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Bengal Civil Service, 

'•• It is really surprising, when you come to think of it, how ungrammati- 
cally people do talk." 

Third Edition. 


Thacker, Spink & Co. 

London : W. THACKER& CO., 2, Creed Lane, Ludgate Hill. 


\All rights reserved?^ 





The Author must express his regret at this little work 
having been out of print for a time. His excuse is the 
unexpected rapidity with which the First Edition was 
absorbed by the public. It is, however, satisfactory to 
know that the book is fulfilling the purpose for which it 
was written ; and has already become, in a great measure, 
/Ae dook, which even those who must eventually know 
the vernacular character, read, in order to gain a rapid 
knowledge of the construction of the language, and a large 
stock of guaranteed words and phrases. Nothing is then 
left but to study the Vernacular Alphabet. 

The present volume is larger than its predecessor. This 
is because many complaints reached the Author that there 
was too little in the book. The cry was for more. This 
is a good sign. But, on the other hand, there were com- 
plaints of inability to remember words only * once given ' 
in the course of the "Lessons." The collecting of all 
words given in the body of the book into the Glossaries at 
the en<1, is one cause of the increase i size. 

Another is that the number of Exercises has, on demand, 
been largely added to, implying the introduction of many 
additional words. 

It has been considered proper to retain in the body of 
the book the lists of words there given, though now also 
to be found in the Glossaries. They are selected words 



which, in the opinion of the Author, one must know ; and 
whether one learns them or not as they stand above the 
Exercises— one certainly would never learn them, if they 
stood only in a ** Dictionary." 

Perhaps the humble ** Index " deserves mention. Thus 
by turning to the proper Sub-Head under the General 
Head " Vocabularies," you will find where all the words 
relating to anyone subject, (as * Animals,' * Birds,' * Vermin,' 
and so on,) are to be found collected in the body of the 

Another feature which certainly deserves notice here is 
that in both Glossaries, nouns which are masculine but have 
feminine terminations are marked (m.), while feminine 
nouns not ending in the recognised feminine terminations 
(see page 8,) are marked (f.). At page 105 you will find a 
useful (but of course incomplete) list of such feminine 
nouns. False genders grate horribly on the ear; ^ Mon 
soeur est trh-beau,^ 

But the chief new feature of this Edition is "The 
Reader," which contains a collection of modern extracts 
of fable, story, dialogue and oratory. These should be 
enough to satisfy all those who have ventured to * ask for 


As the First Edition was complete in its exposition of 
the grammatical structure of the language, much could not 

be added on this subject. Some sections however have 

been now more fully treated than before ; as for example, 

the Pronoun * apna,' on page 30. 

Thus has the Author endeavoured to give some return 

to the public for its kind reception of the First Edition, by 

making the Second Edition more copious, more complete 

and more convenient than the First. 



The Author also hopes to be able to give the student 
— very soon — a translation of all the Exercises, and of 
•The Reader.' This will both shorten labour, and render 
a correct acquisition of the language more certain and 

It remains for the Author to acknowledge the services 
rendered by Moulvi Zdhir-ud-dfn of Patna in perusina; the 
Hinddstdni additions, as they passed through the press. 

Patna, February 1893. 


This little book has been written at the request of ladies, 
so that no apology for its appearance is called for. Their 
complaint was that no book exists from which they can 
gain a complete and correct knowledge of the Hindustani 
language suited to their daily requirements; and so they 
have to struggle with books which give them both too 
much and too little. Therefore they requested that a 
small book should be written by aid of which the true 
grammatical structure of the language might be learned, 
and a stock of words acquired which are actually in daily 
use. It is hoped, that those who have learned the lessons 
of this book vivd, voce with the Author will remember him 
kindly when they see these lessons in print. 

The scope of the book is not ambitious. Thus, there 
are no dissertations on the origin of the language, or on 
the derivation of words, or on philological analogies. Very 
little will be found of ornate Persian or Arabic phraseo- 
logy. Even some of the refinements of the alphabet— -for 
instance, the distinction between ^alif and *«/«' — */^' 
and ^toe\^ have not been insisted on. 

The aim has been to make the book a thoroughly 
practical one, suited to all and every, whose midlife has 
to be spent in India. The lessons remain in the form of 
familiar oral teaching, dry rules being, as far as possible, 
avoided. It is hoped that the book will thus be interest- 


ing to read, as well as easy to learn. A special feature will 
be found in the lists of English and other foreign words 
which have become naturalised, at least among those 
natives who come much in contact with Europeans. 

It is believed that the Alphabetical Vocabularies — in 
combination with a grammar — supply what does not at 
present exist in any form. Each of these contains about 
two thousand five hundred words and phrases, for the 
most part additional to the copious lists of words and 
phrases given during the course of the Lessons. All these 
have been selected and teste(i with the greatest care ; so 
that the reader may feel quite sure that he is getting in 
all cases the words actually used by natives of ordinary 
education when speakiny; of the common affairs of daily 
life. The spelling is everywhere uniform; and may be 
said to be the Government system of transliteration. Thus 
is the student of Hindustani (as is believed for the first 
time) provided with an adequate and readily accessible 
stock of really colloquial, every-day words; alphabetically 
arranged in Roman type, both Hindiistdni-English and 
English-Hindiistdni, on a uniform system of spelling 
approved by Oriental Scholars and by Government, com- 
bined with a short and easy grammar. 

It cannot be denied that by far the greater number of 
Englishmen and Englishwomen in India speak a very 
peculiar language under the name of * Hindiistdni' — and 
this, both as regards grammar and pronunciation. The 
excuse is sometimes made, that they hear natives speak as 
they speak. There is some truth in this; but it is for- 
gotten that the natives referred to learned the language 
which they so speak from their masters and mistresses, and 
that if credit is due to anyone, it is due to the natives who 


have had the wit to understand, and the skill to acquire 
the dialect which they hear addressed to them. 

That dialect is occasionally spoken of in the following 
pages as * Anglo-Hinddstdni.' It is the Author's hope that 
by means of this little book, it will — in some degree at 
least— be replaced by Hinddstdni as it ought to be spoken. 

The contents of the book may be mastered in one 
month's study, even by those who are *not good at 
languages.' It is recommended that at the first-reading 
little or no attempt should be made to translate English 
into Hindiistdni. This should be made at the second 
perusal. At the first perusal, the twelve lessons should be 
completely mastered, the Hindiistdni exercises carefully 
analysed, pronunciation practised aloud, and as large a 
stock of words learned as the reader can possibly retain. 

It only remains for the Author to express his obliga- 
tions to Sayad Wdjid Hossen, K. B., and to Baboo Sheo 
Darshan, learned scholars of Bihdr, for their kind labours 
in revising, and, in some resDects amending, the letter- 
press of these lessons, — labours which render it probable 
that the book contains nothing which will mislead the 

Patna^ December 1889. 




Owing to the lamented death of the Author, Mr. Tweedie, 
before the present edition was completed, the Publishers 
have had to seek other aid in passing it through the press. 
The work was entrusted to a distinguished linguist, and 
the very careful manner in which he has performed his 
task leads the Publishers to hope that the present edition 
will receive the same cordial support that was accorded to 
its predecessors. The features of the book remain in all 
respects the same, and no trouble has been spared to make 
the work as complete and accurate as possible. 

Calcutta, 1900. 

PARADIGM of the Verb ' Hona/ fo be, or become. 

According to the forms most commonly used; but see Page 14, Sect. 9. 

To be read before the PARADIGM on page 16. 

The second of two bracketted lines gives the Feminine forms. 

See Page 10, Sect. 6. 

Various Parts ^ 
Stem, Ho. Infinitive, Ho-na. Pres. Part,, Ho-ta, Past Part., Hu,a. 

(fern. hii,i; ^ hu,in.') 
Singular. | ^. Plural. 

Subjunctive and Imperative, / may be ; Be thoicy <Sr*f. 
Ho-iin, Ho-we, Ho- we. | Ho- wen, Ho, Ho-wen. 

Future, / shall or will be^ <5r»f. 
fHun-ga, Ho-ga, Ho-ga. Hon-ge, Ho-ge, Hon-ge. 

iHiin-gi, Ho-gi, Ho-gi 

same as the Masc. - - 

Present, I am^ &^c. 
Hun, Hai, Hai. | Hain, Ho, Hain. 

Past, I was, <5r»<r. 

The, The, Tne. 

/Tha, Tha, Tha. 

LThi, Thi, Thi. 

Thin, Thin, Thin. 

The Compound Tenses are the same in formation as those shown 
Dn page 16, viz. :— Ho-ta hiin, &c., lam being, Ho-ta tha, &c., / 
was being. Hu,a hiin. cSi:c., I have been. Hu,a tha, &c., I had been, 
Hu,a hiinga, &c., I shall have been. 

Special Parts. 
Ho-ke, or ho-kar, having been. 
Hc-te-hi, immediately on being. 
Hujiye, be pleased to be. 

1 Singular. 2 piural. 



The ordinary grammatical ones, as * Sing.* for * Singular ' ; * Plur.' 
for * Flnral/ and so on, speak for themselves. * Anglo-Hind.' stands 
for * Anglo-Hindustani.* (See Preface to the First Edition.) (E.) 
meaDs that the word beside which it is placed is an English* one in 
common use by natives. ' £x :^* stands for ' Example.* ( H.) means 
that the word may only be used of Hmdus. (•^'I.) means that the 
vrord may ^e used of Muhammadans. (L.H.) means that the 
word is current only or chieHy in Lower Bengal. 

♦ Some words, e.g. 'frikasi,' *dspik,' &c., are so obviously English, (or any- 
how not Hindi!ist4ni,) that they have been printed without the (E.). 


The following corrections should be made, as far as 
possible, before beginning the perusal of the book : — 

Wherever ' Huzur ' occurs, reeui * Huzur.* See page 28, also page 51 , 

Exercise No. 16, &c 
Wherever * tarah * occurs, read ' tarah.' 

Page 16, after the line beginning ' Girta hun,' insert : — 
Imperfect, / ivas fallings ^c. 
Gir-U tha, tha, tha. | Gir-te the, the, the. 
i> 43* pl<'ue an asterisk before * sath.' 
,, 47, Note I, For * It is also ' read 'Another particle,' ^tho^ is... 

Next line but one, for * to ' read * tho. * 
,, ,, (last two notes,) for * v ' and * vi.' read * iv * and * v.' 
It 103, (first line,) for ' Ordinal,' read * Cardinal.' 
,, 121, (second line,) for ' ghisarta, ghisarta,' read * ghisatta, 

„ 149, (line 17,) for * ghisarna,' read *ghisatna.' 



1ST Lesson. The Alphabet and Pronunciation... i 









Nouns ; their Cases, Numbers and 

vjiENUILKo ... ••• ... 


X HE VERB .•• a*. ... 

The Pronouns... 

... • I 

... ••■ 




Various Words allied to Pronouns 38 

Prepositions ... ... 43 

Conjunctions and Allied Words ... 46 

>•• ... 



• • • • I 

••• ••• 

Adverbs and Allied Words 

Arrangement of Words in a Sen- 

Supplementary Vocabularies and 

J1«X.£RCISES ••. ••• ••• •«« oO 

Appendix No. I. Numerals ... ... ... 103 

„ „ II. Relative and Co-relative Words 104 

„ „ III. List OF SOME Feminine Nouns ... 105 



A Hindustani Reader 

A Glossary of Useful Words. Hind.-English 
„ „ „ English-Hind. 

General Index 







... ... 343 




The Alphabet and Pronunciation. 

The Consonants. 

1. These, in Hindiistani, correspond closely with the 
English Consonants ; but in Hinddstdni there are some 
additional sounds. There is no x ; its place is supplied 
by " ks." There is also no " c " whether soft or hard ; 
" q " does not occur in the Hinddstdni in this book. 

2. The unmarked " t " and "d"must be pronounced 
with the tip of the tongue touching the teeth. When 
these letters have a dot under them, pronounce with the 
tongue against the bars of the roof of the mouth ; so with 

T.. H, I 


3. Pronounce "ch" as in " church,"..." sh" as in 
" short,"..." g" as in "get,"..."ng" as in /'king,"... 
"j" as in "jet,"..."y" as in "yet,"..."w" aV in "wet," 
theugh- sometimes the sound of "v" in ^^vet," is given 
to this letter. You should be careful also to pronounce 
even a single " s," with a full hissing sound, not confound- 
ing it with '*z." In Hindilstdni, we have both an "f," 
and "ph;" "f." as in English; "ph" as directed in the 
next section; "h" is as much a consonant as any other; 
it is to be lightly sounded like an ordinary English "h." 
When it is the last letter of a word, and is preceded by 
another consonanty the "h" is to be sounded like "ha," 
cut short as you pronounce it ; " b," (with dot) is a rough 
aspirate, such as is commonly heard in the border-country 
at home ; " k " (without a dot) is sounded from the root 
of the tongue; "k" (with a dot) is sounded low in the 

4. Many words and syllables begin with a consonant 
followed by "h." This "h" must not be ignored, as it 
nearly always is by Europeans. By ignoring it, you may 
call in a "loafer" when you merely want your "horse;" or 
a native woman instead of your brother. The effect of this 
" h," is to give sounds not familiar in English. You may 
acquire them by separating the consonant and the "h" 
with a very faint echo of any short vowel sound ; and 
practising the gradual withdrawal of that sound, till you 
can pronounce the consonant and the " h " as one sound. 
Any plan is preferable to leaving out the " h." As laid down 
in the last preceding section, "ch" is sounded as in 
''church;'' and " sh," as in ''short;'' "th" and "ph" 
also "kh" when not underlined, fall under this section. 
* Ch ' and * sh * are single letters in Hinddstdni. 

hindtJstIni as it ought to be spoken. 3 

5. Kh (underlined) is used to express a hard guttural 
sound. No English word begins with it. The Scotch 
word "loch" ends with it. The "ch" in the German 
word ** ach ! " comes still nearer it. 

6. Gh represents a sound hardly attainable by adult 
Western throats. The most you will be able to do, is to 
treat it as a plain "gh," under Section 4 above; or you 
may try and catch its true sound by gietting a^ more or less 
educated Muhammadan to give you the word for a " domes- 
tic fowl." 

7. N (with dot) gives a strong nasal twang to the 7vhole 
syllable in which it occurs. 

The Vowels, 

1. The short ones : — 

a pronounced as the " u " in ^^fun. " 
i pronounced as the " i " in ^^fin, " 
u- pronounced as the "u" in ^^ full. " 

2. The long ones : — 

e always long (and to be pronounced at the end of 
a woni, as well as elsewhere) : like the " e " in 
the German word niehr ; or the Scotch pronun- 
ciation of words like ^^ there,^^ ^^fare^"^ ^^dare,^^ 

o always long, pronounced as " o " in pole ; but 
more protracted in sound. 

d pronounced as the " a " vafar, 

i pronounced as the " i " in machine. 

li pronounced as the "u" in the German "du," 
or "00" in ^'fool;^^ but more protracted in 
sound than the latter. 


Throughout this book when "a," "i," and " u," are j/4«^r/, 
they are not marked ; nor are they marked 7vhen final letters^ 
for then they are nearly always long ; when not final letters 
and longy they are marked ', " e" and " o," being always long, 
are never marked. The instances in which words end in a 
short vowel are shown by an ** h" following the vowel. 


8. Take * it that there are no diphthongs : when one 
vowel follows another and the two are not separated by the 
mark " ," pronounce the second rapidly after the first as in 
Italian. When that mark occurs, the two vowels belong to 
different syllables. 


admi, a human being} bahin, a sister, 

mard, a man. bhd,i, a brother, \i^g girl, 

aurat, a woman. bd,i, a native woman ; a danc- 

ma, a mother, bibi, a native lady, 

bap, a father. gbora, a horse, 

md-bdp, parents ; a benefactor, gora, a European,"^ 

beta, a son. khidmatgar, a table-servant.^ 

beti, a daughter. murghi, a hen, 

khasam, a husband. ghusl, a bath, 

joru ; zaujah, a wife. khdna, dinner, [composition,) 

larke-bdle, children, khanah, a room {much used in 

* But translate it, ordinarily, by * man^^ or * woman,* according to 
the context. ^ "R^dWy mtaxis ^ fair-compUxiomd^* oiien means a Euro 
pean soldier ; is not applied to Europeans of rank. * So among Euro- 
peans ; among natives, the word is applied to any domestic servant. 


Nouns : their Cases, Numbers, and Genders. 


1. "Cases," are marke(i by certain small words, which 
follow the original word. The original word, however, some- 
times undergoes a slight modification before the word indi- 
cating the **case" is written. For this modification, see 
next section ; but note here, in anticipation, that there are 
two accusative cases, the " simple acaisativey^ which is al- 
ways the same as the nominative ; and an accusative formed 
with the particle " ko." 

2. The words used to indicate case-relationship are 
these : — 

ka, ke, ki, of ; se, by ; with (of ti)e instrument) ; 

ko, to ; at. also from; also ^* since ^^ (of 

time) ; ago, 
par, on; at; mei^, in; into. 

ne, by (of agency) tak ; talak, up to ; as far as. 

3. The selection to be made from ka, ke, ki is a diffi- 
culty which should be mastered once for all, as there are 
many analogies to it in the language. Note, therefore, the 
following explanations : — 

6 hindi^stAni as it ought to be spoken. 

i. The thing owned regulates the selection, 
ii. If that thing be feminine, always use * ki.' 
iii. If that thing be singular, masculine and nomina- 
tive, or simple accusative, always use *ka.' 
iv. If that thing be (a) singular, masculine and any 
case except the nominative or simple accusative : 
or: {b) plural, masculine, and any case: then 
always use * ke. ' 

4. The English style with ^^ apostrophe s," will always 
give the correct Hinddstdni order of the words. An inver- 
sion is required in our form with " of." 

Modifications informing Cases and Numbers, 

5. Proper names and words expressing family relation- 
ships do not change in the Singular; Ex. Khuda, God: 
Chacha, a paternal uncle : Bdba, a father: also, in Bengal, 
a child. 

6. Note again that the nominative and the simple 
accusative - both singular and plural — are always the same. 

7. As regards the other cases Singular : — 

i. Most masculine nouns ending in "a," also many 
ending in ** ah," change these into " e." 

ii. No change is made in any other word, masculine 
or feminine. 

8. As regards the Nominative (and simple ace.) 
Plural : — 

i. Most mascuHne nouns ending in "a", and many 

ending in " ah " change these into " e." 
ii. No other masculine noun changes at all. 
iii. Feminine nouns ending in "i," add "a^i." 
iv. Feminine nouns ending in any letter other than 
"i," add" en." 

hindtSstIni as it ought to be spoken. 7 

9. The OBLIQUE cases of the Plural (including the 
ace. in **ko") are formed by adding "on," to the Nora. 
Sing, of nouns not ending in " a," or " ah "; or by sub- 
stituting "on" for "a" or "ah" in nouns which do end 
in these vowels. 

Note^ — Plurals are sometimes further formed by adding the word 
"log" /dtf^/d, (oblique cases, logo^i) to the Nom. Plural, parti- 
cularly to express the idea of a * class.' Confer the use of 
* Leute ' in German. Ex larke-log, the children. This idiom 
is used only of human beings. 

The Accusative in " ^^." 

10. This, in form, is the same as the dative. Its effect 
is often said to be to particularize a special thing. But this 
is not always so. The selection as between the two accusa- 
tives is a nicety of the language, for which no rule can be 
given. Avoid using the form with "ko" so as to cause 
confusion in the sense as to which won! is dative and 
which accusative. 


The Vocative, 

11. The Vocative Singular is the same as the Nomi- 
native, except that "a" or "ah" becomes "e." The 
Vocative Plural ends in "o." 


12. Names of males are masculine. Names of females 
are feminine. 

Things called 'neuter' in English, are either masculine 
or feminine in Hinddstdrii. They should be taken to be 
masculine, unless known to be feminine. 

8 hindiJstAni as it ought to be spoken. 

13. No detailed rules for gender can be given ; but 
most nouns which end in * i/ *t/ * t ' and *sh ' are feminine. 
Even to this rule, such common words as "/£f«/," water ; 
*^ghi" a sort of butter; "moftV* a pearl ; ^^ da/ii" curd, are 
exceptions ; these being masculine. See Appendix, No. 3. 

Paradigm of Nouns. 

i. Afasc notins ending in " ^," and some in " ah " .• — 
Cases. Sing. Plur. 

Nom. and simple ace. larka (poy) larke. 

Oblique crises, larke larkoQ. 

So ; liandah, slave, bande ; bande, bandon, &c. 

ii. Any other Masc. noun : — 

Cases. Sing. Plur. 

Nom. and simple ace. mard (man) mard. 

Oblique cases, mard mardon. 

So; ddmi, man; moti, a pearl; guru, a spiritual 
teacher, &c. But ^ ddmi'' has also a Nom. Plural, 

iii. Fern, nouns ending in "/"• — 

Cases. Sing. Plur. 

Nom. and simple ace. bibi (lady) bibf,dn. 

Oblique cases, bibi C)ibi,on. 

So ; any other feminine noun ending in " i." 

iv. Fem. nouns ending in any other letter : — 
Cases. Sing. Plur. 

Nom. and simple ace. rdt inight) rdte^. 

Oblique cases, rat rdtoi?. 

So; any other feminine noun not ending in "i." 

hindustXni as it ought to be spoken. 


Note* — There are no "Articles" in Hindustani; they are either 

is translated by 

" an " 

omitted in translation, or **«*' or 
**tf^" = one ; and *Uhe^^ by the demonstrative pronoun, which 
you have not yet learned. N.B. Verhs are placed at the end 
of a clause or sentence. See page 6i.' 

larka, a boy. 
larki, a girl, 
roti, bread. 
pdni, water, 
diidh, milk. 
taiydr, ready. 
hdzir, present. 
do, give. 
1^0, bring. 
j4o, go. 
d,o, come. 
leja,o, take away. 
suno, listen to me. 
bolo, speak ; say. 

hai, is. 

hain, are. 

aur, and. 

bhi, also. 

magar, but. 

kitab, a book (fem.) i 

\2\z.vci^ a pen. 

buIa,o, call ; summon. 

chup raho, hold your 

rahne do, let alone ; leave. 
sabr karo, have patience ; 

wait a little. 
hat-jd,o, get out of the way. 

Exercise No. i. Translate. 

Mard ki ma hdzir hai. Aurat ka beta aur mard ki bahin 
hdzir hain. Larke ki roti taiyar hai. Ek ddmi buld,o. 
Ek ddmi ko buld,o. Suno ! ba,i ke bete ko bula,o. 
Suno ! bd,i ki beti ko lejd,o. Ba,i ka bhd,i \yiz\x hai. 
Gore ka ghora taiydr hai. Ghusl ka pdni taiyar hai. 

Sabr karo ! Chup raho. Hat-jd,o. Rahne do. 

Account to yourself in writing for all the ka, ke, ki's, and 
for the changes of a into e, in the foregoing sentences. 



1. "Ka, ke, ki" agree wM the thing owned^ according 
to the rules above given. 

2. Adjectives ending in a consonant, or any vowel 
except * a/ agree without change. 

3. Adjectives used in making compound-verbs (see 
posty page 21) do not change. 

4. Adjectives in " a," become " i " in the feminine, and 
then never change further, whether singular or plural. 

5. If the noun be masculine^ "a" of the adjective 
remains unchanged in the nominative and simple accusa- 
tive singular. It changes into "e" in all other cases of 
the singular, and in every case of the plural. 

6. Such parts of verbs as end in "a" also "agree," 
under the same rule as applies to adjectives ending in 
" a,'' and one rule more : for the feminine plural of verbs in 
" agreement " is in " fn." But note, that if there be more 
than one word thus changeable, only the last takes the 
"n": the other stop at the **i." The agreement is, ordi- 
narily, ^ with the nominative. 

' See posty Fourth Lesson, page 19, section 25. 


£xampie of a Verb agreeing in Gender with its Nominative, 

With Singular Nominative Masculine* 

tha, tha, tha, was, 

hota I ha, hota tha, hota tha, was becoming, 
. With Plural Nominative Masculine. 

the, the, the, were, 

hote the, hote the, hote the, were becoming. 
With Singular Nominative Feminine, 

thi, thi, thi, was, 

hoti thi, hoti thi, hoti thi, was becoming. 
With Plural Nominative Feminine. 

thiij, thfn, thin, were^ 

hoti thfn, hoti thfn, hoti thfn, were becoming. 


dhan, rice in the field, or achchha, good, 

in the husk, khardb -, bura, bad, 

chdwal, uncooked rice, lamba, tall ; long. 

bhdt, cooked rice, lincha ; baland, high. 

ddl, a kind of pea. kotdh, short, 

ddl-bhdt, a native phrase bara, great, 

for native food generally. chhoXZy smalL 

makkhan, butter. bahut, much, 

dahi, rurd, thora, a little, 

ghi, native butter much used bas, enough ; thafs enough, 

for cooking purposes, chhoti haziri, early tea, 

chd,e, tea. bari \yki\x\, breakfast, 

kdfi, (E.); kahwah, cojfee. nahiij, not, 

chfni, sugar, nahfn, to, if not ^ then. 

Note, — When two things are intimately connected, a/i</ is omitted, as 
ddl'bhdti roti-makkhan {bread and butter), &c. 

12 hindustani as it ought to bk spoken. 

Exercise No. 2. 

Cha,e taiydr hoti hai. Thora ddl-bhdt do. Ghi achchha 
nahin haii Sabr karo ! niakkhan nahin hai. Dahi le-ja,o, 
diidh ld,o. Khidmatgdr.hdzir nahin hai. A,o, kdfi taiydr 
hai. Admi lamba hai, magar aurat kotdh hai. Aurat ka 
bhdji bura hai. Mard ki beti achchhi hai. Bas ! jd,o. 

Exercise No. 


Call the good boy. Call good boys. Take away the 
little girl. Take away little girls. Take away the bread and 
butter of the little girls.* The little girls are present. The 
men are ready. The horses are ready. The women are 
good. The boy is tall. The girls are tall. Call the table- 
servant. Call the table - servants. The early tea is very 
good. Give (me) (some) dal-bliat. Give dal-bhdt to the 
women. Bring the cooked rice. Bring the uncooked-rice. 
Give (me) a little* cooked-rice. The man was bad. The 
woman was good. Early tea was getting {=ibec6ming) ready. 
Have patience, the rice is getting ready. A good book. 
Breakfast is ready. All right ! {=. very good). 

* Genitives and datives come, in order, befoie accusative . 
See />osif page 61. 


The Verb. 

1. There is only one conjugation, and very few irregu- 

2. Simple tenses are those in which no "auxiliary 
verb," (as " am," " have," " shall," '' will,") is used to 
form them. 

3. Compound tenses are those which are made of (gene- 
rally) the present or the past participle of the chief verb, 
and an ** auxiliary.^' 

4. The future tense, the present subjunctive, and the 
imperative, (with * let ') though compound in English, are 
simple in Hindilstani. 

5. Nearly all languages use the verhs ^^ to ^f " and " /<? 

have" as their chief auxiliary verb. Ex. "1 <iw speaking,*' 

" I have spoken." In Hinddstdni, there is no verb " to 

have."' The verb ^^ to be " is therefore used as the only 

** <i2/je///(fl;ry," and must be generally translated by our verb 

** have " in all compound tenses of the past participle. This 

is a little difficult at first, as the tenses look like tenses with 

the sense of a passive voice, but it will soon become familiar 

to you. Compare the German " Ich bin gewesen " and the 


* See posi^ page 75. 


14 hindiJstXni as it ought to be spoken. 

Italian, lo sono stato^ literally, I am been, but, \n English, 
French and Spanish " I kave been." 

6. Subject to what has just been said as to translat- 
ing the Hindustdni auxiliary by "^^ " or ^^ have^^ as the 
English idiom may require, compound tenses are got by a 
literal translation of the English, Remember, however, 
that the auxiliary verb comes last in Hindiistdni — " I speak- 
ing am " : " They spoken had^^ See, also, clause 4 above. 

7. Every verb consists of an invariable "stem ; " and a 
variable termination. Starting with the "Infinitive," which 
always ends in " na," it is to be noted that that part of the 
word which precedes " na," be it only a single letter, is the 
" stem " to which the terminations are added. 

8. The terminations are these : — (only masculine forms 
are given, but see Third Lesson, section 6, page 10). 

-dn -e -e -en -o -en, Imperative and Subjunctive. 

-ilpga -ega -ega -enge -oge -enge. Future. 

-ta. Present Participle. 

-a. Past Participle. 

-ke, kar, or karke, . Perfect Participle. 

-te hi, A special form, meaning ^immediately on^ or, 

* immediately after,^ 
-iye, A respectful or polite form of the 2nd person of the 

imperative ; meaning, ^please to^ &c. 

Note. — The Imperative, the Subjunctive and the last three never 
change ; * a * agrees under the rules already given. 

9. The Future, the Subjunctive, and the Imperative of 
" bona," to be^ are usually written in a contracted form. 
The Future is as follows : the Subjunctive and the Imper- 
ative being reached by dropping ** ga " and "ge." 

hind^stIni as it ought to be spoken. 15 

Sing.^ hiinga, hoga, hoga. Piur,^ honge, hoge, honge. 

10. Sometimes these words are met with in the regular 
form, ho,unga, ho,ega, &c, ; sometimes a euphonic " w " is 
inserted, and then the words would be " howiinga, &c. " ; 
but the contracted forms are, perhaps, the most common. 

So also the *'e" of the stem of "dena" to give^ is 
generally omitted ; also, the " e " of the stem of " lena,*' 
to take: so we get **diinga" or "de,unga," &c. ^^ I shall 
give:^^ and "do," or **de,o" Imperative, ^^give:^' so, 
liinga, or le,ilnga ; lo, or le,o, I shall take ; take, 

11. Only the following parts of ^^ hona^^ therefore, can 
be considered as materially " irregular " :— 

Past Part., hti,a, been, 

Pres. Tense,— hai, hai; hain, ho, hain, ant^ &^c. 
Past Tense, — tha, tha, tha ; the, the, the, was, dfc. 
[Always bear in mind Section 6 of the Third Lesson.] 

12. The compound tenses of "hona" are made with 
hona as the auxiliary, the same as any other verb. Ex. : — 
Main hiS,a hiiiji ; ham hil,e the. / have been ; we had been, 

13. All " Infinitives " are Verbal Nouns, Present Parti- 
ciples are never verbal nouns. 

14. When, by inflection, two " a "s meet, they are sepa- 
rated by a " y," as dna to come ; stem d ; past participle d,a ; 
but written " aya." ' ' 

15. When by inflection, an **a" and an "e" meet, they 
are «j«^tf//y separated by a "w." Thus from "dna,*' we may 
write "d,ega," or **dwega." 

16. The plain stem is sometimes used as a 2nd per- 
son of the Imperative ; but it is insulting to the person to 
whom it is addressed. Ex : — ^ja, go, 

17. On the next page is given a Paradigm of a Hindii- 
stdni Verb. 

t t 

1 6 hindustani as it ought to be spoken. 

Paradigm of a Hindi^stAni Verb. 

Active Voice : Gir-na, to fall^ Stem, gir. 

Various Parts, 

Infin. Gir-na, to fall 

Pres. Part. Gir-ta, Jailing. 

Perf. Part. Gir-ke, or Gir-kar, having fallen. 

Past. Part. G\r-2L, fallen. 


Singular. Plural. 

Subj. and Imperative. / may fall. Fall thou^ d^c, 
Gir-up, -e, -e. | Gir— en, -o, -en. 

Future. 1 7vill faJl^ ^c. 
Gir-unga, -ega, -ega. | Gir-enge, -oge, -eiige. 

Present. I am fallings ^c. 
Gir-ta hiS?, hai, hai. - J Gir-te hain, ho, hain. 
C,....U -,.. ^'. -■•;■.■ "Past //./r.^i- 'i ^ ^ ^'^ 
Gir-a, -a, -a. | Gir-e, -e, -e. 

Perfect. / have fallen^ dr'c. 
Gir-a hiin, hai, hai. | Gir-e hain, ho, hain. 

Pluperfect. / had fallen^ &*€, 
Gir-a tha, tha, tha. | Gir-e the, the, the. 

Fut. Perfect. / shall have fallen^ &*€. 
Gir-a hiinga, hoga, hoga. | Gir-e honge, hoge, honge. 

Special Parts. 

Gir-te-hi, immediately on falling. 
Gir-iye, be good enough to fall ; fall. 

So with nearly all other stems in the language. 


16. The present participle, used without the auxiliary, 
forms the tense which is usually called *' The Conditional." 
It expresses a condition with reference to past time. The 
next clause, which gives the consequence, is also thrown 
into the same tense. Ex. :— If the man had come, (then) 
I would have given him one rdpi : ( = Agar admi ata, to, 
main us-ko ek riipiya deta). 

ii. The same tense also expresses continuity of action 
in past time or what usually happened ; as, ** whenever the 
king visited the town, he gave gratuities to the poor;" 
here also both clauses are put into this tense: Jab raja 
shahar ko ate, tab gharfb logon ko bakhshish dete. 

[The verb is here made plural, out of respect to the raja.] 

1 7. The past participle, used without the auxiliary, forms 
a tense which expresses an absolute, completed action in 
past ii«iie. Ex. : — " He wrote a letter yesterday." It also 
expresses a hypothetical future event. The ordinary future 
or subjunctive, expresses the same sense ; so you may 
use any of the forms noted. When this participle is used 
as an adjective, it is followed by " hu,a," both words agree- 
ing with the noun : as, pisa hii,a chawal, ground rice ; mix'i 
hiiji larki, a beaten (female) child, 

18. The future perfect tense, (see Para.ligm) is much 
used to express what you think must have occurred, though 
you don't actually know that it has occurred. Hence the 
common phrase, " hd,a hoga," literally •' if will have been ; " 
but meaning " no doubt it has so happened, though I don't 
know it," and so, in similar senses. Ex. :— " pahuncha 
h)ga," ** no doubt he has arrived," *'diya hoga," "it will 
have been given," />., no doubt, it has been given. 

19. ''Shall have^'' is often equivalent to ''must'' 

being used either where we give a peremptory order, or 

T., H ' 

1 8 hindi^stIni as it ought to be spoken. 

recognise what is inevitable. The phrase is translated 

by the Verbal Noun (infinitive) followed by " hoga^ Ex. : — 

Eng. We shall have to go in the carriage to-day (dj). 

Note^ Main, /. Ham, we» Ham-ko, to us. 

Hind. To-day, to us in the carriage going will-be. Aj 
ham-ko gdri mei^ jdna hoga. 

Eng. The table-servant must bring dinner. 

Hind. To the table- servant, bringing dinner is obliga- 
tory. Khidmatgar-ko khdna Idna hoga. 

20. " Jl/wi/" w^hen used politely, and not peremptorily, 
is rendered by the word " chdhiye^'' which is (in effect) 
an irregular 3rd personal verb — meaning "///> «^^^jj<7rv," 
"/r^/^;'," ** ^<?j/>tf^/f " or the like. It is also used (with- 
out any polite sense) of what applies to one's self. Ex. : — 
Admi-ko jdna chdhiye, (to the man going is-proper) the man 
must go, Ham-ko rt^ti chahiye, (to vie bread is-necessary^ 
I must have some bread, 

21. " Ought^^ which is a sort of modified " must," may 
be translated i)y the same word "chdhiye ; " or by appro- 
priate adjectival phrases, e.g,^ *'it is necessary " (zariir) ; 
" proper," (mundsib) that I, you, the man, should do such 
and such. The easiest construction is the same as that 
given above, * ham-ko jdna chahiye.' 

22. " May " and " ^^«," denoting permissmi and ability 
are translated by the verb " sakna," to be able. This is 
properly added to the " stem " of the principal verb : but 
is often used (incorrectly) even by natives with the geni- 
tive of the infinitive. Ex. : — 

He can speak [bolna] = wuh bol-sakta hai. 

The children may remain = bdba-log rahne sakte hain. 

23. To " have done^^ or ^^finished^^ with a thing is trans- 
lated by " chukna " added to the " stem " of the principal 



verb. Ex.: — He has done speaking = wuh bol-chuka hai. 
Sometimes it is found added to the past participle. 

Hence, the common "ho-chuka" meaning ^'^ if s finished ^^ 
" ifs donCy^ " ifs ail over^ " Ho-gaya," irregular past from 
the compound verb " hojana," to become^ is often used as 
equivalent to " ho-chuka." You maj' use eitlier word ; and 
when used alone, /.^., not as part of a sentence, you need 
not alter the word in any way. But you would say, ** chhoti 
hdziri ho-chuki hai, if you wished to make a sentence of it. 

24. The language abounds in verbs intensified in mean- 
ing by one verb being added to the " stem" of another, the 
latter only being conjugated. They should be used rather 
than simple verbs. Here are some examples : — 
d.2\u2i, to throw, plus dtn2iy to give, gives, dal-dena, to throw 

dena, to give, „ 
lena, to take, „ 

dena, to give, 
dekhna, to see. 

kahna. to tell, 
khdna, to eat, 
khdna, to eat, 
lena, to take, 

lena, to take. 








to give, 
to take, 
to go, 
to come, 





marna, to strike, „ 
rakhna, to place „ 

jdna, to go, 


ddlna, to throw, 
dena, to give. 



pfna, to drink, 
pfpa, to drink. 





de-dena, to give up. 
dekh-lena, to take 

a look at a thing, 
kah-dena, to infortn. 
kha-lena, to eat up, 
kha-jana to eat up, 
leana or lana, to 

le-jana, to take 

mdr-dalna, to kill, 
rakh-dena, to put 

a thing down, 

pi-lena, to drink up, 

pf-j4na, to drink up. 

lena, to take, 
jdna, to go, 
and very many more. 

25. The (so-called) Nominatives in the tenses of the 

20 hindustIni as it ought to be spoken. 

past participle of transitive verbs are peculiar : but this is 
what you have to do : — 

i. Change the nominative into the case with "ne." 
ii. Take the accusative, and consider it to be a nomin- 
iii. Make /V, so looked upon as a nominative, and the 
verb " agree," according to Section 6 of the Third 
Ex. :—The man struck a boy^ mard-ne ek larka mdra.* 
The man struck a girl, mard-ne ek larki mari. 
The man has struck ttvo boys, mard-ne do larke mare 

The man had struck two girls, mard ne do iarki,an 
mari thip. 
The explanation of this strange construction which is 
usually given is that it is equivalent to ** by a man, a boy 
was struck'^ But the explanation is faulty \ for that Eng- 
lish phrase is in the passive voice, while the Hindustani is 
in the active voice. You must just accept the construction 
as it stands. 

26. Whenever it is possible to use the accusative with 
" ko^^ you partly avoid the difficulty ; for then the verb 
is always in the third person singular, masculine. 
Ex. : — Mard-ne larke ko mara, the man struck the boy, 
Mard-ne larki ko mdra, the man struck the girl, 
Aurat-ne larki ko mdra hai, the woman has struck 

the girl, 
Auraton-ne larki,on ko mara tha, the women had 
struck the girls. 
Also note that verbs such as those given on page 19, of 

1 (I 

Marna " may also mean to kill. 



which the last part is got from "ana," or **jana" (e.^. 
Una, to bring) (though transitive) follow the ordinary rule, 
and not the rule given at Section 25. 

27. By ad<iing "karna," or "dena" to certain a<1jec- 
tives and nouns, you can reach a large number of corre- 
sponding verbs, Ex. : — 

taiydr, read}', taiyir karna, to prepare ; make ready, 

saf, clean, saf karna, to clean, 

kala, black, kdla karna, to blacken. 

hazir, present^ hdzir karna, to bring one in ; intro- 
supiird, trust, supurd karna, to entrust, 
bdwar, belief, bawar karna, to believe, 

and many more. 

28. Other forms of derivative verbs are such as the 
following : — 

bulana, to call. 

marna, to die, 

khildna, to give to eat ; to feed,^ 

pildna, to give to drink ; to water, ^ 

dilwana, to cause to be given, 

dikhlana, to show. 

bolna, to speak, 
marna, to strike, 
khdna, to eat, 
pfna, to drink, 
dena, to give, 
dekhna, to see. 

and many more. 

29. There are some irregular forms of the " respectful 
imperative," Viz. : — i. Dfjiye, from dena, be pleased to give. 
ii. Kijiye, from karna, be good enough to do or make, iii. 
Lijiye, from lena, be pleased to take. iv. Pijiye, from pina,: 
drink ; v. HiSjiye, from bona, he or become. 

30. One other useful idiom should be learned, viz., the 
use of the pres. part, to express that you do one thing while 

' Governs the accusative 


also doing another thing. Ex. :— Wuh mard bolta chali- 
jdta hai, thai man goes alongy talking. 

Note, — This idiom is often strengthened by doubling the participle. 
With a fern. nom. it will be {e,g.) boltiy and in the plur. masc 
holte^ according to the ordinary rules of agreement. 

The Irregular Past Participles, 

31. There are six irregular past participles (includins; 
**hil,a" from "hona" already given). They are as follows : — 







From jana, to go 





„ karna, to do 





„ dena, to give 






„ lena, to take 





„ hona, to be 





„ marna, to die 



1 md,e 


Note. — **In Bengal, gaya is frequently corrupted into giya" in ordi- 
nary talk. Mama has also a regular past participl«r, mar a. 

The Passive Voice, 

32. Never use the passive voice, if you can express 
your meaning in the active voice. 

In making the passive voice, use "jdna," to go, where 
English uses the verb **to be." Confer Italian, which 
makes. much use of ^ venire^ in forming the passive; also 
the German, verloren gegangen, Ex. : — 

The man is struck = The man is going struck. Mard 
mdra jdta hai. ... The woman was struck = The woman 
was going struck. Aurat rrdri jdti ihi. . . . The horse will 
f^e beaten = The horse will go beaten. Ghora mdra jd,ega. 




About the House. 

House, ghar ; (not * gar ') 

makan ; kothi. 
The verandah^ bardnidah.* 
Office, afis (E.) daftar ; ka- 

Room, kamra. 
The stairs, sirhi. 
The floor, zamin. 
The roof, chhappar ; chhat. 
The Walls, dfwdr. 
The door, darwazah. 
The window, khirki. 
The glass-door, shishe ka 

The Venetians, jhilmili. 
The dining-room, khdne ka 

The drawing-room, hi\-ka m ra. 
The private room, khas-ka mra. 
Thebed-room, sone ka kamra. 
The bath-room, ghiisl-khanah 
The furniture, sdman; chfz 

The pictures, taswfren (fem.) 

The carpet, dari. 

The mat, chata'i. 

The curtains, pardah. 

A table, mez (fem.) 

A chair, kursi ; chauki. 

An easy-chair, drdm-kursi. 

A bracket, brdket. (E.) 

The books, kitdben (fem.) 

The ornaments, drd,ish. 

The vases, gul-ddn. 

The store-room, god dm (cor- 
rupted from **godown"). 

The stables, astabal. 

The cook-house, bdwarchi- 

The hen-house, murghi-khdnah. 

The cow-shed, gdo-sdlah. 

The flower-garden, phul-bdgh 
{or bdghcha). 

The vegetable-garden, sabzi- 
bdgh {or bdghcha) 

The orchard, bdgh. 

Land in which a house stands, 
* compound.' ' 

* Derived from the Persian, ** bar'dmadan,^'' to come out. 
' Pronounce as in English ; the derivation of this word is not known 
to the author. The word is used only by English people* 



Useful Verbs. 

Toopen^ khulna (/Vr.). 
To open^ kholi>a ; khol-dena 

To close, band-karna. 
To read^ p<rhna. 
Topush^ thelna. 

To do accounts, hisab likhna. 

To sew, sina; sila,i karna. 

To learn, sfkhna. 

To teach, sikhdna, or sikhldna. 

To dance, ndchna. 

To sing, gana. 

7b/////,khichna,(L.B.)tii>na. 71? put on clothes, kapre 

To sleep, nfndlena. 

To He down, sona, often used 

to mean *to sleep/ 
To get up, uthna. 
To raise, uthana. 
To take a walk, sair karna ; 

hawa khana. 
To ride, savvar hona. 
To go in a carriage^ gari men 

swar hona. 
To run, daiirna. 
To wash, dhona. 

pihinna ; orhna. 
To take off do flies, kapre 

To drive, hankna. 
To get out of the ivay, hat- 

To laugh, liansna. 
2^0 weep, rona. 
To take the air, hawa khana. 
To go away\ no, ctialajana. 
To put into vwtion, or cause 

to go faster, thalana. 
To run off, bhag-jana. 

To write, hkhna. 

The master of the house, «:har ka sdhib. 

The lady of the house, ghar ki mem-sahibah. 

The young lady of the house, gh^r ki mis-sdhibah. 

Jhe youfig gentleman of the house, chhota sdhib. 
Note. — The first three phrases are required by the exigencies of Euro- 
peans ; but are not good Hindustani. The profer feminine of 
*^sdhib^* is *^ sdhibah ; " but ^sdhib^ is often used as if of both 
genders. Never allow ^^ mU-hdba^^ for si grozvn- up your\g lady. 
Mem-sdhibah is used to mean a manied lady, plur. mem-log^ the 
ladies. * Chhota sdhibJ used in an official sense, fheans * the 
Assistant Magistrate,* junior partner, or the like. 

hindiJstXni as it ought to be spoken. 


khula, oten, 

band, shut. 

baland, high. 

nicha, low. 

achchha, good. 

khatab ; bura, bad. 

nahin, not^ often com rivet- 
ed, na\ 

nahin to, otherivhe ; if not^ 

b^kim, ^iler ; judge. 

tajwiz, investigation ; justice 

naukar, a servant. 

naukarlog, the servants. 




khabar, news, 

khabar ka kaghaz ; akhbar, 

tJie newspaper. 
bakhshish, a gratuity ; a ^^iip" 
khurak, /<9^^, (fem.) 


zor ^^^ forcibly ; " hard." 
agar, if^ 

kih, that (of narration), 
ek sath ; bdhani, together. 
juda ; alag, separate. 
aksar, fr< qufntly. 

''' \ the chil- 

^\ I dreji. 
iche, ) 

jab, 1 2 when. 

tab, / then. 

khusdsan, especially. 

poshak, dress ; fine clothing. 

sharm, shame (fem.) 

janam, birth. 

nikah ; sliadi, marriage. 

zindagi, life. 

maut, death (fem.) 

huziir. Your Honor. 

band-o-bast, arrangements 
(of any kind). 

koshish, endeavour ; strug- 
gle ; attwipt. 

apna-e-i, own, reflexive ; all* 
persons, both numbers. 

Exercise No. 4. 

Ghar ki rais-sahibah ghar men nahin hai. Jhilmili 

khuli hai. Darwdze ko . band karo. Pankha tano. Pan- 

kha zor se khicho. Naukar log hazir nahfn hain. Baba- 

* Always followed by ** to " at the beginning of the second clause : 
Ex.: —If he comes, (then, ** to ") I shall leave. 

• **/a^** of the first clause is followed by tab in the second : Ex.:— 
When he came, (then, ** tab ") I left. See Appendix No. II, page 104. 


26 hkxdustAni as it ought to be spoken. 

Jog gari men hawa khdte hain. Darwdzah band hai.^ 
Agar ddmi ka bhd,i ^we, to bolo, kih darwazah band hai. 
Agar adini dta, to band-o-bast achchha hota. Mard-ne larki 
bula,i hai. Mard-ne larki ko buldya hai. Mard-ne apni 
joni ko poshdk di hai. Hdkim-ne achchhi tajwiz ki hai. 
Naukaron-ko buld,o. Mfs-sdhibah ghar ka hisab taiyar 
karti hai. Roti do, diidh dijiyc, pdni h'jiye. Larke log-ko 
le-ja,o. Khana taiyar.^ Hdl-kamre men jdta hiln. Chup 
raho, so,enge. Huziir md-bdp. 

Exercise No. 5. 

N.B. — Datives come before accusatives.'' Wuh = he, 
she, it, that. 

Put the book on ihe floor. Shut the glass-door. Open 
the Venetians. Please to bring bread, water, milk. Take 
away the children mto the dining-room. Push hard, the 
door will opf n. Open the door. Please give bread to the 
European. Water ihe horse. If the man had called out, 
the children would have come into the house. Immedi- 
ately after speaking, he called the servants. The Sahib^ 

* This phrase is use«i in India as equal to ** not at home^^ (as well as 
in its plain material sense). 

* *• Hai," is often left to be ** understood," but it is better to 
express it. 

' For full instructions as to arrangement of words, the reader may 

refer to page 61. 

* Custom warrants the use of this word by itself, or after a personal 
name, with reference to any European of fair social position Its cor- 
rect use is (not after a personal name but) after a designation, or name 
of office, whether Europetm or native: as Judge-sahib, the Jud^e ; 
Diwan-sahib, the diwdn ; yiunshi sahib the {Mtihammedan) 7vriter,' 
&c. The phrase ** call my Baboo," meaning ** call writer, &c.," 
should be cut out of our Anglo- Hindiisldnj. 

hindijstani as it ought to be spoken. 27 

lias given a gratuity to the table-servant. He .is striking 
the boy. She will strike the boy. The man has struck a 
boy. The man has struck a girl. The man has given food 
10 the woman. The woman has made many attempts. Fm 
going. He has gone. Keep quiet ! the * saljiib ' is lying 
down; the * mem-sabibah ' is sleeping: the * mfs-sdbibah ' 
is learning Hinddstdni. Wait a little ! I am reading the 
newspaper. The children will go into the garden. The 
children may (can) go into the drawing-room. 


The Pronouns. 

These seem at first intricate ; but if you will notice 
the analogies which run tlirough them, they will become 

2. To begin with a simple point. There is the pro- 
noun of respectful address to be used to equals and 
superiors, " ap." The word is unchangeable ; but takes the 
case-signs after it. With the case-signs of the genitive, it 
of course means " your." — It is joined to the third person 
plural for politeness sake. 

3. If you are addressing a person of not less rank than 
"raja," you may use the noun **lTiuziir" (with the third 
person plural). Ex. : — " Huziir ka mizaj kaisa hai ? " Your 
Honouf^s healthy how is it ? Huziir nahiii jante hain (kih 
&c.) Does your Honour not know (that &c.). The ordinary 
address to inferiors is made by the second person plural. 
The second person singular is used only in abusive or 
contemptuous address, and therefore ought to be always 


4. The Personal Pronouns are as follows : — 

The First Person, 

Sing. Plur. 

Nom. ... ... main, /. ...ham, we. 

Gen. ... ... mera.' ...hamara.* 

Form to which to add all Darticles, excei)t * ne' : — 

mujh. ...ham. 

The Second Person. 

Nom. ... ... tu, thou, ...tum. 

Gen. ... ... tera.' ...tumhdra.' 

Form to which to add all particles, except * ne ' : — 

tujh. ...tum. 

Notes ;— 

i. ** ne " is always added to the Nominative forms, 
ii. You will never be wrong if you use only these forms ; but 
there are also these other forms :— 

Dat. and Ace. Sing, " mujhe," ** tujhe." \ no parti- 
Dat. and Ace. Plur, **hamen," ** tumhen." J cles. 
Oblique plur. forms, " hamon," ** tumbon " These take 
the particles, including ** «^." 
iii. Never use the Sing, of the 2ncl personal pronoun. Always 

use the plural throughout. (See para. 3, above.) 
iv. You will never be wrong in using also only the plur. of 
•* main ; '' but when speaking; to an equal or superior, it 
is better to use the singular. 
v. Even natives of rank, when speaking of themselves, gen- 
erally use a noun of humility, with the 3rd person 
singular. Persons of inferior rank to you, ought 
always so to speak to you of themselves. Such words 
are : — ** Ghulam," your servant ; '* Bandah," your ser- 
vant ; •* Fidwi," your faithful one; Tdbiddr," your 

* These follow the rules for ** ka, ke, ki,'* but, being already 
genitive^ they do not take these particles after them. 


The Third Personal Pronouns. 
Nom. and simple accusative, yih, he, she, it, ye, they. 
Oblique ioxm% for ail particle:, is, htm, her, it, j in, them, 
Nom. and simple accusative, wul), he, she, it. we, they. 
Oblique forms, as abt>ve. us, him, her, it, un, them. 

*Yih* is he, she, it of a person or thing near you; 
* wuh,' of a person or thing more or less distant. 

The Demonstrative Pronouns. 

5. Yih and wuh are also the Demonstrative Pro- 
nouns; this, that ; these, those. 
Notes : — 

1. You will never be wrong if you use only these forms ; but 
there are also these other forms : — 
Dat. and Ace. 6'i«^., ** ise," *'use." j 

Dat. and Ace. Plur., ** inhen," ••unhen." f "° parlicles. 
Oblique plur, forms. ** inhon," *'unhon." These take the 
particles, including ** w^." 
ii. When ** yih '* and ** wuh '* are fersonal pronouns, the case- 
particles are added to the oblique forms direct ; when they 
are demonstrative pronouns, these particles are added to the 
noun only. Ex. i—is-ko do, give {it) to him ; is admi ko 
do, give it {to) this man, 
iii. It is polite to use the plural for the singular of these personal 
pronouns. Ex :- un-ko do, give (it) to him. 

The Possessive Pronouns. 

6. These are the Genitive cases of the three personal 
pronouns, used as adjectives in agreement with the thing 
owned. Ex.: — Mera ghora, my horse; mere ghore, my 
horses; tumhdri khdshi, your pleasure ; is-ka ghar, ^/> (or, 
hef^ house ; is-ka rang, its color ; un-ki bahin, his sister. 

The Reflexive Pronoun * Apna.' 

7. This word is a stumbling-block to Europeans. 


8. It is a plain Adjective agreeing with a person or 
thing owned, according to the rules of ka, ke, ki; but when 
it means '^ self,'' it is necessarily used without a noun. 
It never takes any of the terminations of the oblique cases 
in the plural. We have, therefore, only the three words 

* apna/ *apne' and *apni.' 

9. It means my own, thy own, his own, her own, its own ; 
our own, your oivn and their own, whenever these words 

* refer back ' to a preceding Nominative, relating to the 
same person or thing. 

10. It also means *'j^^," ^^ selves,'' as these words are 
added to ;;/>', thy, his, her, its ; our, your, them, when they 

* refer back' to a Nominative of the same subject. Ex. : 

I want that horse for myself, 

11. When ''myself etc., follow a personal pronoun 
merely as strengthening adjuncts, they cannot be translated 
by *apna.' You must use the indeclinable word ' kJiud' 
Notes : — 

i. Not to use *apna' where it is the proper word, or to use 
where it is not the proper word, is sure to give a meaning 
which you do not wish to express. 

ii. Observe that the Nominative is nearly always left to be 
* understood' in the second person of the Imperative Mood j 
and that pronouns, as Nominatives, are also very generally 
omitted. These facts make no difference in the necessity 
for * apna. * 

iii. * Own ' is generally omitted in English, but if the context re- 
quires it, the omission does not remove the necessity for 
*apna.* Thus, the sentence * he wants his horse "* will be 
translated according as * his * means his own horse, or 
the horse of another man. In the former case, the trans- 
lation will be, wuh apna ghora chdhta hat ; in the latter, 
wuh is-ka (or, us-ka) ghora chdhta hai. Everything turns 
on the second pronoun relating back (or not) to the same 


person or thing as the Nominative, When it does so 
relate back, use *apna'; when it does not so relate Ixick, 
use an ordinary possessive pronoun. 

Exercise No. 6. 

Yih ghora mera hai. Yih niera ghora hai. Mai^ apna 
ghora pasand karta hiin. Main us-ka ghora pasand karta hiii^. 
Hamara ghora la,o. Mera ghora mere wdste la,o. Main, 
apna ghora, apne wdste, chahta hiln Main, apna ghora, us-ke 
waste, chahta hiln. Wuh admi apne bha,i ke waste am le-ata 
hai. Wuh ddmi us-ke bha,i ke wdste am le-ata hai. Apna 
kam chhor-do ; mera kam karo. Apne ba,en jd,o. Apna 
khana kha,o. Us ka khana khd,o. Us-ne apna khana 
khaya hai. Usne us-ka khana khdya hai. Teri bat se 
teri badzati maaliim hoti hai. Main-ne, apne wdste, bahut 
koshish ki* hai. Wuh aurat, apne waste, bakhshish mangti 
hai. Main khud ja,ilnga. 

Exercise No. 7. 

Pull your own rope; leave his alone. He calls his (own) 
servant. H e calls his (another person's) servant. Turn to your 
right-hand. He, by his labour, has become rich. He, by his 
(another person's) assistance, has got promotion. He will 
eat his (own) dinner. He will take his (another man's) place. 
He fetched a chair for his (own) mother. He has brought 
ten (das) Rupees for his (another person's) servant. I wish 
this for myself. This is my hat He has brought my pony. 
I myself will do it. The raja himself said. 

* * Ki * is either from * ka, ke, ki ' or is the fem, past part, of 
^karna.' Here, it is the latter. 

hindustani as it ought to ije spoken. 33 

The Interrogative Pronouns. 

12. These are "kaun?" whol which 1 what? and 
"kya?*'^ what? 

13. "Kaun" is used, properly, of persons only; but is 
often used for animals or things. It n)ay either stand 
alone, or be followed by a noun. 

14. "Kya"' is used of animals or things. It may either 
sland alone, or be followed by a noun. 

15. Declensions. 

Sing. Plur. 

Nom. and Simple Ace. kaun ? kaun ? 

Form for the oblique cases kis ? kin ? 

Nom. and Simple Ace. kya ? kya ? 

Form for the oblique cases kdhe ? kdhe ? 

The Relative Pronoun. 

16. This is "jo," who, which, 

A little attention is here needed. In Hindustani the 
" relative " pronoun is put before the noun to which it relates ; 
and so we form the first clause ; then we pick up the thing 
by a personal pronoun in the second clause. 
Ex, : — Eng. Call-in the man, who is at the door. 
Hind. "What-man is at the door, him call-in. 
„ Jo idmi darwdze par hai, us-ko-buIa,o. 

1 7. The easiest declension of this word is as follows : 
Nominative and Simple Accusative, singular and pluraiy<?. 
Form to which case-signs of the singular are added . . Jis, 
Form to which case-signs of the plural are added ,,.jin. 
The "correlative" or word with which the second 

clause begins is, ordinarily, the demonstrative "wuh," see 

* Hence the common phrase ** kya hai?" ^^what is it ?^^ what dp 
yfu 7vant, &^c, 

T., H. 3 

/ . f . 


the example above: — '* jo admi darwaze par liai — us-ko^ 

For things, *so' (indeclinable,) is often used. 

Note.— Yoxx will sometimes find ihe Relative Pronoun used in Hindus- 
tdni foUoiving its antecedent as in English. Especially when a 
clause stands as antecedent. 


Giving some English (and other) words, which (generally 
in a more or less corrupted form) have become common 
in English houses : and which may be freely used. They 
are both singular and plural. 

[The word '* kamis," (fem.) a shirt, or chemise, is of Arabic origin.] 
brush, a brush, * siil-drdz, body-drawers, 

baks or bakkas,^ a box, kdlar, a collar. 

botal, a bottle (fem.) shdl, a shawl, 

bir-shardb,2 beer (fem.) dares, a ladfs dress. 

brandi-sharab,= brandy {Um.) fardk, a frock ; dress. 
wiski-shardb,- 7vhiskey (fem.) piti-kot, a petticoat. 
tost, toast. kantar, a decanter. 

biit, a boot ; boot.^ lamp,^ a lamp, 

pin, a pin. almari ; almaira, a wardrobe. 

draz, a chest of drawers. glds, a glass. 

patliin, pantaloon ; trousers, tamblet,' a tumbler. 
sllpat ; slipat, slippers, wain-glds, a wine-glass. 

minat, a minute, peg, a mixture of spirits and 

butdm, a button, soda-water ; a ^peg.^ 

1 Hence ** bakkas-wdla" a **box-wala," a pedlar. 
- Also with **sheri" (sherry), **pot" (port), "simkin (cham- 
pagne), &c. 

* Preserve your pronunciation of the Hindi!istani short * a \ 



House Servants. 

sirdar or sarddr-berer or sim- chaukfdar, the watchman ; a 
ply * berar,' the head house- police officer of inferior grade, 

servant not connected with niashdlchi, the scullion, 

the table or food. bheri-wdla, the shepherd. 

khansdman, the butler. mihtar, the sweeper. 

bdwarchi, the cook. mihtrdni, the female sweeper. 

grass-cut, (E.) he who cuts khidmatgar, the table-servant, 

fodder for the horse. <iarzi, the tailor. 

sa,is, the groom. bihishti, the waterman. 

mdli, the gardener. dhobi, the washerman. 

darbdn, the gate^porier. dhobin, the washerwoman. 

ch2^^xis\Jhe messenger. {\J\itX' dd,i, the tvet-nurse. 

ally wearer of a "chapras" kirdni, the Hindu writer. 

or badge.) munshi, the Muhammadan 

i.-^^^ the female attendant on writer; also, a teacher of 
a lady or children. languages. 

pankha-wala, the punkha- "met" (E. mate) is used to 
puller. express " under"-servant, as 

kochbdn ; (half E.) gariban, met-mdli, met-berer, met- 
the coachman. bawarchi, &c. 


dj, to-day. bimdr, sick, 

kal, to-morrow or yesterday bimdri, sickness, 

(according to context). hdn, yes, 
pahuQchna ; a-jdna, to arrive, na, no, 
chald-jdna, to depart. kab ? when ? 

safar, a journey, kyiin, why f 

36 hindiJstAni as it ought to be spoken. 

Exercise No. 8. 

Fidwi aj safar se pahu^cha hai. Ap ka mizdj achha hai ? 
Ap kab chale-jd,enge? Ghuldm kal jd,ega. Kal main, 
bfmar tha. Kal mera bhd,i bfmdr h\S,a ; dj achchha hai. 
Uski beti hazir hai. Kab })ii\r hd,i ? Us ddmi-ko roti aur 
bir-shardb do. Main-ne ek larkf buM,i hai. Hdzir hai ? 
Hdn, hdzir hai. Ham ko ek sdf kalar do. Is larki ka bap 
mar-gaya hai. Us larke ki ma mar-ga,i hai. Wuh ddmi 
khardb hai. Nahfn ! Wuh khardb nahf^ hai Yih khardb 
hai. Kyiin jdte ho ? 

Exercise No. 9. 

\\ hen did you arrive [are you arrived] from your jour- 
ney ? I arrived yesterday. I shall leave to-morrow. My 
sister became sick yesterday : to-day her health is good 
(or, she's all right to-day). That man's son is here (hdzir^ 
present), I called him. The house-lamps ( = lamps of the 
house) are not clean. Khidmatgar* ! bring (me) a peg. 
Yes, sir ! (sahib). 

Exercise No. 10. 

Pyar karna, to make dtar^ fondle, pet^ love, 

Jo admi darwdze par hai — usko buld,o. Jis ddmi ka 
ghora hazir hai — us ka bdp buld,o. Jo larke khardb haip. 
— unko saza do. Jo larki, dn achchhi hain, — unko pydr karo. 
Jo pdni glds men hai — wuh ham-ko do. Nahfn sdhib ! wuh 
pdni sdf nahfn hai ; saf pani ghuldm le,dta hai. Kauit 
buldta hai ? Kaun ddmi buldta hai ? Kya hai ? Jo gora 
darwdze par hai, — usko pani do. Jo larki dj pahunchi hai 
—wuh bfmdr hai. 

* Never call this servant your '* kitt." 

hindt^sti^ni as it ought to be spoken. 37 

Exercise No. ii. 

Pet that good girl who is in the drawing-room. Call the 
man whose father arrived yesterday. {Hind, Of what 
man the father arrived yesterday — him call.) Bring me 
the collars which are in the drawers. The washerman has 
not brought the shirts which I gave (him) yesterday, 
{ = what shirts I (main — ne) gave yesterday — these the 
washerman has not brought). Who is there* ? What boy 
is there ? What children are there ? Which is a good 
house? (=which house is good?) The European's house 
is a good one {say^ only, * is good '). 




•Various Words allied to Pronouns. 

1. " Ko,i " and " kuchh " should first be noted. They 
may stand alone, or be followed by a noun. They are not 
interrogative ; though the sentence in which they stand 
may be interrogative. 

2. " Ko,i " is used of persons, and of things specifically 
indicated. It may be translated, some, any — "ko,i" followed 
by " nahiii " gives us *' no " or " nobody'^ Ex. :-7-ko,i nahin 
hai, nobody is there. Ko,i admi nahin hai, There is no man 
present. Sab ko,i, evetyone. Sab ko,i chale-ga,e hain, 
every one has gone away. 

3. " Kuchh " is used of matter or mental feelings, and 
has generally an abstract sense. It is unchangeable and is 
also translated some, any. With " nahin " added, we get 
" no'' " none, " and ** nothing^' 

4. Declension of Ko,i. 

Sing. Plur. 

Nom. and Simple Ace. ko,i. ko,i. 

Form for the oblique cases kisi. kin. 

Examples: — Ko,i hai, someone is there. Ko,ihai^? is any one 
there ? Ko,i admi hai, some man is there. Ko,i admi hai ? is any man 

^Kaun hai? Means ivho is there?— yow knowing or believing 
that some one is there. 


there? Ko,i kursi Ia,o, bring some chair or other. Kuchh roti hai, there 
is some bread ; kuchh roti hai? is thert any bread? Kuchh nahin hai, 
there is none, [Kya hai? What's the matter?] Kuchh nahin, nothing, 
Kuchh parwah nahii? hai,* there is no matter ; pray donU trouble 

5. With " jo," and *ko,iand * kuchh/ compound pro- 
nouns are made as in English— viz : — 

jo ko,i, whoever ... ... jo kuchh, whatever. 

Note. — Both * jo,* and ' ko,i* cimnge in the oblique cases according to 
the declensions of these words already given. Of course, lu 'jo 
kuchh,* only the "jo ** can change. 

6. The words given below are plain adjectives. They 
follow the rules of ka, ke, ki. 

(iusra, another^ whether meaning a different thing of 
the same kind, or an additional thing of the same 
kind. In the latter sense ** aur ek " (meaning one 
more^ may be used and ambiguity avoided. 

aisa, like thiSy waisa, like that, 

kaisa? like what! what like ? what sort of a? how ? 

kitna? how much? how many? 

itna, this much, 

jaisa, taisa, as^ so, 

jitna, titna, {or itna) as much as ; or as many as — so 
much, so many, 
Notes : — 

i. Aisa. ..waisa and the two pairs last given are used correlatively. 
As :— Jaisa malik, taisa naukar, as is the master, so is the 
servant. Jitna dudh hai, titna {or itna) do, give me as 
much milk as there is. See Appendix No. 2, page 104. 

ii. Here notice the useful phrase 'Jaisa chihiye,* as you please ; 
' taisa kijiye' {so do) being 'understood.' 

7. The following words do not change : — 

ek, one, or *«' or *^«/ also, ^^about^^ or "£?/• j^," in such phrases 
as * about ten rupees ;' * there were a dozen men or so,^ 


har, each ; har-ek, each one, donon, both, 

bahut, much^ many, aur, more, 

chand ; baaze, several, aur ek, one more ; another. 

aur do, aur tfn, aur clidr, &c. two more, three more, four 

more, &»€. 

sab, ail ; the whole, may be used without change, and either 
with or without a noun. Ex.: — Hani sab log, all we 
people. When used without a noun you may say " sab " 
or "sabhon," in the oblique cases. 

8. Distribution is marked by doubling the numeral : 
or by the use of " har-ek," each, Ex. : — 
Ek ek ddmi ko, ek rdpfyah do, or, ) 
Har ek ddmi ko ek rdpfyah do. } ^'"^^ '""'^ '"^^ ^ '''^'• 


Furniture and some things about a house. 

chatdji, matting for floors, pardah, a curtain; hangings 

shatranji ; ghdlfcha ; dari, a in a doorway, dr^c. 

carpet, tsisvfir, picture (fem,) 

mez, a table {fern.) chfz, a thing {of any sort), 

*khaneki mez,* the dinner- if em.) 

table ; * likhne ki mez, ' ard,ish, the ornamentation. 

a writing-table ; 'kitdb ki kitdb ; bahi, a book (fem.) 

mez,' a table with books on Ijialam, a pen, 

it J *tdsh ki mez,^ a card- pensil, ^ /^««7 (E.) 

table, and so on. kdghaz, paper ; Idl-kdghaz, 

chhiX,^, an umbrella; parasol. red paper ; i.e,, blotting- 

kursi, {also, chauki), a chair, paper, 

sdil-bod, (E.) a sideboard, siydhi; roshna,i, ink; blacking. 

\,\'^,\,atea-poy; any small table, batti, a wick. 


vdom-hziXS^ a wax-candie, pd,o-ddn;morha;ishtiil, (E.) 

X.e\-h2Xi\^ an oil-light ; a night- . a footstool, 

light. palang, a bed, 

baja, any musical instru- kauch, (E.) a couch, 

ment ; par excellence, as pankha, a pankha ; a fan, 

regards European houses, kunji ; chdbi, a key, 

a piano, pauti, a work-basket, 

Ddn, a termination which means a vessel for holding any- 
thing, as : "gul-ddn," a flower-vase ; chd,e-dan, a tea-caddy ; 
dg-ddn, afire-holder (for e.g,^ lighting cigars), &c., &c. 


jalna, to burn (Jntr,) patthar ka ko,ila, stone-coal, 
jaldna ; jald-dena, to burn or i.e., coals, 

kindle {trans.) asbdb, goods and effects, 

bujhna; bujh-jdna, to go out kahna,* to say a thing. 

{as a light.) ya, or, 

bujbdna ; bujhd-dena, to ex- ydi, yz., either ,. .or, 

tinguish, jaldi ; shitdbi, haste ; speed. 

dtash-khdnah ; the fire-place ; jald, quickly, 

grate, darakht, per ; gdchh, a tree. 

^,fire {fern.) par, a feather, 

hezam ; lakri, fire-wood. loha, iron or steel. 

kOjila, charcoal, lohu, blood. 

Exercise No. 12. 

Sirddr ! dtash-khane men ag do. Lakri diin, ya patthar 
ka ko,ila ? Patthar, ka ko,ila. Kaun mez taiydr kariln ? 

' Governs the Ace. so has Nom. with ** ««." ** 7b," after this verb, 
is translated by " j^ " — Us-ne mujh-se kaha. 


Tash ki mez. Sarddr se kaho kih sab hamdra asbdb jald 
bakkas men rakh-de. Tel-batti nahfn jalti hai, mom-batti 
jald la,o. Par ka l^alam (^«/7/) U,o, yih lobe ka kalam 
achchha nahin hai. Sab ghar, chatd,i, shatranji, mez, taswir, 
aur dusre dusre ' asbab sdf karo. Turn kaise ddmi ho ? 
Jaise sdhib, taise naukar. 

Exercise No. 13. 

VVhat sort of a fellow is that ? Bring me all the milk in 
the house ( = as much milk as is in the house ^ so much bring to 
me,) How many things are (there)' in the wardrobe ? There 
are* many men present ( = many men are present.) Light 
the fire. There is no fire-wood. Bring some from the 
cook-house. Please give me (/>., to me) some blotting-paper. 
This night-light has gone out : bring another. Put (it) on 
the chair, and go away. 

^ Doubling an adjective idiomatically enhances its force. 
- See page 75, section 12. 


1. These generally follow their noun or pronoun. 

2. Most of them follow the genitive with ke ; a few 
follow the genitive with ki. 

3. Of course, when a word is itself a genitive^ the |)re- 
position follows it directly, without ke or ki. Ex. : — Mere 
wdste, for me ; for my sake ; tumhdre liye, for your sake, for 
you, Kis waste, on what account ? why ? 


I. Prepositions which follow the genitive with ke, or 

a genitive word in e. Those with an asterisk may also be 
used as adverbs. 

* dge, in front. pds, near ; beside. 

* andar ; bhftar, inside. mutdbik ; mu,dfil^, like ; in 

* ilpar, up ; above. conformity with : accord- 
baad, after (time). ing to. 

bd,is, by reason of ba-mdjil>, according to ; 

* bdhar, outside. agreeably to. 
badle, instead of * nazdfk, near, 

* bich, among ; between. * pichhe, behind. 
par, over ; across. sdth, along with 

44 hindtJstXni as it ought to be spoken. 

* sdmne, in front of. * nfche, under. 
sabab, by reason of wdste, for the sake of 

siwa ; siwd,e, ^ATi?//. * darmiyan, in the midst; 

ewaz, as a substitute for. by the way (i.e.^ road) 

* Ijarib, near, between ; among. 

* gird, around. yahdn, beside; in presence of 
Wye, for the sake of; for. (the French ^Uhez;^' Ger- 
mare, by reason of; on ac- man ** bei:^) 

count of 

2. Of these which follow ki^ or genitive word in /, you 
need only learn these : — 
bdbat, concerning. 
jihat, on account of 
khdtir, for the love of; for the sake of 
tarab, like : is tarah, in this manner : us tarah, in that 

manner. * 
taraf, towards : is taraf, this way, {i.e., direction) ; us 

taraf, that way* {i.e., direction), 
mdrfat, by the hands of ; through a person, 
nisbat, concerning; relative to; ba-nisbat is ki, in com- 

parison with this. 

* Note. — In such quasi-adverbial phrases as these, made with **fj" 

and ** us " demonsiraitves, the ** ke" ox **^«" is omitted before 
the preposition. Other examples are "is itye," on this ac- 
count ; *^us liyCf^ on that account. 

Exercise No. 14. 

Ghar ke dge bara darakht hai. Dar ke mdre bdhar nahfn 
ga,e the. Mere nazdik ek riipfya bhi nahfn hai. Tumhdre 
liye sab ko,i koshish karega. Is taraf mat a,o ; us taraf jd,o. 
Ba-nisbat is ki, wuh achchha hai. Yih kam kis tarah kardnga? 
Jaisa chdhiye. Mere yahdn bahut ghore hain. 

hindustani as it ought to be spoken. 45 

Exercise No. 15. 

The European soldiers have gone across the river. Under 
the lamp (is) darkness.* By the way, I saw two tigers. He 
was going towards the city. In this manner he became 
rich. For my sake he underwent much labour. Compared 
with this, dying is better. Among friends, quarrelling is 
bad. There are many good pictures in the Judge's house.' 
He has done the work, agreeably-to my orders, 

* Andhera. The sentence is an Eastern proverb. ■ Use * yahan.' 



Conjunctions and Allied Words. 


These present no difficulties. Those which suggest a 
** subjunctive " sense (as, * if^ * though^) are often, but not 
always, followed by the Subjunctive Mood. The principal 
conjunctions are as follows : — 

agar ; jo, if. nahfp, to, if not ; othenvise. 

agarchih, although, bhi ; ham, also. 

aur, and ; also, harchand, although. 

balkih, rather; on the contrary, pas, therefore ; so. 
chilnkih, in as much as ; io, then. (See iVJ^/iff, p. 47.)^ 

as ; since ; because. tau bhi, even then ; still. 

kih, thai (of narration). warna, and if not ; or else. 

Sometimes it has the sense hanoz, ^^/; still ; up to this 

of * or,^ as * kih na,' or not. time. 
khwdh..,khwdh, either... or. ya, or. 
kydnkih, because. ya...ya, either... or, 

go-kih, given that ; although, na . . . na ; na yih . . . nah wuh, 
m agar ; lekin ; par, ^«/. neither... nor. 

See also Appendix No. II, page 104. 

* Both. . .and ' ; — * Both ' is not translated ; * and ' is 
usually translated by * o,' sometimes emphasised by adding 


f I 


* bhi' afier the second word. Ex. :— * Adml wahan the,' o 

lafke bhi the, Both men and boys were there. 

Notes. — 'To' is used in the second clause to introduce the conse- 
quence, result, &c„ of the first clause. Ex, : — Agar turn yih kam 
nahfn karoge, to main ghussah hunga, If you donU do this work, 
I shall be angry ^ 

i. As a particle ' to ' has several idiomatic uses. Thus, it is used 
to emphasise an Imperative. Ex.: — dekho to, /^^^ //«?«/ / 
ssxTiO io, just you listen ! It is also used after a numeral, 
instead of a repetition of the thing spoken of. Ex. : — Ap-ko 
kitne rupiye darkar hairt ? Das. to kafi horige, Ho^v many 
rupees does Your Honor require ? Ten will be etiough, 

ii. ' Kih * is much more frequently introduced in narration than 
• is * that ' in English. It is generally pronounced as if spelt 
with a short ** e," like our " e " in kennel, 

iii. There is a peculiar idiom in the use of * jab tak ' (or, talak) and 
* tab-tak ' (or, talak) — words which, taken together, give us 
one sense of the English * while,' and * till'. The idiom is 
that you must always insert a negative before the verb of 
the first clause. We fix our minds on (for example) the 
moment of our return ; the natives, on the duration of the 
absence. Ex. : — jab-tak main nahin phir-a,un, tab-tak 
baithiye, so long as I do not return, so long take-a-seat, 
\,t.i till I return, take a seat. Jab-tak ghora taiydr nahin 
hoga, tab-tak ek kitdb parhiye, as long as the horse is not 
ready — so long read a book, or, read a book, while the horse 
is getting ready ^ 

v. When two unrelated events are spoken of, as happening at 
the same time, use * jis-wakt ' and *us-wakt.' Ex.: — ^Jis- 
wakt main chitthi likhta tha, us-wakt wuh akhbdr dekhta 
tha, while 1 ruas writing a letter, he was taking a look at the 

vi. * Chunkih ' of the first clause is followed by * is waste* in the 
second clause. 

48. hindiJstAni as it oucjht to be spoken. 

Useful Verbs {continued) and Notes on Some. 

bajna, to sound {inir,) 

bajdna, to sound ; to play 

bdz-rakhna, to keep back; 
withhold ; conceal, 

bintna, to divide, 

bant-lena, to divide and ap- 

bdndhna, to bind ; tie, 

baithna, to sit ; sit down, 

bithdna, to seat, 

bajd-ldna, to carry out ; per- 

bachna ; bach-jdna, to escape. 

bachdna, to rescue ; save, 

barhna, to grow ; increase, 

barhdna, to cause to grow^ or 
increase; advance {trans.) 

barasna, to rain, 

bdjhna, to understand. 

bujhdna, to explain, 

bhdgna ; bhdg-jdna, to flee ; 
escape ; bolt, 

bhejna ; bhej-dena, to send. 

bhdlna, to forget ; to make 
a mistake (bhitl). 

bhdl-jdna, to forget ; to be 

chdhna, to wish ; desire. 

charhna, to ascend. 
charhdna, to cause to ascend ; 

chilldna, to scream. 

(jdbna, to sink ; be drowned. 
dubdna, to cause to sink ; 

immerse ; lower. 
daurna, to run. 
ddlna ; ddl-dena, to throw ; 

throw doivn. 
darydft karna, to find out 

about a thing. 
dhdndhna, to search for. 

fardmosh - karna, to forget. 

gdna, to sing. 

guzarna ; guzar-jdna, to pass 

over (e.g., a river.) 
girna ; gir-jdna, to fall. 

girdna ; gird-dena, to cause to 

fall ; to throiv down. 
gumdn-karna, to fancy ; 

ghabrdna, to be confused ; 

perplexed ; put out ; (also 

ghulna, {intr.) to melt. 
ghuldna, (trans.) to melt, 

hdnkna, to drive. 

hindi5stAni as it ought to be spoken. 

letna, to lie down ; rest 


jagna, to be awake, 
jagdna, to waken {trans.) 
jdnna, to know. 
jina, to live, 
jftna, to win. 
jhagarna, to quarrel. 

Ijiabiil karna, to agree to ; con 
sent ; admit a charge, dr'c. 

kdm-ana, to be serviceable, 

kirdya-lena, to borrow ; hire. 

kasna, to pull ; make tight. 

khujlana, to scratch ; tickle. 

khodna, to dig. 

khulna, to be open ; after rain 
&c. ; to clear. 

kholna, to open ; unfasten. 

khelna, to play ; sport. 

khojna, to search for. 

ladna, to be laden. 

Iddna, to load, [paper.) 

lapetna, to wrap up {as with 

latkdna ; latkd-dena, to sus- 
pend ; hangup, 

lajdna, to be ashamed. 

larna, to quarrel, 

lagna, to touch ; be in contact 
with ; reach ; also begin, 

lagdna, to apply one thing to 
another ; to cause to touch ; 
to lay on {and, so, to moor 
a boat, d^c, c^c.) 
t., h. 


mdngna, to ask; demand; 

[puchhna, is to ask a question.] 

mangwdna, to send for, 
mdnna, to obey, also, to be- 
lieve ; acquiesce-in, 
inalna, to rub ; chafe. 

nikalna; nikal-jana, to 

out ; sally forth, 
nikdlna, nikdi-dena, to ex 

tract ; take out ; turn out ; 


pana, to get ; obtain, 

parhna, to read, 

parhdna, to instruct, 

pa karna, to catch hold of. 

pakna, to grow ripe! 

pakdna, to cause to ripen ; to 

pukdrna, to call out, 
pdchhna, to ask a question, 
ponchh-dena, to wipe ; dust. 
phdrna, to tear {trans.) 
phatjdna, to split; burst, 


pahchdnna, to recogfiise one ; 

know one again, 
phir-dna, to come back, 
phir-jdna, logo back, 



hindiJstIni as it ought to be spoken. 

pahunchna, to arrive, 
pahunchdna, to escort ; con- 
duct; cause to arrive, 
paithna, to enter. 

rahna, to stay ; remain ; 

samajhna, to comprehend. 
samjhdna, to explain. 
sochna, to meditate on. 

tdkna, to turn ; look this 
way ; guard ; watch. 

talab-karna, to seek for ; send 

tardshna ; kdtna, to cut. 

thaharna, to wait; stay where 
you are. 

torna, to tear ; break ; destroy. 

utarna, to descend. 

utdrna, to cause to descend. 

uthna, to rise ; stand up. 

uthdna, to raise. 

uth-jina, to get up and go ; 

to depart. 
urna, to fly. 
urdna, to dissipate; to fly ^ e.g., 

a kite (guddi.) 

wdkif-hona, to be, or become 
aware of anything. 

ydd-rakhna, to remember. 
zikr-karna, to mention. 

Notes : — 

i. The verb * milna ' occurs most frequently as a 3rd personal 
verb only. What is our Nominative becomes a Dative, 
and our Accusative becomes the Nominative. Confer the 
Latin, * Liber est mihif' I have a book. 

With this construction always preserved, * milna ' means 
every phase of a thing coming-^o, teaching, meeting a 
person or thing. Its precise English must vary with the 
context, and includes have, find, get, procure, meet, come- 
across or whatever else suits. 

* Mila"* (3rd pers. past tense,) is a handy word — used alone — 
to mean * Pve found it ;* * Vve got itj* Or you may say — 
more fully — ^ ham-ko mila hai.^ * Ham mile,' * wuh 
milega,' and so on, are not Hindtlstdni, 

Examples :— J angal men ham-ko do sher mile the, /» M^yaw.^ 
/ met two tigers. Mujh-ko bakhshish milegl, / shall get a reward. 


Us-ko hukm-ndmah mila hai, he has got a written-order. Darmiydn 
rab ke, ek naddi mili thi, In the middle (or, by the way^ they 
came-an a river ; (* unhon-ko * being * understood.') 

ii. From * pakna/ comes the Anglo-Hindi. * pucca.* 

iii. * Lagna,' when it means to begin, is preceded by the inflected 
form of the Infinitive : Ex : — Wuh bolne laga, he began to say. 

iv. * Darna,' to fear y requires ^ se'* of the thing feared. Ex — 
main tum-se darta hun, I am frightened for you, 

V. * Kahna,' to say^ tell^ also takes * se ' where we use to, Ex. : — 
Us-ne ham-se kaha, kih, &c , he told {Jo) us^ that, &*c. So 
with *puchhna ' ; — us-se puchhiye, ash of him, ask htm, 

vi. To express ^urfose, intention 01 object, the inflected form of 
the Infinitive followed by * ho* or * he wdste,* is used 
Ex : — Wuh khane ko jata hai, he is going to dine. Khelne 
ke waste bahar jata hun, I am going out to play. Or you 
may say — * ke matlab se * = with the intention of Ex :— Us 
shakhs-ne, mujh-ko nuksdn pahunchdne ke matlab se, yih 
bdt kahi hai, that Jellow has told this story in order to 

cause injury to arrive to me, i.e., to injure me. 


Exercise No. i6. 

In donon men se, ap kaun pasand karte hain ? Meri 
rd,i vcitn, yih achchha hai. Huzdr Ifjiye ; fidwi ke pdsdilsra 
hai. Bahut achchha! Ghulam aj shdm ko huzCir ke pds bhej- 
dega ; nahin to kuchh kdm ka nahfn hoga. Achchha ! bhej- 

Khet men dhdn hai ; bdwarchi-khdne men chdwal hai ; 
mez par bhdt hai. Agarchih main us-ko phir dekhdn, tau- 
bhi nahfn pahchan-sakdnga. Main us bdt ko ydd nahi^ 
rakhta hti9. Baaze ddmi kahte hain, kih shahr men bahut 
chor-log rahte hain. Main Hindilstdni zabdn men hoshydr 
hoti htin. 

52 hindiJstIni as it ought to be spoken. 


