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Full text of "Hindustani simplified, an easy and rapid self-instructor .."

HUGO'S SIMPLIFIED SYSTEM. 



HINDUSTANI 

SIMPLIFIED. 

AN EASY AND RAPID SELF-INSTRUCTOR. 



Containing 

A CONDENSED AND SIMPLIFIED GRAMMAR, 
PRACTICAL CONVERSATION, 

READING EXERCISES, 
COMMERCIAL, IDIOMATIC & MISCELLANEOUS PHRASES, 

LISTS of USEFUL and INDISPENSABLE WORDS 
and EXPRESSIONS. 



A PRACTICAL GUIDE TO MODERN CONVERSATIONAL 

HINDUSTANI WITH 
IMITATED PRONUNCIATION OF EVERY WORD. 



All rights reserved. 

PHILADELPHIA 

DAVID MCKAY COMPANY 

Washington Square 



PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 



The introduction of this work not only makes it pos- 
sible, but even easy, to acquire a conversational knowledge of 
Hindustani. The whole of the instruction throughout has 
been compiled on HUGO'S well known Simplified System, 
the success of which is due to its commonsense character. 
It avoids all confusing technicalities of grammar, and im- 
parts a knowledge of the language in an absolutely practical 
manner which, after all, is what the learner really wants. 

Easy Conversational Phrases introducing the most 
important Idiomatic Expressions are included, while the 
Reading Exercises will be found greatly to extend the 
vocabulary at the student's command. 

A few words in explanation of the LANGUAGE and its 
ALPHABET may be of service. 

Hindustani is the language most generally spoken 
throughout British India. It is a combination of Hindi 
and Urdu. HlNDT is the literary language of the Hindus, 
written in Sanskrit characters ; URDU is the literary lan- 
guage of the Mohammedans, written in Persian characters, 
ttenerally speaking the same grammatical rules apply to 
each, and consequently we deal with the language from 
the common point of view, freely introducing such words 
from the Hindi or the Urdu as are current in everyday 
speech. Anyone who has learnt the language from this 
book w : ll understand and be understood by any native 
whether Hin<ln or Mohammedan. 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 



We have followed the usual practice of transcribing the 
Oriental characters into ordinary Roman characters. These 
are understood by natives and are used by them when 
communicating with people of European nationality ; but 
when one Indian writes to another he would naturally use 
the original Oriental characters. 

The Nagari or Sanskrit characters shown on page 6 are 
given for reference only. The transcribed form underneath 
these letters is the one that concerns the student. Although 
the alphabet is Sanskrit, it includes a few letters which 
liave been adopted from the Persian and are in common use. 
These letters are : q, kh. gh. Z and f. As they cannot be 
indicated by separate Sanskrit characters, they are always 
represented by their nearest Sanskrit equivalent, with the 
addition of a dot ( . ). Thus, q =k with dot ; kh =kh with 
(lot, and so on. This is clearly illustrated on page 6. 

We have omitted a few letters of the Sanskrit alphabet 
not used in everyday speech, as their inclusion would only 
tend to confuse the student. For the same reason we have 
also omitted the Sanskrit characters indicating slight diffe- 
rences in the pronunciation of the letters, t, til, and d, dh. 
The delicate shade of sound expressed by these characters 
cannot be detected by the untrained ear, and it is therefore 
impossible to transcribe them. They can only be learnt by 
constantly hearing them in Hindustani speech. For all 
practical purposes however, the alphabet and its transcrip- 
tion, as given on page 6, is entirely sufficient. 

Special attention has been devoted to the IMITATED 
PRONUNCIATION. If the learner attends carefully to our 
instructions, he will pronounce nearly all the words per- 
fectly, and all with sufficient correctness for practical pur- 
poses. 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

The Hindustani or Nagari Alphabet - 6 

Key to the Transcription and the Imitated Pronunciation 7 
Rules for Pronunciation - 8-13 

SIMPLIFIED GRAMMAR, with Exercises and Key, Conver- 
sational Phrases, and Easy Reading Exercises 14, 15, etc. 



Cardinal Numbers 


91 


Ordinal Numbers 


93 


Collective and Fractional Numbers 


94 


Days of the Week ... 


17 


Months of the Year ... 


44 


Periods of Time ... 


95 


Hours of the Day - 


96 


Short Vocabularies of Useful Nouns 


136-143 


The Town - page 136 
The Hotel - 136 


Trades - page 140 
Utensils and Tools 140 


The Railway - 137 
Shipping - 137 
The House - 137 
Furniture 138 
The Body 138 
Eating and Drinking 139 


Writing Materials 
Colours 
The Army 
Titles, Professions, 
etc. 
Banking, etc. 


141 
141 

142 
143 



Money Values 

List of Indispensable Words 
Idiomatic Phrases 
Commercial Phrases - 
Miscellaneous Phrases - 
Points of the Compass 



148 
144 
148 
149 
157 
160 



HUGO 8 HINDUSTANI MAi)K EASY. 



INDEX TO GRAMMAR. 



ARTICLES : 

Definite Article 
Indefinite Article 



PAGE 

14 
14 



NOUNS : 

Gender of Nouns ... 14 

Plural of Nouns ... 18 

Nouns folio wed by ka, ke, ki 19 

PRONOUNS : 
Possessive Pronouns ... 16 
Pronouns for the Nomina- 
tive (Subject) ... 21 
Pronouns for the Accusa- 
tive (Object) ... 50 
Interrogative Pronouns 21,98,99 
Reflective Pronouns ... 97, 98 
Relative Pronouns ... 115 
Indefinite Pronouns ... 85 
Demonstrative Pronouns 14, 43 

VERBS : 

Auxiliary Verbs 21, 23, 39, 73, 74 

TO HAVE, how rendered ... 24 

Conjugation of verbs 38, 39, 41, 

42, 44, 50, 58 

Construction with ne ... 42, 43 
Irreg. Past Participles 44, 50, 58 
Imperative ... ... 52,53 

Future Tense ... ... 66 

Conditional Future ... 68 
Conditional Past ... 68 

Compound Verbs 106, 107 

Passive Verbs ... ... 109 

Causal Verbs ... 124, 125 

ADJECTIVES : 
Declension of Adjectives 31 

Comparison of , 82,83,84 



PAGE 

ADVERBS : 

Adverbs and Adverbial Ex- 
pressions ... ... 60, 61 

Adverbs of Time ... 66, 67 

PREPOSITIONS ... 45 

CONJUNCTIONS ... 67 

INTERJECTIONS ... 125 

Forms of address ... 126 

Salutation ... ... 126 

Thanks, how expressed 127 

Narration ... ... 100 

MISCELLANEOUS : 

Use of the verb raihna ... 41 

jana (idiomatic use of) ... 109 

lagna (idiomatic use of) 118 

chahna (idiomatic use of) 127 
hota hai (or haia) when 

used ... ... 8-1 

yeh and wuh before Pre- 
positions ... ... 43, 45 

AS ... AS, how rendered ... 83 
mat, NOT, when used ... 53 
apna, etc. (use of) ... 97, 98 
SELF and SELVES, how ren- 
dered ... ... 97, 98 

Second Person (familiar 

form) ... ... 118 

sa, se, si (rules for use of) 100 

ka, ke, ki (use of) ... 19 

ki, in narration ... 100 

ko (use of) ... ... 42, 50 

jo, jis, etc., how used ... 115 

wala (idiomatic use of) ... 128 

hi, how used ... ... 127 

kya (idiomatic use of) ... 21 
aur, omitted or rendered 

by O ... ... 127 



HUGOS HINDUSTANI MADJi JiASY. 



THE HINDUSTANI OR NAGART ALPHABET. 
Names of the Letters and their English Equivalents. 



VOWELS. 

T * 



a a i I u ft 

o in : dismal army in keen put fool 



e ai o au, ott 

as in : say said, aisle low awl, now 

CONSONANTS. 



k q kh kh' g gb 

at in : king quick k'h 1 loch go h'r* 



gh oh chk j z Jh 

CM in : g'h f church ch'b* joy zeal j'h* 



t th d dh n p 

<u in : take t'h* day d'h* no pay 



ph f b bh m 7 

at in : pV fine bit bV man year 



r 1 v, w s ah h 

in : road land vale, work sale shame hay 

* See note on page 7. 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EAST. 



NOTE. The pronnndation of the letters, k'h, g'h, ch*h, J'h, t'tt, 
d'h, p'h, b*h, is best Illustrated by such words as : 1 sack'him ; 
2 gag'him ; 3 watch'him ; 4 gauge'him ; 5 shoot'bJm ; 6 had'he ; 
7 stop'him ; 8 cab'horse. In Hindustani the h after a consonant must 
always be distinctly heard. 

kh and gh are gutturals ; kh is pronounced like oh in the word 
LOCH ; gfl has no equivalent in English the sound of aspirated h fol- 
lowed by r is the nearest. 



KEY TO THE TRANSCRIPTION AND THE 
IMITATED PRONUNCIATION. 



a, 1, U indicate the long sound of these vowels. 

In the Imitated Pronunciation these are given as : ah, 
ee, oo. 

kh (underlined) indicates the guttural sound of CH in the 
Scotch word LOCH, preceded by a strongly aspirated H. 
In the Imitated Pronunciation this sound is represented 
by h'ch. 

gfa (underlined) indicates the sound of a strongly aspirated H 
(as in HUGE), followed by a rattling sound ; -f R. 
In the Imitated Pronunciation this sound is represented 
by h'r. 

ft indicates the nasal sound of N as in LONG, KING, etc., but not 
so strong. It is, perhaps, more like the sound of N in 
the French words BIEN, TIEN, etc. 
In the Imitated Pronunciation this nasal sound is 
represented by ng (italic). 

( ' ) In the Transcription an apostrophe between two vowels 
{as a'l) indicates that these must be pronounced as two 
distinct syllables. 

( ' ) In the Imitated Pronunciation an apostrophe between two 
CONSONANTS indicates that both letters must be di- 
tinctly pronounced but in one breath as ONE syllable. 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 



RULES FOR PRONUNCIATION. 



THE VOWELS. 

a (short) is like English A in DISMAL (or sometimes like U 
in GUN), as in : 
akal aman lafz par 

ak-al or ak-ul am-an or am-un lafz par 

wisdom peace word at 

a (long) is like the English A in ARMY, as in : 

aram bap man bolna 

ah-rabm bahp mating bohl-nah 

comfort father mother to speak 

1 (short) is like English I in BEGIN, as in : 
kitab ilm inam 

kit-ahb ilm in-ahm 

book knowledge reward 



phir 

p'hir 
again 



1 (long) is like English BE in KEEN, as in : 

ifit meri bijli larki 

eenfltt may-ree bidj-lee lar-kee 

brick my lightning girl 

U (short) is like English U in PUT, as in : 

usko pul mujhe bulbul 

us-koh pul mudj-hay bul-bul 

him bridge me nightingale 

U (long) is like English u in FULL, as in : 

unt pliul ullu dudh. 

oongt p'hool ul-loo dood'h 

camel flower owl milk 

8 is always long, like English AY in SAY, as in : 

mera ek se yeh tez 

may-rah ayk say yay'h tayz 

my one by this sharp 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 



O is always long, like English in LOW, as in : 

do hona mop tota chop 

doh hoh-nah mohr toh-tah chohr 

two to be peacock parrot thief 



THE DIPHTHONGS. 



There are two diphthongs in Hindustani, ai and 
each of which has two distinct sounds. 

1. ai usually sounds like English AI in SAID, as in : 
maina raihna maifi. 

mai-nah rai'h-nah main; 

a bird to dwell I 

2. ai sometimes sounds like English AI in AISLE, as in : 
g-aiya bhaiya maiya 

gaiy-ah b'haiy-ah maiy-ah 

cow brother mother 

(terms of endearment) 

NOTE. When either a or i or both are long vowela 
they do not form a diphthong. The two vowels must then 
be pronounced separately as two syllables, and are fre- 
quently separated by an apostrophe, as in : 

sha'ir ara'ish bha'i 

shah-er ah-rah-esh b'hah-ee 

poet adornment brother 

1. au usually sounds like English AW in LAW, as in; 
aurat aur fauran maut 

aw-rat awr faw-ran mawt 

woman and at once death 

2. au sometimes sounds like English ow in HOW, as in : 
kaua haua paua 

kow-ah how-ah pow-ah 

crow goblin fourth part 

H.S. 1* 



10 HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 



THE CONSONANTS. 



With a few exceptions, the consonants are pronounced 
the same as in English. 

k is like English K in KING, as in : 

kutta kismat talak kya ? 

kut-tah kis-mat tal-ak kyah 

dog fate until what ? 

Q has a slightly softer sound than k, but the untrained ear 
cannot detect the difference. The quite correct pro- 
nunciation of q can only be acquired by hearing it 
used in Indian speech, as in : 

qalam quran qimat 

ka-lam kur-ahn kee-mat 

pen koran price 

The above words are often seen written with k instead of q. 

kh. the h after k should be distinctly heard, as in : 
khet khana kliona pankha 

k'hayt k'hah-nah k'hoh-nah panj-k'hah 

field to eat to lose fan 

kh. (underlined) has the guttural sound of CH in the Scotch 
word LOCH, preceded by strongly aspirated H. In the 
imitated pronunciation this sound is given as h'ch, as in : 
khali khiyal kharidna darakht 

h'chah-lee h'clii-yahl h'cbar-eed-nah dar-ab'cht 
empty thought to buy tree 

g is like English G in GO, as in : 

gana gae gehun gari 

gah-nah gah-ay gay-hoov gah-ree 

to sing cow wheat carriage 

gh is like English G in GO with a distinctly aspirated H 
after it, as in : 

ghora ghas ghar 

g'hoh-rah g'hahs g'har 

horse grass house 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 11 

gh, (underlined) is like a strongly aspirated H, followed by 
a rattling sound as of R. In the imitated pronuncia- 
tion this sound is given as h'r, as in : 

murgiii gkussa ghul 

mur-h'ree h'rus-sah h'rul 

hen anger noise 

11 this sound is too difficult to pronounce make it like a as in GO. 

ch. is like CH in the English word CHURCH, as in : 

chor chacha chiz cliaku 

chohr cha-chah cheez chah-koo 

thief uncle thing knife 

Chh. the ll after Ch should be distinctly heard, as in : 
chhutti chhe achchlia pichiie 

ch'hnt-tee ch'hay ach-ch'hah pee-oh'hay 

holiday six good behind 

j is like English J in JUST, as in : 

jal jald jo janana 

jahl jald job jah-na-nah 

net haste who to know 

jll the ll after j should be distinctly heard, as in : 
samajhna 4 llukl1 ^ 

sa-maj'h-nah j'huk-naa 

to understand to bend 

Z is like English Z very soft, as in : 

zalim ziyada zor 

zah-lim ze-yah-dah zohr 

tyrant more force 

t is like English t, but rather softer, as in : 

turn tin tattu tokri 

turn teen tat-too toh-kree 

you three pony basket 

th the ll after t should be distinctly heard as a separate 
letter, as in : 

thakan thai thik satli 

t'ha-kahn t'hahl t'heek saht'h 

fatigue plate correct sixty 

TH must never be pronounced as Engh'sh TH in THE, THIS, THAT, etc. 



HI GO 8 HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 



d is like English d or sometimes softer, almost like TH in 
THOU, as in : 

dal das din dak dar 

dahl das din dabk dar 

lentils ten day post fear 

dh. the ll after d should be distinctly heard, as in : 

dhup dhat dhakna dharra 

d'hiiop d haht d'hak-nah d'har-rah 

sunshine metal to cover routine 

n is like English n, as in : 

nak kan kisan 

nahk kahn ke-sabn 

nose ear peasant 

n (nasal) is like English N in KING, LONG, or, better, like 
French N in BIEN, TIEN, as in : 

nahin tang- sanp ban 

na-heeiif t&hng sahnyp hahnf 

not leg snake yes 

p is like English p, as in : 

piyas pas pul pak par 

pe-yahs pahs pull pahk par 

thirst near bridge holy at 

ph. the ll after p should be distinctly heard, as in : 
phul phal phir phika 

p'hool p'hal p'hir p'hee-kah 

flower fruit again tasteless 

ph can never have the sound of f as in English. 

f is like English f, as in : 

fursat fauran saf lihaf 

fur-sat faw-ran sahf le-hahf 

leisure at once clean quilt 

b is like English b, as in : 

bal beta bis bolna 

bahl bay-tab bees bohl-nah 

hair SOP twenty to speak 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 



13 



bh. the h. after b should be distinctly heard, as in 



buffalo 
mail 

matin? 

mother 



bhuk bhulna bhaifis 

b'hook b'bool-nah 

hunger to forget 

m is like English m, as in : 
menh mahina 

mayn'n ma-hee-nah 

rain mouth 

y is like English Y in YEAR, YES, etc., as in : 
yad yahafi. yufi 

yahd ya-hahn* yooa? 

remembrance here thus 

r is like English R in ROAD, as in : 

rasta par sarak 

rahs-tah pabr sa-rack 

way across road 

1 is like English 1, as in : 

salam sal lash 

sa-lahm sahl lahs'n 

greeting year corpse 

V and W are pronounced like English V, as in 



bhaflp 

b'habnjp 

steam 

muft 

muft 

gratia 

yeli 

yay'h 
this 

har 

hahr 
garland 

tolna 

tohl-nah 
to weigh 

jawab 

ja-vahb 

answer 
savar 

sa-vahr 
horseman 



wuh vahafi vakt 

vo'b va-hahnj vakt 

he there time 

8 is like English hard S, as in : 

grhas sat sir 

g'hahs saht nr or ser 

grass seven bead 

Sh is like English SH in SHAME, as in : 

shabash shadi shabnam 

shah-bahsh shah-dee shab-nam 

bravo rejoicings dew 

h is like English H in HAY, as in : 

jahan shaihar hakim hal 

ja-hahn sbai-bar ba-keem hahl 

world town physician condition 



14 HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EAST. 



FIRST LESSON. 



The Imitated Pronunciation is given under each word, or in paren- 
theses ( ) by the side of the word. 

THE ARTICLES. 

1. The English Definite Article THE and the Indefinite 
Article A or AN, have no exact equivalents in the Hindu- 
stani language. 

The Definite Article THE is either omitted in translation, 
or the words THIS yen (yay'h) and THAT Wllh* (vo'h) are 
used in the place of it. Therefore 

mard (mard) means MAN or THE MAN 
yeh mard THE MAN or THIS MAN 
wuli mard THE MAN or THAT MAN 

'Here the u is to be pronounced as intermediate between o and u. 

2. The Indefinite Article A or AN can also be omitted 
in translation, but it is usually rendered by the numeral 
ONE, ek (ayk) ; therefore 

ek mard means A MAN or ONE MAN 



HERE yahan THERE vahan WHERE ? kalian ? 

ya-haTTnp va-hah^ ka-haH^? 

IS hal (hai) NOT nahlfi (na-heenff) 

NOTE. a, I and u. indicate the long sound of these vowels, given in 
the Imitated Pronunciation as : ah, ee, oo ; e (ay) and o (oh) are always 
long ; fi indicates the nasal sound of the English n before g as in LONQ 
but not quite so strong. See also Rules for Pronunciation, pp. 8-13. 

3. THE GENDER OF NOUNS. 

In Hindustani, Nouns are either Masculine or Feminine. 
There is no Neuter Gender. Naturally Nouns relating to 
males are Masculine, and Nouns relating to females are 
Feminine. For the rest no definite rules can be given, but 
it may be assumed that the majority of the names of things 
are Masculine, and also almost all Nouns ending in long a. 
Nouns ending in 1 or t are generally Feminine. 

There are, however, many exceptions. In the Vocabularies, the 
gender (where necessary), is indicated by m. or f. after the Noun. 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 15 



luggage asbab, m. 



as- bah b 



room kamra, m. 



kam-rah 



book kitab, f. 



kit-abb 



address pata, m. 
pa-tab 

hotel hotal, m. 

hoh-tal 

town shaihar, m. 

sbai-bar 

street gall, f. 

gal-ee 

house ghar, m. 

(or home) g'har 

*kh (underlined) has the guttural sound of c a as in the Scotch word LOCH, 
not of CH as in the word CHURCH, see Rules for Pronunciation, p. 10. 



newspaper akhbar, m. 



ab'ch-bahr 



telegram tar, m. 



tahr 



NOTE. The stress or accent is not very pronounced in 
Hindustani, but as a rule a long final vowel is accentuated a little 
stronger than the rest of the word. 



AND aiir (awr) IN men (may*?) 

1. 

Translate each phrase and compare with the corresponding English below. 

1. ek kamra, yeh kamra, wuh kamra ; 2. pata, 
ek pata, wuh pata ; 3. gall, yeh gall, ek gall ; 
4. kitab, ek kitab, wuli kitab ; 5. ek shaihar, wuli 
shaihar, shaihar men; 6. ghar, yeh ghar, wuh ghar. 

la. 

1. a room, this room, that room ; 2. the address, an 
address, that address ; 3. the street, this street, a street ; 
4. the book, a book, that book ; 5. a town, that town, 
in the town (literally town in) ; 6. the house, this house, 
that house. _ 

2. 

(The Verb is placed at the end of the phrase.) 

1. hotal kahafi. hai ? 2. asbab yahafi. hai ; 3. 
akhbar yahan nahm hai , 4. shaihar men ek 
gali ; 5. ek akhbar aur ek tar ; 6. wuh kitab 
vahafi hai. 



16 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 



2a. 

1. where is the hotel ? 2. the luggage is here ; 3. the 
newspaper is not here ; 4. a street in the town (lit. town 
in, one street) ; 5. a newspaper and a telegram ; 6. the 
book is there. 

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 

4. These Pronouns have different terminations, to 
agree in Gender and Number with the Noun to which 
they refer. The terminations are : 

a (ah) 6 (ay) 1 (ee) 





MASCULINE 


MASCULINE 


FEMININE 




SINGULAB. 


PLURAL. 


SING. & PLCU. 


MY 


mera 

inay-rah 


mere 

may-ray 


meri 

may-ree 


HIS, HER 


uska 

us-kah 


uske 

us-kay 


uski 

us-kee 


OUR 


hamara 

ham-ah-rah 


hamare 

bam-ah-ray 


hamari 

ham-ah-ree 


YOUR 

(ordinary and 
intimate forms) 


tumhara 

tum-hah-rah 


tumhare 

tuin-hah-ray 


tumhari 

turn-hah-ree 


YOUR 
(respectful and 
polite forms) 


apka 

abp-kah 


apke 

abp-kay 


apki 

ahp-kee 


THEIR 


unka 

un-kab 


unke 

un-kay 


unki 

un-kee 



3. 

1. tumhara grhar, mera pata ; 2. uska 
uski kitab ; 3. apka asbab aur hamara asbab ; 

4. unka hotal, uska kamra; 5. hamari gali, 
hamara shaihar ; 6. meri kitab aur mera tar. 

3a. 

1. your house, my address ; 2. his newspaper, his book ; 
3. your luggage and our luggage ; 4. their hotel, her room ; 

5. our street, our town ; 6. my book and my telegram. 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 



17 



man 


admi 


son 


beta 


(in general) 


ahd-mee 




bay- tab 


man 


mard 


daughter 


beti 


(as opposed to woman) mard 




bay-tee 


woman 


aurat 


brother 


bha'i 




aw-rat 




b'hah-ee 


father 


bap 


sister 


baihin 




bahp 




bai'hn or bai-bin 


mother 


man 


boy 


larka 




mahuff 




lar-kab 


child 


bachcha 


girl 


larki 




bach-chah 




lar-kee 


parents 


man bap 


house 


makan, m. 




mahnp bahp 


(building) 


ma-kahn 



4. 

1. mera bap ; 2. tumhari man ; 3. unke man 
bap ; 4. hamara ghar ; 5. uski kitab ; 6. meri 
beti ; 7. uska beta ; 8. apka bha'i ; 9. tumhara 
bachcha ; 10. ek mard aur ek aurat ; 11. yen 
larka aur wuh larki ; 12. tumhari baihin aur 

mera bha'i. 

4a. 

1. my father ; 2. your mother ; 3. their parents ; 4. 
our house ; 5. his book ; 6. my daughter ; 7. her son ; 
8. your brother ; 9. your child ; 10. a man and a woman ; 
11. this boy and that girl ; 12. your sister and my brother. 



THE DAYS OF THE WEEK. 



SUNDAY 

MONDAY 

TUESDAY 

WEDNESDAY 

THURSDAY 

FRIDAY 

SATURDAY 



Itvar (it-vabr) 

Somvar (som-vahr) 

Mangal (man-gal) or Mangalvar ( man-gal- vahr) 

Budh (bud'h) or Budhvar (bud'b-vahr) 

Brihaspat (bri-has-pat) or Jumerat (jum-ay-raht) 

Shukravar (shuk-ra-vahr) or Juma (ju-mah) 

Sanichar (san-ee-cbar) or Bar (babr) 



18 HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 



SECOND LESSON. 



6. RULES FOR THE PLURAL OF NOUNS. 

(NOMINATIVE CASE) 

1. Masculine Nouns generally remain unchanged in the 

Plural, as : 

man, mard ; men, mard 

2. Nouns ending in a change a into 6, as : 

boy, larka (lar-kah) ; boys, larke 0r-kay) 

3. Feminine Nouns ending in 1, add an (aW) and shorten 

the 1, as : 

girl, larki Oar-kee) ; girls, larkian (lar-ke-ahn?) 

4. Feminine Nouns ending in any letter (except l), gene- 

rally add en (ayn ff ), as : 

woman, aurat (aw-rat) ; women, auraten (aw-rat-ayn?) 

Other Plural Terminations will be explained as they occur. 

EXAMPLES. 
SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

town shaihar, m. towns shaihar 

house makan, m. houses makau 

address pata, m. addresses pate 

room kamra, m. rooms kamre 

street gall, f. streets galian 

daughter beti, f . daughters betian 

book kitab, f. books kitaben 

5. 

1. auraten aur larkian ; 2. mard aur larke ; 
3. shaihar men g-alian ; 4. kitaben aur akhbar ; 

5. pate aur tar ; 6. hotal men kamre. 

5a. 

1. the women and the girls ; 2. the men and the boys ; 
3. the streets in the town (lit. town in, the streets) ; 4. the 
books and the newspapers ; 5. the addresses and the tele- 
grams ; 6. the rooms in the hotel (lit. hotel in, the rooms). 



HUGO 8 HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 



19 



6. The words ka (kah), ke (kay), kl (kee), meaning OP, 
indicate the Possessive Case. They are best rendered in 
English by the apostrophe ' S ' Os) after the Noun. 



MASC. SINGULAR. 

ka 



MASC. PLURAL. 

ke 



FEM. SING. AND PLUR. 

ki 



The person or thing owned or possessed regulates the 
tender and the number, thus : 

the sister's house baihin ka gliar 

the brother's daughter bb.a'1 kl betl 

the father's rooms bap ke kamre 

6. 

1. admi ka pata ; 2. aurat ka beta ; 
ki kitab ; 4. bap ke bachche ; 5. uski 
asbab; 6. larki ka kamra. 

6a. 

1. the man's address;- 2. the woman's son ; 3. the 
girl's book ; 4. the father's children ; 5. his mother's 
luggage ; 6. the girl's room. 



3. larki 
man ka 



7. Plural Nouns followed bv_ka, ke or kadd On (on,,), 
but if the singular form ends in a, this final a is dropped 
and On added. Examples : 

the rooms of the houses 

(literally : houses of, rooms) 
the houses of the streets 

(lit. streets of, houses) 

larkon (NOT larkaon) ki the books of the boys 
kitaben (lit. boys of, books) 



gharon ke kamre 
gallon ke makan 



letter 


chitthi, f. 


table 


mez, f . 




chit-t'bee 




mayz 


friend 


dOSt, m. & f. 


chair 


kursi, f . 




dohst 




kur-see 


ticket 


rel tikat, m. 


door 


darvaza, m. 


(railway) 


rayl-tick-at 




dar-vah-zah 


stamp 


dak tikat, m. 


window 


khirki, . 


(postage) 


dahk-tick-at 




k'hir-kee 



20 HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EAST. 

7. 

1. meri dost ka rel tikat ; 2. tumharl man ki 
chitthian ; 3. makan ke darvaze aur khirkian ; 
4. ap ke dak tikat; 5. meri baihin ki mezen 
aur kursian ; 6. bachchon ki kitab mez par 
(on) hai ; 7. uske doston ka grhar shaihar men 
hai ; 8. hamara asbab hotal men nahin hai 

7a. 

1. my friend's railway-ticket ; 2. your mother's letters ; 
3. the doors and windows of the house (=houseof, doors 
and windows) ; 4. your postage-stamps ; 5. my sister's 
tables and chairs ; 6. the children's book is on the table ; 
7. her friends' house is in the town ; 8. our luggage is not 
in the hotel. 



1. ok; 

ayk 


2. do; 

doh 


3. tin ; 

teen 


4. char ; 

chahr 


5. panch ; 

pahnfl'ch 


6. chhe*; 

ch'hay 


7. sat ; 

saht 


8. ath ; 

aht'h 


9. nan ; 

naw 


10. das ; 

das 


11. gyarah , 

gyah-ra'h 


12. barah. 

bah-ra'h 



'Pronounce CH as in the word CHtJBCH, and aspirate the H following, 
in the same breath. 

1. do kamre ; 2. char chitthian ; 3. sat mard ; 
4. chhe kitaben; 5. ath akhbar; 6. gyarah 
makan ; 7. tin mezen aur barah kursian ; 8. 
panch dost ; 9. das dak tikat ; 10. ek makan 

men nau darvaze. 

8a. 

1. two rooms ; 2. four letters ; 3. seven men ; 4. six 
books ; 5. eight newspapers ; 6. eleven houses ; 7. three 
tables and twelve chairs ; 8. five friends ; 9. ten postage 
stamps ; 10. nine doors in one house. 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 



THIRD LESSON. 



8. PRONOUNS for the NOMINATIVE (Subject). 



SINGULAR. 

main 



HE ) 
SHE/ 



vo'b 



wuh 



IT 



(yay'h) 
WUh (vo'h) 



PLURAL. 

WE ham 

bam 

YOU tum (turn) 

(ordinary and intimate form) 

YOU ap (ahp) 

(respectful and polite form) 



THEY 



ve 



vay 



NOTE. yeh and wuh also stand for THIS and THAT. 

V6, yell and wuh also stand for THESE and THOSE. 



9. hOna (hoh-nah) TO BE. 
PRESENT TENSE. 



I AM 

HE IS 1 
SHE IS] 

IT IS 



SINGULAR. 

main hun 

hoo0 



wuh hai 

vo'h hai 

yeh or wuh hai 

yay'h vo'h hai 



WE ARE 



YOU ARKS 



THEY ARE 



PLURAL. 

ham ham 

ham haine 

( turn* ho 

turn ho 

ap hain 

ahp bain0 

ve hain 



vay 



*The word log (lohg) PEOPLE, is sometimes added after turn, to give 
a definite plural sense. 

NOTE. There is a third form for the second person (the fami- 
liar form), but its use should be avoided by foreigners. This 
familiar form is given later, see Index. 



WHO ? 



kaun ? 



kawu 



WHAT ? kya* ? 

kyah 



* When asking a question the word kya ? WHAT ? generally precedes 
the subject of the sentence. But kya is not used when another inter- 
rogative word is introduced in the sentence, such as : kaun ? WHO f 
kahafi ? WHKBK f 



22 


HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE 


EASY. 


ready 
busy 


taiyar 

tai-yahr 

masruf 

mas-roof 


wrong 
glad 


ghalat* 

h'ra-lat 

khusht 

h'chush 


righj 


thik 

I'heek 


also 


bhi 

b'hee 



*gh (underlined) has the sound of a strongly aspirated h followed by a 
rattling sound as of r. This sound is imitated by h'r. 

tkh (underlined) has the guttural sound of CH in the Scotch word 
LOCH, preceded by a strongly aspirated h. This sound is imitated by h'ch. 
See also Rules for Pronunciation. 

9. 

1. main khush nun ; 2. ap thik ham or turn 
thik ho ; 3. wuh ghalat hai ; 4. ham masruf 
hain ; 5. kya ap masruf hain ? 6. wuh taiyar 
nahm hai ; 7. ham taiyar hain ; 8. wuh khush 
hai ; 9. ham khush nahm hain ; 10. kya wuh 
taiyar hai ? 11. ve taiyar nahm hain ; 12. yahan 
kaun hai ? 13. main yahan hun ; 14. ve bhi 
yahan hain ; 15. yeh kahan hai ? 

9a. 

1. I am glad ; 2. you are right ; 3. that is wrong or 
he is wrong ; 4. we are busy ; 5. are you busy ? 6. she 
is not ready ; 7. we are ready ; 8. he is glad ; 9. we are 
not glad ; 10. is he ready ? 11. they are not ready ; 12. 
who is here ? 13. I am here ; 14. they are also here ; 
15. where is it ? 



