recognizing the various 
parts of other Verbs. In Verbs with an open root If 
is often inserted, ejj., ^"nft (^7?TT), ^m^ (^TTS). 
With the Verbs ^^^T, %^T, ^^ a w{ is often 
inserted, sometimes r^^ e.g.. ^^, (fe^t), ^jft 



APPENDIX. 



HINDI GRAMMATICAL TERMS. 


Grammar 


•  • 


5^^^ 


Etymology 


• • • 


sgrqfe 


f concerning 


letters 


ctilll^^K, or ^TJT- 


Orthography <; 

1 




firmn 


I 


words 




Syntax 


• • • 


^Icf^fcl^Kor 


The Letters, etc. — 


• • • 


^ 


Letter 


• • • 


^^^ or ^T^ 


Alphabet 


... 


ww*n^ 


■*'Group of kindred Letters... 




Gutturals 


o • • 


^^ 


Palatals 


... 


cTMo^ 


Cerebrals 


• * • 


^^^ 



Dentals ... ^?r^ 

Labials ... 5n^^3^ 

Sibilants (^, Tf, ^ and ] 

?) -J 
Nasals (^', 5T, IT, «T, i ^T^^nftr^ or ^g^fj- 

>d ^) ...I f%^ 



an( 



* See classification on page 24, 



470 GRAMMATICAL TERMS. 

Liquids or Semi-Vowels^ 

(^,T,5fa„d^)...) 5"^" 

Hard Letters ... f^^rT STT^ or ^%T^ 

Soft „ %fT^ 35?r^ 

Unaspirated ,, ... ^^^XTT^ 

Aspirated ,, ... ^T^JTF^ 

Gutturo-palatals(^and ^) ^dr1Mc>^ 
Gutturo-labials(^and:g^) ^StoSSI 
Dento-labial (^) .-• '^'rft^^^ 

:^ and ^ ... fg^^^ 

Form of letter (written or] 
printed) ..j 



>jn^K 



Pronunciation ... ^^T^^t^T 

Place of utterance ... '^^T*T 

Organ „ „ ... ^^^^ 

Vowel ... ^"T 

Consonant ... o<4^»T 

Short Vowel ... ^^^ or ^^^rf^^ 

Long „ ... ^ or f^mr^^i 

Extra long vowel ... tj"^ 



"> 



^and ^JTgjnftr^ 

Final aspiration ... f^^TT 



Nasal mark 
do. semi-nasal 



GRAMMATICAL TERMS, 471 

Closed letter __ a--r 

Stroke for indicating closedj r< 

letter I T^^TT 

• • • .' 

iMoment or Syllable ... jm^| 

Compound Consonant ... TOfH >iJ>H< 

Coalescence of sounds (Sandhi) ^^ 

„ of Vowels ... ^^^^ff^ 

,r of Consonants S^f^T^^T 

„ of Visarga and| f,^^^ 

Other letters] 

Affix ... ur^nr 

Word ... ■gj^ 

Word, in a sentence, especially] 

when subject to inflection .../ ^ 
Change, in the form of a word] r\ 

by inflection, &c. ...j ^^^ 

A Sound inexpressible by letters ^^•*«|r+|^ 

,, composed of letters ... '^WTfl^ 

,, without meaning ... f^^^T^ 

r 
,, navmg a meanmg ... ^^^ 

An original word from one root hX^ 

A word in which two roots are^i <\ r- 

combmed. ) 

do. (with arbitrary meaning) ^HI^T% 

A word imported from Sanskrit ffr^TT 



472 



GLAMAIATICAL TERMS. 



A word derived through Prakrit... rT^^ 
A language or dialect ... Vff^T 

Parts of speech are, according to Indian grammarians, 

3, viz. : — 

1. Including Nouns, Adjec- "i » 

tives <x Pronouns. j 

2. Verb ... f^?n 

3. Undeclined words ; (includ- 

ing Adverbs, Affixes, Post- 
positions, Conjunctions^ >|{oi|^ 
Disjunctions, and Inter- 
jections). 

Some, Indian Grammarians would make 5 main divi- 

 r 

sions instead of 3, i.e. 1. ^'^TT Noun. 2. ^^^T^ 

Pronoun. 3. f^%^^ Adjective. 4. f^'^ { Verb- 



5. >^o^l| Adverbs, etc. 
Noun (see above) 
Adjective 

Pronoun 

Verb 

Adverb 

Postposition 

Conjunction 

Disjunction 

Interjection 






GRAMMATICAL TERMS. 

Common to Nouns, Adjectives, and Pronouns 
Case . . • <^TTcR 

Case-Sign 



473 



*Nominative Case 
Accusative ,, 

First Accusative 

Second Accusative 

Instrumental Case 
Dative ,, 

Ablative ,, 

Genitive ,, 

Locative Case 
X'^ocative 



r 

r 
WT32I ^W or 3T^«T 

^T^ ^T or ^JTJTTR 

f 



Signs of Vocative (^ ^J. ^tc. . ^T^T^^Ff ^JK^ % 

Gender ... t^T 

Masculine gender ... '^T^^'T 

Feminine „ ... ^ftflT 

Neuter (not used in Hindi) vftf^f^ T^T 



* Though ^,tT means " doer," it is equivalent to " subject." 



474 GRAMMATICAL TERMS. 

Number ... '^^*T 

Singular number ... ^rgf^^^rf 

Plural ,, ... <q^q^7T 

Dual ,, (Not used in] r^ 

Hindi)/ m^^^ 

Noun (but generally including, in"!  
Hindi, Adjectives and Pro-J 
nouns) 

Common Noun .... ^llH'c|T^^ 

Proper Noun ... Si| Jx1i«4T^^ 

Qualitative Noun (also usedl ____--_—-—- 
~ for Adjective). | S'^^^'^ 

Abstract Noun ... VTT^^T^^ 

Adjective ... f^UJM<ll 

Qualified Noun or Pronoun f^TtJ^^ 
Pronominal Adjective (Ouan-1 r^ 
titative) J 



Pronominal Adjective (Quali-1 



j ^fi:^^rg^ 



tative). 

r 

Pronoun ... ^^rTHT 



t 



Personal Pronoun ... ITi^^m M^ ^^•{IT 

1st Person ... ^^T^^"^ 

2nd Person ... TT^^TT^[^'^ 

3rd Person ... X|^^4^^ ^'' >H»^- 

3^ 



GRAMMATICAL TERMS. 475 

Demonstrative or Definite^ f^TT^^T^^^ ^^- 

Pronoun (used "only of the I ,W -r-wir-w-t- 

Proximate Demon. Fro- j j, 

noun ?r^ j W^'^'HT 

Remote (included under 3rd Pers. PronounV 

Indefinite Pronoun (i.<'., ^f) ^Pitt.'^^^T^^ W^- 

JTHT 

r 

Relative Pronoun {i.e.^ ^). W^^'^^^T^f^ WW^T 

Interroi^ative Pronouni f , 

Reflexive Pronoun ('-e-^TR) p!^T^T^^ ^T^STTT 

Honorific Pronoun (i.e., ^n^) »Ml<<i4^^^ ^T^TTH 

Verb ... fiRTT 

Root ... Vng or fi^T 

Transitive Verb ... W^'T^ fe^T 

Intransitive „ ... ^^'^RWeR T^RTT 



'J 

r 



Transitive Verb taking one] —,■.■■  
Accusative j ^ 

do. two Accusative^; T^^T^ 

Active Verb ... ^Sr>T"R or ^STT^q" 

c r 

Passive Verb ... ch4|^Ve|M or ch'Hci I'^M 

Impersonal Verb ... ¥n'^IT^Tr«Tor VfJ^'^T^?!' 



