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THIS edition is intended for the use of the upper classes 
in schools and the junior students, especially of colonial, 
universities, where the poem is frequently prescribed for 
examination. It is hoped that the notes will supply all 
the help in language, historical allusion, and theological 
controversy, necessary for an intelligent appreciation of 
the finest example of ratiocinative verse in English 
literature, which has not hitherto been adequately anno- 
tated, except in the monumental and not always 
accessible edition of Scott. No attempt has been made 
to discuss controversial questions, partly from a sense of 
incompetence, but also from a desire to avoid giving 
offence to either side, perhaps, too, because nowadays in 
the face of a common foe these differences of opinion on 
points of doctrine between the various religious de- 
nominations are by tacit agreement less acrimoniously 
debated. The poem has been treated as literature, not 
as polemic, the notes on points of theology being strictly 
confined to explanations necessary for understanding the 
argument. For the exact meaning of words as employed 
in the time of Dry den Bailey's Dictionary (1731 and 
1733) has been found very useful. All obligations to 
Scott's edition (revised by Saintsbury), which cannot be 


overestimated, are acknowledged in the notes. Refer- 
ences to Green (Short History) and Macaulay have 
frequently been made to avoid lengthy historical notes 
on trite topics. The text adopted is that of Mr. 
Christie in the Clarendon Press edition, with a few 
corrections. In order to render the poem suitable for 
the use of mixed classes, a few lines have been omitted 
here and there without injury to the context. 




NOTES, .... 






The Hind and the Panther was licensed on the llth of 
April, 1687, and was published a few days after by 
Jacob Tonson. It is important to notice the date with 
reference to the Declaration of Indulgence, which had 
appeared on the 4th of April in the same year. 

The poem is in form, as the title indicates, an ajiimal 
fable^. in jv^jch ths_Hind and the Panther play the chief ' 
parts the former representing the Roman CatEolic 
Church, the latter the Church of England. The Hind y/ 
was chosen as the emblem of grace, purity, and innocence. * 
Dryden, who was thoroughly versed in the language of the 
Authorized Version of the Bible, which he uses so freely 
and with such effect throughout the poem, may have 
been influenced in his choice by the scriptural conception 
of the Hind as suggested by such passages as " Naphtali 
is a hind let loose : he giveth goodly words " (Gen. xlix. 
21); "He maketh my feet like hinds' feet, and setteth 
me upon my high places " (II. Sam. xxii. 34 ; Ps. xviii. 
33; Hab. iii. 19);^" Let her be as the loving hind 
and pleasant roe" (Prov. v. 19).| The Panther, accord- y; 
ing to the old derivation, was so called " because it has * 
the fierceness of all beasts put together," and hierogly phi- 
call v. we are told, it represents ".hypocrisy and deceit. 


Scott quotes a passage from one of the Fathers to the 
effect that "panthers are naturally inspired by such 
monstrous and savage hatred against mankind that they 
furiously attack even statues, and tear the counterfeit 
presentment as fiercely as if it were the real man." 

In the framework of the poem Dryden has followed, 
with considerablelmlargement, the precedent of Eastern 
I/ apologues, such as Jotham's "Parable of the Trees" 
(Judges ix. 7-15); Aesop's Fables, to which he specially 
refers (iii. 6); the famous History of Reynard the Fox (first 
translated into English and printed by William Caxton, 
June, 1481 ; reprinted by Arber in the English Scholar's 
Library), from which he borrows some of the names for 
his animals, as Isgrim for the wolf (i. 449) and Partlet 
for the hen (iii. 1024); Chaucer's Parlement of Foules and 
The Nonne Prestes Tale ; Spenser's Prosopopoia, or Mother 
Hubberds Tale, to which he also alludes (iii. 8). He may 
also have been influenced to some extent by Horace's 
fable of the town and country mouse (Sat. n. vi. 79-117), 
as Montague and Prior apparently felt when they 
selected it as an appropriate travesty of The Hind and 
the Panther. 

In the conduct of the fable Dryden has been variously 
censured and defended, in each case not always with 
discrimination. To say with Johnson, following Mon- 
tague and Prior, that " a fable, which exhibits two beasts 
talking theology appears at once full of absurdity," or 
that "the scheme of the work is injudicious and incom- 
modious for what can be more absurd than that one 
beast should counsel another to rest her faith upon a 
pope and council ? " is, as Scott points out, to condemn 
such universally admired parables as that of Jotham, 



, such popular fables as those of Aesop, and Reynard the 
Fox, in which we agree to accept certain objects or 
animals as representative of typical human beings, or 

K personifications of abstract qualities, and allow them to 

/ speak in accordance with the character they have 
assumed. But it must be admitted that when the con- 
vention has once been established, and we have adjusted 

^ our ideas to the new conditions, it does rudely destroy i 
the illusion in which we have acquiesced to find the) 
beasts, whom we have consented to regard as rational 1 
creatures, again dehumanized and expressed in terms of 
the brute creation. As long as they confine themselv* 
to discussing dogma we are conscious of no improbability,] 
because we have agreed to treat them as symbols of rival* 
schools of theology, but we are recalled with a shock to iji 
the world of sense when, after abstruse debate upon the \ 
doctrine of transubstantiation, we find them suddenly j 
reverting to their natural characteristics, and the Hind . 
drinking at the common watering-place, or the Panther / 
pacifying her tail and licking her frothy jaws. And yet 
even this treatment is not consistently maintained. 
After drinking at the watering-place with the other 
animals at the end of the First Part, they are described 
at the end of the Second Part as entering a cottage, 
sitting at a homely board, and quaffing a grace-cup to 
the health of the King. But, as Professor Saintsburv 
says, " no defender of The Hind and the Panther has ever 
attempted to defend it as a regular or classically propor- 
tioned piece of work. Its main theme is, as always with t 
Dryden, merely a canvas whereon to embroider all sorts 
of episodes, digressions, and ornaments." In spite, 
however, of the incongruities and inconsistencies of con- 


struction, we cannot fail to admire the ingenuity with 
which the analogues are chosen, and their physical 

characteristics employed to satirize the various peculi- 
arities of their several antitypes. Montague and Prior's 
miserable parody plays the part of advocatus diaboli to 
The Hind and the Panther. It only serves to enhance by 
contrast the immeasurable superiority of the original. 

The poem is essentially a satira in the original meaning \ 
of the word an olio, a hotch-potch, a medley of hetero- 
geneous ingredients in which topics of all-kinds are dis-/ 

Church, to which Dryden had recently become a convert. ^ 
On the~19th of January, 1686, Evelyn records: "Dryden, 
the famous play-writer, and his two sonns, and Mrs. 
Nelly were said to go to masse " ; adding his opinion 
that "such proselytes were no greate losse to the 
church." With the proverbial zeal of the neophyte, 
Dryden immediately proceeded to vindicate the sincerity 
of his conversion by taking up the cudgels on behalf of 
the cause he had espoused, first in prose against Stilling- 
fleet in defence of the posthumous papers of Charles II. 
and the Duchess of York, then, when worsted by his 
teran antagonist, exchanging them for the more 
'amiliar weapon of satirical verse, in which he had no 
rival. The form of the poem a dialogue between two v 
animals representing the opposed churches was elastic 
enough to permit him to touch with his matchless 

dexterity the current points in dispute between the 

conflicting parties, the stock subjp.nts of the 

and the pamphlet, without being hampered by the rigid 
limitations of a regularly conducted debate upon pre- 



joined the Church of England after the revocation of 
the Edict of Nantes. The two next debate some of the 
main points at issue between Dryden and Stillingfleet in 
the controversy about the religious papers of the late King 
and the Duchess of York, such as the real cause of the 
English Reformation and the existence of any Protestant 
atise on the Christian grace of humility, in the course 
of which Dryden puts into the mouth of the Hind an 
impassioned and magnanimous defence of his own char- 
acter and conduct against the personalities of Stillingfleet 
Q /and the stock charges of hypocrisy and mercenary motive 
/ which were freely brought against him on the occasion 

* of his secession to the Church of Rome. This brilliant 
Apologia pi'o vita sna is written with such apparent 
earnestness and sincerity as to win 'the sympathy, if not 
the judgment, of the unprejudiced reader in favour of', J 
the poet. The recent conversions to Popery are then 
discussed, and the causes of their scarcity analysed with 
great acumen. The first of the two episodes follows, jn' 
^hich the disasters awaiting the Roman Catholics, who 

*|are represented as swallows tempted by sanguine coun- 
sellors to postpone their migration till it was too late* 
are foretold by the Panther with curious prescience 
{rf subsequent events. The Hind then appeals to the, 
Panther to consent to the removal of disabilities from 
the Roman Catholics, and exposes the inconsistency of 
professing toleration while refusing to rescind the 
oppressive enactments of earlier times. The plea df 
conscientious scruples, so frequently urged at the time, 
is dismissed with contempt, and conscience is identified 
with self-interest. The Panther vainly alleges the need 
of defence against the encroachments of the Papacy 



during the reign of a Roman Catholic, and foreshadows 
^Jie abolition of religious tests under a Protestant suc- 

;/cessor. After an ineffectual effort to win her over to 
/ the wishes of the King, the Hin4 abandons her to her 
/ new ally the Wolf (the Presbyterians), and answers the 
episode of the Swallows by the fable of the Pigeons and 
the Buzzard, representing respectively the clergy of the 
Church of England and Dr. Burnet, the famous Bishop 
of Salisbury.? This part of the poem (from 1. 892 to the 
end), which contains distinct references to the Declara- 
tion of Indulgence, together with the Preface, may be 
supposed to have been written between the appearance 
of the Declaration of Indulgence on the 4th of April and 
the publication of the poem about a week after. The 
poem abruptly terminates with a prediction of the decay 
^ /\ of the Church of England and the revival of arts 
and commerce as the results of the Declaration of 
I Indulgence. 

~"It is evident from internal considerations that the 
whole poem, with the exception of the last episode, was 
written before Dryden was aware of James' change of 
attitude towards the Church of England] as it is directed \ 
to promoting an entente cordiale between her and the ' 
Church of Rome at the expense of the Nonconformists. 
This was James' original policy, until he found it 
thwarted by the refusal of the English Church to consent 
to the repeal of the Test Act, when he formed the design 
of bribing the Protestant dissenters to support him in 
removing the religious disabilities of the Roman Catho- 
lics by letting them share the benefits of the Declaration 
of Indulgence. This fully supports Dryden's own state- 
ment in the Preface that the task " was neither imposed 


on me, nor so much as the subject given me by any 
man." The change in the royal policy rendered the 
poem useless for its original intention, and left it 
valuable solely as a masterly contribution to the general 
nH the most brilliant example of cogent 

and luminous reasoning in verse, combined with pungent 
satire and splendid passages of declamation, within J-.h p. 
whole range of EnglV 

Of The Hind and the Panther especially it may be said, 
as Johnson says of Dryden's poetry in general, that " it 
abounds with knowledge, and sparkles with illustrations. 
There is scarcely any science or faculty that does not 
supply him with occasional images andjucky similitudes; 
every page discovers a mind very widely acquainted" 
both with art and nature and in full possession 
great stores of intellectual wealth." Allusions to the 
Bible, seen not only in definite quotation, but in single 
expressions and the very turn of the phrase; to the 
great classical writers of antiquity, especially Virgil 
whom he afterwards translated; to the Fathers of the 
Church ; to the mediaeval schoolmen and to con- 
temporary authors, are freely interwoven with the 
variegated fabric of the composition: He draws his 
illustrations from Neoplatomsm and the Koran, from 
the Apocrypha and the Bestiaries, from the Thirty-nine 
Articles and from Aesop's Fables. He borrows his terms 
from astrology (in which he was a firm believer) and 
from alchemy, from the jargon of the law courts and 
the technicalities of navigation, from the learned 
language of theological controversy and the racy idioms 
of the street corner. Congreve tells us that " as his read- 
ing had been very extensive, so was he very happy in a 


memory tenacious of everything he had read," and Dryden 
himself says that his thoughts flowed in upon him so fast 
that his only care was which to choose and which to reject. 

Yet with all this exuberance of imagination and 
fertility of language it cannot be said with Pope that 
" copious Dryden wanted or forgot the last and greatest 
art, blot." It cannot be said that he fell into 
the snare of the facile penman, the mob of gentlemen 
who write with ease that easy writing which is hard 
reading or composed two hundred verses in an hour, 
standing on one foot. He must have practised his 
"care which to choose and which to reject" with the 
utmost assiduity, so that detereret sibi multa, recideret 
omne quod ultra perfectum traheretur. He had the rare 
faculty of clear, consecutive, and sustained thought, and 
/ JJlg equally rare faculty of expressing that thought in 
/ lucid, vigorous, and yet melodious language. His words 
seem to be just the right words, the inevitable words, 
the only words to represent the idea, so that when he 
has said a thing it has been said once for all it seems 
\impossible to conceive of it as otherwise said. " By him 
we were taught," says Johnson, " so/per e et fari, to think 
naturally and express forcibly/' 

In reading The Hind and the Panther, we are conscious 
of being in the presence of a powerful intellect directed 
and controlled by robust common sense. We feel that 
" the power that predominated in his intellectual opera- 
tions was rather strong reason than quick sensibility." 
Matthew Arnold calls Dryden "the inaugurator of an 
age of prose and reason." Yet it would be wrong to 
deny him any divinae particulam aurae, any spark of the 
etherial fire of romantic poetry. With more sympathetic 


discrimination Lowell calls him " a strong thinker, who 
sometimes carried common sense to a height where it 
catches the light of a diviner air, and warmed reason till 
it had well nigh the illuminating property of intuition." 
e is not far from the kingdom of poesy who can write 
such lines as these : 

" And saw (but scarcely could believe their eyes) 
New blossoms nourish and new flowers arise, 
As God had been abroad, and walking there 
Had left His footsteps and reformed the year. 
The sunny hills from far were seen to glow 
With glittering beams, and in the meads below 
The burnished brooks appeared with liquid gold to flow." 

H. and P., in. 552-558. 

Or describe the gradual decay of the faculties, the 
gathering gloom of old age, in a couplet like this : 

" Behold him setting in his western skies, 

The shadows lengthening as the vapours rise." 
fc Abs. andAch., 268, 269. 

What Dryden might have done in the highest poetry 
had his genius (to use his own pathetic phrase) not been 
curbed, had he fallen on days more favourable for the 
development of the poetic imagination, it is hard to say 
without seeming to exaggerate. He was essentially the 
creature of his environment, and his environment was 
essentially prosaic. He was not one of those great 
literary pioneers who create thpi r nwn ph ; ^ fallqwprl 
rather than led his public, taking up the fashion o the 
hour and carrying it to the highest perfection of wliich 
it was capable. The fashion of the hour was in favour 
of the rational rather than the emotional.* In religion 
and in poetry the emotional had been hopelessly dis- 
credited. The fervour of Puritanism had degenerated 


^ ' into the fanaticism of the Commonwealth, from which 
\ / the reason of the nation had revolted. The fervour of 
Elizabethan literature had degenerated into the forced 
conceits and metaphysical subtleties of the Caroline 
decadence, from which the nation had equally revolted. 
In politics the ideal had yielded to expediency and com- 
promise. After the confused clashing of the Civil War 
men had leisure to pause, to reflect, to analyse motive f 
and to balance claims. Society was a chaos of conflicting 
elements which called for judgment and deliberation to 
reduce them to order. The spirit of the age was opposed 
to impulse and enthusiasm, and demanded the sober 
guidance and control of common sense. Certitude was 
sought in the unchanging laws of nature and the exact 
investigation of physical phenomena. The Royal Society 
was founded. The spirit of inquiry spread into every 
department of thought, and the Coffee House becam 
the centre of discussion on all debateable topics ^ 
politics, religion, or literature. " We conquered France, 
but felt our captive's charms " the charms of the new 
criticism of which Boileau was the great exponent, the 
apostle of the reasonable in writing. Nothing was now 
to be left to inspiration, "wit grew polite," and 
"correctness grew our care." A fit prose, as Matthew 
Arnold says, was needed, and it was impossible that a 
fit prose should establish itself among us without some 
touch of frost to the imaginative life of the soul, without 
some repression and silencing of poetry. Dryden gave 
the nation what it craved, and gave it of the very best 
of its kind, but not without some repression and silencing 
of poetry, some curbing of his imaginative genius. ) 
It was not only an age of prose and reason, but of 



political pamphleteering. The sword of the civil wars 
had been beaten into the pen of party strife, and the 
services of literary men were eagerly enlisted on one 
side or other of the great conflict. Dryden, with his 
practical character, his strong grasp of actuality, set 
himself to cater for the public taste, but his Pegasus was 
too fiery to conform its paces to the dull jog-trot of the 
political hack. His imaginative genius, repressed on the 
romantic side, found an outlet for its energies in satire, 
which he so touched with live coal from the altar of 
inspiration that it became no longer an ephemeral engine 
of party warfare, but a Krrj/za es aec, an everlasting posses- 

sion of literature. In satire he found an ample field for) 
the exercise of his w-it and humciuF, his quick perception ' 
of the ludicrous, his penetrating insight into human ( 
nature, his^keen and accurate observation, his power of \ 
vivid description, and his unrivalled command of clear I 
and nervous language. If debarred from the supreme" " 
springs of Helicon, he found a secondary source of 
inspiration in the saeva indignatio of the satirist; the 
swift unerring intuition of inconsistency, self-deception, 
or wilful hypocrisy ; the large and generous disdain of all 
that is petty, mean, and dishonourable. Though a 
terribly hard hitter he fought fairly, and when the bout 
was ended was willing to shake hands and bear no 
malice. " He was of a nature," says Congreve, " exceed- 
ingly humane and compassionate, ready to forgive 
injuries, and capable of a sincere reconciliation with 
those that had offended him." He did not "make satire 
a lampoon," or say, with the spitefulness of Pope, 

" Whoe'er offends, at some unlucky time 
Slides into verse, and hitches in a rhyme." 


Dryden's satire was not prompted by petty piques and 
personal antipathies, but by^ zeal for party and the 
strength of his convictions. Hence he dwelt not so 
much upon the moles and pimples, as upon the ex- 
pression of the countenance, the_spirjt of the man that 
peers through the outward lineaments, and produced not 
caricatures but portraits. Like Shakespeare, he dealt 
with the universal in human nature, rather than with 
the "humours" of Ben Jonson, the peculiarities and 
eccentricities that Pope loved to exaggerate. Thus, as 
Lowell fjpygj "Fhyrlpn'g gg.firft ig gj-.ill qflnfred for its com- 
jprehensiyf f np gg ^ qppli^+i'rm Pope's rather for the 
elegance of its finish and the point of its phra.sp. than for 
any deeper qualities." Pope's satirical descriptions are 
generally mere strings^ of polished epigrams with no 
organic unity of design. Each limb may be elaborately 
chiselled, but he is infelix operis summa, quid ponere totum 
nescit. We are momentarily dazzled by the rapid 
succession of brilliant effects, but they leave no definite 
impression on the mind. Dryden saw the character 
steadily and saw it whole. He thought, not in couplets 
like Pope, but in paragraphs, which gives the impression 
of sustained power, of "energy divine," to his "two 
coursers of ethereal race." 

The general characteristics of The Hind and the 
Panther may be summed up in the words of Johnson : 
" The poem is written with great smoothness of metre, 
a wide extent of knowledge, and an abundant multi- 
plicity of images ; the controversy is embellished with 
pointed sentences, diversified by illustrations, and en- 
livened by sallies of invective." 




1 Antiquam exquirite matrem.' 

VIRG. [Aen. iii. 96]. 

! Et vera incessu patuit Dea.' 

(Ibid. i. 405]. 


THE nation is in too high a ferment for me to expect 
either fair war or even so much as fair quarter from a reader 
of the opposite party. All men are engaged either on this 
side or that ; and though conscience is the common word 
which is given by both, yet if a writer fall among enemies 
and cannot give the marks of their conscience, he is knocked 
down before the reasons of his own are heareU A. Preface, 
therefore, which is but a bespeaking of favour, is altogether 
useless. What I desire the reader should know concerning 
me he will find in the body of the poem, if he have but the 
patience to peruse it. Only this advertisement let him take 
beforehand, which relates to the merits of the cause. No 
general characters of parties (call 'em either Sects or 
Churches) can be so fully and exactly drawn as to comprehend 
all the several members of 'em ; at least all such as are re- 
ceived under that denomination. For example : there are 
some of the Church by law established who envy not liberty 
of conscience to Dissenters, as being well satisfied that, 
according to their own principles, they ought not to persecute 
them. Yet these by reason of their fewness I could not 
distinguish from the numbers of the rest, with whom they are 
embodied in one common name. On the other side, there are 
many of our sects, and more indeed than I could reasonably 
have hoped, who have withdrawn themselves from the com- 
munion of the Panther and embraced this gracious Indulgence 


of his Majesty in point of toleration, pm, neither to the one 
nor the other of these is this Satire any way intended : 'tis 
aimed only at the refractory and disobedient on either side. 
For those who have come over to the royal party are conse- 
quently supposed to be out of gun-shot. Our physicians 
have observed, that in process of time some diseases have 
abated of their virulence and have in a manner worn out 
their malignity, so as to be no longer mortal : and why may 
not I suppose the same concerning some of those who have 
formerly been enemies to kingly government as well as 
Catholic religion ? I hope they have now another notion of 
both, as having found by comfortable experience that the 
doctrine of persecution is far from being an article of our 

'Tis not for any private man to censure the proceedings of 
a foreign Prince ; but without suspicion of flattery I may 
praise our own, who has taken contrary measures, and those 
more suitable to the spirit of Christianity. Some of the 
Dissenters, in their addresses to his Majesty, have said ' that 
he has restored God to his empire over conscience/ I confess 
I dare not stretch the figure to so great a boldness ; but I 
may safely say, that conscience is the royalty and prerogative 
of every private man. /He is absolute in his own breast, and 
accountable to no earthly power for that which passes only 
betwixt God and him. Those who are driven into the fold 
I are, generally speaking, rather made hypocrites than 

This indulgence being granted to all the sects, it ought in 
reason to be expected that they should both receive it and 
receive it thankfully. For at this time of day to refuse the 
benefit and adhere to those whom they have esteemed their 
persecutors, what is it else but publicly to own that they 
suffered not before for conscience sake, but only out of pride 
and obstinacy to separate from a Church for those impositions 
which they now judge may be lawfully obeyed j After they 
have so long contended for their classical ordination (not to^ 


speak of rites and ceremonies), will they at length submit to 
an episcopal ? If they can go so far out of complaisance to 
their old enemies, methinks a little reason should persuade 'em 
to take another step, and see whither that would lead 'em. 

Of the receiving this toleration thankfully I shall say no 
more than that they ought, and I doubt not they will, 
consider from what hands they received it. "Tis not from a 
Cyrus, a heathen prince and a foreigner, but from a Christian 
king, their native sovereign, who expects a return in specie 
from them, that the kindness which he has graciously shown 
them may be retaliated on those of his own persuasion. 

As for the Poem in general, I will only thus far satisfy the tl 
reader, that it was neither imposed on me nor so much as the// 
subject given me by any man. It was written during the' 
last winter and the beginning of this spring ; though with 
long interruptions of ill health and other hindrances. About 
a fortnight before I had finished it, his Majesty's Declaration 
for Liberty of Conscience came abroad : which if I had so 
soon expected, I might have spared myself the labour of 
writing many things which are contained in the Third Part 
of it. But I was always in some hope that the Church off' 
England might have been persuaded to have taken off the 
Penal Laws and the Test, which was one design of the Poemll 
when I proposed to myself the writing of it. 

It is evident that some part of it was only occasional, and 
not first intended : I mean that defence of myself, to which 
every honest man is bound, when he is injuriously attacked! ^ 
in print : and I refer myself to the judgment of those whof 
have read the Answer to the Defence of the late King's 
Papers, and that of the Duchess (in which last I was con- 
cerned), how charitably I have been represented there. I am 
now informed both of the author and supervisers of his 
pamphlet, and will reply, when I think he can affront me : 
for I am of Socrates's opinion, that all creatures cannot. In 
the mean time let him consider whether he deserved not a 
more severe reprehension than I gave him formerly, for using 


so little respect to the memory of those whom he pretended 
to answer ; and at his leisure look out for some original 
Treatise of Humility, written by any Protestant in English, 
I believe I may say in any other tongue : for the magnified 
piece of Duncomb on that subject, which either he must 
mean or none, and with which another of his fellows has 
upbraided me, was translated from the Spanish of Eodriguez ; 
though with the omission of the seventeenth, the twenty- 
fourth, the twenty-fifth, and the last chapter, which will be 
found in comparing of the books. 

He would have insinuated to the world, that her late 
Highness died not a Roman Catholic ; he declares himself to 
be now satisfied to the contrary, in which he has given up 
the cause, for matter of fact was the principal debate be- 
twixt us. In the mean time, he would dispute the motives 
of her change ; how preposterously, let all men judge, when 
he seemed to deny the subject of the controversy, the change 
itself. And because I would not take up this ridiculous 
challenge, he tells the world I cannot argue : but he may as 
well infer that a Catholic cannot fast because he will not take 
up the cudgels against Mrs. James to confute the Protestant 

I have but one word more to say concerning the Poem as 

such, and abstracting from the matters, either religious or 

M civil, which are handled in it. The First Part, consisting 

i'most in general characters and narration, I have endeavoured 

Jto raise, and give it the majestic turn of heroic poesy. The 

second being matter of dispute, and chiefly concerning Church 

, authority, I was obliged to make as plain and perspicuous as 

possibly I could ; yet not wholly neglecting the numbers, 

though I had not frequent occasions for the magnificence of 

verse. The third, which has more of the nature of domestic 

conversation, is or ought to be more free and familiar than 

the two former. 

/ I. There are in it two Episodes or Fables, which are inter- 
^ .'/ woven with the main design ; so that they are properly 


parts of it, though they are also distinct stories of themselves. 
In both of these I have made use of the commonplaces of 
satire, whether true or false, which are urged by the members 
of the one Church against the other ; at which I hope no 
reader of either party will be scandalized, because they are 
not of my invention, but as old, to my knowledge, as the 
times of Boccace and Chaucer on the one side and as those of 
the Reformation on the other. 


A MILK-WHITE Hind, immortal and unchanged, 

Fed on the lawns and in the forest ranged ; 

Without unspotted, innocent within, 

She feared no danger, for she knew no sin. 

Yet had she oft been chased with horns and hounds 5 

And Scythian shafts, and many winged wounds 

Aimed at her heart ; was often forced to fly, 

And dnome.d to death, though fated not to die.V , 

Not so her young ; for their unequal line 
Was hero's make, half human, half divine. 10 

Their earthly mould oT5noxious~'was to fate, 
The immortal part assumed immortal state. 
Of these a slaughtered army lay in blood, 
Extended o'er the Caledonian wood, 

Their native walk ; whose vocal blood arose 15 

And cried for pardon on their perjured foes. 
Their fate was fruitful, and the sanguine seed, 
Endued with souls, increased the sacred breed. 
So captive Israel multiplied in chains, 

A numerous exile, and enjoyed her pains. 20 

With grief and gladness mixed, their mother viewed 
Her martyred offspring and their race renewed ; 
Their corps to perish, but their kind to last, 
So much the deathless plant the dying fruit surpassed. 

Panting and pensive now she ranged alone, 25 



And wandered in the kingdoms once her own. 

The common hunt, though from their rage restrained 

By sovereign power, her company disdained, 

Grinned as they passed, and with a glaring eye 

Gave gloomy signs of secret enmity. 3( 

'Tis true she bounded by and tripped so light, 

They had not time to take a steady sight ; 

I For truth has such a face and such a mien 
As to be loved needs only to be seen. 

The bloody Bear, an independent beast, 35 

Unlicked to form, in groans her hate expressed. 
Among the timorous kind the quaking Hare 
Professed neutrality, but would not swear. 
Next her the buffoon Ape, as atheists use, 
Mimicked all sects and had his own to chuse ; 40 

Still when the Lion looked, his knees he bent, 
And paid at church a courtier's compliment. 
The bristled baptist Boar, impure as he, 
But whitened with the foam of sanctity, 
With fat pollutions filled the sacred place 45 

And mountains levelled in his furious race ; 
V^So first rebellion founded was in grace. 
But, since the mighty ravage which he made 
In German forests had his guilt betrayed, 
With broken tusks and with a borrowed name, 50 

He shunned the vengeance and concealed the shame, 
So lurked in sects unseen. With greater guile 
False JReynard fed on consecrated spoil ; 
The graceless beast by Athanasius first 
Was chased from Nice, then by Socinus nursed ; 55 

His impious race their blasphemy renewed, 
And Nature's king through Nature's optics^ viewed ; 
Reversed they viewed him lessened to their eye, 
Nor in an infant could a God descry. 

New swarming sects to this obliquely tend, 60 

Hence they began, and here they all will end. 


What weight of ancient witness can prevail, ( 
If^private reason hold the public scale ? 
But, gracious God, how well dost thou provide 
For erring judgments an unerring; guicjgj, ;|65 , 

Thy throne is darkness in the abyss of light, 
v A blage^ ofj5Jy that forbids the sight. 

teach me to believe Thee thus concealed, 
And search no farther than Thy self revealed ; 

But Jier alone for my director take, 70 

Whom Thou hast promised never to forsake ! 

My thoughtless youth was winged with vain desires ; 

My manhood, long misled by wandering fires, 

Followed false lights ; and when their glimpse was gone 

My pride struck out new sparkles of her own. 75 

Such was I, such by nature still I am ; 

Be Thine the glory and be mine the shame ! 

Good life be now my task ; my doubts are done ; 

What more could fright my faith than ThreeJijLOne? 

Can I believe eternal God could lie 80 

Disguise^JBr-mertal jnould and infancy, 

That the great Maker of the world could die ? 

And, after that, trust my imperfect sense 

Which calls in question His omnipotence ? 

Can I my reason to my faith compel, 85 

And shall my sight and touch and taste rebel ? 
/Superior faculties are set aside ; 
^>hall their subservient organs be my guide ? 
, Then let the moon usurp the rule of day, ' 
' And winking tapers show the sun his way ; 90 

For what my senses can themselves perceive 

1 need no revelation to believe. 

Can they, who say the Host should be descried 

By sense, define a body glorified, 

Impassible, and penetrating parts ? "95 

Let them declare by what mysterious arts 

He shot that body through the opposing might 


Of bolts and bars impervious to the light, 

And stood before His train confessed in open sight. 

For since thus wondrously He passed, 'tis plain 100 

One single place two bodies did contain, 

And sure the same omnipotence as well 
v l Can make one body in more places dwell. 

Let Eeason then at her own quarry fly, 

\ But how can finite grasp infinity ? 105 

'Tis urged again, that faith did first commence 

By miracles, which are appeals to sense, 

And thence concluded, that our sense must be 

The motive still of credibility. 

For latter ages must on former wait, 110 

I And what began belief must propagate. 

But winnow well this thought, and you shall find 
'Tis light as chaff that flies before the wind. 
Were all those wonders wrought by power divine 
As means or ends of some more deep design ? 115 

Most sure as means, whose end was this alone, 
To prove the Godhead of the Eternal Son. 

[God thus asserted, man is to believe 
Beyond what Sense and Reason can conceive, 
And for mysterious things of faith rely. 120 

On the proponent Heaven's authority. 
Ulf tl\en our faith we for our guide admit, 

II Vain is the farther search of human wit/, 
U As when the building gains a surer stay, 

f We take the un useful scaffolding away. 125 

I Reason by sense no more can understand ; 
( The game is played into another hand. 