Literally the above phrases would read : 
1. 1 glad am ; 2. you right are ; 3. that or he wrong is ; 
4. we busy are ; 5. wkat you busy are ? 6. she ready not 
is ; 7. we ready are ; 8. he glad is ; 9. we glad not are ; 
10. what he ready is ? 11. they ready not are ; 12. here who 
is ? 13 I here am ; 14. they also here are ; 15. it where is ? 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 23 

10. PAST TENSE of hona, TO BE. 

MASC. SING. FEM. SINO. MASC. PLUB. FEM. PLUB. 

tha thi the thin 

t'hah t'hee t'hay 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 



I WAS main tha (or thi) 

HE WAS wuh tha 

SHE WAS WUh thi 

IT WAS y eh (or wuh) tha (or thi) 



WE WEEK ham the (or thin) 
turn the (or thin) 



YOU WERE 



ap the (or thin) 
THEY WERE ye the (or thin) 



NOTE. In this tense, tha or the is used when the Subject is Mascu- 
line ; thi or thin is used when the Subject is Feminine. As a general 
rule, the verb airrees with its subject in gender and number. In the case 
of the first person plural WE WERE, ham the is often used for both 
Masculine and Feminine. 



AT HOME or AT THE HOUSE ghar par 

g'har par 

AT or IN THE OFFICE daftar men 

daf-tar mayv 

10. 

1. kya ap vahan the (or thin) ? 2. ham g'har 
par the (or thin) ; 3. ve yahan the (or thin) ; 
4. wuh yahan nahm thi ; 5. wuh kahan hai ? 
6. wuh kahan tha ? 7. main vahan nahin tha ; 
8. wuh ghar par nahm thi; 9. wuh daftar 

men tha. 

lOa. 

1. were you there ? 2. we were at home ; 3. they 
were here ; 4. she was not here ; 5. where is he ? 6. 
where was he ? 7. I was not there ; 8. she was not at 
home ; 9. he was at the office. 



Literally the above phrases would read : 
1. what you there were ? 2. we house at were ; 3. they here 
were ; 4. she here not was ; 5. he where is ? 6. he where was ? 
7. 1 there not was ; 8. she house at not was ; 9. he office in was. 



24 HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 



FOURTH LESSON. 



11. The verb TO HAVE is not used in Hindustani. 
When in English TO HAVE means ' to own or to possess,' 
as : ' I have a book,' it is rendered in Hindustani by the 
word pas (pahs), which implies possession or ownership, and 
is followed by the Present or Past Tense of hona, TO BE. 

In this construction the Possessive Pronouns are used, 
(see page 1 6) and these must invariably end in 6. The verb 
is in the THIRD Person Singular or Plural as the case may 
require. Examples : 

I have a book mere pas ek kitab hai 

=in my possession a book is 

he has a book uske pas ek kitab hai 

=in his possession a book is 

we have books hamare pas kitabefi haifi 

=in our possession books are 

The phrase is thus placed in the POSSESSIVE CASE, and the person or 
thing owned or possessed becomes the SUBJECT of the sentence, as : 
a book in my possession is 

11. 

1. mere pas ek chitthi hai ; 2. mere pas ek 
chitthi 'thi ; 3. mere pas chitthian thm ; 4. 
uske pas ek ghar hai ; 5. uske pas ek grhar tha ; 
6. unke pas grhar nahm hai. 

lla. 

1. I have a letter ; 2. I had a letter , 3. I had letters ; 
4. he has a house ; 5. he had a house ; 6. they have 
no house. 

12. If a NOUN takes the place of the PRONOUN, the 
word ke (kay) is inserted before pas. When used in 
this construction, ke, which means OF, is INVARIABLE. 

EXAMPLES. 

the man has a newspaper admi ke pas ek akhbar hai 

=in possession of the man a newspaper is 

the man has newspapers admi ke pas akhbar haiii 

=in possession of the man newspapers are 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 



25 



white man 


gora,* m. 


milk 


dudh, m. 


(European) 


goh-rah 




dood'h 


horse 


ghora,* m. 


rice 


chaval, m. 




g'hoh-rah 




chah-val 


water 


pani, m. 


egg 


anda, m. 




pah-nee 




an-dah 


bread 


roti, f. 


butter 


makkhan, m. 




roh-tee 




m.ak-k'han 



*Carefully note the difference between gora (white man) and ghora 
(horse). In the latter case the h after g should be distinctly heard. 

The word gora chiefly applies to European soldiers and sailors. It 
does not (as a rule) apply to a European of rani, who is usually spoken 
of as sahib (sah-hib), sir. 

12. 

1. mere bap ke pas ghore hain ; 2. apke bhJTi 
ke pas ek ghora hai ; 3. gore* ke pas ghore 
nahin the ; 4. aurat ke pas roti aur dudh hai ; 
5. larki ke pas makkhan aur ande hain* ; 6. 
meri man ke pas ghar men roti nahifl thi ; 
7. unke pas ek kamra hai ; 8. hamare pas char 
kamre the. 

*Nouns ending in a change a into e before ke. 

12a. 

1. my father has horses ; 2. your brother has a horse ; 
3. the white man had no horses ; 4. the woman has bread 
jnd milk ; 5. the girl has butter and eggs ; 6. my mother 
had no bread in the house ; 7. they have a room ; 8. we 
had four rooms. 

More literally the above phrases would read : 
1. my father's possession in, horses are ; 2. your brother's 
possession in, a horse is ; 3. the white man's possession in, no 
horses were ; 4. the woman's possession in, bread and milk is ; 
5. the girl's possession in, butter and eggs are ; 6. my mother's 
possession in, the house in, no bread was ; etc. 



26 


HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE BAST. 


price 


kimat, f. 

kee-mat (or qlmat) 


yes hafi 

hahn 


time 


vakt, m. 

vakt 


no, not any nahin 

na-heen? 


money 


rupaya, m. 

ru-pa-yah 


much, many bahut 
ba-hut 


thing 


chiz, f . 

cheez 


how much ? kitna (l) ? 
kit-nah (ee) 


enough 


kafT 

kah-fee 


how many ? kitne (l) ? 

kit-nay (ee) 



13. 

1. kya tumhare pas bahut asbab hai ? 2. mere 
pas asbab nahin hai ; 3. kya tumhare pas tikat 
hain ? 4. nan, mere pas tikat hain ; 5. unke 
pas kitna rupaya hai? 6. hamare pas kafi 
rupaya nahin tha ; 7. tumhare doston ke pas ba- 
hut rupaya hai ; 8. uske pas kitni chizen thin ? 

9. chizon ki kya kimat hai ? 10. kya tumhare 
pas vakt hai ? 11. mere pas bahut vakt nahm 
hai ; 12. hamare pas kafi vakt tha. 

13a. 

1. have you much luggage ? 2. 1 have not any luggage ; 
3. have you the tickets ? 4. yes, I have the tickets ; 
5. how much money have they ? 6. we had not enough 
money ; 7. your friends have much money ; 8. how 
many things had he ? 9. what is the price of the things ? 

10. have you time ? 11. I have not much time ; 12. we 
had enough time. 

Literally the above phrases would read : 
1. what, your possession in, much luggage is ? 2. my pos- 
session in, not any luggage is ; etc. 

5. their possession in, how much money is ? 6. our posses- 
sion in, enough money not was ; etc. 



HUGOS HINDUSTANI MADE EAST. 



27 



CONVERSATIONAL PHRASES. 



I offer you respects. 
I accept. 
Good-day. 
Good-bye. 
Pardon me. 
How are you ? 
I am well. 
Thank God. 
I am not well. 

Thank you. 
Gome here. 
Call a porter. 
Take the luggage. 
Be careful. 
Lift it carefully. 



1. Adab araz. 

2. Taslimat. 

3. Salaxn. 

4. Khuda haflz. 

5. Muaf kijiye. 

6. Ap ke mijaz kaise hain ? 

7. Achchha hun. 

8. Shukr khuda ka hai. 

9. Merl tabiyat achchhi 

nahin hai. 

10. Ap ka mashkur hun. 

11. Yahan a'o.* 

12. Ek bharchak bula'o. 

13. Asbab le'o. 

14. Hoshiyar ho'o. 

15. Hoshiyari se yeh utha'o. 



Imitated Pronunciation of the above phrases. 



1 ah-dahb a-raz 

2 tas-lee-raaht 

3 sa-lahm 

4 h'chud-ah Lah-fiz 

5 mu-ahf kee-je-yay 

6 ahp kay me-jahz kai-say hain$ 

7 ach-ch'hah hoong 

8 shukr h'chud-ah kah bai 



9 may-ree ta-bee-yat ach-ch'hee 
na-heer^ hai 

10 ahp kah mash-koor hoong 

1 1 ja-hahng ah-oh 

12 ayk b'hahr-chack bul-ah-oh 

13 aa-bahb lay-oh 

14 hoh-shi-yahr hoh-oh [hah-oh 

15 hoh-shi-yah-ree say yay'h ut- 



Explanatory Notes to the above phrases. 
1 =the ordinary greeting ; 2 accepted ; 3 peace to you ; 4 God 
(be) with you ; 5 pardon do please (polite Imperative) ; 6 you of health 
how are ? 7 good am ; 8 thanks to God be (' I am well ' being under- 
stood) ; 9 my condition good not is ; 10 to you grateful am ; 11 here 
come ; 12 a porter call ; 13 luggage take ; 14 careful be ; 15 care 
with it lift. 
'The final o in the last fire phrases indicates the ordinary Imperative. 



28 HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EAST. 

EASY READING, 

with Imitated Pronunciation, Literal Translation and 
Correct English Rendering. 



Ek roz grarmi ke mausim men, ek badshah 

ayk robz gar-mee kay maw-Kim ni&yng ayk bahd-shah'b 

One day summer of season in a king 
aur uska beta shikar-khelne ko gaye. Jab 

swr us-kah bay-tab she-kuhr-k'hayl-nay kob ga-yay jab 

and his son hunting to went. When 

hava bahut garm hu'i, to un donofi. ne apna-apna 

ha-vab ba-hut garm bu-ee tob un doh-nony nay ap-nab ap-uah 
the air very hot became, then them both by his-hia 

choghji ek maskhare ki kamar par dal-diya. 

chob-b'rab ayk mas-b'cha-ray kee ka-mar par dahl-de-yah 
cloak a jester of back on laid. 

Badshah ne hans-kar kaha : Ai ! maskhare 

babd-sbab'b nay ban^s-kar ka-bab ai maa-b'cba-ray 

The king by laugh doing said : Oh ! jester 

tumhari kamar par, ek gradhe ka bojh hai. 

tum-hah-ree ka-mar par ayk gad-bay kab bobdj'h hai 
your back on, one ass of burden is. 

Maskhare ne jawab diya : Hazur sach-muob 

mas-b'cha-ray nay ja-vabb di-yab ba-zoor sacb-much 

The jester by reply gave : Your Majesty verily 

main do gudhon ke bojh utha-raha him. 

main? dob gad-hotv kay bobdj'h ut-hah-ra-hah hoo*g 
I two asses of burdens carrying am. 

Correct English rendering of the above. 
On a summer's day a king and his son went hunting. When 
it became very hot, both put their cloaks on to the back of a 
jester. The king laughingly said : Jester, you carry an ass's 
burden on your back. The jester answered : Verily, Your 
Majesty, I am carrying two asses' burdens. 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EAST. 



29 



Ek ganvar ne ek Samba! vale se puchha 

ayk gaiw-vahr nay ayk bam-ba-ee vah-lay say pooch-bah 
A countryman by, a Bombay man from asked 



kl 1 : 

ke 
(that) : 



Turn 

turn 
You 



safar kiya 

sa-far ke-yah 
journey done 



ne 

nay 
by 

hai 

bai 
is: 



bahut 

ba-but 
many 

zara 

za-rah 
just 



dafa" 

da-fab 
times 



samandar 

ea-rnan-dar 

ocean 



ka 

kah 
Of 



yeh to* 

yay'h toh 
this (now) 



bata'iye ki 

bat-ah-e-yay ke 
say please (that) 



turn 

turn 

you 
Usne 

us-nay 
He 

bahut 

ba-but 
many 



ne 

nay 
by 



kya-kya 3 ajib chizen 

kyah-kyah a-jeeb cheez-en0 
what-what wonderful things 



dekhi 

dek-bee 
seen 



hain. 

hainy 

are. 



jawab 

ja-vahb 
reply 



diya ki : 

de-yah ke 
gave (that) 



Main ne ajube to 

main0 nay a-joo-bay toh 
I by=by me wonders very 



dekhe 

dek-hay 

seen 



sab-se-bara yeh 

sab-say-ba-rah yay'h 

all more than great this 



hain, 

hai ny 

are, 
hai 

hai 



IS 



ki 

ke 
that 



lekin 

lay-kin 

but 
main 

main? 
I 



un 

un 

them 



men 

mayn? 
among 



salamati se 

sa-lah-ma-tee say 
safety with 



sahal par zinda pahunch-gaya hun. 

sah-hal par zin-dah pa-hun<rch ga-yah boon? 

shore on alive arrived am. 

1 in a narrative, ki (that) generally precedes a quotation ; 2 the 
word to is not always translatable ; in many cases it is used simply to 
give emphasis ; 3 the repetition of a word intensifies its meaning. 

Correct English rendering of the above. 
A countryman said to a man from Bombay : You have many 
times travelled on (=crossed) the ocean, please tell me what 
wonderful things you have seen. He answered : I have seen 
many wonders, but the greatest of all is that I got back safely to 
shore. 



30 



HUGOS HINDUSTANI MADE EAST. 



Ek Ithargosh 


ne ek sherni 


ke samne ja 


ayk h'char-gohsh 


nay ayk shair-nee 


kay sahm-nay jah 


A hare 


by a tigress 


of presence gone 


kar us se 


kaha ki : Ai 


sherni ! mere 


kar us say 


ka-hah ke ai 


shair-nee may-ray 


having her to 


said (that) ; Oh 


tigress ! of me 



ek sal men ka'i bachche hote hain, magar 

ayk sahl majng ka-ee bach-chay hoh-tay hain; ma-gar 

one year in several young are, while 



tumhare 


tumhari 


kul 


zindgi 


men do 


ya 


tum-hah-ray 


tum-hah-ree 


kul 


zind-guee 


maynj? doh 


yah 


of you 


your 


whole 


life 


in two 


or 


tin se 


ziyada 


nahm 


hote. 


Sherni 


ne 


teen say 


zi-yah-dah 


na-heenff 


hoh-tay 


sliair-nee 


nay 


three than 


more 


not 


are, 


The tigress 


by 



muskara kar jawab diya, ki . Jo 

mus-kah-rah kar ja-vahb de-yah ke job 
smile doing answer gave (that) : 

kaihti ho sach hai ; beshak 


kuchh turn 

kuch'h turn 
All you 

meri kul 


kai'h-tee 


bob sach hai 


bay-sbak 


may-ree kul 


said 


have true is ; 


indeed 


my 


whole 



zindgi men mere sirf ek bachcha hota 

zind-guee mayv may-ray sirf ayk bach-chah hob -tab 
life in of me only one young be 



hai, lekin 

bai lay-kin 

may, but 



wuh ek sher hota hai. 

vo'b ayk shair bob-tab hai 
that one tiger is. 



Correct English rendering of the above. 
A hare having gone into the presence of a tigress, said to her : 
Oh, tigress, I have several young in one year, but you in your 
whole life have no more than two or three. The tigress laughing, 
replied : All that you have said is true ; in all my whole life I 
may have only one young, but that one is a tiger. 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MALIE EASY. 



FIFTH LESSON. 



ADJECTIVES, 
rich amir large bara 



a-meer 



poor gharfb 

h'ra-reeb 

dear maihiiffa 

mai-henj-gah 

cheap sasta 

sas-tah 



bar-ah 

small, little chhota 
cb'boh-tah 

good achchha 

ach-ch'hah 

bad bura or kharab 

bur-ah, h'char-ahb 



13. Adjectives ending in a consonant are invariable. 

14. Adjectives ending in a take the Gender and Num- 
ber of the_ Noun to which they belong, according to the 
rules of ka, ke, kl. Examples : 

a large house ek bara makan 

a small street ek chhoti gall 

good rooms achchhe kamre 

14. 

nahln (NOT) stands at the end of the sentence, just before the verb. 

1. wuh admi amir hai ; 2. ve admi amir 
nahln hain ; 3. shaihar bara hai ; 4. yen shai- 
har bara nahin hai ; 5. wuh chhota hai ; 6. yeh 
aurat giiarib hai ; 7. gharlb auraten ; 8. chhote 
bachche ; 9. ek achchha larka ; 10. wuh larka 
kharab hai ; 11. yeh larke bure nahln hain ; 
12. achchhe larke, achchhi larkian. 

14a. 

1. that man is rich ; 2. these men are not rich ; 3. the 
town is large ; 4. this town is not large ; 5. it is small ; 
6. this woman is poor ; 7. the poor women ; 8. little 
children ; 9. a good boy ; 10. that boy is bad ; 11. these 
boys are not bad ; 12. good boys, g >od girls. 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 



country mulk, m. 

mulk 

language zuban, f. 

zub-ahn 



garden bagh, m. 

bah'r 

fruit phal, m. 

p'hal 

flower phul, m. 

p'hool 

lesson sabaq, m. 

sa-back 

NOTE. Remember that h following any consonant must always be 
heard, never ignored. In the Imitated Pronunciation this ia indicated by 
an apostrophe between the two letters, as p'h. 



climate 
journey 



abohava, f. 

ahb-o-ha-vah 



sa-far 



safar, m. 



long lamba 

lam-bah 

short chhota 

ch'hoh-tah 

warm garm 

garm 

cold thanda 

t'han-dah 



ADJECTIVES (continued). 
easy 



asan 



ah-sahn 

difficult mushkil 

mush-kil 

beautiful khubsurat 

h'choob-soo-rat 

abundant bakasrat 

ba-kas-rat 



15. 



1. yen kamra garm hai ; 2. ve kamre thande 
haifi ; 3. bagh khubsurat hai ; 4. ek chhota safar ; 
'>. lambe safar ; 6. safar lamba hai ; 7. yeh sabaq 
asan hai ; 8. zuban mushkil hai ; 9. khubsurat 
phul ; 10. achchha phal ; 11. yeh chizefi sasti 
haifi; 12. wuh chizen maihngi hain; 13. kya 
yeh kitaben sasti haifi ? 14. han, yeh sasti haifi 

aur achchhi haifi. 

15a. 

1. this room is warm ; 2. these rooms are cold ; 3. the 
garden is beautiful ; 4. a short (= small) journey ; 5. long 
journeys ; 6. the journey is long ; 7. this lesson is easy ; 8. 
the language is difficult ; 9. beautiful flowers ; 10. good fruit ; 
11. these things are cheap ; 12. those things are dear ; 13. are 
these books cheap ? 14. yes, they are cheap and they are good. 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADB EASY. 83 

_16. 

1. Hindustan khubsurat mulk hai. 2. Abohava 
achchhi hai. 3. Hindustan ke bagh khubsurat 
hain. 4. Safar lamba hai aur mushkil hai. 

5. Zuban asan nahin hai. 6. Phal aur phul 
rahan bakasrat hain. 

16a. 

1. India is a beautiful country. 2. The climate is good. 
3. The gardens of (=in) India are beautiful. 4. The 
journey is long and difficult. 5. The language is not easy. 

6. Fruit and flowers are abundant there. 



name 


nam, m. 

nahm 


hungry bhukha 

b'hoo-k'hah 


word 


lafz. m. 

lafz 


thirsty pyasa 

pyah-sah 


food 


khana, m. 

k'hah-nah 


some, any kuohh 
kutch'h 



17. 

1. main bhukha nahin nun ; 2. wuh pyasa 
hai ; 3. ham bhukhe aur pyase the ; 4. kya 
tumhare pas kuchh khana hai ? 5. mere pas 
roti, dudh aur chaval hain ; 6. apka kya nam 
hai ? 7. yeh lafz kya hai ? 8. ve lafz kya the ? 
9. kya yeh lafz asan hain ? 10. wuh sabaq mush- 
kil nahin the. 

17a. 

1. I am not hungry ; 2. he is thirsty ; 3. we were 
hungry and thirsty ; 4. have you any (some) food (here) ? 
5. I have bread, milk and rice ; 6. what is your name ? 
7. what is this word ? 8. what were those words ? 9. are 
the words easy ? 10. those lessons were not difficult. 

H.8. 2 



HUGO S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 



CONVERSATIONAL PHRASES. 



Where do you come from ? 1. 

Where are you going ? 2. 

Go home quickly 1 3. 

Turn to the right. 4. 

Turn to the left. 5. 

Bring some wine -and 6. 

water. 

Cool the water. 7. 

Dinner (food) is on 8. 

the table. 

What is there for din- 9. 

ner(= to eat) to-day ? 

This bread is good. 10. 

The meat is also good. 11. 

Have a little patience. 12. 

Bring paper, ink and 13. 

pen. 



Turn kahafi se ate ho? 

Turn kahafi jate lio ? 

Ghar jaldi ja'o ! 

Dahine phiro. 

Baen phiro. 

Kuchh sharab aur pan! 

la'o. 

Pan! thanda karo. 
Khana mez par hazir 
_hai. 

Aj ka khana kya hai? 

Yeh rot! achchhi hai. 
Gosht bhi achchha hai. 
Thora sabr karo. 
Kaghaz, siyahi aur ka- 
lam la'o. 



Imitated Pronunciation of the above Phrases. 



1 turn ka-hahnf say ah-tay hob ? 

2 turn Iu-hahn0 jah-tay hoh ? 

3 g'bar jal-dee jab-ob 

4 dah-be-nay p'bir-ob 

6 bah-ain<r p'bir-oh 

$ kutch'h sha-rahb awr pah-nee 
lah-ob 

7 pah-nee t'han-dah ka-roh 



8 k'hah-nab mayz par hah-zir 

bai 

9 ahdj kah k'hab-nah kyab hai f 

10 yay'h roh-tee ach-cb'hee hai 

11 gohsbt b'hee ach-ch'hah hai 

12 t'iioh-rah sabr ka-roh 

13 kah-h'raz, se-yah-hee awr ka- 

lam lah-oh 



Explanatory Notes to the above Phrases. 

1 ***joa where from coming are ? 2 =you where going are ? 3 =house 
quickly go I 4 =right turn ; 5 =left turn ; 3 7 o after the Stem of the 
Verb indicates the Imperative, as : la-o ! kar-o ! 8 dinner, food in 
general, and to eat, are all expressed by khana ; 9 =to-day to eat what 
to f IS <>patience little do. 



HUGO'S HINDI'S! AN I MADE BAST. 



35 



EASY READING, 

with Imitated Pronunciation, Literal Translation and 
correct English Rendering. 

Ek bahut gharib admi ne 1 ek baliut amir 

ayk ba-hut h'ra-reeb ahd-mee nay ayk ba-hut a-meer 
A very poor man a very rich 



admi ke-pas ja-kar, kaha ki : Ham 

ahd-mee kay-pahs jab-kar ka-hah ke bam 
man to having gone, said (that) : We 


Adam o* Hawwa ke 

ah-dam oh hav-vah kay 

Adam and Eve of 


do bete haift ; turn 

dob bay-tay bain* tun> 
two sons are ; you 


bahut amir ho, aur 

ba-but a-meer hob awr 
very rich are, and 


main bahut gharfb 

miiing ba-but h'ra-reeb 
I very poor 


hufi. Isliye muj-he 

huonp is-le-yay muj-hay 
am. Therefore me 


ek bha*i ka-sa hissa 

ayk b'bah-ee kah-sah his-sah 
a brother's like share 


do. Amir admi ne 

doh a-meer ahd-mee nay 
give. The rich man 


yeh sun-kar gharib 

yay sun-kar h'ra-reeb 
this heard having poor 



admi ko ek kauri 3 di. Us gharib shakhs 



ahd-mee kob ayk 


kaw-ree dee 


us h'ra-reeb 


shalTchs 


man to one 


shell gave. 


That poor 


person 


ne kaha : 


Janab, ap 


mujhko ek 


bhal 


nay ka-hah 


ja-nahb alip 


muj'h-koh ayk 


b'hah-ee 


said : 


Sir, you 


me to a 


brother'^ 


ka-sa hissa 


kyufl nahm 


dete hain ? 


Usne 


kah-sah his-sah 


kyoonfl na-heenj 


day-tay liainj 


us- nay 


like share 


why not 


givinsj are ? 


He 



1 ne i not always translatable ; 2 o is another word for anr (and) j 
'* kauri, a very small coin. 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EAST. 



jawab 

ja-vahb 


diya ki : Mere 1 bhale 1 dost ! sabir 

de-yah ke may-ray b'hah-lay dohst sah-bir 


reply 


gave (that) : My worthy friend ! content 


bano. 


Agar 


main 


apne 


sab gkarib 


ba-noh 


a- gar 


mainj 


ap-nay 


sab h'ra-reeb 


remain. 


If 


I 


of mine 


all poor 


bha'ion 


ko 


ek-ek 


kauri 


dun to mere 


b'hah-e-O7i0 


koh 


ayk-ayk 


kaw-ree doong toh may-ray 


brothers 


to 


each one 


a shell 


gave then my pos- 


pas 


kuchh 


baki 


nahm 


bachegu. 


pahs 


kuch'h 


bah-kee 


n a- been? 


bach-ay -gab. 


session in 


some 


remainder not 


left will be. 



Correct English rendering of the above. 
A very poor man went to a very rich man and said to him : 
We are both sons of Adam and Eve ; you are very rich and I am 
very poor. Give me therefore a proper brother's share. The 
rich man hearing this gave the poor man one small coin. The 
poor man said : Sir, why do you not give me a proper brother's 
share ? The other answered : Be content ray friend. If I gave 
one small coin to each one of my poor brothers, there would be 
nothing left for myself. 



Ek 

ayk 
A 

US 

us 
him 



shakhs 

shah'chs 
person 



ek 

ayk 
a 



khatnavis 

h'chat-na-vees 
scribe 



ke-pas 

kay-pahs 

to 



gaya aur 

ga-yah awr 
went and 



se kaha ki : Meri ek chitthi likh-do. 

say ka-hah ke may-ree ayk chit-t'hee lik'h doh 

to said (that) : My (=me) a letter write. 



Usne 

us-nay 

He 



jawab 

ja-vahb 
reply 



diya 

de-yah 
gave 



ki: 

ke 
(that) : 



Mere 

may -ray 
My 



paun 

pall-Un0 

foot 



men 



n 



1. When addressing anyone, pronouns and adjectives preceding the 
notln and ending in a, change a into e in the singular as well as in the 
plural. 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 



87 



dard 

dard 

pain 
turn 

turn 
you 

hun, 



hai. 

hai 
is. 

ko 

koh 
to 



Us shakhs ne kaha : Main 

us shah'chs nay ka-hah main? 

That person (=the man) said : I 



kisi jag-eh bhejna nahm chahta 

kis-ee ja-gay'h b'haydj-nah na-heen0 chah-h'a-tah 
any place sending not wishing 

kyun karte lio ? 

kyoonj kar-tay 



banana 

ba-hah-nah 

excuse 



to yeh beja 

toh yay'h bay-jah 
am, then this improper 

Khatnavis ne jawab 

h'chat-na-vees nay ja-vahb 

The scribe 



sach 

sach 

true 



bolte 

bohl-tay 
speaking 



Chitthl 

chit-t'hee 
letter 

mujhe 

muj-hay 



ho, 

hoh 

are, 
kisi ke 

kis-ee kay 

anyone 

usko parhne 

par'h-nay 



reply 
lekin 

lay-kin 

but 



why 

diya 

de-yah 
gave 

jab 

jab 
when 



doing 
ki: 

ke 
(that) : 

main 



us-koh 



to read 



me (=1) them by 

jata hai, kyun-ki 

jah-tah hai kjoong ke 
going am, because 

dastkhat 

dast-h'chat 



nandwriting 



ko 

koh 
to 



liye likhta 

le-yay lik'h-tah 
for writing 

ke liye zarur 

kay le-yay za-roor 
for necessarily 

aur-ko'i shakhs 

awr-koh-ee shah'chs 
another person 

nahm parh-sakta 

ua-heeng par'h-sak-tah 

not reading capable 



hoh 
are ? 

Turn 

turn 
You 

ko'i 

koh-ee 
any 

hun, to 

hoong toh 

am, then 
bulaya 

bul-ah-yah 

called 
mere 

may-ray 
my 

hai. 

hai 
is. 



Correct English rendering of the above. 
A certain person went to a scribe and said to him : Write a 
letter for me. He answered that he had a pain in his foot. The 
man said : I do not wish to send you anywhere, why do you make 
such a senseless excuse ? The scribe answered : What you say 
is true, but when I write a letter to anyone, I am always called 
to come and read it, because no one else can read my writing. 



HUGO ,S HJUNDUSTAfli ilADK KASY. 



SIXTH LESSON. 



THE VERBS. 

15. Hindustani Verbs, with a few exceptions, are quite 
regular. The conjugation, therefore, presents no great diffi- 
culty when once the peculiar constructions are thoroughly 
understood. 

In the INFINITIVE all verbs end in na, as : 
bolna (bohl-nah) TO SPEAK 

The principal parts of the verb are : (1) the STEM, 
(2) the PRESENT PARTICIPLE, and (3) the PAST PARTI- 
CIPLE. From these three principal parts, all the tenses are 
formed, by adding terminations to the Stem, or with the 
help_pf the Present and Past Tenses of the Auxiliary Verb 
hona, TO BE. If we take away the final na of the INFINI- 
TIVE, the STEM remains. 

To form the PRESENT PARTICIPLE of any Verb, add the 
following terminations to the stem : 

MASC. SING. MASC. PLUB. KKM. SING. FEM. PLUB. 

ta te ti tin 

tab tay tee teen? 

To form the PAST PARTICIPLE of any Verb add the 
following terminations to the stem : 

MASC. SING. MASC. Pi. UK. FEM. SING. 

e 

ay 



a 

ah 



ee 



FEM. PLUB. 

ifl 

ee*0 



Thus, taking bolna, TO SPEAK, as an example we get : 
INFINITIVE : bolna 



STEM. 



bol 



PHKSENT PARTICIPLE. 
MASC. SING. MA8C. PLUR. 

bolte 

FEM. PLUK. 

boltifl 



bolta 

FKM. SI Mr. 

bolt) 



bola bole 

FEM. SING. FEM. PLUB. 

boll bolifl 

The terminations must agree in Gender ami Number with the Noun 
or Pronoun whu-h is the Subject of tlto Vrb. 



PAST PARTICIPLE. 

MASC. SING. MASC. PLUB 



HUGOB HIXUUaTAM ALiDK KAoY. 



hona, TO BE, is the only Auxiliary used in conjugating 
Ihe tenses formed of the Present and Past Participles, for, 
as mentioned on page 24, the verb TO HAVE is not used 
in Hindustani. Therefore, where in English TO HAVE (has, 
have, had) is used, the corresponding forms of TO BE (am, is, 
are, was, were) must be used in Hindustani. 

' I have spoken ' thus becomes ' I am spoken/ or, to be 
more correct : I spoken am, main bola hufL The 
Auxiliary must always be the last word in the sentence. 

Considering that the Present and Past Tenses of hona are the basis 
(or the conjugation of all verbs, it is very important to make one's self 
thoroughly familiar with these two tenses, as given in the Third Lesson. 

1. Directly from the Stem are formed the IMPERATIVE 
and the FUTURE. For conjugation see Lessons 8 and 10. 

2. From the PRESENT PARTICIPLE are formed : 
(a) The PRESENT TENSE, as : 

I speak or I am speaking main bolta bun (=1 speaking am). 

(6) The IMPERFECT, as : 

I was speaking main bolta tha (=1 speaking was). 

CONJUGATION OP THE ABOVE TWO TENSES. 

PRESENT. 

I speak or I am speaking main bolta hufi or bolt! hufi 

he speaks he is speaking wuh bolta hai 

she speaks ., she is speaking wuh boltl hai 

we speak we are speaking ham bolte hain or boltl haifi* 

J turn bolte ho or boltl ho 
you speak you are speaking J ap bolte flain ^ ^^ haifi 

they speak they are speaking ve bolte haifi boltl haifi 

IMPERFECT. 

I was speaking main bolta tha or bolt! thi 

he was speaking wuh. bolta tha 

she was speaking wuh boltl thi 

we were speaking ham bolte the or boltl thin* 

von were aneakim? ( tum bolte the boltl thlfi 

tap bolte the boltl thlfi 

they were speaking ve bolte the boltl thlfi 

Before haifi or thin the Fern. Plur. form of the verb may drop the nasal fi. 



40 



HUGO S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 



INFINITIVE. 


STEM. 


PRESENT 
PARTICIPLE. 


