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. &.--C. PlllLLOTT 

" Tauba tauba I 











Translator of the Nafhatu'LYamah. the Baz-Nama-yi Nasirl, and 

the Faras-Nama-e Rangln, etc. ; 

Editor of the Persian Translation of Hajl Baba and of the 
Qawaninu's Sayyad, etc. , etc. 

s. JJ5 

Third Edition. 



[All rights reserved]. 

Calcutta : Printed at the Baptist 
Mission Press, 41 , Lr. Circular Rd. 


(NOW 23rd CAVALRY, F.F ), 




THE success of "Hindustani Stepping-Stones " has induced 
the author to bring out the present Manual, which is merely 
a revised edition of the former work with some useful ad- 
ditions. The "Stepping-Stones" was intended to be read 
in conjunction with certain portions of Forbes' Manual. 
As, however, students have complained of the inconveni- 
ence of using two books, the present Manual has been made 
complete in itself; no reference to Forbes' Manual is now 

In the present work no word or phrase is used that an 
uneducated but intelligent native of Delhi does not use ; 
further, no word or phrase is used that an uneducated but 
intelligent Muslim of the Punjab does not understand. The 
author, after completing the work, tested every sentence with 
an illiterate Punjabi bearer, from the Murree Hills, who has 
been in his service for more than twenty years ; and any word 
or phrase not readily understood, was at once erased. Still, 
the student that masters this little book will be possessed of 
a vocabulary sufficient for all practical purposes and will 
have acquired a wealth of idiom that will carry him through 
even the exercise for the "Proficiency." Special attention 
has been paid to the many idiomatic meanings of the com- 
mon everyday verbs, and in the examples given, their mean- 
ings are nearly, if not quite, exhausted. The student should 
master the shades of meaning in the various compound verbs, 
Lessons, 21, etc., and, in his written exercises and in his 
speech he should practise using these idiomatic intensives, 
etc., as much as possible. For instance, it is much more 


idiomatic to render " to elicit information " by bat nikal- 
chhorna or nikdlkar rahnd [vide Lesson, 23, (d) and (gr)], than 
by simple bat nikdlnd. Note too that chhat-lend is "to 
choose, select," but chhat-dalna " to eliminate." The work 
has also been based on the recurring mistakes of L.S. and 
H.S. candidates at the monthly examinations. 

Owing to want of space, many of the meanings of the words 
given in the vocabularies, have not been illustrated in the 
examples. It is, therefore, the work of the student, with 
the help of the Munshi, to frame sentences illustrating the 
missing meanings. Paragraphs in smaller print are not 
necessary for Lower Standard candidates, and should not 
therefore be studied till the matter in larger type has been 

The many editions through which Forbes' Manual has 
passed are a sufficient proof of its popularity. This popularity 
is largely due to the fact that it is printed in the Roman 
character. Though the Roman character with its short vowel s 
and capitals is, for a beginner (especially for the student 
that wishes to learn the colloquial only), a great advantage, 
it must be regarded as a go-cart, to be gradually discarded 
as more and more progress is made. Before the student has 
mastered this little book, he should be in a position to dis- 
card the Roman alphabet. To a beginner, it is often an aid 
to memory, to see a new word written both in the Roman 
and in the foreign character. 

Lastly, the beginner should practise as much as possible 
aloud, but this subject is fully dealt with in the Introduction 
that follows. 

My thanks are due to Shamsu'l 'Ulama Muhammad Yiisuf 
Ja'fari, Khan Bahadur, Head Mawlavi, Board of Examiners, 
for substantial help in the preparation of this little book. 


My acknowledgments are also due to the various grammars 
and dictionaries, but specially to Forbes and Holroyd. 

D. C. P. 
). J 

September, 1910. 


The gratifying welcome accorded to this Manual has in 
duced me to issue this Second Edition. 

October, 1913. 


At the suggestion of my pupils, the Nagari character has 
been added to this Edition, vide Appendix G. Three other 
Appendices D, E and F have also been added. 

D. C. P 



THERE are several modern schools or systems of acquiring 
a new language, but the best is probably that of Professor 
Rosen thai. 

Under the old-fashioned system, the student was first 
taught the grammar. He learnt to decline and conjugate, 
and was laboriously taught rules and exceptions. He was 
taught the theory of language, not the language itself. He 
was then made to study the literature with the aid of a 
dictionary 7 , colloquial being generally ignored. After three 
or four years of such drudgery, not a single student, unless 
he had been abroad or practised talking with foreigners, was 
able to carry on the simplest conversation. 

If waiters in Continental hotels, who talk English so 
fluently, be questioned, it will be found that they have 
acquired all their knowledge by residing in England for 
frequently not more than six months. Something therefore 
must be wrong in a system that in several years fails to 
teach as much as can be picked up without teaching in six 

Now to learn a new language easily and quickly, it should 
first be learnt colloquially, the systematic study of grammar 


and literature being taken up only when a degree of col- 
loquial proficiency has been obtained. 

The Professor's system is based upon the following facts : 
For the first two years or so of its life, an infant listens. It 
understands a good deal that is said to it, but it does not 
speak. About the third year, it begins to speak. This shows 
that, in Nature's method, the ear is the first organ appealed 
to. The child, however, has to acquire new ideas as well as 
speech, so its progress is slow. Immigrants into America, 
who know no English, are at first bewildered by the many 
foreign sounds. That state of unpleasant mental confusion 
lasts for two or three weeks. By that time the ear has 
grown accustomed to a few of the sounds. The phrase heard 
oftenest, probably connected with eating and drinking and 
perhaps picked up in a restaurant, is instinctively imitated 
and a simple phrase such as "Please bring me a beef -steak 
and potatoes," is acquired. The learner expands this phrase 
and builds on it, till in a few months only, he is able to speak 
English fluently, often with perfect accuracy. This is what 
is going on every day in America, instancing also the truth 
that languages are learnt by sentences and not by isolated 
words. Now every organ has a memory. If a person 
cannot spell a word, he hastily writes it down and finds that 
the memory in his fingers is better than that in his head. 
In acquiring a language, more than one organ is brought 
into use. An actor who learns his part in the quiet of his 
room, over in his own mind till he is word- 
perfect, finds that at rehearsal he is unable to repeat his 
part aloud without considerable effort. The reason is that 
he has learnt by eye only, and has not practised the memory 
in his tongue and ear. 

Bearing all these points in mind : the Professor gives his 


first lessons on a phonograph. The first lesson is a simple 
but rather long sentence. In a book, this is arranged in 
tabular form with an interlinear English translation. The 
beginner, the open page before him, turns on the machine and 
places the ear-cup to his ear. When the sentence has been 
delivered by the machine three or four times, the ear will 
have learnt the accent and the intonation of most of the 
words, while the eye will have mastered the meaning. The 
lesson must then be repeated aloud with the machine, and in 
a short time the tongue and ear will work together. The 
beginner has drunk in knowledge by several channels at the 
same time ear, eye, tongue, and memory. Necessary gram- 
matical information is imparted with each sentence. After 
the main sentence with its correct pronunciation has been 
mastered with the machine, the student should take up, by 
means of a little book, the study of variations on the main 
sentence, no word or phrase that the student has not already 
acquired being used in the variations. He first reads the 
foreign exercise aloud, and then, looking only at the English 
side, tries to translate. No effort of memory is to be made. 
If a word escapes him, he must at once refresh his memory 
from the page. These short exercises should be repeated at 
least three or four times a day. " In a few days the phrases 
will become second nature to the learner. He will no longer 
think about them but in them." Study, which should not 
exceed 15 or 20 minutes at a stretch, must always be carried 
out aloud. Mere repetition imprints the sentences on the 
ear and memory, in much the same manner as the Morse 
alphabet is learnt for signalling. Olendorf well knew the 
value of repetition, and if his ridiculous and inconsequent 
sentences had not been so repugnant to the youthful mind, 
his popularity might never have waned. 


A systematic study of the grammar, and exercises in read- 
ing and writing, can be taken up after the sentences 
been mastered. 

Now as regards the vocabulary and the number of J 
sons on the phonograph. For Italian, there are only 24 
lessons on the phonograph, i.e. there are 24 " records 
and the vocabulary acquired in these 24 lessons is sufficient 
for all practical colloquial purposes. The most necessary 
words are contained in the first lessons. It has been esti- 
mated that an ordinary English villager, from the day 
he is born to the day he dies, uses in speech no more than 
350 words. (Of course he understands far more). Profes- 
sor Rosenthal estimates that the average educated man uses 
4,000 words in conversation on all general subjects. Lep- 
sius the Egyptologist limits the necessary vocabulary to 
600, while another authority fixes it at 1,500. However, 
be that as it may, arithmetically speaking, "with 40 words 
we can form 1,024,000 sentences of 20 words each." (In 
practice, though, most of these sentences would have to be 
eliminated owing to the forced and unnatural order of the 

Now, the natives of India use a larger vocabulary than 
ordinary English villagers, for not only are they naturally 
more fluent, but Muslims and Hindus generally use different 
words for all common objects: for a "key" the former 
usually say kunji, the latter chabl. 

Further, Oriental idiom and thought differ so widely from 
European, that it would be extremely difficult to arrange, as 
gramophone records, a series of long sentences (with inter- 
linear translation) easily intelligible to a beginner. Short 
sentences, however, could be satisfactorily arranged. As 
regards idiom, take the simple sentence, "It is a fine day." 


Now an Englishman by this means "a sunny day," and if 
he wants to translate this thought he must say, " The sky is 
cloudless." However, an Indian's idea of a fine day is a 
"soft day," and the phrase "fine day" calls up in his mind 
a vision of a drizzly day in spring, a garden, and a summer- 
house. To talk Hindustani, or to translate it, it is first 
necessary to think like a Hindustani; and such thought 
can only be acquired by, first constantly talking with natives 
and, secondly, by reading their colloquial language, the early 
reading lessons being written in pure colloquial language. 
No action is performed well till it is performed unconsciously, 
and no one knows a foreign language till he can think in it 
and talk in it unconsciously, i.e. without thinking over the 
translation. Continental waiters learn to do this in English 
in six months, and it is absurd to suppose that an Englishman 
with sufficient education to pass into and out of Sandhurst 
cannot do the same. What is required is a proper system, 
and proper teachers. Let the beginner, as far as possible, 
follow Professor Rosenthal's practical method. A Munshi, 
who soon tires, is not a good substitute for a gramophone, 
but still he is the best substitute available, and work with 
him can be done aloud. 

A few words as regards the use 0f the text -book. The 
old method of preparing, say 30 lines of Virgil, was to give a 
boy a dictionary and an hour to prepare the task. The boy 
spent an hour in laboriously looking up every word in a large 
dictionary and as often as not in selecting the wrong meaning. 
(Dictionaries are for people who know something of a lan- 
guage ; not for beginners who cannot even talk). Next, the 
boy spent an hour in class with a master, a first-class scholar, 
in unlearning most of what he had acquired in his hour of 
solitary and painful labour. This is the reason that few 


grown men who have not been to the Universities, have any 
real acquaintance with the classics. 

The modern system, and a wise system it is, is to use a 
translation. In an hour, instead of 30 lines, 100 lines are 
read, and the meaning of the author being intelligibly ex- 
pressed, is at once understood : nothing has to be unlearnt, 
and a great deal of the day's lesson sticks in the memory. 
However, a translation to be of any use must be good ; it 
must be idiomatic, not literal and bald. With a bald transla- 
tion, the student is unable to compare the differences in 
structure of the two languages, while the baldness of the 
translation nauseates him. Literal translations do more 
harm than good. 

In studying the text-book, too, the easiest portions should 
be selected and read first. When going over the text-book 
for the third time, the student should keep the English open 
before him and read an English sentence first ; the Munshi 
should then read out aloud the corresponding sentence 
from the text-book. The advantage of this will soon be 

A beginner must recollect that the minds, of illiterate 
people usually work slowly, and that however well he speaks, 
he has probably a strong foreign accent. When driving in a 
tam-tam, do -not suddenly turn round and ask a question from 
the sais. First call to him and wake him out of his reverie, 
and then put your question. 

When I first landed in India, I remember walking on the 
fringe of Lucknow Cantonments with a noted oriental scholar, 
whose instructive conversation had been making a deep im- 
pression on my mind. He suddenly turned to a squatting 
villager and said: "Are there any black partridges about 
this spot ? " To me, newly landed, the question seemed a 


natural one ; for I of course thought that tigers could be shot 
on the outskirts of cities, though for elephants it might be 
necessary to make a long journey of several hours. To the 
villager, the question seemed appalling ; it acted like a spell, 
for he refused even to open, or rather to shut, his mouth. 
Now, admitting that "the fool didn't know his own langu- 
age," what would be your first thought if you were suddenly 
stopped in Piccadilh r by a Chinaman and asked if you could 
direct him to the nearest grouse-moor ? 

With some of the more vigorous and alert villagers of the 
North, extreme caution is unnecessary, but even in dealing 
with these it is advisable to lead gradually up to a subject, 
first asking the villager his name, then the name of his village, 
etc. Study, too, the way natives express the simplest sen- 
tences ; for idiom consists in using simple expressions as a 
native does, and not as most candidates imagine, in collecting 
and learning by heart out-of-the-way words or expressions 
such as "to become camphor" and "the parrot of my hand 
flew away." Why write, "These two rocks exhibit con- 
siderable petrological consanguinity to each other," ' when 
you can express the same idea by some such simple and 
idiomatic sentence as " These rocks are very much alike" ? 
The other day an engaging-looking European suddenly put 
his head into my railway-carriage and said : "Are you alone 
in here ? " His English was perfect, still I at once decided 
he was a foreigner, for an Englishman would probably have 
said "Is there only one in this carriage ? " My questioner, 
it turned out, hailed from America, though he had no 
American accent. 

A native, squatting by the roadside, might be asked what 

1 This sentence actually occurs in a certain Government report. 


he was doing. He would probably reply: "I am doing 
nothing," and such a sentence would certainly be rendered 
by a H. S. candidate, Mai kuchh nahl karta hti. The native 
idiom, however, would be [Mai] Aise hi baitha M "I'm just 
seated like this." 

Those interested in the modern methods of studying 
languages should refer to Professor Rosenthal's pamphlet, 
from which I have so freely borrowed. 

D. C. P. 

September 1910. J 



URDU, like Persian and Arabic, is written and read from 
right to left, and the first page of an Urdu book would usually 
be the last page of an English book. 

i n '. 



Kame. j tached 


L rau - 








a, etc. 




this at the commence- 

ment of a word is a 

mere prop for the 

letter hamza, and has 

no sound of itself; 

after a consonant it 

serves merely to pro- 
long the vowel fatkah. 






r. '. 

as in English. 







as in English. 






a soft dental, like the t 

in the Italian words 

sotto. petto. 




* I 

tr J 

something like the t in 

tin-tack. 'Vide' (1), 

p. xxiii. 











A S 




like s in st7. 






like j in ?'az7. 




like ch in church. 







a strong aspirate, some- 
thing like the h in 


j- M 


. s. 

guttural, like the Scotch 


ch in Zoc^. 


* d 


> ,5 

soft dental. 


3 d 


a 3 

something like the d 

in dog ; ' vide' (1), p. 






A i 

as in zeal. 





^ ; 

a distinct lingual like 

the French r. 





> 3 

a hard r ; 'vide' (6), p. 






J 1 J 

as in zeal. 





> J 

like the z in azure. 





- *. 

as in sit. 





^ ^, 

as in s^ttf. 


O* 5 



a ^, 

as in sit. 





-i ^ 

as in sea?. 





t J, 

like t in iie. 




L * 

. " 

Ja S> 

as in zeal. 

'ayn ^ 


* c 

a guttural ( consonant) . 

lhayn\ i 




a guttural, something 
like the g in the Ger- 


man word sagen. 



Trans - 



t ached 



r^ o uucia ion. 










as in fin. 







like ck in ,<tfwc&, pro- 

nounced very gut- 




k & 

i: r 

as in English. 







hard, as in give. 

lam J 



i J 

as in lane : often more 

dental than in Eng- 


mim / 

m \ r 



as in English. 

nun & 

n v 



sometimes as in Eng- 

lish but often more 

dental ; sometimes 

nasally, vide (14), p. 


waw ) 

w,etc. y 



as hi war, at the begin- 

ning of a word or 



h * 



as in hand ; vide (15), p. 


ye <JT 

y, etc. ^ 



as in yard, at the begin- 

ning of a word or syl- 


All these letters in Arabic are consonants. There are also 
three short vowels: a ( _^_ ), i ( "7 ) and u ( _L ). The 
a and u are written (or understood) over the consonant to 
which they may belong, the i under; and they are pro- 
nounced after their consonant. 1 

In practice the short vowels are seldom written or printed. 


Alif ( t ) at the beginning of a syllable is. practically speak- 
ing, merely a prop for a short vowel.. 

The consonants t - j ^ are weak consonants or semi-vowels, 
and are allied respectively to the short vowels a, u, and i. 
When a weak consonant is preceded by its allied short vowel, 
it becomes a letter of prolongation, i.e. it prolongs the short 
vowel, or, in other words, it ceases to be a consonant, but com- 
bines with its short vowel to form a long vowel. In this case 
it is equivalent to a long accent over a vowel in the Roman 

Supposing it is desired to transliterate bd into the Persian 
character. First take the consonant v ; * nen mark it with 
its vowel, i.e. a ; lastly, to show that the sound of the vowel 
is prolonged, add the weak consonant that is allied to the 
vowel a, viz. alif, thus ^ ; here alif is no longer a consonant 
but is merely the long accent over a. 

When a weak consonant is preceded by an unallied short 
vowel, the two form a diphthong (Hindi). 

When a consonant has no vowel, it is " silent." and is pointed 
with a jazm, which is like a circumflex accent ( _A_ or _^_ ), i.e. 
speaking practically, when two consonants come together, the 
first is pointed with the jazm. When a consonant is doubled, 
it has the mark tashdtd ( * ) placed over it. 

The following examples illustrate the system of transliter- 
ating the vowels and diphthongs. It will be noticed that 
whenever a Hindustani word begins with what is considered 
a vowel in English, the first letter is always the consonant 
alif : 

wt ab now, Jf ag fire, X <j[ is ka of its, his, *<&>[ Ikli sugar- 


cane, -X>l ek one, K ^ us ka of that, his, ^"f ud otter, 


os dew, L~J| aisa such, ;y crar (or awr) and, 

jj-j 6as enough, ctb 6aZ word, i- be (prep.) without, cw din 
day, n*!i> dm religion. ^ ^ ?^6 lady, ^ lo take ye, ^- bed 

t ^9 

willow, cuJ but idol, ->J^ 6wd f. drop, *~^> 6osa kiss, ^j bu scent 
(in Urdu, j> bo). <J*J bail (really bayl 1 ) "ox," ^L ^a "is," 
^ hi (an emphatic particle), J^J baul ( or 6t<;/) urine, j~* sau 
(saw*) a hundred. 

The letter 'ayn (^ 8 ) : 

Jlic 'agZ sense, unite 'adat habit, ^JLc 't7m knowledge, x^ 7! 


A/ ^ 

religious festival, _>w> 'wwrage, ^* 'ud aloes, w*j.c 'a*6 * defect.. 

o;y= 'aural 6 woman, >*? 6a'd after, t***mi'da (Ar.) stomach. 


g>/o mu'jiza miracle, ^_^ s^ar' sacred law, gl-o zt7' district, 

' ^ 

aUi shu'a' rays of the sun, fj^j rai')?' name of a month, ?yLt> 

^w?w' rising of the sun. 

This system of transliteration is that employed in most 
grammars and dictionaries. It is not, however, quite logical. 

I But in the Nagari character it is bail. 

* But in transliterating from the NagarT character sau would be 

* This consonant is represented by an inverted comma above the 
line. * Or 'ayb 5 Or 'atvrat. 


For instance, v** an ^ &)}* should be transliterated 'uyb and 
'awrat, for ^ and 3 are consonants, except when they are 
letters of prolongation (i.e. equivalent to a long accent over 
a Roman vowel) . 

According to Arab grammarians, a syllable cannot begin 
with a vowel. Hamzah ( ? and f ), the first letter of their 
alphabet, is not a vowel, vide Appendix D. No syllable in 
Arabic can begin with two consonants; Smith becomes 
Ismith. In Hindi, however, some words do begin with two 
or more consonants, as : stri " woman." 


(1) The hard letters t ( & } and th ( *> , d ( 5 ) and dh 
( 4*5 ), and r ( } } and rh ( **j ) are peculiar to Hindi. Any 
word containing a hard letter is therefore Hindi. So, too, 
are the soft compounds ph ( A$J \ th &#> ), dh ( &*s ) and 
chh ( * ). 

(2) The letter zh ( $ ) is peculiar to Persian. The letters p 
( sj ). ch ( g ), and g ( ^ ) are common to Hindi and Persian. 

(3) The letters s ( ), h ( c ), M ( ) s (>'),?( u >- 
z ( u ), ( i ), 2 ( ). '( ), and 9 or & ( i5 ). are peculiar 
to Arabic. 

(4) Hamza ( * ), which in Arabic is in reality an additional 
letter with a peculiar sound of its own, is in Urdu generally 
the equivalent of a hyphen, as : Fd,ida 8^l [fa-ida] :; bene- 
fit" ; ;a,o V^- [fa-o] "go." Vide Appendix D. 

(5) When enunciating the Urdu soft sounds t, d, 1 and their 
compounds th and dh, the tip of the tongue should touch 
the upper front teeth. When, however, pronouncing the 
corresponding hard letters, the underside of the tip of the 
tongue should touch the palate above the upper front teeth. 

(6) When pronouncing r ( j , 3 the tip of the tongue must 
be turned much farther back, so that the underneath may 
strike the roof of the mouth. 

1 In a few Persian words, is sometimes found, as in ^ 

2 These two letters are properly softer and more dental than the 
corresponding English letters. 

3 The letter r is not found at the beginning of a word, nor is it ever 


Soft r 0) is a lingual as in French. 

(7) 5, cr *, u ?> are Urdu homophones, though not 
so in Arabic. They are all pronounced like the a in ait. 1 

(8) c fc is often pronounced like A, but should be more 
guttural than the h in huge. 

(9) i 2, 3 z, i> ?, * z are in Urdu homophones and are pro- 
nounced like the z in zeal. { 

(10) t is a strong palatal, but vulgarly is pronounced like 

(11) a (') is a strong guttural (consonant), difficult for a 
European to distinguish. The Indians and the Persians 
pronounce it differently from each other, but neither pro- 
nounce it as do the Arabs. 

(12) i gh. is a guttural g accompanied by a rattling. The 
r in the French grasseye is an approximation only. 

(13) <3 <? is a strong guttural, like the ck in stuck when pro- 
nounced in the throat. 

(14) o n as in not but more dental. In certain cases it is 
nasal as in the French bon (Vide Appendix F). In Urdu a 
final nasal n may be distinguished by the omission of its 
dot, as u In the Roman character nasal n is generally 
transliterated n or ~ . in this edition by the latter sign. Be- 
fore b and p, it is often pronounced ra. (There is practically 
no nasal n in Persian and Arabic). 

(15) X h as in hand. As a final letter in Urdu and Persian 
(not in Arabic) * generally ' silent ' or ' imperceptible ' and is 
then pronounced like a, as : *il^ khanci. AXJ banda. It is 

I In reading the Qur'an, an attempt is made to give these letters 
their Arabic pronunciation. 

* There is no silent h in Arabic. The aspirated final h of Arabic 
becomes a in Persian and Urdu, thus tnalikah "queen" becomes 


aspirated in such words as t; rah "way. road," ^ shah 
"king," *Ji dih " village," and their contracted forms *> rah, 
A shah, i dih. This letter is generally written in its 
"butterfly" form when used to aspirate the consonants b, 
p, t, t, j, d. d, r, k, g, } as in ^V bhi " also " : but in its ' hang- 
ing ' form when a separate letter, as ^. bihl " quince." 
This convention is not universal. 

(16) y w or v. In a few Persian words, it is silent ^"de- 
viated ") after a kh, as : *tj^- khwdh " whether," ^^ khtid 

"self," i-fy^- Wdrak "food." It is also used to prolong 

the short vowel u as in y bu. Further it is made to do 

duty for the Hindi vowel o. 2 which is not found in the Arabic 

(17) The Hindi letter chh (in Urdu a double letter &#*.) is 
an aspirated ch as in the English ivatch-him pronounced 
without a hyphen. 

(18) <j> y as in yard. It is also used to prolong the short 
vowel i as in ^ bi. Further it is made to do duty for the 
Hindi vowel e 2 ( *Z), for which there is no equivalent in the 
Arabic alphabet. 

(19) These letters should be practised, i.e. pronounced 
aloud, at first under the direction of a Munshi. In a short 
time, not only will their pronunciation cease to be an effort 
to the tongue, but the ear also will learn to distinguish the 

1 These strongly aspirated consonants (Hindi) are in the Nagari 
character single letters and not compounds as in Urdu. If the Eng- 
lish word up-hill be pronounced uph-ill, the sound of ^j (15) ph can 
be ascertained. 

* There is no o or e sound in Arabic. When the Persians adopted 
the Arabic character, they extended the use of the consonants j and 
^ to represent the sounds "unknown" to Arabs, viz. o and e. In 
modern Persian, however, these sounds no longer exist, their place 
being taken by u and I. 


difference in sound, and thus many spelling mistakes (which 
are frequently mistakes of pronunciation) will be avoided. 

(20) The short vowel a is pronounced like the u in the 
English word " gun " ; i as in " fin " ; u as in " put " ; a as 
in "father": i as in "marine"; u as the doubled o in 
" boot " ; e as in " they " ; o as in " go." The Hindi diph- 
thongs ai ' and an l as the ai in " aisle " when pronounced as 
a diphthong and as ow in " how," but vulgarly more like o or 
the aw in chaw. 

(21) Pronounce every syllable and every letter of each 
word : say sa-kib, and not saib or sdhb. Above all, do not 
shorten a final short vowel that should be long : say pant 
and kawwa, and not pant and kawwa or worse still kawa. 
Accent is less strong than in English and is subordinate to 

(22) The same consonant doubled must always be pro- 
nounced twice as pat-ta m. "leaf." In Urdu, a consonant 
that is doubled is written once only. The mark tashdid 

" strengthening," may be placed over it to indicate it is 

di " 

doubled, as in lL. Say pat-thar j%^t ("stone") and not 

path-ar. Vide also Appendix G. 

(23) When a consonant is ' quiescent,' that is when it is 
not followed by a short vowel, it may have the sign or * 

O ' 

placed over it. as in X~A> masjid " mosque." 

l Note that the diphthongs are Hindi, and are represented in the 
Persian character by the equivalents of ay and aw. Vide also Appen- 
dix G 




Hindustani has no word which corresponds exactly with 
our definite article the : occasionally, the demonstrative pro- 
nouns yih "this," and wuh "that," are employed as articles. 
The place of our indefinite article a or an is supplied by the 
numeral ek "one," or by the definite pronoun ko,l "some, a 
certain" ; thus, ek adrm or ko,i adml "a man, some man, or 
a certain man." 


(a) Gender. All substantives are either masculine or 
feminine, except a few which are of both genders. Males 
are masculine., and females feminine. With regard to life- 
less things, practice must determine their gender. As a 
general rule, however, all abstract nouns and names of 
things and irrational beings ending in are feminine ; those 
in t are also feminine., if derived from Arabic roots; and 
those in ish, if derived from Persian verbal roots. All 
nouns in t and ish, not restricted as above., and all nouns in 
sh, are uncertain. (Paw, water, ghi, clarified butter, daht 
curd, hathi, elephant, mott, a pearl, and jl, mind, are mas- 


(b)Declen.non.The various cases are expressed by means 
of terminations, called postpositions. These answer the same 
purpose as our prepositions. The following scheme shows 
the postpositions and their signification. One example will 
suffice for all substantives. 

Declension of a Hindustani Noun. 

Singular. Plural. 

Nominative (and Ace.) mard. 1 mard, men, the men. 

man, the man. 

Genitive mard-ka, -ke, -H, of mardd-ka, -ke, -, ot 


Dative and Ace mard-ko, to mardo-ko, to etc. 

man. or man. 

Ablative mard-se, from or with mardo-se, from etc. 

\ man. 

f mard-me, in man. mardo-me, in etc. 

J ) mard-par, on man. mardo-par, on etc. 
j * 

(. mard-tak, up to man. mardo-tak. up to etc. 
Agent mard-ne, by man. mardo-ne, by etc. 

\Vocative ay mard, man. ay mardo, men. 

(c) The above example with slight modifications is appli- 
cable to all the substantives of the language. It will be 
observed that the nominative singular mard remains unaltered 
as a root. The nominative plural is the same as the singular. 
The vocative plural always ends in o, having dropped the 
nasal n ( ~ ) of the preceding cases. 

1 For pronunciation, vide Introduction Part II. 


Exception 1. Feminine nouns (even some ending in 5) are 
declined exactly like mard, except that they add the syllable 
e in the nominative plural, or a if the singular ends in ? (or 
u Hindi); thus, mez "a table"; nom. plural meze; 
bo P. "odour," pi. bH,e; roil "bread, a loaf"; nominative 
plural, rotiya.* In the oblique cases plural, they add 5 as in 
the example already given; thus, mezo Ico, to the tables, 
rotiyo-se, from the loaves. A few peculiarities are dealt with 
in Lesson 53. 

Exception 2. Masculine nouns ending in a or a, if purely 
Indian, and many masculines ending in the unmarked a or 
imperceptible h (by Hindus often written with a long a), 
change their final vowel into e in the oblique cases singular 
and nominative plural, and into 5 for the oblique cases plural. 
Thus, kuttd "a dog"; gen. sing, kutte-kd, -ke, -kt : voc. sing. 
ay kutte : nom. plur. kutte ; gen. plur. etc. kutto-ka, -ke, -ki ; 
voc. plur. ay kutto: baniya' 1 "grain-merchant"; gen sing' 
baniye kd ; nom. plur. baniye'; gen plur. baniyo kd. So, 
banda&sl&ve; gen. sing, bande-kd, -ke, -ki: nom. plural bande ; 
gen. bando-kd, etc. Masculine nouns in d, not purely Hindi, 
but borrowed from the Arabic, Persian, or Sanskrit, are not 
necessarily subject to this inflection. For example, da,na P. 
"a sage," pita S. "a father," are not inflected; the gen. 
sing, is ddnd-kd, etc. ; nom. plur. ddnd ; gen. plur. dana,o kd, 
etc. Again dddd, paternal grandfather, may or may not be 
inflected as : gen. sing, ddde-kd or dadd-kd ; plur. dddo-kd or 
dddd,o-kd ; etc. ; but the inflected form is now rarely used 
Vide also L. 59. 

1 Note this euphonic change from I in the sing, to iya. Masculine 
nouns in * make no change for the nom. plur., as: moti nom. sing, 
and plur. ; gen. plur. motiyd ka. 2 Or baniya. 


(d) The nominative can always be used as a vocative, as : 
kutta "0 dog," instead of ay (or ai) kutte. 

Remark. In Hindi ta,l is sometimes substituted for ko, and 
talak or tori or Id for tak. 


(a) Adjectives are generally placed before their substan- 
tives and agree with them in gender. Adjectives ending in 
any letter except a, are indeclinable Bechari (f.) is an ex- 
ception to this rule. 

(6) The termination a is used before a masculine noun 
only, and in the nominative case singular (or the accusative 
case, if under the nominative form). The termination e is used 
before a substantive masculine, in any case singular, where a 
postposition or interjection is used or understood, or before 
any masculine in the plural number. Lastly, i is used always 
before a feminine noun. Thus, bara ghar "a large house"; 
bare ghar ka "of a large house"; plur bare ghar, "large 
houses " ; bare gharo par "on the large houses." Again, kitab 
"a book," being feminine, we say, bari kitab " a large book "; 
ban kitab me, " in a large book " ; ban kitabe " large books," 
etc. Adjectives purely Arabic, Persian, or Sanskrit, and 
ending in a, are not necessarily subject to any change or 

(e) In like manner, the genitive case of a noun or pro- 
noun generally precedes the word which governs it; and 
the use of ka, ke, or H; ra, re, or n; and na, ne, or m, 
in the formation of such genitives, is determined by the 
same rule that regulates the a. e and I of the adjective. 
Hence, in Hindustani, the application of all genitives, nouns 


and pronouns, is precisely that of the declinable adjective ; 
thus, mard ka is used when the noun belonging to it is 
mascuKne. and in the nom case singular ; as. mard ka beta, 
mard ka ghora, etc " the man's son, horse," etc. When 
the word belonging to mard is masculine, but not in the 
nom. singular (or the sing. ace. form without ko), then ke 
must be used; as, mard ke bete ko, "to the man's son"; 
mard ke beto ko "to the man's sons." When the word be- 
longing to mard is feminine, in all cases H is used ; as. mard 
H joru "the man's wife"; mard ki beti ko "to the man's 
daughter " ; mard H betiyfi, '' the man's daughters." 

(d) In English, when we use the verb 'to be' in making 
an assertion, we put the nominative first, then the verb, and 
lastly the thing asserted : as, ' my father is wise ' ; ' that 
man is ignorant.' In Hindustani the rule is. first the nomi- 
native, then the thing asserted, and last of all the verb ; thus, 
mera bap dJana hai " my father wise is " ; so wuh admi nd 
dan hai, " that man ignorant is." 


(a) The personal pronouns are thus declined : 
Sing. First Person. Plur. 

Nom. mat, I, ham (always m.), we. 

Gen. mera, mere, men, " ham-drd, -are, -art. 

D. and A. mujh-ko or mujhe, ham-ko, or -e. 

Ab. mujh-se, ham-se. 

Loc. mujh-me, -par, -tak. ham-me, -par, -tak. 

Agt. mai-ne, ham-ne. 


Sing Second Person. Plur. 

Norn. tu, turn, you. 

Gen. tera, tere, ten, tum-hara. -hare, -hari. 

D. and A tujh-ko or tujhe, tum-ko or, -he. 

Ab tujh-se, tum-se. 

LOG. tujh-me, -par, -tak, tum-me, -par, -tak. 

Agt. tu-ne, tum-ne. 

(b) It will be observed that the first and second personal 
pronouns, 'I' and 'thou,' have a declension peculiar to 

In the first place, the gen. sing, ends in ra, re, ri, and the 
gen. plur. in ara or hara, are or hare, an or hari instead of the 
ka, ke, kl of the substantives. The other cases singular are 
formed by adding the requisite postpositions to the oblique 
forms or inflections mujh and tujh ; at the same time, the 
dative and accus. may optionally add ko or e. The cases 
denoting the agent sing, are formed by adding ne to the 
nom., as, mal-ne and tu-ne, and not mujh-ne, etc. 1 

(c) The rest of the pronouns are simple in their declen- 
sion ; all that is requisite is to remember the nom. and oblique 
form or inflection of each ; thus, yih, he, etc., inflect, is-ka. 
ke, -kl. 

Sing. Third Person. Plur. 

Nom. yih? he, she, it, or this, yih (old ye) they, these. 

Gen. is-ka, -ke, -H, in-kd, ke, -kl. 

Dat. is-ko or is-e. in-ko, or inhe. 

1 But when a noun in apposition comes after mat and tu, they are 
changed into mujh and tujh, as mujh ghar'tb ne ; tujh nadan ne. 

2 Properly yah and wah ; compare yaha "here" and waha "there." 


Sing. Third Person. Plur. 

Ac. yih, is-ko, or is-e. yih. in-ko, inhe 

Ab. is-se. in-se. 

LOG is-me, -par, -tak, in-me, -par, -tak. 

Agt. is-ne, inho-ne. 

(d) Exactly like yih are declined the four following pro- 
nouns. It will be sufficient here to give the nominative and 
inflection of each, singular and plural. 

Nom ivuh, 1 he, she, it, that. wuh (old we), they or 

Inflec. us-kd, -ke, kl. etc., un-? -kd, -ke, -H 


Nom. kaun, who ? kaun, who ? 

Inflec. kis-kd, -ke, -kl, etc., kin-kd, -ke, -H. 


Nom. jo, he who, etc., jo, they who. 

Inflec. jis-kd, -ke, -H, etc., jin-kd, -ke, -In. 


Nom. so 8 (old) that same, so (old) those same 

Inflec. tis-kd, -ke -ki, etc. tin-led, -ke. -H. 

(old) : (old). 

1 Properly yah and wah ; compare yaha "here" and waha "there. 

2 Agent case, unhd ne ; and jinhd ne. 

3 In Modern Urdu wuh is used. 


( e ) The following interrogative is applicable, either to 
the singular or plural : 
Nom. kya, what ? : Inflec. kdhe-kd, -ke, -fce, of what ? etc. 

In pure Urdu, however, the oblique cases of kaun are used 
for those of kya. The forms, kdhe-kd, and kdhe-ko, may 
occasionally occur, but not the others. 

(/) The word dp. self, gives, as a possessive adjective, 
ap-nd, -ne. -m "of or relating to self, own." The word dp 
is also employed when addressing respectable persons of any 
position in life, or speaking of a superior, in the sense of 
Your Honour. Your Worship, His Honour, etc. Vide L. 31. 

(g) The indefinites are ko,i, and kuchh "some, a, any." 
The inflection of ko,i is kisi or kisu, of which kisu is the 
older form. The plural is ka,i (or kaj, ek) "some, several." 
To these may be added har, or har-ek " every," which has no 
inflection. Sab "every, or all," when accompanied by its 
substantive, is indeclinable; but when used by itself, in an 
emphatic sense, it has sabho (or sab) for the oblique cases 
plural; as, sab log kahte hoi "all people say"; sabho ne 
kahd "by all it was said" ; but in modern Urdu sab ne or 
sabhi ne kahd is preferred. The compound jo-ko,l " whoso- 
ever." has a double inflection, jis-kisi-kd, -ke, -kl. 


(a) The Hindustani verb is very regular. The accent 
always falls on the root syllable, as : gir-nd. The infinitive 
or verbal noun always ends in m; as girna "to fall," also 
"falling" a masculine noun subject to inflection ; as, girne 
kd "of falling"; girne ko "to" or "for, falling." Bv 


striking off the syllable nd, we have the root of the verb, 
which is also the second person singular of the imperative ; 
as, gir "fall thou." By changing nd into td we have the 
present participle, as: girtd (hu.d) "falling," By leaving 
out the n of the infinitive we have the past participle, as : 
gird (hu,d) "fallen." But when either of the long vowels a 
or o precedes the nd ; the n is changed into y ; as land " to 
bring," Idyd "brought." From these three principal parts 
of the verb, viz. gir, girtd and gird, all the other parts are 
formed, either by the addition of terminations or by means 
of the following two auxiliary tenses : 


1. mat hu, I am. Jiam hat, we are. 

2. tu hai, thou art, ' turn ho, you are. 

3. wuh hai, he, she, or it is. wuh hai, they are. 


1. mai thd or thi, 1 I was. ham the* we were. 

2. tu thd or thi, 1 thou wast. turn the or thl, 1 you were. 

3. wuh thd or thl, 1 he, she wuh the or thl, 1 they were. 

or it was. 

(6) In the first of the tenses there is no distinction 
between the masculine and feminine, but in the second or 
past tense, the forms thd and the are masculine, and thi and 
thl are feminine. Tn the first person plural, the* is also used 
for the feminine instead of thl. It is a universal rule, that 
except in the Aorist and the Imperative, the verb agrees with 
its nominative in gender as well as in number ; thus, the 

l Thl and thi feminine. * Ham is always masc, 


masculine singular is a, the feminine singular is I, the masc. 
plur. e, and the fern. plur. ! (contracted for iya). As a 
general rule, it is sufficient to add the nasal n ( ~ ) to the last 
word of the feminines in the plural ; as, girtl thl, not girffi 


(a) Adverbs present little difficulty. The following are 
a few examples: Aj, "to-day"; kal, "yesterday"; turant. 
"quickly"; jhat, "instantly": yaha, "here." These are 
original Hindi. 

(&) Some prepositions are also adverbs : as, age " ahead " ; 
(but as a preposition "in front of"). [In VII it will be seen 
that prepositions are really substantives]. 

(c) Zor se, Urdu, "by force "= ba-zor, Persian, which 
latter also occurs in Urdu: dur tak, "far"; ban dwdz se, 
"loudly." These are substantives with a preposition or 

(d) Rat din (Hindi) or shab o roz (Persian) "night and 
day," i.e. all the 24 hours ; roz roz (or har roz) "every day " ; 
zabardasti [se] " by force " ; jaldl [se] = jald " quickly." These 
are merely substantives. 

(e)J<M. " quickly " : dur, " far " ; wuh bard phurtlld hai, 
"he is very smart, active." These are simply adjectives. 
Vide L. 61 (c). 

(/) The adjectives aisd, waisd, Una, jitnd (uninflected), 
etc., are also used as adverbs qualifying verbs, as : jaisd kiyd 
waisd pdyd= " as he sowed, so he reaped." Sometimes they 
are inflected adverbially, as : aise, waise, etc. 

1 For paradigm of verb vide Lesson 7. 


(g) Niz, "also"; hamesha, "always" : ahistaahisa, "slowly, 
silently " ; rafta rafta, " by degrees." These are real Persian 

(h) Ittifdq-an. " b}^ chance," is an Arabic substantive in 
the Ar. ace. case. 

(i) Adjectives in ana. are especially adverbial : as, Sipa- 
hiyana "soldier-like, in a soldierly manner": shahdna, "royal; 
in a royal manner." 

(j) The Con j . Participle is sometimes adverbial: as, Jan 
bujhkar. " knowingly, on purpose"; is se barh-kar, "more 
than this " ; dthupke ana, " to come secretly." [Dida o 
ddnistaP. "on purpose."] 

(k) Other adverbs are ab kl daf'a, " this time " ; aur kahl, "some- 
where else" ; jaha kahl, " wherever" ; kahl no kahl, " somewhere or 
other"; kdbhl nahi, "never"; kabhi kabhl, "sometimes"; fab 
kabhi, " whenever " ; kabhi na kabhl, " at some time or other." Vide 
also L. 61 (c) (4). 


(a) Strictly speaking there are none. Their place is taken 
by masculine and feminine nouns followed by a postposition 
sometimes expressed but usually understood. Thus, ghar he 
age, "before the house" really stands for ghar ke age me, 
"in the front of the house." This explains why some 
prepositions are masculine and some feminine. 

(6) Prepositions may precede or follow the nouns they 
govern, and occasionally when they follow their noun, the 
postposition ke or H that precedes them is omitted, as : us 
pas, for uske pas. The ke is usually omitted before par, 
" across, the other side." 

(c) Manand, "like," if it precedes its noun, is masculine 
and takes ke ; if it follows, it is feminine and takes H. 


(^) Us ke sdth or hamrah means "in company with 
him," but us ke samet = " taking him along with (me)": 
samet is used of lifeless things, animals, children, servants, 
prisoners, etc. ; it cannot be applied to superiors. Sipdhl 
paltan ke sath (not samet} gayd. Mai naukar samet (or ke sdth) 
gayd. Sath and hamrah are never used for lifeless things. 

(e) A few Persian and Arabic prepositions occur. These 
precede their substantive, which remains in the nominative 
form, as : be-hukm " without an order " ; be-chdra " helpless." 

Hindi nouns in a are, however, inflected, as : be-samjhe ' 
" without understanding (it) " ; be-thikdne " without trace." 

(/) The Hind! preposition or postposition bind, contracted 
bin, usually precedes (but may follow) an inflected noun as : 
bin samjhe 1 "without understanding"; bin ddne pdm = 
"without food"; bin jane 1 adv. "without knowing, un- 

Bin is also a negative prefix, as : bin-boyd, adj. " unsown." 


The following are common :Shdbdsh " well-done ! " (ad- 
miration) ; kyd khubl "how excellent!" (astonishment and 
denial) ; wdh wdh ! (for admiration and astonishment) : lo 
and lijiye (lit. " take ") = " lo ! ", " behold ! ", and, " hulloa ! " ; 
hai "hulloa!" (surprise); hay hay "alas!" but hai hai 
"what a pity!", "what a difficulty!" and also "alas!"; 
chhi chhi 4 " fie fie ! " ; " uff ! (expresses disgust) ; uh " I don't 
care ! " 

here Pa8t P"*' 01 '? 168 (inflected), used as 
among8t ha lf-ca8tes; hence "the chhi chhl 



Mard, m. 
Admi, m. 

Insan, m. 
Bat, f. 

Bat-chit, f. 
Khayal, m. 1 

Safed, adj. 
i, f. 

P*Za, adj., Hindi. 

Pila-pan? m., Hindi. 
Zard, Persian. 
Zardi, f., Persian. 

Razi, adj. 
Na-rdz, adj. 


Man (as opposed to woman). 
A human being (from Adam) ; 

sometimes a servant; vulg. 

husband or wife. 

Man (in the sense of man- 

A word, talking ; matter, 


Idea, thought ; imagination 
(and hence mind). 


Whiteness ; whitewash ; also 
the white of an egg. 

Yellow ; also pale from sick- 
ness, etc. 


Yellowness; also the yolk (of 
an egg). 

Pleased, satisfied ; (in Punjab 
also well, in good health). 

Displeased, dissatisfied. 

1 Vulgarly MiiyaL The short vowels, especially of Arabic words 
are often incorrectly pronounced in Urdu. 

2 All nouns ending in pan (= English ness) are masculine. 


Raza-mandi, f. Consent. 

'A jab, adj. Strange (also as an expression 

of astonishment). 

Wonderful, strange, rare. 
Wonder, astonishment. 

An atom ; a little ; please ; 

'A jib, adj. 
Ta'ajjub, m. subs. 

Zarra, subs., adj., and adv. 

(when used as an adjective 

pronounced zara). 
Zara-sa, adj. 
Su,l, f. 

Gharl, f. 
Gora, adj. 

Chauki, f. 
Pdya, m. 

Hisab, m 
Wildyat, f . 

Wilayati, adj. 

Lambd, adj. 
Lamba,i, f. 
, adj. 

A smallish quantity. 

A needle : also the hand of a 


Fair ; hence a British soldier 

or sailor. 
Chair, bench ; also a police 


A leg of a chair, table, etc. ; 
a pillar; also leg of a 
slaughtered animal (used as 

Account, reckoning. 

A foreign country; hence 
Kabul; hence also England 

English; also belonging to 

Short, or small. 


Bal, m., used in sing, or pi. Hair. 

Ma'lum, Ar., past part, (from What is known, known 


'Urn, knowledge). 
Chihra, m. 
Khidmat, f. 
Khidmat-gar, m. 

Iman, m. 

Be-tman, adj. 
Be-din, adj. 
Diyanat, f . 
Diyanat-dar , adj. 
Bad-diyanat, adj. 

(used for abstract ideas only). 



Any personal servant ; (a- 
mongst Europeans) a table- 

Trust ; religious belief ; 

(Lit. without faith), dishonest. 

Without religion, irreligious. 




Qissa, Ar., m., Kahani, H., f. Tale, story, narrative. 

Ki, conj. 

To, 1 conj. and adv. 

Nahl to, conj. 
Afsos, subs., m. 
Afsos! inter j. 
Pasand, adj. and subs. 
Na-pasandi, f. 


Then, in that case ; at least ; as 
for ; I admit ; also used as a 
correlative of agar and jab. 


Sorrow, grief. 


Approved, liked: approval. 


1 Often use 1 as a particle of emphasis ; there is no exact equiva- 
lent in English. The use of this very idiomatic particle can be learnt 
from the examples. 


Andesha, pi. andeshe, m. Anxiety, anxious thought. 

J-Or, f. (and m.) Thought, reaction, and 

sometimes = andesha. 

RanjS no pi., m. Grief, sorrow, pain of mind, 


- . Your Honour (requires a verb 

in the third person plural). 
Kam. Work., business. 

Shikayat, f Complaint, accusation ; (also 

in high Urdu, ailment). 

Bhari. adj. Heavy; important, serious. 

Der, f. subs., and adj. Late ; lateness ; delay 

Deri, f . subs, (nob good Urdu) . Lateness. 
Itnl der me. In the meanwhile ; while this 

was going on. 

Ear, pron. Every, each. 

Ear ek, pron. Each one. 

Risala? pi. risdle, m. Native cavalry ; a pamphlet. 

Ab. Now. 

Abhi. This very moment. 

Larnd (kin se) . To fight (with). 

And, int. To come. 

Taiydr, adj. Ready, prepared. 

Hdzir, adj. Present. 

Sdth (sang), prep, and subs. With ; accompaniment. 

' Ranj aur gharri, sing. = various kinds of affliction. 

2 Most nouns ending in the silent Persian h are masculine. 



Banda, pi. bande, m. ; 
(fern, bandi and bdndi). 

Khudd kd banda, m. 


Kutti or kutyd. 

Hdthi, m., Hathm, f. 

Lom,n, f. (^Y. and /?gr.) 




Qusur, m. 


Hu,d, m., etc.. 7tw,t, f. 

Yaha, adv. 

Fa/if, adv. (emphatic). 

Servant ; slave ( = your hum- 
ble servant, with verb in 
3rd. pers. sing.). 

God's creature, i.e. man ; vulg. 
applied also to animals. 









Not, no. 


Became (past tense of hond 
"to be" and "to become"). 


In this very place. 


(a) The difference between hotd hai " is, is becoming," and 
hai "is, exists," is that hotd hai indicates (1) what is habi- 
tually happening, as : Eoz roz (or liar roz) is trup me jhagrd 
hotd hai " there are (always) daily quarrels in this troop " ; 
Garmiyo me is na,dl me pdni pdydb hotd hai '' this river is 

1 The fern, is used by women, only when they speak of themselves, 
as : bandl ab chali=" I am now going." Vide also L. 53 (/) (2). 


fordable throughout the hot season " ; substitute hai and 
the meaning is " This river is fordable now." f Continuous 
action, however, without a break, is expressed by rahtd hai, 
as : Is nadt me pant paydb rahtd hai " this river is fordable 
throughout the year "] ; (2) present action, as : Abht bdrish 
hoti hai " it is now raining " ; (3) a general truth, as : Ghan 
me, do su,iyn hoti hai " watches have two hands." Hai 
indicates a particular thing or existence, as : Yurap ke 
rahne-wdle gore hote hai (not hai) " Europeans are fair " ; but 
mera bhd.t gord hai " my brother is fair " ; Chauki me char 
pd,e hote hai (not hat) " chairs have four legs " ; but is 
chauki me pach pd,e hat (not hote hat) "this chair has five 
legs"; Khudd hai "there is a God, God exists"; Wuh 
darakht ab tak hai "that tree still exists." 

Note. Ma'lum hai "it is known"; ma'lum hotd hai "it 
appears, it seems." 

(b) Thd signifies "was" at a particular moment; 7m ,5 
signifies "became." The English "was" has often to be 
rendered by hud and not by thd ; when in English " became " 
can be substituted for " was," it must be translated by hu,a. 

(c) To, as an Enclitic, is not always translatable : vide 
note 1, page 15. Dekho to "Just look"; yih to sach hahl 
"now that's not true." 

(d) Is the (your) master Sahib ' hat (vulg. hai) ? 
at home ? 

My account (or reckoning) is Hamdrd 1 hisdb thtk hai, 
right and yours is wrong. tumhara a ' 

1 Sahib as a term of respect requires a plural verb. 

2 In Lucknow and Delhi mera would be used. In Delhi tera for 
small children or menial servants ; but in Lucknow the singular tera 
is only used in poetry or in addressing the Deity. 

That man's hair is long. 
He is pale. 

Is your khidmatydr (table- 
servant) a dishonest man ? 


LESSON 2. 19 

Us mard ke bdl lambe hai. 
Us kd rhihra zard hai. 

Kyd, tumhdrd khidmat-gdr 
be-vmdn (or bad-diydnat) 

Wildyat me yih bat nahl hai 

(or hofi hai). 
Wuh zard bhl ' nd-rdz na hu,d. 

This is not 

He was not in the least 

annoyed, put out. 

This is a wonderful story, tale Yih kahdm bahut *ajib hai. 
I think about this a great deal. Mujhe is bdt kd bard khaydl 

The funny thing is that he 'Ajab to yih hai ki wuh is bdt 

agreed to this (or was par rdzi hu,d. 

pleased at this). 

don't like this, I don't Yih bdt mujhe pasand nahl* 


Mujhe is bdt kd bard (or bahut) 
andesha hai. 

I don't like this, I don't 

like such behaviour, or I 

don't like this affair. 
I am very anxious (nervous) 

about this matter. 
I am full of thought, anxiety. Mujhe ban fikr hai. 

This is a very astonishing Bare ta'ajjub kl bdt hai. 


I am very sorry for this. Mujhe is bdt kd bard afsos hai. 

I am very sorry for him. Mujhe uske hdl par bard afsos 

This is a sad affair. 

Yih bare afsos ki bdt kai. 

Bhl " also, even. " 

Vide L. 18 (e). 


About what is Your Honour 

grieved ? 
He has a complaint against 

you (your Honour). 
Of what matter (or ailment) 

do you complain ? 
This is a serious, important 


He has some business to do. 
What business have you here ? 
You have no business here. 

This is the case in every regi- 
ment of native cavalry. 

It is now finishing, being com- 

He is always ready to quarrel 
with me at the least thing. 

I will be ready directly. 
How is it he does not come ? 

He won't recover, get well, 
(lit. where, or when, is he 
getting well?). 

How could he get well (lit. 
when was he getting or be- 
coming well) ? 


Ap ko kis bat kd ranj hai ? 

Us ko dp se shikdyat hai. 
Kis bdt Li shikdyat hai ? 

Yih (to) bhdri bdt hai. or 

yih (to) bart bdt hai. 
Us ko kuchh kdm hai. 
Yaha tumhdrd kyd ' kdm hai ? 
Yaha tumhdrd kuchh kdm 

nahl hai. 
Yih har ek risdle me hold hai. 

Ab tamdm hotd hai. 

Wuh zara si bdt par mujh se 
larne ko taiydr * hotd hai. 6 

Mai abhi taiydr hotd hu 

Yih kyd bdt hai ki uruh hdzir 

nahl, hotd \ha>] ? 
Wuh kaha (or kab) achchhd 

hotd hai ? 

Wuh kab achchhd hotd thd ? 

1 Note spelling and pronunciation of kya "what?", and kiya (ki 
ya) " he etc. did." 

2 More correctly tayyar. 3 Or more forcibly ho-jata hai. 



You are never in time. 

I ( your slave) have committed 
a fault (lit. from your slave 
a fault has occurred). 

I didn't succeed at all, in the 
least (lit. nothing at all 
was done by me). 

You are very late, you have 
come verv late. 

Turn kabhi waqt par hazir 
nahl hote [ho]. 

Bande ' se ek qusur hu,d. 

Mujh se kuchh bhi na-hu,d. 

Turn ko ane a me ban der 
hu,i or tumhare ane me ban 
der hu,i or turn ne 8 ban der 


(a) (1) On the degrees of comparison. When two objects 
are compared, that with which the comparison is made is 
put hi the ablative ; but no alteration is made in the adjec- 
tive : thus, " this house is higher than that house," is Yih ghar 
us ghar se ucha hai " this house than that house is high." 
Sometimes, however, the adverb ziydda or aur bht "more," 
is used as in our own language ; as, Yih ghar us ghar se 
ziyada ucha hai, " this house is more lofty than that house " : 
aur kola " blacker " ; aur bhi kola "even blacker." For the 
superlative, a universal comparison is made: thus, "This 
house is the highest " yih ghar sab se ucha hai ; literall} 7 " this 

1 Or fern, bandl se. Laudl=girl, bondmaid, etc., is also used as a 
feminine for bandl. 

2 Infinitive. 

8 Ne, sign of the Agent case ; used with past tenses of transitive 


house is higher than all." Sometimes, the adjective is repeat- 
ed and se is inserted between ; as, achchhe se achchhd makh- 
mal dekhld,o " show me the best velvet." 

(2) Note the following intensives : Bahut achchhd '' very 
good " ; bahut hi achchhd " very good indeed, exceedingly 
good"; nihdyat 1 sard "extremely cold"; kahl bihtar " far 
better." Also the Persian phrase ba-darjaha bihtar " l>y 
(many) degrees better." Vide also L. 48 (6) (2), L. 61 (k), 
and last Example in L. 62. 

(3) W uh sab se shauqin hai "he is the most enthusiastic 
of the lot " ; sab me hoshydr hai " he is the most intelligent "; 
us H nisbat to yih achchha hai "compared to that, this one 
is good." 

(&) There is no word to express " too " before an adjec- 
tive ;. the simple adjective is used, as : Yih ziydda hai " this 
is too much." 

(c) Aur is both a conjunction, and a pronominal ad- 
jective : in the latter sense it means " more, other, another." 
Auro se ivuh achchhd hai " he (or it) is better than the 
others." Aur to aur = "not to speak of others." 
(d) Irdda, m. Intention. 

Makdn, m. Place ; house. 

Bhi? adv. Also ; at all, even. 

Bhi bhi, adv. And also ; both. 

Dorio or dono. adj. The two, both. 

Hi* particle. (Used for emphasis). 

1 Nihayat, subs. f. " extremity " : also used as adj. and adv. 
* For nlz " also," vide Lesson 57 (c) (2). 

8 Sunte hi " immediately on hearing." Numerous examples of the 
use of hi are given in Lesson 51 (e) and (/). 

LESSON 3. 23 

Yihi, pron. 

This very, the same 

Wuht, pron. 

That very, the same. 

Billa, m. 


BilR, f. 


Tez, adj. 

Sharp ; swift ; hot (to the 

taste, as spices, etc.). 

^ezt, subs. 

Sharpness; swiftness, etc. 

Jo, gen. jiska ; relat. pron. ; 
and conj. 

Who, which, that ; he who ; 
that which : also if. when, 

5f*r/, adv. 


Faqat, adv. 


Bih-tar, Pers. comp. 


Pas, H., prep, and adv. 


Nazcfik, P., prep. 


Jfsrcfc, f. 

Chilli ; pepper. 



Gol; [subs, grofii and gola]. 


Got mirch, f. 


Z>aZ mirch, f. 

Red chillies ; red pepper. 

^an mirch, f. 

Green chillies. 

Garm, adj. 


Garml, f. 

Heat, warmth, summer ; and 

"ulg., syphilis. 

^a/?, 1 adj. 


Kifayat, 1 subs. 

Sufficiency ; economy. 

., adj. and adv. 

Enough; sufficient. 

These two words are derived from the same Arabic root. 


La,iq, adj and prep. Fit, able, competent, quali- 


Liyaqat, 1 subs. Ability, qualification, capa- 

city, merit. 

Ziydda ; barhkar. * More. 

Kam, adj. Less. 

Kami, subs., f. Deficiency. 

Dcha, adj High. 

Uchaji. subs., f. Height. 

'Umr, f. Age. 

Barabar* adj., adv., and prep. Equal; continuously; all 

along ; and vulg., opposite. 

Jhuth, f subs., and adj. Falsehood ; false. 

Jhuthd, adj. False; liar. [sub*, leavings of 


Hosh, m. Senses, proper senses. 

Hoshyar. Clever, sensible ; sober (not 

drunk) ; alert (of sentries). 
Hoshyan, f. Cleverness ; carefulness ; 

soberness ; alertness. 

Dil, subs. Heart, mind (lit. and fig.). 

Rohm, subs. Pity, mercy. 

Rahm-dil, adj. Of pitiful heart. 

Sakht-dil. Hard-hearted. 

Sang-dil * Stony-hearted. 

1 Lu,iq and liyaqai are derived from the same Arabic root. 

2 The Conjunctive Participle of barhna " to increase." 

3 Lit. bar-a-bar, P., breast to breast." 



Nisbat, f., and prep. 

Men nisbat (me). 

Makkhan, m 
Shorba, m. 
Namak, m. 
Namkm, adj. 
Bhul f. 

Bhulna. int (i.e. does not take 

Qalam, m. 
Qalam karna. 

Bar ha, i. m. ^ 

Barha.l mistri, m. ) 

Lohar mistri. 


Proportion ; betrothal ; con- 
nection ; with reference to . 

Compared to me, in com- 
parison with me. 


Broth' or soup. 


Salty, salted ; savoury. 


Husband, or master. 


Wife, or lady. 

Brother ; chum. etc. 




Mistake, error. 

To forget ; also to make a 

Reed ; pen ; cutting of a plant. 
To strike off with one blow, 
to cut right off aslant. 


Carpenter, blacksmith, or 

Blacksmith . 

Mere pas (lit. near me) 
Shod*, f. 

Kabht nahl. 


Wohl (emphatic). 


I have. [FwteL. 20 (e)]. 

Marriage or any celebration 
(in writing, "gladness"). 
In that very place. 


( a ) Bahut (adj., adv.), when it means "many," takes 
either a singular or a plural noun, as : bahut din tak. bahul 
mahine tak, or bahut dino tak, bahut mahino tak : but bahut 
mdl hai "there is much wealth" It has a plural, as: 
bahuto se puchhd "he asked (from) many." 
(6) This butter is too little. Yih makkhan thofd hai. 
No, it is plenty 
It is sufficient. 
There is too little salt in the 


Give (me) one more. 
These two are different, not 

Nahl, bahut hai. 

Kdfi hai, or bas hai. 

Shorbe (or vulg. shurwe) me 

namak kam hai. 
Ek aur do. 
Yih aur hai, aur wuh aur. 

This is some other man. 

Yih aur admi hai. 

Oh! I've come to the wrong Hai! bhulese ] aur makdn pur 

place (house) by mistake ! 
I have changed my mind [lit. 

now my intention is other 

(than it was)]. 

Ab merd irada. aur hai. 

Bhiile se, idiomatic for bhiil *c. 


I have more pens and books 
than your munshi has. 

He has more planks than the 

carpenter has 
This pepper (or chilli) is very 


This tea is too strong. 
It is quite near. 
I too am here. 

It is not at all, not in the 
least, hot here. 

Only this one is good ; this 

one alone is good. 
This is the same torn that was 

here yesterday. 
His house is high, but mine is 

still higher, is even higher. 

Both are of equal length (lit. 

both are equal in length). 
She is not old though she 

is older than 1 am, not 


Mere pas qalam aur kitdbe 
tumhare munshi (ke ' qalam 
aur kitabo ') se ziyada hat. 

Us ke pas barhaj, mistri se 

takhte ziyada hat. 
Yih mirch bahut tez hai. 

Yih chd bahut tez hai. 
Pas (or nazdik] hi hai. 
Mai bhi yahd, hu. 

Yaha kuchh bhi qarmi 

Sirf yihi achchha hai. 

Yihi wuh (or yih wuhi] billa 
hai jo kal yaha tha. 

Uska makan ucha hai, lekin 
mera (makan us ke makan 
se) aur bhi ucha hai; or 
Uska makan ucha hai, lekin 
mera makan us ke makan 
se bin ucha hai. 

Lambaj me dorio barabar hai. 

Wuh ziyada 'umr kl nahl hai, 
go-ki mujh se ban hai chhoti 

1 Here ke as qalam is masculine ; the substantives following are of 
different genders. Note that the second substantive only is inflected. 


He is a greater liar. 
Which is nearer Delhi or 
Lahore ? 

The son is less sharp, clever, 

than the father. 
He is not in his right senses 

(he is mad or drunk, etc.). 
He is in a swoon. 
He came to himself. 
You had better go (lit. your 

going is better, or is good). 
Compared to him I am pitiful, 

He has more ability, merit. 

Has his marriage ever really 

taken place ? 

Stop!, Sufficient!, Cease! 
I have only one book. 
I have just the one book. 

Nice* warm milk. 


W uh ziyada jhutha hai. 
Ydha se kaun< nazdik Itai, 

Dilti ya Lahor? ; or Dilti 

yaha se nazdtk* hai ifi 

Lahor ? 
Beta bap se hoshyan me kam 

Wuh hash me nahi hai. 

Wuh be-hosh hai. 

Wuh hosh me ay a. 

Tumhara jana & bihtar hai (or 

achchha hai). 
Us H nisbat to. mal r<ilnn-<HI 

Wuh us se liydqat me bafhknr 

(or ziyada) hai. 
Us H shadt kabh* hu,i bhi 


Bos karo. 
Mere pas sirf ek kitdb hai. 

Mere pas sirf ek hi kitab 

Garm garm* dudTi. 

1 Kaun " who, which ? " Kya could not be used. 

2 Or is jagah ke pas, but not yaha ke pas. 

3 Jana, infinitive used as a noun, " going." 

* Note that the noun in this case is sing. The root idea in this 
repetition is niceness and not warmth. 

LESSON 5. 29 


(a) In asking a question, Hindustani does not. like Eng- 
lish, invert the words ; the tone of the voice alone marks the 
interrogation. There are, however, a few interrogative words, 
such as kaun " who ? ", kya " what ? ", kaha " where ? " , etc. 
the use of which cannot be mistaken. When a sentence 
contains no such interrogative word, kya or aya may be used 
at the beginning, as: Kya yih tumhara qalam hai ? " Is this 
your pen ? " This word kya is not necessary in speaking, as 
the tone of the voice indicates interrogation. 

(6) The Interrogative pronouns are both substantives and 

1 oKaun means " what ? ", as well as " who ? " and " which ? " : 
but kya means only " what ? " The difference between the 
two is that kaun is used before real nouns, while kya is used 
before abstract nouns and adjectives, as : Yih kaun kutta hai 
" what dog is this ? " ; but Yih kya bat hai ' what is this, 
what's all this ? " ; Puchhne me. sharm kya hai "what shame 
is there in asking ? " Kya khub = " how nice ! " 

Note. Yih kya chtz hai ? " what (thing) is this ? " appears 
to be an exception to the rule. 

(e) Note the force of kya in the sense of "rather." 
Admi kya ? deo hai " man you call him ? he is a devil " = admi 
nahl, balki deo hai "he is not a man but. nay, a devil." 

(d) Kaun and kya (as also kaha) are used in indirect as 
well ?is in direct questions, as : Mai janta hu ki wuh kaun hai 
"I know who he is/' and mai nahl janta hu ki wuh kaun 
hai "I don't know who he is"; mat janid hu ki wuh kaha 
hai (jaha wuh hai mujhe ma'lum hai) "I know where 
he is." 


Remark. According to Platts the first example is " un- 
idiomatic and wrong ": according to him the governing clause 
in such sentences must be either directly or indirectly nega- 
tive. This is. I think, a mistake : vide also last examples in 
lesson 6. 

(e) Interrogation often expresses a strong negation, as : 
Mere pas rupiya kahS, hai ? "I have no money " (lit. where 
have I any rupees ?). 

(/) To indicate a question, kyfi, ( = " well ? ") can be sub- 
stituted for kya at the beginning of a sentence, and can pre- 
cede it Kya indicates a little surprise but kyu merely draws 
attention to a question: Kya wuh awega* "what! will he 
come?"; Kyti wuh awega ' "well, will he come?"; Kyti? 
kya wuh awega ' " well ? is he going to come ? " 

(g) Yih " this" and wuh "that" are, in modern Urdu, the sarao 
in the nominative singular and plural ; ye and we are not now used 
(except in Hindi). 

(h)Kaun ? (gen. sing. Who ? Which ? What ? 

kiska, and gen. pi. kinka 
"whose "). 

Kya ? indeclin. [but vide p. What ? also How ? How ! 

7 (e)]. 

Kaisal; adj. and adv. 


Kidhar ? 

Kitnal ad 

Kitne ?, masc. pi. 


' Or a,ega. 

1 adv. 

Of what kind ? ; 

How ? ; How ! 

Where ? 

Whither ? 


How much ? 


How many ? 

How many ? 




Kis waste (or -liye). 

Is waste (or -liye). 

KyU-kar ? 

Kahe-ko ? 

Kahe-kd ? 

Dana, m. 

Ghana, m. 

Lo<7 (gen. Zogo M), pi. 

JVam, m. ; (narni, adj.) 


Khelnd, tr. and intr. 

Khilond, subs. 
Bajna, intr. 
Bajdnd, tr. 
<?*, m. 
Gana, intr. 

), m. 
Di/er, adj. 


Why? Well? 

For what ? Why ? 

For this, therefore. 


For what ? Why ? 

Of what ? 

Grain ; vw/gr . " gram . " 

"Gram/' the chick-pea. 



(Lit. "without sense"), fool- 

To play. 

To play cards 

Toy, plaything. 

To sound, be played. 

To play, make music. 


To sing. 

To sing a song 

Heart," mind (lit. and fig.). 

Brave, bold. 

1 The nominative kaha = kya is used only in the Braj dialect of 
Hindi, and not in Hindustani. 

2 Cognate accusative, as kud kudna " to jump a jump." 


Jan, f. 

Men Jan. 

Jan-war, m 

Zikr, m. 

