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Ot'h Vv'ith Arms «')f Dcspuii^ or Puig:. Valencia, early XV. G:ntiny 
(The prnpcrty of Earl Spencer, K.G.) 



HISPANO. MORESQUE 

WARE OF THE XV. 

CENTURY 

A CONTRIBUTION TO ITS HISTORr AND 
CHRONOLOOr BASED UPON ARMORIAL 

SPECIMENS 



BY 



A. VAN DE PUT 






LONDON 
THE ART WORKERS' QUARTERLY 
12 CLIFFORD'S INN, FLEET STREET 

SOLE AGENTS FOR GREAT BRITAIN AND THE COLONIES 

CHAPMAN AND HALL, LTD. 

II HENRIETTA STREET, W.C. 

1904 



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HARVARD 

FINE ARTS 

LIBRARY 

JUL 28 1982 
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PREFACE. 

The publication of these notes upon a section of 
Hispano - Moresque pottery has been prompted by the 
consideration that, though the day has not yet come for 
the writing of a history of the same, a selection of plates 
after principal examples, with short historical and descrip- 
tive information, may be of use to the student or collector. 

As the written history of no branch of the industrial 
arts contains less data drawn from the study of the objects 
themselves, the literature of the subject is of remarkably 
little value to the inquirer seeking information concerning 
dates and styles. The author believes this to be the first 
attempt to illustrate the sequence of the latter between 
1400— 1500. 

The majority of the pieces chosen for illustration are 
unique, or of extreme rarity ; many, thanks to the lawful 
inferences as to date or provenance to be drawn from them, 
must ever rank among the foundations of a knowledge of 
the true majolica. 

The author wishes to express his grateful thanks to the 



^^"J ■■■ i^» 3 612. 



iv PREFACE. 

Rl Hon. the Earl Spencer, K,G., to Mr. F. D. Godnian, 
F.R.S., to Mr. G. Salting, to Mr. H. Wallis, and to 
Messrs. Durlacher, for permitting him to reproduce speci- 
mens from their collections ; and to Monsieur Gaston 
Migeon, for allowing the reproduction of an illustration 
from his album of the Exhibition of Mussulman Arts, 
Paris, 1903. 

He wishes also to acknowledge his indebtedness to 
Mr. W. G. Paulson Townsend for the care taken in the 
production of the work, as also to Mr. A. F. Wallis, to 
whose skill are due the facsimiles in the text, and to 
Mr. W. G. Thompson in the case of those in colour. 



PLATES. 



DISH WITH ARMS OF DESPUIG OR PUIG (Frontispiece). 
I. DISH WITH ORNAMENT OF LARGE AND SMALL MOCK-ARABIC 
INSCRIPTIONS. 
IL— IV. HISPANO-MORESQUE ORNAMENT. 

V. DISH WITH ARMS OF THE COUNTS OF RIBAGORZA AND 

PRADES OF THE HOUSE OF ARAGON. 
VI. DISH WITH ARMS OF BLANCHE, QUEEN OF NAVARRE, 

DUCHESS OF PENAFIEL AND MONTBLANCH. 
VIL DISH WITH ARMS OF MARY, CONSORT OF ALFONSO V. OF 

ARAGON. 
VIIL DISH WITH ARMS OF MARY, CONSORT OF ALFONSO V. OF 
ARAGON. 
IX. SEAL OF, AND SHIELDS FROM TOMB OF MARY OF CASTILE, 

CONSORT OF ALFONSO V. 
X. DISH WITH ARMS OF DUKES OF BURGUNDY. 
XL DISH WITH ARMS OF RENi, DUKE OF ANJOU. 
XIL DISH WITH ARMS OF LOUIS, DUKE OF SAVOY. 
XIIL DISH WITH ARMS OF CHARLES VIL OF FRANCE, THE 
DAUPHIN LOUIS, AND DUKE AND DUCHESS OF 
BURGUNDY. 
XIV. DISH WITH ARMS OF BUYL (MANISES). 
XV. SHIELDS FROM TOMB OF PEDRO BUYL. 
XVI. DISH WITH ARMS OF THE CITY OF FLORENCE. 



vi PLATES. 

XVIL DISH WITH ARMS OF ARRIGHI, OF FLORENCE. 

XVIIL DISH WITH ARMS OF A FLORENTINE FAMILY. 

XIX. DISH WITH ARMS OF ZATI, OF FLORENCE. 

XX. DISH WITH ARMS OF GUASCONI, OF FLORENCE. 

XXL DISH WITH ARMS OF DELLE AGLI, OF FLORENCE. 

XXII. DISH WITH ARMS OF TONDI, OF SIENA. 

XXIII. DISH WITH ARMS OF ISABEL, WIFE OF PHILIP DE CR^VB- 

COEUR, MABtCHAL DES CORDES. 

XXIV. BACK OF THE CRfeVECCEUR DISH, 

XXV. DISH WITH ARMS OF MORELU, OF FLORENCE. 

XXVL VASE WITH ARMS OF LORENZO DE'MEDICI. 

XXVIL DISH WITH ARMS OF GONDI, OF FLORENCE. 

XXVIIL DISH WITH ARMS OF SICILY. 

XXIX. DISH WITH ARMS OF ISABELLA OF CASTILE, AND 

FERDINAND, KING OF SICILY. 

XXX. DISH WITH ARMS OF ARNOLFI, OF FLORENCE. 

XXXL DISH WITH ARMS OF SPANNOCCHI, OF SIENA. 

XXXIL BOWL WITH A|IMS OF ALDONZA, COUNTESS OF ARANDA. 

XXXIIL SEAL OF RAMON FOLCH, VISCOUNT OF CARDONA; BOWL 

WITH COUNTESS OF ARANDA'S ARMS (EXTERIOR). 

XXXIV. ARMS OF JOHN DE CARDONA. 



ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT. 

1. WALX^TILES FROM VALENCIA. 

2. MAP OF THE VALENCIAN POTTERIES. 

3, 4. ARMS OF THE COUNTS OF PRADES OF THE HOUSE OF 

ARAGON. 
5, 6. ARMS OF CARDINAL A. DESPUIG, OF VALENOA 

7. ARMS OF "HUGADES," OF VALENCIA. 

8. ARMS FROM SEAL OF PHILIP, DUKE OF BURGUNDY 

(1404— 1430). 

9. ARMS OF ARRIGHI, OF FLORENCE. 

10. ARMS OF ZATI, OF FLORENCE. 

11. ARMS OF GUASCONI, OF FLORENCE. 
12, 13. ARMS OF DELLE AGLI, OF FLORENCE. 

14. ARMS OF MORELLI, OF FLORENCE. 

15. ARMS OF GONDI, OF FLORENCE. 

16. ARMS OF ARNOLFI, OF FLORENCE. 

17. ARMS OF FOLCH DE CARDONA 

THE ARMS ON THE COVER. 

The arms of the kings of Azagon of the house of the counts of Barcelona, 
Or four pallets gules, were granted to Valencia upon its conquest by James I. 
of Aragon in 1238. To distinguish its shield from that of Aragon, Valencia 
adopted the lozenge-shape in 1377, in the reign of Peter IV., who granted 
the city the right to ensign its arms with a crown. The origin of the bat 
crest, though obscure, is traceable in the head, neck and wings of a dragon, 
the helm insignia of the Aragonese kings. 




HISPANOMORESQUE WARE 
OF THE XV. CENTURY. 



"Vhistoire dss fdUnees hispano-mcresques est encore touts entOre d icrire.** 
(MoLiNiBR. "La Collection Spitzer," IV.) 



It is no exaggeration to say that a connected 
study of Hispano-Moresque pottery has hardly been 
attempted ; the greater part of the literature of the 
subject leaves practically untouched those varieties 
of the ware produced in the XV. century, which is 
the more remarkable as few branches of ceramic art 
afford in themselves means of establishing their 
chronology so distinctly. 

The circumstance to which this neglect may be 
ascribed is that the development of Spanish ceramics 
before the XV. century is very imperfectly known ; 



H.W. 



2 HISPANO-MORESQUE WARE 

the pottery with which we have to deal stands 
isolated from the XIV. century wares, of which the 
"Alhambra" vase is the most famous example. 

In spite of the researches of specialists, the origin 
of the painting of earthen vessels with lustre colours, 
as practised in Spain, remains one of the most diffi- 
cult and obscure of ceramic problems ; and, although 
testimony is not wanting as to its prevalence in the 
Near East, contemporarily with the Arab-Moresque 
conquest of Spain, it must be admitted that material 
upon which to base anything but theories as to its 
passage into the Peninsula is still undiscovered. 

There is little doubt that the earliest Spanish 
lustred pottery was an off-shoot of the art which 
flourished at Bagdad in the IX. century. The lustred 
tiles in the mihrab wall of the mosque of Sidi-Oqba 
at Kairuan (Tunis) were in part procured from that 
city in a.d. 894, and in part made at Kairuan by a 
Bagdad potter.^ Records of the manufacture of 
lustred pottery in North Africa during the centuries 
which are surmised to have seen its introduction 
as an art into Spain are not wanting. Nissiri- 
Khosrau, writing in the XI. century, states that there 

^ H. Saladin, ** Monuments historiques de la Tunisie, I. La mosque de 
Sidi-Oqba & Kairouan/' pp. 96--99, plates XXL, XXIL 1899. 



OF THE XV. CENTURY. 3 

were then produced at Misr (Cairo) translucent vases 
of a hue which changed according to the position 
given them.^ 

That the art had become general among Moslem 
nations before the XII. century seems probable from 
the discovery of fragments of gold lustred earthenware, 
which cannot date from later than the XII. century, 
in the mounds of Fostat (Old Cairo),* and in the ruins 
of Rhages or Rhei* in Persia. Contemporary with this 
is the first evidence as to its use in Spain. Edrisi, in 
a work finished in 11 54, less than a century after the 
Almoravide irruption of 1086, mentions the manu- 
facture of golden pottery carried on at Calatajrud, and 
states that it was exported to distant parts.* The next 
testimony we have relates, likewise, to an Aragonese 
fabrique. The conquests of James I. of Aragon ex- 
tended his dominion in 1238 to the city of Valencia; 
the Moors of Xativa, which fell into his hands in 
1248, being granted, in 1251, a charter permitting 

^ ** Sefer Nameh, Relation da voyage de Nissiri-Khosrau, publi69 tradtiit 
et aimot6 par C. Schefer/' p. 151. 1881. 

' D. Fouquety << Contribution & r6tude de la c6ramiqae orientate," 
chap. III. 1900. 

• Sir R. Murdoch Smith, « Persian Art," 3rd ed., pp. 21 — 22. 

« Edrisi, *' Description de I'Afrique et de TEspagne;" ed. Dozy et De 
Goeje, p. 230. 1866. << Calatayud est une ville considerable. ... On 
y fabrique de la poterie dor6e qu'on ezporte au loin." 

B 2 



4 HISPANO-MORESQUE WARE 

to every master-potter the free practice of his craft, 
upon a payment, for each kiln, of a besant annually.^ 

In the same century, the golden pottery of Malaga^ 
in the Southern Andalusia is specially mentioned by 
Ibn Sa'id and Ibn Batuta ; and in the XIV, century 
by Ibn el Hatib. The ruin of the Almohade empire, 
in 1235, left this city within the kingdom of Granada, 
the last refuge of the Spanish Moors, which they 
were destined to render famous in the arts of war 
and peace. In 1273 the palace of the Alhambra at 
Granada was commenced ; with it are associated two 
remarkable products of Moorish ceramic art: its tile 
decoration, and the vases, of which only one remains, 
said to have been discovered in a subterranean 
chamber; these are almost universally attributed to 
Malaga as the chief seat of the manufacture of lustred 
ware in the kingdom of Granada. 

Without exactly resembling the Alhambra vase in 



1 F. Fernandez y Gonzalez, " Estado social y political de los Mudejares 
de Castilla," p. 437. 1866. '^ . . Statuentes, quod quilibet magistrorum, 
qui £aciat cantaros, ollas, tegulas et raiolas, donent nobis, pro unoquoque 
fumo in anno, unum bezantium : et quod habeatis plateas franchas et liberas, 
sine aliqua servitute." 

^ The evidence concerning Malaga is ably presented by F. Sarre, ** Die 
spanish-maurischen Lusterfayencen des Mittelalters und ihre Herstellung 
in Malaga. Unter Mitwirkung von £. Mittwoch fQr die arabischen Quellen." 
(Jahrbuch der Kgl. Preussischen Kunstsammlungen, XXIV., 103.) 1903. 



OF THE XV. CENTURY. 5 

the nature or disposition of ornamentation, there group 
themselves with it, in shape, style and technique, a 
series of vases existing at Palermo, Stockholm, and 
St. Petersburg, which are manifestly Moorish work 
of the period. The attribution of these pieces to 
Malaga receives a certain corroboration in that an 
ornament of arabesques and strap-work, best seen on 
the St. Petersburg vase, are the chief decorative 
motives of a lustred dish bearing on its back, it is 
claimed, in cursive Arabic characters, the place of its 
fabrication, Malaga.^ 

Details of the further history of Malagan pottery 
are largely matter for speculation. Malaga fell, in 
1487, into the hands of the Catholic kings, after which 
the character of its productions probably changed ; 
its ware is finally mentioned by Lucio Marineo in 

1530. 

Reverting to a consideration of the Aragonese 
fabriques, the next evidence we possess, in point of 
date, renders it necessary to touch upon the connec- 
tion of Majorca with XV. century pottery. This 
island was conquered by James I. of Aragon in 1228, 
shortly before his Valencian campaign ; earthenware 
of Majorica or Majolica is mentioned as a Sienese 

^ Sarre, work cited. 



6 HISPANO-MORESQUE WARE 

and Pisan import by Giovanni di Bernardi da Uzzano 
of Pisa/ in 1442. Although Majorca gave its name 
to much pottery (Majolica) which reached Italy and 
France* in the XV. and XVL centuries, no specimen 
can be assigned to it with certainty. The details 
of the supposed fabrique of Inca, and of the pieces 
supposed to bear its arms/ have no foundation in 
fact* The view that Valencian wares which reached 



^ His commercial treatise is published in Pagnini's ** Delia decima," 
vol. IV. That the ware was imported into Italy in considerable quantities 
is evident from the following entries : " Gabella di Siena, • . . vagel- 
lame, conche, taglieri o scodelle, o simile di Majorica la soma . . • lir. 
— 10 — " (p. 85) ; and at Pisa, " Scodelle di Majolica fine si vendono in Pisa 
fiorini 3 in 3 e mez. grossa che sono dozine 12, cio^ scodelle, e a scodelle si 
ragiona; poi s'intende 2 scodellini per una scodella, una piattello per 2 
scodelle, secondo che sono grand! e piccoli i pezzi ; questo anno per regola 
li Maestri di Pisa, tiene la giarra 30 dozzine " (p. 180). From a fresh due of 
'' lire 4 di denari," coin of Siena, levied in 1476 upon all extraneous ceramic 
produce entering Sienese territory, ^'lavori di maiorica" were excepted 
** stando etiam firma la cabella de'pignatti forestieri." See S. Borghese and 
L. Banchi's '' Nuovi documenti per la storia dell'arte Senese," pp. 248 — 249. 

^ A. Lecoy de la Marche, '* Extrait des comptes et m6moriaux du roi 
Ren6," p. 295: "11 d6cembre, 1447. A Jacobo de Passi [of Marseilles] 
. . . pour les choses qui s'ensuivent, c'est assavoir pour ung bacin, une 
haiguiere et trois chandelliers de cuivre a ouvrage de Damas xxvin. florins, 
pour trois platz de terre de Mailloreque, i florin six gros,** etc. 

' J. C. Davillier, ** Histoire des Faiences hispano-moresques," p. 28. 
x86i. 

^ A. Campaner y Fuertes, "Dudas y conjecturas acerca de la antigua 
fabricacion mallorquin de la loza con reflejos metalicos," 1875 ; and *' Mas 
sobre lozas con reflejos metalicos," 1876. See also Note upon the alleged 
fabrique of Lustred Pottery, in Majorca, at p. 39 of this work. 



OF THE XV. CENTURY. 7 

Italy acquired a reputed Mallorcan origin owing to 
their importation in Balearic vessels, is deserving of 
consideration, when it is remembered that not one 
native historian mentions an industry which, if it 
existed, was as famous as that of Valencia. 

Thus it is seen that, at the commencement of the 
XV. century, there were in Spain two main groups of 
fabriques, Grenadene and Aragonese, the produce of 
which, though the craft practised in them was iden- 
tical, could not but increasingly reflect the difference 
between a wholly Moorish and a Spanish environment. 
Though it must be admitted that the XIV. century 
lustred pottery of Aragon and Valencia is almost 
totally unknown, the earliest specimens of the XV. 
century shown no similarity in the nature, and little 
in the disposition, of their ornament with the vases 
of Malaga or Granada. Nowhere is this more 
apparent than in the absolute contrast revealed in 
the treatment of plant-form. While the decoration 
drawn from vegetable forms in the latter pottery is 
so highly conventionalised as to form mere arabesque, 
natural renderings of the local flora were certainly 
aimed at by the potters of Valencia in the following 
century. Such Moorish decorative features as appear 
in the two earliest varieties of this pottery suffice to 



8 HISPANO-MORESQUE WARE 

indicate the nationality which produced them as 
impaired by contact with populations of another race. 
Since 1253, when the last vestige of Moorish indepen- 
dence in Valencia was subdued, most of the towns and 
villages of that kingdom had been partitioned among 
the Catalan, Aragonese, and other barons and knights 
of the conqueror's armies. The repetition, then, as an 
ornamental motive, of a stereotyped formula of mock- 
Arabic lettering, which could have meant as little to 
him who purchased as to him who produced a piece 
so ornamented, is incompatible with the literary culture 
and civilisation of the kingdom of Granada in the 
early XV. century. It is surely indicative of the con- 
dition of the Moorish potters of Valencia, less than 
two centuries after they had passed into Aragonese 
dominion. 

The principal documentary evidence concerning 
Valencian pottery tends rather to demonstrate the 
degree of its importance and celebrity than to furnish 
detailed information concerning it. The data afforded, 
nevertheless, by the decree of the Venetian senate of 
1455/ that no earthenware of any kind should be intro- 
duced into the dominions of the republic except the 
"correzzoli" and Majolica of Valencia, which were 

* Sir W. Drake, " Notes upon Venetian Ceramics," p. ix. 1868. 



PLATE I. 




Dish with Ornament of Large and Small Mock-Arabic Inscriptions. 



[To face page 8. 