]^isar-i-hind,' the Empress of \k% Sd^ib, the Lieutenant- 
India. Governor, 
bddshdh, or pddshdh, a king, zamin, land, 

(M.) 2amfnddr, a land-holder, 

malikah, a queen, (M.) mulk, a country. 

mahdrdja ; ' rdja* a king, (H.) milki, landed property, 
mahdrdni ; ^ rdnl^ a queen, (H.) khet afield. 
shdhzddah, a prince. (M.) kheti, cultivation, 
kiinwar ; jub-rdj, a/r/wrif. (H.) raiyat ;^ kdshtkdr ; kisdn, a 
difiin^ a minister of state, cultivator, [(fern.) 

arkdn-i-daulat,* tke nobility. fasl, the crops ; the hardest 
khds-o-dm,* the people gener- rabi, the spring crop, 

ally, kharlf, the autumn crop, 

khud, (indec.) self, dpas men, among themselves, 

bara Ldt^Sd^ib, the Governor- bdt, {fem,) word ; affairs ; 
General, business ; news. 

Notes :— * This " i " is Persian for ** of**,..* lliese words are best left 
untranslated.... 'Literally, ** tAe Pillars of the State,",,. * Liter- 
ally, The Exclusive and the Common. ** o " is Persian for " and. ' 
* i.e. " Lord." • The Anglo-Hind, * ryot ' The plural is ri,4ya, 
tenants; subjects. 

When speaking of persons of distinction, you put the Verb in the 
Plural, even though the Nom. be singular. 

Exercise No. 17. 

Kaisar-i-Hind ke bete is mulk men d,e the. Bare Lid 
Sdhib ke sdth rahe the. Kaisar-i-Hind khud nahfn 

• • — • 

d-saki thin. Sab Bddshdh, Mahdrdja, Rdja, Khds-o-dm, 
Kaisari-Hind ke bete-ko dekhne ke wdste, Kalkatta ga,e 

^ Calcutta. 


the. Sh4hzdde-ne bhi logon-ko dekhne ke wdste, sab raulk 
me9 safar kiya tha. Is-se sab ko,i nihdyat khush hu,e. 

Agar yih bdt dp-ko pasand nahin hai, to, main chaU- 
jd,tinga. Yih ddmi daulatmand nahin hai, balkih gharib 
hai. Chilnkih tum-ne yih kdm nahin kiya hai, is wdste 
tum-ko saza milegi. Jab barsdt achchhi hai, tab ri,aya khush 
hain. Jab main taiydr hdnga, tab dp ke sdth bahar ja,ilQga. 
Mujh-ko khush k'arne ke matlab se, bakhshish di hai. 

Exercise No. i8. 

Given that Your Honor is unwell, still there is no fear of 
death. Although Your Honor has given the order, still I 
will not do this work. Just you listen ! I shall go to Cal- 
cutta, an«i you shall stay here till I come back. Don't 
come till I shout. While I say a word to this man, you 
take-a-look-at to-day's paper. 

The land-holders of this country are rich, and often 
quarrel among themselves. Their tenants get excellent crops 
when the rains are good. This year,* the rains have not 
been sufficient ; therefore {pas) the crops are bad. 

I am frightened for tigers. I saw two in the forest. 
They, becoming frightened at me, ran-off, making a loud 
cry. In the way, we also reached a river ; we crossed-over 
in a boat. 

* The Persian ' im sal * is in common use. It is an accusative of 
time, and must not be used as if it were a Nominative. 


Adverbs, and Allied Words and Phrases. 

These do not change. You may make up adverbs, by 
putting * se ' after any noun which will make sense. 
Ex. : — * Zor-se (Anglo-Hind. * jorsy,') with fore: ; forcibly, 
* Khabarddri se ' with care ; carefully. Learn also : — 
ab, now ; at present. 
dhistah, slowly, 
alb^ttahy certainly; ''no doubt, ^ 
aslan-mutlakan, by no means ; 

most certainly not, 
bd,en, to the left hand, 
be-shak, without doubt, 
bihtar better, 

bil-fel, immediately ; at once, 
bil-kul, entirely, 
ddhine, to the right hand, 
ek dam, this instant. 
hameshah, always. [haps 
ho sakta hai, // may be ; per- 

itiifdlj:an, // so happened that ; 
by chance. 

is wakt, at this time ; now. 
jald, quickly ; soon. \at once, 
j hat-pat, very quickly ; now ; 
kabhi-kabhi, sometimes, 
mat, the negative always used 
with the Imperative Mood, 
masalan, for example, 
I . ihdy at, exceedingly, 
raftah-raftah, gradually, 
siidyad, perhaps, 
thora thora, by little and little, 
turat, at once ; now, 
us walct, at that time ; then. 
zartir, of necessity, 

ziyddah, more^ often with the 
sense of, * too much,^ 


Exercise No. 19. 

Mai^ nihdyat khush hil^; mere bdp-ne ham-ko bahut 
riipae di,e haiii; main bil-fel ghore moMiinga. Kapre 
almdri men jald latka-do. Zariir jdna ho;4a. Ittifikian, 
murgh-ko ek moti mila tha ; kaha, kih " yih chiz kis kdm 
ki hai ? main bhdkh se be-tdb hiin ; moti, jauhari, on ki 
chiz, hai ; mere wdste ek danah ja,i bihtar hoga ; " bolte-hi, 
bhiikh se mar-gaya. 

Exercise No. 20. 

I met a friend on the road. On his journey he came 
upon a river. A cock came upon a pearl. It came to pass 
that^ the king's daughter found a child on the bank of the 
river. He began to say (that) *I met two tigers on the 
road ;' but his friend said (that) * ihere are no tigers in 
this place,' so he shut-up. ^ 

* Ittifakan. ' Chup-rahna. 



Those in common use are as follows : — 

are, (// a female is addressed^ *ari/) hey you ! 

kya bat, what a statetnent ! stuff! nonsense ! 

wah-wdh ; shdbdsh, bravo ! well done I 

achchha ; khdb; khair ;* good I zvell ! 

bahut achchha, 2 very good / all right! 

wd,e-wa,e, woe is me ! oh dear^ oh dear ! 

bdpre-l)dpre, expresses astonishment at some disagreeable 

news, or the like, 
bdp-bdp, help ! mercy ! 
duhd,i, or duhd,i-duhd,i,/W//V^ / 
duhd,i Mahdrani ki, grant justice, oh Great Queen ! 
afsos, or afsos hai, what a pity ! how sad! 

* We, in telling a story, often begin a sentence with the exclamation 
' well ! ' Natives, in like circumstances, often end a sentence in the 
same way. Their word is * khair. ' 

^ 'Bahut achchha' or * bahut khiib ' is also a common answer given 
by a servant on receiving orders. Or he may answer, 'jo hukm/ 
whatever your orders (be) — * I shall attend to them ' being understood. 
Or he may say, simply, * Han, khuddwand,* or, Ji ! han, Yes, Your 
Honor I 

hindijstAni as it ought to be spoken. 


chhi-chhiV ^gly f nasty I 

diir ; diir-ddr ; diir ho ! be off! get out! 


Useful Adjectives — (continued.) 
achha ; khiib, good. karwa, strong^ {as liquor, or 

khardb ; bura, dad. 

dncha ; baland, high. 
nicha, low. 

bara ; bazurg, great. 
chhota, small. 

bahut, much. 
thora ; zarrah, little. 

mota, thick ; coarse ; stout. 
patla, thin ; weak in texture^ 

or in body. 
bdrik ; wvCcAxi^fine in texture. 

dubia, thin ; scraggy. 
mazbdt ; strong ; firm. 
kam-zor, weak^ {deficient in 

ndtdkiat, infirm ; shaky. 
zordwar, strong in body; 



lamba, long. 
kotdh, short. 

chaura, broad. 
kam-arz, narrow. 

gol, round. 
chau-kona, square. 

kharkhara, rough. 
chikna, smooth. 

garm, warm ; hot. 
thandh : thandha, cold. 

saf, clean. 
maila, dirty. 

sakht, hard, also, difficult. 
narm ; muld,im, soft. 

dsdn ; salfs, easy. 
mushkil, difficult. 

* This word must never be used as an adjective describing any of 
Her Majesty's subjects ; or their dialect ; as in these lines from the 
*• Ijuyn of Ind"— 

** What though upon her lips there hung 
The accents of the ehhi-ohhi tongue." 


hindiJstAni as it ought to be spoken. 

bhdri, heavy, 
halka, light, 

tdzah, fresh, 

sara ; purina, decayed, 

naya ; nau, neiv, 
purdna, old, 

gaihra, deep. 
uthla, shallow, 

tez ; lezrau, fast, 
tez nahfn, slow, 

nazdik, near, 
diir, distant. 

pydra, dear (of affection.) 
mahnga, dear (of price.) 
sasta ; raanda, cheap. 

tang ; narrow ; too tight. 
tez, sharp (as a knife.) 
kund, blunt. 

kdfi, sufficient ; enough, 
kam, deficient ; ^ short, ^ 

daulatmand, rich, 

gharfb ; kangdl ; muflis, poor, 

maghriir, proud, 
gharib ; miskin, humble ; poor 
in spirit. 

andha, blind. 
bahra, deaf. 

gii^ga, dumb, 
langra, lame, 
lunga, naked, 

maalilm, known, 
nd maaliim, unknown, 
khush, pleased ; happy. 
na-khush, displeased ; un- 

pasand, agreeable ; approved, 
ndpasand, disagreeable ; dis- 

., ( clever ; sharp- 

aklmand ; ) 

ddna, ivise, 
be-wukdf, foolish, 
kund-zihn, dull oj intellect. 
diwanah, mad, 

hoshyar, skilful ; up in your 

be-hosh, senseless ; stupid; 
* no good; also, Hna swoon ^ 

umdah, great ; noble, 
pdji, mean ; base ; contemp- 

alim, learned. 
jdhil, ignorant, 

saf, clear. 
andhera, dark. 

hindxJstIni as it ought to be spoken. 59 

siikha, dry, kdla, black. 

bhinga \ tar, wet, barun (E.), brown. 

sach ; sachcha; xisX^true ; just. ^* * ^* 

jhdtha, untrue. "/'^ ^'«^- 

nd-rdst, unjust ; wrong. a , re . 

zard, yellow. 
durust, r/:^>i// proper. ^^^^^ . gj^j^^^j^ ^^^ ^^^^^ 

nd-durust, not right; im- d.khan ; janiib, M^ ^^//M. 
P^^P^^^ piirab ; mashrik, the East. 

sufed, white. pachchham ; maghrib,/>^g West. 

Notes : — 

* Kam ' is much used as a prefix, signifying deficiency. * Maa- 
liim,' *Na-maalum,' are much used colloquially, by themselves 
alone, to mean * I know it^ ' * / donH know it? * Muflis ' is said 
also to mean *« bachelor^ but there is probably some error in this 
use of the word. 

The words * uttar,' *dakhan,' * piirab,' and * pachchham,' are 
those most commonly used. From ' dakhan ' comes the Anglo- 
Hind, *Deccan.' 

All natives know the points of the compass ; and all direc- 
tions should be given by them. Thus you may tell your servant 
if you want him to bring you an article, (and know yourself where 
it lies,) that it is, e.g.^ on the North-West corner of your table. 
He is then sure to find it, if there. 

Exercise No. 21. 

Are ! kidbar jdte ho ? * Ap kydn pdchhte hain ? Kya bdt ! 
turn jawdb nahin de,oge? Hdn khuddwand ! fidwijawdb 
dega ; fidwi bdzdr jdta hai. Bahut achchha ! kusdr nahf^ 
hai, chalo* Duhd,i Mahdrdni ki ! chor logon-ne mere sab 
mdl liit-liye hain ; hukm dfjiye kih polfs (E.) ke sipdhi,dn 
fouran tabtftdt kare^i. Wd,e ! wd,e. Afsos hai! chdron taraP 

* 'Charop taraf '—(char, /^//r) idiomatic; on all sides; "char" 
is made plural ; * taraf ' is unchanged ; no preposition is required. 

6o hindi^stXni as it ought to be spoken. 

uttar, dakhan, pilrab, pachchhatn, taldsh karenge, kaho ! 
kya kya mdl gum ho-gaya hai ? 

Yih admi al^lmand hai ; wuh, be-wul^df hai. Yih aurat 
bahut dubli hai ; lekin uska khasam bahut mota hai. Yih 
kapra patla aur kam-arz hai, mujh ko kapra mazbilt aur 
chaura darkdr hai ; tumhdre pds aisa kapra hai ? Kdla kapra 
msubilt hai. Be-wul^ilf ! mai9 sufed kapra mdngta hdn, turn 
kdla kapra bdhar karte ho— jd,o I Berar ! Hdn khuddwand ! 
barun ghora bimdr hai. Bdpre ! bdpre ! kaisa hil,a ? Mai^ 
kya jdnta ! Jald dauro— bdzdr-se julldb ki dawa ma9gd,-do. 
Tabiddr chaprdsi bhej-dega. Nahfn ! turn sust ddmi ! is 
darniiyan men, ghora mar-jd,ega ; khud dauro ; di3r ! 

Exercise No. 22. 

Hey you ! what are you up to? { = doing.) Nothing. 
Then, what is all this noise ? We are only chatting among 
ourselves. Don't chatter in the verandah ; by reason of the 
noise, I cannot work. Who are these men ? They are culti- 
vators. What do they want ? They say that owing-to (se) 
the oppression of their (own) landlord, iheir crops have 
been attached ; they desire justice. But is their story true ; 
God knows ! as a rule, there is some truth and some false- 
hood on both sides. Certainly these poor people won't tell 
lies. Your Honour has been six months in the country 
and knows everything ; but (your) slave's opinion is that 
whoever believes only half will do good justice.* 

* From * nisf,* half^ is derived * insaf,' justice ; also * Munsif,* a 
dispenser 0/ justice t a * Moonsiff (Anglo- Hind). 

Arrangement of Words in a Sentence. 

The arrangement of words in a sentence is left a good 
deal to taste, subject to one fixed rule that your Verb must 
come at the end of the clause or sentence ; and if there 
be an auxiliary, it is the last word. You cannot divide the 
parts of a verb ; making such a sentence as * He had, after 
some delay, made a full confession.' All the component 
parts of a compound tense come together. 

2. Taking the ordinary words and clauses which occur 
in a sentence, the following order will be found idiomatic : — 
Nominative, preceded by the qualifying word, or words, if 
any; Object, purpose, intention, or the like; ..Dative.... 
Adverbial, or participle clause ;... Accusative; ... Verb.' 
Ex. : — Us khardb ddmi-ne — nul^sdn pahunchdne ke matlab 
se — mujh-ko — nihdyat baland awdz se— gdli di thi, TAaf bad 
man, with the object of causing (me) loss, to me, in a very 
loud voice, gave abuse. If you wish to state the place, you 
might say, e,g, 'bdzdr me^i' before *gdli.' The time would 
probably stand first of all: as, dj, din-ko, tin pahar ke 
wa^t, (us khardb ddmi, &c.,) to-day, by day, at the time of 
three-watches^ i.e., at three d clock this afternoon, d^•^. 

3, Interrogation is expressed in several ways — 

If/, — By the mere inflection of the voice ; the words 


remaining in the same order as in an affirmative sentence. 
Ex. : — Turn nahf9 jdnte, kih, &c. DorCt you know that r^cJ 

2nd, — By the use of a plain interrogative word. Ex. :— 
kyiin deri karte lio? Why are you delaying 1 why art you so 
slotv ? 

^rd — By first naming a thing, and then asking about it ; 
as often occurs in French. Ex. :— Ap ka mizaj — kaisa hai? 
Your Honoris health — how is it ? 

[Hai admi bdzir? and the like, are not Hindiistdni.] 

Some Interrogative Words. 

Kab, when? Kahdn, where? Kidhar, whither? Kyiin, 
why? Kaun, 2vho? Kva, which? what? Kab-tak, how long? 
Ka,eber ; ka,e dafah, how often ? Kis-wdste, on what account; 
why? Kyiin-kar; kis-iarah; kaisa, in what manner; how? 
Kitna, or ketna, Plur: kitne, t?r ketne, how many? how 
much ? 


The Boi>y and some of its Parts. 

badan ; 'ys^va^ the body, ankh ; chashm, the eye. 

sir, the head. nak, the nose. 

bdl, the hair. rukh ; gal, the cheek. 

zulf, curly hair. miinh, the mouth. 

miichh, mustachios. talu, the palate. 

darhi, the beard. ddnt or dant, a tooth, 
ru ; chihrah ; miinh,^ the face, jibh ; zabdn,* the tongue. 

peshdni, the Jorehead, , jabra, the jaw, 

abru, the eyebrow, lab, a lip. 

' Pronounce, nasally, * moo.' * Zaban means also * a language,' 



thuddi : zanakh, the chin. 
kan, an ear, 

gardan, the neck, 
gala or gula, the throat, 
bazu, an arm, 
hath \ dast,' a hand, 
hatheli, the palm, 
ungli, a finger, 
nakhun, a nail. 

kandha, the shoulder, 
chhati, the breast, 
sinah, the bosom, 
godi, the lap, 
panjar, the side. 
pith, the back, 
chdtar, the buttocks. 

tang, the leg. 
jdngh, the thigh, 
pindh', the calf. 

pdjOn, the foot, 

talwa, the sole of the foot, 

eri, the heel, 

pdjOn ki ungli, a toe, 

haddi : hdr, a bone, 
panjari, a rib, 
khiin ; lohq, blood, 
pit, bile, 

pasinah, perspiration, 
dam^ ; sdns, the breath. 

rag ; nas, a vein, 

maghz ; dimdgh, the brain. 

dil, the heart, 

pet ; shikam, the belly. 

midah, the stomach. 

phepre, the lungs. 
tilli, the spleen, 
giida, the marrow, 

chamra, the skin,^ 

* Hence, dast-anah, (»^/ clas-tanah,J a glove, 

■ Not to be confounded with * dum,' the tail of an animal. 

■ Means also * leather* 



The first things to learn here are the following frac- 
tions : — 

pd,o, a quarter. derh, one and a half. 

ddha, a half, arhd,i, two and a half. 

also these : — 

sdrhe, one half ^iore than the unit named. 

sawa, one quarter more than the unit named. 

paune, one quarter less than the unit named. 

2. Then learn these words : — 

ganda, a bundle of 4. hazdr, a thousand. 

kori, or kuri, a score, ]dkh, a hundred thousand. 

sau, a hundred. karor, ten millions. 

3. There are separate words from *one' to *one hundred,' 
but it will be sufficient foryou to learn the words only from 
* one ' to ' twenty.' They are as follows : — 

I, ek. 

8, ath 

15, pandrah. 

2, do. 

9, nau. 

16, solah. 

3, tin. 

10, das. 

17, satrah. 

4, chdr. 

II, igydrah. 

18, athdrah. 

5, pdnch. 

12, bdrah. 

i9j unis. 

6, chhah. 

13, terah. 

20, bis. 

7, sdt. 

14, chaudah. 


4. The other numbers up to loo will be found in Ap- 
pendix No. I, page 103. With the materials now given 
you, you can express any number, in a perfectly idiomatic 
way : by using karors, Idkhs, thousands, hundreds, scores, 
and units. Ex.: — 557 = five hundred, two scores, and' 
seventeen, pdnch sau, do kiiri, satrah. 9,991 = nau hazdr, 
nau sau, char kilri, unfs. 

5 The ORDINAL numbers are as follows :— ,Paihle, first; 
diSsra, or, doyum, second; tfsra, third; chautha, fourth. 
These, when ending in *a,' follow the rules of ka, ke, ki. 
After * chautha, /?«r//4, ' the ordinals are got by adding 
*wdn' to the cardinals. *The sixth' is, for euphony's 
sake, *chhatwdn.' 

6. *Once,' 'twice,' * thrice,' &c., are expressed by *ek 
dafah,' *do dafah,' *tfn dafah,' and so on. 

7. *A,' in such phrases as *a yard,' *a foot' is ex- 
pressed by the word ' fi.' or by * ek ek ' Ex. : — fi — or ek 
ek — gaz kitne riipae honge ? how many rupees a yard, 

8. As there are sixteen annas in a Rdpi, 16 is much 
used to give the idea of a 'whole,' *a unit,' or *full quantity,' 
of anything; ''^ eight annas'' meaning a half ; ^ four annas,' 
a quarter ; two annas, an eighth, and so on. Confer the 
words 'quadroon,' 'octoroon.' 

1 ( 

And ' is never expressed with numerals. 

T., H. 



The English Months are sure to be known by all your 
servants, and are also known to natives generally. But you 
must catch the pronunciation in use in your locality. 

The following is pretty near the ordinary pronun- 
ciation : — 

Janri. Julai. 

Fabri. Agast/ 

Marich. Saptambar. 

April. Ok lobar. 

Mai. Navambar. 

Jtln. Dichambar. 

2. The Days of the Week are not known by their 
English names. 

The names most commonly used are these — 
Itwdr; rabibdr, Sunday, 
Sombdr ; pir ka roz, Monday, 
Mangal, Tuesday, 
Budh, Wednesday. 
Brihaspat; biphe, Thursday. 
Shukrbdr; jumah, Friday. 
Sanichar; sanibdr, Saturday. 

^ Accent on the last syllable. 

hindt^stIni as it ought to be spoken. 67 

3. The Hours are now-a-days always counted by the 
English watch when possible. But the native division 
assigns so much time to the day-light, and so much to the 
night. The reckoning is by the "pahar," (pronounced 
in Lower Bengal, *prohor,') which consists of three English 
hours; four "pahars" being counted to the day, and four 
to the night. Then the word 'ghanta' — which means a bell^ 
or gong — is used to mean *an hour,' as in many parts of 
India a gong is struck after each hour. Again, there is a 
word.'ghari,' which is said to be equal to about one-third of 
an English hour; but is often used very vaguely; as indeed 
all words of time are, when not referred to a watch or clock. 
* Ghari' is also used for the English * clock,^ or * watch ^ 

4. * The clock ' is known to all servants as well as to 
superior natives. The verb *bajna' (intr,) to sound; or the 
verb * bolna' (tnir,) to say, is used with reference to a clock 
or watch. If you will study the following clauses you will 
be master of • the clock' in Hindilstdni : — 

kya baja hai, what has sounded ? what o'clock is it ? 
do baje hain, two have sounded; two o^clock. 
arhd,i baje bain, a half more than two has sounded, 
sawa do baje hain, a quarter more than two has sounded, 
paune do baje hain, a quarter less than two has sounded. 
do baj-ke, bis minat, two having sounded, twenty minutes 

(more have passed), twenty minutes past 2, 
bfs mfnat ke baad, do bajega, after twenty minutes, two 
will strike; twenty minutes to 2, Or this may be ex- 
pressed thus: — bis minat kam, do baje, (^^ 20 minutes 
less, two 0^ clock, 
derh baje, half past one, . . . arhd,i baje, half fast two, 
ka,e baje? at what d clock ? tin baje, at three 0^ clock. 

68 hindijstAni as it ought to be spoken. 

5. Time in a vague sense is expressed by an accusative 
without government, as in English. Ex: — guzashte sdl, last 
year ; pari roz, on the following day, 

6. When precision is aimed at, * at,' or * by,' (of time) 
is translated 'ko,' or *ke waljit' Ex: — Aj, shdm-ko, to-day y 
at evening ; this evening, Rdt ke wal<:t, by night, at night. 

7. * Ago,* * since,' * for,' are translated by * se,' or by 
* hd,a ' in agreement. "When * since ' can be resolved into 
that I have not, you must use a negative. Ex, : — Tfn haras 
hii,e, main Kalkatte men raha tha, three years ago, I was 
living in Calcutta, Kal se, main is-ko khojta \vln, I am 
searching for it since yesterday, Chdr mahfnon-se, wuh 
bfmdr hai, he is {has been) sick Jor four months, Pdnch 
barson se, main-ne apna watan nahfn dekha hai, since five 
years, 1 have not seen my native country, or, in good English, 
it is five years since I have seen my native country, 

8. In naming a date (tdrikh, fem.) you use *ko.' Ex.: — 
Navambar mahine ki pdnch tdrfkh ko, Kalkatte jd,iinga, 
I shall go to Calcutta on date §, of the month November, 

9. * Men ' is also often used for * in,' or * during,' ex- 
pressed or understood. 

10. In using the numbers, ^ and^ is always left untrans- 
lated. Ex. '.-—five hundred and forty-three, pinch sau, do 
kiSri tin. 


hindtJstani as it ought to be spoken. 69 


Words and Phpases relating to Time, Money, 

Weight, and Measurement. 


tdrfkh (fem.), a date, yih baras {or sdl), this year, 

baras; sdl, a year ; in dating, (Nom.) 

san. is baras; is baras men; im sdl, 
mahinah, a month, this year; during this year, 

haftah, a week, (Ace.) * im ' is Persian ; but 

roz; din, a day. * im sdl 'is in common use. 

chaudah roz, fortnight. d,indah, the future, 

ghanta; g\\2ix\, an hour, d,indah, baras, {or sal,) next 
minat (E.), a minute, year, (Nom.) 

lahzah, a second^ {lit, twink- d,inde baras ; d,inde baras 
lin^ of an eye), me^i (or with * sal'), next 

A] ; im roz, to-day, year. (Ace.) 
kal, to-morrow^ or yesterday 

(according to context ) ^^ ^ ^^^ > ^^ ^^^^> *^' ^'•^^^^'• 

parson, the day after /^- ek din ndghah kark^; ek din 

morrow, or the day before chhor-kar, every alternate 

yesterday (according to ^^y 


tarson, the fourth day (for- din ke wakt, by day, 

wards or backwards.) rdt ke wakt, by night, 

pari roz, the day after {any ala-s-sabdh, at early dawn. 

event) ; next day, tarka ; fajr ; bhor ; subh, early 
guzastah ; jo bft-gaya, the morning. 

past, do pahar din, noon, 

guzastah baras {or sdl), last do pahar rdt; ddhi rdt, mid- 
year.) (Nom.) night. 

guzashte baras {vr sil), last shdm, the evening, 

year, (Ace.) shdm-ko, in the evening. 


hindtJstXni as it ought to be spoken. 

niablagh, a lump sum, 
nSpiya, a rupee, Plur. rilpiye ; 

rdpae ; rdpi ; rdpae is 

also used to mean * money. ^ 
^nah, an ^ anna^ ^^ of a riipi. 
pd,i, a ^pte' ^^ of an *dnah.* 
riipi, a rttpi-piece, 
ath-anni, an Z-dnah-piece 
chau-anni a ^-dnah-piece. 
do-anni, a 2-dnah piece. 
paisa, a ^^ pa -^i- piece (4 make 

an *dnah'), often means 

^ money. ^ 

man, a * 7nan ;' Anglo-Hind. 

'maund/ equal to about 

80 lbs. 
ser, a ^ seer^ equal to about 

2 lbs. 
ddha-ser; ek paun (E.), half 

a * ser^ or one pound. 

chhitdnk, a * chittack^' ^^ of a 

* ser.' 

tola, a ^ tola A / Ihe weight of a 
rtipi; by which letters, gems, 
gold, silver, &c., are weighed. 

ek kos, a * coss; ' about two 

ddhd-kos, half a * kos / a mile, 
bhiga, a land measure; varies 

in different parts of India, 
kattha, a Uottah^' ^^ of a * bf- 

gha.' (square measurement), 
rassi, a measure of length 

about 60 yds. 
gaz, a yard. 
hdth, a cubit. 
fUt (E.), a foot. 
musht ; mutthi, afist^ />., a 

* hand^ (as in measuring 

inchi (E.), an inch. 

Exercise No. 23. 
Jo haftah bit gaya hai, us men main-ne do gh< re mol-liye 
hain, Guzashte sdl, ri.aya bahut gharfb the ; im sal, un-ki 
fasl achchhi hai, is liye khush hain. Angrezi^ baras— Janri 
ki paihli tarikh ko— shuru hota hai. Meri ghari bigar ga,i 
hai. Us-ki ghari tez chalii hai, aur mere bhd,i ki ghari sust 
chalti hai. Kuchh kam ki^ nahin hain. Main-ne paune 


• Agreeing with * ghari.' 


chdr gaz mol-liye. Unhon-ne arhd,i man ko,ilakharidkiya. 
Ham-ko paune pdnch baje jagd,o. Ka,e baje bdhar ja,enge ? 
Aj, sham-ko, bahar jd,iinga ; ka,e baje raai^ ab nahin jdnta 
hiin. Sab chiz thiik hai? Hdn khudawand ! Tel-batti 
ghusl-khdne men rakh-do. 

Exercise No. 24. 

Her ear is small. Her breast is white. Her cheek is 
red. Her heart is light. His jaw is large. There are 
gloves on her hand. There was much perspiration. His 
shoulder is strong. Give me one quarter. He has bought 
fifteen horses. How much has he given for them ? 
Rs. 9,786. Five hundred and forty-two men were present. 
Give me 2^. He is first, and she is second. I spoke to 
him three times. This year is hot. This year, the rains 
are good. To-day at one pahar, I shall go to Calcutta. 
At what o'clock did he go out ? At a quarter to three. 



The Pronunciation given in this book is the purest 
known ; . but you must not expect that here, any more 
than in England, pronunciation is everywhere the same; or 
even the same in one locality, as uttered by educated and 
by uneducated people. Thus you will often hear * z ' and 
"j" confounded with each other; and will even learn to 
know " nazdik," under the metamorphosis of * nagich.' 

2. You must also remember that there is such a thing 
as ACCENT in addition to * quantity.' Thus a long * a ' at 
the end of a word will be sounded less strongly than the 
same elsewhere. 

3. Besides quantity and accent, there is also the 
CADENCE of a sentence. This, and the appropriate action 
of hands, face and body, can be acquired only by imitation. 

4. The great fault of Europeans — next to leaving 
out the non-initial *h' — is "clipping" their words as 
they speak, ignoring double consonants, and forgetting that 
Hindiistdni, when well spoken, is a language of vowels and 
double consonants, and must be vocalized like Italian. It 
is miserable to hear such sounds as hatnreh garry iow,^ 
pinny kypanny do, eggy barrow,^ sarty das bajy, and so on. 

* Pronounce as in * how. * No doubt, for * age barha,o.' 


4. In concluding the instructions of this little book, a 
few matters which have not found place in the earlier 
lessons will be gathered up here. 

5. Idioms of a peculiar kind are not very numerous in 
the language. You have already learned (page 47) that 
you require * not ' in such phrases as * wait }ure till I come 
back ;^ 2Sid. (page 68) * / / is three years since I saw you' 
Note also that words of time, measurement, quantity and 
so forth often stand in the accusative without any govern- 
ment. "Of" is not translated in such phrases as * a cup 
4)f tea,' * a yard of cloth,' * a piece of bread.' The words 
stand in * apposition ' — ek piydlah chd,e — ek gaz kapra — ek 
tukra roti. In such phrases, again, as * he fell from the wall,' 
the natives say, he fell from on the wall (diwdr par se); also our 
phrase * out of is taken in the reversed light, and becomes 
* from in.' Ex. : — lomri bil men se nikli, the fox came out 
of (from inside) its hole. There is also a favourite idiom 
by which the pluperfect tense (with had) is used where we 
use a plain past. See Example, Exercise 17, page 52 ; 
and (as in many other languages), the Future Tense is often 
used, where, strictly speaking, the Subjunctive Mood is 
the correct thing. The omission of pronouns, where no 
ambiguity will be caused, has already been pointed out. 
Doubling words in order to strengthen the force is common 
in Hindilstdni, and not unknown in English : * My love is 
like the red red rose.' Ex. : — wuh achchha achchha ddmi 
hai, he is a very good man, 

6. You will sometimes find plurals in * an.' This is 
from the Persian ; and occurs chiefly in words ending 
in — ddr. It does not change in the oblique cases. Ex. : — 
Zaminddr-dn, tdbiddr-dn, chaukiddr-dn, &c. 

7. WiLA-wiLi (masc. and fem, ; declined like nouns in 


* a ' and * i ') are very useful terminations. They are joined 
usually to the Nom. Sing, of a common noun, or to the in- 
flected form of the Verbal Noun. They indicate a person 
connected with the thing the noun expresses, or one who 
does the action expressed by the verb. Ex. : — pankhd wdla, 
a pankha-puller ; roti-wdla, a baker \ machhli-wlla, the fish- 
monger ; likne-wili, the (female) writer^ and so on, ad- 
infinitutn. They are also added to Adverbs. 

8. The DEGREES OF COMPARISON are made thus : — 
For the comparative degree you compare the thing you are 
speaking of with one thing of the same kind. For the 

* superlative degree,' you compare it with all conceivable 
things of the same kind. Your adjective has no change 
indicative of 'degree;' but continues to 'agree,' as 
usual. Ex. : — 

Yih ghora , . . us ghore se ... achchha hai. 
This horse . . compared with that horse . . is the good one. 
Yih ghora . . . sab ghoron se . . . achchha hai. 
This horse . . compared with all horses . . is the good one. 

9. Occasionally you may find the Persian terminations 
of the comparative and the superlative degrees, viz.^ * tar ' 
and * TARfN,' used with adjectives derived from the Persian 
language. But this is not common. The only familiar 
word is * bihtar,' better ; the 'positive degree' of which in 
Persian is * bih,' good. Superlative, ' bihtarfn.' 

10. In NARRATION, you must use the same pronouns 
and verbs as the original speaker used : Ex. : — 

Eng. : — He said he would go to Calcutta to-morrow. 
Hind. I—He said, (that) * I will go to Calcutta tomorrow.' 

11. So, in sending a verbal message (which you 


should never do if you can help it) give your messenger 
the very words he is to use. Ex. : — 

Eng. : — Go and tell him, I can't come. 

Hind. :— Go and tell him, (that) *The Judge sdhib (or 
as the case may be) can't corrie.' 

12. *Itis;' * there is;' * there are.' These idioms 
do not occur in Hindiistdni. The plain noun and verb 
only are used. Ex. : — kaun hai, ? rdja sdhib hain, who 
is it ? // is%the rdja sdhib, Khabarddr ! dg hai, take care / 
there^s fire. 

1 3. To have. There is no verb for this. You must 
use the verb * to be ; ' on the liber est mihi principle. 
Ex. : — Ham-ko kuchh ummed nahfn hai, / have no hope. 
Us ke pds bahut kitdbe^ hain, he has many books. Us-ke do 
ghore hafn, (his are two horses) he has two horses. When 

* have ' has the sense of * get,' * obtain,' &c. * milna ' may 
be used. Ex. : — Us-ko ek bukm-ndmah mila hai, he haSy 
holdsy has goty a pass, 

14. " Thank you." To a servant this phrase is pro- 
perly expressed by " bahut achchha ; " " achchha : " or even 
" bas." The last word means ^ enough;^ ^ thafll do.^ To 
equals and superiors the word " shukr-guzdr " (literally 

* thanks-passing ') should be used — by itself — on all fitting 


Note. — Exaggerated civility to an inferior is regarded by him as 
sarcasm. As you may never use any word of abuse, a little 
exaggerated politeness may be used instead. 

15. To SALUTE "Saldm karna;" " saldm bolna ; " 
"saldmdena" " Saldm karna " is to perform an act of 
salutation. ** Saldm bolna " and " saldm dena " are about 
equal to each other in meaning. You will have to use 

76 hindiJstXni as it ought to be spoken. 

them chiefly in two instances : firsts as a polite mode of 
sending for a person : Ex. : — **kirdni bdbu ko saldm do" 
{or bolo), />., ^^give (or say) my * saldm ' to the (Hindu) cUrJ^^ 
— the rest is eliptic ; but the clerk will understand that he 
is to come to you : so, secondly^ when a caller sends in his 
card, you say "saldm do;" or "saldm bolo" to the servant. 
He carries your saldm to the caller, who comes upstairs 
and pays his visit, on receiving your " saldm " but not 
before. A ^ visiting'Card^ is til^at (E.) 

i6. The participle "in ke" or " kar,"' (sometimes 
** karke " or " karkar^^ all being derived from karna, some- 
times only the plain stem), is much used in Hindiistdni, to 
lead up to the principal verb — and avoid the repetition of 
"««^" Ex. ; — Yih bdt bolkar chald-gaya. Having said this 
much (lit. this word)^ he went away : or. He said this much 
und left, 

17. This little book contains none of the high-flown, 
and somewhat exaggerated style of phraseology which 
abounds in Oriental languages ; nor any of the phrases 
adopted from Arabic. These belong to an advanced 
course. You should, however, provide yourself with two 
phrases of a superior kind, to be used to native gentlemen 
of rank. They are words meaning shortly, *' to arrive^^ and 
"/<? depart ;^^ and are " tashrff.ldna," to arrive^ "tashrff 
lejdna," to depart. Tashrif means " the honour of your pre- 
sence ;" the first phrase (to arrive) therefore means " to bring 
the honour oj your presence ^^ — and the second (to depart)— 
to take that honour from us, " Huzdr," is the correct word 
whereby to address natives of high rank. The verb will of 
course be in the third person plural ; and so you will say : 

Huziir kab tashrff ld,e haii;i ?= l^hen did you arrive ? 

Huziir kab tashrff le-jd,enge ?= fVhen do you go away 9 


i8. Then, the polite form by which to ask for a person's 
healtli is, * mizaj sharff.' To which the answer may be 
' huziir ki mihrbani se,' by Youir Honour's kindness^ or * huziir 
ki inayat se,' by Your Honour's favour^ or * huziir ki du,a se,^ 
by Your Honour's blessings or * shukr Khuda ka hai,' thank 
God^ — *I am well ' being understood. 

19. Connected with this matter, I mention, in conclu- 
sion, that in the middle of many names of Arabic origin, 
you will find the syllable "^^/"or " «^," occasionally "wj." 
They all mean," of the " and the whole name has generally 
a grand significance. Thus Shams-ud-din means "The 
Sun of the Faith;" Sirdj-ud-daulah^, "The Lamp of the 
Commonwealth," and so on. 


Khuda, God. Khairat, alms ; charity to the 
firishtah, an angel, poor. 

auliya, the saints. rozah, a fast. 

iblis ; shaitdn, the Devtl. rozah rakhn^, to fast 

bihisht,^ heaven. namdz {itm.), prayer. 

ardf or irdf, purgatory. namdz parhna, to say prayers. 

jahannam, hell. gharib-log, the poor 

riih, the soul. girja, a church. 

dfn ; mazhab, religion. [I'erse. masjid, a mosque. 

duniya, (fem.) the world ; uni- math, a temple. (H.) 

neki ; bhald,i, righteousness. padri sdhib, an English mi- 

gundh ; pdp, sin. nister; 2\%o^a Catholic priest. 

* The ** Sir Roger Douler " of the British soldier of the last century. 

' Hence is derived the name of that one of your servants whom you 
will probably call — this little book not withstanding— your " Beasty.*' 



Idt Pddri Sdhib, the Bishop, bigar-jdna, to go wrong ; get 

imdm, a Muhammadan min- 

mahant ; guru, a Hindu priest. 
bfbal (E.), the Bible, 
kurdn, the religious book oj 

the Muhammadan^, 
bhagwat, ditto of the Hindus. 

bij, seed, 

chdra, a seedling. 

out of order (as health, a 

watch, &c.); to miscarry^ 

(as plans.) 
kisdn, a cultivator. 
bona, to sow. 
ropna, to plant, 
nirauni, weeding \ nirauni 

karna, to weed, 
gfdar ; siydl, a jackal. 
zarrah', a little somewhat. 
kheti-karna, to cultivate. 

Note, — *Lat' is corrupted English for *Lord.' 

Exercise No. 25. 

Bhala admi gharib logon ko khairdt dega. Khairat dena, 
namdz parhna, rozah rakhna, ye tfn chizen khuda ko 
pasand hain. Is .girje ke pddri-sdhib ka ndm kya hai? 
Ham nahin jdnte. Riib ka drdm bihisht men hai ; khardb 
ddmi,on ki saza jahannam men hogi. Ko,i mazhab nahin 
hai, kih us men bhale ddmi aur bure ddmi nahfn hain Ek 
baras men barah mahine hain. Har ek baras men tfn sau 

• • • 

tin kilri panch din hain. Kisdn log paihle bfj bote hai9 ; is 
ke baad, chdre khet men ropte hain. Agar pani kam ho, 
to, fasl khardb hoti hai ; gharfb logon ko kabhi-kabhi 
sirf chdr dne ya do dne ki fasl milti hai. Tab zaminddrdn 
bhi bure hai men hain. Unhon-ko khazdnah nahin 
milta hai ; sarkdri rndl-guzdri ndhin de-sakte hain ; pas, 
un-ki zaminddrijdn nildm men bar-bdd hai^. 

* Muhammadans have no ** priests. " 

hindt^stIni as it ought to be spoken. 79 

Exercise No. 26. 

This year the ryots will get a sixteen annas crop. Every 
one will be pleased ; tenants, landlords, and Government. 
Satan is the enemy of man ; God is his friend. From 
religion, is the peace of the soul. The Bishop will be here 
the day after to-morrow. The church is open every 
alternate Sunday. 

Is my watch correct ? No. It is fast. How many riipis 
are in the house ? Three hundred and ninety-three. In 
the evening, jackals come into the garden. I have not 
been here since ihe day before yesterday. On what date 
did he go away ? On 7th July last. 


The difference between words given in the body of this 
book and words in the Glossary at the end, is that the 
former are words which you must know^ and must learn up 
as soon as possible ; while among the latter, are many words 
which you may or may not require to use, and for which 
you must search if wanted. 

2. The following lists — among which Exercises are 
placed by way of rests — complete the words which you must 
know . Some of the words already given are allowed to 
appear again here. 


The Seasons and Weather. 

mausam, or miisim, a season ; garmi ka mausam, the hot 
weather, weather ; summer, * 

jdre ka mausam {or miisim), barsdt ka mausam, the rainy 
the cold weather; winter.^ weather,^ 

^ The durations of these three seasons may be roughly given thus : 
*The cold weather,* 15th October to 15th March. * The hot 
weather,' 15th March to 15th June. *The raius,* 15th June to 
15th October. The cold weather is longer in North-Weastern India. 
There is plenty of hot weather everywhere during * the rains.' 



a^dhi ; tilfan, a storm. 

sif ; khula, clear. 

khula din, a fine day ; fair- andhera, dark. 

dhdp ; tapish ; ^armi, heat, 
jara ; sardi, cold, 
barf, snow ; ice, 
yakh, ice. 

barsdt ; barish ; pani, rain, 
patthar, hail. 

abr ; badli, a cloud, 

hawa ; batds, (L. B.) tvind, 

kohdsah, fog, 

garaj, thunder, 

bijli, lightning, 

garaj na, to thunder, 

bijli chamakna, to lighten, 

barasna ; pani bona, to rain. 

Ncie, -'Adjectives* may be made by using a noun and ka, ki, ke. Ex. : — 
Aj pani ka din hai, this is a rainy day^ 

Nature, the Landscape, Towns, &c. 

asman. the sky, 
sdraj ; dftdb, the sun, 
chdnd, the moon. 
tdra : sitarah, a star, 

dunya, the world 

mitti ; khak, earth, 

pdni ; ab ; jal, water, 

bawa, air. 

ab-o-hawa, climate. 

samiindar ; kala pdni, the 
open sea, 

darya ; naddi, a river, 

kindrah, the shore ; bank, 

ndla, a ditch ; * nullah^' (An- 

T., H. 

nahr, a canal, 

tdl, a lake. 

tdldb ; talao, a reservoir ; a 
* tank: 

dhar ; khazdnah, a reservoir 
made by damming up na- 
tural supplies, 

kil,a ; inddra, a ivell, 

pahdr : koh, a mountain, 
tardji ; ddman-i-koh, the land 

at the base of mountains, 
maiddn ; ramnah, a plain ; 

darakht ; gdchh ; per, a tree, 
dbddi, cultivated land, 



hindiJstJ^ni as it ought to be spoken. 

parti, waste-land.; uncultivat- 
ed land, 

jsLngB,], forest ; hi^h-grass^ or 
forest trees on land; a 
weedy place ; ^ jungle,^ 

jhdr;jhari, underwood; scrub, 

kfchar, mud, 
bdlu ; ret, sand. 
patthar, a stone, 

patta, a leaf, 

ddl ; shdkh, a branch, 

jar, a root ; roots. 

ghds, grass, 

phal ; mewa, fruit, 

phiil, flowers, 

shahr; nagar, a city ; a town, 
gdnw ; basti ; gram (L. B.) 

a village, 
ghar ; makdn ; kothi, a house, 
hopri, a cottage. 

rdh ; {fern,) rdsta, a road, 

sarak, the highway, {fern.) 

gali, a lane; a ^ gully, ^ (Anglo 

chauk, a square (often used 
as the market-place.) 

bdzdr, a collection of shops, 
or stalls ; a market; the 
* bazaar^ 

hdt; mela, a fair, 

dilkdn, a shop, 

hotel, (E.) a hotel, 

isteshan, (E.) the railway- 

jel-khdnah, (jel, E.) the jail. 

kilah ; garh, a fort. 

pul, a bridge. 

rel-rdsta, (*rel,' E.) the rail- 

rel-gari, a railway carriage ; 
a train. 

Exercise No. 27. 

Barsdt ke mausim men, jangal aur jhar bahut linche bote 
hain ; darya sab bare hain ; gdchh, maiddn, ghas, sab chizen 
sabz rang ki hoti hain. Garm dinon men, darkar hai kih 
ko,i ddmi dhilp men nahin jdwe; m agar aksar hota hai kih 
garmi ke mausim men, sab ko,i tandurust rahta hai; jdre ke 
mausim men, db-o-hawa nihayat pasand hai ; lekin sardi 
ke bd,is, zukdm aur chand kism ki bimdrl ddmi,on-ko 
taklif deti hain. 



Exercise No. 28. 
A storm is coming from the West. I see lightning there. 
Listen ! there's thunder. I can't hear it. There are many 
shops in the city; but the streets are narrow. There are 
fogs in the cold weather. 

There are no shops in this 

The train will arrive at noon. 

square. It is near the bazar, 
therefore there are no shops. The water of the reservoir 
is better than the water of the canal. There is a large 
tank on the 'maidan.'^ A fair will take place (say, ^ there 
will be a fair') on the loth of next January. Have you 
been at (say, * ever gone to') the Sonpiir fair (mela) ? 

Common Animals. 
janwar ; haiwdn, any animal, lint ; shutur, a camel, 
hdthi ; fil or pil, an elephant, 
sher-babar ; singh, a lion. 

sher ; bagh, a tiger, 
chita, a leopard, 
bhdl ; bhalu, a bear, 
jangli su,ar, a boar, 
bheriya, a wolf, 
gidar ; siyal, a jackal, 
lomti, a fox, 

haran or hiran, a stag ; a deer. 
gilehri, a squirrel, 
khar-gosh, a rabbit ; hare. 

ghora, a horse. 
madiydn, a mare^ 
gadha,^ gadhi, an ass, 
tattu, a pony ; a Uatf (Anglo- 
kutta, kutti, a dog, 
billi, a cat, 
sand,^ a bull. 
bail, an ox, 

bhains ; bhainsa, a buffalo, 
ga,o or ga,e, a cow, 
bachra, a calf. 

' Used as an English word ; especially in Calcutta. 
^ Also used figuratively. 

• The pronunciation of this word does not admit of being reproduced 
by letters, you must hear it proHouncied before attempting it. 


hindistjIni as it ought to be spoken. 

bheri, a sheep, 

bakri ; chhagul, a goat. 


saQp, a snake, 
bichchhu, a scorpion, 
gojar, a centipede, 
indilr, a rat. 
chilha, a mouse. 
chha-chhilndar, a musk-rat, 
chan)-gfdar, a If at, 
tiktikki, a lizard. 

sd,ar,* a pig, 
bandar, a monkey. 

AND Insects. 

til-chatta, a cockroach, 
chilQti, an ant, 
dfmak, a white ant. 
machchhar, a musquiio, 
niakkhi ; magas, a fly. 
pissu, a flea. 
khat-mal, a bug, 
gandi, a ^gundy.^ 


chiriya, a bird of any kind, murgh, murghi, cock^ hen. 
murgh-abi, water fowl, pfru, a turkey. 

gidh, a vulture. 

chil, a kite. 

chakwa, chakwi, the 

miny goose. 
mor, a peacock. 
sdras ; bogla, a crane. 
kauwa, a crow, 
ullu,^ an owl. 
ha^s, a swan. 
rdj-hans, a goose, 
bat ; battakh, a duck. 

pekan, a capon (English word 
with V and */' misplaced). 
Brah- kabiitar, a pigeon, 

chdha ; isnaip (E.) snipe, 
bater, quail. 
til, (E.) teal. 
tota, tiiti, a parrot. 
maina, a ^maina.^ 
bulbul, a bulbul (often con- 
founded with a nightingale), 
shdma, a nightingale. 

Exercise No. 29. 
Jangal men bahut janwar rahte hain. Sher-babar jangal 
ke bddshah hain, Hindtlstdn men sher-babar kam hain. 

1 2 

c\l£Q used figuratively. 


Sher bahut hai^ : aksar adini,on-ko pakar-kar khate hain. 
Sab ko, i uti-se darte hain. Barsat kemausim men sanp kabhi- 
kabhi ghar men ate hain : bahut khabarddr bona chahiye. 
Diwarmen sebichchhiinikal-dte hai^. Hindii>tdn ki chiriyd^ 
nahin gdti hai^. Mor ki awdz bahut ni-pasand hai. Sdhib 
log bahut murghi,an khate hain ; is mulk men sasti hain. 

Exercise No. 30. 
When the grass is long, (then) there are many snakes. 
At the base of the mountains, the hunter gets many tigers 
and elephants. The bear lives in the hills. Pig-sticking 
is the best sport in the country. A fast horse is necessary 
for pig-sticking. Ponies are serviceable for children. In 
this country, the three seasons are — the cold weather, the 
hot weather, and the rains. 


The BAzAr. 

bazdr, the market, P^njij capital, 

hdz^r karna, to market, siid, interest, 

mol-lena ; kharid-karna, to buy, diikdn, a shop, 

bechna, to sell, ddkdnddr, a shopkeeper, 

bikna, to be sold, sarraf, (Anglo-Hind. * shroff), 
kimat ; ddm,/r/Vv?. a banker. 

nirkh (Anglo-Hind nirrik); mahdjan, (//V. the great man), 

bha,o, rate, a money lender ; merchant, 

kharid-farokht, buying and sauddgar, a merchant; 

selling; trafficking, trader^ 

sauda ; mat; chfz, merchan- sauddgari ; tijdrat, /ra</i^. 

dize ; goods, dastiiri, discount; allowance 
nafa, profit, given by the seller to your 

nul^Lsdn ; ghati, loss, servant. 


hindijstXni as it ought to be spoken. 

rdj, the mason, 
lobar, the smith, 
ndl-band, the farrier, 
barha,i, the carpenter, 
bdlbar ; hajjdm, the barber, 
sondr, the gold, or silver- 
jUti-wdla, the shoe-maker, 
mochi, the cobbler^ worker 

in leather. 
tardzu, a tveighing-tnachine, 
bat khara, a weight for ditto, 
taul ; wazn, the iveight of a 

taul karna, to weigh. 

kapra, cloth, 

thdn, a piece ; a web. 

namiinah, a pattern ; sample, 

resbam, silk. 

mal-mal, muslin, 

katdn-kapra, linen^ calico, 

riiji, cotton, 

iln ; pashm, wool, 

bdndt, broad-cloth. 

fldlen, i^.) flannel. 

mdrkin, {i.e , 'American') 

Ianibd,i, length. 
cbourd,i, breadth, 
motdji, thickness. 

The Dinner Table. 

khdne ki mez, the dining-table. 

mez ki chadar, the table-cloth^ 
also table-cover. 

bartan, a plate ; dish, 

kbdne ke bartan, the dinner 
things. [service. 

mewe ke bartan, the dessert- 

dilnga, the dish in which a 
side-dish or vegetables are 
served; a side-dish^ which 
servants are fond of calling 
also *sai-dis.* (E.) 

dis, {E.)the pihe de resistance 

sekan or sfkan (/.tf., * second' 
E.), the second course, 

chhuri, a knife. 

kdnta, a fork. 

chhuri-kdnta, the knives and 


dhakna ; sarposh, a cover ; lid. 

bdth-boli, (half E.) a finger- 

bdth ka tauliyah, a napkin. 


hindiJstAni as it ought to be spoken. 87 

glAs, (E,) a g/ass ; the glass- pench-kash, a ^(?r^-fr/rze;. 

service, kdg, (for E. * cork') a cork, 

piydlah, a cup, khildl, a tooth-pick, 

pirich, a saucer, pik-dan ; ugdl-ddn, a spittoon. 


The Kitchen. 

bawarchi-khdnah, the kitchen. fard,i pdn, (E.) the frying-pan, 

diQgchx, a copper cooking vessel, sfkh, a spit. 

kald,i, the tinning of the same, tandr, an oven. 

(has to be done once a chAWiZ.^ a stove ; fire-place fot 

month.) cooking. 

hdndi, an earthen pot, ko,ila, charcoal ; coals, 

ghara, a water-pot, hezam ; lakri, wood ; fuel. 

rasil,i, cooking, doli, a hanging meat-safe. 

rasil,i ke bartan, the cookifig thdli, a brass plate, 

pots. lota, a native brass-vessel for 
hdndi-bartan, vessels gener- liquids, 

ally, thdii-lota, native brass-vessels 
ketli, (E.) the kettle, generally. 

The Bed Room. 
(See also pages 34 and 94.) 

sonQk2i\i2Lmzx2i, the bed-room, hdth-boli, (E.) a washing- 
singdr-mez, a dressing-table, basin, 

d,f nah, a looking-glass (accent dftdbah, a water-jug ; a ewer. 

on first syllable.) sdbun, soap. 





briSsh, (E.) a brush. 
kanglu, a cotfib. 
sdbun-<Un, a soaf-dish. 
manjan, tooth powder or 

khush-bu, scent, 
bdl ka tel, hair-oiL 
palang ; chdrpd,i ; kbdt, a bed, 
musahri, musquito-curtains, 
chddar, the sheets, 
kammal ; kamli, the blankets. 

raziji, the guilt, 

takiyah ; hdlisb, apilla^v, 

ghildf, a cover i I* g slip^ ^.^., 

case for a pillow, 
toshak, the mattress, 
tab, (E.) a tub. 
tauliyah, a towel. 
isfanj, a sponge, 
tokri, a basket, 
jharan, a duster. 
jhdru, a broom. 


anta ; gend ; goli, a ball, 
khelne kilakri; thdpi, a bat ; 

a cue or the like, 
antd-ghar, the billiard room ; 

the club. 
khel-gdh, the play ground. 
gend-gdh, the racquet court, 
satar, a line, 
rassi, a rope ; string. 

jal, a net. 

khamba, a post, 

kbiinta ; mekh, a peg. 

shatranj, chess. 

tdsh, cards, 

pdse, dice, 

takhiah-nard, backgammon. 

tenis, lawn-tennis. 

polo, polo. 

Note,— And so of other games. The English word must be used because 
the natives not having the thing, cannot have a name for it. 

Exercise No. 31. 

Ayah 1 sab chfz taiydr hai ? Ha^ mem sdhibah ? sab durust 
hai. Tum kaisi ddmi ho ! kuchh sdbun nahfn hai, aur turn 
sab durust' bolti ho. Mera kustir! mu,df kijiye! Tab men 


pdni hai ? Nahin mem-sahibah ! bihishti aj bimar hai. To 
ham kya karenge ? £k ]^uli ko char paise dljiye, to wuh pani 
le-awega. Achchha ! achchha ! l^uli ko bula,o — aur sabun, 
tauliyah bhitar rakh-do. Darzi bhi nahin aya hai! sab ko,i 
aj bfmar hain ! Mem sahibah ! sach bat yih hai, kih aj bara 
tamdshah hai ; is liye sab log bimdri ka bahanah karte 
hain ; bandi b^zir hai. 

Exercise No. 32. 
Bring clean sheets for ^ the bed. All the sheets are at ^ 
the washernrian's ? Since when are they at the washer- 
man's ? Since yesterday. Pat all the books on the table, 
and clean the book-shelves. See ! how dirty (they) are : 
clean (them) with warm water (and) soap ; (and) then rub 
(them) with polish. Sometimes snakes come into the 
house ; so^ one must always be careful. Scorpions also and 
cock-roaches come out of the walls, an«l fleas and bugs 
and mosquitoes are everywhere. 

ExERcisE No. 33. 
Do pahar ke wakt tumhdra bdp ghar men se nikal-aya. 
Aijdhere ke wakt phir-gaya. Aj kaun tarikh hai ? Aj jula,i 
mahine Id dth tdrikh hai. Hamara badan kainzor hai ; 
mede men dard hai. Jfbh dekhla,o. Zard rang ki^ hai ; 
daHa zarilr nahin hai : subh ko, shdm ko, ghore par hawa 
khdna chahiye. Nahin ! chand roz hii,e, kih main apne 
ghore par se gir-para ; bihtar hai, kih dp dawa den. 
Achchha ! main ddnga. 

Exercise No. 34. 

One day, at evening, a fox, having come out of the 

jungle, saw grapes in a garden. He said (that; " see there : 

^ Ke waste. * Ke p^s, ^ Pas. 

* Feminine, because * jibh, * which is feminine, is understood. 


hindi^stXni as it ought to be spoken. 

" certainly these grapes are large and sweet, I shall seize 
* some. " But the grapes were on the roof of a house. The 
fox began to jump ; but was not able to get up, ^ and could 
not lay-hold-of * even one grape. ^ Becoming vexed, he said 
(that) " no-doubt you are very sour, " and went away. 


The Stable and 

istabal, the stable, 

thdn, a stall, 

sdz, the harness, 

rds, the reins, 

jot, the traces, 

bdg : lagam, a bridle, 

dahdnah, a bit, 

nuktah, the head-stall, 

zanjir, a chain, 

dumchi, the crufper (strap). 

zfn, a saddle, 

zer-band, a martingale, 

hallcah, a collar, 

peti ; tang, a girth, 

briish, (E) a brush, 

kharkharah, a curry-comb, 

rikdb, a stirrup, 

rikdb-diwdl, stirrup-leathers, 

kdnta, a spur, 

chdbuk, a whip. 


chauri, a fly flicker, 

gdri, the carriage, 

thikdgdri, a carriage for hire; 
a ^fly ' / a cab, 

tam-tam, (E.) a: dog-cart, * 

fitan-gdri, (halfE.) a phae- 

band-gdri, a brougham, 

bariish-gdri, a barouche, 

ghora, a horse, 

mddiydn, a mare, 

tattu, a pony, 

jori, * the pair^ (of horses). 

jori-gdri, the carriage ana 

pair ready for use, 
kampds, (E) the shafts ; a 

one-horsed carriage, 
nal, a horse-shoe, 
ndl-bandi, shoeing a horse. 

•* Charhna. 


* Supposed to be the English * tandem. * 

' £k angur bhi. 



khol-bandi, taking off the 
shoeSy paring the hoofs 
(som) and putting the old 
shoes on again, 

thaili, a bag, 

bdlti, a pail, 

rassi ; bdgdor, a rope. 

sdz ka ghorar a harness-stand. 

mom-raughan, grease; oil; 
harness-paste ; polish, 

bdrnish, (E.) varnish. 

rang, paint, 

dinah, grain ; corn. 

chand, gram, 

ja,i, oats. 

jau, barley, 

bhilsi, bran. 

sattu, a kind of flour ^ given 

in water to horses when 

tired^ &*c. 
ghas, grass. 
dub-ghds, a kind of grass 

which is best for horses. 
namak, salt, 
bichhauna, bedding. 
bichdli straw. 

Articles of Food. 

shorbah, (z/^/^. sdrwah) soup, 
machhli, fish, 
sdman-machhli, salmon. 
chingri, shrimps, 
gosht,' meat of all kinds, 
katlis, (E.) cutlets, 
mfnch, mince. 

istew, (pronounce as in Eng- 
lish, with-short * i ' before,) 

airan-i-stew, Irish-stew. 

frikasi, fricassee, 

dspik, aspec, 

murghi, a fowl ; fowls. 

^ In English houses, the servants distinguish ' bif-gosht,* ' matan- 
gosht,* &c. The parts of an animal, as used at table, are also gen- 
erally called by the English names ; as, * hed,' * sholdar,' * leg,' * fore- 
kdrtar; * 'sedli* {saddle^) *chdp,' {chop,) • istek * (j/tftfy&), &c. Many 
English people drop the ' t' of gosht,' and so reach a word which 
means 'an ear.' But the servants come to know what is meant. 


hindijstXni as it ought to be spoken. 

murghi-rost, (half E.) roast- 

murgh»-boil, (half E.) boiled- 

murghi-katlis, chicken-cutlets, 

kdri, curry, 

bhdt, cooked rice, 

kdri-bhdt, curry and rice, 

\i\i\^o^fowl cooked with rice 
and condiments, 

sassich, (E.) sausage, 

pdtis, (J^.) potted meat, 

anda, an egg. 

ham, (E.) (pronounce as 
English, * hem ') ham, 

bekanj, bacon. 

anda-bekam, ham and egg, 

koftah, rissole, 

piiding, {1^,) pudding. 

panir, cheese. 

rod, bread. 

rol, (E.) dinner rolls, 

tost, (E.) toast, 

makkhan, butter, 

chapdti, a scone, 

kulchah ; *kek,' (E.) cake, 

biskit, (E.) biscuit, 

murabba ; \im^i^,)jam; jelly, 

jeli,(E.) jelly ^ as taken with 

mutton, &c., or as ^a jelly, ^ 
barf, {vulg,^ baraf) ice ; an 




masdlah, spices^ generally, wildyati^ tei, olive oil, 

namak, salt, adrak, green ginger^ used also 
rdji, mustard, to m^^n preserved ginger, 

mircha {vulg, *mirich') pepper, sonth, dry ginger, 

gol-mirch, black pepper, haldi, turmeric, 

lal-mircha, cayenne-pepper, lahsan, garlic, 

sirkah, vinegar, parsli, parsley, 

sds, (E.) sauce, pudfnah, mint. 

^ *WiIayatr means foreign ; especially, European^ or English, It 
is the *belatee,' or *bilatty' of Anglo- Hindustani. 


chilli,^ chillies. 

chatni, chutnee, 

mitha,i, sweets, also, ^the 

chfni ; shakar, sugar. 

rnisri, cry si aased sugar. 

tambaku, tobacco. 
churut, (E.) <i cigar. 
sigaret, (E.) a cigarette. 



tarkari ; sabzi, vegetables, gen- sag, spinach; ^ sdg.' 

dlu, potatoes. 
matar, peas. 
bora, a bean. 
mdli, radish. 
kobi, cabbage. 
phiil kobi, caulifloiver. 

shalgham, turnips. 
gdjar; gajrah, carrots^ 
piydz, onions. 
tamdtu, tomatoes. 
hatichok, (E.) artichokes. 
saldd, (E.) lettuce ; salad. 
silari, (E.) celety. 

Note — Many other vegetables are also used, and called by their native 
names, some having no English equivalent. Among tl^ese are, 
* kaddoo,' palwal,* * bhindi,* * brinjal' or * baigan,' * kachhu* (/^r«- 
saiem ariichohe), &c., &c. Your ^mdli ' will point them out to you. 

mewah, yW/// generally. 
dm, a mango. 
amrdd, guava. 
anar, a pomegranate. 



angiir, a grape ; grapes. 
anjfr, a fig. 
biddm, almonds. 
bel, the * bei; fruit. 

I V 

Not a Hindustani word. 


hindiJstIni as it ought to be spoken. 

kathal, the jack fruit, 
kela, plantains, 
khajilr, dates, 
kharbiizah, melon, 
kishmish, raisins, 
imli, tamarind, 
jauz, a nut ; nuts, 
lemu, or laimiin, a lemon, 
lichi, the leechee. 

naranui, an orange, 
naryal, the cocoa-nut, 
pistah, pistachio nuts, 
seb, an apple, 
shaft-alu, a peach, 
sharifah, a custard-apple, 
strabari, (E.) strawberries, 
tipdri, cape gooseberries, 
khdbani, apricots. 

Note. — In *anuur' the * ng ' has not a nasal sound. Pronounce as 
if the syllables were separate, * an-gur. ' You will not find on 
European tables in India many more fiuits than those given above. 
You may add ^paniah ' also anannas, pine-apple. 

Wine and Drinks. 

See page 34. Wines on English tables are called by their 
English names, (generally more or less altered,) followed by 
the word * shardb,' wine. * Claret' is generally called * lal 
sharab.' Sometimes * kalarat' (without * shardb' added.) 


barf-pdni, iced-water, 
wildyati-pdni, soda-water, 
mitha pani {sweet water), 

tita pdni, bitter, i.e,, tonic 

cha,e, tea, 

kafi ; (E.); kahwah, coffee. 

koko, (E.) coco, 

diidh, milk, 

mald,i, cream. 


Exercise No. 35. 

Ek ddmi ke ghar men, ek sau nipiye, chori se, gum-ho- 
ga,e the. Us-ne \i.z\ ko khabar di. Kdzi-ne sab naukaron 
ko talab karke, ek ek ddmi-ko ek lakrii ndp men barabar, 


di ; aur kaha kih, *^ jo admi chor hai, us ki lakri ek ungli 
barh-ja,egi." Tab sabhon-ko rukhsat di. Rit ke waljit, 
chor-ne, apni lakri se, ek ungli kdt dali ; is taur se, kdzi-ne 
chor pahchdna, us-se riipiye liye, aur saza di. 

Exercise No. 36. 
One man asked another, *you, on the sea have often 
made journeys : say, what^ wonderful-things^ have you 
seen ? He gave answer : * Than all,^ this is wonderful,^ 
that I, at the shore^ arrived in safety. 


(See also pages 34 and 87.) 

The Toilet and its Accessories. 

kapra ; kapre, clothes gene- kamar-band, a waist-band ; 

rally, belt, 

khdne ka kapra, dress clothes, belat (E.) a belt, 

topi, a hat. moze, boots ; but used in 

chhoti topi, a cap, English houses to mean 

solah* topi, a pith hat. socks ; stockings, 

pagri, a cloth head-dress ; a but (E.) boots, 

turban ; also linen^ or silk, jiiti, or jiita, a shoe, [slipper, 

bound round a *topi.' silpat or slipat (E.); pdposh,fl 

kdlar, (E.) a collar, dastdnah, gloves, 

gala- band, or gulu-band, a riimdl, a pocket-handkerchief, 

neck-tie ; neck-scarf. resham ka riimdl, a silk ditto, 

1 *Kya kya ;" doubling the pronoun gives the idea of number. 

2 Wonderful things ; wonders, *aja,ib.' 
' See page 74, section 8, 

* *ajubah.' 

^ Not derived from sol, solis, the sun. 


hindijstXni as it ought to be spoken. 

lahadah, a cloak, 
kurli, a coat, 

bdrdni-kurii, ' a great coat, 
barsdti-kapra, waterproofs, 
frdk, (E.) ; dares, (E.) a 

ladys dress. 
frak-kot, (E.) a frock-coat, 
ddman, the skirt, 
dstin, a sleeve, 
waskat, (E.) <i waistcoat, 
patliin, (E.) troivsers, 
brichis, (E.) breeches, 
gdlis, braces. 
piti-kot, (F!,) a petticoat. 
l^aiuis, a shirt ; chemise. 
sul-dardz, drawers, 
bani,en, an under-flannel shirt. 
rit ka kapra, night dress ; 

night things, S^pyj amahs, ^ 
pd-e-jamah, night drawers ; 
rdt ki kurti, a short night-coat. 
rdt ki kamis, a night-shirt. 
baroch, (E.) a brooch. 

augilthi, a ring. 
sone ki angtithi, a gold ring,* 
istad, (E.)* a stud ; studs, 
pfn, (K.) a pin. 
biiish, (E.) a brush, 
bdl ka brtish, a hair-brush, 
kapre ka brdsh, a clothes- 
ddnt ka briish, a tooth-brush. 
kanglii, a comb, 
kainchi, scissors. 
kalam-tardsh, a penknife. 
Slit, thread ; string, 
fitah, tape; shoe-lace; boot- 
si1,i, a needle, 

sd,i-tdga, a needle-and-thread. 
sdbun, soap, 

sdbun-ddn, the soap-dish. 
isfanj, a sponge. 
manjan, dentifrice. 
bdl ka tel, hair-oil 
khush-bii, jrf«/. 

* Gentlemen generally call this their *brandy-kurti.* On the contrary, 
it is derived from the Persian *baran,* which means ratn. 

2 And so of other met;il or gem rings; use * ki* before 'a^igtithi.* 
The principal jgems are : — Almas ; hira, diamond. Zamurrad ; panna, 
emerald. Yakiit, ruby, Firozah, or pirozah, turquoise. Lahsuniya, 
cat*s-eye. Diidhiya-patther, opal (from diidh, wilk). Moti, apearl. 

* Uneducated natives require a preliminary * f,* to help them to 
pronounce a word beginning with an *s,* followed by another con- 
sonant. Another common word is, *istrlt,* street: and there are 
many others. 



hindfjstani as it ought to be spoken. 

The Army. 


English titles of rank, of course somewhat altered, are 
used, followed by the word *sdhil).' The principal are : — 
jarnail sdhib (the General)^ karnail sdhib, mejar sdhib, 
kaptdn sdhib, sarjan sahib (the sergeant). Native officers 
are called tlie siibadar sahib, hawaldar sahib, jamadar sdhib, 
&c., though it is to be feared that * sdhib' is not always 
used to native officers. 


fauj ; lashkar, the army, 

paltan, a regiment. 

gore ki paltan, a European 

sawdr, a horse-soldier. 

sipdhi, afoot-soldier; a ^sepoy.^ 

bdja, the band. \standard. 

jhanda ; nishdn, a flag ; the 

dera, a tent. 

dera karna, to eficamp. 

ktich karna, to march. 

chhauni ; ld,ins (E.); the bar- 
racks ; the lines. 

jang; lard,i, war. 
roz-i-maiddn, the day of the 

plain, i,e. of battle. 
saff-i-jang, battle order. 
lard,i; hamla; mul^dbalah, 
• battle; attack; onset. 

sdmdn-i-janc:, equipments of 

zarb, a stand of arms. 
top, a cannon. 
bandiilj:, a gum; musket. 
talwdr ; shamsher, a sword. 
ballam ; barchhi, a spear. 
taghmah ; urdi,' a uniform. 
goli, a ball ; bullet, 
top ki goli, a cannon-ball. 
tonta ; kdrtiis (cartouche), a 

bdriit, powder. 
chharra, shot. 

mdrtaul, a hammer. 

kuddl ; kuddli, a spade ; 

tdnga, an axe. 
xzs,zA'^ forage ; provinder. 

^ Not Hindustani ; but in common use. 

T., H. 


£X£RCI$£ No. 37. 

Nal^l hai kih barsdt ke mausim men, ek d^t aur ek gadha 
sath sdth safar-ko ga,e the. Darmiydn rdh ke, unhon-ko ek 
naddi mili. Pahle d^t pdni men paitha ; gadha kindre par 
pfchhe raha. Unt-ne kaha, * Are ! dost*! kyd^ nahfn dte 
ho ? pdni thora hal' Us-ne jawab diya, * albattah pdni 
sirf tumhdre pet tak hai, lekin mere kdn tak hoga, maia 
diib-jd,dnga, dge jd,iye, mujh-ko mu,af kijiye.' 

Exercise No. 38. 
A miser said to a rich man, ' Oh ! friend ! I am going 
* on (ko) a journey ; give me your ring ; seeing (it) on my 
•finger, I shall keep remembrance* of (se) you.' The 
rich man said, * When you see your finger bare, you can 
remember' me.* He did not give the ring. 


The Telegraph and Post Office. 

tar (wire)f the telegraph. ddk-ghar, the post-office, 

tar-ghar, tht telegraph-office, chitthi-ddk, the letter-post. 

tar ki khabar, ^r chitthi, a bahangi-ddk, the parcel post ; 

telegram. (Anglo-Hind. . * bdnghi 

faram (E.), a telegraph (or dawk.') 

any other) 'form: mabsiil, postage. 

ddk ; tappdl,* t lie post. ddk-tikat, a postage-stamp. 

ddk-munshi, the postmaster. chitthi ddk men dena, or^ 

dak-wdla, the postman, [ner. ddlna, or, rakhna, to post 

ddk piyadah,3 the postal-tun- a letter. 

^ Yad-rakhna. ' Not used in Lower Bengal. 

^ There is a word pi,an,' generally spelt * peon,' in very commoa 
use for a * messenger ' of any kind. The natives think the word is 
English ; Englishmen think that it is Hindustani. 




dram, comfort, kim, any business^ or work ■; 

jawabi an answer, use. 

jawdb dena, to answer ; dis- yih Ids kam ka hai, of what 

miss, use is this ? 

chitthi ; khatt, a letter; a note^, parwdh, importance ; ^matter,' 

(Anglo-Hind, a * chit.') kuchh parwdh nahfn, ifs no 

ndm, a name, matter ; * donU trouble 

sust, lazy ; out of sorts, about it' (The * kuch-par- 

bu, a smell, wanny' of Anglo-Hind.) 

khush-bu, a nice smell ; scent, parwanah, a written order of 

bad-bu, a nasty smell, command, 

tab, or tap ; bukhdr, fever, kya kya, what {various) 

tnuhri, a drain, things ; what sorts of,*? 

Idkh ; Idh, sealing-wax, nazdfki, neighbourhood, 

Iti'i, paste, roihrbani kar-ke (lit, doing 

ndshtah* ; hdziri, breakfast, the kindness)^ * have the 

tifin, lunch, kindness^' * goodness^ dr'<* 

rokna; thdmna, to stop. mu,df kfjiye, means either 

(trans, y ^ (seriously),' pardon me^ or 

IshaTSL-rahnsi, to stop (intr.) . (courteously),' pray /excuse 

chalna ; chaldna ; dge bar- me,' '/ beg your pardon,' 

• hdna, to go on, ^h^^ . Bahddur : Khdn Ba- 

shikAr, hunting; sport /game, hddur, native titles^ best 

shikdr-karna, to hunt ; shoot, left untranslated, 

&'c. waghairah, et cetera, 

shikdri, a hunter, i2i\^x, finis. 

^Not used in Lower Bengal. 


Exercise No. 39. 

Apni ma ke wdste drdm-kursi bardmde men rakh-do. Rdt 
andheri hai, lamp bibar lejdna hoga. Achchha ! lejd,o. Yih 
chithi jarnail sdbib ke pds le-jd-kar, jawdb ld,o. Hamdra 
s£,fs bahut hoshyir hai : Aj shdm ko, hamdra ghora bhdga- 
jdta tha ; usne, ek baghal se daurkar, lagdm-ko pakar-kar, 
ghore-ko roka ; is-tarah ham bach-gaye. 

Bdlu par ek bhdl chalta hai ; buzilr ke i\bi\ se, bandah 
mdr-ddlega : to^ta-dfjiye. 

Lard,i ke wal^t, ri,dya khush nahfn hain. Lashkar sab 
ddmi,OD, sab chfzo9 ka mdlik hota hai ; bahut zulm karta 
hai : khet ki fasl Idt le-jdta hai ; aur ddmi o aurat-ko, 
bojhe uthdne ke wdste , zor se, chhfn-leta hai ; wd,e ! wd,e ! 

Yih chitthi d£k men rakh-do. Sdhib ! tikat nahfn hai. 
Durust ! ham bhdl ga,e ; tikat ]agd-do, aur jald dauro ! 
paune pdijich baje ddk band hogi ; aur suno ! hamare 
wdste, chdr tikat, chdr chdr dne ki, mol-lo. Fa]^t. 

Exercise No. 40. 

We shall go (gut) shooting to-day. What sort of game' 
are there hereabouts ?" Tiger, leopard, and wild-pig. Any 
water-fowl ? Yes ! duck ; and there 's also snipe. We shall 
have to ride two kos. No matter ! it is the cold season. 
Yes ! but the sun is hot at noon. We have solah-topfs ! 
That's true. Wait a little ! my gun is not clean. 

When shall we be back ? At seven in the evening. 
But what will the ladies do ? They can play lawn-tennis 
with each other.3 That won't suit* my wife, — we must be 
back by 3. All right ! we '11 come back together. 
Khuda saldmat rakhe. Amfn. 

May God preserve you I Amen I 


^ Sbikir. * In this neighbourhood. ' Among themselves. 

* Be agreeable 



Numerals from 21 to 100. 


Relative and Co-relative Words. 

A List of Feminine Words in various final letters. 


Appendix No. i. 

Showing the Ordinal Numerals from 21 to 100. 

(See page 64.) 

From 21 to 30. 
ikkis.'is... te, is. . .chaubis...pachfs. . .chhabbfs. . .sata,is . . . 

From 31 to 40. 

iktis . . . battis ... tetfs . . .chautis . . . paintfs . . .chhattfs. . .saintis. .. 

From 41 to 50. 

iktih's ... be,dh's . . . tetdlfs . . . chau,dh's . . . pai^tdlis. . .chhf,aHs. . . 

From 51 to 60. 

ikdwan. . .bdwan . tirpan . . . chauwan . . . pachpan . . . chhappan 

From 61 to 70. 
iksath...bdsath...tirsath .. chausath ...painsath...chhi,asath 
sarsath...arsath. . .unhattar. . .sattar. 

• • • • 

From 71 to 80." 
ikhattar ... bahattar .. tihattar ... chauhattar ... pachhattar... 
chhihattar . . . sathattar . . .athatter . . . undsi . . . assi. 

From 81 to 90. 
ikisi ... be,dsi ... tirdsi ... chaurasi ... pachdsi ... chhi,asi ... 
satdsi. . .athdsi. . .nau,dsi.. .nauwe. 

From 91 to 100. 
ikdnawe ... bdnawe...tiranawe...chaurdnawe.**pachdnawe... 
chhi,dnawe...santdnawe...anthdnawe...nindnawe ...sau, or 


Appendix No. II. 

Showing a list of Relative and Co-relative wiords, the 
latter to be used in Hincidsidni, even though not required 
in English. 

agar ; jo, ifi to, then. 

agarchi, although, tau-bhi, even then ; still, 

jab, liihen. tab ; to, then, 

jab-tak (pr^ talak), //// when, tab-tak {pr^ talak), till then, 

jahdn, where ; wherever, tahdii, there, 

jahan-tak, however for ; up tahan-tak, to far ; up to 

to where,, there, 

jaisa, as. taisa ; waisa, so, 

jaun, whoever; ivhatever, taun : wuh, he ; she ; that, 

jidhar, whithersoever. tidhar, thither, 

jis-kadar, in whatever degree, us-kadar, in that degree, 

jis-wakt, at what time; when, us vidiVXy at that time ; then, 

jitna, or^ jetna, as fnuch as ; itna, or utna, so much ; so 

as many as many. 

}0f tf. - to, then. • [these, 

jo ; jo-ko,i, who ; whoe'qer, ; wuh, he^ she ; that ; we, they; 

^o-kuchh y tv^atever. sOy that. 


** Jidhar dp ja,engi, tidhar bandi bhi ji,egi ; jahdn dp 
rahengi, tahd^ bandi bhi rahegi. Jo log dp ke hain, we 
bandi ke honge ; jo Khuda dp ka ho, wuh mera bhi hoga." 


hindiSstAni as it ought to be spoken. 105 

Appkndix No. III. 

Giving a few common words, in various final letters, 
which are feminine in gender, 
dg, fire. 

aljil, sense ; intelligence. 
dnkh, an eye, 
dstin, a sleeve, 
dwdz, the voice ; a cry, 

bandill^, a musket ; a gun. 
bat, word; news ; affair, 
bhiikh, hunger, 
bu, smell, 

chddar, a sheet, 

chdl, one's conduct^ habits^ &'c. 

chaukath, the frame of a 

chhappar, a toof; a thatch, 

chilam, the part of a native pipe 
(hul^l^ah) in which the fire 
and the tobacco are placed. 

dastdr, head-dress, 

dawa, medicine, 

dhdl, a shield; target, 

dfwar, a wall, 

dohar, a double-woven cot ton - 

du,a, benediction, 
dunya, the world; universe. 
dum, a tail, 

guft-o-gu, conversation. 
bawa, air, 

haya, modesty ; shame, 

iba, a cloak, 
i^t, a brick, 

jibli, the tongue, 

kitab, a book, 

kiwir, a door; ^<ite ; en- 
kamis, a shirt ; chemise, 
khabar, news ; tidings, 
khdk, earth, 
khuidk, food ; victuals, 

mez, a table, 

misl, a file of papers, 

nakl, a story ; a copy of a 

writing, &*c, 
namdz, prayer ; prayers. 
nok, a point (e.g. of a stick). 

palak, an eye-lid, 
pal tan, a regiment, 
pith, the back, 
pixds, thirst, 
poshak, dress, 

rdh, a road. 


sarak, the high way, 
saza, punishment 
shardb, wine. 
sharm, modesty ; shame, 
shakl, shape ; form, 

\.zzxiU praising ; praise, 

taawfz, recourse to God ; an 


tahrir, a written statement, 

tahsfl, collection of dues, 

tdl^, a niche, 

taljirfr, recital ; narration, 
ta^sfm, division into shares, 

taksfr, fault ; crime. 

tdldb, a reservoir ; a tank, 

talwdr, a sword, 

taswfr, a picture, 

tajwfz, investigation ; trial, 

tfr, an arrow, 

toshak, a mattress ; bedding, 

tiifdn, a storm ; Hyphoon.^ 

ummed, hope, 

umr, age^ i.e., period of life, 

zabdn, the tongue; a language. 
zamfn, land ; the ground, 
zanjir, a chain. 

zulf, curly hair. 



(y&dhsi 2iUT Shei 9 {Thg Ass and the Lion) ... ... 109 

2. Murgh skUT Moii, (The Cock and ihe Pearl) ... ... 1 10 

3. ViWe Siur G&dhsif (The Puppies and the Ass) ... ..ill 

4. Sing ysL Tasigenf (fforns or Le^s) ... ... ... in 

5. Buddhsi NsLviksiTf {The Old Servant') ... ... ...112 

6. Kauwa, Akhrot aur Gilehri, (^The Crow, the Walnut and 

the Squirrel) ... ... ... ... 113 

7. Sher, Jangal ka Badshdh, ( The Lion^ the King of the 

8. Bheriya aur Saras, (The Wolf and The Crane).,, ••• 115 

9. Saudagaran aur Faujdar Sdhib, {The Merchants and The 

Captain) ... ... ... ... ... 116 

10. Maut Joru aur Ga,e ki, {^The Death of one^s Wtfe, and 

one^s Cow) ... ... ... ... ... 117 

11. ^Insii 'KiixndiHogz.,'' {yustice must be done) ... ... 118 

12. Kachhua aur Khargosb, Bab Auwal, {The Tortoise and 

The Hare ^ First Chapter) ... ... ... 119 

13. Kachhua aur Khargosh, Bdb Doyam, {The Tortoise and 

The Hare^ Second Chapter) ... ... ... 120 

14. Khurshidi Begam, {A lady's name^ First Extract) ... 122 

15. Khurshidi Begam, (.S^r^m/ iS'^r/rar/) ... ... ... 114 


The following Extracts have been taken from several modern sources, 
so as to give the student good samples of Hindustdni as written and 
spoken at the present day. The modern style of composition is less 
ornate than the older style, at least, when the subject in hand is of a 
non-poetic kind. English words for which there are no vernacular equi- 
valents are freely used ; and the Relative Pronoun is not unfrequently 
found following its antecedent as in English, «.^., 'idmijo,' instead 
of *jo idmi ..wuh.' 

As regards further exercise in writing Hindustani, the student cannot 
do better than translate these stories into English, and after some time, 
retranslate them into Hindustani. 

It only remains for the author to acknowledge the kindness of those 
gentlemen who have allowed him to make Extracts from their several 


I. Gadha aur Sher. 

Kisi gadhe-ko, barsdt ke mausim men, charne ke waste, 
Mgh ki tar o tdzah ghds mill ; aur pine-ko,' chashme ka sdf 
aur thanda aur mftha pdni muyassar dya. Gadha, khd-pl- 
kar,'-khdb mota hil,a. Usi nawdh men, ek sher bhi rahta- 
tha. Ek din, gadha sher ke sdth khush-tabd,i karne laga. 
Sher-ne, nd-khush ho-kar, da^t dikhd,e. Gadhe-ne, usko 
hansi samajh-kar3, aur ziyddah^ chher-chhdr shuruki.s Sher-ne 
kaha : — ' agar yih gustdkhi, jo^ tu karta hai, a^l ke sdth hoti,7 

' ^Vine-VOf for drinking, 

* 'Kbd-pikar/ i.^., 'khd-kar, pi-kar/ having eaten and drunken, 
' • Understanding laughter,* i.e,, taking it for laughter, 

^ ' Aur ziyddah,' transl., still further, 

^ Remember that ' ki ' may be the fern. : sing, past tense, or past part, 
of • karna,' as well as the fem. of * ka,' * ke,* • ki.* 

* Relative here follows antecedent, as in English ; contrary to the 
ordinary mle. 

' ' Agar. — akl-ke sath hoti,* trans!., if,.,werealong-v/ith, i.e., accom- 
panied with, sense, or, understanding. 


to main tujh-ko zardr saza deta; magar, mujhko, teri 
be-wul^ilfi par, rabm dta hai.'' 

HXsiL : — Bare log, ahma|^09 ki bdto^ par, khiydl 
nahfn karte.^ 


£k murgh, bhiikh-se be-tdb ho-kar, ddne ki just-o-ju men 
kdre ke ambdr ko' kured-raha tha. Bahut der ke bdd, 
ndgdh, ek besh-l^f mat moti nikla. Moti-ko dekh-kar, murgh- 
ne, bari b^srat ke sdth, kaha : — ' Afsos I itni jdnkani ke bdd, 
mujh-ko mila bhi to^ moti — jis-se na mere dil-ko tashaffi ho 
sakti hai, o na meri bhdkh-ko taskfn. Yih moti agar kisi 
jauhari ya daulatmand-ko milta, to, is ki ^adar karta, aur 
is-ko azfz-rakhta ; lekin, mere liye, aise zor ki bhilkh men,5 
jo,dr ya chane ka ek ddnah, is-se,^ kahfn bihtar tha.' 