PAST 
PARTICIPLE. 


to see, dekhna 

dayk'h-nah 


dekh 

dayk'h 


dekhta 

dayk'h-tah 


dekha 

dayk'h-ah 


to write, likhna 

lik'h-nah 


likh 

lik'h 


likhta 

lik'h-tah 


likha 

lik'h-ah 


to read, parhna 

par'h-nah 


parh 

par'h 


parhta 

par'h-tah 


parha 

par'b-ah 


to buy, kharidna 

h'char-eed-nah 


kharid 

h'char-eed 


kharidta 

h'char-eed-tah 


kharida 

b-char-eed-ah 


to sell, bechna 

betch-nah 


been 

betch 


bechta 

betch -tab 


becha 

betcb-ah 


to hear, sunna 

sun-nab 


sun 

sun 


sunta 

sun-tab 


suna 

sun-nab 



Only the Masculine Singular forms of the Verbs are given. The other 
terminations follow the ordinary rule for Person, Gender and Number. 



_ 

1. main kharidta huii ; 2. ham kharidte the ; 
3. ve nahm kharidte hain ; 4. wuh likhta hai ; 
5. kya ap likhte the ? 6. ham nahm likhte haifi ; 

7. kaun bolta hai ? 8. wuh bolta tha ; 9. kya 
turn parhte ho ? 10. wuh parhti hai ; 11. wuh 
parhti thi ; 12. ve bechte hain ; 13. maifl 
bechta hun ; 14. wuh dekhta hai ; 15. ham 
nahm dekhte haifi ; 16. wuh sunti hai ; 17. 

ve nahm sunte hain. 

18a. 

1. I buy or I am buying ; 2. we were buying ; 3. they 
do not buy or they are not buying ; 4. he writes or he is 
writing ; 5. were you writing ? 6. we do not write or we 
are not writing ; 7. who speaks or who is speaking ? 

8. he was speaking ; 9. do you read or are you reading ? 
10. she reads or she is reading ; 11. she was reading ; 12. they 
sell or they are selling ; 13. 1 sell or I am selling ; 14. he 
sees ; 15. we do not see ; 16. she hears ; 17. they do not hear. 



HUGOS HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 41 

When the English form ' I am speaking, I am reading,' etc., merely 
means ' I speak, I read,' etc., it is rendered as previously explained. But 
when ' I am speaking, reading, writing,' etc., implies a continuous action, 
it can also be rendered by a special construction, with the help of the 
?erb raihna (rai'h-nah), to remain or continue. 

The STEM only of the principal verb is used, followed by the forms of 
the PAST PARTICIPLE of the verb raihna, which are inserted between 
the Stem of the Verb and the Auxiliary. These forms are : 

MASC. SING. MASC. PLUE. FEM. SING. FEM. PLUS. 

raha rahe rahl rahin 

ra-hah ra-hay ra-hee ra-heev 



EXAMPLES. 

PRESENT IMPERFECT. 

I am speaking main bol raha hftfi 

he is speaking wuh bol raha hai 

we are speaking ham bol rahe haifi 

you are speaking turn bol rahe ho 

they are speaking Ve bol rahe haifi 

PAST IMPERFECT. 

I was speaking main bol raha tha 

he was sneaking wuh bol raha tha 

we were speaking ham bol rahe the 

you were speaking turn bol rahe the 

they were speaking ve bol rahe the 

19 _1 

1. main park raha hun ; 2. ham likh rahe 
hain ; 3. ve likh rahin thin ; 4. wuh kharid 
raha hai ; 5. wuh akhbar parh rahl thi ; 6. 
ap chitthi likh rahe the ; 7. main ghora been 
raha tha. 

19a. 

1. I am reading ; 2. we are writing ; 3. they were 
writing ; 4. he is buying ; 5. she was reading the 
newspaper ; 6. you were writing a letter ; 7. I was 

selling a horse. 
H.S. 2* 



42 HUGO'S HIiNDUHTANI MADE KA8T. 



SEVENTH LESSON. 



16. From the PAST PARTICIPLE are formed : 

1. The PAST TENSE as : I spoke. 

2. The PERFECT as : I have spoken. 

3. The PLUPERFECT as : I had spoken. 

These tenses can be formed in two ways, namely, with 
or without the introduction of the Preposition n0 (nay) BY. 

As a general rule we may accept that (1) Verbs which 
have or can have a Direct Object are conjugated with ne, 
and (2) Verbs which have no Object or no Direct Object 
are conjugated without ne. 

No definite rules, however, can be given. With some verb* the use 
of ne is optional. 

EXAMPLES. 

(1) bechna (baycfa.nah) TO SELL 
I sold main, ne becha* 

1 hare sold maifi ne beoh& hai 

I bad sold main ne beoh& tha 

(2) hansna (han^nato TO LAUGH 

I laughed main hafisa* 

I have laughed main hansa hufi 

I had laughed main hansa tha 

* The simple Past Tense is always the same as the Past Participle. 

The construction with H6 is somewhat complicated and 
requires careful study. The following rules will be of 

assistance. 

RULES FOR THE USE OF 116 IN FORMING THE 
TENSES OF THE PAST PARTICIPLE. 

1. ne immediately follows the SUBJECT of the sentence. 
The Verb is in the Third Person SINGULAR, if there is 
no Object mentioned, or if the Object (Singular or 
Plural) is followed by ko (koh) TO. Examples : 
I have sold main ne becha hai 

I have sold a hone main ne ghoret ko becha hai 

I have sold horses maifi ne ghoron ko becha hai 

t ft before a Preposition changes into e. 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EAST. 48 

2. If there is an Object, but NOT followed by ko, the 
Gender and Number of the Verb are governed by the 
OBJECT. Examples : 

I have sold the horse main ne ghora becha hai 

I have sold the horses main ne ghore beche hain 

I have sold the book main ne kitab bechi hai 

I have sold the books main ne kitaben bechi hain 

It will be seen that in this construction, the OBJECT of the English 
phrase becomes (for grammatical purposes) the SUBJECT of the Hindu* 
taui phrase, thus : 

I have sold the horse = by me the horse is sold 
I have sold the books = by me the books are sold 



3. Bef ore ne the Pronouns yell and WTlh (Singular) become 
is (is) and US (us) respectively, in the same way the 
Pronouns ve, yeh and wuh (Plural) before ne, be- 
come inhon (in-honf) and unhon (un- 



NOTE. The construction with NE applies only to the 
Tenses formed from the Past Participle. It does not affect 
the Tenses formed from the Present Participle. 

20. 

1. main ne ek kitab kharidi hai ; 2. us ne 
kitaben kharidi hain ; 3. ham ne yeh kitaben 
kharidi thin ; 4. unhon ne chitthian likhin ; 
5. ham ne chitthian likhi thifi ; 6. kya turn ne 
yeh kitab parhi ? 7. kya turn ne yeh kitab parhi 
hai ? 8. unhon ne ve kitaben nahin parhi thin ; 

9. ham ne apke doston ko nahin dekha hain ; 

10. main ne turn ko nahin dekha. 

20a. 

1. 1 have bought a book ; 2. he has bought books ; 
3. we had bought these books ; 4. they wrote letters ; 
5. we had written the letters ; 6. did you read (=read you) 
this book ? 7. have you read this book ? 8. they had not 
read those books ; 9. we have not seen your friends : 
10. I did not see you (=*saw you not). 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EAST. 



Some Verbs which do not take ne. 



to meet milna 

mil-nab 

to sleep sona 

so-nah 

to weep rona 

roh-nah 

to laugh hansna 



PAST PARTICIPLE mila 

mil-ah 

soya* 

sob-ah 

roya* 

roh-ah 

hansa 



* Irregular formations of the Past Participle. See aiso Lessons 8 and 9. 

21. 

1. main mila, wuh mila hai ; 2. ham mile 
hain, ve mile the ; 3. wuh ro'i, wuh ro'i hai, 
turn nahm ro'e the ; 4. wuh hansa, ham nahm 
hanse hain, main hansa tha ; 5. kya turn so'e ? 
ham so'e hain, wuh nahm soya tha. 

21a. 

1. I met, he has met ; 2. we have met, they had met ; 
3. she wept, she has wept, you had not wept ; 4. he 
laughed, we have not laughed, I had laughed ; 5. did 
you sleep (=slept you) ? we have slept, he had not slept. 

THE MONTHS. 



January Janvari 

jan-va-ree 

February Farvari 

far'va-ree 

March March 

mahrch 

April Aprail 

a-prail 

Ma'I 



May 
June 



joon 



Jun 



July Jula'i 

ju-lah-ee 

August Agast 

a-gast 

September Sitambar 

se-tam-bar 

October Actubar 

ac-too-bar 
November NavanibaP 

na-vam-bar 

December Disambar 
dis-am-bar 



HUGO S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 



45 



PREPOSITIONS, 

or, more correctly, Postpositions, as their position in a sen- 
tence is generally AFTER the Object, not before it, as in 
English. 



TO, AT 


ko 


( liye 




koh 


FOR \ lee-yay 


WITH 


sath 


1 vaste 




saht'h 


vahs-tay 


FROM 


se 


AFTER bad 




say 


bahd 


AT, ON 


par 

par 


BETWEEN (ke) darmyan 

(kay) dann-yahn 


IN 


men 


BEHIND pichhe 




maywp 


peech-hay 


BY 


ne, se 


UNDER niche 




nay, say 


nee-chay 


OF 


ka, ke, ki 


THROUGH men se 




kah, kay, kee 


mayn0 say 


Final a before a Preposition becomes e, regardless of Gender or Number. 



Before all Prepositions yeh and wuh (Singular) become is and US 

respectively. Before all Prepositions (except ne), ve, yeh and wuh 

(Plural) become in and un (see Rule 3 on ' the use of ne'). 

22. 

1. ve shaihar men ham ; 2. ham apke dostofi 
ke sath the ; 3. larka darvaze par hai ; 4. kitab 
kursi ke niche hai ; 5. bachche ghar ke pfchhe 
hain ; 6. mere liye yeh kitab hai ; 7. g-oron aur 
Hindustanion ke darmyan achchha dostana* hai. 

* dostana (dohs-tah-nah), friendliness. 

22a. 

1. they are in tne town ; 2. we were with your frienus ; 
3. the boy is at the door ; 4. the book is under the chair ; 
5. the children are behind the house ; 6. this book is for 
me ; 7. between the white people and the Indians there is 
good fellowship (=friei.dliness). 



46 



HUOO B HIADU8TAN1 MADE KAST. 



CONVERSATIONAL PHRASES. 



What o'clock (' 

it? 

It is one o'clock. 
It is half past two. 
It is ten minutes to 

three. 
Twenty minutes past 

four. 

It does not matter. 
Is it all right ? 
Pardon me. 
You are right. 
I am wrong. 
Come this way. 

I will show you the 



time) is 1. Kya baja hai ? 



way. 



2. Ek baja hai. 

3. Dha*! baje hain. 

4. Tin bajne 1 mefi das xni- 

nat hain. 

5. Char baj-kar bis minat 

hain. 

6. Kuchh bat nahin. 

7. Kya yeh thlk hai ? 

8. Muaf kijiye. 

9. Turn thik ho. 

10. Main ghalat nun. 

11. Is raste se a*o, or idhar 

ko a'o. 

12. Main tum_ko rasta dikh- 

ladungra. 



1 before men or any other Preposition final a changes into e. 
Imitated Pronunciation of the above phrases. 



1 kyah ba-jah hai ? 

2 ayk ba-jah hai ? 

3 d'hah-ee ba-jay 

4 teen baj-nay may*? das me-nat 



5 chahr baj-kar bees me-nat h&jn 

6 kuch'h baht na-heea 

7 kyah yay'h t'heek hai ? 



8 mu-ahf kee-je-yay 

9 turn t'heek hoh 

10 main? h'ra-lat hoon? 

11 is rahs-tay say ah-oh, or id-har 

koh ah-oh 

12 main? turn koh rahs-tah dik'h- 

lah-doonj-gah 



Explanatory Notes to the above phrases. 

The literal translation of the phrases 1 to 5 is : 1 what struck is ? 
2 one struck is ; 8 two and a half struck are ; 4 three to strike in ten 
minutes are ; 5 four struck is twenty minutes. 

8 Polite Imperative adds iye or jiye to the stem of the verb ; literally 
this phrase would read : Pardon please do ; 12 unga after the stem at 
the verb indicates the Future Tense (shall or will). 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI HADE EASY. 47 

EASY READING, 

with Imitated Pronunciation, Literal Translation and 
Correct English Rendering. 

Ek andheri rat mefi ek andha admi apne 

ayk aid-hay-ree raht m&jng ayk and-hah ahd-mee ap-nay 
One dark night in a blind man his 

hath mefL ek chiragli aur apne 1 kandhe 

babt'h may<7 ayk chir-ah'r awr ap-nay kand-hay 

hand in a lamp and his shoulder 

par ek bartan le-kar, mandi men 

par ayk bar-tan lay-kar man-dee mayn^ 

on a jar having-taken, market in 

ja-raha tha. Kisi ne usko kaha : Ai 

jah-rah-hah t'hah k s-see nay us-koh ka-hah ai 

going was. Someone him to said : Oh 

bewakuf ! ten ankhon, men din aur rat 

bayv-a-koof tay-rec ahng-k'hong mayn? din awr raht 

fool ! thine eyes, in day and night 

yaksafi hain, tere liye chiragh ka kya 

yak-sabiv hai0 tay-ray le-yay chir-ab r kah kyab 
alike are, thee for lamp of what 

fa'ida hai ? Andhe ne hans-kar jawab 

fab-ee-dab hai and-bay nay ban^s-kar ja-vahb 

benefit is ? The blind man laugh doing reply 

diya : Ai, ala khardimagh ! kya tu yeh 

de-yab ay ab-lab b'cbar-de-mab'r kyab too yay'h 

gave : Oh, great donkey-brain ! what thou it 

khiyal-karta hai ki chiragh mere f^'ide 

b'cbe-yahl-kar-tab hai ke chir-ah'r may-ray ah-ee-day 

imagining art that the lamp my benefit 

1 for the use of apne, see Lesson 13. 

NOTE. In t-his exercise the familiar form of the second person has 
been used : for full forms of this pronoun, refer to Index. 



HUGO 8 HINDUSTANI MADK EASY. 



ke liye hai ? 

kay le-yay hai 


Nahin, 

na-heen<r 


nahin 


, yeh 

7 yay'h 


bilkul-hi 

bil-kul-hee 


for 


is? 


No, 




no, 


it 


entirely 


tere 


vaste 


hai, 


ta 


ki 


tu 


andhere 


tay-ray 


vabs-tay 


hai 


tab 


ke 


too 


aK0d-hay-ray 


thee 


for 


is, 


SO 


that 


thou 


darkness 


men 


mera 


bartan 




na 


tor 


de. 


may w 


may-rah 


bar-tan 




nab 


tohr 


day 


in 


my 


jar 




not 


break 


do. 



Correct English .i>nd-ering of the above. 
One dark night, a blind mau with a lamp in his hand and a 
jar on his shoulder was going to the market. Someone said to 
him : Thou fool 1 day and night are alike to thine eyes, of what 
benefit is a lamp to thee ? The blind mail laughingly answered : 
Oh, thou blockhead I dost thou imagine that the lamp is for 
my benefit ? No, no, it is entirely for thee, so that in the dark- 
ness thou mayest not break my jar. 



Dehli shaihar ki ek-hi g*ali men do 

day'h-lee sbai-har kee ayk-hee ga-lee mayv dob 

Delhi town of same street in two 

shakhs raihte the. Un men ek kanjus 

ehah'chs rai'h-tay t'hay un m&yng ayk kan-joos 

persons living were. Them among one a miser 

aur dusra amir tha. Ve ek-dusre-ke-pas 

awr doos-rah a-meer t'hah vay ayk doos-ray-kay-pahs 

and the other a rich man was. They one another with 

aya-jaya karte the, aur un men apas-mefi 

ab-yah-jab-yah kar-tay t'hay, awr un in&jng ah-pas mayn? 
come and go used to were, and them among mutually 

dostana bhi tha. Ek dafa kanjus ne amir 

dohs-tah-nah b'hee t'hab ayk da-fab kan-joos nay a-meer 
friendliness also was. Once the miser rich man 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 



se kaha ki : Pyare dost, 

say ka-hah ke p'yah-ray dohst 

to said (that) : Dear friend, 

par-des ko jata hun. 

par-days koh jah-tah boon? 

foreign country to going am. 

ang-uthi chahta 

any-goo-t'hee chah'h-tah 
ring: wanting 



main 

I 

Main 

inning 
I 



dur 

door 
distant 



him, 

hoong 
am, 



ta-ki 

tah-ke 
so- that 



use 

u-say 
it 



main 

main? 
I 



turn 

turn 
you 



ko 

koh 
to 



yad-karta 

yahd-kar-tah 
remembering 



rahun. 



continue. 



daraz 

da-rabz 
very 

tumhari 

tum-hah-ree 
your 

dekh-kar, 

dayk'h-kar 
seeing-do, 

Amir 

a-meer 
The rich man 



ne 

nay 

ko 

koh 
at 

Asal 

as-al 
True 



jawab 

ja-vahb 
reply 



diya ki : 

de-yah ke 
gave (that) : 



Turn apm nangri 

turn ap-nee nan^-guee 
You your (own) bare 



dekh-kar 

dayk'h-kar 
seeing 

dosti 

dohs-tee 
friendship 



mujhe 

muj-hay 
me 

ko 

koh 
to 



angruthi vaghaira ki 

an0-goo-t'hee vab'r-ai-rah kee 
rings and-such-like of 



yad-kar 

yahd-kar 
remember 

yaddasht 

yahd-dahsht 
remembrance 

zarurat 

za-roo-rat 
need 



sakte 

sak-tay 
can 

ke 

kay 
of 

nahm 

na-hee<r 
not 



ungli 

unj-giee 
finger 

ho. 

hob 
be. 

liye 

le-yay 

for 
hai. 

hai 

is. 



Correct English rendering- of the above. 
In a street in the town of Delhi, lived two persons. The one 
was a miser and the other a rich man. They used to visit one 
another and were on friendly terms. One day the miser said to 
the rich man : Dear friend, I am going to a far distant country. 
I want your ring, so that seeing it, I may constantly remember 
you. The rich man answered : When you see your bare finger, 
it will remind you of me. True friendship does not need rings 
and such like for remembrance. 



50 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 



EIGHTH LESSON. 



17. PRONOUNS for the ACCUSATIVE (Object). 

YOU tumko or tumhen 

tuin-koh tum-hayn? 

(ordinary and intimate form) 

YOU apkO (ahp-koh) 
(respectful and polite form) 

THEM unko or unhen 

(distant) un-koh un-hayn? 

THEM inko inhen 

in-koh in-baynr 

(on the spot) 

* ko (BY) is usually joined to the pronoun, and occasionally to the 
noun, which it follows. In Urdu, the joined and the separated forms are 
used indifferently. In Hindi, the practice is, at present, a matter of con- 
troversy. The same applies to other particles and prepositions. In this 
text-book, these are usually written as separate words. 

f The alternative forms of the pronouns here given are both in general 
use. Sometimes the one is more idiomatic than the other. 



MB mujhko* 

mudj'h-koh 


or mujhet 

mudj-Liay 


HIMflr) US ko 
HER ) ns-koh 
(distant) 


use 

us-ay 


HlMorUsko 
HER ) is-koh 
(on the spot) 


ise 

is-ay 


us hamko 

ham-koh 


hamen 

haui-aynff 



VERBS (continued). 

18. When the STEM ends in a long vowel, y is inserted 
before the Termination of the PAST PARTICIPLE, as in the 
following verbs : 



INFINITIVE. 


STEM. 


PRESENT 
PARTICIPLE. 


PAST 

PARTICIPLE. 


to bring, lana 

lah-uah 


la 

lah 


lata 

lull-tali 


laya 

lah-yah 


to come, ana 

ah-uah 


a 

ah 


ata 

ah-tah 


aya 

ah-yah 


to eat, khana 

k'hah-nah 


kha 

k'hah 


khata 

k'haii-tah 


khaya 

k'hah-yab 


to drink, pina* 
pee-nah 


PI 

pee 


pita 

pee-tah 


piya 

pee-yah 


to prepare, banana 

(as food) ba-uah-iiah 


bana 

ba-iiah 


banata 

ba-nah-tah 


banaya 

ba-uuh-yah 



* pina is also used for ' to smoke ' tobacco. Literally therefore, 
to drink tobacco. 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EAST. 51 

23. 

1. main ata hun, ve aye, wuh aya hai ; 
2. ve nahm ate hain, kya ap ate hain ? 3. yeh 
sharab* pTjiye, pan! na pijiye ; 4. mere liye 
kuchh roti lao, wuh yell laya hai ; 5. yeh khatt 
kaun laya hai ? 6. us ne ek khat likha hai ; 

7. ise kha'iye, ise mat kha'o ; 8. khana ban graya 
hai ; 9. kya turn ne khana banaya hai ? 10. 
main banata (or bana raha; hun. 

* sharab (shar-ahb), wine. fkhat (h'chat) =letter. 

NOTE. For formation of the IMPERATIVE, see next page (rule 

23a. 

1. I am coming, they came, he has come ; 2. they are 
not coming, are you coming ? 3. please drink this wine, 
do not drink water ; 4. bring me some bread, he has 
brought it ; 5. who has brought this letter ? 6. he has 
written a letter ; 7. please eat this, do not eat that ; 

8. the food (dinner) is prepared (cooked) ; 9. have you 
prepared the food ? 10. I am preparing (it). 

24. 

1. main ne inko dekha ; 2. kya ap ne isko 
dekha hai ? 3. ap unko kahan mile ? 4. main 
ne unko aksar* dekha hai ; 5. kya turn ne mujhko 
suna ? 6. ham ne unko chitthian likhi hain ; 
7. kya turn ne usko chitthi likhi hai ? 8. ham- 

kO khat likhO. * aksar (ak-sar), often. 

24a. 

L I saw them ; 2. have you seen her or him ? 3. 
where did you meet them ? 4. I have often seen them ; 
5. did you hear me ? 6. we have written letters to them ; 
7. have you written a letter to him or her ? 8. write us a 
letter. 



52 HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EAST. 



tobacco tambaku, f. 



tam-bah-koo 



Indian pipe hukka, m. 



huk-kah 



Indian cigar churat, f. 



chu-rat 



cigarette Sigrat, f. 



part hissa. m. 

his-sah 

European firangl 

fe-ra0-guee 

to be grown boya jana 

or sown boh-yah jah-nab 

to use istimal karna 

is-ti-mal kar-nah 



si-grat 

people log 

lohg 

25. 

1. Tambaku Hindustan ke kuchh hisson men 
boi jati hai. 2. Ohurat am taur par Barmi log 
istimal karte hain. 3. Firangi log hukke ko 
pasand* nahm karte. 4. Shaihron men bahut 
log sigrat pite hain. 

* pasand (pa-sand) liked. 

25a. 

1. Tobacco is grown in some parts of India. 2. The 
cheroot is generally smoked (=used) by the people of 
Burma. 3. Europeans do not like the ' hukka ' (Indian pipe). 
4. In the towns many people smoke cigarettes. 



THE IMPERATIVE. 

19. The ordinary IMPERATIVE is formed by adding 
O to the Stem of the Verb, as : 

write ! likho ! read I parho I bring ! lao ! (or la'o I) 
come 1 ao ! (or a'o !) 

The apostrophe between the final vowel of the Stem and the o of the 
Imperative, is optional. The apostrophe serves to make the pronunciation 



The RESPECTFUL or POLITE IMPERATIVE is formed by 
adding iye (e-yay) ' please,' to the Stem of the Verb, as : 
aiye ! please come ' khaiye ! please eat 1 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EAST. 53 

Note the slight variations in the spelling of the Polite 
Imperative, namely : 

(A) If the Stem ends in a or o, or any consonant, add iye to the 

Stm, as in : aiye ! please come ! 

(B) If the Stem ends in 1 add jiye, as in : 

pljiye ! please smoke I 

(C) If the Stem ends in e change this final e into I and add jiye. 

as in : lena, to take ; Stem, le ; 

Polite Imperative : lijiye ! please take 1 

In an IMPERATIVE phrase, NOT is sometimes rendered 
by mat (mat), instead of by na or nahin, thus : 

do not come mat a'o please do not cume mat aiye 

do not bring it yeh mat la'o please do not drink this yell mat pljiye 

do not go to sleep mat so'o 
The modern tendency is to discard the use of mat. 

The INFINITIVE often serves the purpose of the IM- 
PERATIVE, thus : 

do not come mat ana please come ana 

do not bring it yeh mat lana please bring it yeh lana 

Steins ending in e have, besides the ordinary Imperative, 
an irregular one, formed by dropping the 6 before O. The 
latter form is more idiomatic. 

What did you say ? 1. Ap ne kya kaha? 
I did not understand. 2. Main nahin samjha. 
This is very easy. 3. Yeh bahut asan hai. 

That is very difficult. 4. Wllh bahut mushkil 

hai. 

Is it possible ? 5. Kya yeh mumkin hai ? 

No, it is impossible. 6. Nahin, yeh namumkin 

hai. 

Imitated Pronunciation. 1 ahp nay kyah ka-hah ? 2 main? na- 
hee*<r sam-j'hah ; 3 yay'h bu-hut ah-sahn hai ; 4 vo'h ba-hut mush-kil 
hai o kyah yay'h mum- kin hai ? 6 na-heen yay'h nah- mum-kin hai. 



54 



HUGOS HINDUSTANI MADE KASY. 



CONVERSATIONAL PHRASES. 



I am going out. 
Bring my clothes. 
Bring my shoes. 
Brush my hat and coat. 
This is good news. 
It is late, I must go. 

Whose fault is it ? 
It was not his fault. 
Shut the door. 
Don't forget. 
Put the rupees in the 

bag. 

You have leave to go. 
Wake me early. 
It is dark in this 

room. 

Light a candle. 
There is no oil in the 

lamp. 



1. Main bahar ja raha hun. 

2. Mere kagre la'o. 

3. Mere jute la'o. [ro. 

4. Mera top aur kot saf ka- 

5. Yeli achchhi khabar hai. 

6. Der _ho ga'i, mujhe jana 

chahiye. 

7. Kiska kasur hai ? 

8. Uska kasur nahifi. tha. 

9. Darvaza band karo. 

10. MatbhiUna. 

11. Rupaye thaili men rak- 

ho. 

12. Turn ja sakte ho. 

13. Mujhe jaldi jagana. 

14. Is kamre men andhera 

hai. 

15. BattijaliPo. 

16. Lamp (or chiragJi) mefl 

tel nahifl hai. 



Imitated Pronunciation 

1 main? bah-har jah ra-hah boon? 

2 may-ray kap-ray lah-oh 

3 may-ray joo-tay lah-oh 

4 may-rah tohp awr koht sahf ka-roh 
6 yay'h ach-ch'hee h'cha-bar hai 

6 dayr hob ga'ee, mudj-hay jah-nah 

7 kis-kah ka-soor hai ? [chah-he-yay 

8 uB-kah ka-soor na-heen<; t'hab 



of the above Phrases. 
9 dar-vah-sah band ka-roh 

10 mat b'hool-nah 

11 ru-pa-yay t'hai-lee m&yng rak- 

12 turn jah sak-tay hoh [k'hoh 

13 mudj-hay jal-dee ja-gah-nah 

14 is kam-ray mayv an^d-hay-rah hai 

15 bat-tee ja-lah-oh [been? hai 

16 lamp (che-rah'r) mayn? tayl na- 



Explanatory Notes to the above Phrases. 

4 literally, my hat and coat clean do ; 6 literally, delay has become , 
14 literally, this room in darkness is. 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EAST. 



55 



Who lives here ? 
Is the master at home ? 
Come in. Sit down. 
Please sit down. 
How do you do ? 
Is anyone there ? 
Go and see who it is. 
Have the bearers (car- 
riers) come ? 
They are all here. 
This is a hot climate. 
I do not like it. 

There are many flies 

here. 

Flies are a nuisance. 
It is a fine day. 
It was too hot yesterday. 
Tell me what the time 

is. 

Your watch is fast. 
His watch is slow. 
Put my watch on the 

table. 



1. Yahan kaun rahta hai ? 

2. Kya malik ghar par hal ? 

3. A'o. Baitho. 

4. Baithjaiye. 

5. Turn kaise ho ? 

6. Kya vahan koi hai ? 

7. Ja'o, dekho wuh kaun 

hai. 

8. Kya baire a graye haifi ? 

9. Wuh sab yahan hain. 

10. Yeh grarm abohava hai. 

11. Main ise pasand nahin 

karta. 

12. Yahanbahutmakkhiyan 

hain. [hain. 

13. Makkhiyan ban kharab 

14. Yeh achchha din hai. 

15. Kal bar! garmi thi. 

16. Mujhe bata'o vakt kya 

hai._ 

17. Tumhari g-hari tez hai. 

18. Uski grhari sust hai. 

19. Men ghari mez par rak- 

ho. 



Imitated Pronunciation 

1 ya-hahnj kawn ra'h-tah hai ? 

2 kyab mah-lik g'har par hai ? 

3 ah-oh, bai-t'hoh 

4 bait'h jah-e-yay 
6 turn kai-say boh ? 

6 kyah va-habp koh-ee hai 1 

7 jah-oh, dek-hoh vo'h kawn hai 

8 kyuli bai-ray ab ga-yay hayn ? 

9 vo'h sab ya-habny hayn0 

10 yay'h garm a-bo-ha-vah hai 



of the above Phrases. 

1 1 main? is-ay pa-sand na-heer kar- 

tab [bayv 

12 ya-habn0 ba-hut mak-k'he-yahnii 

13 mah-k'he-yahv ba-ree h'chah-rab 

14 yay'h ach-ch'hah din hai [hayn$ 

15 kal ba-ree gar-mee t'hee 

16 mudj-hay ba-tah-oh vakt kyah bai 

17 tum-hah-ree g'ha-ree tayz hai 

18 us-kee g'ha-ree sust hai [k'hoh 

19 may-ree g'ha-ree mayz par rak- 



56 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EAST. 



EASY READING, 

with Imitated Pronunciation, Literal Translation and 
correct English Rendering. 



Ek 


admi 


ke-pas 


ek 


bara 


vafadar 


nau- 


ayk 


ahd-mee 


kay-pahs 


ayk 


ba-rab 


va-fah-dahr 


naw- 


A 


man in 


possess! oil of 


a 


very 


faithful 


ser- 



kar tha. Wuh naukar bachpan se malik 

kar t'hah vo'h naw-kar batch-pan say mah-lik 

vant was. That servant childhood from master 



ki dil-o-jan se 

kee dil o jahn say 
of heart-and-soul from 



khidmat 

h'chid-mat 

service 



karta 

kar-tah 
doing 



tha. 

t'hah 
was. 



har-vakt 

har-vakt 
all the time 



malik 

mah-lik 
master 



ke 

kay 
of 



araxn 

ah-rahm 
comfort 



khiyal raihta tha. 

h'chi-yahl rai'h-tah t'hah 
thoughts occupied. 



aziz 

a-zeez 
deai- 
US 
as 
him 



samajhta 

sa-madj'h-tah 

considering 



tha. 

t'hah 
was. 



Malik 

mah-lik 

The master 
Bad 

bad 
111 



aur 

awr 

and 

bill 

b'hee 
also 



p'hah-e-day 
ease 



Usko 

us-koh 
Him to 



ka 

kah 
Of 



usko bahut 

us-koh ba-hut 
him very 



kismati 

kis-ma-tee 
luck 



se, jab 

say jab 
by, when 



par burhapa aya, to 

par bur-hah-pah ah-yah toh 

on old age came, then 



fark hone 

fark hoh-nay 
difference to be 



laga, 

la gah 
began, 



yahan tak 

ya-hahn<F-tak 
in-so-far 



USkl 

us-kee 
his 

ki 

ke 
that 



nigali 

ne-ga'h 
sight 

wuh 

vo'h 

he 



andha 

and-hah 
blind 



ho gaya. 

boh ga-yah 

became. 



Malik 

mah-lik 

The master 



ko 

koh 
to 



ab 

ab 
now 



wuh 

vo'h 

he 



men 

maynj 
in 

bilkul 

bil-kul 
totally 

bura 

bur-ah 

bad 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EAST. 57 

malum hone lagra us ne usko ghar se bahar 

mah-loom hob-nay la-gah us nay us-koh g'har say bah-hai 
seeming to be began be him house from outside 

nikal diya. Is saluk par, wuh bechara 

ne-kahl de-yah is sa-lock par vo'h betch-ah-rah 

turned. This treatment on, that helpless 

naukar ro para aur ansu uski ankhon 

naw-kar roh-pah-rah awr ahn0-soo us-kee ah0k-hon{ 

servant weeping burst-out and tears his eyes 

se girne lagre. Rote hue us ne kaha : 

say guir-nay la-gay roh-tay hu-ay us-nay ka-hah 

from to fall began. Weeping he said : 

Kya ! yehi meri vafadari ka inam hai ? 

kyah yay-hee may-ree va-fah-dah-ree kah in-ahra hai 

What 1 this my faithfulness of reward is ? 