Tarah, f. ; gen. a prep 

To rah tar ah ke or H. 


Life ; soul. 

My life ; my dear. 



Manner., way, like. 

Of various kinds. 


Kaun hai ? Mai hu. 
Wuh kaun log hai ? 
Yih kaun kitab hai? 
Tumhdrd kyd ndm h"i 
Turn kyd be-wuquf ho ! 
Us kd rang kyd hai ? 
Yih kyd hu,d ? 

Who is it ? It is I. 

Who are those people ? 

What book is this ? 

What is your name ? 

How foolish you are ! 

What colour is it ? 

What's all this, what has hap- 

pened.. what's the matter ? 
Where (or when) can this thing Aist chtz kaha (or kab] 

be obtained ? (simple ques- milegi ? * 

tion) ; or such a thing can- 

not be got again. 1 
How much grain have they Un ke pas kitnd ddna ha : ? 

To what people do these Yih ghore kin logo ke hai ? 

horses belong ? 

1 If the latter meaning be intended, stress should he laid on the 
word kahS or kab. 

2 Future tense of milna " to be obtained, etc." 


What relation is he of yours ? 

You (Your Honour) here and 
why ? How is it you are 

Of what is this toy, play- 
thing, made ? 

How can you ' fight with me ! 
or Who are you to fight 
with me ? 

What kind of animal is this ? 
What is the milk like ? 
How big it is ! 

How ill he is ! 

However brave he may be. 

Not to mention his playing 
(setting aside his playing), 
his singing is excellent. 

The train must have come in 
a long time ago. 

How could the gait of the 
chakor partridge compare 
to hers? (i.e. it could not 

Wuh tumhdrd kaun hold hai ? 
Ap yahn kaha ? 

Yih khilond kdhe-kd hai ? 
Turn mujh se kya laroge ? 

Yih kaisa jdnwar hai ? 
Dudh kaisa hai ? 

Kaisa (or kitna, or kis-qadar) 
bard hai ! 

Wuh kaisa bimdr hai! (also 
= kis tarah bimdr ho saktd 
hai "how can he be ill ? "). 

Wuh kaisa hi diler ho* 

Uske bajdne kd kya zikr, uskd 
gdnd bhi bahut Tchub hai. 

" Rel" kab kl d-ga,i hogi ? 

Chakor uski chal kl tarah kya 
chalegd? 8 

1 But with a difference in intonation : Kya, mujh se turn laroge ? 
" What ! do you want to fight with me ? " 

2 Aorist or Pres. Subj. of hona. 

3 Future, 3rd per. sing. masc. of chalna " to move, be in motion." 


I know what I have to do. Mai jdnta hU ki mujhe Toy a 

kya karna chdhiye. 1 

Now I understand what deci- Ab mat, samjhd* ki kya jaisala 
sion to give. karna chdhiye. 1 

Black you call him ? he's a Kdld kya ? tawd hai. 
griddle (i.e. as black as the 
bottom of a griddle). 

I know who the thief is. Ma'lum hai (or hu,d) ki chor 

kaun hai. 

I know what is in this box. Mujhe ma'lum hai ki is baks 

me kya kyd* chize hat. 


The following is a paradigm, or example of the conjuga- 
tion of the neuter or intransitive verb, girna, " to fall." It 
may be observed that the tenses naturally divide themselves 
into three groups of three tenses each. 

(a) ROOT, gir, fall thou ; Pres. Part, girtd (hu,d) falling ; 
Past Par. gird (hu,d) fallen; Conj. Part, gir-kar or gir-ke 
(rarely gir*) having fallen; Adv. Part, girte hi immediately 
on, or in the very act of, falling, as soon as fell ; Noun of 
Agency and Future Part, girne-wdld, faller, or about to fall. 

(I) Tenses of the Root. 
AORIST. I fall, or may fall, etc. 

1 Mai gir-ft, I may or should Ham girJi, we etc. 
fall, were I to fall. 

' Chahiye " is necessary." 2 Preterite. 

3 Kya kya, ' what various (things).' 

* This shortened form often indicates more haste than the full form. 
Vide also L. 55 (d). 

LESSON 7. 35 

2 Tu gir-e, thou etc. Turn gir-o, you etc. 

3. Wuh gir-e, he etc. Wuh gir-e, they etc. 

Note that, though in Greek the Aorist is a past tense, in Hindi 
and Urdu it corresponds to a Present Subjunctive. . 

The FUTURE. I shall or will fall etc. is formed by adding 
to the Aorist, ga for the mase. and gl for the fern. sing. ; and 

ge for the masc. and gl for the fern. plur. 


m. f. m. f. 

1. Mai gir-u-gd -gl. Ham gir-e-ge -ge. { 

2. Tu gir-e-gd -gl. Turn gir-o-ge -gl. 

3. Wuh gir-e-gd -gl. Wuh gir-e-ge -gl. 

IMPERATIVE. Let me fall. etc. ; differing from the Aorist 
in the second pers. sing. only. 

Sing. Plur. 

1. Mai gir-u, let me fall. Ham gir-e, let us etc. 

2. Tu gir, fall thou. Turn gir-o, fall ye. 

3. Wuh gir-e, let him fall. Wuh gir-e, let them etc. 

(2) Tenses of the Present Participle. 
The CONDITIONAL. Had I fallen, or I would have fallen. 1 etc. 
m. f. m. f. 

1. Mai girtd, or girtl. Ham gir-te (m. or f.) ' 

2. Tu girtd, or girtl. Turn gir-te, or -ft. 

3. Wuh girtd, or girtl. Wuh gir-te, or -ti. 

1 Ham is always masc. , except in the i 'unjab. 

2 Refers to time past, present, or future, but usually for past. 


PRESENT. I fall, or am falling, etc. 
m, 1 m. f- 

1. Mai girta hu, 1 or girtt hu. Ham girte 9 - hat. 

2. Tu girta hai. or girtt hai. Turn girte ho, or girtt ho. 

3. Wuh girta hai, or girtt Wuh girte hat, or girtt hai. 


IMPERFECT. I was falling or used to fall, etc. 
m. f. m. * 

1. Mai girtd tha, or girtt tin. Ham girte the. 

2. Tu girta tha, or girtt thi. Turn girte the, or girtt ttft. 

3. Wuh girta tha, or girtt thi. Wuh girte the, or girtt thi. 

(3) Tenses of the Past Participle. 
m. f. m. f. 

1. Mai gira* or girt. Ham gire. 

2. Tu gira or gin. Turn gire, or girl. 

3. Wuh gira, or girt. Wuh gire, or gift. 

PERFECT. I have fallen, 
m. f. m. f. 

1. Mai gira hu, or girt hu. Ham gire hat. 

2. Tu gira hai, or girt hai. Turn gire ho. or girt ho. 

3. Wuh gira hai, or girt hai. Wuh gire hat, or girt hat. 

1 An old form of the Present, still used locally, is formed by adding 
hu, etc., to the Aorist, as: mat giru hu, etc. ; haiya, m., and haigl, f., 
are sometimes used for hai. 

2 Ham is always masc., except in the Punjab. 

3 In verbs like mfcoZ-no, intr. " to come out, turn out," the Preterite 
is nikla and not nikal-a as would be expected, so too aamafhna, aamjha. 

LESSON 7. 37 

PLUPERFECT. I had fallen, 
m. f. m. f. 

1. Mai giro, tha, or gin thl. Ham gire the. 

2. Tu gird tha, or girl thl. Turn gire the,, or gin thl. 

3. Wuh giro, tha, or girl thl. Wuh gire the, or girl thl. 

(b) Additional Tenses. 

1. Future Imperative 2nd pers. sing, and pi , Tu or turn qiriyo 
"fall" (in the future). (This form is also used as a 3rd pers. sing. 
Precative, for the Deity). 

2. Respectful Imperative, Respectful Aorist, or Impersonal Aorist 
2nd person pi., (&p) giriye please fall (now), one should fall (now). 
(In this form there is a slight idea of command). 1 

3. Future Precative 2nd or 3rd persons pi., (Ap) giriyega please fall 
(in the future). (In this form the e is no command). 

4. Wuh girta ho he may be falling ; wuh girta hoga ho will or must 
be falling ; wuh girta hota had he been (or he would have been) falling, 
etc. (of time past or present, not of future); giro, ho he may have 
fallen ; giro, hoga he will or must have fallen ; agar wuh giro, hota had 
he fallen, etc. (of past time only). 

5. In transitive verbs, tenses formed from the Past Part, require 
the agent case (ne). 

The personal pronouns, except when emphasis is required, may be 
omitted, especially in those tenses in which the endings clearly indicate 
the number and person, such as the Future. 

(c) The Negatives. These are mat, na, and nahl. The first, 
prohibitive only, precedes or follows the Imperatives : it is 
imperious and so the modern tendency is to discard it. 

Instead of mat, na can precede or nahl follow the Impera- 
tives (or the Infinitive when the latter is used as an Impera- 

' In ap gir there is no command. 


Nahf alone is used with the Present Tense. 

With the Aorist and the Past Conditional, nn is preferred, 
but nahl may be used. 

(d) The next is a verb of extensive use and is conjugated 
precisely like the preceding : 

Hond, to Be or Become. 

ROOT, ho ; Pres. Part, hotd (hu,a) ; Past Part, hu.a ; Con- 
junc. Part. Jio-knr or ho-ke (rarely ho ') having become : Adv. 
Part, hote hi immediately on becoming or happening, as 
soon as etc. ; Noun of Agency and Fut. Part, lione-wnJn be-er. 
or about to be or become. 

( I ) Tenses of the Root. 

AORIST. I may be or should be. etc. 

1. MathU^ Ham ho. 

2. Tu ho. Turn ho. 
3 Wuh ho. Wuh ho. 

FUTURE. I shall or will be. etc. 

1. Mai hugd, or -gi. Ham hoge. 

2. Tu hoga, or -gi. Turn hoge, or -gi. 

3. Wuh hoga, or -gi. Wuh hoge. or -gi. 

IMPERATIVE. 8 Let me be, etc. 

1. Maihu. Ham ho. 

.2. Tu ho. Turn ho. 

3. Wuh ho. Wuh ho 

1 Vide also Lesson 55 (d). 

2 Compare with the Pes. (Aux.) Tense, p. 9. 

3 In this verb, identical with the Aorist. 

LESSON 7. 39 

(2) Tenses of the Present Participle. 
INDEFINITE. Had I been, or (would that) I had been. 

1. Mai -\ 1 Ham hote 

2. Tu \. hota, or hotl. 2. Turn i 

yhote, or hotl. 

3. Wuh J 3. Wuh 

PRESENT. I am, or become etc. 
1. Mai hota,-, or hotl hu. ] Ham hote hai. 

2 Tu hota-, or hotl hai. 2. Turn hote- or hotl ho. 

3 Wuh hota-, or hotl hai. 3. Wuh hote- or hotl hai 

IMPERFECT. I was becoming, or used to become. 

1. Mai ^ Hotatha, 1. Ham Hote the. 

2. Tu or 2. Turn Hote the 

hotl thl. 3. 

(3) '/'erase.* o/' ^//,6 /'a,s/5 Participle. 
PRETERITE or PAST TENSE. I was or became. 

1. Mai ^Thaorhu,a, 1. Ham. Theorhu ; e. 

2. Tu I or 2. Twm i The or hu,e 


3. JTwA J thi or /iw,t, 3. tf ttfe. ) Thl or AM,? 

PERFECT. I have been or become. 

1. Mai hu.a-, or hu,l-hu. 1. Hamhu,ehai. 

2. Tw hu,a-, or hul-hai. 2. Twm /i-w,e-, or hu,l-ho. 

3. VKwA hu,d-, or hu,l-hai. 3. PTw^ M,e-, or hu,l-hai. 



PLUPERFECT. I had been or become. 
Hu,atha, 1. Ham Hu,e the 

or 2. Turn 

huj th%. 3. Wuh 

I Fut. Impera. Hujiyo (irregular). 

2. Respect. Impera, etc., Hujiye (irregular) 

3. Future Precative Hujiyega (irregular). 1 

Hue the. 

hu,t ih\. 

( ) Chtz, pi. chize. 
Ko~% (with noun in sing.), 
gen. fast kd; pi. ka,i. 

Ka,i ek, or ka,i. 
Ko,i naM. 

Yih kuchh, or Una kuchh. 

Kitnd kuchh. 

Ko,l chiz. 

Kuchh nahi. 

Ko,i koji, pi. 

Ba'z-e, or ba'z, pi. 

Ohar, H'., m. 



Some-one ; any one ; some ; 
any ; one ; a certain one 

about, nearly. 
Something ; somewhat ; at 

all ; some, a few. 
All this, so much. 
However much. 
A few. 

A few some (persons or 

House, home ; family. 

The other additional tenses are regularly formed. 

Khana, P., m. 


Sau, or sai. 



Adiia, adj. 

Ek do, or ek adh. 

Maujud, adj. 

Hazir, adj 

KhvU, adj. and adv. 

Ghafi* f. 

Dam. m. 

Ek-dam . 

Ek-dam se. 
Fursat, f . 

LESSON 8. 41 

Compartment, case ; (alone it 
does not mean "house"). 1 
Pigeon-house, dove-cot. 
One hundred. 
One and a half. 
One or two. 

Existent ; also present ; avail- 

Present; ready. 

Empty; vacant: only. 

An hour ; a watch or clock. 

Originally a thatched house : 
now any one-storied house 
(of European fashion) ; also 
the Bengali language. 

Breath, life; a moment, a 

At once, immediately (vulq.) ; 

direct ; completely. 
All together. 
Out of breath. 
Leisure : opportunity. 

Except in Persian constructions 

! Originally there were 60 gharls in one day and night (r$t <ftn) so 
one ghart was about 24 minutes. 


Fursatpani. To get an opportunity. 

Kabutar,m. A P igeon;acock. P igeo 

Kabutan,i. Hen-pigeon. 

Ma/^a,adj. Dear in price. 

MaMgi, f. Scarcity of provisions, fa 

Sastd, adj. Chea P- 

Tta^a, m. sing. A rupee ; money. 

Rupai,v\. Rupees; money. 


(&)_(!) Koj when it means "about, a few, nearly," 
inflected as Ko,ida*minitm~ea,o = dasekminitm~ed,o "com;- 
in about ten minutes " : grammatically this should be km to* 
minit me, but this latter is not the idiom. A'oJ dam me 
few minutes " ; kin dam (me) " some time or other. 

The plural of ko,i is to,.' " several," but ba<z-e often takes 
its place: ba'z-e may be used with or without a noun, but 
kaj always requires a noun after it ; ba'z-e kahte hm IH 

(2) ^o,t requires the noun and verb to be in the singular. 
as: ko,i din aisa a,egd ''some such day will come"; wuh 
ko.l ghan me mara chdhtd lial " he will die in a few hours." 

3. Koj, " a certain," can also be substituted for the in- 
definite article ek " a. one " ; vide (e). 

(c}Kuchh is sometimes used before persons, vide l;i>i 
examples in lesson 9 (6). In Yih bhi kuchh ddmi liai " he too 
is somewhat of a man," kuchh = kisi-qadr, adv. 

(^) _ Hogd, " will be." also signifies -i must be," as : WahS 
ek aur sher bhi hogd "there must be. will be. yet another 
tiger there." 

LESSON 9,. 43 

(e) Ek placed after number signifies " about/' as : Sau ek 
ic about a hundred," but ek sau ek " one hundred and one " ; 
das ek "about ten" Ek also takes the place of the in- 
definite article in English, "a." 

Ek ddh means " one or two." 


(a) In the sense of "present," hdzir is used for inferiors ; 
and maujud for superiors or inferiors, and also for things. 
Das rupiya maujud hai=" there is a sum of ten rupees in 
hand " ; but das rupiya hdzir hai " I have ten rupees at your 
service." Hdzir for things is used only to superiors. 

(6) Is there any one ? (i.e. Ko,l hai ? 

is any one in ?) 
Some one or other must be at Ko,l na ko,i ghar me hogd. 


There is no one (at home). 
There is nothing, or it is 


There must be something in 

the house. 
There must be something or 


There must be about 150 

rupees in hand. 
There is some little salt. 

Ko,i nahi hai. 

Ko,l chtz nahl hai, or Kuchh 

nahl hai. 
Ko,i chtz ghar me hogi. 

Kuchh na kuchh hoga. 

Ko,i derh sau rupiya ' maujua 

Kuchh kuchh a namak to hai. 

1 A collective noun takes a singular verb. 

* Note the force of repeating the word. This matter is fully dealt 
nth in Lesson 48. 


There were about twenty Bis ek adml waha maujud the. 

persons present. 

About half a seer of milk. Ko,\ ddh ' ser dudh, 

One or two horses. Bk adh ghora. 

Some bungalow or other must Ko,i na ko,l bagla khaK to 

be vacant. 
In a few hours. 
In a few moments. 
What else 1 or Of course. 
I have no leisure now. 


Ko,\ ghafi me? 
Ko,t dam me. 
Aur kya ? 

Is waqt mujhe fur sat kahn .' 
Some say one thing and some Ba'z-e kuchh kahte hai. ba'z-e 

another. kuchh. 

This is nothing. Yih kuchh bat nahl. 

It is not so. Yih bat nahl Jiai. 

Some people are of one opin- Ba'zo 8 kl kuchh ray hai, 6a'o 

ion and some of another. ki kuchh. 

There are a few people here. Ko,\ ko,i ddmi yaha hal. 
There is a little grain. Kuchh ddna hai. 

What is the matter ? Nothing. Kya hai ? Kuchh natil. 
This is not at all good. Yih kuchh achchha nahl hai. 

I have no more ; (lit. near me Mere pas aur kuchh nahl hai. 

is nothing more). 
They have several pigeons. Unke pas ka,t (or ka,i ek) 

kabutar hai. 
How many ? Kitne ? 

1 Colloquial for adha. 

* Ko,i eh ghari me = In about an hour. 

PI. of ba'z. 


Ever\ 7 thing is ready. 

Of those summoned, some 
have come and some not. 

I will buy some of those 

He is suffering all this afflic- 
tion for your sake. 

However much you exert 
yourself (still) your object 
won't be obtained. 

Does such a thing ever 8 
happen ? 

He does not get angry with 
his servants, when they 
commit (only) one or two 

Sab kuchh ' taiyar hai. 

Jo log buld,e ga,e the, un me 

se kuchh * a.e hai aur kuchh 


Un me se kuchh i bail mol- 

Wuh tumhdre waste yih sab 
kuchh dukh uthdtd hai. 

Kitnl kuchh koshish karo 
magar tumhdri murdd pun 
na hogt. 

Ko,i, 3 (or katii) aisa bhl hold 
hai ? 

Ek ddh bhul ho-jane par, wuh 
apne naukaro par ghussa 
nahl hotd. 


(a) We shall next introduce a few verbs. 


Din. (m.). 




Shahr (m.). 

A boat. 

Nd,o (f.). 


Darya (m.). 

A tree. 

Darakjit (m.). 


Jangal (m.). 

A road. 

Rdh (f.). 

A plain. 

Maiddn (m.)* 


Mewa, Phal (m.). 

1 Sab ko,l=sdb log, is vulgar. 

2 Kuchh here=" some," an indefinite number; but ka,l,or ka,\ 
several, a few." 

3 Note this use of ko,l for kahl. 





Pant (m.). 
MachhE (f.). 

row street. 


To come. 
To run. 
To sleep. 
To arrive. 

Bird. Parind (any bird) (in.). 
Chlryd (small bird) (f .) . 

Name. Ndm (m.). 

People. Log (in. pi.). 

Intransitive Verbs. 

; (M - To flow ' 

To proceed, j ^ tarA ,,- 
^4na. advance. J 

./ana, chalnd. To retreat, fall back. Hain't. 

Daurnd. To sit down. Rnithna. 

Sond. To return. Phirnd. 

Pahuchnd. To die. Marrid (Past P. 
and WM,a or wm,a). 

(6) A sentence formed by an active or transitive verb 
consists of three parts, the nominative, the verb, and the 
object; as, "The tiger eats flesh " = *for gosht khdia Imi. 
Here sher is the nominative, gosht the object, and khdtd hai 
the verb. Generally speaking, the Hindustani arrangement 
is, first the nominative or agent, then the object, and lastly 
the verb. The nominative and object may of course be 
much more complex than in the foregoing sentence; thus 
"The tiger of the forest eats the flesh of all other animals 
= jangal kd sher aur sab jdnwaro kd gosht khdtd hai. In 
languages with regular cases, like Latin, the object is put 
in the accusative case, which has generally a termination 
different from the nominative. In English always, and in 
Hindustani often, the accusative is the same as the nomina- 
tive, and is to be determined merely by inference or pnsi- 



tion. There are, however, in 
it is necessary to distinguish 
.the post-position ko. 
(c) Bread ; a loaf. Roil (f .). 
Butter. Makkhan (in.). 

Wine. Sharab (f.). 

Tea. Oha (f.). 

Any light meal. Nashta (m.) 
Breakfast. Hdziri (f.). 

Knife. CKhuri (f ). 

Fork ; spur ; thorn. Knta (m.). 
Cold. Thanda. 

Hot. Garm. 

Sweet Miiha. 

Hindustani instances in which 
the object by the addition of 

Meat. Gosht (m.). 

Milk. Dudh (m.). 

Rice (boiled). Shot (m.). 
Plate (any utensil). Bartan (m.) 

Spoon. Chamcha (m.). 

Sugar. flhakar (m.). 

A letter. 

Clean. Pure. 

Mian (L). 
Chitthi (f.). 
Khobar (f.). 

Sdfl, f . 
Taiydr . 

Transitive Verbs. 

To throw. 


To learn (how to do 

.) Slkhna. 

To bring. 

Land. 1 

To give. 


To make (prepare). 

Banana . 

To say, tell. 


To eat. 


To see ; look. 


To drink. 


To hear. 


To make, do. 


To strike. 


To place, put. 


To read ; study. 


To take away. 


To write. 


1 Does not admit of agent case (ne), as it = le-ana, ' vide ' L. 13 (c) 2. 

2 Though transitive in meaning this verb does not take ne, 'vide' 
L. 13 (a) and (c). 


To call. 

Utarna. intr. 

Utraj, t. 
Utarna, tr 
Utarwana, caus. 
Pul, m. 

Oari, f. (pi. gariya). 
Thika, m. 


Bulana. To take. 


To say, tell ; to command ; to 

compose poetry. 
To utter sounds ; to speak. 

To descend ; alight, dis- 
mount ; disembark ; halt 
on a journey ; put up at ; 
to cross over. 


To take down, etc. 

To make to descend, etc. 


Cart ; carriage. 


Thika gari. (used in Bengali Hackney-carriage. 

Maza, m. 
Phlkd, adj. 

Tap, f . 

Charhna, intr. 
Gharhdnd, caus. 
Charhaf, f. 
Tola, m. 

Taste ; enjoyment. 


Insipid, without taste. 

Fever ; vapour, steam ; exha- 
lations from the ground. 

To climb ; to mount. 
To make to climb or mount. 
Ascent ; invasion. 
Male parrot. 

I Though transitive in meaning bolnd, like lana, does not take nc, 
'vide' L. 13(o) and (c). 



Toti, 1 f. (tuti, Pers.). 
Argara, m. 

Haqq, m. 

Haqqddr, subs, and adj. 
Mustakiqq* (kd), partic. 
Khandan, m. 

Ta'rif, f. 

Ittifaq. m. 
Na-ittifaqi* f. 
Ittifaq-an, adv. 
Muttafiq, Ar. partic. 
, f. 


Miknati, adj. 
Jf^Aa,, f. 
Sharatn. m. 
Ri'ayat, f. 

In'am, m. 
Bakhshish, f. 

Female parrot. 

A hackney-carriage stand ; a 
riding school. 

Right, due. 

Rightful ; rightful owner. 

Deserving of, entitled to. 

Family (in the sense of line- 

Praise ; (also, in writing; 

Agreement, concord, chance. 

Discord, disagreement. 

By chance. 

United, agreed, unanimous. 

River, stream. 


Laborious, hard-working. 

Sweetmeats; pudding. 

Drunkaid, wine-bibber. 

Privilege, consideration, 

Reward of any kind. 
Reward in money. 

1 There is also a small cage- bird called #5$ or tijti, the common Rose- 
Finch (Carpodacus erythrinus). 

2 Derived from the Arabic root haqq : it takes the genitive. 

3 Be-ittifaqi is vulgar. 



Blch, subs, m., and prep. Middle; midst. 

Paidal, subs, and adv. Infantry : on foot. 

Qdbil, prep, and adj. Fit, worthy, able. 

QabiUyat (qdbiliyyat) , f. Fitness, merit. 


(a) The difference between kahnd and bolnd ' is that the 
former is used of articulate speech only, whereas the latter, 
meaning " to utter sounds," can be used of animals, as : Men 
tod bolti hai = "my parrot is screaming or calling out," but 
Men toti " Miya Mitthu*" kahtl hai = " my parrot says 
" Pretty Polly.'' Kahnd, to say, tell, command ; bolnd, " to 
speak " 

(b) Bolnd is often vulgarly used for "to tell, to say," but 
this is generally incorrect. It is, however, quite correct to 
say Bolo mat'' keep quiet, don't utter words." 

Bolnd. however, may be correctly used before direct narra- 
tion, as : Wuh bold ki "mai dMgd " " he said he would come 
(lit. he said 'I will come')," but 8d,is ko bolo ki yaha dwe 
(or a,e) "tell the sais to come here (lit. tell the sais that he 
should come here) " is vulgar ; ko yaha dne (ko) kaho (not 

(c) The use of bolnd in such phrases as the following is 
colloquial :Aj argare me ghord kuchh nahl bold " the horse 
did nothing, was quite quiet, to-day in the riding-school." 

(d)Charhnd in its literal sense requires par, as : Wuh 

i Kahna requires ne vide Lesson 13 (c), but bolna does not. 
* Miya, a term of respect, as Mr. ; Mitthii from mltha " sweet." 
3 The use of 6oto in such a case is incorrect. Vide L. 26 (c) (2). 



darakht par charhd ; but in its metaphorical sense (when a 
substitute for and) it requires the dative, as : Mujhe bukhdr 
charhd (or ayd) " I've got fever." 

(e) He speaks good Persian. 

He composes good Persian 

This has no taste at all, it's 


Wuh achchhl Far si bolta hai. 
Wuh achchhl Fdrsi kahtd hai . 

Is me kuchh bhi maza nahl 
hai, phtkd hai. 

It is tasteless ; it is very taste- Be-maza hai ; bahut hi be-maza 

less indeed. hai. 

There is very little water in Nadi me thord pdnl hai. us 

the river, can you ford it ? se paidal utar-sakoge ? 

No, we must cross by the Nahl, 1 pulpar seutarndhogd.' 1 

1 8 have fever since yesterday ; Kal se bukhdr charhd 8 hai. 

ab tak nahl, utrd. 

it has not left me yet. 

I will make the carts cross by 
the bridge. 

Are that family (i.e. its vari- 
ous branches) friendly with 
each other ? 

By chance I caught his eye. 

Gariyo ko pul par se utarwa.- 

Us khdnddn me ittifdq hai ? 

Ittifaq-an mert akh us se Ian, 
or mere uske l char akhe huM. 

All are agreed or are un- Sab muttafiq hai. 


1 No for " no" is vulgar. 

2 The pronoun ham ko " to us " (or turn ko, etc., as the case may be) 
is understood. 

3 The pronoun mujh ko (or whatever the person may be ) is understood. 
* Probably for mere uske darmiyan; akh is feminine. (Vide p. 62, 

line H). 


The native officers don't pull 

This is my right, just due. 

No, it is a privilege. 
All are entitled to loot money. 

This is an admirable, praise- 
worthy, creditable book. 

This coolie is hard-working : 
he is entitled to a reward. 

He is worthy of pity. 
He got angry. 

I just ' sat on his head ' ' till 
he consented to do this. 

Nice warm dishes (to eat). 


Sarddro ke bich nd-ittifdqi hai. 

Yih merd haqq hai. Nahl. 

ri'dyat ki bdt hai. 
Lut ke rupai ke sab mwtahiqq 

Yih kitdb ta'rif ke ld,iq hai. 

Yih quli mihnati hai, in'dm 

ke ld,iq hai or in^dm kd 

mustahiqq hai. 
Wuh rahm ke qdbil hai. 
Us ko ghussa charhd (or di/d). 
Mai uski gardan par charhd 

jab jdkar* yih kdm karnc 

ko rdzi hu,d. 
Garm garm khdnd* 


( a )_When the object of a transitive verb is definite or 
specific, the postposition ko is added, as a general rule ; for 
example, chhuri ld,o signifies "bring (a) knife"; but for 
"bring that knife," the postposition ko is usually added; 
thus, us chhuri ko ld,o. 

l Kisl ke sir par baithna is also the idiom. 

i Jab is often, as here idiomatically used for tab. Jab jakar gives 
the idea of unwillingness, vide also Lesson 57 (e) : " then and then only." 
3 See last example in L. 4, and footnote. 




Put (the) water on the table. Pam mez par rakho. 
Take away (the) sugar Shakar (not ko) lejd,o. 

Clean (make clean) this plate. Is Hasan ko sdf karo 
Cool the water. Pdni ko thandd karo. 

(6) Isti'mdl, m. 
Iftti'mdl karnd. 
Baratnd, H. tr. 
Kdm me land. 
Kdm denci. 
Wdjtbi, adj. 
Naukar, m. 
Naukarl, f . 

Qtmat, f. ; and Qimati, adj. 
Lagdm, pi. lagdme, f. 
Be-lagdm, adj. 
Ghantd, pi. ghante, m. 
, f. 

Jahdz, pi. jahaz, m. 
Paltan, pi. paltane, f. 
Pard,o. m. 
Balki, conj. 


To use. 

To use. 

To use. 

To be useful 

Proper, fitting. 

Fair, moderate. 

Any servant. 


Price; Costly. 


Unruly, without bridle. 

Hour ( = ghart) ; bell, gong. 

Ladder : also stairs, steps. 

(For stairs the pi. sirhiyU, 

is generally used.) 

Regiment of foot. 
Camping-ground, stage. 
Nay, rather, moreover, but. 1 

1 When " but" means " instead of" it must be rendered in Hindu- 
stani (not in Persian) by balki. 


T handd hond, intr. To become cold ; also to die. 

Bat kdtnd, tr. To contradict : to interrupt. 

Saiana, tr. To tease ; harass: persecute. 

Phurtl, f . Smartness. 

Phurfila, adj. Smart ; active. 

Bhala-manus, Hindi, m. Gentleman (lit good man). 

Karwa, adj. Bitter. 

M iZ& karwa karna. To look surly, give sour lo. .ks 

( C ) .Ko.t naukar ld,o means "bring me a servant." but 

naukar ko sdth ld,o means "bring the servant with you," 

implying that there is only one, or referring to one pre- 
viously mentioned. 

If however the object is lifeless, the ko is often omitted. 

as : gdn khan karo " stop the cab." 

(d) The ko of the direct object is added to (1) definite 
nouns ; (2) proper names ; (3) to the interrogative pronoun 
kaun ; (4) to personal pronouns ; (5) to persons. Us ne kaun 
kuttd bhej-diyd ?, but kit naukar ko bhej-diya ? ; mat ne sab 
bhej-diya "I sent all (the things) ; mat ne sab bhej-diye " 1 
sent all (the dogs)," but mai ne sab ko or sabho ko bhej-diya 
" I sent all (the persons)." 

Remark. The ko is, however, occasionally omitted even 
after persons. In, its ne sirf fin admi qatl kiye "he killed 
only three of the men," the omission of the ko gives the idea 
of men of no inportance. 

(e) The ko is added to even indefinite nouns if its omi.-- i'>n 
could cause any ambiguity, as : Mai samjfid ki ek janwar ko 
dekhkar bliagla hai "I guessed he was running away from 
some wild beast" : omit the ko and janwar might be mis- 
taken for the subject. 

LESSON 12. 55 

In such sentences as, Sirkd dudh ko pharfa hai " vinegar 
curdles milk"; Agar ko,i sharab ko sharbat se badle "were 
any one to exchange wine for sherbat." the ko cannot be 

(/) (1) The ko cannot, or should not. be used in the same clause as 
the sign of the indirect object (dative) and of the direct object (accusa- 
tive). After verbs of giving and (often of) sending, ko is generally used 
for the dative ; and the direct object therefore often cannot take ko. 
Jan ko bhej do " send John " ; Mat ne ek muharrir us ke pas bhej-diya 
"I sent him a clerk as a servant," but with ko, "I sent him one of 
my clerks (with a message)." 

(2) Personal and demonstrative pronouns, however, have two forms 
of the dative and accusative, and advantage may be taken of this fact 
when both a dative and an accusative occur in the same clause ; but ko 
will indicate the accusative, as: Usko ek sahib ne mujhe (not mujh ko) 
diya " A sahib gave it to me," but mujhe ghar [ko] le-gaya " he took 
me home"; use (dat.) us ko sdp-diya "he made him over, entrusted 
him, to him." Instead of .in kitabd ko turn ko parhna chahiye " you 
should read these books," write either, In kitabd ko tumhe parhna 
chahiye, or else yih kitabe tumko parhnl chahiye. 

Remark. It will be noticed in these sentences the accusative pre- 
cedes the dative. 

(3) If however a noun and a pronoun occur as direct and indirect 
object, the ko may indicate either the dative or the accusative but the 
accusative will come first. 

(g) After the demonstrative pronouns yih and wuh, with or without 
a noun, the ko can optionally be inserted or omitted, except after 
verbs of givigg, etc., i.e. after verbs that take a dative as well as ac- 
cusative, as: Us ne iffuh kitab usko dedl "he gave him that book"; 
wuh do " give me that," but either us kitab ko us ke pas bhej-diya, or 
wuh kitab us ke pas (or usko) bhej-dl; yih (not isko) sunkar, " having 
heard this," but either yih bat or is bat ko aunkar. Isko or usko alone 
means " him, her, it. 

(h) It was stated in (d) that ko is used after persons. It may 
however be omitted after insignificant persons, as; Tamam sipahl 
walia bhej-diye, or tamam sipahiyd ko waha bhej-diya "he sent all the 
soldiers there." 


(i) Examples of the ko of the indirect object or dative : 
Adht rat ko " at midnight " ; sanishar ko " on Saturday " ; 
Ldhor (ko) gaya "he has gone to Lahore"; das rupai ko 
" for ten rupees " ; kitab us ko bhej-cK " he sent him the book, 
he sent the book to him." It is also used with the infinitive 
as : Wuh jane ko taiyar hai " he is ready to go." 

Remark. The ko of the dative of ' motion to ' is generally 
omitted, except in the Punjab. It is occasionally inserted to 
avoid awkwardness, as : Led! Bdgh ja,o " drive to the Eden 
Gardens," but Ledl Bdgh ko tez hak-ke chalo. " drive us quickly 
to the Eden Gardens." If ko is omitted in the last example, 
the sentence becomes clumsy, vide also L. 57 (/). The ko in 
adverbs of time may be omitted. 

(7) Marnd with ko means either " kill " or " beat," accord- 
ing to the context. Without ko, for animals of size, it means 
"to kill" : but for insects, etc.. with or without ko, it can 
only mean "to kill." Jan se marna means " to kill." 
(k) You now speak good Ab bahut achchht Hindustani 

Hindustani ? bolte ho ? 

No only moderate, so so. Nahl, wajibi. 

Tell me its right, fair, price. Iski wajibi qimat bolo. 

This is in use. Yih to isti'mdl me hai. 

I came down the hill in one Mai pahdr se ek ghante me 

hour. utra. 

Dismount (from the horse). Ghofe se uiro. 

He came down the ladder Wuh sifhi se utar-dyd. 
(or stairs). 

We, however, disembarked in Ham log to Kalkatte me jahaz 
Calcutta. se utre. 

LESSON 13. 57 

I shall put up at the hotel. Mai to hotel me utrugd. 
Help me to mount. Mujhe ghore par charhd-do, or 

char ha, o. 

It is hilly country, many ups Charhd,i utrd,i bahut hai. 
and downs. 

[Order] : The regiment will Paltan ogle pard,o par na 
not halt at the next stage utregi balki ' dusre par. 
but at the one after 

I will give it to thee. Mai usko tujhe dugd. 

Let me give that (may I give Mai wuh tujhe du. 
that) to thee ? 


(a) Before the tenses formed from the past participle 2 of 
a transitive verb, the nominative of the sentence assumes the 
Agent case with ne. The verb then agrees in gender and 
number with the object, thus, " The man wrote a letter,' must 
be admi ne ek chitthi likhi - ' by the man a letter (was) 
written.' If it is necessary to render the object very defi- 
nite, and consequently to add ko, the verb must always be 
in the form of the third person singular masculine, as : " The 
man killed the tigers " = mard ne sherd ko mdr-ddld (masc. 
sing.) ; " The boy has struck the girl " larke ne larki ko mdrd 
hai s (masc. sing.). 

(b)Bald, L Calamity. 

Bald se. Hang it, I don't care. 

1 Not lekin here vide Note 1 , p. 53. 

2 That is, Preterite, Perfect, and Pluperfect. 

3 With this exception, the trans, verb is conjugated like the intraris. 


Ghazab, m. Wrath : also ghfizub kn = ad j 

(idiomatically) terrible the 
devil of a. etc. 

Roza, m. Any Muslim fast. 

Fdqa, m. Going hungry, starving. 

Pesh, prep, and adv. Before. 

And, intr. To come, etc. 

Kisl se (or -ke sdth) pesh and. To treat a person. 

Mihrbdni, pi. mihrbdniya. f. Kindness. 

Jutt, pi. jutiya, f . 

But or but, pi. 6t*f, m. 

Musibat, pi. musibate. f. 

Qismat (no pi.), f. 

Bad-qismafi, f. 
.Vastfe (always pi.), m. 
Ma'ne or raa'rw or ma'nq. tn. 

Sdtht, pi. -sa^t, m. 
TVitfc, adj. 
Haraj (no pi.), m. 
Sftor (no pi.), m. 

SAor o g^w^, or yfculshor (no 

pi.), m. 

Natija, pi, nofi/e, m. 
^am [me] and. 

Shoe ; also boot. 

Any English shoe or boot. 


Portion ; lot ; fate. . 

1 11 -fortune. 

Fate ; lot, chance. 

Meaning, purport. 

With, in company with. him. 
Comrade, companion. 
Proper, right. 

Inconvenience, interruption. 
Much noise. 

Result, consequence. 
To be useful ; also to bi- k i I IP. 1 
(in any noble strife). 

LESSON 13. 59 

Kaham. pi. kahdniyff. f. Story, tale (sp. fiction). 

Boli, pi. boliyS. f. Language, dialect ; mode of 

speaking ; street cry ; bid 

at an auction ; cries of bird 

or beast. 

Dusrd. adj. Second; another: next. 

Bhara, p. p. Filled, brimful. 

Bhar. adj. vide (g) (below). 

Piyala-bliar, adj A cupful. 

Tmr-bhar, adv. For the whole of one's life. 

(c) (1) Kahna requires ne ; bolnd does not. 

(2) If the second part of a compound (transitive) verb is 
intransitive, ne is inadmissible, thus us ne kMyd " he ate. 5 ' 
but wuh khd-gayd "he ate up." Vide L. 21 (a). 

(3) Some few transitive verbs do not take ne : with a few 
it is optional ; with a few others the use and omission of ne 
is a matter of new and old fashion. 

(4) Formerly ne was not used with lifeless subjects : " Your 
coming has pleased me " dp ke dne se mat bahut khush hu,d : 
but now-a-days dp ke dne tie mujhe khush kiyd is used, though 
rather stilted. In easy colloquial ne is not often used with 
lifeless things. 

(d) And has various idiomatic uses besides "to come" : 
these are illustrated in L. 14 (a). 

(e) Lo<j. pi. (gen. logo kd). "people" is sometimes used 
to form a plural. Since ham is often used for the singular 
" I," log is sometimes added to it to indicate the plural " we." 
Such plurals as kutte log " dogs " are very vulgar. 


(ft Reciprocity is expressed thus : Wuh ek dusre ko ehdhte 
hat "they love one another, each other." Vide p. 8 (g). 

(0) The adjective bhar is added to adjectives of weight, 
quantity and measure: Maqdur-bhar (not so good bhar- 
maqdur) "to one's utmost power or ability, as far as one 
can"; pet-bhar or bhar-pet, adj. and adv., "one's bellyful, 
also completely " ; kurti-bhar kaprd " enough cloth to make 
a jacket"; bas-bhar "the length of a bamboo"; bhar-pur 1 
"brimful"; kauri bhar "the weight of a kauri, i.e. a small 
quantity" ; bhar-pana ''' to be paid in full" ; bhar-pd,t subs., 
f., "a receipt." 

(h) The proper vocative singular can be used with either 
singular or a plural Imperative, as : Ai lafke sun or suno 
"listen, boy"; but larka sun (not suno) "listen my dear 
boy" (affectionate). 


(a) I don't know English. Mujhe Angrezi nahl all (hat). 

Your son's name cropped up Tumhdre bete kd zikr dyd thd. 

in the course of conversa- or bich me dyd tha. 

tion (lit. mention of your 

son had come between us) . 

These boots fit me well, but Yih jutiya pd,o me thik dti 

they have no lasting quali- hal lekin in me kuchh jdn 

ties ; shoddy. (or dam) nahi hai* 

Tt was due to my ill-luck that Men bad-qismatl se yih musi- 

this misfortune befell me. bat pan, or pesh 5,t. 

I Pur for pura, adj. " full, complete, entire, etc." 

* la me /on nahi. hai, also means " perished" or " worn out." 

LESSON 14. 61 

The Sahib treated us well. Sahib ham logoke sdth ban 

mihrbdni se pesh d.e. 1 

What is the meaning of this ? Is ke kyd ma'ne hai ? 

This will interfere with my Is se mere kdm me haraj hogd ? 

What harm will there be if I Is kam me kya haraj hai ? 

(or you or he) do this ? 

I hope Your Honour is not in- Is shor o ghul se dp kd haraj 

convenienced by this row. to natii hai ? 

This will have a bad result, Is ka natija burd hoga 
the consequences will be 

This thing will be useful. Yih chiz kam a,egl. 

Ten men were killed in the Das sipdhl lard, I me kam d.e. 
battle (or war). 

They are thirsting for his Wuh us ke khun ke* pyase 
blood. hat. 

I am not hungering for wealth Mai mal ka^ bhukha nahl. 
(property) . 

This girl is much loved by her Yih larld apne ma bap ki * 
parents, is very dear to her ban pyarl hai. 

(b) Idioms : 

Violent anger. Bald kd ghussa. 

Terrible 3 injustice. Ghazab kl (or bald kt) & nd- 


A dreadful famine. Bald Hi (or ghazab ki) qahtsdti. 

1 Plural for respect. 

2 Note these genitives. 

3 In this sense ghazab, bala and qiyamat have all the same force. 


A terrible dacoity has oc- Ghazah kd ddkd hu.d. 

Paltry fellow ! (lit. man worth Take ' ka dflmi. 

two pice ' or a half -penny) . 

You paltry slave-girl (lit. that Derh rupiai ki kaniz ! 
cost \\ rupees). 

To encounter, come face to KifH *e do chdr hand. 
face with, any one suddenly 
(lit. two eyes become four) . 

We met unexpectedly. Merv\usk\ chdr akhT> ////.7. 

I am ready to start (lit. my Mcrd, rikdb me. pd.~> Imi. 
foot is in the stirrup). 

To scold at nothing (said of a Hawd se larnd. 
scolding person). 

To bargain, haggle. Mol jol karnd* 

I am keeping the fast (volun- Mai roze se hu. 

He is starving (fasting invol- Wuh fdge Sf tin I. 
untarily) . 

He is mad about sport. Wuh shikar ke pichht 

Just do this. Zard yih kdm karo. 

Follow your nose ; also = as Ndk ki sidh me (jd,o) 
the crow flies. 

To be cautious (lit. to look Dd,e bd,e dekhnd. 
right and left). 

1 In Calcutta however taka is a rupee. 

2 Molna (used in Calcutta) and mol-lena, tr., to buy " ; mol, m. 
"purchase" : jol has no meaning In Delhi mol tol karna. 

LESSON 15. 63 

Come at the usual time. Ma'muli waqt par ana. 1 

It's an ordinary sort of horse. Ma'muli ghord hai. 
Indifferent topics of con versa- Idhar udhar kl bate. 

tion, small talk, etc. (lit. 

words of hither and thither) . 

Far and wide, I have to-day Aj, dur tak. merd jawdb natil. 
no match. 

A man named Muhammad 
said . 

To keep an appointment (lit. 
to come according to pro- 
mise) . 

Ah, I admire your cleverness. 

Pathans are the very devil. 
My heart was broken by grief. 

Ek shakhs Muhammad nam 
ne a kahd ki - . 

Iqrdr par ana. 

an ke 

Bas : tumhari Jwshyan 
qurbdn jdM (or jd,iye) . 

Pathdn log ghazab hate hai. 

Gham se merd kalejd z phat- 


(a) Saknd means ' to be able, can ' ( Potential) . and 
chukna* ' to have done or finished ' (Completive). When 
these govern another verb, the latter is not in the infinitive 
(as with us), but in the ROOT, which is always placed first ; 
the two together thus form a compound verb. 

1 Infinitive used as Future Imperative. 

2 Nam is in apposition to Muhammad. Also naml " named," " fa- 

3 Indians usually say " liver" where we say " heart." 
* No ne. 




He can (or is able to) speak 
our language. 

Are you able to read iny writ- 
ing ? 

No one will be able to read 
this but yourself. 

He can speak a little English. 

They have done eating. 
Have you done writing ? 

They had done reading when 
I arrived there. 

(6) Samajhna,' 1 
(does not take ne) . 

Samajh, f . 8 
Samajh-dar . 
Samjhana, caus. 

Nikalnd, intr. 
Nikalna, tr. 

Wuh hamarl zaban bol-sakta 

Turn mera likha ' parh-sakte 

Siwa.e tumhdre. ko,i isko na 


Wuh kuchh kuchh (or, thorl 
bahut) Angrezi bol-sakta hai. 

Wuh khd-chuke hai. 

Turn likh-chuke ? 

Jab ml waha pahucha (tab or 
to) wuh parh-chuke the. 

To understand, consider, 



To cause to understand, to 
explain ; to comfort, con- 
sole ; reason with; per- 

To come out ; to turn out. 

To turn out, expel; also to 
break in a horse (educate 

. 1 Likha, subs., " writing," but likha hu,a " something written." 

2 But samajh-lena requires ne. \ 

3 Verbal roots which are also nouns are usually feminine, as mar 
" beating." So too, Persian verbal roots, as amad " coming." 



Ghalat, adj. 

Ghalati, pi. ghalatiyn, f. 


Hu,d hogd. 

Bald, pi. bald,e, f. 
Bald se (exclamation) . 
Hdth, pi. hath, m. 
Andar, P., ^prep. and 
Bhitar, H.Jadv. 
Bdgh/i, m. 
Rond, intr. 
Saikrd, m. 
Saikro ddml. 
Kharch, m. 
Kharch karnd. 
' Imdrat, pi. 'imdrate, f . 
Pahuchnd, intr. 
Pahuchnd. tr. 
.*', conj. 
(JaK, pi. gdliya, f. 
G55 rfewa. 

iKoshish, pi. koshishe, f. 


Mistake, error. 

Will be, must be (w'de L 8) 

Will have been, must have 



Never mind, hang it ! 


In, inside. 

Rebel, mutineer. 

Country across the border. 

To weep, shed tears. 

A century, or a hundred. 

Hundreds of persons. 

Expenditure, cost. 

To spend, expend. 

Any masonry building. 

To arrive. 

To cause to arrive. 


Abuse, specially filthy abuse. 

To abuse. 

Endeavour, attempt, striving. 

To abuse (English fashion) ; 
to rate. 


Mai, m. Property, goods ; in the 

Punjab often 'cattle.' 

Daulat(nov\.),i Riches, wealth. 

Mal-dar, adj. Possessed of property. 

Daulat-mand, adj. Possessed of riches. 

Muftis. Poor ; also bachelor (vulg.) . 

Paidd, adj. Born; apparent, evident. 

Paidd hond. To be born ; to be produced ; 

to be procured. 

Ha (corrup. of ya&!, = here). =The French chez. 

Mere h& ; tere h&-Yr. chez At my place, etc. 
moi, etc. 

Shifa (no pi.), f. Cure (by God, not doctor). 

Shifd-khdna, m. Hospital. 

Bahuterd , ad j . Much . 

Magar, conj. But (and in writing " per- 


Chukdnd, tr. To settle (a dispute, an ac- 

count) ; to pay a debt. 
'Ildj, m. Treatment, cure by doctor. 


(a) Chuknd "to be finished" sometimes expresses "al- 
ready," as : Wuh jd-chukd hai " he has already gone." 

(b) It is usually better to insert nahl "not" between 
saknd and the verb-root; thus mai likh nahi saktd hU is 
better than mai nahl likh saktd hti ; but both are right 



(c)-Chukna with any verb is, in the Preterite only, used ironically 
for the Future, as : Jl U mal ja-ckuka=" I won't go, i.e. Oh yes I've 
gone (ironical) ; catch me going." 

Ghukna may be used in the Imperative, as : Yih kam jald kar-chuko. 
Should, however, the Imperative indicate time anterior to a second 
Otooa, chukna cannot be used, as : Pahle yih kam kar-lo (not kar-chuko) 
dusra kam karna, " first do this and t en that." 

(d)Sahj,b and Miya as terms of respect require a plural 
verb. 1 Sahib, with a singular verb, often indicates a loafer, 
or a half-caste in European clothes, and Miya* with a singu- 
lar verb is in the mouth of a Hindu a contemptuous expres- 
sion for a Muslim. 

(e)l am unable to talk Hin- Mat Hindustani bol nahri sakta 

I do not know how to talk 

I cannot do this (either = I 

won't or I can't). 
Do you understand ? (lit. have 

you understood what I 


Do you understand as I go 

Mujhe Hindustani boll nahl 
atl hai. 

Ham se yih kam nahl ho- 
sakta hai. 

Turn samjhe (or not so correct 
turn ne samjha) ? 

Turn samajhte ho ? 

Well, hang it, let him come Bald se, usko andar ane do ; 

in - bos. 

How much service have you ? Tumhan kitne din kl naukarl 


th subject must also be 

luraT SUCh CaS6S the adj6Ctive 
2 In some parts of India MiyS-ji is a title for a school-master. The 
meaning of miyS, varies in different districts. 



The service in this hotel (or Is hotal kd intizam achchhd 

refreshment -room) is poor. nahl. 
The sepoy did good service Sipdhi ne Sarkdr H khidmat 

for Government. 

What induced you to let these 
rebels stay with you ? 

He didn't understand me. 
He did this at my persuasion. 

Comfort the boy, he's crying. 

I reasoned with him well, ex- 
plained matters, but he 
didn't heed me in the least. 

Thousands of rupees must 
have been spent on this 

He must have reached there 
by now. 

He is sorry that this turned 
out to be wrong. 

He loaded me with filthy 
abuse, called me filthy 

He called me names (not 

achchhi ki. 

Turn ne. kyd samajhkar, in 
bdghiyo ko apne pas rahne 
diyd ? 

Wuh hmnari bat ' nahl, samjha. 

Us ne mere samjhdne se yih 
kdm kiyd.* 

Larke ko samjhd,o, rota hai. 

Mai ne usko bahut samjhdyd 
lekin usne ek na-mdni, or 
na-sunl, s (or wuh kab suntd 

Is ' imdrat me hazard rupai 
kharch hu,e hoge. 

waha pahuch-gayd 
ki yih bat 

Ab tak 

Usko afsos hai 
ghcilat nikli. 

Ume mujhe bun (or mri) * 
gdliya dl. 

Us ne mujhe burd bhald kahd. 

Not ham ko. 2 Kiya "did " ; kya " what ? " 

Idiom : feminine bat understood. 

From sarna to be rotten ; sar-jana to go rotten. 


Dinner is over. 

What can be, or will have 
been, done by his exer- 
tions ? what is likely to 
have been done by his en- 
deavours ? 

What ! from merely drinking 
wine has such a man of pro- 
perty become penniless ? 

A horse like this can never 
have been bred in your 

I tried all sorts of remedies 
but I didn't get well. 

' Id is over. 

When 1 I have finished this 
business, I will let you 

Khdnd ho-chukd. 

Uskl Icoshish se kyd hu,d hogd ? 

Kyd, shardb hi ke pine se 
aisa mdl-ddr ddmi muftis 
ho -gay a ? 

Tumhdre ha aisa ghord kabhi 
pqidd nahu,d hoga. 

Mai ne bahutere ' ilaj kiye 
magar shifd na pd,i. 

'Id ho-chuki. 

Jab l yih kdm kar-chukUgd 
(Fut.) to tumhe khabar dtiga. 

Lagnd, intr. 

Lagana, tr. 
Ghazdb, m. 
Shd'ir, m. 
Shi'r, m. 


To be attached, joined, etc, 
to begin (and continue). 

To affix, etc., etc. 



Poetry : also a couplet. 


1 Jab with Present Tense is temporal =" whenever" ; with Aorist or 
Future it means " when (conditional) " and sometimes " whenever." 


Bhukh, f. 


Topi, pi. topiyfi, f. 

Cap or hat (for head for gun. 


Jawan, adj. and sube. 

Youthful ; a youth. 

Pith, pi. pithe, f. 



Understanding, wisdom. 

'Aql-mand, adj. 


PeJ, pi. peJ, m. 

Stomach, belly. 

4saw, adj. 


Asam, subs. 


Nlshan, m. 

A mark, sign ; banner. 

Nlshana, m. 

Target, butt. 

Nishdni, f . 

Token, memorial. 

Talivar, pi. talwdri, f. 

A curved sword. 

Tttar, m. 

Cock grey -partridge. 

Tttan, f . 


Sher, m. 


Sherm, pi. sherniyft, f . 


Kunfi, H., pi. kunjiyd, f. ) 



Chabi, H., pi. chabiyS,, f. ) 

TaZa, H., pi. fa^e. ") 

Lock or padlock. 

QM^, A., m. ) 

Chhitkam, pi. chhitkaniyH , f. 


Kasna, tr. 

To pull, draw tight: t 

adj. and subs. 


Tight, narrow, contracted ; 
worried ; in straits ; a girth. 



Pichhe, prep. 
'Aish o 'ishrat, f. 

'Phul, m. 

Phal, m. 

Mausim, m. 

HUa, m. hlle, pi. 

Dlwana, adj. 

Diwana, subs., pi. cKwane. 

Banna, 1 intr. 

Banana, tr. 

Sawar, adj. and subs. 

Ghiithi, pi. chittliiya. 

Bahra, pi. bahre, adj. 
Jawdb, pi. jaivab, m. 
Jawab dena. 

Aram (no pi.), m. 
Bhdgna, intr. 


To shift from its place. 
Luxurious living ; debau- 
Fruit ; result. 

Trick, wile ; false excuse. 
Madman, madmen. 

To be made, prepared, fabri- 
cated ; to be feigned, made 
like. 1 

To make. 

Mounted on a horse, or in 
any conveyance : a horse- 
man, trooper of Native 

Letter, specially official (in 


To answer ; also to dismiss : 
and sometimes ' to refuse.' 

Rest, quiet, ease. 

To flee away, abscond (not 
to run). 

For some idiomatic significations of banna, vide Lessons 3S and 55. 


Mafi } m . Gardener (Hindu). 

Malin, pi. maline, f. Gardener's wife. 

Gul, pi. gul, m. Flower; an ornamental flow- 

er ; a spot on a pigeon, 
horse, etc. ; also the burnt 
part of a wick. 

Gul karna. To extinguish a lamp, candle. 

Gulab, pi. guldb, m. A rose ; also rose-water. 

Dasta, pi. daste, m. Handle ; a pestle ; a packet ; 

a quire of paper. 

Gul-dasta. Nosegay. 

Torna, 1 tr. To break (lit. and met.). 

Tutna, 1 intr. To be broken. 

Qasam, pi. qasame, f. An oath. 

Qasam khana. To swear (Zi7. eat an oath) 

Garha or gaddha, m. , pi. garhe. A pit. 

Mitti, f. Earth, mould ; vulg. corpse, 

' remains.' 

Bharna, tr. and intr. 2 To fill. 

Band karna, tr. To close, stop, shut up. 

Dubnd, intr. To sink ; to set (of the sun, 

moon or stare) ; to be 
deluged ; to drown, or 
nearly drown ; be immersed 

Dubona or dubana, tr. To plunge into water, duck ; 

cause to drown. 

1 Note the first t of torria and tutna ; soft and hard. 
3 But bhar-dena and bhar-jana, tr. and intr. only. 



Pdnl ke upar bahna, intr. ; and 
bahdnd, tr. 

Asu bahana, tr. 
Haiza, m. 
Khara, adj. 
Khard karnd, tr. 
Kuril, pi. ; kurtiyS, f . 
Jharan, pi. ; jhdrane, f . 
Jharna, tr. (jharna, intr.). 

Par jharna, tr. 



To float ; to make to flow or 
float, or to wash away. 

To shed tears. 


Standing, erect ; halted. 

To erect ; to stop from motion . 

A short coat, tunic. 

A duster. 

To sweep, to dust ; to shake 
dust or water off clothes ; 
to brush away with the 
hand ; to beat a jungle for 
game : to shake fruit off 
a tree. 

To moult, shed feathers. 

On purpose. 


(a) The verbs lagna, intr., "to begin" (Inceptive), dend 
(takes we), " to grant permission " or "allow" (Permissive), 
and pana (no ne 1 ), "to get permission" or "be allowed" 
(Acquisitive), govern the Infinitive of another verb in the 
inflected state, that is, -ne instead of -nd. 

(b) The Conjunctive Participle (jd-kar, jd-ke, etc., "hav- 
ing gone") serves to throw two or more short sentences into 

1 From janria to know and bujhna to solve (a riddle). 

2 Pana when it means " to find," takes ne. 


one; thus. "Go to my room, and bring me quickly my 
sword " mere kamre me ja-kar talwar jald ld,o. Vide also 
L. 26 (d). 

(c) (1) The intransitive lagria has many common idioma- 
tic meanings besides "to begin, etc." Most of these are 
illustrated below. 

(2) After an infinitive, lagna may take the place of the Subjunctive, 
as: Mai waha ky& jane laga, "why should I go there?"; mat waha 
kyS jane laga tha " why should I have gone there ? " 

(d) (1) Beginners should avoid the construction known in 
English as the "error of the misrelated participle," ' that is. 
they should see that the participle and the finite verb refer to 
the same grammatical subject : M ujh ko ghar jdke bukhar dya 
' I got fever after reaching my house/' is quite correct Urdu, 
for though bukhar is the grammatical subject of the finite 
verb (while mujh ko is the dative case), still the logical sub- 
ject is "I." The beginner, however, if he copies such con- 
structions will make serious errors. 

(2) The Conj. Participles barh-kar ''more," and khass -kar 
"especially" are adverbs.* 

(e) The substantive verb of a tense is often omitted in a 
negative sentence, as : Mai us ke (or us se) milne ko kabhi 
nahl jdtd [hu] " I never go to see him." 

(/) The inflected infinitive before sakna (as jane saktd for 
ja-sakta) is vulgar and incorrect. 

(g) His house caught fire. Uske ghar me ag lagi. 

1 "The Shah spoke for three hours, when, becoming fntigued, the 
ministers left the darbar." It was the Shah who became fatigued, not 
the ministers. 

2 Compare the English "notwithstanding, concerning, etc." 



I feel hungry. Mujhe bhuk lagl hai. 1 

I don't like this place. Mera dil yaha nahl lagtd (hai) . 

The youth has fallen in love Jawan ka, larki se, dil laga hai 

(or lag-gaya hai) . 
Ghore ki pith lag-go,^,. 

Topi us ko ' z achchhl nahl, lagti 

'Aql-mand ko ko,i bat jald bun 

with the girl. 
The horse has a sore back 
The hat does not suit her. 

A wise man does not easily 

(quickly) take offence. 
I made a good shot. 
I fell asleep. 

nahl lagti (hai). 
Men goli nishane par thik lagi. 
Men akh lag-ga,i.' 6 

I am always thinking about Mera dil har waqt uski taraf 


laga-rahta hai. 

When the sword struck him Jab talwar us ko (or better us 

then . ke) * lagi tab . 

It will occupy only a short Faqat thofi der lagegi. 


I didn't get a single partridge. Ek bhi titar mere hath (me) na- 

The key did not fit the lock. Chabi qufl me nahl lagi. b 
Why should you go there ? Turn kyu waha jane lage ? 

1 Pyas " thirst." Mai bhuka pyasa hH " I am hungry and thirsty.' ' 
Peahab laga hai " I want to make water." 

2 Us ko may mean " him" or " her" according to the context. If 
it is necessary to lay emphasis on the feminine, some word like larkl, 
or 'aurat, must be used. 

3 For this form of this verb vide Lesson 23 (c). 

* i.e. Uske badan me or kovide Lesson 20 (e) 4, etc. 
6 Vulgarly chabi lagl hu*i hai' 1 it is locked." 


He rose and began to say. Wuh uth-kar kahne lagd. 1 
I set fire to the house (vide also Mai ne ghar me dg lagd-dl .* 

first sentence). 

Bolt the door (or window). Chhitkani* lagd,o. 
If he had not pulled the girth Agar uruh tag kaske na lagdtd, 

tight, the saddle would have to zin pichhe ko sarak-jdtd. 

slipped back. 
The Raja is a very dissolute 

At this season the trees are in 

He's a fine poet. 
A devil of a war took place. 
He is the devil to work. 
Try to lift this. 
He pretended to be mad. 

Raja sahib 'aish o 'ishrat me 

lage-rahte* hat. 
Is mausim me darakfrffi me (or 

par) phul lage-rahte hoi. 

Wuh ghazab ka B sha'ir hai. 
Ghazab ki laraj waqi' hu,i. 
Wuh bald kd mihnatt hai. 
Koshish karke isko uthd-lo. 
(Hlla karke) diwdna ban-gayd. 
Mai, wdha sawdr ho-ke gayd. 

Apnd kdm jhut bol-kar nikdld 
hai (or nikdl-liyd hai). 

Us ne has-kar kahd ki . 

.1 rode there. 

He has accomplished his busi 

ness by lying. 
He laughingly said that . 
The thief came silently (with Ghor chup-ke (dabe pd,o 6 ) dyd. 

stealthy steps). , 

Kindly tell me, please tell me. Mihrbdnl kar-ke bolo (or kaho) . 

Laga here equals ' began and continued.' 
Laga-dena ; for this form of verb vide Lesson 22 (c) 2. 
Not ko vide Lesson 12 (c). 

Hu,e understood after lage. Plural of respect after sahib. 
These two idioms bala ka, and ghazab ka, have either a good 
or bad sense. 6 Se understood after dabe pa,o. 



He pretended to be deaf and did 
not answer. 

Even after leaving here there 
is no rest to be obtained. 

He escaped with just his life. 

The mall made a bouquet of 

He swore that . 

Fill up this hole (lit. this hole, 
having filled earth in it, stop 

When I got there, I found that 
I had come to the wrong 

He sank, was nearly drowned, 
or was drowned. 

He was drowned (dead). 
He died of cholera. 

Does not a great boy like you 
feel ashamed (of doing such 
a thing) ? 

After striking him repeatedly, 
I turned him out of the 

Us ne, bakra ban-ke, kuchh 
jawdb na diyd. 

Yaha se jd-kar bhi dram na- 
M milne kd. 1 

Apm jdn le-kar bhdg-gayd. 

Mali ne phul tor * tor (ke) gul- 
dasta bandy a. 

Us ne qasam khd-kar kahd 
ki . 

Is garhe ko, mitti bhar-kar, 
band kar-do. 

Watia jdkar mujhe ma'lum 
hu,d ki " bhule se aur makdn 
par d-gayd hu." 3 

Wuh dubd. 

Wuh dubke mard, 

Wuh haiza karke mar-gayd. 

Turn ko, itne bare ho-kar, sharm 
dtl ? " * 

Mai ne us ko mdr-marke 
se nikdl-diyd. 

He stood up and said that . Us ne khare kokar kahd ki . 

1 For the signification of the Infinitive used like this, vide L. 32 (e). 

2 Tor tor (Tear) : the repetition here expresses repeated action. 

3 In Hindustani this is direct narration. 

4 Hai understood ; vide (d) and (e). 


I stealthily tied a duster to M ai ne chhupdkar ' ek jhdran 

his coat (tail). us kt kurtt se badh-di. 

He secretly put the letter in Us ne chhipdkar chittht dg me 

the fire. daft- 

By continually quarrelling he Us ne lar lar-kar ghar bhar kt 
has worn out the whole nak me dam kar-diyd 1 - (or 
house. kar-rakhd) hai. 

I went away just before he Wuh 8 ane bht na pay a thd ki 
came. mat chald-gayd ( = wuh dyd 

bhi na-thd ki mat chald-gayd 
= wuh ane hi ko tha ki mai 


(a) Ghdhnd, " to be about to do " or " to be about to finish 
doing," and karna* in the sense of "to make a practice of," 
"to be in the habit of (Frequentative)," often govern the 
past participle instead of the infinitive. The participle so 
governed is always in the form of the singular masculine 
in a. 5 Thus 


He is in the habit of reading Wuh har subh ko parhd-karta 
every morning. hai. 

Also chhipakar. 

Nak me dam karna (lit. " to bring the breath into the nose") an 
id om for " to worry, wear out " : the in transitive is nak me dam ana. 


r-rakha signifies " has kept the house in a state of .' 

Note no ne. 

Kama in this sense is intransitive. Vide also L. 20 (d). 

The Past Part, of Jana in such cases is regular, i.e. jaya and not 
gaya; also in the passive mujh ae wahct jaya na gaya" I could not 
venture to go there." 

LESSON 19. 79 

He is in the habit of writing W uh har roz kuchh likhd-kartd 

something every day. hai. 

He used always to give (make) Wuh hamesha shdgird ko yih 

this injunction to the scho- tdktd kiyd-kartd thd. 


I am about to finish learning Mai Hindustani zabdn slkhd 
Hindustani. chdhtd ~hn. 

I am going to finish writing Mai yih chitthi likhd-chdhtd 

this letter. A. 

(6) The form chdhiye of the verb chahna is used imper- 
sonally, like the Latin " decet," and " oportet," or the French 
" il faut," as : chahiye ki turn jd,o, " you must or ought to go, 
it is necessary that you go." This form of chahna is often 
followed by the Aorist, as in the preceding example, but more 
often it is construed with the uninflected infinitive, the sub- 
ject being put in the dative case, as : tumko jdnd ' chahiye. It 
used also to govern the Past Participle of the verb, as : Adab 
sikha chahiye, "it is proper (or necessary) to learn good man- 
ners" ; 2 but this construction is at present met with only in 
the expression dekhd chdiye "let us see (what happens)." 
Vide also L. 32 (c). 

(c) Dastana. 8 Glove. 

Jord, H., m. ^ A pair, i.e. a couple ; a suit 

Juft, P., m. 5 o f clothes. 

Jord khdnd. To pair. 

1 Jana is the subject of chahiye. 

2 Vide L. 33 (a). Chahiye is also considered ' Desiderative,' vide L. 
20 (6). 

3 From the Persian dost " hand" ; it ends in the Persian silent h ; 
vide note 2, p. 16. 



Juffi karnd or juft hond. 
Tirath, m. 

'Adat, pi. 'ddate, f. 
HdL m., Ar. pi. ahwal, 1 m. 
Halat, f ; Ar. pi. hdldt, m. 
Dekhnd, tr. 
Dikhdnd, caus. 
Dikhaj, subs., f. 

Dikkaj derui, intr. (no ne). 
Zamin, f. 

Ghord, m. 
i, f. 

TaiZ, m. 

Tatwdm, f. 

Kambal or kammal, m. 

Ghddar, pi. chddare, f. 

^aZ, adv. 

M, f. 

A pair (two) of horses, clubs, 
or dumb-bells ; of sepoys, 
brothers, etc. 
To pair. 
A Hindu pilgrimage, or place 

of pilgrimage. 
Habit, custom. 
State, circumstances. 
State, circumstances 
To look, see. 
To show. 

Appearance, view ; money 
paid for seeing any unusual 

To appear, seem. 
Land, ground ; the earth. 
A land-owner. 
Horse ; also cock of a gun. 4 
Mare ; also a saddle -stand, and 

a clothes-horse. 

Sheet (of cloth or metal). 
To-morrow ; yesterday. 
An instrument, machine. 

1 Sometimes, in Urdu, used as a singular. 

2 Also the Knight in chess. 



Kal kd ghora. 
Ms, pi. raa,e, f. 
Bap, m. 