HisiL : — Numdjish aur drd,ish ki chizeQ, zindagdni 
ki asli zardraton men, kdm nahfn dtfQ.7 

^ * Mujh-ko...rahin ata,' to nu comes compassion^ i.e., / have com- 
passion en thy<i 6r»f . 

2 *Khiyal karna ' is a verb which ha^ to be translated according to the 
context. The idea is the cution of the mind in connection with any 
subject. Here you may transl. ^ does not cUtcuh importance to.* In other 
connections, it may mean * to remember;* or, — with • nahin,' ^to forget;* 
and so on. ••Khiy^l" is one's ^ knowledge^ ^idea^ * notion^* on any 

8 *At,* or, 'in: 

^ Indicates a unit ; also here contempt. * Mujh-ko mili bhi to moti,' 
* to me has'come-to hand this thing called a pear ;* or * this wretched 


* Aise zor ki bhukh men, • in hunger of such forced 

« * Than this* (pearl). 

7 • Ati^ ' (for ^ti hai^ ') 3rd pers. plur. pres. indie, feminine of 
*ana ; * transl, • Things of appearance and ornament — in life*s real 
necessities — are of no use,* The agreement is *chizen atin (hain). 
See page 10, section 6. 



£k kisan ke ghar-men ek gadha tha, aur ek kutiya bhi 
pdli hii,i thi. Kutiya-ne bachche diye. Jab bachche bare hti,e, 
tokhilb khdb kheldr,i,dn karte, aur uchhalte, kddte; o kisdn 
in bachhoQ ki piydri piydri harkate9 dekhkar, bahut khush 
hoia,* aur un-ko, apne hdth-se roti khildta,* aur chumkirta.' 
Gadhe-ne dil men socha, kih ' in pillo^ ki nisbat,^ main 
bahut kdm karta hiin ; magar hamdra mdlik in-par ziyddah 
mihrbdni karta hai ; ld,o ! 3 mai^ bhi pillon ki tara]!>^ kildd- 
kardn, td-kih mdlik mujhe bhi azfz-rakhe.' 

Yih soch-kar, gadha,ek din, be-tarab dolatti,dn jhdrne laga. 

Kisdn-ne pahle, to, gumdn kiya, kih 'shdyad makkhiya^ ya 

machchhar is-ko satdte hain ;' magar dkhir-ko maalilm,hd,a, 

kih sirf shardrat-se kiidta hai. Tab, to, kisdn-ne gadhe ki pf^h 

men pdnch, chdr dande aise zor-se lagd,e, kih ilchhal kiid 

sab bhill-gaya. 

HisiL: — Be-samajhe-btijhe5 kisi ki ris karna zarilr 

khardbi Idta hai. 

4. Sing ya TIngen. 

Ek bdrah-singene chashmah-^-db men apna aks dekha ; 

to, apne sf^go^ ki shdn-o-khdbsilrati dekhkar, bahut khush 

hil,a ; lekin jab us-ki nazar, patli patli^ tdngon par, pari, to 

kahne laga : — ' kih khuda-ne roujh-ko we bad-shakl, tdngen 

* • Would become^ S'cJ See page 17, section 16, ii. 

* • As compared with these pups, "* 

^ As interj. • Take it so.' * So be it: 

* Ace. of manner. *^ After the manner of pvppies^ or, * as the 
puppies do,* 

* Be-samajhe-bujhe, * without considering (and) understanding; 
* heedlessly ; ' • ivithout thought,* 

* Doubling the adj. gives greater force. 


kyti^ bakhshi hai^, jo^ mere singon ki khdbsiirati-ko bhi 
aib lagdti hai^.' Yih dil me^ socb-kar raha tba ; kib^ itne 
men. ko,i sbikdri d-pabu^cba. Bdrah-singa aisa tez bhiga, 
kib sbikdri-ko uski bdtb-dne ki ummed narabi; lekin, tbori 
ddr jd-kar, jangalki jbdri me^, sing atak-ga,e, aur pakra gaya. 
Tab kabne laga, ' Hd,e ! meri bad-a]^li ! siQgon se mai^ 
kbusb tba : we meri haldkat ka sabab bil,e bain ; aur tdngon- 
ko mai^ bura-jdnta tba, unbo^-nes mujbe, maut-se bacbdne 
mei;L kuchb kami nahf^ ki.''^ 

HisiL : — Jo cblz wal^t par* kdm-ane-wdii bo, is-ko 
azfz-rakbna cbdbiye, go-kih kbusb-numa na bo.^ 

5. Buddha Naukar. 
£k sbakbs ke pds bara zabardast sbikdri kutta tba. Har 
roz apne d^a ke waste shikdr Idta ; aur mdlik bbi us kutte- 
ko babut azfz-rakbta tba. Akhir-ko,wub kutta buddhabd,a; 
daurne ki tdljat bdki na rabi; ba-sar, zauf ke sabab-se,^ ddr ki 
cbfz nabfn dekb-saka tba. Gharaz, shikdr-karne-se, sab tarah 
maaziil bo-gay a. Aisi b^lat men, mdlik-ne bhi nazar-i-iltifdt 
kam kar-di. Rdiib maukiif bd,a. Akhir-ko, gbar se babar 
nikdl-diya. Jab kutta rukbsat bone^ laga, to, ro-kar, mdlik- 
se^ arz ki, kib, * mai^-ne,9 jawani, dp-par nisdr ki ; barason 

1 Refers to * tangen ; * transl.— wAiVA, or,/<?r they, 
« So that, 

* I'heyy i.e., the legs. 

* Opportunely, 

* A relative clause *' transl., what thing — opportunely — a 
service-bringing one may be — THAT to esteem — is proper^ although^ di*c 

* • Ba-sar, zauf ke sabab se, ' at last (be-sar}» by reason of debility, 
' • Rukhsat-hona,' to take leave ; depart. 

* Observe, the prep, same as with puchhnd. See page 51, v. 
. • Ace. of lime ; no prep. 


se' shikdr ki just-o-ju men daura, aur bahut zakhm khd,e ; 
lekin, kya ! is khud-gharaz dunya ka yihi dastdr hai, kih, ab 
main Idchdr hiln,^ to, mere rahnetak3ka, ko,irawdddrnahin 
hai ; ^ aur meri picbhli khidmaten sab akdrat haip.' 

HisiL : — Buddhe naukar,5 jin-se*^ kdm nahfn ho- 

sakta, un-ke pichhle hul^ilk-ko bhdl-jdna7 bari nd-ihsdn- 

mandi hai. 

6. Kauwa, Akhrot aur Gilehri. 

Ek kauwa akhrot-ko chonch-se tor-raha tha ; magar 
akhrot par kuchh asar nahin hota tha. Gilehri-ne dekha, aur 
kauwe-se kaha : — * Kyii^ itni zal^mat uthdta^ hai* ? Kauwe- 
ne kaha : — * mai^-ne suna hai, kih akhrot bahut maze ki 
chfz hai ; aur jab Khuda-ne, is sakhti ke sdth, is-ko band- 
kiya hai, zanlr is ke andar,9 kuchh bari niimat hogi ; so, 
main — jis-taral? ban-parega*° — is-ko tor-kar rahilnga.' 

Gilehri-ne kaha : — * Mai^ ek dsdn tadbfr batd,iln ; akhrot- 
ko, bari diir, hawa meii lipar le-jdkar, patthar ki samne-wali 
chatdn par" — chhor-de; girne ke sadme se, khud pdsh-pdsh 

' Since, transl., ^ for years back,'' 

'^^ Now {thai) lam helpless,^ or, * useless,^ 

• * Up to the point of my remaining,"* 

*. Transl. : there is no consenter of ( Kng. to) even my remaining. 
. ^ There is no verb to this Plur. Nom. It is left standing, and referred 
back-to by * un-lce'; as We might say. * This man, why, he^s a fool.' 

• Oblique form of plur. of *jo.' 
' Verbal Noun. 

8 • Uthina ' and * khdna ' are often used regarding mental feelings 
or sufferings. 

• * // must be that inside it.^ 

*• *In whatever way it may be practicable? j 

" * On an opposite slab of stone,' 

T., H. 8 


Kauwe-ne aisa hi kiya ; lekin^ niche utar-kar, kya dekhta 
hai ? Kih wdl^e me^ akhrot to pdshpish ho-»aya, magar 
tnaghz' gilehri le-kar chal-di ; sirf chhilke chhor-ga,i. 

9isiL : — Khud-yharaz ddmi, jo' saidh deta hai, us 
nien3 kuchh-na-kuchh apna fd,idah zardr soch-leta hai> 

7. Shek, Jangal ka BXdshXh. 

Sher aur rfchh aur chfta aiir bheriya, chdro9^ shikdr ki 
just-o-ju men the ; sab-ne sald^ kf^ : — * d,o, darya-kindre 
men shikdr karep ; jo shikdr 7 milega, chdro9 bardbar bi^se 
bd9t-le9ge.' — Ittifdl^n, nfl-gd,o-ko mdra; aur, ba-mdjib ahd o 
paimdn ke, bardbar chdr bisse kiye ! I^rfb tha, kih har ek 
apna apna^ bissah le •? itne men, sher, lapak-kar, bola : — 
' $uno, bhdH 1 yih ek bissah, to,ba-mtijib ^ul-o-|^aiar-ke> 
mera hai ; aur dusre bisse ka main is wdste ddwfddr hd^, 
kih main jangal ka bddshdh hdn, kahln shikdr ho, mujh-ko 
chahdrum, ba-taur khirdj ke, miltahai ; aur tfsra hissah ms^in 
is wajah-se ldaga,kih us me9 dil aur jigar hai, jis-ko'° turn 

' Ace. governed by * le-kar.' 

' Instance of the Relative Pronoun used as in English. 

' Namely, in his advice. 

* • Admi * is Nom. to * soch-leta-hai ' {takes thought far ; considers). 

• FA,idah.* is the Acq. after this verb : or it may l>e looked on as an 

* ace. absolute ; ' and translated, takes thought regardinf, or, for his 
awn advantage, 

* The plural form of • chir/ transl., *a///our.* 

* Fern, past part, of ' karna ' 
' * Hamoi;^ko,' understood. 

' Doubled to express ' distribution.* 
'3rd pers. sing. subj. of ' lena.' 
*• • Regarding ivhiM 

hindi^stXni as it ought to be spoken. 115 

jdnte ho» kih meri ghiza hai ; raha^ chautha tiissah ; so* main 
nah{9 jdnta, turn tfnon meii, us-ko kyilpkar ta^sfm kartl^ ;' 
is-se^ bihtar hai, kih us-ko bhi apne hi sarf men id,iln.' Yih 
kah-kar. sher, ch£ro9 hisse chat-kar, gaya ; aur sab ke sab, 
mu9h dekhte ke dekhte,^ rah-ga,e. 

HlsiL : — Zabardast ke sdth sdjha karne meQ, hame* 
shah nuksdn hota, 

8. Bheriya aur SAras. 

Ek bhe^iye ke gale me9 ittifd^-se haddi atak ga,i. Har- 
chand khd9si aur bahuteri ubkd,i,dn lin,^ magar haddi na 
nikli ; par^ na nikli. Majbilr hokar, sdras ke pds gaya aur 
kaha : — kih 'ydr ! ham turn dono9^ ek jangal me9 rahte hain ; 
is wa^t bal^M- hamsayah^ ada karo ; mere balak men haddi 
atak ga,i hai, aur jdn par bani hai ;^'' mihrbdni kar-ke, apni 
Iambi gardan-se is-ko nikdl-lo, aur yih kdm main tum-se 
muft bhi nahfn chdhta ; jo turn kahoge, so dilnga.' Sdras 
rdzi ho-gaya ; aur bheriye ke halak men apni Iambi gardan 
ddlkar, haddi-ko khat-se alag nikdl-liya. 

Chand roz ke bdd, bheriya shikdr kar-ke gorkhar tdya ; aur 
darya-kindre" baithkar, khdne laga, Sdras-ne dekha, aur 

* * There regained,* 
^' As to it.' 

• * I da not know -^among you three — it — hctw 1 can divide,' 
« • Than this: 

* A phrase, equivalent to * looking dejectedly in each other's faces. ' 

* Fern. 3rd pers. plur. past tense ' lena ; ' agreeing with ' ubkd,i,d9. 

• * Ham turn donori,' a phrase, ^both of us,' 

• Adj. foUowing noun ; in imitation of the Persian. 

•• See * banna, ' • is settling on my life, ' i.e., * is threatening^ * &*€, 
*' Ace* of place ; without prep. 

ii6 hindiJstXni as it ought to be spoken. 

bahut khush-dmad se, pds jd-kar, kaha: — Kih 'dj main, 
bhtikha hdn, gosht ka ek tukra mujhe bhi do.' • Bheriye-ne 
ta,ammul kiya. Sdras ne — dabi zabdn se — haddi ka nikdlna' 
ydd-diUya, To, bheriye-ne kaha :--* A,i ahmal^ ! yih indm 
kya kam tha,' kih tu, mere l^alal^ se, teri gardan, sahfh- 
saldmat nikdl-kar, le-gaya.'3 

HisiL : — Zdlim aur mdzi ddmi ke sdth sulUk-karna,^ 
aur bihtari ki ummed rakhna' nd-ddni hai. Dunyake 
log ihsdn-ko jald bhill-jdte hai^ ; zardrat me^^ admi jo 
waadah karta hai,^ kamtar us-ko pdra-karta hai. 

9. SaudIgarIn^ aur FaujdXr-SX^ib. 
Lardji ke wa^t men, do sauddgardn, achchhe kapre pahin« 
kar, apne mdl ke sdth, rdste men chale-jdte the. Ittifdkan, 
un-ko chdr sipdhi,dn mile ; aur un bad-bakht saudagaroQ ka 
sab mdl liit-kar, bhdg-ga,e. Sauddgardn, Idchar hokar, fauj^ 
ddr-sdhibkepds daure, aur apni bad-l^ismat ka hdl baydn kiya.7 
Hdkim-ne un-se piichha, kih, 'jis-wa^t un sipdhi,on ne turn* 
hdra mdl liit-liya, us-wakt tum log, yih kapra orhe,^ jdte the ? ' 
Unhon-ne jawdb diya, kih * Hdn ! sdhib. ' Tab faujddr-ne 
kaha : — kih, * is-se Idiiib maaliim hai, kih we shaldis mere 
ddmi nahfn hain ; lekin dushman ke log hain ; agar mere 

* Vierbal Noun. 

' 'Yih indm kya k6m tha.' idiomatic; lit. this gift {of) what use 
was (it)f viz., that, dr'c,, equivalent to is it nothing that, dr'c, 

• 'Le-gaya* (from * le-j&na') govs, 'gardan.' 

* * In necessity ; * i.e., f under a strain^ or compulsion.* 

' Transl. : — The man who makes a promise under compulsion y seldom 
fulfils it, English idiom of Relative Pronoun. 

• * An,* the Persian plural. See page 73. 

' * Unhon-ne' uaderstood. Transl. : — They stated the circumstances 
of their misfortune, 

' Past part. Plur. * orhna ' to put on clothes ; agreeing with • tum log.' 


ddmi hote^ to, yih achchha kapra kabhi nahfn chhor-dete; 
Khuda ka shukr hai, kih tutn-ko mere admi nahfn mile the/ 
Bolte, bolte faujddr-sdhib-ne apne logon-ko ishdrah diya ; 
aur jab sauddgaran, Udds hokar, phire^ jate the, tab faujddr 
ke ddmi,on-ne un-ke kapre utdr-di,e, jis-se we be-nasib 
saudagardn khdli jdnghie men apne ghar-ko pahui^che. 

10. Maut Joru aur G1,e ki. 

£k basti men ek kisdn rahta tha, aur sab kdm bahut nek- 
ndmi o diydnat-se kiya-karta^ tha. Is-Hye, us-se aur gdnw- 
wdlon-se,^ bahut dosti thi. Bad-nasibi-se, us-ka kdm achchhi 
tarah nahfn chala. Pahle, us ki gd,e mar-ga,i ; tab us ki joru. 
Is wajhe-se, bahut gham-gfn aur dil-gfr hd,a ; kyiSn-ki, 
diisri ga,e inol-lene ke wdste, rdpfye nahfn the ; aur is-ki 
joru har dam ghar ke kdm men madadgdr rahi thi. 

Is dfat II -en, gd^w-wdlon-ne, us-ke dil bahldne ke wdste, 
bahut koshish ki. Ek shakhs-ne kaha, kih, ' Are ! bhd,i! 
kydn rote ho ? turn achchhe jawdn ho ; lum-ko jald diisri joru 
milegi; dekho, to, meri beti bahut khdbsiirat larki hai, 
main turn ko use khushi-se dil^ga.' Dilsre-ne, apni bahinke 
bdre men, wohi bdt kahi. Tfsre-ne apni bhdnji ka hdl 

Akhir ko, kisdn-ne jawdb diya, kih, * is gd^w men, joru 
ki maut bihtar hai, gd,e ki maut se.^ Bahut admi mujhe 

^ Similar to 'orhe ;' here agreeing with ' sauddgardn.* 

* « Kiya kama,* to be in the habit of doing a thing ; it is the same as 
our idiom with 'always.* 

' * Us-se aur ganw-wdlon se,' 7(/fM him and with the villagers; 
or, between him and the villagers. Notice this idiom ; it occurs fre- 
quently. Notice also that in Hindustani, you say • / and you* &c., not 
*you and /.* * ham-se tum-se,* between you and m^ ; * Ego et rex mens.' 

* Transl. ! — The death of a wife is better than^ ^f'Cp 



diisri joni dene ko taiyir hain ; ko,i shakhs mujhe dilsri gd,e 
dena ^abiil nahfn karta.' 

II. *lNsiF Karna Hoga/ 

Patne ke zile ki ek basti men, ek lohdr, ba-ndm Rdm 
Gopdl, rahta tha. Wuh bahut hoshydr kdrfgar tha ; lekin, 
&Z1II Idiarchi ke sabab se, liameshah tangi se guzrdn kiya 
karta' tha. Ek rdt, rdh men usko ek sauddgar mila ; us-ko 
lohdr-ne jdn se mdr-ddla, aur mdl chord-liya. Magar yih 
wuku chhipa nahf^ raha. Gdnw ke mahto^-ne, zaminddr 
ke pds jd-kar, pdchha, kih ' huzilr ! kya niarzi hai ? hdkimdn 
ko is ki'* ittila ki3-jdwe,* ya nahfn ? '* 

Ittifdkan, zamlnddr se,^ aur R^m Gopdl se,® mdlguzdri ki 
bdbat, takrdr thi ; is liye zaminddr-ne mahton ko hukm diya, 
kih * us wul^u ki^ Uiabar hdkim logon ko do.' Pas, chaukf- 
ddr-ne, thdne me^ jd-kar, apna iziidr likwd-diya. Is-par, 
ddrogha sdhib, ma,i tin chdr barl^nddz, sar-zamfn par aya, 
aur taddruk karne laga 

Chd^kih Rdm Gopal gharfb tha, thdna-wdlon ko razi 
nahfn kar-saka.^ Pas, un logo^-ne Rdm Gopdl ko, ma,i 
subdt, hdkim ke pds chdldn kiya. Tajwlz ke bdd, hdkim-ne 
fdrmdya, kih ' us kam-baldit-ko phd^si do.' 

Jab is hukm ki khabar gd^w-wdlon ke pds pahunchi, nihi> 
yat afsurdah hil,e ; aur bole, ' agar ham-logon ke lohdr-ko 

* * Kiya-karna,' fo continuaify do a thing ; to keep doing it, 
' Because ' ittila ' is fern. 

' Fern. p. part. * karna.* 

* Passive. 

* The local Indian squire is generally consulted as to whether a 
crime is to be reported to the authorities or not. 

' Notice this idiom *,' between A. and B. See preceding Story. 
' Because * khabar ' is fern. 

* Alluding to the vetiality which some people attribute to the police* 

hindi5stXni as it ought to be spoken. 119 

phd^si depge, to, hamara kdm kis-tarab se chalega ? hamdre 
hal aur gdri,dn kaun marammat karega ? Bhilkh se mar-jd* 
enge. ' 

Fikrmand ho-kar, l^dkini ke pds ga,e, aur apna }^i\ baydn- 
kiya, aur darkhdst ki, ' kih Itidkim mausilf lohdrko Idialds 
karen. Hdkim-ne nahfp l^abUl kiya, aur kaha kib, * insdf 
karna hoga,^ 

Gd^wdr-log bdhar ga,e ; aur, plpal ke gdchb ke nkbe 
tambdku plte, pite, tnasbwarab karne lage. Aldiir-ko (^dkim 
ke pds pbir d,e, aur bole : — " Gharfb-parwar ! fcuzdr ki bdt 
durust hai : ' insdf karna hoga '; lekin, insdf nahf^ hai 
kih ham *be-i:u$iSr ddmi sab bhiikh se mar-jd,en ; gdnw 
fhhotd hai, aur is men sirf ek lohdr rahta hai ; niagar do 
jdldhe hai^ ; hamdre kdm ke wdste, ek jilldhah bas hai ; un 
dono^ men se, ek shaldis le-kar, pbdnsi dljiye ; is taur se 
insdf hoga. *' 

Jab is bdt-ko bhi l;)dkim-ne nahln manzdr kiya, basti-wdle 
chale-ga,e ; aur dpas men bole : — * Bhd,i ! bhd,i ! kal-yug* 
bar, dunya ^ meipi insdf nahfn hai.' 

12. Kachhi^a aur Khargosh. 
Bdb Auwal. 
Ek kachhde-ko safar darpesh tha. Is ki just-o-ju hil,i,4 
kih * ko,i sdthi mile,^ to safar kardp. ' Ittifdl^ se, ek Idiaigosh 
bhi usi taraf-ko jdne-wdla tha. Kachhtie-ne kaha : kih 'miydn 

* Fein, past tense of ' karna. ' 

' The black era, t. ^., the evil days. 

* The reader will have noticed that * dunya ' is a word of which the 
* a ' does not change into ' e * ; so also ' darya, ' a river, 

* * His search was^ ' i,e, , he was enquiring. 

* Subj. understand 'mujh-ko,' transl., * Could any companion be 


khargosh ! i,o ! ham turn sdth-chale^.'' Khargosh be ikhtiyar 
ha^sa, aur kaha; — ' Abe ! abmal^! Kahdn' tu bhadda, phaph- 
sa, reng reng-kar, pahdron me^^ ek bdlisht zamfn^ chalta. 
hai, aur kahdn mait^^ bijli ki mdnind lapakta hiin, hawa ki 
tarah urta hii^ ; — bhala ! meraaur tera kyasdth ?' Kuchhde 
ne kaha : — * yih sahih hai ; magar manzil par (Khuda-ne 
chdha) ap se dge hi pahunchil^ga. Ya^in na ho, to shart 
bdndh-]fjiye.5 Chundnchih, yih shart hil,i, kih jo hdre, 
us-ke kdn kdte-jd,e9.'^ 

13. Kachhua aur Khargosh. 

Bab Doyam. * 

Kachhtla, dhistah, dhistah, apni chal chalne laga. Khar> 

gosh, do chhaldQgori men, nazar-se ghdib ho gaya.7 'Ihori 

diir dge jd-kar, khargosh-ne socha, kih,' jitna maii^ chal-chuka 

hdn, — shdm tak,'® to, kachhde ko, yahdn-ana mushkil hai ; 

* Imperative, let you {and) me go together, 

' Here begins a long sentence. Its purport is : where you^ being 
such and such, do such and such ; and where / do such and such. The 
sentence ends with a break-off at *urta huii/ and resumes : * well ! mera 
aur tera ' * as to your {affairs) and mine ^^ *kya sath (hai).' * What (is 
there) in common, " 

* In the * pahars * or xvatches^ transl. , * in the 24 hours. ' 

* Ek balisht zamin : apposition : * a span of ground, ' 

* The sense is ; — * I (the tortoise) am sure to reach the journey's end 
before you (the hare), — for God so wills it, — but if you think this 
doubtful, then have a bet on it. ' 


' ^Became vanished from sight t* * was out of sights 
' ' Tak' here (and often) expresses the idea of a time not yet arrived; 
the mind being directed to the interval between now and then. The 
sense here is that the hare thinks that he has now gone so far that it 
will be difficult for the tortoise to reach the spot, ' sham tak, ' even by 

HINDI^StInI as it ought to be spoken. 121 

main jaldi kydn kardn? ld,o!' so-^ rahiln, Khargosh £rdm-se 
so-^raha. Kachhda, bari der ke bdd, ghisarta, ghisarta, dya. 
Dekha, to, )^siri( para? sota hai. Chup-ke chal-diya. Bari 
rdt ga,i, khargosh jdga ; to, kachhila nazar na* dya.^ Ap hi 
dpkahne lagaS:— *Alldh ! re!^ sustkiadam! miyd^ kachhile 
ab-tak tashnf nahfn li,eJ Khair ! chale^ ! sard,e men 
rdt-ko rahe^; kal, jo^ miydn kachhila yahd^ d,ega, to jd- 

Jo9 sard,e men kadam rakha, dekha to kachhila maujtld 
hai. Khargosh-ko dekhte hi, kachhila lapka, kih 'ld,iye» 
Hazrat ! kdn ! '9 Khargosh, dum dabd-kar, aisa^.bhdga, 
kih aj tak, kdnoQ ke dar ke mdre, bhdga,-bhdga-phirta, 

HisiL: — Kaisa-hi" dsdn kuchh kdm ho, jab uska 
fhtirodm nahfn kiya-jdta,'^ to mushkil ho-jdta. Kund- 
zihn, mihnati lai'ke, zahfn larko^-ko hard-dete hain. 
Dushman-ko hal^ir nahfn samajhna chdhiye. Ghunlr^- 
kamdl hdsil-karne se, rokta hai ; wa^airah. 

^ As inteij. * take it so,* 

• Stem of 'sona,* tb sleep: *so-rahna,' to remain sleeping, 

• * Lain down,* or, as we say, * lying down.' 

• Was, or, Jiad not come in sight, 

• Be began to say to himself, 

• God Almighty! 

' See page 76, section 17. 
■ fphen: or, if. 

• * Bring (me) oh! Your Excellency !-- Your Ears!* (The mock 

'* Thus do Orientals account for the timorous movements of rabbits 
and hares. 

" ' Kaisa-hi,' ^however,* 
^ Passive Voice. 


14. KHl^RSHfoi BegAM. 

The following; extract is taken from an excellent modem novel called 
" Fisinah-c-Khurshldi," i>., " The Story of Khiirshidi"— a Muham- 
madan lady of rank. The author is the well-known Saiyid Afzal-ud- 
din Ahmad. In this book, English as well as characters are in- 
troduced. It recommends itself by the simplicity of its style, by its 
jfreedom from all coarseness, and by the attempt which it makes to 
fender Natives and Europeans better acquainted with each other than 
they at present are. This extract consists mainly of a dialogue between 
the English lady of the piece (Miss Thompson) and Khurshidi's father. 

Mis Tdmsan sliahr-i-Landan ke bare sauddgar ki beti 
thi. Apne bdp ke sdth Hinddstdu d,!?.' Us-wakt in' 
kasinn bfs baras ka tha; chdlfs baras tak, Hindilstdn men 
rahfQ.' Athdrah zabdnon se wdkif thfn.' Larkon ke par- 
hdne ka nihdyat shauk tba. L'illdh,^ logon-ko parhdti thfn.' 

[Then begins the dialogue.] 

NawwIb. — Main dp se, kya kahUn ? Ap to3 jdnti his 
hain,kih ham-logOQ ke yahan auratoi;! ki taalitn ki — kya hdlat 
hai.* Auwal, ko,i aurat parhi, likhis niilti^ nahin, jo piSri 
tarah se taallm de;7 diisre, yahdu ki md,en^ aisi ajhal o 
nd-parwah hoti hain, kih is taraf kuchh khiydl hi3 nabfn karti 

• Pronouns and verbs plural^ out of respect to the lady, 
' Arabic, *for the lave of God,^ 

' Idiomatic strengthening particles. Transl. as best suits your 
English : or leave untranslated. 

• Begin with * kya hdlat hai ;' and go on * of the education of the 
women resident-with us-peopIe* Trace the application of the rules for 
•ka,' *ke,' 'ki,' by also translating ^ you know our people* s women* s 
education's condition — what it is* 

• ^Read-written^ i.e., * who can read andtvrite^* 

• Understand * hamoi;^-ko.' 
' Subj. *dena.' 

• Plur, of * ma,' mother. 


hain ; — main akela kya kar-sakta hd^P Kidhar dekhilU| 
kidhar ' na dekhdn ? mujh-ko, uraiir-i-dunydwi se, itni 
fursat kahdn hogi, kih khud apni larki-ko taalim diln ? * 

Miss T. — Is men shakk nahfn hai, kih yahan ki auraten 
bil-kull jahil aur aksar an-parh' haip ; is-liye auldd ki taalfm 
achhi nahin hoti hai. Lekin, agar ko,i aurai aisi \iy\\^ nahfn 
milti thi, to, ap ke yahdn maulavi to* hai^, un hi* se taalfm 
dilwd,i hoti.^ 

NawwIb. — Yih bhi nahfn ho-sakta, — do wajho^ se : — ek 
to yih, kih jab larki sydni hil,i, to, maulavi ke sdmne nahf^ jd-^ 
sakti j ddsri,^ kih hamdre yahdp ke maulavi bhi a^l\e putle 
bote hain \ tarfl^ah parhdne ka, achchha nahf^ jdnte hai^. 

Miss T. — Sach hai ! Ap durust farmdte hain ; ^ lekin, 
l^usUr mu,df !^ is-men ap ki9 bhi kuchh khata hai : main 
sdlha'° sdl se yahdi;i hd^, aur dp-ne mujh-ko ittila nahf^ di." 

NawwXb, — Main kahne hi ko tha :" lekin Tillah bura na 
mdniega.'^ Ap jdnti ho^gi, kih yahd^ ki auratei;^ kis ^adr 

* Subj. *dena.* 

' * A ' or * an ' negative^ as in Greek ; * parh * from * parhna ; ' *an- 
parh,' unread ; illiterate. 

' Understand * hamop-ko.' 
. * Idiomatic strengthening particles. Transl. as best suits your Eng- 
lish : or leave untranslated. 

* See page 17, section 16. 

• Fem. I)ecause * wajh * which is fem, is understood. 

' * Farmdna,' to order; but used of any utterance by a great man. 
■ Excuse faulty* i.e., * you will excuse my saying,' &c. 

• * Ap ki khata^ * ki * is used because * khata ' is fem. 

'* * Ha ' is the Persian plural of neuter nouns ; as ' dn ' is of masc. 
novxi^y\X2Si^,y* years on years, ^ 

" Past tense fem, of * dena/ * ittila ' being fem. 

M « Was on telling,' 1.^., * was about tell you.* 

'* An unusual form ; got by adding 'ga' of the future to the respect- 
ful imperative ; the word is from ' mdnna.' 

;. 124 hindi^stIni as it ought to be spoken. 

ndl^is-ul-al^l' aur niuta,assib hain. Chundnchih, jab main-ne 

apni bibi se, dp ka zikr kiya, to wuh kahne lagfn, kih dp 

'^ meri larki-ko Kristdn band-ddlengfn. 

Miss T. — Taubdh ! yih kya guft-o-gu hai 1 Ap dekhiye 

to ! maiipL un logon-ko kis-tarab mildti hdn ! Mujh-ko 

chdnkih dp-se dili-dosti hai, is-liye main dil-o-jdn se dp ki 

larki ko taalfm dd^gi. 
♦ ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 

NawwIb. — Ab dp Khurshfdi begam-ko apni larki 
samjhiye ; aur jis-tarah mundsib samjhiye, is-ko taalfm dfjiye. 

Miss T. — Ap khdtir-jamah rakhiye ; dp ki larki bahut 
zahin aur hoshydr hai^ ; aisi larki to l^ismaton se milti hai;' 
jald ilm o hunar se wd^if ho-jd,egi. 

15. KgURSHfpi Begam. 

'v Second Extract from the same work. 

The young lady has progressed with her education so well that 
her . drawing gains the prize at the Calcutta Exhibition ; the Viceroy 
makes a speech ; th^ young lady's father being present. She herself, 
however, has not yet so far advanced in English manners as to allow 
her pretty face to be seen. 

The Viceroy's Sperch; 

Main nihdyat khushi se, is bdt-ko kahta hUn, kih yih 
naljLshah, kih mere hath mei). hai, is ikzibishan (E.) me^ 

umdah-tarin3 na^shah hai ; balki, kam aise dekhne men dte 


' 'Ur is the Arabic ' ofihe.' 

^ 'Milna' is here used as a fully personal verb. In this sense it 
means ' to be mixed up with * or associated with^'' Uo be allied to ' or the 
like. Translate, * such a girl is sure to have a good destiny before her^ 
but don't &il to analyse the clause literally. 

' Persian superlative ; see page 74, section 9. 


hai^^ (tdli,dn). Main bahut khush hil,a, is amr se; kih dp 
log meri rd,i se ittifil^ karte hai^, aur is nal^she-ko aur 

na^shoi^ par^ — tarjfb dete hain. Mujh-ko ziyddah khushi is 

bdt ki hai, kih yih nal^shah ek Hinddstdn ki larki ke hdth 

se bandya hd,a hai. (suno ! suno !) Is larki ka sinn pandrah 

ya solah baras ka hai ; lekin is kam-sinn mep, wuh bdt kar- ' 

dekhdji — kih jis-se ham log mahz nd-wdl^if the. Is larki-ne 

yi}? bdt sdbit-kar-di, kih Hindtlstdn ki larki,dn bhi a^l o 

ddnist mei;! Inglistdn ki larki,o^ se,^ kisi tarab kam nahi^ hai^ 

(khushi). Agar aisi hi taallm, Hindtlstdn ki kuU larkio^ 

ko, ho, to phir ko,i ddtni, in logo^ par, hans-na-sake. Yih- 

larki mahz jdhil aur gum-ndm rahti ; agar hamdre ld,i]^ aur 

mu,azzaz dost, Nawdb Bahddur, C. S. I.* is rishtah-e- 

ta,assub-ko na' torte,^ aur apni beti ki taalfm is tarah se 

ha' karte.^ Khuda kare, ki bar bdp-ki aisi hi larki ho ; aur 

bar larki^ko aisa hi bdp mile, (bdra £.). Main Mis Tdmsan 

ki bari taarff karta hdn, kih unhon-ne^ is mihnat o shafal^at 

se — is larki-ko ilm o hunar sikhldya — ^jis ka natijah sab par 

zdhir hil,a. 

Ab mai^ is ta^rfr-ko khatm karta hiln ; aur dfsos ke sdth 

karta hUn, kih mu,dfili: lasm Hindilstdn ke, wuh larki yahdn 

nahfn d-sakti. Nahin-to, main khud, apne hdth se yih 

* *Few such (pictures) come into seeing^ i.e., before one. 

* • On^ or 'over other pictures : ' a form of the comparative degree. 
' Namely, the ' bdt ' foreshadowed in the preceding sentence, and 

now about to be stated ; a very common form of Hinddstini composi- 

* * Se ' of comparison. See page 74, section 8. 

* Companion of the Star of India, a British, not a native title of 

* See page 17, section 16. * 
' • Unhoi>-ne/ she. 


medal (£.) us-ke zeb-i-gulu^ karta. Lekin, main ummed 

karta hd^, kih Nawwdb aur Mis Timsan yih medal us 

lafki-ko pahind-de^ge, aur roeri taraf se bahut mubirakbdd 
de^ge (tdU,^? tilijd?). 

^*Her ornament of mck.* See page 52, Aiofg t ; also page 17, 
section 16. 





It is hoped that the following Glossary contains every 
word which occurs in the Vocabularies, Exercises, and 
" The Reader," — except those intentionally omitted, namely, 
English words which have crept into the language, and 
the 'numeraU* which are given on pages 64 and 103. 
Numerals which occur in the Exercises or "The Reader" 
are, liowever, given. 

' There are also thousands of words given which do not 
occur in the earlier part of the book. 

The following Table shows the sequence of the letters, 
' not only as the Head-Letters of the Glossary ; but through- 
out the columns. Thus all words in 'Kat' are exhausted 
before you find ' Kat,' &c., and so with other letters which 
are different and yet similar, as * d ;' and " d ;" * h/ 
and • h.* 










. Gh. 


























T., H. 

I30 hindi5stAni as it ought to be spoken. 

The general arrangement is to give the shortest word — 
Noun, Adjective or other word — as a * Head-word;' and to 
range under it, longer words connected with the same 
subject. The * head-word' is not, as a rule, reprinted ; but 
is represented by a short line. Ex. :— -Diikdn (f.), a shop. 
-ddr, a shop-keeper, -ddri, shop-keeping. Occasionally, the 
•head-word' changes before additions can be made. 
In such cases the short line represents the 'head- word' 
down to the last permanent consonant, which consonant is 
repeated in that part of the new word which is printed. 
Ex. :— Azurdah, grieved, -dagi, grief. 

Contractions are used as follows :— 

i. The ordinary grammatical ones; as ^ M!],\ Adjec- 
tive ; *Adv.' Adverb^ c^c, 'Sing.' Singular; 
*P1.* Plural; * trans.' transitive; * intr.' in- 
transitive^ and so on. 

ii. Compound Verbs ending in *^tfr«a'and ^dena' 
^ are very common. So these auxiliaries are 

shown by -* k' and * d' respectively. 

iii. When the meaning, of words following a ^head- 
words is easily to be understood from the Eng- 

I ^ lisli of the * head-word,' the words which follow 

I are left untranslated. They are marked *A.'if 

I • Adjectives ; * Adv.' if Adverbs ; * N.' if Nouns ; 

j and * V.' if Verbs. Ex. : — Azurdah, grieved, 

\ * N. -dagi, which must mean ^ griefs Fikr, 

J anxiety ; care, A. -mand. Shuru, a beginning. 

I V. -k. 

iv. (p.) ... indicates a Persian word not in use in its 
simple form ; but common in derivatives from 
■ it. 


V. * Persian ' ...indicates that a phrase, though Per- 
sian^ is in common use in Hindilstdni. 

vi. (m.) Stands for masculine; {{.) iox femimne ; (vl.) 
shows that a word (e g., light) is an adjective y 
not a noun; (n.) means that a word (e.g., 
light) is a noun and not an adjective ; (n.a.), 
means that the word is both a noun and an 

vii. (M.)... indicates that the word is to be used only 
concerning things Muhammadan, 

viii. (H.)...the same as regards things Hindu, 

ix. (L.B.).... means that the word is current chiefly 
or wholly, in Lower Bengal only. 

X. (R)... Stands for English ; 'compos,' for composi- 
tion ; * Lit. ' iox literally ; * fig. ' for figuratively, 

> xi. The long word * Muhammadan ' is generally con- 
tracted Muham, 

Masculine Nouns ending in any of the feminine termina- 
tions are marked (m.) 

Feminine Nouns ending in anything except the recog- 
nised feminine terminations are' marked (f) See Page 8, 
Section 13. 

. . . •■ \ V V -; 


H indi^stXni-English 


A or an, a negative prefix^ 
e.g. an-parh (See *parhna'), 

Ab, now; at present, -tak, 
//// now, 

Ab (p.), water, -ddr, a ser- 
vant who attends to the 
wines ^ &'c, -o-hawa (f.), 

Abdd, cultivated ; peopled, 
-i, cultivated land, 

Abe, an interj, expressing 

Abr, a cloud, abri, clouded. 

Abru (f.), dignity ; respect ; 

Abru (f.), the eyebrow, 

Abwab (pi. of *bdb.*), chap- 
ters ; readings ; columns ; 
entries in detail in columns ; 
hence^ payments ; cesses^ &'c. 

Achchha, good ; well. Also as 
interj, achhd,i, goodness, 
achchhi-tarah, in good 
style ; carefully, 

Ada, payment, V. -k. 

Addlat, a court of justice. 

Adat, custom ; habit, 

Adha (n. a.), a half; half, 

Adil, just ; equitable, 

Admi, a human being ; a 
man ; a woman, -yat, 
humanity ; the human 

Adrak, green ginger ; 'preserv- 
ed ginger, ^ 

Afat, a calamity, 
Afrln, bravo I 

Afsdnah, a story ; tale ; 

romance, \as interj. 

Msos^ sadness ; a pity. Also 


Afsurddh, grieved ; sad. N. A-jina, to arrive. 


Aftab, tAe sun. 

Ajhal, vepy ignorant. 
Ajib, wonderful. 

Aftdbah, a waterjug; a ewer, Ajiibah, wonderful, 

Agar,// -chih, flf//.^^//^^ Akela/«^«^. 

Age, in front; forward, Aks, rc/f^f//^« (e.g., in water.) 
-barhdna, (/r^«f.)/^j/«r/; Ak^^x, frequently ; general- 
move forward, -chalna ; ly, 
-]., to go in front, -pichhe, vi 

Akl, (f.), sense; wisdom. 
A. -mand. 

Akhir, the end, -ko, at last ; 

Akhrot, a walnut. 

in single file, 

Ahar, a natural reservoir of 

Ahistah, slozvly, 

Ahd-o-paimdn, mutual agree- 
Abmal? (n. a.), a fool; foolish. ^^^^' separate ; separately, 

Aib, fault ; blemish, -lagana, 
to impute blame to ; to cast 
discredit on, 

A,fn, law; order ; rule, 
A,fnah, a looking-glass, 
AiSa, like this; such a.,,; 

thus ; to such a degree, 
Aj, to-day, -kal, (lit. to-day- 

to-morrow), the present A\\m, learned. 

Alahdah, separately, 

Aldk:ah, jurisdiction ; rela- 
tionships or connection, with 
a person or thing, -ka- 
ddr, a person in charge of 
an *alakah.' 

Ala-s-sabah, early in the 

Albattah, for certain ; cer» 


Ajd,ib, wonders; wonderful 

Alldh (M.), God -re! (interj.) 

God Almighty, 
Almds, a diamond. 

134 hindiJstjIni as it ought to be spoken. 

Alo, light (n.) 
Alu, a potatoe. 

Am, a mango. Also, common; 
vulgar. Adv. umiiman. 

Amad-o-raft, coming-and-go- 
ing; intercourse. 

Ambdr, a heap ; stock ;' store, 

Amfn, Amen! 

Amfn, a deputy ; a commis- 

Amir (pi. umara), a noble- 

, man ; an ^ Amir,' 

Amr (pi. umiir), any busi- 
ness, matter^ or affair, 

Amnid, guava (fruit). 

Anah, i\ of a 'rtipiJ 
And-jana, to come-and-go. 
Anannds, a pine-apple, 
Andr, a pomegranate, 
Andar, within ; inside, 
Andeshah, anxiety ; thought. 
And ha, blind. 
Andhera (n. a.), darkness; 

Anda, an egg, 
Angrez, an Englishman, -i, 

Angiir, a grape ; grapes, 
Angiithi, a ring, 
Anjir (f.), a fig, 
Ankh(f.), an eye. 

An-parh, illiterate, (See 

Anta, a bail, -ghar, a bil- 
■ Hard-room ; the club, 

Ap, Your Honor, Ap-hi-ap, 
by^ or, to oneself, Apas 
men, among themselves, 

Apna. See page 30. 

A-pahunchna, to arrive' ; to 
have arrived, 

Ardf, purgatory, 
Ardjish, ornamentation, 
Aram, ease ; comfort, -kursi, 

an easy-chair. 
Are ! hey, you I 
Arhdi, two and a half, ' 
Arkdn-i-daulat, the Pillars of 

the State, i.e., the nobles, 
Arsah, a space of time, 
Arz (f.), petition; request'; 

what 1 want to say, V.-k. 
Arzu, wish ; desire. A. 


Asa, a stick ; cane, 

Asar, impression, 

Asdmi, a tenant ; a client ; 
a debtor ; a dependent ; a 
prisoner. Also, agency; 

Asdh, easy, N. -i. / 

Asbab, goods and effects. 


1 55 

Asl, root ; origin, r-i, radical ; 
reaL aslan, by no means, 
aslan-mutlakan, by no man-, 
ner of meafis. 

Asmdn; the skyi 

Astabal, a stable, . 

Aslfii (f.), a sleeve. 

Atish, or atash (p.), fire, 
Aiizi, fireworks, -khanah, 
afire-place ; a grate. 

K\J3i^ flour, . 

Atakna ; atak-jana, to be 

stopped ; to stick. 
Aithixah, eighteen ; a large 


Atkdna ; atkd-d, to stop ; 

Auldd, offspring; descendants: 
Auliya, the saints. 

AuTyand; also; more, -ek, 
one more/^o," two mor6^K 

■ and so' on. -kuchh, some 
more ; any more, -kya, 
7vhat more ? what else ? 
'what more do you wahtT 

Aurat, a woman. 

Auwal, the first ; first, -an, 
in the first place, 

Awdz (f.), the voice ; a cry. 

Ayah, a female attendant, 
A,yindah (n. a.), the future ; 

AiA^yfree; solitary ; inde- 

Aziz, dear; precious, -rakh- 
na, to value ; esteem, 

Azurdah, grieved; sad, N^ 


Ba (a prefix), at ; with ; by^ 
e.g. -miijib, according to, 
-nisbat, respecting ; about. 
(prep.) -nisbat is ki, com- 
pared with this, -sar, at, or 
to a head, or end, -sar dna, 
to reach an end. -sar-k., 
to bring to an end ; to pass 
time, -taraf, aside; apart, 
-taur, by way of ; as being, 
and so on» 

Baad, or bdd (ke.), after ; 

{of time.) 
Baaze, several, 
Bdb, a chapter; heading, 
Bdba, a father ; an old man% 

In L. B., a child, -iog, ihe 

children (L. B.) 
Babat (ki.), concerning, 
Bachcha, a child ; a young 

specimen of any animal ; 

e.g., a pupy a kitten, i2^c. 


Bachhra, a calf, 

Bachna ; bach-jdna, to be 
saved ; to escape, bachdna ; 
bachd<d., to save; rescue; 

Bad, bad, N.-i. -al^l, defective 
common-sense. Adj. -alj:li. 
-bakht, unfortunate ; wret* 
ched, -bu (f.), a bad smell, 
-lj:ismat, bad luck ; misfor- 
tune, -ndm, evil refute; 
slander ; abuse, -nasibi, 
misfortune, -shakl, in- 
formed ; unshapely. -sUrat, 
ugly. -sUrati, ugliness. 
-zdt, of low caste ; villa n- 
ous, ^ziii, villainy ; 


Bdd (ke.). See * Baad.* 

Bad (p.), wind, 

Badal, exchange. As prep, 
(ke.), in exchange for. 
-lena, to take in exchange ; 
to exchange, -na, to change; 
alter. Bad la, (also as prep. 

, *ke badle,') same as 
• badal.' 

Bdddm, almonds, 

Badan, the body. 

Bddsh4h (M.), <i king, -i, the 
royal state. 

Bd,en, <?/!, or, to the left hand. 

Bdg (f.), a bridle, 

Bdgh, a tiger, 

Bdgh; bdghdn; bdghichah. 
a garden, 

Baghal, the arm-pit ; side ; 

Bahddur (« //V/tf), 'Bahddur.' 
-i, bravery ; sivagger. 

Bdham, together. 

Bahdnah, a pretence; pretext, 

Bahangi, a pole on which 
burdens are carried, -dak, 
. the parcel-post, 

Bdhar (Adv.), outside. As 
prep, (ke.) out. -jdna, to 
go out. 

Bahdr (f.), spring ; beauty. 

Bah in, a sister, 

Bahldna, to amuse; cheer 
one up. 

Bahna, tofloiv. 

Bahra, deaf 

Hahut, much ; very ; suffi- 
cient, -achchha ! all right / 
very well! -era, {^.)very 
much, or very many, 

Bd,i, a native lady ; a dan- 

Bail, an ox. -giri, an ox- 

Bd,is (ke), by reason of, 

Bai^hna, to sit ; sit donvn. 



Baja, a musical instrument. 
bajana, to play on ditto. 
bajna, to be played on ; to 
sound, (intr.) See page 6*], 

Bajd-lana, to perform ; carry- 

Bak-baK', chattering V -k. 

Bakri, a goat. 

Baici, what remains over. 

Bakhil, a miser, -i, stinginess. 

Bakhshna, to qive a present, 

Bal, the hair, -wal, a barber. 

Baland. See * Buland/' 

Bal-bachche, children. 

Baligh, one who has attained 
majority, -a (f.), marriage- 

Bdlish, a pillow. 

Bdlisht, a span. 

Balkih, on the other hand ; 
nay ! nay^ more ! 

Ballam, a spear. 

Bdlti, a tent-can^ <>r bucket. 

Bdlu, sand. 

Bam, the pole of a carriage. 

Bandna, to form ; construct. 
band-dalna, to convert one 
thing into another. 

Bandt^ broad^cloth. ' 

Band, closed. V.-k, band-o- 
bast (m.), arrangements. 

Baiidab ; bandi, a servant ; 

dependant ; slave, -dagi, 

service ; attachment to a 

Bandar, a monkey. 
Bandh, a closing \ an embank- 
ment, -na ; -d. ; -kar-d. to 

close \ fasten ; tie, 
Bandill^ (f.), a musket. 
Bdni; (f.), a noise; shout. 

V. -d. 
BannH, to be made, band- 

rahna, to remain waiting. 
Ban-parna, to succeed ; be able 

to do, 
Pans, a bamboo. 
Bdntna, to divide, bant-lena, 

to divide and take. 
Bap, a father, bdp-bdp; and 

l»dpre-bdpre ! See page 56. 
Bar (p.), on ; upon. Much 

used in compos. 
Bara, great. As adv., very. 

bara sdhib, the head of a 

house^firm^ &^c. 
Bardbar, breast to breast; 

equal; ^all the same.^ 
Bdrah, twelve, -singa, having 

twelve tines ; a stag. 
Bardmdah, a verandah, 
Bdrdn (p.). rain, -i kurti, a 



Baras, a year. 

Barasna, to rain. 

Bar-bdd-d, to squander, 

-hona, to be sacrificed ox lost. 

Barchlii, a spear. 

Bare (ke.), in the matter of. 

Barf, snow ; ice. -pdni, iced 

Barga, a rafter. 

Barham ; barham-darham, 
confused ; entangled. 

Barik, fine in texture. 

Barish, rain. 

Barljiandaz, (lightning throw- 
ing\ a police constable ; a 
guard; a watchman. 

Bar-khast, removing ; dismiss- 
ing.; adjourning, V. -k. ; 

Barsat, rain, -i kapre, water- 

Bartan, a plate ; dish. 

Bdnlt, gun-powder, [tual. 

Bar-wal^t, up to time ; punc- 

Barha,i, a carpenter. 

Barhdna {trans.) to advance ; 
increase, barhna ; barh-j. 
{intr.) to advance; increase. 

Bas, enough ; * that HI do.^ 
Basan, a dish; a bowl. 

Bastah, a bundle. 

Basti, a village. 

Bat ; battakh, a duck. 

Bdt, word; affair; news; 
business, -chit, conversa- 
tion, \p^l J show. 

Batdna or batldna, to point 

Batds (L. B.), ivind. 

Batti, a wick ; also, a light ; 
candle ; lamp. 

Bat-khara, a weight for 
weighing with. 

Bater, quail. 

Batwdra, dividing property 
into shares. 

Bawar, belief ; trust, -chi, a 
cook, -chi-khdnah, a kit- 

Baydn, a statement. V.-k. 

Bdz, a hawk. 

Biz (adv.), back, -rakhna, to 
restrain ; keep back. 

Bdzdr, a market ; bazaar. 

Bdze {See Baaze), several. 

Bdzu, the arm. 

Be (prefix), without, -fikr, 
without care. -gdnah, 
strange ; foreign, -ikhtiydr, 
without power of control, 
-hosh, senseless ; also, in 
a szvoon. -hUdah, absurd; 
ridiculous, -jdn, lifeless, 
-jigar (without liver), cow- 
ardly. -lj:arar, restless. 


-kiyam, unstable, -kusiir, 
without blame, -khabar, 
(^vithout neivs^) careless, 
-nasib, destitute of good 
luck, tarah, beyond the pro- 
per manner ; improperly, 
-sabab, without a reason. 
-shakk, bey fid a doubt: 
-sharm, shameless, -tdb, 
weak ; faint, -wukiif,/?^/- 
ish ; stupid. N. -wukiifi. 
Bechna, to sell 
^q\, the ' ber fruit. 
Bhent, a meeting with a person, 
Besh, more ; sufficient, -i, ex- 
cess ; . surplus, -ki m at, 
Beta, a son* Beti, a daughter, 
Bhadda, dutl ; stupid. 
Bhdgna; bbdg-jdna; bhdgi- 
. j^na, to flee ; escape, 
Bhagwat, the religious book 

of the Hindus. 
Bhd,i, a brother ; relation, 
Bhainsa ; bhains, male and 

female buffalo, 
Bhdl, or bhdlu, a bear, 
Bhala, good. bhald,i, good- 

Bhdhja^ a sister^s son, 
Bhdnji, a sister's daughter, 
Bhdr, a load, -i, heavy: 

Bhara; bharpiir, full, 

Bharna, tofllL 

Bhdt (m.), cooked rice, 

Bhatti, a still, 

Bhaui^kna, to bark. 

Hhed, secrecy. 

Bhejna ; bhej-d., to send. 

Bhera ; bheriy a ram, a sheep, 
bheri ka gosht, mutton, 

Bheriya, a wolf, 

Bhi, also {after a noun or 
other zvord.) 

Bhfga, a measure of area, 
varying in different places, 

Bhfnga, ivet. . 

Bhor (f.), the dawn, -ko, at 
dawn ; early, 

Bhilkh (f.), hunger. A, -a. 

BhUl, an error, -na; -jana, to 
commit an error ; to for- 

Bhdsi, chaff, (lit.) 

Bhiit, a ghost ; a demon. 

Bhutta, Indian corn. 

Bfbi, a native married lady ; 
also applied to a female,- 
European, or of the mixed 
race,' working in the coun- 
try, e.g., as keeper of a 

Bich (ke.), between \ among, 

Bichaii, straw. 

140 mindustj(ni as it ought to be spoken. 

Bichhana, to spread, 
Biclihauna, bedding, 
Bigar-jdna, to go wrong ; 

get out of order ; become 


B*h (P-)> S^^^' -tar, better^ 
.-tarfn (p.), />4tf best, -\slx\^ 

Bihishr, heaven, -i, a water- 

Bfj, seed, 

Bijii, lightning, V.-hona. 

Bikna, to be sold, (See 

B\%\ (Arabic prejlx,) in ; on, 
bi-1-faur {on the heat) 
instantly, bi-l-fel, in fact ; 
on the fact ; instantly, bi-1- 
kuW, on the whole ; entirely. 
bi-l-aks, on the contrary, 

Bil, the burrow of an animal. 

Bila (Arabic prep,\ without^ 
(i,e, devoid of) 

Billi, a cat, 

Bfmdr, sick. N-i. 

Biphe, Thursday. 

Birni, a wasp ; a bee. 

Bis, twenty, -i, a score. 

Jiftjana (intr.\ to pass, (of 

Bithana ; bitha-d, to seat. 
Bo,d,i, sowint^, 
Bodna, to coax ; wheedle, 
Bogla, a crane, (bird.) 
Bojh; bojha, a load, bojhna, 

to load. 
Bolna, to say ; speak ; tell. 
Bona, to sozv. 
Bora, a sack. 

Bora, a bean, 

Bosah, a kiss. V. -d. 

Brihispat, Thursday. 

Bu (f.), scent ; smell. 

Budh, Wednesday, 

Buddha, old. Also, an old 
man. buddhi ; burhiya, an 
old woman, -pan, old age, 

Bdjhna, to understand, bu- 
jhdna ; bujhd-d, to explain. 
Also, to extinguish a light, 

Biikhar, fever, 

Bukhl, stinginess, 

Buland, lofty. 

Bulbu), a 'bulbui: (bird.) 

Bura, bad. burd,i (n.), evil. 
bura-janna, to consider bad. 

Bilrha, bdrhi, burhiya, same 
as * buddha,' &c. 

Butd-d, to extinguish a light. 

^ Pronounce as plain * bil. ' 

hindi5stXni as it ought to be spoken. 



Chdbi, a key, 

Chdbuk, a whip, 

Chabiltrah, a platform; a 
^chabtitrah^ generally of 
masonry : used in gardens 
for enjoying the air. 

Chha-chhiindar, a musk-rat, 

Cl.ddar (f), a sheet; table 
cloth, or cover, 

Chd,e, tea, cha-ddn, a tea- 
caddy, chd-pochi, a tea pot, 

Chdha, snipe, 

Chahdruni, the fourth part, 

Chdhiye. Seepage i^, section 


Chdhna, to wish ; desire, 
Chdkar, a servant, 
Chakki, a wheel, 
Chdl (f.), chdl-chalan, habit ; 

Chdldk, clever ; too clever, — i, 

cleverness ; sharpness ; 

Chdlin, a despatch note; 

-kar-d, to despatch, 
Chaldna, to set in motion; 

Chdlis, forty, 
Chalna ; chala-jdna ; chal-d., 

to go ; proceed ; move ofi. 

Also of affairs, io prosper. 

Chammach ; chamchah, a 

Cham-gddar, a bat, (animal.) 
Chamra, skin ; leather, 
Ghana, gram, (for horses.) 
Chand, several ; a few, 
Chdnd, the moon, 
Changul, a claw, 
Chapdti, a thin flour-cake ; a 

scone ; a * chapatty^ 
Chaprds, a badge,— \ a mes- 
senger ; a ^ chaprassyJ 
Chdr, four; oblique cases 

charon. — pa,i, a four 

poster; abed, 
Chdra, a seedling, 
Chardna (trans,), to graze, 
Charkh, a wheel, 
Charna {inter,), to feed ; 

Charhdna; charhd-d., tocause 

to ascend, 
Charhna ; charh-jdna, to 

Chashm, an eye. 
Chashmah, spectacles ; a 

spring of TJOater, 
Chatdji, a floor^mat, 
Chatdn (f.), a slab of stone. 
Chdtna, to lick ; lick-up. 
Chatni, ^ chutnee! 


Chau, four (in compos.), 
chauk, a square in a town, 
chauki, a watch-post; a 
chair, chaukfddr, a tvatch- 
vtan. chaukona, four- 
cornered, chauras, on all 
four sides, chaurastah, a 
place where four roads 
meet, dr^c, &'c. 

Chaudah, fourteen, -roz, a 

Chaukath (f.), a doorframe, 

Chaura, broad, N. -chaurd,i. 

,Chauri, a fly flicker, 

Chauthg, the fourth, 

Chdwal, uncooked rice. 

Chela, the disciple of a reli- 

' gious teacher. 
Chera, a domestic slave. 

Clihagul, a goat, 

Chhalang, a leap. V. -na. 

Chbdnna (trans,), to pass 
through a strainer, 

Chhapa, printed. V. -k. 

Chhappar .(f.), a roof; a 

Chharra. shot, (for a gun.) 

Chhat, a roof; house-cover- 
ing ; ceiling. 

Chhata, an umbrella; a sun- 

Chhdti, the breast, 

Chhduni, military lines ; 

Cbhed, a hole, V. -na. 

Chhekna {trans.), to stop; 

Chher-chhar, the act of an- 

Chhi-chhi (interj.), nasty ! 

ugly ! 
Chhilka, a shell; the rind ; 

Chhinkna, to sneeze. 
Chhfn-lena; to snatch ; rob; 

Chhipkali, a lizard, 
C hhirakna, to sprinkle, 
Chhitdnk, a ' chitdk; ^V of 

a ^ ser^ 
Chhokra; chhokri, a boy; 

a girl. 
Chhorna ; chhor-d. ; chhor- 

jana, to let go ; release ; 

Chhota, small, N. -chho- 

Chhiina, to touch; to 

Chhuri, a knife, 
ChlnUna ; chhiTit-jana, to 

escape; slip through, the 



Chihrah, ihe face. 

Chikna, oil ; grease ; oiled ; 

polished ; smooth, 
Chil, a kite, (bird.) 
Chillana, to scream. 
Chilam, the part of a native 

//^^ (Vhukkah ') in which 

the fire and the tobacco are 

Chingdri, a spark. 
Chingri, shrimps. 
Chilli, brown sugar, 
Chir j chira, a cut ; incision ; 

dissection, . V. chirna. 
Chirdgh, a native lamp. 
Chiriya, a bird, 
Chita, a leopard, 
Chitthi, a letter ; a note, 
Chiz (f.), a thing of any 

Chob, a post ; a mace, -dar, 
a mace-bearer. 

Chonch (f.), the bill or beak, 

(of a bird.) 
Chor, a thief, r-ana ; to steal. 

N-. -i. 

Chiiha, a mouse, 

Chukna. See page \^,- sec. 2 'i,. 

Chillha, a fire-place ; a stove. 

Chumkdrnai to coax; wheedle. 

Chiina, lime, 

Chdna, to leak ; drop, 

Chundnchih, in such majr^er 
that ; accordingly ; thus ; 
for example: 

ChUnti, an ant, 

Chup, silent, -rahna, to re- 
main or become silent. 

Chdr, dust ; atoms ; crumbs, 

Chilra, dry grain prepared 
for eating, 

Churana ; chufa-lena, to steal. 
Chiitar, the buttocks. 
Chilnkih, in as much as, 


'DahsLy low ;. depressed, daba- 

na ; daba-d., to depress; 

lower; crush down ; squeeze, 

. Dddni> an. advance of money, 

Dafah, a time. See page 65, 

V sec. 6. 

Dafn, burial, V,. -k; 

Daftar; -khdnah, an office- 
Ddgh, a spot ; a stain, 
Daghdbdzi, deception; fraud. 
Dahanah, a (horse's) bit. 
T^^hx {m,}, curd, [hand, 

Dahine, cn^ or to, the right- 



Da,i, a wet-nurse, 

Dakhan, tke South, 

Ddl, a kind of pea ; ' ddV 

-bhdt, cooked ^ddV and rice, 
Ddldn, a hall, 

Dalfl, proof, [ment. 

Dam, breath. Also, a mo- 
Darp, price, 
Ddniad, a son-in-lauK 
Daman, a skirt, -i-koh, the 

base of a mountain, 
Dana, wise ; learned. 
Ddnah, ^rtf/« ; a grain, 
Danist, wisdom ; knowledge, 
Dand or danda, a stick ; a 

blow with a stick, 
Dant, or dant, a tooth, 
Dar (p.), /«, as in dar-miydn, 

in the midst, dar-pesh, in 

fronts b'c. 
Darakht, a tree, 
Darbdn, a gate or hall-porter, 
Darbdr, an audience-hall ; an 

audience ; a levee; a^darbdr,^ 
Dar-chini, cinnamon, [pain, 
Dard, pain, -khdna, to feel 
Darham-barham, confused. 
Dari, a native carpet; a 

* durry,^ 
Darya, a river ; the sea, 
Darj, mention ; entry, V. -k. 

Darkhdst, a petition ; request. 

V. -k. 
DarmM, a mat, 
Darmdha, monthly wages. 
Darobast, the whole of any. 

Darogh, falsehood, -go, a 

liar. -gOyXy falsehood. 
Darogh ah, a superior police 

officer ; a ^ daroga.^ 
Darwdzah, a door. 
Darydft, enquiry. V. -k. 
Darzan, a needle. 
Darzi, a tailor. 
Ddrhi, a beard. 
Das, ten, 
Dast, the hand ; diarrhcea, 

-dnah, a glove, -khatt, a 

Dastdr (f.), a turban, 
Dastiir, what is customary ; 

the ^ dastoor,^ -i, aiitorti- 

ary perquisites ; discount; 

* dastooriJ 
Daulat, wealth. A. -mand. 
Daurna, to run. 
Dawa (f.), medicine. 
Dawa, or dawi (m.) {vulg, 
. ddbi), a claim ; suit, V.-k. 

dawiddr, a claimant; one 

who supports any side of ^ 


HINDiJstXnI as it ought to BE SPOKEN. 


Dawat, an invitation ; a 

Dawat, an inkstand. -lj:alam, 

ivriting materials, 

Degchah, or degchi, a copper- 
cooking pot, 

Dekhna, to see ; look at. 

Dena ; de-d., to give, 

Der, or deri (f.), delay, V. -k. 

Des, or desh, one's country, 

Devi, a goddess, devasthdn, 
a consecrated place, 

Dhamkana, to snub; threaten, 
Dhamki, snubbing ; silencing, 

V. -d. 
Dhan, wealth, A. -i. 
Dhdn, rice growing, or in the 

Dharam, virtue, -avatar, In- 
carnation of Virtue (a form 

of address.) 
Dhaunki, bellows, dhaunkaa, 

to use bellotvs, 
Dhobi ; dhobin, washerman; 

Dhona ; dho-d., to wash, 
Dhii,dn, smoke, -kash, a 

Dhiip, sun-shine ; sun-heat, 

Dih(pl. dihdt), town; village; 
land appertaining thereto, 

T., H. 

Dikhdna ; dikhUna, to show ; 
to point out. 

Dil^]^, trouble ; annoyance, V. 

Dil, the heart, -g\x, sad; griev- 
ed, -i-dosti, tlie heart of 
^friendship, -kusha, heart- 
expanding (as wine.) 
-khdsh, happy, -o jdn se, 
with heart and soul, -se, 

Dildna ; dild-d. ; dilwdna \ 
dilwa-d., to cause to give, 

Dimdgh, the brain; conceit ; 

Din, <i day, -bhar, all day. 

Din, religion, -ddr, religious- 
ly inclined, [* dhtngy? 

Dingi, a kind of boat ; a 

Dip, a lamp. Also, an island, 

Di-roz (Persian), yesterday, 

Dimak, a white ant, 

Diwar, or diwal (f.), a wall, 

Dfwan, a Minister of State, 
-i, relating to Civil Justice, 

Diyanat, honesty ; good-faith. 
-dar, conscientious. N.-ddri* 

Do, two. Also, imperat. of 
dena, to give, 

Dohar (f.), double-cloth. 

Do-lalti, a kick,. V. -mama, 
or jhdrna. . - 


146 HINDtSsxXNl AS It OU(;Ht TO BE SP0K£N« 

Dol, swinging, -1, a swinging 
article : e.g., a litter ; a 
hanging meat-safe^ &*€, V. 

Donon, both ; i.e., two things 
or persons. 

Dost, a friend, ^i\\i[\ frieftd- 
ly* *-i, friendship. 

Doyum, the second. 

Dozakh (f.), hell, 

Du,a (f.), benediction, 

Diib-ghas (f.), a grass much 
Itked by horses. 

Diidh, milk, -ya pathar, an 
opaL [mercy / 

Duha,i (interj.), justice ! 

Duhra, or dohra, double, V. 

Diikan (f.), a shop, -dar, a 
shop-keeper, -ddri, shop- 
keeping, [dukhit. 

Dukh, pain; distress. A. 

Duldul, a hedge-hog. 

Dum, a tail, -chi, a crupper- 

Dunga, a side-dish, 

Dunya (f.), the world ; the 
universe, dunyavi, relat- 
ing to the world. 

Dur (f.), distance; distant, 
di'ir; dilr ho ! be off I -an- 
desh, provident, -andeshi, 
foresight, bin (f.), a tele- 
scope ; a 'glass,' -k., to 
remove; place at a dis- 

Durbal, weak ; infirm. 

Durust, right ; correct, ~k., to 
arrange ; put right, 

Dushman, an enemy, -i, 

Dushwdr, difficult. 

Diisra, a second (thing) ; a 
different (thing). 


Ddk (f.), a station, e.g.,>r 
relief of post-horses, or 

' runners ; the post (letters, 
\c.) -chauki, the change 
ing-station. -ghar, the post- 
office, -munshi, the post- 
master, -piyddah, the 
postal runner.. -txkdX (E.), 

a postage stamp, -wdla, the 
postman, -men ddlna, 
rakhna, or dena, to post. 

paka, an attack by robbers, 
-parna, to rob. 

pakait, a member of a gang 
of robbers ; a 'dacoit.^ -i, 
gang-robbery; ' dacoity' 

/ I 

hindijstAni as it ought to be spoken. 147 

mi (f.), a branch. [' dolly: 
Pali, a present of fruit ; a 
Dalna ; dal-d., to throw down, 
Dand, an oar. 

Dank (f.), a sting. V. - marna. 
Par,^ar. -na, to fear, -ana, 

to frighten. 
Dayan, a witch, 

pera, a tent, -k., to encamp. 
Perh, one and a half ^ a 
good deal. 

Dhakna, a lid; a cover. Also 
as V. to put on a cover. 

Dhdl (f.), a shield; a tar- 
get ; a slope. 

Dhela, a clod. 

Dhila, slack. Also, remiss. 

piiiindna, to searchfor. 

Dubana; duba-d., to sub- 
merge; lower ; depress. 

pdbna; diib-jana, to sink ; 
be drowned ; be ruined. 


Ek, one ; a or an. -a-ek ; Eri, the heel. 

-bdragi, suddenly, -dam, Ewaz, a substitute; 

instantly; this instant. change^ 
-sath, together. 



Fa,idah, profit ; advantage. 

A. -damand. 
¥sL}r{(.),dawn; early morning. 
Faljiat, only; ^ finis.' 
Falcir, a Muham : mendicant. 
FdniSs (f ), a lamp-shade. 
Fardghat, leisure ; repose ; 

Fardmosh, forgetful. N. -i. 

V. -.k. 
Fard (f.), a sheet ; a ply; a 


Fareb, deceit, -d., to deceive. 

-khana, to be deceived. 
Fark, difference ; consequence^ 

(as in the phrase, * ifs of 

no consequence :) 
Farmdn ; an order; edict, -a,' 

to issue ditto; also used of 

any utterance by a person 

of rank, 
Farsh, a carpet, farrash, 

one who attends to the 



14^ HINDUSTANI AS tt OUGHt tO Bfe SfoKftM. 

Farydd (f.), « complaint, (e.g , 
in Couil.)-i, a complain- 

p'arzand, a son, 

Fasad, strife ; rebellion. 

Fasl (.) crop, (in the 

Fatb (f.), victory, 

Fatwa, a decree of a judge, 

Fauj (f.), an army, -dar, a 
commander, -ddri, relating 
to Criminal Justice, 

Fauldd, steel, 

FaziSl, excessive ; surplus. 
-kharchi, extravagance. 

Fi ^Arabic), each; 'per-; in, 
fil-jumlah, in the total, fil- 
hdl, in the present ; imme- 

diately, 6l-hal^{kat,/> truth, 
fil-wdl^e, in reality ; as 
matters really stand, &*c. 

Fidwi, a servant ; a retainer, 
-yat, fidelity, 

Fihrist, a list; an index. 

Filer (f.), t/iought ; anxiety, 
A. -mand. V. -mand- 

Fil, an elephant, -ban, an 

Firishtah (pi. -tagdn), an 

Firozah, turquois, 

Fisanah, a story; tale ; ro- 

Fuldnah, a certain one. 
Fursat, leisure ; opportunity. 


Gdchh, a tree. 

Gaddi, a cushion ; a throne, 

Gadha ; gadhi, an ass (male 

and female.) 
Gab, time ; place. Much used 

in compos. e,g., *shikdr- 

gdh,' hunting ground. 
Gahra, deep, N. gahrd,i. 
Gdjar, a carrot, gajarah, 

Gil, the cheek. 

Gala, the throat, -band, a 

Gdli, abuse. V. -d. 
Gdlis, braces, (for pants.) 
Gana, to sing, 
Ganda, four (things), looked 

on as a unit, 
Gandh (f.), odour ; perfume, 

gandah, fetid, gandi, a 

certain badly-smelling in" 

sect, a ^ gundy! 


hindi}stXni as it ought to be spoken. 149 

Gandak, a rhinoceros, 

Ganj, a mart (The * gunge* 
of Anglo-Hind.) 

Gdnja, hemp, as used for 
intoxication. A decoc- 
tion of this plant giyt* s the 
drink known as ^ bhdng.' 

Gdnth, a knot V. -band-d. 

Gdnw, a village, ganwdr ; 
ganw-wdla, a villager. 

Gd,o, or ga,e, a cow. ga,o- 
sdlah, a cow-shed. 

Garaj, thunder. V. -na. 

Gard (f.), dust A. -a. 

Gardan (f.), the neck. 

Garm, warm ; hot N. -i. 

Garh, a fort ; a steep place. 

Gari, a carriage; a cart. 
-bdii, a driver. 

Gdrna, to fix in the ground ; 
to plant. 

Gathri {vulg.^ g\\\\x\^) a bundle. 

Gawah, a witness, -i, evi- 

Gaz, a yard (measure.) ; a 
rod ; a ramrod. 

Gehil9, wheat 

Ghabrdna, to be confused \put 
out ; puzzled. Also trans. 

Gham, sun-shine ; sun-glare. 

Ghanta, a bell ; an hour. 

Gha,o, a sore. 

Char, a house. -dmi, a 

Ghara, an earthen pot. 

(jhari, about 20 minutes : 
Also, an English hour ; a 
wat£h ; a clock. 

Ghas (f.), grass. 

Ghdt, a mountain-pass ; steps, 
dT'c, down to a river; a 
ferry, -wdl, a guardian of 
a pass. ~wdla, a ferry- 

Ghati, trade-loss. 

Gher, all round, -k., A? sur- 

Ghi (ni.), native butter. 

Ghisarna, to creep ; crawl. 

Ghora, a horse, ghori, a mare. 

Ghulna, to melt (intr.) 
ghuldna, to melt (trans.) 

Ghiint, a gulp ; draft V. -na. 

Ghusna, to enter. 

Gidar, a jackal. 

Gidh, a vulture. 

Gilehri, a squirrel. 

Girdn, important ; weighty. 

Girdna; gird-d , to cause to 
fall ; to throw down. 

Gird (ke), around ; round. 

Giriftar, or giriftah. captive ; 
arrested, -bona, to ba in 
arrest -k., to arrest. 

ISO hindiJstXni as it ought to be spoken. 

Girja, a churchy otherwise 
*grija ;* probably Portu- 

Girna ; gir-paj-na, to falU 

Oft, a song. 

GOjdla, a cow-herd ; the milk- 

Gobar, cow-dung. Much 
used as fuel. 

God ; godi, the lap. 

Go,indah, a spy ; informer. 

Gojar, a centipede. 

Go-kih, let it be said that ; 

given that ; granted ; even 


Gol, round, gola,^ a gra- 
nary ; a ^tore-house, goli, 

a ball ; a bullet, -mirch 

(rounds i.e.) black pepper. 

Gond, guni. 

Gor, a grave. -istdn, a 

Gora, fair-complexioned; a 
European of inferior rank ; 
a European soldier, gore- 
log, Europeans, goron ki 
pal tan, a European regi- 

Gor-khar (an animal, pro- 
bably) the wild-ass. 

Gosh, an ear (of the body.) 
Goshah, a comer. 
Go%hi, flesh. 

Grdm, a village. (L B.) 

Gdda, the marrow, 

Giidar, rags ; rubbish. 

Guddi, a {boy's) kite, 

Guft-o-gu (f.), conversation. 

Guhdr (f.), tumult ; noise; 
outbreak, -i, a rioter. 

Gul, a rose^ -db, rose-water. 
-db-phiil, a rose-bush^ or 
rose flowers, -istan, a 
place where roses are culti- 
vated. Also, the name of 
a celebrated Persian book. 
-zar, a garden of roses. 
(lit. or fig.) 

Gulu, same as ^ gala.^ 

Gum, lost, -k., to lose, -ho- 
jana, to be lost, -ndm, name- 
less ; obscure; lost to fame. 
Gumdn, guess ; fancy. V. -k. 

Gumashtah, a steward."^ 
Gumbaz, a dome. 
Gundh, a fault ; sin. -gdr, 
a transgressor, ^gari, sin- 
ful doing. 
Giinga, silent ; dumb. 

* (ienerally built 
^ I»{ot applicable 

in a circular form, 
to a ship steward, 

hindtJstXni as it ought to be spoken. 


Guroh (f.), a crowd. 

Guru, a Hindu teacher, 

Gustakh, impudent. N. -i. 

Guzarna (Jlrans,\ to pass ; 
convey, guzarna ; guzar- 
jana (intr.\ to pass ; 

pass-over, guzar-ghat, a 

G\i7.^^\)Xdi\ past ; last (as in 

* last year/) 
Guzrdn (f.), mode or means 

of livelihood. 


Ghaflat, negligence. 

Ghdib, out of sight ; vanish- 

Ghair, foreign ; strange ; dif- 
ferent. As a prefix, want- 
ing^ deficient, e.g., ghair- 
tiazir, absent, ghair-mum- 
kin, impossible. 

Ghalat, etror ; oversight. 

Ghalichah, a carpet. 

Ghallah, corn ; produce. 

Ghamm, sorrotv. A. -gfn. 

Gharaz (f.), design ; aim ; 
object. As adv., in short. 

Gharib, poor ; humble; tame. 
-log, the poor, -par war, 
Nourisher of the Poor I 
(a form of address.) 

Ghdzi, a slayer of an infidel. 

Ghilaf, covering-slip^ e.g., a 

* case ' for a pillow. 
Ghiza, ordinary diet. 

Ghol, or ghiil, a crowd ; 
pressing, -mdl (L. B.), con- 
fusion ; a row. 

Ghuldm, a servant; a slave. 
Ghulel, a bow from which 

pellets are shot; a ^ cata 

Ghuriir, pride. 
Ghussah, grief ; anger. 
Ghusse, in a rage. 
Ghusl (f.), a bath, -khdnah, 

a bath-room. Also, the JV, 

C-k., to bathe. 

Haddi, a bone. 
Hd,e, alas/ 
Haftah, a tveek. 
Haizah, cholerq. 

H. !a light Aspirate.) 

Hal, or hdl, a plough. V. 

Haldkat, death. 
Haldi, turmeric 

152 hindi5stAni as it ought to be spoken. 

Hal-kamra, a drawing-room, 
Halka, light (not heavy.) 
HalljL^h, an area of jurisdic- 
Ham, we ; us, hX^Oytogether; 
Much used in compos, e.g,^ 
ham-rdh, aJelloW'travelier, 
ham-rdl)i, travelling to- 
gether, ham-sdyah {same 
shade); neighbourly ; friend- 

Hameshah, always, 


Hangamah, a riot, 

Hankna, to drive, 

Hdnri, a pot, -bartan, cooking 

Hans, a swan, 
Ha^si, laughter, hansna, to 

Hansh*, an ornamental hoop 

for. the neck. 
Hanoz, ^<?/; still (of time.) 
Har, each ; every, -ek, each 
. one; everyone, -kdrah, a 

man of all work ; a mes- 
Haran, or hiran, a stag ; a 

Harchand, although, 
Hdrna, to lose (e.g. a bet.) 

hard-d., to lose to one. 

Hdth, the hand; a cubit, -dna 
to reach, -dilna, to seize, 

Haiheh', the palm of the hand, 

Hdthi, an elephant, 

Hatiydr, tools ; weapons, 

Hdt, a fair. 

Hatdna ; hata-d., to drive- 
back ; repel, 

Hatna ; hat-jdna, to clear out 
of one's way ; to step aside, 

Hawa (f.), the air, -khdna, 
to take the air ; go a ivalky 
drivty &*c, 

Hazdr, a thousand, 

Hezam, firewd^. 

Hi (a particle of emphasis, 
often untranslateable), 
very ; this verv*.»; fust 
thiSy dr'c. 

Hibah, a formal gift or grant, 

Hiba-ndmah, a deed of ditto. 

Hijrah, the flight of Muham- 
mad to Madinoy A,D,622, 
7vhence begins the Muham : 

Hihia, to shake (inir ) ; hild- 
na ; hiM-d. {trans.) 

Hindu, a dark-skinned man* 
-stdn, Upper India,-siini 
relating to Hindu matters^ 
e.g., language, 


Hirsi, a diamond, ~y^r, careful; prudent; 

Hona, /^ be; to occur; to skilled, N. -yari. 

take place, ho-jana, to be- Hunar, skill, A. -mand. 

come, Hundi, a native Bill of Ex- 

Hosh, sense ; * common sense, ^ change^ a * hundee,^ 

H. (a strong Aspirate.) 

Hadd, a boundary, 

Haiwdn, an animal, 

Hajjdm, a barber, 

Hdjat, want; necessity; re- 

Hdji, one who has made the 
Pilgrimage to Mecca, 

Hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca, 

Hdkim, a ruler ; a fudge. 

Hakim, a native physician ; 
a wise man, 

Hakir, base ; contemptible. 
-jdnna, or .^aniajhna, to 
hold in contempt ; despise, 

Halj^V, one's rights, hakflj^at, 
the very truth, bal^fki, 
really true, hal^il^i l)hd,i, 
^c,^ a full brother^ ar'c, 

Hdl, (pi. Hdldt,) state ; con- 
dition ; facts of the case, 
halan, presently, 

Halaf, an oath, (e.g., in 
Court.) halfan, on oath. 

Halak, the throat, 

Halal, according to law ; 
lawful, -k., to kill ac- 
cording to prescribed form 
(as by cutting the throat) ; 
to cut the throat, 

Halwd,i, a S7veet-meat seller. 

Ha ml,' a burden, hammdl,' 
a porter, bdmilah, preg- 

Hamlah, an attack ; onset, 

Harakar, a movement^ e.g., of 
the body. 

Haram, ^rbaram, unlawful; 
forbidden, -zadah, base- 
born ; a scoundrel, 

Harf, a letter, {of the Alpha- 

Harff, an opponent, 

Hdsil, acquiring ; accomplish- 
ment of an . object ; the 
^ moraV of a story, V. 

I Not used in Lpwer Bengal, 

IS4 hindijstXni as it ought to be spoken. 

Hasrat, desire ; re^^ret ; grief. 

Hawdlah, charge ; responsi- 
bility ; custody, 

Haya (f.), viodesty ; shame, 

Hdzir, present, -i, presence ; 
the family ^presence ' at 
breakfast ; breakfast ' 

Hazrat, dignity ; also as a a 
title of high respect, -isa, 

Hikdyat, history ; story ; nar- 
ration. V. -k. \vice. 
Hikniat, wisdom ; skill ; de- 
Hilah, a stratagem ; a trick. 

Hisdb, an account tn figures. 
Hissah, one^s share ; a por- 
tion, -ddr, a partner. 

Hud lid, boundaries (pi. of 

Hukm, an order, bukiimat, 

sovereignty ; power. 
Hukkah, a native pipe; a 

* hookah.^ 
Huljidk, rights, (pi. of hakk.) 
Hunif, letters of the Alphabet. 

(pi. of harf.) 
Huzdr, presence ; appearance ; 

court ; Your Honour ! 


Iba (f.), a cloak. 

Ibdrat, composition ; icrifing. 

Iblis, the devil. 

Ibtida, the beginning. 

I'd, a religious festival ; espe- 
cially the festival in honour 
of Abraham sacrificing his 
son Ishmdil. 

Iflds, poverty. 

Ihtimam (f.), diligence ; neces- 
sary application. 

Ihtirdm, the act of shoiving 

Ihtirdz, abstinence ; control of 
the passions. \gratitude. 
Ihsdn, benevolence, -mandi, 

Ijdrah, a lease ; a farm. 
Ijdzat, permission ; favour. 

Ikhatta, together. 

Ikbdl, good fortune ; favour. 
ly im, clime ; country, 
Ikrdr, agreement ; confession, 
Ikhtildf, discrepancy, (pi. -dt ) 
Ikhtiydr, power ; authority ; 

Ildhi, divine. 

* C'iil|pd ' Nashta ' jn \Vest<*vn In.iJJt. 

hindijstXni as it ought to be spoken. 155 

1 1 tifdt, friendliness, [seeching, 
Iltimds (f.), petitioning ; be- 
Imdm, a religious Muha?n : 

Iniarat, a public building, 
Imli, tamarind, 
Im-roz (Persian), to-day, 
Im sal (Persian), this year, 
Imtihdn, an examination, 

Indm, a present ; a favour, 

Inddra, a large well, 

Indiir, a rat, 

Inglistan, England, 

Ins&fy justice* 

Insdn, a human being, -iyat, 
humanity^ i.e., the human 

Tnt (f.), a brick, 

Intikdl, transport ; change; 
death, [management, 

Intizdm, good arrangement ; 

Irddah, intention ; purpose, 

\xM, purgatory, [p^g^ 30, 

Is, injlected form of yih. See 

Isfanj, a sponge. 

Isldra, the Muham : religion, 
-i, appertaining to ditto^ 

Is-liye, on this account. 

Ism, a name, (pi. asdmi, q.v.) 

Istabal, a stable, 

Istifa, full performance; resign- 
ing service ; abat^dof^ment. 

Istimdl, use, V. -k. 
Istibdgh, baptism, 
Istimrdri, permanent ; fixed, 
-band-o-bast, the Perma- 
nent Settlement of Bengal, 
Istri, a smoothing iron, 
Is-wakt, at this time ; now, 
Ishdrah, a hint ; a signal, 

Ishtihdr, a public advertise- 

Ishwar (H.), God, 

Itirdz, displeasure ; refusal, 

Itna, this much, itne nje^, in 
the meantime, 

Itr, essence. (Anglice, * otto,^) 

Itibdr ; itimdd, confidence ; 
belief in one, V. -k. 