OF THE XV. CENTURY. 9 

to be entry free, is important, because it shows that 
the decorative, and not the utilitarian, side of the ware 
appealed to the Venetians, the decree being specially 
framed to protect their own makers of pottery for 
domestic purposes. The same fact underlies certain 
items in King Rent's inventory (147 1 — 1472). This art- 
loving prince kept specimens of terre de Valence upon 
dressers in his chapel, and elsewhere in his castle of 
Angers, only one of which, a 'Mavouer a mains" (hand 
basin), was a piece destined for use. 

According to the perspicuous Pole, Nicolas von 
Popplau, the Moors, at the time of his visit to Spain 
in 1484, occupied four towns near Valencia: Mislata, 
Manises, Gesarte, and Paterna. There, he says, they 
made the beautiful pots and dishes in blue and gold 
colours, with which they supplied Christendom.^ 

In addition to the pottery of Paterna and Career, 
Francisco Eximenes, in 1499, specifies that of Manises, 
which he declares to be gilded and painted in a masterly 

^ '' Por todo Aragon viven sarracenos, que nosotros los alemanes 
llamamos ratas. Los conquistadores cristianos de aquellos paises les 
concedieron libertad para establecerse, vivir y mantenerse en separadas 
casas, aldeas y ciudades. ... A una milia de Valencia poseen cuatro 
ciudades que se Uaman Misslatha, Manisis, Gesart y Paterna, donde viven 
y elaboran hermosas oUas y platos, con colores azules y dorados que sirven 
de comercio a todo la cristiandad." *' Viajes de extranjeros por Espaha y 
Portugal, coUeccion de J. Liske," pp. 54 — 55. 1878. 



10 HISPANO-MORESQUE WARE 

fashion and sought after by the whole world, the Pope, 
cardinals and princes/ 
STYLES. Ornamentally, the ware with which we deal divides 

itself into less than a dozen varieties,* distinguished by 
more or less distinct motives, which may be briefly 
summarised as follows : — 

1. Large mock-Arabic character 

2. Small mock-Arabic character. 

3. Spur-band and cross-hatching. 

4. Flower and leaf on dotted ground. 

5. Large vine-leaf and small flower. 

6. Foliage derived from the subsidiary ornament 
of No. 5. 

7. Bryony leaf and small flower. 

8. Smaller rounded vine-leaf (two sizes). 

9. Diapering of dots and stalks derived from 
preceding. 

10. Gadroons. 

^ ". . . acis fan algunes coses artificials les quals donen gran fama a 
la terra car son coses fort polides e belles e qui nos troben communamet en 
altre loch. Axi 00m dit es communamet la obra comuna de terra q s £a a 
patema e a car9re axi co jarres cantes olles terra90s scudelles cresols librells 
rajoles teules e semblats coses moUes. Mas sobre tot es la bellesa de la obra 
de manises daurada e maestrivolment pintada que ja tot lo mon ha enamorat 
entat que lo papa e los cardenals e los princeps del mon per special gracia la 
requeren e stan marauellats que d'terra se puxa fer obra axi exellent e noble." 
Quoted by A. Campaner y Fuertes, " Dudas y Conjecturas," etc., p. 7 (note). 

• See Note, p. 48. 




LA IK II. 



B^ Section of dish 
with vine- leaf and 
small flower. 




tAl Section of Early 
XV* Century dish 
combining^ ornament 
of larg:e and small 
mock Arabic inscrip- 
tions* 



OF THE XV. CENTURY. ii 

A comparison of certain specimens of the first three 
styles will reveal them to have been contemporary, a 
fact heraldically proved by the specimens hereafter 
illustrated. 

The large and small Arabic inscriptions (PI. V. 
and VI., VII.) are combined in alternate bands upon 
a dish (PI. I.) in Mr. G. Salting's loan collection 
at the Victoria and Albert Museum.^ 

The small inscription (PL VI., VII.) is employed, 
with the spur-band (PI. VIII.), upon a dish possessed 
by Seiior G. J. de Osma (Madrid). 
/ Style i. — Bands of mock- Arabic lettering in deep 
blue, other ornament in coppery gold ; cream ground- 
colour; reddish lustre. The collection at the British 
Museum contains an armorial specimen ; also the 
Victoria and Albert Museum, a piece loaned by Earl 
Spencer, K.G. ; both are illustrated here (Frontispiece 
and Pi. v.). The arms are in each case Aragonese. 

Style 2. — Of even greater rarity. The sub- 
sidiary ornament of spirals occurs in the foregoing 
variety.^ The two dishes illustrated (Sfevres Museum, 
PI. VI., VII.) have a design in very pale, somewhat 

* Formerly in the Spitzer collection (Vol. IV., p. 79, no. 3, pi. I.) ; 
diameter 17 inches ; back, a large triple rose in brown. 

' Compare this feature, in Frontispiece, with pi. VII., and Catalogue of 
Godman Collection, pi. 25, no. 396. 



12 HISPANO-MORESQUE WARE 

greenish gold : blue not used ; lustre reddish. The 
arms, which are Aragonese, date the style as belonging 
to the first half of the XV. century. 

Style 3. — This ornament was combined in at least 
one instance with the smaller mock-Arabic inscription 
and is conteniporary with it- Specimens are found in 
both pale and ruddy gold (PL VIII.). 

Style 4. — The most prominent feature in this 
variety is the dotted ground, upon which are arranged 
rudely drawn five- or six-petalled flowers, alternately 
with other flowers or berries ; all are encircled by 
an attenuated stalk from which springs a trefoil leaf, 
the central lobe of which is lengthy and pronounced 
(PL X.). The majority of these pieces have full-sized 
designs, in blue, of lions, deer, birds, and other 
animals. 

This ornament bears a striking resemblance to that 
upon a set of XV. century blue and white wall tiles 
from a monastery at Segorbia,* the exact counterparts, 
in all essentials, of others in the Victoria and Albert 
Museum (Fig. i); upon their dotted backgrounds are 
leaves with the prominent central lobe to be seen on 
dishes ornamented in this style. The same leaf, with 
the dotted background, was employed upon certain 

* R. Forrer's " Fliesenkeramik," pi. 38. 1901. 



OF THE XV. CENTURY. 



13 



dishes of the variety ornamented with the larger, blue, 
mock-Arabic inscription ;Mt is seen, without the dots, 
upon the Buyl dish (PI. XIV.). 

Segorbia being within the kingdom of Valencia, it 
appears certain that this motive was one employed in 
local potteries. 




Fig. I. Whits Enambllbd Tilbs from Valbmcia; Inscriptions, btc, in Blub. 
(Victoria and Albert Musenm.) 



Style 5. — Large vine-leaves, alternately blue and 
gold. This variety, among the most successful from 
an ornamental standpoint, offers little Spanish heraldic 

^ Catalogue of the Godman Collection, pi. 24, no. 443. 



14 HISPANO-MORESQUE WARE 

material (PL XL). Certain points may be noted, 
however, as connecting the piece reproduced with 
other varieties : the similarity in the treatment of the 
fleurs-de-lys with those on a dish with the smaller 
mock-Arabic inscription (PI VIL), and the adoption 
of the subsidiary foliage for the ornament of the style 
next considered. 

Style 6. — The small plant with a five- or six- 
petalled flower which accompanies the blue and gold 
vine-leaves in Style 5, forms, on a larger scale, the 
principal motive of this variety. The design is in 
brownish gold, or blue upon cream colour. Certain 
dishes have crowns painted on their brims, and 
the 'albarelli,' of which not a few are ornamented 
thus, are encircled with a crancelin or crown-shaped 
wreath. The arms upon some of these pieces 
present an interesting problem. Chronologically, this 
style appears to have flourished, like the vine-leaf 
pattern, during the third quarter of the XV. century 
(PI. XIL, XIII.). 

Styles 7 & 8. — Some entries in the inventory^ of 
the Castle of Angers (drawn up in 1471 — 1472), a 
residence of Ren6, duke of Anjou, are of assistance in 

1 A. Lecoy de la Marche, " Extraits des comptes et m6moriaax da Roi 
Ren6," pp. 240— Xfi, 271—272. 1873. 




IM.A IK III 

(B) Section of dish 
with smaller vine-leaf 
Ofnamcnt^ 




(A) Section of dish 
with bryony orna - 
ment. 



OF THE XV. CENTURY. 15 

identifying the fabrique which produced the smaller 
vine-leaf and the bryony patterns. They are : — 

** En la chambre du petit retrait du roy. 

« « 4i> « « 

Item, ung grant plat de terre de Valence oii a au fons nng eigle. 
Item, ung bacin de pareille terre, oil a au fons img lyon. 

« « « « « 

Item, ung lavouer a mains, de terre de Valence. 

« « « « 4(- 

S'ensuit ce qui est demour6 sur les petiz dressouersdelachappelle du roy. 

Ung grant plat de terre blanche de Valence, si fiieillages dorez. 

Item, ung autre plat parfont de ladite terre de Vallance blanche, ouvr6 i 

fiieillages pers. 
Item, ung pot de ladite terre de Valence, qui a le cul long en faczon de 

gougourdes, ouvr^ a fleurs perses." 

From the above it would appear that the most 
salient features in the decoration, of certain Valencian 
wares produced by the third quarter of the XV. century, 
besides their white tin-enamelled ground, in comparison 
with the common pottery of the day, fitly termed ^erre 
blanche, were the foliage patterns, . here described as 
feuillages dorez, feuillages pers, and fleurs perses. 

Any doubt as to the identity of these is dispelled 
by a glance at the remaining styles of ornament 
(PI. XIV.— XXXIL). No more fitting description 
could be found for the design reproduced in PI. III. (b.), 
than feuillages dorez, golden foliage. Similarly, the 
only variety of Hispano-Moresque pottery exclusively 
decorated with foliage and flowers in blue, feuillages 



i6 HISPANO-MORESQUE WARE 

pers and fleurs perses, is that ornamented with the 
bryony pattern, represented by PI. III. (a.). 

The same characteristics likewise suggested them- 
selves for the descriptions of specimens of these varieties 
in the " Inventaire de la vaisselle de cristalins 6tant 
en la librairie de Madame TArchiduchesse Marguerite," ^ 
aunt of the Emperor Charles V., about 1520 : — 

<<Deux grants potz de terre blancz et dorez, d'ouvraige de Valence 

avec les couvertes de mesmes; 
Deux autres moindres potz de terre» d'ouvraige de Valence, blancqz 

et bleuz sans couverte; 
line escuelle de terre couerte de mesmes, d'ouvraige de Valence ; . • •" 

Corroboration of these attributions to Valencia is 
found in Nicolas von Popplau's statement relative to 
the pottery in blue and gold colours made at Mislata, 
Manises, Gesarte, and Patema (quoted above). A dish 
(PL XIV., in Mr. Salting's collection), with the blue 
bryony ornament and greenish-lustre flowers of the 
variety used upon the Segorbia tiles, bears, moreover, 
the arms of Buyl, a family which gave lords to Manises 
during the whole of the XV. century. The evidence 
afforded by armorial specimens of these two styles 
accords with the testimony cited as to the export of 
Valencian ware to Italy in the XV. and XVI. centuries; 

^ J. Finot, " Inventaire sommaire des archives d6partmentales ; Chambre 
des Comptes de Lille," VIII., p. 235. 1895. 



PLATE IV. 




Dish with Ornament showing Transition from Smaller Vine-Leaf to Dot- 
and-Stalk Varieties. 

(The property of F. D. Godman, Esq.) 



[To face page i6. 



OF THE XV. CENTURY. 17 

many pieces known to the writer bear Florentine, and 
two Sienese, coats-of-arms. 

Style 9. — ^With the help of an intermediate variety 
(PI IV.) the evolution of this design (Pis. XXVIII.— 
XXXI.) from the rounded vine-leaf is apparent. The 
gold ranges from a pale to a thick ruddy colour ; though 
blue is nowhere employed in the design, it is used in 
some pieces to tint the ribbing and pellets in relief. 

Style id. — ^The gadroons (PI. XXXIII. b) are some* 
times round the brim, at others round the centre of a 
dish. This pattern, which forms a " repeat,'* in threes, 
is occasionally painted upon pieces with flat brims; 
at other times it is found upon certain dishes with large 
incised outlines of animals. Mr. Salting's collection, 
at South Kensington, contains a dish with the outline 
of a lion rampant; Mr. Godman's, a dish with an ox 
(Catalogue, PI. XXVIL, 271). 

Combining the chronological data afforded by coats- 
of-arms with such indications as to the sequence of 
ornament as are presented by the specimens quoted, 
and those more fully described hereafter, it follows 
that the mock-Arabic inscriptions (Pis. V.— VII.) are 
undoubtedly the earliest XV. century styles. They 
were produced during the reign of Alfonso V. of 
Aragon (1416— 1458) ; the blue inscription, which is 

H.W. C 



i8 HISPANO-MORESQUE WARE 

the earlier, may even, according to the evidence offered 
by Plate V., have been in use under his predecessors, 
perhaps before 1400. To Alfonso V/s reign must also 
be assigned the spur-band (PI. VI I L), and the variety 
with flowers and leaves on a dotted ground (PL X.). 

To the latter part of the same, and to the earlier 
half of John II/s reign (1458 — 1479) the large foliage, 
with, occasionally, crowns, etc. (PI. XIL). To John II.'s 
reign must be ascribed also the large blue and golden 
vine-leaves (PL XL), the bryony (Pis. XIV., XVI.), 
varieties ornamented with circles of round vine-leaves 
(PL XXIIL), and the diapering derived from the latter 
(PL XXIX.). So far as can be judged from specimens 
described, the latter pattern was also used in the reign 
of Ferdinand II. (1479 — 1516) ; like it, the gadroons 
(PL XXXII. B.) are to be assigned to the last quarter 
of the XV. century. 

While a certain number of the later patterns were 
in use after 1500, it cannot be doubted that the 
products of the following century were, in technique 
and ornament, for the most part, of a comparatively 
decadent nature. Italian ornament influenced the 
native styles not a little, whilst the metallic colours 
became coarser and more ruddy, and the enamel, 
yellower. To this epoch belong a number of pieces. 



OF THE XV. CENTURY. 19 

around the brims of which are disposed large acanthus- 
like leaves, and the use of blue or manganese is rare. 

The documentary evidence concerning this period 
is considerable, and relates both to the Valencian and 
Aragonese potteries. That the industry was still 
carried on in Aragon is known from an agreement 
between Muhammad ben Suleyman Attaalab and 
Abdallah Alfoguey, of Calatayud, in 1507. The former, 
a maker of gilded pottery, promises to teach the latter 
the industry in the space of four and a half years.^ 

The pottery of Valencia, also described as golden, 
is mentioned by Lucio Marineo, in 1539, as the most 
prized among the excellent Spanish wares then pro- 
duced.* A quarter of a century later (1564), the different 
wares made at Manises were remarked by Martin de 

1 Fernandez y Gonzalez, "Estado social," etc., p. 437 :**... ajustdse 
Muhammad ben Suleyman Attaalab morador del arrabal de los muslimes de 
Calatayud e industrial de porcelana[?] dorada con Abdallah Alfoguey del 
mismo arrabal para ensenarle la mencionada industria, y esto en el espacio 
de cuatro aiios y medio desde la feche de esta escritura . • •" 

' Lucio Marineo Siculo, *'Obra ... de las cosas memorables de 
Espana/' fol. v. verso : ** De las vasijas y cosas de barro que en Espana se 
hazen. Hazen tambie en Espana vasijas y obras de barro de muchas maneras 
y cosas de vidrio. Y aun que en muchos lugares de Espana sd excelletes : las 
. mas predadas son las de Valencia que estan muy labradas y doradas. Y table 
en Murcia se haze buenas desta misma arte : Y en Mouiedro y en Toledo se 
haze y labra mucho y muy rezio bianco y alguo verde y mucho amarillo q 
paresce dorado : y esto es para servido : porque lo mas preciado es lo que 
esta vedriado de bianco." 

c 2 



20 HISPANOMORESQUE WARE 

Viciana/ while the condition of the industry at the 
beginning of the XVIL century warranted Escolano* in 
1610, and in 1613, his contemporary, F. Diago's" repeti- 
tion of the statements of Eximenes. Besides the pottery 
of Manises, Escolano cites, also, fabriques at Mislata,^ 
Paterna,* and Alcantara,* in the district of Xativa. 

The main fact to be deduced from the evidence of 
the local historians cited, is that none of them connects 
the industry with the city of Valencia, and that the 
small Valencian towns, Mislata, Manises, Gesarte, and 
Paterna, but especially Manises, were the centres of 
fabrication of the wares known throughout Europe, 
and even in Spain, to Lucio Marineo for example, as 
Valencian. 

The term in the history of the Moors in Valencia 
is reached with their expulsion, nearly four centuries 
after the subjugation of their forefathers by James I. 

1 See p. 73, Note i. 

' ** Decada primera de la historia de Valencia," Book IV., cap. 3. 

< ** Anales del reyno de Valencia," I., 16 — 17. 

* See p. 99, Note 2. 

s «< Decada primera de la historia de Valenci4»" 11*1 325 : *< Algnnos 
quieren que Paterna sea pobladon de tiempo de Romanos, y § su primero 
nombre fuesse Patera, palabra Latina, que signtfica cosa redonda y ancha 
como lo son los platos y almosias; o Patinera, de la palabra Patina que 
tambien significa plato ; en razon de la obra de barro que siempre se ha 
labrado en Paterna con mucha curiosidad." 

• See p. 53, Note 2. 




Fig. 2.— Map of Part of the Kingdom of Valencia. Showing Pottery Fabriques 
Mentioned by Local Historians, etc. 

[To face page 20. 



OF THE XV. CENTURY. 21 

Following an order of Philip III. to the Marquis of 
Caracena, then Viceroy, the first days of October, 
1609, saw the commencement of their exodus, in the 
embarkation at Denia of the Moriscos of Gandia to 
the number of 6,000. From then until the following 
January, Damian Fonseca estimates the number 
deported for Africa at various points along the coast 
to have been 134,000. The Moriscos of Manises, 
Mislata, Paterna, and eight other villages, formed a 
contingent of 20,000 which took ship at the Grao of 
Valencia on October 3rd, 1609.^ 

The record that a certain Sienese potter, Galgano di vAumcuii 
Belforte, learned the lustre craft at Valencia, whence «aly. 
he returned in 1514,* has some importance in view of 
the existence of dishes in later Hispano-Moresque 
styles, bearing the arms of, and therefore made for, 
Sienese and Florentine families. That the pottery 
presumably made in Spanish style by this craftsman, 
upon his return to Siena, could be so well executed a% 
to pass for anything but an imitation, is improbable; 
however closely followed from a technical point of 
view, its artistic quality could hardly rival Spanish 

^ D. Fonseca, ** Rekcion de la Expulsion de los Moriscos del Reino de 
Valencia." i6i3. 

