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Historical and Biographical Annals 


Columbia and Montour 





A Concise History of the Two Counties and a 

Genealogical and Biographical Record 

of Representative Families 





J. H. BEERS & CO. 





P »9|7 


In the preparation of this history of Cohimbia and Montour counties the 
pubHshers have been guided by several factors, the principal one being to record 
facts. In this vicinity of quaint legend and marvelous incident it is perhaps quite 
natural that writers of the past should have yielded much to the temptation to 
romantic narrative. Pains have been taken to revert to the unimpeachable 
records of the early times, which are still available to investigators, and for 
verification of the statements in the present work we direct attention to files of 
newspapers of the period in question, and other records to be found now in the 
Bloomsburg and Danville public libraries and the courthouses of the two coun- 
ties, as well as in the archives of the Columbia County Historical Society and 
in private homes. 

An important feature of this work, in which appear items of history which 
would be preserved in no other way, is the genealogical record of many of the 
families of this section whose ancestry were instrtmiental in the building of the 
Commonwealth and this portion of it in the days of settlement and trial. The 
utmost care has been exercised in the compilation of these family records, and 
in nearly every instance the biographical sketches were submitted to those imme- 
diately interested, thus affording ample opportunity for revision and correction. 

In compiling data for the history the publishers have had the assistance and 
supervision of the following residents of this division of the Keystone State: 

In the history of Columbia county proper the matter prepared by a represen- 
tative of the publishers has been reviewed by George E. Elwell, of Bloomsburg, 
who also supplied the Bench and Bar chapter; the Bloomsburg chapter, includ- 
ing the industries, churches, organizations and the first account in permanent book 
form of the Bloomsburg Centennial; and much other matter that has been used 
in the proper places through the body of the work. 

The detailed and authoritative account of the electric trolley and lighting sys- 
tems which cover both counties was supplied by A. W. Duy, Esq., of Blooms- 
burg. The story of the building of the Catawissa railroad was written by Charles 
E. Randall, of the Catawissa Nczi.<s Item. The interesting narration of the 
founding and development of the great car works at Berwick was written by the 
district manager of the American Car and Foundry Company, William F. Lowry. 
The article on the establishment of the tirst Methodist congregation in this sec- 
tion of the State, the history of the Berwick Water Company, Berwick Store 
Company, and of the Y. M. C. A. of Berwick, are from the pen of F. A. 
Witman, of Berwick. 

The material for the chapter upon the medical profession of Columbia 
county was supplied by Dr. L. B. Kline, of Catawissa. The matter for the 
article on the highways and roads of the counties was furnished by Arthur M. 
Clay, district superintendent of the State Highway Commission, stationed at 

Bloomsburg. Credit should be given to Miss Martha E. Robison for the his- 
tory of the origin and work of the Columbia County Sabbath School Associa- 
tion, to which organization she has devoted many years of her life. 

The entire history of Montour county has been reviewed by Hon. H. M. 
Hinckley, of Danville, who has written the greater part, devoting much time to 
the history of the religious denominations of the county, and to the correct 
description of the founding, development and growth of the town of Danville 
and the industries, improvements and historical occurrences brought about or 
participated in by the present and past residents of this division of the State of 

The publishers also acknowledge their indebtedness to Col. J. G. Freeze's 
early history of Columbia county ; gratitude to F. M. Gotwalds, of Danville, and 
Percy Brewington, of Benton, for aid in the progress of the work; Boyd Tres- 
cott, of Millville, and S. N. Walker, of Bloomsburg, for assistance rendered; 
to Daniel N. Dieffenbacher, of Danville, and William W. Evans, of Blooms- 
burg, for data for school history; and to Miss Edith Patterson and Miss Jennie 
Bird, librarians at Bloomsburg and Danville, respectively, for courtesies ex- 

In behalf of the various writers of this work, cordial thanks are expressed to 
the officials of the counties, the members of the press, the clergy, and all others 
who have assisted in making this an exhaustive and accurate treatise on the 
region which has been its province. 






The Indians 1 Benton Township — Benton Borough 210 


Founding of Pennsylvania 13 Briarcreek Township 218 


Topography and Geology— Iron— Coal 19 Centre Township 221 


Agriculture 28 Locust and Oeveland Townships 224 


Transportation Facilities— Lighting— Roads, Turn- Fishingcreek Township— Stillwater Borough 228 

^'^^^ ^^ CHAPTER XXIV 

CHAPTER VI Franklin Township 231 

Religious Denominations 57 CHAPTER XXV 

CHAPTER VII Greenwood Township— Millville Borough 232 

Bench and Bar 65 CHAPTER XXVI 

CHAPTER Vin Hemlock Township 238 

The Medical Profession of Columbia County.... 74 _t,_^„_ 

CHAPTER IX Jackson Township 241 

War Records of the Counties 77 CHAPTER XXVIII 

CHAPTER X Madison Township 343 

County Formation 82 CHAPTER XXDC 

CHAPTER XI Main Township 246 

Columbia County After 1850 84 CHAPTER XXX 

CHAPTER Xn Mifflin Township — Mifflinville 248 

Educational Growth 94 CHAPTER XXXI 

CHAPTER XTTT Montour Township 252 

The Press 99 CHAPTER XXXH 

„„ _ Mount Pleasant Township 255 


Bloomsburg 104 CHAPTER XXXin 

Orange Township — Orangeville Borough 256 


Berwick and West Berwick 149 CHAPTER XXXIV 

Pine Township 261 


Catawissa Borough^Catawissa Township 188 Roaringcreek Township 262 


Centralia Borough— Conyngham Township 201 gpott Township 264 


Beaver Township 208 Sugarloaf Township 269 





Early History — County Organization, etc 273 Anthony Township 386 


Some of the Early Families 277 Cooper Township 390 

«^^T=^ ™ CHAPTER Xin i 

Internal Improvements 293 

Derry Township — Washingtonville Borough 391 


Military Record 296 CHAPTER XIV j 

CHAPTER V ^'^^'^^ Township 394 

Schools of Montour County 303 CHAPTER XV 

CHAPTER VI Limestone Township 396 , 

Bench and Bar 311 CHAPTER X%T ; 