Ittifdk, agreement ; equality ; 
union ; chance, -bona, to 
happen ; to be in agreement, 
-k., to bring into agreeinentl 
to agree with, -an, by 
chance ; it so happened that, 

Ittila (f.), announcement ; 
publication of news; aft 
* infortnation ' lodged before 
a public officer, 

Itwdr, Sunday, 

Izhdr, deposition ; stateinent, 
Izzat, honour ; respect due to 

one ; estimation in which 

pne is held^ 



Jab, ufhen, -tak, or talak, 

till when. Seepage 104. 
Jabr, oppression. Adv. jabran. 
Jabra, the jaw. 
Jddii, conjuring ; a ^ghost^ 
Jd-e-phal, nutmeg, 
Jagab (f.), a place ; room, 
Jagdna ; jagd-d. {trans,)^ to 

]igna{intr,)j to waken, jdgta, 

Jahan, wherever. See page 

104; the universe, -didal). 

(having seen the world) ; 

Jahannam (f.), Hell, 
Jabil, ignorant N. -i. 
Jai, victory, 
Ja,i, oats. 

]2i,\z, just ; proper ; fair, 
Jal, water, 
Jdl, a net. 
Jdl, forged 
Jain, « cobweb, 

Jaldna ; jala-d., to set on fire, 
Jald, quickly, -i, speed, 
Jalna, /t? ^^ on fire, 
Jama,at, an assembly, 
Jdmah, cloth, Mucb used in 

compos. e,g,y moni-jdmah, 


Jama, a collection; a 
gathering ; the total of an 
account, -bandi, the rent- 
toll of an estate, -kharch, 
a credit and debit account. 
-ddr, a native officer of 
army or police ; a head 
man of any body^ e.g., 
coolies, -wdsil-bdl^i, a 
statement of claims collec- 
tions and arrears, 

Jamna ; jam-jdna, to congeal, 

Jdn, life ; soul, -kani, anguish 
of soul, -se mdrna, to kill. 
-nisdr, self - sacrificing, 
-war, an animal, 

Jdna, to go; proceed, jdne- 
dena, to allow to go, 

Jandb ; -dli, titles of respect, 
as * Your Worship! 

Janatn, birth, -din, birth-day, 

Jd^ch, testing; trying. V. -na. 

Jang (f.), ivar, 

Jangal, forest ; high-grass 
land ; scrub ; * jungle? A. 
jan^li, waste ; wild ; 
savage ; ^ jungly.^ 

Jd^gb, the thigh, -ia, short 
\wearing) drawers. 

Jdnna, to know, jdn-biijb-kar, 
knowingly ; intentionally. 

ttlNDliSTANI AS it OUGttT tO BE SPOKEN. 15^ 

Jannat, Paradise, 

Janib (f.), side ; part, — dar, 

a partizan. — dari, taking 

one^s side, 
Jandb, the South, 
Jar, a root ; roots, 
Jarahat, a wound, 
Jarimanali, or jurmanah^ a 

fine, V. — lena. 
Jara, the cold ; the cold 

Jasds, a spy, -i, spying. 
Jauhar, a gem, -/, a jeweller, 
Jaun. See page 104. 
Jauz, a nut \youth, 

Jawan, youn i , a youth, -i, 
Jazirah, an island. 
Jel-khanah, ajaii, (half E.) 
Jhagra, a quarrel, V. jha- 

garna \ -k. 
Jlidlar, a fringe, 
Jhanda, a flag, 
Jhdr, ; jhari, underwood, 
Jhdran, a duster, 
Jhdrna, to sweep ; dust, 
Jhdru, a broom, 
J hat-pat (adv.), this instant, 
Jhfl, a shallow lake; a 

Jhilmih', the Venetians. 
Jhonk, a push, V.-jhoi^kna ; 


Jhopri, a cottage, 

Jhukna ; jhuk-jand, to be or 
become awry or crooked. 

Jhiil, a covering for an 
animal ; horse-cloth, <^c, 

Jhulana (trans, \ to swing, 
jhiilna (intr.), to swing, 
jhiila-jhiili, swinging ; see- 

JhiJth, or jiitha, false ; un- 
true, jhiith, falsehood, 

Ji, life ; soul ; spirit, 

Ji, oryx han, yes, 

Jibh (f.), the tongue, 

Jidhar. Seepage 104. 

Jigar, the vitals ; the liver. 

Jihad, a Muham : religious 

Jihat (ki.), on accouut of, 

Jin, oblique case, pi, of j6. 
See page 33. 

Jina, to live ; be alive, 

Jins, kinds ; sorts ; goods ; 

Jis, oblique case^ sing, of jo. 

See page ZZ^ 
Js-ljiadar. See page 104. jis- 

taraf, in whatever direction. 

jis-tarafa^ in whatever 

manner. jis-wak:t. Seepage 

Jism, the body. 


Jitna, to win, 

Jitna. Seepage 104. 

Jo, jo ko,i, jo-kuchh. See 

Jo, if. 

Jo,ar, Indian corn. 

Jogi ; jogin, a Hindu ascetic^ 
{male and female.) 

Jon, 7vhen ; as soon as. 

Jonk, a leech, 

Joru, a wife. 

Jori, a pair, -gari, the car- 
riage and pair, 

Jotna, to yoke ; to plough. 

Jot, one thing of a pair ; a 

* match;' harness ' traces? 
Jd,a, a yoke ; a die ; dice ; 

gambling. -khelna, to 

Juba, young, jub-raj, a 

Juda. separate. V. -k. 
Julahah, a weaver, 
Jumah, Friday. 
Jurni, a crime ; offence. 
Jnst-o-ju (f.), search, V. -k. 
Jiita ; jdti, a shoe ; shoes, 
Juz, a portion of any thing. 

Ka. Seepage 5. 

Kab, 7vhen ? 

Kabab. sliced meat roasted on 
skewers^ -i, suitable for 

Kablii, ever^ -kabhi, now 

. and then -nahin, never, 

Kachahri, an office ; a court- 

Kachhiia, a tortoise, 

Ka i, some; several, 

Kaffarat, repentance ; atone- 
ment, [ciency. 

K^fi, enough ; kifayat, suffi- 

Kaghaz, paper, 

Kahna, to say ; speak ; tell. 


Kahi^, somewhere ; any- 
where ; anyhotv. As in 
such phrases as * it were 
anyhow better, &c.' 

Kae, how many J 

Yi^.\%2i^ what sort of a ? what 
like ? how ? -hi, however. 
As in such phrases as 
* however difficult,* 

Kaj, crooked, 

Kal, yesterday ; to-morrow, 

Kal, an engine ; a machine. 

Kala, black, kal-yug,' the 
black age ; i.e., the present 
age of the world, -pdni, 
the open sea. 

mindustIni as it ought to Be spoken. 159 

Kala,i, a kind of vetch, 

Kaleja, liver, (organ of body), 

Kam, deficient. Much used 
in compos, e.g., kam- 

- ^\!^^ of deficient seme, kam- 
akli, want of sense, kani- 
bakht, unfortunate, kam- 
sinn, of tender age, kam- 
arz, of narrow breadth, 
-i, deficiency ; failure, kam- 
kar-dena, to lessen. 

Kdm, business ; use ; wish ; 
desire -ana, to be service- 
able, -yab, prosperous, 

Kamal, perfection, 

Kamdn, an (^archer's) bow, 
-dar, an archer, 

Kamar, the waist, -band, a 

Kamil, perfect, 

Kaminah, base ; low, 

Kammal ; kamli, a blanket, 

Kamra ; kamara, a room. 

Kan, the ear, 

Kana, blind of one eye, 

Kaiighi, a comb, 

Kanta, a thorn ; a spur; a 

Kandha, the shoulder, 

Kapas, undressed cotton^ 

Kapra, cloth, kapre, clothes. 

Kar, work; business, kar- 
bdr, trade ; trafficking, 
-khdnah, a place of busi- 
ness, -igar, a workman, 

Kar-dekhlana, to make plain; 

Kari-bhat, curry and rice. 

Kama, to do ; make ; effect ; 

Karor, ten millions. 

Karwa, strong (as liquors 
tea^ c^v.) 

Kasna, to tighten ; pull. 

Kasht, one's cultivation, -kar, 
a cultivator, 

Kdtib, a scribe ; a writer. 

Kdt, a cut. -na ; -dalna, to 
cut, katna, to be cut, 

Kathal, the jack-fruit. 

Katora, a brass cup, 

Kattha, a ^ cottah,' (land 
measure, ) 

Kauwa, a crow. 

Ke. See page 5. 
Kela, plantains, 

Khainchna, or khfnchna or 
khichna ; to draw (burden 
or picture) ; to pull, 

Khajiir, dates ; -gachh, the 

Khambha, a post ; a pillaf 


KhinSLf/ood; dinner. Also, V. 
to eat. Also, to sufftr ; un- 

Khansna, to cough, khdpsi, 
coughing ; a cough. 

Khari-mitti, chalk 

Kharkhara, rough ; a curry- 

Khara, erect ; standing, 
-bona, to be^ or become 
standing, -karna, to set 
up ; make straight y -rahna, 
to stand; remain standing; 
wait; stop (intr,) 

Khat, a pit; the gullet. 

Khata • i.\ fault; defect, 

Khata-bahi, an account book, 

Khat; khatiya, a wooden bed- 

Khatmal, a bug. 

Khel, //«>'. -gdh, play-ground, 
-i.t\y frolics, -na, to play, 

Khet, a field, -i, cultivation. 
kheti karna, to cultivate, 

Khilana, to feed, {trans.) 

Khirki, a window. 

Khodna, to dig, 

Khoj, search, khojna ; khoj- 
karna, to search for, 

Kholna ; khol-d. to open ; 
unfasten ; untie, khol- 
h2iX\6\i taking off a horse's 

shoes, paring the hoofs ; and 
putting the shoes on again. 

Khona, to lose, kho-jdna, 
to be lost ; ^go a missing.^ 

Khujlana, to itch ; to scratch. 

Khula, open; fair (as 

weather.) -din, a fine day, 

khulna; khul-jana, to be 

or become open ; to clear, 

(e.g., after rain,) 

Khdnti, a peg. (e.g., for a 

Ki. See pages 5 and 22. 

Kih, that {of narration). 
Also, as relative pronoun, 
often preceded by *jo.' 
* kih na,' or not. 

Kichar, mud, 

Kidhar, whither ? 

Kfl, a plug; peg; pin ; bolt, 

Kfnah, spite; malice AHj. 
kfnawar. [shore; edge, 

Kinarah, river-bank ; sea- 

Kirdni, a native clerk, 

Kf ra, a worm ; insect ; mag- 

Kisdn, a cultivator, 

Kishmish, raisins, 

Kishti, a boat ; vessel ; tray, 

Kismis (E.), Christmas, 

Kitab (f.), a book, [much ? 

Kitna, how many ? how 

hindi5stAni as it ought to be spoken. i6i 

Kiwdr (m.), a door ; door-way, 
Kiya-karna, to be in the habit 

of doing a thing ; to keep 

on doing it. 
Ko. Seepages 5 and 7. 
Kobi, cabbage, 
Kochbdn, a coachman, 
Koh, a Mountain, -i-niir, 

The Mountain of Light, 
Kohisdhy fog ; mist, 
Ko,i. See page 38. ko,!, na 

ko,i, some one or other, 

ko,i, nahiQ, no one, ko,i 

hai, is there any one there ? 

(used in India instead of a 

Ko,ilah, charcoal ; coals, 
Kolu, an oilman ; the caste 

of an oilman, 
Kona, a corner or angle, 
Kori, or kiiri, a score, (i,e,, 

Kora, a native whip, 
Kos, a distance of about 2 

Koshish, an attempt, V. -k. 
Kotdli, short in stature^ 

Kotwdl, a chief police officer 

of city^ town^ or market, 
Kothi, or kiithi, a masonry 


T., H. 

Kii,a, a well. 

Kubra, hump-backed, 

KiSch, a march, V. -k. 

Kiichah, a lane, 

Kuchh. Seepage 38. kuchh 
se \vx:\i\iy from this thing 
to that, kuchh na kuchh, 
some little ; somewhat, 

Kuddl, or kuddli, a spade, 

Kiid, a leap, V. -na. 

Kuftah, rissole, 

Kull (adj.), the whole; all the, 
-yat, entirely, 

Kulchah, a cake, 

Kumhdr, a potter. 

Kumhfr, an alligator, 

Kunji, a key, 

Kunwar, a prince. 

Kurah, a globe ; sphere, -i- 
khdk, the terrestrial globe, 

KiSra, rubbish, 

Kuredna, to scratch, kared- 
rahna, to continue scratch- 

Kursi, a chair, 

Kurti, a coat, 

Kutta, a dog, kutiya, a pup, 

Kya. See page 33. -bdt. 
Seepage ^6, 

Kyiin, why ? wherefore /-kih, 
because, -kar, ^wr^f kyiin 
na ho, why not f 




Kabilah, a deed of sale, 
Kdbil, capable ; competent 
N. -Ivat. 


Kabill or Vubiil, consent 
-iyat, a document express- 
ing consent ; a counterpart 
l^biil kama, to consent 

Kabzah, grip ; power. 

Kadam, a step ; pace, V. -k. 

Kadar, worth, -karna, to 
value ; appreciate, 

Kadd, stature, 

Kadfm, ancient, 

Kafilah, a caravan, 

Kabwah, coffee, 

Kai, vomiting, 

Kaid, fetters ; imprisonment, 
-karna, to imprison, -i, 
a prisoner, 

Kd,im, erect ; firm ; stable, 

Kaisar,^;; Emperor ; an Em- 
press, -i-Hind. The Em- 
press of India, 

Kainchi, scissors. 

a deed of settlement ; of a 

dispute^ or other matter. 
Karib, about l^arfb tha kih, 

&c.y it was on the point 

of &'c. (e.g., Mng settled,) 
Karz, or l^rzah, a loan; a 

debt, l^arz-ddr, one in debt 
Kasam (f.), an oath, (e.g., 

in Courts) -khdna, to take 

the oath. 
Katrah, a drop, 
Katl, killing. V. -k. -amd, 

wilful murder, -insan, 

Kaul-o-tardr, agreement ; bar- 
gain ; stipulations, 
Kaum, a tribe ; sect ; family ; 

Kawi, strong; solid, 
Kaza, fate ; destiny ; death. 
Kdzi, a Muham : Judge. 
Kiblah, the sacred point in 

Mecca^ to which Muham : 

turn when praying. 

Kala,i, tin ; the tinning of Kilah, a fort. 

cooking vessels, &^c. 
Kalam, a reed; a pen, 

-tardsh, a pen-knife, 
Kamfs (f.), a shirt; a chemise, 
Kardr, rest; stability, -i, 

firm ; the firm land, -ddd, 

Kfmat, price, -i, valuable. 
Kand,at, contentment 
Kism, kind ; sort, 
Kismat, fate ; destiny ; what 

falls to your lot, or share, 
Kissah, a story ; a tale. 



Kist, an instalment ; ^Quar- 
ter-day^ -bandi, a settle- 
ment for periodical pay- 

Kiydmat, the Resurrection. 

Kiyds, thought ; guess ; * idea J 
V. -k. 

Kiydsi, conjectural, 

Kristdn (E.), a Christian. 

Kudrat, omnipotence, 
Kufl, a lock, (e.g., of a box,) 
Kuli, a labourer ; a * coolie J 
Kurah, lots, -ddlna, to cast 

Kurdn, the religious book of 

the Muham : 
KusiSr, a fault, 
Kiiwat, power ; authority. 


Khabar (f.), news; -ddr, 

careful; take care? -ddri, 

care ; caution, 
Khachchar, a mule, 
Khafa, angry ; * huffedJ 

N. -gi. 
Khafff, light; trivial, 
Khair, well. See page 56. 

Note I. -iyat, welfare, 
Khairdt, deeds of charity, 
Khdk (f.), earth ; dust, 
Khalal, interruption ; noise, 
Khalds, release ; freedom, 

free. V. -k. -bona. 
Khaldsi, a general out-door 

servant, who attends to 

tents^ dr»^., a * Kiashy,' 
Khdii, empty. Adv. only, 
Khalffah, a fencing master ; 

a prince ; a * caliph,'^ 
Khdmosh, silent, N. ^i. 

Khdn {a title), Khan, Also, 
Khdn Bahddur. khdn- 
sdmdn {lord of your pro- 
perty, i.e.), the butler, 

Khdnah, a room; a place 
where work is done; or 
things are kept, e.g, lohdr- 
khdnab, a black-smith's 
shop, murghi-khdnah, a 
hen-house. Much used as 
last woni in compos. 

Khdndan, a family ; a house- 

Khdr, a thorn, 

Khardb, bad, N. -i. 

Khardsh, scraping ; scratch- 
ing ; a scratch. V. -na. 

Kharbdzah, a melon. 

Kharch, expenditure. 

Kharff, (f.), autumn ; the 
second harvest. 


Kharfd, purchasing- 
farokht, buying and selling, 

Khdrij, excluded ; cut off, 
-karna, to exclude^ &*c, 
-hona, to be excluded^ 

Kharltah, a purse; a bag ; 
the covering of a letter sent 
in ceremonious style; hence, 
the letter itself. 

Khar-khara. snoring, V. -na. 

Khasarn, a husband, 

Khsis-khsiS, a see nted^rass^used 
-wetted — 'for door-screens. 

Khdss, pure ; noble ; reserved 
to one^s self, -kamra, a pri- 
vate sitting-room, -mahdl, 
land reserved by Govern- 
ment, -o-dm, the ^classes 
and the masses,* 

Khata, fault ; defect, 

Khatam, the end, V. -karaa, 
{trans.) -hona, {intr,) 

Khdtir (f.), the heart; the 
soul, -jama, peace of 
mind, khdtir-jama rakhna, 
to preserve peace of mind; 
to feel assured, 

Khatt, a letter ; a note, Plur., 

Khdtdn (M.), a female title, 

Khauf, Jtar ; danger. 

Khazdnah, a treasure-house ; 
treasure; applied also to 
water stored for irrigation, 
khazdnchi, a treasurer, 

Khidmat, service, -gdr, a ser- 
vant^ especially a table- 

Khildl, a tooth-pick. 

Khilat, a dress of honor. 

Khfmah, a tent, -gdh, en- 

Khirdj, tribute ; revenue. 
-lagdna, to tax. 

Khiydl, * idea ; * notion ; re- 
collection ; thought, V.-k. 
Seepage no. JVote 2, 

KhiSb, good; excellent. Also 

as inter;, -siSrat, beautiful, 

-siSrati, beauty, 
Khud, self; by^ or of him^ 

hery itSy self ; or themselves, 

-gharaz, self-seeking, 
Khuda, God. khuddwand> 

lord; master. See page ^b 

Note 2, 
Khiin, blood ; murder, 
Khurdk (f.), food, -i, an 

allowance of food or money 
Khurshld, the sun (hence 

< Khurshidi Begam. ' See 

tage 122.) 

hindiJstAni as it ought to be spoken. 165 

KhusiSs, affair ; business,- an, 
especially ; particularly, 

Khush, pleased ; satisfied. 
Much used as first word 
in compos, e.g. -dwdz, 
sweetooiced, -dmad (f.), 
fawning approach; flat- 
tery, -bu (f.), a sweet- 
smell, -b^^ i^ happy cir- 
cumstances, dil, pleased 
at heart, -go, pleasant of 
speech, -numa, neat ; 
pretty ; pleasant, -taba. 

jocularity, -zabdn, honey- 
tongued, N. khushi, plea- 
sure ; satisfaction ; one's 
will and pleasure, 

Khushk, dry ; withered, -i, 
drought; the dry land, 
as Adv., by land (not by 

Khwdb' (f.), a dream; sleep 

Khwdh... khwdh, either ... 
or ; take it this way, or 
take it that way. 

Khwdhish, desire ; wish. 


La, {prefix,) destitute of; e.g., 
• Id-jawdb, without an an- 
swer ; Id-chdr, helpless, 
-khirdj, rentfree, Id-par- 
wdh, without care, Id-wdris, 
without an heir, &*c. 

Lab, a lip, lab-d-lab, brimful, 

Labddah, a cloak, 

Ldd (f,), a load, -na, to load, 
ladna, to be ladened, 

Lagdm (f.), a bridle, 

Lagdna ; lagd-dena, to apply 
one thing to another; to 
cause to touch ; to moor, &*c. 

Lagna ; lag-jdna, (intr,) to 

touch; meet; fit. lagna, 

means also to begin, 
Lahsan, garlic, -iya, cafseye. 
Lahzah, a second (of time,) 
Ld,ik, suitable ;fit ; capable, 
Laimiln, a lemon ; more 

commonly called * lemu,^ 
Lajdna, to be ashamed; to 

blush ; to put to shame, 
Laj ja, shame ; modesty, 
Ldkh, 100,000, (In India, 

printed *i,co,ooo.') Also, 


^ When a * w ''follows a consonant it is to be very faintly sounded. 
The letter has been omitted in some words, where it has practically 
ceased to affect the pronunciation. 


Lakri, wood; firewood; a 
walking stick ; any kind of 
{playing) bat or stick. 

Ldkshdh, lac, 

Ldl, red. -kdghaz, blotting- 

Ldlach (f.), avarice. Adj. 

Lamba, long; tall. 

Lina, or le-dna, to bring. 

Langa, naked. 

Langar, an anchor. 

Langra, iame^ N. langrd,i. 

Lapakna, to flash ; rush ; 
pounce up, 

Lapetna, to roll-up. 

Larzah, trembling ; the ague. 
V. larazna. 

Lardji, quarrel ; battle. V. 
-karna; larna. 

Larka, a boy. larki, a girl, 

Larakpan, childhood, 

Lashkar (f.), an artny. 

Lit, a kick. V. -mdrna. 

Latff, fine; subtle, laiffah, 
a witticism ; a joke. 

Ldthi, a cudgel ; a heavy stick. 
lathidl, a club-man. 

Latkdna ; latkd-dena, to hang- 
up ; to suspend. 

Lau, a flame. 

Ldzim, proper ; fitting. 

Lazza, a bright flame. 

Le,i, paste ; batter. 

Le-jdna, to take away, 

Lekha, a writing, -bahi, a 
writing-book; an account- 

Lekin, but ; still, 

Lemu, a lemon. 

Lena ; le-lena, to take ; accept. 

Lep, plaster, (for walls, &c.) 

Letna, to lie down ; to rest. 

Llchi, or Ifchu (a fneit\ 

Lifdfah, an envelope, 

Uillah (Arabic), for the sake 
of God. 

Likhna ; likh-dena, to write. 
likhdna ; likhd-dena, to 
cause to be written, likh- 
wdna ; likwd-dena, to cause 
to be written by a third per- 
son, likh-lena, to take 
down in writing, 

Llpna, to plaster, lipna, to be 
plastered, lipt, plastered. 

Liydkat, ability, 

Liye Que, \ for the sake of. 

Log, people. 

Loha, iron, lohdr, a black- 
smith, -band, iron-bound, 
Lohu, blood. 


Lomri, a fox. 

Lota, a native brass-pot ; a 

' lota: 
Lotna, to wallow, 
Liibdn, incense. 

Lughat, a dictionary. 

Lutf, courtesy, 

LiSt, robbery ; 'loot: -na ; 

Mt-lena, to rob, lutna, to 

be robbed. 


Ma, a mother, 

MaaliSm, evident; known, 

Maani, meaning; drift, 

Maamiil, the custom ; what is 
customafy.-iy in accordance 
with routine. 

Maazdl, deposed ; discharged 
from office ; dismissed, 

Ma-bada, (Persian.) may it 
not be I God forbid, 

Mi'bip, parents; a benefactor, 

Mablagh, a sum of money, 

Machdn, a raised platform. 

Machchhar, a musquito, 

Machhli, fish. 

Madad (f.), help,—%ix, help- 
ing ; a help-mate, V.-d. 

Mddah, female ; a female, 

Mdddah, any matter ; affair, 

Madh, honey, 

Mddiydn, a mare. 

Madrasah, a Muham ; college, 

Magar, hut. Also, a croco- 

Magas(f.), fl^S^. 

M.2i%X2i^ cross ; 'grumpy: 
Maghrib, the West, 
MaghnSr, proud. N.-i. 
Maghz, the brain ; pride ; a 

Mdh, the moon ; a month. 
Maha, (in compos.) great. 
Hence, Mahdrdja ; Mahd- 
rdni (titles.) mahd-naddi, 
the great river, mahd-jan, 
(the great person^ a money- 
lender ; a banker ; a mer- 
chant.-]3iniy the business of 
a * mahdjan: 
Mahdbat, «zcf^/ majesty, 
Mahant, a Hindu priest, 
Mahawat (pulg. mahout), an 

Mdhi, a fish, 
Mahfnah, a month, 
Mahnga, high-priced. 
Mahton, a village headman, 
MaFiabbat, love ; friendship, 
Mahall, a section of a house : 
a storey. 


Mabill, (plur. of ma^all and 
of matiallah) streets ; sec- 
tions of towns^ &'c,;land^or 
other sources of revenue re- 
served to Government, a 
• mehal.' See * Khdss.' 

Matiallah, a ward of a town, 

Matibdb, a loved one, -Adj. 
-ah. -i, amiability ; sweet- 

Mabbiis, imprisoned, 

Ma^siil, a tax ; duty ; postage, 

Ma}^ pure. Adv. merely, 

Ma,i, (Arabic prep.), along 


Maiddn, a plain ; a 'maidanJ 

Maila, dirty. 

Main, /. 

Maina, (bird.) a ' maina? 

Mdjara, the circumstances 
which occurred, 

Majbiir, forud ; constrained, 

Majlis (f.), an assembly ; con- 

Majma, an assembly -)^'^ki 
l^niln, an unlawful assem- 

Makdn, a dwelling ; a place ; 
a house, 

Makkhan, butter. 

Makkhi, a fly, 

Makra, a spider, 

MaVdm, a dwelling-place ; 
resting-place; lodging; halt- 

MaVdiir, within the limits of 
possibility ; power, -bhar, 
to the full extent of possi- 

Mdl, goods ; property ; mer- 
chandize, nidl-o-mata, goods 
and effects, mdl-gu2dr, a 
rent-payer ; a tenant, mdl- 
guzdri, the paying of rent ; 
rent, malik, a master ; 
owner ; lord, nidlik-dna, a 
payment made to an owner 
out of possession, mdl- 
khdnah, a store-house, 
mdliyat, wealth, 

Mald,i, cream, 

Malak, an Angel, 

Mdli, a gardener, 

Malik, a King; a Chief -ih^ 
a Queen, 

Mdlish, rubbing, V.-k. 

Mal-mal, muslin, 

Malna, to rub ; to chafe, 

Mdmu, a maternal uncle, 

Man, the mind ; intention, 

Man, a ' maund,* = about 
80 lbs. 

hindiJstXni as it ought to be spoken. 


Manddi, a proclamation, 

MdQda, tired, N. mdQdagi. 

Mangal, Tuesday, 

Mdngna ; m^Qg-lena, to ask 
for ; want, mangwdna ; 
mangwd-dena, to procure, 
mdng-lena, to borrow, 

Mdni, a hindrance ; obstacle, 

Mdnind (f.), resemblance. As 
prep, (with *ki '), like ; as, 

Manjan, tooth-powder^ or 

Mdnna, to obey; respect; 
allow ; confide in ; believe ; 
hold as ; attend to. 

Manzil (f.), a stage of a Jour- 

Manziir, approved ; permitted. 

Mdp, the measure of a thing, 
-na, to measure, 

Mdr, beating, mard-mdri, mu- 
tual assault, mdr-pit, an 
assault, V. mdrna, {which 
means also to kill), mdr-d., 
to beat, mar-ddlna, to kill, 

Marammat, repairing ; re- 
pairs, V. -k. 

Mdre (ke.), by reason of, 
Mard, a man; a husband, 
-dnah, brave, -nagi, 
bravery ; manliness, 
Mdrifat (ki.), by the agency of 

Mart^iliHj one who has found 
the mercy of death; the 
deceased ; * the late? 

Marna ; mar-jdna, to die, 

Martabah, step ; degree; rank, 

Mdrtol, or mdrtaul, a ham- 

Marzi, wish; will; ^plea^ 

Masahri, musquito-cur tains, 

Masdlah, spices ; solder, 

Masftia, The Messiah, 

Masjid (f.), a mosque, 

Maskharah, a jester, 

Masalan, for example, 

Masnad (f.), the throne. 

Mast, lustful ; drunk, N. -i. 

Mastisa, a half-caste, 

Mastdl, a mast, 

Mashdl, a torch, -chi, a torch- 
bearer ; a scullion, 

Mashghdl, busy ; occupied, 

Mashhdr, celebrated; well- 

Mashk (f), {vulg, mashak), 
the leather bag used by the 
* bihishti^ ' for carrying 

Mashrilj:, the East, 

Mat, not^ (with the imper. 

Matlab, intention; meaning 


Matrdkah, property ; especi- 
ally as left by a deceased 

Matwdla, a drunkard. 

Math, a Hindu temple, 

Matar, peas, 

Mauj (f.), a wave, 

Maujiid, present ; at hand, 

Maiil<:ilf, postponed ; put off; 
stopped, (as an allowance.) 

Maulavi, a Muham : learned 
man ; a * Moulvi,^ 

Mausam, or mausim, a season 
of the year ; weather, 

Mausiif, afore-said, 

Maut (f.), death, 

Mauza, a parish ; the village 
and the village lands, 

Mazah, taste ; flavour, 

Mazbdt, firm ; solid, N.-i. 

Mazdiir, a daily labourer, -i, 
his daily pay ; the work of 
a labourer, 

Mazhab, religion, 

Mazkdr, afore-said, 

Mazmdm, sense ; meaning; 
the contents of a book, 

Mekh (f), a peg, (e. g., for a 

tent ;) a nail, 
Mela, a fair ; a * mela. ' 

Men, in ; into, 
Mez (f.), a table. 

Mi,dd, the period allowed Jor 
doing anything, -i, limited 
to a specified time, 
Midah, the stomach, 
Mihfn, fine in texture; subtle, 
Mihmdn, a guest, -ddr, a 

host, -ddri, hospitality, 
Mihrbdn, kind ; condescend- 
ing, N. -i. 
MHinat, labour, -i, laborious. 

-dnah, wages, 
Mihtar, or mehtar, a sweeper, 

Iffemaky mihtrdni. 
Milki, a landowner; often 
used for milkfyat, landed 
property held in on^s own 
Milna, as 3rd personal verb> 
See page 50 ; as fully per- 
sonal verb, to be mixed uPy 
or associated with, mildna ; 
mila-dena, {trans.) to mix; 
adjust; fit ; match a pat- 
tern, and the like, mili- 
juli, on the best of terms, 
Mindr, a minaret, 
Mir, a Muham, title, 
Mirch, or mircha, pepper, 
Mirgi, epilepsy, 
Mirza, a Muham, title, 
Miskf n, poor ; humble. 
Misl (f.), a file of papers. 

hindi^stAni as it ought to be spoken. 171 

Misr, Egypt, misri, Egyptian, 
hence applied to crystallis- 
ed sugar ^ as coming from 

Mistar, a guide for writing 
straight by ; a ruler. 

Mistiri, or mistri, {supposed 
by some to be the English 
* mister') a head workman ; 
a workman, 

Mifha, sweet, -pdni, lemon- 
ade, mithdji, sweet-meats. 

Mittha, a kiss /' sweet, 

Mitti, earth. 

Miydn, a word of respectful 
or friendly address, or 
reference to one, 

Mizdj, temperament ; health. 

Mizdn (f.), a balance ; scales, 

Mlecha, an unclean person, 
i.e., any one not a Hindu. 

Mochi, a cobbler ; a currier. 

Modi, a grain- shcP'keeper ; a 

Mohr, or mor, a peacock. 

^\o\, purchasing. V, -lena. 

Mom, wax. -batti, a wax- 
candle, -rau^^Ln, polishing- 
paste ; varnish ; grease. 
~i, waxen. 

Morha, a footstool, 

Moti (m,), a pearl, 

Motai, fat ; coarse, N. -i. 

Moze, boots ; used also for 
stockings; socks, 

MUfif, forgiven, V. -k. N. -i. 

Mu,dfi]^ (ke.), conformably to, 

Mu,aiyan, fixed ; stationed. 

Mu,dmalah, any affair ; busi- 

Mu,azzaz. honoured; esteemed. 

Mubdrak, happy ; fortunate. 
-bdd (Persian, * may it be 
fortunate') congratulations; 
compliments ; ^ blessing.^ 
-bddi, the act of congratu- 
lating, &^c. 

Mublagh, or mablagh, a sum 
of money. 

Miichh (f.), mustachios. 

Mudda,d-alaih, (plur. mud- 
da,d-alaihim), a defendant 
in a suit. 

Mudakhalat, entry on land, 

Mudda,i, a plaintiff in a suit. 

Muddat, time ; space, 

Mufassil, in detail ; the coun- 
ties in contrast with the 

'Ayahs use the corrupted English, 'Kissi.' 

172 hindijstIni as it ought to be spoken. 

Muflis,/^r; wretched. N. -i. 

Muft, gratis. 

Mufti, a Muham : law-officer. 

Mughal, a • MoguV 

Muhr (f.), a seal ; an obsolete 
gold coin, 

Muhri, a drain, 

Muhdfiz, a defender ; a re- 

Mul^Sin&m, forbidden ; sacred. 
The first month of the 
Muham : year. * The 
muharram ^festival. 

Mul^balah, the comparing of 
e. g., draft with fair copy ; 
attack; onset^ V. -k. 

Mukarrar, fixed ; enduring. 
-i, a fixed land tenure. 
-iddr, tlie holder of such. 

Mukhdlif, disagreeing; con- 
flicting ; an opponent. 
-at, variance ; discrepancy ; 
plur. mukhdlifdt. 

Mukhtdr, exalted ; an attor- 

Mulihazah, viewing ; inspec- 
tion. V. -k. 

Mald,i, cream. 

Muldjim, soft ; tender. 
Muldl^dt, a visit. V. -k. 
Muldzim, a servant, 
Miili, radish. 

Mulk (Anglo- Hind., moo- 
look), a country. 

Mulla, a Muham : lawyer or 

Mu\t2LV\,put off; adjourned. 

Mumkin, possible. 

Mundsib, suitable; right ; 

Munh, the mouth ; the face. 

Muni b, a patron ; a master, 

Munshi, a Muham : teacher 
of languages ; a writer ; 
a liead-clerk. 

Murabba, pickled ; pre- 
served ; jam. 

Murabbi, a teacher ; director ; 

Murdd (f.), wish ; intention, 

Murattab, arranged ; put in 
order ; prepared. 

Murdah, dead ; a corpse, 

Murddr, polluted ; carrion. . 

Murgh, a cicky murghi, a 
hen. murgh-dbi, water- 
fowl mUrghi-khdnah, a 

Musdfir, a traveller, 

Musawwir, a painter ; a sculp- 

Musalmdn; muslim, a Mu^ 
Salman, fem. -i. 

Musfbat, adversity. 

hind^stIni as it ought to be spoken. 173 

M usiki, music, 

Mushkil, difficult, -dt, diffi- 
culty ; difficulties. 

Musht, the fist. 

Mushwarah, consultation. 

'MutdLjSdysLn, posted /fixed. 

Muta,ammi1, meditative. 

Muta,assib, bigotted. 

Mutdbik (ke, ), according 

Mutafarrik, miscellaneous. 

Mutarjim, a translator, 

Mutasaddi, an accountant. 

Mutawalli, a guardian of a 
mosque^ d^^c. 

Mutlak, or matlalj:, 'at all,' 
e.g., mutlak nabin, not at 

Mutthi, the fist ; a handful. 

Muyassar, available ; ready 
to hand. 

Muzd,ikah, importance, e.g., 
'kuchh muzd,ikah nahin, 
ifs of no consequence. 
Mdzi, importunate ; trouble- 
some ; vexatious. 


Na, no ; not. Much used as 
prefix, -ddni, want of wis- 
dom, -durust, not right ; 
out of order ; incorrect, 
-itisdnmandi, ingratitude. 
-^is, worthless, -kis-ul-ay, 
of no mental calibre.-litiTln- 
(blood.) the nail of man or 
animals, -maaldm, un- 
known, -pasand, disagree- 
able ; not approved, -rdst, 
unjust ; unrighteous, tdljiat, 
without strength, -wd^if, 
uninformed, -yih, -wuh, 
neither this nor that. 

Nabz (f.), the pulse, -dekhna, 
to feel the pulse. 

Ndch (f), a native dance. V. 

-na, or -k. 
Naddmat, repentance. 
Naddi, a river. 
Nafa, profit. 

Nafs, the soul ; the spirit. 
Ndg, a snake. 
Ndgdh, suddenly, 
Nagar (as last part of word 

e.g., Ahmad-nagar), a city ; 

a t07vn, 
Nahdna (intr.), to bathe. 
Nahr (f.), a canal. 
Ndhi, no! not so! you're 

not to do that, 
Nahin, not, -to, // not then ; 


174 hin6i^stAni as it ought to be spoken. 

Nd,ib, a deputy ; an agent; 
a subordinate^ e.g., -gum- 
dshtah, an under steward, 
-patwdri, a subordinate 
^patwdrp (i.e., collector of 

Najlb, noble. 

Ndk (f.), the nose. 

Nay (f.), a story ; a copy. 
-navls, a copyist. 

NaVshah, a drawing; a 
model ; a design; a map ; 
a plan ; a chart 

Nal, a horse-shoe, -bandi, 
shoeing a horse. V. -ban- 
di-k. -kholna, to take off 
the shoeSn 

Ndla, a ditch ; a * nullah.^ 

Ndldn, wailing, 

Ndlish, a compFaint (of 

Ndm,fli name ; fame ; charac- 
ter, -burdah", the above- 
named. — war, famous. 

Ndmah (as last part of word), 
a writings e.g., hibah- 
ndmah, a deed of gift. 

Namak (vulg. nimak,) salt, 
-ddn, a salt-cellar, -ka 
chammach, a salts toon. 

Nail dz (f.), prayer. V. 

Namdah, a coarse woollen 
covering ; a pad^ used as 
under saddle-cloth^ dfc. 

Namiinah, a pattern; a 

Ndna, a mother's father. 

Nd,o {i.\ a boat ; a ship. 

Ndp (f.), same as Mdp. q.v. 

Ndpit, a barber. 

Nar, a male ; male. 

Ndrikel, e?rndriyal,a cocoanut. 

Ndrangi, an orange. 

Narm, j^y?(lit.and fig.). N.-i. 

Nas (f.), a vein ; a sinew. 

liasibygoodfortune; lot in life. 

Nasi^at, advice ; good counsel. 
V. -k. and -6.* 

Nasr, an eagle. 

Nashah, intoxication, 

Ndshpdti, a pear. 

Ndshtah breakfast. 

Nashtar (f.), a lancet. 

Natthi, an official string or 
file of papers. 

Ndti, a daughter's son, 

Natfjah, the necessary result 
(e.g., of an argument) ; up- 
shot ; end of the matter. 

Nau, younf; ; new ; fresh. 
-jawdn, a youth, -jawdni, 
youth, -roz, Neiv Yearns 

hindi5stAni as it ought to be spoken. 175 

Naubat, time ; turn. 

Naukar, a servant -log, the 
servants, ~i, service. 

Nawd^i, district ; neighbour- 

Nawwab, or Niiwdb, (pi. of 
Nd,ib.) {Angiici, * Nabob,') 
a viceroy ; a governor ; a 

Naya, new, 

Nazdmat, the criminal de- 
partment of Government, 
-addlat, the criminal court 
of a judge, 

Nazar(f.), a look, -k, to take 
a look ; cast an eye upon, 

Ndzim, a governor, 

Ndzir, a superintendent ; (es- 
pecially) a sheriff or head 
bailiff, nazdrat, the depart- 
ment superintended by such, 

Nazdik (Adj.) near; neigh- 
bouring. Also as prep, 
with (ke.) -i, neighbour- 

Nazr, an offering from an 
inferior to a superior ; a 
' nuzzur* 

Ne. See page 5. Also page 19, 
section 25. 

Nek, good ; of good repute, 
N. -ndm, and -ndmi. 

Nibedan, prayer^ e.g., for 

Nicha (adj.). low; under, 
-k., to lower, nfche (ke), 

Nigdh (f.), look; regard. 
-rakhna, to watch one, 
-bdni, custody ; charge. 

Niimat,ye?y/ delight. 

Nihdyat, the extremity. Adv. 

Nikalna; nikal-jdna, to go 
out ; get out, 

Nikdlna; nikdl-d., to put 
out ; turn out^ (e.g.. from 
one's presence), nikal-lena, 
to extract, 

Nikab, marriage. V. -k. 

Nfl; nila, blue; tndigo, nil- 
gd,o, {blue cow) (an ani- 
mal), a • neel-gaiJ nfl-kothi, 
an indigo-factory, nfl-kothi 
k a sdhi b, an Indigo Planter. 

Nildm, an auction -k., to 
sell by auction, 

Nim, half; Also, a kind of 
tree; a ^ Neem-treeJ -roz, 

Nfnd, sleep, V. -lena. A. -i. 

Nir, a prefix, //i^^ ^ un' in 

Nirauni, weeding. V. -k. 

176 hindiJstXni as it ought to be spoken. 

Nirkh {pulg, nirrik), the Nok (f.), a beak ; an end; 

market-rate, a point, 

Nisdr, largesse ; donation ; Nona, or niina (adj.), sait^ 

sacrifice of one's self, V. -k. -pdni, salt-water, 

Nisbat, the relation of one Nujtim, astrology. -\, the 

thing to another^ is ki nis- art of ditto. Also, an 

bat, in comparison with this. astrologer, 

Nisf, the half; half (n. a.) Nulcsdn, /<!7W/ /«;«0'' "Paliuiii- 

Nishdn \ nishdnah, a mark ; chdna, to cause ditto, 

a signal, N umd,ish, appearance ; show ; 

Niwdr, cotton-belting ; obstruc- from, 

tion, Ndr, light ; brightness. Hence 

Nfyat, intention ; aim, * Koh-i-niSr,* TheMountain 

^^XT^m^ good arrangement ; a of Light, 

governor; *" The Nizdm^ 'Susl^ohj a recipS ; a medical 

(e.g., of Haidardbdd.) prescription. 


O (Persian), and. covering-cloth^^,%,^a blanket. 

Ojha, a wizard ; a magician, Os, dew, 

Ola-pira, cholera, Osdrah, a verandah, 

Olti, eaves. Ot, shade ; protection, -k,, to 

Orhna, to put on clothes ; to protect; conceal, -hona, 

cover one^s self up, as N. ^ to lie concealed, 


PaS a leg ; a foot, -e-jdmah, foot-stool, -posh, a slipper, 

sleeping drawers, -e-khd- pai-dal, on foot. 

nah, a privy, -K)-ddn, a Pachchham, the West, 

^ Takes many forms, as p^,e, pa,i, panw, pd,o ; piya, PI. p^,09. 

hindi^stAni as it ought to be spoken. 177 

Pddshdh, a king, -i, save- 
reignty ; a kingdom. 

Padri,* minister; a priest 

Pag, a foot -dandi, a foot- 
path -dandi-lena, to track. 

Pagal, a fool ; a lunatic, *a 
po^gle,^ -khdnah, a lunatic 

Pagri, a turban. See page 95. 

Fahalwdn, a wrestler; a 

Pahar. Seepage 67. Sect, 3. 

Pahdr, a mountain, 

Pahchdnna. to recognize; to 
know one, 

Pahinna, to put on clothes, 

Pahiya (m.), a wheel. 

Pahunchna, to arrive, pahu^- 
chdna ; pahunchd-d., to 
escort ; cause to arrive, 

Pdi, a pie^ ^^ of an *dnah,* 

Paida, dorn. -bona, to be 
born, -ish, birth, -wdr, 
produce ; ^yieW 

l^aighdm, a message ; evangel, 
-ghambar, a messenger ; 
an apostle ; especially Mu- 

PaiWa, or pahle, first ; the 
first ; in Jhe first place. 

Paik, a runner ; a messenger, 
Paiindn, a promise, 
Paima,ish, measurement of 

land, V. -k. 
Pairna, to swim, pairdk, a 

Paisa, a coin, = 3 */d/V 

paise, money ; ^change.* 
Paithna, to enter, 
Paji, contemptible ; mean. 
Pdk ; pakfzah, clean ; pure. 

N. -i ; -fzagi. 
Pakarna, to seize ; to catch. 

pakar-le-jdna, to seize and 

carry off, 
Pakka, also^ pukhtah, ripe ; 

cooked ; thorough ; done in 

the best manner ; e.g , pak- 

ka idsta, a metalled road. 

The converse word is 

* kachcha.' The ^pucca^ and 

^catcha* of Anglo- Hind. 
Pakdna {trans.), to cook, 

pakna (intr.), to cook; to 

grozv ripe, pakwdna, to 

cause to be cooked. 
Pakhdl, a large bag for 

7vater carried in pairs on 

Palak( f.), the eye-lid. 

^ Not Hindustani. 

T., If. 



hindiJstAni as it ought to be spoken. 

Palang, a bed. 

Palds, the cotton-tree. Hence 
* Plassey.* 

Pdlki, a palanquin ; a ^palki^^ 
-wdla, a palki'Carrier. 

Pdlna, to rear ;. bring-up ; 
cherish, palna, to be rear- 
ed^ b*c. pdlak, one who 
rears ^ brings upy dr'c. 

Paltan (f.), a regiment. 

Pdn, bete/ (chewed by natives.) 

Pdna, to get ; obtain. 

Panah (f.), shelter ; protec- 
tion. Used as form of ad- 
dress, e.g., jahaij-pandh ! 
Protector of the Universe! 

Pdnch, five, panchdyat, a 
village-council ^/"(nominal- 
ly) five members, panch, a 
member of the village-council, 

Pandrah, y?//tf^«. 

Pandit, a learned Hindu. 

Pdni (m.), water ; rain. ~h., 
to rain. 

Panir (f.), cheese. 

Panj, (Persian,) five, -db, 
{the 5 waters) The ^ Fun- 
jaub.^ -ah, a claw. 

Pdnjar, the side (of the body). 

Panjari, a rib, 

Pankha, a fan ;■ a ^punkha? 
-wala, a punkha-puller. 

Panna, an emerald. 

Panseri, a measure^ or weight 
of 5 * sers.^ 

Yk^o^ a quarter ; one-fourth. 

Pdp, sin. 

Par, on ; upon, at. As parti- 
cle, still ; for all that. As 
N. a feather. 

Pdr (ke.), over ; across. V.-k , 
to cross. -\\OT\2i, to be across^ 
(e. g., a river.) As N. a 
shore ; a bank. 

Parb, a religious holiday. 

Parchah, a fragment ; a scrap. 

Pardah, a curtain ; curtains^ 
-nishfn, remaining behind 
the curtain ; (applied to 
ladies who do not go out.) 

Pardeshi, foreign. 

Pareshdn, distressed ; vexed ; 
worried. N. -i. 

farganah, a local division; 
a ^purgunnah^ 

Parhez, (f.), abstinence ; 

Pari-roz, (Persian,) next-day. 

Paros, neighbourhood, -i, a 

Parson, the day after to- 
morrifw ; the day before 
yesterday. Seepage 69. 

Parwdh, matter ; consequence. 



Parwdnah, a written order 
from one in authority, 

Parwar, a patron^ as in 
* gharib-parwar !' Patron 
of the Poor 1 

Parwasti, cherishing ; supply- 
ing means of livelihood, V.-k. 

Pdra, a quarter of a town ; 
a beat, -wdla, a watchman 
of ditto. 

Parhdna, to teach, 

Parhna, to read ; to learn, 

Parna, to fall ; he down, (e.g. 
with sickness,) para, down ; 

Parti, land * resting ' ; waste- 

Pas, then ; therefore ; conse- 
quently ; SO. 

Pds (ke.), beside, near, or 
by one. -ana, or jdna, to 
go near, or up to, 

Fisbin, a patrol, -i, patrolling, 

Pdse, dice, 

Pasfnah, perspiration, 

Pdsh-pdsh, smashed ; in mor- 
sels, -ho-jdna, to be 
smashed ; to go to pieces, 

Pashemdn, repentant. 

Pashm (f.), wool, 

Pata, signs ; indications ; 
traces ; a persoris address. 

Patthar, a stone ; hail, -ka 
ko,ila, coals, 

Patla, thin ; meagre. 

Pattar, a leaf. 

Pdt, a 'breadth' of cloth; 
a flap ; a board. Also, 

Patakna ; patak-d., to dash 
against ; to throw to the 

Patdna, to irrigate. 

Patna, a district, and also a 
city in Lower Bengal; 
' Patna: 

Patpat, the sound of beating ; 

Patta, a deed of lease. 

Patti, a plaster ; a bandage. 
Also, a demarcated section 
of land, 

Pat wdri, a village rent-collector. 

Patel, beating ; a village mag- 
nate so called, 

Paune. See pages 64 and 67. . 

Pauti, a small basket, 

Pech, a twist ; a turn, -ddr, 
twisted, -kash, a screw- 
driver, -tdb, restlessness; 
* the fidgets: -ish, contor- 
tion ; stomach-ache. V. -na. 

Peru, a turkey. 

Per, a tree. 


Pesh, in front ; facing, -db, 
urine, -ah, on^s trade; 
business, -dni, the fore- 
head, -gi, an advance of 
money, -kdr, a clerk who 
lays business before his supe- 
rior, -tar, formerly ; at an 
earlier time V.-k , to bring 
forward any matter for at- 
tention ; to place before one, 

Peshwa, a Mahratta Minis- 
ter ; * The Peishwa ; ' a 

Pet, the belly, -i, a waist- 
band, also, a trunk ; a box. 

PhaiUna {trans) phailna, 
(/«/r.) to spread abroad^ 
(as newSy 6-r.) 

Phal, fruit, (lit. and fig.) 
-ddr, fruitful. 

Phdnk (f.), a slice ; a * cut: 

Phd^si, a loop ; noose, -d., to 
execute b\ hanging, 

Phaphsa, blown-tfut ; swollen, 

PImphola, a blister ; dil ka-, 
soreness of mind. 

Pharsa, an axe, 

Phdrna ; phar-d , {trans,) 
to tear^ phdra hil,a, torn. 

Phdtak, an outer-gate, 

Phatna, phat-jdna, {intr.) to^ 
tear ; to burst ; to break. 

PheQkna; phenk-d., to throw; 
to throw down. 

Pheph^e, the lungs. 

Pher, or phir, back ; again, 
-dna, to come back, -jdna, 
to go back, pheri-k., to ex- 
ercise horses. [about. 

Phirta-phirta, wandering 

Phir. See « Pher.' 

PhiSl, a flower ; flowers, -a, 
swollen, -ddn, a flower- 
vase, -jdna, to swell, -kobi, 
a cauliflower, -na, to blos- 
som ; flower ; be in robust 
health, phul-wdri ; phdl- 
bdgh; phiSl-baghdn, (L.B.) 
a flower-garden, phul-jhari, 
a kind of flre-work. phul- 
kdri, an ornamental cloth 
studded with bright meiai. 

Phiink, blowing with the 
mouth. V. -na. \decetve. 

Phusldna, to wheedle ; coax ; 

Phiitna, to be broken, philta, 
broken, phiita pdni, boiling 

Plchhe, behind, also, prep, 
(ke). pichhdri, the hinder 
parts; ropes for sf astern ng 
horses by the hind Itgs. 
pichhla, the hindermost ; 
the last. 

HINDI^stInI as it ought to be SPOKtN. 


Pichkdri, a squirt ; a syringe, 

Pidar> (Persian,) a father, 

Pfk (f. ), saliva caused by chew- 
ing betel-nut, -ddn; a spit- 

Pfl, an elephant, -bdn, his 
driver, -khdnah, his stabU, 

Pildna, {trans,) to give water, 

PildjO, {a kind of food,) *pil- 

Pilla, a pup. 

Pillu, a worm, 

Pfna, {trans, and intr,) to 
drink. Also, {trans,) to 

Pindli, the calf of the leg, 

Pinjra, a cage ; a trap, 

Plpa, a cask; a barrel ; a 

Pfpal, a 'peepar tree, 

Pfr (M.), an old man ; a reli- 
gious man; a saint, -ka 
roz, Monday, 

Pirich, a saucer, 

Plrozah, turquoise, 

Plru. See * Peru.' 

Pisar, (Persian,) a son ; a boy, 

Pfsna, to grind, pisna, to be 


Pissu, a flea. 

Pit, or pith, bile. 

Pftal, brass, 

Pitdra, a travelling-box. (of 

special make.) 
Pftna, to beat ; to assault. 

pitna, to be beaten, &»c. 
Piyddal), a messenger. 
Piydlah, a cup. 
Pydr (f.), affection, -a, dear ; 

loved, -k., to caress ; fondle, 
Piydz, an onion. 
Poddar, a money-changer. 
Ponchhna ; ponchh-d., to 

dust ; to clean. 
Po-t, rind ; skin. Also, the 

poppy-plant, -i, one who 

uses opium. 
Poshdk (f.), clothing. 
Pota, a son's son. poti, a 

son's daughter 

Prdn, life ; soul ; sweetheart, 

Prasansa, praise, 

Prem (f.), love, -sdgar, ^^The 

Ocean of Love" {a book so 

Prit, love ; friendship, 
Prithi, the earth, -ndth, Lord 

of the Universe, 

Piichhna, to ask a question. 
Pudfnah, mint, 
Pdja (H.), worship, -ri, a 
priest. V. -k. 

i82 hind^stIni as it ought to be spoken. 

Pukdrna^ {intr,) to shout, 
{trans,) to call one by shout- 

Pukhtah. See * Pakka/ 

Pul, a bridge, -bandi, a con- 
tribution for making or 
maintaining bridges. 

PuU,o. See * Pild,o.' 

Puanda, a parcel ; a bundle. 

Piinji, capital used in trade. 

Ptir, a town ; a city, only 
as termination, e.g.^ Ndg- 

Piira, complete ; full, -k., to 

do in a complete manner / 

fulfil ; finish. 
Pdrab, the East. 
Piirdn ; purdnah, certain 

quasi-religious books of the 

Purdna, old ; ancient. 
Purush, a human being. 
Pusht, a generation ; ancestry 

-ba-, from generation to 

Putli, a doll ; an image. 


Rabi, the Sun. -bdr, Sunday. 

Rabi, the spring-crop. 

Radd, rejection; refutation; 
vomiting, -badal, argu- 
mentation ; wrangling. 
-i-jawdb, a rejoinder to an 
answer, -ndmah, a deed of 
abandonment. V. -k. 

Rafa, repairing; making up 
a dispute. V. -k. rafa-nd- 
mah, a deed settling a dis- 

Raftah-raftah, gradually^ 
(from Persian * raftan,' to 

Rag (f.), a vein ; a sinew. 

Raged (f.), pursuit. V. -na. 

Rdh, or rah (/!), a road. 

rdhzan, a highivay robber. 

rdh-zani, highway robbery. 
Rahd,i, ^rrihd,i, release. V.-k. 
Rdhat, repose ; peace. 
Rahn, or rihn, a pledge ; a 

Rahna, to dwell ; to remain. 

rahne-d., to leave; lei alone. 

rah-jdna, to remain waiting. 
Rahm ; rahmat, pity ; mercy. 

A. rahmdn. 
Rd,i, opinion; advice. Also, 

Ra,fs, a chief; a nobleman. 
Ra,fyat, (plur. ri,dya.) 2 pea- 
sant ; a * ryot / a subject. 



Raj (H.), rule ; a kingdom, 
'-a, a * Raja. ' - hdns, a 


Rdj, or rdj-mistri, a mason. 
Rikab (f.), a stirrup, -diwdl, 

Rakhna ; to put ; to place ; 

keep beside one, rakh-d., to 

put a thing down. 
Rakshas, an Evil Spiritt 
Ram ; Ram>Rdm (H.), God. 
Ramazdn, the Muham: ^Lent.^ 
Ramnah, an open plain ; a 


Rana (H,), a prince ; rdni, a 

queen ; a * Mdnee, ' 
Randi, a wench ; a woman,^ 

Rang (f. ), colour ; paint, -i, 
chintz, --rez, a dyer, -saz, 
a house-painter, -d., to 
dye ; to paint, -f n, dyed ; 

Ranj ; ranjish, grief ; bitter- 
ness of spirit. A. ranjidah. 

Ras (f.), driving-reins. 

Ras, juice. 

Rasad, provinder. 

Ksism({.), law ; custom, rasmi, 
according to ditto. 

Rassi, a rope. 

Rdst, just ; true ; sincere. 
N. -i. 

Rdsta, a road. 

Rasiiji, cooking; cooked food^ 

Rashld, wise. 

Rdtj night, 

Ratan (f.), a jewel. 

Rath, a chariot ; a religious 
processional car. 

Ratti, a weight by which 
jewels are weighed. 

Rdtib, food-allowance, {for 
an animal) 

Raughan, polish ; oil ; har- 

Rawaddr, one who gives his 
consent to anything. 

RsLVfin, Jlowing. Also, soul; 

Rawdnah, a pass ; a permit ; 
despatch of goods, -k., to 

Rdz, a secret. 

Raza (f. ), razamandi, consent. 

Razd, i, a bed-co7fer ; a quilt. 

Rdzi, satisfied ; ^ agreeable.^ 
-k., to satisfy; appease. 
-i-namah, a deed express- 
ing satisfaction of a 

* Not a respectful word. 


Reg(f.), sand. 

ReQgna; reug-reng. -k., to 

Renkna, io bray. 
Resham, silk, reshmi, of siik. 
Ret (f.), sand, -i, a file. V.-na. 
Rezah, a scrap ; a crumb. 

Rijdya. See * Ra,iyat. * 

Rfchh, a bear. 

Ris (f.), an^er. - k., to enrage. 

Rfsh (f), a beard. 

Rishi (H.), a sage. 

Rishtah, relationship ; a 

thread on which papers, 

&'c., are strung. 
Rishwat, a bribe, -d., to give 

a bribe, -khdna, or lena, to 

take a bribe. 
Rft ; rfti, the custom. 

Rog, sickness : disease. 
Rohu, a fish so called. 
Rokar (f.), prompt payment. 

-bahi, a cash-account book, 
Rokna (trans. \ to stop ; 

check ; hem-in. 
Rona, to weep. 
Rora, small stones ; gravel. 
Roshan, or raushan, clear ; 

bright. N. roshnd,i, which 

means also, blacking ; ink. 
Rod, bread. ' 

Roz, a day. -ba-, day by day. 
-4na, daily, -gdr, daily 
earnings; service; means 
of livelihood ; daily pay 
-fnah, daily pay. -ndoi- 
chah, a diary, -i.maiddn, 
the day of battle. 

Rozah, a fast. V. -rakhna. 

Ru, the face, ~ba-kdr, or 
-ba-kdri, a writing by 
which a matter is laid be- 
fore one; a ^ roobacarry .* 
-h^-, face to face, -e-ddd 
(f.), a Wfttten statement of 
facts, -mdl,' a handker- 
chief. -|)osh,» hidden. 
-posh bona, to be concealed ; 
to hide one's self. 

Rtib, the soul ; the spirit. 

Riiji, cotton. 

Ruju, a turning dr appealing 
to one; making a matter 
over to one. V. -k. 

Rukh, the cheek. 

Rukhsat, p^.rmission to go; 
leave; discharge, -d., to 
grant permission to go. 
-bona, to be allowed to go ; 
to depart, -lena, to take 
one's leave, or discharge ; 
to depart. [p^g^ 1<" 

RUpa, silver. riSpiya. See 

* See* Malna/ 

' From the Persian * poshfdan, ' fo cover; clothe ; hide. 





No word begins with this letter. 


Note, — There are three *S's' in Hindiistdni ; but their 
sounds are so much alike that they liave not been distin- 
guished in this book. 

Sa, (adj.) (after a i>oun) likty 
e i;., bandar-sa, monkey- 
like, (after an adj.) ^ -ishf 
* pretty ; ' * rather, ' e.g., 
ek bara-sa ghar, a pretty 
large house. 

Sab ; . all ; the whole ; often 
used to give a plural sense 
to words which have no 
plural Nom, -ke-, an em- 
phatic fomi of * sab.' -ko,i, 
every one, -kuchh, every- 
thing. Obh'que PI. sabhon. 

Sabab, cause ; reason, 

Sabere, in the morning. 

Sdbi^, relating to past time. 

Sdbit, firm ; established. 
-kar-d., to establish, or 
make good a point, -bona, 
to be established^ dr'c. 

Sabr, patience, -k., to have 
patience; to wait a little. 
A. sdbir. 

Sdbiin, <7rsdbun, f^flr/. -dan, 
a soap-dish. 

Subdt, firmness ; stability ; 
establishment by evidence. 

Sabz, (Adj.) green, -i, ver- 
dure ; vegetables. 

Sach ; sachha, true ; honest ; 
upright. N. sachhd,i. 

Sdda, plain ; unadorned. 
Also artless. 

Sadmah, a shock ; a blow. 

Sdf ; safa, clean, (lit. or fig.), 
safd.i, cleanness; the clear, 
ing of one^s character ; de- 

Safar, a journey, V. -k 

Saff-i-jang (f.), battle-order. 

Sag, (Persian,) a dog. 

Sdg, spinach ; * sdg.^ 

Sagu, sago. 

Sagar, the O^ean. 

Sdgdn, teak-wood, 

Sahi, (interj.) true I quite so! 

1 86 

hindijstAni as it ought to be spoken. 

Sdbib, sd1.iibah. See pages 24 
and 26. -i-khdnah, the 
master^ (or mistress) of the 

Sabfh, accurate ; just; just 
the thing -V.^ to correct ; to 
sign-sM\ 1 1 at, safe and well, 

Sahn, a court-yard, 

Sai, or sau, one hundred, 

Sdjil, a petitioner. 

Saildb, an inundation, 

Sair, fl walk ; a journey, -k., 
to take a walky &'c, 

Sdjis, a groom, 

Sdj, adornment ; equipment ; 
harness, V. {trans.) -na ; 
-lagdna ; -lagd-d. V. (intr.) 

Sdjha, companionship ; part- 
nership, sdjhij a companion, 

Sdkin, an inhabitant, 

Sakna. See page 18, Sect, 22, 

Sukitnat, one's ^ parish;^ 
domicile, [difficult, N, -i. 

Sakht, hard. (lit. or fig.) ; 

Sakhi, liberal ; open-handed. 

Sdl, a tree so called. 

Sdl, (Persian,) a year, {plur. 
sdlha.) -anah, yearly^ 

Saldh, peace ; concord ; good 
advice. V. -d, and lena. 

Saldm, comp.iments ; an obei- 
sance, -k., or d., to salute. 
-d., or bolna, to send one's 

Saldmat, safety ; preservation ; 
as adv., safely. 

Saldmi, money paid on a lease 
being granted, or the like, 

Sdlis, an arbitrator, -i, arbi- 

Salfs, easy, N. -i. 

Salotar, a farrier ; a 'vet.^ 
-i, the profession of ditto. 

Sdlu, coarse red cloth. 

Sdliis, The Trinity. 

Samd,at, the hearing, e.g., of 
a case in Court, 

Samajh (f.), understanding, 
V. -na ; -men lena, to 
understand, samjhdna, to 

Saman, jasmine. 

Samdn, level ; equal ; alike. 

Sdmdn, furniture ; equipage, 

Sambat,^ special era so called, 

Sam bar, a kind of elk. 
Sombdr, Monday, 
Samet, with ; ahng with, 
Sdmne (adv.) in front ; op- 
posite, also, as prep. (ke.). 
-wdla, what is opposite, 

Samundar, the Ocean, 

hindiJstAni as it ought to be spoken. 


San, the year ^ (in dating,) 

Sanad (f.), a royal^ or other 
deed of grant ; a letter of 

Sandal, sandal-wood, 

Si^d, a bull. 

Sang, a stone, -in, stony ; 
arduous ; serious, (as a 

Sdni, (Persian,) second, 

Sanibdr, Saturday, 

Sanfchar, Saturday, 

Sdnp, a snake, 

Sdns (f.), the breath, -ttitna, 
to breaks i.e., lose one's 

Sanydsi, a Hindu devotee, 

Sar, or sir, the head ; the top ; 
the point ; starting-point. 
sar-ba-sar, entirely, sar- 
dard, headache, sarddr, a 
headman, sar-inau, quite 
new ; fresh, sar-i-rdh (f.), 
the centre of the road, -k., 
to execute; succeed ; get on ; 
make head with, sar-zamfn 
(f.), the place at which any 
event occurred, 
Sira, the whole; all the... 
Sard,e (f.), an abode ; an 
inn ; a halting-place ; a 

Sarak (f.), a public road. 
Sar-anjdm, apparatus ; neces- 
sary things. 
Sdras, a crane {bird). 
Sardsari ; sarsari, (a«ij.) all 

round about ; summary. 
Sard (adj.), cold ;^. -i., cold ; 

a cold. 
Saresh, glue. 
Sarf, expenditure ; use. V.-k. 

-men Idna, to bring into 

on^s use, 
Sarfardz, exalted ; noble. 
Sare, */^r.' (e.g., per yard.) 
Sdri, a wrapper worn by 

native females, 
Sirkah, vinegar, 
Sarkdr, the Government ; a 

Superintendent, A. -i. 
Sar-o-kdr, business ; relation 

which one thing bears to 

Sar- posh, a covering-cloth^ 

(e.g., a tea-cosy) ; a lid. 
Sarraf, a banker ; a * shroff? 
Sarrishtah, a record-office^ or 

the like, -ddr, head of 

the same. 
Sdrhe. See page 64. 
Sds, a mother-in-law, 
Sasta, cheap. N. -ti. 
Satdna, to vex ; to annoy. 



Satar (f.), a line 

Sdth (ke.), with ; along with. 
-jana, or chalna, to accom- 
pany, -i, a companion. 

Sati, a widow who burns her- 
self on her husband's pyre, 
a ^suttee? 

Saitu, a kind of flour, 

Satiin, or sutUn, a pillar. 

Satdna ; satd-d., to join ; to 
place two things beside 

Satna ; sat-jdna, to stick ; 
adhere, sata hii,a, stuck to- 
gether ; contiguous. 

Sau See ' Sai/ 

Sauda; sauddi^ari, trade, sau- 
ddgar, a trader. 

Sawdl, or suwdl, a question ; 
a petition in Court. V. -k. 

Sawdr, mounted ; a horseman. 
N. -i, riding; A. -i, re- 
lating to riding, sawdri 
ghora, a riding horse, -h., 
to be mounted ; to ride. 

Sawere, early morning. 

Sdyah, shade ; shadow, sdya- 
bdn, any structure for the 
purposes of shade; e.g., 
a verandah. 

Sdz, equipments ; harness. 
-ka ghora, a harness- stand. 

Saza (f.), one^s deserts; punish- 
ment. — i , to punish. 
Se, from ; with ; by means 

of i <^go / since ; than. 
Seb, an apple. 
SeQkna, to toast ; to warm at 

the fire. 
Ser, a weight of about 2 lbs. 
Sih (p.), three, -pahar, the 

third watch; the afternoon. 
Sfdha ; straight ; in order. 

V. -k. 
Sifdrish, recommendation. V. 

Sijil, a seal ; a register ; a 

decree. V. -k. 
Sfkhna, to learn, sikhdna ; 

sikhldna; sikhld-d., toteach. 
Sflch (f.), a spit. 
Sildi, sewing. V. -k. 
Silli, a hone ; a strop. 
Silsiiah, a chain ; a sequence. 
Sfna, to sew. 
Sfnah, the bosom. 
Sfng (f.), a horn. 
Sil^^ir, ornament; dress.-mez. 

a dressing-table. V. -na. 
Singh, a lion ; used also as a 

Sinn, on^s age. 
Sipdhi, a foot-soldier; a 

^ sepoy.' 


Sir. See / Sar.' 

Sirdj, a lamp ; the Sun, 

Sirf, only, 

Sirhi, a ladder; steps; a 

Sfsa, lead. 
Sit (n.), cold, A. -al. sftal- 

pdti, a cool kind of mat for 

sleeping on, 

Sitdrah, a star, 
Sitla, small'pox, 

Sith, or sfthi, refuse of plant 
(e.g., indigo) after manu- 
facture ; of Mel or tobacco^ 
&*c,y after being chewed, 

Slti, whistling, V. -b^jdna. 

Siwa, or siwd,e (adv.), more ; 
as prep, (ke.), besides ; in 
addition to, 

Siwdnah, a boundary line, 

Siydh, black, -i, blacking; 

Siydna, grown-up. 

So. See page 104. Also 
stem of ' sona.* ^,v. 

Soch, meditation; thought, 
-na, A? Mi«>& ; /tf>^^ thought 

Sohdn, a file (tool). 

Sojh, straightness A. -a. 

Sokna, to absorb, 

Solah, sixteen. 

Solah-topi, a pith-hat, 

Sona, gold. A, sone ka. 
sondr, a gold-smith, 

Sona, /t? lie down ; to sleep, 
so-rahna, to continue sleep- 

So^ta, a club ; a pestle, 

Sonth, dry ginger, 

Stdn, a suffix meaning ^ place,' 

e.g., 'gulistdn,* a place of 

^ihixyfirm ; fixed, 

Stri, a woman, -dhan, the 
private property of a wo- 

SiSbah, a province, -h^idixy 
a governor; a native mili- 
tary officer; a sergeant, 
Subh (f.), the morning ; in 

the morning, 
Subuk (adj.), light, (not 

heavy.) (lit. or fig,). 
Stld, interest on money; profit, 
Sufed, thite. N. -i. 
Sii,i, a needle, -tiga, a needle 

and thread, 
Siikhna {intr,\ to dry, 
nSkhdna ; sUkhd-d. (trans,), 
to dry, A. silkha. 
Sukhan, speech; language; 
business ; affairf. 

iQo hindi5stAni as it ought to be spoken. 

Sulb, P^O'Ce of mind; concord. 

-ndmah, a deed settling a 

Sultdn, a 'Sultan: saltanat, 

dominion ; power, 
Suldk, good behaviour. V. -k. 
SUnglina, to sniff; to smell. 
Sunni, lawful; the orthodox 

party among the Muham : 

opposed to ' Shiah: 
Sunna, to hear; listen to; 

obey, sundna; suna-d., to 

cause to hear ; read over to 

Supdri, ateca, or betel-nut. 
Supurd, entrusting. V. -k. 

Surdhi, a porous water-bottle ; 

a goblet. 
Surdgh, search ; traces. 
Siiraj, the Sun. 
Siirdkh, a hole. 
Siirat, shape ; form. [dust. 
Surkh, red. -i, redness ; brick- 
Surmah, antimony. 
Sust, lazy ; out of sorts ; of a 

watch, slow. N. -i. 
Slit, thread, -i, made of 

thread ; Hence. *ek-siiti;' 

* do-siiti,' &c,, in describing 

Suthra, clean ; tidy ; nice. 
Sutli, thread ; string. 


Shab (f.), «/^i^/.-i-mdh, (night 
of the moon\ moonlight, 
-nam, dew. -o roz, night 
and day, or by ditto, 
-chirigh, afire-fly; aglow- 

Shdbdsh, bravo/ well done/ 

Shabd, a sound; a noise; 
a vocable. 

Shddi, rejoicing; marriage, 
V. -k. 

Shaft-dlu, a peach. 

Shaf^t, condolence; kindness; 

Shdgird, a pupil ; a scholar. 

Shdh, an Emperor, -i, im- 
perial ; royalty, -an-shdh. 
King of Kings (i.e., the 
Emperor of Persia), 
-zddah, a prince ; of prince- 
ly birth, fem., -zddi. 

Shahad, honey, -ki makkhi, 
a bee. 

Shahddat, evidence. 

Shahid, a witness. 

Shahr, a city ; a to7vn. 

Shaikh, a ' Shekh: (tiiU). 

Shaitdn, Satan. 



Shakar, sugar y in compos : 
sweet e.g. -lab, sweet- 

Shakk, doubt V. -k. 

Shakl (f.), shape ; form 

Shdkh (f.), a branch, 

Shakhs, an individuat 

Shal (f.), a shawl. 

Shalgham, turnips, [evening. 

Sham (f.), evening, -ko, at 

Sham a, a nightingale, 

Shamdl, the North, 

Shamil, along with ; put along 
with, -k., to put one thing 
up along with another, 

Shdmiydnah, a large tent ; a 

Shams, the Sun. {Arabic.) 

Shamsher (f.), a scimitar, 

Shdn, dignity ; state ; nature. 

Shardb ( f.), wine, 

Shara, Muham : law, 

Shardkar, partnership, 

Shardrat, vice, 

Sharbat, *" sherbet, ' 

Sharif, noble, 

Sharifah, a custard-apple. 

Sharfk, a partner, 

Sharm (f.) ; -indagi, shame ; 
modesty, A. sharm indah. 
sharmdna {intr,\ to feel 
abashed, sharm-sdr, bashful. 

Shart, a ^stipulation ; agree- 
ment ; ivager. 

Shast, aim. {with gun, dr'c.} 
V. -k. 

Shdstr (f.), the sacred books 
of the Hindus, 

Shatranj, chess, -\, a large 

Shauk, one's favourite pur- 
suit ; * hobby. ' (Anglo- 
Hind., * shok. ') 

Shdyad, (Persian,) (/'/ may 
be) ; perhaps, 

Sher, a tiger, -ni, a tigress 
-babar, a Hon. 

Shikam, the belly. 

Shikdr, hunting ; shooting ; 
game {alive or dead), -i, 
a hunter ; appertaining ta 
sport, e.g. -i kutta,a hound, 

Shikastah, broken ; running- 
hand-writing, -hdli, broken 

Shii, nature ; quality ; deport- 

Shfrf n, sweet ; gentle, (lit. and 
fig.) -zabdn, sweet-tongued; 
eloquent, N. -zabdni. 

Shfshah, glass ; a phial, -she 
ka, made of glass. 

Shit (n.), cold, -kdl, the coM 


Shitib, haste ; speed. Adv. -i. 

Sholch,y5?raftfn// impudent, 
N. -i. 

Shor, noise ; row. 

Shorah, marshy-land ; salt- 

Shorba, (vulg. sdrwa,) soup. 

Shubhah, doubt, 

Shubh, happy ; fortunate. 

Shuja, brave, -j^at, bravery, 

Shukr, gratitude ; thanks. 
-guzdr, grateful, -guzdri 
expressing gratitude. 

Shulah, aflame, 

Shumdr, counting, V. -k. 

Shuru {t\ a beginning. V. -k. 

Shutur, a camel, -bdn, a 


There are two soft * t's ' in 

are so similar, that you have 

guish them. 

Ta, up to (of time) td-kih, 
until ; in order to ; to the 
end that. 

Ta,ajjub, surprise ; admira- 
tion. V. -k. 

Ta,dU (M.), Almighty God. 

Taalfm (f.), instrurtion. V -d. 

Ta,allul?, or ta,allul^ah, con- 
nection ; association ; a ter- 
ritorial division ; an estate ; 
a * talooh.* ta,alluk-ddr, the 
owner of a ta^allulji. 

Taamfl, putting in force; 
carrying out. V. -k. 

Ta,ammul, meditation. V. -k. 

Taatff (f.1, praising ; praise ; 
a definition. V. -k. A'lso, a 
table of rates, a * tariff. ' 

Hinddstdni, bpt th^ir pounds 
not been troubled to distin- 

Ta,assub, prejudice ; bigotry. 

Tab, then -tak, up to a time 
indicated. See page 104. 

Tab, or tap, fever. 

Tabi ; tabfyat, disposition ; 
temperament ; health. 

Tdbi, subordinate, -ddr, a 
subordinate ; an adherent. 
-ddri, subordination ; al- 

Tabfb, a physician. 

Tabassum, a smile. 

Tad, then; next, -antar, 
after that. 

Taddruk (f.), retaliation ; 
preparation for ditto^ as by 
getting up evidence in a case 
in Court; investigation. 


Tadbir (f.), deliberation ; ad' 
vice ; plan. 

lL2S?iTTVL]{L\ recreation. V. -k. 

Tafi^utydistance; delay. V.-k. 

Tafsfl (f.), details, -k., to give 
in detail, -bolna, to tell at 
length, -an, in detail. 

Taghmah, a medal ; a uni- 
form ; a property-mark.' 

Tahin. See page 104. 

Tahkik, or talil^ikdt, enquiry ; 
investigation. V. -k. 

Tahsil (f.), collection of rents; 
a revenue area ; profits^ 
or collections generally. 
-dir, a collector of rents^ 
d^c. -dari, his area of 

Ta,fd, corroboration ; assist- 
ance ; an apprentice. 

Taiyar, ready. N. -i. 

Taisa. See page 104, 

Tdj, a crown, -ddr, a prince. 

Tajwiz (f.), investigation ; 
trial (e.g. in Court.) result 
of trial. -V. -k. 

Tdk (f.), look ; glance ; aim. 

Tak, up to (timCy ot place). 

Takalluf, ceremony. 

TAkid, pressing ; urging; or 
reminding one. V. -k. 

Takyah, a pillow. 

T., H. 

Takrdr (f.), reiteration ; dis- 
pute. -i, contentious ; 
quarrelsome ; disputed, 

Taklif (f.^, ceremony ; trouble; 
inconvenience. V. -d. 

Tikna {trans.\ to observe ; to 
watch, takna {intr.) 

Tdk (f.), a niche. 

Tdlf at, strength ; ability. 

Tal^dza, a dunning of one, 

Takdfr {L)yfate ; predestina- 

Takrfr (f.), recital; oration; 
detailed statement. V. -k. 

Taksfra (f.), division of pro- 
perty, d^c.y by shares. V. 
-k, and lena, • 

Ta^sfr (f.), a fault ; a crime 
A. -mand ; -war. [thing. 

Takhfif, making light ofany- 

Takhmfnan, by guess ; ap- 

Takht, a throne. 

Takhtah, a hoard ; a plank ; 
a shelf ; a plot of land. 
- posh, a low wooden plat- 
form for sitting on cross- 
legged, -nard, backgammon. 

Tdl, a lake. Also, a kind of 
palm tree. Also, same as 
* tdli,' q,v. 

Tdla, a padlock ; a key. 


194 hindiJstXni as it ought to be spoken. 

Tdlib (f.), or tald,o, an arti- 
ficial water-pond. 

Talab, sending for one ; desire. 
MsOypay ; salary, -k., to 
send for one. -d., to give 
one one^s pay, -dnah, fees 
for summoning ; daily al- 
lowance while waiting, 

Talaffuz, pronunciation, 

Talak, same as * tak/ q. v. 

Talik, divorce, 

Talash, search V. -k. 

TaldjO, same^ as * tdldb,' g.v. 

Tale (ke), under, 

Tdli, a key. Also, clapping 
the hands, -an, applause by 

Tdlikah, a list ; a schedule. 

Tdlu, the palate ; lampas. 

Talwdr (f.), a s7Uord, 

Tamach ih, a slap, 

Tamdm, whole ; entire, -k., 
to complete, 

Tamassuk, a bond for money 

Tama ; tdmba ; or tdmra, 

Tamdsha, an entertainment : 

a show , a jete, 
Tamatu, tomatoes, 
Tanibdku, tobacco, -pfna, to 
smoke ditto. 

Tambu, a tent, 

Tamsfl (f.), comparison ; a 
parable ; an illustration. 

Tan-dunist, in good health. 
N. -i 

Tang, narrow; too tight. 
N. ~i. means, also, poverty. 

Tdnga, a hill-cart ; a ^ tonga h.^ 

l^inkhwih (f.), wages; salary. 

Tdnna (L.B.), to pull; stretch 

Tdnt, a loom, -i, a weaver, 

Taniir, an oven. 

Tap (f.), heat ; fever, tapnai- 
to warm on^s self, 

Tapish, heat (lit. or fig-X; 

Tar, moist ; wet, -d,i, moist 
land at base of mountains ; 
* The Terai: 

Tar, string ; wire ; the tele- 
graph, -ghar, the tele- 
graph-fffice. -ki khabar, 
<?rchitt»ii, telegraphic news ; 
a telegram. 

Tira, a star, 

Taraddud, perplexity. 

Taraf (f.), side; direction^ 
Also, as prep, (ki.) -ddr, 
a partizan, -ddri, parti- 
zanship. -sini, the second 
par ty n uit ; the defend- 


TaralTi (f.)> mode; manner. 
Also as prep, (ki.), like, 

'T2C[dW\^ promotion; advance- 
ment, -pana, to get ditto, 

Tarash (n.), cutting, V. -k. 
or -na. 

Tardzu, a weighing machine, 

Tarfkah, mode ; manner, 

Tdrikh (f), a date, (e.g. of a 

Tarjih, superiority, -rakhna, 
to gain superiority, -d., to 
assign preference, 

Tarjamab, a translation, 
-mdn, a translator, 

Tarkari, moist vegetables, 

Tarso^, on the fourth day, 
(backwards or forwards.) 

Tartfb (f.), good order, ar- 
rangement, -k., to set in 
order. Adv. -i. 

Tarka, the dawn, 

Tdsh, the cards ; a game with 
cards, -ki \w^i,a card-table, 

Tasar, a kind of silk; Uusser' 

Tasarruf, use; tnjoyment ; ex- 
penditure ; waste, V. -k. 

Tasbfh ({,\ praising God by a 
certain formula ; a rosary, 

Tasdfl^ {^.^verification. V.-k. 

Taskfn (f.), comfort ; consola- 

Tasniah, a leather thong, 

Taswfr (f.), a picture. 

Tashaffi, a feeling of satisfac- 
tion ; satisfaction, 

Tashrif, honour conferred. See 
page 76. Sect, 17. 

Tatfl, rendering waste or use- 
less ; a vacation ; a holiday, 

TcJtolna, to ,^^rope, 

Tau, then ; -bhi, even then ; 
even in such circumstances, 

Taubah, repentance ; penance. 
As interj., what a shame I 
i.e., matter for repentance. 

Tauliyah, a towel. 

Taun. See page 104. 

Taur, mode ; manner. 

Tauret, or taurdt, the Old 

Tawaljikuf, delay ; wasting 
time. V. -k. 

Tawelah, a tethering-rope ; a 
stable ; a cattle-pen. 

Tawiz, having recourse to 
God ; an amulet. 

Tdzah, fresh ; green ; young. 
N. -zagi. 

Tazim (f.), the act of honour- 

ing one. 

Tel, oil. -batti, an oiled-wick; 
a lamp ; a night-light, -i, 
an oil-man. 


Tez; tez-rau, swift, N.-i. 
tez nahfn, slow, tez-zihn, 

Thaili, a bag ; a nose-bag, 
Thaka, tired, thakana, to 

Thdli, a brass platter so called. 
Thambha, a pillar ; a post. 
Thdmna (trans,), to stop ; to 

Than, 'a piece^ or web of 

cloth ; also, a stall, 
Thdnah, a police station, 

-dar, an officer in charge of 

a ^thdnah,' 
Thdpa, or thapi, the sound 

of beating; a mallet ; a bat, 
Thora, a lit fie. -thora, a very 

Thiik, spittle, V. ~na. 

Tidhar. Seepage 104. 
Tiffin,^ lunch;. 'tiffin: 
Tifl, a child, 
T\]ira.t, trade ; trading. 
Tilak, the dedication mark on 

a Hindu's forehead. 
Tilli, the spleen. 
Tin, three. Obi. cases, 'tinon/ 

Tipd, i, a small table ; a 

Tip^ri, Cape-gooseberry. 
Tfr (m.), an arrow. 
Tirchha, bent; crooked ; awry, 
Tfsra, the third, 
Tishnah, thirsty. N. -nagi. 
Tfta, bitter, -panf, tonic- 
• water. 

Titna {co-relative)^ so many ; 
so much. 

To. See page ^T, Note \. 

Tol ; taul, the weight of a 
thing, tola, tlu weight of a 
rupi, taulna, to 7veigh. 

Tonta, a cartridge. 

Top, a cannon, -khanah, 
the artillery-lines, 

Topi a grove ; a * tope: 

Torna; tor-d., to break; tear ; 
destroy, tor-rahna, to con- 
tinue breaking. 

Toshah, valuables, -khdnah, 
a treasure-house, 

Toshak (f.), a mattress ; bed- 

Tota ; toti, a parrot, (m, f.) 

Tu, thou. 

> This word is derived from an Arabic oot, " fon," meaning 

hindiJstIni as it ought to be spoken. 


Tdfan (m.), a storm. A.-f. 
Tu f d 1 iyat, childhood, 
Tuhmat, an accusation. V. 

Tv]h, inflected sing, of'^tu.'^ 
Tukhm, a seed ; a seed-stone. 
Till, length, also, long, 
Tul, like ; similar. 
Tulna, to be weighed. 
Talst, sacred basil. 

Turn, ye ; you. Also, in Ob- 

liq : cases. 
Tund, sharp ; active; fierce. 
Often used in compos, e.g. 
-zihn, sharp-ivitted ; clever. 
Turat, at once. 

Turk, a Turk. A. -i, * Turki' 
also means a certain kind 
of horse. 
Tursh, harsh; sour. (lit. or fig.) 


Tal«a, to be a)asive. X2i\i.\o\\. 

evasiveness ; beating about 

the bush. 
fang (f.), the leg. -na ; -d., 

to give a leg ; to hang up. 
Xanga, or ta^gi, an axe. 
Tapa, a coop ; Anglo- Hind., 

a ' topper.' 
Tappal,^ the letter, cr'C. post ; 

the post-office. 
Xat, coarse canvas ; ''gunny.' 
fatolna (inir.\ to grope ; feel. 
Tatti, a screen ; a privy. 
Tattu, a pony ; a * taft.' 

Terha, not straight. 

Thag, a garotter ; a * thug.' 

Thaharna, to remain ; stop ; 
wait, thahrdna, to de- 

Thakur, a divinity ; an em- 
blem of ditto ; a Brahman. 
Also, common as a name' 
among the Brahman class. 
-ani, fem. of * Thakur.' 
-bari, a Hindu place of 

Thanda (Adj.), cold. N. -i. 