• Tizio, «• Historia/' VIL, p. 484, Anno. i5i4, L. Douglas, " History 
of Siena," p. 451. 1902. 



22 HISPANO-MORESQUE WARE 

originals. The espisode in which Galgano di Belforte 
is the actor, only brings into relief the motive which 
induced him to journey to Valencia, viz., to imitate 
the ware imported into Tuscany at the end of the XV. 
and commencement of the following century, a fact 
attested by the already cited exemption from dues of 
lavori di maiorica (the generic term for Spanish wares) 
at Siena, and the specimens bearing Sienese arms. 

Pieces known to the author, bearing Sienese arms, 
are: — 

With blue bryony leaves: 

Dish with the Tondi arms (PI. XXII.). 
With golden vine-leaf: 

Dish with the Mannucci arms.^ 
With diapering of dots and stalks: 

Two dishes with Spannocchi arms 
(PI. XXXI.). 

Pieces with Florentine arms: 
With blue bryony leaves: 

Dish with the Florentine lily (PI. XVI.). 
Dish with Arrighi arms (PI. XVII.). 
Dish with Guasconi arms (PI. XX.). 

1 " Catalogue d'une pr6cieuse collection de Faiences Italiennes, Hispano- 
Moresques," etc. Vente, Paris, 8 May, 1904. Mannucci (lot 4), Dal Verre 
(lot 7). 



OF THE XV. CENTURY. 23 

Dish with Zati arms (PL XIX.). 
Dishes with unknown Florentine arms 
(PL XVIIL). 
With vine leaves: 

Dish, etc., with Gondi arms (PL XXVIL). 
Dish with Morelli arms (PL XXV.). 
Dish with Dal Verre arms.^ 
Medici vase (PL XXVI.). 
With diapering of dots and stalks : 
Dish with Arnolfi arms (PL XXX). 
A comparison of the ornamental detail upon the 
majority of the above, with that of specimens in the 
same styles bearing Spanish arms, reveals the utmost 
similarity of treatment. Compare, for instance, the 
golden foliage of the Gondi dish (PL XXVIL), with the 
leaves upon a large dish, also in Mr. Salting's collection,* 
bearing the arms of Sicily and Aragon impaled ; or the 
Spannocchi dish (PL XXXI.) with those having the arms 
of Sicily, or of Ferdinand and Isabella (Pis. XXVIIL, 
XXIX.). 

In Spain, so far as it is possible to judge, lustre technique. 
colours seem ever to have been applied to earthenware 

^ See note \ p. 23. 

^ No. 1483, at the Victoria and Albert Museum, exhibited in the same 
case as the Gondi dish. 



24 HISPANO-MORESQUE WARE 

which had previously received a coat of tin-enamel. 
Systematic excavation at the ancient sites of Moorish 
ceramic industry can alone determine the relation, in 
this respect, of the technique of the XIV. and XV. 
centuries to that of the period following the Mussulman 
conquest. 

Strange to say, the only known data which can 
be supposed to shed light upon early Spanish pottery 
tedinique, relate to its manufacture outside the Penin- 
sula in France. From documents made public by 
MM. A. de Champeaux and P. Gauchery,^ it would 
appear that the pavement of some apartments in the 
'Tour de Maubergeon' at Poitiers, consisted of tiles 
manufactured to the order of John, Duke of Berry, 
Count of Poitiers, in 1384 — 1386. These tiles, made 
under the direction of a certain Jehan de Vahnce, 
who was paid VI. sols VIII. deniers per diem, were 
painted in white, green and gold, and bore the arms 
and mottoes of the duke. With Jehan there worked 
three assistants, a painter, and a staff of six others. 
The fact that the painter's name — Mattre Richard — 
would appear to be of French nationality, suggests 
that John of Valencia's services were primarily 

^ «< Les Travaux d'Art ex6cut6s pour Jean de France, due da Berry," 
pp. 13, 14, 114. 1894. 



OF THE XV. CENTURY. 25 

devoted to the manufacture of the tiles, with their 
peculiar enamel and the pigments with which they 
were to be decorated. Jehan de Valence's name occurs 
for the last time in the accounts for the year 1385, 
after which, we are told, his assistants worked alone.* 
Though we believe that tiles or fragments of tiles 
from the 'Tour de Maubergeon' have never come 
to light, there can be no doubt, from the materials 
mentioned in the accounts, that they were enamelled, 
and, probably, lustred. Among the tools and 
materials that were used in their manufacture, are 
mentioned: — 

Pilon destin6 i broyer la terre. 

Un petit moulin de grizon k deux pierres pour la moudre. 

XIIIL pots de terre pour fondre le blanc nicessaire i I'oeuvre des carreaux. 

IV. livres de plomb en role. 

XXIII. livres de fin 6tain. 

III. livres d'6mail pour faire les couleurs vert et or. 

Une douzaine d'oeufs pour tremper les couleurs. 

Une peau de parchement pour £Eure les patrons. 

Couteaux pour tailler les carreaux de la forme des monies. 

Until the XVI. century, none of the writers who 
mention the wares of Aragon, Valencia or Majorca, 
detail further particulars concerning them than that 

^ Their subsequent movements, when the ** carrelages " at Poitiers were 
completed, might, if known, furnish an interesting chapter in the dissemina- 
tion in France of, at least, the tin-enamel technique. 



26 HISPANO-MORESQUE WARE 

they were golden or gilded, and even then the only- 
account of the process we possess proceeds from an 
Aragonese and northern fabrique. In 1585, the 
Netherlander, Henry Cock, visited the village of Muel, 
a domain of the Marchioness of Camarasa, between 
Saragossa and Calatayud. The '^cristianos nuevos" 
or ' converted ' Moors of this place furnished him with 
particulars of the manufacture carried on by them ; 
these notes, set down in the diary of his travels, 
are probably typical of the process employed in a 
large number of fabriques, but the varieties of gold 
or copper exhibited by different styles, show that the 
composition of the lustre colours varied in different 
localities and at different times as much as the enamel, 
or the composition of the paste itself. Cock's receipt 
must probably, therefore, be taken as outlining a 
method, details of which varied locally. 

After describing how the Moors of Muel, when the 
travellers departed, broke the earthen and glass vessels 
used by them in partaking of pork and wine, he 
proceeds \ — 

" Nearly all the inhabitants of this place are potters, 
and the pottery sold at Saragossa is for the most part 

^ '* Relacion del viaje hecho por Felipe II. en 1585 por Henrique Cock," 
edited by A. Morel Fatio and A, Rodriguez Villa, 1876, pp. 30 — ^31 : «• Todos 



OF THE XV. CENTURY. 27 

made here, in this manner. They first make the vases 
as required, of a certain material which the earth yields 
them here; when made, they bake them in a kiln 
prepared for the purpose, and having afterwards removed 
them in order to give them white enamel (lustre) and 
to have them polished, they make a bath of certain 
materials, thus : they take one arroba (25 lbs.) of lead, 
with which they mix three or four pounds of tin and 
afterwards as many pounds of a certain sand which 
they have here, all of which they make into a gelatinous 
mass, and breaking it into small pieces they grind 
it like flour, and it is kept thus in a powder. This 
powder they afterwards mix with water, and, drawing 

I08 vednos coasi deste lugar son olleros y todo el barro que se vende en 
Zarag09a lo taks ha9en aquf y desta maniera. Primeramente ha^en los vasos 
de cierta materia que alii la tierra les da, de tal suerte como los quieren ; 
fechos, los co9en en un homo que para esto tienen aparejado ; vueltos despues 
a quitar para que les den lustre bianco ylos hagan llanos, ha9en un lavatorio 
de ciertas materiales desa manera : toman una arroba de plomo con la cual 
mezdan tres 6 cuatro libras de estano y lu6go otras tantas libras de 9ierta 
arena que alli tienen, de todo lo cual ha9en una masa como de yelo y lo 
ha9en en menudas pie^as y mu61enlo como harina, y hecho ansf polvo lo 
guardan. Este polvo despues mezclan con agua y tiran los platos por e]la 
y los co9en otra vez en el homo, y ent6nces con este calor conservan su 
lustre. Despues para que toda la vajilla hagan dorada, toman vinagre muy 
fuerte con el cual mezclan como dos reales de plata en polvo y bermellon y 
almagre y un poco de alambre, lo cual todo mezclado escriben con una ploma 
sobre los platos y escudillas todo lo que quieren y los meten tercera vez en 
el homo, y ent6nces quedan con el color de oro que no se les puede quitar 
hasta que caigan de peda9os. E^to me contaron los mismos olleros." 



28 HISPANO-MORESQUE WARE 

the plates through it, they fire them again in the oven, 
when they keep their enamel (lustre). Afterwards, to 
make the pottery gilt, they take very strong vinegar 
with which they mix about two reales of silver in 
powder, vermilion, and red ochre, and a little copper, 
which being mixed, they trace (write) all they wish 
with a feather upon the plates and dishes, and place 
them a third time in the kiln, after which they retain 
the golden-colour which can never leave them until they 
fall to pieces. This the same potters told me."^ 

This description, strangely enough, omits to 
mention the lustre proper; the author uses the word 
(parenthesised above) to designate the tin-enamelled 
ground ; nor are the actual means stated by which 
the lustre was produced, viz., the action of smoke 
upon the metallic colours at a high temperature.* 

' Two corrections to Riano's translation ('< Industrial Arts in Spain," 
pp. 149—150) h^ve been suggested by Sarre ; the literal renderings, ** a paste 
like ice " for '< una niasa como de yelo/' and ** a little wire " for *< un poco de 
alambre," should read '* a gelatinous mass," and " a little copper." Riaiio's 
version of the application of the enamel, moreover, is confusing : ^ They then 
remove them to varnish with white varnish and polish them, and afterwards make 
a wash of certain materials," etc. The words italicised are a gratuitous 
interpolation by the translator, and their effect is to make two operations out 
of one. 

* Manises receipt, 1785, <* Industrial Arts in Spain," p. 150; also 
C. Piccolpasso, ** I tre libri dell' arte del Vasajo," 3' ed. da G. Vanzolini, 
P* 37 » h Deck, ** Faience," p. 334. 



OF THE XV. CENTURY. 29 

The receipt obtained from Manises in 1785 by 
Count Florida Blanca, has also been published by 
Senor Riano.^ This more detailed account gives two 
methods for the preparation of enamel, in which the 
proportion of tin to 25 lbs. of lead is, for fine enamel, 
"6 to 12 ounces," and for coarser enamel, "a very 
small quantity." These amounts probably account for 
the increasingly yellowish ground-tint of later products 
as compared with the whiteness of the XV. century 
** terre blanche " of Valencia. 

Beside various shades of gold and blue, the only 
colour found in the palette of the lustre potter, is a 
shade of violet, or manganese, occasionally running to i 
dark purple, in the arms of specimens ornamented with 
the bryony, vine and diaper patterns. The inference 
to be drawn from its constant employment in these 
styles for the heraldic gules, is that a red colour was 
as difficult of production to the Moors as it was in 
the majolica process of the Italians when Piccolpasso 
wrote." 

A detailed account of the forms into which the potte«y 

SBAPBt. 

Moorish potter threw his material would require for 

^ ^ Sobre la maniera de fabricar la antigua Loza dorada de Manises," 
1878, and " Industrial Arts in Spain/' cited. 

' "Quest* arte non ha per ancora colore che venga rosso," etc. 
Piccolpasso, cited, p. 44. (1548.) 



30 HISPANO-MORESQUE WARE 

its ba$is a survey of every piece in existence. But 
the distribution of certain important shapes among 
the different ornamental groups is plainly marked, 
and the pieces described hereafter are representative, 
in this respect, of an important ceramic form — the 
dish. 

One of the earliest and most prevalent XV. century 
shapes is seen in the dish illustrated in the Frontispiece, 
to which European pottery has nothing analogous. 
Flat bottomed, tall shouldered, and so broad-brimmed 
as to render an upright position impossible, it would 
appear to have been imitated or adapted from vessels 
in another material, possibly the copper basins (ouvrage 
de Damas) which were imported into Southern Europe 
at this period. Many specimens decorated with blue 
mock-Arabic lettering are of this form, which, differently 
proportioned, was employed throughout the greater part 
of the century. 

The spur-band group offers an imposing example^ 
of quite unusual proportions (PI. VIII.). Shallower, 
and with narrower brim, it occurs among the pieces 
ornamented with blue and golden vine-leaves (PI. XL), 
the smaller golden vine-leaves, and the bryony 
(PI. XX.). Here, although the considerable breadth 
of brim, and depth of the dishes with inscriptions 



OF THE XV. CENTURY. 31 

are wanting, it is nevertheless sufficiently deep, in 
comparison with other kinds, to warrant the descrip- 
tion " parfont," given to a specimen of the last variety 
in Ren6 of Anjou's inventory. 

The ordinary dish shape, broad brimmed, then 
curving down to a more or less well defined circular 
centre, is found in almost every one of the ornamental 
styles; in pieces with the dot and stalk diaper it fre- 
quently has ribs and studs in relief (PL XXIX.). The 
dishes with the bryony and smaller vine-leaf ornaments, 
on the other hand, often affect a shape, the sides of 
which slope gently inwards, without other depression, 
from brim to centre. 

An uncommon shape, of the third quarter of the 
XV. century, is presented by a flat dish decorated 
with bryony leaves (PL XXL). Here a low brim, turned 
up at the edge and studded, is repeated round the 
centre-space. A specimen with golden vine-leaves, in 
the Godman collection, is of the same pattern. 

The pieces with gadroons frequently have their 
centres raised. 

The drug-vase or " albarello " shape, which passed 
into Southern Europe from Persia, is of frequent occur- 
rence in Hispano-Moresque pottery decorated with the 
blue inscription. Later, it is produced in a less massive 



32 HISPANO-MORESQUE WARE 

form, mostly ornamented with the foliage reproduced 
upon PL XII. 

The very distinctive shape seen in the Medici vase 
(PL XXVI.) stands quite alone among the products of 
the XV. century. It is strongly Moresque in character, 
and recalls the vases of the XIV. century "Alhambra" 
group. This piece is decorated with the smaller vine- 
leaf. A specimen in the Victoria and Albert Museum 
has ornamentation in the larger and more pointed 
variety of the same. 
H«RAU)«Y. Not a little of the charm of Hispano-Moresque 

ware lies in its armory. The wonderful precision 
shown in the execution of complicated schemes of 
ornament is accompanied by a sense of the heraldically 
decorative which is rarely at fault. The resulting ideal 
combination of ornament and arms is unequalled in 
other armorial pottery, or in any of the arts to which 
heraldry has been applied. 

A true appreciation of this pottery extends beyond 
its merely technical and decorative aspects to a 
knowledge of the arms themselves. The proportion 
of heraldic pieces is large, and, taken collectively, 
it would be difficult to indicate a series of armorial 
objects of more interest or intrinsic value to ceramic 
history. The score of typical pieces reproduced in this 



OF THE XV. CENTURY. 33 

work bear emblazoned upon them the entire history of 
XV. century Spain, to say nothing of neighbouring 
lands ; this aspect of the ware is often neglected, and, 
the arms being wrongly or insufficiently identified, the 
chronological relationship of the different ornamental 
motives remains unestablished. The writer has 
attempted to present this side of the subject in a fresh 
light by means of a genealogical table, reference to 
which will help, in some measure, to illustrate the 
chronology, or to explain the armory of pieces described. 

In the majority of Hispano-Moresque styles, espe- 
cially in those having ornament in monochrome, the 
method followed was either to paint the bearings of 
the shield in gold upon the cream ground-colour of 
the piece, or to outline them by painting the field in 
gold. The latter, a much less simple expedient than 
the former, appears to have been employed when the 
surrounding ornament required, for the sake of effect, 
that the device upon the shield should stand out in 
relief in the lighter colour (reserve en blanc). 

It is in cases of quartering or impalement, where the 
limitations of a two-colour scheme would have become 
apparent, that the resourcefulness of the designer 
surmounts every difficulty. The skilful counterchange 
exhibited in the quarterings of these achievements 

H.W. n 



34 HISPANO-MORESQUE WARE 

(Pis. v.— VIIL, XXVIIL, XXIX.) leaves no room for 
doubt that the arrangement of the fields and bearings 
of compound coats was carefully considered beforehand. 
The ability to counter-distinguish in the representation 
of metal and tincture, by the two methods of depicting 
a charge mentioned above, did not apparently commend 
itself to the designer in these cases — ^though it may have 
done so in certain of the simpler shields — ^the aim was 
to preserve balance in the design, by counterchanging 
the fields; and so well is this accomplished that the 
limitations of the colour-scheme are rarely suggested. 

A fact here worthy of note is that the four pallets 
of the arms of Aragon (gules upon or), also the arms 
of Valencia, are constantly represented in the ground- 
colour of the piece upon a golden field. 

The ease and success with which the designer 
employed the more difficult method of painting the 
field in gold — leaving the charge in ground-colour — 
precludes the idea that even in compound shields con- 
taining the Aragonese arms, the peculiarity mentioned 
was altogether necessitated by counterchange. Rather 
would it appear that reminiscence of his own national 
arms caused the Valencian potter to depict the pallets 
upon a golden ground.^ 

1 The arms of Valencia are, Or 4 pallets gules, borne upon a lozenge. 



OF THE XV. CENTURY. 35 

As we have remarked above, the main groups into 
which the armory of Hispano-Moresque ware divides 
itself, are Spanish and Italian. 

The rarer varieties, decorated with mock-Arabic 
characters (Nos. i, 2), and the spur-band (No. 3), bear 
Spanish arms almost exclusively ; they are found upon 
pieces with bryony leaf (No. 7), the smaller rounded 
vine-leaf (No. 8), and, more frequently, upon speci- 
mens decorated with the diapering derived therefrom 
(No. 9). 

The pieces furnishing Italian arms are decorated 
mainly in the three latter styles (Nos, 7—9). 

The large vine-leaf (No. 5), and the gadroon pat- 
terns furnish, equally, pieces with Spanish and Italian 
arms. 

As the arms upon dishes made for Italian families 
were taken from designs furnished, apparently, from 
Italy, and are generally unimpaled coats, they present 
few features requiring comment. 

The typical system of Aragonese cadency which 
flanked these arms in saltire by another coat is well 
represented in the arms of the Counts of Ribagorza and 
Prades of the house of Aragon (PI. V.) ; of John, Duke 
of Peftafiel, afterwards John II. (PI. VI.); of Sicily 
(PL XXVIIL); and of Folch de Cardona (PL XXXII). 