Ag-ar apko zara bhi khuda ka dar hota, to 

a-gar ahp-koh za-rah b'hee h'cliud-ah kah dar hoh-tah toh 

If you just a little God of fear had, then 

mere sath yen saluk na karte. 

may-ray saht'h yay'h sa-look na kar-tay 

my (=me) (with) this treatment not done. 



Correct English rendering of the above. 
A man had a very faithful servant. From his childhood this 
servant had served his master with heart and soul. The comfort 
and ease of his master always occupied his thoughts. The 
master also valued him highly. By ill luck, when the servant 
was getting old, his sight began to fail. At last he became 
totally blind and could do no more work. He now became a 
nuisance to his master, who turned him out of the house. At 
this treatment the helpless servant burst out weeping, and the 
tears fell from his eyes. Weeping, he cried : Is this the reward 
of my faithfulness ? If you had feared God, if ever so little, 
you would not have treated me thus. 



58 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 



NINTH LESSON. 



20. VERBS (continued). 

The following Verbs are IRREGULAR in the PAST 
PARTICIPLE (and PAST TENSE). 

PRESENT PAST 

INFINITIVE. STEM. PARTICIPLE. PARTICIPLE. 



to go, jana 

jab-nab 


s 

]ab 


jata 

jab-tah 


graya 

ga-yah 


to do, karna 

kar-nah 


kar 

kar 


karta 

kar-tah 


kiya 

ke-yah 


to be, hona 

hoh-nah 


ho 

hoh 


hota 

hob -tab 


hua 

hu-ah 


to give, dena 1 

day-nah 


de 

day 


deta 

day- tab 


diya 

de-yah 


to take, lena 

lay-nah 


Ie 

lay 


leta 

lay-tab 


liya 

le-yah 


to say, kaihna* 

kai'b-nah 


kaih 

kai'h 


kaihta 

kai'h-tah 


kaha 

ka-hab 


to die, xnarna 

mar-nab 


mar 

mar 


marta 

mar-tab 


mara or mua 

ma-rah. mu-ab 



1 dena, Imperative : do. 
2 kaihna, Imperative : kaho. 

26. 

1. us ne kaha, main ne kalia ; 2. us ne kaha 
hai, ham ne kaha hai ; 3. yeh kaho, yeh 
karo; 4. main ne yeh kiya hai, ve yeh 
karte ham ; 5. kya turn ne yeh kiya ? 6. yeh 
mujhko do; 7. main yeh apko deta him; 8. 
unhon ne yeh hamko diya hai ; 9. kya turn ne 
isko liya hai ? 10. main Inglistan ko jata hun ; 
11. ve "Malva" se gaye hain; 12. wuh gaya 
hai, wuh bhi gray! (g-a'i) hai. 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EAST. 59 

26a. 

1. he said, I said ; 2. he has said, we have said ; 
3. say it, do it ; 4. I have done it, they are doing it ; 
5. did you do it ? or have you done it ? 6. give it to me ; 
7. I give it to you ; 8. they have given it to us ; 9. did 
you take it ? or have you taken it ? 10. I am going to 
England ; 11. they have gone by the " Malva " ; 12. he 
has gone, she has also gone. 



to put rakhna 

rak'h-nah 

to know janana 

jah-na-nah 

to sing gana 

gah-nah 

as far as jahan tak 

ja-hahx0 tak 



song git, m. 

gueet 

box baks, m. 

baks 

servant naukar, m. 

naw-kar 

known malum 

mah-loom 



27. 

1. mez par chizen rakho ; 2. us ne kitaben 
baks men rakhi hain ; 3. us ne ek git gaya; 

4. jahan tak main Janata hun ; 5. ham nahin 
jante the or hamen nahin malum tha ; 6. main 
nahin janta hun or mujhe nahm malum hai; 

7. kisne ise vahan rakha ? 8. naukar is baks 
ko yahan laya hai. 

27a. 

1. put the things on the table ; 2. he has put the books 
in the box ; 3. he sang a song ; 4. as far as I know ; 

5. we did not know (=to us not known was) ; 6. I do not 
know (=to me not known is) ; 7. who put it there ? 

8. the servant has brought this box (here). 



60 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 



station isteshan, m. 

is-tay-shun 

carriage grari, f. 

gah-ree 

train rel gari, f. 

rayl gah-ree 

mail or post dak, f. 
dahk 

mail-train dak gari, f . 

(express) dahk gah-ree 



now 



ab 



ab 



yet abtak or abhi 

ab-tak. ab-iiee 

which ? kaunsa (i) ? 

kawn-sah 1 kawn-see ? 

land des, m. 

daice 

to travel safar karna 

(journey to do) sa-far kar-nah 



28. 



1. isteshan jane ka ab vakt hai ; 2. kya yen 
hamari rel gran hai ? :'>. hainari kaunsi gari hai ? 
4. yeh garian achchhi hain ; 5. yeh dak gari 
hai ; 6. hamko lamba safar karna hai ; 7. safar 
kitna lamba hai ? 8. main nahm janta hun ; 

9. yeh safar khubsurat hai ; 10. ham des ke 
na'e hisse men se jate hain. 

28a. 

1. it is now time to go to the station ; 2. is this our 
train ? 3. which is our carriage ? 4. these carriages are 
good ; 5. this is the mail train ; 6. we have to travel a long 
way (=to us long journey to do is) ; 7. how long is the 
journey ? 8. I do not know ; 9. it is a beautiful journey ; 

10. we go through a new part of the land. 



SOME USEFUL ADVERBS. 



always hamesha 

ham-ay-shah 

already paihle hi 

pai'h-lay hee 

at once fauran 

faw-ran 

often aksar 

ak sar 



ever kabhl 

kab-hee 

never kabhi nahm 

kab-hee na-heei; 

sometimes kabhl kabhl 
kab-hee kab-hee 

perhaps shayad 

shah-yad 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EAST. 61 



just or 

JUSt now J ab-hee 

too or jnihayat 

exceedingly J ne-hah-yat 

by chance ittifakan 

it-te-fiih-kan 



soon jald, jaldi 

djald, djal-dee 

quickly jaldi, jaldi se 

djal-dee, cljal-dee say 

slowly ahista 

ah-his-tah 

NOTE. hi (or I) can be added to some Adverbs to intensify the 
meaning, as : jald soon, jaldi or jaldhi very soon ; ab now, abhl just 
now. For other Adverbs and adverbial expressions, refer to List of Indis- 
pensable Words. See Index. 

_29. 

1. main ab ghar jata hun ; 2. liam jald ja rahe 
ham ; 3. ab yeh karo ; 4. use jaldi (or jaldhi) lao ; 
5. us ne yeh fauran hi kiya ; 6. main yeh abhi 
karta hun ; 7. us ne paihle hi yeh kar liya hai. 

29a. 

1. I am going home now ; 2. we are going soon ; 3. do 
it now ; 4. bring it quickly ; 5. he did it at once ; 6. I am 
doing it now (just now) ; 7. he has done it already. 

30. 

1. ahista boliye ; 2. ap nihayat jaldi bolte 
haiii ; 3. kya ap kabhi Calcutte gaye hain ? 
4. nahm, main vahan kabhT nahm gaya ; 5. main 
kabhi kabhi Banaras jata hun ; 6. shayad ham 
Bamba'i ja rahe hain ; 7. wuh aksar hamare 
ghar (par) ata hai ; 8. amir admi ke hamesha 
bahut dost hote hain. 

30a. 

1. please speak slowly ; 2. you speak too (or exceedingly) 
quickly ; 3. have you ever been (=gone) to Calcutta ? 
4. no, I have never been (=gone) there ; 5. I sometimes 
go to Benares ; 6. perhaps we are going to Bombay ; 7. he 
often comes to our house ; 8. a rich man has always many 
friends (=of a rich man always many friends are). 



62 



HUGO S HINDUSTANI MADE KAST. 



CONVERSATIONAL PHRASES. 



In the Conversational Phrases, the Imitated Pronunciation will now 
be discontinued. Where necessary or advisable, the Imitated Pronuncia- 
tion will be given in the Explanatory Notes. 



What date is it ? 

These letters are not 
dated. 

Will you post these let- 
ters for me ? 

He will send the answer 
to-morrow. 

What do you call this 
thing ? 

What is that called in 
Hindustani ? 

It is difficult to remem- 
ber all these names. 

What is the lowest 
price ? 

How much will you 
take for it ? 

How do you sell these 
things ? 

We have paid a high 
price. 

I cannot give it for 
less. 



1. Aj kya tarikh hai ? 
2- In khaton par tarikh 
nahm hai. 

3. Kya turn mere liye yeh 

khat dal doge ? 

4. Wuh kal jawab bhej 

dega. 

5. Turn us chiz ko kya kai- 

hate ho ? 

6. Isko_ Hindustani men 

kya kaihte hain ? 

7. In sab namon ko yad 

rakhna mushkil hai. 

8. Kam se kam dam kya 

hai? 

9. Iske liye turn kya log-e ? 

10. Yeh chizefi turn kaise 

bechte ho? 

11. Ham ne zyada dam diya 

hai. 

12. Main ise kam men nahm 

de sakta. 



Explanatory Notes to the above phrases. 

1 literally, to-day what date is ? 2 lit., these letters on date not is ; 
4 he to-morrow answer send will do ; 8 kam se kam, lowest ; lit., less 
by less ; 9 kya, what=how much ; 11 lit., by we more than price given id. 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY". 68 

PROGRESSIVE READING, 
with Literal Translation and correct English Rendering. 



The Imitated Pronunciation is now no longer necessary. In the case of 

words which may present any difficulty, the Imitated Pronunciation will 

be found in the foot-notes. Such words are marked 1, 2, 3, etc. 



Ek burha admi badan se dubla aur kamzor tha. 

An old man body by thin and weak was. 

Usko beta na hone se roti o kapre ki taraf se 
Him son not having from bread and clothes of from 

beflkri na thi. Wuh jangal men jaya karta tha 
no-anxiety not was. He the forest in going used was 

aur vahan se sukha indhan ikat-tha-kar ke 

and there from dry fuel gathered having 

lakarion ke bojhe ko sar par utha-kar, bazar 
fire-sticks of bundle head on carrying, bazaar 

men leja-kar becha karta tha. Ek roz gharib 

in take do selling used to. One day the poor 

bur ha thakan se itna tang-ay a ki usne bojha 

old man fatigue from so much worried became that he bundle 

sar se gira-diya. Wuh musibat men ohillane 
head from threw-off. He distress in to cry 

laga ki : " Ai maut ! mujhe utha-le aur duniya 

m (that) : " Oh death ! me lift up and world 



ki taklifon se riha'i de." Uski is khahish par 
of troubles from release give." His this wish at 

yam ke dut uske samne hazir-hu'e aur 

the god of death of the agents him before appeared and 

us se puchhne lage ki: "Ham kyufi bulaye 

him asking began (that) : " We why called 



64 HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 

graye hain ? " Unki daravam shakalen dekh-kar, 

to come are ? " Their fearful appearances seeing, 

burha kanpne lagu aur un se bola ki : 

the old man trembling began and them to spoke (that) : 

" Dosto ! zara is bojhe ko sar par uthane men 

"Friends! just this bundle to head on lifting in 

meri madad karo ta ki main apne raste par 
me help do so that I my (own) way on 

chalne lagufi. Apki ban meharbani hogi aur 
walk can begin. You of great kindness would be and 

main apka tah-i-dil se mashkur hunga." 
I to-you bottom of heart from grateful shall be." 

Correct English rendering of the above. 

There was an old man who was thin and weak of body. He 
had no son to relieve him of the anxiety of providing food and 
clothes. He used to go into the forest (jungle) to gather dry sticks 
for fire-wood, and to carry the bundle on his head to sell in the 
bazaar. One day the poor old man was so distressed with weari- 
ness that he threw the bundle from his head and in his misery 
cried to the god of death to take him out of this troublesome world. 

At his request the agents of death appeared before him and 
asked why he had called them. At the sight of their terrible 
appearance he began to tremble, and said : Friends, help me to 
lift this bundle on to my head, so that I may continue on my way. 
For your great kindness, I should be grateful from the bottom of 
my heart. 

Mele men. Aj salana male ka din hai. Bahut 
Fair in. To-day annual fair of day is. Many 

saudagar apna mal bechne ko bahar se aye 
merchants their wares to sell outside from come 

hain. Ham ab Banarasi sari, Kashmiri shal, 
are. We now Benares sarongs, Cashmere shawls, 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 65 

aur Dhake ki barik malmal apni liasb pa- 

and Dacca of fine muslin each-one according to 

sand kharid sakenge. Aspas ke mukamon se 

liking buy will be able to. Neighbourhood of places from 

hazaron gaun* ke log mela dekhne ko aye hain. 

thousands villages of people fair see to come are. 

Yen unki sada zaruriyat ka ilm hasil karne 
This their simple wants of knowledge obtaining 

ka achcha mauka hai. Subah ko yen log 
of good opportunity is. In-the-morning these people 

Ganga men nahate hain aur Brahman puro- 

Ganges in bathing are and Brahmin priests 

niton ko dan dete hain. Se paihar ko yen 

of charity giving are. In the afternoon these 

apni-apni kharidari karte hain aur sham ko 

each-their purchases doing are and in the evening 

Ganga ki bhakti ke bhajan gate hain. 
Ganges to devotion of psalms singing are. 

* After numeral adjectives like twenty, a hundred, a thousand, the noun 
may be used in the singular or plural. 



Correct English rendering of the above. 
At the Fair. To-day is the day of the annual fair. Nume- 
rous merchants have come to sell their wares from other parts of 
the country. You will now be able to buy here the Benares Sari 
(sarongs), the Cashmere shawls and the Dacca fine muslin, accord- 
ing to your choice. Thousands of villagers from neighbouring 
places have come here to see the fair. It is a good opportunity 
for getting a knowledge of their simple wants. In the morning 
all these persons will bathe in the Ganges and give charity to 
Brahmin priests. In the afternoon they do their marketing, and 
in the evening they sing psalms of devotion to the Ganges. 

H.8. 3 



66 



HUGO ri HINDUSTANI HADE EASY. 



TENTH LESSON. 



21. The FUTURE TENSE is formed by adding the 
following terminations to the STEM of the verb : 

MASC. SING. FEM. SING. MASO. PLOB. FEM. PL0R. 



1st Person unga 

oonfl-gah 


ungi 


3rd ega 

ay-gah 


egi 

ay-guee 


2ndPeron{ 


ary and Og6 
ate form oh -gay 



enge 
enge 



engm 

enp-guee0 

engin 



Ogl 

oh-guee 



2ndPerson{;Xl f o U ud eflge engm 



I shall (or will) speak 
be will (or shall) speak 
she shall (or will) speak 
we shall (or will) speak 

yon shall (or will) speak 
they shall (or will) speak 



EXAMPLE. 

main bolunga or bolungl 

wuh bolega 

wuh bolegl 

ham bolenge or bolengin 

(turn bologe or bologl 

tap bolenge or bolengin 

ve bolenge or bolengin 



In the case of hona, and some other verbs of which the 
Stem ends in 6 or O, the above forms are contracted, thus : 



I shall or will be main hunga or htingl 
he shall or will be wuh hoga 
she shall or will be wuh hog! 
we shall or will be ham honge or hofigln 

( turn hoge or hogi 
you shall or will be \ ap hofi | e or ho gm 

they shall or will be ve honge or hongln 


day din, roz, m. 

din, rose 

night rat, f . 

raht 

to-day aj 

ahdj 

to-night ajrat 

ahdj -raht 


to-morrow ) kal 
yesterday ) kill 

morning SUbah 
su-bah 

evening sliam 
shahm 

noon do paihar 

doh pai-har 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EAST. 67 



afternoon se pailiar 
say pai-har 



midnight adhi-rat 

ahd-hee-raht 



one of these days ajkal men (ahdj-kal may**) 



IF agar 

a-gar 



OR ya 

yah 



31. _ 

1. main do paihar taiyar hunga ; 2. ham is 
se paihar masruf honge ; 3. kya ap aj sham 
(or is sham ko) ghar par honge ? 4. ve ajrat 
theatar men na* honge ; 5. main subah ghar 
par hunga ; 6. wuh aj vakt par na hogi. 

* na, short for nahln, NOT. 

31a. 

1. I shall be ready at noon ; 2. we shall be busy this 
afternoon ; 3. will you be at home this evening ? 4. they 
will not be at the theatre to-night ; 5. I shall be at home 
in the morning ; 6. she will not be in time to-day. 

32._ 

1. main use yeh kahunga ; 2. ham unhen wuh 
na kahenge ; 3. wuh aj ya kal likhega ; 4. ham 
ajkal men likhenge ; 5. main apke dost ke sath 
ja'unga ; 6. wuh apko yeh degi ; 7. ham un 
chizon ko bechenge ; 8. main yeh ghora na 
kharidunga. 

32a. 

1. 1 shall say it to him (=1 shall tell him so) ; 2. we 
shall not say it to them (=we shall not tell them) ; 3. he 
will write to-day or to-morrow ; 4. we shall write one of 
these days ; 5. I shall go with your friend ; 6. she will 
give it to you ; 7. we shall sell those things ; 8. I shall 
not buy this horse. 



68 HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EAST. 

The CONDITIONAL FUTURE is the same as the Future, 
omitting the terminations ga, ge, gi, gin. Examples : 
I should (or would) speak main bolun 

he should (or would) speak wnh bole 

we should (or would) speak ham bolen 

(turn bolo 
you should (or would) speak j ap bolefi 

they should (or would) speak ve bolen 

if I speak or if I should speak agar main bolun, etc. 

The CONDITIONAL PAST is expressed by the Present 
Participle of the verb, generally preceded by agar, IP. 

if I spoke or if I had spoken, etc. agar main bolta or boltl, etc 



season mausim, m. 



maw-sim 



summer garmi, f. 

(hot season) gar-mee 

rainy season barsat, f. 
bar-saht 

winter jar a, m. 

(cold season) jah-rah 



to wear paihnana 

pai'h-na-nah 

clothes kapre, m. 

kap-ray 

woollen uni 

oo-nee 

cotton SUtl 

BOO- tee 



33. 

1. Hindustan men tin mausim hote hain. 2. 
Garmi March se Jun tak raihti hai. 3. Barsat 
Jula'i se Aktubar tak raihti hai. 4. Jara Na- 
vambar se Farvari tak raihta hai. 5. Hindusta- 
ni log garmi aur barsat men suti kapre istimal 
karte hain. 6. Jare men Hindustani log uni 

kapre paihnate hain. 

33a. 

1. There are three seasons in India. 2. The hot season 
(summer) is from March to June. 3. The rainy season is 
from July to October. 4. The cold season (winter) is from 
November to February. 5. Indian people use cotton clothes 
in the hot and rainy seasons. 6. In the cold season Indian 
people wear woollen clothes. 



HUGO S HINDUSTANI MADE EAST. 



69 



CONVERSATIONAL PHRASES. 



This is a cheap article. 
That is good enough. 
This is not good 

enough. 
Show me something 

better. 
Who has paid you ? 

We have paid for all 
the luggage. 

Have you told the car- 
rier (porter) to come ? 

I told him an hour 
ago. 

Did you hear what I 
said ? 

I have called you many 
times. 

Listen when I speak to 
you. 

It is very late, we will 
go home now. 

I bought this ring yes- 
terday. 

I want to change it. 



1. Yell ek sasti chiz hai. 

2. Wuh kafi achchhi hai. 

3. Yeli kafi achchha nahm 

hai. 

4. Mujhe kuchh zyada ach- 

chhi ehiz dikhao. 

5. Tu.in.ko kisne dam diya 

hai? 

6. Ham ne sab asbab ka 

dam diya hai. 

7. Kya turn ne baire ko ane 

ke liye kaha hai ? 

8. Ek ghanta hua main ne 

usko kaha. 

9. Main ne jo kaha kya 

turn ne suna? 

10. Main_ne_tumko bar bar 

bulaya hai. 

11. Jab main turn se bolun 

tab su.no. 

12. Bahut der hui, ab ham 

ghar jaengre. 

13. Main yeh angii thi kal 

kharidi thi. 

14. Main ise badalna chahta 

hun. 



Explanatory Notes to the above Phrases. 

4 literally, to me some more good thing show ; 5 lit., to you, by whom 
price given is ? 9 lit., 1 what said you heard ? 11 lit., when I to you apeaJi, 
then bear ; 12 bahut der hui=mueh lateness is. 



70 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 



Which of the two do 

you like best ? 
This one or that one ? 
I like them both. 

The one is as good as 

the other. 

How much are these 
I like these. [beads ? 

I do not like those. 

How many rupees have 

I to pay ? 

Wrap them up, please. 
Please send the parcel 

to the hotel. 
Let him go. 
Let him do as he 

likes. 
Will you allow me to 

do it? 
I allow you to do it. 

We were obliged to leave 
early this morning. 

I was obliged to do 
it 



1. In donon mefi turn ko 

kaun ziyada pasand 

2. Yeh ya wuli ? [hai ? 

3. Mujhe donon pasand 

hain. 

4. Yen utm hi achchhi hai 

jitm ki wuh. 

5. Yeh dane kitne ke hain ? 

6. Main inhen pasand kar- 

ta nun. 

7. Main unhen pasand na- 

hin karta. 

8. Mujhe kitne rupaye dene 

hain ? 

9. Inko lapet dijiye. 

10. Parsal hotal ho bhej dl- 



_ 

11. Usko jane do. 

12. Jaisa wuh chahe use 

karne do. 

13. Kya ap mujhko yeh 

karne denge ? 

14. Main_tumko yeh karne 

deta nun. 

15. Hamko aj jilassjibah 

rukhsat hona para tha. 

16. Mujhe yeh karna para 

tha. 



Explanatory Notes to the above Phrases. 
1 literally, the JWG in, you which more like do ? 4 for ' as good as,' 
see Lesson 12 ; 8 in Hindustani, ' to pay ' is rendered by ' to !:ive,' 
dena. 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE BAST. 71 

PROGRESSIVE READING, 
with Literal Translation and correct English Rendering. 



Logron ki zubam suna-jata hai ki kuclih sal 

People of from the toneue to be heard is that some years 

hue ek chhote se kasbe men ek kazi raihta 
ago one small little-town in a magistrate used to 

tha jis men apm kuchh bhi akal na thi. 
live whom in himself some-what intelligence not was. 

"Wuh kitabon ke lafzoii men yakin karta tha 
He books of words in believe used to 

aur unko amal men lata tha. Ek dafa" uski 

and them action in to bring. Once his 

afikhon ko ek kitab men ek flkra nazar aya 

eyes to, a book in, one sentence visible became 

jiska matlab yeh tha ki jis shakhs ka chhota 

of which the meaning this was that any person of small 

sar ho aur Iambi darhi ho wuh zarur bewa- 
head being and Icng beard being he necessarily fool 

kuf hota hai. Kazi ne apne ap ko a'me men 

is. The magistrate his own self looking-glass in 

dekh-kar kaha ki : Mera sar chhota hai, aur 
seeing said (that) : My head small is, and 

darhi Iambi hai ; sar ka barhana namumkin 

beard long is ; head of increasing impossible 

hai lekin darhi ko chhoti kar sakta hun. Chu- 

is but beard to small make can do. Ac- 

nache usne kainchi talash ki, magar kaifichi 
cordingly he scissors for searched, however sciasora 



72 HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 

na mill. Jab aur kuclili samajh men na aya 

not were found. When anything else mind in not came 

to usne ek hath se adhi darhi ko dhak kar, 
then he one hand with half of beard covered having, 

baki adhi ko diya-sala'i se ag laga-di. Jab 
remaining half to match with fire set. When 

balon ke jalne se shola ka sek hath ko pa- 
hairs of burning with flame of heat hand to 

huncha, to usne hath hata liya aur uski 
reached, then he hand withdrew and his 

kul darhi jal-gayi. Kazi nihayat shar- 

whole beard burned was. The magistrate extremely 

minda hua kyunki is vake se uski be- 

ashamed was because this event by his 

wakufi puri-taur-se zahir ho grayi. 
folly completely manifest to be came. 

Correct English rendering of the above. 

People say that some years ago there lived in a small town a 
magistrate who had no intelligence whatever, and who used to 
believe anything that was written in a book, and then act upon it. 

One day his eyes fell on a sentence in a book, the meaning of 
which was, that if a person had a small head and a long beard, he 
must of necessity be a fool. 

The magistrate seeing himself in a looking-glass, said : Cer- 
tainly my head is small and my beard is long. It is impossible 
to make my head larger, but I can make my beard shorter. 
Accordingly he searched for a pair of scissors, but no scissors were 
to be found. As he could not think of anything else, he covered 
one half of his beard with one hand, and with a match set fire to 
the other half. When the flame of the burning hair reached his 
hand, he withdrew it, and the whole beard was burnt. 

Then the magistrate was extremely ashamed, because by this 
fact his folly became completely manifest. 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 78 

ELEVENTH LESSON. 

1. CAN, TO BE ABLE TO Sakna (sack-nab) 

2. TO WANT, WISH Or DESIRE TO Chahna (chah'h-nah) 

3. TO WANT or NEED zarurat hona 

(=to be in need of) za-roo-rat ho-nah 

4. MAY, TO BE ALLOWED TO jjazat hona 

(=to have permission) e-jah-zat ho-nah 

5. MUST, OUGHT, to be obliged to Ch.ah.iye (chah-he-yay) 

(invariable) =' necessary is 
zarurat, f.=need ; ijazat, f.=permission. 

22. REMARKS ON THE ABOVE VERBS. 

1. The Verb preceding sakna is used in the stem form 
only, and sakna has the conjugation. Examples : 

I shall be able to buy it main yeh kharld sakufiga 

he will be able to go wuh ja sakega 

we shall be able to do it ham yeh kar sakenge 

they cannot sell it ve yeh nahm bech sakte haifi 

2. Chahna is conjugated in the ordinary way. 

I want or wish to sing main gana chahta hun 

(=1 to sing desiring am) 

they want or wish to speak ve bolna chahte hain 

(=they to speak desiring are) 

we want or wish to buy ham kh.arld.na chahte hain 

(=we to buy desiring are) 

3. In sentences with zarurat hona, the Subject is 
put in the OBJECTIVE Case. Examples : 

1 want or need books mujhe kitabon kl zarurat hai 

(=to me of books need is) 

we want or need a carriage hamen garl kl zarurat hai 
(=to us a carriage of need ia) 

4. The same applies to the use of ijazat hona. 

May I see this book ? Kya mujhe is kitab ko dekhne 

kl ijazat hai ? 

(== whether to me this book of to see permission is) 
Are we allowed or have Kya hamen jane kl ijazat hai T 
we permission to go f (=whether to us to go permission u ) 

H.S. 3* 



74 HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 

5. In sentences with Chahiye (= necessary), the Sub- 
ject is also put in the Objective Case. Examples : 

I must or ought to write mujhko likhna chahiye 
(=to me to write necessary is) 

you must or ought to speak apko bolna chahiye 

(=to you to speak necessary is) 

John must or ought to go Jaun ko jana chahiye 
(=to John to go necessary is) 

34. 

1. wuh ja sakta hai ; 2. usko bolne ki ijazat 
hai ; 3. ve nahm ja sakte hain ; 4. ham usko 
nahifi kar sakte ; 5. kya ve kal jaenge ? 6. 
maifi kaJ tak nahm janungra ; 7. main isko karna 
chahta hun ; 8. ham ek grhora kharidna chahte 
hain ; 9. mujhko kamre ki zarurat hai. 

34a. 

1. he can or is able to go ; 2. he may or is allowed to 
speak (to him to speak permission is) ; 3. they can not 
go ; 4. we can not do it ; 5. will they go to-morrow ? 
6. I shall not know till to-morrow ; 7. I want (desire) to 
do it ; 8. we wish to buy a horse ; 9. 1 want (need) a room. 



TO OPEN kholna TO SHUT band karna 

k'hohl-nah band kar-nah 

TO BE BOUND or OBLIGED TO lazim hona 

lah-zim ho-nah 

35. 

1. apko aj bolna chahiye ; 2. ham ko yeh kar- 
na chahiye ; 3. mujhko yeh karna chahiye ; 
4. turn ko jana hoga ; 5. usko yeh karna hogra ; 
6. mujhe yeh kharidna hogra ; 7. turn ko yeh 
dekhna lazim hai ; 8. main darvaza khol nahifi 
sakta hufi ; 9. darvaza band karo ; 10. ve ap se 
milna chahte hain; 11. kya apko is hotal mefl 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EAST. 75 

kamre ki zarurat hai ? 12. kya tumko kuchh 
rupaye ki zarurat hai ? 

35a. 

1. you must speak to-day ; 2. we must do it ; 3. I 
ought to do it ; 4. you will have to go ; 5. he will have 
to do it ; 6. I shall have to buy it ; 7. you are bound to 
see it ; 8. I cannot open the door ; 9. shut the door ; 
10. they want to meet you ; 11. do you want a room in 
this hotel ? 12. do you want any (=some) money ? 



minute minat, m. 



second secand, m. 



twenty-four chaublS 



week hafta, m. 

haf-tah min-att 

month mahma, m. 

ma-hee-nah 

year sal, m. 

eahl chaw -bees 

hour ghanta, m. sixty sath 

g'han-tab saht'b 

equal barabar (bar-ah-bar) 

NOTE. When stating a general fact use hota hai (is being), or hote 
nain (are being), instead of merely hai, hain. 

36. 

1. ek sal mefl barah mahine hote haifi; 2. 
ek mahine* men char hafte hote hain; 3. ek 
hafta sat dinon ke barabar hota hai ; 4. ek din 
o rat (=din aur rat) men chaubis g-hante hote 
hain ; 5. ek ghanta sath minat hota hai ; 6. ek 
minat men sath secand hote hain. 

*Before a Preposition final a changes into e. 

36a. 

1. a year has twelve months (literally, a year in, twelve 
months are) ; 2. a month has four weeks (lit. a month in, 
four weeks are) ; 3. a week has seven days (lit. one week, 
seven days equal is) ; 4. a day and night have twenty - 
four hours ; .5. an hour has sixty minutes ; 6. a minute 
has sixty seconds (lit. a minute in, sixty seconds are). 



76 HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 


forest jangal, m. 

jan^-gal 


near nazdlk 

naz-deek 


tree darakht, m. 

da-rah'cht 


only Sirf 

sirf 


village gaufi,* m. 
gah-unp 


different mukhtalif 
muh'ch-ta-lif 


road sarak, m. 

Ba-rak 


generally am taur par 
ahm tavrr par 


path rasta, m. 

rahs-tah 


sacred pak 

pahk 


footpath pagdandi, f . 

pag-dan?-dee 


canal naihar, f. 

nai-har 


animal janvar, m. 

jahn-var 


bullet goll, f. 
goh-lee 


peacock mor, m. 

mohr 


to shoot goli chalana 

goh-lee clia.-lah-nah 


monkey bandar, m. 

ban-dar 


to reach pahunchna 

pa-hur^ch-nah 


any Other part klSl aur hiSSe (kis-ee awr his-say) 



*gaufi, singular ; gaort, plural. The singular form can be u?ed with 
a plural meaning. 

37. 

1. Hindustan men bare bare jangal ham. 2. 
Yen jangal shaiharon aur gaon ke bahut naz- 
dlk nahin haifi. 3. Hindustan ke ek hisse ke 
darakht kisi aur hisse ke darakhton se mukh- 
talif hain. 4. Hindustan men saraken am taur 
par achchhi hain. 

37a. 

1. There are large forests in India. 2. These forests 
are not very near to towns and villages. 3. The 
trees in one part of India are different from those 
in any other part. 4. The roads in India are generally 
good. 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 77 

_38. 

1. Jangalon men raste sirf pagdandian hain. 
2. Us gaun ko pahunchne ke liye naihar se 
pagdandi par jana. 3. Mor aur bandar Hinduofi 
ke liye pak janvar hain. 4. Un par kabhi goli 
nahm chalani chahiye. 

38a. 

1. The paths in forests are only footpaths. 2. To reach 
that village go by the footpath by the canal. 3. Peacocks 
and monkeys are sacred animals with the Indians. 4. They 
must never be shot (= them on ever bullet not shot must be). 



river darya, m. shipping jahazi 



dar-yah 

boat kishtl, f. 

kish-tee 

steamboat agnbot, f. 
(=fire boat) a-gun-boht 

ship jahaz, m. 

ja-hahz 



ja-hah-zee 

business kar o bar, m. 

kahr oh bahr 

sea samandar, m. 



sa-man-dar 



wild animals jangh janval 

janj-lee jahn-var 



39. 