CHAPTER VII Mahoning Township 397 j 

Physicians 32 1 



Officials 325 ^^^J^'"y Township 398 ; 


Danville 327 Valley Township ...400 


Township Formation 386 West Hemlock Township 402 , 





Aborigines - 2 

African il. E. Church 146 

Aggi-essions, Indian.. 13, 188, 248 
Agricultural Associations ... 31 

Agriculture 28 

Indian 5 

Alton (Almcdia) 367 

AiKman, Alexander 331, 628 

Ahnedia 267 

American Car and Foundry 

Ber\vick 161, 163 

Berwick Rolling Mill Co., 

1873 (View) 161 

Berwick Store Co. (View) . 165 

Bloomsburg 113 

Jackson & Woodin First 

Store (ViewO 168 

Jackson & Woodin JIfg. Co., 

1873 (View) 161 

Lower Works (View) 163 

Steel Car Department 

(View) 165 

Upper Works (View) 163 

Amusement Houses — 

Bloomsburg 147 

Anthony, Judge Joseph B. 66, 313 

Anthracite 26 

Apple Orchards 39 

Area of Pennsylvania 12 

Aristes ("Montana") 206 

Assessment and Valuation.. . 91 
Assessors, Township and Bor- 
ough 88 

Associate Judges 71 

Athletic Park 134 

Attorneys, District 87 

Baldy, Edward H 317, 576 

Baldy Guards 81, 398 

Baldy, William J 318, 576 

Bands — 

Benton 218 

Berwick 184 

Bloomsburg 148 

Catawissa 193 

Banks 18 

Benton 315 

Berwick 155 

Bloomsburg ■ 121 

Catawissa 193 

Centralia 303 

Millville 334 


63, 144, 176, 233, 337, 343, 245 
Bar, Members of Columbia 

County 71 

Barkley," Charles G 127 

Bear Kun (Mordansville) . . . . 355 

Beaver Township 208 

Beaver Valley (Sliuman- 

town) 308 

Bench and Bar 65 

Benton Borough 310 

Benton Township 210 

Berwick Borough 149 

Berwick Bridge 53 

Site of Steamboat Acci- 
dent (View) 56 

Berwick Circuit 60, 171 

Berwick Guards 184 

Berwick Hospital 186 

View 186 

Berwick Schools 1159 

Berwick Store Company 165 

Department Store (View) . 165 

Billheimer, Michael 17 

Bloom Township 108 

Bloomsburg 104 

Bloomsburg, County Bridge at 54 

View 56 

Bloomsburg Hospital 119 

View 186 

Bloomsburg Soldiers' Monu- 
ment 193 

View 120 

Bloomsburg State Normal 

School 124 

View 124 

Agricultural Department... 28 
Bloomsburg, Town Fountain. 113 

Bloomsburg, Town Hall 113 

Boatyards 266 

Boone. Samuel 17, 104 

Boroughs — 

Benton 210 

Berwick 149 

Catawissa 188 

Centralia 301 

Millville 332 

Orangeville 256 

Stillwater 338 

West Berwick 158 

Bosley, Fort 11 

Boundaries. Pennsylvania ... 13 
Bowman, Bishop Thomas.... 59 


Boy Scouts Troop 181 

Boyle's (Brady's) Fort 392 

Briar Creek 219 

Briarcreek Township 218 

Bridges 53-56 

(See also Borough and 
Township Chapters.) 

Berwick ( View) 56 

County Bridge at Blooms- 
burg (View) 56 

Bricn. William 150, 151 

Brobst, Christian. .. .44, 189, 197 

Buck Mountain 19, 209 

Buckhorn 239 

Buckwheat 28, 34 

Business Establishments — 

(See Borough and Town- 
ship Chapters.) 
Byrnesville 207 

Campbell (Central) 271 

Canal Trade 42, 43 

Canalboats 43, 107, 266 

Passenger Boat, 1868 

(View) 168 

Canby 255 

Car Works, Berwick 163 

Views 163, 165 

Carver, Prof. Henry 126 

Catawissa Borough 188 

Catawissa Bridge 54 

Catawissa Guards 81 

Cataw-issa Friends Meeting 

House 196 

View 168 

Catawissa Mountain 19, 246 

Catawissa Soldiers' Monument 193 

View 120 

Catawissa Township 188 

Catholics — 

(See Greek and Roman 

Cattle Epidemic 30 


57, 147, 186, 301, 340, 251, 267 
Centennial Celebration, 

Bloomsburg 135 

Central 271 

Centralia Borough 201 

Centre Township 231 

Centerville (Centralia) ■ 303 

Centre ville (Lime Ridge) .... 223 
Chapman, Hon. Seth 65, 311 



Cherrington Family 263 

Christian Denomination. . .63, 
14G, 177, 216, 230, 236, 242, 272 

Churches 57 

(See also Borough and 
Township Chapters.) 

Circuits, M. E 60, 171 

Civil War 78 

Columbia County in the .... 80 

Drafts 79 

Clayton, Thomas 104, 105 

Cleared Land, Acreage 92 

Clerks, County 87 

Cleveland Township 224 

Qubs, Literary and Social — 

Berwick 182 

Bloomsburg 132 

Catawissa 201 

Coal 19, 20 

Dredging 27 

Mining 26 

Coal Mines, 26, gOS, 206, 207, 209 

Cole Family 269 

Cole's, Billy 271 

Cole's Creek 269, 271 

Collieries 26 

Columbia County, History of 1 
Columbia County, Organiza- 
tion 82, 273 

Columbia County after 1850. 84 
Columbia County Agricul- 
tural, Horticultural and 
Mechanical Association ... 31 
Columbia County Bar Asso- 
ciation 71 

Columbia County Medical So- 
ciety 75 

Columbia County Courthouse 84 

Views 84, 277 

Columbia County Historical 

Society 134 

Columbia County Jail 85 

. View 120 

Columbia County OflTicials... 87 

Columliia Park 222 

Columbia County Poorhouses 86 
Columbia County Sabbath 

School Association 63 

Columbia Guards 78, 81, 297 

Commissioners' Clerks 88 

Common School Law 94 

Conestoga Wagons 36 

Congressional Districts 89 

Congressmen 89 

Conner Implement Works... 258 

Connecticut Claims 13, 14, 104 

Conviigham, Judge John N . . 