Ms-bap, m., pi. 
Akh, f., pi. akKe. 
Akh and, intr. 
Tasma, m. 
Nil, m. 
Ntld, adj. 
Khasna, intr. 

Km*, f. 

Hasnd, intr. 
Chalnd. intr. 
Bachna, intr. 

Bachdnd, tr. 

Dast-khatt, m., pi. 
Pliisalrid, intr. 
Ghusnd (me), intr. 

Bachcha, m. 
Chuhd, m. 
CAwAi.. f. 
Uthna, intr. 

Uthdnd, tr. 

A mechanical horse. 




Eye ; aZso a " good eye for." 

To have ophthalmia. 



Drak blue. 

To cough 

A cough. 

To laugh. 

To move, to come in motion. 

To be saved, get off. remain 
over, be spared ; to avoid 
a threatened ill. 

To save, etc., etc. 

Writing, line ; also a letter. 


To slip, slide. 

To enter (by force or hur- 
riedly) . 

The young of anything. 



To rise up ; swell ; rise from 

To raise ; to awaken ; to suffer. 



(a) With the past tenses of chdhnd, the agentive ne may 
be used or omitted ; both are right. If however the subject 
is without life it is better to omit ne, as : Mai ne (or ma?) 
chdhd ki usko zara dekh-lu, but merd dil chdhd, ki usko zdra 
dekh-lu "I wanted to see him for a minute" ; 'aurat chdhi 
(or 'aurat ne chaha) ki yaha se bhdg-jd,e, or 'aurat kd dil chaha 
ki yahu, se bhdg-jd,e "the woman wanted to abscond." 

(b) Chdhnd may also govern the uninflected (not inflected) 
infinitive, but the sense is different. Chdhnd with a past 
participle properly signifies " about to do " or " about to finish 
doing " ; with an infinitive " wishes to do (desiderative)," as : 
Hindustani sikhd chdhta hu "I am about to finish learning 
Hindustani " ; Hindustani sikhnd chdhta hu "I want to learn 
Hindustani." These two expressions however are often in- 
correctly used for each other, as : yih kdm dj kiyd (or karnd) 
chdhiye " you must do this to-day." 

(c) Chdhna also signifies "to love, to like." as: Ma bete 
ko chdhti hai "the mother loves her child." Chdhat, subs, f., 
" love " ; chd,o " fonding." ' 

(d) When karnd means "to be in the habit of," vide L. 19 
(a), the agentive ne cannot be used. In the Present, Imper- 
fect, or Perfect Tenses, karnd indicates habitual action ; but 
in the Preterite Tense either habitual or continued action. 
The Pluperfect does not appear to be used. 

Remark. The expression wuh kiyd kiyd is not in use. 

(e) There is in Hindustani no verb " to have." (1) If the 
thing possessed is saleable, the preposition pas is used, as : 

i For chahiye " it is necessary," vide L. 32 (c). 

LESSON 20. 83 

Us ke pas zamln hai "he has land" ; mere pas (or yaha) ' 
naukar hai is an exception. 

(2) If the possession is unsaleable, the masculine inflected 
genitive, or the dative case, is used, as : Us ke. (or usko) ek 
beta hai "he has a son" (a general statement) ; bichchhu 
(sing.)' 2 ke (or ko) Skh nahl hotl "scorpions have no eyes." 
Vide also L. 60 (e). 

But in us kd (uninflected) ek beta hai, some word is em- 
phasised, as: "He has a son," or "he has one son," or "he 
has a son (not a daughter)." 

(3) If the thing is ideal, not real, the dative only is used, 
as : Mujhe fursat nahl hai "I have no leisure." 

(4) For limbs, etc., the proper genitive is used, and for 
such sentences as "she has blue eyes" the Urdu idiom is 
"her eyes are blue " us kl tikhe mil hai ; us kl ndk Iambi hai, 
"his nose is large" (in English "he has a large nose"). 

Remark /. In, Ek gadhd jis ke dum na-ihl, "an ass that 
had no tail/' the explanation is that badan me is understood. 
Compare, us ke chot lagl "he was hurt, bruised, etc."; ghore 
ne uske Idt marl "the horse kicked him, etc., etc." 

Remark II. Mujh pas, and us pas, and turn pas, are sometimes 
colloquially used for mere pas, us ke pas, and tumhare pas. 

(g) When two separate nouns of different genders occur 
together as a semi-compound, the masculine or more worthy 
gender will predominate, as : rotl-makkhan, m. sing. " bread 
and butter"; chharrd-bdrut, m. sing, "powder and shot"; 
ma bap, m. pi. "parents"; hisdb-kitab, m. "accounts." 

(h) Pas also signifies "to" when the motion is towards 

1 Vide L. 64 (c) (3). 

* Masc. and declined like mard : the nom. pi. is also bichchhu. 



living beings or things that cannot be entered ; as : Us ddmt 
ke pas (not ko) jd,o "go to that man" ; ghore ke pas (not ko) 
jd,o "go to the horse." 

Wuh is jagah ke pas hai ? 

Pas hi hai. 

Ydhd, se nazdtk hai. 

Wuh ' likhd ki. 

Yih bat ' (hamesha) hu,d ki ( = 

Uske pas ghord (bht) hai aur 
tattu bht hai. 

(g)ls it near here ? 

It is quite close. 

It is near here 

She continued writing. 

This always used to happen. 

He has both a horse and a 


He has both a blanket and a' Uske pd* kambal bht hai aur 
sheet. chddar bht hai ; or uske pas 

kambal aur chddar dono hai 
(for lifeless things hai is 
better than hai). 
Mere pas kuchh bht nahl hai. 
Yih wuhi ghord hai jo kal mere 
pas thd. 

I have nothing at all. 

This is the same (that very) 

horse which I had yester- 


He has no parents. 
His (or her) eyes are blue. 
I have a severe cough. 
Whose mare is this ? 
Whose ponies are these ? 

Uske rna-bdp nahl hai. 
Uskt Skhe niU hat. 
Mujhe sakht khiisi hai. 
Yih ghort kiskt hai ? 
Yih tattu kin logo ke hai ? 

This pony-mare is the khan- Yih talwdni khansdma kt hai. 

i Vide (d). 



Come to me to-morrow. 

He has seven or eight pairs. 

In the opinion of Hindus, pil- 
grimage is a meritorious 

He is in the habit of taking 

They don't know anything 
about it (lit. to them the 
state of this is not at all 

Fasten the strap tight. 

This pigeon belongs to that 

These two pigeons are a pair. 

Patna is about to become a 

He has no eyes for a horse. 

He has just closed his eyes, 
fallen asleep. 

He is on the point of falling. 

Mere pas kal and. 1 
Uske pas sat dth jor'e hat. 

Hindu, o ke nazdlk tirath jdnd 
pun * hai. 

Usko sharab pine ki 'ddat hai ; 
or wuh sharab piyd kartd 

Unko, iskd hai, kuchh ma'lum 
nahl hai. 

Tasma kaske badho. 

Yih kabutar is kd jora (or juft) 

Yih dono kabutar jora hai. 

Yih Patna bhl Landan hu,d 
chdhtd hai. 

Us ko ghord pahchdnne Id akh 
nahl, hai = us ki nazar ach- 
cMw nahl hai. s 

Us ki d,kh dbhi lagl hai. 
Wuh gird chdhid hai. 

1 The infinitive can be used as a future imperative but is less im- 
perious. When used as a present imperative it is polite. 

2 Pun, only used by Hindus, is " religious merit rewarded by 
Heaven " ; opposed to pap " sin " ; papl " sinner." The Muslim equi- 
valent for pun is sawab, and for pap is gunah. 

3 Meaning of the latter depends on the context ; it may also mean 
" he has poor eye-sight " or " he eyes women evilly." 




(a) Hindustani abounds in compound Intensive verbs. A 
verb is rendered intensive by employing its root only, and 
suffixing some other verb. The root of the principal verb is 
invariable, but the suffixed verb is fully conjugated ; thus, 
mdrna, to beat, becomes intensive by adding the verb dalna. 
whereby mar-dalna signifies " to kill downright " ; so, ddl-dena, 
"to throw down"; bol-uthna, "to speak out"; mar-jdnd, 
"to die"; kho-dend, "to lose"; tor-dend, "to break to 
pieces, to smash." Almost every verb may be rendered in- 
tensive. The ' servile ' verb of an intensive, often lays aside 
its primitive meaning. Vide also L. 13 (c) (2). 

(b)Zillat, L, pi. zillate. 
Khiffat, f. 
Awdz, f., pi. dwdze. 
Ddbnd, intr. 

Ddbdrid, tr. 
Dabd,o, m. 
Rdh, pi. rdhe, f. 
Rdhl, m. 
Ham-rdh, prep. 
Intizdr, m. 

Disgrace, baseness. 

A slight, affront. 

Sound, voice. 

To be pressed, squashed ; be 
buried beneath ; restrained, 
kept in check ; quelled. 

Press, squash, etc., etc. 

Pressure, influence. 

Road, way, path. 

Traveller on roa,d = jdnewdld. 

In company with 

Watching, waiting for 

Intizdr khichnd ' or Icarnd (or To wait for, expect anxiously. 
me rahna). 

K rdh dekhnd. T o wait for, expect anxiously. 

The causal is with khtchwana or karana. 



Rah dikhdnd, caus. 

Duhrana, tr. and intr. 

Hafta, 1 m. 
Nahr, pi. nahre, f . 
De-mdrnd, tr. a 
Ho-lena. intr. 

Girria, intr. 
Parna, intr. 

Gir-parnd, intr. 
Girdna, tr. 

Tap, pi. <a>e : f. 
Tap mdrnd. 

Ro-lend, intr. 
So-lend, intr. 

To make a person to wait ; 
also to show the way. 

To repeat, say a second time, 
repeat after ; also to double, 
fold in two ; (tr.) : to occur 
again (intr..). 


Artificial canal or stream. 

To dash against. 

To accompany (kist ke sdth or 
pichhe) : sometimes to be 
over, finished outright ; also 
to pass by, see on the way. 

To fall (from a known source). 

To lie down, be in a lying 
state ; happen ; metaphori- 
cally to fall ; to fall (from 
unknown source). 

To fall suddenly (inten.). 

To cause to fall, knock down : 

also to let fall or drop. 
Pawing of fore-foot. 

To paw the ground with the 
fore-foot (of a horse). 

To weep one's fill, take ones' 
fill of weeping. 

To sleep one's fill. 

1 From the Persian haft " 

2 De-marna=chhor-marna 
and the latter ke waste. 

to bequeath " ; the former requires ko 



(a) Dem in the following idiomatic compounds does not 
admit of ne, 1 the verbs being regarded as intransitive. 
Samjhdj dena, intr. To be understood. 

Dikhdj dena, intr. To appear, show. 

Sund,l dena, intr. To be heard. 

Pakrdj dena, intr. To allow oneself to be caught. 

Chal-dena* intr. To move off, clear off. 

Remark. Dena in the Imperfect tense " was giving " (and 
sometimes in the Present) signifies " to offer." 8 Kdm dena 
"to be useful," is transitive, and requires ne. Sdth dena " to 
accompany," is properly transitive and takes ne ; vide also 
p. 53 foot-note 1, Urdu of " Sepoy to Subadar." 

(6) The subjoined or 'servile' verb of an Intensive, (1) 
modifies or strengthens the first verb ; (2) sometimes the. 
meaning of both verbs is retained, in which case the first part 
of the compound is the shortened form of the Conjunctive 
Participle, as : us gSw ko dekh d,o, lit. " having seen the vil- 
lage return here " ; mdl us ke makdn ho-dyd hu " I have been 
to his house and come back." 

The use of the ' servile ' verb is, to a great extent, governed 
by rule, as will be discovered by a study of the following. 

(c) (1) Dena and Lend. In compounds, dena usually sig- 
nifies doing a thing for some one else, but lend for oneself, as : 
Yih rupiya bat-do " divide this money amongst them " (i.e. give 

1 So too with -Jena as in ho-lena. 

2 Dena here is simply intensive and does not signify ' for the benefit 
of any one else,' vide (c). 

3 In the Pret. dene logo, " he offered." 

LESSON 22. 89 

and divide it) ; yih rupiya bSt-lo " divide this money amongst 
yourselves" (i.e. take and divide it); yih khatt parh-lo "read 
this letter to yourself " ; yih khatt parh-do " read this letter to 
me." Ham apas me has-lete the "we were joking amongst 
ourselves" (for our own amusement), (but ham h&s-dete the 
"we could not help laughing)." 

(2) Dena also sometimes gives the idea of "on purpose," 
as : Mai ne (jan-bujh kar) usko mar-diya ' (or qasd-an mara} 
" I hit him on purpose," but bhul se usko mara (not mar-diya). 

(3) The compound in dena is also used to express a time more re- 
mote than the simple verb, thus : Jab mai ' the tar ' me pahucha us ke do 
ek minat peshtar darwaza khola-gaya tha " when I arrived at the theatre, 
I found that the doors had been opened just a minute or two before." 
but mere pahuchne se bahut pahle darwaza khol-diya-gaya tha. The two 
final verbs in the preceding could be interchanged, but it is better not 
to do so, and the same rule applies to the Active. 

(4) Dena also signifies some definite time, as: Jab mai waha gaya 
wuh hasta tha (not has-deta tha) " when I went there he was laughing 
(i.e. he was laughing before I arrived)," but jab mai usko gudgudata 
tha wuh has-detl thl (or not so good hastl thl) " whenever I tickled her, 
she laughed." 

(5) The Imperative do can be added to the root of any verb, 
and signifies " for my sake " ; it is more polite than the simple 

(6) Us-ne muj'he mustbat se bacha-diya "he saved me from misfor- 
tune." Mai girne hi ko tha M sahib ne mujhe bacha-liya 2 (rarely -diya) , 
or mujhe girte girte sahib ne bacha-liya " I was on the point of falling 
when the Sahib saved me." 

If, however, a person makes a request, dena may be used, as: 
Mujhe bacha-do " save me (for my sake)," or bacha-lo " save- me (out 
of your pity)." 

1 If the object were insignificant (say an insect), mar-diya would 
mean " killed." 

2 Liya signifies for his own pity or mercy. 


(7) Lena sometimea gives the idea of unwillingness, as: M at shart.o 
ko qabul kar-leta hu "I unwillingly agree to the conditions," but 
shartfl ko qabul karta hu " I willingly agree to the conditions." Qabul 
karna "to agree, to acknowledge, to confess": qabul kar-lena "to 
agree unwillingly " : qabul kar-dena " to confess." Lad-lena " to load 
for oneseif," but lad-dena, tr., " to load," gives an idea of force or 

Occasionally Una gives the idea of chukna ' to have finished,' as : 
pah&ch-lena intr. = pahSch-chukna = pahuch-jana. " When 7 have 
finished this matter I will turn my attention to something else " 706 
mai yih kam kar-ltiga tab kisl duare kam kl t.araf mutawajjih huga. 
Sometimes it gives an idea of success. 

Lena often indicates that one action is to be done before another, 
as : (Jab) yih kitab likh-lo (or likh-chuko) to mujhe kjiabar denu " when 
you have finished writing the book, tell me " : here likh-do could not 
be used. 

Here mal-ll-jiyo signifies that the ghl has to be administered to the 
horse first. Were it is to be administered second, mal dijiyo would be 

(d) (1) Pa/fina, in compounds, generally signifies some 
suddenness, as : gir-parna "to fall suddenly" : h&s-parna " to 
burst out laughing" ; ro-parna "to burst out crying, fall a- 
weeping"; chal-parna "to start off"; phisal-parna " to slip 
suddenly, or accidentally " ; ghus-parna " to enter suddenly" 
ho-pafna " to happen suddenly " ; kud-pafna " to jump into." 

(2) There are, however, some exceptions to this idea of suddenness, 
as: rah-parna " to remain," vide 6(1); ban porno "to be effected, 
managed, to get the upper hand" ; le-parna to lie down with," vide 

(3) With tutna, however, it also gives the idea of from a height ' ; 
chhat tut-parl " the roof came down (on somebody)" ; daku-mujh par 
tulrpare met ' : p u l yak-a-yak tut-gaya " the bridge broke," but tut- 
para " broke and came down (on somebody)." 

LESSON 23. 91 

(e) Uthria, " to rise up," has in compounds a force similar 
to parna, as : jag-uthnd "to wake up suddenly; to start out 
of sleep " ; bol-uthna " to cry out " ; jal-uthim " to catch fire " ; 
ghabra-uthna "to lose one's head suddenly." 

Note. Utha-rakhnd signifies "to postpone," i.e. to "take 
up and put aside." 

(/) Dalna, "to throw," gives in compounds the idea of 
completion or vehemence, as : de-ddlnd ( = de-dena) "to give 
away"; marna 1 "to beat or kill," but mar-dalria "to kill 
outright"; kha-dalna (=kha-jana^) "to eat up" kah-dalna 
"to speak out" ; parh-dalnE "to read through" ; dekh-dalna 
" to look through " ; badal-dalna ( = badal-dena badalna) " to 
change " (but badal-lena " to exchange "). 


(a) (1) Baithna, "to sit," in a compound, gives the idea 
either of finality or suddenness, as : uth-baithna " to sit up 
suddenly (from a lying position)," but baith jaria "to sit 
down " ; kar -baithnd " to do anj^thing suddenly, or in an im- 
proper manner, or without forethought." Mar-baithna "to 
beat without cause " ; qismat ko ro-baithnd " to weep over 
one's lot (completeness)." Wuh bddshah ban-baitha "he be- 
came king by force," but wuh badsliah bankar baitha "he sat 
on the throne as king." 

1 The passive mar arj aria always signifies "to be killed" and never 
" to be beaten " ; mar-khana or (plta-jana or pitna) is " to be beaten." 
Vide also L. 12 (/). 

2 When any part of a compound verb is intransitive the whole com- 
pound is treated as intransitive, i.e. it does not admit of ne, as : Mai 
usko kha-gaya " I ate it up." 


(2) In the following, the idea of both verbs is preserved : 
He went and sat down there. W uh waha jd-baithd. 1 

To meet and sit together. Mil l -baithnd. 

Note.Baithd hai, Perfect tense "he has sat" ; also "he 
is seated or he is sitting 2 " ; the Present tense baithtd hai '' he 
sits every day, he is in the habit of sitting." Similarly para 
hai " he is lying, fallen " ; letd hai " he is lying down." 

(3) Note the idiom goli sir me baithi " the bullet pierced, 
entered, his head." 

(b) Marna in compounds gives an idea of impropriety and 
folly : Yaha peshdb kyU kar-mdrd ? Mai ne pddshdh ko sidhd 
likh-mara. It is not interchangeable with baithnd. 

(c) (1) Jand "to go" added to the roots of verbs, express 
completeness or finality, as : Kha jdnd " to eat up " ; pi-jdnd 
"to drink up"; dub -jana "to sink down, to drown"; but 
dub-marnd " to die of one's own accord by drowning " ; 
dubke-marnd "to be accidentally drowned"; gir-jdnd "to 
fall down" (gir-parnd "to fall suddenly"); d-jdnd "to 
come, arrive (completeness)"; rah-jdnd "to be left quite 
behind " ; par-jdnd " to lie down, to subside (of wind, voice), 
to be engaged in, to be put to or to take up a work " ; plchhe. 
par-jdnd "to goad continually to a business"; vide also 
L. 28 (?'). Jdnd often indicates that the action is away from 
the speaker. It is the servile most commonly used with In- 

(2) Kah-jana, kah-kar-jana " to say before leaving," but ko,l sha'ir 
kah-gaya hai " some ancient (dead) poet has said." 

(3) Note the following idioms: Fula kitab mujhe de-ja,o " bring me 
such and such a book (and go away again) " ; this might be said to 

1 Here ja and mil are Conjunctive Participles, for/5-fcar and milkar. 

2 Baitha in the second case is Past Participle for baitha hu,a (hai). 

LESSON 23. 93 

some one in the next room. Jo kuchh Sahib turn se kahe wuh mujh se 
kah-jana "whatever the Sahib says to you, come and report it (and 
go away)" ; said to one just departing. Turn mujh se kah-ga,e the kl 
mal Lahor ja,uga magar ab talc yihi ho ' you told me when you left me 
that you were going to Lahore but you're still here." Mal is kitab ko 
parhta hu turn usko sun-ja,o " I will read this book ; do you listen to 
it from beginning to end" : in this idiom there js an idea of duration. 
However kar-a,o "go and do it and come back," can be said only to 
one present, while karke a,o " come to me after you have done it " 
can be said to one either present or at a distance. 

(d) With Intransitive verbs only, purpose or intention is 
indicated by Rahnd, as : Mai so-gayd "I fell asleep," but so- 
rahd " I deliberately went to sleep," vide " Stumbling Blocks," 
p. 37 : tumhe sharm ke mare mar-rahnd chdhiye "von ought 
to die (on purpose) of shame." 

(2) Ho-rahna " to be accomplished (in Fut.) to be done some time 
or other," as : Jaldi kya hai, kam ho-rahega " what is the hurry, it 
will be done some time or other," but yih kam abhl abhl ho-j'a,ega 
(not ho-rahega) " it will be done at once" ; ho-fa,ega " it will cer- 
tainly be done." The Future of rahna added to an intransitive verb 
means " some time or other" (indefinite time). 

(3) There is, however, an exception in the use of Rahna : 
its Perfect tense added to a root signifies present uninter- 
rupted continuance, and its Pluperfect, past continuance, as : 
Raste me jd-rahd hai "he is now going along the road; (jata 
hai "he is going, or goes," might signify "every day"). 

Raste me jd-rahd thd " he was going along the road ; (jata 
thd might signify either "he was going" or "he was in the 
habit of going "). Ka,t sal se is bat H darkhwdst kar-rahe the, 
but har sal is bat kl darkhwdst karte the or karte rahe the (not 
kar rahe the). Ho-rahd hai " is happening now " and ho-rahd 
thd "was happening then." Zakhmi ho-rahd thd "he was 
(still) wounded," but zakhrni hu,d thd "he had been wounded 
(but is now recovered)." Rahna, so used is not classed as a 
Continuative, vide L. 26 (a). 


Note. In the Past or Preterite Tense the signification of both verbs 
is retained, as: Wuh waha ja-rdha "he went there and stayed"; 
mal us shahr ka ho-raha " I made that city my permanent dwelling, I 
stuck to it" ; jab se mal ne usko dekha, mal uska ho-raha "ever since 
I saw him I have taken his part." Ja-rahna and a-rahna also indi- 
cate suddenness of action. 

(4) Rahnd with the Conjunctive Participle of Transitive or 
Intransitive verbs signifies ' to do after effort or determina- 
tion/ as : Akhir nikal-kar rahd " at last he managed to es- 
cape"; vide also chhornd, (g) ; mai usko daftar se nikal-kar 
rahd " I managed to get rid of him from the office." 

(5) Jdtd-rahnd in all its tenses signifies " to be completely 
lost, and to die." 

(e) And "to come," in compounds, generally retains its 
proper signification, as : Darya charh-dyd hai " the river has 
risen up in flood"; ham dekh-d,e hai "we have seen (and 
come back) " ; mai khud dp ke hamrdh ho-dtd & " I will my- 
self accompany you there and back, go there and come back 
with you." Utarnd is "to descend, come down," and utar- 
dnd has much the same meaning. The action of the verb is 
towards, instead of away from, the speaker ; while with jdnd 
it is away from the speaker. 

(/) Rakhnd. In compounds with rakhnd, the signification 
is often to do a thing beforehand, as : kah-rakhnd " to order or 
tell beforehand "; rok-rakhnd " to engage beforehand " (and 
also "to stop"). Sometimes the signification of both verbs 
is retained, as : sun-rakho " hear and keep in your memory." 
Us ne mujhe tang kar-rakhd hai " he has kept me in a position 
of discomfort." Samajh-rakhnd " to keep in mind." Mai ne 
ko,i bat kahne se uthd na-rakhi " I left nothing unsaid " ; (the 
idea is taking up a thing and putting it down only when done 
with Kempson) . 

LESSON 23. 95 

Notice the shade of difference in meaning between Is bat 
ko halal kar-rakhd "he made this lawful some time ago" (i.e. 
having made it lawful kept it so), and Is bat ko halal kiyd 
" he made this lawful now." 

(g) Chhorna, added to the roots of transitive verbs, gives 
an idea of completion after effort, as : Mai ne is qadr mihnat 
ki ki imtihdn " pas " kar-chhord " I worked so hard that I got 
well through my examination." This is more forcible than 
kar-liyd. Nikdl-chhornd "to succeed in expelling." Vide 
also L. 26 (d). 

Also karke chhorna has much the same force, as : Mai ne 
wuh kdm kar-c.hhord or karke chhord. The latter is more 
forcible. Compare with karke raha (d) (4). Example: Mai 
wuh kam karke raha (not kar-raha) gives the idea of " I was 
determined to do it and I did it." 

(h) (1) In the ordinary "declamatory negative (^ 
cr*^)" the simple verb must be used, as : Usko chhor-do, but 
usko mat chhor o (not here chhor mat l do) ; mai ne usko 
kdt-ddld, but mai ne usko nahl kdtd (not nahl kdt-ddld). 

(2) Exceptions are, clauses implying some expectation or 
exception, as : Do to sahl, mai use khd na jd-,ugd, " well give 
it me, I'm not going to gobble it up " : unko is bat ka bard 
khaydl thd ki kahl goll ki mar ke andar na d-pare " they took 
good care not to come within range of our rifles." Wuh mar 
nahl gayd "he did not die." Mai ne kdt nahl ddld, fagat 
chhild hai. Chhor mat do indicates an expectation. 

Interrogatively, also, the negative intensives are used in 
the same sense, as: Kyd usne darakht ko kdt nahl 11 ddld? 
" what, didn't he cut down the tree ? " 

1 Note the position of mat, na, etc., and see next para. (2). 
* Note the position of the nahl. 



(a)' The mother lay down with MS, bachche ko le-pari. 1 

the child. 

I could do nothing and that's Mujh se kuchh na-ban-pard, 

all about it. bas. 

He jumped into the canal. Wuh nahr me kud-pard. 

My hand happened to fall * on Ittifdq-an merd hath ek chuhe 

a rat. par para. 

I was pawed by the pony- Tatwdnl ki tap mujh par pan . 


It is raining, rain is falling. 8 Pdni partd hai. 

The fox was stumbling and Lomn girfi parti chall jail thi. 

limping along. 

Why did you let this book Turn ne yih kitdb kyu gird,i ? 


As I was weak my enemy got Mai kam-zor thd, is liye dush- 

the upper hand man kl * ban-pari. 

It is ill to suffer such insults. Aisi zillate utharii bun hat. 

' It has gone and burst.' Phat-gaya. 

I suffered endless trouble (lit., Mai ne aisi taklif uthaj, ki mat 

I suffered such trouble that (or na) puchhiye. 

don't ask me about it). 

He lost his voice. Uski dwaz baith-ga,i (or par- 

1 Vide Lesson 22, 6 (2). 

2 "To fall" metaphorically. 

3 .Actually falling (of rain, snow, etc.) ; perhaps the only instance of 
parna meaning to fall actually. 

* Some such word as tfiqat (fern.), " power," is understood 



hould anv outside influence, 
pressure, ba brought to bear 
then . 

ly hat has been squashed in. 
he is now weeping. 

waited for him for a whole 

cannot control him ; (or. if 
inanimate) it cannot be 
pressed by me. 

left no work T undertook till 
I completed it. 

'his will be done some time 
or other (indefinite). 

'his will be done some time 
or other within a week. 

tepeat this (oath, etc.) after 

le has had a relapse. 

'11 come here again some day. 

^-morrow is a holiday, so do 
the work of to-morrow to- 

!ee me on your way to office. 

Agar bdhar se ko,i dabd,o paf- 
jd,e to. 

Men topi dab-ga,i. 
Wuh ro-rahi liai. 

Mai ghante bliar talc uske inti- 
zdr me rdhd. 

Wuh mujh se dabtd nahl,. 

Jis kdm me mai par-gayd (or 
lag-gayd or lag-raha) uslco 
kar-chhord ' 

Yih kam ho-rahega. 

Yih kam hafte ke andar andar !L 

Jaise jiiseham kahtc, ja.e turn 
bJii kahte ja.o; or men in 
bato ko jo abhl bolta hn 

Us H bimari duhra-ga,i. 
Mai phir yahS, d-rahUjd. 

Kal ta'lil hai. is liye kal kd 
kdm dj kar-rakho. 

Daftar jdte waqt mere pds se 

1 Compare uthn rnkhnri ; vide. Lesson T3 (f). 
a Andnr andar less than, not more ; emphasis 



What was to happen, has hap- Jo h ina tha ivuk ho-liya. 

pened and is finished. 
I got all I wanted, my heart's Mere dil K arzu nikal-ga,i. 

desire was completed. 

To accompany. Kul ke safh (or /Jichhe) ho-lena. 

(&)_ Note the following methods of forming feminines : 
(i) Brahman, m. "a Brahman," Brahmam, f. "a Brah- 
man woman"; ahir, m., ahiri, f. "cowherd" (a 
caste) ; kanjnr, m. (a caste, a kind of Gypsy), kan- 
jari,t. " a kanjar's wife, a prostitute." etc. ; Pathan, 
m., Palhani, f. 
(ii) Ghora "horse," ghofl "mare"; billa, m., billi. \. 


(iii) Sunar, m. "goldsmith," sunaran (and sundrm) gold- 
smith's wife"; kumhar, ra., kumharan (and kiun- 
Mrm), f. "potter." 

(iv) Ut t m. "camel," Ulni. f. ; sher, m. "tiger," sherm, f. 
" tigress " ; mulld, m. T., " a schoolmaster, a learned 
man," mullani ''a mulla's wife." 

(v) Mali, m., malin, f. "gardener" (Hindu) ; dhohl. m.. 
dhobin, f . " washerman " (a caste) ; kujra^ m.. k-Ujfi, 
f. " greengrocer and fruiterer " (a caste) ; qam,i ' (or 
qasa i). m., gasd,in. f . " butcher " ; dulha, m., " bride- 
groom," dulhan, f. "bride"; hathi, m. halhni, f. 

(vi) Mamti, m. "maternal uncle," milmarii (for mamarii*) 
f. ; tattu, m. "pony," latwani, f. "pony mare." 

1 Kujre-qafu',i=:" low people." 

2 Antepenultimatea usually short: vide L. 53 (ft), foot-note. 

LESSON 25. 99 

(vii) Baniya, in. "grain-merchant" (a caste), baniyayan 
or baniya,in. f. ( u Jt>i> ) f. ; na.t, m. " barber,", f. 

(viii) Khatri. m. (a caste), Khatrani, f. ; mih-tar. m. "a 
sweeper," mihtar-am, 1 f. "a sweepsr's wife." 

(c) Others are: .Ka/<*. m., ra, f . ; bh-ij. m., bahan or 
bahin,f.', nii/cik (vulg. n^ ,ik) " a guide, a corporal," n&yak'i, 
nayik-i (and ria,ika.. ni^ki), f ; MI?M m. " maternal unole," 
khala. f. ; fte^, m. (T.), begam, f. (a Mughul title) ; Khi,n,, m., 
Khvnam, f. (a title); ssi, m. "bull, stallion," gr5,e or ^5,0, f. 

(rf) 2Var s^er or slier-e' 1 nar "male tiger," mcida sher or 
xhe.r-e 1 mada "female tiger." 


Apnd, etc., poss. pron. One's own. 

Apne. pi. One's own people. 

Kahna, tr. To say. 

Kahlana, intr. and caus. To be called ; also to cause to 


Bairhna, intr. To increase, to grow ; to ad- 

vance ; to surpass. 

Age barhna, intr. To advance. 

Murna, intr. To turn to one side. 

Morna, tr. To turn over, fold back. 

1 Here the Sanskrit suffix -aril is added to a Persian word. 
* This -e is the Persian izafat; ' vide ' L. 61 (g). 


M uh morna. 

Batti, f. 
AT (no pi.), f- 
Sulgana, tr. 
Dhahna, 1 intr. 

Dhana, tr. 

Letwi, intr. 
Kahla-bhejnt, tr. 

Likh-bhejni, tr. 

MOgt&hejna, tr. 
Buld-bhejnT,, tr. 


Ldfcn, f. 

Qcufim, adj. 

Khlss. adj. 

Khimyat, pi. kassiyale, f. 

Khlss-kar, adv. 

To turn the face aside, to 
refuse to obey, avoid do- 

Wick, (and hence) light. 
Cover, protection. 
To kindle, set alight. 
To fall down (of buildings) ; to 
be pulled down. 

To pull or knock down build- 

To lie down. 

To ssnd an oral message, send 

To send word in writing, write 


To send for things. 
To send for persons. 

To ask for through a psrson 
(by letter or orally). 

Wood ; a stick. 


Special, particular, private. 

Th3 nature, characteristic, pe- 
culiar quality. 


1 In Ihe Punjab " to fall down" generally. 

2 Vide Caus. verbs, Lesson 44. 

'Amm, adj. 
Bazar ke log 
Ghazal, pi. ghazale, f. 

LESSON 25. 101 

Common, general, vulgar. 

Common people. 

Qd'ida, pi. qa'ide, m. 
Qawa'id, Ar., pi., m. and f. 

Parwarish, f. 

Love-song or ode (formerly 
always short). 

A rule, regulation ; propriety ; 
custom ; clastur ; regularity. 

Rules, regulations-, etc.. masc 
pi. : parade of troops, f. 
sing. ; grammar, f. sing. 

Cherishing, rearing ; main 
taining ; patronage. 

Chal (from chalria) , pi. chale, /. Motion ; gait ; procedure ; 

conduct, behaviour, trick. 

Chal-chalan, m. and f. 
Bad-chalan, adj. 
Nek-chalan, adj. 
Nek-chalnl, f. 
Pyara, H., adj. j 


Ill -behaved, of bad character 

Of good character. 

Good character. 

'Aziz, A., adj. and subs. 
Apne pas se. 

Ap se, or dp se dp. 
Apa* me. 

Dear, beloved ; a relative ju- 
nior in years. 

Out of one's own pocket ; or 
from himself, myself, your- 
self, etc., etc. 

Of my (your, -their, etc., etc.) 
own accord. 

Amongst ourselves, your 
selves, themselves. 



( a ) (i) Jana (Progressive) and Rating (Continuative) suf- 
fixed to a present participle express progression or continu- 
ance, as : Wuh har roz aehchhd hold jdid hai 1 " he is getting 
better every day " ; wuh kahtd-gayd aur mat likhtd-gayd " he 
kept on saying, or dictating, and I kept on writing what he 
said (progressive)," but wuh kahtd-rahd* aur mal likhtd rahd 
" he went on saying it, while I went on with my writing (con- 
tinuative)," (i.e. there was no connection between the two 
acts). Merd gala baithd-jdtd hai " I am losing my voice 
rapidly," but baithtd-jdtd hai "I am losing it by degrees." 

Jdnd and Rahria cannot be used interchangeably. 

(2) Jdtd-rahnd, however, in all its tenses signifies "to bo 
completely lost," a curious idiom that according to Kempson 
originates in the idea of going on till the vanishing point is 
reached : Akhir wuh men nazar se jdid-rahd " at last he dis- 
appeared from view." Vide L. 23 (d) (3). 

Remark. The Imperfect and Preterite tenses, however, 
may mean either "was being lost," or "was in the habit of 
going" ; and also "was lost" or "used to go." 

(3) Rah-jSna preceded by a Present Participle gives the idea of in- 
effectiveness, as: Larka rota hi rah-gaya aur ma ueko chhor-kar chall 
ga,l " the child kept on crying to be taken, but its mother left it be 

(&)(!) when kahnd, or kah-dend, or kah-ddlnd, s signifies 
" to tell or relate," it requires se with the object : when " to 
command," or "call, name," ko, as: Us se kalio ki ten ma 
mar-ga,l "tell him his mother is dead"; sard qissa mm ne 

' A good example of a Progressive verb. 
* Or holta-raha "he went on talking." 
3 Kah-dalna " to tell without reserve." 

LESSON 27. 103 

us se kah-diyd " I told him the whole story " ; but us ko (not 
us se) waha jane kaho "tell him (i.e. order him) to go there." 
Am ko Angrezi me kyd kahte hoi ? " what is a mango called in 
English?" Wuh mujhko Shaiidn kahtd hai "he calls me a 

(2) With bolna, se only is used. Mai turn se nahl boltd 
"I'm not addressing you " or " I don't want to talk to you." 
Bolna with ko in the sense of "to order " is vulgar. 

(c) One form of the Conjunctive Participle [vide L. 18 (b)] 
is identical with the root ; this form is still occasionally used, 
more in speaking than \rriting,' as: Mai ne subh sawere uth, 
muh hath flho, ndshtd kar, aprii rah li. In compounds such 
as mil-baithna "to sit together," where both verbs retain 
their original significations [vide L. 22 6 (2)], the first part of 
the compound is the Conjunctive Participle ; mil-kar baithnd 
can be substituted for mil-baithna : this latter is not an inten- 
sive. Other examples are. A-pahuchnd, jd-pahuchnd, kar- 
dikhana, phar-khana, bhag-nikalna. Rakh-chhornd is "to keep 
by for future use," but rakh-kar chhornd is "to place after 
effort"; vide L. 23 (g). 


(a) On the possessive adjectivial pronoun Apnd. 

When the Nominative or Agent is followed in the same 
clause by a possessive pronoun belonging to itself, such posses- 
sive is rendered by apnd, -ne, -m, never by the possessive mera, 
mere, men, etc. Examples : 

I read my book. Mai apnl kitdb parhtd hu. 

Thou readest thy book. Tu apnl kitdb parhtd hai. 

1 Indicates haste : 'vide' Stumbling- Blocks. 


He reads his (own) book. Wuh apm kitab parhln 1m i. 

She reads her (own) book. Wuh apm kilab parhti hai. 

We have seen our father. Ham ne a/we bap ko dekha hai. 

Have you written your letter ? Turn ne apm chitthl likJn ? 
The goldsmith and carpenter Sundr aur barha,i apne shahr 

went to their (own) city. (me) gaye. 

The women feed their (own) 'Aurate apne bachcho ko palti 

children. hai. 

N.B. If. in the above examples, the words 'his,' 'her/ 
'their,' refer not to the nominative, but to somebody else, 
then they must be expressed by is-ka or us-ka, etc. 

(2) A pna refers to (1) the grammatical subject. (2) the logi- 
cal subject. (3) the speaker, as : (1) Wuh apm kit'ib pirhta hai 
"he is reading his ' book " ; (2) usko apm 'izzat ka khayal hai 
"he has a regard for his own honour " = wuh apm ' 'izzat ka 
khayal rakhta hai; (3) or (2), apna (or mera) dil nah'i chahta 
ki waha ja,u "I don't want to go there." (4) Afma also 
means "own " as : Yih uskt apm kitab hai " it's his own book, 
not some one else's" ; apne pas se "out of my own pocket. 
etc.'" 2 

Remarks. Of the three accusatives (1) apne dp ko, (2) apnt 
ta,l and (3) apne ko, Xos. (1) and (3) are in commoner use, in 
modern Urdu. 

(6) Apa, a form of up, is only used in the following phrases: ape 
me hona " to be in one's proper senses" ; ape me ana ; ape se buhir 
hona ; ape se guzarnfi. Mai ape aya (for mat ap tit/5) is vulgar. 

(c) My book is lost. Men kilab jali raht. 

My book was lost. Men kitab jad-rahl tin. 

' Wuh us ki kitab parhta hai "he is reading his, i.e. another per- 
son's, book." 

9 Vide also Lesson 27. 



She keeps on advancing (going 
away from us) and keeps on 
looking behind the while. 

Light every other lamp. 

What is this called in Hindu- 
stani ? 

Tell them (order them) to give 
me my book. 

Inform them that their brother 
has come (unexpectedly). 

Tell him to go. 

I want to say something to 

He is getting well (progres- 
sively) . 

I ordered him to burn wood. 

The house fell down suddenly. 
The city is being pulled down 
I lay down. 

I remained lying down. 
Ancient writers have written 
(some time ago). 

W uh age ko barhti-fifi hai aur 
murkar dekhti-jdtl hai. 

Ek batti dr ek batti sulgdte jd,o 
(Bombay idiom), or Ek batti 
chhorkar har ek dusri batti 
jaldte jd,o. 

Yih Hindustani me kyd kahldid 
hai ? or, Is ko Hindustani 
nie kyd kahte hai ? 

Unko kaho ki meri kitdbde-de. 

Un se kaho, " tuinhdrd bha,i 
ayd hai." ' 

Use jane ko kaho (not bolo). 
Mai turn se kuchh bolna chahta 

Wuh achchha hotd jata hai. 

Mai ne lakri jaldne ko kah-i 


Makan dhah-pard. 
Shahr dhah rahd hai. 
Mai let-rahd, or mal let-gayd. 
Mai letd-rahd. 
Qadlrn likhne-wdle is tarah 

likh-ga,e hai. 

' Or simply aya, if he were expected. Direct narration. 


I composed this ghazal of my Mai ne yih ghazal kah-li. 

own accord. 

I composed this ghizal at some Mai ne, yih ghazal kah-di. 

one's request. 

His own mother (i.e. not his Us Id apni ma mar-ga.i. 

sauteli mil) is dead. 

Why should I do it I don't KyU karti ; apna (or merd) rlil 

want to ? nahl chdhtd ? 

We must maintain our own Apno ki panvarish zarnr hai. 


Every one has his own fashion. Har ek ki apni apni civil dhdl 

method. hai. 

Every one values his own Apni jdn sab ko pynri fiai. 

He thinks of his own benefit Us ko apne hi fd,id.e ka, khayal 

only. hai. 

T cannot quit my nature, habit. Apni 'ddat (mujh se) Icrk nahl 

ki-jdti. { 

I came here of my own accord. Mai apne dp yaha dyd. 

What, do you look on this as Kyd, yih chiz apni samaifil< 

your own property ? ho? 

Kindly send some one to ask Sdhib sc puchhwd-mSgd ,iye ki 

the Sahib when he will go Aqre kab jd,ege* 
to Agra. 

The water keeps flowing away. Pdni bahtd jdtd liai. . 

i Ki-jatl hai "is being done"; present tense, passive voice. Vide 
Lesson 47. 

* Indirect narration. 



Use of the suffix sa, se, .*. 

(a) Sd, se : or si (according to gender and number) added to 
a substantive, or to the oblique form of personal pronouns, 
converts these into adjectives denoting similitude or resem- 
blance, as : from haiwan, a beast, comes haiwdn-sd. like a 
beast, beastly ; kutta-sa dog-like. 
(6) Milnd, intr. (takes dat. To find, to be found ; obtain- 

ind abl. of person). 

Milana. tr. 

SuraL pi. surate, f. 

Is surat se. 
Is surat me. 
Khub-surat, adj. 
Bad-surat. adj. 
BaeK, L 
UstacL m. 

m-sd, H. 
Yak-sa. P. 

ed ; to meet with, to happen 
on ; to resemble ; be mixed ; 
to join ; be connected ; har- 
monize with (tune) : to tally 
with, etc. 1 

To mix ; introduce ; unite ; 
compare ; check with a list, 
etc., etc. 

Face ; form ; appearance: 
manner ; case. 

In this way. 

In this case. 

Of fine appearance, beautiful. 

Of bad appearance, ugly. 

Evil, vice. 

Any teacher ; also a past- 
master, one skilled in any 

All the same ; exactly alike ; 
uniform ; identical, no dif- 

Vide also L. 28 (t). 


Kaifiyat, pi. kaifiyate, f. 

Clialan, m. (from chalna). 

Top, pi. tope, f 
Pahar, m. 
Do-pahar* f. 
Tisra pahar? m 
Jgc/i parlal karnd. 
Hundi or hundawt, f. 

Nasikat, pi. nasihate, f 
A;, pi. salake, f. 

The "howness," 1 nature, 
state, condition ; report ; 
remarks (in " column of re- 
marks"); view, any sight 
to be seen. 

Invoice; certificate of des- 
patch; despatch; forward- 
ing a case or prisoner. 

Gun, cannon. 

A watch, i e. 3 hours. 



To examine accounts. 

Bill of exchange ; vulg. a 


Advice; (in pi. = ad vice on 
various subjects). 



Like a soldier, soldier -like. 

Jald, adv. 
Jcddi. f., subs. 
Sipahi-sd, or sipahl-ka sa. 

(c) But sa, etc., added to adjectives of size or quantity, 
signifies " very," as : Bahut-sa " very much " ; zard 6i Inl i><tr 
" at a very little matter, a trifle." Added to other adjectives 
it usually signifies " somewhat," as : Kdld-sd " somewhat 
black, blackish, black-looking " ; b&kd-sd " somewhat, rather, 
foppish." 8 

1 Ar.kaif "how?" 

* Do-pahar and st-pahar are feminine, but tisra pahar is masculine. 
8 There are in fact two suffixes o with different derivations : vide 
"Hindustani Stumbling Blocks," V, 7, supplement. 

LESSON 28 109 

(d) When sd. se, si is added to Tcaun " who ? ", kaun is not 
(but sd is) inflected, as: Yih kaun-se ghofe kd zin hai "of 
what horse is this the saddle ? " Kaun sd as compared with 
kaun indicates surprise or negation, or refers to a number. 

(e) Ko,i-sd means " any at random, any one you like, etc." ; 
rnujhe ko,l,-si pinsil do " give me any pencil " ; koji si naukarl 
bht mujhe mile to mat karugd, "no matter what work it is, I 
will do it willingly." 

(/) Sd is also added to a noun in the genitive, 1 as : Gtdar 
kutte kd sd (or kuttd sd) ek jdnwar hai " a jackal is an animal 
resembling a dog." This genitive construction is to be pre- 
ferred with nouns. 

(g) Instead of yih-sd and wuh-sd "like this" and "like 
that," aisd and waisd are used.* Mujh-8d (or colloquially 
merd-ffd) "like me"; tujh-sd (or colloquially terd-sd) "like 
thee " ; but ham-sd or hamdrd-sd, tum-sd or tumhdrd-sd " like 
us," "like you." Us kd sd (not us sd) "like him." Mujh 
ghjanb-sd " like poor me " ; us jaqtr sd " like that faqlr." 

(h) The forms mujh ka, lujh ka, ham ka, turn ka, which may be 
styled true genitive forms, are used when an adjective i? in apposition, 
as: mujh kam-iakjit ke nas-'jd me ' in the fate of me the unfortunate." 

(i) Milnd with se means " to pay a visit " " to make ac- 
quaintance or to say good-b} 7 e," but with ko " to happen 
on," as: raste me ek ddmi mujh ko mild "I met a man on 
the road (by accident) " ; merd khoy'd hu,d rupiya mujh ko 
mild " 1 got back my lost money " : mujh ko in'dm mild, " I 
got a reward " ; but wuh mujh se milne ko dyd liai " he has 
come to see me." 

1 There are in fact two suffixes sa with different derivations ; vide 
" Hindustani Stumbling Blocks," V, 7, supplement. 
* buuiJaxly kama is for kia-aa. 



(7) Note the following idioms with parna : pichhe pnrn? " to run 
after, importune, pester" ; pale parna " to f.ill into the clutches of" ; 
mura parna " to be undone " ; pl<ai'> parna " to be hanged " ; mujh par 
mar parl " I was beaten " ; jan ke lale parna " to be m danger." 


What particular house is this Yih kaun sd makdn hai ? 
(several having been men- 
tioned) ? 

To what set of horses do these Yih kaun-se ghoro ke zin hai ': 
saddles belong (i.e. the rid- 
ing, or the dak horses, etc.) ? 

There is none as expert as I Mujh-sd, i* shahr me, ko,i us- 
am in this city. tad nahl. 

He is skilled in this. Is kdm me barf ustdd hai. 

He resembles his brother in Surat me apne bhd,i se milta 
appearance. hai. 

Give me a smallish quantity Thofa-sd wilayatl pani (mujhe) 
of soda-water. do. 

Pour slowly (said as the ser- Thord thord pdni dhdlo. 
vant commences to pour). 

He looked like a sepoy. Us k% ' sipdhi ki si surat th%. 

He looks like a sepoy, or he is Wuh sipdhi-sd ddml hai ; wnJt 

like a sepoy in qualities. sipdhi led AO ddml hai. 

We'll all eat it in company Sab milkar khd,ege. 


I compared my watch with to- Aj do-pahar H lop se apnt 
day's midday gun. ghafi mildf. 

Kl as furat in feminine 



What do nine, and eighteen, 
and twenty-seven, added 
together, make ? 

I have put my mare to the 
Government stallion. 

Don't let these horses smell 
each other (put their noses 
together) . 

God grant my brother may 
soon come to see me (and 
then go away) ; but [ that 
I may find him soon]. 

Please arrange a meeting be- 
tween him and the L G. 

Mix some water with this milk. 

Mix the water and the milk 

Adding a hundred of rupees 
out of my own pocket I 
will send you a bill for five- 
hundred altogether. 

This person's appearance tal- 
lies with the description on 
the forwarding letter. 

Both closely resemble each 

Nau, aur aitharah, aur satta.i* 
milke kai ' hole hai ? 

Mat ne apm ghon sarkan sand 

se, mtta,i. 
In ghoro ko nak mat milane do. 

Khuda kare mera bha,l jald 
mujh se mil-ja,e [but jald 
mujh ko mil-ja.e}. 

Ap Lat Sahib se, inhe * milwa- 

de. ' 

Dudh me, thora pant mila.o. 
Dudh aur pani ko mild,o. 

Sau, mat apne pas se milakar, 
pure pan s sau H hundaivi 
turn ko bhejta hu.* 

Is shakhs H surat chalan ki 
kaifiyat se, milli hai. 

Dono kl ek-si surat hai, or unki 
surate milli hai (or miltl 
jultl hai). b 

1 Kai,p\., " how many ?" 
a Plural for respect. 
3 Pun for pack " five." 

* Present tense to indicate immediate future. 

5 Julna has no meaning ; the jingling phrase gives the idea of reci 



Are there any flowers and fruit 
in that garden ? 

A smallish number. 

He is a somewhat elderly per- 

I gave him a lot of good ad- 
vice (admonition), but he 
paid no heed. 

My advice to you is not to do 

Come, bt us consult together. 

What book do you want ? } 
Give me anv one of them. ) 

Us bagh me kuchh phul phrtl 

liai ? 

Kuchh thofe se hoi. 
Wuh kuchh buiiha $a admi 

Mai ne bahut si nasikat ki, 

lekin us ne ek na-sum ' (or 

Men saVih yih hai ki turn yih 

kam ni-karo. 
A,o apas me, is bat ke bare me 

salah kare. 

Kaun kilab magte * ho ? 
Ko,t st do. 

(a) Bachna. intr. 


Kist chlz se bacha s -rahna. 




To save oneself, be saved ; be 
spared ; to be left over ; to 
recover, survive ; to avoid, 
shrink from. 

To be or remain over ; to sur- 

On one's guard against, avoid. 

To remain safe. 

To get clean away, escape in 

) But understood. 

2 Vulgar. Properly 

3 Past participle, i.e. 

" are you asking for ? " 
bacha (hu.a) rahna. 



Bachat, f. 
Najat paria, tr. 

Natii to; warna, conj. 

Go; agarchi ; harchand, conj. 

Samne, prep, and adv. 

Amne samne, adv. 

Amria samna, or samna, subs. 

Bad-nam, adj. 
Bad-narm, f., subs. 

Dar-ban, m. 
Khush, adj. 

Khush-bu ', pi. khush-bu,e, f. 
Khush-bu-dar, adj. 
KhusJn, pi. khushiyS, f. 
f, f. 

, f . 

Chori-karna, churana, tr. 
jA;/ie churana. 

Akhe bacharia. 

Savings in money. 

To obtain salvation ; to be 
saved from danger. 

Otherwise, if not. 


In front of. 

Right opposite each other. 

Coming face to face with, con 

Of ill -repute ; defamed. 

Ill-repute; disgrace: defama- 


Pleased, happy ; (in com- 
pounds " good, pleasant "). 


Of sweet smell. 

Rejoicing ; happiness. 

Company, society, inter- 
course ; sexual intercourse 
(of humans only). 



To steal. 

To avoid seeing another ; to 
connive at. 

To avoid being seen by 

Khush-bu was formerly an adjective and khush-bu,l a noun. 


(b) The Present Participle of a verb, prefixed to Rahn/i, 
signifies " to do continually " and is equivalent to karnd with 
the past participle, Lesson 20 (d) thus : 

(1) Wuh rofi-rahtl hai "she weeps off and on" ; some- 

times = roya karti hai. ' 

(2) Wuh kal se roti-raht hai " she has been weeping off 

and, on since yesterday." 

(3) Wuh kal, din bhar, roti-rahi "she wept (remained 

weeping) all yesterday off and on," Lesson 23 (d) 
(3) ; but wuh ro-rahl hai " she is now weeping." ' 

(4) Jab tak mai waha thd wuh bardbar rold-rahd (thd) = 

roya kiyd " whilst, as long as, 1 was there, he con- 
tinued weeping " ; definite, time fixed ; but : 

(5) Wuh ro-rahd thd "he was weeping. continually " ; no 

definite time. 

(c) (1) The first person is more worthy than the second, 
and the second than the third ; thus in English " You and I,'' 
but in Hindustani " 1 and you." When, too. the subject con- 
sists of two or more parsons, the verb will agree with the first 
person rather than with the second and with the second rather 
than with the third. 

(2) This rule is, however, modified by regard for euphony ; 
wuh aur turn is ko karoge " you and he will do this " ; not turn 
aur wuh karoge, as the second person plural verb sounds awk- 
ward close to wuh. Similarly, ham turn jd,ege, " I and you 
will go," and not mai turn jd,ege. "I and ha will go" re- 
quires a plural verb, and according to the rule it must agree 
with the first person ; but mai aur wuh d,ege sounds awk- 
ward ; write therefore mai aur wuh dono ddml d,ege. 

1 But ro,e jati hai she weeps continuously, without a break. Vide 
also L. 64. 

LESSON 31. 115 

Use of Ap. 

(a) The word Ap literally denotes self, and it is so em- 
ployed with any of the personal pronouns ; as, mai dp jd,Ugd, 
" I wijl go myself." It may also bs used in the same sense 
without the personal pronoun ; as : dp jd,egd. " he himself will 
go," ap d,ege, " we will come ourselves." 

The word ap, however, is frequently employed in a very 
different sense, like our terms "you sir," "your honour,'' 
"your worship," " his honour," " his worship." etc., and the 
verb, in such cases, is in the third person plural. The words 
sahib, " master, monsieur," and kuzur, and jandb-i 'all ' your 
honour," are used in a similar manner when a person is ad- 
dressing, or speaking of, his superior in rank ; or as a mere 
matter of politeness, by strangers of respectability. 

(6) Ap as an honorific requires the third person plural. In Delhi 
City, however, they incorrectly use the second person plural in speak- 
ing, as : Agar ap kahte ho (for kahte hal). 

(c) Avoid bad company else Burl suhbat se bacho, nahl to 
you will be disgraced. (or warna) bad-ndm ho-jd,- 


Keep clear of the fire, or you'll Ag se bacho, warna jal-jd,oge. 
be burnt. 

He escaped death. Marne se, bach-gayd. 

He just escaped death. Marte marte bach-gayd. 

He nearly fell off his horse. Ghore se girte girte bach-gayd 

(or rah-gayd) ; or nazdlk 
thd ki ghore se gir-jd,e. 1 

1 Aorist or Present Subjunctive, lit. " it was near that he should 



The door-keeper was sitting at, Darwdze par dar-bdn baifha 

the door, but I evaded his thd magar mai uski akh 

watchfulness and went in bachd-kar andar chald-gayd. 
(without his seeing me). 

Though the thief came face Go chor aur sipdhiyo kd dmnd 
to face with the police, yet sdmnd hu,d, lekin wuh bacil- 
li got away free. kar nikal-gayd. 

He escaped punishment (either Sazd se bach-gayd. 
was let off or absconded). 

I have come here of my own Mai dp se dp yaha dyd hU ; or 

accord. mat apni khushi fie 

It is a matter of rejoicing. 
I am very pleased with him. 

Who asks after us ? Who 
cares what becomes of us ? 

(d) Idioms : 
This house oppresses me. 
By all means let them come. 

Return immediately (lit, if 
you eat there, drink here '). 

What the devil does he care 
where I am dragging out 
my existence. 

If my book is torn you won't 
care a hang. 

Ban khusht H bat hai. 
Mai is se bahut khush JiM. 
Ham ko kaun puchhld hai ? 

Yih ghar mujhe kdttd hai. 
Shauq se d,e. 

A gar roil wahd, khd,o to pdnl 

yah'ii pt,o. ] 
Unki bald jane 2 ki mdl kahfi 

para hn. 

Agar men kitdb phat-ga,l to 
iumhdri bald se. 1 

1 Easterns usually drink after they have finished their meal, not in 
the middle of it. 

2 Vide Lesson 13 (b). 



To be annoyed, put out. 
Everything was quite changed. 
What has happened is the 
best for my interests. 

The horse jibbed (lit, stuck, 
came to a stop). 

A moonlight night. 

The day preceding the new 

This place (i.e. its climate) 

does not agree with me. 
This is no concern of mine 

(lit. do you know it and let 

him, or them, know it). 
The horse sank in the mud. 

Each sepoy's share comes to 
three rupees. 

He's queer, not quite right in 
his head (or lit. his brain has 
started from its place). 

Don't anger me (lit. don't 
make me open my mouth). 

He must have come by way 
of the bazar. 

build castles in the air (lit. 
to cook imaginary pilaos.) 

Dil maild (lit. dirty) hond. 
Kuchh kd kuchh ho-gayd. 
Jo hu,d,mere haqq me bihtar 

Ghord ar-gayd 

Chdndni rat. 

G hand -rat kd din. 

Yaha ki db o hawd mere mizdj 

ke muwdftq nahl hai. 
Turn jdno. wuh jdne. 

Ghord klchar me dhas-gaya. 1 
Har ek sipahi ke zimme tin tin 

rupai baith-ga.e. 
Uske dimrt-cfh. me khalal hai (or 

uskd dimdyh, chai-gayd). 

Merd muh mat khulwd,o. 
Wuh bdzdr se hoke dyd hogd. 
Khaydli pild,o pakdnd. 

1 In the Punjab khubna. Dhasan, m. (in the Punjab khuban) in 
also a quicksandy place. 



Use of the Infinitive 

( a ) One use of the Infinitive or Verbal Noun is to ex- 
press obligation ; thus, tum-ko wahS, jdnd hogd or paregd, you 
must (or will have to) go there. 

(6) Are, m.. and Art. f. (to 
servants and children) ; 
inter j. 

Are are ! 

Ajl, m. and f. ; interj. 

Yu, adv. 

M kd tu. 

Ghdhiye, impers. verb. 

Chdhiye thd. impers. verb. 
Darkdr hai. 
Mundsih, adj. 
Zarur, adj. and adv. 

Jd,e zarur, m. 
Zururat, f. 
Intizdm, m. 

Hajat, pi. kajate, f 
Muktdj, adj. and subs. 
Qharib, 1 adj. 

Halloo! ho! hark! 

Good gracious ! 

Oh Sir ! Oh Madam ! 


As it was before (/specially 

with regard to quantity). 
Is necessary, wanted : ought. 


Ought to have been. 
Is necessary, is wanted. 
Proper, fitting ; reasonable. 
Necessary ; necessarily, sure- 



Management ; preparation ; 

administration ; discipline ; 


In need, in want ; pauper. 
Poor ; quiet, inoffensive 

Originally " foreigner, stranger " : -a;I6 o yliarib t; rare, strange.' 1 


Rozt, f. 
Rozgar, m. 
Qalami ' kitdb, f. 

Guldbi (from guldb rose). 
Jara, m., subs. 

Guldbt jam. 

Saj-rakhnd, tr. 
De-rakhnd, tr. 
Le-rakhria. tr. 

, tr. 

, tr. 

6rAw? machana, tr. 

Charchd machana, tr. 
Dil-bahldnd, tr. 
JVaw dubona? tr. 
Thamnd, intr. 
Thamnd, tr. 

Daily bread ; portion ; divine 

grace, power. 
Employment ; (in literary 

Urdu = zamana "time"). 

A " \vritten book," i.e. manu- 
Cold ; also ague ; in pi. cold 

Spring and autumn cold, 
mild cold. 

Put in order beforehand. 

To give in advance. 

To take or purchase before- 

To exceed a fixed time (tr.) ; 
put off, defer, postpone ; to 

To reject an oral request. 

To make a clamour ; to raise 
an alarm. 

Spread a rumour. 

To amuse oneself. 

To disgrace one's name. 

To cease. 

To stop ; catch hold of. 

Qalam ' pen.' 

Dubona, tr., to drown. 


SambJudM, intr. To pull oneself together : 

save oneself from falling ; 
keep ones' balance. 

Sambhdlnd, tr. 1 To support or hold up, save 

from falling ; take care of ; 
maintain ; manage ; dil 
sambhalnd = control one- 
self, curb ones's emotions. 

Sambhdld-lend, 1 tr. To rally before death ; to 

mend one's way. 

De-marna, tr. To dash a thing against 


To give away completely. 
patak-denT, To dash on the ground. 

To throw on the back (in 

De-dalna, tr. 
De-pxtaknd, or 

(not so forcible), tr. 
De-pachhdfnd or pachhdr- 

dend, tr. 

(c) Chahiye and chahiye thd, either take the dative of 
the person, etc.. as also do hogd and papegd ; or else they are 
followed by the Aorist with ki, as : tumko wahS, jdnd chahiye, 
or chahiye ki turn wahS, jd,o " you ought to go there." 

The past part, is also occasionally used before chahiye, as : 
Yih kdm dj kiyd (or karna) chahiye. 

The plural chahiye is used in the Punjab and in Delhi, but 
not in Lucknow. 

Remark. In the negative of "should, ought," either nahl or na is 
used, but the latter is preferable. If, however, chahiye means " want- 
ed," no/it must be used. 

(d) The infinitive may be used as a future imperative or 

The old spelling was with m, the new is with n (m). 

LESSON 32. 121 

polite present imperative ; ' it is less imperious (and conse- 
quently more polite) than the imperative. Vide L. 54 (/). 

(e) The inflected infinitive with ka, ke, H expressing inten- 
tion is used only in the negative, the substantive verb "I 
am, he is," etc., being understood after it, as : wuh nahl likhne 
ka [hai] " he has no intention whatever of writing." 

(/) Shukr, "thanks/' specially means Khuda ka shukr 
" Thank you " for a small obligation is taslim, or is expressed 
bj' touching the forehead with the right hand and bowing. 
Hindus say bandagi. Ap ka bara mamnun hu is "thanks" 
for a gift, etc. 

(g) (1) Nouns preceded by a cardinal number may be in 
the singular or plural, latter preferable, as : do larkl or do 
larkiya "two girls." If, however, the noun is masculine and 
ends in a, the plural must be used, as : do ghore (not do 
ghora) = " two individual horses." With large numbers, how- 
ever, the noun may be in the singular, as : sau ghora hazir 
tha " a hundred horse, i.e. a collection of a hundred horse, was 
present " ; sau sipahi hazir tha. 

(2) But, if the noun denotes money, measure, quantity, 
time, distance, direction, manner, kind, it is generally in the 
singular, as : do hafte lak "for two weeks"; das r as' 1 ghora 
hai "ten head of horse " ; do taraf se "from two sides " etc. 
Chdlis ashrafi = " forty ashraft," but in " chalts afhrafiyd, " ' 
" so many as forty ashrafi" there is emphasis on the num- 
ber forty : bhat bhat ki boli ; us ke muh me do zaban hai " he 
is double-tongued " ; is mulk me pachas zabane (or boliya) 

1 It is also used as an Interjection, as : sunna " listen ! " ; dekhna 
>e, beware !" 

2 For Ar ra*s, m., " head " ; but ras, f., H. " rein." 

3 Chalisd ashraftya " all the forty ashrafis." 


hat " there are 50 languages in this country " (here the singu- 
lar zaban should not be used). 

(3) A similar rule holds good after indefinite pronouns, as : 
sab tarak se " in all ways " ; ba'z jagah (/.) " in some places " ; 
kaj din ke ba'd " after several days " ; sab qism H machhti 
" all kinds of fish " ; kitm daf'a " how often." 

(h) The formative plural of certain numbers below a hun- 
dred, is used without a post-position, as : darjano " dozens 
of " ; koriyo or blso ' " scores of " ; pachasd " fifties of." The 
numbers one hundred and upwards are all so used, as : 
saikro, hazard, lakho, karoro. A similar idiom exists in nouns 
denoting quantity, and in some nouns denoting time., as : 
mano anaj "maunds of grain"; sero "seers of"; dhero 
" heaps of " ; hafto " many weeks " ; barso guzar ga,e " years 
passed away " Sal-ha sal, hazar -ha hazar or hazard hazar ; 
karor-ha karof ; lakh-ha lakh are similar idioms. The -Jta is 
the Pers. pi. Vide also Appendix A. 

(i) Adjectives agree with their substantives. There is, 
however, an exception to this rule. If the substantive is an 
object with ko, the adjective following it must be masculine 
singular, as : gari ko khara karo " stop the carriage," but 
gan khari karo. The particle ko destroys concord. Compare 
L. 54 (d). 


(a) I require a pony. Mujhe ek tattu chahiye or 

darkdr hai. 
We want ten books like this. Ham logo ko das aim kitabe 


1 Plural of the cardinal number bis. "A score " is 6w, f. 



You ought to have been a Turn ko sipalii hond chal 

soldier. tha, or rhdhiye tha ki turn 

sipahi hole. 1 

This is as it should be. Yu-hi chahiye. 

Write an answer soon ; if you Jawab jald likho, warna mujh 

don't (otherwise), I am with ko watil maujud samajhna. 

you (i.e. look on me as 

present with you there). 

There were ten rants present. Das rani 

The work of three men. 

You ought not to have done 

We must arrange for this. 
This is an important matter. 

(or ram, not so 
good) maujud thl. 
Tin admiyo (or adml) ka kam. 

Yih bat turn ko munasib na- 
tht ; or yih bat turn ko chah- 
iye na thi. 

Is bat ka intizam karna chah- 

Yih ban zururat kl bat hai 
(or ban zaruri bat hai). 

Turn ko kis chiz H hajat hai ? 
Wuh admi gharib hai, muhtdj 

Yih ghora gharib hai. 

Of what are you in need ? 
That man is poor, he is needy 

(in want). 
This horse is quiet. 

He is in need of even his daily Rotl tak ka muhtdj * hai. 

He has to go somewhere (lit. Us ko kaM jana hai. 
there is for him the going 

Hole Past Conditional tense. 

Tak here is not a post-position ; vide Lesson 60 (6). 


He will have to go, must go, 

God gives us our daily bread. 

I refuse to listen to such 

He has gone to prison (before 

God grant you His grace, so 

that you may obey your 

They ought to be here by now. 

Look after these things, take 

care of them. 
He managed this well. 

Hold up, pull yourself to- 
gether (to a person on trip- 


Us ko kohl jana hoga (or pare- 

Khuda rozt deta hat. 

Mai aisl bate nahl sunne ka 

Wuh hajat ' me gar/a hai = 

Khuda turn ko is bat H rozt de 
ki turn ma-bap ki farma- 
bardan karo. 

Un ko ab tak yaha a- jana chah- 
iye tha. 

In chtzo ko sambhalo. 

Yih kam us ne khub sambhala. 

Keep a civil tongue in your Zabdn sambhal-kar bolo. 

Pulling herself together she Us ne, sambhalkar, kaha ki- 

said . 

The rain has stopped. Pant tham-gaya. 

Hold this, keep it. Is ko thamo (or pafyo). 

(b) Idioms : 

It is spoken in everyday collo- Roz-marra * me bolte hai. 

1 The origin of this curious but common idiom is obscure. 
8 Roz-marra, adv. "daily," and subs, "colloquial speech." 



Keep the soup on the fire till 
the liquid is reduced by a 

Can hearsay be equal to the 
evidence of one's eyes ? 

I felt intensely jealous. 

To be faithless. 

Shorbe ko itni der chulhe par 

rakho ki chautha,l pam jal- 

Kdno ' sum * bat alcho ' dekhi 

ke barabar ho-sakii hai ? 
Men clihati par stip-sa phir- 


Tote 8 ki tarah &kh pherlena 
(or badalnd). 


(a) Yahl (emphatic). 
Wahl (emphatic). 

In this very place. 
In that very place. 
Somewhere, anywhere ; also 
I fear lest ; if ; ever ; far 

Aisa, * adj. and adv. (correl. is Thus, like this, such, so. 