1. Calcutte se Peshawar tak sarak bahut 
umda (fine) hai. 2. Chhoti kishtian is darya men 
upar (up) ko a sakti hain. 3. Bare agnbot aur 
jahaz upar ko darya men nahm a sakte. 4. 
Jahazi kar o bar Firangi logon ke hath (hands) 
men hai. 5. Jangalon men jangli janvar ba- 
kasrat hain. 

39a. 

1. The road from Calcutta to Peshawar is very fine. 2. 
Small boats can come up this river. 3. Big steamboats and 
ships cannot come up the river. 4. The shipping business 
is in the hands of Europeans. 5. Wild animals abound in 
the forests. 



78 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE BAST. 



CONVERSATIONAL PHRASES. 



Many Englishmen like 
to learn Hindustani. 

This Englishman can- 
not speak our language. 
Can you read my 

writing ? 
My friend can speak a 

little English. 
Can you speak Eng- 
lish ? 
Can you understand 

me when I speak to 

you ? 
My servant must be 

able to understand 

English. 
I can understand you. 

Where did you learn 

to speak English ? 
You speak it very well. 

The servant is bringing 
bread and wine. 

Will you drink wine or 
water ? 



1. Bahut Angrez Hindu- 

stani sikhna pasand 
karte hain. 

2. Yeh Angrez hamari zu- 

ban nahin bol sakta. 

3. Kya ap mera dastkhat 

parh sakte hain ? 

4. Mera dost thori thori 

Angrezi bol sakta hai. 

5. Kya turn Angrezi bol 

sakte ho ? 

6. Jab main turn se bolta 

hun tab kya turn mujhe 
samajh sakte ho ? 

7. Yeh zaruri hai ki mera 

naukar Angrezi sam- 
jhe. 

8. Main tumhen samajh 

sakta hun. 

9. Turn ne Angrezi bolna 

kahan sikha ? 

10. Turn wuh bahut achchhi 

tarah bolte ho. 

11. Naukar roti aur sharab 
_ lata hai. 

12. Ap sharab piyenge ya 

pam? 



Explanatory Notes to the above Phrases. 

6 literally, when I you to speaking am, then you me understand able 
' 7. lit., it is necessary that my servant English understands. 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EAST. 



79 



Get the breakfast ready. 
Bring butter and bread. 
Give me a cap of tea. 

This gentleman prefers 

coffee. 
Do not forget the sugar 

and the milk. 
Put knives, forks and 

spoons on the table. 
Salt, mustard, pepper 
and vinegar are on 
the table. 

Tell the cook to have 
dinner ready at eight 
o'clock. 

Dinner is ready, sir. 
The soup is not hot 
The meat is not cooked 

enough. 
These vegetables are 

very good. 
Give me some more. 
Give me a clean plate. 
What fruits are in sea- 
son now ? 

Apples, pears, bananas, 
lemons. 



1. Hazari taiyar karo. 

2. Makkhan aur roti lao. 

3. Mujhe cha ka ek pyala 

do. 

4. Yeh sahib kahwa pa- 

sand karte hain. 

5. Chim aur dudh mat 

bhulna. 

6. Mez par chhuri, kante 

aur chammacli rakho. 

7. Namak, ra'i, mirch aur 

sirka mez par hain. 

8. Bavarchi ko kaho ki 

ath baje khana taiyar 
rakhe. 

9. Sahib, khana taiyar hai. 

10. Shorba garni nahin hai. 

11. Gosht kafi nahm paka 

hai. 

12. Yeh tarkariyan bahut 

achchhi hain. 

13. Mujhe kuchh aur do. 

14. Mujhe safrikabi do. 

15. Ajkal kin phalon ka 

mausim hai. 

16. Seva, nashpati, kela, 

nibu. 



Explanatory Notes to tlie above Phrases. 
3 literally, me tea of a cup give ; 4 lit., this gentleman coffee likes to 
get ; 8 lit., to cook say that eight struck dinner ready put ; 13 idioma- 
tically MORE is sometimes rendered by aur (AND) ; 16 lit., at present 
which fruits of season is ? 



80 HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EAST. 

PROGRESSIVE READING, 

with Literal Translation and correct English Rendering. 

Ek darbari ne badshah se kaha ki : Huzur, 

A courtier king to said (that) : Your Majesty, 

mere pas un logon ki fihrist 1 hai jinhon ne 

my possession in those people of list is, who 

apke bare men beadbP se guftgu ki hai. Bad- 

you about in disrespect with talk done is. The 

shah ne jawab diya" ki : Main tumhari wafadari 
king reply gave (that) : I your loyalty 

pasand karta hun, lekin kya turn ne un logon ke 

appreciate doing am, but (what) you by, those people of 

ausaf ki flhrist 1 bhi rakhi , hai ? Jawab diya : 
merits of list also kept is ? Answer gave : 

Nahin, aisa main ne nahln kiya. Badshah ne 
No, so I not did. The kins? 



jawab 
reply 


diya: 

gave : 


To 

Then 


main un ke aibon 3 ki 
I their shortcomings of, 


flhrist 
list 


bhi 

also 


nahm 
not 


rakhna 
to keep 


chahta. 

wish. 



1 fihrist, pronounce : fi-he-rist ; 2 beadbl, pron. bay-ad-bee ; 
3 aibon, pron. a.i-bong. 



Correct English rendering of the above. 
A courtier said to his king : Your Majesty, I have a list of 
the people who have spoken disrespectfully of you. I appreciate 
your loyalty, answered the king, but have you also kept a list of 
their merits ? No, I have not done so, he answered. Then, said 
the king, I do not wish a list of their shortcomings to be kept either. 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 81 

Ek mallah Hindustan ko ja raha tha. Ek 
A sailor India to going was, A 

shaihri ne kaha ki : Samandar ko jane ki 

townsman said (that) : Sea to going of 

tumhen kaise himmat hoti hai. Tumhare bap 
you how daring is. Your father 

aur baba donon samandar men dub kar mare 

and grandfather both sea in drowned dead 

the. Mallah ne jawab diya" : Ai dost ! bata'o ; 

were. The sailor reply gave: Oh friend I just say (tell me), 

tumhare bap kahan mare the ? Kaha : "Wuh 
your father where dead was ? Said : He 

aman se bistar par mare the. Mallah ne 
peace with bed in dead was. The sailor 

puchha: Aur tumhare baba wuh kahan mare 
asked : And your grandfather he where dead 

the? Jawab diya: Wuh bhi vaise hi mare 

was ? Reply gave : He also in the same manner dead 

the. Mallah ne kaha : Kya yehi vakiya hai ? To 
was. The sailor said : What this fact is ? Then 

bistar par jane ki tuinhari himmat kaise hoti hai 
bed in going of your daring how becomes I 



Correct English rendering of the above. 
A sailor was going to India. A townsman said (to him) : 
How dare you go to sea, your father and grandfather both having 
died at sea I The sailor answered : Well, friend, where did your 
father die ? He died peacefully in his bed, was the reply. And 
your grandfather, where did he die ? He died in the same way. 
What, said the sailor, is that a fact ? How then dare you go to bed I 



82 HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 

TWELFTH LESSON. 



23. THE COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. 

In forming the degrees of Comparison, the Adjective 
undergoes no change. 

The COMPARATIVE is expressed by se ziyada, which 
means ' more than ' (lit. than more). ( sa y ze-yah-dah) 

The SUPERLATIVE is expressed by sab se ziyada, 
which means ' more than all ' (lit. all than more). 

EXAMPLES. 

this room is larger than yeb kamra us kamre se 

that room ziyada bara hai. 

(literally, this room that room than more large is) 
his room is the largest uska kamra sab se ziyada 

bara hai. 
(literally, his room all than more large is) 

NOTE. Idiomatically se and sab 86 are often used without the ad- 
dition of ziyada, this latter word being understood, 
ziyada may also be spelt as zyada. 



new naya 

na-yah 

old burha,* purana* 

boor-hah pu-rah-nah 

high uncha 

oon^-chah 



low nicha 

nee-chah 

learned alim 

ah-lim 

clever hoshiyar 

hoh-she-yahr 



*burha applies to living beings ; purana applies to things. 

40. 

1. yeh admi us admi se ziyada alim hai ; 2. 
yeh makan us makan se ziyada uncha hai ; 

3. kya yeh grali us grali se ziyada purani hai ? 

4. yeh gall shaihar men sab se ziyada purani hai. 

40a. 

1. this man is more learned than that man (literally, 
this man that man than more learned is) ; 2. this house is 
higher than that house (lit., this hoiise that house than more 
high is) ; 3. is this street older than that street ? (lit., what, 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EAST. 83 

this street that street than more old is) ? 4. it is the oldest 
street in the town (lit., this street town in all than more 
old is). 

24. The SUPERLATIVE can also be expressed by the 
repetition of the adjective with S6 between the two words : 
the highest tree uncha se uncha darakht 

the poorest child g&arib se gharlb bachcha 

the newest (latest) fashion nayi se nayi chal (chahl) or 

naya se naya faishan (fai-shan) 

The method of repeating the adjective is also sometimes 
nsed to convey emphasis, as : 

very large bara bara very low nicha nicha 



25. AS ---AS (or SO... AS) can be expressed in two 
ways, namely : 

1. utna hi ...jitna ki (ut-nah hee ... jit-nab, ke) 

2. vaisa ... jaisa ki (vai-sah ... jai-sah ke) 

The first is the more usual form. Examples : 
as large as utna hi bara jitni ki 

as cheap as vaisa sasta jaisa ki 

Occasionally ki is omitted after jaisa. 

26. GOOD and BAD have, besides the regular construc- 
tion, also an irregular form of comparison. 

GOOD achchha BETTEB behtar BEST behtarin 

ach-ch'hah bay'h-tar bay'h-ta-reen 

BAD bura WORSE badtar WORST badtarin 

bur-ah bad-tar bad-ta-reen 

41. 

1. yen kitab utni hi achchhi hai jitni ki 
wuh ; 2. meri kitab behtar hai ; 3. uski behta- 
rin hai ; 4. apka naukar vaisa hi bura hai jaisa 
ki mera ; 5. mere bha'i ka badtarin hai ; 6. yeh 
ghora utna hi kimti* hai jitna ki wuh ; 7. mere 
pas utna hi rupaya hai jitna ki apke pas ; 8. 
tumhare dost ke pas sab se ziyada hai. 

* kimti (keem-tee), valuable. 



84 HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 

41a. 

1. this book is as good as that (book) ; 2. my book is 
better ; 3. his is the best ; 4. your servant is as bad as 
mine ; 5. my brother's (servant) is the worst ; 6. this horse 
is as valuable as that (horse) ; 7. I have (=in my posses- 
sion is) as much money as you have (=in your possession 
is) ; 8. your friend has the most. 

27. IN COMPARISON WITH is expressed by 

ke mukable men (kay mu-kah-blay may**) 

COMPARED WITH is expressed by 

banisbat ... ke (ba-nis-bat...kay) or ke banisbat 

These two expressions are not much used in English, but they fre- 
quently occur in Hindustani. 



monkey bandar, m. 



ban-dar 



elephant hathl, m. 



parrot tota, m. 



toh-tah 



bird chiriya, f. 

hah-t'hee che-re-yah 

sharp chalak 

kut-tah (clever) chah-lahk 

dear pyara 

bil-lee (beloved) p'yah-rah 

When a general assertion is made, or a natural fact stated, 
the English words IS and ARE are rendered by hota hai 
or hoti hai (is being), and note hain or hoti hain (are 
being). Examples : 

Monkeys are clever or sharp. Bandar chalak note hain. 
The Indian loves parrots (= Hindustani ko tota pyara 
the parrot). hota hai. 

(=by the Indian the parrot beloved (being) is. 

42. _ 

1. Bandar kutte* se ziyada chalak hota hai. 
2. Yeh bandar sab se chalak hai. 3. Hathi Afri- 
ca men Hindustan se ziyada bakasrat hote hain. 
4. Yeh kutta banisbat us kutte ke ziyada khub- 

* Remember that final a changes into e when followed by a Preposition. 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 85 

surat hai. 5. Yeh kutta us kutte ke mukable 
men ziyada chalak hai. 6. Hinduon ko tote bil- 
lion se ziyada pyare hote ham. 

42a. 

1. The monkey is sharper than the dog. 2. This mon- 
key is the sharpest (cleverest). 3. Elephants are more 
abundant in Africa than in India. 4. This dog compared 
with that dog is more beautiful. 5. This dog in comparison 
with that dog is the sharper (of the two). 6. To the Hin- 
dus, parrots are dearer than cats. 



FURTHER USEFUL WORDS. 



each har 

bar 

each one har ek 
every one har ayk 

all sab 

sab 

a few chand 



both donon 

doh-non(7 
some, any ko'l 



no one ko'l nahin 

nobody koh-ee na-hee0 

every one sab ko'l 

s:ib koh-ee 

something kuchh 
kutch'h 

nothing kuchh nahin 

kutch'h na-hecns; 

the whole, all kill 

kul 

several ka'l 



koh-ee ka-ee 

43. 

1. Ko'i nahin janta hai ki wnh kaun hai. 2. 
Har ek ne yeh kaha, or har ek yeh kaihta tha. 
3. Yeh donon admi bahut alim hain. 4. Ka'i log- 
mele men gaye. 5. Sab bachchon ke pas phul the. 

43a. 

1. Nobody knows who it is (=no one knowing is that 
he who is). 2. Every one said so (=it), or every one was 
saying it. 3. Both these men are very learned. 4. Several 
people went to the fair. 5. All the children had flowers 
(=in possession of flowers were). 



86 



HUGOS HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 



CONVERSATIONAL PHRASES. 



At the Post Office. 

Are there any letters 
for me ? 

Yes, I have several let- 
ters for you. 

How much is the post- 
age to England ? 

At present the postage 

is two annas. 
Give me twelve stamps 

of two annas each. 
Give me some stamped 

envelopes. 

Also twelve postcards. 
I want to send a cable 

(telegram) to London. 
A telegram to London 

costs ten annas per 

word. 
I want to register this 

letter. 
Have you any change ? 

You can change money 

here. 
Will you do it for 

me ? 



1. Dak khane par. 

2. Kya meri koi chitthiafi 

hainj? 

3. Han, ap_ ke liye mere 

pas ka'i chitthian hain. 

4. Inglistan_ ka dak mah- 
_ sul kya hai ? 

5. Ajkal dak mahsul do 

ane hai. 

6. Mujhe do do ane ke ba- 

rah tikat do. 

7. Mujhe kuchh tikatdar 

lifafe do. 

8. Barah post card bhi. 

9- Main Landan ko tar 
bhejna chahta hun. 

10. Landan ko tar dene men 

ff lafz das ane lagte 
hain. 

11. MainJ-s khat ko_ragistar 

karana chahta hun. 

12. Kya tumhare pas rez- 

gari hai ? 

13. Turn yahan rupaya ba- 

dal sakte ho. 

14. Kya turn mere liye yeh 

kar doge ? 



Explanatory Notes to the above Phrases. 
4 dak mahsul=post charges ; 6 literally, me two each annas of 
twelve stamps give ; do do=two each ; 7 lifafe (li-fah-fay), envelopes ; 
12 lit., what your possession in change ia ? rezgarl (rayz-gah-ree) change. 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 



87 



1 must learn this by 

heart. 
These phrases are very 

useful. 
Write down all the 

words. [self. 

You must do it your- 
Did you know that ? 

He ought to know bet- 

ter. 

Do not hurry. 
There is time enough. 
He will do as much as 

he can. 

It is very hot here. 
One has to get used 

to the great heat of 

India. 
Shall I come to see you 

to-day ? 
Will you be at home 

to-morrow ? 
I shall be pleased to 

see you. 

He is afraid to speak. 
want to ask you 
something. 



1. Mujhe yeh bazaban yad 

kar lena chahiye. 

2. Yeh flkre bahut fa^ide- 

mand hain. 

3. Sab lafz likho. 

4. Turn kp yeh khud hi 

karna chahiye. 

5. Kya tum_ko wuh ma- 

lum tha ? 

6. Usko behtar janana cha- 

hiye. 

7. Jaldi mat karo. 

8. Kafivakthai. 

9. Wuh jitna kar sakta hai 

utna karega. 

10. Yahan bar! garmi hai. 

11. Hindustan ki bar! gar- 

mi ka adi hona parta 
hai. 

12. Kya aj_ main tumhare 

pas a'un ? 

13. Kya kal ap ghar par 

honge ? 

14. Tumhendekhkarmujhe 

khushi hogi. 

15. "Wuh bolne se darta hai. 

16. Main turn se _kuchh 

puchhna chahta hun. 



Explanatory Notes to the above Phrases. 
1 bazaban yad kar lena, literally, by tongue learning to take do 
=to learn by heart ; 2 f&'idemand (fah-e-day-mand), useful ; 6 lit., 
what to you that known was 1 7 lit., quickly not do ; 9 lit., he as much 
as do can, will do. 



88 HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EAST. 

PROGRESSIVE READING, 
with Literal Translation and correct English Rendering. 



Purane zaniane men ek badshah ke darbar 

Old times in a king of the court 

men ek vazir tha jiska Khuda men kamil 
in a minister was who God in, perfect 

yakin tha. Wuh vazir har bure bhale 

faith had. That minister every bad (or) good 

mauke par yeh kaha karta tha ki jo kuchh 

occasion at this say used was, that whatever 

Khuda karta hai, wuh hamesha bhala'i ke 

God doing is, that always good 

liye hai. Ek dafa badshah ki ek ufigli 

for is. Once the king of one finger 

tez chaku se kat-gayi. Vazir ne apni adat 

sharp knife by cut off. The minister his (own) habit 

ke mutabik is par kaha ki : Apki ungll 

according to this on said that : Your finger 

ka kat-jana apke fa'ide ke liye hai. Bad- 

of cut off being your advantage for is. The 

shah vazir par bahut khafa hua, aur usko 
king the minister with very angry became and him 

apni saltanat se nikal-diya. Kuchh dinon ke 

his kingdom from expelled. Some days 

bad badshah shikar ke pichhe grhora daurata 
after the king game after horse gallop- 

Lua apni sarhad se bahar nikal gaya aur 
ing his (own) frontier from beyond crossing went and 



HUGO'S HiNDUSTAKI MADE EASY. 89 

vaihshion ke hathon men ja-para. Ve vaihshi 

savages of hands in fell. These savages 

usko, apne mazhab ke mutabik, kurban karna 

him, their (own) religion according to, to sacrifice 

chahte the ; lekin jab uske badan ko unhon 

wanted ; but when his body they 

ne mulahiza kiya to dekha ki uski ek ungli 
examined then saw that his one finger 

kam hai, aur is liye kurbani ke lalk nahin 
short is, and therefore sacrifice of fit not 

hai. Unhon ne usko chhor-diya aur apne 

is. They him released and their 

logon ke hamrah, uski sarhad ke andar 

people in company of, his frontier inside 

pahuiicha-diya. Badshah ne apne vazir 

reached (=took). The king his (own) minister 

ko ab yadkiya aur usko bula kar us 

now remembered and him called doing him 

se muafi mangi aur usko khub hi inam 
from pardon begged and to him many gifts 

diye. Vazir ne kaha ki : Jo kuchh bhi- 

gave. The minister said (that) : Whatever hap- 

hua wuh sab bhala'i ke liye tha. Huzlir 

pened that all good for was. Your Majesty 

ko afsos karna thik nahin hai. 
grief to do proper not is. 

Correct English rendering of the above. 
In olden times there was a king at whose court was a minister 
who had perfect faith in God. On every occasion, bad or good. 



90 HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 

he used to say that whatever God did was for good. Once the 
king cut off one of his fingers with a sharp knife. The minister, 
according to his habit, said : The loss of your finger will be to 
your advantage. Then the king was very angry with his minister, 
and expelled him from his kingdom. 

Some days after, the king went hunting, and as his horse 
galloped beyond the frontier, the king fell into the hands of 
savages. In accordance with their religion, the savages were 
going to make a sacrifice of him. But, on examining his body, 
they found that he lacked one finger, and therefore was not fit for 
sacrifice. They released him, and in company with their people 
took him back to within his own borders. 

The king now remembered his minister, and having recalled 
him begged his pardon and loaded him with gifts. The minister 
said : Whatever has happened has been for the best and your 
majesty must not grieve over it. 

Ek naujavan ne apni daulat barbad kar 

A young man his fortune waste done 

ke kaha ki : Mujhe khauf 1 hai ki mujhe 

said (that) : Me fear is that me (1) 

bhikhari ho kar mama paregraV Ek dost 

beggar . being die shall be obliged. A friend 

ne jawab diya : Yen to sab se kharab 

reply gaye : This (then) all of bad 

bat nahin hai. Tumhen bhikhari rah ke zinda 

thing not is. You beggar being living 

raihna parega; yen aur bhi kharab hai. 

remain shall be obliged ; this more than bad is. 

1 khauf, pronounce : h'chawf. 2 parana, to fall, to be obliged. 

Correct English rendering of the above. 
A young man who had wasted his fortune said : I fear that I 
shall die a beggar. That- is not the worst, answered a friend. 
You will have to live a beggar, that is far worse. 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE F.AST. 



91 



CARDINAL NUMBERS. 


1 ek 


20 bis 


39 untalis 


ayk 


bees 


un-tah-lecs 


2 do 


21 ikkis 


40 chalis 


dob 


ik-kees 


chah-lees 


3 tin 


22 ba'is 


41 iktalis 


teen 


bah -ees 


ik-tah-lees 


4 char 


23 te'is 


42 bi'alis 


chahr 


lay -ees 


be-ab-lees 


5 panch 


24 chaubis 


43 tetalis 


pahnycb 


chaw- bees 


tay-tah-lee 


6 chhe 


25 pachchis 


44 chavalis 


ch'hay 


pat:b-chees 


cha-vah-leea 


7 sat 


26 chhabbis 


45 paintalis 


saht 


ch'hab-bees 


painv -tab -lees 


8 ath 


27 satta'is 


46 chlii'aUs 


aht'h 


sat-tah-ees 


ch'hee-ah-lees 


9 nau 


28 attha'is 


47 saintalis 


naw 


at-t'huh-eea 


sainp-tab-lees 


10 das 


29 untis 


48 artalis 


das 


un-tees 


ar-tah-lees 


11 gyarah 


30 tis 


49 unehas 


gyah-ra'h 


tees 


uD-cbalis 


12 barah 


31 ikatis 


50 pachas 


bah-ra'h 


ik-a-tees 


pach-abs 


13 terali 


32 battis 


51 ikyawan 


tay-ra'h 


bat-tees 


ik-yan-van 


14 chaudah 


33 tetis 


52 bawan 


chaw -da' h 


tay-tees 


bah-van 


15 pandrah 


34 chauntis 


53 trepan 


pany-dra'h 


chawn^-tees 


tray -pan 


16 solah 


35 paintis 


54 chawwan 


sob-la'b 


paW-tees 


chav-van 


17 satrah 


30 chhattis 


55 pachpan 


sat-ra'h 


ch'bat-tees 


pach-pan 


18 atharah 


37 saintis 


56 chhappan 


at- bah-ra'h 


sai-iy-tees 


ch'hap-pan 


19 unnis 


38 artis 


57 sattawan 


un-nees 


ar-tees 


sat-tah-van 



92 



HDGO*S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY". 



58 atthawan 

at-t'hah-van 


74 chauhattar 90 nawe 

chaw-hat-tar nav-vay 


59 unsath 

un-sat'h 


75 pichhattar 91 ikyanve 

pich-liat-tar ik-yabn-vay 


60 sath 

salit'h 


76 chhi'attar 92 banve 

ch'he-at-tar bahn-vay 


61 iksath 

lk-sat'h 


77 satattar 93 tranve 

sat-at-tar trahn-vay 


62 basath 

bah-sat'h 


78 athattar 94 chauranve 

at-hat-tar chawr-ahn-vay 


63 tresath 

tray-sat'h 


79 unasi 95 pachanve 

uii-ah-see pach-ahn-vay 


64 chaufisath 

cha.w/i<j-sat'h 


80 assi 96 chhi'anve 

as-see ch'be-ahn-vay 


65 painsatli 

painjr-sat'h 


81 ikyasi 97 satanve 

ik -yah -see sat-ahn-vay 


66 chhi'asath 

ch'hee-ah-sat'h 


82 bi'asi 98 athanve 

be-ah-see at'h-ahn-vay 


67 sarsath 

sar-sat'h 


83 tirasi 99 ninanve 

tir-ah-see nin-ahn-vay 


68 arsath 

ar-sat'h 


84 chaurasi 100 sau 

chaw-rah-see saw 


69 unhattar 

un-hat-tar 


85 pichasi 200 do sau 

pich-ah-see doh saw 


70 sattar 

sat-tar 


86 chhi'asi 300 tin sau 

ch'he-ah-see teen saw 


71 ikahattar 

ik-a-hat-tar 


87 satasi 1,000 hazar 

sat-ah-see ha-zahr 


72 "ba'liattap 

ba-hat-tar 


88 athasi 2,000 do hazar 

at'h-ah-see doh ha-zahr 


73 ti'hattar 

te-hat-tar 


89 navasi 100,000 lakh (lac) 

nav-ah-see lahk'h 



100,000 rupees* 6k lakh TUpaye (ayk lahk'h ru-pa-yay) 
1,000,000 das lakh (das lahk'h) 

100 lacs or 10,000,000 6k CrOP (ayk crohr) 
* Tliere are sixteen annas to the rupee. 



HUGO S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 



93 



ORDINAL NUMBERS. 



1st paihla or awwal 


7th satwan 


pai'h-lah av-val 


saht-vahn<7 


2nd dusra 


8th athwan 


doos-rah 


aht'h-vahn 


3rd tisra 


9th nawan 


tees-rah 




4th chautha 

chaw-t'hah 


10th daswan 




das-vahn<r 


5th panchwan 


llth gyarahwan 


6th chhatha or 


gyah-rah-vah?ifl 


chhathwan 


12th barahwan 


ch'hat-hah, ch'hat'h-vahnp b ah-ra'h-vahnfl 


21st ikklswan (ik-kees-vahnj) 


33rd tetlswan (tay-tees-vah?*) 


46th chhiallswan (ch'he-ah-lees-vahv) 


55th pachpanwan (pach-pan-vahn^) 


72nd bahattarwan (ba-hat-tar-vahn?) 



Ordinal_ Numbers take Gender and Number. Those 
ending in a follow the ordinary rule of ka, ke, kl (see 
page 19), thus : 

the first man paihla admi 

the first woman paihll aurat 

the first people paihle log 

To form the MA.SCULTNE PLURAL of the Ordinals end- 
ing in wan, change wan into wen, thus : 

panchwan (5th) becomes panchwen 
chhathwan (6th) chhathwen 

To form the FEMININE (SINGULAR and PLURAL) of the 
Ordinals ending in wan, change wan into Win, thus : 
chhathwan (6th) becomes chhathwin 
satwan (7th) satwln, and so on. 



94 



HUGOS HINDUSTANI MADE EAST. 



COLLECTIVE AND FRACTIONAL NUMBERS. 



a couple ek jora 

ayk jor-ah 

a dozen ek darjan 

ayk dar-jan 

a score bis 

bees 

single akela 

a-kay-lab 

double dugrna 

dug-nah 

threefold tigoina 

te-gun-ah 

fourfold chaugruna 

chaw-gun-ah 

manifold bahut gruna 

ba-hut gun-ali 

once ek dafa 

ayk da-fab 

twice do dafa 

dob da-fab 

three times tin dafa" 
teen da-fah 

many times bahut dafa 

ba-but da-fab 

the first time paihll dafa" 
pai'b-lee da-fab 

the second time _ 

dusri dafa" 

doos-ree da-fab 

the third time 

tisre bar or dafa 

tees-ray bahr, da-fab 

the first one awwal 
av-val 



the mHdle one majhla 
maj'h-lah 

the last one akhiri 
ah'cb-e-ree 

firstly paihle or 

awwal 

pai'h-lay, av-ral 

secondly dusre 

doos-ray 

thirdly tisere 

tee-say-ray 

one third ek tiha?! 

ayk te-hah-ee 

two thirds do tiha'l 
dob te-hah-ee 

a quarter ek chautha'l 

(fourth part) ayk chaw-t'hah-ee 

a half adha 

ahd-hah 

one and a half 

dyorha or derh 

dyohr-hah, dayr'h 

two and a half dha'i 
d'hab-ee 

three and a half _ 

sarbe tin 

sahr-hay teen 

four and a half _ 

sarhe char 

sahr-hay chabr 

and so on, by putting sarhe 
(HALF) before the Cardinal 
Number. 



HUGO S HINDUSTANI MADE EA..SY. 



95 



PERIODS OF TIME. 



a second ek sekand 
or secand 

ayk saj-kanyd 

a minute ek minat 

ayk min-at 

an hour ek ghanta 

ayk g'han-tah 

a day ek din 

ayk din 

a week ek hafta 

ayk haf-tah 

a fortnight ek pakhwara 

ayk pak'h-vah-rah 

a month ek mahina 

ayk ma-hee-nah 

ek sal 



a year 



ayk sahl 



a century ek sadl 

ayk sa-dee 



to-day 

ahdj 
to-morrow 



kal 



aj 
kal 



yesterday kal 
kal 

the next day agla din 
a-glah din 

next week agla hafta 

a-glah haf-tah 

next month agla mahina 

a-glah ma-hee-nah 

next year agla sal 

a-glah sahl 



a week ago ek hafta hua 

ayk haf-tah hu-ah 

a month ago 

ek mahina hua 

ayk ma-hee-nah hu-ah 

a year ago ek sal hua 

ayk sahl hu-ah 

last week akhiri hafta 

ah'ch-e-ree haf-tah 

last month 

akhiri mahina 

ah'ch-e-ree ma-hee-nah 

last year akhiri sal 

ah'ch-e-ree sahl 

this morning aj SUbah 
ahdj su-ba'h 

this afternoon 

aj se paihar 

ahdj say pai-har 

this evening aj sham 

ahdj shahm 

to-night aj rat 

ahdj raht 
to-morrow morning 

kal subah 

kal su-ba'h 

to-morrow evening 

kal sham 

kal shahm 

the day after\ 

to-morrow (parSOfi, 
the day beforef par-soi* 

yesterday / 



96 HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 



HOURS OP THE DAY. 



what is the time ? kya vakt hai ? 

kyah vakt hai 

it is one o'clock ek baja hai* 

ayk ba-jah hai 

it is half past one derh baja hai 

dayr'h ba-jah hai 

it is two, three, four o'clock do, tin, char, baje hain 

doh, teen, chahr. ba-jay hain? 

it is a quarter to three paune tin baje hain 

paw-nay teen ba-jay hain<r 

it is a quarter past three sava tin baje hain 

sa-vah teen ba-jay hain^r 

it is ten minutes to four 

char bajne men das minat hain 

chahr baj-nay maynp das min-at bain? 

it is five minutes past four 

char baj kar panch minat haia 

chahr badj kar pahnjch min-at hain? 

at what time ? kis vakt ? 

kis vakt? 

at ten o'clock das baje 

das ba-jay 

at half past ten sadhe das baje 

sahd-hay das ba-jay 

at midday do paihar ko 

doh pai-har koh 

at midnight adhi rat ko 

ahd-hee raht koh 

the clock is slow g-hari sust hai 

g'ha-ree sust hai 

the clock is fast ghari tez hai 

g'ha-ree tayz hai 

the clock has stopped ghari band ho gayi hai 

g'ha-ree ban^d hoh ga-yee hai 
"literally, one struck is, two struck are, and so on. 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 97 



THIRTEENTH LESSOR. 



The use of the pronoun apna, which means OWN and 
SELF, often causes difficulty to foreigners, as it is liable to 
be confused with the personal pronoun ap (you). The fol- 
lowing explanations will make its use clear. 



28. apna (meaning OWN) is declined like an adjec- 
tive, a :reeing in gender and number with the person or 
thing owned, according to the rules of ka, ke, kl, thus : 
apna, apne, apni. It implies ownership or possession, 
as : my own, his own, their own, etc. 

EXAMPLES. 

I read MY (own) book main apni kitab pahrta hufi 

he sells HIS (own) horse wuh apna ghora bechta hai 

we have seen OUR (own) ham ne apne bete ko dekha 
son hai 

have you written TouK kya turn ne apna khat likha 
(own) letter ? hai ? 

29. When HIS, HER, THEIR, do not imply OWN, but 
refer to some one_eise, then these pronouns must NOT be 
rendered by apna but by the_ordinary possessive pronouns 
uska, uske, uski, and unka, unke, unki. Examples : 

he reads his (some one else's) wuh uski kitab parhta hai 

book 
they read their (other peo- ve unki kitaben pahrte hain 

pie's) books 

30. SELF and SELVES added to pronouns, as MYSELF, 
OURSELVES, etc., are rendered by apne or apne ap (un- 
declined). Examples : 

I bought this book for my- main ne yeh kitab apne liye 

self kharldi 

they bought these horses unhon ne yeh ghore apne 
for themselves liye kharide 

he killed himself tts ne a P ne ko mar dala * 

oe apne ap ko mar dala 



98 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 



31. When SELF or SELVES merely serve to emphasize 
the subject, these pronouns are generally rendered by 
khud (h'chud), as in : 

I myself did it main ne khud ise kiya 

you yourself have said it apne khud yeh kaha tha 

44. 