. ." 66, 312 

Conyngham Township 201 

Cooper (Bloomsburg Pioneer) 104 

Copper Ciaze 27, 270 

County Bridge, Bloomsburg. . 53 

View 56 

County Commissioners 88 

County Fairs 31 

County Jail 85 

View 120 

County Seat Contest. 83, 373, 275 

County Treasurers 88 

Courthouses at Bloomsburg, 
Old and Present (Views) . . 84 
At Danville (Views) 277 

Crawford, Capt. Jack 203 

Creasy 350 

Creeks 19 

Creveling Grape 39, 268 

Cumberland Pike 36 

Dens 242 

District Attorneys 87 

Districts — 

Congressional 89 

Judicial 65, 70 

Legislative 89, 90 

Doan, John 17, 104 

Donnel, Hon. Cliarles G...66, 312 
"Durham'' Boats 43 

Early Physicians 74 

Eaton, Frederick H 163, 513 

Educational Growth 94 

Jlodern Development 95 

Statistics 95, 97, 98 

(See also Borough and 
Township Chapters.) 

Election Districts 86 

Electric Ligliting 50, 111, 316 

Electric Railways 48, 50, 203 

Elk Grove 271 

Elwell, Judge William 

66, 313, 673 

Ent Post, G. A. R 133 

Episcopal (Protestant) De- 

63, 139, 174, 300, 304, 244, 271 

Espy 366 

Esther Furnace 23, 235 

Evangelical Denomination. . . . 

63, 145, 

176, 177, 179, 209, 217, 319, 
320, 323, 237, 242, 251, 354, 368 

Evans, Judge Charles C 

70, 314, 433 

Evans, William W 135, 577 

Evansville 219 

Eves, .John 17, 233 

Explosion on River Steamboat 

(1826) 43, 153 

Eyer, Ludwig 105 

Eyer's Grove 335 

Eyerstaedtel (Bloomsburg) . . 105 

Fairs, County 31 

Farmers, Prominent 30 

Fernville 149 

Fire Companies 

Ill, 160, 193, 316 

First Settlers 15 

(See also Borough' and 
Township Chapters.) 

Fisheries 264, 271 

Fishing Creek 229 

Fishingcreek Township 228 

Floods 53-56 

Foot and Mouth Disease .... 30 

Forks 230 

Formation of County 82, 373 

Forts. Frontier. . .9, 104, 221, 393 
Fort McClure Chapter, D. A. R. 

11. 104, 134 

Founding of Pennsylvania... 12 

Foundry ville 151, 230 

Fowlerville 222 

Franklin Township 231 

Fraternal Organizations — 

Aristes 306 

Benton 318 

Berwick 185 

Bloomsburg 128 

Buckhom 240 

Catawissa 194 

Centralia 304 

Centre Township 323 

Espy 26T 

lola 236 

Millville 235 

Numidia 225 

Orangeville 358 

Friends, Society of 57, 

58, 150, 170, 188, 196, 326, 236 
Friends' Meeting House, Cata- 
wissa 196 

View 168 

Frontier Forts... 9, 104, 231, 393 

Fruit Raising 39 

l'\iniaces. Anthracite and 

Charcoal 23 

Columbia County 

23, 230, 235, 246, 264 

Montour County 24 

Abandoned 35 

Furry Family . . . .' 188 

Galena Ore 30, 27 

Gas Lighting 48 

Geology and Topography, 

Iron, Coal 19 

(See also Borough and 
Township Chapters.) 

Germantown 307 

Glen City (Scotch Valley) ... 309 

Grange, Patrons of Husbandry 30 
(See also Borough and 
Township Chapters.) 

Grassmere Park 271 

Gravel Picker, for Buckwheat 34 

Greek Catholics 63, 179, 206 

Greenwood Township 232 

Gristmills, Old... 32, 189, 208, 
319, 235, 229, 333, 235, 239, 

347, 248, 354, 257, 363, 365, 369 

Guava 371 

Harrison (Sugarloaf) Town- 
ship 269 

Hemlock Township 338 

Herring, .Judge Grant 70, 313 

Hinckley, Hon. Henry M. . . . 

68. "313, 318, 448 

Historical Society, Columbia 

County 134 

Horse Breeding 30 

Homes, Pioneer 15 

Hopkins, Rev. Caleb. 62, 139, 244 
Hospitals — 

Berwick 186 

Bloomsburg 119 

Views 186 

Hughesburg (Catawissa) . . . 189 

Hurley Guards 81 

Ikeler, Judge Elijah R 

69, 313, 420 

Indians. The 1 



Indian Aggressions 13, 188 

Costumes 6 

Customs 5 

Feasts and Sports 7 

Fishing and Hunting 8 

Government 7 

Names 3, 20, 188 

Origin and Local Tribes . . 2, 188 

Patlis and Trails 3 

Religion 7 

Treaties 13 

Villages and Settlements . . 4 
Wars and Forays 8 

Inns, Old... 38, 105, 150, 202, 
206 211, 222, 224, 226, 240, 257 

lola 336 

Iron 19, 20, 230 

Industry 23, 238 

Mills ^- 24 

"Iron Guards" 79, 80 

Jackson, Col. Clarence G 

161, 184, 464 

Jackson Guards 184 

Jackson, Mordecai W 161, 416 

Jackson Township 241 

Jackson & Woodin Mfg. Co.. 101 
First Store, 1865 (View).. '168 

Works, 1873 (View) 161 

Jail, Columbia County 85 

View 130 

Jamison City 270 

Jenkins, Fort 10, 221 

Jerseytown 243 

John Family 246 

Jonestown 229 

Associate 71 

President 71 

Biographies 65-70 

Judicial Districts. 65, 70, 311, 312 

Karkaase 17, 328 

Kernsville 325 

Kline Family 256 

Knob Mountain 19, 256 

Lead Ore 20,27 

Legislative Districts 89, 90 

Lesher, Prof. Albert U 169 

Lewis, Judge Ellis 66, 311 

Libraries, Public — 

Berwick 166, 180 

Bloomsburg 119 

Life Story of a Great Indus- 
try 161 

Light Street 265 

Lighting, Gas 48 

Electric 49 

Lime Ridge (Centreville) 222 

Limestone 20, 222, 239, 254 

Literary and Social Clubs — 

Bloomsburg 132 

Berwick 182 

Little, Judge Robert R 

69, 313, 418 

Locks, Canal 43, 154 

Locust Township 224 

Locustdale 207 

Lodges, Indian 5 

Lutherans 61, 

141, 147, 173, 177, 178, 197, 

198, 206, 209, 219, 220, 223, 
226, 236, 240, 245, 247, 250, 
251, 254, 256, 260, 262, 267, 268 
Lyon, Robert 104 