Aise, adv. Thus, so. 

Jaisa, adj. and adv. (correl. As. such. 

Jaise, adv. As, such as. 

Jitna, adj. (correl. utna so As much as. 

1 Se understood. 

2 i.e. surii hu,l and dekhl hu.i. 

3 Unlike other birds, a parrot that has escaped does not return to 
its cage. 

* For yih-aa, vide Lesson 28 (g). 



Jitne, pi. 

Na to (or no) na. 

Yd to (or yd) yd. 

Tdzi, m. 

Jahdz, m. 

Jahdzi, adj. and subs. 

Itnd, H. (for things present). 
Is qadr, H. P. (correl. jilnd). 
Jitnd*, H. ) 

Jis qadr, H. P. 
Utnd ~) (for things ~j 
f/5 ?ac?r ) absent.) ^ 

Jo/is (correl. is wahti *). 
JahS, kohl 

Jidliar (correl. is udhar. thi- 

Pahld, adj. 
Pahle, adv. 
Chain, m. 

Khatra, m. 

As many as. 

Neither nor. 

Either or. 


Ship (of any kind). 

Any passenger or official in 
a ship; imported; in the 
Punjab also an English 

This much. 
As much as. 

That much. 

The place where, when. 




Firstly, at first. 

Ease, comfort ; also now the 

English word " chain." f. 

1 The Hindi so (correl. of jo) is now rare; but taisa (correl. 
is obsolete. 

2 In old Urdu tahafi was the correlative. 

Khatre me dalna. tr. 

, m. 

,, f. 

Chhari, f. 
, f. 

Chliarra, m. 
#o/a, m. 
ofi ; f. 

Chhurd, in. 

Chhuri, f. 

Ja& (correl. ta& or <o). 

Jo& kabJil. 

Jab tab. 

Lai, adj. and subs. m. 

L'/, m. subs. 

Lai kurti, f . 

Chaura. adj. 

Chauraji, f. 

Lamba.i, f. 

Gahra, adj 

LESSON 34. 127 

To risk. 

Colloquially a cock ; (tw wrtV- 

iwf/ any bird). 
Cock (domestic fowl). 
Hen (domestic fowl). 
A light walking-stick. 

A long heavy stick used as a 

Small shot. 
A large ball; a cannon ball. 

A small ball ; a bullet ; a 

A large knife with handle. 

A small- or dinner -knife. 



Now and then 

Red ; an amadavat. 


British regiment. 

Wide, broad. 



Deep; the surface of the 
water being far from the 
ground -surf ace (of a well). 



Aisa waisa. Middling, or less than middl- 

ing, not up to much, so so. 

Aisa taisa. Of bad character. 

Sharm-gvh, f . The privy parts. 

Kitne ko (or me) ? For how much, for what 

price ? 

Itne me For so much : also in the 


Jaha tahS. Everywhere ; also here and 


Yaha tak. Thus far ; to such a degree. 

so, such a . 

The Relative and Correlative. 

(a) Strictly speaking, there is no relative pronoun corres- 
ponding to our "who. which, that." For example, "the 
man is wise who speaks little," is expressed in Hindustani as 
follows: jo shakhs (land liai so 1 (or wuh) kam bolfa lini ; 
literally, " whatever man is wise, the same speaks littlo." 
Here the word jo is called the relative, and so ' the corrdatire. 
The correlative is often omitted Examples : 

That which you say is all true. Jo turn kahte ho (wuh) sach 


Speak plainly whatever comes Jo kurlih (ki) tumh'ire. dil me 
into your mind. awe (wuh) saf kaho. 

1 So is practically obsolete in Urdu : wuh takes its place. 



The man whom you saw in Jis shakhs ko turn ne kal sliahr 

the city yesterday died this me dekhd thd, wuh dj fajr 

morning. ko mar-gayd. 

The letter which you wrote to Jo chitthi tumne mujhe likhi 

me has not arrived. thi, wuh natil pahuchi. 

Where there is a rose, there is Jaha gul hai, waha ' khar (bhi) 

also a thorn. hai. 

As you act, so will you expe- Jaisd karoge, waisd pd,oge. 

As long as there is life, there Jab talak sas tab talak as. 
is hope. 

Jidhar turn ja,oge, udhar mat 
bhi ja,ugd. 

Jaisd ustdd waise hi slidgird 

Jitnd cJiahiye utnd le-lo. 

Wherever you go, there will 

I also go. 
As the master, so will the 

scholars be. 
Take as much as you want. 

The construction of the relatives and correlatives corres- 
ponds, as one writer points out. to the construction "where 
the bee sucks, there suck I." 

(b) There is another construction with the relative pro- 
noun, which corresponds to the English, as : adm/i. jo (or 
jo-ki) dana hai kam bolta hai ' the man who is wise speaks 
little " ; or wuh ddmi jo (or jo-ki or ki 2 ) dana hai kam bolta hai 
= jo ddmi ddnd hai wuh kam bolta hai. [Vide also L. 55 (a)]. 

The conjunction ki is often used alone for jo ki, ' vide ' L. 
52 (e) (11). 

1 In Forbes taha; now obsolete except in jaha taha " everywhere " 
and " here and there." 

2 This ki is merely the conjunction " that." 


(c) Aisa, jaisd. waisd, jitnd, utnd, itnd. and also the inter - 
rogatives kaisd and kitna, are pronominal adjectives and 
agree with the substantives to which they refer. They are 
also adverbs. Aise and jaise are adverbs only, and indeclin- 
able. As adverbs, either form aisd or aise. etc., can be used. 
Vide also (/) and L. 55 (o), (3). 

Remark. In the Punjab sometimes aisa alone is used for aisa waisa^ 
as: wuh aisa admi hat "he is so-so, not much good " 

(d) The negative na repeated, means neither nor, as : 
wuh na hiltl hai, na dulti* "she neither moves nor stirs." 
Idiomatically, however, the first na is often omitted, as : uskd 
mdlik Zaid hai, na Umar ; balki mat 9 ' "its owner is neither 
Zaid nor Umar. but I." 

The conjunction aur "and" is often prefixed to the 
second na, as: na mai bolugd aur na turn "neither will I 
speak nor will you." 

(e) (1) Yd "or," repeated, means either or, as: yd to 
apnd kdm kar, yd clialtd phirtd nazar d " either do your busi- 
ness or be off (lit. or appear to my sight moving away)." 

As with na, the conjunction aur is sometimes prefixed to 
the second yd, as : yd " Khwdb o ghaydl " par ho aur yd " Urdu 
Roz-marra " "read either the Khivdb o Khaydl or the Urdu 
Roz-marro " ; but it is better to omit the aur. 

(2) Ya ya is also idiomatically used for "whereas" (halan-ki in 
good Urdu), i.e. it expresses great contrast, as : ya (to) pahle tAgdasti 
thl, ya ab chain hi chain hai=" at first I was poor, whereas now I live 
in nothing but luxury." Compare the use of kahd and kab, L. 38 (d) 
and (e), and aur, L. 43 (b). 

1 Hai is of course understood after dulti. 

2 Hu understood after mat. 



(/) Kya kya means whether or (inclusive), as: kya amir kya faqlr 
" whether rich or poor, high and low." 

Khwah khwah and Chahe cJiahe ditto (but exclusive). 

(g) " When", expressing a future condition, is in English 
often followed by the Present Tense, but in Hindustani the 
Aorist or Future is necessary, as : " When (or if) he comes, 
tell me " jab wuh djd,e (not d-jd,egd) mujhe khabar ' dend. 
But if the first verb is future the second must be future ; 
vide Lesson 61 (b). 

(h) So also means "therefore, so," as: turn ne waha jane ke liye 
man' kiya tha so mal waha nahl ja,uga. The correlative so is seldom 
used in modern Urdu ; but as jo ho, ho for " happen what may " would 
sound ill, jo ho, so ho is used. 

(i) He delights in danger. 

This is the sais whose pony 
was here yesterday (lit. 
what pony was here yester- 
day, its sais is this). 

I have the pencil you had. 

Jis kdm me khatra hai wuhl 
(or wuh, or so) usko pa-sand 

Yih wuhl sd,is hai jiskd 
tattu kal yaJifi 'thd (or jo 
tattu kal yaha thd. uskd 
sd,is yih hai) . 

Mere pds wuh pinsil hai jo 
tumhdre pd-s thi. 

Ts it in the same spot it was Kya wahl hai jaha kal thd ? 

in yesterday ? 
Every one eats the fruits of Jis ne jaisd kiyd waisd pdyd. 

his own actions. 

Is this a cock or a hen ? Yih murghd a hai yd murght ? 

He has either a cock or a hen. Us ke pds yd to s murgfed hai, 

yd murghi. 

1 But 706 wuh a-ja,ega mal khabar duga; if the apodosis is an 
Imperative, the Aorist is used in the protasis. 

2 Colloquial, ride L. 34 (a). 9 Or omit to. 



It is neither a cock nor a hen, 
it is a pigeon. 

I have neither your walking 
stick nor your brother's. 

It is as far from here as my 

Might is right. 
Why he's here ! 

As many saddles as are here. 
As many books as are there. 

" What are you doing ? " 
" Nothing." (lit. I am seat- 
ed thus, i.e. as you see.) 

Have you a greyhound like 

He has a bull-terrier just like 


He has an English greyhound 
exactly like that. 

It is not as large as the Cap- 
tain Sahib's horse. 

My chudder is not as long and 
as wide as this one. 

You will get this, when you 
come here. 

He comes to see me now and 

A/a murghfl, hai na murgtd, 
kabutar hai. 

Mere pas na to tumhdrl chhari 
hai na tumhdre bhd.l ki. 

Itnl dur hai jitnl dur merd 
ghar hai. 

Jis kl lathi us kl bhals. 

Wuh to yihl (emphatic of 

yaha) hai. 

Itne zin jitne yaha Jial. 
Utrii kitdbe jitrii waha hai. 

" Kyd karte ho?". " Aim 
hi baithd [hu,d] hu." 

Tumhare pas aisd tdzl Icutta 

hai (jaisd yih hai) ? 
Us ke pas aisd hi bul-dak ' 


Uske pas waisd hi jahdzl hai 

jaisd (ki) wuh hai. 
Wuh itnd bard nahl hai jitnd 

ki Kaptdn Sahib kd ghord. 
Men chddar itnl Iambi ' 2 chaurl 

nahl jitnl yih hai 
Jab turn yaha hoge (tab) tumkn 

yih chlz milegl. s 
Jab tab mere pas did' hai. 

Bull kutta " bull-dog" ; sahib logd Jca kutta " fox-terrier." 
Note the omission of aur. 3 Vide (g), and note 1, p. 131. 



Come to see me whenever 
you get leisure ; but He comes 
to see me whenever he gets 

God is everywhere. 

Jab kabht jursat mile mujhse 
milna ; but jab kabhi fursat 
miltl hai l wuh mujhse 
milta hai. 1 

Khuda jaW, taha hazir hai. 

The maidan is quite open, ex- Maiddn bi'l-kul saf hai lekin 

cept that here and there yaha waha darakht hai. 
there are trees. 

The camel is an ungainly Ut bhaddd janwar hai. 

As quickly as possible. Jaha tak jald mumkin ho ; or 

jaha tak jald ho -sake 

He is such a fool that he does Wuh yaha tak be-wuquf hai 

not even know how to feed ki khana khana bhl nahl 

himself ; he is an utter ass. janta ; wuh bilkul gadha hai. 

Neither is this right nor that. Na yih durust hai na wuh^ 

Hang him ! Us par tin harf. s 

Hang you and your master Turn par aur tumhdre ustad 

too. par bhl tin harf. 

(j) Aur mera yih hai tha ki kato * to badan me lohu nah~i 
"and such was my state that had you cut me you would 
have found no blood ( = my blood was frozen from fear)." 
Here the demonstrative yih equals aisa or waisa. 


(a) The phraseology of Eastern languages is dramatic. 
When reporting the words of a third person, the direct nar- 

1 Vide(g), and note 1, p. 131. 

2 Afo yih na wuh durust hai is bad Urdu. 

3 i.e. lam, 'ayn, nun. 

* Direction narration. 



(b) Chhutna, intr. 

ration is generally used, i.e. that pronoun is used which the 
person himself made use of. This peculiarity alters the 
structure of a Hindustani sentence compared with the Eng- 
lish. For example : " The prisoner told me that he would 
kill Shaikh Hasan if he saw him " qaidt ne mujh-se kaJid ki, 
raal Shaikh Hasan ko mdr-ddlugd agar usko dekhu or dekhfigd ; 
literally, "the prisoner said to me thus. '/ will kill Shaikh 
Hasan if I see him." 

To be set free, liberated ; to 
be let go; be loose; be 
omitted ; to go off (of a 
gun) ; be effaced (of spots) ; 
to spout ; to start ; to run 
(of colour) ; to be left be- 
hind ; be fired (fire- works, 

To leave behind ; let go ; set 
free ; fire a gun, etc. ; give 
up a work ; pardon, etc. 

To break wind. 

Chhornd (tr. of chhutna) 

Hawd chhutna, 
chhofnd, tr. 

Chhor or chhorke. 


Faunvdra, m. 

Toil,* f. 

Totd, m. 

Qaidi, m. 

Qaid-khdna, Jel-khdna. m. 

Qaid karnd. tr. 

Except; omitting; not men- 

A fountain. 

Parroquet (hen). 
Do. (cock). 



To imprison. 

But jS5if.i or tutl is the Rose-finch (a cape bird). 



Imlikan, m. 
Kho-jdnd, intr. 
Khona, tr. 
Khoya-jana, pass. 
Chiragh, m. 

Trial; examination; test. 
To be lost. 
To lose. 
To be lost. 

Properly a native lamp ; often 

used for any light. 
English lamp. 
Cold ; cool. 
Cool medicinal drink. 
Cold (opp. to heat) ; coolness 
To cool ; to put out a lamp. 
To put out a lamp. 
To fear. 

Lamp, m. 
Thanda, adj. 
Thanda j,, f. 
Thandak, f . 
Thanda karnd, tr. 
Gul karnd. tr. 
Dar, m. 

Darnd (kisl se), intr. 
Khauf, m. 
Aisd na-ho, H. ) 
Mabddd, P. 5 

(c) Verbs of seeing, asking, replying, remonstrating, thinking, 
dreaming, hearing, hoping, inferring, wishing, seeming, implying, 
intending, and fearing, are usually followed by the direct narration. 

(d) The indirect narration, however, is also used occasion- 
ally, as : "Tell him I am ill," us se kah-do ki mat bimar hu ; 
or direct, us se kah-do ki sahib bimar hai. 

Remark. (1) It will be seen that sometimes a sentence may 
mean two different things according to whether the hearer 
takes it as direct or indirect narration. 

(e)Kyukar nahl (neg.) is used in indirect questions, or in direct 
questions signifying an affirmative , as: mal dekhuga ki wuh kyukar 
nahi a,egl. Wuh kyukar nahl a,ega=" of course he'll como." 

May it not be so ; lest. 


Kyukar (aff.) in direct or indirect questions signifies negation; 
wuh kyukar a,ega ?=" he won't come," or " in what manner ? " ; mal 
dekhuga ki wuh kyukar a,ega=" you say" he'll come but / say no." It 
also signifies affirmation, as: *Tum jante ho ki wuh kyukar a.ega "do 
you know how he will come (i.e. by* train or on foot etc.) ? " 

(/) After verbs of telling, or ordering, it is usual to use 
the indirect narration as : sd,is ko ' kali-do ki yaJid, awe, 
" tell the sais to come here (lit. tell the sais that he should 
come here to me)." Sa,is ko ' kah-do ki yaha a.o would 
rarely be used and might mean ' ; tell the sais to come to you," ' z 

(g) If a pronoun gives rise to ambiguity, it is better to 
substitute a proper name ; u# ne kahd ki turn blmdr ho might 
mean that either the speaker or the addressee was ill. 

(h) The Transitive verb often indicates that the action was 
done on purpose, the Intransitive by accident ; vide examples 
in L. 37. The Passive also (vide Lesson 47) has generally the 
first signification. 

(i) The Passive without an agent also often signifies im- 
possibility, as : qismat se lafd nahl, jata, " none can fight 
against Fate." Vide L. 47 (</). 

(;') The parrot escaped Toll Jidth se chhut-ga.t (not 

from my grasp. bach-ga,i). K 

The horse got loose (or is Ghora chhut-gayd. 


The prisoner has escaped and Qaidt nikal-bMga. 


The prisoner was released. Qaidt chhut-gayd. 

He escaped from the Police. Polis ke hath se chhut-gayd. 

1 Ko as it is an order, vide Lesson 26 (c). 

* A direct narration sometimes occurs within a direct narration. 

S Bachna is to escape from a threatened evil. 



The prisoner has been released Qaidi jel-khdne se chhut-gayd. 
from jail. 

The train had just started. -Eel chhut-ga,i thi. 

The fountain is playing. Fawwdra chhut-rahd hai. 

The fireworks have begun (or Atash-bdzi chhut-rahl hai (or 

are going on). 
He is very free with his tongue. 

He has taken to beating one 
(or to beating people) for 
the slightest thing ; is free 
with his hands. 

He has lost heart, hope, about Is imtihdn se uska dil chhut- 

chhon-jd-rahi hai). 

Us kd muh bahut chhut-gaya 

Us ka hath bahut chhut-gaya 

this examination 

gay a. 


(a) I left my book at home Ham ne aprii kitdb ko ghar me 
on purpose. (or 'ghar par) chhord. 

I left my book at home by Kitab ghar me (or ghar par] 
accident ; I forgot it. chhut-ga.i (or rah-ga.i). 

He lost his book on purpose. Us ne kitab ko kho-diyd. 

He lost his book by accident. Us ki kitab khoyl-ga,t. 

He put out the lamp (espe- Chiragji ko thanda kar-diya. 
cially means on purpose). 

The lamp went out. Chiragh. thanda ho-gayd. 

He lives in the next house but Ek ghar chhor-ke dusre ghar. 
one. me rahtd hai ( = yaha se fisre 

ghar me rahtd hai). 

I wanted to go out. Mai ne chdhd ki " bdhir jd,u." 



He wanted (or tried) to clear 
off with his life. 

I wished never to leave him 

I asked him in reply what 

business that was of his. 
It is now proposed to go to 


Tell them that what I (the 
writer) told you (i.e. either 
the addressee or a third per- 
son) was wrong. 

I said to myself that you (Fir- 
man Ali) would never agree 
to this. 

I feared 1 might be late. 

Us ne chdhd ki "apnl 1 jan 
leke bhdg-jd.u" (or indirect 

Merd ji chdhd* ki phir us se 
kabhi judd na-hu. 

Mai ne jawdb diyd ki ''tumhdri 
is se kyd gharaz (hai) ? " 

Ab tajiriz hai ki " DilK 

Un se yih kah-do ki wuh bat 
jo mai ne* turn se kahi tlii 
yhalat hai. 

Mai ne kahd ki Farmdn ' Alt 
qabul nahl karne kd ; or 
mat ne tumhdn nisbat kaha 
ki wuh nahl qubul karne kd ; 
or mal ne tumhdrd zikr 
kiyd ki turn (F. A.) qabul 
nahl karne ke. 

Mujhe dar thd ki ' mai ' let ' 
na-ho jd,u" 6 (in Panjab 
pachhar-jd,u) ; or mai " let " 
ho-jd,ugd* (\vithout na in 
the future). 

1 Omit apnl and the meaning is " to go off in haste." 

2 Note omission of ne: vide " Stumbling Blocks," p. 3. 

3 Ja.iye Respect., or Impers Imper. " let us (or you) go." 

* Here, for mal ne, the writer's name (Ohalib ne) could be substi- 

6 Direct narration. Indirect narration. 



Mujhe khauf thd aisa na-ho 
ki wuh na-d,e. 

Mujhe khauf thd ki wuh na-d- 
jd.e. 1 

" Fd " ho- jane se fi na-chhoro. 

I feared he would not come 

(I wanted him to come and 

was expecting him). 
I feared he would come (I 

didn't want him to come). 

Don't be disheartened at 
failing in your examina- 

But I am already disheart- Herd dil to chhut-chukd hai. 

Why did you drop the bottle Botal ko kyu girdyd ? 
or why did you knock it 
down on purpose ? 

(6) Idioms : 

You have merely to ask for Faqat magne ki der hai. 
it to get it (i.e. in obtain- 
ing it there will be only 
the delay of saying the 

There was a great robbery in 
my house ; everything was 
swept clean away. 

The city is now desolate. 

This has caught my fancy. 

Mere yaha sakht dakaitl 
hu,i ; sdre gftar me j/idru 

Us shahr me ab khdk urti hai. 

Yih (chlz) men nazar me khub 

1 A-jana is generally " to come unexpectedly." 

2 Khub-jana is used metaphorically only for to " go deep into," 
of pleasant things : literally .and also for unpleasant things chubhna 
" to prick,. pierce, etc." is used. 



This has fascinated me and I 
must buy it. 

He has become a great favour- 
ite with the -king. 

The brick houses there can 
be counted (they are so 

You have no knowledge of it 
at all. 

He's never seen (or experi- 
enced) such a thing; lit. 
why, his father even can't 
have seen it in a dream. 

How can I thank him suffi- 
ciently ? 

I have sworn not to go there. 

1 have sworn to go there. 

Yih chiz men nazar par 
charh-ga,l hai. 

Wuh Bddsftdh kl luizar pai 

Khishti ' makdn yintl Av IKU 

Tere firishto 1 ko bhi khabar 

Us ke bap ne to ylh khwdb 

me bhl na-dekhd hogd. 

Mai us kd shukr kis muh se 

(add) karu ? 
Mai ne waha jane H qasam 

khd,i hai. 
Mai ne waha jdne ke liye 

qasam khdj hai. 
Merd kdm chal-gayd 

I have got what I wanted, I 

have been successful. 
He swallowed what I told Merd fiqra us par chal-gayd. 


(c) Dur is used when there is no substantive, as : bahut 
dur hai ; otherwise the adjective is dur M, as : dur kd mulk 
"a distant, far-off, country." 

' Sbisht, f., is a kiln-burnt, not a sun-dried, brick. 
2 Every man has two recording angels, one behind each shoulder : 
that on the right, records his good deeds ; that on the left, his bad. 




(a) Banna, intr. 

Banana, tr. 
Banwana, caus. 

Banawat, f. 
I shara, m. 

To be made ; repaired ; pre- 
pared ; to become ; become 
like ; play the part of ; to 
prosper ; to be affected ; 

To make, etc. ; to make a 
fool of. 

To cause to be made ; to order 
to be made, repaired, etc. 

Make ; sham ; contrivance. 
Sign, signal ; hint ; a refer- 

ence to. 

I shara karna (kisi ki taraf or To point out ; beckon. 
kisi ko). tr. 

1 shara dena, tr. 

Kohl nahl. 
Jaha kohl. 
Jo koji. 

Jo kuchh (correl so. or wuh, 
vide Lesson 35) . 

Khushk, adj. 
Khushki, f. 

Malik, com. gen. 
Milk, L 

To signal. 

Somewhere, anywhere : also 
I fear lest ; if. should ; far 





Dry ; withered. 

Dryness, khushki se by land (as 
opposed to tart se by water). 

Master, owner. 

Property ; landed property. 


Patd, m. Trace ; address ; sign. 

Pattd, m. Leaf (of tree) ; also a single 

playing card. 

Sfidh, m. The Shah of Persia ; the king 

at chess ; a hereditary 
faqir ; a beggar. 

SJtah-zdda, m. Prince. 

Shdh-zddi, m. Princess. 

Sakib-zada, m. A son of any one entitled to 

the address dp. 

(b) When jab tak means " until " or yaha tak ki, it re- 
quires a negative verb, but when it means " whilst," an 
affirmative verb, as : yaha thahro jab tak ( = yahil tak ki) mat 
na-d,u " stay here till I return, or as long as I do not return " ; 
but jab tak wuh yaha rahd mal bhl yaha raJia " I remained 
whilst, or as long as, he remained." Violations of this rule 
should not be imitated. Vide also L. 61 (b). 

YaJiti tak ki, itself, however, does not admit of a negative, 
as : yaha thahre raho yaha tak ki mat wdpas d,u. 

(c) A Transitive Infinitive can be substituted for a Pas- 
sive or for an Intransitive Infinitive, as : us ke mdrne ke liye 
kukm hu,d "an order was given for killing him," or its ke 
mare-jane ' ke liye kukm hu,d an order was issued for his 
being killed." Vide L. 54 (a) (3). 

Regard must, however, be paid to the logical subjects. 
Thus, Avadh ke chhin-jdne par Wdjid 'AU Shah Mityd Burj 
me rahne lage "after the annexation of Oudh (by the Eng- 
lish) Wajid AH Shah took up his abode at Mityd Burj"; 

Mara-jana, pass., " to be killed," vide Leaaon 47 (a). 



but Avadh ke chhin-lene par Sarkar ne us par apna qabza kar 
liyd. If a Transitive Infinitive were used in the first example, 
it would refer to the subject Wajid Ali Shah. 

(d) Kahd, idiomatically expresses great contrast or differ- 
ence, as : kaha mm, kaha ap? = there is all the difference be- 
tween Your Honour and me (lit. " where am I and where is 
Your Honour ? ") ; kahM wuh dosfi thl aur kaJiM ab yih dush- 
mami. "once there was such friendship, now there is this 
enmity." Compare ya-ya L. 35 (e) (2). 

(e) Note the following similar signification of kab ; mat 
ne tumhe yih kam karne ko kab kahd thd aur turn ne kab kiya, 
" how long ago did I order you to do this and when did you 
carry out the order ? " ( = either you delayed doing it, or did 
it at an unsuitable time). 

(/) Sahib-zadi, f. 
Banda, m. 
Haram-zada, adj. 

Pir, m. 

Palanq, m. 
Char-pd,i, f. 

Dunya, f . 

Feminine of Sahib-zada. 


Illegitimate, base-born; a 

rascal (in abuse). 
A religious teacher, either 

living ordinarily, or at a 


The son of a pir. 
Any bedstead. 
Any bedstead, but specially 

a wooden one. 
The present world ; the 

earth ; the people of the 

earth ; a whole world ; 

multitude ; worldly bless- 

ings; wealth. 


Dunyd-ddr, adj. Worldly, rich, a mammonist. 

Dunyd-ddn. Wealth, worldliucss. 

Dunyd-talab,a,dj . { Seeking after this world, am - 

Dunyd-talabi, 1 subs. bitious. 

Ardm-talab, P. A. ) 

adj. Loving ease ; ease-loving. 

Sukh-wdr H. 

Sukh, H., m. Pleasure; happiness ; welfare : 


Dukh, H.. m. Pain: misery; grief; hard- 

ship, etc 
Marammat-talab, adj. In need of repairs. 


(a) Send this to be repaired. Is ko banne (or bandne) ko do. 

Where are such things made ? Yih kah% bantd hai ? 

Mochi, make me a pair of Mocht, hamare waste ek jon 

boots. juti band,o. 

Bearer, order me this. Berd : hamare waste aist chiz 

It is not anywhere ; I cannot Kahl nahl hai. 

find it. 

It must be somewhere or Kahl na kohl to hogd. 

He is very affected ; gives W uh bahut bantd hai. 
himself airs. 

l In such compound nouns, the gender is usually that of the final 
noun : thus aram is masculine, but aram-tfilabl is feminine. Vide 
L. 56 (fe). 



Ah, you are making a fool of 

Wherever his master is, there 

will this dog be also. 

I could not find it, there was 
no trace of it. 

I am in one place, you are in 

There she is seated, tricked 
out in all her finery ! 

We won't get on together, he 
and I won't hit it off. 

This flower is dead. 

He pointed out the false 
(made-up) prince. 

This is a made-up story. 

Wherever it may be, it cer- 
tainly is not here (lit. it 
may be anywhere, here 
however it is not) . 

To whomsoever this mare 
belongs she is not up to 

This is my son. 

Oh ! turn mujhe bandte ho. 

JaJtM kahl malik Jin wahl yih 
kuttd bM hogd. 

Kuctih pat a na-thd (or na- 

Mai kahl, turn kahl. 

Wuh ban-than-kar ' baithl hai. 

Meri* us se na-banegi. 

Yih phul khushk ho-gayd (not 
mar -gay a) . 

Us ne bane hu,e shdhzdde ko 
(or kl taraf) ishdra kiyd. 

Yih bandwafi bat hai. 
Kohl ho, yaha to nahl hai. 

Yih ghon kisl ki ho (or jis 
kisi ki ho) achchhi nahl hai. 

Yih banda-zdda hai (polite). 

1 Thanna, meaningless appositive : has no meaning by itself. 

2 Agrees with bat understood. Vide L. 16 (d) note 1. The first 
person more worthy than the second, etc. 




Is thisyour son ? 

Boys ! if your father comes 
(unexpectedly) what will 
you do ? 

1 hope you won't forget ? 

(b) Idioms : 

What comparison is there be- 
tween Raja Bhoj and 
Ganga the oil-man ? (i.e. 
there is a vast difference 
between them). 

I rated him, abused ' him, 

Once ten needy persons were 
fed by my house whereas 
now I myself am in need 
of food. 

You do this ? you can't pos- 
sibly do this. 

Half and half. 

Actual cost or expenses 

What is left over ; also profit. 

From the light of the fireworks 
the night was as day, vied 
with the day. 

Accumulation of back pay, 
or arrears due. 

Yih ap ka sahib -zada hai ? 

Ay bachcho! kohl tumhara 
bap a-ja,e to turn kya 
karoge ? 

(Mujhedar hai) kalfi turn bhul 

Kaha Raja Bhoj aur kaha 
OangateR? (pro verb). 

M ai ne usko sakht sust ' aur 
hura bhald kaha. 

Kaha mere, ghar se das muhtaj 
khdna pate the, kaha ab 
khud mujhe khane ko nahl 

Turn kaha aur yih bat kahn ' 

Adho adh. 

Ldgat, f. (from lagna). 

Bachat, f. 

Atash-bazi se rat ne din ka 
samna kiya. 

Charhd hu,a rupiya. 

Not filthy abuse. 



If you won't give me more, Ziyada nahl, to das hi rupiya 

at least give me tea rupees. do. 

I will give you Rs. 50 and Tumko ziydda nahl, pachas 

not more. rupiya dagd. 

To demolish utterly (of build- It se it bajdnd. 
ings, cities). 

He has cut himself off from Wuh qaum se phir-gayd. 
his people. 

The candle is burning dimly, tiliarri udds jalfi Imi (lit. 



(a) CJialna, intr. 

Sdth cJialnd, intr. 
Chaldna, tr. 

Kdtnd, tr. 
Katania, tr. 
Kar-khdna, ni. 

Kdfi, adj. 
Kifdyat, L 
Kijdyat me. 

To start, to move get in mo- 
tion ; come along with ; to 
go off (of gun. rifle) ; to be 
current (of money). 

To accompany. 

To make to start or move ; 
to let off a gun or rifle. 

To cut with a knife, sword, 
etc. ; to bite ; sting. 

To cut with scissors ; also to 
cut in slices. 

Factory, warehouse, work- 

Sufficiency, economy. 
At a cheap rate or cost. 

Kasrat, f . 

Mashq, f ; isti'rndl, 
Paidd hond, intr. 

Bahadur, adj. 
Baliadun, f 

Lain bahdduri, f . 
Banduq, f. 
tfa/o/, f. 
Banduq Mejar. 
Bazar Kaplan . 
Barn-polls (Eiig.) 

Khulnd, intr. 

KJwlnd, tr. 
4fotf, f . 
Hajdmat, f. 
Hajjdm, A.; nd,i, 1 
Ddrhi, f . 



Abundance; practice (in 


To be born ; produced ; ob- 
tained ; appear ; grow up. 

Brave ; after a noun a term 
of respect = Honourable. 

Courage ; also the order of 

Good conduct medal. 

Gun or rifle. 


D. A. A. G. for Musketry. 

Cantonment Magistrate. 

Provost police ; sanitary 
police ; also a public latrine 
in a city. 

To be opened ; loosened ; re- 
vealed ; disclosed ; un- 
locked ; uncovered. 

To open, etc. 

Sound of any footfall. 

Barber ing of any kind. 


Beard and whiskers. 

1 Hindus also u 
barber is addressed 

se the word napi; in Calcutta napit. A Muslim 

LESSON 40. 149 

Mundna, tr. To shave (object of verb, the 

chin, or head or any part 
of the person). 

Khatka, m. A slight noise (as in the dark. 

of stealthy movement, 
etc.) ; also the sound of 
foot-steps; suspicion; mis- 
giving ; fear. 

Suraj, m. The sun. 

(6) (1) Chalna amongst its other meanings signifies to 
'"' come along with " ; jdnd is "to go " and cliala-jana is "to 
go away": mere sath chalo (not a,o or ja,o] "come along 
with me," but if beckoning to a person behind, mere sath d,o 
might be used. Vide also L. 63 (d). [For chale-jdna, ' vide ' 
Stumbling Blocks, p. 85]. 

(2) The Past Tense of chalna added to the root of another verb 
signifies " to be on the point of doing," as : wuh ab bol-chala " he is just 
going to speak." The Perf. and Plup. added to the Present Participle 
signify commencement, as: wuh bolta chala Jtai "he has just com- 
menced (started) speaking." But added to a root its signification is as 
follows: wuh yih karri slkh-chala hai, "he has nearly finished mas- 
tering this business " ; kitab ko parh-chala hai, " he has nearly finished 
the book." 

(3) Idiomatically the Preterite of chalna is used for the Present, as: 
mal ab chala phir kisl dusre waqt a-ja,uga " I'll go now and come again 
some other time. 

(c) (1) If a pronoun or a subject has been once men- 
tioned., it is better not to repeat it in the same sentence, 
unless there has been a change of subject, as : mm waha 
gay a aur jab us se muldqdt hu,l to tumhara paigham us se kah- 
diya " I went there and when (1) called on him (1) told him 
your message." 


(2) Note the omission of the pronoun in the Urdu of the 
following : " Having caught the thief they took him to the 
police station " chor ko pakar-kar [usko '] thane me le-ga,e ; 
"it is my custom to rise at six every day" 'men 'ddat yih 
hai ki [mat '] roz svbh ko chha baje so-kar uthtd hU, lit. " it 
is my habit that (1) rise at six daily." The pronouns must 
here be omitted as the object and subject are in each case 
obvious from the context. 

(d) Note the use of me and se in the following : 

Kamar me kamar-band hai " a kamar-band round his 
waist " ; ungli me angutht " a ring on his finger " ; gilds me 
pdm bhar-do "fill the glass with water"; pdm dudh me (or 
se, or ke sdth, but better me) mild,o "mix the water with the 
milk " ; dol ko rassi me (or se) badho " fasten the bucket to 
the rope." 
(e) He gave him this as a t/*K bahddurl dekh-kar* i/ih 

reward for his bravery. in' am diyd. 


(a) The sepoy fired (on pur- Sipdhi ne goll chald.i. 


The rifle went off suddenly. Rafal (or goli) rhal-pari 

A thriving business. Chaltd kdr-khdna. 

He became king (by force). W uh bddshdh ban-baithd. 

This will do ; I can manage Is se merd kdm nikalegd (or 

with this. chalegd). 

This is sufficient. Yih kdfi hai. 

1 It would be quite contrary to idiom to insert these pronouns. 

2 Bahaduri ke waste is Sahib's Hindustani. 



Do you prefer walking or 
riding ? 

I wake up very early (habitu- 

When I opened my eyes (or 
when I woke up), what did ' 
I see but that a woman was 
sitting by my bedside. 

1 heard you ; heard what you 

I heard you come in last 

I heard him coming, heard 
his foot-steps. 

Barber me (i.e. shave me, or 

cut my hair, nails, corns). 
Cut my hair. 
Shave me. 

Lathis [or swords, etc., etc.] 

began to fly. 
My influence was nil. 

The sun is far larger than the 

Paidal chalnd pasand hai yd 
(ki) ghore par sawdr hond. 

Merl alch bahut sawere khultl 

Jab mal ne akhe IchoU kyd 
dekhtd hu ' ki ek 'aurat 
mere palang ke pas baitht 

Mai ne tumhdri bat (not turn 
ko) sum. 

Mujhe, rat, tumhdre dne ki 
dhat miU thi. 

Mai ne uski dhat sunl (or 
mal ne us ko ate sund 1 ). 

Hamdri hajdmat karo. 

Hamdre bdl kdto (or tardsJio). 
Hamdri ddrhl (not ham ko) 

Un-ke-dpas-ml, 8 lathi [or 
talwdr, etc.. etc.] chdR. 

Merl us ke sdmne (ek) na- 

Dunyd se suraj kahi bard hai. 

1 In Urdu, the historical or dramatic present is used. . 

2 The latter may also mean " I heard the news of his coming." 

3 ke " on account of apas mi." 
* Bat understood. 



(b) Idioms : 
He has not come but he's 

about to come. 
If such a thing is to be had 

anywhere, it is in Calcutta. 

If he comes, well and good ; 

if not, I'll have him brought 

by force. 
He does nothing but loaf 

about the city. 

About one o'clock p.m. 

Aya to nahl, magar amad 

amad hai. 
Yih chlz Kalkatte me mile 

to mile, warna aur kahl na- 


Agar aya (to) aya, warna 
pakarwa-maga tiga. 

Wuh kuchh kam nahl karta ; 
dinbhar shahr ki galiya aur 
safake napta phirta hai. 

Do pahar dhale. 1 


Pighalnd, intr. 
Ghulna, intr. 

Galna, intr. 

Pahinnd, tr. 
Ghari lagana. 

To be melted (fused) by heat. 

To be dissolved in water, be- 
come mixed with; met. to 
become thin, waste auay 
(of the body). 

To be cooked till soft, be 
wasted a,w&y (of the body) ; 
to be decayed or perished. 

To wear cut garments, boots, 
hats, ornaments. 

To wear a watch. 

Dhalna " to decline" (here of the sun after midday). 



Orhna, tr. 

Orhna, subs., m. 
Samana : intr. 

Shauq, m. 

Shauqin, adj. 
Muqaddama, m. 

Guzara, m. 
Guzare kl kishtl. 
SJiakk, m. 

Shubha, m. 
Shakki, adj. 

Ji churana. 

To wear a sheet, shawl, etc. ; 
to cover oneself with a 


To be contained; to be able 
to enter. 

Desire ; longing ; hobby ; 
keenness ; custom (rare). 

Fond of ; keen on. 

Lawsuit ; preface to a book 
or to any matter ; (lit. 
means " something placed 
before "). 

Fish ; a fish-shaped pendant 
worn by women in the ear ; 
a " fish-insect " ; a martin- 
gale-stop on reins. 

Subsisting ; living with. 

Doubt (and sometimes sus- 
picion) . 

Suspicion (and sometimes 

Suspicious, disbelieving ; also 
overscrupulous and faddy 
in religion or health. 

Shirker of .his work; 'skrim- 

To shirk work (of men or 
horses, etc.). 


Nasha, m. Intoxication (real or met.). 

Mast. adj. Drunk; must (of elephants, 

camels) ; in rut ; lascivi- 
ous ; wanton. 

Bad-mast, adj. Dead -drunk. 

Mai-mast. Purse-proud. 

Mastl, f. Drunkenness, etc.. etc., vide 


Mazmun. m. Contents of a letter or book ; 

subject matter ; also pur- 

Matlab, in. Object, intention, meaning, 


M attain, adj. Selfish. 

Tambaku, m. Tobacco, especially country 


Asl, f . ; and adj. Root ; origin ; pure ; genuine ; 


Aslt, adj. Original, genuine. 

NaqU. adj. Copied, i.e. forged, or not 


Asil, adj. and subs. Of pure breed; also a maid- 


Astl murgjhfi, m. Game-cock. 

Asl me, adv. Tn reality 

Ihsan, m. Favour, doing good to. 

Ihsan manna. To acknowledge benefits re- 

ceived ; be grateful to. 



Ihsdn charJtdnd or rakhna. 
Ihsdn jatand. 

Ihsan-mand, adj. 
Ihsdn-mandi. f. 
Jatand or jatldnd, tr. 
Thaharnd, intr. 

To place a person forcibly 
under an obligation. 

To remind one of benefits 
conferred, cast them in a 
person's teeth. 

Thankful, grateful. 


To caution ; make a show of. 

To be fixed; decided on; to 
be stopped ; stay ; rest ; 
pause ; wait ; last ; endure ; 
turn out : prove. 


(a) The negative na at the end of a sentence shows that 
an affirmative answer is expected to a question, as : mat ne 
kukm diyd ? " I gave the order, didn't I ? " 

(6) (1) Like kahti and yd [vide L. 35 (e) (2), and L. 38 
(d)], the conjunction aur idiomatically expresses contrast or 
surprise, as : merd beta aur chon ? " my son and (capable of) 
theft ? " 

(2) It also expresses the simultaneous or nearly simulta- 
neous occurrence of action, as : turn ne mirch khd,i ' aur btmdr 
hu,e l "as soon as you eat pepper you get ill." 

(3) Note these idioms : phir mat hu aur turn ho " then I will settle 
accounts with you (threat)"; turn jano (aur) tumhara kam jane "I 
will have nothing further to do with you (or it)." 

Preterite for Present. 


(c) He is a keen fisherman. 

Us ko machhti ke shikar kd 

bard shauq hai. 
Fuldne Sahib bhi shauqin hm. 

Such and such a Sahib too 
is keen. 

What is your favorite occu- Turn ko kis bat kd ziydda shauq 
pation ? hai ? 

I can manage, get along with, Is se merd guzdra ho-mkta, hai . 

I suspect that sepoy of theft. Mujhe us sipdhl par (or H 

torn/) chon ka shubha hai. 

Wuh jawdn nashe me hai, or 
us jawan ko nasha hai. 

Khatt ka kyd mazmun hai ? 

Wuh bara matlabi ddrni hai. 

Mujhe tambdku se shauq nahl. 

Yih larka bara shauqin hai. 

That young fellow is drunk. 

What does he write about ? 

He is very selfish. 

I do not smoke. 

This boy is very particular 

about his dress ; also he is 

I can't get along on ten 

rupees a month. 

Das rupiya mahine me mera 
guzdra nahl hotd hai. 

I cannot stay in your Honour's Ap ke sdth merd guzdra nahl 

Manage with this somehow. 

I am very much obliged to 


Is se kist tarah guzdra karo. 
Mai dp kd bahut bahut shuk- 
riya add kartd hu = mat dp 
kd bahut mamnun hu (ra- 
ther highflown) . 
I am very much obliged to Ap kd 6am ihsdn hai (com- 



LESSON 43. 157 

He makes a great show of his Wuh mujhe, apni dosti jatdtd 

friendship to me. hai. 

Go ; the Devil take you. Jd,o : Shaitian ke hawale ' (ho). 

Your children are all well, are Tumhare bal-bachche sab ach- 

they not ? chhe hai, na ? 

Your father dead and I not Tumhdra bdp mar-gayd aur 

even hear of it ? mujhe khabar tak nahl ? 

I offended with you ? Turn se aur ranj ? 

You offended with me ? Turn aur ranj ? 

(d) Idioms : 

How shall I address him (in Us ko Munshi, Mir, Shaikh. 

writing) ; as Munshi, Mir, Khwaja kya karke likhu ? 

Shaikh, or Khwaja ? (or ( kyd karke pukdru) ? 

how shall I address him in 

speaking ?) 

To retire from military ser- Kamar kholnd. 


Please let me take my small Mihrbdni karke ek ser dtdbakh- 

pension. shiye. 

This happened before I can Yih bate mere hosh se pahle ki 

remember. hai,. 

To ape a European (in dress. Sdhibi karnd. 

speech, etc.) ; be imperious. 

From this it may be inferred Is se yih bat nikalti hai (or 

that . tapaktl *hai) ki . 

1 Ml understood. 

' 2 Tapakna " to drip from the roof; to trickle down the wall; fall- 
ing of fruit from a tree," esp. of the tapka am. 


I am here for this day also ; Mai yaJm aj , ;,g ; 
I'll depart to-morrow. jaMga. 

otherwise you will be -rnatn mp arWa.,<fi. 

I found him on good terms Mai ne us ko us se (or , H 

I am just starting ; (the met. Merd ek pa* zamin par /,/ 

From a man mounting). e k pd,o rikdb ml. 

The horse jumped out of the Gl^a arga r e se phaln, ' m *r- 

nding school. kar nikal-aya. 

I set my horse at the wall hut Mai ne ghora daura-kar diwdr 

par phfldana cha/m Win 
wuh df-gaya. 

A hurdle (for Jumping) . Tattl-tarpa.o. 

His horse jumped over the Uska ghora khan^ ko tap-* 

dltch ' gaya. 

The Agra dialect ? why. it's Agre H zaban kya ! /, to nn 

of no account. tin me na terah* me. 

You can't vie with him, stand Us ke <il m ke samne turn Ma- 
in front of him, in learn- har-naM-takte. 

A cornelian can't be com- 'Aqlq la'l ke tamne 
pared with a ruby (in beau- har-sakta. 
ty or value, etc.). 

1 Properly for long jumps. 
L ^ g 

Past 12 
Three is a Iuck y number, thirteen unlucky. 

LESSON 44. 159 


(a) A simple neuter verb is usually made transitive by 
inserting a after the root, as : girna "to fall." girana " to make 
to fall, to knock down." The insertion of if a forms the causal, 
as : girwdnd "to cause to be thrown down by some one." 

Remark. When there are two transitive forms, one form sometimes 
has a special or restricted application. Thus from dabna. intr. " to be 
pressed," are formed the transitives dabna and dabana. The latter 
is used for " to press down," while the former is commonly used for 
" to shampoo," though both forms are used in the latter sense (pa,6 
dabna or dabana). 

(b) If the simple verb is transitive, the insertion of a 
makes it causal, and of wa doubly causal, as : parhna " to 
read"; parlidnd "to make one read, to teach"; parhwdnd 
''to cause to be taught." 

Remark. Sometimes the second and third forms of a cau- 
sal formed from a simple transitive are identical in mean- 
ing, as : kardnd and Tcarwdnd " to cause to do." The causal 
of kahim is kahland (or rarely kahdnd) which is both intransi- 
tive "to be named," and causal "to cause to say." 

(c) (1) Some verbs are formed irregularly, as: Solid "to 
sleep," suldnd "to lull a child to sleep and to make one 
sleep": mujhe is kamre me na-suldnd "do not force me to 
sleep in this room." Sulwdnd is doubly causal, as : Is larke 
ko dd,i se sulwd,o "tell the dd.i to put this child to sleep." 

(2) From tutnd "to be snapped," the initial hard t becomes 
soft in the trans, and caus. tornd and turwdnd. 

(d) Yih khatt Sdlik se parhdnd "make Salik read this 

letter to you," but Sdlik ko parhdnd "make Salik read 

it to himself, ' or "teach Salik how to read this letter." 

(c) Some verbs are both transitive and intransitive, as : 



Khujland "to scratch with the nails" and also "to itch" ; 
harna (no ne) " lose a game, be defeated etc." The intensive 
forms of such verbs leave no doubt, thus kar-jana is intr. 
and hdr-dend tr. 

(/) Note the following: wa'da "to make a pro- 
mise, to promise " and wa'da lend "to take a promise fit mi. 
to make to promise, to cause to promise." 

(g)Paknd l intr. 

Pakdnd, 1 tr. 
Pakwand, 1 caus. 
Pakkd, adj. 

Pakkd ghar, m. 
Kachchd, adj. 

Bhtgnd, intr. 

Bhigond^ tr. 
Bhigwdnd, caus. 

To be cooked ; to ripen ; to 
come to a head (of a boil, 
etc.) ; to turn grey (of hair) . 

To cook, etc. 

To cause to, or order to cook. 

Cooked ; ripe ; mature ; ready 
to discharge matter (of a 
boil, etc.) ; grey (of the 
hair) ; fully developed ; ex- 
perienced ; expert ; made of 
stone, brick or cement : 
macadamized (of a road) ; 
permanent ; resolute ; trust- 

A brick or masonry house: 
also prison. 

Raw; unripe; unmaeadnm- 
ized ; the opposite gene rally 
of pakkd. 

To become wet ; to be soaked 


To make wet ; to soak. 
To order, or to cause, to soak. 

Pakna, pakana, pakwaria are regular. 
Antepenultimate short; vide L. 53 (k), note. 



Letna, intr. 
Litana, tr. 
Litwana, cans. 
Dhulna, intr. 
Dkona, tr. 
Dhulwdnd, caus. 
Sina. tr. 
Siland, tr. 
Silwana, caus. 
Palna, intr. 
Pdlnd, tr. 
Palwana, caus. 
Pitna, intr. 
/^a, tr. 
Pitwdnd, cans. 
Khichnd, intr. 

Khlchnd, tr. 

Khichwand, caus. 
Sikhnd. 1 tr. 

Sikhdna and sikhlana 

To lie down. 

To be washed. 
To wash. 

To sew, stitch. 

To be reared, tamed, nurtured 

To be beaten, struck. 

To be pulled tight, stretched, 

To pull tight, etc. ; to draw 
(a picture) ; to pull (a car 
riage) ; to pull (a punkah) : 
to bear, suffer ; to draw a 

To learn to do to learn any 
work or business (but not 
science or literature) . 

To teach. 

Parhna " to learn, study literature or science." Slklina, however, 
may be used for learning a language colloquially. 

SamjhSna " to teach how to do ; to explain, etc." 



Khulna, intr. 

Kholna, tr. 
Khulwana. caus. 
Bolna. [ intr 
Buldna, tr. 
Bulwana, caus. 
Katnd, intr. 

Katna, tr. 

Katdnd, caus. 
Rahnd, intr. 

Rakhna, tr. 
Rakhwaria, caus. J 
Bikna. intr. 

Bechna, (kist ke hath), tr. 
Bikwand, caus. 

Phatnd. intr. 

Phdfna, tr. 

To be opened ; 

To open, etc. 

revealed ; 

To utter sounds. 

To call. 

To send for a person. 

To be cut ; to be traversed (of 

a road) ; to pass (of time). 
To cut ; pass the time, etc. ; 

to bite. 

To dwell ; remain ; to be kept 
or to rest in one place (of 
things) . 

To place, keep. 

To be sold. 

To sell. 

To cause to sell, order to be 

To be torn (of cloth, paper, 
leather) ; to be cracked (of 
a wall) ; be burst (of over- 
ripe fruit, a boiler) : to be 
dispersed (of clouds) ; to 
curdle (of milk). 

To tear ; to split ; to rend. 

1 Intransitive according to native grammarians; it does not tako 
ne. It, however, requires an object, so according to English idous it is 



Baithna, intr. 

Bithdnd, tr. 

Bithwdnd, caus. ' 
Dekhnd, tr. 

Dikhdnd, dikhldnd, caus. 
Nahdnd, intr. 

To sit ; settle down (of dregs) ; 

to become fixed in the 

To seat; cause to seat, cause 

to fix in the memory 

To see, look. 
To show. 
To bathe 

Nahldnd, tr. (nahlwdnd, caus.) . To give a bath to ; to order a 

bath for. 
Land (tor le-dnd ; without ne).\ To bring. 

' To bring a person, or to cause 

Liwd-ldnd, caus. 

Jalnd, intr. 
Jaldnd, caus. 
Jdgnd, intr. 
Jagdnd, tr. 
Jagwdnd, caus. 

Jlna. intr. 

Jildnd. caus. 

Jdnnd, tr. 

Jatdnd or jatldnd, caus. 

Find, tr. \ 

Pildnd. caus. c 

to be brought by a per- 

To burn. 

To cause to burn. 

To be awake ; to keep awake. 

To awaken ; to rouse. 

To order a person to be called 

in the morning. 
To live. 

To cause to live, to revive. 
To know, think. 
To warn, caution. 
To drink ; to smoke (tobacco). 
To make or give to drink or 

to smoke. 




or chhutnd 

To be released, etc. ; vide 
Lesson 36 (6). 


, tr. 

> To let go, etc. 

Chhurdnd, chhutdnd, 
chhurwdnd, caus. 

or To cause to be released. 

Lend, tr 

caus. ) 

To take. 

[Mai dm quit se liwd-layd 
= '1 made the coolie tak< 

the mangoes and have 
brought him with me.]' 

Dend, tr. " ( 
Dildnd. dilivdnd, caus. , 

To give ; to permit. 

KJidnd, m. 

Food : meal. 



To eat; to suffer; take lh<- 
(air) ; etc. 



To cause to eat ; i.e. to feed. 

Khilwdnd, caus. 

To order to feed. 


, intr. \ 

, tr. 

To come out. to turn out. 
To turn out, dismiss ; to take 

Nikalwdnd, caus. ) 

To cause the dismissal of. etc. 

Samajhnd, intr. \ 
Samjhdnd, tr. ( 

To understand, think, consi- 

To explain; console; con- 
vince; reason with. 


1 intr. 
1 tr. ; phurwdnd 

ITo get a hole in ; to become 
disunited ; to sprout ; to 
. boil, bubble. 

, caus. I To break into several pieces : 
J to make to burst (a boil). 

Note the change of I into r. 



Magnet, tr. 

Magdnd, magwdnd. caus. 
Gunjd,ish. f. 

Intizdr, m. (karnd or khinch- 

nd, or me rahnd). 
Manzur, Ar. p.p. 
Khdtir. f.. subs, and prep. 

Zabar-dast, adj. 

Zer-dast, adj. 
Phutd rupiya. 
Phutd pdm. 

(h) The tie has been to the 

The Sahib is very late 

(You) made me wait a long 

He forced me to do it. 

They unanimously agreed to 
the terms. 

To ask for, beg; incorrectly 
used for chdhnd, ' to want.' 
To send for a thing. 
Capacity, room. 

Approved : sanctioned. 

Heart ; pleasing ; for the 
sake of, for. 

Arbitrary ; powerful : some- 
times strong. 


A cracked rupee. 

Boiling water. 

Gala-band dhulke aya hai. 

Sahib ban der me a,e, 1 or ban 
der karke (or lagake) a,e. 

Mujh se bard intizdr kardyd. 

Us ne zabardastl (se) yih kdm 
mujh se karwdyd. 

Sabho ne (or sab ne), ek zabdn 
hokar, kahd ki yih bat ham 
logo ko manzur hai. 

1 Wherever the word sahib is used, the verb must be in the plural 
vide Lesson 16 (d). Deri for der is vulgar. 


Do you wish to please me or Tumhe men khdtir manzur hai 

not ? yd nahl ? 

I am as keen as ever but what Shauq to pahle H tarah hai. 

can I do ? I've no time lekin kyd karU ? fursaf 

now. nnhl. 

His head was cut, bruised by. Patthar $e uskd sir phut-gayd. 

a stone. 

His head was split into two Uska, sir lathi se phat-gayd. 

bits by a lalhi. 

Note.'FoT one use of the causal verb vide p. 151. note fi 
Eng. Tr. H. S . Part IIT. 


(a) (1) A large class of compound verbs is formed by 
prefixing substantives, adjectives, Arabic past participles, 
prepositions, and adverbs, to verbs, especially to hona and 
karnd, as : jam' hona " to be collected " ; jam' karnd " to 
collect" chori jdnd (or hona) "to be stolen" : k&ushk karna 
" to dry " ; lamba karnd " to lengthen " ; sawdr jdnd "to go 
mounted, to ride"; mashyhul hona "to be bus} 7 " and mash- 
ghul karnd " to engage one in a business " : bar-land " to 
fulfil"; dar-dnd "to succeed"; pesh-dnd "to come before, 
to happen, to treat or deal with " ; pesh karnd " to bring up 
before " ; bdz and " to desist " ; bar taraf karnd " to dismiss." 
Such compounds are usually regarded as single verbs, and if 
transitive, the compound governs the accusative, as : usne 
mulk ko fath-kiyd or kar-liyd " he conquered the country " ; 
mulk fath-hu.d " the country was conquered." 

Note. For dikhdji dend " to be seen " and sundj dend " to 
be heard " etc. vide L. 22 (a). 

LESSON 45. 167 

(2) When speaking of big people, farmdnd (lit. " to order ") 
is substituted for karnd in compound verbs, and for kahnd. 

(b) In some verbs, however, the first part of such a com- 
pound is treated as the direct object of the simple verb, as : 
mai ne us ki (or ko) bahut taldsh ki "I searched for him " ; 
hamesha dp ki (not ko) ta'rif kartd hai "he always speaks 
highly of you " ; us ne men ghafi (not ki) chon ki "he stole 
my watch." Sometimes either construction is admissible, as 
with taldsh karnd. Ta'lim dend and ta'lim karria both mean 
" to teach " ; kisi ko namdz Id ta'lim dend, but kisi ko namdz 
ta'lim karnd " to teach a person the Muslim prayers." There 
is no rule on the point. 

(c) Sometimes one construction is required in the active 
and another in the passive, as : Us ne usko ' izzat bakhshi " he 
honoured him." but wuh 'izzat bakhshd-gayd " he was hon 

(d) Hindustani often requires a (simple) verb different 
from that used in English, thus : kaprd sind " to make 
clothes (not banana) " ; wuh asil murgh pdltd hai " he keeps 
game-cocks" ; lawd l lardtd hai " he keeps fighting quails " : 
kardmdt * dikhdnd " to perform miracles." 

(e) The use of the word saikre, "per cent." is illustrated 
later. Sixteen annas or one rupee may, however, be taken 
to represent a hundred per cent, as : bimdri solah dne me ab 
sirf char dne rah-ga,i hai "the sickness has decreased to 
twenty-five per cent (i.e. by seventy-five per cent)." 

1 Lawa is the " Bustard-quail " and also the Rock Bueh-quail ; bater 
is the " Common Quail " ; both are used for fighting. 

2 Karamat: miracle performed by a Wall or Saint, opposed to mu'- 
jiza, one performed by a prophet. 


(/) Do. 

Dorio (or dono). 

Tino ; chard (and so on). 

Kort or bisi, f . 
Saikra, in. 
Sati, L 

[Fl, Ar., prep. 
Sailer o. 

Bar. f., daf'a. f., or -martaba. 1 

$/fc 6ar, eA; fZa/'a. 

Do-guna, dugria, dund. adj. 

Tigund or si-guna, adj. 

Chau-yuna, adj. 

Do-chand, adj. 

Si-chand (and so on), adj. 


Ek ek karke : adv. 

Do do, etc. 

.Kara se A;am. 

Ziydda se ziydda. 




The three, all three ; the four 

(and so on) 
A score. 

A century, i.e. a hundred. 
A century of years ; fl sadi or 

fi sad (or saikre, or saikre 

jnchhe) = per cent. 
In. each, per) 




Four-fold, etc. 

= Do -gund. 

= Si-gund, etc. 

One apiece, one each. 

One by one. 

Two apiece. 

At least. 

At most. 

1 When martaba means " rank, position " it i* masculine: when bar 
means " load " it is masculine. 


Taqrib-an, adv. 

Qarib, adj. and prep. 

Do tin. 

Tin char. 

Qiyds se, or anddz se or anddz- 

an. adv. 

Qiyds (k). 

Sau ek : or ko,i sau : ko.i 
bar ah ; or bar ah ek. 

Yad, f. 

Yad hond. intr. 

Yad and. 
Yad karnd, tr. 
Yad rakhnd, tr. 
Kdm ana, intr. 

Khet rahnd (rare). 

Hisab, m. (k.). 
Lafz, m. (pi. alfdz). 
Lafzi. adj. 
Hdrnd tr. and intr. 

About, almost. 

Near ; also adv. about, nearly. 

Two or three. 

Three or four. 

At an estimate, about. 

Guess (to). 

About a hundred : about 


To remember ; to be learnt 

by heart. 
To come to mind. 
To learn ; to call to mind. 
Keep in memory, remember. 

To be useful : to be killed in 

To be killed in battle, i.e. to 

be left on the field. 
Account : arithmetic. 
To lose, be defeated ; be tired 

out. dispirited. Vide L. 44 


(a) (1) J harnd. 
Shikast khdnd. tr. 


To be dispirited. 
To be defeated. 



Jitna, 1 jit-lend, tr. 
Path karna, tr. 
Khushk karna. tr. 
Ohirna, intr. 

Ghernd, tr. ; gher-lend, tr. 
Jutl s\nd (or banana) , tr. 
Wahl (ert*,), adv. 

or woAl a (ert*j J ; , ad v. 

, adr. 
Zakhm khdnd. 
Kisi par rahm khdna. 
Hawd khdnd. 

Hawd pind. 
Qasam khdnd. 
Mar khdnd. 
Jutiya khdnd. 
Ghota khdnd. 


Odll khdnd. 

To conquer ; to win. 

To conquer. 

To dry. 

To be surrounded. 

To surround, besiege. 

To make boots. 

In that very place. 

In that very state ; without 
any special purpose. 

As soon as. 

To be wounded. 

To feel pity for. 

To take the air, go for an 

To wind -suck (horses). 
To take an oath. 
To be beaten. 
To be slippered. 
To plunge, dive, duck in- 

To carry tales to superiors, 
tell tales. 

To swallow or put up with 

1 Jltna is used with or without ne : mat basl jita or mat ne bazl jiti. 

* Yu " thus, in this way " ; ion " in that way " ; tu " the time when. 
i.e. as soon as " ; juhl " at the very moment when " ; /u tu " tomehow 
or other." 



Gham khana. 
Ranj uthdnd (or jhelnd) . 
Khushi uthdnd. 
Mihnat uthana. 

Sadma uthana. 

Maza urdnd. 

TakUf khaichna. 

Salchtl khaichna (or uthana). 

Fdqa khaichna. 

Fdqa karnd. 

Intizdr khaichna. 

To endure grief patiently. 
To endure trouble, etc. 
To enjoy a thing. 

To undergo trouble : also to 

To endure a shock ; undergo 


To live luxuriously ; to enjoy. 
To endure trouble, hardship. 

To be starved. 

To abstain from feeding, vol 

To wait for (sp. with anxiety) . 

(2) Note the force of the transitive verbs in the following compounds; 
jumbish dena. tr. " to move a thing," jumbish karna,intr. " to move" 
=hilna ; dukh dena " to worry, give trouble to," but dukh pana " to 
be worried " ; bet khana " to be caned " but bet khilana " to cane some 
one else." 

(6) I cannot recollect that Mujhe wuh lajz ydd nahl hai. 


I don't know (recollect) ray Mujhe apnd sabaq ydd nahl 

lesson. hai. 

Remember this. Is ko ydd karo. 

Keep this in mind. Is ko ydd rakho. 

The Sahib has just asked for Sahib ne turn ko ydd kiyd hai 


He has lakhs of rupees. Us ke pas lakho rupai hai (or 

rupiya hai). 



All five horses are here. 

Pacho ghore hazir hat. 

The enemy had thousands of Dushman H hazard fauj tin (or 
soldiers ; they were double sipdhi the) ; hamare se (or 
our numbers. hamare sipdhiyo se) dochand 


At the rate of two rupees per Har mahine (me) do rupiya 
hundred per month ; at the saikre ke hisdb se ; or liar 
per mdh do rupiya fl sadi ke 
hisdb se. 

rate of 24 per cent 
Put them aside, one by one. 

Ek ek karke alay karo. 

Give them twenty rupees each. Bis bis rupiya de-do. 

It was a fine view. . Ek achchhi kaifiyat nazar a. I. 

This is not of quite such a good Is mdl se yih mdl unnis hai. 

quality (i.e. is as 19 is to 


Unnis bis kd farg. 

Taqrib-an bis the ; or andaze se 

bis the ; or qiyds se bis the ; 
or bis ek the ; or ko.i bis the ; 
or bis ke qanb the. 

(Ek) sau rupiya (or pi. rupai) 
se, kuchh kam. 

Do kam sau rupiya. 

Pach chha admi d,e. 

Mai ne ek ghante tak, tumhari 

rah dekhi. 
How long shall 1 have to wait Tumhard, kab tak. intizdr 

A very slight difference 
There were about twenty. 

Rather less than a hundred 

Ninety-eight (lit. 100 minus 

2 rupees). 

Five or six people came. 
1 waited for you an hour. 

for you ? 

mujhe karna 
hogd) ? 

)>(irer/a (or 

LESSON 47. 173 

Help me. Mujhe madad do, or men ma- 

rl ad karo. or men madad ko 
d,o (or pahucho). 

Give me an explanation (of Is kl kiafiyat batd,o. 1 
machine, your conduct), 

The nearer [ got to the city Jii jU mai its shahr se nazdlk 
the more T longed to see it. hota gaya fa tti its ko dekhnc 

kd shauq dil me barhtd gaya. 


(a) (1) The grammatical passive is formed by conjuga- 
ting the past participle of a transitive or a causal verb with 
jdndsis: ntdrdjdnd " to be killed," 2 and metaphorically "to 
be mined, undone" (but never "to be beaten") ; mat mar a 
jdtd hu " I am being killed " ; wuh mdrd gaya " he was killed." 
or wuh man ga,i " she was killed." The passive is not as 
much used as in English except in translations from Eng- 
lish. The general rule is that the passive should only be 
used when the subject is unknown, or when, for some special 
object, it is desirable not to mention the subject. 

(2) The agent of the passive, if expressed, is expressed by 
ke hath se and the instrument by se, as : kisi ddku ke hdth 
se talwdr se mdrd gaya " he was killed by some dacoit with a 
(curved) sword." Such an expression as i; he was killed by 

1 Batana " to explain verbally, to point out," is, in the Panjab. 
sometimes vulgarly used for dikhana, as : ghore ko pant bata,o=" give 
the horse some water in the bucket." 

2 In the active voice, however, marna signifies " to beat " as well as 
" to kill." Vide L. 22 (/) footnote. 


a tiger" 1 must be turned: ek sher ne us ko mdrd, or wuh 
sher kd shikar ho -gay a. 

(b) Instead of the passive, Indians idiomatically use (1) 
the active voice, as : kahte hai " they say, it is said " ; (2) an 
intransitive verb, simple or compound, as: pitnd "to be 
beaten " ; chori jdnd (or hond) " to be stolen " ; fath hond " to 
be conquered " ; (3) an Arabic or Persian past participle, as : 
ma'lum (Ar. p. p.) hond "to be known " ; mauquf (Ar. p. p.) 
hond "to be stopped: abolished"; bar-afrokhta (P. p. p.) 
hond " to be angry" ; and (4) a transitive verb with an ob- 
ject, as : mar khdnd " to be beaten " ; shikast khdnd or pdnd 
" to be defeated." Such verbs can seldom be used in the cau- 
sal forms : gham khdnd is " to suffer," but gham khildnd can- 
not be used. However, usne naukaro se mujhe gall (or mar) 
khild,l "he made his servants abuse (or beat) me" is idio- 

Remark. In gum hond " to be lost," gum appears to be a 
Persian adjective. Pasand is a shortened form of pasandida. 

(c) The subject of the grammatical passive is usual!}' in 
the nominative. As, however; this grammatical subject is 
the logical object of the action, it is often, in modern Urdu, 
in writing only, put in the accusative. This construction is 
admissible with certain compound verbs [vide L. 45 (a) (1)], 
or with simple verbs that take two objects, as: usko qatl 
kiyd gayd "him was killed " = wuh qatl kiyd gayd ; usko bar 
taraf kiyd gayd = " him was dismissed " ; usko dekhd jd,egd is 
incorrect, but achchhd, uskomalika kahd jd,e "let her be called 
Queen," and agar usko sach mdnd jd,e "if it be considered 
true " are correct. 

1 Ravan, Ram se mara gaya, is correct Hindi but not correct Urdu. 

, LESSON 47. 175 

(d) (1) The passive (of even neuter verbs) is idiomatically 
used to express possibility or impossibility, as : qismat se 
lard ' nahl jdtd "one cannot contend with Fate/' but mujh se 
lard nahl, jata " I dare not, or I am unable to, fight " ; mujh 
se yih khdnd khdyd nahl jata " I cannot eat this " ; yih kab us 
se uthdyd jdtd thd? "he could not lift this" ; turn se kisl kd 
khun hond dekhd jd.egd? "could you stand seeing a person 
killed ? " ; us se pahdr par charhd ] -gayd "he was able to as- 
cend the mountain." 

(2) In other words the Passive Voice with a proper agent 
expresses (a) I did not dare to , (6) I could not bear to . 

or (c) I was unable to , as : mujh se to sher ke sdmne na 

jdyd 1 gayd : mujh se to us ki gdli na-sunl-ga.i : koshish karne 
par bht mujh se us pahdr par na-charhd } -gayd. 

Remark. Note that in such cases, i.e. to express possibility, etc.. 
even neuter verbs are used in the passive. Note also that yih murgh 
kis se zibh ' 2 kiya gaya ! does not = " who killed this cock ? " but " who 
was bold enough to kill it ? " 

(e) Deorhd, adj. Too much by one half ; half 

as much larger. 