Why choose we then like bilanders to creep 
long the coast, and land in view to keep, 

When safely we may launch into the deep ? 130 

In the samevessel which our Saviour bore, 

Himself the pilot, let us leave the shore, 

And with a better guide a better world explore. 


Could He his Godhead veil with flesh and blood, 

.And not veil these again to be our food ? 135 

His grace in both is equal in extent ; 
The first affords us life, the second nourishment. 
And if He can, why all this frantic pain 
To construe what his clearest words contain, 
And make a riddle what He marl^ r> pl^jn 1 140 

To take up half on trust and half to try, 
Name it not faith, but bungling bigotry. 
Both knave and fool the merchant we may call 
To pay great sums and to compound the small, 144 

For who would break with Heaven, and would not break for all ? 
Best then, my soul, from endless anguish freed : 
Noj sm'ennea thy gtiide 3 nor senag_fchy nreed. 
Faith is the_besj; inmirpr of thy bli^H ; 
The bank above must fail before the venture miss. 
But Heaven and heaven-born faith are far from thee, \y 150 
Thou first apostate to divinity. 
Unkennelled range in thy Polonian plains ; 
A fiercer foe, the insatiate Wolf remains. 
" Too boastful Britain, please thyself no more 
That beasts of prey are banished from thy shore ; 155 

The Bear, the Boar, and every savage name, 
Wild in effect, though in appearance tame, 
Lay waste thy woods, destroy thy blissful bower, 
And, muzzled though they seem, the mutes devour. 
More haughty than the rest, the wolfish race 160 

Appear with belly gaunt and famished face ; 
Never was so deformed a beast of grace. 
His ragged tail betwixt his legs he wears, 
Close clapped for shame ; but his rough crest he rears, 
And pricks up his predestinating ears. 165 

His wild disordered walk, his haggered eyes, 
Did all the bestial citizens surprise ; 
Though feared and hated, yet he ruled a while, 
As captain or companion of the spoil 


Full many a year his hateful head had been 170 

For tribute paid, nor since in Cambria seen ; 

The last of all the litter scaped by chance, 

And from Geneva first infested France. 

Some authors thus his pedigree will trace, 

But others write him of an upstart race ; 175 

Because of WicklifF s brood no mark he brings 

But his innate antipathy to kings. 

In Israel some believed him whelped long since, 

When the proud Sanhedrim oppressed the Prince, 

Or, since he will be Jew, derive him higher, 180 

When Corah with his brethren did conspire 

From Moses' hand the sovereign sway to wrest, 

And Aaron of his ephod to devest ; 

Till opening earth made way for all to pass, 

And could not bear the burden of a class. 135 

The Fox and he came shuffled in the dark, 

If ever they were stowed in Noah's ark ; 

Perhaps not made ; for all their barking train 

The Dog (a common species) will contain ; 

And some wild curs, who from their masters ran, 190 

Abhorring the supremacy of man, 

In woods and caves the rebel-race began. 

O happy pair, how well have you increased ! 
What ills in Church and State have you redressed ! 
With teeth untried and rudiments of claws, 195 

Your first essay was on your native laws : 
Those having torn with ease and trampled down, 
Your fangs you fastened on the mitred crown, 
And freed from God and monarchy your town. 
What though your native kennel still be small, 200 

Bounded betwixt a puddle and a wall ; 
Yet your victorious colonies are sent 
Where the North Ocean girds the continent. 
Quickened with fire below, your monsters breed 
In fenny Holland and in fruitful Tweed ; 205 


And, like the first, the last affects to be 

Drawn to the dregs of a democracy. 

As, where in fields the fairy rounds are seen, 

A rank sour herbage rises on the green ; 

So, springing where these midnight elves advance, 210 

Rebellion prints the footsteps of the dance. 

Such are their doctrines, such contempt they show 

To Heaven above and to their Prince below, 

As none but traitors and blasphemers know. 

LGod like the tyrant of the skies is placed, 215 

And kings, like slaves, beneath the crowd debased. 
So fulsome is their food that flocks refuse 
To bite, and only dogs for physic use. 
As, where the lightning runs along the ground, 
No husbandry can heal the blasting wound ; 220 

Nor bladed grass nor bearded corn succeeds, 
But scales of scurf and putrefaction breeds : 

(Such wars, such waste, such fiery tracks of dearth 
Their zeal^asjeft^jind such a teemless earth. 

But as the poisons of the deadliest kind 225 

Are to their own unhappy coasts confined, 

As only Indian shades of sight deprive, 

And magic plants will but in Colchos thrive, 

So Presbytery and pestilential zeal 

Can only flourish in a common-weal. 230 

From Celtic woods is chased the wolfish crew ; 

Bvit ah ! some pity e'en to brutes is due : 

Their native walks, methinks, they might enjoy, 

Curbed of their native malice to destroy. 

|0f all the tyrannies on human kind 235 

*The worst is that which persecutes the mind. 

Let us but weigh at what offence we strike ; 

'Tis but because we cannot think alike. 

In punishing of this, we overthrow 

The laws of nations and of nature too. 240 

Beasts are the subjects of tyrannic sway, 


Where still the stronger on the weaker prey ; 
'Man only of a softer 

Not for his fellows' ruin, but their aid 

Create/I kind, hflTipfififint. and -free, y' 245 

Theiiohje irr>agp_nf J-.ViP Dejjff 

One portion of informing fire was given 

To brutes, the inferior family of Heaven : 

The Smith Divine, as with a careless beat, 

Struck out the mute creation at a heat ; 250 

But when arrived at last to human race, 
I The Godhead took a deep considering space, 
' And, to distinguish man from all the rest, 
I Unlocked the sacred treasures of his breast, 
( And mercy mixed with reason did impart, 255 

One to his head, the other to his heart ; 

Reason to rule, but 

Thefirst is law,the 


And like his mind his outward form appeared, 
When issuing naked to the wondering herd 260 

He charmed their eyes, and for they loved they feared. 

| Not armed with horns of arbitrary might, 
Or claws to seize their furry spoils in fight, 
Or with increase of feet to o'ertake them in their flight : 
Of easy shape, and pliant every way, 265 

Confessing still the softness of his clay, 
And kind as kings upon their coronation day ; 
With open hands, and with extended space 
Of arms to satisfy a large embrace. 

Thus kneaded up with milk, the new-made man 270 

His kingdom o'er his kindred world began ; 

/Till knowledge misapplied, misunderstood, 

/ And pride of empire, soured his balmy blood. 

[Then, first rebelling, his own stamp he coins ; 

^ lAncI blood began its firstandloudest cry 
/ For differingrjworshipofThe Deity 


Thus persecution rose, and farther space 

Produced the mighty hunter of his race. 

*Not so the blessed Pan his flock increased, 280 

' Content to fold them from the famished beast : 

Mild were his laws ; the ^hp^p a.nd Tmrmlpsa Hind 

Were nev^rofJJTg perser-nHng kiiyl, 

Such pity now the pious pastor shows, 

Such mercy from the British Lion flows, 285 

That both provide protection for their foes. 
Oh happy regions, Italy and Spain, 

Which never did those monsters entertain ! 

The Wolf, the Bear, the Boar, can there advance 

No native claim of just inheritance ; 290 

And self-preserving laws, severe in show, 

May guard their fences from the invading foe. 

Where birth has placed them, let them safely share 

The common benefit of vital air ; 

Themselves unharmful, let them live unharmed, 295 

Their jaws disabled and their claws disarmed ; 

Here, only in nocturnal howlings bold, 

They dare not seize the Hind nor leap the fold. 

More powerful, and as vigilant as they, 

The Lioii aw^uLly_JorbidsJhe prey. 300 

Th'eiTrage repressed, though pinched with famine sore, 


Much is theirjuinger, but thei^fear^jnpre. 
Tjiese are the chief ; to nmnl^eFl^erthe rest 

And sfeuM, G ike Adam, naming every beast, 305 

Were weary work ; nor will the Muse describe 

A slimy-born and sun-begotten tribe, 

Who, far from steeples and their sacred sound, 

In fields their sullen conventicles found. 

These gross, half -animated lumps I leave, 310 

Nor can I think what thoughts they can conceive. 

But if they think at all, 'tis sure no higher 

Than matter put in motion may aspire ; 


Souls that can scarce ferment their mass of clay, 

So drossy, so divisible are they, 315 

As would but serve pure bodies for allay, 

Such souls as shards produce, such beetle things, 

As only buzz to heaven with evening wings, 

Strike in the dark, offending but by chance, 

Such are the blindfold blows of ignorance. 320 

^They know not beings, and but hate a name ; 
| To ^pnTT^A_ j amd and Panther are the same. 

The Panther, sure the noblest next_fcheJHind, 
-/ And fa|rjest_cj^eature_pf the spotteiLkind ; 
I Oh, could her inborn stains be washed away, 325 

^-She were too good to be a beast of prey ! 

How can I praise or blame, and not offend, 

Or how divide the frailty from the friend ? 

Her faults and virtues liejio_mixed, that she 

Nor^wholly stands condemned nor wholly free. 330 

Then, like her injured Lion, let me speak ; 

He cannot bend her and he would not break. 

jUnkind already, and estranged in part, 

-The Wolf begins to share her wandering heart. 

Though unpolluted yet with actual ill, . 335 

She half commits who sins but in her will. 

If, as our dreaming Platonists report, 

There could be spirits of a middle sort, 

Too black for heaven and yet too white for hell, 

Who just dropped half-way down, nor lower fell ; 340 

So poised, so gently she descends from high, 

It seems a soft dismission from the sky. 

Her house not ancient, whatso'er pretence 

Her clergy heralds make in her defence ; 

A second century not half-way run, 345 

Since the new honours of her blood begun. 

So schism begot ; and sacrilege and she, 

A well matched pair, got graceless heresy. 

(rod's and kings' rebels have the same good cause, 


To trample down divine and human laws ; 350 

Both would be called reformers, and their hate 

Alike destructive both to Church and State. 

The fruit proclaims the plant ; a lawless Prince 

By luxury reformed incontinence, 

By ruins charity, by riots abstinence. 355 

Confessions, fasts, and penance set aside ; 

Oh with what ease we follow such a guide, 

Where souls are starved and senses gratified ! 

Religion shows a rosy-coloured face, 

Not hattered out with drudging works of grace : 360 

A down-hill reformation rolls apace. 

What flesh and blood would crowd the narrow gate, 

Or, till they waste their pampered paunches, wait ? 

All would be happy at the cheapest rate. 

Though our lean faith these rigid laws has given, 365 

The full-fed Mussulman goes fat to heaven ; 
For his Arabian prophet with delights 
Of sense allured his Eastern proselytes. 
The jolly Luther, reading him, began 

To interpret Scriptures by his Alcoran ; 370 

To grub the thorns beneath our tender feet 
And make the paths of Paradise more sweet, 
Bethought him of a wife, ere half-way gone, 
For 'twas uneasy travailing alone ; 

And in this masquerade of mirth and love 375 

Mistook the bliss of Heaven for Bacchanals above. 
Sure he presumed of praise, who came to stock 
The etherial pastures with so fair a flock, 
Burnished and battening on their food, to show 
The diligence of careful herds below. 380 

Our Panther, though like these she changed her head, 
Her front erect with majesty she bore, 
The crosier wielded and the mitre wore. 
Her upper part of decent discipline 
Showed affectation of an ancient line ; 385 


And Fathers, Councils, Church and Church's head, 

Were on her reverend phylacteries read. 

But what disgraced and disavowed the rest 

Was Calvin's brand, that stigmatised the beast. 

Thus, like a creature of a double kind, 390 

In her own labyrinth she lives confined ; 

To foreign lands no sound of her is come, 

Humbly content to be despised at home. 

Such is her faith, where good cannot be had, 

At least she leaves the refuse of the bad. 395 

Nice in her choice of ill, though not of best, 

And least deformed, because reformed the least. 

In doubtful points betwixt her differing friends, 

Where one for substance, one for sign contends, 

Their contradicting terms she strives to join ; 400 

Sign shall be substance, substance shall be sign. 

A real presence all her sons allow, 

And yet 'tis flat idolatry to bow, 

Because the Godhead's there they know not how. 
<'~Her novices are taught that bread and wine 405 

t Are but the visible and outward sign, 
^-Received by those who in communion join. 

But the inward grace or the thing signified, 

His blood and body who to save us died, 

The faithful this thing signified receive : 410 

What is't those faithful then partake or leave ? 

For what is signified and understood 

Is by her own confession flesh and blood. 

Then by the same acknowledgment we know 

They take the sign and take the substance too. 415 

The liter&Lsfiii&e-LsJiard to flesh and blood, 

Her wild_beji on evefy-^ajie is tost ; 
But sura nu^Qhurch can better morals boast. 
True to her Kingher principles are found ; 420 

Oh that her practice were but half so sound ! 


Stedfast in various turns of state she stood, 

And sealed her vowed affection with her blood : 

Nor will I meanly tax her constancy, 

That interest or obligement made the tie, 425 

(Bound to the fate of murdered monarchy.) 

Before the sounding axe so falls the vine, 

Whose tender branches round the poplar twine. 

She chose her ruin, and resigned her life, 

In death undaunted as an Indian wife : 430 

A rare example ! but some souls we see 

Grow hard and stiffen with adversity : 

Yet these by Fortune's favours are undone ; 

Resolved, into a baser form they run, 

And bore the wind, but cannot bear the sun. 435 

Let this be nature's frailty or her fate, 

Or Isgrim's counsel, her new chosen mate ; 

Still she's the fairest of the fallen crew ; 

No mother more indulgent but the true. 

Fierce to her foes, yet fears her force to try, 440 

jf Because she wants innate auctority ; 

For how can she constrain them to obey 

Who has herself cast off the lawful sway ? 

Rebellion equals all, and those who toil 

In common theft will share the common spoil. 445 

Let her produce the title and the right 

Against her old superiors first to fight ; 

If she reform by text, even that's as plain 

For her own rebels to reform again. 

As long as words a different sense will bear, 450 

And each may be his own interpreter, 
, Our airy faith will no foundation find : 
\ The word's a weathercock for every wind : 
1 The Bear, the Fox, the Wolf by turns prevail ; 
'-The most in power supplies the present gale. 155 

jThe wretched Panther cries aloud for aid 

ITo Church and Councils, whom she first betrayed ; 


i No help from Fathers or Tradition's train : 
! Those ancient guides she taught us to disdain, 

And by that Scripture, which she once abused 460 

To Reformation, stands herself accused. 

What bills for breach of laws can she prefer, 

Expounding which she owns herself may err ? 

And, after all her winding ways are tried, 

If doubts arise, she slips herself aside 465 

And leaves the private conscience for the guide. 

If then that conscience set the offender free, 

It bars her claim to Church auctority. 

How can she censure, or what crime pretend, 

But Scripture may be construed to defend 1 470 

Even those whom for rebellion she transmits 

To civil power, her doctrine first acquits ; 

Because no disobedience can ensue, 

Where no submission to a judge is due ; 

Each judging for himself, by her consent, 475 

Whom thus absolved she sends to punishment. 

Suppose the magistrate revenge her cause, 

'Tis only for transgressing human laws. 

How answering to its end a Church is made 

Whose power is but to counsel and persuade ? 480 

,jxsk r ft-Tv4ttek^^ 
house, not built_with_ 

Oh sure defence against the infernal gate, 
A patent during pleasure of the State ! 

ThusJsJJieJganther neither loved norJeared, 485 

A mere mock queen of a divided herd ; 
Whom soon by! awful power she might control, 
Her self a part submitted to the whole. 
Then, as the moon who first receives the light 
By which she makes our nether regions bright, 490 

So might she shine, reflecting from afar 
The rays she borrowed from a better star ; 
"Pi with th^ hpRinH whi^.-f^ni her 


And reigning o'er the rising tides below : 

Now mixing with a savage crowd she goes, .495 

And meanly flatters her inveterate foes, 

Ruled while she rules, and losing every hour 

Her wretched remnants of "precarious power. 

One evening, while the cooler shade she sought, 
Revolving many a jQafilajocholy thought, 500 

Alone she walked, and looked around in vain 
With rueful visage for her vanished train : 
None of her sylvan subjects made their court ; 
Levees and couchees passed without resort. 
So hardly can usurpers managejwell 505 

Thoserwh^nTTHey first instructed to rebel 
Morejiberty begets desire of more ; 
The hunger still increases with the store. 
Without respect they brushed along the wood, 
Each in his clan, and filled with loathsome food 510 

Asked no permission to the neighbouring flood. 
The Panther, full of inward discontent, 
Since they would go, before them wisely went ; 
Supplying want of power by drinking first, 
As if she gave them leave to quench their thirst. 515 

Among the rest, thejpjnd with .fearful face 
Beheld from far the common watering-place, 
Nor dursT approach" ; till with an awful roar 
The sovereign' Lion bad her fear no more. 
Encouraged thus, she brought her younglings nigh, 520 

Watching the motions of her patron's eye, 
And drank a sober draught ; the rest amazed 
Stood mutely still and on the stranger gazed ; 

I Survey^ hp.r pa.ri-.Jhy P ar ^ fl.Tidjjjrmght^tn find 
Theten-horned monster in Jhe_harmless Hind, 525 

Such as the W^olflincf Panther had designed. 
iThey thought at first they dreamed ; for 'twas offence 
AWith them to question certitude of sense, 
yrheir guide in faith : but nearer when they drew, 


/"And had the faultless object full in view, 530 

[ Lo.rd, how they all adiuiyed-lierJiea,venlv-hue ! 

Some who before her fellowship disdained, 

Scarce, and but scarce, from inborn rage restrained, 

Now frisked about her and old kindred feigned. 

Whether for Ipjve^rjntejrestjjevery sect 535 

Of all tlie savage nation showed respect. 

The viceroy Panther could not awe the herd ; 

The more the company, the less they feared. 

The surly Wolf with secret envy burst, 

Yet could not howl, the Hind had seen him first ; 540 

But what he durst not speak, the Panther durst. 
For when the herd suffised did late repair 

To ferny heaths and to their forest lair, 

She made a mannerly excuse to stay, 

Proffering the Hind to wait her half the way ; 545 

That, since the sky was clear, an hour of talk 

Might help her to beguile the tedious walk. 

With much good-will the motion was embraced, 

To chat a while on their adventures passed ; 

*Tr.r_ha^ t.l, ft grafpfcLLTTiTwl B n rcnm. fnrgnfc 550 

Her friend a.nrT fellow-sufferer in the Plot. 

Yet wondering how of late she grew estranged, 

Her forehead cloudy and her countenance changed, 

She thoughjb_thjsjiour the occasion would present 

Tojgarn her spm^t. remsejrf discontent. 555 

JVhich well she hoped might be with ease redressed, 

Considering her a well-bred civil beast 

And more a gentlewoman than the rest. 

After some common talk what rumours ran, 

The lady of the spotted muff began. 560 



' DAME,' said the Panther, ' times are mended well 

Since late among the Philistines you fell. 

The toils were pitched, a spacious tract of ground 

With expert huntsmen was encompassed round ; 

The enclosure narrowed ; the sagacious power 5 

Of hounds and death drew nearer every hour. 

'Tis true, the younger Lion scaped the snare, 

But all your priestly calves lay struggling there, 

As sacrifices on their altars laid ; 

While you, their careful mother, wisely fled, 10 

Not trusting destiny to save your head. 

For whate'er promises you have applied 

To your unfailing Church, the surer side 

Is four fair legs in danger to provide ; 

And whate'er tales of Peter's chair you tell, 15 

Yet, saving reverence of the miracle, 

The better luck was yours to scape so well.' 

'As I remember,' said the sober Hind, 
'Those toils were for your own dear self designed, 
As well as me ; and with the self-same throw 20 

To catch the quarry and the vermin too ; 
(Forgive the slanderous tongues that called you so.) 
Howe'er you take it now, the common cry 
Then ran you down for your rank loyalty. 
Besides, in Popery they thought you nurst, 25 

As evil tongues will ever speak the worst, 
Because some forms and ceremonies some 
You kept, and stood in the main question dumb. 
Dumb you were born indeed ; but thinking long, 
The Test, it seems, at last has loosed your tongue. 30 

And to explain what your forefathers meant 



By real presence in the Sacrament, 
After long fencing pushed against a wall, 
Your salvo comes, that he's not there at all : 
There changed your faith, and what may change may fall. 
Who can believe what varies every day, 36 

Nor ever was nor ever will be at a stay ? ' 

' Tortures may force the tongue untruths to tell, 
And I ne'er owned myself infallible,' 

Replied the Panther : ' grant such presence were, 40 

Yet in your sense I never owned it there. 
A real virtue we by faith receive, 
And that we in the sacrament believe.' 

' Then,' said the Hind, ' as you the matter state, 
Not only Jesuits can equivocate ; 45 

For real, as you now the word expound, 
From solid substance dwindles to a sound. 
Methinks an ^Esop's fable you repeat ; 
You know who took the shadow for the meat. 
Your Church's substance thus you change at will, 50 

And yet retain your former figure still. * 

I freely grant you spoke to save your life, 
For then you lay beneath the butcher's knife. 
Long time you fought, redoubled battery bore, 
But, after all, against your self you swore ; 55 

Your former self, for every hour your form 
Is chopped and changed, like winds before a storm. 
Thus fear and interest will prevail with some ; 
For all have not the gift of martyrdom.' 

The Panther grinned at this, and thus replied : 60 

* That men may err was never yet denied. 
But, if that common principle be true, 
The cannon, dame, is levelled full at you. 
But, shunning long disputes, I fain would see 
That wondrous wight, Infallibility. 65 

Is he from Heaven, this mighty champion, come ? 
Or lodged below in subterranean Borne ? 


First, seat him somewhere, and derive his race, 
Or else conclude that nothing has no place.' 

' Suppose, (though I disown it,)' said the Hind, 70 

' The certain mansion were not yet assigned : 
The doubtful residence no proof can bring 
Against the plain existence of the thing. 
Because philosophers may disagree 

If sight by emission or reception be, 75 

Shall it be thence inferred I do not see ? 
But you require an answer positive, 
Which yet, when I demand, you dare not give ; 
For fallacies in universals live. 

I then affirm that this unfailing guide 80 

In Pope and General Councils must reside ; 
Both lawful, both combined ; what one decrees 
Byjiumerous votes, the other ratifies ;. . 
Oii this undoubted sense the Church relies. 
'Tis true some doctors in a scantier space, 85 

I mean in each apart, contract the place. 
Some, Vho to greater length extend the line, 
The Church's after acceptation join. 
This last circumference appears too wide ; 
The Church diffused is by the Council tied ; 90 

As members by their representatives 
Obliged to laws which Prince and Senate gives. 
Thus some contract and some enlarge the space : 
In Pope and Council who denies the place, 
Assisted from above with God's unfailing grace 1 95 

Those canons all the needful points contain ; 
Their sense so obvious and their words so plain, 
That no disputes about the doubtful text 
Have hitherto the labouring world perplexed. 
If any should in after times appear, 100 

New Councils must be called, to make the meaning clear ; 
Because in them the power supreme resides, 
And all the promises are to the guides. 


This may be taught with sound and safe defence ; 

But mark how sandy is your own pretence, 105 

Who, setting Councils, Pope, and Church aside, 

Are every man his own presuming guide. ^S 

The Sacred Books, you say, are full and plain, 

And every needful point of truth contain ; 

All who can read interpreters may be. 110 

Thus, though your several Churches disagree, 

Yet every saint has to himself alone 

The secret of this philosophic stone. 

These principles your jarring sects unite, 

When differing doctors and disciples fight ; 115 

Though Luther, Zuinglius, Calvin, holy chiefs, 

Have made a battle royal of beliefs, 

Or, like wild horses, several ways have whirled 

The tortured text about the Christian world, 

Each Jehu lashing on with furious force, 120 

That Turk or Jew could not have used it worse. 

No matter what dissension leaders make, 

Where every private man may save a stake : 

Ruled by the Scripture and his own advice, 

Each has a blind by-path to Paradise, 125 

Where driving in a circle slow or fast 

Opposing sects are sure to meet at last. 

A wondrous charity you have in store 

For all reformed to pass the narrow door, 

So much, that Mahomet had scarcely more. 130 

For he, kind prophet, was for damning none, 

But Christ and Moses were to save their own ; 

Himself was to secure his chosen race, 

Though reason good for Turks to take the place, 

And he allowed to be the better man 135 

In virtue of his holier Alcoran.' 

' True,' said the Panther, ' I shall ne'er deny 
My brethren may be saved as well as I : 
Though Huguenots contemn our ordination, 


Succession, ministerial vocation, 140 

And Luther, more mistaking what he read, 

Misjoins the sacred body with the bread, 

Yet, lady, still remember I maintain 

The Word in needful points is only plain.' . 

4 Needless or needful I not now contend, 145 

For still you have a loophole for a friend,' 
Ee joined the matron ; ' but the rule yon lay 
Has led whole flocks and leads them still astray 
In weighty points, and full damnation's way. 
For did not Arms first, Socinus now 150 

The Son's eternal Godhead disavow ? 
And did not these by gospel texts alone 
Condemn our doctrine and maintain their own ? 
Have not all heretics the same pretence, 

To plead the Scriptures in their own defence ? 155 

How did the Nicene Council then decide 
That strong debate ? was it by Scriptures tried 1 
No, sure to those the rebel would not yield ; 
Squadrons of texts he marshalled in the field : 
That was but civil war, an equal set, 160 

Where piles with piles, and eagles eagles met. 
With texts point-blank and plain he faced the foe : 
And did not Satin tempt our Saviour so ? 
The good old bishops took a simpler way ; 
Each asked but what he heard his father say, 165 

Or how he was instructed in his youth, 
And by tradition's force upheld the truth.' 

The Panther smiled at this, and ' when,' said she, 
' Were those first Councils disallowed by me ? 
Or where did I at sure tradition strike, 170 

Provided still it were apostolic ? ' 

' Friend,' said the Hind, ' you quit your former ground, 
Where all your faith you did on Scripture found : 
Now, 'tis tradition joined with Holy Writ ; 
But thus your memory betrays your wit.' 175 


' No,' said the Panther, * for in that I view 
When your tradition's forged, and when 'tis true. 
I set them by the rule, and as they square 
Or deviate from undoubted doctrine there, 
This oral fiction, that old faith declare.' 180 

{Hind.) l The Council steered, it seems, a different course ; 
They tried the Scripture by tradition's force ; 
But you tradition by the Scripture try ; 
Pursued by sects, from this to that you fly, 
Nor dare on one foundation to rely. 185 

The Word is then deposed, and in this view , 
You rule the Scripture, not the Scripture you.' v 
Thus said the dame, and, smiling, thus pursued : 
' I see tradition then is disallowed, 

When not evinced by Scripture to be true, 190 

And Scripture as interpreted by you. 
But here you tread upon unfaithful ground, 
Unless you could infallibly expound ; 
Which you reject as odious Popery, 

And throw that doctrine back with scorn on me. 195 

Suppose we on things traditive divide, 
And both appeal to Scripture to decide ; 
By various texts we both uphold our claim, 
Nay, often ground our titles on the same : 
After long labour lost and time's expense, 200 

Both grant the words and quarrel for the sense. 
Thus all disputes for ever must depend, 
For no dumb rule can controversies end. 
Thus, when you said tradition must be tried 
By Sacred Writ, whose sense your selves decide, 205 

You said no more but that your selves must be 
The judges of the Scripture sense, not we. v 
Against our Church-tradition you declare, 
And yet your clerks would sit in Moses' chair ; / 
At least 'tis proved against your argument, 210 

The rule is far from plain, where all dissent.' 


' If not by Scriptures, how can we be sure,' 
Eeplied the Panther, c what tradition's pure ? 
For you may palm upon us new for old ; 
All, as they say, that glitters is not gold.' 215 

' How but by following her,' replied the dame, 
' To whom derived from sire to son they came ; 
Where every age does on another move, 
And trusts no farther than the next above ; 
Where all the rounds like Jacob's ladder rise, 220 

The lowest hid in earth, the topmost in the skies ? ' 

Sternly the savage did her answer mark, 
Her glowing eye-balls glittering in the dark, 
And said but this : ' Since lucre was your trade, 
Succeeding times such dreadful gaps have made, 225 

'Tis dangerous climbing : to your sons and you 
I leave the ladder, and its omen too.' 

(Hind.} 'The Panther's breath was ever famed for sweet, 
But from the Wolf such wishes oft I meet ; 
You learned this language from the blatant beast, 230 

Or rather did not speak, but were possessed,- 
As for your answer, 'tis but barely urgedjr 
You must evince tradition to be forged,/ 
Produce plain proofs, unblemished authors use, 
As ancient as those ages they accuse ; 235 

Till when, 'tis not sufficient to defame ; 
An old possession stands till elder quits the claim. 
Then for our interest, which is named alone 
To load with envy, we retort your own ; 

For, when traditions in your faces fly, 240 

Resolving not to yield, you must decry. 
As when the cause goes hard, the guilty man 
Excepts, and thins his jury all he can ; 
So when you stand of other aid bereft, 

You to the twelve Apostles would be left. 245 

Your friend the Wolf did with more craft provide 
To set those toys, traditions, quite aside ; 


And Fathers too, unless when, reason spent, 

He cites them but sometimes for ornament. 

The private spirit is a better blind 250 

Than all the dodging tricks your authors find. 

For they who left the Scripture to the crowd, 

Each for his own peculiar judge allowed ; * 

The way to please them was to make them proud. 

Thus with full sails they ran upon the shelf ; 255 

Who could suspect a cozenage from himself ? 

On his own reason safer 'tis to stand 

Than be deceived and damned at second hand. 

But you who Fathers and traditions take 

And garble some, and some you quite forsake, 260 

Pretending Church auctority to fix, 

And yet some grains of private spirit mix, 

Are like a mule made up of differing seed, 

And that's the reason why you never breed, 

At least, not propagate your kind abroad, 265 

For home-dissenters are by statutes awed. 

And yet they grow upon you every day, 

While you, to speak the best, are at a stay, x \^ 

For sects that are extremes abhor a middle way, 

Like tricks of state to stop a raging flood 270 

Or mollify a mad-brained senate's mood, 

Of all expedients never one was good. 

Well may they argue, (nor can you deny,) 

If we must fix on Church-auctority, 

Best on the best, the fountain, not the flood ; 275 

That must be better still, if this be good. 

Shall she command who has herself rebelled ? 

Is Antichrist by Antichrist expelled ? 

Did we a lawful tyranny displace, 

To set aloft a bastard of the race ? 280 

Why all these wars to win the Book, if we 

Must not interpret for ourselves, but she ? 

Either be wholly slaves or wholly free. 



purging fires traditions must not fight ; 
But they must prove episcopacy's right. 285 

Thus, those led horses are from service freed ; 
You never mount them but in time of need. 
Like mercenaries, hired for home defence, 
They will not serve against their native Prince. 
Against domestic foes of hierarchy 290 

These are drawn forth, to make fanatics fly ; 
But, when they see their countrymen at hand, 
Marching against them under Church command, 
Straight they forsake their colours and disband.' 

Thus she ; nor could the Panther well enlarge 295 

With weak defence against so strong a charge ; 
But said, * For what did Christ his word provide, 
If still his Church must want a living guide ? 
And if all saving doctrines are not there, 
Or sacred penmen could not make them clear, 300 

From after ages we should hope in vain 
For truths, which men inspired could not explain.' 