Da 



36 HISPANO^MORESQUE WARE 

Impalement is sometimes effected by true dimidia- 
tion (PL VII.) ; at others, only one of the allied coats 
is halved (Pis. VIII. and XXIX.). 

The difficulty of representing, in a two-colour 
scheme, any bearing superimposed or charged upon 
others is occasionally responsible for the omission of 
such cadency marks as a bend gobony (PL VI.), bordures 
plain and gobony (PL X.), a label or a bordure (PL XL). 

Enrichments in the shape of comer-fillings and 
billets were inserted upon the inside of the shields in 
many varieties of the ware. It is difficult to say 
whether these were intended, in some cases, for the 
alternate panes of a bordure gobony or not ; in Spanish 
heraldry such a bordure, when of the metal and tincture 
of the arms, was frequently rendered with those panes 
of the same colour as the field, unseparated from it. 

External heraldic insignia, such as crowns or 
supporters, are very rarely employed in the armory of 
this pottery. Even upon pieces made for the sovereigns 
of Aragon, the absence of crowns is conspicuous ; and 
in the rare examples of their employment, the arms are 
generally found to belong to a foreign prince. A 
remarkable feature, in these cases, is the cross-hatching 
or shading, which fills the space between crown and 
shield (PL XL). This is also a striking feature in the 



OF THE XV. CENTURY. 37 

heraldry of contemporary numismatics, and it is 
probable that the artist took the crown, and possibly 
the arms, from coins which were supplied as models. 

A large proportion of the Spanish arms upon 
XV. century wares consists of shields denoting the 
marriage-alliances of Aragonese monarchs. Such 
achievements, combining the insignia of king and 
queen by true or partial dimidiation, are properly the 
arms of the latten Until the reign of Ferdinand and 
Isabella, when the Castilian arms were, by special 
stipulation, given the first place in the shield quarterly 
of Castile-Leon and Aragon-Sicily, seals of the kings 
show (so far as concerns the main escutcheon) the 
national arms only, their consorts' seals bear the royal 
arms impaling their own, as was the practice in other 
national heraldic systems of the XV. century. Thus, the 
seal of King Martin's (1397 — 14 10) first wife, Mary de 
Luna, bears the arms of Aragon, dimidiated, impaling 
Luna; that of Ferdinand L's (1412 — 1416) consort, 
Leonora d'Albuquerque, bears Aragon (3 pallets) 
impaling Castile, Count of Albuquerque ; that of 
Alfonso V.'s (1416— 1458) wife, Mary of Castile, Aragon 
impaling Castile-Leon quarterly (see PI. IX.) ; John IL's 
first wife, who died before his accession to the throne 
of Aragon, bore, as Queen of Navarre, the royal arms 



38 HISPANO-MORESQUE WARE 

of the house of Evreux dimidiated, impaling Aragon 
(saltired by Castile and Leon) ; his second wife, 
Johanna Henriquez, bore impaled Aragon and 
Henriquez.^ From these authentic instances, it is 
plain that the older system of combining the two royal 
coats by dimidiation or halving, was employed during 
the XV. century for shields combining many quarters ; 
in these cases it commended itself to the ceramic artist 
as an easier method, from the standpoint of design, 
than the ordinary system of impalement. This artistic 
exigency resulted moreover in the combination on one 
shield of a dimidiated and an undimidiated coat, as in the 
achievements illustrated in PL VIIL and PL XXIX. 

Whilst the foreign armory upon XV. century 
Hispano-Moresque pottery merely attests its wide- 
spread popularity among neighbouring nations, the 
evidence offered by Spanish arms has quite another 
value. The indications as to origin afforded by 
Spanish territorial or national coats are of special 
importance in distinguishing the produce of Valencia, 
the inherent claim of whose fabriques to varieties with 
heraldic ornament dating before 1487, the year of the 

^ See the rare engraved collection of Aragonese royal seals by Gamut y 
Duran. A seal of Blanche, Qneen of Navarre, has been published by 
G. Demay ; see p. 56 (note). 



.lED PRINCES, Etc. 

hers refer to plates.) 



Peter, 

count of Ribagorza 

and Prades. 



JUfonso, 

(Y.) duke of Gandia, 
d. 1412. 



I 

James, 

bp. of Tortosa, 

abp. of Valencia, 

Cardinal. 



John, 
c. of Prades. 



James, 
of Ribagorza, 
d.v.p. 



Alfonso, 

c. of Denia 

and Ribagorza, 

d. 1424. 

(Y.) 



John I. 
of Portugal. 



Peter. 

d. 1385. 



Henry, 

count of 
Cangas 

and 

Tineo, 

d. 1434. 

(Y.) 



I I 

Peter. James, 

c. of Prades. d. 1408. 
I (Y.) 

Johanna,= John 



countess 

of 
Prades. 



(Ramon Folch), 

third count 

of Cardona, 

d. 1471. 



Lorenxo de' 

(the Ma^nifi< 

(XXYI.) j 






dward, Isabella =(1429) Philip 

ingof (XIII.) "the Good," 

tugal. duke of 

Burgundy. 

d, 1467. 
(X., XIII.) 



John, 

fourth count 

of Cardona, 

d. i486. 

I 

John, 

duke of 

Cardona, 

d. 1513- 



Ferdinand, 
duke of 
Cardona. 



Aidonza = Miguel 

(XXXIL) (Ximenez 

de Urrca), 

second 

count of 

Aranda. 



[To face page 38. 



7 



OF THE XV. CENTURY. 39 

conquest of Malaga from the Moors, is confirmed by 
the large number of such pieces bearing the arms of 
Aragon or of its dependencies, and the rarity of the 
arms of great Andalusian and Castilian families, 
including those of the Castilian royal house,^ except 
when accompanying the arms of Aragon. 



NOTES 

Upon the alleged pabrique of Lustred Pottery 

IN Majorca. 

Since Davillier wrote upon Hispano-Moresque ware 
in 1 86 1, no fresh data have been discovered, confirming 
the supposed existence of Majorcan fabriques of lustred 
or golden pottery. The proofs upon which that writer 
grounded the hypothesis* that such ware had been made 
in the Balearic Islands, may be summarised thus: 

(I.) Information stated to have been supplied by 
Don J. M. Bover de Rosselld, of Majorca, from 
documents and personal observation, concerning a 
fabrique at Inca or Ynca in the interior of the island ; 

^ a specimen bearing the arms of Castile and Lecm and the large mock- 
Arabic inscription is in the Wallace collection. 

> J. C. Davillier, "Histoire des Faiences bispano-moresques k reflets 
m6talliques," 1861, pp. 23 — ^29. 



40 HISPANO-MORESQUE WARE 

and the existence of pieces in the Mus6e de Cluny 
and at the British Museum, bearing the arms of that 
town. Davillier says, **La certitude de la fabrique 
majorquine m'a 6t6 confirmee par mon savant ami, 
M- J. M. Bover de Rosselld" 

(11.) The statements of J. C. Scaliger in relation to 
the pottery from the island Majorca, of which he says^ 
that they are called "majolica," *' changing one letter 
in the name of the island where we are assured that 
the most beautiful are made"; of Fabio Ferrari that 
the word majolica proceeded from the name Majorca; 
and the Dictionary of the Accademia della Crusca, in 
which the word is given the same derivation. 

(III.) Statements by Giovanni di Bernardi da 
Uzzano (1442) concerning Majorca; by Vargas con- 
cerning the pottery once manufactured at Iviza;* and 

^ J. C. Scaliger, ** Exotericarum exercitationum liber quintus decimus 
de subtilitate," f. 136 recto, exerc. XCII., 1557. Of Chinese porcelain he 
says : '' Horn precia cu & opes, & patietiam, postremd etiam fidem excederent, 
nouo ingenio tarn belli imitati sunt in insulis Maioricis : ut saep^ difficile 
indicatu sit, utra uera, uatrave adulterina. Profecto nee forma, nee specie, 
necnitore cedunt: aliquando etia superant elegantia. In Italia nunc audio 
tarn perfecta uenire ut cuius Cassitero, quod ibi vocatur Peltrum, ante- 
ferantur. Ea corrupta una lit^a, a Balearibus ubi dicuntur excellentissima 
fieri, Maiolica nominantur." 

« Vargas, " Descripcion de las Islas Baleares y Pityusas," 1787, " Fabrica 
de loza dejada. £s sensible el abandono de sus celebres vasos de tierra, no 
solo para extraerlos pero aun para su uso casero." 



OF THE XV. CENTURY. 41 

^ the pottery industry mentioned in the royal ordinances 
of that island. 

We will endeavour to ascertain the value of each 
of these groups of testimony. 

I. In 1875, Don A. de Campaner y Fuertes con- 
tributed to the " Museo Balear de Historia," an open 
letter to Baron Davillier entitled ** Dudas y Conjeturas 
acerca de la Antigua fabricacion mallorquina de la Loza 
con reflejos metalicos" (Doubts and conjectures as to 
the ancient mallorcan manufacture of lustred pottery). 
In this, the author, an antiquary and numismatist, 
examines the question in its traditional aspect, as well 
as in the light of the additional details set forth in 
Davillier's work. He states that during a three-years 
residence in the island of Majorca, he made fruitless 
efforts both at Palma and Inca, to discover the docu- 
ments mentioned by Davillier as the foundation of 
Bover de Rosselld's assurances that Inca had been the 
principal seat of the manufacture. The principal heads 
of his arguments against the manufacture of lustred 
pottery in Majorca are: — 

(i.) No Mallorean historians mention it. 
(ii.) The known ware of Inca, a common varnished 
pottery ('vidriado') of inferior quality, is 



42 HISPANO-MORESQUE WARE 

altogether different from the Hispano- 
Moresque lustred wares, 

(iii,) His inability to trace any dish with the arms 
of Inca in the Cluny Museum collection/ 

(iv.) Lucio Marineo, the chronicler of Ferdinand 
and Isabella, who deals with the various 
Spanish ceramic fabriques in detail, is 
silent with regard to Majorca. 

(v.) To the statements of foreigners (Italians) 
concerning the ware of Majorca, he opposes 
the continuous testimony of Spanish writers 
as to the potteries of Valencia. 

Bover de Rosselld's own estimate of the informa- 
tion upon which Davillier relied, is revealed in the 
following quotation from his " Bibliotecario de 
Escritores Baleares" (1868, article: Davillier): 

" I have an ' Histoire des Faiences,' printed in 
Paris, by this author, in which he pretends (*pretende') 

^ The arms of Inca are : Argent two pallets gules, on a fesse ... a dog 
courant . . • (oee this coat in the illustration of J. Daurer's painting of the 
Madonna, in Boletin de la Soc. Arq. Luliana, I., No. 7). The nearest device 
of this nature on a dish at the Cluny Museum cannot by any stretch of 
imagmation be supposed to be the arms of Inca. The arms, if so they can 
be termed — ^there is no shield shape — ^fill the small circular centre of the dish ; 
the pallets are curved and the fesse is uncharged. The dish at the British 
Museum bears : Gold, three bends in cream, counter-changed per fesse, over 
all a fesse in lustre fimbriated in the cream ground-colour. 



OF THE XV. CENTURY. 43 

that ancient gilded pottery is of Mallorcan manufacture 
because he has seen a dish of this class having in its 
centre the arms of Inca. He also pretends (* pretende 
tambien') that this same pottery, known in Italy by 
the name of majolica, owes this denomination to its 
Mallorcan origin." 

Campaner y Fuertes' next contribution to the 
subject appeared in the^Museo Balear" for 1876; it 
contains, beside the above quotation, a letter from 
Davillier to the author, in which, inter alia, he states his 
conviction that, in the Balearic Isles, there were never 
fabriques of lustred pottery, and that the error into 
which he had fallen was caused by Bover de Rosselld. 

(II.) Campaner's contention that the Valencian 
earthenware was carried to Italy in Mallorcan vessels 
which left the island partially laden, and called at 
Valencian and Catalan ports for peninsular produce, 
has much to recommend it, in the light of modern 
research, as an explanation of the general employment 
of the term majolica. 

We have seen that the foreign lustred ware, known 
as lavori di majorica, was the subject of an ordinance 
at Siena in 1476; and, in this connection, the query 
suggests itself, why, if the island of Majorca was 
known to be the place of origin of the same, did the 



44 HISPANO-MORESQUE WARE 

Sienese, Galgano di Belforte, repair to Valencia to 
learn the lustre craft, and not to the Balearic Islands ? 

The large proportion of specimens in Valencian 
styles, especially in the golden (PL III. a) and the blue 
foliage (PL III. b) patterns, made for Italian families, 
is alone sufficient to bring into question the correct- 
ness of any construction put upon the Italian word 
majorica or majolica, than as the generic designation 
employed in Italy for the lustred ceramic produce of 
Valencia, 

In 1 89 1, there were communicated to the Bulletin 
of the **Sociedad Arqueologica Luliana," of Palma, 
the petition for a ten-years privilege, with its notarial 
endorsements, of a Toledan potter desirous of prac- 
tising his craft in Majorca, This document, which 
was addressed to the Council, and is in the archives 
(archivo del Reino, actas del gr. y gL Consell) of the 
island, sheds much light upon the ceramic history of 
Majorca as it existed before 1560, contemporary with 
the period when, as J. C. Scaliger testifies, the ware 
purporting to be Mallorcan was imported into Italy. 

<< Molt magnifich y savi Consell. << Most magnificent and learned 

Council. 

'< Der part de mestre Diego del ^' On the part of Master Diego del 
Arcon natural del regne de Toledo Arcon, native of the kingdom of 
se proposa a ses magnificencies y Toledo, it is proposed to your mag- 



OF THE XV. CENTURY. 



45 



savieses com ell es mestre de fer 
obra de terra de diverses maneres, 
90 es plats y scudelles y rejoles axi 
de Manis y sivillanes com pots y 
albameis de apothecaris, y altres 
obres de son art que nos fan en 
Mallorques, ans de fora de regne 
sen ban de provehir, com sien prou 
necesaries. Y com senyors ell tinga 
entes (jue qualsevnUa stranger qui 
vulla poblarse en lo present regne 
se li donen deu anys de firanquesa, 
per hon essent ell natural de Toledo, 
y ara residesca en Menorcha, y tinga 
entes en lo present regne haver neces- 
sitat de algun mestre de ditas obras 
com no ni hage ningun, y axi be 
poria tenir a carta alguns en dit 
art y treura aquells mestres de hon 
redundaria gran profit a nel present 
regne, per 90 demana y suplica a 
vostres magnificencias y savieses li 
vullan atorgar dita franquesa, y ell 
ofirer transportas ad tot son domicili 
y muller y inCans y fiamilia, y tenir 
dit regne bastat de dites cosas y para 
dasso promet donar ses fermanses 
com se acustuma. Y a be que, etc, 
no res meyns, etc. 

« R. Puigdorfila." » 



nificences and wisdoms, that, he being 
a master of making pottery in different 
manners, that is, dishes, bowls, and 
tiles, of Manises and Seville, also pots 
and vases for apothecaries, and other 
works of his art, which are not made 
in Majorca, and have to be procured 
from outside the kingdom, as they 
are very necessary : 

"And as he understands that a 
privilege of ten years is granted to 
every stranger desiring to establish 
himself in this kingdom, therefore, 
being a native of Toledo, now resi- 
dent in Minorca, and knowing that 
in this kingdom a master of the said 
work is required, as there is none, 
and as he could well take apprentices 
in the said art, to become masters, 
whence great profit would accrue to 
this kingdom : 

** He, therefore, begs your mag- 
nificences and wisdoms to grant him 
the said privilege, and he offers to 
become domiciled, and to bring here 
his wife and family, and to keep the 
said kingdom weU provided in the 
scud objects, and promises, therefore, 
to give the usual sureties. To that 
effect, etc, nothing less, etc." 

" R. PuigdarfOa:' 



' The editor of this document, E. K. Aguil6, publishes likewise the 
petition (1598) of Julio Grisso, a Genoese ('< mestre de fer obra de terra 
blanca "}, a worker in white earthenware (tin enamelled), of which he declares 
('' que may hi n stai ") that it did not exist in Majorca before* The author is 
indebted to Don F. de Bofarull, Archivist to the Crown of Aragon, for a 
translation of the above. 



46 HISPANO-MORESQUE WARE 

The inference to be drawn from this document 
is surely that in 1560, till May of that year, when 
Diego del Arcon had been granted a ten-years privi- 
lege and was domiciled in Majorca, pottery with the 
characteristics of the ware of Manises or of Seville, or 
drug pots, were not made there. By a legitimate exten- 
sion of this conclusion, in view of the improbability 
that an important industry, of little less than national 
magnitude, could have become extinct so soon after 
1557, when Scaliger wrote, one may be, allowed to 
doubt that it had ever been an extensive manufacture 
of the island. 

The nature of Giovanni di Bemardi da Uzzano's 
evidence also requires examination. After referring to 
his commercial treatise published in Pagnini's " Delia 
Decima," Davillier says of this writer: "il parle des 
diff^rents objets qui se fabriquaient k Majorque et k 
Minorque, et mentionne notablement la faience gfuz 
ajoute-t-il^ avait ahrs un trhs grand debit en Italie!' 
A footnote contains his authority for this alleged 
statement (italicized above) of Uzzano, which, strangely 
enough, is not that author's work, but Capmany's 
"Memorias historicas [sobre la Marina, Comercio, y 
Artes de la antigua Ciudad de Barcelona]," III. 

Capmany (" Memorias," III., parte i^ p. 154) says 



OF THE XV. CENTURY. 47 

of Uzzano : " habla . . • tambien de la loza que tenia 
mucha despacho entonces en Italia" {i.e., he speaks 
. . . likewise of pottery, of which there then existed a 
considerable sale in Italy). But repeated examinations 
of Uzzano's treatise (Pagnini, " Delia Decima," IV.) 
have failed to reveal any mention of pottery in 
chapters devoted to the island of Majorca; majolica 
is merely mentioned as an import at Siena and Pisa 
(see passages above quoted, p. 6, note i). 

One is therefore forced to conclude that the state- 
ment italicized above, apparently testimony from the 
pen of Uzzano, is, in reality, merely a comment by 
Capmany upon certain items of Uzzano's list of 
Sienese and Pisan imports; and that, majolica not 
being anywhere mentioned by that writer as a product 
of the island, the evidence apparently embodied in the 
passage italicized, which would have had a certain 
value from the fact that Uzzano wrote from actual 
experience, is without foundation. 