47(S GRAMMATICAL TERMS. 

Causal Verb ... HiilH^ch f^^ 

Compound Verb ... ^JtR f^TT 

Mood ... No Hindi equivalent. 

Tense ... ch|^ (but in speaking of 

a certain tense, the 
word f^H7 ^^ often 
added to the name of 
the Tense, instead of 

Infinitive (Mood) ... No Hindi equivalent. 

VJTH (I'oot) is some- 
times used, but in- 
correctly, f^lll^ch 

• 

W^T are also some- 
times used, 

•■•■ Imperfect Participle ... fe^TRXtrni ^^T 

'^■Perfect „ .. ^^^T'^^ ^^T 

r 



Conjunctive Participle ... Tf^c^lf^^ f^i'^T 

r 
Noun of Agency ... ^^^^^ ^'^ 

Present (Tense) .. ^<^i4H 

Past ... WfT 

Future ... Hf^^'TfT 



* These names are unsatisfactory, as they may be used of Nouns as 
"well as of Participles. 



Contingent Future 



Absolute Future 
Imperative 
Indefinite Imperfect 

Present Imperfect 
Past Imperfect 
Contingent Imperfect 
Presumptive Imperfect 



GRAMMATICAL TERMS. 477 

THRUST vrf^^'n^ or 






Past Contingent Imperfect ^^W W^^^T^fT 
Indefinite Perfect 



Present Perfect 
Past Perfect 
Contingent Perfect 
Presumptive Perfect 
Past Contingent Perfect 
Adverb 






Adverb of 



time 

plaje 
manner 
quantity, or 
degree 



Postposition 



or ^¥??^^^ ^Twnr 



478 GRAMMATICAL TERMS. 



Conjunction 
Disjunction 






Interjection 
Syntax 


. ^^fir'^n or ^T^;^- 




, 


K^-iT 


Sentence 




^^{^^ 


The qualifymg 
That which is 


word or 

1 

qualified 


tencej 


Subject 

Predicate 

Analysis 




... ^f^'T 


Parsing 


osition 


T^-^^^ 


Written Comp 


ch|o4 


Prosody 






Prose 
Poetry 


• 


^^ or gpif^rn 


A poem 


••• ^TRfT or cf^iqni 



There is a very large vocabulary for different kinds of 

poems and various kinds of verses. 
Style, as regards the subject-matter, ^^ 

There are ten varieties, as eflii^ (heroic), cfiijidK^ 
(pathetic), etc. 

Rhyme ... ggj 



Alliteration 



GRAMMATICAL TERMS. 479 



^gm'^ 



Metre according to number | — f^g- 

of letters/ 

do, instants (or syllables) ^I^T^ H 

Instant ... 'JTTWT 

Long instant ... ^^ or ^t*^ 

Short „ ... ^^ or ^;^ 

Line or half-line ... ^'C^ 

Foot (or group of instants) ^T^ 

Syllable {i.e., each Consonant,'' 

, .If" 

smgle or conjunct., with its } "3(7^ 

vowel ; or a vowel alone) ; 
Pause ... f^xIT 

(mirror) ... ^^ 



INDEX I. (ENGLISH). 

Hindi Grammatical Terms are given at the heads of 
the Chapters and in the Appendix. They are not in- 
cluded in the Index. 

The numbers refer to the Paragraph, not to the page. 

Where more than one reference is given the earlier 
number generalK' refers to the more important section. 

Abbreviations used in writing ... ... 25 

Ablative Case ... ... ... 40, 35 

of Nouns ... ... 107 

,, ., in Adverbial Phrases ... 330 

Ablative and Instrumental ... ... 40, 106 

Absolute Future ... ... 238—242. 196, 216 

. uses of ... ... 238-242 

,, ,, : Conditional ... ... 241 

: Definite ... ... 239 

„ ,, : Interrogative. ... ... 240 

,, ,, : Presumptive ... ... 239 

„ „ : Special use of trni ... 242 
„ „ , use of, for Contingent 

Future ... ... 232, 233 

Absolute use of Participles ... ... 225, 226 

Abstract Nouns ... ... ... 49, 319 

Abstract Compounded Nouns ... ... 316, 319 

Accent ... ... ... 27 



ENGLISH INDEX. 



481 



Accented Syllables 

Accented Words • ... 

Accusative Case ... ... 97- 

,, ,, in Adverbial Phrases. 

Accusative, Double 

of place ... 

of Time 

supplied by Genitive ... 

and Dative 

with and without ^ 
Accusatives, two 
Acquisitive Verbs 

„ „ , % not used with 

Addition, Subtraction, etc. 
Adhyapak Ramaratna, Mr. 
Adjectival Compounded Nouns 
Adjectives 

, Comparison of 
, Inflection of 
, Uninflected 

used as Nouns ... 

, Predicative use of 



Adverbs 



of Degree 
of Manner 

of Place and Direction 
of Time 
, Miscellaneous 
(in comparison) 
Three classes 



28 

27 

101, 35, 38 

330 

98 

100 

101 

124 

39, 97, 98 

.. 97, 213 

99 

.. 297, 220 

214 

362 

367 

. 316, 320 

Ch.VII 

162 
154 
155 
134 
145 
Ch.XII 
328 
327 
325 
326 
329 
162 
324 



31 



482 



ENGLISH INDEX. 



Adverbs and Postpositions 

„ , Pronominal 

Adverbial Participle 

,, Phrases ... 

Adversative Conjunctions 
Agentive Case 
Agglomeratives 

Agreement of Nominative and Verb 
,, Accusative and Verb 

,, Adjective or Participle 

Alliteration 

Alliterative Compound Verbs 

Alphabet 

Alphabets other than Nagari 

Alternative Conjunctions 

Anunasik 

Anusvar 

Apabranshas 

Article, substitutes for 

Aspirated letters 

Avadhi 

Auxiliary Verb, omission of 

Baniouti 
Braj Bhasha 
Brajbilas 

Caesura 

Cardinal Numbers 

Cases, General scheme of 



• • • O AirfO 

324 

... 198, 328 

330 

334 

37 

350 

... 142,143 

144 

and Accusative 145 

375 

290 

5—7 

29 

335 

... 10, 4, 11 

... 10, 4, 11 

1 2 

34 

12 

2, 377 

309 

29 

Ch. XVIII, 2, 377 
386 

373 

... 344, 345 

Ch.IV 



ENGLISH INDEX. 