' Before the Word was written,' said the Hind, 
' Our Saviour preached his faith to human kind : 
From his Apostles the first age received 305 

Eternal truth, and what they taught believed. 
Thus by tradition faith was planted first ; 
Succeeding flocks succeeding pastors nursed. 
This was the way our wise Redeemer chose, 
Who sure could all things for the best dispose, 310 

To fence his fold from their encroaching foes. 
He could have writ himself, but well foresaw 
The event would be like that of Moses' law ; 
Some difference would arise, some doubts remain, 
Like those which yet the jarring Jews maintain. 315 

No written laws can be so plain, so pure, 
But wit may gloss and malice may obscure ; 
Not those indited by his first command, 
A prophet graved the text, an angel held his hand. 


Thus faith was ere the written Word appeared, 320 

And men believed, not what they -read, but heard. 

But since the Apostles could not be confined 

To these or those, but severally designed 

Their large commission round the world to blow, 

To spread their faith, they spread their labours too. 325 

Yet still their absent flock their pains did share ; 

They hearkened still, for love produces care. 

And as mistakes arose or discords fell, 

Or bold seducers taught them to rebel, 

As charity grew cold or faction hot, 330 

Or long neglect their lessons had forgot, 

For all their wants they wisely did provide, 

And preaching by Epistles was supplied : 

So, great physicians cannot all attend, 

But some they visit and to some they send. 335 

Yet all those letters were not writ to all, 

Nor first intended but occasional, 

Their absent sermons ; nor, if they contain 

All needful doctrines, are those doctrines plain. 

Clearness by frequent preaching must be wrought ; 340 

They writ but seldom, but they daily taught ; 

And what one saint has said of holy Paul, 

He darkly writ, is true applied to all. 

For this obscurity could Heaven provide 

More prudently than by a living guide, 345 

As doubts arose, the difference to decide ? 

A guide was therefore needful, therefore made ; 

And, if appointed, sure to be obeyed. 

Thus, with due reverence to the Apostles' writ, 

By which my sons are taught, to which submit, 350 

I think those truths their sacred works contain 

The Church alone can certainly explain ; 

That following ages, leaning on the past, 

May rest upon the primitive at last. 

Nor would I thence the Word no rule infer, 355 


But none without the Church-interpreter ; 

Because, as I have urged before, 'tis mute, 

And is it self the subject of dispute. 

But what the Apostles their successors taught, 

They to the next, from them to us is brought, 360 

The undoubted sense which is in Scripture sought. 

From hence the Church is armed, when errors rise 

To stop their entrance and prevent surprise, 

And, safe entrenched within, her foes without defies. 

By these all-festering sores her councils heal, 365 

Which time or has disclosed or shall reveal ; 

For discord cannot end without a last appeal. 

Nor can a council national decide, 

But with subordination to her guide, 

(I wish the cause were on that issue tried ;) 370 

Much less the Scripture ; for suppose debate 

Betwixt pretenders to a fair estate, 

Bequeathed by some legator's last intent, 

(Such is our dying Saviour's Testament ;) 

The will is proved, is opened, and is read, 375 

The doubtful heirs their differing titles plead ; 

All vouch the words, their interest to maintain, 

And each pretends by those his cause is plain. 

Shall then the testament award the right ? 

No, that's the Hungary for which they fight, 380 

The field of battle, subject of debate, 

The thing contended for, the fair estate. 

The sense is intricate, 'tis only clear 

What vowels and what consonants are there. 

Therefore 'tis plain, its meaning must be tried 385 

Before some judge appointed to decide/ 

' Suppose,' the fair apostate said, ' I grant, 
The faithful flock some living guide should want, 
Your arguments an endless chase pursue : 
Produce this vaunted leader to our view, 390 

This mighty Moses of the chosen crew.' 


The dame, who saw her fainting foe retired. 
With force renewed, to victory aspired ; 
And, looking upward to her kindred sky, 
As once our Saviour owned his Deity 395 

Pronounced His words She whom ye seek am I. 
Nor less amazed this voice the Panther heard 
Than were those Jews to hear a God declared. 
Then thus the matron modestly renewed : 
' Let all your prophets and their sects be viewed, 400 

And see to which of them your selves think fit 
The conduct of your conscience to submit ; 
Each proselyte would vote his doctor best, 
With absolute exclusion to the rest : 

Thus would your Polish Diet disagree, 405 

And end, as it began, in anarchy ; 
Your self the fairest for election stand, 
Because you seem crown-general of the land : 
But soon against your superstitious lawn 
Some Presbyterian sabre would be drawn ; 410 

In your established laws of sovereignty 
The rest some fundamental flaw would see, 
And call rebellion gospel- liberty. 
To Church-decrees your articles require 
Submission modified, if not entire. 415 

Homage denied, to censures you proceed : 
But when Curtaria will not do the deed, 
You lay that pointless clergy-weapon by, 
And to the laws, your sword of justice, fly. 
Now this your sects the more unkindly take, 420 

(Those prying varlets hit the blots you make,) 
Because some ancient friends of yours declare 
Your only rule of faith the Scriptures are, 
Interpreted by men of judgment sound, 
Which every sect will for themselves expound, 425 

Nor think less reverence to their doctors due 
For sound interpretation, than to you. 


If then by able heads are understood 

Your brother prophets, who reformed abroad ; 

Those able heads expound a wiser way, 430 

That their own sheep their shepherd should obey. 

But if you mean your selves are only sound, 

That doctrine turns the Reformation round, 

And all the rest are false reformers found ; 

Because in sundry points you stand alone, 435 

Not in communion joined with any one, 

And therefore must be all the Church, or none. 

Then, till you have agreed whose judge is best, 

Against this forced submission they protest ; 

While sound and sound a different sense explains, 440 

Both play at hard-head till they break their brains ; 

And from their chairs each other's force defy, 

While unregarded thunders vainly fly. 

t pass the rest, because your Church alone 

Of all usurpers best could fill the throne. 445 

But neither you nor any sect beside 

For this high office can be qualified 

With necessary gifts required in such a guide. 

For that which must direct the whole must be 

Bound in one bond of faith and unity ; 450 

But all your several Churches disagree. 

The consubstantiating Church and priest 

Refuse communion to the Calvinist ; 

The French reformed from preaching you restrain, 

Because you judge their ordination vain ; 455 

And so they judge of yours, but donors must ordain. 

In short, in doctrine or in discipline 

Not one reformed can with another join : 

But all from each, as from damnation, fly : 

No union they pretend, but in Non-Popery. 460 

Nor, should their members in a synod meet, 

Could any Church presume to mount the seat 

Above the rest, their discords to decide ; 


None would obey, but each would be the guide ; 

And, face to face, dissensions would increase, 465 

For only distance now preserves the peace. 

All in their turns accusers and accused, 

Babel was never half so much confused. 

What one can plead the rest can plead as well, 

For amongst equals lies no last appeal, r 470 

And all confess themselves are fallible. 

Now, since you grant some necessary guide, 

All who can err are justly laid aside, 

Because a trust so sacred to confer 

Shows want of such a sure interpreter, 475 

And how can he be needful who can err ? 

Then, granting that unerring guide we want, 

That such there is you stand obliged to grant ; 

Our Saviour else were wanting to supply 

Our needs and obviate that necessity. 480 

It then remains, that Church can only be 

The guide which owns unfailing certainty ; 

Or else you slip your hold and change your side, 

Eelapsing from a necessary guide. 

But this annexed condition of the crown, 485 

Immunity from errors, you disown ; 

Here then you shrink, and lay your weak pretensions down. 

For petty royalties you raise debate, 

But this unfailing universal State 

You shun, nor dare succeed to such a glorious weight ; 490 

And for that cause those promises detest 7 

With which our Saviour did his Church invest ; \ 

But strive to evade, and fear to find them true, 

As conscious they were never meant to you ; 

All which the Mother-Church asserts her own, 495 

And with unrivalled claim ascends the throne. 

So, when of old the Almighty Father sate 

In council to redeem our ruined state, 

Millions of millions, at a distance round, 


Silent the sacred consistory crowned, 500 

To hear what mercy mixed with justice could propound ; 
All prompt with eager pity to fulfil 
The full extent of their Creator's will. 
But when the stern conditions were declared, 
A mournful whisper through the host was heard, 505 

And the whole hierarchy with heads hung down 
Submissively declined the ponderous proffered crown. 
Then, not till then, the eternal Son from high 
Eose in the strength of all the Deity ; 

Stood forth to accept the terms, and underwent 510 

A weight which all the frame of heaven had bent, 
Nor he himself could bear, but as omnipotent. 
Now, to remove the least remaining doubt, 
That even the blear-eyed sects may find her out, 
Behold what heavenly rays adorn her brows, 515 

What from his wardrobe her beloved allows 
To deck the wedding-day of his unspotted spouse. 
Behold what marks of majesty she brings, 
TUcher than ancient heirs of Eastern kings ! 
Her right hand holds the sceptre and the keys, 520 

To show whom she commands, and who obeys : 
With these to bind or set the sinner free, 
With that to assert spiritual royalty. 

* One in herself, not rent by schism, but sound, 
Entire, one solid shining diamond, 525 

Not sparkles shattered into sects like you : 
One is the Church, and must be to be true, 
One central principle of unity. 
As undivided, so from errors free ; . / 
As one in faith, so one in sanctity. 530 

Thus she, and none but she, the insulting rage 
Of heretics opposed from age to age ; 
Still when the giant-brood invades her throne, 
She stoops from heaven and meets them half way down, 
And with paternal thunder vindicates her crown. 535 


But like Egyptian sorcerers you stand, 

And vainly lift aloft your magic wand 

To sweep away the swarms of vermin from the land. 

You could like them, with like infernal force, 

Produce the plague, but not arrest the course. 540 

But when the boils and botches with disgrace 

And public scandal sat upon the face, 

Themselves attacked, the Magi strove no more, 

They saw God's finger, and their fate deplore ; 

Themselves they could not cure of the dishonest sore. 545 

' Thus one, thus pure, behold her largely spread, 
Like the fair ocean from her mother-bed ; 
From east to west triumphantly she rides, 
All shores are watered by her wealthy tides. 
The gospel-sound, diffused from pole to pole, 550 

Where winds can carry and where waves can roll, 
The self same doctrine of the sacred page 
Conveyed to every clime, in every age. 

' Here let my sorrow give my satire place, 
To raise new blushes on my British race. 555 

Our sailing ships like common shores we use, 
And through our distant colonies diffuse 
The draughts of dungeons and the stench of stews, 
Whom, when their home-bred honesty is lost, 
We disembogue on some far Indian coast ; 560 

Thieves, pandars, palliards, sins of every sort ; 
Those are the manufactures we export, 
And these the missioners our zeal has made ; 
For, with my country's pardon be it said, 
Keligion is the least of all our trade. 565 

' Yet some improve their traffic more than we ; 
For they on gain, their only god, rely, 
And set a public price on piety. 
Industrious of the needle and the chart, 

They run full sail to their Japonian mart ; 570 

Prevention fear, and prodigal of fame, 


Sell all of Christian to the very name, 

Nor leave enough of that to hide their naked shame. 

* Thus of three marks, which in the creed we view, 

Not one of all can be applied to you ; 575 

Much less the fourth. In vain, alas ! you seek 
The ambitious title of Apostolic : 
^rod-like descent ! 'tis well your blood can be 
Proved noble in the third or fourth degree ; 
For all of ancient that you had before, 580 

(I mean what is not borrowed from our store,) 
Was error fulminated o'er and o'er ; 
Old heresies condemned in ages past, 
By care and time recovered from the blast. 

' 'Tis said with ease, but never can be proved, 585 

The Church her old foundations has removed, 
And built new doctrines on unstable sands : 
Judge that, ye winds and rains ! you proved her, yet she stands. 
Those ancient doctrines charged on her for new, 
Show when, and how, and from what hands they grew. 590 
We claim no power, when heresies grow bold, 
To coin new faith, but still declare the old. 
How else could that obscene disease be purged, 
When controverted texts are vainly urged ? 
To prove tradition new, there's somewhat more 595 

Eequired, than saying, 'Twas not used before. 
Those monumental arms are never stirred, 
Till schism or heresy call down Goliath's sword. 

* Thus what you call corruptions are in truth 

The first plantations of the gospel's youth, 600 

Old standard faith ; but cast your eyes again, 

And view those errors which new sects maintain, 

Or which of old disturbed the Church's peaceful reign ; 

And we can point each period of the time, 

When they began, and who begot the crime ; 605 

Can calculate how long the eclipse endured, 

Who interposed, what digits were obscured : 


Of all which are already passed away, 
We know the rise, the progress, and decay. 

* Despair at our foundations then to strike, 610 

Till you can prove your faith Apostolic, 
A limpid stream drawn from the native source, 
Succession lawful in a lineal course. 
Prove any Church, opposed to this our head, 
So one, so pure, so unconfinedly spread, 615 

Under one chief of the spiritual state, 
The members all combined, and all subordinate. 
Show such a seamless coat, from schism so free, 
In no communion joined with heresy. 

If such a one you find, let truth prevail : 620 

Till when, your weights will in the balance fail ; 
A Church unprincipled kicks up the scale. 

' But if you cannot think (nor sure you can 
Suppose in God what were unjust in man) 
That He, the fountain of eternal grace, 625 

Should suffer falsehood, for so long a space, 
To banish truth and to usurp her place ; 
That seven successive ages should be lost, 
And preach damnation at their proper cost ; 
That all your erring ancestors should die 630 

Drowned in the abyss of deep idolatry ; 
/If piety forbid such thoughts to rise, 
Awake, and open your unwilling eyes : 
God hath left nothing for each age undone, 
From this to that wherein He sent his Son ; 635 

Then think but well of Him, and half your work is done. 

'See how his Church, adorned with every grace, / 
"With open arms, a kind forgiving face, 
Stands ready to prevent her long- lost son's embrace ! 
Not more did Joseph o'er his brethren weep, 640 

Nor less himself could from discovery keep, 
When in the crowd of suppliants they were seen, 
And in their crew his best-beloved Benjamin. 


That pious Joseph in the Church behold, 

To feed your famine and refuse your gold ; 645 

The Joseph you exiled, the Joseph whom you sold. 7 

Thus, while with heavenly charity she spoke, 
A streaming blaze the silent shadows broke ; 
Shot from the skies a cheerful azure light ; 
The birds obscene to forests winged their flight, 650 

And gaping graves received the wandering guilty spright. 

Such were the pleasing triumphs of the sky 
For James his late nocturnal victory ; 
The pledge of his Almighty Patron's love, 
The fireworks which his angels made above. 655 

I saw my self the lambent easy light 
Gild the brown horror and dispel the night : 
The messenger with speed the tidings bore, 
News which three labouring nations did restore ; 
But Heaven's own Nuncius was arrived before. 660 

By this the Hind had reached her lonely cell, 
And vapours rose, and dews unwholesome fell ; 
When she, by frequent observation wise, 
As one who long on heaven had fixed her eyes, 
Discerned a change of weather in the skies. 665 

The western borders were with crimson spread, 
The moon descending looked all flaming red ; 
She thought good manners bound her to invite 
The stranger dame to be her guest that night. 
; Tis true, coarse diet and a short repast, 670 

She said, were weak inducements to the taste 
Of one so nicely bred and so unused to fast ; 
But what plain fare her cottage could afford, 
A hearty welcome at a homely board 

Was freely hers ; and to supply the rest, 675 

An honest meaning and an open breast. 
Last, with content of mind, the poor man's wealth, 
A grace-cup to their common patron's health. 
This she desired her to accept, and stay, 


For fear she might be wildered in her way, 680 

Because she wanted an unerring guide ; 

And then the dew drops on her silken hide 

Her tender constitution did declare 

Too lady-like a long fatigue to bear, 

And rough inclemencies of raw nocturnal air. 665 

But most she feared that, travelling so late, 

Some evil-minded beasts might lie in wait, 

And without witness wreak their hidden hate 

The Panther, though she lent a listening ear, 
Had more of Lion in her than to fear ; 690 

Yet wisely weighing, since she had to deal 
With many foes, their numbers might prevail, 
Returned her all the thanks she could afford, 
And took her friendly hostess at her word ; 
"Who, entering first her lowly roof, a shed 695 

With hoary moss and winding ivy spread, 
Honest enough to hide an humble hermit's head, 
Thus graciously bespoke her welcome guest : 
* So might these walls, with your fair presence blest, 
Become your dwelling-place of everlasting rest, 700 

Not for a night, or quick revolving year, 
Welcome an owner, not a sojourner. 
This peaceful seat my poverty secures ; 
War seldom enters but where wealth allures : 
Nor yet despise it, for this poor abode 705 

Has oft received and yet receives a God ; 
A God victorious of the Stygian race 
Here laid his sacred limbs, and sanctified the place. 
This mean retreat did mighty Pan contain ; 
Be emulous of him, and pomp disdain, 710 

And dare not to debase your soul to gain/ 

The silent stranger stood amazed to see 
Contempt of wealth and wilful poverty : 
And, though ill habits are not soon controlled, 
A while suspended her desire of gold ; 715 


But civilly drew in her sharpened paws, 
Not violating hospitable laws, 
And pacified her tail and licked her frothy jaws. 
The Hind did first her country cates provide : 
Then couched herself securely by her side. 720 


MUCH malice mingled with a little wit 

Perhaps may censure this mysterious writ, 

Because the Muse has peopled Caledon 

With Panthers, Bears, and Wolves and beasts unknown, 

As if we were not stocked with monsters of our own. 5 

Let ^Esop answer, who has set to view 

Such kinds as Greece and Phrygia never knew ; 

And Mother Hubbard in her homely dress 

Has sharply blamed a British Lioness, 

That Queen, whose feast the factious rabble keep. 10 

Led by those great examples, may not I 

The wanted organs of their words supply ? 

If men transact like brutes, 'tis equal then 

For brutes to claim the privilege of men. 

Others our Hind of folly will indite 15 

To entertain a dangerous guest by night. 
Let those remember that she cannot die / 

Till rolling time is lost in round eternity ^ 
Nor need ihe fear the Panther, though untamed, 
Because the Lion's peace was now proclaimed : 20 

The wary savage would not give offence, 
To forfeit the protection of her Prince, 
But watched the time her vengeance to complete, 
When all her furry sons in frequent senate met ; 
Meanwhile she quenched her fury at the flood 25 

And with a lenten salad cooled her blood. 


Their commons, though but coarse, were nothing scant, 
Nor did their minds an equal banquet want. 

For now the Hind, whose noble nature strove 
To express her plain simplicity of love, 30 

Did all the honours of her house so well, 
No sharp debates disturbed the friendly meal. 
She turned the talk, avoiding that extreme, 
To common dangers past, a sadly pleasing theme ; 
Remembering every storm which tossed the State, 35 

When both were objects of the public hate, 
And dropped a tear betwixt for her own children's fate. 

Nor failed she then a full review to make 
Of what the Panther suffered for her sake : 
Her lost esteem, her truth, her loyal care, 40 

Her faith unshaken to an exiled heir, 
Her strength to endure, her courage to defy, 
Her choice of honourable infamy. 
On these prolixly thankful she enlarged ; 
Then with acknowledgments her self she charged ; 45 

For friendship, of it self an holy tie, 
Is made more sacred by adversity. 
Now should they part, malicious tongues would say 
They met like chance companions on the way, 
Whom mutual fear of robbers had possessed ; 50 

While danger lasted, kindness was professed ; 
But that once o'er, the short-lived union ends, 
The road divides, and there divide the friends. 

The Panther nodded when her speech was done, \ 
And thanked her coldly in a hollow tone : & 55 

But said, her gratitude had gone too far s^"" 
For common offices of Christian care. 
If to the lawful heir she had been true, 
She paid but Caesar what was Caesar's due. 
* I might,' she added, ' with like praise describe 60 

Your suffering sons, and so return your bribe : 
But incense from my hands is poorly prized, 




For gifts are scorned where givers are despised. 

I served a turn, and then was cast away ; 

You, like the gaudy fly, your wings display, 65 

And sip the sweets, and bask in your great Patron's day.' 

This heard, the matron was not slow to find 
What sort of malady had seized her mind : I 
Disdain, with gnawing envy, fell despite, V 
And cankered malice stood in open sight : ] 70 

Ambition, interest, pride without control, 
And jealousy, the jaundice of the soul ; 
Revenge, the bloody minister of ill, 
With all the lean tormenters of the will. 
'Twas easy now to guess from whence arose 75 

Her new-made union with her ancient foes, 
Her forced civilities, her faint embrace, 
Affected kindness with an altered face : 
Yet durst she not too deeply probe the wound, 
As hoping still the nobler parts were sound ; 80 

But strove with anodynes to assuage the smart, 
And mildly thus her medicine did impart : 

* Complaints of lovers help to ease their pain ; 
It shows a rest of kindness to complain, 

A friendship loth to quit its former hold ; 35 

And conscious merit may be justly bold. 
But much more just your jealousy would show, 
If others' good were injury to you : 
Witness, ye heavens, how I rejoice to see 
Rewarded worth and rising loyalty ! 90 

Your warrior offspring that upheld the crown, 
The scarlet honours of your peaceful gown, 
Are the most pleasing objects I can find, 
Charms to my sight and cordials to my mind. 
When virtue spooms before a prosperous gale, 95 

My heaving wishes help to fill the sail ; 
And if iny prayers for all the brave were heard, 
Cresar should still have such, and such should still reward. 


1 The laboured earth your pains have sowed and tilled 
'Tis just you reap the product of the field. 100 

Yours be the harvest, 'tis the beggar's gain 
To glean the fallings of the loaded wain. 
Such scattered ears as are not worth your care 
Your charity for alms may safely spare, 
And alms are but the vehicles of prayer. 105 

My daily bread is literally implored ; 
I have no barns nor granaries to hoard. 
If Csesar to his own his hand extends, 
Say which of yours his charity offends ; 

You know, he largely gives to more than are his friends. 110 
Are you defrauded, when he feeds the poor ? 
Our mite decreases nothing of your store. 
I am but few, and by your fare you see 
My crying sins are not of luxury. 

Some juster motive sure your mind withdraws 115 

And makes you break our friendship's holy laws, 
For barefaced envy is too base a cause. 

' Show more occasion for your discontent ; 
Your love, the Wolf, would help you to invent. 
Some German quarrel, or, as times go now, 120 

Some French, where force is uppermost, will do. 
When at the fountain's head, as merit ought 
To claim the place, you take a swilling draught, 
How easy 'tis an envious eye to throw 

And tax the sheep for troubling streams below ; 125 

Or call her, when no farther cause you find, 
An enemy professed of all your kind ! 
But then, perhaps, the wicked world would think 
The Wolf designed to eat as well as drink.' 

This last allusion galled the Panther more, 130 

Because indeed it rubbed upon the sore ; 
Yet seemed she not to wince, though shrewdly pained, 
But thus her passive character maintained : 

' I never grudged, whate'er my foes report, 


Your flaunting fortune in the Lion's court. 135 

You have your day, or you are much belied, 

But I am always on the suffering side : 

You know my doctrine, and I need not say 

I will not, but I cannot disobey. 

On this firm principle I ever stood : 140 

He of my sons who fails to make it good 

By one rebellious act renounces to my blood.' 

'Ah !' said the Hind, 'how many sons have you 
Who call you mother whom you never knew ! 
But most of them who that relation plead 145 

Are such ungracious youths as wish you dead. 
They gape at rich revenues which you hold 
And fain would nibble at your grandam gold ; 
Inquire into your years, and laugh to find 
Your crazy temper shows you much declined. 150 

Were you not dim and doted, you might see 
A pack of cheats that claim a pedigree, 
No more of kin to you than you to me. 
Do you not know that for a little coin 

Heralds can foist a name into the line ? 155 

They ask you blessing but for what you have ; 
But once possessed of what with care you save, 
The wanton boys would desecrate your grave. 

' Your sons of latitude that court your grace, 
Though most resembling you in form and face, 160 

Are far the worst of your pretended race ; 
And, but I blush your honesty to blot, 
Pray God you prove them lawfully begot : 
For in some Popish libels I have read 

The Wolf has been too busy in your bed ; 165 

At least their hinder parts, the belly-piece, 
The paunch and all that Scorpio claims are his. 
Their malice too a sore suspicion brings, 
For though they dare not bark, they snarl at kings. 
Nor blame them for intruding in your line ; 170 


Fat bishoprics are still of right divine. 

' Think you your new French proselytes are come 
To starve abroad, because they starved at home ? 
Your benefices twinkled from afar, 

They found the new Messiah by the star. 175 

Those Swisses fight on any side for pay, 
And 'tis the living that conforms, not they. 
Mark with what management their tribes divide, 
Some stick to you, and some to t'other side, 
That many churches may for many mouths provide. 180 

More vacant pulpits would more converts make ; 
All would have latitude enough to take. 
The rest unbeneficed your sects maintain, 
For ordinations without cures are vain, 

And chamber practice is a silent gain. 185 

Your sons of breadth at home are much like these ; 
Their soft and yielding metals run with ease ; 
They melt, and take the figure of the mould, 

Iut harden and preserve it best in gold.' 
' Your Delphic sword,' the Panther then replied, 190 

' Is double-edged and cuts on either side. 
Some sons of mine, who bear upon their shield 
Three steeples argent in a sable field, 
Have sharply taxed your converts, who unfed 
Have followed you for miracles of bread ; 195 

Such who themselves of no religion are, 
Allured with gain, for any will declare. 
Bare lies with bold assertions they can face, 
But dint of argument is out of place ; 

The grim logician puts them in a fright, 200 

'Tis easier far to flourish than to fight. 
Thus, our eighth Henry's marriage they defame ; 
They say the schism of beds began the game, 
Divorcing from the Church to wed the dame ; 
Though largely proved, and by himself professed, 205 

That conscience, conscience would not let him rest, 


I mean, not till possessed of her he loved, 

And old, uncharming Catherine was removed. 

For sundry years before did he complain, 

And told his ghostly confessor his pain. 210 

With the same impudence, without a ground 

They say that, look the Eeformation round, 

No Treatise of Humility is found. 

But if none were, the Gospel does not want, 

Our Saviour preached it, and I hope you grant 215 

The Sermon in the mount was Protestant.' 

1 No doubt,' replied the Hind, * as sure as all 
The writings of Saint Peter and Saint Paul ; 
On that decision let it stand or fall. 

Now for my converts, who, you say, unfed 220 

Have followed me for miracles of bread, 
Judge not by hearsay, but observe at least, 
If since their change their loaves have been increast. 
The Lion buys no converts ; if he did, 

Beasts would be sold as fast as he could bid. 225 

Tax those of interest who conform for gain 
Or stay the market of another reign : 
Your broad-way sons would never be too nice 
To close with Calvin, if he paid their price ; 229 

But, raised three steeples higher, would change their note, 
And quit the cassock for the canting-coat. 
Now, if you damn this censure as too bold, 
Judge by your selves, and think not others sold. 

' Meantime my sons accused by fame's report 
Pay small attendance at the Lion's court, 235 

Nor rise with early crowds, nor flatter late, 
(For silently they beg who daily wait.) 
Preferment is bestowed that comes unsought ; 
Attendance is a bribe, and then 'tis bought. 
How they should speed, their fortune is untried ; 240 

For not to ask is not to be denied. 
For what they have their God and King they bless, 


And hope they should not murmur had they less. 

But if reduced subsistence to implore, 

In common prudence they would pass your door. 245 

Unpitied Hudibras, your champion friend, 

Has shown how far your charities extend. 

This lasting verse shall 011 his tomb be read, 

He shamed you living, and upbraids you dead. 

' With odious atheist names you load your foes ; 250 

Your liberal clergy why did I expose ? 
It never fails in charities like those. 
In climes where true religion is professed, 
That imputation were no laughing jest ; 

But Imprimatur, with a chaplain's name, 255 

Is here sufficient licence to defame. 
What wonder is't that black detraction thrives : 
The homicide of names is less than lives, 
And yet the perjured murderer survives.' 

This said, she paused a little, and suppressed 260 

The boiling indignation of her breast. 
She knew the virtue of her blade, nor would 
Pollute her satire with ignoble blood ; 
Her panting foes she saw before her lie, 
And back she drew the shining weapon dry. 265 

So when the generous Lion has in sight 
His equal match, he rouses for the fight ; 
But when his foe lies prostrate on the plain, 
He sheathes his paws, uncurls his angry mane, 
And, pleased with bloodless honours of the day, 270 

Walks over and disdains the inglorious prey. 
So James, if great with less we may compare, 
Arrests his rolling thunder-bolts in air ; 
And grants ungrateful friends a lengthened space 
To implore the remnants of long-suffering grace. 275 

This breathing-time the matron took ; and then 
Resumed the thrid of her discourse again. 
' Be vengeance wholly left to powers divine, 


And let Heaven judge betwixt your sons and mine : 

If joys hereafter must be purchased here 280 

With loss of all that mortals hold so dear, 

Then welcome infamy and public shame, 

And last, a long farewell to wordly fame. 

'Tis said with ease, but oh, how hardly tried 

By haughty souls to human honour tied ! 285 

O sharp convulsive pangs of agonizing pride ! 

Down then, thou rebel, never more to rise ; 

And what thou didst and dost so dearly prize, 

That fame, that darling fame, make that thy sacrifice. 

'Tis nothing thou hast given ; then add thy tears 290 

For a long race of unrepenting years : 

'Tis nothing yet, yet all thou hast to give : 

Then add those may-be years thou hast to live : 

Yet nothing still : then poor and naked come, 

Thy Father will receive his unthrift home, 295 

And thy blest Saviour's blood discharge the mighty sum.' 

1 Thus, 5 she pursued, ' I discipline a son, 
Whose unchecked fury to revenge would run ; 
He champs the bit, impatient of his loss, 
And starts aside and flounders at the Cross. 300 

Instruct him better, gracious God, to know 
As Thine is vengeance, so forgiveness too ; 
That, suffering from ill tongues, he bears no more 
Than what his Sovereign bears and what his Saviour bore. 

' It now remains for you to school your child, 305 

And ask why God's anointed be reviled ; 
A King and Princess dead ! did Shimei worse ? 
The curser's punishment should fright the curse ; 
Your son was warned, and wisely gave it o'er, 
But he who counselled him has paid the score ; 310 

The heavy malice could no higher tend, 
But woe to him on whom the weights descend. 
So to permitted ills the daemon flies ; 
His rage is aimed at him who rules the skies : 


Constrained to quit his cause, no succour found, 315 

The foe discharges every tire around, 

In clouds of smoke abandoning the fight ; 

But his own thundering peals proclaim his flight. 

1 In Henry's change his charge as ill succeeds ; 
To that long story little answer needs : 320 

Confront but Henry's words with Henry's deeds. 
Were space allowed, with ease it might be proved, 
What springs his blessed reformation moved. 
The dire effects appeared in open sight, 

Which from the cause he calls a distant flight, 325 

And yet no larger leap than from the sun to light. 

' Now last, your sons a double psean sound, 
A Treatise of Humility is found. 
'Tis found, but better had it ne'er been sought 
Than thus in Protestant procession brought. 330 

The famed original through Spain is known, 
Rodriguez' work, my celebrated son, 
Which yours by ill-translating made his own ; 
Concealed its author, and usurped the name, 
The basest and ignoblest theft of fame. 335 

My altars kindled first that living coal ; 
Restore, or practise better what you stole ; 
That virtue could this humble verse inspire, 
'Tis all the restitution I require.' 

Glad was the Panther that the charge was closed, 340 
And none of all her favourite sons exposed ; 
For laws of arms permit each injured man 
To make himself a saver where he can. 
Perhaps the plundered merchant cannot tell 
The names of pirates in whose hands he fell ; 345 

But at the den of thieves he justly flies, 
And every Algerine is lawful prize. 
No private person in the foe's estate 
Can plead exemption from the public fate. 
Yet Christian laws allow not such redress ; 350 


Then let the greater supersede the less : 

But let the abettors of the Panther's crime 

Learn to make fairer wars another time. 

