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u Banaoh übra 
ty ot C ry 
VI. h . forrua 
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VOL. I. 1343-1800. 


rntercd according to Act of Congress in tbe Y car 1884, by 

In the Office of the Librarian of Congrc:;s, at Washington. 

.All Ri[Jhts Resert.cel. 


PROCEEDING north,vard froln the nlore defined re- 
gions of Spanish llonlÏuation in AUlerica, on reaching 
the forty-second parallel the hit.herto steady course 
of our Pacific States History is interrupted, anù 
after the earliest voyages of discovery ,ve are referred 
to Canada and France, and later to Anglo-Alnerica 
['Ind England, for the origin of affairs, and for the 
extren1e north to Russia. The ow-nership of this 
region, always ignoring the rights of the natives, "
at first some,vhat yague; it "
as disputed by the sev- 
eral European po,vers, France, Spain, and England, 
and after tho first t\yO had retired frOIH the field 
England and the U nitecl States held a bloodless 
quarrel over it. The original doctrine in seizing Ull- 
kno,vn lands ,vas to claim in every direction as far as 
those lands extended, even if it ,va:::; quite round the 
,vorld. Thus ColnulLus ,yould have it, anJ Vasco 
N uñez de Balboa thought that all the shores ,vashec.1 
by the Pacific Ocean ,vere not too great reCOlnpense 
to his king for ha,ving so valiant a suLject as himself. 
France ,vas disposed to claiu1 tì. 011 1 Canada, ,vest to 
tho Pacific, anll back of tho English plantations dOW"ll 
tho yalleyof the G-reat Rivol' to the 
ican Gulf, 
( v ) 



\\ h il t lit Fn
.ði,,'h (' .loBi 
 on t h0 .;. \t1antie l
t ht lr land", 1 ),- t h<. iì'outag.l', thcir depth being the 
\, idth of the 
eHltint'llt. But Spain, 
l'llding her navi- 
l t H.... up tIll' "-t',;tl'rn coa
t, \Ya
 L'llaLlecl l)y di:-;cOYl\ry 
t ) 
,-('un' n bl'tt -r title than could 1)e ulade to rest on 
till l'llthusia:-;lll of a t'10hUllOUS ('1' a 13alboa, or f\YCU 
pll the pOpl"S gelll-ro:..;ity. 'Y'hile Grcat 13ritain and 
tlIt' l-'Ilitl'll State:..; rl'lied on cxplorations and occupa- 
tic In, 
Ol11e.t iUll'''' calling- the forIller di:::;coYcric
, and 
al:-;o on l'llfl)reed or ,uluHtary conceðsious fron1 Spain, 
j-'rancL' a)so f'l'ut an exploring oxpè(lition, follu,ycd 
1)0"" and tIll'l1 by a trader; but she advanced no clainls 
afte -I' parting ,,'ith her bruad Canadian and l\Ii:s:::;is:::;ippi 

I 'c '
....}( Hl
(Jb\ events affecting this arca as a "Thole, 
l)l'fore it,-; diyi
i.)ll intu 
eparate ùOlllains, belong- to 
l'Ltc.h of the SUCCl'l'ding- state
o that the IIistory 
'!I II, ...'"Y"urtlacest ['tuast luay properly be regard cd as 
lilllinar.r to and part of the IIisto)"y (j' ()}'e.rJon, 
the}J'y (!l1ràs/,iJifjtun, Idaho, ClncZ JIontahCl, and 
the IIistuJ'!J (If' B }'itis/i é'ful Zl 111 bia. 
()n the earliest nlaritilne ('xplorati()n
, tho voyages 
()f the fur- tradcr;-;, [I ntI tho f
UllOUB N ootka cOlltro- 
'er"y, I Ita \"c been able to consult lllany itnportant 
clO('Ullllllts not kIlo\Y1l to Grccllho\v, T\vif:;s, and the 
c )tlu1r ,,-ritel':-; of 18JG and earlier years. N ot:1blu 
 t]l<:so ne"T authoritie:..; are the journals of Gray, 
Ilas\\"cJI, \YIJl
hip, Sturgis, al1(1 other ...'-lneriean yoy- 
l'r,;; a]
o the illtprc:--tl ng iteln
 OIl north('rll trips 

1l'c.lllcd frolH the Spalli:.;h arehive:-; of (
ali1-()]'uia. The 
 ()z'eg-oll Quc:;tion, gro\ying out of those earliest 
t ' J)( 'ditiollS ane 1 coutro\-ersies, i
 hcre for the first tiUIC 
11'l:atC( 1 fro1H an lli:
tori("al ratIte!" tIlan a pal'ti
an stand<< 
l" tJ !It. 



During the SUlllnlcr of 1878 I Jnadc ar,} extended 
tour ill thiH territo)'y for the purpose of afIding to 
JllY lllaterial for its history. SOllie printed Jnattcr I 
found not l)cfore in IllY possession. I "
a;:; fortunate 
C'llC)Ugh to secure copies of the letterH of Sitnon 11'raser, 
and the original journals of }"rascr and John Stuart; 
ah;o copies fron1 the originals of the journal
 of ,John 
\V ork and W. F. Tohnie, the private papers of ,fohn 

lcLoughlin, and a InallUt;cript IIistor!J (1 the .L\-r'úJ'th- 
'wcst Cuust by A. C. Anderson. 'Through the kind- 
HCSS of 1\lr John Charles, at the tilDe. chief of the 
I-Iudson's Bay Con1pany on the l
aeific coast, I ,vas 
giycn access to the archives of the fur cOlllpany 
gathered at \Tictoria, and ,vas pern1Îtted to Jnake 
copies of iUlportallt fort journals, notably tho
e of 

Fort I.Jallgley and Fort Sin1pson. But lllost iUl- 
portant of all ,vere the historical and biographicul 
dictations taken fro1l1 the lips of several hundred of 
the pioueers and earliest fur-hunters and settlers then 
liying, by a short-hand r-eporter ,vho accolllpanied 1110 
in IllY travels, and ,vhich ,,,,"ere after\vard \vritten out, 
severally bound, and used in the usual ,yay as 
llHtterial for history. It is scarcely possible to ex- 
aggerate the iU1portance of this inforluation, giyen as 
it \vas hy actors in the scenes represented, lllany of 
,\- hOlll have Rince departed this life, and all of 'v hOll1 
,vill soon be gone. To no sinall extent it is early his- 
torical kno"rledge absolutely rescued fi'OBl obliyioll, 
and \yhich if lost no pfnyer on earth could reproduce. 
('ionspicnous alnong those ",- ho thus bear te
are :\lrs Harvey, ,vho gave 111e a biographical 
of her fatber, Chief Factor )IcLoughlin; John Tot!, 
chief fo:c a tilHe of 1:\ e,y Caledonia; ArehiLalJ :\le- 
... . 1 f t T,-:1 ' rr' 1 1;
T } 1 1 . f 
lnlay, III e large 0 -.C ort \ al a \' t a ia at t le tn:1C 0 



the.... "ThibnnJ1 nl:1

nert'; l
oderi('k.Finlayson, once in 
('hart"'(> of l?ort '....ictoria , . .1-\... C. Anderson, road-lllaker, 


pl( ) rl\ l", and historian. 
The journal, of e'Xplorers find the narratives of 
tra, ellel's l'lllhody in a ,vildcrncss of u
eless rnatter 
'lHlC.h yalual >>ll
 information. The
e works are quite 
rar >; Lut cycn if they "Tcre at hantl, one could ,vade 
throng-h thell1 only at great loss of tÏ1uc. Of these, 
in this part of IllY IIi:-;tory, I have sUllullarized seycral 

cc tr<:,. British and AnH.
rican gOYCrllluent docuulcnts 

.rè fluite full at a later period, ,vhcn England and t
["T" uitcd States carried on their hot disputations on the 

ubj('ct of occupancy. 
The frc
s of the ficld has rendered it to 1110 
l\'Xccûdingly fascinating; of the Inanner in ,vhich nlY 
insm has taken forlll, aUfl of the use I have 
In,.de of IllY opportuuities, the public Inust judge. 





Primary Significance-The Subject in its'Viùest Scope-The Home of 
:Mystery-Historic and l\Iythic Interest-The Conjectural and the 
TI,eal-Origin of the Strait :Myth anù of the Northern :Mystery- 'Vest 
Coast Theories-State of Geographical Knowledge in 1350-In the 
South-east-North-east, Explorations by the Cabots and Cortereals, 
by Aillon, Verrazano, Gomez, Cartier-In the South.west, by Balboa, 
Espinosa, Dávila, CorMs, Alarcon, Ulloa, Cabrillo-Inland "\Vander- 
ings by Cartier, Soto, Cabeza de Vaca, Guzman, Niza, and Coronado- 
1530 to 1600, Frobisher, Ribault, 1\Ienendez, Raleigh-New l\Iexican 
Entradas-Urdaneta, Drake, Gali, Cermeîíon-1600 to 1630, Vizcaino, 
Oùate-Canadian Fur- hunters and Jesuits-Hudson and Baffin-1G30 
to 1700, the Hudson's Bay Company, 1\Iarquette, La Salle, and Padre 
Kino-1700 to 1730, Philippine Galleons-English Frcebooters- 
V érendrye to the Rocky 1\Iountains-Arctic Discoveries-1730 to 
1800, Hearne and lYlackenzie-Escaiante in Utah-Occupation of 
California-Russian Discoveries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 


Field of Conjecture-Mythic Geography-Strait or no Strait-Passage to 
Illdia-Cabots and Cortereals-Ruysch and Schöncr-Amazon Is1es- 
Clavos and Esclavos-ßlaps of 1330-1-Queen of California-Cana- 
dia.n Rumors-Niza's Fictions-Real Explorations of 1540-3-Cíbola, 
Tiguex, and Quivira-Gomara's Blunder-Ruscelli and 1\lunster- 
TImnusio and Homem-A Choice of Straits-Theories of :Mellelldez- 
First Trip through the Strait-Urdaneta-Salvaticrra's Tale- 
Ribault-Tapia-Ortelius' Theatrum-Tolm-Anian-Origin of the 
Kame-Ladrillero at the Strait-:Meta Incogllita-
Iartill Chacke- 
Drake's Pilot-Espejo's Lake and River-Hakluyt-Lol{'s 
the TI.callokc to the Pacific-La Gran Copal-Pcter :Mart.yr-Acosta 
on tIle l\Iy
tery. . . . . .. ................................. _ . . . . . . 32 




\1'0("""\"1'11 \L 'O\.\(;r
 TO 'rIn" ,"ORTIIW}" ;T. 
I.-,!)! ;-1 (iO!). 
J u:n .1(, rUt"'" Prct '1 1 ('11 Di,,("'w('ri( ,,- Thc Rtory to Lo1\:- Presump- 
t 1\ in it Tmth- "-rite'.s (Ill the 
uhjeet-ExaIl1iIlation of 
I:"ill, 1 Hi h 1 ri. aI.m,1 (
raphicaI-D()uht1c.'3 n. Pun' Fiction- 
' - ,,-, ttlil't-Tll<' (
rPllt Xurtln\ est-Ima
inary Coasts, Riy. 
t uud 1'0\\ I; 
 (\Illrad Lli\\""
 Ucmarkablc )Jap-Closc of the Ccn- 
tllr n -(' Ip

in L'lIle< .ter-][crr('r:L-Yi cail1o-
uilar'::; River-As- 
nn lon- TÚI"Iplcmalla-OIÌate-Lake C'opal1a-Ziìío<.;aha. awl Qucen 
lAuacacohola -Tillan-Johll Rmith -
Ialdouado's Pretended Voyage 
thn..IÓh the 
trait of Anian-A Famous Lie. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 





pdl1i h Junta-GarcÍ.\ de 
ilY[t,-A Xf'wPhase-california once more an 
],lan!l-C.lrdoua-Dutch :\Iap-Briggs' Treatise-Salmeron-Del. 
10"0:) Y oyacie-Do Laet- 'Yiuuepegs, or .:\Iell of the 
Uutt'llo anll Casanate on i\ortheru (
bll r-.\n l

.act Dcscription-OgilLy-.:\Iarquette, I-Iellnepin, amI La 
.... Ue-Ppche-Teguayo- PareJcs-Dampier-Luyt-La HOlltan- 
h..Ï.nu and )Iange-IslanJ or Peninsula?-)Iaps of Hacke, HeylYll, and 
HaITi I-ll:.trtholomew Je route's Fictitious Letter-De L'Is';e anJ 
nuache-Uibliogr.lphy of a Hoax-Rogers- Y elarde-Kid-"C garte's 
, I. ':f>-California a Peninsula Again-Sheh'ocke-coxe-DobLs- 
'- -ddmair-Yeti.lncnrt-Ellis-
ew )louth for the Colol'i.lllo-Yene= 

-En6cl-carYer-EllÙ of the :Mystery.".." . . . . . . . .. 100 


 Fcrrclo-DiJ not Pass the Forty-secona Parallel-Francis 
Dr.ll\.( -Hid '.0) :1:;e- Different Versions-The Famous V oyage- The 
"orIll rucompa'3ed-Fletcher's Falsehoo{ls-The Limit cannot be 
1'1' cd-Drake Possibly Reaebed Latitude Forty-three-And 'was the 
Di >(Jvcrer of Ore
on-(;ali's Y oyage not Extending to X orthern 
\rat. -:,dJastian \ïzeaiuo alHL\lartin Aguilar-Point 1St George in 
.1I 4." the X orthern Li mi t- Reyi \'al of Exploration under Carlos 
III. -Expedition of.J lian Perez to Latitude rifty-five-Instruetions 
allfl It lIlt -Xames .\pplicd-Intcreourse with Indians-Discovery 
of XOfJtk..t-The \\1101e Coast })i
coYereJ-Sceond Exploration under 
B.,mo III n( ta to the I'ortv-uinth I>arallcl-First Landinrr in Ore("on- 
J b b 

p..lDiards Kilh.d hy In(lian<;--Diseo\-cry of the Columbia- 
\ oja
p of Botlega y Cuadra, after parting from Heeeta, to the Ii'ifty- 
cióhth l'araHd......................."........................ 137 





l' ,(; E. 

Cn ptain Cook's Expcdi tion- Ins tructiolls- Discoycriesand X ame ;-1Ia p- 
At San Lorenzo, King George Sound, or :K ootka-Orisin of the J'ur- 
trade-Voyage of Arteaga anfl Cuadra. to Ala:;ka-Engli-.;h Fur- 
trad('rs from 178;)-Hanna's Voyages-La Pérouse-Arcbipdago or 
:Mailllalld ?-:Map-- Expedition of Strange, Lowrie, anù GuiRe- :\IcKcy 
at Nootka-Portlock and Dixon-Quecn charlotteI::;les-Barclay 
Discovers the Strait-Duncan and Colnett-:\Iartinez and Haro in 

\.laska-Spanish Policy Foreshadowetl- The Stars and Rtripes in the 
Xort!l Pacific-Voyage of J\:.(;Jl(lrick and Gray on the · Columbia' and 
"Vashington '-An Original Diary-:Mur(lerers' Harbor- 'Yintering 
at Kootka-Voyage of :Meares and Douglas-Uuder Portugue::;e 
Colors-Launch of the 'North 'Vest America'-The House tbat Jack 
Euil t . _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , .. 1 G7 


Voyages of 1780-1\lo\-ements of Kcndrick and Gray-Cruise of the 
'Lady 'Vashingtoll'-End of Haswell's Diary-The Columbia Goes 
to China and Boston-Kendrick in the Strait-Tra(lin:s Trip of Doug- 
las and Fnnter-:Meares in China-A New Partnership-'
 oyage of 
Cornett and Hudson-Plans for a Permanent Establisllluent-
calf's Voyage-Spanish E
pedition under l\Iartinez and Haro-Seiz- 
ure of the 'Iphigenia'-1Iotive3 of Capture and Relea::;e-...'Ì. 
rórt at Santa Cruz de Nntka-Seizure of the 'Korth 'Vest America.' 
-Taking of the '...\..rgonaut' and 'Princess Royal '-Colnett ,-ersu:::I 
1Iartiu{'z-Prizes Sent to San BIas-Restoration hy the Yiceroy- 
The Spaniards Quit Nootka-Americun Policy-1Ierit::; of the Con- 
tro\'ersy- The News in Europe-Spain and England-Diplomacy and 
Impending 'Var-Spain YielLls-The Nootka Treaty.. . . .. . .. . . . .. :!04 


l Reoecupation of Xootka Ly Elisa-Fidalgo's Exploration in the 
Xorth-Quimper in. the Strait of Fuca-His Chart-Colnett antI th
'Argonaut '-X 0 Fnr-tmde-Kendrick's Schemes-E
plorations of 
] i
Jl-The 'San C.írlos' -Elisa's SmTey of the Strait-Hi:i :l\Iap-The 
Xootka Coast-The Transport '..Aram'azu'-
Ialaspinu's Expc<.lit i on 
in the 'DescuLierta' and 'Atrevida'-Thc Garrison-The Eo-ton 
Tru<.lers - Gray a11<l IIaswcll- Kcuùrick - Ingrahalll- 1Iarchaud's 



l1a 'hp-F1< u.ieu's r"..3.."1y-Vo)vges of 17D2-Thc Tradcrs- 
Thu 't' )lumLia H.cdh iva'-nuilllillg of the '_\.Jvcnture '-Haswell's 
In... - 'I
 . Coolidge, TIro\\ n, ::;tC\\ art, Baker, 
hcphcnl, Colc- 
1\,.. ..l. ,u Y L...scls-.l. French Trader-Spanish E:\.ploraLions-Caa- 
D1.lhO in tho :Xorth-Galiano aIllI Valdes on the 'Sutil' and '
l nI.l'-Thr01.1. r h the 
trnit of Fuca-Xavarrete's Summary- Yan- 
cou' cr"s Exploring Expedition... . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. 239 



The Policy of Spain-Delay for Exploration-The Viceroy's Ideas--In- 
b..ructivIlS to the COlmnu.Ûoner-Cuaùra's Investi
ations- Vancou- 
 :;ion-The Commissioners at Nootka-English Claims- 
:--:1 anish Offers-Agreement to Disa.Çree-Conyention of 1'i93-Dam- 
e::s paiJ-Rcyilla Gigedo's Report- Yancouve1"s Second V oyage- 
e Garrison-Sa.."1.vedra Succeeds .Fi,laIgo-Tho Trading Fleet of 
J ï93-Cuaùra. Succeedctl by Alava-Trip of the 'Aranzazu' to Cali- 
ful"nia. - Ca ptain John Kendrick - Vancouver's Thirù Y oyage - 
Traders of 1 ï!H-Treaty of liD4-The Controversy Ended-Alava 
finù Pierce-Final AbanùonIncnt of Xootka. in 1\larch 1703-The 
Iitlt..-The 'Phæni"1.:' of 17D3-Broughton's Yisit-Dorr, the Yankee 
'ìraùcr of 1 ï[U- Rowan anù the 'Elisa' of 17DS-Cleveland's Crl1ise- 
The 'nctsy' of 1800. . . . . . . . . .. _.............."................ 28.1- 


J' 'ston Ships of 1801-Record of lS02-)lishap of the '}lanchester'- 
 on the Coast-Loss of the 'noston,' lS03-)Iassacre of the 
f'rew-Je\\ett's Captivity-Rowan and Brown at Ran Francisco from 
the Xorth-List of löO!-Sml1gglers-O'Cain and bis New Idea- 
1:n8,ian Contracts-Indians ...\.ttack the 'Atahualpa,' 1803-Lmds 
and Clarke's List-Rezánof and his Plans, 180G-coming of the 
'\\ïn...hips-'O'Cain,' 'Derby,' and 'Gl1atimozin' of 1807-'Pearl,' 
'Yauc lu\cr,' and ')Iercury' of 1808-D-The Fur-Inmters of 1810-11- 
'\'Ïnship's Columbia 
ettlement-The 'Albatross'-Voyage of the 
'Tl)nquin '-The' 13ea\-er' of IS12-Effects of the '\Va1'-1'he Traùers 
Blc,ckad,...d-Seizurc of the ')J ercury' and 'Charon,' 1813--captain 

YjJÍ tl1- R. B. )1. Sloop 'TIaccoon' Takes Astoria-The 'Peùler' of 
UH 1-The 'I
aac Todd '-The Nortln\ est Con
pany's 'Columbia' of 
]....l;)-The 'Coknd' in California, 181G-Last of the 'Albatross'- 
l"Ù(lUdcuil's V uyage in the 'nordclais,' IS] 'i-IS-Last of J\laquinna 
and Xootka-Thc l\Icn-of-\\ar 'Ontmio' and 'Dlossom'-Vcsscls of 
1010-40. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .............................. 310 



CI-L.\.PTEll Xl. 



The Sca,-otter-Commcntarics upon It-The Russian :Def;innings-The 
Chinese :MarI
et-Captain Cook's Discoveries-llolts' 1
John Ledyard and his Plans-An Eccentric Yankee-Disheartening 
h Efforts from India-Hanna and his Ji-'ollowers- 
In London-Portlock anù Di
on-French Investigation-La l)
rouse-l\Iarchand's Experience-Beginnings at Boston-Kenùrick 
and Gray-Routine of the Trade-Englishmen versus Americans- 
Perils of the Business-Character of the :Katives-l\lethoùs of 
Barter-Articles De3Ìreù-Statistics-The Trade in Califorllia- 
The English Companies-American Devices-Decline of the Fur- 
traùe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . .. 343 



e of Ownership, in 1739-63, of North America-Discovery-Franee 
in South America and Florida-The Fisl1ennen and Fur-traders of 
Newfoundland and the St Lawrence-History of the Fur-trmle- 
Peltries a Vital Element in Colonization-The Cartier Kephews and 
the St 1\lalo 1,lerchants-La Roche-The Forty Thieyes-Pont- 
graYé-chauvin-De Chastes-champlain-De l\lonts-The rort 
:P..oyal Company-The Jesuits in Kew France-Tadousac Becomes 
the Centre of the Fur-trade-New England and New York Fur- 
trade-Comte de Soissons-The Company of St 
Ialo ana Rouen- 
Champlain's 1Iisrule-The Franciscans Celebrate 11ass in New 
France-The Caens-New France under Richelieu-The Hundred 
Associates-Sir 'Villiam Alexanùer and the Brothers Kirk-The 
IIurons and the Iroquois-Troubles in Arcaùia-Discovery and Oc- 
cupation of the 1Iississippi Valley by De Soto, I\larquette, Joliet, 
La Salle, Hennepin, and Iberville-The Great Fur 1Ionopolies of 
]\cw France-French and Indian \Var-Final Conflict-Treaties- 
Boundaries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 37S 



Korthcrn and 'Ycstern Fur Territory-Physical Features-Habitats of 
Fur- bearing Animals- Y oyageurs-Coureurs des Bois- Anglo- Amer- 
ican Trapper-His Cha.racteristics Compareù with Those of the 
French Canadian-Boating-Brigadcs-Runlling TIapids-Travel- 
Dress- Fooù -Caching. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 40-1 





1 GO';-l S-!3. 


rly rnrrlL,h Di::,con.rv-Helll'y Hudson-Grosseliez and TIabisson, 
. 0 oJ 
.\8 ('d 11) Prin
e Rupert, from the Hudson's Day Company-The 
(.hurt :-Territorial Limits of the Company-The :Frcnch Invade 
l:llpl'rt WillI-The Planting of I-\Jrts round Hmlson J3ay-J3ounda- 
ric -The Trea tv of r trecht-Character amI Policy of the Corpora- 
tion-TcrritoriaÌ Diyi
ions-)Iatcrial of the Hudson's nay Com- 
l.auy-Illllcr \Yorkings of the 
Tradb-Illtercour::;c hetween Posts-l>rofits-Parli:unelltary Sanction 
vf t 1 1C Cro\\ n Grant. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 437 

CH...\.PTER XV. 


tion of the Term-The Erection of a Fort a Special Favor, and 
Occa::;ion of Rejoicing-A Depot or Factory-Architecture and Con- 
strudion-L>...amples of Several Forts-York Factory-}'ort Garry- 
Fort "ïlliam- Fort Edmonton-Fort Franklin - rort Vancouver- 
Fort 'Yalla '\Yalla-Fort Rupert- '\Y yeth's Establishment on '\Vapato 
hland-l.'ort Hall-Fort Yukon-Fort Yictoria-Ground Plan of 
rort Simpson-Rendezvous-Life at the Forts.. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 482 



I GO.J-.1853. 
Shore of Xew England-Hollanders on the Hudson-The New Nether- 
lands Company-The S\\ edish '\Yest India Company on the Dela- 
ware-Henry }'leet on the Potomac-Comparisons between the Fur 
Busincss of Canada and the United States-Percolations through the 
.-\lle 6 hanies-The Fur-tra<.1e of :Katchez-The Ohio Company-La- 
d.:ùe, 1\la"\.an, and COml):lny-Auguste and Pierre chouteau-In- 
roads from 
Iichilimackinac-St Louis in lS03-Trappers on the 

Iissouri-The )fi:.;souri Fur company-Astor's Projects-The Amer- 
ican 1'ur Company-The Pacific Fur Company-The South-west 
('oml'any-The Columbia Fur Company-The Xorth American Fur 
( olllpany-The Hocky l\Iountain Fur Company-Sublette, J3ri(lger, 
Fitzpatrick, and Pierre Chouteau the Younger-James Pursley and 
the ()pclling of the Santa 11'é Trade-B. Pratte and company- 
1knt awl Ht Yrain-Gaunt, Dripps, J
lackwell, awl FOlltenelle-Kit 
on, Pilcher, J3onneyiHe, 'Yalker, and "Tyeth-The RenJezvous- 
The Colorado I
asin awl California-The chiuLì. Trade-The Califor- 
Did Fur-tradc-Jcdcdiah Smith-Vattie....... ... . . . ... . . . . .. . . .. 409 




Different Views of 
aY3gism by Different Europeans, according to their 
Reveral Jnkrests-Unitell 
 Policy-Humane Intentiohs- Vil- 
lainy of A
cnts-Bor(ler Atrocities-Policy of the Xorthwest and 
Htllisou's nay Companies-The Iuterests of Gold-seekers, Fur Com- 
panies, awl Settlers Contrasted-System of "ïfe-taking-Half- 
breeds-Intoxicating Drink-:Missionaries. 0 . . 0 0 . . . . . . . . . . . 0 . . . .. 0 0 





Character of the 
Iontreal Associates-The French Régimc Reyicwcd- 
Traùe at 1\Iichilimackinac- The :Montreal 
Iel'chants Penetrate 
Korth-westwarù ::m<1 Form a Commercial Copartnership-Disaffec- 
tionists form the X. Y. Company-Union of the Two Factions- 
Internal Ilegulations of the Northwest company-Thc Grand Port- 
age-Early Voyages from ::\Iontreal to Lake Superior-Felltlal Glo- 
ries of :Fort \Yilliam-\Vars bûtween the Northwest Company and 
the Hudson's Bay Company-The lted TIiyer Affair-Fusion of the 
T\vo COlllpanies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 . 0 . 0 0 . . . . . 0 531 


t7nknown North-wests-The North-west of New France-champlain- 
Brebamf-::\IC'snard-Allouez-)Iarquette find Joliet-La 
alle and 
Hcnuepin-Grosscliez and Radisson-La Hontan-The 
tory of 
Joseph La France-Vérendrye, the Fmo.lnmter, Proposes to Fit Out 
an Expedition-Character of V érelldl'ye-Govcrnor-gcneral lleauhar- 
nais Heganls the l)lan }'avorably- V érel1l1rye's copartnery and 
Route-EmLarkation-Erection of }"orts-
lassaere at Lac tIes Bois 
of Young V érenJrye, Père Anncau, and Twenty ::\Ien-Discovery of 
the Rocky l\Iountains-Yérenùrye's Iteturll anù Death-Infamous 
Conduct of Canadian Officials-Ach-entures of l\Iollcacht Apé- 
Carver's SIJeculatiolls-Hearne's Jouruey-Pike's Expcditions- 
Long's EXl)lorations. . . . . . . . 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 . 0 . . . 0 . . .. 58.3 


Historical Consèquences of the Position of the Conlil1eras-Physical 
cogral'hy of the 
Iountain Region of the 'Y cst-The Rocky :\IOUll- 
taill Passes between the Arctic Ocean and the Forty-ninth Parallel- 
sc::! through the Coast Hauge-Through the ltocky 



1tf'twcC"n Latitudes 19 0 :md :J2!t-Paths across the Plateau-The 
 aTa Xt'\\:m Dcrnardino 
Ioulltaills-Thc Colorado Region- 

ut('s throu
icrra l\Iadre-Tbe Eastern llange- 
The Isthmus 
nn(l C
'ntr.ll ...\merican Passes-Historical and Ethno- 
gra},hic Significance of the TIoutes from the Atlantic to the l")acific- 
The XorthwC-it Passage-The Korth American Situation-Routes to 
.Á\b:a. Etbllogr
1>hically Consiùered-Historical Conclusions.. . . . . . .. GIG 




Ori;in, Occupation, and Character of Alexander 
Iackenzie-His Jour- 
ney to t11(' Arctic Ocean and Return-Embarks at Fort Chepewyan 
for the Pacific-ProceeJs up Peace River-'Vinters at Fort Fork- 
Continues his Journey the Following 1\Iay-Arrives at the Finlay 
Branch-Turns Southward into Parsnip River-Ascends a Branch 
of Stream to its Source-Portage at the Great Divide--Descends 
FÁH.l TIivcr to the Frazer, which the Party Follow as far as Quesnelle- 
Return to a Trail above 'Vest Road River-Strike out Overland for 
the 'Yestern Ocean-Route-Arrive at Friendly Village-Great 
Yillage-ll:1scals' Yillage-Rcach the Sea at Bentinck North Arm- 
Obsen-atiolls-Traces of Yancouver-Return-Trouhles with thE' 
Xathes-Xarrow Escapes-Reach Fraser River-Arrive .at Fort 
Fork-The Joun'ley Completed. ... ... ... .... .... .. . ... ... ... .... Güû 




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Sturgis (\\ïlliam), Xorthwest Fur Trade. IlllInnt's )Icrch. ::\lag., '\.i,-. .,):i:?; 
The nrc
on Question. Boston, IS-l.;. 
Sutil y 
Ie:\Ì(;alla, !tdaeion del Viage hLCho pOl' las Golctas. ::\ladrid, ISC2; 
atlas. -lto. 
Swan (.Jamps n.), The Xorthwest Coast. Xew York, 18.3;; Scrap Book. 
Symon!:;, Heport on thc Cppcr Columhia. 

1':lché (:\racgrcgor), Sketch of the Xorth 'Vest of America.. 
IontreaI, IS70. 
Taylor (.\Icxander
.), Articles ill f'alifon1Ïa Farmer; Rist. Summary of Lo\\ er 
( 'alifuruia. In 1 h'O\\' 11e 's 
I in. !tcs.; 
lcmorials of J Hall dc Fuca. In 
Hutchings' Cal. 
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Texas, DOCU1Uf'ntos p IIistoria Eclesi:ístiea. y Civil. ::\I
Thomp..,on, Npcech in U. S. H. of !tep., Jau. 28, J84û, on Oregon Question. 
""ashillgton, l
ThonlC (RoLert), The};ooke made Lythe ri
htworshipfnl. III I [akluyt's '
uy., i. 



Th )rnbn (.T. Q'linn). Or(\rron Histor
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(-\II ...tioll. 'Y.I..hil1, rtun. 1:-: W. . '>. , 
TILh.n I1t f \ P.). l..t;()ritdlt'
ko\.. Oh,)Snmle. 
t Pc
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"ols. T . 
T' Tam:uiz (Jo. 'ph), Iufonnc subre AcontecllnlCutos. In Vmgero Llll- 
\l n..l1. xx, i. 
T òe.l (.John), 
C\\ Caledonia.. 
hlU\. (\\ïlliftUl F.). .Journal. 1
:t :\1
. T 
T alu.h (\\ïlli.ul1 l'.), Pug
ouncI aml. 
orth "e8
lS.... . 
T In lint (C ;l.
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:!1. Ho. 
 yol:,;. . 
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t. J i"
)' Iu 
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o yol'1. 
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,,( tt rll '( '1. 
Y'" : 01 u.ri&mn , lJiH
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xx xiii 

Viagero Universal (EI). M:
drid, liDG-ISOl. .t
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 viagcs en b. goleta C([minante, 
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scriptionis Ptolemaicæ AUbTJIlcntum. Lova.nii, 1.j!)7; His- 
toire univer
elle des IndC's Occi(lelltalc
. Douay, 1007. 

 'r,. ''9 , ' >, 1.',. 
.r-""r, c. 
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,I I 







 OF TilE 
TIn: C_\J
TO 1800, HE.\RX.E _\XD 

EVERY ago, as rro
ented to us by history, display
SOlnc f(.atures better and fo'OlllO ,yoJ'::;e than the cor- 
respunding characteri
tic:--: of our o"
n ago. There are 
so-called gulden ageR, in ,vhieh honor i:-; Lt.;::;lneared ,,
uch as tilDes ,vere never cur
ed ,,
ith Lefore; 
and there are bra
s ages and iron ageB, in ,,
hich there i::; 
truth and hcroi
lll, if Bot RO lunny of tho cOlllely and 
S,,'cpt hUlnanitics of life. IIulnan progrC8:5 is like the 
VOL. I. 1 


T COJ:\.

 of ()ccan, Cy(ìr circulating bct\ycen equator and 
pole " 
cl.king- C'C]uilib.riulll of tClnpcrature and it level, 

 rL:-,t anti fiHdln
 none. . 
\ <it )Hlinant feature in N ortlnyest Coast dIscovery 
l \"xplorat ion is royal lucntlacity. 
Iar.itiln; lying 
r, achl..... thl
, and LOl"(lerb on the heroIc. Enough 
i.... k HO\\-n of clinlatc:-; and cOllngurations to 
orlll ba

ftU" t'n(Uc
s irllagining
, aud Hot enough III certaIn 
 to rct'lder detcction likely; the l
}.IitHI once luaòe up to Oycl'look the audacIous In- 
clifll'rcnce to truth on the part of navigators, and he 
\,ill find their tales not al \va'y

The tern1 X orth\ycst Coast, as defined for the pur- 
PO"è of this hi
tory, includes the territory kno\vn in 
later tinle
 as Oregon, \Vashington, and British Co- 
IUlul)ia. ]
xploration naturally occupieR the first place 
in it"i annals; nn( I thu earliest exploration herc, as in 
l11o:,t I lart
 of the X C\V 'V orld, is Inaritilno. The his- 
torian'=-, fil':,t ta
k i
 to present, ill chronologic order, 

ive yoyagcs Ly \yhich the coast of the 
,.; tern ocean fro 111 latituòe forty-t\vO to fifty-four 
Borth bC('anlÛ knu\vn to Europeans, and on "Thich 
".cre fuulHIcd di\Tcrs t"laÏ1ns, Ulorc or less conflicting, 
of national o\\Yllcr.....hip. Later \YO \vill observe inland 
tra vclIcr:--:, and folIo,,? t hen1 allliòst their ,vanderings 
Oy 'f the luighty ,,-cstern slope, and as far north as tho 
roht'n Sea. In its narro"
est lin1Îts the subject first 
prl'sents it:-,ûlf in tho fOl'lll uf the gcoO'raphical ex- 
] )loration of an ullkllO\Vll seaboard son1
 seven hun- 
(Ire,} anti fifty lnilcs in extent. 
llt it ha
 a bruader RCOpC. .J ust as Prince Henry's 
a.f(I .gropings the African coast acquire 
tlu'n' (")llC
t anJ nnpol'tancc as part of a grand 
;.: .hellIü ()f. (loul)llng the capo and. opcning a ".ay by 

ea to Indla; (1::; the fir
t ÙI:..wovCrICf4 of Colulnbus in 
t.h ' far \\.e-:;t 
r? fa-.;cina.ting, not only in Lringing to 
ht the P?
ltlon,. outlInc, anù products of certain 
l'..lal1d.." but III the Idea of the great explorer's fancied 



approach to thc reahnH of thc Grand lChan, and in the 
real but unslu.;pccted nearness of a ne,v continent; as 
the h;thn1Ïan coa,,;til1g
 an(l plundering:-" a long chapter 
of (Hltr:.p r o anù ùi
aster , arc linked in the reaùer's mind 
,\"ith 13ulLoa's grand (liscoyery of a nc,v ocean, anù 
\\rith thc rich provinces locate(l Ly Spanish iU1agina- 
tioll on its 
; a
 J>ortugucsc progrc:o,s, stcp by 
Htep llo\yn the ]3raziliau coast, ,va
 but a prelude to 
::\Iu.r<..Jlau's yo''"ao'cs iuto the Pacific and round the 
 J 0 
,\"ol'IJ; as Ponce de Leoll'
 nanlC suggests not the 
hèS of Florida RO TI1uch as thc fountain of youth; 
as tho ploddings of Cortés 011 and about tho stcrile 
Californian l')ellinsula ,yore hut COll1U10npiaco achieve- 
 for the conqueror of )[exico cOluparcll ,vith 
,\rhat he hopell to achicyc and ,vhat hc bought, the 
 uf pcarls and Hpiccs and r\nutzon:-" tho èstrc(;hú, 
and the route to InJia; alul a
 N ü\y )Iexiean Pueblo 
to\vn rcalities, \\Tonùcrful as they are, pale into in- 
Hignificancc before thc ilnaginary splcndors of the 
cities that Cabcza de \T aca hcard of, the Cíbola that 
lrcos do Niza vi
itcd, and thc Quivira built up like 
an air castlo 011 Coronado's nlodest picture of a "Tig_ 
,valll to\Vll on thc northern plains-so this northern 
coast of thc Oregon 11lUSt ever bc less falnous histori- 
eally for ,vhat ,vas found there and for the adYenturc
of tho
e ,yho found it, than for ,vhat ,vas sought in 
vain, and \vhat ought by current coslnography to have 
been found. IIcre opcned into the broad Pacific the 
Htrait of .L\nian, hy ,vhicIt 
hip:." ,,
hen once the en- 
trance on either side "'"as found, n1Íght sail ,yithout 
hinderance froll1 ocean to ocean. IIerc, on either siJe 
the strait, luanifolll \Yoll(lcr
 and Inysterics had thcir 
iLle seat for mon,' than t\VU 
fIere, at and about an i
lan(l standing oppo
ite the 
entranC0 of a strait that lacked only ll\ugth to afford 
the de:::;ircd interoceanic cOlnlllunicatiün, nU8
ian ex- 
plorers calllC dO\\ï1 fron1 thc Ülrthcr nurth and Blot 
Spani:..;h ex] )IOrCl.:-; fl'Ol11 the 
outh, \\T hilc othcr
, Engli
and .L\..ll1erieall, intruded thclll::;clycs and gaincd for 

t Ill,ir TC'c:pceti\"c nations pcr!nancut posf.;
s l?ct,vcen 
thc,.... · of ;--:pain an(l RU
sla. )[uch hIstorIC Interest 
1('IH\"" tl11\TCforo to thi
 portion of the ,,,'cstern Rca- 
},1):1rc I in l'olnpari:-.\)ll ".ith other part
, independcntly 
of the nnihir l'1L'lnents in tho Xorthcrll }\Iystery 
".hich ecntr(\:-\ here, a11el uf tho fascinations naturally 
attaching tu the <li
co,:cry of nc\\'" regior: s . I haye 
tn f()llo\\- thcn the naXIO'ators of four natIons ,,
"0 . 
Y(\=--='l\ls cntl'rcd the ".ater8 of the northern PacIfic 

tatl':-\: and besides to Inake the reader Üìlniliar 'Y1th 
 in the 
alne tlirection pr?cecling .and lea
tl) :l( discoycry. ::\loreovor, SIncc COllJccture IS to 
1) \ r 
corJcd no le

 than the kllo,vn, theory preccdi!lg 
31Hl o'.cr
hado".ing kllo,,-ledge, I have to note the 
rll1nors on ,,-hich theories ,yerc luade to rest, also many 
 ,vhich ,vcre ne,cr made, but only described 
hy illlaginatiyc navigators. .L
nd finally, the l1lytlúcal 

trait had an opening on the ...J\..tlantic as ,yell as on 
tll · Pacific, else it \\
erú Bot "
orth searching for and 
th .orizin
 about; and the eastern no less than tho 
tern outlet ".as sought for diligently in voyages 
". hich therefore bccome part of the matter under COl1- 

It ".ill be 
eon that this topic of north-,,"'estern ex- 
}Þloration in its broadest scopc, and ,,
ith all its precc- 
dent conncctions, nlÏght properly enough be 111ade to 
fill a YO}UIDé. Thcre arc circumstances, ho,vevcr, 
".hi('h. ,yill cnahle n;e to !e
trict an exl
austive pre- 

atlon ()
 the subject "?lth1!l conlparatlvely narro,v 
. ChIcf rrIuong these Clrcumstanccs is the fact 
that the exploration of regions south of the forty- 

 '(.Oll( I pa.rall
l, l,oth 1 
ea and land, has been fully 
reeordé<l In c:?ery . ùcslrab.le 
etail ir
 the preccding 
 of tl11H serlC::;; ,ylnlc like partIculars of explo- 
 In the 
xtrcIll? nor
h, lcss cs
cntial to the prcs- 
('!It purpo
e, ,
.I1! Le gIYCn In a later yolunle on Alaska. 
'1 !lC 'rcfC)r
 brIef and HUllllllary allusion to mattcrs 
"lth ".luch the reader i
 fallliliar ".ill often suffice 
"here othcr\\9i""e luore lllinute treatrl1unt \vould be re



quired. Repetition there Blust be in :-\onlO phaseR of 
tlle Bul 
ect, IJut only in those bearing Jircctly Oll the 
general re
ult. ..\..gaill, I Lelicvc that in the case of 
fictitious voyages aud groundle:-;s theories, rc
iug' ".hotoiû character TIlodel'n kno\vledge leaves no 
ible doubt, lllost of the cirCulllstalltial evidence 
h filh; the page
 of earlier ,vritcrs for or agaiu:-\t 
their authenticity and HUUIH llle;::;s lllay no\v be ".iscly 
OlllÌttCJ. Detailed description l11ay alsu profitably 
gi \
e ,,'"ay to geueral 
tatelllent in presenting expedi- 
tions tu the IH n-thern Atlantic coa::;t<:; in the vain 
search for a ] )assao'c leadin(f tu the Pacific. .As in 
<::> ..., 
other part:., of this ;-;eries, detailed inforluation con- 
cerning the aburigina] inhabitant::; of the region
explored is of course oll1ÏtteJ from the annal:-; of 
exploration, fur that ha
 Leen prescnted llluch 1110re 
c(Hllpletely than ,voultl be pussible here in the .i.\T"ati(e 

 llie J)aciJic Stales. 

It is ,vel] at the outset to state clearly, even though 
it ill vol ves repetition, the origin of thc cO
11ly::;teries in ,vhich the northern parts of Alncrica 
o long 
hroudetl; for they did not re
ult \y holly 
frolH the f
tct that tho::;e reO'ioll
 "'"ere the last to be 
T" 0 
explored. Thc 1\ orthel'll ::\I.Y
tery "Ya
 a 'YCstel'll lny
tOl'.v at first, if, illdc0d, a 111ystel'Y at all. Cohnnbu
Sl:t úut froln Spain ,yith the expe
tatiun that by fol- 
lo\viug' a ,ve::;terly cour::;e acrO::;8 the great ocean he 
,\'ould reach the Asiatic coa
t and i:o)lanJs de::;cribc{l 
by Pulo and l\Iandeville. By a furtunate under- 
estÎ1natc of the di
tanco to IJe traver:-jed, the i
oa:-;t ,\ erc found to agree suo::;tantially in po
tioll and trend ,yith the currcnt chart
 and descrip- 
tion:,. The navigator'H theories, agreeing in the l11ain 
".ith thc theorie
 of his cuntelnporarief, and predo- 
, "yore verified; the enterprise ,\yas 
aud all that rt'lnailleJ to be dune "
 to follu\v the 
.....\..::;Ïatic eoa
t"Yar(l to the rich proyinccs 
of Iudia. l"his ta
k presentcd no difiicultie
; but 


T CO_\

ht'forc ('ir UIH
tan("l':-; pcrulitted it to l!t- exec
ted a 
n.-". land \\.a
 fountl in tho :,uuth, not laIll dO\\-Ulll. tl
c ,hi ehart:.:, antI tuc) far ('a
t to be part of the .L\.suttlC 
lHain. 1'he ('()nelu
ioll ".a
 iUl1nediate and natural; 
the He". land \\ a
 Silllply a largo i
land, separate but 
no Very f;lr di:.;tant frolH the luain, and not kno,vn to 
.:\larco 'Po]o and tIlt"' ro
t. The no\\r discovery, ho,v- 
e\.cr, t)ffercd no olJ
taclc to tho old theories or to the 
l;d yoyag-c to India; yet in coasting south- 
".c:-,t".arcl the Spaniard::; ,,"oulù have to pass bet\vecl1 
the continent 
HHI the i::;land. This passagc 111USt be 
trait; and thiR "-as indeed 'the strait,' although 
in it:s earlic
t }5tagc uf developlllCnt not a passage 
through a continent, but bet\vocn Asia and an off- 
lying island. 
But 3<3 tiule pac::sed and explorers converged frolll 
the north tln(l buuth they could find no strait, only 
lanù. This" a
 an obstacle indeed. True, the passage 
Lcin. r narro\v 11liO'ht vet cxi
t , hnxin[! eluùed inade- 
\::) oJ. '--' 
quate search; othcr\visc geographical theories 111USt 
1). SOllle\vhat. reconstructed, the old charts and de- 

criptiunH IJoing in úrrol', The correction, though in- 
criou-; difficulties in the direct navigation 
to J ndia, ".as one that readily suggested itself. The 
 of the old "Triters \",ere not very definite, 
and their kno\yledge of the regions farthest north ,vas 
"'ari]y vague; apparently, then, unless the strait 
coul( 1 yet IJC foun(l, t.he nc\v land-really South 

rica.-instead of beino- a detached island off the 
t of ..t\sia, lllust he a 
outh-\Yestern projection of 
that coast fronl a point farther north than any kn(HVn 
t ) t
lC geo
\.s tho years passed on and no 
htnllt ".a-.; found; a:-; Kuecessive voyages developed the extent of the southern I )rojection; as the Isth- 
llllan cxplorer:-:; 1 )rought to light the South Sea shore
as the great PUl'tugu(..:se nayig-ator crosRed tho Pacific 
(UlC! 111,-1(..1e kno".n thl; illlloons
 Ht.retch of "Taters sepa- 
 the no,," l:uH Is frorn IndIa; as Cortés and his 
IUl'U revcal('c] the fact that :\lexieo al
o had ih; \vestern 

p .\).-r:SII EFFORT. 


t-thû last l'onjccturc hccalnc convi
tion and 
loro than thi
, it lJcc
unÛ cvident that not 
ouly '\.a
 the X e\V \''T orJ(l a projectioll of the .L\siatic 
Blain, but that all tho IlC\\. di
coveries belong-e(l to this 
N c;\\" \ VOl'ltl projection, al1<l that all the i
lallds and 
J}utin land of Cuhullbu<:3 and the rc
t, \\.crc ycry far 
frolH the r ndia ".hich had Leen iU1agined so ncar. 
Yet there remained hut little doul)t that all "TaS part 
of _ \
ia, a pr
jectiull still, though an iUllllcnse one, 
frolll a reo-ion f
trthcr north. .All ( 1 the iùea that there 
ourrht to Le a 
trait sOlnc,vhèrc had bÚcollle too 
fi11111 Y rooted to he u1andoned. 1 here \yere tho
,vho thong-ht the strait ll1Ìght yet ".ith clo
cr search 
be fouull in :;outhern regions; 1l10;;;t Lelicved it ".ould 
IJe found in the north ju
t beyond the liulit of explora- 
tion; ,,
hile others, rc:-;olved to be fully abre
tst of 
futuro reYelatiou
, placed 
everal straitH at convenient 
 on their lnaps. 
N(",\r the currcnt idea anlong the n10
t C01l1petent 
n1l:11 (jf the tilDe ,vas for thl.: lllost part accurate and 
\veB founded. All that rcnlained to Le done ,va
folIo,," the ".esterll coast, at first north, then \vest, 
anù finally south, to India, finding the strait on the 
,yay if any exi
ted. Tho only error ,vas in vastly 
tiinating the length of the route. I t ,va 
not long, ho,vcver, before exploration 'ya
beyond the fortieth parallel. 
Ican,vhile Spanish 
energy in exploration and conquest had greatly de- 
clined, though Spain'
 conl111ercial intcre
 in South 
Sca ".ater
, over \\' hich she clailned to cxerci
e e
clusi \"e dou1Ïllion, had aSB1Ul1ed iUllllense iluportance. 
Spain had no strong dc
il'e for territorial pOSI..}C

in the t
lr nurth after the geographical rclation
that region to IIHlia hatl bccome Lettcr knO'\ïl; and 
it soon LeC:lIllC apparent that the discu\.cry of tho 
:::;trait ,voul(l Lc no benefit but a pù::,itiyo disaåyantage 
and lIlenacc to Spain. 
 it "[l:-, iUlpo)'taut, 
and l:vcn luore urgent than before, to filHl the 
nut a
 a shorter route to the Spice I
lalld::;, but that, 



in po
;..ion of 
paill, it nlight be cl(wcd to tlH' lUìYÌ- 
('Y'" lt or", of other l1ation
. [1\)1" the foreig-Ilcl'


 'ckiuu' it; there "
ere even current reports 
tha'; thl\"" hall fl
uIHI it, cOllcealing the fiLet; and the 
If frL'cbl'otcn
 ill South Sca ,vatcr
ed no 

little au"il'ty on tIll\ :-;ul)ject. 

Il'all\\.hi10 thcorizillg ,yent on, supplemented by 
e:\:\fr(rt'ration antI 'fill:-\uhooll. Each navigator to the 
north, on either 0 
ean, brought back inforn1ation true 
or t
hieh ser'"eJ a
 fuel to the RaBlc. The strait 
uIHlouhtedl,. cxi:-\ted; each indcntation on either shore 
llUl",t Le r
'garJl'd a
 its entrance till the contrary 
 I )}Ooved; and that Leino" P roved, the indentation 
. '=' . " 
nc:\.t north 111u
t he the rIght onc. "It ,vore a pity, 
thouO'ht the ll::tyi(ratur ,,-hen at or near a 2'ulf, Lay, 

 0 LJ 
or ri\"er he 'Ya
 prevented by stornlS, scurvy, or other 
unto".ard eirCulllstanees fron1 
ailing through to the 
Pa<:ific or to tho Atlantic, "it were a pity that another 
ðhould illllllurtalizc hilllself by the rediscovery of ,vhat 
I ha, c found;" and fortll\vith he próceedeù to protect 
lory by an explicit description of ,vhat he had 
bCl n ull the point uf 
coing. Others required no 
actual \ oyage as a foundation for their falsehoods, 
but boldly elaÎIned. to have navicrated the strait froln 

OCéan to ocean; and fo\v interested in the subject Lut 
C'ould fill<l a sailor ".hu had a(,col1lpli
hed one of these 
intcroCcilnic c:\.pedition:-;, or at lea
t kne,," another ,vho 
had (lone :--0. .L\.nd the fablcs current did not relate 
,,-IH Illy to the lucre exi:-;tence of tho strait, but ex- 
nd('d to the ,vonders bordering it on cither side. 
1. r:l ,"clIerH L
T sea. and. lanJ brought back tales of great 
f'Itll'''; allf! rIch provillees, al,vays farther north than 
thf' rl'
ioll thcv had yi::;ited. The natives ('aucrht the 
. .
" '=' 
f-.p1l1t (If thp tUllCS, aud hecan1e adroit in iuvcutino- 
llortht'rn J1Htrvf'ls for the cntertaiulllent of th
. Therè is Inueh reason to Lelicvc that the 
1:UllOU" and fabuluus tra(litiOll of an aboriO'inallnicrra- 
. fT I . ð b 
tI()1l 0 0 t 'c aBt 1 .r\ztt'c trIbes frum a northern centre 
uf ei viliL:ation had 110 uther origin. 



There ,vere those ".ho :--\ought to utilize the Xorthern 
)Iy:-;tery {(n' the :\(h all("ülllent of their o\vn illtere
chenles. COIHlui:-.;tadore:-; \\Yere Hot '\
antil}g \\yho 

too(l prcparefl to (lupli<:ate in the far north the 
ac11 ieveuH.'nts of 1 [urBan Cortés; friars doulJted Hot 
that there a,vaitc(l the r<.'apillg a groat lun'vest of 
llortherll HOlds; all<.l explorcr:-) \vere rea(ly to lIlake Ilè\V 
pcditiOl)S at the royal co:-;t. 
rhere 'Ya
 a COll
strealll of lllcillorials on the iUlportauce of northern 
oecupation; and thû \\Titcr
 llC\yer failcd to Inake the 
lllost of cnrrcnt rU1Ilors. 'Y" et for all tho real and Í1nngi- 
nary nrgenc,Y of the lllatter, aI1(1 the pressuro Lrought 
to Ll\ar on the throne, su occupied "Yero the t;pauish 
rulers ,vith othcr aflitil's, or so cOlllpletely had died out 
th<.\ ad vcnturous spirit of old, all< 1 
o unpl'oJuctivo 
,\yere the few \veak efl()rts Blade, that for t\VO (;entu- 
rief1 little or nothing ,va
rhcn, late 
in the eighteenth ceutury, in the tillle of C(írlos III., 
there \va
 a reviyal of exploring energy. All the old 
llloti \ eS ,vere 

et potent; and a IH.'\\V cau
e of alarm 
appeared, the fear of l{u
sian encroachnlent frolll tho 
t. A 
crie8 of. voyages ,vas undertaken and 
carried out by Spain; Engli
h ana AIIlericall explorers 
lllade their appearance un the coa
t; the l{ussians 
'Vere there already; HJl<1 soon hut little of luy:-.;tery 
 left. X 0 
trait of .L\..lliau "Ya
 fuuud. There ,vere 
nOlle of the llHlr\Tcllous things that had been so freely 
attriLutecl to the latitudù
 Let\\"cen 40 0 and GOo; but 
there Was a ,vcalth of furs for those inclined to atl- 
 conllHerce, and there "Y:lS a tcrritory of 
sufficient yalue to iUHpiro sonlO petty national <luar- 
re]s. Thc
e discoveri
:-;, n nd vthcrs ùf about the 
date in the northern .L\.tlalltie, practically put an cnd 
to tho 
 orthern l\Iy
tel'Y so far as it related to a nayi- 
gaLlo chanllcl in BloJerately telnperate latitudes, a8 
loeated b y the na\yio'ators ,vIlo ha(1 sailed throuO"h the 
. , ;:) 0 
cont1l1cnt frolH ocean tv ()eeaU; though ]uany year
had yet to pas
 l,ef<-H'o belief ill the old llarrative
 could Lc eradicated. 



_\IHl after all, tIlt.' Xurthern )Iystcry ,yas still a 
potL'nt illL'L'utiYè tn 1l1aritill1C ellJ
a '"or. It Ineroly 
took &lnothcr '-'tcp llortln,-ard, ns 
t ha(1 of
cn dOI
1 )l'f
)rL'. 111 .Arctic rl'
iOllS the straIt :.;eparatu1g AHHl 
 \ Bu.'rica ".ac; t-:tiÌl sought a:-; diligently aH c\"'er; 
a 11.(1 aftl\r llH1ny. ).<'

ll"S it ".a
. Oue 11l
:,atled throucrh It, frotH the ...\.tlantIc to the 1 acIfic, 
aftl\r the 1u....::;0 of hunùrolls of livc:3 ill yaiu efforts. Anti 
yet ('Ile 11101'0 l:ctreat has the llly
tory-ill the faluous 
.. open 
ca'. a
 the I
orth pole, ,,"here it c:rcn y?t v1ud
the pur:-:lut In ,,"Inch brave 111Cll arc st.:JI IO
lng theIr 
. J)ri\
cn the north pole, ,vhithcr ,vill the 
phantollll)ctake it::;elf? I Jo not kno,,". Judging frolll 
the past, this is the only lllystery about the matter 
not likely tu be oXplaincd in the near futurò.. 

__\fter thi
 prclin1inary sketch of the ,,
hole subject, 
let us glancc at the exact condition of North Alncri- 
can exploration in 1550. .L\Jl the Iuaterial nceded 
for tho purpú:,e is contained in the' Suunnary of geo- 
graphical l\.llo\vlcdge and discoyery ii'oIll the earliest 
rccor(ls to tho year 1540,' publi
hcd in the first Y01Ulne 
of Iny IIistory (1 C'entl'(ll ..tlìJu!rlcCl, suppl<.:anented in 
later YOIUllle;:, of thi-.; series Ly luore detailed accounts 
of such yoyages as directly concern the Pacific States 
territory. ]
et\veel1 1492 and 1550 European nayi- 
, ,,-ith those of 
pain far in the lead, had dis- 
coyered a N e\v '\T orld, and haù explored its coast line 
onle thirty thousand lniles, froln 60 0 on the At- 
lantic coa
t of Labrador rouud Ly 
IaO'cllan Strait to 
.. 0 
abo\ C 40 0 un the l
acific. It ,,"as a grau(l achiovcnlont, 
unparalleled in the pa:-;t and 110\"'cr to be equalled in 
the future. 
On the _\tlalltic side, from Darien to )j-'lorida, the 
a'jt aud i
lands had beon visited by COIUlllbu
111:-- yoyagcs uf IJ
2, 1-193-5, and 1502; Ly Dastidas 
in 1301.; b
 Co:-;a :uHI Oje
la in 1504-5; 'Ly l
aud l)Ia
 III 150G; l)y Ojeda, :Nicuc
a, aud othor 
,\ oulJ-Le ruler:-5 of luailllauù colouies since 150n; by 



POlIce <1e- Leon in 1512 aHd 1 j
 1; lJY '''''alcli\"ia in 
151:!; 1 >y 'lirut:lo i H l5 1(;; by 
 tI H( 1 (
iu ] 51 ï -i8; 1))" (
, PiIH.da, ( ; aray, alld .J. \ 1;1111 illo:-t 
ill 15 1 
J ; by G a ray i H 1 5:2 a; 1, y U 1 i dill 1'> :2 -t; ), Y :\ Iou - 
tl:jo iH 15:!ï; by P
lntilo dt' Xar\at..
 in Ij:!H-3-1; It., 
So to in 15;38-1:
; aH(1 hy luan)"' oth 'r H:t\ Î(rators \\.ho 

ur\"t:.\.e(1 oIlly 
u('h }>art
 of th. 'uast d'i ha(1 1,ccu 
alreauy disco\"crc< 1. 
]1"arth'r north Oil the .... \tlantic, frolll Florida to 
I...ahrador, thl\ exploratioll "pa
 It 'ss thoj"ouo.h, l J ut it 
I . 0 
eoycrc( lU a IlH'a",Url' the ".hole coa't. III 14!Ji John 
Cal>ut, frolll Euglau(I, prolnll>ly r 'ach.<1 l..abrador 
l)ct\\.cell 5G" aH(I 58 0 , 
ll}(1 '():Lst ,<I north".ard 
 of leagu '
o T'hat laud c'\.i..,ted, anti of grt'at 
cxtent, in thai dircction \\.as tIlt" ollly geographi('al 
fact deyclnp('ò hY' the \ oyage. III 11
)ö t;cu' 
C a l)()t lllade a 
illlilar Yoyag
, in "phieh h"' cO:l,-;ted 
frolll l...auraJor nOl'th\\
arò possibly to G7 0 :JO', and 
then south \\yard to the gulf uf St 1...(L"prl'nce, and 
perhap:::; to Capo lla'
"hcre i
 no rea:,on to 
(luestion tJH"\ {;lct that these yoyage:-; of the Cauot'-\ 
,\pere lnadü a
 elailued; uu t tho l"O(:Ol'( 1") are yaguc, and 
nothing i8 ku()\\pn of thc co
 or tll
rhc CortereaJ
, Gaspar al1f1 :\1 iguel, 1l1ad 
thrco \"o'
a(fe:-' f()r J}ortucral in 1 jOO-
, in "hich the'" 
.J ..., ð J 
follo,\ cd tho coast froIH 
 )undland far to the 
north, perhaps to Greenland. Roth l)l"othcr
t; and of discoycric::; Jnadû during t h"\ last ûxp ,(!i- 
tion nothing- is kIH)\\yn. 
rhe Cortcre(11
 g-:lYl' nal11eS 
 lnvfoundlan(l all<l Lahra(lor, as depietc(l on ll1ap:-; 
of tho tiU1C; they also left several local u:unes. XC) 
conten1pOl'al'Y narrati \-0 of tho
 of either 
tho Cabut::; or Cortercal::; i
rhè l\notug"lh's · 
fishcrJHCn aro HUpp()
c(I to hayü continup(l thl
ir trips 
to Lahrador anll X e\yfoun(l1an(I-II(/('(d,,().
, lanel of 
codfi:-;lt-hut no geographi('al re-..;ult:4 arl' kilo\\"!l; all( I 
anle lllay b ) :-\aid of the voya
c · of the 11r'toll'" 
ant I 
 Ol'lllanS, illclu( ling. t h():-'l
 of I) \ny
 i H 1 30(; allll 
,l-\ubert ill 1508 the {()I'Bler of ".]}(Jlll i:-- 
aid to Ita \.ü 


T CO_\

d the gulf of bt La':l
enl"<:. 1n-,1529 Vazquez 
 \ illon 
L\Ht out an c
 pedItJoll fr01H Esp
Jordan, ".ho reached a couutry called hy hun qlncora? 
on the prc:'l'nt Carolill:t l"oa
t. In 13
-l GIOY<Ul111 
-\... errazano, for 
"rall('e, reaehcll the coac.;t not far fronl 
.J ()I'dan'
()uth".:.n'd SOlDO fifty leagues, 
alld then llo1th ,,-ard to N e\yfoulldland. He ,vas thus 
the fir:-\t to e
plorl) a large portion of tho U nite(l 
horo-Ijne. E
tévan GOlllCZ perhaps cOluplctcd 
that linc in 15
5, ,,-huu 
eckillg in behalf of Spain a 
strait het".eell N c\\.fuunLllalld aud .Florida. Aillon in 
1 j
G a1:,ù 
ou()'ht the strait from Chicora :-3outlnyard, 
JllakiuO' at tlH' 
(UllC tiulc a vain effort at colonization. 
In 13
7 .T ohn Rut, an Engli
h navigator, Ü; said to 
ha,.e follu\reLl tho coa
t frolll 53 0 (hnvn to Chicora. 
Jacquc::, Cartier for :France Inade three cxpeditions, in 
1334, 15;35-G, and 15-11-2. Incited by Verrazano's 
Ilarrativu and chart
, his Inaill oLject ,yas to find a 
pa:-;:-;age to the t>outh Sea and Spice Islands. He did 
Bot find tho strait, but he effected a very cOlnplete 

ur\-ey of the gulf and riycr of St La,vrence, N e\v- 
f( )undland, and all thc surrounding cOlnplieatiou of 
i:-;lancls an( I channels. Fro1l1 Cartier's tinle the nal11es 
 ouyolle France, Canada, X c,vfoulldland, St La,v- 
rCllce, )Iontrcal, and lllany other
till in use becanle 
currcnt, SOlllO of thcllI having becn applicd before. 
:Frcnch and other fisherlllcn had long frequented these 
".atcl;.;; and ulal)::) of th8 tinle sho,v lnany details not 
to lJe fouud in any narrative. The Frcnch P()ssc
in<:luòcd all territory al)ove latitude 40 0 . In conuec- 
tion ,yith Cartier'H last yoyage, a 
cttlenlent ,vas 111ade 
near Quehec under as viceroy of Canada, 
abrador, and the r8&t; IJut It ,vaB ülJandoned in 1543. 
J. \.ud finally one )la
ter I Lore, an Engli
lllllan, has 
left on rec( H'd a YOrage to X c\vfoundland nladc in 
15:3G. Thi:-; (:oluplete'\ the li-.;t do,vn to the Iniddlc of 
thp celltur)
. l
ùr th(' p"urpo:-;o in vic,v ",.c Illay rcgard 
the J.\tlalltl' f"oast a
 fully explored frolll Daricn to 
llud:--on Strait in latitude GO). 





We no",. turn southw'ar(l, :111(1 ,,"ith ",\ N nÌlez 
dt\ J
alhoa, cros
 tu tho South Sea in 151:1. llis 
graHcl di
,wovery IJlad(., hc ROon built eertaiu \?C', .l
in "" hich thc IHtllluiall c()a
t,; aud islands ""ere ('x- 
plon'd. .L\nd \rith these Yl\
S .Is in 15J!) (}
lspar dl; 
pillosa pushed the l;xploration to thl
 Costa [{ican 
gulf of Nicuya, in 10 0 , yi
itpd :11rea(ly in }3J 7 hy 
11nrt:ulo in eanocs. In 15

il Uonzalez })(Lyila, 
OIl other l"raft transported ne}'u

 the T 
, bailee I 
again to Xicova, and hv land ""cnt on to Xicarao'ua , 
'- J. 0 
,,?hilo Alld}'é
 :Nlilo (-nntinu(:(l his voyage 1,y 
at leflst to thl' gulf of }"onst'ca, in latitu(lu 1 :1", 
au(I probably farther-c,?en to Sncollu
cO or Tchuan- 
tepee, if ,YO luay credit the (li
tallce:-; given by the 
Iean\rhile J 1crnan C()rtés, after COll- 
qtH"\ring fur Spain the )lexÌean tahlp-Iand of 4\n
had throuo-h S p anish no-cnts discovcre(l the 've....tern 
..., û 
coast at three (lifferent points, thu
 deternlÏuing it
gcneral trend, and adding froB} t,,1'o to ti \"e degrcc:--: to 
kno\vlcdge of its extent. All thi:-, before thc end of 
2. reho point:-; ,yore Tehuantepec, in 1 ()o, "hence 
the native chie(
cnt their allf'giance; Tutute] )CC, in 
about the 
alne latitude, 1 )ut onc hundrclllllÌles farther 
"\vef,t, occupicd Ly Pcdro de Alvaraelo; and Zacatula, 
in If:t, ,vhcre Corté
ly b...g'ln tu found 
a scttlelllollt, and constructed Ycs
eIs f( >1' northern 
exploration. Aftor long and Ycxatiou
, ,,"ith 
,yhich ,,"e are not at prcscnt conccrnc(l, the ne,,,, 
yc:-,:-;els ,yore cOlllpletcd in 152G, anù another fronl 
the strait of l\Iagcl1all, lIlHlc!" Gucvara, nrri,.clI at 
Tehualltepcc, and ,,?as hrought to Zacatula. Thi
"1'a-:; orùered to tho )[olucc:u; in su(.h ha::5tc that it 
could not take the propo
t.;d route along the northern 
coasts, but 
aile(l dirert for lndia in 15
7; not, hc)\\.- 
ever, until thrce of the Ye
 ha(l JU:l(le [l trial trip 
to the port of Santiago, in Colilna. a port alrea(ly (li
covercù by :Franciseo Cortc
' land cxpe(lition three 
years before. The COa:-;t no\\.lay(li:--clo:--
ll frolll J)analn
to Colilna. ]?ivc ycar:; elap
ed Lcfore Cortc:-5 'V
l' aLle 



to ac('onlpli
h anything' on thc northern coasts. Tho 
l'nt out l)y hilll ".cre a
 follo,v8: In 1522 
] [urttlllo tl 
 '[entloza rei1chl'(1 the Sinaloa coast, anu 
".a. killc(l at the l{io :Fucl'te, ,,-hile hi:-5 a
uèla rcturnctl ".ith one of the Ye
sels to Banderas 
a\. in tJ ali
(.(). In 1333 \Yl're l11(1(le the yoyages of 

l'lTaJ Grijal \.[1;, and tTilUcllez, in ,yhich .thc lat
di=,coYel'c(1 thè 
outh('rn p:.1rt of the CalifornIan PenIn- 

 )(1 to he an i:-:lan(l. ]
e'yond the revelation 
of thi:-, ne". la!}(1 the cxpeJition, and that of Cortés 
hiln:-..elf in 1323-6, aùdcd notbiug to north-,vestern 
Ci"l.()(rra ! )h,.. .Finally Ullor! ".a
 scnt out in 153!); and 

 0.. . 
he not onlr cxplorc(l t he gulf to its head on both sIdes, 
but doul)lctl the cape and pushed the exploration on 
thp Blain coast to CcdrÇ>s Island, in 2
0. The viceroy 
)Iendoza no\\" bucccctled the conqueror as patron of 
l'xploration, nnd (lespatehcd t,YO expcùitions by ,vater. 
Tho fir=,t ,yas that of .L\.larcon, in 1540, in ,vhich he 
rea<.:hl'd the head of the gulf an(l explorcd the nlouth 
of the Cc .1orado. The other ,vas unùer the conulland 
of Caurillo, \\.ho in 1542-3 reached, as he thought, 
the latitude úf 44 0 , dl:tcrn1Íning tho gcncral trend of 
the coa=,t, though not landing abo,
c Point Concepcion, 
in 34 0 . Xu more attenlpts ,vere Inade ill thi
IJefore 1550. 
:\[can,,'hile lnaritilne exploration had been sup- 
pll:111cntcd to ROIIlC cxtent by land expeditions and 
"-cttlel11cnt, ,yhich, contributing Inatcrially to current 
llo\\'lcdgc of the coutinent, 111USt he noticed herc. In 
the 1l0rth-Clli5terll 
cction, froln Texas to Labrador there 
. ' 
 notlllng that could 1>c called 
cttleluent thouO'h 
le regioll:-; al)out X c\\"foundlan(1 ,vere frequ
nted by 
j- rcnch aIll [ PortuO'uct'c fi:"ihl\rlllen all(l a :Frellch fort 
\) , 
ha(l heen lllaintaine<l near Quebec for a year or t\VO 
till 1.14;'>. III the far north thc only penetration int
the continent "'a
 that of 153G-4
, Ly Cartier, \vho 
\\'cnt up the St l.Jlnvrcllce gulf and river nearly five 
hundred ulill::-;, }J(l:-\t the Rite of 
Iontrcal and to the 
f:1Hs of St L(Jui
. South\\.ard, ouly the coast outline 



 kllo\YIl to }"lorida, ,,"her' \\ u ha\"c tll I iuland 
,,':,uH.leriug's of lIernan<lo d'Soto, nllt 'Illpor:'ry ,,'ith 
tho::>e of Cartier. I
:tl}( Ii lI O . \\ i tit a lar('c 'OIU ] J:tU '-. ill 
..... ð .7 
 on the gulf coast of Florida, at ratll]ta] 
a.\ , 
proceeded by an illiand ("ourse to the yi('initj (,f "falla- 
ha:-isee; thence Borth-easterly to the Sayaunah TIiy 'r, 
\..ugu::;ta; thcnce uorth-\," ''jt\\"arcl to the rr""I1_ 
::;ee line, near ])alton, Georgia; theIu'c 
to a. point ncar the hcad of 
 [()}'ilc 1 ;ay; alH 1 a
north-\\"cst to tilt' )[ississirri, not hlr fi'OIll the 1110uth 
of tho 
 \rkansa:-;. Froin thi
 re.,inn ill 1,)-11- 
 luade a lung tour to tll(' "c':)t\\"ar<lo .& \fter 
their return to the great ri,"er, Sot{) (lied. ancl \\0[1-'3 
succeeded in cOllllnancl l)y l.JHi
 do ..:\ [n
('(.bO, nne Ier 
,\"holn they atteInpted to reach 
[f'xi(.() by laHd, peue- 
trat iUg" ahout one hun(lre(} alld fifty lea"ues to the 
,vest\varù, and cOIning- \\"ithiu Hight of 11loulltain:-;o rut 
they ""ere furced to return to the )Iissis;:;ipl'i; and 
fronl a point not f
ll' abovc tho .. \rkan
 they l'In- 
Larked, ,July 151:3, in Yes
cls huilt for tho purpo...;e, 
l'CaehCll the gulf in t\,,"enty day
, all(} thence saileJ to 
Pánueo. In respcct tu particular lucalities thi::; 'x- 
ploration leaycs lunch rOU111 for doubt and c.liscus:,ion, 
but the general 
c()PO and direction "f 
s \,"an- 
 throuo'h the territor'\
 of Florida Ueorcria 
0""" J t"I ' 
..t\.laba III a, .f\..rkan:-;as, T cxa:-;, all< 1 Louisiana are ',"ell 
cnouo'h estaLli
hcd. Lea
t ùetillc(l uf all i:-, th ' route 
in 1\
xas; Lut soyon year:i LL'furo, in 1'>;15, Labe
de \T :lea and his throo cOlnpallion
hip\\'recke(l B1elll- 
1 '01':-; of X aryaeL' 1 Jand, had e:-;ca ped frOIH their lon
capti \"ity aU10ug the Indian
 cro:-;seu rrc
as t'roUl 
píritu Santo 1
a'y to the rl'gion of J
l l
O, and 
had pa

ed into Chihuahua. Ly a. route r'outh of that 
()to , thuuo'h rrra(luall v :l l ) l )rollchin o oo it and extclld- 

 <::" . 
in o ' farther into the interi( no. 
ð 1 . I 
or the rcO'ioll
 uf C
elltra ....\ulf'rlea ant 
::\lexico 1 nc

l not gi \"0, cycn (>>1 rés "ll, tIll, Jifll:rellt 
C'xpeditioIIH by \\"hieh 'oIl(lUl'st an(} 
l'ttlelllellt \\'cre 
uflice it tu :--ay that bL'f()re 15jO l)oth had 



b "'cn [If'col1lpli:-:hed in a, general ,yay frolH I??,rien and 
}>an:,ul1;.í to ]>allUCO on the gulf, and to bll.utloa on 
the T)aeitìc. Un the "
ide, the occupatIon froln 

[iehoa('all to Sinaloa had prcectlecl Iuaritinle explo- 
ration in the :'\:une tlirectioll, chiet1y under N uÌlo de 
Guzlnan, ,,-ho had eon(luered J ali
co and established 
a } )erinancllt S p anish crarrison at Culiacan in 1531. 
. b , ffi d r 
FroIll tlll
 'UIYfillCt.xl po
t GUZllUUl s 0 cors Ina e ex- 
peditions north\yard to the Ya(lui River in 1533, and 
north-cast\\?artl into DurallO'o at an earlier date. It 
 in 133G that Cal)eza de \T aca and hiB companions 
arrived at San .:\Iiguel de Culiacan, after traversing 
1'exa", Chihuahua, and Sonora, thu
 completing the 
fir::;t trall
colltillcntal trip in northern latitudes, and 
the 11l0
t faIUOUS 
ince that of ,Ta::;co N Ullez de Balboa. 
Cabcza de "\T aca had heard reports of the N e,v 
can l
uel)lu to\YllS, I'outh of \yhich he had passed; 
and thc=--e reports, exaggerated, kindled ane\v the zeal 
for northern exploration, resulting in the voyages of 
Ulloa, ...\larcon, and Cabrillo, to ,,-hich I have already 
alluded,and the land expeditions of :Xiza and Coronado, 
the la
t that con1C \vithin the lin1Ìts of the present 
Friar )Iarco
 de Niza advanced in1539 from Culia- 
can to CIbola, as the Zuñi Pueblo to\vns in 35 0 ,vere 
then ca
l, al
d. brought. back l1l0Ht exaggerated re- 
port=-- of rIch cItIcs a11(l klngdoIlls in that region. In 
the follo\ving year Francisco ,T asquez de Coronado 
,,?ith a large force set out for further exploration and 
t in the north. Coronado, ]ike Niza, ,vent to 
Zuùi; and fronl that point he Rcnt out Tobar and 
Cár<lenas to the :\Io(JllÎ to\\"ll
 in 3G o the latter reach- 
. 1 , 
Blg the great caÌloll uf the Colorado ill the 110rth- 
ca.:-jtcrn part of ". hat is IlO\\T Arizona. He also sent a 
party baek to Sonora, fronl \rhich rcO'ion onc of the 
, )[elchor Diaz, n):Hle an ex
cdition to the 
1110uth or the Colorad.o, asccnding the river nearly 
to the Gila, all(l cro
sIllg to explore a little farther 
,\ est. )Iean\\"ltilc Coronadù proceedeù east,vard and 




e(l the \\
inter in the J>uel )If) t( ),,"n:-; of the Rio 
Granùú dcl :Korte, in 
I e\.ico. III the :-,prill tr ()f 
] 54 1 all c
 pedition ,vas Juade \\"hich carried Othc 
()lUe eighty-five day::;' journe.V' JlOrth-loast- 
arJ o\?er the I )laills of Texa
 to the \yi('\\.
un to\\.ll 
of (Jui,'ira, pcrhap
 in 40 0 , l)cyoll(l tlH
Corolladl) plLssea till' north of Cabeza de \r aea's route, 
l)ut \ cry liI\.ûly cro:-:
ed that of 
uto, or at lea
t ap- 
proached it very e]o"ely. ))uring another \\.illter 
ed on the Rio Grandú, exploration \ya:-- ]>u
hed to 
Taos, in 3G o 30'; and then, in 15-1
, thl\ expedition 
returned to Culiaean, leaying the great northern in- 
terior to its pritueval savagi
Thu8 in the u1Îddlc of the sixteenth centurv, the 
northern liluit of inland exploration Jllay In" gi
.en :ei 
a line cro:'-\:-;in o ' the continent J . ust Lelo\v the thirty- 
ð . 
sixth parallel fronl the Colorado to the Sa\?annah; 
Coronado haying pa
seel the line ill it::; central part, 
and auyallced into the nlodern J
3<3. Tho coasts 
on eithcr 
id8 \ycre explorcd to Hluch highcr latitudc:-" 
the .....\.tlantic ,,?ith toleralJle accuraey to GO", and the 
Pacific in a manncr Larely to Rho\v the 
hore-linc trend 
to .:Ll o. 
[ap8 of the tinle, ,,'hich thcrc i
 no occ3-:;ion 
to specify in this conllcf'tioH, added nothing tù the 
narratives of cxplorcr8 ill the "
est, aud \\?cre eycn 
ICðs perfect than they luight haye Leen lluu!e frolll 
tho::;c narratives; \\
hile ill the east, and particularly 
in the north - cast, n1ap-:; \\
erc ill adyance of \\Tittcll 
records, including lIlany dl"tail
 frolH voyagès nc\'er 
dCðcribed. EllOuo'h had been acconlpli
hec 1 to con- 
vince COlllpctcnt 
lCll that 
outh of -10 0 there ,,"ouI(} 
be found ncither great cities nor a llayigaLle pa'j"\agc 
bet\vcen the ocean:-;, gra\ e llouLt':) even Lcillg' 
in the 111indH of HUHl)"" \vhether any 
trait, or nations 
'YOl'th plundering, ".oulù Le founel in the north. 
During aU thi:::; period only one IHlyigator, l?errelo, 
the succc::,::,or of CaLrillo, had pO
:-jiLI.r entered the 
,vaters of the X ortll\Ye
t CO
lst, pa

ing the lin
 of 4
but not lauding; ..L\.larcon, by ,yater, had appruachell 
. W. COAST. VOL. I. 2 



,,"ithin a thou
alHl 111ilt':-{ of the houndary, and Cár- 
tlL'na...: L'\. land \,"ithin half that (listancc. 
, J , 

T ha\...."\ 11l'Xt to trace the progre
R of exp
t\\":u'(l for t\\"O ccnturics, frolH the BuJdle of 
l'llth to the Ini(hlle of the cighteenth cen- 
tury. This I H'oIJTl':':-; "yas insiITllificallt C0111pareÙ ,yith 
 v T r 
t hat of the Lrilliunt era just recorded. N e,v loun- 
dation.;; had to Le laid, and lllost slo,,"ly, for a nc\v 
3(lyanec. 'rhc foundation
-rcc1is('oYery of old l
futile attcInpts at 
ettlelnent follo\ved by successful 
colouization-\Yero nlas
iyc and con1plicated for tho 
ht Supèr
tructurc ,yhich, froill thc prcscnt point of 
yic,,", they ,yere to sustain. The fraIne, reduced to 
the 1l1Cre::>t skeleton, is gigantic for the flesh and Llo?d 
of geographi<:al discovcry that hardly suffices to cover 
it-that is if ".0 cOllfiue oursclvc:-3 to facts of actual 
ry, anù I propo,;e to defer for treatlnent in 
the follo"ying chaptcr the grand achievelllents of the 
'or convcnience let us advance by half- 
<:entury stcl':-;. 
:Frolll 1350 to 1 GOO the extrelDe north-east ,vas first 
yi:.;itl}cl Ly the Engli
h IUlvigator :\Iartill ]'robisher, in 
three Yoyagc
, in 157G-8. I[is original purpose ,vas 
to discover tho strait; Lut the findiuO' of ,vhat ,vas 
ll1istakcn for gold oro in the firHt voyage changcd the 
nature of the expeùition, anù caused :Frobishcr to 
confinc his rescarches to the inlet Learino- his name 
o , 
Let,veen G
O and G3 0 . 
 [e al
o entercd the iulct next 

outh, \\?ithout discovering its cOllneetioll ,vith a great 
ea, although hc thought that either inlet 
,voul( I aft()rd a pas
age to thc I)acific. The only othcr 
llaxigator ùf northern scas during this period ,vas 
John Dayis, \vho lllaùe throe voyages in 1585-7. lIe 
.reached 'ï
o, the highest point J'ct attaincd, and 111ade 
a hOlllC\yhat careful exau1Ìllation of the coast line 
fl ulI1 r,7 0 
()nth,varù. The lllaiu strait north,vard 
.Lean; hi
:Farther south there is no occa
ion to notice partic- 




ular yoynges. T 11 Canada, or Xouvelle }-"'rau('p, after 
the failure uf Cartier 
llHl ItuL 'r,.al ther' "'
 uo I"C- 
ne\\"ul ()f atteJll l )t
 to ('olouize thou(rh !i'reneh D-.;hil}(f 
'.::> .::> 
craft Htill fì'e(luenteò Canadian \vater
. On the Flori(tL 
coast, hO\\9uycr, tho J.'reIH,h I Lugut.nots un(1(.r ]
and I..Jaudonnièl'e cstal)li:.;hecl colonil'
 at !'ort l{oyul 
and St :àlary inlJG
 -5, thu:-; a(l(ling' , La F'}oride Fran- 

ai:..;e' ur 'I..Jt1 Caro1ine' to tho 1l0rtJH'rn I 'o:--sc;,:-,iolls of 
X ol1vellc 1 'l'ance. 'rho interior of \vhat is no". }'lorida, 
Georgia, and ßouth Carnli na \Va
 cxplurc(l tu fo-onle 
extent <-luring- thi:.; occupation, ,,"hich ,va
to au end Ly the Spaniards. Petlro de 
annihilating the J:-'reuch colonic
 in 15Gj l J v huugillg 
lliost of tho col()nist
, pro .CC( lee I to found fori 
Spain frolH San ;\gustin Borth" ar(l tu Carolina. 'fhe 
Spaniar<1:-3 in their 
eareh penetrat.à the interiur 
farther north }Jcrhap
 than Sutu, Lut not to the 



il'pi region. 
rho }'rench unòer De Gourguc
in 13GB touk terrible yC'ugcancc for thl' nUt:,;--;acre uf 
1 jG5, Lut ditl Hot attenlpt to re
aiu l'o

cs:-,i()n, aBfl 
Spain l'einaincli llli
 of :Florida. In] 38.1-7 Sir 
\Valter Raleigh lllade se'
eral unsuccc
::;ful attelllpts 
to found a colvny at Itoanoke, un the Xorth Carolina 
coa:-st, so Englishnlcn learned c\.cn lc:-.
 about the 
great interior than ha(l .b'reucluuen and SpaJliard
au the gulf coa
t frolH FloriJa to Tcxa
 all that 
\yas kno\vn, so far as l
uropealls ".cro concerned, 
had been glcaneJ fronl Cahcza de \T :lea au( 1 I [er- 
nando de Soto. There '\'a
ettlen1ent, 110 l11aiu- 
land exploration. 
In tho interior of 
Iexico tho frontier of occupa- 
· tion \YflS pushed nortlnvard in general tcrJn:-; to 
ï 0, 
so a:-3 to inelude ])urango and 
()uthern Chihuahua, 
\vith SIn all portions of Coahuila antI X UeYo Leun. 
:Fronl 15G2 extellsi,.ü exploratioBH ,rere Blade here, 
chicfly by }'rallci;:;co de fLarra; Inining-calllp
hcd; and lllÏ:-.
iollarief4, Jesuit and Frallci
Lecran their labors in N ue,.a \Tizeaya. X 0 le:-.:o-: than 
 chtraclas ""cre lllLHle into X 0"" '.:\le
icu during" thi::, 


T CO.\

period: tho"c of Ro(lrigtll'z in 1581-:!, of Espqjo 
 :1, of C\lst.aflo tl \ So:-\a in 15!)0-1, of )lol'lete III 
) 1 nnd of l
onilla a Lout 15!JG. NOlle of thesc 
l'caehl\d :-\0 hio'h n latitude 011 thp l{'io Grandt." a
l'oronado, blrt I
onilla ".cnt far uut into the plains 
in :'l\areh of (
ui\-ira. ]

 return and Castaùo's 
l'lltry. ,,-ere L,. the l>cco" in
tcad of the Itio Grande, 
anti" 1-:spejo, 
rossing Coronadü'
 track in the ,,'"est, 
pcnetrated to the region of the lllodern city of Pre
cott. }1"inally.J UaI1 (Ie Of late, in 1598, effected the 
perlllancnt e;HHluc"t and 
ettlcnlcnt of N Ð'V l\Iexico. 
()ll the "e::;tel'll coast Spain accolnpli:.;hed little or 
nothing in the ,,-ay of northern exploration; yet in 
15G5 l rdal1cta lnatlc the firHt trip east\vard across 
the ]
acifil", ()penin
 a northern route, ,vhich ,vas fol- 
lo,,'"cJ Ly tho )lanila tra(lcr
 for 1110re than two ceu- 
. IIo\y lnnny tillies the trip "ras Inade during 
this period of 1550-1 GOO "ye have no lncans of kno,v- 
iug: prùLahl:,y not often, but "
e ha'
e Inelltion of t,yO 
. }"ranciseo de Gali, in 1584, cOIning fro111 
the "'e"t r<:aeheù the coast in 37 0 30'-pos
ibly 57 0 
O'-and ob'-)er\'"cd the trend and appearance of the 
, [ù, he f'ailed :-;outln,'"ard, ,,'"ithout landing. And 
("erlueñon hy a 
inlilar route "
a:.; ,,,"reeked in 1595 at 
JJrake Ray,"' ju
t aboYe the prescnt San Francisco. 
But another nation had entered, albeit sonle,\
irregularly, this field of exploration. In 1579 
.i=" Dral'Lc, an English freebootcr, his vest-;el laden 
,,-ith plunder takùll frOl11 the Spaniards in the south, 
attclnpte(l tu fill<I the northern 
trait by ,vhich to 
rl'aeh the Atlantic. Ill' reached perhaps latitude 43 0 , 
anchoring ill that region; antI then, abandoning his 

earch, returned tù J)rakü ]
ay, un the Californian 
t, an(1 thelH'O honle round the Cape of Good 
] If 'pee 1'h()IJla
 Cavl'Jl(Ii:-.;h \va::, another Englishlnall 
of the 
'Ulle cla"s, ",hose expedition Railed in 1587. 
his operatiun
 did Hot extcnd beyond the Houthern ex
trcluity (.f the l
alif()rllinll peninsula. 
-'inally Sebas- 
tian \"ïzcaino "a
 :--ellt uut lJ)'" Spain in 1597, but 



 I )l()ratioll
 ". are cOllfill "I to th' (rulf alld hi:-; 
M , 
vain atttHlll't:-\ at Hettle1l1eut to I
aj:t Calif(>I.lli

:For tho ne,t half ('entury, I ()OO-50, "e Ila ve ill the 
cxtreBlC ,vest hut Ollt o expedition to L 0 uoti,. oel, that 
of \Ti7eaiuo, in 1 GO
-3. ] t \\.a
 Lut a I' 'petition of 
CaLrillo':::; yoyage, though it
 result:-; \\ l\r \ 1l1oru ,,'iclely 
kuc)\vll. \Tizcaillo anchored 
 I olltl'réY', :tllC I, \\"ith- 
out landing, at 1]1 \ olel 
all Frau(.is('o uIHler I'>oiut 
]{eycH; thencc he ,vent a!-' hi...h a.... 4
 , ,vh 'r' he 
nauled a cape Blu nco de SaIl Seba')tiau. IIi..; as:-,ociat 0 
..l\guilar po

il)ly reaehëd 4:3 0 , at anot]u..\r Cape J
lall '0, 
". hero f,l,;l,;1l1cd tu 1)e the IHoUth of a g'! éat ri vcr. l)t]u'r 
Spanish cHarts \\yore (' to tho \vat..r:i of the 
gulf; and the j);chil;nYl{(Js, or fi.ceuooter:-;, though "till 
ollle, had 110 teu11'tatioll to enter 110rthern 
In the interior of Sonora, Spanish occupation h:HI 
lJcL'n advallceJ 1)y the .Tcsuits to tht..' 
\ri:-'l)("\ rt..'g-ioB ill 
30 0 30'. 
ro the ea-.;t iu Chihuahua the luis"ionarie' 
"yore struggling- llortll\vard at aLout 
gO. In X ,\\Y 

Ie"(ico Spanish authority \vas luailltainetl, IJtlt llorth- 
ern exploration "Ya
 not greatly Llcl\anced. In If-Ol 
Uì'Ülte Blade a long tour oYer the Lufi
ll() plains, going 
far to the north and ea-:;t. ltecor<l:-:; are ya(rue, hut 
it is not probable that he reached a higher la.ti- 
tude than Coronado, ur certain that he ".cnt 1.eyolld 
the liulitH of the lllo(lcrn Tcxa
. J n 1 ()O-t -.) hl' u;lder- 
took another ex.tell:-\i \.C exploratio]l t()\vanl the "'c:-,t, 
visited Zuùi and the )[o<lui to\\ïl
, thence directcd his 
1narch Houth-\\ e
t\vard Ltyond the lill1Ît
 of l

exploration till ho reachcd the (
ol()rado at the Jllouth 
of the Santa 
Iaría, and follo,,'ing the gréat ri\ (.'r 
(lo\vll to it"'3 1l1oUth, returned by the 
allle route. 
"yore al
o ..;ü,.eral ldl""df' tllllOll U ' th
 Texan trihe..; 
of the far ea:-,t froln 
 e\\" ::\ll,;xico, notahly tho:-,' of 
paùrl':-; Perca and Lopez in 1 G
g, (lnd 
f Captain 
",\r aca in 1 G;J-!. 
On the gulf coa
t all reillaillcd in undi:-\turlJl'd 


:XORTIrn"EST Co.\ 

ahori,,,inaI pO:-\
l",,,sion; êllHl uf the Spaniards in cast ern 
}c'loriJa. thert' i
 Ilothi ng to be 
aitl. rru the north, 
hO""l\\"cr ".l're laid the foull(latioll8 of perll1ancnt 
h Ol"cup:ltinn, nntl of the fu
'e P?\\'el
. of. t!le 
IT nitctl States by K l\ \'" port and 
llllth III \ Irglllla, 
1 GOG' In. t he Puritan
 ill l\lassal"hu
etts, 1 G20; by 
, & 
T.Jord l;altilHore ill )faryland, IG3J; and by other 
hardly ll's:--, notable Lall<.l
 of pioneer I:;ettlers. These 
llll\ll ealUl' to 111akl' h(nues for thclllsel,"cs rather than 
to te,-,t O'L'ooTa l )hieal th('orie
; and though SOlHe, like 
b 0 ""'i . b fi 1 . 
the (HI\.elltUl'OU
 ,J uhn Suutb, ',.ere cnt un n( lUg a 

agc to the Paeifìc, their explorations \\'cre COll- 
iined to the ùxall1Ïnatioll of a fe,,'" short riycrs and 
 Ileal' their rcspectiyc settlelnents. 
In Canada, l
rellch colonization had been resulned, 
".ith all its coulplication of fur-trading cOlllpanics, of 
f'piritual conque
t Ly Rccollet and Jesuit luiHsionarics, 
of Inùian ,,-aI'S against and Let\vcen the Iroquuis and 
IIuron natiùlv", and uf contentions \yith ho
tile En- 
hnlL'n, 1J.Y \yhich X c\v France lost and rcgained 
...\.cadie, or X oya Scotia, allJ e\'"cn Qucbec. I t appears 
that Ly 1 G50 geographical exploration had been 
pushed ".c
t\vard intù the intcrior, at fir
t by Cluul1- 
plai 11 
ll)( I later by J csuit fathers, beyond lakes Erie 
and IIuron, and the head-"Taters of the Otta\ya River; 
that J can Kicolet a
 carlyas IG34-5 had discovered 
Lake ::\Iichigan, and had sojourned al110ng tho triLes 
on the \vc
t of that lake in the ,\TiHcollsin territory, 
going up }'\,x Riyer froln Green Bay; and that subso- 
(luently Lake Superior hac 1 been diHcovcred. 
l'he Y()yag-e
 of "7 cynlouth in IG02, and of I{night 
in IGOG, adù 'clllothing to the kno,,
ledo'e of far-north 
t{cography; Lut in IGIO Ilcllry Hudson, ,vho the 
Yèar before had discoycrcd the river that bears hi
nan1e in the 
outh, not only entered the strait nanled 
for hiln, '1S l:ruLishc'r, Dayis, and 'Veynlouth had 
done hefore hUll, but presse(I on and discovered the 
great IT udson Bay, 
ln inland sea, on ,yllÍch he '\'"[1::, 
ldrift hy lllutilleel'S to perish. The bay \vas 

THE 'n
sISgIrrI \.\LLEY. 


furtJl<'r explore(] h,vDutton in ](jl
-l:1,an(ll)j Dafhn 
in 1 (j 1'>, the latter bt:in oo illcliul;(l to think '\"cn at thi-; 
eady Jatp that the pa ",
ag'e to thp Paeifi(. \\"ould be 
found not ther · but f
lrt IH.
r north; but he (lit I Hot JilHI 
it \v hen ill 1 () 1 (j he 1"L'aehed tho latitu(le of ï 8 throllfrh 
BafIìn 1 
ay to Hillith 
()nIHI. In 1 G3 L-
lJay ,va
 ,:i:;iteù l)y Jfoxe aut! hy J allles. 

The nc
t period, IG.jO-1700, ,vas not one of Illari- 
tilne tli
coY<.'l''y in the north; lJut in i GiO the ] Iud
ay C\nnpany ,va
 organized; and SOOll fiye fort;') 
""ore estaLlishcd in thc reo'ion a (l J . oinÏ1P1' the Lav. 
o ,., .. 

Icall\vhile a J?rcnch COJllpany \\"a
o ftH'IlHxl, 311(1 
in the cllsuing contcntions thú forts changed hantl:-; 
1I10re than once. In 1700 the Enuli",h retaincd but a. 
f'light footing. 
rhere i
 no recorù of e
i \ e inland 
explorations beyond the Lay shore. 
Great actiyity prcvaileù in the region,; of XC". 
France, an activity lU:1l'ked not ()nly l)
, Indian 'Yar
ant 1 political, cUlnnlcrcial, and ccclesia:--;tic'a] Ji

at hUlllC, 1.y Htrifc ,\?ith the En6'li",h on the Borth and 
so'tlth, and Ly fur-hullting ad\"cnturcs in CVl'ry di- 
rection, Lut by a decided advance in the great ""ork 
of exploration. 
rhe.T esuit nli:-,sionaric
, ar<<:olnpanil'll 
in SOtHe instances by the fur-traùers, clo:;cly {t_)llo\\"t.:J. 
or even prcceùcd by thClll in othcr
, pcnetratc(l on 
the north to IIud
on Day, and on the \ycst far into 
the plains, be
idcs cOlnpl
ting the sur\"e
T of the 
great lakes and founding nli
 on their 
aboyo all, they found and explored tIle )li;-,,
is ,ippi 
,Talley. In 1073 ::\1. Joliet aut! Père )Iarqucttc ...ct 
out to filltl the' Great \\T ater' of "phich 
o lnuch had 
been 110:11'(1. 'Ihey ero
sèd ovcr frOll1 T.
akc ::\Iichigall 
to the "\'Tisconsin I
ivcr, ,,"ent t!o,vn that strcalll to 
the ]\li
::;issil )pi, auJ 
ailetl ill canoe
 JO\\ìl the great 
river to the lllouth of the _\rkan
, and to the north- 
ern lilnit of Soto'::, \yanderincrs. 'rhen the,. returncd 
o . 
to QueLl\C 1>y the Tllinui
, il1ste
Hl of the \Vï
It was 1l0\V pretty clear that the 
"ippi ilo""e(l 



into tho o'ulf and not into the Pacific. In 1 G80 Pèrc 
I [enlll'pi
ent hy La Salle do,,"u the Illinois 
and thence up tho )Iississippi to the 
alls of St 
\uthou\. in -15 0 half-,,"av acro

 tho cuntulcllt f1'ol11 

 , , . 
t to . ,,"pst. In IG8
 La Salle hiluðclf de
ippi not only to the lilnits of Soto and 
J ()liot, hut to the gulf, ancl erected a fort at the 
lnouth of the Ohio. Thus \va:-; the .:\Ii
:.;ippi Valley 
ad,-led to the dOillain of N è'V }--'rancc; but "
ars ,vith 
tlh' Eng]i
h and Indians prevented any extension of 

cttlclllcnt or exploration during tho rest of the cen- 
tury. Xot only had the 
Iississippi beon di:-,covered, 
hut the size of the riyers flo\villg into it fron1 the 
t sho\\
ed clearly that the stretch of continent to 
the Pacific \Ya
 luuch broader than had over been sus- 
Soutll'\vard, after the navigation of the }fississippi, 
""0 are no longer interested in the gradual ad vance of 
the En(rli:-.h eoloni:-.ts to\vard that strealll; and the 
Spaniard:-; in .b"lorida lnade no efrort
 in the interior. 
In the gulf I have noted La Salle'
 arriyal do,vn the 
riyer frutH Canada in 1G82. In 1G85 he caIne back 
by sca ,,"ith a colony frolH France, and Inissing the 
Il10uth of the river, 'V[l:-; cast a,vay on the Texan coa
here a fort \vas built and forlu

l possession taken for 
France. La Salle ,,"anùered about extensively in 
Texac;, as Cabeza de ,T aca and Soto had done before 
hinl; and on one of his trips in search uf the }fissis- 
Rippi, in 1 G87, he "
as assassinated. Of his COIOll
half a (lozen reached Canada; nlany wcre killed by 
disease or Indians, aUfl a fe\v fell into tho hands of the 
Spaniard-.; of XC,," ::\lcxico. Several partieR of trap- 
perf-.: an(llnissionaries Canle do\yn the great river froIH 
Canada, establishing thclnselves at different points; 
and in l()
!J caIne lberville and Bienvillo to found a 
pcrluanellt Frcnch F'cttlcnlcnt in l.Joui:.;iana. 
[cxicû tho only oxpeditions sent out ,yere 
a fe\\. Into f-\outhern Texa
 durill(f the first half of the 
period. Then canlC the great 

volt of IG80, \yhich 



drovû the 8palliar( Is on t of the t"ountrJ'. J t \\'(l 
teen years before the proviuce "pas recon(luerc.:ù; 
do\vn to the pud of the ceutury there '\"&.1'-\ no th()u
of northern 'xJ>luration. South, in -"'hihuahua th. 
 an<llHiners \Verü :,,\tru(t'(rlin(1' ,,'ith 
01""'1 0 
or less 
uccess il
ainst the hHlians 1 )et""ccn thelll and 

 e\v l\Lc
ico. In the ,\Te:-)t <luring the la -t d 'cadè 
of the century l>aJre 1
illO e\.l'lore c 1 the r(.g-ion:-; ûf 
Pilllcría Alta, or northern Sonora, hy rcp('ate(l tour
aUlong the people up to the Gila aIHl Colorado, ,,"ith- 
out reaching- tlH
 lilllits of Coronado, CárJellas, Diaz, 
o, and OÙate of earlier Jate, Lut lllakillg a f
lllore careful cxtullinatioll of the cpuutry tra vl'r:.;etl, 
an(l lllocting ,vith extraordinary HUCCc

 in the cc Hl- 
iOll all< I p
lcification ()f the nati \
es. A
:-; the 
gulf tho .J e
uits al
o C'stalJlished thellls .lvcR perllla- 
Bcntly ill 1 G
7 in Baja California. On the cua:-\1 thl'rc 
,,'cre no expeditions to northern latitn<le:-:, on1.\- :"\uch 
as ,ycrc directcJ to tho California Oulf fí>r pearls, or 
in vain attelnpt:-; at Hettlclllcnt, or by foreign pirate
in q ue
t of the 
Iallila galleons. 

In 1700-50 tho Philippine tronsur
to cross thc })acific b, the northern routp ,\
touchin o ' on the Califol
llia coast; and a Frcnch Ye

uuller }
'rondac to()k the sallle cour
rherc ""ere 
no luaritinle expeditions s(;nt north ""ar(l hy Spain; 
neither did the foreign pri\ ateer
 DalHl'ier, }{oger:" 
Shel vocke, and .L\.llSOll entcr northern ""ater
, tll( tugh 
each of their uarratiycs contain::; sonlcthiu o ' ou north- 
ern theoretical geography. III the interiur therü \\"as 
no advance ,vhatever, but rather in 
Olnl' qual'ter
retrooTalle 1l1oveUlent uIHlpr the nggrc
:-\i, c raicl
es. On the 
Iexieall Gulf the Tex.all territory 
everal tilues traverse(l and partly U 'cupil'(l 1 ).Y 
Spain and }1'rancc. }1"'rolll the 1 4 'rench bctt lellll;nt
of t.Joui
ialla it i:-; prol )al )10 that n \\"i<ler tract than 
had Lecn l'rcviou:-;ly kllO\\"U \\'as 0:\ plorccl to\\-arc I the 
llorth-,ve::;t ill the cour
e of Illlliall. ""ar
 and va ill 


T Ex.rLOR.\.TIOY. 

S , ".ì[lrche:i for O"old Lut I fÌIHl llothino- definite in the 

 0' 0 
l'L'l'l )rJ
It "'a
 in the north, fron1 Canada, that the greatest 
result..; ,,-ere aehieyed. The .French trappers ranged 
t lll
 country in all llircction:-; as f
lr as aud beyond the 
upper )Ii:-\

i.ppi, yitiitcd by IIenllepin; and tho J oS
l"ontinued thcn" labor
, though they had no estabh
llll\ut=, f-,U f
lr ".CSt. 
rhc .b"l'ellch had a fort on the 
)Ii::;o:;ouri, aud in 1 'ï
7 BourglTIOnt Inade a trip up the 
l'i vcr froIn that fort to a point above the ICansas. 
\-r érclldr'
e's efforts to f01'In a line of trading-posts 
acro=,s tÌ1C continent ,yere ill 1731-43; forts ,yere 
tàLli:-\hed in the regions round lakes '
/innipeg and 
)Ianitoba; in 1742 the upper 
lissouri River ,vas 
cendcJ to the reO'ion of the YelloYlstonc; and in 
17 43 the \T érendryes reached the eastern base of the 
Iountains, in ,,-hat is no\v 1\Iontana. J\Ieal1- 
,rhile rcport
ere current of a great ,vestern river 
flo\\"iu cr froll1 the llloulltains into thc Pacific; and an 
Indian of the lo\\"er ::\Iississippi clailllcd, under cirCUlll- 

tnnccs indicating that his narrativc nl[ty have been 
true, to havc follo,veJ that river, the Columbia, to its 
mouth in 1 ï 45-50. 
 plora tiollS in the far north ,vere confined to 
IIu(lson Bay. Iralf a dozen expeditions visited these 
\\'atcrs undcr I{night, Scroggs, l\Iiddleton, 1\1001', 
SUlith, and others; but the only result Y\
as to finù an 
ice-blocked passage leading llorth,vard frolll the bay, 
and to prove that SOllle of its ,vestern inlets did not 
lead to the Pacific, though others yet rClllained to be 

I havc thus outlined the progress of North Amer- 
ican òi
cuvery for t\\'"o centuries, fron1 1550 to 1750 
sho\\"ing- ho\y yery slight it ,vas in conlparison ,yitl
that froBI 1 Jg2 to 1550. In the ,vû
tern oce[tl1 t,YO 
atorH, perhaps, hacl reached l1e,v coast latitudes, 
J)rake aud Cali; though it is not certain that either 
had tlolle so uluch, and neither noted anything 

IYSTEn.Y. 27 
he""ond the g eneral shore trend in rcO'iol1f.\ V[lC uol y 
J 0 .
located. In the 
outhern intprior the bpanianl;-; h
pu.;hed their }Hi

ions, nlining--eunp
, and settle- 
llH.'Ut;-; llol'th,,-arJ., a<:colllpli:..;hing llluch in thc face of 
great ()h:-)ta<:le
; but their uccupation had not reached 
the lill1Ït of earlier exploration, though it had nearly. 
done so in 
 e\v .:\Lexieo. 'rhe l{io Colorado ,vas still 
the northern boundary, and an beyond ,vas an UB- 
kuo".u laud. The 
rcxall I )laills had beeu seycral time'i 
cd; Lut the ,,-anderillgs of later traYener
as yaguely recorded a
 thOHC of the pioncerR; and it 
i-.; lJY no lncans certain tl1at the lilllits of Caoez4.t (Ie 
"\Tal"a, Corona(lo, anll 80to ha(l been pa"
Atlantic coaBt territory had Leell the scene of great 
colonizin cr achie,.cIllcnts b,," 11len ,rho callle IHore to 

 , J 
settle than to solve geographical cllign1a<:; Ly long 
c:\.tended search for gold, f-tpice islands, and rich Idllg- 
don1s for cOllquc
t. rIhe 1i"1'ench "ere the great 
Anlerican cxplorers of the period, to ,yhOUl i
ncarly all the progress lllade into thc broad interior. 
Entering by the St La,vrence they occupied the region 
round tho great lake
, and penetratcd llortln,"ard to 
the shores of IIuJson Bay, ,ycst,'\ard to tho l{ucky 
l\Iountains, and south,va1'J to the gulf of 
IeÀico l)y 
the l\Iississippi 'Talley. In the far north thcy ".ere 
excelled by the I
nglish, ,vllo had di;:;coycrcd llud
Bay and cxplored the labyrinth of 
ldjacent chaullcl:5 
Ilearl y to the Arctic circle. 
For tho present purpose I am called upon to '011- 
sidcr, and that ycry briefly, but one I1101'e half-ccntury 
of discoycry. 
E'or 1 )cfore 1800 the ".est coast ",;as 
explored to Bering Strait; tho territory fro 11 1 ] I ulI- 
son Bay to the 
'\.rctic Ocean ,ya::; lllore than once 
traversed; trappcrs not illfrc(luclltly I1tHI reachcd the 
Lase of the J :ocky 
1()untaills; the Spalliarll.3 Ita.l 
pcnetrateJ to Utah and ha( I bettled 
 \lta. (1aliiorllia. 
'Thcre ".a
 yet a tn'oad interior to l)e explored by 111('11 
 exploits in that direction \yill recciYe attention 



in tliffercnt pnrt
 of thi:-\ "york; but the Northern 
)[ \y
tery in it
 eo:.anogrnphical aspC'ct::; "yas at an end; 
l thè llort.h-\\'c"t pa

ago "Ya:-; pushed out of the 
linlits of thi
 yoltllllO up into the arctic rcgions, "There 
it properly belongs.. . 
After further exploratIon by "'''ateI' III Hudso
311<.1 particularly in Che
terfi('ld Inlet, the chIef e
pcditions being tho
e of Chri
t.opher and N orton l
1 7G l-
, the attentIon of Enghsh explorers ,vas ch- 
rectcd l1utinly to current reports of great rivers flo,v- 
in(r north\\"ard; aucl in 1 ï70, after t\VO unsuccessful 
, Sallluel Hearne lle
cended the Coppern1Ïne 
Itiver to its lllouth. III 178!) l\Iackel1zie ,vent do\vn 
the river that took his IHtllle to the Arctic shores; 
in 1793 the 

nne explorer ,von tho honor of being 
the fir::;t to reach the Pacific by crossing the Rocky 
. IIis route "Tas up the Peace River, do\vn 
tho :Fraser, and across to tide-\vater, ill 53 0 . I find 
110 definite records respecting the discoveries of the 
French trappers in this period, after they built a fort 
at the eaBtern base of the lllountaills in 1752; and 
th<;re iq no eyidence that any explorer froIH the United 
Stated penetrated beyond the 1Iississippi before 1800. 
In LouisianH, T exa
, and N e\v l\Iexico all reInained 
es"cntially in statu quo so far as exploration ,vas con- 
cerncd; but fron1 the last nalned proyince there ,yere 

evcrallninor expeditions north,vard across tho streams 
that form the Culorado; and in 1776 Dominguez and 
E:--:calante penetrated the great basin to Utah Lake, 
aLove 40 0 . In 17G!) Alta California ,vas explored by 
a Spani
h nlilitary and 11lissionary force, up to San 
ro Bay, in 3ï o 48'; aUll hy 177G Hot only ,vas 
the ,,
hole c()a
t region occupied up to that point, but 
oJ. \.nza had in t\\"O trips opened an overland route froln 
Sonora hy,vay of the Gila and Colorado, ,vhile Padre 
Gareé-.; had crossed California froln the l\Iojave region 
 !lad I!Cnetrated the great Tulare Valley to the 
YH'llllty of the lake
. There ,yas no further advance 
by land lJcfore 1800. 





ian discoycric'-) frolll the north - \\
\;,>t <1elnan(1 
but In'ief llotiee here, tht' t-;uhjl'("t 1 )(.'iug' prcsL'ut<.a(1 
,yith fnIl (letail
 ill a later' vohllllt' of this f-;eries de- 
yoteJ tu the history ()f .L \laska. De6 n'e 1 GOO the 
Co:-;:::.;ack:-; ha(l cro
"'ed the G ral .:\[( tuntaiu=, alul ()("("ll- 
pil:d the yalley uf the OLi, in .A
ia. .At tll · 
al11C <late 
slnall ]{u:-.sian {'raft navigated tht", 'U3:-,t \\'ater
 of that 
I'Pgion in the ](ara 8etl; and the :-.(Ulle "aters htl(l heeB 
he(l by the Ellgli
h and Dutch ill their Hvar(Oh 
for a llorth-ea
t ] Ht::;::;aO'c to\\'arù ,\'l1Îch cud Lut little 
additioual ]>r()grè
s \\'a':) ever Blade in latcr tinH.

Bet\VeeH 1 GOO and 1 G50 the (iossaeks tra ver
l'd SiLèria. 
in }o;earch r<>r 
ahle, cro
sed ri,
er after river a
hUlltillg-groulHls '\'ere ncclled, }o;ul )Jued the inhal )i- 
tants, and reachcd the l>acifi. in 1 G39. The chief 
]{u:-.:-.ian esta hli:..;lullcnt OIl the Pacific, \\ hi ah \vas f lis- 
cOYered at IHany puiuts, "
as at ()kh{)t
k, uu the Hca 
of tbe sallie n
une. Thus 11lO}.O than t\\ycntv-tiyp hun- 
dred 111Ïle
 of unkno"
n territory '\
ere e\.Ì>lore(1 (Hul 
occupied by sluall bands of ro,.ing- fur-hunter.... The 
eoYcry ùf Inilles on the Ål11oor, aud fussil ivory ill 
the ex.tre111e north-east, "'a
 added to the incenti\,L;
During IG50 to 1700 nearly every part of the I\
coa:::.;t up to the strait aud including the penillsula of 
I(alncbatka had been yi:-;ited Ly one ad,'cuturous party 
or anothcr, and only the fierce Chukchi of the uorth- 
ca:-;t rcmainctll1'1Conquered. .i\..bundant evidcnrae \\'a 
found of the exi
teuce of land Htill farther east. 
I TreeH and yarious articles not of .L\..
iatie origin \\
often ,vashcd ashore; and inlleed the nati '
 'ï:natle llU 
secr<."t of thèir frequent illtercour..;e \\'ith a. people 
froBl the ea:-;t ,yl}() caIne in boat::; (Jr on the ice, and 
poke a language different frOlll their O\\"u. 1'l1e 
u,,::;iau gOyerllUlt\ut heeallle intère
ted ill the runlor:-; 
of lle,v lands; a }>o:-;t had becu fouuded OIl the ca
shol e of l(anlchatka; au(l in 17
8 'Titu" Bering' 
,vas Reut ill n Yès
el hui]t thL\re to learn the truth 
respectin oo the current rlnnor
, and espL'cially to tilld 
,y hethcr the ca
tcru lanllH \\'ere part uf Siberia ur 



eparatc(l frc.Hn it Ly ,,'ater. 13ering: in this Yoy
J'l'ilt:hed the 
trait bet\\'een the contIncnts to \Y}llch 
 )}lune i
 giycn, nailliug St L:.:nvrence IHland, 
:nHl oL
er\"ing the point in Gï o 18', Leyond \vhich 
tllu coast turned abruptly \ve
t\vard, decid
d that 
t hl' reported land n
t y:t Been by :'lny Rus
n "
Hot an extcl1
ion 0f r\
Ht. There IS 
Olne eVHlcnce 
that ill the carlicr con
 Borin!! Strait hall lJeen 
ö '-' 
cù throu(rh onee or t\vice; and it S01l10\\' hat 
\ agucl.v appe
rs that in 1730 I{rupischef anlI G\VOZ- 
c.Ief follo\viu(Y' Beriu o ' , actuall
T ctune in sirrht of the 
, ö ö J 0 
oJ. \ulcrican continent, aloug \vhich they coasted 
""arù for t\VO llays. In 1741 Bering Iuade his socond 
peditioll, duriug \\"hich his associate Chiiikof first 

a\\. tho continent, in latitude 55 0 3G', near the later 
Sitka, \vhere t,vo boat-cre\vs landed and ,vere prubably 
killed b
T the natiyes, as they ,vere never heard of 
ao'nin. 1'ho conllnnndcr then coasteJ north\vard four 
or fi \
e hundred luilef; before returning to ICaulchatka. 
I3cring- lueau\vhile struck the coa'3t a fc\v days lator 
than Chirikof, in latitude 58 0 28', in sight of J\Iount 
St .Elias. Thence he follo\ycd the shore ,,'"cst\vard and 

t\\'ard, ll[ulled the Shul1lagin Islands, and 
\yas finally \",recked on Bering Island, near the Kaln- 
chatka coast, \\
here he died. The presence of valu- 
ea-otter on the American coast and islands-or 
rat her at first on J:\siatic islands in that direction- 
beeon1Ïng kno\vn \yas the chief incentive to further 
(.{forts. In 17 45 X evódchikof l11ade the first hunting 
trip to tho nearest .....\Jcutian Islands; and thencefor- 
\\.ard onu or Inure expeditions ,vere fitted out nearly 
éYery year by SiLerian lllcrchant cOl1lpanies, lI1any of 
\\-hich proved profitaLle. Discovery ""as in this ,yay 
pushed eaðt\\
ard until Kadiak ,vas reached by Glottof 
in l1Ïs trip úf 15G3-5. The obstacles encountered in 
tbe expluration of thcse northern seas, and the re
IcsH da} iug and ellergy displayed ill overcolllÌllg these 
01 )
taclùs, are unsurpassed in the history of AUlerican 
wðcovcry. The llus
ian craft ,vere slllall, hastily con- 

L\.X x.\ YlnA TIO


Rtructcd hv nlCn \\.h() 1
1}('\\" Lut Jittle of their t.l..;k, 
and \"ere (")ftell 11lcre ho\.es of J }lank-.; hpl(l too. .thcal" 
hy leathern thong's, \,"it hout iroll" 'J'hp)' \,.( 're in 
every ,va
" ill forior to the \\"orst vc",:s, .]-.; Clll ploYl}d I,)'" 
Jlclyigators of other natioll"i in cUi)" part of 
In thcc;e frail boats, poorl.} snpplied \vith f()(Hl, gen"r- 
ally \vithout rCllle(lies a
ainst s
ur\"j", the
e LoltI ...;ailf)l.;-; 
(lid not hc
itato to cOllulli t thelH:;el \'C
 to the i('y \\"a '" ';3 
and furious gales of thc .AI' .tic Rea
. Ilarely \Vets an 
cxpcclition unatten(lc( 1 b.y 
hip\\"rcck an, I sLtr,oatinll; 
ca-ottcr ""ere plentiful. N ut\vithstau(ling the 
 voyages it docs not appear that th(' ('()uti- 
lluntal coasts, either ahuve or Lelu\,' th. \la
peninsula, ""l}rC eycr visite(l hy the Russian
 aft,'r the 
tilnc of ]
cring, fin(l heforo Cook's Rur\"c)" in 1 ï78. 
..L\fter thi
 (late such visits \\cre frequent, rl.-.;ultillg' in 
perillanent occupation at Iuany point:-.;; Lut it rClllaillcJ 
for Cook to nutke kno"ï} the ("cueral feature..; of th 

entire coast to the Rtrait. Subsequcnt local explora- 
tions by the I{u
sians, ]
nglish, Spanish, and French 
in S()uth-ca
tcrll.L\laska at lator Jate
 ha\ c llO Learing 
on our pre
cnt study. 

CH...\.PTER II. 



L-\.PH OF 1330-1-QcEEX OF 
S OF }.J40-3-CínoLA, TIG"CEX, A

1'\ the preceding chapter, after an outline of N orth- 
,,,,est Coast explorations, sho,ving hO"T nluch of its 
interest and ill1portance is connected. ,vith events 
".hich are geographically and chronologically outside 
the lin1Ïts of this section, and presenting the nlythical 
aspects of the lnatter in their origin and general 
scope, I ha YO traced the progress nlade by Europeans 
tu\vard the N" orth,ve
t Coa
t before they reached the 
territory so designated and Legan its actual explora- 
tion. Deferring that exploration for other chapters, 
I propose fir
t of all to treat the subject in its luyth- 
ical, ilnaginary, theoretical, and apocryphal phases. 
It is an 011" J){JJì
Ùl(t of absurditios that is offered, luade 
up of quaint conjecturcs respecting a land that had 
never becn secn, and the various approaches to that 
land; for it ,vas not to the N orth \Ve
t Coast proper 
that the
e conjectures ,vera directed so much as to 
the broad horder-laud surrounding it. 

(32 ) 

ASL\ .A...
D \
[LIUC \. 


In the n1Ï<1(l1e of the 
i\.tt"enth (" "n urv, n
 \Y I ha,"c 
He<< '11, the \\'l'Stl'1'1l 'oa::;t ""a...; kIlO\'"1l llortfl\va r( 1 to }ati- 
tlH le -tu:> tlud beyolld, the C[lstl"rn ('o(t:-.t al)( )\.(' 1;0 0 , 
and the iutl'l'ior Ya.
llely a.... f
l1' Horth :1"; tIlt, l
aHd ....\rkan:--\:L:-: ri\"l'r
. r\ll th(. In'oad iutcrior t
uorth, slig.htl.r cu('a:......d, up to thl' liulit-.; Jlalllf'd, hy a 
hell of coa-.;L disco\"ery, \\"a
 a If 1','0 tur(J!!"tt", if 
ilulecd it \'"c're a t,'/'I'( at all, Hncl Hot part of an ()('pan 
or an iul:uHI s('a. Ites } )l\(.till o ' this J't"(rioH COH ) .(lctur. 
...., ......" 'I. 
hall thu:-; f
ll' IJeCIl partly reasol1(11)le. 'rh(, }H.()('e:--,...; of 
df'veloplHellt has all'cè..H ly Leell traced; fir:-;t tit I 111'\\" 
disco, el'ie
 part of thc 
iati(1 luaill to 1) 
 c..'oa-.;t .,1 
Houth-\'"l'st\\"al'd to India; next, thú southern portion 
of thu
e di
I'oYel"ie:-; as a great islall(l Sepal"ate.! froJIl 
l\sia hy a 'Htrait'; then the strait au istlllllU'-; rather, 
aHd the islaluL a great 
tCl'll projection frol11 
the continl'ut; alld tilla}]y an ûxten:"\ioll of the pru- 
o n
 to ilu.hHle th\.' l'eg-iou:o-: Ilorth :1:-. \'"eH as 
south of the Panalll:t IstllJIlu
, :tlld to join the ... \
Juaiu at a higher latitlHI(, than 40 at least, if at alL 
I do Hot 
ay that thi:-j theor y 
 of !! 'Otfra l )hical e,"olu- 
.. .-
tion ,,"ill F:ati
tactorily aCCoullt 1t>!' e'"ery re 'orclecl 
:-.;tatelneut or id0a of ever:,
 early naxigator, 01' cü;-\IIlog- 
rapher, or Inap-l11aker; hut the excl'ption
 are so f(.\\. 
light as by no lueans to ÏInpair the theory, or to 
afford a basis for any other. 
y 1550 it ""as ,,"cll understoorl that tho n ,,,.land
 of cOlltincntal proportions, and vcry f
lr frol11 
ia ill thcir southl\rn parts. \ Y"hether they \, ere 
also distant in the nurth \\"a
 an open (1 uestion, for the 
solution (If ,,"hicIt no real data cÅi:-:;tec.l. Offieial chart- 
ulaken-ì and the Tilost l;tJlnpctent uf geographer::; con- 
tented thclu:-\el ves \,"ith recordin o ' the 1"L'..;ult-.; of actu,ll 
exploration, leayiHg" a blank Oil their IHaps for the 
country yet unyi
itetl, ,,"hile in the text thl\Y Botl'(l, 
\\yithout l;Olllluittin oo thelllscl \PCS, the yal'iou:-; t heori '
:Jlany still l)elie"\ e(l 
 orth .r\IHcrictt tu Le a part of 
the Ãsiatic cuntillent, and o).,}>el"tf'd to find the 
line tUl'uiu oo to the 've....t Hot far lJe\:outl latitulle -to , 
v .J 
r .x. w. COAf
r. VOL. I. 3 



and t hl'ncc 
Ollt h "yard to India: hut othcrs-ahnost 
all in latcr year:-;-belipyc(l ill a 
tl"ait separating the 
t\\yo contincllts H()lnL'\\'hl\r(
 in the llol'th-,vest. Thi
thl\()ry of a northcrll :--;trait ,yas R()l11C\vhat incohcrently 
built OIl the Cil"CUlll
tance that a pa
sago had becn 
ouo'ht in the contral reo-ions, on J\Iagellall 
Htrait actually fÒUlld in the ftu" Bouth, on statelllent
of ancient "Yl'itcrs res p ectill c }" the 108t ...\.tlantis, ,vhich 
\::) . I 
lllight h3. ,ye heen part of ..L \.u1erica and ,vh
ch hac 
been described aes an i
land, aud ou the dlscovcry 
uf ('ertain unexplored inlets along the north-eastern 
. Those "yho believed in the separation by ,vater 
diftered "Tillely about its nature. Sonlc thought it to 
Le a narro\v strait, othcrs a broad onc; S0111C placed it 
lJct"yeen t\VO opposite capes, others l1lade of it a long 
"yinding channel, or a succe
sion of lakes, or a net-,vork 
of intert"yiuillg channels, or an ar
hipelago; ,vhile 
there ".ere lIlallY "rho regarded it as a broad expanse 
of :,alt "Tater, reducing North ..l\n1erica to a long 
nalTO\\- Htrip of irregular forlH, ,vhich extcnded fronl 
Routh-,vest to north-east, and perhaps ,vas it
elf cut up 
l)y narro\v interoceanic pasRages not yet discovered. 
I t cannot be said that the ideas of one class on this 

ul)ject ,vere in any respect supcrior to thosc of 
another; all \yere but conjecture; nor do such 111aps as 
reprcsent the northern regions in sOlnething like their 
real position and proportion entitle their Inakers to 
credit. I no\v procecd to chronicle BODle of these 
conjectures ,vhich helll s\vay for l110re than t,vo 
centurics, and \y hich bear 1110re or less directly on 

lorth-,vcstern geography, and are often entcrtain- 
lllgly suppleUlcllted Ly falsehood. I shall treat the 
subject so far as 1'0
::;iLle chronologically. 
There ,,"cre fc\v if any of the voyages to Ålnerica 
l)ef()re 1550 the object of ,\yhich ,vas not to find H,111011(" 
other things a passage by ,vater to India; but thcl
is no need .of recapitulating- thCHC voya
es for the sake 
of pre:-;ùutlug their COllllllon object and failure. ]Tor 

DI\"'r:nR COXJI:C rrnES. 


thi"" eal'li 
t p 'ricHl of IllariLilllp (li
(-()\"'('r'y, T llayc to 
notice fc)}' the ]ll()
t part ollly Rueh (\
peditionH a
hcd l11att'rial f(n
 latl'r arOOUIlK'llt and ("OIl J ' (:cturc 
I""" , 
such a'4 not oIlly soucrht the 
trait but 
)tlntl it or at 
. l""'I , 
t f-'()l11ct bing that Blight La (1 "OUl ,d an illclicatie Hi 
of its e
i:.-t( 'IU'C. The 
 ort1uncll, the earlic'-\t ill the 
fÌcl( 1 of .... \ulcri(-an (liscoycrieR, die 1 not stop to th(ìorizp 
ahout the ".e
tcrn lands, nor tlieL they' care, sO f
thl'\ records SheHY, ,yhetlH'r they IH'lollgcd to Asia. or 
.i\..fl'i(Oa. They ,,'cre bent on 
Hh entur
, conqn "i.òt, :uHl 
settleulcnt, and sought no pa:,sag-e tú the Spice l
of the S(Juth or the cities (Jf the (lran(ll(hcln. lJoulJt- 
Ie:.;,; had their a.d Vf'ntnre:i Loen kno".n to the CO""n10('- 
 they ,vould ha\.e fUl'ui:.-hed llluch f
)od ft,r 
theory; but the rccord8 \vere for the tiU1C lo
i, ,1Iltl 
tho sa J e s therefore haye no hearill(' on the X orthprn 
)[ y:-;tt..:r'T. Of COIUIlll)u
 an(l hi:-; Yacraric:-; al)()ut the 
. .J l'? 
terrestrial paradi
e in South 1\ulcrica as '\,,"c.ll of his 

 auJ their exploratie )n
 in southern parts 
cllough has hecn said el
e".here; like\yise of the prc- 
Collll1l1)ian theorio
 of ".ondcl'ful i
lands in tho Atlan- 
tic. :For the
c and uther ]llatterR that have illdircc:t 
bearing on the prpseut subjcr-t, I refer the reader to 
the fir:-;t YOIUlllC of the lI'
tu}'.'J (1 (}
ntJ' l Illl 
There exist no conteull'orary narrati ,""os of the yoy- 
ages of the Cabot
 to northcrn parts of thú contincut 
ill l-lDï -8, and the fragTuents of a later tlate are a:-, 
contradictory respecting the navigators' ('
act idea:;; 
ag about the exact reo-ions yisited. It 
\lld uIHler:.-tand- 
i])g by reason of thc' 
phere," \\-rote Schastian Ca Lot, 
"that if I should. f-\ailc l)y ,yay of the Xort ll\\"c
t, L 

houhl by a 
hortcr tl'aet COIBC into India... not 
thinkin cr to tilule an'
 other laud then that of Catha\., 
v J a 
alHI froul thcneo to tUl'nc to,,'anl India, but after ('er- 
tainc daycs T f
)llIHl that thl'\ ]aIHl raIllle tu\\.arJ
North, ,vhich ,vas to THee a great llisplca

 r()!I., iii. 4-11, with sf\vcral accounts. For further rd('
Y1cf"S (J1 
the yoyages mClltiollCll in this chapter see (
eoél"aphical :-'l1mmary, lD IIl,t. 
Cent. ...1 m.. '01. i. cha p. i. 



 not apparent; lnlt hc. "
rotû at a tilHe ,vI
en it ,vas 
elt'ar that a nc\v cOllbupnt had been (h
) lorcu\.cr, he' "
r()te to Itaulusio tltat in latitutle G 7 0 
O', "finding :-;till tho open Sea \\.ithout any In
Ulller of 
Ï1npcdiIl1cllt, hee th(lu
'ht yerily b)'" that. \\
T t<; hauo 
'eù 011 
till tho "ay to C

o, ".Inch. l
 In tho 
t, au(l ,youltle haue ùone It, If the IllutIl1Ie of the 

hiplnastl'r aud Inarl'iller
 had not rebcllcd." 2 .L
t first 
there "
a:-' Ilo tloubt that Cabot had reached .L\.sia, or 
later that ho had di

d a strait leading to that 
('oa:-;t. The c
peditiollR of the Cortel"eal
 in 1500-
,vero likc the preceding, in that they are not described 
hy l"OntclllpOl'ary do(,ulllcnts; Lut so 11luch the bettor 
for later thcol'i
. J do nut suppose that either Cabot 
or Cortereal really 
ought a '::;trait,' but only 3 pas- 
:-;ao-e, Hut doubtill(f that thov ,vere 011 the Asiatic 
.., ð J 
]uain; but in their reports there ,,"as no lack of In:1- 
terial for a 8trait ,,
hen necdet-l-illstance Cortereal's 
Rio X cvado, ,vhere his progre
s 'Vttf:; inlpecleJ by ice. 
In later tilllCS Cortereal ""as credited Ly Inauy ,vith 
not only having discovcred the strait, but ,vith having 
IUUYJl;J it. I aUl not certain ,,-ho originated this theory; 
IJut ,ve are told by Forster, Fleurieu, Burney, HUlll- 
l,ol(lt,3 auù other
, that Cortereal found the strait, 
ualHed it ..L\..llian, in honor of certain brothers ",.ith hinl, 
and "
 lo::,t ,,
hell returning to utilize his discovery. 

rhe authorities lliffer as to ,vhether there ,vere t,vo 
IJrothers or three, ,,"hether the nal1le ,vas that of the 
fanlily or of one of the brothers, possibly that of 
Cortcrea1' s o"
n brother; and they like,vi
e differ 
pccting the identity uf the strait \vith Hudson Bay 
or St I
rellce ]{ivcr. It ùoeH not luatter, ho,vever; 
HOlle of the earlie,;t ,vriters Inention the CirCU111stance. 

'8 D
ver8 .vo!J:, 2.)! fro
 Ra!llusi<? A letter announcing Cabot's 
rcturn credIts 111m wIth havmg hkewise thscovcrecl the seven cities, four 
hundred leagues from England, on the western passa<re;' and still another 

ays that he had visited' the territory of the Grand Cham.' Bn/wit's 11,,-;t. 
u. S., i. I:W. . 
. 3 I'
ter's l!ist.. J
y., 4GO; Flr ll1'ieu! in J[a rclwnd. Vr!y., i. , i.; n"rneY'8 
f)/"Acov. Sùlltlt ,')('It, 1. .); } lu , mbfJlrll EM;(U Pol., 3:30. '11 pnt son nom Ù'Ull des 
freres cmharqués Imr Ie vai
scau ùe Uaspar de Corteral.' 



It is toleral)ly 
ertain that tlH.' :-;trnit of .L\nian ""as not 
BalHed for Ill()l't. tlla 11 fifty y('ar
 aftt -r (
ort 'n -al'
age, and I f-\haJI lIoti('e t]}(. luatt -r again ill chIP tillH,;.' 
. ,J ohallll ]tll\.
.W)) ill 1.108 IH'illtt.<l th ' til.
t IliaI' that 

ho\v,-,d any part of tl1 · X e\\ \ \rorIcl, \\")) i(.J. ] It. I HIh} i:-;J.e( I 
IH 1>toleu1Y'K u-eoOTa I )hy. It rl' l )f<-sunt...; the luvstery 
 .. 01 

- "... i < -< 
..,. :) I 
, iL... -f " 









\}..\ \ 

 \\ \ ' 



cn's )!AP. 1,")08. 

of tho strait ill au early 
tage of dcYcluplnL'nt. ... \s yet 
there \\
as nothing to inlpedo navigation to India. 
I t is Raid that the Ptoleu1'y lllap of ]:; 11 
t 'para tc...; 
tho Terra Cortercali
 fro 11 1 the r\.
iatic lllaill. 'ro 
quote fì'o111 an earlier volulne of this 
: "
\s long- 
 the ne\y land
 ,yore believcd to he a part of ....\.
tho lnap
 Lore :-;olue re:--:elublallce to the aetual coun- 
trics intenùed to be l'L'lH'eBcntetl, 1 )ut frolll the first 
da \\ï1ing of an idea of separate ]alld
t.:C the 
t cOllfu
i()ll in tht' ctl')l.t:"\ of lllap-luakers to 
depiet the X è"'" "Tol'l<l." I )Olltcü de l.Jèon's f:un- nI
search for the f()untaiB of youth ill J-'lorida, ntight in 

f The I..OIHloll QU(ll"ferly flai, 11", xvi. 1.")4, thillk
 that Cortercal, enterin;; 
HUtboll l1ay, thought it part of elll opening Oil tIlt"' Pacifil' nlrc.ul} kUO\\ 11 
(hcfore 1.300!) as the btrait of _\.l1i:m; and the _Yorth _J In r;rall. Rel'Ì U', Jauu- 
ary Js:m, lIS, ÙCCJIl:::i thi::; nut \"l'ry 11l"illiallt theory more prul)[.Mc than any 



a certain Sl;nse he cited a::; a pha
e of the present sub- 
ject: lJut thi
 bubLlü soon burst, and so far as I kno,v 
had no t'ffcet on tho Yagarie
 of later days. The llUlP 
toLllieza's j)tul('}JÎ!J of 151 
 i'3 said to sho,v the 
X e'\
 "or urld as a cOlltillUOU
 coast up tu 50 0 . A Portu- 
l.; chart of about 1518 exhibits for the first tilnc 
the l
al"ifiC tliyidctl Lr an istlullus frolll the Atlantic; 
lea' ing f'paecs Let"Tuen the Gulf ùf l\Icxico and Lab- 
Hlor ,vhere the coa:-.;t lllay not be contilluouS. 5 
8chöllcr'8 globe: of 15
0 explains it
clf. It 'vas 

 foulldetl on lllcre conjecture, though in cer- 
tain re:-.;pecbs an approxinlation to accuracy, for as 

^ ,t- o ZS; 
, J D 



 1 if 
i \

 1;: 5'/ ðf 
a::': ""'lr e 
 &J lIt f'"'- '. 
1Q.t:,; "'<.. ............. C I==r-l. (1 lIil'OIIlI' 

 ' \._ TERRAl ,{C{\IIO 
7',r'\ ,þ. ;::"
\ tri CE CUI3A
\!' i
 S ,;-ì-- 

\ '" f CJ 4 - - _)
 . VJ('('I u 1dú'J.IO 
 - ::l

 ê- --J\. 
 I ( f1 
'j- . L\ (It ï....: $. a 

)f <? f
 ../. tiJ z 
 .. ' y 


 iJ( Q 
 2 <J 
J /\ 
 Ñ ; 
#) CJe 

 (\O nD û\ 
lì J? 
 ö 0 
J -r:v
 Q. <:? 