483 



Cases of Nouns ... ... .. 93 133 

Case-endings ,.. 46 

Case-endings : how written ... ... 47 

Case signs repeated to give distributive force 146c, 



,, with more than one Noun.. 

Causal Verbs 

„ : Cases governed by 

„ : Formation of 

,, : Form and Meanings 

,, : Suggested schedule form 

Causal Compound Verbs 

Century 

Cerebrals 

Changes of letters 

Characteristic letters : Pronouns 

,, : Pronominal Ad- 



jectives 



Chaupai 
Christian Era 
Classification of letters. 
Classification of verbs. 



I Close Compound Verbs 
Closed Consonants 
Coinage 
Collectives 
Common Nouns 
Comparison of Adjectives 
Comparisen. Ablative Case 



Chart. 

According to form ... 
According to mean- 
ing and usage. 

... 281- 



146 

271—278,28,209 

273 

... 274—278 

27L 

272 

291 

353 

11, 13 

24 

182 



191 

384 

357 

14 

210 



209 

-289, 300 

16 

361 

349, 350 

49 

162 

107b 



484 



ENGLISH INDEX. 



Completives (Verbs) 

Compound Consonants ... 

Compound Nouns 

Compound Pronouns 

Compound Verbs 

Compounded Nouns (and Adjectives) 

Concessive Conjunctions 

Conjugation of Verbs, Classification of 

Conjunct letters 

,, ,, , List of principal 

Conjunctions 

Cumulative 

Adversative 

Alternative 

Hypothetical 

Concessive 

Explanative 

Dependent 

Conjunctive Participles ... 227—230, 196, 216 

: Forms of ... ... 227 



)» 



t' 



295 

4 

134 — 140. 80 

190 

281—306,209 

... 316—321 

337 

... 199—210 

19 

20 

... Ch. XIV 

• • * ooo 

334 
335 
336 
337 

... aoo 

... tJO" 



>) 


,, : Idiomatic uses of 


228—230 


M 


,, : In Adverbial Phrases 


330 


Consonai 


Its 


4, 7 


)» 


: Pronunciation of 


11 13 


»> 


, Closed 


16, 4 


)» 


, Compound 


4 


Continge 


nt Future ... ... 232—237, 


196, 216 


M 


,, : Conditional ... 


233 


»' 


,, : Equal to Absolute Future 


237 


J' 


„ : Interrogative 


236 






ENGLISH INDEX. 



485 



Contingent Future : Optative ... ... 235 

„ ,, : Possibility... ... 234 

: Use of. for Absolute Future 232 



„ „ : Uses of 


• • • 


232 


Contingent Imperfect 


. . . 


261, 196 


Contingent Perfect 




262, 196 


Continuatives 


299 


, 298, 301 


Correlative Pronoun 


• • • 


185 


Correlative & Relative 


• • • 


147 


Cumulative Conjunctions 


• • • 


333 


Dative Case ... ... 102- 


-105,3 


5, 39, 297 


Dative and Accusative 


• • . 


39, 97, 98 


Dative of Possession 


. . . 


104 


„ ,, Purpose ... 




105 


,, „ Recipient ... 


... 


103 


Day 


 • • 


353 


Days of the Week and Month 


• « • 


354, 356 


Declension 


 * • 


Ch.VI 


„ of Nouns ... 


• • • 


83—89 


: Paradigm 




94 


Demonstrative Pronouns 




173—175 


Dentals ... 


• • • 


11, 13 


Dependent Conjunctions 


• • • 


339 


Desideratives 




220, 302 


Dialects in Poetry 




377 


Diminutive Compounded Nouns ... 


. . . 


316, 321 


Direct and Indirect Narration 


• * • 


148 


Disjunctions 




332 


Division 




362 



486 ENGLISH INDEX. 








Divisions of Hindi Grammar 


.. 




Ch.III , 


„ ,, Time 


, . . 


• • • 


353- 


-357 


,, ,, Verses and Lines 


in Poetry 


. . . 




378 


Division of Words and Nouns 


 • • 


... 




48b. i 


Doha... 


•  • 






882 , 


Double Accusatives ... 


• • 


 «' • 




98 


Early Morning 








353 


Eastern Hindi 


... 






377 


Emotions (in Prosody) 


 . • 


•  • 




365 


Eras and Epochs 




• •  




357 


Evening ... 


. . . 


. . . 




353 


Explanative Conjunctions 


... 


... 




338 


Feminine Nouns 








66ff. 


Figures of Speech 








367 


Foot (in Prosody) 




• • • 




874 


Form of Letters 


. • . 


. . . 




4 


Fractions 


. . . 


• • • 




852 


Frequentatives 


• • • 


. . , 




298 


Future : Absolute ... 


> • • 


238- 


-242, 


216 


,, : Contingent 


... 


232- 


-237, 


216 


Gender ... 






51 


81 j 


,, Masaculine ... 


• • • 


• • • 


54 


—65 


,, Feminine 


 • • 


• • • 


66 


-76 


,, Special 






77 


—81 


,, of Verbs 


• •  






212 


,, indicated by different words 


• • • 




79 


,, of Compound Nouns 




• • • 




80 



ENGLISH INDEX. 487 

Genitive ... ... ... 35, 41 

Genitive Case of Nouns ... ... 108—128 

,, : where more than one word involved 125 



  


)5 


: Intensive 


119 


» J 


5} 


: for Accusative 


124 


• > 


>5 


of Material 


115 


>> 


>> 


„ Office 


113 


'> 


>> 


,, Possession 


111 


i' 


)' 


Price & Quantity 


114 




> » 


., Relationship 


112 


»' 


>> 


,, Residence 


117 


>> 


»5 


,, Time 


116 


. f 


5» 


, Omission of related word 


121 


5» 


>J 


: Separation of related words 


120 


»> 


)> 


: Special use of, with words repeated 


152 




) ) 


: Various uses of 


118 


5' 


) ? 


, with Infinitive as Noun 


123 


. , 


. . 


, with Postpositions 


127 


.. 


. ^ 


^T unchanged in certain sentences 


109 


,. 


? » 


use of ^ for ^t or ^ 


122 


Gerund 




218, 298 


, 302 


Giridhar 




-.•• .■• . ... 


381 


God, Pronouns to be used for 


171 


Grammarians 


, Indian ... 


31b. 


Grierson 


, Sir 


George A. ...1,2,213,218,226(6) 


Guttural; 


3 


••• ■•• ••• 


11 


Hal 




... . • . • - • 


4, 16 


High Hindi 


... • • • • • " 


2 


Hindi 




... • • • • • • 


1 



488 ENGLISH INDEX. 

Hindi Alphabet ... ... ... Ch.II 

Hindi Language ... ... ... Ch.I 

Hindi bhasha ki Utpatti ... ... 2 

Hindi, Modern ... ... ... 2 

Hindi Prose & Verse ... ... 364 

Hindustani ... ... ... 1 

Honorific Pronoun ... ... ... 176, 177 

Hour ... ... ... 353 

Hypothetical Conjunctions . . ... 336 

Imperative ... ... 243, 196, 216 

„ : only 2nd person ... ... 198 

„ : Respectful forms of ... ... 243 

„ : sometimes supplied by the Infinitive 221 

Imperfect Participle ... ... 225, 196, 216 



>> »» 




.Absolute 


225 


» »' 




agreeing with Subject ... 