Some characters may sure be found to write 

Among her sons ; for 'tis no common sight, 355 

A spotted dam, and all her offspring white. 

The savage, though she saw her plea controlled, 
Yet would not wholly seem to quit her hold, 
But offered fairly to compound the strife 
And judge conversion by the convert's life. 360 

' 'Tis true,' she said, ' I think it somewhat strange 
So few should follow profitable change ; 
For present joys are more to flesh and blood 
Than a dull prospect of a distant good. 

'Twas well alluded by a son of mine, 365 

(I hope to quote him is not to purloin,) 
Two magnets, heaven and earth, allure to bliss ; 
The larger loadstone that, the nearer this : 
The weak attraction of the greater fails ; 
We nod awhile, but neighbourhood prevails ; 370 

But when the greater proves the nearer too, 
I wonder more your converts come so slow. 
Methinks in those who firm with me remain, 
It shows a nobler principle than gain.' 

' Your inference would be strong,' the Hind replied, 375 
' If yours were in effect the suffering side ; 
Your clergy-sons their own in peace possess, 
Nor are their prospects in reversion less. 
My proselytes are struck with awful dread, 
Your bloody comet-laws hang blazing o'er their head ; 380 
The respite they enjoy but only lent, 
The best they have to hope, protracted punishment. 
Be judge your self, if interest may prevail, 
Which motives, yours or mine, will turn the scale. 
While pride and pomp allure, and plenteous ease, 385 

That is, till man's predominant passions cease, 


Admire no longer at my slow increase. 

' By education most have been misled ; 
So they believe, because they so were bred. 
The priest continues what the nurse began, 390 

And thus the child imposes on the man. 
The rest T named before, nor need repeat ; 
But interest is the most prevailing cheat, 
The sly seducer both of age and youth ; 
They study that, and think they study truth. 395 

When interest fortifies an argument, 
Weak reason serves to gain the will's assent ; 
For souls already warped receive an easy bent. 

1 Add long prescription of established laws, 
And pique of honour to maintain a cause, 400 

And shame of change, and fear of future ill, 
And zeal, the blind conductor of the will ; 
And chief among the still-mistaking crowd, 
The fame of teachers obstinate and proud ; 
And, more than all, the private judge allowed ; 405 

Disdain of Fathers, which the dance began, 
And last, uncertain whose the narrower span, 
The clown unread and half -read gentleman.' 

To this the Panther, with a scornful smile : 
' Yet still you travail with unwearied toil, 410 

And range around the realm without control, 
Among my sons for proselytes to prowl, 
And here and there you snap some silly soul. 
You hinted fears of future change in state ; 
Pray Heaven you did not prophesy your fate ! 415 

Perhaps, you think your time of triumph near, 
But may mistake the season of the year ; 
The Swallows' fortune gives you cause to fear.' 

' For charity,' replied the matron, ' tell 
What sad mischance those pretty birds befel.' 420 

1 Nay, no mischance,' the savage dame replied, 
' But want of wit in their unerring guide, 


And eager haste and gaudy hopes and giddy pride. 

Yet, wishing timely warning may prevail, 

Make you the moral, and I'll tell the tale. 425 

' The Swallow, privileged above the rest 
Of all the birds as man's familiar guest, 
Pursues the sun in summer, brisk and bold, 
But wisely shuns the persecuting cold ; 

Is well to chancels and to chimneys known, 430 

Though 'tis not thought she feeds on smoke alone. 
From hence she has been held of heavenly line, 
Endued with particles of soul divine. 
This merry chorister had long possessed 
Her summer seat, and feathered well her nest ; 435 

Till frowning skies began to change their cheer, 
And time turned up the wrong side of the year ; 
The shedding trees began the ground to strow 
With yellow leaves, and bitter blasts to blow. 
Sad auguries of winter thence she drew, 440 

Which by instinct or prophecy she knew : 
When prudence warned her to remove betimes, 
And seek a better heaven and warmer climes. 

' Her sons were summoned on a steeple's height, 
And, called in common council, vote a flight ; 445 

The day was named, the next that should be fair ; 
All to the general rendezvous repair, 

They try their fluttering wings and trust themselves in air. 
But whether upward to the moon they go, 
Or dream the winter out in caves below, 450 

Or hawk at flies elsewhere, concerns not us to know. 

' Southwards, you may be sure, they bent their flight, 
And harboured in a hollow rock at night ; 
Next morn they rose, and set up every sail ; 
The wind was fair, but blew a mackrel gale : 455 

The sickly young sat shivering on the shore, 
Abhorred salt-water never seen before, 
And prayed their tender mothers to delay 


The passage, and expect a fairer day. 

' With these the Martin readily concurred, 460 

A church-begot and church-believing bird ; 
Of little body, but of lofty mind, 
Round bellied, for a dignity designed, 
And much a dunce, as Martins are by kind ; 
Yet often quoted Canon-laws and Code 465 

And Fathers which he never understood ; 
But little learning needs in noble blood. 
For, sooth to say, the Swallow brought him in 
Her household chaplain and her next of kin : 
In superstition silly to excess, 470 

And casting schemes by planetary guess ; 
In fine, short-winged, unfit himself to fly, 
His fear foretold foul weather in the sky. 

' Besides, a Eaven from a withered oak 

Left of their lodging was observed to croak. 475 

That omen liked him not ; so his advice 
Was present safety, bought at any price ; 
A seeming pious care that covered cowardice. 
To strengthen this, he told a boding dream, 
Of rising waters and a troubled stream, 480 

Sure signs of anguish, dangers, and distress, . 
Witli something more not lawful to express : 
By which he slyly seemed to intimate 
Some secret revelation of their fate. 

For he concluded, once upon a time, 485 

He found a leaf inscribed with sacred rhyme, 
Whose antique characters did well denote 
The Sibyl's hand of the Cumsean grot : 
The mad divineress had plainly writ, 

A time should come (but many ages yet) 490 

In which sinister destinies ordain 
A dame should drown with all her feathered train, 
And seas from thence be called the Chelidonian main. 
At this, some shook for fear ; the more devout 


Arose, and blessed themselves from head to foot. 495 

* 'Tis true, some stagers of the wiser sort 
Made all these idle wonderments their sport : 
They said, their only danger was delay, 
And he who heard what every fool could say 

Would never fix his thoughts, but trim his time away. 500 

The passage yet was good ; the wind, 'tis true, 

Was somewhat high, but that was nothing new, 

Nor more than usual equinoxes blew. 

The sun, already from the Scales declined, 

Gave little hopes of better days behind, 505 

But change from bad to worse of weather and of wind. 

Nor need they fear the dampness of the sky 

Should flag their wings, and hinder them to fly ; 

Twas only water thrown on sails too dry. 

But, least of all, philosophy presumes 510 

Of truth in dreams from melancholy fumes ; 

Perhaps the Martin, housed in holy ground, 

Might think of ghosts that walk their midnight round, 

Till grosser atoms tumbling in the stream 

Of fancy madly met and clubbed into a dream : 515 

As little weight his vain presages bear, 

Of ill effect to such alone who fear ; 

Most prophecies are of a piece with these, 

Each Nostradamus can foretell with ease : 

Not naming persons, and confounding times, 520 

One casual truth supports a thousand lying rhymes. 

* The advice was true ; but fear had seized the most, 
And all good counsel is on cowards lost. 

The question crudely put to shun delay, 

'Twas carried by the major part to stay. 525 

* His point thus gained, Sir Martin dated thence 
His power, and from a priest became a prince. 

He ordered all things with a busy care, 

And cells and refectories did prepare, 

And large provisions laid of winter fare ; 530 


JBut now and then let fall a word or two, 

Of hope, that Heaven some miracle might show, 

And for their sakes the sun should backward go, 

Against the laws of nature upward climb, 

And, mounted on the Ram, renew the prime ; 535 

For which two proofs in sacred story lay, 

Of Ahaz' dial and of Joshua's day. 

In expectation of such times as these, 

A chapel housed them, truly called of ease ; 

For Martin much devotion did not ask ; 540 

They prayed sometimes, and that was all their task. 

* It happened (as beyond the reach of wit 
Blind prophecies may have a lucky hit) 
That this accomplished, or at least in part, 
Gave great repute to their new Merlin's art. 545 

Some Swifts, the giants of the Swallow kind, 
Large-limbed, stout-hearted, but of stupid mind, 
(For Swisses or for Gibeonites designed,) 
These lubbers, peeping through a broken pane 
To suck fresh air, surveyed the neighbouring plain, 550 

And saw (but scarcely could believe their eyes) 
New blossoms nourish and new flowers arise, 
As God had been abroad, and walking there 
Had left his footsteps and reformed the year. 
The sunny hills from far were seen to glow 555 

With glittering beams, and in the meads below 
The burnished brooks appeared with liquid gold to flow. 
At last they heard the foolish Cuckoo sing, 
Whose note proclaimed the holy-day of spring. 

' No longer doubting, all prepare to fly 560 

And repossess their patrimonial sky. 
The priest before them did his wings display ; 
And that good omens might attend their way, 
As luck would have it, 'twas St. Martin's day. 

' Who but the Swallow now triumphs alone 1 565 

The canopy of heaven is all her own ; 


Her youthful offspring to their haunts repair, 

And glide along in glades, and skim in air, 

And dip for insects in the purling springs, 

And stoop on rivers to refresh their wings. 570 

Their mothers think a fair provision made, 

That every son can live upon his trade, 

And, now the careful charge is off their hands, 

Look out for husbands and new nuptial bands. 

But first the lover is by lawyers tied 575 

To settle jointure-chimneys on the bride. 

So thick they couple, in so short a space, 

That Martin's marriage-offerings rise apace ; 

Their ancient houses, running to decay, 

Are furbished up and cemented with clay. 580 

They teem already ; stores of eggs are laid, 

And brooding mothers call Lucina's aid. 

Fame spreads the news, and foreign fowls appear 

In flocks to greet the new returning year, 

To bless the founder and partake the cheer. 585 

1 And now 'twas time (so fast their numbers rise) 
To plant abroad, and people colonies. 
The youth drawn forth, as Martin had desired 
(For so their cruel destiny required), 

Were sent far off on an ill-fated day ; 590 

The rest would need conduct them on their way, 
And Martin went, because he feared alone to stay. 

' So long they flew with inconsiderate haste, 
That now their afternoon began to waste ; 
And, what was ominous, that very morn 595 

The Sun was entered into Capricorn : 
Which, by their bad astronomers' account, 
That week the virgin Balance should remount. 
An infant moon eclipsed him in his way, 
And hid the small remainders of his day. 600 

The crowd amazed pursued no certain mark, 
But birds met birds, and justled in the dark. 


Few mind the public in a panic fright, 

And fear increased the horror of the night. 

Night came, but unattended with repose ; 605 

Alone she came, no sleep their eyes to close ; 

Alone, and black she came ; no friendly stars arose. 

' What should they do, beset with dangers round, 
No neighbouring dorp, no lodging to be found, 
But bleaky plains, and bare unhospitable ground ? 610 

The latter brood, who just began to fly, 
Sick-feathered and unpractised in the sky, 
For succour to their helpless mother call : 
She spread her wings ; some few beneath them crawl ; 
She spread them wider yet, but could not cover all. 615 

To augment their woes, the winds began to move 
Debate in air for empty fields above, 
Till Boreas got the skies, and poured amain 
His rattling hailstones mixed with snow and rain. 

' The joyless morning late arose, and found 620 

A dreadful desolation reign around, 
Some buried in the snow, some frozen to the ground. 
The rest were struggling still with death, and lay 
The Crows' and Ravens' rights, an undefended prey, 
Excepting Martin's race ; for they and he 625 

Had gained the shelter of a hollow tree : 
But soon discovered by a sturdy clown, 
He headed all the rabble of a town, 
And finished them with bats or polled them down. 
Martin himself was caught alive, and tried 630 

For treasonous crimes, because the laws provide 
No Martin there in winter shall abide. 
High on an oak which never leaf shall bear, 
He breathed his last, exposed to open air ; 
And there his corps, unblessed, is hanging still, 635 

To show the change of winds with his prophetic bill.' 

The patience of the Hind did almost fail, 
For well she marked the malice of the tale ; 


Which ribald art their Church to Luther owes ; 

In malice it began, by malice grows ; 640 

He sowed the serpent's teeth, an iron harvest rose. 

But most in Martin's character and fate 

She saw her slandered sons, the Panther's hate, 

The people's rage, the persecuting State : 

Then said, ' I take the advice in friendly part ; 645 

You clear your conscience, or at least your heart. 

Perhaps you failed in your forseeing skill, 

For Swallows are unlucky birds to kill : 

As for my sons, the family is blessed 

Whose every child is equal to the rest ; 650 

No church reformed can boast a blameless line, 

Such Martins build in yours, and more than mine ; 

Or else an old fanatic author lies, 

Who summed their scandals up by centuries. 

But through your parable I plainly see 655 

The bloody laws, the crowd's barbarity, 

The sunshine that offends the purblind sight ; 

Had some their wishes, it would soon be night. 

Mistake me not ; the charge concerns not you ; 

Your sons are malcontents, but yet are true, 660 

As far as non-resistance makes them so ; 

But that's a word of neutral sense, you know, 

A passive term, which no relief will bring, 

But trims betwixt a rebel and a king.' 

' Eest well assured,' the Pardalis replied, 665 

1 My sons would all support the regal side, 
Though Heaven forbid the cause by battle should be tried.' 

The matron answered with a loud ' Amen ! ' 
And thus pursued her argument again : 

' If, as you say, and as I hope no less, 670 

Your sons will practise what your self profess, 
What angry power prevents our present peace ? 
The Lion, studious of our common good, 
Desires (and kings' desires are ill withstood) 


To join our nations in a lasting love ; 675 

The bars betwixt are easy to remove, 

For sanguinary laws were never made above. 

If you condemn that Prince of tyranny, 

Whose mandate forced your Gallic friends to fly, 

Make not a worse example of your own ; 680 

Or cease to rail at causeless rigour shown, 

And let the guiltless person throw the stone. 

His blunted sword your suffering brotherhood 

Has seldom felt ; he stops it short of blood : 

But you have ground the persecuting knife 685 

And set it to a razor edge on life. 

Cursed be the wit which cruelty refines 

Or to his father's rod the scorpion joins ; 

Your finger is more gross than the great monarch's loins. 

But you perhaps remove that bloody note 690 

And stick it on the first Reformers' coat. 

Oh, let their crime in long oblivion sleep ; 

Twas theirs indeed to make, 'tis' yours to keep. 

Unjust or just is all the question now ; 

'Tis plain that, not repealing, you allow. 695 

' To name the Test would put you in a rage ; 
You charge not that on any former age, 
But smile to think how innocent you stand, 
Armed by a weapon put into your hand. 
Yet still remember that you wield a sword 700 

Forged by your foes against your sovereign lord ; 
Designed to hew the imperial cedar down, 
Defraud succession and disheir the crown. 
To abhor the makers and their laws approve 
Is to hate traitors and the treason love : 705 

What means it else, which now your children say, 
We made it not, nor will we take away ? 

' Suppose some great oppressor had by slight 
Of law disseised your brother of his right., 
Your common sire surrendering in a fright ; 710 


Would you to that unrighteous title stand, 

Left by the villain's will to heir the land ? 

More just was Judas, who his Saviour sold ; 

The sacrilegious bribe he could not hold, 

Nor hang in peace, before he rendered back the gold. 715 

What more could you have done than now you do, 

Had Gates and Bedlow and their Plot been true ? 

Some specious reasons for those wrongs were found ; 

The dire magicians threw their mists around, 

And wise men walked as on enchanted ground. 720 

But now, when Time has made the imposture plain 

(Late though he followed truth, and limping held her train), 

What new delusion charms your cheated eyes again ? 

* The first Eef ormers were a modest race ; 

Our peers possessed in peace their native place, 725 

And when rebellious arms o'erturned the State 

They suffered only in the common fate ; 

But now the Sovereign mounts the regal chair, 

And mitred seats are full, yet David's bench is bare. 

Your answer is, they were not dispossessed ; 730 

They need but rub their metal on the Test 

To prove their ore ; 'twere well if gold alone 

Were touched and tried on your discerning stone, 

But that unfaithful Test unround will pass 

The dross of atheists and sectarian brass ; 735 

As if the experiment were made to hold . 

For base productions, and reject the gold. 

Thus men ungodded may to places rise, 

And sects may be preferred without disguise ; 

No danger to the Church or State from these ; 740 

The Papist only has his writ of ease. 

No gainful office gives him the pretence 

To grind the subject or defraud the prince. 

Wrong conscience or no conscience may deserve 

To thrive, but ours alone is privileged to sterve. 745 

* Still thank your selves, you cry ; your noble race 



We banish not, but they forsake the place : 

Our doors are open. True, but ere they come, 

You toss your censing Test and fume the room ; 

As if 'twere Toby's rival to expel, 750 

And fright the fiend who could not bear the smell.' 

To this the Panther sharply had replied ; 
But, having gained a verdict on her side, 
She wisely gave the loser leave to chide ; 
Well satisfied to have the butt and peace, 755 

And for the plaintiff's cause she cared the less, 
Because she sued in forma pauperis ; 
Yet thought it decent something should be said, 
For secret guilt by silence is betrayed. 

So neither granted all, nor much denied, 760 

But answered with a yawning kind of pride : 

' Methiiiks such terms of preferred peace you bring, 
As once ^Eneas to the Italian king. 
By long possession all the land is mine ; 
You strangers come with your intruding line 765 

To share iny sceptre, which you call to join. 
You plead like him an ancient pedigree 
And claim a peaceful seat by Fate's decree : 
In ready pomp your sacrificer stands, 

To unite the Trojan and the Latin bands : 770 

And, that the league more firmly may be tied, 
Demand the fair Lavinia for your bride. 
Thus plausibly you veil the intended wrong, 
But still you bring your exiled gods along ; 
And will endeavour, in succeeding space, 775 

Those household poppits on our hearths to place. 
Perhaps some barbarous laws have been preferred ; 
I spake against the Test, but was not heard. 
These to rescind and peerage to restore 

My gracious Sovereign would my vote implore ; 780 

I owe him much, but owe my conscience more. 5 

' Conscience is then your plea,' replied the dame, 


' Which, well-informed, will ever be the same. 

But yours is much of the cameleon hue, 

To change the dye with every different view. 785 

When first the Lion sat with awful sway, 

Your conscience taught you duty to obey ; 

He might have had your statutes and your Test ; 

No conscience but of subjects was professed. 

He found your temper, and no farther tried, 790 

But on that broken reed, your Church, relied. 

In vain the sects assayed their utmost art, 

With offered treasure to espouse their part ; 

Their treasures were a bribe too mean to move his heart. 

But when, by long experience, you had proved 795 

How far he could forgive, how well he loved ; 

A goodness that excelled his god-like race, 

And only short of Heaven's unbounded grace ; 

A flood of mercy that overflowed our isle, 

Calm in the rise, and fruitful as the Nile ; 800 

Forgetting whence your Egypt was supplied, 

You thought your Sovereign bound to send the tide ; 

Nor upward looked on that immortal spring, 

But vainly deemed he durst not be a king : 

Then Conscience, unrestrained, by fear, began 805 

To stretch her limits, and extend the span ; 

Did his indulgence as her gift dispose, 

And make a wise alliance with her foes. 

Can Conscience own the associating name, 

And raise no blushes to conceal her shame ? 810 

For sure she has been thought a bashful dame. 

But if the cause by battle should be tried, 

You grant she must espouse the regal side ; 

O Proteus Conscience, never to be tied ! 

What Phoabus from the tripod shall disclose 815 

Which are in last resort your friends or foes ? 

Homer, who learned the language of the sky, 

The seeming Gordian knot would soon untie ; 


Immortal powers the term of Conscience know, 

But Interest is her name with men below.' 820 

* Conscience or Interest be it, or both in one, 3 
The Panther answered in a surly tone ; 

' The first commands me to maintain the crown, 

The last forbids to throw my barriers down. 

Our penal laws no sons of yours admit, 825 

Our Test excludes your tribe from benefit. 

These are my banks your ocean to withstand, 

Which proudly rising overlooks the land, / 

And, once let in, with unresisted sway 

Would sweep the pastors and their flocks away. 830 

Think not my judgment leads me to comply 

With laws unjust, but hard necessity : 

Imperious need, which cannot be withstood, 

Makes ill authentic for a greater good. 

Possess your soul with patience, and attend ; 835 

A more auspicious planet may ascend ; 

Good fortune may present some happier time, 

With means to cancel my unwilling crime ; 

(Unwilling, witness all ye Powers above !) 

To mend my errors and redeem your love ; 840 

That little space you safely may allow ; 

Your all-dispensing power protects you now.' 

* Hold,' said the Hind, ' 'tis needless to explain ; 
You would postpone me to another reign ; 

Till when, you are content to be unjust : 845 

Your part is to possess, and mine to trust. 

A fair exchange proposed of future chance 

For present profit and inheritance. 

Few words will serve to finish our dispute ; 

Who will not now repeal would persecute. 850 

To ripen green revenge your hopes attend, 

Wishing that happier planet would ascend. 

For shame, let conscience be your plea no more ; 

To will hereafter proves she might before. 


* Your care about your banks infers a fear 855 

Of threatening floods and inundations near ; 
If so, a just reprise would only be 
Of what the land usurped upon the sea ; 
And all your jealousies but serve to show 
Your ground is, like your neighbour-nation, low. 860 

To entrench in what you grant unrighteous laws 
Is to distrust the justice of your cause, 
And argues, that the true religion lies S 
In those weak adversaries you despise. 

' Tyrannic force is that which least you fear ; 865 

The sound is frightful in a Christian's ear : 
Avert it, Heaven ! nor let that plague be sent 
To us from the dispeopled continent. 

' But piety commands me to refrain ; 

Those prayers are needless in this Monarch's reign. 870 

Behold how he protects your friends opprest, 
Eeceives the banished, succours the distressed ! 
Behold, for you may read an honest open breast. 
He stands in daylight, and disdains to hide 
An act to which by honour he is tied, 875 

A generous, laudable, and kingly pride. 
Your Test he would repeal, his peers restore ; 
This when he says he means, he means no more.' 

'Well,' said the Panther, 'I believe him just, 

And yet ' 

' And yet, 'tis but because you must ; 880 

You would be trusted, but you would not trust.' 
The Hind thus briefly ; and disdained to enlarge 
On power of kings and their superior charge, 
As Heaven's Trustees before the people's choice, 
Though sure the Panther did not much rejoice 885 

To hear those echoes given of her once loyal voice. 

' The matron wooed her kindness to the last, 
But could not win ; her hour of grace was past. 
Whom thus persisting when she could not bring 


To leave the Wolf and to believe her King, 890 

She gave her up, and fairly wished her joy 

Of her late treaty with her new ally : 

Which well she hoped would more successful prove 

Than was the Pigeon's and the Buzzard's love. 

The Panther asked what concord there could be 895 

Betwixt two kinds whose natures disagree ? 

The dame replied : ' ; Tis sung in every street, 

The common chat of gossips when they meet ; 

But, since unheard by you, 'tis worth your while 

To take a wholesome tale, though told in homely style. 900 

' A plain good man, whose name is understood, 
(So few deserve the name of plain and good,) 
Of three fair lineal lordships stood possessed, 
And lived, as reason was, upon the best. 
Inured to hardships from his early youth, 905 

Much had he done and suffered for his truth : 
At land and sea, in many a doubtful fight, 
Was never known a more adventurous knight, 
Who oftener drew his sword, and always for the right. 

'As Fortune would, (his fortune came though late,) 910 
He took possession of his just estate ; 
Nor racked his tenants with increase of rent, 
Nor lived too sparing, nor too largely spent ; 
But overlooked his hinds ; their pay was just 
And ready, for he scorned to go on trust : 915 

Slow to resolve, but in performance quick, 
So true that he was awkward at a trick. 
For little souls on little shifts rely 
And coward arts of mean expedients try ; 
The noble mind will dare do anything but lie. 920 

False friends (his deadliest foes) could find no way 
But shows of honest bluntness, to betray ; 
That unsuspected plainness he believed ; 
He looked into himself, and was deceived. 
Some lucky planet sure attends his birth 925 


Or Heaven would make a miracle on earth, 

For prosperous honesty is seldom seen 

To bear so dead a weight, and yet to win ; 

It looks as Fate with Nature's law would strive 

To show plain-dealing once an age may thrive ; 930 

And, when so tough a frame she could not bend, 

Exceeded her commission to befriend. 

* This grateful man, as Heaven increased his store, 
Gave God again, and daily fed his poor. 

His house with all convenience was purveyed ; 935 

The rest he found, but raised the fabric where he prayed ; 
And in that sacred place his beauteous wife 
Employed her happiest hours of holy life. 

' Nor did their alms extend to those alone 
Whom common faith more strictly made their own ; 940 
A sort of Doves were housed too near their hall, 
Who cross the proverb, and abound with gall. 
Though some, 'tis true, are passively inclined, 
The greater part degenerate from their kind ; 
Voracious birds, that hotly bill and breed, 945 

And largely drink, because on salt they feed. 
Small gain from them their bounteous owner draws, 
Yet, bound by promise, he supports their cause, 
As corporations privileged by laws. 

' That house, which harbour to their kind affords, 950 

Was built long since, God knows, for better birds ; 
But fluttering there, they nestle near the throne, 
And lodge in habitations not their own, 
By their high crops and corny gizzards known. 
Like harpies, they could scent a plenteous board ; 955 

Then, to be sure, they never failed their lord : 
The rest was form, and bare attendance paid ; 
They drunk, and eat, and grudgingly obeyed. 
The more they fed, they ravened still for more ; 
They drained from Dan, and left Beersheba poor ; 960 

All this they had by law, and none repined ; 


The preference was but due to Levi's kind : 

But when some lay -preferment fell by chance, 

The gourmands made it their inheritance. 

When once possessed, they never quit their claim, 965 

For then, 'tis sanctified to Heaven's high name ; 

And, hallowed thus, they cannot give consent 

The gifts should be profaned by worldly management. 

' Their flesh was never to the table served ; 
Though 'tis not thence inferred the birds were starved ; 970 
But that their master did not like the food, 
As rank, and breeding melancholy blood. 
Nor did it with his gracious nature suit, 
Even though they were not Doves, to persecute : 
Yet he refused (nor could they take offence) 975 

Their glutton kind should teach him abstinence. 
Nor consecrated grain their wheat he thought ; 
But left his hinds each in his private power, 
That those who like the bran might leave the flour. 
He for himself, and not for others, chose, 980 

Nor would he be imposed on, nor impose ; 
But in their faces his devotion paid. 
And sacrifice with solemn rites was made, 
And sacred incense on his altars laid. 

' Besides these jolly birds, whose crops impure 985 

Repaid their commons with their salt manure, 
Another farm he had behind his house, 
Not overstocked, but barely for his use ; 
"Wherein his poor domestic poultry fed 

And from his pious hands received their bread. 990 

Our pampered Pigeons with malignant eyes 
Beheld these inmates and their nurseries ; 
Though hard their fare, at evening and at morn, 
A cruise of water and an ear of corn, 

Yet still they grudged that modicum, and thought 995 

A sheaf in every single grain was brought. 
Fain would they filch that little food away, 


While unrestrained those happy gluttons prey. 

And much they grieved to see so nigh their hall 

The bird that warned St. Peter of his fall ; 1000 

That he should raise his mitred crest on high, 

And clap his wings and call his family 

To sacred rites ; and vex the etherial powers 

With midnight matins at uncivil hours ; 

Nay more, his quiet neighbours should molest, 1005 

Just in the sweetness of their morning rest. 

' Beast of a bird, supinely when he might 
Lie snug and sleep, to rise before the light ! 
What if his dull forefathers used that cry, 
Could he not let a bad example die ? 1010 

The world was fallen into an easier way ; 
This age knew better than to fast and pray. 
Good sense in sacred worship would appear 
So to begin as they might end the year. 
Such feats in former times had wrought the falls 1015 

Of crowing Chanticleers in cloistered walls. 
Expelled for this and for their lands, they fled, 
And Sister Partlet, with her hooded head, 
Was hooted hence, because she would not pray a-bed. 
The way to win the restiff world to God 1020 

Was to lay by the disciplining rod, 
Unnatural fasts, and foreign forms of prayer : 
Religion frights us with a mien severe. 
'Tis prudence to reform her into ease, 

And put her in undress, to make her please ; 1025 

A lively faith will bear aloft the mind 
And leave the luggage of good works behind. 

' Such doctrines in the Pigeon-house were taught ; 
You need not ask how wondrously they wrought ; 
But sure the common cry was all for these, 1030 

Whose life and precepts both encouraged ease. 
Yet fearing those alluring baits might fail, 
And holy deeds o'er all their arts prevail, 


(For vice, though frontless and of hardened face, 

Is daunted at the sight of awful grace,) 1035 

An hideous figure of their foes they drew, 

Nor lines, nor looks, nor shades, nor colours true ; 

And this grotesque design exposed to public view. 

One would have thought it an Egyptian piece, 

With garden-gods and barking deities, 1040 

More thick than Ptolemy has stuck the skies. 

All so perverse a draught, so far unlike, 

It was no libel where it meant to strike. 

Yet still the daubing pleased, and great and small 

To view the monster crowded Pigeon-hall. 1045 

There Chanticleer was drawn upon his knees, 

Adoring shrines and stocks of sainted trees ; 

And by him a misshapen ugly race ; 

The curse of God was seen on every face. 

No Holland emblem could that malice mend, 1050 

But still the worse the look the fitter for a fiend. 

' The master of the farm, displeased to find 
So much of rancour in so mild a kind, 
Inquired into the cause, and came to know 
The passive Church had struck the foremost blow ; 1055 

With groundless fears and jealousies possest, 
As if this troublesome intruding guest 
Would drive the birds of Venus from their nest : 
A deed his inborn equity abhorred ; 1059 

But Interest will not trust, though God should plight his word. 

' A law, the source of many future harms, 
Had banished all the poultry from the farms, 
With loss of life, if any should be found 
To crow or peck on this forbidden ground. 
That bloody statute chiefly was designed 1065 

For Chanticleer the white, of clergy kind ; 
But after-malice did not long forget 
The lay that wore the robe and coronet. 
For them, for their inferiors and allies, 


Their foes a deadly Shibboleth devise : 1070 

By which unrighteously it was decreed, 

That none to trust or profit should succeed, 

Who would not swallow first a poisonous wicked weed ; 

Or that to which old Socrates was curst, 

Or henbane juice to swell them till they burst. 1075 

The patron, as in reason, thought it hard 

To see this inquisition in his yard, 

By which the Sovereign was of subjects' use debarred. 

' All gentle means he tried, which might withdraw 
The effects of so unnatural a law : 1080 

But still the Dove-house obstinately stood 
Deaf to their own and to their neighbours' good ; 
And which was worse, if any worse could be, 
Repented of their boasted loyalty ; 

Now made the champions of a cruel cause, 1085 

And drunk with fumes of popular applause : 
For those whom God to ruin has designed, 
He fits for fate, and first destroys their mind. 

' New doubts indeed they daily strove to raise, 
Suggested dangers, interposed delays ; 1090 

And emissary Pigeons had in store, 
Such as the Meccan prophet used of yore, 
To whisper counsels in their patron's ear ; 
And veiled their false advice with zealous fear. 
The master smiled to see them work in vain, 1095 

To wear him out and make an idle reign : 
He saw, but suffered their protractive arts, 
And strove by mildness to reduce their hearts ; 
But they abused that grace to make allies 
And fondly closed with former enemies ; 1100 

For fools are double fools, endeavouring to be wise. 