McAuley, Alexander . . 17, 208, 224 

ilcAuley Mountain 19, 209 

McClure, Fort 11, 104 

McClure, James 11, 17, 104 

McHenry, Daniel 17 

McHenry, John G 212 

McWilliams, Robert 16 

Madison Township 243 

Magee Carpet Company 114 

.JIail Routes, etc 17, 38 

Mail Service, Ancient and 

Modern 17, 39, 152 

Main Township 246 

Mainville 247 

JIallery, Garrick 162, 461 

Martzville 219 

Masonic Fraternity, Blooms- 
burg 128 

(See also Borough and Town- 
sliip Chapters.) 

Maus Family 

17, 274, 282, 400, 407, 445 

Medical Profession 74 

Medical Societies — 

Columbia County 75 

Montour County 75 

Methodist Church and Acad- 
emy, Berwick 168 

Me'w. 1840 168 

Metliodist Episcopal Denomi- 

59, 143, 146, 171, 179, 200, 
204, 209, 219, 223, 227, 230, 
232, 236, 240, 245, 247, 251, 
254, 256, 261, 262, 263, 267, 272 
Methodist Episcopal Circuits — 

Berwick 60, 171 

Bloomsburg 60 

Northumberland 60, 171 

Methodist Protestant Denomi- 
nation 63, 179, 217 

Mifflin Bridge 55 

Mifflin Crossroads 209 

Mifflin Township 248- 

Mifflinville 248 

Military 77, 132, 184 

Mill Grove 263 

Millertown (Canby) 255 

MiUville Borough 232 

Mineral Products 19-27 

Mines, Coal. .26, 203. 206, 207, 209 

"Mollie Maguires." Trial 72 

Montana or Aristes 206 

Montgomeiy, William 17 

(See also Montour County.) 
Montour County Agricultural 

Society 32 

Montour County Medical So- 
ciety 75 

Montour. "Madame 4, 373 

Montour Township 252 

Monuments — 

Soldiers', Catawissa 193 

Soldiers' and S a i 1 o r s', 

Bloomsburg 120 

Views , 120 

Mordansville 255 

Moses Van Campen Chapter, 

D. A. R 182 

Mount Pleasant Township . . . 255 
jM u n i c i p a 1 Improvements, 

Bloomsburg 110 

National Road 36 

Nationality of Early Settlers 14 

Newlin 225 

New Media (Numidia) 225 

Newspapers 99, 218, 235 

North Branch Canal 

42, 153, 250, 253 

North Mountain 19 

Northumberland Circuit, 

Methodist 60, 171 

Northumberland Presbytery. . 59 

Numidia 225 

Oak Grove 123 


Benton 216 

Berwick 158 

Bloomsburg 108 

Catawissa 190 

Columbia County 87 

MiUville 234 

Orangeville 258 

West Berwick 158 

Old Gristmills 32 

Old Inns 38, 105, 150, 202, 

206, 211, 222, 224, 226, 240, 257 

Orange Township 256 

Orangeville Academy 259 

Orangeville Borough 256 

Orchards 29 

Organization of County... 82, 273 

Orphanage, Mifflinville 251 

Ostricli Farm 268 

Owen, Evan 

..17, 35, 104, 105, 149. 150, 155 

Owensville (Berwick) 150 

Oyertown (Bloomsburg) .... 105 

Paper Mills 191, 265 

Paradise 270 

Passenger Boat, Pennsylvania 

Canal (View) 168 

Patrons of Husbandry ....... 30 

(See also Borough and 
Township Cliapters.) 

Peat 266 

Peckham, Hon. Aaron K. . . . 66 

Penn. William 12 

Pennsylvania Canal 43 

PassengerBoat. 1868 (View) 168 
Pennsylvania, Founding of . . 12 

Area 12 

Boundaries 12 

Pensyl (Willowvale) 232 

Pentecostal Denomination .63, 146 

Physicians, Early 74 

Physicians, Registered 76 

Pine Summit 262 

Pine Township 261 

Pioneers 16 

(See also Borough and 
Township Cliapters.) 

Pioneer Station 270 

Polkville (Waller) 241, 242 

Pollock, Judge James 66, 312 


I'oimlatiou — 

(See Borough and Town- 
ship Chapters.) 

Post Offices 38 

List of 40 

Postal Rates 17, 39 

Postal Service. ..38, 152, 317, 234 
Postmasters — 

(See Borough and Town- 
ship Cliapters.) 

Postriders 38, 152, 217 


58, 142, 174, 179, 

206, 216, 223, 236, 260, 3G7, 372 
Presbytery, Northumberland. 59 

President Judges, List 71 

Press, The 99 

Benton 218 

Benvick 102 

Bloomsburg 99 

Catawissa 102 

Centralia 103 

Millville 101, 235 

Protestant Episcopal Denomi- 

. .63. 139, 174, 200, 204, 244, 271 

Prothonotaries 87 

Purchase Line 334 

Quakers 57, 

58. 150. 170. 188, 196, 326, 236 

Quaker Meeting House, Cata- 
wissa 196 

View 168 

Quarries 20, 222, 239, 267 

Railroads 44, 154, 

Railway JLul Service 

Ratti, Josepli 114, 

Raven Creek 

Rea, Alexander W...73, 302, 

Recorders, County 

Reformed Denomination 

61, 141, 178, 300, 210, 220. 
233. 336, 231. 245, 247, 350, 

Registers, County 

Religious Denominations 





Cumberland Pike 



Roaring Creek 


Roaringcreek Township 

Roberts. Moses 


Roman Catholics 

63, 145, 178, 204, 207, 

Rosemont Cemetery 


Rupert Grove 

Rupert, Leonard 

Rupert. Old Aqueduct 

Rural Free Delivery 39, 

Ruthenian Greek Catholic 


















Salmon. Joseph 321, 256 

Salvation Army 178 

Schools 94 

Buildings 96 

State is'ormal, Bloomsburg 124 

State Normal (View) 128 

Summer 98 

(See also Borough and 
Township Chapters.) 