225 


)> ]> 




as equivalent for Noun 








or Infinitive 


225 (5) 


» )' 




Compo u n d e d with 








other Verbs 


225 (6) 


»> »' 




with ^ 


225 (4) 


Impersonal Verb 




... 


268, 209 


Inceptives 




... 


296, 220 


Indefinite Imperfect 


245- 


-251, 196 


.' ^s 


eqi 


jivalent for Present 








Imperfect 


247 


•» >» 




„ ,, Past Imperfect 


248 


55 " 




„ ,, Past Contin- 
gent Imper- 
fect or Per- 








fect 


249 



ENGLISH INDEX, 



489 



Indefinite Imperfect as equivalent for Infinitive 

or Verbal Noun 250 

,, „ with similar force to Con- 

tingent Future ... 246 

252—256, 196 
used with force of Inde- 
finite Past 



Indefinite Perfect 



5» 



Indefinite Perfect 



used with the force of Pre- 
sent Perfect... 

used with the force of Con- 
tingent Perfect 
in Proverbs... 



253 



254 






255 

„ „ " 256 

Indefinite Pronouns ... ... ... 188, 189 

Infinitive 218-221 49, 196, 216, 296, 297, 302 

,, used as Imperative 

,, „ Noun 
„ ,, Verbal Noun 
compounded with other Verbs 

may govern an Accusative 
Infinitive with ^Tf«n & =^%^ 
Inflection of Adjectives ... 

Inflectional changes 
Inflectional Stem 

Initial & and Medial forms of Vowels 
Instant 

Instrumental Case 
Instrumental and Ablative 
Instrumental Case in Adverbial Phrases 
Interjections 



221, 243 
123 
219 
220 

219 

219, 220, 221 

154 

45 

45 

17 

4 

106,35,40 

106, 40 

330 

Ch. XV 



490 



ENGLISH INDEX. 



Interrogative Pronoun 186, 187, 182 


. 183, 164 


Interrogative ^m 


187 


Intransitive Verbs 


209, 210 


 » M : Paradigm of =g^iiT 


201 


> j> ,, „ VT^\ 


203 


Irregular Plurals of Nouns 


80 


Irregular Verbs 


210 


Jagannath Prasad, Mr. 


364 


Jingling Words 


140 


Kabitt 


380 


Kabitt Ramayan 


380 


Kaithi 


29, 30 


Kellogg, Dr. S. H. 212,213,226,!6),282,305,331 ,350, 




364 


Khari boli ... 


2, 377 


Kundaliya ... 


385 


Labials 


11 


Lallu Ji Lai 


2, 386 


Land Measure .... 


360 


Length, Measures of ... 


359 


Letter & Syllable in Prosody 


370 


Letters, special forms 


7 


Locative Case 


35, 42 


,, ,, : of Nouns 


129 132 


,, ,, : for Place 


130, 132 


,, „ : for Mental state ... 


130, 132 


,, ,, : for Time 


130 



ENGLISH INDEX. "^^^ 



Locative Case , Various uses of 


... 1 :^o 


132 


„ „ : Adverbial use 


... 


130 


„ „ , in Adverbial Phrases 




330 


Loose Compound Verbs 


292—304, 


281 


Lucky & Unlucky Letters 


... 


376 


Madhava Prashad Pathak, Pundit 


  • 


314 


Mahabir Prashad, Pundit 


• • • 


2 


Mahajani ... 


• • • 


29 


Masculine Nouns 


• • • 


54flf 


Measures of Length 




359 


Measures of Land 




360 


Medial forms of vowels, use of 


... 


17 


Metaphors 




367 


Metre 


... 368- 


-370 


Metres 




379 


Modified forms of Consonants 


• • • 


19 


Month 




353 


Months, names of 




355 


Moods 




212 


Multiplication 




362 


Multiplication Tables 


... 


362 


Nabha Das 




381 


Nasals 




11 


Nagatives ... 


 . . 


329 


Neuter Verbs 


* • • 


209 


Night 




353 


Nominal Compound Verbs 


... 


305 


Nominative Case 


• • • 


35 



492 ENGLISH INDEX. 

Nominative Case of Nouns 

„ f, with ^ 

Nominative & Verb 
Nouns 

, Three-fold division of 
, Four classes of 
, Compound 

Compounded with suffix 
gathered into a collective 
Noun of Agency 

„ , implying futurity 
Noun verbal. Compound verbs 
Number, of Nouns 
„ , of Verbs 
Numbers, Divisions of Time, etc 
Numbers, Cardinal 
„ Ordinal 

Numerals, Idiomatic uses of 

Oblique Cases and their Case signs 
Occupations. Compounded Nouns 
Omission of Auxiliary Verb 
t with TTff 
,, related word after *I 

yy Vl • • •  • ' 

Onomatopoetic Verbs 
Oratio directa and obliqua 
Order of words in a sentence 



• • • 


95 


, 96 


...95 


,37, 


213 


• • • 


142, 


143 


• • • 


Ch.V. 


«  • 




49 


• • • 


93 


,94 


• • • 


134- 


-140 


• • • 


316- 


-321 


e ... 143c, 146b. 


231, 196 


,216, 


318 


• « • 




231 


281, 


305, 


306 


•   




82 


• • • 




212 


• • • 


Ch.XVI 




344, 


345 


• • • 




346 


• • ' 




351 


• • • 




146 


• • t 


316, 


318 


. . . 




309 


 • • 




310 


• • • 




121 


• • • 




132 


• • • 




131 


 > • 




106 


• • 




280 


• • • 




148 

147 



ENGLISH INDEX. 493 

Ordinal Numbers ... ... ... 346 

Padmakar ... ... ... 380,381 

Pairs of Words ... ... ... 135 

Palatals ... ... ... 11 

Paltu Sahib ... ... ... 385 

Paradigms of Verbs ... ... 197—208 

Participle for second Verbs ... .. 308 

Participle, Predicative ... ... 145 

Participles ... 222—224,298,299,301,302 

: Conjunctive ... 227—230,196 

: Imperfect ... 225,315,196 

: Perfect ... 226,315, 196 

Participles : Absolute ... ... 223 

„ agreeing with subject 223 

& Verb with different subjects ... 225(3) 

,, : Various uses of ... ... 224 

„ : with and without fm ... 223 

Parts of Speech ... ... ... 31a. 