J"VA Q - 
..",OR ___ c:::::> 



\O " 





EH.'::) GLonE, 1,)20. 

yet there "
ere no (liscoycries to SUIT
est a broad sheet 
f . ðð 
() ,yater. Ilorth-,vest uf the nc,vly found lalHls. 6 In 
the earlIest land expeditions frolll J\Iexico to the 

a Hee In..;;t. C"lIt. 
11n., i. ]33. 
n lir!jfrn
 /list. lJ S., i.. ]4!1, it is stated that the Rio 
'oraan visited 
"lon m.l:)_O 011 the Carohna coa:;t \\a
ol1ght U
 the '
acrcù' Jordan of 
LÜ,hcLd tratl1ÌlOll ! 



near north-,ve:-;t of ::\ri('hoa('an and ColiuHl in 1 j2
III uch illte),è
t "pas ,.
( .ited hy rl'pol't
 of a l'I"oyil}('(' of 
('iiguab))), or of an i
Olne tell day:-;' joul.n c \ },(1_ 
YOIHl, inhal)itcd l)'y ""OUlell, like 
, \rho bl'ill
yi:..;Ïte,l at illt,'r\y
 l)\.l11L'U f1'Oll1 the IllainlaH<} kill, ,l 
... , 
their TUttle childrl'Il; they Were \\"ithal rich in ] H'arl:-:. 
'rhi:-; "Ta
 all the l110re illterestiug Lee(luse ('01 t 'S 
('xpected. to find rich 
t1ul 111:U'\ cllous isles in hi..; 
'oyage to IUflia, f<)1' ,,"1ti(.Jt he "YHS thell prt'paring.. 1 
In 15
('o COJ'té:-; f
HlIld al:-;o ill l'uJiuIa tra<:t..: 
of Chl'i:..;tian rites, :uul rUlll0rS of a yc.......el ,,"rc(.kc,l 
in earlier years. ,r elT
l.ZallO yi
itcd the pastcrn coa="t 
in 1 J
..t., aUlI ha,; Lecn ('l'(.dit('d ,rith Lein(f the iirst to 
proHlulgate the truc theor.v of tlu' earth's si
. alltl 
tho guographieaI relatiun of the X e\\Y "-orIel to .L\.
] hud llothil1g in his report to ju
Ul'll a cOIl<.lu- 

iOll, thoug-h the ntlIlle ' 
Iar Jc 'T crraluno' is apt )lied 
to the ".e:-Jtern ,\yatcrs OIl a later lllap. I.:...te\-an 
(]01l1CZ sought the 
trait in 15
J 1,et\\"t:l'1l 1,"lorida 
all (I N e,,
f(,undlanc1 / aut! aluHlt his return an Hlllu=--ing 

tor'y haH often Leell repeatcd. 1 r e Lrought hUll!' a 
eal'go of es<.:lul'o.
, or sla'7cs; 
1Il<1 an enthusiast in thl' 
cause of diseoyery, fai1illg to cat(.h the hr:,t Hyllable, 
ru:-;Ìled to eourt ,\yith the l1e\\PS that GOlllez hall at 
last f"(,lllHI the pa
sage to the Spice Island..;, haying re- 
tUl'llcd \\7ith a <.-argo of claros, ur cloYe::5: The truth 
"yas ðOOll kllO\Yl1, Hluch to the :unU:;t:1HCllt of the ('ourt 
(llltl the ll}c:-;scllo.l'r'
 disCOlllhture. III tho:"\e days the 
ð . 
Spaniardt; little thonght uf sailing to the e'\.treBle 

1 , Y asÍmismo me tnljo Hc1acion dc 10s SeÏ10res de 13. Prmincia de Ciguatn.n, 
fInc Be u.1Ì1'll1an 1ll11cho halwr una. Isla to<<la pohhula. ùe )1.1 rer S bin Yarun 
láuguno, y qne Cll cierto:5 ticmpo yan de la TicITa-Firuu' Homl,rc8, ('on lo
<<[uall':5 han aceso, y las que cJuetlan prcùa,las, si parcn lIugcrcs la guartlan; 
y si Homhres Ins cchan lIe 811 COlJJpallia.' Corl's, indo ....Y. E8J<lIÎa., 3-1
ß((wmonl, //;";1. J/idt., 
t'Rr!/(lIlI's llis!. C. S., i. ISO. . . 
II 'It is also dccl"('l'II, one Sh'phanus f':ome7, who al
o hUllse}f(-' 18 a 
8killfull Kaui"ator. shall goc allother wa), \\ here by l)Ct\\ CCllC tlu- Ihcc..llnos. 
;IIHI Florida, i<m
 since our countI it,S, he f:i.aith, he \\ ill tinch
 out a \\ a} c to 
( 'a.taia: onc olH
hippe ('all(.d a Caraudl is furni
hed for him, aud lw 
halH' no other thill" in chargc, thcn to 
carch out \\ hethl.r an) p:\, n
 to the 
great CIWll, frolH 
nt thc (liucrs "iu,lin;!s. .11111 ya:-;.t COJllI'< "':-liu,.!!'\ of thi'i Ol1r 
UCC<lli, \\ CI'C to hc f.)Ulltlc.' I', il" J/Clrt!/'", tIll. \ i. l'ap. \.. 



north;lO but I{oLcrt Thorne in 13:27 urged his king to 
l'tlt.)l.ts in t ha t di rl
eti()n. ... N O\\TC thell, if frolll the 
:-;a ,.de lll,\\r{' [t HUl< Ie la ndes the See hec N a uigaLlt"\, there 
is 'no douLte l)ut Rayliug XOl'tlny"ar(le and passing th0 
poll\ lll':"C'l'uding to the cq uiuoetiall 1 yne, 'Yee 
hittl' these 11aHtll's, and it should Lee lnuch Illore 

h()rtl"\r \\Tay than l'yther the Spaniardc
 or the Portiu- 
gall's haul'. "11 
rrhl' Lest eh:Jrt::; of thc
e <1a
ys \vere not published. 
toutinl'd for thl' lllo
t part to the represclltati( nl of 
aetlla 1 diseo'Teril's, they left the llorthern parts Llauk, 
auel haye uo :-;peeial interest in conneetioll \yith the 
ellt suLjl"\et. I\lLli
heù lllap
 indulged 1110re freely 
in bpeculation. rfhe PtoleulY lllap of 1530, as hcre\vith 
given, ".a
 cil'eulated w'ith slight variations in differcnt 
eclitiou::; of PtolCIUY and l\IunHter for Inany years; and 



fk1:s 1 n W :(J)cc il l e II UI] i I'L 

{1- 0 


PTOLE:\IY )lAP, }330. 

other HU1] )S, Loth IlulHlu;eript aud print, ,ycre of the 

alnc tYJ >>c, rcprcf;clltillg N ort h Allleri
a above l\Iexi

10 Peter )Tartyr, dec. vii. cap. v., ahout this t:me wrote: 'But concerning 
the stI'ayght there is little ho1'(';' awl especially had he no fnith in 1101'th- 
n IH'o!o;}lcds. 'To. thc !50uth! To the south! .For the great and exceeding 
llches of thc .LE(JulIloctJall, they that Hccke riches must not goe vuto the 
coM and fI'm'cn north.' ð(.C J:rl!(wf','l /I ilît. U. S., i. ],")0. 
111'lwrllt'ð Bûol..', in JJakluyt'l:S lJirU.8 roy., 48; lú., Voy., i. 214-20. 

L\X .\XD .JI


:lR a JUUTO". (Oontiueut c
t"n<liHg' Ho}"th-ea,-,t""arc1 to tho 
regi.on of (
rcclllalld, :-\('paratc('l f}OOlH nppl'l" Iud ia hy' 
a "'Hie 
tralt, and nearly 
c\-cred ju,-,t alu)v' Florida 
l,v a hroad illlut frolH the \\'( 'st. 'rIte ()} in'in of thi-.; 
ll't or ha) i
 Hot kUO\\.ll, Lut it \\'as prpLal;ì '" foulHll '<1 
OIL certain unpuhli:-;hcd l'ep()rt
 of \T l'rra
al;o or (;0- 
llleZ. Orolltiu
"ille, ill hi
 lllap of 15:
 I, adhere(l to 

I \r f/' " 

.' ) 
'Y c.,g;r
! 1 ) 

 ) I:/
1; (l 
'. L _) } '-/Ca/m, ,JII"....-' 
 2' ! 
'P' p 
 R I 

'"\ t3 


( (' 
J..I -.....!""< 1[,11 ï/ 1 1t1.llanl _ 
 r "1 

OH.OSTIPi FISE'S )L\r, 1331. 

the oriO"illal idea that t hl' nl\"
 reO.ioBs ""ere P art of 
ð 0 
... \kia, di
regardillg the ('oBje(.turt's of hiB l"Out elupo- 
, ,vhich, if aecidentally U10IC :L("('uratc than hi
,vere lnueh le

 cOllsi:-;tullt \
-ith real kno\\"le(l.
:N uIÌo de GuzInan's L'Ollqucst in 1 j;
 1, extending- 
to ðiualoa, di(l ulu(.h to dis("}'edit earlier tall"\:-; of a, 
proyince ()f .ÀlllaZOllS: uut the Jiscu\"ery of a 1 )laeu 
called .Âztatlall ReélllC(l to furnish 
Ollle confirlna- 
tioll of ðUppo
p(1 aboriginal tnHlitiou:-: about an r\ztee 
III Î<rratioll fl'Olll the north - "Yl'st. In 1 5:
 the etl( n-t
o t
u(:("u:-,:...;ful that .JiIllenl'7, one of hi..; 
, discovered land \\ hich "Ya
upp()sed to 
bl\ an island and nauled Sauta (
ruz. 1 {ad JÏlnenc 
l,ecn able to c-xplol'ú }}lOrC fully the l
tL'rll coa..;L of 
 He\\" laud, the theory ""oultl doul)tl.':-,s ha\-e 1, '"\H 
on his ruturn that he had rl'aehell a part uf the 



iati(" continent, and had entered the nlouth of the 
tr(lit. This \youl(l have Leen natural, 
(lluf Ini,)"ì
t have had llluch influence in Hhaping later 

l"onjectul'e and ex} )loration; but Cortés ,\'as Intent 
]lot oul V. on fiu<lillO' tlu"\ .
trait but rich i
lands on the 
. \'""\ 
"a v to Inllia; therefore be "'as ,,'illing to accept the 
'" di:,cOYl'l'V :1:-; an i
land, eycn after a fruitle
s at- 
teulpt at occli l )atioll and finding riches. The idea that 
it ".as an i
land ,yas 
oon abandoned, only to be reyived 
for a lOllcrer life in later vea.r
Iean,vhile SOllle one 
v . of 
callcd attention to a popular rOlllancc, SOllie t\venty- 
TIYC ycar::; uld, in ".hich the follo".illg pas
age occurred: 
"}{1l0". that on the right hand of the Indies there is 
an i::;]and called California, very nèar to the terres- 
trial paradise, ,yhich ,vas peopled ,vith black \VOnlCn, 
,vithout any 11ll'll alnong thein, becau
e they ,vere 
tonled to live after the fashion of Anlazons." 

,rherefore the ne"T island \Ya
 appropriately nauled 
California, because of its position, its supposed ,vealth, 
and of the ÅluaZOl1H of native tradition. 
.L-\t the same tinlc Diego òe Guzlnan made a trip 
fronl Culiacan to the Yaqui, to verify the reports of 
the Seven Cities, aud of a river four or five leagues 
,,'ide flo\ving into the South Sea, and having an iron 
chain stretched across its mouth to prevent boats 
penetrating the interior. 12 On the eastern coast 
Jacques Cartier ,vas questioning the Indians of Canada 
aLout the 'Ye
t. J1eferring doubtless to the great 
lal\.es, they said that from the upper St La,vrence 
there" \va:::; fre:-,h ,,-ater, \vhich ,vent so farre up,vards, 
that thcy had never heard of any lllan \vha had goue 
to the head of it, and that there is .no other P assao'e 
hut ".ith small Loates." Less intelligible, but equally 
:-,tiug to the hearers, \vas their stateu1ent that 
froTn 1 [uehelaga ,yas but a lllonth's journey to a 
country of ciunalllon and cloves. 13 Agllese's Inap of 
12 Gu::.rnan, 8('[jzl1td(t ll(>f. A lIÓ11. 303. The Scvcn Cities may have bcen an 
afterthought of the author, as he did not write until some years after the 
evcuts cl"'
J, Raul! .';.0, JïaJ9i, iii. 43:>; Ilu/.;[u!Jt'ð Voy., iii. 213. 

V \(' \, SOTO, AXD XIZA. 


1}(1 n J>ortuguc
e 1l1ap of the 
:1Il) > yea}' arc 
entlally the saUle as the l>tolclny }}}ap of 1 J:3Ü, 
cept that the north-".('stt.rn ('oast lilH> i
n' the 
J110st part left yaguc (lIld indc-fillitu, beiug" rC'prtl
}J,V dottl;(L line:-" and that the latter tHl,:-; thl, uarro\\"- 
iug- to au i
t}ullus just abo\"c l'lorida, Lut sho\\"s a. 

trait atf()l,tling a pa 
'"'() g-c to Cathay j u:-;t 1 )ulo\\" I
laos, or N c\\"fl)uuula IH 1. u 
It ""a
 in 15:3G that CaLezn de ''''(u'a arri\"eù ill 
Sinaloa and l\lc
il'o frolll his oYerl:uH I trip. II i:-; 
report coutained little or nothing- that \\"a
aLout thc north. lIe luul recei \.cd a fC'\\" tury UOi"'l'-'; 
and elllcralds fraIl 1 thc InJians, \\.ho f'aic L tIH'Y calllC 
fro]}} tho north, "".here ".erc pnpulous to\\
 H.ll<l ycry 
large houses,"15 referring of coUl":-)C to the l)uebln 
. 13ut thi:::; ill COllllcctioll "9ith uther rUIJ10rs ,)f 
northern to\\ïl
 'V:l;o, ::5ufncient to kindle aIle". the thullC 
of adventure. \\Tl1Ïle Soto ,yaK ".an<lcrin u in thc 1Jl"u:Hl 


:-;Ïppi 'Talley ,,"ithout l"untributing- al1ythiug of 
Ï1nportancc to the lllar\.els of the N ortherll )ry

Iarcos de ::\iza started JlortlnvarJ. froBl Culia.- 
can, and ,ycnt so far proLabl,y as to COlllC fi<-tually ill 

ight of ono uf the to" lis at ClLola, or ZUlÌi; th()n
11crnan Corté:::; and others regarlleù Xiza'
as pure fiction. Friar 
larcos, ho".cYcr, preferrc t 1 
llsehood or gro
.:; exaggeration to thc truth. TIe 
provcd to hi
atisfilction that California, ""a
an i8lalld, and that there ".cre thirty others rich in 
pearls; he learned that the coa
t turned abruptly to 
the ,,"cst in 3J 0; hc learned luuch uf a country richer 
anJ. l1l0re populous than ::\lexieo, inclu(ling CíLola, 
rrotonteae, .1
, aTH L !\ larata; ho !--oil"" froln a di:-)- 
tance Cíbola, a to\Vll larger than :\ Le
icu, thon
.h the 
sluallest of the Se'"en Cities; he li
tened cretlult)u",.}y 
to, if ho did not invent, storie
 of gold and prel:iuu:-) 

It See Kohl'slli,....t. ni
C01'., 2f)
!)G. In It/., 296, is another simitar mnp 
by Homem, 1':;40, without tho strait; hut there i
 a. 1Jt..'t\\l'l'll H.lL'.d.l)'i 
awl Icelaud. 
1.1 Ca / ), _((, d( '.a:a, Rdalioll, W7. 



f'tOIlC'S hl
ing in ("ol1l1HOn H
l"\; and after taking formal 
. .. 1 . '" ..... "T. r . 1 t . 
 "T:' . 
slon f)f t ll
 ...., :,\\r :
Ing( onl 0 .....?a
l i 1 r

hL' rl'turlll\d to )[eXH'O 111 153
).lG N lza 
()on l:
ed; but ncycrthelcsB they ,vere 
,,'i(lcly circulatl
ll, and their intluen
e \\
 felt for 
111tlIl \

rhc llaUll':-; Cíbo]a, Totontcac, and thu 

n' Citie
en1Ï -Illythic in later year
, origiuatc( 1 
\\-ith hilll; though the la
t had, before the discovery 
of .Ã \ nH
riea, been applied to a nlythic region in the 
In 1 340-3 "
cre luade the fanlous expeditions of 
Coronado, Ulloa, .Alarcon, and Cabrillo, ,yith ,vhich 
the reader i
llniliar. The rcports ùf these explorers 
ur(\ plain 
tatenlents of D1ct. They ,yere di:::;appointed 
in their expectation of rich kingdo111s in the north; 
IJut they indulge{ 1 in no ,vild speculations of ,vhat 
n1Îght haye buen found had they penetrated farther. 
Thcy reyealed the coast line beyond latitude 40 0 ; 

lHn"cd California to he a peninsula; explored both 

horcs of the gulf; discovercd the Colorado in t\\,.o 
] Þlaees; ('xpo
cd ncarly all Xiza's lllisrepresentations; 
] n'oelain1cd in their true character the l
ueblo to,vns 
of Inoderll .l
riZOlla and XC",. :\Iexico; discoyered the 
11io r;l'tlllde (leI X orte; and eyen explored the great 
] .lains f
u' to the north-cast. Indeed thcy nlade kno,vn 

ubstalltiallv all that ,yas to he kllo"
n for oyer t,vo 
centuries of. northern gcography; and they practi- 
T COIlyillCed Spaill that in this region there ,vas 
IH' iield it)!' conquests 
Ï111ilal' to thosc of Cortés and 
l)izarro, though there Blight Le a strait aLove the 
,.,.- et especially ill the records of Coronado's adven- 
tUl'eH ""ere left the 
L'('<ls of Inystery and perplexity. 
So fl
ll.r ""as exploration suspended that the regions 
descrIbed bee-anle sClui-lnythical. It ,vas not rare ill 
later Years for e\
en Hpauiaròs to discuss the O"cncrnl 
. t . 1 b 
tOpIC 0 Hort lern geography, \\
ithout any apparent 

16,J..Yi..rr, Drsculu"imicnlo de lui'/ 8{(lc CtlUlad('s. 



kuo".lc( Ig 
 uf Corolla<!o's 
H.hi '\ t.!lJ 1 'nt"'.l1 I t '
a:-, not 
(.lear fro III the narrati, 
:...,( ,,"h....thl'r th... great rivcr:i 
\ isited hy" (ial'dcHas, l\lal ("Oil, :Llld IJiaJ; ,,('rt.' 011 " 
t,YO, or tl1ree 
; nor "as it kno\, 11 ,\"11 .ther the 
riycl' of 1"j CJ lH'X, tlit' ltio clel Xurt \ , tlO\\ "I into the 

 \tlallti(' or the I>a .ific gulf. 1'he c\.p .ditioll to Qui- 
vira \\'UH 1l1l(Iertakcll h.v Coronado frOl1l 1\
t1ex, Oil 
tl1e l
io d,
'l Nort(., ill (.on:-..e(lu(.IH'(' of reports 1))" 
Indians of a great ]\.ingdoIH ill tht. llorth-ca:..t, ril"lt in 
goI(1 and other ,vealth. lie juurn 'ycù f
ll' in that 
directiou, tu 10 0 a
 he IJf..:lic\ cd, and fUHll( I Qui, ira .t 
,\ ig'V:llll to\\'n of the plains. It ha(l nont' of the re- 
ported attractions; and ulle of tIlt, t,vu nati '-('S ,vho 
hê.l<l IHX
ll 1l10,;t liberal ,,-ith inforluatioll , contc,",
his (lecl'ptit)n, \\'a
 put to death; but t]h' other, and 
ROllle of tho SpaJliard
, havillg' returucd to 'rigth:
1 )l'furl' reaching Qui "ira, I 
ed to helie\ c in th.. 
K of the searL"h, alld in the Ilon-eÀi:"tL:llCC 
of thi", \\Polldrou::; ,,-eaItll': kincrdoln. llencl' the Ï1na fr - 
J ü ü 
illary ()ui \-ira ,,-ell uio,It cro,,'ded the \,'ic """aIH to\\"1l 
out of cxif-\tencL,. 1'hat it ,va::; rieh and f
n' north '\"a:-; 
all that "
as rClnelllbel'ed, its IOllgitude Hot l)cill
taken into account. 1"hough Coronad() h::ul clearly 
<lcfinod it
 direction frolll :N e\v :Jlcxieo, it 'ra
ally placed on thc coa
t of the South Sea. 

or the transfer of Quiyira [rulu the north-cn
t to 
the llurth-'\Po
t perhaps the hi
torian (}onlara "a
iblc, êlR he certainly "-a
 for other llli"reprc- 
selltations. He statell that Cardella", ,,"ho really "'cut 
fr( >>In Zuùi to the Culorado CalÌon, reached th
perhaps confounding his exploration ,\"ith that of I )iaz; 
aH(1, after lle
criLill(" the trip to Qui,
ira, he ,,"rote: 
"J'hey sa\y 011 thc Ü coast :::;hip::; ,vhit'h had peli('ans 
of goid and,.cr Oil their pru,v
, ,,"ith 11lcrcluuHli::;' 
that they thought to 1)(..: froln Cathay 
lnd China 

17 Garcl's, in J)oc. in..;t. J[ex., scric ii. tom. i. 3fì.}-.j, t- ems to think that 
Rome of Coromulo's mcn rcached th(' 
anta. B.u"hê.Lr... challnd of \113 Califon1Ïa. 
)Iota Pallilla, ('o/lq. 
Y. (..laliria. 
[:--:., Hi!., tdls us that if Coronåulu h.u.l gOllo 
fal'thcl" north awl HOllle\\ hat wcst" anIly he "ouId ha'"c reached \\ h 110\\ 
(lí40) kllO\\1l as New ::\lexico. 



1.ecap"p they ]}ladc 
 that t1u'y ha(l Hailed thirty 
clay:", "18 Jneanin,
' pCl'ha ps to COllucet t he fal
".ith thl' yi:"it of Car(JeBas to thc coa::;t, thoug:h later 
\\Titcr.;;: <lit I not I'() uIHler::;tand it, antllocatcd theHc 
h ip
at Qui\-ira, or rather carl'ie<l Quivira to the ships. 
Xiza.'s Totolltcac, as the nativcs told Coronado, ,vas a 
:"Illall to\yn on a lake; and thi
 Inythic to\Vll, as ,ve 
:--.ha11 scc, lOBo- livcd uIHIcr onc 11alnc or another. 
:\Ioreovcr, sc,':'cral itcn1s of really later origin ,vcrc 
SOlllctilDCS dated Lack to Coronado'
lJcfore Corona<1o undertook his exploration Niza's 
(\.cries bcco111ing kno".n had created SaIne ex- 
citc111ent in Spain, a curious phasc of ,vhich "'as 
a quarrel in the Council of the Indies, in Spain. 
Cortés, Guzlllan, Soto, and .AJyarado, cach had a 
license for discovery in the north, and in their ab- 

cncc "
ere represented Ly counsel. Each la,vyer 
cnòc:1yored to make the stupid consejn undcrstand 
that Cíbola ".as in the very heart of the particular 
territory his client ,yas aut.horized to rule; and that 
to allo,v cncroachment by another on a conqucst for 
\',. hich such sacrifices had been Inade ,,'"auld be a 

!."ric\YouR ,vrong. After hearing the argU111ents in 
fa \
or of California, K c\v Galicia, and :Florida, the 
council ,yiscly caIne to the conclusion that it ,vas 
unahle to deternline the location of Cíbola, and ac- 
corJingly authorized Viceroy l\lendoza to continue 
his explorations for the province. 19 
Ulloa's voyago left S0111e doubt ,vhether there ,vas a 

trait just aLoyc Santa Cruz separating the southern 
end of the peninsula. .L'\Jarcon \vas entertained on 
the gulf and ri yer shores by the natives ,vith reports 
of grand ri\.crs, copper lTIountains, po\yerful chief- 
tains, and bf\ardcd \yhite IHen. Onc or l110re 'ol<lll1en' 
usually aecolnpallicd the cOlnmander in his voyage 
on the Colorado, \v ho did not fail to Ï1nposc upon the 

JFromar(F, lr8(. Ind., 270-4. It is repeateù Ly Salmeron anù other writers 
v. ith \ arious emLcllishmcnts. ' 
1:1 Pro('e.
o dpl .I..1lcu'1.11('.q, 300-408. 

CELLI A ,1) 


<<'..etlulity of hi:-; visitor, teIliu o " hilll :llllOI}''' other thin(t
. ,....,....., ,-,\ 
of an old \\.Olll(.Ul, (}uataz;u'a, \\ ho ]i\"cd \\ ithout l'at- 
ing", on a lake, or Hear the N.:a, or I,J' a liloulltaill, in t 11,. 
eOlll't ry ,,"here copper IJells \,"l're lllad(" l\lLrillo, he- 
'yOIl{ I IH 'a..i 1Ig" rUII1UI':-; of ". hite lllL'n in t he interior, 
cOlltri1)uteJ l1othillg' to lll
 thic allllal
; in t
l.t hi:3 
exploratioll \'"as \,.ell nigh {(>I'gotten in later YC(lr:-i. 
)lo:-;t proJlliuL:lltly to Lc renlelllLered in (.ollnectioll 
,viih Cabrillo ""a
 thLlt he is said to have 4Ii
and uallled Cape '[ellducillO-\vhich he certainly {li(l 
rr\VO Inap
 of 15.10 and 1541 rt'present very a
ratcly the peninsula coasts, the gulf, and the lnaiulalHI 

hore; but they le
LYc the illterior a Llank. 20 Itu:--,cclli':-; 
luap of 134-1, \vhich I reproJucc, adheres to tÌr=-,t 

'\..l c..rulland.a 

0('( (III "S E,( ft, /I' do" u lis 

.\ at 



l.Ar, l.jl1. 

principlcs indocd. 
 ot (,nly are XC,," Spain au{l 
F'lorida represcnted a
 part of ... \
ia, hut BaC'alao:-: 
is pictured as a central land connecÌl>(1 hy narro". 
thrnuscs on the ".e
t "ith .L\
ia aud on the l'a
,,"ith Eurupe. oA-\. yoyagc to India accordi llg' to thi::; 

to See maps in IIist. Cent. ..1m., i. 1:>3-4. 



lllap "?OUld haye hcen attcnde<l ,,-ith 
llallY difficuJties. 
The Illnp iu )Iun
 L'fOSJllU!JJ'((j)lu(( üf 1545 1:::;, as 


1'; DACALllOS 

1,ahf at .1()7Itql








l\lexsTER's 1\IAP, 1343. 

,':ill be ob
crvcd, a copy of the Ptolc1ny of 1530, so 
lr a
 the Houtllern parts of rren1Ï
tit,all, Jflorida, Frau- 
ci,ea, au \-1 Cortereal are concernPll; but it extenl
1rther north. Bacalaos, or N e,,
fouudlaud, joins 
urope as Ül RuscC'lli's luap, but it reaches far to 
the ,,?est, as doeH upper Iudia far to the east, until 
trait i
 left bet"
oen theIll, into the uorthern ocean; 
,,-hile south of these landB is 'the strait,' ,vith the 
cription, "Per hoc fretu iter patet ad J\Iolucas." 

.L\.s "Te pa
s 1550 to record the usc that ,vas luade 
of the hrilliant discoveries achieyed before that date, 
,,-ith the vagaries found cd on those discoveries, and 
on nc,v ones, real or fietitious, ,ye find in !{an1u:Úo'S 
Jnap of 155G 21 the first printed representation of 
X orth .L
lllerica as it \vas actually kllO\\Tll; that is, ,vith 
illJicationd of a Lroad contine;lt, but all left blank 
Leyoll<.l the points of di
c(Jvery. In the ,ve:::;tcrn iHte- 

21 Ramusio, Vio[Jyi, V cnetia, 15û3, iii. 4:>3-6. The first edition of this volume 
was in l.j.jû. I am not certain that it contained the same map j but it makes 
no dificn:ncc. Al
o in 
':,'tCiXll.,,' ,j"Yote8, 1'1. iv. 110. 3. 



riur a vagll\."\ record of C()}'ol)(ulo':-; cxpcJition i...: ( i\.cn 
bat ,vith a curious tran:--;po...itiou of cait for \\.c"",t ir: 
tho loc
tioll of Cjbola, "riguex, Cicuic, [Hul (
ui ,.ira 
rC:-Jl'cetl\?cly, all, It 'VUlllJ beC.lll ft)r the l .ur } H.
 1 ()f 
f . 11 . G ' , 
o O\\ïng OHlara H suppu
ed theory that (Jui ,"ira 


Tcrra Úi'l LJhora.l.Jr 

Si. rr
uad;;;) _ 1 - -:- g " 
 --'"' /"T I 
\j iCti
h O 
LO/ oCibola _ 
 / _ 
, .d.N ToT a .. .--' . 
- ...::::::::-.- LA -
ov "-30
t l).

 _ oc:ì 

 ) J':àell'al 
.,- .
 ?"' (
 C WJ!!
N I . -- -5 
. J 1<<0å'
t(..{J;;.:h I 'II r ' t 1 ' 0 t 
I NICARAGVA ., (- or 

C; q,.. I 
J/m'dt'/ SeT nHHI

,- \\} '- í' fJ1
 ,,0 6."-
 _ ... r- M.r "') 



I . 





IAP, 133G. 

,vas on the ,yestern const. .t\.n<1 there Qui ,.ira rc- 
n1ained for many ycars. The Sierra N c\-ada has Lcen 
nailled Ly Cabrillo. California, not uaulcd, is a pe- 
uinHula of peculiar shape not copied lJY lat 
r n1ap- 
luakers; fiIlti Lcyond the liu1its of Il1r copy, 
()n}o 50 0 
t of California, lies fin .i
land, Giapalll. There i'i 
no expres
ed opinion re
ting the 
trait. In it;:; 
111aÎn features this Inap i
 of a type often rl'p 'atoll. 
Thc Inal1uscript Inap of the POl'tugu\;
e l!olllcln, 
Jllade ill 15.38,22 diflers \yidely in tllû north-\\.e
If.olllcm adheres to tho uld idea that Korth ..L
i::; a very nalTO'V continent, extending from :-;outh-\\.c:,t 
to north-east; and he gives the llayigator his choicè 

22 Taken from Jt.'o/zl's lliðt. DÏðcol,.., 377. )Io
t naml.S omitted, as ha\iD o 
no Learing on this subject. 



of lllê.lUY ".ay
 hy ,yater to the Pacific. .r\s I(uhl 
: "Our author appeal':-o; to have haù a great 

ion for i
lands and a strong belief in llorth-,vest 



te "'.(' 

JU (L I'
bC('(t nUll( 


- - 
(J C1:f' lfÙ...()(
.itl" ll," 

.J. arf ([llti1iac
,,",-- - 

IAP, 1:358. 

saO'es from the Atlantic to the western ocean. 
lie c
ts up the ,,?hole of northern N e,y ]Trance iuto 
large islands, aud COuycrts several branches of the 
St LlnyrenCe into sea-ehannels and straits. He puts 
do,\yn a foitrait in eyery place "There Cartier, in hi
report, had said he had looked for one, even if he did 
not fin(l it." }'roln vague rUInors of the great lakes 
and 1 [ud
on 13ay he Inakes tho great '1nare lejJara- 
/llfltZ,lìJL a nalne for the ,vcstern ocean, the origin of 
,vhieh is not knO'Vl1. 23 

\l)()ut 15GO-5 some fe,v 111e11 in Spain became 

Teat]v interested in findil1O' the northern l )ass3.O'e , 
( · ...., ð 
though they (lid not succeed in arousing the court to 
actual endeavor. Prolninent alllOl1O' these "'"as the 

23I-t.1.musio, Via!!!!i, iii. G, ,\ riting in 1;):>3, seems to Imve had like it1eas 
 (',matla. 'From which [Cartier's reports] we are not yet clear whether it 
e.w Fr
mee]. is joincd to the mainland of Florida and Kew:Spain, or is all 
ell mto 1<ilanùs; o
her it is possihle to go hy those parts to the 
1,rO\"ll1CC of Cathay, as Sehastian CaLvt wrote me many years ago.) 

J) t:RD_\XET \. 


... \(1l'lantatlo l>c(!J.o )lellt'llùez .le \ yilé:-;, f:Ull()U
 in th(' 
Hnn:lls of !1'I:n.ida. lle ""1'( t - S -Yeral pap('I"
 on the 
Huh.Jcet, aU(llll one of thellll'-\tatl;tl that ill 1.).) 
 JUt h
hl'ought frolll X .\\. 
paill a 111ao \\yho {"]aiIJl{'d to ha,.( 
1 )('l'1l 011 a Frl'neh 
hi p, ,,"hi('h ha' I sailed [,)lu' hundrl' 1 
 on a lJl'o:u d(
 l1itU' rUllnillu' inlantl frolH X l'''.- 
. , ....., 
foundlall(l to\\.ar<l J.'lorida. 1'IH' 
hip's ('1' _". then 
lalHled and a (luarter of a lcagu · <li",tant found another 
ehanllcl, on \\"hi(.It thl'V built four 
Inall Y('\'\"'''}'4 and 
. , 
Failed another three hundred lcaerue
 , to latitud.. -tx- 

Borth of )[exic o , near tIlt- IHilles of 
 acateca:-; and 
)lartill, ,v here '\.ere larg-c and J>ro
perou" settlelllellt",. 
The <:hallllel led to the.' :-:)outh 
ea, to""ard China and 
[oluceas, though it \ras not follo\\"ed so f
lr. rrhe 
hip on her return ,,-a"J "'Tûcked, 1)l1t the nar- 
rator ,yith hOlne otherH "
aYeÙ by a l)ortu
:--:e1. Thi
 \ya" perhap
 tho fir
t acfÌnite narrati\.e of 
a n('titiouK vo"\rao'c throu(rh the f
llnous Htrait. 'rho 
.' .'::) <ï 

tory ,yas often rcpeated; and other like trip
inYCllted, a
han SèO. ::\lenen(lcz duuhtle:-:
tory in good faith, bcing <leeci'
ed hy an advcn- 
turer ,,-ho took ad\.alltage of hi:4 cnthu
One of the Spaniar(l
 ".]}o like )[enendcz 'Y3S in- 
terested in the problcln ,,-as Alldré:-; do {T rdaneta, 
friar and nayigator, the luau ,,
ho fir
t cro

cd tho 
Pacific c3.'3t\vard and discovered the northern route. 
D rLlaneta ,va::; acquainted ".ith )Icnclldez, and kllO\V- 

2J ]).r'('l'arrde, ViarJ(>'
, 39; [d., in Slltil y....1/tx., Jri({ge, X" "h:.-"1. 
It was in 13G.j that )Icncndcz tohl this btory; hut hc had app.l1"Cntly pn.""en
a mcmorial on thc passage soon aftcr Ij.H. Xa\"arrctc, in thc '.i '.I'Il.A, {J 'I'
(f1.1Otcs from scycral original conuJlunications of )IcnclHkz. In one of thl."1ll 
hc bpeaks of a salt-watcr channel from thc region of thc ],ay of :o...1JIÌA )Iarm, in 
latitudc 3ï\ which' gOCH towal"ll
 thc "
. N. ".., and it is 8u
pectctl that it 
goes to the :-;outh 
C.1; anel the IllIlians kill many cm\ 
 like thOðC of 
:-\pain [huflalocs], which Coronaùo found in those plain!:;, ntHI carry thc hitlt
in C.UloCS to RcH to thc French at XC\\ f01llulland;' anti in n. suhscquent one, 
of · anothcr lJra:::o de maT which to\\ anl
 China ulltl enters the 

ea; nntl this i:i dccmctl, although 110 one ha:i gone hy it to the :-'ollth 

ca, hut thcy have gonc hy it o\'cr ;)O() lcagues "-. X. \,".. starting nt 4:! anti 
rcaching 4
", ",00 l('d
 north of )Ic)..ico, ancl not OYer 100 lC.l
Ue'4 from the 
:---outh :-)ca. or from China itself.' .Acvsta, if" t. 
Yat. Iml., I.ï:!-3. nllutl
'9 t, 

[cncndcz untl his positivc helief ill a strait. El .\tlclant:.a.lo PCtlro )lclct.lcL; 
hùbrc bì. platico y excelïte Cll la mar .\íìrmalla, b
r C( 
l ciLrta, d .l\h.'( 
B:::;trccho. ' 



inO" all the current rcport
 about the strait and its 
., 1 0 .l' 1 t . 
c()\.cry by foreio"ner::; ùecrnCt It 01 t 10 utnlo

" v ' 
portaneú for Spain to aSC
l'taill the truth. In?, ùocu- 
lllCllt of l.>GO he ,yroto of the rcport current In N c\v 
Spain about tho 
French finding a passage froll1 X o,y- 
foulldhuHI Lco-iunin er aLoyo latitude 70 0 , oxtcndinQ" 
, b v '.J' 
t and f'outh-,,"est to belo,,' 50 0 , ,vhich affortled 
0 1 )011 
ca lulyio"ation to China; al
o that on their 1'0- 
(j 0 _1 
turn they IUHl found another exit belo,v 50 to"
 This ".ritcr 'Was ,,
iBcr and less credulous 
than )Icnondez, for he never placcd inlplicit faith in 
e 1'lUnOr8; stilllcss did he clainl for hill1self the 
discoycrv of tho 
trait. Yet such a clainl ,vas attrib- 
uted to "hitH. One Salvatierra, a Spanish noblenutn 
returnin oo hon1e froIll the 'Vest Indies, touched at 
IrC'land in 15G8, and there related that Urdaneta llad 
found the passage in 1556 or 1557, and had ShO'Vll 
the narrator a lllap on ,,
hich the discovery "'"as laid 
dO\Yl1. The friar had revealed the 111atter to the king 
of Portugal, "Tho had urged hiul to keep it a profound 
sccret, le
t the English should COlne to kno,v it and 
lllake troublc for Spain and Portugal. 26 The exact 
origin of this 0 tale is not kno,vn, although it ,vas not 
,vithout it
 influence in later speculations. 
In 15G2 the ]'renchl1lan Ribault by no l1leanS 
neglected the problenl on the Carolina coast. " .L
S ,ye 
no,v dCluaunded of thenl concerning ye land called 
Seuola [Cíbo]aJ, ,vhereof sonle haue ,,'"ritten not to 
Leû farre froln thence, and to bee situate ,vithin the 
lande, and to,vard the Sca called the South Sea. They 
she,ycd YS lJY signcs that ,vhich ,ve vnderstood ,veIl 
enough, that they n1Ìght goe thither ,vith their Boates, 
Ly riuers, in t,ventiü dayes."27 In 15G3, ,vhen Fl'an- 
c() de Ibarra reached the province of Topia, in 
tern Durango, by sonle llleans he anù his 

Yal"(trrcf", rt(f[fcsApðcrifos, 34-40; [d., in Sutil y },[ex., Vi(1gcs, xxxvi.-xli. 
. 26 J(11"8',r'8 l!i
t. Voy., 449, repeated briefly 1y other writers. :Forster 
gIyes no authorIties. 
21 Riljault'J3 [,'lie CLnd Last Diöcollerie O if Plorida in IIctklu y t's Die. ro y . 
102-3. " 



 pcrsuaded thcni:-,clves ,,'ithout any knO\\ì1 
l)n that thc"" had found a O'ralld and rieh countr,. 
J r') ...' 
[1 becoIHI ::\1C'Àico; and f;0 it \\'a
 r 'pr " 'ute 1 in the 
reports un(1L'r the ualue of Copala. 1 t is prohal,lc, 
ho,vcver, that thiK ".a:::; (leliLcrate dc<:cl'tiol1 rather 
than the cnthu
iaSlll of cÀplorers.. s 
1 reproduce the nlnp published hy thc faulou",; 
gcographer ... \hraluul1 Úrtelius in hi:i I11t'"f J' /II ( I'úis 
1èJ'J'(l/"UJll of 15ï4. 29 It ,vill 1)0 Hccn that this Illap 
('OlllbillcS the leaùing feature:::; of the I-{anlu
io (.uHI 
ter Illap;.;. :Frolll the latter \"" ha'\û 
the strait, and c,.cn tho iu(lcntation, thoug-h no,," re- 
duced tu a slllall lJay and not ahllost Sc\ criu(' Callaùa 
frulll lTlorida, \\yhile aB in Itamu
iu ".c hav
 a Lroad 
Htretch of contincnt, and an attclllpt to bho\\. the 
di;..;coyerics of Xiza, Coronado, Ulloa, Alarcon, fin(l 
Rlightly those of CaIH'illa. rrhc topo6raphical feature,; 
of the peninsula and gulf of Calit()l'llia arc lllllCh iUl- 
] )royed al
o the cour
c of the l'i,.ers flo\vinO' into the 
lattcr. Totonteac and othcr llanlCS are ad(1ed frolll 
Kiza, and tho:3e of 
ruchano and TolIn frolH unkno\rn 
sonrcës. The GOlnara- Ral11u:-\io trall
p( "ition of the 
Cíòola-Quivira to\Vllt; i
 cOlltiuucd; and 1'igue,-, ,\ ith 
its rivcr, really thc Rio Grau(le del X olte of X c\\. 
::\Iexico, i:-; transferred, as Cicuic (Pecos) and Qui,'ira. 
hatl been 1Jeforc, to the coast of \v hat ".as later l T ppcr 
California. Finally the kingdulll of .A-\..niau apl'car
on the same coast aboyc GOo. 
This nalne of ..o.-\..nian, as applied to a north-".e
king(loln and to the farnou:-; strait, apparcnt]y origi- 
natcd durin()' thi
 llec(.lde uf 1570-80, IJut under cir- 
 Othat hayc neYêr been explained.. 'rhere 
""as a theory, of ,vhich, ho\\.cvcr, I hear nothing l,c- 
2'1 !barra, R"ladoll, ,),j3-H I. 
:m O,'f(4il.S, '1'1, ctln,"m UJ"bis 1'{rraT"'l.'m, Antwcrp, 1.');4, gr. folio, tc'"<:t. fì
There were ('arlier e(litions of 1;);0 :11111 ].")il; llUtI latcr on co;, ill different 
langnages, of ):S
s, l:m:" l.j!}S, IhO

_I()(}(i.! :,lIHl ]fi:?:I; also a Th. .wrll8 
, hy the samc author, of I..., S, l
)!Jh, and Ihll. III 111) (>(htloll of 
the'l'lt,.atrlll1t there are o'"cr 70 ùl.iBiantly col.c.rc(l maps, tinely cugnwc(l on 
coppl'r by Hogcllbcrg, t\\ 0 of which, th(' J'!IP"'of (h'/,i.." or the \\ odd, fUHl 
.A lilt ,'ien > 
\.ú,..i Orb .,
, .i.\""(' 1J lic,.iplio. rclate to the Pacific :--tat
s ter- 
ritury. One paóc 01 tCÀt is givcn on .\Ulcric.
, of 11\) :,pccial import...lllCc. 







\J <( ". 

(J - 
o 0 0 
_D:: f n

< '" 
G ] 





"(-;:, 'I

. -
J, g 
7- -OJ 

a ....".J 


::: \. ,\, I 
o C\':; r: I . 
. I.: f' 
1 I 



\ (\


1 S 8 

 .::j <r 
.2 D 0 












.;; 0: 
;; <t 
..... ,'II 


CJ 0 


TIlE N4U[E .A!\"L.\Y. 


fort"} the eighteenth century, that ol'tcreal in 1500 
nallled the Htrait froul t\VO or th"e
 brothü1's ,,"ho 
aeC<Hnpallied hilli, or froIll Olle of his O\\"n brothers. 
There \\'cre also '"ag-ue tr:u Ii tiolls of three l,rother..; ,,"110 

(;< 1 through a strait, :-;olllctiuH.;-; 'aU.( I frOlll 
thenl ']i'rùtuIll T'riuIll 1 1 '}.atrlun.' It 'lPP \ar-.; that tlu\l'u 
""a:-: a proyinec of \nia 
()1l1C'\ hl're in Å:-,ia a

"wril)eJ ])y the carly traYeller
 all<l geographt'r

 \gain, ,,'c learn that" .....\.ll èxc
llcnt ]cdl11ed TIJall (>>f 
1 >ol'tingalo, of Hinguler grauety, aut horitic, and c\. p '- 
rience, tolde lllee [Ilakluyt, in 158:!] Yery lately that 
one J: 1 Jt us Cu/'fl' /'('0/, [this beiug editorially ex plain"( 1 
as a forB) of 'loaõ,' 'IoanBes,' or' J Ohll,'J Capta
of the yle of Tercera, al J out the yecru 1574, ".hieh Î..; 
not ahout; cjght yúeres pa
cnt a, Shippe to di
the N ortlnYc
t pa

age of .L\.n1crica, allu that the :--alne 

hippe arriuing on the coa
t of the saiJe .l\.JHeriea. in 
fiflie e"\"'o'hte deOTees of latitude foundc a g reat entrance 
.}b b , 
excceding deere and broadu ,,'ithout all inlpcdilnent 
of ice, into ,vhich they pa
:-;e( I aboul' t\,"cntie leng-lIt ''', 
antI founde it ahvaieB to trcllùe to"yarde the South, 
the landc lying lo,vc and plaille on e.rther :::-.ide: Aut! 
they pers"yadcd tholn selues vcrely that there ,'.a:i 
a ,\yay open into the south 
ea."31 J Lerù, then, ".c 
haye as clclllcnts the 01(1 popular l)elief in a 
the Asiatic proviuce of ..Ania, the' three LrothcrB,' the 
yoyages of the CaLots and Cortereal-:;, the filct that 
there \vere se\
cral 'brothers' of Loth faluilil::-;, thè n:llne 
...1Jt Zl.
 Cortcreal, the renc\ved jntcrc
t in the 
ul .jt't.t 
at this juncture, and the circulation of the l1aUIP on 
Ol'tclius' lllaps. Out of all thi
 ""as e,.olvc<[ the nallle 
strait of .... \niall, ,vhich early in the 
uth C 'H- 

3:31 ha"c not found any mention of Anin. in any document or map ùf 
earlier date than that of which I am now tn'ating; hut HUI.uey,l/i...;/. ]Ji/lrf)". 
South Sra. i. .-., implies that 
\larco Polo mcntion"! thl' prm incl'. ....0 dOLS (.iI- 
)'CI.t, in hi8 j);,ÇCOIU', of 1:.;1). Ortelius hilll:)clf 
C8 tho Ilame \nia ill tho 
interior oppo:-õite .Japan in hi8 lllap of 
\sia. Purcha'l. lIis Pif!l,.;m II, Ï\. !ItHi, 
mentions Auian a::J nil islallllon tho ('oa:-t of Chin,l.. n'6\\"ity, IJt J/"m{ , w:r;, 
has Anian 011 hi8 gencralmap as the extreme llortlI-castclll province of A..i.\. 
31l1aklllyt's ));I.er8 '''''y.". Xothillg furthcr is knu\\lluhuut this \uya
hut it is not unlikely that n. PortUgUC8C n
vióator ill t111.
e times lUaY)I.1\"U 
cutercd Hud:::iOIl Strait. 



tury bccanlc COllllUon. It i
 not unlikely that light 
llHl'" yet 1)e thro,,-n on the l)roce

 of evolution. ....\.t 

e;lt aU i
ure. I kn?"r 1l0
 .,yhether t

niall appea1'8 III tho Ortehu
 cchtlons of 15,.0 
aIHI 1 j ï 1, a
 in that of 1574; nor do I kno,v Ins 
luotiyc, or that of the author he foU(Hved, for trans- 
ferriucr tho province to .L
lllerica. There is no doubt, 
eJ , that the strait ""a
 nanlüd fro1n the province, 
and it is plain that the resernLlance of the naines Anus 
\.nian caused the discoycry and name of the strait 
to be attributed to the Cortcreals. 32 
In the cosIllographical ,york of Peter Apianus, as 
an1cnlled by GClllllla Fri
ius and published in 1575,33 
are t,YO 111aps, ". hich it is not nccessary to copy. 
One, ,yith nloyaLle, revolving attachlnents, represents 
X urth .L\.ulcrica, ,yithout nalues, as an island detached 
froIn South ...\..luerica, equidistant Let,yeen ,vhat 111ay 
he regarded as Cuba and Japan, and a little larger 
than either. The uthcr, ,,-ith only tho nalnes The- 
') l isf itun and Baccalearu In., Inakes of the continent a 
very na1'1'o,," strip of land attachcd to South Alnerica, 
extending north-,,"cst, north, and north-east, and sepa- 
ratcd hy a long and ,,-ide strait containing an island 
from Easterll India in the 1'ôle of an Arctic continent. 3i 

32 Amoretti, Voy. .illaldonado, 26, 36-9, fayors the theory that the name 
Anian may hayc had a Chinese origin, and giyes quotations and references to 
f.upport that dew; and that the form Streto de Anicf.,n on the earliest maps 
indicates its Ol-igin through Venetian-Italian medium, that is, :Marco l
olo, per- 
haps. He cites 
prengel to the effect that the namc is on )Iercator's lllap of 
],),0; and Engel as haying seen it on a map of 13GG. Amoretti is often 
inaccurate in hi
 references, as when he says that Urdaneta saw the Dame on 
a map of 1.")(jS, and that Gali visited the strait in 1382; but it is not impos- 
Fible, nor inconsistent with the views expressed in the text, that the name 
lJcgan to be used just before rather than just after 1370. J\Ialte-I3run, in 
.A1I11((,[('8 d,s r"(J!la[J(.
, xix. 303, says that Ani is Japanese for 'brother,' and 
suggests that the name may have originated from the Portuguese having 
tol(l the Japanese of the discovery by the' brothers.' In rOia.le8 Cf.,l( .L\-ord, 
Ref'ur;l! I, }..:ð.
"i, 82, "eread: 'On parladu Golfe d'Allicw, à travers duquclles 
.JaponOls ct ceux 
1u l>aïs de JCð80 assuroient qu'il y ayoit un passage jusqu'Ù, 
la. :\1e1" d
 TadlOfe. On alla au tIeht du .Japon, jusqu'au 50
. On entra dans 
Ull JJetrOlt fort commode, pour aIleI' dans 1'0cean Septentrional.' 
33 A piano, CúRY/WrIIY1TJhia, An vcrs, 1373. The work i.; chiefly theoretical; 
the description of the Xew 'YorlJ, fol. 34, seems to be taken from Gomara; 
the maps are on fol::!. 32, 33. 
3. In GilIJat's Di,<;cour,...e qf a Di.<;collerie fOl' a 11('1C Pas.r.;Cl[Je in Cataia, London, 
}'");G, is a map' in which all impeùiment:3 in the way of the north-wcst 1X18- 



J n 1584 one 
Tuan ]
ornantlc (Ie T...Aaùrillcro Blade a, 
R\YOl'll statcIl1ent in S } )aiu 1't '
 l ) · -till'" the fStrai t of 
..., , 
c e
tellcC SOlnc eight hundred 1 
Ul':-; north uf 
tela he "'a
. .J [t.; ".a
ty ycar:-; 
of a.
c, had gone to .L\nlerIC'a, In l5:15, alltl ha(lll:lvicrateù 
thUSl' ,,"atcr:-; af.; a ] )ilot for t'\g e llty-oicrht j g e al''''. 1'hc 

strait ""as Haiti to lead to ,,"here the En,,'li:sh caucrht 
h, or Lacalao
; anù he ".ith others OI1'e at- 
lnptell to find it. 11a<1 he Leen alollt.; "with onu 
sel he ,voul,l hayc gOD(' un and 111:\<10 tho di:-\l'ovcrj"; 
hut cuntrary ,vind
 3Jl<1 dan1a
 to the accolupallj"Ìllg" 
f'hips f()rced thell1 to turn Lack, and they rCluained ill 
the Califol'uias until the Yes
eh.; '\9cre qrdered to join 
' expedition to the ) [oluccas.8.; .\ l>ortuCJ'uûso 
had "9ritten to inforlll tht.; enlpcror that he ha( lOlJeeIl 
ilnprisoned Ly the king uf ]>ortugal beCaUSL\ he had 
found the strait, and passed through it frolH one ocean 
to the other. The elnperor notified thc yiceroy, and 
t he latter thereforc sent out the expedition ,,"hich 
Lallril1ero accoll1paniell. lIe had heard other pilut:i 
talk of this lllattcr; anù e
pecially nn Engli:-;llluan 
,yho haù sailed ,,'ith him t,yelltY-Seyen year::;, UIHl ,,-ho 
,yith hi
 countrynlcn had entercd tho strait \\9hilc 
fi:-;hing for Lacalao:-;. X 0". thürefore in 1574, "when the 
Eucrlish and. 
-'rench were believed to ]'L' ('nterin e ' the 
ü ð 
South Sea Ly this codfi
h canal, L1.drillero, not\\ ith- 
standiu o ' his aae and illfirnlitie
 , 'Y:.lS ,villiUtr to (ro and 
o <:> ö 0 
fortify the 
trait for Spain. 36 Xaturally enough an 
olll pilot, desiring a pu
ition of honor and profit, 
fuund SOlllcthing ill his store of old re
ullection:-; to 
support a gro,,"ing theory, anò counted on hi
rience ill ....\..rncrican ,vaters to give hiln prcferlllcnt. 

Sir II umphrey Gilbert's ideas on our general topic 
,yore set forth ill 15 ï G in ....1 Dis 'OLTS J Of Di:i 'ullLrl J 

sarre arc cleared away in a most summary manner.' Illtrotl. to Ha.llu)"t Soc. 
reprint of l/a]dllYt's Div. roy., I, Ii. 
s'" VillaloLo
' \"oyarre wa
 in I.-Jot:!, which fixcs tl
o date of L:Hl
exploits. It is not unlIkely that he may ha.n' h('l'U "lth Alarcon o
J6 Laarillero'
 J[emorird in the 
panh,h archh"cs, commltcù IJY 
Sutil y .JlcJ:., xlii.-iii. j JïaJu; ..11 Uf., 41. 



 ( rlru' p(lS,,
(I!J(' to C(llrtia. 3i ] {is first chapter ,vas 

ll)...iO'ncd .... to pronc hy authoritie a passage to be OIl 
the X orth 
id() of ... \lucrica, to goe to Cataia, China, 
and to t.he Ea
t India," tho authority being that of 
 ancient "Titer
 like l)lato anll j-\.ri
totle touching 
the old 
 \tlantib, cOllfirnlcd Lyall the 'heHt 1110dern 
geographer::;' like :Frisius, __
I?nster, anù the 
1'L,:-,t to the efÌect that AUlerlca IS an Island. "Then, 
if ,,'hen no part of the sayd Atlanti8 ,vas oppressed 
by ,vater, and earthquake, the coa
ts round about the 
saIne ,,-ere llauigablo: a farre grcater hope no,v 1'0- 
Inaineth of the 
anle Ly the North \vest, seeing tho 
I}}Ost part of it ,vas, since that tilne, s,vallo\ved up 
,,-ith ,yater, ,,-hich could not utterly take a,vay the 
ollIe deeps and chanels, but rather, be an occasion of 
the inlarging of the oleIe, and also an inforcing of a 
great lllany ne,y: \vhy then should no,v ,ve doubt? . . . 

eeing that .Atlantis no,,- called Anlerica ,vas euer 
kllo,,'cn to be an Iland, and in those dayes nauigable 
round about, ,,-hich by accesse of III ore \vater could 
not Le diulÏnisheeI." The ,vriter adds: "\Vhat uloued 
those learned Iuell to affirnle thus Il1uch, I kno,v not, 
or to "yhat ende 
o ulany and sundry trauellers of both 
ages haue allo\ved the saBle: But I conïecture that 
they "yould neucr haue so constantly affirnled, or noti- 
fied their opinions therein to the ,vorld, if they had 
not had great good cause, and many probable reasons, 
to hau\; led thenl thereunto I" 
The second chapter is 'to prooue by reason' ,vhat 
had becn 
o clearly established Ly 'authoritie' in the 
t. The reason ,vas threefolcl: 1st, the deepenincr 
of the ,vaters in thú north, ,vhereas "all seas are nlair
taincd by the abundance of ,vater, so that the neerer 
the ende any Riuer, Bay, or Hauen is, the shallo"Tcr 
it ,vareth;" 2d, the facts that no intercour
e is 
knO\Vll bet\\Tccn Asiatic and .L\..nlcrican peoples, that 
Paulus \r cnetu
 travelling in Cathay never reached 

31 Gilbut's Di8,:ourbC, London, 1376; reprinted in IIakluyt's Voy., iii. 11-24. 



.l\Tllûrica, any Illore tlu111 Coronado," ,,'ho trauelll.(l 
the X orth I )art of .L\l1H..:riea 1 )\.. laud " rt:a('hed 
 \ ....ia . 
u , 
autl 3d, a c(>111plicated argullH
nt i-.; f(HIUdLd Oil thp 
gTcat ocean currcnt, ".hich not ouly ha(l hCén ob.... 'r,"cd 
Ly YOY(lgt'r:-ö, but ,,-hieh JHust of u" '
;o\ity ha ,.. lL 
pas:-\age 1)) the TI( )rtlL tu cOluplete the circle and to 
alYe hi
 foruler \\ rUl1o.:-ö." 
In the thil'd ehaptcr i;j prc)\.c(} "hy cxperit .n('o of 

undrv 11lf,n'R traucl
, the O l )cnill cr of 
 l )
of thi
 N orth".est pn:-\:O-:llge." 'rhe traveller
 \T enctu:-ö, or :\tareu Polo, ,,"ho sailt:<l 6ft'l"1l 
huudred Illiles OIl the coa
ts of )lan<ri and .\nian 
t'\-ard, all Lcing open 
ea fo\O t
ll. as he conlcl 
discern; and Coronado, ,\"ho '( 1 )ils:-öiIl'r thrOU(r}L the 
o 0 
countrey uf Quinira, to 
it'ra X euada, f()Ullcl there a 
great sea," etc., according to the GOluara l)lunder; 
au(} JoInl Baros, Al\
ar :Nufiez, Ja(;qu('
 Carti or, :111<1 
other:-ö, especially CaLot, ,vho in 67 0 30 ,vouhl ha'9c 
gone tù Cathay hut for n1utiny. 
The fourth chapter prove
 "hy circun}
tancú that 
the X orth,\"c
t pa:-;....age hath been 
a'yled throughout," 
that i
, by the' three brothers' frotH EUrl)pC, tlll(l Lv 
certain Inðians ".ho caBle to (}erillanv before the 
Chri:-;tian era, and uthers ill 11 GO. X

t ar(-A threü 
 to pru\"'e that the'-\e Illdian
 could ha\"e COUle 
Ly no othcr ,yay; and three lllore of general t:ollclu- 
SiOll:-) and on the ad vantag(;
 of finding the pa.
....age. 38 

.JUst after Gilhert, R;char(l "ïlles l
tnlCclly \\rote on (Certain' oth'r 
reasons, or arguments to prooue a p.t
sage hy the Xorth'.,-('''It.' lltll.I"!I"ll rO! ., 
iii. :!4-U. He hcgan hy exerting 
lll his ingelluity :tllll l
nling to tleIloUIlc
the schcme, to shuw that the old \\ rit
rs ,\ ere in elTor, or i:;nOl,,;"Ult (Ill tho 
sulJject, that there was no strait, that it '\as ice-hlockecl. that the rapicl cur- 
rcnt proving its existcnce wou1(1 
o Pl.evcnt its navig.ttion, aUlI thclt if Fn- 
glishmcn conl({ pas
 the strait they might not 1)1' pellnith'd to tradc." 
from Ptolemy, .Mercator, and 
[oletius are adduccd in f
l\-or of the 8t1',âf:J 
ncc. .All thi8 was hut a. dc\;cc to givc wci,.!ht to I...tcr nr
hy which )11' 'Villes shO\\ccl that thc..e ohjectiollii had no force. lIi
were similar to those of f ;ilhcrt; but he alltlcd the c:\pcricncc of 'n. Portubrall' 
who passe(l thc t'trait and \\ as impl isollccl therefor lUany ycm1:1 ill Li...holl: of 
rrflancta. 'a FI"J'cr of )It'xico, who out of 
[ar del Lur thi
 \\a) into 
(;cnllanic;' of Cahot. who leanletl that thc'straight l)cth nt'cre tho 
)lcri(lian, hetwcene 61. al1t{ fH. degrees in tIu.' t'lcuatioll. continuing the samo 
Lrf'(lth ahou tIn degrees 'Y cst. wherc it opcneth :-:'ou therly 1I10n' n1lt I 11101 C, 
ulltil it COUlC under the trllpickc of Cancer, llIllI 80 runllcth into del Zu1' J 



FroIll thf' narratiyes of 
[artill FrobiHher's voyages 
of 157 ()-8 to the inlet l)earillg his nalne, and to the 
::\ [eta. Incognita, a
 the regi()ll
 of the far north "
often tcrllle,-1 ti'OJll hi
 tiInc, ".e learn that "the 11. 
\\"C found our latitutll' to be 63. degr. 8. luillutes, and 
t hi
 clay \Yl"\ clltrccl the Htrcig-ht," a sentence pregnant 
,,-jth lllcalliu o ' to the theori
ts, e
pecially as ,YO read 
of the peopl
 that "they bee like to Tartar
." And 
again, "This saitl 
trcight is supposed to haue passage 
into the sea of Sur, ,vhich I leane unkno"Ten as yet. 
It seenlcth that either here, or not farre hence, the 
sea should haue III ore large entrance, then in other 
parts \vithin the frozen Ol
 tell1)Jerate Zone." Later 
t.he author 8peaks cahnly of crossing the inlet to the 
hore, "being the 
npp08ed continent of Asia," 
and Lack to the "supposed firnle ,vith AlIlerica." 
ThèY \\
ere doubtless in the strait, hut coslllography 
had to yield to the loye of gold, believed to be 
plentiful in the black rocks around the explurers. 
Yet of the third voyage it is said that Frobisher con- 
fes:;eJ that "if it had not bene for the charge and care 
he had of the Fleete and fraughted ships, he both 
,\Tould and could have gone through to the South 
8 1 "3
"I, ThoIIlas Co,vles of Bedlnester, in the countie of 
Iarriner, doe ackno,v ledge, that six yeares 
past, at IllY being at Lisbon, in the kingdolTle of Portu- 
gall, I did heare one :\lartin Chacke, a PortugaU of 
Lisbon, reade a booke of his o\vne Inaking, ,vhich he 
had set out six yearús before that tin1e, in Print, in 
the Purtugale tongue, declaring that the said 1Vlartill 

at the least 18. degrees more in bredth there, than it was where it first beO'an;' 
and of Frobisher, who returned safely from the icy regions. Respecting the 
current", 'Lay you now the summe hereof together. The riuers rlUlne where 
the chancls are most hollow, the sea in taking his course wareth deeper, the 

ea. waters fall continually from the Xorth 
outhward, the Xortheasterne 
current striketh duwne into the straight we speake of, and is there augmented 
\\ ith whole mountaines of ice and snowe.. . . "There store of water is, there 
is it a thing impossible to want Hea, where Sea not oncly doeth not want, 
hut wareth (leeper, there can he discouercd no land.' 
3\1 J {,,!.:lllyf'/; fr o !!_, iii. 30-3, 80-1, with an argument proving the existence 
of th
 strait from the tiùes. etc. . 




Cha(.kc hac 1 fduIHIe, t\\.ely -. yearc:-; no"" pa...;t, a ""a v fronl 
the l>ortugall 1 HC lic
, thr()n
h a gulfe ()f tit,. X '\\. 
found L..a1lel, ,vhieh he thought to L · ill j
. lIc er !, 'C uf 
the eleuatioll of the 
 orth Pole. By nH
al7es that 
hee Leing in the 
aitl Il1(lie
, \\.ith fuurc other Shipp .s 
of great Lurclcll, :uHl hc hilll
elfe in a :--,lnall 
hipp , of 
four::;coJ'c tUlllh

, '\"as (ll'iuell frolH the cOlnpany of 
the other fuul'c Shippe:-;, ,,'ith a '\T esterl)" \rill<le; after 
,yhic'h, liee past aloll
st lJY' a great lluluL,'r f IhuHI'i 
,,'hi<:h ".Cl'e in the gulfe of the said X e\v f
 HUlll Lanel. 
. \uc I after hoc oUer
h()t the guIfe, h(;û !='et no 1l10re 

ight of any other I...alld, Ylltill hc fell ,,-ith th.. Xorth- 
t part of [I"uland; and flonL thenee he tooke hi:") 
cour;:;c hOIlIC\Vards, and l)y that Ineane
 hee caillC to 
LollO foure or fluc ,veekes Lefurc the other [(Jure 
Ships of his conLpany that he ""[tS separated froIH, 
as Lefore said. .L
lHL since the 
aIne tilHe, r ('old(L 
neuer see any of those l
ooks; ]Jccause the J(ing COU1- 
111'-\ udell thÇlll to Le called in, and no lllore of thellL to 
Lc I n'intecl, lost in tilHe it ,vould bc to their hindrance. 
In ,,-itne
:-;e ,,,horeof I set to Iny hand and luarke, the 
ninth of ..L \prill, .L\nno 157H."4o .L \11 of ,vhich explail1
itself. I, likc CO\\deb, have never scell auy l110rc of 
e books. 
.Francis Drake's voyage in 157
 had SOinc indir \ct 
Lcaring on the present 
ul)jet;t. It "9a::) the hope of 
finding a strait Ly \vhich to reach hOlllC ,,'ith hi:-, 
ill-gotten gains that carl'ie( I hiIU iuto the H( )rthern 
l>acific; and hi
 failurc in thi
pect cau..;cd England 
for a long time to confin0 hpr search to the ..L\tlallti
f'ido. IIi
 presence aud ra\ age
 ill the 
outh Sea 1l1a(Iè 
Spain reali
e lllore fully the iU1portance of findill
auc 1 forti(yiu(T the strait for her 0\\'11 protectioll: anel, 
Drakc's hon
c'Yard route being for year;:; not <:le..u'} .. 
kno,vn, rlunor::, ,vere current that lu.:\ h(HI aetually 
f( )ulld the northern passage, and llall 1'etU1'IH.'ll. )Ior"'- 
oyer, there appeared soon aftcr a tictitiou
 narrati\ è 

40 PUJ'cha.fJ, In..;; Pi/yrilllls, iii. ;"'-HJ. The story is mcntioncd by JctTCIJs, 
Burncy, clliù many others from tills b..H1rcc. 



conncctcll ,yith thi
 cxpetlition. Padre Ascension told 
the tale to l>adl'c Zärate de Sahucrou, ,vho 'v rote of 
it in l(;
(j. It 
eelllð that "a forl\igll pilot, nauled 

. de :\lorena, ".ho entered al inJlés"-,vhatever that 
llHlY IIll'an-"fl'Olll thü Sea of the N o:rth to that of 
thc'" Sonth by the Strait of Anian," gavú this aecoullt 
to lloclrio'o del !{Ío, thcn goy'ernor of N c,v Galicia: 
'as set on shore ill the region of the 
of .L\.nian "very sick and 1110re dead than aliye" by 
Drake as the latter 'Ya
 returning honle,vard. 41 Re- 
eoyeriug- hi.., health he ".antlered through divers lands 
for four year:s, over 1110re than five hundred leagues 
of ticrro ..tlr7ìzc, until he canle to a ùrazo (le Ilia}" dividing 
X c,v l\Icxico fro1l1 a great \vestern land. This body 
of ,yater ran north and south, and scen1ecl to the 
pilot to extend north"Tard to the port 'v here he had 
landed. On its banks ,vere 111any large settlelnents, 
including a nation of ,vhite people, ,vho possessed 
horses and fought ,vith lance and shield. "Padre 
Ântonio [Ascension] says he believes they arc l\Ius- 
covites, I say that ,vhcn ,ve see thenl ,ve shall kno,v 
,,-ho they ar
," "'Tites Saln1eron. On the. coast ,vhere 
he ,vas put a-;hore l\Iorena sa,v 111any good ports and 
great bays, ancl froBl that point he thought he could 

ail to Spain in forty days. He can1e out finally in 
X e,v ::\Iexico, and ,yent tlo\vn to SOll1brerete, ,vhere 
he told his story to Governor Rio. He "'"as going 
to England to bring his discovery before the court, 
but ,va::; "Tilling to guide the governor to the strait. 42 
Drake's narratiyes do not recorcl the putting-ashore 
fl The apparent meaning is that the pilot had entered the Pacific by the 
strait with Vrake, and was landed near its entrance as he was about to return 
hy the same route; :ret the Rpaniards ought to have known well enough the 
way hy which Drake came, eycn if uncertain how he returned. 
-12 SalìJleron, flrlariollf'8 de .LV. .1Ilex., 51-2. Rodrigo del Rio y Loza was 
goyemor of Kuc'"a Yizcaya, not Galicia, in 1390-6. radre Nicl, Apllnf(t- 
'illÌuzlo8, ';S, identifies Drake's port with the mouth of the Cannelo Riyer! 'Ese 
<1lsemhoque del rio Cannelo y un puerto que él hace, que el padre Zárate no 
apunta, (luizá )lorque Sebastian Vizcaino no surgiú en él, y se llama ese puerto 
cl puerto del Draque, eorresponde con esa punta de Pinos y puerto de JIon- 
'ey. al descmboque del rio Colorado, que entra acá en nuestra costa con 
yembdos legua.s de hoea, en cuarenta y un grados, de latitud y doseientos ein- 
eucnta y uno de longitud.' 



of any 111a11 in th0 north. ::\lorl'llc.l's story \Ya
lesH pure fiction; hut it is probal,le that it h:lfl an 
i nti uell
e ill fornlÍng the later belief that Califoruia 
,,'as an i:--Ia nd. 
ItoJrigo del Rio, to ,,-hOlll )[o}"ella luacl .. kncnvn hi..: 
adycnturcs, giving hi:::; yie,,-:-; ill Lj8
 nn c
l'l,:,},<.;({ing' the proper outfit fÖr a force to t"
plor ' X t..:\, 
)Iexi('o, reconllnend
 thnt 111att..:rial lJe furlli,he<l fè)r 
Luilc1iug' a vc
sel, both for Cr()S
illg' hJ'(..':"u.
 d( /lUll' likel \
to Le cu
ounterecl, and perhap
 for returllillg Ly \\ ate!". 
lIe ulldershulùH that the 'uulltrv reaehc
 to the btrait 
Ilear the Gran China, ill latitudú 57 0 , and plau
concludes that ill a territory 
u 1)1 oad there lllUst be 
Dutal )le things. 43 
pcjo, ill his N c". 
le\:icall travels of 1581-3,foUlld 
no occasion to build ships, nor did he reach the Grall 
Chilla; but a Conchu Indian ill northern Chihuahua 
told hilll of tu\vn
 having hou..;e:-, of three (lull 

tul'ieB situated on a great lake S01l1
 fifteen day
journey to the "
est; at ZUÌli .allJ \\9c"t of it hl) hearcl 
again of a great lake, llo"r sixty day:-; ùiðtallt, ,,-ith 
great and rich cities, ".ho:-,o inhabitants ''lore golden 
Lracelets; and finally, in tho region of the Jlloderll 
cott, he "ras told of a luighty rivcr hehill<l the 
sierra, un the banks of ,vhieh "ere to\Yllli ill COlll- 
on ,vith \Y hich those already ::,,--,cn ,,-er(' llothing, 
the inhabitants U
illg canocs to cru:o-.:--. thü river and 
;:; froln to\vn to to\\Tll.u ..L\.ntl ''''arga:-" \vriting ju::-t 
after l
spejo's return, attaches no 
lllall illlportall<.:e to 
that great riyer, really the ColoraJo, }'uggcsting that 
it 111io'ht be the Estrecho de Bacalao
. )loreo\"cr, tho 
l"cpo11cd lake to\\TllS 111ight have a 
ignificance in COIl- 
ncction "Tith the filct that the ancicnt Culhua
fl01n thúse reo-ions. 4 ;) Thu;:; ùid lllen try to arouse the 
old enthu
l for northern discovery dormant since 
Coronado's tilne. 

43 Eodri[Juc=, Testimon'o. 
h Ei}JCjO, Relacion; lIakluyt's roy., iü. 33.:;. 
,:; Rodri!Jue-, 1'c,



Richard IIakluyt published in I--Iondon in 158:2 his 
nil"""," rU!I((gcs tou -.!ting the discouerie ql.
,yllÌeh [ have already tlra""ll freely. .L\: kInd of prefa- 
tory note i
 entitlcJ, ,,
\. verie late and great proba- 
Lilia,tic o.f a pas
agc Ly the north-,,
cst part of Alllcrica 
in 58 degrees of northcrly latitude," ,vhich proL[1Lly 
 on the di
coverics o.f Anus Cortcreal in ] 574, 
already cited. Thcn in the 'Epistle Dedicatorie ' are 
set do\vn eight reasons for belicf ill the no.rth-,vcst 
,ngc. Thcbe, ,,
ith ,,
hieh the reader is already so 
ln1Îliar that a Inere allusion ,vill suffice, ,vere: 1st, 
Cabot's statclncnt to Rall1usio. that the north of 
...:.\.lllerica is all divided into islands; 2d, Verrazano's 
luap, to. be noticed prescntly; 3d, Gil Go.nzalez' explo.ra- 
tion:;; on the "
cstern coast of Central Alnerica ; 4th 
and 5th, the reports of natives to Jacques Cartier; 
Gth, the report8 of Flo.rida Indians to l{ibault; 7th, 
the experience of Frobisher" on the hyther side, and 
Sir Fraunces Drake on the back side of Alnerica," 
\vith the testimony of the Zeni respecting Estotiland; 
and 8th, the judgment of J\Iercator, "there is no 
doubt but that there is a straight and short way o.pen 
into the "Test, euen vnto Cathay."46 
The nlap puLlishcd in Hakluyt's ,york and here re- 
pro.duced "
as made by l\lichael Lok, ,vho clainled, 
'w'ithout n1uch apparent reason, to have fashioncd it 
largely after Verrazano's charts. It is a stranO'e COIY1- 
bination of the geographical ideas that we h
ve no- 
ticed on earlier Inaps. The entrance to the strait, 
,vhich is short and leads by two arn1S into a great 
llorth-,ypstern sea, is by Frobisher's inlet. The bay 
of old that so nearly cuts the continent in t,vain is 
christoned '
Iare de V errazano, 15
4,' though that 
navigator is Hot kno.,,"n to have repo.rted having seen 
or heard of any such ,vestcrn sea. California is still 

46 Ilaf.-luyf'8 Div. roy., 7-13. He aùds: 'Anù heere, to eonchHle and shut 
yp this ma.tter, I haue hearde my selio of 
Ierchants of creùite, that have 
liued long in 8painc, that King Phillip hath made a lawe of lato that Hone of 
 suLicctcs hh..tll discoucr to the Korthwarùes of fiue and fortie degrccs of 
America,' lest the strait Le found. 



:l renin
ula, hut is joillcd to t lH
 lnain })\. a narro\\- 
istlllllUt; in 4.3 0 , \\.hcre tIlt., ("oa-.;t turlls alJl'ul tly l'l
"'anI to and past Cabl illo's :-;iel'ra 
 -,-ada. "ha.t 

f, J.



l' .'t:- 





.:f:1I!';) .. . )i;0 :; 
O ( !
. "j1. J2 ;(
,,; f ;;} q / - 
.-' .. 
(. .5 CVLJACMI L: 9 Jo/ Cf!? "" .. "::"" 
,.. /.Þ....- ___ .; ""9 
I 0 

, c 

t\. r1
... 4 

 'ð'1' S 1 

. c: 
...:!j . .. f:u 
:,\ () 
:.!, (J 
líl rï a.!- d ,3'

t.ðr - -1,;j:-w


L\p, 13S:!. 

foundation Lok ill1agÍlled hill1sclf to hayc for thi'i 
geographical abortion I do not kno,,-.41 
J oh11 Da,-i:-3 rlid not indulgc in any ycry ,yiltl 
latiol1R respecting the Xorthcrll ) [y:-;ter.r ; yet, return- 
ing fronl hi:-3 yoyages of 1,)83-7, he ,,-rote: "I hano 
brought the pa
Bagc to that likelihood, tl:' that I anl 
assurcd it 1l1ust bce ill one of fUllre pla('t-
, or els not 
at all;" :ulll again: "I llauo bene in 7:1 tJt-grec,-;, find- 
ing the sea all open, aìl(l forty leagues bet'\
Cenl' land 
alld lanù. The pas::;age i:-; 1110
t prohaLlp, the excf"utioa 
ea:::;ie, as at lny c0111ing you shall 
urely kno,,
.))tS To 

4711aHu!li'S Di". roy_, ,).); Knill's lli,'1f. Di
90. r.t'bn'<'11 the Ì\\ () 
fìhip!'i mul abo,-e the line conul'ctiug them arc tho following inscription.., ill 
Latin: .. t x/iip w/'lch dio'dl!ll,lfh( '.Ji'om th .JJoIU('C(l.
, all I, nre ill turn tF) tll,. 
.Jlo/urra s , .
rÛI din/he ?/('rtI'1,j18. _I. Gaz,vlIlo. (/. F1';';1 R;-\\hich 8(,.CI1II1 hUm. 
cil'ntly absurd; and 'l'hlli far t1
( t.( fIn.! ,'l of th POriU!!ll , 1'; : of tht 
, 1..) ;0; (If th' L"ll!l'i
h, l.jSO-which is nut much 1I10rt' int

81Ial.:lll!ft'8 JrO!!., iii. lOS, Ill, 1l!)-
IIIST. N. W. COAsr, YOLo I. ., 



the EllO.liðh colonists of Carolina, 138G, the natiycs 


aill that the Roanoke" gushed forth fron1 a rock, 
near the l
acific Ocean; that the surge uf the sea, 

,,)lnetill1es tlc.lðhetl into its fountain; its banks \yere 
inhabited by a nation skilled in the art of refining 
the rich ore in ,,
hich the country abounded. The 
".alls of the city ,yere described as glittering froll1 the 
abundance of pearls." Go\
erllor Lane explored the 
riycr in a yain search for these marvels.4
 fro Raleigh 
in 158 ï 1-1akl uyt ,yrote: "I alll fully pers,vaded by 
Orteli us la to rcforll1ation of CuI uacan and the gulfe 
of California, that the land on the backe part of 
\Tirginia extendcth nothing so far ,vest,vard as is 
put ùo,yne in the :1Iaps of those parts;" and noting 
a report of Florida Indians to Ribault of a great 
interior city ,vhere ICing Chiquola d,velt, the salno 
riter says: "This seen1eth to be La grand Copal."úO 
The lllap in IIakluyt's edition of Petc1'" lJlctrty}'", 
158ï, leayes the great north-,vest a blank, as unex- 
plored; yet it puts a 'ì1
a1"e dulce at GOo, about Inid,vay 
of the continent, and Ly great rivers running north- 
ard froin the interior indicates the probability of 
open sea on the north. California is a peninsula, as 
in Ortelius' nlap; Quiyira is on the coast, in 400; in 
the interior just belo,v latitude 40 0 and over the nalne 
X ew 
Iexico is an inlnlense lake SOine six hundrcd 
luilcs in length, con11nunicating by rivers perhaps \vith 
the Gulf and ,vith the ocean just above Quivira. 
Drake's discovery of Nova Albion is sho,vn for the 
first tiìl1c just bclo,v 500; and the coast line seenlS 
to extend to 55 0 before trendinO' ,vest,vard. The 
Cathay coast is about fifty dcgr
s ,vest of Nova 
.L-\ILion. If ,ve disregard the great lake, and look 
upon the 'ìJla/
e dulce as Hudson Bay, this is the 

49 fleorrle Bal1C1 o ()jt'.s Ilist. U. S., i. 9D-I00. 
jO Jla/;{u?/t's rO?/., iii. 303,311. In 13SU Juan ß. Lomas, in askinO' a license 
to sct
cw ::\Ic\.Ïco, un.clerstood tl.13.t territory to include e'?erytl
ing ahove 
th? RlO CO!lchos, and clalffiecl the nght to fortify Loth coasts, aud to huild 
slurs to sa1l1Joth toward Hpaiu and the Philippincs. Lomct;;, A'-;i;tCutO y Capilu- 



ll(\arest approach to a ('()rr
ct l'eprt....,cntation (,f Xorth 
.J. \ulcl'ic'a, yet proùuce(l.,";l 
I copy a lllap of the fo-trait of .i\.uian, 
ai(l t 0 have 
l)eell üncrravc(l in I jQO , thou(rh there UU1'- L
uncertainty aLout the exact Jate. l52 


\. \ 

A "" .I A .x


 S"RR' .,,'D' 
6( (; 
,_ C '> 

(0 HI N 
 S E VI A\.\') 





:II I have only the yery hacl copy ill Sf, t.f'1l.'
' .....ynf l
t pI. iii. :Ko. l. 
":.!Amoretti, J
O?I. Jf{lltloua {n,4-!, (jO, ntHIl)l., gin's the map as t:lkf'n {rom 
:t'I"'. Trattato de Cr'baIlQ./I/outi. This:luthol" !!i\l"9 l\f!oo(lmc\.l1\' \"II 'U r(' .r. 
cnccs to rumors of the e^i
t('nce of a strait in the (kc:ulc of t c. _ 111 Y t 
no UIlC of \\ hidl 
C.'C:I1S nlHkil'ntl) important or tal1(:'i 11 lp f 11" nil' iti(,u. 



In hi
 rrrcat "
ork of 1590 .Acosta dcyotes a cha p - 
tCl' to "the Rtrait ,,-hieh ROBle affiJ'ln to be in ]Tlorida." 
Iag'cllall found that 
trait that i
 in thc South, 

o other
 hayc clailucd to Ji

oYer anothcr strait ,yhieh 
they ::-:
lY there is ill the north, ,vhich they place in the 




,( . 



DIUS' l\IAP, 1395. 

land of Florida, a land strctching so far that its end 
 not kno\vn." IIc alludes particularly to the ideas 
of ::\Ieneudcz, anf1 n1cütiol1s a8 SOllie of the lattcr'H 
reasons in ad( Ii tion to those already noticed, nan1 cl y, 
pieces of Chincse vcssels found floating in the At- 
lantic; and the prescnce of ,yhalès from the South 
Sca obðervcd in a bay of Floriùa; and besides 'the 

T _\.. 


good orù('1" of nature' requiring- an _\rcti(' a..; ,veIl a-.; an 
.... \lltarctic :-;trait. It i:, thought that J )rc.lkc an( 1 other 
}:llg'li:..;h eOl';-;airh lllay ha.\"c fuund ntHl utiliLc(l the 
:--;trait. :Jlcn, lil...û ants, do not pau
e on th · tra('h. of 
noY<.:ltieB; and the truth ,,'ill l}c kno\rl1, null (
()tl ,rill 
lllake u
o of 1l1all'
 curio:..; it y to carry the 
o:-;pel to 
llorthcrn gentiles. Au(l cl",c,,'hcre .L\ 'o'-}ta. 1-'3.)":-;: ,];,.- 
yond Capo 
Icnùocino," perhaps the first lllelltioll of 
that na111C, "it i
 not knO'YIl lunv Ülr runs th.. land, 
but froill ,,'hat all 
ay it i:-; 
olllething iUllllcn:-;e ,,'hat 
it rUlls."53 I reproduce a lilaI' luaùe Ly IIullùiu
ahout 1595. 

SS Acodta, llist. }.....u.t. Ind., 71, 132-3. 



D To\Y
nlOcs Lu

Ix recording the fictitious voyages it seems IllOSt 
proper and convenient to notice each, not under its 
O\Vll pretended date, but under the date when tho 
claÏln ,vas first Inade. By this systen1 the first of the 
fau10us yoyages, several anonymous and vaguely re- 
corded trips through the strait having been already 
referred to, Lelongs here, under date of 1596, ,vhen 
.J uan lIe l1-'uca told his tale of having discovered the 

 orth,vest passage in 1592. This is also the only 
one of the apocryphal voyages the authenticity of 
'v hich still finds defenders; but more on this matter 
In .L
pril, 1596, 
Iichael Lok, an Englishnlan ,veIl 
n for his interest in geographical discoveries, 
1l1ét J nan de 
'uca in Venice. Fuca had lately arrived 
in Italy fi'onl Spain, and in Florence had encountered 
an English pilot, John Douglas, \vith 'VhOlll he callle 
to Venice, and Ly hiln \vas introduced to Lak. Fuca's 
story ,va
 as follo,vs: lIe ,vas a Greek, born in the 

JU.\X DE };'U'C.\'S 


i--;lan(l of Ccph:llonia, an(l his rpaln(llllè \va" ...:\p().
'Taleriano:-;. 1 [e had h( 'vll forty :r 'ar
 11Ial'irH'r and 
pilot in the Spanish \\T c
t IIH'lia;l Sf'r\ i(.c, atHl ,,'as 
011 board of the galleon "'hen capturc(l b
" Cave1Hli",h 
off the point of California, X OVelllb('r, ) .>Hï, ha \ in
}o:-;t f-\ixty thousand <lucat
 on that ncea' ion. 
(luently he "as 
cnt a!-; pilot of three v('
."el.., ntHl Ollt" 
hUlldre( I Illell (lcspatche(l by the yi
cl'uy to fhllI the 
Htrait of .t\nian and fortif\" it aq'aillst the EI}(,1i
but Ly rea:-;on of a lnutiny aln
ng- the soluicr
," 1',>1' 
the HO(lOIUie of their Captaine," the :-;hip.., turnc(l lxH.k 
frotH the Californian coast,t anù the captain ,vas PUll- 
i,-;heu l)y justice in ::\Iexico. 
" .J. \.1:-;0 hce said, that shortly after the t.:aid "\Toyagc 
"'a, RO ill enùed, the said 'TiceroJ of J[exico Rcnt hilll 
out agaille ....1nno 1592, ,vith a snlall LV1"a 1 {(ltf, (tnd it, 
})inna('c, arIl1cd ,vith ::\[arincrs oncly, to follow tht' 

aide ,r oyagc, for a ùis
oucry of the :-:alne btrait" of 
",Inion, and the passage thercof, into the Sca ,,'hi('h 
they call thc :North Sca, ,vhich is our X orth-\,,"cst Sea. 
....\nd that hc follo\ved hi
 coursc in that ,royagc \\r c"\t 
 orth-\ycst in the South Sea, all along
t the coast 
of .J.:'v""nllrt J
paHirl, anù C(dijvl'aÙt, and the Iurlip..:::, ll()"
called North ....1 J11.'(!l'ica (all ,vhich ,-royage hee Big-nitiecl 
to Inc in a great ::\Iap, and a Sca-caru of lllinc O\\
,vhich I laied before hitH) vntill hee call1e' to tho l.Jat- 
itude of fortie sellen degrees, :uHl that there findin.
that the LalHl trended North and X orth-ca
t, ,,'ith a 
broad Inlet of Sea, bet\\#eell 47. and 48. d(
g-re ':) of 
Latitu(le, hce cntred thereinto, Rayling- therein 11101'0 
than t\ventie daycs, and fotllHI that LalHl trendin
Htill HOll1ctiulC 
t and 
t, anti X orth, 
aud also Ea:-;t alHl South-ea-.;t,,"arll, anel "cry I11U(,h 
broaJler Sea then ""as at the Haiti cntrance, aile I that 
hce passed Ly diucr:--; lland:-; in that 
. .... \.nd that 
at the entrance of thi:-; saill Strait, there is on the 

1 Is it po"",ihle that Fuc..'t mi
bt have h
'1.r<1 L'ulrillcro'
 story? It \\;11 
be rcmemucl.c(l th.Lt tha,t pilot claim 1 t,> Invo becn wit!) c\ f1 ct th Lt tllrnl.l from Californi,\' at a mach earlier d.ltc. 


Xorth-,,"c:"\t coast thereof, a great IIedlalld or lland, 
,\'ith an e
eecding high Pinaclc, or spired Rocke, like 
a piller thereupon. .L \l
o he snitl, that he ,vent on 
l...lHlld in diner:;; places, and that he Ra,v SOUle people 
on I..4alld. elad in Bca
ts skins: and that the I..4and i:-; 
Yerv fru
tfull, and rieh of (j-old, Siluer, Pearle, and 
r things, like .l\Toun Sj)(lHia. .And also he said, 
that he being cntred thn
 farre into the said Strait, 
nnd being COllle into the North Sea already, and fÎnd- 
inp; the 
ca ,,-ide enough euery ,vhere, and to be ahout 
thirtie or fortie leao-uès ,vide in the Inouth of the 

Straits, ,,-here he entred; he thought he had IHHV 
".ell discharged his office, and done the thing he ,va
sent to doe." So he returneù to Acapulco before the 
end of the year, hoping for re,vard; and ,vas ,vcl- 
("OIl1Cd by the viceroy ,vith fai
es, but after t,vo 
years of vain ".aiting, by the viceroy's advice he ,vent 
to Spain to seek re,vard for hi::; services froll1 the king. 
E\-en here, though "relcolned at court "in ,yordes 
after the Sl)ani
h 111anner, but after long tÏ1ue of suite 
there also, he could not get any re,varJ there neither 
to hi
 eOlltent;" and so at length "he stole a,vay out 
()f SJ)aiJl(!, and caIne into Itali
e, to goe hOlne againe 
and liue al110ng hi8 o,vne I{'indred and Countrilnel1; 
he being yery old." He thought the reason of Span- 
ish ingratitude "Tas occasioned by the belief that 
England had relinquished the search for a strait, and 
therefore there ,vas nothing to fear. N o'v he ,vas 
ed to be revenged on the Spaniards by serving 
the noLlc-luindcd queen of England, hoping also that 
she ,vould Inake good his losses at the hands of Caven- 
(li:-;h. If provi(led ,vith a Bhip and pinnace he ,vould 
undertake to make the vo y aae throuah the strait in 
. 0 0 
tlurty da y
Lok ".rote to Cecil, l
aleigh, and Hakluyt, urging 
thell1 to furnish mone y to Lrina Fuca to Eno-land ,vith 
ð 0 
n vic\v of acting on his proposition; but the llloney 
,vac.; llot forthcolnin a , and in a fortnio-ht Fuca started 
o b 
for horne. In July Lok ,vrote to the pilot; and in 



reply received a lc.ttel (lat(>(l at (\'phalollia ill S l,t P tU- 
1)(.1', in ,yhich Fuea dc(.lar(.d hiln-.;t.lf 
till rt.:ul", fOJ' tit · 
 if JUOllt'} ('oul(l h, furlli:-.)u.d. 
letters ,vere e'("
l:(l in I 3U7, allC 1 ng-aill ill l.)
hut I.Jok ,,'as Lusled 'VJtlt ( t]ll'I" Jnatt"r,-\ alld ull.thlp to 
raise the needed fUllcl:.;; tlJHl re('ei\ iller Jlq )"(' 1 )1\. to a 
., & 
lptter of 1 GO
 he inferred that the U rcck 1 )ilot \\.a:i 
( 2 
l'his aC'count, in the Rhap' of a n()t
 hy f.J(,k, 
hecl hy l}urchas in 1 G25, and ha
 1H'('n r('- 
peateù frolH thi:-; Rource l)y later \vrit'rs. 'fJlat it 
,vas presented ace-urate]y au (I in pcrfl'ct goo(1 faith 
:-\u far as Lok and Purehas are coneerncù there i;oo; Ill) 
rcason to douLt. There is 
OlJ1C cyi(leIH" that thc 
rcck pilot ,ga YC hi8 true ll
Ulle an(I birthphtC'l'. 3 ]
there arc indications that his clailn of lo,
 at the 
hand::; of Cavendi
h "a-; gro:-;
ly exaggerated, if not 
unfounded. ' 
1'110 fact that I dc
cribc l?uca'
e in thi
ter Rho,\
 that I regard his story as fiction. )[any 
intellio.ûut ,vriter
 h()\vcvcr helie\Tc it to 1)(' in thl. 
ð , , 
Inaiu true; iUlleecl I think that 
uch ha
 heen the 
In.evalent opiniun ill later year:;.5 Thereforc -:;olllething 
uf argulllcnt becolllc

2 Pllrcha.r;, Ilis Plgrimei
, iii. 84!)-.3:!, with copies of one s -t of the lctters 
allude(l to. 
3 Inlt;.)4 Alex.
. Taylor har1 iU'luirics made in rcphalonia. through a United 

tatcs consul. The most tlefÌnite sta.tement ohtaineel \\ a.s one fromlL hiograph- 
kal work of 
Iasarachi, pnhlishcd in Y cnice in lS-l:
, e' idently made up. 80 
far as .Fuca was cOl1cernc(l, from the story to Lok, awl prhyin
 Ilothing: yct 
there were other items that scemed to show that FoeC<... "a'i the namc of .m 
ole I family thcre; that a. hranch of the family !h-ce 1 Ill',lr Valeriano, tllU'I 
partly accounting for the name' Apostolos 'alerianus'; and that .T lUlU him- 
:--elf was remcmberecl traditionally as & great lla\iga.tor. J/ll ./ÛuJ'l' Jla - 
z.ille, iv. 116-22, 1ül-7. 
" In two swonl statements made at thc time hy the captain and a paClCK'n- 
ger, thou;;h many l)ersons are nameel who lost much lcss tha.n ()().OOO
Fuca's name docs not appcar. ...Yá'"(lrref , ria.!",.. Al'dc., ]04. TJwre i
in the narrath'e of Ca\"clllli<;h's voyage to indic.'1.te that he foullel a (:rcck 
pilot on the .Stet All1w, as Rome Jut\"e implied; hut the fact that he eliel tìlHl 
aIIlI a Rpanish and a Pùrtugue
e pilot Illi
ht possihly iluli<:..ltc that he 
eli(l Jl{Jt tintI the (;rcl.k. Xeither is the're nnythÍ11J tu support tbe statement 
that Yil'caino was on boanl the Sin t 1I1Ia.. 
,) Not much was of Fuca's ,'oyage befor(' 1";;0, except to mention it, 
after Purchas, :LS one of the many item:i of e,-idclice 011 a ,"excel (lu' tiou. 
There was llO intelligcnt criticÙ:im, anù no [oUUlw.tioll for any. "hen t.':\plora- 


tory it:"\clf, ill other than geographical aspects, 
 iUlprobaLlc. I t i
 unlikely that 
pain ,,"ould hayc 

tion 11. an a
ain, the yoyagers sought for Fuca's strait. Thc Rpaniards had 
little o
 no faith in thc Greek pilofs discovcrics, [,Iul thcy found nothing to 
chau1'o their opinion. Captain Coot
 ill 1778 said: '''T C saw nothing like it; 
Il()r i
 there the least probability that c,-cr any such thing cxisted.' ('ook.s 
roy.. ii. 
l):t Forstcr ill liSû, IIi....'. Voy., 430-1, pronounced part of the 
ftory fabulous awl the rcst suspicious. But in 1788 )Ieares, Voy., Ii. hi. 
h.ii.-iii. 1.3.3-ü ct seq., Im,-ing found an inlet un the Northwest Coast, which 
hc (lill not fully explore, but which he was inclined to rcgard as possibly 
thc cntrance of 'the strait,' declarc(l Fuca's yoyage authentic, and formally 
nallled it the '
trait of Juan de j1-'uca.' This and other opinions expressed 
before the geography of the region 'was fully known hayc obviously no spccial 
forcc; hut one of ,Meares' strongest l)oints is the custom of flattening the 
headi of nath"e children as described hy Fuca-a point somewhat weakenetl 
by the fact that Fuca. says nothing on thc subjcct. Fleurieu ill 1787, Introd. 
to )/urclmlld, r oy., i. pp. xii.-xvi., regarded Fuca's story as probably true, but 
('Àaggcrated. Fuca probabìy discovered the entrance, and 1)erhap8 the inland 

ea. Xa\-a,rrete in 1802, Sutil Y .J.1Icx., riCl,ge, Iii.; riClflcs AJ'óc., 104, pro- 
nounced the story a fiction, relying on the absence of all confirmation in the 
;-':panish nrchh"cs, and 011 the latest northern discoveries. Burney, lIist. Discov. 
SoufhSf,l, ii. 110-17, inlS06, while deeming much of the Ilarrative erroneous 
and e
aggerated, thinks it 'not easily conceivable, that mere fancy or conjec- 
ture shouhl chance upon the description of a strait so essentially corresponding 
\\ith t 1 lC reality.' But Humboldt ill 1808, Es.
ai Politi'lue, 3
9, 341, had no 
hesitation in declaring Fuca's story a fiction, and his voyage apocryphal. 

ince the time of Humboldt ana Navarrete there has been but little inves- 
tigation or argnment 011 the suùject. ::\Iost "Titers have seemeù to re 6 ard all 
the early e
;:plorations of the Spaniards a::; wrapped in mystery, lmve seen no 
reason why :t\1CamaYllot have malle a voyage as well as Vizcaino and others, 
lw'\"c deemed his description as accurate as that of many other early voyagers, 
and ha,-e drifted into a lukewarm sU1)portof the l)ilot's veracity. Thcy have 
not appreciated Fuca's motives for falsehood, nor the fr..ct that he was as 
likely to locate a strait, in whose existence nearly all bclieved, and which 
must he abo\-c 44: 0 , between 47() and 30 0 as elsewhere, and that nowhere be- 
tween those limits could his error have been greater. Of coursc the strait 
would be" ide, with i
lands, and probably trending in different directions. 

Iurray, ).
()rth ÁmeJ'., ii. 87, in 182U deemed Lok a respectable witIless, and the 
disco\"cry of a strait conclusive. Lardner, llist. 
I({r. lJi.'icov., ii. 280-1, in 
18:30 spoke of the narrative as cntitled to lUuch indulgence, like other old 
wri4:ings, :Fuca having prohably entered the strait and felt sure it led to the 
Atlantic, while Tytler, llil3t. rü 11', 78-û, in 183:
 declared the story to rest on 
apocrypha 1 authority. The authenticity of the voyage is defended by the ...Yorth 
A,m'r. Rel;iew of January lS:

, 1), 1:23-6, as also by Greenhow, in his Jlem., 
4:!-3, of 18-10, anclbisJliôt. OJ'. cwd Cal., 8Getseq., 407-11, who 1JronOUllces the 
geographical description
 'as nearly conformable with the truth, as those of n-ny 
ether acconnt of a \
oyage writtell in the early part of the scyentcenth century.' 

Iost later writers have followed Grcenhow; and for a time doubtless Americans 
allowcd themseh-es to }JC influenced somewhat hy national prejudices. They 
often pointed triumphantly to the fact that the voyage was Jefended by 'first- 
class .English authority' like the Quarterly Bevin", xvi. For sinÜlar reasons 
some Engìishmen l
ke Twiss, OI'c[Jon Qltu;tion, GG-70, felt called upon to take 
the other s
de. Gal:atin ill 184:6, Letters on Or. QU('!dion, 11-13, found much 
intprnal cvidence of truth, hut deemed the story somcwhat doubtful. To Kico- 
lay, Ore!/oll Ter., 28-30, it secmed to havc stood the test of investigation. See- 
man, roy. of tlw '/Icíald,' i. Û7-8, thinks :Fuca sailed roulld Vancouver Island. 
Taylor, lIllt r hi11[J8' JIa!!., iv. ] 16-2:2, IGI-7; Pacific 11Iontllly, xi. 647; B"otcJle'.
L. Cal., 2
3, modestly believes that his 0\\ 11 rescarcheò':l showing the ex- 



,vithhclll rel\"ard fronl Hueh a 1uan a'-\ ]
hc ,,"oulel 
naturally have utili
l'd hi
cryice') ill the north..rn 
expeditious undcr \Tizcaino; it is harùly crcùibl-', to 
one acquainted ".ith the 
pirit of the ti1uCS, that 

he eonl<l have trusted so irnplieitly in the relin- 
<lui:-;llluent of the Rear('h l)y ]
llglantl; and least uf all 
ho have perlnitteu a pilot to carry such a 
gric,.ance and such a secrct to f()rcign part.;. '[orc- 
over, the f
lCt that about thi
 tinlc Illen of hi
 cIa i 
".erc halJitually telling falsehood
 about the northcrn 

trait, creates a probability that Fuca al':io spoke 
falsely. IIis telnptation and opportunity ""cre great. 

rhe English ,verc eagcr to find the strait; they su'-\- 
pccted that Spaniards had lnadé and ""cre concéalin.
the ùiscovery. Accidentally through Dougla
, a cOlì- 
genial spirit, ".hcther dupe or accolllplicc, the Greek 
pilot nlects )Iichael Lok. He necù no lon
cr rely on 
the old theories and runlorH. To an Englishn1an he 
Inay safeJy clailll to have Jnadc fin actual discoycr.r in 
govcrnnlollt craft. Lok will crcdit the talc, hccau....o it 
agrces ,yith the theories, dc::;irc
, and suspicions of 
hin1sclf and his class. Fuca's rc,vard "ill be an anlplc 
one-satisfaction for pretended or exaggerated los::;c..; 
at the hand
 of an Engli
h cor:-,air, honoraLlo and 

istence of the Focca family in Cephalonia haye rcmoycd eycry yestige of douht 
of thc authenticity of all that :Fuca may c\"er h.L'.c c1aimC'd to do. 1'0 in, 
U. S., 
; Dickinson, Sp('eche,
, i. IGû-7; and Lord, in )]r;t. h Columbi I, i. 
pp. yii.-
i., support :Fuca, Lord introducing Borne ima 
illary JC
Lils of his inter- 
\"iewwithLok. InlatcryearsElwoodE,-an'l,Pllj<1.S'Jwul,4-,j; JIÙzf.()r., n, 
., l.J--lô, has little or no lloubt of .FU
L'S di8coveries; else the pilot mil )t 
llaYC been a miraculons prophet. )Ir E,'ans has a. curious theory that tho 
selection of Vizcaino, an old friend of Fuca, and proh..1.Lly a\\ .1re of his di...- 
con:ries, to head the later expeJiti0ns was in itself a. strong contÌrn11.tion of 
FUC.L'S tale. As a matter of fact a. strong argl1J11C'nt on the other side may ho 
dra.wn from thc facts that Yi7caino madc allY yoyages at aU, that Fu
, dill 
not accompany him, amI that Fuca was not named in the instructions Rntl rt - 
ports of thc e
pedition. )[r8 Victor, S arch/or }ì.('tU
, ill r
 (, rial l 
Jlont/dy, iii. 474-.j, writing of thc famous E'enrch 1Il It
 romantic a pcct q , 
accepts Fuca.'s voyage without question. :-\p
aking of his 
)('lid tlmt he 11&111 
achcd the 
outh f:;c:\ entrancc of tho straIt, she &'ys" Ith much rea8(\n: 
, .Familiar to us as is thc :-;trait of Fuca, we see c,'cry thing to jn
tify Sl1 -h a, 
helicf in the mind of thc (
reck n.wi::,rator;' alltl in(lcctl there can be no doubt 
that Fuca would havc formc'! 
u('h an opinion he c\"l..r n.a<'hl
d the (>n- 
trancc. Finally, ill The (,'at
"orllillll, ii. ;'3.)-.D, 'D. so' h.., .lll .:., c. .,.: 1 
l'Ae V oycc!Jl' 0/ Juan tit l', ,[, ([, rrCLI- t. 

profitable . cnlplo
.rnent in Engli:-:;h serY
ec,. and the 
tiune of dl
" the lonQ'-souQ'ht straIt, In the ex- 
Û \..' '-' 
i:;tcnce of ".hich he like others had perfect confidence. 
1'here is reasonable presuluption that the liHll1 under 
these circlullstances reported a fictitious discovery, a, 
prCSulllption ,vhich nothing but evidence can overCOllle. 
Hi:storically no such eviùence has been found. 
X othillg" is kno"ïl on the suLject except ,vhat Fuca 
t old Lûl
. No later "
riter lllcntions either voyage on 
any other authority; and no contenlporary ,vriter 
ntions thenl at all. The Spanish archives, natu- 
rally the best source of inforn1ation on governluent ex- 
peditions, have been pretty thoroughly exalllined for 
111aterial relating to early northern voyages, and special 

earch has been lnade for docu1l1ents on Fuca's re- 
ported expeditions. The search has been 111ade by 
lllen ,,-ho \yere cOlupetent and diligent, and under cir- 
cunlstances ,vhich ,yould have been 1110re likely to 
pronlpt the production of spurious confirn1ation than 
the suppression of real proofs. Not a ,vord has been 
found bearing directly or indirectly on the subject. 
The loss of a doculllcnt, it nlay be said, is not unusual. 
True; but is it conceiyaLle that of all the paper 
covered ,,-ith ink in the inevitable Hispano- Aluerican 
style-of all that lnust have been "
ritten in fitting 
out five or six vessels for t,vo distinct expeditions, in 
appointn1ents and instructions of officials, in reports 
of failure and success, in judicial proceedings against 
the ,vicked captain, in )j--'uca's o'\"n memorials and 
appeals for a just re,vard-not one scrap should have 
COI11e to light? But, ,ve are told, it ,vas the policy of 
Spain to conceal all information that nliO'ht give an 
advantage to foreign po,yers. Is she lil
ely to have 
kept this secret so eftoctuallJT that it could not be 
revealed ,vhcn hor o,vn interests den1anded it? But 
let us suppo
e such to have been the case; that all 
papers on this topic ,vere collected in one CX1Jcdiente 
and destroyed; the difficulty i
 by no llleans ren10ved. 
Spain could not silence all the rnenlbcrs of both expe- 

T..\Tr)IEXT 1'.\1 ....E. 


(litions; ('I
, a
;--\ur 'fn
hc "9oul(1 11a"(' found nH
to clo:--:-" F\lca'
 lllonth. T'IH" XOl'tIH'1"1l '1\9
t4'r\9 \\a..; 
a COlnUlOll topic of ('on \g e l':-,atioJl al11()})
" lll:u:ill( '1':';. 
rrlH' court ,\.as <It. 'lugt.'( 1 \\ i th p
tit io})..; frOlll III 'n \\" ho 
F;( Hl
ht li('CnSl' for northt.'rn t Ii:, 'OY 't'\" all( 1 ,'" ho lu:lcY'ui- 
'j . , 
fied every <:ir<:uIJ)
tallee likl'ly to g-i vc pJau"j}'iJity t C) 
their s('helues. \'-'-hy is it that nOI1P l11t.'Uti()11 ]'\It"a, 
or any yoyage of Ij!)O-:! '? (10ul<l the pnJJuiut'nt }Ju'n 
ad vocating such expeditioTJ!--t ha \.C l,ccn kt 'pt in igno- 
rance that thl"\ governlllcnt they "tcro iUlportuuillft' 
had alrcadyeflcctcd the di'-\cov cry? 
 ot ollly '\9a-; th
goVerIllnent inlportuned, Lut it actually 
eHt out t\\9 0 
expeditions in 15U7 and 1 C02, the f
Jrlller ,vhilc li'lH'a, 
 currcspon(ling ,vith Lok. 1-'here i"5 Hot, hO\\'('\g e r, 
illgle circlullstanco in ".hat ,ve kllo\\" of \Tizcaino'..; 
yoyagcs to indicate that he J\.nc\v of any prt'ceJill
voyagc; yet P:u Ire Ascension, the ch ict" chronicler, 
,va:') n. volulllÏnous ,vriter and an cnth u:-5iastic thcori
on TIlatters pertaining to tho north. 
 the original prc
unlption that Fuca's state- 
111cnt ,vas false is 
trello.thened into ,\yellni(rh ah::;olut · 
o 0 
certainty hy a total aL;-;cncc of supporting t\.
nut to Le reasonably acc-ountc<l for on nny uther 
rhero rClnains but onc po:,:-,iLle 
of tCSti111011Y to shake this conclusion; and that i:-; 
our prcsent accura.te knn\\yledge ()f north-\\9cst coa..,t 
ro Hupport his claill1 tho Greek pilot 
t de
cribe the I )hysical featurc:o; of tho rCfY'ion in 

qucstion 11101'0 fully an(I fi('('Urat('}y than \youl<l he 
po::;siblc ,vithout porsonal kno,,-letlge-ulore fully, in- 
deed, than under ordinary circUlllstancc.s he could L. 
expccted to (10 in a brief ycrbal narratiyc. ]

dinary stateIllcllts delnand rig-j(l tc
ts; and "9heH aU 
the pr()p
, but one, supporting a hea\")"' \\ycight ha\ 0 
I)cen knocked dO\Vll, that one llHh..t Le 
tr()ng indced. 
'Tolerahly goot.l gucs
ing d.n l'u
a.'R part ,rill .Hot 
suffice; nor on tho part of lnYC
 that leUll'Ilt 
critici:-3111 ,,-hich ha:-; le(l hiK 
 to :::.ay in :-,uh- 
stance: c. SUppo
illg hilll to have lll<.1.<lc the '()yag



c [ . 






 . canal 
, 'fliJt.1.I 
B p\ 
 aqu i 'l1 a 
'? .;;:, _ G'" 




Ar P 











rrc \'S PILL.\n. 


'\'4' fÌIH 1 ill the entra IH'(' to 1)1l
 ,t E;, )uIHI '('rtain fe
 1 hat , ,,'ith due allu\rau" for the ('\.a r(rl'ratioll 
-,'"" , 
:\1 H 1 (,ollfu
i()ll, :UH I (,lT01" ('Ol11ll1on i Il 
u('h ea -..:( ....., Inay 
be IHaelc to tit hi;-; llalTativt;; anti ae!tuittillg' tht'I't..fè.}'t" 
that he tli:"\covl'rt.'cl the f-\trait, "'e call :!C'('OUllt IJlorc OJ" 
.d;H.tol'ily f()r the Ios:::; or 
..;ioll of hi.j 
.. 1 " 
Ul"lgilla report. 
11'uca clailll:4 to have cutert.,(l a strait h,t\\"(,t.'11 r;3 
aBel 48 0 , illlplie{lly ju:-:t abuve 47 , aHel eVl'n to June 
I"ailed hy that f-itrait through to tIlt, \ tlallti(.; but 
there i
 llo inlet \\'"ithill fifty lnile
 of that latitu( Ie. 
Xillet.y n1Ìles farther llorth, hu\\'cver, ill latitude 
48 0 30', there i
 a strait leading' to the 1 )ody of 
,yater \vhich, uuder Yariou
UHes, Reparate:o; ''''au- 
couver Island frolll the lnainland. I gi \'e herc\\.ith 
lllap of these ,vaters. Fuca's stl"ait 'Ya
 thirty Of forty 
leagues ,vide at the ontrance; this one .is t\vl'l\"ú or 
t\\Yellty lllilcs, according to the place and lllcthod of 
lllea;--'urenlollt. At the entrance on the no}'th-\re
I"hore Fuca nutc(l "a great [Ice 11a11(1 or Iland, ".ith an 
excec(ling high J>inacle, or spired ]{ockp, like a piller 
thereupon;" but nothing uf tho kind cxi:-\ts ill the 
locality indicatct.l. It i:-: true that o}>plJ:,ite, on the 
Routhcrn shore, about Cape Clas:-;ett aud the 'ratouchc 
Islands, aro l1lUl1erous detached rocks ,,"hich tlH
tiou of the "'a\.e
 has left ill coltullIH1r and fantastic 
fUI"lllS; rocks ".hich are not UllCOllllllon on eliflcreut 
parts ùf the coast. SOlne YO'yagcr
 ha \"c toulltlllothin
here to correspond ,,'ith 
 pillar; other:, have 
ie lentifìed ,vith that lalldlnark one of the rock
to; and \'Till
r's has furlli
hcd a, 
kútch ,,'hich I copy. 
C\)]llinander Phelp
, on the contrary, ha:-; 
)un(l the 
pillar several hundred lniles farthcr north, (Þll ( ; aliallt) 
]:.;}alleI. 6 Ohviou:-\ly nothing but no very pro1l1incllt 
(j Phe7p"
' Remllli,w'ellrc,'4 f!.f ....'caflle, Phi1., IS,,"I, p. .10. IT(' thin
s that Fuca's 
ya gnc lang1.1a.
c has heen misundcl":-;tool 1, all! 1 that the pillar was nt the 8UPP?SCl
outlet into the Atlantic, where is 'a relll.lrkahlt' promontory I :!I)() f
... t lUóh. 
Hllllit:i that lluthing of tho kind i:i fOUllllncar the south ('1111 of' lUll OU\ cr 
1-;I:11u1. 'learC''J, rO!/., 1,")3, foulHl 'H, \ cry remark.lhll' roc}.., tJlat \\ore _the 
furm of an ohelisl..,' not f.u' nn is!arHl Ill'lr the' Routhcl"Il shorP. \ an. 
CUU'.Cl', "oJ", i. 217, dill not find :\1 C.l re.3 , . Pin.l<.\Clc rod..,' . ur 
Uly u.. 1 . r \ 

landluark-ccrtainly not one of lnany and ordinary 
 on the \\Yl'ong :--:ide of the strait-can suffice for 
the purpo:-.t.
 of this in \
:Fuc:1 entered hi
 strait and sailed in it for t,venty 
days until he canle to the ..\tlantic Ocean. This has 
to "be (explained' hy the theory that he sailed round 
the i
land cOlnin o ' out aO"ain to the Pacific in about 
, <:> <:> 
51 0 . A profes::;ional pilot cannot reasonably be sup- 
posed to haye lllaùe 
uch an error. As he advanced 
Fuca found the strait-one hundred nliles ,vide at the 
entrance-to gro,v ,vider, Î111plicdly throughout his 

 f" "r-)p 
-- .:i:)- 
-= j
 -./ ('? <'"?' 
 lv -.JNjJ 

 /, riG "L ! f
( I \ì .." '-'}

f IiI:. 
( " (I, "#
J Y"Ì _\.__ 

 I ,
, -......-""\ _\ I, 


 =- -. -;..-<"


::- ::::.--- - -----"'- -.,;;:--


- - 


 ------- -


navigation; but as a matter of fact the channel narrows 
to a ulÍle in ,vidth long lJefore the outlet is reached. 
Fuca found the shores of the passage trending N. 'V., 
N. E., 
., E., and S. E.-that is, naturally, he sailed 
those courses successively in his voyage to the Atlan- 
tic. The far-fetched' explanation' is, that frolll a point 

more conapicuous than thousands along the coast, varying in form and size; 
:"OIHC conical, others with flat sides, flat tops, and almost every other shape 
that can 1,e figured hy the imagination.' \Yilkes, U. S. Ex. Erped., iv. 510, 
;)2ï, docs not tell US" here he found the 'Fuca's Pillar' which he sketched, 
hu tit was dou l,t1e
s on the south si{ Ie. The views presented hy 
Ieares all< I 
others, amI especially those on the U. 8. Coast Hurvey charts, show no land- 
mark corregpollding at all with with Fuca's' Hpdlaml' and' Spired Rocke.' 
Findlay, lJÚpctfJr!! Pfl('iJic Oceau, i. 3ï4, 414-lü, though supporting }'uca's \yoy- 
age, fo:ays: '.At a little distancc S. 'V. from the foot of the cape [Ulasset], and 
just within the confines of the beach, is a rock in the shape of a pillar, about 
40U(?) high, and 60 in circul1lbrence.. . These columnar rocks are very 
numerous just hereabout; and De :Fuca, the discoverer, remarke.I one in par- 
ticu!ar, which may 1,e that here adverted to. Capt. 'Vilkes has given a sketch 
of it... The rock in question is difficult to make out among the thousands of 
CVl:ry yariety of fonu al)out it.' 

I\ 'I \r


near the entrancc is a large 1)0(1 \" uf ".atl'r strt't(.hinc" 

out]n\'ard and east,,'ard. I tc fl>l
n(l the }>>l.oplc (.lau in 

 all< 1 ptl.s
etl tliYer
slaI)( IS-Hot .Yery,lc 
('01l1CHlt'IH'es, nor rC(lUll"lllg' t'
l'lallabol). J[i:-; ;-,tat '- 
 that the lalHI ,,'a:-, ","cry fruitfulI, <<l1ul rich of 
guld, Siluer, l)earle," e
l )lain hClu:"\el \.C
\\Tp tiIHI, then, ill gcographical kIlO\\ Ic(lg'o nothing 
to ()Yl'1'('0111e the strong pre:-;lunption that FlH'a'
is fiction; nuthing to prove that he visited tho;--' re- 
gions; nothing that \vithout 'explanation' agr ' .
hiH de
cription, c\.cn if his yi
it b 
Hhllitt ,d. Fuca, 
".as Bot CYCll rCllHtrl
.ahl'y lucky in hi<Y'. If 
in the futuro any proof appears that }'uea. lI
tcle a, 
yoyagc to the north-"'est coast an(l reportcd the tlis- 
coycry of a strait, thcn a. 1'lau
iLle theory lnay Lu s ,t 
up that he reachcd the entrance in latitude -1:8:) 30 , 
and trusted to his iIllagination ftn' all ".ithin. 1\ () 
l110re Can be :-;aid in hi
 fayor. lie ,va
 Illorc fortu- 
nate, ho,vever, than luany ,,
hose lies ".uro lllorc htu- 
, to ha ye his nallle purluanclltl.r attached tu a 
strait he nevcr Sfi'V. 

There aro yet 
everal interestillg points to 1)0 noto(l 
before the end of the ceutury. III l\Icr('ator'
of 15!)5 the nlaps are es
cllÜally the saInc a'j ill 01'- 
telius' lïleotl'u/JL of 1573; but another __\..siati. proy- 
illce, that of Burgi, is transferred to 4 \llleri
n and 
located 011 tho coast north of .L\llian. 
rhc llaH)u :-;trait 
of .L\..nian is applicd for the f1r
t tinic, not to the long' 
northern passage, Lut to OIlO aLout fifty luil"'::; ,ride 
:-,;cparatillg Anian froIn A
ia, bet".ccn latitl1de
anù 70 0 and leaùing fron1 thc l)acific into the 110rtl1(;rn 

trait; and finally to the t
lnHHIH g'ulf p(
continent fro111 the northern ....trait is adc.lL'(1 a (.ircular 
7JH1}' d alee still t.'l.rthcr inland, and connected ,\'ith thc 
uulf hy a narro,,- channel. 
o Substantially the 
anlC general Illap i
 pul.l ishell in 
\\rytfliet's Plolenl!} of 15Dï. 7 ]
ut in thi:--. ".ork thu 
j lJcsa;pfio J>folcmaicfl' A ugm ntum .''',;h.e Uccid{/lti
'ofi/" t lJrflli co " 1- 
IIIST. x. W. COAST. VOL. I. 6 

territory is 
ho\\.n by scctions on a larger 
cale in a 

eril':;; of InapR, three of ,vhich I reproduce. The 
first repre!-oìent
 California and Granata Noya-the 
latter Leino' nearer the modern Now. ::\Iexico, ..o-\ri- 
zona, Colol
do, and TJ tah. The gulf and peninsula 
are \yoll dra,,-n, Lut \vith a superfluity of ri\
er8 flo\y- 
in o ' into the fOl'lncr. Lc)cal JUlnlèS alonQ' the coasts 

are mostly found ill one or another of the kno,yn yoy- 
ages. The ".o
terll trcnd of the shore is noticeably 






- I 






exaggerated. The chief river connects the gulf ,vith 
a great lake, round \vhich above 40 0 stand the Seven 
Citics, a confused rendering of the ancient Atlantic 
i:-,land lnyth in cOluLination ,vith the seven to,vns ûf 
Cíbola de
eribed by Coronado. It is not unlikcly 
that at SOllle stage of its existence the oft-recurring 
lake lllyth lllay have haù connection ,vitll the real 

tnrio illufltraffl stu,zio et operft Corn('ly JFytflietLo'llanien.çis. Lovanii,I;)Ü7. The 
dcscrirtive text is on pp. lü'i-'j.J. It adds nothing of interest to the maps, 
Lut mIght b
ntire, diel space permit, for its blunùering refercnces to 
thc exploratiOns of }; lza, Coronado, anù Cabcza ùe Vaca. 

NO\'" \ GRA..'\AT.\. 


Great Salt r
al(e. l'he rivcr
 are tho '0 di
 Ooverc(l hv' 
C, J)iaz, .r\larcon, Corunado, alHl hèarcl of },\. 
spejo-the luap-luaker not h.1l0\\.illcr that dll \\.(;I
one river, the Colorado and itH h
lllchc..,. N ov: 
Granata nlu
t -'OllIO fi'oln the BatHe Granada, applieJ 
Ly CoruTHulo to OIlO of the f"...ulìi to\vn

ec(Jnd Inap repre:;ellts the 
ectinn next ".l.
filld north, under the ntuue LilJ J.'>; . Itti
 (jll .f
lniall. The coa::;t extends still \vè::>t\vard to Cape 


TOL:1f 4



<-'lJ ;:.' 








'YYTFLIET-PTOLEYY )!Ap, l:ia7-No. 2. 

::\Iendocino, to "yhich in 40 0 is joined a large i=,land. 
The coast nalllOS are taken equally frOlll CaLrillo'::; 
California voyage, frOlH CorontHlo'
 'V:llld \ringH frolll 
N c,v :\[cxicu to I(an
, and froln unkno".n or ilna
nary sourcos, doubtle:--
lctory to the co:-.nlog- 
rapher. The geographical feàturc
 abo\ye 4:>0, li]...e 
11loSt bclo,v that latitudl', are purely iluao'illary. I 
can hardly conjecture any plau
iLlc origin for the 


great river flo\ying into the northern sca, ,yith its 
three to\\îlS of I>agul, SalLo)i", and Cubirago, unlcss 
the.y \\
ere brought oyer from .l\..sia ,,
ith the prov- 
ince of Bergi. '
rhe third I1Htp iB the central north- 
ern b
ction adjoining the t\VO preceding on the 
Horth anù ea
t respectively, under the narne Conibas 
Regia ClllJ
 TTiciais Gentiùus. Here ,ve have another 
tcrious river ,vith four to'VllS, in regions as yet 

:.JO .....





1/ -c.-<ç-_--=:_ 

r;aChicnuco .ALA BAR OOS 
'T 0 L I 31. 
 Seven Cities' 
; N. 
hUCQ.tit \ 

IAp, 1597-No. 3. 




lW j 


unapproached by ,vhite men, save on the ,vings of 
iU1agination. Here also ,ve have the round 'Jnar 
d ulc;e elahorated into Lake ConiLas, and in its centre 
au island and a to,vn of the san1e naUle; also a River 
Cogib, n10re like a strait, connecting it ,vith the 
northern sea. It is likely that this representation is 
o\\-ing tu Canadian aboriginal rUIllors; for not far 
[l".aJ to the ea
t are the lakes from ,vhich the Sague- 
nai flo,ved do,vn to the St La,vrence at Hochelaga; 
,vhile about the saIne distance south,vard are N o,v 



Granada ,vith it:-1 SC\"cn Citie
, v .ry near t the 
head-.\\ ater
 of tho .

eat ri\p -r of Call
Hla. \T .rily, f',r 
a region (.1:-; yet UIlYlslteù, th - gr('at northern interiur 
"pas Lceon1Ïllg rCILlarkal,ly ""ell kno\\ 11. 
Canrall 1..()\\", ill his !]()u/. ( 1 
"'y, ]1 '.o.
 ] j!)8 
. , , 
gIves a gCIl<.ral lnap likt' tho:--o of Ort..lius, !)toIl'B1Y, 
anel otIH.;rs;8 but another TIlap in thi
 \vork has 
nl1'l .. 
dc{'idcdly novel features, as ,,-ill L \ :-; 'CIl froIH the an- 
nexed cupy. It repl'e
 oBly the rl'
rioII:-; north of 
, putting Califoruia al)oyc 7u o an/i' IH'.}OIlfl the 
strait of Anian, but eXplaining ill lln iB
cl'iption that 

60 ':'0 


10 ;,0>, LÁ I" 

Löw's :MAP, IjU8. 

it is kno\vn only by report to the Spaniard'). The 
river Obilo, ,vith apparent])" a. nc\v lllouth, has to\\pn'i 
on its banks, fif; in ,\
 yttiict X o. 3. I
ut t
charges its ,vater
 ,,'cst,,'ard into a great gulf near 
Anian Strait, anù i
 no longer identitied \\"ith the 
circular /I ( r dul'e, ,,"hich \Vc arc told ill an in
tion is the body of ,,'atèr \yhù
e end i:i not kno\\pn 
to the Canadian
. Of the t\vu gT(:(lt 
rcti(' 1 )odic' of 
hUlll, that 011 the east i
 kaid to Lc the 'ht:
t and lllo,t 
healthful ill all th' llorth;' ,,-hile on the other it i'i 
cxplaiut:d that the ocean hu-.; broken through to the 

8 L;j/" .Jre( yo 0 Tel' S(,d,rt1U'n Buch, Darinn JP'er- icJl1l illl. W'rlnd rb rTf, 
GedellckwÙ rdi!Jp Rei.,c, etc. (;Üllll, l.:;ns. A collcdion of \ oyaócs tr..m.:..!tcd .lLJ 
aLrillged frum '\.ariou:) well knu\\ n sourc<..s. 


poll', forn1Ïng four channels, t,vo of ,vhich are sho,,"n 
on this e()P!
, "hich unly include
 half of tho original. 
 lllap is in :::;overal rospectH renlarkaLle, as the 
reader lllay conyillce hilll::;clf by a conlparison ,vith 
the annexed rough bketch, ".hich sho,v::; the regions 
lnapped by LÖ\\T ill their true proportions, and on tho 
cale. The 
trait of .1\..nian in its latitude and 
".idth Lear
 [l, l'eSlHllblallce to Bering Strait ,vhich is 
tartling. :N ote al::;o the general likeness of 
13crgi anù .L\.nian ,vith their great river to .Alaska ,vitIl 
its rivers K,vichpak and Yukon. No Jess ,vonderful 


is the correspondence bet,veen the Cogib River, flo,v- 
ing north-,vest fronl Lake Conibas into the Arctic Sea 
just he:rond the strait of Anian, and the l\Iackenzie 
River, flo,,-ing from the Great Slave Lake. Compare 
the mr r dulce, its strait and island, ,vith Hudson Bay 
and the corresponding features. Let us also bear in 
Inind ho\v little is known even yet of the region above 
800; anù not forget the part played by ice in those 
latitudes. Suppose certain of the complicated chan- 
ncls frozen, as they ,vere likely enough to be; and 
e an exploring expedition, as ,veIl equipped and 
o lJservant as ,vere the best in those tÎIncs, to 
sailed through from ocean to ocean ill 1598, and to 



have Tnade this IHap as a record of aetual f )l)
allJ I h'l\Ye 110 hc:-;itatioll in sayiug' that tJIC Inap 
,,'ould uIHlcr tho
c .irclHllstan .t.:...; b. rei ardc(L to-da V' 
as a Jllarvel of a(.cura 'y. I ha\ l" 110 tlHo:ory to l"l",t 
OIl 1 hl'se filets; 1 have 110 (loubt that the J.{
depietl'd \\ya", pl1rl"ly iU1ag-inary, .lUÙ t11p r '
eI17Llall 'c 
to reality accidental; yet tu lUêlny intelligent tHen 
of the ] )ast and present the' \ COillf.idelu' ';') \\'( )uI, I I). 
cOllfirlllution :-:;trollg'er than holy \\'rit iu 
UpP()rt of 
,,'hate\.er they lnight happcn to l)c intere
tetl ill. [ 

hall not he 
ed if cVen yet the acclu"lC.Y of thi
lllap a
 hpruin puLli
hed j'j luadc to 'ontirlU thc 
authenticity of one or another CJf thc ficti()n
Felipe III. on hi;o, acce
::)ion in 15
)8 i
 :-;aicl to have 
f()und :llllong the paper:., of his father c.l Ilarrati,"c ()f 
('crt aill foreigners 'v ho froB 1 the coa
t of X l'\\'f( )UUÙ- 
land ,\pero driven by a storII1 into a great hay, and 
thence into a, strait hy ,\yhich they pa;-\
c(l into thc 
South Sea, con1ing out ät 48 0 , and fiuding- a. ri\yer \\yhich 
brought thUll1 to a lllagnificent city. rrhi
 report fur- 
lHxl one of the 1l1otiveH for "' izcaino'
 expedition.. Ð 
.. \ Lout tho 
<-une tilllC !iel'uaudo do 108 I{io8 
ent to 
the king frolH ::\[allila a notice of t\VO \\.ays for a. 
(luicker <<-lilt! 
afer IU1yigation fi'OIn Spilin; one l)y a. 
sagc entering above .Florida find pCIl0trating- tu 
X e\\P :\lexico, ill latitude 4.3 0 , according' to iuforlnation 
oLtailled Lv the Je
uit Padre ScdelÌo and au 
tine friar 
\'ho died at 
Iallila; all,l the uther Lv the 

trait uf .r\llial1, accurding to a \vritten ;o,tatellh:;lt tlf 
Iartin de l{ada, founded on inforlnation from 
J nan de l{iba::; to the effect that certain l\)}tug-ue
cd through it to India and China, and frolll cheo 
to l-ii:-;Loll ill forty-five day

"Torquem:Hla, .J.1fonarq. buT., i. Gt).J., say
 the strait wa<; that of .\nian 
ahove Cape )lcndodno. Xa'"arrete, rOU!I(Jf tpuc., 41; 1,[., ill Slltil Y J/, ., 
li,,!/e, xliii.-iv., consulted a )1:"\. relation of l\ulru \'" .cn....ion in the archh"c . 
:-;a.lmeron Rc[,rciolle q , 14 -2:!, atllls that \me lI1an, apparently of the 8llmc part
('aped ahe!" the rm
t h
lll peri..,hed, !"l'.l.Che,1 Florida, and died at \. crn Cruz, 
v. here he had a priest v. rite down his account &uulscllt it to t''\-l:o,'cruor Hio. 
10 Original in the archi,.es of ðC' ille, cited by 
.l\"an'etc. .\ho alluded to 
in a. letter of the kin ö ' lUO::!. Col. Dur. I/H.d. 


 \ po
t:-\cript attached to tho lettpl' of Captain TJan- 
caster on hi
t Indian yoyage of IGOO-I, but of 
doubtful authenticity, 
tates that "the Pa
Hage to the 
t IllllicH lieth in G
. degrees by the N orth-w'èst 
on the .L\lllcrica 
i<1e."ll Tho historian Jlerrera, in his 
t!c::;cri l )tion of 1 GO 1, o'i '''"es Quivira its proper situatioll 
b . 
far to the east,vard of Cíbola; but his illap l
 on a 
lnan scale, ,,"ithout nainos for the nlost part. 
California is correctly delineated, and a broad ocean 
separatcs that region frolH Asia; but in latitude 45 0 , 
ju::;t aLove Cape l
ortuna, the coast line turns abruptly 
to the E. N. E., extending in that direction to above 
latitude GOo, beyond ,,
hich aU is Llank. 12 
\Tizcaino's first expedition had been directed to the 
gulf, and contributed nothing to our subject; but his 
ßecond voyage ,vas on the outer coast up to about the 
lilnit of Cabrillo's earlier exploration. Of his actual 
discoveries in general and in. detail enough is said 
c,vhero, and I have to note only those points con- 
nected ,vith tho Northern :\Iystery. For ono of his 
lnaill objects ,vas to find the strait; and SOll1e of his 
discoyerics ,vere thought to have a bearing on that 
all-ill1portant search. The Carnlelo, near l\Ionterey, 
cribed as a riYer of S0111e size, played a Ininor rôle, 
as "e shall see in subsequent speculations; but of 
course the lllore iUlportallt developlnents ,vere farther 
north. These ,vere by no lneans complicated. In 
January 1603 'Tizcaino passed Cape l\fendocino and 
reached, in 42 0 , a point ,vhich he called Cape Blanco 
ùe San Sebastian. l\Iartin de Aguilar, in tho other 
vessel, nalned a Cape Blanco in latitude 43 0 , near 
,vhich he thought he sa,v the 1110uth of a large river, 
named at the tÍInc Santa Inés, but generally kno,vn 
later as Rio de Aguilar, ,vhich by reason of the cur- 
rent he ,vas unable to enter. From the cape the 
coast trended north-,vcst, according to Torquoillada; 13 
Jl Pllrchas, IIis Pil[Jrimcs, Ì. IG3; BUI'ney's IIist. Discov. South Sea, ii. 
12 f I er}"('ra, De.s(' rip,.ion d" Inelias (cù. 1730), i. G, 24. 
13 l'ol.fJ.uunad(t, i. 719, 7:.!3. 

L\D.\ AXD \ C;Cr:X:-,IOX. 


hut north-ea
t accorJillg to I\u 11'. ..
ion, iu a 
narrat i \"0 distinct frol11 that follo\\"ctl 11) rr r(luc- 
lua<la u_". hence not a, little 'onfu..;Îon. 

ror<luelllaJa al:-;o ,,-rite::;: "It i'i ull(lcr
toocl that 
thi::; ri \'cr i::; the one tllat lcad:--; to 
t b'Tcat ci ty di
co\"cred by the Dutch; :lIlC} that this i.., the 
trait of 
Anian, by \\"hich thè :-;hip that fOUllC} it pa"
cfl froul 
the X orth 
1. to the South; and that \\"ithout Iui:,- 
take ill thi
 rC!!Îoll is the cÎtv 11alne<1 ()ui\ irc.l' (Hcl 
,-' J 
that it is of thi
 l'la<:c that the relation treat'"\ \\'hich 
 l11aje:-;ty read, alltl Ly ,vhich he \Va:-, llHJ\ cd to thi:i 
I . " 
exp oratlOll. 
And ....'\_
cension to the 
an1e effcct: "IIcrc is 
tho head nlHI end of the kino-dolll ant 1 Ti\.orra. 
j1"irule of California, and the Leginning and en- 
trance of the strait of ..,\nian. I f on that ()c{\a
t here had l,cell on the ship even tJtlrtccn 
health, doubtless ,ye shonl(l have ventured to explore 
and pass through this strait of .L \nian, 
incû all 1 
good intcntions to do it." It dOèS not luatter here 
,,"hat river 
'\guilar :,a,\V, or \vhcthcr he 
aW any. 
There ".:1.:-; but little <louot that he bad rcacheJ the 
entrance of the r-;trnit; and there are indicatioll,:) that 
Padre _ \
cension verbally anti in variou lllinor 
lueillorials gave nluch freer vent to lti:-; cOlljcctnral 
theories than in the ,vritilIg"s that are extant in print. 
 lllap has no bearing on the Xc )rthern 

I '\.sterv sho\vinO' only a short l coast "" hich lead::; to 
.J .., , 0.. 
Cape Blanco,' extculling Ilorth-ca
t"'ard fronl Crt] e 

rrhe viceroy in 1 GO
, \yriting to the king-, e 
his opinion that there ,,-as very little prospc(.t of filH l- 
illO- lllio'ht y kino'doills in the north , deelHill
 it likel,. 
o \:) ,
 " <- 
that to\\.ns already found '\"ero typ\.
:-) of tho'-'o that 
\yoldd c01l1e to licrht; ret It<; attlched cOll:,iclerahlo 
ð J 
Ï111pOl'tancc to ftu-ther e
p]oration "Tith a vie\\? to linel- 
ing the strait au<1 
ettlillg all Ji
putcu c!uè:-\tion:i rl'- 
S I )cetinO" northern cJ'cooTa l )h \T , . and he thou' rht ( hla te 
o b o.J 
H .Asccmsiun, J:da<:ioll, .j':;ö ct scq. 

in a po
ition t.o 
olve the nly::;tcry at a n1Ïninlunl of 
ex 1 )ell
e. 15 
OÙate had occupied N e,v l\Icxico, ,vhich he ,vi::;hed 
tu lllcrely as a base of operatiollB for 11101'0 
brilliant conqul":::-ts. lIe "yas gricyousl.r disappointed 
that hi
ullbitiou8 schcn1e
 did not 111cet ,vith royal and 
, approbation. He had Lut little fondness for 
xploratiou; yet he undertook several in the hope 
of fiuding son1ething to adyance his greater projects. 
()llC he directed to\vard Quiyira, ,,
ithuut results; and 
another ùo,yn the Colorado to its 1l1outh. 
It ,ya::; in 1604 that Oñate lnade his trip frolll N e,v 
)Iexico to Zuñi, to l\loqui, and thence across the 
l11o<1ern Arizona to the Colorado by ,yay of the Santa 
)Iaría, and thence do,yn to the gulf. He had no idea 
of any connection bet,vecn his Rio Colorado-really 
the Chilluito-,,
 hich ,yas said to run one hundred 
league:-; through pine forest
 to California and the 

ea, and the real Colorado, ,vhich farther do,vn he 
called Buena Esperanza or Rio del Tizon. Frolll the 

lnaCaYa, or :ðlojaye, Indians ,vho caIne do,,
n the 
(10lorado to 11leet hÎ1n at the nlouth of the Santa 
::\Iaría, OÙate heard of Lake Copalla, fourteen days 
llorth-,vest, ,,
he1'e the Indians had golden ornanlents 
and t;pokc Aztec-or at least they spoke so Hiuch like 
a natiye J\Iexican of the cOlnpany that the visitors 
asked if he calue not fro111 Copalla. It is not ill1pOS- 

iblo that the l\Iojavos had vague notions of Great 
Salt Lako; all the rest ,vas ilnaginary. 