School Superintendents 99 

Scotch \alley (Glen City) ... 209 

Scott Township 364 

Secret and Fraternal Socie- 
ties — 

Aristes 306 

Benton 218 

Berwick 185 

Bloomsburg 128 

Buekhorn 240 

Catawissa 194 

Centralia 304 

Centre Township 233 

Espv 267 

Ligl'it Street 265 

Millville 235 

Numidia 225 

Orangeville 259 

Sereno 261 

Settlers, Early 15 

Homes 15 

Nationality 14 

(See also Borough and 
TowiLship Chapters.) 

Settlements, Indian 4 

Shawnee Park 322 

Sheep 30 

Sheriffs 87 

Sliuman 208 

Shumantown 208 

Slabtown 224 

Slate 20, 27, 339 

Smith, Frederick B 192, 595 

Societies, Secret and Fraternal 
138, 185, 194, 304, 206. 218. 
223, 225, 235. 340, 359, 365, 367 
Societies, Literary and So- 
cial — 

Berwick 183 

Bloomsburg 133 

Catawissa 301 

Society of Fi-iends 57, 

58, 150, 170, 188, 196, 336, 336 
Old Meeting House at Cata- 
wissa (View) 168 

Soldiers' Monuments 130, 193 

Views 130 

Stagecoach Days 35, 37 

State-aided Roads 43 

State Highway Department . . 40 
State Highways in Counties 

41, 193 

State Representatives. 90 

State Senators 89 

Statistics — 

Agricultural 33 

Church 59, 64 

Land 92 

Military 82 

INIinerai 27 

Mines 26 


(See also Borough and 
Township Chapters.) 
Property Values 91 

Roads 41 

School 95, 97, 98 

(See also Borough and 
Township Chapters.) 