Passive Verbs ... ... 208, 209, 210, 197 

Passive-Neuter Verbs ... 269, 270, 209, 210 

Past Contingent Imperfect ... 265, 266, 196 

Past Contingent Perfect ... 265, 267, 196 

Past Imperfect ... ... ... 259, 196 

Past Perfect ... ... ... 260, 196 

Patronymic Nouns ... ... ... 316, 317 

Pause ... ••• ••• 373 

Perfect Participle ... ... 226,196,216 

: Absolute form ... 226(2) 

,, „ , as equivalent for a Noun 226(5) 



494 ENGLISH INDEX. 

Perfect Participle : in agreement with Noun... 226U) 

: in Compound Verbs ... 226(6) 
„ „ , used with the force of an 

infinitive or Verbal Noun 226(4) 

Permissives ... ... ... 297, 220 

,, with use of ^ ... ... 214 

Person of Verbs ... ... ... 212 

Personal Pronouns ... ... 165 — 170, 173 

„ „ : 3rd person not found in Hindi 164 

Pincott, Mr. F. ... ... ... 305 

Piatt's Grammar ... ... ... 222 

Plural in Hindi for English Singular ... 91 

Plural Noun and Singular Verb ... ... 90 

Plurals of Nouns, irregularities in formation of 89b 

Postpositions ... ... Ch. XIII 

vvith^ ... ... 127 

Potentials ... ... ... 294 

Prakrit ... ... ... 1,2 

Prayer, Use of Pronouns in addressing God ... 171 

Predicative use of Adjectives and Participles. . . 1 45 

Prefixes ... ... ... 313b 

Prefixes and Suffixes ... ... Ch. XI & 134 

Prem Sagar ... ... ... 386 

Prepositions ... ... ... 331 

... 257, 196 

... 258, 196 

Presumptive Imperfect .. .. 263, 196 

Presumptive Perfect ... ... 264, 196 

Price, way of writing ... ... 361 



Present Imperfect 
Present Perfect 



ENG^-JH INDEX. 495 

Progressives ... ... . 301 

Pronominal Adjectives ... ... Ch.IX 

„ ,, , of Quality ... ... 194 

,, , of Quantity or Number 193 

,, ,, : Various ... ... 195 

Pronominal Adverbs, of Place, Direction, Time, 

Manner ... ... ... 324 

Pronouns ... ... ... Ch.VIII 

,, , Compound ... ... 190 

,, , Constructive base of ... ... 167 

Pronoun, Correlative ... ... ... 185 

Pronouns, Demonstrative ... ... 173 

Pronouns, for 3rd Personal ... ... 173 

Pronoun, Honorific ... ... 176, 177 

Pronouns. Indefinite ... ... ... 188, 189 

, Interrogative ... 182, 183, 186, 187 

,, , Personal, 1st and 2nd ... ... 165 

,, ,, , Accusative and Dative 168 

„ „ , Additional Plural forms 166 

„ ,, , Genitive ... ... 169 

„, Use of Sing, and Plural 170,174 

Pronoun, Reflexive ... ... ... 178, 179 

, Relative ... ... ... 182—184 

Pronouns, Relative, Interrogative and Correlative 182 

„ , Omission of ... ... 172 

Pronunciation ... ... ... 4 

,, of Anunasik & Anusvar ... 10 

of Consonants ... ... H — 13 

of Vowels ... ... 8 

Proper Nouns ... .•• 49 



496 ENGLISH I^RV 



•5 



> 



Proportionals ... ... 347 

Prosody ... ... .. ... Ch.XVII 

„ Divisions of ... ... ... 364 

Punctuation ... ... ... 26 

Rajniti ... ... ... ... 386 

Ramayan, Ram-charit Manas ... ... 2 

Reflexive Pronoun ... ... 176, 178, 179 

Relative Pronoun ... ... 182 — 184, 164 

Relative and Correlative, Order of, in sentence 147 (10) 

Repetition of Words ... ... ... 149 — 152 

,, ,, : Distributive force ... 150 

,, : Intensive force ... 151 

Repetition of Numbers... ... ... 351 

Verb ... ... ... 312 

Reph ... ... ... ... 19 

Respectful forms of the Imperative .. ... 243 

Rest ... ... ... ... 373 

Rhyme ... ... ... ... 375 

Roman-Urdu ... ... ... 1 

Sabhabilas ... ... ... 386 

Sadal Misra ... ... ... 2 

Salutations... ... ... ... 342 

Sandhi ... ... ... ... 21 — 23 

Sanskrit ... ... ... ... 1,2 

Seasons ... ... ... ... 355 

Shukadeva Bihari Mishra, Pundit ... ... 367 

Shyam Bihari Mishra, Pundit ... ... 367 

Singular and Plural, Special uses of ... 90 

ooracna ••■ *•« ... ,,, ooo 



ENGLISH INDEX. 497 

StemofVerbs ... ... 211,215,196 

Styles, ^ • ... ... ... 3f)6 

Subject of Verb ... ... ... 212 

,, unexpressed ... ... 307 

Substantive Verb ... ... 199 

Subtraction ... ... 362 

Suffixes and Prefixes ... ... Ch.XI 

Suffixes ... ... 314,37 

Superlative Degree of Adjectives ... ^.. 162 

Sur Das ... ... 2 

Sur Sagar ... ... ... ... 2 

Syllable ... ... ... .. 15, 4, 370 

Synonymous Compound Verbs ... ... 290 

Syntax ... ... ... Ch. VI & 32 

„ of the Verb ... ... 307—312 

Tadbhavas ... ... ... >.. 3 

Tatsamas ... ... ... ... 3 

Tense ... ... ... ... 196 

Tenses ... ... ... ... 212,215 

,, The twelve formed from the Participles 244 

„ used with the subject with ... ... 95 

Time, Divisions of ... ... .,, 353 — 357 

To-day, to-morrow, etc. ... ... 353 

Transitive Verbs ... ... ... 209,210 

: Paradigms of 202, 205, 206, 207 

Tulsi Das ... ... 2, 380, 381 

Uninflected Adjectives ... ... 155 

Urdu ... ... ... ... 1 

32 



498 



ENGLISH INDEX. 



Urdu letters in Hindi 
Urdu Nouns, Gender of 



7 

81, 54 



Verb 

Verbs, Paradigms of 

Verbs, Parts of 

,, with which % is not used 
,, formed from Nouns 

Verb stem ... 

Verbs, Compound 

Verbal Nouns 

Vikramaditya 

Viram 

Visarg 

Vocative Case 

„ of Nouns 

Vowels 

Pronunciation of 



'> 



Ch. X 

... 197—208 

216 

214 

279 

211, 215, 196 

... 281—306 

315, 49, 218 

357 

16, 19 

4,9 

133 

4, 6 

... 8 



Week 

Weights and Measures 



353 
358-360 



Year 



353, 355 



INDEX II (Hindi). 

In indexing, g, both as initial and medial, has been 
included with ^ (with exceptions). 

^^^ ... 195 

^^? ... 331 

?i5?r S^q ... 163 

^^^ ... 325 

^q?q^T=g^ ^ ... 316, 317 
^q^r ... 178, 179 

^T^ ?n<T ... 1 78 

^TTT^R ... 35, 107 

«»'??'r^ ••• 259, 196 

^W tgtg«^i:rr 265, 266, 

196 



^^A^ tor 


... 196, 209 


^sf^m 


326 


^^^m 


327 


•^m 


.. Ch. II&4 


?in? 