(Ill,) The fact that the pottery of Iviza mentioned 
by Vargas, or the industry mentioned in the royal 
ordinances of that island, is not known to have been 
gilded or lustred, places it upon the same level as an 
ordinary earthenware of commercial value produced in 
the Balearic Isles; and any supposition that it was 



48 HISPANO-MORESQUE WARE 

in fact lustred or gilded, and was imported into Italy, 
forming a contingent of the so-called majolica, remains 
for the present unwarranted.* 

Upon a further Hispano-Moresque Variety. 

The classification given at p. lo, omits only one 
ornamental variety of any importance. This style, 
recalls, and is obviously derived from, an arabesque, of 
which typical Hispano-Moresque examples are afforded 
by capitals in the Halls of the '* Ambassadors " and 
of the "Two Sisters," in the Alhambra, Granada; it 
is also found upon the XIV. century Malagan dish 
described by Sarre. Two fine albarelli, with arab- 
esques in lustrous brownish gold, are in Mr. H. 
Wallis's collection at the Victoria and Albert Museum. 
Armorial specimens, known to the writer, afford no 
clue, unfortunately, to their fabrique, and pieces with 

^ The only English work in which Campaner y Fuertes' papers have been 
noticed is Fortnum*s ''Majolica," 1903 (p. 102). This author, previous to 
stating that Davillier was " mistaken in referring to " the supposed Inca dish 
at the British Museum, says, '* M. J. M. Bover de RosUUi^ of Majorca, has 
found evidence that the principal seat of the mannfticture was at Ynca, in 
the interior of the island, and in confirmation of that discovery some plates 
have been observed by M. Davillier in collections on which the arms of that 
island are represented. One such, he states, is in the H6tel Cluny (No. 
2050)," etc., etc He adds that the theory as to the Balearic fabriques '' has 
been disputed " by Campaner. 



OF THE XV. CENTURY. 49 

the arms of Aragon are entirely wanting. The only 
specimen bearing royal arms is a dish, exhibited at the 
Lyons Exhibition, 1877 {see J, B. Giraud, '* Recueil," 
PL LXIX.), which has the arms of Castile-Leon. The 
two large pail-shaped vases at the Victoria and Albert 
Museum (with the arms of the Spanish Hapsburg 
kings) have an over-crowded and ill-executed decora- 
tion in which the same motive can be traced. The 
shields of arms upon these pieces, supported at their 
angles by four lions, show, through a want of accom- 
plishment in design, a very strong Moorish feeling, and 
a total misunderstanding of heraldry ; a combination 
of quality with defects, which would occur rather in 
Malagan work of the XVL and early XVIL century 
than in that of Valencia. 



H.W. 



50 HISPANO-MORESQUE WARE 

Plate V. 
British Museum. 

Diameter : iji^ inches. 

Ornament. — Bands of mock-Arabic inscription and 
pointed ovals in blue, arranged in two circles, round 
the shield and upon the brim ; other ornament in gold ; 
cream ground-colour, lustre reddish-golden. Back, an 
eagle displayed. 

Arms. — Four pallets (Aragon) saltired by two lilies (for 
Anjou-Naples). The pallets are in the cream ground- 
colour of the piece upon gold, the lilies gold upon cream. 

These arms (Aragon saltired by Anjou-Naples) were 
borne by the counts of Ribagorza and of Prades, 
descended from Peter, son of James II. of Aragon 
(1285 — 1327) and his wife Blanche, daughter of 
Charles II. of Anjou, king of Naples.^ The artist 
has omitted more than one lily and the label * of the 
flanking coat of Anjou, which may be seen in entirety 
in the Urrea-Cardona bowl (PI. XXXII.). The sons of 
Count Peter, Alfonso, count of Denia and Ribagorza, 

^ A genealogy of the house is given by J. W. Imhof, ** Corpus historiae 
genealogicae ItaHse et Hispaniae," pp. 6 — 7. 1702. 

* The label is frequently omitted from the Angevin lilies in Neapolitan 
heraldry, and even from seals of the princes of Anjou. Compare Fig. 4, and 
PL XI. 



PLATE V. 




Dish with Arms of the Counts of Ribagorza and Prades of the House of 
Aragon. Valencia (before 1434). 



[To face page 50. 



OF THE XV, CENTURY. 



51 



duke of Gandia,* also marquess of Villena in Castile 
(died in 141 2), and John, count of Prades, each founded 
houses which became extinct in the second generation * ; 
the last of the elder line, Henry, count of Cangas and 
Tineo, who died in 1434, a grandson of the duke of 
Gandia, was also the last male of the Aragonese house 
of the counts of Barcelona. A great part of Duke 





Asms OP Aragom. Count of Pradbs. 
Fig. 3. Fio, 4. 

(From Maurice's " Oidre da (From Inveges' *' Cartagine 

la Toison d'Or." 1667.) Siciliana," x66x.) 

Alfonso's vast appanages, including the duchy of 
Gandia, and county of Denia, lay immediately to the 
south of Valencia, beyond the River Jucar, in which 
district of the kingdom of Valencia this and the 
following piece may have been produced. 

^ A seal of the dvkt of Gandia has been published in the ** Boletin de la 
Sodedad Espanola de Excursiones," III, 53. 1895. 

' The branch of Prades is more obscure ; it held the barony of Caccamo 
in Sicily. See A. Inveges, " La Cartagine Siciliana," 1661. 

B 2 



52 



HISPANO-MORESQUE WARE 



Frontispiece. 

The Property of Earl Spencer, K.G. 

(Victoria and Albert Museum.) 

Diameter: xgi inches. 





Akm8 of Cardinal A. Dsspuio. 
Fig. 5. (From Chacon, 163a) Fio. 6. (From Panvinio, 1557.) 

Ornament. — Inscriptions in dark blue ; small 
spirals, etc., in coppery gold; reddish golden lustre. 
Back, concentric circles and bands, in gold. 

Arms. — ^A mount of one coupeau surmounted by a 
demy fleur-de-lys, in gold upon cream colour. 

In Catalonia and Majorca, this charge, the numte 



OF THE XV. CENTURY. 53 

florlisado, is the " canting *' coat of the name Puig, or 
of different surnames derived from /^i^= (Catalan) hill 
or mount, (Latin) podium. 

The following are Catalan examples : Despuig (or 
upon gules), Montclus (ai^. upon sable), Claramunt (or 
upon azure), Monsoriu (or upon gules). In Majorca : 
Bellpuig ^u. upon or), Montaner (az. upon or), Puig 
(or upon az.), Puigdorfila (or upon gu.), Pujol (arg. 
upon az.). 

A Valencian variety of the bearing (or upon gu.), 
in Conrad Griinenberg's Wappenbuch, is attributed to 
" a lord named hugades im land valentz'' (Fig. i)} A 
branch of the Catalan Despuigs passed into Valencia 
at the Conquest, where, according to Escolano, the 
family was still represented in his own day. They 
were lords of Alcantara and Benegida de EsUava, 
ancient Moorish pottery fabriques, on the river Jucar.* 

^ This Hugades was probably of the same race as the Pujades or Pujadas 

of the conquest of Valencia : 

" La Montea de or. ab la Flor de LUs, 
Sobre campo bermell, de Gnillem PuQ'ades 
£s divisa carta . . ." 

(J. Febrer's " Trobas," aig.) 

* Escolano (as above), VIII., cap. 22 : *' En el contomo de Cotes y Career 
esti el lugar de Alcantara con su aldea Bene^da de EsUaua ... a la 
ribera de Xucar, y en el contribucid de Xativa. Tienen entre los dos dSto 
y treynta casas de Moriscos y por senores cavalleros del apellido tfEspuig. 
El nobre de Alcantara sele dierd les Moros, por alguna puente que alii 



54 HISPANO-MORESQUE WARE 

To the Valencian Despuigs belonged " Auxias Despuig 
de Podio," archbishop of Monreale, Sicily (1458 — 1483), 
created cardinal by Pope Sixtus IV. in 1473 (Figs. 5, 6.*) 

hauia para passar el Rio ; o por los vasos de barro y cantaros que siempre se 
ban labrado en este lugar. Descendien los Despuigs de Cataluha donde 
huvo do6 casas prindpales desde la recuperacion deUa, la una en la Vergueria 
de Panades, y la otra en el condado de Ossona." 

* See O. Panvinio, "Epitome Pontificum Romanorum/' 1557, p. 334; 
and A. Chacon, " Vitae Pontificum," 1630, II., 1257. 



^HfV 







Fig. 7. Asms op " Hdgadbs " 
OF Valencia. 

(Ftom Grfinenberg.) 



PLATE VI. 




Dish with Arms of Blanche, Queen of Navarre, Duchess of Penafiel and 
montblanch. valencia (1419— 1441). 



To face fage 55. 



OF THE XV. CENTURY. 55 



Plate VL 

MUSEE C6RAMIQUE, SfeVRES. 
Diameter: z8| inclMe. 

Ornament in pale gold upon cream colour. Six 
ovals containing small inscriptions and spirals, radiate, 
with as many "agrafes," from the shield to the edge 
of the dish. 

Arms. — Four pallets (Aragon) saltired to the dexter 
by a triple-towered castle and to the sinister by a lion 
rampant (Castile-Leon), impaling a cross, saltire and 
double orle of chains (Navarre) and a sem6e of lilies 
(for Evreux). 

The skilful counterchange in the rendering of the 
fields of each quartering is worthy of note; those of 
Aragon and Evreux being in gold, those of Castile- 
Leon and Navarre in the ground colour. The arms 
of the house of Evreux, kings of Navarre (quarterly 
Navarre and Evreux), are dimidiated and a cadency 
mark, the baton gobony with which the house of 
Evreux debruised the royal lilies of France, has been 
omitted. 

This shield records the marriage, in 1419, of John, 



56 HISPANO-MORESQUE WARE 

duke of Penafiel and Montblanch, second son of 
Ferdinand L, king of Aragon and Sicily, with Blanche, 
daughter of Charles III. of Evreux, king of Navarre. 
In 1425, upon the latter's death, Blanche became heiress 
and queen of Navarre^; crowned with her husband, 
sovereigns of Navarre in 1428, she died in 1441, 
leaving a son, Charles, prince of Viana, whose relations 
with his father form one of the tragedies of Spanish 
history. The king-consort of Navarre succeeded to 
the Ars^onese crown as John II. in 1458, but main- 
tained his dominion over Navarre in spite of his son's 
rebellions. It is, therefore, not improbable that this 
piece was produced a few years after Queen Blanche's 
death. 

^ In the Sevres catalogue the aims are mcorrectly ascribed to Blanche 
'^Reine de Sicile," which would date the piece 1403 — 141 9; Martin of 
Sicily, her first husband, d. 1409. G. Demay (" Inventaire des Sceaux de 
la Flandre," L, No. 41) has published a seal of Blanche, queen of Navarre 
(1439)* bearing the arms upon the dish, in reversed order. See also the 
arms of the " Roy de Navarre " in the " Armorial du Toison d'Or," PL 106. 



PLATE VII. 




Dish with the Arms of Marv, Consort of Alfonso V. of Aragon. 
Valencia (1414— 1458). 



To face page ^7.] 



OF THE XV. CENTURY. 57 



Plate VII. 
Mus6e Ceramique, Sevres. 

Diameter: 17 inches. 

Ornament in pale gold, similar to the preceding. 
Five ovals containing spirals and a radiating band of 
small mock-Arabic lettering, alternating with as many 
pointed ovals, fill the space between the shield and 
brim, round which are disposed seven similar ovals and 
bands of lettering. 

Arms. — ^Two pallets (for Aragon) impaling a triple- 
towered castle and a lion rampant (for Castile-Leon) ; 
or, Aragon dimidiating Castile-Leon. 

The similarity in ornament and heraldic design of 
this and the preceding example is obvious ; though by 
different hands they are the produce of an identical 
fabrique. This dish, therefore, is contemporary with 
Queen Blanche of Navarre (1425 — 1441) and her 
consort. Thelatter's elder brother, Alfonso V. (141 6 — 
1458), married, in 14 15, his cousin Mary (a daughter 
of Henry III. of Castile, by Catherine of Lancaster, a 
daughter of John of Gaunt); her achievement, an interest- 
ing case of true dimidiation, is represented here. For 



58 HISPANO-MORESQUE WARE 

the greater part of Alfonso's reign, which was passed 
in Italy, fighting for the crown of Naples, Queen Mary 
took up her residence in a house of the Order of Poor 
Clares, founded by her, beyond the walls of Valencia, 
In this convent, which is dedicated to the Holy Trinity, 
she died and was buried, in 1458, having survived 
her husband only a few months. 

A rare seaP (PL IX.) of this queen of Aragon 
(1457), shows the arms of Aragon and Leon-Castile 
impaled, an arrangement which the designer of the 
dish did well to simplify by dimidiation. 

^ Communicated to the writer, from his miique and splendid collection 
of Catalan seals and impressions, by Sefior Don F. de Sagarra y de Siscar, of 
Barcelona. The inversion of the Castilian quarterings is probably an artistic 
licence. 



PLATE VIII. 




Di&H WITH Arms of Mary, Consort of Ai-fonso V. of Aragon. Valencia 

(1414-1458). 



To face page 59.] 



OF THE XV. CENTURY. 59 



Plate VIIL 
Victoria and Albert Museum, London. 

Diametar: 20 inches. 

Ornament. — Upon a ground of cross hatching, 
bands of conventionalised spur-shapes in pale gold 
diverge to the sides of the dish, are carried up them 
and across a wide flat brim ; lustre, reddish ; back, 
a rosette within concentric bands and circles in 
gold. 

ARMS.-^-Quarterly, a triple-towered castle and a 
lion rampant (for Castile-Leon), adextr6 of two pallets 
(for Aragon). 

Examination of the heraldic detail of this and the 
previous specimen (PI. VIL) will reveal many points 
of similarity. As in that case, the arms belong to 
Alfonso V. of Aragon's consort (1415 — 1458) Mary, 
of Castile, the greater part of whose life was passed 
at Valencia. 

An illustration of the queen's arms is afforded 
by an armorial carving from her tomb in the Trinidad 



6o HISPANO-MORESQUE WARE 

Convent, Valencia/ In this case, the pallets of Aragon 
are dimidiated, but the Castilian coat is entire, a 
version extremely suggestive of the rendering depicted 
upon the dish. 

There is a peculiarity, moreover, in the rendering 
of the Castilian arms which is worthy of note; the 
castle presents an exceptional type, and is not so 
treated on contemporary royal seals : its prototype 
would appear to be that adopted for the seals of 
Henry 11. (1369 — 1379), ^^^ of Sancho IV. (1284 — 
1295) of Castile, especially for the former.* 

^ There are three large shields upon this tomb : in the centre Sicily, on 
its right Aragon dimidiated impaling Castile-Leon, on the left Sicily impaling 
Castile- Leon, the latter cruelly de£aced. The flaming brasier was a device 
of Alfonso V. 

s See S. Thompson, ''British Museum, Royal Seals: Spain " (photo- 
graphs), PL IV., No. 3 ; PI. IIL, No. i. 



PLATE IX. 




(a.) Seal of Mary of Castile, 
Consort of Alfonso V. of 
Aragon (1457). 

(Collection of Don Fernando de 
Sagarra. Barcelona.) 




(b.) Shields from Tomb of Mary (d. 1458), Consort of Alfonso V. (Trinidad 

Convent, Valencia.) 

[To face page 60. 



PLATE X. 




Dish with Arms of Dukes of Burgundy. Valencia (1404— 1430). 
(Wallace Collection, London.) 



To face page 61. 



OF THE XV. CENTURY. 6i 



Plate X. 
Wallace Collection (Hertford House). 

Diameter: 25 inches. 

Ornament. — Upon the brim are five- or six-petalled 
flowers, alternating with others of a three-petalled 
variety. From their encircling stalks spring leaves, 
the central lobes of which are longer than the others ; 
the bryony leaf is also represented. The shield is 
surrounded by a wreath of the vine, realistically 
treated. 

Arms. — ^Azure three fleurs-de-Iys or, quartering 
bendy of six of the same tincture and metal, over all, 
or a lion rampant azure. 

In spite of the omission of the bordures : gobony 
in quarters 1-4 for Burgundy modem, gules in 2-3 
for Bui^ndy ancient ; and of wrong tincturing, there 
can be no doubt that this is the second of the three 
shields used by the latter dukes of Burgundy. 

In 1404, John "the Fearless" succeeding to the 
dukedom of Burgundy and county of Flanders, 



62 



HISPANO-MORESQUE WARE 



charged his paternal arms with the shield of Flanders/ 
or a lion rampant sable, in right of his mother, 
countess-heiress of Flanders; these arms were borne 
by him (who died in 14 19) and by his son and suc- 
cessor, Philip *' the Good '' until 1430, when the latter 
impaled the lions of Brabant and Limburg with his 
second and third quarterings, respectively, forming 
what is known as the 'grand 6cu' 
of Burgundy. 

Of these two potentates, Philip 
alone had closer relations with the 
Peninsula than the commercial in- 
tercourse with Spain which existed 
through the great Flemish mart of 
Bruges during the XIV. and XV. 
centuries. In 1428 he sent a Bur- 
gundian nobleman, Andr6 de Tou- 
longeon, to Spain, to demand in marriage a daughter 
of the king of Castile. The narrative of this embassy 




Fig. 8. Arms from Sbal 
OF Philip "lb Boh," 
DuxB OF Burgundy. 

(From De Wrae, 1641.) 



^ O.deWreey^'LesSeauxdesComtesdeFlandre." 1641. '' La premiere 
que j'ay rencontre de ees lettres, fat doiin6 k Aldenarde, en la mesme azm6e 
1404, que son Pere trespassa : seel6e d'un seel . . • y etant mis, sur 
le tout des armoiries de Bourgongne, I'escusson au lion de Flandre. Au 
seel nouveau qu'il fit apr^ sa succession . . • se voyent tant seulement 
les armoiries des Comtds d'Artois & de Bourgongne, celles de Flandre estans 
mises au coeur de Tescu de Bourgongne. • • • De ce sel s'est il servy 
continuellement, le reste de sa vie • . •" (pp. 56 — 57,P1. 30 a, b). 



OF THE XV, CENTURY. 63 

— a fruitless one — is missing; the contemporary 
account of the duke's second matrimonial tentative, 
this time to the Court of Portugal, tells us that the 
envoys Jean de Roubaix, Baudouin de Lannoy, and 
Andr6 de Toulongeon left Sluys in October, and 
landed at Cascaes, in Portugal, on December i6th, 
1428, reaching Lisbon two days later, when negotia- 
tions began. After the dispatch to the duke, on 
February 12th, 1429, of messengers with the Princess 
Isabella's portrait, painted by Jan van Eyck, the 
Burgundians, we are told — 

**Se tiairent k St. Jacques en Galice, at de U al^rent visiter le due 
d'Aijoxme, le roy de Castille, le roy de la ville de Grenade et plusieurs 
autres seigneurs, pays et lieux."^ 

Whether the last passage be understood to cover 
a visit to Aragonese dominions — to Valencia, for 
example — it is impossible to determine. 