Stock 93 

Taxables 93 

Taxes 92, 93 

Stillwater Borough 228 

Stock Raising 29 

Sugarloaf (Cole's CYeek).269, 271 

Sugarloaf Township 369 

Summer Hill 219 

Susquehanna River 8, 42 

Bridges 53 

Floods 53-56 

Susquehanna River Fisheries. 264 
•'Susquehanna," Steamboat 

Explosion 42, 152 

Site of Accident (View)... 56 

Talmar 261 

Tamenund 3 

Taurus 218 

Taverns, Old.. 38, 105, 150, 203, 
306, 211, 233, 334, 336, 340, 357 

Taylor, John H 166, 168, 864 

Topogi-aphy and Geology, 

Iron, Coal 19 

( See also Borough and 
Township Chapters.) 
Townships, Formation and 

List of 86 

Beaver 208 

Benton 210 

Bloom 108 

Briarcreek 218 

Catawissa 188 

Centre 221 

Cleveland 224 

Conyngham 201 

Fishingereek 228 

Franklin 231 

Greenwood 333 

Hemlock 338 

Jackson 241 

Locust 224 

Madison 243 

Main 246 

Mifflin 248 

Montour 252 

Mount Pleasant 355 

Orange 256 

Pine 361 

Roaringcreek 262 

Scott 264 

Sugarloaf 369 

Trails, Indian 3 

Transportation Facilities.... 35 

Treaties 13 

Turnpikes 35 

United Brethren . 63, 306, 337. 264 
United Evangelical Denomi- 
nation 63, 145, 

176, 177, 179, 209, 217, 319, 
220, 223, 237, 342, 251, 354, 268 

Van Camp 230 

Van Campen, Moses 10, 221 

Chapter. D. A. R 182 

Villages, Indian 4 



Waller 242 

Waller, Rev. D. J 59, 135, 175 

Waller, Rev. D. J., Jr 

137, 143, 566 

Walter, Mary Emma 196, 648 

War Footing, Columbia Coun- 
ty 83 

War Records of the Counties 77 
Waterworks — 

Benton 215 

Berwick 158 

Bloomsburg 110 

Catawissa 193 

Centralia 203 

Millville 234 

Welliver. Daniel 17 

Welliversville 255 

Welsh, Judson P., Ph. D 137 

West Berwick Borough .. 149, 158 

Wheeler, Fort 10 

Whitmire 223 

Wigwams 4 

Wilburton 40 

Williamsburg (Light Street) . 365 

Williams Grove 330 

Willow Grove 223, 233 

WilloAV Springs 333 

Willowvale 233 

Wirt, Paul E 116 

Woodin, Clemuel R 163, 489 

Woodin, William H 161, 488 

Woodward, Hon. Warren J. . 66 

Wyoming Valley, Geology ... 20 

Young Jilen's Cliristian Asso- 
ciation 146, 166, 179 

Young Women's Christian As- 
sociation 146 


Academy, Danville 307 

View, 1S80 362 

African M. E. Church 355 

Agricultui'al Societies, Mon- 
tour County 33 

Amerman, Dr. Alonzo 322 

Amerman, Charles V 320 

Ammerman, R. Scott 319, 688 

Angle, F. C 319, 60g 

Anthony, Judge Joseph B. .66, 312 

Anthony Township 386 

Associate Judges 314, 326 

Attorneys 314 

Attorneys, District 326 

Baldy, Edward H 317, 576 

Baldy Guards 81, 298 

Baldy, Peter, Sr 

287, 328, 329, 347, 576 

Baldy, William J 318, 576 

Banks, Danville 375 

Exchange 388 

Baptists 352, 355, 389 

Bare, Harry C 320 

Beaver, Thomas 364,384,406 

Beaver, Thomas, Free Library 362 

View 362 

Bench and Bar 311 

Best, Valentine 276, 325, 336, 373 

Biddle, William 291 

Billmeyer Family 394, 482 

Billmeyer's Park 393 

Bitler, Di-. Benjamin E. . .333, 679 

B'nai Zion Synagogue 355 

Borouglis — 

Danville 327 

Washingtonville 391 

Borough Officials, Danville... 372 

Bosley Mill and Fort 11, 393 

Boundarv Lines 376 

Boyd, John C 286, 423 

Boyle's (Brady's) Fort 392 

Brickyards 336 

Bridges — • 

Danville. . .53, 330 (View), 369 

Liberty Township 395 

Bright, Peter 288, 457 

Brower, D. H. B., Recollec- 
tions 382 

Brown, George B 290, 384, 563 

Butler, George D 317 

Canal, North Branch 

Catholics 356, 

Cattle Epidemic 

Cemeteries 57, 398, 399, 

Centre Turnpike 

Oialfant, Charles 

Chalfant, Thomas 291, 

Chapman, Judge Seth 65, 

Churches (See Under Denom- 
Circuits, Methodist Episcopal 


Civil War, Montour County 

Soldiers 298 

Civil War, Roster 298 

Clark, Col. Robert 

Clark's Tavern 284, 

Cleaver Family 398, 

Clerks, Countv 

Coal .■ 

Cock Robin Mill, Danville . . . 

Columbia Guards 78, 

Columbia Seminary 


Comly Family 

Comly, Joshua W 

Commissioners, County 

Company Store, Old, Danville 


Congregationalists, Welsh . . . 
Congressional Districts. . . .89, 

Congressmen 89, 

Continental Fire Company . . . 
Conyngham, Judge John N. 


Cooper, John 

Cooper Township 

Co-operative Iron and Steel 


Cornelison, .Joseph 292, 

County Buildings, Montour — 



County Fairs 

County Officials 

County Organization 273, 

County Seat Contest.. 83, 273, 
County Superintendents, 


Courthouse 274, 










Courthouses, Old and Present 
(Views) — 

At Bloomsburg 84 

At Danville 277 

Creeks 19 

Cross Keys Tavern 358 

Curry, Dr. Edwin A 323, 452 

Curry Family 394, 400 

Dam, Roaring Creek 399 

Danville Academy 307 

View 363 

Danville Blues 396 

Danville Borough 273, 327 

Danville Bridge 53, 369 

View 330 

Danville Female Seminary. . 307 

Danville Fencibles 299 

Danville Foundry & Machine 

Co 334 

Danville High School 310 

Danville Institute 307 

Danville Light Horse Com- 
pany 296 

Danville Iron Foundry 334 

Danville Iron Works 333 

Danville Militia 297 

Danville Milling Company. •• 336 
Danville Nail & Mfg. Co". ... 334 

Danville Post Office 368 

Danville Stove & Mfg. Co... 333 
Danville Structural Tubing 

Co 331 

Deen. John, Sr 284, 557 

Delaware. Lackawanna & 

Western Railroad 294 

Derry Church 388 

Deri-y Township 391 

District Attorneys 326 

Districts — 

Congressional 89, 325 

.Tudicial 70, 311 

Legislative 89, 90. 326 

Donnel, .Judge Charles J. . .66, 312 

Earlv Families, Montour 
County 277 

Earlv History, Montour 
Countv 373 

East End Mission 357 

Eckman, Col. Charles W.398. 454 


Electric Light. Danville. . .50, 371 

Electric Railroads 50, 295 

Elwell, Judge William 

66, 312, 673 

Emmet, John 284 

Enterprise Foundry & Ma- 
chine Works 334 

Episcopalians (Protestant).. 

346, 389 

Evangelical Denomination . . 

354, 390 

Evans, Judge Charles C 

70, 314, 432 

Exchange 387 

Exchange Hall 390 

Fairs, County 32 

Famine 392 

Farmers, Prominent 30 

Finney, Robert 394 

Fire Companies, Danville... 376 

Floods 53, 369 

Foot and Mouth Disease .... 30 

Formation of Townships ... . 386 

Forts, Pioneer.. ..9. 104. 321, 392 

Foundries. Early, Danville. 25, 328 

Franklin Court 35S 

Frazer, Daniel 282 

Frazer, John, Recollections. . . 376 

Free Schools 308 

Frick, A. J 317 

Frick, Arthur W 317 

Frick, Dr. Clarence H 321 

Frick, George A 314 

Friendship Fire Company. . . . 376 

Frontier Forts... 9, 104^ 231. 393 

Fruitstown (Wiite Hall)... 387 

Furnace, Valley 401 

Furnaces 19. 24. 395 

Galbraith, Thomas J 318 

Gas Light. Danville 371 

Gaskins, Thomas 284 

Gearhart, Charles P 320 

Gearhart, Edward S 319 

Gearhart Families 

398, 449, 455, 517. 638 

Geisinger, George F 368, 481 

Geisinger, George F., Memo- 
rial Hospital 365 

Views 365. 366, 368 

Geisinger, Mrs. George F.365, 480 
Birthplace and Home 

(Views) 480 

Geology 22 

Gibson Family 396 

Gibson, Schoolmaster 305 

Glendower Iron Works 332 

Good Will Hose Company... 376 

Goodman, Philip ". . . . 358 

Grangers 30 

Grier Families 283, 317. 412 

Grier. Rev. Isaac 283, 338. 412 

Grier, I. X 317, 412 

Grier. Hon. Robert C 314 

Gristmills, Old 33 

View 328 

Grovania 390 

Grove Furnaces 333 

Gulics, John C 282 

Harpel, Dr. Francis E...333, 549 

Hartman. \\'illiam 282 

Ha user. Dr. Raymond J. .324, 938 

Hebrew Synagogue 355 

Herring, -Judge Grant 70, 313 

High School, Danville 374 

Hinckley, Judge Henry M . . . 