1. Ram ne apna ghora becha. 2. Ram ne apne 
malik ka ghora becha. 3. Krishna ne yeh chi- 
zen apne liye kharidm. 4. Usne yeh apne dost 
ke liye kharidm. 5. Apna kam* karo. 6. Gharib 
admi ko apne rupaye men se do. 7. Ham ne 
khud yeh dekha tha. 8. Admi ne khud yeh likha 
tha. 9. Wuh khud vahan nahm gayi thi. 

* kam (kahm), work. 

44a. 

1. Ram sold his (own) horse. 2. Ram sold his master's 
horse. 3. Krishna bought these things for himself. 4. He 
bought them for his friend. 5. Do your own work. 6. Give 
of your (own) money to the poor man. 7. We ourselves 
saw it. 8. The man himself wrote it. 9. She did not go 
(there) herself. 



USEFUL INTERROGATIVE WORDS. 


HTHBN ? 

tVHERE ? 
WHY ? 


kab? 

kab 

kahan ? 

ka-hahny 

kyun? 


WHO ? | kaun* ? or 
WHICH ? I kis ? 

kawn kis 

HOW ? kaisat ? 

(in what manner) kai-sah 


WHAT? 


kya? 

kyah 


HOW MUCH 
HOW MANY 


? Ikitnat ? 

? ) kit-nuh 



* kaun followed by a preposition becomes kis. 
t kaiaa and kitna take gender and number, thus : kaisa, kaise, 
kaisl, and kitna, kitne, kitnl. 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 99 

HOW LONG ? kab tak ? 

(future, long period) kah tak 

HOW LONG ? kitni der tak ? 

(future, short period) kit-nee dayr tak 

HOW LONG ? kitni muddat ? 

(past, long period) kit-nee mud-dat 

HOW LONG ? kitm der se ? 

(past, short period) kit-nee dayr say 

These expressions are sometimes used indiscriminately in denoting 
tense and time. 

Interrogation can also be expressed by tone of voice, generally by 
mphasizing the last word of the sentence, as : 

Don't you know ? Turn nahln jante ? 

45. 

1. wuh sahib kaun hai ? 2. ap un se kab mile 
the ? 3. turn us se kalian mile the ? 4. ap kya 
chahte hain ? 5. ap ko wuh kaisa pasand aya ? 
(). ap isko kaise karte hain ? 7. ap ne iske liye 
kitne rupaye diye ? 8. ap yahan kab se hain ? 
9. ap yahan kab tak raiheng-e ? 10. ap yahan kitni 
der se is kamre men hain ? 11. ap yahan kitni 
der tak hong-e ? 12. ap Hindustan men kitni mud- 
dat tak honge ? 13. ap ne isko kyun nahin kiya 
hai ? 14. ap jante the ? 15. wuh gaya tha ? 

45a. 

1. who is that gentleman ? 2. when did you meet 
them ? 3. where did you meet him ? 4. what do you 
want ? 5. how do you like that ? 6. how do you 
do this ? 7. how many rupees did you pay for it ? 8. how 
long have you been (residing) here ? 9. how long will you 
be here (residing) ? 10. how long have you been here (in 
this room) ? 11. how long will you be here (in the room) ? 
12. how long have you been or will you be in India ? 13. why 
have you not done it ? 14. did you know (=you know 
vlid) ? 15. did he go (=he go did) ? 



100 HUGO'S HJND08TANI MADE EAST. 

32. THE USE OF sa, se, si. 

1. As Adjectives, sa, se, SI (according to gender ami 
aumber), mean LIKE, SIMILAR, TO, as : 

mera sa beta a son like mine (lit. my like son) 

mere se bete sons like mine (lit. my like sons) 

merl Si betl a daughter like mine (lit. my like daughter) 

meri si betiafl daughters like mine (lit. my like daughters) 

2. sa, S6 or SI, can also be used with other Adjec- 
tives, as : 

safed si bakarl a goat like white 

lamba sa per a tree like tall 

3. 86 as Preposition (invariable) means FROM or WITH. 
jangal se lakarl lao bring wood from the jungle 
main namak se rotl I salt with bread eat 
khata nun 

4._With verbs like kaihna (to say), bolna (to speak), 
86 also means TO, as : 

main ne bha'I se kaha I said to my brother 

5. With passive verbs, S6 means BY, as : 

yeb kam naukar se kiya jaega 
this work servant by done shall be 

6. In the comparison of adjectives, se stands for THAN. 

wuh apne bha'I se ziyada hoshiyar hai 
he his brother than more clever is 



33. In Hindustani, there is no indirect narration. 
Every quotation is prefixed by ki, THAT. For instance 
' he said he would do it ' should be rendered thus : he said 
that : I will do it. Examples : 

the man said he will let adml ne kaha ki : main apko 

you know itla dunga 

my father told me to go mere bap ne mujh se kaha 

home ki : ghar ja'o 

he said he was going to us ne kaha ki : main In- 

England glistan jata hun 



HUGOS HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 



101 



CONVERSATIONAL PHRASES. 



When you have writ- 
ten that letter, show 
it to me. 

It is finished now. 

Here it is, what do 
you think of it ? 

Do not speak to me 

while I am writing. 
Do you want any of 

these books ? 
I want two or three 

books. 
Go to the bazaar to buy 

them. 
When you have done 

reading, place the 

book on the shelf. 
I must have seen him 

somewhere. 
I cannot remember 

where I have seen 

him. 
This is a nice house, 

is it yours ? 
That house is not as 

nice as mine. 



1. Jab turn yeh khat likh 

chukp,_ tab mujhe 
dikhana. 

2. Yeh ab khatm ho gaya. 

3. Yeh lijiye, jip iske bare 

men kya samajahte 
hain? 

4. Jab main likhun, tab 

mujh se mat bolo. 

5. Kya turn in kitabon men 

se ko'i chahte ho ? 

6. Main^ do ya tin kitaben 

chahta nun. 

7. TTnko_kharidne ke liye 

bazar jao. 

8. Jab tum_parh chuko tab 

kitab almari men rakh 
dena. 

9. Main usko kahm na ka- 

hin dekha hog;a._ 

10. Mujhe yad nahm ata ki 

main_ ne use kahan 
dekha. 

11. Yeh_umda makan hai 

kya yeh apka hai ? 

12. Wuh ghar utna achchha 

nahm hai jitna ki 
mera. 



Explanatory Notes to the above Phrases. 
2 khatm ho gaya=finished been gone ; ' to finish ' is expressed by 
khatm hona or chukna : 3 lit., this take please you it about what 
understanding are ; 9 kahln na kahin, idiomatic for ' somewhere.' 



102 



HUUO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EAST. 



T receive one hundred 

rupees a month. 
Are you satisfied with 

one hundred rupees ? 

One cannot do anything 

with such a small sum. 

How much do you 

want ? 
How much money have 

you lost ? 
I have lost three hun- 

dred rupees. 
They are losing money. 

He is gaining (making) 

money. 
He has wasted his 

money. 
You have made good 

use of your money. 

How much a day does 
this labourer earn ? 

Three or four annas 

a day. 
He only receives five 

annas a day. 
He gives me less money 

than he gives him. 



1. Mujhe sau_rupaya ma- 

hina milta hai. 

2. Kya turn sau rupaye se 

khush ho ? 

3. Itni chhoti rakam se 

kuchh nahm ho sakta. 

4. Tumhen kitna chahiye ? 

5. Turn ne kitna rupaya 

khoya hai ? 

6. Main ne tin sau rupaye 

khoe hain. 

7. Ve rupaya kho rahe 

hain. 

8. Wuh rupaya kama raha 

hai. 

9. Us ne apna rupaya bar- 

bad kar diya hai. 

10. Turn ne apne rupaye ka 

achohha istemal kiya 
hai. 

11. Yeh mazdur fl roz kit- 

na kamata hai ? 

12. Tin ya char ane roz. 
Use sirf panch ane roz 

milte hain. 
Wuh mujhe uske banis- 
14< bat kam rupaya deta 
hai. 



13. 



Explanatory Notes to the above Phrases. 
B to lose khona, past participle khoya ; literally, you by how much 
money lost is ? 9 lit., him by his money waste done given is ; 10 lit., you 
by your money of good use done is ; 11 kamana, to earn, to gain. 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 108 

PROGRESSIVE READING, 
with Literal Translation and correct English Rendering. 



Ek zalim badshah yen janana chahta tha. 

A tyrannical king this to know wanted 

ki mere bare men, meri raiyat ki kya ral 
that me abont, my subjects of what opinion 

hai. Is gharaz se us ne ek kashtkar se 

is. This purpose with he one farmer from 

jo .ek gaofi. ko ja raha tha puchha ki : 

who a village to going was asked (that) : 

Badshah ke mutallik kya tumhari nTi hai? 

The king of concerning, what your opinion is ? 

Us ne jawab diya ki : Wuh bara zalim hai 
He reply gave (that) : He great tyrant is 

aur us mefi insaf ka nam o nishan bhi 

and him in, justice of name and trace even 

nahin hai. Badshah ne kaha kya turn nahifl 

not is. The king said what you not 

jante ki jis se turn bol rahe ho wuh ia 

know that whom with you speaking are he this 

mulk ka badshah hai ? Kashtkar ne jawab 
country of king is ? The farmer reply 

mefl kaha ki wuh shakhs jo badshah se 

in said that the person who the king with 

mukhatib hai, dimagh ki kamzori ka shl- 

addressing is, brain of weakness of vio- 



104 HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASi'. 

kar hai, aur vaktan-favaktan do paihar 
till) is, and occasionally noon 

men hararat ki ziyadti se behavas ho ja- 
in (at) temperature of excess from out of senses be- 
ta hai. Badshah yen sun kar bahut 
comes. The king this hear doing much 

khush hua aur hansta hua shaihar 
amused became and laughing city 

ko bapis chala graya. 

to back away went. 



Correct English rendering of the above. 

A tyrannical king was curious to find out what his subjects 
thought of him. For this purpose he asked a farmer who was 
on his way to a village what his opinion of the king was. He 
answered that the king was a great tyrant and that there was no 
trace of justice in him. 

The king said : Do you not know that he with whom you 
are speaking is the king of this country ? 

The farmer answered that the person whom the king was 
addressing suffered from weakness of the brain and occasionally 
at noon, through the excessive heat, went out of his senses. 

When the king heard this, he was much amused, and went 
back to the city laughing. 



Ek machhue 1 ne ek dafS ek bahut chhotl 
A fisherman one time one very small 

machhli pakari. Us chhote makhluk ne 

fish caught. This little creature 

ro kar kaha ki : Mujhe pakarne se kya 
crying said (that) : Me catch from what 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 105 

fa'ida ? Mujhe barhne ke liye vakt do 
use ? Me to grow for time give. 

Mujhe darya men bapis phenk' dijiye. Jab 
Me river in back throwing do please. When 

main aur bari ho ja?un, tab mujhe pa- 
I more big become, then me 

karna. Machhue ne jawab diya ki : Jha- 
catch. The fisherman by, answer given (that) : Strug- 
game* se kuchh fa'ida nahin hai. Ab to 
gh'ng of any use not is. Now (then) 

tu mere hath men hai, tujhe meri tokri 

thou my hand in art, thou my basket 

men jana hoga. Aj sham meri kar- 
in go must. To-day evening my frying- 

ha'i men jana hoga, aur main tujhe khane 
pan in go must, and I thee supper 

men kha'UBLg'a. J machhue, pron. match-ha-ay ; 

=in (at) shall eat. 2 P^enk, p'hayk ; 

3jhagarne, j'ba-gar-nay. 



Correct English rendering of the above. 
A fisherman once caught a very small fish. The little 
creature cried : What is the use of catching me ? Gfre me time 
to grow. Please throw me back into the river, and catch me 
when I am bigger. The fisherman answered : Struggling is no 
use, I have thee now in my hand, and into my basket thou muse 
go. This evening thou goest into my frying-pan, and I shall eat 
thee for my supper. 

H.S. 4* 



106 HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 



FOURTEENTH LESSON. 



COMPOUND VERBS. 

The use of so-called Compound Verbs is an important 
feature in the Hindustani language. In the Conversational 
Phrases and the Reading Exercises in this text-book, these 
compounds frequently occur, and are as far as possible ex- 
plained and literally translated, so that the student, by this 
time, will be fairly familiar with them. 

Occasionally, such Compounds are met with either 
hyphened or written in one word, but the more usual 
method is to write them as separate words. 



34. When two verbs are compounded, the first (or 
principal) verb is used in the stem form only, and the 
second (or auxiliary) verb has the conjugation. The verb 
used as an auxiliary entirely loses its own meaning 
and merely serves to intensify or modify the meaning of 
the stem to which it is joined. 

EXAMPLES. 

baithna,_to sit baith jana,_to sit down 

phenkna, to throw phenk dena, to throw away 

khana to eat khlfalna} to eat up 

torna, to break tor dalna, to break in pieces 

kholna, to open khol dena, to open up 

marna, to kill mar dalna, to kill outright 

glrna, to fall gir parna, to fall down 

katna, to cut kat dalna, to cut up 

NOTB. dalna literally means : to throw or to put. 

35. A large number of Compound Verbs are formed 
by prefixing Nouns, Adjectives, etc^to the verb._ In such 
cases, the verbs karna (to do), hona (to be), dena (to give), 
lena (to take), and a few others are generally used as 
auxiliarv Verbs. 



HUGOS HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 



107 



EXAMPLES. 



sawar, horseman 

shikar, game 
udhar, loan 

band, closed, shut 
khatm, finished 



raham, kindness 
sabr, patience 

" Idiomatically, ' done,' ' finished, 

it is done 
he has done speaking 



sawar hona,_to ride 
shikar karna \. 
shik_ar kh_elna| tohunt 
udhar lena, to borrow 
udhar dena, to lend 
band karna, to shut up 
khatm karna, to finish 
khatm ho chukna,* 

to have finished 

raham karna, 

to show kindness 
sabr karna, 

to have patience 

is expressed by chuka, as : 

ho chuka 

wuh bol chuka hai 



A FURTHER LIST OP FREQUENTLY OCCURRING 

COMPOUNDS. 
yad karna, to remember, kharch karna, to spend 



to learn 
yad ana, to remember, 

to recollect 
yadkarana), 
yad dilana_J to remmd 
yad rakhna, 

to keep in mind 
zikr karna, to mention, 

to speak of 

phir ana', to come back 
phir jana, to go back 
laut ana, to return 
kabnl karna, to accept 
nikal dena, to torn out, 
to expel 



karz dena, to lend 
karz lena, to borrow 
itbar karna, to trust 
le ana^ to fetch 
le jana, to take away 
khatm karna Ho 
khatm kar dena) finish 
shuru karna, to begin 
let jana, to lie dowr 
so jana, to go to sleep* 
talab karna, to send for 
hasil karna, to get, obtain 
hasil kar dena, to procure 
barbad karna, to waste 



108 HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 

46. 

1. darvaza khol do ; 2. khirki band kar do ; 
3. yahan let ja'o ; 4. so ja'o ; 5. in chizon ko le 
ja'o ; G. mere liye eli botal sliarab le a'o ; 7. 
isko yad karo ; 8. isko yad raklio ; 9. apna ru- 
paya mat barbad karo ; 10. gliarib par raham 
karo ; 11. sabr karna achchha hai. 

46a. 

1. open the door ; 2. shut the window ; 3. lie down 
here ; 4. go to sleep ; 5. take away these things ; 6. fetch 
me a bottle of wine ; 7. learn this ; 8. keep that in mind ; 
9. do not waste your money ; 10. show kindness to the 
poor ; 11. it is well to have patience. 



promise vada 



vah-dah 



present, gift tllhfa" 



tu'h-fah 



knowledge ilm 



ilm 



robber daku 

dah-kuh 

Frenchman FarasiSl 

fah-rah-see-see 

Russian Rusi 

roo-see 



_ 

1. turn ko ekdam bapis phir jana chahiye ; 
2. wuh bahut jaldi laut aya hai ; 3. kya turn 
ko yeh yad nahm* ata ? 4. main tumhara tuhfa 
kabul karta hun ; 5. mujhe tumhen apne vade 
ki yad dilani hai ; 6. kya turn ne apni chitthi 
khatm kar di ? 7. shuru se shuru karo. 

* The Negative is usually placed between the two component parts 
of the verb. 

47a. 

1. you must go back at once ; 2. he has returned too 
soon ; 3. don't you remember (recollect) it ? 4. I accept 
your present ; 5. 1 have to remind you of your promise ; 
6. have you finished your letter ? 7. begin at the beginning. 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE BABY. 109 

48. 

1. ve kyun sliuru nahiii karte ? 2. kya turn 
shuru karoge ? 3. main tumnare liye wuli ha- 
sil kar dunga ; 4. nmjhe kuchh rupaya karz do ; 
5. rupaya karz mat lo ; 6. larkian ilm hasil 
karti ham ; 7. badshali ne daku ko mulk se 
nikal diya; 8. Farasisi ne Rusi se apne safar 
ka zikr kiya. 

4Sa. 

1. why don't they begin ? 2. will you begin ? 3. I 
will get (procure) it for you ; 4. lend me some money ; 
5. do not borrow money ; 6. the girls obtain knowledge ; 
7. the king expelled the robber from the country ; 8. the 
Frenchman spoke to the Russian of his journey. 



36. PASSIVE VERBS. 

The passive form of verbs is very little used in Hindu- 
stani _ When required it is produced by adding the tenses 
of jana (to go) to the_Present Participle of the Verb. In 
this consti-uction jana (to go) answers to the English usage 
of * to be ' to express the Passive Voice. For instance : 

from dena(to give) comes the passive form diya jana (to be given) 
dekhna (to see) dekha jana (to be seen) 

The verb jana only is conjugated, but the Participle as well 
as jana must agree in gender and number with the subject. 

ACTIVE. PASSIVE. 

I give money, main rupaya deta money is riven by me, mujh se 
hun rupaya diya jata hai 

Other Verbs are also idiomatically used to form the 
Passive, as : 

malum hona, to be known mar khana, to be beaten 
shikast khana, to be defeated 

Sometimes a slight change in the verb serves the same 
purpose, as : pltna, to beat pitna, to be beaten 



110 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EAST. 



CONVERSATIONAL PHRASES. 



You have a faithful 

servant. 
How long has he been 

with you ? 
He has been with me 

from childhood. 
He is a great comfort 

to me. 
He does all the work 

and never complains. 



When he is old I 
support him. 



shall 



In India people are 
good to their ser- 
vants. 

They are not over- 
worked. 

They easily pick up the 
English language. 

Has that been your ex- 
perience also ? 

I have not been here 
long enough yet. 



1. Tumhare pas ek wafa~- 

dar naukar hai. 

2. Wuh tumhare pas kitne 

din se hai ? 

3. Wuh mere pas bachpan 

se hai. 

4. Wuh mere liye bare 

aram ka hai. 

5. Wuh sara kam karta hai 

aur kabhi shikayat na- 
hin karta. 

6. Jab wuh burha ho jaegu 

tab main usju parwa- 
rish karufiga. 

7. Hindustan men log: apne 

naukron se achchha 
bartava karte hain. 

8. Ve_unse kafi se ziyada 

kam nahm lete. 

9. Ve Angrezi zuban asani 

se sikh lete hain. 

10. Kya tumhara bhi yahi 

tajurba hai ? 

11. Abhi mujhe yahan kafi 

vakt nahin hua. 



Explanatory Notes to the above Phrases. 

1 lit., with you (in your possession) faithful servant is : 5 lit., he all 
work does, and never complaint does ; shikayat (she-kah-yat) com plaint ; 
6 lit., when he old gone is then I him support shall do ; 7 bartava, treat- 
ment ; 8 lit., they them enough than more work not take. 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 



Ill 



I believe that you are 

right. 
Be pleased to come this 

way. 

Kindly read this letter. 
Please give me your 

address. 

Do not go yet. 
Is there much game in 

this neighbourhood ? 
There is much small 

game and there are 

some tigers. 
Partridges and water- 
fowl are abundant 

here. 
Bring the guns and a 

few bullets. 
Take aim carefully. 

You have missed the 

aim ( = mark). 
When it is cool we will 

go into the wood. 
Do you think there 

is any game there ? 

Can you swim ? 



1. Mujhe yakin hai ki turn 

thlk ho. 

2. Is raste se aiye. 

3. Is khat ko parhiye. 

4. Mujlie apna pata di- 



5. Abhi na jaiye. 

6. Kya paros men bahut 

shikar hai ? 

7. Vahan_ bahut sa chhota 

shikar hai aur kuchh 
sher hain. 

8. Titar aur batakh yahan 

bakasrat hain. 

9. Banduk^ aur kuchh go- 

lian lao. 
10. Hoshiyari se nishana 

lag-ao. 
11 Turn nishana chuk gaye. 

12. Jab thanda ho jaega tab 

ham jangal men jaenge. 

13. Kya tumhara khyal hai 

ki vahan ko'i shikar 
hai? 

14. Kya turn tair sakte ho ? 



Explanatory Notes to the above Phrases. 

1 literally, my belief is that you right are ; 10 hoshiyari (boh- 
she-yah-ree), carefully ; hoshiyar also means : clever ami skilful ; 
13 literally, what, your thought is that there any game is / 



112 HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 

PROGRESSIVE READING, 
with Literal Translation and correct English Rendering. 



Ek rivaj Hindustan men kadlm zamane se 
One custom India in ancient times from 

jari hai. Larki ki shad! karna bap ha- 

current is. A girl of marriage to do the father al- 

mesha apna awwal farz samajhta hai. Ek 
ways his (own) first duty considers. A 

vazir ne apni jawan beti ke liye, jo 

minister (of state) his (own) young daughter for, who 

bahut bad-surat thi ek achchhe talim-yafta 

very ugly was a well educated 

naujawan ki bahut talash ki lekin bila 

youth of much searched but without 

kisi natije ke. Akhirkar usne apni beti 

any result of. At last he his daughter 

ki shadi ek andhe admi se kar di, aur 

of marriage a blind man with performed, and 

uski parvarish ke liye use bahut daulat 
his maintenance for him much wealth 

di. Thore dinon ke bad ek mashhur aur 
gave. A few days after a famous and 

kabil hakim, jo andhon ka ilaj karta 

able physician, who blind people of treatment doing 

tha, vazir ke shaihar men ay a. Vazir ke 

was, the minister's town in came. The minister's 

doston ne us se kaha ki : Tumhare damad 
friends hkfl to said (that) : Your son-in-law 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 



113 



ka ilaj karane ka 
treatment do of 

ne jawab diya ki : 

reply gave (that) : 



achchha mauka hai. Us 

good opportunity is. He 

Main apne damad ka 

I my (own) son-in-law of 



ilaj hargiz naiim 
cure ever not 

darta nun ki 
afraid am that 

hasil karne par 
obtained having on 

napasand karne 
dislike to do 

bhala'I isi men 

welfare this in 


chahta, 

wish, 

ankhon 

eyes 

wuh 

he 

lagegra. 

will begin. 

Hai ki 

is that 


kyiinki main 
because I 

ki raushni 

of light 

meri beti ko 

my daughter 

Meri beti ki 
My daughter of 

uska khavind 
her husband 



zindgi bhar andha rahe. 
life throughout blind remain. 



Correct English rendering of the above. 

From ancient days, it has been a custom in India for a father 
to make it his first duty to give his daughter in marriage. v 

There was a minister of state who had a very plain daughter. 
He made great search for a well educated youth who would 
marry her, but without success. At last he married her to a 
blind man, to whom he also gave great wealth for his maintenance. 

A short time after, a famous physician, who had treated many 
blind people, came to the city where the minister dwelt, and his 
friends said : This is a good opportunity for your son-in-law to 
be cured. But the minister replied : I do not wish my son-in- 
law to be cured, because I fear, if his sight were restored, he 
might begin to dislike my daughter. Her welfare depends upon 
her husband remaining blind all his life. 



114 HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EAST. 

Meh ki amad Hindustan men bara vakiya 

Rain of advent India in great event 

hai, kyunki Hindustan zirayati mulk hai 
is, because India agricultural country is 

aur achchhi fasl ke liye thik vakt par 

and good crops for proper time at 

men ka kafi mikdar men parna nihayat 

rain of enough quantity in falling extremely 

zaruri hai. Iske alava barish se hava 

important is. This besides rainfall by, air 

men tari aur thandak ati hai, jis se gar- 

in moisture and coolness coming is, which for heat 

mi se tang ae hue logon ko aram milta 
with troubled people comfort received 

hai. Kheton aur maidanofi men ghas 

is. Fields and open spaces in grass 

bahutayat se ugati hai aur barsat men maveshi 

abundance with grown is and rainy season in cattle 

ziyada-tar hari ghas par hi raihte hain. 
mostly green grass on living are. 

Correct English rendering of the above. 
The advent of rain is a great event in India, because India 
is an agricultural country and in order to get good crops, it is 
extremely important that a sufficient quantity of rain should fall 
at the right time. Moreover, rain brings moisture and coolness 
in the air, which is a great comfort to the people who are troubled 
by the heat. In fields and open spaces, there is abundance of 
grass, and in the rainy season the cattle live almost entirely on 
green grass. 



HI GO 8 HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 115 



FIFTEENTH LESSON. 



37. 1. There is only one RELATIVE PRONOUN in Hin- 
dustani, namely JO Gob) WHO, WHICH ; as in : 

the boy who was here larka jo yahan tha 

the horse which is in the ghora jo us khet men hal 
field 

2. JO followed by ne becomes jis (jiss) in the Singular 
and jinhofi (jin-hon-,) in the Plural, as in : 

the dog which killed > cat kutta jis ne billl ko mar dala 
the goats which ate np the bakarian jinhon ne ghas kha 
gras-s dall 

3. JO (WHOM, WHICH) followed by ko, or some other 
Preposition, also becomes jis in the Singular, but Jin in 
the Plural, as in : 

the man whom I called adml jis ko main ne bulaya 

the boy to wl-im I showed larka jis par main ne raham 

kindness kiya 

the horses which he bought ghore jin ko us ne kh.arlda 

the sheep which the butcher bher jin ko kasa'f ne kat 

cat up dala 

4. When ko is omitted, JO remains unchanged, as in : 
the field which he reaped khet jo us ne kate 

the water which 1 drew pan! jo main ne ku'e 1 se ni- 
f rom the well kala* 



38. WHOSE (or OP WHOM, OP WHICH) is also rendered 
by jis in the Singular and by jin in the Plural, as in: 

the boy whose book is here larka jiski kitab yahan hai 
houses of which the doors makan jinke darvaze tute 1 

are broken hain 

this country the rivers of yeh mulk jiski nadian 4 &m*\- 
which are like those of ca ki tarah hain 

America 

1. ku'a (koo-ah), well. 

2. nikalna (ni-kahl-nah), to draw (aa water}. 

3. tutna (toot-nah), to be broken. 

4. nadl rirer ; nadian, rirers. 



116 



HUGOS HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 



SUE 



suraj, m. 



soo-radj 

inoon chand, m. 



star 
sky 

shade 



chahn#d 
tah-rah 
ahs-mahr, 



, m. 
, m. 



(saya, m. 
1 ?hhaya, f . 

say-ya> cb'hah-yah 
sunshine <UXUp, t. 



to shine 

cha-mak-nm. 

shining ehamkdar 

or bright chamk-dahr 

clear saf 

sahf 

air, wind hava, f. 

ha-vah 

bot winds lU, f. 

loo 

storm tufa~n, m. 

too-fahn 

wind, sandstorm andhl, f. 
ahn^d-hee 

sand ret, m. 

rayt 

sandy retila 

ray- tee-lab 



earth khak, f. 

(ashes) h'cbahk 

desert reg-istan, m. 

ray-gis-talm 

rain meh, m. 

may'h 

to rain barasna 

bar-as-nah 

cloud badal. m. 

bah-dal 

thunder garaj, f. 

ga-radj 

lightning bijll, f. 
bid j -lee 

flash chaniak, f. 

oha-mat 

damage nuksan, harjana 

nuk-sahn, har-jah-nah 

danger khatra, m. 

h'chat-rah 

dangerous khatarnak 

h'chat-ar-nahk 

snow, ice baraf, . 
ba-raf 

hail Ola, m. 

oh-lah 

useful nmfid 

muf-eed 

usually amuman 

a- moo- man 



49. 

1. Raste ke darakhton ka saya garm dhup 
men bahut mufld hai. 2. Jab meh barasta hai, 
tab badal ki garaj aur bijli ki chamak aksar 
sath hot! hai. 3. Hindustan men asman aniu- 
man saf raihta hai. 4. Chand aur tare khub 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EAST. 117 

chamakte hue nazar 1 ate hain. 5. Rajputana 
Hindustan men retila hissa hai. 6. Vahan an- 
dhi aksar at! hain. 7. Dhake men tufan baz- 
vakt* bahut nuksan karta hai. 8. Ma'i aur Jun 
ki lu bar! khatarnak hot! hain. 

1 nazar, sight, view ; nazar ana, to be seen. 
2 bazvakt, sometimes. 

49a. 

1. The shade of the trees on the path is very useful in 
the hot sunshine. 2. When rain falls (=it fains) the thun- 
der of the clouds and the Hash of lightning ^ften occur with 
it. 3. The sky is usually clear in India. 4. The moon and 
the stars are seen shining brightly. 5. Rajputana is a sandy 
part of (in) India. 6. Sandstorms often come there. 7. In 
Dacca a storm sometimes does much fiamage. 8. The hot 
winds of May and June are very dangerous. 



50. 

1. Jab asman men badal a jate hain, tab suraj 
ki g-arnii kam ho jati hai. 2. Himalaya pahar 
ki chotion 1 par hamesha baraf raihti hai. 3. Re- 
g-istan men unt 2 par sawar ho kar jate hain. 4. Sir 
par ola parne men khatra hai. 5. Tumhen dukan- 
dar 3 ko harjana dena hogra. 6. Ek din khak 
men mil jana hai. 

1 chotl (choh-tee), peak ; 2 uat (oonjt), camel ; 3 dukandar 
(duk-ahn-dahr), shopkeeper. 

50a. 

1. When clouds appear in the sky, the heat of the sun 
diminishes (less becomes). 2. There is always snow on the 
peaks of the Himalayas. 3. They go into the deserts riding 
on camels. 4. There is danger in hail falling on the head. 
5. You will have to pay damages to the shopkeeper. 6. One 
day we have to mingle with the earth=die (Indian proverb). 



118 HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EAST. 



39. The FAMILIAR FORM of the SECOND PERSON. 
THOU tu THEE tujhe or tujhko 

too tudj-hay tudj'h-koh 

THY, THINE tera, tere, teri 

tay-rah, tay-ray, tay-ree 

EXAMPLES. 

If It was not thou, it must have Agar frfi na tha, to tera bap 

been thy father. raha hoga. 

1 thought he would have told Mera khyal tha ki usne tujh 

thee. se kaih diya hoga. 

Foreigners should avoid the use of this pronoun. 



40. The verb lagna, which really means ' to stick,' is 
used in various ways. It often means ' to begin,' ag in ; 
he began to eat wuh khane laga 

we shall begin to read ham parhne lagenge 

NOTE. Before lagna the a cf the Infinitive changes into e, as 
illustrated above. 



Further usages of lagna. 

I feel hot mujhe g-armi lagti hai 

I feel pain or pity mujhe dard lagta hai 

this picture is stuck on yeh tasvir dival mefl 

the wall lagl hai 

the physician applies the hakim dava lagata hai 

medicine [hai 

I enjoy it mujhe achchha lagta 

you do whatever you turn jo chahe_ karo, 

like, what does it mat- mera kya lagta hai ? 

ter to me ? 

how many rupees did is mez men kitne ru- 

this table cost ? paye lage ? 

the argument does not yeh dalil nahlfi lagtl 
apply 



HUGO 8 HINDUSTANI MADE EAST. 



119 



CONVERSATIONAL PHRASES. 



Which is the best news- 
paper ? 

Can you tell me of a 
good newspaper ? 

Are the newspapers 
written in Hindi cha- 
racters ? 

It is very difficult to 
read the Hindi let- 
ters. 

When I have been a 
little longer in In- 
dia I hope to read 
them easily. 



One gets confused with 
the different dialects. 

You tell me that the 
Hindi language as 
given in this book, 
is understood all over 
India ? 

If you do not go now 
yon will be too late 
(=much lateness). 



1. 



Sab se achchha akhbar 
kaun hai ? 