The arms which concern us are, however, 
undoubtedly the Burgundian ducal arms at this 
period. De Wree, in his classic work upon the 
seals of the counts of Flanders, mentions that the 
seal of the marriage contract (January 6th, 1429) 
between Philip and Isabella bore the Burgundian 

^ L. P. Gachard, ** Collection de documents in6dits," II. 



64 HISPANO-MORESQUE WARE 

shield with, in its centre, the arms of Flanders.* It 
follows also that seals of the credentials and other 
documents taken with them by the Burgundians on 
this occasion, bore the same arms — ^an arrangement 
which De Wree declares to have been altered by the 
addition of the lions of Brabant and Limburg to the 
ducal shield in 1430. 

^ *' • • • du mesme seel [see p. 62, note i] ont est6 seel6es les lettres 
du traict6 de manage entre Philippe et Isabella de Portugal [6 Jan., 1429. 
Philip was crowned Duke of Brabant 5 Oct., 1430]. • • • D6s lors il 
print un seel nouveau, y portant I'esca aggrandi des lions de Brabant & de 
Lembourg." De Wree, p. 61, PL 33a. 



PLATE XI. 




Dish with Arms of Rene, Duke of Anjou. Valencia (c. 1450— 1475). 



To j ace page e^.] 



OF THE XV. CENTURY. 65 

Plate XL 

The Property of F. D. Godman, Esq. 

/ 

DiaoMter : z8| inches. 

Ornament. — Blue and golden vine-leaves and a 
small five- or six-petalled flower ; ground-colour, cream. 
Lustre, mother-of-pearl Back, an eagle. 

Arms. — Sem6 of fleur-de-lys (in the ground-colour 
upon brownish gold). 

The shield is surmounted by a crown, which though 
not susceptible of absolute identification, is evidently 
of royal estate, and indicates a sovereign house as that 
to which the arms belong. In the XV. century, the 
sem6 of fleurs-de-lys, reduced to three by the kings 
of France in 1376, was still borne, quartered or 
differenced by different branches of the same house. One 
of these, the Valois dukes of Anjou, impaled their 
own arms (the lilies of France ancient a bordure 
gules) with those of the earlier counts of Anjou 
(France ancient a label of three points gules). Other 
quarterings were added at different times, but the 
latter coat typified their Italian pretensions, and was 
an emblem of tremendous political importance in 



66 HISPANO-MORESQUE WARE 

Southern Europe at the period when this dish 
was made. Though styling themselves kings of 
Sicily, they ruled over Naples only, and the most 
illustrious of the line, Ren6 of Anjou, was doomed 
to have even the latter kingdom wrested from him 
by Alfonso V. of Aragon. He was, nevertheless, 
to becx>me for a time a dangerous rival to the 
latter's brother and successor, John II., in his own 
dominions. A grandson of John I. of Aragon 
through his mother Yolande, Rent's cause was 
warmly espoused by the Catalans in the revolution 
of 1461 — 1473. At Angers, in 1466, the crown of 
Aragon was offered him by a Catalan Embassy, 
and Ren6 sent a son as "Prince Primogenit" to the 
realm from which he was never to return, and which 
his father was never to possess. Certainly, in the 
course of these relations with Aragon, and throughout 
his previous career, Ren 6, the art lover, was acquainted 
with and appreciated Spanish pottery. Although none 
of the pieces mentioned in the Angers inventory of 
1471 — 1472 are described as decorated with arms, it 
is hardly possible that none of the pieces he possessed 
were armorial. 

The evidence adduced concerning the lilies as a 
bearing during the XV. century, indicates the arms 



OF THE XV. CENTURY. 67 

upon this piece — ^an uniquely beautiful one — to 
represent either Rent's Valois or Angevin quartering. 
The crown depicted in this case is seen to be identical 
with that which ensigns the arms of Charles VII. 
(PI. XIII.) ; both are, however, totally dissimilar to the 
French crown with its characteristic fleurs-de-lys.^ 
While to a certain extent resembling the coronets upon 
seals of Ren6 of Anjou and his mother Yolande,* the 
scalloping of the leaves seems to indicate that the artist 
had in his mind features in the design of the Aragonese 
crown, which are conspicuous upon coins and royal 
seals of that kingdom.* 

^ See the crown on the large medal struck by Charles VII. upon England's 
loss of the French provinces in 1451. 

' Blancard, ** Iconographie des Sceaux et Bulles du D6pt. des Bouches- 
du-Rhone," PI. 18 and 20. 

* See seals of Ferdinand the Catholic (S. Thompson, '< British Museum. 
Royal Seals," Spain, PI. IV.), of Alphonso V. (Cadier, in " M61anges de 
TEcole Fran^aise de Rome," VIII.) ; the pearls upon the circlet may be seen, 
slightly raised above it, upon a portrait of Ferdinand (Carderera, ** Icono- 
grafia Espanola," PL LVIIL). The simpler type of crown which forms a 
staple decorative motive in the Hispano-Moresque variety next described 
(PI. XII.) has no connection with the arms painted upon such dishes. In 
the Godman catalogue are pieces with the arms of Florence (PI. XXIX.)i 
Aragon (XXVII.), and of Cabrera (XXXVIIL). This crown is of the 
type figured upon Pisanello*s medals of Alfonso V. (Heiss, I. ; Stevenson, 
*« Melanges de I'^cole Fran<;aise de Rome," VIIL, PI. X., No. 6), and upon 
coins struck at Perpignan by Ferdinand II. (Longp6rier, '' CEuvres," IV., 
PL VIL, No- 2). 



F 2 



68 HISPANO-MORESQUE WARE 



Plate XII. 
The Property of F. D. Godman, Esq. 

Dlamettt: xo( inches. 

Ornament, — Ornament of leaves, outlines of 
crowns and hatching in . blue upon cream ; rest of 
design in brownish gold. Lustre, golden and reddish. 

Arms. — Upon the breast of an eagle displayed, a 
shield charged with a cross (Savoy). 

The lion supporters used by the house of Savoy 
do not appear upon their seals until the end of the 
XV. century. A seal used in 1449 by Louis, duke 
of Savoy, bears an eagle displayed supporting a shield 
k bouche charged with a cross.* It is known that a 
considerable commercial intercourse existed between 
Savoy and Aragon during this period,* and the pro- 
bability that the arms in question belong to the duke 
of Savoy is strengthened by the existence of a dish in 

^ L. Cibrario and D. C. Promis, " Sigilli de'prindpi di Savoia," p. 182, 
PI. 18, No. 103. 1834. 

' For Alfonso V.'s decree regulating the trade, in his dominions, of 
** alemanes, sabcyanos^ y otros subditos del Emperador de Alemania y Duque 
ds Saboya,*' see A. D. Capmany, " Memorias historicas • . . de Barcelona," 
IIL, 219 — 220. 



PLATE XII. 




Dish with Arms of Louis, Duke of Savoy. Valencia (c. 1450 — 1465). 



[To face page 68 



OF THE XV. CENTURY. 69 

the same style (PI. XIII.) bearing the arms of a contem- 
porary prince and relative, exhibited by Baron Adolphe 
de Rothschild at the Exposition des Arts Musulmans, 
Paris, 1903. This dish bears the arms of the Dauphin 
Louis, afterwards Louis XI. of France, whose second 
wife was Charlotte, daughter of Louis of Savoy, and 
is so remarkable as to be worthy a detailed description. 
Upon a background of somewhat smaller foliage of the 
kind shown in PI. XII., are four shields of arms. 

In the centre are the arms of France (three fleurs- 
de-lys) surmounted by a crown ; above is a shield 
(quarterly, a fleur-de-lys and a dolphin) intended for 
that of the Dauphin of France ; upon the brim also are 
painted, upon either side, two other coats-of-arms : the 
grand ten of the two latter dukes of Burgundy, and the 
same arms impaling Portugal ; between each shield are 
two flints darting sparks, and two steels or bricquets. 

The Burgundian arms serve, in the first place, to 
date this piece as made between 1430, when Duke 
Philip adopted the &cu complet of Burgundy, in the 
year after his marriage with Isabella of Portugal, and 
his death in 1467; the famous fusil or '* briquet de 
Bourgogne '' was moreover taken as an emblem by 
this duke ; as the French royal arms refer to 
Charles VII. (1422 — 1461), and those above them to 



70 HISPANO-MORESQUE WARE 

his son, the Dauphin Louis (bom 1423), this dish must, 
therefore, have been made before Charles VII/s death. 

Even better means of dating this dish are afforded 
by the delphinal and Buigundian arms. Louis, 
estranged from the king, took up his residence in 
Dauphiny in 1446, married Charlotte of Savoy in 
1 45 1, and was forced to take refuge in the Nether- 
landish dominions of the duke of Burgundy in 1456. 
It was during this period, when he was a resident 
in Brabant or Namur, that the dish was made — it 
bears, beside his own insignia, those of his father, 
and of his host and hostess — its date, therefore, is 
between 1456, and his accession as Louis XL upon 
Charles VH/s death, in 1461- 

The custom of exchanging gifts or presents which 
prevailed not less among the various branches of the 
house of France than with other royalties, indicates 
the object adorned with this remarkable and unusual 
combination of arms to have been, probably, a present 
from the Burgundian duke to the French king, or to 
the heir-apparent. During the latter's sojourn in the 
Netherlands, it is known, moreover, that Philip of 
Burgundy, while treating his guest with liberality, was, 
in doing so, obeying the monarch's behests. This 
episode, in which Philip is seen proffering honour to 



PLATE XIII. 




Dish with Arms of Charles VII. of France, the Dauphin Louis, and Duke 
AND Duchess of Burgundy, Valencia {1456-1461). 



[To face page 70. 



OF THE XV. CENTURY. 71 

the king, and honours to the Dauphin, is well set forth 
in the language of the chroniclers by Mme. De Witt 
(n^e Guizot) ^ : '* Louis left Dauphiny by the road 
towards Saint-Claude in Burgundy, ... to Saint 
Nicolas de Varangeville and thence to Brabant, . . . 
but the duke had not then returned from the war of 
Utrecht. When he received tidings of the said 
Dauphin and how he had come into his territory, before 
seeing him, he wrote immediately to King Charles. 
After the king had heard how his son had left 
Dauphiny and betaken himself to the duke of 
Burgundy, he wrote that he [the duke] should act 
as he would wish the king to act, if likewise he [the 
duke] had taken refuge with him. This reply filled 
the duke with pleasure . . . and ... he did great 
honour to the Dauphin . . . and brought him to 
Brussels. Afterwards he chose, as a place of residence 
for him, Genappe in the marches of Hainault. And 
so liberal was the duke, that each month he caused 
to be paid to him 3,000 florins. Thus he sojourned 
in the dominions of the duke of Burgundy for the 
space of five years . . . and he requested him to send 
for the Dauphiness, his wife, who was a daughter of 
the duke of Savoy." 

1 " Charles VII. et Louis XL," pp. 248—252. 



72 HISPANO-MORESQUE WARE 



Plate XIV. 
The Property of G. Salting, Esq. 
(Victoria and Albert Museum.) 

Diamoter: 17^ inches. 

Ornament. — Blue and greenish - golden bryony 
leaves, some with prominent central lobe ; six-petalled 
flowers ; upon the brim the words *' Marya ioba noia," 
in blue Gothic letters. Back covered with dots and 
four-petalled flowers, as in Fig. 4. 

Arms. — 6cu en banni^re: quarterly i — ^4, an ox 
statant; 2 — ^3, a triple-towered castle (in pale gold 
upon cream), for Buyl of Manises. 

The Buyl or Boil were among the most famous 
of the Aragonese families who settled in Valencia 
after the conquest of 1238. Benet or Benito Boil, 
who assisted at this great Aragonese achievement, 
forms the subject of one of Jaume Febrer's " Trobas," 
the rhymed roll of the Conquistador's companions : 

<< En Benet Boil, Senyor de Castell 
Que este nom prengu^ alia en los montanyes 
De Jaca h de Hosca, es lo escut aquell 
Que mirant estau. Sobre campo bermell 



PLATE XIV. 




Dish with Arms of Buyl. Valenxia (Manises). 



[To face page 72. 



OF THE XV. CENTURY. 73 

Una Torre pinta e per los fesanyes 

De un Abuelo seu, fetes en Terol 

Un Boa anyadix sobre campo de blau • . ." 

Martin de Viciana traces back the line to Pedro de 
Buyl who died in 1323, a descendant of one of the 
conquerors, and Escolano states that the family already 
gave lords to Manises in the days of James 11. of 
Aragon/ The sons of this Pedro formed the branches 
of Buyl (Aragon) and Manises and Bdtera (Valencia) ; 
Manises, according to Viciaaa, was held by a grant of 
the year 1329, confirmed by the Catholic kings.' From 
Philip de Buyl, lord of Manises, who died in 1348, his 
namesake of Viciana's day, *' lord of the castle and 
town of Manises," was tenth in descent. 

The arms of Buyl (quarterly, i — 4. argent a castle 
gules, 2 — 3 vert an ox gules)' are well illustrated in 

^ Escolano, VII., cap. 3 : " A una legua de Valencia, viene la villa de 
Manizes famosa por su vidriado y azulejos. ... En tiempo del Rey 
Don Jayme el segundo, que comeco a regnar ano mil docientos noventa 
y uno hallamos ya senores de Manizes a los cavalleros del appelido de 
Boyl . . ." (1610.) 

> M. de Viciana, <*Segunda parte de la Chronyca de Valencia" (ed. 
Sociedad Valenciana de Bibliofilos, p. 95) : " Tiene su senor dozientos casas 
de vassallos con toda jurisdiccion ; con privilegio dado en Valencia a quinze 
de Henero alio de mil y trezientos y veynte y nueve. ... En manizes 
se labran los muy hermosos y delicados vasos y ladrillos vidriados de muy 
differentes hechuras, lavores, colores y matizes de los quales por mar y por 
sierra gran copia se Ueva en otros reynos donde son muy preciados." (1564.) 

* According to the terms of the entail of Manises (138a), the inheritor was 



74 HISPANO-MORESQUE WARE 

the shields from the XIV. century tomb (PL XV.) of 
Pedro de Buyl, now in the Archaeological Museum, 
Valencia.^ This tomb formerly stood in the chapter- 
hall of the Convent of St. Dominic, built by Pedro 
and Philip de Buyl, lords of Manises ; during the XV. 
century, sepulture in the convent church was the 
subject of dispute between the three branches of 
Buyl; the Audiencia Real, in 1500, adjudged it to 
the lords of Manises. 

Though combined with rather more than usual of 
subsidiary golden foliage, its leaves identify this dish 
with the terre blanche de Valence a feuillages pers, 
a style more exactly illustrated in the following 
specimens. 

to bear the name and arms of Buyl alone, '* sin otra mixtura" (see Viciana, 
from whom the above blazon is taken) ; there are still traces of green colour 
upon the field of the ox quartering on one of the carved shields illustrated. 

' The tombs of Peter and Philip de Buyl formed one monument, half of 
which, that of Philip, now in the Museo Nacional, Madrid, is reproduced in 
Carderera y Solano's " Iconografia Espanola," Pis. 23 — 34, and that of Peter, 
in the " Museo Espanol de Antiguedades," I., 235. 1872. 



PLATE XV. 




Shields from Tomb of Pedro Buyl. (Archaeological Museum, Valencia.) 



[To face page 74. 



PLATE XVI. 







Dish with Arms of the City of Florence. Valencia. 



To face page 75.] 



OF THE XV. CENTURY. 75 



Plates XVL— XVIL 

Ornament. — In these pieces, the bryony leaves and 
stalks are in light blue {feuillage pers), tendrils in 
gold ; the shield is surrounded by many-petalled 
golden flowers; white ground. 

No. XVI. (diameter 17J inches), in Mr. H. Wallis's 
collection at the Victoria and Albert Museum, bears 
a fleur-de-lys bottonee or, for the city of Florence. 
Though somewhat less ornate than the usual Florentine 
lily, and wrongly tinctured, there can be little doubt 
that it is intended for the same. Very distinctive is 
the tag at the lateral extremities; this is seen in the 
fleur-de-lys upon XV. century Florentine coins, from 
one of which the design may have been taken. 

No. XVIL (diameter 17J inches) is in the collection 
of Mr. F. D. Godman ; its ornament is similar to the 
preceding. The arms of this and the following pieces 
show them to have been made for wealthy borghesi of 
Florence, families which furnished "priori" or ''gon- 
falonieri di giustizia" to the republic, and who were 



76 HISPANO-MORESQUE WARE 

doubtless easily able to procure dishes with their arms 
from Valencia. Upon a shield k bouche, scalloped 
at the base, are the arms : Azure two pallets argent, 
on a chief a lion's jamb erased in fesse azure, for 
Arrighi, 




Fio. 9. Arms of Arrighl 

(From Manni's " Senatori 
Fiorentini," 172a.) 



PLATE XVII. 




Dish with Arms of Arrighi, of Florence. Valencia. 



[To face page 76. 



PLATE XVIII. 





r> 







Dish with Arms of a Florentine Family. Valencia. 



To fact page 77.] 



OF THE XV. CENTURY. 77 



Plate XVIIL 

Mr. Salting's collection at the Victoria and Albert 
Museum also contains two pieces, a dish and a bowl, 
with bryony leaves in a somewhat darker shade of 
blue, dark golden tendrils, and lustre. 

The dish, the ornament of which is somewhat 
coarsely executed, bears : Or (yellow) a lion rampant 
azure, an escutcheon argent charged with a cross 
gules (manganese). The shield upon the bowl has a 
golden-lustred field. The arms: Or a lion rampant 
azure, were borne by at least two notable Florentine 
houses, the Acciajuoli and the Gianfigliazzi, both of 
which gave Gonfaloniers and Priors of Justice to 
Florence. The escutcheon : Argent a cross gules, is 
the shield of the People of Florence, often assumed 
thus, upon a chief or a roundel, as an augmentation 
to their own arms by representatives and partisans of 
the "Popolo." 

In 1378, the commune of Florence, in the name 
of the Popoh, conferred knighthood upon more than 
64 such leaders and representatives, drawn from the 



78 HISPANO-MORESQUE WARE 

most prominent Florentine families.^ Among them 
were Mess. Donato di Jac^ AciajuoH and Mess. 
Nicholo dalesso baldainnetti, whose account of his 
unwilling assumption of this emblem is extant.' 