"arther do,yn the Colorado, to inquiries for the sea 
the natives "all replied by Inaking signs froll1 the 
est, north-,yest, north, north-east, and east, and said 
that thus the sea made the circle, and very ncar, since 
they said that on the other side of the river it ,vas 
Hot more than four days, and that the gulf of Cali- 
fornia is not closed up, but a branch of the sea ,vhich 

15 Nuevo Jfcxico, Disc'llr80 y Prop. The viceroy 
Ionterey seems to have a cor- 
rect iùea of Coronaùo's explorations; lmt he speaks of Quivira as heing on the 
ea, accorùing to current maps, and near Cape :Mendocillo and Anian. 

THE I....L\XD ZISQ(;.\ß.\. 


correspon(ls to tho X art h 
ea and (;oa'-'t of }'lori(la," 
tInts clearly indicating not onI.y the 'xi
tenl"c of a 

tl'ai1, IHlt that tho gulf ""a:-, citlu'r a part of: or a 
lea:--\t led to, that 
"'c Inùian...; al . 'ontirlHed 
,\"hat hall Leon learned òcfür 'uf 1 palla. and it.., golù. 
Sil \'er 
lIHl coral "'ere likc\vise fau1Íliar to thClll ant 1 
""ere to be ulJtainc(lllot fill' oil: 
:\ [ore ,,"olllierful :-;til1, tIll' lluti '''e,,; tol(l of an i
called Zif'u)gaba, riLh in pcarI:"\. It '\"as one daY':-i \"oy- 
e uut ill the sca, anù reached in Loat'3 ri(f!!eù ".itlt 

. . 
Hail"), all uf \vhich they pictured on th\." R
llld. \nd 
the ,\yas ruled l)y Ciñacacohola, n 6ialltc:--
llad a 
i:-;ter of illllllel1
ize, hut nu 1uale of her r
,\'ith \vhol11 to UlutC. .r\uother HIY:",teriotl'i circuIll- 

tallce ,\'as that all the inhaLitallts \\
ere baltl. fiat "\'
er\"ati()ns at the head of the gulf, ,,'hero he found 
plendid harLor, did not di:-..proyc the btateIIlent uf 
the nativt,:-; that the gulf e
tendcd nurth\,"ard 1 )chind 
a ::;icrra to ,vhere the sca lllaùe a turn to\\"ar(l :Florida. 
It \vas \ycll that DOll Juan hearll of ,,"o11d 'I'::; in 
 region; for \vhcn on his \vay to X e\\. )lexico a 
fe". year
 before, the vencraLle ] )
Hlre Diego de ::\lLr- 
cado had ::;aiù to him at rr\lla: "By thl' life of Friar 
Diego thcre arc grcat riches ill the rClllote part
X C\y ::\Iexico; Lut Ly the life of Friar Diego the 
ettlcrs ".in not IJo

 thCIll. It i:, not for 
thelll that God holds that 'Yealth in rCbèrye;" and so 
it proycd. Still III ore to the poiut, the YéllL'ral.le dnd 
ÜUllOUt; Santa )Iadre de )Iaría de J c:,u:-;, al)l)t>:' of 
Santa Clara de ...\grcda, had ;-o.aid, c. It i::; Yery proba LIe 
that in the exploration of X e". )It:xico there ,,'ill Lo 
founù a kiugdolll called l'idanl, fnul' hUIHll't:\l lea.
Iexico "ycst\vard, or llorth-wc:--\t, h .t\\"l'en 
::\lexicu and Qui\"ira; and if Lychauce there he an error, 
e0:-31110 fr raphy ,vill aid the taking notice of uther kin
dOlllS,ouf the Chilll'
1s, or ,)f the (}uislllalll.
, or the 
ALul'cos, ,\"hich touch Oil that of rritlanl. "16 

]6."'([[711noll, RfJar;OllfS, 30-$, 47-;).'); 
Y;rl, _tptlniami in. 
l-it CardonB 
anù Cabauatc beard from captaiu05 
lanluéL u11l1 \ uc
 that thc) had strucb.. tho 


John Slnith ,,?hen captured 
llHl saved hy Pocahontas 
in IG07 "
as exploring the Chickahon1ÏllY River for a 
pas::;agc to the 
outh SÚë.t. 17 

In IG09 Lorenzo Ferrer l\faldollado in Spain Inado 
the ("lainl that t,venty-ono years before, in 1588, he 
had sailed through the :.;trait of .L-\.llian fronl the 
Atlantic to the Pacific. "Thy he ,vaited so long has 
lleYCr been explainetl. There is no reason to doubt 
that ::\Ialdonado ,vas a real personage, or that ho 
rote the t10culllent in ,,"hich the clainl is Inaùo. 
Soyonteen year3 later he pulJlished a c9smographical 
,york, in ,vhich, ho,vever, he neither clailned to have 
discoycreclthe strait nor gave a description agreeing at 
all ,vith that in the earlier docunlent. 18 A reputable 
Spanish "Triter, García de Silva y Figueroa, ,vho took 
ùeep interest in the north-,vestern problenl, Illet 1\la1- 
donado in 
Iac1rid in 1 GOg. He ,vas said to have been 
brought up in 
-'landcrs and the Hanseatic cities, 
clailned to have sailed through the strait, and ,yas 
trying to interest certain govcrnlnent nlinisters in his 
project. Being questioned, he saiù the entrance of the 
strait ,vas in latitude 78 0 , the outlet in latituùe 75 0 , 
and that he had sailed through it in thirty days in 
N oveluber and Decelllber. Ün hearing his story, 
erving his lUanneI', and exalllining sonle of his 
pretended sketche
 of Anian, Silva doemed hiln an 

TIiver Tizon in 36 0 3{)'; that the famous port was in 33 0 ; that the giant queen 
wa;-; wont to mix powùered pearl in her drink; and that south of the Tizon 
was a larger river, the Rio del Coral. Pacheco awl Cârdcnas, Col. Doc., ix. 
24, 3
-3. According to DoMs' Account, 164-5, Tribalc1us wrote to IIakluyt 
in lüO.; that Oìíate ill 1602 discovered the great Northern Hiver, and went 
from it to the 'famous lake of Conihas'-see 'Vytfliet's and LÖw's maps- 
'wher? he pretended he saw a City of vast Extent, seven Leagues long, and 
two ,\ Ide,. the Houses separated from eaeh other, and finely huilt and orna- 
mented \\ Ith fine Gardens. He said the numerous Inhabitants had all retired 
at hi!i Approach, and fortified themselves in the :\Iarket-place or great Square.' 
In JT('!fti(t, Jli8t. JIlj., i. 146, the giant queen is called Ciìíacacohota, and 
the i
land Cinoguahua, which may be the correct forms as Salmeron's typo- 
graphy i
 very doubtful. ' 
:('ur[Jc }Janrm/t'.'J IIist. U. 8., i. 12D. The map in Je.{f('r!ls' Great Proh., 
Sf" sa1<l to IJe taken from the 1st eùition of To J"fjII(,1n(ulct, IGJ8, b the s
me as 
that already mentione(l under date of 1601 from IJ('rrerct. 
Ib jIaldolwdo, J,/I,(l!Jcn dc..l ...lIundo, Alcalá, lü:!ü. 




Clnùus 1'0, utterly ull\vorthy of ("rcdit.l
()r t hc di...- 
ry of the strait ,vag only one of hi'i \\.OllÙ .rful 
crt:t:-; \vhich he "as ùi;-.;po
e(l to ex.('hall
 · fur 1l10U 'y. 
] to hac 1111a
tcrell lllauy of the pruLI 'Ill::) of alchcl11Y. 
au< I he haù di
covel'eù th - art of lllakill f , a Il1a('I1. ,ti
uecdlo nut suLjeet to "ariation. For iÌ1P di

of this last invention in OIlL. (,f hi:-.; pc,tition:i to tho 
killg" h<." n
k(Kl, among uthúr rc\\yar(ls, to 1 Jl
 frced frOln 
a cl'iuIÌnal prosecution ill Grauada; for it appear:-; tha.t 
he haù Leell convicted uf an attelJll't to 
UC) a forger of ohl ùOCUluents to a Ulan iUVul\ eel in 
"ycighty la,v
uits.20 After a f(
". years hi:-; trUe char- 
acter as al1 unpriucipled and visionary ad, cnturcr Lc- 
canlO kno\\"n, aad he left )IaJrid, to be heard uf in 
on no lllorc. 
()ne of his Illcn10rials, ho\vcycr, C:UllC to li(rht in 
1775, and, ill pos
cssion of the dU(P1C del lllf
as copied by ::\Iulloz in 1781. 21 It 'Ya
 not a nan'a- 
t i \yo of tho prctcndeù yoyage, but on the ad \"autag-<:
of a nc\v expedition, in \vhich tho 
aid yoyan'o \\.:lS 
incidentally dc
criLcù. It
 contents "yere fÌr:jt priutLJ 
by )lalo ùc Luque,in 1788 ;2! find ::\IaldonaJo's ycraroity 
 tlefcnded by ::\1. Ruache, the French geographer, 
in a paper read Leforo the ..L\..caJeluy of Sciences in 

J9Silva y Figueroa, Comentarios, ns quoted by XaY3ITete. 
Yacfln.ele, fia[Jfs _lpðc., 71-101. This i
 by far tho most important 
nnthorityon this topic; and, indeed, 011 the general sulJject of "
, bich it trcah. 
The full title is: D.ral/zen ltistorico-c)'ltico de IDS Viugr8 !I Descll.brind
os .I} dc- 
'r(jòs dcl Capitan Lor ll::'O Ilcrrer 
lfltldonado, ele Juan dePuca, yell Almira lie 
1Jartolomé de Fonte. Mrmoria comuc.wla J10r n. J/(lrrl
 cl _Yá. 
ra,.rde, 1/ ar7.e[lla la y cOllcluida 1)01' D. DW:ita'luio Pernandez d }....a.rarr' . 
..1 itl) de 18 
8, in Col. Duc. Iuul. J lillt. >.x. 'i -3ü3. This work COllt.linS much 
makrial on actual as well as apocryphal voyages, including treatises on 
:Malaspillu,'S nnll other expeditions, not founù elsewhere ill print. It is an 
claLora.tioll of the elder 1\avarrete's introduction to the voyage of tho S il 
JI.J/cxicana. Kotwithstal1ding its great importanco I do not tinù that any 
late writer on these tonics bas cited thi
21.JlaldonadrJ, N( la/ion del tlcscllbrimiento del E"trerlllJ d Alii{1II, qr/
 It' yo, 
cl crrpilan Lm.ellcio J,'crrer .Jlaldollado, tl mio lJS8, tll fa Cllal 8la la (),.d 
 dt la 
'JIal"l'!/ctCion y lu di.'1Jll8iciol
 del Bilio y c..l11Wdo d fi rtale rlu, y an mÏ8n,o las 
1.ltilÙlades d('sta narcflacion, ,,108 daiios, iJ.ue de 110 f,ac ria, lie BiJU 11, ill P co 
and C/úrdCllai1, Col. }Joe., Y. 4:!0-47. The document is not dated, but ill it tho 

nthor speaks of 'cl niio pasaùo ùo 1008,' null of 'cste aùo do 1 GOU. ' This 
document '\'3.S seen by 
icolao Antonio, lJib. lIi
p. ..Yova, (cd. l';' ")), ii. 3, 
Lcfore IG7:!, am} from this source is cited Ly l)inclo in 17
. Li ilom J ii. (ì(.ìS. 
 JIist. (stabled h:dl, 0 tcllra lIlarillQ.-J, Ï\. :.?4. 



1790. Thc docluncnt "as [l<.l,.crscly criticiscd bcfore 
1800 by 2\Iala
pilla, the navigator, and Ciriaco Ce- 
vallos ;23 al::)o by X aval'l'cte in 180
,2-! and HUIllLoldt 
:lIld other
. In 1811 Carlo Àllloretti, the librarian of 
the Alnbro
ian Library of :ì\Iilan, found in its collec- 
tion another original, or a cOlltelllpuraneous copy, of 
::\Ialtlonado's lllclllorial, ,vhich he puLlished "ith tho 
oricrillal maps, aUll "ith an elaborate argulllcnt to pro,"'e 
 tho yoyago ,,"'as authentic. 2:> N ot,vithstandillg 
the innoenuity of Anloretti's Bpecial pleading, his ,.ie\vs 
ot been generally accepted, and the voyage is 
still regarded as apocryphal. 26 

23.Jlalaspina, Dise1"lacion BolHC la legitimidad de la navcgacion ltpcha en 1588 
por Eu're,' .J..1I(tldollculo, etc., in Ool. Doc. Inéd., xv. 228-30. ""'ritten before 
1SOO, but not printeù unti11S49. The refutation of D. Ciriaco Cevallos is 
stated in an eùitorialnote to haye been printed in Isla ùe Leon, 1798. 
2JS u til y J[ex., Viage, Introd., xlix.-lii. 
2;'Anwrctti, J""iaggio del .11Iare Atlantico al Pacifico, etc. :Milan, 1811. I 
bave used the following French edition: A moretti, J""o]/age de la, meJ' Atlan- 
tit/lie a l'ol'éanPacijif/Zle lJa/'le nord-ouest dans let mer fllaciale pmoZe Oapitainß 
Laurent Ferrer ..Lllaldonado l'an mdlxxxt.iii. 'l'radzÛt d'l.ln 'lJ1ÆUmsc,/'it Espaguol 
(t BZtll.,.i, d'un discollrs qui ell, dÓnontre l'authenticité et la véracité. Plai::;allce, 
1812. Sm. 4to; three 111., containing twelye maps. The Voyage is on pp. 
I-I!), and the lJiscours on pp. 21-84. 
26 The authorities I have cited, particularly Xavarrete and Amoretti, con- 
tain substantially all that need he said on the subject. To J\ ayarrete's work 
are attached, pp. 231-61, as Appendix Ko. 3, some extracts from the Gaceta de 
Jladrid, February 18, 1812, and the BiUiólec(t B,.itâuica, Nos. 4-31,437-8, con- 
taining criticisms on Amoretti's work, especially hy Baron Lindenau. The 
latter published a hook on the subject. Lilldenall, Die Glall7JwiÚdi!Jl
eit, etc. 
Gotha, ISl:!. :\Ialte-Brun, Annales des Voy., xix. 3!)ü-û, in reviewing the 
works of Amoretti anù Lindenau, approves the conclusions of the latter that 
l\Ialdonado's story was fiction. But Lindenau thinks that :Maldonado visited 
Hudson Bay, imagining the rest, and 
IaIte- Brun thinks it 110ssible that he had 
vague traditions from somebody who had actually penetrated the frozen ocean. 
In Id., xxi. 393-4, the French editor notices a newspaper reply of Amoretti to 
I..indenau as follows: 'Si )Ialùonaùo a mal calculé les latituùes et les longitudes 
de manière 
l faire passer son vaisseau par-dessus Ie continent, c'est, selon )1. 
Amoretti, une petite eITeur l)arùonnable à un marin du seizièmc sièele. ::Si ce 
marin a éviùemnwnt copié de cartes alltérieures à son '
oyage, avec toutes leg 
fautes, e'est une preuve de la réalité de son voyage. Si, par malheur, sa de. 
scription physique des lieux qu'il prétenù avoir vus est contraire à tout ce 
qu'ell disent les nayigateurs mOdeTI1eS, e'est parce qu'apparemment un tJ"l'mUe- 
7ileut de tcrrc cn a cltangé l'état!-Tout cela cst, comnle on yoit, totalement 
étranger à la géographie critique de nos jours: une semblahle mallière 
d'al1;,'lUl1enter n'aùmet et n'exige aucune réponse.' In .1Vouvellc8 A n. des r()!f., 

i. S-28, Lapie defenùs :\Ialùonado's voyage, making wilù work with northern 
geography, as ,,,ill he apparent from llÌs map, which I shall have occasion to 
reproùuce. The QU(L'J.taly Rcview, xvi. 144-33, of 1S17 shows the Amoretti 
document-really the only one existing on the subject, or a copy of the only 
one-to be an absurdly inaccurate forgery; but at the same time has no doubt 
that )laldonado's naITatiye, as seen by Antonio, etc., 'was a genuine account 
of an actual voyage to the Pacific v;'a Cape Horn and up to Cook Inlet, which 



:\ faldonaf1o'R Rtory '\
3S Ll'i .fly n
 follo,,"s : Tn F (.1)- 
ruary, 1388, having COIll' froBl Spain or I)ortu('al 
guiùed Ly the notcH uf a P()rtu!!nt'
e pilot H:lILl .cI J'
) l ' 
.:\Iartiucz, \\'ho it hècn1s hacllnade the voya u · Lef()I"e, 
 enterc<.l tlH
 strait of J .Ja1 )l'a<<!or in latitu( 1, GU. 
] lis cuur
e aftcr othi
 clltrallt.e \va,,; HO leagu( 's X. \\. 
up to latItude G4 ; thence x. 1 
Q ]lagUt':i to latitude 
o; X. 'L DO leagues to Ilear]y latitlHl(. ï 51) "here 
the ;jtrait ends, being froBl 
o to -to ]( 'ag.Ut'H \\'i(l., 
,vÍth nunlcrous ports, and it
 banks illhalJited to ï:l . 
Enlcrging into the Polar Sea at the Legillllin
::\larch, he found the "'cather cold 
uHl :-;torH1Y. \Vat'r 
froze OIl the ship and rigging; hut i(;c ""as not en- 
countered in any 11101'0 troublc:-'ulnc fornl. ']'he routo 
'Va:-: no\v "... .1 s. "... for :350 leag'ue
 to ï 1 0 , \\"here ()11 
the return high land \\
 founù, anti fiuppos.d to be a 
part of K e\v Spain; thence he sailc(l "". 
. ,,
. 4-10 
leagues Inore, to the strait of -.\.niall, in ()Qo. ] [0 re- 
Inained ill thi
 rcgion during the 11l0ntlt
 uf .r\ pl'il, 
::\Iay, and part of June, dUl'iug ,vhieh tiulc he pa,:-,(_'(( 
through the 8trait-fifteclllcaguc:-:5lullg, ,,'ith 
ix turu
less than one cio'hth of a lea o .uc ,,-ide at the nurth 
cntrance :111(1 ovcr one fourth of a lèaguè at thú south; 
coastcd A1neric:1 for lllore than 100 leagues }-. ,,
. tt) 
550; thcnce f.;aile(l,y. for four (lay..;, or 1 
O leaguL':-\, to 
a high 1110untainou
 coast; anti l'cturlletlllurth-\\'L'
to and through the strait. ""-hile in a gTi.uHI port at 
the southern cntran..;c a \ e

el uf eight hundred tOll
n pproached ladcn ,,
ith china goO( l
. l....he nlcn ,vcru 
, ur Hall
, aud nUHJe thcln- 

,\ as mistakcn for the strait of Al1ian! The 
"'. ... (m. n ri pr. '\.hiii. 12".!, of 
18;;9 adopts the (Juart{TI.,/8 view, so far as thc nuthentidty of )hl,lonndu." 
voyage is concerncd. 
Ialtc- Brun. Prcci.'I (:t ðy.. vi. :JÛ"2-:J, n.pcat:; his \ icws 
alreaùy citc,!. (;reenhow, JIiJ'Óf. (Jr. awl (fal., ,!--:--a:J, pr()Jl()UnF
 tht" stm.y.. 
fiction, hut decms it not improhablc, as in tho (.!uarff'rl!/, thut Burnt.. uukuo\\ 11 
voyage nuule 11P the Pacitìc coast to Cook Inlet may La'"c fotcrn
,l ns ß. foull
tion. In Rl(rll(!J'.
COl'. South Sra, \-. IIÎ,-,:J, i:! a tran
la.tioll of the un. 
l)ortant parts of the narrativc, with remarks thereun aud refereuces to \-ano118 
authorities. The ùocumcnt i
 r('('arllcd a:i a forçcry hy f'om. rlcmmin.!t 
who attributeù the voyarre to 
Ia1cronu.ùo. fltlrrOl(' 8 ('hro". J/i . J O!l., l'Is, 
1848, contains an EllgÌi:-;i
latiol1 of :\Ialclomulo's rel.1.tion "ith tht.. maps. 
Twiss, 11Ù1(. Or., ü4-ô, givcs a. {sum from Y<lriou


 undel'::-\toot1 ill Latin, but ,ycre 
ubpicious and not 
illclinc<.l to Lc COllllllullicatiYè. They caIne fron1 a 
gTcat <-it)" cnllea l
oLr, l
oba, or sonlO snell IH.tlllO, be- 
longing to the king of Tartary. l\Ialdonado returned 





--.0 -



A S I 



- - 

-----:::..- - 




--.- -:::;::.. -:::::" --:=- 



/ 0 
 .? V 
''v _-'" ...-= 


r - _ _ -==-
/-::- - - 


!I., _ .Llf1' 

:o'" . S 

I{\ -- 

\' ,\ r 
, Fine Port 
 \ 'i\1 


by the san1e route in June and July, and not only ,vas 
not ilnpeded by ice, but found it-the sun ncver settil1O" 
at all-hotter than in the hottest parts of Spain. <::> 

::\L\TIKI:D rnSCRT:p..\Xcrrq. 


The COUlltl'V round th0 Htrait of \.llian i
in Hluch (ll,t

il. J (llllH'X the oIl1\
 oue of tit, 1i\ t" 

kett'he:-; ,vhich has all} iuter<.:....L It Illay L ' cUIllpare<l 
,,'ith the IHap of U ruallo )[outi, alre
uly gi\
t'll. J t 
".ill he lloticed lu)\v carl.fully the 
it,,-.; t(,r u."aclt'.l 
fOl'tifieations n 1'0 l )oilltcd out. 1 (llll oblic reel to Irj \'U 
o h 
to thi
 and thl"\ other fi..titiou:-; yoyagcs 1I1orc 
pa<.: ' 
than they Illerit; lHlt Ill,\"' linlits l)y IlU IJleallS penIlit 
IHe to u'iyc OYCll a, ré-tulIlé of )Ialdollauo'H IOllet' clc- 
'-' ., 

; still le

 of the argulllellt
 that hayú 
been founded thereon. rrhe
c arg-ulllent:-; cUIl
i:..;t Oil 
i h0 (Jue :;ide of reSCI)} bIn ll('C
, ant l on the other of 
('r('pan<.;ies poilltc<l out Let\\"een the naxigator's c1e- 
f;eriptioIlS and the fact::; l'('porte( 1 by later ,i"itol':-> t.) 
)3crillg Strait dO\\"!l to the tinlc tho argU111cnt "'Wi 
lluHle. r\t pre
cnt thc rc
ehllJlanccs lnay bc 
c.LÍd to 
t solely in the t
let that tho J}ular Sca aetuaIl.r 

drordH an illtcl\)CCallie pa

age 1))"" "'ay of Dering' 
Strait. '
rho lllo
t startlillg' ùi"crepallcie;:; ar0 that 

[al(lollado's strait, as de::;criLed and pictured, Lear
Hot the slightest likenc:-;:-) in length, ,,
idth, and general 
features to the reality; that it i
OJne three 
ed luilcB too far south; that Ala:-jka'
 n1Ìld tcrn- 
pcrature, ,vith it
pondillg fruits and anilnal
, ha'-' 
illlatcr tiules di
appcarcd; that ::\lal<.lonadu'H di:..;tanrc:-; 
Blake.; tho longitudú of the strait son10 GOo too far 
east-just a
 c lid the lnaps of his tillle; that through- 
out the YO j 
ao'o his distances an(l latitudes Jo not 
agroe; and fìnall.r that oppre
e heat and aL:-;t'IH:e ()f 
ice hayc not in latcr tinlÚS I>oen notc<l a:-> c.l, le
ti<' of the ,vaters al)(),.e TO"'. I gi,.o here 
the 111ap of )1. Ie Chcyalier r...apiú, 18:21, \vhich ",ill 
also be l'cfcl'rcò to later to illu:-;trate another yoyagl\, 
to sho\v his theory of )Ial( 101l:l<lo'
 route. The rl.'al 
strait of ... \nian, or Dering, lead..; into tho frozen ocean 
north of I
ite()'uen ,,'hich i:-; a \Vestl'rn l >roloncration 
o ' 
of (}recllland; \\-hile :\lal(lona<lo'H \'
 Hot \Ilian 
at all Lut a I X1
san'e lea{ lillcr fi'( >Ill Xortoll SlHtll( 1 into 
, v 
a polar 
ont h of 1\:. it<'6'uen and COllllL'l't\.'d ill the 
IlIsr. :So W. COAST. YOLo I. 1 


east ,yith the 
trait8 of DayiB and Jludson! The 
J'outú in the ,,"c:;;t i
ho".l1 oy a dotted line. 
1"110 rea(ler has nu need of arglllncnt::; in this mat- 
ter. Starting ".ith a strong Pl'Csu111ption, arising frolll 
the nature of the pretended ùi::;coyery and from the 


 , -" íRo 



-1 (")
 0 C E --<J ")Y 



= = 
- -- - -- 
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 I T Ji"' 


 --; / 
x , = 
.. -' 

1 (j 
 -:-. 88 7
 _ ...
-- 0-'- 
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-= - 

-=-- -jfft-/ri(;;I '-'. (0 


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1 / Hó. 1 






., I 
i: I 

IAP, 1821. 

Rpirit of the tirIles, that 
faldonado's claim is false, 
he ,,,in Le led frOll1 presumption to conviction 'v hell 
the tilHe that clapscd bct\vcen the voyage and the 
uarrative is notc(l, and particularly ,,,hcll he learlls 
the luau's reputatiun a
 liar aud forger. On reading 



tIlt., narrative IH\ ,,"i1l not 1)(, IiI.d.I\"" to ('linn 1'0 hi
. ..., 
opillion, if J1C cOlllpar(':-; )laldollado':-; plt.'a
urc trip 
c ,,"ur :-;UIHl ) :-;L':lS \\
i tit tit ' (.Hurt..; of Ia tel" l1a \ i, rators 
ill the 
alue \\"at '1':-1. .L\..Uù fil1alh. , 011 re('allill'r hOIU · 
&I ., 
of the lllap"i that hayc L 'ell 1'l'prodlu'(.(1 ill tIH'
pllge<;, \\" It it'll-ol" utI H'1':-; of 
i III ilar uatllrc-::\ laldo- 
uad() d011btlL'

a\\., he \\"iH l'oIH.llldc that all ill
i011s liar Blight Ita vc told a Il1n('h l110re,lt' storY', 
:1Iu1 ,,-ill he 
u1'prised that ÍHtclIigcut Jllcll Hhould L'\.cr 
]layC defended the authelltieity of suc.1t a \ 0) a
'rhcrc is not the 
liCt"hte:-;t IH'cc;,f,itv to SU I ) 1 )OSl', a.s 
t) &I 
SOII1C ]ut\.(, done', t hat the (lIlDus((l}'u yi :itc(l J 1 ud'ioll 
] ;ay, or lllade a yoyage in the J )aeifie, or heard of 
.) apaHC
C na,-igatiolls. llis 
tor"y \vas a lit.' pure ruul 
:--:iIHplc, nlanuf
H-turc(l in Spain froJlt hi
and not plallsihlo onol1
h to ùcrci \"0 'yell 1Hen \\ lit) 
un that topic \vcro \\"illillg tù bè lleceiyed. 

CH.6.\.PTER IV. 


SrA....'rrSII JU

DURING these early years of the seventeentll cen- 
tury so nluch alarm ,vas felt in Spain lest South Sea 
supremacy should be lost through the discovery of a 
strait that a junta was formed by the 111inisters of 
the court of Felipe III. ,vith a vie,v to prevent further 
f'carch for the passage by the north - ,vest, or north- 
cast, and to send an en1bassy to England to urge the 
Inatter. It ,yould be interesting to study the discus- 
sions of this junta; but the records are not extant, 
nor do ,ye kno,v ho,v the en1bassy ,vas received. It 
appears, ho,yever, that García de Silva, and probably 
others, opposed all restrictive Ineasures, urging that 
ploratioll should be encouraged, and expressing a 
belief that the finding of a strait in the far north 
ould in no ,yay injure Spain, since it ,vould not open 
a (luicker or safer route to the Pacific, on account of 
( 100 ) 

L'\Iqrr IX


the òifficultic
 au,l dann-er atteneliu(J' the' na\ j'J'ation 
M M 
of tho polar SCa"-. ] t i;-; l'ViJÜllt that the p1" '\"alen("c 
of tll i
 . )pillioH all1ollg" those high<:;o;t in authol ity ..lIH l 
those Lc,-,t qualifie( 1 to judge in tll · lnattpr \va" one 
of the chief Ca.USl;;:1 fè)r the ofHcia I ina(-tion of the 
up,- t century and a half: 'rhûre "
a -..; no elH l of va (J'Uf
projc(.ts urge(l upon the go\"crllll1<'ut ]JY pri\"atc 
, oftener in .c\.luerica than ill Spain; but 
tual results ,ycre confÌn \It for the n10t;t part to the 
pearl coast of the (ialitfJrnian gulf: In the hi".hc
Spanish official circles the X orthern )IystcryO hat! 
\\"ell nigh lost it
 charw. 1 

Since, ho\veyor, the \vork of actual exploration ""a
C'ontined to the gulf, a large portion of the :\fystcrv 
\\.:LS transferrcel to that region, and had its hou1e there 
for ID:tUY year;::;, RO far a
h \"ic'\":j \\"ore con- 
cerned. Since 1540 for ncarly a century the Californian 
peninsula and gulf had been described and Inappccl in 
yory nearly their true positions and proportions; Lnt 
all this ,,"as no\v to be change(l. Lok in 1.)8
, for 
no reason that can 'Le knO\Yll, had ahllo
t sùparate<.l 
the pOll insula froln the Inain at a point in about lati- 
tude 45 0 , \\There he turned the coast aLruptl.r ca
Tholl Padre .L\.scension, in COllllcction ,\yith the yoy- 
ago of \Tizcaino ill 1 G03, had al
o giyen currency tf) 
the east\\"ard trend, and seCln-..:, in con ycrsation and 
,\Trittcn nlcInorials, to hayc fa\ ored the idca that 
.r\.(J'ui1ar's ri\
er "
as not onl y the entrante to the ,1-\.nian 
Strait, lJut lnight also he cOllnL'ctcd ,yith the gult:
Next Oí1ate, in 1 GO.!, from ob
erYation:--, auel frolH In- 
dian reports at the lllouth of the Colorado, concluded 

1 .J..Y m'rzrrrie, r'iagf'.q A pð r ., 
O-I,-,j; Id., in Sut il ?I Jlrx., J ïfl.1r, }-",; i i. - i ,. ; 
'il,.a, CtJ1llflitarios, 1GlB, which secms not to ba,.c been printctl untill";
:!. ia 
i/is'. d,/ (f,'all 1'amorlan. Jl"!lill, ili"t. lT1,iv. (Its flUffS, It)} I, contains tho 
\\ ytflict-l'tolcmy maps that have alrc..l<ly hcell noticetl and repro4.!l1cc(l fn ta 
thc originals of 1;)97. l\IélgiIÙ
 \\ ork ii in the 
Icrcantile Library of 
l....rancisco, wherc is also a lü.!S C'dition uf / Ì1z"clwtu" rOYIf!Jt) \\ ith a map of 
the northern countries, showing no new features. 
2 .\t nny rate he clearly <lnl1ounc('(l thi
 \ ic\\ of thc subject in IG:!O, I
c 11- 
sio11, Rrlarion, G4:
--1, urging the oc
upatiQll of Califùrlli.1. a9 é.1 stl'p to\..lnl tho 
COIHI uc;:;t ùf .\lliall, Quh-ira, etc. 

that the gulf 'Yatel'
 ext(\llllcd llortlnvard and east- 
"'.-a r< I to the I\t lantic, thus cOllfh'll1Ïng Asccn:..ion':4 
theory. .L
lld tillall

, in or aLout IG17, Nicohis de 
Car<lona, \yho had talked ,,-ith SOBle of Üìiate's officers: 
and ",.ho ill 1 G 13 had hilnself llLtyigated tho gulf-he- 
liûying hilllself to haye reached 34 0 , noting deep open 
tretching far before hin1, and understanding 
frol11 OÙate's Hlen that the nlouth of the Tizon "'a
in 35 0 -holdly declared his belief that California ,vas 
an island, and spoke of the Inain as the Contra Costa 
do ]?lorida. 3 Cardona cyen fancied the gulf to he the 
f'trait of Anian itself, the northern outlet being per- 
haps a mere branch; and he had personrrlly heard 
frolll the natives confirlnation of the old tales about 
Quiyira and the great lake to,vns. These rUlllors \vere 
conyenient incentiycs for voyages ,vlúch 111ight afford 
opportunities for pearl-fishing. 

rho idea of California as an island once conceived, 
it soon becan1e deep-rooted and popular. Tho next 
thing in order v
"as for SOllie adventurous Fuca or 
}'Ialdonado to sail round it; and this seelns to have 
Leen dono in 1 G20. I have not becn able to trace this 
story, hoy,-ever, to a definite origin. The real source 
of the ne,v geographical idea as related in lHY text 
has not heen kno\vn to ll10dern ,vriters.4: Fronl tIlls 

3 Cardona, Ee?acion del descubrimirnto del fleino de let CalifonÛa; and similar 
yiews in a document written some years bter. Cardona, JTemortal /:50bre sus 
c!f>..,clllJrimipllfos en In (hlifornia,. both in pflchrrn and Cá}'d('w1.,
, Col. J)oc., 
i x. 30-37. 'rhese are memorials urging the importance of rene\ved efforts. 
The author he3ins: 'California is :to far extended kingdom of which the end 
is only known hy geographical conjectures and demonstrative notices, which 
make it an islaml stretching from x. w. to S. E., forming a mediterranean sea 
adjacent to.. . the incÓgnita contracosta de la Florida.' In 44"), accorùing to 
Vizcaino anù Ascension, the coast makes a turn to the cast, 'y hasta hoy 110 
se sabe á doncle vá á parar.' Ancient and modern writers have closed the sea 
ill 28 0 , but this secms an error. 'Luego la Califon1Ía es isla. muy grande; 
y que este seno ó lJl'3z0 de mar es el estrecho Clue llaman de Alliall.' 'The 
Indians both of California and of the Florida main gave me many reports 
of a very great lake with lIlany towns, with a king who wears a crown; amI 
from tlw lake much gol,l is taken-and there are many cities .with towers, 
one of them ea.llell Quivira; bearùed men; horses,' etc. 'California is one of 
the riche<;t lanù3 in the worM, with silver, gold, pearls,' etc. 

 According to Ü!Ji{l}y's Amer., 
8fJ-OO,JI(,Y'YJl'8 Cosmo!/raphy, DG8,and some 
other works, some adventurers on the coast in Hi:20 accillelltally fell upon 
a ':itrait, through which they \\ ere carried lJY the force of the current iuto tho 

C.\LITOll.XL\ ..\X I'-'L.\XD. 

1 , 

tin1C Inanv, but not all, IUappL.J a[1<1 (11 ;e:.iLed (.
fl>l'nia, as all i:--Iauc1, 'xteu(lillg to CC apc I naIHO(). in lat- 
itude 14. JJut fro1H the 
aIlll' period luap.l11a}\.(.'J"; 
IJ,-\(ran tu ] l<..\ulect the e
 trclllC north t 0 f
 n.o t.t G n. the 
Q I"") , ,.,- 
lll()st part the dl:tail
o frecly by \\T) tHief, 
l...ü\v, all(I ()thcr
, al1<l to lea\.c allllorth of the (rl"lat 
lalld a Llank. J l"cprotlucc a lua}' pulJli
hc(l byJ)ur- 
t:has in 1 fi
5, \\
 hich i,.; c;:-.
cntian \- the 
tllllC uo.; a. I )ut<., 1 
111a}> of IG:!-l.5 It\\ill Lc lloti(OcJ that there arc lUaU)" 
ratlical ehan
es Lesi(leR that of chau(,.illo" the } H'niu;.\ul"", 
...... .:":) " 
iuto an i
lal1d; auù chiefly that the X C\v ::\Ie
 froIH Corollac1c) llO iOllg-cr appear 011 the .ali- 
fJ1'lliall coast, Lut only sut:h a
 arc fuund in t1HJ J1arr
tiycs of actual yoyag-ers. rIhe naniC X C\\' 
nppcar:-; for the fir
t titHC, alltl on a, ltio (lLJ X ortA., 
t hough the l'i vcr Ktill flo\vs fl"Onl the great lal\.c aIle 1 
lto \\"csterll \\.ater
. l'racc
 are f'cen of Dral\.c's \ oy- 
age, though 
 C\V J\JLioll doe
 Hot yet appear; aud of 
 ri ver di
houlJ Le 
Ian; Lut l{ey Corolncùo, La(lueo de Oru, and ] 

gulf ()f California, thus In.ealing up the peninsular theory. AecordiD
 to 1'11 
inscription on a map of H)
,) ill Purchas, noticed later, California. 'h15 I roo .1 
an Ü;!and 1JY a 
pallish chart tak
n hy the Dutch. Thi
 i.., crcditcll to Ja I 
J ....lIÙJ1fle ..]Im.i'imr, Ly De rIsle, in Jr O !f(t!lP8 mt J.Vortl, ]:(ru il. iii. _7:! 
w 110 also rclatcs that his son \\ as tvle llJY Froger that ho h.1I I "'Cl'n :1. pilot" lw 
tl him he IMclsailed rounù California. (;rcenho\\, 11;RI. (Jr. u d (' l., 
HI-, says it was on the strength of n. stdtcIllcnt mal 1 e 11y the capt<1in of n 
ship in lü:!O that Aguilar's river was thuught to he nn cntmnco t) tho guIt. 
.Also 1'u.:s..s' OJ.. Que-:iiou, (;3. 
5 Purdm-:, JIii Pil!ll.inu
, iii. 8.)
-3; Jrest-In r.:che S, . ./Iltl, f).). TIlO Dut 'h 
map is on 1\Tercator's projection, differs somewhat ill l!Jl1
itu.ll. , nt,cl II d 
'd'.,'11cly outline.1 ill tho north hetwc('Jl .ï.) ant! GO a 
tr.1Ït ICdtlillg north intI) 
,acuity. Pl1l'cha!i' map i:i attachcel to.A 1',.( of;, e rf flit ...Yortl'-l f (' / . 
Ly :Mastcr ßri3gs, who IllC'ntions amon
 the 'c:xcellcllt prcrcJJatiH 'uf \ 11- 
ginia it.J pusitiun 'ill rcspect of the 
ca, "hich I,} cth on tho ,\r c t nml 
Korth-west sillo (}f Jil"!jiuia, on the otJH'r siùe of the 
[(Jllntain\."s hC
OlHl om- 
, aIIll opclleth a freo ùllll faire pasLa,:;o to. . . ('hina.' Fur hy fol'ov. iug 
up elC rin,,&s K. w. from JIcnrico City (louhtl('<.,s the mountain'l m.) ho 
reachell ,\ hich senel rivers into ]lmh,on Jby. Anel Button's ).;1)' is ul..\rl) Uq 
far '\-cst as the Cape of C.llifornia. ..1 ppan'lltly Bril-.!::I' 'i.tire p."l- 
l r ' fr..Il11 
\ïr<ri'1Ïa, was 1))" W.IY of Hue}...on H.lY! J Ie J1I
lltioll'i tho mnp l'ol'i ..1 flOm uno 
,rht out of Holland, l1crha p:-; tho ,'0,'," yIlt I, :mel h(" thillkoJ the ollil tUno. "1 
I,f g;'catcolltiucnt..11 stretchcs, of Qui\ira, ('te., 'arc cUlllaillglYfettlv"w hy 
some, })()u set purposo to put YS out of the right Wf\)" Ill' B..l,}s that 
I. rcatA.'r 
'Was' aLnsctll).f n. 
Iap bcnt \"l1to him, of fuur L"uri, ; nwding .
bOllt tlH
 '.01 th 
J.)ulc; ,\ hich now lU'C fonnel to he' all tun)t'tl into a. mol) 110 Idc':-;. ;' llwl t:ali ha
 llcstroycel the olel illu, ivll Cape 
[l'ndocillo \\ a. I.. .0 1(' \gu '':I 
frulll the Cape of California. 



... \.ngnchi are unexplaincd naU1es. Nothing is sho,,"n 
in the far north-".c
t; though in the Dutch original a 
strait is yagucly outlincd. It is noticeable that Pur- 
cha::; has anothcr n1ap-that of IIolldius, introduccd 








DUTCII 1\IAP, IG2!-.3. 
in place of Herrera's-"Thich Inakcs California a penin- 
sula, and is in fact RuLstantially the saIne as those of 
Ortclius and l\Iercator, except that the N o,v l\fexican 



t.nynf.; (ficuie, Tiguc."" ancl Qui,"inl 110 long-cr app( a1" 

)1l t he (.oa
t, or any\,"IH_'r(' c.l
e. (
ui,-ira th(' pro' ilu' , 
]:-; hcnre\ el" retained. T'hc t,trait ruus Ilorth [rOlll Cap' 
}'\)rtuna, in latituc Ie 55 0 . 6 
JILl ()
G Padrc r ...
altJ}()ron f.. p ol\.c conccrlliuf 
thl' XortherIl )ry
t('ry in ("olll1(.(.tioll \\"ith hi..; l.i.,,;tory 
of X e"" l\lt.Àico. lIe t(.ll
 110\\" t,,"O SpanÎ:.;h iÌSllillg- 
el:-; at N c\\"ftHlIl<11aIHI ,\
 'r' carri · 1 hy a gal · iuto 
t he 
trait, one hcing- clri ,y '11 i 11 to a ri Vel" f:u' Hout }L\\yard 
to a g-reat \\"a11e(l city', \\"h('re tho l:-re\\y's acl\entur('C) 
n1<' gi,
ell in 
OH1e detail. I }nring the return Iuost 
c)f theul pl'l'i
lH'J. fl'olH col<1, Lut the \"0 rC'lchcd 
}'!ol'ida, aIlt! one of the l11cn caBle to ::\lexico ill tiIIlC 
to tell hi') 
torY' befure <lying.7 SalIuf'ron ha<; no 
doubt that this ""as the city Coronado f,a,,?, that 
Aguilar "youl(l have hcen had he pnterecl the riYer, 
and "thc 
[lIne that ..L\llian f'a,,', and ùi
eovcrcd, alld 
reported to hi" )Iajcsty" 1 l'he propcr "oay to c>..plore 
uiyira \vas cither by lancl f1'(n11 X c"y :\lexico or by 
"yater frc)}l1 }'lorida. 
rhe padre':-; idea \yas that thü 
F;t L;L'VI.ünce cx:tendcd tu a pnillt very near X t"Y 
)lexieo; but he ,,"as :--;url' there c
tcd 110 btrait be- 
t"yeen the latter and ]1'}orida. The St La \yrcnce i3 
o called Strait of the l"hrec IJrothcrs, and \\Ya
thouO'ht to extend froln ocean to (Jrcan. ] [p 111adü 
llHULY inc l uiries a1110I10' the nati \y(,'
 alJout the lakl' of 

Copal1a, ".hcnce C::UllC the al}(.ient .l\ztccs, all(l hc ha(l 
no doubt of its C'xistencc. It 1uight Lc reached fruIll 
N e'v ::\IcÀico Ly ,yay of tIle Itio ChalHa and thc Xa,-ajc) 
('ountry, thcnce fnllo\ving a great ri,Yer throuóh t:llc,y(:l 
antI. fertile country; or by \\ ay of l\Iol1ui, up the I
Bucna E
peranza. H 

6 PUTchaR, lli,
 P"rJ1"ime. Q , ÍY. 8,")7. Thr general map 011 the frontispiece of 
\"01. i. also makE'H California a peninsula. 
7 Padre Velarele, Df::jcr;p. I/i..;!., 
.-,:!, in r;u; luul a n:uTatÏ\c of \\hat "38 
 the srunc voyagc. He makcs )1 i,gucl lklg.1.llo cOIlllll.mdcr ?f th t\\ 0 
ðel:i anel the dah' )(;01. The H'
'l went w. ..llul th(.n 
. from l\c\\Íoul1ll 
lanel for :100 lcaf'uc
 before rl'achil1
 tht' I i\-cr. &\11 arri\ cd sick at JI.1h..m. , 
awl most of th
ll died. Y darelc think:, thi
 W'.U'" pl....,ll.c1.hl) not Anian, 
another 8tm it. 
l'Sallllaull, Rdaciulll'A, :!l-t, 3S-!I, .r; !). 


In J oaUllC';; de Lact's lnap of 1 G3;3 all aboyc Cape 
)[entlocino, in 4:1 0 , i
 left hlank. California i:
 a penin- 
sula , ".ith the O'ulf cxtcndin o ' to :;5 0 , ,yith a lar[!'e island 

 0 .
at it
 heatl, but thcre is no attclllpt to ùchnoate the 
. N O\Va 
\ILioll i
 in 40 0 , at Cape 
,,- hila at Cnpe San ::\Inrtill, in 37 0 , is Soyo, a nallle of 
plainod origin. 
rhose, "yith California and Novo 
)Iaxico, aro the only illialld nanICS. In his text Laot 
 that California is tho vaguely kno,vn region 

 llorth-,vest to tho l )ossible strait of Anian, 
Lllt ,yhethor it ,YtlS i
land or penin
ula he ,vas llot 
quite certain. Quivira is described frolll GOlnara and 
l-Icrrera; and Lact notes froin Tribaldus that Oùate 
reached Lake Conibas, ".ith its grand buildings. 9 
l\IeanYvyhile in Canaòa the li'rcnch ,vere hearing 
lTIauy rUlllors of the \vcstern nation of \Vinnipeg
, or 
, :;Icn of the Sea,' ,vith 'Vh0111 ,vere ,vont to trade not 
only the Canadian Indians but also certain hairless 
an\Ì hcardless people ,rho C:llne in large canoes upon 
the 'great ,yater.' There ,yas llluch reason to sup- 
pose these latter, really the Sioux, to De Chinese or 
Japanese. And in 1 G34-5 Jean Nicolet ,vas sent by 
Chanlplain to visit the peoplc of Ouinipeg, and per- 
haps to reach the great ,vater. He had no difficulty 
in penetrating to the hOlne of the tribe beyond Lake 

Iichigan, on Groen Bay and Fox River; and he ,ve:lt 
eycn farther, to a point ,vhcre, hearing of the 'great 
,vater,' the '-'-ýi'Sconsin flo\\?ing into the l\lississippi, he 
bèlieved hinlsclf to be ,vitltin three days of tho sea. lO 
If the gulf ,yas part of the fanlous passage to 
the .1\.tlantic, it ,vas oLviously Ílnportant that Spain 
should kno\v it; and indeed SOl1le action Yv[lS taken on 
the l1latter in 
Iexico, in consequence of ,vhich a 
sOITIe,vhat elaborate report ,vas Inaòe in IG3G by 
J\lonso Botello y Serrano and Pedro Porter y Casa- 
nate, the substance Leing repeated by tho latter in 

9 r act, J.,..,-f)/.us Or!Ji
, 2!H, 302-G. 
IU See nl/tI(rfieltl',r; Ili.-;f. lJi"U.01.. of fli(> llm.tlm'e,'l.t, Cincinnati, 1881, p. 37 
et scq., and (j7 ct sC<J., with rcfcrcnccs to original Jesuit relatioll!:>. 

\ YITt, 1.1: )fO'\DE. 


n latL'r (locu.llH nt. n 'f]u' ]Jllrp()rt of thi.
 r(\port '\a
thai l't':-i J )( 'ct!!} (r IlortlH:rn ('<..olfTa ! >h \ Hot 
lill( r '
"a -.; o\.._ 
v ""\ <=' 
tant tlTHl a('("e lHlt Ya
l1e and (.outradi(OllJry -tat"- 
1nents, convej ing- no actual iU
Jl'lllat ion; that it y;a') 
of the grl'atc.;t ill1p o rtal}('c for the intc-rt 'l 
 of 1 loth 
(}od aBf1 the king that thc truth :-;houl,l bp L. arnc<<l 
hy exploration, (;: peeially in t IHJ 1nattcr of a. not iUl- 
] )l'oLal,lc interoceanic C( nJ1I11Ullicatioll hy tlic gulf. 12 
\ et no inlJlle(liatc Rteps \verc tah.en ill COILC(!UCllCU 
of thi-.; inYo.4in-ation. 

Ono of tho ]llap
 ill T}icrro D'....\.vity's gran(l ".orl\. of 
] G:17 ""as deeicledly 1)0I1io(1 it
 tiTne; {c)!- it 11 >t ouly 
n1[Hlo California a peninsula, 1Hlt placed Quivila on 
tho const, and retained thc old ""e
tcrll trcncI of the 

11 flofdlo 11 S'1"I'rl/lf) mHI Portfr y ('a
ftllfl'f'. Ðf'r!ar"r;r II. (P,P /iiri .,. 1 n 17 
d "-et., If.;.JC-t!f' l(,fI com., lI'ellr:rt.'I (1"1" 8 X"!/' -T(l/t de (I J I..r C I ) ,u- 
?li('(t 1)}). la ('(d:;; TU"t fl "/I'll' rid BU. cm. fit till ..V. In 1'1. j) ./11 I, x'''. 

7, with It of 1 looks mlll document con ultc,l, s,)Il1o(.f whi< h la t:er ow-a 
D'J lOI1'j....r c"t
nt. C'mu((', Jlf',norial d l ..t!IIl;nll,i a ' I: j, ,. m!ulllf) 
'ulla .lllf't"ct L:'ipw.cion Û let Ct..t.lJ(,rllia, in Pac/teeo lJ.lul Cu. del Uð, Lut. V(x,"., i,;. 
] 0-- 
J:l In past reports, (rraDl1c incertidumhre, poca. fijez, contrndiccioncs do 
nnos Ü. otros Sill fUJHlar'"ìc Ius mas, ui njm,tarso á laq circull t....llci ll.' '\""0 
fhHI opinions t.) ))) various. awl t1
finition.i di\"c!':-.'3 rl..Jpc 'L.Ïll:
 tliÌ3 <<Ii 0\ (ry. 
Home maI;:c California. an i;-.;land, others mainlaJHI; sonp put ... s.l.rnit {If A 1i II, 
others (10 110t; one m
:rld out:L pm,' age to 
pain hy\\ay Lf J Iori,l.l, I.,ttill'
"itinCalifotïlia.i:l'.U ;:lIlotheriu<<licat p sJ.lcal, \'.iL'li

 traitolJfl tll011 \\ 
D:>rthern rea:1, 
urin:; the llavigatioll to :-':pain. Üt 1 Icrs (I.mht t'li ,IU
 ill::;t: .It 
th r 3e LtJaitd h<LII U
) to s) hi:!l a htitwle t
l:1.t tho P IJO i I i.ap ihlP, hy 
reD 011 < f colt!. 
ume s
y this I'll lIuda, (the gult:) rlm I !\. W., otill-s 
others x. r., and f30IUe th:1t it cIHls ill thrce ri\"crs flo\\illg <<10\\11 fl .l I,fty 
I:lIlY Imt (.apc l\h'lHlocino in 4n . or 4:! ; ond onc In()(krn p ; 
author PUt3 onrJ ( 'ape .l\Icndocino ill 40" mul another in :- v ; o"lH , boll )\1, iug 
nothing of l.ltitllfl< ,.Ie .::ribe Ya
t reacJll's of tC! l-itory from 
t t , \\ 1 t Ilut 
\"i,itcel. . Y\
e fi'ul 11 ) uniform course, 110 certain di It::mC". 110 t'"uC' lati uti>, 
 to llndeceÎ\"c, 1101' l)crspcctÎ\ e t) enli
htcll.' 1 h finding of t')O 
p.' .,a30 y;ill military :uHI commcrci.l} cOJlununi
ti m \\ itb f-:p'lin; 
mHI in the opiniv!1 { f diffcrcut IJcrsun.
 it \\ iil a mcanoi of .'CCUI Î1 
t W 

le.:ico, )"e\-cal the dwcllin6-p
aco of white awl clotll(d l.lCIl, I .1 to th die- 
co\"('ry of In !fr.1I (Ju.".i,'a, the to\\I1
 of the cro\\nctll..ill r , i 1"\1ul of t'lO 
, lake of [''1111, riycrs Ti'on &HHI rural. Dy it t 1 fue IUny 1 h"lnl ,1 
<)"} hoth I e'a
 nne I fo!"ci (1 to a hand on .J:lcnI, l11ul pr<,vcut4 ,1 from
illg<< .lli- 
fo!.uia ancl (lr.n...iu..{ :lÎII fl"Om Flori,b. 'If there i 
 a. strait, \T. ho can d IUbt flOat 
the fo
 1..110\\ 'i it? The COlulc tld Yalle Rays n. Dutch \ c ,1 cntcrc(l t'.o b .lit 
of Anian, filHl that the ('JI(.'my i i luh..J.lleing from Jacal clay hy c1
lY. t 
\ pn ..t 
8:LW sevcn f:hipJ in t'lb gnli; IturJ.í mIll ('art1oIlil. ha.d tll(. ir v,- I 
]>rake reachc,l 
Icllllocino; Ca\"clltlish touk tho _""lIIla ..11111 ; it ii Bnid t 1 u.t 
'l.s"c1:i lea\"c the' \tlnntie coast h.lllaMtc(l \\ ith silvcr on>; it \\. \\ orl he ua- 
ùalajara. that the French \\ cre in search of thu f>tr.tit, mul hml a pl.m of i.; O.le 
man thou ,ht their Ic:uler wag a Hutch pilot. l'.1::.anatc in hi;i me .lorinll"t.Jx'-ltB 
t of ti:(' lMO mattC"fS. II". aI
o note's th..t ('Jptnin 
ulrtin tl \" .,I.1J. 1.1 
llorth from 
in.11ua fuund a "alled cit
. \\ ith gouù stI
<:cts, l.lrbc buiIt.lin
_ "", 

Rcnboard to Cape 
IelldocillO, ".ith 1110St of the old 
naUICS. .L\ no\pel arrangclncnt of the lakes ill N e,v 
:\lexico ,,
ill La noticcll. I append a redue-cel cop
on1Ïtting lllost of the naUlOR. In his text D' A vity 
l1aUles Ùcr cr as the northcrnnlost prOyillCe of AIllOl'ica, 
and dcclar
s that the coasts of Quivira are "bien pell 
cunllus," being sOlnc,vhat out of the line of ordinary 
n3. yigation. 13 

Cd no 


.IIudson B. 

..:\. IJ ß I 0 X 


D'AVITY'S ::\IAP, 1037. 

About the middle of the century, according to 
Padre Tello, a Flenlish lnan nruneù l
cle sold at 
Con1postela, J alisco, a picee of cloth ,,"'hich he said 
ho had bought forty days before in London. But 
this tliscoyerer of Anian shot a Spaniard and fled, 
carrying his secret ,,"'ith hÌ1n. It ,vas in IGGO that 
the Portuguese l\Ielguer is vaguely reported to have 
sailed fronl Japan to Lisbon through the strait of 
....-\.nian and the frozen sea. 14 
Governor Diego de Peñalosa lnade a trip frolll 

13 D'A
.;t!l, Le J[ond{', Paris, ]037, general map of the world. In Id., 
Dnicription Gen('rale de l'Amérigae, which is pt. ii. of the prcceding, the 
map of America is much ÎInprO\Pc(!; the coast trend is N. W.; Quivira and 
X"ew Alhion are omitteù; the olù lake with its seven cities is restorcd; and the 
lake from which the St Lawrcnce flows is movcù some 2000 miles castward. 
A b'1'eat i
lancl of Paxaros lies off the coast, in ahout 34 u ; Totonteac, Cíhola, 
an(l ('alifornia are the provinces named; and the coast names arû as in many 
carlier maps. 
H .JJ ola Padilla, Iltst. .LV. Galicia, 74; A IIwretti, r o!J. .Lllaldonado, 3D, 73. 

.\':-) l:XPEDITIOX. 


Ic'\.ieo in 1 GG:2, of ,\'hi('h ] )adrl' Frcvt:
-.; ,,'rotp 
the dial'\p, and ill ,,'hich he e1ainle(1 to ha
'e J'L'é[ 
t he original (
ui, ira, f
ll' to the llurth-l"l..'-,L of 
]?é. .....\ IHclllurial sl'el
illg licen::; 
 fur }}Ol'th 'rn C ll- 
t ,\'as 
l'l1t to the l\.iug' ,,'ith th · llarl'ati\ ., ,,'hieh 
 thcrcfcH'c fillcd ,vith evcry illluginary ,,'()uder of 
the Korthcrll ...\T v:-;ter y that Inio'ht f
n or 11Ï

c. -'lost of hi:-; f;tatC'l11cllts \\'('rc fa1::;e, (;\ ell if the 
,,,hole accoUll t "pa
 11<,t I )ure fictiun. 1'he \\ he .1. r('
 a vCl'itaLle paradi
c, aLuullJiug" iu all dc:-òira1 J lc 
products; alHl the city of Quiyil'a "'as of gl'('at extent. 
Scvèral thousllHI hOU:-:;L.:-; of frolfl t\\P() to funr t-;toril'''; 
,,"'crc countccl in the t"r o Ieague-; of strcet
and a party sent tu c"(plore could llut reach the cuel 
uf the to\';U. l'he uati ves tolJ al
o of pr()\ iuc .
l)cyolld, of l'hcgiiayo, thc proyincc of the .1\ hija(ltJ
a11<1 othcr
, so ricll that uròinary tlishes ,vere lll,-l(le 
of bilvcr anJ gold-to olJtaiu ,vhich "rl'alth the J.:n- 
h, :French, aud Dutch \\Pcre f-;traillillg every ncrvl'. 
It behooved Spain to act prolllptly. 
\.ll the Blcn 
fronl ]
uropc, Asia, 
\Jrica, and ..... \u1crièa "ho had 
yi::,itcd thi:5 land "cre \\YD iting inlpaticntly 
)1" Dun 
Diego to La Inade dukc, lnarqni
, allel count, \vith COlll- 
uland ovcr the ne\v donlÎllioll. It \\Y3S 011 the 
ea, not 
11101'e than t\yO hundrcd and fifty Icaguc
Fé on the ,,
cst, llort 11, and cast; and shipR 111ight yi:"it 
it frecly. Zaldí],ar's visit to thc ,vest in 1 G 18 i:-, 
lllcntioncù in confirlllation, though he did not <.lare to 
penetrate to the luarvels reported to hiul, Ly rea:ion 
of terriLlc giants to be passed; at ,,-hich co\\rartlice 
radre Lázaro protcsted, n
 llid uaturú, finding- èÅ- 
sion in all carthquake. 1j 

n Frr?I'm::, Erla60n d l dc.-:ruln-imll'lIfo (7 l pni.fl y cilUla 1 de Q, it-ira. E,.l,o 
1J01" J). lJieyo lJiolli,'Ûo ch Pf'IIf1lo.
a, in SI,l'(('S E.q ('(I. of P miORa. 'En 1 
clltir to(Io II) quo ha
ta. oy c:ota, cOIHluistado y po},1 \(10 c.lcha:\.o del 
llomhrc do .Amcrica. es sOl11hr:1. ()lll'om})araCi O Il do 10 CJue conti('nu f'st.1. IlUC\_L 
parte del lIlullllo nu{'\ () nJllCIlß a(la. de cOIU)uistar por IDS :Fr.lnc<'SCs (IUO con- 
tiu:.m (,Oil d]a y de log Yl1dc
c.':-f ,) Dlancl. cs qno 
mt() l..l d
 111, nUlu{llC 110 
10 cOllsiO'uira
 los nlOS ni ìo
, porqno i rr norllll d .\rt
 dc. l Jlltlui <AIr.' I 
have 1ll
rc to say of PcÙalos,,,'s cxp<.dition mul C..I.rccr l.b '\\ hue 
Lut a full roproJudioa \\U
1}.ll1f) jUilil'c to the ab
 of thl" Ih1nL1

06-\n 'exact de.3cription' of .r\.n]erica ""as public;hed 
in 1 G55. Tho author achl1its that the quo: ;tion of a 
separation or non-separation frol11 Asia i8 tJO deep for 
hilll. Tho prc\
alcnt opinion seen1S to be t
lat AU1erica 
 an i
land, separated froln Anian, a proyince of Tar- 
tary, by the strait of t.hat na111e. Noting the old 
reports about its having- Leen navig3,ted, the ,vriter 
says: "But of 'v hat creùit these testinlonies shall be 
thought, for ought I kno\v, the lleader 111ust judgc. 
I onüly report thelli as I finde theI11... I fear tho 
Provei-b l11ay sOllle,vhat pro\
ail upon the English in 

. I 

--;c S \ 
c. .

end:Stien .It..Ot" 
;f:"o Clno ..t1.l...lJl 4. 

 rtll ne ON 


f.J \ Carind 


8 C = -E,!, 11m,- 
:I1 a u 

Oll D 



2ïO 'fali c 

this point, Quod volu1l1us facilè credimus." Strait or 
no strait, ho\vever, California' in its largest sense' in- 
eludes all the north-\vest region, and is divided into 
four provinces: Qnivira, in the extrelne north-to 
the strait, if there be one, or else to Tartary-\vith 
.;-\cuco, Tiguex, and Cicuic, as its chief to\vns; Cíbola, 
lying hC't\veen Quiyira and N neva Galicia; California 
proper, that is, the southern part of the island helo\y 



3R O ; an (I Nc\v \lbion, that part of the i
land a1)0\0 
:18 0 .up t,þ ("1ape I Hall<'o. 
rhc pcople of l1atha) and 
CIlllla "doe trade ".it h t h.. 
laritiuH.: part
 and 1) . Jplc 
of (
rhe great lake' c,r 
rut(Hlt('iH' i.. tll<' lllo
llot<.'\vorthy feature. Hi J copy the llorthern portiou of 
Ugill)y'H l11ap of IGïl, ,\"lli('h i.; in 1I10-.;t 1'( :pL'C
tical \vith that of 1 G:!j fron1 Pur(:ha
. 1'11(' pro!, 'r 
locatiou of (
ui yira in the l10rt h-('(1st, anJ the ,luaU 
c'"(tcnt of lane 1 1 Þct\\ C 'ell II Ud
Ull Day anci the l>acilic 
are points that attract att 'lltiou. 17 
Pèrc )larquettc, pas:-;ill
 do\\.u the ::\Ii. i
,;ippi in 
lGï3, noted thu Inouth of the 
,;;ouri and ,':rotp, 
"through thi:.; I hope to reacll the gulf of (1 a lifcJl'llia, 
and thence the East Indies;" fur the Illdian
 f'pol\.c c)f 
n lueado\\'" fÌye or bix daYH up tho ri\.er, ,;IH'uee a. 
strcalll :ï"
n ,';cst\\T:ll'd. "If God gives Ino hC:llth 1 do 
not JC0rair of ono òay Inakiug the di:--:covery." .,L\IlÙ 
a Salle adopted tho idea that tho South 
l,a nlight 
Lo reached bv ascendillO' ono of tho g reat riyer.;' 
J 0 , 
thou[{h tho size of those riYúrs lnust hayc sho\vn the 
Lle .distancc to the l)ncific to L
 liluch grc ,
t 'r 
than had 1 >een supposetl.1 8 It "T tlS a fe,," year..> later 
that rrh0111aS Pecho sailed fronl tho J)hilippincs north- 
\\TnI'd, and one hundred and t\\Tenty leaguod into tIlc 
strait of Anian, Lut \yas forecd to return d(n, n the 
..L\.lnerican coast. PresllIna bly t here ,va
 Hot the 
slightest fouudation for t lie story.19 
.L\..bout IGSG, the atteution of Spain hayin
called ano\v to reports of northern ".ealth, anJ the 
1G.A merica, an Exart T>c8CI'iptiol1, I.ümlon, 1('...),), pp. 8
I-:"O:t J.:m a ., 
or Dlaen, Amt:'rictI, qt"æ (st GeO.lrtlldlÏo' Ela";al1C8 Par... Qzoillln (\. 1. 1.i. of hii 
Ath>s :\1:1.101'), A1l1,;tela
c.la1l1i, H;I;
, givcs to Califon1ia. tho Burne l,roaù (' .teut. 
1i OyillJy's Amt rica, LOlHlon, IG71, gcneral map, t "{t,:! 
 I t I '1., ,..I, 'C j" 
the usual arr:m"cmcnt of the prO\-inccsof (}ui\-ira, f'lhola, ('
litornb, rlul "\"w 
Albion; but tl
 author SCCJI1:i to I" in U1ueh duubt ahout thl'ir 1'1 

Ï\-I)(1 i. 
tiúns. In the southern portions of thc map, not l'orie'll, th(" rc ion (':' It t f the 
 io c.lel K ortc i
 caBcll 1\. )h.,)..ico; alU I Tiguas, 
orro, aDei oLLer llUlllC s arc 
givcn a 1 0110' the rivcr; whil
 farthcr cast is 1\. (:r.lI1:ula, \\ith the to\ 1.J C f 
ZUllY .MU(lUi etc. 
CC also .1/olitallllR, Xi "'l'e We rid, :!li t ct B'J.: Itl.. r,le 

l./"f( nft' 
y, Ii( ;"('/" :!:a ct SC(I.; all thrf'c \\ or.k8 hcing in sllhstm1cC t!IC In" 
18 Spa,.].:,'" I ijp (
I..1/ a rtlll 'Ie,. .S. 
". . il,.vi U", .J} I,: .J, 
 J. ] n 
IGSO-:! P':'re lIcl1nepm" eut up the 
ldb1PI,l to thc falls (If bt Antholl), 
while La HaBe himsclf went do\\ n that ri\ cr tu the.' gnU. 
1:1 ''''eixa..; y Lot"Lra, J' ..., lll-.a.l, cited ill J(..Jf '!lll' l Tf>( Pre},., 1"-10. 


king haying issued a cédula on tho subject .in. IG78, 
l>adrc 1\.]on80 tIe Paredes, y
;-ho had Leen a 11llSSlonary 
in K e,v ::\Iexico, 'YI'otc a report on tho suLject not cal- 
culated to excite enthusiasn1. Quiyira he placed 
SOll1C,yhcre in Texas, though it n1ight extcnd far llorth- 
,yard. There "Tas no eyiclencc of gold or great cities 
thero. Of Teguayo, or Tehuayo, a faulous narrie no\v 
that haJ perhaps been current for a half century, 
nothing ,ya,s kno'Yl1 beyond Indian reports that it yças 
n. populous king
lo1l1 containing a great lake. 20 In 
IG8G also the English corsair S,yan ,vas on tho coast. 
I-lis chronicler, Dan1pier, could not satisfy hiulself 
,yhether California ,vas an island or. a peninsula; nor 
did he think the Spaniards desired to have the lake 
ef California explored, lest foreigners should reach 
N e\v 
lexico, a
 Spaniards had escaped frolll N e,v 

lexico by that ,yay at the late insurrcction. 21 
Baron la Hontan 111ade his falnous in1aginary 
journey to tho far ,vost in IG88. He ascended Long 
iver, a tl.ibutary of the l\Iississippi, for sonlC eighty 
days, passing nativ"es Jnore civilized than ånyat the 
cast. He did not reach the head of the river, \vhich 
\vas said to lead to a great salt lake, ,vith populous 
20 Paredes, Utiles y Curiosas 
"T'oticia8 dcl l-t"'ÚfVO-l1Iexico, Ciúola y otras 
7laâOl1CS con.final1tcc;. Lct (I11ti[Jlla tradicion de Copala, etc., 211-23. lIe says 
that Padre Benavides in his memorial of IG:3J had spoken of the reported gold 
and silver of Tcóuayo and Quivira, and ex-Governor 1>eualosa bad maùe a 
l)roposition to discoyer and conquer those provinces, calling Teguayo 'Patago. 
Paredes says that Tcbuayo is 180 leagues N. of the Yuta country, which is GO 
leagues x. of Santa Fé. The strait of Anian is in 70'J, the gulf of the same 
name heing N. E. in the region of Labrador. Quivira is s. E. :1 E., toward the 
Lay of Espíritu Santo. See also FrC]/ta8, Ilelacion. 
21 Dwmpin.'s J..Y('w Voya
,e, i. 2G4, 27:!. One map seems disposed to make 
California a peninsula, as indeed he says the latest Spanish charts represent 
it. his general map, i. frontispiece, makes California an islanù, 
nd is for the 
most part lilm the Ogilby nUll), save that the north end of the island has three 
1)rongs, separated by f:IllaU bays. The source of the St Lawrence is left open 
in a way to suggest a sea or passage to the sea. nut a novelty is a Yar-ue 
coast stretching Letween 40 0 anù 50'J from near the end of California wesh.".a
med Compagnies Land, and separated from Asia just above Japan by a 
strait of l7ries. This was published in IG!)!). In Lllyt, Introductio ad Ueo- 
YTf'phialll, (j
)2, 704, are two mnps of ] GD:2, which from their resemblance to the 
others need not Le copied; Lut there are some peculiar features. On the K. 
enù of the island are two hays and points with the names 'l'ùlaago nnd ll. de 
E"tif vC,. v. hile on the main opposite, in 48 0 , is a long square projection called 
.AYllúc[a de Uato, with a group of islands in the strait Letween. (bee Aa's 
map of 1707, which k similar in these resI)ects.) In the interior rounJ the 

J\.IXO \



 :1IHllargc Ye", 
. ] lis Htory ".as pur \ fiction ill 
all that rclated to Long ]
i'.l'r HIHl th' far ,\. ,:,t. 22 
In the last .lec;ule of the (; 'lltury I )
Hlre l
lJc!!an his lal)()}.s ill I }iIuería .r\lta.. '1'11(1)1rh ]li,-; chief 
olJjc<-t ".as the 
ah.atioll of 
onl..;, )Joth he and (.apt.till 
::\laIlg-e took a deep interest in the XOJ' 'Iy....t try. 
J II their trip to the (; ila allJ .olol'ado ill 1 (j!, th( 'Y' 
hear(l (If a ".(Hllêlll-pprhap..; th' f:uJloUS )[arí.t d, 
J CSUH de ..l \gre( la. ,\" ho \\.a
aid to ] la Yc tra '-L'lll'd 
l y in thesl
 I ,art..; -,vh() loncr B'r() Ita I 

preachetl to theIu, and ,,,hen shot had Hl"-l'ral tiUH.'S 
risen frolH the <ll'aJ; theY hearcl of ".hitc 111l:11 ,rho 
 l:aU1C to inule;- 1 )ut reel'i ,.cd no con1ÌrllHl- 
tioll of 01Ìate'
 i""land of the giêlIltC:'
. I(ino ,\.a<:; 
inclined to di:,Lclie,.c the theory that l
alif()rnia \,3-,; 
nn i:,land, Hll<l in 1700 frolll a hill Heal" the h ':Ic} 
uf the gulf he llllHle SOlllC 01 '
L'r\"atiolls ,,"hich 

tr('ngthened hi
 opinioll, thoug-h they hy JlO llH:an:-; 
settlcd the f)ucstiun, a
 has Lccll errOlle(HI:..;ly ("laiulc<l. 
Iarch 1701 pa(Jre
illC) au<} Salyatierra 
ith )[ange on the llulinland t;hore of the upper gulf, 
in 31 0 or 3
o, a
 they thought, anù held au ((/Jiiy,t!J!( 
d ..
)utu on the geographical proLlcin. 1'0 the pa(lrc::; 
it secIHcd that the shores united son}" thirt\
uc:i hlrther north, in aecordauce ,,"ith their "")ui",- 

iollary tlc:-;ircs; but l\Iange deeillcd appearanee.., at 
t;uch a <.li
tall<:c deceitful, and froBl the ('iUTent..; l"h()
to Lclie, e still ill an ('''ilrcc;!lo. I..atpr ill the year I
('ro::\scd tIle Colol ado, an{l ""as still COnyillC
d that all 
as t Ù
}.1.a ji J'J/!e thoucrh he . lid Hùt 0'0 f
lr ellouo.h tu 
, , '=' . b 0 
1 )1'U'.C it. 
great lake are the new map names Apachcg, Xila. Taoq, etc. Thc other map 
 tho features citeel ahout the cwl uf the isl.ulIl. hut ilitroclucf',S others 
clJually novel. California is not only spparntcel froll1 thc IJMin hy a !,trait, l,ut 
llY another btrait on the \\ cst fl"Om tho Ferre tl / . 0; nwlnorth of C.alifornia, 
in. 5W. \:!lcthc
 011 dry l.awl or in OpCIl_Sca i'i not " l ,pannt, 
re (' II;"" 
etfJoltl.' I hero IS nn up 'IlIIlg frum Purt "'\ clSOIl of II ue sou n.... ì . mto nn 1 coY 
In J In .1-, '..,. Col. fJr;Y;ll " rO!I".Il''l of 1 mtu i
 a. map of the u:--ua h pc.", \\ hit-.b haa 
the J/t>,.;rhflJ<;/Ji R. <'Ii:-lsis=,ippi l:in'r) H'ry 3t'l.m,,:atply }o<:atf111. hut (,'XR" 'cr- 
uteel in length. Betwecn thi
 rÏ\"cr awl the btr..ait of AnÙl.n, jllilt ahovc .-)01) , iCJ 
thc Hamc Jf( a,[o;o.";. 
22 l..n !loll/all, 
YOlf7'eflUX J.(J!I"
l".'t, l';æ. T l1a\"
('('n the "ork. Rwl in 
curreac 1'1 :ilIWf.i there ii nut the 
ht...qt r('
cml,I.Ulce onc t() unothc..r. 
. w. CUAbT, y,)L. I. 8 


In hi;:; Inap of this period he luade California a 
peninsula 011 the Htrength of his cOllyietions. This 
lllap, a very accurate one of all thc
e regiollR, too 
accurate for the prescnt subject, nU1Y be seon in an- 
other part of this ,,"'ork. It ,vas not puLlished at the 
tiIne, and ,Y:1S seen by but fe,v cosmographers. 23 








r -". ! ake 





IAP, J 70.3. 
Ian[!e, IIi...t. Pimería. 200, 301-
; 324-, 331-3, 337; Apostólicos Afane,q, 
282-.3, 290-.3, 308-9; Sal"rttiarct, in California, E8talJ. y Pro[J., 127-9, 132-3; 
, Yot icia-; eal., ii. 7,-)-G, 94-10G; Alc!lre, [list. Compo de Jesus, iii. 117-18, 
124-ü, 134-3; Lockman's Trav. Je.'iuits, i. 33G, 393; 
Iap in Lettres Edif., v. 
29. :::>ec also my lJi<3t. }."Túrthern .øIex. States, i. 

IE\\" DE rOXTE. 


\ \ lllap pULli
l1t ,d ".i tIt TI",.l., 's ('"11,,.' i"l1 ! TY"('!J- 
0[/,'8 III 1 ()
) \\'a:-; l"CprodlH'ed l)\r ) I e\ IYll in J 701 allll 
by I Larri:-} ill 1 70J..l t llH
...t' fl:t\ c ;1:
111 .ll....:..; ,..,trealll
flo\\-illg" into tIlt, gulf of 'lc"ico, ""]lich Jllay ]u. th,' 
]:io l
r:"'o tlt.l 
urte, \\.ith it
 1l1outh 11.;\\ trall
 to .th
 propt'}" t'ide of the coutiuellt. j r t.)"J)"Il'S 
text I
lnlllar to that of the ' '
a(" llt,;oo.('ril.tiou' f)f 
1 (;55 already Iloted. 1 Lo i:-; Hure that \L1it
)J.llia. i..: 
an ishuH1, al
d e"plaill:-1 ]10\\ hOHlt' ]l:l\ (, ])c 'n 1...1 illto 
the error of l"eO"anlillcr it :1
 a l )l'nill
ula in tIlt' I ta....t. 
"""' l""'I J 
allJ be al
o adJ::; that (
ui yira i:-; l.y 
oIl1f' pIal'e.1 f:lr in 
tho intcrior, Ly the' Lack uf \Tirgiuia.' lIarri
anot her lllap, ,,'hi('h [ repro(luce in part. I t f.;hO\\9
] Iontan'H ti(.titiou
(;UVéries; llortheru Califorlli(L a.; 
eYeralearlicr nUtI';'; IUL'lltioIled hut not copil'd; (llle I 
Sallta l
é, on the 1Jrave 11Î\ y cr, or Itio ] 
fio,yiug' into tho right z;o -10 
gulf, but 
till out of j 
the Üunou
 lakú. 'fhc 
. f TFRR.A FSOXTS _ ...-f. 
accolllpanYlng rag- 
luünt fron1 Pietcr"

,-ander r\3, ('f 1 707 c 
cX I )lains itself so f
u. ... P p J:;' 10"\' 0 
A 1.111. ,,,- 
as any explanation iH Pde F,rlr 
practicaLle. A.\'s 
l \lJ, 1';07. 
l)adro Kino in 170G looked for the la
t titHC on 
tho gulf ,yatcrH aud Juouth of the' Colorad,), again 
conyincincr hill1SL
lf, but t
tilillcr to ('oll\.ilu'e 11Î
llong ,vhuln \\Y:\,B I)

lre Xiel, that the gulf 
there cIHled. 2 :> 


In a LOl1<.lon pt'l'iodieal, lIuJi! lily JIi.,wi.llan!l, (II. 
Jlp}}ìoÙ.s fin' tlu' (}u j'itlus, ill 1\ pril anJ .J l1I1P 1 ïn
flppeared ,vhat purpol'tl'(1 to b. a lettl\r of \dluiral 
]JarthololllC\\Y de 1 1 'olltC , Jc,,",crihiu'T [I YO\9a(T \ lluule 1.,,"' 
ð ., .J 
:!II [l'!l1yn'ß CO,
piccc and pp.!lftö-- "'; llnrr; ...Y(ll''.I
UlI.''71'. i. : 
also ill PIIUIlf [['x J" ()!I(t!lt' , 1';0';. Thl's' map8 show also n. stm it of t III ('n the 
Asiatic f'hores, f'Cparatillg the main from nnl'a
tcrlllallll, \\ hid., hu\\ c\ cr, docs 
not cÅt(,IHI ec.1st\\ anI to .\ulI'l"ica. a
 in ] )arnpicl.M map. 
:!'-'_l, osfõlico... 
, 3
:1-lj; _Yi I. _t/,lIlIl(1I Ii 1Ift-'If. is. TIlt' lath r )I'
\isit ill 1';03, amI Hays that a
 there W.lS no pruof, "iut..d lt I., c'
' en 0{>1111011. 


hinl in 1640. It \vas partly in the first and partly 
in the third person; no reference ,\Tas lnadc Ly the 
editors to any original frolli ,\'hich it lllÎght have 
becn translatell; hut they 11lentioned an accoIllpany- 
ino' chart not l )uLlisheJ and never heard of aQ'aill. It 
ö ' U 
,vag doubtles
 a deliberate hoax, prepared at the ti1110 
Ly SOl1le one ,vho had a superficial acquaintance ,vith 
Spanish - .Àlllcrican affairs; but, for the Jisc?ssions to 
'v hieh it gayo rise, the :-story lllust be notIced here, 
and is in substance as follo\vs: 
Fonte sailed fronl the' Calo' of Lilna April 3,lG40, 
'vith four ve8
cls, under orders frolli Spain and the 
viceroys, issued because of information that Boston 
navigators had becn seeking the northern passage. 
Diego Peilalosa ,vas vice-adlniral of the fleet; and 
the other t,yO comnlanders ,-rere Pedro de Bonardæ, 
or Barllarda., aud Jj-'clipe de l{onquillo. They touched 
at various points, and took a Inaster and six 111ariners 
at COlllpostela. On this Blaster's opinion that Cali- 
fornia ,vas an i
land, Peilalosa, son of the sister, of 
Don Luib de Haro, resolved to learn tho truth, and 
his vesscl left the fleet on the loth of l\Iay. Fonte 
,vith three ships ,vent on and by June 14th reached 
the river Reyes, in latitude 53 0 . lIe ðailed about t,vo 
hundred and sixty leagues in crooked channels alllong 
the islands of the Archipclagus de St Lazarus; anù 
on June 22d sent Captain Barnarda up a fair riyer. 
Barnarda sailed N., N. N. E., and N. W., to a great lake 
full of islands, nall1ed Lake Valasco. Here he left his 
ship bet\veen the island Barnarda and the peninsula 
Conihasset, and in three Indian boats sailed 140 
leagues 'v. and 43G leagues E. N. E., to latitude 77 0 . 

Iean\vhile Fonte sailed up the riyer Reyes north- 
cast\vard to a to\vn of Conosset, on the south side of 
Lake nelle, \vherc some Jesuit nli
sionaries ,vith hilll 
had Loen for t\VO year
. In the salno region there "'as 
a river de Haro. At Cono
set the aduliral roceived 
a letter frolll Barnarda, dated June 27th, haying 
entered Lake Belle J lUle 22d ,vith his t\VO 
. July 

rltClT;::; OF PI:
.\';-; SrOHY. 


1 Rt he 
ailed, p 'rhap
 in 1 >>oat"" dO\\'11 t hl' ri \Wer ] >ar- 
, J>a

ing' eight t
, until ,r uly Gth, he reaehe L 
lal\.c Fonte, \\.hieh "a:-; GO l) y ] GO It.:a"ucs aIHI" el l 

:--npplied "wi tIt isla ntIs. rrhen he hailed, ,J u1'y 14 -I ï, 
east""[lrd through a lake ('aIled E:-ïtr 'clio <.Ie l{olHJuillo 
lIl Iudia}.l. to""Il, .,,'hel"
 he hear(} of a large 
\vllJeh on :-;t.uhng tu It ]le found to l)c a J
Captain Shaplej, o\\'ucd by Scilllor (;iblJons, IHajor- 
general úf )laltúehllset
. In
tcad of ca l )turiu(r tlti::i 
, . l ' 
eraft as a prIze i onto gcnerou:-ïly luaJe pr '",cut. to 
 and luell, and Luug-ht Shaplc.r'
 fine 'harts and 
. ThcIl he returncd,..I.. \llgust ()-l G, to C(Jnof-:
\r hcro (\11 th
Oth ho rccciycd anothcr It .tter of .L \u- 
gust 11th frol11 J3arnarda. 1'hat ufficcr had (TollC so f
a:4 to prove that thcre \\Wa
 no p'l
:,ago by Dayi:-; Strait. 
lIe had reached j!)o, and one of hi:-; IHen had becn lcd 
hy the natives to the heatl of 1Ja\ i:-; Strait, \\'hich 
terll1Ïnated ill a fre
h-\\Water lake in 80 0 , LCY()}l(l " hich 
,yore high llloulltains alld iee. By n. third letter 
D'u'nar<1a announced his arri val at .:\linhau=-,ùt and the 
I )ort of .Arcna OIl the ri\.cr !{crC:::5 .r\..ucru,:;t .)!)th. antI 
, J' v .... , 
thither ]1'OlltC \vith great stores of salt pro"ision
OUú hundred hogshead:-; of luaizo returned froIn I..ako 
ellc Septcluhor 2-5. Froin this point tho fleet kailc(L 
hOlllC,\'arJ, ha "iug proved that there '\'a
 no north- 
\\.cst pas:jagc. 
.L \bsurd as al1 thj
 appears related rn .' 
II 1/ " it is 

till 1nore 
o in tho detail
, In:lnv (,f \"hieh arc ullin- 
tcl1ig-iLle. 'fhe story \\.as toun(lè
l probal)ly, if it had 
any foundation, OIl 
Olllcthil)g' in nne of J)L'ìíalosa'
ur(1 lllolnorial
. X 0 
ueh \'oyage '\'a=-, 
\.er 1l1adt.\, 
C\ en if 
uch a luau as }'ollte '\'er li\-ed;
 no sueh 

\ntonio ülloa. in n.lettcr to 'a\3.ITt'te in ]';
t.!, ...Ya 'nrr t . rin[1 (/ ., 

ü-l-7. Rays that ill l';:
(j he n1l't, hdweell P.mam;\ awl (;11.1) atluiI, all olll pilot, 
.T uan :\Ianuel 
If)r('l, \\ ho showctl him, nrnong othcr ol.! tli.u il'f3. one of a \ o,r- 
n 'c hy Admiral llartolomé ùe 13. rllcnte, who \\n8 Il
I1dtcllt.1 Lv tho 
,iceroy (If Pt'ru ill cons('(IlH:llce of n. rcport th.J.t n :-;l,.aui..h \. .1 l1.ul {uUlul 
north of California. n. gr(' hay t,tretching east\\ ar,l, lllltl h:ul md in it 3 fur- 
eign ship. Fuente fountl nu such hlY llwl rcturnul. (7110."\ took n copy (.If 
the diary aucllobt it. lIe aftel'\\ ani toM tilt' tOIJ' in I ol1,llIn, JUI 800 Nr- 
ponded \\ ith 
L ,Ic l'Isle. Some of Peflalosa's c).plúÌts art mel l; " I . .1 
1). IOU of thb chal,ter. 

cOluplicatod net-,,"ork of channcl
 cuts up tho northern 
 of ..c\..lnerica. Yet the authentic-it)"" of tho ,
Ug'C' "
as sel'iou
ly dcfcnded uutil the region in fJues- 
tiOll bec:ulle so fully explored as to lllake further 
defence ab
urd. Tho arguluent ,vas, in substance, 
that throuO'h an nnkno,vn country channels lna y ex- 
tend ill any direction; inherent contradictions in the 
narrativc, so far [IS the unkno,vn parts are concernod, 
lllay be accounted for on the theory of the translator's 
lJlundcrs; null like blunders of translator and IU1vi- 
gator Blust account for discrepancies bet,veell 
coYeries and those of later explorers; that is, the 
interior ,vas safe, and Fonte's entrance on tho coast 

u; 1110ved frOlll tin1e to tin1e so a
 not to con1e in 
conflict ,vith advancing exploration. The argull1ents 
are not ,vorth repetition, oven if I had space for then1. 
The 11lap of De l'Isle anJ Buache, pronounced by 
Burney "as adventurous a piece of geography as 
as ever published," ,vill be given in substance later. 
I append here a brief bibliographic notice of such 
,vritings on the subject as are before 111e. 27 

2ïThe original is in J.llollthl!! .JIi8ccllan?/, or i.llemoirsfor tlte CU/'i01l8, London, 
1708. Arthur Dobhs, Account of tlte Countries culjoi,dn[1 to IIm[.'ion'.., Bay, 
1:13-30, reprinted the letter in 1744, and found in it an 'Air of Truth' which. 
left no doubt of a :K. 'Yo pa
sage, though probably not well translated, copied, 
or printed, The fact of there being a Shapley family in Roston 'confirms 
its Leing an authentick Journal.' De l"Isle's memoirs and the map Il1atle hy 
him and Buache were presented to the French Academy in ] 7;'0 and Ii,}:?, 
1,eing printed in the latter year. De ['[8{e, EXjdir(ltlon de la, Cærte, Paris, 1732, 
1J t(aclte, COJ/sideraf imlS fJéo!J'ì"aphifJllcs, Paris, 1733. They included Hllssian 
awl Japanese discoveries. A l'i,-al geographer, 1\1. Vangondy, (J1J.
('riti'lue.'1 sur 1 8 'JLOuî:elles dérOllVf"rlrs de fAdmirctl De lft Fuente, Paris, 17.):
took upon himself to refute De l'Isle's arguments at the time. These memoirs, 
tmnslaLctl into Spanish and supplemented by long ed.itorial comments in 
which Padre Buriel exposed the fictitious character of the llarrati ve, were 
l)rinted, 17.)7, in rene
/(l8, }"....otici(l8 de Col., iii. 2!)6-43G. In 1768 the author 
of Je.IJ
r!f8' (;rNlt ProlJal/liit!! of a }>lo'J.tJm.pst POÆsff{Je devoted nine pages to 
Fonte's letter anll120 pages to 'observations' in defence of its aut.henticity. 
The work 3180 contains a map of :Fonte's discO"erics. Forster, rli.
t. rúy., 
London, 17St>, pp. 4,";3-5, deemed neither the letter nor the defence just 
reférre<l to worthy of serious refutation. Clavigero, 8toria dclht Cat., i. In3, 

bo declared it a hoax in l7nS. But Fleurieu in 1707, .llIarclw'lld, royayp, 
mtrotl., xxi.-xlii., could not realize the force of Forster's argument, nnt! was 
himself disposecl to believe in Vonte's voyage, or at lcast that he actually 
reached the archipelago awl entrance of a great rivcr. This author aIU11llallY 
othcrs are unduly illtluenced. hy the ahsurd idea that Spain made secret 
explorations and kept the results a profound mystery. Navarrete in IS02, 

II YIE""'S. 


A Spanish <1es('ription of ..&.\.l1u:riea in ] ï 1 0 (lL.
the Htrait a
 <lis('oyered hv IluJ-.;ou and 1.'roLi:-,hel". 
<)uivira as ('alIed X e\v .L\.l1,iun, ill latitud 
 10, L\: 
lJrake; ê.llHll\lliall a
 rcachin'" th 
 \1" -tic' ("it.(.}f' an;l 
n J 
e\ ell to I; 'rg', the JHO:-' Jlorth 'rn l\.ingdoJIl of all: hut 
ê.uhnits that theRe coasts arc not \\ ell kno"'J1. l1al'tain 
\\"'ooJcs Ito
('r:--., (tiler hi:-; ('rui
e in lï(J
-lO, iu('lirlf'd 
to the belief that CalifcJI'llia "'as juiu .<1 to the Juain, 
]lot\\.ithstall<lill" thc rC J )(Jl{"'; of it:-; .ir 'UJHlla\ i"ation 
o 0 ' 
f<)l' he 
a\\" Spaniards \\ ho luul sailed up the frulf to 
-12 ",herc they it'UJHl I:;hoal ""atcr. "I
ut the ol"IJf( IL- 
ia rds h
n iug- 1l10rC Ierritoric:-; in thi:-; J\ll-t of the 
\\rod(l than they kllo\\" ho\\r to Illtlllage, they arc Hot 
. f J' I lJ . ." '1 ' 1 . , 
CUrH)US () Jurt H.:r ):--\("ovcrle
. 1C Ilia } ) In l{o fr crs 
,vc )rk, ho\\"c\"er, is one of the usual typ " Hiakillg' Cali- 
fornia all i
]and.29 The French gcographer J)(. l' J 
cd the ífucstion in 1 ï 13, reachiu o . the conl."lu
'1 n 
that there "'ere no lIlean
 of Jeci(lin o ' het"'cen i:"'lallJ. 
and peninsula, and auuouueiug" that therefure he had 
in hi::; 0" 11 Inap
 left thc coa::;t linc Lrokcn at )Iclltlo- 
cino alld the "\T crillilion Sea. 30 

Su,;1 !/ J/fX., V;age, hx\i.-vii., df.darecl the voyage apocryphal, nnel in hii 
 .Apóc., I 3-l-() I , gavc his vim\s
r lcngth; yet he madc puhlic tho 
letter of Ulloa alrcaJy noticed, the only ..loculllcnt that has C\'cr uppeolrcc.1 
tu c\"en SUggCHt a. I"emoto l' )ssibility that Fontc '8 story '\\ a
(1 1111 fact. 
Burney, ('krnll. lli,t. Jray., 184-Dj, 1
13, docs not undert..alc to tlden'" tho 
narrativc, which he prints in full, hut is inelined to look at it "ith 1111 . 
inel111gcnee anel to consieler the argUlllt.'nt8 in its fanll' worthy of som(" crt.."flit. 
Laharpc, ..tfJ1"Lyé d,..s J r O!l(l!lC8,:1I..\ i. 30 H, also was Ili.spo:;c,.d to crcllit the story 
as not. altogether a. fiction in 18 W. The Chc\"alier Llpie in 1 S:!I, ...\ ou,' lis 

tll. des Jroy., xi. 
S-3ü, in tunl h('eamc the champion of Yontl '8 rou e. III 
makes the route of Fonte extcnel by channels, ri\ ers-including a l'..lrt of the 
::\[aCkCIl/io-anel lakcs, from the Pacitìc C(la.
t, in ahout :-.." , to ("h
Inlet of HUIIson ]
ay. Barnarda. cntere(l in the 
"lmc latitucle b) the I..inn 
channel, or Hio Haro, went north into Lake' alasco, part of th' Polar :-\ea, 
thcn t.':tstw:U"l1 in that Rea. ncarly to Uatlìu H..l) uncI L.u:...., Ruel tin.llly up intu 
the ley Ocean and cast\\ arel nearly t.) 
O. The north." cøtcnl portions of 
llanlarcla's ruuk. according to this author, are 
ho\\ 11 hy- . - - 011 his map. 
An,] tinally in IS.m thejYo,.th hlHr;r(w J:q.; ll', h.\'iii. l:!q-
:!. \\..'-8 pcnnitt..'(1 
by it:; con
cicncc to gratify its .Americanism to the extcnt of hinting that 
the).e '\\as at lea:;t room for argunwnt in Fonte'tJ favor. 
'.!b A flU ricn, })uwr;jÞcioll, 
rs., í:l, 1 :!S-!J, \\ ith rcfcl'l'ncc to a. treatise Cdl1cd; .,,1 ('WlI"UIIt tra.llllt'UJ supra tm r;ra111 ;11. ('hillClII jJrcrtur;. 
 ROl/o's' ("'Il;,';I1,/ J'"oy. J:umul the Jru 'lel, :U:! l:t Tla. ma { >ha8 also the Com- 
pany's iand 8cpaï.lt
d hy a str.Lit f!"Om _\
l, h
t ill" 
1I' l'a.b!\\.ll
;,,) [,tit.,. de J/. I) fl.""( oucha Lt la Clll{lorlll , 11l J o!/a.! s n 
'of"(l.l" u ,I. 
û8--;l. Thi:i \\ riter secm
 to Jwxc had no idl'., of the t:arlicst eX- 


Padre Luis \r elarde, [) rcctor lllissionary ûf northern 
SOHora, ,yrote his yie'VB of northern geography about 
171 G, and vcry accurately so far aH the kno"TJl rcgions 
,,-ere concerncd. Of the Colorado he Rays: ""T C 
 not ill ,,
hat latitude it riscs; sonlC say in the 
sierra of the Gran 
reguayo; othcrs in the Gran 
Quiyira-kingdonls ,,'hich lllêlUY geographers locate in 
this northcrn ..L
lncrica Incógllita, and aLout ,,'"hicIt 
lllany eOllfu
ed rlUllors are currcnt in N c,v l\Icxieo; 
and others near the scyen caves or cities fro1l1 ,,
caIne the :l\lexican nation." To the question of iðland 
or pcninsula \r elarde gave 111uch attention, placing 
hilllself squarcly on the record ,vith Padre Canlpos, 
his associate, as a partisan of the island theory, in 
spite of l{ino's belief to the contrary. The t\VO had 
lately rcturned frolll the gulf coast, ,,
here they haù 
satisficd thell1selves that lCino's ob
ervations coulll not 
havc been conclusive; both had repeatedly questioned 
the Pilluls and Y Ulnas, \V h 0 insi
ted that thcre ,vas a 
strait, and reported the ,vashing-ashore on the gulf 
coast of lnany articles that 11lUSt have come by the 
strait. Padre V clarde ,vas ,veIl acquainted ,vith cur- 
rent theories on the 
 orthern l\Iystery; had before hinl 
narratives of real and pretended expeditions; and had 
seen SOllie old Dutch 111aps; but he ,vas not certain 
,vhether the strait joined the Pacific above 40 0 , or 
turned east\yard to N e,vfoundland or Florida; nor did 
he vouch for all Piula tales, a8 that of a country \y here 
111Cn had only one foot and \VOlllen t\VO, though even 
this ,vcre not in philosophy ilnpossible. "Lo Þ cicrto 
es que hay Inucho incógnito per esta América Sep- 
tentrional. "31 

plorations, and of the preyalellt belief from 1540 to 1610 that California was 
a peninsula. He says the earliest Inaps made it an island; but no such maps 
are eÀtant. He says the Spaniards of late think it an island, but that other;s 
llo Hot accept that theory, which is not true. Indeed, though no fault can he 
found with his conclusions, they were bunglingly founded on a very few of 
the authorities then existing. 
31 rdnnle, De.<;cripcion l1i,c.;t., 347, 330-7, 388-9, with a map originally, 
which is Hot extant. The author refuses to credit Drake with having bailed 
rounel California, 1Ìnùing a lake of gold, a walled city, and a crowllcd king! 
but thinks another English pilot may havc ascended the strait to 3S a . He 



.r\ series of brief deta(.hl'd itcll}
 an that our 
topic prl'scnt:-; tor ",c\Yt:ral (le("aJcs, itelllS the (:J1fol"c .f! 
grollpillg or \\'hie!L ,,'ould 
er\' · no guod purpose, and 
"hich I procced to catalog He in c-hronologi("(l I c n-d('r. 
]{llig-ht and ]
arlo\," , 
('nt to find the strait in 1 71 !) 

l'C lo;-;t 011 I [ud
on I
a:v; hut in I
llgland it \\'a
yearH thought l'robal)le they had l)et'n SU('cc;-\sful anti 
gone through to the South Sea.:r.! Charlevoix i:-; cite(l 
as haying luet in China in 1720 :l I [uron \VOlllan 
".hOlH he hall knO\\'Il ill CanLHtl. She had been ('ar- 
ricc1 thither by land frolH trih... to tril,e. 33 In Ii:!l 
a (1alifornian padre, IT garte, ill a Californian -l.uilt 
ycssel, thc 'l"J'i" J
r() de [0- (/"'l:, but \, itlt an Engli:-;h 
pilot, ðuiled to the head of the gulf, nud again proYéd, 
u'-) Alarcon and Ulloa had ùone nearly t" () c(.:nturi..:-} 
LëfÖre, to his o,vn 
ati:--ifaction and that of 11Í
that Kino had bL:L:ll rio"ht ill declarin(1' California. a 
.:"" ü 
peninsula, nut\\'ithstallding the eOlltrary opinion of 
.:\laugc, NieI, C<.unpos, ,r elardo, and the re'-jt. 34 N' ot 
all the ,,'orlLl at once aceepted thi:-; solution of the 
euigilla; but a pCllinsuJa appeared on the lJc
t lnaps 
fr01H thi:-; tilHc; aud even the great Dl' l'Isle bO It1adu 
up h i
raptain Shelvocke, ,yho in 1721-2 found no end of 
gold dust in California, had no lllcau!:) of dccidillg 
notes the lliundcl' on many maps of making the Hio (lcl Xorte empty into 
the gulf of f'alifornia. In 17]."') the .Marques do :--:an 
Iigucl tIc Agua} 0 sought 
e to e"\.ploro (
ran Qui\"ira, which was a month's journcy from somc place 
ill To"\.as, lyiug on the slopc of a hill that" as h.Lthed hy a lal..c. This had hecll 
Icarllcc.l from onc José Crrutia, who had livcd ill Tc).a8. nor. Jlist. Texn.. q , )1:-;., 
l.",).-}-!). In lïl
 or thcreallout r
Hh'e Juan 
\Ulalldo Xicl "rote his Apunt f - 
'In illl'Ol
, pp. 'is, 
O-l, Rï, Ill, on the ('arlicr work of !)w Ire 
almcron, which hc 
l'Cprmillces. On the 
I) stel'Y, howc,.er, he is quite as much in thc dark as 
his }I!'C(ICC('S:-;Ol" ,\ hom he hlamcs uujustly for not having clc..lrcd up somc {If 
itH <larkl'
t points. Kid idcntities the mouth of the l
io Carmelo "ith l>rake 
ay, awl places it oppo
ite the mouth of the 'olorado Hh'cr, in 41 0 ! He 
rcgëll.(l:i ('alifolllia as .UI i:;lancl, IJavill
 matlc persoual oh
cr\atiolls on the 
suhject \\ ith l\ulre Kino in 1 'iO.-)-Ü. 1:( gartlillg thc 
as (hH.lling in the region north of Tc"\.as, he loea.t'8 the famous kingdom 
of Tilltian f,till farthcl. north, ill :'ù, aut! thc lake of Cop..lla in the same 
latitude \\ est of Tindan. 
3:.!Ilfarm's .I01l"1!(!/, x).,iii. 
33 ( an.f ,.'x Frlll'd...;, W
('f' Annals of Baja C..lliforni3, in 3n ('3rlier ,'olul11c of this series. 
35 '1'\\ iss, U/.I!!101l, CJm.,t., G4, cites a map óf Dc l'hlc of l'i:!
 "ith the 


bet\vcen island and pcninsula, eithcr frolll his 0"'"11 
obseryatiolls or those of others, Euglislullcn having 
no "tilue nor po,vcr to go about thc discovcry of it,'" 
an(1 the Spaniards baving gro,vn " indolent and incu- 
rious." His Inap, ho,,
eYer, is one of the old t.ype, 
silnilar to that of Dalnpier and Rogers, sho,ving an 
land. Shelvocke a18u believed "that Anlcrica and 
.L\..sia are joincd by a tract of land to the north\l'Tìrd."36 
I t ,va.;:; ill 1 ï 2 2 that Daniel Coxc let loose his po,verful 
ilnagination on north-,ycstern gcography. Referring 
to several other\vise unkno\vn expeditions froln N e,y 
England to N c"r l\Iexico and up the 
Iissouri, he de- 
scribes the northern branches of that river as "inter- 
w'"Qven ,vith other branches \vhich havc a contrary 
coursc, proceeding to the ,vest, and elnpty thelnsel vcs 
into a vast lake, ,,,"hose ,vaters by another great ri vor 
diselubogue into the South Sea. The Indians affirlll 
they see great ships sailing in that lake, t\vcnty tilnes 
bigger than their canoes." The 1\Iissouri "hath a 
course of 500 n1Îles, navigable to its heads or springs, 
nnd ,vhich proceeds fron1 a ridge of hills SOllle\vhat 
north of N e'V )fexico, passable by horse, foot, or ,vag-on 
in less than half a day," to the rivers running into 
the great lakc. Besides there ,vas Hontan's Long 
River, or the :\Ieschaouay, ,vhich cOlnes fl'Olll the same 
hills. l\Ioreover, Coxe had a journal ,vritten by a 
luan "adnlÎrably ,veIl skilled in geography," and ,vho 
had been so lucky as to kno,v one Captain Coxton, 
a privateer. Coxton ,vhile ,vaiting to plunder the 

fanila galleon hq.,d used his spare tilne for exploration, 
and had in 44 0 found a great river leading to a great 
lake, ,vith a very convenient island, ,vhere he renlained 
several nlonths. The nation he called Thoya, but 
the Spaniards called it Thoyago or Tejago, d
Tcguayo. The people ,velcoillcd the privateer as a 
foe of the Spaniards, ,vhonl they had often repulsed 
in battle. I have no space for Coxton'8 ,vondcrful 
geography of the Asiatic coasts and i8lands; but 
3G Shelvocke's Voyage, 399-400. Lonllon, 1726. 



nlcrcly note that "there are upon the c()a
t hetw'l:ûn 
.i \llll:rica and Japan di vo1':-) \" 'ry large and hafe 11:11'- 
bOl':-i." CUÅc hinlse1f: it Seell1
, claillled to ha '''e found, 
Ly going up the great river U(Ohccptitou, or 
"a great sea of fresh ,,'ater, f:)ln"eral thousand Inil 'S 
in Circuluferencc," ""hence ran the river Ly 'v hieh the 



I . <." '-...

- - / 
' L 1>u,"'1I. J
I IiltleL. 'OUillll'l'lUe \ dUJ>ilU 
ASSINI80UELI _ '\. - 

- p:'" J 
 T"V)U:'":;; II""". r.:. 

_../""' .'EU . ""--- I Fx } dè Pilli. 
 .\ I" 

 -"';1.4"6 - 

.lIu" I 
 ./.u,..4. I \ 6
 ILL/fiEI': un>!ANa 



I:UIII,,,. '. I I 
11 IICJk -;., 
- 1/1/ 
1 'U 


1 1 
" ( 

' 'lAP. 1744. 

ubscquently reached th") lake. Co
e haq 
nut l)eCll tairly treated. ] Tis rank a:-; a liar shúuld 
l)e Bear that (
)f FU

l, ':\laldoHado, and the unkno\\.n 
author of Fonte':..; Ictter. 31 
37 Coxe'g Du;cription of tll J.:"!/li.
l,, prol'illc of Carol ma, Loudon, 1 7


::\Iota Padilla ill 1742 t--peaks of California as sup- 
cd to be an i
land.38 In 1 ï 44 j\..rthl1r DoLLs pub- 
hed his Yle,\Y8 on a llorth-,vest pa
sage in a ,vork 
hose title, a
 appended in a note, sufficiently explains 
its purport. 39 ])obbs "
as lc::;s yi
iollary than bOUlC 
earlier aclyocates of his cau
o, but ,va
posed to 
credit the tale of Fonte's di8coveries. "All nature 

1 50 0 





." ,\1(\ -
ó Q ' .


 ClL-\RT. 174l. 
also reprinted in F1'ench's [list. Col. Louisiana, ii. 230-3, 233-6. See also 
Dobbs' Af:co/lnt, 140, 133, 1ûû; and .LYorth Am.eJ". Rcriew, lxviii. ]03-4. It 
is to he noted, howcyer, that French's copy dues not agree with that quoted 
by the Rel.iclI", since the former says nothing at all of Coxe's mvn discoveries. 

ob1ot, Géofl. Unit'., Paris, 1723, Y. 5U:!, California is described as doubt- 
less an island; at which opinion at that date surprise is expressed in Lock- 
man'.., '1'nw. Je.'mit.", i. 348-!)' Camphell, Span. Am., 8:3, notes a Dutch map 
of 1730 in which California is represented as a peninsula. 
36 JJlota Padilla, ifis!. ]{. Galicia, 177, 3()1. 
3!J j)olJ
.s, An Af'rollnt if the COlilltrif8 adjoini7lg to IlwTson's Bay. . . 'With lilt 
ahstrar't (1 Capt. 1I1irldl(tolt'.
 Journal, ((wl U')"
('l"cation,.;; lljJún his Bcha?"i01". . .A 
letter from B,,,.tho!OJJleW de Fúnte. . . An Ob8lJ'(tct of all the lJiS('Ol.erifS. . . The 
'wILoie intcnd((l to show tlle grf'at Prolj{t!Jilit!l (if a .lYorlh-1.crst Pw;,'iaye, so 10llg 
dl ,-.:ircd, 
tc. Lonùon, 1744. The same author's ]l(,Jìwrks 'upon Jliddteton's De- 
jtltce, Lonùon, 1744, is of like purport, with a map. 


} O).. 

crics aloud there i:-; a pa
sng-e, nlHI ,yp fil'l' Rurù th '1'0 
is one frOI11 j Lu<lson'H 13ay to ,J apan," he ,vritcs; hut 
founds his zealous f
lith not 
o IlllU.h on the 01(1 ('()S- 
Juographical thcorit.'
 as 011 the reports of northl'rn 
Indians, the di
 of French ]
no'lish :uHI 
h tl'avellcr:-;, and the tide:-; in and about] [udsoll 
ay. I give a l"ecll1<.tioll of ))ol,bs' llUlp, ,vhich ".a
tlrgely {(HInde(l on report
 of n (iallaùiau IIHlian 
nalued Joseph La 
"raIlce, though it al
o ('outain
Baron La I-[outall'R pretcll(le(l di
.40 The 
author 1ìrully Lclicvcd that 
liddleton and others 
ha(l by ignorance or ncgligence l11i
;"L'(l the strait; or, 
Jllore likely, having found it, hac 1 hecn induced to 
conceal their di
cover'y by the IIut1t;oll's Bay COU1- 
pall Y . 

rhc provincial in hi::) InelnorÌal of 1745 to the 1\:ing 
of Spain suggested nc,v explorations to settle the 
question of i:-;land ur penin
Father Scdchnair 
ill 1 ï JG also 'YI"ote of the n1attcr tlH l)eing still in 
doubt anlong the lllis
ional'ies, but the nly
ter.r could 
be solv'cd "rith others-those of Quivira and Tep
guaya, and of the ,yhite Ulcn ,,-ho came south to 
trade-L:v founding lnissions on the Gila and Colo- 
radc).42 But in 17 4G 
-'ather Consag made his trip up 
the gulf ,vaters in boats, and once 1110ro settled the 
vexed question, and declarcd California a pcninsula, 
,vhcreupon Scdehnair, rejoicing in thi
covcry, ex- 
clain1cd: "
Iay God grant that it be, a
 it probably 

to Dobbs, 44-5, was toll I Ly France of an 01<1 Inùian in the region of 
Xclson Hivcr, who fiftecn years ago bad gone to the wcst coast to fight his 
('Homies, the 'l\
tc Plats. }<'rance'8 tra.,.cls were in 1 ï::!)-J:!. Vobh..... IO!), 
mcntions a lanel ca<;tnard of Japan, ill 4.").), 
ho" II on 8c,.cl"al dlart
, nUll 
coasted by (
alUa. ill a voyage from .A.mCl ica. to China. This reportul dis- 
covery, as we shall see. "lli:I the cauæ (,f 
rcat trouble to the Uussian c'-- 
plorcrs in ]ï4-1, who wcre gui(lccl hy n,
 rhl("s chart. Thi
 &l111e chart, 
whieh I haxc copiell from tho original in the Uus:sian nrchin
s. bhows tho 
coast ahovc California as in the aùjoillcd bkctch. Hobhs also citcs the l'reuch 
"riter .J erl'mip: 'Thc s..1.Ya,
CS f:ay, that after tron-clling some 
lollths to the 
. w. [on a strait from Hudson Bay] they to the 
ill, upon" hich 
tlu.y saw grpÄlt V ('&)cls, "ith mcn \\ 1.10 had llcards :-md C.lpS, who hather llold 
011 thc Shor(' (p. 10). 
Y(Jf. C(d., ii. j:JG. 
Sc"dJJl((ir, J:,f 'row, S."'),-..-S. 


,vill, for the conversion of the ,vhüle eontinellt as 
far as J apall, Yerùo, or Tartary 1"43 and 'Tilla SelÌor y 
Sanchez, giving in 1748 the first printed account of 
 trip, and declaring t,he southern part of the 
Inystery at an end, turned his attention farther north, 
and by a process of reasoning satisfactory to hiulself 
sho,ved that the .Ålnerican coast just above 44 0 turned 
cst,vard to the Rtrait of Uriz, by which it ,vas sepa- 
rated frolll the A
iatic land of Hezo, and through 
,,?hich the Dutch had sailed on various occasioll
"\Vhat had been mistaken for the strait of Anian in 
past years ,vas really the 1l10Uth of the groat riyer of 
San Antonio flo,ving from the north and into the sea 
just above Cape lVlendocino, ,vhere the coast turns 
,vest,vard. This ,vas certainly a novel theory, or 
rather a very old one revived. 44 
In 1748 Henry Elli
 puLlished his narrative of the 
yoyage of the Dobbs Galley and Calijorh'Ù-t to Hud- 
son Bay; and he joined to it an historical account, of 
previous attelnpts to find the north-,vest pa
sage, and 
a statenlent of the agreen1ents on ,vhich the existence 
of such a passage ,vas founded. The ,york ,vas more 
cOlnplete than any earlier one on the subject; and the 
author, though sOlne\vhat too indulgent to the trav- 
ellers ,vhose tales favored his theories, did not COlll- 
111Ït hÌ1nself very fully to belief in the old fictions. 
Y et he ,vas llluch illlpressed by the story of a Portu- 
guese in London ,vho had met a Dutclnnan ,vho, 
having been driven to the coast of California, had 
found. that country to be either an island or peninsula, 
according as the tide ,vas high or lo\v. l\Ioreover, 
the coast aboye California trended north-east, a very 
strong argU111ent in favor of a passage. Ellis did not 
kllO'V of the Russian discoveries. 43 In 1749 another 

43Sedelmair's letterof:\Iarch20, 1747, inDoc.Ilist...L1Iex., serieiii. pt.iv.841-2. 
41 Villa Setior y 
S'anchez, 'Thcatro Americano, ii. 272-!)4. 
4;, Ellis, JT oyctU C to 11ll(b;on's .flay, 1746-7. London, 1748. J\Iap an(ll)lates; 
also translations and reprints in later years. The same author published 
in 17.')0 CO}l8iderations on thc Grcat Ad,.aJ1ÜlUCS v'hich u'ould arÙ.e of the 
j......ortlt-lI.e.o.;t Pa8sa[Je. See also reneyas, Not. GaL, iii. 237-87, for a resumé of 
Ellis' ,,,'ork. 



".o1'k on the sanlC topic ,,"a.... pul)Iished, the arglunent 
being t()ullded lllaiuly on ()b
er' atiouH of tIle tiùal 
currell ts. 

Defore 1750 the Jlussians ha(llIladc fron1 the north- 
"'e;-o;t illll'ortant .1\..ll1crican (liscoverit ....., \vhich Inate- 
rially (.irclnll
cribed tIu" K orthel'n )ly
tery in that 
direction. They lUHl di
coYered the real 
trait, aud 
Ilacl pro\"eJ the exi
tencc uf a large l)o(lyof lan(l Ga
of northern .... \s
a, ,\
hich haù heen visited at sl'vl'ral 
different point
. But het,,"eeu these point...., :tIHI '-'outlt 
of the southel'Unlost, there ""a
 Htill rOOUl for luaB'" 
interoceanic pa
 \.ccordingly in 1750-3 De l' j ,-,l
and ]
uache took np the pretcndc(1 di:-\covcrit':-' of 
11'onte, presenting such t
ts and rUlllor:" a '00\ ('onI( I 1.0 
IHa( Ie to su
tain their theory as already note< I, allf 1 
cuncocting a lllap, ,vhich I append, and the aL....ur(li- 
 of ". hich are :::;ufiiciently apparent ,vithuut expla- 
nation. 47 
Still had California a foothold for co
tery; for in 1751 Captain Salyador ill tt report t( Þ 
the kino' Htatcd that the Coloratlo Ili ver before rcach- 
inO' the O'ulf scnt off a hranch to the Pacifie Ocean, 
o 0 
Yvhich branch ,vaH in reality the l
io tIe Filipinos or 
l{ io Carnlelo. Padre Niel ha(l lllade the Colorado 
Clnpty into the strait oppo:-;ite the Carnlelo, So that, 
IHnv there \Ya
 no strait, Sal \
 theory ,yas not 
,,'ithout it
 I ÞlausiLility. Thi
, "yith its subscquent 
dt..:v(.Io] Huent uf 177 -1, ,,"hCll Captain .L\llza "yrote frolll 
the Gila of a report of the natives that a Lranch of 

4& fl ru
on(] to ....h 11', that th re i
 ((, great Probability of a ..Yavir/n1Jle P((s,
af1e to 
tlL JJ ('.,it rn .Am' riean Or (lIl, t1Lrol 1 yh l1ucLsoll,'
 Sirttyhf;.; and CJæ.si rJicld Iule/. 
London, ) 74!t 
Ii j){' I'I,
fe, E;'plicatioll d{' fa, raTft>, Pat"i
. 17.)
. I bke a copy from that 
puhlislwtI in I7(jl hy .Jeffcrys ill Jlidhr'.'i J"O!I. ..hitt to .tmeJ'. It is also ill 
.J/" rclHlII,f, J"o!l., 1'1. iii. It \\ ill he Ilotit'l.d that (. 'alifurnia. i:i correctly laid 
down, antI that the Hus8ian di"co\"l't"y of Chirikof, in whit'll the author's 
IIl.other participatctI, is shown, hut not that of l>crin!!, in the same expc,li- 
tion. Coat!ô;, (lW!/. Il" [..on RaI', :
;, 17.')1, f.ay
: 'Thcbe 
[i:scot.t IlIIlian:i h.ll 
us some '\ i:-.ionary btoreys of Ehips and men of n tliffercllt make awl complcctioll 
fret!llcntill(r there HllOres f\Vil1ipl'ggon Lake], for thcy arc po
iti\'e this lake is 
opcn to wc
tward; :uul do attempt to tlescribe their gihictl hl'eJ...
. and sails, 
tLlulothcr matters, hoth tc(lioufi and tircsomc, \, ithout \\ e had Letter grounds.' 
















DE L'IsLE'S ::\IAP, 1732. 



the Colora(lo ran" e:-;t\\ an1 aud nortIH"anl, 1l1akillg' the 

ug'gestion that that 1)l'allch B}ight teru1Ïnato in San 
l'raneisco 1 ;ay, bceln:-; to IH1VC 1 )Cen the last p11a....o uf 
the theory that Calit()rnia '''as au i:.;land; thouo'h 
e "perc not ""autin c " in e'
en later titHe' ,,"ho fn
pure lll'gligeuce rcpeated the uill represcntation") in 
thei r te
 t tLIHJ Ill:l} J
, 4') 
] n 1 ï 57 tho g-reat ,vork of \T enegas on California 
 pul.lisheù by l}adre 11urriel, a 1110St intelligent 
(.Jitor, ,,,ho ùeyoteel one of the three volulne
 on voyages of exploration and on the gcog- 
r:1phy of tho far north. In one :..;ensc ]
urriel ,,'as the 
t ""riter-if 'YO exccpt CalJl"el'a Uueno, ,,,hu had 
] )uLlishe(l accurate sailing tlirectioll
 of the coast frolll 
outh "
arJ 49_ to tal\.c COUllllon-sen:-.;e 
yie\\"s on the 
uLjeet, to reject tho apocryphal YO'yage
a" "holly tllHvorthy úf creùit, tu restrict northern 
g'cography to actual disco, eric
, antI to correctly 
lllap, in priut, the pcuin
uIa and the regions úf the 
Colorado and Gila a
 far a
 kuo\\"ll. 50 IIc giYe
, hO"9- 
ever, a gencralluap, sho,yillg the northern geographic 
lllyths, as in ])e l'l
,de for tho 11l0st part, IJllt bur- 
rOlulòs those parts ,yith a dotted line, and clo:-,es hi
,york as fullu\\"
: ",y' ell then, SOlllO one says, ,,
seas, coast;:;, riycrs, Jakes, provinces, nations, people:-:, 
arc there in North ..c\,Jllerica. Leyond California, Capc 
Blancl), nio tlo .L\g uilar, l{io ColoraJo, .\Ioqui, and 

48 f'al'\"a.dor, in Doc. Ilis!. ...llrx., Bcrie iii. pt. iv. r,OI-f.. TIc urges thi'J 
new route 
s tho Lest for the occupa.tion of ('alitornia. _1 rch. Cal., 
I:-\., Pro I'. 
.....1. ]>((1)., iii. 190-1; ..b-riridta, C,'ullic I, 4.,):!-:J. In 'Ilurcllill's Col. roy", \"iii. 
tili3, ii a map of 1 j.j.j hy II. )[011, making ('alifomia an blaml. Homt:'
, ÛILr 
]\.lloll...1f(!!lc of Ca.l. ([lid tht' .J..Yortlll'" ,t Uuast olle humla: ,! 1"8 sillc , Albany, 
lðiO, p. 4, 
ays: '
rany J1l,lPS in the 
C\\ York State l..ihrar), of AS late dato 
ag li41, rt:'prcHcnt it ns nn bland, as tho::,c of O\"crton, Tillunon, })o }'\r, awl 
othcrq, nnd tlu
y e).,tcllli Califurnia up to latitude 4;:;\ including :XC\\ AILioa. 
tillianïs atlas of 1 i.j,j make's California. an i
latltl reaching to Iatitllllc .J'; . 
J:ngcl in 1';1i! trics to }11"0\"0 that it is Hot true that California, 0\\ ing to the 
"inds :uHl tides, is 8omctime:-J a pcnill,",ula. awl at other timcs an i
laLll.' T! e 

cw York Sun in 1
7G spoke of n gco,.,rapby }mhli
h\.ll in London in 1"- .J 
in \\ hich California. is dcscribcd nnti mappcll as an i
49 ( "hrenr, lflll 110, .J..'Y""e.lurin/l, E..p c"!atil.(l. 
ranila. 1 ;::-1. 
50 J"f IU !/cl.fl, }.Yutiritl8 dt' la, ( 'u/., l\Lulrid, 17;jj; \"01. üi. is tleyotcl1 to gco ,- 
raphy :11111 n rdnt.ation of carlit.r tÌctiotls; map at l'llll. ]
:!;crt's _Ya r ll1.' ", ,. . 
1" ;:!, a1::,0 cliclnHll:h to l'Í1'l:1.I1atc ilecurat ' idcas of CaliiorllL.. gl oraphy. 
111,.1 . 
. ,\ . Cu.\:. 1", y. L. 1. 


N c\y ::JIexico to\Vard8 the north for 50 degrees? Ex- 
cept \yhat has Loen learned un our ..L\.tlantic side, and 
the little Inade kno,vn Ly Rus
ian voyages ill tho 
South Sea, I readily rcply' ill a ,vord, ,yhich cau
lllO no shanle nor ought to any good 111an, Ignoro, 
N . Y I ,,, 
.l. eSCIO, 0 no 0 so. 



-0 -Ij 
0- . 
0- A 
- cl




é? ....tI 

o a 0 
o -ð o r.F7 
o y.GA
A.8 \..!'N 




0 0 
0- 0 

Xami'S_TIl"'OfiXNI witJ] an xnot in tJIP orig-jnaJ 

\) \3 


,IAP, 17tH. 
'Vith Muller's narrative of the Russian discoveries 
Tho111as Jefferys, geograpller to his British Inajesty, 
published in 17GI, besides De l'Isle's. lnap. ,vlllch I 
have already given, t,vo gcneralluaps, III 'VlllCh a COll- 


C.. \1

0,5 j 
... 1 


.., ..,"'1" 

r J 'l.
,.. nDto-t' 
"'---? " 
0'" ð 

."',,\...J s- 




. '" I'Ioty 

" '\










J I C f 
rl l 



L\P, 1 ";t,S. 











tinuous coa
t is ShO'Yll up to the far north, ,yith indi- 
. f . \ . 1 ' "L-' , 
catIons 0 .LigUI ar s entrance, .r uea s entrance, aud 
the" pretenlled entrance" of 
'ollte. One of the lllaps 
sho,ys a Riyer of the "\V est flo,,
illg frolH J
ake "\Vini- 
pigol1 into the Pacific at Aguilar's entrance, in 45 0 , 
,ylÚle a po

ible river runs farther south to Pro de 
nno nUC\TO; but in the other the great l'iyer i
called St Charles, or Assiniboels, tern1inatillg at tho 
Illountains of Bright Stones; ,vhile tho southern river 
i8 called River of the 'Vest, being doubtfully con- 
nected througll Pike's lake and l\Iallton's river ,vith 
the l\Iissouri. The lo,ver course of these st.rcanlS 
into the Pacific is not sho,yn except as on the othcr 
lllap. The main coast above 50 0 is "supposed to Le 
the Fou-Sang of the Chinese." A fourth Inap in this 
,york is ono that purports to be of Japanese origin, 
,vhich I copy. 51 
In 1768 the saIne Jefferys published and furnished 
Inaps for another ,york, ,vritten perhaps by Theodore 
S,yaine Drage, and devoted to the defence of Fonte's 
yoyage by an enthusiastic believer in tho north-,vest 
passage. I reproduce the general nlap, ,vhich not 
only sho,ys De l'Isle's ideas of Fonte's discoveries as 
1110dified by the royal geographer, but also contains 
the general features of Jefferys' earlier 111aps, as already 
described. The ,vestern portions not sho,yn on Iny 
copy are the Russian dis.coveries, of \vhich details are 
given in another yolulne. It ,vill be seen that in 1768 
it ,vas easier to find the interoceanic passage than to 
Iniss it; but earthquakes or something have since 
changed the face of nature in that region. 52 
It ,vas in 1766-8 that J. Carver, the Anlerican 
trayeller, Hlade his visit to the upper 
lississippi and 

51.,][1I71er's rO!lage8 from A8ia to A'l")u'rlcu. . . Trnnslaled .from the lli[]h Ðu".;7I, 
of s. }.[ulie r. London, I7Gl. Long the standard authority on the Unssi.lll 
discoveries. The map is 'taken from a Japanese map of the \yorld brought 
over by Kempfer and late in the 
l usæum of 
r Hans :-410ane.' 
52 JejJr'I.YS' Tltf' Orput ProbftMlit!J nf a .1Yúrth Jrt'st Pw.:srrf/('; deduced from 
Ob,c;er1.:ntlons nn the lrtter of Admiral ])(' Foutf'. London, 17G8. On this map, 
as on Jefferys' earlier ones, are marked the 'l\Iountains of Bright Stones 
mentioned in the map of the Indian Ochagach.' 



thc Rt PieITt'; and in his l,ook, puhli:-\he({ ten year
later, he joined to hi:-.; adyelltures all account of far 
".e-.;tern (J'CO( fra } )h \r } )ur l )ortill(1' to lJC founded Oil 
 1.1' i""') 

 of the Iudians tu the autll()I", but ".hieh 
lllight \\ ith his lllap hayc Leen c{Hnpiletl frOBI earlier 
, text::;, aud lllaps, as the reader ,\ ill per- 
<.;eiyc. Nor tloo<:; thc lHap agrce altogether ,\ ith the 



tJJ J.' 


-- ................ 



L\..p, 1778. 
narratiyc. Carvcr's great achil".Clncnt, ho,yc,-cr, 'Ya
the invention of a nc\v HanlC for the Il1ythic 'river of 
the ".(,ìst.' lIe called it the Oregon. l'he nallle 

oulldeù '\PL'll, ".as adopted by the 1 ){)et J3ryant in hi
iUllllortal l'luln f(Jp.C\is, and bccanlC pCl'lllanellt. 53 
:'3 rarl:er's Trm'('l.i tlLrOll.lh th Jilt rioT Parts of _Yorth-Arlll'r;ur. ill tlie "/ears 
liCG, lìC7, alld lìCS. Lundun, 1';7S. Sce especially h.. 7()-;, 11 7-
.!, ;..t:!. 
lIe naml'S 'the ni'"cr Uregon [elsewhere called Oregan], or the l
ivcr of the 


'Ve have no,v reached the period ,,?hen actual 
exploration callle to the aid of conjecture; and here, 

ince it i
 not lny present purpo
(' either to 
peak of 
Alaskan tli
covl\ries or to follo\\? the Bcareh for the 
llorth-,vcst pas8age in .L\rctic ,yaters, the topic of the 

Iystel'Y lllay properly Lú dropped. The 
only eonnection bct\veen tho 11lYBtery and tho voy- 
 of the f'ucceeding period, to be noticed in the ncxt 
chapter, iR that the forIller ,vas gradually broken up by 
the latter; that the navigators ,vere constantly seek- 
ing for the old nlythic channel
 and failing to find 
thenl.51 Indeed, to the Spaniards this search ,vas the 
only inlportant feature of their explorations. Thüy had 
110 desire for territorial possessions in the far north; 
long ago they had given up the hope of finding rieh 
kingdolus there; but if, as ,,-'-as believed by lllany, 
there ,vas a strait, it ,vas of course inlportallt f0r 
Spain to control the Pacific entrance; and if there 
,yas no strait, there lnight be a great river giving 
access by ,yator to the regions of N O\V 
lexico. This 
"Tas the last phase of the nlystery in Spanish eyes; 
and on its clearing up they prolllptly retired, leaving 
the north to English, AUlericans, and Russians. The 
llature of the coast, ,vith its conlplicated net-\vork of 
islands and channcls, rendered it necessary to explore 
every nook and corner before it could be absolutely 

\Yest, that falls into the Pacific Ocean at the straits of Aunian' as Olle of 
the four great riyers which, rising within a few leagues of each other, flow 
respectively into Hudson Bay, Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of 1\Iexico, and I>aciiìc 
Ocean. The Indians spoke of a great lake, larger than Superior, 
. w. of 
'Yinnepeck, which Carver thinks to be 'the Archipelago or brokcn waters t!la.t 
form the communication betwcen Hudson's Bay and the northern parts of 
the Pacific Ocean.' The grcat range of mountains reached 47 J 01' 480; that part 
of the range west of the 
t Pierre was called the 
hining :l\Iountains, bcing 
covered with large crystals, and doubtless rich in gold antI silyer; while some 
of the nations farther west' have gold so plenty among them that they make 
their most common utensils of it'-sllpposed to be :Mexican tribes that 
escaped northward at the cOllCjuest. 'To the west of these mountains, when 
explored hy future Columlmses or Raleighs, may be found other lakes, rivers, 
and countries, full fraught with all the necesðaries or luxuries of life; awl 
'where future generations may flnd an asylum.' See lIi8t. OJ"c[Jon, this series. 
5,1 The last actual voyage through the mythic strait was perhaps that of 
Baron Uhlefeld, in 177:
, who made it on a Danish governmcnt vessel, the 
Northern Crown, according to a Danish periudical cited lJy :Kavarretc, 
Viagc8.ApóC., 177. 

......___..... _ . L.]fI
..' . -.
-" :I ' 
.. ........ J 


-0".. .. 
'" . 
fnt.^' U 
'.Il/,.IJllil.ll. - ...... 
J(J , 
,\'" . -e. 







. -, 




P dtoM,.. 


'_ "'EorTO 


., 0 





;.;.w r-








J]UtlIlO" ( 


















I"""""..- .,..... .......... 



LOfJ.l.s 1 
. ........ ..... .-..... :<:...,. ..... 

"""" " 


-L- -1- _ '---; J 

 )1.\1', liS:!. 


ccrtain that no inland passagc existed; therefore 
thero ,yas roon1 for doubt and discussion not only 
until 1800, but throughout the next quarter century, 
during ,y hich period appeared nUlny of the ,rorks cited 
in this chapter. The general 
Ulnlnaries uf Forster 
and Fleurieu appeared Lefore 1800; later ones ,vere 
those of Nayarrete in 180
 and 184a, of .Ànloretti in 
1811, of Burney in 1813, of Lapie in 1821, of the l\T"orth 
jlJJ1cricun l?eeielv in 183a, and of Greenho,v and T,viss 
in 184G. J\Iany Inaps might yet be cited to illustrate 
110"'" slo"T ,vere geographers to take full ad vantage of 
ne,v discoyeries; but no ne,v theories ,yero evolved, 
and crrors ,vere oither the result of negligence or 
Y\''"cre of local signification only. I present Janvier's 
Inap, published in Paris in 1782. It is sonle,vhat re- 
lllarkable, as another ,vriter has said in substance,5:5 
that in California, Nevada, .L\.rizona, and Utah, the 
yery regions in ,vhich the ,vonderful riches of Cíbola, 
Qui vira, Teguayo, and the 'great lake' ,vere anciently 
located by blundering conjecture and groundless false- 
hood, should have been actually found in later tilDes 
the greatest Inineral ,vealth of North America. 

5á Taylo'r's Fi.rst Voy. to Cal. by Cabrillo, preface. 



1343-1 ;;.J. 

Ihr.TOI O'[I.
ELO-nID "'OT T'.\S
T YEP-SlOSs-TIlE }'.\'\IOI:S Vo\". 
AUE - Tn E ".. ORI.D E
l..nIIT C..\SSOT :m
 }"pn:D-Dn..\K1-: PO
D W.\S THE DI'-'CO'"EItEH. 01;0 OI:.Ec'OS-G \U'g VOY\GE 
T UEORGE, IX 41 0 43', TIlE 
\"1\-.\1" OF EXPI OI
 OF Jr.\ '1 
S A'XD nF:-;rLTs-X.Hn.s 
l'IF'I'Y-EllaITß P.\RALLEL. 

.\V. E nO'Y COIne to the actual exploration of the 
Pacitìc coast aLove latitude forty-t\vo. The firRt epoch 
of that cxplor..ttion e"\:tcnds chronologically dO\Yll to 
1 ïi 4, and includes four cxpcdition
 only: thO:--\l\ ()f 
lTelo in 1543, of Drake ill 1jiD, of (i-ali in 158-1, 
ntHl of '"Tizcaino and oOL \guilar in 1 G03. These are th 
only voyages, if ".e except the apocryphal one (af 
,J naIl (Ie J'uea ill 1 :")!)G, in ,,"hich ]
uropcan naxigator
reachc( I, or clailllcd to reach, ,,-ith any degree of 
plau:-\ibility, the Oregon Territory. _\..ll uf thenl L \- 
long 11101'0 clo:-;cly to the annal
 of the south than (If 
the north, an(l h
tYO thcrpfc)l'e been fully dL':--;criLed in 
earlier YO!tUllCS of thiH scries. 
Bartolulné }'errclo, the succes
or of J nan I
gucz CaLrillo, COlllllHl11tling t" 0 
lllall Yc:;:;el
, the bun 
(1,,7 ) 


Sall'culo7' find TY"ictoT'ia, despatched by the Spanish 
gOyerllnlent to explore as far llorth,,
ard as pos:sible, 
being the first European craft to 
ail on Californian 
,vaters, left Cape Pinos, in latitude 3!t as he be- 
lieycd, Fcbruary 
5, 1543. For three days he ran 
north-,vcst,vard, one night's sailing nlcan,vhile being 
south,vard, ,vith a strong south-,,'est ,,,ind, until on 
the 28th he ,vas in latituùe 43 0 . During one night he 
kept on llorth-,yest\vard, Lut on l\Iarch 1st ,va
by a gale and driven north-east,vard to,vard the land 
and destruction. Before the vessels struck, ho,vever, 
there canle a storn} \vith rain, "Thich drove then1 back 
and saved then1. The highest latitude as estin1ated 
by Fcrrelo ,vas 44 0 . It docs not appear that any land 
,vas seen above a point SOlnc t,venty leagues from 
Cape Pinos; but at the northern linlit birds and float- 
ing ,vood indicated the nearness of land, hidden by the 
fog; and farther south, bet,veen latitude 41 0 and 43 0 , 
indications of a large river ,vere seen or ilnagined. 
On the return Capo Pinos "
as sighted on March 3d. 
The northern cruise had lasted six clays.! 
The narrative supplying no description of lancl- 
Inarks in the north, ITerrelo's northern linlÍt Inust be 
Lletermined by his latitude and 1y hi
 sailing froln 
Point Pinos. Taking his highest observation in 43 0 , 
deducting an excess of fron1 1 0 30' to 2 0 noted in all 
his latitudes on the Californian coa:st, and accepting 
his o,vn estin1ate of progress after the observation of 
February 28th, ,ve have 42 0 or 4
0 30' as the highest 
point reached. Tho result of the other test depends 
lllainly on the identity of Pinos. If that point ,vas 

1 The source of all real information about this voyage is the Cabrillo, T?e- 
lneion, or original diary, })robably written by Juan l)aez, and printed in 
Pacheco and Cârdcuas, Col. Doc., xiv. IG3-!)l, and in Plo'rida, Col. Doc., 
173-89. OthCl' works that may he consulted on the subject, cuntaiujng 
comments and slight variations, are: lIen.era, dec. vii. lib. v. cap. iii.-i\-.; 
, .J...Vot. Cal., i. 181-:{; La('f, Novus Orùis, 306-7; Nw'arrete, in Sutil y 
.11Iexicana, Via!lp, xxix.-xxxvi.; Ill., ria[fPs Apóc., 32-4; Taylor's First royo[fe 
to theCoe(;.-;t ofCed.. .ùy Uaùrillo
. Burney's Ch,'on. Ilist., i. 220-5; an.lEvans 
and, 1'ra1li
lation and 1V ote.
, in U. 8. Oeo(l. SUT'-'., H7weler, vii. arch., 
pp. 203-314. There are plenty of further referenc
s, but they lead to no addi- 
tional information. 