336 


%(^\^^ 


327 


^<&i 


329 


^3ft 


340 


^vk 


... 351,345 


^% 


328 


?Tr?T?cI 


328 


^q^T 


335 


5ETfe?^r 


129-132,35 


?r5i3 


325 


^?I?rf^ 


331 


?r5TT?IT^ 


327 


^f^cJI^I^^ M^'i 


m 163 


^n%^ 


331 


^(^j%^ 


4 


^R^srr^ 


375 


^gm^ 


365 


^l^T^ 


331 


^g^K 


4 






5Er# 






324 
324 
340 
356 
195 
340 
333 
340 
329 
4 
367 
367 



500 




HINDI 


INDEX. 










'H^^^ 


• • • 


327 










326 


^5R=!? 




327 


if^MiVi 








195 


'n^^ 


•  • 


31a, 33 


%'^^ 








324 


^^«TT^? 


• a • 


376 


f ^? ^^^ 








324 


^^^ 




340 


%4^ 








331 


?J^T 




340 












«rtT 


• • • 


340 


f , with Pronouns 




167 








t^-t 








357 


?IT^U 


• • • 


4 












Slllt 


325, 


326, 331 










4 


*^ I'l 


K^ A«v^ 9 


O rt /^ 


^^R^ITj ?^T?ir^T*t 




?TI5T 


•  • 


326 


355TT 




« • • 




287 


SRTcTlT 


... 


77 


^^^T 






192, 


193 


?n^?5r^?* ^T^m 


170, 163 


HtIJT H^M 




... 




163 


?TTf^ 


... 


195 


^ffa 




• • a 




379 


?iTi%^ 


• • • 


195 


H^? 








324 


3imr 


... 


352 


35ft« ^^ 








351 


544 WT 


... 


203, 289 


^qn^ri 








331 


^m, Honoiri 


fic ... 


176, 177 


5qI3T 








329 


..., as addressed to 171 


^q^TT Ch. 


XI. 


& 


31a, 32, 


God 












48a, 


313b 


. use of 


• • « 


170 












••• J 

?TTq, Reflexive ... 


178, 179 


?H ^TO^ 




• • • 




324 


m^^ 


• • • 


178 


5^ ^^^ 




• • • 




324 


?(TT^ ^T^ 




178 


















^q^i^^ tm\ 




316 


., 321 


^T^RI ^ 


... 


258, 196 


^T? 




• • C 


32= 


i, 331 


WT^ TT^ 


... 


331 












^TfT 


... 


340 


^, ^, % 


^ 


 • • 




5  


^•iT 


• • • 


192, 193 


q?F 








34 







HINDI INDEX, 501 


«?* 


"C^ 




195 


^«ft ... 324 


q^...... 


1«" 


... 


195 


^*ft ^vft ... 324 


»?«5r 




, , 


325 


^JT ... 328 


"^^^T 




• • 


326 


^?, in Conjt. Partcpl. 227 


q^g'g^ 


. . 




48a 


^^^, pleonastic 230 


q^^T^rft 




• • • 


327 


^^?ir ... 106, 35 


v,^ i^ 




... 


328 


^^m ... 207, 298 


J?^!"?^ 




• • 


327 


, in Frequenta- 


q^ 






333 


tive Verbs 298 
, in Noun Verbal 






... 192 


194 
327 


Compound Verbs 503 
^?lfgi=g^ ^r^ ... 315 
^ri^^j^ {k^Ml ... 196 


mv , ^i: 


1^ 


... 


340 
340 


*?J^T^^ ^«T *^Ti 196 

... '^ .—.-.- ... 1 QC OOO 


^I1» 


^rj^ra^ ^n^ 196, zzz- 
224, 226, 231, 


^R 






331 


315, 316, 318 
^?j^i^«? ikm ... 1 96 


^r 




• • 


333 


^Tif 95, 96, 35 


^i^ 




• • 


333 


^ 97-101,35 


^1K 


.^? 


-• 


195 


^Jl>=llJT %?ir ... 196, 209 


#1? ^\ 






190 


*4^I=g* ^q ^<^«i 196 
^^m^^ ^m 222-224, 


*t 




... 188 


195 


226, 315, 196 


*t ^^ 




... 188, 


195 


^^^T-^f^m 196,209 


^^if^ 






329 


^f^Tl ... 380 


^^ 




• • 


324 


^ff ... 324 


^^ *^ 


• 


• • 


324 


^t" ... 324 



502 



HINDI INDEX. 



^f ^^"^ ... 324 

epT, #t, i ••• 108 

^T, not changed to ^ 109 
^T, special use of 152 

^R5F . . . 48a 

^T^?!!' ... 331 

^To5 ••• 196,212 

^TSm'^^ %^Tf%^«ir 322 
^15^5r*IT2p^ ... 364 

% 148, 335, 338 

^^m - 192, 193 

f^^^ - 324 

^^ ... 189,328 

fi:g%^ • • • 385 

^^^g 222-226, 49, 

314, 315 

$, in Conjt. Partcpl. 227 
^, for ^T or ^ 122 

^, with Postpositions 127 
^r^j^ ... 39,105 

i^^^ ... 328 

i^T ... 192, 194 

1^ ... 327 

^T 97, 102, 39 

^T, omitted ... 102 



^T, with Accus., and 

omission of 213 

^it 34, 182, 188 



^tI ^r 


190 


^Tt ^it . 


188 


^it tl "^T? 


190 


#T|> 


349 


^^ 


.. 182, 186 


«H4T 


187 


wm ^^i 


335 




324 


^^t 


324 


^m 


338 


^ ^^r 


329 


fkm Ch. : 


X& 31 a, 33 


f^^T?I>3^ ^^T 


222-225, 




196, 315 


hfim^sB ^^i 2 


18-221, 196 


%^I^T=g^5^^T . 


315 


f^lf^^^T^ Ch 


. XII & 31a, 




33 


«S^ ^I^ 


.. 2, 377 


^T^l 


331 


• • 


331 


! m^T or <^HT . 


210 


^rii 


77 


iIrt 


210 







HINDI INDEX. 


:)UO 


iwr, for 

»mj, in 


plural... 
Prosody 


 • 


92 
374 
349 




352 

384 
349 




... 




364 
349 


^i^ 368-370, 378 


m? 


> < > 




331 


si?^:R^^? 


364 


SIFT 


^^T 


33, 
316, 


153 
320 
347 
347 
370 


3iiT, for plural... 


340 
340 
210 

327 
92 


gft 


• • a 




353 


3T^5iT 


214 


p. 


... 




353 

A 


3T^ 
31^ 51^ 


324 
324 


=g?^ra?^ 


... 




4 


vlf -"-I 


34 1. 342 


=g^<ir 


372, 


373, 


378, 


31?^ 


327 


=5aqr 






201 


315? 


324 


=g5WT 






349 


3if f ^e^ 


324 


=5f^oi 


... 




91 


31^1 ^T rT5f 


324 


^T^5TT 




219 


302 


3151 SIff 


324 


^T%^ 


219, 220 


221 


303 


3TI?IT^^HT 


225 (6) 


^it 


. . . 