Whilst a mark of the nationality of the arms 
depicted, this augmentation was essentially political, 
and its assumption having been governed, in the 
cases of families and of individuals, by considerations 
of that nature, identification of the arms upon which 
it occurs is frequently a difficult matter. 

^ E. Branch!, ** Delia Croce Vermiglia in Campo Bianco, arme del Popolo 
Fiorentino divenota ins^gna dei Cavalieri di Popolo" (in '^Periodico di 
numismatica e sfragistica," IV., p. 79). Among those who received knighthood 
in Z378, were an Acciajuoli, a Guasconi, an Arrighi and a Zati. 

* D. M. Manniy '* Delle Tessere Cavalleresche di bronzo tenuto al CoUb," 
p. I4« 1760. 



PLATE XIX. 




Dish with Arms of Zati, of Florence. Valencia. 



To face page 79. J 



OF THE XV. CENTURY. 



79 



Plate XIX. 
British Museum. 

Diameter: i8| inches. 

Bryony leaves and stalks in light blue, tendrils in 
gold ; back : sprays, blue bryony, and lustre foliage ; 
the shield is surrounded by ten many-petalled flowers. 
Shield k bouche, with the arms : Per fesse or (yellow) 
and azure, four chains in saltire conjoined at the centre 
by a ring, all counterchanged. These arms (sable for 
azure) were borne by the Zati, of Florence. 




Fio. 10. Akms of Zati. 
(From MannL) 



8o HISPANO-MORESQUE WARE 



Plate XX. 

(From Demmin's " Histoire de la CfeRAMiQUE," L, 

PL XXV.) 

Arms. — ^Three chevrons, the centre one having at its 
apex a Greek cross. The Guasconi, of Florence, bore 
these charges sable upon argent, the cross gules. The 
latter, which is the cross of the People of Florence, was 
first assumed by a member of this family. Mess. Biagio 
di bonaccio Guaschoni in 1378.* 

* See E. Branch!, work cited. 




Fig. XI. Akms or Guasconi. 
(From Manni) 



PLATE XX. 




Dish with Arms of Guasconi, of Florence. Valencia. 



[To face page 80. 



I'LATE XXr. 




Dish with Arms of Delle Agli, of Florence. Valenxia. 



To face page 81/ 



OF THE XV. CENTURY. 



8i 



Plate XXI. 

The Property of G. Salting, Esq. 

(Victoria and Albert Museum.) 

Diameter : z6} inches. 

Ornament. — Blue bryony foliage, and six-petalled 
flowers ; tendrils yellow ; yellow flowers around shield ; 
golden lustre. 





Asms or Agli. 
Fig. 12. (From Passerini. 1862.) Fig. 13. (From Corbinelli. 1705.) 



Arms. — On a yellowish-green field a lion in dark 
manganese (or a lion rampant gules). Around the 
shield is a circular blue band charged with white roots 
or vegetables, a rare instance of the employment of an 



H.W. 



82 HISPANO-MORESQUE WARE 

element additional to the usual ornament of foliage and 
arms. These so generally constitute the decoration of 
this and kindred Hispano- Moresque wares, as to 
preclude the possibility of the vegetable-strewn border 
being anything but heraldic. The existence of other 
Florentine arms upon dishes in the same style warrants 
the consideration of the arms with the bordure, as the 
complete shield of the Delle Agli, a distinguished 
and very ancient Florentine house, whose arms are 
here illustrated. They bore or a lion rampant gules, a 
bordure azure charged with turnips proper {^api)^ the 
lion sometimes seme, of crescents,* at others with a 
chief of the ' People ' of Florence.' 

» See J. Florio's Italian dictionary, "A Worlde of Wordes," 1598: 
'' Rapa. A root called a tumep or Rape-root.*' French, «' Rave." 

' J. Corbinelli, " Hist. g6n6al. de la Maison de Gondi," I., ccxvj. 

* Gamurrini, '' Istoria genealogica delle famiglie nobili toscane," V. 
1685. A lion within a bordure charged with raps was the shield carved 
upon an angle pilaster of the Loggia d^li Agli at Florence (*< II Centro 
di Firenze," p. 52). 



PLATE XXII. 




Dish with Ajrms of Tondi, of Siena. Valenxia. 



To face page 83.] 



OF THE XV. CENTURY. 83 



Plate XXII. 
The Property of Messrs. Durlacher. 

Diameter: 17} inches. 

Ornament. — ^Dark blue bryony leaves, tendrils in 
gold ; lustre reddish. 

Arms. — Gules (manganese) three tondi or, on a 
chief azure three fleurs-de-lys or; the label accom- 
panying this, the Angevin chief, is formed partly by 
the top of the shield (in manganese) and partly by two 
points drawn from it between the lilies. 

These are the arms of the Tondi, a family whose 
records in Siena date from the first years of the 
XIII. century; among the *' Proweditori di Bicchema" 
for 1467 was Lodovico d'Antonio deTondi, who died 
by violence in 1482.^ 

* Cav. A. Lisini, " Tavole," etc., PI. 39. The author is indebted to the 
kindness of Cav. Lisini, Director of the Sienese Archives, for particulars 
concerning the Tondi. 



G2 



84 HISPANO-MORESQUE WARE 



Plate XXIII. 
The Property of Messrs. Durlacher. 

Diameter : 17^ indies. 

Ornament. — Golden vine-leaves, cream ground ; 
on back an eagle in gold (PL XXIV.). 

Arms. — Gules three chevrons or (Cr^vecoeur) the 
first differenced with a crescent azure, impaling chequy 
or and gules (Auxy). Manganese is used for gules ; 
the outline and palar line of the shield are in blue. 

These arms are the achievement of Isabel d'Auxy, 
daughter of John, sire and " ber " of Auxy, a Knight 
of the Golden Fleece, by Jeanne de Flavy, who married, 
about 1468, Philip de Crfevecoeur, lord of Cordes and 
Lannoy, a Marshal of France, known as the Seigneur 
dcs Cordes (des Querdes, or d'Esquerdes). The 
Marshal des Cordes, one of the greatest French 
captains of the XV. century, was born in 141 8, younger 
son of James, lord of Crfevecoeur, in Picardy, a Knight 
of the Golden Fleece, by his second wife, Jeanne, 
daughter of Peter de la Trdmoille, lord of Daours, and 
Jeanne de Longuilliers. 

Both hereditarily and personally attached to the 



PLATE XXIII. 




Dish with Arms of "Isabel, Wife of Philip de Crevecceur, Marechal des 

CORDES (D, 1494). VaLENXIA. 



[To face page 84. 



PLATE XXIV. 




Back of the Crevecceur Dish. 



[To face page 84. 



OF THE XV. CENTURY. 85 

dukes of Burgundy, Philip de Crdvecoeur served that 
house until the death of Charles *' the Bold " at Nancy 
in 1477. Then, at the instances of Commines, he 
entered the service of Louis XL, for whom he com- 
manded against the Archduke Maximilian, husband of 
Charles' daughter, the heiress of the Netherlands. 
Under Charles VIIL he was lieutenant-general and 
governor of Picardy, and became in 1492 Marshal of 
France. The exact date of his marriage with Isabel 
d'Auxy is not known, though it is suggested by a recent 
historian of the fief of Cr^vecoeur, that the Collar of the 
Fleece, which Des Cordes received at the eleventh 
chapter, held at Bruges in 1468, was conferred as a 
present upon the occasion of his marriage ^ ; his name 
was erased from the roll of the order by Maximilian 
in 1 48 1. At no period of an eventful life does the 
'* Mar^chal des Cordes " appear to have visited Spain ; 
it seems not improbable that the dish may have been 
ordered from Valencia whilst he was still a vassal of 
the dukes of Burgundy, possibly after his marriage. 
From Jeanne de Flavy, his wife's mother, Philippe de 
Cr^vecoeur inherited the castle of Auxy, among the 
art treasures of which are recorded dishes enamelled 

^ A. Seillier, ''Cr6vec(£ur-le-Grand" (<'M6moires de la Soc. Acad, de 
rOise," XV., p. 79). 



86 HISPANO-MORESQUE WARE 

with the arms of the marshal and of Isabel d'Auxy 
his wife.^ He died near Lyons, upon Charles VIII/s 
Neapolitan expedition, in 1494. 

The variety, answering to the description terre 
blanche de Valence, d feuillages dorez, is well 
exemplified in this piece. 

^ <^0n ne voyait partout dans les vastes salles de ce chateau, dit la 
16gende, que dressoirs charg6s de hanaps d'or et d'argent, it plats tmaiUh 
aux amus du markhal et d^Isaheau iTAuxi^ sa compagns" H. Dusevel, ** Eglises, 
ch&teaux, etc., de la Picardie,*' I., Auxi, pp. 6—7, 1846. 



PLATE XXV. 




Dish with Arms of Morelli, of Florence. Valencia. 



To face page 87.] 



OF THE XV. CENTURY. 



87 



Plate XXV. 
Victoria and Albert Museum. 

Diameter: x8 inches. 

Ornament. — Golden vine-leaves, cream ground ; 
on the back an eagle. 

Arms. — Two lions' jambs crossed in saltire, in 
chief a chess-rook or, upon a man- 
ganese field (gules), for Morelli, of 
Florence. 

The Morelli, among the most dis- 
tinguished of the Florentine houses,^ 
held the office of gonfalonier, eight, 
and that of ''prior of justice," forty 
times ; one branch of the family had 
the title of count-palatine and an 
imperial augmentation (on a chief or, a double-headed 
eagle displayed sable), granted to Jacopo Morelli by 
the Greek Emperor, John Palaeologus, in 1439. 

^ There is a genealogy and history of this prolific race in Ildefonso de 
San Luigi's '' Delizie degU Eruditi toscani," Vol. 19. 




Fig. 14. Akms op Morblu. 
(From Manni.) 



88 HISPANOMORESQUE WARE 



Plate XXVL 
The Property of R D. Godman, Esq. 

Height: 23 inches. 

Ornament. — ^Vine-leaves alternately in blue and 
gold, cream ground. 

Arms. — Upon a circular compartment or, seven 
balls gules (manganese), that in chief charged with 
three fleurs-de-lys of the field, for Medici, of Florence. 
On the other side of the vase, in a blue compartment, 
is a golden finger-ring set with a pointed diamond, 
behind the ring are three ostrich feathers in manganese. 
The device of Lorenzo de'Medici, **the Magnificent," 
marks this specimen as made for him, between 1465 — 
1470 and the end of the XV. century. The augmenta- 
tion of a roundel of France modern, in the Medici 
arms, was granted to Lorenzo's father, Piero ''il 
Gottoso," by Louis XL in 1465 ; Lorenzo was then 
in his sixteenth year. He died in 1492. 



PLATE XXVI. 




Vase with Arms of Lorenzo de'Medici. Valencia 
(c. 1470— 1492). 

[To face page 88. 



PLATE XXVII. 




Dish with Arms of Gondi, of Florenxe. Valencia. 



To face page 89.] 



OF THE XV. CENTURY. 



89 



Plate XXVII. 

The Property of G. Salting, Esq. 

(Victoria and Albert Museum.) 

Diameter: 9I inches. 

Ornament. — ^The whole of the surface is ornamented 
with vine-leaves in deep gold upon a cream ground; 
reddish lustre. 

Arms. — Or, two maces crossed in saltire, azure, 
the heads in chief. The shield is 
outlined in blue. 

There can be little doubt that 
the arms are intended for Gondi, of 
Florence.^ As in other cases where 
unimpaled arms are concerned, it is 
not possible to particularise, but the 
bowl may well have been made for 
Giuliano Gondi (1421 — 1501), who 
was much favoured by the Aragonese kings of Naples ; 
he built the Gondi Palace in Florence and arrived 
at the supreme honours of the republic in 1468. 

^ Some authorities give the maces sabU; they were so borne by a 
branch of the Florentine house, the Gondi, dukes of Retz, in France, the 
handles of the maces tied with a ribbon. Corbinelli's history of the Seunily 
reproduces several earlier examples of the bearings from tombs, etc., at 
Florence, which prove that in the XV. century the mace-handles were not 
thus joined together. 




Fig. 15. Akms op Gondi. 
(From Manni) 



90 HISPANO-MORESQUE WARE 



Plate XXVIIL 
British Museum, 

Diameter : i8 inches. 

Ornament. — Sixteen compartments formed by the 
ribbing, contain alternately the diapering of dots and 
stalks in gold, and another pattern ; sprays of foliage 
on back. 

Arms. — Four pallets, in ground-colour upon gold, 
saltired by two eagles (Sicily). 

The island of Sicily, an Aragonese possession 
from the overthrow of the Angevin dominion in 
1282 — 1288, was bestowed by Peter III. of Aragon 
upon his second son James, from whom it passed to 
a third son Frederick, whose successors ruled it as 
a separate kingdom until the death of Martin the 
younger, in 1409, when it reverted to the crown of 
Aragon. 

The title and dignity of king of Sicily, granted by 
John II. to his son Ferdinand, in 1468,^ were borne 
by that prince until the former's death in 1479, when 

^ Zurita, ^' Anales de la Corona de Aragon," IV., 1 156 verso. z6io. 



PLATE XXVIII. 




Dish with Arms of Sicily. Valencia. 



[To face page 90. 



OF THE XV. CENTURY. 91 

he succeeded to the whole of the Aragonese dominions. 
Probably made during this period when the Sicilian 
arms had a separate personal significance, this dish 
may, nevertheless, have been manufactured for the 
market in Aragon's great insular dependency between 
Ferdinand's accession as king of Aragon and the end 
of the century. 

The Godman collection contains a piece similar to 
the above- 



92 HISPANO-MORESQUE WARE 



Plate XXIX. 
Victoria and Albert Museum, 

Diameter: 17) inches. 

Ornament. — Diapering of dots and stalks in gold; 
the ribbing forming fifteen compartments, and pellets, 
in gold and blue.^ 

Arms. — Per fesse a castle and a lion (for Castile-Leon) 
impaling four pallets saltired by two eagles (Sicily). 

This is a version of the achievement which was to 
symbolise the union of the Spains, through the 
marriage, in 1469, of the prince of Aragon, Ferdinand, 
duke of Montblanch and king of Sicily, with Isabella 
of Castile. After the death of Henry IV. of Castile, 
brother of the latter, it became necessary to define 
the prerogatives of the new Castilian sovereigpi and 
her consort, and by an agreement made at Segovia in 
1475, it was stipulated that the royal arms of Castile 
and Leon should precede those of Aragon and Sicily.* 

^ a dish similarly ornamented in gold, without the ribbing, is illustrated 
in Demmin's " Histoire de la c6ramique/' I., PI. 26. 

s Zurita, " Anales," IV., f. 224 recto : ** El titulo en las letras patentes, y 
en los pregones y en la moneda y sellos auia de ser comun de ambos, siendo 
presentes o en absencia ; y auia de preceder el nombre del Key : y las armas 
reales de Castilla, y Leon auian de ser preferidas a las de Aragon y Sicilia.'* 



PLATE XXIX. 




Dish with Arms of Isabella of Castile, and Ferdinand, King of Sicily. 
Valencia (1468 — 1479). 



[To fact page 92. 



OF THE XV, CENTURY. 93 

In the complete shield of the Gatholic kings, the arms 
of Castile-Leon were consequently borne quartered 1-4, 
and Aragon impaling Sicily 2-3, with a pomegranate, 
for Granada, added in base, after 1492, 

The collection at the British Museum comprises a 
similar dish with diapering in reddish gold, the ribbing, 
forming sixteen compartments with studs in relief, is 
counterchanged in gold and blue. 

In the centre is a somewhat worn shield of arms : 
Per fesse a castle and a lion rampant (for Castile-Leon) 
impaling three pallets, in ground-colour upon gold 
(for Aragon), 

This achievement may be regarded as : 

A dimidiation of the arms of Isabella and 

Ferdinand after the latter's accession to the 

Aragonese crown in 1479 ; 

Or, as the arms of the first and second dukes 

of Villahermosa, counts of Ribagorza, and barons 

of Arenos in Valencia : Alfonso of Aragon (d. 1485) 

or Alfonso (d. 1513).^ 

* F. Fernandez de B6thenc6iirt, " Historia genealogica y heraldica de la 
monarquia espaiiola," III., pp. 405, 411 — 12. Fortnum suggested that this 
piece might have been made for Eleanor, dau. of Pedro IV. of Aragon, 
queen (1375— 1382) of John I. of Castile and Leon<('< Majolica," p. in, 
1896) ; an impossible theory. 



94 HISPANO-MORESQUE WARE 



Plate XXX. 
Victoria and Albert Museum. 

Diameter: i8 inches. 

Ornament. — ^The whole of the design, diapering, 
ribs (i6 compartments), and pellets, is in gold upon 
cream-colour. Back, sprays of foliage 
and concentric circles. 

Arms. — Sem6 of mullets of six- 
points, a lion rampant, in cream upon 
gold. 

The usual method of depicting 
the charge in gold, here abandoned 
Fig. 16. Arms of arnolfi. fo^ the more difficult alternative of 
"^ painting-in the field, suggests that 

it was intended to translate the metal and tincture of 
the original as nearly as possible. The arms are 
Florentine ; perhaps, of the Arnolfi, who bore 
the lion and mullets argent upon azure. The Lippi- 
Neri bore the charges gules upon argent. 




PLATE XXX. 




Dish with Arms of Arnolfi, of Florence. Valencia. 



[To face page 94. 



PLATE XXXI. 




Dish with Arms of Spannocchi, of Siena. Valencia. 



To face page 95. ] 



OF THE XV. CENTURY. 95 



Plate XXXI. 
British Museum. 

Piameter: Sf^ inches. 

Ornament. — ^The diapering in deep gold ; back, 
sprays of foliage. 

Arms. — On a cross azure five crescents or (for 
Piccolomini) impaling azure (for gules), a fesse 
counterembattled between three wheat-heads, or (for 
Spannocchi). 

This combination of the Piccolomini with the 
Spannocchi^ arms was first borne by Pope Pius II.'s 
friend and compatriot Ambrogio di Nanni Spannocchi,^ 
of Siena. 

Spannocchi held the office of treasurer to Pope 
Pius II. (1458— 1464) and to Sixtus IV. (1471 — 1484), 

^ G. Gigli, ** Diario sanese," XL, p. 293 : ** Trae questa la sua origine 
dalla Villa di Spannocchia, lontana da Siena, nove Miglia, ove di lungo mano 
abitava avendovi i suoi Beni e prendendone il nome di cui fecesi ancora 
gloria nell'Arma, spiegando alcune Spannocchie d'oro in campo rosso." 