' After a grave consult what course were best, 
One, more mature in folly than the rest, 
Stood up, and told them with his head aside, 
That desperate cures must be to desperate ills applied : 1105 


And therefore, since their main impending fear 

Was from the increasing race of Chanticleer, 

Some potent bird of prey they ought to find, 

A foe professed to him and all his kind : 

Some haggard Hawk, who had her eyry nigh, 1110 

Well pounced to fasten, and well winged to fly : 

One they might trust their common wrongs to wreak. 

The Musquet and the Coystrel were too weak ; 

Too fierce the Falcon ; but, above the rest, 

The noble Buzzard ever pleased me best : 1115 

Of small renown, 'tis true ; for, not to lie, 

We call him but a Hawk by courtesy. 

I know he haunts the Pigeon-house and farm, 

And more, in time of war has done us harm : 

But all his hate on trivial points depends ; 1120 

Give up our forms, and we shall soon be friends. 

For pigeons' flesh he seems not much to care ; 

Crammed chickens are a more delicious fare. 

On this high potentate, without delay, 

I wish you would confer the sovereign sway ; 1125 

Petition him to accept the government, 

And let a splendid embassy be sent. 

' This pithy speech prevailed ; and all agreed, 
Old enmities forgot, the Buzzard should succeed. 

1 Their welcome suit was granted soon as heard, 1130 

His lodgings furnished, and a train prepared, 
With B's upon their breast, appointed for his guard. 
He came, and crowned with great solemnity, 
God save king Buzzard ! was the general cry. 

'A portly prince, arid goodly to the sight, 1135 

He seemed a son of Anak for his height : 
Like those whom stature did to crowns prefer ; 
Black-browed and bluff, like Homer's Jupiter ; 
Broad-backed and brawny built for love's delight, 
A prophet formed to make a female proselyte. 1140 

A theologue more by need than genial bent ; 


By breeding sharp, by nature confident, 

Interest in all his actions was discerned ; 

More learned than honest, more a wit than learned ; 

Or forced by fear or by his profit led, 1145 

Or both conjoined, his native clime he fled : 

But brought the virtues of his heaven along ; 

A fair behaviour, and a fluent tongue. 

And yet with all his arts he could not thrive, 

The most unlucky parasite alive ; 1150 

Loud praises to prepare his paths he sent, 

And then himself pursued his compliment ; 

But by reverse of fortune chased away, 

His gifts no longer than their author stay ; 

He shakes the dust against the ungrateful race. 1155 

Oft has he flattered and blasphemed the same, 

For in his rage he spares no sovereign's name : 

The hero and the tyrant change their style 

By the same measure that they frown or smile. 

When well received by hospitable foes, 1160 

The kindness he returns is to expose ; 

For courtesies, though undeserved and great, 

No gratitude in felon-minds beget ; 

As tribute to his wit the churl receives the treat. 

His praise of foes is venomously nice ; 1165 

So touched, it turns a virtue to a vice : 

A Greek, and bountiful, forewarns us tun.ce. 

Seven sacraments he wisely does disown, 

Because he knows Confession stands for one ; 

Where sins to sacred silence are conveyed, 1170 

And not for fear or love to be betrayed : 

But he, uncalled, his patron to control, 

Divulged the secret whispers of his soul ; 

Stood forth the accusing Satan of his crimes, 

And offered to the Moloch of the times. 1175 

Prompt to assail, and careless of defence, 

Invulnerable in his impudence, 


He dares the world and, eager of a name, 

He thrusts about and justles into fame. 

Frontless and satire-proof, he scours the streets, 1180 

And runs an Indian muck at all he meets. 

So fond of loud report, that not to miss 

Of being known (his last and utmost bliss,) 

He rather would be known for what he is. 

' Such was and is the Captain of the Test, J 1185 

Though half his virtues are not here exprest ; 
The modesty of fame conceals the rest. 
The spleenful Pigeons never could create 
A prince more proper to revenge their hate ; 
Indeed, more proper to revenge than save ; 1190 

A king whom in His wrath the Almighty gave : 
For all the grace the landlord had allowed 
But made the Buzzard and the Pigeons proud, 
Gave time to fix their friends and to seduce the crowd. 
They long their fellow-subjects to enthral, 1195 

Their patron's promise into question call, 
And vainly think he meant to make them lords of all. 

' False fears their leaders failed not to suggest, 
As if the Doves were to be dispossest ; 

Nor sighs nor groans nor goggling eyes did want, 1200 

For now the Pigeons too had learned to cant. 
The house of prayer is stocked with large increase, 
Nor doors nor windows can contain the press : 
For birds of every feather fill the abode ; 
Even Atheists out of envy own a God. 1205 

That Conscience, which to all their crimes was mute, 
Now calls aloud and cries to persecute : 
No rigour of the laws to be released, 
And much the less, because it was their Lord's request : 
They thought it great their Sovereign to control, 1210 

And named their pride nobility of soul. 

"Tis true, the Pigeons and their prince elect 
Were short of power their purpose to effect : 


But with their quills did all the hurt they could 

And cuffed the tender chickens from their food : 1215 

And much the Buzzard in their cause did stir, 

Though naming not the patron, to infer, 

With all respect, he was a gross idolater. 

' But when the imperial owner did espy 

That thus they turned his grace to villany, 1220 

Not suffering wrath to discompose his mind, 
He strove a temper for the extremes to find, 
So to be just as he might still be kind : 
Then, all maturely weighed, pronounced a doom 
Of sacred strength for every age to come. 1225 

By this the Doves their wealth and state possess, 
No rights infringed, but licence to oppress : 
Such power have they as factious lawyers long 
To crowns ascribed, that kings can do no wrong. 
But since his own domestic birds have tried 1230 

The dire effects of their destructive pride, 
He deems that proof a measure to the rest, 
Concluding well within his kingly breast 
His fowl of nature too unjustly were oppressed. 
He therefore makes all birds of every sect 1235 

Free of his farm, with promise to respect 
Their several kinds alike, and equally protect. 
His gracious edict the same franchise yields 
To all the wild increase of woods and fields, 
And who in rocks aloof, and who in steeples builds ; 1240 
To Crows the like impartial grace affords, 
And Choughs and Daws, and such republic birds ; 
Secured with ample privilege to feed, 
Each has his district and his bounds decreed : 
Combined in common interest with his own, 1245 

But not to pass the Pigeons' Rubicon. 

' Here ends the reign of this pretended Dove, 
All prophecies accomplished from above ; 
For Shiloh comes the sceptre to remove. 


Eeduced from her imperial high abode, 1250 

Like Dionysius to a private rod, 

The passive Church, that with pretended grace 

Did her distinctive mark in duty place, 

Now touched, reviles her Maker to his face. 

' What after happened is not hard to guess ; 1255 

The small beginnings had a large increase, 
And arts and wealth succeed, the secret spoils of peace. 
'Tis said the Doves repented, though too late, 
Become the smiths of their own foolish fate : 
Nor did their owner hasten their ill hour, 1260 

But, sunk in credit, they decreased in power : 
Like snows in warmth that mildly pass away, 
Dissolving in the silence of decay. 

' The Buzzard, not content with equal place, 
Invites the feathered Nimrods of his race, 1265 

To hide the thinness of their flock from sight, 
And all together make a seeming goodly flight : 
But each have separate interests of their own ; 
Two Czars are one too many for a throne. 
Nor can the usurper long abstain from food ; 1270 

Already he has tasted Pigeon's blood, 
And may be tempted to his former fare, 
When this indulgent lord shall late to Heaven repair. 
Bare benting times and moulting months may come, 
When lagging late they cannot reach their home*; 1275 

Or rent in schism (for so their fate decrees) 
Like the tumultuous College of the Bees, 
They fight their quarrel, by themselves opprest ; 
The tyrant smiles below, and waits the falling feast. 3 

Thus did the gentle Hind her fable end, 1280 

Nor would the Panther blame it nor commend ; 
But, with affected yawnings at the close, 
Seemed to require her natural repose ; 
For now the streaky light began to peep, 
And setting stars admonished both to sleep. 1285 


The dame withdrew, and wishing to her guest 
The peace of Heaven, betook her self to rest. 
Ten thousand angels on her slumbers wait 
With glorious visions of her future state. 



I. The Hind represents the Roman Catholic Church, and the 
three epithets are used to imply its purity, permanence, and 
immutability in contrast with the Church of England and the 

3. unspotted, in implied contrast with the Panther. 

6. Scythian, a literary epithet, the Scythica sagitta of Ovid, 
Met. x. 588, etc. 

wounds, by metonymy for 'darts,' in imitation of Virgil, 
A en. ii. 529, infesto volnere, etc. 

8. This line is criticised by Montague and Prior in their 
burlesque, "The Hind and the Panther trans vers'd to the story 
of the Country and the City Mouse," where Johnson asks, " How 
was she doom'd to death, if she was fated not to dye ; are not 
doom and fate much the same thing ? " and when Bayes 
(Dryden's nickname, borrowed from Buckingham's Rehearsal), 
answers that "doom'd and fated are quite different things," 
Smith retorts, "Faith, Mr. Bayes, if you were doom'd to be 
hang'd, whatever you were fated to, 'twould give you but small 
comfort." Scott, however, shows that Dryden is right, doom 
meaning merely a sentence, without implying its execution. 
"The doom, or sentence, of an earthly tribunal is placed in 
opposition to the decree of Providence." 

9. her young, according to the parody, means the "priests, 
martyrs, and confessors, that were hanged in Gates' plot." 

10. hero, in the classical sense of demigod. So Horace (Odes, 
I. xii. 1) makes heroa the middle term between virum and deum. 

II. obnoxious, a Latinism, from obnoxius, liable to. 

14. Caledonian wood, the Caledonia silva of Pliny and Florus, 
used generally for Britain. 

15. vocal blood, taken from Gen. iv. 10, " The voice of thy 
brother's blood crieth unto me from the ground." 

16. pardon, by irapa irpoadoriav, for vengeance. 


P.UIES 9-10] NOTES. 83 

17. sanguine seed alludes, according to Montague and Prior, 
to the Latin saying, Sanguis martyrum semen ecclesiae. 

19. captive Israel, from Ex. i. 7, "And the children of Israel 
were fruitful, and increased abundantly, and multiplied, and 
waxed exceeding mighty. " 

27. The common hunt, perhaps the Protestant mob, which 
used to ' rabble ' the Roman Catholics. 

28. sovereign power, i.e. of James II. 

34. Imitat3d by Pope, Essay on Man, ii. 217 : 

" Vice is a monster of so frightful mien, 
As, to be hated, needs but to be seen/' 

35. The Bear represents the Independents, called unlicked to 
form because, according to Hume (quoted by Scott), they 

"rejected all ecclesiastical establishments, and would admit of 
no spiritual courts, no government among pastors, no inter- 
position of the magistrate in religious concerns, no fixed encour- 
agement annexed to any system of doctrines or opinions." 
Compare Green, Short History, p. 559. 

37. the quaking Hare represents the Quakers, who refused to 
bear arms or take oaths. 

39. the buffoon Ape, the Freethinkers. 

41. the Lion, James II. The language is based upon II Kings, 
v: 18, and is thought to have some personal reference, perhaps to 
Sunderland. In the parody Dryden is made to say, "That 
gauls somewhere ; I gad, I can't leave it off, tho' I were cudgel'd 
every day for it." 

43. The baptist Boar, the Anabaptists. 

44. the foam of sanctity refers to the Anabaptist dogma that 
every true believer attains in this life perfect freedom from sin. 

45. fat pollutions, the excesses perpetrated by Boccoldt (John 
of Ley den), Matthias, and the other leaders of the Anabaptists, 
when, in 1532, they seized and occupied Minister, which they 

Called Mount Zion (" the sacred place "). 

. German forests. The sect of the Anabaptists arose in 
rmany and the Low Countries about the year 1521. 

. borrowed name. To avoid persecution the remains of the 
tists after their dispersion were said to have assumed the 
of various sects, such as the Mennonites, the Water- 
, the Baptists ("sects unseen"), with whom they had 
landia'^ common but the doctrine of adult baptism, 
little ii-^se Reynard, the Arians. Cf. Spenser's Mother Hubberds 

53. Fain 
Tale, 883. 



,#3. consecrated spoil, the divinity of Christ. Arius (died A.D. 
336) denied that the Son was 6/xoowrios, of the same substance, 
with the Father. 

54. Athanasius (A.D. 296-373), bishop of Alexandria, the most 
influential opponent of Arianism at the Council of Nice (Nicaea), 
A.D. 325. 

55. Socinus. Laelius Socinus of Sienna (1525-1562) and his 
nephew Faustus (1541-1604) developed Arianism into Unitarian- 
ism, teaching the worship of one God, without distinction of 

58. Johnson's criticism on this line is : " His vanity now and 
then betrays his ignorance : he had heard of reversing a tele- 
scope, and unluckily reverses the object." 7vM ^\M<AA<vvUU - ^\*fV 

70. her, i.e. the Church. 

71. St. Matthew, xxviii. 20. 

73. Compare the opening of Religio Laid, where reason is 
compared to the " borrowed beams of moon and stars," which are 
called "rolling fires" and "nightly tapers," in contrast with the 
sun, religion. 

79-92. Dryden argues that Protestants are inconsistent in 
subjecting reason to faith in the doctrines of the Trinity, the 
Incarnation, and the Crucifixion, and yet rejecting the doctrine 
of Transubstantiation because it is repugnant to sense an 
inferior faculty to reason. 

93-105. The Protestants, Dryden says, repudiate the doctrine 
of the Real Presence, on the ground that it violates a law of 
nature, viz. that the same body cannot be in two places at once. 
But this is applying natural laws to a spiritual body, which they 
allow, in the case of Christ's appearance to the disciples, violated 
another law of nature, viz. that two bodies cannot occupy the 
same space at the same time. 

95. penetrating parts, i.e. occupying the same space at th 
same time as another body. "Things are penetrable when tw 
or more can exist in the same space, as two angels ; impenetrable, 
when not, as two stones" (Fleming, Vocab. Phil.). Impenetra^ 
bility in this sense is one of the primary qualities of matter. ' 

96-99. St. John, xx. 19 and 26. & 

103. One of the Protestant arguments against Transubstar^- 
tion was that, as the Host was consecrated in various placf itia- 
the same time, in each of which the body of Christ was pr^^s at 
it made the same body be in two places at once. " isent, 

106-127. The Protestants argued that, as faith in t^ 
instance was produced by miracles, which appealed to th/ le first 
the senses must always be the criteria of credibility. T e senses, 

j.n answer 


11-14] NOTES. 85 

to this Dryden says that miracles were not an end in themselves, 
but a means to an end, viz. the proof of the divinity of Christ. 
When this was attained, appeals to sense became unnecessary, 
and the question was raised to a higher level, viz. faith. The 
divinity of Christ having been proved by the evidence of the 
senses must now be assumed as one of the premises for further 

118. God thus asserted, the divinity of Christ being thus 
proved, i.e. by appeals to the senses. 

127. another hand, viz. faith. 

128. Inlander, from Dutch bijlander (bij, by, and land, land), 
a two-masted merchant-vessel, used in Holland for coast and 
canal traffic (Murray, The New Eng. Diet. ). 

135. to be our food, i.e. in the Eucharist. 

139. his clearest words, " This is my body" (St. Matt. xxvi. 26, 
etc. ). 

150. Dryden here reverts to the Socinians after his digression 
on the controversy between Roman Catholics and Protestants as 
to the Real Presence in the Eucharist. 

152. Polonian plains. " (Socinianism) was adopted by the 
Protestants of Poland and Hungary, especially those who were 
about this time in arms under Count Teckeli against the Em- 
peror " (Scott). 

153. the insatiate Wolf, the Presbyterians. 
159. muzzled, i.e. by the Test Act. 

163. His ragged tail refers to the Geneva cloak of the Presby- 
terian clergy. 

164. his rough crest, the black skull-cap. 

165. predestinating ears. Cf. Scott's Legend of Montrose, 
ch. xi., "They were followed by a Presbyterian clergyman, in 
his Geneva cloak, and wearing a black silk skull-cap, covering 
his short hair so closely that it could scarcely be seen at all, so 
that the unrestricted ears had an undue predominance in the 
general aspect." 

166. haggered, originally hagged, hag-like, confused with 
hagard, a wild hawk (living in the hag, hedge). Bailey's 
Dictionary (1733) gives "Nagger, lean, thin." 

169. As captain, during the Civil War ; as companion, during 
the Commonwealth (Green, p. 560 seq., and p. 590). 

171. For tribute paid. William of Malmesbury tells us that 
Edgar, in 963, Judvalo regi Walensium edictum imposuerit ut sibi 
quotannis tributum trecentorum luporum pensitaret, quod cume 
tribus annis fecisset, quarto destitit, nullum se ulterius posse invenire 


171. Cambria, Wales. 

173. Geneva, where Calvin lived and taught from 1536 till his 
death in 1564. 

France. From Geneva Calvinism spread first into France. 

176. Wickliff's brood. Wyclif's views generally "appear to 
have resembled those of Calvin more nearly than those of any 
other great leader of the Reformation of the sixteenth century." 

177. antipathy to kings. jWyclif was charged with com- 
plicity in the insurrection of the peasants under Wat Tyler, in 
1381 (Green, p. 240). 

179. Sanhedrim, St. Matt, xxvii. 1. 

180. higher, i.e. in time, earlier. 

181. Corah, Numb. xvi. 

183. devest, so spelt in Bailey's Diet. (1733). 

185. class, an ecclesiastical term "in the Reformed American, 
Dutch, and French Churches, a judicatory corresponding to a 
presbytery " (Imp. Diet). 

189. a common species. According to the Linnaean classifica- 
tion, wolves and foxes are comprehended under the genus Ganis. 

198. mitred crown. " The citizens of Geneva, before they 
adopted the reformed religion, were under the temporal as well 
as the ecclesiastical authority of a bishop. But in 1528, when 
they followed the example of the city of Berne in destroying 
images and abolishing the Roman ceremonies, the bishop and his 
clergy were expelled from the city " (Scott). 

201. a puddle, the lake of Geneva, a wall, the Alps. 

203. the North Ocean, i.e. the North Sea, between " fenny 
Holland " and " fruitful Tweed." 

204. Montague and Prior satirize this couplet : " Now to write 
something new and out of the way, to elevate and surprize, and 
all that, I fetch, you see, this quickning fire from the bottom of 
boggs and rivers." So also Scott questions "whether fenny 
Holland and fruitful Tweed, in other words, a marsh and a 
river, could form a favourable medium for communicating the 
influence of the quickening fire beloiv." But surely the effect of 
subterranean heat on marshy ground would be to force vegeta- 
tion and foster animal life. ^^_ o Vo_Ar-W 

207. This line has been used before by Dry den in Absalom 
and Achitophel, 227, where Christie quotes the following couplet 
from Lachrqmae Musarum, a collection f)f verses on the death of 
Lord Hastings, in 1649, to which Dryden contributed his first 
known poem : 

" It is decreed we' must be drained, I see, 
Down to the dregs of a democracy." 

14^16] NOTES. 87 

The origin of the phrase maybe Lucretius, v. 1141, Res itaque 
ad summam faecem turbasque redibat. 

208. fairy rounds. Cf. Shak. Tempest, v. i. 36 : 

" You demi-puppets that 

By moonshine do the green sour ringlets make, 
Whereof the ewe not bites." 

217. fulsome. Bailey's Diet. (1733) gives " Fulsom, nasty, 
noisom, distastful, loathsom, luscious." 

refuse to bite. Cf. note on 208. 

218. Cf. Lyly, Euphues (ed. Arber, p. 61), "The dog eateth 
grasse and findeth remedy." 

224. teemless, from A.S. team, child-bearing, progeny, race. 

227. Indian shades, perhaps with reference to the fabulous 
properties of the upas tree. 

228. Colchos. Medea, famous for her magic powers, was 
daughter of Aeetes, King of Colchis or Colchos. 

231. Celtic "woods, i.e. France, with reference to the revocation 
of the Edict of Nantes by Louis XIV. in 1685 (Green, p. 667). 

233, 234. The partial toleration granted in Scotland, Feb. 
1687 (Macaulay, pop. ed., i. 429). 

240. of nature. This point is proved in the next forty lines, 
which show that it is a law of nature that animals should per- 
secute other animals, but contrary to nature that man should 
persecute man, and trace the development of persecution for 
difference of religious opinions from its first example in Cain. 

247. informing, in the metaphysical sense of animating, giving 
life to. Cf. Pope, Essay on Man, i. 275, "Informs our mortal 

fire. Cf. Hor. Sat. n. ii. , 79, divinae particulam aurae ; 
Virg. Aen. vi. 747, aurai simplicis ignem. 

249. Smith Divine, the Platonic S-rj/juovpybs. " The Demiurgus 
of Plato is not conceived as a Creator, but as a Constructor or 
Artist " (Grote, Plato, iv. 220). This account of the creation of 
man seems imitated from Sylvester's Du Bartas, Divine Weekes 
and Workes, (The Sixt Day of the First Week). 

258. prerogative. Cowell, Interpreter (1637), defines the pre- 
rogative of the king as " that especiall power, preeminence, or 
priviledge that the King hath in any kinde over and above 
other persons, and above the ordinarie course of the common 
law, in the right of his crown." Dryden dexterously identifies 
the exercise of the prerogative in favour of Eoman Catholics with 

267. coronation day, "which is usually distinguished by an 
act of grace or general pardon " (Scott). 


276. Genesis, iv. 10. 

279. Genesis, x. 9. 

280. Pan, Jesus Christ. So also Milton, Hymn on the Morning 
of Christ's Nativity, 88, "Full little thought they then, That the 
mighty Pan Was kindly come to live with them below." The 
origin of this identification is to be found in the tradition related 
by Plutarch, that at the time of the crucifixion a loud cry was 
heard across the sea by certain sailors, " Great Pan is dead ! " 
and the oracles ceased. Cf. E. B. Browning, The Dead Pan. 

285. British Lion, James II. 

286. foes, the Scottish Presbyterians, to whom James had 
granted partial toleration on the 12th of February, 1687. Cf. 
Macaulay (pop. ed.), vol. i., p. 429. 

290. native, in point. Cf. 233 and 293. 

295. unharmful, i.e. so long as they are. 

296. i.e. by the new Test Act, which enfranchised the Scotch 
Catholics, but imposed vexatious disabilities on the Presby- 
terians, who might worship only in private dwellings. Cf. 
Macaulay (pop. ed. ), i. 429. 

305. Adam, Genesis, ii. 19. 

309. In fields, etc. ' ' The dregs of the fanaticism of the last 
age fermented during that of Charles II. into various sects of 
sullen enthusiasts, who distinguished themselves by the different 
names of Brownists, Families of Love, etc. In many cases they 
rejected all the usual aids of devotion, and, holding their meet- 
ings in the open air and in solitary spots, nursed their fanaticism 
by separating themselves from the more rational part of man- 
kind " (Scott). 

315. divisible, " material ; divisibility being a criterion of 
matter" (Christie). 

316. allay, a common spelling for alloy. Bailey (vol. ii. , 1731) 
gives "Allay, the tempering and mixture of other metals with 
gold and silver." It is derived from the Old French a lai, Lat. 
ad legem, "according to rule," and has no etymological connection 
with the ordinary word allay = to assuage. 

317. shards, probably, as Christie, = dung. Halliwell (Diction- 
ary of Archaic and Provincial Words') gives shard as a northern 
word meaning " cow dung," quoting from Elyot (1559), "Sharde 
and dunge." The cockchafer, he says, is called a sham-bug in 
Sussex, sharn also meaning cow-dung. Add Lyly, Euphues and 
his England (ed. Arber, p. 240), "The Fly that shunneth the 
Rose, to light in a cowshard." Others take shards to mean the 
hard wing-case of the beetle, from A.S. sceard, a fragment of 
pottery, though it is difficult to see how in this case they could 

16-19] NOTES. 89 

be said to "produce" souls. The same uncertainty of inter- 
pretation hangs over the phrase "shard-borne beetle" in 
Macbeth, m. ii. 42, which some commentators explain as = born 
in dung. 

322. "In Scotland, large conventicles were held in the moun- 
tains and morasses by the fiercest of the Covenanters, whom 
persecution had driven frantic. These men, known now by the 
name of Cameronians, considered popery and prelacy as synony- 
mous terms ; and even stigmatised as Erastians and self-seekers 
the more moderate Presbyterians who were contented to exercise 
their religion as tolerated by the Government" (Scott). Cf. 
David Deans in the Heart of Midlothian, ch. xlii. 

Panther, the Church of England. " Hieroglyphically, is 
put to represent hypocrisy and deceit" (Bailey, Diet.). 
338. spirits of a middle sort. Cf. Milton, P.L. iii. 460 : 
"Those argent fields more likely habitants, 
Translated Saints, or middle Spirits, hold, 
Betwixt the angelical and human kind;" 

Burton, Anatomy of Melancholy, pt. i., sec. 2, mem. 1, subs. 2, 
" Some will have his [the devil's] proper place the air ; all that 
space between us and the moon for them that transgressed 
least." Addison, Spect. No. 183, " The middle station of Nature 
. . . was inhabited by Creatures of a middle kind, neither so 
Virtuous as the one, nor so Vicious as the other." Cf. Piers 
Plowman, i. 123, with Skeat's note. 

340. half-way down. Scott quotes from Dry den's King 
Arthur : 

"An airy shape, the tenderest of my kind, 
The least seduced, and least deformed, of hell, 
Half-white, and snuffled in the crowd, I fell, 
Desirous to repent and loath to sin ; 
Awkward in mischief, piteous of mankind. 
My name is Philidel, my lot in air, 
Where, next beneath the moon and nearest heaven, 
I soar, and have a glimpse to be received." 
345. It was about a century and a half from the Act of 
Supremacy (1534) by which Henry VIII. was declared "the 
only supreme head on earth of the Church of England," and the 
publication of The Hind and the Panther (1687). 

354. luxury, in the Elizabethan sense of sensuality, licentious-" 

incontinence refers to the dissolution of the monasteries 
in 1536. "It was acknowledged that about a third of the 
religious houses were fairly and decently conducted. The rest 
were charged with drunkenness, with simony, and with the 
foulest and most revolting crimes " (Green, p. 339). 


360. battered out, worn out. The Promptorium Parvulorum 
(1440) has "HATYR, rent clothe. Scrutum, pannueia." Nares 
quotes " battering bullets " from Taylor's Works (1630). Jamie- 
son quotes from Gawan and Gologras (about 1450), ' ' Helmys of 
hard steill thai hatterit and heuch." 

368. In the Koran virtuous and pious Moslems are to be 
rewarded after death with everlasting happiness in a paradise of 
heavenly virgins, shady groves, clear streams, and delicious 

369. jolly Luther, called "that lean, mortified apostle," in 
Dryden's Defence of the Duchess of Yortts Papers. 

373. Luther was more "than half-way gone " when he married 
Catherine de Bora in 1525, being then 42. He died in 1546. 

376. Bacchanals, i.e. Bacchanalia. Bailey gives "Bacchanals, 
the Drunken Feasts or Revels of Bacchus the God of Wine." 

377. presumed of, in imitation of the French idiom pre"sumer 

380. herds, herdsmen; A.S. hierde, shepherd. Cf. Chaucer, 
C.T., A, 603: "Ther nas baillif, ne herde, ne other hyne." It 
survives in the compounds cow-herd, neat-herd. 

381. these, i.e. the Nonconformists. 
her head, i.e. from Pope to King. 

384. of, i.e. consisting of. 

387. phylacteries, perhaps with accent on penult in accordance 
with the quantity in Greek. 

389. stigmatised, in its literal sense, as Bailey, "to brand or 
mark with a hot Iron." 

390. creature of a double kind refers to the Minotaur, " a 
double-formed monster, having partly the shape of a man and 
partly that of a bull ... kept by Minos in the labyrinth of Crete" 

393. despised, a good instance of Dryden's irapa Trpo<r8oidai> 
sarcasms. We should have expected " admired." 

399. " The Lutherans adopt the doctrine of consubstantiation ; . 
that is to say, they believe that, though the elements are not 
changed into the body and blood of Christ by consecration, which 
is the Roman faith, yet the participants, at the moment of com- 
municating, do actually receive the real body and blood. The 
Calvinists utterly deny the real presence in the Eucharist, and 
affirm that the words of Christ were only symbolical. The 
Church of England announces a doctrine somewhat between 
these" (Scott). 

405. novices, i.e. catechists. 

19-21] NOTES. 91 

406. In the Catechism of the Church of England we are taught 
(1) that there are two parts in a Sacrament " the outward visible 
sign and the inward spiritual grace " ; (2) that bread and wine 
are " the outward part or sign of the Lord's Supper." 

408. "Question. What is the inward part or thing signified ? 
Answer. The Body and Blood of Christ, which are verily and 
indeed taken and received by the faithful in the Lord's Supper " 
(Catechism of the Church of England). 

^ 418. Cf. Epistle of St. James, i. 6, "For he that wavereth is 
like a wave of the sea driven with the wind and tossed." 

420. "Thus gratitude, hope, fear, common attachments, common 
enmities, bound her [the Church of England] to the throne. 
All her traditions, all her tastes, were monarchical. Loyalty 
became a point of professional honour among her clergy, the 
peculiar badge which distinguished them at once from Calvinists 
and from Papists " (Macaulay, ch. i. ). 

424. tax, reproach. Cf. Wordsworth, Sonnet, xxxix., " Tax not 
the royal saint with vain expense." 

425. " The interest of the Church had been deeply interwoven 
with that of the Crown ; their struggle, sufferings, and fall 

seemed impossible that anything should cut asunder the ties 
which combined them " (Scott). 

435. With reference to the fable of the wind and the sun 
trying their strength upon the traveller. 

437. Isgrim is the name of the the wolf in Caxton's transla- 
tion of the History of Reynard the Fox, a reprint of which may 
be found in Arber's " English Scholar's Library. " Montague and 
Prior ridicule this reference : "Smith. I have heard you quote 
Reynard the Fox. Bayes. Why, there's it now; take it 
from me, Mr. Smith, there is as good morality and as sound 
precepts in the delicate History of Reynard the Fox as in any 
book I know, except Seneca. Pray, tell me where in any other 
author could I have found so pretty a name for a wolf as 
Isgrim ? " 

439. the true, i.e. the Church of Rome. 

448. Scott quotes from a contemporary pamphlet, advocating 
union between the Churches of England and Rome, a similar 
argument : "If I [the Church of England] tell the Church of 
Rome I did not forsake her but her errors, which I reformed, my 
rebellious subjects tell me the same, and that they must make a 
thorough reformation ; and, let me bring what arguments I please 
to justify my dissent, they still produce the same against me." 


>ry den's argument is, " The English divines halt between 
twtTopinions ; they will not allow the weight of tradition when 
they dispute with the Church of Rome, but refer to the Scripture, 
interpreted by each man's private opinion, as the sole rule of 
faith ; while, 011 the other hand, they are obliged to have 
recourse to tradition in their disputes with the Presbyterians 
and dissenters, because without its aid they could not vindi- 
cate from Scripture alone their hierarchy and Church govern- 
ment " (Scott). 

462. bills. One meaning of bill, given by Cowell, Interpreter 
(1687), is "a declaration in writing that expresseth some fault 
that the partie complained of hath committed against some law 
or statute of the Commonwealth." 