304 


3TTf%^l'g* ^T . . . 


49 


'^Tf..... 


.=gTt .. 


304 


335 


5fRT 204, 


284, 301 


^it 


.#T^ ... 




337 


^ in Passive 


- 


i^if^Ti 


• • • 




88 


Neuter Verbs 269 


l^JfT 






295 


, with Imper 


- 225 (6) 


^"t^ft 


» • • 




346 


feet Partcpl. 





ou^ 


HINDI INDEX, 






f^^m 1 92 


193,328 


tfT 




347 


f^>^? 


324 




• • • 


5 


f^5I 


329 








f^^ rl^f 


324 


^^l 




210 


^ 


340 


? 


... 


5 


^Mr 


210 








3ft ff 


340 


?T* 


... 


331 


^I 


192, 194 


rlc^fl 


 • • 


3 


^^«^ 


327 


^^J 




327 


5|> 


182-185 


3%^ 


314, 316-321 


3IT ^sj 


190 


cT^*T^ 


• • • 


3 


^T ^tI 


190 


^^^ 


• • • 


331 


;^T, Conjunction 


336, 184 


cig 


• . • 


324 


^T *ft 


337 


a^ rl^ 


... 


324 


• ' * 


349 


rl^ 


... 


331 


u* 

^ 


324 


cl^f 


  • 


324 


3^f 


324 


d^f cTff 




324 


3qf 5qf 


324 




... 192, 


193 
353 


4fii • • • 


327 


f^vi? 




324 


«2qz 


327 


^ #^ 


... 


351 






tj*, 5*T!rT 


... 


375 


€t* 


327 


^*i 


165, 170 


171 


it^ 5TSP 


327 


^*i 




168 




285 


rj*^l 


... 


166 
327 


:§i^^i 


g^'rT 




^ 


352, 345 


g^ 


* * • 


331 


t^T 


347 


^f use of 


... 170, 


171 



HINDI INDEX. 



#^l 


... 192, 194 


^ 


... 329, 339 


^1*ft 


... 334, 337 


f^fc^ 


324 


m% 


341 



«TI 



198, 199 



^«Ti ^??ri 


... 


305 


« 
^«i 




349 


^flI?TT5I 




331 


^^ 




91 


^fk^ 


... 


325 


^w 




91 


f^'sit ^^i 


... 


306 


f^'gr^i 




205 


t^ 


4, 


370 


^ 


• • • 


325 


^i^'ij 




202 


^m 206, 210, 283 


297 


t^r, with 


Per- 




missive 


uses ^ 


214 


tf 


• • • 


77 


it =31? 


• • « 


351 


! ii^^r *?5TT 




348 


?>fT 




382 


^flt 




341 


^ru 


• • • 


331 



>?^ 

5T 5T 

R^5qJ5TT 



505 
48a 

327 
341 
196 
341 
327 
210 
48b 

329 
335 
331 
331 
48a 
342 
329 

329, 335 
331 
160 

156, 160 
160 

325, 331 
289 
180 
163 
326 
326 



506 



HINDI INDHX, 



m«T2 




328 


q^[»q?i 


• • « 


326 


rRttt 




331 


q^mr 


•  • 


181 


f^r^^i 




327 


qRTTH!I^T=g* 


... 


Ch. IX 


^i^^ 




48b 


qf^^TIiir^T^^ %qif^dq^ 322 






328 


q^ 




331 


M^^Q>J 




328 


q«T?cr 




331 


f?r^=g??^T=5^ ^5Tu? 


173-175, 


qj^^ra 




326 






163 


q^c 




353 


f^^cl 


• • 


331 


q%^ 




. 326, 331 


Hi^^tf 


• • • 


329 


qT^> 




352 


•n-M 




325, 331 


Tl^ 




378 


% 37, 95, 


144 


, 202, 213, 


qT5TT 




297 






297 


qRT, without 


», 


with 


^^ with Permissive 


Acquisiti 


ve 


Verbs 214 


Verbs 


• • • 


214 


qf=^ «m 




351 


q', use uncertain 


with 


qR 




325 


certain Ver 


bs 214 


qrc?4H ^-f^T 




305 


#r tl ^\^W 


... 


351 


qi^TTft 

qi« 




342 
. 325, 331 


q^ 


• • • 


353, 356 


rq»T3 




. 368-370 1 


qf^T 




286 


^^ 




. 325, 331 


T^ 


... 


48a, 378 


qtsiT 




210 


q^ 




364 


S=T^ 




333 


m 


42, 


132, 147(8) 


5^q^rg^ ^^m 


163-172 






331, 334 


^m^ 




48a 


q^. omission 


of 


132 


5^^ 


• • 


77 


q? ^ 


... 


132 


'i.ilT ^T^J 


• • 


305 


q?jg 




334 


H^'dW^ 


• • 


356 1 





HINDI 


INDEX. 


507 


I^'J? 


260, 196 


^ ( see ^ ) 




I'^tgt^^^'l^ 


265, 267, 








196 


*?? 


358 


^ 


331 


*j^r 


341 




331 
227-230 




196 

91 


^TclT 


89b 


*ii^ 


365 


q|^, q^^ 


352, 345 


*II^q^R \k^T ... 209, 


268, 


59121 314,31a, 


352 

331 

331 

33 

32, 37, 48a 


W^^T^« (Nouns) 
«TSi^T=5^ ^^T ...315, 


196 

49 

322 

316, 

319 




195 

163 

186, 163 


V{\^m^ %qT 209, 268 
vit^f ... 325 


, 196 

333 

, 331 


a^R 


379 


^^ 


91 




91 
329 
329 

, 271-278, 




196 
214 
367 




196, 209 


JTcT ... 243, 


329 


"-^^ 


4 


^^fJ s^ 


163 






^^m^ 


327 


"R^^ 


357 


TTT5T 


329 


^? 


. 326, 333 


m^ ... 4, 15, 


371 


%^ 


333 


wf^* ^^ 369, 372, 


381 






JTR5TT . . . 97e, 


273 



508 



HINDI INDEX. 



m\ 


• > • 


331 


^Wt 


« • • 


331 


g^ryfesp 




331 


^* 


w7« « 


48b 


1^ 




196 


^, Special forms 


19, 18 


^ 


129-131, 


42, 147(8) 


?^I ^?5TT 




305 






162 


im^J 




289 


ff, omission of 


131 


?=gJTT 


• • • 


31a, 32 


^, In Adverbial 




W 


• • • 


366, 365 


phrases 


330 


?f5IT 


225(6), 


299, 300 


§^ 




130,6) 107 


?f|^ 


• • • 


331 


af 




165 


?w Tm 


• • • 


340, 342 








?T3i»n% 


• • • 


386 


^1% 




373 


^f? 


... 


48b 


^SIT 




327 


^ 


... 


161 


^^P^ 


• • « 


327 


^ 


•  • 


340 


^f^ 


• • • 


336 


^'75 


•  * 


19 


^^f^ 


• • • 


337 


^RT 


... 