Ek ddh. A few ; only a few 

Kahldnd or kahdnd, intr. and To be called, named ; to make 

caus. one say or repeat. 

Kahd-jdnd, pass. =kahldnd: kahd jatdhai "it 

is said" (not kahldtd hai). 

'Ilm. m. Knowledge; science; learn- 


Ma'lum : AT. p. p of above. What is known. 
Nazar, pi. nazre, f . Sight. 

Intransitive passive. 

Zibh k. "to cast on the ground and cut the throat." 


Manzur, Ar. p. p. 

Muqdbala k. (from qabl. prep. 
" before," of time). 

Inkdr (k.), m. 
Inkdri, adj. (hond). 
Munkir, Ar. (hond). 

Mukarnd H. 
Pahld,* adj. 
Pahle, abv. 
Dusrd, 1 adj. 
Dusre, adv. 
77sra : ' adj. 
Chauthd, 1 adj. 
Pachwa?- adj. 
Chhatd,* adj. 
E,* adj. 

Panja, m. 

Panja marna, tr. 

Approved (originally ' the ob- 
ject of sight).' 

To oppose ; to compare : to 
confront, face. 

Refusal, denial. 

Denying; also one denying 

the true faith, a kafir. 
To go back on one's word. 

Second; another. 

(Remaining numbers formed 
by adding wa).* 

Hand or foot (bunch of fives. 

from Per. panj five) ; paw 

of animal. 
To claw (of beasts) : met. to 

sieze by violence. 

' These are adjectives and are inflected, as : dusri tarlbh. 
2 Inflected as pachwl tarikb ; pachice mard ko. 



Pa,o, or ek pa,o, or ek chau- 

Chduthd hissa. 

Ek tihaj. 

Adha, adj. and subs. 


Tin pa,o, or tin chauthdJi. 


Ra r ~he. 

Dhd.i or arh-d.t. 

(/) What is that called in 
Hindustani ? 

I cannot lift this. 

Let one be sent for from the 

If they be compared side by 
side, it will be seen that 
there is not the slightest 
difference between them. 

Have you lost your wits ? 

He struck him one blow with 
the sword. 

One-quarter of. 

The fourth part 





= 1 j, or +j, as: sawa sau 

= 1^, as : derh hazar 1.500. 

= + i, as : sarhe fin rupiya 
Rs" 3-8-0. 

= 2|, as : dim. I sa?< = 250. 


; : paune do 

Hindustani me wuh kya kahlata 
hai ? ; or usko Hindustani 
me kya kahte JidH ? 

Yih mujh se uthaya nahl jata. 

Baza* se ek maga-liya ja.e. or 
magaya ja,e. 

Agar dono me muqabala kiya 
ja.e l (or dono muqabala kiye 
ja.e) to ma'lum ho-ja.ega ki 
kuchh bht farq nahl hai. 

Kyu, ten 'aql man ga.t ? 
Us ne ek talwar man. 

1 Or milana, tr., to compats. 




The bullock gored me twice. 
Give them 4 rupees each 

It is ten past twelve. 
Ten minutes to twelve. 

At last he consented to, agreed 
to, this. 

1 have no objection. 

I do not deny it. 

I do not want such service (or 

I don't want to continue in 

such service). 

Kindly reply to my letter 

Bail ne mere ' do sing mare. 
Unko sdrhe char char riipiya 

do (not sdrhe char sdrhe 


Bdrah par das minat d,e. 
Bdrah me das minat bdqi hai ; 

or in the Punjab das minat 

Icam bar ah baje. 

Akjiir (ko) is bat par rdzl hud ; 
or dkhir yih bat usko man- 
zur hu,i or ; dkhir is bat ko 
manzur kiyd. 

Mujhe inkdr (or -uzr) nah\. 

Mai nahi inkdr kartd hu. 

Aisi naukaii karni * manzur 
nahi hai. 

Mere khatt kd jawab jald bhejd- 


(a) (1) The same word is repeated for emphasis, or to 
signify continuous state, etc., etc. Examples: (1) Substan- 
tives: ghar ghar "in every house." roz roz "every day"; 
juq juq ddmi chale ate hai " they are coming in crowds " ; (2) 

1 Badan par understood : vulg. mujh ko. 

2 The infinitive is made feminine to agree with naukarl. Vide L. 54. 

3 Here the passive is more respectful than the active, i.e. than ap 
i a ic all jald bhfie 

LESSON 48. 179 

Adjectives : achchhe achchhe kapre ' " various good cloths (or 
clothes) " ; uska chihra mare ghusse ke lal lal ho-gdyd " he got 
red all over from anger "* ; (3) Prepositions : . goli mere sar 
ke upar upar chali ga,i " the bullet passed just close over my 
head"; rel pahdr ke andar andar jati hai "the train goes 
through a continuous tunnel " ; (4) Adverbs : daryd ke kinare 
kinare gaya " I kept along the bank " ; (5) Verbs : kitab parhte 
parhte s men Hkhe dukh-ga,l "from continuous 8 reading my 
eyes began to ache " ; (6) Numerals : sau sau rupiya ki ghariya 
" watches costing full a hundred rupees." 

(b) Sometimes an idea is repeated in a synonym, which 
generally gives the idea of plurality, as : naukar chdkar "ser- 
vants and domestics " ; larke bale " children and youngsters " : 
girtd parta = "falling and tottering " ; soch samajhkar " care- 
fully considering." 

The same idea is conveyed by a singular and a plural Arabic 
word, as: faqir fuqard " faqirs and mendicants, poor and 

(2) Two adjectives, synonymous or nearly so, one Hindi 
and one Persian, may be used for an intensive, as : sdf suthra 
" very clean " ; ujla safed " very white." Compare L. 3 (a). 

(c) Sometimes the idea of plurality is conveyed by a 
meaningless appositive. as : baja gaja " all kinds of music " ; 
dekhna blialria " to search, or look into carefully, to examine." 
The appositive alone has usually no meaning and is fixed by 

1 Note that when the noun is pi. such a repetition gives an idea of 
plurality. Compare garm garm dudh and its footnote, end of L. 4 ; and 
last example L. 11. 

2 For the repetition of adjectives vide also " Hindustani Stumbling- 
Blocks," LXI (3), supplement. 

3 Compare conj. part. L. 18 (g) note 3. 


Another form of Meaningless -Apposition is formed by 
repeating the word but changing the initial letter into w, as : 
Rail wotl " bread, etc.," ; tojn wopi "hats and such like"; 
yih khdtd wdtd kuchh nahl " this neither eats nor drinks, 
touches nothing." This last form can be applied to any 

(d) ' Reiteratives ' is a name given to two verbs of similar 
meaning or of jingling sound conjugated together, to give an 
idea of repeated or thorough action, as : dekh-bhdlke " having 
examined thoroughly, looked everywhere " ; sab chhor chhdr 
ke "having abandoned all the things" ; bin samjhd.e bujJia.e 
"without explaining at all." 

Chhar is a kind of Meaningless Appositive," bhalnd is used 
with dekhria only. 

(e) Two substantives coupled by "and" are often used 
for an English substantive and adjective, as . dtash bdzt me 
rupiya kharch karnd layby o (or aur) fazul-kharcfii hai "to 
spend good money on fireworks is a wicked waste." Tn any 
case a synonym strengthens the expression, as : Ten be- 
sharmi aur be-kdyd.i "your utter shamelessness." 

(/) Darydft, k. To find out ; also to enquire. 

Basna, intr. To be populated (of a place) ; 

(also met. to be fixed, of 
an idea in the heart). 

Chal-basna, intr. To die. 

Ba.sdna, tr. To populate. 

Abdd k. } tr. To populate. 

Abafa f. Cultivation ; population. 

Khud,P. Self = ap, H. 

Khudi, f. 

Tabah hona, intr. 
Tabahi, f . 

Bhlr, f., sing. 

Sujhna (with dat. of person), 

Hawa se larria. 
Shdh-kharchl, f. ^ 

Fazul-kharchi, f. ? 

(gr) The whole field. 
One and all. 
I was one mass of sweat. 

The whole bazar is under 
water (or is nothing but 
water) . 

I canie by road the whole 

Crying out "bread, bread"' 
he died. 

Shooting took (us) so long 
that evening came on us. 

He continued to read till he 
fell asleep. 

LESSON 48. 181 

Selfishness ; also one's proper 

To be ruined ; to be wrecked. 

Ruin ; destruction ; downfall ; 

A crowd. 

To become visible, be per- 
ceptible; to occur to the 

To scold, nag. 

Khet ka khet. 
Sab kemb, (pi.). 

Mera badan pasine pasine 
[me] ho-gaya. 

Sard bazar pant pdnl hai (or 
pam Hi pam hai). 

Mai sarak sarak (se) ay a. 
Wuh roil roil kahtd mar-gaya. 

Shikar ' khelte khelte (hu,e,) 
sham ho-gaj. 

Wuh kitab parhte parhte so- 

1 Any personal pronoun in the dative is understood. 



He is engaged in pulverising 

All milk or all water (not 
half and half). 

He became hoarse from con- 
tinued crying out. 

In a moment. 

They have two rupees apiece. 

They have 3J rupees each. 

They have two or three horses. 
He quarrels with me (or 1 

quarrel with him) every 

Whenever he asked me for 

it I always gave it to him. 
You are always ready to 

quarrel with me at the very 

least thing. 
To pass (at hockey). 
What various things will take 

place here the day after to- 
morrow ? 

Sit quite still and don't stir. 
I nearly fell off my horse. 
I got a headache from long 
sitting in the sun (lit. sun- 

Kuchh pis pas ' rahd hai. 

Dudh kd dudh yd pdnl kd 

Chilldte chilldte us kd gala 


Bdt kl bdt me. 

Unke pas do do rupai hat. 

Unke pas sdrhe fin tin a rupai 


Unke pas do fin ghore hai. 
Us se ham se roz roz (or simply 

roz) jhagrd hold hai. 

Jab jab 8 us ne magd (tab tab) 

mai ne diyd. 
Turn hameshd zard zard si bdt 

par Idrne ko tayydr hole ho. 

Pas pus karnd* 

Yaha par so kyd kyd hogd. 

Ghup chap baitho, hilo mat. 
Mai girte girte bach-gayd. 
(Mujhe) dhup me baithe baithe 
sar me dard hu,d. 

1 Meaningless Appositive. 
3 Jab jab=jab kabhi. 

Not sarhe tin sarhe tin. 
Pas karna " to pass (once). 



I turned him out of the house 
by repeatedly beating him. 

Having turned the matter 
over in his mind, he said 

Many good teachers. 

Various, or many, quite nice 

A pleasant cool breeze is now 

I lost my money and at the 

same time was thought to 

be a thief 
The whole house was ruined. 

Usko mdr-mdr-ke ghar se 

Soch sdch } -kar kahd 

Bahutere achchhe parhdne- 

Achchhe achchhe parhanewdle.' 1 

Thandl thandi hatvd chal-rahi 

Merd rupiye kd rupiya gayd 

aur phir khud chor kd chor 


Ghar kd ghar tabdh hu.d. 


He was educated (in reading Us ne parh-likh 3 -liyd, magar 

and writing) but remained gadhe kd gadhd rah-gayd. 
as big an ass as ever. 

Once every year : also a whole Sdl kd sdl. 

Long years, many years. Sdl-lid sdl. 4 

Nothing but promises. Wa'da hi wa'da hai ( = wafd 

kd ndm nahl) . 

1 Meaningless Appositive. 

2 There is a degree of nicety s well 
two sentences. 

3 For parh-liya aur likh-liya. 

* Sul-ha. Persian plural of tal. 

> plurality in the second of these 


He will come this minute, 

Has letter after letter been 

written ? 
He covered me with such 

filthy abuse (that I. can't 

repeat it) . 

Is there a crowd there ? 

A story and nothing else. 
This is a tale and moral as 


Of his own accord. 
Question them singly, one by 

By repeatedly enquiring from 

the villagers I guided my- 
self here. 
Most ignorant. 
The best. 
In less than, not more than, 

a week. 


Wuh dyd kd dyd hai. 

Khatt 1 se khdtt likhe-ga,e 

Us ne mujhe gait si gdli ' di? 

Waha kuchh bhir hai ? 
Adml se ddmi hat. 
Kahdnl hi kahdni. 

Kahdni H kahdni hai aur 
nasihat ki nasihat. 

Ap hi dp. 

Ek ek karke puchho. 

Gd,o-wdlo se puchh-puchh- 
kar* rasta darydft kar-liyn. 

Ndddn se 8 ndddn. 
Achchhe se 8 achchhe. 
Hafte ke andar andar. 

1 Both the words kh'it}. are nominative plural, and se is from sa : it 
is not a post-position. This idiom is always used interrogatively, in 
answer to a question. Thus, to the question, " Did he abuse you ? " 
the reply might be, " Did he abuse me ? (i.e. he did so to his utmost). 
Gall el gali means more than ordinary gall. 

* For puchh-kar puchhrkar ; the kar of the participle must only occur 

3 Se post-position. Vide footnote 1. 



All sorts of things took place 
here yesterday. 

He savs one thing to one and 
another to another. 

Ready made. 

An alreadjr populated city. 

Without any cause or pur- 

A little water in each glass. 

Pour a little water at a time, 
by degrees. 

People are turning Muslims 
in great numbers at a time. 

I was absolutely alone in the 

Mangoes are sold here at a 
rupee apiece. 

She is my "chachi" 3 and at 
the same time my khdla." 

I can't see anything. 

A plan has just come into my 

I can think of nothing else 
but going home (I'm so 
anxious for a holiday) 

Kal yaha kyd kyd na-hu,a. 

Kisl se kuchh kahtd hai. kisl 
se kuchh. 

Band -bandy d, adj. 
Basd-basdyd shahr. 
Baithe bithd.e '. 

Thord thord pdni do. 
Thord thord pdni ddlo. 

Log fauj fauj Islam me ddkhil 
hone lage hai. 

Us sdre ghar me mai hi mal 

YahS, dm rupai rupai * biktd 

Ylh 'aural men chachi kl 
chachi hai aur khdla kl 

Men akho se kuchh nahl 

Mere dil me ek tadblr sujhl 


Mujhe ghar jdne ke siivd kuchh 

1 Used as an adverb ;', always inflected. 

2 Rupai rupai is usual in this idiom and not rupiya rnpiya. 

3 Chachi is a paternal uncle's wife, and khala is a maternal aunt. 



Now tell me the truth and 
nothing but the truth. 

She scolds from morning to 

I wrote as many as four letters 
but you didn't answer one. 

I sent my petition direct to 

(Government) ; not through 

the Commanding Officer. 
Whatever he found, he used 

to eat as he found it. 
Wherever thou goest I will 

Who were the various people 

concerned in this murder ? 
Whatever I gave him at any 

time he used to eat directly 

he got it. 

I put all the things in their 

various proper places. 
It is exactly opposite to you. 

Sack sack bolo. 

Uskd, larte hi laj-te. din guzarta 
hai ; or wuh subh se sham 
tak lar-lar-kar ' din guzarti 

Ma"i ne char char khatt bheje, 

magar turn ne ek ka jawab 

bhi na-likha. 
Mai ne apni 'arzi upar upar* 

bhej-di ; Kaman Afsar ki 

ma'rifat na-bheji. 

Jo jo kuchh wuh pata tha kha- 
kha-jata tha. 9 

Jis jis taraf tu ja,egd (us .* 
taraj) mat bhi ja,uga. 

Is khun me kaun kaun admi 
sharik the ? 

Jo jo kuchh mat ne use diya 
wuh kha-kha gay a. 

Mai ne tamam chize apni apni 

jagah par rakh-rakh-dl. 
Tere amne samne * hai. 

1 In such cases the kar of the conjunctive participle is placed at the 
end only. 

* Upar upor=not in any one's control. 
s Signifies ' continuity.' 

* Samne (simple prep, or adv.) "opposite," hut amnesatnne requires 
two things to give the idea, " each other." 



He did this in imitation of Us ne men dekha dekhl (se) 
me. yih kdm kiyd. 

Mutual strife. Mdrd-mdn. f. 

He often kept falling asleep 
when I was telling the story 
and I kept waking him up. 

For one night only ; also every 
night, by night only. 

During the night, before dawn. 

The dhobi having washed and 
swilled the clothes well, 
came back from the ghat. 

From morn till night he wan- 
ders and wanders in search 
of a living (either food or 
service) . 

Ready saddled. 
Ready loaded. 

Ready furnished, adorned (of 
table-cloth, house, etc.). 

Ready cooked. 

Wuh mere kahdnl-kahte waqt 
so-so-jdtd thd lekin mai use 
jagd-jagd-detd tha. 

Rat kl rat. 


Dhobi kapre dho dhd-kar ghat 
se wdpas ay a. 

Wuh rozi kl taldsh me subh se 
sham tak phird-phirtd hai. 

Kasa-kasdyd, adj. 
Ladd-laddyd, adj. 
Sajd-sajdyd, adj. 

Pakd-pakdyd, adj 
Suni-sundj bat. 

I will fall asleep by the time Chirdgh. jalte jalte mat to 

the lamp is lit. rahugd. 

Before 8 A.M. the news spread Din charhte charhte ! yih kha. 

through the city. bar shahr bhar me phail-ga,i- 

Din-c.ftarhe is from about 7 to 8 A.M. 



Just before sunset a she- 
riding-camel appeared in 
the distance. 

I will be back home by the 
time it strikes nine. 

Din dubte dubte dur se ek sadni 
dene lagi. 

Nau bajte bajte mat makdn 
wdpas d-jd,ugd. 

[For further examples vide Lesson 65]. 


(a) Manna, tr. 

Kisi kd ihsdn mdnnd. 
Hukm ba-jd land. 

' Udul-hukmi karnd = hukm na 

Ra'tyat, f. 
Add karnd. tr. 

Qatl karnd. 

Maut, f. 

Apni maut marnd. 

Jawdm maut marnd. 

Be-waqt marnd. 

Kutte H maut marnd. 

To believe, admit, suppose ; to 
be reconciled to (after a 
quarrel) ; to obey (hukm) ; 
to esteem, respect, follow (a 
religious teacher). 

To be grateful for. 
To obey. 
To disobey. 

Subject ; tenant of a house or 

To discharge a debt ; to per- 
form (prayers, pilgrimage, 

To kill a human being. 


To die a natural death. 

To die young, die an untimely 


To die a disgraceful death. 



Khun, m. 

Kisi ka khun karnd, tr. 
Kisi ka khun hona, intr. . 
Khum. 1 subs, and adj. 
Likaz. m. 

Agarchi ; go, or go-ki ; har- 

chand, adv. 
Magar or lekin. 

Mana Id. 
Halal karria. 

Namak-halal, adj. 
Namak-haram, adj. 
PaheE, f. 
Bujhna, tr. 

{: Kafi," f. : Qahwa, m. 
Hawa btidhna. 
Na-nb, m. pi. 
Nasib hona. 

Blood ; murder. 

To murder. 

To be murdered. 

A murderer ; also adj.. bloody. 

Respect, regard. 


Rut still. 

Yet, still never- 

tives to 

Granted that, admitted. 
Lawful; lawfully killed. 

To make lawful (i.e. to kill an 
animal by Muslim or Jew- 
ish rite) . 

True to one's salt faithful. 

To understand ; solve a riddle. 

To make a name for oneself. 
Fate, luck. 2 

To be obtained ; fall to one's 

1 Be careful not to pronounce this word kuni 

2 Ya naslb P , A. , lottery. 


Dam,m. Breath; life, moment; 

strength ; lasting (met.) 

Ekdam ' (se) , adv. Totally, altogether ; also di 

rect, without break or me 

Kisi ke dam me and. To be cajoled. 

(6) Hi, adv. (can be added Very, the very same ; but ; 

for emphasis to any part of alone ; certainly ; also = ita- 

speech). lies or underlining. 

(c) "No matter how " is kaisd (or kitnd) hi.... 

kyu na. . . .with or without agarchi, as : Ko,i paheli kaisi (or 
kitni) hi mushkil kyu na-ho, mai bujh-jd ,Ugd = (agarchi) ko,i 
paheli kaisi hi mushkil ho, mai bujh-lugd "no matter how 
difficult a riddle may be, I can solve it." 

(d) "Even though " ; agarchi wuh basti das mil par kyu 
na-ho. mai wahs tak paidal jd-saktd hu "even though the 
village be ten miles off T can walk there on foot " : this is 
stronger than simple agarchi. 

(e) "The more.... the more" (or "the less ") is ex- 
pressed as follows : " The nearer I got to the city, the more 
I longed to see it " ju ju (or jis qadar) mai us shahr ke qarib 
hotd-gayd tu tu (or usi qadar) us ke dekhne kd shauq barhtd 
gaya : the correlative tu tu (or usi qadar) may be omitted. 

(/) " How much the more " is expressed as follows : 

" If coffee makes you drunk how much the more will wine 
do so" /a& 2 qahwa se tumhe nashd ho-jdtd hai to shardb kd 
hdl ma'lum ; or to shardb kyd karegi ? 

1 Servants of English people say ekdam for " at onoo." but this i 
English not Urdu. 
5 Or agar. 

LESSON 51. 191 

(g) " How much less " is expressed as follows : " If wine 
does not make you drunk how much less will coffee do so " 

jab shardb se tumhe nashd nahl hotd to kafi se kab hogd, or to 

kdfl se hond ma'lum. "I would not do this for a friend, 
much less for an enemy" mai dosto ke liye to aisd karu-hl-gd 
nahl, dushmano ke liye kaha tak karugd?, or dushmano ke 
liye karnd ma'lum. 

(h) "Much less, to say nothing of, let alone, " "I 

have never even heard the name of the place, much less seen 
it, to say nothing of never having seen it " mai ne us jagah 
kd ndm bhl nahl, sund hai, dekhne kd kyd zikr? , or dekhnd to 
ma'lum. or dekhnd to dar kindr hai = us jagah kd dekhnd dar 
kindr, mai ne ndm bhl nahl sund. 

Uske gdne kd kyd zikr (or kahnd or puchhnd) ?. wvh bajdne 
me bhi ustdd hai " to say nothing of his singing, his playing 
is excellent " : vide L. 54 (h) and 60 (6). 


(a) "As soon as. or no sooner than " Mai, ne idhar 

parhd. udhar jawdb likhd "I replied as soon as I read your 
letter." " He no sooner went there than he died " wahU, jdnd 
(kyd) thd ki maut kd shikar hu,d = waha jdte hi (or jdte ke sdth) 
mar-gayd. Merd likhnd hi thd ki wuh bol-uthd = mere likh- 
chukte hi wuh bol-uthd " I had no sooner finished writing than 
he cried out." Turn d,e aur khardbl d,i = tumhdre dte der na- 
hu,i ki khardbi d,i "as soon as you came, there came ruin." 
Us ke marte der na-hu,i ki us ke bete ne us ki sdrt daulat lutd-di 
" as soon as he died his son squandered all his wealth." "As 
soon as I went, he came " juhi mai chald-gayd wuh dyd = mere 
jdte hi wuh dyd ; but wuh dne bhi na-pdyd thd ki mai chald- 


gayd = wuh ayd bhl na-tha ki men, chala-gaya "I went just 
as he arrived." Us ke ate der na-hu.l ki mal chala-gaya "I 
went as soon as he came. 

(6) "Hardly, barely, not quite" may be expressed by na, 
with or without pana. as: "he had barely gone when you 
came" wuh jane na-pdyd. 1 thd ki turn pahuche; "he had 
barely (not yet) completed the work when he died " = us ne 
its karri ko tamdm na-kiyd thd ki mar-gaya. 

. (c) "Not only.... but also....(l) Na faqat Musalman 
balki Hindu bhl "not only Muslims but also Hindus"; (2) 
Musalman to khair, Hindu bhl ; (3) Musalman to Musalman. 
Hindu bhl. 

(d) " . . . . rather than " "1 would rather die than go 

to prison " mujhe jdn de-dend man%ur hai magar qaid-khanr 
me jana to manzur nahl. " I would rather take the office 
than allow him to have it " mat khud is 'uhde ko qabul karngn 
magar usko to kabhi muqarrar hone na-duga. 

(e) The enclitic and emphatic particle hi [' vide ' L. 50 (b) | 
can be added to any part of speech. With pronouns or 
nouns, it occurs between the pronouns and the post-posit ion. 
as: tujh hi ko duga "\ will give it to you (alone)." For 
euphony, however, mat ne hi is preferred to mat hi n< . l>: 
the plural, hi is often hi, as tum-hl ko, unhl ko, but h<in /," 
(without the h) : also yihl and wuhl< usl se and usi ko, etc., 
are without the h. In the Punjab, however, the hi follows 
the post-positions. Note the position of hi in wuh yih bate 

1 This means that he had not actually departed ; but uska jana lliu 
aur tumharu pahuctma means, " he had just left when." No ne, 
L. 15(o). 

2 Tai ne and lal hi ne are vulgar for til ne ;ui<i tii l>~> nc. 



ar hi rahd thd ki mat a -para " he was in the very act oi 
ying this when I arrived." Yih to ho-hi-gd " this is certain 
take place." 

Note. Ab means ; now ' as opposed to past time ; but abhi 
cans ' this moment ' with reference to the future, as : " wuh 
ahle gharib thd magar ab amir hai " ; but wuh abhi amir hai 
kin kuchh dino me gharib ho-jd,egd. Abhi jd,o "go now" 
and not at some future time). Abtak (with Pres. or Past 
"ense) = " still." Ab ki daf'a " this time." 

You and none other com- Turn hi ne yih chori ki. 
mitted the theft. 

Pas hi hai. 

Dusre hi din jawdb likhugd. 

is quite close. 

will write the very next 


was just on the point of Mai dp ke pas dne hi ko thd 
going to you when you ki dp tashrif ' le-d.e. 

:ter all he did yield to his Lekin us ke dam me d-hi-gayd. 

Us ne kahd ki charhdj kaisi 
hi ho, mujhe kuchh parwd 

.e said he did not care how 
steep the ascent was. 


you cannot come for more, Ziyada nahi' 2 to ek hi do hafte 

then come for just one or ke liye d-jd,o. 
two weeks. 

was in the very act of writ- Mai likhtd hi thd ki wuh bol- 

ing when he cried out. utJtd. 

1 Tashrif, lit. honouring. 

2 Agar "if" understood. Agar and jab are often idiomatically 
omitted. To if it begins a clause is a correlative. 



I had no sooner finished writ- 
ing than he cried out. 

Probably no party has ever 
before had such good sport 
(lit. scarcely has any party 
had such good sport). 

He is a murderer and worthy 
of death (killing). 

He has murdered three men. 

Well, I \vll let you off for your 
father's sake. 

According to our religion, it 
is unlawful to drink wine. 

I won't do it, not even if I be 

I then suspected that it was 
the chaukidar who had 
stolen the watch. 

Although J reasoned with him 
to my utmost, still he 
would not listen. 

Herd likhnd hi tha ki wuh 

Shay ad hi aisd shikar ki-n 
"parti " ko naslb hu,d ho. 

Wuh khunl hai, qatl ke qdbil 

Us ne tin ddml (or pi. ddntli/o) 
kd khun kiyd hai. 

Achchhd, tumhdre bap k< Him:, 
se turn ko chhortd hu. 1 

Mazhab ke lihdz se *lmrdb 
jnnl a Itardm hai. 

Mai yih kam nahl karuga- 
agarchi mm mar a hi kyfi 

Tab mujhe shubha hu,d ki 
chaukl-ddr hi ne gfuin chu- 
ra,l 8 (hogl *). 

Mai ne us ko lakh 6 (or hazdr 6 ) 
samjhayd magar Uf> ne na- 
mana (or men ek na-sunl). 

' The present tense to signify the immediate future The future 
tense would indicate a more remote time, or an action depending on 
a condition. 

2 Sharab is feminine. 

3 Churana, tr., " to steal "=chori karna. 

* As the word ahubha is expressed, the hogl, the sign of a doubtful 
tense should properly be omitted. 

*> Lakh 1,00,000, and hazar 1,000. in such sentences give the idea of 
" although" and " a great deal." 

LESSON 52. 195 

The more medicine I take, J jft dawa.i pita hti, tn tti 

the more ill I become. blmari barhti jati hai. 

When you happen to come (Agar or jab ') turn yahS, phir 

again, bring your gun with a.o to apm banduq bht sath 

you. lete-ana " z (or lekar ana}. 

When he becomes hungry he Jab bhukha hoga wiih klid hi 

will certainly eat it ; there's lega ; mere kahne kl kya 

no need for me to tell him. zarurat? 


(a) ChUki "because" begins a causal clause (periodic 
sentence); and has for its correlative is liye "therefore/' as : 
chUki turn sack bole (is liye) mat tumhe chhor-deta hn '' as you 
have told me the truth I'll let you off." 

As a rule the causal clause should precede the principal 
clause. The causal clause, however, may follow the principal 
clause (loose sentence) ; in this case it is usually introduced 
by kyuki, or is liye ki, as : mai kal sham ghar se na-nikla, 
kyEki (or is liye ki) tumhara intizar tha " I did not set foot 
outside my house yesterday evening, as I was expecting 

Remark. Chtiki may introduce a causal clause following 
the principal clause, and ky&ki and is tiye ki may introduce 
a causal clause preceding the principal clause; but this is 
considered inelegant. 

(&) Kis liye, kis waste, are vulgarly used for is liye. etc 
" therefore." as : mai sham ko wahs, na-ja-saka. kis liye (for 
is liye) ki d/ajtar se a-kar thak-gaya. 

I " If" is often, as here, idiomatically omitted. 
* But tu leta ana. 


Jo ki for chuki is old. 

(c) Az bos ki "inasmuch as, because," is not, now, much used: 
its place is taken by chuki: sometimes it means simply "because," 
and sometimes it gives an idea of excess as in, az baa ki mal thaka /m,a 
tha mal ko,l kam na-kar saka " as I was much tired, I was not able to 
do any work." 

(d) Hdl-dn-ki is " whereas, although." For yd " whereas." 
vide L. 35, (e) (2).' 

(e) The conjunction ki " that " has many significations as 
may be seen from a study of the following : 

(1) Ma'lum hu,d ki chor kaun hai "it became known (Ota I) 
who is the thief. 1 " 

(2) Mai gundh nahl kartd ki Khudd se dartd hu " 1 do not 
sin as, because, I fear God." Is sabab se mal bar bar piic/i//tn 
hu ki turn mujhe sack jawdb do "I repeatedly ask this a* I 
want a truthful answer." 

(3) Thon hi dur gaya tha ki air- para " he went only a short 
distance, when, before, he fell." 

(4) Mai nahl, jdnta hu ki (or ay a, or ki ay a) naliju achchha 
hogd yd burd " I do not know if? whether, the result will be 
good*or ill " : indirect narration. 

(5) Is kitdb ko chdhte ho ki usko "do you want this hook 
or that ? " 

(6) Us ne muchho ko td.o di ki, "merd muqdbala kaioi kr 
saktd hai ? " "he gave a twirl to his moustaches saying thai ? 
none could compare to him." 

1 In such sentences kaun is a relative pronoun. 

2 Never agar. " If" when it means " whether " is aya or ki. 

3 There must be some indication in the clause to show that ki has 
this elliptical sense : you could not, for instance, say mere pas a>/a ki 
mal nahl ja ,uga. 

LESSON 52. 197 

(7) Mai hi tumhdri ta'rif nahl karta, ki ' tumhdri ta'rif to 
sard zamdna karta hai "I alone am not praising you, but, 
rather, nay, all the world is doing so." 

(8) Mai is dar se ki * mujhe ko,i dekh na-le darakht ki dr me 
chhip-gayd " for fear lest* any one should see me I hid behind 
a tree." 

(9) Mai darakht ki dr me chhip-gayd ki s ko.i mujhe 
dekh na-le " I hid behind a tree so that, no one might see 

(10) Mai ne irdda kiyd ki* " Chalu " " I thought of * going 
(lit. I made this intention that, 'Let me go ')." 

(11) Wuh ddmi ki 6 (or jo ki or jo) parhnd nalii jdntd, 
ndddn hai "the man that 6 (who) cannot read is ignorant, he 
is an ignorant man who cannot read " = jo ddmi parhnd nah~i 
jdntd (wuh) ndddn hai. 

(12) Mai khush hu ki or (jo) 6 turn d.e "I am glad that you 
have come, in that you have come" ; turn ne bari khair-khwdhi 
ki ki (or jo 6 ) mufsido ko dabdyd " you did a great service in 
putting down the rioters." 

(13) Mai apni jagah par khard 7 kd khard rah-gayd ki wuh 
dyd bhi, aur chald-bhi gayd "I remained standing as I was, 
while he went and returned." 

1 Ki here=balki. 

2 For mabada (or vulgarly mat) or aisa na-ho ki. 

3 For ta ki " so that." 
* Direct narration. 

5 Ki is not a relative pronoun; wuh "he" is understood after it, 
and M really means " that (he)." 

' Jo, conj., " if, inasmuch, in that " ; this is not the rel. pron. jo. 

1 Note that idiomatically khara is not inflected in such cases : simi- 
larly aya ka aya ; soya ka soya. 



Remark. Ki is often pleonastic as in ki jo, jo ki ['vide' L. 
35 (ft)], ki aya, etc., etc. : qasam Khuda ki ki mai turn se n<t- 
bolUga " by God (I swear thai) I won't speak to you." 

(14) Ek adrm ka mama achchha ki tamam shahr ka? "is 
it better for one man to perish or (rather than) the whole 
city ? " 


(a) Ikhtiyar, m. 
Oharaz, subs., f.. and adv 

Matlab, m. 

Mutad, L 
Maqsad, m. 
Fajda, m. 

Sud, m. 

Shukr, m. 

Munasib (with dat.) 

Agar, con]. 

Agar na ; warna, conj. 

Agarchi, conj. 

Jo, rel. pron. 

Jo, adv. 

Jo, conj. 

Power, authority, liberty. 
Object in mind, purpose, mo- 
tive ; also adv. in short. 
With this object in view. 

Meaning, explanation : also 

= yfaaraz . 

Object, meaning, desire. 
= Gharaz. 
Use, benefit ; interest on 


Interest on money. 


Fitting, proper. 


If not, otherwise. 


Which, that. 


If; in that, inasmuch. 



Ki, conj. 



Pahle pahal. 

Zanidna, m. 


Muchh. muchhe, f . 

Fasdd, m. 

Fasadi, in. 
Mufsld, m 
(6) As you please. 

I have no choice, power, in 
this matter. 

He could not help laughing. 

His salam 

That ; in that ; inasmuch as ; 
because ; when ; whether ; 
if ; or : = saying that ; more- 
over ; lest ; in order that ; 

while ; = of ing ; also = 

who, which. 

Lest (vulg.) ; not (prohib.). 

Whether ? 

First of all. 

Time ; the world. 

Praise; (in writing = descrip- 
tion, specification). 

The moustache or mousta- 
chios ; whiskers of cat, ti- 
ger, etc. 

Cover from view or storm, etc. 

Wickedness ; viciousness ; de- 
pravity disorder ; distur- 
bance ; mischief ; intrigue ; 
sedition ; discord. 

Mischievous, seditious. 

Mischievous, seditious (man). 

Apko ikhtiyar hai ; or dp ki 


Is amr me merd 

kuchh natii hai. 
Be-ikhtiydr hasne lagd. 

as not without a Be-g&araz salam nah\ kahd 
' (or be-matlab or be^maqsad . 
but not be-murdd). 



You should give him his de- 
sire, or help him to attain 
his object. 

I am much obliged, under an 
obligation, to you. 

Thanks to God. 

He died at once (lit. he fell so 
ill that he had no time even 
to ask for water 1 ). 

May you die alone and help- 
less (a curse) ! 

Thank you. 

He looks only to his own ob- 
ject ; he is selfish. 

If you mean to come, come 

I was going along when sud- 
denly I saw a snake. 

Since you said in your letter 
you were coming, why have 
you not come ? 

Uski murdd pun kann minia- 
sib hai. 

Mai dp kd bahut mamnun hti ; 

or mujh par dp kd bard 

ihsdn hai. 

Khudd kd shukr hai. 
Wuh aisd bimdr para ki pant 

bhi na-magd. 

Turn at'si jagah maro ki (jaha) 
ko,i tumhe pdnidewd 11 na- 

Ta*Rm['vide'L. 32 (/)]. 

Usfn apni hi gharaz (or mat- 
lab or maqsad or fd\ida] par 
naqar hai. 

Jo tujhe and mangur hai, to 
jald a. 

Mat rdste me chald-jdtd tJui 
jo s (or ki) yak-d-yak & ek 
sap nazar dyd. , 

Turn ne jo* dne ko likhd thd 
ab tak kyu na-d,e ? 

1 Dying people at the last generally ask for water. 

2 Dewa, H.= dene-wala. 

3 Jo here is the adv. " when "jab. In Hindi ek-a-ek. 

4 Jo here is a conj. 

LESSON 53. 201 

When I arrived there, they Mai jo l wdhti pahuchd mujhe 
all fled. dekhkar sab ke sab bhdg- 


This is the first time I have Mai ne dj dp ko pahle pahal 
seen you to-day. dekhd. 

(c) (1) Masculine nouns ending in nasal n, such as baniya " grain- 
merchant," have often an alternative form in 5, as baniya. Both 
forms are practically declined like kutta. To decline the first form 
strike off the final nasal, decline the word like kutta (or baniya), and 
then restore the nasal. Thus, gen. baniye ( ~ ) ka, etc. So, too, with 
dhu,a or dhu,a or dhu,a " smoke," ru,a or ro,a 2 m. " fine hair, down." 

(2) Adjectives in 5 nasalized, as baya (also baya) " left-hand,' 1 
change the final syllable to e for all the oblique cases of the masc. 
sing, and for the nom. pi. masc., as: ba,e hath (ko) chalo "go to the 
left"; da,e-wale "those on the right." The feminine is -f, as: aj 
pachwl [tarikh] hai "to-day is the fifth of the month," vide Appen- 
dix A (c). 

(d) (1) The final silent A (in the Roman character transliterated by 
short a) of masculine nouns like banda (nom. sing, and pi.) may or 
may not be inflected in the singular, thus bande ka or baiida ka. The 
latter form is now usual in writing, but in any case the noun is pro- 
nounced as though inflected. Note the inflection bachche-wall murghl 
' a hen with chicks." The final h is not inflected in Persian construc- 
tions, as: zaban i rekJkta me ( j^x^ isuj ^,'oj ) "in the Urdu lan- 
guage" ; bachcha-kushl " infanticide." Such forms as sube-dar ^^i^e 
(for suba-dar )\& &JJAO ) are vulgar. The final his, of course, dropped 
before the formative -o of the plural, as ; bandd ka " of slaves." 

Remark. The final 5 of Hindi masculine nouns is, however, inflected 
in such compounds, as : pate-baz " fencer " ; karne-wala " doer" ; 65 ,e- 
wale " those on the left." 

(2) In masculines in -ya, the y may optionally be changed to hamza: 
as: paya ( Ajb ) m. "leg or foot (of an animal or inanimate thing)", 
pi. paye ( LU ), or pa,e ( Jb ).; saya " shade," ace. saye or aa,e ko. 

1 Jo here is the adv. " when "= 706. 

2 An alternative form for the sing, is rom. m. 


(3) The plurals of rupaya (or rupaya),^ are rupa,e or ntpaye (or 
rupa,e, rvpaye) and rupai or rfiupai. 3 Rupai is also used in the oblique 
cases sing., as: ek rupai ka " worth one rupee." 

(e) (1) Some feminine nouns that end in silent h, drop the /; in the 
plural, as: fabhta "the Bar-tailed Tree Dove," pi. fakhtS; daf'a 
( A*'.i ) "time, etc.," pi. daf'e ( ^t*>> ) So, too, the plural of 
lasha,3 f. " carcase " is lashe, which is also the pi. of lash. 

(2) Some words do not appear to be used in the plural, as : malika,* 
f. "queen"; tauba, f. "repentance"; u-alida, f. "mother": banaf- 
sha, f. " violet." Had plurals to be coined they would be malika,? 
( ^xj *1* ) tauba,? ( ^xj *jy ) etc. 

Remark Some other words, maso. and fern., do not seem to be 
used in the plural, as: tarazu,* m. "scales" : balu. f. " sand"; darii, 
f. "medicine, remedy (and vulg. gun-powder)" : and a few others. 

(/) (1) A few Persian adjectives in silent h are inflected like Hindi 
adjectives in 5, as: be-chara "helpless" (fern, be-charl, masc. pi. be- 
chare); taza "fresh": haram-zada "bastard, blackguard": shar- 
minda "ashamed"; ganda "stinking, fetid": na-kara "useless"; 
manda " tired, ailing" ; kamina " low, ignoble." 

(2) The feminine of banda = " your humble servant," etc., is bandl > 
and of shah-zada " prince," shah-zadi. Badi (rare), and laudl are alsci 
used for bandl " your humble servant." 

(g) Nouns like dih, m. "village": shah ( & ) m. (contraction 
of Shah); gunah,m. "fault": rah (contraction of rah) "way," end 
i n an aspirated h and are regular. 

1 For the Hindi rupaya ; rupaya, etc., etc. 

2 The nom. sing, has other forms, as: rupiya, rupaya, rupaiya and 
rupiya. The final 5 of the Hindi becomes silent h in Urdu. 

Lasha is sometimes erroneously regarded as a masculine form. 

+ The plural would be tin malika, lino malika, etc. Malik Ar. 
"king," malikah Ar. ( AjJU> ) "queen." In Arabic there is no final 
silent h: the aspirated final h ( ; becomes a silent h in Persian and 
Urdu. So, too, walid Ar. "father" and walida(h) "mother." 
Words like ( ;Liu ) Ar. " good news," are in Urdu, masculine when 
written bashara ( 8jlj ) but feminine when written basharat (cylSoj. 

6 This must not be confused with bandl, m. and f. " prisoner, cap- 

LESSON 53. 203 

(h) A few Hindi feminines in -iya (properly diminutives), form the , 
plural by adding a nasal n, as : chiriya " a small bird," pi. chiriya, 1 
gen. pi. chiriyd ka. So, too, randiya (dim. of randl "woman," or 
"widow," but in Urdu generally "prostitute"); dibiya "a small 
box " : guriya " a doll " ; tiliya " a hen pullet (and contemptuously a 
fat 'flapper')" ; burhiya 2 " an old woman"; phuriya " a small boil 
or a pimple." (These nouns being feminine do not inflect in the singu- 

(i) Mata "mother, also small-pox ,3" has in Urdu the regular 
plural mata,e, but in Hindi, mata is also used as the plural. Ghata, f. 
" a dense cloud," has as a plural ghata,e or ghataye. 

(f) (1) Feminines in u or o, form the plural like those in I by add- 
ing a, as : saru or saro, f. " a maina," pi. saru,a.* 

(2) The nom. pi. of joru is joru,a, rarely joruwa,* but an alterna- 
tive form joru ,e is regular. 

(k) Dissyllables remain so in the plural, as: jagah, f. " place," pi. 
jaghe 6 ^.x^Xa. (and not jagahe) ; bahan or bahin, f. " sister." pi. bahne : 
magar, m. " the Indian crocodile," gen. pi. magro ka So, too, taraf, 
f. " side, direction," pi. 

1 Also the pi. of chiri " a hen-sparrow." 

2 Burhiya can also be the pi. of burhl " an old woman." Sir George 
Grierson writes: "As a general rule, both in Hindi and Urdu, the 
antepenultimate of a word must be short. Hence burhiya, not 
burhiya ; burhl, pi. burhiya:' Vide also L. 24 (6) foot-note. 

3 "Mother," an epithet of Parvati, Durga, or* Devi, the wife of 
Siva, the patroness of thags, and the goddess of small-pox. 

* Note the shortening of the final u in the plural, vide L. 59 (c) (7). 
In Urdu this cannot always be indicated in writing ; joru,a, etc. is 
written ( ujl^J*^ ) 

6 Note, too, that the Preterite of nikal-na is nikla and not nikal-a, 
as might be expected), and the adjective from janam is janmi. 

8 The Urdu plural is rarely used. 



( ) (1) The Infinitive is both a verb and a substantive 
masculine. As a substantive it can be used in any case. It 
is occasionally used in the plural : vide Lesson 55 (e) . 

In 'Aurat ko mama achchha nahl hai "it is improper to 
beat a 1 woman," it is a verb, as it governs 'aurat in the 
accusative ; and the infinitive, or the whole phrase, is the sub- 
ject to hai : in 'aurat kd mama achchha nahl it is obvioush' a 
noun : similarly too in the phrase marne ke waqt tak " till 
the time of dying, till death." If an infinitive is coupled 
with a noun, both forming either the subject, or the object, 
(without ko) of a verb, the infinitive usually agrees with the 
noun, as : jhut bolnd achchha nahl (hai) " it is not good to 
lie " ; wuh kitdb parhni bahut pasand kartd hai " he is fond of 

(2) If the object have ko, the infinitive is always masculine, 
as: Is kitdb ko parhnd mushkil liai = yih kitdb parhm* musli- 
kil hai = is kitdb ka parhnd mushkil hai. 

(3) A transitive infinite is sometimes used in an intransi- 
tive sense, as : Ab wuh din dyd ki uskd beta biydhne jd-rahd 
hai " the day has now arrived when his son is going to be 
married," vide L. 38. (c). 

(b) In Delhi, it is obligatory to make the infinitive agree with the 
noun, but in Lucknow, the final verb only is made to agree with the 
noun, as : mujhe kitab parhna thl, which seems absurd. 

(c) If several infinitives are the subject of one verb, the 
verb agrees with the last. 

i Vide(d). 

* But in Lucknow kitab parhna would be preferred. 

LESSON 54. 205 

(d) In a (2) it was shown that the post-position ko des- 
troys the concord of the infinitive. A similar rule holds 
good in the case of adjectives, thus : gari l khafi Tcaro " stop 
the carriage," but gari ko khard karo : again gari khafi karni 
achchhi nahl. 'Vide ' also L. 32 (t). 

(e) The infinitive is also a noun (in the Nom.) in such 
expressions, as : mujhe kohl jdnd hai " I have to go some- 
where, I have an appointment " ; turn ko jana hogd (or paregd) 
" you must go " ; usko jana chdhiye " he ought to go." 

(/) The infinitive is also an imperative future ; if used for 
present time it is polite, but not respectful. It is either 
preceded by na (vulgarly mat) in the negative, or followed 
by natii. Vide also L. 32 (d). 

(g) The infinitive with ko is equivalent to the noun of 
agency in its future sense, as : mat waha jane, ko hu " I intend 
to go there ma? waha jdne-wdld hu " ; wuh waha jane ko thd 
lekin na-gayd " he intended to go there but changed his mind.'' 
It also means " to be about to," as : marne ko hu ; vide p. 152, 
note 1, Eg. Tr. H.S., Part III. 

(h) (1) The infinitive is idiomatically used in such phrases, 
as: tumhdri bahdduri kd kyd kahnd "what can one say of 
your valour, how can one praise it enough ? ". vide L. 50 (h) ; 
merd waha jana thd ki wuh mar-gay d "he died as soon as I 
got there. 

(2) It is also colloquially used for the Aorist, as a kind of correla- 
tive to another infinitive used as an Imperative, as: jo chahna (for 
chaho) so karna " do as you please." 

(3) In the two examples, rupiya to ani jani shai hai " one can't 
keep money in one's purse," and yih ek an-honi bat hai " this is an im- 
possibility," the infinitives are colloquially used for the nown of 

1 Note that, though definite, there is no ko. Lesson 12 (c). 


(i) It is inflected before verbs of motion, as : mat dp kd 
bdgjj, dekhne ko (or ke waste) dyd hit "I have come to see your 
garden"; mujhe mdrne (ko) daurd = "he threatened to beat 
me." It is also inflected before the verbs dend, pdnd. lagnd, 
vide L. 18 (a) ; and before kahnd " to order," and vulgarly 
before chdhnd. 

(;') The Present and Past Participles can be used as (i) nouns; 
(ii) infinitives ; and (iii) adjectives. 1 

(i) As nouns : 

He awoke me from sleep, from Mujhe sole se jag ay a. 

To a drowning man, the support Dubte ko lmke f kn asra (=sahara) 
of a straw is ample. bahut hai. 

By order. Kahe se. 

Mind my words, believe what I Mera kaha man. 
said (or am about to say). 

His messenger. Us ka bheja hu,a. 

A band of the defeated. Hazlmat kha,e hu,d ka ek guroh. 

(ii) As infinitives : 

Immediately on hearing this. Sunte ke sath (=aunne ke 8ath = 

sunte hi). 

Why have you come so late, when Kyu itn\ rat ga,e [par] turn a,e ? 
so much of the night has passed ? 

I rose three hours (one watch) Po/wir din charhe [par] utha. 
after daylight. 

(iii) As adjectives : 

A speaking likeness, a life-like Muh se boUl hu,l ta*wir. 

Congealed blood. 

1 The Participles (and the cases where hu,a can be omitted and in- 
serted) are fully dealt with in* " Hindustani Stumbling-Blocks." 



(a) (1) The relative may occur as both subject and object in the 
same sentence. This construction is obligatory when the subject and 
object are both indefinite, conditional clauses excepted ; "every one, 
any one, took away whatever fell into his hands jo jis ke hath para 
le-gaya (lit. "whatever fell into whosoever's hands, he took that 
away"); in such sentences the correlative is always omitted. 

(2) A similar construction is required with the interrogatives , as : 
bolo ki kaun kis chlz ka malik hai ; ' ' tell me who is the owner of each 
thing, who is the owner of what " ; bahs karte the hi kaun kya mansab- 
o-'uhfla pa,ega " they were discussing who would get what rank and 

(3) The relative adverbs jaha, jab, jaisa and jitna may take the place 
of the relatives, as : jaha se jo kuchh mujhe hath toga mal le-aya ' ' what- 
ever I got from anywhere I brought it with me : " jo faqir jab mere pas 
a,ega mai uako ek paisa duga " I will give a pice to any faqir when- 
ever he comes to me." 

Jaisa and jitna, however, admit of a correlative, as ; jo jaisa karega 
waisa pa,ega "as a man acts, so will he be rewarded"; jiskl jitrii 
amadanl ho utna (or usl mutjabiq) bharch kare " one should spend ac- 
cording to one's income." 

For place or direction, too, an adverb may be a correlative, as: 
jia taraf se aya 'udhar hi ko chala " he went in exactly the same direc- 
tion whence he came." 

(b)Naqsha : m. Map, plan ; picture ; design ; 

diagram ; a blank form ; 
drawing ; features ; pros- 
pect, state of affairs. 

Mushkil, subs, f., and adj. Difficulty; difficult. 

Ju.d m. Gaming and gambling : yoke 

(for oxen). 

Ju,a khelna, tr. To gamble. 

Parhez, m. Abstinence ; shunning ; diet 

in sickness. 


Parkcz-gar, adj. and subs. 

Shay, AT., f . ; (the Hindu- 
stani pi. not used ') . 

(c) It is difficult to have all 
the maps (or forms) ready 
by to-morrow. 

It is difficult to have the book 
ready by to-morrow. 

There is no fear he will come. 

There is no hope at all of his 

getting well. 
It is difficult to remember so 

many words. 
I must first finish this. 

] told him, ordered him, to go 
there but he did not listen 
in the least. 

It is better to die than to live 
such a miserable life. 

A man should not turn him- 
self into a woman. 

One who shuns altogct IHT : 
one who controls his pas- 

A thing 

Sab nac/Kli<' kit I ink taiyar hone 
mushkil hoi. 

Kitab kal ink taiyar horn in it* It - 

kil hai 
Us ke ane ka kuchh an flesh a 

(or dar) nahl hai. 
Uske achchhe hone H kuchh 

bhi ummed natii. 
line lafz yad Icarne* mushkil 

Mujhe pahle isko tamdm karna 

Mai ne us se uxiha jane ko 

kaJtd lekin us neek na mani. 8 

Aise bure fine se to mama 

achchhd hai. 
Hard ko 'aural bannd* na 


l The Arabic plural ashyu is used by the literate 
Though yad by itself is feminine, the compound verb yad karna i? 

3 Feminine to agree with bat understood. 

* Not bannl because the logical subject ia mard. 



The wall on this side should 

be less in height. 
The doors on both sides are 

better shut. 
Service is mere slavery. 

Wine, gaming, and women 
ruin a man. 

She abstains from wine drink- 

I am going to ' feed.' 
One can't keep money. 
This is an impossibility. 

This sick man is not expected 

to live. 
I am not allowed to eat beef 

(by Doctor's orders) ; also 

I never take it. 
Death is better than this. 

They began to throw many 
huge stones at the boats. 

Is taraf kl diwdr uchd,i me 

Team honi chdhiye. 
Dono taraf ke darwdze band 

hone bihtar hat. 
Naukari karm aur kisi kd gh_u- 

Idm banna bardbar hai. 1 
Shardb pirn, ju,d khelnd aur 

bun 'aurato ki suhbat me 

baithnd insdn ko tabdJi Icar- 

detd hai. 

Shardb pine se parhez karti 

Mai roti khdne jdtd hu. 
Rupiya to dm jam shai hai? 
Yih an-honi bat hai! 1 

Is bimdr kd naqsha, achchha 
nazar nahl dtd. 

Mujhe gd,e ke gosht se parhez 

Maut dm (or maut kd and) is 

se bihtar 6 hai. 
Bare bare patthar kishtiyo ki 

taraf phekne shuru' kiye.* 

1 If dond were inserted after banna the verb would be hai, plural, 
and not hai. 

2 Idioms, for one- jane-wall, and na-hone-walt. 
* Bihtar is the Persian comparative. 

4 Kiye plural, as the object patthar phekne is plural. 


(d) The Conjunctive Participle ' indicates that one act is 
completed before another,- as: usne has-kar kaha. "he said 
laughingly," i.e. he first laughed and then said. The Past 
Participle (of transitive verbs always inflected) * indicates state. 
while the Present Participle (uninflected) 8 indicates act of 
doing, thus: pagri badh-kar aya, "he put on his pagri and 
then came." Pagri bathe* (hu,e) aya, "he came with his 
pagri on his head." Pagri badhtd* (hu,d) aya, "he came 
tying on his pagfi as he came." 

(2) The Past Participles of transitive verbs can be combined 
with any tense of the verb ' to be ' and ' become/ 

The Past Participles of a few intransitive verbs only that 
indicate state can be so combined. Amongst the latter are 
baitha hu,d tha, etc., soya hua,pa r a (hu,a),leta (liu,a).latka. 
(hu,a). If the (hu,a) of these last verbs be omitted, they max 
be either the compounds of the Past Participles and hona. or 
else the simple Perfect and Pluperfect tenses, etc. : baitha hai, 
and baitha tha may, therefore, mean " he is sitting (is seated)." 
and "he was sitting (was seated)/' or else "he has sat" and 
"hehadsat." [The Participles are fully dealt with in Hindu- ' 
stani Stumbling-Blocks]. Vide also L. 63. 


(a)-Namaz,L The Muslim pubjic prayer 

(which is a kind of liturgy). 

' Passive not used, vide Stumbling- Blocks. For repetition of Conj. 
Part, i-ide L. 38 (g), foot note. 

Note that the Past Part, of transitive verbs is thus (adverbially) 
inflected, for all genders and numbers 



Panj-waqti namdz. 

Namdz parhm (or add k.}. 
Namdzi, adj. 

Du'd, f. 

Du'd dend. 

Du'd karnd or magnet. 
Bad-du'd (karnd or dend), f. 
Marlium ( Ar. p. p. from rahm). 


Yaqln and or hand. 

1'tibdr, m. 
I'tibdn, mu'tabar. 

Tapaknd, intr. 

Tang, subs, and adj. 
Tanga, 1 m. 

Prayer at the five stated 
times, the prayer five times 
a day. 

To pray. 

Punctual in prayer ; hence re- 

A blessing ; prayer in the 
Christian sense. 

To bestow a blessing on. 
To pray. 
A curse. 

(Lit. pitied, blessed) ; late, de- 
ceased ; (generally added 
to the names of deceased 
Muslims but not to those of 
Hindus) . 

Deceased (used for iion-Mus*- 

To believe, be believed ; to 
feel certain. 

Trust, reliance, confidence. 

Trusted, trustworthy; (of 
persons, a clock, etc.) ; au- 

To drip, leak from above ; to 
throb (of a wound). 

A girth ; tight ; narrow. 
A defile or pass. 

Used on the N.-W. Frontier. 


Tangi, f. 

Tang karnd. 

Tang ana. 
Nisf, in. 
Insaf, m. 
Munsif, Ar., part. 

Munsiji k. 
Walid, Ar. ; m. 
Wdlida, Ar., f. 
Sab chlz. 
tiab chize. 
Ghat, m. 

Ghafi, H., f. 
Ohdtd, H., in. 
Nid, f. 


Straits ; narrowness ; tight- 
ness ; scarcity ; want ; 
stinginess ; a large sack. 

To contract, make narrow, 
etc., etc. ; put pressure on, 
worry, harass, oppress. 

Be distressed, in difficulty. 



Just; an umpire; a court 
munsiff, or "under sub- 

Do justice ; to umpire. 
All the things. 

A landing place; a Hindu 
bathing place in a river ; a 
place on the river bank 
whence water can be dra u n ; 
a ferry. 
A defile, pass. 
Deficiency, loss. 
To wake up ; be alert. 

To start out of sleep (sud- 

LESSON 56. 213 

Saza, f. Punishment. 

Bachhra, in. Calf. 

Bachhera. Colt. 

Bachhen. Filly. 

(6) A compound of two nouns of different genders usually 
follows the gender of the second, as: aram-talabi, f. "being 
fond of ease"; shikdr-gdh. f. ''hunting-ground"; db-o hawd ; 
f. "climate." 

Sarkdr, f., follows the gender of kukumat, though both its 
compounds are masculine 

Qibla-gdh in the sense of "the direction faced in prayer" 
is fern, according to the above rule, but in the sense of 
father it is masculine. 

There seems to be no good reason why pd,e-gdh, ''rank, 
dignity," and khar-gdh ' royal tent, pavilion." should be mas- 

Guft o gu or guft-gu, "conversation" is fern., though the 
second noun is masculine (and the first fern.). 

(c) The first tendency of the verb is to agree with the 
masculine or more worthy gender, as : larke larkiya khel-rahe 
hat "the children, boys and girls, are playing together"; 
sand aur bakriya ek sdth cMrte the " the bull and the she-goats 
were grazing together." Compare L. 20 (g). 

Remark. In this example, the sand is by far the more 
important animaL hence the verb, though plural, is mas- 

(d) There is also a second tendency of the verb to agree, 
for the sake of euphony, with the last subject, and in the 
case of inanimate nouns, or animals of equal value, it gener- 
ally does so agree, as : sab haran aur jangll bhaise chiriyd- 


kjwine se bhag-ga,l (or, not so good, bhdg-ga.e) =sab Jtaran bhag- 
ga,e aur'jangK bhaise bhi. 

To avoid conflict, the words dono, tino. etc., or sab, are, 
when possible, inserted, and require the verb to be in the 
masculine plural, as : mera Ut aur uskl hathni dono chori ga,e 
(or chura,e ga,e) ; omit the dono and the verb is preferably 
feminine singular, chori ga.t. 

In mat ne ek sher aur etc shernl dekhi (or dekhe), the verb 
is better singular feminine for the sake of euphony, but if the 
verb and the last object be separated, euphony no longer re- 
quires this feminine : mal ne ek sher aur ek sherni Naipdl ke 
jangal me dekhe is better than dekhi. 

(e) When several infinitives are the subject, the verb always agrees 
with the last. 

(/) The plural is often used for respect, as : Jaj Sahib bare 
munsif adml ' hdl " the judge is very just " ; unho m* kaha 
" he said." 

Such words as the King, the Governor, etc., may be singular, 
but if Sahib be added for respect the verb must be plural. 

(g) When the subject is a plural concrete noun, the predicating noun 

must also be plural, as : fiam yaha ke rahne-wale (not ka rahne-wala) 

nahl hat " I am not a resident of this place." 

If, however, the predicating noun is abstract, it remains in the sin- 
gular, as : us ke qatl ka sabdb us ke doat the " his friends were the cause 
(sing.) of his death"; kale adml se merl murad turn ho "by 'black 
man' I mean you." 

(h} A few adjectives (Arabic part.) require a genitive, as : 
ivuh sazd ke qabil (or ld,iq) hai, " he is worthy of punishment," 

1 As munsif is also a technical word for a " munsiff " it is better to 
insert the word adml. 

1 Unneby itself is an old form of us ne and is sing. But in un larkd 
ne, the un is the plural of the demonstrative adjective wuh. 



but wuh sazd kd mustahiqq hai: wuli rofi kd muhtdj hai "he 
is in need of bread." Like qabil and ld,iq, the adjectives 
tnuwafiq " like," mdtdbiq " conformably with," bardbar " equal 
to, etc.." are equal to prepositions and govern the inflected 
genitive. Wuh bat ka bard sachchd hai " he is true to his word, 
he keeps to his appointments, etc.," is Hindi. 


(a) I don't believe it in the 

It might be inferred from \vhat 
he said that he was in diffi- 

He implied that, it might be 
inferred from \vhat he said 
that, it was you who com- 
mitted the theft 

Good or bad I'm going to do 

Many pears, pomegranates, 
guavas. peaches, musk- 
melons, water-melons, and 
quinces are produced here. 

I was just starting when* he 
suddenly arrived. 

Is bat ka mujh ko zard bhi yaqin 
nahl hai. 

Uski bdto se pay a jdtd thd ki 
wuh tangi ki kdlat me hai. 

Uski bdto se tapaktd thd ki tum- 
hl' ne yih chori ki. 

Achchhd ho ki (or yd) burd. 
magar ham is kdm ko zarur 

Yaha bahut si 1 ndshpdtiya, 
andr, amrud * dru, kharbuze, 
tarbuz* aur bihiyS paidd 
hotl ' hai. 

Mai jane logo, ki * wuh d-pahu- 

1 Feminine to agree with the nearest noun. 

2 In Persian, and locally, amrud is " pear." 

3 Tarbuz=hinduwana. 

* Ki "when," denoting suddenness ; not here 706; but job mai jane 
laga wuh a-pahucha, " he arrived (not suddenly) when I was starting." 


Your mother is lying very Tumhdrt wnUda hlntnr /win 
sick (i.e., is confined to her liai. 

Your mother fell ill. Tumhdri wdlida blmdr pari. 

My cow, his bullock, and your Men gd,e, uskd bail, aur tum- 
calf have gone to graze in lidrd bacJihj-d find ' jangal 
the jungle. me charne c/a,e ha7. 

When I suddenly woke up. I Jab mai nld se chauk-pard, 
recollected that I was (sleep- mujhe ydd dyd ki mat ghar 
ing) alone in the house. me akeld papa (huj) M. 

These women all deserve to Yih 'aurate sab H sab. snza /; 
be punished. mustahiq<] hm. 

(b) The verbal noun of agency (karne ivdld, m., "a doer") 
is partly a noun and partl} r a verb, as : admi-khane-wala sher 
"a man-eating tiger"; khatt ka likhne-ivdla "the writer of 
the letter." In the former, ddmt is the object of khane-wala : 
in ahista jdne-u'dld "a slow goer," jdne.-wdld is qualified 1\ 
an adverb. 

The verbal noun of agency (karne-wdld, m., "a doer") is 
also a future participle, as; mat jdne-ivdld hn " I am about 
to go, I am going"; yih ghofi bachcha dene-wati hai "this 
mare is just going to foal." By Hindus, the words hdr and 
hard are often used for wdld, but lakar-hdrd " wood-cutter" ; 
honhdr "promising"; pan-hdri "a woman water-carrier," 
and a few others are also used by Muslims. 

Wdld can be added to substantives also, but not usually to 
adjectives; bail-wdld "the man driving the bullock; also a 
seller of bullocks " ; roti-wdld " baker " ; shahr-iodld "resident 

Tind, sab, etc., is always inserted in such sentences : vide L. 56 (d). 

LESSON 57. 217 

of a city." [Such expressions as achchhd-wald for "the good 
one," are English ; they are used by servants of Europeans], 
(c) (1) The particle to is a correlative of agar and also of 
jab, being in modern Urdu preferred to tab. When a correla- 
tive, it can begin a clause. After dekhna, it has often the force 
of " lo ! " It is often an expletive. When an enclitic, it adds 
point to a speech. The instances of its very idiomatic use, 
given in the previous examples, should be carefully studied. 

(2) Ntz "also," can begin a clause; but bhi. like the en- 
clitic to, cannot. 

(d) Sahi is a dramatic particle often difficult to translate. It usually 
means '" let there be, let us suppose, let it be admitted" ; but some- 
times also " certainly ; just so, very well, pray, etc." ; na-sahl " never 
mind, well one cannot." In games, etc., sdhl is an exclamation = 
"ready!" Raha saha=" as much as remained, the little that was 

(e) Jab is often idiomatically and forcibly used for tab, 
especially before ja-kar or before IcdKi, as : ham charo ne, mil- 
kar, mihnat ki, jab (or tab) jakar yih kam pura ho-gaya "the 
worjc was only then finished when we all three combined " ; 
jab mat Dilli a,Ugd ki turn bhi wahS, ho " I'll come to Delhi 
only when you are there." 

(/) Agar and jab are frequently idiomatically omitted, 
vide L. 51 (/). footnote. The Ito of the dative, signifying 
motion to, i.e., before verbs of going, sending, writing, arriv- 
ing, is also often omitted. (Agar wuh d-jd,e to mai faur-an 
Ilahabad 1 (ko) jafiga, "if (or when) he comes I will go 
straight to Allahabad." Vide also L. 12.. (i). 

(g) (1) Some nouns are of common gender, as: dushman, "ene- 
my" ; dost, " friend." 



(2) A few Hindi nouns of agency in ya are of common gender, as: 
gawaiya, m., f. "singer" ; rakhwaiya, m. , f.=rakhwal, m., f. (or rakh 
wala, m. and rakhwall, f.) '-guardian"; sulwaiya, m., f., vulg., 
" one who lulls to sleep," and auwaiya " sleeper." 

(h) The adjective barhiya " superior, excellent," makes no change 
for gender, as : barhiya chlzS. 

(i) The negative does not always immediately precede the verb, 
vide L. 16 (b). Note its positions in: mai yih na-janta lha, and mal 
yih junta na-tha. 

(j)-Qalib, m. 

A mould; also the human 
frame, body; body of any 

Kisi la ghat me baithna (or To lie in ambush for. 
rahnd or laga-rahnd). 

Kharch hona, intr. 

Kharch, m. 
Amadani, f. 
Faur-an, adv. 
Chuhd, m. 
Chuhi, f. 
Bit, m. 
Billi, 1 f. 

Billd, m. 
Ban, H., m. 
Jangal, P., m. 
Ban-bila,o, m. 

To be expended, spent (of 
money or anything). 

Expenditure, expenses. 

Income ; importation of goods. 




Hole of rat. mouse, etc. 

She-cat; also "cat"' (class- 


Jungle (properly forest or 
bushy land). 

Wild cat. 

1 The class-noun for 
cat" isbilli, f. 


ghora, m., but the class-noun for 



(a) When several roots, infinitives, or participles follow 
one another in the same construction, the finite verb is ex- 
pressed with the last only, as : wuh mujhe dne jane detd hai, 
'' he allows me to come and go "; jab ivuh sab kuchh khd pi- 
ga,e, "when they had eaten and drunk up everything." 

(b) The conjunction 'and' is frequently omitted between 
two nouns, as : Tich nlch, f. (and adj.) : " ups and downs, 
vicissitudes, pros, and cons." : garm-sard (or garm o sard), 
m. (and adj.) "the ups and downs of life." [This question 
of Asyndeton is more fully dealt with in " Stumbling- 

(c) Boys and girls. 

Larke larkiya. 

Big and little alike refused to Chhote bard sab ne kahd ki yih 

Milk and sugar. 

The old man had barely said 
this, when he expired. 

(d) I have come to see your 

I am about to die. 

The late (also the dying) Raja. 

Tell me its advantages and 

This a very up and down, 

hilly, country. 

manzur nahi. 
Dudh shakar. 
Una hi kahne pdyd ki burhe kl 

jan nikal-ga,t. } 
Ap ki bdz ko dekhne 11 aya hU. 

Ab mai marne-wald hu. 

Marne-wdld JRdjd. 

Is ki bura.i bhaldj batd,o. 

Is mulk me charhaj utra,i ba- 
hut hai. 

1 Note the position of burhe, and the change of subject. Such a 
construction, though wrong in English, is not so in Urdu. 