Kya turn mujhe ek ach- 
chha akhbar bata sak- 
teho? 

Kya akhbar Hindi ha- 
rafon mefi likhe jate 
hain? 

4. Hindi haruf parhna ba- 
hut mushkil hota hai. 



2. 



3. 



5. 



6. 



7. 



Jab mujhe Hindustan 
mofl kuchh aur din ho 
jaenge tab maifi um- 
mid karta hun ki 
unhefi asani se parh 



Mukhtalif bolion se ad- 
mi g-habra jata hai. 

Turn mujh se kaihte ho 
ki Hindi zuban jaisi is 
kitab men di hui hai, 
sare Hindustan men 
amjhi jati hai ? 

Ag"ar_ap abhi nahin jate 
to apko bahut der ho 
jaegi. 



Explanatory Notes to the above Phrases. 
1 lit., all than good newspaper, which is ? 2 bata, from batana, to 
tell, to acquaint ; 5 kuchh aur din, lit., some more days (idiomatic for : 
a little longer) ; nmmid, hope (noun), ummid karna, to hope (lit., hope 
do) ; 6 lit., differ Mit upeeches with, one confused going is. 



120 



HUGOS HINDUSTANI MADE KAST. 



In India two kinds of 
carriages are used. 

They are called bullock- 
carts and horse-car- 
riages. 

Bullock-carts are used 
in the villages. 

Horse-carriages are used 
in the towns. 

We will go out for a 

drive. 
Our friends will go on 

horseback. 
We shall be back (re- 

turn) at nine o'clock. 
I cannot go out, be- 

cause it is too hot. 

He is ill, therefore he 

cannot come. 
My sister is preparing 

the tea. 
Put plenty of sugar in 

the tea. 
The children want 

(need) some milk. 
There is no milk in 

the house. 



1. Hindustan men do kism 

ki garian istemal ki 
jati hain. 

2. Unko bailgari aur gho- 

ragari kaihte hain. 

3. Bailgarian gaon men 

istemal ki jati hain. 

4. Ghoragarian _shaiharon 

men istemal ki jati 
hain. 

5. Ham gari men bahar 

jaenge. 

6. Hamare dost ghoron par 

jaenge. 

7. Ham nau baje laut 

a'enge. 

8. Main bahajr nahin ja 

sakta chunki garmi 
bahut hai. 

9. Wuh bimar hai, isliye 

wuh a nahin sakta. 

10. Meri baihin cha taiyar 

kar rahi hai. 

11. Cha^ men chmi khub 

dalo. 

12. Bachchon ko kuchh 

dudh ki zarurat hai. 

13. Ghar men dudh bilkul 

nahin hai. 



Explanatory Notes to the above Phrases. 

1, 3 & 4 istemal ki jati hain, lit., use of going are ; 7 laut, from 
lautna (lawt-nah), to return ; 12 lit., to the children some milk neces- 
sary is ; 13 lit., in the house milk at all not is. 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI HADE EASY. 121 

PROGRESSIVE READING, 

with Literal Translation and correct English Rendering. 



Mandi men. Rahim, dekho ! turn apna su- 
Market in. Rahim, look here I your own morn- 
ball ka kam khatm kar ke, sabzi mandi 

ing's work finished done, fruit and vegetable market 

men jao. Phal Abdulla mevafarosh se aur 
in go. Fruic Abdulla fruit-seller from and 

tarkari Ilahi Beg kunjre se lana. Anar, 
vegetables Ilahi Beg greengrocer from bring. Pomegranates, 

am aur kela ek ek darjan lana. Angur, 

mangoes and plantains each dozen bring. Grapes, 

khajur aur pista ek ek ser lana. Ab- 

dates and nuts each two pounds bring. Ab- 

dulla se puchhna ki : hamko Kullu ki seb, 

dulla from inquire that : us Kullu of apples, 

Kashmir ki nashpati, Kuete ke aru aur 

Cashmere of pears, Quetta of peaches and 

kharbuze kab milenge ? Ilahi Beg se kaihna 

melons when shall get ? Ilahi Beg to might say 

ki hamko us ne abhi phulgobhi, matar, 

that us to him by as yet cauliflowers, peas, 

patgobhi aur tamatar nahm diye hain, 
cabbages and tomatoes not given are, 

agarche unka mausim a-gaya hai. Ham 
although their season arrived is. We 



122 HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 

alu, muli, shalgham, gajar aur piyaz khate- 

potatoes, radishes, turnips, carrots and onions eat- 

khate thak g*aye haifL Hamare parausi 

ing tired are. Our neighbour 

sahib ke pas, unke kunjre ne baingan, 

gentleman by his greengrocer 

bhiiidi aur kaddu pahunchaye hain. 

supplied are. 

Turn apne kunjre ko khabardar 
You our greengrocer to warning 

agrar wuh aur achchhe kunjron ki tarah 
if he other good greengrocers like 

hamko tarkari nahm muhayya karegu, to ham 
to us vegetables not supply will do, then we 

us se kharidna chhor dengre. In sab chizon 
him from to buy cease shall. These all things 

ko mazdur ke sar par liva lana. 
porter of head on bring (fetch). 



Correct English rendering of the above. 

At the market. Rahim, look here ! when your morning's 
work is finished, go to the fruit and vegetable market, and bring 
fruit from the fruiterer Abdulla, and vegetables from the 
greengrocer Ilahi Beg. 

Bring pomegranates, mangoes and bananas (plantains) one 
dozen of each. Also grapes, dates and pistachio nuts two pounds 
of each. Inquire of Abdulla when we shall get the apples of Kullu, 
the pears of Cashmere and the peaches and melons of Quetta. 

Tell Ilahi Beg that we have not yet been supplied with 
cauliflowers, ceas and tomatoes, although their season has come. 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 123 

We are tired of eating potatoes, radishes, turnips, carrots and 
onions. Our neighbour obtained from his greengrocer (the three 
vegetables mentioned in the text). You must warn our green- 
grocer that if he does not supply us with vegetables like other 
good greengrocers, we shall cease to buy from him. Bring all 
the goods on the head of a porter. 

Ek amir admi ek fakir ko apne jawa- 
A rich man an ascetic to his jewels 

hirat dikha raha tha. Fakir ne kaha 

showing was. The fakir said 

ki : In jawahirat men hissa batane ke 
(that) : These jewels in share distributing 

liye tumhara mashkur him. Kya ! mere 
for to you grateful am. What I my 

jawahirat men hissa ! Apka matlab kya 

jewels in share ! Your meaning what 

hai ? Turn mujhe inko dekhane ki ija- 
is ? You me these seeing of per- 

zat dete ho. Iske alawa, turn hi in 
mission gave. This besides, you them 

se kya kar sakte ho ? 
with what doing can be ? 



Correct English rendering of the above. 

A rich man was showing his jewels to an ascetic. I am 
grateful to you, said the latter, for sharing your jewels with me. 

What ! sharing my jewels 1 What do you mean ? 

You allowed me to look at them ; besides this, what more 
can you do with them? 



124 HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 



SIXTEENTH LESSON. 



41. CAUSAL VERBS. 

This term implies that something is caused to be done, 
to take place, or to be brought about. 

A simp_le verb can be made causal and doubly causal by 
inserting a and WE, respectively, between the stem of the 
verb and the termination. Many Causals are better translated 
by different words. Examples : 

sunna TO HEAR 

sunana, to tell (=to cause to hear) 
sunwana, to cause to be told 

parhna TO READ 

parhana, to teach, instruct (=to cause or make to read) 
parhwana, to cause to be taught or instructed 



In many cases the Causal and the doubly Causal verb 
have the same meaning, as : 

milna TO MEET 

milana or milwana, to cause or arrange to meet 

karna TO DO 

karana or karwana, to cause to be done, to bring about 



Some Causal verbs are formed irregularly, as : 
sona TO SLEEP 

sulana, to make one go to sleep 

sulwana, to cause (some one) to make (another) go to sleep 

letna TO LIE DOWN 

litana, to make (some one) lie down 

litwana, to cause (some one) to make (another) lie down 

sma TO SEW, STITCH 

Silana or silwana, to cause to be sewn or stitched 

dh.ona TO WASH 

dhulana or dhulwana, to cause to be washed 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EAST. 125 

4 2 .INTERJECTIONS. 
Some of the most commonly used INTERJECTIONS, are : 



ai ! oh ! hallo ! 

hai hai ! what a pity I 

hay hay ! alas ! 



K - . ^- . , , hoshiyar ! be careful I 

bap ! Dap ! help ! rnercy ! 



literally : father ! father 1 



wah jviih !\ bravo ! or 
Shabash ! I well done 1 



bahut achchha ! all right ' 
Chup ! hush ! 
dur ! begone ! 



ya Khuda ! 0, God i 

afSOS ! sorry ! (lit. sorrow !) 
ch h l chill ! shame I 



to play khelna, causal : khilana | to bite katna, causal : katana 
to rob lutna, causal : lutwana 



snake sanp 



nurse da'l 

dah-ee 



scoundrel badmash 

bad-mahsh 

game, play khel 
k'hayl 



51. 

1. Hay hay ! is gharib ko badmash ne luta- 
wa diya. 2. Shabash! turn ne khub khel khi- 
laya. 3. Han, man ne da'i se bachche ko su- 
lane ke liye kaha tha. 4. Ya Khuda ! is larke 
ko chahe jitna parhaen kuchh asar nahm hota 
5. Bap ! bap ! yeh mujhe sanp se katata hai. 6 
Bahut achchha ! main us admi se wahi ka- 
raunga jo ap chahte hain. 

' 51a. 

1. Alas ! the scoundrel caused this poor man to be 
robbed. 2. Bravo ! you caused a nice game to be played. 

3. Yes, the mother told the nurse to put the child to sleep. 

4. Oh God ! whatever one may teach this boy, it has no 
effect. 5. Help! mercy! this man causes the snake to bite 
me. 6. All right ! (or very well !) I shall make this man 
do what yon want. 



J.26 HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EAST. 

43. When addressing an officer of high rank, the 
word Huzur (your honour) may be used. In connection 
with this, note the following : 

TO ARRIVE is tashrlf lana 

TO DEPART is tashrif le jana 

used in such expressions as : 

When did your honour arrive ? Huzur kab tashrif la'e haifi t 
When will your honour leave or depart ? 

Huziir kab tashrif le jaenge ? 

tashrif implies : the honour of your presence ; tash.- 
rif lana therefore means : _to _bring the honour of your 
presence, and tashrif le jana means : to take away the 
honour of your presence. The verb, of course, must be in 
the Third Person Plural (polite form). 

These expressions are also used in ordinary conversation. 



44. The following hints with regard to SALUTATION 
and THANKS, may be of service. 

The ordinary salutation is salam, PEACE. The fol- 
lowing expressions are in common use : 

salam karna to greet or salute 

salam bolna or | to give or send greetings or saln- 
salam dena J tations 

which is a polite way of sending for anyone you wish 
to speak to. 

For instance, patwari ko salam do (or salam bolo) 

means : give my salam to the patwari (village accountant), 
by which message the accountant will understand that you 
want to speak to him. 

Again, when someone calls to see you, and sends in his 
card, you say to_your servant who brings you the card, 
salam do or salam bolo. The servant gives your salam 
to the caller, who then comes in to pay his visit. 

_Hindus often greet one another with the cry Ham ! 
Ram ! (the name of a deity). 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EAST. 127 

45. THANK YOU, to servants and inferiors Js ex- 
pressed by bahut achchha, or merely_ achchha, * all 
right,' 'that will do.' Bahut achchha is also used in 
the literal sense of 'very well.' 

THANK YOU, to equals and superiors is _expressed by 
shukr, shukr hai or shukr guzar hona, thus : 

thanks shukr or shukr hai 

I thank you main ap ka shukr guzar hun 



46. aur (AND) is often omitted between two Nouns, 
AS in : 

boys and girls larke larkiyan 

milk and sugar dudh shakar 

up and down unch nlch 

big and little chote bare 

AND in certain cases is expressed by O, as in : 

ab o hava water and air (that is, climate) 

sard o garm cold and hot 



47. The word hi conveys emphasis, and can be 

added to almost any word, as in : 
only one ek hi 

just before paihle hi se 

it happened just here yahan hi hua tha 

I have called YOU main ne turn hi ko bulaya 
(not another) hai 

hi is often placed between two words for additional 
emphasis, thus : 

wuh dekhte hi dekhte gfcayab ho gaya 

he disappeared while we were just looking (=in a moment) 



48. The verb chahna (to wish or want to), is used 
idiomatically to express that something is about to take 
place, as in : 

he is about to come here wuh yahan aya ehahta hai 

(=he is due) 
the clock is about to strike | gharl baja chahtl hai 



128 HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 

49. The addition of the word wala can make_almost 
any verb into a noun, expressing agency. Wala takes 
gender and number, wala, wale, wall. 

The final a of the verb changes into 6 before wala. 

EXAMPLES. 

from bechna, to sell comes bechnewala, a seller 

kharidna, to buy kharldnewala, a buyer 

dena, to give denewala, a giver 

likhna, to write likhnewala, a writer 



50. wala can also be added to a noun, and indicates 
the PERSON connected with the thing expressed by the noun. 

EXAMPLES. 

from shaihar, a town comes shaiharwala, a townsman 

gaon, a village gaonwala, a villager 

phal, a fruit phalwala, a fruiterer 

,, phul, a flower phulwala, a flower-seller 

52. 

1. main ap ko likli hi raha tha ; 2. wuh yeh 
karna hi chahta tha ; 3. grhar pas hi hai ; 4. 
wuh ja hi rahi thi ki wuh agaye ; 5. main is 
jagah ka raihnewala nahm him ; 6. graonwalon 
ke banisbat shaiharwale amuman zyada parhe 
likhe hote ham; 7. is ghore ka kharldnewala 
kaun hai ? 8. Chinwale bare achchhe karigrar 
hote hain ; 9. marnewale se bachanewala bara 

hai. 

52a. 

1. 1 was just writing to you ; 2. he was going (=just 
about) to do it ; 3. the house is quite close by ; 4. she 
was just (on the point of) going, when they arrived ; 5. I 
am not a resident of this place ; 6. townsmen are gener- 
ally better educated than villagers ; 7. who is the buyer of 
this horse ? 8. the Chinese are excellent craftsmen ; 9. the 
saviour is greater than the slayer. 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 



129 



CONVERSATIONAL PHRASES. 



There are four paihars 

(= watches) in the day. 

There are also four 

watches in the night. 
A summer's day has 

five watches. 
One hour is a very 

short time. 
The sun shone all the 

afternoon . 
It is very bad to sleep 

till eight o'clock. 
You should always get 

up at five o'clock in 

the morning. 
Last night I was awake 

all night. 
It is difficult to sleep 

when it is very hot. 



1. 



2. 



3. 



The mosquitoes are very 

troublesome. 
A mosquito-net is a 11. 

necessity. 
Go and buy one at the 12. 

bazaar. 



Din men char paihar 
hote hain. 

Rat men bhi char pai- 
har hote hain. 

Garini ke din men panch 
paihar hote hain. 

4. Ek ghanta bahut thora 

vakt hai. 

5. Suraj sare sepaihar 
_ chamakta raha. 

Ath baje tak sona bahut 

kharab hai. 
Turn ko subah hamesha 

panch baje uthna cha- 

hiye. 
Kal main sari rat jagta 

raha. 
Jab bahut g-armi hot! 

hai, tab sona mushkil 

hota hai. 
Machchhar bahut taklif 

dete hain. 
Masahri zaruri hai. 



6. 



7. 



8. 



9. 



10. 



J'a'o bazar 
le a'o. 



se ek mol 



Explanatory Notes to the above Phrases. 

6 literally, the sun whole afternoon shining remained ; ohamakna, to 
shine ; 8 lit., yesterday I whole night awake remained ; jagna,, to 
awake ; 12 mol lena, to purchase ; mol le a'o, idiomatic for : go and 
buy (lit., purchase taking come). 

B.8. 5 



130 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EAST. 



No one knew where he 

had gone. 
Some were saying one 

thing, some another 
The town is not very 

far from here. 
There is a village close 

by. 
After a time we shall 

get used to it. 
That is his own story. 
The dog went of his 

own accord. 
If you do that you will 
get yourself into trouble. 
It is your own fault. 

He deceived himself 
and his friends. 

I forgot myself. 

Nobody goes near him. 

I was nearly dead with 
fright. 

He may have told me. 

He must have done it. 

When he comes you 
must say to him (that) 
I have done it. 

Do as I tell you. 

Do not be so slow. 



1. Kisi ko na jnalum tha 

ki wuh kalian guya hai. 

2. Ko'i yeh kali raha tha, 

aur ko'i wuh. 

3. Shaihar yahan se dur 

nahm hai. 

4. Ek g-aon nazdlk hai. 

5. Kuchh_din ke bad ham 

iske adi ho jaenge. 

6. Yeh usi ka kissa hai. 

7. Kutta ap hi chala graya. 

8. Agrar turn yeh karog*e to 

afat mefl phans jaoge. 

9. Yeh tumhara hi kasur 

hai. 

10. Usne apne ko aur apne 

doston ko dhokha diya. 

11. Main apne ko bhul guya. 

12. Uske pas ko'i nahm jata. 

13. Main khauf se qarib qa- 

rib mar g;aya. 

14. Shay ad usne mujh se 

kaha hog-a. 

15. Usne zarur kiya hog-a. 

16. Jab wuh a'e to us se 

kahna ki : Main ne 
yeh kiya hai. 

17. Jaisa main_tumhen ka- 

hun vaisa karo. 

18. Itne sust mat ho'o. 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EAST. 



181 



India has three hun- 
dred million inhabi- 
tants. 

There are 100 good sol- 
diers in this regiment. 

We have sent off fifty 
letters this week. 

This is the second day 
of the month. 

The third day is a holi- 
day, [day. 

The seventh day is Sun- 
Pay will be given on 
the last day. 

Who has brought the 
deputy's letter ? 

The messenger is here 

( = present) your honour. 

Tell him to give my 
best compliments to 
his master. 

Well, where were you 
yesterday ? 

There was much rain 
yesterday, sir, I could 
not come. 

Very well, sir, I will do 
this work. 

Let the gentleman come 

in. [gentleman. 

Bring a chair for the 



1. Hindustan men tetis ka- 

ror raihnewale (admi) 
hain. 

2. Is paltan men sau ach- 

chhe sipahi hain. 

3. Is hafte ham ne pachas 

khat bheje hain. 

4. Mahine ka yen dusra 

din hai. 

5. Tisre din chhutti hai. 

6. Satwen din itawar hai. 

7. Akhiri din tankhwah di 

jaegri. 

8. Dipt! sahib ki chitthi 

kaun laya hai ? 

9. Huzur chaprasi hazir 

hai. 

10. Kaho, sahib ko bahut 

bahut salam bole. 

11. Achchha, kal turn ka- 

han the ? 

12. Janab kal bahut pani 

barasta tha, a na saka. 

13. Bahut achchha, sahib, 

main_ yen kam kar- 
dung-a. 

14. Sahib ko salam do. 

15. Sahib ke liye kursi la'o. 



132 HUGO*S HINDUSTANI MADE EAST. 

PROGRESSIVE READING, 

with Literal Translation and correct English Rendering. 



Hindustan men ghar ke bahar ka kam 
India in home of outside of work 

amuman mard hi karte hain. Gaon men 
generally men only doing are. Villages in 

auraten bhi kheton men baz kam karti 

women also fields in some work doing 

hain, maslan, bij bona aur fasl katna, 
are, for example, seed sowing and crop cutting, 

vaghaira. Shaihron men gharib darje ki 
etc. Cities in poor class of 

auraten bataur am mazdur ke rozi 
women in the capacity ordinary labourers of livelihood 

kamati hain. Mohallon men aksar aura- 
earning are. Residential quarters in often wo- 

ten phul, phal, aur sabzi bechti hain. Yeh 

men flowers, fruit, and vegetables sell. These 

auraten malin 1 kaihlati hain. Abtak au- 

women gardeners called are. Until lately wo- 

raton ne moharir? kam nahm liya hai. 
men by clerical work not taken is. 

Kharid-farokht bhi ziyadatar mard hi karte 

Buying and selling also mainly men only doing 

hain. Isliye bazaron men auraten kam 
are. Therefore bazaar in women less 

1 mall, m., malin, f., gardener ; 
3 moharir, clerk : moharirl, clerical. 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 183 

dekhne men ati hain. Albatta tirthofi 
sight in coming are. However, places of pilgrimages 

par, melon men, auraten bakasrat nazar ati 
at, fairs in, women in plenty to be seen 

hain, aur khullam-khulla purl azadi se 
are, and openly full freedom with 

chalti phirti hain. Rozana isteshnon par, 
moving about are. Daily stations at, 

relg-ari men sab darjon ki auraten 

railway trains in all classes of women 

bakhubi dekhi ja sakti hain. Hin- 
fairly well seen can be. In- 

dustan men khavind bivi ka rishta maz- 

dia in husband wife of relation reli- 

habi mamla khiyal kiya jata hai. 
gious matter considered is. 



Correct English rendering of the above. 

In India, the outside work is generally done by men only. 
In the villages, the women sometimes do some of the work in the 
field, such as sowing the seed and cutting the crops. 

In the cities, the women of the poorer class earn a living as 
ordinary labourers by selling flowers, fruit and vegetables in the 
residential quarters. These women are called garde ners. 

Until lately clerical work was not done by women. Buying 
and selling is also mainly done by men. Therefore women are 
not much seen in the bazaars, but in places of pilgrimage, and at 
fairs, there are plenty of women to be seen, moving about quite 
freely and openly. Daily, at railway stations, and in the trains, 
women of all classes are fairly well represented. 

In India, the relation between husband and wife is looked 
upon as a religious matter. 



134 HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 

Hindustan men sab mazhab pae jate hain. 

India in all religions found are. 

Un men se mufassil-zail bayan ke kabil 

Them among (in) the following mention of worthy 

hain. Hindu mazhab, Islam, Isai mazhab, 

are. Hinduism, Mohammedanism, Christianity, 

Pars! mazhab. Islam ke log- Musalrnan 

the Parsee religion. Mohammedanism of people Moslems 

kaihlate hain. Hinduon ki tadad Musal- 
called are. Hindus of number Mos- 

manon, Isaion, Parsion ki mushtarka tadad 

lerns, Christians, Parsees of combined number 

se bhi ka'i guna ziyada hai. Hindustani 

than of many times more is. Indians 

aur khaskar Hindu log g-osht kam khate 

and in particular Hindu people meat little eat. 

hain. Hindu gae ke gosht se aur Musal- 
Hindu cow's flesh from and Mos- 

xnan su'ar ke gosht se sakht parhez karte 

^ms pig's flesh from strictly abstinence doing 

hain. Baz Hindu gosht, sharab aur andon 
are. Several Hindus meat, wine and eggs 

ko bhi istemal karne se katai inkar karte 
of also using from, altogether refusal doing 

hain. Logon ki am ghiza dudh, makkhan, 
are. People of usual food milk, butter, 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI JiADK EAST. 135 

ghi anaj, chaval, phal, tarkari, va- 

clarified butter, corn, rice, fruit, vegetables, 

ghaira hain. Amuman har Hindu rozana 

etc., are. Usually every Hindu daily 

nahata hai. Har Musalman ek din men 
bathing is. Every Moslem one day in, 

panch dafa namaz parhta hai. 
five times prayers reading is. 



Correct English rendering of the above. 

In India all religions are found. The most important among 
these are the following : Hinduism, Mohammedanism, Chris- 
tianity and Parseeism. 

The people professing Mohammedanism are called Moslems 
(or Muslims). The number of those professing Hinduism is far 
greater than the combined numbers of Moslems, Christians and 
Parsees. Indians, and in particular the Hindus, eat little meat. 
Hindus abstain from eating beef, Moslems abstain from eating 
pork. Many Hindus abstain altogether from meat, wine and eggs. 

The usual food of the people is milk, butter, clarified (or 
Indian) butter, corn, rice, fruit, vegetables, etc. 

The Hindus generally bathe once a day. The Moslems say 
their prayers fire times each day. 



Pahar ki tara'i men bahut se sher aur 

Mountains of base in many of tigers and 

hathi hain. Kabni kabhi sanp makanon men 

elephants are. Sometimes snakes houses in 

chale ate hain. Blialu aur tendue pahari 

coming are. Bears and leopards hillj 

mulk men raihte hain 
country in living are. 



186 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EAST. 



SHORT VOCABULARIES OF USEFUL NOUNS. 



THE TOWN. shaihar, m. 

shai-har 

government building_ 

sarkari imarat, f. 

sar-kah-ree im-mah-rat 

custom house 

chungi giiar, m. 

chune-guee g'har 

post-office dak khana, m. 

dahk h'chah-iiah 

telegraph office_ 

tar g'har, m. 

tahr g'har 

hospital shafa khana, m. 
or aspatal, m. 

shaf-ah h'chah-nah, as-pa-tahl 

church girja, m. 

guir-jah 

mosque masjid, f. 

mas-djid 

temple maiidir, m. 

man0-dir 

police station thana, m. 

t'hah-nah 

court of law adalat, f . 

a-dah-lat 

civil court 

divani adalat, f. 

dee-vah-nee a-dah-lat 
criminal court_ 

fauidari adalat, . 

fawj-dah-ree a-dah-lat 



revenue court 

adalat mal, f. 

a-dah-lat mahl 

prison jel khana, m. 

jail h'chah-nah 

shop dukan, f. 

doo-kahn 

road sarak, f, 

sa-rak 

street gall, f. 

gah-lee 



THE HOTEL. hotal, m. 

hoh-tal 



waiter 



vay-tar 



vetar, m. 



bill, bill of fare bil, m. 
bill 

servant naukar, m. 

naw-kar 



tip 



in-ahm 



dahm 



inam, m. 
i 

dam, m. 



visitor maihman, m. 

mai'h-mahn 



first floor 



paihli maiizil, f. 

pai'h-lce 



second floor_ 

dusri mafizil, 

doos-r 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EAST. 



187 



THE RAILWAY. Pel, f. 

rayl 

station isteshan, m. 

is-tay-shun 

platform pletfann, m. 

playt-fahrm 
booking-office 

tikatghar, m. 

tick-at-g'har 

ticket tikat, m. 

tick-at 

luggage asbab, m. 

as-bahb 

engine ail jan, m. 



railway carriage 

relgari, f. 

rayl gah-ree 

luggage van malgraxi, f. 

mahl-gah-ree 

Station master 

isteshan mastar, m. 

is-tay-shan mahs-tar 

guard gard, m. 

gahrd 

porter kllll, m. 

ku-lee 

trunk, box trank, m. 



express train 

expres gari, f. 

ex-press gah-ree 
mail train dak grari, f. 

dahk gah-ree 

time-table taimtebil, m. 
taim-tay-bU 

H.S. 5* 



SHIPPING. j ahazi. 

ja-hah-zee 

steamboat 
sailing-vessel 

ja-hahz 

man-of-war 

jangi jahaz, m. 

jan<r-guee ja-hahz 
merchantman 

mail or tijarati jahaz, m. 

mah-lee or ti-jah-ra-tee ja-hahz 

mast patwar, m. 

pat-wahr 

rope rassi, f . 

raa-see 

steward stuard, m. 

stoo-ard 

sailor mallali, m. 

mal-lah 

mate met, m. 

mayt 

captain kaptan, m. 

kap-tahn 

cabin kamra, m. 

kam-rah 



roof 
wall 



THE HOUSE. 

gliar, makan, m. 

g'har, ma-kahn 

chhat, f. 

ch'hat 

dlval, f. 

dee-vahl 



floor farsh, m. 

farsh 
staircase zina,m. 

zee-nah 

window khirki, . 

k'hir-kee 



188 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EAST. 



THE HOUSE (continued) 

door darvaza, m. 

dar-vah-zah 
front door 

samne ka darvaza, m. 

sah iii-nay kali dar-vah-zah 
dining-room 

khane ka kamra, m. 

k'hah-nay kab kam-rah 

drawing-room baithak, f. 

bait-hak 

bedroom 

sone ka kamra, m. 

soh-nay kah ka.u-rah 
study 

parline ka kamra, m. 

[i!ir-h'n;iy kah kam-rah 

bathroom, lavatory 

g&usul khana, m. 

h'ru-sul k'chith-nah 

office daftar, m. 

daf-tar 

garden bagil, m. 

bah'r 

flower garden _ 

phul bag&, m. 

p bool bah'r 

orchard bagilTcha, m. 

bah-h'rec-chah 



FURNITURE. saman, m. 

sah-rnahn 

table mez, f. 

mayz 

chair kursi, f. 

kur-see 

armchair aram kursi, f . 

ah-rahm kur-see 



writing table 

likhne ki mez, f. 

lik'h-nay kee-mayz 

picture tasvir, f. 

tas-veer 

ornaments zevar, m. 
zay-var 

curtains parda, m. 

par-dah 

carpet farsh, m., dari, f. 

farsh, da-ree 

matting chata'l, f. 

cha-tah-ee 

mirror shisha, m. 

shee-shah 

desk desk, m. 

desk 

lamp chirag'h,, m. 

chir-ah'r 

bed charpai, f. 

chahr-pah-ee 

stove chulha, m. 

chool-hah 

sofa sofa, m. 

soh-fah 

store-room godam, m. 

goh-dahm 



THE BODY. 

jism, badan, m. 



head 



jism, ba-dan 

sar, m. 



forehead peshani, t 

pay-shah-nee 

hair bal, m. 

bahl 

ear kan, m. 

kahn 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EAST. 



189 



THK BODY (continued). 

ere ankh, f. 

ahfk'b 

nose nak, f. 

nshk 

month munh, m. 

mu* h 

face chehra, m. 

chay'h-rah 

tooth dant, m. 



cheek rukhsar, gal, m. 

ruh'ch-sahr, gahl 

neck gardan, f. 

gar-dan 

shoulder kandha, m. 

kav-d'hah 

arm bazu, m. 

bah-zoo 

hand hath, m. 

haht'h 

finger ungll,f. 

nof-lee 

thumb ang'utha. m. 

af-goo-t'hah 

nail nakhun, m. 

nah-h'choon 

cheat chhati, . 

ch'hah-tee 

stomach meda, pet, m 

may-dah, payt 

heart dil, m. 

dill 

leg tang, f . 



foot pair, paon, m. 

payr, pah-of 

knee ghutna, m. 

g'hut-nah 



paw 
tail 



pafija, m. 

pa*-jah _ 

punchh, f. 

h h 



BATING AND DRINKING, 

khana, pma 

k'hah-iiah, pee-nah 

food khana, m. 

k'hab-nah 

breakfast 

subah ka khana* 

(=morning food) 

su-bab kaii k'hah-nah 

dinner sham ka^hana m. 
or byalu, f. 

(^evening food) 

shabm kah k'hah-nah, b'yat-loo 

tea cha, f. 

cbah 

coffee kahava, m. 

ka-ha-vah 

chocolate chaklet, f. 

chahk-layt 

wine, beer sharab, f. 