I-63,^The pamphlet quoted above (448) uses the same argument ; 
<f Tf, on the other hand, I plead against the Puritan dissenter, 
and show that he ought to stand to Church authority where he is 
not infallibly certain it commands a sin, the Papist presently 
catches at it, and tells me I destroy my own grounds of reforma- 
tion, unless I will pretend to that infallibility which I condemn 
in them." 

482. //. Corinthians, v. 1. 

483. St. Matthew, xvi. 18. 

484. patent. Cowell defines letters patents as "Writings 
sealed with the broad Scale of England, whereby a man is 
authorized to doe or enjoy any thing that otherwise of himselfe 
he could not." 

494. rising tides, i.e. control, as the mo^-, the rising tide of 
Nonconformist revolt. 

504. couchees (from Fr. couche'e), an evening reception, as 
opposed to levee, a morning one. Burnet has, " The duke's 
levees and couche'es were so crowded that the antechambers were 
full"(/mj9. Diet.). 

511. the neighbouring flood seems to typify civil and political 
rights and privileges from which the Test Act debarred all 
dissidents (Green, p 641). 

514. drinking first, i.e. claiming precedence as the Established 

519. " The principle laid down by the judges asserted the 
right of the King to dispense with penal laws according to his 
own judgment, and it was applied by James with a reckless 
impatience of all decency and self-restraint. Catholics were 
admitted into civil and military offices without stint, and four 
Catholic peers were sworn as members of the Privy Council " 
(Green, p. 667). 

22-25] NOTES. 93 

525. ten-horned monster (Rev. xiii. 1), supposed by Pro- 
testants to represent the Church of Rome. 

529. Their guide in faith, with reference to their attitude to 
the doctrine of the Real Presence. 

531. Ridiculed by Montague and Prior as not in keeping with 
" the majestic turn of heroic poesy," which Dryden claims for the 
first part in the Preface. 

540. Dryden here reverses the old superstition that if a man 
met a wolf without catching its eye first he was struck dumb. 
Cf. Virgil, Ed. ix. 53, vox quoque Moerim iam fugit ipsa ; lupi 
Moerim videre priores ; Theocritus, xiv. 22, ov (pdey^rj ; \VKOV 
eI5es. In Plato, Rep. i. 336, D, Socrates says of Thrasymachus, 
Kai fjioc SOKU, el fj.7) irpbrepos ewpaK-rj avrbv % eKewos ^, A^uvos &v 
yevtvdai ; Ben Jonson, Every Man out of his Humour, v. 7, 
"Why, how now, Signior Deliro ! has the wolf seen you, ha?" 
Brand, Popular Antiquities, iii. 381. 

545. wait her. Bailey gives, " To wait, to stay for, to attend 
upon. " 

551. the Plot, Green, p. 649. 

560. The lady of the spotted muff. "Smith. I did not hear 
she had a spotted muff" before. Bayes. Why, no more she has 
not now : but she has a skin that might make a spotted muff. 
There's a pretty figure now, unknown to the ancients " ( The 
Hind and the Panther Transversed). 


2. Philistines, with accent on the first syllable. The reference 
is to the persecution of the Roman Catholics at the time of the 
Popish Plot (Green, p. 649). 

5. sagacious power, a Latinism in imitation of Virgil's odora 
canum vis (Aen. iv. 132), ' sagacious ' meaning keen-scented 

7. the younger Lion, James II., then Duke of York (Green, 
pp. 656, 657). 

8. calves. One meaning of calf given by Bailey is "a male 
Hart or Hind of the first year." Cf. Job, xxxix. 1, "When the 
hinds do calve " ; Ps. xxix. 9. 

9. " Plunket, the titular primate of Ireland, Whitebread, pro- 
vincial of the Jesuits, and several other Roman Catholic priests 
suffered for the alleged plot " (Scott). 

16. saving reverence, the Latin salvd reverentid, an apologetic 
phrase for an irreverent expression. Cf. Shak. Cymb. iv. i. 5, 
" Saving reverence of the word." 


21. quarry means 'game,' as contrasted with vermin, wild 
animals that are not regarded as 'game.' It was originally a 
hunting term = ' ' a Reward given Hounds after they have taken 
the Game" (Bailey). Cotgrave (1673) gives: " Curte, a dog's 
reward ; the hounds' fees of, or part in, the game they have 

23. cry, a pack of hounds. Cf. Shak. Cor. in. iii. 120, "You 
common cry of curs!" Milt. P.L. ii. 654, "A cry of Hell- 
hounds never ceasing barked." 

24. "The country party, during 1679 and the succeeding 
years, were as much incensed against the divines of the High 
Church of England as against the Papists " (Scott). 

28. tne main question, the doctrine of Transubstantiation. 

29. Dumb, because declining to give authoritative utterances 
on disputed points, and referring controversies to the " dumb 
rule " of Scripture (1. 203). 

30. The Test, the Test Act, " which required from every one 
in the civil and military employment of the State the oaths of 
allegiance and supremacy, a declaration against transubstantiation, 
and a reception of the sacrament according to the rites of the 
Church of England " (Green, p. 641). 

34. salvo, "an Exception, a come off "(Bailey). Addison has 
"any private salvoes or evasions" (Imp. Diet.). 

49. Phaedrus, i. iv. 6, Et quern tenebat ore, dimisit cibum, Nee, 
quern petebat, potuit adeo attingere. 

63. cannon, with play upon canon (" that common principle "), 
with which it is etymologically identical. 

67. subterranean Rome, "'Roma Sotteranea,' an extensive 
cavern near Rome, formerly inhabited, described in a work of 
that name published at Rome, circa 1632. Evelyn describes his 
visit to this cavern in his Diary, April 11, 1645" (Christie). 

69. Loosely expressed for " conclude that it is nothing, because 
that which has no place is nothing." 

75. "There was a dispute among naturalists whether sight 
was accomplished per emissionem vel per receptionem specierum " 
(Scott). In the Theaetetus of Plato sight is explained to be pro- 
duced by the meeting of two motions, one passing from the eye, 
the other from the object. 

79. " Dolus versatur in generalibus was an axiom of the 
schools " (Scott). 

81. Dryden refers to four theories of the locus of infallibility: 
(1) Pope, (2) General Council, (3) Pope and General Council 
together, (4) Pope, General Council, and Church. The first 
two he rejects as too narrow, the last as too wide, and accepts 
the third as the via media. 

25-30] NOTES. 95 



B2. Both lawful, both combined, i.e. both are lawful exponents 
of Vinfallibility when both are combined. "Dryden does not 
plead the cause of infallibility so high as to declare it lodged in 
the Pope alone ; but inclines to the milder and more moderate 
opinion which vests it in the Church and Pope jointly. This was 
the shape in which the doctrine was stated in the pamphlets 
generally dispersed from the King's printing press about this 
time " (Scott). 

113. philosophic stone, the philosopher's stone of the alchemists, 
which was thought to have the power of transmuting the inferior 
metals into gold. 

120. Jehu, //. Kings, ix. 20. 

126. circle, " in Logick, the fault of an argument that supposes 
the principle it should prove, and afterwards proves the principle 
by the thing it seem'd to have proved " (Bailey's Diet.). 

132. According to the Koran, Adam, Noah, Abraham. Moses, 
and Christ were true prophets of God, but Mohammed is the 
last and by far the most illustrious apostle ; and " as the Scrip- 
ture and Gospels have been altered by superstitious Jews and 
idolatrous Christians, the Koran must be revered as the only 
genuine revelation by which former religions are corroborated 
and verified." 

142. According to Luther's doctrine of consubstantiation, the 
bread and wine after consecration are not transformed into but 
accompanied by the body and blood of Christ. "In transub- 
stantiation the divine body and blood is present without the 
bread and wine ; and in consubstantiation it is present with the 
bread and wine : the former effects a change of nature, the latter 
a change of circumstance. " 

156. Nicene Council, cf. Part i., 1. 54. 

161. Scott refers to Lucan's description of the Civil War, 
Pharsalia, i. 7, infestisque obvia signis signa, pares aquilas, et 
ptia minantia pilis. 

piles, Anglicised from the Latin pilum in Lucan. Halliwell 
quotes "pierced with piles" from Howard's British Prince* 
(1669). Chapman has " steele pile." 

169-171. The emphatic words &re first, sure, and apostolic. 

169. first Councils, i.e. Nice (325) ; Constantinople (381) ; 
Ephesus (431) ; Chalcedon (451). 

179. there, i.e. in Scripture (1. 173). 

181. The Council, cf. 1. 156. 

209. St. Matthew, xxiii. 2. 


215. This proverb occurs as early as Ralph Roister Doister 
(1553), Act v., Sc. 1, 1. 13, "Ah sirra, nowe I see truthe in the 
prouerbe olde, All things that shineth is not by and by pure 

221. Genesis, xxviii. 12. 

227. the ladder refers to the gallows. Cf. Swift, Tale of a 
Tub, Sect. i. 

228. Bailey (Diet.) tells us that " it is related that the scent 
of the Panther's skin attracts all other beasts." So Lyly, 
Euphues (ed. Arber, p. 54), speaks of "a sweet Panther with a 
deuouring paunch," and Euphues and his Ephoebus (ib. p. 149), 
"Panthers which haue a sweete smel, but a deuouring minde." 
Christie refers to Pliny (Hist. Nat. xxi, 7), and quotes from Ben 
Jonson, The Fox, iii. 5, and from Shirley, The Royal Master 
iii. 1, "Or hunt this spotted panther to his ruin, Whose breath 
is only sweet to poison virtue." 

230. the blatant beast, taken from Spenser, F.Q. v. 12, 37, 
and vi. (passim), where it personifies Slander, though here it may 
be used merely as a synonym of the Wolf in the sense of 
* howling.' Nares quotes a passage from the Returne from Per- 
nassus (1606), where it means the multitude. 

232. barely urged, i. e. mere statement, unsupported by proof. 

237. quits the claim. " Quit claim [in Law] is the releasing a 
Man from any Action one hath or might have against him " 

243. Excepts, i.e. takes exception against or challenges. 
Cowell (Interpreter) says : " Chalenge made to the Jurors is 
either made to the array or to the polles. Chalenge to the 
array is when the whole number is excepted against as partially 
empaneled : chalenge to or by the polle, when some one or 
more are excepted against as not indifferent." 

Cf. 1. 171. 

1:7.,) " The Presbyterian Church utterly rejects traditions, 

3peals to the Scripture as the sole rule of faith " (Scott). 
251. The language is based upon the fable of the cat and the 

255. shelf, " a Heap of Sand in the Sea " (Bailey). 
266. statutes, e.g., Act of Uniformity (1662) ; Conventicle Act 
(1664).; Five Mile Act (1665). 

275. the fountain, i.e. the Church of Rome. 
^,2_84^ )purging fires, i.e. the Church of England rejects tradition 
when arguing with the Church of Rome in the case of purgatory, 
but appeals to it against the Presbyterians in defence of episco- 

31-36] NOTES. 


288. Traditions can be employed against Nonconformists but 
not against Rome. 

303-308. Priority of oral teaching. 
309-321. Reason of priority of oral teaching. 
319. Exodus, xxxii. 16 ; xxxiv. 28. 
322-335. Cause of written teaching. 

337. Concisely expressed for " not intended at first to be more 
than occasional, their sermons in their absence." Absent refers 
to them implied in their, a common idiom in Latin (e.g. nostros 
vidistis flentis ocellos). Abbott, Shakespearian Grammar, . 219. 

343. II. Peter, iii. 16. 

348. Concise for "and one who, if appointed, was sure to be 
obeyed. " 

374. Scott thinks that from this passage Swift took the idea of 
comparing the Scripture to a testament in his Tale of a Tub. 
But it is obvious enough. 

377. vouch, " [in Law] to call one into Court to make good his 
warrant " (Bailey). 

380. Hungary, "then the object of contention between the 
Turks and Germany " (Christie). 

396. St. John, xviii. 4, 5. 

405. Polish Diet. "In a Polish Diet, where unanimity was 
necessary, the mode adopted of ensuring it was for the majority 
to hew to pieces the first individual who expressed his dissent by 
the fatal veto " (Scott). 

408. crown-general, probably coined by Dryden to express the 
head of a religious order appointed by the Crown. Bailey gives 
as one meaning of general ' ' the principal Governor of a religious 
Order." Croivn would then refer to the state establishment of 
the Church of England. The phrase is ridiculed by Montague 
and Prior in connection with the epithet viceroy (i. 537): " Bayes. 
There's a pretty name, now, for the spotted mouse, the Viceroy \ 
Smith. But, pray, why d'e call her so? Bayes. .Why! 
Because it sounds prettily : I'll call her the Crown-General pre- 
sently, if I've a mind to it." 

409. lawn, the fine linen used in the vestments of bishops, 
hence the episcopacy. Cf. Pope's line: "A saint in crape is 
twice a saint in lawn." 

414. Article xx., Of the Authority of the Church, says : "The 
Church hath power to decree Rites or Ceremonies, and authority 
in Controversies of Faith : And yet it is not lawful for the Church 
to ordain anything that is contrary to God's word written, 
neither may it so expound one place of Scripture that it be 


repugnant to another. Wherefore, although the Church be a 
wituess and a keeper of Holy Writ, yet, as it ought not to decree 
anything against the same, so besides the same ought it not to 
enforce anything to be believed for necessity of Salvation." 

417. Curtana, " King Edward the Confessor's Sword, without a 
Point (an Emblem of Mercy), which is carried before the Kings 
and Queens of England at their Coronation " (Bailey). 

428. able heads refers to "men of judgment sound " in 1. 424. 

440. Cf. 1. 383. 

441. hard head. Halliwell (Diet. Archaic and Provincial 
Words) gives hardheads as being the same game as Cocks, 
which he explains as "a puerile game with the tough tufted 
stems of the ribwort plantain. One holds a stem, and the other 
strikes on it with another." 

452. The Lutherans. 

455. "The Huguenot preachers, being Calvinists, had received 
classical and not episcopal ordination: hence, unless re-ordained, 
they were not admitted to preach in the Established Church of 
England" (Scott). 

456. donors must ordain. Many of the Huguenot clergy who 
took refuge in England after the revocation of the Edict of 
Nantes received benefices from the Church of England. Cf. ill. 

472. Grant, in 1. 388. 

472-484. The argument is (a) an unerring guide is needed ; (b) 
if needed therefore given ; (c) if unerring, must be found in an 
infallible church. 

516. Rev. xxi. 2. 

524. "I believe one Catholick and Apostolick Church" 
(Nicene Creed). 

533. The language is based upon the legend of the contest 
between the giants and the gods, in which Athene, typifying the 
Church, is represented as smiting the giants (the heretics) with 
the thunder of her father Zeus (' fulmination '). 

536. Exodus, viii. 7. 

541. Exodus, ix. 11. 

546. largely spread, i.e. Catholic. 

556. common shores. Bailey has " Common Shore, corrupted 
for Seiver." Halliwell says it is still used in Devon. 

561. palliards (from Fr. paillard), for which Cotgrave gives 
"knave, rascal, varlet, scoundrel, filthy fellow." 
566. some, i.e. the Dutch. 

36-41] NOTES. 99 

569. Industrious of. Christie quotes the same idiom from 
Dry den's Address to his Cousin, John Driden, "Industrious of 
the common good. " 

^70. Japonian mart, i.e. Japan, ' ' where the Christians, having 
raised a rebellion against the heathens, were exterminated, root 
and branch. This excited such an utter hatred of Catholic 
priests and their religion that they were prohibited, under the 
deepest denunciations of death and confiscation, from landing in 
Japan. Nevertheless, the severity of this law did not prevent 
the Hollanders from sharing in the gainful traffic of the island, 
which they gained permission to do by declaring that they were 
not Christians " (Scott). 

571. prevention, i.e. being forestalled. Scott reads preventing. 

574. three marks, (1) one; (2) holy; (3) Catholic. The 
second is not mentioned in the Nicene Creed, but occurs in the 
Apostles' Creed. 

576. fourth, i.e. Apostolic. 

577. Apostolic, i.e. in doctrine, as the context shows. Cf. 
1. 611. 

582. fulminated, denounced, censured. Bailey says, " Fulmin- 
ation is the sentence of a bishop or other ecclesiastick appointed 
by the Pope, whereby it is decreed that some bull sent from 
the Pope shall be executed ; it is also the execution of a sentence 
of anathema made in publick with due solemnity." 

583. "Alluding to the doctrines of Wicliffe and the Lollards, 
condemned as heresies in their own times, but revived by the 
reformers " (Scott). 

588. St. Matthew, vii. 25. 

589. charged on her. Cf. Pope, Prol. to Sat. 378, "Let Budgel 
charge low Grub-street on his quill." 

590. Cf. 1. 605. 

7597. monumental arms. Cf. Shak. Ricliar.d III., I. i. 6, 
**' Our bruised arms hung up for monuments." As the sword of 
Goliath was kept wrapped in a cloth behind the ephod (7. Sam. 
xxi. 9), not for use, but to commemorate the victory of David 
over the Philistine, and was used by David under the pressure 
of necessity ; so the Roman Catholic Church keeps its ancient 
doctrines as memorials of victories over heretics, and appeals 
to them only when compelled against heresy or schism. 

601. standard, perhaps used (cf. plantations) in the sense 
given by Bailey, "Trees reserved at the felling of Wood for 
Growth for Timber," though there may be a reference to the 
other meaning, " the standing Measures of the King or State, to 
which all Measures are framed." 


602. maintain, cf. 315. 

604. -we, emphatic ; cf. 590. 

607. digits "[in Astronomy] is the twelfth part of the Dia- 
meter of the Sun or Moon, and is used to denote the Quantity of 
an Eclipse " (Bailey). 

615. Cf. 1. 546. 

616. spiritual, distinguishing Pope from King. 

618. seamless coat, St. John, xix. 23. Cf. Bacon, Essay] HI., 
" For, as it is noted by one of the Fathers ; Christs Goat, indeed, 
had no seame : But the Churches Vesture was of divers colours; 
whereupon he saith, In veste varietas sit, Scissura non sit." 

628. seven. The first edition reads nine, which would ap- 
proximately represent the period from the landing of Augustine 
in 597 and the dawn of the Reformation. 

638. St. Luke, xv. 20. 

639. prevent, anticipate. 

640. Genesis, xlii. 24. 
643. Genesis, xliii. 30. 

645. " The English Benedictine monks executed a renuncia- 
tion of the abbey lands belonging to the order before the 
Reformation, in order to satisfy the minds of the possessors, and 
reconcile them to the re-establishment of the ancient religion, by 
guaranteeing the stability of their property " (Scott). 

650. birds obscene, Virgil's obscenae rohicres. 

653. nocturnal victory, Sedgemoor, fought between 1 and 4 
o'clock in the morning of Monday, July 6th, 1685. 

655. fireworks. ' ' The northern streamers were shining bril- 
liantly " (Macaulay, ch. v.). 

657. Gild the brown horror. Christie quotes the same phrase 
from Love Triumphant, Act iv. sc. 1. It is used by metonymy 
for that which causes horror, in imitation of such phrases as 
ferri frigidus horror (Lucr. vi. 1011), and serrae stridentis acer- 
bum horrorem (ib. ii. 410). 

660. Heaven's own Nundius, i.e. the news of the victory at 
Sedgemoor was conveyed to England, Scotland, and Ireland by 
the aurora borealis before the arrival of the messenger who 
actually announced it. 

666. Refers to the rebellion under Monmouth in the west of 

669. Seems to indicate a rapprochement between the Church 
of England and the Church of Rome in prospect of Monmouth's 

41-45] NOTES. 101 

670. An allusion to the asceticism of the Roman Catholics. 
672. Another gibe at the alleged self-indulgence of the Angli- 
can clergy. Cf. I. 353-380. 

675. supply, " to make up what was wanting " (Bailey). 

677. Cf. Lucr. v. 1118, Divitiae grandes homini sunt vivere 
parce aequo animo. 

681. The Anglican repudiation of the dogma of infallibility. 

*/ 682-685. It was a common taunt against the Established 
Church in the controversial literature of the time that she 
needed the artificial support of the Test Act to bolster up the 
weakness of her cause against Roman Catholics and Noncon- 

697. The excessive alliteration is relieved by the fact that two 
of the aspirates are silent. 

699-702. An invitation to the Church of England to return to 

705. Based upon Virgil, Aen. viii. 362 seq. : 

Haec, inquit, lirnina victor 
Alcidea subiit, haec ilium regia cepit. 
Aude, hospes, contemnere, opes, et te quoque dignum 
Finge deo, rebusque veni non asper egenis. 

707. of, over. 

709. Pan, cf. i. 280. So Spenser, Shepheards' Calender, v. 
54, "When great Pan account of shepherdes shall aske"; Ib. 
vii. 49, " And wonned not the great God Pan Upon mount 

713. wilful, voluntary. 

715. gold, the State endowments of the Established Church. 


3. Caledon, Britain, as in i. 14. Christie thinks it is a mis- 
print for Calydon, in Aetolia, the haunt of the my thological boar, 
but we is evidently used as synonymous with Caledon. 

7. Phrygia. Aesop is said to have been a Phrygian by birth. 

8. Mother Hubbard, i.e. Spenser in his satirical allegory 
Prosopopoia, or Mother Hubberds Tale, in which the Ape and 
the Fox are represented as stealing the Lion's hide which he had 
doffed on account of the heat. 

9. British Lioness, i.e. Elizabeth, represented as the Lion in 
Mother Hubberds Tale. She is " sharply blamed" by Mercury, 


who rouses her from her trance, during which the Ape, instigated 
by the Fox, commits all sorts of abuses, with these reproaches : 
" Arise (said Mercuric), thou sluggish beast, 
That here liest senseles, like the corpse deceast, 
The whilst thy kingdome from thy head is rent, 
And thy throne royall with dishonour blent." 

10. feast, the anniversary of Elizabeth's accession, Nov. 17th, 
called Queen Elizabeth's Day, celebrated from 1679 to 1681 with 
violent anti-papistical demonstrations and pope-burnings. For a 
full account of these commemorations, with illustrations taken 
from contemporary pamphlets, see Chambers' Book of Days, ii. 
558. Cf. Hone's Everyday Boole, p. 744. Christie refers to 
Dryden's Prologue to Southerners Loyal Brother (p. 453 of Globe 

12. wanted. Scott's edition reads wonted. 

15. of, Latinism on the analogy of the genitive after insimulo, 

17. Cf. ' immortal ' in I. 1. 

18. round. "Eternity has neither beginning nor end" 

20. the Lion's peace, the Declaration of Indulgence. 

24. furry sons, i.e. the clergy wearing the fur hoods of gradu- 
ates. Cf. Milton, Comus, 707, "Those budge doctors of the 
? Stoic fur." 

frequent senate, i.e. Convocation. Frequent, crowded 
(from Lat. frequens senatus). 

41. an exiled heir, i.e. James II. , then Duke of York, in 
exile at Brussels, whither he had retired by order of Charles II. 
after the Popish Plot (Macaulay, pop. ed., p. 117). 

59. St. Matthew, xxii. 21. 

64. " The Church of England complained, with great reason, 
of the coldness which they experience from James, in whose 
behalf they had exerted themselves so successfully " (Scott). 

69. With this description of the feelings of the Church of 
England towards James, cf. Macaulay (pop. ed.), i., p. 433 
(chap. vii.). 

83. Terence, Andria, in. iii. 23, amantium irae amoris 

84. a rest, remainder. Now only used with the. 

92. scarlet honours, academic and ecclesiastical distinctions, 
from the scarlet robes worn by Doctors, etc. 

95. spooms, sometimes spelt spoons. " Spooning [Sea Term] 
is when a Ship, being under Sail, is put right before the Wind, 

45-49] NOTES. 


which is generally done in some great Storm, when they find the 
Ship too weak to endure the lying under the Sea, and when there 
is danger lest she should bring her Masts by the Board by her 
violent seeling or rolling about, and so founder ; they generally 
set up the Fore -sail to make her go the steadier, and this is 
termed Spooning the Fore-Sail " (Bailey). The meaning is thus, 
as Nares says, to sail on steadily rather than rapidly. Ill 
Beaumont and Fletcher, The Double Marriage, n. i. : " We'll 
spare her our main-top-sail ; Down with the fore-sail too ! we'll 
spoom before her," it means to run before the wind without any 

108. Cf. Green, p. 671. 
113. your fare, cf. 1. 27. 

120. German quarrel. Cotgrave (1673) has " Querelle d'Aleman. 
A quarrel, or brable, entred into upon a slight or drunken 

121. French, Green, p. 666. 

123. swilling. " To Sivill, to gulp or swallow down greedily, 
to drink hard " (Bailey). 
125. Phaedrus, i. i. 5. 
127. /&. 10-12. 

132, wince, spelt winch by Dryden, an alternative form given 
by Bailey. 

133. The doctrine of passive obedience. 

142. renounces to, a Gallicism. " The memorable judgment 
and decree of the University of Oxford, passed in the Convoca- 
tion, 21st July, 1683, condemns as heretical all works which 
teach or infer the lawfulness of resistance to lawful governors, 
even when they become tyrants, or in case of persecution for 
religion, or infringement on the laws of the country, or, in short, 
in any case whatever " (Scott). 

151. doted, foolish. Cf. Piers Plowman, i. 138, "Thow 
doted daffe '' ; Spenser, F.Q. I. viii. 34, "doted ignorance." 

159. sons of latitude, a party in the Church of England called 
by themselves Moderate Divines, by High Churchmen Latitudi- 
narians, the most prominent being Tillotson, Stillingfleet, and 
Burnet. " They distinguished themselves by a less violent 
ardour for the ceremonies and even the government of the 
Church ; for all those particulars, in short, by which she is 
distinguished from other Protestant congregations "(Scott). Cf. 
Macaulay (pop. ed.), I. 433 (chap. vii.). 

165. The Wolf. Dryden, in his Defence of the Duchess of 
York's Paper, had said that a Latitudinarian "in plain terms is 
no otherwise different from a Presbyterian than by whatsoever 
titles and dignities he is distinguished." 


167- Chaucer, Astrolabe, i., 21, "And everich of thise twelve 
signes hath respecte to a certein parcelle of the body of a man 
and hath it in governance ; as Aries hath thyn heved, and 
Taurus thy nekke and thy throte, Gemini thyn armholes and 
thyn armes, and so forth." Lyly, Gallathea, in. ii., " Signes 
which governe the bodie. The ram governeth the head. . . . 
Then the bull for the throte, Capricornus for the knees." Of. 
Shak. T.N. i. iii. 125; Middleton, No Wit, etc. n. i. the 
whole of which scene turns upon this fancy. 

169. " Being thus, as it were, an opposition party, it cannot be 
supposed that the Low Church divines united cordially with 
their high-flying brethren in renouncing the right of resisting 
oppression, or in professing passive obedience to the royal will. 
They were of opinion that there was a mutual compact between 
the king and subject, and that acts of tyranny on the part of the 
former absolved the latter from his allegiance " (Scott). 

172. French proselytes, the Huguenot clergy, who took refuge 
in England after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. " Many 
conformed to the Church of England ; and, having submitted to 
new ordination, some of them obtained benefices : others joined 
in communion with the Presbyterians and dissenters of various 
kinds " (Scott). 

175. St. Matthew, ii. 2. 

176. Swisses. Cf. Nash, Christ's Teares over Jerusalem, "Law, 
logicke, and the Switzers may be hired to fight for anybody " ; 
Shak. Haml. iv. v. 93. 

181. "Dryden insinuates that, had the Church of England 
presented vacancies sufficient for the provision of these foreign 
divines, she would probably have had the honour of attracting 
them all within her pale " (Scott). 

186. sons of breadth, the Latitudinarians. 

190. Delphic sword, the AeX0i/cr? fj.dxcupa of Aristotle, Pol. i. 
ii. 3, ' contrived a double debt to pay ' (ovdfr yap TJ (f>v<ris Trote? 
TOIOVTOV olov ol xaX/coruTTOi TT]V Ae\<f)iKr)v ^td%atpaj' TrevL^pQis, dXX' v 
irpbs &). 

192-216. This paragraph refers to the controversy between 
Dryden and Stillingfleet about the late Duchess of York's Paper, 
explaining the reasons of her secession to the Roman Catholic 
Church. This, with two others written by Charles II. in support 
of that Church and found in his strong box after his death, had 
been published in 1686 by order of James II., and circulated 
throughout the kingdom. These elicited an anonymous pamphlet 
by Stillingfleet, entitled "An Answer to some Papers lately 
printed, concerning the authority of the Catholic Church in 
matters of Faith and the Reformation of the Church of Eng- 
land." This was in three parts, corresponding to the three 

49-50] NOTES. 105 

papers. In answer to this appeared, also in three parts and 
probably by three different hands, "A Defence of the Papers 
written by the late King, of blessed Memory, and Duchess of 
York, against the Answer made to them." ' Dryden seems to 
have been concerned only in the last of the three parts, the one 
which referred to the Duchess of York. Stillingfleet retorted in 
"A Vindication of the Answer to some late Papers," in which 
he made a personal attack on Dryden as a mercenary pervert. 
Dryden here puts into the mouth of the Panther some of the 
arguments used in the Vindication. 

193. Three steeples, etc. Scott says this " obviously alludes 
to the pluralities enjoyed, perhaps by Stillingfleet, and certainly 
by some of the divines of the Established Church." But it may 
refer to three Church dignitaries, such as Burnet, Stillingfleet, 
and Tillotson, whom Dryden supposed to be the authors of the 
three parts of the Answer mentioned above. Argent would then 
represent their professed purity, in strong contrast with the sable 

field of their real motives. 

194. In the Vindication Stillingfleet had violently attacked 
Dryden as the "new convert" to Rome. 

196. Stillingfleet had said of Dryden : " Why should not one 
who believes no religion declare for any ? " 

198. "If bold sayings and confident declarations will do the 
business, he is never unprovided ; but if you expect any reason 
from him, he begs your pardon " (Stillingfleet, A Vindication, etc. ). 

199. dint, " the Force or Bent of a Discourse" (Bailey). Cf. 
Milton, Areopagitica (ed. Hales), p. 52, 1. 21. 

200. grim logician, i.e. Dryden. This expression was first 
used by Dryden, in his Defence of the Duchess of York's Paper, 
of the anonymous author of the Answer: "And yet such poor 
people have souls to save, as precious in the sight of God as the 
grim logician's. " It was then taken up by Stillingfleet in his 
Answer to the Defence, and applied again and again to Dryden 

201. nourish. At the beginning of the Vindication Stillingfleet 
had said : " But lest I be again thought to have a mind to 
flourish before I offer to pass." 

u/202. Dryden says in his Defence : "Now the immediate cause 
which produced the separation of Harry the Eighth from the 
Church of Rome was the refusal of the Pope to grant him a 
divorce from his first wife, and to gratify his desires in a dispen- 
sation for a second marriage. " 

206. " The King only knew whether it was conscience and love, 
or love alone, which moved him to sue for a divorce." Dryden, 
A Defence, etc. (ed. Scott and Saintsbury, vol. xvii., p. 244). 
Cf. Shak. Hen. VJII.,u. ii. 143, "But, conscience, conscience! 


210. "And he affirms, that he moved it himself in confession 
to the Bishop of Lincoln, and appeals to him concerning the truth 
of it in open court" (Stillingfleet, Ansiver to the Defence, etc. 
For the accent ctinfessor, cf. Shak. Hen. VIII., i. ii. 149 ; Meas. 
for Meas. iv. iii. 133, "One of our covent, and his confessor." 