Thattha, a jest, ^bathol, a 
jester, thatholi, jesting, 
thatholna, to jest. 

Thelna, to push. 

Tiddi, a locust ; a grass-hop- 

* Not used in L. B. 

198 hindust^(ni as it ought to be spoken. 

Thfk ; thik-thdk, exact ; per- 
fectly right, tf'ikina, one's 

address ; trace whereby to 
find a thing ; (ettainty. 
Thika, hire ; lease ; contract, 

-gdri, a hirei carriage. 

-ddr, the holder of a lease ; 

a contractor, 
Thokar (f.), a blow ; a knock, 

thokna, to strike, -khdna, 

to get a blow, or knock. 

Ubalna {trans. \ to boil, ubal- 

na, (intr.) 
Ubkd, i, vomiting ; straining, 

V.-k. and lena. 

Uchhal, leaping, V.-na. 

Udas, grieved. N. -i. 
Udhar, thither ; on the far 
side ; over there. 

Ugal, spit, -ddn, a spittoon, 
XJkharna, to uproot. 

XJlat, the act of upsetting, 
-na {trans, and tntr.), to 
upset, or be upset. -d.^ to 
upset, -pulat, upside down, 

Ullu, an 07vL 

Ultana, to upset: turn upside 
down, ulta, reversed ; turn- 

Thuddi, the inch. 

Tikli, a wafer, 

Xiktikki, a lizard, 

ffp (f.)> ^ ^^^^ of hand ; an 
L O, U, 

Tokri, a basket, 

Tola, a quarter of a town, 

Tukra, a piece ; a morsel, 

Tiingna, to peck, 

Tilta, broken. 


ed upside down. ulta,-pulta, 
upside down ; in confusion. 

Umdah, excellent ; noble, 

Ummed(f.), hope. A, -wdr, 
which is also used as a 
noun meaning one hoping 
for an appointment, &*c, 

Ummiimat, maternity. 

Umr (f.), one's age. 

Uimir (PI. of *an)r.'), affairs ; 

U'n, zvool. un, inflected plur, 

U'ncha, high, N. -i. 
Ungli, a finger, 
Ungul, the thumb. 
U'nt, a camel, 

U'par, above ; up ; high up; 
As prep, (ke.) 


Urdu (f.), a market ; a camp. 

a name of the Hindtistdni 

language^ as formed by the 

mixing of various races in 

market and camp, 
Urna ; lir-jana {intr,\ t» fly. 

urana; urd-d. (trans.), to 

fly ; to squander, 
Usarah, a portico; a verandah. 
Us, inflected, sing, of ^wuh,^ 

-kadar. See page 104. 

-wa^t, at that time ; then. 

Usturah, a razor, 

Utarna; utdr-d. to break 
down; to tear off; to strip 
off, utarna, to come down ; 
to descend, 

Uthla, shallow, V. -i. 

Uttar, the North, 

Uthna, to rise, uth-jana, to 
rise and go, uthdna ; 
utha-d, to raise, 

Uzr, an excuse, -k., to excuse. 


Words in which W is sounded like V are nearly all 
derived from Sanskrit, and would not be of use to you. 
But you should know the word * Ved * or * Veda,' the general 
name of the Sacred Books of the Hindus— />4^ * Veds: 


Waadah, a promise, V. -k. 

Wa,e-wd,e, woe is me / 

Wafa, fulfilling a promise ; 

Waghairah, et ccetera, 

Wahdp, there: may be follow- 
ed by ka, ko, se, tak, &c. 
like a noun. 

Wahhdbi, a follower of Abd-l- 
* Wahhdb^ a Muham : 
teacher of the last century. 

Wahid, alone ; unique, 

Waisa, like that; so. See 

page, 104. -hi, in that 

very manner just like 

Wajab, a span, (of the hand!) 

Wajh (f.), reason ; cause, 

Wdjib, or wdjibi, right ; pro- 
per, wdjibdt, proper acces- 
sories ; necessary things. 


Wakll, or Vakil, an ambassa- 
dor ; representative ; attor- 
ney, wakdlat-ndmah, a 
power of Attorney, 

Walff, a Muham : religious 

Wdkiffyat, experience; know- 

Wdlj:if, aware; informed ; 
acquainted with, -bona, to 
be, or become ditto, -k., to 
inform, dr'c, 

Wakt, time, -ba-, from time 
to time, -nd-, occasion- 

Wdla-wdli. See page 73, 7. 

Wali (M.), a holy man. 

Wdpas, back; behind; re- 
turning, -dna, to come bach, 
-d., to give back, -bona, 

to be back, -rakbna, to keep 

Wdlid, a father. -ih, a mother. 
Warak, a leaf of a book, or 

of a tree. 
Warid (Adj.), approaching; 

arriving; present. V.-bona , 
Waris, an heir, PL -dn. 
Warna, and if not ; if this 

be not so ; otherwise. 
Wasikab, firmness ; solidity ; 

a bond; a written agreement. 

Wisil, joined together ; col- 
lected, -bdki, a statement 
of collections and arrears, 
-dt, accounts; mesne-pro- 

Wasf lab, means used to accom- 
plish any object. 

Wasiyat, one^s last ' will.^ 

Wdste (ke.), for the sake of; 

Watan, one's native country. 

Wazir, a minister ; a ' Vizier.^ 

VVazn, iveight. (lit. or fig.) 
V. -k. -'i, heavy. 

We, they ; those. Nom. PI. 

of *wuh.^ 
VVildyat, foreign lands, -i, 
foreign ; European ; Eng- 
lish, -i pdni, soda water. 
Wiran, depopulated; waste; 

a desert. 
Wobi, that vefy. wobin, 

thus ; in this manner. 
Wujiid, existence ; substance; 

essence ; invention. See 

' Bd-wujiid.' 
Wub, he ; she ; it ; that. 
Wuku, an occurrence ; an 

event, PI. wdkiydt. 
Wukilf, experience. 
Wusiil, collection of rents, &*c. 

V. -k. 



Ya, or, ya...ya, either.., or, Ydr, a friend, A^ friendships 

Yad (f.), recollection, V. -k. Yatim, an -orphan, -i, -cy,. 

-ddsht, a memorandum, ^,, , ... , „ 

,.w /^ \ ^ . . xtyi^h, idle talk ; nonsense, 

-andiTiz. (trans, \ to remind, _. ^- ^, ' „ ^ 

XT 1 / 7 Ai J . 1 Ye, they ; these, Nom., PI. of 

Yaha9, here. Also used with < • t » 

ka, ko, se, &:c. as a noun. • ' 

As prep. (ke.). See page Yih, he; she ; it i this, -, this^ 

44. -dna, /(? arrive, 
Yahiid, a Jew, -in, a Jewess. 
Yakin, certain, -janna, to 

know for certain, N. -i. 
Ydkiit, a ruby. 
Yakh (f.), /V<?. 
Yane, namely ; that is to say ; 

* / mean J 


Yogi, also jogi, « Hindu 

Yon, M«J, /« M/x manner. 
-hin, /« i^/V z;^/^ manner ,^ 
. Also, ^>' r/^<7«r^ ; casually. 

Yug, « 0'^/^ ^/ ti7ne. 

There are four *Z's' in Hindilstini, but their sounds are 
so similar that you have not been troubled to distinguish 
Zabdn (f.), the tongue; a Zabitah, ordinance; law; 

language, -i, orally, established custom. 

Zabar, superior in position, Zabt, confiscation, V. -k. 
-dz%i} powerful ; oppres- Zabiin, bad ; wicked, 
sive, N. -dasti. V. -dast Zahin, sharp-witted. 
hona. -dasti k. 
Zabh, sacrifice, -k., to kill an 
animal as prescribed by law, 
i.e., by cutting the throat. 

Zdhir, evident ; clear, -hona^ 
to be evident, -k., to make 
evident; to demonstrate^ 
Adv. -an. 

* • Dast,' the hand. V. ante. 


Zahr, poison ; -dlddah,^<?/V^«- 
ed (as food.).-ila, poisonous, 

Zabmat, anxiety ; pains. 

Za,lf, frail ; infirm, 

Zakhm, a wound, A. -i, means 
also a wounded person. 

Zdlim, an oppressor, A. -i. 

Zaman ; zanidnah, any time ; 
an epoch or age of the World. 

Zamin, bail, zamdnat, surety- 

Zamin (f.), land, -ddf, a 
landed proprietor, -ddri, 
la nded-property. 

Zamurrad, or zumarrad, an 

Zan (p.), a woman, -ani, ap- 
pertaining to women.-indih^ 
the female apartment , 

Zanakh, the chin. 

Zang, rust, -khiirdah, rusty, 
-pakarna, (rust has seized 
this ;) equal to^ * this has 
turned rusty, ^ 

Zdnu, the knee. 

Zanjir (f.), a chain, 

ZsLT, gold, 

ZsLT^T, hurt ; injury, -khafif, 
trivial injury, -shadid, 
serious injury. 

Zarb (f.) a blow, 

Zard (Ad],), yellow. N. -i. 

Zarrah (f.), a little ; a morsel, 

Zariir, necessary, -at, neces- 
sity ; time of difficulty. 

TAt, caste. 

Zaujah, a wife. 

Zer (p.), under, -band, a 
martingale, -tajwiz, under 

Zewar ; zewardt, jewels. 

Zidd, perversity ; spite. V. -k. 

A. -i. 
Zikr, remembrance ; mention. 

V. -k. 
Zila ; a district ; a country. 

Zimmah, charge ; keeping ; 

Zin (f.), a saddle. V. -ban- 

dhna ; bandh-d. -posh, a 


Zindah, alive, -dagi ;-dagdni 
life ; being alive. 

Ziyddah, more ; too much. 

dat, increment. 
Ziydfat, a feast. V. -d. 
Ziydn, loss. 

Zor ; zori, force ; strength. 
-dwar ; -mand, strong ; op- 
pressive^ -d., to assist ; to 
strengthen, -k., to strain; 
to force ; to oppress. 

Ziid, quick ; swift, also as adv. 


Zuf, or zof, bodily frailty, Zu\i\, pure ; limpid; whole- 
Zuhr, the turn of the day at some, 

noon ; noon, Zulf (f.), curly hair, 

Zukam, a cold in the head. Zulm, oppression, A. -i. 





The contractions used in the English-Hindiistdrii part 
of this Glossary are the same as those used in the first part, 
with one addition, viz, (v. n.), which means ' Verbal Noun/ 
See page 1$, Sect 17. 

The * head-word' is generally the shortest word from 
which longer words are derived. Thus under * Art ' you 
will find * Artificer.' 

Always look for the Noun first, (if there be a noun,) e,g., 
for * Advice,' not for * Advise.' 

As, within the space available, all synonyms cannot be 
given, if you cannot find the precise word wanted, try 
another of a similar meaning— Note also that as Jamiliar 
words are given, you should lock for such ; as for * Delay ^ 
not for ' Procf astination^ 

A double use is made of the short line ; first, associated 
with English^ it represents the head English word, (or so 
much of it as is wanted,) e.g.^ * accurate,' * -acy ;' secondly^ 
associated with the IJindusidm\ it refers to the preceding 
word or words, e,g.^ * affirmation,' ikrar; izbdr. V. -k.,. 
means that you may use *karna' with both *ikrdr' and 
* izhdr,' for the English * to affirm.' When one verb is not 
applicable to a string of nouns, the string is broken, the 
verb applicable to the nouns up to that point is shown 
within brackets ; the nouns are then resumed ; other ap- 
propriate verbs being given in their proper places. 

2oS hindiSstAni as it ought to be spoken. 

English 7vithin brackets indicates the precise shade of 
meaning of the word being dealt with. 

Nouns of an abstract sense do not often occur in the 
common Hindiistdni. Few therefore are given here. The 
abstract idea of an act is generally expressed by the Verbal 
Noun, e,g,^ chup-rahna bihtar hai bak-bak karne-se, ^^ silence 
is better than chattering ; " and the abstract idea of a person 
is expressed by a clause with ' jo ' — or by the humble 
* wdla/ e.g.^ Jo insdf karta hai, wuh Khuda-ko pasand hai, 
*^ The Doer of Justice is pleasing to God^ 


f * » 


• : ^\ 


A, (^z* an. See pa^e ^, Note. 
Abandon, chhor-d. ; iark-k. 
Abetment, madad{t) ; idnat, 

V. -d, -tor, madadgdr. 
Abide. See * Live,* * Remain.' 
Ability, kdbiltyat ; makdur. 
Able, kdbiL to l)e-, sakna. 

See page i8. Sect 22. 
Above (adv.), lipar. (prep.), 

ke lipa^. 
Absent, ghair-hdzir. N. -/. 

y. -hona. 
Absorb, sokhna ; sokh-jdna. 
Abstinence, parhez (f.), V. 

"k, ; nahii} karna. 
Abstract, kjiitldsah. V. -k, ; 

(as essence), nikdl-d. 
Absurd, behiidah. N. -dagi. 
Abuse, gdlL V. -d. 
Academy, madrasah. 

T., H. 

Accede to, J^abiii- (or kubiii-) 

k. ; inanzur-k. 
A ccc 1 erate, jaldi-kardna. N. 

Accept, iena; le Una ; pasand 

'k. ; ^abul-k, A. pasand; 

pasandidah ; achchha, 

-ance, Iena (as v.n.). 
Access, rdh (f.) ; rdsta, of 

fever, dmad (f.). 
Accident, ittijdk. by -, itti- 

Accompany, sdthjdna ; ham- 

Accomplish, tamdm-k. ;pura- 

k.; taamil-k. ; -ed, (done), 

tamdm, &*c, (learned), 

dliffi ; kdmil ; drdsiah. 
According to, hasb ; ba-^ 

mtijib ; ke mu^dfik. 

210 hindi^stXni as it ought to be spoken. 

Account (in figures), hisdb. to 
do-, "k. , or likhna. to take-, 
-iena, to keep -, ^rakhna, 
-ant, mutasaddi -book, 
-kibahi, (in words) baydn ; 
bdt ; i^issah; hikdyat, N-k, 

Accurate, thik ; durust ; 
achchha. -acy, sihhai. 

Accusation, tuhmat (V. la- 
gdna) ; ndlish, (V. -k ) 
-^x^ faryddi ; fnudda,i. 

Accustomed, I 2im^yih mera 
das fur hai^ or oth cr ph rase. 

Acknowledgment, i^rdr ; 
j^abul'k, (v.n.). V. -k, 
deed of-, ikrdr-ndmah. 
(receipt), * rasid: (E.). 

Acquaint, khabar-d, ; dgdh-k; 
wdkif-k. -ed (with any 
matter.) wdkif ; dgdh ; 
maifj. jdnta htif}. -ance, 
dost ; ydr ; . bhd^i, -ance- 
^hx^^jdn-pahchdn ; dostt. 

Acquire, pdna ; hdsil-k. ; 
jama-k, ; milna. See page 
50, A^oie I. -si I ion, hdsil ; 
jo hdsil hti^a. 

Acquittance (in Court), kha- 
Ids; rihdj, V. -kar-d, 
(of an account), * rasid^ ; 
(E.) ; fdrigh-khatiL V. -^. 

Across, pdr ; us pdr. 

Act, fel; amr; amal. -tion, 

kdtn* V. kama. 
Active, tez ; chdldk, -ity, 

chusti ; chdldkL 
Add, lagd-d, {figwxt%\ jama-k. 
Address (speech), tai^rir (f ); 

arz (f.); bahs (f.); nibedan. 

V. -^ (of letter, &c.,) 



Adhere, lagna ; lag-jdna ; 

satna ; sat-jdna. 
Adjacent, nazdtk ; karib. 
Admiration, ajab ; ta^ajjuh, 

V. -k, -able, ^y/^/ kMb; 

Admit (to presence), dne-d. 

(agree to), J^abul-k. ; ikrdr- 

k. -mission, i^rdr. 
Adorn, sajdna. -menr, 

drdjsh; sii}gdr. 
Advance, barhd^o, V. {trans\ 

dge baxhdna ; chaldna. 

(tntr. ), chalna ; dgejdna, 

(of money), dddni. -ment 

in life, taraJ^ki. V. -^. and 

Advantage, fdjdah, -ous, 

fd^idamand, . 
Advertisement, ishtihdr. V. 

Advice, saldh (f.)/ maslahat. 

V. -^. 

HINDI^StInI as it ought to be spoken. 211 

Affair, bdi ; amr ; kdm ; 

Affect, asar, V. -k, ; lagna. 
Affection, pydr ; muhabbat 
Affirmation, i^rdr ; izhdr. 

V. -^. / kahna. 
Affliction, ghamm; dzurdagi; 

taklif (f. ). -ed, ghamgin ; 

dzurdah ; dil-sokhtah, V. 

satdna ; taklif-d. 
Afford, de-sakna. 
Afoot, paidal ; pd^orp-pd^oi^, 
Af ler (time), ke baud ; ke pl- 

chhe, (place), ke pichhe: 

(adv.), pichhe, -wards, is 

ke baad ; tab, -noon, do 

pahar ke baad ; sih-pahar. 
Again, phir ; pher, - and-, 

ber-ber ; aksar. 
Against {e.g.^ a stone), /ar. 

(adverse), se khildf. 
Age, umr (f.); sinn, (period), 

wal^t ; zamdnah ; yug, 

old-, burhdpa. 
Agent, nd^ib ; gumdshiah ; 

kartah ; kdr-parddz, (for 

law business), vakil ; 

mukhtdr, -cy, gumdshta- 

gari ; vakili. 
Agree to, ^abul-k; rdzi-hona. 

-able, khush ; pasand ; 

mu^dfil^, -ably to, hasb ; 

ba-miijib ; ke mu^dfik 
-ment, shart ; J^aul-o- 
iardr ; ahd-o-paimdn, -(in 
writing), satta ; sarkhatt, 
...ndmah, added to word 
expressing the nature of 
the agreement ; as sulk- 
ndmahy an agreement for 
peace, e,g,^ in a litigation. 

Aid, madad (f.). V. -^. 

Aim (at mark), shast, V. -k. 
(intention), matlab ; ird- 
dak ; J^asd ; niyat ; gharaz 

Air, hawa (f.). to take the-, 
hawa khdna. 

Alarm, dar ({.), Y-dikhldna. 

Alike, eksdj^ ; ek J^tsm ka ; 

All, sab ; sab ke sab ; kull ; 
iamdm. -right ! bahut 
achchha I ; bahut klnib / 

Allegation, bdt ; baydn ; arz 
(f.). V. -^. / kahna. 

Alligator, magar ; ghariydl ; 

Allow, use ^ dena^^ and the 
vei b of that which is al- 
lowed, e.g., us-ne hatn-ko 
dne diya hat, he has allow- 
ed me to come. When 



equivalent to *give,' (I 

allow you ten rupees a 

month), also use * dena,^ 
Allude to, zikr-k, N. zikr. 
Almonds, bdddm. 
Alms, khairdt V. -d. 
Alone, akela ; ekla ; ianha ; 

Along {e,g.^ the street,) met^; 

/«r.-with, ek sdih ; kesdth. 
Aloud, zor S€y or baland 

awdz se. 
Already, ab-hi ; mihchukna, 

e.g., I have already spoken, 

mai^ bol-chuka hiit}. 
Also, aur ; bhi. 
Alternate. Seepage 69. 
Although, agar-chih ; har- 

Always, hameshah ; aksar. 
Am, hui!f. 
Amendment, bihtari ; du- 

rusti ; tarmim, V, -k. 
Amiable, aziz ; shdyastah, 

-bility, shdyastagi. 
Among; amidst, ke bich, 

-themselves, dpas me^. 
Amount, jumlah ; jama. 
Amuse, bahldna ; khush-k, 

-ment, tdmdsha ; khela- 

Analysis, iafsil ; tafrii, V. ^k. 

Ancestor, jadd ; bdp-ddda ; 

mttris. -try, jaddiyat 
Anchor, langar, V. (to cast, ) 

-ddlna, (to heave), -uthd- 

Ancient, ^adim ; agla ; 

And, aur ; wa ; 0. 
Angt\ firistah.{Pl. -tagdn,)) 

Anger, gbussah ; khafgi; ris, 

(f.). A. ghusse : khafa, 

V, "hona, 
Kmm2i\ijdnwar ; haiwdn. 
Animosity, addwat ; dush- 

Announcement, khabar^ (f.) ; 

iitila (f.). V. ^tf. 
Annoyance, dii^k ; fakllp {t), 

V. "d.; saidna. 
Another, (an additional 

thing,) aur ek, (a different 

thing), dusra. 
Answer, jawdb^ V. ^d, (to 

^dOy) thik'hona ; achchha- 

hona, (liable to answer), 

Ant, chyunti, (red,) bej^biif, 

(white.) ditnak. 
Antimony, surmah. 
Antipathy, zidd ; nafrat ; 




Antiquity, aivd^il ; agle-tvafit 
Anxiety, yfv^r (f.) ; andeshdh ; 

taraddud. A. fikrmand ; 

mutafakkir, V. fikrmand^ 

&fc. hona. 
Any. See page 38. -where, 

kahifj, -how, kisi tarah ; 

jis - taraJp ban - pa^ega. 

-more, aur kuchh. 
A^dctX^juda ; alag ; ek taraf, 

-ment, kothri; kamra, 

(for females), zandnah, 

(for males), marddnah. 
Apology, uzr, V. -k. 
Apostle, rastil ; paighambar, 

(tlie latter referring, par 

excellence^ to Muhammad.) 
Apparatus, sdz; sdz-o-sdmdn; 

saranjdni ; chiz sab. 
Apparent, zdhir ; maaluin ; 

sdf. to be-, -hona. to 

make- -k. 
Appearance, sural; 5hakl{L), 
Append, jorna ; lagd-d, ; 

shdmil-k, -age, Idhil^, -ix, 

Apple, seb. 

Applicable, Id^tJ^ ; mundsib. 
Apply (one thing to an- 
other), lagdna ; lagd-d, ; 

mildna ; . mild-d. (as to 

study), mihnal, tandihi^ 

or ihlimdm-k, ; dil-lagd-d, 

-plication, (of one thing to 

another,) ek chiz dusri ko 

lagd'd. (v.n.). (diligence,) 

tnihnat ; tandihi ; ihtimdm. 
Appointment, kdm; naukari, 

V. kisi ko kdm^ dr'c, d, ; 

tayin-k ; ndm-zad-k. -ed, - 
. muta^aiyan ; mansiib. 
Apprehend (with mind), sa- 

majhna; samajh inef,i lena; 

bujhna. -hension, samajh^ 

(J,)',biijh,{l))hosh; akl 

(f.) See * Arrest.' 
Approach, nazdik, or sdmne, 

or pds dna ; wdrid hona. 
Approve, pasand-k. ; man- 

ziir-k. -al, manzuri. 
Apricot, khubdni^ or khobdni. 
Arbitration, sdlisi ; panch- 

dyal, V. "k. -tor, salis ; 

Arch {w\mihrdbN ^-bandna. 
Archer, kamdn-ddr ; tir-an- 

ddz. -ery, kamdn-ddri ; 

tir-anddzi, . 
Ardour, garmi ; dilsozi ; zah- 
mat ; mihnat, filled with-, 

garm ; dil-soz ; mihnati. 
Arduous, sakht ; mushkil ; 

sangin ; wazani. 
Are. See page 15. Seel. li. 

»i4 hindiSstAni as it ought to"Ke spoken. 

Area, maiddn ; ya^dr^(court) 

Areca-nut, supdri,pdn. 

Arise, uthna ;. uth-jdna, (be- 
gin,) shurii-k. (come up, 
e^,j for attention,) bar-pd- 
hona ; pesh-hona. 

Arm, bdzu; Ad/A.-\nt, baghal^ 
(f.). (of sea, or river\ sota. 

Arms, hathiydr ; karbe. 

Army f/auj (f.) ; lashkar (m.). 

Around, har taraf ; chdroij. 
taraf;chauras. prep, kegird. 

Arrangement, tartib; Intizdm; 
band-o-bast, (m.). V. ^k, ; 
thlk'k, ; durusi'k. 

Arrears, bdki ; jo bd^i hai ; 

Arrest, paka^na ;pakar'lena^ 
or ie-jdna ; giriftdr-k, in 
arrest, girifidr-hu^a ; J^aid- 
M^a ; pakra gaya, 

Arxvte, pahtif}chna ; d-pahuiy 
chna ; dna ; d-jdna ; hdzir- 
hona, or dna ; tashrif Idna, 
See page 76. Sect 17. 
ivdrtd'hona. -al, dmad (f.). 
dar-dmad (f.). and with the 
verbs used as v, n. -e.g., 
* on his arrival,' us^ke dne 
ke wa^t. 

Arrow, tir (m.). 

Art, hunar ; ilm ; kdm, -ful, 
hilah'bdz ; shokh, -fully, 
fann se. -less, sldha ; sack- 
cha, -ifice, JdlaK -ificer, 
kdrlgar, -ist, musawwir. 

Artichoke, hdtichok, (E.). 

Artillery, the, top-khdnah. 

As. See page 104. (like.) ki 
mdnind ; ke mu,dfiiji ; chun- 
dnchih. * he gives orders 
as a master, mdlik kar 
(from *karna,') tiukum deta 
hai * as if is best transla- 
ted by Mike,' e.g., he speaks 
as if he were a great man^ 
-he speaks * like,' or * in 
the manner of * a great 
man,' *bare idmi ke taurse 
bolta hai, or, bara ddmi 
kar bolta hai.' As far as, 
as long as, &c. See corre- 
sponding phrases at page 
104. as often as... so often, 
jai'ber^^.tai'ber, ^that as 
well as this,^ wuh, aur yih 

AscendyCha^hna ; cha^hjdna, 
N. u^chi zamln (f.). 

Ascertainment, darydft ; 
tahkik, V. -k, : khabar 
Idna ; ptichhna. 
Ascribe, lagdd. 


Ashamed, sharmindah ; lajit 
to be-, -hona ; sharmdna ; 
sharm-khdna; lajdna. 

^\shes, rdkh. 

Ask, (a question.) puchhna ; 
sawdl-k, (for something.) 
mdngna ; chdhna. 

Asparagus, sparugras. (E.). 

Aspec, aspik. (E.). 

Aspire, drzu rakhna, -ation, 

Ass, gadha, (f. gadht) ; khar. 


Assembly, -blage, jamd^at ; 
majmti^ah ; majlis; amboh, 
(unlawful) majma khi- 
Idf i^dmin, (xxoious) guhdr^ 
V. {trans, \jama'k, (tntr,), 

Assent. See * Agree to.' 

Assert. See * Say.' 

Assist. See *Aid.' -tant, 

Associate, sharik ; rafi^, to 
-with, mel-rakhna ; sdth- 
rahna ; suhbai-rakhna. 

Assume (take), lena ; le-lena. 
(for argument's sake,) 
farZ'k. (airs), itrdna. 

Assure, ^df^«a ;ya^in kardna^ 
-^ncGf yafiin ; khdtir-jama^ 
-edly, aibattah. 

Astonishment, tahaiyur, V, 
kisi ko tahaiyur-k, -ed, 
ghdbra, -ing, ajiibah ; ajih^ 

Astrology, nujum, -ger, nu- 

At, (a person's,) ke pds ; ke 
yahdi}. (place,) meip^ 
(time,) ko, -all events, ba 
har surat, -first, awwalan ; 
paihle, -hand, ke pds ; ke 
fiazdik ; muyassar, -home. 
ghar met}, -last, dkhir ; 
dkhir ko ; dkhir-ul-amr^ 
-least, kam se kam, -lei- 
sure, e.g., abmujh-kofursat 
hat, -lengih, (in detail,) 
mufassalan, (See, * at last.') 
-most, bahut se bahut 
-pleasure, marzi ke mu^- 
dfi^, -present, ab ; is wafit 
-random ; ittifdi^-se ; be* 
taur ; be-thikdna, -times, 
kabhi'kabhi, -work, kdm 
met} ; mashghfiL-iht worst, 
sab se buri hdiai men. 

Attach, lagdna ; lagd-d ; 
jotna, -ment (as a friend), 
tarafddri ; mail, (a join- 
ing),y^r- (seize, by process 
of law, or otherwise), 

Attack. See * Assault.' 

fli6 hindi^stAki as it ought to b£ spoken. 

Attain, pdna ; milna (See 

/ /a^f 50. Note I.) hdsil'k, 
-men r , (of wish, ) kdmydbi, 

_ (acquisition), Msi7. (learn- 
ing), /////; ddnist ; hunar. 

Attempt, koshish, V. -k. 

Attendance, hdziri, khidmat; 

. (in hopes of employment), 
uminedivdri, -tion, kha- 

. barddri ; stuheti. -tive, 
khabarddr; suchet. to give 

. attention, khabarddri-k. ; 
dil-lagdna, to attend on 
one, kisi ki khidmat-k, 
with attention, khabarddri 

Attestation, tasdik ((.);s/taAd- 
dat V, 'k. 

Attorney, vakil; mukhtdr ; 
nd,ib, power of-, vakdlat- 
ndmah ; mukhtdr-ndmah. 

Auction, niidm. V. -k, to 

. send to-,, niidm tnef^ d., or 

Audience, darbdr ; ma j lis. 
-hall (public), diwdn-i- 
dmm. (private), diwdn-i- 
khdss. to grant an-, diwdn- 
i-dmm (or khdss) met? muld- 
Augiiient, barhdna ; ziyd- 
dah'k. -ation, ziyddai. 

Aunt, (paternal,) phiiphL 

(maternal), mausi. 
Author, musanntf. 
Authority, /i|////j4^ ; ma^dur ; 

hukiimai, --he^Jjdzat'd; 
Autumn, kharif. A. kharifi. 

— crop, kharif. 
Avail of, kdm Una, -able, 

kdm ka. of no avail, kuchh 

kdm ka nahifj. 
Avarice, Idlach^ (m.) ; hukhl ; 

(f.) ; hirs, (f.) A. Idlchi. 
Avenge, iniikdm lena. 
Averse {kuchh chiz se)^niukhd' 

lif. \ -liona. -sion, nafrat 
Await, rahna ; kisi ke wdsfe 

Award (y.)dildna. {n.)falwa; 

h\\2Jt^, wdJjiif. to be-, wd^if- 

hona. to make-, -k. 
Away.. See * Absent. ' 
Awaken, {Irans.) jagdna ; 

jagdd, (intr.)^ jdgnm. 

awake, jdgla ; beddr. wide- 
awake, (fill.) hoshydr ; 
Awe, (n.,) dar (m.). (v.) dar 

dikhldna, -ful, haul-ndk. 
Awning, shdmiydnah. 
Axe, tdiiga ; kulhd^i. 
Azure, dsmdni. 




$abe, baby, bachchah ; bach- 
, chah viiy&rj, ; larka ; (fem.) 

larki ; bdba (L. B.). 
Bachelor, n,ukhlis ; mujar- 

rad ; ko^dra. 
Back (v. trans.) J pichhe-k. ; 

hatd'd. (v. inir.\ hatjdna ; 

hatna, to give-, ivdpas-d. to 

keep-, rokna : bdz-rakhna, 

(n.) /////, (f.). (^d\.)pher; 

pichhe ; bdz. 
Bacon, bekam. (E.). 
Bad, khardb; burn ; bad (last 

much used in compos.) 
, -ly, khardb; khardb taur^se. 
Badge, chaprds, wearer of 

a-, chaprdsi. 
Bag, ihaili ; kisah ; kharitah, 

for water (small), mashk. 

{\ar^e\ pakhd/. -gage, ch/z- 

basfy (f.). 
Bail, zdmini. -or, zdm/n, 
. -iff, /idzir. 

Ba\ie, pa kdna.^er, roti-ivdla. 
. -house, tantir-khdnah. 
Balance, (for weighing,) (n.), 

tdrdzu. (unpaid,) bdJ^i ; 

bdkiydi. (excess,) fdst'l 
Bald, ganja, -ne.-s, ganj. 

Ball, goli ; gend ; anta. -of 

thread, &c., batta, (dance), 

ndch, (f.). a fancy -, pudri" 

ndch, (half E.). 
Bamboo, bdt^s. 
Band, (of people, )^«r<?^. (m.), 

(music,) bdja, (for waist,) 

kamar-band, (for neck,) 

gala-band, or gulii-band. 

Bank, (river^ &c.,) pdr ; 

kindrah (money,) kothi ; 

bank} (E. . -er, sarrdf ; 

sdhtikdr ; mahdjan. 
Barber, bdrwa/(E.); hajjdni; 

Bare, (naked,) langa, or 

nanga, (plain,) sdda; khdlL 

to lay-, kholna ; dekhne-d, 

-faced, be-sharm. 
Bargain, shart ; kaul-o-^ardr. 

V. -bdndhna ; -bdndh- 

Una ; -k. 
Barley, y^M. (for table,) bdrli, 

Barouche, ba^iishgdri, (half 

Barracks, chhduni; /dins(E,). 
Barrel, pipa. 

* Preserve your Hindustani pronunciation of the short ' a.' 

ai8 hindi^stXni as it ought to be spoken. 

Barren, -land, zamin jis-se 
fast nahiij, tnilti hat. 

Base (n.), bunydd, (f.). (ad>), 

. bad-zdt ; pdjL (of coin,) 

Bashful. See * Ashamed.' 

Basil, tulsL 

Basin, bdsan, (metal,) chilam- 

Basket, tokru work-, pauti. 

Bat, (beast,) chamgddaf^,{Y\2i.y- 
ing,) thdpi ; lakrL 

Battle, lardyi'Jang. (f. ). V. mk,; 
laxna, -array, saff-i-jang. 

Bazaar, bdzdr, 

Beykona; (for Passive Voice), 
j'dna, -it so, so hi ho. 

Beach. See ' Bank.' 

Bead, ddnah. a string of-, 

Beak, cho^ch ; nok, (f.). 

Beam,(large,) /tf/M«/ (small,) 

Bean, bo^a ; lobiya. 

Bear (v.). See * Carry,' (en- 
dure,) barddsht'k, -fruit, 
phalna ; phal-d, -pain, 
dard uthdna. -children, 
janna, -young, biydna. 

-witness, gawdhi^ oxshahd* 
dat'd. * bearer.' Seepage 35, 
See * Carrier.' (animal), 
richh; bhdl ; bhdlu. 

Beard, dd^hi ; rish (f.). 

Beast, yi«zf/ar; haiwdn. 

Beat, mdrna; pitna; thokna; 
(in contest,) y//«df, (, to 
win,) (^.^.,adrum,) bajdna, 
-ing, mdr ; mdr-mdr ; 
mdra-mdri; mdr-pit, to be 
beaten, mdr-khdna. 

Beautiful, khiib-stirat N. -/. 

Because, kyiit^kih} 

Become, ho-jdna (suit,) 
achchha-lagna ; IdJJji-hona, 

Bed, paiang, -stead, chdr- 
pdj ; khdt ; khatiyah, (for 
flowers,) lakhtah, (ofriver,) 
pet -clothes, bichhdwan ; 
o^hne ka kapta. -ding, 
bichhauna, to make the—, 
paiang taiydr-k. to spread 
-ding, bkhhauna bichhdna„ 
-room, sone ka kamra, 

Bt^iZambiir;shahd kimakkhi. 

Beef, bifgosht. (half E.). 

Beer, bir-shardb, (f.), (half 

* The idiom often is as follows : Enq, * Because it is raining, I shall 
not go out.' Hind. * It is raining, therefore {is sabab se)^ I shall not 
go out. 

hindiSstIni as it ought to be spoken. 219 

Before, (adv.) (person or 
place,) sdmne ; pds ; dge. 
(time,) dge ; paihle ; pesh- 
tar, (prep.), ke sdmne ; ke 
pds ; ke dge ; huzur meij.. 

Beg, mdngna ; iltimds-k. 
(alms,) bhikh - mdngna, 
-gar, bhikdru * I - your 
pardon,' mu^df kijiye. 

Begin, lagna ; shuru-k-nxng^ 
shuru, ; ibtida^ (f.) from 
beginning to end, kull ; 
tamdm ; sar-d-sar ; sar-d- 

Behalf (on - of,) ke wdste ; 
ke Hye, 

Behave, nibdhna, N. chdl- 

Behind, {2iAv,) pichke, (prep.) 
ke pichhe. 

Being, (a human,) ddmi ; 

Belief, bdwar ; itimdd ; 
itibdr, V. -^. ; mdnna, 
(religious) mazhab ; imdn. 

Bell, ghanta. 

Bellows, dhauf^kni, V. 

3elly, pet ; shikam. to fill 
the-, (/.er., to satisfy one,) 
pet bharna, -ache, peck- 

Belong, by the genitive, €.g., 
yih gho^a mera hau 

Beloved, pydra ; mahbub. 

Below, (adv.) niche, (prep.) 
ke niche ; ke tale. 

Belt, band (as last part in 
compos.) \ peti ; belat (E.). 

Bench, chauki, of Justices, 
' binch: (E.). 

Bend(n.), tefhdj;pech, V. -k, 
A, terka ; kaj ; bdtjtka. 

Beneath. See * Below.* 

Benediction, du^a (f.). 

Benefactor, md-bdp; murabbi. 

Benefit, fdyidah ; nafa ; 

Benevolence, khair-khwdhi ; 
iliifdt ; shajakat ; ihsdn. 

Beseech. See * Beg.' 

Beside, besides, (near,) ke 
pds ; ke nazdik ; ke yahdt^, 
(except,) ke siiva, (in addi- 
tion to,) aldwah is ke ; is 
ke siwa ; is par yih bhi 

Best, sab se achchha^ to do 
on€ s-,ma^djtr bhar kdm-k, 
to make the - of it, bure 
bhale nibdhna^ or lena. 

Bestow, de-d, ; bakhshna / 
bakhshish-d. . 

Bet, shart. Y .-band-iena. 


Betel, supdn\ or supydri. as 
chewed by natives, pdn. a 
dealer in-, tamboli, -box, 

Belter, bihiar ; us-se achchha, 
V. kisi ki bihlari'k. 

Between. See * Among. ' 

Beware. See * Acquainted.' 

Beyond, ke bdhar ; us taraf. 
{e,g^ the sea,) pdr. 

Bible, baibai. (E.). 

Bid, kahna ; hukm-d, -good 
day, &c. khair-bdd or 

. mubdrak-bdd kahna (n.) 
(at auction, )(/<ii^. (to bid at 
auction) ddk-k.^ or bolna. 

Big, ba^a ; buzurg. (fat,) 
mota. N. bardfi ; motdj. 

Bigoted, muta,assib. 

BilQjpM, ox pit. 

Bill. See * Beak ' and 'Ac- 
count.' -of exchange, 

Billiards, anta-khel. -room, 

Bind, bdndhna ; bdndh-d. 
-ing of a hoo\i^jiid-bandi. 

Bird, chiriya, -cage, pinjra. 
-lime, Idsa, 

Birth, ja nam. -day, -din. 

Biscuit, biskit. (E.). 

Bishop, /df pddri sdhib. 

Bit, tiikra ; zarrah (f.) ; thora- 
. sa (for horse,) dahdnah. 
Bite, ^^f/^. V. ddni se kdtna. 

(as hot things,) iagna. 
Bitter, tita ; kariva ; Uz, 

-ness, ialkhi. 
Black, kdla ; siydh. -ness, 

siydhi. V. kdla-k. -ant, 

chyii^ti, -guard, bad-zdt. 

smith, lohdr. . -ing, 

siydhi; roshnd,i. pepptr, 

B\3ime,i/zd//t; maldmat. V,-k, 

less, be-fmsiir y' nirdosh. 
Blanket, kammal, {(.). kamli. 
Blaze, lau ; lahar ; shulaK 

V. iahrdna. 
Bleed, {trans.), fasd-kholna ; 

lohu iena.{intr.),iohu girna- 
Blemish, aib, (f.) ; kliata ; 

ddgh. A. ddghi. V. ddghi-k. 
Blessing, du,a, (f.). A. mubd- 

rak. V. -d. 
Blind (adj.), andha ; kor.-of 

one eye, kdna, V. andhera- 

k. -ness, kori ; nd bini. 
Blind (r\.), pardah. 
Blister, phaphola. 
Block, kundah, -headj 

ahma^ ; be-wukuf. 
Blood, kh{m ; lohu. -y, khUn" 

dltidah. -less, b^-khtin. 


'^\o%sov[\^ phiUy -bahar dna. 
Blot, ddgh. -ed, ddghi- V. 
-/&. -ting-paper, Idl-kaghaz, 
Blow (n.), zarb (f.) ; thokar, 
(f.) ; ghtisa, (V.) (as wind,) 
chalna ; bahna -with the 
vcioyyS\\^ phiii^kna ; phut^k-d, 
-over, (as a storm,) sdf 
hona ; khulna, to - an in- 
strument, bajdna, to give 
a-. See * Beat.' 
Blue, ////; ntla. 
Blunt, kund, N. -/. 
Blush, khijlat V. -k, at the 

first-, dekhte hu,e. 
Boar, jangli su^ar. 
Board, takhtah. (assembly), 

'borad.' i^,). 
Boasting, Idf-zanL V. -k, 

a -er, Idf-zan, 
Boat, kishti ; nd^o (f.) ; with 
thtir various kinds, as 
• bajra ' / ^panso^V ; ^defj- 
ghi^ &^c, -man, malldh. 
head ditto, mdnjhu 
Body (human,) badan ; jism, 
(of men.) See * Assembly.' 
Boil (trans, \ ubdlna; (intr,\ 
khaulna ; ubalna, -ing 
■ Yi2XtY^ garm pdnL servants 
szy^ phiUa pdni, N. phap- 

Bold, mdrddnah ; shuja. 

-ness, marddnagi ; ausdn, 

(f.) ;, (in a bad 
. sense,) shokh, N. shokhL 
Bolster, bara iakiyah, -up, 

Bolt (n.), ^^///a / M^^/. V. 

-lagdna, as, e.g., a horse. 

bhdgna ; bhdg-jdna. 
Bond (fetter,) l^aid (f). (to 

secure debt,) tamassuk. 
Bone, ^tf(/(// / hdr. 
Book, ^/Vrf^, (f.) ; bahL 

-shelves, -ka takhtah, 

binder, jild-band, -bind- 

Boot, ^//A (E.) ; mozah, 

-lace, ^w/ ka fitah. 
Border, kindrah, (of a writ- 
ing,) hdshiyah. 
Bore (v.), chhedna, (annoy,) 
satdna ; dikik-k. -er, ^i?/-- 

Born, to be, paida-hona. 
Borrow, mdng-lena ; ^arz- 

Una, -er, musiair. 
Bosom, sinah. 
Both (two), donmi. boih... 

and, See page 46. 
Bottle, botal, (f.),(E.). shish- 

Bough. See * Branch ' 


Bound (leap,) kMna ; uchhal- 
na, N. kud ; uchhal, (en- 
close,) hadd (f.) (or, plur.) 
hudud'd^ or lagdna, A. 
pd'band, -ed, ghera ; mah- 

Bow (for arrows,) kamdn ; 
dhanuk (f.). (for pellets,) 
ghulel (f.). to use a- -k, 
(salutation,) saldm, V. -k. 

Bow), bolt (E.); piydlah; 
katora, finger-, hdth-bolL 

Box, sandtii^ ; sandH^-chah ; 
hakas, (E.). (trunk,) peiL 
tin-box of a particular 
shape for clothes, &c., 
pitdrah, ,,,ddn. See page 
41. a small -, e,g., for . 
snuff, a single ring, &c., 
dibiya. See *Blow.' 

Boy, chhokra ; larka. In 

. Bombay and Madras, ^bof 
is used in calling one's 
personal servant ; never so 
in Bengal, -hood, la^ak- 
pan, -ish, chhok^a^sa. 

Bracelet, called by endless 
names ; a general word is, 

Braces, gdlis. 

Bracket, brdkit (E.). 

Braid, gundhan. 

Brain, maghz; dimdgh. -less, 

Bran, bhusi. 

Branch, shdkh ; ddl (f.). (of 
river,) sota. (of a subject,) 
juz ; bdb. 

Brandy, brd^di-shardb (f.). 

Brass, pitaL of-, -ka. 
-platter, thdlL -vessels 
(generally), thdli-lota. 

Brave. See * Bold.' dildwar ; 
diler, -ery, dildwari, dilerL 

Bravo ! shdbdsh ; bahul 
achchha ! 

Brawn, bardn, (E.). 

Brav, retikna. 

Bread, roti ; ndn (f.). (food 
generally,) khdna. 

Breadth, chaurd^i ; araz. 

Break {trans,), torna ; tor-d,; 
phdrna, {intr.), tut-jdna, 
-open, to^na ; tor-^ 
-away, bhdgjdna, -off, 
barkhdst'k, of day, bhor ; 
bairifajr; ta^ka ; subh; ala- 
s-sabdh, broken, tiita ; tufa 
hii,a, -fast, hdziri ; ndsh- 
tah, V. -lena ; -khdna. 

Breast, chhdii ; stnah. 

Breath, dam ; sdf^s, to be out 
of-, dam-ttUna. Xo draw-, 

hindi5stXni as it ought to be spoken. 223 

Breeches, jdnghia ; brichts. 

Bribe, rishwat ; gMs, to 
give a-, -d. to accept a~ 
^lena^ or -khdna. 

Brick, /e^/, (f.) ; khisht 

Bridge, puL V. -bandna, 
tolls for construction of-, 

Bricjle, iagdtn (f.) V. -lagd-d. 

Brief; briefly, mukhtasar, a-, 

Bright, sdf ; raushan, V. -^. 
-ness, raushani. 

Bring, Idna ; le-dna ; lete- 
dna, -about, band-Id na, 
-in, hdzir idna ; hdzir- 
kar-d.; dne-d. ; yahdi^-ldna, 
-over, is laraf Idna, -up, 
pdlna ; parwarish-k. 

Broad, chaura ; ariz, N. 
chaurdj; araz. -cloth, 

Brocade, kamkhwdb. 

Broker, dalldL 

Brooch, baroch, (E.). 

Broom, jhdfu. 

Broth, sjiorba. 

Brother, bhd,i ; barddar. 
-hood, barddari, -ly, bard- 

Brougham, band-gdri. 

Brow (of face,) abru. (of a 

hill,) iab. 
Brown, bartin. (E.). 
Brush, See *Broom/ (hair, 

clothes,) brush, (E.) V.-^., 

or lagd-d. See page 96. 

(sweep,) jhdrna ; jhdr-d. 

-wood, jhdr ; jhdri. 
Bucket, dolcht ; bditi. 
Buffalo, bhaif}sa, f. -sL 
Buffoon, maskharah, 
Bug, khat-mal. 
Build, bandna ; bdndhna ; 

uthdna. -\n%,ghar; makdn^ 

kothi ; imdrat. 
Bull, nar-gd.o ; sd^d, oisdi^r. 
Bullet, go/i. 

Bullock, baii -cart, -gdri. 
Bunch, guchchha. 
Bundle, gathri ; bastah; chiz-^ 

bastah;mot. (^.^., of grass,) 


Burden (n.), bojhaN, bojhna. 
Burial, kafan-dafan, (f.). 

V. -k, ; mitti'd, -ground, 

goristdn ; ^abrtstdn. 
Burn {T\.\sokhfah, (v. trans,,) 

jaldna ; jald-d,; dg-iagd-d, 

{inir), j'alna. 
Burst {intr,\ phutna ; phat- 

jdna, (trans,\ torna ; 


224 «INDi5stAnI as it ought t6 he SPOKEN". 

Bush, jhdf ; gdchh, rose-, 

Business, kdm; kdr; kdr bdf; 
kdr-o-bdr, (trade,) tijdrat, 
(profession,) pes hah, V. -k. 

Busy, kdm met} ; mashghul. 

But, kkin ; magar, (only,) 
sir/; khdli^ e.g., there is 
nothing but books here, 
yahdij. sirf (or, khdli) 
kitdbei} hait^. 

Butcher, J^assdb, V. J^atl-k. ; 

Butler, khdnsdmdt}, 

B u tter, mahkhan,(n3it{ye, )ghi 
(in.), -man, ma khhanwdla. 

Butterfly, /////. 

Buttocks, chiita^. - 

Button, ghundi ; bufdm, (E.), 

^ -hole, fiinndi. 

Buy, mdl-lena ; kharid-k. 
-ing and selling, khaHd- 
farokht -er, khariddr. 

Buzz, bhin-bhindna, -ing, 

By, se, -me, mere pds, by 
hundreds, sau, sau hokar, 
-one's self, dp hi dp, or 
dp'Se, -chance, itttfdkan, 
-all means, hdr tarah se. 
-no means, hargiz na. 
-and,- thori ghazi ke baad, 
-heart, ydd se, year by 
year, sdlba-sdL 


Cab, ihika-gdri -man, -wd^a. 

Cabbage, kobi. 

Cage, pinjra 

Cake, kulchah ; kek. (E.). 

Calamity, dfat ; musibat. 

Calendar, jantri. 

Calf, bachh^a, -of leg, pindli. 

Calico, katan kap^a ; mdrkin 

(i.e., *Anfierican.') 
Call (one), ^«/(i«fl; buld4ena; 

ialab'k, (shout), pukdrna ; 

dzvdz-d. N. dwdz,({.) ; bdng^. 

(visit,) muld^dt, V. -k. 
Camel, lifjt ; shutur, -driver, 


Ca m p, khimah ^-gdh; J is jagah 

khime kha^e hti,e hai?}. 
Camphor, kdfiir. 

Can, See page i8. Sect, 22. 

dna, (of what a person is 

able to do, e.g., ham kolikh- 

na dta hai, I can write.) 

* Pronounced also * Khaimah.' 

hindtJstIni as it ought to be spoken. 225 

Canal, nahr, (f.). 

Candle, mom-batti ; kandil, 
{not E.). -stick, shama- 

Cannon, top -ball, top kigoii. 

Canvas, tdt. 

Cap, topi. 

Capable. See ' Able.' 

Caper (n. ), kabar (f.) ; kepar 
(E.). (v.) uchhalna, N. 

Capital (in trade,) puijji. 
Adj. achchha ; bahut ach- 
chha ; umdah, 

CsLpon, pekan. Seepages^, 

Captain, sirddr; kat>tdn sdhib. 

Caravan, kdrwdn ; J^dfilah, 

Card, til^at (E.). playing-, 
tdsh, -board, kat. 

Care (anxiety, )^/^r(f.) ; ande- 
shah ; tarraddud ; Adj. 
fikr-mand, V. fikrmand- 
^;2<i. (guardianship.) amd- 
nat ; hifdzat ; zimmah, 
V. (to take care of a thing,) 
apne pds rakhna ; hifdzat 
met/, rakhna. (caution,) 
khabarddri^ Adj. khabar- 
ddr. V. khabarddr-hona, 
-less, ghdfiL N. ghaflat. 

(free from care,) be-khabar, 

N. be-khabarddri. 
Caress, nawdzish, V. pydr-k. 
Carpenter, barha^i. -try, 

Carpet, dari ; Jarsh ; shat- 

ranji ; ghdlichah, or kdli- 

Carriage. See page 90. 

stage-, ddk-gdri. 
Carry, uthdna ; uthd-ke-lt- 
j'dna, -into effect, ba-sar- 

Idna ; ba-ja Idna ; nibdhna. 

-ier, i^uli ; barddr ; ham. 

mdl '^ motiya. 
Cart, gd^i. bullock-, bail-gdri. 

-load, gdri ka bojha ; gd^i 

ki khep. 
Case (covering, )^/7a^ (box,) 

sandiH^, See page ^1, * ddn* 

(in Court,) mukaddamah ; 

ndlish, the facts of the- 

hdl ; asl hdl ; mdjara, 

one's-, (i.e. what he has ; 

to say,) guzdrtsh ; arz (f.), 

Cash, paise ; Hiplye, ready- 

na^d'Hipiye ; -book, kkdta- 

bahi ; his&b ki bahi, -ier, 


* Not in use in Bengal. 

1., H. 



Cask, fipa. 

Cast. See * Throw.' 

Cat, billL 

Catalogue, fihrist 

Catch, pakarna ; paka^-lena, 
-cold, sardi khdna, to be 
caught, pak^a-jdna. 

Caterpillar, jhdnjha. 

Cattle, maweshi ; ^a.e-goru. 

Cauliflower, phid-kobi. 

Cause, sabab ; wajh, (f.). V. 
kardna ; kard-d, without-, 

Caution. See * Care.' 

Cease (trans.), maukuf-k. ; 
band-k. (intr,), same words 
and bona ; ho-jdna. 

Celery, si/ari (K,). 

Cent, per, saikra, e.g. pdf.ich 
rupiye saik^a, 5 per cent. 

Centipede, gojar. 

Centre, markaz ; bichoi,i bich. 
in the-, bich men. 

Ceremony, takaliuf ;taklif(i.). 

Certain {^wxt,) yakin. N. -/. 
V. -hona. (settled,) mu- 
karrar ; J^djm. V. these 
words and hona. * a certain 
person' fuldnah ; fuldnah 
shakhs, -ly, albatiah ; be- 
shak ; zartir, -ify, sdbitk. ; 

• • • 

Certificate, j(/^m^ ka khatt ; 

* sartifikat (E.). 
Chaff, bhusi. 

Chain, %anjir. (f.). V. iagd-d. 
Chair, kursi ; chduki. -man, 
(of a meeting,) sar-i-majlis. 
Chalk, khdri-matti. 
Chamber, kamra ; kothri. 
Chamois-leather, sdbari. 
Chance, ittijdk. V. -se hona, 

by-, ittifdikan. 
Q\\di\ygQ, tabdil ; badl ; badld, 

badli. V. (trans.) -k.(intr.) 

Channel, ndla ; sota ; khdL 
Character, chdl-chalan. good— 

nek-ndm. bad-, bad-ndm, 

a bad character (person,) 

bad-mads h, (letter,) harfy 

pi. huruf. 
Charcoal, ko^ila. 
Coarge (keeping,) amdnat ; 

hifdzat ; nigdhbdni. V, 

(trans.) -mefj, rakhna. 

(intr.) -met^hona, (attack, ) 

hamlah. V. -k. (accusa- 
tion,) ilzdm. V, -lagd-d. 
charge in an account, 
hisdb men likhna. 
Charity, khairdt ; lutf (f.). 
-able, khairdti ; faiydz ; 

hindi5st.4ni as it ought to be spoken. 227 

Chase (sport), shikdr, Y,^k, 
(pursuit), raged ; khader, 
V. ragedna ; khedna. 
Chattering, bak-bak ; kdt}- 

kdfj, V. -k. 
Cheap, sasta ; manda ; kam- 
J^imat, -ness, sasti; kam- 

Cheating, fareb ; daghd'^dzL 
V. -k, one who cheats, 

Check, dhiste-k ; rokna ; 

Cheek, ^i/; rukh, 

Cheer (amuse, &c.) bahldna ; 
khush-k. -ful, khush ; 
khush'dil ; khush ru ; be- 
fikr. -fulness, khush-tabj, 
(applaud,) khushi-khushi- 
bolna. (by clapping,) 
tdli^dn-k, cheers, khushi- 
khushi ; 'htira' (E.). 

Cheese, panir (m.). -monger, 

Chess, shatranj. to play-, 
-kheina, -board, -bisdt, 
-man, muhrah. 

Chest. See ' Box. -of drawers, 
drdj (E.). (of body,) chhdH. 

Chew, chdbna ; chabdna. 

Chief, (n.) sarddr, (z,)paihla; 

Child, bachchah ; iarka, larki; 
tifl; bdba (L.B.) -hood, 
larakpan ; iufuiiyat -less 
be-auldd ; Id^wdris, -dren, 
larke-iog; bdba-iog, (L.B.). 
Chin, thuddi ; zanakh. 
Chintz, rangi. 
Chisel, tdt^ki. 

Choose, lena ; chdhna ; pa- 
sand-k, N. (what pleases,) 
jo pasand hat (option,) 
ikhtiydr ; marzi ; khushi. 
Cholera, haizah ; ola-pira. 
Chop, (v.) kdtna; tukira-tukra 
kar-d, (n.) chdp. (E.). -pen 
bdwarchi'khdne ki chhuri, 
Christ, Hazrat'Psa, -ian» 
isawi -ianity. Fsd-i-maz- 
hab. -mas, bara din ; 
kismis, (E.). a Christian, 
Kristdn (E.). 
Church, girja, or grija. 
Cinnamon, ddr-chini. 
Circle, ghera ; dd,irah, (of 
jurisdiction.) hal^ah ; aid- 
kah ; parganah ; zila : 
and many o<her territorial 
words — *i' added to the 
title of an officer often 
means his jurisdiction, e.g., 
^zaminddri,^ the territory 
of a zaminddr, pnd so on. 


Circumstance, Jel ; amal ; 
amr ; hdl ; asl hal ; wdki,- 
dt ; jo hu,a hat, -tial, 
mufassalan; tafsil-wdr. 

City, shahr ; (as last part in 
compos :) * nagar' and 
'ptir' -izen, shahr men 

Civil, sU'ShiL -ity, suluk ; 
nek-chalan. -ization, tah- 

Claim, dawa. (f.) ; as formu- 
lated,) darkhwdst ; atz ; (f.) 
sawdL V. -k -ant, da^vd- 
ddr. (in Court,) mudda.u 

Q\2J^\., Idlshardb (f.) ; kald- 

rat (E.). 
Class, kism. (rank,) darjah. 

(of Railway, or School,) 

kalds, (K). -ification, tar- 

tib. -ify, tartib-k. 
Clause, ^«>/^; jumlah. 
Claw, changul ; ndkhun. 

Clay, ^// (f.), <r/%/'>^«^* »«^y^^'- 
Clean (adj.), sdf ; safa, (v.) 
ji/-/^. -liness, safd^i ; paki- 

Clear, sdf; shaffdf, (obvi- 
ous,) sdf; maaMm ; sdf 
maaMm ; zdhir. V. sdf-k. 

ClesLve, phdrna ; Mrna, -er, 
See ♦Axe' -to one, lagd 
rahna ; ke pds rahna. 
Clerk, kirdni ; kdtib ; nawis- 
andah ; as last part of 
word ... navis, e.g., nai^l- 
navis, a cpying-clerk. 
Clever, chdldk; hoshydr^^.-i- 
Clim^ite, db-o-hawa, (f.). 
Cloak (n.), iba (f.) ; labddah, 
(v.) chhipdna. (adj.) chhipa- 
Clock, ghari. See page 67. 
Clo'i, (/>%<?/tf. 

Close, (y,),band-k.{n.) dkhir^ 
or akhir, (near,) nazdik ; 
ke pds."t^, band. 
Closet, kothri. the W. C. 
ghusl-khdnah ; pd-e-khd- 
nah ; jde-zarur. 
Cloth, kapra, tahlf-, mez kt 
chddar ; dastar - khwdn^ 
web of-, thdn. cotton-, 
nan-kldth ; ' kafdn-kapra^ 
woollen-, bdndt to lay 
the-, mez lagdna, or 
taiydr-k, clothes, kap^e. 
night-, rdi ke kapre. See 
page 95. Clothe (v.), kapre 
pahinna ; orhna. 

» This is an attempt at the English, ' long-cloth.' 

hindi5stAni as it ought to be spoken. 229 

Cloud, abr ; badli ; tnegh, -y, 

Clove, karanfuL 
Club, Idthi ; chob ; sonta, 

-nun, Idthidl, 
Cbal, ko^iia. 
Coarse, mota, N. motd^i 

(fig.) be-hunar ; b^.-adab. 
Coast, kindrah ; pdr, V.- 

kindre par chalna. 
Coat, kurti. 

Coax, phusldna ; chumkdrna. 
Cobbler, mochi. 
Cob- web, makzi kajdla. 
Cock, murgh, (of a gun,) 

ghora (v.) -khara-k. 
Cockroach, til-chatta. 
Coco, koko (E.). 
Coffee, ^ahwah ; kdji (E.). 
Coffin, sandiH^^ (v.) -tnev. 

Coin, paise ; rupiye. V. 

-bandna, false- mekhi 

Cold (adj.), sard; thandha ; 

sitaL (n.) sardi ; thandhdj. 

-in the head, zukdm. V. 

-thandha-k, to be-, than- 

dha hona. 
Collar, kdlar (E.).-of a coat, 

&c., girebdn. 
Colleague, rafik; sharik. 

Collection, jama; jamiyat. 
V. -jama-k, -of dues, 
ivasiiL V. -^. -tor, (of a 
district,) kalektar sdhib, 
{gei\era\\y,) /aAst/ddr; sazd- 

College, madrasah. 

Colonel, karnail (E.) sdhib. 

Colour ^n.) rang, (f.), V. -d, 
-en, rangin. 

Column, siHin ; khamba. 

Comb, kanghi, V. -d, or 

Come, dna ; d-jdna ; tashrif 
Idna, {Seepage 76. Sect, 
17.) -about, hO'jdna, 
-back, phir-dna, -out, 
bdhat-dna; nikalna; nikal- 
dna, -to one's self, hash 
mefjL dna. 

Comfort, tasalli ; tashaffi ; 
taskin [{,) ;khushi, V. -d. ; 

Command, hukm. V. -d, 
-er, hdkitn ; sarddr, with 
special names for various 
commanders, ^g./auj-ddr^ 
a military -er; ^ila-ddr^ 
a -er of 'a fort, and so on, 
down to jama-ddr^ head- 
man of any small body, 
military or other. 


hindi5stXni as it ought to be spoken. 

Commence. See * Begin.' 

Commendation, sifdrish, 
(praise,) taarif(i,), V. -d. 

Commerce, sauddgari ; tijd- 
rat; kharid-farokht ; mahd- 

Commit (do.), karna, (en- 
trust to,) hawdle mef,i rakh- 
na ; hawdlah-k,; supurd-k,; 
amdnat met^ rakhna. com- 
mission, (e.g. of an of- 
fence,) with * karna,' as 

Common, dmm, -ly, umj/man; 
aksar. held in-, ijmdli ; 
ffiushtarak, a-, maiddn ; 
parti zamin (f). 

Companion, sdthi ; rafiJ^ ; 
ham^rdhi, -ship, ri/dJ^at. 

Company. See * Assembly.' 
The East India Company, 
Kampani Bahddnr. 

Compare, mildna ; muJ^d- 
balah-k. -atively, ba nisbat 
is ki, -ison, (act of,) muJ^d- 
baiah'k, as v.n. 

Compel, use ^ zor-se, or 
zabar-dasti se, with appro- 
priate verb. 

Competent. See * Able ' 

Complaint(in words,) ndiish ; 
ndla. V. -k, (sickness,) 

bimdri ; tog, complainant 

(in Qo\ix\.j)faryddi;muddayi. 
Complete, tamdm. V. -k, 

-tion, -k, as v.n. -ly 

tatndm ; kull ; bil-kull ,- 

Comprehend, samajhna ,- 

samajh meii idna, -sion^ 

samajh (f.) ; hosh ; akl (f.). 
Conceal, chhipdna, to be 

-ed, riiposh'hona. -ment^ 

Conclude See * Close.' 
Condemn (disapprove,) nd- 

pasand'k. (sentence,) hidkm 

-d. -nation, sazd ka hukm^ 
Conduct, suUik ; chdl-chalan. 

V. pahunchd-d. 
Confectioner, haiwd^i, -ery, 

Confession, ikrdr ; l^ubiil. 

V. -k, (person who ad- 
mits,) kd^il. 
Confine (by bounds,) hadd- 

iagd'd, (imprison,) J^aid-k. 

. -ment, Jkaid ; girijtdri. 
Confirmation, subut, V, 

-kar-d. ; sdbit-k. 
Conflict. See * Battle ' 
Conform to, hukm ke mu^dfiir 

kdm k, ; mdnna. -bly to,. 

hasb \ ke mu.dfik ; ba-mujib^ 

hindi3stAni as it ought to be spokkn. 


Confound (frans.), ghahrdna, 
be -ed, ghabrdna. Adj. 
ghdbra, -(one thing with 
another,) mild-d, -fusion, 
gol'tndl (L. B.); be-tar- 
tibi. (of mind,) ghabrdhat 

Congeal, jam na ; jam-jdna. 

Congratulations, mubdrak- 
bddi. V. -k. 

Conjuring, y^«. V. -k, -er, 
-gar. See ' Beseech.' 

V. -rakhna. See * Relation.' 

Conscience, dil ; khdtir, 
-cious, rdst ; sachcha ; 
sddi^. -ciousness, rdsti. 
sachd^i ; sddiku 

Consent. See * Agree.' 

Consequence, natijah ; md- 
hasal. Seepage, 99. 

Consideration, (thought,) 
sock (f.); khaydl; tadbir (f). 
V. -k, (dignity,) martabaL 
-ately, fadbir-se ; btijh-ke. 

Consign. See * Commit.' 
-ment, mdl ; chaldn (f.). 

Consist oi,-ka hona ;-se hona. 

Consolation. See 'Comfort.' 

Constancy, kdjimi ; tnazbtUi ; 
isti^rdr A. ^d,im, mazbiit 
V. hona, (with the Adjs.) 
-tly, hameshah ; aksar. 

Construct, bandna ; band-d. 
-tion, imdrat 

Consultation, maslahat, (v. 
-k,) saldh (f.). V. -Una, 

Contain, by phrase, e.g* 
is sanduk mef,t misrihai, in 
this box is sugar = this 
box contains sugar, con- 
tents, is met} jo kuchh hai. 
table of contents, fihrist, 
-of a book, mazmun. 

Contemplation, muldhazah, 
{menta\,)fa,ammul, V. -k.; 
dekhna, -tive, mutafakkir. 

Content ptible, hakir ; pdji, 
-temn, ha^ir jdnna, 
tempt, kikdrat 

Contention, jhagra ; iard,i. 
V. -k, A. jhagrdlu; ziddi, 

Contentedness, razdmandi, 
A. rdzi ; khush, V. rdzi, 
or khush hona. 

Continue, rahna, (to keep 
doing a thing,) rahna, 
added to stem. 

Contract, shart ; ^aul-o- 
ikardr ; ahd-o-paimdn, V. 
-k, ; bdndh-^ena, -debt, 
^arZ'lena ; J^arzddr hona, 
(e.g. in business,) thika. 
V. -lena, -or, thtkd-ddr. 

Contradict, bar-khildf kahna. 


hindi5stXni as it ought to be spoken. 

Contrary to, mukhdlif, 

-riness, zidd (f.) ; aks ; 


Contusion, chot ; thokar (f.). 

Convenient,///«,4/^-^ ; durust ; 

achchha ; thik, to be-, hona. 

Conversation, hdt-chU ; guft- 

ogu{i,), V. -k. 
Convey, k-jdna ; pahw^chd-d. 
See * Carriage.^ deed of 
-ance, ndmah (following 
the word expressing the 
kind of conveyance, e.g. 
hibah-ndmah, a deed of 
conveyance by gift.) 
Convict (n.), kaidi ; muizitn. 
V. ek shakhs ko mujritn 
Cook (n.), bdwarchi, -room, 
-khdnah.{v.)^ pakdna, -ing, 
rasii^ /*. See page 8 7 . 
Cool. See * Cold.' 
Copy, nakl (f ) V -k. ist, 
-navis, (as last part in 
Cord, rassi ; sutli. V. 

-lagd'd ; se bdndh-d. 
Coriander, dhaniya (f.). 
Cork, dhatha ;thenthi ;^ kdg,^ 
(E.). V. d. -screw, kdg 
kholne ka pech. [Servants 
use only the word ^ kdgJ'\ 

Corn, andj : ghallah ;ddnak 

a grain of- ddnah. -field, 

fasl ka khet. 
Corpse, idsk (f ) ; murdah. 
Correct, sahih ; thik ; dnrust, 

V. -k. See * Punish.' -ly, 



Correspond (match,) pti/na ; 
mil-jdna ; eksdn^ or thik 
or bardbar hona. N. mu^d- 
faJ^at. (by letter,) khatt^ 
or khutut likhna. N. khatt- 
khutut ; khatt-kitdbat. 

Cost (n.), ddm ; ^imdt, V. 
itni ikimat ka hona. -ly, 
i^imati ; besh-J^imat. 

Cotton, riti^i ; pumbah ; kapds, 
-iTee,kapds, or simalgdchh. 

Couch, kauch (E.). See * Bed.' 

Cover, sar-posh ; dhakna ; 
chapni, V. -d. ; lagd-d^ 
-ing (according to its kind, 
e.g.)y kamma/ (m,) or katnli^ 
a blanket ; rizd^i, a quilt ; 
chddar (f.), a sheet, &c. ; 
ot^hne ki chiz, 

QovtioMsnt^s^ldlach; hirs, (f.) 
V. 'k. A. /d/cht\ 

Cough, khdt^sL V. -k. 
Council. See * Assembly.' 
Counsel. See * Advice.* (law- 
yer,) kausili sdhib (E.). 



Count, ginna ; shumdr-k, 
-ing, shumdr-k.^ as v.n. ; 
hisdb'k. -ing-house, daftar- 
khdnah ; dfis, (E). 

Country (a.), mulk. native-, 
watan; des, (not the town,) 
dihdt ; mufassaL -man, 
gatjwdr, (co-patriot,) ham- 
watan ; des-bhd^. 

Courage. See ' Brave.' 

Court (yard,) sahan, (King's,) 
(public,) diwdn-i'dm/n. (pri- 
vate,) diwdn-i'khdss, (of 
Justice) (civil,) diwdni- 
addiat (criminal,) fauj- 
ddri-addiat V. (none ; 
natives do not * court,' 
they employ a broker, 
called ^ ghatak.^) 

Cousin, bhdj ; bahin^ with 
descriptive words before 
them, viz : father's bro- 
ther's son, chachera-. mo- 
ther's ditto, tnamera-, 
father's sister's son, phu- 
phera-, mother's ditto, 
mausera-. So, ' chacheri 
baking dr'r., if the cousin 
be female. , 

Cow, gd^e^ or gd^o ; goru, 
-dung, gobar, -herd, or 
-ketperfgOid/a, {f,)go,d/in. 

-shed, gdjO'Sd/a, or go- 

Coward, nd-mard, -ly, be- 

j'igar. -liness, be-jigaru 

See * Jigar.' 
Crack, phdt, V. {trans,) 

phdrna ; phd^d. (intr.) 

Crane (bird,) sdras ; ghof^gla. 

(machine,) charkh ; kal. 
Creak (v.), cha^cka^dna. 
Cream, maldj. 
Creature. See * Being.' 
Credit, &c. See * Believe,' &c. 
Creep, rtngna, or rengna ; 

Crime, jurm ; gundh, -inal 

(n.a.), niujrim ; gundh'gdr. 

See * Court.' 
Croak, ghot^-ghof^-k. 
Crocodile, magar ; Mmhir ; 

ni/iang ; gha^iydL 
Crooked, te^ha ; tirchha ; 

bdnka ; kaj\ 
Crop (of field,) fasl, (f.) ; 

ghallah ; paiddwdr. 
Cross (adj.), magra; sarkash. 

V. (e.g., a river,) pdr-k, 

(e.g., two sticks,) d^a- 

lagdna, road, chau-rdsta. 
Crow (voice,) bdng, (f). V. 
^d, (bird,) kauwa ; kdg. 

234 hindiistJIni as it ought to be spoken. 

Crowd, guroh ; atnboh. 

Crown, tdj, V. -rakhna, 
-lands, khdss mahdll. 

Cruel, be-rakm, -ty. -/. 

Cruet, sirkah-ddn. 

Crumb, chtir ; rezah ; tukra. 

Crush, dabdna ; dabd-d. 

Crust, chhilka, (of bread,) 

Cry (weep,) rona, (out,) 
pukdrna ; chilldna, (up,) 
taarif-i, N. pukdr ; bdng 
(f.) ; dwaz (f.) ; shor. 

Cubit, hdth. 

Cucumber, khira. (native,) 
pindol ; palwaL 

Cudgel, Idthi. V. -chaldna ; 
se mdrna. 

Cultivate, kheti-k, -lion, 
(fields,) kheti ; kdsht -tor, 
kdsht'kdr ; kisdn ra^iyat, 
-ed land, dbddi, -tion, (of 
mind,) tahzib-i-nafs, 

Cupfpiyd/aA ; katora, -board, 

Curd, dahi, (m.) 

Cure (medicine,) ildj (f.) ; 
dawa, (f.). (recovery,) 
shi/a ; durusiL V. durust^ 
or achchha-k, -ed, bhala. 

Curl, of hair, zulf^ (f.). V. 

Currier, chamdr, 

Curry, kdri, 

CMTXzxn, pardah ; (mosquito,) 

Cushion, gaddi; kusAan,(E.). 

Custard, kasfad, (E.) ; /d/ti- 
dah, -apple, sharijah. 

Custom, dasttir ; riwdj ; 
maanmL (tribute,) khirdj r 
mahsul; tikkas^ (i.e., *tax/) 
-house, parmit'ghar, (half 
E.). -ary, dasturkefmi^dfik; 
hasb zdbitah,-2Lxy discount, 

Cut, Icdt ; chira, V. hdtna ; 
chirna ; iardshna. -cut, 
kdta hu^a, a -ting, (of 
plant,) ^alam. 

Cycle, yug. 

Cypress, saroy or sarv. 


Damage, nu^sdn ; ziydn ; 
zarar, V. -^.;] -pahw^ch- 

Damp, tar; bhit^ga. V. 
bhiij,gd'd. -ness, tari ; 
tardj; bhi?,tgd^L 



Dance, ndch^ (f.), (fancy,) 
ptidri-ndch, V. -na. 

Danger, khatrah. -ous, 
khatar-ndk, to run into -, 
khatre me^ dna. 

Dare, hitnmat-rakhna, N. 
dileri, Adv^ dileri se. 

Dark, ai}dhera ; fdrik, -ness, 
ai}dhera, V. -k. 

Darning, rafu. V. -k. 

Dash (assault,) patak. V. 
-//. (down), ddl'd, (at,) 

Date (time, )/^/7'#, (f.),V.-^. 
-d, mar^tim.(ixyxi\.^khajur. 

Daughter, ^<?// ; dukhtar, -in- 
law, ^^i^2/. 

Dawn, j«M / bhor ; tarka ; 

Day, din ; roz, -by-, roz-ba- 
roz, daily, ^^z* roz, ; (as 
adj.) rozinah. daily pay, 
rozinah, a fine-, khula^ or 
achchha din. a bad-,/^«/ ^a 
<//«. to-, 4^*. in these days, 
dj-kaL -book, roz-ndm- 
chah. -break, ^e?^ *Dawn.'* 
-labourer, mazdur, daily 
bread, khdna-pina, 

Dea^ bahra, -ness, bahrdj. 

Dear (price,) mahi^ga ; besh- 
kimat N. besh-kimati. 

(affection,) pydra, papa 1 

dear! ^4^tjr yi«. dearest 
mamma, amma jdn, my 

dear! merijdn. Oh! dear I 

M^. M^^ to hold dear, 

pydr-k. or rakhna. 
Death, w^w/, (f.) ; maran ; 

Debate, ^tjrAf, (f.). V. -^. 
Debt, -fars/ -or, ^arz-ddr. to 

be, or get in to-, karz- 

lena : ^arz-ddr hona. 
Decayed, sara ; purdna. 
Decanter, ^ kantar.' (E.)r 

shardb ki surdhi. 
Deceased, marhum ; muta- 

Deceive. See * Cheat/ 
Decision, (eg., of a case,) 
kukm ; faisalah; famidn 

V. -d, *I have decided 

to go to Calcutta,' mera 

^asdhaikih mail} Kalkatta 

Declaration, bdt ; baydn ; 

izhdr. V. -k. ; kahna (as 

Decline (slope,) dhdl, (f.). 

See * Refuse.' 
Decrease, kami^ V. -k, and 

Decree. See * Decide ' 



Deed, kdm ; fel ; amr, -in 
writing, ndmah^ as last 
pafrt of word, e.g., hiba- 
ndmah^ a deed of gift. 
Various kinds have (iiffer- 
ent nannes, e.g., ^abdlah^ 
a deed of sale ; sanad (f.), 
a deed of royal, or other 
grant of favour ; patta\ 'a 
deed of lease ; fiabtilyat^ 
an acceptance of a lease. 
&c., &c. A general word 
is dast-dwez^ (f.). 

Deep, gaiAra ; amik.Y. -k. 
N. gaihrd,t\ 

Deer, hiran, or haran. 

Defeat, hazimat, V. -d. to 
be defeated, -khdna. 

Defect, kusiir ; khata ; aib. 
A. ndkis. 

Defend, bachdna ; bacM-d. 
(in Court,) jawdb-d, (one's 
character,) uzr-^. defence, 
bachd,o ; hijdzai ; ja^vdb ; 
uzr, -dant, muda^d-aiaine ; 
fari^ sdni. 

Defer, mauJ^tif-k ; multavi 

Deficiency. See * Decrease.' 

Definition, taarif, (f.). V. -k» 

Defraud. See * Cheat.' 

Defy, dhamkdna ; dhamki-d. 

Degree, martabah ; darjah. 

by degrees, raftah-rajtah ; 

Delay, der^ or deri ; iawak- 

^uf. V. -k. (trans.) rokna. 
Deliberation, ta^ammul. V. 

-k. Adv. -se ; tadbir se ; 

sock karke, 
Delicious, latif ; laziz ; 

khush-mazah, a - cacy, 

lazzat ; niitnat ki chiz. 
Delight, khiishi, V. -y^.-ful, 

or -ed, khush ; dil-khush. 
Deliverance, kkaldsi ; rehd,i. 

V. -d. 
Demand. See * Ask.' 
Demon, rdkshas ; bhut ; 

jinn ; baitdl. 
Demonstration, j«^///. V.-kar- 

d, ; -kar-dikldna ; zdhir-k. 
Denial, inkdr, V. •k. 
Departure, rawdnagi ; chaid- 

jdna, as v.n. V. jdna ; 

chald-jdna ; uth-jdna ; 

rukhsat lena ; tashrif le- 

jdna. See page 76. 
Dependent (a), idbi. ( *on,' 

se,) (n.) -dar, -dence, 

tdbi'ddrL This depends 

on my pleasure, yih tneri 

khwdhishpar mau^uf hau 
Deponent, ^dyiL 


. Deposit, amdnat ; giraw, V. 

rakhna ; sipurd-k. 
Deposition, bdt ; baydn ; 

izhdr. (V. -k,) on oath,) 

shahddat ; ^aivdhi, V. -d. 
Depress, dabdna ; dabd-d, (in 

mind), afsurdah-k, -ed, 

Deprive of, le-jdna ; chhin- 

Una, N. nuksdn ; ziyan. 
Deputy, wakil^ or - vakil ; 

gumdshtah ; ndyib, V. 

Descend, uiarna ; niche-dna. 
Description, baydn ; taarif 

(f). V. -k ; -d. (sort,) ^ism. 
Desert (n.) baydbdn ; jangaL 

(a.) wirdn, V. See 'Aban- 
Design. See * Intention. ' 

* Drawing. ' 
Desire, khwdhish ; murdd^ 

(f.) drzu ; jo mail} chdhta 

huf}^ so. V. chdhna, A. 

arziimand ; mushidk. 
Despatch (speed), jaldi ; 

shitdbi, (of e.g. goods,) 

chaldn ; rawdnagu V. 

chaidn-kar-d, ; bhej-d. 
Despise, hakir-jdnna, N. 


Despot, zdlim.-\c, mustakilly 
-ism, zulm. 

Dessert, mewa ; fanit, (E.). 

Destiny, ^ismat ; ^aza^ (f.) ; 

Destitute, gharib ; be-mak- 
dtir ; and almost any noun 
preceded by ^ be* ; bila, 
(Arabic prep.) -tion, fjids. 

Destroy, khardb-kar-d ; nuk- 
sdn-kar-d. N. nuJ^sdnt ; 

Detail, tafsiiy (f.) V. -d, ; or. 
bolna. Adv. -wdr, mufas- 
saL V. -kahna. Adv. -Ian. 

Detention, rukd.o ; atkd,o, 
V. rokna ; bdz-rakhna ; 

Determination. See * Deci- 
sion. ' 

Devil, ibiis ; shaitdn. A. 

Device, hikmat ; tadbir^ (f.); 
bandobasi ; taur, V. -pdna- 
nikdina ; batldna ; karna. 

Devotion, (piety,) ibddat ; 
namdZy (f.). (to one,) fid^ 
wiyat V. dena. 

Devout, musalli ; khuda- 

Dew, shabnam. (A. /,) os. 

^ From PersiaD, * tarsldan, ' to fear. 

238 hindiJstXni as it ought to be spoken. 

Dialogue. See 'Conversation.' 
Diamond, almds ; hira. 
Diarrhoea, dast. 
Diary, roz-ndmchah. 
Dice, pdse, V. -kkelna. 
Diction, ibdrat ; bol-chdL 

-ary, lughat. 
Die (expire,) mama ; mar- 

jdna ; inti^dl hona. 
Difference, fart^, -ent, nd- 

mu^dfi^ ; dusre i^ism ka. a 

different ... , dusra, V. 

dusre i^ism ka hona, 

(quarrel,) J^aziyah ijhag^a. 

V. -k. 
Difficult, mushkil ; dushwdr ; 

sakht V. -hona. -y, 

mushkildt ; dushwdri ; ish- 

kdi. Adv. ishkdl-se. 
• Dig, khodna, -up, (e.ij. 

plants,) ukhdrna, -ger, 

Dignity, fiadr ; darjah ; izzat. 

-nified, shdn-ddr. V. hur- 

Diligence, ihtimdm ; tandihi; 

mihnat A. mihnati, V.-^.; 

(with adj. ),-kona, Adv.-^d. 
Dinner, khdna, V. -khdna. 

dining-room, khdne ka 

kamra, dining-table, khdne 

ki mez. 

Direction (order,) hukm. (V. 

-^.) (way,) rdh (f.) ; taraf, 

(V. batldna,) (of letter,) 

thikdna. V. iagd-d. 
Dirty, maila. V. -k, and 

hona, N. wa/7. 
Disagreement. See * Differ- 
Disallow, nd-manzur-k. (and 

so with many other words 

in * dis ; ' place * na ' before 

the affirmative word.) 
Disaster, d/at ; musibat ; 

bad'bakhtu A. bad-bakht. 
Discern, dekhna ; samajhna, 

-ment, a^l^ (f.) ; hosh^ zihn; 

Discharge (freedom,) khalds ; 

(V. -k) rihd,u V. -kar^d. 

(dismissal,) jawdb ; rukh- 

sat, V. -d, -ed, barkhdst : 

maazuL (of an account.) 

rasid^ (E.). ddkhilah. 
Disclose, kah'dena ; ikrdr-k ; 

Discount, batta; dasturi.V ,-d. 
Discourse, bahs^ (f.) ; waz, 

Y.-k, See * Converse. ' 
Discovery, darydft V. -k, ; 

Discretion, a^l^ (f.) ; imtiydz, 

\: aklmand. 



Disdain, hikdrat. V. hakir- 
jdnna, -ful, maghr&r. 

Disease, rog ; bimdri, -ed, 
rogi ; bimdr. 

Disfavour, nd-ilti/dti. 

Disgrace, be-hurmati; tahJkir ; 
be-izzati, V. -k, ed, be- 
hurmat ; be-izzat, -ful, 
nd-shd,istah ; khardb. 

Dish,' bartan, side-, dth,iga. 

Dishonest, bad-diydnat ; (N. 
-/.)/ beAmdn, 

Dismiss. See 'Discharge.* 

Dismount, uiama. 

Disobedient, sar-kash; muf^h- 
zor, N. -I. V. nahiii mdnna. 

Disorder, be-tartibi. in -, 
dar ham-bar ham. 

Dispel, hatd-d. ; bhagd-d, ; 


Display. See *Show.' 
Displease, nd-khush-k, ; nd- 

^asand-hona.-suTQ, khafagi; 

Dispose, of. See *Sell. ' also, 

* Arrange.' -al, ikhtiydr, 
-ition, mizdj ; tablyUt, 

{ arrangement^ ) intizdm ; 

band-O'bast, -ed (in order,) 


Dispute, kaziyah ; jhagra, V. 
Dissatisfied, nd-rdz ; nd- 

khush; khafa, -faction, 

nd-khushi ; khafagi. 
Dissect, chirna ; kdtna. 
Dissipate, u^d-d. 
Dissolve {intr,) galna, {trans. 

Distance, duri ; tafdwut ; 

fdsilah, A. diir. 
Distant. See 'Separate.' 
Distinction. *S<ff 'Difference.' 

(rank,) martabah ; shdn. 

a person of-, shdn-ddr. 
Distress ; tasdi ; taklif ; 

tanqi; dukh, V. w/. / 

satdna, -ed, dzurdah ; aj- 

surdah ; ghamgin. 
District, nawdh ; nazdiki 

(technical,) zila. 
Disturbance, khalal ; ghul ; 
shor; hangdmah, V. -k. 
Ditch, fidla ; paghdr. 
Ditto, aizan. 
Dive, dubki mdma; Mbna,, 

-er, ghotah-mdr. 
Diverse, baaze ; kaU'-ka^ t\-\fy^ 

baazi iarah kdm-k, ; adal- 


* 1 he English * dis ' is used by servants to mean the Piice de rSsis* 


Divert, khush-k. ; bahldna, 
(turn aside,) pher-d, -ion, 
khushi ; tamdsha. 

Divide, bdf}tna ; bdnt-lena, 
"Sion, faisifhy (f.); hissah; 
(of family property,) bat- 
wdra. V. ~k. 

Divine, bujhna ; samajhna. 
A. ildhi. 

Divorce, ialdk, V. -^f. 