2 After dekhne, the ko could not be inserted, as it occurs already 
after the direct object baz ko. ' Vide ' L. 54 (i). 



Alas, how full of good quali- 
ties was our late friend. 

He has written to a friend in 

Ah, marne-wale ' me kya kya 

Apne ek dost ko Rawalpindi 

[ko 11 ] khatt likha hai. 

If I hear anything about the Pinshin ka lw.1 kuchh ma'liim 

pension I'll tell you. 

This has just happened. 

When you have yourself seen 
them eating (or if you your- 
self see them eating), you 
will believe it (or allow I am 

Well, if I cannot manage to 
travel (for pleasure). I can- 

If not half an anna, well an 

Come if vou mean to. 

1m ja to s kahuga. 
Yih abhi hu,a hai. 
Ap khud unko khate hu,e dekh- 

le, tab to sahl. 

Khair, agar sair-o-safar mu- 
yassar nahl, na-sahi. 

Adh ana na-sahi, ek ana w/w. 
A.o to a.o. 

Eat it or leave, you will get Khd,o to khd,o, yihi ham dete 

nothing else. 
Stay or not, but I'm going. 

If you have anything to say, 

say it ; I cant wait. 
Just listen to me. 

Rdho to raho, magar ham jate 

Bolo to bolo, nahl to ham jate 

Suno to sahl. 

1 In these idioms marne-wala = "the one destined to die (and who 
has died)." 

2 Not, Rawalpindi ko. 

a Here the correlative to clearly indicates that an agar is under- 



Well do it (or just let me see Kar to sahl. 
you do it). 

All, big and little, said that Chhote bard ' sab ne kaha ki 
they agreed to it. 

You'd better call me names. 

Pray open it. 

Ah, you just see how I'll thrash 

Come on if you dare, or well, 
just come here. 

If a corpse has already got 100 
maunds of earth on top of 

yih thlk hai. 
Gait do to sahl. 
Kholo to sahl. 

Dekho to sahl, ham kitnl mar 

mdrte hai. 
A,o to sahl. 

Jaha murde par sau man mitti, 
ivaha nau man aur sahi = 

it, let it have 9 more ( = as Jaha ek hazdr dagh hai, ek 

well be hanged for a sheep 
as for a lamb) . 

Let us suppose that the earth 
is round why suppose ? 
say rather it is round. 

" If you won't be my lover, 
well some one else will ; if 
some else won't, then some 
one else will." 

We must love some one: 
" may Farangi Mahall pros- 
per ! " 

hazar ek sahl. 

Dunya gol sahl sahl ke ' 2 kya 
ma'nl ? yU kaho ki gol hai. 

" Turn nahl aur sahl, aur nahl 
aur sahl." 

Dil laga-lege ;" Farangi Ma- 
hall* abad rahe" 

1 Note that chhote is inflected, but that the formative -o is added to 
the second word only. 

* Ma'nl, ma'ne or ma'nq, etc., pi. masculine. 

3 Farangi Mahall in Lucknow ; its women have or had a reputation 
for immorality. 


The little life there was left Rahi sahi jan qalih se nikal- 

in me, left my body. (ja,i. 

The little money I had left Raha saha rupiya bhi kharch 

was also spent. lio-gaya. 

Play fair and don't hit so Zior se marne H nahl w///. 


I come and go here frequently. Mai yaha aya jai/n karta fifi. 

Play fair and don't help him Batane H nahl ftaht. 

(to an onlooker assisting an 

opponent at chess, etc.). 

Come, you must not ask out- Auro se pvchhne ki nahi snhi. 

side help, play fair. 

I am living beyond my in- Kharch,aincid,am *e zii/nda fiat 


Dawson's boots are not im- Aj kal Dasan l ke jute. Id nm<t - 

ported now, are not kept dam nahl hai. 

in the shops. 

He is sulky with me, that's Wuh mujh se rutha* hit. a hai 

why he won't come to see jabhl s wuh mujJi w milnc 

me. nahl ata. 

I began to do this as early as Aj mat chhe hi baje sc yih kam 

six ; that's how it is finished karne laga ; jab IK waqt tak 

by now. pura huja. 

I went before he had even Wuh aya bht na-tha, jabhi ma! 

arrived. chald-qaya. 

1 A brand of boots much in favour. 

* Ruthna, sp. of equals or of children : the word contains an idea of 

Tabhl not so idiomatic. 

LESSON 59. 223 

What comparison is there (or KahU, mat kahii turn, 1 

can there be) between us 

two ? 

It is nearly finished. Thord bdqi hai. 

He nearly fell off his horse. Nazdik thd ki ghore par se gir- 


(a) Balki (enhansive conj.). Moreover, nay, rather. 

Magar, lekin (exceptive conj .). But. 

8iwd or siwa,e, prep, and adv. With the exception of; be- 

'Aldwa, prep, and adv. Besides, in addition to. 

Age, prep, and adv. In front of, before (time or 

place) ; in comparison with. 

Sdmne, prep. In front of, opposite ; in com- 

parison with. 

( ki) ni-sbat. f . , subs, and prep. Regarding ; with reference to ; 

compared with ; relation ; 
connection ; comparison ; 
ratio, proportion ; relation- 
ship by marriage ; betroth- 

kebi-nisbat, in. (and f.) prep. In comparison to. 

Ittild', f. Information, report. 

Ittild' (lend. To inform, report. 

A good example of Asyndeton. * Compare example in L. 48 (/.). 


Ittila' -riama , m. 
Muttala' k. 
Goya, conj. and adv. 
Nij kd, pron., adj. 

Ohair, adj. and subs. 

Begdna, adj. 
BdJiar ka. 

Ajnabi, or glsflir mulkt. 
Bdshinda, m. 


Be, P., 1 prep. 
Bind or bin, 1 H. ; prep. 
Ba-gkair, prep. 
Mdnind, f., a prep. 
Bdbat. f., prep. 


A written report. 

To inform. 

As if, as though, so to speak. 

Own ; special ; personal ; pri- 
vate; unofficial. 

Other ; strange ; different ; 
changed for the worse : 
foreign ; another person ; an 
outsider; stranger. 

Strange, belonging to outside ; 
of unfamiliar appearance. 

Of outside, strange, not of the 

house ; also outer. 
A foreigner. 
An inhabitant, a dweller of a 

town or country (not of a 

An inhabitant, a dweller of a 

town or country and also 

of a house. 



Like, resembling. 


1 Be precedes the noun, and bin either precedes or follows the noun : 
neither needs the post-position. Vide Gram. Notes VII (/). 

2 If it precedes its noun, it is masculine. 



Taraf, f., prep. 
Janib, f., prep. 
Tarah, f., prep. 
Ware (in the Punjab ure) prep. 

Pare, prep. 

W arlt taraf. 

Parli tftraj. 

Zamin se lekar dsmdn tak. 

Direction, towards. 

Do. do. 

Manner, like. 

On this side of, on the near 
side of. 

On the far side of. 

On the near side. 

On the far side. 

From (beginning from) the 

earth to the sky. 
Except, omitting, leaving out 

Let alone, not to speak of. 

Chhor-kar or chhor-ke, conj. 

part., and prep. 

(b) (1) Except and besides : " all came except Zaid " sab 
a,e magar (or lekiri) Zaid nahl aya = Zaid ke siwa sab d,e, or 
Zaid chhor-ke sab a,e. In negative sentences the thing ex- 
cepted is sometimes totally different in kind from the general 
term, as : us jangal me mai ne janwaro ke. siwa kisi adrrii ki 
shakl na-dekhl :< in that jungle with the exception of animals 
I saw no human form " ; idiomatically this is correct, but 
logically ridiculous. Mai ne gham ke siwa kabhi rdhat na- 
dckhl " with the exception of grief I had no pleasure ' ( = 1 
had all grief and no pleasure"). 

(2) Besides : "I have other books besides these " in kitabo 
ke 'aldwa (or wrongly siwa) mere pas aur kitdbe bhi hat : "I 
have no other book except (or besides) these " in kitabo ke 
siwa (or 'alawa) mere pas ko,i kitdb nanl. 

1 This idiom has its origin in a confusion of thought, as even a native 
would not say, " all the fish died except the elephant." 


(e) (1) Most Persian and Arabic masculine nouns in -a, 
and certain Hindi nouns denoting relationship, titles and 
professions, are exceptions as regards declension, i.e. they do 
not inflect in the singular or in the nom. pi. ; Ex. : daryd, m.. 
P., " river and sea " ; ddnd, P. " wise, a wise man " ; sakrd, 
m., Ar., " desert " ; chacha, m., H., " paternal uncle " ; kdkd. 
H. P. (ditto 1 ); #*#, H. P. " school master" (also a title of 
respect); raja, H. "a raja"; pita, S. " father"; data, S. 
" giver" ; devtd or de,ota, S. " a Hindu deity." 

(2) Dada, H. " a paternal grandfather, an elder brother," 
may or may not be inflected. 

(3) Raja is in Urdu written raja, and hence occasionally 
inflected. 4 The plural is usually, raja log. So, too, wala is 
often written wala. ' Vide ' also page 3. 

(4) Nasha, 8 m., P., "intoxication," and majara* in. 
" event," are declined like kuttd. 

(5) Masculines in -u or -o. as bichchhu (also bichchhu.a 
and bichchhuwd) "scorpion"; biju (or bijju or bijjo) "bad- 
ger " are practically declined like mard, but see (7). So, too, 
are masculines in -?, such as moti, m. " pearl." hdthl " ele- 
phant," bM,t li brother." malt " a Hindu gardener." dhobi 
" Hindu washerman " ; these merely insert a euphonic y in the 
oblique cases plural, as : mdliyo kd. Vide also p. 2 (c). 

(6) Bha,i has a vocative bhayyd 6 ((*#) and ma,t a vocative 

mayyd 6 (lj/c). and bahin a vocative baind (luj) or bahind or 


1 But in Urdu generally used in the Persian sense " an old slave, an 
elder brother." 

2 It is never inflected in Hindi. 

, * # - 
s From the Arabic jiLiJ or lii. 

* From the Arabic tna-jarq (^fj** U) " that which happened." 
& Said to be a good vocative in Bihar and Oudh, but not in Delhi. 

LESSON 59. 227 

(7) Nouns, masculine or feminine, ending in u, shorten the 
u before the formative 5 of the plural, as : asu. in. " tear," 

* o 

gen. pi. asftp lea, ^ri^flf OT (in Urdu written either fc &fj~tf 


or cJjr~Jf but pronounced with a short u). In bu or bo f., 
"perfume," however, the final vowel remains long in the 
plural, as : bu,e or bo,e. ' Vide ' also L. 53 (?'). 

(8) Gha,o, m. " wound, sore " has only one o in the forma- 
tive pi., as : ghd,o kd. 

(9) Naw, f., H. (vulg. nd,o), has, nom. pi. nawe. gen. pi. 
nawo ka, etc. 

(10) The nom. pi. of ga,o } or gd,e " cow," is gd.e. gen. pi. 
gd,o^ M or gdyo Ted ; of ra,e or ray. f. " opinion." ra,e or rdye, 
gen. pi. rd,o ka or rdyo kd. 

(11) Note the following: bhau (or bho), f. " eyebrow, coro- 
net of a horse's hoof," nom. pi. bhau,e or bhawe, gen. pi. 
bhauwo kd or bhawd kd ; soh, f. H. " oath," nom. pi. so,e. gen. 
pi. soho kd ; m&, f. " mother," pi. md,e. 

(12) Paw. m. " foot," gaw. m. " village," naw. m. '''name," 
and rfSw, m. " snare, chance, etc.," may be declined regularly. 
The usual modern forms, however, are pd,o, gd,o, nd,o, and 
dd,o, sing, and pi. The formative pi. pawd (kd), etc., etc., is 
contracted to pd,o (kd), etc., etc., so for these words there is 
usually only the one form for all cases sing, and pi. 

(13) The formative pi. of khdnsdmdn (vulg. khansdma), is 
khdnsdmd,o (kd, etc.),(^) o^l/cl-Jli.. 

(d) The logical subject of the Adverbial Participle is in 
the inflected genitive, as : mere jdgte M " as soon as I awoke." 

1 Biit in Persian gav Jg without a hamza. 

2 There is nothing to distinguish ga,d ^^ " village" from the ob- 
lique cases of ga.e ^ " cow." 


Its object is either in the inflected genitive or the accusative, 
as : mere usko (or uske) dekhte hi, wuh uth-baitJid " as soon as 
1 saw him, he sat up." Occasionally the hi is omitted, as : 
fajr hole [hi] wuh rukhsat hu,a " he left as soon as it was 


(a) Two post-positions sometimes follow the same sub- 
stantive, as : ghore par se gird " he fell off his horse (lit. from 
on his horse)." Ghar me, subs., f., or ghar ke log, subs., m., 
is a polite term for " wife " ; mere ghar me ne kahd = mere ghar 
ke logo ne kahd = " my wife said." 

Post-positions are sometimes omitted, as : tumhare hdtho 
"at your hands"; tumhdri jagah "in your place"; un he. 
ndm " (a letter) addressed to him." 

(b) Tak meaning " even " is not a post -position, as : ghord 
tak (not ghore tak) wahS maujud thd " even the horse was 
there." Wuh is makdn me kahu tak hogd, wuh is shahr tak 
me nahl ( = is shahr me bht nahl) " set aside his being in this 
house, he is not even in this town " ; ek bd,isikal chdUs pachas 
rupai tak In le-lo " buy a bicycle, of not more than 40 or 50 
rupees in value." 

(c) Balki is enhansive, it means " but" ; it always occurs 
after a negative clause, as : ' I didn't beat the boy, but ' 
(rather) your servant did " mat ne larke ko nahl mdrd balki 
tumhare naukar ne mdra. 

Note the following : Mai keld nahl khd,ugd balki dm 
khd,ugd " I won't eat the (or a) plantain, I'll eat the (or a) 
mangoe," (said by a child who has been refused the mangoe ; 
balki is used here, as the conjunction understood is enhansive 
and not exceptive) ; but mat keld nahl khd.ugd mayor dm 

1 For " but " in such sentences, beginners generally write mayor. 

LESSON 60. 229 

kha,ugd " I'll take a mango please not a plantain " (by a per- 
son offered a choice). 

When "but" means "instead of" it must be rendered by 
balki. Vide Footnote, page 53. 

(d) (1) Some prepositions are feminine and require kl be- 
fore them, as : purab ki taraf "towards the east." If, how- 
ever, they precede their substantives they require ke. as : 
taraf uske, 

(2) The following prepositions are feminine : Hindi ; or 
"towards" ( = taraf}; jagah "in place of" Persian: babat 
"concerning"; zabarii "from the tongue or mouth of"; 
ba-jihat "by means of"; ba-dawlat l "by means of" (for 
favourable things only, except ironically). Arabic : taraf, 
janib, samt "towards, in the direction of" ; khatir "for the 
sake of"; ma'rifat "by means of"; nisbat "with reference 
to, in comparison with." 

(e) (1) The prepositions badle "instead " ; hawale " in the 
charge of" ; zimme "in the security of" ; zan'e "by means 
of," are inflected nouns with a post-position understood 
With zari'e, and with hath "by the hand of," the post-posi- 
tion is sometimes used.* 

(2) Similarly in such expressions as, uske goU lagl "he was 
hit by a bullet " : ghori ne uske lat mart " the mare kicked 
him" ; bail ne uske slg mard "the bullock gored him," the 
words badan me, or badan par, are understood. Vide also 
L. 20 (e). 

(/) Masculine nouns in -a often have a diminutive form 
in -. as: patla, m. "a big leaf," patti, f. "a small leaf." 

1 Jihat and dawlal are Ar. subs. (fern, in Urdu) with the Persian 
preposition ba prefixed. Ba-dawlat lit. " by the good fortune of." 

2 Kisi ke hath bechna " to sell to a person" ; hath ana or lagna " to 
come to hand." 



The Persian suffix cha is also used to form diminutives. 
as : sunduq, m. " a large box." sunduq-cha, m. " a small box." 
sunduq-chi, f. H., is a still smaller box, "a casket." 

(g) Take one out of these. 

The money kept in this box 
is missing. 

I have searched the news- 
papers from now up to four 
or five months back. 

These are my own private 

For my own special riding. 

There is no outsider, stranger, 

A foreigner. 

Who is it ? Some stranger. 

"This belongs to some one 
else, it is not mine," or 
" belongs to some one else 
not of the household/' 

You appear to be a stranger 
to me, I don't think I know 

I mean to read (or to come, 
etc.). as far as this. 

Thus far and no farther. 

Water out of this. 

From 10 A.M. to 6 P.M. 

If I cannot dwell near them, 
never mind. 

In me se ek le-lo. 

Is bakas me. Tea rupiya gum 

Char pach mahine tak ke 

akhbdr dekh-liye. 

Yih chize men nij H hai. 

Mere nij H sawari ke liye. 
Yaftfi ghfiir admi naffi hoi . 

Ohair mulk ka admi. 

Kaun hai ? Ko,% bahir ka 

admt hai . 
Yih begana ma I Ixii . 

Tumhart swat begana ma'lum 
Jioti hai. 

Mujh ko yahs tak ka irada Jti. 

Mujh ko yahl tuk ka irada hai. 

7,s me ka pant. 

Fa jar ke das baje se lekar 

sham ke chha baje tak. 
Sath rahna, pa,s ra]ia, 

hai, na-sahi. 



All the servants with the ex- 
ception of you, are scound- 

Cut down every other tree. 

Not one but ten rats came out 

of the hole ; let alone one. 

ten rats came out of the 

He (or I, etc.) would rather go 

to prison than pay the fine. 
Call him a thief call him 

rather a robber. 

A slave I don't consider him, 
I consider him my son. 

Forgot you say ? Why you 
wilfully disobeyed me ! 


Turn ko chhof-kar sab naukar 
namak-hardm hai. 

Ek chhor-kar dusre darakht ko 

Ek chhor (not chhor-ke) das 
chuhe bil se nikle. 

Qaid me jdnd manzur hat lekin 
jurmdna deria qabul nahl. 

CJior kyd, balki wuh to ddku 

Ghuldm kya, mm to us ko beta 

samajhtd Titi. 
Bhulnd kya ma'na ? balki jdn- 

bujhkar turn ne merd kahnd 


Rascal you call him ? 
him a regular devil. 

As soon as he saw me. the 
thief went off like a shot. 

The young man was very 
pleased at seeing him. 

I have eaten Your Honour's 
salt (I am your servant and 
under obligation to be 

He made up his mind to take 
them somehow or other, 
for himself. 

1 Feminine to agree with bat understood. 

Pdjl kya ? yu kahiye ki pakkd 

shaitfin hai. 
Mujhe dekhte hi chor bhdg 

khard hu.d. 
Jawdn uske (or usko) dekhte 

hi khush hu,d. 

Huzur kd namak khdyd hai. 

Dil me thdn-ll ' ki kisi dhab 
se inhe le-lend chdhiye. 

All Direct Narration. 



The master stopped the rich 
man's son (as he was going 
out of the door). 

He dashed the stone forcibly 
on his head 

No sooner had the schoolmas- 
ter touched the stone than, 
by God's decree, a cobra 
issued from underneath it 
and coiled round his hands. 

There is a village quite close, 
go straight on to that place. 

He respectfully saluted. 

Wuh 'djizi se kahne lagd. 

Ustdd ne amir ke larke ko rok- 
liyd. 1 

Sir par patlhar de-mdrd.* 

Ustdd ne abhl patthar ko hdth 
lagdyd hi thd ki Khudd ke 
hukm se ek kdld sap palthar 
ke niche se nikal-kar us ke 
hdtho me lipat-gayd. 

Pas hi gd,o hai, waha chale- 

Adab se saldm kiyd. 

= Us ne 'djize se kahnd shuru' 


(a) " It is a long time since I saw you " : the Urdu idiom is, 
" it is a long time since I did not see you " Mat ne bahut dino 
se dp ko nahl dekhd (hai 8 ) = Ap ko dekhe hu,e bahut din hu,e. 

(b) Jab " when " and jab tak " until " are not followed 
by a past tense unless the verb in the Apodosis and Protasis 
(jazd aur shart) are both in past time : " When he has gone 
I will inform you " is jab wuh jd-chukegd to mm tumhe 
khabar karugd. If, however, the second clause is in the Im- 
perative, the first must be in the Aorist or Present Subjunc- 
tive, as : Jab wuh jd-chuke mujhe kjiabar do " tell me when 
he goes, or has gone." Vide L. 38 (6). 

1 Rok-liya =stopped the boy near himself. 

8 Marria, here gives the idea of force and not of impropriety. 

Better with hai. 

LESSON 61. 233 

(c) (1) Adjectives are used as adverbs, as : Wuh bar a 
zakhm* hu,a " he was badly wounded " ; ghorl achchhi jati 
hai " the mare goes well " ; DilU H zaban ko achchha l kahte 
hat "they speak well of the Delhi dialect." 

(2) In wuh 'aurat achchha gati (or siti, etc.,) hai, " she 
sings (or sews, etc.) well," the cognate infinitive gana (or 
stna, etc.) is understood, and achchha agrees with it. 

(3) Examples of adverbs : Din ko " by day " ; adhl rat ko 
" at midnight" ; dkhir ko " a't last " ; chard taraf se " on all 
sides"; har tarah se "in every way"; kis tarah se? "in 
what manner? " : tin sal se " for the last three years" ; aj 
kal, or in dino me " now-a-days, in these days"; waqt par 
" in time" ; be-mahall " out of due season " ; us din " that 
day " ; us sal me " that year " ; wuh us se liyaqat me barh- 
kar (or ziyada) hai " he is the more able man " ; jaldH (for 
jaldl se*) " quickly " : roz " every day " (for roz roz or har 
roz). Vide also p. 10. 

(4) Post-positions are added to even adverbs, as : Ab se 
henceforth " ; jab se ;t since " (temporal) ; kab se ? " since 
when ? " ; kahS, se ? " whence, of what place ? " ; jab tak 
' until " ; tab tak :: so long " ; kab tak ? " how long ? " ; ab 
tak " till now " ; ydha tak " thus far, or to this degree " kaha 
tak ? "how far, or to what degree ? " 

(5) The adv. aksar, ' often." can be used with any tense, 
but barha with a past tense only. 

(d) (1) When two nouns are commonly coupled together without 
aur " and," usually the second only takes the formative termination 
5, as : Larke larkiyo ko " to boys and girls " ; chhote bard ka "of small 
and great"; nadl natd me (more colloquial than nadiyd aur riald mS) 
" in streams and nullahs." 

' Vide Lesson 32 (i). * But jald is an adj. and adv. 


(2) If, however, the words are coupled by aur, the full form is usual, 
as: Jhagrd aur lara,iyd ko (or not so good ! fhagrf lara,iyd ko) " quar- 
relling and strife." 

Remark. Pahard ke ghar aur wirand mS "in mountain caves and 
wild places " is more euphonious and therefore preferable to pahard 
ke ghard aur wirand mS. 

(e) A nominative is often, before a relative, used abso- 
lutely, at the beginning of a sentence, as it were to intro- 
duce the subject : Mera bha,t jo janqal trie, ja-raha tJia ek 
sad a ne us ke slg mara " my brother who was going along 
in the jungle, a bullock gored him (a bull gored my brother 
as he was going along in the jungle)." 

(/) (1) Nouns denoting number, measure, quantity, 
weight, length, are put in apposition, as : Ek kori ande " a 
score of eggs " ; ek gifas pdnl " a glass of water " ; ck </<i: 
kapra ; ek kos zamln ; ek ser dudh. 

(2) Note the following : Ek shakhs Muhammad nam " a 
man named Muhammad " ; darya ka lafz " the word darya " : 
jnpal ka darakht " a peepul tree " : Dilli ka shahr or better 
Dilll shahr " Delhi City '* ; Gaga darya " the River Ganges " : 
Panjab ka mulk ''the country of the Punjab"; Himalaya 
PaJiar or Himalaya ka Pahar " the Himalayan Mountains." 

(g) ^The izafat ("connection"). In Persian the adjective usually 
follows its noun and is then ' connected ' to it by a short t (pro- 
nounced in India e *) which, however, is seldom written ; thus mard-c* 
nek vJjj tj* "good man." The izafat also supplies the place of the 
genitive case as I&L j^* mard-e* Sbuda " man of God." 

After an 5 or u, the izafat is written as a ye ; as : Rii,e K&iib ^^ 
w.^i. "beautiful face." After a silent h or an \, it is written as a 
hamza, as: Banda-e^ ghuda lixi. ItxL "Creature of God": mat/l-e* 
darya Uji 1*4*1* " fish of the sea." 

' As these two words are not habitually associated. 

2 Sod " a bull or a stallion." 

3 This pronunciation e is peculiar to India and Afghanistan. 

LESSON 62. 235 

n classical Persian, animate nouns add an to form the plural 
and inanimate ha ; as mardan "men"; sal-ha "years." Before an, 
a silent h becomes g, as, banda, bandagan. 

() In imitation of Arabic, -at is often added to lifeless Persian 
nouns to form a plural, as: dihat, m. pi. " villages, the country" (as 
opposed to town); kaghazat, m. pi. "documents" ; zewarat, m. pi., 
" ornaments, jewels." 

In chitfhiyat " letters," it is added to a Hindi word, but such a form 
is vulgar. Vulgar, too, is such a Persian form as : riamajat " letters," 
pi. of nama. 

Remark. In Arabic, -at is the regular fern, pi., as: halut , Ar. 
" circumstances," which is masc. or fern pi. in Urdu. In Urdu, th e 
gender is usually that of the singular. 

(?) (I) Arabic Declension. 

Singular. Dual. Regular Plural. 

f - , , 9 * 

Nom. jJka* hazir't", d^^ haziran*. cJjj**^ hazirun". 

" present.'' 


Remark. The final short vowels and the tanwln are dropped in 
Urdu and in modern colloquial Arabic. The ace. sing, with the tan- 
win is used in Urdu as an adverb, as : ittifaq'" 1 " by chance." 

(2) In Persian and Urdu, the oblique cases only of the Dual and 
Plural are used (except in quotations from the Qur'an), as: farafayn 
"both sides, the two parties"; walidayn "parents" (walid "fa- 
ther"); nazirln "spectators"; akhirin " posterity, those that come 

(k) The Parsian comparative and superlative are formed by adding 
tar and tarln, as : bad " bad " ; bad-tar " worse " : bad-tarln " worst." 

(I) Persian vocatives are : ay dost or dosta ; ay Khuda or Khudaya. 


I swear by God I don't know Vallah ! Billdh ! agar mat jan- 
who he is. td hn ki kaun hat. 



He didn't want to do it but I 
made him ; I sat on his head 
till he did it. 

Here is eight annas as a pour- 

Do. do. 

Here is a small present. 

You ran a great risk in going 
to sea in such bad weather. 

To despair of life. 

T detest such conduct. 

I compelled him to write it. 

What on earth shall I (say) 1 
There was not the least bene- 
fit from it. 

He ; he's a devil to sleep ; he 
beats the dead. v 

A confounded (lit. unfortu- 
nate) cock woke me up by 
its crowing. 

He is so ill don't even ask 

me about it (or 1 seek 

refuge with God). 

Wuh yih kdm kartd na-thd 

magar mat ne us ki gar dan 

par sawdr ho-ke dkhir its se 

Ath ana mithdj khane ke waste 

(to a Muslim). 
Ath ana ghi khane ke ivdxte 

(to a Hindu). 
Ap ke pan (or juti) ke toastc- 

(to a religious guide). 
Ap ne bart jokhim uthd.t ki 

aise mausim me daryd kd 

safar kiya. 
Jan se hath dhond. 
Aisi chdl se mai 'addwat rakh- 

td hu. 
Mat ne its se likhivd-chhord, 

or mai ne its ko likhne par 

majbur kiya, or mat ne jabr- 

an us se likhwaya. 
Kya khak (bolu) (or any verb). 
Khak bht fa,ida na-hu,d. 

Wuh to bald ka sone-wdld hai ; 

murdo se shart badh-kar sotd 

Ek kam-bakht murgh ne bang 

(or dzan) dekar mujhe jagd- 

Wuh aisd sakht bimdr hai ki 

mat puchh (or Khudd ki 

pandh) ! 

LESSON 62. 237 

To ask after a person, after his Kisi ki kjiair o 'afiyat puchhnd. 

health and welfare. 

Most probably he is the man. Ho na-ho uruht admi hat. 

All my animals have gone Mere sab janwar lagre ho~ga,e 

lame; one, and only one, le-de-ke l ek kumait ghort 

a bay mare is left. bach-ga,%. 

To seek distraction from grief. Gham ghfdat karna. 

I pride myself on this. Mujh ko is par naz hai. 

He has one daughter left and Allah amiti* H ek larkt us ke 

she is being reared carefully. Wi rah-ga$ hai. 

I brought her up by frequent Allah amlri* karke usko pala. 


It is after half-past four. 8 Char baj-ga,e hai, pSch ka 

'amal hai. 

How nice ! Ajt wah wa* 

Good gracious no ! Ajt wah.* 

This district is very lightly Is zila' ka band o bast bahut 

assessed. h? narm hai. 

It is scarcely exaggeration to Agar mat us ko Hatim kahu 

say that he is a Hatim to shay ad ht mubalagha ho. 


A nice sense of honour ; jeal- Ghairat, L 

ousy in a good sense : also 

shame, emulation. 

Are you not ashamed to mix Bun 'aurato ke sath milne me 

with bad women ? ghairat ndhl ati ? 

1 Le-de-ke, after adding and substracting. 

2 Amen. 

3 Sometimes, incorrectly, for any time after four. 

* Note the difference in meaning between these two. Vide also 
L. 32 (6) lines 1 to 5. 



Neither will there .be nine 
maunds of oil nor will Radha 
dance (a reply to one who 
makes an impossible stipu- 
lation) . 

Some one's house burns and 
another warms himself (an 
ill-wind, etc.). 

If you have life you have the 
world ( = health is wealth) . 

To get no benefit at all. 
He will certainly come. 

I thought you would nofc come 

but you did come. 
To-day you are bullying me ; 

to-morrow perhaps you too 

may fall into the clutches 

of a tyrant. 
To be scattered ; also to be 

ruined, undone. 
Hang, confound, this boil. 

Lady, you are not smiling, 
you are dazzling me with 
lightening (of your teeth) . 

The boil came to a head and 
burst and formed a wound 
wound do I say rather 
it was a chasm. 

He will come soon. 

What can one say of his learn- 
ing (i.e. it is vast) ? 

Na ntm man lei hogd na Radha 
ndchegi ( pro verb ) . 

Kisi kd ghar jale, ko,l tape. 

Jan hai, to jahan hai (pro- 

Na dunyd mill, na <Iin. 

A-gayd par d-gayd. 

Ham to samajhle the ki turn 

na-d,oge lekin d,e par d,e. 
Turn dj mujhe satdte li<>. k<il 

turn bhi kisi zdlim ke pale 


Tin. terah, nau, atthdrah hond. 

Is phore kd burd ho! 
Hastl kyd ho, goyd bijliya 
girdti ho. 

Phord pak-kar phul-kar ek 
zakhm zakhm kyd ekghdr 

Wuh dyd kd dyd (pi. d,e ke 

Us ke 'ilm kd kya kalind (or 
puchhnd) hai? 

LESSON 63. 239 

To concilia tea person; tocause Manana, tr. 
to agree or believe; per- 
suade ; appease : desire ; 
pray to God or to Plrs. 

Enjoy yourselves. Turn khushl mand-lo. 

To celebrate (a marriage, Rachand. 

This is many degrees better. Yih ba-darja-hd J bih-tar hai. 


Some Compound Verbs, etc., Prepositions, Collocation, 
(a) The inflected past participle of transitive verbs pre- 
fixed to ddlnd, dend and lend, has the signification of being 
on the point of doing a thing, as : 

Baghiche kd nds kiye-ddltd hai. He is on the point of quite 

destroying the garden. 

Mai uthdkar diye-detd hti. I'm just going to pick it up 

and give it to you. 

Mm kahe-detd, hn. Now I'm going to tell you (in 

confidence) . 
[Mai kah-detd M. I tell you out, plainly]. 

Batore-letd M. I'm just going to collect 


Uthd,e-letd h%. I'm just going to pick it up or 

(I'll put up with, suffer, it). 

(6) (1) In L. 26 (a) (1) and L. 30 (b), it has stated that 
a present participle prefixed to jdnd or rahnd indicates pro- 
gression, etc. The inflected Past Participle prefixed to jdnd 
indicates (i) doing a thing continually (with breaks), or (ii) 

I Darja-ha, Pers. pi. of darja. Bih-tar Pers. comparative of bih. 


doing a thing continuously for a fixed period, or (iii) con- 
tinuing an interrupted action. Frequently, but not always, 
these compounds are interchangeable. Note, however, that 
tu hase-jd is " go on laughing," but tu hastd ja is properly 
" go laughing, or while laughing." 

Examples : 
Is kitab ko parhe-jd,o (or Continue to read this book 

parhte ratio 1 ). now and then. 

7.9 kitab ko do ghante tak Continue to read this book 

pa?he-ja,o (or parhte-raho)." 1 for two hours. 

Tu parhe-jd mat sone Jn ko- Go on with, continue, your 

fthish kar-rahd hn. reading; I'm trying to 


Tu hase-jd. s Go on laughing, don't stop. 

Jab us ke sdmne jd,e to hastd When you go to him, go with 

ja* a laughing countenance. 

Bam par bam gire (or gird) Bomb after bomb fell, but he 

magar wuh sotd ratio,. went on sleeping. 

(2) The Present Participle prefixed to jdnd is used for an 
action running concurrently with another. It may be used 
for continuing an interrupted action, but does not give this 
meaning as clearly as the previous construction. 
Turn khdte-jd,o (or better You go on eating, I am read- 

khd,e-jd,o), mm parh-rahd ing. 

Mai parhtd jd,u, turn khate- I will read while you go on 

ja,o (or khdte-raho) . with your eating. 

1 Parhte-ja,o could be used here. 

* Parhte-ja,o could not be substituted here. 
' Hrtxtu-ja not idiomatic here. 

* Not hUse-ja. 

6 Parhta ja,u not so idiomatic. 

LESSON 63. 241 

Gafi me yahn se DilK tak sote- Go to sleep in the carriage 

ja,o (or sote chale-jd,o). till you reach Delhi. 

Parhte-ja,o (or parhe-ja,o). Go on with your reading. 

Turn jdte to ho magar is nazm Well, you are going ; but go 

ko bU parhte-ja,o. after reading these verses. 

(3)So,e-ja,o, ( Go on W] ' th y ur slee P, re ' 

< sume your sleep (to one 
Sote-raho. / 1.1.1. 

v. who has been awakened). 

Pahre par wuh so so jdtd tha. He kept on falling asleep on 

his beat (or during his 

So-jana. To fall asleep. 

So-rahna. To go to sleep deliberately. 

(c) (1) Note the constructions with the following prepo- 
sitions and vide also page 11, VII. 

Be mere kahe hu,e, ) 

mthout mv bidding. 
Be mere kahne ke ) 

Belarke(ke). Without the boy. 

Ba-g]iair l kha,e hu,e.~\ 

Kha,e ba-g^air. L Without eating. 

Ba-g^air khane ke, J 

Eila, -uzr kiye hu.e.} 

Without making excuses. 
Bila 'uzr karne ke. ) 

Bild 'uzr. Without excuse. 

* ? 

Ba-cfhair us ke. ) 

Ba-ghair * ijazat (ke). Without permission. 

1 Or ba-ghair khane kf. When bdrghair is used with a verbal noun 
the ke is omitted. 

* Bi-gbair with both an abstract and a concrete noun. 

Us ba-g&air; , 

Without him 


(2) Mujh pas. (vulg., vide , 

L. 20 (e) Rem. II), 

Near ine. 
Mere pas, 

Pas mere. 

Pith (ke) pichhe. Behind the back of. 

Hdjat (ke) mmvdfiq. Suitable to the needs of. 

Pd,o (ke) tale. Underfoot. 

Nodi (ke) par. Across the river. 

Shahr (ke) bdhar. Outside the town. 

Remark. Note that the prepositions in (2) follow their 
noun in the examples given. If they precede their noun 
they govern the full genitive, as : Bdhar shahr ke. 

(3) Ha is a preposition signifying " at the abode of/' as : 
Mere ha ( = the French chez moi) il at my house, or I have." 
vide L. 20 (e) (1). Rightly or wrongly. yaJtM is frequently 
used for JiM. 

(d) (1) Note the collocation in the following : 

(i) Waha ek ghar hai, bahut bard " there is a cave there, 
very large " : the position of the adjective here gives great 

(ii) Waha ek ghar bard hai : less emphatic. 

(iii) Waha ek bard ghar hai: least emphatic, i.e. not em- 

Remark. Khdnd achchhd do is more emphatic than achchha 
khdnd do. Khdna do achchhd is colloquial only. 

(2) (i) W uh ddnd hai jo kabhi dhokhd nahl khdtd " he is 
a wise man who is never deceived." 

(ii) Ddnd wuh hai jo kabhi dhokhd .nahl khdtd " \\ ise is 
he who is never deceived, or he is wise, etc. : more emphatic. 

LESSON 64. 243 

(3) Similarly in a relative sentence if the demonstrative 
clause is placed first, emphasis is laid on it,, as : Aur wuh 
kikmat jis se mlr-shikar ne bahri ko phJSLs-liya mujh se bayan 
H "and the device by which the fowler snared the pere- 
grine, he explained to me." This is more emphatic than 
aur mujh se bayan kiya ki kis kikmat se mir -shikar ne bahri 
ko pMs-liya "and he explained to me the device by which, 

(4) Aj ek kulang ka ghpl sir par hokar guzra "to-day a 
dock of common crane passed overhead." This should be 

aj kulang ka ek ghol . Such errors in collocation, though 

common, should not be imitated. 

(e) The verbs harna "to lose a game or battle." jltna "to 
conquer," and janna " to give birth to," do not take ne, as : 
Wuh yih larka jani " she gave birth to this boy." Vide also 
L. 44 (e), and " Hind. St. Blocks." 


(a) Further examples of idiomatic Repetition : 

9 t 

l(^j .;*- Still hungry as before. 

A very fool, a fool among 

In their very midst. 

i .jj* Ujlo ,^1 ^*u ^-e jf A5f Up with you, I mean to kill 


1 Note the absence of the dot over n to indicate Anuswar or nasal n 
of Hindi. This nasal can only be so indicated when a final letter. 


t ew ma y g ftin y ur 


florae KWZe steam keeps con- 

stantly rising. 
f t 
c JJoU A*$J c;fo d&* He began to beg from shop 

to shop (from each shop). 
\*\) _ ^i ^d Rajas of various countries. 

What, are there three several 

Many a mickle makes a 


Jj| L jjji He caught four fish, one of 
eoc^ colour. 

They came out in twos, two 
by two. 

J^l J3\ / u^ J^ ot He separated the sticks from 
one another. 

Right months were passed in 
hoping on 

J^ Walking on and on, I reached 

*J The place was quite close, so 
^A UJl;4 j -A-. they just went there on 

/oo< only. 

, S. and kirpa H. f. 
2 Note the absence of the dot over n to indicate Amiswar or nasal n 
of Hindi. This nasal can only be so indicated when a final letter. 

LESSON 64. 245 

^jU In their very hands, or from 
hand to hand. 

Ly* . L? j They died, just as they were 
in their sleep. 

After these repeated blows, 
blows on blows. 

Various l nice clean clothes. 1 

j of; ^ isil,. Let us stay here just this 

Something or other. 
Something quite different. 
The boat sank by degrees. 

The watchman ^ep< o??, fall- 
ing asleep on his beat (or 
during his watch). 
(6) Miscellaneous idioms : 

( ^* jy$j b ) u^>*? *J They died of hunger, were 
% starved to death. 

<*_ 2 UU \j> \SS *# This dog is about to die. 
L 13U. l^T j He is just coming. 

^3 K v^a. At that very moment. 

He was deep in the thought 
of burying the corpses. 

1 Not " very clean clothes." 

2 Note this idiomatic use of jana after a past participle. 

3 A reiterative, vide L. 48 (d). 



The following grammatical questions are based on mis- 
takes actually made by pupils. The letters and numbers 
that follow the questions indicate where the answers are to 
be found. 

(a) Correct the following : 

Yih kya kitab hai " what book is this ? " L. 5 (/>). 

Mat ne bold ki shor na karta hu "1 said that I was not 
making a noise." L. 13 (c) (1) and L. 7 (c). 

Bara sahib aya Imi "the Deputy Commissioner (or other 
senior official) has come L 16 (d). 

Lajrkd! men bat suno " boy! listen to me." L. 13 (h). 

Us ne kahne laga ki chhoro mat "he said 'don't let it 
go.'" L. 18 (a). 

Darakjito par kawwe bahut kahte hai " the crows are making 
a great noise in the trees." L. 11 (a). 

Barf pant tJianda karta hai " Ice cools water." L. 12 (e). 

Bahuteri dudh shakar maujud liai "there is plenty of milk 
and sugar." L. 20 (</). 

Kaun yih kuttd hai " what dog is this ? " L. 5 (6). 

Wuh darakht ko charhd "he climbed the tree." L. 11 (d). 

Kaun wuh log hot " who are those people ? " L. 5 (b). 

Ai quR ! ek rupiya hazir hai; le-lo "here, coolie, is one 
rupee ; take it." L. 9 (a). 

M ai samjha ' ki. ek jan-war dekhkar bhagia hai " 1 thought 

1 In modern Urdu the ne is omitted with samajhna (but not of 
course with samjhana). 

LESSON 65. 247 

that he was running away from some (wild) animal that he 
had seen." L. 12 (e). 

Sipahi ne kafia ki Jarnel Sahib Jiazir naht hai " the sepoy 
said that the General sahib was not at home." L. 9 (a) and 
L. 16 (d). 

Kisi do minit me a.o "come in about two minutes' time." 
L. 8 (&)(!). 

Ek naukar ko sath le-a.o " bring a servant with you." 
L. 12 (c). 

Us ne kis kutte ko bhej-diya hai " what dog has he sent ? " 
L. 12 (d). 

MujTi par bukhar charha "I've got fever." L. 11 (d). 
Ka,t ate hai "several (men) are coming." L. 8 (6) (1). 

Mai ne usko khd-chuka hai "I have finished it. eaten it 
up." L. 15 (a). 

In me se ko.i kharab Jiat "some of these are bad." L. 8 
(b) (2). 

Ghore ne pakrajnahi diya "the horse did not allow itself 
to be caught." L. 22 (a). 

Wuh to bahut bara sahib hai "he is a big person, of high 
position." L. 16 (d) (1), foot-note. 

Farman 'AU bhej-do "send Farman 'Ali." L. 12 (d) (2). 

Ai chaudhari ! yih rupiya quliyo me bat-lo " here, chau- 
dhan, go and divide this money amongst the coolies." L. 
22 (c) (1). 

Mai ne us ka sath diya " I accompanied him." L. 22 (a). 

Mai us ke pas kabU kabln jata "I go and see him occa- 
sionally." L. 18 (e). 


In kitdbo ko turn ko paj-hnd chdhiye " you must read these 
books." L. 12 (/). 

Mai ne dne na pdyd thd "I was not allowed to come." 
L. 18 (a). 

Us ko ek sahib ne mujh ko fa " some sahib gave it to me." 
L. 12 (/) and L. 13 (a). 

Wuh kisi mem-sahib ne mujhe diyd "some English lady 
gave it to me." L. 12 (g). 

Wuh us ko andar ane diya " he let him enter." L. 18 (a). 

Mai, to jane natft sakid " well, I can't go." L. 18 (/). 

Ghore ko jd,o "go to the horse." L. 20 (/). 

Mai ne bahut hi dsdm se us ko mkal-chhofd " I expelled 
him with the utmost ease." L. 23 (g). 

Wuh jane chdhtd hai " he wishes to go." L. 20 (6). 

Dur se mas j id ke mandr ne dikha,l dl "the minaret of the 
mosque was seen from a distance." L. 22 (a) and L. 13 (c) 

Jaj sahib bafd 'adil hai; kabhi kabhi qaydiyo ko mar- 
baithta hai "the (English) judge is very just; sometimes he 
flogs prisoners. L. 16 (d) (1), foot-note and L. 23 (a) (1). 

Mai ne chal-diya " I went right off." L. 22 (a). 

Yih kutta bahut kala-sa hai "this dog is very black." L. 
28 (c). 

Tih pattd kis se kutte ka hai "to which dog does this 
collar belong ? " L. 28 (d). 

Mai ne jhuk-kar saldm kar-mard " I made a profound 
obeisance, I bowed low." L. 23 (b). 

Mai ne us kd sdth ho-liyd "I accompanied him." L. 22 
(o), foot-note. 

LESSON 65. 249 

Mai roz roz is ko kar-rahd hu " I do this every day." L. 
23 (d) (3). 

Aj ham ne hamdre bap ko dekhd hai " I saw my father to- 
day." L. 27 (a). 

Mai, ne us ko khd-gayd " I ate it up." L. 22 (/) foot-note. 
Larki nahr me kudi aur jan bujhkar dubkar man " the girl 
jumped into the canal, and drowned herself." L. 23 (c) (1). 

Ap kyd kahte ho " what is Your Honour saying ? " L. 31 

(a) (b). 

Mai Khudd ka bard mamnun hu " thanks to God." L. 32 

P&ch ghora maujud hai " there are five horses present." 
L. 32 (g) (1). 

Mai wahs, jane ka " I intend to go there." L. 32 (e). 

Mai jan bujh-kar yahti, so-jala hu "I sleep here on pur- 
pose." L. 23 (d) (1). 

Mere kam-bakht ka puchhne-wala kaun hai " who is there 
who cares what becomes of unfortunate me ? " L. 28 (h). 

An Farman 1 AU. dekho, tattu rassi tofkar bach-gaya hai 
"0 Farman 'Ali, look! the pony has broken loose." L. 32 

(b) and L. 36 (t) and foot-note. 

Huzur kaha jate ho "whither is Your Honour going?" 
L. 31 (a) (b). 

PSch rds ' ghofe maujud tha "there were five 'head' of 
horse there." L. 32 (g) (1). 

Jab wuh did hai mujhe khabar do "tell me when he 
arrives." L. 35 (g). 

1 Raa m., for Ar. ra f s (J \) " head." Ras f., H. " rein." 


Sa,is se kah-do ki yahS, a,o "order the sais to come here." 
L. 36 (e) and foot-note. 

Tumhdrd bap bukhar Id ba-daulat mar-gayd "your father 
died from fever." L. 60 (d) (2) and foot-note and Appendix 
B (6) (5). 

Jate waqt har ek ko milkar rukhsat hu,d " I said good-bye 
to every one and took my leave." L. 28 (?'). 

Ittifdq"" men gum hu,i kitab mujh se rdste me milt "I 
chanced to find my book on the road. L. 28 (t). 

(6) Translate : 

(1) He allowed him to enter (L. 18a). Years parsed u\vu v 
(L. 33h). A diamond on his finger (L. 4Qd). Heaps of ru- 
pees (L. 336). I was not allowed to enter (L. 186). Thou- 
sands of people (L. 336). Fill the ditch with water (L. 40e/). 
Mai waha jane ko hu (L. 54#). It is a long time since I sa\v 
you. L. 61 (a). 

(c) Grammatical questions : 

How would you remove the ambiguity in A/> k<il> la-sltrif 
ld,ege? L. 36 (/). 

In what circumstances can the subject of a passive verb 
be in the accusative ? L. 47 (c). 

What are the peculiarities about Mujh se is jmlm.r \mr 
charhd nahl jata ? L. 47 (d) (1) and (2). 

Instead of the grammatical passive what are generally 
used ? L. 47 (6). 

Give examples of the ' meaningless appositive.' L. 48 (c). 

What are Reiteratives ? Give examples. L. 48 (d). 

What is the signification of the negative na at the end <>t 
a sentence ? L. 43 (a). 

LESSON 65. 251 

Give examples of intensive adjectives. L. 48 (b) (2) and 
T, 3 (a). 

What is the difference between chunki and kyfiki in con- 
struction ? L. 52 (a). 

How is the agent of the passive expressed ? L. 47 (a) (2) 
and (d) (1) (2). 

What are the transitives of tutna, phatna, and phutna ? 
L. 44 (c) (2) and pp. 162 and 164. 

Construct sentences illustrating how ' as soon as ' ; ' no 
matter how ' ; ' even though ' ; and ' rather than,' are ex- 
pressed in Hindustani. LL. 50 and 51. and L. 60 (g). 

Give the transitives and causals of sond, bJiigna, Ulna, 
dhulnd, palna. lana, sina. bikna, lena. deria. L. 44. 

How do you express "to sell to a person'' ? P. 162. 
How is per cent expressed ? L. 45 (e) and Appendix A (g). 

Give examples of verbs that are either transitive or in- 
transitive. If in doubt as to whether a verb requires ne or 
not, how would you get out of the difficulty ? L. 44 (e) and 
L. 64 (e). 

Can intransitives have a passive voice ? L. 47 (d) and 

What is the difference in construction with jab talc when it 
means " until " and when it means " whilst " ? 

Give examples of apposition with a noun of number, mea- 
sure, etc. L. 61 (/). 

Give sentences illustrating the construction with the verbs 
harna and fitna. L. 63 (e). 

Give examples of participles used as nouns. L. 54 (?'). 


What is the meaning of jab jakar. L. 57 (c). 

What is the difference between balki and lekin or magar, 
etc. ? L. 60 (c). 

Illustrate by examples how the participles are constructed 
when repeated. L. 48 (a) (5) and p. 77, foot-note (2), and Ex. 
on p. 245 and in L. 49. 

Give an example of a nominative absolute before a rela- 
tive pronoun. L. 61 (e). 

Give an example of a transitive past participle used to 
express state. L. 55 (d) (1) (2). 

How is the antecedent to a relative clause made emphatic ? 
L. 63 (d) (2). 

What are the plurals of bu " scent " ; joru " wife " ; dhu,S 
" smoke " ; raja " raja " ; pita " father " ; mata " mother " ; 
burhiya " old woman." L 59 (c) (7) and L. 53. 

How are the present and past participles constructed, 
when they refer neither to the subject nor the object ? 

Mention a few feminine prepositions. What is the con- 
struction with these ? L. 60 (d) (1) and (2). 

What is the signification of an inflected past participle 
prefixed to dalna, deria, lena, and jana ? L. 63 (a) and (6). 

Write a short note on the use of the infinitive and illus- 
trate by examples. L. 54 (a). 

Parse the sentence mujhe kahl jana hai. L, 54 (e). 

What is the exception to the rule that the adjective agrees 
with its noun ? L. 54 (d). 

Give examples of the various meanings of the verbal noun 
of agency L. 57 (6) and L. 54 (g). 

LESSON 65. 253 

When are jab and jab tak followed by a past tense ? L. 
61 (6). 

What is the nom. plural of jagah " place " ? L. 53 (k). 
What are the constructions used with the adverbial parti- 
ciple ? Illustrate by examples. L. 59 (d). 

Give an example of an adjective, a substantive, and a 
participle used for an adverb. L. 61 (c) (1) and (3), and pp. 
10 and 11, and L. 18 (d) (2). 

When can the substantive verb in a sentence be omitted ? 
L. 18 (e). 

Is tak always a post-position ? L. 60 (&). 
What are the nom. and gen. plural of ga,o " village " and 
of ga,e " cow," and ra,e or ray " opinion " ? L. 59 (c) (12) 
and (10) and foot-note (2). 

Give one or two examples of everyday euphemisms in 
Hindustani. Appendix B (6) (1) and (c). 

When does the Muslim day begin ? App. B (a). 
Give one or two examples of Arabic broken plurals used 
in colloquial. 

Give examples of common colloquial words on the mea- 

What are the measures of pL* and fl*^> and what do 
these words mean ? 





19 MW* 

1 ek 

20 ftt-w 

2 do 

21 I'itH* 

3 tin 

22 6a,*.9 

4 char 

23 te,# 

5 pSch 

24 cAat^5 

6 chhn or cMe 

25 pachl* 

7 ,?a 

26 chhabbis 

8 dth 

27 ,sa<a,t.<? 

9 naw 


10 das 

29 untls 

11 qyarah 

30 /7, 

12 6araA 

31 //./;- 

13 tera*. 

32 6ais 

14 chaudah 

33 tes or tmtit. 

15 pandrah 

34 chautis 

16 solah 

35 /jatrts 

17 satrah 

36 cMuttfi* 

18 attJiaraJi 

37 .wrtS.s 



athtls or artls 
untaEs or unchaUs 

64 chausath or chausath 
65 paisath 



66 chhiyasath 



67 sarsath 



68 athsath or arsath 


tetatis or taltaKs 

69 unhattar 


chau,alis or chawalls 

70 sattar 



71 ikhattar 



72 bahattar 



73 tihattar 


atktaUs or aridUs 

74 chauhattar 



75 pachhattar 



76 chhaliattar 



77 sathattar 



78 athattar 



79 unas? 


chaw wan 

80 am 



81 t'Ase 



82 biyasl or birasi 


sat ta wan 

83 fimsi 


athawan or atthawan 

84 chaurasl 



85 pachasi 



86 chhiyasi 



87 sata-n 



88 af^ast 


tirsath or tresath 

89 uawasi 


90 nawwe 95 pachanwe 

91 ikdnwe or ikdnawwe '. 96 chhiyanwe 

92 banwe or biranawwe 97 saJtfanwe 

93 lirdnwe or tirdnawwe j 98 atthanwe 

94 chaurdnwe I 99 ninanawe or ninnanwe 

Sau or sat. a hundred ; hazar, a thousand ; /aM a hundred 
thousand ; karor, a hundred lakhs, or ten millions. 

(6) Above a hundred, the numbers proceed regularly 
thus, ek sau ek, 101 ; do sau das, 210; ek hazar dth sau 
athtoMs. or attharah sau alhtdlis. 1 848 ; ek hazar do sau pat- 
sath or barah sau paisath 1265. 

(c) The ordinal numbers, from the seventh upwards, are 
regularly formed by adding the terminations wa nom. sing. 
masc. ; we nom. pi. masc. for respect and oblique cases sing. ; 
or wl fern. sing, or pi. The first four of the ordinals are 
pahla " first " ; dusra " second " ; lisra " third " : and chautha 
" fourth " ; then pach-wa, -we, -wl " fifth " is quite regular ; 
but chhathd, chhaiha or chhatwa " sixth." After this they 
all follow the rule, as : dthwa " eighth," daswa, " tenth," and 
so on. Vide L. 53 (c) (2). The Persian ordinals are also 
used, as : duwum " second " ; siwum " third," etc., etc. 

(d) (1) The cardinals, especially the tens, may be used as 
collectives, as : char bis " four twenties." They may be used 
in the formative plural, as : dono " both," lino " all three " ; 
dtho dth " the whole eight of them." Vide also L. 32 (h). 

(2) The following are used as collectives in the same 
sense as we say " a dozen," " a score " ; viz. ganda " a four" ; 
gahi " a five " ; kori, or btst " a score " ; battisi " an aggregate 
of thirty-two "; chdUsd ' ; a forty": mikra "a hundred." 


(e) The fractional numbers are : 
pa,o or chauih or chau- paun or paune . . f 

thaj . . i sawa . . . . 1 

tihaj . . I der/i .. . . 1| 

arfM . . i <?Aa, or arha.i . . 2| 

Paune prefixed to a number denotes one quarter minus. 
as : paune do, If. $cm;a denotes a quarter added, as : sawa 
do, 2J. Sarhe denotes a half added, as : sarhe tin, 3|. Derh. 
1|, and dha,i or arhaj, 2|, etc., denote multiplication, as: 
derh-sau 150; arhaj hazar, 2,500; derh rupiya, "one rupee 
eight annas, 1J rupees." 

(2) The Arabic fractions up to "a tenth" are used by 
the educated, especially suls, m. "a third"; rub' m. "a 
fourth " ; khums m. " a fifth." " A half " is nisf, m. 

(/) The Hindus were the inventors of the ten numerical 
figures of arithmetic. From India, the invention found its 
way to the Arabs. The following are the three varieties of 
the ten ciphers : 

European.. 1 23456789 10 
Arabian ..I r r t* a 1 v A s \ 
Hindu ..^ ^ ^ 8 l ^ a c ^ 
These ciphers are all read from left to right. 
(y) " Percent " is expressed thus : Pach rupai saikra (and 
sau ke ptchhe pach), or fl sad (or sadi) pUch " five per cent." 
Vide also L. 45 (e). 

(It) (1) Multiplicatives are: (i) Do-guna (contrac. du- 
yuna, dugna, and duna) m., and do-guni, etc., fern., "two- 
fold"; li-guna, m., ti-gum, f., " three -fold "; chau-guna or 
cJiar-guna " four-fold," etc., etc. (ii) Ekahra, m., and ekahri, 


f., "single"; dohrd, m., ''double, two-fold," etc., etc.; 
tihrd, m., " triple, three-fold," etc., etc. 

(2) The Persian multiplicatives are also used. These are 
formed by adding id, gdna and chand, as : yak-td " single " ; 
du-td " double " ; yagdna " single " ; du-gdna " double " ; 
du-chand " two-fold " ; si-chand " three-fold," etc., etc. 

(i) Numeral adverbs are : Yak-bar or yak-bdra " once " ; 
du-bdr or du-bdra ( ;^J> ) " twice," etc. Also yak naubat, yak 
daf'a or yak martaba " once " ; du-naubat " twice," etc., etc. 

(j) The following are the days of the week : 
Urdu. Hindi. 

Itwdr. Itwdr. 

Pir or Soinbdr. Som-vdr. 

Magal. Magal-vdr. 

Budh. Budh-vdr. 

Jum'a-rdt. Brihaspat-vdr . 

Jum'a. tfhukr-vdr. 

Sanichar or hafta. tihamchar. 

The Muslim year is lunar, consisting of 12 lunar months 
or about 354 days, therefore a given festival falls each year 
about 1 1 days earlier than in the previous year. The months 
consist of .30 and 29 days alternately ; but sometimes t \v< > 
consecutive months have both 30 or 29 days. 

(k) Names of the Arabic months. Days. 

1. Muharram .. .. ..30 

2. Safar .. . . ' > 4 " . . 29 

3. JKabl-u-l-Awwal .. ..30 

4. RabVu-s-Sdni .. .. ..29 

5. Jtimada-'l-Awwal . . 30 



6. Jumadq-'s-Sani . . . , 29 

7. Rajab .. . . . . . . 30 

8. Sha'ban . . . . 29 

9. Ramazan . . . . . . 30 

10. Skaivwal . . . . . . 29 

11. Zi qa'dah .. .. ..30 

12. ZiUjjah .. .. ..29 

For mercantile and agricultural purposes the Hindi or the 

English months are used. 

The Hindu solar year consists of 12 solar months or 365 
days. Six of the months may vary in length by a day. 

Festivals are calculated by lunar months, which are given 
the same names as the solar months. To recover the loss of 
11-12 days in eacli year, an intercalary month (malmns) is 
inserted after 2 years. 

(1) The names of the Hindi months. 

Baisakh (April-May) .. 31 

Jeth (May- June) . . 31-32 

Asarh ( June-July) . . 32 

Sawn (July- August) . . 31-32 

Bhado (August-September) .. 31-32 

Asin or Ku,ar (September-October) . . 30-31 

Katik or kartik (October-November) . . 30 

Aghan (November-December) . . 29 

Pus (December- January) . . 29-30 

Mngh (January-February) .. 29-30 

PJiagun (February-March) . . 30 

Chait (March-April) .. 30 


(a) (1) Hindus consider that the day begins at sunrise. 
Muslims, like Jews, consider that the day begins at sunset. 
" The world was dark before it was light," they say, " and so 
the night should precede the day." In countries under Mus- 
lim rule, the watch is set daily at sunset, which is 12 o'clock. 
Consequently an Englishman's Thursday night is a Muslim's 
Friday night, a point to be remembered when taking evidence. 
As Muslims in India use both the English and Muslim sys- 
tems, misunderstandings, even amongst Muslims themselves, 
are not infrequent. The night lasts till dawn : 3 A.M. is rat 
ke tin baje. 

(V) Sanlchar ho sham ke waqt "Saturday evening/' (Eng- 
lish computation) ; but Sanlchar ki rat is ambiguous, and 
may signify either Friday or Saturday night. 

(3) In Persian constructions, the computation is Muslim 
only, thus : Shab-i Shamba " Friday (not Saturday) night." 

(6) (1) Indians, partly from politeness, partly from super- 
stition, are fond of euphemisms. Thus, a sweeper is styled 
in address Mihtar ' and Jam'-dar ; a barber, a tailor, and a 
cook, Khalifa or Caliph ; a bearer, Sarddr ; a water-carrier, 
Bihishtl and Jam'-dar ; a muslim beggar, Shah Sahib ; a 
Hindu beggar $a,f and Data; a muslim lady's maid 
Idnl * ; ink is raushnaji. 

1 Mihtar, lit. "greater," and also "prince." 

'-' A maid-servant that looks after tobacco, pan, and dresses the hair. 


(2) To say " close the shop " would be inauspicious : the 
shop might be closed for ever. Thus the verb in such cases 
is auspiciously barhana " to increase/' as : Dudh barhana " to 
wean"; khana ba r hana "to remove the table-cloth, etc." 
The word marna is not used of respectable individuals except 
by the vulgar ; vide foot-note 1, page 263. 

(3) Before praising anything belonging to another person 
it is usual for Muslims to say Chashm-i bad dur far be the 
evil eye," or Mashd' Allah, lit. " as God wills," while Hindus 
say Ishwar bun nazar se bacha.e. 

(4) When introducing any unpleasant topic, it is usual, to 
indicate that present company is excepted, to say, " May this 
happen to your enemies," or " May this be far from you." or 
Khuda na-khwasta " God forbid." 

(5) It is impolite to use such words as andha "blind," 
marim " to die " to any respectable man's face, even if he be 
a, servant, either with reference to himself or his relations : 
say akho se ma'zur, or basir or na-bina for "blind," and 
yuzarna, etc. for " to die" before people's faces. 

(c) Examples of the above are : 

t hear you have been ill (lit. Suna hai ki dp ke dushman 
I heard your enemies were bimar the. 

it fall to the lot of your Nastb-i dushmanan. ap is se 
enemies I hope you won't bimar na-pare. 
get ill from this. 

'Co put out the lamp. CMragk gul karna (seldom 

bujhana <c to extinguish)." 
^ird-catcher. Mtr-shikar. 

51ind man. Bastr (lit. one that sees). 



Blind man. 



The Quran. 

Far be it from thee, I am dy- 
ing for love of thee. 

God is kind -(i.e., and he will 
give you) (polite refusal to 
a beggar) . 

Forgive me (polite refusal to 
a beggar Hindu). 

Forgive me (polite refusal to 
a beggar Muslim). 

There is nothing in the house 
(lit. there is prosperity in 
the house ; a Muslim refusal 
to a beggar). 

There is prosperity ( = I have 
nothing in my pocket; a 
Muslim refusal to a beggar) . 

Friday and Thursday are days 
for Ptrs to show miracles; 
(cry of beggars on Thurs- 
days and Fridays). 

Hafiz (lit. one that has com- 
mitted the Quran to mem- 

Halal-khor (lit. eater of what 

' is lawful). 

Xa-pdk janwar (to avoid say- 
ing su,ar). 

Bart chtz; vulgar (too holy 
to be named) . 

Ap kt jan se dur, mdH dp par 
marta hn (lover to mistress) . 

Allah karim hai (Muslims). 

Chhamn karo (Hindus). 
Mu'af karo (Muslims). 

Ghar me barakat hai (to a beg 

Barakat hai. 

Jum'a, 1 Jum'a-rat fnro ki 

Friday, named first as it is the greater day. 



'he eighth month of preg- 
nancy (lit. the unnumbered 
month; if mentioned the 
child will be born prema- 
turely) . 

f which God forbid you 
die, who will look after these 
children ? 

hope you will be made a 
Deputy Magistrate, 
"hanks, I hope so ; (reply to 
above) . 

An-gind mahtna ; (is 'aurat ko 
an-gind logo, hai). 

Khudd na-khwdsta agar dp na- 
rahe l to in bachcho H kaun 
parwarish karegd ? 

Agar dp Dipti ho-jd,e to mujhe 
barl khushi ho* 

Tumhdre muh me ghi shakar. 

The word mama is generally used only by the vulgar, except for 
le death of animals. When speaking generally, mama may be used 

Is shahr mS tja'un se do sou admi mare ; but talaf hu,e or halak hu,e 
ould be better. Rahe preterite for a future condition. 

Hogi, if he knew he was going to be a Diptl. 



Thikana, m. ; thikane lagnc 
(to be successful ; to be fin 
ished) ; thikane lagarid (t< 
kill, ironical"). 

Ishlihdr, m. (.). 

Ha me hs milana (to agre 
sycophantly. to say ditt 

(iora charkd rang. 

' Vide' No. 150. 

Bigafnd (to be spoiled , go bad ; 
also to get annoyed). 

1. Address; dwelling-place; 
certainty ; proper order. 

2. Advertisement. 

3. Agree. 

4. Albino ; vide Leprosy. 

5. Amusing. 

6. Annoved. 

7. Anonymous. 

8. Appreciated, to be. 

9. Authority. 

10. Authority; certificate, 

commission, etc. 

1 1 . Avoidance ; diet in sick- 

12. Awkward. 

13. Benefit, advantage : 

terest on 

money ; 



Gum-nam. adj. 
Dad pdna. 

Hukm i bald (higher autho- 
Sanad, f. 

Parhez, m. (k.) (of people of 

Vide Clumsy. 
Fa,ida (bakhshna.}. 



14. Bird-catcher. 

15. Blind. 

16. Blue. 

17. Bond (promissory note) 

vide Deed. 

18. Borrow. 

19. Brisk; trade is brisk. 

20. Broker, any go-between. 

21. Cajoled, to be. 

22. Caricature. 

23. Caste-fellowship; 


24. Change (money). 


25. Clumsy, ill-shaped, awk- 

ward in appearance or 
actions (of things, 
animals, men). 

26. Complaint. 

27. Confidant. 

Chin -mar (Hindu). 

Kami (blind in one eye) ; andhd 
(in both). Vide pp. 261-2. 

Awndni, adj. (sky blue) ; mid 
(dark blue); firozaj, (tur- 
quoise blue) ; lajawardi (col- 
our of lapis lazuli) 

Tamassuk, m. 

'Ariyat lend (a thing) ; qarz 

lend (money) ; vide Lend. 
Bazar bard garm hai. 
Dalldl, m. 

Kisi, ki bdto (or dam) me d- 


Kisi kd khdka urdnd. 
Barddari, f. 

Parchun (in Pan jab) ; kjiurda 
m. (small change including 
pice) ; rezgl, f . or rezgdri 
(small silver bits). 

Bhaddd (vide Rough). 

Tangi H shikdyat karnd (com- 
plain of hard times). 
Rdz-ddr P. ; bhedu H. (rare). 


28. Connive. 


Chashm-poshi , k. (overlook ; 
in a good or bad sense) ; 
Khudd dunyd me zalinw 
ko dhtl (/.) detd hal. Vide 

29. Curse. La'nat, f. (from God) ; /W- 

du'a, f. (from man). 

30. Cut. Qalam k. (cut off with one 

blow ; also trim a tree or 

31. Catting. Vide Seedling. 

32. Dare, have the courage Himmat badhnd or karnn. li. 


33. Day. Shabana-roz (24 hours) : do 

shdbdna-roz (2 days and 2 
nights or 48 hours) . 

34. Deed. Iqrar-nama, m. (any written 

contract or agreement) . 


35. Defective ; imperfect 

hence unserviceable 

36. Desist. 

37. Detour. 

38. Dilemma. 

Razi-nama, m. (deed of com- 

Naqis, adj. 

Bdz and (from a thing 
begun) ; bdz rahnd (to 
avoid doing a thing). 

Pher, m., or chakkar, 'm., 

Vide Perplexed. 



39. Dismiss. 

40. Dodge. 

41. Dress. 

42. Education, instruction. 

43. Enlistment. 

44. Error. 

45. Err, to 

46. Esteemed, held in esteem. 

47. Estimate ; measurement ; 

amount ; degree ; con- 
jecture ; guess ; propor- 

48. Exercise one's ingenuity. 

49. Extinguished, to be 

50. Faithless. 

51. Flood. 

52. Fog. 

Rukhsat, f. (k.) (dismiss from 
service ; see a friend off ; 
to start): rukhsat (d) (to 
grant leave or permission 

Hikmat, L 

Darban kdpre (full dress). 

Ta'ttm, L (d.). 

Bharti, (k.) ; bharti kl chtz 
(stuffing, filling up ; any- 
thing to fill up space in 

Chuk. f., or bhul-chuk, f. 