213. Dryden ends his Defence by saying that " among all the 
volumes of divinity written by the Protestants there is not one 
original treatise, at least that I have seen or heard of, which has 
handled distinctly, and by itself, that Christian virtue of 
humility." In reply to this, Stillingfleet, in his Answer to the 
Defence, etc., calls this "a bare-faced assertion of a thing so well 
known to be false," and affirms "since within a few years 
(besides what hath been printed formerly), such a book hath 
been published in London." For further developments in this 
controversy, see Dryden's Preface, p. 6. 

214. Stillingfleet's argument : " Suppose we had not such 
particular books, we think the Holy Scripture gives the best 
rules and examples of humility of any book in the world." 

226. Tax of. Cf. Middleton, Anything for a Quiet Life, I. i. 
275, " You tax me well of irresolution." 

227. I.e. remain Protestants in the hope of promotion in case 
of a Protestant successor to James. For the language, cf. the 
beginning of Bacon's Essay, Of Delayes. 

228. broadway sons, i. e. the Latitudinarians. 

238. The antithesis is between bestowed and bought. Prefer- 
ment is bestowed when it is unsought ; bought, when it is 
gained by attendance at Court. 

246. Hudibras. Samuel Butler, the author of the wittiest and 
most popular burlesque during the Restoration, was neglected by 
the King and Court, and rescued from starvation only by a bencher 
of the Middle Temple, who at last paid for his funeral. But, as 
Scott says, unless Dryden alludes to some incident now unknown, 
it is difficult to see how the Church of England could have 
rewarded his merit. Dryden, in asking for unpaid arrears of his 
own salary, wrote, " It is enough for one age to have neglected 
Mr. Cowley, and starved Mr. Butler." So Otway, in the 
Prologue to a play: "Tell 'em how Spenser died, how Cowley 
mourned, How Butler's faith and service were returned " 
(Morley's First Sketch of Eng. Lit., p. 676). 

250. atheist, cf. note on 1. 196. Stillinsfleet, in his Answer to 
the Defence, also says of Dryden : " But this gentleman talks 
like a mere novice as to matters of faith, as though believing 
were a new thing to him." But I cannot find that he directly 
charges him with being an atheist. 

51-53] NOTES. 107 

251, 252. Scott explains these two lines to mean that "Dryden, 
conscious of having given the first offence, justifies his having 
done so from personal abuse being the never-failing resort of the 
liberal clergy." But the general sense may be, " Why was I so 
foolish as to expose the Latitudinarians ? I might have been 
sure of abuse." Dryden, in his Defence, "exposes" the author of 
the Answer to the. Duchess's Paper by calling him " disingenuous, 
foul-mouthed, and shuffling," and speaking of his "subtle 
calumny and sly aspersion" (Dryden's Works, eel. Scott and 
Saintsbury, vol. xvii., pp. 211, 212). 

255. Stillingfleet's Vindication was licensed by the Archbishop 
of Canterbury's chaplain. Of. Milton's Areopagitica on the 
whole question of licensing books. 

277. tnrid. Halliwell quotes this form from the Chester Plays, 
i. 37, "And of this wolle I will spynne thride by thride." 

280-283. In these lines Dryden versifies a sentence from the 
Duchess of York's Paper: "It will be plain enough to every- 
body, that I must lose all the friends and credit I have here by 
it ; and have very well weighed which I could best part with, 
my share in this world or the next : I thank God, I found no 
difficulty in the choice." 

284-286. So Dryden in his Defence says of the Duchess of 
York: "The loss of friends, of wordly honours and esteem, the 
defamation of ill tongues, and the reproach of the cross, all 
these, though not without the strugglings of flesh and blood, 
were surmounted by her." 

287. Cf. Shak. Lear, n. iv. 116, " O me, my heart, my rising 
heart ! But, down ! " 

295. unthrift, prodigal (Bailey). 

297. a son, i.e. Dryden. 

305. your child, i.e. Stillingfleet. "The Hind having shown 
that her influence over Dryden was such as to induce him to 
submit patiently, and without vengeance, to injury and reproach, 
now calls upon the Panther to exert her authority in turn over 
Stillingfleet, for his irreverent attack upon the royal papers in 
favour of the Catholic religion " (Scott). 

306. "Upon a careful perusal of the Answers and Vindication 
of that great divine, it is impossible to find any grounds for the 
charge of his having reviled Charles II. or the Duchess of York ; 
on the contrary, their names are always mentioned with great 
respect " (Scott). 

307. Shimei, II. Sam. xvi. 5-13. 

308. /. Kings, ii. 36-46. 


310. " Probably Burnet ; and the score which he paid is the 
severe description given of him under the character of the 
Buzzard" (Scott). 

311, 312. Burnet's malice was too heavy to reach James at 
whom it was aimed, and returned with deadly effect upon himself. 

313. Job, i. 12;ii. 6. 

316. tire, " a Row of great Guns placed along the Ship's Side, 
either above upon Deck, or below " (Bailey). 

317. 318. Dryden claims a victory over Stillingfleet, because 
the latter, having at first doubted the authenticity of the 
Duchess of York's Paper, subsequently admitted it. 

318. Stillingfleet is compared to a defeated vessel retiring 
under cover of its last broadside. 

324-327. Stillingfleet, in his Answer to the Defence, says of 
Dryden : " However, he takes a leap from causes to effects ; and 
here he tells us, ' the immediate effects of this schism were 
sacrilege, and a bloody persecution, of such as denied the King's 
supremacy in matters wholly spiritual, which no layman, no king 
of Israel, ever exercised.' " 

328. Cf. note on 1. 213 and Dryden's Preface, p. 6. 

330. procession, " a solemn March of the Clergy and People of 
the Romish Church, in their Ornamental Habits, with Musick, 
etc." (Bailey). 

332. Rodriquez, "probably the Jesuit Alonso Rodriquez, who 
wrote tfxercio de perfecion y Virtudes Christianas, Sevilla, 
1609 " (Scott). 

333. yours, i.e. Duncomb, according to Dryden in his Preface. 
In the introduction to The Hind and the Panther Transversed 
Montague and Prior say that Dryden has confused Duncomb and 
Allen, who, he had been told, "had written a discourse of 
humility." Scott says that in a list of books subjoined to " The 
Practice of a Holy Life, by Thomas Allen, rector of Kettering, 
in Northamptonshire," he finds " The Virtue of Humility, re- 
commended to be printed by the late Reverend and Learned Dr. 
Henry Hammond," which may be the book alluded to by 

336. Isaiah, vi. 6. 

338. i.e. if this humble verse could inspire you with humility. 

340-356. Dryden means that, in reprisal for the personal 
attack made upon him by the anonymous authors of the Answer 
to the royal papers, he would have been justified by the law of 
arms in retaliating upon some of the most prominent dignitaries 
of the Church of England, but that, in obedience to the laws of 
Christianity, he refrains. 

53-56] NOTES. 109 

342. laws of arms, contrasted with Christian laws, 1. 350. 

343. make himself a saver apparently means "to indemnify 
himself for damages. " A metaphor from bowls. Cf. Middleton, 
No Wit, no Help, like a Woman's, n. iii. 83, "Yet if my bowl 
take bank, I shall go nigh to make myself a saver. Here's alley- 
room enough." 

347. Algerine. Algiers, from about 1500 till its occupation by 
the French in 1830, was a nest of pirates. 

354. characters, satirical sketches, a collection of which, be- 
ginning with Theophrastus and ending with Samuel Butler, 
whose characters had just (1759) been published, may be found 
in the Character Writings of the Seventeenth Century (Carisbrooke 
Library), edited by the late Dr. Henry Morley. 
to write, i.e. for writing. 

357. her plea, i.e. 190-216. 

362. " These converts were neither numerous nor respectable " 
(Scott). Cf. Macaulay (pop. ed.), i. 423. 

364. Cf. 1. 227. 

365. alluded, metaphorically expressed. "Allude, to play 
upon, or speak in Reference to some other Thing or Matter" 

382. protracted, deferred. "Protraction, a putting off, a 
deferring or delaying" (Bailey). 

387. Admire, " to look upon with Wonder, to be surprized at " 

388-408. Dryden's reasons for the small number of converts to 
the Roman Catholic Church. 

392. before, i.e. lines 377-387. 

393. Cf. Shak. King John, 11. i. 561-598. 

405. the private judge allowed, i.e. the right of private judg- 
ment allowed in the reformed churches. 

407, 408. Elliptically expressed for "Add lastly the illiteracy 
of the clown and the sciolism of the gentleman, being uncertain 
which has the narrower intellectual grasp." Or uncertain may 
be taken as neuter nominative absolute, "it being uncertain," 
on the analogy of the use of incertum in Tacitus. 

410-413. The alliteration in these lines seems intended to 
express scorn. Cf. BOLTTOV yap davdrov 0e?, Plato, Apol. 39 A ; 
0X6s rd r &TO. r6i> re vovv rd r' 8/,a.T } el, Soph. Oed. Tyr. 371 
(with Jebb's note). 

414. hinted, in 1. 227 and in 1. 381. 

418. The Swallows. The apologue of the Swallows refers to the 
mee. ing of the leading Roman Catholics held at the Savoy under 


the presidency of Father Petre in 1686 to consider the best way 
to take advantage of their temporary success. The majority 
were in favour of a compromise. " Some were for a petition to 
the king that he would only so far interpose in their favour that 
their estates might be secured to them by Act of Parliament, 
with exemption from all employments, and liberty to worship 
God in their own way, in their own nouses. Others were for 
obtaining the king's leave to sell their estates and transport 
themselves and their effects to France " (Scott). 

426. The Swallow represents the Roman Catholic clergy. 

428. Pursues the sun. Cf. Burton, Anat. Mel., part ii. sc. 2, 
mem. 3, "Or do they [swallows, etc.] follow the sun?" The sun 
typifies prosperity. 

433. Cf. Hor. Sat. u. ii. 79, divinae particulam-aurae. 

434. Refers to the privileges and emoluments enjoyed by the 
Roman Catholic clergy under James II. 

436. cheer, face, look, mien, as in M.E. chere, O.F. chere, the 
face, look, connected with Gk. Kapa. 

437. Imitated from Horace's simul inversum contristat Aqua- 
rius annum, Sat. i. i. 36. 

444. steeple's height, i.e. the Savoy. 

450. " Do they sleep in winter . . . or lie they hid in caves ?" 
Burton, Anat. Mel., part ii., sc. 2, mem. 3. 

452. Southwards, i.e. to France. Cf. note on 1. 418. 

455. mackerel gale. Prof. Saintsbury quotes the phrase from 
Dryden's The Tempest, I. i, "A mackerel gale, master," and 
refers to Elspeth's song in Scott's Antiquary (ch. xl.), "The 
mackerel loves the wind." 

459. expect, " to look for, to stay for or wait for " (Bailey). 

460. Martin, i.e. Father Petre. "The name of Martin may 
contain an allusion to the Parish of St. Martin's, in which White- 
hall and the royal chapel are situated " (Scott. ) 

464. Perhaps another scoff at Martin Luther. 

467. "One Petre, descended from a noble family ; a man of no 
learning, nor any way fained for his virtue, but who made up all 
in boldness and zeal, was the Jesuit of them all, that seemed 
animated with the most courage " (Burnet, quoted by Scott). 

469. household chaplain. Petre was the "king's confessor 
and prime adviser in state matters, both spiritual and temporal " 

471. casting. " To cast, to think or contrive " (Bailey). 

57-60] NOTES. HI 

474. Raven " may be conjectured to mean Tennison, within 
whose parish Whitehall was situated, and who stood in the 
front of battle during all the Roman Catholic controversy " 

475. From Virgil, Ed. ix. 15, Ante sinistra cava monuisset 
ab ilice comix. 

476. liked, pleased (Abbott, Shak. Gram., 297). 

487. antique, with accent on first syllable, as always in 

488. Cf. Ovid, Met. xiv. 104, Litora Cumarum vivacisque 
antra Sibyllae. 

489. mad divineress, the insanam vatem of Virgil, Aen. iii. 

491. sinister, with accent on second syllable, as in Shak. 
Hen. V., n. iv. 85 (Abbott, 490). 

493. Chelidonian, from Gk. xeXi^, a swallow. These etymo- 
logical myths are common in classical literature, e.g. the Icarian 
Sea is derived from Icarus (Ovid, Tristia, I. i. 90) ; the Tiber 
from Tiberinus (Livy, i. iii. 8) ; Cape Palinurus from the pilot of 
Aeneas (Virgil, Aen. vi. 381). 

495. blessed, crossed. Cf. Chaucer, C.T. B, 449, "She 
blesseth hir," i.e. crosses herself. 

500. fix, as in Bacon, Essay of Truth, " Count it a Bondage to 

trim, waste by vacillation. 

504. Scales, i.e. Libra, the seventh sign in the Zodiac, which 
the sun enters at the autumnal equinox in September. 

508. hinder to, as in Shak. Rich. III., n. ii. 34, "Oh, who 
shall hinder me to wail and weep ? " (Abbott, 356). 

510. presumes of, cf. i. 377. 

512. Cf. 1. 461. 

519. Nostradamus, the Latinized form of Michel Notre Darne, 
the famous physician and prophet, born at St. Remy in 1503, 
died 1566. He represented himself as divinely inspired, and 
published his predictions, first in prose, then in quatrains. The 
following distich was composed on his name : 

Nostra damns, cum falsa damns, namfallere nostrum est ; 
Et cum falsa damns, nil nisi nostra damns. 

528-530. ' ' This alludes to the numerous schools and religious 
establishments which the Jesuits prepared to establish through- 
out England " (Scott). 

535. Ram, the first of the twelve signs of the Zodiac, which 
the sun enters at the vernal equinox, about March 21. 


537. //. Kings, xx. 11 ; Joshua, x. 12-14. 

539. chapel, "obviously the royal chapel, where the priests 
were privileged to exercise their functions even during the sub- 
sistence of the penal laws " (Scott). 

of ease. A chapel of ease is defined by Cowell, Interpreter, 
as one " separate from the Mother Church, where the Parish is 
wide, builded for the ease of one or more Parishioners that dwell 
over farre from the Church. " 

545. Merlin, the famous enchanter, who, according to Geoffrey 
of Monmouth, flourished in Britain about the middle of the 
fifth century. Cf. Spenser, F.Q. in. iii. and Tennyson's 
Merlin and Vivien. 

546. Swifts, the Irish Catholics. 

548. Gibeonites, Joshua, ix. 23. 

549. lubbers. " Lubber, a Drudge, a lazy Drone" (Bailey). 
552-557. "The transient gleam of sunshine which invited the 

Swallows forth from their retirement is the Declaration of Indul- 
gence, in consequence of which the Catholics assumed the open 
and general exercise of their religion " (Scott). 

558. Cuckoo. " I cannot help thinking that our author, still 
speaking in the character of the English Church, describes him- 
self as the ' foolish Cuckoo,' whose premature annunciation of 
spring completed the Swallow's delusion " (Scott). 

564. St. Martin's day, the eleventh of November. 

565. triumphs, with accent on last syllable, as often in 
Shakespeare, e.g. "rebels' arms triumph in massacre," Hen. IV. 
(A), v. iv. 14. 

573. careful, anxious. 

580. cemented, both in the noun and the verb accented on the 
first syllable in Shakespeare. Cf. Ant. and Cl. n. i. 48, "How 
the fear of us may cement their division " (Abbott, 492). 

583. foreign fowls, "the foreign priests and Catholic officers, 
whom hopes of promotion now brought into England " (Scott). 

587. To plant, "to people a Country" (Bailey). Cf. the use of 
plantation = colony. 

591. need, by loss of adverbial suffix for needs. Cf. Morris' 
English Accidence (revised by Kellner and Bradley), 326. 

596. Capricorn, i.e. the winter solstice. 

598. the virgin Balance, i.e. Libra, which it had not entered 
before. The sun enters Libra at the equinox in September. 
Scott, followed by Christie, reads "the Virgin balance." 

600. remainders, for the plural Christie quotes " the remnants 
of the night" (Ann. Mir. 102). 

60-63] NOTES. 


602. " A parody on Lee's famous rant in Oedipus : 

' May there not be a glimpse, one starry spark, 
But gods meet gods, and jostle in the dark ' " (Scott). 

609. dorp, "a Country Town or Village" (Bailey). It is the 
O.E. $orp, O.H.G. dorf, Mod. Eng. thorp in local names. 

610. bleaky. The Imp. Diet, quotes from Dry den, "The 
bleaky top of rugged hills." For this formation of adjectives 
v. Abbott, 450. 

628. " It is well known how exactly the event corresponded to 
the prophecy ; even the circumstance of the rabble rising upon 
the Catholic priests was most literally verified " (Scott). 

629. bats. Cotgrave has " Baston, a staff, bat, cudgel, trun- 
chion, club." 

polled. Phillips, The New World of Words (1720), gives 
"To polt (country- word), to beat, bang, or thrash." Bailey, 
"to polt, to beat back, or thresh." 

632. i.e. Roman Catholic priests would be banished under a 
Protestant successor. 

636. Sir Thomas Browne mentions this superstition in connec- 
tion with the kinqfisher : " That a kingfisher, hanged by the bill, 
showeth us what quarter the wind is, by an occult and secret 
propriety, converting the breast to that point of the horizon 
from whence the wind doth blow, is a received opinion and very 

641. The metaphor is taken from the legend of Cadmus, who, 
after slaying the dragon, sowed its teeth, from which sprang a 
host of armed men. Cf. Milton, Areopayitim (ed. Hales), p. 5, 
1. 32, "as those fabulous Dragons teeth ... being sown up and 
down may chance to spring up armed men " (with Hales' note). 

648. " Though useless to us, and rather of molestation, we 
commonly refrain from killing swallows, and esteem it unlucky 
to destroy them." Sir Thomas Browne, Pseud. Ep. v. xxiv. 3. 
Cf. Brand, Pop. Ant. iii. 194 ; Hone, Everyday Bool, 256. 

653. old fanatic author, John White, commonly called Century 
White (1590-1644). He was a Puritan, a member of the Long 
Parliament, and a violent opponent of the Church of England. 
In order to defend the expulsion of the clergy from their bene- 
fices he published in 1643 a treatise entitled, "The First 
Century of Scandalous Malignant Priests, made and admitted 
into benefices by the Prelates," containing a hundred cases of 
alleged scandals in the Church of England. 

658. " The Hind intimates that, as the sunshine of Catholic 
prosperity, in the fable, depended on the king's life, there 
existed those among her enemies who would fain have it 



shortened. But from this insinuation she exempts the Church 
of England, and only expresses her fears that her passive 
principles would incline her to neutrality " (Scott). 

661. non-resistance, Green, p. 670. 

665. Pardalis, Gk. TrdpdaXis, a leopard, panther. 

677. sanguinary laws, i.e. the penal laws against the Roman 
Catholics, called ' sanguinary ' in a pamphlet in favour of union 
between the two Churches quoted by Scott. 

678. that Prince, Louis XIV. 

of tyranny, depends on condemn, not on that Prince as 
Scott says. 

679. mandate, the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. 

682. St. John, viii. 7. 

683. blunted sword, cf. n. 417. 

684. "As that monarch [Louis XIV.] did not proceed to the 
extremity of capital punishment against the Huguenots, Dryden 
contends his edicts were more merciful than the penal laws by 
which mass-priests are denounced as guilty of high treason" 

688, 689. /. Kings, xii. 10, 11. 

690. note, stigma, brand, Lat. nota. Cf. Shak. Lucr. 208, 
"My posterity, shamed with the note." 

691. i.e. allege that the penal laws against the Roman 
Catholics were originally enacted in the early days of the 

695. allow, approve (allaudo), as often in Elizabethan English. 
St. Luke, xi. 48, "Ye allow the deeds of your fathers." 

696. the Test, Green, p. 641. 

702. imperial cedar, //. Kings, xiv. 9. 

703. " The Test Act was passed in 1678, while the Popish Plot 
was in its vigour, and the Earl of Shaftesbury was urging every 
point against the Catholics, with his eyes uniformly h'xed upon 
the Bill of Exclusion as his crowning measure" (Scott). 

707. "But though the Test Act was devised by a statesman 
whom they hated, and carried by a party whom they had opposed, 
the High Church clergy were not the less unwilling to part with 
it when they found the advantages which it gave them against 
the Papists in King James' reign " (Scott). 

708. slight, " a cunning trick " (Bailey). 

709. disseised. " Disseisin signifieth in the Common Lawe an 
unlawfull dispossessing of a man of his land, tenement, or other 
immoveable or incorporeall right" (Cowell, Interpreter), 

63-66] NOTES. 115 

710. "Charles sullenly gave way" (Green, p. 641). 

712. heir. Dryden's translation of Virgil's Sola domum et 
tantas servdbat filia sedes (Aen. vii. 52) is "One only daughter 
heired the royal state." 

715. St. Matthew, xxvii. 3-5. 

717. Green, p. 651. 

724, 725. i.e. at the Reformation Roman Catholic peers were 
not excluded from the House of Lords. 

726. i.e. under the Commonwealth. 

729. mitred seats, i.e. the bishops of the Established Church 
retain their seats in the House of Lords. 

David's bench, i.e. the seats of the Roman Catholic peers, 
called David's apparently because they supported Charles II. 
who appears as David in Absalom and Achitophel. 

731. the Test, the Test Act of 1678. "By this test, which 
required the renunciation of their religion as idolatrous, the 
Catholic peerage were effectually and for ever excluded from 
their seats in the House of Lords " (Scott). 

735. "It was known that the Protestant dissidents were pre- 
pared to waive all objection to oath [i.e. of allegiance and 
supremacy] or sacrament [i.e. the reception of the sacrament 
according to the rites of the Church of England], while the Bill 
would wholly exclude Catholics from share in the Government" 
(Green, p. 641). 

736. hold, i.e. be satisfactorily passed, a specialisation of the 
ordinary meaning, which would be neutral. 

741. writ of ease apparently means a writ by which a Member 
of Parliament (who, if not in any way disqualified, cannot immed- 
iately resign his seat) may be relieved of the position, very much 
in the same way as is now done in accepting the stewardship of 
the Chiltern Hundreds. Dryden uses it again in the Epilogue to 
A II for Love : " He does his best ; and if he cannot please, Would 
quietly sue out his writ of ease." Prof. Saintsbury, to whom this 
reference is due, explains the phrase as meaning "discharge from 

744. Wrong conscience = sectarian ; no conscience = atheists, of 
1. 735. 

745. "to sterve, to die" (Bailey). A.S. steorfan = to die. 

749. censing. Cf. Dryden's translation of Aen. viii. 285, " The 
Salii sing, and cense his altars round With Saban smoke." 

750. In the apocryphal Book of T obit (chs. vi. and vii.), Sara, 
the daughter of Raguel, is haunted by an evil spirit, which had 
killed seven men to whom she had been betrothed. But Tobias 
" took the ashes of the perfumes, and put the heart and the liver 


of the fish thereupon, and made a smoke therewith. The which 
smell, when the evil spirit had smelled, he fled into the outmost 
parts of Egypt, and the angel bound him " (viii. 2, 3). Cf. 
Milton, P.L. iv. 166-171, 

" So entertained those odorous sweets the Fiend 

Who came their bane, though with them better pleased 

Than Asmodeus with the fishy fume 

That drove him, though enamoured, from the spouse 

Of Tobit's son, and with a vengeance sent 

From Media post to Egypt, there fast bound." 

755. the butt and peace. In Dryden's Tempest (in. iii.), 
Stephano, Mustacho, and Ventoso offer to make peace with 
Trincalo on condition that " the butt [i.e. of wine] may be com- 
prehended in the treaty. " And again in Act iv. , Sc. iii. , when 
Trincalo asks "Peace or war? ;> Mustacho replies, "Peace, and 
the butt." Christie quotes the phrase again from Dryden's Pro- 
logue to Mistakes, " Peace and the butt is all our business here " 
(Globe edition, p. 473). 

757. forma pauperis "is when any person has cause of suit, 
and is so poor that he cannot dispeud the usual charges of 
suing at law or equity " (Bailey). 

761. yawning, " indicating an irksome weariness " (Bailey). 

763. the Italian King, i.e. Latinus. Virg. Aen. vii. 213 seq. 

767. Virg. Aen. vii. 219, Ab love principium generis. 

768. Ib. 229, Dis sedem exiguam patriis litusque rogamm 

772. Lavinia, daughter of Latinus. 

774. exiled gods. Cf. sum plus Aeneas raptos qui ex hoste 
Penates datse veho mecum (Aen. i. 378). 

776. poppits. Palsgrave (L* eclair cissement de la langue Fran- 
$aise, 1530) gives " Popet for chyldre to play with povpee s, f. 
Minsheu (The Guide into Tongues, 1627), has " a Poppet. Vi. 
Puppet." Halliwell quotes poppet in the sense of ' idol ' from the 
Play of Wit and Science, " Wyth lyeng and swerying by no 

777. preferred. Bailey gives " To Prefer, to bring in, in speak- 
ing of a Bill, Indictment, or Law." 

780. Green, p. 669. 

784. cameleon, " a Creature like a Lizard, frequenting the 
Rocks, living on the Air or Flies, which, as is said, will turn himself 
into all Colours but Red and White " (Bailey). Cf. Shak., Gent. 
Ver. n. iv. 24, " Sil. What, angry, Sir Thurio ! do you change 
colour? Vol. Give him leave, madam; he is a kind of 

66-68] NOTES. H7 

786-789. ' ' James II. and the Established Church set out on the 
highest terms of good humour with each other. This, as the 
king afterwards assured the dissenters, was owing to the pro- 
fessions made to him by some of the Churchmen, whom he 
named, who had promised favour to the Catholics, provided 
he would abandon all idea of general toleration, and leave them 
their ancient authority over the fanatics " (Scott). 

789. Green, p. 664. 

793. to espouse, i.e. treasure offered for espousing. This loose 
use of the infinitive, a survival of the old gerund, is common in 
Elizabethan English. Cf. Abbott's Shak. Gram., 356. 

795-800. The extension of toleration to Nonconformists as well 
as Roman Catholics. 

796. Cf. the description of James in Absalom and Achitophel, 
359, " His mercy even the offending crowd will find, For sure he 
comes of a forgiving kind." 

797. Ms godlike race, i.e. Charles II. as described in Absalom 
and Achitophel, 323-326, "Inclined to mercy and averse from 

808. "Two pamphlets were published, urging the necessity of 
an alliance between the Church of England and the Dissenters, 
and warmly exhorting the latter not to be cajoled to serve 
the purposes of their joint enemies of Rome by the pretended 
toleration which was held out as a snare to them. One of these, 
called ' Reflections on the Declaration of Indulgence,' is ascribed 
to Burnet ; the other, called ' Advice to Dissenters ' is supposed 
to come from the masterly pen of Halifax " (Scott). 

809. the associating name, i.e. the title of an associator, or one 
who makes socii, with reference to the 'wise alliance' of the 
preceding line. Cf. Bailey, " To Associate, to bring into 
Society or Fellowship." 

812-813. Cf. 665, 666. 

814. Proteus. Cf. Hor. Ep. i. i. 90, Quo teneam vultus mutan- 
tem Protea nodo ? Hor. Sat. n. iii. 71-73 ; Virg. Georg. iv. 387 

819, 8 9 0. Scott quotes, in illustration of this, Horn. II. i. 
403, 8i> Bptdpecov KoKtovcri 6eoi, tivdpes 5e re Trdvres Alyaluv'. 

821. Cf. the description of 'tickling Commodity' in Shak. 
King John, n. i. 567-580, with that of conscience in Rich. III., i. 
iv. 130 seq. 

821-842. The argument of the Panther in this speech is, with 
the simile of the inundation, literally versified from a 
pamphlet entitled ' ' Some Reflections on a Discourse entitled, 
'Good Advice to the Church of England,'" quoted by Scott^: 
-"The penal laws cannot prejudice the Papists in this king's 


reign, seeing he can connive at the non-execution of them, and 
the repeal of them now cannot benefit the Papists when he is 
gone ; because, if they do not behave themselves modestly, we 
can either re-establish them, or enact others which they will be 
as little fond of. But their abrogation at this time would 
infallibly prejudice us, and would prove to be the pulling up of 
the sluices, and the throwing down the dikes, which stem the 
deluge that is breaking in upon us, and which hinder the 
threatening waves from overflowing us. " 

834. authentic, in the sense given by Bailey (s.v.), "generally 
approved or allowed of." 

835. Of. St. Luke, xxi. 9, "In your patience possess ye your 
souls." According to Scott, a favourite expression with Dryden. 

attend, wait. 

836. i.e. the accession of the Prince of Orange, 
ascend, a technical term in astrology. 

842. all-dispensing power, "the power claimed and liberally 
exercised by the king of dispensing with the penal statutes " 
(Scott). Cf. Green, p. 670. 

852. Cf. 1. 836. 

856. Cf. 1. 827. 

857. reprise, "a retaking" (Bailey). 

858. "This conveys a perilous insinuation, which perhaps it 
would, at the time, have been prudent to suppress ; since it goes 
the length of preparing a justification of the resumption of the 
power, authority, lands, and revenues of the Church of England, 
upon the footing of their having originally belonged to that 
of Rome. It cannot be supposed that this hint could be passed 
over at the time, without a strong feeling of a meditated revolu- 
tion in Church government and property " (Scott). 

860. i.e. Holland, the "Low Countries." 
868. dispeopled continent, cf. 1. 679. 

871, 872. This refers to the Huguenots who fled to England 
after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. According to 
Burnet (quoted by Scott), James " was very kind to the refugees; 
he was liberal to many of them ; he ordered a brief for a chari- 
table collection over the nation for them all, upon wuich great 
sums were sent in. They were deposited in good hands and well 
distributed. The king also ordered them to be deriizen'd, without 
paying fees, and gave them great immunities." 

884. The Divine Right of Kings (Green, p. 478). 

894. the Pigeon, the clergy of the Church of England. 

the Buzzard, Dr. Burnet, afterwards Bishop of Salisbury. 

68-71] NOTES. 119 

900. homely style. In the Preface Dryden says that the third 
part, " which has more of the nature of domestic conversation, is 
or ought to be more free and familiar than the two former." 

901. James II. Pope has borrowed the expression a plain 
good man in Moral Essays, Ep. in., 1. 342. 

903. England, Scotland, and Ireland. 

911. i.e. succeeded to the throne. 

912. i.e. did not increase taxation. 

914. overlooked, "to have an eye upon, or look after" 

916. With this cf. Macaulay's description : " Though a liber- 
tine, James was diligent, methodical, and fond of authority 
and business. His understanding was singularly slow and 
narrow, and his temper obstinate, harsh, and unforgiving" 
(pop. ed., i. 84). 

929-932. It is a law of nature that plain-dealing does not gain 
worldly success, but it looks as if fate wished to prove James an 
exception to the rule, and, being unable to do so by relaxing the 
rigour of his honesty, produced the same result by an act of 

936. The Catholic chapel at Whitehall (Scott). 

941. sort, company, flock. Cotgrave has " Tas, a deal, sort, 
rabble, company, troop." Used in a bad sense in Shakespeare, 
e.g. "a sort of traitors" (Rich. II., iv. 246) ; "a sort of naughty 
persons" (Hen. VI. , B, n. i. 167). 

Doves, " the clergy of the Church of England, and those of 
London in particular " (Scott, who calls attention to the changed 
attitude of Dryden towards the Church of England, as indicating 
that the passage was written after the Declaration of Indulgence). 

942. It was a popular belief that pigeons had no gall. Cf. 
Shak. Hand. n. ii. 604, " I am pigeon-livered and lack gall"; 
Sir Thomas Browne, Vulgar Errors, bk. in., ch. iii., "That a 
Pidgeon hath no gall" ; Drayton, Ninth Eclogue, "A milk-white 
Doue, About whose Necke was in a Choller wrought ' Only like 
me my mistress hath no gall. 5 " 

943. passively inclined, another allusion to the doctrine of 
passive obedience. 