DRAKE.oo; YOY.\nE. 


as high a
a ()f the In'l)
cnt ]nap
, as has 
lH.wn elaÏ!lled hy 
()lHe, then pel'hap
 latitude 4
llot tou high for .Fl'rrelo's p()
ition on )[arch I 
t: hut 
i f l)ino
 \\pa'-) the poiut 
till :-;0 calle(1 at )Iou ten.'.'''' as 
the e\pidence 1l10..;t ('ouyillcing-Iy indicat('
, theu it i..; 
tolerably certain that no higher latitude than that of 
Cape )Iendueino ".as attained. 'ro present the :u'gu- 
llH..'llts ,vould be tu repeat lleedle:-;
ly IllY ac('oullt of 
the yoyage to CalifèJruia, to \r hich .f refer the reader. 2 
.... \.t the IIlO:-;t "b\
rrelo, \\'ithout seeing- hUH I, pa
thirty lllÎles beyoud the pre
ent Orc.!.{ou hOUH( lary ; 
but it is ahllo..;t certaiu that he did not euter ()regoll 
".a.ter::;; and it i
 Iny upinion, as cxpressed in a forlHer 
yultnne of thi
, that he ùid nut pa

 Cape :\Ieu- 
Francis Drake's clailns to he considercd the di:-;- 
coycre1' of Oregon are ill 
Ollle respects better than 
those of the I Jcyantine pilot, though not beyonù the 
reach of douLt. l'he English cor
air, haying elltere(l 
the !)acific Ly "
ay of )lagellan Strait, and ha \"ing 
\vell-ui(rh loaded hi

el, the (iuld(J1i llilld, \\pith 
f;pallish plunder on the coast
 uf South and Central 
Alllcrica, set sail frolll Guatulco, on the coa ---t ()f 
t)ajaca, in 15 0 40', on .L\pril 16, 15ï9. lIi
"pas to find if possible a northern pa
:--age by \\'hieh 
he lllight return to Eno'lan(l, thus ayoidill!! not oIllv 

the long a
d storluy 
outhcrll route, but also po::-.si1 )le 
risky encuuntels ".ith the Spaniard8 he had ruLLell. 
Hi...; courSe lay far out into the ()c
an north-\\Pc:-;t\\-ard 
until early in June, ,\"hell he approached the lanll 
:--;oluc\vhcro bet\\'cen J
o and 48 0 , according to hi..; O\\'n 
er\.atioll:-) or cstilnatcs. lIe eycn allch
red iu a haù 
JHlrbor; but un account uf rough "pcathcr, and particu- 
larly of exccssiyc cold, yery gr(J:--
ly ûxaggeratell in 
the narrative, decideù to abandon. the 
carch fur a 
Rtrait and to return 
outh\\'ard, ,,'hich he ùid, follo\\'ing 
the coast <.10\\'11 to 38 0 , ú1' thereabuut, to a Califoruian 

cc llil
t. Cal., '01. i. chap. iii., thid series, where aL50 a long lbt of l"l'1\:'l"- 
CllCc::; i!:; giycu. 


port respecting the identity of ,vhich I have had 11luch 
a y else\y here. 
In"the first printc(l account, that pnLlishcd hy IIak- 
luyt in 1589, it ,ya,s stated that the northcrll lill1Ït of 
"ake's voyage ,vas latitudo 42 0 , reached on June 5th
and there ""as an inscription to tho sa1110 oflect OIL 
Hondiu:--1' n1ap, Hlade before the end of the century, 
,yhich I hayc already reproduccl1. 4 As early as 159
the English annalist Sto,v, as quoted by T,viss, ,vrote: 
" He pas:scd forth north ,yard, till he calne to the lati- 
tude of forty-seven, thinking to have COllle that ,yay 
houle, but being cOl1Btrained Ly fogs and cold ,yindf
to forsake his purpose, caIne back,vard to the line 
"yard the tenth of June 1579, and stayed in the lati- 
tude of thirty-eight, to grave and trinl his ship, until 
the fiye and t,veuty of July." Again, in 1595 John 
Dayis the navigator ,vrote: "After Sir Francis Drake 
,vas entered into the South Seas, he coasted all the 
,vestern shores of Alnerica until he canle into the 
septelltrionallatitude of forty-eight degrees, being on 
the back side of N e\yfoundland."5 Lö,v in 1598 gave 
the lilnit as 42 0 , probably follo,ving Hakluyt, as did 
Cau1den in 1 G 15. 6 In an anonynlous discourse of the 
century, ,vritten perhaps by one of Drake's asso- 
ciates, \ve read: "Here Drake ,vatercd his ship aHe 1 
departed, sayling north\vards tin he canle to 48. gr. of 
the septentriollall latitud, still finding a very lardge 
sea trenJing to\vard the north, but being afraid to 
spend long time in seeking for the straite, hee turned 
backe againe, still keping along the cost as nere land 
as heo lnight, vntill hee caIne to 44. gr.," that is, Drake 

S J[alduyt's Voy., London, 158Ð. I have not seen this edition, hut take the 
statement of Twiss, IlÙ;t. (Jr., 2ß-57. 
-1 :-;ee map before gi,-en. The dotted line shows Drake's route, and the 
inscription, not copied, is opposite the northern termination of that line. 1 
take the map from the Hakluyt Society reprint of DraJ.:e's JVorldEucompa.-:sed, 
the editor of which work states that it was originally attached to a Dutch 
narrative of the voyage, Corte b(,8ckrY1:il1fJhe, etc., apparently a condensed 
translation of a document similar to the TV O'rld Ellcompw
:>' TVorld'.
 11!Jdrog. Disco'i)., as cited by Greenhow and Twiss. 
6 Löw, ..J/('('r oller Sceha:nen Elich, 48; Camden, Annales Rcrvrn Allyli- 
carVlIt, cited by Twiss. 



naY', Oil the C
llif(>rJlia ("oast. 7 Tn hi
 edition pf 1. GOO 
} b
)duyt 111:lC Ie a ("haJl
e in t]u' latitude and ""rot(.: 
"lll'c'l'l'o'(11l1H' to thi'nkc of It.i:-; hl'st ,va,"' to the 

::\laIuco:4, and tÎ1H Ii ng hillls(.lf(, ,\P herL' he'e no,," ""as 
l)c('ahn('cl, hee 
a\\ that of n{'('e

iti ' llf'(: Illust bee 
('nfol'cl'(l to take a 8pani
h course, llallH.:1y to 
SOllle\vhat K ol'thcl'ly to get a ,villde. H ""'('e thercf<)l'c 

ailp, :uHI 
ayled GOO. leagues nt thl' least for a. 

'o()cl ,,"indl', 
uHl thUK luu('h \\PC 
ailcd frolll the i(). 

)r ...\.pril, till the :L of IJ UllC. Thc 5. day of .J un " l)l'in
in. ..l:L (lcgrccs t()\val'clK the ]>010 ....\reti('kc, "pee f(>lInd 
the ayre so ('ol\.le, that our InCI1 l>cing gricuously 
pil1('hcc1 ,,'ith the f-:
l1ne, ('oll1plaincd of the (\,-trel11itil' 
thereof, and tho furt1ler \\pe ,\"cut, the 11101'0 the ('olc 1e 
increase(l upon u
. "'Thereupon ".e thought it L \
i.n' that tilllC to :o,L\okü the laud, anti cli(l so, finùing it 
Hot Illnuntaill{)u
, hut lo\v pIaine laHcl, till "
eo L
"ithill j8 dogree...; to\\"arcls the lino."9 
1 [aklu.rt'
 account ,va
 f()llo\\"e<l l,y Pur("lul
 ana l)y 
Illost other eal'l.v ,,"ritcrs, cxcppt I)c I.Jaet, ,,"ho 111(\<10 
latitude 40" th..\ llorthel'H lilnit. lO 'fhe author of the 
P""(UIlUllS r"o!J{{!Jc is Hot kno,,"n; hut it is not unlikely 
that IIakluyt hill1self c 0 111pileJ it frolH papers and 
ycrbal statelllcllts of Drake'
 C()lllpalliolls. A Be'\
count ,,-aq l"olllpiled aH(l pnbli:-;hc<l in 1 (j
8 by Drake'
llcpho\\T fronl thc lloteH uf }'ranci:-; F'}cteher, "" ho ac'- 
<:olllpanicd the cOl'
ail" as chaplain or preacher, an<l of 
( )thpl"s.ll 
I pror'ëcd to (luote all of thi:--t narratiyc relating to 

7 A tli
r01lrRe 0/ Si,' p,.rwri
 i )rm'!I, 
[:-.. of Briti"h )[uscum, in 
OL'. cd. of lJral."('
 Wurld EIlCOl1lj Þ r '>:ul, 1
:- I [crc we notice the I"carch for a northern str.tit is ifmorccl altogctll('r
"fIt }'atn()lI,'l rO!J(L./f' of Si,. P'"Ctllcis lJr(tl.:, in llaklll!J(Ji rO!I., iii. .UO, 
10 Lrr. f, .JYm.",
. :107. c
r(,(,llhow citps Lact as follo" in
II/)r((I.:(', 'j'IIt' urOl.'" Ellrnm]J(l....
"I by Sir Frrlllá
 /),.,,/... . 1:, ill!! j,i
'Y' oy".I(' to f lI'tl 10 .S om I,,., J, lJin
 /urlllt r1!/ i III/H.; 11ft d; f fa r".(lIll!l coli, rft d out of 
till' ..L\"ol, 
 of ..11(1.>:1(',. )',.WU.ii I'ldrlu r. Pr (vll ,. ill tlli... imj,loYlIlf IIf, Clud diw 1.,'4 
0'" r.o; hi.. follow,r";;11 th, ....'LlIlf', etc. Loucloll, JH:!ð: alsol'ds. of I(i;
Tho latt'st ancl hest is that of tho Tlakluyt 
ociety of l
.)-t. \\ ith appcnclicc
ancl illtrOtluction l)y'Y. K. ".... Vaux. 'fhp appcnclicl's include the }(lI1IOI.1f 
I r O!lll.l*' , from Ilakluyt. awl also sen.ral 
I:4. narrcltivl'S 01' fragmcnts on tho 
Hu1Jjcct-in fact all the e';icleuLc L').i"LinJ on the '.OJ aöL'. 


the northern part, except a portion of the long dis- 
qui. ition on the clin1ate: 
., Froln Guatulco ,vee departed tho day follo\ving, 
viz., -,-11)rilllG, 
ettillg our course directly into the sea, 
",-hereon \yee sayled 500 leagues in longitude, to got a 
,vinde: and bet"
eene that and ,Tulle 3 ' 1400 lear)'ues 
in all, till ,ye canle into 42 0 of North latitude, ,vhere 
in the night follo\ying "Te found such alteration of 
heate, into extrean1e and nipping cold, that our n1en 
in generall did grieuously cOlnplaine thereof... the 
yery roapes of our ship ,yore stiffe, and the raine 
,vhich fell ,vas an vnnatural congealed and frozen sub- 
8tance. . . It caIne to that extren1Ïty in sayling but 
2 deg. fÙrther to the N orth\vard in our course, that 
though sea-Illenlack not good stonlaches, yet it seen1ed 
a question to Inany amongst vs, ,vhether their hands 
should feed their lnouthes, or rather keep thelTIselues 
ithin their couerts. . . Our Ineate, as soone as it ,vas 
r011100ued froln the fire, ,vould presently in a manner be 
frozen vp. . . The land in that part of Aillerica, bearing 
f:::.rther out into the West then ,vee beforo iInagined, 
e \yere neerer on it then ,vee \yore a\vare; and yet 
the neerer still \vee caIne vnto it, the Inore extre111itie 
of cold did sease vpon vs. The 5 day of Iune, ,ve 
'yore forced by contrary \vindes to runne in \vith the 
shoare, \v hich \vee then first descried, and to cast anchor 
in a bad bay, the best roade ,vee could for the present 
111eeto ,vith, ,yhere ,vee ,vere not ,vithout SOllle danger 
by reason of the 111anyextrelne gusts and fla\ves that 
beate vpon YS, ,vhich if they ceased and ,vere still at 
any tillie, inl1nediately upon their interlnission there 
follo,yed nlost uile, thicke, and stinking fogges, against 
'v hich the sea preuailed nothing, till the gusts of \vinde 
againe ren10ued then1, ,vhich brought ,vith thenl such 
ex.trelnitie and violence when they caIne, that there 
,vas no dealing or resisting against theln. In thi
place \vas no abiding for vs; and to go further North, 
the extrcl11Ïtyof the coald. . . ,vould not pernlit vs; and 
the ,vindes directly bent against vs, hauing once gotten 



ayle againe, (.olHI11aIHlc(l YH to th0 South- 
Yar( 1 ,\? hl'ther '''''ee ,vould or no. F 4 rolll the heiO'ht of 
48 th\o' in ,,'hich IlO\\' ,,'ee \\.ere to ;
8"1 \\'p fouud the 
;-,., , , 
lanel, by coa;-;tillg alougst it, to l>ee but lo\v all<l rea- 

onahle plainc; euery hill (\\?hereof \\ye sa\\y lnany, 
but nOlle yel'ie hi, thou,
h it \\.ere in .JllIlf
, and the 

unllC in hi:-; nccrest nppro("h ynto thelll, heing l"ouul'cd 
,\"ith SUO\v. . . 'V 
e cOllieetul'e, that either there is no
e at all throug'h the
e Xortherlle eoa
is 1110st likely) ()r if there be, that yet it i
.l\Jde hereunto that though \vee scarched tho coa:-;t 
ently, CHeU yuto the 48 deg., yet found" ee Hot 
the land to trend so luuch as one point ill an
?' place 
to\\.ard.., the East, Lut rather running- on cOlltinual1.v 
North-,vest, ae:; if it ".cnt directly to Ilieet ",itlt \sia." 
[ ha\"c tlnl:-) plat"'cd before the reader 
lll that i'4 
Lllo".n about Drake's northern voyage. I do not (1eelH 
it neCC
S31'Y to nan1C thc 111any ",'riter
 ".ho Ita YC rc- 
peatcd and 80lno of 'VhOlll hayc COllllllcnted on an or 
part of thc oyidcnce cited. 12 l
et\vecn th\; -1:1 0 of tIll' 
 J....u!Jflge and the latitude 48" of tho Tl"'ur',' 
'llev}}ll)(fSsP(l there ha
 bccn llltlch <liflèrcncc of opin- 
ion, cspecially <luring the territorial <lispute
llghUHl and the United States, the <jul'
ti()n of orig-i- 
nal dÌ
cdvcr'y of the ()l'egoll Tcrritory heing- iuyolyc<l. 
I 1l1ay refer the reader to Greell]Hnv all(1 "r".i
s a
cluìlupiou:-; ill the partiBan (li
sion.lJ '1-'he proce:--...; 
of l'Cê.lf-.,oning, or rather of 
pecjal pleading', lllore ill- 

'enious than COllYÌllCillg-, i
 to attack thp general cred- 
ibility of one narrati\W u , pointing out and ('
its dl'fect
 and (liscrepau('ic"', and to concual antI ox-- 
I )lain 
ill1Îlar defect') in the other, nauLÎng al",o tho 
(. Ininent \\.riters ". ho ha,yp adoptcd its statelllcllt...:. 
 ill lllo
t di

ioll"':, a large hpaeo i
 al:-;o deyoteJ. 

12 See l1:sf. raT., i. chap. iii., thi'i serif's, for a fullli
t of authorities. 
13 f; J't'Pllh II. x 01". all I (fal., 71 .:ï; Id., J/, moi 1", :!Ol -l; /'ll'i...x' ()1"l'ymdlllf'.Rtio71, 
:?3-:)"i; /,l.. Iii '. () .., :?()--4!)' Twi:-.s in sume respects has decidedly the hc')t 
of the argument, chief1y hccau
c of his fi(hnntages; the matter of hihlio,.!- 
1".1'lly, aUtI COll:scquellt ability to e'\.po
e his opponent's hlunder
, many of his 
:-:cl'millg triumphs therefore having no hearing 011 the (l
tion at i '. lW. 


on both siùes to arglullcnts bcaring on tho accuracy 
of the disputant's position on irrelevant or uninlpor- 
tant questions. I hayo no :--:pace for tho è\:an1Ïnatiull 
of each petty point; but neither of the rival narra- 
tives has Leen proycd spurious or ,vholly unrcliable, 
or indeed free fro1l1 serious defects. 
:E'ron1 the luarked differences in 
tatcn1ents of ,vriters 
,yho ,ycre conten1porary ,vith Drake, and 'v hose good 
tith in this Inattcr is not questioned, the reader ,vill 
perhaps conclude ,yith Ine that Drake's conlpanions ill 
their notes and -verbal statelnents did not agree respect- 
ing the llorthern lin1it of the voyage; that observations 
in the north had Leen fe\v and contradictory; that 
possibly the regular diary, if any had been kept, ,va8 
lost, and lllenlory alone depended on; and at any rate 
that the truth cannot Le kno"-'11 respecting the latitude 
of the freebooters' landfall. But ,yhen it COlnes to a 
,yeighing of the probabilities bet,veen tho ]i'(tJnuus 
TToyagc and the 1Vorld EncoJnpassed, that is bet\veen 
latitudes 43 0 and 48 0 , the reader ,,,-ill note seyeral 
,yeighty considerations in favor of the for1nor. The 
t latitude ,vas that first announced. Richard 
Hakluyt \vas a cOlnpiler of great reputation; his 
opportunities in this lnatter ,vere of course Inorc than 
ordinary; and the fact that he changed the latitude 
from 42 0 to 43 0 indicates that his attention ,vas called 
particularly to this Inatter. The c01Tlpiler of tho 
TrrOTld Enco1nlJassecl, on the other hand, is unkno,vn as 
a ,,-riter; he is kno,vn to have taken SOlne liberties 
,vith Fletcher's notes,t4 and he ,yas exposed to the 
tC1nptation at lcast of accepting the highest latitude 
Hal1leÙ by his authorities, both to 111agnify the Íln- 
portance of his hero's services in searching for the 
strait, and to account for the excessive cold expcl.i- 
cncod. Anù as to 
-'letcher's veracity and accuracy, 
our faith is not strcngthened Ly the 111any glaring 

11 This is the statement of l\Ir Vaux, the editor of the IIakluyt Soc. 
edition, I:.?, a portion of Fletcher's ::\18. on an èarlier part of the voyage being 

ì) AGUIL.\R. 


[I hsnrùitieq of the narrative, hy his Jeliherate f:'llsc- 
hoodH rcs ! )ectill O ' the Üretyon and Califuruia <:liulate- 
M n 
Jlot3.Lly the 
rHnv-covcreù hill
 in J ulle-and the 
,vealth of the country in gold and f-;il vcr, or hy the 
Hot that] )rr't1\:e hinlsclf once tcrnu'el 11Ïlll " ye f
kn::l\Po that liveth." l\Ioreover, the aù,.ance of 
degrees of latitude in t"po days against cOlltrt.lry \\ iucl..; 
 uot rca
suring, to say nothing of the 
that the coast above latitudo 38 0 trelld:3 aI,vay
cst, \vithout turning Su Hluch d
 a point to 
the cast\vard. 
I anl therefore led to concludc that Drake ,va,; 
probaLly, though not ccrtainly, the first Jiscovercr of 
the ,ycstern coast fronl Cape 
Iendoeino to the region 
of Cape I Hanco, incluùing fifty or Hixty rniles of the 
()regon coast, but that his clrril)} to tlisco,'"ery above 
latitude 43'.) i..; not supported hy existing evidence. 
T\\PO intercstill:.j qucstionfì Blight ha ''"c ari
en ill con- 
ncction ,vith this voyage, but never diel, since England 
took no steps to profit by Drakc's di
covcry. 'rhe 
first i:-;, ,vhat territorial rights, if any, tlo the (li:-;- 
covcries of a pl'i vateer or outla,,- confer UPOll hi:i 
nation? .J.\nd thc sccon(l, did llot Cabrillu's voyage, 
extending to latitudû 43 0 or 44 0 , according to an ofiì- 
cial diary ,yritten ill goud faith, gi,-e to Spain for the 
nc'\:t t\VO (Ocnturies au( lluorc the 
anle territorial rights 
as if he had rcally rcacheJ the latitude naIlle(l, u'T'll 
thouo-h ,ve l11a "... 110\\'" be ccrtain that he did not 0'0 su 
o J b 
lr ? 
The third voyage of tho puriod, that of Francis "'0 
de Uali, requires hut a hrief notice hore, f'illCe the 
clailll that it extcll(led to the N ortll\v"cst "'oast and to 
latitude 57 0 ;
O' appcar
 to have llO other founJatioll 
than the mi
rcpresPlltation or Llundcr l)f a translator. 
Gali ('an1e nero
s froin ..L \
ia in 1.384 and 
ighted the 
t in latitude 
rï" :10'. Ilis narrati,.c exists onl,. ill 
a Dutch tran::;latioll Ly l
ill...;choten of 15!)(j, of to I; re- 
printed and retrall
latcd. \. }1"rench trauslator chang-cd 
the lul'ality to latitude :, i" 3U', àud the course of 
lIIBT. N. "'t. COAST, 'OL. I. 10 


ing to correspond. Navarrete repeated the error, as 
did others relying on his anthority.15 
On J annary 3, 1 G03, Sebastian \Tizcaino, in cOllul1and 
of t,yO Spanish e\:ploring vessels, the &an Difgo and 
Trcs Reycs, the latter being cOlTIlnanded by :Thfartin 
Aguilar, sailed froin l\Ionterey to the north. 1ß J list 
above Point Reyes, on the 7th, the vessels parted, 
Aguilar keeping on his ,yay and Vizcaino turning Lack 
to the old San Francisco. The cOlllnlandcr ,vent on 
o the next day ",.ith a light "rind, and by January 
12th ,vas ,vithin fourteen leagues of 'v hat he supposed 
to be Cape l\Iendocino, in latitude 41 0 30'. A furious 
,vind ,vith sleet sprang up next day fronl the south- 
east, threatening destruction. All but six ]non ,vere 
do,vn ,vith the scurvy; they dared not go farther; and 
the vessel ,vas hove to and a,vaited a favorable ,vind 
that nlight carry her to the south. In t,vo days she 
drifted to Cape Mendocino; and on the IDth, ,yhen 
the fog cleared a,vay ,vith a change of the ,vind to the 
north-,,"est, she ,vas found to be in latitude 42 0 , at a 
,vhite cape near high sno,vy 1110untains, ,vhich froDI 
the color of the earth and fran1 the day ,vas nallled 
Cabo Blanco de San Sebastian. Thence Vizcaino 
,vith a favorable ,vind follo,vcd the coast south,vard 
in search of the consort. 
Mean,vhile Aguilar, parting froin his con1111ander 
on January 7th, ,vas in latitude 41 0 ,vhen struck by 
the south-east gale. The Tres ReYfs ran bofore the 
,vind to a shelter behind a great cliff noar Cape l\fen- 
docino; and after the ,vincI had calnled s0111e,vhat 
"they continued their voyage close along tho land, 
and on January IDth the pilot of the FragatCl, An- 
tonio Flores, found hilllself in latitude 43 0 , ,vhcre the 
shore makes a cape, or point, w'hich ,vas nameJ Cabo 
Blanco, fron1 ,vhich the coast begins to run to the 
110rth-,vest"-or, as Padre Ascension saYR, north- 
east-" and near it \vas found a very copious and 

15 For details of Gali's voyage see Ilist. Cal., i. chap. iii., this series. 
16 For Vizcaino's voyage on the lower COdsts see l1ist. Gal., i. chap. iii. 



()undable river, 011 the hanks of ,,'hich ,vere vcry 
L.lrge a
he::;, \\'illo\\':,;, LraluLlc...;, alld other trec'" of 
til('; aucl ,\ ishillg to enter it thc cnrrcat \\'()Ulll 
not pcrluit it." Then r\guilar and rlor
:-) an-reef 1, a:i 
t hey had 1nany 
iek, alHl ha(1 already gOIHc;' farther 
than the viccl'oy's in:--:tructiolls rc{! uirc( I, to turn 1 tack 
to .c\capulco. Buth dieù (Jl the ,,'ay , only ]
] .Jopcz and four BIen survi villg to relate their northern 
discoyerics. 17 
 is gi,
cn ill tc
t ane} Bote all that is known of 
this voyage llorth of San 
'rallcisco, frolH all of ,,'hieh 
i t appear
 that, as in the earlier v()yage
, there arc 
 in ti
illg- the lilBit reachcd. If ,,'c take 
the latitudl':-' a
 approxilnatcly eorrcct ""c lnust :-\up- 
pose that 'Tizcaino reached the I }oint St Geurge al1ù 

\guilar the Cape Dlanco of 1HOdeI'll lllap
t Lelo,v 
 J:t and 4:1 rc
pectiYel.r. III the narrativo 
nu Californianlatituùcs suuth of )Icnclocillo arè ( i'.en 

Ii Torr}11nnnda, J/OllflTQ. Ind., i. 71,')-2;). Padre Ascension, who "as on 
Vi7caino's ship, receivetl from Lopez an account of what happcned to the 
other vesB....I, awl was Tor(luemacla's authority, in hi
 }{l'lac;oll, .').ïS, see111tJ to 
confound the mm-cments of the two ,.cssels. He says: 'On the coast we 
f'aw the port of 
all Francisco.. .ancl we an-iyeel at CdpC 
Iendocino, "hich i
in 4:1'->, the highest latituc1c which i:i rcacheel hy the China ships. Ih'J"e, it 
heing midwinter, the cold and rigging cruel, and almost all the men sick, the 
Rails were lo\\crell, the U"pitallfl. \"a9 hoye to, uu(l, us she could not steer, tho 
cnrrents carried h('r slowly toward the land, running to the strait of Allian, 
which here has its cntrallce; and in cight days we ha(l arlyancetl more than 
one d....gree of latibHlc, to 4:r', in. sight of n. point namee1 fo:an 
tian, near 
which empties n. river named 
anta Inc..s. H
re no one landed, llCCanse nIl 
"ere in })(>or health, only six. persons hcing able to st<uul. The Co..L::tt anti 
lan,l huns to the ,. r., and this is the hea(l and cnel of the mainldlHl of Cali
fornia.' Then they turnc(I about amI ('}.amined the coast to the southward. 
In n. c
tlula of Augu
t I!), lOOn, the king, in alhuling to Vizcaino's '\"O,Y
says: '..\H coa<.t up to 40 nms onc part \\ ith nnother from 
. L to 
x. W., nn(l for the other two degrees up to 4

 it runs almost due 
. and 
, ....Yo!. CII1., i. I!)t), Yi7eaino.s map, ns }"('prO(hlCCti hy XavaITt'Ìe, S"li[ y 
.JI x., Jïo!/c, Atlas 1\0. 4, sho\\8 nothing nbo,-e ('ape :\Iendocino hut a. 'half 
inch' of C(Ja:-.t tn'lUling x. E. tuwanl Cape Blallco. Cabrera Bueno, in r;:J4, 
....yn.I"( yaclon E.olpu,.[atit.a, 30:!, who clerivl'tl his information J1ldinly from Yiz- 
caino's exploration, hut c1.lso to some û'dent, perhaps, from the (,b..crvationq of 
the )Iauila ships, begins his sailing directions" ith n. cape in 4:! , ahout d!!ht 
rues f;outh of whil'h was fin other point with Rome \\ hite clitfs, in.l]:> :.,0, 
callc'll Cape )fcndocino, \\ hence the CO..tst mns s. F. to a. point in :m' 
an(l thence s. J.:. i s. to I'uint He) es, in 3" 30. Both latitudes and coast 
tren(} arc ,-cry faulty, hut the central point I1lU8t he Point, 30 too high, 
like Point I:cycs; nnd the northern points, eight leagues apart, must ap- 
}>arently be identific(l, if at all, \\ ith the false 
Icncll)cino dght miles above 
and the Point t;orJ.a fourteen miles below) the rca.1 


to serye as a test; but Cabrera Bueno's latitudes, 
doubtless obtained froln ''''-izcaino':.; log, sho,y an eXCOBB 
of 30' at Point Reyes and l\lonterey, increasing- Loth 
north and Routh to a full degree or lllore. This test 
,voul(1 bring .1\guilar back to l)oint St George anù ''''-iz- 
caino to Trinidad. .L\gain, there can be little doubt 
respecting the identity of Cape 
Iendocillo, ,vhich ,vas 
put in latitude 41 0 30', so that if ,ye place capes San 
Sebastian and Blanco respeèti vely half a degree anù 
a d0gree and a half Lcyuud 
Iendocino \ve stillllave 
Trinidad anù St George as the points reached. If ,YO 
tnrn to the description of landlnarks ,ve find plenty 
of difficulties, but very little to support either theory. 
There is nu\vhere in the region visited a large rivcr 
just beyond a cape. IS Ascension's statelllcnt that the 
coast turned to the north-east Inight Le applicd to 
that beyond anyone of several capes for a short di
tance; but the north-,vestern trend in Torquelnada's 
llarratiye can apply only to St George; and indeed 
the sn1all SUlith River ,vith its lagoons just above 
that point lllay quite plausibly Le n1ade to Berve as 
.L\.guilar's river, since discoveries of a strait in those 
tillles ,vere l1}ade to rest on very frail foundations. In 
yie,v of such slight evidence as exists I deeln it un- 
likely that Aguilar passed the present boundary line 
of latitude 42 0 . 
Thus at the end of \vhat has been tern1ed the first 
epoch of Oregon history ,ye find that Oregon ,vas to 
all intents and purposes an undiscovered country. 
There is a strong probabilit,y that the Spaniards under 

'crrelo anti Aguilar had not passed the line of lati- 
tude 420; and the probability that Drake had done so 
is not a very cOllyiucillg one-that is, it rests 111ainly 
0'11 the lack of evidence to the contrary. There is 
lllucl}. reason to suspect that if Drake's observations 
of latitude had been Inore frequent, or if Fletchcr 

18 'Unless it be the Umpqua, where the trees are saiù to agree somewhat 
better with Aguilar's ùt:llicnptioll than at other points; but the 1'Íver is in 43 0 
40', and these voyagers unilOnnly maùe their latituùc too high. 



haJ Jiyertcd a portiou of hið '..(.)al frolH the elilllut . to 
the c 1"'\;-5eriptiou of lalH hnarks, l'\ illelH:e Iuight Hot Lc 
,ranting that the EnglislllllCIl cJi(luot reach .1:)0; ,,"llile 
i r the Spallial'<l:-; had aL
tai Herl 
ull)e" hat frOll1 Hueh 
dt..'SlTiptioIlH alld ohser\ ations it i
 't:I'Y ecrtaill that 
their claiul to ha\"u reached the saIne or a llicrher 
latitude could Hot L ' 

fullj lIi
puted. .::> 

X othing \",as :l('('ol1lpli;.;hed l)y Spain on the ,vc!-:tt'rn 
('oast bl'JlHld the gulf of (t a liforllia fur Ol1e hundred 
and ::;ixt.r-
ix year::; after '"""izcaiIH )'S return. During 
this period there ""as 110 lack of e
urgcd upon the attenti( Þn of thu kill
, a;-; ""e Ita \-c 

uen in prCSClltill
 aT10t her pha...;p of this topic; but 
the gOYCrBIllent could not bl) rou"-,ed to aeti( )}I. 'I'here 
\ras 110 lunger a hope, Ha \.C Oil the part of certain 
iasts, of iìuc.ling great and rich l\.il1g(lol11
thc north; the finding or a 
trait \\"a:--; no long('r (1c- 

iraLlu to Spain. 
\s hefore oLserycd, the fear that 
it \yould be fenuuI al)(1 hcl(l hy forcignl'r
 had heL'1l 
:--;ollle\vhat al1aycd il1 official cil'<:.lcs; therc ""a:-; ill 
Jnany respcct
 ;t (leelillc of Rpaui
h po\ver and energy. 
bcsidcR a Inultiplicity of lllore urgent Inatter
thc exploration of unkno\\ n coasts. J ;ut (luring- the 
rc..ign of C
il'los III., \r h ieh hegan in 175 D, there \'"as 
a lllarkcd reyi val of clltcrpri::;e in all directions; and 
that 1l1onar<.:h \\"a:-:. not 1110rC fortunate in his choiee of 
terH at h(Þlne than in that of a reprcRcntati\.() in 
the Nl'"'' 'Vol'ld, f
>I' ,,-hi(.h po
iti()n he eho:--:e fTo:,é du 
 ah.ez a
i tador general. ..L \11 the old 1l1oti \-C
tè ÞJ' llol'thl)rn exploration rell1aÍ Heel in fun foreú, the 
extension of territory, the cOJlver
ion of soul
, the 
occupation ()f port
Ianila Rhip
, the taking 
.:;Íon of a possible interuceanic 
trait, and the 
pre\Tcntion of foreign eJ}croachruent
; and there ".a
all (lc.lditiol1ulllloti \"c ill the reports úf recent nu
diseo\'erics in tlu' t:lr Bort h. l T nder thc intelligent 
:lud l'l1ergl'ti(' 
upcr\.i:-\i(tn of (
al\ l'Z, \\ ho latcr bel':llllÚ 
ter uf the Il1die
, the Calitorl1iau C'oa
t froI11 San 


Diego to San Fran('i
co ,vas prolllptly occupicd in 
 and the follo,ving years, as fully recorded el
,vhere in thi8 hi
It bad been int
nded to include in the general 
1110ven1ent an exaulination of tho coast far above San 
Francisco; and that exan1Ïnation ,vas hastened by ne,v 
reports of Russian expcditions, ,vhich caIne by ,yay 
of :\Iadricl fÌ'Oll1 the Spanish nlinister in St Peters- 
burg. 20 In 1773 an expedition ,vas planned for the 
next year. The ne,v transport Santiago, built ex- 
pressly for the Californian service, ,vas deenled the best 
vessel for the purpose; and to Juan Perez, the officor 
,vho in the late expeditions had been the first to reach 
San Diego and l\Ionterey, ,vas given the cOlnnlantl. 
Laden \vith a year's supplies for the northcrn n1Ïs- 
SiOllS, and having on board also the returning prcsi- 
19 See IIist. Gal., i. chap. iv. et seq. 
20 JIaurdle, Compemlio de N oticict8 adf}uirida.r; en los de;
("ll7n-imienfos de la 
co.<.:ta septerdrional ele la N. California, !tecltO por órden del Ex rno S1'. Vhoey 
Conde de Revillct-Giyedo con 
(t prolixidad posiúle (1701). This is the title of a 

IS. in the collection of 1\1. Pinart, which contains copies of the correspond- 
ence 011 Russian discoveries leaJing to the expedition of Perez. The cor- 
respondence en 'résllmé is as follows: February 7, 1773, Conde de Lasci, 

panish minister in Russia, to 1\Iarqués de Grimaldi: Has heard that the 
Russian Tschericow in 1769-71 made a voyage to America; the result thought 
to be important, hut kept a profound secret; will try to unravel it. April 
11th, Arriaga, minister of navy, sends the preceding to viceroy, with orders 
to investigate. July 27th, viceroy's reply: No foreign estahlishments b('low 
:l\Ionterey; aid needed to explore beyond; has ordered Juan Perez to fonll 
a plan. September 2.}th, Arriaga to viceroy: Sends by king's order three 
letters of Lasci: first, of :l\Iarch 19th, has succeeded in getting from a man 
who has read the secret archives an account of the voyage of Cweliacow and 
Panowhafew in ] 7G4; the new regions doubtless in Califon1Ïa, and steps 
should be taken; second, of :l\Iay 7th, Russian ambition is so vast that it Î.n- 
tpnds not only to invade China hut to send an expedition against Japan 
under an Englishman; third, of 
Iay 11th, the famous Haller Ims pro- 
l)osed to send a Russian squadron to the AmeriC3.11 archipelago. Decemher 
23<1, Arriaga to viceroy: The king will send officers, etc. Juno 13, ] 77.1, Id. 
to Ill., with another letter from Lasci confirming the others, anlI including a 
Calendmoio Raso de 177.4, which contains a mass of descriptive matter on 
northern geography, mostly quoted from :Muller and Sta.ehlin. August 23, 
1';"73, viceroy to Córdoùa, general of the fleet: Has resolveJ on an expedition 
in 17';4. September 1st, Cúrdoùa approves, but is ignorant of nor

waters. July 18th, viceroy orders Juan Perez to form 

 plan. Septe nber 
1st, Perez' plan: He proposes to strike the coast in 43 0 or 30\ a11<1 thcnc
})lore llown the coast with the wind. The Sctntia'jo is the best vessel; antI 
the hest time from December to February. A year's supplies needC'd, and an 
order on the presidios foe men in case of sickness. Septemher 29th, viceroy 
approves plan, but Perez must go as far as 60 0 . Some other unimpo-'i':1Dt 
correspondence aùout outfit, etc.; also two orders from Spain to the vic
to dislodge the Russians if founù. 



dent, Padre J unípero Serra, "
pith another p:Hlrc nlld 
fo'e\"cral ofnciål:-; for Califorl1ia, the ð(udi"[j() sailed frolH 
RaIl DIu') .Jauuary 2-tth, :uHl having tou(.Led at San 
])iego, arl'i\red at )Iouterey un )[ay 9th. 21 
The Inis
ioJ)aries Cl'e
pí and J\:f'la. ,reI'\.,; ap]'oil1tl'(1 
J)y 1>1'0 ;idt'nt t->erra to aet LiS chaplain
 nnd keep (liarie
of the ynyagc in place of the chaplain l\lugartcgui, 
au(l surgeon IJäyila too]\. tIle plaee of the rl'gular 
surgeon. There "-cre eighty-eight pcr::;Ull'5 on Loar(l, 
of1ìcer:-3 and lueH. Un June it th, aflcr holclun public 
prayer:-:; for the succc:-\s of the èx}>cdition, l>ercz set sail 
frOBl ::\Iontcrey. j lis ill:-;truction
 \vere to nla]
e the 
land ,,-hcrever he luight Jeelll it be
t, but at lea
t as 
high a:-; latitude GO, and thence to fol1uu" the coa-.;t 
south,van.l a
 ncar as po

ible ,vithout ri
k. X 0 settle- 
Illl.'nts ""ere to be Blade, but the Le
t placos ,v(;re to 
1JC noted; and the COlllll1andcr ,\ aH to ta]"e po

cssi( H1 
of Huch placcs for the king, erectiug a cros
 at each 
and Lurying a LottIe \vith the proper dOCulllellt
. If 
any foreign settlelllellt \ra
 fuund, the fùrluality of 
taking pos
essioll nluHt be COIHlllenced aL()\ l' it. 1"\11 
huch è
tabli:-;lllnentH ,vere to Le carefully e:\
ullined, but 
Hot interfered \vith; neither to the inhabitants of ðu<:h 
placcH nor to yessels Illct un the \vay ,,-ad the nature 
of the luission to be ai yulged; if lllct belo\\'. :\Iülltcrcy, 
]->ercz ,vas to say hi::; husinc

 ,vas to carry 
i f abo,
c, that he had been driven out of his cour::;e by 
the 'Villd. 22 Thi
 yoyagc ,vas "-ell reeur(led, there 
being 110 less than fuur di:-.;tiu<:t t1iarieB extaut. 23 

ce lJi..:t. Crt[., i. chap. X., for nn account of the vo
"age up to the depart- 
ure from 
2"' Pcrr.-, III ,frllrr;OIl '[1l(' el Ex mo ,',r. r'Ü'('!f did á lOll coman lall f s de bll'lUe
fit' ('xlJfora iouei -1 dr Dir., 1773. 
I:-\. in the Pinart collectioll. 'rh(')"c 
2 articlc'3, \\ ith routinc details on outfit, diaries, kÌIltl trcatmt"llt 
of nath"cs, etc. \ Russian map of 'prctclHle<l' disco,.eries wa.'J funli...hed 
l't'rL'.l:. To the In...ln".cio/l i
 appended a rOI'lI11tlClrw fJllt III tI J\( rt"Ïr tit. pa.llf 
para, e:t'felltl 1" fa.. .
("riIJtllr(('j d 1'0
f ..iOl
 n los deðCll!Jrimielltos de '11( ,.-sta, 
cllcClJ"!J{ulo Juan Pel"t"'Z. 
:.:3 The first is Cre.
pr, Dim-in d [a, ('.>l/,,''[ir;011 ,[, mar que hi...o fa fra.IClIa 
/YlIlt ;a.Jo, printc(} in Palo II , ..Y ofiriaol, i. G:!-l ôS; sccond, J> lict, ]Jill rio tltl J'fl.l 
de JlULIt Pc 1'1'_, 
l:-\., in J irlJex at ...Yortr cl "Yo'., Xu. I, copiCtl from the :'pani h 
nrchhes, and not ('olllplctc.-: thinl, 1'0.(,:, Nd(lr;OIt tI,l JPiaVl! tlt.../ "1)10 g tie la J:udAl"luwla, 177J, )I
., illJIa!l(rJI..
fS., Xo.l:?j ako in Jlclllrtlle, 


By reason of cah1ls the F;rlntiago ,vas still in F;ight 
of Point Pinos on ,Juno 15th; on the 17th they lost 
sight of land; on the 24th ,v ere south of the Santa 
lrbara Islands; and it ,vas not until the 29th that 
they again passed the latitude of l\Iontcroy. Then 
,vith ,vinds generally favorable, hut constant fogs, they 
kept to the north,vard, far frolll land; passed the liue 
of latitude 4
0 on July 4-5, and decided on the 15th in 
a junta of officers to seck a port for ,vater, being then 
in latitude 51 0 42'. For the next three days, having 
follo\yed the coast to latitude 55 0 , Perez tried in vain 
to round a point in that latitude, beyonù \vhich tho 
coast turned to the east. As this is the first undoubted 
discovery of the territory herein designated as the 
N orth,vest Coast, I give his geographical observa- 
tions fro111 his movable station off the cape some,vhat 
in full frolll three of the diaries. 24 There is S01110 

f"ornpendio de N oticic's, 1.39-73; and fourth, Perez, Tabla Diw'fa que confiene 
la.r;: la f itm[c8, [ongitude,r;:, variaciones, Y 'L"lentos de cada 24 hO'JOas en cl 'l'iaJe de 
1771- á lo'i descubrimienfos, J\1S., in ill alll.eUe, eompeJ/dio 170-83. See also 
brief accounts of this voya,
e in .lYCl1-'Clrrete, Sutil y .ii/ex., riayc, 92-3; IJwn- 
boldt, E.'i
cti Pol., 331-
; .1.1101ra<;, Explor., i. 107; Navanoete, rïages Apór., 
53-4; UrceJlhow's JJem., GO; ld., (Jr. and Cal., 114-17; :PLcis:/ JIist. Or., 
5:5-6; ld., 0,.. Quest., 66-7; Falconer'..;; OJ'. Que.r;:t., 19; leZ., Discov. 1'li.o.;s., 
G2; Bll
t(tmante, in CftVO, Tres Siglos, iii. 119; PalO1t, rida, 168-2; Forbes' 
Hist. Cal., 114-10; Calvo, Col. Trat., iii. 33S; Oved I1ld 1I10nthly, April, J871, 
p. 290; 'Paylor, in Cal. Farmer. August 7, 1863; :N.icola!l's Orr!Jon 'Per., 30-
Findluy's Director!!, i. 340-50; P01l88in, Que,r;:tiondel'Orégon, 38-9; ld., U.8., 
247; Ji'arnlwm's Li./e in Cal., 263-7; ]'lacGre[J01"s Pro!l. Amer., i. 535. 
21 From the Ta!J.'a Diw'ia: July 19th, approached a point called Santa 
garita, thought to be in 55 0 . N. of this point is seen a cape called Santa. 
lena, from \vhich the coast trends N. w. Sixteen leagues w. of that cape is an 
island called Santa Cristina, which is seyen or eight leagues N. of Point Santa 
Iargarita. Betw,>('n the points Santa. l\Iargarita. awl Santa ]\Iagdalena is a hrge 
gulf, from which the current rnns six or seven miles an hour. This is accurate 
enough for Po
n t North and the southern extremities of Prince of VV' a1es Island 
if we transpose the sixteen leagues and seven or eight leagues and reduce the 
latitude to 54 0 10'. Peña's diary, or the fragment hefore me, does not include 
this part of the voyage. From Prrez, ltefaclmz: 18th, sighted land in 5:3 0 53'; 
tried to follow shore for an anchorage, but were soon prevented hy rainy amI 
foggy weathcr and H. E. wind; J9th, tllrnc(I E. N. E. toward a point cut 
down by the sea, calle(l Santa 
Iargarita, estimated to be in 53 0 . The coast 
from th'J point of discovery to Ranta 1\Iargarita rnns half K. K. w. and the 
other half N. From 
Iargarita, s. extends a hill (loma) for -
bree leagues, 
that seems detached from the main coast, but is not an island; and :1t its 
southern cnd half a league ont at sea is a little island one league in circulll- 
ference, and out:3Ïde of it at the same distance a rock six or eight Ya"!.'as high, 
and within a gunshot four or five sm
ll rocks causing breakers visible from 
afar. There are also three small islands a gunshot from Point Santa 



confusi0n, hut no lnorc probaLly' than lnay he at- 
tribute.l to errorH of copyi:.;t:-; and prilltcl:-;. It i" (.lear 
that this navig-ator struck the coa:-;t of Quecn Char- 
lotte I 'lanel, and follo\ved it up to itd ll()rthe.L
ll point, 
Cape North, ill latituùe 54. 0 13', \\'hich he called I)uint 

rita. The coast runs s. from Sanb. )[argarita to n. hi
h snowy hill, at1,1 t'll'n('o 
the Ill'lll fall.J awa.y to 0. toll:;uc-shapcll puint, whence it turns 9. E. Xorth uf 
:-;ant..1.l'Iargarita the coast rUl1s 10\\ and wooùcù to thc cast for tl.n k óUu5 with- 
out n...1Y L_ dl that can bo sccn; and in this space' is 3. lu\\ pl)int fl."I1 II hy .. 
hill, wi-,h b\o rock.J, thl' p"illt fonnillg apparently éL :-helt('red, but not 
accc-- liLI on n 'CllUllt of the strong currcut, the ships bÜn J 1..t pt six or ti \'C'U 

uLs off the cO.....1t. Ei
ht lC.J.gues 
. of f-\ant.'l. 
arit:t tllC)' lW 0. C ipc 
hlta 1I.lgtlalclla; and bctwccn thc two poillt'i is douhtleb8 a la-ge gulf, 
jlHlöinJ by tho stronJ currcnt of six or SC\ en milcs. It "'as alBo Sl. 11 tlw.t 
se\'cn Ie ...,ues west of (t apc funta 
IaJdalena. (.lllelnot si'de ell ka

 in the 
Tal .a, l)"'L
Lap..) 1,y 3. copyist's error) was an isl..l.IlI1 five orsix lw
ruc..ð ill circum- 
ferenc, e lIe.l 
1.nta. (' istina, anù x. w. from 
anta ?\Iar'g \riw. ahout 8C\"Ul 
lcagues. July 21st. oh...crvatiull tak"n in ;);)0. All thi.i a
re '8 as \\ ell \\ ith 
thc country about Dholl Strait as the Le:::,t 1I1OÙelll map:J aorrl..t
 ,\iLh ro.<.h 
hcr, c-:ccpt t!ßt thc latitude i3 too high. rrom ('rpl4pl, J)" 11';0, J ul,} lfth: 
Land S"...Il at a distancc; no oh.'icr\"ation; end of lanel appearecI about si'\.Ìf en 
lL.1 ò uLS N. W. { N.; v
ry smoky; l
th, laud at Ùei\\ Ii eight or u'n ICc.Lóuc8 
dÏ3bnt; c_
lm; land secms to end in x. x. \\., arlli thence to turn x. \\. 
. \t nOd'l oLdervatioll in 33 0 ;)8'; fresher wincI in aftcrnoon; at 3 r. 
r., hcing 
thn. lL .1Ul.,d from shore, saw that the coast contimlLS low north\\
 'd l.c- 
;} ond elC cnpe; tackcd to get farthC'l" from shore; 20th, in 1ll0"I.iuJ fo 
 alJC 1 
 rolin, wi
h L. \\ iwl anel hea
y sca, e()ur
c x, 1 ::,. }:.; at 9 \."1. turIlL,I 
)\. L.; n 
 I) y;cre three lea
 from thc point, which seemcd to bc fonlll'd of 
three i
l(l ;; at noon no oL.3ervatioll; at::l P.:.I. two ICdJUe'a fl"Om thc point, 
the tlu,-e i
land3 now appearing as onc, alld not \ cry tlr frum the coast; hy 
the aLl poin t was formcd n. good bight; at 4: r. \I. tach-cd a \\ ay fr Jl.1 .10r<" ; 
21st, fo 
 [..ntI driz71e: at 8 .\.
I. turned toward thc point, namcd :-: mh, 
garib, hOM ye.tcnby, thc day of its ùiscovcry; coursc }
. ! 
.; at noon no 
obscr" j()n; one fO:lrth l
3.guo from the point which \HJ.S cO-SÌA..lI .. \\ ..lrd, 
\\ it!l a view of reaching \\ hat scemcel to Le all anchor..lóe, Lut thcy coulll 110t 
douhle the point, nor tind out if it was an i.sland or 3. point of the Lc- 
cau:...c the CUITcnt wa3 so strong; lay l)ccalmcJ off thc point all the af.. I"l
TIll' point L mt..1. 
Iargarita is a mcdiuUl hill (loma), lofty, cut do\\n to the sea, 
con..n:J \...i,:l trc's like cyprcS-ocs. It is about Ol1e l
rne lunJ, maJ....inJ 1\\0 
l)oint J, 011e to s. L. :1 s. and the othcr to thc s. E., fro1&1 \\ hich lxbillS a 
grL 1t Li

lt (cn "11aùa). Vrom the púillt the 10\," land stætchLs c:lhtwm-ti t\.o 
 more, al . J \voodcl1. In the x. is secn, SL'\.tccll lca311LS oj (\\ hich 
<l'jaill ...
1,:)\..J a tro.lnJlh)si
ioll in the ]'alla), a \"cry high wood. d cape, 11.l1l1 .1 

:.ultJ. ',IJ ia il1a3d3.1cna. From that cape the high wooJcd coo-t rullS E. :nul w. 
 far 3.J C31l be secn; anù Y. \v. from that coast was SL"Cn a. small i...l..uHI, n...IUC'II 

.1flta. C rina (not f ei.1t:a Crbtilla, as in the othcr account ). althvu 1 1 thcy 
'.,crc not un. if it W
l9 an i
Ialld or conncctcd \\ ith thc main. e' lpC allw. 
l .;- 
d:.1.lenn. i 3 :-. of Point Sant.1 
.Iar[J....rita, and hetwecIl them tllCre i.J 8U
llLe":U J li!..e 
H lar.::,e bi'::lt, \\ hie'l could not l.Je e\. plored for the strong currcnt to leanl if it 
wa:; ell fila la, b l un, or (S l"echu; and it' it is only an ( S lIel. a it may be th.l.t 
f:Ollle grc...:l.t cal1
S the cnrrcnt. C
lpe S
Iacllak....L i I a1 ,It 
 fl"Om Point S..lI1ta )Iargarita, \\hich is thc \\idth of tho lUo
th of 
the ùi
þt, poc
ct, strait, or gulf. C
ipc ) cxtcnd.3 ill.A:> t
1 .J, 
from the ca t, :wel wcst of the point awl \"Cl'Y neal' it i
 the islnn 1 of 1..u.....1o 
C.ltarina. .J uly 22d, tricd to duuble tho Puint 
Iarg.lrita to tinù an anC
'Lehinil it, Lut in 'olin. At noon l.l.tituJc cXJ.ctly .j.) . 


Santa ::\Iargarita, ill latitude 55 0 . The strong currents 
running out of the great gulf or strait, 'v hich he JiJ 
not n
lllle, but '\""hich i
 llO\V Dix.on Entrance, pre- 
vcnted his rounding the point. In the north he could 
see the present Prince of 'Vales Island and others 
round it, nanling the nearest point-Point Muzon of 
lllodern lnaps-Cape Santa l\fagdalena, and an island 
farther ,yest, 1l0"
 Forrester Island, Santa Cristina, 
or as Crespí says, Santa Catalina. For further details 
I refer to the note already given. 
Though Perez did not land, he had lTIuch friendly 
intercourse ,vith the natives, \vho canle off in canoes, 
singing and scattering feathers on the \va-
er in token 
of peace. They ,vere entirely friendly, but only t\VO 
had the courage to board his ship. At one tilne 
there ,vere t,venty-one canoes ,vith over ty\'"o hundred 
natives about the vessel. They \ve:r.:e glad to barter 
their dried fish, furs, ,vooden boxes, and inlages, n1at::; 
of ,vool or hair, and other native products, particularly 
for knives and anything made of iron, Lut cared very 
little for beads and other trinkets. They had already 
S0111e fe,v articles of iron and copper. In accordance 
,vith the viceroy's instructions the people ,vere de- 
scribed as fully as possible by Crespí and the others. 
The impossibility of reaching here an anchorage and 
obtaining fresh \vater, together ,vith the unfavorable 
,veather, ,vhich prevented a close exan1illation of the 
coast froln point to point, deterlllÎned Perez and 
his cornpanions to abandon the effort to reach higher 
latitudes. On July 22d the Santiago ,vas headed south- 
,yard. The coast ,vas seen on the 23d and 24th, a 
range of high sno,vy mountains n::llned Sierra de San 
tóbal, thought to extend fron1 latitude 5-1 0 40' to 
53 0 8'.23 Until the 30th they had occasional glilllpses 

2:> Taljle" Diaria,. Perf'z, Rclacion. CI'e
pí, Diario, G;j,j, says that from Santa 
1\Iargßrita the is low for seven leagues south; and. from that low coast, in 
50 0 44' (3. typographical error), the lofty mountains hegin, wooded, and the peaks 
covered with snow. The sierra extenùs from 54 0 44' to 33 0 8'. It is :36 leagues 
long from x. w. to R. E. The latitude on ,July 23d was ;'):r' 48'; on the 
51 0 21'; 2.')th, f>3"21'; on the 2Gth, ,,)2"59'; 27th, .j2'41'; 28th, j2 0 20'; 29th, jlO 
30'; 30th, 51 0 58'; 31st, 51" 33'; August 1st, 50 0 20'; 2d., 4!t 24'; 3d, 41:)0 ;)2'; 



of the cnfit.;t dn".n to ahout ]atitucll' .)
o, al\'.[lY
Queen Charlotte; hut the fog' an(l \\'itHI ".ould IH t 
pertuit the eloso o\:atninatioll tlc,iruJ. Then f( ar 
h"o (lay
 uo lautl ".a
 s 'Oil, ulltil Oil the 5th of" \u- 
gust it reappeared, in 18 0 50'; atHl on the 7th in the 
afternoon, after InallY efl()}-t
 and pra.rer
, they ap- 
l ÞJ'oache<l the COìl!-;t 26 and anehorc(l in 4!J o :10', callil1 o ' 
their anchorage SaIL Lurcnzu. The anchurage ,,-as a 
'-sha I )ud l"oad
tead aflorJin o ' l'ut slio'ht 1 )l"otectiuJl' 
, 00' 
the HouthCI"ll rocky puint, extending" three fourths of a 
learruc llol'th-\,.est\,.ard into tlte t'ea nnd cdu:"iu o " bl'eak- 
ð 0 
ers, "as lllt1l1e(1 San l
stévaH, for the pilot
, one of 
''" ll<Hll ,vas J

lal'tinez, \\. hilL the llorth('rn 
point ".as calle(l Santa Clara, frolll tho Haillt \vho

Jiu1:rll( \\"af-.: l)cin o ' oLserveù. 27 
San Lurenzo ha
 1 )Cell identified by l110dern writers 
,,,itlt N uotka Sound; the latitude is the saIHe; later 
Spanish IU1yigator
 had 110 ùoubt of the iùentity; antl 
the description agrce
 as ,,'ell \\yith thi
 ".ith any 
other of the nUIuerOUH iBlct
 on thi:-; part of the eoast- 
l,cttcr, indeed, in re
t uf the distan
e Let\\"cen the 
t".o points than ".ith the northern inlet. It i:-" ho,,'- 
c\.er, illlpo

iLle to 
pcak positively al)C)ut the identity 
of an inlet on a coa
t ".herp there 
 :"-() lunny, the 
tlescriptioll being vague, and the latitude 
OI11C\\ hat 
too accurate in cCHnparison \vith that of other poillt"t 
as given Ly Perez. San Lorenzo 1ua.r have L leU 1
pel'anza Inlet, north uf :N outka I:-;lalld,28 01' pos:;iLly au 

4th, 48 0 3.1'; .')th, 48 0 ,,)0'. These latitudes are chicfly from the Tabla. but 
tlu-re are 
omc slight nu.i:1.tions in the othcr recurds, c
pecially in Cret-l> 1 , who 
is uW' (lay hchiud in thc Augu
t la.tit\1l1es. 
:'!!j Crc!':pí still is one cIa) hehinel in his cliary. 
:.!õ In p( rp''', Rtlar;oll, Point 
anta. Clara. is clcscril)(>cl aq six le.'1g11PS from tho 
vcsHcl and Point San Estt.\ au t\\ 0 leagues. CrC
1'1 makes the distance bctwel'n 
tlH' points four or fh e leagues. '-,-'he low hills ncar th" bhure \\ crt' c.'o\",'rcil \\ ith 
trces; one league farthcr inland W:t:i a higlwr ran
c, :11..0 woc)(lccl; nnel in tho 
JJorth ,}, still highcr rangc, ,\ ith snow-covcl'clI pcaks. rhe shelter secms only 
fl.Olll :L :\. ". "ind. PeÌla M)"S the :;ierra, in tho 
. w. '\as al<;o called 
I..oJ"('n '0; the name Point Estt'\"lUl i,,, rctainctl for it<J 
outhcrn pvint. 
. 5 I
spccially if Point Fst...., nn is the same a<J Poiut Brea.kt'I"8, as Urecnho\\ , 
l"illellay, awL othl"r8 think. In thi!i casu Point S.mta. Clar., "ouM ho \\ c)()cly 
],oint; otherwise Point 'Iac..'uilla or Point Bajo. See account of C.ook's \"Ì in 
next chapter. There i::J conf\l:)ioll in Loth llarrati ve
. In thc P II I L \\ e rea.(I, 


inlet south of N ootka Sound. 29 Tho Indians can10 
out in their canoes to trade. flere, as farther north, 
they were friendly,IH1yillg also SOlne articles of iron 
and copper. A boat "'"as lo,vercd on the 8th 30 to 
go to the shore for ,yater; Lut a strong ,vest ,vin<l 
sprang up suddenly, forcing thelli to cut the cable and 
} )ut to sea draO'O'in o ' the boat and narro,ylv osca ! )iu o ' 
, 00 0 J 0 
the rocky point. 
I{eeping in sight of the land for seven days, but 
unable to approach it for the ,vind, fog, and rain, 
Perez ran do,vn to latitude 44 0 33', having seen on the 
10th or 11 th a lofty nlountain covered ,vith sno,v in 
latitude 48 0 7',31 called Santa Rosalia, and supposed by 
later ,vriters to h
vG been the present l\lount OIYlll- 
pus of "\Vashington. On the 15th or 1Gth, being in 
latitude 4
0 37', they ,vere 11luch troubled that tho fog 
prevented their search for j-\.guilar's river and Cape 
Blanco, noting the fact that tho latitudes of the earlier 
nasigators ,yore too high. Land again appeared on 
 1st or 22d for a short tillie, \vÌlen "\vhat '-;'"as re- 
garded as Cape l\lendocino, in about latitude 40 0 8', ,vas 
soon in the north; the Farallones ,vere passeù on the 
2Gth; and on the 27th the SarLtiago anchored at 
l\1:onterey. The voyage to San BIas lasted fronl Oc- 
tober 9th to N ovomber 3d. 
In this expedition Juan Perez, though he haclnot 
reached latitude GOo, as instructed, nor discovered any 
good ports, nor landed any,vhere to take possession 

'Este parage es justamente la boca de Nuca,' which is evidently 
interpolation of later du.te. The souther.n IJoint at Nootka i3 still called 
EstÓ\'all on some maps, l>oint l3reakers on others. Point Santa Clara must be 
the later Point l\Iacuina, or at least canllot be 'V ooJy Púint, a1::l Greenhow 
29 ThG silver spoons found by Cook five years later came from a place south 
of Kootka Sound. 000/;"8 roy., ii. 282. . 
3e1 Ou the Dtll, according to Crespi and Pefia. 
ly fragment of the latter's 
diary begins with August Dth. 
31 According to the 'Paúla, on the lOth they were in 48 0 D', and thought the 
Jnoùntain to be in48
 5'; the Eclacion has it that they saw it on the Util, when 
they were ill 47" 47', and thou:5ht it to be in 48 0 7'. PeÜa amI Crespi say they 
say: it on the 11 th, being in 48'> f)'. The mountain ,,,-as in sight bot.h days. J>cïía 
110tcS that at first it seemed a barranca Uanca close to the shore, with high snowless laud above it; hut later they saw that it was some distance 
inlanù, anù that there wcre other snowy mountains. 



for Sprtin, nor fuulH] either foreign c
talJli:;lllllents or 
pruof of tlH"ir ll()))-l\
i'itellcC, had 
till gaineù the 
honor of havin o ' tliS("OVl'reù } Jracticall r the \vhule 
N urth \\ycst Coast. J Ie had sur\yoycd a large portiun 
of the t\\"O great i::;lallùs that Blake up the coa:-;t of 
riti::;h Cohnlll,ia, giving the first description of the 
uativcs; .he 11..HI Seen and llescriLed, thou
h yaguely 
and froln a di
tanee, ncarl.y all uf the \Vashillg't011 
coa:-;t, and a large part of the Oregon. lIe had gi \ en 
to his nation \\'"hatever of credit and territorial claiIl1s 
Inay be founòed on the nlere act of fir:;t di
'J'o give any degree of precedence in these rcspcct::; 
to later navigators \vho \\Tere cnaLled to lllake a. 
Blore detailed exaluination i
 as absurd as to regarJ 
the officers of tho U nited State
 coast survey, ,vho 
have done such excellent service for geographyalHI 
('Olnlnercc, as the discoyerers of the X ortln\"e::;t Coa
""hc,ther Perez lllade the Lest use uf hi::; opportunities 
it i
 v"cry difficult to decide. :\Iaurellc in 1791 criti- 
ciðes nlost seyerely a cOlnnU:tndcr \\rho ,vas driven 
La("k hy thirst ,,?hen he n1Ìght ea
ily have carried 
,vater for six n1011th
; ,,"ho cOlHplained of the scurvy, 
,,,,hcll ouly one lll::tn ,vas lost; \"ho could find no an- 
chorage on ::t coast ,,? hero luallY good ports cxisteJ; 
and ,,"ho "ith his a
sociatf'::; co:uld "rite so nlany 
diaries w'ith so little inforluation. 32 .L\..ud )11' Greenho\\r 
: "The goverillnent of Spain, perhaps, acted \riscly 
in conC'calin o ' the accounts of tho ex ! >edition, ,,,hicIt 
reflected little honor on tho courage or the :->cience 
of its 1l3.vigators."33 It 
 to llle, ho\\?over, that 
the criticisnls are severe, since tho diaries contain 
a tolorably good account of all that ,vas lcarne(l 
in the yoy-age; and I\
rcz, 3, bold and experienced 
pilot, ,vas a IJettcr judge than T, po:-,siLly hetter than 
the ,vritcrs n
uned, of the diffieultie
 in the ,,"ay of 
learning nlore. I t 
hould Le adJed that no account 
of thi
 voyage ,,'as gi Yen to the \\'u1"ld until the ap- 

82 lfnuTrlll', Compf!fldio, ]';3-7. 

J Grccul"uu.'s Ur. and CtÛ., IIG. 


pcarancc of N âyarrete's ')'ésunzé in 1802, ,vhich con- 
tained only a very brief outline of the facts. 

The second exploring expedition of the epoch fol- 
lo\yed closcly upon the first, Lcing debpatchcd in 1775. 
K ayal officers had been sent out fronl Spain, as prOIU- 
iscd in correspondence already notcd, to ta1ie chargo 
of the San BIas departlnent \vith its Californian and 
exploring service. They accordingly took conunand 
of the four vessels sailing to the north this year, 
t\yO bound for California ,,
itll Inission and presidio 
supplics, the others for tho coast8 farther north. 
Bruno Heccta, lieutenant and acting captain, ,vas 
cOlnnlander of the expedition, and the vessel chosen 
for his flag-ship ,vas the Santiago of the lat;t year's 
. Juan Pcrez ,vent on her as lJiloto, or sailing- 
111aster, and second in COnl111and; Cristóbal Revilla 
as his Inate; and the chaplains ,vere the Franciscan 
padres CaHlpa anll Sierra, ,vho bccalne InilSsionaries 
in California. The ship also carried a quantity of 
supplies for 
Ionterey. The schooner S1onorct, alias 
Fclicidctd, ,vas selected as the consort, C0111lnanclecl by 
lieutenant Juan Francisco do Bodega y Cuadra,8:& \vith 
Alférez Antonio 
faurelle as piloto. Supplies for a 
year's cruise ,vere taken, and the force of both vessels 
l1un1bered one hundred and six men. Heceta's instruc- 
tions \yere the sanlC as had been those of Perez, except 
that latitude 65 0 instead of latitude 60 0 ,vas named as 
the northern lilnit. They sailed froln San Blas on 

Iarch 16th, the schooner to\yecl by the ship; but the 
,yinds ,vere not favorable, and it ,vas not until l\Iay 
21st that they reached the latitude of l\Ionterey, 
"7 here it ,vas decided in council not to enter. They 
finally drc,y near the land in 42 0 on June 7th, and 
follo,ved the coast south,vard until they discovered 
the port of Trinidad. Heceta's operations on the 
Californian coast, like those of Ayala and Quirós in 

31Lientenant Juan n. Ayala waS" at fir8t put in command, with Cuadra as 
his second; lJut he had to be transferred to the San UárlQs. 



thp oth0r Yc
s('I:-; of th i,') year, ha\ e been already rc- 

rhe /3 '}It ;agn and /S( not'( left Tril1id'ul on .T un ' 1 !Jth 
for tll(} Borth, keeping together until thc end of .J uly.3G 
l.littlc progref-;H \vas lllade nort]l\vard in the UB- 
favorable and \ ariable ,,'inds; hut hy the cnd of J HllC 
they ,ycre over one hundred lcagu(;s 3.\vay frol11 the 

oast. Cuadra aIld ::\laurcllc \vere ill favor of goiug 
still {
lrtller out, so a
 to run f
lr to the north \vhell 
thc ,vind:.; Hhoul(l c(nne; hut J lcccta chUHt' to f()llo\v 
the judgu1cnt of Perez, a
 in(lced his instructions 
requireù hilll to clu, \\.ho repl'e
elltecl the \VillÙ
 to bc 
frulll 3. southern (luarter, hLyoraLle to progrc ,s alollg 
the coaf.3t north\vard. \\ThCll the ,,'ind canlt.', ho\veyer, 
it "a.., frolll the ,vcst and llorth-,vé
t, driying thelI1 
llUÙ\vard sooner than they de..:ired. On ,) uly 
th they 
SjRee I/i...;t. ral., i. chap. "Xi. 
3C IlecU't, S, .llllldCt J.:J.ï110J"Ctrion d la rosta .':({'t ll f rÎollal rlr r(tl., 177';, in'!!f'r'.s .J/SS., 
o. I:!
, iJ a narrative, DO author being namell, of thc Stm- 
tia:;o ',i movemcnts do\\ 11 to August l.")th, completc,1 d(m n to August 30th, 
by /llccla, Jt 'Uf' de lì7.;, 
., in J"<J cd .i..Vor!", No.
. Thc schooner's 
movements :
ro of course includcd do\\n to thc separation. I/o.rtf!, Diorio, 
is the conunandcr's llarrnti,'c, snhstantially but not literally thc 8a1Uf" as 
the prcccding, of which I have only an cxtract rclating to th3 ColumlJia. 
Ri,'er region, gin'n hy Urccnhow. /Jodp.I't!1 ()lffu.l,.a, Jia!l( <It li7';, 1-1:-;., 
in J-i(l!J(I
 al .i.Yot"t , No. 2
, ii a narrativc hy Cuadra himself of thc SlJllor(t's 
,"oyage from August 4th to Xovemher 
Oth, after the Bepc.lration. Jlallrcl!, 
Dia,.;o dtl J iaye elf' 1, SOIl()ra, 177';, ::\l
., in rïa.l(ß al .LYodc, Xo. :I, 
is thc Beeonll piloto'.., narrativo of tho wholc voya<'o (f tho schooner 
mul of thc ship sa long as they wcre together, \\ itÌl reflections, tablcs, 
etc., at the cwl. J.l[nllr,ll ',Of J01l1'1Iftl of (t J-O!! '!!' in 177';, Loa lon, 1781, puh- 
lishe(l alllong J]arl"ill.J!ou,'s JIi..,c llan;(s, is an English trnll,lation of a nar- 
ra.tive similar to hut not illcntical \, ith that la
t named. 1 t contain a map, 
introùuceù by the puhli3her to illustrate the \ oyaJC'. J]{ I .pt !I ('aa Irct, 
Comcl/to <It' In.\? m: I riOll, 
I:-;., in J,a.l",Htl .i..Y ort(', X' 0.0, is a Bunullary nan-ati vo 
hy ('u:ulm, covcring the Bamc hrroul1l1 a
 that of 
l.LUrelle. 1/(' la, l:spuliriQII. fla, in Palou, .i.Yotic. ,..
, ii. 
.)O ï, is a llaITùti\"c of the voyago 
of both "'('.JScl
, prol.Jably fOlUulc(l on the chaplains' tli.Lric
, hut much COD- 
('el in thc priuting. The ori;;inal charts of this voyage, as of thc preceding, 
if any were ma.dc, ha\ e never bcen publi
he,l anel arc 110t kno\\ 11 W he 
t..'lnt. Such arc t:le original authorities on Iff'ceta.'s expc,litioll. Fur 
minor ref('renccs to works that mention the voyage, but contaillno ùfhlition,ll 
iufornmtion, s('o tho references for Pcrcz' voyaric, note 
 of this ch.lptcr, 
alllilater pa.::;es in each rcferC'nce; a.l
o rtplll"i II. in J[(lJ"ch wd, JPO!I., i. hxii.- 
hxx.; .Jlurr, .JVllcl",'ichtcn., 401; Farllham's 11;";1. ()rf'!!ou, 1:!-13; /JU1W.g IIi, I. 
!)J; ,'). 'm's N. W. ('(J(1,J..t, 
:!,l-G; lJi11 ('..,' {Jr. lIiRI., a:;:! ; Pu/i.:c 
l'Ort'uoll, (;2; I.' 
i, Smu,,'ui"/f, .)
U: ROllhallr/, N, .I;(lIl
 AYO",.f IICJI, II; Sai, - 
A manl, JrO!!., 144; SimpRou's .Sar,'., i. 
(jO; l\"orfh MI. PflM. Sllmmary, :.. o;-u. 
Greenhaw, pp. 4:
0-3, gives a (luotation from JIecctil.'s report, uncI a lon
quotation fre'm 
,raurelle ig fOUllÙ in U. S. Guv. Doc., ",';th CUIIJ., Jd S ' ., II. 
]:{lJt. ...Yo. 1Ul, 1>P' l:!-Î. 


recognized t.heir proxilnity to the coast, supposing 
thelIlSelyes to be near the northern point of Fuca 
Strait, acc0rding to the French lllap of 1\1. Bellin, and 
on the 11 th sighted land in latitude 48 0 2G'. Search- 
ing south,vard in yain for an inlet or port, the vesscls 
anchored on the 13th in latitude 47 0 23'/7 the schooner 
behind a point and a line of shoals, ,yhich proved a 
very dangerous anchorage, and the ship outside SOlue 
ll1Ïles farther south. 
The place ,vhere the Spaniards ,vere no"r anchored 
,,"as the Point Grenville of modern 11laps, in latitude 
47 0 20'. A barren island farther north, ,vhich they 
discovered and llalDed Isla de Dolores, ,vas Dc[;truc- 
tion Island. They had proved that Fuca'H inlaginary 
strait did not exist bet,veen latitudes 47 0 and 480; and 
their landfall had been a fe,v Iuiles too far south to 
reveal the strait that no,v bears IT'uca's nalne. To the 
anchorage, ,vhich one diary at least calls Rada de 
Bucareli,3s according to Navarrete, or to the point, 
as Greenho,v &;ays, the nanle of 
lártires ,vas ap- 
plied, in consequence of the disaster to be n1entioned 
presently. I do not find any record of the nanle, 
ho,vever, in the original narratives. On July 14th 
Europeans set foot for the first tinle on the soil of 
the Northwest Coast. Captain Heceta, ,vith Padre 
Sierra, Surgeon Dávalos, the second piloto, Cristóoal 
Reyilla, and a fe,y sailors, landed in the nlorning to 
erect a cross and take forlnal possession, though the 
tilHe did not perinit the celebration of mass. But 
ndians ,vere present at the cerenlony, and they 
,yere" altogether friendly; indeed they had before 
visited the ship in a canoe, carrying skins to barter 
and inviting the Spaniards to land. 

37 This is the latitude given in [ferpta, E
perl;don, and .J.1fau'J"Pllr, Dinrio. 
In IIf'cda, Se[Jlluda EX}llor., it is 47" 24', awl ill .Jfaurclle's Journal 47 0 21'. III 
the table at the end of Ill. the latitudes by observation anù reckoning rpspcct- 
ivcly are given as follows: July 9th, 47 0 37' anù 47 0 44'; 10th, 47 0 3.')' and 
47:> 4.)'; 11th, 48 0 
J' and 48 0 32'; 12th, 47 0 39' anù 48 0 .1'; 13th, 47 0 28' aud 
47 0 41'; 14th, 47 0 20' and 47 0 24'. The variations are no greater than would 
naturally result from the observations 011 two vessels. 
38 So called also in lle'Villa..Gi
edo, luJo1"/ne, L? A
ril, lì9:). 



Thp f)chooner, anchored a fe\v lllÎles farther north, 
,ras also yisitccl thi:-, clay and the prececlin
 Ly large 
hll1nbl'fS of I ndian:-;, \\yho \vere ea6"cr to trade, 
for arti(.les of iron, HIHI ,,110 "YéI'e very denlon
t i \ e in their aSSlll'an<:C'4 of fricndship, urging the 

trano'er:-; tf) , isit their ranehcría. After hc 
uc . 'ccled 
in rCIIloving the ISoJun't( frolll her c1angerouK po

U1lf Hl
 the :..;hoals, Cuaùl..1 re:-,ol vcd to Rend a party' 
ashore to ol>tain ,vood an(l ,yatl'r. ]Ie tru"ted to 
the fricndly Jispositioll uf tIH' nativc:-5 aud to past 
cxpcriencc at 'friniclad. Six. Jllell, under cUllunancl 
of tht"\ l)oat
nvain I }cdro Santa .Ana, ""ere accorclingly 
Sl'llt to lanll in the boat. The r nc1ian
, ROBIC three 
hundred ill utullbcr, \verc hidden in the ,vooùs nl'ar 
t hc landing, and no sooner hatl the Spaniards left 
the boat than thcy rushed to attack thclu. T"yo 

praJ1g into the sea and ,,"erc dro\\YI1cll; the rc
\\yerc iUllnediatl'ly killell and torn in piecl'
, the boat 
also bcing broken up for the nail
. Cuadra could 
nfl<)l'llno succor, having no boat, even if he ha(l been 
alJle to llUln onc. Thc 
avages eycn cainc off iu their 
canoes aud surrounded the schooner, as if tu prcvcnt 
her departure; but one of the canoc
 vûnturing too 
IleaI' had six of it
 IllCll killed by the gUlls of tho 

l )[lniard:-;. On rejoining the ship, Cuadra and SOIDe 
()tllcrs llesircd to llHlrch ,vith thirty JllCn against t.he 
I Jldian
 to avcnge the llla

acre, but a cúuncil dccidcd 
tH'h an act \vould be UIl\yisc. 
The council al
o òiscu
seJ the expedicncy of send- 
ing thè :::; 
n()J.(t back to )[onterey, on nccount of her 
ize-thirtv-Rix feet long, t,,-elvè feet ,,"ide, and 
eirrht fcet deu I -)-thp l'ol1(Y'h ,,"cather , 
lnc 1 thc <liHifOlllt,- 

fIt' kcepiug the Ye::'
t'l:-; togcther. J
\lt Cuadra and :\Lau- 
rellc in:-;istpd on bein oo allo,,"ed to l )roceed uro'iner that 
M , 
t he.'r \\?erc not likely to e.À pericncc \vorse \\ycather than 
that \\ hieh they hlul sur\.ivcd; anli ] IL
ccta, "ith the 
:\=",sent of llH)st 
of t he officer
 llceidl'd in their fa \ or. 
 tHen ""ere furlli:-;!le( I to replace the Revell l()
t; and 
011 the f
YcniIlg- of thl' 1-1 th the t".o Yl'

. w. COAST, Y( L. I. 11 


The cour::;e ,ras ,Yc
t\Yard, and lo
ing slightly in lati- 
tude, by the cnd of tho l110nth they ,vere oycr one 
hundred leagues frotl1 the coast. l\Iean,vhile, OIl the 
19th, Perez and the surgeon in ,vriting adyi
eù n re- 
turn south,,
ard, on account of sickness, contrary ,yin(ls, 
and the lateness of the season; but Cuadra and 

Iaurclle again opposed snch action, and the eOlll- 
1l1ander yielded again to their advice. On thc 30th 
a ,vind fronl the north struck the vessels and soparato(l 
thcnl. Let us follo\v Heceta and the Santiago: On 
the Inorniu6' of July 31st, in latitude 46 0 42', the 
schooner being no longer in Right, a council ,yas held 
on the ship, in "\vhich the officers favored a return to 
l\Ionterey, because the scurvy had not left 11len enough 
"fit for duty to Inanage the vessel in case of a stornl. 
lIcceta yielded so far as to turn his course t,o\vard the 
(>oast, but in doing this he also sailed as far north as 
sible, and on August loth they sighted land, being 
in latitude 4
t 30', that is, in the region of N ootka. 
In the north- ,vest ,vas seen a 1110untain reselnbling the 
peak of Teneriffe, in about latitude 50 0 , and another 
farther south resenlbling the cuchillada de Roldan in 
'Talencia. N ext day the n1aster, Inate, and surgeon 
ed their ,varnings, Perez clainling that sho\vers 
like those of the past year ,vould surel) leave not a 
luan for duty, and I-Ieceta deterlnined to follo"T the 
coast southw'"3rcl. On the 12th they noticed that in 
the first fifteen leagues above latitude 4
t there ,vere 
t,vo salient points, ,vith a bight three or four leagues 
àcep, ,vith a beach and lo,v hills, ,vhich lnay have been 
Clayoquot Sound, or perhaps by an error of latitude 
Barclay Sound, farther south. The natives caU1e off 
to traJc, selling one of their four canoes and urging 
the Spaniards to land. 39 
.1-\.ccording to the narratives, l-Ioceta kept near the 
shore, anchoring often, and having clear, favorable 
39 According to Ilc('('ta, ES]ícd. Jlarít., this was on August 13th, when they 
were in 4U J 5'; the 14th thcy were in 48" 32', and the cOlld('staUe died; the 
l.:;:h in 48 0 3' (or 47" 34' in afternoon according to another account); Green- 
how's account of this part of the voyage is very erroneous. 

IEXT:-} OF TIlE S_\XTI \no. 


,,'cather; hut if thi
 had l)cen 
tri("t}y trup he ('ould 
]lardly ha\"c Inis
ed the entralH.C to the 
trait. Ill" 

n\ t \\'0 
IlHlll islands al)out a league frOIH 
horl". i Jl 
h,titudu -1i)" 4',40 alHl IOl"ated J )ol()re
, or De:--.tructio
lalld, ill latitude ! ï J 5B', 01' eighteen ll1Île:-1 too f
llOït h. 
()n tIll} 15th, in latitude 
 ,0 3-1', ten I ndialls 

efl" in a canoe to tra(lL
. 'rho f.:ailors pret( 'IH.Il'd to 
recognizl" Sf Hue of tho:-;ü eJl
ag-ed in the I1laS
aere of 
July, and efttn-ts ""cre nlade to t'ntice theul 011 Loard 
,yith a viu\\r of holding- 
OlllC of theul as hostag-e;-;, if 1 )\" 
Chal}('c any Hpalliard had Hurvi \.ed; 1Hlt the 
a\ agl 
,,'ere tou "ary all< 1 ,vlien at In ,-;t the OTa l )l )lillll.-ir()Il'; 
...' b 1 ;-0, 
"rel'(, thro""ll at the ('auoe they ðtruck an Indian ill 
the' l)a(.k but did not holtl. 
Still keeping' near the ".oodcù 
horc, and notin' 
SOBlú roeks, or Hlnall island:;;;, lIcceta in the aftcrnO(J!l 
of the 17th discoyered a IJay ,yith strong currents all(l 
, indicating' the BiolIth of a great riyet. or 
inlatituLle JG o Ð',41 ,vhich Lut fÒr the latitude thc navi- 
gator ,,
oultl have identiiied \vith :Fu('u' Strait, but 
Yw hieh he now luuned Bahia. dc la ...\suut'ion, callil .
' t 
the northern point San l{oq ue and the Houthcrn C\ll J þ 

Frol1dodo. I t 'Ya
c(-luently calleJ Ly thc Spa 1.-'" 
iard::; ]
enada de I!cceta; and 'Ya
 of cour
e tit. 
11lOlll It uf the Colulubia l{iver Let\\"cen capc
 ])i -' 
apJ>ointulent and .1\.danls. 42 Xu cxploratinll \\.as at- 
tculpted, l)ccau
e there ".cre llùt InC11 enough to rai.' · 
the anchor if it ".ere once lo\\ c1'ed, or v;ith };ar
t.r t þ 
nuu} the launch. Next day, in latitulle 4,)) 4;3', a point 

40 The dmrts shm\ many bIllall rocks alolló the coa...t hetwecn Hc tnlcti()'. 
Llana ;llHl ('ape Flattcry. Thc
t; ;;:olofrs may bCdl :Flattc' y J:'>>c!\:d or any 
of the others. It is clear enough that Jleccta llid not c\.amine thi.::ll)art oÌ 
the C(la<;t 
o doscly 3'J "as prctelHled. 
 to /I cria, J:.
}Jed. Jlllrtl., itwns il14G II'. In 1ft 'a, Diar;n, 
t 110 reader is refcITC( 1 to the mH p fur the latitudc; hut ill the tahlcs at the cIlII. 
Heconlill;; to (.1"ccnho\\, the latittHle of the lith is gh-en ai 4(j Ii. proùah:y 
at l1oun. The tnlC latitude of the l'ntrance at its mi<hlle is ahout 4tj 1.-). 
:.! Hecctn.'J 
tatC!11cnt tJlat thc points ran in thc angle of 10' of the thirfl 
quadrant-that i
, )0 "cRtof south -i
 uninteLiglblc. the true (lirectionlleill; 
ahout 4J J of the 8ecillul (luudrunt, or ncarly 
. I". In the L" I /. 1[ant. the 
l,oi.uts arc B.lÌll to )JC a leaJue HUll a. half apart, the inlel 'ha{ 'l']Hlo hori onte' 
Ll the e.l.5t, awl "urlJo
ed to be a 1 i\ cr. 

ST CO...\.ST. 

llanlcd Cape Falcon, perhaps Tilhullook or False Til1a- 
l11ook. f3 N c:\.t ,vere seen three farallones,' called the 
Tres l\Iarías, in latitude 45 0 30'41; then caLne a Rat- 
topped lllountain callcd the :Thlesa, or Table l\Iountain, 
in latitude 45 0 28'45; and on the 20th in 43 0 they sa,v 
tcn 8111a11 islands and 1norc, nuting three others ill 
hltituùe 42 0 3G', 46 pa
sing l\Iendocino on August 26th, 

lld anchoring at 
fonterey on the 29th. Thirty-five 
sick Inen \vere landed next day, ten remaining on 
Loard, one of ,vh0111 died. 
I have 110'V to follo,v Cuadra in the SOn01Yt. At 
da,vn on July 31st the ship could not be seen; and 
tho captain sought iler in the very direction that he 
,yished to go for purposes of exploration-that is, 
straight out to sea. 
Cuadra and Maurelle state in their narratives 
that the separation ,vas accidental, and i111ply that 
their subsequent course \vest,vard \vas in accord- 
ance ,vith the proposed course of both vessels, no 
challge having been ordered, though such a change 
-as probable. But in another account it is stateçl 
y\-ith nluch, plausibility, and probably on good author- 
ity, that the separation ,vas deliberately planned by 
the two comnlanders to appear accidental. I-Ieceta 
realized that very soon he '\vould be forced to yield to 
the clamors of his officers and Juen. and to order a re- 
turn. But Cuadra not only desired to go on, but ,vas 
confident. of success; and accordingly it ,vas arranged 
that the bold explorer should lose sight of the ship 

.;3 A lofty sierra, called Santa Clara de 
Ionte Falcon, the latitude of the day 
heing -1,)" 41', according to the Esped. l1Iarít. The bearing from Cabo Frondoso, 
 to the Diu.'rio, was s. 22:) w., the coast running thence s. ,')0 E. In 
the 8('.}llItd(t Explm.. the same bearings are given, and the point, not named, 
Îd said to be 'a short distance' below Cape li'rondoso. G
:eellhow identifÌcs 
I'alcon with Cape Lookout (4.3 0 20'), for no reason that I know of. The Learings 
given above do not agree with either point. 
H Only mentioned in the SC!flUula E:t"jJlor. The latitude luay be a copyist's 
error, as the diseoyery is mentioned after that of the :ßlesa. 
-.I':' La l.Iesa is on the Coast Survey Chårt in 4.3' 30'. Greenhow iùentifies 
it with the Clarke Point of View of Lewi$ and Clarke, in 180.3. 
-.16 Ail these are variously described a::; i..,Zote,c;, farallo71cs, or jJied1"[{8. Perhal)s 
those of 43'0 were just Lelow Cape Dlanco, in 42 J 50'. These rocks are numer- 
ous all along the coast. 



and Rub
(ìqucnt]y usc hi
 (H\pn juJ..
llll'nt ac; to the 
dirf.r{iOll in "hiclt he should b('ar
h tor hcr.(j 

rhc little ('raft kept on to the 'YC 
t until.r\u:, l1
t 5th, 
". hCll the nn. ,'i
 thoug-ht thenlSelycs (nlL hundred 
l'\.ellt.v lcaguc
 frotH lanel, and "'ere iu latitulle 
4.3 0 [,.3'..''1 Thun the favorahlc Houth-\\'c;-\t ,,-ilul-:; b(\fY'an 
to blo\\', and a junta. of ofncerR "'a
rh().\" '


h()rt of fooll and \\ atcr, aile 1 the 
eaSOll "'a
 clpel11e I 
late; lnlt tho officers \\'ere Unanil110US ill fa VOl' of goin6 
(ÞU, and the cre\V agreed not only to oLey orJcr:-;, Lut 
tf) coutributl; for a solelllu llla<;s in honor of our 
la(ly of I
ethlehcln, that she l11ight enable thelll to 
1"('a('h the latitulle nanled in the viceroy's instructions. 
cC}ul'ntly on the 15th, ,vhcn accorùing to nellin'
lnap-,,,hich 1uul becn founded on I{u

ian discnveric..;, 
eked out ,,'ith Î1nagination-they should hayc LecH 
ono hundred and thirty-five leagues froln tho coa
lalH 1 "-a
 founJ in latitudo 57 0 2', in tho region of the 
later Sitka, the navigator::; notin
 and naming )lount 
,Jacinto, no\v callcd 
Iouut EdgecomLe. Cuaùra sul)- 
f'l\qnelltly ,,'cnt up the coast to about latitude 5B o , 
returned to latitude 5.3 0 1 i', and ,,"ent 
lgain np to 
latitude 58 0 . ..t\. ycry cOlllpletc cxau1ination ,vas lnadc 
frolll the liu1Ìt of Percz' yoyage, and fornlal posscRsion 
 taken at t,vo poillt:-;; Lut detail
 of this northern 
cxploration belong to the annal
 \la-.;ka, in a later 
)Iost of tho 111cn ,vcro no,v 
ick ,,'ith 
cur'''y, ren- 
dering it ycry difficult to lnanago even 80 
lnall'a craft 
in rough ,,-eathcr. ...\ccordinglyon Septcmber 8th the 
#')n110/'o ,va
outh\vard. It ,va:i a. lnost pcril- 
 trip; lllore than once it seemed eertain that the 
yessel lllust he lost, for a part of the tiulc the officer:.; 
only '\'erc aLle to ,,"ork, and Loth Cuadra and )Iau- 
relIe ""ore attacked ,vith f
\'er. Still the gallant e
plo1'er:.; did not altogether lo...;e bight of their ulission; 

47 Ilccl'ta, Rrr!tmrlct E.rplorrvioll. c IIasta 13. prcscntc no sc bar sahitllJ 
i -d 
6 no '.oIunt.Jri..11a. l'}:hu.ãcion.' J /, ref r, r T I. JI arl.t. 
"4ò J 4ï,accorùin:;tothct.1.bJ, inJI r "sJo n.d. 


they still kept as near the shore as they coutl y\
out sure destruction. On tht:., 11 tll they sa\v land, in 
latitude 5
30 54', and kept it generally or at lcast oc- 
casionallv in vio,v fronl a distance do\\
n to about lati- 
tude 47 0 ; and again they scannell t.he coast very 
elosely fron1 latitude 4-1 0 30' d,_Hyn to latitudo 42 0 19' 
ill search of ..t1-guilar's river, of ,vhich nu trace could 
Le found. 49 TheIl they directed their course for San 
Irrancisco, but discovered instead the bay to ,vhic!l 
tha cOlnn1aneler gave his BaIne of Bodega, reaching 
:Jlontercy on October 7th. As soon as the sick had 
recovered, both vessels sailed for San B]as, ,vherú 
they arrived N oveu1bcr 20th. Juan Perez died t,vo 
Jays out fro111 :\lollteI'ey. 
Thus the \vhole extent of the N orth,vest Coast 
fronl latitude 42 0 to 55 0 \vas explored and fornlal]J 
taken possession of for Spain by Perez, Heceta, anJ 
Cuadra, in 1774-5. The results of these 11l0st iUl- 
portant expeditions \vore not published, as the}T 

;hould have been, by the Spanish governnlent, and 
for many years \vere kllo,vn only through the little- 
circulated English translation of JIauTelle's Journal, 
Yvhich ,vas not, ho,vever, so ttulty a ,york as it ha3 
generally been represented. The charts, ,vhich 111USt 
have bcen tolerably cOlnplete, have unfortunatcly 
never been published, and are not even knoYvl1 to 
t in Inanuscript. By this mistaken policy on the 
part of their nation the Spanish discoverers lost 11luch 
of the honor due theIn, but popularly given to later 
navigators, ,vho in Inost instances substituted for the 
(,riginal ne,v geographical nan1es of their o,vn choice. 
It does not appear, ho,vever, that by her error Spain 
lly lost anything of territorial rights, or even 

49 There is no agreement between the different accounts respecting the 
latitudes at which bnd was seen on the southern trip, but all agree on the 

parch for Aguilar's river. 
Iaurelle, Journal, notes that on the 2Jth they 
were at the scene of the massacre of July; on the 24th were close t
 land, ill 
4,j> 27', anù scarcheJ for the river (hwn to 43" (?) 50', \vhere they founù a. cape 
witll tcn 

all i31anùs-prohahly Cape Blanco, in 4
" 50'. 


 01<' THE XOl
T CO.\ST. 


('APT.U" ('OOl\.'S E"\:I'EDITJO
D X.\'.fr
)1 \I'-_\T :..; \x Lon.L"zo, KI'G (:f.01{GE Sor
D, OIt XOOTKA-( hW:I' 
 OF _\r..TE.\G\ A..
D CU.\DR\ TO .\1 \!-:I
H FrH-Tr.. \J>rr..s n:O'f I ïS;)-][A
X.\'S Y OY \(a:-.;-L.\ Pn
.Al:ClIU'EL.\(:O 01:. 
r.\I X"LA
n?- 'L\r-ExI'F lJITIO'i 01-' :-'TJ:.\ 
 e;.., 1.-.>\\ 1:'11-:, 
D GrH:iE-:\IcKEY AT X,)OTK \-r01
TLO(,K A "D ])I\.O'l'-Qt-EES 
 STP..\IT-])r"C\X A.....D 
;TTT-)I \J:.TI
El AXD JLu:.o I
I'U\l>O\\I:D-TJII-: ::;T.\RR A
D ì"TI:II'ES I'i TilE 
01.TJ[ P\f.IIIC-\Y O \-At:E 
or KJ.::'.DI:ICK A"D GR\Y 0'1' 'I'lIB 'COLr:\IllI.\' AXD '''Y\

OOTK \- 
' :\1E.\RF3 A:'.l> DO"Gt;LAS-CSDJ.:R Por:.TCGrFSE COLC":
L.\rxclI OJl THE 'XOItTH 'Yl:ST .\ '.IEl:'IC \'-THE Hor:-\I: TJL\T J.\CK 

TilE f:U1l0UR Captain ,TaBleR Cook in hi
 thircl nnd 
last Yoyage, con1illg froIH the Saud,,"ieh I
laIlds, of 
,vhich he ""a
 the di
coYerer, on )Iarch 7, 1 Ti8, sighted 
the northern seaboard in latitude JJ 0 ;
3'. 1 [0 COIll- 
lnandC'd the l
nglish exploring :-;hip llrsolllt;u'l, and ,va:') 
[l("C0111panicd Ly Captain Clerke "ith the ]JÙ;curery.l 

1 ('001.:, ..1 rO!iaflC to thp p(tcific nre(lll, 1.171clrrtaT:f'n lJY tl, ('ommaurl of hi,.. 
J[aj",..;ty for JI((l.:i"!llJi
rov"1.i('8 ill the l\Yorthen
 ) lemÌ!tplt ,'I!. 1'0 t!rl"rm;lle fh" 
Po...ititJ7t and H.rt lit of th,. 'rl'st .';ide ()f ,J,Yortll, 
t JJlf'J";rll; its J )i,
trr w.e from. ..!sia ; 
(llll flte I'rac(;('olJility Qf a lV-ort!u rn Pa.sli(lJI' to L'urol e. P, r.J; ,'m,,/lInd, " tl.e 
dirertiOIl (
l ("aplaius Cool.:, Clerke, alid (lore, illlti.oj Jh
i IlfY'{f t:h;1 8 the N, 80'11- 
fioll and j)i
C01' ry, ilL the Y,ar.i l;;C-SO. London, list: -tto,:J ,.0Is., map
charts, anel illu
tration:i. Thc portion of the n.UTatÏ\e rdating to the north- 
west COu.:5t is fuund in yo1. ii. Pl'. 
43; n.lso t
ll,le (tf latihuh.s, rUllt(>, 
\\ inds, etc., ill Y01. iii. pp. 500-U. rrhc octavo edition of the NlJJ1C Jato, in volumes, is an ahri,Igm nt of the original. Tht'r.c w(Ore other celitinU:i 
ntHI translations; and there is h.arùly a collection of ,.oyn.g\.s tJMt hns not a 
IJllgcr or shorter account of thb c
pcelition. Le lym'd'... ...t JOIl1"1m of ('al t. 
( 'OO/
'8 [a...' 1.0Ycr[}C to tlu' P(t"Ui,
 OCt Wl, etc., Hartfurd, I 7
. i'i anothcr' uccount 
hy n. man who n.ccompanicJ Cook. Spark.H' Life of John Lr<!YaI'd, Cambriùg'C, 
, CU\"l'r:-; al
o the 
mc groulll1. 

( 161 ) 


Cook had left England in l'ï7G , kno\yino' nothinO' of 

 ü ö 
"That the Spanish navigators had accolnpli
hed. thoug1l 
a\yarc that they had visited the northern coast.. 2 If is 
special nlis
ion ,vas to search for a pa8sago to Enrol)(!, 
cither by Hudson Bay, or the northern sea recently 
found by Hearne, or by the sea north of Asia; and in 
the search he ,vas, of courso, to explore all the north- 
"estern regions of Anlerica. His instructions ,vere 
to fall in "ith the coast .of N e,v Albion in 45 0 , that 
is, beyond the supposed lilnit of Cabrillo and Vizcaino, 
and after refitting, to follo,v the coast north,vard, Lut 
not to begin his careful search for a passage "Until he 
had reached the latitude of 65 0 . Every precaution 
111Ust be taken to avoid encroachment on the Spanish 
d0111inions, or troubles ,vith any foreigners;3 but ,ve 
also read in his instructions, "You are also, ,vith the 
consent of the natives, to take possession in the nanle 
of the king of Great Britain, of convenient situations 
. in such countries as you nìay discover, that have not 
already been discovered or vi8ited by any other Euro- 
pean po,ver; and to distribute anlong the inhabitants 
such things as \vill remain as traces and testilnonies 
of your having been there." It ,vould appear, not- 
,vithstanding the allusion to Drake in the use of the 
nalne New Albion, that it ,vas not England's inten- 
tion to found any territorial claims on the freebooter's 
discoveries; but to claÌln by virtue of Cook's discov- 
ory all lands beyond the unkno,vn lilnit of the recent 
Spanish voyages. 4 As to the nlain object of the ex- 
20001';'8 Voy., ii. 33
. Greenhow, 01". and Oal., 124, quotes from the London 
Annual Re[]istf:!ì", 1776, a brief notice of the yoyage to 58 0 20' in 1774, from 
the official gazette of l\Iadrid. 
3 'Yon are also, in your way thither, strictly enjoined not to touch upon 
any part of the Spanish dominions on the western continent of Am.erica, 
unless driven thither hy some unavoidable accident; in which case you are to 
stay no longer there than shall be absolutely necessary, and to be very careful 
not to give any umbrage or offence to any of the inhabitants or subjects of his 
Iajesty. And if, in your farther progress to the northward, as here- 
after directed, you find any suLjects of any European prince or state upon any 
part of the coast you may think proper to visit, you are not to ùisturh them, 
or give them any just cause of offence, but on the contrary to treat thcm with 
ci viIi ty and friendship.' Secret Instructions. Oook' 8 V oy., i. xxxii. - iii. 
4 Else the words 'discovered or visited' would have no force, allll there 
would be some allasion to Drake's latih.!.les. 



pc lition, a p(H\erful ill("cntiYe '\7as the r('cent off
r l,'y 
tilt' l-:nglish g'O' ('rnnlent of a re,vard of t""L'llty thou- 

:an(l pound
 to tilt' offj('crs and l'J"C\\7 of any Yt'
..;el di...,- 
eO\7cring a pas
:lge to tllp At lanti(' north of J
(1 ap tain COOk'H explorations along ".hat is hp}"(.in 
tl'rll1ed the Xorth,vcst Coa!-'t arc 
hO'\ïl Oil hi
\\"hich I rcprodu('c. ð .b'or 
ÚÀ days he rCluainecl in sictht 
of hUH1, unaLle to ad yal1 'e Ilortll\vard Oil ilCCflUllt of 



"\ ....

..... 0 C5
 (\ ......J jto- y o 
.----...... ,


.. ('of-..o 



 Ò ' 


n \ 

. fou\weatt1er 
'\ "au "'LL 
,C.Grer^ry ____.3 
. ,r--,. r--- 


COOK':-; ::\lAr, I ï;S. 

contrary and yarial}lü "7ind
. The (\na!'t SCl"\1l 1,y hinl 
",-as bct"7ct'n 44 55' aHfl -1;
o 10': ancI he JUl111ed capt." 
Foul\vcathcr, Perpctua. all(1 C:-regory, ,,-hich nallle..; 
\ycre perlnanent, exccpt that the la..;t i
o called 

 \ra(fo. 6 1 tc noted the ab
(;llCe of any strait like that 

,,-hose di:
ry had been attribut.ed to ....\g-uilnr; lHlt 

j In his general chn1't, showin
 1('88 (IdaH, \\c find ('. III rnro just 1.<'10"'" ('. 
r:rf'!/ol.!/; '( '. 
le7.ari s 'cn hy the :-;p'lniard'i in I;;,),' in 4) ; an(l in :;:J 'LaIHI 

 "cn hy the :--\pallia1'(I
 in :--\( p. I'i'i.').' In thp I11PP'hefl to J/(l.II1"( 'I ',. 
,JuIII'urn "c find .t180 U. J/r
w.i mul ('ook's llarbollr, lï;S. The name Jr, r,., 
i.:J pCl'hap
 a hlun(lc1' fOl. tlH' :--\pani:.-h l/a"'./"( .
(j The latitu(lLs of th('''
l' ca.pes w<<>1'(' c Il"'ula"('(l hy l)('a
n :J'- - .U :-.;. .14 fi, 
a:1l1 4:
\.)'; the true latitnclcs art' ,U 4,.ï', +l I
t, and 4: 


he did not sec thc Unlpqua Riyer, the' large
t on the 
t èX
(1)t the CohnnLia. ....\ftcr heing dl'iYen a,vay 
tì'o111land do,,'n to 42 0 45', the navigator agaill turned 
llorth-cast,,?ard, and sighted the coast in 47 0 5' on 
2d, nanling and describing Cape 
'lattery, in 
-18 0 15', though unable to decido ,vhethor or not it ,vas 
an island. "It is in this vory latitude ,,-here ,ve no\v 
\\'erc" "
rites Cook "that Q'co(yra l )hers have l )laced 
, , LJ b 
the pretcnded strait of Juan do :B"uca. But ,ye sa,v 
nothing like it; nor is there the lcast probability 
that evcr any such thing existed." The English navi- 
gator ,vas very lucky in his conclusions; for if ,vhon 
ofl" Cape Gregory he had seen the Ulllpqua River, 
or off Cape Flattery he had seen the broad entrance 
just beyond that point, he nlÎght have put hin1self on 
record as confirnling the discoveries of both Aguilar 
and Fuca. 
nYay by the ,vinds, Cook sighted land 
again on ::\Iarch 29th, in 49 0 29', at ,vhat he called 
Hope Bay, ,yith Point Breakers on the south and 
\\T oody Point on the north, in 50 0 . Dravving nearer 
the shore, t,vo inlets ,yere seen, into tho lo,ver of 
,\?hich, belo,v Point Breakers, the ships entered and 
fÒund a tolerably good harLor, anchoring on the shore 
of an i:--;land, ,vithin 'v hat ,vas nall1ed 
--'riendly Cove 
and Ship Cove. Thi
 southern inlet-the connection 
of ,vhich ,vith the northern, forlning a large island, 
,va:.; not discovered at this tinle-,vas called at first 
King George Sound; Lut soon Captain Cook dee111ed 
it best to retain ,,?hat he understood to be the nativo 
Halne of N ootka. The San Lorenzo of Juan Perez 
,vas either this 
anle N ootka Sound or the inlet 
inullediately above or Lelo,y it. 7 The natives caIne 
off in their canoes to Inect Cook, as thoy had 111ct 

7 See Perez' voyage, in preceding chapter. Cook has left a degree of con- 
fusion in local geography which has heen reflected in later maps and writings. 
\Yooùy Point is the one which stiJl retains the name. Cook's narrative gives 
the impression that Hope Bay was bounded on the south by Point Breakers, and 
incluùed both inlets; and later writers have followed this in most cases, by 
identifying l)oint llreakers with the mainland Point Estéyan, s()lÜh of Nootka 

ound; but Cook's chart of Nootka, yo!. ii. p. 279, anù even his teÀt, when 



J\'rez, t."a
ting fl'ath
r:-; upon the "Yaters in 
igJl of 
friendship. 1'hl)Y rt.'lllainecl fri('IHlly during the Iuollth 
c,r tilt, l
 ta y r heino- cafrer to traclc their 
...., ,
furs and other ] n'Oùllct
 for auythin cr tIlat "ya:i HHu.1C 
. 0 
of III eta I, lHlt Hot ca. "iug- f'(H' I)ead
 or cloth. rrhe\r 
(.anlC Oil hoard the :--:hi l ):-' ,
'ithout tIlt.' 
t ti,ni<1it,' 
ð .. , 
alH 1 
.a Yl' 110 ot her tronl )]u than t hat re
ultillo' frolll 
their putty thefts, ,,"hieh the c'l()se
t \vatch could Hot 
eutirely ])1' 'yellt. They "'ere ready to fight \\'ith 
their l1ei(rhbor
 f,()!, the c
("lusi\yc I n.iyile<re of traclin tr 
ð ...,..., 
,,'it h the 
trangers, and they expected thc latter to 
pay for the \\Yooc I, ,,-ater, and gras
 obtained frollt 
their c'ouutry. Cook's long stay cnabled hint to o'i \YC 
an extelHlcd and accurate Jescriptioll of thc country. 
and of its people, but thi
 Jescription, like the earlier 
onle\vhat lc:--;s ccnnplete OllC:-\ of l)erez and Cuadra, 
has of cour::;e no place in these pa.
Captain Cook noticed, a
 ]:)(.'rcz had done before hinl, 
that the natiYe
 had Inau'y articlc
 of iron an(1 copper, 
vd1Ï("h ]UU8t have CaIne froIll aLrnad; and he rightl) 
,'oncludcd that all could Bot hayc hecn oLtaillcd fl'CHH 
allY one fureign uayigator yisiting the coast. 1\\.0 

il \Ye!' spoons \\yoru n I..) Ol'lHUnCll t
 hy a nati YO ,,- Ito 
eanH) from a placü Routh vf X ootka, sugge
tcd an 
earlier yisit by tho Spaniards; and the f
li]ure of the 
 to exhibit any surprisc at 
ig'ht of the 
pointed in the saBle direction; but it coul(l not be 
learned fro 111 the Indian
 that they had eyer SCen a 
ship l,eftJre, and ë.lstoni::.;llJllellt 'at tho pOlletratiyo 
po,,-er of a 1l1u:--;kpt-lxlll illdieated that the discharge 
of fire-aruls ".as ne"
 to theul. .L\.cTordingI)-y C\)ok eOll- 
(Oiu(led, incorroctly, that the Spanish Yc
scls ha(l never 
:>eon at Xootka; yet it is not stated that he took po

ession of t he country tor }
I1a \.ing ]llade tho :--Ollll',,-hat extcllsivo repair:'> rc- 

closely ('"aminc(l, shows that Point Brcakers was on thc islan(l---cithcr tho 
Point Bajo or Point Macuina of Inter mal'
. or Percz' Point 
anta Clarn, if ho 
"as at Xoot1.a :O;oulHl allll that tIll'ma.inlallli point hclow \\U
 not namcd a.t 
all. :\Imlern map3 difï
r wiJdy in both names amI coast contùm' on thi.., part 
of tiw cua::;t. 


quire:! by his yessels; obtained full supplies of ,vater, 
\yood, fif'h, grass, and Rpruce - beer; and nlade SOlno 
tonI'S of exploration rounù the shoreR of the sound, 
of "rhich a chart "'as published ,yith his narratiyc, 
Captain Cook sailed on April 26th frotH N ootka for the 
north, to undertake explorations very uluch lllore ex- 
tensive and inlportant than those here recorded, but 
,vhich belong to a later volunle, the IIisto17/ f!f IIlasl.a. 
Of the N orth,vest Coast he had seen J11uch less than 
Perez, Heceta, and Cuadra; nor, \vith the exception 
 ootka Sound, had his description of the regiollB 
isited been more cOlnplete thau theirs. Like the 
Spaniards, he had nlissed the .entrance of the strait; 
and like them he had not suspected that the northern 
shores were those of islands, and not of the lllain. 
But Cook had established the longitude of the coast 
l1Iuch lllore accurately than his predecessors by lncre 
dead-reckoning had been able to do; and by the acci- 
dental carrying a,vay of a small collection of furs, 
hose great value ,vas learned in Siberia and China, 
he originated the great fur-trade ,vhich became the 
chief incentive of all later English and Alnerican ex- 
peditions to these regions. l\Ioreover, the results of 
his voyage \vere fully and prolnptly made kno\yn to 
the ,vorld, as those of the Spaniards had not Leen; 
and thus ,vere practically \von for Cook and England 
the honors of discovery and of nanling the points ex- 
plored. Spain, ,vith her un\vise policy of conceahnent, 
had no just cause for complaint, though to the real 
discoyerers individually great Ï1
iustice \vas done. 

Orders for a ne,v Spanish expedition to the north 
,vere issued in I77G as soon as the results of the la
one ,vere kno,vn. Delays ensued for various reasons, 
chiefly the lack of suitable vessels, and it "Tas not until 
the heginning of I77!:> that everyt.hing ,vas ready. 
()ne vessel, the Favo1>ita, ,vas brought up froln Peru, 
and another, the Princesct, ,vas built for the voyage at 
San BIas. Heceta had at first oeen nallied a


) ;:1 

n1ander, hut bef()re the preparation
 'Yerc cOlllpletcd 
] .Jieutcuant Ignacio .l\rteaga ,\.a':Þ appoiuted j n hi..; 
] )lace. J.Jieutenant Cuadra ,vas, as IJefoTc, f;C("( )nd in 
eoullnand, though he ought to have IJeen fir,t, in C'on- 

ideration of forluer 
rhL' expcdition sailed 
frOIH San l
las .b'cln'llary It, 1779, 
uHl returned to the 

alllC port Novelnber 21
t. The 'xplorations úf .1"\..1"- 
teaga. alHl Cuadra in 
\.laska were c:\.tensivo, and in 
ense, Cook's achievements being nnkuo\\ n to the 
Hpaniard s , in!} )()rtant; IJut thcy are not to b rc 'orded 
here for the 1) rill >}:i and Fo c rit did not touch the 
('oast het\\-ecnlatitudcs 4
o anù 53 0 , llor evcn Calif()rnia 
until the return. R The Ilorth-"Tc:-,t coast ""a
as already fully explored, and as a legitinulte po

ion of 
pain. 13y a cédula of 
Iay 10, 1780, the 
king' ordereJ that vO'yage
 d) all ur( should cca

I t ,va
 seven years after Cook's llcparlure before 
tho N ortlnvest Coast ,va
 visited 1)y another European 
yessel. III 1785 a brig of :-\ixty tons ".a
frOll1 China uuder Captain J aIllCS 1[
Hlll:l in quest 
of fur
. It ,vas an ]
nglish expedition} but it i
(Iuite clear "Thether this pioneer craft uf the fur-trade 
Hailed under Portuguc
e color
 or unùer the English 
flag w.ith a license fro III the East India Company. 
Jlaulla left China ill _\.pril and reached X ootka in 
- \ugu:::;t. The natiYe
 attacked his 
Jnall force of 
t\\Tcnty Incn, but '\gere repulsed, and thereupon bec-unle 
friendly and ,,-illing to trade. I-Iaying obtained fron1 
8..1 rtf'(lya, ff rrpra (.rplnrarion h clll rl mlo 17i9 ("on lWI Fra.l(l''',
 tlrl rf'!I, In. 
'Pâ II . ....fl,) 1Ilfll1r1a la l)or cl tf It;' /ltf' de lIll.I.W don I.íJ/lflcio A rtra.l", ?I I I. 'Pm.fJl'ita' 
llor el de let lILÏsmu cl(t.,e don, JU(l1t Trail. .sco de hI. no It>
/a!l ('" I lr(l, dt'sd
Iliff do d,. Sflll Blrtfl het. rt IfJ,'l RCqf'/I/(t y 1111 arados de latitud, 
Is.; nn oflicial 
account made up from the ori
ina.l diaries, "ith t.'lLles, etc., ill rïaJ ,fI (l 
.Yort, tlf' Ca l ., Xo.4. J/au,.dl" 'j..rm.p!Ja,.ioll, I It dIU 1111/' (l.tlfi](z de FraJala de 
1 " J:, ((1 .. t I"llUul" IJnn lì.,t/ll.i.

o III 'fJllio 1lrl'lI'Ûk d sfill'ulo dp 8( :1"11([0 capitflll 
de l t FI.ílJflirt 'r l I'uât ',' 
. .:\Iaurcllc's original diary, in Id., K 0.5. Hod ./(t. 
!I OI/l"I,.ll., ....'(!JIlJII1.t 8alid,,, JUt'l'" [Oi I') ar(llu.
 PII.I" rray"t t '
tr(t S IOf'n dd 
 R"])l lios,' alia.., In 'P(ll"or;Ia,' .111) d 17ì.ì, .:\I
. Cuadra's diary, in frl., 
:XI). (j!. }JU,[f!l(f,!/ ("ualrfl, ..Va .eJa.cioll .'I d('
rlll rilllifJuto,'J hecJt08 de ordnl. de 
8. .;.1[. en Ill. ('9S/(t 
 pl',ltrimml tit' CnliJin'nia.fI, li7[), :\1:-;.; the samo di.lry 
ill Jl'!I' J.'8 ...1/88., XI). l;
, awl also in the l'illart collection. _\.8 to the ,i.sit ro 
t.:alifOl.nia in returning, see lli-d. Cal., i. ch....p. ",p. 
Iln, ,.ill t-O;Je.lo, II/furme, L! 611 ril, lì!IJ, p. l


then1 a ,aluable lot of fi ye hnnJred and 8ixt,y sen. 
otter skin
, ,vhich ,vere sold for t\venty thousal;d six 
hundred dollars, tho captain proceeded up tho coa
nlling Sl"\a-otter HarlJor alltl St Patrick Day, in 50 0 
41', near the northern cnd of the island. The forlller 
na111e has been ret.ainod; the latter changed t
) St 
Joseph. Leaving N ootka in Septell1ber, he roached 

Iacao in Decelnber. Such is the only infornlation 
extant respecting this first vO'yage of its class, de- 
rived at second-hand froin the statelnents of other 
voyagers. Of a second voyage by Hanna in the Sea 
Ottcr of one hundred and t\venty tons, in 178G, "
kno,v still less-bar
ly the fact that such a voyage 
,vas Inade; and that he spent t,vo ,veeks in AUgUf;t 
at N ootka, obtaining only fifty skins, and fifty nlore 
on other parts of the coast, ,vhich he left on Octobel' 
1st. Hanna see IllS to have discovered anù nanleù Sll1Ïth 
Inlet and Fitzhug
l Sound. lO 

The fan10us French navigator La Pérouse, setting 
out in 1 ï85 on a scientiíìc exploring expedition rounJ 
the ,vorld, an expeùition destined to be fatal to hinl, 
as ,vas that of 1778 to Cook, ,vas instructed to e
alnine such parts of north-\vestern Anlerica as had 
not been explored by Cook, to seek for an interoceanic 
passage, to Inake scientific observations on the c03ntry
,vith its people and products, and to obtain reliab10 
inforlnation about the fur-trade. He ,vas to learn the 
extent of the Spanish establishlnents, the latitude 
beyond ,vhich peltries Inight be obtained ,vithout 
giving offence to Spain, and in genoral the induce- 
lOAlso Virgin Island and Pearl Rocks, according to Vanrmwpr's l'"O!l., i. 
3ß9-70. Di.t:oll's VO!!., pp. xvii.-xviii., xxii., 23
, 313-17, 3on,-l POJ'!.'ocl.::s roy., ;;, 
make the earliest mention, in 1789; that in JIeares' rr O!/., pp. l.-ii., of 17UJ, 
is somewhat more cxtensive, the author having seen Hanna's original journd. 
'He di
covered sevcral sounds, islands, and harbours, which he named Fitz- 
hugh's Sonnù, Lance's Island"!, and some particular parts which hc namcd aftcr 
Henry Lane, Esq.; but particularly an harhour which he called He:], Otter's 
Harhour.' Hanna's chart or sketch of that harbor aIHl of St Patrick nay is 
publisheù by 1\lca1'cs, 32G. Dixon also uscd lIanna's chart. Perhaps 'the 
geographical discoverics mentioned were made in t
lC speoIHl voyagc. (.}reen- 
how, Ur. and Ua'., IG3-G, says Hanna sailed under Portuguese colors; but he 
had no o
her authorities than tllO::'-C I have lllcutioneù. 



 Fren(òh enterpl'i
(' in that <<Ii rue-tioll. J-l i
 plorations, frOIH a gl'ogra ph ieal poi Ilt of \ il'\\-, \\'( '1'<' 
II 'i ther t '\. tensi \"ü uo!' iUl portallt, so far :t.' t h( 'y afleete.l 
t heso latitulle
; 11 and, though the seiL'lltifif' ob:-\er\"a- 
 of hilllsl'lf and a talentc(l eorps of as=",o(.iatc's art" 
of Ull(ple
tioned yaIue, hi:-; illforlllation OIl eOIHllll'n.ial 
and other pl'aetical to]>i('s \\.a:-; published too late to 
H.t or lllerit llluch attention. E
pe('ially' \\"erc hi,,; 
co\'eric::) uuiulportant a
 touching the Xorth \\ (,
t. ]2 
(i un 1Ïllg fl'On1 the Sn I}( l\vich J 
lancls on thp -,1...:1 "11- 
lolw and llol{ssole, the f'tn'uler uuder the ('otHIlli.lllC 1 ot' 
:\I. de Lang-Ie, the 
"'rench ni.lyigatol' Ba\\r laud OIl 
J UIle 
, 178G, and f:]'Cllt a lllouth :lIltl n balf Oil thca 
,.:\ laska coa:-;t, bclo\v 
Iount St ]
, chiefly at I >ort 
'ran!;ai:-;, ill 58 0 :17'. It \\"a:-; on .l
 ugu;-jt Utb thnt 
l.Ja 1\51'( )ll:-5e entered the ,vater:.; about the I >>resent 
Louudal'Y. ] Ie lloticed, hut "pas unable to exploI'l\, 
the cntrance ,\rhich the Spaniards had fOluHI bef()l't" 
and ,\rhieh ])ixun 3. littlo later naU1C(1. lIe f()llo\\'l'd 
the c()a

t south \\ ar(l ,,'ithout landing, in ha
te to re;'1(.h 
:\Iontcl'ey after his long delay in the Borth. 1

outhern cxtrcluity of the great i
lall<l he HaIned Capt' 
] rector; aud he ,vas the di
coverer uf tht' broad <.'11- 
trance south of that peint, l)elieving, though unahlt' 
to ]>1'0\"0 it, that he ,,-as at the ulouth of a great gulf 
like that of Califol'nia, extending north probal >>]y to 
[) 7 0 lIe doc
tatl' definitely his upinion that the 
gn] f conllnunieate( I ,vith the l)i \.on cntrance, hut 
illlplil'J that it llid 
(), Hll(l ,\'ith other entrance..; 
farthl'i" llorth-ituleetl, that the "hole coa
 that of a great archipelago. 1'!tc ni.UllCS apl >>lied 

11 Sl'C 1Ii:4. eal., i. chap. xxi., for his ,isit to California; aho lli8/.A
this series. 
I.! L,t I', rou'lf', J O!}C'!} ... all/our till montl,. Paris, 17!1
; 8'.0, -l ,.0Is. mill folio 
atlas. 'Ill,lt p:lrt of tilt' narrati,-p lwrtaillill
 to tho coa
t hetwecn .).) al1l1 4:!' 
is in tom. ii. :!.H 7". III tom. i. :J-t.J-G-l i8 a. tran
lated e
tract from 'laurdle.::I 
Jourual of the 
l'aniHh "oya:.!p of Ii7!). In the a.thLä. Ul.lp
. I.), lit, 17. :!!J. 
Ulill :1I show all or P,lI.t of tilt' ten-itory. on <linen'nt s(.n)('s. arc scn'm) 
l,ditiollS hoth of thc French original anc I ot all EUbli::-h trall:--Ia don. L. _ \. 
l\lilet-:Uurc<1u was the etlitor of the 01 ióinal. 




\e. Ba.ile :'J[untll 
C.St >rrs :B.B , èJtrill U 
- Mt.CuI!Ct"\. 

Port ães Frnll('ni

 Cross Sound 

- 105 Remedios 
C. E r.fgãro 

- 1.

 = 1 

rt EU
'lre]l! - 4:: 


tBe.ãe Clcmarcl 
"- ,",ouche 
 "I..y'ð- c,\\e 
_ = 
 <Qv?i- é

 _ 31 


; f,,




=' C .Rend 
-= (f
a[he l 

=-- C,Toledo 

- - 



C.lV1endocm- Pta,Gerda 


1""i.1j- -= 

LA PÉROUSE'S )lAP, 17ð6. 

\.rrr:s, TIPPIXG, .AXD STTI.\ ,GE. 


are RhO'YIl on the nlap ,\ l1Ïch I ('opy, fiu(1 \vhich i-; 
l'elllarkaLly ("oIllplete, if \\'C cou-.;iùer the liluití'c! 111'}.- 
terial on ,,,hich it rested. 
rhough far supcri n' to 
any Jllap Inade beforc 1 ï8G, it:') value \va:,; of (" >Ul'se 
BlllCh iUlpaired I..v tho f
lct that it ,vas not pnLli
un til 1 ï
) s. I
a J \5rousp's nallles \\'erl\ :-\upei'.
e( leù I)J 
otlll'rs \yhic.;h later }
uglish 11a\ igators applied Lefol" 
the .French narrative "'as kno\\'u to the \\ ol"ld. 'file 
c ,,-a:-.: continued dO"ïl l':t,-;t X ootka 3,lul the 
southern CO:1st, ,\-ith occasional glilllpse
 of the ("Oa,
 tho fög lifted; the latitude of sc,Teral point
fi '\.ed 11101"C accurately than e\ cr LeI( H.C, the ]
and Spanish nalnes Leing retained, and that of X eckl'J" 
land Leing npplied to the rocks ufr Capo Blancu;I:I 
the lino of 4
o \vas pa

od on SeptenlLer Gth, and 
on tho 14th they anchored at )loutcroy. 

In 178G at least three ài
tinct fur-trnding cxpeJi- 
tiolls \V"erc despatchcd to the .L\lllcrican coast
; one 
of thcnl, consisting of the .f..Vout!;,u an(l 
Sea Otte)', under 
 :Jleares and Tippin6", \\Tas fitted out in Bengal, 
and, its trading operations being confined to Prince 
"TilliaIll Sound aud the .....\laskall coast, rèquire
further notico here. 
The sccond expeùition, also frolll India, ,yas fitted 
out hy the lncrehant
 at ROluLay, aUll "'a
 undor the 

ion of J anlCS Strangc. 
rhe ves"Îcl
 "Tero the 
(}uJJtctiJ" Cool
 anJ 1
'Xl)(,1'i}llprd, cOIIllllan(led by Lo\\'rie, 
or Lorio, aIlfl (j-ui,-;e, U sailin
 under the ila
' of the 
ast lndia (1011lpany, David 
cott Leiug the chief 
0\\ ner. l'Ílúy reached N ootl\:a ill J lUll', oLtailliug' 
hundreJ sea-otter skins, though not so Illany a::; they 
had ho
cù f()r, Lccau
o the nati ve:-; ha< L prollli .;cd to 
keep tlH\ir fnr:-; for I[auna, \yho arriycd in .L\ugnst. 
()llO Jolin l\lcI(cy, or :\Iaccay, \\'a
, ho\\-e\-er, left at 

13 The r. Toledo, not h('arcl of hdorc, may come from somc 
copy of If('('ch, or Bodcg.t's chart. La. Pcrou:ro awl otht'rs refer \"a.:;ucly to 
:t c'lart of :\I:tnrrlk'. of which, howcv('r, [ know nothing. 
II _ \ccor<ling t) VancO\l\ cr, J .'oy., i. :un, the L'.
ï ( ,.j '1 lit was cunl'nantletl 
I r H. \V e(l,
IllsI'. N. W. COAST, YOLo I. 12 


N ootka, at his o,vn request, and under the chief'R pro- 
tection, to recovcr hit; health and to act as a kind of 
ao-ent or 'drUUllller' for the traders: and he lived for 
OYer a year [Ullong the savages ,vith a native ,vi fe, 
,yell treated but enduring lllany hard
hips. Subse- 
quently Strange sailed on up the coast to Prince 
"Tillianl Sounù, and thence to l\laeao. fIe seClns to 
haye lliscovered-and nalned, according to Captain 
Dixon's statelnent-Queen Charlotte Sound; anti he 
probably na.nled capes Scott and COX. 15 
The third expedition of the year \vas one fitted out 
the year before in England by an association of nler- 
chants called the King George's Sound COlllpauy, 
acting under licenses fron1 both the South Sea and 
East India 111onopolies. Their ships ,vere the J(in!J 
(}corge and Quccn Charlotte, cOlnlnanded by Nathaniel 
Portlock and George Dixon. Both of these gentlc- 
Inen had been ,vith Cook, and each of thenl published 
a full account of their voyage; so that in this respect, 
as also in respect to the vessels' outfit, the expedi- 
tion Lore lnnch resenlblance to one of exploration. 
I--ligh officials took an illtere
t froIll a scientific Rtand- 
point in the enterprise, and several gentlen1en's sons 
,vere cOlnn1itted under tutors to Captain Portlock to be 
educated for a seafaring life. Leaving England in 
August 1785, Portlock and Dixon sailed round Cape 
Horn, touched at the Sanchvich Islands, as ,vas cus- 
ton1ary in these voyages, and in July 1786 arrived at 
Cook River, in Ala
Soon the navigators started do\vn the coast, intend- 
ing to touch at several different points, and finally to 
,,,inter at N ootka. SOlne of the harbors, ho,vever, 
,,"ere not founù ,y here sought, and others could not be 
entered by reason of bad ,,"cather, so that the vessels 
did not anchor at all. They ,vere on the coast, gen- 

1;) .J[parfS' Voy., liii.-iv.; Dixon's Voy., 23-2, 317-18, and other rderenees 
on Hanna's voyage in note 8. :Meares saw 
lcKey's journal, and he says 
:-;;:.m.nge namc(l :Friendly Cove. Dixon used Guise's e!mrt for hi3 general m.lp, 
tf) be copied presently, and he got an account of :MeKey's adventures fl'OiU 
rclay, who carried him away. 



('rany. in ;-;ight of it at (1 (list:1I1('(', froIH .>.>0 do" n tq 
Xootka, frolH tlH' L 7th to thp 
Htl) of Sl'ptellll,,'r, lHlt 
their "rork as ('x l )lol.(.rs \\"a..; liJllited to the IltUUilP' of 
Split Ito 'k, ofl' Cook's \'Toody I)uillt. }'rolll t1ti'i 
}"f'gi()11 tJ H 'Y \\"ellt to ,,-i I) tel' at the Sallc h\. ic It l
this 1jr
t voyage Lei}):; ill HH ):::;t rc,",pects a faillll'e. 16 

()rt1ock aIlt! Dixon r('peateù their voyage ill I 7Hi, 
\\-ith 11)11('h f.,ueeess, Loth ill re....pcc.t to trade and 
graphicalexl'lol'a.tion. I.Ac:1\"ing th ' island:,..; ill .:\lal'('h, 
tlH'Y pl'ocepdú(l to 1?l'il)(.ú '\Tillialll Sound, \\.here tJH,..,r 
IlH -t Captain 
[eares, \y llose fir;-;t \"uyage of 178G-7 
J las aI rea( ly bf'C'1l Illcuti. H14.:<'1. The vl'''''....els parteJ <:0111- 
pany in ::\[ay, the ]\.-io!J (;eol"!J(' l'elllaiuing 011 the 
.6 \la
kan ('oast and the (J1{e(
n G/", /'[utf(} procecclil1
soutl1\\'ard. It 'YtiS oil July 1st that ])i'\.olJ pa:--:se l 
the 1)OUIHla ry I illC and 'Ya
 oft. the 'll
cp bay,' \V h()
currents Jlad LafHec 1 ,J nail l'el'ez tJlirtecn YC3r:-; Lefor
and ". hieh frolH thi:-> tinlc Lore Dixon's" 113111C. I r., 
did not enter it, any lllorú than the Hpalliard,
]1'rC'l1ehn1ell h3(1 before hiL1; lJllt far ",yithill, to the e
\';ard, he 
a\v a point of lauel to ])e renlclnLered, aH.l 
:-;l'd on clo\\'n the coa
t. 1{.ccpiug close to the 
\\'ithout landing, Lut trading extcnsi \T(
Iy \yith the T ll- 
, \y})o calue on' in their canoe:-\, he narHed se\Teral 
J Þ()iut
()In(' of \\,hi(.h had already becn naInccl by 1",3. 
I \
r()llSl', though this ,yas of ('ourse Hot kno\yn to tho 
Euglislunau. 17 
If; Port!orJ.., 
 f rrJlIrt[/f> round tllp 1rm'lr/: 111ft 7nor particular!!1 to tlll'1l0rtl,- 
t (,0".<41 (!l 
1l/" rÏf'( : IJ
 r:lurmul in 1';8.;, liSa, lì8i, ami [;88. ill the 'K; .1 
(,'I ura' 'and '(.I iii I Ii ('11ll rlotlc,' Captai Il,oj /'( diad: II ud I)" 'Oll. L01HluIl. I ;
!t ; 
,Hn, map allll twentyeoppprplatcs. The IMrt relatin
 to the pr('",.'nt topic is C)l1 
pp. I:J..-4:?, npp., ,<,,-iv. The 
s not c
u\"er our territory. D;J..on, t 1'()!l n .le 
J"(JllIlt/ tIlt, /l"IJrld, de. (3S ahove). Lowlou, 1 ';
!t; 4to. map mHI platc:i; ah.u a. 
Rccowl cclition of the R3me year. The narratin' is in the fonn of l('tter
3s dl:1p- 
ter8. each I>c'..11 iug a. elate' awl the initials' \\T. B.' (\rm. BeITcsforc.I). The part 
of the tc'\.t relating to this 
ulJjcct is un pp. ';tt-S:t The map \\ ill he llutic(".l 
!)I"('SCI1 tly. 
17 Thc' names appliecl, most uf them still rc..tainecl, \\ ere E()rrc
tcr'8 Island 
(Santa Cristina, Catalina, ot" 
an Carlos of the :--.pauiarels nnel I..."\. l\'ron C'\, 
Cape Pitt plag'llalella. of Pcrel'), ('apc' Chatham, Xorth hlancl. Cloak Rl), 
Jlippa. Islantl, l{c'lIllell SOUJ1fl ( L.L 'fondle of I\'rouse?), 1)'1.el t
Oll :-\ouwl. Cape 

t .JameR (Cape Hector of Pt"ron
c). Cape ]).lh.)mplc, Hi'\.on 
tr.LÎt.. Queen 
Charlotte Islawld. ('ape. CO'\. (Fleurieu uf Pl'ruusc), ll
funl Llalllls \Sartille 
of l\ ruuse), amI t '.:pe :-'\.'utt. 


By the end of July Captain Dixon had roun(1cd 
Cape St Jaules and reached a latitude of 53 0 ,vithill 
the strait, seeing in the north land ,y hich he oelicvoll 
to be that seen through the deop bay on July 1st, an<l 
thus proving to his o,vn satisfaction "the land \VC have 





o;, . 


 TH I. .f 





, I Pú 



r.A " l' C' 1'- 
---ü.p I 'Ý "1 
R"fime1l' S ý À 
J soun l 

 0 """ 

_ ú'<; 
- .. 



__'- .i' 1
.-,,\ - 



 - .:;;, 
"f,. t












- ".Cox 



 J - -- 


-- -'-. _ ot ka Sd. 


 / -
_- 1 Breakers Pt, 


DIXON'S MAP, 1787. 


been coasting along f.or near a 1110nth, to be a group 
of islands. " Accordingly, frOlTI his o,vn nalne and 
that of his vessel, he ai>plied the nalTICS Queen Char- 
lotte Isles and Dixon 
traits. It ,vill be rculclubcred 

C \PL\l', D.\HCLAY. 


that I.Æ, l)érou
.(' ha
l alr0a(ly conjc(.turcà the true 
geography of thiH region, \\ hi(.h l)i
oll di(l )lot (j1Ilte 
pro\'e; but it is alHo to be note( 1 that La J\:rouse':-; 
editor had Di"{on'H u:lrrati\ e alld ]uap bef()re hint. 

rhi:-; 111ap, ,,'hich aHürds all nccc

ary detail about tho 
yoyago, and iH f
lI' superior to any that preceded it, I 
repl'odnCl"\.18 That part of the ("O(lst fi'Olll Cape (
to 'VO()C ly Poillt, 
h()\\'il1g the fir:-\t iuc lieatioll that the 
N ootka region Blight be on a great i
laBcl, ""as laicl 
do,,']) frolll the èal'lier cxpl()ratioll
 of j Lanna ancl 
G . 
()n .r\ngn
t ()th Dixon Righted '\T oody Point, and 
t\\"o Jays later he luet at 
e:l captaill
 DUBean alld 
('iolllett, lear!ling' frolH th(,ll
 that Captain Barclay ,vaH 
at NO(Jtka, or had just left that port for the south, 
allC 1 that there ""as no prospect f()r succc:-;sful trade 
there. .L\.('(.ordingly the (jl{fJ{JJl G"Y'lflJ'!(Jlte ""a:-; headed 
fÜr the SalHh\ ich ] slalld
, \vhere she arri \"è(l carl y in 
 Portlock and Dixon sold ill China, as 
thc re
ult of their expedition, 
 :-sea-otter skins, 
 1 of \\?hic.h hacl l)een ohtained by Dixon on Queen 
Charlutte Islallcls, fur 
j4,8.J7. l'he \\'hole HUlnber 
obtaincd by 1 lanna, Strangc, 
[eares, and I
d(nvn to tho end of 1787, \\-a
-t81 skills: bO that the 
c 'xpeditioll ,vas ycry successful in cOlllparisou \\"ith the 
18 Thc map from TIerr('sford I",bnll northward was from Dixon's own sun"cy; 
from Capc Cox to ""oody Point, from (
nisc nnd Hnnna.; from Point Breakcr:o,- 
suuth, from Barclay. Othcr naviga.tor::) of thi8 pcriod \\cre not so frank in 
stating thc origin of thcir charts. 
 lJi./'on's JrO!!., IU8-:!-l7. con'.;illcr..1.hlc space heing gÏ\-cn to a (l(';;;criptioll of 
the natives; PuJ"llore,'4 VO!!., :
07; ..1[Hue/!/ J 'oy., liii.-Ï\. and appcndh.; Grlt../I, 
 OJ.. (ll1d ('rtl., Itm-70. 
:!tI IJixon's /:( I/lflrl:,
 011, tlu Jr O!J((
Jt 8 (If .fohn, J.I[( a1'el
, E,>1q.. in rr Idler to tha). 
!IPllt!('l/lftll, b!l VI oryl' Dixon, 1(1/( ('ulIlllI.trll!' r, etc. Lundon, 1;'00; 4to. '[cares, 
in his puhlishc(lnarrati, c, tu be noticc<l later, hall spoken ,.cry slightingly of 
Portlock awl ])i
on's c
pcdition, as one of great pretcn
ions awl slight r('.,ult
:\Iureo\"er, he hlamcd those for the manner" in \\ hieh they had rclicn'(l 
hi::) 0\\ n great necessities \\"11('n they fOllIul him on the 
\la::;kan coast in a n'ry 
})rcl'ariol1s r-;itnation. 1 ha, c no room for the fluarrel in its details. Tlll,tr.uth 
t3Cems to he that Purtlock, while atIonling all the r"clicf in his power, Jid it in 

mch a. way as to advance hi:i 0\\ n intt'rèst
 anll to pn','cnt :\le,lres from CIl- 
l!a.;;ing in any furthcr" tr;ule (luring thc trip. In reply to :\[c,u"(''!' strictUl"(,
Dixon puhlishell his ill m (,./.-,..;. in "hich hc c.lisplaye(l mur"c abilit
 than Wa3 
11('('(1('/1 to point out thc ,arious iuac....uracics, illcun::.btcucius. alllI fal"clll)(xls 
of hi
 ri ,'al"H llarra.ti ,-c. 