> Gigli (work cited, p. 295) : ** Ambrogio ricchissimo Signore, e che a 
propria spese tenea pid navigli a correre il Mare sopra gl' Infedeli, fu 
Tesoriere di Pio II. da cui ebbe TArma della Famiglia Piccolomini, che 
i suoi discendenti appongono alia loro e fu poi anche Tesoriere di Sisto IV. 
cui fu carissimo." 



96 HISPANO-MORESQUE WARE 

and in 1473 built the palazzo Spannocchi, and a chapel 
in the church of San Domenico, at Siena, This piece 
may well have been made for him, or for his son, 
Antonio. 

The collection of Baron A. de Rothschild contains 
a large dish in the style of the piece here illustrated, 
with a vermicular pattern in relief, bearing the same 
arrangement of the Spannocchi arms,^ 

' G. Migeon, << Exposition des Arts Musulmans " (Paris, 1903), PL 56. 



PLATE XXXII. 




Bowl with Arms of Aldonza, Countess of Aranda. Valencia (Mislata?) 

(c. 1500). ' 



To face page 97.] 



OF THE XV. CENTURY. 97 

Plate XXXII. 
Victoria and Albert Museum. 

Height: yiindiM. DUawtsr: iiiiachM. 

Ornament. — Circular bands of flowering plants 
alternate with other bsuids of a net or lace pattern. 
The shield is in a filling of the dot and stalk diapering. 
Round the upper part of the exterior runs a band of 
embossed gadroons ornamented in the usual triple 
combination (PI. XXXIIL). Design in gold upon 
cream. 

Arms. — Bendy of six azure and or (Ximenez de 
Urrea) impaling two pallets saltired to the dexter by 
a fleur-de-lys fitchy or (?), and to the sinister by azure 
sem6 of fleur-de-lys and a label of three points argent 
(for Folch de Cardona). 

The impaled coat will be recogpaised as one of the 
saltired varieties of the arms of Aragon. Except for 
the strangely shaped fleur-de-lys (?), it is the same 
coat-of-arms as is represented upon PI. V., and 
which descended, with the county of Prades, to 'the 
great Catalan house of Cardona by the marriage of 
John, third count of Cardona (d. 1471), with Johanna, 
daughter and heiress of Peter of Aragon, count of 

H.W. H 



98 



HISPANO-MORESQUE WARE 



Prades, In marshalling their arms, subsequently to 
this alliance, the house of Cardona inserted their own 
bearings, three thistle plants (each with three stalks 
and flowers) in the dexter flank of this achievement. 

A glance at the arms in the bowl will show that 
the artist, who was but a careless designer, has 
mistaken the Cardona thistle-plant 
for a fleur-de-lys fitchy and repro- 
duced it accordingly. That the correct 
rendering of this plant, with its three 
stalks, was not unlike a fleur-de- 
lys, structurally, appears from the 
seal (1298) of Ramon Folch, tenth 
viscount of Cardona (s : raimundi : 

FULCONIS : DEI I GRA I VICECOMITIS 

cardone)' (PI. XXXIIL), and from 
a design (1423) of the arms of Don 
John de Cardona (PL XXXIV.), of a collateral branch, 
who quartered his own arms with those of Aragon- 
Prades.* A third illustration is furnished by the first 

* In the Biblioth^ue Nationale, Paris ; Doaet d'Arcq., " Collection de 
Sceaux," No. 119304; See also the triple thistles upon the surcoat of the 
effigy of the tenth viscount (<< El Prohom "), Carderera y Solano, '' Iconografia 
Espanola,*' PL xvii, 

' An illuminated miniature from the ''Libro dell'Associazione di 8. 
Marta/' in the R. Archivio di Stato, Naples (photogr. by R. Moscioni). 
The arms of Navarre in the centre-point refer to John de Cardona's mother 




Fig. 17. Arms of Folch 
DB Cardona. 

(From Maurice.) 



PLATE XXXIII. 




(a.) Seal of Ramon Folch, Viscount of 
Cardona (1298). 




(b.) Bowl with Countess of Aranda's Arms ; Exterior, showing 
Gadroon Pattern. 

[To face pafie 98. 



OF THE XV. CENTURY. 99 

duke of Cardona's arms as engraved in J. B. Maurice's 
Armorial of the Knights of the Golden Fleece, which 
serves to show the sinister half of the arrangement 
which the artist had to depict in the bowl, though 
the Cardona quartering is erroneously shown as 
three thistles instead of three thistle-plants (Fig. 17).* 

The dexter half of the arms needs no comment. 
The whole achievement records the marriage of a 
daughter of the first duke of Cardona (d. 15 13), 
Aldonza Folch de Cardona, with Miguel Ximenez de 
Urrea, second count of Aranda. 

Each of the houses concerned belongs, territorially, 
to the kingdom of Aragon; Cardona to Catalonia, 
Aranda to Aragon proper. But according to Escolano, 
the counts of Aranda acquired the town of Mislata, 
near Valencia, in 1497* ; a town mentioned by Von 

Blanche, dau. of a B6arn, baron of Beortegui, and Johanna, of Navarre, 
natural dau. of Charles II., of Navarre. 

* An error shared by certain Spanish and many French writers, also Rev. 
J. Woodward (<< Heraldry," II., PI. VIL). The Cardona quartering in a 
shield upon the tomb of a duke of Segorbia, at Poblet, has three thistle 
plants. J. Febrer, '< Trobas," 79, gives ** Tres cardons daurats,'* but Viciana, 
"TtespioHtas de cardones.'* 

* "Decada primerara de la historia de Valencia,'* Vol. IL, 315 — x6: 
«< Descanda a Manizes (a media legua de Valencia) en el mesmo camino 
Real que va para Requena, se atraniessa el lugar de Mizlata, con mas de 
cie casas de Christianos viejos y nuevos. . . • Esta pueblo hasta los anos 
de mil quatrocientos noventa y Siete, era de los cavalleros Aguillones ; y 
entonces le compraron los nobilissmos Urreas, condes de Aranda," etc 



loo HISPANO-MORESQUE WARE. 

Popplau, only a few years previously, in 1484, as 
one of the group of fabriques which produced pottery 
with blue and gold colours. It seems more than 
likely, therefore, that a bowl bearing the arms of 
the heads of the house in question should have been 
made at Mislata. 

Zurita mentions that the countess of Aranda 
formed one of the suite sent by Ferdinand the 
Catholic from Salamanca to Fuenterabia to attend 
Germania of Foix, his second wife, upon her entry 
into Spain, in 1506/ 

^ ** Anales/' VL, p. 44 verso« After long search for the dates of marriage 
and death of the count and countess of Aranda, the writer has been informed 
by the foremost Spanish authcnity that the family archives alone would 
probably yield the information required. 



PLATE XXXIV. 



|0N$10HANESS5fe@. 




Arms of John de Cardona (1423). 
^Photogr. Moscioni.] 



[To face page 100. 



INDEX OF NAMES, PLACES, 
ARMS, ETC. 



Abdallah Alfoguey, 19. 

Acciajuoli, arms, 77 — 78. 

Agli, arms, 81. 

Aguil6, £. K., 45 (note). 

Alcantara (Valencia), 20, 53. 

Alfonso V. of Aragon, 17, 18, 57 — 60, 

66. 
Alfonso of Aragon, duke of Gandia, 

50—51. 
Alhambra Vase, 2, 4, 33. 
Almoravides, 3. 
Angers, 9, 14, 66. 
Anjou-Naples, arms, 50—51, 65 — 67, 

83^ 
Aragon, 3, 7, 9 (note), la, 19, 26, 90. 
Aragon, arms of, 23, 34, 37, 39, 49» 50, 

5i> 55» 57—^, 93» 97- 
Aragon, counts of Ribagorzaand Prades, 

35» 50— 5i» 93> 97- 
Aragon, dukes of Villahennosa» 93. 
Aranda, Aldonza, countess of, arms, 

97 — 100. 
Aranda, M. X. de Urrea, count of, 99. 
Arcon, Diego del, 44—46. 
Amolfi arms, 23, 94. 
Arrighi arms, 22^ 76, 78 (note). 
Auzj, Isabel d', arms, 84 — 87. 



Bagdad, 2. 

Baldovinette, N., arms, 78. 

Balearic Isles, 5 — 7, 39 — 48. 

Banchi, L., 6. 

Bellpuig, arms, 53. 

Benegida de EsUava, 53. 

B^tera, 73. 

Blanche, Queen of Navarre, arms, 37, 

55—56. 
Boil. See Buyl. 
Borghese, S., 6. 
Bover de Rossello, J. M., 39, 40— 43r 

48 (note). 
Branchi, E., 78. 
Burgundy, dukes and ducal arms, 

61---64, 69 — 70, 85. 
Buyl, 13, 16. 
Buyl, arms, 72 — 74. 



Caccaxo, 51 (note). 
Cairo, 3. 

Calatayud, 3, 19, 26. 
Camarasa, marchioness of, 26. 
Campaner y Fuertes, A., 6 (note), 10 

(note), 41 — 48. 
Capmany, A., 46, 47- 



I02 



INDEX. 



Caracena, marquis of, 21. 
Cardona, Aldonza de, 97^icx>. 
Cardona, dukes, 97 — 100. 
Cardona, John de, 98 — 99. 
Castile-Leon, royal arms, 37, 39, 49, 

55» 57—60, 9«— 93- 
Chacon, A., 53. 
Champeaux, A. de, 34. 
Charles VIL of France, arms, 70. 
Charles VIH. of France, 85—86. 
Claramunt, arms, 53. 
Cock, H., 26—28. 
Corbinelli, J., 8a (note), 89 (note). 
Cordes, Mar^chal des, 84 — 86. 
Crftvecoeur, arms, 84. 
Cr^ecoeur, Isabel and P. de, 84. 

Damas, ouvrage de, 6, 31. 

Dauphin Louis, arms, 69. 

Davillier, J. C, 6 (note), 39—48. 

Demmin, A., 80, 92 (note). 

J)enia, ai, 51. 

Despnig, arms, 52 — 53. 

Diago, F., 20. 

Douet d'Arcq., L., 98 (note). 

Douglas, L., 21. 

Drake, Sir W., 8. 

Durlacher, Messrs. (collection), 83, 84. 

Dnsevel, H., 86 (note). 

Edrisi, 3. 

Eleanor (of Aragon), Queen of Castile, 

93 (note). 
Escolano, G., 20, 53 (note), 73, 99. 
Esquerdes, Mar6chal d', 84 — 86. 
Evreux-Navarre, arms, 55^56. 
Ezimenes, F., 9, 10, 20. 



Fkbrkr, J., 53, 7»— 73t 99 (note). 
Ferdinand II. of Aragon, King of Spain, 

18. 
Ferdinand IL, arms, 23, 90, 92. 
Fernandez de B6thencourt, F., 93 

(note). 
Fernandez y Gonzalez, F., 4 (note), 

19 (note). 
Ferrari, F., 40. 
Finot, J., 16 (note). 
Florence, arms of, 22, 75. 
Florence, People of, arms, 77, 78, 80,82. 
Florentine arms, 17, 21^23, 75 — 82, 

88—89, 94- 
Florida Blanca, Count, 29. 
Florio, J., 82 (note). 
Folch de Cardona, arms, 35, 97 — 100. 
Fonseca, D., 21. 
Forrer, R., 12. 

Fortnimi, C. D., 48 (note), 93 (note). 
Fostat, 3. 

Fouquet, D., 3 (note). 
France, 6. 

France, ancient, arms, 65. 
France, modem, arms, 69, 88. 

Galoano di Belforte, 21, 22, 44. 

Gamurrini, E, 82 (note). 

Gandia, 21. 

Gauchery, P., 24. 

Gesarte, 9, 16, 20. 

Gianfigliazzi, arms, 77 — 78. 

Gigli, G., 95. 

Giraud, J. B., 49. 

Godman, F. D. (collection), 11, 17, 

75, 88, 91. 
Gondi arms, 23, 89. 
Gondi, Giuliano, 89. 



INDEX. 



103 



Granada, 4, 7, 8. 
Granada, arms, 93. 
Grisso, J., 45 (note), 
GrQnenberg, C, 53, 54- 
Gnasconi arms, 22, 78 (note), 80. 
Guasconi, B., 80. 

Henry of Aragon, count of Cangas and 

Tineo, 51. 
Henry III. of Castile, 57. 
Hugades, arms, 53. 

Ibn Batuta, 4. 

Ibn el Hatib, 4. 

Ibn Sa'id, 4. 

Ildefonso de San Luigi, 87 (note). 

Inca, 6, 39, 41—43- 

Inveges, A., 51. 

Isabella of Castile, Queen of Spsdn, 
arms, 23, 92 — 93. 

Isabella (of Portugal), duchess of Bur- 
gundy, 63 — 64 ; arms, 69. 

Italian arms, 35, 44i 75— 83* 87—89, 

94—95- 
Italy, 6, 16, 21, 40—48. 

Iviza, 40, 47- 

Jamks L of Aragon, 3. 

Johanna (Henriquez), queen of Aragon, 
arms, 38. 

John n. of Aragon, 18, 35, 55— 5*» 
66, 90. 

John, duke of Berry, 24. 

John "the Fearless," duke of Bur- 
gundy, 61. 

KAiavAN : mosque of Sidi-Oqba, 2. 



LxcoY de la Marche, A., 6, 14 (note). 
Leonora (d'Albuquerque), queen of 

Aragon, arms, 37. 
Lippi-Neri arms, 94- 
London: British Museum, 11, 41*50, 

79. 90, 95- 

London : Victoria and Albert Museum, 
II — 13, 17, 23 (note), 32, 48, 49t 
5«» 7«. 75. n^ 81, 87, 89,92,94,97- 

Louis XL, 85. 

Louis XI., arms as Dauphin, 69 — 70. 

Louis, duke of Savoy, arms, 68. 

Lucio Marineo, 5, 19, 42. 

Lyons: Exhibition, 1877, 49. 

Majorca, 5—7, 39—48, 5«— 53- 
Malaga, 4. 5. 7> 48, 49- 

Sa also Alhambra Vase. 
Manises, 9, 16,20, 21, 29, 45, 46. 
Manises, lords of, 72 — 74* 
Mannucci arms, 22. 
Margaret, Archduchess, 16. 
Marseilles, 6 (note). 
Martin, King of Aragon, 37. 
Mary (de Luna), queen of Aragon, 

arms, 37. 
Mary (of Castile), queen of Aragon, 

arms, 37, 57—60. 
Maubergeon, Tour de, 24. 
Maurice, J. B., 51, 98 — 99. 
Medici arms, 23, 88. 
Medici vase, 32, 88. 
Migeon, G., 97. 
Minorca, 45. 

Mislata, 9, 16, 20, 21, 99—100. 
Misr, 3. 

Monsoriu, arms, 53. 
Montaner, arms, 53. 



I04 



INDEX. 



Montclos, anns, 53. 

Morel-Fatio, A., 26. 

Morelli arms, 33, 87. 

Muel, 26. 

Muhammad ben Snieyman Attaalab, 19. 

Murcia, 19 (note). 

Murviedro, 19 (note). 



Naplss. See Anjon-Naples. 
Navarre, arms, 55 — ^6, 
Nissiri-Khosrau, a. 



OsMA, G.J. de, II. 



Pagnini, G. F., 6, 46* 47. 

Palermo, 5. 

Palma, 4i> 44' 

Panvinio, O., 53. 

Paris : Exhibition of Mussulman Art, 

1903,69. 
Paris: Mus^e de Cluny, 40, 43, 48 

(note). 
Passi, J. de, 6 (note). 
Patema, 9, 16, 30, 31. 
Pefiafiel, John, duke of. See John II. 

of Aragon. 
Persia, 3, 31. 
Philip " the Good," duke of Burgundy, 

61 — 64, 69 — 71. 
Piccolomini arms, 95. 
Piccolpasso, C, 38 (note), 39 (note). 
Pisa, 6, 47. 
Pius II., Pope, 95. 
Poitiers : Tour de Maubergeon, 34. 
Popplau, N. von, 9. 



Prades, counts. See Aragon. 

„ „ See Folch deCardona. 
Puig, arms, 53—53. 
Puigdorfila, arms, 53. 
Pujadas or Pujades, 53. 
Pujol, arms, 53. 



Rhagss, 3. 

Rhei, 3. 

Riano, J. F., 38 (note), 39. 

Ribagorza, counts. See Aragon, counts 

of Ribagorza. 
Ren6, duke of Anjou, 9, 14, 66 — 67. 
Richard, Maltre, 34. 
Rodriguez Villa, A., 36. 
Rothschild, Baron A. de (collection), 

69, 96. 



Saladin, H., 3 (note). 

Salting, G. (collection), 11, 16, 17, 73, 

77, 81, 89. 
Saragossa, 36, 37 (note). 
Sarre, F^ 4 (note), 5 (note), 38 (note), 

48. 
Savoy, arms, 68. 
Scaliger, J. C, 40, 44. 
Segorbia, 13, 13, 16. 
Seville, 45, 46. 
Sevres Museum, 11, 55 — 58. 
Sicily, arms, 33, 35, 60 (note), 90, 91, 

9«» 93- 
Sicily-Aragon (impaled arms), 33. 
Siena, 5, 47- 

Sienese arms, 17, 31, 33, 83, 95—96, 
Smith, Sir R. Murdoch, 3 (note). 
Spain, Hapsburg kings, 49. 



INDEX. 



105 



Spanish arms, 23, 35, 36—39, 49f 

50—60, 90—93, 97—100. 
Spannocchi anns, as, 95— -96. 
Spannocchi, A., 95—96. 
Spencer, Earl (collection), iif 53. 
SpiUer (collection), 11. 
St. Petersburg, 5. 
Stockholm, 5. 

Tizio, S., 31. 
Toledo, 19, 44, 45- 
Tondi arms, 83. 
Tondi, L. de', 33, 83. 
Tanis,3. 

Urria, Ximenez de, arms, 97. 
Uszano, Giovanni di Bemardi da, 6^ 40, 
46—47- 

Valinci, Jean de, 34. 



Valencia, 3, 7, 8 — 10, 14, 15, 19, 30, 31, 
34, 43i 44, 49i 5i» 53f 58—60, 
72—74. 

Valencia, arms, 34. 

Valois, arms, 65—67. 

Vargas, 40, 47- 

Venice, 8. 

Verre (dal), arms, 33. 

Viciana« M. de, 30, 73. 

Villahermosa, dakes, 93. 

Walus, H., collection, 48, 75. 
Woodward, J., 99 (note). 
Wree, O. de, 63 (note)— 64- 

Xativa, 3, 30, 53 (note). 
Ximenea de Urrea, arms, 97. 

Zati arms, 33, 78 (note), 79. 

Zarita, 90 (note), 93 (note), 100 (note). 



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