Chukna ; dial chukna (to make 

a false move). 

'Izzat-wdld, adj. (of persons). 
Anddz. m. (k.). 

'Aql daurdna. 

Bujh-jdnd; (but bujhnd solve 
a riddle ; guess a person's 

Be-wafd (in affection). 

Namak-hardm (in service). 

Tug&ydni, f. ; saildb, m. 

Kuhdsd, m. ; kuhr, m. ; kuhrd. 



53. Fool, to play. 

54. Forget. 

55. Forgive, pardon ; give ; 

grant (to inferior). 

56. Forgiveness, pardon ; tip 

in money. 

57. Fortune ; if fortune fa- 

vours me. 

58. Fun. 

59. Gentleman. 

60. Graft. 

61. Gratis; uselessly; vide 


62. Greeting. 

63. Guess. 

64. Hate. 

65. Heat. 

66. Hideous. 

67. Holiday. 

68. Interest on money. 

Vide No. 150. 
Bhulna (without ne). 

Bakhshish, f. 

Agar men qismat laregi to 

Vide Mischief. 
Bhala-manus, m. 

Paiwand, lit. a joint ; vide 
' Seedling ' ; (paiwand-i 
zaml hond, or zamtn ka 
pawand hona "to be razed 
to the ground"). 

Mult, adv. 

tialam or tasfim (k.) ; &alam-i 
niydz (k.), humble greet- 
ing) ; bandagi (k.) (properly 
. Hindus only) . 

Vide under Extinguished. 

Nafrat, f. (L). 

Vide Twist. 

Darauma, adj. 

Ta'fil, L 

Sud, m. (but be-sud = b 



Interest ; influence. 

69. Interference. 

70. Introduce me, please. 

71. Irrigate. 

72. Jibbing, adj. 

73. Lazy. 

74. Lasting, enduring. 

75. Leave. 

76. Lend, to. 

77. Leper. 

78. Leprosy. 

79. Loaf. 

80. Lose any game. 

81. Lucky, he has the Devil's 

own luck (spoken dis 

Wasila, m. (lit. means inter- 
est, influence) ; sa'y sifdrish 
se (by recommendation, by 

Dakhl, m. ; dast-andazi, f . 

Men taqrib ' fajiye. 

Serdb k. (but sailab, flood). 

Sust ; ahdi. 


De-jdnd (leave an article per- 
sonally at a house) ; chhor- 
jdnd (to leave and go ; wuh 
mar-gay a dur do bete chhor- 

Qarz, d. ; (with lend " to 

borrow "). 
Korhl, m. 

Korh, m. (black) ; charak 

Ek roti ; naM se hM bhaK 
(=half a loaf better than 
no bread). 

Bdzt hdrna, (no ne). 
Qismat kd sand hai, or dhani 

Taqrlb, L, lit. to make near, making near. 


82. Make. Do mil lea [fastta l ] ek kos hota 

hai; char pd,o kd [wazn '] 
ek ser hota hai. 

83. March off (a person, hold- (Kisi ko) gardaniya dena. 

ing him by the neck) . 

84. Mason. Raj-mistri, m. 

85. Match, to. Tih tasmre sab sawal o jawab 

hai (these pictures are op- 
posite each other and 
match) ; ghore ki sirf 
peshdni par sitdra hai ; aur 
bdqi badan me us kd jawab 
natii (the only white on the 
horse is a star ; on the rest 
of its body there is no 

Shararat se (through mischief, 
in fun). 

Zamin se bukhdr uthtd hai. 

86. Mischief. 


from the 

Mist rises 

88. Move. Vide Err. 

89. Mutiny, perfidy, etc. Qhadr, m. (&.). 

90. Narrow. Vide Wide. 

91. Native; country -made. Desi, adj. 

92. Nature. Tool- at, f. 

93. Nervous, to be ; lose one's Ghabrdnd, intr. 

head; to feel anxious; 
be perplexed. 



94 Nervousness; anxiety; Gfuzbrahat, i. 
perplexity ; upset. 

95. New, unused (of cloth or Kora. 
earthenware) ; also a 

new hand. 

96. Obstinacy, 'cussedness ' ; Zidd (k) : ziddl, adj. 

enmity; antonym. 

97. Obstinacy. Hat dharml, f. ; hat-dharam, 

adj. (not acknowledging 
oneself to be in the wrong : 
= ivuh apni bat H pachh 
karta hai) . 

98. Obstinate, proud. Magrd, adj. 

99. Occasionally, by accident, Bhule-bhatke, adv. 


100. Open ; uncover : unlock ; Kholna, tr. 

reveal ; untie. 

101. Orders. ke ma taht (under the orders 


102. Packet. Pulanda ; parsal, m. ; pakat, 


103. Path. Pag-dandi, f. (narrow foot- 

path ; a short cut is chhota 

104. Peel, to (fruit, etc.). Chhilka utarnd. 

105. Premission, vide also Dis- Ijazat,i. (d). 


106. Perplexed, uncertain Shash-o-panj ' me hona ; 

what to do., m. (dilemma). 

1 Shash-o-panj , P. " six and five." 


107. Private. 


Vide Secret. 

108. Planned, to be. 

Tajunz horia. 

if possible A gar bane to . 

Nazir (in law). 
Ta'Um dena. 

112. Railing. 

113. Razed. 

114. Regret. 

109. Possible; 

then . 

110. Precedent (in law). 

111. Prompt, to; educate, in- 


Jagla, m. 
Vide. Graft. 

Afsos m., P. ; pashemani, f.. 
P., pachiawa, H. ; (in the 
Punjab arman, 1 m.) 

115. Repeat, to utter a thing Jtalnd, tr. 

over and over again. 

116. Right-hand. ftdha-hath. 

1 17 . Rude, rough (of artificial Angarh. 


Pas-andaz, k. (money) ; bacha- 
rakhnd (general ; of money, 
food, etc., etc.). 
Wazlfa, m. 

Pech, in. ; (pech-dar twisted ; 
having a screw ; intricate ; 
complicated ; with many 
121. Search. Taldsh, (k.}. 

118. Save (money). 

119. Scholarship, stipend. 

120. Screw; twist; grudge. 

In Urdu arman, m. is " longing " and not " regret." 


122. Season. Jard kd i garmiyo kd } 

baMro ' Tea mausam (the 
season of winter, summer, 
spring): kjiizdn, P., pat- 
jhar H. (autumn). 

123. Secret. Bhed. H.. m. ; ruz, P.. m. 

124. Secret. Char-darwaza (secret door) ; 

chor-jahaz (pirate ship). 

125. Seedling, etc. Btju, adj. ; -paiwandi (graft- 

ed) ; qalmi, adj. (from a 
qalam or 'cutting'). 

126. Separated, to be. Bichharna, intr. ; bichhra 

(hu,a). adj. 

127. Shake, move, stir; get Hilna, intr. 

accustomed to ; not to 
feel strange with ; to be 

128. Shake ; stir; tame ; make Hiland, tr. 


129. Shift, to. Sarak-jand, intr. 

130. Shy, to (of a horse) ; be Bharak-jdnd. 

scared; blaze up (of 
fire) ; get angry. 

131. Skill. Mahdrat,i 

132. Skilled. Mdhir, adj.; ustdd, subs., a 


1 These three are used either in the singular or in the plural. 


133. Skinflint. 


134. Slack (met.) ; loose. 

135. Slack, to be. 

Makkhi-chus, m. (lit., one 
that would suck even a 
fly if it fell into his food). 

Dhm, adj. 

Dhil k. (to be slack in work) ; 
dhll d. (to slacken, and 
met. to connive at for a 
time only). 

136. Sloping (of land or Salami, adj. and subs. 

ramps) ; also subs., f., 
complimentary money 
given on certain occa- 
sions ; salute. 

137. Smoke ; and vulg. fog. Dhu,a m. 

138. Son. BeiJa, gen. ; sahib-zdda (polite 

and also for son of a 

Suput, H. (dutiful son) ; ku- 
put (undutiful son). 

Faltu, adj. 

Vide Annoyed 

Kai fit/at, f. (baifiyyat). 

139. Son. 

140. Spare. 

141. Spoil. 

142. State ; report ; remark 


143. Steam. 

144. Storm. 

Bhap, m. 

Adht, H., f. (prop, blinding 
dust-storm) ; tufan (gen.) ; 
Nuh kd tufan (Noah's 



145. Stuffing. Vide Enlistment. 

146. Submit ; bring up (a case Pesh k. ; dar-pesh, h. (to be 

or a person). in course of trial) ; dar- 
pesh hai ( = is on the tapis). 

147. Suit, to ; agree with (of Rds ana. 

climate ; food, etc.) ; to 
prove auspicious. 

148. Summoning before Talabi (hond), f. 


149. Tamed ; brought up (of 


150. Traditionary jester ; 

amusing fellow. 

151. Training. 

152. Treat. 

153. Twist the moustache; 

give heat to (in cook- 

154. Twisted. 

155. Undertake, 

pledge to 

Pdla hu,a. p.p. and adj. 

Shaikh Chulli ; yih bam 
Shaikh Chulli hai (he is an 
amusing devil) ; Shaikh 
Chulli -pan mat karo (don't 
play the fool). 

Tarbiyat, f. (k). 

Mere sdth akhldq se (or mihar- 
bdni se) pesh dyd (he treat- 
ed me courteously). 

Td,o dend. 

Vide Screw. 

Kisi chiz ki hdmi ' bharnd. 

Corruptly for haml. 


156. Ungrateful. Na-shukra. 

157. Uppish, to be (with dis- Sar nikdlnd or utharia. 


158. Useless (of things or Nikammd, adj. 


159. Vulgar; village-like. G&waru, adj. 

160. Wheel. Pahya, m. ; payya, Panj. 

161. Wide. Chaurd, adj. ; (kam-chaufd 

' narrow'). 

162. Worldly man. Sag-i-dunya. 

163. Wrongfully, wrongful, Na-haqq, adv. and adj. 

uselessly; vide Gratis. 


NOTE ON Hamzah. 

The first letter of the Arabic alphabet is really, hamzah 
(" compression ") and not alif. 1 It is an abbreviation of the 
guttural a . It may be compared to the h in the English hour. 
It is said to be the spiritus lenis of the Greeks or an aggra- 
vation of it. The Arabs claim, that in endeavouring to pro- 
nounce a vowel without a consonant, a slight effort is made 
by the throat, and this they indicate by the sign *, called 
hamzah. It requires, in writing, a support. At the begin- 
ning of a word, this support is always alif ; but in the mid- 
dle of a word at the beginning of a syllable, <_ and j may, 
in certain cases, support *. The pronunciation of a medial 
hamzah is frequently omitted in Urdu, as is shown below. 
In English and in Hindi the sounds ab, ib, ub, consist of 
two parts, but according to the Arabs of three. They con- 
sider that the first letter is the consonant hamzah ( ' or I ) ; 
that this is next pointed with its short vowel ; and that 

third comes the consonant 6; thus i-T - ^ ( or wf ) - .w*. 

In practice, the sign * and its short vowel are omitted. 

Note, that in Arabic JL, = sal a , but that JL. = sa-oZ", words 
which have not only a different sound but a different meaning. 

1 This letter is properly styled alif, only when it is a letter of pro- 
Wgation, i.e. when it is equivalent to the long accent over 5. 


Notice the pronunciation and method of writing the fol- 


lowing: ^j^- jur-at and eL>*fjk jara-at "boldness"; fly 
taw-am " a twin." Similarly, the Hindi word ?*rc su,ar, 

" pig," has to be transliterated }j or^iy- : without the * the 
word might be pronounced )\y sawar '' a mounted man." 

In Arabic words, hamzah may occur at the end of a syllable, 


as in j&& tat-sir " effect " ; er*V w,u*-min " believer," but in 

Urdu this hamzah is ignored, both in writing and in pronun- 
ciation, and l is changed into its letter of prolongation, as : 


ji& tasir, e/o^y* mumin. 

In the Persian word ^\<^ juda-i, the * is merely a hyphen. 

So, too, in the Arabic word l*fa fcfidah, the Persians and In- 
dians ignore the pronunciation of the hamzah, which conse- 
quently acts as a mere hyphen, ja-ida. In such cases, i.e. 
when pronounced with i and preceded by a long vowel or by 
a fathah, it is usually supported by a y without dots, as : ^ji-jl^if 
gunjajsh' 1 "capacity, room," ^>jf "anyone," ^ kaj 
" several." 

In the Nagarl alphabet (Hindi), there is no hyphen, but 
where one syllable ends in a vowel and the next begins with 

l In ^j w (b| ojttibo-yt fawji, " army doctors," the final hamzah 

*> ' 

of *Ui | is ignored, as can be seen by the method of writing the iza/at ; 

but in j^a-^i *Ufc| the hamzah is recognized. 

8 This may also be written and pronounced jjijlso^ gunjayisk. 


one, the second vowel is written in its initial or primary .form 
(vide Appendix G.)- This method of writing indicates a 
hyphen in English and a hamzah in Urdu, as will be seen 
from the following examples : srre" u*? 1 ^ jcffi " may I go ? " 
*?T^t o*j\i pato "foot " ; ^f^t t < u^jy-jf ( or &*;~tf ) asu*o se 
"by tears"; *t t^j* l (fern.) "became"; qftt t^y to,? 
" anyone" ; q?t c*^ ^ a >* " several." 

It will be noticed that when hamzah is pronounced with i 
and precoded by a or by a long vowel, it is usually supported 
by a 4,5- without dots. 

Note the following method of writing a hamzah in Urdu, 
before the Hindi vowel e : (TO) ^b or <3Jj (pa*e) " foot."* 

1 The only way of transliterating into Urdu smT-^t-^I (hu,a, hu,l, 

hu,e), is \jA> - ^j& - f^i* ; this is obviously a makeshift. 

2 If the speech of an Egyptian talking French be noticed , it will be 
seen that numerous hamzahs are inserted. 



( a ) (1) Urdu abounds in Arabic words and consequently 
some knowledge of Arabic roots is necessary. 

Nearly every Arabic word can be traced to a triliteral 
root. Quadriliterals are rare. 

From the English word love, we get lov-er, lov-ing. and 
be-lov-ed. An Arabic root is not only similarly expanded 
by prefixes and suffixes, but also by infixes, and the seven 
' servile ' letters used to expand an Arabic root are con- 


tained in the word ij.v+~vj yatasammanu " they fatten." 

(2) At first sight it appears that, to find a root, all that 
is necessary is to strip a word of its servile letters. In 
many cases this would answer Some roots, however, them- 
selves consist of one or more letters that are found in this 

word lji""*j, so if all such were elided, the whole word, root 

and all, would in some cases disappear. It is therefore 
necessary to know in what order the servile and radical 
letters occur, in all the different parts of speech. This is 
shown in grammars by models called " forms " and '' mea- 
sures." r 

I Form ' properly means the model unpointed, as : JUi ; while 
denotes the model fully pointed , as : JU> or JU* or JU-. 

etc.. etc. 


(3) The noun that expresses the simple action gives the 
root, but as this noun is variable in form, the Arabs have 
found it a convenient fiction to treat all words as though 
derived from the 3rd pers. sing. masc. of the Past tense of the 
simple verb, and it is under this head that all words must 
first be searched for in a dictionary. A difficulty occurs 
when the 2nd radical is a weak letter. 1 The Arabs have 

adopted J*i a " he did " as a typical root and have expanded 
it in every possible way, to form models or " measures " of 
every possible part or form of speech. Not all the tenses of 
tupto are found in any single Greek verb : not all the forms 

and measures from JU are formed from any single Arabic 

(4) The measure of the Passive Participle of the simple 

verb is J>***. obtained by prefixing to the root or form J*, 
a (servile) m., and inserting between the 2nd and 3rd radi- 

cals a long u. Of this measure are fjl*-* ma'lum " known." 

* manzur " seen, approved of," etc.. JJA&* - 
etc., etc. If each one of these words be placed over the 

1 For example, when looking out in the dictionary, the root JL? 
"he said," the 2nd radical | must be looked for under ^ and not 

Os s s 

under I , as the verbal noun is Jji : therefore JU must be looked for 

as though it were spelt J^i. A similar rule holds good for the other 
weak letters. 

^ s sJ>s 

2 The measure of some Past tenses is J*5 and JUJ, i.e. not all Past 

tenses have the same short vowels. 


model or measure Jj***>, it will be seen that it has certain 
letters (servile) in common with iti (m and u), which occupy 
corresponding positions, viz. 1st and 4th. In other words, 
every Arabic word of five letters, the 1st being m and the 
4th M, is a passive participle of the simple verb, and is of the 


(5) Conversely, cU(5 "killer "is an active participle or 

agent. What is its root and measure ? It has only one ser- 
vile letter, the 2nd (alif) . The form of the triliteral root is 
therefore cUS ( = J*i ) . Expand J* by the same servile 
and you get the form <_M*. Point this with the same short- 

vowels and you get the measure cll*, which is the measure 
of the active participle of the simple verb (or Stem I) . This is 
the principle to be adopted with all derivatives and all roots. 

(6) Euphonic difficulties, however, will arise when a root 
contains any of the weak consonants or semi-vowels ^ - ) \ ; 
or when a dental and a palatal come together ; or when two 
identical or two similar letters come together without the 
intervention of a vowel. 

The three weak consonants are homogeneous to, or sis- 
ters ' of, the three short vowels but subordinate to them. 
The general principle is, that when in a measure a weak con- 
sonant follows a short vowel to which it is not homogeneous. 
a conflict ensues, and the short vowel conquers, i.e. it 

changes the weak consonant into its ' sister,' thus &\jj* 
miivzdn becomes &\jy mizdn. These ' permutations of weak 
consonants ' are a great difficulty. 

1 SQ, too, is the modern Arabic J>?J4* mabntik " bunkered," from 
the English word ' bank.' 


If the soft dental ct follow o" - u* or k , it changes into 
the hard palatal . Similar euphonic changes oecur if e> 
follow i - 3 or j . 

(6) From the simple verb there are XIV derived forms or 
Stems, sometimes called Conjugations. The participles, and 
verbal nouns (styled also infinitives) . of eight of these de- 
rived Stems are used in Urdu. Though the Stems (Past 
tenses) themselves are not used in Urdu, it will help the stu- 
dent to learn them and note their order : 

"{ s ' sfs s ss 

I. Simple form cU* (or cU* or el**'), as : Ji> " he 

killed, to kill " ; ^ " to break " ; &3 " to cut " ; 
J* " to know " ; JUo " to enter." 


II. <J** , Meaning : Intensive. It also makes a neuter of 
I Stem, transitive ; or if transitive, causal. Ex- 
amples : (JLJ.5 " to massacre " ; j~$ " to smash 
in bits " ; jJW " to cut in pieces " ; pi* " to 

teach " ; JL& " to cause to enter, insert." [Pre- 
fixing a o. makes this form reflexive.] 

III. J*l Meaning : Attempting the act of the primary 
(I) ; implies 1 reciprocity ; is always transitive. 

1 In III a second party is possible ; in VI (formed from III by pre- 
fixing e ), a second party is necessary (unless the verb is reflexive). 


Examples : J3tf " to try to kill, to fight with " ; 

JJfc "to correspond with" ( Jj "to write"). 
[Prefixing a o, makes this form reflexive]. 

IV. J**t. Meaning: Causative. Examples: cUo' "to 

S '<* 

cause to enter " ; ~Jf< " to cause to write " ; 
" to cause to sit " ( <_rW " to sit "). 


V. cUai ( = 11 + a prefixed o ). Meaning: Reflexive 

or Consequence of II. Examples : j& " he 

thought himself great, to be proud " (j$ " to be- 

come great"); JU3 "to be made to know, to 

learn, to be taught." This form has often to be 
rendered in English by a passive. 

VI. cMAi ( = IH + a prefixed o ). Meaning: Reflexive 
or Reciprocal of III. Examples : cUlSj " to fight 
one another"; .*&> i( to write to and receive 

letters from, to correspond with 1 "; 

"God made himself exalted above all ( = the 

Most High God)." 

i In III, a second party is possible ; in VI (formed from III by pre- 
fixing o), a second party is necessary (unless the verb is reflexive). 


It has sometimes the idea of feigning, as : o*>^ " to 
pretend to be sick, to malinger " ; j-*U3 ' : to pretend to be a 
nasraniyy or Nazarene (i.e. a Christian)." 

VII. J*&JI ( = I + prefixed in). Meaning: Neuter or Pas- 
sive of I. 1 Examples : J-&J " it was broken '' ; 
uiil "he showed himself 1 openly, he was re- 
vealed or discovered " (Ut/" to expose, reveal "). 

Remark. It should be noted that the prefix in is a servile 

s Cf ^C. s s s 

addition. In words like Jl<oJI and fa[ (from -**" " to 

halve," and j& " not to know, to deny "). the n is a radical 
letter and is not part of a prefix. 

^ ssO 

VIII. J*i*f. Meaning : Reflexive of I (but occasionally 


its reciprocal or passive). Examples : ***] " to 
collect themselves, assemble " (* " to collect ") ; 

s ssCt 

Al " he engaged himself, was busy in (a work) " 
' to occupy, give work "). 
IX. No derivatives in Urdu. 

1 Originally a reflexive of I, but now a neuter or passive. 



X. J*&-J ( = 1 + ista, with the omission of the a of the 

1st radical). Meaning : Inquiry, Desire, Opinion 
or tendency with regard to the matter predicated 

xX> ' G ss r 

by I. Examples: ^a*i~j "to ask pardon" (j^ 

* * & *</ 
Ci to pardon ") ; ^^ao-t " he thought it beauti- 

ful " ( tr**- " t De beautiful "). 

s'<> sO 

Sometimes it is merel causaL as : '-alsJ-t " to make to 

swear, to administer an oath " = -l- (from tJd*. "to swear. 
take an oath "). 

It is also a reflexive of IV (vide Verbal Nouns of this 
Stem), and the meaning is apparently neuter. 

(c) Table of Stems. 




Verbal Noun or 

I. & 

f X 



II. (& 

,., a: 


1 "^ 
1 ^ 

III. cbli 


/ ^ x J> 










Participle \ Verbal Noun or 
Passive. Infinitive. 


(mutafa"il) (JU&L* 

(mutafa"al) JUfiLe 

f ^ 






None s 



Remark I. It will be seen that the participles are formed 
by prefixing mu to the Stems or Past tenses, and that the 
second radical is then pointed with i for the Active, and a 
for the Passive. 

1 When Stem IV is intransitive (as cXkiJ " to come towards") there 
is no Passive Participle , the Active form only is used. 

2 Not used in Urdu and Persian. 

3 The form of the Passive Participle is not found in Stems with a 
neuter or passive sense. Vide footnote 4 below. 

* When VIII is intransitive, the Active form only is used, as: 
muttahim " accused" (not muttaham). 


Remark II. Verbal nouns generally take the regular femi- 
nine plural in -at. Note the introduction of an alif before 
the last radical in all except II, V and VI. 

Remark III. If the second radical be j or ^, it is, in the 

f , t , 

measure J*U' } often changed to hamzah, as : ^ or ^3 ; 

" standing " from jtf (<?); '&* or &* " fit." 

If the second and third radicals be identical, they unite, as : 

$ . 

u?^ khass (in Urdu khas) " special " (from u*^ " to particu- 

If the third radical be hamzah (!) or j or ^5, it is changed 
to <^, as : ^;l* " reader " from y ; ^lA. ;i empty," from ^ 

%>?> ^ s g O^ 

( *> kjiuluw) ; ^l; ( f; ) " thrower " from U;, vl. noun ^y 
Remark IV. If the second radical be ), it is elided in the 

9(. f 

measure J>*&* ; but throws its zammah, back on to the pre- 

> f , s ,^ *(., 

ceding silent letter, as : J^ maqul, " said," from JU> ( Jy ). 

If the second radical be ^, a similar change takes place. 
but the zammah is changed to kasrah,- and consequently the 

/ ^ , * fi>, 

servile j becomes ^. as : i** mabt' " sold/' from at ( 5^ ) 

" to sell." 

If the //urrf radical be j, it is elided, as: ^AA> mad'u, 
' called, invited," from U^ (^5 ) " to call, etc." 

> These include the three cases where the Past tense begins with 


(d) Verbal Nouns. 

(1) The verbal nouns or so-called infinitives are abstract 
nouns ' expressing the action or state of the Stem from which 
they are derived. 4 Some have always a neuter sense, as : 


>*W " existence," while others have both an active and pas- 

f <,, 

sive sense, as : ytu i; helping another" or " being helped b 

(2) As already stated, the infinitive or verbal noun of 
1 Stem, the simple verb, has varying measures, though only 
a few are in common use. The simple verb may have more 
than one infinitive, sometimes with a variety in meaning, as : 

, ,<,, 

**> " intending, intention." and **&.**> "object" (>*2* "to 

ft'* ^xxx 

intend, to go forward ") ; v y> " nearness," and &t\js " rela- 
tionship " (from Jy "to be near to "). The derived forms, 
however, are fixed on measures. 

(3) The following are some measures *: 

f /Ox f O s 

I. J -\ Among the common forms are <J*>, as : <Ji* 

4 ff^ J*"xx , x JTO 

J^' ) " killing " ; cU>, as : -A)c " seeking " ; <J**', 

o jot <jf 

as : fi " knowing, science " ; JA, as : p*., " or 

f f* fs f *}> 

dering " ; J^* as : Jj*, " accepting " ; Jyi as : 
., "acquiring." 

1 They consequently imply the same action, state, reciprocity, etc. 
as do their Stems. 

2 Subjective or objective in sense. 

3 Wujud"*. For this termination , vide' (n) (I) Remark, p. 305. 
+ Taken chiefly from Platts. 




Examples on other measures are : j** " being small " ; &** 

jf ,f _,<>, ,<,, 

( = J* ) " guiding aright " ; A^ ( O*M ) " pitying " ; 

S t, s(,f S 

ala^ ( v_Jia. ; ) "travelling"; jv* ( o;4J ) "being able"; 

&j** ( i&Jj*. ) I "moving" ajy- (*a>*^-; "stealing"; ^^.j 

' *j & . ' x 

( = c**** ) " asserting " ; &/* " remembering " ; ^1L " being 

^^ f *f , * - 

safe " ; (lft " standing " ; Uv> f = JUi ) praying " ; *l*- 

. o 

; " being happy " ; ilif ( ooltf " writing " ; 

* * <*, , , <,, 
) " being difficult " ; A**^* ( o>*^^x> ) ( = <u^; 

"pitying" ; A!+X> ( c^U** ; "having dominion." There are 

other measures not indicated above. 

II. JUi3' / e.g. ^Jo "teaching"; ^i3 "gladden- 

fr<*,\. , o ^ 

4l*A> ^ing"; S/oj tazkirah* " reminding, etc.") J 
&3jiti tafriqa(h) " scattering "; j*& " effecting " 

The first measure is the commoner, and is feminine in Urdu 
with the one exception of <xyt> " amulet." 

1 The infinitives of the derived forms are also called " augmented 

9 The final letter jj (not silent) is in Arabic pronounced o before 
a vowel, and in Urdu and Persian is often changed to o ; when not so 
changed it becomes f or silent h; thus the Arabic Sy& tazlrirah. 
becomes in Urdu 8 iJ tazkira, m. : or ,,fjj IdzJcfrat. f. 


*":? \ .?"* ___ j> 

III. *icUu> 7 e.g. aLlax! "facing"; &*U>c ;< discussing 

* ' - l 

J 1 *' J with, arument " J& " dialoue " li* 

argument " ; J& " dialogue " : 

and i'Llftx "fighting, slaughter"; 

" guarding." The first measure is the commoner. 
Reciprocity is often implied. 

Remark. If the third radical is ^ or -, it is changed to 

' 'S ^ , 

alif. as: *liU> "meeting." from ^ "to meet." 

f 'O sO ,-C/ 

IV. J^*' e.g. ^j^l "causing to go out"; ;&l "de- 

nying": t^a.i "causing to flow" (from <jy? jarq 
"to flow" ; flUt "yielding, obedience. Islam" : 
)\&<. " making apparent " : vJUit " dividing into 
halves, justice." 

Remark. If the first radical be y, it is changed to ^-. as : 
^^<j ,<j s, 

#U)I (for lj}]) "performing a promise." from ^j "to keep 

one's promise, pay a debt." 

If the second radical be ) or ^_c, it is elided and throws 
back its vowel on to the vowelless first radical, and a e* ( ; 

'Kj' f s<j bs 

is suffixed, as: oJU[ "help" AT. *Jl*| for e^, from ^ * 
" aiding "). 

1 In Urdu, muqdbala, m. ; mubahasa, m. ; mukalama. m. : rmtqatala 
m . ; but muhafazat , f . 

* The Past tense is not in use. 


If the third radical be j or <.$, it is changed into hamzah. 

si, fto, 

as : *liel "granting pardon," fromyi* ' " pardon." In Urdu 
the final hamzah is usually ignored, vide Appendix D. p. 278. 

V. JUA3 e.g. & " thinking" ; tf* " making oneself 

great, being proud " ; j)*oj ; ' picturing to oneself ; 


conceiving " 2 ; ckG " reflecting, demurring." 8 

Remark. If the third radical be 3 or ^, the zammah, or 
third vowel, is changed to kasrah, as : ^JUo* "being com- 
forted," from JJL. " to console oneself." 

VI. J^liy e.g. Alw " resemblance, proportion" ; v;^ 

" approaching each other " ; Jf)UJ " descent '' ; u* 
" feigning sickness, malingering." In this form, 
if reciprocity is possible, it is clearly indicated 
and not merely implied as in III. 

1 Tke Past tense is li . . 

s& ' 

2 II Stem )y* " to fashion, shape " : Inf. yi^Ai " making H picture." 

The theoretical root fa "he shouted, divided, demolished," is really 
a different verb. 


3 Stems II and IV JL._, **!** " teaching and learning."' 


* J~3 


Remark. If the third radical be > or /c, the same chanse 


is made as in V, as : ^JIAJ tadawz, treating oneself medi- 
cally." from ^l " to be ill." 

In Urdu and Persian, this final ^5- is frequently changed to ( 

&" $> 

as : Up (for Ar. ^iJ tamanm) ; UU3 (for Ar. ^W, from c * 

' mashq " to walk, travel "). 

* - ? > x.O 

VII. JUflJl JlAfti! " being decided " (from JAJ "to 
cut off, decide"); o'A&j "being uncovered, re- 

vealed" (cftAf "to unveil, expose, etc., etc.") ; 
ft*j| " being demolished " ; ot^l " shunning, de- 

Remark. If the third radical be j or <^, it is changed to 


hamzah, as: *Uaftjf inqiza*, "the being ended, expiration.'' 
This hamzah is dropped in Urdu. 

Jf s G / ^ O x^x 

VIII. J*A! e.g. ^t+i^l " being collected " (5*^ " to col- 
lect, add ") ; u*&l i'tiraz, " putting oneself in 

the way, opposing " ( uir* " to come in the way 
of " J ) ; ;|AV! " being powerful " ( ;dJI " to be able, 

1 Also J (jfjf intr. " to happen": 
to be broad." 


have the power over"); (*j* A -\ "honouring"; 

x*> x X 

^U3i ittiba' " following, allegiance " (from & " to 
follow "). 

Remark. Certain euphonic changes occur if the first radi- 
cal be _j - ^ - 3, i.e. the radical j becomes e, and the radical 


^ or j becomes *, as : (3 ! *3t ittifdq, " agreeing, union, coinci- 
dence" (from <j "to find suitable, etc."); Uaj iddi'a, 

" claiming one's rights " (from l*j ! " to call out, pray, etc.") ; 
fUoji " pressing, crowding " (from ^3 " to crowd "). 

If the first radical be u - u* - J. the servile o becomes i. 

as : ^^tkoi " technical term, idiom, phrase " (from pL* "to be 
good, to be suitable, etc.") : wfjl^*J " being agitated " (from 

t_j^* " to strike, mix, etc.") ; ^i' " being informed " (from 

^li " to appear, be disclosed)." 

IX. This measure does not occur in Urdu. 

f x& </ f x O 

X. JUAJLti e.g. ,M>iiJ "getting oneself ready, apti- 
tude, mental power, etc." (from the theoretical 
root A " to count, account, etc." *) ; jUAi-i " ask- 

1 This final alif must be looked for under } in the dictionary. The 

xC/x ..'^x 

verbal nouns are : u;^ - V>^ etc.. etc. 

2 Its verbal noun of IV ( ^|i*l ) signifies " making ready." 


Lag pardon " (_Ji* " to cover, hide, pardon ") ; 

JU*JLt " using, use " ( JU* " to work, do, act ") ; 

^<* <j 
ftlAJLi " tendering resignation from office " (from 

la* " to pardon)." l 
Remark. The same changes take place as in IV q.v. 

(e) Participles. 

(1) The active and passive participles are also used as 
adjectives and substantives, as: ^Jl* "knowing, a learned 

^JI " having capacity, fit " ; O 5 ^* i: blessed, 


late" (i.e. deceased, of Muslims); ^i*.* '"mad" (^pos- 
sessed by a Jinn). These are Active and Passive Participles 
of I Stem. 


II. J*&* f Act., and cVa* Pass., as : fi* mu'allim 

"teacher" ; pl**> mu'allam, "taught." 

f sf f , ,f , > 

III. JeU* Act., and JUlix Pass., as : 1>*1.* " guardian " : 

opposing, confronting " : -()U mubarak. 
" blessed, auspicious." 

Infinitive j&e. 


f o t f xO f o 9 

IV. clix> Act., and JUi* Pass , as : J^* " squandering, 

extravagant"; &-*"<> "benefactor"; 

' polytheist, one who implies partnership, to 
God " ; *jpc " made ambiguous, ambiguous." 

., and J*iix Pass., as: *t*^ " expect - 

ing " ; yaLo " thinking within oneself, anxious " ; 

(3*i* muta'allim, " student, taught " ; ~*Sji* " ex- 
pected." 4 

VI. cUiiix) Act., and JiclAL* Pas., as: v^ULc " follow 

ing, successive " ; o^lJ^ ' " mutually acquaint- 
ed"; oil/x> " following each other, successive, 


f ^f sbf 

VII. eUftuo,* as: \J'** munkashif, "revealed." 4 

/ ,o>> f ,,f '<*! 

VIII. Jiix) Act., and d*ii* Pass., as: *ai* "one who 

rests or leans upon, believing in " ; A*i* " leaned 
upon, trusted " ; J&*A watching for, expec- 

"to become mutually acquainted with"; o,My " to ride 
an animal one behind another ; to be synonymous." Vide p. 287. foot- 
notes 1 , 3 and 4. 

2 Pwfe p. 287, footnotes 3 and 4. 

x * xO 

H fetj is neuter. 


CO-* s'bf 

tant " ; u^xi/o " a partner", ^jfyLS^o "shared, 

held in common" ; j*aj&so 1 abridged, an ab- 
IX. Not used in Urdu. 

X. (J*fli~* Act., and JUii..* Pass., as: j 

tracting. drawing out"; JU&~-* ''coming to- 

wards, the future"; ^sou** "extracted"; 

-Oj. o 9 , o ^ c ? 

cU**-^ 1 " brought into use, used " ; i^~.^l~s> 
"thought to be good, commendable, virtuous." 

(/) Quadriliterals. 

Quadriliteral verbs also occur in Arabic ; they have a ground 
form and three derived forms. A feAv derivatives only are 
found in Urdu from Stems I and IT. 

" Os 

I. Q. cU*i. This is transitive and intransitive. Ex- 
amples : -i*^ :: to cause to swing to and fro, to 

, .0^ ^ s<j, 

be wavering " ; J jJj " to shake " ; ^y " to trans- 

f C, f ? f 

Active Participle JU*>. Examples: 

tain, wavering " ; Jjb* (not used in Urdu) ; 



r, the Act. Part., not used in Urdu. 


f xcx.? f xo- > 

Passive. Participle Jl**. Examples : v *?i/c " dangled, 

' C " J> 
suspended ; also hesitation, doubt." p**^* *' i n " 

terpreted, translated." 

/VxGx f'.-<" 

Infinitive *U*J. Examples: ***iO (not used in Urdu); 

,xOx "Ox 

*J>J) "earthquake"; **j3. "interpreting, transla- 

II. #. cU**> Examples : v i*xi "to hesitate ( - 

>J>J " to be shaken " (by an earthquake). 

Participle Jia.Lc . Example : Jjl>** " shak- 
ing, quaking, agitated " (perhaps not used in 

Passive Participle JUUoi* . Example : J.)!^'* " shaken 
by an earthquake " 

f ft,,, f <,,* 

Infinitive Ji*iJ. Examples : v-jAooJ " vacillation " ; J^IP 
" being shaken ; an earthquake." 

(g) Relative Adjective. 

(1) The Arabic relative adjective is formed by adding to 
substantives, adjectives, pronouns, and particles, the suffix 

cff -*yy** (which in Urdu and Persian becomes <^ -) and re- 
jecting the final x ' of the feminine, as : jl* " science, learn- 

1 Note that the doubled ;/ is retained in Urdu in the Abstract Noun. 



ing, etc."; ^ 'ilmmiyy (in Urdu and Persian 'ilmi) 

''scientific " : ,^-4^. (shamsiyy** , shamsi) ' solar " ; ^LJ| hu- 

man"; ^fi^ "actual, true," from Ar. &*&* (in Urdu 
fk tabi'iyy (tabVi) " natural." from **i*b (Urdu 


from <&c ' Mecca." 

(2) Final i - ^ - ^ are changed to j before the suffix, as : 
'asawiyy. from L^ "staff"; ^*> ma'nawiyy, from 


or ( J>*A " meaning " : Uj, from 1*^ " Delhi " 

If the final a be the fifth letter, it is dropped, as : ^L+Z 
^x "Musfcafa (chosen)." 

(3) If the noun be of the measure cUi, the following vowel 

% ^ 
change takes place: malik '"king"; ,^U malakiyy** (in 

Urdu malakl) " kingly." 


(4) Another form of the suffix is ^t principally used in 

technical terms, as : ^U-^ (in Urdu jisrnani) " corporeal"; 
^*J) " spiritual." 

(h) The Abstract Noun and Collective Plural. 
(1) An abstract noun is formed by adding (in Urdu 

-o ^ 

& ) to the relative adjectives, as: i^l-ol (in Urdu wtuJLJi J) 

1 Note that the doubled y is retained in Urdu in the Abstract Noun. 


jp. *< 

"humanity"; &*& (in Urdu ^**f) "quality," from the 

f <i* 
Arabic -a^ l " how ? " 

f f f fs ' 

(2) In theological terms o^ - is found, as : o^Xc " the world 

of angels " ; c^-ja* " omnipotence " ; ej*V " divinity." 
(3) From some relative adjectives, a. collective plural is 

^ O s 

formed by adding (in Urdu and Persian ). as : ^j*i 

f$ G, 
" materialist, atheist, etc." ; **j*s (in Urdu and Persian 

Ai^fci dahriyya) " the sect of materialists or those that main- 


tain the eternity of matter" ; *4V (in Urdu and Persian 
suffyya) " the sect of Sufis." 

(t) The Noun of Time and Place. 

*,<.,, f ^ f,,<,s f,<ss 

The measures are JA*> or JLiu ; and iii* or lUt*.* Ex- 

amples : wJ^c " school, i.e. a place where writing is taught " 

s s s ' (f ' ' s - 

(from v^ " to write") ; ^j**- 10 ' place of egress, etc." (^j^- 

<J ' C. s 

" to go or come out. depart, emerge ") ; Ji.j- " place of in- 
gress " ( J^S " to enter ") ; ^j^*^ " the place or time where 

people sit, an assembly" (from 

1 "-ilj in the dictionary must be looked for as though derived from 

s s f <" 

til^ " to cut," the verbal noun being vJuf . 

* The second vowel is not constant, thus tnaqburah or maqbirah or 

maqburahf" grave-yard " (from _j3 " to bury"). 


mosque" (from ***- "to prostrate oneself in adoration") ; 

" a place of slaughter, a vital spot " ; Usuo 1 '' a stage, 

<** ' " 

place " (from cU. " to alight") ; f\&> a place of standing, 

place" (from ^ "to stand"); &^^> "a place of study, a 

Muslim college " ; <u&x> " the place of giving a decision, a 
court, a department." 

(j) Noun of Instrument. 

S'O Jf^sO Jf ,<, 

The measures are J*A* , or al*i* , and JUa>o . These are 

readily distinguished from the nouns of time and place by 
the kasrah with which the initial servile mim is pointed 


(mi ), Examples : jfei* " shears " (from (bJ " to cut, arn- 

' <J s 's O 

putate"); Ja^xi or Ala^ixi "any polishing instrument * " 

" ' ^ sss 

(from c&o) ; ^j* mizdn " scales or balance " (from &j>j " to 

weigh ") ; the proper form for the latter would be 
miuxan, ' vide ' (a) (6) p. 282. 

(k) The Diminutive. 

SOsJ> f.'*''* f<J 

The measures are Ji* and 1&&*. Examples : * 
humble slave, a slave boy, or a little son of a slave " ; 
" Husayn ; also the dimin. of hasan good, beautiful, etc." ; 
*(, sJ> <* * 

a lake or small sea " (^*u " sea "). 

1 In Urdu and Persian also " a palace." 

2 Often a smooth, round stone or shell. 


(/) Verbal Adjectives. 

(1) Simple Adjectives denoting an inherent quality are de- 
rived from the simple triliteral but are irregular in measure. 

Remark. The following words are found in Urdu: *_*ju* " diffi- 

G o f 

cult " ; ^*6 " zero " (in Ar. also " empty ") ; .JL* "hard ; the loins , 

offspring" (in Urdu, the adjective not used); ^^ "good, beauti- 
ful" ; i^AtL " rough " ; yjUL " cowardly " ; a IsJi " brave " ; tyliJs* 

" thirsty " ; & jj* " naked."' 
Verbal nouns on these measures also occur. 

(2) The Participles are also used as adjectives and sub- 

(3) Intensive Adjectives or Intensive Agents are on the 
measures : 

/G ,. fb ' 

el*** Examples : ^A.J " very compassionate" (of God) ; 
fxl* " very learned, omniscient " (of God or man 
but jJU of man only) 

Remark. This measure is not alwaj-s intensive, as : o*^ 
; ' sick" ; J*i* " ailing " ; ^A. " a sage, philosopher, physi- 
cian (of Greek system of medicine) " ; J*U " slain " = J^ifix. 
Pass. Part. ; o* t ^ ' witness " = Act. Part. 

S(,J>' f<j9, 

J^** Examples : j^x* " very patient " ; j^i* " very for- 

giving" (of God); J^l "a great eater, a glut- 

* f * 
ton " ( J^i ) ; J ^ " an utter ignoramus." 

<js o 
I The measures are of course <JU - <J*i, etc. , etc. The beginner 

need not study the measures of the simple adjectives. 


f Sk f &, 

JUj Examples : v 1 ^ : ' a great or habitual liar" ( = 

"fa' ^ s 

v^^ not used in Urdu) ; ^f = ^1* ; ^lUs very 
unjust or tyranical." 

f ~ 
This measure is an intensive of JUtj, and so professions 

are commonly on this measure, as : f l^ " barber, etc." ; 

f '$" 5> * 

Jlai " a great mimic, an act or professional story-teller " ; 

" a money-changer, banker, ' sc&ro/?' " : Jl*J " a green-grocer 
(but in Urdu used for baniya). 

Greater intensiveness is given to a few adjectives by add- 

ing 5 ' to imply unity, as : *-*^ "a very learned man." 
(4) Adjectives of Colour or Defect are : 

9^ 9, * ?,<-, 

JUii* masc. > Examples : >M " red " (fern. *^*. ) ; ^^i 

?, O, <(' *<>, 

*iUi 3 fern. ) " yellow " (fern. [,&*> ) ; ^ j*i " lame by na- 

,0s & s ' 

ture" (fern, ky ) : ^^1 * " blind " ; ^ " deaf" 

(fern. *U-^). 
Remark. This form undergoes no permutation of weak 

letters; u^i?' "white" (not 

1 This intensive ? is rarely found in Urdu. 

? S<JS 

* Jn Arabic jUif . 

8 In Arabic *iUi 


* i.e. a'my for ^f^ 


(5) The Elative or Noun of Superiority ( = comparative 
and superlative) from the simple triliteral, has for the mascu- 
line the same measure as the Adjective of Colour or Defect. 

> ^ f * x <>s 

J* ' ' masc. \ Examples : 4^^' "more or most beauti- 

es r 

^** fem. 1 * ful, better " &~^ " beautiful " = crt-"" ; J^ 1 

" more or most excellent " ( cUti " excellent, dis- 
tinguished "); jrf\ "greater, greatest" (^ 
Perhaps the only feminines of the elative, found in Urdu, 

,<,9 ,<,> $>' 

are: ^^ (fem. of rf\ ), and ^Jy * (fem. of Jy ). 

(m) Gender. 

(1) There are two genders, masculine and feminine. The 
place of the neuter is generally supplied by the feminine. 

The ordinary method of forming a masculine from a femi- 
nine is by supplying a (plural o I). Examples: Jii* 

king," &A* 8 "queen"; x)|.j "father" (from **j " to give 
birth"), SJtj "mother"; ^ti "powerful," fem. *>>t>; f*fc* 

1 The feminine is used as a superlative only. 

> *, 

2 I7fc? ^l,not to be confused with auk} ^1 "worthier" from 

f - - 
3 oKlx, the regular feminine plural of *?ix> is not used in Urdu. 


" great," fern. *+J*t . _v>j* " dear" fern. *#> ; ^i^> 1 
served, waited on," fem. &*jsvo ; J^x> ^ ^ teacher " fern 

(2) For the feminines of cU>'', vide (I) (4) and (5) pp. 

(n) Declension. 

(1) The singular is as follows : 

Norn. . . j*i>iL kazir** " present." 

Gen. . 

Ace. . . "\j^(L hazir*". 

Remark. When the vowels are doubled thus -^- , they 
are pronounced an, un, in. This is called tanwn 8 ' giving 
the n sound." In Urdu, the final "* of the nom. is alwavs 
dropped. The gen. does not occur. The ace. (with the 
tanwin] is used as an adverb. 

(2) The Dual is formed by adding to the singular -an' for 
the nominative, and -ayri for the oblique cases. 

Remark. In Urdu the oblique case only is used, with the 
final vowel omitted, as : ^^'J * walidayn " parents " : eri^La- * 
janibayn '' both sides, the two parties." 

1 ^i. " to serve," f&lL " one who serves, a servant." 

2 Act. Part, of II Stem. 

f <JS 

3 Measure JU*j. 

* In Urdu pronounced as though written with the Hindi diphthong 
at, as: walidain, janibain. 



(3) The regular Masculine Plural is formed by adding to 
the singular -un a for the nominative, and -in a for the oblique 

Remark. In Urdu the oblique case only is used with the 
final vowel discarded, as : &>;<&*> hazirin " those present'' ; 

b nazirin ''beholders"; u^/^-T akjiinn "those that 

come after, posterity"; eH/^-'J* muta*akhirin (pi. of the act. 
part, of IV Stem^tf ) '" the moderns." 

(4) The regular Feminine Plural with the final vowel end- 
ings etc., dropped (-at), is also used in Urdu. It may be 
added : (i) to verbal nouns of any measure (in Urdu of both 

genders), as : oKU? kamalat** M perfections " (sing. JU*"); ouUjJLJ 
taslimat (sing. f^~3 ; in Urdu fern.) "salutations"; ol^i^i 

ikjirajat (sing. ^iM ; in Urdu masc.) " disbursements, ex pen - 

jf s s <> ' ' <, 

ses" ; oU.Hk*l (sing. ^^*' ; in Urdu fern.) " idioms, tech- 

nical terms"; (ii) to participles used as substantives, as: 
/ , , 

kd*inat "entities, creatures, the universe"; 

makjiluqdt " created things, creation " ; aid>^xi mawjudat 
11 existing things, etc." 

Remark I. In imitation of the Arabic, this feminine ter- 
mination is, in Urdu, occasionally added to Persian and even 
Hindi words, as : oUuli. kjianajat " houses " ; oU*!^. chitthi- 
yat (vulgar) " letters." Such plurals, however, should be 


Remark II. The gender of this regular femiuiue plural is. 
in Urdu, generally that of its Urdu gender in the singular, 
as : olii^jja., m. pi., " animals, brutes " ; o^JlU^, m. pi., " fan- 
cies" ; oC&o i (noun of place), m. pi.. " places" : o^, f. 
pi., "movements, etc." (pi. of &j*. AT., in Urdu ta^A.. f.). 
Vide also (o) (2). 

Some of these plurals may be used as singulars in Urdu. 
as : - j^y* oti/j j| " a criminal occurrence has occurred " ; 
&- (_>-*>; ^ o l ft*asu ' an investigation is going on." Some- 
times even the Hindustani plural is added, as : &#&* sifette. 

pi. of eli*, the reg. Ar. pi. of <&* (Urdu oJu) ' attributes,, 
qualities." Vide also (o) (2). 

(o) Broken. Inner, or Irregular Plurals. 

(1) These are so irregular and various that no rules greatly 
assist the memory. Though irregular, some measures are 
commoner than others. The broken plurals are formed by 
a change tf vowels within the word, and in some cases with 
an ending as well. Some nouns have more than one broken 
plural and occasionally a regular masculine or feminine 
plural as well. When a noun has more than one meaning 
in the singular, it usually has a different form of plural 

/ o- ^ J '- p 

for each, as: c^w bayt ' house, a couplet." pi. o^j buyut 

f *>' 
' houses." and olj? abyat " couplets." 

(2) The broken plurals are really collective nouns, or 
singular nouns with a collective signification. The regular 

1 The regular feminine plural is frequently added to nouns with a 
neuter sense. 



feminine plural in -at is sometimes added, as : j*}+ jawhar 
"jewel," br. pi. yM^ jaivahir 1 "Jewels, jewellery/' double 

pi. et^A|^ " varied kinds of jewels." 

Broken plurals of broken plurals occur in Arabic, as : ^; 

/xGx J> xx 

rukn " pillar," br. pi. Jiy, pi. of pl-t^t;', but these are prac- 
tically not used in Urdu. 

Remark. Broken plurals used in Urdu are not necessarily 
of the same gender as their singular [vide (n) (4) Remark II], 

xOx C-x 

as : u>b, f. " direction," br. pi. ot^ti, m. ; oJj, m. " time " 

(from oJj " to appoint a time "), br. pi. olfjl, f. As in the 
case of the regular feminine plural [see (n) (4), Remark II], a 
few broken plurals in Urdu are sometimes singular, and some- 


times singular or plural, as: lyi " mouths," in Urdu fern 

f 9 f + 

sing. " rumour " (from sing. ty and f " mouth ") ; Jf>-l (br. 

pi. of Jl^), m. sing. ; VT"*' (br. pi. of --**-) in the sense of 
" implements, goods," m. sing. ; but in the sense of " causes," 

m. pi. : oUJl (br. pi. of -i^) gen. masc. pi., but also used as 
a sing. So, too, the Hindustani plural is sometimes added, 

1 Even foreign words introduced into Arabic are given broken 
plurals, as: (^fc'^i " falcons" from Pers. ^-^U* 1 ; oli*^ " papers" 

from Pers. <i* ; ,$Ly aweak " whiskies," from Eng. c-j "vtafc"; 

Oxx J>^ 

"doctors," from Eng. i$t. 


*>* 2 

as : <- &j*Ks>> hukkam-o se " from those in authority" (kulc- 
kdm, br. pi. of hakim) ; ? y^*1 " to the nobles " (umara*, 
pi. of amir). 

Lucknow differs from Delhi in the number of some broken 

(3) Broken plurals are formed by adding letters, rejecting 
letters, or changing the vowels only.' Measures of those 
broken plurals that occur in Urdu are : 


(i) JUu'i The sing, is a triliteral of any measure, as : 

.- <j <j 

l*UaJ ''bodies" (jism sing.); p&sj Borders" 

'*" x 

(hukm) ; U^t a#hya " : things " (rt. U, Pret. *Ui) ; 

jlxkt information, news" (khabar) ; *'^f " opin- 


ions" (sing. ^5^). 

If the 2nd radical be ^ or ^, it is retained in the plural. 
as : Jl>^l " state, circumstances," pi. of Jl^. (rt. J>., Past 
tense Jla- intr. " to change") . &-*f 'ayn "eye " (br. pi. &k*\ 
a'ydn) ; as fern. pi. = " eyes," but as m. pi. = " grandees." 

A few words of the measure d*l* and J**i also take this 
plural, as : ^lax^f companions," pi. of >-^Uo ; il^i (also 
" witnesses " (shahid) ; ol^A' " nobles " (pi. of sharif). 

1 As Jlc moi "property," pi. ^\j*>\ amwal: ^(!& kitab " book," pi. 
fy j> 

>_j;? kutub: o-l asad " lion," pi. ,>*,! tisti (pi. not used in Urdu). 


ft) O r o 

(ii) J>** The sing, is usually of the measures t>* - cU* 

>> XX * 

JU* - <J* or J**, as: jyT ''matters, affairs." 

y? " ff 

(amr); ^ ''the sciences" ('Urn) ; ^y "towers. 

bastions, signs of the zodiac " (hurj) ; 


" khigs " (malik) ; ^-t (also ^f v ,-'</ ] ) " lions " 



A few words of the measure ckl may take this form, as : 
A ' witnesses " = A^\ (sing, shahid). 


(hi) *^U The sing, is usually the verbal adjective J*- 
if applicable to rational beings, if without a pas- 
sive signification,* and if not derived from verbs 

* "*. 
with the 2nd and 3rd radicals identical 8 as : *f_' 

(faqlr) " the poor " ; *t^l il chiefs, nobles '' (amir*) ; 

~> x x > 

l^* ''the poor" (yharib) ; *U^A. -sages, philoso- 

XX / X X.? 

phers " (hakim) ; U*u " the noble '' (najlb 6 ) ; *~^> 
' : chiefs " (sing. i_r**; ) ? ^*V " misers " (bakfill). 

l The plurals ^^f twtwi end ^t unSd are not used in Urdu. 

* As JUSJ "slain." 

3 As >LX> " to extend, prolong." 

* In Hindustani amir often means " rich." 

b This title was given to a body of special Indian troopa, who even- 
tually degenerated into a lazy rabble, and henro the term became con- 
temptuous when applied to soldiery. 


J5" - 

Some masculine adjectives of the measure Jl* with the 

same restrictions as above, may take this plural, as : *lyu 


" poets " (sfa*'t>) ; *3la* the wise " ('aqil) ; *UX* " the learn- 

,' f 
ed " ('alim) ; &%=* " the ignorant" (jahil). 

y~ G- f * 

(iv) >JUj? The plural of <J** when applicable to rational 

beings, but chiefly from verbs whose 2nd and 3rd 

'& ; 

radicals are identical, as : *Ufcl atibba* 1 " physi- 
cians " (sing, tabib, rt. ^ " to treat the sick ") ; 
*lxi.i "friends" (kabib) ; * l **il ambiya "prophets" 
(sing. c j* i , Pret Ui ; ; *Ujt awliya* " benefactors, 

saints" (sing. Jta ) ; Ijy 1 "relations, those near" 


f *<,*,'$?, ,<,, f^y^ 

(v) Jl** The singular may be J** - JU> - JUi _ a'JUi . a'LJ 

and other measures also, as : v 1 * 3 " robes " (sing. 
sawb) ; )^ (also;>su) " seas " (bahr) ; JUa. " moun- 

'tains " (jabal) ; Jl*; " men " (rajul) ; Jl-^ " ha- 

f ,<j , 
bits., good qualities" (sing. *J^, in Urdu ^Ui) ; 

J, " letters " (sing. *Jj ruq'ah, in Urdu rz^'a). 

For Uktf 



(vi) Jl* The singular is a verbal adjective of the niea - 

* '. 
sure cUl not derived from verbs whose 3rd radi- 


cal is 3 or ^, as : fX*> " governors, rulers, judges " 

/\X/ xx/ 

(hakim) ; Jlf=> (also ^) " the ignorant" 
(jlli " lovers " ('dshiq) ; $ " infidels " 
wiy nuwivab ' " deputies " (w*t&). 

/x Ox 

(vii) ^**i The singular is chiefly a quadriliteral whose 
antepenultimate letter is a quiescent long vowel. 

'-: V 

as: &x*jl (in Urdu azmina) "times" (zaman) ; 

t!J x 

*lvi "examples" (misal) ; *f^t (also l*^< and 

xOx >< 

^Ua.1) "friends" (haKb*); *)&1 "proofs" (dart/): 

^ O x J? 'x C, 

Aj^if " medicines " (sing. *T>> ) ; &-J| " tongues, 
languages" (lisari) ; **j' or *# " Imams, exem- 

>> XX 

(viii) cUl The singular is a feminine quadriliteral (final 

S not counted) whose third letter is a servile long 
vowel (quiescent), whether the singular end in the 

feminine 5 or not, as: _>* "islands" 


1 But nawwab (JU* ), intensive noun, " a govenor," in Urdu vul- 
garly nawab. 

* The plural JUif (No. iv) is commoner for the verbal adjectiv e 


, " pamphlets " (AfL ; ) ; tJtfuL^ " volumes " 
&&*XL> ) . ^ ( not used in u r( i u ) noble ( sing 
. adj.) ; J51^S, p l. o f s&awaZ " north wind ") 
and of shimal "left hand"; JJl^ "truths" 
(sing. <&Ato. , in Urdu o^xa^ ) ; wJU^ and 
"rarities " (sing. %?** and <u.'). 

This measure is the plural of a few other cases, as : 

*..' x 
" qualities, habits " (sing. &LA ) ; ^5Ui "personal pronouns.. 

f .. ' - 
consciences " (zamir) ; ^^ ' needs " ( <*V^) 

J x- 

(ix) J*y The singular is a substantive or adjective 

-^ : * ". *.' '. 

of the measure i_M' (or rarely <J*^') and <>icU } as : 

-*J|> " moulds " (sing, qalib or qalab) ; ^l^i. " seal- 
rings " (khatim or khatam) : g^ " followers " (tabi 1 

j)U ) ; v^Lr^ " sides " (janib) ; JL^l^ " sea -shores " 


(sakil) ; iSAf^ii " witiiessess " (shahid) ; u 6 '^ (f r 


" distinguished people, the upper classes" 

(sing. <kfila.) ; ;iiy "rarities" (sing. 'ij> ); 
"advantages" (Sx5l ) ; iXcyi "rules" 


(x) JJl*i The singular is either : (i) a quadriliteral sub- 

stantive or adjective ( ii not counted), the letters 
of which are all radical, or (ii) a quadriliteral ( 

1 Practically the plurals of 'aj'lb and yharib. 


not counted) formed from a triliteral by a pra- 
fixed f - c or f, as : j^\ft- " gems " (jawhar j*j-) ; 
V jl*o "experiences" (J^J); u*)'** "colleges" 

(sing. *-;>*) ; JjU* " stages " (*^); Jl*> " places 
where one stops or dwells, quarters of a town " 

( &svx> ); ^JUx) " meanings " ( _*** in Pers. ^i**> 

" " * 9 " ' 

ma'ni and v jji*^ ma' no) ; vJ^*' ' " near relatives. 

etc." (sing. ^^ " a near relative, a neighbour ' ; 
also elative " nearer, nearest") ; jM\ " grandees ' 
(sing. j\ ) ; v*>^* X) or -*3tax) ;< misfortunes " 

^ X. 

(xi) cV^** The singular is a quinquiliteral (5 not in- 

cluded) substantive or adjective of which the 
penultimate letter is a long vowel (a, u, or ), as : 

"sulfcans" ( vtjbL, ; ; ^^bt^ "devils 

1 Adjectives of the measure Jif f especially with the superlative 

2 ^ ^ 

meaning, have a plural J^Uf when used as plural substantives, as : 

' J" XX 

Jlcl (in Urdu and Persian l(e] ) "the highest parts" ; ,j\\ "the 

yrandees, nobles"; ^i.y " the end parts "; cUlj " beginnings, nrut 


part "(pi. of J,l). 


(shaytan) ; ^li* " boxes " (sanduq) : Uul*3 " lit- 
erary compositions " (tasnif) ; fJUl " climes " 
(iqUm) ; ^J'-ix " keys " (miftdk) . 

(4) The above measures are common in Urdu. Others 
less common are : 

"? i, t s, f^ * f,* 

(a) cA*J The singular is Jlj . <JUj - <J'JU* . aJjO if not derived 

from verbs whose 3rd radical is j or ^, as : ^Jk? " books " 

S J>J> ffy 

(kitab); JU^ "messengers" (rasul); ^(X* "cities" (sing. 
> ,- $yy 

***** ) : o*r* "carpets, beddings" (firaah). 

* '. *. *' 

(6) JUj The singular is usually <$!* , as: *f^ "wise sayings, 

^c, ' r ' 

maxims, sciences" ( <*, in Urdu <+&. ) ; ^x*, "morals, 

qualities, deeds, biographies" (S^-*, in Urdu o^* " mode 
of walking, manner of living, character "). 

*..": * '. 

(c) AJUJ The singular is a verbal adjective, measure cUl> , that 

denotes rational beings and is not from verbs with j or ^ 

fs" " ' 

as the 3rd radical, as: <uli "students" (t&libl); A!^ 

" ignorant persons " (jahil). 

f ~" f . f '. 

(d) 4jL*J The singular is a verbal adjective, measure J^U f that 

denotes rational beings and is derived from verbs with ^ 

1 In Arabic <ult "schoolboys," and t_)tt (both plurals 
" seekers, adult students." Amongst Indians and Persians the plural 


>ULt is used, but in Arabic this measure is not found from 


f x f f,,S> 

or ^ for the 3rd radical, as: SJUii (for 'S^AS ) "judges" 
(sing. (jcUi 1 ) ; Sy^* (for &Jj ) "governors" (sing. J|j 

(e) aLu The singulars are commonly Jl*i - JU . JU* as : i)^c 
"gazelles" (especially when very young) (sing, ^ozai): 

o o 

<**10 * "boys" (sing. ^Juiom); *05^ " companions " (raflq). 
(/) <J"f The singular is commonly JU* - JU* - JL>. as : .j^AJ' 

"souls" (sing, ^j^fti ) ; ^jJL*) ( = ^^ii ) sing. faU ' a 
small copper coin of uncertain value ' (the pi. also means 

" scales of fish ") ; Ji^f ( = d>jj*. ) " letters of the alpha- 

fsfs Ox ff tto* 

bet" (sing, harf); ^ (for ) " hand," pi. jjl (for AJ>] ,. 

This form of broken plural is very rare in Urdu. 

/j-o f ,, f ,! f f . 

(gr) ^JUu The singular is commonly J**' - Jliu . JU J**i, as : 

a. "neighbours" (sing. jU ) : ^t^j "fires" ( ;l> ) ; 

/ x >r ^ 

ayJ " crowns " (sing. ^U for ^y ) ; ^I^J "brothers" 

/' >xx 

(sing, if for^kl ) ; ^UJU * (sing. aJuiam " a boy, slave "); 

* x 

Ll. When definite , aLqazl ^'fl^i. In Urdu and Per- 
sian the definite form only of such words ie used. 

In Persian and Urdu eilj 

8 In Persian and Urdu i. 

4 The br. pi. ^UU only is found in Urdu, in the sense of boys that 
wait on the virtuous in Paradise. 


(or e>U*-e) "youths, boys" (aing. ^> for J^ 
measure Jk> ) . 

' '?'] <j s & <jf 

(*) ^{*> J The singular is generally ^i . ^^ or j^Jk*. Ex- 

JU amples: ^j\Si ( j(ii ) "judicial opinions" (sing. 

'<: - ff , , , 

ISJ** ) ; J lAt ' "peoples" ( J| i ; ^ ; lsu ^ ; lsu* ) 

>f ^i'*' ' 

"deserts (sing. *1^su* ) ; <^l*i ( y(f& ) "claims" (sing. 

'<" ' fb^ , ,, 

} ; u*l)' J "lands, estates" (sing, ^ 

- ^-> 
(or ^cjLJ ) " prisoners " (asir) ; ^lij " orphans " (yatlm) . 

^\*i "boon companions" (nadlm); (j|SA "gifts" (sing. 

f* ' $ s 

hadiyyah* AJ^A ); (j\ej " subjects, etc." ( &^ i ra'iyyah): 

. .. 

Lli "sins" ( ^h^ for <x'Ui^ j.s 

(i) a'JU^ The singular is commonly a foreign substantive or ad- 

jective of five or more letters with the penultimate a long 
vowel. Occasionally it has four or more letters, the penul- 

f .' " 
timate not being a long vowel. Examples: <J'LJl Gr., 

/ y ,<,, f m " 
"philosophers" (sing. OyJL> ) ; A^Jilvc "angels" (sing. 

f ^ * * ' ' -^^ s, y 

and ,_jJU> ) ; jji/clti (also AAxiU) "disciples" (sing. 

, from the quadriliteral j.l3 "to teach"); 
(also &*.&*> ) " heretics " (sing, mulhid). 

In Persian and Urdu always ahali, arazi. 

f ' 

3 For the measure of the plural of superlatives vide (x) and foot- 
note, p. 314. 



(p) The Numerals. 
(1) The ordinals from one to ten are : 

Masc. Fern. 

f xx 

**J ahad** 



/ e/Ixil isnatdn'. 

o ) *'*> oKro< ' 

* 1 >x!x " 


4. awi' arba'af* ' 

o. *-+<* khamsat*' 

6. & sittat*" 

7. 4**- 

1 In Arabic, if not before a vowel, wShidah. talatah, etc. : in Unhi 
and Persian, wahida, aaluta, etc. 
J Declined like an ordinary Dual. 


Masc. Fern. 

( '( "" " 

f ^ samaniyat*" ^ saman. 1 

***** ^ 


9. AA~~> tis'at*** *~J tis'**. 

10. &/& 'asharat** j&e l ashr un . 

From 11 to 19. the numbers are formed by prefixing 

ss ^ s ^ s ^xx^lO 

the units to ten. as: j&c A^.f 8 masc , and Sy^e tf'^^i fern. 
" eleven." 

Remark. It will be noticed that from 3 to 10, the numerals 
assume the fern, form for the masc. and vice versa. There 
are other peculiarities that need not be mentioned here. 

(2) The Ordinals are : 

*$? * -<;; 

" First " is jy * on the elative measure JUit ; being a super- 

lative it has a feminine ^^ ula [(I) (5)]. "Second" to 

For ^iU!> : gen. 

^ In Arabic, if not before a vowel, wahidah, salasah, etc. : in Urdu 
and Persian, wahida, salasa, etc. 

In Urdu and Persian, ahad 'ashar, hadl 'ashar, sani 'ashar, etc. 

+ In Urdu and Persian, J,| awwal. 



f ' '. 

" Tenth " are on the measure t>l, as : J& (c4) ' " second " : 

/ * * ' 

eJ ( 3 l " third " ; 'lj l " fourth " ; the feminines are regularly 

formed by suffixing 5. 

" Eleventh" is j^f t/^-* 

" Twelfth " to " Nineteenth " are formed by adding " ten " 
to the ordinals, as : ^ ^ lj * "twelfth." 

(3) Distributives. The only measure (of three) found in 

f ~? f , f 
Urdu is JU* t as : &Jt> (in Urdu SM/OS) " by threes." 

(4) Multiplicatives : 

f t,j> 
" Single " is *,** (Pass. Part, of IV Stem). The rest are of 

$" f 
the measure of the Pass. Part, of II Stem, as : ^^i* rausanwa 

" double, a duplicate"; -iJU^ rawsaZfow" 11 "threefold, triple. 


three-sided " ; gj^o murabba'** " fourfold, square." 
(5) Fractions are : 

f O f <s? ff 

" Half " ^A>. Third to Tenth are on the measure J* o 

/ of f tj> f(,t f fs fi,y 

as : tJ> or ^li' " third " ; & or ; " fourth " ; 
" tenth." 

1 Fern. *#(> . <jjlj . iiwf; etc., etc. 

1 In Urdu and Persian, ahad 'ashar, hadt 'cwfutr, jam 'a*/wr, etc 
3 In Urdu and Persian, *ul, rub'jfushr, etc. 



f ^, 

The measure of the plural is jUil. 

(?) (1) Some nouns are used in Arabic with a following 

genitive, where in English an adjective is used, as : Jl* ^L*\* 

? ' " 
" rich" (lit. possessed of property). 