T,yo other expeditions of 1787 have to l)e recordud 
here, (\ne eonllnanded by Colnctt alltl DUllcau, the 
other Ly Barclay. Both, as ,ye hayo Deell, ,ycre at 
X ootka about the tilDe that Dixon passed that port; 
and it i
 froIll tbat officer's statcnlent
 and tho
c of 
()ther yoyagcrf.; of the tilHe that all infol'llUttion about 
these cxpeditions lllust be derived, no direct accounts 
bcing ûxtant. 
Captain Darclay, ,,,,,hose 11an10 is also "rritten 
Derkely, cOlnnla11ded the InL1Jerial Eagle, \yhich sailed 
'oln the Belgian port of O:5tend, under the flag of tho 
trian East India Conlpany, in N ovelnber 178G, 
and nrriyed at 
ootka in Juno 1787. lIe did not 
go farther north, but \yas .successful in trade, oòtaill- 
lg eight hundred skins. lIe utilized the services of 
::\IcI(ey, ,yhOlll he earried rnvay to China, and froln hill1 
learned that the region ,,,here he had lived for a year 
,\Tas probably not a part of the continent. 
IcI{ey had 
forlned that opinion fr0111 hi
 travels in the interior and 
frOLH reports of the natives. I
efore lea ying N ootl
Barclav 111et Duncan and Colnett, "Those noeds he re- 
l;ûyed "'Ly selling then1 surplus supplies. In July he 
:-:ailed south,vard, and discovered Barclay Sound, and 
then the strait for ,,
hich earlier navigators had sought 
in vain, Lut ,vhich he neither entered nor nalllec1. 
:\Ieares states that the "Thole exploration belo\v N ootka 
"-as 111ade in the ship's boat, ,vhich, though possible, 
seenlS unlikely. 
Continuing the voyage do,vn past Cape Flattery", 
1 I b . . t- O , 
, 1C con11nan< er Rent a oat to enter a rlyer In 41 4;3, 
,There the cre\v, consisting of five lllell, under 1\11' 
).Iillar, ,yere rnurdcrcd Ly the nati ,\Tes. Froln this 
oeeurrence the nalne Destruction River ,vas applied 
to the st
eanl, 110'V the Ohahlat, but ,yas transferred 
in later years to the island just belo,v its lnouth, 
called by the Spaniards in 1775 Dolores. 21 The 

21 (irC'enhnw and ot1H'rs a.rr
 wrong in their theory that the Rpaniards it Dolores from the di:sastcr that occurred farther south. The name 
..\ as that of the. ùay on which it was cli:::;co\"crcd. 
Icarc:; calls thc rcgion 



Houthcrnnlo,t p,)int of 13:lrelay':-; ol):-ieryati()n, he hpin,..{ 
t he first since Cook to visit the coa
t 1 )l'lo\v Cape 
l'lattcry, ,vas ,\ hat h(' calle(l l
oint l'ear, in -! ï !J', 
ePIl at a di
tallcc; and, departing ill ... \.u- 
t Of' early in Septl'luLer, hc reached Canton in 
K uvüluLer. )11':-; lJar<:lay haù tLcco1l1panietl her hu,- 
Land, and '\.:18, I )erhaps, the fir
t European lady t() 
yif'it this regioll. 22 
 DUllcan and Colnctt cOllHnandcd tltc 
]> I illcrss ]lo.'1rt! and J> J'inc (1 1 rT(l"
.ç:, ,y hich ".ere 
fittc<l out by the 
(lllle cOlnpany that (le
ortlock and DixCJIl, left l
llglallJ ill Septclllber, aud 
arl'i ,.üd at N ootka ill J ul y. 1 lere, a
 \\.C ha Ye 
they lllet Barclay, and a little later IJixoB. l
ronl the 
latter they ll.arned that the hest oppo1'tullitie:-; for 
trat Ie 'Yere to Le fount I 011 Qucen Charlotte Islands, 
and thith('r ! )reSUlllaLI \T they directed their cOUl'
.J ..., , 
in::;tcad of going to Prince 'Villianl Sound, as had 
becn intended. Of thcir Rub:-;cqucnt Inovelllcnts ".0 
kno\y, frolll f1'agnlentary references in tho narratiye..; 
of othcr traders, only that ])ullcall ".illtered on the 
coa::;t, returning the llext year to X uotka; that his trip 
"Tas a. fo;uCCCSSflll onc cOllullcrcialJ y; and that he t:;ail
( I 
throuo'h the 
trait Let,veen Q u
en Charlotte I
and the J11ain. 
'Vhether thiR ,vas in the autullln of 1 i8i or the 
spring of 1788 is not clcar; hut I deell1 it as likely 
tù ha\.c been in the forIllcr, though Grccuho\\. and 
::\lcarcH ilnply the latter. .L\.t any rate, he ,vas the 
first to Blake thiB pas
age and proyo the COl'rectne"::; 
of the earlier coujecturcs of La. I)érou
c and Di

QucC'nhythc, that i'i, Qncnainlt, the namc of a stream farther south. '[cares 
the next ycar .tt Xootl
'1 fOUIltl among the nati,'cs a scal that hacl hclonge,l 
Iillar, amI also \\ hat wa
 supposccl to he hi
 hawl or that of onc of hi
mcn. Hixon, J:('lIlftrl.
, 33, gh"c'i the latitulles from Barclay's chart, as givcn 
on a map pnLlishccll,y Dalrymple in r;
m, .L:i follows: \Y c/:)t point of 11lrclay 
:-;ouIlcl,4!J ; south point, 4
 50; north point Dc Fcar's (De Fuca's?) cIltranc', 
48") 3:1'; south point, 4
 :!ü; ccntre of Tallock's Island (Tatouchc?) 4" 
Cape Flattcry, 4S 3 S'; Pillnadl', .1'; 47'; ])".3truction Hi,"cr, 47" 4:J; Point 
Fear (po, :>ihly UI'cnvilll'), 47) H'. 
:H :1, :J:!
; /,1., Rf'mm'bl,!), I:!, 18, :t
; J[(arc.
' Jro!I.,h". 
2S, l:!t, 13:?, 17:!; Pvrt!ocFs J.vy., 337; Ur,;cllhoL.'S Ur. and Cal., 171, .WO. 


Duncan also discovered, and lUtn1Cd for his vessel, 
the Princes:3 noyal Isles. 23 

In 1788 thc Spaniards sent another expedition to 
the far north, ,vhich, hO"Tcvcr, concerns IllY prescnt 
topic only indirectly, since it did not touch thc coast 
bct\vcen 42 0 and 55 0 . The ycssels 'v ere the Princcsa 
and San Cdì
los, C01111nanded by Estévan J OSJ l\far- 
tinez and Gonzalo Lopez do IIaro, ,vhose Inission ,vas 
to ascertain "That the l1ussians ,vere doing. The royal 
oracr ,vas i8suecl in consequence of a report of La 
Pérouse-on his visit to Chile bcfore going north-- 
that the Russians had already four establishu1ents, 
one of them at N ootka. The prelilninary correspond- 
ence on the expedition of lVlartinez sho\vs very clearly 
the form that Spanish policy ,vas beginning to as- 
sunle. There ,vas 110 objection to the occul)ation by 
Russians of the far north; but it ,vas fcared that 
by Russia or S0111e other foreign po\ver posts ,vould 
be established farther south, not only encroaching on 
Spanish territorial rights, but threatening Spanisll 
There ,vas of course no doubt respecting the 
Tight of Spain to the lands she had discovered up 
to the region of GOo; she had SOHle theoretical rights 
beyond that region, ,vhich, ho\vever, there ,vas no 
apparent intention of atten1pting to enforcc; and 
even the rep-ion froln N ootka south\vard ,vas be- 
gjnning to appear of slight cOlnparative value, to 
1)0 occupicd only as a political necessity to prevent 
foreign encroachn1ent and secure the possession of 
any desirable strait, river, or port that n1Íght pos- 
sibly be revealed by ne\V explorations. Accordingly 
1\lartinez "ras instructed not ouly to learn as n1uch as 

23 Dixon's VOJl., 230-4; ld., Remarl';8, 8-10, If), 28; J.lfeares' Y"oy., Iv. }93, 
ID!1-:!Ol; GreeJllww',ç Or. aml Cal., 170, 199. Dixon sa)'s that Duncan's 
coursc was laid ùown in Arrowsmith's chart, anù denics :Meares' implication 
that Douglas preceded him in sailing through the strait. Acconlillg to 
Vancouver, Voy., i. 3G9-70, he also named Calvert Island anù Port Safety. 
Vancouver haa his chart. 


\XD r:n.\ Y. 


p():; ;iblc of nee".! ;ian operations in 
\.laska,2j lJut on hi
}'( .tUl'U to follo\v the coa <;t and to Blake It;-; ("lose a. 
f-;urvcy fl!4 pos
iblc of C\Pcry placc \\.hi<.h \\'oul<l havc 
attractions for foreigncr;,:, aud \vh()
c ocC'upation l)y 
Spain Inig-ht therefore Lc('()}no neccc,-;ary. 'rhe lattl.r 
part of the instru('tion
H' no good rea90ll that i..; 
knO\Vll, "as not ohcyc(l, thc VOyacfCfd returllin o . to 
. '" 0 ,
::\ [ontcrcy and San ]na
 direct; Lut they un<ler:-;tood 
t.hat the 'llu
, though they ha.l 110 
at N ootka, intcnded to f011I1<l one there; they IL'arncd 

olllethino' al
o of the O l )(
rations of Eno'li:,h trader:-; 
o û 
in northern \vaters; and thl'ir reports on thos{\ lnat- 
terR, as ,,"c 
hall sec, causcd ::\Iartincz and lIaro to Le 
f'cnt in 1789 on 
l llC\V expcdition. 25 

O\V tho flag of tho United States appears for tho 
first tilTIC in thcse \vater::;; n1Hl the 'Dor
tons' caDlO 
into rivalry \vith tho' l(ing George Incn' as explorers 
and traders. 
rho hiRtory of this tcrritory for tho 
year] 788 iR littlc rnorc than a record of \\'hat \\pa

lonc by the Alnericanq JCcndrick and (jray, and Ly 
thc EJlt;li:-:;hulen :\Icares and Dougla
. It. ;:;cer1l8 11101'0 
conycnicnt to bc
in \vith tho yoyaO'c of tho foriner, 
'-' .., 0 
though thc other::; arl"iYed first in the field. 
'fhe first .i:\..ulcl'ican fur-trading c
pediti()n to the 
northern Pacific \\'"as fittCtl out by 3. cOlllpallY of f'ix 
oHton nlcrchant
, ,vho \\"01'0 influenccd chietlv hy the 
reports of Cook anti Lcdyard, therc heing no 
, i(lence 
that they Lad any kno\\'"Jedge of English tra.Ier:-;' 
opera tion
. 1\ llle(lal COlllllH
lllOl'at i \'"e of th
pri:-3c ,vas f-:trnck off in copper and sil \Pcr, au( 1 the copy 
hero gi \'"Cll explains it
 nature. ,John I(endl'ick \\'"a
ehoscll to rOlnnlanll, 
ailillg on the 
hip CJ[,( Jlihi(f Iterli- 
vÙ'o, uf t\yO hundred and t\VCllty ton
, \v hilc Captain 

2-1 r use thi
 modeMl n1.Ine in these )cars for cOll,.cuicncc, to avoicl tircsome 
rppctitions of geographical definition. 
2;) J[(l/"t i 11(,::' and /I a,'o, (furtda e.rplororion de de'lrU!Jri m "i'llt 11 de 1ft ('o
Sf /It, lli,.iOllrtl lif' ('alJùrnict I,(
,ta loot Cl yrw/oi". .1Î.'ÌS, 
l;-o\", in .P.ll.l Col (( 
, ,'le d( (fa!., '\0. 7. It COllt
tins 110t only ,Mat.tinc:" dbrv, hut variùus in- 
n8, currcspondl'Ilce, t.4.blc::;, etc., CUlillccted \\ ith thc' 'On) aJe. 


Robert Gray COnl111and('d the sloop Lruly TTTashingto11, 
of ninety tons. The vessel
 ,yore laden ,\rith articlcs 
dcelned best fitted for barter ,yith the IndianR, 
ilnplcillcllts of iron and copper. VariouR passports 
and letters 'v ere obtained frol11 tJ1C federal govern- 
lueut, frol11 the state of )Ias
achuscttR, and perhaps 
froln the Ininister of Spain in the U llited StateR. 26 I 
have Leen RO fortunate as to obtain an original diary 
of this voyngc, kept by Robert Has,vell, the second 
HUtte of the Lad!} 1Vashington, a very iInportant docu- 


ment, not consulted by any "Triter before me. Indeed 
it does not appear that allY other log of either vessel 
has eyer been seen; and consequently nothing but a 
brief Inention of the expedition has beon published 
S a narrative of the first visit of an AUlerican vC8sel 

2G So it is Rtated by Greenhowand others, possibly without good authority. 
At any rate the governor of California, in obedience to instructions from 
:i\lexico, issued orders for the seizure of the two vessels should they appear in 
Californian ports. See his famous order to that effect in llist. Gal., i. chap. 
xxi. The medal is givcn in connection with a brief account of the voyage in 
GreenhO\v's Ur. and Cal., 170-81; and Bulfinch's Ur. and Et Dorculo, I-G. The 
latter gives some details about the origin of the enterprise in a conversation 
at the residence of Dr Bulfinch-perhaps a relatÌ\Te of the writer-in Boston. 
The voyagers also carrieù a number of small copper coins issued by the state. 
One of the medals is preserved in the office of the secretary of state at Salem. 
Oregon lldi(.s, 
lS., 1. See also l/ist. J/ng., vii. 107. Bulfinch says the llleùaÌs 
were struck in hronze and silver; Kelley, Thornton's Ur. lli...;t., :MS., 06-84, 
s&,ys in hoth gold aUf I sih-er. Charles Bnlfinch, one of the owners, in :1 state- 
ment of ] 838, U. F{ Cm'. Doc., :::Jtll Goug., 2tl8e8.
., 8('u. Re}Jt. No. 1;70, pp. 10-
and in other government reports, mentions the JUctlal in copper antI silver. 
He names .T oscph TIarrcll as the originator of the scheme. :Most of the many 
writers on Gray's later discovcry of the CohmlLia Rinn., 1792, mention this 
first voyage briefly. 

THE IL\S\YELL \L\Xt: ,,('!UPT. 


tu tht; north -" est eons!' thi:-; dial'V lll('l'it..; l11\I("h more 
f'pae(' than I caB gi\c it hl're-
n faet it Dhould be 
publi:..:he(l entire. 27 
::\[allY J1o
toll lll(\r('hant
 allll other fl'ienùp of the 
1lH Ylg-ators :..:pellt Sunday 011 1 )()al'd th, \Yes
el:-;; the 
t>vellln(Y' \\Ya'-) cl('\yoted to ) )artill(Y' hilarit'\Y. , and (J)i 

::\roIHI:n, ()etober l
t, the start \\"3"'; Jlladt, f}'OIlI Xau- 
ket 'lloaù s , \\.hither the guests ll(.HI heen carried 
1'1"( Ull J10:::;tOll ] 1a1"1 lor. 1')1"()( )Te
()l1th \\"a1"d ill t J le 
..\Jlal1tie \\-US attendee} by l11allY' delays, ftH' ".hieh 
(iaptaiu ]{l'ndl"i(.k is hlanlPd hy ] Lls\vl'll, a'" 
)r otl1cr 
ull\\"ise procl'cdillg'H dUl'in
 the voyage; and it \,'as 
the n1Ïddlû of .L\pril 1788 hefore they rounJed Cape 
] [orn into the Pa(.ific, the 
loop anli f'hip being' 
parted in a gale a Inonth carlier. X ootka. ,,-a:-; the 
J'l'lHlezyous, and thither Captain Gray luade all ha
in the JJ((d!J J1 T, ,,,ithout touehiug on the 
coasts of Sou th .l\lllcrica or ::\Iex.ico. 
It ,,'as on __\..ugust :2(1 that Gray., \vith 'incxprc

i1)le joy,' first HêHV the 
horcs of XC\\" .L\lbion, in 
latitude ,,11 0 
8'; and on the 4th ten nati,yes callle 
off in a canoe to grcet the stranger:-;. N ot\vithstaIHI- 
iuO' the latitude;oo: and landlnark
 l\lcntioned I find it 
ilupu:--\siblc to trace ,,-ith any degree of accuracy the 
I )ro O re

 Inade aloH!! the eoa:-;t , ahno
t nl ,,-a,y:-; in :---i(Y'ht 

 f..J ... 
(.r laud; anfl it i:-; not easy t() uIH.1er:-\tand 110\\ Gray 
l"oul(l identify a poiut near latitude 4:3 0 , po:-,:-,iLly Cape 
I31allco, ,,"itb ::\IClldocillO_ 2
 Ou .L\.ugust 14th the :-;100p 

27 Jrmm.("r,
 royarle rmwd t!if' 1I.o,.I<1on t!if "hip (('olllm 1 ,;n R"di,'i,'CI,' 
and ,.,/: 01' ' Wa.:hin!JtulI,' I í8
-U; )I
., H,) pp. This nan-atin', and auoth('r of 
H later \'oya
(', were gi,'cn me hy. Hwm ell's (laughter, 
h's .John .r. 
('larke of Ito}.hury, 
ctts. The journal e
tl'IHls from the ùc
of the \"(>yagc to June I ít>H. ][a
" cll started on the Columbia, Lut ,\ 
transf('ITccl to the Lady Jra..:hiuyfon. hl'Íol.l' cuh'ring the Pacific. lIe naml'!õI 
.lost'ph Ingraham as SCCOJHI mate of t}l(' {'n!"m/I;", Howe as Kt'llIh'ick.s 
('lerk, Hol>cl'ts ad surgcon, Trcet as fUlricr, mul Xuttin a
tronomcr. _\ ),11' 
('oolitlg(' is often name(l, \\ ho \\as prohahly fÌrst mate of the I wI!! Jr"..:hi"ß >11. 
28_\ugU....t ;)th, latitlltle 42 :J. _\ugust fith, pa.,t a cO\-e formed hy a small 
hay in 
. aIHl an i...lan(l in 
.'s _\rch or l
ogue Rivcr?] -\U6u
t 7th, 
rail for an apparcnt inlct in a large .lcer hay to tllC 
. awl E. of ('ape 
dll, hut pa:--sing rounel an islawl fOUlHl the inlct to he ouly a valle) h,twccn 
two hill
 [Port Orford?]; at n 1'. :\1. G.!pc )lilHluein \\a8 'Õ.
. F. six ur 8....n'l1 
le<Lgues; a dangerous rel'f cxtcJHls 
 l<'agul's from the l)oint; 1"O\.111<.lcl..l the 
cape and stOOl! ill for land; latitullc 4:1 2,-1; here is aver:)' llecp bar llvlth of 


crossed the bar at the ent.rance of a harbor that 
had becn previously exanlincd by the Loat, and 
anchored in ,vhat ,vas dJubt]css Tilhunook Bay. 
Gray thought it likely that bere ,yas the 1110Uth of 
the fanlous River of the 'Vest; and before his de- 
parture be had gootl reason to na1110 his anchorage 
!f urtlcrors' Harbor. On the arrival of the Alneri- 
cans the Indians ,vere very friendly, receiving \vitll 
joy trifling presents, and furnishing ,vithout paY1TIOnt 
vast quantities of berries and crabs, 'v hich ,vero very 
acceptable to the scurvy-stricken cre,v. Skins 'v ere 

the cape, probably with sounds and rivers, but not explored. [This agrees, 
were it not for preceding difficulties, with Cape Gregory and Coos Day.] 
August 9th, tcn or cleven lea,<Sues N. of the cape the boat was sent to cxplore 
the shorc, the sloop sailing alollg about a mile away; at 2:30 P. M. pass<,ù an 
inlct, in 44 0 20', ::ll)parently tlw mouth of a very large river, with not water 
cnough forthc sloop to entcr. Natives appeared very hostile. [This,according 
to the latituùe, must be the Alseya of modern maps.l In 43 0 two Indians of 
different langußges and of friendly disposition came off. August 10-11, lati- 
tudc 43 0 2',44 0 58'; boat out in search for a landing; slight tradc with natiyes. 
August 12th, the boat obtained two loads of wood from a small inlet. August 
13th, latituùe 4,)0 5G' at noon; in evening passed a to!erable harbor, with a. 
bar. August 14th, returned to explorc the harbor, which, after exploration by 
the boat, the sloop entered, anchoring half a mile from shore in two and one 
fourth fathoms: latitude 4Y 27'. ':Murderers' Harbor, for so it was named [for 
reasons see my textl. is. I suppose, the entrance of the riyer of the 'Vest. It 
is Ly no means a safe place for any but a very small vessel to enter, the shoal 
at its entrrrnce being so a"\vkwar(lly situated, the passage so narrow, and the 
tide so rapid that it is scarcely possible to avoid the dangers.' [This must be 
lamook B3.Y, really in 43"34'.] 
TO!l., 219-20, supposed it to be near 
his own Capo Lookout. Gray in 1792 told Vancouver that he had [no date 
given] been off a river in 4G
 10', where the current kept him for nine days 
from entering; and Greenhow, Ur. and Gal., 181, 234, erroneously concludes 
that this l\Iurderers' Harbor' was the mouth of the great rivcr since called 
the Columbia. . . because there is no evidence or reason to suppose that Gray 
visited that part of the coast on any other occasion prior to his meeting with 
Vancouyer.' August 18th, Gray got over the bar after striking several times. 
August l!)th, latituùe 47 0 11'. [It seems strange that he missed Shoalwater 
Bay and Gray Harbor.] August 21st, at 7 A. TII. Green Island bore N. four 
miles, and Quinelth N. N. E. seven miles; latitude 47 0 30'. August 22-4, con- 
trary winds; latitude 47 0 43'. August 23th, craggy and detached rocks ancl 
reefs; latitude 47 0 57'. August 2Gth, some distance off shore, hut ill sight; 
latitude 48 0 5'; 'to the E. N. E. lay a very deep bay, in whose entrance lie 
ma!lY islanùs,' named Company Bay, and doubtless has good harbors. [This 
,",;as Barclay 
ound, so that he missed the entrance of the strait named Fuca 
by )Ieares a little earlier.] August 27th, snowy mountains in the distance; 
latitude 48 0 43'. August 28th, calm; latitude 4S" 53'; visited by many natives 
iar with English names. August 29-:n, narrowly csca}Jing wreck 011 
SU:Ù:CIl rocks; reached Hancock's Harbor, in 49 0 n' [Clayoquot Sound], wcre 
cù by the chief 'Yicananish, anù set sail. September 1-2, a gale; driyen 
H. to 48 0 9'. September 3-5, to latitude 48 0 50'. September G-9, to sight of 
J>oint Breakers; latitude 30 0 22'. September 10th, latitude 40 0 ;,)3'. September 
11-15, gales; in Hope Bay. Septcmber 10th, anchored in :Kootka SOWlÙ. 



o purchased ill exchange for iron ill1plenlcnt
though ("opper ,\yas 11101'(' ill delualld. rrllc uati vc
 ii.cel y 
gave up thcir furs, and took ".hat \\w
u.; oflerl,d in rc- 
turn \vithout the 
t éc)]uplaint. 'Vood aud ,\'atcr 
""erc obtaincd; and thCIl, \\yhile ,,-aiting for a tide, the 
t\\.o luate
, Coolidge anJ IIas\\'cIl, ,,,"cut a
hore \\yith 
Hcven ]11011 for the l,enctit of their health, and to gf't 
a IJad of grass an(l shrubs fol' the vedsel's livc-stoc!\.. 

rhis ,va
) on 
aturda.r, .L\..ugu
t 1 Gth. 
rho ludialls 
received theI}} ill a lllo
t fl'ielldly llHUlllcr, iuyited thClll 
to their housc
, and alllUged thell1 "yith a ,var-ùance 
and an cxhiLitioll of skill ,vit] l arro\\ys and spcar:-;. 
] )re
cntly, ho\\"evcr, ,vhile the ofliccr
 \\.cre searching 
for chuus at a little ùi
tanc(', anll the n1cn ,\yere cuttiu;.{ 
 near the boat, an Indian seized a cutla$
the captain's servallt-a nati \yc of the Cape ,... erde 
Islands, n
uned )Iarcos I
opez-ha(l left sticking in t ]10 

and, and raIl a,vay ,vith it, Lopez follo\ving" ill pur
The chicf
 ,yere offered 1"o\\"arùs to Lring the Lay Lack 
unhurt, but refused, urging the ....\.lnericans to seck 
hiln thclnsel Yes. On the officers and one Inan doin.
so they found Lopez, ,vho haJ caug-ht tho thief, 

urrounded by a group of Indians, "y ho at once 
killcù Lopez ,\rith their kni \'"os and arro\\WS, and then 
attacked the three, as diJ another large bJdy of sa\P- 
aITcs in the rear under the chiefs ,vIla had bent then} 
that Yvay. The 
ituation \\
as despcrate, Lut by a dili- 
gent use of their pistol
 the three L\..ulericans, aftpr 
killing the Lol,--lest of their assailant':), succeeded in 
reaching the 
hare an( I in ,vading oil" to the Loat, all 
,vouudell, the :-;ailor Yery seriously. l-'ho sa, agc's pur- 
sued in canoes, but the boat reached the sloop, allJ a. 
fc,v Jiðcharges of the s\\'"ivel-g-ull ù1'ove the sa\"ages 
lJack; but all night they kept up their ".hoops and 
ho\vling un 
hore. T,vo days B10re l'a
sed bcfore the 
1Æul!J JJras/Ii.Nylon could leave )Iurdcrcr
' IIar1)())', 
Htrikiu o ' Jan<rcrousl y on the bar; and lllCaU\vhile thl' 
\:) ð . 
s,vivel-gun had to be Jìred again. 
eding up the l?Oa:"t and trading often ,,'ith tIle 

H)() EXrLOR...\.TIO

natives, the nayigators 1llCt \yith nothi1lg renulrkablo 
in the ,yay of adyenture or ùiscovery. II[tf.nvell ,vl'itcs: 
"I a III of opinion that the 
traits of J uall de !i'uca 
cxiðt, though Captain Cook po
itively asscrts they 
ÒJ not, for in the yory latituùe ,vhcrc they arc Haill to 
lie, the coast takes a bend ,vhich very proLably IHny 
Lè the entrance." .L\.. little farther north they noted 
the entrance of Barclay Sound aud called it COlll- 
pany Bay. They found frequent indications of the 
Ellglishnlen's visits; narro\vly escaped ship\vreck; and, 
the last day uf August, entered Hancock Harbor, a..
they named Clayoquot, "There they \vere honored ,vith 
a yisit fronl the chief vVicananish. Beyond this point 
they had gales anù fog; and it ,yas not until Septenl- 
bel' IGth, alulost a year fi-'Olll Boston, that the Lady 
TTTashington ,vas to\ved into N ootka Sound by the 
aid of boats fronl the vessels of l\feares and Douglas 
lying at anchor there. 
Captain Gray's intercourse ,vith the Englislu11en, 
,vhose operations in this region ,viII presently be 
noticed in detail, ,vas very agreeable, and they sho\ved 
hilIl llUU1Y polite attention
, besides peI'll1itting their 
slllith to assist ill certain repair
 to the sloop. Yet 
Captain 1Ieares did his best to ùiscourage the Ailler- 
icans frol11. engaging in trade, and especially froln 
intering on the coast, to ùo \yhich he insisted \vas 
111adness and sure destruction. Hc even ,vent so far 
as to assure Gray on his ,vord of honor, but lnost 
falsely, that his ves
 had not succeeded in obtain- 
ing ;vcr fifty skins during the 
eason. During tho 
stay of the Englishn1en no trade ,vhatcyer, either for 
furs or food, could be carried on in tho 80Ulld, the 
llati vcs being unapproachable. Has,vell state
this ,vas in consequence of 
feare::;' custOlll of taking 
their property by force, preventing their escape by a 
free use of Inuskot-balls, and giving thell1 in paYlllcnt 
8uch trifles as he cho
e. On SeptoluLcl' 19th or 20th 
the Alllericanð ,vitncssed the launching of 
ne\v schooner, firing a salute; and on the 22d their 

QUE'-\TIOX.\BLE C(,';l)l"CT. 


boatR help. 'd to to" thl'}( 1;(,( out of till harhor. 
()n hi
 departure (i:1ptain )Il"lJ'e
 ofl" r'<I to carr\. 
 to (
h i Ita; 1 )ut I,y h i..... ('ol1
ort' S 1)( )at )", ,t url h'( 1 
the pa 'kct, Oil the plea that it \\"a
 Hot cl'rtain at \\ hat 
port ill IHdia. lle Illio'llt tOlH'h, tllll..; I n,,'\"('l1till" C:-ra j P 
l'IHlil1g the Jetters by t-i(Hlll
 of hi.., ..Hie r:, or 
lllell. 30 
Un Sl'ptclllber 2
(1 or 
:1<l the 'ful'lìlllJl.o :uHI Captain 
}(ellJril"k 1I1a<le their nppearan .
. X othill
 i..; ]
J10\\ n 
of her trip frolll Li
I})(. llorn sayC' t)lat it had J)L't'l1 t 
:-:tOI'UIY OIH', that 
h(, had tou('hc(l at .f Hall l'\'rn:Lnde , 
and had lost t\\ro lllell frOlll S('lll'Y\P. (JetoJ....I. l..t \\ a
cl'leLra te(l as the a 1111 i "l'r:-:ary of ( rturl' fro III 1 
tOil, (1 ap taill Doug.las of the IJ)/u!J( Ill, 1irin
:llld thp ollieers of all f<Jtu' Ye
;-)e]s dillin o . 011 I)(Jar<l the 
(../ulu /Jdu'o. 'file t,\"O \'c
 ullt1er Captain j)oug1a'i 
"ere to\\ ec 1 \vith J(endriek's aid out of the harbor OIl 
Gth, hound for the S
uHh\"ieh J "'};llltl
. On 
t he departure of the I
llg1ishnlcn tll(
 llati \"C"; lo
t aU 
their fear, and supplicd all the food that \\"a"; ncedc(l. 
elldriek decided to ,,"inter at Xootl..a, alhl Blade 
preparations to buil(l a. hou:-,t' Oll t-ihore alld to rig the 
:-;loop illtu a hrig, though hoth of t]Jese :-\ehellll'
ahandonell; indce(l, if ,,-e Inn)" credit Ila
\\"l'I1, (iap_ 
tain I
cl1dl'if'k \\pa
 lllUc:h adòicted to \\"hinlH and "er 
varying' plall
 Be\per put into l'xecutioll. 
rh' \\"int 'r 
pas::;e( 1 ,,-ithout other e
('iteillellt than that ari:-;il1g' 
frOlH hUlltinn' and fishillO" (Hh"elltnr('
 t hl
...., .., 
of" l(l'lHlril.k':..; \-arious petty 
, the :-;tcaliJ)
a boat alld (liYel'
kH alld ('allnoll hy the 
!ndian:-;, tl'ollLleo..; with one or t\\ 0 refra -tory 
lors, 1 

:.!!).\('cm.(lin!:! to 'I('ar('
 tIlt' launch "a
 on the 
Oth :t1lf1 his ,I(,}.arture on 
the FtI;,"p on the :!4th. 
 f, ..H.ell :'OIHC infonll.ltioll 011 trac.l "onlcl ht' flc'nt that might }JO 
prejnclil'ial to hi
ts. :\} Heh 
harp pl"udil'f" ." .I
 COIllIllOIl t nn\1 '1. 
 rind fur-tr.ulcrs, awl n
 lL rule [. 01lut hoth sICk=, (If I\\. tty (lunlTt:! .; 
Jmt it S(,(,Ill
 prOpl'r, fOl' rc: nns that "Ill uppl'.ar l.Ltcl", t t ud.l lIu "ell s 
:lc"cusation8 to the JIIa"'
 of testimony slum Ïllg ,It
u.( not to h.n (' IJl.-t.'1I an 
hunol'a l,Ic man. 
:11 ,John (:n'l'II. :\rl'ates'".ain, whilt. e JIItÌlw'. in thc' hon 'nil .hOl'"C (or 
mutiny, had (.!ic'
lpl.\l, a1ll1 hall applil'll for hni ;()
 t,t .thl \111('..111 ..)Ntl?' 
l;ray rcfu
cll, Ita\ il1ó promiscd 
lc.l1'cs nut tu I"C(,;\..I\ c hun; hut It11C of Ius 


and an alarnl of fire one day in the ship in dangerous 
proxiu1Îty to the po\vder. Both vcsscl.
 rClnained at 
anchor ill the sonDtl until J\Iarch cf tho neÀ t year; 
and their subsequent 1110Ve111cllts ,,,,ill Le noticed ill a 
later chaptei'. I have nOY\T to fol1o\v thc voya::;e of 
the EngliGh traders, 'Vh0111 \YO have seen at N ootka. 

The ships Fclice Adl'cnfHrer and Ipl
igenia .LV1J- 
biana, of t\VO hundred and thirty and tvw
O hundred 
tons respectively, ,vore fitted out by a con1pany of 
English 11lorchants in India, and ,vore put under tho 
cOllllnand of J Ohll 
1eares and vVillialn Douglas, the 
former being a lieutenant retireù fronl the British 
navy, whose fornler voyage to the Alaskan coast has 
already been lllentiol1ed, and 'v ho publiBhed an elabo- 
rate narrative of his expeditions. This ,york contains 
a large amount of valuable infoI'111ation on the N orth- 
,,"'est Coast; but the author, as appears froll1 his o\vn 
statclnents, as Ylell as fro111 the testinlony of other 
traders, both English and Aillerican, is not to bo iUl- 
plicitly trußted in matters affecting his o,vn interests. 32 

mcn supplied Green with food, and \,;'hen K.endrick came he \Vas taken on 

rd tlle ('011.1 'Jlúi (. TIut he refuscd to sign the articles, nnd K.endrick landed 
him aGain mnong the savagcs. :l\1eares in his narrative blames the Americans 
for their course i:l this matter, aud \'cry likely with reason. George :!\1onk, a. 
m, also ran ::wlay, but was pursucd and capturcd. 
32 VOYff[JCS JJlade in the Ycars 1788 and 17S[), front China to tlte North Trcst 
Coast oj AIl
erica. '1'0 7.clÛclt are prrjixcd, anlutrorluctorf/.J...YarratZveofa Voyage 
J1plfúrmpd ill, 17SC,from ErJn[Jal, Ìll tltc ship 'h-ootl.:a'; oùservation
 on the pro ()ab 'e 
e:risfeure (f (t nortl;t pcU)sagc
' (wd some account of tlte trade betwecn the 'Jim'tlt 
'lL.C f con,c;t of AJ:zcl'ica and China; and tlte laUcl' countr.'/ (md Great EritcÛn. EU 
John lJIeftres, E
'1. L,)lulon, 17DO; 4to, portrait, maps, 
nd charts. The 
, Introductory V oya3c,' pp. i.-xl., contains the author's version of his troubles 
with Port
ock a:1ù Di

on, with original correspondence. In the 'Obsernt- 
tions,' I)P. xlii.-lxYi., the author argues that the north-west passage may yct 
l)c founu, relying not on the old fanciful theories, but chieíly Oil the bcts tlla.
Hudson B3.Y h:.l<.l no
 been completely explored, and that the bte voyagers, 
including himsclf, had found on the Pacific side a complicated net-work of 
islands allù straits, fJome of which latter might very likely a.ITord the desired 
l)assagc. Though markeù by some inaccuracies of stateme:at, the argument 
Í3 far stronger than most of those on this subject that I ha\?c noted b. earlier 
chapters; and the author introduces a brief sketch of the late trading voyages. 
Thc 'Account of the Trade' is on l)P. lxvii.-xcvi. The voya3cs of l\lcares and 
hi3 associates fill 37'2 pages of text. There arc three gencral maps or charts, 
showing all or part of the north-west coast on differcnt scales, to be copicd a. 
little latcr; there are local sketch-charts of Friendly Cove, p. 108, Port Cox:, 
p. 143, l
ort Effingham. p. ] i2, Sea-otter Harbor, p. 303, and Raft Covc, p. 
;j72; coast vicws of Nootka, Port Effiugham, and land ill 4D'J 3', p. 104; cn- 

IE_\11I:'; \XD D01:(;L \

1 .., 


III order to p\ade C'
"i\(' ] )Ort ("h'U.ft in (....hillu 
, , 
and also to ol)\yiaÜ' the n(\el'
..;it\ of ol)tainiIl'J" lie .110..,( i 
. ., 
fr01H the l
a",t Illdia and Sou1 It Sea (,olllpalli4 ''''. one 
('ia\yalho, a J)ortugue:-;p, "ya-:; Illacl ' IloIllinally n partnf'r 
ill the COIH'(\J'n, and throug-h hi...; inihH'Ilf'P "yit h the' g-O\Y- 
c'rnor of 1\ I :leao thl' Ye

{'I..; "crt' fl1rni
hccl \\.ith 1>( 'r- 
e lIa
H, papers, all( I eaptains. oJ \11 of th 
. "'t'r 
to he us .d a:-; occa
i()1l JllÎ<rht tlcIlland either ill th. 
.... , 
rhincs(' porb
 or in ('as('of eIlll)arra
] h'itish YC;',
l'l;--\, "yhcll thc real ('()nl1n.l1
ll'r,; \\9o
Id ap- 
pear ill the l>urtugu('se Yer
ioll of the 
hip's }>ap('r

n l )l'rcaro'ocs. ..L\ulon<r tht, instruetiou", frolll the' \Ier- 
(.hauts l>ruprietors'-Vaniel JJeale of (ialltoll 1 .ÌIlI' 
c\vherc IlluHe<1 a
 the' o:-,tellsiblp at'cllt of t h · ("Ol
cerll'-"':lS thc foll()\villg-: "8houkl you. . . Bil' .t \\"ith 
any Itu

ian, I1
nglish, or f->panish ye"':"':I"I:, you \vill 
treat thenl "ith (.i vility all( 1 tì'ienJ
h ip; :lll(l allo\v 
thcIll, if authorized, to cX:'llnille your paper
, ,,-hi('ll 
\yill f'he\\
 the ol)jcct uf your voyag-e :-] hIt JUu I11U:-
at the RaInc tilHe, guard again:-;t surpriZl\ Shuu](l 
thc.y attclnpt to 
eizc yon, or e\ycn ('arry you out of 
yonr "Tay, you ,vill pr(\vent it 1)y c\Tcry 1l1l'anS in Jour 
po\\Yer, alHll'epel forcc ))y f(n"Cl\ You "yill, on YOUl' ar- 
ri \Tal ill the fil':-;t port, protc
t Lefurc a prop '1' utlicer 
against Rueh illegal pro('('(lurc. . . Shoul( I yuu, in :-;lH'h 
cunflict, Ilavo thl
 f-\upC'r'iority-you ,,-in then take 
:-;Cf-\SiOll of the VC:-;:-;L'! that attackl'd JOU n-.; nl:,o Ill'r 
('argo; and hring Loth, ,,-ith the nf1irl'rs a nel ('1' '''T, to 
rhilla, that they luay Lc cOll<lcllllled a
 legal prize
, allcl 
their cre\\TS pUlli
hed a
 piratc-,." Of cour:-: 
, the only 
trouble (ICCllled likelv to occur \\"as \vith Vl'S
f 1:-, L
)" to ri\-al EllO'iish eOlll l )anies , in \vhich ease thi-.; 
o 0 0 

trance to Fuca Strnit, p. 1.')(1, an(} Cape IAOkout, p. HH; portrait of nntl)(lr, 
frontbpiccc; thc chiefs :\Iacplill.\ and ( 'allicum, p. 1(1.': launch of the øchoo'llr, 
p. :!:!l. In the npP("Jl(lh... h('sitlcs tal,lcs of the \0)3 rc, ar' on'r fiU I ...., 
not numhercd, of instructions nnd other documcnt..'J, inclu c ling :\1<':11"('9' .II 
moria' of 17!'O on his \\ rongs ut th 
 hauds of Thcl'c" n:t an oct \ I,) 
t.'ùition of the J Y o!la[j ,ft, LolU lon, 17m, :! \"ols.; n lio a french translatio.n, r;
Italian, 17!'ö; (;crman, 17Uc;; 31ul Swc(lish. 179,. '[C..l1"CS al...o I ul,hshed an 
A II.' 1l " r to ...1/,' (:,. Ir!! Dixoll, Lundon, litH, \\hich \\ß,:i intcnded u.i a rcfu
tiun of Dixon's 1:, marl-If. 
. w. CU.\ST. 'OL. I. 13 


,yas to be a purcly Portuguese expedition; but it 'Ya
to be as purely Engli::;h if Spanjards or Itus
should venture to interfere. This trick of sailin o ' 

under doable colors ,vas not perillissible under the 
IR\YS or custOlllS of any civilizeà nation, unless directed 
against a hostile nation in tinle of ,val"; and England 
assuredly ,,"ould assunlÐ no responsibility in conse- 
quence of such a trick, directed against herself, unless 
it Inight be advantageous to her o,vn interests to do So. 
So far as is kno,vn, 
Iearcs had no occasion to use his 
Portuguese colors in Anlcrican ,vaters, except ,,-hen 
the Lady TTTashington lIlade her appearance at N ootka, 
and before her nationality ,vas kno\vn ;33 but on his 
return to China his device ,vas successful, so far as 
the evasion of port charges ,ras concerned, until the 
'little gan1e' ,vas exposed by legal proceedings arising 
frolll Cavalho's bankruptcy after the conlp1
isant Por- 
tuguese governor's death. 34 
The vessels left I\lacao in January 1788. The 
Iphigenia directed her course to Alaska, ,vith instruc- 

33 Haswell, Voy., 
IS., 3.3, describes the vessels as 'under Portuguese colors.' 
on his arrival; but he says nothing of any flag later either on the vessels or 
Ieares in his narrative says nothing to indicate that the expedition was 
anything but an English one from beginning to end. In his J.1IenlOrial he 
admits the ruse as against the Chinese, carefully suppressing, of course, the 
other phase of the matter, and insisting that the vessels and cargoes were 
'actually and bona fide British property.' The instructions and other ùocu- 
ments published in l\Ie:;.res' appendix are in English, and for the most l)art 
aJ.dressed to 
Ieares and Douglas as captains; but iJl some of the documents 
relating to the troubles of the next year Cavalho awl Company are named as 
owners of one of the yessels; in one document Francis Joseph Viana is namert 
.as captain of the /phtfJenia, ,-dth Douglas as supercargo; 1\Ieares, in his .Jlcmo-, once names Viana as 'seconù captain'; Douglas, ill hi9JoZlrnal, once men- 
tions instructions in the Portuguese language; Gray and Ingraham testified in 
later years to the fact that the vessels were under Portuguese colors, captains, 
and papers; and finally Haswell found the vessels under Portuguese colors. 
All this is sufficient to support the conclusi0!1s in the text, which are mainly 
identical with those of 1\-11' Greenhow, Or. and (Jal., 172-3. This writer says: 
'There is no sufficient l)roof that any other [than the Portuguese flag] ,vas 
ùisplayed by them during the expedition.' This is in a sense true, hut his 
partisanship is somewhat too apparent in the statement that the Portuguese 
subjects figure as the real commanùers 'in all the papers;' and that 'the doc- 
uments annexed to the J[ernorial conclusively prove that all these (lecepti,.e 
appearances were kept up at Nootka;' and he certainly has no reason to imply, 
,as he does, that the iùea of this bcing an English and not a Portuguese expe- 
dition was entirely an after-thought, devised for the purpose of obtaining 
English protection. 

:\L\QLlXX.\ 6
ì) C_\LLI(.t:


tions to f( llo,," th ' ('oa
out11\Yard; al1(1 her JIlOVl)- 
l11ellts \vill ])c noted later. 'file ]f( lir', Capt:lill 

, had a forc. . uf fifty 111cn, ('r('\\
 and arti
al1s, a. 
(.onsideral)lo l1tllIlLer of each cla
s l)('in(' rhill';'"\ . 
\:cla, a nat.ivc chief of X uotka, hrought u\\"ay lJY 
one of the earlIer yoyagl'H, returJu'd IHHllc Oil thi."" 

 .1, ,,-hilc th \ IIJ/u.9(') i carried a]:-\\ 'fiana, a youn

I La \\
a i iall chief, ].otllH I hOlllC\Vard to the :-;an( h,"i,'ll 
J slancls hy \\ ay of .oL \lIlcrica. ]
spè('ial pains is 
aic I tu 
have been takl'n \vith the outfit; 1 Jut the .L\.Ill 'ricall

tate that the vcs::;cl') \vera very poorly provided \\"ith 
"\ycrything except articlcs of trad. ....\.ulcrica":l!-; 
sighted on )la)" ] 1 th; alHI t\\"o days latcr the Pi. lit. 
anehorcd in Nootka, Sound, JU1\ing highteel, "ithout 
}-\pcakillg, thc J}rinccc....s Ito!Jul, Captain Duncan, ,,-hich 
had just left the harhor on her hOllle,,'ard trip.35 
Cornckcla, ,,'ho is called a brother of 
Iaquinna and a 
relative of Calliculn, the t\\'o Lcing thc grcat ('hicfs (tf 
K ootkft, ,vas recciyccl Ly his couutrynlcIl ,,
ith great 
festivitics of \\
The Engli
lllnell had COlne prepareJ to LuilJ a 
Rn131l 'Ye
:-:;el; and their first occupation 'yas to 'rect a. 
house for the ,,,,orlnnen and 8torc
. :\laCJ.uinna, the 
chief, made no objcction
, but gaye thcJn a :-\pc Jt for 
thc house, prolni
ed uativ(\ af'siðtance, and appointc(l 
Callicull1 a
 a kind of guardian to protcct the strangers 
in thcir opprations. In return f
Jr hi;:; kindn ),
 :\f a- 
qninua \Ya
 given t,,"o ri
, for ,,
hir'h hc had :-,ho\\"u 
a faney, anel ""a
 prolnised thc building iv..clf ,,-hen 
the huild("r
houl(1 lea-yo the c()a
t. \learc q , ho\\"- 
ever, chose to operate on the nati\"c fear
 ,,"cll a:i 
thcir o-ratitucle, b\y explaillill f r his po\\"er; an( I ronnel 
the H
V' house, ,,:hif-h ""as t
toriè,) hi
h huilt of 
,,'ooll, he thrc\\" up a br(,:1st,,"ork, anel on it Inountc(l 
a Rluall cannon. 1'here i-.; nothing in )Ieare
' narra- 
t ive or instruction
 to indicate an intention uf a('- 
(p.Úring perlnallCllt l'o
 at X ootka, either for 

s" That part of :\Icarcs' nalTati,"c rëlating to hio! experience in .\m{.rica 
begins 011 p. 103. 


hiulsc:lf or any nation, but eycrything to sho\v that 
the house ,vas built for telnporary purposes ouly. The 
circul11stances of the case, and the testinlony of 1110n 
,yho arrived a little later, point in the s[une dircction. 
In later years, ho\vc\Ter, ,vhen clainlÎng the protection 
of England, 
leares set up the claim that he had 
bought the land, and also stated that the English flag 
had been raised over the building. It Inatters little 
hich version ,vas true; but obviously the narrativc 
is to be trusted rather than the .JIen
orial. 36 
On the shore outside the enclosure the keel of a 
yessel ,yas laid, and the ,vork ,vas pressed for\vard 
,yith all due speed. The natives relnained friendly, 
and In any otter-skins ,vere pUI'chr"sed. At first the 
trade "Tas regulated by a fixed scale of prices; but 
later, so says the narrative, a systen1 of lnutual gifts 
,,,"as adopted-a system ,vhich, according to 1\1r 
Has,yell, as the reader ,vill relnelnber, consisted in 
the Englishnlen seizing all they could get their hands 
OIl, and giving the Indians such trifles as could best 
be spared. But this accusation nlust be taken ,vith 
111uch allo,vance, since Captain 
1eare8 ,vas by no 
Illeans so stupid as to ruin his prospects for future 
trade by such ,vholesale theft. At sonle one of the 
later interchanges of gifts the savages 111ay have 
deemed theillseives overreached, ,vhence the dissatis- 

36 Haswell simply says: 'Captain l\Iem'es, arriving here some time before 
Captain Douglas, landed his second officer, 1\Ir Funter, and a party of artifi- 
cers, who first built a tolerably strong garrison, and then went to work build- 
ing a small schooner of about 30 tons.' Captain Gray and lVIr Ingraham 
subsequently testified that' On the arrival of the Columbia, in the year 1788,. 
there was a house, or rather a hut, consisting of rough posts, covered with 
boards, made by the Indians; but this Captain Douglas pulled to pieces, prior 
to his sailing for the Sandwich Islands, the same year. The boards he took 
on hoard the Ip7Ûf/eniu, and the roof he gave to Captain Keniliick, which 
was cut up and used as firewood on board the Columbia. . . As to the land 1\11' 
1\leares says he purchased of l\Iaquinna or any other chief, we canllot say 
further than "re never heard of any; although we remained among these 
people nine months, and could converse with them perfectly well. Besides 
this, we have asked 1\Iaquinna and other chiefs, since our late aITival, if 
Captain :Meares ever purchased any land in N ootka Sound; they answered 
o; that Captain K.endrick was the only man to wbom they had ever sold 
any land.' Gray and Ingraltmn's Letter to Cuadra, 179:2, in G-reenhow's 0,'. 
and Cal., 413-16. I may add that Kendrick also, according to IIas\vell, built 
a small house for temporary use in the autumn of 1788. 

mc \X.\


tion not('(l 1 )
. t]u' ... \n1eri("alJ
. ..c\t any ratt', th 'y 
f'tole a grind;..;tol1e, \\ ere not adlllittc{l \\"ithin tIt ' C11- 
{.losure of the hOll'-\', anel fInally retired to anot]}{'r 
lÞay t.o f1Hh, retul'llin
, lu)\vc\Oer, to 
tp,11 th' f-òl1ip':i 
pinnac,,--, \\Ohich \va:.; broken up fen' the Haiti. 
J a( plilllla, 

till protested hi
 iidelity; HIHI it \\"fI.Ii ju
t 1.(.fol"c th · 
ycssel's dpparture that the Hnal o\\"uerðhip uf the hOll e 
,vas prollli::;ctl hilll, as l)efore related. 
()ll ,June 11 th, lea \"illg a fe )rcc at X ootka. to ""01'k on 
the schooncr, 
lcarcH Railed for the Routh ,11Hl'llt 
t\yO ,,-ccks in Clayoquot Sound, \yhieh he naln( .(1 l>ort 
ox, being lavi
hly entcrtaillcd hy \'
i('aIlallish, the 
chief of that region. .L\. yaluaLle lot of otter-
""as secureù, and tliS::;Cl1Siolls Lct\\'cen the chi .f:
healed Ly a treaty ".hich gavo to \Vicanani:--h, f

alc to 
, nIl furs then ill P():--

ion of tho 
, but allo"Tcd IIallna anù ])etootche the right 
to sell such skins as should lJO taken later 1))"' their 
rhe next ùay after lcaving Port Cox, Sun- 
day, J une 
Ðth, the navigator 
ighted a great inlet in 
latitude 48 0 3!)', reaching its Routhcrn f;hore and re- 
ceiving a visit froln tho ("hief 
ratootehc. The inl".t 
,,-as nalllcJ for it
 "original ùi
coYerer, Juan ùe 
and ha!:; retaiuf'cl tho na1110. 
Ieare::; coolI) a
tho honor of rediscovering- this strait, kIlo\\ iug of no 
other navigator "
aid to l1avo bCt;11 thi-.; \yay" c
rook and 
Iaurclle, and ignoring l
's di
of ,vhich he \vas perfectly Ll\\"are. 37 'rho Loat \\"a:i sent 
out to e
ploro tho i:..:lalld ,vhich f\till LL'nr
 the nalliO 
of l\ttoucho. 
 \. near vic,v ,,-as had of Cla.
.t yillao.e 
on a high steep rock; nntl there ".cr(' al
o seen, on 
July 2d, Capo Flattcr.'
, Quecnhit he ri \-(.1' 
H)( I i 
('ucclluitett yillao'c , Saddle IIill , aue 1 ] )c,-,truetioll 
" ð 
:Iand. ()n the 4th thcy uaulc{l )Iount Olrnlpu
, in 
latituùe 4ï o 10'; and next (lay t>hoal,,-ater j
ay, \\.ith 
the capc
 I.J(nv J >oint dlHI 8hoah\"atl'r at it
37 ne several times speaks of R.1.rclay's 'oyn.O'c in his narratiw"; r.,(l in hi
(Jluwrl:atiollR, p. h'., he says: 'The hoot's crew, JIO\\C\t'r, WlU de r tdled, Bntl 
4.1iscoyc'rcd the c},.traor(linar)" straits of John ùo Fuca, nl1l1 n} t
ll t 
far as Quccnhythe.' 
 gi\l::3 in a larhc 
nóra,vinó.... \ icw ot thc , ù..'. nc,-'. 


On Sunday, tho Gth, they rounded a prolnontorJ in 
about latitudo 4G o 10', ,vith great hopes that it ,youlcl 
proye the Capo San Roque of IIeceta; and so, indeod, 
it ,yas, the bay beyond being the 1110uth of the great 
riyer of the ,ycst. But 
Ieares found breakers ex- 
tending conlpletely across the bay, ,vhich he nanlcd 
Deception, and the cape Disa ppointlnent, and ,vrote: 
"'Ve can 1l0'V ,vith safety assert, that no such river 
as that of Saint Roc exists, ås laid down in tho 
Spanish chart." Farther south he named Quicksand 
Bay, ,vhich ,vas probably Tillaulook, called 
ers' Harbor by Gray a little later, though 
describes it as cntirely closed by a low sandy beach. 
The adjacent headland ,vas named Point Grenville, 
and a southern one, in latitude 45 0 30', Cape Look- 
out. The name is still applied to a cape farther 
south, in latitude 45 0 20', the original being still 
kno,vn b
r the name of La l\fesa, ,vhich Heceta, gave 
it in 1775, and sometimes by that of Cape l\Ieares. 38 
Having "lIlet ,vith nothing but discouragement," 
l\Ieares no,v abandoned his southern explorations, 
111uch against his inclinations,39 and on July 11 th 
arrived at Barclay Sound, ,vhich, or part of ,vhich, 
he renallled Port Effingham, the eastern headland 
of ,vhich he called Cape Beale. While trade ,vas 
in progress here, Mr Duffin ,vas sent with thirteen 
lHen in the long- boat to explore the strait of Fuca, 
and, if possible, the country farther south. He 
started on the 13th, and was absent a ,veek. He fol- 
lo\vcd the northern shore of the strait for about 

38 Point Grenville has no name on modern maps, unless it was south of the 
bay, as is imp
ieJ. The identity of these different points, as I have givcn 
them, in accordance with Davidson, Direct. of Pac. Uoa...t, 87-8, is not quite 
clcar. It is not impossible that 
leares' latitude was wrong; that he missed 
Tillamook altogether; that Grenville was La 
lcsa; Quicksand nay, Natahats 
Lagoon (or even Tillamook, as before); and Lookout, the point still so called; 
nevcrtheless, a group of rocks, one of them arched, as described by :Mearcs, 
founù according to Davidson off La l\Iesa, and not off Lookout, should be con- 
clusive. Greenhow, Or. and Cal., 177, is "vrong in identifying Lookout with 
the .Falcon of the Spaniards, which was False Tillamook, antI he cites the 
latitude as 4jO :J7', as indeetll\Ieares gives it in one place. 
39 He had hoped to reach 4
o, where' it is said Captain Caxon founù a 
good harbour.' I ùo not know the meaning of this allusion. 



t"'elvc lllilc
, perhaps to the San Juan of Ino(l orn 
Illaps, ueithcr diar., 1101' Illa}>> being quite intelli- 
giblt\, and in ,,'hat he 
alled I Iostility IJay, pl'rhap
}'alse 1\ itinat, '\'c.lS attc.lekt'd by the Ha\ agot'o.; \\'110 
".ounded hilll and sc\'cral of hi;;; IneH, but "'crt: 
after a hard fight. 38 l'hough] Junia's journal i:-; geo- 
graphically SOUl .,\.hat \ ague to u
, it pre 
enteJ no 
tlifliculties ,\'hatever to the captain, ,\.ho coolly 

rho lJoat "had stll1c(l near thil'tv. leagues up the 

trait, and at that distance fronl the Hea. it ""ao.; about 
tifteellleagucs broad, ".ith a clear horizon Htretchill:..{ to 
the eu'-)t tur ] 5 IcuguoH lllore.-Such an (\Àtraordinar.,. 
circtunstanco filIc( l u
 ".ith strange conjectures as tf) 
the èxtrl'n1Ïty of thi:-; ðtrait, ,vhich "'0 cUIleluclc(l, n t 
[Jl events, could not he at any great dit-italll'e fronl 
IIud...:ou's Bay." lie al
o ,,'rites: ,,\\T e took po

f)f the :-;traits of John (Ie Fuca, ill tho IlalllC of the 
ing' of 13ritain," though Duflill JllcntioBH no such act; 
and in hi:-; InCITIOrial of later date ho clailn
 to ha Yè 
oLtnined froB1 \Vicananish on thiH trip "the pronlÏsc 
or a, freo and e
ive tradc ,\'ith the Jlative
 of the 
tl'ict, aud also his per1l1iHsion to Luild allJ storc- 
cs, or othcr edificef.:, ,\'hich he lnight judge llcce;- 
sary; that ho al
o nClJuil ell the 
(llllO pri\ ilúg-c of 
l.lusivc tr
Hle froIll 
ratootche, the chief of th0 
country bordering on the straits of John de !1"uea, 
and purchascù ii'oIll hiln a tract of lalHI ,,-ithin the 
40 Duffin's Journcd is givcn in 
Ica.rcs' appcnùL"{, as also his instructions. 
The fullo\\ ing are the points Leal"ing on gco.;raphy: J uly l
th, slIlall banùy 
hay; 14th, ,illado of .Attah on salaly hay; course }
. mul E. 
. E. alon
Xittce ,att [Xitinat] village; I J oint Entrance at 1100n hore E. L) 8.4Ieag1.lClt, 
Ta tootche Islaml, 
. E. hy 1:. J 0 leagues; ).;th, small sanùy 1M) ; 1\ i th,e 
 a tt. 
rindct and Lar with surf; Puint Entr.lI1ce hore s. Ly E. [supposably Bonilla. 
Point]; I(;th, sanùy co,-c ami vilbge; 1)
c(1 Point Entrance; 8tccrl.',l e
t into 
thc strait; at noon cntered a. det.'p h.\y, n. good har1,or for \('sSE"ls of 100 or 1;"0 
tons [Hostility Hay, or .False 
J; 17th, tìght" ith Indians; 'turncd 
out of the Lay' and 'stood OVl.'r to the other t,hore' [of the holY or str-ait!]; 
place callcd l)ort lI.twkesLury, Tatootehe hearing H. w. [which indic
S..lll Juan, hut how did he get there
J; I
th, '\\ ind s. H. W.; at 4 l'.
(. tacked (tjr 
()uth shore four milt.ð, and stood o,-cr to tho north f>hore of tho 8tro\it ; 
at "; tacked ag.lin oil' sùore half a. mile; at sunset the cntr.lnco of Pllrt 
. IJY }
.; Tatootche hlanù, :-\.; Point Entrance, w. s. w., off the 
Jatter 8 1cat.rt1(,s, au( I frum the foruwr 3 le.l!,rtll"S; Aailcd 
" \\. h) w.,' antI 
l"dllnlCÙ to ship. :.\Icarc;:; BajS the rcturn \\as 011 the 
Oth. =-'cc. )Icarcs' nUlp 
l:..LL cr. 


said strait, \vhich one of your l\IcI1101'Íalist's officers 
took possession of in the !(ing's nanlC, calling tho 
nno Tatootche." ..A... voiding a hal':-:;hcr terIn, w..c Illay 
call these statcIncnts gross exaggeratiollH. 
Returning to N ookta on July 2Gth, it "
ns learllefl 
that all had becn rcasonaLly prospcrous during tho 
Fclice's absence; Lut 'v hen she \vas ready to sail again 
for Port Cox a lllutiny occurred to prevent clnbar1\:- 
iug. Tho l1lutincers, headcd Ly the boats\vain, \vho 
had been disgraced for previous insubordination, ,vere 
barely preyented frolll seizing the yessel; but all sub- 
lnitted and returned to duty except eight, ,,
ho, rather 
than subn1Ìt to be ironed, having their choice, \vere 
turned on shore an10ng the savages, 'v ho for a 'v hilo 
lllade slaves of then1. On August 8th l\Ieares sailed 
for POl.t Cox, and just outside the harbor lllct again 
tho Princess floYGl, Captain Duncan, no,v nearly 
ready to leave the coast. After a successful voyage 
he returned on the 24th to Nootka, \vhcre, on the 
27th, Captain Douglas arrived in the Ij)higenict froln 
the northern coast. 
CODling fronl the Alaskan ,vaters, it ,vas on August 
20th that Douglas found himself ill Dixon, or, as 
he chose to renal11e it, Douglas entrancc; and thence 
he proceeded through the strait Let\veen Queen Char- 
lotte Islanùs and the l11ain, as Duncan had done before 
hin1, though l\Ieares has the assurance to clailll the 
honor for his associate. 41 The only other nalne ap- 
plied, so far as the journal sho,vs, ,vas that of Point 
Rose; but Douglas returned through the strait the 
next year, as ,ve shall see. Meares' IHap, \y hich I rc- 
produce here, sho,vs the route and nan18S given for 
both trips, and also the supposed track of tho AlHeri- 
ean sloop round another grcat ißland ill 1789, of \vhich 
I shall speak else,y here. 42 

41 Douglas' Journal of this part of his voyage is found in :Mcares' Yoy., 
:320 et seq. 1i'or :Mearcs' remarks see Jd., lxiii.-v. and 211-12. lIe knew l)e1'- 
fectly well that Duncan had preceded Douglas in the strait. 
42 On the origiual map, not copied, is an inscriptioll to the effect that Queen 
Charlotte Island was uameù by Dixon in 17t>7, though ùiscovcreù Ly Lowrie 



..,'f.'t 0 .
t fn('fII'ø Cove 
fI llazaro ,)t. ) 
1. Port l' ... 
R . '. 8å. -:s, 0 


" (f\.,:) \ "þ 
I Mta '. S-';;;""" , 
of" - "-z,. - 

O, CHATKAM '\ ' . 

, - - 
 l II bena ... 

l. en 

 Nct SI'OVAL i _ 
 -- )0 
· ..r t"/-- f r- &I. 
:;I (?

' t::I 
:0 ::- 

b ., 
1 .La


J ! rf 








é, Y .. 
C ""'. 
 Fildug1l.'. &l. 
J Port Brooks 
,Woody Point 

ka SJ. 
r);- -......... 

Breakers Pt, ........ 
::;?=port Cox 
"\ Cf'klty'. Sd. 






b j-.. 
1'1 jt) 
'l " 
) " 

r 11. J Ba., 
'. I"'Pt.Hawksbury 
/'0.- ............________ 
C' (':'c 
'r,':;' -- 
 · - -. -- 

'11. t.OfYrnpIU& 
SAÐGl 14 atn Bø 
C.Shoal Water 
... 11<< 1110/1 :Boy 

{" (tvit:ha"dJ1o 
ê 1 (] . out 


The t"yo yessels being no,v reunited, every effort 
,yas lllade to fit the Felice for her trip to China ,yith 
the yaluable cargo of furs that had beon collected. 
The exiled lllutineers ,yore rccei ,"'cd back for duty, 
except the boats,yain, ,yho "yas confined in the bouse, 
and soon escaped. ,V ork on the ne,v and old vessel
progressed rapidly. 
On Scptenlber 17th the Lady TVClshington, Captain 
Gray, 111ade her appearance, as already related, ill 
tilne to ,yitness, on the 19th or 20th, the launch of 
the ne,v schooner, \vhich ,vas nalned the iVorth TTTest 
A 1î1Æ'ricCl, the first vessel ever built on the coast. 
The launching ,vas an event of Inuch interest to 
English and American spectators, as ,veIl as to the 
Chinese builders, and one of great ,yonder to the 
natives. It is made the subject of an engraving in 

Ieares' book. 43 
A fe,v days later the Felice, taking on board the 
lj]higenia's furs,44: and a lot of spars for the China 
lllarket, sailed from N ootka. She touched at the 
Sand,vich Islands, and early in December anchored 
a t 
The IjJhigenia remained about a month at N ootka 
after the Felice's departure, the tilDe being spent in 
preparing the NOT'th TTTest A1neT'ica for a trip to the 
Sand\vich Islands, 'v here the t\yO vessels ,vere to 
,yinter. The Col
(/}nbia arrived on September 22d or 
23d, the day after l\leares' departure, and the Ameri- 
cans, eager to get rid of their ri vals in trade, gladly 
aided in the preparations for departure. The house 
on shore, if ,ve may credit Gray and Ingraham, ,vas 
delnolished, part of the material being put on board 

and Guise in 1786. And in 
Ieares' instructions to Douglas for the second 
trip through the strait, in appendix, we read: 'You have the credit of dis- 
coyering the Great Island, the north-west side of which, comprehending 
nearly four degrees of latitude, is entirely undiscovered.' 
43 Jlearps' rÒ?f., 221. In the engraving and text the English flag is repre- 
sented as flying oyer both schooner and the bouse on shore. Haswell says 
nothing of this. 
H :Meares' solemn assertion to Gray that not over 50 skins in all had been 
obtained, as also his mean trick of refùsÏ.llg to carTY letters for the Americans, 
has already Leen noticed. 



the Engli:-;h vc::-.
 fin(1 the 1 est gi'9cn to Captain 
I(eu(ll'ick; and on October 
Gth or 
ïth the t\\PO 
\ c

cl:-; set 
ail, beiug to".eJ out of the harbor Ly 
 \lllcricans, aud reached the i:-,lanJs in DCCClnlJcr. 
Captain l(enòrick's vc

, a;') ".c lutYe 
een, \Villtcred 
at X ootka. 






 annals of 1789 offer little of inter- 
est outside of certain SOn1Ð\vhat startling events at 
N ootka; but before recording those events it 'v ill 
be ,yell to nan1e the different vessels that visited the 
coast, and to follo,v their lTIOVen1ents independently 
of the N ootka troubles, in \vhich all ,vere directly or 
indirectly involved. 
Kendrick and Gray, as ,ve have seen, had passed the 
,vinter at N ootka, and ,vere therefore first in the field 
for the spring trade. On l\larch 16th the Lacly TVash- 
Úlgton sailed for Clayoquot, ,vhcre she arrived next 
day, and ,vherc Hhe lay {or ten days, the InCH cngaged 
in traùing, hunting, and making a survcy of ,vhat 
they called Hallcock HarLor. "I rcally think," ,vritcs 
Has\vell, "there is a grcat inland c0111n1unication by 
( 204) 



ri,. \rH. The ,,-hole lalHI ".0 'ould sec I ha, c rC\l:--;on 
to suppo:-;e to be i:--:land:-;."l rhell tIH'Y 
ailu(l dU\\"1l 
the ('oast, noti ng c..olllpany l1ay, or J 
arc.:lay Suund, 
J Þa:--::--;ill(r Xitinat villaere and l)at<:h('llat , or )p\. 'rty 
;:, ...."'I L 
CO\"l', Hnll cntering" \\ hat they ""cre burc ""as the 

trait of }'uca, proLalJI) tu about th" !--.Ulh" point 
rea 'hed Ly )1 "\arps' l)oat, ,\.hl:re un 
\pril 1st tl)(.y 
a"" the :-;un l'i:-,c L"lear froTH th.-. horizou up the 
:-;tra its."2 J t i
 (.vi<1unt l\le3rc
 had tole I t11 'Ill 
nuthing of hi
 ü".u or of 13ar{'lay's di:;coverics. Xotill
rratoo<.:he lslau(l, or Chand 'C, they ""erú to....:-,cd ]".. 
the 'rilld
 belo,," Cape 
"lattcry f(Jl"e1 
ev(\ral day
, all
returllc(l to (i]aY(Hj11ot on the 9th, joilling' 'ric'allê.u1Ï:--:h 
in :t 
sfu] ,\" halt, - It lint. 
u Lsc(J uelltl y -iaptaiu 
Tay 1'('peatecl hi:-; southern trip, ':\.plorill
 C 'chash t 
CU\ e ê.lIlll Cc Hllpany Bay Ly llleans uf his 1 )oat., and 
returning on 1\ pl'il 22d tu K ootka, ,,- hl're he foulH I 
Captain Doug]a:-, [LIllI the JJ.)I, ;g('/I lfl. 'l"hl' .l"\lll(
Ye:-;se1.'i ,ycre allchure(1 seVCll 111Ílc
 np the f'ound, at 
)[a\vinah, 3Io".eclla, or I
enJl'ick COYC; and the of1i- 
 Inadc SOlllC explorations ill the illlalH I channcl:--:. 
RetuJ'lling tü Ji'ricndly COYO ready for 
ea, Captain 
(lrav learned that the 
u},th 1J""
st .Ál1J (J}';nl had arri \
and L(If'partc(l for northern ".ater::;. Leaying the ::SOUl HI 
on the ;J( I of 
Ia.r, he lllct the J)}';'1 . 'S I, cUlllnlandcc 1 
Iartillez. Gray ".as bound Borth, but for a ""cek 
the ,,"illd
 prc'.ellte<l Ili
 getting- 1>0)"011<1 Ilopl' 1;a
and l)eftH'C his departure on the lOth he Big-htl'(l 
another \.cs
el under Spanish color
, the F; III 'dr! IS. 

rhis tri I Þ of tl1C Lad!1 JT""( sl in:Jlu} to tho north i

o clearl,
 de:-;crioed In. llas\,.ell as \yould Le de:--:iraLle, it 
heillg ill;pu
:;iLlp to fix i:lll thl' po
rhey pa


1 IIm
1l"ell'8 Joy., 'J
., 4:1 ct A<'q. The author introc1uc('
 (luito a Inll" 
eIt'scription d ,oot1...L anei its people. 
:.! lIall .J. KellC'y, ])ÙJml'. 
\ Clrtl",.e,f (' l
f, claims to have 8(' 'n (;rn
"'s lw, 
alle1 jro
ills' journal in ]
:!n; lmt his hrilr remarks contain so many Llunelcrs 
ahout the \"oya:.;e that we can ha'"e no confidcnce in statcmcnts tlmt C:llln()t 
he prO\"cn ('lToneOUS. He Ba}R that Gray cntcrcel Fuc:), 
trait Ii.) milt's in 1;-.."\; 
ancl nl80 that (
ray's joun1al UlLlltioll'i 'the large rh cr, CLllle(11JY tho Indians 
Tacootchc, 110\\ ing into the cabtcrn l)3rt of this [Fuca] sea, in latitude 1J 
dl'grce=,;' that i." Fraser !:h"cr. 
a The westernmo.:,t inlet of the Lay be S3.)S ,,,,as c:lllcù Chicklc



ho,vcycr, bct,vcen the continent and the groat island, 
and penetrated the lllaze of islands and channell;) 
beyond as far as 55 0 43'.4 To Qucen Charlotte, Gray 
gayo the nanlC of \Vashington, apparently not aware 
that any other nayigator had discovered its separation 
froln the lllainland. "Had "
e not Inot ,vith the Inis- 
fortune of running ashore in tho storu1 our discoveries 
"rOllld haye bcen very interesting. As it ,vas, "Te dis- 
coyered that the straits of Adlniral de Font actually As far nortll as ,ve ,vent is a vast chain 
islands, and the ontrances bet,veen thelli 111ay he taken 
for gulfs and straits; but ,,
hen explored large rivers 
and lakes lliay be found. This coast ca.n never be 
thoroughly surveyed until it is done at SOllie national 
expense, whose comn1anders are interested by C0111- 
ll1erce."5 Comnlercially the trip ,vas successful, large 
nU1l1bers of skins being o
tained, especially on the 
,yestern side of Queen Charlotte Isles, on the return. 
t one place the unsophisticated savages gave t,,

4 )'Iay 3d to 13th, from Hope Bay passed between Cape Ingraham and a 
group of islands; across to opposite shore fourteen leagues; a large bay with a 
dangerous reef on ,vest; farther west, coast craggy, with low detached islands; 
latitude 52 0 37' [no date]; good open bay in 52 Q 50', with a remarkahle riùge of 
barren mountains 011 N. shore; saw lanù s. ,Yo l)y S., far away. 
lay 16th, land 
90 miles in extent and six miles from coast, N. N. E. to continent; waited 
until 10th for Indians who promised furs; this bay [probaLly that in 52 0 50'] 
named Derby Sound, for one of the owners. J\lay 21st, 'A large inlet trending 
to the westward, probahly the entrance of Admiral de Font's Straits;' gales 
and complicated movements; the great island estimated to extend 170 miles, 
from .32 0 to 54 0 30'. J\Ia,y 22d, N. w. and w., 'edging into the continent;' lati- 
tude 5.:;0 30'. l\Iay 24th, a terrible gale, ,yhich so strained the sloop that it 
was resolved to return to Nootka; place named Distress Cove, in 5':;0. 
23th and 27th, near Distress Coye, generally in 53 0 10'. l\Iay 28th, latitude at 
noon 53 0 43'; a chain of islands, which could not be explored; returned to 
"\Vashington Island; Custa, a village on a sandy bay [not far from. Dixon's 
Cloak Bay] under chief Cuneah; estimated latitude 54 0 15'; entrance of the 
strait [Dixon Entrance] in 54 0 20'; passed south in foggy weather. June 8th, 
latitude 53 0 [':;4 0 ?] 8'. June 10th, latitude 53 0 32'. June 11th, in an inlet 
and good harhor, in 52 0 12', named Barrell Sound, for one of the owners; on 
shore found a very curious fortified rock, called Touts, with flat top and per. 
per..dicular sides 40 feet high. Thence [no more dates given] to the islall<Js 
off Cape Ingraham; anù to N ootka. 
j Duncan and Douglas had preceded Gray in the straits, as we bave seen. 
f-:reenhow, Or. and Cal., IDD, says: 'Gray explored the whole east coast of 
Queen Charlotte's Island, which had never hefore been visited by the people 
of any civilized nation, though Duncan... had. . . sailed through the sea 
separating it from the main land;' anti then claims that Douglas did not 
precede Gray. All this is wrong, to say nothing of the fact that Gray's 
exploration was of the main rather than the island coast. 



hundred F,ca-otter skin
, worth alJout eight thousand 
dollars, for an old iron chi"e1. 
Captain Gray arrived at N ootka shortly after .T une 
] 4th, and a'3 he ;jailed up the sound to rejoin J<.en{lrick 
at .:\la\vinah, he sa,v the t\yU Spani,-;h Yes
t;l:-; at 
"ith tho f)J'incess llo!l tl, Captain lIuJson, and noted 
Iartinez had furtified Jlog Island near :FriendJ.\. 
CO\.c. I1ere, after relating Lricfly y\ hat ha(1 occurred 
at X ootka during tho alJSUllCC (If the L ulyIT asll ill!)! JIt, 
llas\vell's diary comes to all ('nd. 13('{cJre either of thu 
 sailed again, tho ,vriter, ".ith Captain Gray, 
,ya:.; tr:.tll
ferred to tho CuI" ",bit. ..After \vitllc:,s.Íng 
the transactions Lct\veen the "Ellgli.
h and Spaniards, 
and perhaps taking SOlDO part indircctly in them, b) 
he noted pre
ently, the Alnerican
 deciaed to senJ the 
ship to China \,.ith tho fur::; collected unùer COlllul:.tnd 
of Gray, ,vhile I{.endrick ,vas to rernain and continue 
trading operations ,vith the sloop. The cro,v of the 
l\"ro/.th IT est ..J aerica, :1 Spanish prize, ,va
 put on 
l>oard the ColuJnbia, as is subsequently relateJ, to 
Le carried to China, and al,-;o a quantity of supplics, 
ostensibly for their support, ,vhich enabled Kendrick 
to reinforce adyantageously the: cre\v and replelli::;h the 
storCt; of the Lady lJ T ashingtun. Soon aftcr tho InidJle 
of July the t\VO ve-.;
els left N ootka and ,ycnt dO\\ïl 
t ù Clayoquot,G 'v here the transfer of skins and supplic

 lHade, and the Collln
biu sailed for China. ,\? e 
ha \
e no dutaiI:-; of the yoyagc, except that they rcaeh('( I 
Canton early in Decen1bcr, and loading '" ith tea, pro- 
ceeded on their voyage round the ,vorIJ, the 6r
t uIH.ler 
the flag of the United StatcR, and arl'i\ cd at Ro...,ton 
\..ngust 17!:>O. Though a large quantity uf fur

6 Pos:-.ibly the L(((l!/ Jra.<
lÛn[lton left Xoott.n. first, ana after a southern trip 
met the ColllTllfJict at Clayoquot. Greenhow, Ur. am[ Cal., IW-
OO. 80 undu', 
stalHh. it, and thinks that it "
1.S on this trip that eray, as he told Vancouvcr 
lat('r, sailecl.-
 miles into the strait of Fuca, anf} found the pns......"1,:e five h"I
wide. Had Gray made this trip, howcyer, it SLcms that }La:mell \\GuM ha\.c 
(.', tcndecl his di.lry to include it j ill one of the documcnts attached to J/, a J"f
JI, I o1'i tl it is btatcel that the ,.cssels left Xootka together; anell.un inclinl' 1 
to think that Gray's report to Vancou'.cr, J.C!I., i. :!14, I1l.lY ha\c heen I1lLrcly 
un cxa3gcrLI,tion of hi:) \ isit to the ::.trait iu I ';bi}. :--:l'l
 p. :!OJ uf this \"OllllHl". 



had been obtained, the expedition is said to have re- 
sulted iíl no profit to the O\YllCrS, SOlne of ,vhonl :-3olcl 
out their interest, ,vhile the others fitteù out the ship 
for a. ne,v voyage, to be tlescl'iLed in a later chapter. 7 
After Gray's departure "
e kno,v nothing in detail of 
!{cnJrick's operations on the coast. In 1\Ieares' 111ap, 
copied in the preceding chapter, ,ve find laid dO'Vll 
the "track of the Lady TT(J_::;hington in the autull1l1 
of 178
," through a strait ,vhose southern entrance 
is that of ]?uca, and the northern above Queen 
Charlotte Island, thus Inaking a great island of the 
N ootka region. \Vhcn '7 ancouver Inet Gray in 1792, 
and ,,,,as told by hiln that he luade no such voyage, 
the inaccuracy of 
Ieares' statelnent ,vas believed to 
be established; but it subsequently a.pp
ared that 

Ieares got his inforlnation fi-'onl a 1nan ,vho had 
obtained it froIl1 I(elldl'ick after his return to China 
at the end of 1789,8 and therefore it ,vas plausibly 
concluded by Greenho,v and others that the Lady 
TTTashin!Jton had Inade the trip throLJh the strait 
under ICendrick's COlTIlTIand after the departure of the 
bia. I cannot say that such ,vas not the fact; 
but frolll the extrelne inaccuracy of 1\Ieares' chart, 
fr0111 the narrO'Vl1ess of the real channel, and fronl 
the fact that Kendrick is not kno,vn to have lnade 
subsequently any clainls to a discovery so i111portant, 
I am strongly of the opinion that the chart ,vas lllade 
froIll second-hand reports of Kendrick's conjectures, 
founded on Gray's explorations of the north and 
south, already described, and supplenlented by his 
(HYll possible observations after Gray's departure, as 
,,"ell as by reports of the natives, ,vhich, according to 
Has\vell, indicated a channel back of N ootka. It is 
not difficult, ,,
ithout inlputing any intentional decep- 
tion to the Anlerican cOllllllander, to suppose this to 

7 Bulfinch's statement, U. B. GOt'. Doc., 25th Cong., 3d 8ess., II. Rrpt. ..lVo.l01, 
p. 50; GreenllOw's Or. and Cal., 200, 223-6. It was Dcrbyanù rilltarù \
sold out to 13arrell and Brown. 
s JJf(ares' AllbWer to JJ[r Ge01'oe Dixon, Lonùon, 17!H. A reply to Dixon's 

ì. \. 


ha\ e lJecn tl1è origin of the r('port, ,,'hich "9a
to IJoud. >11 by a luan \'" ho had talk('d \\.ith J\.l'uJri('k 
and hac 1 not hilllsel f visi tcù the 'oa,t. \ t all r rate 
the evillcLce iH Hot suflìcieut to give l(('IHlric:k th
honor of ha \-ing" becn thc tìr
t to :,ail roulld \Tan_ 
cou \'cr ] sland. Some,,-here, ho,,,c,cr, (luring" thp 
autuInn, Captain J(endrick o1,taiuc(L a valua1,le ("lrgo 
uf fUl'H, anJ at the ('ud of the ðülli)Oll "'cnt to (thiua to 
f::;ell theIn, )lot returning- the lleÅt 8e3'-\on at all, but 
lllaking his appearance in 17
) 1, as "'C bh311 see. 9 

 Ij)lo'[jpuia, under D()ugla
 or \Tiana according' 
to ('ircum
, and the nati \'e-l)uilt .A.\"o(Jrtl 1 Jí s 
.Ll 'JIU ric.:a, Captain Tlûhert l;'ullter, ha(l \\'illterc(L at the 
Saud\';ich IHlanò:..;, in aecorda})('(\ ,,"ith 
' instruc- 
rhè plan for thi
on ''''af-; fur thesc two 
vC:SHcl:-; to OCCU1).Y thc field Borth of X outka, the RllO\V 
tradi 116" on the "'cstern :-Úòe of (
uccn Charlotte Isle
chieH V, and the schooncr on the eastern shore and 
u1d, 'v hile ::\Iearcs in the l
'elice ,vas to rcturn 
and éOllfinc hi
 operations to the Hûuth. ])ol1g1a:-; and 
}\lnter left the Islands on :Jrarch 18th and arri \"cd 
at N ootka, thc farIHer on .L\pril 
oth fin(1 the latter 
Oil the 
"ivc days later the schooner sailed f<)}'O 
her northern trading cruise, 800n follo\y
d, as ".C ha, e 
SCPI1, ]'.Y thl' Lad.'1 TJ(u;;hinylon. rrhen caIne l..ieutenant 
::\lartillcz froIH San 11Ia
, as is nlorc fully dcsf>riheù 
hereafter, and about tho llli<.lòle of :\Iay seized the 
IJ}/li:J(lJtia as a prize. She \va,; subs 'fJueI;tly n..Ica
furni;..;hcli \\'ith 
Olne nceJed 
, ant 1 }H.;trInitt(,( L 
ail on the :!d or 
! I of .T une, o:,ten:-o:ihly for the 
Sau(h:i('h J. .lands; but nn sooner ,,,as Captain ])oug- 
la:-; uut of Hight of port than he turned IHtrth".arù fer 
a tour (.f tr
ule, "'!licIt \va:-; f}uitc HU(' -.c:-o:;..;ful, though 
less f;O, as \vas l"lailned, than it "'ould ha \"è Lel'1l 
if the Spaniards had not taken R()nH
 of t h0 ('argo of 
 f(n' Lartcr. 'fho conr:-o:p \\-a
 up the 
traits alHI 
l'UUIHl th
 great i;-o;laud, a-.; 
ho\\'ll on a lllap already 
9 Jl"
,,., 'I',
 LnJ of tI" ('o/lim/Jift R"lil'inl. 
. \\. COA8T, 'UL. I. U 



given. The Englisllll1cll had to di
chtl,rgc their guns 
once or t\vice to keep ofr hostilo stl,\-agc:-;; Lut there 
,,,,as no other adventure \\"orthy of notice. Leaving the 
north end of the i
lalld (H1 J une 
 7 th, the Ij)h igcnict 
reached the Sanù\yich Islands in July, and 1\Iacao in 
Octo bel'. 10 
Funter's route on the )torth TTTest ",lnwrÙ
 is not 
exactly kllO'Yll, except that the nativcs reported hill1 to 
h3ve been on the ,v.est shore of the island, in 52 0 12', 
in 1Iay; but he obtained over t\yO hundred skin:.;, 
and returning to N ootka on June 9th, his vessel \yas 
seized by the SpaniaI:ds, the furs being transferred to 
the Princess Royal, and the cre\v to the C-'blund)l
Sho ren1aincd ill the Spanish service, under the 
l1an1C of GCf'truclis probably, and inl111ediately nlade a 
trading trip for account of her captors in charge of 
DaviJ Coolidgc, lnate of the Lady JJTClshington" obtain- 
ing 801110 seventy-five skins. She \vas taken to San 
BIas at the end of the year. ll 
l\Iean,vhilo Captain 
fcares, instead of returning 
in the Felice f1'onl China, as he had intended, forll1ed 
a partnership there in behalf of hi8 COlIl
)allY \vith 
:11r Etches, representing the London COlllpany that 
had fitted out Duncan and Colnett's expedition of 
1787 -8, 111aking joint-stock of all the vessels and 
other property. The P}.ince of TTTales being sent to 
England, a lle\V ship ,vas purchased and n:llned the 
Ar'!Jonaut, to replace the Felice, ,vhich \va.s sold. This 
ship, under Captain Colnett, and the Princess Rayed, 
Captain Tholllas Hudson, left China in r\pril and 
l\Iay, not flying Portuguese colors this tin1c, l)ecause 
the London conlpany had a license fi'0111 the East 

10 Dougl(t.Ç' Journal, in llf('(lr('s' roy., 3
n-!) and tahles; see also map in 
preceding chapter, 1). 201. The names applied on this trip, according to the 
Journal, were as follows: Fort Pitt, llnccleugh Sounù, Cape Farmor, Cape 
:Murray. J>etrie Island, :Uount Rt Lazaro, Haines .CO\Te, Cape Irving, .McIntyre 
Day. in 53 0 58', Cox Channel, Tatallee village, and Bealllarbor. 
lI..Jlpw.p.';' rO!I., tahles and document3 in appendix. Tobar, Inform(', S'tys, 
hO\\ ever, that she was sent under NatTaCz to explore the strait of :Fuca, 
Coolidge going as interpreter; and this may hc contirmcd hy 
V iC(!Jc,s A púc., 114. 



1 ndia COlnpany. It" a:--. the intl'ntion no,,, to l'
tahlish a perlllalH'llt tracling"- po:--t or f
t(:t()r.r on the 
eua:--.t, \\.ith 
uitable Luildiu

 II' the olTupation of the 
eOll1} Hl,n)'. CollletL \\'a
 authorizp<! to :-;l.le(.t the IIl0.....t 
ite f()r snell an ('stal)li:-;ll111L'nt, \\' \\':1
to be IHlll11.d 
"ort ]>itt and to bc' ulHJt'r tIt I (.haro.e of 
)lr ])uffiu. Xootka \\"a:-4 Bot Illl'ntiollt'cl ill the ill- 

 as the 
ite uf the 
Jl-t , thUll,rh it ,\-ou}'l 
HaLurall'y ha\ e L \ell pl
t<'l.(l there. Xor do \\. \ filld in 
tll(, illstructi()n
 c.lS printed allY }1l'o\.i.....ioll like that of 
the prec-edillg year fur troul,]e:-; ,,'itlt ve
 of othl'r 
llatiolls. 12 ::;e\ l.uty ChillalHen \\'ere 4 'ull)arked a:-; set- 
tlers fül' the He\\' 1( n.t; I:) a lH 1 a Hillall \"e

cl of thirt \.. 
tOl1f-; "'(1"3 carried to Lc launched OIl th\,} AUl \riea
coas t. 
The ])}';nc( s...; Ilullo! \\'a:--. the first to reach X ootka, 
on .J Ulle 1-1 th, a ll
 1 after a, fc"" (In v:-; of the 1110"t 
friendly relations \\. i tll 1 )uth Bpal1iard
 and oJ \lueric"an .. 
aptain IIud
on ;,ailed for a trac1ill
\., on .J uly' 

d, carrying the 
kinK takcn fl'Ol11 thp 
1JT"est .LIJJIlJJ';(.n. H Xext day Colllett ('
l111l' in \\.ith tho 
.L 1 ":JuJifull , \\.hic-h 011 .T uly 4th \\Ya
L'( 1 1)'y the Span- 
i:lrd:-; as a prize. Ten òay::; later the 1)/,;/ ('(JS_
rl'turned and \\"a
o ...eizl'cl Roth ye.....:-\cl
Sèllt :-,outh \vith Spani:-\h cre\\'s and lIf1i('cr
, and \\yi th 

12 l/(,U1"(,s' V ny., 3pp('wlix. Col11ett was rc('omlll('lltl('(1 to form tr('<ltiM 
with the nath-c chiefs, particularly near Xootka. 'In planning a f.lctor
. on 
thc ("oa
t of America, we look to a solid cstahlishmf'nt, alHlnot one J
 t , 
hc aU'llhlollCtl at plc<\&urc. ,,-c authorizc YOll to fi
 it at the mo...t (.onn'nit nt 
Htatioll, only to placc your colony in peacc antI sccurity, and full) prutt..-ct ,I 
from the fear of th(' slllalle::;t Hiuister acci,lellt. The ohj(.et of a, por.t of this 
kin,1 is to ,h"a.w the Inùians to it, to I.lY up the :-.mall ,csqcl'i iu the ,\ illtl'r 
s -a'\,II1, to huiltl, aIIt1 for other commercial purpr'
es. \\ hen thi'i point i
cffectc1l, (liffcrellt tr
l(ling hou
cs '" ill ho e
t.ahli:.hetl at btation
. ) ,)\U' 
kno\\ ledge of thc CO.1st awl its commerce point lJut to hc the mo:;t 3(h"an- 
ta';l'ous.' In hi
 ...lIt I/l, )r;al, ho\\ e,'er, 
[cal'es sap
: '
[r C ,lnett was tlir(
h) fi'\. his n.
i,ll'ucc at 
 ootka. :-;o11ßll, an,l, with th.1t ,ie\\, to ere"t a 8uh
tial house on the spot" hid1 your 
lt-Illolialist}mrchaseù ill the precl.tlillg 
)"ear; a:-i \\ ill appear hy 

 copy of his instrudioll:i. 
13Thc Chin.llllCn, accortling to 'rohal', 1,'./( ).111', complaine<<l that they h:!l 
l,ccll cnticc<<l a\\ ay from their country to go to rel1<;al, h11t fountl the pIau to 
II to furnish each with a Kanal,.a \\ ifc aJIII thus settle 
ootka. Tho I:n,;li..h 
Ra.y in latcr documents that the Chinaml'u \\ ere t.1k('11 hy th(' :-\l><luiartl'i .1Iul 
put to \\ ol"k; hut what bccamc of them (loes not appear. 
11 In ::Uearcs' appellllix: is gh-l'1l HUtlsou's receipt for 203 ..kin
:Funtcr; it is ùa.ted J ul) :!J. lIe claims that there ,\ ere a ùozen bkill mi...-;iu.;. 



Colnett, H ud
on, and their 11len a -.; pri
onerR. They 
Railed, the .il}'guH((;ut under J o
é Tobar on J ul
T 14th, 
and the ])}.incess on the 
7th, arriying at San I
las on 
the 15th and 
7th of August respecti\"cly.15 'rhus, 
for this Year at least, di
trousl v canle to an end the 
brilliant" cOllllllcrcial enterpri
e" of 
Ieares and his 
associa tos. 

'he only other trading yoyage of 1789 ,vas that 
of Capt:lin l\Ietcalf ,vith t,vo vessels, the J
in 'v hich he sailed frol11 N e\v York, and the Fa i I. 
A rncricftu, purchased in China and conl1nanded by his 
son. lIe is said to have arrived at N ootka in N 0- 
vClnber, and to have had one of his vesscls seized anJ 
held for a tilne by the Spaniards; 16 but as there ,yere 
no Spaniards there at that date, the arrival nlust have 
heen earlier, or there ,vas no seizure. Of l\Ietcalf's 
trading operations nothing is kno,yn; but his vessels 
tHct ,vith disaster subsequently at the Sand\vich 

I haye not been able to obtain the original diaries 
of the Spanish expedition of 1789, nor has any pre- 
ceding ,vriter in English seen theln; but to N a var- 
rete's brief 1'és
lJné, ,vhich ,vas all that had been kno,vn 
fronl Spanish sources, I an1 able to add statements of 
equal importance in the reports of Tobar, an officer in 
the expedition, and of the viceroy Revilla.-Gigedo,17 
besides a fe,v indirect allusions in the narratives of 
later expeditions. The tidings brought back fr0111 
Alaska in 1788 respecting the intentions of the Rus- 

15 The dates are given in Revilla-Gigedo, Informe. Greenhow and other 
writers do not clearly state that the Prin(.ess was sent to San BIas at all. 
IG G,.eenhiJl"'S Or. and Cal., 224-3, with reference õ to Vancouver, JalTis, 
Ingra.ham, and to newspaper accounts. 
li_Yavarrf'te, Via[J('.
 Apóc., 61-3; frI., in Sut:l y .J[ex., J''iCl[JP, cvi.-viii.; 
Revillrt-Gigerlo, Informe del Virf'Y, 1;2 rl
 AfJril, 1793, 1:27-0, in Ihu:tamallt(', 
Slfplf'mento a In lli8t. . .de C("
.o, iii.; Tobar y 1hm((r;z, lnforme Bobl'e Acollte- 
ciml('ntos de .LVut!
a, 1784j extracts in Viagero Univr-r..,al, xxvi. 137-69. This 
report contains quite a full statement of the fur-trade and operations ?f 
English traders, with a description of Xootka and its people; but except In 
a few points is not very full on the events attending the capture of vessels. 
Tobar returned to San BIas in command of the ...11.[Jona ut as a prize; anll his 
report 'was the first account of the capture that reached :\1exico and Euro!)e. 

 (I lrJ..o . 


ians :llHl Ellg-1i
h on tlu.\ XOlth\v .""t Coa
t cau,-: .(1 
\"T"icl'roy j1"]orcs to rl'sol\"c upon the O' 'upation of 
Xoo1 ka )H.:forc it :--;houl<l L \ takcn p )
ion of J), allY 
foreign po\\"cr. }\.l' thi-.; pl1rpo:,c )[artillez alld '1 Ial"o. 
'\"ere t:;Cllt La(.k to thp north oIl the f)/.iu('( Sf alHl J.'jo 
() í 1'10.':, :-;ailillg' frotH :San ] Uas on _February 1 ï, 17 H9. 
rfheir i llstruetiollS ""L:l'e to COIH.:iliatc the na ti '"C":, if)1" 
,\- hose ("Oil \.er
ion friars \\"ere Hcnt; to 'I' 'ct build ing-:i 
for the .oluny, aud fortification
 it)!' its defellcP, a
as an itHlication of the 
 I )allish Roycrcirrlltv ill that 
n . 
rl'g-ioll; if I tus,,-:ian ur I :nglish \'L:ssel
 appeared, to re- 
l"L'ive thenl \vith all ("()ul'tes\", Lut \\-ith a. IU(luifL.,-;tatioIl 
of the right of Spain, Ly \' irtue of (li
, to thi-.; 
estaLlislullent aUtl otltcrs that ""ere to be foun(lcd; 
and after the fouudation to selHI the J"-Ja n (}rl"!v.,,; 011 
an e
pluring tuur, partieularly to the coa
t Lct\Veell 
.)0" an<Ì 5.")0. 
\'T{ithout touching in Califol'llia the t\yO Yc

reached the latitude of X ootka. c
ll'ly in 
laY. .1 ust 
ide the entrance of the boun(I )IL
rtinez n;ct (tray 
on the Lady ITtlsl'IJlyluJl, and ill a friendl)" illter\"ic\\" 
11laJe lllany illquiricB about the Yc::;::;el
 ,,-ithin, an- 
lloulH:ed ]li
 intention, a
3\vcll says, of capturing 
the English craft, and gave a :-;trange nc<.;()unt of hi:-; 
O\\"n c
pedition.18 It \\?a:-; on )[ay Gth that thc J)riU('f .,'l 
(.ntercd the harLor and 
)llll(J thc IphiY(J/lÙt uJHlel" 
l)urtuguese color::;, an
i()u::;l'y tl\\-aiting her eOllSOl't :uHI 
in cOll
iJeraLlc Jistrc
.::), af; Captaill Duuglas 
11artinez treated ])ou o .h,'3 \yith e\"crv' C'ourtes,?, I n"Olll- 
o . 
i:--:ed to rclicyc hi
 (li:-;trc=,=-" aud "
cnt up t he 
oull<l to 
:-\pend a fc\\ Jay
 ,,'ith KeuJrick. During hi.... aL::; \1l<':C 
] Iaro arri yeJ \\ itlt the :::; , [1' rios, on thc 1 ;3th; and 
next day on hi::; return he 
unllnuned D()ugla

Hlhuw.rll's r(y., 
., 56-7. 'fartinc7 &"liel his vec;sd "ith h\o othc
haellJCcll Httcel out at ('.u1iz for lliscoYcrics; had touche<<} 011 the coast of 
:O-:p:tin, awl IObt most of hi
 Europe.1ll bcamcIl, 
uI'PI)'illg thl'Ír pl.l(, S \\ ith 
natura1i/celll.lti\'cs of C.llifomia. U" had bCCIl to j
erillg :-\trait, fOUllll much 

mow, allel partcd \\ ith his conBort'i in a galc. )lartillcZ toM n. story 
to Douglas n.littlf\ tat 'r, RUt I adelcel ho hafl met tIll' I.JtH ' !1 ,rash ."!Ifolt to the 
north\\ard,allil hafl8upplied hcr \\ ith thiIlós shc l.1Lc,lcc.l. lJollylns' J( 11m f, in 
JltllJ"ts' J
01., appcndix. 



O\riana on hoart1 the Princesn and declared thenl to be 
l1is prisoners, sending a force to take po
sef'si()n of the 
1J)7I igc H ift, on ". hich the Spalli
h Hag "yas raised.l
rrhü chief 1110tive of the 
cizure, as Hllegú(l, ,vas 
that elause of the iURtructionH in Portugue.
c "yhieh 
rcquired the captain t.o take Spanish vesscl
 and carl'Y 
their Incn to l\Iacao to be tried fdr piracy. 1'0 enter 
:L Spani
h port ,vith 
uch instructiollH ,vas dcelned Ly 
l\Ial'tinez Rufficient cause for capturing the vessel as 
a prize. Douglas protested that the instructions ,yere 
luisinterpreted; that he had entered the port in di

; and that he ,yould depart at onee if released. 
But the Spaniard refused, and Inade preparations to 
send his prize to San Blas. 20 The Englishnlen sus- 
pected that l{endrick had instigated the ::;eizure; and 
I have little doubt that he did so, at least to the ex- 
tent of putting the Ij)higenia's peculiar papers in their 
,,'orst light and encouraging the Spaniard's natural 
Huspicions. The yessel ,vas unloaded, to be caulked 
and other\vise prepared for her voyage, the officers 
and 111en being nlean,vhile detaiped on the Spanish 
shi P:-J. · 
On reflection Lieutenant l\Iartinez began to fear 
that he had gone too far, and ,vas lnacle to under- 
stand that he hadnlisillterpreted the Portuguese in- 
structions, in ,vhich the capture of Spani
h, Engli
or Russian vessels ,vas lllade contingent on a previous 
attack by thenl; also that their aiIll hatl been against 
English rather than Spanish interference. AccoI'd- 
ingly on the 26th of 
Iay he restored the refitted 
lj}hirJcuia to her C0111nlander, and furnished all needed 
supplièS for a voyage to the Sand \vich Islands, t

19 These are the dates given in DOllglas' JOllrnal. Gray and Ingraham 
make the arri,ral of the San CÚrl08 and capture of the Iphi./cJÛa on 1\Iay 10th 
and 11th respectively. Douglas' dates are doubtlesi:! correct. 
Iartinez at first intended to dismiss with a \varning (the Jp7iÏYf'uia, 
which sailed under Portuguese flag, passport from the gOyerllOr of :Macao, aud 
instructions from .Juan Caraballo as owner, written in the Portuguese lau- 
guage; but it seeming to him that these papers 'were not sinrf'J"os, and con- 
tained harsh awl insulting expressions, he malIc him prisoner,' hut afterward 
relf'ased him for lack of men to man the l)rize, taking a document, etc. 
ltt villa-Gi:Jedo, Iufonue, 127. 

, G.R.\ Y, .\XD IX(;R.\n


in paY-lncnt 1.ills on Cayalho antI COlnpany, the n(Hni- 
ual O\\.IH
,al1(l recciying' Captain ()OUgLl-';' 
ignatHre to 
a statculent t 11:1 t tIll' ve:"\:"\cl h
Hl 1 HJCn fount 1 a t X oo].
. ta 
in (Iistre
:-\, t hat her na yig-atiou ha{l not 1)C('11 
topl' 'J, 
allli that she h
.d Leell supplied \\'ith all the 
needed for her voyag '. J)ought
 says that, ]lot\\ ith- 
stanJing thi;-; JoclUllent, ,,'hich he had :"\ignecl at the 
t'ntreaty of his Blcn to obtain l"clease, the Yessel had 
Ll'Cll phuHll'red of c\.erytlállg of value, iucluJi11.
articles 1"or tratle and hj
 0"'11 pri\"ate property; and 
that the supplies \\'ere furnished in ycry linlitc41 
quantity at exorhitant prices. rhere i
 eyery rea- 

()Il to helieve that tltiH ""as La, gTO:"\S ('xaggeratjon, 
thouo'h yariou::; al'ti<.:le;-; Iua y have Leell lost or f:;toleu 
in the trausferH of cargo. JIe docs not claiul that 

 \\.cre personally ill-treated. Grayanù lllgraluun 
testi(y that "they 'Yere treated ,,'ith all illlaginahle 
, antI e'.ery attention paid thelll,"21 that 
Douglas and his officer::; "'erc perfc<:tly f'ati
fictl ,,-ith 
the arrangelllcnt, and that" the !jiu'!J 
/l i '.s 1)eing dc- 
tainclI ,,'as of intinitú :-;ervicc to tho
e ,,'ho \\yere c{,n- 
f\ernecl in her," sin
e it ellaLletl her to 
tart earlier 
aud ill 1 )etter condition than ,,'oldJ other\\.ise ha ye 
been possiL]e. 22 True, the .L \ulericans ,,-ere not inl- 
partial \\'itnesscs; yet J)OUghlS' 
ignature tú the docu- 
IHent, his O\\"n :Hhlli:...:sioll of the YCSsL'l'
arriyal, aud the very f:let that she did lllake a very 

:...:ful tradillg- crui::;e, go far to confirm their tCð- 
 agrccl11cnt "'[l:; alf->4.) signed, l)indin
 the o\Yncr
tu restore or pay for the Yc
sel, in l"a
 the viceroy of 

21 r:ray ('lll,llll!lralllllll'.'1 Ldt r, in r:rf>f1l1"Jw's Or. aml ('al., 414-].'). 
2:! . Eu fin, It-jos de c\.pcrimcutar pcrjnicio a1h'1.lIJO d P:Hf11Chot Ja J:';J ni , 
sus ofieialc's y tI ipnlacioll rcfrC::iCarOll BUS' 1\ y crcs, dc que 8C hallahall hÏ<..n 
cseaso"" Sclli('uclo librt'ml'ute i\ 1\"1\"egar, soeoricla:; con geIler
itlatl toJ.u SUB 
if I
H ll'rl.' Ra' "1',(,-(,' i:Jl'r/n, lt
r"rllle, J 

3 Lu rá"rOlIl'tr'S J'O!I", i. :b!)-HO, thCl'C iq mcntioncd a docum<,ntattachcJ 
to a }('ttpr of H,)cll';"a y ('mulra. \\ hieh i
 a certificate of (',.ptaill \ïan.!. t ) tho 
goofl trca.tmcnt of himself awl fdlow-prisoJlcrs hy )lartincz, to tbe rt 814 -atiull 
of '"C': 8cl awl ('ar
o, awl to the ftUnishin,
 of aU neeùed tmpI,licJ. (
shows tIMt \.:1ucol\vcr <1,,('", injl1"tie, to (:ray anel III,..,rnT.. 1 ill J.i '" : 11 of 
their testimony. 



1\ e,y Spain should decide the prize to hayc been law- 
ful. Still another docuillent did Lieutenant l\Iartillez 
obtain fro111 the captain, a letter for 
Ir Funter. He 
desired to purchase the schooner .L\rorth T
Test ..Jn1cl'ica 
at a price fixed Ly the Å111crican officers. Douglas 
said that neither he ll{)r 
Fullter had allY authority to 
sell. l\Iartinez insisted on having a letter. for the 
lnaster of the schooner; anll at the last IllOlnellt 
Douglas ,vrote one. I ts purport ,vas that Funter 
luight act as he thought best in the matter; hut 
there is sonle reason to believe that it ,vas rcpresented 
to :\Iartinez as the desired order for sale. Douglas 
hilllself says, "The 1l101nent I had finished 11lY letter 
I gave orders to slip tho ha,vser, and nlade sail out of 
tho cove." 
Ieares says that in yçriting the letter he 
"cautiously avoided any directions to the effect de- 
sired, availing hinlself of Don l\1artinez's ignorance 
of the English language." And 1fartinez a little later 
clailned to take the schooncr by virtue of an agree- 
111ent ,vith Douglas. On J Ulle 2d the Ipltigentct sailed, 
bound home,vard, as the Spaniards and Anlericans 
had been led to believç; but at Inidllight tacked to 
the north,vard and engaged, as ,ve have seen, in a 
very successful trade. She did not, ho,vever, as ,vas 
hoped, 111eet the schooner consort, ,vhich it ,vas in- 
tended to burn after taking off the 111en and furs. 
"hile the Spanish cOlnnlander had taken for- 
n1al possession of the port, ,vhich he called Santa Cruz 
de N utka; erected barracks for his 1nen, and fornled 
a battery of six or ten guns on Hog Island, cOffilnand- 
ing the entrance to the sound and thc anchorage 
kno,vn as Friendly Cove;24 or possibly they had six- 
teen guns in t,vo places. On the arrival of the JvTorth 
lr"est .11 }JIC rica on June 9th Martinez took possession, 
2! Tobar says the formal act of possession took place June 24th. J\Iacuina 
was shown a colJection of flags, and asked which he had scen first, selecting 
that of Spain. Hc also ùescribed the first oflicers as vesttdo'l de colJre, alluding 
to the gold lace, etc., of the Spanish nayy; and the men had hallùkcrchiefs 
on the head, 'so that the English were confounded, confessing that Jacoho 
Koock had deceived them, saying in hi::; work that he Imd Leen the discoverer 
of that port.' 



hy yirtnc, as he (.laiu)l'd, of hi
 agrCCI11('I1t ".ith 
, an(! Hcnt thc \.eH

1 off Oil a tradin(t ,.ora1tl' , 
,. ;, J.;:) 
prohaLly f(Jl' joiut accoullt of hilu:-;clf aut! hi
(.an fricnds, 
iJlec :\f l' Cu()lidge \va:-; put in ('harge. 

rhe ('r('\\
, as already. related, ""a 
 sent to China 011 the 
G'ullunlJio. \\Then (iaptaill l[n(l
oll arri\ed nn the 
14th of ,June OIl the l),'ill(-es.
 Itu!Ju{ he brought llc\\ '"' 
of the Laukl'uptl''y of li aya lho and COlupany, \\.lio::)' 
. to a cUll
idcl'ahlc aUlouut for HUPl'lics to the 
lJ}/u'rJ{JJlia ".ere helJ Ly :Jlartillcz; and that uíIÌcer 
therefore ju

J hilllself in holdillg" the R(.hool1t..;r 
HH securit) for tho tll'l)t, in:-;tcnd of 1 )ayillg" for her, as 
Le had 1>efo1'c òcculc<l hilllself bound to do. 
The .J.ll'rJ
JlUl al'ri ved ( )n July 3d, bicihting the 
Princess llo!lal out ,idú \\Tithout 
peaking'. <. iaptain 
Colnctt l)c{(H
e entcring- It..;arllcd frotH ::\11' 13arnctt an(l 
others \" ho ('Lune off ill a lJoat the conditioll of thillg:
in the harbor, an(l 'Yã
 all,'i-..;ed to anehor outside; Lut 
I.lÎcutel1allt ::\Ial'tincz canlO 011 Loard ,\.ith l1l0St friendly 
, the good faith of 'v hich seo1l1cd to be 
guaranteed hy the kind trcatlllcnt of 1 Iud
on; and 
the ship ,\.as to\ycd ill b.r the Spauish launch. -Uutil 
the llCX.t (1ay relations continued fricndly; thcn the 
Yé:-;Hel ,vas seized alHI put under Spani
h color:" ofHccr8 
and IncH L(\ing detained a
. 'There i:-; nothing 
tC) sup!>( art the later ("harge that ::\Iartinez trea<:her- 
ously enticed the ship intu the harLor G)r the purpo
of seiLure; Lut overy reason to hclicyc that hc intended 
to trC:lt the 
tJ"YÚJlf(llt a
 Ill' ha(l just treated her Coll- 
f-\ort. 2 :; 1"ho true 1'ca:::;011 of the 
eizurè COl1)e
 out clearly 

:!". In hii puLli .hc(l uarrati,.c of a later ,.0Y:1:;e, Colnctt. JPO!!".!' to tll ,r;.'o/lth 
Atlalltir ami rouud ('alP llorn i/lff) ill ParUic, Lonùon, I';US, 4_t}, pp. i.-iiL, 
alHlllut,' 011 pp. UJ 101. S.lYS: '[ ha.a no 
Oor1<'I' rcceivcd 1)1)11 :\Iartiacz ill my 
calJin, than he prcsente'd IHO a letter from 
Ir 1 hl,lson. , . The COI1lulfKI )rc th."1 
iufunncd mc, t!Jat the '.C 'cIs under hi i comm:lIHl were in 
rcat ùb;trc. . from the 
'\:lut of prmhioni aIHl other llccc5..iarics; n:ul refllll'stc,lme. ill n n I)" U ;Ult 
mauncr, to g} iato) port, in orl1cr to affijr,l him th(' nee Ib"l.r) 8upp
ic I. I, howevcr, to comply with thi:i demand. as I C'ntcrt.lincll " ry r _ 1.8OU- 
able t.huLt'J of thc pro
riety of pntting my 
lf UlH1C'r the' comn..ultl of tn () 
:-ipa.l1i":lh mCIl of WLU.. Tho :-;,l. oh"'('r\.ill
 my Ull\\ illin
llc :5 to ("limply 
"ith his rC(Jul'st, a .mrc,l me, OIl his wor,1 awl honor, ill t'JC nanH' of thc Ki:lg 
of Spa.ill. . . if I would gu into port aut! rdicn
 his W;'Uh:--, I 
hunl.l 1ÞC at lih\'rty 



eilough [}"0111 the testil110ny and CirClnl1stal1cC
, oyen if 
the for111er is in sonIC re,",pects yague and contradictory. 
J{iehartl H<Hye, the .J..\.ulcl'icall supercargo, and per- 
haps other ofticer:4 of the CO[u1JZuln accolllpallied l\Iar- 
tincz on his first yi
it to Colllctt; 2G and othcr .1:\.lllcrican 
officer:.; ,vere prc
ent at :sub
equent illtervie\vs. 
state that they heard Colnett inforlll the Sr
cOllllllallder of his purpose to take possession, hoist 
the Ellgli
h flag, erect a fort, and settle a colOIly at 
Nootka. l\Iartinez replied that he had already taken 
i()n tor Spaill; and on being preBsed for a di- 
rect Htate111ent ,vhether he \vould prevcnt the occupa- 
tion, declared that he could pCI>n1Ït nothing 1110re than 
the erection of a tent for the telnporary purpose of 
obtailling ,,
ood and ,vater, af
cr ,vhich he ,vas free 
to depart. 27 This ,vas just such an intervie\v as ,,",ould 
be natural under the circUTnstances; and it is not 
likely that Colnett ,yould have persisted in his pur- 
pose, though in his disappointnlent he Inay have used 
strong language. His decision ,vould naturally hayo 
Leen to leave N ootka and sclcct another site for his 
trading-post. In the afternoon of July 4th Colnctt 
,vent on hoard the Princcsa to ask pernlission to sail 
inlll1ediatcly. J\Iartinez granted it at first, but on 
second thought desired to see the Englishman's 
8 Douotless it had occurred to hinl, or per- 
haps had been sugge
ted by his rl.nlerican friends, that 
N ootlat ,va
:; not the only available site for a colony, 
and that Culnett's deHire to sail so soon ,vas a sus- 

to sail whenever I pleased.' So he went in. Next morning he got ready some 
s for the Spalliar( 1, and on taking breakfast gave him a list of the articles, 
announcing his intention of sailing the same day. ::\Iartinez consented, and 
offurecl to bcnel his launch to get the supplies and to\V his yessel out, but seut 
illsteaJ an orùer to come on hoard. Nee continuation in a later note. 
:lG Howe is name(l ill thc depositions of the Ulen of the J..Torth 11'( d America 
amlof \\ïlliam Graham, attached to .JlC((1"r.<;' J11rfllorial. "Thlr Duffin, first ofIicer 
of the!lOllallf, in his lctter
. Id., tells us that Coillett and his \-isitors had 
all iuten-iew in the c
 bin at ,,,hich he was not prescnt. 
27 (,'rrt!! and InrJJ.({/wm's Lettl>'" 
28 Dufjt,,'..; L(tlCl'8. These letters, written at the timp by Colnett's first 
mate, are hy far the most reliable authority on occurrcnces connected with 
the seizure. C01nett's own statcmcnt of later ycars is, a::; will Lc shown here- 
after, unworthy of l)(

\Xf> )L\n.TIXE


pll'}t Hl
 CirCUII1st aJH'C. (1( )Illf ,tt ".l'nt, ho,vc\.t'l", to ] lis 
O\\ïl Yt'ssel aud returned \\"ith his papt'rs, h,l' ing put 
on thc l\)]llpallY'
 unifoJ'lu and S\\ ord. ()n reading" the 
Íllstl'u('tion:-;, and pel']laps de...;irillg' tilllC to JUt\ e thel.l 
cOlTe<,tly illterprcte<l, )lartil}('
 illflH.lllL,tl the ("aptaill 
that he could not be perlllitte<l to :--:ail that <lay, 

rhell a (lual'rel cllsued 1. u t\\.ct'n the ('()Illinaudl:r
, in 
cOIlo.;c(lueueu of \\'hieh Col11ctt \\"a
 put HildeI' arrest all. 1 
his :-.:11 il'o$ \\.<';1"e seizf.<1 aH prizes. 
rhc c),.al't t.irCUlll- 
:--taJU'l'S ofth(\ (!lIar-reI arc llot ae('urately J
JlO\\"Jl, tlH)u

] appelld 
oU1U cyidellce 011 the 
 1-'1'0111 tllc 

29 Dnffin, LfifrTR, writcs: 'On which Borne high \\ords ensuc'} hd\\ccn 
thclll, nUll ('a.l't..Liu Coluett in
istcII ou guing out immcdiately, which he 8a
' 1 
hc wouI.l 110 ullle"i the cOllllllo.lore tire.l a shot at him; if so, hc v. ou}'l t:J' 1 
haul IIU\\1l hi8 colours, and Ilcliver himsclf up a prisoner: harùly hael he 
uttcrC".1 this, but he was put undcr an arrcst, awl hi8 sword takl"11 frum him, 
thc \.cs;:,
l seil'c.I, . .; hut what i;:; most particular, he dcsirc.I Captain KeneIri
tu load his gUIld \\ ith t:!hut, to take a \ e

l that had unly h\ 0 8\\ i\.cls 
Jllountc'.I; sn tha.t it \\ aH impossi\)le to lllahe allY re!:.istancc. .. The com- 
Ulo.lorc.s passion now began to ahatc a littlc, aUlI hc Bcnt ìl r mc from the 
Carlus, whcrc 1 was imprisone,I: when I came t.) him, hc beemc.l to pruf
,.cry grcat frieluhhip for me, aud appcare.I to be e\.cecdingly SOITY fur ,\ hat, 
he sailI, his úflìcers compcllcd him to duo He dcclared to 1I1e, that hc h.t<! gh"en 
Captain Colnctt permi
sioll to dcpart, awl \\ould ha\"c as:;istc.l him all iu his 
l>owcr, hut that Capt:1Ïll Colnett insisted on erectillg a. fort opposite hi
; s,.i.l he 
1""presentt'd the King of t
rea.t llrit:1Ïll. anù that hc C<lI11C to Ì<lkc 
ioll in 
hi:-; Britannick 
lajcstY'8 namc. The 
paniar.l eplote.I thc samc, awl btlhl hc 
waq repI.eseutati\'c of his most Catholic .Majesty thc King of 
pain: hut I 
ha\"c c,.cry rcason to suspect thero was a mi
Ì<ul.lil1g hetwc('u the 
twu parties, for the linguist spoke English vcry imperfectly, alllI in alllikeli- 
hood illterpretcel as many wurds \\ mng as right.' Tohar says, Ii/fan"i', 
)-üJ: 'Capitan Coillet \"cllia. con dcstil10 ele (:oherwuIOl' ùe dieho PUl'11o a 
l)m;csiouarse y para no tlC'\.f.ll. cntrar ni salir emhlr
ciun alólUla tlo 
otra naciun; y Hegura.mcnte bOY .Ie 8cntir 10 huhicra ycri1ìC:LtIo, sino Cll a pH 1 
puertd cn uno de ius 1lluchos (lue tiCllC a(j\1clla. co"ta, para. CU) 0 ('fecto traia ya, 
In. ca

), y cl martinete para l
\. cntrallu.. . . á fJuicn t11\"O a l,ien d com.1l111ailte 
de .xootka. aprcsarlo arr.egl;:ulo á la. on1enallLa., atelleliewlo á la. made!"..\. lIe 
tn1.ccion '!ue tmia. ;:í. hurdo.' Xa\-arretc, ,'Útlil !I .1[, X., C\ iii., Oil the 
authority of 
lartillcz BÌ<ltcs tbat 'Captain Colnett per
i"tent1y rcfus'II to 
show)lal"tine.r. his instructions, using e\.l)l"es.')iull
 bO ind(.c )rouq ..1nli,1 
that, ha.\"ing exhaustc.l the metho.Is of prlHlence hithcrto cmployecl, our 
commaluler rcsoh.clI to arrcst thc British captain" ithill thc frig.lte.s c.
tleclat in
 all the lBl"n of the 
1 "!lOIl'III' pri
oncrs of \\ ar, awl tf) 8 0 nll the \ I 1 
an BIas at the di!:.po"ition f,f the \"iccroy. J:e\ illa-( 
cùo'8 a, cmmt, 
J IIfa rill (' , 1:!7 -8: 'Thcy eame mule I. or.lcrs of .f mil .
 {'olnett to t...ike p il'.l 
of Xootka, to fortify it. mill (..:-;tahlish a fadol.y fnr trJ.lIe .mel 8 tt!emc.'n1', 
ing fur this purposc the nece:3::mryaids, 1U1I1 :!J R.ulglcycs [('11innïll"n] .f 
ditl"crcllt tr,ulc
. Colnett \\ ishcd to llmc( ell ut once to the fl .1lHliu

 )f tho.o 
tahli:-;)nncnt:i, }wdl"nllillg that the eonntr) IUlIi hcell tliã:>Co\"crc,1 hy ('3rt.. ;n 
Cook, alllI, further, that tho Portuguc::.c had cetl II to the Londl)ß t"'
company thc right of tir"t ,lisenn.ry. if \II'lliral Font.. h.ul heeIl th..' tiNt di..- 
coverer; hut the conmwnlIcr of our l")"P ditif'.l demoh8trated to t 1 u:: En, lish 
COlIlllli.UHlcl. bi:) ClTuncou
 aut! ill-fulUHkli du::)io
l:-'. l'U::.i
tillg in thnIl, (' Inett 



tcstilnony and circuln
tances it clearly appears that 
on 1\Iartinez l'cfu
illg' to pernlÎt his in
tant Jcparture, 
for ,,'hich the Spaniard had the Lest of rca
ons, Col- 
nett lo
t his telllpcr, u
cd language that the other 
dCClllCd insulting, aud in hi
 anger ill
i::;tcd un hi
right and purpo
e to e
taLlit;h au _Engli
h fort, ,yhich 
action it ,vas 
lartillez' duty a
 a Spani::;h officer to 
prCYCllt Ly the only III cans ,vithill his po,ycr, the 
seizure of the yessel. That COlllctt claillled the right 
or expressed the intention of holdiug N ootka, though 
:ßIartillcz through interpreters lnay haye so under::;tood 

d to show his p:ltents aud instructions, eXplaining himself always with 
llmch ha.u
ll"::iness; hut as he thought he couhl not keep it up, he resoh
e(l to 
1e<1,-e Xootka, and set sail. For this purpose he aske(l the aid of a launch to 
raise his anchors, and then 
Iartinez, fcaring that the English capt.'lin lì1i
establisll himself in another port on the coast, from ,vhich it woulll be diffi- 
cult to dislodge him, again ordered him to show his papers. Colnett continued 
his persi
tent refusal, accompanying it with insulting actions and expressions, 
so that :Martinez, his little patience bcing exhausted, detained the A r!lùuaut 
and Princcss Ruyal, sending both vessels to 
al1 BIas.' Colnett himself, J
98, says: 'I 
ceivcd an order from Don 
Iartinez, to come on hoard his ship 
and bring with me my papers. This order appeared strange, but I complied 
'\vith it, and went aboard the Prillce
a. On my coming into his cabin, he 
saiù he wished to see my papers: on my presenting them to him, he just 
glanced his eyes over them, and although he did not understand a word of the 
language in which they were written, declared they were forged, and threw 
them disdainfully on the table, saying at the same time, I should not sail until 
hc pleased. On my making some remonstrances at his breach of faith, 3.11<1 his 
forgetfulness of that worù and honour which he had pledged to me, he arose 
in apparent anger, and "..-ent out. I now saw, but too late, the duplicity of 
thi.3 Spaniard, and was conversing with the interpreter on the subject, when 
having my back towards the cabin door, I by chance cast my eyes on a look- 
ing-glass, and saw an armed party rushing in behind me. I instantly put my 
ld to my han:;er, but before I had time to l)lace myself in a pusture of de- 
fence, a violent blow brought me to the ground. I ""'as then ordered into the 
stocks, and closely confined; after which, they seized my ship and cargo, im- 
prisoned my oJìcers, and put my men in irons.' Afterward they' carried me 
from ship to ship, like a erimin:\l, rove a halter to the yard-arm, and fre- 
quently threatened me with instant death, by hanging me as a pirate. This 
tre<1tment, at length, nearly cost me my life; and threw me into so violcnt a 
fever, that I was delirious for several days.' Then follows an account of his 
cruel treatment on the way to San BIas. Evidently his 'delirium' either 
began at a very early stage of the quarrel or permanently affected his mil1ll. 
C.:>lnett's version of the whole affair in conversation with Vancouver is also 
givcn in the latter's Voy., iii. 49} et seq. Finally Gray and Ingraham say, 
Lp'ü r: 'In conversing on the subject, after the arrh'"al of the vessel in port, it 
secms Captain Colnett insulted the commod,)re by threatening him, and Jrew 
his mvord in the Prin(....;a/s cabin; on which Don :Martil1ez ordered the vessel 
to be seized. 'Ve did not see him draw his sword, Imt were informed of the 
-'cumstance by those whose veracity we had no reason to douht. .. 'Vith 
resi)ect to the treatment of the prisoners. . . we presume none of thr.:m will be 
backward ill confessing that Don E. J. l\Iartil1cz always treated them very 
kinJ1y, and all his officers.' 



hinl, is ycry' illlprol)a l)lc ant 1 illCOIU..i",tCllt ,,"ith hi
}'l)sed departure; but th
 IllOVl'llH'llt re 'olllllH'luled ill 
his paper
, perhap
 threatened 1,y l,iln opellly ill his 
,,"rath, fcared 1)y )lartiIJez, alHI pre\ clltC([ hy ],illl in 
accordance "ith his duty, ,ras the J 'parture to huild 
n. fort .1
e\\'1l('r' on the 'ua-.;t. ] lad 1 o l n ('tt k('pt 
quiet and ,,"aited a fe\\' days, he ""(HIld proLaLly ha \"C 
l,el'll l't'(luiretl hy .6-\lartilll'z, after consultation ,,"ith hi
ìTankee adviserH, to g.ive SOlHO guarantee that he 
\\"ollld confine hi
 to the fur-trade and c
lish llO fort. 
'rhe lo

 of thcir vc
scl au (I of pro
p 'cti,yc profit.:') 
,vas vcry dishea rÜ!ning to the traders; IJlIt t h('re iH 110 
reason to f:iuppose that the pri:,ouer::i ""ere in allY \,way 
ill-treate(l at N ootka or 011 tho y(n:a(re to the south. 
J 0 
Colnett, according to hiR O\YIl oHicer:-;, IJCCalne tClllpora- 
rily insanc in con:-;cquenco (,f hi
 excitelnent, requiring' 
clost' \yatching and c'\ en ('onfÌncnlent. 1 le thought he 
haJ l,cen COllÙCUlllCÙ to death, allJ on'o Hearly lo"t 
 life Ly jUlnping out of his cal)in ,,"illdo\y.30 It i
only by charitably taking a(.;coullt of his in:--:anity or 
deliriuIU that \YC C<.ll1 relievc hilu of the chargc of 
\yilÚll n1Ïsrepresentatioll in a statt'lllC'nt lluHle in latcr 
 alld already eited. 31 1"ho ])r;) ('('S"" Iln!J(d re- 
turned to N ootka 011 .July 14th, and, belonging to 
the sanle cOlupanyanà engagc(l ill the 
:une entcrprise, 
,vas also captured. raptaill l{utl
on fir
t entC'reJ the 
hal'Lor ill hi
 boat, leasing thc \
e"'sel out:-;i(lc, but ":a
takcn, \yith four InCH; antI then a f()rce \yaq sent to 
30 Tohar, Informe, 1 GI, "" ho was in charge of Colnctt, c1eserihcs IJis attempt 
at Rnicicle, anù the great difficulty of rcs .\ling him: '1lalbmloUlc al cargo tIc 
cst;, prlhia, y ann u&'1ndo de toclas las l'rceancic"lIlcs po
i}'les 11.1I".t cl re .!1.h11do 
de 108 Oaicialcs prisioncros, uo pucle impctlir qne theho <. 'oluet be armJ. . '" . 1 
ligna clesespcradarncntc pOl' una. de las '"entansi de la. c:ímara. con intRn...o c.Ie 
c, lmcs obsern. que aun sahienclo na.lar 110 hi70 dtligcucia. al
uJla P,U"a 
clIo; })ero yo m.1111lanllo picar las :lDlarra
 del bote, hiec a mi'i marincros 10 
cogicsl'n, yapellas l'llllieron hac('rlo, f;ino ag..tO".mdole }lor log, y de....clo 
cntonccs procuré aseóur:trle, cllecrramlolc en un camarote cun una centincla 
de vista.' 
31 Duffin, in hi
 letters, rcconh Colllctt's insanity, ana lcarnNI from a t;cr- 
vant that it was an Ju.'rcllitary malad). 'fhi
 greatly otlenùctl, nil.! he 
ohtnined from 
rcares n letter, dated .Jauuary I, liTH, in \\ hich Ill" contrntlicts 
the statement \, hieh hacl appc.lrecl in his Jlt mo ied that th Ie \n..8 ill-k,tnity 
ill hi::) family. This letter is puùli
hcd in t'Úlilctt'1J J oJ., lO


\. CO

 in the sloop. The.J.1 f'goHaut ,va
 Rent iuul1edi- 
atcly, and the Rloop a little later, as a prihe to San 
, under the cOllunand of Tobar. Of the yoyao'o 
,YO kncnv nothing' beyollll Colnett'
s exao'n'
I l . 
 f . 00 
atc( eOlnp <unts 0 lnhlullau treatlllellt. 
At San BIas, Colllett achuits the prisonerð ,vcre 
treated better, though they had been plundered of all 
they had. By cncouragelllellt that their detention 
,youl,-l bc brief, they ,vere intlueed to repair the Hhip, 
hich "
as then enlployed Ly the Spaniards in coast 
voyages and nearly ruined. l\Iean"Thile the nlen, after 
several had died of fever and one cOllllllitted 8uicide,32 
,vere sent to Tepic and ,veIl treated, especially after 
the arrival of Bodega y Cuadra. Co]nett ,vent to 

Iexico, and ,vas Hiuch pleased ,vith his treatulent 
at the hands of Viceroy Revilla-Gigedo, ,vho finally 
gave an order for the restoration of his vessel. On 
returning to San BIas the ordcr ,vas obeyed, the 
Spaniards settling all accounts, including the "rages 
of the seanlen for the tillle of their detention. Col- 
nett clailns that he ,va,; outrageously cheateù in the 
settlelnent, but ,vas obliged by fear of greater evils 
ign a paper "oxpres
.,jng nlY (XHnp]ete and entire 
satisfaction of their usage to HIe and IllY people." In 
August he sailed, ,vith an order for the release of the 
P}'Ù1cess Royal. Thi
 is the substance of Colnett's 
o,yn statement. 33 Bodega y Cuadra stated in 1702 
that "1\lr Colnett ,vas treated ,vith the greatest dis- 
tinction at San BIas, and his officers and cre\v received 
tho ,vages of the Spanish llavy for the tinle of their 
detention: that. the vessel and cargo ,yere restored, 
and that 
Ir Colnett obtained a great nuulber of skins 
on his return to N ootka." Vieeroy Revilla-Gigedo 
confir1l1s this ,vith SOUIO additional details in his re- 
port of 1793. 34 
3:! According to Tohar, Infon1Jp, 1G8, he cut his throat with a razor in his 
rage at finding himself a prisoner. 
33Uo[Jlett".., JTo!J., ÐD-I0D. 
3.J.Clla,zrct, in JTWIf'ollixJr's f"'o!J., i. 388; Rcvilln-Gir/fdo,lnforme, 127-ft, 132. 
The viceroy says: Viceroy Flores orderpd 'that the two ve
sels should be Ull- 
loaded in the presence anù with intervention of their captains, and that they 



The yiccroy 1>> 'Ii avec! that )[artine r ..' a
l(ògal1y ju
tifie;l },ythu Ci,.culllstall(" .'" and hy his instrue- 
, as \\ en a:--; hy Yariou
.al oru( 'J'S, but thoug-ht 
that offi('er had al"tl
d r4()nH
\vhat ha,..;tily ill IH'illo'in'1' 
. .-, ,., 
about a ("oIlÜ'o\'eJ'sy ill \\ 11i(.J} it \\'ou]d IHJ difli('ult to 
prove the t a

H-t truth, all( 1 \\. hi(.It U1Ust ('an:--(' ('oll..,ider- 
aLl · c\:penHC to the treasur.,. ] [c )Þ arHlittcd CO}llett 
and I Iud;-;on to ,i:-;it )Iexico and to pl'e:,ellt their 
c<.>1 11 plai nts; ant 1 though he regarded those ("olnplai nt, 
as for the niGHt part unfoll1HI<..:d, he gayc ol'(! to 
1 )l'( rin lc()'al I )l'()('eeJino's a().aill
t :\Iartill(,
. l'he actioll 
;-) 0 f"') 
 soon (liSl11i
:-ietl, ho\ycver, Lecause the cOlllplain- 
ants pref
lTed to be relca
ed at once rather th.lll 
:l".ait the issue of ".hat I H>oluiscd to be a louf" trial. 
1'11e alleged rea
on of their release HtHl that of their 
 the friendlv relatiou..; exiKtin o . Let".ccll the 
J ,
t\yO uation:-;, and the pl'oLaLility that the trader;-; had 
acted in ignorance of Spalli:-;h ri.
hts. It has been 
upp()sed frolll later <liplolnatic eorrespond- 
ellCC that the vic
r()y in reHtoriIlg the ypssels acted 
on his O\Y11 judg-luellt; hut it appear
 froBl hi:-; 0\\-11 

tat('nlcnt that he acted prolx
h)'y in accordance ".ith 
orders frolH Spain, dated January 
(), 1 ï!JO. ù ,> 
Iàrtinez' operation
1 after the ùe- 
parturo of his prize
 ,YO haYe nothing in ac1,lition to 
the fullo,rillg ii'UIll N a \Tarrcte: 36 "1'hi
 (luestiou Leing 

should sign tbe formal inycntori<,s of cyerything, gÍ\-ing them certifìed copies 
for thei,. protection ulHl b.1ti
ract.iol1 at any tinw, ,\ hctlh..r the Vt - .Ii ..hon1el 
he> ckclare.l or not k ritima"e pri"'cs. He ahn ordercel that the cm ds a1111 
pr.)\-isions liable to ekcc.1Y, ll.'"'s. and tbmagc should he so}.! at fair prices, tho 
rc'}t 1K-Ín'; clepo')itcel !'cl)c.1r
tdy and ccnrcly in the royal sVlrchou s. Ho 
a1:-,) di
rosccl tha.t thc snow awl sloop heing l1n}o:Hle.l should he gi\-cn the 
necessary repairs, an e-;timate of Cf .t },ein:.; formc.1 in 3,lh-allc. \\ ith ccrtitiell 
, a!llx..Ïllg (lont' ,\ ith tl.1> kno\\ lc(lge Huel cunsent of the &li.l En.;li...h 
c-aptain. Finally he orelerc(l ,.pry particularly that the lattcr awl thcir crews 
shlmle} be left in discreet lihel-t), sllOulcl he gi,-en good treatmcnt "lIld lodgings. 
Huel that to ea('h olle shoultl he !--in
n the pay corre
p()neling to hi
accorelillg to the I.cgulution then ill forcc ut San BIas.' 
3;' Rl -"lla-If;.J( fl}, l/lf01"/II(, , 1:!1. This is lIot (illite cl'rtain, howl-n'r. 
J/IfJ('., fj:t On p. 114 hc R.lp
lartincJ', rl'JUe>mhcring that 
in I ïï 4 he hall secn a \\ iele clltmnce ill 4" :!O'. scnt a sct.onel J il fo on the 
Hchooll,'r (/".t"I((I;.'4 to cxplore, Hlul the strait \\a
 fO\ll1fl :!l mile>9 \\iele. 
in 4S 30'. It is pos
ihlc, lJUt unlikely. that 
Iartincz hall heanlnothing of 
the strait from .\mLricans or Engli..h. The SchooVl.r wu<t the captured Sort}" 
'V(',..,t AW(Tira, aUlI the trip ma)" haYe \)\..t.'n that under ::'\,ir\.h ,..HI Coolidóc, 
already rcfclrcd to. 



posed of, ::\Iartinez caused to be explored tho region 
ahout the port of Santa Cruz, intending to extend his 
surycy along the coast; but belieyillg thi
 to be risky 
,vith the Sktn CäJ'los, on account of her great draught, 
he proposed to build a sehooner :.;ixty feet long. Then 
br the frio'ate .ilJ'an:.azu. 37 he received an order to 1'0- 
J \.":) 
tUI'll to the Jepartlllcnt of San BIas. Defore doing 
so his second J)iloto explored in a boat the \vestcrn 
channel, and through it reached the bay of Buena 
Esperania,38 of ,yhich he took possession in the nan10 
of his Inajesty. l\Iartinez also took the artillery fro1l1 
the fort; piled up the tin1bor prepared for the con- 
struction of the house; delivered the snlall houses 
already built to l\Iaquinna,39 chief of the district; and 
on October 31st sailed \vith the frigate and the ne\v 
schooner,40 anchoring at San BIas on Decell1ber Gth." 
It has already been noticed that throughout this 
,vhole affair relations betw'een the Spaniards and 
An1ericans \vere so friendly as to suggest a secret 
understanding. There ,vas not the slightest interfer- 
ence ,vith the Cohunbia or Lady TVashingtorl, though 

Iartinez coulll hardly have been una\vare of the orders 
issued in l\lexico for the seizure of those very vessels if 
they should enter a Spanish port. I t ,vas afterYlnrd 
stated by Spanish officials that the ColU1nbi(
 ,vas de- 
tained until son1e doubtful expressions in her papers 
had been expla:-lled, but there is no other evidenco that 
such ,vas the case. 41 
fartinez' intervie\v \vith Gray 

37 Nothing more is known of this trip of the Arctnzazu, which vessel was 
often in California. 
33F;till called Esperanza Inlet, just north of Nooth:a Island. 
39 The Spaniards wrote his name 1\Iacuin:t, the .English and Americans 

Iaquinna,. or sometimes 11aquilla. 1\10:1re8, Va]., lIS, states that Callicu111, 
the other chief, \\":13 munlerell hy one of :\lartillcZ' officers in June. 
40 Ko:hinS is said. of the San Cúrlos anù Aranza;;u, but it ùocs not al)pear 
that any vessels wcre left. 
41 Revilla-Gigedo, Info'rme, 127, says: ':\Iartinez reconoció los pasaportes 
de los huques americanos, y no halbndo motivos justos que Ie obligascll á 
detencrl08, requiriÚ i.Í sus c:lpit
mes })ara que no volvicse!l á los marcs y costas 
del d.ominio espaiíol, sin permiso de nuostro soberano.' '1\lais Ie BÚ.timcnt 
portugab, mais les deux Bâtimens de Boston,. comment échappont-i1s à b 
loi? comment no sont-ils pas aussi des interlopcs? Les lettres du .L1Iexi'llle 
ne s'expli<luent pas sur Ie motif de cette difYérence dans les procéJes; et, sans 
doute, on ne vouJra pas aJmcttre l'cxplicatioll que les Ànglais ell ont donnec: 


C')."') - 

:111<1 vÎ:iit to J(cndriek just l,efore the 
cjzure of the 
lJ)/"fj( }Iia, a
 I lla\
(\ Haic1, ("auç;;eJ ] )oug.las to RU
'Cr\" 11 at u raIl v that the .L\1l1eri('allH Jl(H I iustiO'ated the 
J & 0 
act, thou
.h Captain ICendrick (lcni 'd it. Sub:--:c- 
qucntJy a. ('lo
c intilllaey contillu '<.1; iut 'ryic,,'s "yore 
fre(jtlent; \Ill< 'rica II ofil"ers ,ycrc (.( ,lnpaniolls an, I 
s(\H for the Spaniard
 in all their tran:--:actioll'-' 
",'ith the ]
h; :\f r Coolidge took eharge of ouo 
of the prizes f
)r a trading cruise, pre
ulllaLI'y OIl juint 
account. Captain Gray \\'illingly carriell the capti,.c 
n all( I st()rc
 to China; and the ÅUlericans hcct.une 
later Ino
t friendly "itnc

 ill <lcfCIl<'U uf :ß[artincz' 
. It l,y no lIlC(Ul
 follu\\'s, ho\\
eYcr, that the 
.1\nlcl'i('an-:-; took any ùi::;honoraLlú ad\
ant3ge uf the 
quarrel. Their O\\Tll illtere:-;tH and duty to their 
O\\'lH'rs required theul to get rid of riyal tratler;.; allJ 
c('ure Spalli:--:h protection for their (HVl1 enterprise; 
1egally, the Spaniards \\Tere 1)J'iJJl(t j(
rie ill the right, 
antI their npponent:-; in the \\
l'Ollg; and I kno,v of no 
on ,,
hy under the cjrculll
tallcCS synlpathy shoul{l 
have 1 )ccn contrar.v to interest. IndiyiJually, and ill 
the (li:..;po
iti()n of property, there Inay have been 
il1Htances of Jishonol'ablc action on the part of Loth 
ÀUlcrieanH and Spaniard;.;; Lut thç testÍluony i::> ll

utliciellt for a conclu
ion on that point. 
 thus narrated in full occurrences at Xootka 
in 178!), it i
 ,vcIl, hcforo con
i<lcring the iuternatiollul 
C0111plieations that re:..;ultcd, to glance hrietly. at the 
rC:--: 1 )ecti \
e rio'hts anù ,yroJ}O's of S l )ain and J
in this (,Ollllcctioll, Portugal anù the U uited Statcs 
HeYC\l" haying clailllcd either. Irre
pectiYe of her pre- 
tC'lldl)tl cxelusivc ("lainl
, Spain had an unqne",tionc(l 
right to ftHIUd a Rcttleloent at any point on the coa:-;t 
Hut preyiously occupic(l l)y nnotlH.)r uatioll. :K ootka 
on nc crnif,
oit p3
, clisf'nt-ils, Ia. concurrence du Portugais; sa nullitc Ie 
8al1\-a: (plant au"{ l;;"tÜnll'llS hi):..t()llien
, les Jo;..;pagnols" craig:noient d'oflcnser 
les I:tats- rUi..f )- iis He pou\'oient }ltt:i ouLIier (Iue ccs Etats Bont Lien ,-oisias 
<1es riches Posses.c;ions (Ie la Courolllle d 'E"l'a!lIlC (]a us 1'
1Jm rÙjllf .In 
Yord. ' 
P/"ur;,u, ill Jlmothau", J
(y., i. cb..\. i., \\Hh reference to Dalrym]I ,flit -'1 Il..
.JIt:llLo,.ial oj June 4th ('ollsidaul, LOlldOll, lioo. 
Ùl::JT. N. w. COAtiT. YOL.I. 15 



,vas such a point ,vhen l\[artilll"\z took possession in 
l\Iar 1789. EnQ'lan(l had no shado,v of a to 
J.. ö 
l1lake oLjection
. 42 In seizing the I})h i[Jen itG l\Iartinez 
gayo no cause of oflcnco to England. If the pecu- 
liarity of hûr papers aid not justify her f;eizure, the 
Spaniard gayo alllple satisfaction for his orror to all 
concerned, England not being in any sonRe a party, 
and took fornlal certificates to that effect. Later 
1 rgoliCtllt and ])ri"cp...,.s Royal arrived and ,ycre 
kindly received by the cOl1ul1ander of a Spanish port. 
In not pernlitting Colnett to establish his colony 
at, N ootka, 
Iartinez nlust be justified even fronl an 
English point of vie,v; and he had a perfect right to 
seize the vessels if Colnett persisted in his purpose. 43 
The vossels ,yere actually seized because Colllett in- 
sisted, ,,
ith violent and insulting language as ,vas 
alleged, on carrying out his instructions to found an 
English post cither at N ootka or else,vhere on the 
coast. If it ,vas else,vhere, as I have no doubt 
it ,vas, though other ,vriters have not takcn that 
vie,v of it, then Martinez still did his duty as a 
Spanish officer. To have pern1Ítted the crection of 
an English fort above or belo\v N ootka ,vould have 

Ieares in 1788 had, with chief )iaquinna's permission, lmilt a house on 
shore for temporary purposes, which was torn <1o\vn on his departure. Had 
he lJought the lan<1 in good faith, as he claimed, the act would hardly haye 
ghTen to Portugal any territorial rights, and certainly it could haye given 
none to England. At the most, if .Meares could have proved that he had 
bought the land in good faith as a private individual, he might as a British 
suhject have claimed the protection of his government. As a matter of fact 
the weight of testimony and probability is that he bought no land; and in 
any case the theory that his acts gaye :En
land a. claim to N )otka. is too absurd 
for serious consideration. The only evidence of any weight ever presented 
in support of a purchase of the land and raising of the Uritish flag was the 
testimony of 
Ir Duffin in 1702, J"àncoll'l:er's V O!f., i. 403, that all the land 
forming Friendly Cove was bought in his presence from )Iaquinna and Cal- 
licum, in His Britannic :Majesty's name, for eight or. ten sheets of copper. This 
tpstimollY would be more ",'eighty, though by no means conclusive, if it were 
given in 1\11' Duffin's own words. Vancouver cannot be trusted to state fairly 
the testimony of either friends or foes. 