Do, karna ; ba-jd-ldna ; 
taamil-h. See *Deed/ -er, 

Doctor, (if of Enulish train- 
ing ;), ddktar sdhib. (if 
native,) tabib ; hakim ; 
baid, (in learning,) mau- 
lavi, (M.) pandit, (H.). 
See * Cure.' 

Dog, kutta ; sag, -cart, tarn- 
tarn, (Not Hindiistdni.) 

Doll, putlL 

Don't, mat karo ; nahitj,! 

Door, darwdzah ; khirkt, 
outer-, phdtak, out of 
doors, bdhar. indoors, 
bhitar, -keeper, darbdn. 

Double, dohra. V. dohrdna. 

Doubt, shakk; shubhah. V. 
-k, and rakhna. A. sdf 
nahiij. ; shakk ki bdt. (sub- 
ject to -, or suspicion,) 

mushtabah, -less, be shakk,- 

Down, downward, niche; taie^ 
(prep ) ke, -. 

Doztn^bdrah; ek-dary'an. (E.) 

Drain, (oflf,) sukhdna.{sir2im,} 

Draw (load, or picture,) 
khaii^chna, a-ing, na^shah^ 
-ing-room, hdl-kamra. 

Drawers (body, ) jdnghiya ; 
sul-drdj (E. in some forma- 
tion,) (chest of,) drdj, (E.). 

Dress. See *Clothes.' -ing- 
case, sit^gdr-ddn, -glass^ 
d^inah, -table, sii^gdr-mez. 

Dream, khwdb. V. -dekhna. 

Drink (acconing to its kind, 
as pdni, shardb, &*€, See 
page 93)- ^-pina. 

Drive, hdij^kna, -in (a nail,) 
mdrna, -er, gdribdn ; 
kochbdn, (half E ) 

Drop, (down,) (intr,) girna ; 
gir-parna. (let -,) girdna ; 
girdrd, (as water, ) ^Aw«^7 / 
tapakna, N. J^atrah, (a 
very little.) zsrrah-sa. 

Drown (tntr,) dubna ; dub- 
jdna, {trans J) dubdna. 

Drum, dhoL V. -bajdna^ 
~mer, --iya. 



Drunk, mast; matwdla ; 

nashe-metj, -ard, matwdla. 

-enness, masti ; nashah. 
Dry, khushk ; stikha, V. 

sukhdna ; sukhd-d, -land, 

Duck, bat ; hattakJu (brah- 

mani,) chakwa^ chakivi. 
Due, to be, by various phrases, 

e.g., mtijh'ko das riipiye 

pdna hai^ or die haiij, ; 

ham-ko das rupiye dena, 

hoga, my dues, mera 

pdyOna ; mera hakk. 
Dull (intellect,) kund-zihn, 

(sz.d,) afsurdah, (weather,) 

abri, -ard, kund-zihn 

ddmi ; ahmak. 

Dumb, gihga ; chup, V. 

gmgd hona ; chup rahna, 

-ness, gungdj. 
Dung, guk, (f.), goats -, 

mengnL cow -, gobar^ 

horse-, lid^ (f.), -hill, kuta. 
During, men ; ke bich ;jabiak 

, . . tabtak, S!ee page 104. 
Dust, gard, A. -a ; aludah, 

V. poiichh-d, ; jhdrna, 

~er, jhdran. 
Duty, kdm ; jo wdjib o-mund 

sib hai ; wdjibi kdm. (tax,) 

Dwell, rahna ; budo-bdsh-k,; 


makdn ; kothi. 
Dynasty, klianddn-shdhi. 


Each, har-ek ; ek-ek. See 

page 40. -other, ek-digar. 

on -side, donot} taraf. 
Ear, kdn ; gosh, (of corn,) 

bdl ; bdli^'-nngs^bdla ; bdli. 
Early. See * Dawn. ' 
Earth, mitti ; khdk (world,) 

dunya (f.) ; dlam -en, 

mitti ka. 
Ease, drdm ; rdhat fard- 

ghat : fursat, at' ease, 

drdm mefj, -sy, dsdn ; 

T., II. 

salts, N. dsdni ; salisi, 

-ity, dsdni-se ; ba-khtibi. 
East, piirab ; mashri^. 
Eat, khdna, give to - 

Eaves, olti. 
Ebb, (of tide,) bhdtha. V. 

Ebony, dbmis. 
Eclipse, (of sun,) stiraj-gra- 

han, (of moon,) chdnd- 




Edge, (e.g., of knife,) dhdr. 

(of cloth, the sea, &c.) 

kindrah. a stiff - (as in 

matting), kor. 
Edifice, imdrat 
Education, taalitn^ (f.) ; tar- 

biyat;tahzib,($,)V Jaalim-d. 

Effect, asar ; natijah, to pro- 
duce an -^karna ; kardna; 
anjdm-k; asar-k. my words 
produced no effect, meri 
bdtov se kuchh asar nahiii 
ika.-xye, kdm ka; kdr-gar ; 

Effects, mdl ; mdl-o-mata ; 
asbdb ; chizetj. ; chiz sab. 

Effort, koshish, make an,->^. 

Egg, anda ; baizah.^ -cup, 
"ddn, -spoon, ande ka 
chammach, eggs and 
bacon, ande bekam (E.). 

Either. See page 46. 
Eject. See * Expel.' 

Elapse, bit-jdna; guzar-jdna. 
Elbow, kuhni; baghal 
'Es\eg2Si\.Jattf y'suthra; kjiush- 

numa. -gance, latdfat. 
Elephant, hdthi ; pil, or fil, 
"driver, uiahdwat ; pil- 
bdn, -shed, pil-khdnah. 

Eloquence, /ix^Aa/. k.fasih. 

Else, (otherwise,) nahifj. to, 
(additional,) tf«r. e.g., any- 
where else, aur kahhj. 
what else, aur kya ? who 
else is there? aurkaun hat? 

Embankment, bdndk, (f.). V. 

Embezzlement, tasarruf ; 
kjiiydnat, V. -k. 

Embroidery, ckikan-dozi.-Qd 
cloth, got laga hu^a kapra. 

Emerald, zamurrad; panna. 

Emetic, i^ai ki daiva. 

Emperor, ikaisar ; shdh-an- 
shdh ; sultdn. The Em- 
press of India, Kaisar-i- 

Empire, raj ; bddshdhi ; sal- 

Employ, khldmat me ft lena ; 
kdm-d. (oneself,^ mash^ 
ghid-hona.-tx^ mdlik ; dka; 
niunib, -ment, kdm ; nau- 
kari ; kdrbdr ; rozgdr. 

Empty, khdlL V. -k. ; sab 
chiz nikdtna, -intss, khulu, 
-handed, khdli-hdih. 

Enable, madad-d ; ijdzat-d. 

Enact, farmdna, -ment, 
farmdn ; hukm ; dyin. 

* Used in Western and North-Western India. The word is Persian. 


Encamp, dera-k, ; makdm-k. 

-ment, khaima - gdh ; 

Enclose, gkera lagdna. -ure, 

by the word appropriate to 

the use of the place, e.g., 

bdgh^ a garden, sahn^ a 

court-yard, &c. 
Encouragement, dildsa, V. 

End, dkhir ; khaim. {oi q.%.^ 

a stick,) nok^ (f.). V. 

(trans.) ba sar Idna ; 

dkhir-k ; khatm-kar-d, 

from beginning to-, awwal 

se dkhir tak, to no -, be- 

Endeavour. See * Effort. ' 
Endurance, barddsht ; burd- 

bdri ; sabr^ (f.) V. ->&. 

(to last,) ab tak hona^ or 

Enemy, dushman, enmity, 

duskmani; addwat 
Engaged in. See 'Employ.' 
Engine, kaL (railway,) injin, 

England, Inglistdn, A. ang- 

Enjoin. See ' Command.' 
Enjoy, /akna ; kuchh chiz se 

khush hona, I enjoy good 

health, maii!^ bahut tan- 
darust ^2^(?.-ment, khushl ; 

Enlargement, ba^hd^o. V. 
barhdna ; is-seda^a-k. 

Enough, bas ; bahut. (suffi- 
cient, ) kdfi^ N. kifdyat. 

Enraged, gbusse. V. -k. 

Enter, bhttar^ or andar-dna^ 
oxjdna ;paithna ; ghusna. 
(in a book, &c.) likhna ; 
siydhak-k. ; mundaraj-k, 
-trance, (passage,) dar-- 
wdzahy rdh^ (f.), act of 
entering, dakhl-k, (v.n.). 

Entertainment, ziydfat ; khd- 
na ; ba^a khdna. (amuse- 
ment,) tamdsha. the act 
of entertaining, tnihmdnu 
V. -k, ~er, mihrndn-ddr ; 

Entire. See * All. * 

Environs, gird-nawdh ; jo 
chdrofj, taraf hai ; atrdf* 
(pi. of ' taraf. ') 

Envy, hasad^ (f.). V. -k. 
A. hdsid. 

Epilepsy, mirghi. 

Epistle, chitthi; khatt; ru^ah. 

Equal, bardbar ; eh-sdn ; 
mujid^. N. bardbari ; 


Equipage, sdz ; sdmdn. V. 
saz-o-sdmdn taiydr-k. 

Equity, insdf; jo rdst-o- 
durust hai^ so, A. rdst ; 
ddil ; sachha. 

Era, san ; tdrikh, (f.). 

liLrect, sidha ; kkaza^ V. -k, to 
be -, "hona, -ion, imdrat. 

Error, ghalati ; khata ; bhul ; 
chiik, V. -•^. / bMlna ; 
bhtil-jdna, -roneous, gha- 
lat ; nd'durust, . 

Escape, dMgjdna, as v.n. ; 

Jirdr ; (from danger,) 

bachd,o, V. bhdg-Jdna ; 

(danger,) bach-jdna ; 

chhiUna ; chhut-jdna. 

Especial, khusiis ; khdss ; 
Adv. k/iususan. 

Essence, (scent,) i^r, (of any 
matter,) ain ; nafs ; 
mdhiyat -tial, zariir, the 
essentials, zaruriydt. 

Estate, milk ; milkiyat ; 
zamin, (f.) with names ac- 
cording to kinds ; as zamin- 
ddri ; ta^allu^ ; mu^- 
arrari^ ^c. -given for 
support, jd^r^ or jd-e- 
git, -holder, zaminddr ; 
ta^allulk-ddr ; mukarrari- 
ddr ; jdgir-ddr^ dr^c. 

Esteem, azlz-rakhna ; kadt 
"k. -timation, i^adr, -ed, 
aziz ; pydra, 

Et caetera, waghairah, 

Europe, wildyat, -ean, 
wildyati, a. European, 
wildyati ddmi ; gora. 

Evasion, tdla; tdla-toUM.-k. 

Even. See * Equal, '-if, agar- 

Evening, skdm, (f.) ; sd^Jh, 

. at-, -^ko. 

Event, wuku. at all events, 
ba harsiirat. in the event 
of, agar ; is Ml men, kih^ 

Ever, kabhi ; hargiz, what-, 

Jo kuchh. who-, Jo koj. 

when-, Jab ; Jab-kih. Jis- 

wa^t where-, jahdij- 

kahdf}, -more, kameshah. 

Every, (one,) harek;sab koj. 
(thing.) sab kuchh; sab, 
followed by noun of per- 
son or thing spoken of. 
-where, har-jagah; chdro^ 

Evident, zdhir, maalum ; 
sdf. Adv. zdhiran^ -ce, 
shahddat ; gawdhi. 

Evil, (n.) badi ; zabuni ; 

. khardhi , khardb kdm; 


bura^ /, dura kdm, (a.) 
khardb; bura; bad; zabtin, 
-doer, jo-karta >^^/.-heart- 
ed, bad'kho ; bad-dil. 
-speaker, bad-go,^ -speak- 
ing, bad'goj^ 

Ewer, dftdbah. 

Exact, thik ; durust; achchha; 
sakih. Adv. tMk, V. See 

• • • 

'Demand.' N. durustagi. 
Exaltation, bard^i ; sar/a- 

rdzi, V. -k. ; -d, -ed, sar- 


tajwiz (f.). \-k,;jdnchna ; 

dzmdna. to be examined, 

imtihdn-dXo examine into, 

tahkikdt'k, to pass an-, 

-se nikalta hona. 
Example, masal (f.). tamsil^ 

(f.). for-, masalan. 
Exceed, ztyddah-k, excess, 

ziyddat;fdzil;jo bdki hat. 

excessive, (and as adv.) 

Excellence, kamdl ; tatjihy 

(f.). V. kdmil-hona; tarjih- 

rakhna ; nikalta-hona ; 

sab se achchha-hona. Your 

-cy 1 huziir ; jandb-dli I 

A. khtib ; sab se achchha. 
Adv. achchhi tarah se, 
Interj. khub ! khiib ! bahtit 
achchha I shdbdsh ! 

Exception, tnustasna, Y.-k. ; 
chhor-d. ; jdne-d. prep. 
ke siwa^ or siwd-e ; aldwah 
is'ke, to take -to, bura 

Exchange. See 'Change.' 

Excise, dbkdru 

Exclaim, kahna ; (scream,) 
pukdrna ; chilldna; baland 
dwdz se bolna; zor^se bolna; 
shor-k. N. bdt ; dwdz, (f.); 
shor ; shorshdr. 

Exclude, bdhar rakhna ; 
nahi/i dne-d, ; mana-kar-d, 
N. rokdyO. also, better, 
by Verbs as v. n. 

Excuse, uzr ; mu^dfi, V. 
-(oneself) uzrk, -(an 
other) fnu^df'k, -ed, mu^df. 
-able, Jkdbil-i'Uzr, with- 
out- be-uzr. 

Execute. See ' Do.' (by hang- 
ing,) phdt}si-d, -tioner, 

Exercise, (work,) kdm ; mih- 
nat (using,) istimal; viuhd- 

1 From the Persian, ^ gujtan^' ' to say.' See also' Gufi-o-gu\ 


warah, (lesson,) saba^, (by 
walking, &c.) by the words 
which mean these, (mili- 
tary,) ^awd^id, to take-, 
hawa khdna to- e. g. a 
horse, pheri-k. 

Exhaust, (e.g.a bottle,) klidli- 
k, (resources,) urd-d,: bar^- 
bdd^'d, (one's strength,) 
thaka-k, and hona. -ively, 
ptire taur se. 

Exhibition, ihsibishan. (E.). 
V. dikhldna ; dikhld-d, ; 

Exist, hona, -tence, zindagi. 

(abstract,) hona as v.n. 

-ing, maujtid ; Ml, in the 

-ing circumstances, ba 

hdldt maujudah. 
Expand, kholna ; phaildna, 

(as a flower,) khulna ; 

phulna, N. khuli jagah. 

Expectation, intizdr^ (f.) ; 

ummedy (f.) ; ummcdivdri, 

V. -k, -tant, also^ an 

-tant, ummedwdr. 
Expedient, wdjib ; mundsib ; 

Idzim, N. with '/<?.' 

Expel, nikdl'd, N. ikhrdj. 

Expenses, kharj ; khatjah. 

(cost,) ilmat ; -ive, besh 

ikimat ; kimati ; maht^ga, 

-diture, sarf, V. kharj-k, ; 


Experience, 7vd^if-kdri. -ed, 
wdf^if ; hoshydr, V. (e. g, 
pain, ) khdna ; uthdna. 

Expert, chdldk ; hoshydr, 
N. -// -i. 

Explanation, tashrih (f.) - 
baydn {pi conduct,) uzr ; 
safdj ; jawdb, V. -d, ; 

Expose. See 'Show.' 

Express, -ion. See *Diction.' 
'Say,' &c. -ly, khustisan ; 

Extend. See 'Spread,' 'Ex- 

Extinguish, ^?/;*/^^'-^; butd-d ; 

Extract. See ' Essence.' (e.g. 
from a book,) muntakhab, 
V. nikdl-lena. 

Extravagance, fuzul-kharju 
A. fiiziil kharj. 

Extremity, dkhirat, (e.g., of 
a stick,) nok. (f.). See 
' Distress.' -ely, nihdyat 

1 See 'bar' and 'bad' in Glossar>'. Part I. 


Eye, di^kh ; (f.) ; chashm, 
"brow, abru, (f.). -ball, 
/«///, -lash,/aAzi^, (f.).-lid, 
papota.-'Sx^i^bindJ. -sore, 

df.ikh ka kdnfa, -glass, 
chashmah (telescope, bin- 
oculars,) diirbin, -witness, 


Fable, Jkissah ; afsdnah ; 
naJ^l^ (f.). 

Face, mui}h ; chihrah ; ru, 
V. samne-dna ; mut^h 
pherna. to make faces, 
mui}h terha-k, -to-, rti- 

• • • 7 

ba-ru, -ing, ke sdmne. 
Fact, asl hdl ; kahiihiat in fact, 
haJki^at men, 

• • • • 

Factory, kotkL indigo-, nil,' 

Fade, kumldna, 

Pail, (as stores,) kam-hona, 
(in any work,) chukna, I 
have failed in my attempt, 
maiij, apni koshish met,i 
nd'kdm-ydb^ hu^a, -ure, 

Faint, (a.) be-hosh^ (n.) -/. 
V. — hona, (as, e.g. ink,) 
kam-numa, -ness, zuf; 
nd'tdJkaii; kam-zorL-htzxi- 
ed, buzdil. 

Fair, (n.) meia; Mf{si,)gora ; 

sufed, (as weather,) khula ; 

achchha, -to see, khub- 

surat. -play, tdst-bdzi ; 

nek'kdm -ly, rdsti-se. 
Fairy, pari. 
Faith, imdn, -ful, -ddr, -ful- 

-ness, ^^/'/. to put- in, 

itimdd-rakhna, -fully, -^se. 

-less, be-imdn ; bad-diyd- 

Fall, (n.) gir-parna, v.n. (v.) 
gir-parna, cause to-,gtrd-d. 
False, jhutha ; darogh ; 

farebi, -hood, jhuth. See 

* Lie'. 
Fame, «<f/// / nek-ndmu A. 

ndmwar ; mashhur. 
Family, khdnddn ; barddari ; 

ghar-ke-log, of good-, 

khdnddni, the children of 

the-, larke-bdle. 

* From the Persian * didan^' ' to see.' 

* From the Persian, * yd/fan,' * to obtain.' 


Famine, i^aht ; akdi. 

Fan, fankha, (small,) hdth-^ 
(for fire,) phukni (for 
flies,) chau^ri, V. (if large,) 
"khitfchna ; tdnna, (L.B.) 
(if small, )y^?/^tf oxdoldna. 

Fancy, khaydl ; atkaLV, -k, ; 
atkalna, A. muiawahhim. 

Far, diir ; dur-dardz. thus-, 
yahd^ tak 

Fare, (n.) Mrdya, (person,) 
-ddr, V. chalna. how are 
you faring ? dp ke pds sab 
kaisa chalta hail -well, 
Khuda kdfiz, ^ to take 
farewell, rukhsat Una, 

Farm, jot ; kdsht ; zamin ; 
(f.) chds ; khet ; khet- 
bdri, (of revenues,) ijdrah ; 
thika, -eTyki'sdn, &*c. See 
' Cultivator.' -of revenues, 
mustdjir; ijdrah-ddr; thikd- 

Farrier, salotri ; ndl-band. 

Farther, aur dge, (in addi- 
tion,) aldwah is-ke. -est. 
sab se dur ; sab se pichhla. 

Fast, (n.) rozah. V. -rakhna. 
(a,) iez. -ness, tezi, 
(closed, secure,) band ; 

band-hiiya ; sakht ; tnazhut. 
V. bandy sakht^ or mazbut, 
-k. N. mazbiifi. 

Fat, (a) mota ; farbih ; (n.) 
charbi. -ness, motdj, V. 

Fate, i^aza^ (f.) \kismat fatal, 
kdtil ; sanghdru. 

Father, bdp ; wdlid ; pidar. 
-ly, pidardna, -in-law, 
susra ; sosur. (L.B.) 

Fault, gundky (f.); kusiir ; 
taJ^sir, (f.) ; kJiatay (f.); aib. 
-ly, iaksir-wdr. (as work, 
&c.) thik nahiii ; achchha 
fiahit^, -less, be-^ustir, (as 
work, &:c. ) thik \ durust ; 
bahtit achchha. 

Favour, (thing granted,) 
indm. (mental,) indyat ; 
ilti/dt, (kindness,) mihr- 
bdni. to grant a-, indtn-d, ; 
mihrbdni-k, to be favour- 
able to.) indydt'k, ; ilti- 
fdt-rakhna, -able, mihr- 
bdn. a - ite,^^r; dost ; 
musdhib, ably, mihrbdni 
se; dili'iltifdt se. 

Fear, dar^ (f.) ; khauf dah- 
shat ; tars, V. darna ; 

1 Literally, (may) God (be your) keeper, as in our ' good-bye.' 

hindustIni as it ought to be spoken. 249 

dar-khdna, -ful, ( timor- 
ous,) dahshat-ndk, (horri- 
ble,) khauf-ndk, -less, be- 
khauf ; marddna. 

Feast. See * Entertainment.' 

Feather, par, -bed, -ka bich- 

. hauna. 

Feature, chihrak. 

Fee, (of office,)rusum. (gra- 
tuity,) bakhshish,^ V. -d. 

Feeble, kam-zor ; dtirbal, 

. za^if, N. kam-zori ; 

Feed, (eat,) khdna, (another,) 

Feel, (grope,) tatolna, (e.g. 
pain) . . . khdna ; uthdna, 
(for one,) ri^kat rakhna, 
-ing, (sense of,) IdmisaJu 
fine feelings, khaydldt. 

Feign, viakr kachhdna. 

Fellow, (person,) ddmi ; 
shakhs ; kas, a certain-, 
fuldna, (match,) jora^ or 

. jorL a fellow (e.g. travel- 
ler,) ham, added to ap- 
propriate noun, -ship, 
ham-sari ; sajhd^i. 

Female, mddah, a-, aurat 

Fence, ghera. V. -lagdna, ; d. 
Ferry, guzar-ghdt -man, 

ghdt'indi}ji V . pdr-k. 
Fertile, zar-khez. N. -/. 
Fever, tab; bukhdn -ish, 

garm, to have-, mujh-ko 

tab hai. 
Few, chand ; thore, -ness, 

Field, kriet; maiddn; ramnah. 
Fig, anjir. (f.). 
Fight. See * Battle.' 
Figure, (shape,) shakl, (f.); 

jwr<7/(i,2,3,&c.) hindasah. 
File, (tool,) suhdn, V. retna, 

(of papers,) nathi ; misl, 


Fill, bharna; bhar-d,; pura-k. 

(a post,) uhdah-rakhna, ; 

fuldna kdm-k. 
Final, dkhir ; dkhiri, -ly, 

dkhir-ko ; 4khir-ul-umr. 
Find, milna (See page 50) ; 

pdna. -out, darydft-k, ; 

Fine, (n.) jarimdnah. V. 

-lena, (a.) mihin ; bdrik, 

N. bdriki, in fine, alJkissah; 


' This word suffers much in Anglo-Hind. The author has seen it 
reduced to 'boxiit.' It is a Persian word, from ' bakhslHdan,' 'to give 
a present,' *to reward.' 

2SO hindiJstIni as it ought to be spoken. 

Finger, ungli. V. chhuna. 
Finish, tamdm-k, ; khatm-k, 

-ed, tamdm hu^a ; kdmil ; 

ptira ; ho-gaya. 
Fire, dg, (f.); dtish. V. -iagd- 

d, -place, dtish'khdnah, 

-fly, shab-chirdgh, -wood, 

lakri ; hezim^ (f.). -works, 

Firm, sakht^ mazhit ; J^djm ; 

^ardr, V. -k, -ness, sakhti; 

mazbuti; -ly, sakht; zor se ; 

mazbiit iaur se, 
Yixsi^paihia^ or, pahla. in the 

-place, or, time, paihle. 
Fish, machhli ; Mdhi.-mong- 

er, machhli'ivdla ; machhli- 

farosh. V. machhli-mdrna. 

-er-man, jaliya ; mdhi-gir, 

-try yjalkar. 
Fist, mutthi ; musht -icuffs, 

mukkd-mukki ; mdrd-mdri. 
Fit, {intK) achchha baithna ; 

thik-iagna. (trans.) thlk h,, 

or lagdna, or baithdna, (a.) 

thik; durust. (suitable,)/^,/-^. 
Fix. See * Firm.' -in the 

ground, gdrna. 

Y\z%,jhanda ; mshdn.stoney 
chatdn, (f.). (v.) dhtla, or 
susi ho-jdna. 
Flame, shulah ; lau, (f.) ; V. 

shulah uthna (tig.) chamak- 

na ; lapatna. 
Flannel, fldlen, (E.); dhus- 

Flash. See * Flame. ' a Ifiash' 

e.g. of lightning, say, e.g. 

the lightning gashes. 
Flat, chaptd, N. -i,/. Adv. 

(plainly,) sarihan. 
Flattery, khush-dmad, (f.). V, 

->^. ; phustdna, -er, with 

Flea, pissu. 

Flee, bhdgna ; bhdg-jdna ; 

bhagd-jdna ; chal-jdna ; 

Flesh, gosht, -y, w^/« ; far- 

Flight, bhagel, (f.); firdri. 
Flock, gailah. 
Flog, chdbuk^ se mdrna,-ingr 

(by the operator,) chdbuk- 

bdzt, (as received,) chdbuk 


^Vary * chdhuk^* which means '« whip,' according to the instrument 
used. The cane {*bet') is generally used. In India, only criminals 
are flogged. Domestic and school discipline are unknown. 


Floor, zamin, (f.). (storey,) ma- 
hallah, -cXoih^ dart ; farsh. 

Flour, dta ; maidah ; saitu. 

Flourish, achchht Ml mei} 
hona;phulna, ( e.g. a stick, ) 

Flow, (v.) bahna ;jdri'hona ; 
chalna. -ing,jdri ; rawd/j. 
the -of the tide, juwdr. 

Flower, //%«// guL -garden, 

phul-wdri. -pot, gamlah ; 

jhdri, -y. pMilphula ; (fig.) 

rangin, (speech,) gul-fish- 

di,i, V. ~na ; -d. 

Fly, magaSy (f.) ; makkki. 
{c2ib,) thikd-gdri, {v.)(tntr,) 
urna ; uf-jdna, {trans,) 
urdna ; urd-d. 

Fodder, ghds^ (f.) ; chdrah ; 
rasady (f,). 

Foe. See * Enemy.' 

Fog, kohdsa. -gy, dhundla. 

Fold, (for animals,) berk ; ba- 
ihdn ; or with * khdnah^ ad- 
ded to the name of the 
(in cloth,) tah. (of a door, 
^c.\palla, two-, &c. do- 
gt4na,YJapetna;iah-k, with 
-ed hands, hdih-joz-kar-ke. 

¥ oWovr ^ picMe-dna ^r\d jdna, 
(a trade), peshah-k, -er. 

pkhhe-dne-wdla, (adher- 
ent,) tdbtddr. 

Folly, be-wu^tifi ; ahtnakt ; 
htmdkat, A. be-iouJ^uf ; 

Fond, shdjk ; mdJL to be 
-of a person, pydr-k, ; 
aziz-rakhna, (of a thing,)* 

Fool, ahmaJ^. V. himdkat-k. 
See * Folly.' adv. bt-wu^tlt' 

Foot, pdiiw, (measure,) ^//.^ 
(E.). -man, chob-ddr ; piyd- 
dah, -path, pag-dandi, 
-step, kadam, -stool, mor- 
ha ; ishtiiL (E.) ; pdo-ddn. 

For, ke wdste ; ke liye ; ho. 
(because,) chunkih, -in- 
sXSinctyChundnchi; masaian. 

Forbearance, parhezy (f ) f 
sabr, (f.). V. -^ 

Forbid, inana-k, which, may 
God- Khuda na kare, 
N. mana. 

Force, zor, (oppression,)- 
zuhi, (f.) ; zabar-dasti, V. 
-k, A. zor-dwar. Adv. 
0^r j^, 6^r. -ed, (constrain- 
ed,) majbiir. N. majburi. 

Fore, (adv. ydge;a£/a; sdmne; 


Fore-fathers, j'add ; viiirisdn, 
-finger, shahddad ki nngli, 
-foot, agla-pdffw -head, 
peshdnu -noon, do pahar 
ke dge. -go, chkor-d, ; 

foreign, pardeshi ; bideshi ; 
wildyati, -country^pardes; 
wildyat -er, bidesi ddmi. 

Tortst, jangal ; ban. (as in 
* sundar-ban. * * the beauti- 
ful forest^ The Soonder- 

Forgetfulness, bhul^ (f.) ; 
fardnioshi, V. -k.; bhiilna; 
bhul-jdna. A. fardtnosh- 
gdr. -gotten, fardmosh. 

Forgiven, mu^df, N. -/. V. 
-k. -er, with */<?.' 

Fork, kdf}ta. 

Form, shakl^ ( f-) 5 sitrat. V. 
bandna. (bench,) kursi ; 
takhtah ; * binsh^ (E.). 

Former, peshtar ; agla ; 
pahla ; sdbiik ; -ly, dge ; 
agle zamdne meii ; peshtar. 

Forsake, chhor-d. ; tydg-k. 

Fort, ki/ah ; garh. 

Forth, dge, and so-, waghai- 
rah, to go-, bdhar-jdna, 
to show-, batld-d. ; zdhir-k. 

Fortnight, chaudah roz ; do 

Fortune, (good, or bad,) kis- 
mat, (good,) nasib ; ikbdL 
(bad,) bad kistnat ; bad- 
bakhti, be-nasibL (wealth,) 
daulat ; mdl, A. nek-bakht ; 
khush nasib; bhala; daulat- 
niand. Adv. nasib-se ; nek- 
bakhti-se, to be -ate, adjs. 
with hona. 

Forward, dge, (rude,^ shokh ; 
gustdkh. V. chaldn kar-d, ; 
rawdnah kar-d ; dge bhej-d. 

Foundation, bunydd, (f.). 

Fountain, chashmah. 

Fourth-part, chauthd-i ; pd^o. 

Fowl, chiriya ; ([X)ultry,) 
murgh : murghi : (small,) 
kharchah ; (middle size,) 
nim ; (roast,) kabdb. 

Fox, lomiri. 

Frame. ^Ste * Make.' picture-, 
dhdncha. door-, chau-kath 


Fraud. See * Deceive.' 
Free, khalds; dzdd, N. khaldsi; 
rihd^i dzddagi, V. chhor- 
d ; khalds kar-d, / jdne-d, 
adv. (e.g. with a free- 
hand,) kushddah^ hdth se. 

* From the Persian ' kuskddan* ' to op>en. 

hindi5stIni as it ought to be spoken. 253 

Freeze, (intr,) jam-jdna. 

{trans.) barf me^ rakhna ; 
Frequent, {^,\joaksar hota 

hat. -ly, aksar, (v.) dnd- 
jdna ; dmad-o-raft-k. 
Fresh, tdzah ; nau, -ness, 

Friday, jumah ; shukr-wdr, 

(or -Mr,), 
Friend, dost;ydr, -ship, dosti, 

-ly, dostdnah. 
Frighten, dardna ; dar-dikh- 

Idna or karna, or kardna. 
Frock, frdk^ (E.). kurti, 

-coat, frd^ kurti. 
Frog, mendak. 
From, se ; az (Persian). 
Front. See * Face,' * Fore.' 
Fruit, tnewah ;phal, (results,) 

nattjah, -erer, meivah- 

farosh, -ful, phal-ddr. 

Fry, fardi (E.) -kar-d.-vag* 

p2in, fardi-pdn (E.). 
Fuel, /akri; hezim, ((,), 
Fulfil, add k. &c. See *Accom- 

Full, /f/ira ; bhara ; bhar- 
pur. -grown, (of persons,) 
siydna Adv. piire taur se; 
Fun, khushi ; khel ; tamdsha, 

-ny, hatjtsne ki bdt. 
Fur, pashm. 

Furious, dhvdnah ; ghusse ; 

josh, a -passion, dtish-bdr 


Furlough, chhutti ; rukhsat. 

Furnish, (supply,) pahuiy 

chd'd. ; bhej-d, (e.g. a 

room,) sajdna ; sii^gdr-k. 

Furniture, sdmdn ; asbdb ; 

Future, (n.a.), dyindah. 


Gain, nafa ; mundfa ; fdi- 
dah, V. -^. (e.g. learning,) 
hdsil'k, ; jama-k. 

Gallop, (n.), chhdr-tag. V. 

the word for the kind 
of game, e.g. dtish-bdzt, 
games with fire, fireworks, 
(sport,) shikdr. See * Gam- 
ble.' Also page 88. 

Gamble, jYi.a khelna. bier. Garden, bdgh ; bdghchah. 


-er, mdli. 

Game, khel ; bdzi following Garlic, lahsan. 

^54 hindi5stXni as it ought to be spoken. 

Garment, (according to its 
. name) -s, kapt^e ; poshdk, 

(f.). See pages ^^, 87 & 95. 
•Garrison, ^ile ke log. 
Gate, phdtah -man, dar- 

•Gather, jama-k, (flowers,) 

•Gay, khush ; khush-diL V. 

hona, N. -// -/. 
Gaze, dekhte rahna ; ghiirna. 

N. nigardni, 
•Gem, jawdhir ; jauhar ; 

•General, dmm, -ly, umiiman. 
Generation, /«j>5i/. from- to-, 

♦Generous, sakhi ; N. sakjid- 

•Gentle, narm ; gharib, (of 

birth,) najib ; ashrdf ; asiL 

-man, bhala ddmi. gently, 

•Get. See 'Acquire.' -you 

gone, diir ! ; diir-ho ! 
•Ghost, bhut See *Die.' 

' Holy.' 
'Gift, indm ; bakhshish, (to a 

superior,) nazr ; nazard- 

nah ; saldmi, V. -d. 

Gilding, tial, -er, kdr. gilt, 

Gimlet, barma. 
Ginger, (green, or preserved,) 

adrak. (dry,) sor^th. 
Girl, larki ; chhokri, (slave,) 

bandi ; laundi ; ddsi, -ish, 

Give, dena; de-d. -up, 

ehho^-d. -way, hatna, -er, 

dene-wdla. See 'Gift.' 
Glad, khush; khush diL V. 

hona^ and karna, -ness, 

khushi ; dil-khushi. Adv. 

Glass, shishah ; glds. (E.), 

service o^-, glds sab.^ -of, 

shishe ka. 

Globe, kurah. A. ^<7/. 

Gloomy, dhumla. N. -/. 

Glue, saresh, V. -j^ jorna. 

Glutton, bisydr-khor. -y, -/. 

Gnat, w^x. 

GOy jdna ; chalna ; barhdna; 
fdh-lena, -against, kisipar 
jdna, -forward, dge-jdna^ 
or chalna^ or barhdna. 
-hucky pichhe jdna^ dr^c, 
to let-, chhord. -round 
about, chakkar-karkejdna. 

* See * Sab ' in Part I of this Glossary. 

hindt^stIni as it ought to be spoken. 


Goat, chhdgul; bakra^ (m.) 
bakri^ (f.). 

God, (Christian and M.) 
Khuda ; Khudd-ta^dla, 
(M.) AUdh, (H.) Ishwar; 
Farmeshwar ; Bhagwdn ; 
Rdm ; Rdm-Rdm, and 
many more, corresponding 
to the attributes of God. 
(as we say, * The God of 
Love,' ' The God of Fire,' 
&c.). Religious figures are 
called ^but' Mu^amma- 
dans are forbidden to use 
them, -ly, Khudd-tars. 
-liness, ta^wa. 

Gold, sona ; zar. A. sone ha ; 
sonahla. -smith, sondr. 

Good, achchha ; bhala ; khtib ; 
nek. -and bad, bhala- 
bura, a -deal, khiib-kuchh, 
a -while, der tak, a -way 
kuchh dtir. -for nothing, 
nd'kdra, kuchh kdm ka na- 
hii^, -for, kdm ka^ a -many, 
bahut-sa, -morning, sabd- 
hU'l'khair, -evening, shab 
ba-khair. N. achhd^i ; 
bhaldj ; nekL (kindness,) 
mihrbdni. to do-, achhdj^ 
&*c, k, to make-. See 
* Establish.' 

Goods, mdl ; asbdb ; chiz sab. 

Goose, rdj-hdi}s. 

Gospels, the, injll. 

Government, hukumat ; sal- 
tanat ; amalddrL 

Governor, according to his 
rank, from pddshdh^ . to 
^ subaMdr" ; hdkim, -Ge- 
neral, bara Idt sdhib, 
lieutenant-, Idt sdhib. See 
page 78. 

Gourd, kadu, 

Grace, indyat, to show-, -k, 
-ful, sajila. 

Gracious, mihrbdn ; rahim ; 
shirin, N. /. -ness, mihr- 

Graft, ^alam. V. lagdna. 

Grain, ghallah ; andj ; ddnah, 
(a little,) zarrah-sa, (f.) ; 

Granary, gola. 

Grand, bara; umdahy buzurg; 
dlishdn. -eur, bardi ; shau- 
kat, as applied to rela- 
tives : father's father, ddda, 
mother's father, ndna. fa- 
ther's mother, dddi, mo- 
ther's mother, ndni, son's 
son, pota, son's daughter, 
poti» daughter's son, ndti, 
daughter's daughter, natni. 


Grape, grapes, angiir. 

Grasp, pakarna, N. hiabzah ; 

Grsiss, gMs, (f. ). (for horses,) 
dub'ghds, -hopper, UddL 

Grate, raga^-k, ; charcha^- 
dna, N. ragar, (for fire,) 
dtish'khdnah ; jhanjhdrL 

Grateful, ihsdnmand, N. -/. 

Gratify, khttshk. -itude, 
shukr, (expressing grati- 
tude,) shukr-gHzdn\ 

Grave, (n.) h^abr ; gor. -yard, 

-istdn. (a.) (in mind,) 

fikrmand ; udds ; afsur- 
dah, (as an affair,) san- 

gin ; wazani. 
Gravel, rora ; reg ; kankar. 
Gravy, db-i-gosht ; grevi. (E.). 
Gray, sabsahy flea-bittei)-, 

magasi. (as hair,)/<f^a. 
Graze, (intr.) charna, {trans.) 

chardna, one who tends 

cattle -inir, charwdha. 

-ing-ground, parti zamin^ 

(f ) ; chard-gdh. 
Grease, charbi; chiknd^i. V. -d. 
Great, bara, &'c. See * Grand.' 

a -deal, bahut; dher. 
Green, sabz, (fresh,) tdzah ; 

tar-o tdzah, -ness, sabzi ; 


Gtidlron, grt'iddn, (haifE.). 
Grief, ghamm ; a/sos ; dukh ; 

ranj\ A. ghamgin ; dukhit; 

ranjidah ; dzurdah ; udds. 

V. {trans.) bezdr-k ; izd-d ; 

satdna, {intr.) hona^ with 

the adjs. 
Grind, pisfia. -stone, chakki. 

-ing -slab, sit. 
Groan, kardh ; dh ; ndlak. 

V. -k. ; kahama. 
Grocer, modi. 
Groom, sd^is. V. ghora 

thanda-k. ; ghofc-ko malna^ 

sdfk. or other appropriate 

Grove, bdgh : top. 

Ground, zamin, (f.) the sur- 
face of the-, ru-i-zamin^ 
dry-, khushki. wet-, tari ; 
tardyi. as in 'camping- 
ground,' &c., .. gdh as last 
part of word, khaima-gdh, 
&'c.{c3iuse,)sabab. (origin,) 
bunydd, (f.) ; jar. -less, be- 
bunydd ; be-sabab. V. (as 
a boat,) -par lagjdna ; 
tkekna; thek-jdna. (a case,) 
is bunydd par arz karna^ 
kihy d^c. 

Grow, (Jntr.) phalna ; ngna ; 
dna; d-jdna; ho-jdna. (e.g. 




in stature,) bara hona ; 
bafrhna, {trans.) (e.g. vege- 
tables,) bcnct ; ropna. 
grown-up (persons,) stydna. 

Grumble, kurkurdna ;garaj- 
na. N. kurkiirdhat ; garaj, 

Guava, avtrud. 

Guarding, (n.) (as sentinel,) 
pahra ; nigdhbdni ; pds- 
bdni, V. -k. one who guards, 
pahra-wdia ; pdra-wdia 
nigdh-bdn ; chauki-ddr. to 
be on one's guard, khabar- 
ddr hona. 

Guardian, hdfiz, (of yonth, 
&c.) murabbi. (of a minor,) 
zc;^//'. of (property,) amdnaU 
ddr ; chauki-ddr, (of a 
Muham. : religious trust,) 
mutawalli, (of a Hindu 
ditto,) she wait, (vulg. 

shebait.) -ship, hifdzat ; 

amdnat ; zhnmah. 
Guess, (iiyds ; atkaL V. -k. ; 

atkalna. bv-, atkalse : 

Guide, rdh-numa ; agwa. (v.) 

rdh batldna ; pahunchdd. 
Guile, fareb ; daghd-bdzi ; 

hilah ; chdldki, A. farebi ; 



Guilt, gundh ; J^usiir. A. 

gundh-gdr ; mujrim. -less, 

Gulp, ghti^t V. -se khdna, 

or pina. 
Gum, gond, V. -iagd-d, ; 

Gun, bandu^^ (f.) -powder, 

bdrtit, shot for -, chharra, 

(cannon,) top, at -fire, 

top ke wa^t. 


Habit, dastur ; maamul, a 
bad-, buri ddat, -ual, jo 
aksar-hota hat, -ually, 
aksar; haMeshah,-o{ mindf 
mizdj ; kho. See ' Dress.' 

Hail, patthar ; ola. V. -par- 
na, interj. mubdrakbdd! 

Hair, bdl ; chut, -brush, bdl- 
ka brush (E.). -dresser, 

T., H. 

bdlwal, -less, ganja ; kora. 
-y, mu-e ddr, curling-, 
zulf, (f.). 
Half, ddha ; nisf ; nim. V. 
ddhiydna ; nisfd-nisfi-k, for 

* half in compos. : use 

* adh^ e.g. ' adh-bhara,' 
half -full, *nim' is also 
used in ihis sense. 



hindiJstXni as it ought to be spoken. 

Hall, ddldn, (of audience,) 

Ham. See page 92. 

Hammer, mdrtoL V. se 

Hand, hdth ; dast. of watch, 
kdnfa ; sti,t\ at -, taiydr ; 
muyassar ; murattab ; ke 
pds ; ke nazdik, - in - 
hdthd-hdthi, -covering 
(gloves,) dast'dnah. -ker- 
chief, fH-mdl, -writing, 
hdth-likha, -cuffs, hdth- 
kaxi.-ivX^mutthi'bhar (grip, 
power,) ^abzah. (v.) dena ; 

Handle, dastah ; ka^a, (v.) 


hdth lagdna ; pakarna ; 

Handsome, kMbsurat 
Hang, (trans,) latj^dna ; 

latkd-d. (intr.) latakna, 

{exQCWitt) phdt^si-d, -man, 

Happen, ^«flr ; ho-jdna ; dna; 

pesh hona ; bar-pd hona. 
Happy, khush; khush-dil, N. 

-/. -/. V. -hona. 
Harass, satdna ; di^^-k, N. 

di^k ; tasdi, (f.). 
Hard, sakht, (lit. and fig.) 

N. -/. See * Difficult.' -ly, 

tnushkil se. There is hard- 
ly a man present, kam- 

tar ek ddtni hdzir hat. - ship. 

See * Distress.' -dy, maz- 

but ; sakht ; marddnah. 
Hare, khar-gosh. 
Harm, zarar ; taklif ; tasdi, 

(f.); nuf^dn; ziydn. V. -k.; 

-pahur^hd-d, -ful, with 

*/<?,' / muzirr. -less^ ghair- 

muzirr ; be nuksdn. 
Harness, sdz, (f.). -room, 

^khdnah, -stand, kaghora. 

See page 90. 
Harsh, tursh : khatta ; kar- 

wa. See * Cruel' ' Hard.' 

N. turshi ; khatdyi. 
Harvest, (spring,) rabi, 

(autumn,) kharif, (general 

word,)y^j/, (f.). 
Hash, (meat,) hesh, (E-)i 

^imah, V. -k. 
Haste, shitdb, or shitdbi ; 

jaldi, V. -k, -en, -kardna; 

-kard'd. Ad vs. Seepage 54. 

-y, (in temper,) tund-kho, 

N. -/. 
Hate, nafrat ; dushmani ; 

addwat. V. -rakhna. -ful, 

bura ; zabtin ; nafrat- 

Have. See page 75. Sect. 13. 



Hawk, jurra, (m.). bd2^ (f.). 

Hawker. See * Pedler.' 

He, yih ; wuh. See page 30. 

Head, sar^ or sir, (so many 
cattle,) rds, (of corn,) bdl, 
-ache, sar ka dard, -long, 
be-tadbir, -man, sar-ddr. 
-quarters, sadr maJ^dm, 
stall, nuktah, -strong, 
muf^h-zor. N. mui^h-zori^ 
-y, nasha-ddr, to make-, 
sar-k. (to lead,) sarddri-k,; 

Health, tan-durusti ; bhaldj ; 
khairiyat ; mizdj, A. tan- 
darust ; bkala ; khair, to 
be in good-, tan-durusi 
hona, to be in bad-, tan- 
durust nahiij, hona ; bimdr 
hona; kam-zor hona. 

Heap, (n.) dher ; ambdr, (of 
people,) guroh; majma; 
gbpl See * Collect' 

Hear, sunna, (obey,) sunna ; 
mdnna, hearing, (e.g. a 
case in Court,) samd^at. 

Heart, dil, (central part,) 
maghz : gdda ; bhitar jo 
hau by-, nok zabdn se, 
hard -ed, sang-dil, soft 
-ed, narm-dil, -y, dii-soz ; 
dil'garm, -ily, dil-o-jdn se. 

-less, be-dil ; be-rahm, to 

take-, himmat rakhna. 
Heat, garmi : tapish ; sozish, 

(of sun,) dhap ; ghdm. 

(of temper,) garmi ; fundi; 
josh ; dtisK V. garm k. See 

' Hot. ' 
Heaven, bihisht (paradise,) 

Heavy, bhdri; wazani ; girdi^. 
Hedge, (n.) bdrh ; ghera ; 

ihdtah. V. -d» ; -iagdna. 

-hog, dul'dui. 
Heel, eri. 

Height. See ' High. ' 
Heir, wdris, PL -dn, 
HeWyjahannam, (f.). dozakh. 
Help, madad^ (f.); idnat 

V. -d. -ful, madad-gdr, 

-less, Idrchdr, by God's 

help, Khuda chdhe; ba- 

fazl'i'Khuda, a - mate, 

Hemp, san; pdt -plant, 

Hen, tnurghi, -house, 

Hence,(time,)i^tf baad, (place,) 

yahdij> se, (cause,) is liye. 
Her, is'ka ; us-ka. See page 

30. herself, See page 30. 

Sect. 7. 

26o hindi}stXni as it ought to be spoken. 

Here, yahdtf.; is jagah^ or 
is jagah met^, -and there, 
idhar - udhar, -abouts, 
kahii^-yahii^. -after, dyindah 
met^. -on, or -at, is-par ; 
is metj, ; is-se. yih bdt sun- 
kar^ or boi-kar. 

Heron, bagla. 

Hesitation, pas-o-pesh; tdld- 
toli ; deri, (in speech,) 
hichkich, V. -k. 

Hidden, chhipd M^a ; rUposh, 

Hide, {trans,) chhipdna ; 
ruposh - rakhna. {intr.) 
chhipd'hona ; riiposh-hona 
(n.) chamxa ; khdl, (f). 

High, ui^cha ; balandy or 
buland, N. ut^chdj, -bred, 
asli, -in price, mah^ga ; 
girdi!jt, -minded, dli-him- 
mat, -in rank, dli-shdn. 
-in spirit, diler ; himmati, 
in the height of (anything,) 
ain^'me^, -way, rdh^ (f.); 
sarak. (f.). -way-man, 
rdhzan, -way robbery, 

Hill, pahdx ; uf^chi zamin. 

Him, /V, us; is-ko ; us-ko. 
Seepage 30, 

Hinge, cMiL 

Hint, (n.), ishdrah, V. ^k- 

Hire, (fare iTimonty. ) kirdya. 
V. -/ifir^i. -r, kirdya-ddr. 

His, /V-^a; i^x-^. Seepage 30. 

Hobby, shauk. 

Hog,5i/,^r. m\d-,fang/i su,ar. 

Hold. iSftf * Grasp. ' -(con- 
tain.) reverse the sentence, 
say ' one ser of milk will 
go into this glass,' ispiydle 
metf^ ek ser dvdh atta hat. 
[atna^ to get into a given 
space.] or you may say, 
yik ek ser ka piydla hai= 
this is a one ser glass, i.e. 
holds, or can contain, one 
ser. -one's tongue, chup- 
rahna, to -good, rahna ; 
thaharna, -er, ddn. See 
page 41. 

YioXt^chhed; (V. •'na,)siirdkh, 
(of an animal,) bii. 

Holy, musalli ; Khuddrtars. 
-iness, takwa.-dizy^ iatil, 
(religious,) parb^ (vulg., 
^parab, ') - war, jihdd, 
-Ghost, nihu'l'idh. 

Home, ghar ; makdn ; kothi, 
at-, ghar mei^, not at-,(lit.) 

' Arabic for • the eye,' 

hindiJstAni as it ought ro be spoken. 261 

ghar meij, nahiri, (fig.)* See 
page 26. X,o go -^ ghar J dna. 

Hone, silli. 

Honesty, diydnat-ddri ; 

sachdj ; rdsti, A. diydnaU 
ddr ; sachcha ; rdst, -ly, by 
* 5^,' added to the nouns. 

Honey, shahd.-comb, chhdta. 

Honour, (reputation,) izzat ; 
(dignity,) shdn ; sar-fardzL 
(reverence,) tazim, your-, 
huziir, dress of- khilat, 
Y.-iazim-k, ; adab-k. 
-able, mu^azzaz; mutabar. 

Hook, ankri ; kdij^ta, hiik. 
(E ). V. -se pakarna. 

Hope, ummed, (f.). V. 
-rakhna. -ful, also , one 
who is hoping for some- 
thing, -wdr, (expectancy,) 
-wdri, -less, be-ummed, 

Horn, sing; shdkh. to draw in 
one's horns, dum-dabdna. 

Horse, ghora ; asp, -back, 
ghore par sawdr ; sawdr 
hO'kar, -dung, M^ (f.), 
-doctor, salotar, -man, 
sawdr. -manship, sawdri^ 
-race, ghu^-dau^. 

Hospitable, mihrndn-ddr, N. 
-/. -tal, haspatdl^ (K.); 

Host, tnihrndn-ddr ; sdhib-i- 
khdnah. See * Crowd.* 

Hot, garm, the - weather 
garmi ka mausam. 

Hound, shikdri kutta. 

Hour, ghari. See page 67.-ly, 
(i. e. always,) ghari-ghari. 

House. See * Home.' -break- 
ing, sendh-chori, -breaker, 
sendkiya, -hold, khanddn. 
-holder, sdhibi-khdnah, 
-keeping, ghar ka intizdm 
kama ; khdnah-ddri. 

How? kaisa; kis tarah; ky{i7}* 
kar. -ever, lekin. -long, 
kab'tak, -often, ka,e bdr ; 
kitne dafah -many, kitne, 
-mucli, kitna, -do you 
do? mizdj sharif ; dp ka 
mizdj kaisa hat 9 however 
strong he may be, still, &c. 
agarchih wuh bahut zor- 
dwar ho^ taubhi^ &^c. 

Human, being, ddmi ; insdn, 
A. insdni, the -race, in- 
sdniyat ; ddmiyat, -mane, 
rahim; mihrbdn; muldjm; 

Humble, gharib ; miskin, 
N. -// -i;faro-tani, to be^ 
hona^ with theadjs. (trans,) 
nichd'k, ; dabd-d. 

262 hindiJstAni as it ought to be spoken. 

Humour. See * Moist.' (wit,) 
lutf ; thattha, A. latif ; 
thathol, -ously, iatife-se, 
good-, khush'hdlu bad-, 
bad'hdli ; in a bad-, mag- 
ra ; ghusse, to-, (jdzai-d,; 

Hump, kiibat^. -backed, 

Hundred, sau^ or sat, as a 
unit, saikra. 5 per cent. 
fi saikfe, pdnch Hipiye, 

Hunger, bMkh. (f.). A. -a. 
to be, "hona. 


Ice, barf, (f.) ; yakh, (f.). 
V. harf mefj, rakhna, 
-d-water, barf-pdni, 

Idesif Mayd/. See page no, 
A. -/. 

Idiotf pdga/; a^ wa^. -ocy,-/. 
-tic, ahmaJji ke taur par. 

Idle, (doing nothing,) be-kdr; 
be-kdm ; drdm-men, (lazy,) 
sust ; dhila, -ness, drdm ; 
fur sat; fardghat (laziness, ) 
sustu to be-, adjs. with 

Idol, but. -2iXxy, -parasti. 

Hunt, (n.) shikdr. V. -k, 
-sman, -1. -ing dog, -/ 
kutta. -ground, -gdh, A. 

Hurry. See ' Haste.' 

Hurt. See * Harm.' 

Husband, khasam ; shauhar; 
mard. See * Cultivation.' 

Hush ! chup ; chup-raho ; 
khdmosh I to -up, chhipd- 
na, -money, rishwat 

Husk, (n.) chhilka ; post. V. 

Hut, jhonip^u 

If, agar ; jo. See page 104. 
Ignorant, jdhil ; ajhal ; nd- 

ddn ; kam-aJ^l, -c^Jdhili; 

nd'ddni ; kam-a^li^ (f.). 

adv. with ^ se,^ 
111, bimdr, -ness, -/. See 

* Bad.' -behaved, bad- 

sul^k^ -behaviour, bad- 

sulUki, -disposition, bad- 

kho ; bad-tabi,at. 
Illegal,^ khildfJ^dnun, -ity, 

jo khildf-J^dniin hau 
Illumination, raushani ; tan- 

wir, (f.).V. 'k. 

* For many negatives in * il/ ' iin,* 'im/ &c., use the affirmative and 
nahin ; or prefixes * be' ' la\ * nd,* * nir,* b*c. 



Illustrious, ndm-war ; ndm- 

ddr; mashhur. in compos: 

Im^ge, putla ; putli, (idol,) 

but See * Idol.' 
Imagination, khaydl ; tassaw- 

wur, V. -k. -ary, khaydlL 

See * Idea.' 
Immediate, maujud ; hdzir ; 

makhsus, -ly, bil-feL See 

page 54. 
Immense. See * Grand.' 
Immodest, be'sharm ; be-haya. 

N. be-sharmi, behayd.i. 
Immoral, nd-niaa^til ; zabun. 
Impair, ghatd-d. to be-ed, 

ghatna ; bigar-jdna. 
Impatient, be-sabr. A. -i. 
Impel, chaldna ; chald-d. 
Incapable, ghair-kdbiL 
Incense, {n.)/tibdn. (v.) (make 

angry), ghussa-k. 
Inch, inshiy (E.). 
Incident, kdm ; fel ; amr ; 

wuku ; bdt 
Incite, uthdna ; targhib-d, 

N. targhi^, (f.). 
Inclination, mail^ (f.) ; ragh- 

bat; drzu^ (f.) ; ykauJ^, 

I am- inclined to think, 

mera khaydl yih kai, kih^ 

Include, shdmil-rakhna. -ed, 

shdmil'kiya ; sdih rakha. 
Income, dmadani ; md-hasal. 
Incomprehensible, bekiyds ; 

ghair-mutasawwar ;jo kOyi 

shakhs nahifj, samjhe. 
liicorrect, nd-durust, c^c 

See 'Correct.' 
Increase, (trans,) barhdna ; 

ziyddah'k. (intr.) barhna ; 

zidddah'h, (n.) izdfah; 

Indeed, fil-wd^^e ; ha^ikat 

Independent, mustakil; be- 

lagd,o ; aldhidah ; khud- 

sar. -ce, dzddi ; be- 

ta^alluki ; khud-sari. 
India, Hind, -n, Hindui ; 

Hindu, -n corn, bhutta. 
Indigo, «//, (f.). -factory, 

-kothi, -planter, -ka sdhib. 
Individual, (n.). See 'Being,' 

(a.) ek ; ek-ek. -ly, ek-ba-ek ; 
farhi-far^ ho-ke. 
Indolent. See *Idle.' 
Industry. See * Diligence.' 
Infamous, zabun ; viayub ; 

bara khardb, N . bad-ndmi ; 

zablini ; khardbi. 
Infant. See * Child.' 
Infection, sardyat, V. -k. 

264 hindiJstAni as it ought to be spoken. 

Infidel, (one not a Muham :) 
kdfir, (one not a Hindu,) 
malechha. -ity, kufr. 

Infirm, (body,) za^if, (body 
and other things,) kam-zor; 
durbal ; nd-td^at ; nd- 
tawdn. (of mind,) mun- 
kharif, -ity, (of body,) 
zuf^ or zof. (of body, &c.,) 
kam-zori ; nd-tawdni ; nd- 
mazbiUu (of mind,) in- 

Inflame, jaldna ; josh-k-m^i- 
tion, josh ; sozish ; garmi. 

Influence, asar ; tdsir^ (f.). 
V. -k. 

Inform. See ' Tell.* an -ation 
in Court, ndlish ; dawa^ 
(f.); suwdl, ~er, go^indah. 

Ingratitude, nd-ihsdnmandi. 

Ingress, bhitar jdne ki rdk, 
(admission to presence,) 
huzur mefj. dna, (v.n.). 

Inhabitant, sdkin; bdskindah; 
rahne-wdla. See *Live.' 

Inherit, wdris-hona, -ance, 
mirds, (f.) ;. tarikah^ or 
tarkah, -or, wdris. 

Inhuman, be-rahm, &'c. See 
* Cruel.' 

Iniquity,/^/ zabt/ni; .burd,t\ 
A. zabtin ; bura ; kkardb. 

Injunction, kukm ; kahna^ 
(v.n.) V. hukm-d, ; kahna. 

Injury, nu^sdn; ziydn. (hurt,) 
zarar^ (trivial ditto, zarar- 
khafif, (serious ditto,) 
zarar-shadid^ or sangin. 
( wrong, ) nd-haJki ; be-insdfi. 
V. — k,; -pahurf^chd-d-xoM^t 
jiS'Se (any of the nouns) 
dta hat. 

Injustice, be-insdfi, ; nd-hakk. 

Ink, (\y\2ic\i^) siydhi ; roshnd^i. 
(red,) surkhi, -stand, or 
pen-and-ink, daivdt ; J^a- 

Inn, sard^e, (f.) ; musdfir- 
khdnah; ddk-bangla ; hotel. 

Innocent, be-gundh ; sdf ; 

pdk. N. be-gundhi ; safdyi; 

pdki ; pakizagi. 
Inquiry, ptkhhna, (v.n.); tah- 

kiJkdt ; darydft ; iaddruk. 

V, the nouns dXid^ karna. 
Insane. See ' Mad.* 
Insect, kira ; kirm. 
Insensible, be-hosh ; be- 

hawdss, N. -/ ; -/. 
Insert, ddkhil-k. ; dafy-k.; 

mundaraj'k. ; zikr-k. -ion, 

Inside, bhitar ; andar. 



Insight, wu^uf ; hoshydri. 

Insist, musirr-h. ; zor se 
mdi^gna, or chdhna, or 
kahna, -ency, bdr-bdr 
mdt^gna, &*c, (v.n.). 

Insolent, gustdkh ; sar-kash. 
N. -/ / -I. 

Inspect, dekhna ; tnuldka- 
zah'k, -ion, taJ^aiyud ; 
nazar-anddzi} -or, muta- 
min ; inshpektar-sdhib, (half 

Instant, (n.) lahzah ; ek dam. 
See * Immediate.* This in- 
stant. See page 54. 

I nstead of, ewaz meij, ;ke badie. 

Instruct, sikhdna ; sikhd-d. ; 
sikhldna^ sikhld-d, ; taa- 
lim-d. N. iaalim, (f.). -or, 
jo sikhdia hat; sikhak ; 
munshi ; pandit ; guru, 
-ive, niufid. 

Instrument, dlah ; hathiydr. 
He was instrumental /«, 
6r*^., us-ki madad se, &c. 

Intellect, afil, (f.); hosh ; zihn. 
A. ah^li ; zahin. 

Intelligence (of mind,) See 

* Intellect,' (news.) See 

* News.' 

Intention, fiasd ; irddah ; 
murddy (f.) ; gharaz, (f.) ; 
matlab. V. -rakhna, or, 
better, with hona, e.g. mera 
kasd yih hat, kih, &*c. 
Adv. J^asdan ; jdn-b^ijh-ke. 

Intercourse, ild^ah; sarokdr; 
dna-jdndy (v.n.) ; dmad-o- 
raft V. kisi ke ^sdih- 
rakhna, or, better, with 
hona, e.g. mujh-se us-se 
kuchh - nahifj, hat, * I have 
nothing to do with that 

Interest, (of money,) stid. 
(with a person,) kahd-suna; 
asar, (share,) hissah ; 
sdjha, (in any matter,) 
shauk ; mail, (f.) V. -rakh- 
na ; dillagdna. self -ed, 
gharaz-mand, seeking one's 
own-, khud-gharaz. 

Interpret, samjhd-d. See 
* IVanslate.' 

Interruption, khalal ; atkd,o ; 
rok. V. "k.; atkd-d, ; 

Interval, (time,) arsah ; 
(spsice,) fdsi/ah. 

Interview. See ' Visit.' 

* From the Persian * anddkhtan ' ' to throw ; ' a not uncommon 
termination. . * Anddzi ' as adv. , means ' approximately. ' 



Into, met^ ; ke bhitar ; ke 

Intoxication, nashah. -ed, 

nashe mefjt ; matwdla. V. 

nashe metj' hona ; mat7vdia 

Introduce, muld^dt-kara-d. ; 

hdzir-kar-d ; bhitar^ or 

huzur met}y Idna. -tion, 

idkhdl, a letter of -tion, 

sifdrish ka khatt. 
Intrust, supurd'kar-d. ; kisi 

ke pds rakhna^ amdnat 

meij, rakkna. 
Invent, nikdlna; pdna,-\OT\^ 

ijdd^ (f.). 
Inventory, tdli^ah ; fihrisU 
Investigation. See * Inquiry.' 
Invisible, ghd^ib ; ghair- 

Invitation, nyota, V. -bhejna. 

Involuntary, -rily, -be- 

ikhtiydr, N. -/. 
Inundation, saildby (m.). 

Iron, loha. of-, lohe ka, a 

smoothing -, istri, V. -k- 
Irregular, khildf-dasiur, N. 

-I. adv. be-tartibise. 
Irrigate,/fl/^«fl.-ion, dbpdshi. 
Irritate, satdna ; dikk-k. N. 

chhe^-ckhd^ ; diJ^k, -able, 


\s\zxid,jazirah ; dwip^ or dip. 
Issue, (v. trans,) jdri-kar-d, 

(intr,) nikalna; nikal-dna. 

(n.) natijah ; d^ibat. 
It, yih ; wuh ; its, is-ka : 

us-ka. See page 30. 
Itch, khdrisht ; khujli. A, 

khdrishti, V. khujldna. 

Ivory, hdthi'dd^t. 


Jackal, ^dar ; siydL 
Jacket, jdkit^ (E.); kurtah^ 

or kurti. 
Jail, jel-khdnah^ (half E.) ; 

^aid'khdnah, -or, jeiar- 

sdhib, (half E.). 
Jam, murabba ; jdm, (E.). 
Jar, (y^^^^\)ghara;jdr. (E.). 

-ring so\\nd,kkarkkardkaf. 

Jasmine, satnan. 

Jaw, jabra. 

Jealous, bad-zann^ N. -/. 

Jelly, >//, (E.). 

Jest, thattha, V. -k, -ing, 

thatholiy -er, thathol, in-, 

thatholi ke taur se, 
Jesus Christ, hazrai-tsa. 
Jew, yahtid (m.) ; -/«, (f.). 

hindt^stIni as it ought to be spoken. 267 

Jewel, gahna ; zewar ijawd- 
hir, -er, jauharu -box, 
with ...^{f«. Seepage 41.* 

Job, kdm ; tahal. 

Jockey, sawdr ; jdki^ (E.). 

Jocoseness, thatthe-bdzi ; 

Join, (n.),y^r. V. -d.Jorna ; 
mild-d, joint, (a.) mild- 
hii,a. (junction,)y(?r. 

Joke. See * Jest.' 

Jolly. See * Happy.' a -fel- 
low, ydr-bdsh. 

Jot, zarrahy (f.) thora-sa ; 
ek ddnah. 

Journal, roz-ndmchah. 

Journey, safar; ktkh, V. -k, a 
day's-, manziL 

Joy. See * Happy.' 

Judge, hdkitn ; jaj-sdhib^ 
(half E.). sadr-dla sdhib ; 
munsif sdhib ; ^dzi sdhib, 
(all these, except the first, 
are technical words.) 
-ment, (decision,) faisa- 
lah ifatwa ; hukm ; dikri^ 
(E). V. -d. (sense,) a^l^ 
(f.) ; hosh ; samajh, (f.). 
(to select,) pasand'k. 

Judicious, d^il ; ddnish- 
mand ; hoshydr, -ness, 
ddnt'si ; a^l^ (f.) ; hosK 

Jug, kulhiya, (f.) ; piydla ; 
jag. (E.). 

Juice, ras;pdnt; dudh ; araJ^, 

]u\epj Ju/ldb. 

Jump, (n.) Md ; chhaldngy 
(f.) ; uchhdl ; j'ast V. -k. ; 

Junction, &c.. See * Join.' 

Jurisdiction, (power,) hukm ; 
huMmat ; amalddri ; tkh- 
tiydr, (territory,) aid- 
^ah ; zila^ cr^c. accord- 
ing to local divisions, a 
' sub-division ' of territori- 
al-, mahkamah, -a word 
which really means *a 

Jury (native village,) panch ; 
panchdyat, (in English 
courts,) y^r/, (E.). 'Gen- 
tlemen of the Jury,' sdhib- 

Just, ddil;rdsi; sach ; sachcha; 
tnsdfi; insdf ka. -ice, insdf; 
ha^i, -ness, rdsti ; durus- 
ti (proper,) mundsib ; 
wdjib ; ba-ja, (at this mo- 
ment,) ab ; ab-tab, -ify, 
sdfy or safd^t-k; uzr-h, adv. 

Justle, thelna ; dhakka-d 
-tling, -thel'pel kar-ke. 



Keep, rakhna ; apne pds 
rakhna, (back,) bdz-rakh- 
na ; tokna ; atkdna. (e.g. 
sheep.) pdlna. He keeps 
two horses, us ke pds do 
ghore hait^. -er, rakhwdl. 
to -on doing a ihing, use 
the stem of the principal 
verb, followed by rahna, 

Kernal, maghz ; giida ; bhi- 

Kettle, ketli, (E.) ; tddah. 
fish-, machhli ki ketli. 

Key, kunji ; chdoi ; tdli. 
bunch oi\itys,-ka guchchha. 
-hole, "ka stirdkh. 

Kick, idt. V. -mdrna. -ing 
and cu ffi ng , Idt- mukki. 

Kill, mdr-ddlna ; ^atl-k. 
khiin-k, (for food,) zabh-k.; 
haldl-k. -ing, ^atl ; khutj.- 
rezi ;^ zabh. 

Kind, (a.) mihrbdn ; shaft J^. 
-ness, mihrbdni, adv. 
mihrbdni-se, (sort,) J^ism, 

Kindred. See * Relations.' 

King, (M.) pddshdh, ox bdd- 

shdh, (H.), rdj'a ; mahd- 

rdja, -dom. bddshdhi. 

salianat ; rdj. -ly, shdhi. 
Kiss, (n.) bosah ; mithi, (v.) 

bosah-d ; chumna. mutual 

-ing, bosah-bdzi. 
Kitchen, bdwarchi-khdnah. 

See page 87. 
Kite, (bird,) ^/%i7. (ioy,) guddi^ 
Kitten, biili ka bachchah. 
Knee, ghutna ; zdnu. to 

kneel, do-zdnu baithna. 
Knife, chhuri, clasp-, chakku^ 

pen-, ialam-tardsh. 
Knock, (at a door,) dhab- 

dhabdna. See * Blow.' 

* Strike.' 
Knot, gdf^th. (fig. e.g. the 

marriage-,) a fid. 
Know, jdnna ; pahchdnna ; 

wd^if'hona ; khabar pdna. 

-ledge, ddnist ; iim, (f.) ; 

wdkfiyat. -n, maalum. See 

page 59. well-known, mash- 

h{ir. -ingly, didah-o- 

ddnistah ;* jdn-biijh-ke. 

» From the Persian. ' rekfUan* * to pour out/ 

■ Persian.; * having seen and known ; * ^ didan^ * to see.' 

hinudstXni as it ought to be spoken. 269 


Labour, tnihnat. (V. -^.) 
(A. -/. ;) ihtimdm, daily-, 
mazdiiri ; roz-gdr, -er, 
mazdiir ; ^uli, 

Lac, Idkh ; Idh, 

Lace, (embroidery,) gota ; 
gold-, kaidbaMt^, for boot, 
&c. -^fitah; dori ; sutli. 

Ladder, si^hi. 

Lady, bihi; khdttin ; begam ; 
musammdt ; sdhibah, Eng- 
lish title, ledi » 

Lake, idi; tdl-db^ (m.) ; tald^o. 

Lamb, bheri ka bachchah. 

Lame, /angra.-ness, iartgrd,t. 

Lamentation, ndlah, V. -k, ; 
rona ; chhdti-pitna, -able, 

Lamp, (English,) lamp,^ (na- 
tive,) chirdgh; dip ; sirdj, 
-black, kdjal ; kajli. 

Lance, ballam; barchhi, -cet, 
nashtar^ (f.). V. chima ; 
nashiar mdrna. 

Land, zaniin^ (f.). -holder, 
-ddr. -ed property, -ddri; 

milk ; milkiyat the dry-, 
khushki moist-, tart, bv-, 
khushki, -lord, mdlik ; 
sdhib'i'khdnah, V. {trans,) 
utdrna, (intt,) utama, 
kindre tak d-jdna. 

Lane, gait ; chhoti rdh. 

Language, zabdn^ (f.) ; boli, 
the common-, chalni-boli. 

Lantern, laltain or lanten 
(both being attempts at 
the English word). 

Large, bara ; buzurg ; kaldi^, 
-ness, bard^i, -ly, bahut-sa, 
-esse, nisdr. 

Lash, (n.) zarb, whip-^hzind, 
V. chdbuk, &*c, se mdrna. 

Last, (a.) sab se pichhla ; 
dkhir, e.g. -year, guzash- 
tah. V. ab tak rahna^ or 
hona. -ly, dkhir-ul-amr. 

Late, der, -ness, -/. 'the 
late,* mar Mm; mutawaffa, 
(former,) agla, -ly, thore 
dinof} se. 

Laugh, haij.sna, -ter, ha^si. 

• You must ask for the ' ledi sdhibah ' (not the ' mem-sdhidah,*) if 
the lady has the title. See page 24. 

• From the Persian, • khezidariy ' to rise.' 

• Prononnce, according to rule, like the English word • lump. ' 



Law, (divine,) (M.) shara, 
(f.) ; (H.) dharM'Shdstra. 
(human,) ^,/;i, (;ai,)\hdniin, 
(custom,) rasniy (f.) ; 
(idjdah ; zdbitah, -court, 
addlai, (criminal), fauj- 
ddrij civil, diwdni,) -ful, 
jd^iz ; hash J^dniin, -less, 
be-d^in ; d^in ke khilaf^ 
-suit, dawa^ (m.) ; ndlish ; 
suwdl ; mu^addamah. 

Lay, rakhna ; rakh-d, lagd- 
na ; lagd-d^ 

Lazy, sust ; dhila ; majMl ; 
kdhiL -iness, susti ; maj- 
Mli ; kdhilu 

Lead, (n.) sisa. -en, sise ka. 

Lead, (v.) le-chalna ; le-jdna, 
-er, sar-ddr, to -the way, 
dge chalna. to -one's life, 

Leaf, patta ; waraJ^, -of a 
book, warafi, -of a door, 

Lean, dubla ; patla, -ness, 
dubldyU V. fhukna, (to an 
opinion,) mdil-hona. 

Leap. See *Jump.' 

Learn, sikhna ; parhna, -er, 
sMgird, -ed, dlim ; fdziL 
-ng, //w, (m.) ; ddnist. 

Lease, thika ; ijdrah, docu- 

ment expressing a -grant- 
ed, patta^ ditto -accepted, 
^abUlyat, V. thika^ ijdrah 
(or as the kind of lease 
may be) dena, to- e.g. a 
house, kirdye-d^ or, lena. 
lessor of land, tndlik. 
lessee, thikdddr;ijdrahddr; 
rafyat^ &'c,, according to 
the kind of* lessee. See 
Glossary Part I. sub voa- 

Least, sab se chhota. See * A t. 

Leather, chamra. -n. -f^ ka. 

Leave, (n.) ijdzat ; (-to go,) 
rukhsat ; chhuttL to take-, 
-lena, without-, be-kahe- 
piichhe. (v.) chko^-d. 

Leech, y(?;j^>^, (f.) 

Leek, gandana. 

Left, (over,) bdi^i, (surplus,) 
Jdzil ; jo bacha hat, on, or 
to the iefi hand, bd^e^jt. 

Leg, and its parts. Seepage 

Leisure, fursat ; drdtn; fard- 
gbat, at-, -meij.. -ly^dAime- 
dhime ; dhiste-dhiste. 

Lemon, lemu ; lembu, -ade, 

Lend, udhdr^ or, ^ar%^ or 

mangni-d, -er, with ^jo' 

hinddstIni as it ought to be spoken. 271 

Length, lambdj; tul, (time,) 
arsah; muddat. See *At.' 
V. lambd'k. 

Leopard, chita. 

Leprosy, ko^h, A. korhi. 

Less, kam ; kamtar, as suffix, 
* be ' before the noun, e.g. 
be-wu^uf^ senseless, -en, 
kam-kar-d. ; ghatdna. 

Lesson, sabak. 

Lest, e.g. be quiet, lest I be 
angry, chup raho^ nahiij, to 
main, &*c. don't speak, lest 
he hear, mat bolo, zurur 
sunegay and so according 
to the analysed meaning 
in each use. 

Let. See 'Lease.' (allow,) 
^(f«a, following the inflected 
infin. of principal verb. e.g. 
bhitar dne-dOy let him come 
in. or, more formal, ijdzat- 
d, ; hukm-d. ; farmdna. 

Letter, (written,) chitthi ; 
khatt ; ru^ah, (alphabet,) 
hatf, PL hur{tf. 

Lettuce, saldd, (E.); kdhu. 

Levee, darbdr;jamdyat; maj- 
ma ; majlis. 

Level, bardbar ; samdn, V. 
-k, N. -/. 

Liable, mdkhuz, but best 
translated by the Persian 
suffix ^ dth,^ or *<//^/V e.g. 
jawdb-dth, liable to an- 
swer, responsible ; liable 
to punishment, saza-wdr, 
-to sickness, error, &c. 
may be best translated by 
* anay^ or * aksar dna.^ e.g. 
us-ko zukdm aksar dta 
haL or ^karna,'' e.g. wuh 
hameshah ghalatikarta hat. 

Liberal, sakhi ; karim ; faiz- 
bakhsh, -minded, karim' 
un-nafs, N. sakhdwat; 
faiz^ (f.). -ly, dil'khol'ke. 

Liberty. See * Freedom.' 

Library, kutub-khdnah. 

Lick, chdt, V. chdtna. 

Lid, dhakna; chapni; sarposh. 

Lie, (tell a,) jhHth-kahna ; 
darogh'boina, -ar, darogh- 
go^ -ying, daroghrgOyi. 

Lie, (down), letna ; sona. 

Life, jdn (f.); rM, (f.). (being 
alive, life-time,) zindagi ; 
zindagdni ; haydt, ((,), 

* From the Persian, *gu/tan,' ' to speak." Hence also *" guft-o-^,' 
•conversation;' *go,i?tdah,' 'an informer,' or 'spy,' and many other 

272 hindi^stXni as it ought to be spoken. 

- less, be-jdn ; m^^a-M^a, 
(fig.) J>c-dtl ; afsurdah ; 
udds, to spend-, guzrdn-k, 
-long, umr-bhar. 

Lift, uthdna; uthd-d. 

Light, (not heavy,) haika ; 
subuk (clear,) sdf; rau- 
shan; ujdla, (fig.) khajif, 
-ness, halkdyi.y (clearness,) 
safdj ; raushnni ; ujdla, to 
lighten (e.g. a boat,) hal- 
ka-k, -ning, bijlL V. 
chamakna, to \\^\.^jald-d. 

Like, (a.) bardbar ; samdn ; 
ek kism ka ; ki mdnind ; 
ke mu^dfik, to be - 
another thing, yih is-se 
milta hat. See Glossary, 
Part 1. *Sa.' V. chdhna ; 
pasand-k. ; (be fond of,) 
pydr-k. -ly, aghlab. -ness, 
mu^dfaiat ; sarikha. 

Lime, chuna, -kiln, -e ki 

Limit. See * Boundary,' 
* Fence.' 

Line, satar. -ing, astar. 

Linen, katdn-kapra. 

Lion, sher-babar ; singh. 

Lip, lab. 

List, fihrist ; /ard, (f.) ; fdlu 

Listen, kdn-lagdna ; sunna. 

Litter, sawdri; pdlki ; doll 
(rubbish,) kurkat 

Little, chhota ; khurd, a-, 
tho^a; zarrah'Sa ; kuchh- 
kuchh.-htXXtt^ kuchh 

achchha, -ness, (quantity.) 
kami, (size,) chhotd^i. 

Live, jina ; zindah-hona, 
-Hhood, guzrdn, means 
of -lihcod, rozi ; rozgdr ; 
guzrdn, (to dwell,) rahna ; 
biid 'O-bdsh'k , 

Liver, (organ of body,)y/^^r; 
kaleja, (person living,) 

with *y^.' 

Lizard, tiktiki ; chhipkali. 
Load, (n.), bojha ; bharti ; 

khep^ (f.). (v. trans.) Iddna ; 

bharna. (v. intr.) ladna. 

ladened, bhara M^a. 
Loaf, ek rati. 
Lock, i^u/L V. -lagd'd, ; 

-se band-k. 
Long, lamba ; dardz ; tul- 

tawil, Sfe * Length.' -ago, 

bakul dinof} se; agle zamdne 

metf.; the whole ^dL-^-^tamdm 

L.iquoY,skardb,(f,),Seepage^4, din ; din bhar, as-as, jab. 

* From the Persian, * bUdan^^ • to be.' 


tak^ followed by * iabtak,^ 
See page 104. to -for, 
chdhna ; raghbat^ or khwd- 

Look, (n.) nazar, (f.); nigdh^ 
(f.). [y,)dekhna. -this way, 
tdkna, (to keep an eye on,) 
nazar, or nigdh rakhna. to 
—out for, iniizdr-k, (to con- 
sider,) ghaur-k. he looks 
(well, &c.), (achchha, dr'c,) 
maalum hota hat. his -fell 
on me, us-ki nazar mujh- 
par pari, -out, khabar-ddr 
hona, -ing-glass, d.inah^ 

Loose, khula. (slack,) dhiia, 
V. kholna ; khol-d, to 
come-, khui-jdna. to 
break-, chMtjdna ; chhtU- 
ke bhdg-jdna. 

Lord, sdhib ; mdlik ; khudd- 
wand ; khdwind ; huziir, 
to - it over one, zulm-k,; 

Lose, khona ; gum-k, gene- 
rally the passive form is 
used, viz.-, gum-ho-jdna, 
(e.g. a bet,) hdrna ; hard-d, 
loss, nu^sdn ; ziydn ; zarar. 

(in trade,) ghati, to be at 
a loss, pareshdn-hona , 
shakk vietf. hona. 

Lot. See 'Fortune.' (die,) 
^urah. to cast lots, ^urah 

Loud, loudly, baland dwdz 
se. to call-, pukdrna. 

Love, pydr, (f.) ; mail, ((.) ; 
ydri. (animal) -, ish^. 
V. pydr-k, ; aziz rakhna. 
-ly, khiibsiirat -liness, 
khubsurati, -ed, pydra; 

Louse, j^i}. 

Low, nicha, (mean,) kaminah^ 
also as noun, a mean per- 
son, (as voice,) daba. to-, 
bambdnaHo lower, niche-k.; 
dabd'd. -liness. gharibi ; 

Luggage. See * Goods.' 

Lumbago, kamar ka dard. 

Lump, tukra. 

Lunch, tiffin. See Glossary, 
Part I. 

Luxury, aiydshi ; khushi. A. 

Lying, {n.) Jhiith-mtUh. 

* Accent on first syllable. 

* In India the cattle are very silent. 

T., a 


274 hindiJstIni as it ought to be spokek. 


Mace, (staflF,) chob ; sot^ta. 
-bearer, chob-ddr, (spice,) 
basbdsah ; ntasdlah. 

Machine, kaL 

Mad, diwdnah; pdgal; pagla, 
-man, pdgal ddmu -house, 
pdgal'khdnah. -ness, diwd- 
nagi ; be-hoshi. -ly, dkvd- 
nah-sa, -den, dlwdnah-k, 
(fig.) gbusse-h; josh-k,; 
bad dirndgh-k. 

Magistrate, hdkim ; majis- 
tret sdhib, 

• • • 

Maid, bdkirah ; kiLi.drt, -ser- 
vant, dydh ; bdndi ; laut^du 

Mail, ddk; tappdl. See page 98. 

Maintain. See 'Assert, ''Live.* 

' (rear,) pdlna ; parwasti-k, 
N. parwarish; rozi ; 
Mrdki ; khdna-plna. 

Make, bandna ; band-d,; kar- 
na ;'l made him come to 
me,' usko mere pds dnepar 

• main-ne majMr kiya, e.g. 
-profit, Mst7-k.; kdntdna; 

• -progress; ba-sir-k, -sport. 

tlmttha-mdma^ -away with, 
uxd'd.; bar-bdd-k. -haste, 
jaldi-k, (n.) (shape,) skakl^ 
(f.); bandwat, -er, sdz^^ or 
kdr^^ &*c, as last part ia 

Male, nar. 

Malice, kinah ; bad-khoi, A. 
kinawdr ; bad-khwdk, 

Man, mard ; ddmi ; insdn ; 
shakhs ; kas. (at games,) 
nard, -kind, ddmiyat 
insdniyat ; bani-ddamJ^ 
-hood, jawdni ; mardi, 
-liness, marddnagu A. 
marddnah, -ly, mard-sa ; 
marddnah, -eating, mar- 

Management, intizdm; bandr 
o-bast^ (m.) ; sar-ba-rdhi, 
V. -karna,; kisi taur se 
karna, -er, sarbardli-kdr ; 
kdr-purddz; manejar, (E.), 

Mange. See * Itch.' 

Mango, dm. -tree, -^gdchK 
-fish, tapsi-machhlu 

» From the Persian, * sdkhtan^ to * make.* 

• This of course is from ' karna* 

• * Sons of Adam ;' he being common to Muham : and Christians, 

• From the Persian, \khurdan^ * to eat.' 

hindiJstXni as ir ought to be spoken. a 75 

Manifest, {2i.)zdhir; maaiUm; 
sdf, V. — k, ; kar-dikhldna. 
-o, izhdr-ndmah ; sHrat- 
ML -\yy zdhiran. 

Manner, taur ; tarah, (f.) ; 
tari^ah. See * Custom,' in 
this, (that) manner^ is^ 
(us)iarah, in what manner, 
kiS'tarah ; kyitirj,kar, -ly, 
susiL good -s, dddb ; 
'■ M3inu(2ict\ire,dast-kdrt\ -tory, 

"hJlditiy^bahut ; dher; bahutere; 
bahuUse. -a, bahut-ek, 
-times, aksar; bdr-bdr. 

Map, nakshah, V. -khaitf^ch- 
na ; -taiydr-k. 

Marble, sang martnar, 

March, (n.) kiich, V. -/t. 

Mare, mddiydn ; ghorL 

Margin. See * Edge.' 

Mark, ddgh ; nishdn, (trace,) 
asar; aldmat ; surdgh; 
pata, V. to make a-, -d, 
to find -s of, -dekhna ; 

Market^ (n.) bdzdr^iy. -i?. /) 

kdt ; chauk. -rate, nirkh ; 

Marriage, shddi; iydh;nikd^. 
V, -k. -ied, (ra.) bydhUy 
(f.) bydhu 

Marsh, y>^f/, (f.) \gil-db, (f.), 
-y, tar ; martiib. 

Martingale, zer-band. 

Mason, rdj ; rdj-mistri, -ry. 
rdj ka kdm, 

Mass. See * Lump.' 

Master, mdiiky 6^r. See 
• Lord.' 

Mat, chata^i ; darma, . (V. 
-lagd-d,) ; for sleeping on, 
sital-pdti. -maker, oi'' sel- 
ler, chatdyi-wdla. 

Match, {riJ) Jora ; sdni.^ V. 
jo^na ; bardbar-k ; mild-d, 
-es, diasaidyi; mechis^ (E.). 
-less, Id'Sdnu 

Materials. See " Apparatus.! 
' Matter, mdddah ; ■ jism,^ 
(aifair,) kdm ; bdt ; mUjd- 
malah, ho-, kuchh parwdh 
\ nahif^ ; kuchh tnuzd^i^ah 
c nakii;^, what's the-^*. kya 
V ^ 4ii^a i kya hat J 

* T*er$rah ' iecond* ot * a: second:*' '• This word means * lamtr-chibs/ 

• 'I'he Author knowi no Word really \n common use for > * matter ' in 

;tbo abstt»<}^ 

r P 

276 hindiJstXni as it ought to be spoken. 