68, 313, 318, 448 

Hoax. 1860 383 

Hoffa, Dr. Jacob P 322 

Hospitals — 

For Insane 360 

Views 360 

George F. Geisinger 365 

Views 365, 366, 368 

Hotels. Danville 358 

Howe & Samuel Steel Plant. 335 

Howellville 398 

Hughes. Ellis 282, 306 

Hutchinsons 392 

Ikeler, Judge Elijah R 

69, 313, 420 

Insane. State Hospital for, 

Danville 360 

Views 360 

Institutes, Teachers' 310 

Institutions, Philanthropic, 

Danville 360 

Internal Improvements — 

Countv 293 

Danville 295, 369 

Internal Improvement Sys- 
tem, State 294 

Iron 19 

Iron Jlills 24 

Iron Mines 398 

.Tack. Rev. Alexander B 341 

.lapanese Embassy Hoax.... 383 

.Tolmston, William C 317 

.Jordan. .Judge Alexander. . . . 312 
Judges — 

Associate 314, 326 

President 311 

Judicial Districts . 65, 70, 311, 312 

Karkaase 17, 328 

Kase, Simon P 289, 329 

Kelso, Prof. .John M 307 

Kirk. Rev. James W., D. D. 

341, 550 

Kirkham. Samuel 282, 306 

Kisner. Ralph 320, 880 

Knitting Mills, Danville 335 

Laundries. Danville 336 

Legislative Districts. .80, 90, 326 

Leidv. Paul 317 

Lewis. .Tudge Ellis 66, 311 

Libertv Furnace 395 

Liberty Township 394 

Librarv, Thomas Beaver Free 362 

View 362 

Lightner. Rev. Edwin N 347 

Limestone Quarries 20, 390 

Limestone Township 396 

Limestoneville 396 

Limestoneville Institute. .307. 397 

Little, Judge Robert R 

69, 313. 418 

Lundy. John 286 

Lundv. Rev. .John P 286 

Lutherans 344, 353, 

354, 391, 393, 395, 399, 401, 402 

McClure, Capt. William M. 

298, 299 

McCormick. James 292 

McHenry. B. Frances 320 

McHenry, Dr. Montraville , . . 

322, 1161 

McNeal. Ann 583 

McWilliams Familv 394, 583 

Magill. Dr. William H 

287, 321, 372 

Mahoning Presbyterian 

Church 338 

Mahoning Township 397 

Mahoning Township, Old Tax 

List 397 

Market Square Park. Danville 372 

Marr, Alem 314, 325 

Martin Family 583 

Maus Family 

17, 274, 282, 400. 407, 445 

Maus, Phillip 281 

Mausdale 401 

Mausdale Gristmill, Built in 

1800 401 

View 328 

Mayberry Township 398 

Mechanicsville 397 

Memorial Park. Danville.... 372 

Meredith, Dr. Hugh B 

322, 362, 544 

Metal & Machine Co 328, 335 

Metal Engineering Company 

328, 335 

Methodist Episcopal Denom- 
ination. . . .343. 353. 355, 357. 
394, 395, 396, 397, 398, 399. 403 

Circuits 60. 343 

Methodists, Primitive 390 

Mexican War, Montour County 

Soldiers 297 

Military Record 296 

Montgomery, Gen. Daniel. . . . 

". . . .274. 280, 327, 360 

Montgomery Family 17, 278 

Montgoniei-y. .John C 318 

Montgomery. -lohn G 316 

Montgomery. Gen. William.. 

■. 278, 337 

Home at Danville (View) . 328 
Montgomery. .Judge William. 281 
Montgomery. Rev. William B. 284 
Montour County, History of. 273 
Montour County Agricultural 

Society 32 

Montour County Medical So- 
ciety 75 

Montour. Madame 4, 273 

ifontour Rifles 298 

Monument, Soldiers' 372 

View 277 

ilooresburg 395 

IMourer, L. K 321 

Muster Rolls, Chapter IV .. . 296 

National Guard 304 

National Iron Company. .331, 334 
Newbaker. Dr. Philip C. .333, 640 

New Columbia 402 

Newspapers. Danville 336 



North Branch Canal 394 

Northern Montour Agricul- 
tural Society 32 

Northumberland M. E. Cir- 
cuit 60, 342 

Officials, County 335 

Officials, Danville 373 

Oglesbv, Dr. James 323, 498 

Oglesby, William V 330, 499 

Old Gristmills 33 

View 328 

Old Taverns, Danville 358 

Oldest House in County 

(View) 338 

Organization^ Momtour County 

273, 276 

Ottawa 39G 

Pants Factory, Danville 336 

Parks. Danville — 

Market Square 378 

Memorial 373 

River Front 372 

Patrons of Husbandry 30 

Patten, Dr. EoDert S 325, 855 

Patterson, Rev. John B 

339, 388, 393 

Paules, Dr. William R . . 324, 1008 
Pennsylvania Railroad. . .294, 295 
Petrikin. Dr. David. .321, 325, 328 
Philadelphia & Reading Rail- 
road 394 

Philanthropic Institutions, 

Danville 360 

Physicians 331 

Planing Mills. Danville 330 

Pollock, Judge James 66. 312 

Poor Farm 397, 401 

Postmasters. Danville 368 

Postmasters, ^^^lite Hall 387 

Postmasters. Exchange 387 

Post Office, Danville 368 

Post Offices, List of County. 40 


338. 349. 357. 388, 393, 395, 402 

Presbyteries 339 

President .Tudges 311 

Primitive itethodists 390 

Prominent Farmers 30 

Protestant Episcopal Denom- 
ination 346, 389 

Prothonotaries 327 

Purscl, Dr. Isaac 323 

Quarries 390 

Railroads 294 

Rank, Daniel W 318, 854 

Rank, Isaac 288 

Reading Iron Company . .329. 334 
Recorders. County 327 

Red Horse Hotel 387 

Reformed Denomination) .... 

351, 391, 393, 397, 401, 402 

Reminiscences, Danville .... 376 
Representatives — 

Congressional 89, 325 

State 326 

Republican Rally 383 

Rescue Fire Company 376 

Rhodes. B. K 317 

Rhodes. -John 293 

Ridgeville 391 

River Front Park, Danville . . 372 

Roads, Turnpike 293 

Roaring Creek 398 

Roaring Creek Furnace. . .24, 399 

Robbins, Dr. James E . . . 324, 547 

Rockefeller. Judge William M. 312 

Roman Catholics 356, 390 

Sandel, Dr. .1. H 333, 694 

Scarlet, James 318, 440 

Schools 305 

(See also Borough and 
Township Chapters.) 