 In case of such seizure England could deem herself aggrieved only by a 
failure to comply with the formalities of international law and usage; out on 
this point there was no difference of ol)inion between the nations; it was a 
matter to he settled by a careful weighing of the testimony, which was some- 
what conflicting as to the way in which the Spaniards had treated their pris- 
oners and disposed of their property. 

srAIX .\
Ï) EXGkL'\ì). 


hcen a crilninal<:rard or hi
. nut 
here tU'(J
e a (lué
tion to he 
ettled 1 )et\\'ccn Spain 
alH 1 I':ngland. 
pain hacl al \va)":;; claiuH:d, h) ,irtu\J 
of prior di:-:
()\T'ry, tlH> north-" cst coa
t tt:i part of 
her òUIllaill, OIl \'" hich 110 foreig-n po\\"cr had a rig-It t 
tu Bcttlc. P"ill ( .f' ..) 
he had thi:-; right of 'xclu- 
Hi ,.e po


ion, ;-jiJlcO other nati()n
, if uot forluaJIy 
nckHo\\-ll\dg-ing hacl I1o,.cr 1">ucce:-,sfully di:---puted it:-; 
yalitlity. ] 
nt l.:ngland hatt UIl(!llc:--\tional,Iy a right to 
pute the clailll n(H\"; aud jf by arbitration, Jil'lo- 
Illa('y, or \var bIte coul<l oLtain Spain's al.)
cllt to her 
ho \\"vult! then l)c entitleJ tu satisf
tction for 
' in:-,ult to her flag at Xootka, dllt! to iJlsi",t Oil 
dal11ages for t]lC iJljul"'y dOlle to her subjects l,y the 

eizure of their 'cs
éls, Ì111l'risolllllcllt of their per- 
son.." aud the breaking-up of their cUIUlllel'cial cnter- 
prisco .u 

J osé ToLar, in coulluand of the prize lr!Jf)} it, 
arrivc(l at San BIas in ....\ugust a1l(1 reported L\) the 
yiecroy, duul )tlcs
 hringillg' cOlnmUllicatioll:-, fl'oln :\ 1a1'- \ 
tinez. Thc-.;c reports \\yere :-;cnt at O1lce to Spain, } 
311<.1 through theul lle\\"
t reachecl Europe of \\. hat 
had occurretl at X outka. _ \ little earlier, in consc- 
<lucncè vf the sanh; rcports that hacl cau
ed ::\lartinl'.l 
find II aro to be 
ent to the Horth-\vest coast, Spain 
hacl notified Tlussia of t1lC rUlUOl'c( 1 intentioll of her 
 to forILl tradillg--post
 in the Spanish Califor- 
llian (lOlllillioll 
outh of I>rÎllce "Tillialll bouIl<l; and 

.4 I cannot agrel' '\\ ith l\fr nrecllhow, (Jr. ((mI Clfl., 1!)
, to whom, as to 
most writers, thc rCd.l issuc, thc estal)lishmcnt of an English pust near 
Scems not to ha.,-c occurrccl at all, whcn he lSay
: 'The sei7ure of the 
1It1llt, the imprisoument of her other ofliccrs aIlcl crew, and the spoliation of 
hcr l.'argo, cannot, huwc,.cr, he dcft'lull.:ù 011 tho
e [the violcnt language uf 
Colncttj or 011 any grounds aflorclccl hy the e,-iflcnce of any of tho pal.ties; 
lartine.l had no rcason to apprehcllcl an attack from tho 
1 ryo1Hrut. and he 
hacllJ .en ðPcciaIly inðtructetl hy his immediate superior, the ,-iccroy of 'Ie>.ico, 
tf) J-;uspCIHl \\ ith regar'cl to British 'l'
sels on thu north-west coasts the C\.CCll- 
tioll of tile gencral orders to 
pallish commandants, fOl" the scizure of forci;rzl 
cls cntcring the ports of the AmerÌL'all dominions. 
till le
was the conduct of 
Iartinez toward the ISloop P,'illre.-:ç RO!Jal on hcr f;ccontl 
arrival.' This is all truc, certainly, in tho sense that 
la.rtincz batl no right to the vcsðcls merely hecauso they cntered a Spani::.h port or Lccau:,c their 
captain '\\as insolent; IJut that was IJY no means his reason. 



the R nSf'ian gOyerUlllcllt replicd that orders against 

ueh encroaelunents had Lecn is
ued, dc
irillg thc 
Spanif'h king to put a stop to allY such cstauli;-:;h- 
Illellts that nlÍght have been founJed in his po


ions.45 On rcceipt of tho ne,ys froni Nootka, 
Spain, aftcr haying apparently sent orders in January 
fur the release of the captured vessels, reported tho 
lir to the English goverlllnent on 
Fcbruary 10, 
1 790, through hcr an1ba::-;sadors in London, at the 
f'allle tiU1C a:sking that the Ulon ,,-ho had planned the 
expeditiùns should be punished, in order to deter 
others fronl Inaking settleillents in Spani
h territory. 
The reply of tho British 111Ïni
ter on February 2Gth 
,vas very different froni that of Russia and froln ,vhat 
had been expected. I t ,vas to tho effect that nothing 
,yas kno,yn of the facts, but that the act of violence 
Illentioned by the Spanish a111bassador lllust neces- 
sarily suspend all discussion of the clain1s lnade until 
the seized vessel should be restored and all adequate 
atonenlent luade for a proceeding so injurious to 
Great Britain. 
" The harsh and laconic style in ,vhich this ans\ver 
,yas given," to use the ,vor
ls of the Spanish Inin- 
ter, "nlade the court of l\Iadrid suspect that the 
king of Great Britain's 111inisters ,yore forlning other 
plans;" and the suspicion ,vas strengthened by reports 
üf fleets being fitted out for the l\Iediterraneall and 
Baltic. The reply 111eant ,val' indeed, and ,vas so in- 
terpreted by Spain, ,yhose governmcnt at once Legan 
to lllake ,varlil
e preparations. Spain, ho\vever, did 
not desire ,var, and she soon sent another InenlO- 
rial, setting forth that although her right to the 

 orth,vest Coast, founded on treaties and ilnlne- 
ll]orial po

bion, coulll not be questioned, yet, the 
yiceroy haying restored the Ye
, the king ,vas 
,..-illing to look UpOIl the affair as concluded ,vithout 

4;; This is the Spanish version in eorresl'onflence to he noticed presently. 
1 t is not probahle, howc,.er, that Uussia conllnitteù herself to accept the pro- 
,",o05eù houwlary of !)rince ". illialll. 

TTTE "\lE.\TII::-1 :ME


C'ntcrin o ' U p on di,;eu:-\:..;ion
 or <1is p ute
 ,,-ith a friendly 

PO\\'(''', and ,,-ould be content ,,-ith an orùer that 
hould in future r \.-;peet Spanish') on the 'oasi in ( 1 . uc
ti()n. IJut j':u(rlalld ,,-a:i 
o ð 
L,,- no 1l1CanS read y to is:-;ue 
uch an order or to l"errard 
J. n 
the afl
lir a-.; COlll'ltHlccl. 1 [('1' ans"-er ,ya:-; dated :\[a\
5th , and \Ya
 a rcnc\yal of her rC1l1on:-;trances tttraill
the aet of violence, aue} of her refu
al to consider the 
e!uestion of right until satisfaction should Le giycl1: 
1 Þut to it 'Ya
 joined the declaration that the gc Þ\ erll- 
luellt "cannot at prescnt accede tù the prctcnsiuUH of 
ahsolute soycreignty, COl11luerec, and na,-igation, ,,-l1Ïch 
appcared to be the principal ul
ect uf the luclnorial
of the alnLas
ador;" alH} that thc l
ing ,,-oult! protel t 
his subjeet
 in the right of continuing their fisheric'i 
ill the I\H.ifìc. ::\Ican,,-hilc preparation:-; for "-ar \Ycre 
hastencd in England, and 011 ::\ lay 1 Gth a forillal ùc- 
llHlDtl ,,-as prcsented for the restitution of Ycs:-\e]
 aUe I 
other property at Xootka, indellll1Ïfication fur los
ined by }
nglish sul)jects, alHI an ackllo,ylcdg- 
lllCllt of their right to frce na vigatiun, traùe, and 
fishery, and tu the possession of such e
 luight be forilled, ,,-ith consent of the natiYe
, in 
places not prc\-iou
ly occupied by other European 
. .j. \ re<]u('
t ".as a1
o Inadc for a },u
of arnlanlcnt, to ,,
hieh the Spani
h court announcctl 
s to accede, but unly on principle::; of 
reeiprocity.4 1 J 
(iaptain 1\ [cares rcar'hed London from China at 
this juncture, ready of course to furnish any cvidence 
that n1Îght he requirc(l of hi
 at tlll"\ hand
t he Rpallial'tl
. j lie; lllClllOl'ial \\'a", ùate( 1 \pI'il 30th, 
alH1 ,vas presented to the hou
e of COil 1 U1 0 11;-, on :\Iay 
] 2t h. I ha, e alrcad \
 hac 1 occa:-;ion to 1 crer to thi:-5 
cloC'luncnt, '" hich ,,"as; likc nlo
t uther
 of it
 clas;-: ill 
all countl'ie
 alltl tillle
, full of illi

Kep to this point the COITcspontlence is not, so fal' 3S I know, c'\.tant ia 
 original form, but i
 only 1,,110\\"11 from citittiOlh and refcrl'liCC
 ill ttter 



exaggerations, in ,vhich cycrything is elailned ill the 
110pe that 80111ething- 111ay be obtained; hut it con- 
ullple lllatcrial for the national use that it ,yas 
intended to sarye. IIis ('lainl for 'actual and prob- 
able losses' "yas $G53,-133 and 1110re. 47 On 1Iay 25th 
George III. 111ade the ,,
hole aflitir kno"
n in outline 
to parlian1cnt, it haying been hitherto kept a secret, 
and next day ,vas duly thanked for his lllcs::;age by the 
lords spiritual and tenlporal, ,vho offered the Ino
zealous and efièctiyc support for his 111ujesty's ,varlike 
111eaSureB. 48 :\11' Alleyne 
Fitzherbert ,vas sent aB an1- 
bassador to l\Iadrid, and in J UIle and July a corre- 
spondence ,vas carricd on bet,veen hinl and Count 
Florida Blanca, the Spanish 111inister. 49 
In the negotiations referred to, the tone of Spain 
,vas that of a nation ,vhose interest, and therefore 
ire, it ,vas to avoid a ,yare Professing a ,vish for 
peace, she ,vas ,villing to give satisfaction for any in- 
sult or pay any losses; and she ,vould l1lake no clailn 
to territory that did not justly belong to her; but it 
,vas her right to clainl that the nature of the satis- 
faction, the anloullt of the losses, and particularly the 
justice of her territorial clail11s, on the invalidity of 
,vhich alone depended the offence conlplained of, 
first be settled by arbitration or other,vise. lIeI' posi- 
tion \vas altogether a just one. It ,,"'as hUlniliating 
to Spanish pride that the nation ,vas forced in her 

47 Meares' J[emorial. . . on Capture of vessels at Nootka, 1790, 'was F11)lished 
in London, separately, in three editions of 1790 and 1810, besides being 
attached to .11Ieares' roy. 
48Greenhow, Or. cuzd Oal., 203-4, erroneously makes the date of the mes- 
sage :May 5th. 
Yootl.:a, English State Papers on tllP Contro'L.ersy of 1790. This title I 
gÏ\Te to a collection of documents published in the Annual Regi8ter, xxxii. 

Iost of them are reprinted in Gl'eenhow's Ur. and Cal., 418-30. 
The documents are :1S follows: 11ay 23th, king's luessage to l)arli3.tlIent; }'1ay 
26th, address of the lords in reply; play l:
th], substance of 
Iectre.')' ..1/ P71lO- 
'J'; d; June 4th, declaration of king of Spain to all the European courts; J nne 
th, Florida Blanca's memorial to Fitzherbert; [.J nne 16], Fltzherbert's 
answer; June ISth, Florida Blanca's reply; July 24th, declaration awl 
counter-declaration of the parties; June 16th, letter of Count Fcrnan N uÜez 
1ontmorin, secretary of France ; [August 6th or 2üth], decree of 
national assembly of :France; October 28th, Nootlm con\Tcntion; Kovemhcr 
24th, address of lord mayor et a1. of London to king on the K ootka convcntion. 



nes:-) to appeal in hUll1Ïlity to jl1
ticû instead 
of haughtily asserting her po\\"er. C
irlo:-; I'.... c\.- 
plaincd h i
 position, his l'ight
, a Ild cRpeeial1y hi
\\.illil1gucs., to hr
ak t hL' peace, ill a declaratiull to the 
urOpl'aH court:::; dated June -ttlt; he .ontinued the 
]>l'eparationK I)cgun for ,var, au (I on .r UUe I Gth called 
upon Fra!lce f()l' the aid to \vhich, under the f
cOIHpaet, Hpain ,va,,; entit1e(l. 
llglalld, 011 the other hanel, rea(ly for\var an(l con- 
fiùeni tllat her rival lllust yield, luuintaiucd the atti- . 
tude [l-jsulned at iÌrst; (lelluuHlcd 
ati:-;factioll for an 
e on tho British fL.lg'; rcfused to (li
cus:-, t]1e 
(lucstion \vhcther or not allY outraóc had ])CCll COlll- 
u1Ïttccl' (.lailllcd the rio'ht uf her 
 to tl'acJe or 
, ;0, :.J 
HettIe on thc X ortll\\.c
t COtl
t; and <.leclillcd to adillit 
any investigation, discussion, or arLitratiou uf Spani=-,h 
rights. ()f cour:..;e the! 0 ,va
 no elCIIlcnt of ju:.;tice or 
right iu the po
ition assulued: l)ut a po\\"erful l1atioll 
in tho,-;c titHcs llucde(l no such cleillcut. IIaù the 
COIHlitiollS of po,vcr IJeen revcl'::;ed, a. corresponding 
change in tho respecti\-e po:-,ition and tone of the 
tallts ,,"olIl(l hayo heen noteå: Spain haughtily 
sertill()' her rio'ht and illl ] )atiellt of all arO"Ullleut. 

 ö 0 ' 
EUf)'land Inllllhb: but fìrlul \r uro'in o . her e( l uitie
 l )oiut- 
v .1 J 0 v , 
iug to the exploratiou:') of Drake, Cook, and uther 
Briti;.;h na.vigator
, prote:;;ting great anxiety for the 
trau(luillity uf Europe, J\\"elliug elo(luelltly 011 the 
interests of other nations iu a free fur- tradc, and 
sho\villg' the ,\"cakncs:-, vf n. lnere di:::;coverer's clainl to 
ivc pos
ession ()f territories ,,"hich 
r:1in had 
JuaJe llO attelupt to o<.'<.'upy or utili
e. {)n the real 
lllerits of tho cao,;c there ""ere strollO' ar(rUllleut::; to be 
..., 0 
pre;-;cuted on Loth Hidcs; Lut ill this eoutrOYel'
Y the 
 h::ul llO place. v 
()II .r nnl' I Gth j I r Fitzherl)ert prc
entcd as a kine 1 
of ultilnatuIH the \\.il1ingne
s of hi
 gO\"Cl'lUneut to 
nccc I )t, a
 a restoration of ll}attcr
 to their orirrinal 
state :In<.l a llecc
;o)ary prccedeut to friendly ncgotiation, 
:tll otter uf the 
pauish king tu gi\-c duc :-,atisfilctiull 



for the insult, to restore the ves:-JeIH, and to indclllllÎfy 
tho o"
ncrs. The question nlight also 10 left open 
\yhether the 11]higcnia and l\T o J'th Tr-es( .Llrnel'ica \yere 
justly entitled to the protection of tho British Hag. 
]?lorida Blanca in his reply of June 18th, ,vhile pro- 
testing against tho principles asserted, consented to 
tho teI'nlS proposed on either of three conditiollf3: that 
the insult and satisfaction should be settled by arbi- 
tration, England choosing any European king as arbi- 
trator; that in the negotiations no faets should be 
adnlitted except such as could be proved; or that froln 
the satisfaction no inference should be dra,vn to affect 
the rights of Spain, including the right to denland 
counter-satisfaction if it should be found that England 
had encroached on Spanish territory in violation of 
existing treaties. The British alnbassador accepted a 
1110dified fornl of the last condition; and Ly a declara- 
tion and counter-declaration signed on July 24th tho 
required pl'on1Ïses "
ere given and received by Florida 
Blanca and Fitzherbert, ,vith the condition that these 
docUlnents ,vere not to affect the rights of either po\yer 
to an establishlnent at N ootka. 50 
It is stated by Calvo that this agreement ,vas re- 
jected by the British cabinet, and 
hat preparations 
for ,val' 'v ere continued. 51 Froin a reference in later 
negotiations to the document as still in force I con- 
chide that such ,vas not the case, but that negotiations 
in accordance ,vith the declarations ,,"'ere begun for 
the settlelnent of the real question at issue. Says 
1\11' Greenho\v: they ,vere "continued at Madrid for 

50 Tv.-iss, Or. (JllPst., 111-12, justly criticises 
Ir Greenhow's version, to 
the effcct that these declarations werc solely not to affect the Spanish right, 
whereas t}w reservation was equally in favor of hoth powcrs. 
51 Calvo, Reclleil Compfet de 'Pruités, etc., Paris, lß62, iii. 338-5!), which 
cont:::.ins a good account in 
pauish of the negotiations and results, including 
somc of the documents givcn in the A nmral Ilc[]istpr, hesides others not in 
that collection. The latter include two private notes of Florida B1anca, one 
(.)f .January 
Oth to Count 
Iontl1lorin in Francc, and the othcr uf April üth to 
Count Fernau Kuìiez, Loth eXplaining the difficulties of Spain's position anù 
thc apparent impossilJility of taking a firm stand against Engli
h pretcllsions. 
There is also a 'plan of ,,,hat should be done in the actual circumstances uf 

pain with England,' wl1Ích treats of military and diplomatic measures of self- 
J(rotectioll; also another important document, to be mentioneù a little later. 

J)Jxn "6 \R. 


t hrC0 n1onth<:; after tlH
 [lc-<:eptallcP nf the Rpani
h I' 
declaratioIl; Juring' ,\"hich 1 )criod ("ourier
 ,,-ere ("011- 
f-;talltly flyillg" l>et\\yeell that (.ity an<l ] OllÙOll, alHl the 
"" hole eÎ \"ilized ""01'1<1 \\9a
 l\.cpt in suspense au( 1 au:\.iet.r 
as to the' result ."62 :\ [1' 14'itzhcrbcrt elaiuletl for J 
lislllnen the ri<J"ht to traùe and Hettlo on any } ):1rt of 
the f\oast not [t<.;tual1y occupicd; Florida Ulauc;l pro- 
}>osetl to aOluit tho right aLoyc 51 0 and for a Jistauce 
of t\ycnty leagues iuto tlie lut0rior. rrhCll other 
 ,vere suggested, the }
nglish antlntssador 
fillally t"on
euting to the line of 40 Q , frolH the l)aeifie 
to t h0 ::\li '
ouri, hcyond ,\y hich linc the terri tOl'.Y 

hould Le free to both llatioll
, the subjeet::) of each 
 access to sottlcll1ClltS of the othcr; Lut the 
Spaniards (lcclined tho proposition. 
.L\.lrcady, it ,,"ill La observed, Great Britain had ("on- 
sidcrably moùified the spirit of her Jernaud,j, becau
in tho ever changing dcvclopnlcllts of the l
on ,val' seelned less and less to be dcsireJ a;3 
the days and ,veeks passed on. It is not nece
to describe those dcyclopulcntB; but the attituJe of 

France ,vas a controlling elelHcnt. Loui::) X,."I. ""Ya
rcady enough to acceùe to the dClllands of Spain for 
aid, but referred the lnatter on .l\..ugust 1st to the 
llational a

enlLly,53 ,yhi
h body on the 
Gth de- 
eided to greatly increase tho .French arluanlcnt, and 
,v}lilc pron1i
ing to obsorve the defensiyo antI COlll- 
IHercinl stipulations of the furiner treaty, clearly iUl- 
plied that }'rance desired peace anù could not be relil\d 
on for aid in an offensive "?ar. 
 action Jnade it 
the intcre-.;t of England no,,?, as it had been that of 
Spain froIll the first, to Hyoid \rar. "Tith :Frilllce eu- 
tirely neutral, }
ngland ,vou1<! probably hayc inf'isted 
on a rupturo; ,vith :Frallce as all ally, Spain '\9 o uld 

52{l}"('e711101l"S ()r. and raT., 
Ym'ratil'e of tlw 
Y([loli((tionR orrn...iulUd 
Il!1 the Di,'t 1 III bellcf (II EIi!Jland alid SlJaiu.. i,t liDO, Lonùon (17!H), ð\"O, \ i. 
307 pp. 
j3 Cah"o, 34S, says the t1emau(l of 
pain w:\::; made afh'r the ngrl'cmcl1t of 
.Tuly 24th h:1I1 ],ccn r('jected hy Ellri1aIHl. Aecon1illJ to th(' tlUCUlIll'Ut in tho 
..1IlIl.trzl Regist ,. it was ùated JUllC lü
h. Urccllhow makes the J.lte of tho 
semltly decree Augu::;t Gth. 



probably not have yiclllcd ,,
ithout a strugglo hcr 
claiuls to exclu
oYereigllty ill the llorth- ,vcst; 
but ,vith France insisting on peace, an anlÏcable sct- 
tlclllcnt sceillcd desirablo to both disputant:3. õt 
Fitzherbert accordingly subll1Ïtted a l1C'V propot;i- 
tion, "hieh after discussion and 1110dificatiol1s "
ngreed upon by Loth plenipotentiaries. Beforc sign- 
ing it, ho,yever, Florida Blanca Subulitted it to a 
junta ûf high Spanish officials, together ,vith a long 
arglullont in fayor of its adoption. 55 There ,vas a 
I bitter opposition, for the concessiolls ,yorc hU111iliating 
to Spanish pride; but it ,vas necessary to SU1)ll1it, 
ing the lesser of t,yO evils, and on October 28tll 
"as signed the 'N ootka convention,' the substance 
of ,vhich I append in a note. 56 By this treaty Eng- 

MGreenhow, citing Tomline's Life of Pitt, describes 1\11' Pitt's secret efforts 
to sound the intentions of the French Assembly; and says that it was through 
the mediation of members of that body that new negotiations were opened. 
Calvo, Recuf:il, 349, tells us that the proposition came frolll the queen of 
55 The document is given in full in Cal1.:o, Rccueil, 3.30-5, and is n. vcry 
interesting one. The author l)aints the condition of his country in yery llark 
colors, explaining that it has neither money nor credit for a foreign war. 
J-Ie takes up the other powers one by one in order to show the prospects of 
gaining foreign al1iance; some are hostile or bound to the foe; some are willing 
Lut not worth the having; others would demand too great a price. TIussia 
is the most promising ally. The United States has been sounded and is well 
{lisposed, but \Voulll insist on the free navigation of the :l\1ississippi and on 
a large part of Florida. The rerlyof France shows that she cannot be de- 
pended on, as there are a thousand definitions of a 'defensÏ\-e' alliance; and 
even if well dis})osed her strength is unmanageable by reason of internal 
complications. The count admits that to yield will greatly weaken Spanish 
power in America, alld encourage the pretensions of other powers besides 
56 'Their Britannic and Catholic majesties, being desirous of tenninating, 
hy a speedy and solid agreement, the differences which have lately arisen be- 
tween the two crowns, ha\Te adjudged that the best way of obtaining this salu- 
tary object would be that of an amicable arrangement, which, setting aside 
all retrospective discussion of the rights and pretensions of the two parties, 
should fix their respectiye situation for the future on a basis conformable to 
their true interests, as well as to the mutual desire with which their said 
majesties are animated, of establishing with each other, in everything and in 
all places, the most l)erfect friendship, harmony, and good_correspondence. In 
this yiew they have named... who... have agreed upon the following articles: 
'ARTICLE 1. It is agreed that the lJuildillgs and tracts of land, situated on 
the north-west coast of the continent of North Americ:l, or on islands all- 
jacent to that continent, of which the subjects of His Britannic majesty were 
dispossessed, about the month of Aprill78D, Ly a Spanish officer, shall be re- 
stored to the said British sulJjects. 
'ART. 2. And further, a just reparation shall he made, according to the 
nature of the case, for all acts of violence or hostility, which may have been 



larl<1 Rccured, ana Spaiu retained, the right
 of COlll- 
JHerCe, 11:t vigation, and 
cttlelncllt oil the j >acific CGast 
above San Francisco. Each natioll \\ as to have free 
s to the l:
taLlislnllL:llt;-; of the other ill those 
regiuns. In return fur the rights cOllccd<:J, EHglallJ 
pledged hcr;-;elf to pl'c,.cnt her subject':) frol11 carl'yiu;.{ 
on au illicit trade \\'ith the Spalli
ettlenlcllt.;, or 

commith.a suh
C(I11<'nt to tlw month of April 1 is!), lJY the suhjccts of either 
of the cOlltr..l.cting parties a
aillst the suhjects of the other; un.1 that, ill ca..,c 
UllY of the saitl rCHpecti\.e buLjects tihall, since the 6é..Lllle l>t'riocl, Ill!.\ e hcell 
forcibly .lispossessed of their lawls, lmil.Iings, \.c'1scl'i, lllerchamlise, awl other 
property whate\ er, on the Bahl continent, 01' 011 the seas or i:;lallùs n.ùjaCl'llt, 
they shall he re-est.LL1ished in the po
ession thereof, or a ju
t eú
shall lie made to them for the losses which th('y h..\.\"c sustained. 
.. AI
T. :t And, in orùer tu strengthcn the honùs uf fricnùbhip, anù to prc- 
f;ervc in future a perfect harmollY, ete. . . it i<J agreeù, that their rLa:!pccti\C 
fmlJjPcts shall not he disturLcd or molcbted, cith('r in 113.\-iciating or carryiuJ 
on their fisherie
 in the Pacific Ocean, or in the t;outh 
eas, or in lanùiuJ uIl 
the coasts of those 
eas, in place
 not alrcaùy occupied, for the purpo
e of 
carrying un their commerce with the of the country, or of making 
bettlemcnts there; the whole suLjeet, nevcrtheless, to thc restrictions specifieù 
in the three following articlcs: 
'...\RT. -1. Ilis Britannic majesty engages to take the most effectual meas- 
ures to preycnt the n.tvigation and fh,hery of his suLject
 in the Pacific Ocean, 
01" in the South :-;eas, { Leing maùe a prc1('xt for illicit trade \\ ith thc 
:-\panish settlcments; anù, "ith this view, it is moreo\'cr c>..pressly stipulated, 
that Britbh suLjects shall not navigate, or canyon their fishery in the saiù 
seas. " i thin the space of ten sea lcagucs from any part of the coasts already 
occupiecl Ly Spain. 
, . \I
T. .J. It is agrce( 1, that :IS well in the pla('cs \" hicb are to be restored 
to the British suLjects, by virtue of the first articlc, as in all other parts of 
the Ilorth-\\csterll coasts of Xorth .America, or of the islands aùja.cent, situ- 
ate.l to the north of the parts of the said coast alre:-ùy occupied hy, 
\\ herc\-cr the suhjects of cither of thc two }10\\ ern shall made settle- 
I1Jent8 billce the month of AprilljSn, or shall hel.cartC)' make any, the suLject:J 
of the othcr shall ha\"c frce acccss, aud shall carry 011 thcir tra.ùe \\ itllOut auy 
ùisturh.Ulce or molestation.' 
T. G. Xo I'ctt1cJHcnts to he matle hy suhjects of cither power on COa.,t3 
and islands of f'outh America south of p..J.rts alrea.dy occupicù Ly 
paiIl; yet 
sulJjects of hoth powers may hUHl for purposes of fì:.;hery and of erecting 
temporary 1mihlings sen-ing only for tho
c purposes. 
.\nT. 7. In all cascs of complaint or infmction of the articles of the pres. 
cut eOIl\"Clltion, the omcel's of either party, \\ ithout permittin q thcmscln:s 
pre\ ioubly to commit ,my \ iolence or act of force, shaH be LoUllll to Il1.lI,.e all 
c).act report of the affair, ,11ulof its circumstances, to their respective courts, 
\\ 110 will terminate such diHcrenees in an amicable manncr. 
.\nT. 8. Con\"elltion to he r,1tifieù in six weeks or bO<)ßer from date of 
sif,'1lature, etc. 

\rticl('. [l:'nkno\\ 11 to Or(,(,l1ho\\, T\\ i
s, ct at] 
\rtic1c G is to 
remain in force only as long as no settlcment is maùe on those coasts ùy the 
suhjccts of 
lUy third power. 
To lIe foun(1 in ral,.o, !t('('Ut i!, 3.')(" !>; .II/IIl1al /:(yisl(r, ).)"),,ii. 
....); On li- 
It W'8 Úr. altd ('al., 4j(j-7; P".iðS' 0,'. (.!llt
t., 11:;-17; anù ill ma.ny otIll.r 
,\ orks. \ copy was 8cnt at once to Califorl1ia, amI i
 found ill...lrch. Cal., 
...'t. Paj ., ix. 30U-13. 



eyon fron1 npproaching \vithin ten leagues of tho
coasts already occupied hy Spain; a1:::;o to founcl llO 
pcrnUlllcnt estabJisluncllts Lelo,y the Spanish posses- 
sions in South America. Lauds and buildings taken 
frOIH British subjects in the N ootka region, that is 
jf any had been taken, "
ere to be restored. Tho 
ratifications "yore finally exchanged on N ovclnber 22t1, 
iu ::\Iadrid. In Decelnbe;r the luatter canle up in the 
English parlianlcnt, "There the oppo:sition regarded 
the treaty very llluch as it had been by the 
Spanish junta, as a culpaLle concession to a foreign 
pOl\yer. In J\ladrid it scenled sinlply that the con- 
vèntion opened to English settlen1ellt a portion of 
Spanish territor
y in return for concessions ,yhich 
,yore but nIcre ackno,vledgn1onts of ,,"'ell kno,vn Span- 
ish rights; but the London vio\v of it ,vas that by 
the same convention an Englishlnan's undoubted right 
to trade and sottlc in any part of Anlerica had been 
unjustly and needlessly restricted. Tho average Eng- 
]ish n1Ïnd could never con1prehend that Spaniards 
had any rights ,vorthy of consideration. The opposi- 
tion in parlialnent a1110untod practically to nothing; 
for t.he Ininistry had so large a Inajority that it ,yas 
not deemed necessary eyen to explain the difficulties 
suggested Ly the opposition. 57 
While the N ootka convention ,vas in one sense a 
triumph for Great Britain, since she gained the point 
at issue, the right to trade and settle on the N orth- 
,yest Coast, and a hUll1iliation and defeat. for Spain, 
he 'YfiS forced to give up her clainls to cxclu- 
sive rights in that region, yet it ,vas practically a fair 
arrangenlent, and not less favorable to Spain than 

57 TTan8arrl's Parliamentary Df'batef
, xxviii.; Greenhow's O'J.. and (fed., 
211-15. The use of the date April 1789 instead of 
Iay for the Nootka 
cvcnts was naturally at the time a suspicious circumstance in connec
ion with 
the provision of Article 2, that property taken subs
quent1y to Apnl shoul(l 
1)(' restored or l}ai(l Jor
' yet, although carelessness In such a matter would 
becm unlikely, it is impossible to discover any hiddcn purpose in the error to 
fa,yor either party as against the other. l\lr }'ox's objection that the treaty left 
room on several points for different interpretations and consequcnt troubles 
was of more weight. 

\IX RT:Tlnr::'t 


E 1 1 Cf.' . t ] t [In(. .
raln s 
OIH'1 '<;:"lon \yns () lcr, cxrep [l
ulatt('r of pride, a sl i;;ht OIH " since 
he Lac 1 un u...;e for 
Borth. 'rn;-ji()ll
(.ept a::-; 3. lneaus of prote .tioll 
ao.ainst fort .i,,'u t'))rrOtlr]lluclltS. \\
hile on the other 
v v ' 
hand the' con(.L's
 of bpr ri \ aI, if [titllfull V c,-lrriLJ 
on t, ,,
ould 1 )(.
 (If g-rùat prac-tical 
l( 1 vantag
 to her. 
Spain IJlight properly ha.Ve' 11l:l( Ie a siulilar treaty, H( t 
ilH:llHliul)" the' 
tctioJl for )lartinez' act,;; at 
e\"l\r, if 
hp had Lecn iH cou(lition for "
ar; though 
pri(l(' :1.11<1 popular 
elltiln(;nt \yould proha1JIy have pre- 
youted it. 
'y the treaty Spain nlu
t hp dcenlcd to have rclill- 
qni.....hc{l forevcr all her 'claiul
 to f.:ovcreignty on the 
tern coasts a
 founded on di
ery. l"ho 
ion "
as re
torc<l to \vhat Inn} 1JC terilled it fo\tate Of l 
naturù, ,yith the exception of Xootka, ,,'hich ,va
alrea(ly a lcgitilllate Spanish ros
siou, though 
f'cqnclltlyaLan(lollcd, as \ye Hhall sec. 'Vithill it either 
Rpain or I
nglallll lnight forlu scttlclnents at an? 
 not previously oL'cupied, and by thi:-; net IlliglIt 
acquire so\
ercignty o\'"er extents of territory to l)c c 1('- 
terlHine<l at tho tiIllO or later "hCll queQtion
houndary should ari:-,e. I cannot accept the thcori(:..; 
ated to :--olllC extent ill later 'ycars that Spain, 
retaining" the sover(.ignty, 
ilnpl'y cJllecdell to Engli"h 
 the priyilege of fOl'n1Ïng Hettlell1ent
her tcrritory for 
peeial purposps; that the l:;ettlclllCllt..; 
pro\ ided ror "
erc lnere trading-posts fè)r temporary 
USe; or that, as )11' Grèùnho\\
 puts it, "Loth partie
,vere l,y thl
 con\ ention eCl\1ally ex.cllHlcd. . . frolll <.'xer- 
 that jlu.isllic.ti()1l ,\'hich is c
selltial to political 
HO\"t'r(.iguty, oycr any spot llorth of the 1110st nortllern 
Spani;--;h ;jcttleulellt on the ]>acific."58 It i
 not Ull- 

i)g (i.rccnhow's ielca is that the frc(' acccss of pach to the other's Bctt1('ments 
wouhl tlc..;troy the so\"creigllty, which 
ccms an ah
nrdity. He also \\Tik : 
'The l.oll\-cntion, ill finc, e.stahlishl.(luf'\\-l):ls(,s fOl' the na.\ igatioll an.l fi::;h("-y 
of the rcspecth"c partit's, and their trade" ith the nativcs on tho unoccupit..l 
coasts of .Amcrica; hut it (lctl'rminell uothin::; regarding tho right:i of ..ithcr 
to thl' 
on'rcignty of any portioll of \mcric:l, C'\.L.Cpt so f.Lr as it may imp
an ahrogation. or ra.ther éL suspcu::,ion, of all snch claims, OIl hoth sid,..s, to .my 
of those coa
t..;.' It was inelc( II an ahro
atil)n of aU c\.i
tillg l..l.lÌl1l
, hut nut of 
the right to cstalilish I1C\\ tlncs Ly scttlcUlcllt. 



likely that Spain n1ight in later 
Tears, had it sccnled 
for her interest to do so, have clailned that Dhc had 
granted nothill:-{ Inore than a pl'i vilego of estaLlishillg 
tClnporary t.rading-posts; and indeed there is SOUlè 
eviùence that eyen no,v:::;he had a vague hope of n1ain- 
tailling that the ,,"hole territory in question had Leen 
so fully' occupied' as to preclude any English settle- 
lllents under the treaty; or at least of insisting on tho 
I N ootka settlen1ent as the 
outhcrn lin1it of the region 
free to the British traders. 59 But the llleaning of the 
treaty is clear, and Spain could not justly object to an 
English establishnlent any\vhere above Cape l\1endo- 
cillo at the highest. No controversy ever arose, ho\v- 
eyer, bet\veell the t,vo po,vers; and indeed it is not 
ilnpossible that the secret treaty of alliance, generally 
believecl to ha ve been signed about this tilnc, contained 
a ll1utual agreelllent not to found any perlnanent set- 
tlelnents on the coast. 
This Inatter of sovereignty in the north-,vest under 
the convention of October 1790, about ,vhich Spain 
and England never found leisure to quarrel, or even 
to interfere ,vith the trading operations of a third 
party, the AUlericans, assu1l1cd son1e in1portance in 
later discussions respecting the quality of the title 
translllitted by Spain to the U llited States; and 
anothcr question of interest in the same connection 
,vas ,vhether the N oatka treaty ,vas of such a nature 
as to be nullified Ly subsequent ,var bet,veen the 
contracting parties. These phases of the topic will 
receive attention in their proper place. GO 

59Viceroy Revilla Gi
eùo, [nforme 12 de Abril 1793, 134-5, seems to 
have no suspicion that the Northwest Coast was thrown open to English 
traders anù settlers. He regards. Articles 3 and 4 of the treaty of little im- 
portance, because there arc · few or no unoccupied spots... which are not 
subject to Si)anish dominion.' And he mentions a royal order of December 23, 
17DG, to the effect that the English could only settle north of N ootka, 'the 
diviùing line between our le 6 itimate possessions and the regions open for the 
reciprocal use amI trade of hoth uations heing fixed at 48".' 
lH'September G, 17.33. The viceroy writes to the governor of California that 
hy the kinó's order British traùing vessels l11U8t not he molested; hut if they 
make settlements contrary to the treaty they must be warneù anù the king 
informed. A rcl
. (Jut., J\l
., P rove St. Pap., xi. 39-40. 


G A...,l) CO:\I


nIPFlr. I
 THE 8TH. \IT OF FlC \- Ih
A '\1) Tilt: '
\W;o'A('T'-XO 1"'nt-1'lt.\I>I-
- KF
WK'S H("IIE:\r..s-E
Jt\1'IO'\S Olo
 J7!H-Tuß '
' TIlE 
A'S EXprUITIOS I'i '1'111-: · I>FsCI'mFH.T.-\' A '\D 'ATla:nDA'-TuE G Ut- 
IS()'\-1'uJ-: BO:-;TO'i' TnADEH,s-GIC\\ A"" If \:o\WELL-Kt:,\"RWK- 
Ix(aun nI-.M \RCIL\XD'S YISIf A
U:\I \P-FLl.TltIEU':-; E::;SA.Y-YUYA(;ES 
OF 17U:!-TIIE Tn..\D"'R
(' OF 
THE '.AUVEX1T'RE' - lL-\swELL'H Lou -:\[ \nEJ.:, ('OOLI oc a:, BROW'l, 
r, n.\KER, DHEJ>I11':IW, ('OLI';-PC>B.TnWESE YE:o\sEL'i-A FRE'\c'I[ 
Tr:'.\VEH.-RI'ASISII E'\.PLOlt.\TIO'\s-C \ \:\1-\ 
o 1'4' TilE XORTII -<:.\LL\
A ''1) VALvts O'i 'fIlE' SrTIL' ASD '.\IE
IC.\X_\'-THH.OrGH THE I:)TRUT 011' 
:Fcc \-NAY.\RRETE'S Sc:\n1 \Ry-VA'\COCVER'S E

,r ICEROY FLORES ] ta(l resol \?Cd to occupY. X ()otka 
on hi
 o\vn l'cspon
ibility.\'Thy hc ol'derût 1 :\Iartinc
to abandon the po
t i:4 not kno'Yll; l'o:-.:--:ibly he '\"W"; 
frightened at the prospective results of hi
nate':-; acts, or royal order::; Blay :-;iu)ply haTc rC(luired 
the pre
cncc of the vcssel
 and otliccr
()n ()("tooer 18, 1 789, ho\ycver, the; coude de J{cvilla 
(li.fe<!o HuccceJl'd Flore
 as viceroy, alHI he dt once 
took HtCps to renc\\T the occupation, orders fi'o1l1 the 
kino' to that effect ha,?in o ' LCt'u recei\?cJ. too late to 
o v 
prc,.cllt the recall of 
Iartillcz. SilllÎlar orders '\.cre 
rellc,ved after tho nc\\?:-; of Nuutka e\?ent
 hall reàehvll 
l1r()pe. 'rhe IIp\V expedition \\?a
 put uuder the l"OIU- 
IUUllÙ uf Lieutenant }'rallci
co l
a, \\' ho :-;ailed on 
the ship CuncCjJCiUh, ,vith the 
llO\V San C'úrlos, or 



FilijJÙI0, under Lieutenant Salvador I?idalgo, and the 
sloop Pr/nccsa Ileal-that is, the captured. j)rincc::;s 
llo!f(tl-under Alférez 
Ianuel Quilllper. 1 
The three vessels sailed froln San BIas on February 
3, 1790, ,yell fitted and supplied for a year, carrying. 
o a cOlllpany of yolunteer soldiers for garrÜ;on duty,2 
together ,vitll artillery. and aU the necessary ,var-storcs 
for the northern presidio. The voyage ,vas uneventful, 
and the first land sighted '1"as at VV oody Point. Tho 
t\yO Spanish vessels anchored at N ootka on April 5th, 
and the less speedy English prize arrived tw.o days 
later. 3 'York ""as at once begun on the restoration of 
the old fortification and barracks. The fornlal act 
of posse
sion took place on the loth, ,vhen the flag 
\ya:::; unfurled and saluted by a general discharge of 
the I:\.e,,-ly lllountecl guns. During the rest of the 
year nothing is kno,,"n to have occurred to disturb 
the peaceful 1110notony of garrison life at Santa Cruz 
de N utka. 4 The chief 
Iaquinlla had retired to S01110 
distance fro1l1 the port on account of uncxplained diffi- 
culties ,vith 
Iartinez; but on being assured that a 

1 Commander Elisa was instructed to fortity the fort and erect the simple 
necessary buildings for storehouses, dwellings, and workshops. He ""vas to 
seek the friendship of the Indians, treating them with discretion, love, and 
}1rudenee; to defenù the establishment from every insult, whether from the 
Indians or from the subjects of any foreign power; not to insist on a minute 
examination of their vessels, or on molesting or seizing them, nor even to dis- 
lodge the Russians from their fixed estahlishments, except after receiving 
positive orders from the king. He was also directed to despatch his vessels 
at fìtting times to carefully explore the coasts, islands, and ports up to ü8 0 , 
Cook River, and the strait of Juan de Fuca. Revilla Giyedo, lufo'rme de 13 de 
.AlJl"illì93, 130-1. It will be noted that these instructions were given before 
the controversy between Spain and England was known in :Mexico. 
2 This company seems to ha\-c been under the command of Don Pedro 
Alberni, who remained but a short time, left his name attached penllanently 
to an inlet in Barclay Sound, became very popular with the Indians, and 
finally serveù until death in California. See 11tst. Cal., vol. ii. chap. Í., this 
series. ' 
3 El
sa, Sanda de los tres bU'1lleS para Notka, mio de 1790, l\fS. diary from 
Spanish archives, in Via[1cs al iVorte de Cat., No.7; also Elisa, Tabla diaria" 
dp los lJllf}lle8 para el PUf'1'to de Nootkrt, 1790, 
IS., including the 1ll00-ements 
of all three vessels, in ld., No.9. Navarrete-Viages Apóc., 63-4; Sutil 
Y.J..llex., riagc, cix.-x.-falls into errors respecting the names of the vessels 
and the date of arrival. 
4 'Se fortifieó el puerto de N ootka: se formó una pohlacion eompetente, 
cÓmoda en 10 posiblc, y agradable: se eonsiguil) la Luella eorrespondencia. ò.e 
los indios pOl' los medios del cambalache ó eomercio, y de al
ullas cortas 
dadivas.' Revillct Gi[Jcdo, InJorme, 131. 

ì) QL"1

 'Olll1l1an<1pr ] H.U 1 lJeell Rcnt to replace hi
he J'cturllcd au<l Lccalnc fl"icndly.5 
}:xploration:--; ".crc in or(!el' as hO(Jll as the fort ,vaq 
e01l1plpt 4 '<I, an<! on .J..\ lay 4th ] .Jil'utenant ].'idalg-o \Ya
patel1ed to the north OIl the j?ilijJillo, ".ith intcr- 
 of 1 :ussiau aut! }:ngli"h. An nccouut of 
F'idalgo'H illYe
tigatiollS on thc _ \lasl\:an COël(;.,t, ,nainly' 
in the rcg'iou of 1 )rinco \Villianl 
oull<l nnd Cook 11i,.cr. 
t hongh of 
OUle illterest, <Ioes not helong hl're. IIi i 
 \\'ero on the return to carcfully ex:ullillO tbe 
t fr<Hll latitudc 57-' f;outln\-ard, Lut had ".eathl'l' 
In"c\'cutcd thi:-;, and ".oule l not ü,.cn pertuit hiul to 
puter Nootl\.a, in tho latitude of ,vhich he ".as at the 
hc(rinlliu cr of Se p tcluber. .1\...ccordino'br he kC I )t on f{H' 
 ð J 

[ollterey, ,,"here he arrived on the 15th of t)Cptcll11Jcr, 

pellt f
)rty day
 in refitting, and on the 14th of X 0- 
ye111ÒCr ,\.a8 bar.k at San I3Ia
. 6 
J t ,Y:lS on the :J l:..:t of l\Iay that Elisa dcspatchcJ 
the Priucesrl Ileal uuder Alfércz Quilnper to cxplore 
the strait of li\lca, \vhich had becn discovered, a" \Vu 
hayc Reen, Ly ]3arclay, aUlI cxplored for n, short di
tauce f1'0111 its Inouth hy Duffin an(l Gray, pcrhap.
also by lCclldrick and Haro. Quin1pcr ('xrlored }Jut 
ouly the strait proper, hut the \\'iduuillg t
n.thcr ea':)t, 
".hich hc calleel Sello dc Santa Rosa. Tli:5 progre
lS slo\v and hi:-; eX:lluination [I careful onc. 13v th
cUll of June he had surveyed the northern 
h(;re to 
the rcgion of tho uloclcrn ,';ictoria, and had (!i
the lllain northcrn channeJ, ".hich still Lcar
 thc nalllC 
he gave it in honor of hi

âling-nla:-;tcr, Canal <10 
l.4opez de ] faro; then he ('ro

ed oyer to the south 

hol"e, aud l1iuned for hilllself ". hat is no". SqUilll 
]Jay. lIe surveyed Port Discovery, ".hich he nallled 

5 Quimpel', Sf'[/llndo rpcon. de Fucrr., ::\IR 
r,J"id,t!flO, riage d l Pa'lupfJot 'Filipino'... para lo.r;: rerollocimientOl
J>dnrip' Guillermo]l rio de ('ool', liDO, 
., in Jïa.lOJ at _YOl.t" df' Ca f ., ::\0. 8; 
al::;o Pida/rJo, Tabla que mtlll!lÙ s[a, etc., 
IS., in Jr!., X o. ) 0; Ruill., (;i.l((lo, 
JIIjO/'IIlC, 140-1; lVOlY{rrct", V.a} s _1puc., ö4-G; Id.. in Suiit y Jlc.âc(uw, 
Jïa{jf', cix.-,-ii. J>eccmhcr II, 1700, the viceroy has lu.'ard of the aITÏ\-al of 
tIle San Cllrlo:1 anù PriJlcc
a J.'('al at :\Iollterc
'. ...ITCh. Cal., )l
., Prol.. St. 
Pop., ix. 
. w. COAST, YOLo I. IG 


Bodega y Cuadra; but he mistook the nature of tho 
lnain passage to southern \vater:::;, the lllouth of ,vhich 
he nalHed Ensel1ada ùe Caamafio. Sent l1orth,yard in 
boats, his l1len discovered also the secondary northern 
channel, Boca de Fidalgo, no,v Rosario Strait. The 
tletai]s of his survey are best sho,vn on the appentled 
copy of his chart. 7 

0-1: .

f I.4J .s (ù (J oS -- 
r;:, uj c:.

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= i 
 -ç -8 ReVi 
 la Gigedo 

 m . ' 7 J(Q_7 
.... ctJ 
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, Pfu 




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f) . 

QUBIPER'S l\IAP, 1790. 

Though Quilnper ,vas the first discoverer of all this 
region, the nan1es applied by him ,vere ,vith a single 
exception not pern1anent; Squim Bay should bear his 
naDle rather than that of Budd or Washington. On 
the 18tll of July he turned ,vest,vard and follo,vecl 
the southern shore of the strait to the ocean, taking 
fornlal possession on the 1st of August at Port N uñez 
Gaona, or N eah Bay, as he had at several points be- 

7 Chart made by the piloto, Gonzalo Lopez de Haro; copy obtained by the 
United States Government from 1\Iadrid, and pubìished in Iteply of the Unitf:(l 
States. . .1872, in connection with the San Juan boundary dispute. For con- 
yenience I have omitted in my copy the western portion of the strait. The 
names on the part omitteù in their order from the entrance eastward are as 
follows : North shore, Pta Bonilla, Pto de 8. Juan or N arva('z, Rio Sornbrio, 
Ptc" l11agdalena; south shore, PtCt de l1Jartinf'z, PIa de Bada, B. de 

(; aona, Ens. de lloxas; below the entrance on the Pacific are Pta de Jlijosa. 
and J30ca de A hwa. 

It C("rmelo anù sierra of S. A ntonio are in the lloréh- 
east and south-east, just beyonù the limits of my copy. 



fore. 8 On 1
:1:ving port tho sloop steered for X ootka, 
but she ('oul{l not Inako the port, and ,,'a'-3 driven south- 
,,"ard. _Finally on .i\ugust 1;1th she ga\"c up the cHart 
:lnd turned her pro\v to\v3T(1 l\Iolltcrcy, ""here she 
anchored on the 
d uf SeptcIllLer. lIeI' consort, the 
/:)on Gfdrlus, as ""0 Itayc seen, arriycd at the f-\aIlle 
port on the 15th, [u1(1 Quinlper and. :b-'idalgo reached 

an BIas together in Noveu1Ler. 9 
Unly one '"ycssel beside,:; those of the Spanish e
clition ju
t described i:-; kno,vn to have vi-;ited tho 

t Coast in 1 ï!)O; that one ,vas the 1rrJo-, in "rhich Captain Colnett after his release sailed 
ii'oul San DIas, probably in .L\.ugust. lIe had on board 
the crc,,'s of Loth vessels, and an orùer for the <.1e- 
liyeryof the IJrincess Ilo!JCll at N ootka, but on reach- 
ing that, port he did not find the sloop. lIe lJelieved 
the Spaniard
 had deceived hin1 intentionally;lO but 
\\"0 hayc seen that unforeseen circUlllstances had C0111- 
polled Quilnper to sail south,vard earlier than had been 
intended, and he had probably passed Colllett on the 
,vay. I t ,vas said that tho irate Englishman, not- 
tanùing his distress, obtaincd a yaluable lot of 
furs before he left N ootka. ll Ho,vever this nlay 
have been, Colnett left tho coast and, n1Îraculously as 
he thinks, arriycd safely at ::\Iacao. The next year he 
rccciyccl hie:; sloop fron1 Quimpcr at the IIa\yaiian 
Islands. Thus, though the Spaniards had obtainod a. 
kins in the cour:::;c of their exploration
, the fur- 

8The full act of poss(>ssion is given in the diary. Xeah nay is cn-onc- 
ously statecl hy Ürecllhow, Davidson, and others to be the l)o"Ç'erty Coye of 
the .A.meticrn traders, hut Gray's Poyerty CO\-e was on the northCln shore. 
:O;ce last chapter; also llasu.clt'x Log, 
IS., ú3. Greenhow, 0,'. alld ( ai., abo 
implicd that the name Canal de (}Ù.CJ)lCS was gÍ\-en t)y Quimper, awl stat";:i 
that he returned to Xootka, though this author seems to have seen the orig- 
inal diary. 
!I QuinlJrT, Se[Jll1ulo rccollocimiellto de /ct, entrada. de Fllca y rosta romprell- 
clitia (ntrr ,[1(1, yla de ....Yootl.:a, /tee/tO d aii.o de lì! (), )l
., ill Jïay 8 al 
de ('cd., Xo. II. To this ùiLlry and table is added a long account of tl'e 
Xootka region, its people, language, etc., ÎncluùÎllg an account tr-
from one prepared by )lr Ingraham of the CuiulIlúia in l;

lOUolllctt's J
O!I., 101. lIe says that the orders of the :--:panhh commander 
(Quimper), which he saw wheu he met him latu.. showed that it had been ll11- 
possible to meet him at X ootka; but this is not very intclli::;ible. 
11 Cuud,"ct, in J (t/lCUllI.:Cr'15 J
O!l., i. :388. 


trade had been practically suspended for the yoar. 
Captain l{cndrick n1Ïght hayo roaped a rich harvest 
in the Lady TT....ashington, but he 'vas never in haste, 
and lost the season by remaining ill China onga.ged 
in other schellles. 12 

Commander Elisa had renlained at N ootka ,,\,,ith the 
garrison; and his ship, the ConcclJcion, had \vintered 
thcre. 1 :1 On February 4, 1791, the /3an Cáì"los ,vas 
despatched frolll San BIas under the COnl111and of 
Alférez Ran10n Antonio Saavedra y Guyralda, ,vith 
J nan Pantoja y Arriaga as piloto, arriving at N ootka 
after a long and stornlY passage late in 1\larch. Elisa 
had orders to cOlnplete his exploration of the coast fronl 
l\fount St Elias in tho north to Trinidad in the south. l4 
He accordingly transferred himself to the smaller 
yessel, left Saavedra in charge of the Concepcion and 
garrison, and sailed on 1\Iay 5th. The Sa/n Cârlos 
,yas accolnpanied by the schooner Santa} Sat1l1"nina, or 
IIorcClsitas, under J osé María N arvaez. 15 The ,villds 
compelled the explorers to direct their course south- 
,yard instead of to the north, as they intended. About 
fifteen days ,yere spent in a careful exalnination of 

12 Haswell, Log of the Columbia, 1\18.,7, says he 'began to make his vessel 
a brig. This operation being under his directions, took such a length of time 
that he lost his season. ' Greenhow tells us Kendrick' had been engaged, since 
1789, in various speculations, one of which was the collcction and transporta- 
tion to China of the odoriferous wood called sandal, which grows in many of 
the tropical islands of the Pacific, and is in great demand throughout the 
Celcstial Empire. V ancou'
er pronounced the scheme chimerical; but expe- 
rience has proved that it was founded on just calculations.' Kelley, letter of 
January I, 1810, in Tlwrnton's Or., l\1S., 89, incorrectly states that Ken- 
(h'ick had remained over from 1789, and in the winter of 1790 built a Fort 
'Yaslúngton at :I\lawinah, making a trip into the Fuca Sea later. All this is 
a confused allusion to earlier and later events. 
13 Kavarrete, ITiaye.<; Ap6c., 115, says that the two vessels suffered much, 
until the Pl"ince8a had to be sent south with 32 sick men, suffering with 
scurvy, etc. But this does not agree at all with the facts as shown by 
Quimper's diary, since it is hardly possible that the sloop went back. to 
Kootka in the winter after reaching San BIas in November 1790. 
U Particularly the entrada de Bucareli, strait of :Fonte, port Cayuela, boc3. 
de Carrasco, strait of Fuca, entrada de Heceta, and port of Trinidad. 
1;) The presence of this schooner at N ootka is not explained; ncither is it 
anywhere stated ",hat had become of the N01'th JVcst America, or Gertrlld:.
of 1789. Later the Santa" Sctlw"nina and llorca.sitas are rilelltioned as distinct 

J .
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Cayuela, or Clayoquot, and the adjoining region. 16 
Then the sno"r entered the strait of }'uca, and on 
1\Iay 29th anchored in Quilllper's port of Córdoba, 
"yhile the schooner first explored the Boca de Car- 
rasco, in Barclay Sound. From Córdoba the boat ,vas 
first sent out under the second l)
loto, J osé ,r crdia, to 
l'3urvey the Haro Channel; but the hostile actions of 
the natives, SOllle of 'v horn ,yere killed, caused the 
party to return. On June 16th, ho,vever, Narvaez 
having arrived, the schooner and launch, prepared for 
defence, again entered the channel, and continued 
their search in this and subsequent entrances until 
.1\ugust 7th. "That they accomplished is best sho,vn 
by the accompanying copy of their chart. 
In the south-east Elisa added nothing to QuilDper's 
survey beyond discovering that the bight of CaanlalÌo 
,yas the entrance to an unexplored southern channel; 
hut east,vard and north-\vest\vard a very conlplete 
examination ,vas made of the cOlnplicated nlaze of 
Î;:;lands and channels, into the great gulf of Georgia, 
,yhich ,vas na111ed the Gran Canal de Nuestra Seùora 
el Rosario la l\Iarinera, and up that channel past 
1'ejada Island to 50 0 . 17 Several inlets extending east- 
\yard and north-east\vard into the interior 'v ere dis- 
covered, ,vhich n1ight afford the desired passage to 
the Atlantic, but their exploration had to be post- 
I poned for a later expedition. Several names, such as 
San Juan, GÜemes, Tejada Island, and Port Los 
Angeles, are retained on modern maps as applied by 
Elisa, \vhile ot.hers given by him and Quimper, such 
as Rosario, Caamaño, Fidalgo, and Córdoba, are still 

IGPantoja, with the launch, frOlll the 11th to the 19th, explored what is 
called the north-west mouth of the port. The names a})l'lied were bocas de 
Sanredra, f,rulf of So,11, Juan Bautista, canal de .' .Antonio, port ,......w.. l.sidro, 
i.:-:land San Pedro, bay San Rafael, canal de San Francisco, bocas de San 
Saian2ino, calla} de San Juan J.Vepornuceno, and the great ports of Gilf'Tl/f'8 
and Girnlde. The schooner had meanwhile explored the northern mouth 
anlI several branches, but no names are given. 
Ii On Vancouver's map the Imme was applied to the channel between 
Tejada Island and the main, why i:-; not known; and for some equally mys- 
terious rcason the name was again transferrcd ill later years by English gcog y 
raphers to the narrow southenl strait that still Leal's it. 

Pt Sn,E 

I't I '1 ..... 


J 1 

_\.';-} :KO








.\'S 1tI \P OP XOOTK \ CO.\
T, ]';al. 



in usc, but not as originally applied. The expedition 
left tho strait in August, on account of prevalcnt 
scuryy aUIOl1g the 111e11. I t is not strange that on his 
return to N ootka froll1 the labyrinth, Elisa ,vrote to 
the yiceroy: "It appcal'
 that the oceanic passagc so 
zealously sought by foreigners, if there is one, cannot 
be else,," here than Ly this great channel." I append 
here another part of Elisa's n1ap, sho,,'"ing the outer 
coast fronl above N ootka do,vn to the entrance of the 

trait. It includes not only his o,,"n surveys but those 
of earlier Spanish voyagers. IS 
In Elisa'ö absence, perhaps before his departure, 
the Aranzazu, conlluanded by Juan B. l\Iatute, ar- 
l'i yed at N ootka fro111 San BIas, presulilably ,vith 
bupplies for .the garrison. There ,vas, ho,veyer, a 
pressing need of certain articles ",. hich she had not 
brought, and to get these and also the nlon ,vho had 
been left sick in California, the vessel n1aele a trip 
to ::\lonterey and back, :\Iatute leaving SOUle of his 
l11Ðchanics ill the north tenlporarily. lIe sailed about 
:JIay 2Gth, "'"as at l\Ionterey June 1 
th to 28th, 
and ,vas back again in California before the end of 
 ugust. . 
An that I kno,v of this trip is derived fron1 frag- 
111entary correspondence in the California archives of 
the year, sho,ving l\latute's presence and the nature 
of his IllÌssion. He brought fronl the north despatches 
,vhich 'v ore sent to Mexico overland; and he seenlS 

( l8The only sources of information about this voyage, wholly unl
nown to 
Greenhow and other writers on north-west discovery, arc a 1'ésllmé of Pantoja's 
original diary in .1Vat"urr(te, r;(lges Ap6("., 114-21, and an extract from the 
same diary in Reply (ltke United States, 97-101, from a certified copy of the 
original in the Hydrographic Bureau in :Thladrid. The map which I have 
copied is from the same source. The parts not copied are the soutlíern shore of 
the strait and for a short distance below Cape Flattery, or Point :Martinez, on . 
the Pacific shore (as in Qllimper's map, already described); also sketch charts 
of Clayocuat, Los Angeles, Buena :Esperanza, K uca, anù San Rafael. The 
only name in the extract from the diary not on the map is Zayas Island. 

ee also mention of the expedition in Re-âl/c(, Gi[/t'do, ilfo1.rne, 141: 'En cl 
tercero (recol1ocimiento) practicudo el año de 91, se internó la goleta Ó'aturniua 
que 11e,.ó en su con:;erva cl Teniellte de navío D. Francisco h.1iza, mal1dando 
(,1 paquebot S. C:Ú/.108 hasta el gran canal que llamaron de Nuestra Señora del 
Rosario.' A mention in the diary of Kendrick's arrival at X ootka 011 July 12th 
may inùicate that one of Elisa's vessels returned before August. 

)L\L.\.SPIX.\.'S YOY.\.GE. 


also to have hrought de:--\patl"he
 of Hon1e in1portanl"e 
ii'Ulll :\IcÅico to the llorthern conuntlllder. 1 !> 

tin anuther Spalli
h expeditioll arrived at Xootka, 
Oil the 1 :3th of .L\ugust, or just about the tilHC of 
â'ð return ti
Olll the :-;trait of 
"uéa. 1."ho cor\ ùttes 
DeSCllbieJ'ta and ....1tJ.ccÙZa, under the cOllllnand of 
Iala::; I )illa ello.atJ'ed in a scicntific e
 l )l()rinq. 
J , ð 0 0 
yoyagc round the ,\"o1'1d, arrived at .r\.capuleo at the 
eud of l ïDü or beginning of 1 ïD 1. \Vhether 
had intended tu yisit tho 
 ortlnvest Coast (,r not 
 not appear, Lut here he roeei ved froT11 the Span- 
h gO\'CrUluent a copy of the lllcllloir in ,vhieh :\I. 
]Junehe of l)aris had latcly attolllpted to support the 

 of )Ialdonado',3 di:,covories, ,vith order;') 
to verify tho exi
tenco or llon-uxi
tcnce of tho strait 
,vhich .:\Ialùonado pretended to hayo found. The t\VO 
vessels sailed fronl Acapulco on the 1st of 
fay., the 
61trccÙlrt being under the cOlnllland of J osé de lJusta- 
Inante y Guerra; and land ,va
 first sighted on the 

3d of June, in the region of l\Iount Edgecolllb(.. 
Of their cÀplorations on the
kall coast :juffiee it 
to say that no 
trait ,vas found; and ,\,hen about the 
t of' ..L \.ugust they ontered the \vater:-; uf the X orth- 
\vest Coa
t, the ,,"eather perrr1Ïttcd no observation::; 
until on August 13th they anchored at X ootka. 
The observatory '\"as at once sot up on shore, and 
fiftecn days ,yere spent in a scientific sur\?("y of the 
atljoinillg region. The only narrative extant contains ) 
not a ,vol'd about tho Spanish garri
on or it
luander, or any vessels except those of the expedition. 
'fhe diaries and :-;t:ientiiic ob
ervations of )Ia1a
voyage havo, ho\\'ovo1', not been puLli
hed, and ,YO 
ha\'c oulyone account by an officer of the e
o CaT., )!S., Provo St. Pap., x. 1-2, 0, 22. 32,39,43-6, 140. Elisa.'s 
letters are I"latc(l April 
Oth, and 
aa'gedra's :\Iay 
ùth, so that the .1rall:;(clt 
ßailcll from Xootka, if shc did not arrive there, after Eli:sn.'s departure for his 
cJ\..ploring tI ip. Septemher 3th. The ,-iceroy orJer
 the governor of Californidt 
to supply all (!clll;uuh from Xootka. 
20 itlnloA/liIlCl, r'iaqe 1701, in 
Y(ll:m.r('tl', riag( 8 Ap6r.. 2GS-3
0. It is nn 
abridged diary hy one of tbe ofliccrs, and so far as Alaska. i
 concern( d con- 
tains infonnation that is toleI"'J.bly complete. In Id., Vo-S, is an accoUllt úf 


If ,YO 111ny credit Señor Navarrete, the ol'iginallnan- 
uscripts ,yere yery c0111plete, and their publication 
,yould hayo been a credit to the governnlent; still it 
i::; certain that their chief value ,vould not have bcen 
in conncction ,yith "That ,vo tern} here the N orth,,"cst 
Coast. l\lalaspina sailed on the 28th of August, and 
he Inade no observations of interest or importance 
until he reached California. 21 
Of Elisa and his garrison and vessels for the rest 
of the year nothing appears in the records, except 
that the San Ca-rlós and Santa Saturnina returned to 
San BIas. Viceroy Revilla-Gigedo says: "Although 
yarious craft of England and the American colonies 
frequented the adjacent coasts and ports, SOllie of thenl 
entering N ootka, nothing occurred to cause unplGas- 
al1tness or damage; and our new establishnlent ,vas 
al,vays respected by them, and provided ,vith all that 
Tas needed by the other San BIas vessels, ,vhich 
l)rought at the same tilne the supplies for the pre- 
sidios and missions of Alta California. "22 

Some of the Boston owners were not yet discour- 
aged at the conlparative failure of their first fur- 
trading enterprise; and the Colurnbia Rediviva was 
fitted out for a new voyage, still under the con11nand 
of Captain Gray, ,vith }'fr Has,vell as first mate. The 
bia sailed frOll} Boston on the 28th of Septen1- 
her 1790, and after an uneventful trip anchored at 
Clayoquot on the 5th of June 1791. "Thence she 
proceeded," says Greenho,v, "in a fe,v days to the 
eastern side of Queen Charlotte's Island, on 'v hich, and 
on the coasts of the continent and islands in its vicin- 

the original 
ISS., maps, plates, etc., and the reasons of their non-publica- 
tion. :l\Ialaspina fell into disgrace with the government in some political 
lnatters, and this caused a suspension of publication until it was ùeemed too 
late. All that v;as known to Greenhow and other '''Titers on the subject 
came from a brief account by Navarrete, in Slltil JI Mex., Viage, cxiii.-xxiii., in 
,..-hich :Malaspina's name was Dot mentioneù. On a map in Id., atlas, No.3, 
)lalaspina's course above N ootka is laid down. 
21 :1:'01' :\lalaspina's visit to l\Ionterey, where he arrived the 13th of Septem- 
ber, see lIist. (J.d., i. chap. xxiii., this series. 
2l R(:villa Gigedo, IJljoflll.e, 1

ß-\S'\\l:LL'S LOG. 


ity, she remained until ScpteluLcr, engaged in trading 

lld exploring. During this tin1e, Gray explored inany 
of the inlet
 ànd passagcs bet\yccn the 54th and tho 
!)(jth parallels, in one of ,vhich-lnost proLal'ly tho 

alllC aftcr\\-ards called by 'T ancou \-er tho Portlanù 
(iallal-he pClletrateò fro1l1 its entrance, in the lati- 
tude ûf 54 degrces 33 Ininutes, to the distance of a 
]nuHlrctl lnile
 north-east,,-ard, "pithout reaching its 
tcrluillation. This inlet he suppo
od to be the Rio de 
l{cycs of 
\.dmiral }1'onté; a part of it ,,-as narned by 
hilll l\Ia':;Bacrc Cove, in COlll111c1l1oration of the lllurder 
of Cas\\-ell, the second mate, and t\yO seamen of his 
, c:-,:-,e], bv the natives, on its shore."23 

Iy c
py of 
Ir I-Iaswcll's log Legins on tho 14th 
of Augu::;t 1791, just before the ship arrived at ,,,,hat 
,,,as called Hancock niver, an indentation on tho 
northern end of Queún Charlotte, or 'Vashington 
! Hero ho lnct the IIClllcocl.:, Crowell nUlster, 
frOl11 Boston. 25 The Colu'}ubÙfJ sailed on the 19th, and 
touching at a fe\\T points for skins, directed her courso 
south,vard Let\veen the great island and the Inain 
"pithout noticeaLle adventuro,2G except meeting the 
IIol)e, Captain Ingrahalll, from Boston, on the 
2d in 
53 0 
', and arrived at Clayoquot on the 29th. As 
they entered, t,vo Spanish yossels ,vere seen passing 
south,vard, doubtle
s l\Ialaspinn.'s corvettes, ,,"hich had 

23 GreenlLOW'8 Or. and Cal., 22!J-30. He cites the log of the Columbia from 
RC'ptember 28, 17DO, to February 20, 17D:!. lie &1)'S the disaster happened on 
:!ll, but it must have been earlier. 

IJJwm:ell'8 LO!J of the Colum7)ia Rediviva and A.dvonture, 1791-2, 
IS. This 
companion diary to the same officer's, oyage of the Lady JV 
ltin[Jt()n in 1 ;&,
,'. as obblineù from the same source; see l)age 187 of this volume. The first part 
of the log is mi
sing, the entries beginning with August 14, 17D1. It extclllis 
to the arrival of the Columbia in China tho 7th of December 17D2, but a part 
is (kvotl'd to the movcments of the Adventure, unùer Haswell's command. 
] t is a document of great interest and value, anù includes a number of charts. 
The original contains also views of several places, the author having much 
.ill with the pencil. 

.) Kelley, Discov. N. Jr. Coast, 3, calls her the IIannal
, and says she 
alTivcd at ]Jrown Sound, in 5.')0 18', on _\ugnst I.Jth. 
:Zû The names useJ are as follows: Port Temp( .
. ...11 a.
re Cot" 
. JIllr(!< rl r,.;' 
40 1:1'; Jra..
ltin[Jtoll I..,lund, 54 0 5'; lIancocl.: lliv r, .).1" .)'; Capt'IImzcock, 
rHo I
'; Cape Lookout, .).1024'; Comsllea yillage; T]'vOcllCOlldúlth, 
30 37'; antI 
Clf/lf' lIasl 'cll, 5
? j'. All arc on or aLout the north-eastern p..trt of the 


sailed frol11 Nootka the day before; and \vithin the 
sound they found Captain I{endrick, their forIller 
cOlnnlander, leisurely engaged in repairing his sloop 
at a place he had n[ul1ed Fort \Vashillgtoll. 
.1\. ,veek latcr Gray 8ailcd again for a cruise to 
,yintcr quarters, ,yl1Ïch it ,vas intcnded to establish 
at Bulfinch Sound, the year's trade having provcd 
only 1110derately succcssful, because at the bcst places 
he had been preceded Ly l{endrick, or Ingraha111, or 
Cro\yell. .After being carried south by adverse "rinds, 
and narro\"lyescaping ship\yreck near Cape Flattery, 
they returned to Clayoquot on the 18th of Septelnber, 
and resolved to ,vintcr there instead of 111aking ne,v 
atteu1pts to reach a harbor farther north. 27 l{endrick 
,vas still there, but soon departed. A spot near the 
native village of Opitseta ,yas selected for ,vinter- 
quarters; and before the end of September a house ,vas 
built, cannon 'v ere lnounted, and the franle of a snlall 
sloop ,vas landed from the ship. The keel ,,"ras laid 
on the 3d of October, and fr0111 that ti111e the ,york 
,vas carried on as rapidly as the short dark days anù 
rainy ,veather ,vould pernlit. The natives ,vere very 
friendly; there "
as good shooting of geese and ducks 
for the officers, plenty of hard ,york for all in felling 
trees and sa \ving planks, and no special excitelnent ill 
camp until after the end of the year. 
Joseph Ingrahalu, for111erly 11late of the Lady TVash- 
1'ngton, left Boston in c0111n1and of the brig Hope 28 before 
(lray, on Septen1ber 16, 1790. "On the 1st of J UllC, 
Ingrahalll left the Sand,vich Islands, and on the 29th 
of the same month he dropped anchor in a harbor on 
the south-cast side of Queen Charlotte's or \",\T ashing- 
ton's Island, to ,vhich he gave the name of Magee's 
Sound, in honor of one of tho o,vners of his vessel. 
On the coasts of this island, and of the other islands, 

n J{,elley says he returned on the 23th, anù that on the IJth he had anchored 
at the village of Ahshewat, on the north shore of Fuca. Strait. 
28 Fitted out hy Thomas H. Perkins of Boston, who had heen in Canton 
in 1787. Eo...,tonin......^Tort1
1:-::;.,3. Perkins was also interested with :Magee 
in building the ...11 a r[Jaret. 



and the continent adjacent on the north and cast, he 

pellt th0 Hunnncr in tracling, and collecting infoflna- 
t ion :1:-; to the geography and natural history, anù the 
lano'uao'cs, llHlnIlCr
, nlld custoln
, of the iuhabitant'-\, 
ð 0 
un all \yhieh subject
 hiH journal contains Ininute and 
interesting details; antI at the entI of the Rcason he 
took his dL:parturo" ,\"ith fifteen hundred Rlrins "fur 
China, ,yhere he arrived un the IHt of Decclnbcr, 
1 ï
) 1."
Captain J(endrick, on the Lady Tlr as hÙIJlon trans- 
)rlned into a brig, arri yed on the coast froln Chin<1 30 
on the l:Jth ()f J UllC. Tlis landing ,vac; at Barrel 
Soun(l, ",.here the llative
 attelnpted to capture l1ÌlH, 
hut ,vera repulsed and luau)"" of thelll killed. Not 
Loi ng ycry succe
sfnl in trade in the north, the 
('antain turned his course dO\Yl1 the coast on the 
th of July and cntered N ootka. The Span- 
 aided in to\Villg the brig into port, antI ".Cl\) 
H10:-;t hospitable in evcry ,ray, Lut tho Yankee COU1- 
luander ,,?as suspicious, ,vent on up to his old an- 
chorage of 
Ia,yinah, and haying oLtainccl alJout 
cight 11 unòred sea-otter skills, left the sound hy 
the northern pa')
agc, prcferring not to risk a second 
exposure to the gUllS of the fort. S ! He next ,vcnt 
dO'YTI to Clayoquot, ,vhere he ,\?as also fortunatù 
in obtaining lllany furs before Gray'
 arrival. .1.\fter 
SOlDO rcpair
, conducted, according to IIas\yell, in his 
usual leisurely luanncI', l{cndrick sailed for China on 
the 2ath of SCl'tenlber. 32 During this yi:.;it the cap- 
29 G}.eenhow's Or. and Cal., 22G-7. Hc cites Ingraham's 
IS. journal and 
an e
tract from it in thc J[a.
etfs IIi
f. Col., ]';9:1. Kelley, Di
...v. Jr. ('oa..
t, 3, says Ingraham arrived, apparently at Ulayoquot, on July 

,l. JIa,:,well, Log, :\I
., 5, says that thc llupcwas almost ready to the 
coast when her hoat, \\ ith 
[r ('rup, was met on August 
2l1. Crup hinte(l 
that they had becn \"ery successful ill getting furs. )larchanù, roy., ii. 3S3, 
mt.t Ingraham at ::\Iacao. He mcntions thc IjO
iloDclallo. ...Yarratil"(!, 43, aiùed KenJrick in fittinJ out his ,.essel at Lark 
Bay, near 'Iacao, in ::\larch. 
31 This was Kendrick's \.crsion. In an cxtract from thc diary of Elisa's yoy- 
age, ReI)l!! of the Ullited St(lte.
, 100--1, it is said that Kcndrick cntereù 'with 
lightcd linstock::;;' could not nn( when hailed; but later, when he haJ 
rcachc(l his anchorage, and was onlcr<'d not to traùc or anchor ill 
ports. he obc)' (.d, 3.11<1 departcd nt'xt day by thc northcrn pas.sagc. 
s::'Jla"w'dl's L{,!/ (
ftll( Cultl1J'
;a, )]s., 7-10,14) IG. 

l) CO

tain scenls to have purchased large tracts of land in 
the N ootka region, fralll the chiefs l\tlaquil1nn and 
\Vicananish, obtaining their nlarks on his dceds. 33 I 
shall speak again of these Janel titles. Greonho\y and 
others 'v ere perhaps in error, as ,ve shall see, in 
stating that I{endrick never returned to Anlcrica 
after this year. 31 
133 Kendrick's deeds are given literally by Hall J. Kelley, Discov. J-t'T. Jr. 
Com4, and are worth reproducing, as follows: July 20, 1701. Deed to John 
Kendrick. (1). '..A certain Harbor in said Nootka Sound, calleel Ohastactoús, 
in which the brigantine Lady Jr aslÛll[Jton hy at anchor on the 20th July 
17!H, with all the land, rivers, creeks, harbors, islands, etc., with all the pro- 
duce of both sea and land appertaining thereto. Only the said J. Kendrick 
does grant and allow the said I\Iaquinnah to live and fish on the said terri- 
tory, as usual. The above named territory known by the Indian name ()ha.
tactoos, but now by the name of Safe ReM'eat IIarbor. [Signed] J\Iaquinnah, 
his x mark [L. s.]; 'Varclasman, his x mark [L. s.],' and four other nati Yes. 
'''Titnesses, John 'Villiams, John Redman,' and eleven others. ' A true copy 
from the original deed. Attest, J. Howell.' (2). August 5, 1791, 'A certain 
IIarbor in said Ahasset, called by the natives Chenerkintan, in which the brig 
Lad!! IVaslÛngton by at anchor August 5, 17Dl, which is situated in latitude 
49 deg. 50 m. "N. and long. 127 deg. 8 m. w., on the north side of the Sound 
Ahasset, being a territorial distance of eighteen miles square, of which the 
harbor of Chenerkintan is the centre, with all the lands, minerals, etc. 
[Signed] Nory-Yonk, his x mark [L. s.],' and three others. 'Vitnesses as be- 
fore. (3). August 5, 17DI, 'A certain Harbor in New Chattel, called by the 
natives Hootsee-ess, but now called Port 110ntgomery. . . in 49 c1eg. 46 m. N. . . 
on the south side of the Sound ofAhasset, now called Massachusetts Sound. . . 
eighteen miles square, of which the harbor of Hootsee-ess... is the centre, 
etc. [Signed] Tarasson, his x mark [L. s.],' and three others. \Vitnesses as 
above. (4). August 6, 1791, 'The head of Nootka Sound, called by the na- 
tives Tashees.. . with the land nine miles round said Tasbees, etc. [Signed] 
Caarshucomook, his x mark [L. s.], and Hannopy.' (3). August II, 17Dl, 
, A territorial distance of eighteen miles north,' south, east, and west from the 
village of Opisitar as a centre, in 40 0 10'. 'The above territory known by the 
name of Clyoquot.' Signed by \Vicananish and five others. Boston, October 
30, 1838. Sworn certificates of Samuel Yendell and James Tremere, sailors on 
the Columbia and Jefferson in 1791, to the effect that they knew personally of 
the purchases of lands. June 26, 1833, swonl certificate of John Young at 
waii, that he had often hearcll(endrick speak of his purchase, and had 
seen his deeds. 'Vitnessed by I-Ienry A. Peirce and Hall J. Kelley. J\lay 11, 
17D3, to 
Iay 28, 17DS, extracts from letters of J. I-Iowell, Captain I(endrick's 
clerk, transmitting and mentioning the deeds. l\Iarch 1, 17ü3, letter of Ken- 
drick from the island of IGng to Thomas Jefferson. I-Ie mentions tho 
purchase, and incloses copies of the deeds to remain in the department of 
state. He says his title was recognized by the Spaniards, by heing excepted 
in a deed of lands at Nootka from 
Iaquil1a to Cuadra. He thinks the acqui- 
sition a most important one for the Unitefl States. I(elley says another la:;.'ge 
tract between 47 0 and 5D o was purchased by Kendrick for his company, all 
the purchases extending some 240 miles. The company's territory embraced, 
according to J(elley, all of Cuadra's Island not sold to Kendrick and to SpaLl. 
Uf course Kelley deems this purchase the strongest possible foundation for 
a title in the United States. In a letter of January 1, 18iO, in Thornton's 
Or. Hist., 
IS., Kelley WTÏtes on the same subject. He says the original deeds 
are in Ingraham's Jourual, in the United States Department of State, [,Hel fùr 
opies refers to U. S. GOì). Doc., 1Cth Cony., 1st Se.'is., II. R('pt.l{o. 4]. 
31G1'cenhow's 01'. (lJld VaL, 228-U; Sturgis, inlIunt's .l..1Iercltauts' ....lIcl!J., xiv. 53;). 



Tw'o other ..L\.n1orican trnding- vo sc]
h,-'" (}recllho\'t" a
ill(" vi.ÚtuJ the coast this Ycar, 
..T 0 "- 
the Jrt)(J}'son, RoLert
, frollI Boston, and the Jlr..u'- 
.(I((I'('t, '
Iagcc, frolll N U\V York; Lut the latter ,,'as a 
o:-;ton ship of the next year, an{l \VO Ita \"C no detail:-; 
of the othcr'H yoyago. 3 :J It i
 prolJalJle that ]
 rcprccicntcù in the flect of 1791 36 Ly the G I'OC , 
Captain '\Tillialll Dou 6 las. And no\\", for the firbt tilHe 

ince La l\
rouse's advent, the French appcared on the 

cenc, in the person of Étienne ::\Iarchand, \vho sailc{l 
ii'OIll )larseilles on Decolnbor 14, 1790, on the J'Jolich J 
fLJr purposes of trade; first sighted the X orth \yeRt 
Coast in the vicinity of 37 0 on the 7th of August, and 
on the 
lst reached the northern parts of Queen 
(tharlotte Islands. 1\. careful survey and 111ap of 
Cloak Bay and Cox Channel \vas 111aÙe in tho ship':-; 
Loat Ly Captain Chanal; and by the san1e officer, 
aided by the surgeon Roblet, Inaterial ,,'as obtained 
)r n long description of the natives and their custolns. 
Success in trade was ycry slight, the AUlericans 
haying left but fe,,," furs. A brig and boat ,yere seen 
on the 2Gth, sho\ving no colors, but thought to be :Lng- 
lish. 37 }-'roll1 the 28tll to the 31st Chanal Inado in 
the shallop an exploration of the coast farther south 
as far as l{enncll Sound, as sho,vn with the northern 
surycy in the appended copy of his 11lap. Obtaining 
fc\y skills, l\Iarcband sailed for Barclay Sound, ,vherc 
he arrived on the Gth of SepteDlbcr; but lJcforc he 
coulJ cntcr he saw a ship, doubtless the CubuJzbiu, 
3jGreenhow, Or. and Cal., 2::?G, cites tl1C J[a
s lchll"etts IIi...f. Col., 17f)j, 
as containing a description of Roberts' ,isit to certain islanù8 in the Routh 
Paci1ìc. In 1838 James Tremere certitìed that he was on thcJ(jTu..'loll, Captain 
on, which sailed from Boston in X oyemLer 17SD, and was at 
in 17!H. 
3ûlJelano's :}, 43. The author's brother accompanied Douglas. Has- 
well tclls us that Douglas sailed from Chin.), in company" ith Kendrick, lJut 
that they afterward separated, so that he may possibly have visited the coast. 
The Indians at Clayofjuot told Elisa in :\Iay that Kendrick and Dough's h3o...1 
lately left the sound, but this could not have been true. :\Iarchand, J O!l., ii. 
!JO, was told hy Ingraham at :\Iacao that he had left on the coast two In igs 
and a schooner, thc latter havin
 hall two of her men killc,l hy nativ
s of 
the Sand" h:h Islands. They had left a hoat to eolleet skin:; on the coast 
during the winter, and were to return ill the spring. 
Si l)robably the .\.merican brió IIoJ.J e . 

in w'hosc log the sight of a ship in the sout.h-,vcst is 
lloted, bound apparently dO'Yll the coast, and ,,"as dis- 
couraged froIll further efforts to trade. He rcsol vcd 

__ \à'O,arà 

ort Louis 
... ".
port Chou" 

-- - - ---


1:jl) . 

iARCHAND'S :1L-\.p, liDl. 








o I 

D/t -roil- de Rennell 



to make haste to China and sell his fe,v skins for 
as much as the rival traders corrlÍng later would get 
for a largoI' quantity; and he turl1ed from the coast 



the night of the 8th, arriying at :Jlac3o by ""ay of 
tll<<, Hall<< h\"i<<'h lsland=-; ill X ovclllber, antI iinding llO 
Jllal'ket for his fur
'r all. 
'fIle fruit of )Iar('hand'
 ullsurcessful trading VOj"- 
o far as IllY pl'e
ent topic' i
 concerned, \\"a
tit 'scri I )tic)1l f)f the Borth -,,'estern portions of (
( 1harlottu lslands by l1hanal aud ltul)let, ("ollsideralJly 
Jll()re eOlllplete and l'xtellsi\"u than that of IJixoll or 
allY othL'r carlier ua\-igator, particularly ill it
tatioll of t he natiYe
 and their institutions. l'he oriet- 
illal log and narratives" crc deyeloped, ho\\"cver, into 
a pondurolls ,york uf six voluIllu
, co\"ering a IJroad 
:..wope of Houth Sca dif:woy()ry. Count C. 1"). Claret 
l"leul'ieu thp :Fl'Clleh scienti
t and (fcoo-ra l )]lcr ".as 
, M b , 
thc editor (,f the \\"o1'k. .I\.::; all introduction he ga ye 
a HUll111HU'Y of éxploratiol1H on the N orth\vcst Coast 
of .l\.lneriea dO'Vll to the titHe of ::.\Iarchaud. It ,yas 
a paper read b0fore the National Iustitute of Scicnce::; 
and .L\..l'ts ill l7a8; and although not frec fronl crrors, 
\vas ".ortILy of llluch praise :1':; one of the earliest and 
1l10st cOlllplete es
nys 011 the Ru
jcct. Then the cditor 
ellted the relation of :ì\farchand's voyago-that 
, the diaries of Chanal and RoLlet, for he did not 
ha\ e access to ::\Iarchaud':-; 0\\"11 narrative at all- 
Bot litcrally, but in tho third person, a very 
foundation of the uriginal ,,-ith a yast f.\uperstrncturc 
of eclitorial COllllncllt. There iq infillitcly Jl10re of 
lcul'icu thau .of the IUlyigator
, the voyage being' in 
lCt but a pretc
t for n. \york on South t;ea discovery 
alld g'c )graphy. l'he eJitor "
as an ablc THan and a 
brilliant \\'rit0r; hut he oftcn \Vl'ote carelc,

l)" êlIHJ 
fell into occa

iollal crrol'
. .I\..t the titHe of its pub- 
lication the "lork had con
iderah]e value on account 
of its cOlllprehen:-:i \"0 trcatulellt of \"(ll.iou
Lut nOYr
o far at lea
t :l:; prescnt lllattcr.
 are l"on- 
("cl"ned, it. aJJs nothing to the iufol"ulatiJll obtainablo 
frot11 Letter SOUl'ce
. 38 

3 J[ardwlld, r Y[Jf' (/utoU'r lilt .][ondf'. pel,drrllt h q aJwU'.Q J'ì'['n, lï91, 
liD"", i,ll' L'ti I J
 I.t/.U 1.11"1(' d,',f ,.ne illl,'oJ/ dio, k.
fll..... 1. on 
llI8T. X. W. COAST, YOLo I. 17 


Not less than t,vcnty-eight vessels, and probably 
a fc"T 1110rc, yi:sitcJ the north-west coast in 1792. 
:1\lo1'e than half of the nUlubcr ,vere cngagod in tho 
fur-trade, under the flags of -France, Portugal, Eng- 
land, and the United States. 39 JTiye of thenl Ciuno 
expressly to nHtke geographical explorations. l"ho 
rest brought gOYCrl1111cllt conl111i
siollors on diplon1atic 
111Ïssiol1s, or supplies for garrison and national yessels, 
or despatches to conllnanllers. Lct us first follo,v tho 
1110VC111ents of the traders: 
'V 0 left Captain Gray ,vith the Colu}rLvia in "Tinter 
quartcrs at Clayoquot, hard at ,vork on a uc,v sloop, 
tho Inaterial for ,,
hich had been brought in part frolH 
Boston. Fort Defcnce and Adventure Cove 'vere 
the local naines applied, 1110st of the 111en living in 
the house on shore. In February a plot of the 
Indians to seize the ship ,vas discovered, and kept 
the .L\..nlericans in great anxiety for 111any days. 
l\Ionths of friel
dly intcrcourse had ren)oyed aH fear 
of natiye treachery, and the plot nlight have been 
successful had the Indians not attelllpted to bribe an 
Ha,vaiian servant to ,yct the prin1ings of all fÌre-arnls 
on a certain night. An but this boy 'v ore to be killed, 
,yas his story. By 1110ving the ship to a less exposed 
position, strengthening the defcnces, and a general 
discharge of the cannon into the ,voods at random, 
the attack ,vas prevented on the night appointed; and 

(1 joint de.
 ree!tfJrChC8 sur les ter'1"CS ausl'rales de Dral
e, ete. p(lri.
, an vi.-viii. 
(1708-1800), 8vo 3 yols., 4to 1 vol. The Introduction is in yolo i. pp. i.-cci.; 
 oyage of l\Iarchand, i. 1-294, and ii.; Geographical observations and 
notes, iii. 1-318; Tables of latitude, longitude, etc.. iii. 319-403; AJditions 
to the relation notes, etc., iii. 403-74; Natural history, i v. 1-404; ,'i. 316; 
Researches on Drake's Discoveries (in 
outhern Pacific), v. 317-74:; Examina- 
tion of Roggeween's voyaO'e, '". 373-400; List of voyagers and authors cited, v. 
óOl-18; Index, v. 510-39
 Proposed changes in the hydrographic llomencla, 
ture of the world, vi. 1-82; :l\letric d.ecimal system applied to navigation, vi. 
83-140; 1\laps and plates, vi. pI. i.-xiv. The matter relating to the north- 
west coast is found in vol. i. 
88; ii. 273; iii. 80-92, 360-3; Y. IGO-88; vi. 
pI. i., general map; pI. iii., De l'Isle's map of 1732; 1)1. viii., Norfolk Bay; 
pI. ix., Cloak nay and Cox Strait; pI. x., west coast of Queen Charlotte Islands 
(copied on p. 2,')6, this chapter). 
39 In Sut;Z y l.lexicana, VÙl!Jf, 112, it is stated that tho whole number of 
trading vessels was 22, of which eleven were English, cight American, two 
Portuguese, and one French; but this must be an exaggeration, so far as tho 
English vessels were concerned. 



thcrcaft<'r n 
tJ.i(.t ,yatch ""[l!-' kept, the frict1(lly }(:
 of the pa
t ])L'ing' 1)r'oken off. On the :!;Jd of 
]1" 'Lruary the J1e"r 
1o()1', Jlalned the I( l"f
Jtt it r(l, the 

e('()Jl<1 yesse} built ,vithin th ì territory, ".a:i ]aullehe(l; 
and h
d (,f oJ, \ pril both vc
 "ocro ready to 
sail tn
priJ1g harYe:-.t of furs, the Ill''''' 
under the <:olllllland of .:\ [r ] r as" eIl!O 
rrhe Yc
sel:-; parted at C]ayo(!uot, the Gol {)Iì
 . , going 

n'd. (hI the 29th of .A pril, (
ray Illet \Tan- 
("ou,"cr ju
t hclo,," Cape }'}attcry, and gave that corn- 
lllallder an aecount of his past disco'
erie:-;, illcllldil1g' 
t he facts that he had not 
ailccl through -.b'uca Strait 
ill the L(id!! JT'(nd illyt n, a
 had been Huppo
eJ. frOlll 
)[carcs' narrati,,"e and Inap, and that he had-ju
hcfore the Il1el'ting in thi
 :-,;<.une trip, J SUPl'O
"1 )el'n off the IHouth of a ri ,per, in the latitudl> of -!(;o 
] 0', ".herc the outset, or reflux, ,va
 fo'O strong a;:; to 
prc,pcllt hi
 cutering for nine JaYH."41 The log of the 
(}uhtrnlJia on thi
 trip has IJcen lost, ,yith th...... eXcep- 
tio1l of a YaluaLl<.
 fl'ag1l1ent covering the tinll
the 7th to the 
 1st of )Iay.42 On the forillcr of the---c 
 Gray discoyere<l antI enterefl the port ia lati- 
tude 1G o 58', called at first ]-
uHinch ] [arLor, but later 
in the 
amo year Gray l{arbor, ,yl1Ïch naruo it ha
rctained. 43 On the 10th ho left this port, ". hero he 

4í'llalrllV!1l's Log of th(' rolumb 'a, 
lS., 23-3.3. Benjamin IIarding, the 
hoatswain. died on )larch 21st. 
n J T am'Olll'(r'S roy., i. 21:l--W. Hf're also is mcntioncíl the plot of the In. 
<lians at Clayoquot. under \Yicananish. Has,\cll, Lo!), 
Is., 4)<<)-7, mf>ntion:-z 
the mecting with VancouV(:r as toll! him ]'y Gray at their first IIwctil1
E\.('cpt this mcctin.
 with the English navigator, nothing i
 known of nraY'H 
moyemcnts until 
Iay 7th; hut as he may not have ldt Chyof}uot for some 
days aftcr April 2cl, and nine days were spcnt off the river'8 mouth, it is not 
likely that those movcmcnts wcre of any special importance. 
42 This was an extract made in IS W Ly 
I r BulfìllCh, one of the 0\\ TIcrs, from 
the 21! volume of the log, which suhsequcntly disappcarcll. The 1st volumc, 
down to }-'chrnary liD:!, was consultc(} by Grecnhow, as we have sccn. The 
fl.agment was printcll in IS:1H in U. S. (Jo
'. ])0(.., ':<Jth COllg., 3d ""'RR., ll. J:rJll. 
.J..\"o. 101, and may he fouwl in (frcenlww's (Jr. and ('al.. :!33-7, 4:l!--f), and al
in many othcr hooks, gm 9 crIllllcnt rf'ports, am! newspaper::! treating on the 
later complicatiol1s of the famous Oregon (lucstion. 
13 Ul1ltinch Harbor is the name used in thc log; Lut If'lswell in his log 
USC(} the othcr IWIllC in June of the sam<<--' ycar; and so docs ,"-:,ncllu\9l'r in the 
samc ycar. TIH"re was a Bulfinch SOUIlI! "here (
ray and H.t...weU met, allJ 
it was at the meeting prohably tha.t the change was agreed upon. 


,ytlR attacked by the Indian
, and killed a 11lllnber of 
thClll,44 aud next day pa

cd over the bar of the port 
,yllÏeh he had beforc becn unahle to entcr, at the 
lllouth of the groat rivcr. This ,vas the Entrada de 
Hcceta, discovered in 1775 by Heccta, ,vho nau1ed its 
points San I
oque and Frondoso; the Deception Bay 
hehinll Point Di
appointnlent of 
Ieares in 178
Earlier in this year it had been seen by Gray hiIll- 

clf and by \T ancouver, but no,v it ,vas entered for 
the first tilne, and nalned the COllul1bia l-{iver, froB1 
the yessel's n
nlle, the northern and southern points 
being called respectiyely Cape Hancock and Point 
Adanls. The first anchorage ,vas ten Illiles ,vithin 
the entrance, and on the 14th the ship "
ent SOlne 
fifteen Iniles farther up, ,yhere she ,vas stopped by 
shoals, having taken the ,vrong channel. 45 Gray then 
dropped do,vll the streanl, noting the Chinook village, 
nnd landing in the boat at one point, ,,?as vi
ited by 
1113,11)'" natives in their canoes, and obtained a good 
(luantity of furs. Rough ,,?cather did not pern1it the 
f,d1Ïp to recross the bar till the 20th, and next day 
our fragnH.
nt of the log con1es to an end. 
This achieveu1ent of Gray, ,vhich AlTIericans chose 
to regard as the 'discoyery' of the Colulnbia, figured 
very pro1ninently, as ,ve shall see, in the interna- 
tional discussions of later years. 4Û Fronl the river 

IS., 67. The fight is not mentioned in the Oolumbia's 
log, and may thcrefore be an error of Haswell. 
4:> I-Iaswell says they 'went up about 30 miles and doubted not it was nay- 
igable upwards of a hundred.' 
-16 I shall have occasion in this and later volumes to name the 'works in 
which Gray's voyage is describell or mentioned; but none of them add any- 
thing to the original log which I have cited; and the errors ma(Ie arc not 
tiufficiently important to lJe noted. Captain Hobert Gray, who had been in 
the Ullitel1 States nayal seryice dnring the rm"olutionary war, died in 1806, 
leaving a widow and four children in straitened circumstances. In 1843 a, 
petition in thcir hehalf was presented to congress, and a committee report, 
never acted on, WWi obtainetl in faxor of a pension of 
300 and a township of 
land in Oregon. In 1830 a new memorial was introduced in Lelwlf of }'hs 
Gray, and a bill in her f:-LYor was passed hy the house, but I do not know 
\\ hether it ever became a law Qr led to any practical result. The discovery of 
the Columbia was the great service to the U llited States on which the c1ai
was founded. eOJlfll'e".
ioJ1(11 Glob{', 18,')0-1. pp. 34, 203, ,jD3, (a
. In 18G
Thoi"nton presented to the state of Oregon a sil \"cr medal which he represcnted 
to lmve L
en struck oiI' i
l IjfJ3 ill commemoration of the discoveries made on 



Gray Railed nortln\?[ll'd to X nspatce, ahov(' Xootka, 
nllJ thcu("e to !>iutal"(l Sound, appareutly "'bat "a
l,uo\\ H later a-.; (
uecll Charlotte Suund. J.\t)) )th 
 he \vas att:H.l,c(1 hy the I u<lians, [111(1 \\?as 01.) _gcd 
to kill Jnany of then1. 4ï J.\s the ful'{l/dJ 'ff h.'ft the 

he lllet the ..Jd i'CJd I(J'e, and 1,oth Yt''-\sels pl'O- 
("t'udeù to )J"aspab\c, ".]HTe they anchored Oil the 1 btll 
of ,J llllC. (
ray had colle "ted He\
ellllullùn..'d :--ea-otter 
:1lld iiftt'en thousalHI other skillS. 4S 
)fl'fall\vhile ('1al'tain I LJs\\"cIl in the ...Jdl'PJd1fJY' had 
Jl1:l( It' a ]}ort hel'Jl tour aftel' I\. 'a \ iug (] ray at <- '11 aYd (f not 
on the 
d of ..L \ pril. ] Ie hac 1 1lO Htartlin.
' aù \'cutUl"es 
h<"yoIHl the ordinary all(l expected l'eri)s of HuC'h a 
naxio'atioll. III trade he "'a
 Huece=-,sful tIlan hù( I 
been anti('ipated, tllough iir
t ill the field, for the 
llati Yes Raid that 1l1:lJ1'y \?e
 \\'ere con1Ïllg, and de- 
IlHU1Òetl cxorl)itallt pl'ice
, t,YU ()\
el'CoatB for a 
illg at 1l1any places a currcnt rate; antI only t,,?O 
hundred an<l thirt.r-l'Ìght 
killS ,,-crú purchased. On 
the 7th of )Iay ht' lllet (
aptaill l\lagce of the J[,'I'- 
!Iff J'ef, \\.ith llC\\

 ft.Olll houle; autl early in J Ulle he 
itc(l the gra\-c of )Ir Ca
\Yell, his fonncr a
,vho Il
HI beell LUl'i
d at l\H,t r-rClllpest, Lut \yho
e l'C- 
InainR had heen relnoved IJY the In(lians. "Tith the 
aiel of a chart, hy ,,-hi('h 1 ias\\'cJl'
e 111Íght Le 
traced, his log '\-ould be of great yuIlle frolH 
l geo- 
graphi("al poiut of \
ic\\r, 1'<)1" he de
 llltlllY port
and giyc
kétchè;-; of SOll1e; but 11lO:-;t of the l'lace:i 
JltUllt,(1 he IUH 1 yisitc(l before, and fUrlli
hl':-; :--light 
lllenll'j {<H' their iùeutificatioll. IIi
 COUl"be "'a

the voyage. 0 'rYfJl1,.]nllrnal nf Sf'natf', lSGO, app., 37-40; and this medal has 
often Lcen spo!
cn of in Ilcw
papcn;, ctc. it wa
, howcyer, thc ll1cllal made 
in coppcr awl 1H'un7c heforc (;ray started frolll BustoIl in }';ð
; hut it is not 
impossible that a fcw werc struck off in bih-cr latcr. 
'ìln Sutil !I Jf{xicww, Jï lJf', :!4, wc arc tohl that on the 3.1 of Junc thc 
!Jl(lians from thc north camc to Xootka. to complain that a. ves;o;cl h:HI a.ttat'kc.l 
thcm, killing scvcn and WOUIlllillg others, hcsilles taking 11Y force :lll thcir 
furs, ,\ hich tlH'Y h
HI heen UIl\\ illing to sell at thc price otl"crc.I. Thi8 was 
duuLtlcss the til"St uf the two tights aUullc!} to'by Haswell. 
A lI(um.dl'.>; Lo.!, 
., (j(;-7. A chart or sl...ctch i" givcn of Bulfinch S01l1ld, 
,\ ith ('lli('kh scf at the ea.,tcrn point of entrance, ...Ya'IJal e or ('olu1JlI,ia Core 
and Jruo!t Pùint at the western point, and CIOOllurk at the head, or north. 


up the outer coast, into J)ixon Entrance, and hack to 
Cape Scott; thell up the 
tl"ait to the sanle latitude 
as Leforc, and Laek, the ,,
holc anlounting to a dauLIo 
circullluavigation of Quc'cn Charlotte If.;lallds, \yith an 
exalninatioll of the lllailllallJ coast. N allies froIll tho 
log arc appcllded. 49 
49 Ilr"'
og ()f the Adt'entllrp, 
IS., 3.>-GG. The following are the names 
used, with al1proximate c.latt's anc.llatituùcs: April :3c.l, Ceclwht Cove, in Com- 
pany Bay [Barday 
ound]; a Higua chief of Ilichaht; 7th-Hth, past Clayoquot, 
Point Breakers, and Xootka; !Jtb, Jlope Bn?}, lat. '1
}0 5', long. I
T' 24'; 10th- 
l:!th, still iu sight of K ootka and Ahat.;ctt SOlUld [Esperanza Inlet; a chart is 
gi\-ell of the two sounùs anù connecting passages, which I reproùuce]; 13th, 


or Kim.drick'slIaiOOr _ <::'0 0 %, \ 
n Ò \J ---
?' ;


u L _ )' . \


 - .Pleasant Oove - 
 " Snug Cove 
 -- - . 

 - r - 


a - oJR9IIjEqS.
 __ . 
/i.-J_ / . 
. .. \ -'f..,A","'<AH \_ I 

 ç"'i . " 
 ". . . 


 - l - - 
1, - --= -<û
tes'one (J,"-'5,. 

>''''.''dlU "U" 

50 0 16'; 'Voody Point, five leagues s. E.; Port Lincoln, a large sound with good 
llarbors, in 50 0 26', long. 128 0 30' [Qnatsino Sound?]; 14th, 50 0 4G', six leagues 
R. of outwardmost island off C. Ingraham [Cape Scott]; 17th, 'Vashington 
Island and UapelIa.,;wdl[Cape StJames], 52 0 10'; ]1wTel Sound; 18th, 5:Y 5'; 
'l'ú()scomloltlt tribe, subject to Cumsuah, on the strait di\iding the island; 
another strait where the coast turns W., in about 53" 20' [Skiddegate Channel]; 
IUth, near '1'(tdcllt,
village [Cloak Bay and Cox Channel?]; 21st, ronnd the 
. w. 
point of the island; 23d, Shoal Inlet, or 
Veden, lat. 34 0 9', long. 132 0 43', seven- 
teen leagues E. of Taùents; C. Coolidge, se\-enteenleagues w. s. w., in 54- }3', 
long. 1:
4 13' [?]; C. Lookout, eighteen leagues E. N. E. [Cape Chacon on N. side 
of strait?]; 24th, Ilallcock River, 34 0 5', long. 132 0 18' [chief, Cattrtr,. a chart is 
gi,'en, with names llalibut [lead, Sand POi,llt, alltl.J.1[(lIt.'
lwet [Virago or )laza- 
ùo Sound, or )lasset Harbor, on :x. siùe of the island]; Le[Jonee is in this 



The t".o Yes
ailed together frol11 Xaspatce on 
-tth, bound f(H. the north; Lut t\\"O day:-; J.tter, 
'\' hen t hey had cIltered the great ;-;trait allcl \\"ere 
just abo\ t' j
Q, oppo:-;ite l.Jo]']ip SUUIl(l, the {}ol,,"dJl'(f 
struck a r()
k alld \vas ("()Tlsidera 1,1 y daulag-etl. rhey 
\vent Oil, ho\\'e\'el', f(H
 ])el.b.r :SUUIl( 1, lJut lost ca
other on thc 

)th. 1'hc 11d,.eu.tuJ'c ,veut OIl all(I 
\\'aited at ])erby Sound for her cOIl'\ort, T Ias"'ell 
fl';:u.iIl(J' that slH' 
had sUllk. Then F:he continued her 
tl'ip throng'It J)ixon StJ'ait and up tIll' .l\lasl
au coa=-,t 
to a bout 57 0 , in the region of thl' lllodern Sitka. llas- 
,veIl touehed at lHaIl) of the places yisite(l in the 
fl)}'1l1er trips; obtained only 
cYenty-fivc skins; IHct 
r-;ix. otht'r tradiu o .-\ e:--.
 [tt Jiflercnt I Joints; and re- 
turning (10\\ II tIle outcr coast lllet Gray on thc 3d of 
RcptcluLer at Port :\lontgoll1ery, on the Routh-"'estel'l1 
f-:horc of (
lleell Charlutte Island. :\Ican\\"hilc the 
ColulltlJia, her leak in
reasiIlg after the parting, had 
returned to N aspateo and attclnptcd SUBle 1 cpairs, 
ith the aid of Captain 
[agee; then she ,,?cnt to 
Clayoquot :lull SOOl1 to N ootka. } [ere the Span- 
iards rendered every pos::;iblc assistance and cuur- 
tc:-,,Y,l50 and ",hen hif; f;hip "?(.lR again in CÚIHlitioll Gray 

ailed for the north to lllect Ha
nv('l1, as just related. 
ailoù on the 13th of Scpteluher and reached 
K ootka seven days later. Here they luet 'T
U1CUU ver 

rcgion; 28th-
!)th, past shoal off r.Lookollf; SI'a-lionRocks, .34 0 36', Jong.130 o 3.)'; 
(tape Lookout ,\. hy 
.; gales; 
 :;trait near; :
Uth, winù and ha7e about 
thc shoal; 
Iay Ist-:!ù, oft" Ta(lcnts; chief, ('IlJlnea; 4th, f'. of Tooscon<<lolth; 3th, 
St '[ammon;" (foæ nnt! Port .J.1/ollfyofltf'r!l..)
 :?,y [on w, side of the islanll]; 
7th, Hanel Inlet alld Gra!/ Uore, meeting thc ldar!l(uf't, Captain )lagee; 
l:?th, ncar C. Haswcll anù ill mùnth of St,.ait of Font [that is, thc p:..s
hetwccll Queen Charlotte amI the mainJ; cour::3e to x.; 13th, .)
) 4:r; opposite 
Cmmmah's Yillage [Culllshcwa Island awl Harhor?J; IGth, J'OOR{'Olilloltlt 8011lld 
[Sh.iddegate Bay?]; IIofJe Cuve ncar on
.; HJth, ':>3' i'; 
Oth, o\'cr to mainlan.l 
nnd lllltellf a Island anù :O;ound, n \'cry deep sound running s. E.; 
:!d, lJl dJ!/ 
,")'Ollllll alill .lll(n ('Ot-e; 23th, sailed for Broll.n Sound, hut winlI prcvcntc(l; 
ofr C. Lookout; 
(jth. off Tal1ents; 
ith, 34 0 ;)!,'; 
Sth, ahrea
t of Dialr,.."l 
('urp; 30th, /J(JII.Jlas /altl1u/, [,.1" 4
'; 3bt. r. Lookout E. s. E. .ultl J[ urt!u."',-i' 
('llj,e N. 
 w.; June 1st, .).1-> 2i'; }>c.ls8ed 
Iunlercrs' Capc; :!(l, Purl 1'enl]"Jl-t 
mHl Cm;wdrs gra\
c; 7th, Broll'n SUUlul; 8th-Dtl1, coa8tcd do\\ 11 to ;,:r ],")'; 
] I th, J]W"/"Ùlt Jlill ]JO!l, ,")
O .)!J'; l.>>th, past Ingraham Cape awl island,;; to "
Point; lith, mct Gray, just out of Pillla,.,z ,'\oulHl; arrivCtl at 
:'u For \\ hich, however, [;ra) and Ingraham fm'nished some valuahle te:sti. 
mOll)', Oll C'"cuts of 178
, iu thcir lettcr of Auóust 3ù. 


again, and gaye hiul an account of their discoycrics. 
()n the 2 
d they sailû<.l for N call Day, the N u1Ìez 
(-}aona of th.e Spaniards, ,vithill the strait of 
,,,,hich port it took thenl four days to reach. Here the 
Rloop .Lldcentu}"e ,vas sold to Conllnandcr Cuaòra fÒr 
seYenty-fi\TÐ choice sea-otter skins, all(l the 
,vent across the strait to Poverty Cove, to oLtain 
,yood, ,vater, and Ulasts. Fronl this port the ship 
sailed on tho 3d of October for hOlne, touching at the 
Sancl\vich Islands and anehoring at 
1:acao on De- 
ceillber 7, 17Ð2. 51 

Gray's iR the only one of the trading vo
"'ages of 
the year that is at all fully recorded, though it is not 
unlikely that the logs of other yessels 111ay yet COBle 
to light. The other trips, as incidentally n1cntioned 
hy Has,vell, 'T aneouver, and the Spanish voyagers, 
111ay be briefly diRposcd of here: Illgraluul1 in the 
IIolJe had returned fl'Ol1l China; ,vas at N ootka on 
the 3d of August, on ,vhich date he 'VI'ote a letter to 
Cuadra; ,vas in conlpany ,vith the Lldl'cnture August 
21st to 27th about the northern end of Queen Char- 
lotte Island; returned to N ootka the 11 th of Septeln- 
l)er; sailed for Fuca Strait on the 20th; returned in 
cOlnpany ,vith the ]Jrincesa on the 
d of October, 
and soon sailed for China. 52 J an1es l\Iagee, on the 
.JlaT"garet, Lanlb first Inate, sailed fronl Bo"ston Oc- 
tober 25, 1 ï
) 1,53 and reached the N orth,vest Coast, 
just belo,v Cape Scott, April 2.1, 1 ï92; he first 
anchored at Gray Coye, on Queen Charlotte Island, 
,vhere he had been ten days ,vhen Has\vellinet hilll 

JlIIns".dl's Log of tile Columbia and Adl."puturf, :MS., 08 et seq. In Sutil 
]f Alexicana, Viaye, 112, it is stated th:1t Gray collectetl :JOOO skins. 
51./)ztlil !I .J.1Jexicana, Viftfjc, JIG; [laswell's Log, l\I
., 83, 02; rátlrOl'
roy., i. 400, 410. Greenhow, Ur. and Cal., 237, tclls us that' Ingraham 
suhsequently cntered the navy of the United States as a lieutenant, awl was 
one of the oificers of the' ill-fated brig Pi"'.:eriJl[/. of which nothing was ever 
heard after her departure from the Delaware in August, 1800.' 
J3 In Nilu/ llcgi...;(er, xviii. 417, 'Yilliam Smith, aftenyarù famous, is saia to 
have made his first voyage round the \Vorl a in the 11[(l!lJlct, Captain l\la,'iee, 
'which left Boston the 17th of October 17Jl-prohaLly the Jhu.flffrct. J30th 
tLi::3 vessel and the llope left Boston ill 1702 accorùing to 'Puft..;' List. 



on the it It of )ray; on aceOl1Jlt of his innc....
l.Janlh "-n
 in COll11Uf.1IHI. 1'he ye."...;el "'as a fiuc 011e 
and \\'ell 1ittud fùr the crui
e, 1 J ut thu:-; far ] l(l<l (1)- 
tainud fu\\p 
. III July he \ra:-; "ith <lray, ft)r 
"hUIH he brought letter
, at X aspatce; 
1ll<1 he j:-; last 
ll<'ard of at Xuutka late in 
eptelllLer..A It J). 
(1()oli(lgc, pL'l'hapH the r-;aUlO IHan ,,-ho had been lunte 
of the [ud.'1 1 J" lsltiJi!}tun in 1 ï 8!), no\\' cOllllllall<Jed the 
( / J'uc of N U\V \... ork. lIe caIne frolll China, and \\P(l-.; 
in ("oIHl'all'y ,vith 1 Ia
-':\\Pcn in the north ill ..l.\.ugust. 0).3 
C\lptaills Itog'ul':-;, .1\d:unson, Barnett, and Dougla:-; 
\\'el'e reported ill July hy the northern natiycs to lHJ 
()ll the coa
t, Lut nothing furthcr i
 kno\yn of then!. 56 
\ \Tilliaul Bro\\'u cOJlnnalldcd the IJullcrn'orth, an Eng- 
h tradur. 57 
rhe l
ngli..dl In'ig- 1'lu'ec EJ ntllel's ,va..; 

1lH.lcd l)y Lieutenant ..l
ldcr of the nayy. rrhe 
sehooncr PJ'ill<':p TJTillicun II 
JlJ'Y, E\"en, froIH Lonùoll, 
and the Lrio- lICll<.: y úJl Bar('la"\'" fl'Olll Ben<<ral are 
'=' , .1' ð , 
llneJ in \T" allCOUYCr's li::,t. IIp also nan1CS the Bo::,ton 
YCMSt .l:
 Lod!f Tf
lsll ingto/i, I
cndriek; IIaHcocl.:, Cro\yell; 

llHl J(:[}"L J'SUJl, Iloool'ts; the first t\y\,o "'C1'e on the coa
in 1 'ï
) 1, aUll p
rhaps again this year, though I find 
IlO other evidence. The Engli
loop J)J.iJ,ce Le 
IJu() , Sharp lllastor, i
 Incnti,Hlcd as haying be('Il 
at X oot1\:a.:>s 1'he cutter Jacl.;(d, of T, Captain 
Stc,yart, ,ytlS on the northern coast iu .l
UgUbt, aIll 1 
at Nootka ill SeptcIllLer. w 
rhe brig .Jenny, Captain 
JaTnes 13akcr, caUlC fi'orn Bristol, l)ringillg t\yO SanJ- 
,\-ich I
land \VOUlell to N()(}tl
a, HIlll arriyillg' on tho 
7th of OctoLcr' sailiu(}' later for Euo'lanù she ,va::; 
, 0 ,=,' 

/cdl'8 Lor!, ::\18., 5-t-G, 8G, !H; Rufit 1/ ;Vpxicalla. ringe, IIG. Green- 
how, (Jr. and ('rd., 
:W, says that the .Jlal !Jar' t \\a8 from Xew Y urk, aUlI 
implies that she made éL trip in 1'7!JJ-J, whieh seems impo
:.j lJwu"e[t's Log, ::\1:-;., 83-4. Yaneuuver, JPO!!., iii. 4Uð, names Co.;tiL1ge as 
master of a brig. 
;;û /Jct.'w.dl's l.JoV, ::\1
., 74-5, 
jj' Greenhow. 01'. ((lid ('a'., 

. names Brown as one of the mo<;t enter- 
pri:=:ing of the Ell[,li:5h traùers, to whom Yancoun'r was inùehtcd for u .ful 
information. In Sulit JI JI,xicfwa, Jïaye, Ill;, the J:utterl.l' n rlll. is dlscribeù 
H'i an En
li...h frigate of ;'0 guns that hrought de ;p.ltchc to' ane )uver. 
 J allríJllI r ,.'s JPO!I_, iii. .1. 8; ,')'llt"l y .J]CX'CWlfl, I .iaJe, I W. The latter 
makes it the Priuce I 011, f'aptnin 
.>9/ uuJln ll'8 L(I[}, :\1:-;., ö3, !J]; JPClIlC()lll."U"S roy., iii. 40&. 


founel by Broughton on N()\
elnber Gth anchored in 
the CoIuluLia. IliYer. 60 The TT enlls , Shepherd C'01l1- 
lllancler, froll1 Bengal, ,yas Blet by \T allcouver in the 
ehanncl north of Queeu Char]otto Sound on .l\.ugust 
17th; she had touched at N ootka. Gl l'ho Flvrindu, 
Thoillas Cole C'ollllnancler, 'the nlost HliseraLle thing 
that eyer ""as fornlcd in ÏIllitation of the .L-1.rk,' left 
Thlncao ill l\Iarch, arrived on the coast in July, and 
\yas nlût next day at Tadents by I-Ia

nvoll, ,vho füuud 
her oyerrun bv natives, ,vho but for his arri val ,yould 
<3oon haye luade her a prizc. C2 The Portuguese ]?el;ce 
L'lventurero, forn1erly 1\Ieares' vessel, C'rUl10 back this 
year under Francisco -'liana; she left l\Iacao in l\1ay, 
lost part of her cre\v at Prince 'Villialn Sound, 
touched later at Queen Charlotte Island, and thence 
caIne dO'Yl1 to N ootka before Septenlbcr. G3 .1:\ Captain 
1\lea1', possibly the illustrious John l\feares, COIll- 
nlanding an unnalned sno\v fron1 Bengal, "
as 111et in 
Dixon Strait in .J uly. (j,I Another Portuguese trader 
""as the Fe nix, Captain J osé ..L\.ndrés rrobar, or as 
,-rancouver says, the I?enis and St Joseph, Captain 
John de Barros Andrcde; she ,vas on the island 
const in August, at N Ullez Gaona in Septenlbcr, and 
sailed for China frolll N ootka OIl the last of Septeln- 
bel'. Her supercargo ,,,,as 1\11' Duffin, forlnerly of 
the A.rgonaut, and she carried to China G5 one of \T an- 
couyer's officers ,vith despatches. Finally I have to 
111entioll a French vessel, ,vhose business is not clearly 
eXplained; this ,vas the Flavia, of about five hun- 
dred tons, comlnanded by 1\1. 1\Iagon, Dupacy second 

60 rànCOllz,'cr'8 Vn?/., i. 413; ii. 72; iii. 4D8. Gray, In.,;t. Or., 14, speaks of 
the Jennet, Captain Baker, from ]>ristoI, 'Rhoùe Island.' 
ranr'O'Urer'8 roy., i. 373; iii. 4ÐS. 'Chepens' is the captain's name in 
Sutil y .i.l1cxi ro aua, ri"gc, llû. 
[,211 asn.cll'8 Log, 
., 'ô. 
(;3 Sutil y}'le:1'Ïcana, Viage, ] lr>-IG; IIa8we71's LOri, 
IS., 74-80. He says 
Yiana was first mate, Ugon, a :Frenehman, being captain. Vancouver, Troy., 
iii. 408, calls Viana's ship the IphiYfnia. 
[,4 J [oSU.Cll'8 Lou, 1\18., 80. 
Icar had come from Alaska, and ha(1 met 
Yiana's vessel in distress. Perhaps 
let1r was Vallcouver's (iii. 408) 
commanding a SIlOW from Canton. 
C5 rWZCOllV( r's roo'/., i. 403, 40a-IO; iii. 4D8; IIcuw.cll's Log, !\lS., 83-4, Ðl. 
Gray met the Fenix at the 
alldwich Islands iu October. 

lç;II YOY \f:r:S. 


captain, aua Torc]\.!t:r 811 pt:rcaI'gu ; she arri \'cel at 
Xootka. oll the 
(jth of ){ay, her llli;-\;-\ion Leing, a'i 
 represelltcd, tu lHIV fur
 for the .6 \.siatic luarket 
alH 1 to scek Dt'\YS of tilt' eXpedition of T..Ûl ] \:roH:-;c.CG 

leetillg' J la:-;\\ell on thl' north ClIft of QUl.en Char- 
lall<l iu .c\ llg'ust, ) lagoll repr('
eJlte(1 hi
:1':) l,oulld frolH l/Uricllt Soun(l to ICauu:hatka ,,-itll 

upplic:-;. illtCIHlillg tù touch at 1. T llalaska. 1'he super- 
.o ',as a ] tu
:-;ian; ftOlll hi}}} the 
ulS 1'C- 
 cd a. verj ,yeleulllc) gift of lie 1 uor;.;. (j1 

It ,vas (lCCl11Cd cs
cntial to Spani:-,h intercst
, for J 
 to IJ0 l11oro fully IHJticed latcr, tù cOlnplete as 
speedily as po:,,\;-\il,le the explorc1tion Leg-un 1,y Fitlal:rn, 
 ill q
 r, and Eli:-;a ill 1 ï
l. ..t.\c-cordingly t,\
(ht ì(>l l
 "'ere d('s
l'ly in 1702. 
rhc tranç,;port 
.Ll }"((,zzrf: 1 , uuder tho cOllHualld of Lieutcnant J acillto 
l1naIÌu, ca1'r
ying f\upplies for California as ,veIl as 
Nootka, :-\ailed fi'0111 Han BIas the 20th of )[arch, 
anù al'J'iycd at X Gatka the 14th of ::\Iay. IIer 
Califurnia cargo \yas tl'ansferrc(l to tho Conc(l- 
cio/l, ,rhich had becn ill the north for t,YO Ycar
:lllJ ,,-hiclt under 1
a's cOIDlIlan(l touched at L)Ion_ 
terey the 9th uf July on her ,yay to San Blas. 68 
CaalllaÜo had ill!:;tl'uctioll
 to explore the CODst up 
to Port 1 
ucareli, alld tu search for v'outc Strait; 
tarte(1 on hi
 trip the l:Jth uf J unc, arri,-cd 
at J3u("Llreli on the 
 and after a Hur,,"cy of 
that northern port he anchored ( )Il July 20th at the 
entrance of I)ixon Strait, "hich he ycry properly 
IHHued l

ntrada Jú ])erez. :b"rolll thi'-) tilne until tho 
end uf ...
\ ugust ".a
 }ua( 10 the fir:-;t official c
of the northern end of Queen Charlotte1:-,la111 1, and uf 

66 'E
te punta nos parccio muy secunùario re:-.pecto á la, ÙCITota qne ha1)ia 
cmprendiclo.) ...,'util y Jlr'xirllll f) J letJf. 
(,7 1 Ia,,,.rll's 1..0[1, 
l:::;.. bl. Thü Tlm'ia "ns nho met hy rnnmniío June 

!}th, fit Port .Ducarcli. lIe was thcn bcd\.Ìllg ncw:J of La. l>L'l"üusc. <':aallla/lO, 
};.J_p' d., :;
Ulllisf. ('a l ., i., c11:1i'. xxiv., thi'ì series. 
(;:J !:(,I"ill, (ß'i!lt dl), III/orllle l! elf' ...tIJril li93, 1-1 t. The other authoritid 
arc hopelessl,}" confu
eù 1csl'....ctillg these t".o dates. 


the eastern. coast of the F-trait dividing that island 
frol11 the HUllll. The ..J/({J1zazn ,vas too laro-c and Ull- 
''I.-icldy for such "
ork, and the ,yeather 'Yas
not favor- 

et the survcy ,vas a toleraLly cOlllpleto onc. 
Scveral of Caaluauo's naU1C8 have becn retaincd; anù 
oln hiG charts "\T ancouyer derivcd luuch of his pub- 
li::;hecl infornuttioll about these regions. 70 A copy of 
his chart on a s1l1all scale is appcnded. On a chart 
that had been obtained fron1 Colnett, Fonte Strait 
,vas located just above 53 0 , at tho cntrance bet,vccn 
,,,"hat are llO'V Pitt and Princess Royal Islanùs; but 
though Caaluallo did not reach the head of thoso 
channels, he ,vas certain fr0111 the tides that they fur- 
hecl no interoceanic passage, and he changed tho 
nllC fron1 Fonte to l\lol1iÙo. Intercourse v.
ith tho 
nativcs is SOllle\vhat Ininutely described, but the only 
noticeable adventure \vas the capture, Ly treachery, of 

70 Caamaüo's exploration is S11OW11 on a small scale on map No.3, in Sutil y 

[exicana, r
iagp, atlas. The following is a geographical summary of the 
yoyage in the strait: July 2
th, Port J?loridablallca [Cloak BaYl. 5!O 20', on 
the north end of Queen Charlotte Island, and south of Lâu!lara Island [Xorth 
and]; an anchorage east of the island seems to be caned Nævarro; 23<1- 
2-1:,h, on the northern or Alaskan coast of the strait; 23th, hack to the 
isbnll; from Pt IJlv:sible region sighted ports EstJ"Ctda and .illa:arrprlo [all 
three names on Yancou,-cr's map, called on some moùern maps ]\Ias
et Spit, 
:I\lassct Harbor, and Yirago Soun(l; one of the latter was IIas.welt's Hancock 
St!1, in the archipelago of Once l1/il J""írr/ene-:, on map Port Na/"- 
t.2(':J and A ll7a Idand, s. and x. of the archipelago; also Port QuimperJ' 
30th, entered the Caned del Prillcipe [still so called], between the i:;lands of 
Calami lad [Banks] and Enriquez [Pitt]; past hay of Gorostiza and Poiut 
EJl!}afio [3. port of UailaLo/:'j'lll, also mentioned hy Vancouver]; 31st, sought in 
n'..Ïn Colllett's Port BaTa, Point JI alcl, Indiada; passed through the strait 
[Xepean Sound], hetween the islands of Comp(/íìía [still so called] awl 
Enriquez, into anchorage of San Roque, or J.1Ial fOlldo, in Lay of San JOòé 
[\\Tl'ight Sound, or mouth of Douglas ChanllelJ; August 1st, ceremony of 
taking possession; 2d, piloto sent to explore the different channels, nameíl, 
after hi
 return on the Gth, Boca y Brazos de 11IoÎÚno, 53 0 2J' [that is, the 
channels of Grenville, Douglas, Gardner, etc.; here Colnett had placed the 
strait of Fonte]: one of them, cxtel1din3 N. W., hywhich the Indians said they 
went to Queen CharlotteI::;land, was followetl eighteen leagues, and ca.lled-- 
or the anchorw
e at its mouth-port Gastún [Grenville Channel], with island 
S.rn ;11i!Jud [Farrant Island?] and brazo de JfaldoJ1eulo, on maps island San 
L's'Ó.aJt [still so ca11e(l; the island of Oil, E. of Compaiiia bland, on Yau- 
couyer's map, a11(1 still so called, was doubtless named byCaamaiio]; 7th-12th, 
further explorations; 13th-2!Jth, detaine(1 by Lad weather; 3Jth, through 
the Lar('rlo channel, between A ,'i:4i-:.úbed Islanù and the coast [names still 
retained], the southern point of the islawl b('ill

 eaEcd Saut(l, Gl'drndis
. 31:st, 
Púint V( ntu?/.';cn, on map hocas de Cicllcga; SeptemLcr 1st, San Joaquiu Island 
[Scott Island]; 2d, Brooks :Day; 7th, 

]:nY.\ TIOXR. 


ailorR. They ,\ycrc rfL;-\('uecl HIHI )'c
tored 1,y a 
f:u.tioH or the tlld
all:-; \\"h,) ,yould Hot consent to S
nn a,.t in return f()r kind trcatBH'ut 1,y the 
In a.dJitioll to thc HarratÏ\ c, and to g-eographic>al dc- 
, ther"\ \Yere added to tho diary senne oh-.;er- 


J .: þUcu.rd1 
\,0.\\ <C&
Vf .J ' C. "\
'" \ If.. o-r." 
\ (: q{ 
\ I""-'i oJ <.. V.t..- Canal de R',:illaglgedo 
- _ -) r 

'1ß D 
1 / _, . I DE ALVA 
t . [>1 = J... 