(any intoxicant) sha-rahb 

soup shorba, m. 

shohr-bah 

bread rotl, f. 

rob-tee 

meat gosht, m. 

gohsht 

cheese chlZ, f. 

cheez 

eggs ande, m. 

afl-day 

milk dudh, m. 

dood'b 



'Two other names for breakfast are 
(cb'boh-tee hah-ri-ree, ka-lay-wah) ; 



chhotl hazirt, f., and kalewa, m. 

any of these names also apply to lunch 



140 



HUGO 8 HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 



EATING, DBINKINO (continued) 

butter makkhan, m. 

mak-k'han 

Indian or clarified 
butter ghi, in. 

g'hce 

fruit phal, m. 

p'hal 

vegetables tarkari, f. 

tar-kah-ree 

sweetmeats mith.a'1, f. 

mit-hah-ee 



TRADES. tijarat, f. 

ti-jah-rat 

basati 

ba-sah-tee 
greengrocer kunjra 



grocer 



fruiterer mewafarosh. 

may-wah-fa-rosh 

butcher kasa'l 

kas-ah-ee 

baker tanurwala, _ 

rotiwala 

tan-oor-vah-lah, roh-tee-vah-lah 

milkman grhosi 

g'hoh-see 

provision merchant 

bani'a 

ba-ni-ah 

fisherman mahlgir, 

machhua 

mah-hee-gueer, mach-hu-ah 

fishmonger machliliwala 

mach'li-lee-vah-lah 

confectioner halwa'l 

hal-wah-ee 

cook bavarchi 

bah-var-chee 



water carrier 

bhishti, sakka 

b'hibh-tee, sak-kah 

gardener mall 
mah-lee 

carpenter barh.a'l 

bar-ha-t:e 

mason memar 

may-mail r 

blacksmith lohar 

loh-hahr 

goldsmith sunar 

sun-ahr 

jeweller jauharf 

jaw-ha-ree 

bootmaker mochl 

moh-chee 

tailor darzi 

dar-zee 

cloth merchant bajaz 

ba-jahz 

washerman dliobl 
d'hoh-bee 

cowherd gadariya 

ga-da-re-yah 



UTENSILS AND TOOLS. 
, m. (aw-zahr) 



plate thali, rakabi, f . 

t'hah-lee, rak-ah-bee 

lota, m. 
loh-tah 



ug 
glass 



gllas, m. 

gui-lahs 

cup pyala, m. 

p'yah-lah 

spoon chammacli, . 

cham-madch 
knife Chaku, m. 

chah-koo 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 



141 



UTENSILS, TOOLS (continued) 

fork kanta, m. 

kahn^-tah 

hammer hathaura, m. 

hat'h-aw-rah 

saw ara, m. 

ah-rah 

screw pech, m. 

paych 

screwdriver pechkas, m. 

paych-kas 

nails kll, f. 

keel 

ruler rul, f. 

rool 

spade khurpT, f. 

k'hur-pee 

scissors kainch.1, f. 

kainp-chee 

razor astura, m. 

as-too-rah 



WRITING MATERIALS. 

likhne ka saman. 

lik'h-nay kah sah-mahn 

paper kaghaz, m. 

kah-h'raz 

letter papej 

chitthi ka kagiiaz, m. 

chit-t'hee kah kah-h'raz 

blotting paper SOkhta, m. 

soh'ch-tah 

envelope lifafa, m. 

lif-ah-fah 

pen kalam or qalam, f. 

ka-lam 

pencil pensil, f. 



inkstand davat, f. 

dah-vaht 



postage stamp_ 

dak tikat, m. 

dahk tick-at 

seal xnuhar, f. 

mu-har 
note book notbuk, f. 

noht-buk 

pocket book paketbuk, f. 

pah-kayt-buk 

diary dayari, f . 

dah-ya-ree 



COLOURS. rang, m. 



blue 

red 

green 

yellow 

grey 

orange 

black 

white 



^ 

nila 

nee-lah 

surkh, lal 

surh'ch, lahl 

sabz, hara 

sabz, ha-rah 

zard, pila 

zard, pee-lah 

bhura 

b'hoo-rah 

narangi rafig 1 

nah-ran<r-guee rawg 

kala, syah 

kah-lab, s'yah 

sufed 

su-fayd 



THE ARMY. failj, t 

fawdj 

general janaral 

dja-na-ral 

colonel karnal 

kar-nal 

major rnejar 

may-djar 



142 



HUGOS HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 



THE ARMY (continued) 

captain kaptan 

kap-tahn 

officer afsar 

af-sar 

regiment paltan, f. 

pal-tan 

foot soldier sipahi 

si-pah-hee 

horse soldier sawar 
sa-wahr 

cavalry grlmr sawar, m. 

g'hur sa-wah 

infantry pyada, in. 

p'yah-dah 

Hag, standard jhafida, m. 

dj'hanj-dali 



tent 
uniform 



khima, m. 

h'chee-mali 



var-dee 



vardi, f . 



barracks barak, m. 

bah-rak 

to march Chalna, or 

ruldisat hona 

chal-nah, ruh'ch-sat hoh-nah 

war, battle lara'i, jangr, f. 

lar-ah-ee, djasg 

attack hamla, m. 

ham-lah 

cannon top, f. 

tohp 



gun banduk, f. 

ban0-dook 

sword talwar, f . 

tal-wahr 

bullet goll, f. 

goh-lee 

powder barud, f. 

bah-rcxxi 

shot chharra, m. 

ch'har-rah 

ammunition g"Ola barud, m. 

goh-lah bah-rood 



TITLES,* PROFESSIONS, etc. 

khitab, m., peshe, m., 
vagliaira 

h'che-tahb, pay-shay, va-h'rai-rah 

king raja, badshah 

rah-jah, bahd-shah 

queen rani, malka 

rah-nee, mal-kah 

prince rajkumar, 

shahzada 

rahj-ku-mahr, shah-zah-dah 

princess rajkumari,_ 
shahzadi 

rahj-ku-mah-ree, shah-zah-dee 

heir apparent 

yuvaraj, wall 

yu-vah-rahj, va-lee 

judge jaj, munsif 

jadj, muii-sif 



INDIAN TITLES beginning at the lowest rank. These cannot be 
translated into English. 

Rai (rab-e), Rao (rah'o), Khan (h'chahn) ; Rai Bahadur (rah-e 
ba-hah-dur), Rao Bahadur (rah-oh ba-hah-dur), Dlwan Bahadur (di- 
vahn bah-hah-dur), Khan Bahadur (h'chahn ba-hah-dur) ; Raja (rah- 
jah), Maharaja (ma-hah-rah-jah), Nawab (na-vahb). 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 



143 



TITLES, PBOFKSSIONS (continued) 

lawyer, solicitor vakil 
va-keel 

lawyer's clerk muharir 

mu-hah-rir 

priest purohit 

pur-oh-htt 

doctor hakim, daktar 

hak-eein, dahk-tar 

teacher guru, mastar,_ 
parhanewala 

gu-roo, mahs-tar, 

par-hah-uay-vah-lah 



bank 



BANKING, etc. 

bank, f. 



bank-manager_ 

bank ka menejar 

bangk kah may- nay- jar 
bank-clerk 

bank ka munshi 

ban0k kah mun-shee 

cash nakd, m. 

nakd 



loan 



karz, udhar, m. 

karz. ud-hahr 



cheque, draft 

chek, hundi, f. 

cneck, huy-dee 
currency note 

karansi not, m. 

ka-ranfl-see noht 

money rupaya, m. 

ru-pa-yah 



MONEY VALUES. 



mpaya silver coin and paper = Is. 4d. at par. 

roo-pa-yah 

athanm silver and nickel coin =8 annas, nominally 8d. 
at'h-an-nee 

chawanm =4 annas 4d. 

chaw-an-ne 

dawanni =2 annas 2d. 

daw-an-nee 

ekanni nickel coin =1 anna Id. 

ayk-an-nee 
adhanni copper coin =^ anna id. 

ad'h-au-nee (size of a penny) 

paisa copper coin =J anna Jd. 

pai-sah (size of a halfpenny) 

pa 5 ! copper coin = one twelfth anna one twelfth Id. 
pah-ee (not much used, except in calculations) 

muhar sovereign (gold coin) nominally l. 

mu-har 

pafich mpaye ka not a five-rupee note 
das rupaye ka not ten-rupee note 

bis rupaye ka not a twenty-rupee note 

and go on, notes of 30, 40, 50, 100, 500, 1,000, 10,000 rupees. 



144 



HUGO S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 



LIST OF INDISPENSABLE WORDS, 
ADVERBS, PRONOUNS, PREPOSITIONS, CONJUNCTIONS AND 
IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS. 



about karfb 

ka-reeb 

above all sab se paihle 

sab se pai'h-lay 

across par 

pahr 

after bad 

bahd 

afterwards bad ko 
bahd ko 

again phir 

p'hir 

against khilaf 

h'chi-lahf 

all sab, kul 

sab, kul 

almost karib karib 

ka-reeb ka-reeb 

aloud zor se 

zohr say 

already paihle 111 
pai'b-lay bee 

also bhi 

b'bee 

although groya 

goh-yah 

always hamesha 

ha-may-sbab 



and 



aur 



apparently dekhne men 

dayk'h-nay mayr 

as jaise 

jai-say 
as much, as many itna 

it-nab 



as much as itna . . . j itna 

it-nah jit-nab 

at all events JO ho 

job hob 

at least kam se kam 

kam say kam 

at most ziyada se ziyada 

ze-yah-dah say ze-yah-dah 

at once ekdam 

ayk-dam 

at present aj kal 

ahj kal 

at that time US vakt 
us vakt 

because chunk] , isliye ki 

choo0-kee, is-li-yay ke 

behind pichhe 

peech-hay 

besides alawa 

al-ah-wah 

beyond bad 
babd 

both donon 

doh-rioi<r 

but lekin, balki 

lay -kin, bal-ke 

by se 

say 

by chance ittifakan 

it-ti-fah-kan 

by no means_ 

kisi tarah nahin 

kis-ee ta-rah na-heen 

constantly hamesha, 

kadam kadam par 

ha-may-shah, ka-dam par 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 



145 



close to pas, nazdik 

pahs naz-deek 

each bar 

bar 

early jaldl 

jal-dee 

either. ..or ya...ya 

yah.. .yah 

elsewhere aur jagah 

awr jah-gah 

enough kafl 

kah-fee 

entirely bilkul 
bil-kul 

especially khas kar 

h'chalis kar 

even if agarche 

a-gar-chay 

ever, always hamesha 

ha-may-shah 

everywhere har jagah. 

har-ja-gah 

exactly bilkul thlk 

bil-kul-t'heek 

exceedingly nihayat 

ni-hah-yat 

except sivaya 

si-vah-yah 

few, a few chand 

channel 

finally ant men, akhir 

ant maynff, ah-h'chir 

first awwal 

av-val 

for liye 

le-yay 

formerly paihle 

pai'h-lay 

forward age 

h-gay 



from 86 

say 

generally am taur par 

ahm tawr par 

hardly mushkil SO 

mush-kil say 

hence yahan se 

ya-hahrifl say 

hereupon is par 

is par 

here and there 

jahan tahafl 

ja-hahn0 ta-hahny 

how ? kaise ? 

kai-say 

however, but lekin 

lay-kin 

if agar 

a-gar 

immediately fauran 
faw-ran 

in men 



in case agar 

a-gar 

indeed bhl, zarur 

b'hee, za-roor 

in front of samne 

sahm-nay 

in future ayinda 

ah-yii/-da)i 

inside andar 

an-dar 

instead of bajaya 

ba-djah-ya 

in the same way 

jyon ka tyofl 

kah t'yow? 

just, just now abhi 

ab-hee 



146 



HUGOS iilJSDUBXAAl ALAbE 



last 



akhiri 

ahk-he-ree 

left (to the) baym taraf 

ba-yeenfl ta-raf 

lifelong zindgi bhar 

zinfld-^uee b'har 

like, as ki tarah. 

kee ta-rali 

mutually apas men 

ah- pas mayn0 

near nazdik 

naz-deek 

neither . . . nor na . . . na 
na...na 

never kabhi nahin 

kab-hee na-hee*y 

nevertheless is par bh.1 
is par b'hee 

no nahin 

na-heen? 

none, not any ko'i nahin 

ko-ee na-heen<r 

nothing kuchh nahin 

kuch'h na-heev 
now ab 

ab 

nowhere kahin nahin 



of ka 

kah 

of course zarur h.1 

za-roor hee 

often aksar 

ak-sar 
on, upon par 

par 

on account of kl wajah S6 

kee va-djah say 

only sirf 

sir! 
on the contrary bar khilaf 

bar h'chi-lahf 

r ya 

yah 



otherwise varna 

var-nah^ 

outside bahar 

bah-hav 

perhaps shayad 

shah -y ad 

privately akele mefl 

a-kay-lay maynj 

quickly jaldl 
jal-dee 

quite bilkul 

bil-kul 

rather balki 

bal-ke 

right (to the) dahini taraf 

dali-lii-nee ta-raf 

scarcely mushkil se 

mush-kil say 

seldom bahut kam 

ba-htit kam 

several ka'l 
ka-ee 

shortly, briefly 

mukhtasir taur par 

muh'ch-ta-sir tawr par 
since se 

^y -^ . A - 
slowly ahista 

ah-his-tah 

so that jis men 

jis may*!? 

so is tarah 

is ta-rah 

some, any ko'l, kuchh 

koh-ee kuch'h 

some, a little kuchh 
kuch'h 

somehow or other 

jaise taise 

jai-say tai-say 

something kuchh 
kuch'h 

sometimes bazvakt 

bahz-vakt 



HUGO 8 HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 



147 



some whore or other 

kahin na kahin 

ka-huenp na ka-heeng 

so much, so many Utna 
ut-nah 

soon jaldl 

jal-dee 

still abhi, tobhi 

ab-hee toh-b'hee 

suddenly bat hi bat men 

baht hee baht-mayny 

surely zarur, beshak 

za-roor bay-shak 

than S6 

say 

then tab 

tab 

therefore isliye 
is-le-yay 

thereupon is par 

is par 

though groya 

gob -yah 

through se, se ho kar 

say, say ho kar 

three days ago tarson 
tar-son? 

thus is tarah 

is-ta-ra 
together ikattha 

ik-at-t'hah 

too (much) nihayat 

ni-hah-yat 

towards taraf 

ta-raf 

truly sach much 

sach much 

two days ago parson. 

par-son? 

under niche 

nee-chay 



undoubtedly 

ho na ho, beshak 

boh nan hob, bay-shak 

unless agar . . . nahm 

agur...na-heen<r 

until tak 

tele 

usually amuman 

a-moo-man 

what ? kya ? 

k'yah ? 
whatever kuchh bhl 

kuch'h bhee 

when ? kab ? 

kab? 

when jab 

jab 

whereas chunki 

choonfl-kee 
wherever jahafi kahin 

ja-hahny Ka-heenj 

while (during) men 
mayx? 

who ? which ? kaun ? kis ? 

kawn ? kis ? 

who, which JO, jis 
job, jis 

whoever ko'l bhl, JO kol 

koh'ce b'hee, job koh-ec 

whole, the kul 
why ? kyun ? 

k'yootij 

with SO 

say 

without baghair 



yes 
yet 



han 



abhl 

ab-bfH- 



148 



HUGO S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 



IDIOMATIC PHRASES. 



Come what may. 
At ull events. 
It may happen. 
It is the truth. 
Hearing is better than 

speaking. 
Patience is an excellent 

quality. 
The fruit of rashness 

is repentance. 
To the wise a hint is 

enough. 

Fortune does not in- 
crease with wisdom. 
Man has reason, a brute 

has none. 
This is the best of all 

(= better than all). 
Never mind. 
As soon as possible. 
As one sows, so one 

reaps. 
All is well that ends 

well. 

Time is money. 
Learn it by heart. 
At the point of the 

sword. 
If it is to be done, do it 

at once. 



Jo chahe ho. 

Har taur par. 

Yeh ho sakta hai. 

Yeh sach hai. 

Sunna behtar hai kaihne 

se. 
Sabr achchhi khaslat 

hai. 
Jaldi ka phal pashema- 

ni hai. 
Akil ko ishara kafi hai. 

Dana'i se daulat nahm 

barhti. 
Aki admi ko hot! hai, 

janvar ko nahm. 
Yeh sab se behtar hai. 

Kuchh parva nahm. 
Jitni jaldi ho sake. 
Jaisa boye, vaisa kate. 

Jiska natij'a achchha hai 

wuh sab achchha. 
Vakt hi daulat hai. 
Ise zubani yad kar dalo. 
Talwar ke zor se. 

Agur yeh karna hai, to 
fauran karo. 



HUGO S HINDUSTANI JIADK KiSY. 



149 



COMMERCIAL PHRASES. 



Take this draft, and 

bring the money. 
Be quick, so that I 

may have the money 

in time. 
Let me have the money 

by twelve o'clock. 
The money must now 

be sent to Mr. . 
What is the price of 

rice now ? 
Do not buy to-day, 

wait till to-morrow. 
Do you understand 

business ? 
I am not easily imposed 

upon. 

I cannot understand the 

bazaar prices. 
The bazaar rate is 

never the same for 

two hours. 
Have you compared 

these things with the 

sample ? 
Do the goods and the 

sample agree ? 
They do not agree. 
The goods are inferior 

to the sample. 



Yeh hundi le jao aur 

rupaya le ao. 
Tezi karo jis men ki 

mujlie vakt par ru- 

paya mil jae. 
Barah baje tak mujlie 

rupaya mil jae. 
Ab rupaya Mistar ke 

pas bhejna chahiye. 
Ab chaval ka dam 
_ (bhav) kya hai ? 
Aj mat kharido,kal tak 

intizar karo. 
Kya turn tijarat sa- 

majhte ho? 
Mujlie jaldi dhokha na- 

hin diya -ja sakta. 
Bazar ke dam meri sa- 

majh men nahm ate. 
Bazar ki dar do ghante 

tak to zarur wahi ra- 



Kya turn ne in chizon 

ko namune se mila- 

ya hai ? 
Kya saman aur namu- 

na ek se hain ? 
Ve ek se nahm haifi. 
Saman namune se gha- 

tiya hat 



150 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 



Two or three packages 
are superior. 

Get a pass for the goods 
to be shipped. 

How much money was 
collected yesterday ? 

Bring the goods in carts 
from the custom- 
house. 

When Mr. comes, tell 
him I want to speak 
to him. 

How long are those 
goods to remain in 
the custom-house ? 

Sir, I have not got the 
invoice, how can I 
get them out ? 
There are different rates 
of duty for different 
goods. 
I cannot (myself) open 

the boxes. 

The custom-house offi- 
cer is here to open 
the packages. 

I will sign the in- 
voice. 
The things cannot be 

sent without a pass. 
They promised to send 
the goods to-morrow. 



Do tin puriya behtar 

hain. 
Jahaz se saman bhejne 

ke liye pas le ao. 
Kal_kitna rupaya ikat- 

tha kiya graya ? 
Chungi g-har se asbab 

gari par le ao. 

Jab Mr. ae, to kaihna 
ki^ main us se bat kar- 
na chahta hun. 

Wuh asbab chungi ghar 
men kab tak raheg-a ? 

Sahib, mere pas bilti na- 
hm, men unko kaise 
chhura sakta hun ? 
Mukhtalif saman ke liye 
chungi ki mukhtalif 
dar hain. 
Main khud bakson ko 

nahm khol sakta. 
Chungi ka afsar yahan 
bandalon ko kholne ke 
liye hai. 
Main bilti par dastkhat 

kar dung*a. 
Chizen bina pas ke na- 

hin bheji ja saktm. 
Unhon ne kal saman 
bhejne ka wada kiya 
hai. 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EAST. 



151 



Have you collected all the 

bills ? 
His affairs are in a bad 

state. 
He has called his creditors 

together. 
Is the cargo damaged ? 

This man deals honestly 
with everybody. 

The goods you have pur- 
chased are very dear. 

You have been deceived 

by this man. 
He cannot pay his debts. 

The articles purchased on 
the loth of this month 
have not been delivered. 

Tell me the amount of 

what is due. [rect. 

The accounts are not cor- 

Everything is in confusion. 

See to it that the books 
are kept properly. 

In answer to your letter 
of the 3rd inst. 

I am in receipt of your 
Jotter of the 1st ult. 



Kya turn ne sab bil ja- 
ma kar liye hain ? 

Uska hai garbar hai. 

TJsne apne_ mahajanofi 

ko bulaya hai. 
Kya_saman ko nuksan 

hua hai ? 
Yeh admi sab ke sath 

iman rakhta hai. 
Jo saman turn ne khari- 

da hai wuh bahut ma- 

hanga hai. 
Tum_is admi se dhokha 

kha gaye. 
Wuh karz ada nahm kar 

sakta. 
Is ^nahme ki pandrah 

tarikh ko kharidT hui 

chizen dakhil nahin 

ki gray! hain. 
Mujhe batao ki kitna 

dena hai. 

Hisab thik nahm hai. 
Sab garbar hai. 

Dekho hisab ki kitabefl 
thik thik rakhi jaen. 

Tisri tarikh ke tumhare 
khat ke jawab men 

Mu.jhe akh.iri mahine ki 
paihli tarikh ka khat 
mila. 



152 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 



I have the pleasure to in- 
form you. 

Please send it to me by 
return of post. 

I hope to receive it by 
the 7th. 

In your letter you pro- 
mised us a discount of 
5 per cent. 

You have only taken off 

2% per cent. 
I will send you a cheque 

as soon as I receive the 

goods. 
We shall be much obliged 

to you. 
Please let me know your 

lowest terms for cash. 

How much will the duty 

amount to (=be) ? 
The bill is payable at sight. 

We cannot wait any 

longer. 
Send in my account as 

soon as possible. 
The firm has failed. 

The Bank-rate is down. 
There is an error in your 
account. 



Mujhe ap ko yeh batane 
men khushi hai. 

Maiharbani kar ke iau- 
tati dak se mujhe yeh 
bhej dena. 

Main sat tarikh tak pane 
ki ummid karta nun. 

Apne khat men ap ne 
panch fi sadi batta 
dene ka wada kiya hai. 

Ap_ne sirf dha'i fi sadi 

kata hai. 
Saman pate hi, main 

chek bhej dunga. 

Ham ap ke bahut shukr 

gnzar honge. 
Maiharbani kar ke apni 

sasti se sasti nakd dar 

batla'iye. 
Chungi kitni hog-i ? 

Yeh darsani hundi hai. 

Ham ab zyada intizar 

nahin kar sakte. 
Mera hisab bhejo, jitni 

jaldi ho sake. 
Karkhane_ka devala nl- 

kal gaya hai. 
Bank ki dar kam hai. 
Tumhare hisab men ek 

ghalati hai. 



HUGO S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 



153 



Give me a receipt. 
I have a letter of recom- 
mendation. 
The samples are delayed. 

Give me your estimate 

(=rates). 
Send the goods by fast 

train. 
Can I insure the goods ? 

Your esteemed order duly 
to hand. 

No invoice was sent with 
the goods. 

We hasten to inform you. 

We will allow you a re- 
duction of 10 per cent. 

Your orders must be fairly 
large. 

I sold the goods at a large 
profit. 

We hope the above prices 
and terms will suit you. 

May we hope that you 
will shortly favour us 
with an order ? 

We can either charter a 
whole steamer, or part, 
as it suits you best. 



Mujhe rasld do. 

Mere pas ek sifarashi 

chitthi hai. 
Namune bhejne men der 

ho g-ayi. 
Mujhe apna bhav batao. 

Saman tez g-ari se bhej- 

na. 

Kya saman ka bima ka- 
_ ra sakta hun ? 
Apia farma'ish mill. 

Saman ke sath bilti na- 
hm bheji gayi thi. 

Ham ap ko itla dete ham. 

Ham apko das fi sadi 
batta deng-e. 

Ap ki mang kafi bari 
honi chahiye. 

Main ne mal bare mu- 
nafe par becha. 

Hamen ummid hai ki 
upar ke dam aur shar- 
tenap ke muaflk hongi. 

Kya ham ummid karen 
ki ap jald hi hukm 
inayat karenge ? 

Ham sara jahaz ya ek 
hissa kiraya kar sakte 
hain. jaisa ap ke mua- 
fikho. 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EAST. 



I shall pay on receipt of 
the goods. 

We have made every 
effort to execute your 
order. 

Will yon kindly let us 
know by return of post ? 

Please accept our best 
thanks for this favor. 

There was a good trade 
done in that village. 

Our market is still very 
quiet. 

There is little hope of an 
early change. 

The demand is not yet 
strong enough. 

We hope to obtain a 
better price in a week. 

Speculators have for the 
moment seized on this 
article. 

Nobody can tell how the 
market will turn out. 

If a considerable change 
takes place, we shall in- 
form you by cable. 

Prices will fall consider- 
ably in a few days. 



Mal_ane par main dam 
dungra. 

Ap ka hukm bajane men 
ham ne purl koshish 
ki hai. 

Kya lauta_ti dak se itla 
dene ki inayat kareng-e ? 

Is inayat ke liye hamara 
bahut shukriya kabul 
kijiye. 

Us g-aoii men achchhi 
tijarat hui. 

Hamara Jmzar abhi ba- 
hut khamosh hai. 

Jaldi badalne ki bahut 
kam ummid hai. 

Abhi mang kafi nahin 
hai. 

Ek hafte men ham beh- 
tar dam pane ki um- 
mid karte hain. 

Is vakt sattewalofi ne is 
chiz par kabza kar 
liya hai. 

Ko'ijiahin kah _sakta ki 
bazar ki kya halat hogri. 

Agar achchha fark_hua 
to_ham ap ko tar se 
itla deiige. 

Kuchh dinon^ men dam 
bahut gir jaenge. 



HUGO'B HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 



156 



The mone y market is very 
firm. 

We must be prepared for 
still dearer money. 

The value of the rice and 
wheat exported last week, 
amounted to half a mil- 
lion rupees more than 
the previous week. 

It is essential to ship the 
goods at the lowest pos- 
sible rate. 

The date of the arrival 
does not matter much. 

Do not forget to insure 
the goods. 

We think there will short- 
ly be a very great de- 
mand for cotton in this 
country. 

Our present supply will 
not be sufficient to meet 
the demand. 

We propose entering into 
another speculation with 
you, on equal terms. 

We herewith send you 
invoice for goods or- 
dered on the 5th inst. 

We are sending them off 
by ship to-day. 



Rupaye_ka bazar bahut 

mazbut hai. 
Is se bhi meheng-e ru- 

paye_ ke liye hamen 
_ taiyar raihna chahiye. 
Akhiri haf te bahar bhej e 

hue chaval aur g-ehun 

ki kimat paihle hafte 

ke banisbat panch lakh 

rupaye ziyada thi. 
Yeh nihayat zaruri hai 

ki mal kam se kam dar 
_ par jahaz sebheja ja'e. 
Amad ki tarikh ki kol 

bat nahin. 
Mal ka bima karana mat 

bhulna. 
Hamara khiyal hai ki 

kuchh din men hi is 

mulk mefi rui ki ban 

mang hogri. 
Hamara maujuda saman 

mang ke liye kafi na 

hoga. 
Hamara irada^ hai ki ap 

ke sath barabar hisson 

men ek aur satta 

karen. 
Panchvi tarikh ko man- 

ga'e hue mal ki bilti 

ham bhejte hain. 
Ham aj_unhen jahaz se 

ravana kar rahe hain. 



J56 



HUGOS HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 



We are certain that you 
will be satisfied with the 
quality and price. 

We await your acknow- 
ledgment of the ri'cei pt. 

The goods invoiced on the 

17th inst. have arrived 

here to-day. 
Unfortunately they are in 

such a bad condition 

that we cannot accept 

them. 
Will you let us know 

what we can do for you 

in this matter ? 

We beg to inform you 
that the cotton sales 
have been in progress 
for a week. 

We advise you to buy 
now (at once). 

The terms quoted do not 
include carriage. 

The firm has been estab- 
lished many years. 

The bill of lading has not 
yet come to hand. 

Awaiting the favour of a 
reply. 



Hamen yakm hai ki ap 
chiz aur dam se khush 
hong-e. 

Ham rasid ki pah u rich 
ka intizar kar rahe 
haiii. 

Sattrah tarikh ko jis 
mal ki bilti bheji g-ayi 
thi wuh aj ag-aya. 

Badkismati se wuh itni 
kharab halat _mefi hai 
ki ham manzur nahifl 
kar aakte. 

Kya ap hamen bataefig-e 
ki is mamle men ham 
ap ke liye kya kar 
sakte hain ? 

Ham ap ko itla dete hain 
ki ek hafte se rui ki 
farokht ho rahi hai. 

Ham apko salah dete 

haifi ki ap fauran hi 

khariden. 
Is bhav men bhejne ka 

kharch nahm shamil 

hai. 
Yeh karkhana muddat 

se qayam hai. 
Ladne ka bil abhi nahifl 

aya hai. 
Jawab ki maiharbanl ka 

intizar hai. 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 



157 



MISCELLANEOUS PHRASES. 



Where can I buy those 

articles (things) ? 
To whom do these parcels 

belong ? [yours ? 

Is he any relation of 
What are you doing here ? 

I know what I have to 

do. 
I understand you quite 

well. 
Now I know what to 

say. 
Someone must do it. 

I believe there is no one 

at home. 
He must have about three 

hundred rupees in hand. 
There were about two hun- 
dred persons present. 
Some house or other must 

be vacant. 
This house compared with 

that house, is the more 

beautiful. 
These two books are quite 

different. 
The one is much larger 

than the other. 



Wuh chizen main kahafi 

kharid sakta hun ? 
Yeh parsal kis ki hain ? 
Kya wuh tumhara rish- 

tedar hai ? 
Turn yahan kya kar rahe 

ho ? 
Main janta hun ki mujhe 

kya karna hai. 
Main tumhen thik thik 

samajhta hun. 
Ab main janta hun ki 

kya kahun. 

KisI na kisi ko yeh kar- 
na chahiye. 
Mera yakin hai ki ghar 

par ko'i nahin hai. 
Uske pas karib tin sau 

rupaye honge. 
Ko'i do sau admi mau- 

jud the. 
Koi na ko'i makan za- 

rur khali hoga. 
Us g-har ke mukabile 

yeh grhar ziyada khub- 

surat hai. 
Yeh do kitaben bilkul 

mukhtalif hain. 
Ek dusri se bahut ban 

hai. 



158 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 



What has happened ? 
I tried all sorts of things, 
but it was no good. 

You ought to be ashamed 

of yourself. 
He reads the paper every 

morning. 

We go there every day. 

We gave him good advice, 
but he paid no heed. 

This is the work of two 

men. 
One man cannot possibly 

do it. 

The letter which you wrote 
has not arrived. 

The man whom you saw 
yesterday, is not here 
now. 

You have only to ask for 
it to get it. 

I feared you were not 
coming. 

I have got all I wanted. 

Wherever his master is, 
there his dog will be also. 

He is a great favourite in 
this part of the country. 



Kya hua ? 

Main ne tarah tarah ki 

chizen azma'm par 

kuchh matlabnanikla. 
Tumhen sharm ani cha- 

hiye. 
Wuh roz subah akhbar 

parhta hai. 

Ham vahan roz j ate hain. 

Ham ne use nek salah di 

thi par us ne kuchh 

khiyal na kiya. 
Yen do admion ka kam 

hai. 
Ek admi kisi tarah yeh 

nahin kar sakta. 

Apne jo khat likha tha 
wuh nahin aya hai. 

Jis admi ko ap ne kal 
dekha tha, wuh ab ya- 
han nahin hai. 

Mangte hi wuh (chiz) 
tumhefi mil jaegi. 

Mujhe dar tha ki turn 

na aogre. 
Mujhe jo chahiye tha 

wuh sab mil gaya. 

Jahan malik, vahan ma- 
lik ka kutta. 

Mulk ke is hisse men 
use sab chahte hain. 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EASY. 



159 



Everybody is talking about 
him. 

Surely this is some other 
man. 

It cannot be the same 

man. 
I have changed my mind. 

I won't go to-day. 

He is not old, but he is 

older than I am. 
You had better go now. 
The heat is abating. 
The wind has changed. 
This is the rainy season. 
It is raining in torrents. 

There is a storm. 

There is very little water 

in the river, you will be 

able to ford it. 
The carts must cross by 

the bridge. 

This coolie has worked 
hard, he ought to have 
a good tip. 

It takes about two hours 
to go up this hill. 

I came down the hill in 
one hour. 

This is a hilly country. 



Har shakhs us ke bare 
men bat kar raha hai. 

Beshak yeh ko'I aur ad- 
mi hai. 

Yeh wuh admi nahin lio 

sakta. 
Main ne jipna irada ba- 

dal diya hai. 
Main aj nahin jaunga. 
Wuh buddha nahin hai, 

par nmjh se bara hai. 
Ab tumhenjanachahiye 
Garmi kam ho rahl hai. 
Hawa badal gayi hai. 
Ajkal barsat hai. 
Musladhar pani baras 

raha hai. 
Tufan hai. 
Nadi men bahut_ kam 

pani hai, turn par kar 

sakoge. 
Gariyan pul se hi ja 

sakti hain. 

Kuli ne bari maihnat ki 
hai, usko achchha 
inam milna chahiye. 

Is pahari par jane men 
ko'i do ghante lagte hain. 

Maifi ek ghantejnen pa- 
hari se niche a gaya. 

Yeh pahari mulk hai. 



160 



HUGO'S HINDUSTANI MADE EAST. 



Which towns of India 
have you visited (seen) ? 

Wiien I got there I found 
that I had come to the 
wrong place. 

There is no harm in it. 

What harm is there in 

it? 
What is the meaning of 

this phrase ? 

The consequences of this 
quarrel will be serious. 

Don't you think so ? 

I cannot do this work. 
These phrases will be 
useful. 



Turn ne Hindustan ke 
kaun shaihar dekhe 
hain? 

Jab main valian pahun- 
cha, to mujhe malum 
hua_ki ghalat jagah a 
gaya. 

Is men koi harj nahin 
hai. 

Is men kya harj hai ? 

Is flkre ke kya man! 
hain ? 

Is jhagre ke natije aham 

honge. 
Kya turn yeh nahifl 

khyal karte ? 
Main yeh kam nahin 

kar sakta. 
Yeh flkre kam ke hofige. 



POINTS OF THE COMPASS. qutub, disha, f. 



north uttar, shumal 
south dakhin, junub 



northward 
(to the north." 

southward 
(to the south) 

eastward 
(to the east) 

westward 
Cto the west) 



uttar or shumal ki taraf 
dakhin or junub ki taraf 
purab or mashrik ki taraf 
pachohhim or maghrib ki taraf 



A 000125615 5