Mattress, ioshak, (f.). 

Mature, pakka ; iaiydr, 

Maund, man. Seepage 70. 

May. See page 18. 

Me. See page 29. 

Meadow, niaiddn ; ramnah ; 
khuli jagah. 

Meal, (flour,) dta ; maidah ; 
sattu, (food,) khdna. 

Mean, pdji ; kaminah, -ness, 

Meaning, mani ; matlab ; 
mazmun^ to mean, with 

. kona^ e.g., what does this 
mean ? is-ke mani^ &*€, 
kya haiij, ? 

Means. .SJftf* Wealth.'(agency), 
wasilah ; tadbir^ (f.). by 
no -, hargiz nahii^, by 
some - or other, kuchh- 
iarah se ; kisi iaur se. 

Meanwhile, meantime, in 
the, is metp ; itne meij. ; 
darmiydn is-ke. 

Measles, pan-gotL 

Measure, (of a thing,) mdp ; 
ndpy (f.). -ing of land, 
paimd^ish ; jarib, V. -^ / 
mdpna. See page 70. 

Meat, (butcher's,) gosht. See 
page 91. Note, (generally,) 
khdna pina ; khurdk^ (f.). 

Medal, medal, {^,\iamghah. 
-Medicine, dawa^ (f.) ; ddru. 

Meditation, ta^ammul^ (m.) ; 

fikr^ (f.) ; soch ; andeshah. 

-tive, muta^ammil ; muia- 

fakkir; fikrmand ; soch 


Meet, (v.) milna. Seepage 
50. (assemble, )y^zw«-^^«a. 
(as clothes.) thik-hona^ or 
baithna, (a.). See *. Suit- 
able.' a - ing, (of friends,) 
muld^dt ; bhent V. -k, ; 
bheijtna. See * Assembly/ 

Melon, kharbuzah. 

Melt, (/«/r.) galna ; gal-j'dna, 
{trans,) galdna ; ga/d-d. 

Member, (of the body,) azo / 
juz, (of a meeting,) sdhib- 
i-majlis ; membar^ (E.). 

Memory, ydd^ (f.) ; hifz, (f.). 
-andum, ydd-ddsht.-hodk^ 
baydz, (f.). -rial, yddgdr. 

Mending, marammat ; rafa, 
V. -k, -in health, bhaia or 
achchha hona. 

Mental, dili ; dil ka. -arith- 
metic, zabdni hisdb;%abdnt 
jokha. -ly, ba-dil ; dil se. 

Mention, zikr^ (m.) V. --k. 

Merchant, sauddgar ; mahd- 
jan; baniyd, (travelling,) 



haipdri; bakas-wdla, (half 

E.). -dize, sauda ; mdl ; 
. Jins^ (f.) ; chiz^ (f.). See 

• Trade.' 
Mercy, rahm, (f.) ; mihrbdnL 
. A. rahim ; mihrbdn, -fully 

with se, -iless, be-rahm, 

-ilesshess, be-rahmi. 
Merely, fakat ; sirf ; khdli. 
Merit, fiadar, (f.) ; Hydkat 

-torious, ^adar ka, ; khub ; 
: achchha i wdjib-i-ri^ dyat, 

the merits of any matter, 

bhalebure; asihdl; wd^tdt. 
Merry. See * Happy.' 
Message, ^^^jf^^r, (f.); bdt ; 

paighdm, V. -d, or bhejna. 

-enger, chaprdsi ; piyddah; 

pt,an^ (divine,) paigham- 

Messiah, Masiha, 
Metal, dhdt^ or dhdtu,^ 
Mid, ddA; nim, -day, niniroz; 

do-pahar ; zuhr, -night, 

ddhi-rdt ; do-pahar-rdt. 
Middle, bich ; miydn, in the 

-bich metj. ; bichoi^-bich ; 
. dar-tniydn. 
Midwife, ddyU 

Might, (v.) sakna, page 22, 

(n.) See * Power/ 
Mild, gharib : narm ; narm^ 
diL N. -/. 
Mile, mil ; ddha-kos. 
Military, the, lashkar. A. -/. 
Milk, dudh. A -ka. V. doh- 

na, -man, go^dla, -woman, 

Mill, chakki ; dsya. oil-, 

kolhu, -stone, chakki ; 

Millet, bdjara. 

Million, das Idkh, ten mil- 
lions, karor. 
Mince, minsh ; (E.). l^imaK 

V. -^ 
Mind, (n.) <7^/, (f.) ; hosh ; 

zihn ; ruh, (f.) V. ydd-k, ; 

lihdz-k, ; ghaur-k, to put 

in -, ydd dildna. 
Minister, (of state,) diwdn / 

wazir, (of church,) pddri- 

sdktb. See pages 52 and 77. 
Minor, (n.) ndbdligh. (a.) 

khurd ; chhota ; kam, -ity, 

kam-umri, (f.) ; kam-sinu 
Minute, (n.) ek minat, (E.). 

(a.) See * Small.' 

• Not Hindustani ; probably Portuguese generally written ^ peon,' 

• Applied especially to Muhammad. 

• Not often heard, as you generally name the metal. 



Mirror, d,inak ; darpan. 
Mirth. See'^o^: 
Misbehaviour, bad-sal^ku 

(v. -k,) bad chalanu V - 

Miscarry, (fail,) biga^-jdna, 

(as a letter,) gum-ho-jdna ; 
: kho-jdna. 

Miscellaneous, har ^ism ka ; 
. mutafarril^. 
Mischief, badi ; nuJ^sdn. to 

make -, bigd^na ; bigdr-d. 
Misdeed, bad-fel ; bad-kdm. 
Misery bak/ii/, -liness, bukhl^ 

(m.). -ly, bukhl-se. 
Misery, zillat ; bad-hdli ; 

be-chdragt ; tangi. -able, 

zalil ; bad-bakht ; be-na- 
• sib. 
Misfortune, bad-bakhti ; musi- 

bat ; tabdhu 
Mislead, bhatkdna ; rdh- 

Mismanagement, bad-inti- 

zdmL V. -k. 
Misplace, be-tartib-rakhna ; 

kisi ditisrijagah meij, rakhna. 
Miss, missdhibahy (half E.); 

begam /' sdhib-zddL 
Miss, (v.) cMkna ; chho^na ; 

{intr.) nahitp lag-jdna, (n.) 

chUk ; khata^ 
Mist, kuhdsah, -y, dhundhla, 
Misun<ierstand, use nahifp 

with * Understand.' 
Mix, mildna; mild-d^^.mildyO, 
Moan. See * Groan.* 
Mode. See * Manner.' 
Model, na^shah. (v. -^.) 

(pattern,) namUnah, 
Modesty, sharm^ (f.) ; haya^ 

(f.) ; A. sharmandah ; 

lajila, -ly, sharm se 
Moist, bhiziga ;tar ; si/a ; gi/a. 

V. -k ; bhii}gd-d, ; sildna. 
Molasses, gur. 
Mole, (animal,) kor-mush. 
M<nnent. See * Instant.' a 

matter of-, zariiri kdm. 
Monarch. See * King.' 
Monday, Sombdr ; pir ka roz; 

do shatnhah. See page 66. 
Money, paise ; rupiye. a sum 

of-, mablagh ; zar, (m.), 

ready- naJkd rupiye, -bag, 

tora ; thailL -changer, 

satrdf, -lender, mahdjan. 

-less, tihi-dast ; khdli-hdth. 
Mongoose, newal. 
Monkey, bandar. 

' * Khtirshidi begam," (See page 122,) may be translated * Miss Sun- 
beam.' Khiirshid is a Persian word meaning the ' Sun.* 

hindiJstIni as it ought to be spoken. 27^ 

Month, mahinah ; mdk.-\yy 
or, -by-, mdh-ba-mdh. -ly 
pay, mdhiydna; dar-mdhah. 

Moon, chdnd ; mdh. See 
* Eclipse.' -light, chdndnu 
a -light night, chdndnirdt ; 
shab-i-mdh. -beam, chdnd 

More, aur ; aur kuchh; 
ziyddah, the more ... the 
more, jyoT^-jyoij, ... tyotj.- 
tyoij,, the more ... the less, 
same phrase, with * nahiij, ' 

. in the co-relative clause. 

Mosque, masjid^ (f.). 

Mosquito, machchhar, -cur- 
tains, masahrL 

Most, beshtar ; sab se ziyddah. 
Adv. beshtar ; sab se aksar. 

Mother, ma ; mddar ; wdli- 
dah, step-, saute It ma, 
a - who lias had a son, 
larkori, -less, be-mddar^ 
-ly, md sa, -tongue, 
watani^ zabdn, (f.). 

Motion, harakat. 

Motive, sabab ; bdjs ; mat- 
lab ; gharaz^ (f.). 

Move, {intr,) hilna ; dolna, 
(trans,) hildna ; doldna. 

-on, chalna; chald-jdna ; 
dge-ba^hdna. -off, chal-d, 
-ing, rawdfj^ ; chalta ; 
harakat men, as last word 
in compos.:... angez^ e.g. 
ri^^at-angeZy compassion- 

Mount. See * Ascend.'' 

Mourning,^^;«^.V.-/5. -ful> 
-^n, -fully, -se. 

Mouse, chi^ha ; miHtsh,- trap, 

Mouth, mui}h, to make a-, 
mwih terha-k, - ful, a, 
lu^mahy - of a river, 

Much, bahut ; bahutera. 
ioo-yziyddah. Seepage 104. 
so-so, that, &c., is mar- 
tabe kOy kihy dr'C, 

Mud, kkhar, {i.) ', gil, (f.). 
kddo, - dy, maila ; bahut 
kichar haL- wall, mittikidi- 
wdr^ (f.); kachchi-diwdr^it) 

Mug, mag, (E.). 

Mulberry, tiit. 

Multiply. See * Increase.* 

Multitude, ^r^>^, (m,);jami- 
yat; ghpl, (m.) \guhdr, (f.). 

* • Watan ' means one's fatherland. 


Murder, khiin. wilful- i^ati 
amd, (homicide), ttail-i- 
insdn, V. -/t.; mdr-ddlna, 
-er, khtinis hdtiL -ous, 
kh{ifj.-rez. -ed, tna^tuL 
Muse,(v). sochna; andeshah-k. 
Mushroom, musharum, (E.) ; 

chhdta ; dharti. 
Music, musi^i, -cian, mutrih, 
-cal, shirifjL, -cal instru- 
ment, bdjd, (with very 
many names for various 
Musk, mushk, -cat, mushk- 
. billi, -rat, chha-chui^dar. 

Musket, handu^^ (f.). 

Muslin, mal-maL 

Must. Fee page i8. 

Mustache, muchh, (f.). 

Musalman, musalmdn ; tftus- 
lim, PI. muslimin. fern, 
musalmdnt. their religion, 

Mutiny, baiwa ; daghdwaL 

Mutton, dkeri kg, gosht. 

My, mera. See page 30. 

Sect, 6. 
Mystery, rdz, (m.) ; bhed, A» 

rdz ka. 


Nail, /r^^. V. -d. ; lagdna, 

(of man or beast,) ndkhun. 
Naked, langa, or nanga, N. 

Name, ndm ; ism. V. -d, 

-less, gum-ndm ; nd- 

maaluni, -sake, ham-ndm. 
Napkin, hdth ka tauliyah ; 

farrow, (tight,) sakra ; tang, 

(not broad,) kam-arz. 

-ness, sakrd,i ; kam-arazL 
Nation,' muik ; mulk ke log. 

Native, (a.) mulk ka, (n.) sd- 

kin ; bashandah, -country, 

watan ; des. -ity, j'anam • 

paiddjsh, nsital.janam ka. 

Natural, ba-ddat ; tabi-i. 
nature (disposition.) ddat ; 
tabiat ; mizdj ; kho. 

Near, (prep.) ke pds ; ke naz- 
dik ; ke yahdfj, ; kane, (a.) 
nazdik; ^arib;pds ; yahdn. 
-ly, karib'^arib, -ness, 
nazdiki, -(in blood), bRd^i-- 
bandi ; barddari. 

* The European conception of a * nation ' does not, and never can, 
exist in India. 

hindi^stIni as it ought to be spoken. 281 

^e3it, sufhra, 'S. sutArdyi. 

Necessaries. See 'Apparatus.' 
-ary, zartir ; Idzim ; 
chdhiye. See page 20. 
(\)Tiyyy) jd-e zartiraf, -ity, 
zanirat. -arily, zarur ; 
zariiratan, -itous, muhtdj ; 
gharib ; tang Ml, 

Neck, gardan^ (f.) ; gala ; 
gulu, -cloth, gulu'band. 
-lace, mdla. 

Need, (v.) chdhna ; viujh-ko 
zariir hat, ( n. ) zarurat 
-ful, zarur ; dar-kdr, -y, 
gharib ; tang ML 

Needle, (large,) su^a, (com- 
mon;) suyi ; darzan, eye 
of-, ndka, -case, stij-ddn, 
-work, sildyi ; siij ka 

Neglect, (n.) be-khabarddri, 
(carelessness,) ghaflat, 
V. -k.; bhiilna; nahitj. kar- 
n^; {2i)ghdfil: Mhil; maj- 
ML (with honay these make 
verbs.) -fully, ghaflat se, 

Negro, habshu 

Neighbour, parosi ; ham- 
sdyah, -hood, nawdh; naz- 
diki ; jagah ; paros, -ly, 
ham-sdyah ; barddardna. 

Neither... nor, na yih,.,na 

wuh ; na digar; 
koj nahif^ ; donoij. nahit^. 

Nephew, (brother's son,)^>^a- 
tija, (sister's ^ow^bhdnja. 

Nerve, tag, (f.) ; nas, (f.). 

Nest, gho^s/a ; dshiydna. 

Net, jdla ; jdL 

Never, Mbhi «^>^f:5^.-theless. 
tau-bhi ; td-ham. 

New, nau;naya.{ixeshy)tdzah, 
-ness, tdzagi. -year, nau 
sdL -Year's Day, nau roz. 

'SewSyk/iabar, ((.)bdt. good-, 
khush-khabari ; achchhi bdL 
bad-, bad'khabdr ; khardb 
^^f/. -paper, akhbdr; khabar 
ka Mghaz.-yiuter, khabar- 
navis. yi\\\\ou\.''ybe- khabar. 

Next, Jo pichhe hat ; dusra, 
-time, diisre wa^t -year, 

Nice. See *Neat.' 

Niche, tdJ^, (f.). 

Niece, (brother's daughter,) 
bhatijL (sister's daughter,) 

Night, rdt ; shab, (f.). to-, 
dj rdt ko, by-, rdt ko, 
last-, kal rdt ko. a. moon- 
light-, chdndni rdt, -and 
day, shab-o-roz ; rdt-din, 
-dress, rdt ka kap^a. 


Nightingale, shdmah, 

Nip, nochna. 

No, nahi^ ; ndhi ; na, -one, 
ko^i nahit^, nothing, kuchh 
nahlf^. -whereykaMitinaM]^, 

Noble, Sharif ; asil ; najib, 
-man, mir; amir, &»c (ac- 
cording to the title en- 
joyed.) -bility, shard/at ; 
najdbat. the -bility, arkdn- 
i'daulat {See paf;e 52); 
umara, (PI. of amir,), of 
-birth, najib'ZddaK 

Nobody, ko^i nahirt, a -, nd- 
kas ; nd-chiz. 

Noise, shor ; dwdz, (f.); 
ghuL to make a -, -k. 

None, (person,) ko^i naki^. 
(things,) kuchh nahif^. 

Nonsense, behudah bdt;ydwah. 

Noon, do pahar, (See page 
6^.) ; do pahar din ; zuhr. 

Noose, phdrj^si, V. phdi^sna. 

Nor. See * Neither.' 

North, uttar ; shamdL 

Nose, ndk, (f.). 

Not. See * No.' 
Notification, ishtihdr; mand- 

dL y. -jdri'k.. 
Notion, khiydl ; gumdn. to 

have a-, -k. 
Nourish, pdlna ; parwarisk 


or parwasti k. or d. 

Now, ab ; is -wa^t ; bil-fel ; 
hdlan, -a days, dj-kal. 

Number, by the numeral 
applicable. The English 
word * nambar ' is in com- 
mon use ; the natives not 
having our idiom.Thus, for 
^number 8.' they say * thtr 
8th.' Also, * there was a 
great number of people 
present' bahut log hdzir^ 
ike. See ' Count.' 

Numerous. See * Many.' 

Nurse, (native,) dydh;^ (Eng- 
lish,) nass,"^ (E.) wet-, 

Nut, jauz, wal-, akhrot, 

Nutm eg, jd-e-phal, 

liutnmeni,giiza; g^izd, iyaL 

Probably Portuguese, 

•That is, 'nurse.' 




Oar, ddnd. 

Oath, kasam ; haiaf. to take 
an-, -khdna. 

Obey, mdnna; sunna. -dient, 
hukm-barddr : tdbiddr, 
dience, --/ ; -/. 

Object, (thing,) chiz^ (f.). 
(aim.) See * Intention.' any 
object of pursuit, &c. 

Object, (v.) nd-manzur or nd- 
pasand-k, ; itirdz-h, N.itirdz, 

Obliged, (compelled,) maj- 
biir. N. -/.v. -h (favoured) 
mamnun. (v.). mihrbdni-k, 
(n.) mihrbdni ; minnat 
under -gation, minnat-ddr, 
(n.a.). -ing, mihrbdn ; nek- 

Observation, (noticing, )//i^^0; 
ghaur;nazar-anddziN .-k,: 
dekhna, -er, dekhnewdla ; 
nigdh'bdz See * Word.' 

Obstinate, sar-kash; gardan- 
kash ; sakht ; maghrur, 
N. sar-kashi, V. -k. 

Obstruct, rokna; atak-kar-d.; 

thek'k -ion, rok ; rukd^o ; 

atak. This road is -ed, 

yih rdh band hat. 
Obtain. See * Acquire.' 
Obtuse. See * Stupid.' 
Obvious, sdf; zdhir; maalum. 

Adv. sdf ; zdhiran. 
Occasion, (time,) wal^t, 

(cause,) sabab ; wajh^ (f.). 

(opportunity,) wa^t ; mau- 

^a, (need,) kdm ; zarurai, 

V. See * Cause.' -ally, 

Occupation, kdm ; dhandha ; 

peshah, -pied,(busy,)///ajA- 

ghuL V. hona ; fursat 

nahii^ >^«/.-pier, dakhl-kdr; 

l^dbiz. V. (e.g., a house,) 

dakhi-k, ; dakhil-kdr^ or 

^dbiz-hona ; kirdya-ddr 

Occur, hona; bar-pd-hona ; 

ittifdJ^-hona ; dna ; d-jdna; 

pesh-dna. -rence, wuJku^ ; 

fel ; kdm. 

^ The real pronunciation of this difficult word is that of a short, 
dosed Italian * p ' in the first syllable ; very near the * 0/ in * ora- 
tion/ * oku.* In Hindustani * 6, ' * u, ' * v, ' and * w ' are written with 
one and the same character. Short * o s ' do occur in Hindustani, and 
also short * e s ; ' whatever the Grammarians may say. Thus you will 
often hear mdharrir^ Mdhammad ; m^htar^ tn^hrbdn, <5r»r,, dr»t:., and 
these sounds cannot be said to be wrong. See page 47, Note ii. 



Ocean, samundar ; sdgar ; 
• kdla pdni^ (in.). 

Odour, khush'bu, (f). Adj. 

Qiy See paoes 5 and 73. of 
himself, dp-se; khud ; khud- 

Off, (distant,) dur ; to go-, 
(person,) /i«<2/ chald-jdna. 
(gun,) chhutjdna, inter j. 
dur ; diir-diir / 

Offence. See * Crime.' 

Offer. There is no corre- 
sponding idea in Hindiis- 
tdni. Use such phrases as 
suit. e.g. He offered io help 
me, mujh'ko viadad dene 
ko taiydr tha. He offered 
(or made an offer of) ten 
rupis for the cloth, kapze 
ke wdsie das rupiye bola^ 
and so on. See ' Present.' 

Office, (post,) uhdah ; kdm ; 
peshah ; naukari; khidmat, 
-room, daftar ; daftar- 
khdnah ; dfis, {^.) servant 
thereof, daftarL -er, ac- 
cording to his work, from 
the 'hakim,' or 'head' 
down to the * mihtar,' or 

sweeper. Some of these 
are as follow : — Chief sub- 
ordinate, sar^rishta-ddr, 
reader, pesh-kdr. Writer, 
( nat i ve, ) muharrir ; ( Eng- 
lish,) kirdni ; translator, 
mutarjim. Record-keep- 
er, muhdfiz. (all these, 
when you call for them, 
should get * sahib ' after 
their titles) : the copyist or 
section-writer, na^l-navis. 
the messenger, for near 
work, chaprdsi ; for distant 
work, piyddah, -cers of 
the army. See page 97. 
Often, aksar, how-, kae-bdr ? 
so, or as-, jat-bdr, tai-bdr. 
Oil, iel} raughan ; chikndj, 
hair-, bdl ka tel^ and so of 
• other kinds of oil : kero- 
sine-, kar shift ' (E.) ^^ tel, 
mustard-, sarsoij, ka tei, 
castor- reziri ka tel. cocoa- 
nut-, ndriyalka tel. -man, 
tell ; kolu, -press, kolhu. 
Ointment, marham; raughan 
Old, purdna ; Jkadim, -man, 
buddha, -woman, buddhi : 
biirhi, -age, burhdpa^ 

» This oil is now extensively used in Indian houses. 



of-, Jkadim me?} ; agle 
zamdne me^, how - are 
you ? tumhdra sinn kya 
hat ? a boy of ten years -, 
das bar as ka larka. 


Omelet, mamlet, (E.). 

Omnipotence, J^udrat A. 

On, par; (lit. and fig.) ke 
upar. - a person's side (as 
a friend,) ki taraf. - this 
account, is-wdste. - that 
day, us-roz. - this, is-par ; 
tab, I shall reach - or by, 
the day after to-morrow, 
parsozi tak. - the contrary, 
bil-aks I bdwujiid is-ke. 

Once, ek dafah ; ek bdr, all 
at - (persons acting to- 
gether.) sab-mil-ke; ehsdth, 
(ditto, suddenly,) a^^^//«>^; 
ndgdh ; ndgahdtjt. - or 
twice, do ek martabe, -up- 
on a time, sdbik dinofjt me?^. 

One, ek, often followed by 
* Me?,' an expletive, not to 
be translated, but equi- 
valent to * unit ' -another, 
ek'digar, some- ko^i ; ko,i 
ddrnt, a certain -, fuldnah ; 
fuldnah ddmi. - by -, 

ekek. it is all -, ek hi bdt 

hat; kuchh/arJk nahi^ hat. 
Onion, piydz. 
Only, ek ; ekla ; (merely,) 

sirf ; fah^at ; khdli. 
Onward. vS>^ * Advance.' 
Open, (v.) kholna ; khol-d, 

(a.) khiila, -land, viaiddn; 

khulijagah. See * Liberal' 

~ing, rdhy (f.) ; bhitarjdne 

ki rdh ; bdhar dne ki rdh ; 

nikds. -ly, zdhiran ; sab 

logojj. ke sdmne. 
Opinion, rd^i or rd,e ; khiydl ; 

I hold this -, meri rd^i 

yih haiy kih, &^c. 
Opium, (msidey)a^un, (grow- 

^"&) P^^^' oi^e who uses -, 
a/imi ; posti. 
Opportunity. iV^ * Occasion.' 
Oppose. See * Obstruct ,* 
mukhdlif hona, -ponent 
mukhdlify (also as an adj.)^ 
-position, muzdhamat ; 
rok ; rok-iok; at kd,o, -po- 
site, (adv.) j^w«(?; (prep.). 
ke sdmne. 
Oppression, ztdlm ; zabar-- 
dasti ; sakhti, V. -k. -or, 
zdlim, -ive, zabar-dast ; 
sakht ; sang-diL -ed> 
mazlum. -^iwdyjjabran. 


Oral, zabdnu also adv. 
Orange, ndrangL 
Orator, zabdn-dwar. -y, -/. 
. -tion, tai^rir, (f.) ; bahs, (f.). 
Orchard, bdgb. / baghdn^ 

Order. See * Command * and 

* Arrangement.' -ly officer, 
ardali, (E.). 

Ordinary, maamMi ; bdzdri ; 
chalni; jo dasttir hau 

Origin, jar; asl ; bunydd, 
(f.). -al, asli; awwal, 
-ally, shuru se ; ibtida se. 
See * Beginning.* 

Ornament, si^gdr, (f.); zeb ; 
drd^ish ; khush-numdj, V. 

, singdrna. -al, zeb-dwar; 
khush-numa, -ed, drds- 
iah; khtib-surat 

'Ortolan, bageri. 
Ostrich, shutur-murgh, 

/Other, (extra,) ««r-<?^. (differ- 
ent,) diisra; digar. See 

* One.' some one or -, 
ko,i na ko,u some thing or 
-, kuchh ; kuchh na kuchh. 
-wise, aur ; aur taraJi se, 

;• -wise, nahin' io, 
\ Oven, tanuK 

/Over, upar, (prep.) ke tipar; 
.far. -and above, is ke 

stwd,e ; aldwah is ke ; 
ziyddah ; aur. Verbs com- 
pounded with * over,' must 
be translated according to 
their meaning, there being 
no corresponding prefix 
in Hindiistdni,e.g., he went 
over ( = across) the river, 
darya ke us pdr gaya. he 
overcame ( = removed) my 
scruples, us-ne niera pas-o- 
pesh (hesitation) dabd diya. 
-look, mu^df'k. See 'Ne- 
glect.' -night, rdtkewaJ^t ; 
rdt'ko, -sight, bhul ; chiik^ 
(f.) ; ghalat, -take, djdna ; 
pds dna; ke pds pahuijchna. 
-turn, ultdna ; uitd-d. 

Ought. See page 1^, Sect, 2\. 

Our, hamdra ; ham logoij. ka. 
with *own.' See page 30. 
we -selves, ham^tum; ham- 
donotp (if only two.) ; ham- 
sab^ (if more.), among 
-selves, dpas men. 

Out, (adv.) bdhar, (prep.) 
ke bdhar^ to go-, bdhar 
jdna ; nikaljdna^ (as fire,) 
bujhjdna^ to give-, kahna; 
zdhir-kar-d, ioCTy-^pukdr- 
na, to put-, (as a light,) 
butd-d,) bujhd-d, --oi^ (a 


place, or a number,) meij. 
se. (a material,) se, -of 
(e.g.) fear, daf ke mdre, -of 
breath, be-dam, -of time, 
be-wait -of spirits, tidds ; 
ghamgin. get-, dut! diir! 
diir-dUr/ -most, sab-se d^r, 
-let, nikds ; muhdna, 
-right, f^re piUre taur se. 
Outrage, zutm ; be-hurmatt ; 
be-izzatu V. -^. 

Owe, (money,) fiarz rakhna; 
l^rz-ddr hona, owing to, 
se or ke sabab se, e.g. dMp 
sCy owing to the heat. 

Owl, ullu. 

Own, {2iAy) See page ^o. (y,) 
(e.g. property,)... rd;/5A«a/ 
mdlik hona, -er, mdlik; 
idbiz; dakhl-kdr; sdhib-i,,, 
e.g. sdhibukhdnah. 

Ox, ba^iL -cart, -gd^L 


Pace, iadam, (V. -ri^.); (^^. 
Pacify, khush-k, ; rdzi-k, ; 

thanda-k. N. use these as v.n. 
Pack, (v.) chiz sab band kar- 

na, -et, gathri ; pdkiiS^). 
Pad, gaddi ; namdah. V. is 

meij. fii^i (or other mate- 
rial,) dena. 
Padlock, -fiyf / tdla. 
Page,, (of book,) safhah ; 

waral^. (servant, ) khds ; 

khds naukar,, 
Pail, bdlfi, milk-, dokni, ' 
Pain, dardy (™«)^ soztsh ; 

diikk: to 'feiej -, ^uthdna ; 

dard ka; dard-angez.-fuWy^ 
dard'Se. -s, mthnat ; 
za^mat V. -k, ; -utkdna. 

Paint, (n.)rang, (m.) ( v.) (as 
an artist,') khit^chna, ( as 
an artificer,) -^^^-lagdna, 
-er, (artist,) musawwtr. 
(artificer,) rang-rez, -ed, 
manJ^uSh ; j is par rang diya 
^gayd ^z/.-ing,a, tas'wlr, (f.). 
(the art oQfiaswir^kasAi,* 

Pair. See^Join.* 

Palace, rang-mahal ; rdjbdzi. 

'Palanquin, pdlki, -bearer, 
-wdla ; -b&rddr /> berar^ 
'V (EX ' - '■ "' 

khdna.'to cause---, -^, -ful, 'Palatfe, fdlu. 

I ■■ 

• • - r . » r . 

'' See page 22». SeeiSf 32 aiid 31* - \ 

: G^ •. From-the Persiwii *kasA/iian,* • to draw.' 

4 jr. 

288 hindiJstXni as it ought to be spoken. 

Pale, {i^ct,) zard ; piia, (gen- 
eral word,) halke rang ka. 
Palette, rang ki takhti. 
Palm, (according to its kind, 
followed by ^gdchk ' tree,) 

date, khajiir. cocoanut, 

ndriyaL arec&nut, supiydri, 

plantain, kc/a. 
Palsy, siiang. 
Pan, pdn^ ;E.); tdbah. -cake, 

pdn-kek, (E.). 
Pane, shishe ki takhti. 
Panel, iakfi ka takhiah. 
Pantaloon. /a//w«, (E.). 
Panther, chita. 

Pantry, khdnsdmdtf. ka kamra. 
Paper, kdghaz, blotting-, 

/i/-. -biscuit, paf^i. 
Parable, tamsi/y(f,); masal,({,) 
VATSidisejjannat ;Jlrdaus, (ra.) 
^ Paralysis, lai,wah. 
Parasol, ckhdta. 
Pardon, afu ; mu^dfi, V. -d, ; 

uzr manziir-k, ; niu^df-k, 

^melmUjd/ kijiye ; bura 

na mdniega kih maiij.^ 6r*r, 

Parent. See Tather.' *Mo- . 

then' -s, fnd'ddp. -al, 

wdliddna ; pidari. 
Parish, sukunat; maJkailak ; 


Park, ramna ; niaiddn. 
Parlour, baithne ka kamra / 

khds^ or, khalwat'khdnah. 
Parrot, tota (m.); toti, (f.). 

• Parsley, pdrsli^ (E.) 

Part, (n.), juz ; tukra; hissah. 
(concern in,) aAf>&tf^.(side,) 
taraf^ (f»). (v.). bdi^tna ; 
hissah-kar-dy to take one's 

• -, tarafddr hona, to take 
in bad -, bura mdnna. to 
take in good -, bhala- 

jdnna ; pasand-k, -ial, 

tarafddrl N. tarafddri, -ly^ 

kuchh. -ially, tarafddri se. 

-isan, tarafddr, -ition, 

ta^sim^ (f.).; batwdra. 

-icularly, (in detail,) tafsi- 

Ian, (especially,) khususan. 

Partner, sharik ; hissa-ddr„ 

-ship, shardkat; hissa-ddri. 

Partridge, titar. 

Party, .,,ki taraf ke log. 

(-ies in a s\x\i,) fariJ^ain, 
Pass, (v.) jdna ; chald-jdna, 
(as time,) (intr,) bit jdna, 
-away, ho-jdna ; ho chukna. 
-time, (trans.) sarf-k, -cur- 
rent, jdri'kona, -across/i 
pdr or ubiir-k.-ovtr^ (over- 
look,), mu^df-h ; chhot'd. 
come to -. See 'Occur/ 




to - one's word for, pai- 
mdn-k. ; izhdr-k. the past, 
jo giizashtah hat. 

Passage. ^(f'Outlet/ 'Extract.* 

Passion. See * Anger.* to be 
or get in a-, jhaljhaldna. 

Paste, (batter,) /<?,/. (on a 
pie,) karast, (E. crust.), 
-board, tut, pastry, samo- 
sak; mathri ; pestari, (E.) 

Pasture land, chard-gdh, to 
pasture, chardna, 

Pat, (n.) thak ; tamdchah, 
V. -d. ; (as a thing flap- 
ping,) thak'thakdna. 

Patience, sabr, (f.). V. -k. 
Adj. sdbir. Adv. -se, 

F3Ltient,2iydimdr ddmi ; mariz. 

Patron, murabbi ; parwar^ as 
last word in compos. : e.g. 
gharib-parwar, - of the 
poor, -age, himdyat. -ize, 
murabbi hona ; parwasti-k. 

Pattern, namiinah. 

Paw, (n.) panjah ; changul, 
(v.) tdpna. 

Pay, (n.) talab ; tnushdharah ; 
(daily,) rozinah, (month- 
ly,) dar-mdhah ; mahina. 

{ye2LT\y,) sd/-dna. V. ^d. (an 
account, &c.,)add'k, --able, 
JO dena hat. -ment, ada. 

Pea, pedLSf matar. 

Peace, suth, (f.); saldmat, 
(of mind,) khdtir-jama ; 
taskin^ {{,). (rest,) drdm 
to hold one's -, chup- 
rahna, to break the -, 
balwa-^k, -ful, be-fasdd^ 
-fully, be-fasdd se ; chup-ke. 

Peach, sha/t-diu. 

Peacock, mor^ or tnhor. 

Pearl, moti^ (m.). 

Peasant, kisdn ; grihist ; 
rafyat, the -try, ra^dya. 

Peck, thongna. 

Peculiar, khdss ; mukhtass^ 
-ity, khusiisiyat; khdssiyat, 
-ly, khusiisan. 

Peg, mekh^ (f,). 

Pellet, goli, a - bow, guiel. 

Pen," iuilam, -knife, -tardsh, 
-box, - ddn, - and ink, 
dawdt ^alam, V. -band-k,; 
likhna. See * Restrain.' 

Penal, wdjib-us-saza, the 
Indian - Code, majm^^ah 

^ As natives always used a reed for writing, there are no words for 
a ' nib,' or a * pen-holder.' But ^lohe ka kclam^ is in use for the form- 
er, and ^kalam ki lakri^ for the latter. Natives now use ' nibs.' 

T., H. 19 


Pencil, p€nsil^ (E,). 
Penury, tangi ; tang-dasti. 

-ious, tang'dil ; bakhiL 
People, log; ddmi ; khaid^iJ^, 

(v,) basdna ; dbdd-k. 
Pepper, mirch, (black,) gol-, 

(red,) Idl-. V. -^. -box, 

Perceive. See * See.' 
Perfect, (a.) kdmil ; piira ; 

sdkhtah ; pukhtah ; tamdm, 

V. -k. -ion, kamdl; ikmdl; 

tamdmi, -ly, bahut thik ; 

tamdm-o kamdl. 
Petform. See * Do.' -ance 

(doing,) fel ; kdm^ &»c. 

(completion,) tamdmi. 
Perfume. See * Odour.' 
Perhaps, ho sakta hat ; shd- 

Period, arsah ; muddat ; 

wai^;zamdnah ;(^ong,) yug. 
Perish. See * Die.' 
Perjury, jhiHthi-fiasam. to 
• commit -, -khdna ; jhuthi 

Permanent. See * Firm.' 
Permission, ijdzai, V. -d, ; 

dena with the inflected in- 
finitive of anything per- 

mitted, as in the common 

phrase, *jdne do^ permit 

him to go. 
Perquisite, dastM, 
Person. See 'Being.' -ate, 

bhes-k, ; nal^Uk, ; sHrat 

bandna. -ation, by the v. n. 
Persuasion, targhlb^{i.)y ,-d. 
Perturb. See * Confound.' 
Perverse, mukhdlif ; ziddL 

V. -hona, -ness, zidd ; 

Pestle, sot^ta. 
Pet, (n. a.) pydra^ (m.). -/, 

(f.). V. pydr-k. 
Petition, darkhwdst; guzdrish; 

arZy (f.) ; suwdl ; nibedon ; 

baydn; bdt, V.-^. -er, sdjil^ 
Petticoat, pittikot? 
Phial, shishL 
Pick, (v.) chunna; chun-lena. 

(flowers,) to'cna. - a quar- 
rel, lax'd^i uthdna. -axe, 

phauxa ; kudra. 
Pickles, //>&^7/, (E.). 
VictVLXt^taswir, {i.)\na]^shah. 

-frame, dhdt^cha. See 

' Draw.' 
Piece. See * Part.' -meal, 


* Persian * it may be,* from * shudan^ * to be.* 
^ Indian ladies don't wear petticoats. 



Pierce, chhedna ; chhed-k, in- 
strument for -ing, chhCy- 

Pig, sd^ar. 

Pigeon, kabiUar. - house, 

Pile, (heap,) dher, (f.) ; am" 

. bdr, (of cloth, )r<7,f(^. (post), 

Pilgrim, (to Mecca,) hdjL 
(generally,) tirathu -age, 
(to Mecca,) hajj. (gene- 
rally,) tirath. 

Pill, goli; habb, (f.). 

Pillage, (n.) lut, V. -k, ; 
iiitna, to be -ed, lutna, 
one who -s, IMya, 

Pillar, sittin ; khambha. 

Pillow, takyah. -case, -ye 
ka ghiidf. 

Pin, (n.) (for clothes, &c.) 
pin, (E.). (small bolt,) kil, 
(f.) V. -lagd-d. 

Pincers, sangsi ; chimta. 

Pinch, (n.) noch. V. nochna ; 

Pine-apple, anannds. 

Pious, din-ddr; khudd-iars ;^ 
sdlih ; nek, piety, ia^wa; 

Pipe, (smoking,) (native,) 
kuk^hiah. (English,) paip^ 
(E.), (for e.g. "VidXtx,) nal ; 
nai, (f.). (cask,) pipa. 
(musical,) ba^sL V. baij^si 

Pistachio, pisiah. 

Pit, garha ; chdh, V. -k. 

Pitch, (n.) iiir, (v.) (e g. a 
tent,) khaxak, ; taiydr-k. 
See * Throw.' 

Pith, guda. 

Pity, (n.) rahm ; mihrbdni, 
V. -k, -iful, rahim; mihr- 
bdn. -iless, be-rahm^ 

Place, (n.) jagah, (f.) ; ja; 
makdn ; gdh, as last part in 
compos : Ste * Rank.' 
*Take.' in this place, is 
jagah meij, ; yahdn^ (v.) 
rakhna ; or by special 
description, e.g. kha^a-k, 
to erect ; gdrna, place in 
the ground, bdndh-d, to 
tie up, and so on. 

Plain, (n.) See * Park.' (a.) 
(unadorned,) sdda. (level,) 
bar-d'bar / samdn. -deal- 
ing, sdda-dilL -ly, sdf ; 
zdhiran, -ness, sddagi. 

From the Persian, ^tarsidan^ ' to ear,' 

29» hindiJstAni as it ought to be spoken. 

Plaint, ndiah. (in Court). See 
'Petition.* -iflF, mudda^i ; 

faryddL -ive, -ly, ndldf}. 
Plan, tadblr, (f.) ; hikmat ; 

upd^e, V. -k. ; -bandna ; 

-nikdina. See * Drawing.* 
Plane, (tool,) randah, V. 

-chaldna; randesesamdn-k. 
Plank, takhtah.Y, -lagdna. 
Plant, (n.) paudha ; per. 

V. -lagdna. 
Plantain, kela. 
Plaster, lep, V. lepna, 
Plate, bartan. -ed, mulam- 

Platform, chabutrah ; takh- 

tah ; tnachdn. 
Play, (n.) khei, (m.); as last 

word in compos : bdzi, V. 

khelna^ (on an instrument,) 

bajdna, -day, chhutti ka 

din ; iaiil^ (f.). -fellow, j^^fr/ 

ham-bdz, -fulness, alol^ 

(f.). -ful, alola, -house, 

ndch ka ghar. -thing, 

Pleader, (in Court,) vakil; 

mukhtdr, -ing, bahs^ (f.). 

V. bahs-k. 
Pleasant, achchha ; khiib ; 

khush ; dil-pazir, -ness, 

pasanaidagi ; khush-taba^i ; 

raghbat. to please, khush-- 
k. ; rijhdna. -ed, khush ; 
rdzL -ing, khush; mak:^ 
bdl. pleasure, khushi^ 
(will,) marzi ; khushi - 
ikhtiydr, please God, in- 
sha alldh. 
Pledge, {n,) giro ; rihn, (m.)^ 
V. --rakhna, -d, marhun. 
Plenty, bahut ; ghanimat / 
ifrdt -iful, bahut ; bahu- 
tera, -ifuUy, ifrdt se. 
Pliers, chimta. 

Plot, (of ground,) takhtah - 
^iiah; chaman. (of evil,) 
sdzish ; bandisk, V. -k. 
Plough, (n.) hal or hdl V. 
hal-ba^il-k, ; joina ; chds-k^ 
-man, halwdha ; chdsa. 
Pluck, torna. See * Courage.'^ 
Plug, datta ; thent 
Plum, bair, (f.). -tree, -gdcMu 
Plunder. See Tillage.' 
Ply, (in cloth, &c.) tah. (v.> 

e.g. a trade, kama. 
Socket, jaib, (f,). V. -^ej^ 
rakhna. -book, baydz^ (f.). 
-handkerchief, r&mdh 
Point, (of stick, &c.) nok^ 
(f.) (dot,), nuiitah, on the- 
of, par; fiarib tha kih^ ^c^ 
tho^a bd^i tha kih^ &*c. 



-ed, nokila, to-, (sharpen,) 
tez'k, to -out, baild-d. 

Poison, zahr^{i,) ; bis^ (m.). 
-ed, -aludah, V. -^. 

Pole, bdt^s ; chob ; lakri ; 

Police, polis^ (E.). -office, 
thdnah, -officer, thdna- 
ddr; ddroghah ;jama'ddr ; 
kdj^stabil^ (E.). (for vil- 
lages,) chauki'dfir. Up- 
country, they say kottvdl, 
for a head police-officer; 
and kotwdiiy for his office. 

Polish, (n.) raughan ; mom- 
raughan ; pdlish^ (E.). V. 

» -lagd d, ; sdf-k. 

Polite, adabi ; khali^, -ness, 
adaby (m.) ; khul^^ (f.). -ly, 
khuli^ se. 

Pomegranate, andr. 

Pond, tdldb^ (m.). 

Pony, tattu. 

Pool, (water,) ddbar^ (m.). 

Poor, gharib: kangdl; muflis, 
(in spirit,) gharib: miskin; 
nicha, the poor, gharib- 
log. See Toverty.' 

Poppy, post, one who uj^es 
opium, postL 

Populous, dbdd; gul-zdr. 
-ness, dbddi ; maamuri. 
popular, dmrn-pasand. 

Porcelain, chin^ ke barian. 

Porch, osdra ; de^orhi. 

Pork, su,ar kagoskf,* 

Porridge, (oat-meal,3) pdrich^ 
(E.). (of rough native 
flour,) suju (of crushed 
wheat,; daily a. 

Porter, (at g2Xt,)darbdn, (car- 
rier, J^uli; motiya; barddr. 
{dx'mV,) portar shardb,{{.). 

Portion. - See *Part.' 

Portmanteau, pefi ; bakaSy 

Position, jagaA, (f.). to place 

in -jjagaA me^ rakhna. 
Possess. Seepage 75. Sec, 13; 
dakhl-k, -ion, ^abzaK 
-ions, nidi ; daulat ; chiz 
sab^ and by their special 
names, as *milkfyat,' land- 
ed possessions, 6^^. -or^ 
dakhl'kdr ; Jkdbiz ; mdlik ; 
sdhib-i.., . (e.g. khdnah,) 

• Chin is China. 

• You may have English ham and bacon on your table ; but never 
the native animal. 

• Oat-meal itself is also called *pdrich,' 


Possible, mumkin ; ho sakta 
hat. -bility, with Jo, -ibly, 
shdyad ; ho sakta hat, to 
be -, mumkin hona ; ho- 

Post(for letters, &c.). See page 
98. See 'Appointment;' 
'Office;' *Pillar.' 

Posteriors, chiitat ; pickhd^i. 

Posterity, pasinu to all -, 
naslan baad nasi. 

Postpone, (make delay,) der^ 
or deri'k, (adjourn,) man- 

Voi^deg; degcha;degchi; hdt^^t. 

Potato, dlu. 

Potter, kumhdr, -y, matti ke 

Poultice, lOyi, V. ^lagdna. 
Poultry, murghd-murghu 
Pound, (n.) ddha-ser; ekpaun, 
. (E.). (v.) pisna ; (beat,) 

pitna, the village -, berha ; 

paun^ (K). to impound, 

pdun meij. rakhna. 
Pour, ddlna ; ddl-d. a - of 

rain, jhari. 
Poverty, iflds^ muflisi ; tangi; 

Powder, (for fire zxvci%)bdrut, 

(small dust of anything,) 


Power, iudrat ; ^tiwwai / 
ikhtiydr ; hukm ; hdth. 
-ful, zoT'dwar ; zabar-dast, 
-fully, zoT'Se, -less, nd- 
tawdn ; kam-zor ; durbaL 
-fulness, zabar-dasti ; 

bafd^i; zor-dwari ; idl^at 

Practice, mashfi, (v» -k. ) 
(habit,) ddat (custom,) 
dasitir; riwdj, V. hona. 

Praise, taarif, (f.). V. ^k. ; 
--d. -worthy, ^dbil-i-iaarif. 

Prawn, chi^gti. 

Prayer, namdz, ((.), V. -parh- 
na. Set * Request.* 

Preach, waaz-k, -er, wd,iz, 
-ment, {stxmov\,)waaZy (ro-)» 

Precaution, khabar-ddri, 

V. -k, ; khabar-ddr hona. 

Precede, dge-jdna^ or chalna, 
-dence in rank, ta^dim^ 
(f.). to give ditto, -dena, to 
enjoy ditto, -Una, 

Precious, (affection,) aziz / 
pydra, (V. -rakhna), 
(price,) besh-iimat, V. 
Precise. See 'Exact.* -ly 
thik ; bi^ainihi. 

Preface, tamhld, (f.). 
Preference, pasand^ (f.). ; 
chdh; khwdhish, V. chdhna; 


pasand-k, ; bihtar satnajh- 
na ; us-se is-ko pasand-k. 
to assign a -, tarjih-d, 
-able, bihtar ; dusroi} se 

Preferment, taraJkf^i ; ba^hti; 

Preparation, taiydr-k, (v. n.); 
faiydri. V. taiydr-k, ; in- 
tizdm-k, (make,) bandna. 

Prescribe, kahna ; hukm-d. 
(as a doctor,) dawa-d, 
-ption, nuskhah. 

Present, (n.). See 'Gift.' (a.) 
hdzir ; sdmne ; pesh ; ru- 
ba-ru ; taiydr ; maujtid. 
-ce, (lit.) hdziri, (respect- 
fully,) huzur, in the - of 
many people, bahut logoi} 
ke sdmne, — of mind, 
teZ'Zihn ; hoshydri, -ly, 
fauran^ dr'c. See page 54. 

Preserve. See * Defend.' 

Press, (v.) dabdna ; dabd-d, 
(constrain,) majbur-k, (n.) 
(of people,) guroh^ (m.) ; 
g?ioly{m.). (for clothes, table 
things, &c.) almdri^ (oil>) 
kolhu, (printing,) chhdpne 
ki kal? -ure, dabd^o ; ddb. 

-ed labourer, begdr, -ed 

labour, begdru 
Pretence, bahdnah ; uzr ; 

Miah. V. ~k. . 
Pretty, khub-silirat ; suthra^ 

-iness, -/. (somewhat,) 

kuchk'kuchh. See Part I. 

Prevalence, ghalbah. -ent, 

jdri; phaila hit, a ; muraw- 

Prevent, mana-kar-d ; rokna ; 

chhei^kna ; atkdna ; bdz- 

rakhna; thdmna; N. rok ; 

chhet^kdyO ; atkdyO ; muzd- 

Previous, -ly, dge ; peshtar. 
Price, Jkimat; ddm, rate of-, 

ntrkh ; bhd^o. 
Prick, {trans,) chubhona, 

{intr, and passive) chubh- 

na, (n.) kdrj^ta ; khdr. -up 
one's ears, kdn uthdna, -ly, 
khdr-ddr, -ly heat, gha- 

Pride, ghunir ; dimdgh, A. 

maghnirs V. with hona. 
Prime, (n.) bahdr^ (f.). -min- 
ister, wazir, (di.) awwal ; 

awwal kism ka. 

I. Not HindUstdni ; probably Portuguese. Confer French, ' almoire, 
and Scotch, * autnrie.' • * KaV is masculine in the western jparts. 

296 hindi5stAni as it ought to be spoken. 

Prince, shdh-zddah^ (fern. 
-dL); Mif^war; rdj-kumdr; 
jub-rdj, -ly, -sa. 

Principal, awwal ; sab se 

Principle, sabab ; sabab-i-aw- 
wal^ jaf^ (f.); bunydd^ (f.). 

Print, (v.) chhdpna, -ed, 
chhdpa M^a, -ing, by the 
v.n. -ing-press, chhdpne ki 
kaL -ing-house, chhdpd- 
khdnah, -er, ckhdpne-wdla. 

Prison. Ste ' Jail.' 

Private, khds5;khud^ (in com- 
pos :) e.g. khud'kdshty one's 
reserved cultivation, or 
* home-farm.' -room, khal- 
wat-khdnah; khdsS'kamra, 
a - soldier, sipdhu in - and 
in public, khalwat-o-jal- 
wat meij: -ly, khalwat 

Privy, (n.) ghusl-khdnah ; 
jd't'Zarurat ; tattu 

Probable, aghlab ; mumkin, 
-bility, jo aghlab hat ; 
ihtimdl, to be -, ihtimdl 
hona ; ^ho sakia haiJ -bly, 
shakk bahut nahifj^ hat ; 
shdyad ; ghdliban. 

Proceed. See * Go.' -cedure, 
kdr-rawdyi ; The Code of 

Criminal Procedure, maj- 
mHyah zawdbit faujddri. 
ditto Civil, majmiti^ah 
zawdbit diwdnu -ings, 
jo sab kdm kiya gay a hat ; 
pairavi ; kdr-rawd^ i. 

Proclamation, ishtihdr ; 

manddi, V. ^k. ; -jdri'-k,; 
mashhtir-k, ; zdhir-k. 

Procure, Idna ; mangwdna ; 

Prodigal, fusul'kharj\-\\.y^^u 
Produce, (v.) dena; paidd-k. 

(n.) paidd,ish; paidd-wdr; 

fasly (f.). -ductive, zar- 

khez, —tdi,patda. 
Profess, kahna ; waadah-k. 

(a trade, &c.) karna. 

-ion, (what one alleges,) 

bdt ; baydn ; kahna^ (v.n.) ; 

waadah, (trade,) peshah ; 

kdm ; dhandka. 
Profit, fd^idah ; nafa • 

mahdsii, to make -, ->5. ; 

"pdna, -able, fdjda- 

Progress. See * Advance.' 
Prohibit. See * Forbi<1.' 
Promise, waadah ; i^rdr ; 

paimdn, V. -k. 
Promissory-note, /£/>, (f.) ; 




Promote. See *Aid.' (ad- 
vance,) barhdna ; tara^- 
ii'd, N. bharti ; tara^J^L 

Pronounce, kakna, (sen- 
tence,) hukm dena, -nun- 
ciation, talaffuz. 

Proof, dalily (f.) (evidence,) 
shahddat ; gaivdhu V. -d. 

Prop, balliytekni, Y.-rakhna, 

Propagate, upjdna ; paidd-k, 
(by grafting, )^aAi;// lagdna. 

Propel, dge chaldna. 

Proper, durust ; wdjib ; 
sahih ; thik , -ly, thik ; 
achchha ; achchhi iarah se. 

Property. See * Possess.* 

Prosecute, (any work,) karna; 
karid-jdna ; chaldna ; pat- 
ravi-k, N. ta^ah^^ub ; pair a- 
vi; kdr-rawd^i. (in Court,) 
mu^addamah, -tor. Ste 

Prospect, (view,) madd-i- 
nazar, (e.g. of success,) 
ummed, (f.). 

Prosperity, bhaidj ; nek- 
bakhti ; daulat ; barhti, 
V. -meij, hona ; -metj rah- 
na ; -metp guzrdn karna, 
-ous, the nouns followed 
by * mef} ; ' ba-khatr. His 
affairs are prosperous, us 

ka sab kdm ba-khubi (or 
achchhi tarah,) \chalta 

Protect, bachdna ; bachd-d, ; 
pdndh'd, ; parwarish-k, 
(from justice, &c.) Hiposh 
rakhna. -tion, bachd^o ; 
hifdzat ; muhdfazai ; dsra, 
(watch fulness, ) nigdh-bdni. 
self-tion, or defence, hi/d- 
zat-i-khud, -or mdiik ; 
sdhib ; hdfiz ; murabbi ; 
dast'gir ; nigdh-bdn. 

Provide, hdzir-kar-d. ; iaiydr- 
k, ; saranjdm-k, -visions, 
khdne ki chiz sab. (for 
troops, &c.,on the march,) 
rasad^ (f.). -dent, khabar- 
ddr ; duT'andesh, 

Province, subah, governor of 
a-, suba-ddr. 

Provoke, rls-kardna, N. 
chirh^ (f ). 

Prudence, khabar-ddri; hash- 
ydri ; tadbir, (f ) ; imtiydz^ 
(f). -dent, khabar-ddr ; 
hosh-ydr. V. adjs. with 
hona, -tly, khabar-ddri^ 
<5r»^., se. 

Prune, (n.) pariin, (E.) ; 
stikhi bair^ (f.). (v.) 
chhdntna ; chhdnt-k. 


hindiSstAni as it ought to be spokkn. 

Public, the, log sab ; dmrn-o- 
khdss ; khaldyi^ a - ser- 
vant, sarkdr ka naukar, 
the - service, sarkdr hi 
naukari, (well-known.) 
maalum ; zdhir ; mashhiir, 
-ly, zdhiran ; sab logoij. he 

Publish. See * Proclaim. ' (as 
a book,) jdri'k, -er, with 

Pudding, puding^ (E.). 

Puddle, dabra^ or dabra. 

Pull, khivch, (f.). V. khinch" 
na ; tdnna, (L. B.). 

Pulse, (of the body,) nabz^ 
(f.) to feel the -, -dekhna, 
-sat ion, tis. 

Pulse, (grain,) known by its 
various kinds, e.g. moth; 
ddP- ; urad ; chana ; muf}g] 
kaldyt ; but, dr'c.y d^c. 

Pump, (v.) pdni uthdna, (n.) ; 
pampah or bambak, being 
attempts at the English 
word, natives having no 
pumps ; and few mechani- 
cal contrivances. 

Punctual, -ly, bar-wa^t, 
-ality, -hona, (v.n.). 

Punishment, saza^ (f.). V. -d. 

deserving -, wdjib-us-saza. 
Puppet, putlL 
Puppy, pilla. 
Purchase. See *Buy.' 
Pure, sdf'jZuldl; pdkizah, -ity, 

-ness, safd^i; pdki ; nekL 
Purgative, a, julldb ki dawa, 

(f.). V. jhdrna. 
Purgatory, irdf^ or ardf. 
Purple, Idh 
Purport, mazmun ; matlab ; 

Purpose. See * Intention.' 
Purse, klsah ; kharitah. 
Pursue. See ' Chase.' 
Push, (n.) dhakka, V. -d. ; 

Put, rakhna ; rakh-d, ; baith- 

dna ; baithd-d, -away, le- 
jdna, -back, wdpas rakhna, 

- crossways, dra rakhna, 
-off, (e.g. clothes,) utdrna, 

- off, (make delay,) deri-k,; 
mau^uf-k, - on, (clothes,) 
orhna; kapre pahinna^-OMt, 
(e.*:.) a person, nikdl-d, 
(a light,) bujhd-d. (money 
at interest.) sud par dena. 

- an end to, khatam-kar-d. 

* A pleasant dish known as khichri, (vulg. kichary)^ is made by 
mixing ' ddl' and rice, cooked, of courst**, but served dry. 



-to shame, shatmdna ; 
lajwdna, - in mind, ydd 
dildna, -to flight, Mrt^<f-^.; 
ghdlib hona, - past, apne 

pds rakhna, - up with, 
barddsht-k, - to death, 
mdr-ddlna ; ^atl-k, 
Tutty, pufi'^g, (E.). 


Quack, (as a ,duck,) ^^e^- 
l^di^'k, (oneself.) id/zani-k. 
-^ery, IdfzanL 

Quail, bater. 

Quality. See * Kind. ' ' Rank.' 

Quantity, miJ^ddr, 

Quarrel, jhagxa ; lardi ; 
J^aziyah. V. -kr, jhagarna ; 
larna, -some, jhas^rdlu, 
to pick a -, Ikaziyah uthdna; 
or bar-pd-k. 

Quarry, (stone,) sang kl kdn, 
(lime,) chune ki kdn, 
(game,) shikdr. 

Quarter, (n.) chauthd^i;pd^o ; 
chahdrum. -rii[;i, chau- 
antiL 5(ftf 'Neighbourhood.' 
-of a town, mahallah ; tola. 
-s, maikdm. See pages 64 
and 9 1 note, (v.) chdr hissoij, 
men bdt^tna, -in battle, 

• • • 7 

amdn^ (f.). to give -, 
dmdn-d.; bachdna -(billet,) 
chdr-pdra-k, -ly, si-mdhah. 
Queen, (M.), vialikah; J^at- 
sar, {H,) rdni ; maM-rdni, 

Question, (n.) sawd/, or 
suwdL (v. ) puchhna; sawdl- 
k. out of the -, bahs ke 
bdhar ; behudah, -able, 

Quick, Jald ; tez; tund; ckust, 
N. jaldi ; tezi ; chtisti ; 
shttdbt, -ly. See page 54. 
V. daurd-d; tez-k, -(alive,) 
zindah, -lime, bari, -sand, 
chor-bdlu, silver, pdra. 

Quiet, (a.) chup ; sdkin (as 
an animal,) gharib, (n.) 
drdm ; rdhat ; khdnioshi, 
(v.) thanda-k. ; sdkin-k. 
to keep -. (intr, )chuprahna. 
-ly, chup' ke ; dhiste. 

Quill, shdh'par, (writing,) 
par ka J^alam, 

Quilt, razdyi. 

Quince, bM, 

Quit. See 'Abandon.' -tance, 

Qu i te, bil-kull; ta mdm.-rlgh t, 
(Mk; khiib; bahut achchha. 

Quotation, iJ^tibds, V. -k. 



Race, (descent,) asi^ ( f- ) ; 
nasl^ (f.); khdnddn, (horse, 
&c. )dauf, -course, ^^«r- 

Radical, asli ; bunyddi. 

Radish, mulu 

Rafter, lattha ; barga, 

l^g, g^dar ; gudri. 
Rage. See ' Anger.' he has a 
rage (for, &c.,) us-ko ba^^a 

Railing, a, katahra ; beta, 
V. "iagdna. See ♦ Abuse. ' 

Railway, rel-rdsta, (half E.). 
-train, reiki gdri^dn, -en- 
gine, injitiy (E.). -ticket, 
rel ka tikat, (E.). -station, 
isteshan, (K.). 

Rain, {n,) pdni {m,) \ bdrish; 
mei^h ; bdrdn^ (Persian.) 
V, ^hona ; barasna, -y, 
pdni ka. a - day, pdni ka 
din. the -y weather, bar- 
sdt ; barsdt ka mausim, a 
storm of -, jhari. -coat, 
bdrdni kurti ; if water- 
proofs, barsdti kafre, 
-pock, (in horses,) barsdti, 
-bow, dhanak^ (m.). 

Raise, uthdna ; uthd-d ; kha- 
ra-k. -crop, &c. upjdna. 

Raisins, kishmish. 

Ram, (n.) bhe^a, (v.) thdsna; 
thelna, -mer, durmus. 
- rod, banduJ^ ka gaz. 

Random, at, ittijdi^an ; be- 
anddz ; be-iadbtr. 

Rank, (position,)yV7^(a^, (f.); 
darjah ; martabah, high -, 
shdn^ (f.) ; sar-fardzi ; 

Rap, (v.) (at door,) thof^kna. 
See * Strike.' 

Rapid. See * Quick.' 

Rare, kam ; jo kam dekhne 
metj, (or hdth mei^.) dta 
hai, N. -/. 

Rascal, bad-zdt ; hardm-zd- 
dah, -ity, bad-zdti; hardm- 
zddagi. Adv. with se. 

Rash, be-Uhdz ; be-tadbir. 
-ness, -I. Adv., use the 

Rate, (n.). See * Price,' * Mar- 
ket.' {v,)gdli-d. 

Rather, with se. I would 
rather sleep than eat, nii^td 
karna mujh-ko pasand hai 
khdna khdne se. See * Pre- 
fer.' (somewhat,) kuchh- 
Raw, kachcha. N. kachdj. 


Reach. See * Arrive.' Tower.' 

Read, farhna, -to one, park- 
sundna, -er, parhne-wdla. 
read, paxhd-hu^a, a -ing, 
parhdj. -ing and writing, 
(reversed,) likhni-pa^hni. 

Hesidy, faiydr, -iness, -/.V.-^. 

Real, as/; ka/ki^i ; sachcha, 
-ity, kaJkiij^at ; asi hdl, -ly, 
albaitah, (interj.) really 
now ! sach bdt I (interro- 

Reap, (lit.) kdtna ; katni-k, 
(fig.) hdsil-k. -er, kat- 
waiya ; kdtne-wdla, -ing 
hook, haswa, or hasua, 
-time, kafdft. 

Reason, (for a thing,) sabab ; 
wajh^ (f.). (mind,) a^/, 
(f.) ; hosh ; fahm, -able, 
ma^ul ; wdjib ; mu^dfiJ^, 
-ableness, shdjstagi ; ma- 
J^^liyat; durusti; aJjilmandi. 
Adv. with se. 

Rebel, (n.) bdght. V. -hona, 
-lion, baghdwat -ious, 

Rebuke, sar-zanish,^ V. -k, ; 

. dokhna ; iizdm-d. 

Receive, Una ; iab^l-k, ; 

milna. See page 50. (a per- 
son,) dne-dena, (a receipt,) 
rasid ; fdrigh-khaiti, . 

Recent, nau ; ihore dinoij, ka^ 
-ly, ihore dino^ se ; ab. 

Reckon, gtnii-k,; ginna ; 
shumdr-k, (fig.) samajhna ; 
khiydl'k ; J^iyds-k, -ing, 
ginti ; hisdb-k, (v.n.). 

Recollection, ^^^, (f.). V. -k, 
to recollect oneself, hosh 
Jkd^im rakhna; nahii} ghab- 

Recommendation, stfdrish. 
V. -k, a letter of -, -ka 

Recompense. See 'Reward*. 

Reconcile, tnildna ; mild-d, ; 

sulh'k, ; tasfiyahy (or tas- 

fi^ahyk. N. mel ; tnild^o ; 

sulh ; tasfiyah. a deed of 

-iation, sulh-ndmaK 

Record, (v.) likhna, (put 
aside in o^zt^ddkhil-k, (n.) 
(bundle of papers,) natthi ; 
misL ((,) ; hdg^azdf -room, 
daftar ; dafiar-khdnah ; 
muhdfiz'khdnah. -keeper, 
muhdfiz'i'daftar^ generally 
called * muhdfiz ' only. 

^ From ^ sar^ 'the head,* and Persian, * zadan^* *to strike,' *to 

punch * 


Recover, (thing lost,) pdna ; 
ntilna, (from illness,) ach- 
chha^oxbhalako-jdna, -ery, 

. (of a thing,) pher-pana^ 
(v.n.)from illness, ackhd^i ; 
bhaidyi ; shifa. 

Recreation, tafarruj. 

Red, Idl ; surkh. N. surkhi. 

Redress, insdf. V. -/^., or d. 

Reed, nai ; fialanu 

Reference, zikr ; (v. -k^ (for, 
e. g. another person's opin- 
ion,) rtiju, V. "k, * I 
refer you to Mr. A.' A. 
sdhib sepjichhiye. 

Reflection, soch ; fikr^ (f.) ; 
andeshah ; ta^ammul, V.->^.y 
sochna ; fikrmand hona. 

Refrain, nahii^ karna ; par- 
hez-k, ; bdz rahna. 

Refreshment, (by rest.) drdm; 
rdhat ; dsiidagi, (by food,) 
kuchk khdna ; iifin ; jaU 
pdn, V. drdm^ &*c. Una ; 
kuchh khdne ki chiz lena, 
(by amusement,) bahldna ; 
khush'k.; iamdsha dekkna. 

Refuge, dsra ; of; pandh ; 
dr, to give -, d. 

Refusal, inkdr ; ndmanzuri ; . 
V. -k. 

Refuse, (n.) dkhor ; fuzIaK 

Refutation, radd^ (v. -k,) ; 
jawdb. (v. -d,). 

Regard. See 'Look,' * Re- 
spect.' I regard him as a 
father, odp ki tarah, maiij. 
uska lihdz karta huf,t. 

Regiment, paltan,{t) ; saidrt. 

Region, mulk ; jagah^ (f.); 
nawdh ; taraf^ (f.), or, PI. 

Register, registration ; regis- 
trar, these words are re- 
presented by various cor- 
ruptions of the English, 
which must be locally 
picked up : Vernacular 
words for similar matters 
will be found under * Re- 

Regret, ofsos ; hasrat ; 
(strong,) soz, V. --k, ; 
-khdna ; pachidna. 

Regular; (in routine,) hasb 
^didah ; hasb zdbttah; das- 
ttir ke mu^dfii, -ity, (in 
work, &c. ) intizdm ; band-o- 
basf^ (m.). tartib^ (f.) ; (as 
to time,) bar-waJ^ty pahutf- 
chna^ karnay df^c, a -lation, 
dyin ; ijidniin ; hukm. 

Rejection, nd-manzuri ; nd-- 
pasand'k,(v,n,) wdpas dena 


(v.n.) V. nd-manzur-k, ; 

wdpas-d,; nd-pasand-h ; 

pherna, a rejected (article,) 

'R^xgn^juliis; saltanat; AuM- 

mat; amalddri; bddshdhi ; 

rdf\ V. -k, in the reign of 

A., bddshdh A. ke aiydn?- 

meij.^ oxjulus met}. 
Reins, rds^ (f.); bdg^ (f.). 

V. -khif^hna ; ~khat^a-k, 

to put on the -, -lagdrd. 

(loins,) kamary (f.). 
Rejoice, khushhona; rijhna ; 

Relate. See *Tell,' 'Connec- 

Release, (n.) rihdj ; khalds; 

khaldsi i chhutti.V, -d, ; 

Relief, drdm, V. -^. (of a 
guard,) badli, V. badai-k. 
Religion, din ; mazhab, 

-gious, din-ddr. -gious- 

ness, din-ddri ; khudd- 

Relinquish. See 'Abandon.' 
Relish, (n.) zd^i^ah ; mazah ; 

ntimat ki chiz, V. laziz-k, ; 

khush'ZdyiJ^ah se khdna. 

Remain, (stay,) rahna ; tha- 
harna ; sabr-k, (be over,) 
bdjii'hona ; bachna. 

Remains, (of food, &c.) jo 
bachuy or bdi^i hat ; dkhor ; 
fuzlah, (mortal,) murdah ; 
Idsh, (f.). 

Remark. •$•(?<?* Say,' * Word,' 
&c. -able, ajib ; ajubah. 

Remedy, ildj ; upd^e; tadbir, 
(f.); chdrah, Y,'-k.;-batIdna, 

Remember, khdtir met} rakh- 

na ; ydd merj^ hona, to call 

to mind, ydd-k, ; cketna, 

(to cause a person to -,) 

ydd dildna, N,ydd, (f). 

Remind, ydd dt'/dna. 

Remit, (a portion,) ghatdna; 

ghatd'd,; kam-k{\hQ whole, 

a penalty, &c.) mu^df-k. 

-ting, by v.n. -taiice, cha- 

Idn ; irsdl. 

Remove, {trans,) le-jdna ; 
dur-k, ; hatd-d, ; nikdl-d, 
(intr,) jdna ; chald-jdna ; 
uth'jdna ; hat-jdna, (one 
from service,) rukhsat-d,; 
bar-khdst-k, ; maazul-k, ; 
(in a coarse way ) nikdl-d? 
N./jy v.n,; dusrijagakjdna. 

* i.e., timesy PI. of *^a«/«,* which is also Hebrew. 

• Equivalent to our colloquial, *kick him out? 



Render. See * Give/ • Trans- 

Renounce. See 'Abandon.' 

Renown. See 'Fame.' 

Rent, (house, shop, A'c.) 
kirdyah, (land,) mdl-guzd- 
ri ; jama ; khazdnah ; 
khirdj. -free, Id-khirdj. 
rate of -, nirkh ; sharah. 
-roll, jama-bandu 

Repairs, -ing, marammat 
V. 'k. 

Repeat, ^phtr,^ or ^pher^ with 
appropriate verb. e.g. phir 
kahiyey please say it again, 
repetition, by v,n, -edly, 
aksar ; bahut dafe. 

Repent. See 'Regret.' -ance, 
naddmat -ant, pashemdn. 

Reply. See 'Answer.' 

Report. See ' Inform.' -of a 
gun, bha^dka -of an oc- 
currence, khabar ; (if de- 
tailed) surathdl} 

Repose, (rest,) drdm ; rdAat ; 
fardghaU (sleep.) nind, 
V. -Una, ; letna ; sona. 

Reprimand. See ' Rebuke.' 

Reproach, fan ; tanah, -ing, 
tana-zani, V. -k. 

Reproof. See ' Rebuke. 

Reptile, kira ; kirm. 

Reputation, (general,) ndm, 
(good,) nek-ndmi, (bad,) 
bad-ndmi, Y ,jdnna; ginna. 

Request. See ' Petition.' 

Require, (desire,) chdhna. (a 
person to do a thing,) 
hukni'd, (to be in need of,) 
by hona and the 3rd Per- 
son, e.g., I require a watch, 
mujh'ko ghari zarur^ or 
darkdr hau as may be 
required, jaisa zartir hoga. 
-sition, talab ; iltija^ (f.) ; 

Rescue. See 'Save,' 'Protect 

Resemblance, mushdbih , 
mushdbahat, he resembles 
his father, wuh apne bdp 
ka mushdbih hat. 

Reservoir, hauz ; tdidb^ (m.) ; 
khazdnah ; pokhar. 

Resident. See 'Inhabitant.' 

Resign. See 'Abandon.' 

Resin, dhUna, 

Resistance, rok-tok; muzdha- 
mat V. "k. 

Resolve. See 'Intend' -lute, 

* A technical phrase ; properly ' 
event,' a formal report drawn by an 

J^<ra^f-Aa/,'=' appearance' of the 
investigating officer. 

hindiJstIni as it ought to be spoken. 


Respect, (v.) aziz-rakhna ; 
tzzat'd,; bara jdnna^ to 
pay one's -s, kisi ki 
tazim-k ; dddb bajd-ldna ; 
saldm-k, {n.) adab, izza/, 
act of showing -, tazim, 
(f.). in all -s, ba-^ar-stirat 
in this -, is amr me^ 
kih, 6r*c, ; is bdre mei}, 
-able, achchha; bhala; mu- 
tabar ; izzat-ddr ; wdjib-ut- 
tazim, -ful, mu^addab. 

Rest. See *Repose,' 'Re- 
mains.' the rest, (people,) 
aur sab log. (things,) jo 
bdki'hai, -less, be-drdm ; 
be-^ardr, -lessness, be- 
drdmi ; be-^ardri. 

Restrain, rokna ; atkdna ; 
bdz-rakhna; chhe^kna. -t, 
rok ; atkd^o ; muzdhamat 

Result, natijah ; hdsil ; phal ; 
nikds ; dkhir, V. these 
words and hona : The 
enquiry has resulted thus, 
tahiiiikdt ka natijah yih 
haiy kihy &*c. 

Resurrection, the, J^iydmat 

Retain. ^tf*Keep.'-er, tdbiddr. 

Retire, yi/a rahna. See ^ Go 
away, -d, chJupa, -ment, 

t., h. 

Retreat, (e.g. of an army,) 

(n.) pahlu-tihi, V. -k. 

(place of private -,) khal- 

Return, (go, or come back,) 

pher-dna ; pherjdna ;phir' 

na ; lautna. (give back,) 

wdpas-d, li, by v. n. -ed, 

phiria ; phirta Mi^a, 
Revenge, intikdm, V. '-Una. 
Revenue, khirdj ; dmadani ; 

dmad, (f.). -free, /d-khirdj. 
Reverence. See ' Respect.' 
Reward, indm ; bakhshish. 

V. d. ; bakhshna. 
Rheumatism, bdyi. 
Rhinoceros, gait^da. -horn, 

Rib, panjari. 
Rice, (in field or husk,) dhdn. 

(cleaned, but dry,) chdwaL 

(cooked,) bhdt. 
Riches, daulat ; mdl ; dhan. 

rich, daulai-mand ; dhani. 
Ride, (v.) sawdr-hona ; 

sawdri'k, -ini', sawdri, a 
ride, gho^eparhawakhdna, 
V. n. -er, sawdr. 
Right, (a.) (done well,) thik; 

durust ; achchha bhala, 
(just,) wdjib ; nek; ha^k 
kemu^dji^, on, or to the 



-hand, ddhine, (n.) insdf; 

ha^ii, -or wrong, ha^k nd- 

hafiii. to put -, durust'k. 

-eous, nek; sddi^; musallL 

-ful, mmtaha^^. 
Rind, chhilka^ to tdke off the 

^yChhilna ; chhilka utdrtia. 
Ring, (v.) {trans.) bajdna. 

{intr,) bajna, (n.) at^giithi ; 

Riot, hangdmah ; balwa, 

V. "k. -er, guhdr4og.-o\x% 

hangdmah kar-ke, 
^x^^pakka ; pukhtah. -en, 

{trans,) pakdna. {intr,) 

pakna. -ness, taiydri ; 

Rise, utkna; uth-jdna, (stand 

up,) khara-hona, (in life,) 

ba^hna ; bara-hona ; iara^- 

^ipdna, (ascend, )r^r^«fl. 

(in rebellion,) balwa-k. (as 

plants,) upajna, (as bread,) 

sujna. (in price.) is-ki 

J^imat ba^h-ga^i hat. 
Risk, khatrah, to run -, 

Rival, harif; raJ^lb. -ry, 

ri^dbat, V. -k. 
Road, nf>4, or rak^ (f.); rix/'^. 

high-, jtffa^, (f ). (lane,) 


Roar, (n.) j^urrish, (v.) 

Roast, (n.) rost^ (E.) ; kabdb. 
V. ->&. 

Rob, /2//;ya ; iHt-iena, -ber, 
rtfA-0a«.gang -ber, dakait. 
-bery, rah-zani, (by a 
gang, ) ddka ; dakaiti, a rob- 
bery took ^^zxit^ddka pafa^ 

Rock, (n.) patthar ; sang. 
(v.) {trans,) hildna ; jhul- 
dna. {intr.) hilna ; jh^lna. 

Roll, (v.) {trans.) lapetna. 
{intr.) lotna, (from side to 
side,) lot-pot-K (n.) (e.g. 
of paper,) binda. (rolling 
about,) lot'pot, dinner-, 
rol, (E.). 

Roof, chhappar^ {(,) ychhat. 

Room, a, kamrah ; kothi; as 
last part in compos:... 
khdnah. {s^diCt^) jagah, (f.) 
(stead,) iwaZy or ewaz. -y, 
khula ; kushddah ; bara. 

Root, (n.) jar; (fig.) asl ; 

jar; bunydd, (f.). to -up, 

ukhdpta. to take-, jar 

pakarna. - and branch, 


Rope, rassi ; dori. to-, -/agd- 
d. ; -se bdndh-d. 

Rosary, tasbih, (f,). 


Rose, gul ; guldb ; gul-db-^ 
phut, otto_ of-, iir-i-guldb, 
-bush, guidb gdchh. -gar- 
den, gul-tstdn, -water, 
gul^db. -y, gul-rang. 

Rot, sarna, -ten, sara, -ten- 
ness, sardhind. 

Rough, kharkhara^ -ness, 

Round, (spherical, ) gol, to 
make-, -k, (circle,) dd^- 
irah; ghera, to put any- 
thing - another, gher-k, to 
go a-, ghum ho^ke jdna, to 
go -s, (as an officer,) roun- 
gasht'L (half E.), all -, har 
taraf, ^nese, go/shak/, (f.). 

Row, (line,) iatdr^ (f.). See 
* Riot.' 

Royal, s/id/it\ -ty, bddshdhi, 
the-fsimWy yMdnddn-i-sMki. 

Rub, (tnfr,) ragar-k. {trans.) 
malna; mdlish-k, N. (scrap- 
ing,) ragar. (e.g. with 
hands,) mdlish, a thing for 
rubbing body with, khisah. 

Rubbish, kurkut ; M^a ; 
rdbish^ (E.) 

Ruby ^yd^tU; IdL 

Rude, gustdkh; be-adab. 
-ness, -/ / -/. Adv. with se. 

Rue, {n,)suddb. (y,)ta^assuf-k. 

Rug, kammal, (f.) ; kamlt. 

Ruin, khardbi ; tabdhi; pare- 
shdni, V. -^. a -, khandar. 
-ed, be-marammat ; shikas- 
iah ; tutapMta, 

Rule. See * Government.' 
-er, (for desk,) inistar, to 
-paper, safar-khati^chna. 

Rumour, afwdh ; hawara. 

Run, daufna. (as time,) bit- 
jdna, (as water,) bahna, 
-out, (as water,) cMna ; 
tapakna, -out, (go done,) 
^^z;« >^^«<3! ; ghatna, -away, 
bhdg'jdna, cause to -, 
daux'dna ; daura-d 

Rust, zang ; morchah -y, 
zang-dhidah. This has 
turned rusty, w-/ar ^tf;?^ 


Sabre, shamsher^ (f.) 
Sack, (n.) ^t?r^. {v.) iutna. 

Sacred, mu^addas, a -place, 

* See Glossary, Part I. * A'b. 

3o8 hindi}stAni as it ought to be spoken. 

SsiCnfice^k urfidn. W.-k, self-, 

nisdr. V. -k. 
Sad, udds; ghamm-gin : afsur- 
dah, to -den, -^, -ness, 
uddsi ; afsurda^ ; ghamm. 
Saddle, zin, (f). V. -^dndh-d. 
-cloth, -posh, -horse, 
sawdri kd ghora. saddler, 
zingar ; mochi. 
Safe, tndtmtn ; said/nat, N. 
saldmat; bachd^o; ttmindn, 
(hanging.) dolt, -ly, ba- 
khair. See *Save.' 
Saffron, zafardn. 
Sagacity. See * Intelligence.' 
Sago, sdgu. 
Sail, (n.) pdL (v.) Jahdz 

mei!p chalna. 
Saint, wait ; pir, the -s, 

Salad, saldd^ (E.) ; sabzi. 
Salary. See * Pay.' 
Saliva, tkuk. 

Salt, namak, -dish, -ddn, 
-spoon, -ka chammach^ or 
chanicha. -petre, shorah- 
Salutation. See page 7$, 
Same, ek ; ek-ki ; eksdn ; ek 
Jkism ka ; bardbar, this -, 
yihi^ that -, wuhi. in 
compos : ham, this is the 
same as that, yih aur wuh 

ek'hi haii;^. They both 
arrived on the same day, 
we donoi^ ek roz pahuf^che. 
Sample, namtinah. 
Sand, rei ; reg ; bdlu, -bank, 

char, -y, balu^a. 
Sandal, sandaL 
Sapphire, nil-mani, 
Satan, Shaitdn; lb lis. 
Satin, atlas. 

Satisfaction. dil-tashaffi ; 

khdlir-jami ; taskin, to, 

feel — rakhna, -tory pas- 

and; achha ; khub, -fied, 

rdzi ; khush, V. -k. 

Saturday, Sanibdr; Sanichar. 

Savage, (a.) jangli. (n.) 

- ddmi. See * Cruel.' 
Sauce, sds^ (E.). -pan, sds- 

pdn, (E.). 
Saucer, pirich. 

Save. See * Rescue.' to - 
money, &c., Hipiye^ mdl^ 
&'c,^ jama-k. 
Sausage, sassich, (E.); J^ulma. 
Saw, (n.) dra, (v.) dre se 
ckirna, or kdtna, -dust, 
bi&ra, -yer, drdkash. 
Say, (speak,) bolna, (tell,) 
kahna, people -, khabar 
hai ; hawara hat, a -ing 
bdt ; kaha ; baydn, it is 



commonly said, aksar 

sunne meij. dta hat. 
Scaffold, machdn. 
Scale, (balance,) tardzu, 

(degrees,) silsilah. 
Scanty, kam. N. -/. 
Scare. See * Frighten.' -crow, 

Scarf, orhnu 

Scatter, ckhiirdna ;chhitkdna. 
Scene, (view,) madd-i-nazar, 

(arena,) akhdra ; khet ; 

inaiddn, (show), tamdsha. 
Scent. See ' Perfume.' 
Scheme, hikmat ; tadbir^ (f.); 

khaydl ; mansiibah. 
Scholar, (pupil,) shdgird ; 

(learned person,) dlim-o- 

fdztl ddmi; maulavi^ (M.); 

pandit^ ( H. ). -ship. 

Urn. (m.). 
School, ishkiil, (E.) ; tnaktab- 

khdnah ; pdt-sdla, -master, 

ishkul-mdstar^ (E.). usidd; 

guru ; ffiu^al/im. 
Scissors, ^aif^chi ; miJ^rdz, 
Scold, (n.) randi -ing, a, 

jhirki ; gdli, V. -d. ; 

Scorpion, bichchhu. 

Scoundrel. See * Rascal;' 
Scrape, (rasp,) ragarna, (e.g. 

off rind,) chhilna ; chhil-d. 
Scratch, (n.) khardsh. (v.) 

Scream, (n.) chilldhat V. 

chilldna ; chtkhna, 
Screen, par dak; tatti;jhdmp, * 

V. "iagd'd,; {?ig.) bachdna; 

pandh'd, ruposh rakhna. 
Screw, iskru, (E.); peck ; 

marori, V. ~d. 
^cxM^\^^ pas-o-pesh ; waswds; 

shakk, V. -k, he overcame 

my scruples, us-ne rnera 

paS'O-pesh dabdya. 
Scrutinize. See * Examine.' 
Scullion, mashdlchL 
Scum, kaf. V. -le-jdna. 
Sea, samundar; darya; kdla 

pdnL (m). 
Seal, tnuhr ; chhdp, V. 

-lagdd, -ed, makhtum, 

-ing-wax, Idkh, a stick of 

-ing- wax, Idkh ki batti. 
Seam, dokht ;jor. 
Search, iaidsh; khoj; dhurtdh; 

just-o-ju, (f.). V. -k, ; 

taldshna ; khojna ; dhiin- 

dhna, -er, with 'y^.' 

* This is generally moveable ; put on and taken off, like shop-shutters. 


Season, mausam. Seepage 80. 
-ing, masdiah, V. -d. 

Seat, (of body,) dsan; chiUar, 
(for sitting on,) dsan; 
baithak^ (ty, chauki; kursu 
to have a good - on a 
horse, dsan mdma, (v.) 
bithdna or baiihdna. 

Second, (number,) dusra ; 
sdni ; doyum, (time,) iah- 
zah, (v.) madad'd.; idnat-d. 
-ly, doyum ; dusra yih 
haiy &c. 

Secret, (n.) bhed ; rdz^ (m.). 
-crecy, rdz-ddri. (?i.)posht' 
dah ; chhipa ; ghd^ib, -e, 
chhipdna. -ly, chhip-ke. 

Section, fasl; dafa; jumlah. 

Secure. Ste * Safe.' 

Sedition. See * Revolt.' 

See, dekhna; nazar-k,; idkna, 
to be able to -, sujhna. 
(eye-sight,) sujh^ (f.). -ing, 
nazar-k, (v.n.) -ing that, 
chundnchi ; ch{ir}kih. 

Seed, (n.) biya ; bij, -h'ng, 
chdra ; bihan. -plot, bihan 
ka iakhlah, -time, bone ke 
din, -pearl, rez-i-vioti. 

Seek. See 'Search.' 

Seem. See * Like.' it seem?, 
maaliim hota hat, -ingly, 
dekhne mei}. 
Seize, pakaxna;pakar-Iejdna; 
girift^ ox giriftdr-k, (confis- 
cate,) zabt'k, -ure, pakar^ 
(f.); zabti, (by illness,) 
dmad, (f.). 
Seldom, kam ; thore wakt. 
Select. ^^<f*Choose.' 'Extract.* 
Self. See page 30. -conceit, 
khud'Pasandi, -defence, 
hifdzat'ikhud, -denial, 
nisdr, -tVidtnt^khud-zdhir^ 
-mXtrtstikkud-gharazi, (f.). 
-ish, khud-gharz, -ishly, 
khud-gharzi-se, -murder, 
khud-kushi,-\i''^^ sar-kashi. 
Sell, bechna ; farokht-k, to 
be sold, bikna, -er, bd^i ; 
bechwaiya ; bechne-wdia / 
as last part in compos :... 
farosh, buying and -incj, 
kharld-farokht, ^ 
Semi, nisf ; nim ; adh ; ddh. 
Send, bhejna ; (goods, &c.), 
chdldn, or rawdnah-k, -for, 
buldna ; talab-k. 
Sense. See * Intelligence,* 
* Meaning.' 