Z \ ) 


(" '....} 




I'" ,..\1.. 




 . N arvaez Quuuper 
....r, tIE 8A"K8
E Uc.ALAM11W) 
vf-'" Mon'" 

 ('anal deLardQ 

) ,,&( 




- ('0/ 
"1 , _p 

__ 1/<<,0 





l \1', 1'j"!}:!. 

yationR of nni]na]
 an(1 plant
. hy ,J o
é :\Ialdonado. 
EUlcrgÍllg froBl the 
out It uf the gTcat i,
(iaalnaÌlo aut:horcd on the 7th of SeptcluLcr at 
Xnotka, aurl IY'lJ1Uincd tht'rc in tC\]}1pOrary (,olnl
of th
 gnrl'i--:;oIl until l"idalgo's alTi\.al, 
ailing tho :3\.1 


of October, touching at }Ionterey on the 2
d of 
OctJber, and arriving' at San Bias 
Feburary G, 17Ð3. 71 
\Ticeroy Revilla Gigedo had already nlade prcpara- 
tion8 for an expedition under Lieutenant :\laurelle to 
cOlllplete tho exploration of Fuca Strait ,vhen 
pina, returning f1'on1 the north, proposed to luakc 
the ne,y enterprise a branch of his o,vn, furnishing 
officcrs and instrlunent::;. l'hi::; prop08al ,vas acccptc:d, 
and t\\...o schooners ,yore transferred to ..t\capulco for 
outfit. They ,vere the 
1util and JIexicana, COl1l- 
111anded by Dionisio Galiano and Cayetano \T aldés, 
,\'ith Secundino Sa]alnanca and Juan 'T eT'naci as 
lieutenants, Joseph Cordero as draughtsn1all, and a 
crc,y of seventeen 111en to each schooner. They 
sailed from Acapulco on l\Iarch 8th, and arrived at 
Nootka on the 12th of 1\Iay, t\VO days before Caa- 
lna:ùo. It ,yas the 4th of June ,,,hen they startcd for 
the strait, ,vhich they entered next day and anchorcd 
at Nui'ícz Gaona, or Neah Bay. The survey of the 
inland ,vaters up to the Tejada Island, or rather re- 
survey, for all this region had been explored by 
QUÎlnper and Elisa, lasted until the 26th. On the 
13th the Spaniards first l1ïet a boat fro111 one of the 
English vessels, and on the 21st Galiano and Van- 
con vel" 11let personally, sho,ving to each other their 
charts of previous discoveries, and agreeing to carry 
on subsequent explorations in C0111pany. They,yorkeu 
together amicably until the 12th of July in the chan- 
nels about Desolation Sound; but 'T ancouver, ,vhile 
freely giving the Spaniards the benefit of his o,vn 
labors, ,yould not accept the results of their survey 
i1 Caamafío, Exprdicion de In corbetrt Anwzazu al mando del tpniellte de 
?1a1"Ío D Jaci7l!o Call'Jìla1Ìo á comproùw-la relacion de Fonte, lì'92, in Col. Doc., 
In';"., xv. 323-G3. Thi8 is not the original complete diary, hut a 'résmné with 
extracts. A less complete 'rbiUme was given by Kavarrete, Sulil y JJle.J:icanlt, 
ria!!,', cxxiii.-xxJ\..i. 113; see also mention in fd., VíafJc Apóc., G6, IGO-I; 
}'áncollvrr'.o.; roy., i. :-m8. 'He appears to have displayed much skill and in- 
dustry in his examinations, as Yancouver indirectly testifies in his naITative: 
but he effected no discoveries calculated to throw much light on the geography 
of that part of the coast; amI his labors were productive of advantage ouly 
in so far as they served to facilitate the movements of the English ll:1vigator, 
to whom his charts and journals were exhibited at Nootka.' Greenhow's Or. 
and Cal., 241, 231. 

TIlE st;TIL .A


as cOl)('1usi\Yc, insisting" on penctrating" to the head of 
each inlet for hiln
rhis ,,-as Hot ag-recalJle to 
 pri(Ie; alHI though friendly relatiollB "'ere 
Hot disturl)ed, ,et un account of differences 1,et\\.een 
nd ship:-; in 
peeJ and draught it ,va
cleeitleù to part. 
 coutinuc(l their f-\urvcy 
ill a Yerv careful alul etlcctive lUanneI', calHe out into 
the 1 )a
ific Ly a northern pa

age on the 23d of 

\ugust, anti on thl' :30th anchored at Xootka. 'fhe 
util and 1/ ,{'iC((lla left N ootka on Sopteillher 1st, 
aud '\"ere at 
IolltL;rey froll the 2:!J of Uctober to 
the 4th of XoyculLer, haying takcn a glance in pa:-,
iug at t he }
lltrada tio ll\,;ceta, so a.., to 1)0 sure of 
 identity \yith the ri\-cr Biouth explorcd by Gray, 
of \,'hose chart the Spaniards had a copy. 'Ihey 
anchored at San J31as 011 the 
3d of N ovcluher.'i2 X 0 
detaile<.1 dc
criptioll of their 1l10VClncnt:; j;-j po:,siblc 
here; t
1eir explorations uclo". rrejada l
lalltl aJJed 
but YC'ry little to the earlier OlleS of QuinlPcr and 
a, to ,,'hoso Inaps, already giycll in this ehaptcr, I 
refer the reader; 73 \\- hile Galiano' 
 suryey farther north 
i:-:; SIHH\"Il on that part of hi
 lnap ,vhich I hcrù reprtJ- 
cluce.7! 1 Inay adJ that Galiano 011 J uue 
Oth \\ as 


r(>x;canr(, R('lr(ciOll d('l ?:;arle lzechn par lCl.
 yr>l, tas.. .pn ('l (WO d 
179!, porn 1'erOllOce,' cl E..,trerllO de Flica; COil, una inlrodllCrioll, etc., )Iadrhl, 
] 80:!; 8\"0, \\ ith small folio atlas. The atlas contains a general map of the' 
,\ hole coast, from Baja. (ca.lifornia. to Alaska, in three sheets, the northern 
sheet shO\\ ing the exploratiolls of earlier Spanish vO'ya
ers; also, shcet Xu. -;, 
l'nting a. plan of Cala. 1>e .\migos [Frieml1y Core], at Xovtka; XI). 10, 
'\ iew of a 1\ootk3. festival; So. 11, ,"iewof FrÏf'nùly CO\C 31Itl 
panish fort; 
also portraits of the chil'Í
 )'la({lliun:1. and TetacÚ, with 
lana, \\ ife of the 
latter. Ree also I /i.
t. Cat. t i. t ch,\}). },.,xi\.., this series. 
e\"cral of Elis3,'s namcs are omitted on Galiano's map, hut the additions 
3re few. Punta do 
anta. :--:atUl"nilla hecomes Island de Salurll(t [as it h.u
maÎlwd, probahly a t
 pOf'Taphical elTor, on the later map]. The islands of 
Cepeda. awl Lillgara bccome points on a pcninsula, north of \\ hich is fUUlHl 
thc entrance to the ('anal d
 J.'lori(la Blanca, while the ))Iaee of the !o,outhern 
entrance is taken Ly Ellscnada del L'lI!1(l1ìo. :-\eno de U 'm is a nc\\ name fnr 
the hay aho\-e Point Socorro; :nul Punta de Loera. heeon1Cs EnscnaJa de Loera. 
The Punta. atHl L,lguna .lel nar70n hecome an 'l'llsl'nada.' of the b:"unc name. 
,].he 'hoea.s' of the J.'luri(la Ulanc
, Ca.rlllclu, amI l\loniüo, heing eJ\. plol"e(l to 
thl'Ïr 11l'ilcls, heCOllll' 'hra70s'; atHI the name of the last is ehanged to Jla':/lr- 
rcdo. Policl [an error1 is changed tu Pvrlier, anù Cala de ÐlðCaJU;O is aùùed 
to the boca de \\"l'lltuhuy
H The map is Xo. 
 of the original atla
, and ios also fouuel on a larger sC.J.le 
in ßlply of tlte Uuitetl Slalcs. To the land 110rth of the Salida are' g'Ï\ cn, on 



/\ i 

O':::; I.IAP, 17D.l. 



ofl" the 1110uth of the river aftcr,,"ard -aBed Fraser, 
llotillO' the ;-\i(rus of its exi:-;tencè , thou o "'h n:-,:-;urcd latcr 
...., 0 
IJY \ 
(lIH'OU Ver that no },uch ri \-er e

rlllts Galiano alHl \Talllé
 ha(1 sailed throug1) 
Fuca \ 
Htrai t alH 1 culliC out into the l)a ,jtie, pro\-ing the 'X - J 
istellf.':c of another great islan<1, and, ,,'Ita t '\'a
 In neh 
Inure ÏIllpOl'tallt t\1 th
lll and their nation, that nono 
()f t he 
trait'K InallY eliannel:-) afl<,)}'ded the de:-;il'ed or 
<It.cadeù passage to the .L
tlalltic. 'fhis "'as the la
h C
 plorillg expedition Oil tll ''-\0 C )a'-\ts, aud the J 
only one ,\ hose rcsult
 "'cre publi
her1 by order of the 
governlllcnt. 'fho journal al1(llnaps npI)(.ared in 180
,,-ith a Illost \.alual)lc introductory l'éSll }ué of l'l'ecéùiug' 
es hy 
[artill .r\
11ialHll.'z (Ie Navarrete; Lut cx- 
('epting the illtl'olluctiou, this ,,'ork attracted very 
little attcntion, Leing ol)
cure(l Ly the ]Hevi(Ju:-, np- 
pearance of \T nl1eouycr's great ,york. 
u far as the 
expluration of ] 'ï!J
 concerned, howeycr, the differ- 
CHce Let\yeen the Spanish and Lllglish ,yorks is ycry 

1ight, ex copt in lllatters pertailling to the printcr's 
and cngravLr's arts. 
I r Grcénho,y's contra
t Let"eeu 
(laliano'b "lnengre alld nllintere
ting tletails" and ,r an- 
('ouver':.; "full alHl luulÍuuuB description:::;" is purely 
illlagillary, ,\Thilc his SOy ere critici
nl of X avarrete 
has 110 Lotter foundation tha 11 the occurrcnce of n. few" 
ullilnpurtant error:-; and the o('ca
ional display of 
national prejudice, ,,'hich i
 far les
 marked than i
the Litter feeling against all that is Spani
h to he 
lloted in Eno-lish and :b'rcI1ch ,\Triters of tho tiuJe. 
o - 
] lldecd Navarrete's é

aV "
a8 intclltled as n. reply to 
-"leurieu anù other foreign ,,'ritcrB. 

Xo. :1 of the atlas, already copied, the names isìands of Galiano and ....aTtlcR. 
The portion in tine lincs in tbe north '\\ as 
'lkcn by t
alinno from \
 c.lllCOU n'r, 
owl also th(' portion in the south, not copieù, rcprc::,cllting Aùmiralt)' Inll,t 
awillood ('hanneL 
7;j 'EMtÙbmJlos ya en ngua. dulce, y "camos flotar gruesos madcros eOI1- 
fìrmanJonos eMto8 iuùicio::; en la, i,ll'a. de qne la Boca. que llamahamos de }'lül 
Llan\.:LL {'ra la de un rio Cc.l.uùaloso.' Ò"lltil !I J,[tJ:., J,aye, (j3. 'They'tl 
much burpri.æd that we had not found n ri,'\'r f::ílÏll to l'\.Ïst in the region we 
lIllJ('en e
ploring, 31HInaml'd hy one of thcir oiliccrs Hio TIlancho.. ."hich these gcntlemcn had sought for thus f.\r to no pUll>Obe.' J P ll1lCOlll"f rOll 
J 'û!J., i. :H.t 'IhuM it is po:-,t;Ìble that Eli
a inl';!)l had abo secn 
iglls of a riY\.
IlI8T. X. W. COAST. YOLo I. 18 


An English exploring expedition under tho con1- 
Inand of George ,Tancouver \va
ratchetl for the 
X orth l)acific in liD 1. "lallCOUVCl"
datc( 1 the 8th of 
Iarch, "'"ere to 111ake a thorough 
survey of the Sand\vich 18lallds, and of the nOl'th- 
,,"'estern coa
t of .....
lncrica froll} 30 0 to GOo, the latter 
,vith a yie\y of finding, if possible, a ]Ja
sage to 
the .L\tlantic, and of learning ,,'hat establisluuellt:::; 
had Leen founded there by foreign po,\"'ers. He ,vas 
( al
o notified that he Inight be called on to rceeivG 
certain property at N ootka, of \vhich the Spani
luinister had ordered the restoration to British 
jects, according to the convention of 1790. He cunl- 
111anded the sloop DiscOly:ry, carrying t,venty gUllS and 
one hundred Inen, and as consort the tender Chat!tarn, 
,vith ten guns and forty-five Inen, under Lieutenant 
""?". It Broughton. The ve

els sailed fronl Falnlouth 
on the 1st of April, proceeded to the Pacific by \vay 
of Cape Goorl Hope, and left the Sand,\\ich Islands 
for Anlerica on the 1Gth of 
Iarch 1792. 
It ,,"'as on the 17th of April that the coast of N c\v 
Albion ,vas sighted just belo\v Cape 
Iendocino. The 
trip up the coast to Cape Flattery, in good \veather 
and \vith all conditions favorable for observatioll,lasted 
t\velve days, and several lle\V nan1es ,v ere applied. 7ð 
On the 27th the explorers noted "the appearance 
of an inlet, or 
ll1all river, the land behind not indi- 
cating it to he of any great extent; nor did it SeGln 
accessible for yessels of our burden, as the breaker:3 
extended" quite across the opening. It \vas correctly 
identified (lð 1\leares' Deception Bay. T\vo days later 
Captain Gray \vas 111et on the ColllJltvia, and frolll hilll 
Vancouver learned that the Lady TTTasltington had not, 
under his cOllln1and at least, sailed through the tltrait 

76 The new names were: Rod.y Point, at Point Trinidad; !)oint and Bay of 
Saint Uro1"ue and Dragon ROcl.'8
. Ca]Jc (h:fortl, from the carl of that namc 
(Grecnhow's criticism, Vi". Ctnd ('al.. 
:t!, that VanCOll\-Cr, though inclincd to 
think the cape idcntical with Aguilar's Cape Dlanco, 'did not ::;cruple' to 
name it Orford, is successfully overthrown by Twi::;s, Vi'. Que.<;t., 1
Púint Grenville, from thc lord of that IlalllC; and Duncan Rocl.:, from the fur- 



of Fuca, a
 had l)cell }"('port .d- a statCl11cnt that 
causcd llllH:h Hatisf
iJl(,l' it I .ft a g-rand fiel(} 
di;-;covcry OP('U to hil11self, as hp iucorrc .tly suppo:-;ed. 
] Ll' also ll'arned frolll Gray that thc latter hac} f()uucl 
a .
rl'at rivcr in the 
()Util; l)ut this (li(}uot tl'oul)le 
hÏ1u, LCl"ause Gray had ))een ullal)le to cnter it l)y 
rea:-;OB of thc 'Ul"l'cuts, (lll(l Lecause h T \\yas t 11orn u g]Jly 
cPI1,'iIlCl'd, a
 ,vere also Illû;-;t per:-;OI1S ûf ob:jl;J'yation 
on board, that \\ c cou](! not po
:-;ib]y IUl'9c pa

ed any 

afe uayjgalJI(, ol'elliug, harbour, or plaec of sec.urity 
hippillg OIl thi
 l"oast, fronl Capc 
lClldo<.:ill() to 
the IH'()lllolltor
r of Cla
sett; nor hac! \\ e any rCa
to alter our C)] )inioll
, He )t\\9ithstanding that theoretical 
geographers haYû thought proper io as:"\ert, ill that 

pa('e, the cxi
tencü of tn'lll
 of the oceau. . . all(! ('X- 
i ,'c ri \'cr::;." This rccord of failuro to fi11(l the 
Cuhulll)ia l{iycr ,,"a:-, repeated ad Il' US()<1I1
C(lllt) hy Al)leri
an ,vritl'lS in latcr (:ontro'9cr:-,ie=--, and 
 ehaptcr ,yould perhap:-; l)e regarùe(l a
,\-ithout it: 
uterillg the strait the last day of April, they fol- 
lo\ved the ::-;outherll :-;hort"'\ to l")ort Di
cuYery, ,,-hich 
1 )L'l";.ll11C a Rtation for retittillg aud for cxploratiull:j ill 
urr()ullùilJo' ru cf ioll. 77 .FroBl thi:4 
tatioll ,-ran_ 
i:) ..., 
[enzies, r)ug(,t, and J Ohll:-;tollO ;jet out on the 
7th of :\Iay in y:n\-l, launch, and cutter. In this and 
L'cluent trips, ]a
tillg about a 1lJonth, tho \vhole 

()uth-C'ast('rH extt'll
inu of the inland 
ca ,vas di=--cu\"- 
ered, fully explored, aud Ilailled, a':) sho\\-ll Ly the 
anuexe(l c'opy of ,rancouyor's Inap.'i8 Thc I"ècord of 
 and (JIJ
, thongh full uf intere=-,t 
i7"Y",' ÐunfTenr...,q, a 
andy point r(.
cmLlillg 1>ungcne<;,s in the English Cheln- 
nel (Quimpcr's Point 
:tllta ('1"\1/), awl J/onllt no!.:,,' in thc far tli
Lml'l', eli
('.o\,(.'l'c,1 lIy I..ieutcnant Baker, were the only ne\\ names applied \ of Port 
] )jscun'r) ; amI Los ...1 /I!I
 fes was thc only 
pani::;h nanit' put latcr 011 'au- 
l:onver.s map of tho southern 
i8 The map also hhows, IIcsidc8 Yancouycr's southC'rn disco\-cri" of td- 
'11l;t"(t!t!l llll", 1 lood (,tallal, awl l'll!l( t SOlllld, the northern parts ('\.plon.el 
hdore hy Eli
a all,1 (luimper. 
ee map alrcacly gi,.en. .l/Ollllt J:(lill;('r, hcyollll 
the limits of my C(lI'Y, was so namcel for l
car-aelmiral Rainier of thc Briti:-h 
lIaxy. Othcr llallll'S useel ill \.Hllcou,-er's tc
t, 11l1t not appcaring on the map, 
al'C J/nrro".-stoIlC Point, (hll..- COfC) POll!lnatl,er Billj/; lla:cl Puillt, 1:(.'.,lora.- 
tiult Puint) i.lllll C!fjJl"<.M Islalld. 





I '?:-;-;- 
} ...c\'"") 
, "' I \.P I tJ_. 
?E}' S 
\ _ , 



III it
 <letail:-;, Call110t of ('ours(
 IH) reproduccrl hcre, 
('\ CIl ('n ré..u }JuS. 011 the l\.ing's l>irthday, the Jth of 
,J UIl(\, at J >ossession Bound, forlual po:-:;sc3sion ,';as 
taken ill the lUUllC of hi
ritallnic Inajesty of all the 
 ruuIHI aLuut the
e inland ".atols, illeltHlin.
the outL'r coast clo,rll to ;j
O'; an<1 tn the inlan<l 
COasts nnd island:-; a1>0\ e 45 0 '\"a
 given, ill hOllor of the 
]\.ing, tho 11:11110 of XC,," Gcorg.ia. 'fhiH act of pos;-;es- 
:-;ion, like previuus actB of silllÍlar nature Ly the Span- 
 at half a Jozen points \vithin the strait, of 'ourse 
]1tHl no possible force under the N uotka cOllvcntiún; 
Inlt the Hlcn gut an oxtra allu\vance uf grog, aud no 
harI11 ".as dunc. 
X ext the English navigators penetrated the north- 
ern channe]:-;; Lut ".hat they found in the gulf úf 
(}corgia, ur Canal <lel Ito
ario, has already beeB clearly 
enough laid Lefore the reader in the charts of Eli
and Ualiano. 79 From June 2
d to July l
th the Eng- 
llJncn ,yore in cOlHpan)"" ,vith tho Spani:-;h explorer:-" 
as nuted ill a former part uf this chapter. 1'!lough 
grievously disappointed OIl learning that ho "
as not, 
 he had lJolieveù, the discoverer of thi
tcrn :Jlediterranean, ,vith its coasts and island
\T ancouvcr fully reciprocated the courtesics sho,vn by 
the strangcrR, and conscnted, as required by his in- 

tructions, to a joint survey and lllutual ill
of charts. 
l'he operations in COll1pany ,vera in tho region of 
])e:-,olation t>ound, and the results are 
ho,Yn un the 
appended section of ,r ancouvor's lllap, ".hich ,vith it

j9 The 
pallish names retained hy YanconY'er in this section were C'1nal 
del HO:i:u'io, wrongly applieíl to make room for the namc gulf of {;eorgia, 
aud T
jaùa. Isla.ntl. misprinted :Feyaela. anel Favilla; but he abo conùc<5ccnll(.'tl 
to lc.tve a few other })Uillt:4, previously named hy thc 
paniarth, ,\ itbout any 
naIlles at aH. His changes were as follO\\ H: Uarzoll to J:i;'(.h B"y, Point 
Cepella to Puiut RolJerta. l)oint Láu
ara to Point OJ'a!,. Flurida Blanca to 
lJllrrurcl Illlt t, Carmelo to 11 owe .1.....011 lid (naming al
o }Join t8 ....1/1.,; 1U
OIJ ant I 
Uvre or GfJlN'T, awl islauels of p(l
";(l.le allli , ill cOlmcctiun with the 
laz:trrcdt) to J( rt'i,
 Canal, "ith Scof,." ril' Poillt anel Coneha to 
J lar".ood [.,[aud. Point
 Upu.oocl aUtl )[(lr
lzall were ncllll'.l to Tcjath 
hlallll) anù Sctcary /lJlalld was llaIllcJ. ,')tury' on Ballk is a60 ll.uneù in 
the te>.. t. 











 BUlY 1 H' (,oInparcd ,,'ith (}a1iallo'
 chart of the 
saJlJe regiou. so 
l.Jea yiug- the Spaniar<1H Lehilld, "'lau 'OlIvcr proc 'c(led 
up tIlt.\ long ('ha Hncl, ,,'llich he llalHed .J uhnstoue Strait; 
then('(' 11<.' 
e\nt letter:-; tn '{ootka overland hy j Ildian
,\'ho I\. Hl"'. )laf pliJllla, and early in Augu
t 'Inf'rg-e(1 
iuto the J }acitic, Hot hy the naITO\\p challllel f
a little later l)y ("aliano, Lut l)y the "
rider }>a
llanlL'd in carli<< '1' Yl\ar:-; (
ucell (1harlottû SouBel, "'here 
Un\\" the (?,otllfuJi groundl'd and }larro\\-ly e
\\ï.l'ck. :Frolll the 
)th to the 1 !Jtll of .i\ugu
t the 

el::; follo\\"cd the coa
t up to j."itzhugh Sound, and 
 ".ere ..;ent up tu 5
 18', ,,-ith I'c
ult:-3 t:>ho,,"u 
on thl' acculupanyillg ;-.cction of the ehart. rrhcu, 
partly hy l'ca:-;on uf He".s recei'
éd fi:'Olll Captain 
here I uf the TT 'JillS ill thi
 region, the COlluuallòer 
turned his (;our
u south\\ptll'd, alld 0U the 28th of 
..l\ugust anchored at X ootka. J {ere he fOUIl<l the 
hip of hi
 eXl'etlition, ,,
hich had ar- 
ri ,yed fl'Ol11 J4:nglaud l)y ".ay of the S
UH h,'ich l
".here the cOllllllauder IIer(re
t and the a,-,tronOluer 
(}ooch hall been killed Ly the llatiYe
; and al:-;o the 
l)rig 17n'pe IJi'ot/(( rs of l
ondon, cOl1llllanded by t.Jieu- 
tenant... \Jder of the navY. Galianu and' ê.dllés caUle 
ill the llext Jay. 
The stay of 1110re than a 1110nth at X ootl\.3. \\ya..... not 
lllarked l)'y any occurrences requiring 
pccial notice, if 
""e except certain (lip]0111atic llegotiation
'-alu'ouver and DOll Juan de la J3odl'ga y Cuadra, 
".hil'h I fo\halJ notice in the next chaptcr. Socially, 
relatiol18 ,,-ith Cuadra ".eru in ûyer.r ".ay llH)st friendly; 
[\11<1 tht; Lroad territory just proYL'(l all i
land hy thu 
joint Engli;--;h an(l Spalli:--ih RUryc.v ".as nalned the 
lalld of Cuaùra aud 'T:'Ulcoll'
cr. The AlraH:r:u '-'DOll 
arri,-ud fi'oln her northern expl()ratiou
, and her chart:-; 
\\pere placed at the l
ll111an's di
al. 81 l.Jieuten- 
80 The only name in \
allcouvcr's tc:\.t 110t on the map is that of Allel.iation 
j,o:.la11 d. 
H It is noticeahle that while Yancou,"cr lays down the islanr1 coasts from 
f'pallish eharb
 he docs llut note the fact that 
ootka, is c.lll islallll, su clearly 
I:"-ho\\ 11 Ull thusc charts. 




) {; J 't 
.f; {,17.

: .
 r < 
 SLAND < f 
- 0\ 
 r< t 
 - .../tc
ß tora'wnJJau 


5 '

 J, .
"\. to I 

 -f i 

 1. \7 _ J 5 :.:./ 


- '1::J 

_ eç:/lfJ'Î...- 

 '-= _ 1i11d - 
oLÈ' --0 _SI1
 _ - - _ - 

a r 
. 1 
'S ''.ll .. 


c.__._ ,::JS.ä fY-'
 0 -; t's--
- Ln
-;;:" I 
': 'ï 
"">- f>.
O ø

 / 1 
 -. 1iO-- : "- - 
- \..\
,.. - "- ='- p í 
;; _
.,...." Is.oF GP> .,
 "'0... '---:;. -= -- --.p1-.B-oylè-
q - 
-- =- '\ Ï\ 



 _..../' LI 





COUVER'S :U.AP, 17D2. 



ant 'IlHlgc 'Yn
 Sent ,,-ith de
patche'i to l:ng-IaIHl fÙt 
(1hilla 011 a. I \n"tugueso t}.ader; alul on the ] :3th of 
( )ctoh '1' thc 1) .S(;0((:I'.'I, (}/HllllfllJl, auù D Jt!al"s 
tf )gethcr for the south. Un tIle \\"ay òo,,-n tho t"oa
\Tan/'ollYt'r lllado }o)onlC ol,ser\.atiullS at diflcrent point.., 
)r thl' PUI po
e of recti(ying his eharts; JHtll1ecl )IOllllt 
Hi IleJenH; and arrived at San }'rancis('o on Xo'-elll- 
)'C1" 14th. Lieutellaut "ThidLey 011 the lJuLla/lis Blade 
a surycy of Graj 1 Ial'hor,8'J and reached )Iontcrey 
:!d ûf NCJYCIHLcr. I.Jieutcuant l
roughton in the 
(}Ilfltllftl/l entered the Collunl)ia Iti,.cr, alld in 1 )oat:-; 
"?ellt up that c;trC
-'ln alHHlt onc hundreò lllile...;, to the 
region of the Ca
caùe::;, taking I )OSSCf.;SiOll of the 
country for his king. lIc llad G ray's chart; Lut it (lid 
Bot appenr that the .J..\lnericall uayigator "eithcr :o,Lnv, 
or ,yn:-; ever ,,-ithin tÌYO leaó'uc
 uf its cntranLe," a very 
iìuo ùi
tillction Lcin(r <lra\\"u 1)et\\Tecu tho riycr alltl 
the estuary into ,\"hi
h it flu" [-;.83 Broughton arri,?cd 
at San :Francisco aLout the 23<1 of X OYèlllLcr. Of 
,T(1nCOUYCr'H expcrience in CaJifornia lunch llus been 
I"aicl in another YOhUlle of this 
The llarrati\Te of \r
UICOU\-Cr's expedition, incluòing 
not only the yoyage of 1 i!2, hut two subsequent one:; " 
of 17
3-4, to Le dec;cribcd in their place, ,vas published, 
,,-ith an atla
 of finely engraved lll<q)
, in 1 iUS, aud 
the ,york appeared in scverallatcr editiollS and tranf-:- 
latiouf-;. It ,,?as <luuhtless fi'Oll1 thi
 explorer's tcxt, 
uncI particularly frolll his nlaps, inclutling llluch lnatc- 
rial frOBl Cook, the Spalli
h e',;:p]orel s, and the fur- 
 , that the \\"orld tleri,-ed 1110st of it
rc:--pectillg tho X urth\\'L'
t (.ioa,t and ..AJaska. The 
f!.P(Ji/lf Browll, Poillt Ilfllu;(JIl, amI Pain .J.YellJ were the namcs applicd. 
...\ chart is givcn in connection" ith thc gencral map. 

3 The surycv lastcli from the 
Ist of Uctohcr to the 10th of Xm'cmhcr. 
The Ilam('
'n w
re :IS follows: J
ak('I' Ðay, Chellokc Point. fo\pit Bank, 
Tougue Point, Point Ucorge, Y oung l
i'''cr, t
l"aY Day, Orchard I
i\"cr. l)u
Ianhy l
iver, Swaine Ui,"cr, Baker IslaIlll. l'oint 
1}("'I.ifT, ".alkcr 
J...I<IIHl, !\lount Coffin, }
h-cr Poole, Knight ]
i,.cr, rrry!:;]:md, Oak Pl int, 
Point "-arriur, ltushlcigh l
i, er, Call Ith-cr, 
Iannillg Hi, cr, Belle Yue Puint, 

n/if' I::.lawl, naring blanc 1. .Juhnstonc Island, Point Yancou\"cr (the> ca",h'rn 
J}oint of the suryc.)). (
O(), '-' l:51:uul, ];'ril'wlly Hcach, l)artin ó Puint, anù "-hiù- 
he) J
i\"cr. A charl is gi'
cn of thc mouth. 
81 See llit;t. Cui., i. chap. 

Ï\.., thii 


,york deservcd Inuch of its great reputation, for its 
InapH "
ere the l)est thus far publi
d, and the nar- 
rative "
 accurate and eOlnprchellsivc. The author 
had, ho,,
ever, SOllle disagreeable ,ycakllcsses of char- 
acter, already kllO'Yll to the reader froin eycnts con- 
nected ,,-ith hi
 visit to California. Hi
 :-;tatenlcnts OIl 
luallY topie
 ,vere oftcn luarked by an un\,,"orthy 
of unfairlless and petty injustice to\val"d Spani
h aud 
AUlcrican navigators, a defect ,vhich ,vas pointed out 
and exaggerated by Greenho,y aud uthers in the dis- 
putes of later years. I t ,vas 'T ancouvcr's gooù fortune 
that the gcographical nal11es applied Ly hilll ,vcre 
gencrally rl
taiued instead of those originally given 
 the di
OJ A \york published at the same tilne and in the saIne 
style, containing the Spanish explorations, ,voulcl have 
Lèell in fe\y respects inferior to the ,vork in (lue
and ,vould have taken a,vay Inuch of Vancouver's ex- 
elusive fanle. The logs of the AUlerican traders ,vould 
also have Blade a difference in his lists of nalnes and 
. Spain'
 policy, ,,
hatever its lllerits froBl 
a political point of vie,v, ,vas 1110st dalllaging to the 
glory of her discoverers; and English enterprise 
Inade ,,1 ancouver a very fortunate, as he "
as a very 
l11eritorious, explorer. 85 

Besides the exploring craft A 1"C(/nzazu, Sutil, and 
.JIcxicano, there ,vere other Spani
h ve
sels on the 
coast this year, "Those nlovonlents it is ,yell to record 
Lefore proceeding to 111atters of diplolllacy: The 

f:> A 'i:oya[]c of discovery to the North Pacific Ocean, and round the'll'o1"ld,' 
illlt"ltich the coast of north-west America has been car{fully ('.f:aruined mul nCCll- 
'-(if( l!J .,;urveyed. Undertaken by lIisl1[ajesty's command, princiJ}ally 'Witl" a view 
to llscertain the existence of any navi!lable ('ommunÜ
ation brtween tlte }Ço'J"th 
Paf'ijic (tIullYortlt Atlantic oceans,. amllJe1formeel in tlte years 1790-1795, in tlte 
'Discovf',/'!I' sloop of'i,.ar, and armed teudrr ' Clwtltam,' under the command of 
Captain (;eor!l(' r anCOllver, London, 1708; 4to, 3 vols. and folio atlas; also, 
London, 1802, 8vo, G vols.; VancoUl,er, Voya[JHle Décom.pJ"tfJs, etc., Paris, an \'iii; 
4to, 3 yols. and atlas; also, Paris, 1802; 8vo, 6 vols. The tcxt contains se"eral 
engravings of views on the coast, and the atlas has many marine views in 
afldition to maps. That part of the narrative relating to Vancouver's opera- 
tions on the Xorthwest Coast <luring this first voyage is found in vol. i. lÛü- 
'32 j ii. 52-8.3. 



(f Jì tff r:(J }'t 1'1"l i,
, COIHIl1;l Il( 1l'< 1 1 '.' 
 \ lon
o df
:lIHl ]la, ill(f Oil })oarJ 1)011 J uall ùe la Dode'fa , 

llHuHler of San Bla...; auJ Spalli:-\h COlllllli:-::-:iol1l'r, 
t]u' l
t of )[al'(.h aH(1 arl'iy..d at Xootka ,..t the ou<<1 
of \ pril, ""]iel C 
he ""a
 suOIl joiIH_'d l)y thp HchoOll<,
...1(.' ;"", Cat >>{ain Sal\ ador 
IHlcz \9"aldéH, \\"hich 
ha<l Lecll ùclav
<l until the luiddlc of 
[an'h at San 
Ia=,. ]
a. i'u the (}ou '(1) .;(j) left X ootka in J Ul1 " 
arri,"illg' at ::\[onterey the 
)th of July, ,,"hile \tadra. 

 to have [l({etl a
 COIllJllandcr of the garrison 
(luriuo' the ahscJu'c of CaalllLlÌlo ill the.Ll'YfJ/: f';.11 oIl his 

llorthern trip of exploration uut il St 'ptellll )cr. ::\ll'all- 
,,-hile l.Aieutellallt t;al,"adur l
idal(ro left San J3las 
:;<l uf :\lal'eh in thu j)rin 'eS(l, au<} }>l'occede<l 
(lirel"t to the port of X UÌÍl'Z Gaolla, in thp 
trait of 
:Ful"a, \\"hore he arri'"l'(l early ill .:\lay, founded a r<'g"u- 
Jar po:-\t, \yith the IH.:(;e:--;
ar'y Luihliugs anJ tH-titica- 
tioll=,,8 f J :lnd rClllaillcd until 
eptoillber, \\"heu Ly o1'(ler 
of (\la<lra li...:. abandoned th0 
\,;ttlclnellt and tran
ferl"l'<l aU thl' Inaterial to Xootka, \vhere he 
Caaillai'io as cOluu1allùer, and rctaincd hj
 ycs:-:el, ,,"ith 
 the ue\\"ly pureha
ed ""ld .(') tu}'e. l"ho S , t 
( 1('}.t J'l(di.
, under 1'orres, had returne(l 
tout'hing at )Iontcroy in Augu
t. CU:L<h"a left X uotka 
in Septeluher, touched at N uì"lez Gaona to leay.o ordcrs 
)l' ]1'i<la]go, and arri\"cd at 
lollterey in the 
on Octoher Dth. rThe onl) other ve::;sel of tho ycar 
 the be!touner I [orcosita s , \vhich had perhaps 
1 >>cell in the Borth :-.ince the preceding year, rcturnin
tu California either ,,"ith ]
li,",a or ".jth l1uaclra, au. l 
llich no\\" 
ailed again for X Gatka in :x oycluher, 
nT\"in(1' clL':' I )atche:-- frOln Cuadra to Fidal!!< J. 
cnt in 
. ,":) 
('Oll:'l'qucllce of or(lcr:-; frolll thc.
 ,iceroy ,,-hich hacl 
1 )Cell 1 >>rought up to :\lulltcrey from Sau Bla
 Ly the 

'-) .tf if J'Il llLo. t!7 

f.G EnlUS, lli8t. Or., )IS., G7, tclls us that picces of masonry ar' still founù 
at Xeah Bay. 
f..7J:(l'ilfa Gi!1Pf1v, I/
rorm , 13û-9; Sutil!f J[f>xirana, Tïl1,/ , lû. 
!}, J03, 113; 
J/ixt. (Ial., i., chap. xXÌ\"., thi:3 scries; JIc(.'}wtlfiJ '
lS., öü-i, !J:!; ,r an _ 
lOUl,"U..,s J
oy.. i. lU8-10. 




nx' OF 1793-BROGGHTO

SPAIN had in a sense been forced by England to 
relinquish her exclusive claillls to territory in the 
north- ,vest, or at least she had not deemed herse If in 
condition to fight for ,vhat appeared likely to prove a 
mere nlatter of pride; for as ,ve have seen, Spain had 
no desire for northern possessions except as a llleans 
of protection for those in the south. If there ,vas no 
interoceanic passage, then a broad frontier ,vithont 
good ports ,vas all that was desirable; consequently 
an accurate kno,vlcdge of the coast ,vas of the fir
Ï1nportance, and ,ve have seen ,vith 1vhat unusual 
energy the exploration ,vas pushed for,varcl in 1790-2 
( Ly the successive expeditions of Fidalgo, Quilnpcr, 
, Elisa, !\.lalaspina, Caamaño, and Galiano. Should tho 
strait L0 fou.nd, then Spain had an equal chance ,vith 
England to occupy the nece

ary points; and a::; for 
( 284 ) 

\X FR.\xrI
CO DE LA nODEGA Y CU_\.DR.\. !?C)j 

(.lusiyc control, there ".a8 yet roon1 for (1ipl()nla('

and al"pay
 for ,yar a
 a last resort. ::\Iean\vhile delay 
".as es
elltial and l,y no Incans clitlicnlt. l
y the 
of the Xootka <;ouYentioll the "hole coast al,oye San 
j1"l'auci:-;co, or at least ahoyc Cape 
IellJO('in(), for there 
 an equitable right to a In'üad unoccupied fl'olltier, 
,yas opcn for trade and Hcttlenlcnt equally to Spain 
:UH 1 J-:llo'land, caeh haying also frcc :h'Ce:--\S to the fo'ct- 
 of the other, though literally the linlit nXf.< l 
\ ,"as IH..ithcl' San 11"ra uci:...;co nor 
Il'ndoeill(), 1 Hit t he 
,,- )arts uf the coast already occu iec1 by S )ain " \,'h f ch 
Inin'h ,,"cr y p lausi y >0 II}&; cr p rotcd to lIlcan 
 RO the 
 )[tn i sh gOYCrnlllC · .idl'll to inter ) r et 
1 , a ea
 as a )aSlR for future ncgotiatiolls. It is 
110t unlikcly that llU111Y Spanish officiaJs, and CYCll 
the yiéeroy of :Jlcxico, Jua)"" have taken thi
 of the 
lllatter in gaoll fitith. 
]Jy royal ordel'
 of Düccnlber 17ÐO the carrying- 
out of the N ootka convention, so far as the restora- 
t ion of property and the iixillg of ])onndaries ,ycrc 
concerned, ,Y:1S cOlnnlittcll as a Blatter of forin to 
the yiceroy, ,,-ith a recol1uuendation that J uan 
cisco de la Bodega i; Cliadl o 1L. sholll(1 Le the Spani,; h 
cO Illluissioncr , an d t lat the uou nelar ... bet"
ccn the ex- 
<1u:-\i ve posses
ions of paIn in the south an( the 
tl'lTl t ory f ree t o b o th po,ve r
 ill the north Rhould l)e 
fixed at 48 0 , N oatka being divided oot\VeCll the t\\
C ua d ra ,v à:
dingly appoint cd and RUB11110nc(1 to 
)[t'xico to rcceiyc instruction
 early in ] 7D 1. Qlliul- 
 late explorations had, ho\vever, fUl'ni
hed a I110rC 
detinite idea of the northerll strait than the Spaniard
had before po
scssed, and Revilla Giget10 took the 
liLcrty to introduce S01118 changes in the royal reCunl- 

1 'Que Jos inglcscs ocupasen Cll Xootkn los tCITitorios situa(los al Xortc, y 
nosotros IDs de la parte ùel 
Úr, fijamlose en lo
 4s graùos tIc latitulila. line.\ 
didsoria. (Ie Jos estahJecimientog (Ie nucstra. Iegitima })crtencncia, y (Ie 1as 
corJHmcs pata la rcciprociJaù, uso y cOlllcrcÏo (Ie amLas J1ficioncs.' By Xootkr. 
i... lIleant, { suppose, the region cÁtcnùing north anel bouth fmm thc bounc1. By 
thi", arran,
cmcnt e:teh nation woultl h.1\-c an c
tahlishmcI1t 011 Xootka :O-:ouull 
frec of access to vcsseh, of thc other) but thc EugIi:,h cOllM not trallc or settle 
In-low 4." . 


111cndations; he belieycd it ,vould be bcst to giye up 
K ootka altogether, and to luake tho 
trait of I
the dividillg linc, tran
fcrrillg the Spani:;;h cstaLli
111ent to a con\renicnt 
Úte on that strait. Cuadra "-a
instructed accordingly, and. thc purport of hi8 instruc- 
tions "
as luada kno,vu to the 1101110 gOYCrn111ent. 2 
- took a decp interc
t ill the luatter, and Illado 
the fullcst possible investigation respecting tho occur- 
rcnccs of 178!), closely cxalllilling all available ,yitne
on the points lllentioned ill l\[carcs' IllOl110rial, and 
COnl111Unicating the re
ults of hiF; investigation both 
to Cuadra and to the govcrnIncllt. He ,vas satisfied 
that, ag the English had been dispossessed of nu lauds 
or buildings at N ootka, nothing ,vas to be restorc( 1, 
according to the first article of the convention, and he 
flattered hill1self that the English \vould be therefore 
the n10re ready to obtain the port of N ootka by ac- 
ceding to thc terlllS propo
cd. Fully acquainted ,,'ith 
the facts of the case and ,vith the yiceroy's vic\vs, 
Cuadra sailed for N ootka in 1\1arch 1792, and at the 
sallle tinle Fidalgo ,vas 
ent to found a settleIllent at 
N uÌlez Gaona, ,vi thin the strait. 3 At N ootka, \vhile 
,vaiting for the English COllllllissioncr, Cuadra ,yas 
able to Inake SOlne furthcr investigations about the 
controversy of 178!), and ,vas so fortunate as to llleet 
captains Gray, lngraharn, and Viana, \yho testified 
in ,yriting that British subjects had nQt been dispos- 
sesscd of any lands or hou
es \vhatevcr, thus fully COll- 
firnling his o\vn previous conclusions and those of his 
superior officer. 4 
In his instructions of the 8th of l\Iarch 1791 Cap- 
2 In a rf'port of the 27th of )larch 17D1. A reply in a royal order of the 
20th of June postponed a definite ùecisioll OIl the changes, but led the yiccroy 
to infer that they wouItl l)e approved. Re"dUa-Gigedo also fa.vored a north 
and south line f1'Oll1 some point on the strait up to ()Oo, to keep the English 
from penetrating the interior and reaching Xcw ::\Iexico, but it is not clear 
that Cuadra's instructions included this feature. 
S A clear though hrief account of these matters is given in Revilla-Gi'Jerlo, 
Il1formp, 133 et seq., with reference to much original correspoll(lcnce that is 
not accessible. 
4 OnlY awl Iu!/raham'8 Letter of Augw.:t:J, 1792, in Greenhow'.'; Or. and Cal., 
414-17. This letter anù that of Viana are mentioned ill VaJlcouver'
 '''oy., i. 
389 et seq. 


 .\ T XOOTKA. 


tain '.....HHC'(ìU 'FCl' had Leen infol'lHe( 1 that he 1l1ic rht iu 
the coUl':-,\; of ]li8 Yoyage Le called UpOIl to rccei,.c 
h oflicers the prOpcl'ty at Xootka, \\.hil.h 
hi:-, l\ttholic l11a.iesty h;ul agrec(l to re:--:tol"c; l)ut he 
\vas to a".ait further instrlletioll:-' oll th<.' sul
Such additiollal in
 ".<.'re date([ the :!oth 
of .L\ug-ust 1 ï
) L, and ".ere HUut L.r the IJæd(tf/ls, 
J..Jieutellant I tichard ] [crg-est, together \\-ith an order 
frolH Count Florida, ]
lanca to thc- l'o}Hlnand( '1' at 
Xootka. lIer
e::;t 'ya
 authorized to reeeivu the 

property hiulself if he did Hut find ,.... aUf'OU ,Fer at 
Xootka; Lut he \\'a:, killed Ly :-.;a'Yage
 at the Sand- 
,,'ieh l
Iands. 'fhu111t.tS 
 L'\\Y succcedc([ to the (-oln- 
IllalH 1, nnd on reaching 
 ootl"a, ill ,July preferrefl 
to tl\vait the arri\yal there of his superior officer. 
,,... ancouver \\yas l11ean\\
hile exploring in the strait, 
,,-here he heard, Loth frolH Galiano of tht', 
'::flltil and 

hl' l )hlArd of thc T....cJi '(.
, that Cuadra 'Ya
 "yaitiu cf to 

eOluply ,,'ith the tel'n1
 of the treaty; and he filially 
arri \yed at N ootka at tho end of August. 
,r an('ouycr's instructions "yero to rccciyc, and 
 to tleliyer, "tho Luilding
, and cli:.;trict
or par
cl-.; of Jancl... ,vhich \\ycre occupied hy hi, 
ul dcct
 ill the nlonth of april, ] ï8!), agrec- 
al)le to the first al'tiele of the latc 'onYentioll." Cuadra 
had \ cry properly tried to learn ". hat lands and Luild- 
ings \\YeI'U intended; \T"an
ouYer took it for granted 
,vi(hout illYc
tigation that the port of X ootka, and 
proLaLly l')ort Cox al
o, "YC.l'e 
illl] Jly to Le trall:-'- 
fcrred, \vith ,,'hatc\yer 
ht e"ist thcrc, 
fl"()})1 Spanish to I
nglish po
iol1. Sueh a 
render of the post of Xootka h
HI Heyer hcen hinted 
() far a') i
 kno\\ïl, ill the European lll'gotiation=-,; 
there '\'as not a ""o1'd in either treaty or ill:-;tructioll
to support \ "?"ancouycl"S thL'\)ry; hut he ".ould ha '-e 
l1othillg- but an aI)solute 
urrl'll(ler of the place. 
Cuadra at OIH:e prescnted his cyi<.lellcè, f;ho,\-ing that 
 JJriti",h Huhject
 had Leen c.lispo
:-;essed üf no land", or 
buildings "" hatcver, there "Ya
 nothing to be rL'


undcr the treaty; but at the saU1C tinlc he sulnuitted 
his proposition, offering to give up N ootka and retire 
to :b'UC:l, luaking all south of the strait cxclusiyel.y 
Spanish, and lcaving allllorth of N ootka frec for the 
cntrance of both po,vers. Subsequently he offered to 
gi ye up the small lot of land 011 ,y hieh 
leares had 
built his house, and evcn to ]eave at \T ancouver's 
cOlllnland, ,,
ithout prejudice to Spanish rights, all the 
structures of the port, retiril1g to ]j'uca to a,vait tho 
decision of the respective courts. But V ancou \
,voulll enter into no discussion, and did not eyen 
a ttelnpt to defeud his o,vn position or oppose that of 
o far as the events of 1789 ,vere concerned; 
he 111USt have N oatka or nothing. In this he ,vas 
,vrong, as he ,vas probaLly ,\Tell a,vare, though 
Duffin, arriving fronl China, furnished stronger evi- 
dence on his side than had ever existed before. .L\S 
to boundaries, he said he had no po,vers, that 111atter 
having been settled by the treaty; and in this he ,vas 
right. Perhaps he acted ,visely also in refusing to 
accept anything less than a full surrender of the port, 
if he had reason to think his goVel'nnlent expected 
such a surrender. Of course Cuadra ,vas not ,villing 
and had no authority to 111ake the surrender; there- 
fore the t,YO conln1is
ioners, ,vhose relations through- 
out ,vere n10st friendly, agreed to subn1Ît the question 
ane,v to their respective governlnents, N ootka re- 
lnaining in the lllean ti111e a Spanish port. 5 

5 Vft11 co In"er's Voy., i. 384-40D; Rerilht Gi[Jedo, Infm'me, 137-9, IGI-3, with 
hrief statements ill Siltil y J[('xicana, Via[Je, 113-1G, and llasu.cll's Log, )I
no; also an account l)y IIowell, supercargo of the Jlar!Jaret, who acted as 
translator, quoted from I/l[J1"aham's Journal by Greenhow, 01". and (fal., 243. 
Vancouver complains of Cuadra's vacillation in the matter, perhaps ,...-ith some 
reason, hut probalJly because he chose to understand the Spaniard's polite 
phrases at yerhal inter\?iews as implying assent to his claims; he says that 
Cuaùra agreetl on the 12th of Septemher to leaye him in full possession, the 

panish flag lJeillg struck and the Dritish raised in its place, while each should 
send his ohjections to his goyernment, Lut next day in a letter chan:;ed his 
minù. Such an agreement on Cuadra's part seems improbahle, though Itevilla- 
Uigeùo repeats Vancouyer's complaint l\'ithout disputing its accuracy in this 
respect. Hut it seems that the complaint as carried hy Broughton to J..lexico 
was also that Cuadra did not change his mind until Yancouver had worked 
for se\
eral days unloading his vessel; that the latter's expeùition had been 
detained for a 'whole year; anù that the viceroy's instructiuns had been ob- 



""'"aur>{)u, er sent an of1ìccl' ,,'ith ùe:--:patche
 to Ellg- 
1aud via C
hilla on a l)ortuglH.';je trader; aud later íi'Olll 
::\lollterl'Y, ,\1 here hi:':) 1l10:-;t agreeable social relations 
,,"ith ruadl'a, 'Yl're continued, Lieutenant Broughton 
,,'aq takell 011 the .LlctiL'u to San RIa"', froln ,,-hich 
point he \vent to EnglanJ Ly ,yay of 
[exico to all- 
I1c HUlce the result of hi;-5 ðuperior's 11lissioIl, and a
1U1" ne,v ill
. .:\lean\vhilú a. royal order \\.a,..; , 
received in .l.\1exicu requiring that under llO cOIH.litioll 
:--;h4 )uld N ootka be surrellùered. l'he yiceroy )uaùe 
haste to (lc
patch the orùcr to the north by the /
. if J"- 
ni'l(l, fearing it ll1Íght be too late, Lut it fuunù Cuadra. 
in C
alifornia, and \vas sent at unco to v"'idalgo at Nootka 
l)y the IJol'casitc!.s, ,vhich returned in tinle to aCCOill- 
pallY the ..flclÙ;u south\\"arù early the next year. 
No details have ever Lcen published of European 
 on the N ootka que
tion after the Rign- 
illg of the convention of 1790, Lnt s0l11ething i
of fintll results. DOll .:\1anuel do la
 IIéras anJ ::\11' 
Iludolph """oodford "
ere the c-olllu1Ïssioners appointed 
to Jetcrllline the alnoullt to be paiù British subjects :1:-; 
a cOlnpcnsation for their losses cau:::;e<.l by the seizure 
of their vessels ill l7S!). The conllni
upon the stun of t\yO hundretl and tell thousanù dolIar:-; 
in coin in full paYlllcnt of all clainlR, and a convention 
to that cffect \vas big-ned at \Vhitehall on 
, 1 ï!);3; it ,vas ratified the sanle òay by the Driti:::;h 
1nc )narch, ane I pl'eslunably the Inoney 'Ya
 paid ,,"ithout 
LIl'lay, greatly to the t;atisfaetinn of )[earcs and hi
ociatc...;, ,\-ho if they got half the :llllOUllt nalne(l, 
though their original clainl had been 
i'( hunòred allJ 
fìfty thousand c lollars, had every rea
on to be content. 6 
scurc, causing nc('dlcss delays and great lo
scs. III his <<1esirc to prcycnt a. 
rupture, Cuadra may h,lye gone }Jeyon(I hi
 plain in..,truetions amI duty; hut if 
so, the fault" as a slight one and" as rcpairv(l immcdiatcly. }'airnc s t) op- 
})Onl'l1t J "a
 not one of Yancouycr's charact('ristics. HU'itam:mtp, Sup/P1ll lit), 
) G I, tells us that D. )Iariano :MoziÙo, who accoUlpanÏl
(l the Spanish c'\.peditioll 
ii' IJotalli
t, ,\ rote &ill · historia. dc cllc.l. de Ull3. Illallera ,ligna de lccrse,' llot pub- 
L The 
pallish t('xt of the con, cntion of Fcùru
ry I:!, 17!1:1, is gh"cn ill 
Ca l ,., J I:, ("w it dr r 'aif' i, iii. =
(j 1-,":). 
. w. CO.AH. VOL. I. l


It ,yas on April 12, 1793, that '....ieero)'" ]
Gig-eelo dated the report \yhich I hu,yc so often cited. 
I t is by far the Lest slul11uary extant of all the trans- 
actions pertaining to the Spanish occupation of the 
K orth,ye8t Coast. The author prc::;ent:::; at the end hi8 
conclusions reRpecting the policy that Spain should 
 in thc future. 1"he late explorations ,,"cre, in hi
opinion, yery nearly conclusi ve as to the non-exi
of any interoceanic strait; yet the coast f1"0111 Fuca 
south to San Franci
co, and especially the Entrada de 
Heceta, or Colulnbia Riyer, required a closer exan1Ï- 
nation than had yet been lnade, and he had already 
taken steps to organize an expedition for that purpose. 
It ,yas eyident that British subjects desired to for111 
cstablishn1ents on the northern coasts, ostensibly for 
the profits of the fur-trade, but really, as he belioyed, 
,yith a yie\v to interference ,vith the Spanish control 
of the Pacific and to the profits of illicit trade ,vith 
Spanish settlements. He did not think the fur-trade 
,yould long continue to yield extraordinary profits; 
and ,vhile it ll1ight be ,veIl to encourage Spanisll 
traders to enter the field as rivals of the English, 
lnericans, and Portuguese, he did not favor the for- 
Ination of any such great company enjoying govern- 
lIlent support and exclusive privileges as had been 
recomnlended by 1\iartinez and others. N either did 
he deem it desirable or possible, by reason of tho inl- 
l11e118e expense inyolved, to take and keep actual pos- 
session of the northern coasts nlerely to prevent such 
occupation by foreigners. What should be done in 
that direction ,yas to strengthen the Californian pre- 
sidios, and to occupy the port of Bodega, for ,vhich 
orders had already been issued. 7 If another port 
shoulJ he foullJ above Bodega it might be necessary 
to occupy that also; nloreover, if the Collunbia Rivcr 
should be found to afford either the long sought pas- 
sage to the Atlantic, or even access to the provinco 

?' For what was dOile in this direction, see lli8t. Cal., i., chap. xxiv., this 



of XC,," ::\Icxico, that Htreanl \voultl of cour....c ha '.C to 
Ll' furtifÌe(1 by Spain, \\ hîc.h cOlll(1 1)0 lll()
t ad, an- 
tageou:-;ly cHc(.ted probably hy a land force fro}H X e"" 
)Iexico, a('tillci ill eOllcert ,,"ith a lllal'itilne e
I f, as ""as IllOHt likely, there \Ya
 a long barl )orlcl..;s 
<.:oast al,oyo ]3otlc 6 a, the Calif<)l.nian piJ
t:-; alone \\"uuId 
eall for attention, anù ,,'ould furlli
h the 1) ''-\t and 
only a,.ailaLlc safe
uard against English or 1 tus:"\ian 
('llcl'o.leIUllellts. .1:\s to N uutka, the yiceroy 
" 1 :llH, then, of opinion that" e f;houl<l cede to the 
h ,,'holly and gClleroul..;]Y our establi
of N" ootl
a, sincc, so f
u' as the ""R\" of thinkillO' of 
J ,:) 
the English cOllllnander ,r anCOllvcr and his clnissary 
roughton could be ascertaincd, it seelll:-; that they 
dl'sire aUfl a
pirü tu "'[1\ e the l
riti:..;h flag oycr that 
port ,,'ithuut recognizing that of Spain, 1l10,.cd rather 
Ly the idea or "aing-lory of sustaining ". hat IJY reason 
of oppo
ition they have llUtÙe a poiut of honur than 
by 1110tiyes of interest or adYantagc
 \vhich are truly 
probleluatie in cOlllleetion ,vith tho fur-trade."8 
V allCuu vcr's vC
 canle Lack fronl the IIa,vaiian 
I:-;lands in the spring of 1793; the Chat/al1n, llU\Y 
COllllllanded Ly Puget, after having 
pent a \veek in 
Purt Buena Bsperanza, anchoreù at X ootka on the 
13th of .c\.l }l'il, remaining there a lllonth for repair" 
and thcn dcpartinp: for a crui
c of exploration on tho 
llorthern coast. V fi11COUyer in the Discorer!/ sighte( I 
Cape )[endueino on ____\.pril =2Gth, anchored at r.rrinidad 
f1'U111 l\Iay 2<.1 to tho 5th, and then ] )roceeded up the 
coa'St. lIc arrived at N outka on the 
oth of )Iay, 
Leino' recci,ycd as l>uo-ct had Leen bcfore hiln ,vith 
\::) ,. \::) , 
every COUl'tl
SY ]>.Y COll1111ander 
"ida]go. The }')a n 
CHrlos \va
 at anchor there, alHl had brought lcttèr
Ii'OIll Cuadra and tho viceroy; Lut thero 'v ere a::; yet 
110 tlespatehcs frolll Euro] >c, and "\T allCOUyer started 
ft>I' the nOI-th after a ::;tay of only threc days, joining 

8 N(villtt ('ii.l"t/o, /nf(Jrmc 1"3 tip, r;
.}, in J]1I..:ftrmnllf SlIpll'Tll(>ufn ( 
lO,q 'l".U
 S;ylos dt' Cal.o, iii. ll:!-G!. 
 the measures recommen,led by 
the \"iceroy were also a. rcorgani/..atioll of the !)jou:-:; Funù and a trL1.11;:,fer of 
au Bl.lli ùcpartlllcilt to .Ac..lpulco. 

D2 E

Pug-ct on tho 2Gth. Tho highcst latitude reached 
'YflS about 5G o :30'; the only 1l0ticoaLlo aùvontures 
,yero t
le poi::;oning of SOlne of the 111on, one f[Ltally, 
by catulg lllussels, and tho ,voundillo' of t\VO 111C11 in 
an attack by ho
tile Indiant;; and tile geographical 
results ot the expodition, as far as IllY territory i
concernod, are ShO\Vll on tho accolnpanying copy of 
the chart. A fc,,
lllles \verc retained as applied 
by earlier navigators, anù the ullshadod portion ,vas 

.' L.J u;: l 1'01.', y- i .... 
 A '[ r . 
0 1 ".:t.... ,J , ) o.;.
 (f O"I!) 
 ' 'I f 

 t. !1.. 
 ,::;:,. 'dudl ,

........... .. /. . '" 
 "'::. T,,'"\\es 
, .. 
,'l" Cat''' (..., C \'J

L I. \Ihz I hac' _ 

ISLE DE lAYAI:, 1 I ::. - 

<. _ _'1\<,\01\ 
_ .. .. 
..;\ Ð 
A....c. LÁNliAti-' _ __ _ !.:.-_ 

 l ' Pt ,
\ IIIbbiLJlcll "2..[t'

t ..J",- -

las'\rl".Io 1't" {,,"'},<tM 
 H o 
!:'ur Ç 
criCk P . - V':' \'\I\.'
"\.. A.\J.
(" C


 1.Pt.HoPKlll" -À. 

 ó"S" ' 
 . ""- 
 /6'( fi';, (; 
 ...... i'?'-l:"!:'" 
 6') S\,<J.\}' I 
....IH" I.(::

 _ ,
,)dcll'9....Ji (\j:'\" (10."1(1,111:., V 
- 'L '- 
 t".ut:. P . 't', '
 ral { . q.... 

ONILLA ". cS' /. 
 Pt. I . vè 

 'P I cS'" \2'E?; :-'10:1 h
 . '"'\ \.y-1.:

' ....."",-,.--{ò 1lUllln g . -1- 
(., 1'1 

 (- 0 
;1tJiE UII. 
 J <
. - 
 ('<tI,t", r:,.JlliI
\ (' '.\.;jJ ..0 
 - ,.'J-
 '" -:1 1 5:{ 
. y" OC.bN.E!>TEv"...-::', )
 f- M :; 'j '---:-' Ò I 
-- ).
 Ii ".l ) \S' ...1f" jt'--;. 
 Cove -d. - 
/. ,:"< f ... 
o . '
 <]I ;:;aTl;.-d l;a!l",p 

' -i

 J . 'A f J 

(t>Ç;) I :! 
 . r>
"" ",0- 

 :=:.'.r .Jh


 rJ1 r,.-"Jr,.;.-::';ò<
"' .. . 'Ol.{- ,. t .f
l' :'... 
'. . _ Pl. na) I,"r(.. 

d C"l'" 

J . -p.;Lsr 
 e,<><>"" I_
 "';J \.-


\.ÿ þ 
1? ' - -'-- 

d.,Wa'L..r Ua. 
22!1 Cap" St.J"II
31 l.


::;n 1i"Y2?3 







VANCOUVER'S l\lAP, 1703. 

laid do,vn from Caalnaílo's chart. The country froln 
Gardner Canal, in 53 0 30', lil) to 57 0 ,vas nanled N e\v 
Corn\vall, ,vhile that extenùing south,varll to N o,v 
Georgia, at about 50 0 30', ,vas called N ü,v Hanoycr, 
forll1al possession being taken of course in the nrune 
of the British king. On tho 20th of Septen1ber he 
turned south,vard, passing along the outer side of 
Quecn Charlotte Island, and anehorillg at N ootkc.l 
on the 5th of October. No Jespatches frolH l\1exico 
or Europe had arrived since his departure, and aftcr a 
stay of three days he again put to sea for California, 



 falH'icd wrongs in "hie-It country have hcen Òl'- 
}\ -riLed ill au other YOIUllle. 9 

 0 other llarrati \
e or log of a \Yoya
c 011 the ) 
northern ('O:lst in 17!)3 is kllo\vJl to Le extant; and 
t IH'T'ef
>l'e all that i:-; kno\vn, "'!licIt i
 very littlu, about 
the 11lO\'Cll1ellts of other \"es
, and Nootka e\rellt.; 
geIH'rally, (.OU1('S froBl \T ancouver's journal. }'i<1algo 
alHI hi
 Blen of the garl'i
oll had passed a lllost dreary 
,\'inter, confined ,vi thin doors by allllost ince
rains, and ...haken hy a violcnt eart h(luake on the 17th 
()f l
"ebruary; yet "not\yithstanding the badné

0ason, he haù found llleans to erect a 
ll1all fort 
(H1 I fog I
';}antl that lllouuted elevcn Binc poullder
alul added greatly to the respectability of tho c
tal>lislnuent." [n 
lay the San Cú/'los arri\-e(l froln 
San Bla
 under Alférez Ramon Saavcòra. th(
to replaee the Princ(
sa at the N ootka btation, all(l 
Haayedl'a to succeed .Fiòalgo in the conlllland. The 
ailed soon for the south, and touched at San 
.Francisco un his "
ay to San Dlas the 21st of ,J nnc. 10 
Exceedino-lv' llleaOTC is our iufornu1tion res l )cctincr 
Ov ð 0 
the trading fleet of thi
 anù the follo".ing years. 

rhe era of cxploration an(l diplolnacy on the Xorth- 
"Test Coast had, in fl sense, pa:-,:-,ed a \\
ay; there ,ycrc 
uo longoI' intcrnational disputes giving iUlportanee 
to itenu; of testinlony, and thus reycaling the IlaIne
; there "
ere 110 Blorc exploring cxpedition
U1CCt tIio trading eraft in out-of-the-"Tay place
, and 
to seck inforlnation of tho Inaster::; ahout thcir YOYflO'("i 
.. 0 
aud di
coYeries. The fur-tra< 101':"\ had the field to thelll- 
, and for the lno
t part they hayc left no rccor(J. 

rhc lJutlcru'o/,tll, ]>/'lJICe Lp floo, and ,Jacl.: l-t\vo of 
llÌeh Yessl'l
 had l)cen on tho coa
t the year Ll\forc, 
all IJclongillg to the saIne English hou
c, an(J all 
under the general cOllllllallJ of Captain ]JrO\Yll-\'rCre 
lliet }JY \T"ancouYer in Chathaill t;oulld in June; alHl 
l'O\\-n'H llainc "Yn
 gi\yell to thü pa

age leading illtJ 

9 Jrancouv r's rü!l., ii. 23
lrch. Cal., 
IS., Pro
':J't. Pap., À.Ài. 101; J'"ancouvcr's VO!!., ii. 2,j::!-1. 

4 E

that Found. ll On his ret,urn to N ootka,\T"ancouyer ,vas 
iniorJncd b;T San ,
cdra that during hi::; absence the 
port haù Ltx
n visited by the French ship Flovia, 
perhaps still scarching for La PúrouHc, "having on 
board a yery yaluable cargo of European COl111110ditics, 
"yhich ,yas carried to I(alnpschatka, there to be di
ed of to the Russians for furs, ,yith ,v11Ích a cargo 
of tea ,vas to have been purchased in China; but their 
expedition had not hitherto ans\\rered their expecta- 
;" and, nl0reover, the cre\v ,vere disposed to be 
11lutinous. "So1l1e fc,v Alnericans had also arrived in 
our absence, but in a 1110st deplorable condition, totally 
in a ,vant of provisions, naval stores, and even such ar- 
ticles of lllcrchandizc as ,vere necessary for trading 
y\.ith the natives." Their 11an1e8 are not givcn, and 
the wTiter is alulost sure to have exaggerated their 
destitutiol1. 12 

The viceroy had intended to despatch the Activa 
and JIexicana in April 1794 to carry out his projected 
exploration of the coast south of :F'uca;13 but though 
there ,vas nothing in the dipIoll1atic devclopnlents, to 
11 Two English vessels were reported to be at Bodega in January, and in 
)'Iarch two English vessels caused much uneasiness to the Spaniards by thcÏr 
suspicious movements on the coast of California; one of them, which touchcd 
at .:\Iontercy for wood and water, was commanded 1y Captain Drown, ,vho 
said he was bound for N ootka, and the othcr was understood to be the 
Pl' Probably the vessels werc those of the trading fleet met by V æl- 
couyer. A,'ch. Cal., :\1S., Provo St. Pap., xxi. ü4; Provo Bee., ii. IG:!j Ht. Pap. 
Sac., ii. 131-2. 
I:! l"à's Voy., ii. 42ü, 324. In Tufts' List the sloop Union, Boyd 
master, from Boston, is mentioned as having been on the coast in 17û3, besides 
!lIe ship Jr.if'erson, Roberts, and brig [lancoc/o;, Crowell, which left noston in 
1';'ü2. The full title of this authority is as folIo,,, s: Li:st of .American rrssels 
e l[Ja:rd in the Trade of the }{ortlw;e:;l Coa:5t of _lmericct for Sra-ottp'}" Sklns 
Jj'orn 1787 to 1809, compiled uy Jrilliam Tuft.':, E"q., from Ids own JIenwramla, 
a,HII,'om the Vf?ry 'l'aluab/e }{ot('s hndly fllrnÙ;hed by Captain William Slu'rgis, 
of Bo.:;;ton. Published in Swan's }t. TV. Coast, app., 423-4. It ,vas prcpared 
in 1837, when the author writes: 'The foregoing list is nearly correct as it 
regards the vessels engaged in the early trade in sea-oUa .":kins Ly American 
cnterprise. The owners in all cases are not known. There may have been 
other vessels on the Coast during the time who were engaged ill collecting 
thf' smaller skins and lcss valuable furs, but the above arc the regular :Korth- 
",est traders for sea-otter skins.' There are G4 voyages mentioned; but 
s )mc well known Boston ships are strangely omitted, l)ossibly because their 
's werc riyals of 
turgiB a11<l his partners. 
13 Revilla Gigcdo, Iliforlnf', 143-G, incluùing 'InstruccÏoncs para cl prolijo 
l'Ccollùcimicuto <.Ic la cntrada, de Ezcta, y rio de 1<1 C0IumLia.' 



1 J 
 n,)tic ' I IH'(\.;('llt1y, ,,,l1Ïeh ill allY St'Il:-;P rCIHoved the 
Ht"CL'S:-;i t y of :-- Hell all p
 plora tiou, i t \\'a
 al JaIl< IOlle( L for 
:-,OU1P 11llcx:plaill .<1 rea
OH, pCl'hap:-; arising- 1"roll1 the" fir- 
Ii)....., aspec.t of aH:lir:-; ill 1.
nl'()p('.H )4:arly in the f.\pl'ing-, 
hO\\"e"l'r, tllf' .1 J'O Ii :0:" ".as <ll'spa tche( I un( Ier J o:,é 
rrohar for No()tka ,rith thc y('ar'
 supplivs. Order:") 
frolll Spai]) required It .,"illa U igl'clo to 
l'nd the COI11- 
llli:,siolH'r 1 )ack to Xootka for thû cC)lupletiull of the 

u:,pend('( I husiness ".it] 1 "\TanCOUVl'r, all agrCellH 'ut 
Ita, iug 1,een reachc(1 hy thc t".o courts respecting" the 
point::; in (Ii:...:putc; Lut Dun Juan }"ràllci
co de la 
JJodega y Cuadra dice I in 
Iarch" ane I the viceroy ap- 
] )oilltcd C}eneral J o::;é ::\Ianuel do ...\lava to Huceeed hil11, 
both as con1tuancler of tho San J31a,-, cstahlis]l1uellt 
and u'-' 
 ootka. (.OlllIlli....sioner. l'he nature of the DC\\" 
agrCCJl1cnt ".a:-.; not yet kno\\"u to the viceroy, or at 
1c:l=--t the COIHJni!:,:Úoner' 
tructioIlS had not c.uTi yed; 
1 }ut 
ailed in ..\Iay OIl the ])J'IJicc.wl, 
"idalg() in 
(,()llllUaud. I[i
 instructions ,ycre to be fur"rarùcd u-; 

oon as they should arri VO. 15 
rrhc .L1,'((U:fl:U lJcillg at N ootka in the n1Ïddle of 
,J UIlC, Saa,ycdra, tho conJn1ander of the garri
(}l\.ed to send hcr to Ca1it>rnia for ncede(I supplies, 
] }articularl y InedicillcH. I Ie also ,,'ished to 
ccure for 
hi:...: garri:-;on the luen that :\Iatute had left ill Cali- 
ftJrnia the year hcfore; an..1 ho 
ent a ".aruing, 1 ,rougltt 
l,y a. trader frOB1 China, tbat a J3ritish Hhip of forty 
guns \\'

S ("(JIBing in Uctoh e r. 1G .v\n
 f.\Ollle unexplained 
e, in
tead of TuLar our old ..c\Juerieall friend Cap- 

14 It is pO$'3ihlc that one ûf the three 
panish vc!"scl::i of the year malIe a 
f,urn'y of the Colulllhia. and clusely c"\.amillccl the coast hclow, but there is no 
recurcl of such a fact. 
Iay 10th, viceroy to goycrnor of California, mmouncing 6\1:n-a's mission, 
:mcIl,esppaking attentions in California; the 
Oth of Augu
t this order com- 
municatecllJy the gC)\ ernor to prt'siclio commaIulL'rs; awl repliL.J of the latter 
at various dates. 
lr("h. ('tll., )I
., Prol'. St. Pap., },.i. 171; },.ii. 101 :!, 1-t!l; 
Prol'. Il, r., i\-. 11 i; J"allrnllrer's J'oy., iii. 301-:!. The PJ'ilKC.'iU did not tOllch 
ill California 011 her upwarcl trip. 
}', Soan "1'((, ('flJ"tn.
 flZ yolJf'J"nrl,znr d ra1Uòrll;,t .
olJJ'(> CO.
flR de J.Yootl'a, 17[,-S, 
:!\I:-;., inducling also the govcrnor's Tt'plics. .\mung thc snpplies dl'man(lccl \\ erû 
aceta.3 para. dh.crtirnos t'n la in\ l'rn:.ula.' The gO\"(\rIlOr :l:isure<l :--:a:l\"l'clr,I 
that tIll're wa-; nothing to he fcared from Briti::.h yes::;\.:ls, as a. treaty of fric:ld- 
hhil) helli hCL'll cundutlcd. 


tain J Ohl1 T
endrick-or possibly his SOIl ,J ohn-,,,"a8 
sent in cOlnnutnd úf thè transport, ,vhieh 
ailcd about 
,Juno 15th and anchored at 
Iollterey 011 July 2d. 17 
ick at once Inade kno"
n his ,vants, 'v hieh ,yore 
supplied as far as possible, though the Inen d0sired 
hall already been enlbarked for San BIas, and there 
\\yas a great scarcity of SOlDe of the articles asked for. 
Iagin Catalá, the 111issionary, caIne to Cali- 
fornia by t.his trip of the A ran:azu, serving as chap- 
lain, and ,yas not ,villing to repeat the northern trip. 
s tho president had no authority to send another 
father unless aR a volunteer, and as the Yankee cap- 
tain 'YfiS horrified at the prospect of his cre,v being 
deprived of their lJasto eS1Jirl'tUCl1, the situation ,vas 
elnLarrassing; but finally a retiring friar consented 
to ser\TO as chaplain on the ConcelJcion, and G0111eZ of 
the lat.ter sailed ,vith Kendrick. I8 
Captain \T ancouver carne back to the AI
coast this year, for the last tin1e, to cOlnplote his sur- 
yey of Alaska up to tho head of Cook Inlet, in about 
G 1 0 15'; after this was accolnplished he turned south- 
,yard, and on the 2d of Septem
er the Discover'y and 
Chathct1n anchored at N ootka. Alava had arrived the 
day before on the Pr'Ù2cesCl. Neither commissioner 
had any idea of his official duties; and there ,vas 
nothing to do in that direction but a,vait the instruc- 
tions that ,vere to be sent to the Spaniard before the 
15th of OctoLer. Vancouver ,vas deeply grieved to 
learn that his old friend Cuadra ,vas dead; but Álava 
riyalled his predecessor in courtesy, and together ,vith 
Fidalgo, Saavedra, and other Spanish officers, did all 
in his po"'"er to nlal\:e the stay of the Englislllnen 
Rureeahle; though, because 'Tancouyer's store of po,v- 
ð . 
del' ,yas nearly exhausted, it ,vas agreed to (bspense 
17 June 13th is the date of Saavedra's letters, and the aITival at J\Ionterey 
18 recordecl in A'rch. Cal., JUS., Provo St. Pap., xii. 21l. 
]8 KcrndricJ..., Correspondencic(, soúre C08as de.J..Tootkct, 1794-, M:S.; Cafalâ, Carta 
soúre ){ootl:a, 17fM, J\I
. The Aran2.azu, under ToLar, left Nootka on the 
] 1 th of Reptembcr, and again touched at 1\Iolltercy Septpmbcr 22d to 28th 
on her way to San BIas. rancouver's Voy., iii. 303; _lrch. Gal., 1\1::;., Provo St. 
Pap., },.ii. 130. 



.ith the ('u:--.tolllary sa!ut(.s. The obsel'vator:v \\"a"; 
s .t up on 
horl'; tllere ,,-as 1'1(,llt
 of \\.ork to he done 
ill refit tin o ' tht. YP:-\
cl:-\; all( l a visit ,,-as lllade to tho 
yiJlag(' of )[:HJl1innn, np the Hound. J9 
.L\t Xootka \T:UH'OHVPl" fOlllHl the follo\YÎn o " tra(1in o " 
(.raft: the fJli({ Iii c, Captain IIugh ::\I0 o r, frolll n .ug-a]; 
the j)rill(>c Lp j](}O, Captain Gordon, fi'OI11 China; the 
./(J}ì Ii?!, (1 ap tain John Adnlll.;;on, frolH ] h.istol; the [(ul!1 
J forOS!i in!jton, Captain ,John I\..< IH lriek, froll1 ]
aad heard of the .[(/('[.(1[, l1 ap tnill Dro\YIl, fronl Chilla, 
on the northern coast. The J
ngli:-;h vcs
 had 1 )l
very successful in tl'a(le; au( I the o6o\.Jllerican l)rig 
as lai(l up f()r repairs. ]{cspûcting the trading flcet 
of 1 ïD-
 nothing- 1l1ore is knO'Yll. 20 ::\[1' Greenho,\? tell
 that "neither ]
enclrick nor hi
el eyer re- 
turned to ..\1l1cl'ica [after 1 ï
l, as is ilnplic<lJ: he "-:1'3 
kil1pd, in 17
)3, at J(arakakooa l
ay, ill O\l;yhec, by n, 
hall ncci(lcntally fired froln a British ves:-;el, \\9hile 
f.:nluting hiul. "21 nut tho correspondence ,vith the 
gO\ crnor of CaliGn>uia ill 1794 Pl'OYCS this to Le all 
"-rong, so far a
 the (late is concerned; and still le
ne-curate in thi:-; respcct i::, the 
taternent of ::\1 r Sturgis 
that the acci(lcnt occurrc-d on I(enlll'ick's birthday, 
ill 1 ïD
.22 The fatal shot ""a
 firc(l pcrhap
 early III 
1 ï!)j, though the L(u l !} TfTuðhingtun ".as at X ootka in 
] ï
)G, perhaps UIH.lCl" her old Ina
tCl'; and certainly bc- 
foro 1801, ,,"hen ])clalln at the Sand\\9ich lslall Is hpard 
of the (lisa
ter, IHuuillg uo date. 1'110 
11lêll'incr, if \\ge Inn)" creùit hi.., as
, \\9a

() '\'r
1ppell ill grand RchenlCS as. to Lc Lehilldhalld 
ill t It..-' ordinal"" aft
l ir
 of life. 1 t 
 he t"uuld llot 
eVen J.ic 'on tin1e.'23 I haVl\ alrea f ly llotCJ the po

19 rallrOll1'f r's J"'oyn!Jf', iii. 29!)-3Hi. 
:.!o ". Tufts anel Sturgis give no names between 1703 and li!)(j. 
'1.1 (;nenllOWS U1.. alld 'a I. ,
:!!). lIe ah.;o says, p. :?:?:
, that Capt
lin Brown 
\\ a:-> killeel hy the nativc::3 of the :-)alHh\ iell Islalld:i ill January 17H.). 
/ Lecture on, tlte 
\?urth-u.e8t Far-trade, 18-íC, ill lIltllt'8 JIerck. 
JI([!!., >.iv. !j;J3. 
:.:J \cconling to the 
Y()l"fh .tmf'r. l?el.;f'll", >.vi. 3"."), ß son of Kendrick was 
v.ith his fathcr and remaincel 
úmc tiluc at Kootka. in the :-':pani.,h scnice. 
In thc California. archivcs a Juhn l\:clHh.iek is llillll<:tl a'i 
upcrcargu of the 
EIÙ,a, nuwall, but this is YCl")r likely an error, or at least anoth\..r man is 



 that thp ICcndrick ,,
ho vi:Ûted California lnay 
ha ye been a Hon of the original. 

meant. .\ccording to :1 report in U. S. 001'. Doc., 19fh Cong., 1st Hess., II. 
Yo. .!13, p. 14, the title-deeds to the land purchased by Kendrick from 
the Indians werc deposited in the office of the United Htates consul in Canton. 
In liHG the bUlls were offered for sale in LOIl(Ion hy 1\11' narrd, agcnt for 
the O\yncrs of the Columbia. 'fhe author of Boston in the ..J...Yo1"tlucest, 
18., 2-3, 
says: 'Captain Kendrick wrote to his wife of this purchase, also of de- 
))ositing the original title in Canton, and transmitting the duplicate to "Tash- 
ington. It was neyer seen by the family, and the lctter in rclation to it was 
lost. . . by fire.' The representatives of the owners of the vessels applied to thc 
U. B. go,-crnmellt for a confirmation of the title, but a committee of congress 
re})orted that though the claim was :1 just one the rightful heirs had not ap- 
l)cared. Kendrick bought the Wa.<;h.ington before altering her into a brig. 
· \Yhen <lying he called his mate into the cabin and l)ut him in charge of the 
yessel, with instructions to proceed direct to the C nited 8tates. The vessel left 
the islands, hut was never heard from afterward [therefore this must have 
been after 17nG].' And thus were lost all his effects, including journals and 
records. 'There are l)roofs in the faInily that Captain Kenllrick was one of 
the famous Boston Tea Party in 1773, and that he was with Captain Cook 
in his last yoyage of li'7G.' Captain Amasa Delano, }{ctrrattve of V oyaye8, 
Baston, 1817, pp. 309-400, who met Kendrick at Canton in 1791, and who 
in 1S01 at the 
andwich Islands heard of his death, eulogizes him as :1 
vightor with but few equals, noted for his enterprising spirit, good judg- 
1!lent, and courage. A man of rare merits, his faults heing but few compared 
,;-ith his amiable qualities. In about 1839-40 Hall J. Kelley became inter- 
ested in the Kendrick title. and was instrumental in bringing it before con- 
gress. From a pamphlet on the subject, ]{elley's Discov. .lY. JV. Coa..,t, I 
have already cited in the lwcceding chapter, note 33, the title-deeds and 

Dme correspondence. This writer speaks of the attempt to sell the lands in 
London in 1 ;9G, when advertisements in four languages were circulated, bear- 
i!1:5 impression of the Columbia Inedals. .Mr 'Vardstl'om, in a work on Tru
(toloui.:ation, is said to have expressed confidence in the title, giving also the 
pictured medals. Kelley, Letter of January 1, ]870, states that Kendrick's 
death was on the 4th of July 17D3; but the correspondence above cited-if JHr 
IIowcll, as represented, sailed for China with the papers after the captain's 
death-seems to show that it must have been early in li93; while if it 'were 
nùt for the date of Howell's letters I should place it after l796. The follow- 
iag, ia which the reader will note a few errors, is from the KewYork Tribune, 
K ovember 2.3, IS; 1: 'The name of Captain John Kendrick, the first American 
explorer to the north-west Pacific, is one which our history can hardly afford 
tJ lose. The young and daring men who are attached to the scientific expe- 
dition in that quarter to-day, could not ask a worthier figure to head their 

nl1als than this npright and fearless ca})tain ,,,hom tradition says absolutely not the fear of savage or storm, whom no disaster coul
 daunt or snffer- 
ing ::ml Hlue. lIe commanded the expedition sent out by a company of Boston 
merchants to the Pacific, which was actually the first time that an American 
ship sailecl round the globe. He met with incredible hardships on different 
YOYD ges; t \\-0 sons were killed by Indians before his eyes; yet he returned 
again and a,gain to the Pacific, doing great service in exploring the i::;lands 
and the coast about Vancouver's, to the northward. For this he received finally 
the patent of :1 large tract of land equal in extent to nearly the whole state 
of Oregon; but the papers were lost with him on his last voyage, and his 
family, after a fewefÌorts, gave np their claim. He brought ho
c maps?f the 
coast and pictures of savage costume, as well as the scenery, }1Dllltcd with 110 
small skill hy the ship's })ainter, a man who had talent beyond his trade. Yet 
there is scarcely a trace left of this gallant navigator. and his name is harely 
Dlentionetl in any record of north-western eX!Jlorations. His services were so 



On tll(\ 1 ()t11 of ()<:tol)l'}\ 110 {l('
patehc..; ha yi ng 
nrriycd, tht.' Engli:--;h Ye
ai]ed for ::\lonterl'Y, 
"here thc'y arri \peel on the 
cI and Gt h of X 0\,",("1111 fer, 
:UHl ".c'ro Joillc(l 1)y" the })rìu('{Jsa on the 7th. ]1'our 
(lay:-; la tl\l' .L\la ya' 
 in:--;truct ious eallH' frolll :\ [exÌ('o ; 
l that uflicer, 
a}s '7"ancou \ycr, ,\pho had recci, eel JlO 
patchC's, "yel'Y oLligingly cOllfiJillg' to Jne, that part 
of his instl'ucti()n
 ,vhich statetI, that no further altl'r- 
eation "pou}(1 takc. place ,,'ith ],l'
peet to the prcei:-;c 
]ueallin o . of the first article ()f the ('onvcntiou ()f. . . 
17!JO, a
 t he dOCulnent
n1ÏttcJ l)y the late Se1Ìor 
uadra and llly
clf, had cllalJled our l:ef'pectivc court.; 
to a.ljust that lllattcr in an [llnical)lc "pa
r, and nearly 
on t hc tcrUl:O; ,,-hieh ] ha, 1 
o repeate( By offered to 
Seí10r Quadra in 
cptcluLer 17!>
. In allùition to 
,,'hieh the Spauish lnillistpr
 set forth, that thi
U.; not to Le carried into t;xccution l,y 1110, as :t 
fre:--.h cOlnnlÌ

i()n had Lef..'u i:--:sul'd f()r this purpo
e 1)
the court of Londoll. 21 
alllC ,yas announced to 
crnor Enrica Ly the ne"y yiecl"uy of ::\re
ico, \,-itlt 
i I)
 to rccei ,ye the pcr:,on acting unùer thi;; 
si()n into their pre
idios."2.; According]y \r an - 
ailed for hOl11e by "
ay of Cape ] {orn on the 

d of Deecluber, reaching' hi
 destination in Uctober 
1 7!> 5. Thi
 Üunuus ex} >>lorer died LeG )re hi
appeared in IJl'int, Lut not before he had COil \
elf by conyersatiolls ,yith Captain Culnett that 

yallleel that the city of Boston gavc him a puhlic reception on his return from 
the first ,'oyage, mHI a mcdal ,\ as struck ill hunor of thc event. ...\ fe,.. of 
thc>sc Im.(lals arc f:till prcsen-C'(l, amI paper
 relating to the yoyagt} anel c'\.plo- 
rations arc in thc state tkpartmcl1t, ) lut all cfforts of historianq and othCl"S to 
gct si:ðlt of them ha\.c yct proycc1 u
s. Thc work of sctting thc ùaulltle
h.cmh ick l)t'forp thc country which OWl'S him [0,0 much ha:-3 Lcell unelertakul 
hy loyal and 10' ing hands, but is sadly hampered for" ant of authelltic ÙUCl1- 
l11cnts. ' 
::L In a note, p. 33
, Yancouyc>r 
ayg this was not thc fa.ct, as the frcsh in- 
stnlctions \\ crc at first ael,lrcs'::;ClI to him. 
2", J.>>q.;lln (,'i[le,fo, IIlRf,'llrc;on rU
('''''(l,f((, a fOl Stir ror n,'allrifc)rf(, 17'94, a 
)IS. in tl1<' library of con
s citcel hy (
rccnhow, sta,tcs 'that ordcrs ha.llwcll 
Sl'ut to thc commauelant [at .:\ootkal to al.alllloll tht' plact', agr<'l'ahl) to a. royal 
";el(l mf'II:' :lIlt 1 al
o contains :llh'iLc Bot to l'
 h'ntl till' 
 pani::;h ('
ta hlishnu ut.
hcyullel Xootka. The ,'icC'rov's annOUI1f'Cmcut that a new cOlluui:ssion ha
'n i'
-uc.l i-; ,latl'tl the {Gth e;C 
Iay 17!H :uul th gm"el"nor's rl'l'f'ipt the l:!,h 
of Xov,.'mher. ...l,.c!t. Cal., ),1:-;., J',"Ul'. ,...t. Pap.. )"Ì. l';:!; P,'Ol', Nee., ,i. 


thc latter "had Leen extrclncly ill u
ed, and that no 
dependence is to Lc placed on tho accountR given 
to Sefior Qua(h"a, or Inyself, by the ..L\..ll1orican COlll- 
Inanders, ".ho are stated t.o haye Leen eye-,vitnesses 
of Ill0St of the transaction
. The dOCU111ents and 
papers ,vhich Captain Colnctt has since produced to 
1110, fully proye that the AU1ericans ,yilfully n1Îsrcp- 
resented the ,,
hole aflàir, to the prejudice of his 
character, and the intere
t of his Briti
h nlajesty's 
fubjects."26 ,Tancouver ,,,,as very "rilling to be COl1- 
yinccd of .L:\..nlcrican perfidy, and the reader alrcady 
kno,ys ,vhat ,,
cight is to be attached to Colnett's 
l\Iean,vhile the N ootka controversy had been defi- 
nitely settled by a convention signed at 
Iadrid on the 
11 th of January 1794, by the British and Spanish 
n1Ínisters St Helens and the Duke of Alcudia. By 
the terms of this agreelTIent the respective comn1Ís- 
sioners ,vere to .111ect as soon as possible on or near 
the spot ,y hpre stood the buildings forn1erly occupied 
by British subjects, and there to exchange declaration 
and counter-declaration as literally prescribed in the 
doculnent. The forn1er ,vas a final restoration of the 
buildings and lands of ,vhich British subjects had 
been dispossessed about April 1789, and the latter a 
forrnal declaration that the restoration ,yas complete 
and satisfactory. "Then the British officer shall un- 
furl the British flag over the land thus restored as a 
sign of possession, and after these fornlalities the offi- 
ccrs of the t,vo cro,vns shall retire respectively their 
pcople froln the said port of N ootka. And their said 
111ajesties have furthernlore agreed that the subjects 
of both nations shall be free to frequent the said port 
as may be convcnient, and to erect there ten1porary 
Luildings for their accolnmodation during their resi- 
dence on such occasions. But ncither of the t,vo 
partics shall makc in said port any permanent estab- 
lishment, or clain1 there any right of sovereignty or 
26 Vancouver's roy., iii. 310 ct scq., 4VI et scq. 




territorial tlolllÏnioll to the c'X(.lu
ioll of the other. 

 \ IH 1 their said Illajesti('
 "pill aid (:ach other to 
l11aiutain their 
ubjects in free accc:-;s to the Raid 
port of X oot ka a.
aill:-;t ,vhatever other natiull lULL.r 
at.telupt to c
taLli:-;h there any sovereignty or du- 

(}on('ral Álayn, :-;CC1118 to have pas
cll the 'rint..r 
in California. Ùn the 13th of :J anuar.r 17ÐJ the 
.J.letica S'tilcù frol11 San Bla
, conuuullùed by Lieu- 
tenant CO
U1C Dertodallo, and haying" on Loard Lieu- 
tcnant rrhonUl:-; l>iercc of the Inarines, the nu,,,ly 
appointcd British cOlnlni
sioncr. One Inollth later 
t!lO In'ig touched at 
Iontere.r, and hasillg tak
.l\laY:1 011 board 
aile(l on 
Iarch 1st for tIle north. 
\ ,r c Ita ve fe\\r detail;o; of thc acts of rcstitution on the 

3J of .:\larch, chaugc uf flags, anù final abanclonnlcnt 
()f X ootka; IJut the iurlnalitie
 ,,?ere clearly prc.3criLed 
in the treat.r, and ,vere ùoubtless closely fùllo\vcJ. 
 ,\Tere left \\"ith the Indians for sub
h or 
panish yisitol's, eXplaining \\yhat had becn 
(lone; then the establisl11nent ,Ya
 broken up, anù all 
1110yalJle property transferred to the ship
. ) 
()f the ..,.1<;ticCl'S return I have no record, as she 
(lid not proLalJly touch at any California port; Lut 
the /)('( n ()ú.,.'os, bringing Con1andante 
aaYedra and 
 111011, arrived at )[onterey un the l
th of )IDY. 
SUllle of the garrison relllaiucd to strcngthen the 
presidial forces, and SOIllC t\\Pc11ty northern In<li:,uIH 
,,"ere Lrought dO'Vll to 1Jc Laptizcd anel to settle in 
California, a
 other;-.; of tlH,ir race haJ becn in the 
. The llext 
?ear )Iaquinna'
jects had transferred their yillage to the site of tho 
abandoned Spani::;h po
t; and fr0l11 1 ïÐj to 1883, S) ) 
n' a
 1 kno\\., there ha
 bl'cn no settleluènt of \\-hite 
Incn at X ootl\.a. 
rhe glory of the place hatl dep,-utetl, 

27 ...Yoofl"a, A rurrl!f) d rom'eni,) (,l1fr(' r.
l alia! 1119''''('rra para 10. ('jerurion rid 
articillo 1 0 elf' III rO/H.euci',1 </1 ":8 d, oc.'tllbrc d 1790: fii"llludo [II. J[w.1rid t.l 
11 de L'ncl"O dc 179 í, ill Calt.ü, ll{ l.udl COlJllJI( t titS J'raite", iii. 


but its luune "
as often on the lips of learncd partisans 
in later lli8cus:sions. 
The nature of this final scttleu1cnt of 1791-5 has 
relllailled, so far as I anl a,yare, for the lllost part uu- 
kllo,vn to ,yriters on the N orth\ycst Coast. Lieutenant 
roughton, "Tho ,vas illfornled the nl
xt year by letters 
frol11 the COlll1uissioncrs of "That had been done, chose 
to reveal in his narratiye only the restitution of tIlc 
port to the British; and 1110st English ,vl"itcr
 11a \
since stated or inlplied uniforlnly that Spain ,vas 
obliged to giye up N ootka in accordance ,vith the 
treaty; only this, and nothing Inore. If any of then1 
kne,v of the treaty and the enforced abandonment by 
England as \\Tell as Spain, they rnaintained a discreet 
silence. 1\11' Greenh()\v, the leading Àlnerican "
on the subject, quotes an English historian: "It is 
nevertheless certain, frolll the 1110st authentic subse- 
quent inforlnation, that the Spanish flag flying at 
N ootka ,vas never struck, and that the territory has 
been yirtual1y relinquished by Great Britain;" and he 
deenls it unlikely that under the circu111stanccs Eng- 
land should have required, or Spain assented to, the 
surrender; but "Inore reasonable to supposc that the 
Spaniards merely abandoned the place, the occupation 
of ,vhich ,vas useless and very expensive."29 Doctor 

28Arch. Gal., J\IS.,P}.ov. Sf. Pap., xiii. 80,89; Pro1J.Rec., vi. 37-46; Ga('('ta 
de ....lJexico, vii. 2GG; Broughton's roy., 50. The last nameù ""Titer simply 
learned from a letter received at Nootka in l'iDG 'that the Rpaniards had 
delivered up the port of Nootka, etc., to Lieutenant Pierce of the marines, 
agreeably to the mode of restitution settled between the two courts.' 
29Greelihrnv's Or. and Col., 23';-8, citing B('lsham..
.., llist. Oreat Britain, 
yiii.3:n. The second clause was quoted by me from the edition of 184:); but 
in the later edition of 1847 it reads as follows: 'It is more reasonable to 
snppose the agreement to have heell, that the lands at Nootka should be 
delivered up in form, to save the credit of the British ministry, and that both 
parties should abandun the north-west coast of America, than that either 
should have persisteù in its original demand at a moment when their cordial 
union and coöperatioll was so desirable for both.' He also quotes the follow- 
 letter from Lieutenant Pierce from Tepic, in 1793, which still, as will be 
noticed, gives a wrong impression about the final settlement: 'I have the 
honor of acquainting your grace, that, in obedience to your instructions, I 
proceeded from J\Ionterey to Nootka, in company with Brigadier-general 
Alava, the officer appointed un the part of the court of Spain, for finally ter- 
minating the negotiations relative to that port; where, having f;atisfietl 
myself respecting the state of the country at the time of the arrival of the 



Tydss, on tlH
 other hand, dCl'lll
 the' statorneuts (}f 
rotttrht()Jl , !(o(.ll , an<l 
[()fra-.; as (' a

tl1at of J 
l'l:-\hê.ull, and Lelie\ es there eê.lll be no doubt 
that 1 h<.' plaeü \\ a
tOl'e< 1 to England.3O I3ut lH:itllcr 
('halllpion ha(l the lea
t :-;u
pil'ion of ill · forulal aban- 
dOIll11l'Ut 1 ) j Y' En("lalld or of the l11utual H<freClllellt.., 
o ' .::> 
llla<le re
pe('tiug the futurc. 
_\..s to tlH'ir respeetiyc rights on thc Xorth,,'cst 
Coast, no ('ontl'o\"er
.r eycr aro
e Letn'cell Eng-lanù aud 
Spain after the aLallùollllleut in 1 ïÐ.J. i\ either party 
pv('r atteulpte(l to fountl a sctt ICIllCllt ur to l'xcreise 
allV rio'hts in this rl.(rion under the trcatie
 of 1 ïDO 
" "" 0 
anl 1 ï!J4. :N either pO\\'er eOlltcluplatcù the forruing" 
(If any perlnancut e
l1111ent OIl the coast. X or JiJ 
the.v have an opportunity to ;jho\v their polic,v respect- 
ing- :;ett1el1)ents fOluHh,d l)y other nations. j1"or years 
the country ,va
 practically forgotten l)y all Lut the 
fur-traderH. It i::; pos::;iLlc that there "
 an Ullllel'- 
:-;tanding ill 17D-1 that thc 
tipulatiolls respecting' 

ootkd, shouhl npply to tho ,yhole coast; that i
, that 
no pernUlnellt establi
llIl1ents shouhl Le founded any- 
,,-here. It is ahllo
t ccrtain, at any rate, that such 
"Toulù hayc Leen the po
ition plausiLly assulucÙ if 
either po".cr had suL
eCJuently attelupte<l to occupy 
any part of the territory ngain:-;t the ,yi:-;hes uf the 
other. ]1y the letter of the trcatie::;, ho\\'eyer, Loth 
England aud Spain ha(1 a right to trade aud settle 

palliards, preparations were immNliatelyrnade for di::;mant1ing the fort whil'h 
tile Spaniarcl
 had erectecl on an islaml that gl1anlea the mouth of the Imrl1ol', 
antI embarkin,!.{ the onluaIlCe. ]
y the morning of tll<' :!Sth, all the artillery 
were embarked, part 011 hoard of hi:! Catholic majesty.s sloop of \\ a1' Art;,. , 
:lllll part on hoar(l of the ,,,'on ('arl08 gllarc1-.hip. ]JI igacli
r-gcncral .\lay..), 
an.} my:self then met, agreeably to our re
pccti\.e instructions, ( 11 the place 
wlH'rc formerly the 13riti:5h bllildil1g
 f!tood, where we 6ignul allel e'\.chan
the (lecl
lmtioJl :nlll cOlluter-(lecllrution for restoring" those lands t,) his 
ty, a:! agreed upon betwecn the two col1l1:s. .\ftcr \\ hich Cel"
1Il0Ur, [ 
ortlerc,l thc British Hag to be hoi:..tcll in of pos.,essioll) :mtl thc gencr
ga\"c directions for the troops to emllark.' 
30'J' .is8' VI'. (11(("/., l:?l-:
, citing ...110/1'((8, 1'.I'pIOl'o, ii. 14.), and K()rh, lli
A/n O (!! d(8 Truitt.:;, i., chap. ).:
.Ü'o The latter says of the (''\.ploraLÍoll
restomtion: 'Elles furent terminlOcs Ie 
Iars de cette ann"t'. sm' It,s lil'u'\: 
1lll-ltlCS, par Ie hriga< lier e:--pasuol 
\la.\"a, 4,t Ie lil'ut
nallt an.;lais Po.lra [Pif'I.CC], 
(llIi ('chaIlg
rellt des dl'clarations dans Ie golie lIe }.()otl
a, .Apru; (Iue 
Ie fort t' ;
agllol fut rasp, Ics esraf,tnoI8 8 'clllhanluèr
Dt) et Ie I a \-illoll ...uólais y 
fut plallt
iölle ,Ie pO:':-:l'".



any\yhere above Dodoga, subjcct to the condition that 
all settlolDcnts ,,'orc to be frec of access to sul)jects of 
either po"rer, and that at N oatka there should be no 
l )erluancnt settll\]llollt. X either nation had the sliO'ht- 
cst claiul to cxclnsi \?e po
session or to soverci rrnty; 
either lllight acquire such a clainl, but only Ly 

occupation in the future. The old fornlalitics of takiu o ' 
possession ".01'0 110\V null and void; the N o1'th\vost 
Coast, though so fully explored, ,vas open for settlc- 
I11Cllt to the ,vholo ,yorld; exclusive titles ,yore 111atters 
for future creation. For SOllle years no nation took
steps to acquire such a title; Spain never took such 
steps. The theory that the N ootka convention- 
especially as supplen1cnted by the agreelnent of 179-! 
and resulting in official acts-,vas nothing but a sories 
of tell1pOrary concessions by ,vhich during the con- 
tinuance of peace Spain lllcrely enculnbcred her eX- 
clusiye title, soenlS to Ine, \vith ùue respect to tho able 
Ine11 ,vho have sustained it, an absurdity. Spain 1'0- 
tained no title ,vhich she could transfer to another 
nation; and this is cqually truo ,vhether or not tho 
treatios of 1790 and 17!)4 be deoilled to have beon 
ended by a subsequent "Tar \yith England. 
Tho only trading-yessel of the ycar of ,vhich any- 
thing is kno,vn is the Phænix, Captain Moor, frOll1 
Bengal, 'v hich has been noticed as one of the fleet of 
earlier yoars; and all that ,vo kno,v about her trip is 
that she touched on the California coast in August, 
leaying a 'Boston boy' in that country, an(1 creating 
quite a ripple of excitelnent. alnong the people on guard 
against an a<_tack Ly Great Britain. 31 

Captain Broug-hton's visit to the coast in 1706 has 
already l)ocn Inentioned. lIe canle from the Sand- 
\yieh l
lands on the sloop Discovery, aftor a surycy 
of the northern Asiatic coast, arriving at N ootka 
Sound on the 15th of l\Iarch, relnaining t\yO Inonths 
for repairs, visiting N cah Bay, and thence proceeding 
3IIIid. Gal., Î., cLap. XXV., tIils series. 



to California. There i:-; nothing" further to he 
ai(l of 
his ,i
it, eX('flpt that h(' f
)und the f od,ll 1 r" ,shiN!J on 
at X oot ka. 32 T'he (111) other trader
 of the year of 
\\"hich \\'e hayc any definite recor(l \\peru the "no\\ ð( rt 
(Jtt(Þ/', 1 [ill Jna
t '1', and a y \

t.J, perhaps the Di....jHIlcl, 
111)(ler Captain N e\\pbury, both of ".hich arc nallleel 
hy ::\ r r 1\tfls a
 hc.l yi ng- left JJ()
toh the year 1)efÓrc, 
though there is no rcaSOH to suppose the trading fleet 
of thi:-; year ,vas 
lualler thau t h'lt of the precedillg-. 
Therc are, ho\\peycr, a fl'\\P yague referellcc
 to the 
northl'rn tra(lcrH ill thü Calif('rnia archi\'cs, l'eYeal- 
ing a]
o npparcutly that a Spani
h ship ".a
 sent tû 
llurthern \vater:-; this year, either to obtain 
UnlU rCUL- 
nant::; uf property at Xootka or l'o
sil,ly to H1ake a 

c 'ret cx
uLlillatioll of the CuluJuLia, nothing- hut one 
indirect refercnce Lcing" extant re
pectillg the voya
Un the 15th of July Guyernor 13urÎca \\'rite
 to hi.:; 
cOlnandantes: "The ..é\If1erican captain ])01'1', \vIto re- 
cently 1uet Don J OSÓ ToLar, coullnander of the ,."'((til, 
at N ootka, reported to hi111 that he had been told at 
Botany Bay Ly the Engli
h captain Dal'La that he 
hac1 ordcrH to attack th\.: [Spanish] cxpeJitioll':;, and 
that he had 
i1lLilar order
 for Broughton, of the 
IJrvi' 'dcJice."34: 
There is nothing l110re about the ,.'gutil, but Captain 
EhL'llczcr DOlT, conllllallding the OUf)/" of Bo
toll, the 
first .. \ulcrican Ye

el that eyer anchored in Cali- 
fornian ,raters, THade his appearaul"e at )Lontcrey in 
Üetoucl', doubtll'''';
 cun1Ïllg frOlH a fur-:"'eekillg <:rui
in the north. S]le ".a

ÎLI.r iJelltical \\.ith the 
,.c..:.(Þ( (Jft()}' alrcady IlLt'utioued, though proLal,ly not. 
aptain ])orr created 
(Jnle èxcite111cnt by ll'ayin,
California, against the ,viII uf the officials, a nUlllber 

3:llJl'01l!lMon (JJïlliam llob('ri), .A 'Voya!/e of di"
C01'(,l7l to the 
Yorl". Par!fìc 
Or((lIl, Lon
lon, ) 
().!, 4to. The math'r relating to our ten"itory is on pp. 
The commaullcr uf the Latl!! Jrw
llill!ltoll i'i not name.I. 
S31'ußs' Li..4. KC\\ bury's y. 'cl is called a. schoo1l'
r find not named: but 
in ....\,',.8' Re!l;,..tO', ),xiii. 417, it is Mid that the lJispatch, Xe\\bury, \\ith 
l1lith on huarJ, saileJ from Boston on the 
ðth of October I 7D 1, 
returning in .T une ) 7!Jft. 
si....1/"{.h. ('a 1. , )I
" Prol'. Rec., h". 14&-9. 
. w. COAST, '
OL. I. 


of cOl1yict sto,ya,yay:-:; froln Botany Bay, as rclated in 
anothcr VUIUIUC of this scricð. 3 :; 

FrolH 1797 ,ye haye lJut a 11loa O Te rccord of tradin o ' 
ycsselB that yi
itcd tho X orth,,"est Coast. It is not 
proLabIo that tho nanlCS cyon ûf half tho nUlnbor arc 
n. It is fortunato, frolH an hi
torical point of 
yic\y, that it is the late
3t rather than tho earliest 
perioll of the fur-trade ,,'"hose annals are so inC(HU- 
plete. In 1797 the /Sen Otter reluained on the const, 
entered thc Cullunbin, and it is 
aill that Captaillllill 
 killed. The ships Dis}JCltclL and IHdian Pacl.;ct, 
cOllnnanded by Jonathan Bo,,"ers and Ly Itogers- 
Dorr and Sons o,vncrs-and the Hhip Ila:ard, S,vift 
ll)aster, o,vnod by Perkins, Lanlb, and COlllpany, are 
nalDed as the Boston ships of the year. 36 
The fleet of 1798 included fjye ycssels ,vhich 
cleared fronl Bo
ton the year Lefore w'ith trado 
cargoes invoiced at fronl seyen thousand to seventeen 
thousand dollars, as 8ho"'"11 by thc custoll1-house rec- 
ords. The J.J1CJxander, under Captain ..L.
sa Dodge, 
y\-ith Charles 'Vinship as supercargo and part o,vner, 
\yas the only Olle of the nun1Ler ,vhose invuicc ,yas 
less than thirteen thousand dollars. Tho IICl':..Clrd, 
S,vift Inaster, \vhich had ,yintered in the Pacific, ae- 
corJing to Gray entered the Colulnbia. The others 
,rere the Jenny, Bov
Ters Inaster; tho Alert, Bo,vles 
Inaster; and the E"l Ùi(t, cOl1llnanded by J Ulnes Ilo,van. 
Of the ad ventures and achieYCn1ent
 of the fleet ",YO 
kno,v nothing. 37 The cutter Dragon, Lay nUlster, froln 
China, was also on the coast this year or the year 
Lefore. 38 
In 17Ð9 there ,vas one voyage rccorded in a printed 
3,j ðce IJist. Cal., i., chap. XXV., of this series, which ana the following 
c!mpters contain also information ahout the war between Sl)ain and Ellg- 
lallJ as waged, onl)aper, in Califon1Ía. 
3GTlIfts' List
. (,"J"a!l's Ilisf. Or., 14; .1YilfS' ]lp[Ji8fer, xviii. 417. 
37ßo8ton in the }t.
ortkw(}.Çt, 1IR., 71; Custom-house record, in fd., 7G-7. 
In '1'lfJ
S' List no vessels are named for 1';98, lmt the Erisa is accredited 
to the next year, perhaps correctly; she was owned by rerkins, Lamb, 
and Company. 

8 Oleceland's Nw'., 4G, 94. 

C.\PT.UX CLEYEL \""1). 


nnrrativc, that (,f ]{iehard .T. CleyeLuHl, a young 
4 'oIIlJllerc.:ia I at l,p('nturer frUIn :-:;alelI), ::J lassaehusetts. 
] le Louo-lit the IJJ' U J O} at Cautuu , cLaBo'cd her JUlIne 
." 0 
to the G
I1' Z:/r " and fitte(l her out for a fur-trading 
eruise. I Lo ....ighteel land on 
Iarch 30th at X orfolk 
Round, anl1ulo:--t of hiH üpcrations ,ycre on the ...\laskall 
l"ua:-;t; Lut he tinally calHO do\,u tu Quecn Charlotte 
, aut! ,vith a valuaLle lut of furs he reached 
the Sand \viell I 
laBds in J ulj, aud =.\Iacao in 0 .tuLer.3'J 
ClevelaJHllnet n\
e uther tr:Hlers. The UI!Jsses, (
taill J,Ja1l1b, ,,"hieh ItAt ]
oston ".ith a cargo valued at 
fourteen thous:lIHl dollar
, hatl arri\ etl in "b'ebruarv, 
"Lut the succc

 \vhich ought to ha\.e resulted fru
FO early an arri,.al, ,vas J.efeated Ly a lllutiny of lung 
fi}l< lruinuus duration. "40 The /j;liso, Captain llo".all, 
ha(l \\ intere<l prulJaLly at the Islan(l
 au(l ]lac! arri, cd 
on the tradillg-grounù
-'ebruary. "TheIl Cle\c- 
land Blct I{o,ran OIl the !)th of .r\pril he had lJceu 
ycry ;'juccc;:,
ful, and ",,,,as on his ".ay to the south- 
,,,,art 1 to cOHlplet(' his cargo, and thcn to lúave the 
coa:-;t. lIe 111cntioned, that ten ve

 ,\"ouh1 pruL- 
ably Le tlc
patched from BOðton 
Jr the coat;t thi
oll." III :\Iay, llO\\Tan Blade hi
 appearance at San 
co, the I
lisa being the first ..I..\.Jl1crican ,
cl t,) 
nl1tõhor in that purt. She carried t,yclvo guns, 3.11e1 
.T Ohll I(clldl'ick-proLaLly not our old fricud of that 
lltUllC-\\TaS undcl':::;too(l to Le her supercargo. l{o'Yan'
letter of the 
ïth uf ::\Iay, prollli
ing to pay ca
h for 
nl'L'tlL'd ;-,uppliL's, to depart at once, and tù touch at 
nu other port, is HtiU pre
er\ ed in the Califurnia 
. Cle,.clalld lllet hilll again in Octuber at 
:\Iacao, alle1 ""(1<:; tultl of hi.:; vi
it to the Spalli::;h cua

39CII r lruul'ß _Ytu'ra.til' of J 
I( IJ and rommcrcial enterprise8. Caml)rid::.,e, 
IS4::!, 1:!lIlo, 2Yoh
., pp.4.).......{;, ;)1, li!)-B4 j alsu,Á.V. R'l"ÏllC, xx'.. 4;'S, iu \\hich 
the yc:-.:-.el is termct1 an Ellgli::;h Olle. The llames uscd hy Cleveland, as ap. 
Illiell tu trihl's, chicfs, awl placc:i are: I"kittigatcs, COIlCYa.\\S, Cunllna
Tytante:.;, Tati...kce Co,.c, Xorth IslauclJ Kigalluy, Point Ro
eJ Xorth {::;l&uul. 
Eltargce, anll Kow. 
foelll.'/aml',..; ..Yar., !)OJ no
lon b"tlte....Yorlhu., ,)1
.,7ü. O'\llcll hyLamh 
allli othl'I:5. TttJ?s' List. 
t. Cal., i., chap. ÀÀ'T., this serics; Cle".dul1d'8 .J..Yar' J ;4, IO:!; Tufb/ 


T\yo other Boston f'hips, thc T[ancocl
, Crocker, and 
the DiSjJatch, Brt'ek, \\Tcre Inct Ly Cleveland ncar N 01"- 
folk Sound early in J unè, hasing arrived un the eoa
rather tou latc to ill
ure successful voyages the present 
season. 42 The English ship ChecJfill, Captain Deck, 
had also not obtained u1an)'" furs, having 111oroover 
grounded on a sand-bank and IJcon attacked by the 
.43 .L\..nd finally :\11' 
rufts nalnes the Canton 
ship Docc, COll1nlalHled by Duffin. 
The fleet of 1800, as nalned by Tufts, consisted of the 
Alcrt, Bo,vles, o,vnec1 by Lanlh; tho Jenny, Bo,ycrs; 
and Rorer, Davidson, o\vncd by Dorr and Sons; the 
Alexander, Dodd Inaster, Bass o,vnor; the IIazaT'd, 
S,vift, Perkins; and the Dotoe of Canton, conlnlanded 
Ly Duffin. . 
The Betsy, a Boston brigantine under the conl- 
nland of Captain Charles Winship, is the only other 
trader of 1800 of ,vhich \ve have any record. She had 
left Boston the preceding year, and after a trip in the 
north, of ,vhich nothing is kno,vn, touched at San 
Diego for supplies, relnaining at anchor in that port- 
the first Alnerican vessel to enter it-fro111 the 25th of 
August to the 4th of Septelnber. It is not unlikely 
that a full record of her lllovelnents ,vould sho,v the 
Bëtsy to be the pioneer in a ne,v field of "!
enterprise, that of contraband trade and fur-hunting 
on the shores of the t,vo Californias, in addition to 
legitinlate trade farther north; or at least Captain 
\Vinship may have Leen engaged in exploring the ne,v 
field, in 'v h ich his brothers su bseq uen tl y reaped so 
rich a harvest. He obtained the desireù assistance at 
San Diego, ,vith the usual ,yarning to touch at no 
other Spanisll port; but later he anchored at San 
BIas, again in great need. Presently a Spanish lllan- 
.of-\var entered the port, and the Yankee craft, fearing 
doubtless a confiscation of her contraband furs, put 

42Clet.eland's Nal'., 83-4; Tufts' List. Both ships were owned by Dorr 
anù Sons. 
,\3 Cle
.eland's }.,T ar., 89; Tufts' List. 

C_\PTATI" Cll_\RLFS ,,-rxsmr. 


to Rca in .-;ueh haðte [1:-; to leave her captain anù 
supercargo oil Hhore \\ ith the ::;upplic..; they had ub- 
tainl'd. I io\\" thl':jc utiic
 regained their 
hjp (loe
not n ppear ill the rL'corJs; i t i
aill that later in 
thid Yuyage Captain \\Tiuship Jied uf a 
unstruke at 
'Tall )arai
(). 44. 

.'_ll"dl. Gal., "
., PrOl'. St. p"})., >.xi. 44; ]>,.01). ll"r., ,iii. 132j >.ii. Gj 
St. Pal" Sw."., ix. 1
-13i ß i/l, lhe...Yo"lhu'e
l, )lS., 71-2. 



OF 1810-11-"
DELAIS,' 1817-18-LAST OF 

THE vessels trading on the N orth,yest Coast in 
1801 from Alnerican ports ,vere at least thirteen 
in nUlnber. Fr0111 Boston, Perkins and Conlpany had 
despatched the Globe, Captain l\fagee, the G'faToline, 
Captain Derby, and the GthaTlotte, Captain Ingersoll; 
LYlnan and COll1pallY, the GuatiJ1'
ozin, Captain BU111- 
stead, and the AtalulalJJCl, Captain 'Vildes; Dorr and 
Sons, the Dispatch and Littiler, each COnl111allded l)y 
one of the Dorrs; Cobb, the Lucy, Pierpont 111aster; 
Coolidge, the IJelle r
vage, Captain Ockington; and 
1'ho111aS Parish, the Polly, COllllllanded by ICelley. 
The JI(
nchesteT", Captain Brice, ,yas froln Philadel- 
phia; thEJ Lavinia, Captain IIubbard, 'YLlS o,vllcd by 
( 310 ) 



Dc \\Tolf of Bri:-;tol, ltho(le I
land; :111<1 the RJd( J'Jn'i.w / , 
(iaptain EZl'kiel 1 [ulJbell, Ly ] Ioy alHI Thorn, of X e\\T 
''''''ork.l 1'hcir jllYoicc:-; l'all:;ccl frOlll 
aï i8 tt "

the alllOl1llt:..; carried rl'
pecti \Yt:ly l)y ) )icrpout allt 1 
))')g-ee. Xouc of tl1c lleet has left :Lny reC"ord of 
op 'ratjon
 ill IBO J e
J.el't tho J
)d(IJ'J)J"ise, ahout ,,"hieh 
Yc:"\sl,l \\Y\'" kno\\Y that she touched at 
an -. )iego for 

 ill ,) U1l0, carryillg tell guu
 and a ('rC\\F of 
t\\ ellty-ollt' lllen. 2 1'he 110:(( rd, under Captain S\\ ift, 
aid to bayl' eutere(t the C\)hllnhia I ti\Ter tl1i-.; 
y 'al". The after\\'an 1 falllous "Tillialll Sluith "'a
this 'Ye

el in a ;ooiubordinate capacity, lllaking l1Î::; fifth 
YOYdge ruuIHl the '\901"1(1. 3 

Thc n,,,\,,T lUlnle
 of 180
 'YC'l'e those of the 13oston 
f-'hips .l.l1r)J't, ('OBlInal1< le( 1 IJY I
l)l)etts and o".ned b
Land); the (}utlu'}'iJ](), "T orth captain, roolidge o\\Yllcr; 
the .Jpnny, C}'(H'ker eaptain, Dorr <n\?ller; :t1l(1 the 
JPo JU'OU C(,}', J
rO\\'ll raptain, LynH111 o\\
ner; also the 
11(Jt!!I, Captain ]3rigg
 of Philadelphia; aUlI thc .Jl( n u , 
ptain l{endrick, o"pncd ]JY ])0 \Volf of J3ristol.' 
1'h0 Jlf (Ju.lif
st('). tOllehc( I at 
 oot ka thi:--, YL
ar, and, a"'t 
the llati ye:::; reported to J c\yitt later, 
C\Yl'll of her IHeH 
(lescrtcd nnd joincd 
[aquinlla, Ly "Those order r--ix of 
tht'ln ,yere put to death for an attelllptcd rCdl'
to thc 
i("e of a riyal chieftnin, ,yl1ile the othl
r, a 
1 )oy <'aIled ,Jack, "Y:lS sold to "-o'il'ana nish, alld :-\()()lL 
die(1. 5 _ \ccurdillg' to :\11" l\lft
, Captain )[agee of the 
1 Cu<;tom-housc rcconl:3, in J]tn4on in thr 
f, ::\I
., ';(; 7, ] 1; rllfl.
I i.
t. Captain O'Caiu S('CIUS to have hCl'1l on thc coast, Imt perhaps not ill 
l'umma11tl uf a. Yl'SSCl. 
2.1}"(.h. ('af., ::\l
., P,.Ol.. R,c., ,ii. 11- ]2. 
\ï/(,8' N, y;"f(,I", xyiii. '118; (froy's lJi.
f. Ur., 1.1. The lIa:ard rctunlCÙ 
to Boston 
Iav ü, ISO:!. 
4 rll./f.'" Li:t. . 
jJ('wilt's ...Yar., !)O-l: 'TIe gayc me a hook in whieh I fount! the naml'S of 
n'll l wrh
lJls l:t'l.ouging h
 th? :-;hip 
tcr, of !'hiladclphia, Capt. Brian, 
\"1Z.- )amd fo:uuth, J t'\\ HI (Tlllon, .TanH's Tom, ( lark, Johnsun, B('11. a 111 1 
.J al."h. . . . _\ most cruel death it \\ <is, as I wa:i tuM hy one of the llatin:s, fonr 
J1lt'11 holtling one of thcm 011 tho groUlul, awl forcing open his month, \\ 11ile 
they dlOakcd him )JY 1":ull1uin 6 
tones tloW11 his throat. As to .Jack.., I was 
illformctl l,y the r>riuec
s rUt/If"
, that he was tj11Ïtc a small hoy, who cril,tl a. 
f,l"l'at (leal, hcin
 put to hanl lahol' bcyo11tl hi:-; t5tr('ngth hy th
, in 
cutting ,,'ootl mltl hrin
 water, amI that when he heartl ;,f the lUurtlcr of 
onr creW, it hatl1;uch an eU"cd u11 him that he fell 
ick and died sh0l11y after.' 



(;lobe 'y[ìs killed during this yoyage. The Cu}
,,"cut to the Htnyaiiall I
lanùs, probably to spcnd the 
,,-inter there as the traders ,vere ".ont to do, and therè 
Captain Derby tlied. His gra' e on the i
lallll uf 
Oahu "
 yisitcd the next year l)y Captain Clc\Tc- 
lalld. 6 "7ilde:4 of the .i1tahualpet is recorded as haying 
first heard of the Stikccn I{iver in August of this 

car 'v hile his Yes
el ,vas in thc region of Queen Char- 
lotte Sound. 7 Captain "Tilliaul Sturgi8, "Tho LecanlC 
,ycalthy and falllous in connection ,,-ith the fur-trade 
of the :North Pacific, seelllS to haye visitcd the coast 
personally in 1802, perhap
 o,vncr or supercargo of 
one of the vesscls nauled. He says: "In 1801, the 
trade ,vas lllost cxtensively, though not 1I10st profit- 
ably prosccutcd; that year, there ,vere fifteen \
on the 
t, and ill 1802 lllore than 15,000 
skins ,vere collected, and carried to Canton. TIut the 
conlpetition "Tas so great, that fe"
 of the voyages ,vcre 
then profitable, and Bonle "Tere ruinous."8 There ,vere 
110 arrivals on the Californian coast this year, or at 
least no record of such arrival appears in the archives. 
The ship Boston, o"Tned by the Anlorys of Boston, 
having obtained a cargo in England, sailed fronl the 
Do,vns in Septelnber 1802, doublell Cape Horn, and 
".ithout touching at any port, nlade VV oody Point, 
on the island of Cuadra and ,rancouver, 
Iarch 12, 
1803. John Salter ,yas the captain, his Inates ,vere B. 
Delouisa and vVillianl Ingrahan1, and the erc,,," llunl- 
bered t,venty-four. The natives had establishcd- their 
yillage on the site of the old Spanish post in Friendly 
Cu,'e; and Salter anchored his vessel scvcral l11iles 
farther up the sound, so near the shore that she "Tas 
6 'In a retircd spot, clothed with verdure and sUITOlmded with cocoa-nut 
trees, my guide pointed to the grave of myoId friend and former shipmate, 
Charles Derhy, who died here last year, on hoard a Boston ship, which he COlll- 
man(lcd, from the Northwest Coast. Charles and I had sailed many a thousand 
leagues togcther, and, hcing of the samc agc, the probahility was as great 
whcn we parted, that he would visit 
ny gra\'c as I his.' Cl,'vel(wd's ....Yar., 232. 
j Jlrt8,
. J Ii....t. Soc. {'oZ., 1804, 242, containing .an extract from the log, as 
cited hy Greenhow, 0,'. (twl ('at., 
8;)'tul"!Jis' NO'J.thwct;t Pili' Trade, 536. 

JE"''ITT'S x _\nR


f'crufe:d 1 tY a ha'Y
er to the trees. }1"or '-\l',.eral day
"rhile the.... \uH.:ri('aus \\rere occupied ill obtaining "rooel 
and "'atf
r, :\Ia(luinna aud hi::; tHeU often \"i
iteù the 
f'hip, and ""ere entertained a
 usual ill 
uch ca
rrhe)" 1l1adl' theulselye:-; entirely at hOl11C, gratified 
their curiosity l)v e
aulÎnill!! evcl'\rthillO. 011 board, 
...... ,-".J 0 
and 1l1ailltaiued the lUo
t frielldly relatiuns \yith their 
"i::;itors. To )[a<Luiuua ,vaB giy<.:u a Joul J le-LarreIleù 
fo\vling-piel;c, ,vith \vhich he appeared greatly pleased; 
antI OIl ì\lareh 21 
t, ,,,hen the 
hip ,va
 nearly ready 
to depart, he (.(llne lJaLk ,,-itlt a gift of ,,"ild duck:-;. 
lIe Ll'l)uo-ht Lack the (fUll ho\\reyer ".ith oue of the 

 0' , 
loeks bruken, relllarking that it "'a
 /Jcs! d., or Laù. 
alter ,vas very 111uch otlelaled at thi
f-:er' ation, and (,oll
iJerillg it a
 a Inark of l,;Ontüulpt 
fur his present, he caIle( l the king a liar, adding other 
vI )proln'ious terlll
, and takillg' the gUll ii'ow hilll 
tu:-;:-;ed it indignalltly iuto the caLill. . . ::\laquiulla knc\\r 
a nUlnLer uf Ellgli:-;h '\
, and unfortunately under- 

too(l hut too "en thl' lueaniug uf the reproachful 
 that the Captain aùùre

eù to hilli.-IIe 
not a ".ord in reply, Lut hi
 countenance BUfÌÌLielltly 

ed the rage he felt, though he èxcrted hilll

llHl I oL
er\ ed hiln "rhile the Captain 
,vas Hpeakiug repeatc(lly put hi
 haud to his throat 
and ruL it upon hi
UIll, ,\rhicb he aftel'\\.al'd
lnü '\'a
 to keep dO\YIl hi
 heart, \yhich ,va<.; ri
illg into 
his throat and choaking hiln. ] tc 
oon after 'Yent 011 

hure ".ith his IneH, t',"iJently l11uch tli:-\Colllpo:o;ed."9 
l'ho '" outka chieftain had re
ul yed UIl Yell( 'eanco 
f(n' the ill
ult received at this tilue and for other 

9This is JC\\Ïtt's account, to hp noticcil prcscutly. The vcn;ioll rccci\"cd 
l)y Captain Hov. an of the llu'Zard from the Tatacu chief at .Fuca :-;trait awl 
Lrought do\\ n to California, was aM follows: Thc chicf Quatla.lapc wus t.,l(l hy 
thc Amcrican capt.ain 'that he "a
 a mcan fellow to traùc \\ itb. The cap- 
tain tolli him he ha(lmct many chieft.ains in the 11orth, awl knc\\ that hc haJ 
no ,appcaraucc of a chieftain, nllli apP"a!'l'(1 a very low man. The chicf rc- 
l,lil.d, 'Pil'("l.uc' [peshak], v. hich in thcÜ' language lllem18 . l>a<l man;' amI till' 
captain biking ß muskct threatcned him, and onlcl'cd him on shore us an 
insolcnt fellow. (:oiug to hi:i ranchcna he 
\1mmonca n.ll the !mlianM from 
Fuca Htrait to tlH' north point of Xootka, who ëlssemhlcd \\ ithin three ùay ;' 
awl it v. a
 1"l'sohcll to capturc thc ship. A ,'cll. Gal., ::\IS., St. Pap.. Jli>lo;. wd 
cut., i. &U-91; Captain Rowan's lcttcr of \ugust I:!, 1
03, to .Argücllo. 



,yrongs perhaps uf eürlier date ;10 and the story of ,,
follo,,"ed cannot be better told than Ly continuillg' to 
quote the ,,"ords of one \,"ho ""as pre
cnt. "Ou the 
lllorlling of the 2
cl the nati",es caUle off to us a
ual ,,"ith Sah11011, Hnd rClnaineJ on l)oard, ,,-hen 
ahout noon 
laquinna callie along side ,,
ith a COll- 
siderable l1lunber of his chiefs and Ulen in their 
canoes, ,yho after going through the cU8toluary eX- 

unination ,yere adlnitted into the ship. If e had a 
,,"histle in his hand, and o\
er his face a very ugly luask 
of ,vood representing the head of sonle ,yild beast, ap- 
peared to be renlarkably good hunlourcd and gay, and 
,y hilst his people sung and capered about the deck, 
entertaining us ,vith a variety of antic tricks and 
gestures, he Lle\v his ,,
histlc to a kind of tune "Thich 
seen1ed to regulate their 1110tions."1l Captain Salter 
as induced in the afternoon to send nine l110n ill 
the boats to catch sahnon, thus dividing the force. 
"Shortly after the departure of the boats I \,,"cnt 
do,vn to 111Y vise-bench in the steerage/' says J e\yitt 
the armorer, ",vhere I ,vas elnployed ill cleaning 11lUS- 
kets. I had not been there 11101'e than an hour ,vhen 
I heard the n1en hoisting in the long boat, ,vhich, in a 
fe\v lninutes after, ,yas succedcd by [L great bustle and 
confusion on deck. I inlnlediately ran up the steerage 
stairs, but scarcely ,vas 111'y head above deck, ,vhen I 
,vas caught by the hair by one of the savages, and 
lifted fronl 111Y feet; fortunately for tlle, n1Y hair being' 
short, and the ribbon ,vith ,vhich it ,vas tied sUpping, 
I fell froln his hold into the steerage. As I \vas falling, 
he struck at IUC \vith an aXè, ,vhich cut a deep gash in 

10 :\Iaquinna told Je,vitt later that he had several times been ill-treated by 
foreign visitors. Captain Tawnington, commanding a schooner which win. 
tered at Friendly Cove, had entered 
Iaquil1na's house in his absence and 
taken 40 fine skins, besides frightening the women. Then :Martincz luHl 
killcd four chiefs; and soon after, Captain Hanna of the Spa-oUel' had fired 
npon the canoes and killed oycr twenty of the nativcs, :\Iaquinna himself 
aving to swim for his life. His desire for revenge was rekindled lJY Captain 
Salter's insult. 
11 In the account given to Rowan, the Indians are said to have ohtained in 
advance permission to haye a dance on board as a ceremonialmakillg-up after 
the recent ùis!)ute, all as part of a plot to seize the \



tHY forehead, aud pelletrclted thc 
kl1l1; IHlt in conse- 
quence of his lo:--\iu6' hi:--i hold, I luckily l'scapeel the full 
force of the 1)10,,". T fell Htuuu aJ and 
le:--:::; upon 
tho flo()l'." \ rben he rc e railH:e I 'Olls .ioll

 he fou uti 
the hatch clo:-'l.d anel jlldgcJ hy their yell:-; tllat the 

aYagcs ".cre in l)C):--\:--\e
:--iion of the t-;hip. ]")resclltly. 
h ' \\.as SUllllllulled Lcfure )fa(luillU:l aud prouli...eù hi::; 
lifa on contlitioll of b " 'ouliu e .. a t:;la YO to luakc aud re- 
pair "
CapOl1H for hi
 lna:;ter. On the (luarter-d aek he 
lH'" 11 in H line the head::; of t".cnty-five ll1unlered 
, antI 'r[l
 01'( lereel to idcllti(r eaeh by IUUUC. 
.L \ftcr seizing the Bhip and killin
 all 011 decl\., they 
Cllt [I "yell arn10d furce to Lrillg the headð 
of tho
e in the Loat

rIH' IJuston ,vas InOYCC 1 frO(ll her Hlll"horagc, l)eacJ H.:d 
at Friendly Cove, 
trippeù of the 1110re ea
ily acee:-;- 

iLlo pOl'tion
 of hcr cargo, autI a fe\\" day::; later a('- 
cidentaUy Lurncd. ::\le
unyhile another Ulan, J oha 

rhompson tho 
ail-nlakcr "
n:-; founJ in the hüld, 
".hcro ho had concealed hilll
clf after rccei\"ing a 
kuifc-'YOUlld in tho 110::;0. J C\\'itt'H life \\.as f'pareJ 
Lceauso of hi
 skill ill Inakillg' ""eapons; and ThoIUP- 

 at thc iutcrce
:--ion uf ,] û\\yitt, "yho reprcbcntcd 
hinl a
 his father; though tllero 'Yere Illany ,yho 
,,"i...hcù to kill Loth. The t,\.o sur\"i \YOl'ð Ii '-ud aUloll ó ' 
the say ages in 
Iaquillna's service for three years, 
"'encrallv "yell cllou<..h treatcJ anù sufleriIl0- su(.h 

 0 , 
11:lrJship::; only as "yure llaturally cOllllected \\yith the 
}-:ituation. Jc\\-itt li\"cd fur a. tilllO ".ith a llati\?c ,vife, 
aud they travelled con
idel'aLly OYer the i
lanJ; Lut 
capc \\yas eycr iu their lllinds. 
rh{\ traders avoided 
X outka after the IIla:--:--(lcre; hut letters ,vore :-,ent in 
yariuu:-, directioll
, anù finally ill July 130.3, the L!Jcliu, 
Captain lIill, anchored in thc port. 
laquilllla \\"as 
desirous of reIlo\\yillg the old cOlllulereial relatioll;O:;, 
alld ho ,vcnt OIl 1)oartl, carrying &ueh a letter úf reCOlll- 

\ccorrling to Rowan the ma

aere was hcgnn while the clance was going 
on, at 3. si.:;nal from the chief, a cro\\ d of llati,-cs hcill
 clo:5c at hand in their 



luenllation froln J e,vitt as cau
ell his iUlLllcdiate arrest 
3S a hostaQ'e for the cn l )tive's release. 
\Jtcr a tradin o ' 
u ð 
cruise the t,,
o IHcn left the coa
t ill Augu
t l
OG, and 
befure the clld of 1807 arrived in Buston cta China. 
J e,vitt "
as an Engli
;lllnan, only t\ycnty yearB old at 
the titue of his capture. lIe had shipped at lIun for 
thi:-; yoyngc, and kept a diary during hi8 captivity, fl'cnn 
,yhich a book ,vas puLli
hed un his return in 1807, and 
ard in luauy different editions. The llarratiyc 
 a fascinating one of the author's personal ad Yen- 
tures, containing also 111uch valuable inforlnation un 
the lllanners anll Cust0111S of the N ootka Indians. 
For details of the captivity beyond \vhat has been 
presented I have no space. 13 
A fe,v days after the capture of the Boston two 
ships ,vere Beell approaching the port at N ootka, but 
they ,vere frightened a,vay by the hostile delnon- 
strations of the natives, 'v ho opened firc upon thCll1 
,vitll llluskets and Llunderbusses. " After firing a fe,v 
rounds of grape shot ,vhich did no harlll to anyone, 
they ,vorc ship and stood out to sea. These ships, as 
I aftcr,vards learned, ,,"'ere the JICC1'Y and JUI10 of 
Boston. They ,vere scarcely out of sight ,vhen ::\la- 
quinna expressed lunch regret that he had pern1Îtted 
llÍs people to fire at them, being apprehensive that 
they ,,",ould give infor111atiol1 to others ill ,vhat InanlleI" 
they had been received, and prevent them from con1Îng 
to traùe ,vith hinl."14 

13.A naTratire of the ad
'entZlres and suffprin[js of John R. Jewitt.1. only SlIT- 
'L,iV01' of the crew oj the ship, Boston, dUTing a cClptivit!/ oj nearly three ye(us 
amony the srn'a[je8 oj J\-rootka Sound; 'lcith an account oj the manners, mode of 
lidn!l, and 'reli[jiollS opinions of the natÜ'(,8, embellÙ:hed 'icith a plate J'(Jpre.-.:enting 
the ship .in thp }Jos8es,-;ion oj the sarages. X cw York, I8H3, l'2mo, 208 pp. This is 
D1arked :
ù edition. I have before me another of Ithaca 184D, I2mo, IGG pp., 
'cmhcllished with engravings.' According to 
aLill the original, published in 
Boston 1807 and Xew York 1812, was elltitlel1: A JOllrllal kcpt at þ.,
Sound by Jolm R. Jewitt, etc. He also notes thirteen other editions, stating that 
one version wag compiled from J ewitt's oral relations by Richard .Alsop, and 
her editeù by Goodrich, or ' Peter Parley.' Sproat, Scenes and Studies, 5, 
cs some slight reminiscences of Jewitt's captivity obtained by "T. E. Ean- 
fiel(l from an old Inclian who haa known the captivc. 
HJU,.;Jt's N a,"., :
G. The Juno was one of the })receding year's yesscls; the 
.i.llary was oWlle(l hy Gray of Boston and commanded by Bowles, who is saiù 
to have died during the ,royage. Tufts' List. 