946. salt, perhaps wHh reference to the State endowments of 
the Established Churcn (solarium, originally " salt-money"). 

948. bound Toy promise. The Declaration in Council, issued 
on the accession of James II., contained these words : " I know 
the principles of the Church of England are for monarchy, and 
the members of it have shown themselves good and loyal subjects, 
therefore I shall always take care to defend and support it." 
Cf. Green, p. 664. 


950. that house, i.e. England. 

951. better birds, i.e. the Roman Catholics. 
955. Virg. Aen. iii. 210 seq. 

958. eat = ate. Morris, Hist. Outl. (revised by Kellner and 
Bradley), 286. Ben Jonson, in his Grammar, gives et as the 
past tense. 

960. Dan . . . Beersheba, the extreme north and south, the John 
o' Groats and Land's End of Palestine (7. Sam. iii. 20). 

962. Levi's kind, i.e. the recognised priesthood. 

965. quit their claim, cf. n. 237. 

969. served rhymes with starved. An ar sound was developed 
from an original er in some words. This change began in Middle 
English, but was perhaps carried out more fully in early Modern 
English times (Emerson, Hist, of Eng. Lang., 230). Cf. the 
modern pronunciation of clerk, Derby, etc. Parson was origin- 
ally person. 

972. Burton (Anat. Mel., pt. i., sec. 2, mem. 2, subs. 1) includes 
pigeons among fowl whose flesh is "hard, black, unwholesome, 
dangerous, melancholy meat." 

976. Another allusion to the absence of asceticism in the 
Church of England. 

977. He did not consider the elements in the Eucharist as 
duly consecrated by the clergy of the Established Church. 

978. 979. He allowed his ministers to be communicants of the 
Church of England. 

983, 984. Mass was celebrated in the royal chapel. 

985. jolly, cf. "the jolly Luther," i. 369. 

989. domestic poultry, the Catholic clergy maintained by King 
James (Scott). 

1000. "The cock is made an emblem of the regular clergy of 
Rome, on account of their nocturnal devotions and matins " 

1018. sister Partlet, i.e. the nuns. Peridot is the name of the 
hen in Caxton's translation of " Reynard the Fox " ( Arber's Eng. 
Schol. Libr., p. 31). Cf. Chaucer, C.T., B, 4060, " Sevene 
hennes...of whiche the faireste . . . was cleped faire damoysele 

1020-1027. Ironical exposition of ti?e Protestant views of 

1027. luggage, " a heavy Weight or Burden" (Bailey). 

1030. common cry, cf. n. 23. 

1034. frontless, shameless, thefrons in Latin being regarded 
as the seat of bashfulness. Cf. "the most froutless flatterers" 
in the Preface to Rel. Laid and 1. 1180 of the present book. 

71-75] NOTES. 121 

1038. " The Roman Catholic pamphlets of the time are filled 
with complaints that their principles were misrepresented by the 
Protestant divines ; and that king-killing tenets, and others of a 
pernicious or absurd nature, were unjustly ascribed to them " 

1040. barking- deities. The Egyptian god, Anubis, was 
represented with the head of a jackal or dog-ape. The Romans 
represented him in the form of a dog. Serapis too was repre- 
sented with an animal by his side having the head of a dog, lion, 
or wolf. 

1041. Ptolemy, the famous Greek mathematician, astronomer, 
and geographer of the second century, whose system of the 
universe, regarding the earth as a fixed centre, was generally 
accepted till superseded by the Copernican. 

1042. draught, " the Resemblance of a Thing drawn " (Bailey). 

1047- "The worship of images, charged upon the Romish 
Church by Protestants as idolatrous " (Scott). 

1050. Holland emblem, i.e. Dutch caricature. "The Dutch 
seem to have been remarkable for them, of which their old- 
fashioned prints and figured pantiles are existing evidence" 
(Scott). Bayes, in The Hind and Panther Transversed, is made 
to say : "I was proffered a pension to go into Holland and con- 
trive their emblems ; but, hang 'em, they are dull rogues, and 
would spoil my invention." 

1058. birds of Venus, i.e. the doves, with reference to the non- 
celibacy of the clergy of the Church of England. 

1066. "The laws imposing the penalty of high treason on 
priests saying mass in England " (Scott). 

1068. "The Roman Catholic nobility, excluded from the 
House of Peers by the imposition of the Test " (Scott). 

1070. Shibboleth, Judges, xii. 6. 

1072, 1073. By the first Test Act passed in 1563 an oath of 
allegiance to the Queen and abjuration of the temporal authority 
of the Pope was exacted from all holders of office, lay or 
spiritual, with the exception of peers (Green, p. 384). The Test 
Act passed in 1673 enforced the oaths of Allegiance and 
Supremacy, the declaration against Transubstantiation, and the 
receiving of the Sacrament according to the rites of the Church 
of England upon all holding civil or military offices (Green, p. 

1074. Socrates was put to death by being compelled to drink 
the juice of hemlock. 

1075. Henbane is said to be particularly destructive to 
domestic fowls, whence it derives its name. 


1087, 1088. From a fragment of Euripides, preserved by 
Athenagoras : "Orav 5 dal/nwv dvdpl iropfftivri /ca/cd. TOP vouv H{3\a\[>e 
irpurov. The Latin rendering is Quern Deus vidt perdere prius 
dementat (Christie). 

1092. Alludes to the story of the pigeon which Mahomet is said 
to have trained to pick peas from his ear. Cf . Shak. Henry VI. (A), 
i. ii. 140, " Was Mahomet inspired with a dove ? " 

1097. protractive, temporising. 

1102. consult, " is a Consultation, but commonly taken in an 
ill sense for a secret Cabal of Plotters against the State " (Bailey). 

1110. haggard Hawk, "a wild Hawk which prey'd for herself 
before she was taken " (Bailey). Cf. Spenser, F.Q. i. xi. 19: 

" As hagard hauke, presuming to contend 

With hardy fowle above his liable might, 
His wearie pounces all in vaine doth spend. " 
The old French hagard literally means ' living in a hedge,' from 
Middle High German hag, a hedge. 

eyry, " the Nest where Hawks sit and hatch their Young " 
(Bailey). Originally aery, from Lat. area, corrupted into eyry, 
as if from Mid. Eng. ey, an egg. 

1111. pounced. Bailey gives " Strong -pounced Eagle, em Eagle 
having strong Talons or Claws." Cf. the quotation from Spenser 
on 1. 1110. 

1113. Musquet. Palsgrave (L'edaircissement de la langue 
Francaise, 1530) has "Musket, a lytell hauke mouchet." 
Minsheu (Guide into Tongues, 1627), " Musket, the male of a 
Sparrow-hauke. " Cotgrave (French and English Dictionary, 
1673), "Mouchet, a Musket ; the tassel of a Sparhawk." (Under 
Tiercelet Cotgrave explains tassel to be the male of any kind of 

Coystrel, the kestrel, a common kind of falcon, called also 
stannel and windhover. Spelt coistrel in Liberality and Pro- 
digality (Hazlitt's Dodsley, viii. 339), but generally kastril (Ben 
Jonson) ; castrel (Beaumont and Fletcher) ; kastrell (Cotgrave) ; 
or castrell (Minsheu). 

1115. Buzzard, " a sort of great Hawk or Kite ; also a senseless 
Fellow, an ignorant Fool " (Bailey). The Buzzard represents the 
famous Dr. Gilbert Burnet, afterwards Bishop of Salisbury. 
Bayes, in The Hind and Panther Transversed, is made to say, 
"His true name begins with a 'B.,' which makes me slily 
contrive him this to begin with the same letter." 

1119. This alludes, according to Scott, to the fact that Burnet, 
while vicar of Salton, in East Lothian, drew up a memorial of the 
abuses of the Scotch bishops, and was instrumental in procuring 
the induction of Presbyterian divines into vacant churches. 

75-77] NOTES. 123 

1121. forms. "Burnet's opinion, or rather indifference, con- 
cerning forms may be guessed at from the applause with 
which he quotes a saying of Dr. Henry More : ' None of them 
are bad enough to make men bad, and I am sure none of them 
are good enough to make men good ' " (Scott). The forms in 
this case would be the episcopacy to which he was supposed to be 

1126. After Burneb's breach with the Court he went abroad, 
and settled in Holland at the Court of the Prince of Orange. 
" From this place of refuge he sent forth several papers in single 
sheets relating to the controversy in England ; and the clergy, 
who had formerly looked upon him with some suspicion, began 
now to treat with great attention and respect a person so capable 
of serving their cause " (Scott). 

1136. son of Anak, Numbers, xiii. 33. 

1137. /. Samuel, ix. 2. 

1138. Cf. Shak. Ham. in. iv. 56, "The front of Jove 

1140. Refers, according to Scott, to Burnet's having just 
acquired the right of naturalisation in Holland by marrying Mrs. 
Mary Scott, a Dutch lady, but of Scottish extraction. 

1141. theologue, "a theologer, a divine, a professor, etc., of 
divinity " (Bailey). 

genial, natural. Sir Tho.mas Browne has " natural incapa- 
city and genial indisposition." 

Burnet was at one time Professor of Divinity at Glasgow, but, 
as Scott says, ' ' as his active temper led him to mingle much in 
political life, he speedily distinguished himself rather as a 
politician than a theologian." 

1146. Cf. note on 1. 1126. 

1156. the same, i.e. the same person, e.g. Charles II., whose 
favour, as Scott tells us, he forfeited by sending him a letter in 
which he treated his personal vices and the faults of his Govern- 
ment with great severity. 

1158, 1159. i.e. the same person is called hero or tyrant 
according as he smiles or frowns. "His opinions were often 
hastily adopted, and of course sometimes awkwardly retracted, 
and his patrons were frequently changed. ... In short, his having 
the address to attach himself for a time to almost every leading 
character whom he had an opportunity of approaching, gives us 
room to suspect that, if Burnet did not change his opinions, he 
had at least the art of disguising such as could be accommodated 
to those of his immediate patron " (Scott). 


1161. "When the king demanded that Burnet should be 
delivered up by the States, he threatened in return to justify 
himself, by giving an account of the share he had in affairs for 
twenty years past, in which he intimated he might be driven to 
mention some particulars which would displease the king" 

1164. treat, "an entertainment " (Bailey). 

1165. nice, fastidious, scrupulous. Of . Pope's phrase, " Damns 
with faint praise." 

1166. "This applies to the sketches of characters introduced 
by Burnet in his controversial tracts " (Scott, who, with regard 
to the History of his Own Times, adds) : "It is a general and 
just objection to the Bishop's historical characters, that they are 
drawn up with too much severity, and that the keenness of 
party has induced him, in many cases, to impose upon the reader 
a caricature for a resemblance." 

1167. From Virg. Aen. ii. 49, quidquid id est, timeo Danaos 
et dona ferentes. 

1168. Seven sacraments. "In the Roman Catholic Church 
and the Greek Church it is held that there are seven sacraments, 
viz. : baptism, confirmation, the eucharist, penance, extreme 
unction, holy orders, and matrimony " (Imp. Diet.). 

1169. Confession, in the Roman Catholic Church part of the 
sacrament of penance. 

1172-1174. "In 1675 the House of Commons, being resolved 
to assail the Duke of Lauderdale, and knowing that Burnet, in 
whom he had once reposed much confidence, could bear witness 
to some dangerous designs and expressions, appointed the Doctor 
to attend and be examined " (Scott). In the History of hit 
Own Times Burnet gives an account of the examination, and the 
pressure that was brought to bear upon him, to which he finally 
yielded, concluding, "I was much blamed for what I had done. 
Some, to make it look worse, added that I had been his chaplain, 
which was false, and that I had been much obliged to him, 
though I had never received any real obligation from him, but 
had done him great services, for which I had been very un- 
worthily requited : yet the thing had an ill appearance, as the 
disclosing of what had passed in confidence ..." 

1174. accusing, 5td/3o\os. 

1175. Moloch, "The God of the Amorites, to whom they 
sacrificed their children in the Valley of Tophet " (Bailey). 

1180. Frontless, cf. 1. 1034. 

1181. Indian muck. "'To run amuck' is a phrase derived 
from the practice of the Malays. When one of this nation has 
lost his whole substance by gaining, or sustained any other great 

77-79] NOTES. 125 

or insupportable calamity, he intoxicates himself with opium, 
and, having dishevelled his hair, rushes into the streets, crying 
Amocca, or Kill, and stabbing every one whom he meets with 
his creese, until he is cut down, or shot, like a mad dog" 
(Scott). Skeat says it is derived from the Malay dmuk " engag- 
ing furiously in battle, attacking with desperate resolution, 
rushing in a state of frenzy to the commission of indiscriminate 
murder." Bailey, apparently connecting it with Mecca, gives it 
as Muc or Moqua, "running the Muc, is when a Mahometan has 
been at Mecca, and, having procured a dagger half -poisoned, 
runs about, and kills all he meets that are not Mahometans, till 
he is kill'd himself, after which he is buried, and esteemed a 

1184. Cf. Lowell's "Essay on Dry den" in My Study Windows 
(Camelot Series), p. 326. 

1185. Captain of the Test. Burnet took a prominent part in 
the controversy about the Test Act, especially by writing several 
pamphlets on the subject against Dr. Samuel Parker, Bishop 
of Oxford. 

1188, 1189. "Burnet himself admits that his papers in this 
controversy with Parker were written with an acrimony of style 
which nothing but such a time and such a man could excuse. 
His papers were so bitter, that nobody durst offer them to the 
Bishop of Oxford, till the king himself sent them to him in 
hopes to stimulate him to an answer " (Scott). 

1191. Phaedrus, I. ii. 

1196. " The promise to maintain the Church of England, made 
in James' first proclamation after his accession, which the Church 
party alleged he had now broken. Part of the controversy which 
now raged turned on the precise meaning of the king's promise 
to maintain the Church of England as by law established. The 
Church party insisted that the Declaration of Indulgence was a 
breach of this promise, as it suspended their legal safeguards, the 
test and penal laws. The advocates for the toleration answered 
that the promise was conditional, and depended on the Church 
consenting to the abrogation of these laws " (Scott). 

1214. quills, i.e. pens. 

1217, 1218. Referring to a pamphlet by Burnet, entitled 
"Reasons against Repealing the Act of Parliament concerning the 
Test," in the course of which he says: "I hope none will be 
wanting in all possible respect to his sacred person ; and as we 
ought to be infinitely sorry to find him engaged in a religion 
which we must believe idolatrous, so we are far from the ill- 
manners of reflecting on his person, or calling him an idolater." 

1222. temper, i.e. a via media, a mean. 


L224. doom, judgment, decision, i.e. the Declaration of In- 
/lulgence, the provisions of which were : 1. That the king would 
protect and maintain the bishops, etc. , of the Church of England, 
as by law established, in the free exercise of their religion and 
quiet enjoyment of their possessions. 2. That all executions of 
penal laws against Nonconformists be suspended. 3. That all 
His Majesty's subjects should be at liberty to serve God after 
their own way, in public and private, so nothing was preached 
against the royal authority. 4. That the oaths of supremacy 
and allegiance and the tests made in the 25th and 30th years of 
Charles II. be discontinued. 5. That all Nonconformists be 
pardoned for former offences against the penal laws and test. 6. 
That abbey and church lands be assured to the possessors 

1232. measure, i.e. ground of inference, re/c/x^ptoj/. 

1234. fowl of nature, wild fowl, i.e. the Nonconformists ; 
not = "pure-bred," as Prof. Saintsbury says. Too = also, and 
goes with fowl of nature, as both sense and rhythm show. 

oppressed. " When the king had irreconcilably quar- 
relled with the Church he began to affect a great favour for 
the dissenters, and endeavoured to represent the measure of 
universal toleration to be intended as much for the benefit of the 
Protestant dissenters as of the Catholics. He dwelt upon the 
rigour of the church courts, and directed an inquiry to be made 
into all the vexatious suits which had been instituted against the 
dissenters, and the compositions which had been exacted from 
them under pretence of enforcing the laws " (Scott). 

1235-1237. Cf. note on 1. 1224. 

1249. Genesis, xlix. 10. 

1251. Dionysius, i.e. Dionysius the Younger, tyrant of Syra- 
cuse from B.C. 367 to 343. After his expulsion by Timoleon 
he is said to have kept school at Corinth. Cf. Cicero, Tusc. 
Disp. m. xii. 27, Dionysius quidem tyrannus, Syracusis 
expulsus, Corinthi pueros docebat : usque eo imperio carere non 

private rod, i.e. the ferula of the schoolmaster, in contrast 
with the sceptrum (cf. 1. 1249) of the tyrant. 

1257. In the Declaration of Indulgence James expressed his 
conviction that persecution was unfavourable to population and 

1259. From the Epistola ad Caesarem de Republica Ordinanda, 
ascribed to Sallust : Res docuit id verum esse quod in car- 
minibus Appius ait, fabrum esse quemque fortunae suae 
(Christie). Cf. Plautus, Trinummus, 363, "sapiens quidem pol 
ipsus fingit fortunam sibi. " 

79-80] NOTES. 127 

1263. "In the preceding lines the poet had intimated the 
increase of trade and wealth, an effect of toleration much dwelt 
upon in James' proclamation for liberty of conscience, and, 
indeed, the ostensible cause of its being issued. But Dryden, as 
every one else, further augured from the Declaration of Indul- 
gence, under the circumstances of the time, the speedy downfall 
of the Church of England, though he is willing to spare the king 
the odium of hastening what he represents as the natural conse- 
quence of her own ambition and intolerance " (Scott). 

1269. "Dryden insinuates the improbability that the High 
and Low Church party would long continue in union, since the 
authority assumed by Burnet, their present advocate, was incon- 
sistent with that of Sancroft, the Primate, Compton, Bishop of 
London, and other leaders of the High Church party among the 
clergy " (Scott). 

1271. Refers to Burnet's former attack upon episcopacy. In 
his account of the controversy between the clergy and dissenters, 
as given in the MS. of his History, though considerably modified 
in the published edition, he speaks very harshly of the Church of 
England clergy, calling them " the worst natured, the fiercest, 
indiscreetest, and most persecuting sort of people that are in the 
nation." After inveighing against their simony, worldliness, 
sensuality, and bigotry, he ends by saying : " In a word, many 
of them are a reproach to Christianity and to their profession, 
and are now, perhaps, one of the most corrupt bodies of men in 
the nation" (Somers' Tracts, p. 116, quoted by Scott). 

1273. Cf. Horace, Odes, i. ii. 45, Serus in cadum redeas; 
Abs. and Ach. 350, "And late augment the number of the 

1274. benting times, i.e. the time when 'bents' or grass-seeds 
are ripe. "To go a-benting" is a phrase used of pigeons, to be 
driven by hunger to eat the seeds of grass. The English Dialect 
Dictionary quotes the Derbyshire proverb : 

" Pigeons never know such woe, 
As when they a-bentiug go " ; 
and from Suffolk : 

" The clow she dew no sorrow know 
Until she dew a-benten go," 


(The figures refer to the pages in the notes on which the 
words indexed appear.) 


Abode, 101. 
Abstinence, 120. 
Accusing, 124. 
Adam, 88. 
Admire, 109. 
Ahaz, 112. 
Algerine, 109. 
Allay, 88. 
Alliance, 117. 
Allow, 114. 
Alluded, 109. 
Altars, 108. 
Anak, 123. 
Angel, 97. 
Anointed, 107. 
Antique, 111. 
Ape, 83. 
Apostles, 96. 
Apostolic, 95. 
Appointed, 97. 
Anns, 99. 
Ascend, 118. 
Assertions, 105. 
Athanasius, 84. 
Atheist, 106. 
Attend, 118. 
Authentic, 118. 
Author, 113. 


Bacchanals, 90. 
Balance, 112. 

Banished, 118. 

Bats, 113. 

Battle, 117. 

Bear, 83. 

Beast, 96. 

Beersheba, 120. 

Bench, 115. 

Benjamin, 100. 

Bilander, 85. 

Bill, 113. 

Bills, 92. 

Bird, 120. 

Birds, 100, 120, 126. 

Bleaky, 113. 

Blessed, 111. 

Blood, 82, 110, 114, 120, 127, 

Boar, 83. 

Body, 84, 95. 

Borders, 100. 

Breadth, 104. 

Breath, 96. 

Brood, 86. 

Butt, 116. 

Buzzard, 118, 122. 


Caesar, 102, 103. 
Caledon, 101. 
Calves, 93. 
Cambria, 86. 
Cameleon, 116. 
Cannon, 94. 
Capricorn, 112. 




Captain, 85. 

Croak, 111. 

Careful, 112. 

Crown, 86, 114. 

Cast, 102. 

Crown -general, 97. 

Casting, 110. 

Crowns, 123. 

Cedar, 114. 

Cry, 88, 120. 

Cemented, 112. 

Cuckoo, 112. 

Censing, 115. 

Curtana, 98. 

Century, 89. 

Chair, 95. 


Change, 109. 
Chanticleer, 121. 
Chapel, 112. 
Chaplain, 110. 
Character, 103. 
Characters, 109. 
Charged, 99. 
Cheat, 109. 
Cheer, 110. 
Chelidonian, 111. 
Child, 107. 

Daemon, 108. 
Dark, 113. 
Darkly, 97. 
Death, 82. 
Decay, 127. 
Decree, 116. 
Deities, 121. 
Democracy, 86. 
Design, 121. 
Despised, 90. 
Devest 86. 

Chorister, 110. 

Die, 102. 

Christ, 95. 

Diet 97. 

Church, 98. 
Church-decrees, 97. 

Digits, 100. 
Dint, 105. 

Circle, 95. 
Claim, 96, 120. 
Class, 86. 

Dionysius, 126. 
Disgrace, 98. 
Disseised, 114. 

Clergy, 107. 
Clime, 123. 
Coat, 100, 114. 
Colchos, 87. 

Divineress, 111. 
Divisible, 88. 
Dogs, 87. 
Donors, 98. 

Complaints, 102. 
Confession, 124. 
Confessor, 106. 
Conscience, 105, 115, 117. 

Doom, 126. 
Dorp, 113. 
Doted, 103. 
Doves, 119. 

Consult, 122. 
Continent, 118. 
Converts, 104. 

Draught, 121. 
Drinking, 92. 
Dross, 115. 

Corah, 86. 

Dumb, 94. 

Coronation, 87. 

Dunce, 110. 

Coronet, 121. 

Couches, 92. 


Council, 95. 

Councils, 95. 

Eagles, 95. 

Coystrel, 122. 
Creature, 90. 
Crest, 85. 
Crimes, 124. 

Ears, 85. 
Eat, 120. 
Emblem, 121. 
Enemy, 103. 



Envy, 102. 
Espouse, 117. 
Excepts, 96. 
Expect, 110. 
Eye, 84. 
Eyry, 122. 


Fabric, 119. 
Face, 100. 
Faith, 85. 
Fallacies, 94. 
Fare, 103. 
Farewell, 107. 
Fast, 101. 

Fate, 119, 122, 126. 
Feast, 102. 
Fields, 88. 
Fight, 108. 
Fire, 87. 
Fires, 84, 96. 
Fireworks, 100. 
First, 95. 
Fix, 111. 
Flight, 108. 
Flood, 92. 
Floods, 118. 
Flourish, 105. 
Foes, 88. 
Food, 85. 
Forests, 83. 
Forewarns, 124. 
Forgive, 117. 
Forma pauper is, 116. 
Forms, 123. 
Fountain, 96. 
Fourth, 99. 
Fowls, 112. 
France, 86. 
French, 103. 
Frontless, 120, 124. 
Fulminated, 99. 
Fulsome, 87. 

Gale 110. 
Gall, 119. 
Gate, 92. 


Geneva, 86. 

Genial, 123. 

Gentleman, 109. 

Gibeonites, 112. 

God, 85. 

Gods, 116. 

Gold, 96, 100, 101, 115. 

Gospel, 106. 

Government, 123. 

Grace, 91. 

Grain, 120. 

Grant, 98. 

Grot, 111. 

Ground, 118. 

Guest, 100. 

Guide, 93, 101. 


Haggered, 85. 
Half-way, 89. 
Hand, 85. 
Hands, 99. 
Hare, 83. 
Harpies, 120. 
Harvest, 113. 
Battered, 90. 
Hawk, 122. 
Head, 98, 101. 
Heads, 98. 
Heaven, 127. 
Height, 110. 
Heir, 102, 115. 
Henbane, 121. 
Herds, 90. 
Heresies, 99. 
Hero, 82, 123. 
Higher, 86. 
Hind, 82. 
Hinder, 111. 
Hinted, 109. 
Honour, 107. 
Honours, 102. 
Horror, 100. 
House, 92, 120. 
Hudibras, 106. 
Hue, 93. 
Humility, 106, 108. 



Hungary, 97. 


Hunt, 83. 
Hunter, 88. 

Maintain, 100. 
Malice, 108. 

Man, 119. 


Mandate, 114. 

Inclined, 119. 

Market, 106. 

Increase, 119. 

Marks, 99. 

Incontinence, 89. 

Marriage, 105. 

Industrious, 99. 
Informing, 87. 

Mart, 99. 
Martin, 110, 111, 113. 

Interest, 117. 

Measure, 126. 

Isgrim, 91. 

Mercenaries, 97. 

Israel, 83. 

Merlin, 112. 

Messiah, 104. 


Moloch, 124. 

Jaws, 88. 

Monster, 93. 

Jehu, 95. 

Monsters, 86. 

Jolly, 120. 

Mother Hubbard, 101. 

Joseph, 100. 

Muck, 124. 

Judge, 109. 

Muff, 93. 

Jupiter, 123. 

Musquet, 122. 

Muzzled, 85. 


Kind, 120. 

Kindness, 124. 


King, 116, 125. 

Name, 83, 107, 117. 

Kings, 86. 

Native, 88. 

Known, 125. 

Nature, 87, 126. 

Need, 112. 


Nice, 124. 

Ladder, 96. 
Land, 118. 

Nicene, 95. 
Non-resistance, 114. 

Latitude, 103. 

Nostradamus, 111. 

Lavinia, 116. 
Lawful, 95. 
Lciwii 97 

Note, 114. 
Nothing, 94. 
Novices, 90. 

Laws,' 114. 

Nuncius, 100. 

Liked, 111. 

Lion, 83, 88, 92, 93, 117. 

O 1 

Lioness, 101. 

Logician, 105. 
Lordships, 119. 
Loyalty, 94. 
Lubbers, 112. 

Obligement, 91. 
Obnoxious, 82. 
Occasional, 97. 
Ocean, 86. 

Luggage, 120. 
Luther, 90. 

Oppressed, 126. 
Ordination, 98. 

Luxury, 89. 

Overlooked, 119. 




Palliards, 98. 
Pan, 88, 101. 
Panther, 89. 
Pardalis, 114. 
Pardon, 82. 
Parts, 84. 
Patent, 92. 
Patience, 118. 
Patron, 125. 
Peace, 102, 126. 
Pedigree, 116. 
Peers, 115. 
Performance, 119. 
Philistines, 93. 
Phrygia, 101. 
Phylacteries, 90. 
Pigeon, 118. 
Pigeons, 125. 
Piles, 95. 
Plains, 85. 
Planet, 118. 
Plant, 112. 
Plea, 109. 
Plot, 93, 115. 
Polled, 113. 
Pollutions, 83. 
Pope, 94. 
Poppits, 116. 
Possession, 119. 
Poultry, 120. 
Pounced, 122. 
Power, 83, 93, 118, 120. 
Preferment, 106. 
Preferred, 116. 
Prerogative, 87. 
Presumed, 90. 
Presumes, 111. 
Prevent, 100. 
Prevention, 99. 
Prince, 114. 
Principles, 91. 
Procession, 108. 
Profit, 121. 
Promise, 119. 
Prophet, 122, 123. 
Proselytes, 90, 104. 
Prospect, 109. 

Proteus, 117. 
Protracted, 109. 
Protractive, 122. 
Ptolemy, 121. 
Puddle, 86. 
Pulpits, 104. 
Punishment, 10T. 


Quarrel, 103. 
Quarry, 94. 
Question, 94. 
Quills, 125. 


Rabble, 113. 
Race, 117. 
Rains, 99. 
Ram, 111. 
Raven, 111. 
Rebel, 107. 
Reception, 94. 
Religion, 105. 
Remainders, 112. 
Renounces, 103. 
Repast, 101. 
Reprise, 118. 
Rest, 102. 
Reverence, 93. 
Reynard, 83. 
Rites, 120. 
Rival, 115. 
Rod, 126. 
Rodriguez, 108. 
Rome, 94. 
Round, 102. 
Rounds, 87. 


Sacraments, 124. 
Sacrifices, 93. 
Saint Martin, 112. 
Salt, 119. 
Salvo, 94. 
Sanctity, 83. 
Sanhedrim, 86. 
Saver, 109. 



Scales, 111. 
Schism, 98. 
Score, 108. 
Scorpio, 104. 
Scorpion, 114. 
Scythian, 82. 
Seats, 115. 
Seed, 83. 
Senate, 102. 
Served, 120. 
Seven, 100. 
Shades, 87. 
Shadow, 94. 
Shards, 88. 
Sheep, 103. 
Shelf, 96. 
Shibboleth, 121. 
Shiloh, 126. 
Shimei, 107. 
Shores, 98. 
Shrines, 121. 
Sign, 91. 
Sinister, 111. 
Sire, 115. 

Sister Partlet, 120. 
Slight, 114. 
Smith, 87. 
Snarl, 104. 
Socinus, 84. 
Socrates, 121. 
Son, 107. 
Sons, 102, 106. 
Sorcerers, 98. 
Sort, 119. 
Soul, 110. 
Sound, 98. 
Southwards, 110. 
Sovereign, 116. 
Species, 86. 
Spirits, 89. 
Spiritual, 100. 
Spoil, 84. 
Spooms, 102. 
Spread, 98, 100. 
Standard, 99. 
State, 115. 
Statues, 96. 
Steeples, 105. 

Sterve, 115. 
Stigmatised, 90. 
Stone, 95, 114. 
Style, 119. 
Substance, 90. 
Sun, 110. 
Supply, 101. 
Sure, 95. 

Swallows, 109, 113. 
Swifts, 112. 
Swilling, 103. 
Swisses, 104. 
Sword, 104, 114. 


Tail, 85. 
Tax, 91, 106. 
Teemless, 87. 
Temper, 125. 
Test, 94, 114, 115, 125. 
Testament, 97- 
Theologue, 123. 
Thrid, 107. 
Throne, 98, 127. 
Tides, 92. 
Times, 127. 
Tire, 108. 
Topmost, 96. 
Traditions, 96. 
Treat, 124. 
Tribute, 85. 
Tricks, 96. 
Trim, 111. 
Triumphs, 112. 
Trustees, 118. 


Unharmful, 88. 
Unspotted, 82. 
Unthrift, 107. 
Urged, 96. 


Venus, 121. 
Verse, 108. 
Victory, 100. 
Virtue, 124. 




Wait, 93. 
Walks, 87. 
Wante 1 102. 
War, 122. 
Wardrobe, 98. 
Wave, 91. 
Wealth, 101. 
Wife, 90. 
Wilful, 101. 
Wince, 103. 
Wind, 91. 
Winter, 110. 

Wishes, 113. 
Wolf, 85, 103. 
Wood, 82. 
Woods, 87. 
Words, 85, 97. 
Wounds, 82. 
Wriu, 115. 

Year, 110. 
Young, 82. 



PR Dryden, J ohn 

3418 The Hind and the panther