* From the Persian, * kharidaii^' * to buy,* and *farokhian,' * to i-ell.* 

hindi5stXni as it ought to be spoken. 311 

Sentence. See * Decision.' 
-of book, Scc^jumiab, 

Sentinel,/<ij-^<i«; pahre-wdla. 

Separation, judd^i; mufdra- 
iat. A. juda ; aiag ; aid- 
hidah ; mutafarra^, V. 
karna with the adjs. -ly, 
juda-juda ; alag-aiag ; ek- 
ek, (by kinds,) jinswdra. 

Sergeant, dafa-ddr;jama-ddr; 
sdrjan sdhib (half E.). 

Serious, wazani; bhdru (as 
injury,) shadid, (of dispo- 
sition,) sanjidah, -ness, 

Sermon, waz. 

Serpent, sdmp ; ndg. 

Servant, naukar ; chdkar ; 
khidmat-gdr; muldzim, the 
-s, naukar log. Seepage 35. 
V. 7iaukari^ or khidviat-k, 
-w \ce3ib\e, kdm ka ; mufid. 

Set, (v.) See * Place.' one's set, 
barddari'} ham-zdt; taraf- 
ddrdn ; dostdn. 

Settle, (in a place,) basdna ; 
btid'O-bdsh-k, (a dispute,) 
iai-k.; mita-d, (an account, ) 
add'k, (in life,) sar-khud-k, 
-ment, band-o-bast. -r, 

Several, baaze; chand; ko^i ek. 
-ly, ek-ek ; juda-juda. 

Severe, sakht, -rity, sakhti. 

Sew, sina;sildj-k, -mg^sild^u 

Shade, sdyah, \aimp-,/dniis. 
V. -d. -dy, idyaddr. 

Shadow, aks ; sdya. See 
' Shelter.' 

Shake, {trans.) hildna;hild-d, 
{intr,) hilna, N. hild^o. 
(tremble,) kdmpna, 

Shallow,(a )uthla,{n.) uthldj. 

Shame, sharm, (f.) / shartn-^ 
indagi ; Idj, ( f. ) ; hay a, (f. ). 
to feel -, lajdna, to put 
to -, lajwdna. -faced, 
sharm-ru. -ed, sharm-sdr, 
-ful, mayiib, -fully, sharm- 
se. (badly,) bahut khardb 
iaur se. -less, -lessly, b 

Shape, (n.) shakl^ (f.) ; daul; 
stirat. (v.) bandna, -less, 
be-daul, -ly, khtib-stirat ; 

Share, (v.) bdi}tna ; iaJ^slm- 
k, ; hissah-d, (n.) hissah 
haJ^J^ ; ikismat, -r, hissa- 
ddr ; sharik ; bhdgi. 

Sharp, tez, (v. -k,). (in point,) 
nokila, -ness, tezt\ 

*From the Persian ' baidiar,' ' a brother.' 


Shave, hajdmat-k. ; miitfdna. 
-n, mundla, ^-mg^chfUian; 

Shawl, shdL 

She, j^/A / wuh. Set page 30. 

Sheep, a, bherL sheep, bheri^- 
dn, a flock of -, bhexioff' 
kagallah, -fold, bhe^i-sdla, 
shepherd, bhefi-wdla. 

Sheet, chddar^ (f.). -of paper, 
kdghf^z ka iakhiah. 

Shell, chhilka. V. -, --utdr^. 

Shelter, (n.) pandh^ (f.) ; dr ; 

sdyah. V. -d. 
Sheriff, ndzir ; sherif sdhib. 

(half K). 
Shield, (n.) dhdi, (f.) ; sipar. 

V. See • Protect' 
Shine, chamakna; raushan-h, 
Sh\p Jahdz.V-mei!^ charhna^ 

or charhdna. -master, 

sdhib'i-. wreck, -shikanL 
Shirt, kO'Viis, (f.). 
Shock. See * Blow.' (offend,) 

chirhdna, -ing, -ingly, 

MA«/ khardb. 
Shoe, y«//. horse -, «^/. 

-msLkerjjuti'Wd/a ; mochu 

-ing a horse, vdl-bandu 

V. -^. See page 90. 
Shoot, r>^«/a«^i, with the name 

of the weapon before it, as, 

bandiik^ (f.) a gun, //r, (m.) 
an arrow, to - rubbish, 
kuf^a phet^knoy or ddina, 
to- as plants, upajna. 

Shop, diukduy (f.). -keeper, 
-^<ir, -keeping, ^ddri, 

^hoTty kindrah ; pdr. 

Short, ^<7Afii, chhota.^, koidhi; 

chhotdyi. ill -, al-J^issah ; 

algharaz, -en, -^. -ly, 

(soon,) M^f/ der ke baad ; 

jald, put -ly, mukhtasar. 

Shot, (for gun,) chharra. 

gun-, rA^/. 

Shoulder, kdttdha. 

Shout, (n.) shor ; baland 
dwdz. (v.) pukdrna ; chil-- 
Idna ; lalkdrna. 

Show, (n.) tamdsha, (v.) 
dikhldna ; dikhld-d. ; bat- 
Idna ; baild-d, ; zdhir-k. 

Shower, jhari ; barkha. 

Shrimps, chif^gxi. 

Shrine, dargdh. 

Shroud, kafan, V. -lagd-d^ 

Shun, kisi se alag-rahna. 

Shut, (a.) band; lagd hu^a. 
V. band-k, ; lagd-d, -ter, 
(Venetian,) jhilmili ; (of 
bamboo,) jhdmp ; tatti ; 
(of wood,) kapdt. 

Sick, bimdr ; rogi ; mariz. 

hindi3stXni as it ought to be spoken. 


V. "hona, -ness, himdri ; 

rog. -ly, sust ; kdhil or 

kdhilah ; kam-zor. 
Sickle, hasu a, or haswa. 
Side, taraf, (f.) ; baghai, (f.); 

pdnjar ; jdnib ; bdzu, (e.g. 

of a river,) kindrah, this-, 

is taraf, that -, us taraf ; 

pdr. on all -s, chdrofp 

taraf, to - with, taraf-ddr 

hona ; taraf-kashi-k, to - 

against, dusri taraf Una ; 

mukhtalif hona. 
Sieve, ghirbdl^ (f.) ; chalni, 

to pass through a-, (trans,) 

"Sigh, {v\,)dh^(i,),V ,-khaii^ch' 

Sight, nazar, (f.) ; basdrat ; 

stijh, (spectacle,) tamdsha, 
"Sign, (n.) (indication,) /V/4i- 

ra^. (signal,) nishdn, V. 

Signature, saMh ; dast-khatt, 

V. -^./ -i 
Signify. See *Mean.' 
'Silence, khdmoshi, V. -rakh- 

na ; chup rahna. A, chup ; 

chup-chdp ; khdmosh ; (for 

want of having any reply,) 

Id-jawdb, Interj. chup ! 

chup raho J Adv. chup-ke. 
Silk, resham, -en, -ka ; -/. 
Silly, sddah ; murakh, N. 

sddagi ; murakh-pan, a 

-fellow, sddah iauh, 
Silver, r^pa; chdrj^di, A. -ka. 
Simple, (single,) khdli,{e2Lsy,) 

sahl ; salis, (plain,) sddah, 

(in mind,) gharib : rdst ; 

nek, -plicity, ^jo ' with 

these adjs. -ply, sirf ; 

khdli ; fa^at. 
Sin, pdp ; gundh. A., also 

a -ner, gundh-gdr, V. -k. 
Since, {i\me.) J ab-se^,;^ 

se, ' (cause,) chiu^-kihS . . . is- 

Sincere, rdst ; nek ; sach, 

-cerity. rdsti ; neki ; 

sachd^i. -ly, with se. 
Sinew, nas^ (f.). 
Single, singular, ek ; akela; 

tanha, -Iv, ekek. 
Sink, (trans,) dubd-d, (intr,) 

Sir, miydt} ; sdhib ; khudd- 

Sister, bahin, -in-law, (a 

man's wife's sister,) sdii. 

* In the first clause. * In the second clause. Seepage 104.^ 

314 hindiJstIni as it ought to be spoken. 

(a man's brother's wife,) 
bhojdj, (a woman's hus- 
band's sister,) nanad ; na- 
nand (a woman's brother's 
wife,) bhdwaj. 

Sit, baithna. 

Size, ^adar, (f.) ; mi^ddr. 

Skill, sAu,t/r ; hunar ; ilm ; 
wu^iif, -ful, hunar-mani ; 
mdhir, -fully, by se. 

Skirt, ddman. 

Skull, khopri ; kdsah-e-sar. 

Sky, dsmdn, -blue, -rang. 

Slab, chatdriy (f.) ; siL 

Slack, (/-^//<c7,( fig.) xwj// narm, 
N. dhil ; susti ; narmi. 

Slander, bad-ndmi; gdli ; tuh- 
mat, V. -d, -ous, bad- 
ndm^ &'c. kibdt, -er, with 
jo, -ously, with se. 

Slap, (n.) tamdchah. V. -d. 

Slaughter, ^atl ; khuij.-rezi, 
(V. -k.) of animals, zabh ; 
haldl. V. -^.-er,(butcher,) 
kassdb, -house, kassdb- 

Slave, chera ; laui^da ; ban- 
dah ; ghuldm, -ery,^ ban- 
dagi; ghuldmi. 

Sleep, nind^ (f.) ; khwdb, 

V. -k, sleepy, ninddsa. I 

am very sleepy, nindkarne- 

ki khwdhish hat. 
Sleeve, dstin. 
Slender. See Thin.' 
Slice, salaiSy (E.) ; phdi^k ; 

kdsh, V. idrdshna ; kdtna. 
Slip, (v.) khisakna, (n.)- 

(cover,) ghildf, (mistake,) 

bMil ; chuk, V. -^. 
Slipper, slipat^ or silpat (E.) ; 

Slope, (n.) dhdlu, V. {trans. y 

-k, -ing, dhdl. to be -, 

Slow, iez nahirj, ; dhistah ; 
dhima, -ness, dhistagi, -ly. 

dhiste ; dhiste-dhisie. 
Sly, mutafanni ; makkdr, 

-ness, hirfat. Adv. with se^ 
Small, chhota ; khurd, -ness, 

-td^i ; khurdi, -^ox^ sitla; 

Smell, bu^ (f.) ; su^gh^ (f.). 

sweet-, khush-bu^ a nasty-,. 

bad-bu, sense of -, skdm- 

mah. (v.) {trans.) suj^ghna, 

{tntr,) bU'd.; bu ka hona. 

* All slavery, in India is domestic slavery ; to which our harsh words, 
* slave* .and ^slavery' are hardly applicable. 

hindi5stAni as it ought to be spoken. 


Smile, (n.) tabassum V. -k. 
Smith, (iron,) lohdr, (gold, 

&c ,) sondr ; zar-gar. 
Smoke, (n.) dhu,dt?. V. {intr,) 
-nikaina, to-tobacco, &c., 
iambdku, &^c, pina. 
Smooth, chikna; samdn ; bard- 
bar; musattak,Y .-k. -ness, 
chiknd^i; bardbari. 
Snaffle, (bridle,) kazai. 
Snake, sdmp ; ndg ; mdr, 
(Persian.) there are many 
kinds ; of which the worst 
are ih&guhmanah, cobra-di 
capello, and the ^ karaiiJ 
which has no English name 
known to the Author. -of 
a * hiikkahJ i.e. native 

• • • / 

(smoking) pipe, naichah. 
Snare, phdt}da ; ddm, V. 

phdndna ; phd7}de niei} pa- 

Sneeze, (n.) chhifjk. V. -na. 
Snipe, chdha. 
Snoring, (n.), kharrdia, V. 

-mdrna ; ndk kharkhard- 
na, or bajdna. 
Snow, barf. V. -girti hat. 
Snuff, sutfgni, V. -khaii^chna. 
So, (therefore,) pas, (man- 
ner,) aisa ; jaisa • . . iaisa, 
(page IC4); ts-tarah. 

(degree,) is iadar ; Una ; 

eta, so-so, aisa-waisa, Mr. 

So-and So, fuldnah ; fuld- 

nah ddmu it may be ~, 

wuh hO'Sakta hat ; so 

Sosiky (trans.) b/iii!^ga'k. (Jnir.) 

sokna. -ing, (very wet,) 

khub bhi^ga. 
Soap, sdbtin. V. -lagdna. 
Sob, thunuk, (f.). V. -na. -k. 
Sober, parhez-gdr. -briety, 

parhez, (f.). 
Sock, mozah ; sdk^ (E. ). 
Socket, ...dduy (page 41.) > 

khdnah ; ghar. 
Sofa, suffah ; kauch, (E.). 
Soft, narm ; muld^im. N. -/. 

-ly, dhime-dhime ; dhisie. 
Soldier, sipdhi, native -s, 

sipdhi^dn. European ditto, 

gore log. a regiment of -s, 

pal tan ^ (f.). 
Sole. See * Alone.' 
Solemn, sanjidah. -ity, -jida- 

Solid,(not liquid,) munjamid. 

(firm,) sakht ; ntazbiit ; 

/kd,im ; ^ pukhtah. -ity, 

sakhti ; mazbuti; pukhtagi. 
Solitary. See * Alone.' -tude, 

tanhdyi ; khalwat. 

3l6 HIND!}stJLnI as it ought to be SPOKEff. 

Some, (of things,) ; kuehh ; 
kuchh'kuchh; tho^a ;zarrah' 
sa, (of persons,) koj. -one 
or other,^^,/-«fl^-^^,/.-more, 
aur kuchh, -times, baaze 
wa^t; kabhi'kabhu -where, 

Son, beta ; larka ; bachcka ; 
pisar, (p.). -in-law, ddmdd. 

Song, ^L V. gdna ; gun- 

Soon, Jaid; ab ; thoti der ke 
baad, as - as, jab.,Jab ; 
ie-hi, (See page i4)-er, 
paihle ; us ke dge, no sooner 
...than... nahin pdya, kik. 
e.g. his order no sooner 
reached me, than I carried 
it out, us-ka hukm merepds 
pahui^chne nahifi pdya^ kih 
maii^-ne usko taamil kiya. 

Soreness, dard^ (m.). to be 
sore. -k. a-, ghd^o; zakhm; 
ndsur ; phaphola. 

Sorrow, afsos ; ghamm; ranj\ 
A. afsurdah ; dzurdah; 
ghamgifi ; ranjidah, to be 
-ful, afsos, ^'c, khdna ; 
adjs. and hona, sorry, 
pashemdn. I am very sorry 
I am late, afsos hai kih 
mai?}-ne der ki hai, (use- 

less,) nd-kdra ; nd-chiz ; 

Sort. See 'Kind.' i^ism, V. 
thik-k, ; iartib'k,; sudhdr- 
na ; sab chizoij. ko apni 
jaghotj. meij, rakhna. 

Soul, riih, (f.) ; nafs ;jdn;jL 

with heart and -, dH'O- 

Sound, (n.) sabd ;d7vdz, (f.) ; 
shor ; shor-shdr ; hab-gab ; 
hdoii-ghdo^, (of fire-arms,) 
dhdu^'dhih}, V. -^. / pu- 
kdrna ; chilldna, (any in- 
strument,) bajdna, {intr.) 
sabd, dr'c, d, ; bajna, -in 
health, tan-durust to be 
dxWOytan-dzirust hona.-ne'^s 
of health, tan-durusti, -in 
quality, mazbut ; pukhtah; 
beaib ; viustahkam, -ness 
of ditto, mazbuti; pukhia- 
gi. -as a business, /a/^^tf / 
thik ; sab achchha. a- e.g. 
thrashing, khub saza (dena, 

Soup, shorbah, corruptly, 

Sour, khdtta ; tursh, N. tur- 
shi, to turn -, klmtta ho- 

South, dakhan ^jamib 


Sow, (n.) stijdri. 

Sow, (v.) Ifona; rompna, -ing, 

Space, (time,) arsah ; muddat 

(place,) jagah^ (f.) ; fdsiiah, 

-cious, khuia ; fardk/i. 
Spade, kuddli ; bel ; belchah. 
Span, (of hand,) bdlisht ; 

wajab. (arch,) mikrdb. 
Spare. See 'Thin' (excess,) 

barhti ; fdliu. (v.) (e. g. 

life,) bachdna, (give,) de-d, 

-time, fursai, a -liver, 

parheZ'gdr, N.-/. 
Sparrow, ghauriya. 
Speak, bolna; kahna;bhdkhna. 

(converse,) bdt-chit, ox gujU 

a-gU'k, (chatter,) bakna ; 

bak-bak-k, (incoherently,) 

bukhldna. See * Language.' 
Spear, ballam ; barchhi, V. 

Special, khdss; makhsus. -ly, 

Spectacle, tamdsha, -tator, 

Spectacles, chashmah. 
Speech. See * Language. 'a 

-, iai^rir^ (f.) ; bahs^ (f.). 

-less, bezdbdn ; Id-jawdb, 

Speed, (n.) jaldi ; shi/db^ or 

shiidbi; daur, V. daitrdna ; 

chaldna. -ily, jaldi ^ &^c^ 

Seepage 54. 
Spend, kharj^ or kharch-k. 

(lavishly),?/f^-^.; bar-bdd-k, 

-thrift, faziil'khar;\ N. 

(waste), -/. -(time,) sarf-k. 
Spice, masdlah, hot- gartn-. 
Spider, maha ; makri. 
Spill, gtrd'd. 
S^xn^ kdtna ; slii-kdtna, -ning 

wheel, charkh, 
Spinage, isfdndj ; sdg. 
Spine, (body,) rir^y ((.), 

(plants,) kdt^ta. 
Spirit, niih^ (f) -of God,. 

ruhu'l-ldhy (breath,) dam, 

(ghost,) bhut, (temper J ) 

mizdj, (manliness,) mar- 

ddnagi, (liquor,) araJji. 

(juice,) ras ; dudh, -less, 

be-dil ; bejigar^ 
Spit, (for cooking,) sikh^ (f.). 

V. -lagdna. 
Spit, (v.) ihukna, N. thuh 

-toon, pik-ddn ; ugdl-ddn. 
Spite, kinah ; zidd^ (f.). -ful, 

kina-wdr; ziddi. Adv. with 


* According to Muhammad, Jesus Christ. 


Spleen, /////. (disease of,) -ka 

Splendour, shaukat ; jila^ (f.); 

jilwat; shdn^ (f.); raushani, 

-did, ali-shdn ; mujalla ; 

umdah ; sar-fardz. 
Spoil, kkardd, or be-kdr-k ; 

bigdf'd, spoilt, khardb ; 

kuchh kdm ka nahifj., the-s 

(e.g. of war.) iut-pdt; ghani- 


Sponge, isfanj. -gy, phulka, 

S^on^chammach; ckamchah. 

Sport. See *Play.' (hunting, 
&c.,) shikdr. -sman, also 
adj., 'relating to-,' shikdri, 
-ive, khush'taba ; shokK 

Spot, {%\2Sxi,)ddgh, (place,) 
jagah^ {(,) ] sar-zamin^ (f.). 
-ted, ddghiy V. ddghi-k. 

Sprain, (n.) maror; murak. 
V. maroxna^ murakna. 

Spread, (e.g. a carpet,) bich- 
hdna; bicMid-d, (e.g. dis- 
ease,) {trans, ^ phaildna, 
(intr.) phailna. 

Spring, (season,) bahdr^ (f.); 
basani ; rabu (of water,) 
chashmah-e-db. (leap,) kud^ 
(f.) ; uchhdl^ (f.); chhaldng. 

(f.) V. kMna ; jast-k, ; 

uchhalna ; chJialdngna, to 

-at, lapakna. 

Sprinkle, chhitna ; chhit-k. 

Spur, kdijta^ V. -^., or mdrna. 

Spy, (n.) jdsHs^ his work, 
jdsusi, -glass, dur-bin^ to 

spy, dekhna;tdkna, ( furtive- 
ly, )y^J?^«^ ;jhdi}k Una, 

Square, (n.) chauk, (^) chau- 
kona; chau-khut^ta; chauras. 

Squeeze, dabdna; dabd-d. 

Squirrel, giiehri. 

Stable, (n.) istabal. See 
• Firm,' &c. 

Stack, tdl ; dher, V. -k 

Staff, asa; lak^L (of office,) 

Stag, bdrah'Singa, 

Stage, (e.g. of a theatre, )/tf»/i- 
sha-gdh. (journey,) manzii^ 
(f.). (platform,) machdn ; 
takhiah, -coach, ddk-gdfi. 

Stain. See *Spot.' 

Stair, -case, sirAi, 

Stall, tkdn. (public,) a^gafa. 

Stammer, hakla, V. -^ / 

Stamp, muhary (f.) / ckhdp, 
V. --lagd-d. 

* Means also a prisoner who has been branded, or otherwise marked ; 
as by his name being entered in the list of ex-convicts. 

hindijStani as it ought to be spoken. 319 

Stand, (n.) pdyah ; ghora ;, . . 
ddn, {page^^i.)-\ngy kha^a, 
(v.) khara-hona ; khara 
rahna, -up, uthna; uth-ke 
khara honay &*€, -down, 
niche jdna; utarna,-m the 
way, sdmne hona.-out of 
the way, hat-j'dna. -good, 
^dyim rahna, of long 
-ing, bahut roz ka. See 

Star, idra ; sitdrah. 

Starch, kalap ; kdi^ju 

Stare, gh^rna; dekhte rahna, 
N. ghur. 

Start, (n.) (sudden move- 
ment,) chau^k. V. chaw^k- 

. «rt, e.g.a carriage, chaldna, 
for a place, rawdnah hona, 
to startle, chaui}kdna,%\.zx\.' 
ling, ta^ajjub ka ; ajib, 

-Starve, bhMh se mama. 

State, See * Government. ' 
(condition,))ii// hdldt ; asl 
hdL (dignity,) iadar^ (f.).; 
martabah; shdn, (f.) ; sar- 
bolna; samjhdna; izhdr-k, 
-in writing, ^alam-band- 
karke baydn-k.-ment, bdt; 
baydn ; izhdr ; arZy (f.) ; 
guzdrisk; iltimdSy (f.).- in 

writing, siirat-hdi ; suwdl; 

darkhwdst; ripot^ (E.>. 
Station, chauki ; jagah^ (f.). 

(railway,) isteshan, (E.). 

(v.) rakhna ; khara-k, 

muta,aiyan-k,; taindi-k, 
^tzyyrahna;thaharna; sabr-k. 
Steak, ishtek, (E). 
Steal, chori-k, ; chordna ; 

Steam, dhUydi^.-hoTiXydhUyd^' 

hash ; dg-bot, (half E.). 
Stee], /au/ad ; loha. 
Stem, (family,) asl ; nasi ; 

bunyddy (f.), -of tree, 

Step, J^adam; deg, Y, -rakhna. 

(in relationship) sautela,,. 

e.g. sauteli-ma. 
Stew, istew. (E.). V.-^. 
Steward, nd^ib ; gumdshta ; 

Stick, lakri ; (walking,) asa, 

(v.) (e.g. bone in throat,) 

afak-jdna, (together,) sat- 
jdna, stuck, sat-gaya; sdtd- 

hUya,{trans,);otna; lagd-d,; 

Still, (a.) chup ; chup-chdp ; 

be-harakat (adv.) iau-bhi ; 

td'ham ; par. 
Sting, dank, Y.-mdrna* 


Stir, {trans, ) hild-d, {intr.) 

hilna, (n.) ha^bafi; khalal. 
Stirrup, rikdb^ (f). -leather, 

rikdb'dawdl^ (f.). 
Stitch, (v.) sina ; tdf}kna ; 

tdt^k-d, (ji,)tdT}kX^.)\ td^ka. 
Stocking, mozah ; fd-e-idbah. 
Stomach, midah^ or medah. 
Sione,patt/iar; sang, of stone, 

with ^ka,* -ny, pathrila, 

-ny hearted, sang-diL 
Stool, (foot, )pd-o-ddn; mo^ha ; 

ishtiU^ (E.) night-,^<?w^^,^ 

Stoop, jhukna ; jhuk-jdna. 
Stop, {intr,) khara rahna ; 

atakna. {trans,) rokna ; 

thdmna ; atkd-d. -page, 

rok ; atkd^o ; atak. 
Store, dukdn^ (f.) ; jins sab ; 

ambdr ; dher, - house, 

dtikdn^ (f.) ; gola, stores, 

e.g. for a journey, sar-an- 

jdm ; sdmdn ; chiz sab; 

sab chiz. 
Stork, dhanes; bogla,^ 
Storm, tufdn ; dndhi. -y, 


Story. See'lL2\Q: 

Slove, (moveable,) at^gethi. 

(fixed,) chtiiha, (oven,) 

Stout, mota ; mazbut. N.-/. 
Straight, sidha ; sojha. N. -/*. 
Strain. See * Pull.' (liquids,) 

chhdnna, a-er, chhdnna. 
Strange, (unfamiliar,) be-gd- 

nah ; ghair, (wonderful,) 

a jib ; ojtibah, -ness, ajna- 

biyat, a -ger, ghair ddmi ; 

be-gdnah ddmi; bi-desiddmi. 
Strap, tasmah; dawdl, (f.). 
Stratagem, hiiah ; fared ; 

Straw, bichdli ; pOydi ; bhUsa, 
Stream, darya ; sota, V. 

Street. See *Road,' istrit,{lSs.). 
Strength, zor ; td^iat. (of 

liquors,) tundi ; karwd,i, 

V. mazbut-k. ; zor-d. 
Strict See * Severe.' 
Strike, thokar-d. ; zarb^, ; 

mdrna, -e.g. tents, gird-d ; 

kholna, - against •••par 


* In India, this word — * commode ' — must never be used in any other 
sense. The accent is on the last syllable. 

■ Names of birds are mostly vague ; as identity between many English 
and many Indian birds is wanting. 


String, sutli; (fori, shot-, f!faA. 

Strive. See * Endeavour.* 

Stroke, (blow.) cAof ; zarb ; 
tJwkar, ({.) y thoj}k, -of 
pen, &c., ddgh ; nishdn. 

Strong, zabar-dast ; zor- 
dwar ; zor ka; mazbtiL (as 
liquor.) ka^va ; kawu 

Stubborn, sar-kash ; gar dan- 
kash. N. -/. Adv. -i se. 

Stud, (shirt,) istad^ (E.). 

Study, parhna ; taalim Una, 
-dent, shdgird. -dious, 

Stupid, kund ; kundzihn ; 
ndddn ; be-umkuf ; nd^is- 
ulaf^L -ity, himdJ^ai ; be- 
wnJ^ufi, a - fellow, be- 
wuJ^iif ddmi ; a^l ka puila. 

Subdue, dabdna ; kisi par 
ghdlib hona; kdbu viei} Idna, 
-e<i. (conquered,) maghhlib, 
(vcit^ky) gharib ; narm, -er, 

Subject, (underling,) tdbi ; 
idbiddr ; fat mdtj,-barddr ; 
hukm-barddr; asdmi ; ra,- 
iyat A. tdbi, (v.) See 
* Subdue,' he is subject to 
fever, us-ko buk/idr aksar 
dta hai, -, e. g. of a lecture, 

1., H 

Submit to, indnna ; hukm 
sunna ; fdbi-hona. (e.g. 
for orders,) pesh-k ; sdmne 
rakkna. -mission, tdbi- 
ddri ; hukm-barddri ; zer- 

Subscribe. See *Sign.'-ption, 
(to a charity ^c,,)cliandah. 

Subsistence, (means of liv- 
ing,) roz-gdr ; khdna-pina ; 
khurdk-poshdk, (f.) ; par- 
wasti ; peshah ; dhanda. 
-allowance, kJiHrdki. -ing, 
zindah ; zindagi metj ; hai. 

Substance. See * Thing.' (es- 
sence,) Mr, (abstract,) 
khuldsah : nmkhtasar hdl : 
maztmin, ^tial, mazbut ; 

Substitute, (n.) ewazi; J^d^im- 
ma^dm, V. -k, ; -rakhna ; 

Suburb, shahar ka ddman. 

Successful, kdm-ydb, N, -/', 
V. -hona. to succeed a 
person, pkhhe dna; ^ 
mal^dm hona, -cession, 
^d^im-maJ^dmi, -fully, 

barakat'Se ; nek-bakhti-se, 
-ively, ek par eh; dge- 
pkhhe ; tdba^-tof^. 

Such, aisa - a one, fu/dnah, 



Suck, chusna ; kfiaifjchna ; 

pi-lena, 3l -ing babe, dtidk 

ka bachchah. 
Sudden, -ly, achdnak; ndgdh. 

N. ndgahdnL 
Sue, (in Court,) mu^adda- 

mahk, (ask,) mdt^:>na ; 

Suffer. See * Allow/ < endure,) 

barddsht-k, (pain, or other 

feeling,) . ..uthdna ; ... khd' 

na. -ing. See * Pain,' &c. 
Sufficient, bus ; kdfi. W.-hona. 

N. kifdyat. -ly, bas ; 

zarurat ke mu^dfii. 
Sug2iT, cktni ; skakar ; mtsri. 

(brown,) khdnd. -candy, 

misru -cane, tikh^ (f.) ; 

Suggestion, saldh, (f.) ; ishd- 

rah; tadbir, (f). V. -//.; 

Suicide, khud-kushi. V. -k. 
Suit, (n.) (dress.) jora. (in 

Court,) mu^addamah. (v.) 

(^i^z.'&t^ pasand-hona. (fit,) 

milna ; achchha baithna. 

(trans.) mild-d. -able, 
pasand; achchha ; mu^dfij^. 

Sulphur, gandhak. 

Sum. See * Total.' -of money 
zar ; mablagh. (v ) jorna ; 

Summer, garmi ka mausam. 
Seepage 80. 

Suaimon, buldna ; talab-k. 
a -s of court, talabi-par- 
wdnah ; samans, (E.). 

Sun, suraj ;sirdj ; khurshid ; 
dfidb. -heat, dhup, (f.). to 
bask in the -, dhiHip khdna, 
-shine, dhup, (f.) ; ghdm. 
-rise, tului'dfidb. - set, 
ghurubidftdb, -ny, dhUp 
ka ; ghdmi, -day, ttwdr ; 
rabi'bdr ; yak-shambah. 

Superintendent, sar-ba-rdh- 
kdr ; sarddr, -dence, sar- 
ba-rdh-kdri ; sarddri. V. 
sar-ba-rdh kdr, df*c., hona ; 
sar-ba-rdh-kdri, CT'c-k.^ 

Superior,*fdr^ se acfichha^bafa^ 
(or as the matter of 
* superiority ' may be.) 

^ Supeiintendents are named according to their work : e.g. th&na- 
ddty • of a police station, ndzir^ a - of process-serving, &c. muhdfiz^ a 
- of records, and so on ai infinitum, 

* The English word * afsa ' (officer), is much used to mean one's 
immediate 'superior.' 




SvippeTjrd/'ka-Mdna;sapar{E,) Sweat, pasina. he is sweating, 


Supply, dena ; hdzir-kar-d, ; us-se pasina girta hai^ or 

pahuiichd-d, N. jo kdfi 
hoga ; avibdr ; dher. 
Support, (n.) tekni ; dsra. 
V. -d. to - a person, par- 
wasii'k, ; khdna-pina-d. 

nikalla kar. 
Sweep, (man,) mihtar} fcm. 
viihtrdni. (v.) jhdrna ; 
jhdrd. -away, jhdr-ke 
lejdna, -ings, kurkuf. 

Su\>po%\\\OT\,khaydl;atkal,Y ,-k. Sweet, mitha; shiritj,; khush; 
Sure, (certain, )j'tf^////. to be-, pasandidah. -hesirty pydra. 

yakin jdnna, N -/. * to be 
sure !' surely ! be shakk ; 
albattah ; chdhiye kih. 

Surface, ru, (f.). 

SMVgton^jarrdh; tabib'i'jarh. 

Surpass. See * Excel/ 

Surround, gher-lena. 

Survey. See *View.' 'Mea- 
sure.' - or, jarib-kash. 

Suspect, kisi par shakk rakh- 
fta-ed, mushtabah; shakk 
ki bdt -cion, shakk ; 
shubhah ; wahm. 

Sustain. See * Support.' -e.g. 
losses, uthdna. 

Swallow, (bird,) abdbiL (v.) 
nigalna ; ghHt^ina, 

Swamp, daldaly (f.). -y, -/. 

Swan, rdj-hdt^s. 

Swear, (use bad language,) 
gdii-d. (e.g. iu Court,) 
fsasam khdna, or /ena. 

fem. -/. -meats, mithd^u 

-ness, shirini ; viithd^i. 

-ly, dil-khushi'Se. 
Swell, stijna ; phulna ; uth- 

jdna, a -ing, waram. 
Swift, tez ; jald, -ness, tezi ; 

jaldL Ay^jaldi ; jaldise ; 

tez ; tezi-se. 
Swim, pairna, -mer, pairdk. 
Swing, {trans,) jhuidna, 

(inir,) f'huina, a-, jhiila, 

-ing, jhula-jhulL 
Ssvoon^be-hoshi, in a -, behosh. 
Sword, talwdry (f.) ; sham- 

sher, (f.). -sman, taiwdr- 

Syllable, lafz kajuz. 
Sympathy, rif^i^at V. kisi 

se - rakhna, A. ham-dard. 
Symptom, nishdn ; aldmat 
Syringe, pichkdri, V. -J. 
System, kdjdah : rasnu 

1 < 

Mihlar ' is really a native title of distinction. 

324 hindiSstAni as it ought to be spoken. 


Table, w^s, (f.). -cloth, piez 
ki chddar^ (f.) ; dastar- 
khwdn, to lay the -, mez 
lagd-d, or taiydr-k, to re- 
move things from the -, 
chiz sab le-jdna. 

Tail, dum, (f.). 

Tailor, darzu 

Take, lena, -away, le-jdna, 
-place, hona, (accept,) 
Una,; ^abul-k,^ pasand-k, 
-captive, pakarle-jdna ; 
gtriftdr-k, -effect, iagna ; 
chalna, -on hire, kirdye- 
Una, -flight, bhdg-jdna ; 
ur-jdna. -the hand of, /^^/^ 
pakarna. -heed, khabar- 
ddr hona. -off, (e.g. 
clothes,) utdrna. -down, 
nkhe-ldna, (in writing,) 
J^alam-band'k, -up, uthd- 
Una, -courage, himmat 
rakhna. -the field, kket 
pakarna. - in good part, 
bhalajdnna, -in bad part, 
bura mdnna, -the side of. 

taraf-ddr hona, -out, (ex- 
tract,) nikdlna. 

Talc, abrak. 

Tale, kissah ; hikdyat ; na^l, 
(f. ) \kahdni; bdt;khabar, (f ). 

Talk, bdt'Chit ; guft-o-f»u, (f); 
bdt. V. -k. : bolna; kahna; 
bakna. to - to one's self, 
dp se bolna. 

Tall, lamba ; dirgh. -ness, 
iaffibdj. See *High.' 

Tame, gharib. N. -/. V. ~-k,; 
dabdna ; hildna, 

Tank,(cistern,) hauz. (pond,^) 
tdldb, {{.) ] tald.o ; pokhra. 

Tap, thap-thapdna, a -ping, 
thappa ; thappt\ which 
mean also a thing for tap- 
ping with, e.g. a mallet, 
bat, &*c. 

Tape, fitah ; niwdr, 

Tsiper\ng,gd'0'dum. V. -/lona. 

Tar, ^ttrdn; al-katra? V. 

Target, dhdl, (f.) ; sipar, 
-practice, chdnd-hndrL 

« In India, artificial ponds are called • tanks ; ' a natural pond, or 
lake, is • tdi: as at ' Nynee Tal.' 

• This is the word most generally used ; but is not to be found in either 
the Persian or the Hindiistdni dictionaries. 

• • The moon ; * the * bull's-eye' being regarded a a full-moon. 



Tariff, 7iirkh-ndmah, 

Task, (lesson,) sabai^. (la- 
bour,) kdm. to take to -, 
ddt,itna ; dhamki-d. 

Tassel, jhabba. 

Taste, (n ) mazah. {^sl,) sali- 
j^ah. sense of -, zd^i^ah, 
(v.) thora khdna ; zdji^ah 
lena: of a pleasant -, jtiaze 
ka ; laziz. -less, be-mazah. 

Tax, viahsul ; tikasj (E.), 
V. -lagdna. 

Tea, chd.Cy (f.). -pot, -pochi, 
-caddy, -</«'//.-kettle, ketliy 
(E.). cup, -ka piydlah, 
-spoon, -ka chatntnach^ or 

Teach, sikhdna ; sikhldna ; 
taalim d. -ing, by v.n. -er, 
usidd ; mu^allim ; guru ; 
iskid-mdstar^ ( E. ). 

Tear, (of eye,) di}su, (rent,) 
chir ; phdk, to shed -s, 
rona, (to rend,) chirna ; 
iorna ; phdrna ; fhdr-d. 

Tease, satdna ; diJkk-k. 

Telescope, diir-bin} 

Tell, kahna;bolna; kjiabar-d.; 
bdt-bolna; baydn-k, (count,) 
ginna ; shumdr-k. 

Temper, mizdj ; kho^ (f.) ; 

Tempest, Uifdn ; d^dhi. A, 

Temple, (M.), ibddat-gdh ; 

masjid, (f.). (H.) ptija- 

kJidnah; thdkur-bdri; math^ 

(Christian,) girja^ or grija. 
Tenant, (of house,) kirdya' 

ddr, (of land,) asdmi ; 

rafyai; kdskt-kdr, the-ry, 

ri^dya ; asdmi-log. 
Tender, narm ; muld^im. See 

' Offer/ 
Tent, khaimah; tambu; dera, 

(servant's,) pdL -pole, 

chob^ -curtains, J^andt, 

-peg, mekh, -pitcher, 

khaldsi, . 
Terrify. See * Frighten.' 
Testament, (Old ) taurdt 

(Neyv,)in/i/. (will,) 7vasiya^' 

ndmah ; wil^ (E.). 
Testimony. See * Evidence.' 
Than, se ; az, (Persian.). 
Thanks, shukr, to thank, -k, 

-ful, -guzdr, (N. -/.) 

(grateful,; ihsdn-mand, 

(N. -/.^ -less, nd'Shukr, 

Adv. with se. 

* Persian ' bina,' ' vision.' 


That, (narration,) kih, (de- 
monstrative.) See page 30. 
-very, woki. -is to say, 

Thatch, (th^) ckhappar, (f.). 
(grass,) ghds, (f.) ; khar. 
V. ghds^ &*c, lagdna. 

Theatre, ndch-ghat; iarndsha- 
khdnah ; na^lkhdnah. 

Thee. See page 29. 

Their, theirs, them, &c. See 
pages 30 and 3 1 . 

Then, (time following,) tab; 
is'ke baad ; baad is-ke, 
(time previous,) tab; us- 
waiit.; us'ke baad, now 
and-, kabhi-kabhi. 

Thence, -forth, (place,) 
wahdi^-se ; us-Jagah-se, 

(time,) baad iske ; us 

There, wahdi^ ; us-jagah 
wf;j?.-abouts, wahii}-kahiij, 
here and- idhar-udhar ; 

Therefore, is-wdste ; pas. 

Thereon, -upon, is-par ; tab. 

Thej^jv^/ we. Seepage 30. 

Thick, mota ; gdrha, N. 
ffiotdj, to go through - 
and thin, dg pdni met} 

Thief, chor ; duzd, theft, 

chori ; sarJ^ah ; duzdi: 
Thigh, jdngh, (f). 
Thin, patla; (texture,) bdrik; 

(e.g. as skin,) kdghazi V. 

patla-k, and hona, -ness. 

Pa t Id J. Ay ^ kam. 
Thing, chiz, (f.) ; shai, one's 

things, chiz sab ; bastah ; 

mdl ; mdl'O-mata, 

Think, sochna ; khaydl-k, ; 
bichdrna, me thinks, mujh- 
ko maalum hota hat. 

Third, tisra ; si yum. 

Thirst, (n.) pyds^ (f.) ; tish- 
nagi, -y, pydsa, V. viujh- 
ko pyds lagi hai ; pydsa 

This, yih. See page 3c. 

Thither, udhar ; 7vahdii ; us 

Thorn, kdfjta ; khdr, -y, 

Thorough, tamdm ; pt'tra, 

-ly, sar-d-sar,-{3ire, sa^ak, 

(f.), guzargdh ; dinm-rdsta. 

Thou, ill. Seepage 29. 

Though, agar-chih ; har- 
chand ; az bas kih, as -, 
jaisa-kih . . . taisa-kih. 

Thought, soch ; fikr^ (f.) ; 
ta^ammul ; andeshah ; 


dhydn. See * Thing.' -ful, 
fikr-mand, (N. -/.) muta,- 
ammil ; andesha-ndk, -less, 
be-fikr ; be-khabar ; be- 
parwdh, N.add *i ' to these 
adjs. adv., nouns and se. 

Thrash, (corn, ) dd^ona ; dhun- 
na ; jhdrna. See * Flog.' 
-ing floor, khaiihdn} 

Thread j sut ; sutli ; tdga ; 
(strong,) dori, needle and-, 
suj tdga, to-a w^^dX^^tdgna, 

Threat, dhamki; tan, V. -d.; 

Throat, gala, or guiu ; haiak. 

Throb, Hs, (f.) V. -mdrna ; 

Through, kebich; mejtp, (means) 
se. (agent,) se ; ki mdrfat. 

Throw, phei}kna ; phet^k-d, ; 
ddlna ; bigna -aside, bar- 
taraf phei^kna, -away, 
phe^k-d, -down, gird-d, 
-open, khol-d, - up, 
(as a ball,) uchhdlna. 

Thrust, (n.) dhakka, V. -d, ; 

Thunder, ^fl-r^', f.). N,-na, 

Thursday, biphe ; brihaspat ; 

Thus,fl'/V^; is'iarah; isitarah. 

Ticket, tikat. (E.). 

Tickle, gudguddna. 

Tide, (ebb,) bhdtha^ (flow,) 

Tidings. See * News.' 

Tie, bdndhna ; bdndh-d, a -, 
band, neck -, gulu-band. 

Tiger, bdgh ; sher, -gress, 

Tight, tang; drawn -, kasa 
hu,a, N. tangi. V. -k. ; 
kasna ; khiiichna. 

Tile, (round,) khapra. 
(square,)/fw^/. Y-lagdna, 

Till, (v), kheti-k; chds^L ; 
hal'bail'k ;jotna. 

Till, (adv.). See page 47, iii. 

Timber, lakri. 

Time, wakt; zamdn, or zamd- 
nah, (period of.) arsah ; 
muddat, (cycle of,) yug. 
— when one ruled, exist- 
ed) &c. wakt ; aiydm, -of 
life, umr, (f.) ; sinn, (m.) ; 
(delay,) der, (f ) ; from- 
to-, wa^tan-fa-waktan, at 
all- ^^har waJkt; hameshah, 
in - or out of -, wakt-ndy 
wakt. at the proper- bar- 

* Accent on the last syllable. 



Tin, l:alai. V. -d, ; -lagd-d. 

Tipsy, mcUwdla ; mast. 

Tire, thakdna, -ed, thaka ; 
mdiidah, -edness^mdi^dagi. 
-some, maldl-angez, a 
-some fellow, Ikakdne- 
wdla ; di^^ karne-wdla. 

Title, tidm ; khitdb ; laJkab ; 
(ceremonious heading,) 
ail^db, (PI. iAlaf^ab.) 

Ilo} (generally,) ko ; (ap- 
proach), kepds / (transfer,) 
ke hdth ; ko. -day, dj ; im- 
r^s. -and ixo^t'dhar-udhar ; 
face - face, rn-ba-ru ; ke 
sdmne, with respect -, is 
bdre mei^ ; is-ke hak^ me^. 

Toast, {v.)se^kna. N.fos/,(E,). 

Tobacco, tambdku, to smoke 
-, -pina. 

Together, ke sdih ; sdih ; 
sdih'Sdth ; ek sdih ;bdham; 
ham, as first part in com- 
pos : all -, (action, )jfl'/^ /;///- 
ke, (company,) sab ek sdth. 

Tomb. See * Grave.' 

Tongue,y/M, (f.) ; zabdn,({,\ 
See * Language.' 

Too, (of excess,) ziyddah, 
(also,) bhi. 

Tool, hathiydr. 

Tooth, ddt}t. -ache, ddr}t ka 

dard, -brush, dd^t ka 

barush, (E.). -pick, khildl, 

-powder, ^r paste, manjan, 

to cast in one's teeih, 

mut}.k par bolna. 
Top, sar, (toy,) lattu, -most, 

sab ho ^ se tipar. -heavy,j/>- 

bhdri, -%y-\MX\y,ulat-pulaf; 

Torch, mashdL -bearer, -chi. 
Torment, (n). siydsat ; di^k; 

dukh ; jdn sozi. V. ^k. ; 

Tortoise, kachhiia. 
Toss. See * Throw. ' 
'Yoi2i\,jumlah; hull; kulliyai ; 

mot ; sab le-ke ; jama. 
Touch, chhuna, N. chhuhd- 

wat ; the sense of -, lams. 
Tow, {n.)pdt ; patwah -ing- 

rope, gun, V. gun k. 
Toward, towards, ki taraf ; 

ke pds. 
Towel, tauliyah, ; dast-mdL 
Tower, burj. V. baland-hona. 
Town, shahr ,\..pi(r, and 

•. nagar, as last part in 

compos : -sman, shahr- 

* • To ' or * for ' 'a place,' is generally omitied, e.g. * kal rdt-ko 
Bandras razvdnak hn.a," * he started last night yi?r Banaras.' 


ka ddmi, one of the same 

-, ham-shahr. 
Toy, (n.)khilauna. {v.)khelna, 
'Jrace, (n.) (by which to 

find,) surdgh ; aldmat ; 

pata ; asar, (harness,) jot. 

(v.) khojna ; khojh-k. ; pag- 

dandi-lena, (by pen, &c.) 

Ti ade, iijdrat ; saudd-gari ; 

kdr-hdr ; kharid-faroklit ; 

byopdr,-tx^ saudd-gar; tai- 

pdrL (travelling,) banjdra ; 

bakaS'Zvdla, (half E.). 
Traffic, dnd-jdna ; dmado- 

rajt. See 'Trade.' 
Trail, {trans.) ghasitna ; 

khif}chna, (Jntr.) ghasitna. 
Train, (of dress,) ddman. 

(followers,) hashmat ; hani- 

rdhi^dj}. (sequence,) tar- 

iiby (f.) ; silsHah. (railway,) 

gdxi^dt}. (v.) sikhldna. 
Trample, pde-mdl-k. N. -/. 
Transact. See * Do.' 
Transfer, munta^al-k. 
Translation^ tarjamah. -tor, 

tarjumdn ; mutarjim. 
Transparent, \f//tf^^£/[ N. -/. 
Trans|>ositon, ini^ildb. V. -k. 
Trap, kai^ (f.)v- ^^^9 ^s last 

part in compos. 

Travel, safar-k. ; sair-k. -ler, 

musdfir. -ling, (adj.) safari. 
Tray, khwdn ; kishii. 
Treacle, gur ; tirydk. 
Treason, daghd-bdzi; namak- 

Treasure, khazdnah. -ry, 

-khdnah. -er, kJiazdnchi. 

(v.) aziz-rakhna ; ^adar-k. 
Tree, darakht ; pef ; gdchh. 
Tremble, kdmpna. -bling, 

Trial, imtihdn ; jdj^ch ; dz- 

mdyish. V. -k. (in Court,) 

tajiviz^ (f.). 
Tribunal, addlat; mahkamah. 
Trick, hilah; bahdnah;fareb. 
Trickle, girna ; rasna ; 

Troop, gurohy (f.) ; td^ifah ; 

jamd^at ; ghol. troops, 

lashkar^ (y^.) \ sipdhi^di^. 
Trot, (n.) dulki. V. -chalna. 
Trouble, (n.) iasdi, (f.) j 

dukh ; dilk^ ; taklif (f.) ; 

ranjish. to feel -, -uihdna. 

to cause -. -k. ; satdna ; 

chhe^na ; ranjdna, -d, 

dzurdah ; fikr-mand ; 

gham-gin, -some, muzi; 

ranj-dzvar ; dik^-karta ; 


33© hindijstXni as it ought to be spoken. 

Trousers, /tf ////«, (E.). izdr,^ 

True, sack ; wdjib ; sddi^ ; 
durust, truth, sachdj ; 
rdsti ; asl bdt ; haJ^ii^at, 
in truth, wd^e met} ; fil- 

• • • 

Trumpet, turhL V. -bajdna. 
Trust, itibdr ; itimdd, V. 
-rakhna, (deposit,) amd- 
nat. -tee, amdnat-ddr, one 
who trusts, viutamid, -wor- 
thy, itibdri ; wafd-ddr ; 
imdn-ddr, -worthiness, 
ividnddri ; wafd-ddri. 
Tub, tab, (E.). taghdrL 
Tube, ndli ; nai ; nal, 
Tuts6di)\mangal; si-shambah. 

Tumble. See ' Fall/ 

Tumbler, tamblet, (E.). 

Tumult. See * Riot/ 

Turban, pagri ; sar-band. 

Turkey, (bird,)/^rw, ox piru. 

Turmeric, haldi. 

Turn, {intr.) phirna ; phir- 
jdna ; ghunina. (trans ^ 
ghumdna;ghumdd. to make 

a-, (circuit,) chakkar mdrna; 
ghum-ke jdna ; to take 
a-,(exercise,) hawa-khdna^ 
to -back, pher-dna^ or 
jdna ; lautna, to - out, 
nikdl-d, to - one's back, 
pith'dikldna a - ing, 
chakkar ; peck. See 'Tur- 

Turner, (trade,) kharddi, 
-ing lathe, khardd, (f.). V. 

Turnips, shalgham. 

Tweezers, chimta. 

Twilight, godhaura-j shafaJ^ ; 
chirdgh jaldne ka wa^t. 

Twin, (one.) tau^am ; (the 
two,) tawdmdn. 

Twine, (n.), siU. See * Climb.' 

Twist, aivthna ; marorna. 

Type. See * Kind.' (printing,)* 

Tyrant, zdlim ; jafd'kdr-w\\ 
zulm ; zabar-dasti ; sitam ;■ 
jabr ; zor, -ous, zulmi^ 
zabar-dast ; sakht. -ously, 
jabran : zulm, dr'c, se. 

> Means, rather, ' drawers.' Natives, unless anglified, seldom wear 
' trousers.' 




Note, — Many of the words beginning with * un ' negative^ 
are not given. You may turn the sentence into one with * not * 
e.g. this is untrue = * this is not true ' — yih sach nahiii hai ; 
or secondly^ you may ptefix ^ na,^ to a/most any adjective ; and 

* be ' to almost any noun : e.g. nd-pasand, nd-maalilm, nd- 
durust ; — be-hosh, be-alj:l, be-sharm. *La' * ghair ^ and 

* kam ' are also negative prefixes, but they are appropriated 
to certain words, e.g. Id-wiris, ivithout an heir ; la-jawab, 
without an excuse, ghair-hazir, absent. Many words of 
Saijskrit origin {of which only a few have been given) take 
* 2i* privative, (as in Greek,) or * nir/ e.g. a-dhaini, injustice ; 
nir-buddhi, senseless, stupid. 

Udiler, than. 

Ugly, bad-stirat ; bad-shakl, 

-ness. -i. 
Ulcer, ndsttr. 
Umbrella, chhdta ; chhatri, 

-bearer, chhatar-ddr. 
Unanimous, ek zabdn ka, 

~ity, ek zabdn ka ittifdk, 

-ly, ek zabdn se. 
Unawares, achdnak; ndgahdi}. 
Uncertain, bethikdna; ghair- 

Uncivil, bad-khulk ; be-adab, 

N. -./. 
Uncommon. See * Rare.' 
Under, oif^ * Below.' -trial, 

zer tajwiz, (f,). 
Undergo, (e.g. pain labour, 

&c.) khdna ; uthdna. 

Understand, jaw^*>%»^/ biyh- 

na ; samajh metj. lena ; 

wd^ifhona, N. samajh, 

(f.) ; hosh ; ak:l, (f.) ; fahm; 

Undertake, bira-uthdna ; 

hdth lagdna ; karna. -king, 

kdm, or by tiie name of 

the thing. 
Underwood, y>^^r / jhd^i. 
Undo, kholna ; (fig.) akdrath- 

k.; tabdhi'k. -done, khula; 

(fig.) tabdh ; shikastah. 
Unfix, kholna ; utdrna ; 

U I > fortunate, kam-bakht. 
Uniform, (a), eksdi}; ek kism 

ka (n.y/rai, -it)^ bardbari; 

eksdni, adv. with se. 


hind(}stj(ni as it ought to be spoken. 

Union, ittifd^ ; ek-dili ; 
tkiyat ; bd-hamL unite, 
(join,)y^r«<i / mild d. 

Universe, the, dunya, (f.) ; 
dlam;jahdn -sal, har-jd^i; 
kull ; famdm,"SSL[ity, kulli- 
yat ; -sally, bil-kulL -sity, 

Unlawful, khildf J^dniin ; 

Unless, agar followed by 
nahhjy e.g. unless you do 
this, I shall not pay yoUj^j^itzr 
turn yih kdm nahi^ karo, 
to, maitj. ek paisa nahii} diif/. 

Unmarried, kthjdra. an -per- 
son, muflis. 

Unravel, udhenja. 

Unroll, kholna. 

Unruly, sar kash ; be-iagdm, 
N. sar kash i. 

Unseen, ghd.ib \ nazar se 

Until. See page 47, iii. 

Unusual, khildf dastur ; 
be-riwdj ; jo kam dekhne 
men dta hau 

Unwell, ^r^^A<i nahlt^; wizdj 
khardb hai : bimdr; mariz. 
Unyoke, kholna} 

Up. See * Ab )ve. ' 

Upon, par. 

Upright, khara, V. -k. (fig.), 

rdst ; sachcha ; sidha ; nek. 

N. rdsti; sachd^i ; sidhd^i ; 

Uproar, ghtil : danga ; haul- 

jaul\ khalaL V. -k. Adv. 

with se. 
Upset, (v.) ultdna ; ultd-d. 

(a.) ulta ; ulta ku,a. 
Upshot, natijah. 

Urge, (e.g. a horse,) chaldna, 
(a request,) iltimds-k, he 
urged me to grant his 
prayer, is ki darkhdst man- 
zurkarne ko, mujhe dabdya, 
or Id-chdr kiya^ox iangkiya. 

Urine, pesh-db. 

Us, ham, h'c. See page 29 

and Notes, 
Usage. See * Custom.' 
Use. (n.) istiamdl. V. -k.; 

» The reader will have observed how universally this word is used 
for all senses of 'disjoining' as well as of merely * c;/><r«t«^.* He will 
hear English children who are allowed to talk English (a bad habit for 
them in India) say, ' opin ma i shoos,' where the happier children in Eng- 
land say, * untie my shoes * — (or do it for themselves. ) 



ham mei,i Una. -ful, kdm 
ka; kdmi, (salutary,) nnifid. 
-fully, fd^ide ke sdth, -les?, 
nd'kdrah ; kuchh kdm ka 
nahii}, -lessly, Id-hdsil ; 
be-fdyidah, -lessness, id- 


Vacant. See * Empty.' -ca- 
tion, tatil, (f.). 
Vagabond, bad-zdt ; luchcha. 
Vain, diffidghij to be-, ur- 
chalna; Idf-zani-k, -ity, 
Valid, durusi; pakka; kdjm; 
inazbut. -ity, durusti; maz- 
Value. See * Price.' -able, 
i^lmati; besh-^lmat ; girdfjt- 
baha, V. ^hnat-lagd-d, 
(fig.), aziz-rakhna; Jkadar- 
k, ; pydr-k. 
Vanish, ghd,ib-hona; urjdna. 
Vanquish, ghdlib-hona ; da- 
' bd-d. ; torna. 
Variety, tar ah- tar ah ; Jkism- 
J^ism, -ious, chand J^istn 
ka, -ously, aur aur tarah 
x^. to vary, (trans. )badalna; 
chand tarah *se karna, 
(intr.) badal-jdna. 

Usual, hasb'dasttir ; jo jdri 

hau -ly, aksar ; beshtar ; 

Usurer, bydj-khor ; sud-khor, 

-ury, -/. 
Utensil, chiz^ (f). (but name 

the - you want.) 

Varnish, (n.) bdrnish, (E.) ; 

pdlish, (E.) ; raughan ; 

chiknd^u V. -lagd-d. 
Vase. See page 4 1 . 
Vegetables, tarkdri ; sabzi. 
Vehicle, gdri ; sawdrL 
Veil, nil^db, wearer of a -, 

-ddr, (pretence,) burf^ah. 
Vein, nas, (f.) ; rag, (f.). - 

of metal, asar, or PI. 

Velvet, makhmaL 
Vengeance, intit^dm. Y,-lena, 
Venture, himmat-k. at a -, 

f^ismat par. 
Verandah, bardmadah. See 

page 23. 
Verbal, -ly, zabdnL 
Verdure, sabzL 
Verification, tasdl^, (f.).V.-^. 
Verily, ha^t^at met} ; fil- 

Vermicelli, baramseiiy (E.). 

334 hindi5stXni as it ought to be spoken. 

Very, bahut ; nihdyai ; by 
suffix ^hU e.g. wU'hi ddmi^ 

* that very man* 
Vessel. See ' Dish,' • Ship.* 
Vex, -ation. See * Annoy,* 

• Grief,* &c. 

Vice, shardrat ; khardbi ; 

badi; zabtini, (a), khardb ; 

bad'kho ; zabun. 
Vice... (substitute,) i^djm- 

Victor, ghdlib. -ious, and to 

be -ious, -hona, -y, fath ; 

ghalbah ; jaL 
View. See * See,* * Scene.* 
Village, gdt}w ; basti ; dih ; 

grdm, (L. B.). -together 

with the lands attached, 

dihdt ; mauza, -er, gai^- 

wdr; gdot^'Wdla; basti-wdla. 
Villain, -ons, bad-zdt; hardm- 

zddah, -y, bad-zdti. 
Vine, angur ka darakht, 

-yard, angur ka bdgh. 
Vinegar, sirkah. 
Violence, zor ; jabr. V. -k, 

(adv.) with se. (a.) sakht ; 

zor-dwar ; zabar-dast ; be- 


Virgin, bdkirak. -hy^bikdrat. 

Virtue, rdsti ; neki ; bhaidj, 
A. rdst ; nek ; bhala. by — 
of his office, az rfi-e-uhde 
apne ; ba-zari^e^ (or ba- 
sabab,) apne uhde ke. 

Visible, zdhir ; nazar me^, 
-bility zuhur, -bly, zdhi- 
ran, vision, (sight,) nazar^ 
(f.) ; bindyi ; tasdrat, (in 
sleep,) khzvdb-khaydl -Sixy^ 

Visit, muldJjtdt; bhef}t. V. -k, 
or, by ^jo,^ 

Vizier, wazir. 

Voice, dwdz^ (f.) ; shabd^ 
vocal, awdz se ; shabdi, 
vocal and instrumental 
m usic, ^gdna-bajdna, \ v. n. ). 

Volume, jiid^ (f.) 

Voluntary, ikhttydru 

Vomit, (n.) ^ai; ubkdyi; radd. 
V. -k. 

Voyage, safar-i-darya, -r, 

jahdzi' musdfir. 
Vulgar, (public, )iww. (mean,) 
nicha ; kaminah; pdjL See 
* Common.' • 

Vulture, ^dh. 

* Lit. • to sing (and) to play.' Page ii, Note, 




Wade, heina. 

Wafer, tiklL 

Wager, shart ; hora ; hdru 
V. -k. ; bdndh-lena. 

Waives. See * Pay.' 

Wagon, chhakra ; gdri, (car 
used in religious proces- 
sions, &c.) rath. 

Waist, kamar^ (f.). -band, or 
belt, "band, -coat, wdskit^ 

Wait, rahna ; sabr-katna ; 
rah'jdna, -ing, intizdr, 
(on one), khidmat ; mul- 
dzamat V. -k. -er, (gen- 
eral,) with ^joJ ; ummed- 
wdr, {stxvdLX\\.\khidmai'gdr, 

Wake,{trans, )jagdna;jagdd, 
{intr,) jdgna, awake, jdg- 
la ; beddr, -ful, beddr ; 
be-khwdb, -fulness, beddri. 

Walk, (n.) sair; hawa-kkdna, 
{v,n.y{y,)chalna; l^adam-k. 
(take a-,) sair-k,; hawa- 

Wall, dtwdr^ (f.). -of a tent, 

Wallow, lotna. 

Walnut, akhrot. 

Want, (need,) hdjat; ihtiydj. 
(deficiency,) kuchh kami ; 

aib, (poverty,) tangi. (v.) 
(desire, )chd/ina; hdjat hona, 
(be deficient,) kam hona. 

War, lara,i;jang^ (f.). V. -k, 
-like, jangi, -equipments, 

Warm, garm, V. -k,'^, gar mi; 
tapish, a -bath, garm- 
dbah, to -oneself, tdpna. 

Warn, chitdna ; khabar-d, ; 
dgdh-k. a -ing, khabar^ (f.); 
ittila^ (f.). 

Was, tha^ 6rc, See page ii. 

Wash, dhona ; dho-d. ; sdf-k, 
-ing, dholdyi-tr, (person,) 
,..sho^ as last part in com- 
pos : -erman, dhobi, -er- 
woman, dhobin. 

Wasp, bimi ; zambiur. 

Waste, (what is over after 
manufacture, &c.,) sithi ; 
sith^ (f.). (squandering,) 
isrdf. (a desert,) wirdna. 
(v.) ghatdna ; ufd-d. ; bar- 
bdd'd,; khardb-kar-d, ful, 
fuz^l'kharj, "{ulness./uz^i- 

Watch, (n.) (pocket,) ^^^r/. 
-man. See * Sentinel' 
-post, chauki (protection,) 
hifdzai ; nigdh-bdni ; kha- 



barddri, -fiil, beddr ; kha- 
barddr. Adv. with se, (v.) 
hifdzat^ &*c, k. 

Water, /i///, (m.) db, (Per- 
sian,) ; jal, -fall, db-shdr, 
-fowl, tnur^-dbi, -ing, 
db'Pdsht. -ing-pot, lota, 
-pot, ghara ; ka^si, -man, 
bihishti;pdni-ivdla, -melon , 
iarbuz, -seivant, dbddr, 
-y, tar ; dbi, (v.) pdnid, ; 
(irrigate), patdna ; db- 
pdshik, to sprinkle-, pdni 

Wave, (n.) mauj^ (f.). (v.) 
hildna ; hild-d. 

Wax, mom. -en, mom ka, 
-cloth, mom-jdmah, seal- 
ing -, idkh. 

Way. See * Read.' by the -, 
i.e. on the road, darviiydn 
rdh ke. by the -, e. g. by 
the way, 1 ought to men- 
tion, &c., kahte hti.e ; 
jdte hii^e, by way of... (e.g. 
kindness,) az rdk-i-mihr- 

- bdni. costs of the -, rdh 
ka kharch. 

We, ham. See 29. ; ham log. 
Weak, kam-zor ; ndjawdn ; 
y za^if, -ness, kam-zori ; nd- 

- tdkati ; zof. 

Wealth. See ' Riches.' 

Weapon, harbah ; hathiydr. 

Wear, (our, as clotnes), pur- 
dna ho-jdna, (clothes, &c.), 
pahinna; ofhna; bdndhna; 
lagd'd, ; rakhna, 

AVeather. See pagt 80. 

Weave, binna, -ing, bindwat 
-er, juldhah ; idt^tu 

Web, thdn, 

Wednesday, budh ; chdr- 

Weed, ghds^ ( f. ) ; jangli ghds, 
when plucked u^^ghds^pdt; 
dkJior, Y. -ukhdrna. 

Week, haftak. 

Weep, rona ; dtfsugird-d. 

Weigh, {trans ) taulna ; 
ivazn-k, (inir.) tine wazn 
ka hona, (ponder,) wazn- 
k. : jdiichna ; sochna. -ty, 
bhdri ; wazni ; sangin ; 
girdtj, all lit. and fig. 

Welcome, mubdrik^ (also by 
way of address). Y.-^dd-k, 
See * Agreeable.' 
Well, (a. ) achchha ; bhala ; khiib^ 
(which are also interjs.) to 
be-, -hona, (in good style,) 
achchhi iarah, -enough, 
kam^besh, as - as possible, 
mak^dur bhar, this, as - as 



khairiyat-don^ ! shdbdsh! 

bahut achchha ! -known, 

khub'Viaalum ; fnashhtir, 

-wisher, khair-khwdh. 
West, pachchham ; maghrib, 
Wer, bhif}ga ; tar ; gila, 

-ness, tari. V. bhtT^gdna, 
What, -ever. See pages 33 

and 39. 
Wheat, gehiif}. 
Wheedle, phusldna ; chum- 

Wheel, (n.) charkh ; pahiya; 

chakkar. (v.) e.g. a barrow, 

When. See page 1C4. -ever, 

jab kabhi.,Jab, 
Where, -ever. Seepages 104 
and 62. -abouts ? kahdt^ ; 
kis taraf? 

Whether, khwdh . . .khwdh ; 
kya . . . kya (e.g. whether rich 
or poor,) khwdh daulat- 
mand^ khwdh gharib. 

Which. Seepage 33. which 
of these two do you prefer, 
in donoi} mefj, se kaun 
pasand karte ho ? which is 
which, I can't say, kaunyih 
hai aur kaun wuh hai^ 
mail} nahii} kah-sakta hiiist, 
T., H. 

While. See page 47, \u, also, 
* Space.' a long <7r good -, 
bahta der tak ; muddat-i- 
dardz, a little - thori der 
tak ; chhan-ek. 

Whip, chdbuk ; kora. V. 
-mdrna^ or -se mdrna. 

Whirl, ghumna ; phirna. 
-pool, gird-db-mn^^ gird- 

W^hiskers, miichh, (f.). 
Whisper, phasphasdhat V. 

Whistling, siti ; safir, (f). 

V. -bajdna. 
White, safed. N.-/. V.->&. a 
-roan, gora.z. -ant, diwak. 
-wash, puchdra. 
Who, -ever. See pages ^^ 

and 30. 
Whole, (a) hull; tamdm ; 
sab, (n.) kuiliyat, -some, 
fftu.dfi^; sajiwan ; zuldL 
-ly, bil'kull ; mahz. 
Why? kyi^i} ? kdhe2 kis wdste? 
Wick, batti. 
Wicked. See * Bad. ' 
Wicker, -yroik, jafari. 
Wide. See ' Broad.' 
Widow, rdnd ; bewa ; be- 
shauhar. -er, randuM ; 




V^iityjoru ; zaujah; ^abilah. 

Wilful, khud'pasand ; sar- 
kash. -ly. See * Intention.' 

Will. See 'Pleasure.' * Pow- 
er.' (testament,) wasiyat- 
ndmah, -ing, taiydr; tdzi; 
rizd-mand ; khusk. -ing- 
ness, taiydr i ; rizd-mandi ; 
khushi. -ingly, khushi-se. 

Win, jitna ; ghdlib-hona. 

Wind, hawa, (f.) ; bdd, (Per- 

Window, khirki ; ghurfah. 

Wine, shardlf, (f.) tnai; mad; 
ddru, (f.). bddah, (Per- 

W\ii%^par; pankh^i^z^baghal^ 
(f.). V. pankh tndrna. 

Wink, (n.) chashmak, V. ~k. 

Winter, /V^ftf ka mausam. 

Wipe, porj'Chhna ; poi^chh-d. 

Wire, tdr. See page 98. 

Wisdom, flr^/, (f.) ; hosh ; 
ddnist A. akl-mand ; 

hosh-ydr ; ddnish-inand. to 
have-, to be wise, the adjs. 
and hona, wisely, al^l se. 

Wish. See * Desire.* 

Wit. 5^1? * Wisdom,' 'Jest.' 

Witch, ddyan. 

With, (accompanied by,) ke 
sdih; ie-kar; ma^t'} (instru- 
ment, manner,) se; ke sdih^ 
(cause,) ke mdre; ke bd^is ; 
ke sabab; se -draw, le-jdna, 
-hold, nahij^'d ; bdz- 
r:7M«a.-stand. mukhdlif- 
hona, -in, bhitar ; andar. 
-out, bdhar; (destitute of,) 
be ; bila. 
Witness, gawdh ; shdhid; 
shdki, (L. B.). ty^-^chaskm" 
did gawdh. 

Wizard, ojka. 

Wolf, bheriya. 

Woman, aurat ; zan, (p.) 
stri ; ra»dt\-s property, 
stri-dhan. appertaining to 

^ This word will remind you (later on) of the beautiful song, Udsak 
ka tdzah, nau ba nau^ where occur the line and refrain. 
* Bddah-i-dil'kuska bijo— 

Tdzah ba idzoA, nau ba nau — * 
' Bring forth the heart-expanding wine— fresh and afresh.' 
" This word is nearly equivalent to ' and.* It is used of what is 
dosely connected with a thing already named; as 'a case ttrit (or 
and) its evidence.* Seepage 118. for two illustrations of this. 

hindtJstXni as it ought to be spoken. 33^ 

women, zandni, -*s apart- 
ments, zandnah. -ly, 

Wonder, ta^ajjub; hairai ; 
tahaiyur, V. -k. -ful, 
ajib ; ajubah, -fully, ajib 
tarah set 

Woo, natives never* woo;' 
in L.H. they employ a 
broker, called ^ghatak^ 

Wood, lakfi ; hezim, of-, 
iakri ka. 

Wool, Hn; pashm, of-, -ka. 

Word, bdi ; baydn ; iajz ; 
sukhun ; shabd, - by -, 
lafzan. (news,) khabar, (f.); 
bdt;UtiIa, (f.). 

Work, kdm ; kdr ; kdr-bdr ; 
kdr-o-bdr. See 'Trade,* 
•Labour,* -man, kdrigar} 
-shop, -place, kdrkhdnah; 
dukdn, (f.). V. kdm, ^c. 
k, ; mihnat'k. 

World. See * Universe.' -ly/ 
affairs, umiir dunydvu 

Worm, kirm ; ki^a, glow -, 
shab-fdb, -eaten, kirm- 

Worn, -out,/«r<i«a; ho-gaya. 
See • Tired.* 

Worse, uS'Se khardb ; (in 
hf alth, ) dj wuh aur lUn^r 
hat\ or dj bimdri aur sakht 
hat. worst, sab-se khardb. 

Worship, (M.) ibddat ; (If.) 

puja. W^.-k, your^l huziir * 

ja/fdb / jqndh'dli ; gharib- 

pat war ; jahdtyfandh ; 

dharm-avafdr, &*c. 

Worsted, //// ka stU, 

Worth. See Trice,* 'Value.* 
a rupi's -of cloth, ek Hipiye 
ka kapta, it*s not - while, 
kuchh ^arwdh nahii^ ; 
iaklif mat uthdjye: 

Wrestling, ktishti, V. -k, 
-tier, kushii'gir ; pahl- 

y^ttich^kam-bakht; be-chdrahi: 
-edi be-nasib ; kangdL 
(contemptible,) nd-kdra, 
-eitiness kam-bakhli ; be- 
nasibi ishikasia-hdlu -edly, 
iangi'Se; khardb hdlmet}. 

Wring, machorna. (outwateV,) 
pdni nikdl'd. ^ 

Write, likhna ; likh-d; ^alam- 
band-k. a -ing, lekha. -er, 
kdiib ; nawisandah ; as last 
part in compos :.../id2e;/x 

* Accent on first syllable. 


hindustIni as it ought to be spoken. 

or... navts. e,g. naJjil-navis, 
a copyist, -ten, likha hu,a; 
nawishtah ; ^alam-band ; 
taiydr. -ting materials, 
dawdt-^alam ; ialam- 

siydhu the art, or act, of 
-ting, J^alam-bandi ; ibdrat; 

Wrong, (a.) nd-durust ; thik. 
nahit} ; is meti hhul hai - 
achchha nahit}^ (unjust), 
be-insdf ; nd-ha^h: ; ghair- 
wdjib. right or-, ha^^-nd- 
hakJ^. N. bC'insdfi ki bdt; 
zulm. -doer, with ^jo.* 
-fully, he-insdfi se. 



Yard, (court,) saAn. (mea- 
sure,) gaz. 

YsLVH\jamkd,i V. -k. ; jdm- 

Year, baras ; sdl, (p.); (in 
dating), san. during this-, 
im-sdL during last -, 
guzashte sdL for years, 
barasoij. se ; sdlha sdl se. 
-ly, sdlydnah^ox sdliydnah. 
every -, har sdl ; sdl-basdL 
advanced in— s, buddha; 
sinn-ddr, of tender -s. Set 
'Young.' the new -, nau 

Yellow, z^/'^. N. i. 

Yes, hdfj. ; ji hdfj. See page 

56, Note 2. 

Yesterday. See page 6^, 

Yet, (e.g.^'^Z he did not obey 

me,) iekin ; magar ; tau- 

bhi ; id-ham. (for all that,) 

par.^ there \syet this to be 

said, yih bhi kahna hoga. 

he has not comQ yet^ab-tak. 

YiQ\d,(n.)paidd7vdr;/as/, (f.). 
(v.) dena. 

Yoke, (n.) ju,a, or ju^dth. 

You, your ; yourselves. See 

pages 2?, 29, and 30, 7. 

* See page 115, line 9, *maqar kaddi na' iiikli ; par na' nikli. 


Young, jawdn ; j'/ida, under Youth, a, jawdn ; nau 
age, kam-sinn; kjiurd sdl. jawdn. time of youth, 
t:rown-up, but -, siydna. jawdnL -{u\\y,jawdn'Sa, 


ZcsiljjosA; iezi ; garmL -ous, Zephyr, tdd-i-saba. 

iund; iez ; garm, a - ot. Zest, hasrat 

with ^jo* (devotee,) zdhid. Zig-zag, kaj-o-pech. 

-ously, joshy dfc, se. Zone, ifilim ; mintafia. 




A single figure, (as * 23/) inlicates the pa^e. When that figure U 
followed by a comma and another figure, then the first figure 
indicates the page, and the second, the section on that page. A 
second or third figure not referring to a Section^ is separated from 
the preceding figure by a semi-colon 


A, or An, 9, Note, 

' A,' as in, * how much * * a yard ? * 65, 8. 

Abuse, words of, 75, 14, Nofe, 84 (foot note). 

' About ' (^. g, about ten men), 39, 7 . 

Accent, 72, 2. 

Adjectives, allied to Pronouns, 39, 6. See * Agreement/ 

Adverbs, and Allied Words, 54. 

Agreement, generally, 10. of the Verb, 10, 6 ; 19, 25. 

* Ago,' 68, 7. 

Alphabet, the, i. 

Anahs, as used to express fractions, 65, 8. 

^ And,' omission of, w^Note; 68, 10. 

Answers, by servants, 56. Note 2. 

*Ap' 28, 2. Apna, 30, 7. 

Arrangement of Words, 9, Note ; 61. 

Articles, the, 9, Note. 

At, of timey 68, 6. {See Glossary, sub voce.) 

344 INDEX. 


* Bahut Achchha ! * * bahut khiJb ! * 56, Abfe 2. 
Body, the Parts of the, 62. 
Both, 40. Both... and, 46. 
By, (0/ time,) 68, 6. 

Cadence, 72, 3. 

Cardinal Numbers, the, 64; 103. 
Cases, 5. 

*ChAhiye,' 18, 20. 

*Chhi-chhi,' warning against certain uses of, 57, Note, 
Civility, exaggerated, 75, 14, Note, 
Clock, the, 67, 4. 
Colours, the chief, 59. 
Comparison of Adjectives, ordinary, 74, 8. by the Persian 

method, 74, 9. 
Compass, points of the, 59. 
Conjunctions, the, 46. 
Consonants, the, and their Pronunciation, i, et seqq; 72,1. 


DAn, as a suffix, 41. 

Darna, to fear ^ followed by *se' 51, Note iv. 

Dating, 68, 8. 

Days of the Week, 66, 2. 

Degrees of Comparison, 74, 8 and 9. 

*Dena,' to givey contractions of, 15, 10. 

Dipthongs, 4, 8. 

Distribution 40, 8. 

INDEX. 345 


Euphonic Vowels in Verbs, 15, 14, ei seqq, 
ExERCisESj passim. 


Feminine Nouns, list of, 105. 
p*ractions, 64 ; 65, 8. 

* From his horse.' 73, 5. 

* From inside ' = * out of, ' 73, 5. 
Future Tense used for Subjunctive, 73, 5. 


Gems, the principal, 96, No/e 2. 

Gender, 7. 

Glossaries, English, 205. Hindustani, 127. 


* H * at end of a word prece<ied by a consonant, 2, 3. 

Following another consonant, 2, 4. 
^ Have,' how translated, 13, 5 ; 75, 13. 
Health, to ask for one's, 77, 18. 
HindtJstAni Reader, A, 107. 
^Ho-CHUKA,' (and the like,) 19, 23. 
Hours, how reckoned, 67, 3. 
'* Hi5,a hoga,' 17, 18. 
Humility, nouns of, used for ist Personal Pronoun, 29. 

Nofe iv. 
"•Huzur,' 76, 17. 


I, between two Persian words, meaning of, 52. A^o/es, 
Idioms, 73, 5. 

34^ INDEX. 

Interjections, 56. 
Interrogation, 6 r, 3. 
Interrogative words, a list of some, 62. 
Intention, how expressed, 51. 

* It is,' 75, 12. 


* Jab-tak,\./tab-tak,* 47, 3. 

* Jis-wakt'...*us-waict,' of unrelated events, 47^ iv. 
' JOKO,!,' « jokuchh/ 39, 5. 

* Jo-HUKM,* 56, Note 2. 


Ka, ke, ki, rules for, 5, 3. 

* Kahna,' to say^ followed by *se,' /^, 51, Note v. 

* Kam,' Prefix meaning deficiency, 59, Note, 

* Kaun hai,* • KO,i HAi,* difference in meaning, 3&, 
-KB ~kar ^r-KARKAR, participle ending in, 76, 16.. 

* KlH NA,' 46. 

* Kg,!,* * KucHH,' 38, et seqq, 

*Lagna,* when it means to begin^ construction witlv 51^ 

Note^ iii. 
Ledi-sAhibah, 269, Note i. { 

* Lena,' to take^ contractions of, 15, io. 
*\jQQ^ people^ used in forming plurals, 7, Note, 


* MaaliJm,* * na-maaliJm,* colloquial use of, 5^. 
Marks of vowels, &c., 4. 
Measurement, 70. . , ^ 

* Mem -sAhibah,' * mem-log/ 24, iV^*/^. 

INDEX. ^47- 

*MiLNA,' *MiLA,' 3rd Personal. Vei b, 50, Note x, 

* Mis bXba/ *mis-sahibah/ 24, Note. : ' 
Months, the, 66. 

N. .. 

Narration, 47. NoteW-, 74, 10. 

* Not At HOME,' 26, iV^^/^ i. 

Nouns, See * Cases ;' 'Number,' 'Gender/ paradigm of, 8^ 
-of humility, used instead of ist Personal Pronoun^ 


29, Note V. 
Numbers, 6. ' ' 

Numeration, 64 ; 103. 


*0,' between two Persian words, meaning of, ^2 ^ Notes. 

■ OFy\{in e.g. 'a cu/f o( tea,') j^, S- 

Omission of *and,' ii, Note; 68, ip. of Pronouns, 31.- 

Note ii ; 73, 5. of the 3rd Pers. Sing, of the Substan- 
tive Verb, 26, A^ote 2. 

* Once,* 'twice,' * thrice,' &€., 65, 6. 

*Or so,' 39,7- 

Ordinal Numbers, the, 65, 5. 

•Out OF,' 73, 5. 

* Own,' (/r<9«<?«;z,) 30, 7.: . 


* Pahar,' a, 67. 

Paradigms:— of HoNA, to ^e or become, precedins; the- 
'First Lesson.' of Nouns, 8. of terminations of Verbs^ 
14, 8. of Verbs, 16. 

Participles, See, 'Verbs/ 

Parts OF the Body, 62. 

34^ INDEX. 

Points of the Compass, 59. 

Post-office, the, 94. 

Pluperfect Tense, used for Past, 73, 5. 

Plurai^ ordinary, 6,5, et seqq, Persian, 73, 6; 123, Note 10. 
-for Sing, in Verbs, 52, Notes, 

Prepositions, 43.. 

Pronouns, 28. *Ap,' 28, 2. Demonstrative, 30, 5. In- 
terrogative, 33, 12. etseqq. Personal, 29, 4. Posses- 
sive, 30, 6. Reflexive, 30, 7. Relative, 33, 16. Words 
allied to -, 38. 

Pronunciation, i ; 72, i. et seqq. 

Purpose, how expressed, 51. 

Railway, the, 82. 
Reader, a Hindi5stXni, 107. 

Relative and Co-relative words, 25; 39, Notes; 47, 
Notes; 104. 5(f<? * Pronouns.' 

Sahib, SIhibah, 24; 26, Note 4. 

Salute, to, 75, 15. 

Shlf, 31, 8. 

Since, {of iime^ 68, 7. 

Stem, of Verb, 14, 7. use as,an Imperative, 15, 16. 


TASHRfF lAnA, -LFJXnA, 76, 1 7. 

— te-hi, Participle ending in, 14, 8. 
Telegraph, the, 98. 

* Thank you,' 75, 14. 

* There is,' * There ake,' 75, 12. 

Tho, 47', Note i. and table of * corrigenda? 

INDEX, 349. 

Time, 66. 

*To,' as Co-relative, 25, Note i ; 47, Notes ; 104. 

• Ul/ *Ud,' * Us,' meaning of, in personal name?, 77, 19. 


Verbs: — Agreement in Gender of - 10, 6. Auxiliary -,. 
>3» 5' 'Can,' 18, 22. *Chukna,' construction with, 
18, 23. Compound -, 21, 27. Contractions in -, 14, 9 
et seqq, 'Darna,' and other -which take *j^,' 51, Notes. 
Derivative -, 21, 28. Euphonic letters in -, 15, 14 
et seqq, *Have,' 13, 5 ; 75, 13. * Have done with,' or 
'finished with,' 18, 23. * Hona, to he^ or become^ 13, 5 
et seqq.; 14, 9 et seqq, * Hd,a hoga,' and similar 
constructions, 27, 18. Imperative mood of-: — (^.) 
Abusive, 15, 16. (^.) Irregular, 21, 19. (r.) Ordinary^ 
14, 8. (^/.) Respectful, 14, 8. Intensified -, 19, 24. 

* Lagna' to begin^ construction with, 51, Note iii. 

* May,' 18, 22. * Milna,' : — (^.) as a 3rd Personal Verb^ 
50, Notes, {b.) as a full three-personed Verb, 124, 
Note 2. * Must,' 18, 20. *Ought,' 18, 21. Paradigms 
of -, : — ia,) Of * Hona,' preceding the * First Lesson.' 
(^.) Of Nouns, 8. {c.) Of the Regular Verb, 16. 
{d.) Of the terminations of the Tenses, 14, 8. Partici- 
ples : — («.) The past, 14, 8 ; 17, 17. {b.) The present^ 
14, 8; 17, 16; 21, 30. (c.) Irregular, 22, 3!. {d.) In^,,.kary...karke^ 14, 8 ; 76, 16. ' Sakna,' construc- 
tion with, 18, 22. 'Shall have,' 17, 19. Stem the, of-^ 
14, 7. Tenses the, of-, 14, 8 et seqq. Tenses of the 
Past Participle of Transitive -, construction with the^ 

>9, 25- 

35© INDEX. 

Verbal Noun, ihe; 15, 13. 

VocAHULARiES, classified : — Adjectives, useful, 9; 11 ; 25; 
57. Adverbs, 54. Animals, common, 83. Bazar, the, 
85. Bed-room, the, 24 ; 34 ; 87 ; 95. Birds, com- 
mon, 84. Body, parts of the, 62. Colou»s, the chief, 
59. Compass, points of, 59. Condiments, 92. Con- 
junctions, 46. Dignitaries, 52. Dinner-table, the, 86. 
Dress, 25; 34; 95. Drinks, 34; 94. English words 
in common use, 34. Food, articles of, 1 1 ; 9 1 el seqq. 
Fruit, 93. Games, 88. Harness, 90. House, the, and 
House-furniture, 23 ; 40 ; 87. Insects, 84. Kitchen, 
the, 87. Land, and Cultivation, 52 ; 78. Landscape, 
the, 81. Measurement, 70, Mi«:cellaneous, 9; 11; 
25 5 35 ^ 4' > 97- Money, 70. Nature, 81. Post- 
Office, the, 98. Prepositions, 43. Relationships, 4. 
Religion, 77. Seasons, the, 80. Servants, 35. Stable, 
the, 90. Telegraph, the, 98. Time, words relating to, 
. 69. Toilet accessories, 95. Town, a, its principal 
parts, 82. Vegetables, 93. Verbs, useful, 24 ; 48. 
Vermin, 84. Weather, the, 80. Weights, 70. Wines, 

34; 94. 
Voices, Active, 13 ti) 22. Passive, 22. 

Vowels, Euphonic in Verbs, 15, 14 and 15. Pronuncia- 
tion of, 3. 


* Wait, till I come.' (idiom^ 47. Note iii 

^WAla,' *wiLi,' 73, 7. 

Week, days of the, 66, 2. 

WeiChts, 2, 70. 

Words, arrangement of in sentences, 61. 

^ • ■ •■ ..-.•„. V. . ^ - , «■• ( ■ V ■ • • • , .... J 


^y s/