210 


^^, 


173, 34, 164, 182 


1 






?Tf, Idiomatic 




^1 


... 


331 


use of 


175 


qJIIT 


•  • 


296 


^ 




324 


^nvrq 


• • • 


331 


^i ^f f 




324 


^frr 


• • • 


331 


?TT 




335 


5ii 


... 


370 


^I ^I 




335 


^T^I 


• • • 


214 


2?T^ 




329 


leiTT 


a • 3 


48a 






324 


%«? 


• • • 


331 


qf 




324 


init 


... 


92 


^rn^% 




48b 


^f^ 


... 


334 








^3iRr 


* • • 


214 



HINDI INDEX. 



509 



%^J 




• . 


210, 283 




324 


^f 




• • 


• 331 


^frf 


195, 328 


^m 






92, 170 , 




195 
326 


^ 




.. 


333 


^I^^'f 


48a 


^*^i 




, , 


214 




335 






• • 


331 


^Tq 


325 


^^^ 






48a 


^r^^=gR 


3Ia, 32 


?3IT 




, , 


353 


^T^f ^ ?g^T Ch 


VI & 31a, 


s^r 




, , 


328 




32 


'^i*^ 




.. 


230 


^r? 


331 


^% 




.. 


331 


5R 


325 


^l^, ^m, 


^5f 


.. 


334 


^R Tr^ 


325 


^?T^? 




.. 


331 


^r? ^Tf, ^?>M . . 


326 


<: 

^TT 






4 


^TqT 


91 


^ 






4, 370 


^T^T 


.231, 318 


^'q'JT ^?^T 






305 


gr^^ 


331 


^Wq^T 






4 


^r?^ 


331 


5?0"f^=^TT 






31a, 32 


^Tf, ^Tf ^Ff .. 


340 


g^rrfxT 




369, 


372, 380 


^Tf ^ 


325, 331 


^^\m^ 






48b 


^^mf^9T 


357 


^f^^j mf^^ 




369, 372 


f^r^ 


. 196, 243 


^^RTJT (^Toj) 




196 


f^^ 


4 


gf^ 




» • • 


334 


f%^, i%qr 


331 


^?T 




 • • 


341 


f^q^rT 


331 


^^3 




* • • 


89 


Rvrf% 


37, 48a 


^f 


173 


, 34 


164, 182 


f^WTSf* ^s?j?T . 


Ch. XIV& 


^5, Idiomatic 


use 


of 175 




31a, 33 



510 


HINDI INDKX. 


ra*TT5 




365 


^^ ... 48a 


f^fW 


4 


, 16 


^^f^=gR ... 31a, 32 


i^^4 




331 


m^ ... 357 


f^^qiir Ch. VII & 


; 31a 


,33, 


^\^^ ... 329 






153 


^ftST ... 327 


f^s^m 




373 


^mm ... 376 


f^^^ 




331 




f^^n 




4 


^ ... 331 


f^;9Tmf^T>55E ^5^«l 


Ch 


XV 


^^^r ... 294 


( 


5c 31a, 33 


^^^^l%qT ... 196, 209 


^gr 


360 


, 89 


'H+oi ... 195 


^tg 




331 


^n ... 331 


^^ 




349 


^=g ... 327 


^m 




327 


^=^9=5 ... 327 


<5( • • • 




331 


^^Ifr (*TT^) ... 365 


^JT 




327 


^^?!^T=^? e^im 173— 17n, 


#^ 




328 


163 


t5«1T 




288 


^^T Ch. V & 31a, 33, 48a 




192, 


194 


^Td ... 349 


ll^ 




327 


^^ ... 327 


^T!^T 




210 


^V  326 


^Tq55»T 




214 


^^T^t^I ... 326 


5??f^gT=^* ^^T... 




49 


^tHH ... 331 


z^^^ 




4 


«t^ ..• 326 


^^f^^xt^ (^T^) 




365 


H5T ... 357 


sqT^^lir 




31a 


^^ ... 331 


"'^^TTtI 


3h 


1, 32 


^f^i^ijcf ... 264, 196 
^f^jgg^flR ••• 263, 196 



HINDI 

^^tE ^m ... 4 

^gTR%qT 281-306,209, 

196 
^11 ... 4 

^m^^ ?I5q2? ... Ch. XIV & 

31a, 33 
^^^^T ... 214 

^T^cl ... 195 

^^T^T? ... 91 

^JTR ... 331 

«?TIH ... 134-140 

48a & b 
^Jftq ... 331 

H^cl ... 331 

^Jil^T ... 195 

^yJI^R 102-105, 35 

^»^cr ... 357 

^T^^ 108-128,35 

?TTg?\? ^T?* ... 41 110 
?TJ^?\^qT=5^ ^^m 1 63 

^T^'^^m^ «I5q«J Ch. XI U 

& 31a, 33 

^*^?>^^=5^ ?r5q?7 Ch. XIII 
?r^>g5T ... 133, 35 

^WTTsq ^if^':??^ 232-237,196 
«W7T5q^ ... 262, 196 

^f^Tsq ^^^J^ ... 261, 1 96 
m ... 4 



INDEX. 




511 


^tt^T 


... 156, 159 


^^^ 


325 


«#^HT 


... Ch. VIII 




& 31a, 33 


?T^nT 


342 


^g 




. 195, 162 


^^ f ^ 




190 


^^ ^ ??^ 


• • 


195 


^5r ^t| 


* « 


190 


^^ ^ 


• • 


162 


^^T 


. 


352, 345 


^^51 


•  • 


327 


^f^T 


• > 


327 


^^I'lcrr ^^qr 


• • 


305 


eff^r 


• • 


331 


^^ 




327 


^T 


• • 


186 


^r, ^, 53 


156, 157, 158 


^T^m 


327 




...352, 345 


^IST 


331 


^IS^^I=^^ 


... Ch. IX 


^*4^ 


331 


^mx^ vr^ciia 


238-242, 




196 


^Tfl?^ 5|;^ 


252-256, 196 


^WT^ g^qiJT 


... 257, 196 


^I^ 


331 


«i<r 


• • • 


195 



512 



HINDI INDEX. 



^^\ 

^ 40, 106, 1 

^j in adverbial 
phrases 

^1 

^? 

^SBR ^^IT . . . 



329 
48b 
91 
210 
306 
379 
07, 162 

330 
327 
358 
349 
185 
210 
383 
88,89 
48a 
365 
322 

4 
342 
305 

166 
168 
190 



fT 
ft 

fTfT 



4,17 
4 
340 
329 
340 
340 
357 
152, 328 



^j with Imperf. 

Partcpl. ... 225(4) 
^, with Pronouns 167, 173 
fT ... 328 

t ... 340 

^3 ... 331 

198, 199 
311 
310 
340 
242 
231 






f , not Auxiliary 

f , omission of 

fl 

^ini, special use of 






198,200 

327 

4,370 



* 






2^il>iUliM\a ot-v^i. iNUV 1 \oiti 



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UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY 



1933 
G? 

1921 



Greaves, Edwin 
Hindi grammar