Other words giving the idea of possession and companion- 

* s> j> s> j> / 

ship, are: j'^zu 1 masc., ot i fem.,^! 1 \du; v ' 

/ ^o jfo 

'father"; (*! * ''mother"; e>?]' ; son"; oJj "daughter"; 

Jf ^ > 0> x ^^ f 

^f 4 "brother"; o^l a "sister." Examples: JJUV' 3 2ti 

Ox >" x 

'l-jalal " possessor of glory, glorious " ; v^^l **ti 2P 'l-jamb 

fstj*, 9 s 

(in Urdu, masc.) " pleurisy" : *)+*)] el<i za^" l-'amud ' ; being 

xO^, ^ > 

in the perpendicular " ; p*^ ^jl ulu 'l-'azm " ambitious, reso- 

'J -9- sJ> J> 

lute"; v 1 / 3 ^' or v'y^ "father of dust, i.e. dusty" (a 

1 Before the article al, zu is shortened in pronunciation to zu. 

j> ^ 
The first vowel of ^Jy is always short (ulu) and hence is sometimes 

f f 
written ^Jf. Note the shortening of the second vowel also for the 

article al. 

fs &J> 

2 Compounds with if except one or two in the plural (ikhwan), /*T 

4 0> 

and o>^-f, do not seem to be used in Urdu. Akh.-l " my brother," 
however, occurs in Urdu. 

3 Note this shortening of the vowel u before the article al. Simi- 
larly with t5 , as : a'UaJ) ^ fi 'Irjumlah. 



nickname given to 'All by Muhammad); ^-xaeuJt^j bu 'l-'ajab 
"wonderful"; <_rj*-'t t> &# 'l-hawas "capricious, sensual"; 

te\ r l " mother of cities" (i.e. Makkah) ; >iJUsJ| pi wmm" 

** > o 

'l-khaba*is " the mother of vices" (i.e. wine) ; Jtf-Jf cHl ^^ u 


'5 l -sabil " son of the road" (i.e. traveller) ; v^l vrtl " a G>d 

knows who, a parvenu, an upstart " ; ^>\^\ ol> bint* 'l-'inab 
(feni in Urdu because shardb is fern.) "daughter of the 

,-$*> 9 , o 

grape" (i.e. wine); &\*ji'< iy!^J ikhwan* 'z*-zamdn (m.) 

" contemporaries/' 

Remark. There appears to be no rule for the use or omis- 

> .<o *j 

sion of the article Jf after ji and *_,'. It is usual after ^Jy, 

but in the Qiir*an there are several instances of its omission . 

(2) The gen. sing, of ji is ^<: 2 4 ; the gen. and ace. of 

9 * ' / 

yy the pi., is (.5^ zawi or ^\ tilt. 

Remark I. Persians and Indians ignore case and number. 
as : }> (^ " animate " ; ,>|i>*l-.| ^i " capable " ; ; ( xjilll <^)<? 
'l-iqtidar powerful" ; >*J| ^Jjl uU 'l-'azm- ^\ J)\ : 
\ utt 'l-'ilm "the learned." 

1 When the article al precedes any dental, liquid, or sibilant letter, 
it is assimilated with it and the letter is doubled by way of compensa. 
t ion,. -is: as-sabil for nl-sabll. Those 14 "solar lottors " aro: o, >1> 

^, ^. ;, 3. u-, oi, u", u, *, , J, c^. 

* The aec. I ^ za is not found in Urdu. 


They even prefix ^i to Persian words, as : tj*. ^& " wise " ; 
-i "intelligent." 

Remark II. The Persian sahib-mansab " officer " (Pers. pi. 

sahib -mansabari) is apparently the Arabic construction _^U> 

^ Ox 

V^>i*> "possessor of rank" ; so too in sdhib-dil, though dil 

is Persian. Sahib-i lakhi "king" is the equivalent Persian 
construction. This would account for the frequent omission 
of the izafat after sahib and explain why such terms as sahib- 
jamal and sahib-i jamal "beautiful" are both correct Per- 

fstss fs 

Remark III. After the Arabic words _>tJ>t (pi. of k_>;) ; and 

$ Ox 

J*f "people." etc.. the izafat is always used in Persian and 
Urdu, as : arbab-i nishat "dancers, singers, etc."; arbab-i 
ma'ni 1 "spiritual persons"; ahl-i mazaq "people of good 
taste"; ahl-i zaban "people of the mother tongue, those 
whose mother-tongue the language is." 

For Ar. ma'ny. 



(a) Nouns denoting males are masculine, those .denoting 
females are feminine. 

Exception. Masculine words such as qabila " tribe," khandan and 
gharana "lineage, household," and certain other words, remain mas- 
culine even when used in the sense of " wife." 

(6) MASCULINE are : 

(i) Hindi nouns in a, as : him "diamond"; aid "coarse 
flour" ; (jhard ' a globular earthen pot." 

Exceptions are, diminutives in -it/5, as: chiriya "small bird." 
Vide (c) (ii) p. 327. 

(ii) All abstract Hindi nouns in -d,o, as: chirkd,o " sprink- 
ling" (from chirkdnd, tr.) ; bacJid.o " defence" ; bhd,o " price 
current " ; and bhd,o ' flowing." 

^lost other nouns in u or o, as : dlu, P.. " potato " ; jddu. 
P. " magic " ; pahlu P. ' side " ; ItasJiw or hashv, vulg. kasho. 
Ar. "stuffing" (also in Rhetoric 'tautology"); bdzu P. 
" arm " ; bichchhu, H. " scorpion " ; bijju or bijjo " the In- 
dian badger." 

Exceptions. Balu, H. " sand" ; daru, P. H. " medicine, spirituous 
liquor, gun-powder " : rohu, H. (a large river fish) ; no,o, H. " boat " : 
hajw, vulg. hajo, Ar. "a satire, lampoon": abrH, P. "honour"; 
arzu, P. " wish " ; few or bo, P. " smell " : tarazii, P. " scales " ; jo, jTi 
'streamlet"; feio or i&u "nature, disposition." There are other 

(iii) Nouns ending in silent h, as: banda (*V) "slave"; 

(^) " anger " ; qissa " story, tale." 

1 Taken from Platts. 


Remark. If, however, the h (is) of an Arabic word be 
changed to t in Urdu (and Persian), the word is feminine, 

thus *l>vo, AT. becomes in Urdu manzila, m., or manzilat, 1 f. 

Exceptions. Banafsha "violet"; tawba "repentance": daf'a 
" time, section " ; sarfa " expenditure " ; fakMa " the Bar-tailed Tree 
Dove"; feminine also are such Arabic feminines as are formed by 
adding the feminine termination g to the masculine, as: malika 
"queen" (malik "king"); walida "mother" (walid "father"): 
shikra 2 " the female of the Indian sparrow-hawk." 

Remark I.Lasha " corpse" appears to follow the regular rule and 
to be masculine, but lash is feminine. The plural in common use is 

Remark //.The final silent h of masculines is sometimes changed 
to a and vice versa, as : gharana *J|^f " household " for gharana 1*1^4? ; 
raja iA\) for raja la.|j 

(iv) All (abstract) nouns in -pan, as : larak-pan ;; child- 
hood " and "childishness"; kamlna-pan (^ *'**+?} "mean- 

f sO 

(v) Arabic verbal nouns of the measure JUJl if'al u * ' 6 as : 

"beneficence"; iqbal "good fortune"; iqrar 
" avowal " : inkar " denial " ; isbat " proving, confirming." 

Exceptions. Ijlas ^SL*.^ "sitting, session"; idbar "turning 

back, decline of fortune" (opp. to iqbal); islah " correction, improve- 
ment"; ikrah "aversion"; ilhah "importunity"; imdad " assist- 

1 Manzil, also, is feminine. 

2 The male or tiercel is called chippak or chippakh. Many of the 
females of the hawks are incorrectly masculine in the dictionaries. 
Shikra seems to be a corruption from the Persian shikara " a bird of 

* Vide Appendix E. 


ing" ; trad " citing." Also a few more words of this measure ending 
in t o and 5 I. 

(vi) Arabic verbals of the measure cUftj tafa"ul nn , as : 
takabbur " haughtiness" ; taraddud "going to and fro, vacil- 

Exceptions. Tawajjuh A^y "regard"; tawazzu yi "performing 
the Muslim ablution"; tatvaqqu' "expectation": tamannaii+J (for 
Ar. .*i*i) "desire." Also all nouns of this measure ending in t, as: 

<*>x " 

lasalll (>r UJ "consolation": taraqql " promotion." 

(vii) Verbals of the measure d*lA to/a'?//**, as : taddruk 
I^J|A> ''punishment, remedy"; tafdivui o>li3 "difference. 



Exceptions. Tawazu ^(y "civility." Also nouns of this measure 
ending in -t, as: ^-ilxu tahaahi (vulg. for ,^1x6 /oAa^/K?). m. and f. 
" standing apart, taking exception to." 

^ x O 

(viii) Verbals of the* measure Jl*ii| infi'dl**. as : insirnm 
" ending " ; in^a/ " decision." 

e , <, 
(ix) Verbals of the measure Jl*i] t//t'5Z*". as : ikhtisnr 

'' abridgment " ; iliimds " petition." 

Exceptions. Ihtiyaj "necessity"; ihtiyak "care": isf.ilah "con- 
ventional term, phrase, idiom"; ittila' "announcement"; i'tiraz 
" objection." Also a few words of this measure ending in 5 and t. 
as: ibtida " beginning" ; iltifat " attention." 

i , <, 
(x) Arabic verbals of the measure Jti**-J isti'fdl**, as: 

" asking forgiveness " ; isti'mal " use." 


Exceptions. Isti'dad "capacity"; istikrah "aversion"; iatimdad 
" asking help " ; istid'a " supplicating" ; istirza " seeking to please." 

(xi) The Arabic Noun of Time and Place,, measure 
maj-al u * or maf'il"*, 1 as: masdar "source" (also the Infini- 
tive) ; maskan '' habitation " ; maqam place of standing or 
halting, a place, etc." ; makan " dwelling" ; mashriq "place 
of rising, the East" ; mag&rib '' place of setting, the West." 

Exceptions. Majal " scope, power " ; mahsliar " place of gathering, 
the Day of Judgment "; mahfil " place o ' meeting, assembly " ; majlis 
"place of sitting, assembly "; matjid "mosque"; manzil " a stage, 
halting place." 

(xii) The Arabic Noun of Instrument, measure 

mij'CLl**. as: misqal " any instrument for polishing metal." 

* . 
Exception. Minkhar ^s^o " nostril." 

(c) FEMININE are: 

(i) Most Arabic nouns ending in a, as: baqa perma- 
nence" ; bald :i calamity." 

A few, however, are masculine. 

(ii) All Hindi diminutives in -iyd, as: chiriyd "small 
bird"; dibiyd " small box''; phuriyd "pimple (small boil). 
Vide also (6) (i) Exceptions p 324. and L. 53 (h). 

(iii) Arabic nouns ending in o t, as : ulfat cJ^ " famili- 
arity " ; 'izzat " honour." 

Exceptions. ubiit " confirmation, proof "; sharbat "a draught. 
any fruit syrup," eau awre" ; wogt " time " [but the br. pi. awqat is 
fern.] ; khil'at " robe of honour" ; yaqut " ruby." 

1 Sometimes an js is suffixed to these measures as in madrasa, m. 
college"; maqbara, m. " mausoleum." 


(iv) Those Persian abstract nouns in t that are formed by 
dropping the n of the Infinitive, as: raft " going" (from 
raftan ;i to go ") ; guft " speaking " (guftan " to speak "). 

(v) Hindi abstract nouns terminating in -aJiat or -awal, 
as : ghabrahat " perturbation " ; bandwat " fabrication." 

(vi) Persian abstract nouns in -ish. as : ddnish " wisdom " ; 
nalish " complaint." 

(vii) Abstract nouns formed by suffixing an -t, as : Mul- 
tdnl "the Multan dialect" (but Multanl "a p'erson of Mul- 
tan," is com. gen.); zardi "yellowness" (zard. P. "yel- 
low");,t '"length"; bandagl "slavery" (banda 
" slave "). 

Many other nouns in -i are also feminine, as : roll 
bread": surdki ' gugglet. a water-vessel with long thin 
neck" ; haddl " bone." 

Remark I. Numerous Hindi masculines in -5 form feminines or 
diminutives by changing -5 into -t, as: ghorl "mare" (ghora, m.); 
rassl " rope, cord " (rassa " cable "). 

Remark II. Many nouns in -i are masculine, as : halhi " elephant " ; 
jt "life"; dahl "curds"; molt "pearl"; ght "clarified butter": 
mull " a Hindu gardener "; >lh'>h~> "washerman"; bhazan-chl "trea- 
surer " ; baiour-chl " cook." 

(viii) Hindi verbals formed by dropping the termination 
-na of the Infinitive, as : mar " beating" ; lut ' plunder" ; 
samajh " understanding." 

Exceptions. Khel "play"; noch "a plucking out"; 
dhakel " push, shove " ; nichor " extract " ; nach " dance " ; 
rang "colour." There are some others. 

(ix) Arabic verbals of the measure J^niS to/'t/"", as : tar- 
ib "incentive"; taslan "assuaging, tranquillizing": 


ta'mil executing, carrying into effect " ; ta'Km " instruction, 

Exception. Ta'wiz ^^ " amulet." 

f s <J 

(x) The Arabic Noun of Instrument, measure Jl*i* w/i'- 

-dl un , as: miqraz -'scissors, shears"; minkar "beak"; 
mizdn ' scales." 

Exception. Minshar " hand-saw "; mismar " nail, peg ": mi'yar 

(d) Twenty-one of the letters of the alphabet are femi- 

(e) Generic nouns are either masculine or feminine arid 
include both sexes, as: billi, f. ; a cat" (billd masc.) ; chil. 
f. ''a kite" (the bird) ; gidar, m. ;: a jackal " (c/idarm, f.) ; 
haran, m. (harm, f.) " the Indian antelope." 

Remark The words nar and mada may be added to distinguish 
sex, as : nar-ga,o " bull " ; mada fll or fil-i mada " female elephant" 
= hathnl. 



Hindi, like Sanskrit, employs the Deva-nagari or Ndgari 
alphabet, which is written from left to right. The alpha- 
betical order, is the order of the organs of utterance, begin- 
ning with the throat and ending with the lips. The follow- 
ing is the alphabet, with a transliteration : 

Votcds (Initial Form). 

Nagari ^^T*t<sW* tj^fr^ft 
Roman a a 

Urdu t T 

t * ka 

I u u ri e l 

ai 4 o s aw* 

>\ 1 ri j il' 

jf * y s y * 


V kha 9 ga w gha 

na 6 

1 In the Arabic alphabet there is no e sound ; the method of trans- 
literating this vowel in the Arabic and Persian character is a mere 

a The Hindi diphthong ai has, in the Arabic character, to be trans- 
literated ay. 

'* There is no o sound in Arabic. The method of transliterating this 
vowel in the Arabic and Persian character is a makeshift. 

* The Hindi diphthong au has to be transliterated aw in the Arabic 

& It will be noticed that the four letters n, as well as the Aruuwar 
or nasal symbol mentioned later, have all, in Urdu, to be transliter- 
ated &. 

Palatals . 

cha w chh m ja if jha *f na ' 


or Linguals 

ta 3 tha * da * dha 

Dentals . 

to *J tha 

dha r 

Labials . . 

Semi vow- 


V i v 

ya T ra W / 

o" ; J 

Sibilants. . 

Aspirate . . 

To the above must be added the nasal symbol Anuswar 1 
( ' ) or nasal n, and the weak aspiration Visarg ( : ). The 

1 It will be noticed that the four letters n, as well as the Anuswar 
or nasal symbol mentioned later, have all, in Urdu, to be transliter- 
ated ^. 

* The distinction between Anuswar ( ' ) and Anunasik ( & ) may 
be ignored. Before b, v, and p, anuswar is often pronounced like TO. 
In Urdu, anuswar or nasal n is transliterated &, but when it is final 
some writers omit the dot. In the Roman character, it is usually 
transliterated n or . It is common after a long, but rare after a 
short, vowel. This nasalization of a vowel by amiswar practically 
adds another letter to the alphabet. There is no nasal n in Persian 
and Arabic : it is incorrect to write qqref .for 


latter is rare in Hindi: it is sometimes used to transliterate 
the Persian final silent h. 

The numeral ^ after a word indicates that it is repeated. 

The mark indicates that a word is abbreviated, as docs 
a full stop in English. 

The vowel <t a is inherent in each consonant when no 
other vowel is written, thus qix = nagar. The final short a 
is not usually pronounced except in poetry. It is, however. 
generally pronounced after a final y or a final compound 
letter, as: ftn tiy a "woman," ^|^{ chandr* "moon." and 
also in a few monosyllables as H n "not" and w cJiJi a 

To denote the absence of the inherent vowel a, the symbol 
viram or 'pause' (jazm or sukun in Urdu) may be written 
under a consonant, thus * = & (and not kd). 

[Sanskrit has three vowels and one consonant in addition 
to those given, viz. : <t fl, Ifi, and ^ In (vowels) and 
oj la. They may all be ignored]. 

The initial form of the vowels given above, is only used 
to begin a word or a syllable. It thus performs one of the 
offices of hamzah in Urdu, corresponding to a hyphen in Eng- 
lish : thus **fc fd-ida is 

The following indicates the medial and final forms of the 

vowels : 

Vowels following a Consonant. 

bad bad bid bid bud bud 



It will be seen from the above that the secondary (medial 
or final) form of i, viz. f , is written before (but sounded after) 
its consonant. 

The vowels u and u ( and ), when in combination with 
f (T), are written * (ru), and ^ or T (ru) ; while the vowel 
ri ( __ ) joined to h (^), is written ^. 

When two or more consonants occur together without an 
inherent a, they should, strictly speaking, be united and 
written as one compound letter. These compounds are 
formed : (1) by writing one letter above the other, as : qj kk- 
5 tt ; and (2) by writing one after the other, omitting th e 
upright stroke of the first, as : ^ bd, l tth. 

The form ^"TSfT " to hear " is preferable to 551, as the root 
of a verb practically terminates a word. 

A few compounds change the original form, as : fj ksh (also 
written gr) =^ + 1. pronounced like x in fluxion, and in Urdu 

' In Hindi, words are found beginning with two or more consonants. 
According to Arab Grammarians, no word begins with two consonants. 

2 There is no e sound in the Arabic character. The employment 
of weak consonants, j (initial) and A (medial), to represent this vowel, 
is a makeshift. 

* In the Arabic alphabet, the Hindi diphthong ai has to be trans- 
literated ay. 

* There is no o sound in the Arabic alphabet. This employment of 
the weak consonant j to represent the Hindi vowel o, is a makeshift. 

& In the Arabic character, the Hindi diphthong au has to be trans- 
literated aw. 


oftener transliterated . than ^ ; and w= r + f, but pro- 
nounced hard like gy, as in ^rf (or i^Tf) = o^ " knowledge." 

The letter r (X) is common in compounds and has then 
several forms : ( 1 ) Initial ( * ) as in ^q sury* (colloquially 
suraj fiscal) ', ' the sun " ; note that this r is written over 
and at the end of the compound letter ; but if the compound 
is followed by a vowel, the r is written after the vowel, as : 
*H?f dharmi " religious " ; (2) when the r immediately follows 
another consonant, it is a short stroke as in vniT Agra, and 
if^W grahan ' eclipse (of sun or moon)." 

The compound letters are chiefly confined to MSS. and to 
Sanskrit works. 

The following are examples of some of the commoner com- 
pound letters : 

Some Compounds Letters 

n W ^ U ^ror* i IT w 
kt ky kkh gn r.hchh ' jj tt tth ' 



ly tw 


ddh } 

dm, dy 



nn nh 



ps bd 


II sht ' shth ' 8_hn ' st sn ss hm hy 
Each element of a compound must be distinctty enunci- 
ated, whether these letters are different or the same, as: 
^m pat-td si leaf" and mi* pat-thar* 4i stone." 

1 Note that in Hindi, these are two letters only. 

2 Note that in Urdu, the tashdid doubles the first letter only of a 
Hindi compound; (hus in pat-thar qu^ . it is the t that is doubled 

* v 

and in ach-chha ^fT , it is the ch that is doubled 


Compounds of three letters are very rare. They usually 
consist of a semi- vowel (* * <r or *) with a double compound, 
as : -^ ntr, m pty. ^ sty. Compounds of four letters may 
be ignored. 

Pro nunc iation. 

The orthography of Hindi is somewhat erratic. The 
popular way of spelling a word is not always correct. 

The vowels are pronounced as in Urdu, vide Introduction, 
page xxvi (20). In theory only does the vowel ri (m) differ 
from ri (ft) ; thus am kripa " compassion " is also written 
faniT. Colloquially, too. ri is pronounced and even written 
ir ; thus %T*n and faqi 

The letters ^ d and ^ dh. if written with a dot under them. 
(^-V) are pronounced r ( j ) and rh (AJ). For the pronuncia- 
tion of these hard letters, viz. "Z t, f d, ^ r. and their aspirated 
forms, vide Introduction, page xxiii (5) and (6). 

'f n is a cerebral nasal and is pronounced like the above 
hard letters by touching the back of the palate with the tip 
of the tongue while enunciating n. as : nfiftl gamt " counted." 
It is pure Sanskrit. In ordinary Hindi, it is generally writ- 
ten and pronounced f (o). 

= na is a guttural nasal as in thing or England. It is only 
found immediately before a guttural. In modern Hindi, 
the anuswar* is substituted for it ; thus ^1T danga " tumult." 
is, in Hindi. ^JTT daga (&&). 

^T is a palatal nasal as n in the English pinch or in the 
French magnifique. In Hindi this is usually changed into 

* n (o) is often pronounced as in the English not. It is 
properly more dental than the English n. It is occasionally 
interchangeable with - as : ^TT or ^^TT " the world." 


Pincott says: "The pronunciation of the four n's need 
cause no trouble. When conjoined as compounds with other 
consonants, their sounds are determined by the letters which 
immediately follow them ; thus, in pronouncing the words 
qrT an k- ^W nitch. *w ""'/- Wfl ant it is impossible to avoid 
giving to each n its proper pronunciation." 

The letters ar and ~ are common, the other letters n are 

^ y (csO usually pronounced as y in English, but occasion- 
ally as j ; thus *r* yug " an Age " is often written and pro- 
nounced 5T jug ; so too ^J sury* (tJ)j) " sun," is usually 
written and pronounced j^r^r suraj. [In Urdu f| is often 
turned into ^J. It is frequently substituted for the diph- 
thong at; thus <5*?tr samay "time, season," is erroneously 
often written w samai ; and also tt same (<*?), wf sama,i 
\<jL+~), and even WT sama,i, so too, JITC ga,e " cow " is often 
written JITW, *t, and even are. 

T r ( ) ) must be rolled or trilled, something like the French 
r. It is a distinct lingual. 

^r v or w ( ) ) It is often interchangeable with w b : thus 
TO or TO " jungle, forest." Note that w (1^*) is also writ- 
ten **T.' 

H sh (<Ji) is a lingual as in shut or the ss in session. 

l |A ( c4 or 4> ) is palatal, but often does not differ from 
H . It is often sounded and even written kh ; thus jfa dosh 
or dokh " fault" ; T1T bhasha or wr^I bluikha " speech, ver- 
nacular." ' 

l In Marwarl q = b, and ^ = v; ^ takes the place of * ; and q 
is the only sibilant. 


^ s (<j i is a dental sibilant. It is sometimes pronounced 
like *C ; thus mmasa or <UT*n asha " hope." The general ten- 
dency is to substitute 9 for the other sibilants.' 

^1 ph (4$) is vulgarly pronounced like /. 

When a word ends in a compound letter, the final a is col- 
loquially transferred ; thus l^i murkh a " fool" is incorrectly 
pronounced murakh. 

When a termination, beginning with a vowel, is added to 
a root of two syllables, as in such a verbtfis nikal-na, the 
vowel a of the root is discarded ; thus, the Preterite is nikla 
and not, as might be expected, nikal-a! 1 So too the plural 
of magar, " crocodile." is magro (ka) and not magaro (ka). 

[n words like ilfr^T pyara. an i is often inserted between 
the first two letters ; thus fq^TTT piyard. but the first form is 
considered the more chaste.' 2 

Consonants are sometimes interchanged ; thus fa^ ' mud " 
is often ^fanc. 8 

Corruptions such as *Nn paiya for |f%^i pahiya " wheel," 
explain themselves. 

The Urdu conjunction W is usually transliterated as in the 
Roman, viz. f% ki. 

Words like risht wf*T m. "a sage," are transliterated ^. 
The fern, m^ rishi, " the wife of a rishi" is also ^;. 

1 In Marwari q=b, and *=v : ^r takes the place of w: and ^ 
is the only sibilant. 

2 This applies to Urdu also. A similar euphonic change occurs in the 
plural of jagah, ' vide' L. 53 (k) and bahan. Such a change is some- 
times incorrectly made in Persian words. 

3 Uneducated Hindus sometimes change syllables in foreign words. 
The name Prendergast is generally Gastpender. 



Those Arabic letters that have no equivalent sound in 
Nagarl, are usually distinguished by having a dot under the 
nearest Nagarl equivalent ; thus, l = q ; j, j, a, and = ai ; 
u* and * = ; =*: = ; t3 = * *=* = *; and 

or T (thus *w 6o'rf may be written W^3, WT^, or f^l^), or 
the vowel with which is pointed is written with a dot un- 

der it, as : fie =T ; j+e =w . Note that *W* is a better 

transliteration & *i; rt^'a than either **!* or ^*^ or **i^ 
Indians are careless about transliteration of any kind. 
Hindi is written in three other alphabets besides the Deva- 


1 And also rarely as z 

< Ae already stated, the symbol . may be used for the final silent h 
of Urdu and Persian. 


[Unless otherwise stated, the figures indicate the number of the Lest 

4,=silent h, vide silent h. 

A, final, inflected in compounds 
53 (d) Rem. 

Ab and abhi, difference in use 51 (/). 

Abtak, with Pres and Past tense = 
still, 51 (e) Note. 

About to be, 20 (6), 54 (g), 57 
(6). Vide Begin. 

Abstract nouns in I and t, if from 
AT. are fern., p. 1 (a). 

Accent, in verb, p. 8 (a). 

Active or trans, verb, arrangement 
of sentence formed by, 10 (6). 

Acquisitives, 18 (a). 

Adh, last ex. in 9 (b), and p. 44, 
3rd ex. 

Adjectives and Degrees of Com- 
parison, 3 (a), (b) ; in ana spe- 
cially adverbial, p. 11 (i); posi- 
tion of, p. 4 (a) ; terminations 
of, p. 4 (b) ; that are in decl., p. 
4 (a) ; intensive, 3 (a) (2) ; qual. 
subj. to pi. verb, must be pi., 16 
(d) footnote ; two subs, for subs. 
and adj., 48 (e) ; used as ad- 
verbs, p. 10 (e) ; used as preposi- 
tions, 56 (h); ending in nasal 
n, 53 (c) (2) and App. A (c) ; 
in silent h, 53 (/) ; when they 
do not agree with their nouns, 
32 (i) and 84 (d); intensive, 3 
(a) (2) (3), and 48 (b) (2), and 64 
1st and 2nd ex. 

Adverbs, different forms of, pp. 
10-11; examples of, 61 (c) ; as 
correlative, 55 (a) (3). 

Adverbial part., 59 (d) and last 
ex. in 60 (/). 

Agar and jab, idiomatically omit- 
ted, p. 193, footnote 2, and 57 
(/); 52 (e) (4), of footnote 2. 

Agency, verbal noun of, 57 (6): 
inf. with ko= verbal noun of, 54 


Agent case, 13 (a). 

Aisa, etc., 35 (a), (c) and (i). 

A-jana, = unexpectedly, p. 139, 
footnote 1 . 

Aksar, as adv., 61 (c) (5). 

Alphabet, Urdu, p. xvii : Nagri 
App. G. 

Already, =chukna, 16 (a). 

Ana, idiomatic uses of 14 (a) ; in 
compounds gen. retains its pro- 
per signification, 23 (e). 

And, frequently omitted 58 (6). 

Annas (ana), and per cent., 45 (e). 

Antepenultimate, short, 53 (h), 
footnote 2. 

Aorist, =to a Pres. Subjunctive, 7 
(a) ; Respect, and Impers. Aor. 
(or Resp. Impera.), 7 (6) (2), p. 

.4p,=self and Your Honour, p. 
8 (/) and 31 (a), (6); other 
_ words like, Ap, p. 8 (/) (2). 

Apa, in certain phrases, 27 (b). 

Apas, recip. pron. , p. 8 (g) and p. 
151, footnote 3. 

Apna, possess, adj., construction 
and significations, 27 (a) ; accu- 
satives of 27 (a) Rem. ; exam- 
ples of, 27 (c). 

Appositives, 48 (b), and 61 (/). 

Arabic, Measures, App. E ; subs. 
in ace. =adverb, p. 11 (h). 

Article, def. and indef. , pp. 1 and 
12 (a), (c), (d). 

As soon as, how expressed, 51 (at. 

Aur, both a conjunc. and a 
pronom. adj., 3 (c) ; expresses 
contrast, surprise, or simul- 
taneity, 43 (6) ; often prefixed 
to a second ya or no, 35 (d), (e). 



Aur bhi,=ziyada, 3 (a). 
Auxiliary tenses, p. 9. 
Ay a, ' vide ' Whether. 
Az bag ki, significations of, place 
now taken by cAtln ki, 52 (c). 

Bachna, examples of, 31 (c). 

Badan, omission of, p. 75, foot- 
note 4, and 20 (e) (4) Rem.. 
and 60 (e) (2). 

Ba-daulat, 60 (d) (2). 

Badle, prep., 60 (e). 

Ba-nhair, 63 (c). 

Bahin, pi. of, 53 (k) ; voc. of, 59 
(c) (6). 

Bahut, " many, noun in sing, or 
pi. ; its pi. 4 (a). 

Bai thrui, in compounds, Perf. 
tenses and past part., 23 (a) 

Baithe-bithaye, adv., p. 185, foot- 
note 1. 

Bala ka, idioms with, 14 (b), and 
p. 76. 

Balki, "but" meaning "instead 
of," how rendered 12 (b), foot- 
note 1 ; enhansive, 60 (c). 

Banda, p. 8 (/) (3) : nouns like, 
ending in silent h masc. , p. 16, 
footnote 3, and 19 (c), footnote 
2 ; fern, of, 53 (/) (2). 

Bandagi, L. 32 (/). 

Bandl and laudi, 53 (/) (2). 

Bamya, how inflected, 53 (c). 

Banna, examples, p. 144-5. 

Barely, how expressed, 51 (6). 

Barha, with past tense only, 61 
(6) (5). 

Barhiya, adj., not inflected, 57 

Barhkar, adv , 18 (d) (2), and p. 
24, line 2. 

Baz-e, 8 (6) (I). 

Be 'and bin, prep., p. 12 (e), (/), 
and 63 (c) ; p. 224, footnote 1 . 

Became and was, ' vide ' Hu,a. 

Before, vide Just. 

Begin, chalna, 40 (6) (2). Vide 
Lagna, and About to be. 

Bhaga-jana and bhage-jana, 63 (b). 

Bha,l, voc. of, 59 (c) (6). 

Bhar, 13 (g). 

Bhauorbhd, 59 (c) (11). 

Bhi, "also, even," p 19, foot- 
note 1 , and 3 (d) ; unlike nlz , 
cannot begin sentence, 57 (c) (2). 

Bhule se for bhiil se, p. 26 foot- 

Bih-tar, Pros, comparative, 3 (a). 

Bin and bina. ' Vide ' Be. 

Bila, 63 (c). 

Bu and bo, fern., pi. of, 59 c) (7). 

Burhiya, pi. of, 53 (h). 

But, if enhansive, not exceptive, 
vide Balki. 

Cardinal numbers, App. A. (a) : 
nouns preceded by either sing, 
or pi., 32 (g) (1): sing, with 
nouns of manner, 32 (g) (2). 

Causal verbs, examples, 44 (6), (c), 
(d), (g); of tutna, 44 (c) (2); of 
phutna, p. 164. 

Cent per, App. A (g), and 45 (e). 

Chacha, 69 (c) (1). 

Chahe-chahe, whether or (exclu- 
sive), 35 (/). 

C'hahiye, examples, pp. 122-3: 
used impersonally, 19 (b) ; with 
na or nahi; with dat. of person 
or followed by Aor., preceded 
by past part. 32 (c) ; 20 (6). 

Chahiye tha, p. 123. 1st ex. and 
32 (c). 

Chahiye, 32 (c). 

Chahna, 19 (o) and 20 (a), (b), (c). 

Chala-jana, 40 (6), and 63 (b). 

Chalrdena, intr., 22 (o). 

Chale-jana, [ ' vide ' " Stumbling- 
Blocks," p. 85], and 63 (6). 

Chalna. 40 (6); examples, 41 (o). 

Charhna, constructions with. 11 

Chiriya, pi. of, 53 (h). 

Chhorna, in compounds, 23 (</); 
added to trans, is more forcible 
than -tena, 23 (g) ; p. 164. 

Chhutna, examples. 36 (). 



Chukria, how constructed, 15 (a) ; 
=already, 16 (a); with Pret. is 
ironical, 16 (c). 

Chunki, begins, etc., a causal 
clause, 52 (a). 

Collective numbers, App Aid) (2) 

Collocation, 63 (d), ' 

Common gender, 57 (g). 

Comparison, degrees of. 3 (a); 
Persian, 61 (k). 

Completives, vide Chukria. 

Compound nouns of different gen- 
ders usually follow gender of 
last portion of compound, 56 
(&) ; semi-compound nouns, 
gender of, 20 (g). 

Compound verbs, formation of, 
45 (a) ; object of, 45 (&); idioma- 
tic examples of, 46 (a) : differ- 
ent construction in Act. and 
Pass., 45 (c); intensive com- 
pounds, vide Intensives. 

Concord of verb, 56 (c), (d), (e),(f) : 
of adjectives, vide Adjectives. 

Conjunctive Participle, significa- 
tion and use, 55 (d) combines 
two or more sentences into one, 
18 (6); adverbial use of, p. 11 
(/); and L. 18 (d) ; shortened 
form indicates haste, 26 (c) and 
footnote 1 ; repeated, p. 184, 
footnote 2 and p. 1 86, footnote 1. 

Correlative, vide Relative, 


Dada, optionally inflected, 59 (c) 


Dalna, as a servile verb, 22 (/). 
Dana, inflection of, 59 (c) (1). 
Da,o, inflected of, 59 (c) (12). 
Darya, inflection of, 59 (c) (1). 
Data and de,ota, inflection of, 59 

Day, of Hindus and Muslims, 

App. B (a). 

Days of the week, App. A (j). 
Declamatory negative, simple 

verb must be used, 23 (h). 
Declension, p. 2 (6), (c), (d). 

Degrees of comparison, vide Com- 

Dena, to allow, 18 (a) ; some com 
pounds with, regarded as in- 
transitive, 22 (a) ; Irnperf. = to 
offer, 22 (a) Rem ; dena and 
leria in Intensive compounds, 

Desideratives, 20 (a), (6), (c). 

DevanSgari, vide Alphabet. 

Dhu,a, how inflected, 53 (c). 

Diminutives, 53 (h). 

Direct narration, generally used 
in Hindustani, 36 (a); classes 
of verbs usually followed by 
the direct narration, 36 (c) ; a 
direct narration sometimes oc- 
curs within a direct narration, 
36 (e), footnote 2. 

Dissyllables, pi. of, 53 (k) and 
footnote 5. 

Double postpositions, examples 
of, 6') (a), (b), (f). 

Dramatic present, examples of, 
p. 151, 3rd ex. and footnote 1. 

Dub-jaria, dub-mama, dubke mar- 
ria, differences in signification 
of, 23 (c). 

Dur and dur ka, distinction be- 
tween, 37 (c). 


Each other, 13 (/). 

Ek, as indef. article ; after a num- 
ber=about ; emphatic, 8 (e)and 
p. 1. 

Ek adh, 8 (e). 

Emphasis, the same word repeated 
for, 48 (a) ; expressed by a syno- 
nym or appositive, 48 (&), (c), 
(d),(e); vide also 64. 

Emphatic particle hi, 51 (e) and 
50 !&); examples, 51 (/) ; occa- 
sionally omitted after Adv. 
Part., 59 (d). For to, 'vide' 
under To. 

Enclitic particle hi, 51 (e) and 50 
(b) ; enclitic to, ' vide ' under 



Euphemisms, common, App. B 

(6), (c). 
Euphony, affecting concord of 

subjects and verb, 30 (c) (2). 
Even though, how expressed, 50 

Except and besides, how ex 

pressed, 59 (6). 
Exactly, 56 (a) (3) last ex. 
Extremely, 3 (a) (2). 

of, 14 (b) and p 76 examples 6 
to 8. ' Vide ' Bate. 

U&ulam,=yonr humble servant, p. 
8 (/) (3). 'Vide' Banda and 

Girna, conjug. of the neuter or in- 
transitive verb, 7 (a) ; difference 
between girna and parna, p. 87 
[and "Stumbling-Blocks"]. 

Gum, Pers. adj., 47 (b) Rem. 

Farmana, when substituted for 
karna, 45 (a) (2). 

Feminine, Ar. derivatives in-/, 
irrational nouns in -*, Persian 
nouns in -iah , p. 1 ; femininee in u 
or o, pi. of, 53 (/) and 59 (c) (7) ; 
how formed from masculines, 
24 (6) to (d). Vide Gender 

For, expressed by dekhkar, 40 (e) 
and footnote. 

Formative plural of certain num- 
bers, etc., below a hundred, 
used as nominatives, 32 (h) ; 
formative termination usually 
added to last of a series of 
nouns, 61 (d) (1). 

Fractional numbers, 47 (e) and 
App. A (e). 

Frequentatives, 19 (a). 

Future, pros, tense used for im- 
mediate future, p. 194, footnote 
1; Put. Impera., 7 (b) (1), p. 
37; Fut. Precative, 7 (b) (3), 
p. 37. 'Vide' Jab. 

Go, e and &-5.0, 59(c)(10). 

Ga,d, how declined, 59 (c) (10). 

Gander of substantives, p. 1 (a) 
and App. F ; common gender, 
57 (g) ; of compound nouns 56 
(6) and 20 (g). 

Genitive, with ka, ke, kl, p. 4 (c). 

Ghabrana, tr. and intr., 44 (e). 

Gha,o, declension of, 59 (c) (8). 

Qhazab ka, idiomatic significations 

H, silent, vide silent // ; aspirated 
53 (fir). 

Hai, difference between hai and 
hota hai, 2 (a); examples of 
hota hai, 2 (d). 

Haiga,=}iai, p. 9, footnote, and 
p. 36, footnote 2. 

Hal-an-ki, 52 (d). 

Hamara, in Lucknow and Delhi 
meru is substituted, p. 18, foot- 
note 2. 

Hamrah,=8ath, p. 12 ; differs from 
samet, p. 12 (d). 

Hamzah, note on, App. D. 

Ha, ' vide' Yaha. 

Hardly, how expressed, 51 (6). 

Harna, 64 (e). 

Have, how expressed, 20 (e). 

Hawale, 60 (e). 

Hazar , = " although ' ' and ' a 
great deal," p. 194, footnote 5. 

Hazir, difference between maw- 
jSd and ; idiomatic uses 9 (a). 

Help to, expressed by causal verb, 
vide note p. 166, end of L. 44. 

HI, emphatic, 51 (e) and 50 (6): 
examples of use of, 51 (/) ; oc- 
casionally omitted after Adv. 
Part., 59 (d). 

Hindi Alphabet, Appen. G. 

Historical Present, example, p. 
151, line 5 and footnote 1. 

Hoga,=must, 8 (d). 

Ho-jata hai, more forcible than 
hota hai, p. 20, footnote 1. 

Ho-lena, no ne, 22 (a), footnote 1. 

Hona, to be, conjugation of neu- 
ter verb, 7 (d). 



Ho-rahna, significations of, 23 (d) 

However much, how expressed 9 

(6), p. 45, andL. 50 (c). 
How much the less, how ex- 
pressed, 50 <g), (h). 
How much the more, how ex- 
pressed, 50 (/). 

Hu,a and tha, difference between 


If, ' vide ' Agar and Whether. 
Immediate Future, expressed by 
Pres. tense, p. 194, footnote 1. 
Imperative Future, 7 (b) 1 ; In- 
finitive used as a Future Im- 
perative, 54 (/) ; Respectful Im- 
perative, 7 (b) (2). 
Inasmuch as, how expressed, 52 


Inceptives, 18 (a). 
Indirect narration, usual after 
verbs of telling or ordering, p. 
136 (e). 

Infinitive, always masc. when ob- 
ject has ko, 54 (a) (2); with ko 
= the noun of agency, 54 (<?) : 
occasionally used in the pi. , 54 
(a), (1) and 55 (c) ; used as a 
noun, p. 28, footnote 3 and L 
54 (e); as a Fut. Impera., 54 
(/); as a Fut. Impera. is less 
imperious than the Impera. as 
a Pres. Impera. is polite, p. 84, 
footnote 1, and L. 32 (d); tr. 
for pass, or intr. L. 38 (c) ; col- 
loquially used for the Aor. 54 
(h) (2); concord of, 54 (b), (c), 
(d) ; gen. of inf. expressing in- 
tention, used in neg. only, 32 
(e) ; idiomatic use of, 54 (h) (1), 
(3) ; colloquially used for noun 
of agency, 54 (h) (3); inflected 
before verbs of motion, 54 (i) 
and 58 (a), 1st ex.; is either a 
verb or a subs., 54 (a) (1); can 
be used as a subs, in any case, 
54 (a) (1) ; expresses obligation. 
32 (a) ; trans inf. can be used 
as a passive, 38 (c) and 54 (a) 
(3); inflected before sakna, is 

vulgar, 18 (/) ; certain verbs 
(inceptive, permissive, acquisi- 
tive) govern an inflected infini- 
tive, 18 (a). 

Intend to, expressed, by the in- 
finitive and Noun of Agency 54 
Intensive adjectives, 3 (a) (2), and 

48 (6) (2). 

Intensive (compound) verbs, how- 
formed, 21 (a). 

Interjections, some examples, p. 
12 ; no at end of inten. sentence 
43 (a). 

Interrogation, expressed by tone 
of voice, 5 (); often expresses 
strong negation, 5 (c). 
Interrogates, 5 (a); examples, 
6; interr. pronouns are both 
substantives and adjectives, 5 
(6) : kaun and kya, used in di- 
rect and indirect questions, 5 
(d) ; kya, used with sing, and 
pi., p. 8 (e); oblique cases of 
kya, those of kaun, usually sub- 
stituted, p. 8 (e) ; as both object 
and subject, 55 (a) (2) ; na at 
end of interr. sentence, 43 (a), 
Intransitive verb, conjugation of, 
7 (a) ; indicates an action was 
done by accident, 36 (g) ; pas- 
sive of, 47 (d). 

Isko and usko,=him, it, 12 (g). 
Is liye, correlative of chunki, 52 


Iteration, vide Repetition. 
Itna, 35 (a) and (c). 
Ittifaq-an, ace. Ar. subs., used as 

adv., p. 11 (h). 
Izafat, use and signification of, 61 


Jab, introducing a future condi- 
tion followed by Aor, or Fut., 
35 (g) ; jab and jab jakar idio- 
matic, for tab, 57 (e) ; with Pres. 
tense = " whenever," with Aor 
="when," p. 69, footnote 1: 
frequently omitted 57 (/); 
' vide ' Agar ; not followed by 
a past tense, 61 (b). 



Jab tak, meaning yaha tak Id, re- 
quires a negative verb, but 
meaning "whilst" an affirma- 
tive verb, 38 (6) ; not followed 
by a past tense, 61 (6). 

Jagah, pi. of. 53 (ifc). 

Jaha, for relative, 55 (a) (3). 

Jaisa, 35 (a) (c), and 55 (a) (3). 

Jakar and jake, ' vide' Jab. 

Jan and apnl jan, difference be- 
tween, p. 138. footnote 1. 

Jana, in compounds, significa- 
tions of, 23 (c); prefixed to 
Pres. Part, expresses progres- 
sion, 26, (a) (1); idiomatic use 
of, p. 245 and footnote 2. and 

Jan ke lale, parna, 28 (;). 

Janna, no ne, 63 (e). 

Jata-rahna, literal and idiomatic 
meanings of, 26 (2) and Re- 

Jay a. Past Part, of jana, when 
used, 19 (a), footnote 5 and 47 
(d) (2). 

Jitna 35 (a) (c), and 65 (o) (3). 

Jo ki, for cfcun ki, 52 (6). 

Jo ko,i, has a double inflection, 
p. 8 (h). 

Joru, pis. of, 53 (/) (2). 

Kab, signifying great contrast, 

38 (e). 
Kaha expressing contrast, 38 

(d) ; in indirect questions, 5 

Kaha (=kya) nom form of kahe, 

used in Braj dialect of Hindi, 

p. 31, footnote 1. 
Kahl, =1 fear lest, 34 (o) ; =far 

(in comparison) L. 3 (o) (2) : 

other meanings of, 39 (a). 
Kahlana, tr. and intr., 44 (6) Re- 
Kahna and bolna, 11 (a) : causal 

of, 44 (6) Remark. ' Vide ' 

Ka,l, must be followed by a noun 

8 (6) (1); really distinct from 

feo,t, 8 (6), footnote 1. 

Kaka, 59 (c) ( 1 ). 

Kam dena, tr, 22 (a). 

Kama, (=to be in the habit of) 
often governs a past part., 19 
(a) : indicating habitual action 
is intransitive, 20 (d) and 20 
(h) 4th ex. 

Kaun, 5 (6), (d), (h) ; not inflected 
before sa, se ; si, kaun sa, how 
it differs from kaun, 28 (d) ; 
used in direct and indirect ques- 
tions, 5 (d). 

Kin inn. alone does not mean 
" house " except in Persian con- 
structions, p. 41, and footnote 

Khanzaman (vulg. kjiansama), 

how inflected, 59 (c) (13). 
Khass-kar, adv., "especially," 18 

Khud=Ap, p. 180, last line. 

Khwah-bhtpah, " whether or," is 
exclusive, 35 (/). 

Ki, for jo or joki, 35 (6) ; =balki, 
52 (e) (7), footnote 1 ; = taki 52 
(e) (9); other significations of, 
52; often pleonastic, 52(e) (13) 

Kis liye, vulgar for is liye, 52 (6). 

Kis waste, vulgar for is waste, 
52 (b). 

Ko, generally added when object 
is definite, 12 (o), (c), (d); 
added to indefinite nouns, 12 
() ; ko of dative of motion 
generally omitted. 12 () Re- 
mark ; examples of the ko of 
the indirect object, 12 (i) ; can 
not occur twice in the same 
clause, 12 (/) (1) and p. 220, 
2nd ex. and foot note 2 ; other 
rules regarding use or omission 
of ko, 12; destroys concord, 54 
(d) ; ta,l=ko, p. 4 (d) Remark. 

Ko,t, declension of, p. 8 (h) ; when 
=" about," is not inflected, 8 
(6) (1); requires the noun and 
verb to be in the sing., 8 (6) 
(2) ; examples of use of, 9 (6) : 
= the indefinite article " a," 8 
(6) (3) and p. 1. 


Kuchh, sometimes used before 
persons, 8 (c) ; examples of 
uses of, 9 (6). 

Kya, difference between kya and 
kaun, 5 (6) ; used in direct and 
indirect questions, 5 (d) ; = 
"rather", 5 (c); spelling and 
pronunciation to be noted and 
distinguished from leiya, p. 20 . 
footnote 1. 'Vide' Kyu. 

Kyarkya, "whether or," is in- 
clusive, 35 (/). 

Kyu, for kya in a question, 5 (/). 

Kyukar, and kyukar nahl, 3(> (d). 

Kyuki, when used, 52 (a). 

Lagna, to begin, 18 (a) ; takes the 

place of the subjunctive, 18 (c) 

(2) ; idiomatic significations of, 

18 (g) ; =offered, 22 (a), p. 88, 

footnote 1. 
Lakh, and hazar " although " 

and " a great deal," p. 194, 

footnote 5. 

Lala, "Schoolmaster," 59 (c) (1). 
Lana, causal of , p. 163. 
Lasha, pi. of, 53 (e). 
Lena, in intensive compounds, 22 

(c) (1); other meanings, 22 (c) 

(7) ; causal of, p. 164. 
Le-parna, ' vide ' Parna. 
Less, vide Much less. 
Lest, how expressed, 52 (e) *, and 

footnote 2, and 34 (a); mat, 

vulg. 53 (a), p. 199. 
Let alone, how expressed, 50 (h). 
Logical subject, when infinitive is 

transitive or passive, 38 (c). 
Liwana, causal lena, p. 164. 
Liwa-lana, caus. of lana, p. 163. 
Log, to form pis., 13 (e). 
Lo,=tak in Hindi, p. 4 (d) Remark. 


Majara, 59 (c) (4). 

Ma'lum hai &nd=hota hai, 2 (a), 


Ma, pi., of. 59 (c)( 11). 
Ma,l, vocative, 59 (c) (6). 

Mamnun, obliged to, 32 (/) 
Manind, prep., before and after 

a noun, p. 11 (c). 
Marajana, ) difference in signi- 
Mar khana, ] fication between, 

22 (/), footnote, p. 90. 
M ar parna and mara-parna, 28 (j). 
Mama, with and without ko, 

significations of, 12 (/). 
Masculine, tendency of verb to 

agree with, 56 (c). 
Mat, difference in use of mat, na, 
and nahl, 1 (c), p. 37; = " lest" 
(vulgar). 53 (a), p. 199. 
Ma/a, pi. of, 53 (i). 
Maujud, and hazir, difference be- 
tween, 9 (a). 

Meaningless appositives, 48 (c). 
Measures, Arabic, App. E. 
Me, in some common expressions. 

40 (d). 

Mera, used in Lucknow and Delhi 
instead of hamara, 2 (d), foot- 
note 2, p. 18. 
Milna, with se and ko, different 

significations, of 28 (i). 
Misrelated Participle, 18 (d). 
Miya and Sahib, as terms of res- 
pect require a pi. verb, 16 (d). 
Months, Arabic names, App. A 

(fc); Hindi names, App. A (I). 
More, the, 50 (e) to (h). 
Motion to, ' vide' Pas. 
Much, less, how expressed, 50 (e) 

to (h). 

Must, 'vide' Chahiye, Hoga and 


Na, for " no" vulgar, p. 51, foot- 
note 1 ; at end of an interroga- 
tive sentence indicates affirm- 
ative answer, 43 (a); differ- 
ence in use between it and nahi 
ormat,l(c),p. 37; withchahiye, 
32 (c) Remark. 

^ a _na, neither nor, 35 (d); na 
aurna, 35 (d) ; idiomatically 
the first na may be omitted . 35 

Nagarl, alphabet, App. G. 



Naht, difference in use between 
it sad mat or na, 1 (c) ; inserted 
between aakna and its verb, Iti 
(6); with chahiye, 32 (c) Re- 

Nak me dam karria and ana, idiom , 
p. 78, footnote 2. 

Na.o, Na.d, pi. of, 59 (c) (9) and 

Narration, direct and indirect, 36 
(a), (c), (d), (/), (g). 

Nasha, 59 (c) (4). 

Ne, 13(o); omitted with certain 
compounds of dena, 22 (a) ; 
omitted when any part of a 
compound intensive verb is in- 
transitive, 22 (/), footnote 1, 
p. 91; not used with bolna, 13 
(c) (1 ) ; with some transifeives, ne 
is omitted, with others it is op- 
tional, 13 (c) (3) ; formerly not 
used with lifeless subjects, 13 
(c) (4) ; use and omission with 
chahna, 20 (a); omitted with 
pana " to be allowed," 18 (a). 
'Vide' Chal-dena, Kam dena, 
and Sath dena. 

Nearly, how expressed, p. 182, 
ex. 13, and last ex. 58 (d), p. 
223. Vide About to be. 

Negative, in declamatory nega- 
tive simple verb must be used, 
23 (h) (1), (2); substantive verb 
omitted in negative sentence, 
18 (e); position of negatives, 
16 (6) and 57 (i). Vide Na, 
Nahl, and Mat. 

Nikalna, Pret. of 53 (ifc), footnote 5. 

Niz,=&\so, can begin a sentence 
(but bhl cannot), 57 (c) (2). 

No matter how, how expressed, 

50 (c). 

Nominative absolute, often used 

before a relative, 61 (e). 
No sooner than, how expressed, 

51 (a). 

Not only but also, how ex- 
pressed, 61 (c). 

Not quite, how expressed, 51 (6). 

Nouns, formative pi. of certain 
nouns below a hundred used as 

a nominative, 33 (h) ; of num- 
ber, weight, measure, quantity, 
length, etc., put in apposition, 
61 (/); preceded by numerals 
may bo sing, or pi., 32 (g) ; 
second only of two nouns 
usually inflected, 61 (d); ending 
in nasal A ( ~ ), how inflected, 
53 (c) ; masculines in silent h, 
53 (d); in final a, inflected in 
compounds, 53 (d) (1) Remark ; 
masculines on -ya optionally 
change y to hamzah, 53 (d) (2) ; 
feminines in silent h, 53 (e): 
nouns not used in the pi., 53 (e) 
(2) and Remark ; in final aspi- 
rated h, 53 (g) ; feminines in 
-iya, 53 (h) ; two nouns for noun 
and adj., 48 (c); as adverbs, 
p. 11 (h); feminine, in u or o, 
53 (?) ; masculines in u or o, pi. 
of, 59 (c) (5) ; Hindi nouns of 
agency in -ya, 57 (i) (2). 

Noun of Time, Place, Instrument, 
App. E, p. 300. 

Numerals, cardinal and ordinal, 
App. A. (a) and (c) ; cardinals 
followed by a sing, or pi. noun, 
32 (g). 

Numerical figures, the ten, App. 


Offer, to, 22 (a), Rem. and foot- 

note 1. 

One another, 13 (/). 
Ordinals, App. A (c). 
Ought, 'vide' Chahiye, Hoga, 

and Parega. 


Pale porno, 28 (/). 

Pan, all nouns ending in, are 

masc. , L. 1 , footnote 2. 
Pana, to be allowed, no ne. 18 

(o); 5 l(o) (6). 

Pa.d, declension of, 59 (c) (12). 
Paradigms of verbs, 7 (a) and 




Par eg a, 32 (a). 

Pa'rhna and slkhna, p. 161, foot- 
note 1. 

Parna, difference between and 
girna, 21 (b), p. 87; examples 
of, 24 (a) ; in intensive com 
pounds, 22 (d) ; tut-parna, sig- 
nification of, 22 (d) (3) ; rah- 
parna, ban-parna, le-parna, 22 
(d) (2) ; some idioms with par- 
no, 28 (/). 

Participles, Present, Past and 
Conjunctive, 55 (d) (1); error 
of misrelated participle, 18 (d) 
(1) ; used as adverbs, 18 (d) (2) ; 
shortened form of Conj. Part, 
indicates haste, 26 (c) and foot- 
note 1 ; Conj. Part, repeated, 
p. 184, footnote 2, and p. 186, 
footnote 1 ; Adv. Part., subject 
and object of, 59 (d) and last 
ex. 60; Past Partc. of trans, 
and of a few intransitives can 
be combined with the verbs 
" to be " and " to become," 55 
(d) (2) ; Parts, and state or con- 
dition, 63 and 55 (d) and foot- 
note (2) ; Past Part, repeated , 
pp. 185 and 187; Pres. Part, 
repeated, 48 (a) (?>) and 55 (d), 
footnote 3 ; Pres. Part, agrees 
with its subj., 55 (d), footnote 2. 

Pas, with hona = to have, 20 (e) ; 
indicates motion towards things 
that cannot be entered, 20 (/}. 

Pasand, 47 (6) Remark. 

Passive, may indicate that an ac- 
tion was done on purpose, 36 
(g) ; without an agent also ex- 
presses impossibility, 36 (h) and 
47 (d) ; grammatical passive, 
how formed, 47 (a) (1); its 
agent, how expressed, (2); sub- 
ject of, sometimes in the ac- 
cusative, 47 (c) ; neuter verbs 
used in the passive, 36 (') and 
47 (d) (1), (2) and Remark; 
idiomatic substitutes for, 47 
(6 ) ; may be more respectful 
than the active, 47 (/), last ex., 
p. 178. 

Past Participle, verbs governing 
the past part, of another verb, 
19 (a) (6) ; repeated, p. 185 and 
p. 187: can be combined with 
the verbs " to be " and " to be- 
come," 55 (d) (2) ; parts, and 
state or condition 63 and 55 (d) 
(2) ; Pres. Past, and Conj. parts 
55 (d) (1). Vide also under 
Participles and State. 

Per cent., how expressed, App. 
A (g) and 45 (e) ; examples of 
saikre, 46 (6). 

Permissives, 18 (o). 

Persian constructions, 61 (g). 

Personal pronouns, when omitted, 
7 (6) (5), p. 37. 

Persons, priority of, 30 (c). 

Phasi parna, idiom, 28 (;). 

Pharna, tr. of phatna, meanings, 
p. 162. 

Phatna, tr. of pharna, meanings, 
p.' 162. 

Phorna, tr. of phutna, meanings. 
p. 164. 

Phutna, intr. of phorna, mean- 
ings, p. 164. 

Pictihe parna, idiom, 28 (/). 

Pita, how' declined, 59 (c) (1). 

Please, how expressed, zarra. p. 
14, line 7. 

Plural, of respect, 56 (/); pre- 
dicating noun sing, or pi. 56 (g) ; 
certain numbers in formative 
pi., 32 (h); Pers. pi., 61 (h) ; 
Ar., 61 () and (/). 

Plurality, expressed by synonym, 
48 (6) (1) ; expressed by mean- 
ingless appositive, 48 (c); of 
action expressed by Reiter- 
ative, 48 (d), and p. 77 line 4. 
footnote 2, L. 48 (a) (5), and 
examples, p. 171-7. 

Possession, 20 (e). Vide Have. 

Postpositions, added even to ad- 
verbs, 61 (c) (4); sometimes 
two used with one noun, 60 (a) 
(1); sometimes omitted 60 (a) 

Potentials, 'vide ' Sakna. 

Precative Future 7 (6) (3). 



Predicating noun, number of, 56 


Present participle, prefixed to 
rahna = continually, 30 (6) ; = 
karna with the past part., .'!0 
(b) ; repeated and inflected = 
continuity, 4S(a) (5) and 55 (d), 
footnote 3; Pres., Past, and 
Conj. participles 55 (d) (1); 
agrees with its subject, 55 (d), 
footnote (2). 

Present tense, for immediate 
future, p. 194, footnote 1. 

Progressives, 26 (a). 

Pronominal adjectives, also used 
as adverbs, 35 (c). 

Pronouns, personal, form of, when 
in apposition in oblique cases, 
p. 6, footnote 1 : compound, 
p. 8 (t) ; not repeated in sen 
tence unless subject changes, 
40 (c) ( 1 ) ; omitted where sub- 
ject or object is obvious, 40 (c) 
(2) ; declension of pronouns , 
pp. 5 7 ; if ambiguous, sub- 
stitute proper name, 36 (/). 

Proper name, requires ko t 12 (d) 
(2): to be substituted for a 
pronoun in (direct) narration, 
36 (g). 

Puchhna with se. and ko. 


Questions, 'vide' Kyukar, In- 
Quite, =hi, 51 (/), 2nd example. 

Rahna, suffixed to a Pres. Part. = 
continually, 30 (b) ; future of 
rahna with intr. verb indicates 
indefinite time. 23 (d) (2) ; in 
intensive compounds suffixed 
to intransitives, may indicate 
purpose or intention, 23 (d) (1) ; 
suffixed to roots signifies unin- 
terrupted continuance, 23 (d)(3) : 
in Pret. signification of both 
verbs retained, 23 (d) (3) Note : 
with Conj. Part.=to do after 

effort 23 (d) (4) ; jata-rahna to 
bo completely lost, 23 (d) (5) ; 
some significations of , 64 (b) (2). 

Rah-jana, preceded by a pres. 
part, signifies ineffectiveness, 
26 fa) (1) and (3). 

Raha-saha, 57 (d). 

Rah-parna, ' vide' Parna. 

Rahta-hai and hota hai, 2 (a). 

Raja, how declined, 59 (c), (1) 
and (3). 

Rakhna, in intensive compound = 
to do beforehand, 23 (/) (.); 
utharakhna, 23 (/) (2); kar- 
rakhna, and karna, difference 
between, 23 (/) (3). 

Ranj aur gharri, no pi., = variety, 
p. 16, footnoote 1. 

Rather than, how expressed, 51 
(d) and 52 (e) (14). 

Reciprocity , how expressed , 1 3 (/). 

Reiteratives, 48 (d). 

Relative and correlative, con- 
struction, of 35 (a) and (6) ; 
strictly speaking no fol. pron. 
in Hindustani, 35 (a) ; as both 
subj. and obj. in same sentence. 
55 (a) (1); adverbs may take 
the place of, 55 (a) (3); rela- 
tive sentences, 63 (d) (3). 

Repetition, of adjective. 48 (a), 
(2): last example in 4 (6), p. 28 
and footnote 4, and last ex- 
ample in 11 (e), p. 62; repetition 
of words 48 (a), (b), (c), (d), (e). 
Examples of 48 (/) and 64 ; 
repetition expressing repeated 
action, vide Participles, Conj 
and Present. 

Rom, ' vide ' Riia. 

Roots, Arabic, App. E. 

Ru,d, how inflected, 53 (c). 

Rupaya, etc., and rupai, how in- 
flected, 53 (d) (3); expressing 
per cent, 45 (e). 


Sa, se, si, 28 (a), (c),(d),(e), (/). 

(g). ' Vide ' Kaun. 
Sab, when declinable, p 8 (h). 



Sab ko,l, = sab log, vulgar, p. 45, 

footnote 1. 
Sethi; dramatic particle, 57 (d) ; 

examples, 58 (d). 
Sahib and Miyan, require pi. verb, 

16 (d). 

Sahra, 59 (c) (1). 

Saikra, per cent, App. A (g) ; ex- 
amples 46 (b). 
Sakna, to be able, 15 (a). 
Samajhna, no ne, p. 64 (6) and 

footnote 2. 

Same, the,=w>ttftt, 3 (d). 
Samet and sath, difference in 
meaning, p. 12 (d). 'Vide' 

Salh, ' vido ' Samet. 
Sath dena, tr., 22 (a) Remark. 
Scarcely, vide Hardly. 
Se or ko, with kahna and bolna, 
26 (b); se or m, 40 (d) ; se= 
than used with comparative 
degree, 3 (a) (1); used with 
superlative, 3 (a) (1). 
Self, Selves, p. 8 (/). 
Servile verbs, in intensive com- 
pounds lay aside their prima- 
tive meaning, 21 (a) ; how they 
affect the first verb, 22 (b). 
Servile letters, App. E. (a). 
Should, 'vide' Chahiye and 18 

(c) (2) and 32 (c). 
Shukr, specially = thanks to God. 

32 (/). 

Sikhna ' vide ' Parhria. 
Silent h, inflected, etc., 53 (d) ; 
fern, nouns in, 53 (e) (1); adjec- 
tives in, 53(/). 

So, correlative of jo, rare, 34 (a), 
p. 126, footnote 1 ; =therefore, 
35 (h). 

Solar letters, App. E. 
Sdh, 59 (c), (11). 
Soon as, 51 (a). 
State or condition , how expressed, 

55 (d) and 63 (b) (1). 
Still, ab tak. 51 () Note. 
Subject, vide Passive verb. 
Substantives, vide Nouns. 
Substantive verb, often omitted 
in negative sentence, 18 (e). 

Superlative degree, 3 (a), (1), (2). 

Synonymous adjectives, force of, 

48 (6), (2). 
Synonyms, repetition by, 48 (6). 


Tab, jab used for tab, 57 (e). 
< Vide ' Jab. 

Taha, correlative of jaha, old, p. 
126, footnote 2; Jala taha, p. 
129, footnote 1. 

Ta,l, in Hindi=ito, p. 4 (d) Re- 

Taisa, correlative of jaisa, obso- 
lete, p. 126, footnote 1. 

Tak, "even" not a postposition, 
60 (6). 

Talak, =tak, p. 4 (d) Remark. 

Tanwin, App. E. 

Tal ne, and tal hi ne vulgar for 
tu ne, etc., p. 192, footnote 2. 

Taraf, pi. of, 53 (fc). 

Tasllm and mamntin, etc , thanks. 
32 (/). 

Tera, in Delhi for children and 
menial servants, in Lucknow in 
poetry only or for the deity, 2 
(d), p. 18, footnote 2. 

Terminations, Arabic, Persian 
and Sanskrit adjectives in -5 
not always subject to inflection, 
p. 3 (2) and 59 (c) (1) ; abstract 
nouns in -t fern., p. 1 (a); cer- 
tain nouns in -I masc , p. 1 
(a); in -I, if from Ar. roots 
fern., p. 1 (a). 

Tha and hu,a, difference between. 
2 (b) 

Than, 52 (d) (14). Vide also 
Comparative degree. 

Thanks, how expressed, 32 (/). 

The more the more, how ex 
pressed, 50 (e). 

Time, vide Day. 

To, enclitic, 2 (c) ; and o7 (c); 
as a correlative, 57 (c). 

To be, the verb, p. 9 and 7 (d), 
p. 38. 

To say nothing of. how expressed. 
50 (h). 



Too before an adjective, no word, 
3 (6). 

Tori, p. 4 (d) Remark. 

To'rna, tr. of tutna, 44 (c) (2). 

Transitive verbs, indication the 
action was done on purpose, 36 
(g) ; the use of in tenses formed 
from the past part., 13 (a); 
trans, inf. can be substituted 
for intr. or pass. , 38 (c) and 54 
(a) (3). 

Try, expressed by chahna, q.v . 
also by " about to " q.v., tal ne vulgar for, p. 192, 
footnote 2. 

Unhd ne. 56 (/). 

Unne, old form of u* ne, sing.. 
56 (/) Remark. 

Us ko, ' vide' la ko. 

Ulhna=parn& in intensive com- 
pounds, 22 (e) ; utha-rakhna to 
postpone, 22 (e) Note. 

Utna, 35 (a) and (c). 


Verb, concord with subject, p. 9 
(6) and 56 (c) ; compound verbs, 
45 (a), (6); construction with, 
45 (c); examples of, 46; in- 
tensive compound verbs, 21 (a), 
22(6), (c), (d), (e), (/), 23 (a). 
(6), (c), (d), (e), (/), (g), (h); 
when several roots, etc., follow 
in the same construction the 
finite verb is added to the last 
only, 58 (a), some verbs both 
trans, and intrans., 44 (e), 63 
(e); trans, and causal, how 
formed, 44 (a). (6); paradigm 
of girna and hona, 1. 

Verbal noun of agency, partly 
verb partly noun, 57 (b) (1); 
=a future particle, 57 (6) (2). 

Verbal , roots which are also nouns , 
usually fern., p. 64, footnote 3. 

Vocabulary of additional useful 
words, App. C. 

Vocative, pi. always ends in o, p. 

2 (c) : Voc. sing, can be used 
with sing, or pi. verb, 13 (h): 
Pers. voc., 61 (e). 


Wa'da karna and teno,=trans. and 
caus., 44(/). 

Waisa, 35 (c) and ('). 

Wah and wa, p. 237 and footnote. 

Wala, added to subs, and not to 
adjecs.,57 (b) (3). 

Wanted, when expressed by chulii- 
i/e the negative must be naln. 
and not no, 32 (c) Remark. 

Was, 'vide' Hu,a. 

We, old pi. of wuh, 5 (g). 

When, requires Aor. or Fut.. 3.") 
(g) : fct=when, denoting sud- 
denness, p. 215. footnote 4. 

Whenever, with Aor. or Fnt., 1st 
ex., p. 133. 

Whereas, how expressed, 52 (d). 

Whether, how expressed, 52 (e) 
(4) and footnote 2. 

With, sing, and pi. nom. 5 (g); 
used for def. article, p. 1. 

Yaua, either or, 35 (e) (I); 
= whereas, 35 (e) (2). 

Yaha, 20 (e) and 64 (c) (3). 

Yaha tok ki, does not itself admit 
of negative verb, 38 (b). 

Ye, old pi. of wuh, 5 (g). 

Year, the Muslim, App. A (k): 
the Hindu, App. A (I). 

Yih and wuh, sing, and pi. nom., 
5 (g) ; demonstrative pronouns 
can be used for the definite 
article, p. 1 ; =aiaa, 35 (/). 


Zarra, when used as an adjective 
is pronounced sara. p. 14. line 
6; =" please" and "just," p. 
14, line 6. 

Zarl'a, 60 (c). 

Zl, App. E. 

gimme, GO (e). 

Zu, App. E. 


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