T,vo other tradel'
 :-;uffered this year fr0111 Indian 
, th 
 ...l/rJ.1'( Itfler, (ial.taill John lJro\\'ll, and 
the f 10:(1/'(/, Captt1in .J aBiCS RO\\'tu1. rrhey lllade their 
H] )pearalu'e at t;an Franei:-,cu on th(\ 11 tIt uf .... \ngust, 
("oluing ii.OUl the llorth in (li
trl":'-\:-', and dsking for relief. 
Cia ptai n 1 
ro\\'n \\'a::; kUC)\\Yll in Cali fOl"llia, Ita, i ngo lJeen 
d..tected at the beo.illniIl<' of tho ycar in Bllluo'(rlill" 

 0 J 
ð ð 
oppratiolls at San IJÎegu, alHl Ita, ing subsequcntly oL- 
tain<.<1 :'-\upp1ies at 
all Fl undcr f;ll
c pretcnces. 

rherefC)re 110 atteutiolL \vas pai<l to hi:--, present denuln(l, 
allli he ,ytlS nnlered a\\yay fr0111 the port. lIe f-\UC- 
ceedc r l1 )ctter at )lo11tcrey, \\' hèrc he obtainc(l fo;upplic,:;, 
rU1111În(' a,vav at nicrht to avoi(l } )aYlllcnt f()r thc l"aU1C. 
ð . 0 . 
The nature aull extent of thl' .J.llcxo Jl,le,.'s injuries OIl 
the northern coast are not kUO\\'1l. Captain !{o\vau, 
OIl the other hand, \\ya:-; ,veIl treated and allo\\ycd four 
days f
)r rcfitting, having prescnted a \\yritten state- 
lllellt of his Ye:'-\
 condition, the truth of \\'hich \\YflS 
Yerified l)y COlllflntlante .l-\rgÜello hy a per
onal iu- 
:-.:pection. 'fhe 1lrl: I.d had been several tiuic::; attacked 
l)y thc natiYe
 in Chatluun Strait, and had narro\\r]y 
caperl capturl
, besides receiving daillagcs froln 
Rtriking on a rock. .xonc of her Inen had hcen lo
lJut her hull and rio.o.illo
 \\ycre riddleù \\yith Lalls the 
00 """ , 
I llllifln
 haying Lecn ,\yell provitlctl ,vith firc-arllls. On 
hi:-) \vav 
()uth Ito\\9an had touchcd at tho strait of 
J.\lca, ;'91 1e re he heard of the 13u
tun's di
r, and 
ought the ne\v:-:; to Califorllia. 15 
'rhe (/0 lIl, Captain J o
c1>h O'Cain, 
ailed fro1n 
o:-:;ton January 
3, 1803, and rcachc(l Sitka before 
tho cnd of the year. Jonathan \Vill:-.hip, onc of the 
O\YHl'r:.-, l11adl\ hi
 fìr:-:;t vi:.-it to the coa:-:;t 011 thi
It (loe
 not clearly appoar that 
he touched on the 
X ortll\\9c:-:;t Coast proper thi
 year; but the yoyage 
}j.A "Cll. Cal., 
IS., St. Pap., JIi8,
. and {YoT., i. 84-9. }o\t.e lIit
t. Cal., ii. chap. 
i., thh
 series, for Momc aùditional particulars about the expericllce of Bro\\ 11 
awl Howan in California. The J/a:ard is said to hayc had ;'0 mcn and 

guns. In ...\ile,'1' Rt.!li...(1 r, xyiii. 118, shc is said to han. sailed from Bo
tOll in 
:O;eptcmber l"u:'?, retnrning on the 6th of 
Ia'y lðOJ, under 
\\ ift as master :md 
I"IllÍth as matc; so also in 1'u.j}s' Listj and as the 
palliarùs writc th
Ascr there i::i .... po::)
ibility that l{owau commanùeù another yesscL 



tcd three ycarB, t1IHl ,vc 
hall hear nloro of this 
craft. 16 
Ir Gray 11alnos the 
lle J.t, COllllll<.tllùec.l by 
ELLett:,;, antI the rrancou
'cr, by Bl'o,yn, aillong the 
vessels that yibitcu the coast thi8 ycar. 17 
'Villian1 Sturgis, probably" conl1nanding the Boston 
ship Cco"olinfl, arriycd at ](aigall early in 1804. On 
a previous yi
it he luul noticed the high value at- 
tached by the natives to the crllline-skill, and he had 
obtaincd about five thousand of theln at a cost of 
abuut thirty cents each in Boston. The result ,,-as 
that in half a day he purchased five hundred and sixty 
prinle otter-skins, ,yorth fifty dollars each, for half of 
his erl11ineR, or 'clicks,' as the Indians called thenl. 18 
The Lelia By}"(l \vas a ship that had cau
ed SOlne ex- 
citclllcnt on the Californian coast in 1803, and in 1804 
she cainc back under the cOlnnland of Captain 'Villianl 
Shaler. COIning fro1l1 China, she arrived at the nlouth 
of the Colulllbia on the 1st of )Iay, but for eight 
days ,,"'as unable to cross the bar, and finally pro- 
ceeded do\vl1 the coast in search of a In ore accessiblc 
purt, entering Trinidad the 9th of 
The IIazard also callIe back frolll the Ha\vaiian 
Islands this year, as is sho,vn by records in the 
archiyes of California. Having obtained supplies at 
San Francisco in 
-'ebruary, Captain Ro,van 
for the N orth,vest Coast. Of his operations there 
nothing is knov(n, but in Septe1l1ber he reappeared in 
the southern ports, as usual in grcat need of pro- 
ions.20 Sll1uggling and an illicit fur-trade on the 
coasts of upper and lo,ver California \vere beconlÌng 
Jllueh more attractive to the Boston nlen than the 
}Jartcr of old ,vith the northern savages, ,vho had 
16 Boston in the ....Yorthwest, 
IS., 11-12. 
17 Gray's lli..
t. Ur., 1".1:. 
188tlO'gis' ....Vorthwcst }'ur Trade, 536; Tuft.')' Li.."t. 
1 9 Ó'haler's Jow'ual, 138-0. The operations of the Lelia Byrd on the Cali- 
fon1Ìall coast in lS03-3 are related in lli...t. Oal., ii., chap. i.-ii., this series. 
20Arch. Cal., JIB., Prov. 8t. Pap., xviii. 330, 3Gl, 
7G-9; P"ûV. Re('., 
xi. 103; St. Pap. Sac., v. 70. ti-ray, lliðl. 01'., 14, tells us that the Perkins 
company sent the llcc;nl"rl unùer Swift to the Columbia in 1804; also that 
Theoùore Lyma.n sent the Guutimo:.,in, Captain Bumstead, from Boston. 



no\'" ac(plircd ne,," i( h.'a
p ,(.ting the yalue of their 
fnl's, had he<,;olJ1e }Iustil(, 
lIHl rc,"cngcfu], (,ftell ".ith 
llHH.h (';Hl
l", alHl ".lio ha(l },cCOlllt. ::;tHllln\'hat too ".cB 

npplil:d "ith fire-afJl1s. Captain Ú'CaÍIl had the 
hUlIor of intro( lucin o " a. ne\\' ue\.l'l o ! Hucut ()f the fur- 

tradc tlti;o; y( .
u.. lle \\"as Btill prt'par.J for Larter 
" it h thc ] IIdians, :UH 1 he "a=-' 
till ali \"û tù thc Charll1.3 
alltl protit:--i of s1l1uggling"; 1 HIt his geniu:--, dell1:l11( led a 
In'oadl'l' field. all ].is arri,.al at Sitka iu thc fall of 
180;;, he illJuceJ the JU:luager uf the rtu

Íall c"5tab- 
lishl11l'ntq, ]
arLillof, to furlli
h ..Aleut otter-hunter'") 
,,-ith their ùÙl J'l.([s f()]" a ]Hlllting tour in the south, 
tho pro(luct to lJe diyided 1 )et\veen tho T:'u

iall <.;OU1- 
pany alHI the r
toll (Þ'\.nel'
. 'rho result of this fir
trip of the U' (/(1'n ""as elCYCll hundred ottcr-skill
(.arried frol11 the Californiau coasts, chiefly frolll thosc 
of the pl'nill
ula, to Ala
ka in .f une 180.!, the Ye

e tlirectin o ' her ('Our
 to China and h0I11e",';:}r..1. 21 
'Thi::; HC"" By
tenl of huutillg" on Bhare
 ".as cOlltillueù 
for year::; ".ith SOUlC profit to the cOlltracting partic:-;, 
pecially to the .L\llleriC'ans; lJut it "":}:{ at last ter- 
Ininntc<l by the ltussians "Then they 
onyincL'd the1l1- 
 that their Yankce partner:--i could neithcr 1)0 
tl'(l nor ".atched, llcsides arou...illg the cnlllity of 
Spain Ly their ullla\\yful operati()n
. The \\.holo 
jcct i
 fully treated cl:-,c\\
llcre in thi
 "Tork, lllainly 
concerning California andL\.la
a. Jlullting under thi
lle\V arrangclllcut ".as l"hicfly cOllfilleù to the southern 
coasts, ahllo:->t exclu
i'Tcly so f
u' tl-.; the records 
Xaturally the Rpaui:--ih archivc
 lllcntion only C0l11pli- 
catit Jns ,,-ith the Californian authurities; the Rus:-\iau 
 deal only \\ ith the cOlltracts,outfit:--\,and l'e
,,-hile Lut fc\\- lug-Looks are extant. Yet a..; these 
selç: pa-.;scd each year up and dO\\ïl bct\\Tt.:en Ala
an<l L\dif
H"llia, it 
eclllS Jle
el'l'ary to Inentiou thenl in 
l"onncction ".ith the lllaritinle allllal
 of the X orth\\Tc:-\t 
t, e'.l'll if uo re<:()rd
 appear uf their OCc3,:;Íollal 
 and adYelltur

 \\.ithin that territory 
21 Bo.ifnll in th ...Y()r"",.('..
I:--.., ]] ]
: KId,1J1lil...,f,, 8; 1'ikhmhuf, 
IlStor. UúCJZralli(, npp., :.!,:!-.>. ::,CC al
v l1i.:;t. Cat., ii., chap. ii., this 8cric



No traders visited Californian 'Yater
 in 1805, or at 
least they left no record of thcir yi::;Ît
; hut there are 
a fp,v itcIllS extant rcspéctillg their Iuoven1ent
 in the 
north. The shlP .LltohuallJ(f, Captain O. Porter, de- 

patche(l hy I-.iynHìnofBo
ton, ",vasattacked Lythe sav- 
ages in J\Iillbank Sound, an( 1 her captain, HUtto, and Hix 
seaIllen, ,ycre killed; after ,yhich the other sean1cn suc- 
ceeded in repeningthèa

a.ilant8 and savingthevossel."22 
hip C(f')"olin(l ,vas still on the coast; and ne\\T ar- 
riyals included the Bo
ton ships TTanrouccJ', Bro,vn,allcl. 
Pearl, Ebbett
, de
patched by Lynlan and L
nnb, re- 
speetively.23 Le,yi
 and Clarke reaching the l}}outh of 
the Colulnbia by an overland journey, learned fron) the 
Indians thcir version of the nal1ieS of a dozen foreigners 
"Tho had been ,vont to vi
it their country in c0l11n1and 
of vessels; but none of the na1118S can be identified. 2 ! 
The Lydia of Boston, conl1l1anded by San1uel Hill, 
arrived at 
 ootka to rescue J e,vitt and Thonlpsoll, 
as ,ve have seen, ill July 1805. The ship then 1nade 
a cruise to the north, entered the COlllll1bia for spars, 
returned to N ootka in N ove1nber, and finally sailed 
fcr China in August of the next year. 25 The Juno, 
Captain De ,V oJf, very likely visited this region this 
year, as late in the autullln she ,yas sold to the Rus- 
sian Alnericau COlllpany at N e,v Archangel. 26 
2".!.Greenhow's Or. anel Cal., 268. He says the Atahualpa was from Rhode 
Island. Gray, lIi8l. Or., 14, tells us she was sent from Boston in 1803 by 
Lyman and Company. Henry A. Peirce, Jlemoramla, 1\18., 7-8, afterward 
sailed ,,,ith Kicholas 'Yrenthel11, who had been mate of the Atalmalpa, who 
said: 'The natives became saucy, the mate not liking the look of things 
told the captain, who pooh-poohed., but the natives maùe an attack on the crew. 
They were at last heaten off by the crew, but they had no sooner done this 
than they saw the Indians sawing away at the hempcn cable. The captain 
took his blund.erbuss and fired at the natives, killing six of them... The 
hoatswain was named Griffin. Captain Porter was stabhed in the back and 
thrown overboard. He was carried on shore anù lived a few days.' In 'l'ufts' 
List the Atahualpa arrived in 1804. 
23 Gray's Iii..,t. 01'., 14; 'l'ufts' List. 
2tLe1ri8 onel's JOllrne.1J, 497. The names were as follows : Haley, 
the faYo
ite trader, stays some time; Zallamon, not a trader; Callalamet, 
with a wooden leg: Davidson, a hunter; 
kel1ey, only one eye; ahsent for 
several years; Y ouens, ::;ivipton, l\Ioore, :Mackey, \Vashington, ßlesship, Jack- 
son, and Bolch. 
Tar., };",)4-63. Gray, Ilist. Ul'., 15, speaks of the L]Jdin as sent 
from Boston to theColumlJia hy Lyman in 180G. Tufts says she sailed in 1804. 
zánoj, Za}Ji8ki. 203-4. 
he left Boston ill 1804, being owned as well 
as commanded by De 'V olf. Tuft8' List. 



Tho illlperial illspoctor TIc 
anof fronl J\laska in 
] 80G urged upon hid COlllI'LLIl'y and hi:) go,.ernlucllt the 
i lllportaIH.:
p of t
)U ll< ling u. 1 t 
::;::)iall establi
lllllell t un 
th,' (tohlluhia I tiver, ,\"ith a, \'ie\\
 of gaillill.

essioll c.f the fur-trade. "'ro necoJllpli:-;h thi
\,."nld l)e neCl'S
arr to IHliJd a
 :--;0011 a
 l,ossible an 
arlllca In'i,,' to drive a".ay the lJostoniaJls frOll1 thi
,:) . 
tradl' fo1'c\"l'r. FrolH the Colulubia ,,-e coul.l gra(luaHy 
ael, allCÙ to'\
ard thè ;oo.outh tp the port of 
all Frau- 
eisco, ".hi(.h fOl'lllH the IJlHlndary line uf California. 
I think I lllay 
ay that at the Co!tlllll)ia 'Ye could 
attract population &'r1'o111 yurious localities. and. ill the 
CoUl'::;C of ten yeard ,ve should Lecolllc strong cnough 
te, Innke URe of any f
lYoral)lè turll in I:urol'can puli- 
ti(.s to include the cuast of California in the l{u


. " 
p< ):..:se
Sl< H1S. 
"(t'lptaill 'Vin
hip tol(l ::\11' l
arállof that lac..;t au- 
tUlllll Hixty lllCll had started froB1 the United Stateq 
o\yel'land to ð(;tt]
 011 the CUlulubia ]
iYer, \vhich 
" oul( 1 have IJeen easier for n
 than anyhody else. 

rhe ..t.\.lllcricau statC}3 elailu the right to thuse shorc", 
Ruyillg that thc hcad,,
atcl's of the COIUlllLia. arc ill 
their territory; but on th0 sanlC principle they 
extend their po
scssiolls an over tho ,vorld, ". here 
tllcre ,,"as 110 prcyious European Rutt!enlcllt. But I 
thiuk they hayc flcteru1ined to 
cttlc there, becausc 
thc SpalliarJf
 have opened to thelll f()ur ports on the 

terll sidt. of ....\lIlcrica under the l"uIHlition that they 

hou1.1 not touch on thci r ,vestern coast:3. 
7 'rhi,..; 
ha 1 JpL'llccl. after 'Vill
 ùepal'ture frolH Roston, 
aucl i
 yet ullk,no\Vll to the .All}(
riean Yt'
sel:-) IH ore. 
}'our no
toll shj I )
 are at I n'c::;cllt .'ruisino. and tradin rr 
ill t he sound

, HalllelV': (ia l )tain I Icalc un the l)rio- 

lJida;'1J3 (iaptaill Porter, hrother of tIll"' one killed, oIl 
hip 11{'JJu'ltun;'J.
1 Captain B1'o\\-n Ull the 

J7 I do not llIl(l("
tan(l this 
8 Thi'l Ill. .. he the IIa1t.y of Lc\\ is nml Clarke's list. 
2\lc :my, lJix'. (Jr., ).'), lllcntioll'i tho lIamilttJlI, Olptain L. p(.tcr
. as ha\int( 
hcen B
"lt to the (.ulumlli.L IIY L) man of Bo
tull, arriving in Ib07. Tuft
, Lilti, 
h'l'.C8 tbe nùme 1....' lln.l the .latel::,OO. 
IIIHJ;. N. ,,,. COAtiT. Yt)L. I. 21 

3 <').") 


Va7lCOlu:er;30 and Captain Gichitz in the ship Pec(}.z.31 
At I(,airrall there are al
o se\
eral vC88cls tradillo' t.he 
o 0' 
(Trúdcl, Ilo:a rd/ J ])eacock, and others. \Vhcn 
'YC ch"íve the
e un,velco111e gue
nvay?" l{ez
hill1self ,yent d<.Hvn to California on the ,JUliO, a
fully related in another vollunc of this ,,'"ork,33 and in 
his letters he "
ritcs: "I had tho intention to explore 
the Cululnl,ia River. \V e 
ightt'd its lllouth on the 
14th of )Iarch, but contrary ,,'inds cOlupellcJ us to 
stand off. After keeping a northerly course for a 
tinle ",re returned next day and expected to run in, 
but the strong current had carried us sixty n1iles to 
the north, and ,ve "'"ere opposite Gray Harbor. 'Ve 
sent off a bidarka, in ,vhich Dr Langsdorff entered the 
harbor. \V e tried again to run into the Collllnbia as 
the only harbor this side of California to obtain fresIl 
provisions, and ,ve approached it on the evening of 
the 20th. The fullo,ving day ,ve expected to enter, 
but a rushing tide and a {'hannel covered ,vith high 
breakers opposed us;" and four days later they reached 
San Francisco. 34 
The Peacock, named in Rezánof's list, left Boston 
in Septelnber 1805, doubled Cape Horn in cOll1pany 
,yith the lIazard, and caIne to California frolll the 
Ha,,'"aiiall Islands in 
-'eLruary 1806. She is de- 
scribed as of one hundred and eight tons, ,,
ith eight 
guns and fourteen 11len; and ,vas conlnlanded by 
Captain Kilnball, said to bave been a brother-in-la,v 
of O'Cain. Though bound for the north ,vitb sup- 
plies for the Russians, she attelnpted s111uggling- 
that is, applied for provisions-at several southern 
ports, and in consequence lost four Inen, 'v ho ,vcre 

30 Sent out to meet Lewis and Clarke, but not arriving until after their 
departure, according to Gray. 
31 The captain's namc was Ebbetts. She was fittcd out by Lamb and 
Company, according to Tufts. 
3:! Left Boston July 22, 1803, under 'Villiam Smith as master; and returned 

, 1808. ....Yilr,.,' Rcyister, xviii. 418; 'J'ufts'List. Gray says sbe was scnt 
out under :--\mith in 1807. 
33JIi,')t. CaL, ii., chap. iv. 
31Rezánof, Zapisl.:i, 233, 234, 279; see also Lctn[jsdO'J:ff's Voya[Je,c;, ii. Ð7 ct seq. 




arrested at Ran Diego and :-;ent to San Dlas. 35 r\n- 
other Yt':-;-..;el of the year \\yas kll( nVll to the Spaniards 
as th,. ](('i:"(Js, though ther"' l11ay Le f::;OlllC error ahout 
t ht 1 IHlIllC. She "pas apparently t;ngagcd in ottcr- 
]lunting, or at least ,va
 in l:olJll'itny "
pith other Yés:-\el:-:; 
:-'0 l'B
age( 1. 3G 
1'he (J' 'ain ('anl · Laek thi
 YC'tr, h
ving left Do:-:ton 
in ()ctoLer 1803, uIHl(\r thc {'Ullllllall(l uf J ontl tl1an 
llip, ,\yith Nathan \Yïnship n
 BUtte. She had a 
for('l' of thirty Blen, a l'oppercll botto[n, not (,(Hlllllon 
in those <lay::;, all<l ,vas :-.pccially fitted out for hunting- 
a':; ,veIl a'i tr
uling. A hundred Aleuts ,vith fifty 
IJÙluJ'l.((s ".crè obtained at X c\\y Archangel in April, 
onl(; attcull'ts at hnntiBg' \\yere lluulc on the ,,"ay 

outIl\Yard. \VinHhip's ('hief operatiolls ".Cl.ù ('olltined, 
ho\\.evt'l', to the 13aja Califoruia t'( )[lsts and islalH l
 here he left his hunter::; aud l'eturlleù 1)y the Sand- 
,vich l
 tv I{adiak "yith 
kin:-) valued at "(jO,OOO.:i7 
.L\llothC'f ve:-,:-.el, not )){llllell, hut cUlllluanded hy Cap- 
taill (
alnpl)cn, p()s
ihly ]{iInl J all of the l)(
"c()ck, l11a<l0 
a cOlltraet in October for huntiug un Bhares, and callie 
Lack to .Åla
ka the next Augu
t ,yith 1230 

The "Tinships on tho 0' Coin ,vith a ne". party of 
tìfty hunters left J{adiak in January 1807. 
at the li'al'allollPs, at the i
landl.j of the Santa BÜrhara 
CIUlllllCI, :uHl at San I)cdro, "Tinship rcjoine(l the 
 he had left ou tlh 1 pellinHulaf coast, ,,-here he 
J.ùnlainl'd until ..L \pril, and then returncd to the Borth 
,,,.it It the ,,"hole force of Aleut
, TIH:re ""ere OYer t\\y() 
 on board, t\VU Illure at the end than at 
the l)(_\gilllling uf the trip HOl'th,,"ard and tilt, log' 
Onll\ nalTO\\Y e
 fUHìl :-;hilHvreek on the 
,\ ay. \\....ith a cargo \\yorth 
 1 ;
G,OOO the U' (/(tln 

'r(.h. r"z., :\IK, Prrn.. Sf. P"p., xix. I
()-ð, }."):J-;), Ij'4-(); Pl'OV. Rrc., 
xii. 4fì; l,ar=(llIof, 7nIJi...I.'i, :!j':l 
lr,.h. ('al., :\IS., Pro,'. Sf. Pap.. xix. I:!n-:JO. I
1--(), I"'I-:
. The cnptaill.s 
Jlamc i8 calle(l (n '.1Ìn :nul in one place is writtell Po('uicùr. 
3i /1().o(loll ill fh .LYnrtll.l"":Jf, )1:-\., J:J-:!O; 1\1I,1I/)11il..of, Zapi.'iki. H-IO, I:
r. ,..,'I,i:,uf>njJiol.olwli,. 107-S; rikh"léll('.I
 /'..10,.. ()lo:,,/'w/Ït, i. Iü";. 
3:-<Khlf.lmiJ.:oj, Laj i8ki, !J. 



for rhina in October; and at thc\ beginning of tho 
next year started for Bo
ton in COlllpallY ,,-ith the 
At(lhualjJa anti ",J UfJZlstlls, captains StUl'gi8 and Ilill. a9 

lcan\"hilo the old cOlnnlancler of the 
hip, ,f o
O'Cain, 'Ya
 on the Eelli).'>\(!, a Ye
Hel chartered IJY the 
Russian COlnpany, ,,,hich ,vas "
reeked al110ng the 
Aleutian Islands in Scptenlber of thi
 ycar, tho cap- 
tain and his Incn saving their lives after 1nan'y har(l- 
RhipH!O .L\ccording to a Ru

ian authorit.r, Captain 
S\yift in the Derby Inade an otter-hunting trip to 
California this year under an arrangenlcnt sinlÌlar to 
that of the \Vinships; but nothing further is kno\vn 
of the voyage except 1\1r Gray's statelnel1t that the 
Derby entered the Colulnbia lliyer the next .rear. 41 
The GUGtinuy;;in, Glanville master, Lv-nlan o,,-ncr, 
left Boston in July 1806, and "ras on the coast frolH 

Iarch 1807 to Septen1ber 1808. She entered the 
Colun1bia, and her trading operations extended up to 
59 0 30/. On July 4th the n1en had nloose and saln10n 
for dinner on the COllullbia; and a pe\vter Inedal ,vas 
found ,yhich had been given to the Indians by Le,vis 
and Clarke. 42 

The Boston ships Peal"l, Captain Suter, and TTan- 
couvel", Captain Whitteillore, o\vned and fitted out by 
PerkinR, 'v ere on the coast in 1808-9, according to 
Tufts and Gray. In these years also the JlercuJ'!J, 
cOlnlnanded by George Washington Ayres, ,vas en- 
gaged in hunting on shares under a contract ,vith 
the Russians. Captain Ayres lost sonle deserters in 
California; but he obtained t\VO thousand and eighty 
39Boston in the J!..
ortllwest, 1\18., 12-27. The Ata}lllalpa is in Tuft..:;' Li13t 
for ISOi, owneù by Lyman. 
4.'JCa'llpbelts roy., 2G-'7, 4:2-8. The author sailed on this vessel from 
China nnd
r the assumed Harne of :McBride. In some of the Russian author- 
ities the Eclipse is spoken of as visiting the southern coast, being perhaps 
cOllfounùc(l,vith the U'Caill. 
41 Til.:hmt-n('f, Islol". ()
o:rani(', i. 171; G7'ay's lIist. 01'., 15; '1''UfÜ
' List, 
owned IJY Perkins. 
42Sw,W'.<; ]..-oJ"thll'est ('O(U
t, 406-7, 4:2.3, with afae-simile of the medal; Tl!ft..;' 
Li."t. ),11' Tufts, who furnished the information puLlished hy 
wan, was 
snpercargo of the Gllfltimo-;in on this yoyage. The vessel was wrecked in 
1810 OIl the Kew Jersey coast. 



spa-oth\1' f'kin:-; fol' 
hal'iug.43 Grccnho,," tells u
::\11' .i\sto}". in 180U, "despatched thû ship h'/lterp}'is'
undt.}" (iaptain Ebbl:tt
, an illtelligeut and experienced 

{'êtJllan and trad.. '1", to luake observatiuns at various 
placl's oil the Horth-"'('st (;oa
ts of .L\ulerica, alHl par- 
ticular!) at the llussiau 
cttlclncnt:3, :uHI to prepare 
tlte "'US' for the Be\\' esbl1 )lisll111euts;" but not It i n(''' 

fl1rtht.1' j:-; 
tated about tht.\ yoyage. t ' Captain I(nskof 
yi:'\itetl Califl)fniu in I80!) ,yith a vi(.\v tu seleetin(r a 
- ,"""", 

itc t:)1" tlu \ proposed ltu':)
ian f"ettlelllent; but he did 
Bot touch un thl' coa
t bet,,"ccn
ka tll1d Tl'iniJad. 

111 18 lO-11 four 
hip:-\, the 0' Co in, .Lllbatross, I"o- 
bratt, and JlcrcuJ"!J, cOIlllntUH]ed re
pectivcly oy JOIl- 
atl1all an<1 Xathall \Vinship, \'TjIlialll ] I. Daxi
, and 
oro'e \,..,. A vrcs ,vere el1O'a('reJ in huntin o ' otters 
<::> . J' 00 b 
undl'r Ilu:--:"-lian contracts. 1"hey a1:-;0 did a \"ery largo 
alhl pruíìtalJle bUbinc
:..; in hunting fur-Beals on the 
 au(t at other point
. Their huntillg opcra- 
tious ,,'ere exclu:-;ively in southern \VaterB, and are 
rccorded in anothcr yoluule of this \VOl'k. 45 It i
nLlo that they tf
Hled to SOme extent in tho horth, 
l)ut of their 11l0\Clllcnts on tho N ortlnve
t Coast 
uothing i
 kuo\\.u Leyond their tripB to aud fro Lc- 
t\reell Ala
lll(l California. There is, hrn\"eycr, one 
iIlll'ortallt exception to La noted in tho case vf the 

llúat russ, 1'he \Vin
hip::, ha(l plannc(l a perlIlanent 
f'l'ttlclnent or tradiug-post on the Colunlbi
t, aud \','ith 
that end in vic\y Captain X atban, on his first arrival 
fro111 tho Salld,vich l
lan(ls, Rpent ncarly t,,"o 1110nths, 
froln )[:lY 
Gth to ,July" l
)th, in the river. ....\. site "'a

electe(l at a place ('aIled Oak Point, OIl the suuthern 
1 )ank, ahout forty ll1Ïlc
 fi'OlU the llluUth. ..I.. \ftcr con- 

i<.1eral)lc progre
s had been Illadc OIl a IJllildiilg, and in 
preparing laB(l for plalltillg, an illuudation forced thcu} 
to Illn\
C tllt\ f(")ulltlatioll tv a higher 
l'ot near 1,}"; antl 

3 J]arÚI1()'/, Shi-:l1eopiswwir, 111; Khlelmil.:oj, Zapiüki, 9; ...lrch. Cal., 
Pror. J:(.,... yiii. !to; -S; i
. l:!O; 
ii. :!S:3-4. 
H(;/"(Ul!lfH(,'... (Jr. "wl Cal., 


cc lli<5t. ('at., ii., this 



then the hostile attitude of the Indians caused the 
project to be abandoned altogether, 
ince althouo'h 
the Indians Inight eaRily haye I)cen controlled duri

hip's presence, it "Ta
 not ùeclncd 
afe to lease a 
snlall party exposed to such danger. Full particulars 
of this earliest atteulpt at scttlelnent in Oregon ,vill 
Le gi\Ten in a later chapter of this ,york. Captain 

\..yre:-3 al
o entered the CollunLia ill the JIc}'cuJ'!/ 
".hile '"Vll1ship ,vas there. It seenlS that Ayres 
took ten or t,vclve natives frol11 the:N Gotka region to 
serve ill the 
outh as hunters; and instead of bringing 
thenl back to their hOl110, as he had promised, he left 
then} on SOllle desert i
lands 011 the Californian coast. 46 
I(uskof started this year on a lle\V expedition to Cal- 
ifornia; but touching at Queen Charlotte Island
,yas attacked by the Indians, ,vho killed Reveral of 
his 111en and left hinl in such a condition that he ,vas 
forcell to return to Alaska. 47 
Besides the four otter-hunting craft in southern 
,vaters, five vessels ,vere seen in the sunl1ner of 1811 
at l{aigan, in the north. These ,vere the .LVeLV 
IIaz((l'd, Captain Nye; thè IAJdia, Captain Bonnett; 
the Otter, Captain Hill; and t"TO 
hirs, not nalned, 
under captains Porter and Blanchard,48 the latter's 
sel being the Catherine, ,vhich ,vas hunting for 
the Russians on shares. Captain Blan
hard and 
Captain Tholl1aS 1Ieek of the Anlethyst delivered to 
the c01l1pa"ny this year over fourteen hundred sea- 
otter skins. The CYlCl]"on, cOll1lnanded by Captain 
'Vhittelllore, ,vas anothor of the hunting craft, ,vhich 
carried north eighteen hundred skins, and ,vas founel 
at the }"arallones hy \Vinship the next year. 49 The 
Otter is said to have been attacked by the natives at 
N ootka, seyeral of the cre\v being killed. 60 
46 Fnmchne's }l.T ar ., 187. 
47 Ti!.'h1ìU;Il('J
 [."to'l". Obosr(wie,å. 208. 
48 Log of the Albatro88, in Boslon in the .1Vorthw('st, ::1\18., 56. 
49 KItl(buikof, Zapiski, 9-10; Ectránoj, Shizneopis8unie, 148-9; Boston in 
fll(' }..T(rl"fhu:('.
t, ]\I
., G2. 
50p(';/.re's .J.1If'TtJo/'auda, 
IR., 14. The writer's hrotber, Joseph, was on 
hoanl and was wounded. Captain Hill is spoken of as father of the actor 
known as Yankee Hill. The date is given as 1810. 



The annals uf the l\tcitic l."ur Cornpany and the 
foundatiou of j\ ....toria oil the ColuI11hia ë1re pI esented 
ful1 y el:-;e\r here in thi", \\"ol'k; bare lnelltioll of the 

ub:j('ct in its lllaritiulC l'ha
e:--; ".ill 
uffi("L. here. 1'hc 
}In l'ty that actually f( >lllule( 1 the c",tal)lisllluell t ('aIJle 
ill the :-\I.ip 'rOJifl"in, ('iaptain ,Jonathan l'horn, ".hich 
left Xl'\\' \T ork in Spl'tell11Jer 1810 and ('ntelc(l the 
ri \- 'r in ,larch 1811. .L\fler the ('re\v 11tH 1 a
in the 1 n.elinlinary \\'U1"1. of the I )O,-;t, Captain l"horu 

ai1l'd for the Borth to Cllo'ao'o in trade for tlH
. 0 
pa 11 y. '1\\'0 Yt'ar:-; later a na ti \'l' interpreter ,,'110 had 

aileJ on the \'e
""el returned to .L\..storia ,,
ith the 
follu\\'ing report, a
 (luotcd frolH Gl'eeuho\\': "The 
'l'u/H[U;n, after quitting the ri\?er, 
ailed llurtll\\'arù 
nl. )n o the coast of tho continent, and anchored, in the 

Iuitldlc of ,J Hue, 181], oppoHitc n village on the hay of, Dear the entrallce of the Strait of :E"UCtl. 
She \\'a
 there inlluediatcly Rurrounded Ly cro".d
of [lldiall
 in canoes, ",ho continued for 
onle ùay
trade in the Inu
t peace
d,le 111anner, 
() a
 to di
Ca ptaill 'fhorn aud )Ir )IcI(ay of all :-;u
pici()ns. .L\.t 
lcno-th either in consec l uence of an affront (ri \'en L'\" a 
v , b ,,' 
chief to the captain, l>r ",itJJ the vie\v of plundering 
the Ye
:"el, tho natives clllhraeed an oppurtunity ,,'hCll 
the BleB ""crc di
peT'sell OIl or helo\," the <leeks, ill the 
perfOl'llltlUC'Ü of their dutie
, and in a 11l01l1ellt put to 
death everyone of the erc\\r and pa

, except 
the interpreter, ,vho leaped into a C;1noe, and \\.as 
l)y S(HUe "'Oluüll, and the clerk, )11' Lc\"is, ,vho rc- 
treated, ,vith a fe\v f'ailor
, to the caLill. The 
of the <:1'(\"', l)y the elllployulellt of their firc-arln
("eeded in tlriying thc 
aYag-es frolH tho 
hip; and, in 
the night, tCHlr of theln 'p1Ïttü<1 her in a hoat, leaving 
OIl hoard )[1' Le\vi:-\ and 
01l1e ()ther
, ,vIto \\Terc 
n the f()llo\riuo' day , tho natiYe:::; acraill 

 oJ 0 
ero\\'tlcd around (uul on Loard the TUllfjuin; and \\' hile 
thev \vere cllcracl'ed in ritlin cr her 
he \\T

 Llo,,-n H I ) 
J 'J'J ..." , 
lnost prohably b) thl' ,vnunded Incn left bclo\\. (leek. 
rhe :-\e
Ullcll ,,-hu had elldeayored to c
cape in the 



boat ,,"cre soon retaken, and put to ùeath in a Inost 
cruellnanner, by the IIHlialls; the interpreter ,vas prc- 
ecl, and rOlllained in Rlavery t\yO years, at the end 
of ,,
hich titHe he "
as Ruf!crc(l tu depart."51 It should 
o be 8tatccl here that a 
Ch()OllOr of thirt

 tOllR, the 
fralllü for ,yhich had heen l) froll1 N C\V York 
v , 
 launched on the 2d of October, nalned tho Doll!}, 
and used thereafter for river navigation, being tuu 
slnall for coa
ting voyages, for ,vhich she had becn 
intended. 52 

Captain J ol1athan 'Vinship can10 back on the Alùa- 
t J'os.'; to California ill 1812 for the purpose closing up 
hi:J fur-trading and hunting operations, having n}adc 
arrangelnontB to elnbark in a ne,v únterprisc, tho 
sanJal-,vooll trade. He did not go farther north than 
Drake Bay on this trip, and this seems to have been 
his last yisit to the ,vestern coas
, though \ve shall 
n1eet the ves::;el again. 53 The only vessel kno,vn to 

51Grc('nhow's Or. and eal., 300; Irl'lng's AstOJ'ia, 4.3--84, 10G-IG; G
Franchère out on the 'l'oJlqui1l, and in his 

(tJT(ffive of ((, VO!lage gives 
a full account of the trip. This book, pp. 180-!J, also contains the fullcst 
account of the massacre, as rcported by the Illlliall interpreter. Captain 
Smith of the Albatros.-;, according to Franchère, attributed the disaster largely 
to the action of Captain Ayres of the .i.1Iercury, who, as already noted, had 
taken ten or a Jozen natives of the Kootka region as hunters, and had faileJ 
to return them to thcir homes. I shall gÎ\-e a full description of the voyage 
anJ cal
ture of the TU/1(Jltln in connection with the Astor expeùitions. 
52j1'rflnchcrc's .1Yar., l
53 I quote from ßo..;fon in the .1Yorthu:est, 
IS., p. 68 et seq., as follows: 
'The captains 'Vinship returneJ to Boston during 1816 and retired from the 
sea.. . And now, in p::tl'
ing y;ith the nautical part of Captain Jonathan \Yin- 
ship's life, a passing tribute is due to him as a commander. The "'Titer was 
pcrsonally acquainted with him, amI gladly rccorùs his own opinion with the 
testimony of other men of the sea who knew him intimately. As an carly 
pioneer to the Korth-\\
est coast, and as agent for the company and chief in 
command of the ships of the c:-::)edi:ion, he must frequently have been calleù 
to the firmest exertion of authority and command. His humanity i::; apparent 
from his treatment of the natives, while the health, the convenience, and as 
far as it could Le admitted, the enjoyment of his seamen were the constant 
objects of his atte:1tion; kind and courteous to all, he was manly and honor- 
able in the transacl:Ïons of the multifarious business in which he "vas engageù, 
whether with the s3.,-ages of Xootka Sound, the savage king of the IslanJ8, 
or the more civilizeù subjects of the Flowcry Kingdom. As a seaman and 
navigator he ranked among the foremost. His brother appcars to have hecn a 
counterpart of himself, and an able coijperator. . . Captain 'Villship was sorely 
disappointed at the result of his brother's attempt at the [Columhia] River; 
he hoped to have planted a Garden of Eden on the shores of the I)acific, and 
made that wilùerncss to blossom like the rose. Repulseù on the western slope 

1812 .AXD TIlE ". AR. 


hayc touchcd thc X()rtll\\
oast in 1 R 12 ,va
l1f}ffl'(,}', (,OlllllHl1Hll,d Ly C\LJ,tain (iornelius So\\
She 1 )rouo'ht frol11 X e\V \T urk allúthcr detaclullent of 
 fur l"(Hllpauy, au(l enterc(l thè COlulllbia (jU 
tht' lOth of ) [aye 
hc left the JiveI' i H .r\ugust and 
proceeded on a trading tour up the coast. 'fhe iuten- 
tiOll ".as to return to .r\storia, l)ut thc vessel proceeded 
iu:-\tl'ad fr01H Sitka to thú San<hvich r
lanJ;-; and to 
rhilla, ,,-here 
hc relnaillcd during the ""ar bct,,'ccn 
]alld autl the U nited Statc
The "Tar of 18] 
-1-1 can:-,cd a cOlnpleto sta
ill l11al'itiuIC afl:lÎr
 OIl the X ortln\Tl'st Coast. Only t\"t'O 
ycs:-\els arc kno\\"11 to haye rcached the Coltllnl)ia in 
] 8 I ;L I t doc
 not appcar that any English \'c,-,::)cl<.; 
at t hi
 tillle ,vera cngaged in thc fur-trade; and the 
.6 \.111Cl'ic:.tu traJl}1'H, fearill::; \yith Junch reason capture 
Ly Driti
h cl'uiser
, hastened to take rcfugc in llcutral 
H.ts OIl receipt of the lle\Y
 that hostilitic'-> luul Legun. 
rrhû IJe(lrer frOlH Astoria, having land cd 1_11' IlaBt, 
chief agent uf .1\stor'
 CU111pany, at the Sand,,-ich 
I Hland:..;, V,"aB f(H'tullato enuugh, as "..c haye seen, to 
reaeh Canton. "I had sent orders to thc captain 
to return to .L\.storia; but he ,vas fearful of Leiní}' 
captul"eJ, alHl renlaincd safely at Canton till tho "Tar 
 o\?er, ,,-hl'll he Can1C honle. "5:> rrhc ()' Cu in and 
].wlvella are 
aid to have Leon blocka(led at the SallJ- 
".i(:h I
lanùs {tn- nearly thrce year:.;, 'v hile the Ctl ((/,uiL 
,yaf.; so unlucky as tú f
tll into tho hand<:; of tho foe.:;6 
..L \nothcr ,vpll o/kn( HYTI yc:-;:-;el uf tht. fleet , el1(yarrcd in 
o u 
the llu

iall, fur-hunting, aud coutraoallù scryice, the 
of tbe continent, he returned to the ca.jtern. . . In his native town of Brighton 
he laill out llwl culti,-atc(l the most ('xtensh'c gardens of the kind then ex- 
i,.;tinJ on the continent of .\merica, filled with the choicest plants and shruh. 
Lery. " . Hij tltLcr years were peacefully spent 11mo113 beùs of 110" ers. lIe dit"'d 
 hi::i roses. How useful aIllI honorable the life-how heautiful its clo:-:c.' 

>1 l{JS3 Co)., .1rll.eJltllre
 011, the ColulIlbÙt fl;,:a, came out on hO.lrd of t!lO 
RC(lI.( I'. See: Iso Orten/lOw's 0,'. and ('al., :!!J3, :!!J!J; Astor's letter, ill [d., 4-iO; 
lì"(lIl .It('re'
 ..Var., l.")-l-()l; Irving's 
lðforia, ;J.,);}-8, 4G
:,;; .\stor'u letter in (;r( ell/ww'd Or. aml Cal., 440. 
;;I;JJO.-;t II, ill tlu> ...Yurt/w. >,')t, 
., ü;t The authOl'includes the 
llbatrml8 with 
the oLhel..]; amI it is possihle tha.t she was detained ut the Islands after her 
return from the Columhia in 1813. 



JleJ'clu'y, although 
hc kcpt out of the v.Tay of Briti
Jllcn-of-,yar, 'Ya
 captured by the Spallial'ò
 ill J uue 
near Santa 13ärLara, California, and ,yas ('onfi
 a sllluggler. 67 The goverlHnent at 'Vashington 
cl}(lIlO protection either for .L\.Jllcricall shipping 
ill the "
tcrn ocean or for the ..L\lnericall trading-post 
on the COlulllLia. England increascd the force of her 
l, and at last succeeded in capturing 
the frigate Es.
cJ:", ConlllloJore Porter, the only United 
States nlall-of-l\Tar in these ,vaters. l\Iean,vhile early 
in 181:1 ::\11' .Àktor de
patched the ship La rl., ladcn \vith 
supplics for the Collunbia River; Lut this vessel ,vas 
,yreckeJ at the Sand,yich Islands, both ship and cargo 
being a total 10ss.58 
In J nne the 
11bCltro88, Captain "\Vinship, arrived at 
the Islands frolll the Indies ,vith the ne,vs that ,yar 
had broken out, and that fear of English cruisers had 
forced her and her three consorts-perhaps the L
bclla, O'C({in, and Charon-to Rail precipitately, re- 
porting also the detention of the Bcal-'cr at Canton. 
The .
Jlbatl'oS8 had on board some goods for Astoria; 
and Rhe "Ta
 charterell, under the COllll11and of Captain 
'Villialll Sn1Îth, to carry these goods and other sup- 
plies ,vith chief agent Hunt to the Collunbia. She 
arriyed at Astoria on the 4th of August, renlaining 
in the river until the end of the Inonth. l\Iean,v hile 
the resident partners and others haJ deterlnined to 
aLandon the post in consequence of the ,val'. 1\11' 
I-Iunt ,vas obliged against his ,vill to concur in this 
resolve; and as Captain Sn1ith's vessel 'vas under en- 
gagclnents that did not pernlit her to ,vait and carry 
a\vay tho people and their effects as ,vas desired, the 
agent returned on her to the Islands in search for 
another vessel to effect the l'enloval. 59 

57 For particulars see IIist. CaL, ii., this series. 
58 Astor's letter, as before citeù. 
59 PJYUlche}"fJ'SlVar.; G,.eellhow's Or. and Cal.,o IrvinrJ':j Astoria, 4'i3-G et seq. 
It is not necessary to give minute references here, as the annals of Astori.t 
are to be fully recorùed in later chapters of this work. Captain Hmith's 
eighth voyage round the world is described in NUt'..,' lle!listf'r, xviii. 418, as 
follows: '
ailcd July ü, ISO!>, in the ship .Alúalros, :Kathan \Vinship, master, 



ille.., the trader
, 1110st (,f ,,'hich Inanagccl to kecp 
out of clall(rer, the (folu1ubia po:-\t ,\ as the only prize 
p()seJ toOeapturc l)y I
riti:-\h c-1"ui:--\ul':--\. ()ne of the 
}je\ eral lllUU-uf-\var 
ellt to the l>aeitÎc ".a
frunl the ðf}uadroll f()r this purpose in thp Houtht:.:rn 
ocean. 'rhis \\.as the ,.,loop-of-\\par J It ((' '(JOIl, of t\V 'uty- 
 guns, (aOllllllande(1 ])y Captaill \\TilliaIH j
H.k. f;he 
arri veJ at ..L\.:-\to}'ia on the last (lay of X ovclnlJcr, 
Lut 1 )ef()re that the Paciti. :Fur COllll'auy ha<l soLl 
out tlH
 \\'hole cstaLlislullcllt to the :Nortll\vcst COlll- 
pany, so that all '\.a
 no\\'" I
ritish property. Forlll
po:-\ses:--\ioH ,Ytls takcn, hen, ever, f()l- Eng-tlncl on Dc- 
ceillher 1 
th; the Briti
h flag "'as rai
ed, and the 
nalllC ".as challge<l frotH 
toria to 
"ort (j-eorgc. 
After lllaking' 
Olnc Burveys at tho riycr's lnouth, the 
llrt<..T(j()/I sailed fur the 
uuth at the un(I of DCCCnll)èr, 
hl'r offi
ers Iuu
h di
appointed at t]H' profitless char- 
acter of their Hcizure. They had expu<;ted to Hccurc 
not only au Ålllerican fort, but diver

and rctun1cJ in the ship U'Ca.lI, Robert ..\IcNcill, master, October I.'), ]1317. 
ror.&lJout beven years of this voyage he commawlc(l the 
, which vcssel 
was employee} ahout four years of the time in transporting sandal wood from 
alHh\Ích islanùs to Canton, for capts \\
m. H. D.wis and Jona. \\ïa- 
ship. . .1 JUt in conse(lucnce of the ,\ ar, amI the arrival of the Ellgli
h sloop.; of 
,\ ar Ra('curl/t find "Iu rub, the contract was hroken, through the interference 
of the commauclcrs of those vessels; the rcmaimlerof the time capt. 
mith was 
cn1Ïsing in the racific ocean in (luestof seal iSb.IlJ
, anù traelillg on the coast of 
CalifornÜt. ()11 this coast, )un-ing gonc a
h0re in the hoat, he was taken prisoncr 
by the :-\panianb v. ith his l)oat's crcw, and aftcr a detention of two months was 
reh:a:'lCll, :;uul pl'Oc(,pelecl to the 
andwich Islanùs, "here he joincù thc ship 
U.Cain, in whieh he came home.' By the :same authority it appears that on his 
niuth ,-oyage on the BorlU 0, "hich kft Boston in IS17, he WfiS wl'ecked.January 

, It) 1 H, Ilcar Kaigan, among the I1aidahs, losing all his journals of carlicr ,
ages. He rctllrnell tu ]
()st()n in IS:!O, allll sullse'lucntIy came to CalifunlÌa, 
where he spcnt the rest uf his life WhCll not cngaged ill plcasurc yoyages on the 
l)aeitìc. l"omethÍll!! ahout this man's lifc will be found in connection" ith the 
J fi,..tuI.!/ (?l ('aliful.n;a. The author of jJo,,,tun ;11 th 
IS., H3 et se h 
gi\-c8 an account of Ute sanclal.,\ 00(1 contract and the ,\ ay it ,\ as broken. The 
...llhat,,08,'1 pcrhaps carricd the "ïll
hips hack to Bo:,ton ill lSIG, :nlll nen'r 
returne(l tu the l'acilìc. 1 (Juotc from this ::\1:-;. as follo\\ 8: 'Thp mcrchants 
of Boston sent out the fast sailing schooncr I'mllflah",aah to the l'acitie at 
 commencelHent of the ,,",ar, to warn the AUlt'l"Ïcan ship
 on the north-" e:-;t 
coast of their (lauger. The warning was a timely one, and thosc at thc ltus- 
sian portH, anel at the Sanelwich 1:;la11eI8, mostly remaine(l at the neutral P,)(.t8 
where thc selwoner founel them. :\[,)st of their furs allll some of their crc,\ s 
'\l'rp tali-cn elm\ n to Chilln. hy the l'ul/Itlllhmarr.h, Ululcr the comm.ulll of 
Captain Porter. Thc ship Jw.oh ./Ullf.'i "as fitted out in Boston, awl sailell 
 the \\oar miller the l"ommancl of ('aptain Hohert8. 
he was a hca' ily 
armeclletter of marque bOUl1l1 to Canton.' 



trading craft laden ,,
ith rich furs as prizes. GO Froln 
tho Colulllbia the Raccoun ran clo\vn the coast, aud 
in the luiddlc of .F'eLruary 111ade her appearance in 
San :Franl"i
co Bay. Captain Black boasted of haying 
en pturcd an Alnerican battery ill the Borth; lJut in a 

uLsequellt collision ,yith another ve:::;sel his sloop had 
receiyed SOl1le injuries, ,vhich ,,
ith his need of HUp- 
plics brought hilll to California. lie departed for the 
SantI ,vich I
landB on the 1 Ðth of April. 61 

lcan,yhile 1\11' Hunt at the Ha,vaiian Islands ob- 
tained the brig Pcdler',G2 and taking on board Captain 
Northrop ,vith the survivorB of the unfortunate La/'k, 
sailed for .Astoria, 'v lìere hc arri yed at the cnd of 
:b'ehruary 1814, only to learn of the transfer of the 
property to an English COl1lpany. He accordingly 
took on board a fe,v .d.u1cricans ,vho had not joined 
eBt Conlpany and preferred a sea voyago 
to the oycrland trip, sailing early in April for N e,v 
York. 63 1-1e is said to have reached his destina- 
tion after a tedious voyage, iU1pliedly perfoI'lned for 
the ,vhole distance on the Peeller. One event of the 
yoyage ,vas the brig'
 capture at San Luis Obispo in 
Augu::;t by a Spanish vessel. ,The charge of sIlluggling 
coultl not be substantiated, and she ,vas released. Tho 
story told at the investigation ,vas that she had come 
fronl the Sand,vich Islands ,vith a cargo for Ross, Cll- 

GOFranchere's Nar., ID6-202; Cox's Adren., i. 2GG et seq.; Irving's ABtoria, 
lIArdl. Gal., )18., Prot.. Rf>c., xii. 226-8; ix. 132-3; Provo St. PCtp., xix. 
GS-70; Zcæalisltin, Delo 0 Koloni!J Ros.'-I, G; Souid's .Annals of San Frtwcl8co. 
,'æn., i. 283-6, says: 'This vessel, on quitting the Columbia, struck 
seyeral times on the bar, and "as so severely damaged in consequence, that 
she '\as obli:;ed to make for San Francisco, which port she reached in a sink- 
ll13 state, 'wi-Lh seven feet of water in her hold. Finding it impossible to pro- 
c\.11"e the necessary materials there to repair the damage. Captain Black and 
his officers had detennilled to abandon the vessel, and proceed overland to the 
Gulf uf :\lexico. . . but when the fðaac Tod arrived they succeeded, with her 
assistance, in stopping the leaks.' 
(;2 Francbère says she was purchased at the 
rarquesas; Cox and Irving, 
that she was purchased at Oahu; and Greenhow that she was chartered at the 
Sandwich Islands. 
G!Cox, Adven., i. 276, states that Hunt afterward became governor of 

l P _\XY. 


terin 'f Han I JltÏ:-\ becal1
e f4he llli
took her en r .tor for 
a I tl1

l1ip, to \vhieh a part of the cargo \va'" to 
1 J{\ \-er....d. rrhe YL':-\
cl had both r\nl 'rican and 
l: n
siall pa

. rrhl\ ofticer:-; had uothing" to say 
of atl:tir:-\ at .L\:4oria , thouo'h one of thelll a<!tl1itteJ 
that thr.y ha( I tOllche< 1 at the CohnnlJia. Gl 
1\JlOt her vC""icl uf the year ,va
 the :-5hip ["i ' T Jd, 
('OU1Hl:ludt.;t! 1 J.V Cn ptaiu l
'razer Slnith. t)hc hac} been 
pat('hed frOIH J..Jondon ,,'ith a cargo of 
 ortll\\"est C()}npallY, H:-; part of the Hchell)(> for 
scizil)lt. th \ \lllerican e
taLli::;ll111ent; anù her arri \'a1 
had lK'cn expccted hy rcprcsontativeH of the Eug]i
(,ol11}>any \\"hu Ciuno o\.crlaIHI tu .r\storia. rrhc T'()fhl 
('al'ried a Juttcr of lOtlrque, (In(l 
tal'tec1 ,yith the 
ita' '(J(JJl and othcr luell-of-\\"ar, lJut p:;rted frolH thelll 
bcf. )l.C cllterillg the Pacific, all< 1, ha villg" touche(l at 
J nail Ii\
rnanùez and the GaHapagus, llladc hc,' appcar- 
a11c<' at l\follt0rcy in ,T
- 1814, 
Inet the ltaccuon, pcrhapH at t'an :Franci
co. The 
of Captain SUlith in California-it "youhluever do to 
tell the SpalliardH tho truth-\yas that the 1ùdd ""a:-; 
an j
llglish 11lcrchalltuHlll Lound to )fanila f()r a eargn 
of tea. She lost :-;e'
ertcrs and left three 11leu 
to recover froIll the scur\yy. Thc i
)l'lller ""cre carrie, 1 

l\Ya'y L.r the llaccùon; :,ul
l one of the latter \\y:.u..; John 
(; ill'oy, the first pCl'nHl11cnt foreign re
ident of (iali- 
iornia. She finallv rcache(l }'ort Ucoro-e un the 17th 
J ð 
of oJ \ pl'iJ, greatly to the relief of the c01l1pany, scycral 
}>1.rtuerB anù clerk::; of ,vhich \yore on 1 )oard, a
 \ycll a:-; 
Jllu(,h llCed0d supplies; and 
hc soon sailed for China. (jj 
III 1 815 t he X ort In\''c
t COl11pany sent their :-,choolll'I" 
(1ul'nuDia <!()\vn to California ulldcr the cOllllnalld of 
t\lptaiu J Ohll J l'llllillg
. "\ \Therc thi
chooller C

f.tArch. Gal., 
., Prot'. St. Pap., xi". 3S:1; Id., )]('1l. Jl1il., xh-. :1-Ûj 
Prol'. 1:((.., ix. 1:1(;; ,AI'r/,. A -;obi'
/J(ldo, )1:-;., ii. ]01. 
Gj lr,.h. ('al., )I
., Pro I.. ,
',. P(III., :>..ix. :
üS-;O: Pr(Jl'. R(1("., >..ii. 
1("'ell., i. 
S.-Hj; FJ'allchf'rc'x.i.\
(lJ... HH. Cox gi,"cs an amusing :1c<"ount 
of the ach.ent of 
nss .Janc
, an English b,tr-maid, whom onc of tho 
eompuny men had 1)rought as a COnlJ)fl.lIWII, elf' 'l.OY"!J('. 
hc went IMck to 
(.hina on thc /'0/", ar1llclicl ilOt thcn.fore hecomc a l)crmaul'Dt resiùcnt of tIlC 

orth,\ cst Coa::,t. 



fronl docs not appear, there being a possibility that 
it "
as the little Dully, purchased frolH the l}acific 
Ct)lllpany ,vith the other property. Jennings had no 
trouble in getting all the 
upplies he needed for hi

el, but he failed in hiB chief purpose, that of 
establishing a regular trade bet,veell 
Iollterey aud 

Fort George, and of leaving an agent in California. 
The Spaniards ,vere :::;uspiciouB that contraband. and 
not legitilllate trade ,yas the aitH. Governor Sola 
fa vored the traffic, but ,voultl not perlnit it ,yithout 
instructions fronl )Iexico; and those instructiol1
,vhen they came, \vere. unfavorable. 66 T,vo Russian 
ycssels, the Chirikof and Ibnen, ,vere in California 
this year, the latter being engaged in fur-hunting as 
,yell as trade; bilt it does not appear that the Russian 
craft, in their constant trips bet,veen Sitka, Ross, 
and the Spanish ports in these years, canle at all 
into contact ,vith the Englishn1en of the Colulllbia, 
or even touched on the coast bet,veen the latitude of 
42 0 and 55 0 . 

N ot,vithstanding the refusal of Governor Sola in 
1815 to perInit the cstablishulent of trade bet,veen 
California and the N orlh\vest C0111pany at Fort 
George, it seeU1S that the company's schooner "
expected to return in 1816, and that the nlissionaries 
had prollli
ed a cargo of produce in exchange for lunch 
l).cedod goods. The governor indeed perll1Ítted thOlli 
to do so finally, confessing to the l\Iexican authorities 
that he acted illegally, but pleading urgent ncce
The Co!tuuùia did not COll1e, but in her place the Conl- 
pauy's brig Colo'nel, cOllln1anded by Captain Daniel 
IcDougall a
 supercargo. She arrivetl at 1'10n- 
tcrey late in August and obtained flour, ,vine, and other 
66Arch. Clll., 
IS., Provo St. Pap., xix. 387-9, 398-9; Provo Ree., ix. 
13.3, 137; DpjJl. St. Pap., iv. 13{j-8; Uuc1'ra, ])oc. lJist. Cal., J\I
., vii. II. 
Antonio Rocha, a l)ol'tuguese, was left in California on this trip. The 
schooner yisitcd Bodega also. According to a statement in Br()ol.8' Japanese 
Jrreck.." 10, the lòrre,.,ter, Captain Pickett, was on the Californian coast 
this year; and the J?ur'}"e,ster is also mentioneù as unùer the command of John 
J cnuings in HH3. There may be some confusion of name anù vessels hcre. 



 to the yaIne of about se\"cnty thou;-,and <.101- 
lars, f()r the llorthern hunters. 1 kno,,", nothing about 
the IllOYellH.:llts of the ('()]npany's 'l':-:sel:-, ill these years 
cept ,v hat j
 learned [)'OIll C\llif()}.uian 1'ecords. C7 
r ha\'u 110 recorù of allY oth
r \'e
sel that actu- 
ally touched at the coIuìlll)ia or 011 allY part of 
the NortJl".est (ioa
t ill It) I (). 1\'''0 _\uleril'all craft, 
] l()\\'t ""el" , ('Olllillf r frolH the ] tu

ia n cstabli-.;hnl< ants in 
.i\.Iaska \\'e1'e ill troul)le in Jalluary ull the ralif<Jrnian 
coast I )l'oLaLl V' h\." l'ea::;Oll of their 
Ul UO'O'lillo" I H'ocli yi- 
, ..' .-.,....., ...., 
ties.' :HIYL'llture
 arp fully dc
<.l ill another 
part of this ,yor]\., having but a. ðlight IJearin;..., on IllY 
ellt topic. ()Ile '\"nS the 
ch()()ller L!JdÙl, Captaill 
11e111')" Gyzelaar, \\'hich \\'as seized ,,'itlt her cre\\' aud 
detained t
cYeral lllonth::;. The other \\"as our 
01(1 tl('C)uailltancc, thc _111)0( ross, 
til1 cOllllllallded Ly 
<.. \lptaiu Slllith, ,,,lto pretended tl) Lú Loul1(l frol11 
N e\\' ..! \rchangel to the Sallel ,\.i
ll I
rlte ship 
escapeù capturo; Lut Su1Ïth \\.ith a b( )at'f-; ere\\' ".as 
taken. Thl' c1u1r O '0 of HlllUO'(fliu(" could llot Le I n'oycd 
\:) ðü \:) 
alld thè pri:-\onel'
 \\'ere relea
ailing on the 1.J!J,l;( 
Ül )larch. 1"lh' LIlhuf }'USS oll reaching the lsland:-; 
f'eelllS to hayc 
ailed itn" Bostou ,\'ith Captain \ \-rin_ 
Hhip, BC' cr to vi-.;it the l)u(.itie again; Captain Sn1Ïth 
,vent to 13oston UIl the U' {}ain thc next year. G8 T,,"o 
other I
o:--,t()n Hhips "9hich entered (ialif
H"nian purte:; 
 year, l)oull(1 ostensibly to or frolll Sitka, \\.el'e the 
J\)Ultflìl 01' J
tllfflJlo, anll the .Lltalit or .L 1flf(.
, the latter 
untIer Captain T\..elley, anù the forluer perhap::; unùer 
Cc.lptain l{eYllolds. 

Tho TJ'(( telhJJ', a schooncr cOIllIllande(l by (T anle
Rn1Ïth 'Vïlcox, canlO to Santa B:irhara in ,] anuary 
1817, anet Spl
llt a large part of the year on thp CaÜ- 
fOI'nian coast, the l'a l )taill heino' OlllllO
t. fricndly terlll
ü '" 
L1. t rch. Sauta, Brí rlla ,.a, )I
., ix. I !)'7 -:103; 
 t rrll. .. t /-zol J i,'i/Jll In, 
., iii. 
pt. i. G.!-.\ 71, S7-
t7, I:?O-I; tn.h, ("L1., )I
., Pm,.. Nrr., ix. I 44-')(). 
.., llnd J !/,!;ll. 'oIllIlUicaÔlJlIu, etc., 
1:-;. A full account of the 
whole affair, with llUlllcrons I"cfen'nces to original papers, is gin
n in J Ii...'. ('al., 
ii., this series. 
cc note :)9 of this chapter for mC.ùtion of Smith's cal)ti,-ity ill 
a (luotation from 
\tl(.',' 1:( ui"ta. 



,yith the Spanish authoriticR and people. That this 

el Caille dO\Yll ii'Olll Sit ka i
 the only reason f<)l' 
llalllÍllg her IH\l'c. GO 
The lJvJ'dcluÙ;, a French l11erchantlnan under the 
cOllunantl of Lieutcnant Calnille dt.' Itoquofcuil of the 
lutyy, engaged in a yoyage roul1<l the \\"01'1(1, ,,"ith a 
yil"Y not only to iUllllcdiate trade but to a prospect iyc 
clllargclneut of national eonl111crce, cOIning froln San 
}\'ancisco, arri,
cd at N ootka at the begiuuing of Sep- 
tClnoer. This ,yas the first yisit to N ootka, sillcc 
J c,,'itt's disastrous experience, of ,yl1Ïch ,ye hayc auy 
, and it is the last trading ,"oyage to be "described 
in connection ,vith Iny present topic-that of 111aritiule 
exploration. .l-l.t N outka l-loquefeuil ,vas ,veIl rccoiyed, 
and soon had a visit fronl the old chieftain l\faquinua, 
,,-ho ,yas saluted \yith seven guns, and \vas as roady 
for Larter as ill tilnes of 01l1, sho,ving hiulself "an iUl- 
portunatc and insatiable heggar,as Vancouver describes 
hiIn, and not the generous prince that l\Icares ,vould 
lnake hinl."70 After a stay of threo "reeks, in \vhich 
the region of the sound ,vas protty thoroughly ex- 
plored, the Frcnchlnall \yent do\vn to Barclay Sound, 
here S01110 furs ,vere obtained bcfore the Bordelais 
started for California early in October. I append 
sonle not very clear illforIllation derived fro1H tho 
natives respecting the fur-traders on the coast in Iato 
vear8. It ,vould seeIn that the Indians ,verc as 1nuch 
1n the dark on the subject as 1110dern YJTiters have 
been. 71 

(;9 n"ilcox, Oartas Varias, 1817, 
70 'Xoak [an inferior chief with v.-hom the Frenchman had much to do] 
gave me an account of the death of Canicum [Callicum], who was killetl hy 

Iartines, whom he had Litterly reproached, calling him a robber, on accm
of the 11lnndering of a hut hy his people. Except this officer, tho nati':es 
speak well of tho Spaniarùs, anù have aùopteù many words of their L:'ll- 
guagc.' rOll., 
11 'Swanimilich, . . lived at Tchinonk, hphind rape Flattery,. . assured me 
that there were at that place four Americans, who were left hy a yesscJ from 
K ew Y 01'1... lIe named three yery distinctly, ::\lcssrs ('lark, Lewis, and Kcan. 
They h
d a house of their own, in which they" erc to 11::18S the winter: he tùl<l 
me that sever::,l glÜps came every year, and mentioned an En6lish ycsscl callctl 
the Oce(lJI.' l,"oak told me that at Nootka 'the English formerly had a house, 
thz.t the SpalliarJ
 hacl Do larger Ol1e, hut that hoth wcrealJ.l1ldoned. He add
that thirty mon
k; l)cforc an Eì1g1ish vessel had come into the cove, the captam 

)1. C_\.
1\.fter a trip to tl1e )far(lue
a'4, ,vhere ho n1ut 
(1aptain So\\rl ''-i, fUrlllel'ly of the B(J O( J', l{oquefeuil 
call1f' lm,ek to Nu\\' 
\r 'hangul ill .April 1818, ,\'herc 
he f<<H'llled a ('Olltra.t to hunt sea-otters on joint ap- 
. 1 1 I ). r i l l . t . ] . 
('ollnt "It 1 t 1U \;U
;--;HU1:-;. 11
 en erprise 1avlllg 
fttil( ..1, t hc trading yoyag-c ,yas rt'Sllllled, an<l the 
Jlonh I, tis 'ortstill(" 
outln\.ar(l rC'lched the latitude of I 

55 0 aLout thc 1l1iJdlc of Augu:-;t. She ('utcred l)ercz 
Strait nn< ler thc Anlcrican ilag and uther\yise dis- 
guised, in thc ho}>>(,' of 
l'i7ing' Indians to be IH.JJ 
fur rall
Oln, aud thUH avenging past \\ rongs at their 
haJ}{ls; Lut this plan not Leillg succe::;
ful, It()(luefeuil 

tpered fur l)ort l
strada and engagcd in trade along" 
t he northern 
horc of Quecll Charlotte, liot ".ith 
1111H.h profit for tH.k of suitaLle articles for lXtrter. 
ing- <1o,,'n the strait hct\VeCll the and the 
lllain, he arrivccl at N ootka 011 the 5th of SeptelllLer. 
::\lal}uinna gaye his visitors a \\yarnl \\pclcolllo, alH1 
though he llad Bot 
ollected the :-;kiuH proluiseù the 
year before, he sho,vcd au ullaoatcù ,villillgne
s to 
rccci \'c present
. I append in a Bote soniC interesting 
itcJllf; alhJut old-tilHe happcnings at this port a
taillcd frol11 the agell chieftain. 72 The :-;outherll ruler 


of "hich had a wooù
n leg, and that hc stopped only threc days: that Lefore 
that, nucl after the departure of the English aud :-;paniards, only two ycs:,;eh 
had cntered the Bay, OIle English, thc othcr .Amcriean; that tlH'y ha(l anchorcd 
at 1.1a\\ inn.; that at prcscnt, and for a long timc sincc, his countrymcn sent tho 
furs to Kaspatc (at thc \\ ('stcru c'(tremity of thc i::;lalld), whcre thcy c
thcm for haw Isomcr blankets than ours. ' 
72' ] Ic then c'\.plaiuccl, in a yery intclligihlc manncr, that he had concluùed 
a trc'aty" ith the :-';pauiarcls, which he made us under!-\tand by si 6 '11S, hacl hecu 
put in 'Hiting; that hy this conyention he had ccdcd to thcm a piece of 
ground, on tho eOëlst of the hay, in return for a quantity of iron iustrumcllts, 
'\OOllCIlS, etc., which th('y (h.lh'crc(l to him at statecl pcriods; that thcy lh'ccl 
tOgcthCl' úu the most fr.iendly footing, (the Hpaniard:i occupying one part of 
the co\'c .:ucl the Illcliau:i the other); that thcy hacl huilt large hou<)c
, awl 
crectcll hltt<.'ries upon tIre little IslaIHls at the entrancc; that their })rcsence 
was, ery 3(h"an1ageous to him, \\ cll as 011 account of the useful things ,\ hich 
he recc'in'cl from them, as the tcrror thcy inspin'll into hi
 cnemies. He C'C- 
pre::;secl great regrct at thcir clc \ )
u"turc, spokc in high tcrms of the com- 
, (tuadra, Ala,va, awl Ficla go, ancl ga.\-e to all tho Spaniards in gencral, 
(.\.('t'pt to 'Iar.tinc.!, praiscs.. . 
laeouin.L spoke also in pr.LÎsc of Yallcouycr, 
Broughton. anll the English captains who frccplcntcd Xootka at the same 
time. 1 h.. mcutionccl, amollg othcrs, 
rcarcs, who, he Raid, hac l}milt no Sl11r!.1l 
housf>, ill a place whil'h he pointecl out to mc, in Hie western c'\.trcmity of the 
'.ill'lge. I toC'k this oP l )ortunit y to ohtain, at the fuuntain-heatl, Î!lfurl1latioll 
Úll a. bul'ject whicll hns )C'CiJll1l' illtl'n
:,tinó' 011 acco.nt of the quarrel t..> "hich 
. w. COAST, YOLo I. 



'Vicananish was understood to be still in po,yer at 
Clayoquot Sound, but ,yas not yisitcd. .After a 
,ycck's Rtn

 at Nootka, the Bordclai,'; sailed again for 
California, there to obtain ,vith consicleraLle difficulty 
3 cargo of produce, ,,
hich ,vas carried to Sitka in Oc- 
tober; after ,,
hich l\I. Roqucfeuil, leaying the coast 
in Dccenlber, sailed for the Sand,vich Islands, China, 
and France, reaching hon1e in N oyenlbcr 1819, after 
a voyage of thirty-seven 111011ths around the \yorld. 73 
III Alaskan \yaters Roquefeuil lllet t\VO vessels 
,vhich apparently had touched at different points 
belo,v latitude 55 0 in 1817-18, though no particulars 
about their 11lovenlents are giyen. One ,vas the 
Boston brig Brutus, Captain N ye, "\\rhich seeIns to 
have traded on the shores of Queen Charlotte; 
and the other ,vas the British brig Colzunùia, COln- 
11lander not nan1cd, ,vhich had left England in 1817, 
and had perhaps visited the Colu111bia RiYer. The 
sanle vessel is said tQ have touched at l\lontercy in 
Septeillber, c0111ing from the north. 74 The only foreign 
trader of the year besides the Bordelctis lllentioned in 
the Californian records is the Clar'l:011, Captain Gyze- 
laar, fron1 the Sand,vich Islands, not kno,vn to have 
yisited the northern ports, though she probably did 
80. 75 There are, ho\vever, both in Roquefeuil's narra- 
tive and in the Californian records a fe"r vague allu- 
sions to All1erican trading craft not nanled, and \v hich 
there are no Ineans of identifying. 

it gave rise. The result of my inquiry was, that 
Ieares' house had been built 
with the permission of )Iacouina, but that thcre had not been any act of ces- 
sion or treaty betw
en them. These, then, are the buildings erected hy :Meares, 
and his rights to districts and portions of land, rights which England l)retends 
were transferred to it hy :l\1eares, who went from )Iacao to America, unùer the 
J>ortuguese flag, "\vithout any public character whatever. Such was the 
subject of the quarrel, which was on the point of kindling a war between the 
three great marìtimc l)owers, in liDO, and for which France alone fitted out 4.3 
ships of the line.' J r oy., 9G-7. 
13A rOJJClge 1"o71JHl the world between the years ISIC-IBID. By ...1[. {Yamille 
de Rorj1lfj'euil, in the :":/Ûp Le Bordelais, Lonllon, I

3, 8vo, 112 pp. This work 
is printed in English as l)art of the New VO!Jaye.., and r.l'rcwels, ix. The Prench 
original, if any was published, I have not seen. :J,I. Hoquefeuil gÌ\Tes inter- 
esting ùescriptions of tl(e yarious countries and peoples visited. 
1IRo'lut}euil's royn.!Je, 81-2, 83, 107. 
7jGacrra, Doc. lliðt. Cal., :\18., iii. 110, 8D-90. 




The Unite<l States sloop-of-\\yar ()u((u'io,conlluanded 
1JY l\tptaill .T. 13iJdle, yi
ited the Colulubia in 1818. 
];y the treaty cnùing the ,yar úf 1812 all l,lacé:i 
taken Ly either party òuring the \yar "ere to Le 
restored. Captain Diùdle ,va 
 scnt as COlllllii
for the United States to rcceiyc po

sion of .Fort 
eorgc, \vhieh he did, in a nULnllcr not definitely ùe- 
'-.;('l'ihed in any doclunent that I have :-'cen, on the !Jth 
of ..L\uo'ust. Then the O,tturlU procecded 
g at 
Iolltcrcy at the beginning of Septcwher. 7G 
J3ut J3iddlc's act not being deelBed satisfactory in all 
pects, the British frigate lJlvssOlI1, Captain J. 
1 [i
key, sailed frOtH "\Talparai:-5o for the Culunlbia, 
earrying al;:;o J. D. Prevo;jt 
s COlliIlli
,-;ioner for the 
1 T nitcd States. These gentlclllcn, togethcr ,,-ith J. 
](eith of the X ortll\y(;:')t COll1pany, accompli::;hed 
the re
torati()n in dne forlH on the Gth of October, the 
lllnellt l'Clllaillillg, ho,,-ever, as 1Jcforc, in the 
hand;-.; of tho Engli
h cOlllpany.'i7 The BluSSOJJl, like 
the Ontario, visited California on her voyage to the 
Routh, hcr arriynl at ::\Ionterey at the beginning of 
K ovelnLer bcing recorded in the archives. 78 

) Iaritime exploration of the N orth,,-ost Coast ae, an 
historical topic rlla
r he conveniently regarde(l as end- 
ing ,,-ith the voyagos of the Qutal'lo and Blvsso'J
] H 18. So far a') the furlli
hillg of real geographical 
information is concL'rned the series of expeditionH 
Illight have 1Jüen 
uspcn( led IlJany years earlier; but 
tho nlüagrc annal.., of fur-hunting yoyageç; could not 
be RO appropriatcly pre
ented elso,vhcre. Tho fe\v 
its hy sea. to be lloticed in later Je3r
L'I\-os naturally \yith thû I )roO'rc
:-; uf afiàir
.. 0 

t/,.h. Cal., )1:-'., Proz'. I/('r., Ï'\.. ur;. 
;;Ur"f'l1ho".'s 01'.0",1 Cn}., 
O"-lO, with references to ana quotations from 
the president's messages and accomp.lnyillg documellt
 of April 1,), 1'7, IS:?2. 
t \\ rote a l"CpUl"t from 
Iontcrcy datc.l 
ovcl1lbcr ]] tho 
;f\.b'ch. Cal., ::\1S., Prot'. ,..,'t. Pap.; J:, II. Jlil., Àli"{. 

, () rra, Dor. lli,o:t. 
.IS., h-. 
O-l. 'Y iuo al rio Columùia COIl b cOllli
iull de \.cl"i1icar fo:U 
a á Io
í. cnyo fill conduce á los comi:,ionadoil por Ios 
stal1os Unidos, y seguirá an viaJc cl 10 u cl 11,' writc::J (;0\"Cr1101" :";ola to 
Captain Guerra. 011 Xovemùcr 8th. 



shore. Tho to p ic of the OreO'on titlc also bco-ins ,vith 
ð è:'" 
1818, the date of thc fir
t treaty hct,vecn the rival 
clailnants to this broad tcrritory. Before procecding 
to consider inland dcveloplllcnts, ho\vcver, I shall 
dcyotc a chapter to the lllaritinlo fur-trade of past 

IIcrewith is appended a list of such vessels as have come to my knO\vledge 
that are known to have touched on the Northwest Coast from ISH) to 1840. 
It has been made up of such fragmcntary records as could be founel, many of 
them ndther official nor accurate. The files of 8andwich Island ncwspapers 
were a useful source of infonllation on this suhject after 183G. The Cali- 
fornia archives also afforded some items not elsewhere appearing; and it is 
}Jrobahle that others of the vessels named in the California annual lists- 
for which see another volume of this series-should be added to this, hut 
there are no means of knowing which ones. Printeù memoirs of the Oregon 
missionaries contain some names; the Hudson's Bay Company's archÍ\Ycs 
others; ,vhile I have a few olel log-hooks or fragments; and for the rest we 
are obliged to depend on the manuscript reminiscences of men who in those 
days went (lown to the sea in ships. I do not include in the list the Rus- 
sian vessels plying each year hctween Sitka, noss, and the Spanish ports of 
California, often extending their trips to i\Iexico, Routh America, Asia, or 
the islands; nor do I mention the whalers that visited the north Pacific in 
great numbers, and are recordell as touching in California and the Sanùwich 
Islands; though it is likely that some vessels of both these classes touched 
from time to time on the coast, hetween latitude 42 Q and 53 0 . I shall hm-e 
occasion to present more details respecting many of the vessels and com- 
manders here mentioneù, in later chapters and volumes of this work. The 
list arranged chronologically is as follows : 
[18]9-20.] Borneo, George Clark, American ship; wrecked at Kaigan in 
January 1819. 
rolllnteer, .Tames Bennett, Boston ship; carried crew of Borneo hack to the 
S;mdwich Islands. 
Brutlls, David K ye, Boston brig; made a trip to Alaska and probahly down 
the coast. 
Eayle, Thomas 
Ieek, Boston ship; from Northwest Coast to China. All 
these items are taken from a sketch of Captain'Villiam Smith's life in the 
Boston Daily Adt.erti,
er and Niles' RpfJistrr, xviii. 418. 
[1820.] A Japanese junk, laden with wax, cast away on Point Adams, 
according to )lr Brooks. 
[18:?!.] Arab, American brig; trading on the coast. I have her original 
log, which lacks, however, both beginning and end. It is in this log that I 
find the following trading-vessels of this year: 
F,'rdic, Stetson, Boston brig; arrived in August anù went to Sandwich 
Prdler, :l\Ieek, :Kew York brig. 
Sultan, consort of the FJ'(d



ITrrmilton, Lw
rrrr, nnd J/ciltor, all ]
oston vc ..3cls; and two commn.nded 
hy (.aptains Post awl \Iartin, pcrhaps illcntical "ith somc of thc prcc .ùing. 
[Is:!:).-j. J Ruh /to!J, Cross, BObton hrig, 0\\ net! }.Y lkyant anù Sturgio;;; 
tnuliug on th(' C03. t, also prohubly ill later ycar:i. )[entioncd in the 11ull()- 
TWl,lu of IIt.ury A. Pcircc. 
 t ct seq.] J It raid, Hammatt, owncd by Bryant anù Sturgis. 
rriton, Bryant, 0\\ ne(1 hy Jk)-ant anti Sturgis. 
Sultall, Alll'n, ownca l)y Bryant awl 
COil '.O!J, 'leX cill, 0" 11(;( I hy J usiah 
.3-R] (,'rÎjTun, 
I. T. P 'irce, Buston hrig, owncd hy 1Jryant ana Sturgis; 
('ngagell in tra(le Oil the Xorthwc
t Coast. Henry _\. Pcircc, brothcr of the 
c.\ptain, \\ as on hoar(1, and giycs a full account of th(' trip in his 1!('l/IoruIlI'l. 
7.1 ('adlJoro, :-;ilIlpson, llritÜ,h Hehooncr, from ColumIJia. Hiver; in 
C..1.lifornia. ill Dcccm Lcr. 
-30.] ,FolllllttRr, Hcth Darkcr, owncd hy Bryant and Sturgis. 
. t cf i I"e, ("otting or Cotton, 0\\ nCII IIY "ïlliam Baker and Company. 
I olli.
a, )[artin, owncd hy "
iUiam Haker Hn(I Company. 
() '!Ih" , Kclly, owncù IJY Josiah ::\Iarshall. 
L 18:!S. ] Jr iUll m & .A /lll, 1I udson 's llay Company's vcsscl; wrcckcd inside 
the ColumLia I)ar. 
:!!}-30.] uwyh , Domini:i, Boston ship; traded in Columbia TIh'cr. 
Cu IVOY, Thompson; "ith thc Owyh P. 
O.] !.,ah lIn, Hudson's Bay Company's brig; castawayinColumbiaHh'cr. 
:H.] AJapancsc juuk "rcclü'd on Quccu Charlottc Island, according to 

[r Brooks. 
[1831-2.] Drya 1, English IJrig; in California from the Columbia Rivcr 
Loth years. 
:t] ...\nother .Japancse '\Tcck near Cape Flattcry. 
[1834.] Lla1llCl, or Lama, "ïUiam ú.Xcill, Hudson's nay Company's 
brig; in California. for Etupplic
, from ColumLia Hi,'cr. 
Jla!l Da,cre, Lambcrt, _\mcrica.n hrig; ill ColumLia Hiver for trade and 
J.:u"ropa, Allen, Boston tra(lcr on the coast, accor(ling to Kclley's .J.'lcmo;r. 
[1833.] J1a!l Du re, btill in thc rh-cr; "
ycth mUlcr and agent. 
(Ja 11 !J1Jl('(le, Eales, !Iu(bon's Bay Company's hark; in ColwnLia Hivcr. 
Dr!!'L,I, Keplin; lcft ColumI)i
L Hivcr fur :-;audwich lshllllh
ß.] JOl
('ph PudJOd!l, :l\Ioorc; arrivcd at Hunululu from Xorthwe t. 
Coast and Kaigan, sailing for X cw York. 
('olumbitl, Darby, HUÙ
Oll'S Bay Company's h.'; at Honolulu from Co- 
Illmhia. J:i\'cr. .At Honolulu again Huder Captain H.oyal in Dcccmber, anli 
saile(l for J..ol1(lon. 
...y, /"f it!, Uoyal, IIudson's Hay's hark; arrivcd at Honolulu from 
England, and an-ivcd at Columbia. Rivcr in _\llgust. 
Llmna, )lcXcill; in Colmnhia l
iver aUIl at Kaigan. 
Filropa, "ïlliau) \Vinkworth; from Honolulu to Xorthwc!1t Coast and to 

Lorio!, X)- c, TIlinn, and Hancroft I=IUCC 'sc::iycly; _ \mcriL'lli1 tracler, on special 
8l'r\"ice, in Columbia Hh-,'r, Califurnia, all<< I 
i.lntl wich 



Con l.OY, Bancroft and later Burch, American brig; from Kaigan to llono- 
lulu and back. 
La Grange, Snow, Boston ship; at Honolulu from Kaigan and other ports 
on :Korth west Coast., Hohns, Hudson's Bay Company's steamer; in Columbia River, tho 
first steamer to visit the coast. 
[1837.] Llama, Bancroft, Sangster, Brotchie. and !\IcKeill; from CoItun- 
bia I
iYer to Honolulu and California. 

Ylreid; still in Columbia River. 
Ccu.lboro, "
iniam Brotchie, Huùson's Bay Company's schooner; made a 
trip from Columbia Ri,"er to California. 
Loriot, Bancroft; from Columbia River to California and Sandwich Islanùs; 
also a trip to l\Iazatlan under Captain Handley. 
Sumatra, Duncan, English bark; carried missionaries from Honolulu to 
Columbia River. 
llamiltoll, S. Barker, American ship; trading trip from HOllolulu to the 
Korthwest Coast. 
D.ia71a, 'Villiam S. Hinkley, American brig; carried missionaries from. 
Honolulu to Columbia River; trip to California; llame changed to Kamamalu. 
Sulphur, Edward Belcher, H. B. 1\1. ship; on an exploring voyage rounù 
the. world; spent a week in Nootka Sound. 
Starling, H. Kellett, H. B. 1\1. exploring schooner; in company with the 
[1838.] Llama, Bancroft, later Robinson and Perrier; hunting and trading 
trips to California and Sandwich Islands. 
JVcreid, Brotchie; at Honolulu from Columbia River, also in California. 
Cadboro, Robbins; in California from Columbia River. 
Jm1eph Peabody
. engageù in fur-trade, according to Kelley's JJIemoir. 
Columbia, Humphries; from England to Columbia River and return via 
Sanù wich Islands. 
[183D.] 1Yereid, Brotchie; trip from the Columbia River to the Islands 
and ba{:k. 
r anCOlwer, Duncan, Hudson's Bay Company's bark; from London to Co- 
lumbia River and back to Honolulu. 
Thúmas Perkins, Varney; left 
andwich Islands for Northwest Coast to 
Joseph Peabody, Dominis; trading on Alaska coast and perhaps farther 
sou tho 
Sulphur, Belcher; in Columbia River, July to September. 
Sta-ding, Kellett; with the preceding. 
[1840.] Columbia, Humphries; in California, Sand",ich Islands, and Co- 
lumbia River. . 
Porager, Thompson, English brig; left Honolulu for Columbia River and 
Lausanne, Spaulding, American ship; in Columbia River, California, and 
Sandwich Islands; settlers and missionaries. 
J..lfuJ"uland, Couch, Eoston brig; in Columbia. River, trading for salmon. 


IE }

I ;;S-lS4G. 

rUE RF. \-OTTr:R-CO"
DIEXTARn:s rpo
 DI::;COYERIE:,-BoLT:,' l:
 DI \-II \
TlG \'l'IO
-L \. PÉROl"SE-
J\U':X Yl-:mn;:i A 'IERICAXð-!)ElaLs O
. 'I'HC llC
Eðð-CIL\r.._\(:TLI:' OF 
TIlE TP....-\DE I

THE home of the sea-otter "
as in the ,vatcr
 of the 
N ortlnvest Coast, Alaska, and the Siberian is]and,-;. 
Thú fur of thi
 :uuphibious anilllal, the lUu
t preciou:i 
of all peltrieH, \\Tas the attraction that hrought to these 

 all the ad\ycllturous nê1yigators ,vhoBe e
hayc Lecn Lriefly recorded in the preccding chapter

\. fc\v diJ not cngage directly in the fur-trade; Lut all 
Much, \\pith the po:-,:;ible exception of Captain Couk, CaIne 
lJecauso of thc operatiulls of the fur-
has been f-:.aiJ Learin(t on thi
 branch of COllll11CrCO ill 
the Jescription uf Ruccc
siYe voyagcs; but it bee111S 
proper to dcyote a chapter to the geDéral topic, alHl 
to giyo the inforluation mainly in tho ,vord
 of the 
partieipators and \\yritors, the f;alne for the lllo
t part 
that have LecH so oftcn cited Lefor
 in this Yolun1c. 
(101'k de
cribes as f()llo\vs the first :-,ea-ottcr 
hy hill} at N ootka, he ha\yjng ha(l sUllle Juul)t bL'fore 
( 3-13 ) 



if the skins ,vere real] V those of that allilnal: "It ,vas 
rather young, ,vcighillg only t"
onty-five pounùs; of a 
shining or glossy black colour; but lllany of the hairs 
being tipt ,\?ith ,,,hite, gave it a greyish caðt at first 
sight. The face, throat, and breast ,yore of a yello,v- 
h ,,
hit.e, or very light brO\Vll colour, ,vhich, ill Iuany 
of the skins, extendod the ,vhole lcngth of the belly. 
It had six cutting teeth in each ja,y; t\yO of those of 
the lo,ver ja \y being very lllinute, and placed ,vithout, 
at the ba
e of the t,,
o n1Ïddle ones. In these circun1- 
stances, it Becn1S to disagree ,vith those found by the 
Russians; and also in not having the outer tocs of 
the hind feet skirted ,vith a nlelubrane. Thcre seeIncd 
also a greater variety in the colour of the skins, than is 
lllentioned by the describers of tho Russian sea-otters. 
These changes of colour certainly take place at the 
different gradations of life. The very young ones 
had 1)1'0""']1 hair, ,vhich ,vas coarse, ,vith very little fur 
underneath; but those of the size of the entire anilnal, 
,vl1Ìch caIne into our possession, and just described, 
had a considerable quantity of that substance; and 
both in that colour and state the sea-otters seeUl to 
renlain, till they have attained their full gro,vth. 
After that, they lose the black colour, and aSSU111e a 
deep bro,vn or sooty colour; but have then a greater 
quantity of very fine fur, and scarcely any long hairs. 
Others, ,vhich ,ve suspected to be still older, ,yore 
of a chestnut bro,vn; and a fe\v skins ,vere seen that 
l1ad even acquired a perfectly yello,v colour."! "A full 
gro,vn priine skin," said Captain 'Villian1 Sturgis of 
Boston, an old trader, "\vhich has been stretched 
Lcfore drying, is about five feet long, and t,venty-four 
to thirty inches ,vide, covereù ,vith very fine fur, about 
three-fourths of an inch in length, having a rich jet 
Llack, glossy surface, and exhibiting a silver color 
hcn blo,vn open. Those are esteeined the finest 
skins ,vhich have son10 ,vhite hairs interspersed anJ 

1 Cook's roya[lf' , ii. 203-6. An otter taken by La Pérouse and apparent!) 
full sized weighed 70 pounds. La Pérousc, VOyct[Je, ii. I70. 



f;cattcl'('d over thú ".hole 
urfacc, and a pcrfectly \\?hite 
head. )[r 
turgis saj(l that it \yould llO\Y give 11Ï11l 
lll()l'e pleasure to look at a splendid sea-otter sl\.in than 
to t'xtuuiue half the l'icture
 that are stuck up fur cx- 
hibitioll, and pufled up by pretended counois::;eurs."2 
1'here \\?ere other valuaLlc furs in the country 
 that of thc sea-otter, and ,vhich ,ycre profit- 
aLly exported in cOllnection ,vith the latter; Lut there 
'\?erc nOlle ,,,hich uf thclll::;el ve
 ,voulù ill the early 
 ha \?e Lrought the ,vorld's all \?cnturou
ou their 10llg anù perilous voyage::; tv tho coast. l'he 
fur-seal, ho\vevcr, "
as taken ill large nUIllLer
; and in 
later ycar
 yielJell greatcr profits, on account of its 
grcater aounùallcc, than the sea-otter. 

On their first trips to the ne,y contincnt and i
the Russians discoycreù the existence of the preciou
fur, and after 1 ï J 1 these people, eluoarkillg" frOln 
Siberia ill their crazy craft, cngageù actively iu the 
hunt. The product \va:-=; collected in the I(al11chatkan 
, and transpotted hy land, a part to nu

ia, 1 )ut 
lllost to ICiakhta on the frontier, "rhere thcy '\?ere ex- 
changed for Chincse goods, ,vhich \vcre carried ovcr- 
land to Europe. N ot\vithstanding' the distancc
conscquent expense of tran
portation, 111aking the price 
of a 
d\.in at least three tilllcs as llluch at I
iakhta aB 
at Okhotsk, thc traffic ,vas a profìtaLle onc. 3 "
2 StllT[/i8' .lVoTthu:es;t Fur Trade, 3:
4. 'They are sometimes seen mauy 
leagues from laud. fSle('ping 011 their hacks, on the surface of the" ater, 
with their young ones recliIlin
 on their brcast. . . The euLs are incapalJle of 
swill1mill ç till they arc f;eyeral months old. . . She \\ ill not k..t.Ve her )'ouug 
ones in tile moment of clanger, auel therefore shares their fate. . . Th('y are 
11na11le to remain under water longer than two minutes. . . The male otter is, 
heyond all comparison, more heautiful than the female. . . :-;killS of this animal 
taken in the Corron allCI .Japan seas, arc superior to those of Ru

ia or the 
.Korth \Yestern Coast of America.' 
1It(o'f'8' I""o!!., 
-t1-4. ':Kothiug can 1,0 
more heautiful than one of th('
o animals when 
eell s\\imming, c'5pecially 
W]Wll on tho lookout for :myobject. At such times it raises its hetld quite 
uhO\.c the surface.' Joc;U's 
Yar., G7. 
ce full description, \\ ith (luotatiulls 
from variou:i authors, in J.l[archaml, rO!!(t!/ , ii. 
3 The Ilussian fur-trtlde of tJH' e
treme north will be fuIJy treated in a lnlcr 
YOhlll1C on the History of A]a
ka.. ''l> RIl.
...ictll j);..
(.u,.' r;o
, Loudon, 1787. is 
' authority hy which this trade was malIc- known to the world. Co}..o men- 
tiuns a specimen cargo of furs yielding ahout $."')0,000 in Kanlchatka. Iryillg, 
.'od" J :1
, taI..<:s the foUo\\ ing yiew of the u\"crla.nd trall
it: · The Russialis 



forn1 the principal anJ fayorite dress of the inhabi- 
tants of the N ortherll provinces uf China; and tho
of the rarest kind and the highcst prices arc eagerly 
purchased Ly them.-Frolll fiye hundred to one thou- 
sanJ dollars, and ev
n a larger SUIn, arc frequently 
paiJ for a single suit of this precious cloathing." In 
the southern provinces also everybody,vho can afforJ 
it has a sea-otter cape at a cost of $6. And after 
the no,v system of inlportation had been introduced, 
"the reputation of the sea-ottèr skins brought. . . tho 
Northern Chinese and Pekin lnerchants to Canton, a 
port ,vhich they had never before visited, and at the 
distance of near one thousand miles frolll tho places of 
their residence.- Y et. . . they found it ans,vered to 
their entire satisfaction, from being able to obtain tho 
same species of furs ,vllich they had been accustoll1ed 
to purchase at l{'iascha, at a price so n1uch belo,y the 
usual rate of that lnarket. They arrived at Canton 
laden ,vith teas, silk and ivory; and took back in 
return furs and broadcloths."4 Yet the Chinese, ,yith 
all their extravagant fondness for furs, by their 
peculiar cOllllnercial policy involving many burden- 
SOlne restrictions, made the fur-trader's road to for- 
tune by no means a straig11t and pleasant one. 

'Vhat ,vas learned from the works of Coxe and 
others respecting the Russian trade ,vith China, seenlS 
to have Illade no sensation in European comn1ercial 
circles until verified and amplified by the reports of 
had the advantage over their competitors in the trade. The latter had to 
take their peltrics to Canton, which, however, was a mere receiving mart. . . 
The Russians, 011 the contrary, carried their furs, by a shorter voyage [?] 
directly to the northern parts of the Chinese empire; thus l)eing able to afford 
them in the market without the additional cost of internal transportation.' 
Greenhow writes: 'The trade in furs bad been conducted, ahi10st wholly, 
by the Eritish and the Russians, between whom, however, there had been 
DO opportunity for competition. The Russians procured their furs chiefly in 
the northern parts of their own empire; anù they exported to China, by land, 
all such as were not required for their own use. The British market was 
supplied entirely from Hudson's Bay and Canada; and a great portion of 
the skins there collected was sent to Russia, whence many of them found 
their way to China, though none bad ever been shipped directly for the latter 
country.' OJ". and Cal., 16l. 
41Jlearc;J' Account of tlte Trade, etc., lxxxvi. 



an Elvfli;-;h yoyaífer. Ca } )tain Cook's S I )ecial } )ur ! )o:;c 
'J " ;:) 
in hi
 expeùition of 177G-80, Sù Jar a
.i\Illerica "a
 cOllcerned, ".as to filld a IJa:-,
age to the 
.i\t lantic. lIe did nut succeed in ol'enillg a channc:l 
by ,\"hich Calladian and Huùson Bay furs nli:;ht l.c 
Hunt llirect to China Ly ,yater; Lut he founJ ,,"hat 
proved to Lc a richer store of fur
 than that OIl 
1hc ....\tlantic coast
, and he eventually founù a good 
The explorer and hi':) 111en ohtained frofn the na- 
ti,,'cs at N ootl\:a and other points a qlu 1 ntityof sea-otter 
, of ,vhose real value they had no proper idea. 

[ost of the furs had lJeen injured by being lnado into 
garillent':); they ",,"ere used for LeJ<.;lothe:-; on the voy- 
acre aud P reseryod ,vith Lut little care; t,vo thirds of 
e obtained ,ycro spoiled or gi von a\vay ill K
chatka, and it ,vas thought that the full value \\"as not 
obtaincll in China; yot tho re111nant ,vas sold for about 
ten thou
and dollars. Littlo \,onder that, as Captain 
King says, "the rage ,vith ,y hich our seamen ,vere 
possesscd to return to Cook's Rivcr, and, Ly another 
cargo of skin
, to Inako their fortuncs, at onc time, 
,vas not far 
hort of Inutiny; and I mu
t 0\,0, I eould 
not help indulging l11ysolf in a project," ,yl1Ìeh \vas to 
have the ,york of exploration undertaken in conncction 
"yith the fur-trade by the ]
ast India COlnpany, ill t\VO 

eIs of one hundred anti one hundrcll and fifty ton:-; 
\v hich could he fitted out at n cost of six thou
pounds. ":Each ship should have five ton of Ull- 
\\yrought iron, a forge, and an expert slnith, ,yith a 
jourlloyulan and apprentice, \rho Inight be ready to 
fê.>rge such tool:-;, as it should <<'ppear tho Indians "ere 
lllost desirous of. . . It i:-; ,yoll kuo"Il, that the fancy of 
these pcople fl)r article
 of Ornall1ellt, is excceding-l.v 
capriciou:->; and that iron is the only sure cOlumodity 
fur their Inarket. 
ro this 111ight Lo adùed, a fc,," 
 of largo pointed case-knives, SOllle bales f,f 
0 ,yoollen cloth (linen they \yould not acc(Jl>t 
fronl U
) and a harrel or t\\?O uf copper and gla ,,:-, 



trinkets." This cnterpri:sc ,yas to be directed chiefly 
to the Ala
kan coa

"The last voyage of that rcno\vned but unfortunate 
discoverer, Captain Cook, had llu1de ]\.110\Yll the va
quantities of tho Bea-otter to be found along that 
t, and the iuunense prices to be obtained for its 
fur in China. It ,,"n:s a8 if a ne"- gold cuast had been 
discoyered. lndiyiduals froI11 yarious countries dashed 
into this lucr
tive traffic," says Irving; and Dixon, 
"A ne,v and inexhaustible n1Ïne of ,vcalth was laid 
open to future Navigators, by trading for furs of the 
1110st valuable kind, on the N orth 'Vest Coast of Alncr- 
ica." The inforInation gained by Cook "becarne gen- 
erally diffused before the publication of the journals 
[in 1784-5J, and it did not fail to attract the attention 
of enterprIsing Incn in all nlaritilne countries. That 
the furs ll1ight be sold advantageously at Canton \vas 
certain froln a con1pari:son of prices; and it ,vas clear 
that still greater profits 111ight be secured by a direct 
trade bet\veen China and the l1orth-\vest coasts of 
t\ ."6 
1!..1l1 erica. 
But so far away was this new InL.TlC of \vealth, 
and so little ,vas kno"Tn of the InethoùB of ,,"'orking 
it, and so fully foreseen ,vere the dangers and risks to 
be encountered, that the ,vorld's ll1erchants "dashed 
into this lucrative traffic" SOllle\vhat deliberately. The 
earliest attenlpt in this direction, about ,vhich, ho\v- 

'8 Voyage, ii. 2Dü, 401; iii. 370, 430-9. The best sea-otter skins sell 
in Kamchatka for 30 roubles each, but at Kiakhta, on the Chinese frontier, at 
more than double that price. Then they are sold at a good profit in reking, 
and some of them again at an advance in Japan. '\Vhat a prodigiously ad- 
yalltageous traùe might be carried on between this })lace and Japan, which is 
but about a fortnight's, at most, three weeks' sail from it!. . . The fur of these 
animals, as mentioned in the Itussian accounts, is certainly softer and finer 
than that of any others we know of; and, therefore, the discovery of this part 
of the continent of North America, where so valuable an article of commerce 
may be met with, cannot be a matter of indifference. . . . There is not the least 
douht, that a very beneficial fur trade might be carried on with the inhabit..'ìllts ' 
of this yast coast. But unless a llorth
rn passage should be found practicable, 
it seems rather too remote from Great Britain to receive any emolument from 
it.' Twenty skins belonging to the dead commanùers were sold for 
800. One 
ûf the seamen solù his for :;800. A few fine ones sold for $l
O each. 
6IrvjJl[j's Astoria, 32; Dixon's VOY(l[jc,!). ix.; Greculww'lj VI". aud Cal., IGO-l. 



cyer, ycry ]itt]e i-.; kno"
n, ''''fiS that of 'Villian1 Dolts, 
,,'ho as early as 1i81 is f'aid tu have "fitted out the 
C U(JJi:(JlI, all arilled :-;hip of 
eYell hundred tOll:-;, fur 
tIll"" Jlorth-,ve"t toast of 1\..11leriea. She ,,'as to have 
saih,d froTH 1'rieste, aC'('PIllpanied by a tender of forty- 
fì\'(" tOlls, uuder ilHperial colours, and "'a
 equally fitted 
out for trade or di
..woYcr.r; JllCH uf elHinence in cvery 
tlepartllll'ut of :-;('iellCe '''ere engaged on board; all the 
IHaritinlc C( )urt
 of l
urope '"ere ,,'ritteu to in order 
tu Heeure a gOl,eI receptiun; yet, after all, this expeùi- 
() l'xceedingly pronlising' ill every point of vie,,", 
,,'as overturned l)y a, set of interested Illen, theu in 
pO"'l'r at \

J ohn T
ed.ral'd ,vas an ecccntric AUlcrican, a native 
of Connecticut, and cdueatcd at lJart1l10uth, ,,,,Ito in 
earch for adventure ha(1 "erved as corporal of 
 during Cook's yoyage, an account of ,vhie!t 
11(' publishc(l. The pro
pectiYe cxciteu1cllt and profit
of thc fur-traJ1e in the lle'Y reO'iol1
 yi:--\itetl Blade a 
ting i1l1prc
sioll all hi
 luind; and on dc
frolH thc ]3riti
h nayal seI'yice in 1782, being- thea 
thirty-one ycar
 of age, ahno
t ,yithout a dollar, he 
proeee(letl to devote ]lÍllu-;clf ,,,ith all tho enthusiaSlll 
of 11Ïs nature to "the grL'ate
t cOll11uercial cnterpriHe 
that has cyer Lcen ell1 IJarkcd Oil ill the country; aud 
onc of thù fir:-;t 1l10U1ent a
 it respects the trade of 
.1\nlcrica"-that i:-., the fur-trade on the N orth,,
Coa:-:t in ..L\..Jlleriean \
els. " It 'ra
 clear, theref( H'C, 
ill his luind, that they, "Tho 
hould tirl"'t cngage in thi
tradc, ,,'ould reap illllllcnse profits by their earlie
, and at the :-,,-unc tilllt.> 
aill such kno,,
ledrrc and 
'J 0 
experiencc, as \voul( 1 ena lJle thell1 to pursue it for year:-.; 
,,'ith aJ 'Tantage::; 
uperior to any, that could Le ('on 1- 
Jllanded by the cnlllpetitor
, ,,'110 luight be dra,,'u into 
,-nne chanllel ùf cOllllllerce." "In 
 e"r York he 

; I>i.ron's rnya.l
, pp. >.. 
.-i. 'Cne intrigue ..lont on ignore et la source ct h's 
moyclls culhuta, cctte cntrcpris('.' Flrurit'tl, ill J/aj'chuml, J 
()y., p. cx>..iii. · The 
fecble effurt uf an impnulcllt lIlan failcd prcmaturely, 0\\ iug tv causes' nut ex- 
plaincd. l'urtlock"s r uy., :.? 



'Y3R ul1
urceRsful; his schcIBe "Tas callcd ",.ild and 
yisionary, and set do\vn a::; bearing the In arks rather 
of a ,varn1 inulgination, and Banguine telnperalncnt, 
than of a soLer antI nlature judgnlcnt. No merchant 
,vas found ,villing to hazarù his nloney, or his reputa- 
tion, in an adventure so novel in its kind, and so 
questionable in its promise... His first inquiries in 
})hiladûlphia n1et ,,-ith no better favor, tilll\Ir Robert 
:\Iorris. . . entered into his vie,vs, and n1ade arrallge- 
Incnts to furnish the outfits of a voyage according to 
the plan he dre,v up." Then follo,ved a strange series 
of obstacles in the l11atter of obtaining a suitable vessel. 
"Thus a year ,vas spent, in a vexatious and fruitless 
struggle to overCOlne difficulties, ,vhich thickened as 
he advanced, till his patience, and that of l\fr 1forris 
also, ,vould SeelTI to have been exhausted, for the voy- 
age was altogether abandoned." 
N e,v London ,vas the scene of Ledyard's next 
efforts, and one Captain Deshon was alnlost per- 
suaded to elnbark in the schenle; but so glo\ving ,vas 
the picture dra,vn and so extravagant the promise of 
profit that Deshon finally declined to place his trust 
in hopes so enthusiastic, afterward rcgretting his 
decision, it is said. "As far as can be ascertained," 
says J\fr Sparks, "Ledyard's vie,vs of the subject, 
both as unfolded in the transactions ,vith 1Ir 1forris 
and ,vith Captain Deshon, accorded exactly ,vith those 
acted upon by the first adventurers, ,vho ,vere rc- 
,yarded ,vitb. extraordinary success. It ,vas a part of 
his plan to purchase lands of the natives, and estab- 
lish a factory, or colony, for the purpose of a continued 
intercourse and trade." "To SOlne of his friends Led- 
yard nlentioned his intention of leaving the ship on 
the coast, when the cargo should be obtained and ex- 
ploring the country overland froln N ootka Sound." 
Disappointed in his o,vn country, Ledyard ,vent to 
Europe. In Spain he was encouraged by an English 
commissioner of the enlperor of l\lorocco, but nothing 
caIne of it. Thcn he ,vent to France in 1784, and 



fit T..'Orient "his p1an ,yas rcceived ,vith so 111uch ap- 
proLation, that ,,,ithin t\yelvc days he c0l11pleted a 
nCf)"ot.iatioll ,vith a c0l11pany of Iner("hant
, ancl a ship 
 selected for the intended "\"o)":16'e." "I h'lve buen 
fo;() Inurh the sport of acciclent," said he, "that I tun 
ceedin(fl \T su
picious. It i:-; true, that in thi-.} L'Orient 
H;, I Ita vo guarded every avenue to future 
appointIllellt, yet this head I 'Year is so Tnuch a. 
dupe to Iny heart, and at other tilnc
 IllY heart is so 
l)e\vilderecl hy illY head, that ill 111atters of LUbinef)
havo not 111uch confidence in either," and hi", fore- 
boùinO';3 \vere ,veU founded , for it \vas decrnecl too lato 
, , 
ail that year, and, though tho a( Iventurer wa..; 
liberally supported during tho ,vinter Ly hi
friends, ",YO hear no lHore of the I..'Orient negotia- 
tioll, e
cept that it failed," like tho others. 
::\11' J ef'er
on, United States Ininister to France, 
"rccei yael Lc<1yar(l \vith great kindness, and approved 
t highly his design," ,,?hich appro\"al had no iln- 
JJll,diate effect, but i
aid to have 
ugge::)ted the idea 
of Lewis and Clarke':-; expedition of later years. Soon 
our adventurer fornlcd the acquaintance of the faluous 
I>aul Jones, ,vho "eagerly seized Ledyard'H idea, aUll 
an arrangel11ent ,vas closeù, by \vhich they agreeù to 
unite in an expedition, 
uffie\vhat larger than Ledyard 
hac1 before contelnplated. T\vo vessels "
erè t,) be 
fitted out, and, if pO::5siLle, c01l1ll1is....ioned by the king." 
The SChe111e ,vas arranged in all its dètails, and "
l11uch 'Ya
 J one
 taken ,vith it, that he adyallced 
l11uney to r
edyar(l ",.ith ,vhich to purchase a part of 
the cargo," be;-jide::5 "an allo"yance of Inoney 
)r his Iuaintenancp ;" hut Jones ,vas called a,vay frolH 
 on other hu
iness and his arùor in the ne,," en- 
terprise cuulell ,vith retlection. 
.L\..ftcr an un

flll attelupt to organize a COIn- 
Inercial cOlnpany in l")ari
, \\yrites ThoIna:-; Jefferson, 
"I then proposed to hinl to go hy hUHl to l
chatka, cro
'-) in SOffit" of the Ru
-.;ian \"e

els tù 
N ootka Sound, fall dO\Vll into the latitude of the 



l\IissourÍ, nnd penetrate to and through that to the 
U nitcd State
. lIe eagorly soized the idea, anù only 
asked to be a88ure\.1 of the pern1Îssion of the nus
crnInent." The desired pcrlnission ,vas obtain cd 
frOIll the 01npr088 after sonle tlclay. 
Ican,vhilc Led- 
yard ,vent to London, ,vhere a 1110re direct n1cans 
of accol11plishing his purpose presented itself. J [0 
act.ually cmbarked on an English ship for the N orth- 
'YCbt Coast. His plan ,vas to land at N ootka and 
thence" pursue his course, as fortune should guide hiul, 
to \Tirginia;" but" the vessel ,vas not out of :-;ight of 
land, before it ,vas brought back by an order fr01l1 the 
goVel'nlnent, and the yoyage ,vas finally broken off" 
Then Sir Joseph Banks and other pro111inent English- 
men raised a little nloney Ly subscription, anù Led- 
yard ,vent to IIan1burg, and started on a trip by land 
to Siberia. He reached St Petersburg, after Inan
adventures, ill the spring of 1787. There he obtained 
his passport, and proceeded to Yakutsk, in Siberia. 
His usual ill-luck did not desert hilll, for ,vhile ,vin- 
tering so near his destination he ,vas suddenly ar- 
rested in February 1788, in accordance ,vith ilnperial 
secret orders, and carried to 
Iosco\v aud to the fron- 
tiers of Poland, the reasons for his arrest not being 
kno,vn. The enlpress clainled to have been actuated 
by hU111anity; but it is not unlikely that tho explorer 
,vas stopped through the lllachinations of the Russian- 
Alnerican Fur COlnpany. 
Ledyard reached London in l\fay, and ,vas soon 
recollllllended "to an adventure ahnost as pcrilou8 as 
the one fron1 ,vhich he had returned," nanlely, the 
exploration of the African interior under the auspices 
of an Engli
h a

ociation. "When he returned to 
Paris," ,vrites 
Ir Jefferson, "his bodily strength ,vas 
111uch ilnpaired. His Inind, ho,vever, remained firln, 
3nJ he after this undertook the journey to Egypt.. 
I recei vet! a letter fron1 him, full of sanguine hopes, 
dated at Cairo, the fifteenth of N ovelnber, 1788, 
the day before he ,vas to set out for the head of the 



Xilc; on ,,'ltich (lay, ho,,'eycr, hp enc1(
J hi
aue 1 life: and thuc; f
lile(l t he first attéllll't to explore 
the \\.( .
tcrll part of our Ilort hern continent."8 

"1'he ]-{us;-;ians \\'erc the fir:-;t to ayail thclll'iclyes of 
Cook's (liscoveries," 
a \Y:; Grecnho\v-that is, his di:-;- 
{\o,yery of the Hca-ottc<-r to the' 
onth (,f 1\Jaska-1)y 
orO"i.u;izin cf a fur ('Olll l >an v in 1781, lcadin o ' to She]ikof;H 

 ð J 
petlitiol1. OthL'l'\Yise, anù disregarding the unsuc- 
cesstlIl efil>rtR of I 
olts and Ledyard, the f1rst to en- 
gage practically in the ne'v l)ral1ch of trade \\'ûrc 
}:ncrli.,dl lllC1'(.hants l'esidin
 in [u(lia and China. 1'hc 

chief oLstacle eu('()ullteJ'ud bv theul al'o
e fr01l1 the 
great 1l10IH)polics, the l
ast T u;lia aud South Sea COlll- 
panics; nlHl they \ycre obligcrl to rcsort to yariouq 
IJlore or le
R irregular expedicnts, l10talJly that of 

ailino' under other than Eno'lish colors. Ca p tain 
v ð 
I-Iauua luado tho 1îr
t trip in 1785 frolH China, and 
\VaR font )\vetI Ly scycral other
 ",hose voyages ha vc 
already been described. All, sayc one or t\yO ,vho 
hip"rrl'\ckcd, seenl to bave been BU(TesHfnl fronl 
a COlllulcrcial poiut of yie\\r. l\IeareH ,vas the only 
one of the llul11ber \vho published an account of his 
adventures; and not\vithstanding the disastrou8 ter- 
Inination of his o\vn enterprise, ari
illg fì
Olll SpaJli
interference, he 'Vflf.; very ellthusiastie respecting the 
future LCllCiÌts to he derived Ly Great 13ritain frolH 
the fur-trade. u Captain Barclay al
o Blacle a trading 

agparb/ Lie of Led!Jc,.d, passim; J(lïen: r )1l's Life of Lewis, in LPll'i'l nml 
Cift rl.c's E.I pe t., i. 
lrrOllllt c
r the 7'ra,de bctw('en _Vorlh 'es _1merica ami rllina, 
inl'lndr-s all Lra..1ches of th(' ChÎ1l<"
e trade, the fur-tr:ule heing but a FU11.Il 
part-hut on t:Ü i n
}(l on all parts ho is vcry enthusiastic as to the prospectin
1JCIlcfits to t:rcat :Cl'i
ain. lIc alh'ocates al
o the whale-fishery and thp aC(Jui- 
sition of the Sand" ich I 'blH1.i. 'On c')n::iÍ,kring, therefore, the prodi,-:;ious 
population of ('
lin:1, aIhl supposing the fur-trade to he carried on UlHlcr 
propl'r r(':;nl..Ltion I, t!1C i.l.),f'eul'..Lcyof an opinion whieh has 1)(>('u :lIlvancC'd 
wit!l 80mI' df'...'l'cc (Jf p!a"di1)ility that the Chinese mark\!t may be o\.crstockeù 
"iLll. . fur
. ma::>t a:'p .U' e\ ident to thc most transient rdlectiou. On the 
contrary. it is our <lecid (1 opinion, that the sea-otter !"kins which h:lYC hccn 
imp()}.tc(l to China. binc( t:lC cummencement of the Xorth \\P cst .\merican trade, 
ha\'c not pru,'c 1 sUlli 'Ì":lt to answcr th
' llemallds uf the bin.rIe pru\'iuee uf 
Canton,' ld., lx>..x\i.-\ii. 0 
IIIBT. X. W. Co....
rJ 'oL. I. 23 



voyage: to the coa
t ill ] 78G-7, sailing froin Ostcnd 
under the flag of t he Au
triall East India ConlpallY. 
The fir
ful atten1pt ill thiH direction fi.OIll 
EuO'land OIlO failure at least hasill()' been llott'd il l 
o , b 
cOIlllection ,,-ith Lcdyard's career, "Tas 1uadc in 178G, 
by Portlock and Dixun. SaY8 the latter: Cook's 
covery, "though obviously a source fron1 ,,-hence 
iUllllcnse riches lllight be expected, antI COIllillunicated, 
no douLt, to nUlllbers in thc year 1780, ,vas not iUllnc- 
diately attenJed to. The pro
e("ution of any effectual 
plan to carryon this novel undertaking, required not 
only patience and perseveranec, but a degree of spirit 
and enterprize \vhich does not often fall tu the lot of 
: ho,vever, in the Spring of 1785, a set 
of Gentleillen procured a Charter froln the South Sea 
COlllpany, for the sole right of carrying on this traffic 
to its utn10st extent;" hence the voyage ill question. 
Besides having to get a license froln the South 
Sea ,ConlpallY, ",vhatever furs luight be procured in 
our traffic on the All1erican Coast, ,vere to be dis- 
posed of in China, subject to the inul1ediate control of 
the East India COlupany'8 Supercargoes, and in con- 
sequence of this consigI1111ent, both vessels ,vere to be 
freighted h0111e on the COlnpany's account." The 
expedition ,vas a very successful one, and both the 
n1erchant-navigators becanle cnthusiastic in their pre- 
dictions for tho future. To put the fur-trade on a 
pern1anent footing, says Dixon, "I should conceive 
the nlost eligible plan to be, to establish a factory on 
the coast, and the North end of Queen Charlotte's 
Island:s Seel11S peculiarly ,veIl adapted for that pur- 
pose; the situation is nearly central, bet,veen Cook's 
River and King George's Sound; and w'e aro ,veIl 
assured, that the furs to the South,vard are of a very 
inferior quality. T\vo sn1all vest;els \yould not only 
eollect all the skins in ,vhat harbours are hitherto 
kno,vn, but likc\vise cxplore.. .; besides, there are 
other valuable articles to lJe procured here, 
uch as 
ginseng, copper, oil, spars, etc., and vast quantities of 


. ). I.) 

alnl<nl Ini(rht be 'ured." .1\11<1 Portloek to the :--alllC 
eftcet: "'The inestilnaLlc value of their fur::, ",ill eYer 
l11ake it d d(lsiral)le tradl-, and ,'" henever it i
lished UpOIl a proper f
Hlndati()n antI a :-;cttlell1Cllt lliadc, 
,,"ill L 'cUlliU a Yery ,alnaLle (lIHl lucratiyc hraD.oh of 
("OlllIll\.'rcc. It ,\"ould he an easy IIlatter for either 
(;overlllnent úr our l
t India CUlllpallY tu luake 
ett ll'lllcnt of thi'3 kiud; and thc thinllC
s of thc 
 \rill TIlakl 1 it a n)
ltter <,f CdS)" practica- 
bility; and a
 t]U., COlll}>allY are nlldcr the lleces...,ity 
of I )ayiJ)tr the Chinese in ca:::;h for their tea
, I look 
"' 0 
npon it n :jettlelllcnt (,ll thi:-; coa
t 1uight be effected 
at a Yery incollsidcrable eXpCllec. . . 
\n()ther COllYCll- 
ience likely to acerne, j:--; fi'onl a ,,
(.Jl-knu\\ìl entcr- 
prisillg charaetcr ha,'ing, if he Ineet:-; ,,'ith proper 
elH'ouracreJllcnt frolH the Cuulltr\
 intentions of g oin(r 

 J' 0 
Ùrhll)( 1 to the
0 part:-,. . .1'hat :->uch an evcnt luay 
take I,lal'c, flJU:-;t he thc \\
i:-..h of evcry lover of hi
country; and though the eutcrpri
e i:-; fraught ".ith 
eyery danger that idea can 
t, yet ',,?bat it; it 
that ]
l'iti:--h valour Jar0s not attclupt 1"10 ....\. 
(plent e
pedition "a
 (lespatehed hy EteIle
 and COIll- 
pan)'" of Loudon, ill ".hich enterpl'i
e that uf ::\Ieares 
 lllcrged Lefol'e the cIHI of 173D. 

In }'rance, ,vhere attcntion had 1Jpen called to the 
suLjeet l)oth by Cook's report and l.Jt.xlyartl'
the faulous La l)érou
e "'a::; iu::;tructeJ. in hi:-; l'X- 

10 nixon's royuf/t', ix. "-. 2
21-2; Porflocl-'s J"oY((!I , 3-4, 
!)4--5. Of th
early \oYdges Portlock HëlYS: 'These cntcrpriscs ha\-e proycù extrcmely im- 
l'Ol1allt to the worM, though thcir profits, cOllsi(lcrillg the capital all<l the 
, v. crc not cllviously grcat. Thcse cnterprises, howcycr, l,y cnlarging 
the limits of discovcry, made navigation more safe in thc Xorth Pacitic 
Occan. . . Thcy taught the .AlIlcrit'an f,a\"agcs, that strength must nlwap
buhortlinatc to cli
ciplillc: an(l, ha.\-ing disco\'cre(I the Ahooa Indians on the 
lÞ(.H"tlcrs of Kootb..a. ðoUlHI, who hall 80 far 
l(h"allCcd frorn thcir b3.\"agc statc as 
to rcfu!'!t.- to Hell to :\[r Strangc, for any price, the pcltJ.y \\ hich thcy hall nh.cnJy 
cll.l.agcIl to 
I r Hanna, th<=se cntcl1wi8C
 ha ,.e ascertaincd this 
tr nth to mankind, that ci\"iliz
ltiun éllHlmorals IllU
t for c"cr accomp.UlY each 
other!' All( 1 I)i '\on, of the pro:5pects: 'Thus much wc 
n yenture to atlirm, . . 
that the fur tradc is incÀhaustihlc whercn-r thcre are inhabitants, and they, 
(c'\l'eril'nco tells us) arc not cOlltìuetl to any particular sitnntion, but nrc 
tcn'(1 in trih
s all along the coast, which (as far as (;OI.l.:t:nl
 future traùers 
to e
d.minc) CÀtclltll:J frum 40 to 61 Jegrec::,.' 



ploring expedition of 178ß-ÐO round the ,vorld to 
fully illYc
tigatc the prospccts of the fur-trade fur 
French entcl'pl'i
c. r'ioll
equcntly l.e obtained ahout 
a thousand 
, lllostly in piecc8, ,,'hieh 
,ycre sold for tell thousand dollal'H in Chiua, and 
the proceeds diyidcd anlong the crc,vs of the t\\TO 
veRselR. ll "I bclicye," 'v rites the navigator, "that 
thcre i
 no country i.n the ,,'"orld ,yhere the sea-otter 
is lllore COlnnlon than in this part of Ånlcrica; and r 
8hould be little surprised that a factory extending 
its opcrationR only forty or fifty l<!agues along the 
sea-shore 111ight colle('t each year ten thousand 
skins of thiH aninlal."12 Yet he did not favor allY 
project of a French fur-trading esta.blisillnent on the 
K orth \V cst. Coast, or even the granting an exclu- 
sive right to engage ill this trade to a Jj"rench COIH- 
pany. Such ,vere his vie,vs aR expressed in a n1el1101r 
,vritten in DeCGIUber 1786, on the v\'"ay from California 
to China. He had no doubt that Rea-otter skins 
lllight be obtained in unlilnited quantitics; indeed so 
plentiful "
as the supply that the Chinese nlarkf't in 
his opinion could not possibly 111aintaill prices on a 
profitable basis. l\loreover, he feared that an estab- 
lishlnent on the coast 111ight cause trouble ,,
ith the 
courts of l\ladrid or St Petersburg. He gave, ho\y- 
ever, an approyal of private expcrilnental expedition
undertaken by French traders. I3 
11 La Pérollse, Voyage, i. 29-30; iv. lü3-7; Fleurieu, in JJIarcltand, Voyagc, 
12 La Pérouse, royage, ii. 17ü. 
13 LaPG1"(JU8e, Jlémoire.'3ur leC07Jl7JlPTCe des pea1lX de loutre de mer, in/d., roy., 
lü2-172. " Quclqu'étendu que soit l'em11ire de 13, Chine, il me paraît impossible 
que les peaux de loutre s'y mal1tiennent à très-haut prix, lorsque les différentes 
nations de l'Europe yen apporteront en concurrence.' 'J'ai beaucoup réf1
sur Ie projet d'une factorerie au Port des Français ou dans les enyirons; et 
j'y trouve de très-grands inconvéniens, à cause lIe l'immense éloignement 
où ce comptoir se trouverait de l'Enrope, et de l'incertitllde des résultats de ce 
commerce à la Chine, lorsque les Espagl101s, les Russes, les Anglais et les 
Français y apporteront en concurrence ces peaux, qu'il est si facile de se pro- 
curer sur toute la côte. On ne peut d'ailleurs clouter que notre compagnie des 
Incles ne réclamåt contre Ie privilége qu'il faudrait accorder aux armateul'S 
})our qu'ils pussentfaire leur vente à laChine.. .Cespriviléges exclusifs tuent 
Ie commerce, com me les grands arbres étouffent les arbustes qui les environ- 
nent.' 'AillSi, en résumallt les diff(orens articles de ce mémoire, mOIl opinion 
cst qu'on ne doit point encore songer à l'établissement d'une factoreric, quïl 

E \


The] )aper:i uf f...a 1\:rou:-5e'
 expedition not JUt\ iug 
IJèen publi
hed, ., Freuc]l cOllllllerce," "'rites 
r. }1"1eu- 
rieu "ha( lnot Leell able to L'llo'aooe in 3.IlV cnter I H.jsl; 
 ð J 
of ri,.alry ".ith tllat of other Batiol1s in the fur-tra(le. 
] t \\ nuld haye I)eel1 ra
h inùeed to ellfra're ,,'ithout 
o M 
I n'\Jilllinary exaillillation in 
peclllations \\.ltit.h ".ould 
l'l'fJuirt. in order to I)c rea] ize( I that Ye
sels should 
(' vo\.a"'cs round the ,,'orldo J3efore Clllbàl'l
in()O in 
J 0 ð 
this llC\V career it "as essential that OUl" lllerchants 
:-;]louId hayc I)eell aI)Ie to procure data nearly accurate, 
,,"hich on the olle hall(l Blight put tlll'lll in a condi- 
tion to fOl'lll a pIau OIl the conduct to be oL:-;el'Yed 
\vith the .r\IHerican:-; of the Ilorth-,,"est coast, and on 
the ,.;ell'ctioll of IllL'rchaIHli
e lleces:-;ary for Larter \vith 
thell) anù \\" !lich Oil the other hand luiu-ht (J-Í ,Te thenl 
, 0 b 
a glilnpsc' of the pl'ufitH to Le expected fl'Olll the 
l'Àehnllo'c of ..c\ llll'rican ful'
 for Chine::,e l )rotl uctiOll
ut (
aptain )Iarchand 1l1üt Portlock ill 1 ï88, and 
(JLtaÍlled ii.oul hilll 
ueh inful"luatioll a
 to illùuco a 
}'rcnch huuHc to luakc the yellture ill 17
)Ial'chand (J1tainell a fair quantity uf furs, but on 
cal'ryillg thcnl tu Chiua in 1791 he fUlHlll that an order 
had becn issued prohiLiting any further iutroduc- 
tion ùf peltl'ies into the port
; therefore they ".C1'O 
carried hOlllC and (lcpo
itcd at L'yon
, ".here they \ycrc 
destroyed l)y \\TOrln
 during the 
ieg"e uf that eity, 
iuyolYing the o"
ners III a 
. )Iarchand 
confirllll'd thc ideas of La réruu
c as to the aLun- 
dance of sea-ottcr 
kin::;; Lut he alBo feared that the 

u'cst P:18 II1t'me temps d'dahlir une compagnic exclusi\"e pour faire ce com. 
JUl'rce à l'avcnture; (!U'Oll doit encore Liell moins Ie conficr à la compagnie des 
Indc8, qui ne Ie femit pas, on Ie fenlit mal, et en dl'goÙtl'rait Ie gO\1\ Crnl'lllent; 
 quïl COIl\ il'ndrait ù'{'ugager une de nos places ùe commerce à e::s:-..tyer 
trois expeditions, en lui acconlant In. ccrtitude Ù'Ull fret en ('hine.' :\1. )lon- 
neron, chief l'ngineer of the expeùition, rcgarJ8 a French fur-trading po::,t as 
pcùicnt, aUlI is reaùy to argue the case if the go'"Cnlmcnt So desires. He 
SéI)S also that La. J)érou::,c \\rote a paper against such ::111 estal,IÜ.:hll}('llt. 'II 
n '(.:-;t pa;:; clitlicile de prc;:,nmer (PIC raprct6 de ce dimat, Ie pf'U de re
ourccs de 
ce pays, SOIl doigIlcment proùi 6 ieux ùe la lI1etropole, Ia. concurrence dC!i HU!'l
l.t des Espaguols, qui Hout's conYl'nahlemcnt l'ourfairc comml'ree, doin.ut 
('lc,iglll'r tonte autre pui
8ance curopt'(,IlIlC que t.clles tille je viens de nommpr, 
de former aucullctaLli;:;s 'llleut entre .Muntcrcy ct rClltrce c1u !'IÏllce- \\ïllia1ll8.' 
Jd.. i,-. l:!O-1. · 
ul'lcllrÌí ll, ch




trade ,voultl not he per111ancntly profitable, though 
he had no doubt the Chine
e prohibition ,vould be 
eyadetl, unless it coul<l be regulated and sy:.;telnatized. 15 
There "Ta
"rcn<:h trader OIl the eoast in 1792 
but nothiug definite is kno"
ll of results. 

It '\Ta
 in 1788 that the Ál11ericans began their fur- 
trading operations on the coaHt by the expedition of 
I{endrick and Gray, fully recorded else,vhere in this 
YOlUlllC. In the Coolidge building, opposite the Revere 
IIouse, Boston, 'v rites Bulfillch, ",vas asselnbled, in 
tho year 1787, a group, conHÍ:..;ting of the lnaster of 
the luansion, Dr Bulfillch, his only son Charles, and 
J 08eph Barrell, their neighbor, an en1Ïncnt lnerchant 
of Boston. The conYer
ation turned upon the topic of 
tho day,-the yoyages and discoveries of Capt. Cook, 
the account of ,vhich had lately been published. The 
brilliant achieven1ünts of Capt. Cook, his adnlirablc 
qualities, and his Had fate. .. . these fornled the current 
of the conversation; till at last it changed, and turned 
11101'e upon the conl111ercial aspects of the subject. :\11' 
Barrell ,vas particularly struck ,vith ,vhat Cook relates 
of the abundance of valuable furs offered by the ua- 
ti yes in exchange for beads, knives, and other trifling 
conlnlodities yalued by thelll. . .1\11' Barrell renlarkecl: 
'There is a rich harvest to Le reaped there by those 
ho shall first go in.' The idea thus suggested ,vas 
follo,ved out in future conversations at the doctor's 
fireside, achnitting other congenial spirits to the dis- 
ion, and resulted in the equipping of an expedi- 
tion," by :\Iessrs Barrell, Bro\vn, Bulfinch, Darby, 
Hatch, and Pintard. 16 It is not unlikely either that 

15....llarchand, Voyage, ii. 368-72, 391-4, 521-2. He learned also that the 
year before the average 11rice had been forced by competition ùown to fif- 
teen dollars. K othillg of the prohibition appears in the statements of other 
traders of the year. '
Iais Ie commerce ùes .Fourrures a des limites fixées par 
la Nature et par la Raison:. .n est aisé de concevoir que la. llouv-elle intro- 
duction de Pelleteries par la yoie de mer et les Ports tIu :Midi ùe In. Chine, Cll 
appelant les Allglais, les Am(>ricains, les }1"rall\'dis, les Espagllols et les Por- 
tugais au partage de ce commerce, en les faisallt entreI' en concurrence et cn 
rivalité avec les Russes, ùoit faire ùescenùre les Inarchanùises qui en sont l'uh- 
jet, it des prix qui ne préscllteront plus un bénéfÌce sutfisallt,' etc. 
16 Bllljiltc!t'8 Ul' c !J OIt ctud Et Dorctdo, 1-3. 



(\(lvar(l's old-tin}' enthu
nl had l(
ft. an influence 

till oJ JHOrl\ ur lc

 potent ill the luilH.J'i uf Boston's 

olid lIH'Il. 
rrh( u,rh fi(rUr('H art' ]aeki1l!.!, thi
 first ventu!"e i
ð ;-, '-' 
not to Ita \. 
 Lecn profitaLlt', aud 
Ollle of the partner;-; 
\\.ithdrc\\y fi'OBl the cut 'rpri
e; Lut the r('
t per
and ()thers L:lltert:J the 11 ,\\Y fie]tl \\"ith ]ar1; \ but vary- 
n(Te:--:s. j)erkiu:-;, l-ialnb, ))orr, J Joarthl1au, ) 
aud Stur{ris are IHllllt'S ('Olllll;(
ted \yith tirln
 that are 
:-;aid tu ha \ye u}tul \ fortulle
 ill the fur-trade. lJO\\Yu to 
1788-9 there: had LeL\ll fourteen .Eu{flj
h ve

els cu- 
cralYe(1 ill tho trade , . but fro1Il L ï!)O to 1818 there \\"eré 

one hnlH trcel and cight ÅITleri<.;an v('
ðel:-; antI only 
t\\.Clltr-t\vu Eu(r]i:-\h lle.trl\y alll)efore 1800 \,"ith three 
,1 \::), J , 
}1'rench, and t\\TO l)urtugue
c, so far a::; recorùed, though 
the Ii:--it of nIl cla::;ses, particularly of the 13riti:-;h craft, 
 <louhtI( .
:-; illcCJlllplete. r ndt'c< I very Iittlt.,; is kno\\9n 
in tletaiI of l
h ventures ill thi:--; direction after tho 
Noutka coutruversy of 1 ï8!J-95; but it appears that 
the trade \va:::; gradually abanJoncJ l)y rea
Oll of diver:::; 
obstaele:--i, notably the oppo
ition of the East India 
Said l\lptain Sturgi
 in hi
 lecture on the subject: 
"The trade "9a:::; cunfined ahllo
t exelu
i\Tely to J3o
It \vas atte1l1pted, unsucce
"fully, frolH l.)lâladelphia 
and N e\v' York, and fr(Hn J )rovidcnce and Bri
t()I, in 
]{hode [
land. }
YC'll t.he intelligent and cnterpri
luerchallts of 
alelll failed of su<:cefo.;..;. . . So lllauy of 
the \rC

 enuao.c< 1 in thi
 tra(lc Lelul1<red here the 
] lldian
 had the ilnpres
i()ll that IJustoll ''''[is onr 
 country. .r\.t t he clu
e uf the Ja'-\t century, 
"ith the exct'ptioll of the J{u

ian cstabli
, the 
,\ ])ole traùe \Y:.L:--i ill our hallù:-" tllHI su rl'luaincd until 
thc clost' of the "T
U' \yith Great Britain, ill 1813. In 
] 80 t, the trade "ya':3 Ulll
t L:xtcn
i\.<..l.r, though not 
II1():-;t protitably pro
e<.;utt'<l; that year, there \\yt're 
fifteen Ye

l,Is Oil the CO:L:--it, and ill lbO
 1l10re than 
title'l1 thou:--i
ea-()tter skill':) \\yerc collccted, and 
carried tu t\U}
Oll. l
ut the l'()lHl't:tition ".[l
u great, 



that fe,v of the yoy.agos ,,"ore then profitablo, and 
SOHle ,;:-ere ruinouR. Subsequently, the ,,"ar ,vith Great 
Britain intelTupted the trade for a tilHe; but after the 
peace in 1815 it ,vas resullled, and flourished for 801no 
" 1 - 
. I 

"In the year 17!)
, thore \vere t,vonty-one vCRBais 
under different flags," ,vritcs )11" Irving, "plying 
along the coast and trading ,vith tho natives. The 
greater part of theln ,vere -t\.lnerican, and o\vned Ly 
Boston lllerchants. They generally remained on the 
coast., and about the adjacent seas, for t,vo years, carry- 
ing on as ,vandering and advcnturous a comnlerce on 
the ,vater ns did tho traders and trappers on