Danville 374 

Schools, Free 308 

School Superintendents, 

County 310 

Danville 374 

Schultz. Dr. Solomon S 

322, 361, 429 

Sechler, H. B. D 288 

Sechler, .Jacob 285 

Seidel, Arren E 393, 859 

Senators, State 326 

Settlers, Early 274, 277 

(See also Borough and 
Township Chapters.) 

Sharp Ridge 398 

Shelhart, Jacob 289 

Sheriffs 327 

Shoop, Gideon M 289 

Shreeve, Capt. .loseph E . . 299, 303 
Shultz. Dr. Benjamin F..390, 323 

Silk Mill, Danville 335 

Simington. Dr. R. S 332 

Smack. Daniel 396 

Soldiers' Monument, Danville 372 

View 277 

Spanish-American War, Mon- 
tour County Soldiers 304 

State Hospital for Insane, 

Danville 360 

Views 360 

State Senators 335 

State Representatives 326 

Steel Plant. Danville 335 

Strawberry Ridge 393 

Strawbridge. Dr. .James D... 321 
Strawbridgc, Ool. Thomas... 394 
Stver's Corners 402 

Surveyors 327 

Suspender Factories, Danville 336 
Susquehanna River.. 293, 369, 398 
Swenoda 402 

Taverns. Old 387 

Danville 358 

Taxables. List of, 1798 (Ma- 
honing Tp.) 397 

Teachers' Institutes 310 

Telephones 295 

Toll Rates, 1828 370 

Topography and Geology .... 19 

Township Formation 386 

Townships — 

Anthony 386 

Cooper 390 

Derry 391 

Liberty 394 

Limestone 396 

Mahoning 397 

Mayberry 398 

Valley ." 400 

West Hemlock 403 

Tradesmen, Early, Danville.. 380 
Training School, Geisinger 

Hospital 367 

View 368 

Treasurers, County 326 

Turnpikes ". 293 

Valley Furnace 401 

Valley Township 400 

Van Alen, T. 390 

van Fossen, George W 321 

Vastine, Dr. Jacob H 322, 444 

Vincent, Henry 318 

Voris, James 287, 725 

Walker, Robert 392 

War of 1812, Montour County 

Soldiers 296 

Washington Fire Company. . 376 
Washingtonville Borough . . . 391 

Washingtonville. Fort 393 

Waterman & Beaver Store, 

Danville 384 

View 330 

Waterworks. Danville 370 

Welsh, Thomas C 320, 683 

West, William K 319, 492 

West Hemlock Township .... 402 

White Hall 387 

AVhite Hall Hotel 38, 387 

Wilson. Capt. John S 397 

Wilson, Nathaniel 282 

Yeomans, Rev. Dr. John W.. 340 

Yorks Family 292, 683 

Young, Dr. Benjamin F 282 

Young Men's Cliristian Asso- 
ciation 365 

View 362 


Abiams, Abiam 1000 

Abrams, Isaac B 1000 

Achy, Epliraim 1202 

Achy, iXabery 1202 

Acor Family 897 

Acor, Joseph S 897 

Adams, Charles 647 

Adams, Charles E 633 

Adams, Emerson A 851 

Adams Families 

633, 646, 851, 890, 921, 963, 1192 

Adams, Miss Frances M 932 

Adams, Jacob W 1192 

Adams, John K 647 

Adams, Peter J 921 

Adams, Samuel W 963 

Adams, Ulysses K 890 

Ahlers, William 987 

Aikman Family 628 

Aikman, James E 629 

Aikman, John H 628 

Albeck Family 935 

Albertson, Bartley 1234 

Albertson, Edward 1234 

Alexander, Miss Harriet J... 582 

Alexander. Samuel D 582 

Alleger Family 1088 

Altmiller, Cliarles F., M. D. . . 612 

Altmiller Family 612 

Amerman, Dr. Alonzo 322 

Amerman, Charles V 320 

Amcsbury, Arthur 904 

Aniesbury Family 904 

Amnierman, Bernard 919 

Ammerman. .John B 793 

Ammerman, K. Scott 319, 688 

Andy, John 776 

Andy. AVilHam H 776 

Angell Family 1312 

Angell, Richard B 1312 

Angle Family COS 

Angle. Frank C 319, 608 

Angle. Theodore R 609 

Anthony. Judge Joseph B..66, 312 

Appleman, Eli 879 

Appleman Family 879 

Armes, John ..." 871 

Armes. William J 871 

Armstrong. Alfred H 1130 

Arnhold Family 1063 

Artley Family" 1227 

Artlcy, William H . 1237 

Artman, Clark D 123S 

Artman Family 1238 

Ash Family . .". 745 

Ash. Stewart A 745 

Aten Family 690 

Auten Family 899 

Auten, Robert C 899 

Averill, Archer 805 

Averill, Mrs. Margaret 805 

Baker, Charles W 1328 

Baker Families. 943, 950, 983, 1228 

Baker, Dr. Frank 983 

Baker, George G 950 

Baker, Samuel W 943 

Baldy, Edward H 317, 576 

Baldy Family 576 

Baldy, Peter, Sr 287, 576 

Baldy, William J 318, 576 

Bare, Harry G 320 

Barger, aiarles C 504 

Barger Familj' 504 

Barkley Family 523 

Barnard Family 1059 

Barnard, Orrin'H 1059 

Barton Families. . .568, 762, 1069 

Barton, Harry S 762 

Barton, Henry C 1069 

Bates Family' 1190 

Bates. Richa'rd 1190 

Baueher Family 816 

Bauman, Elias F 1065 

Bauman Family 1065 

Beach Family ' 1218 

Beaver Family 406 

Beaver, Henry P 758 

Beaver, Thomas 364, 384, 406 

Beck. Daniel B 660 

Beck Family 660 

Belles Families 830, 999 

Belles, Henderson F 829 

Belles. Jonatlian M 999 

Berninger, Aaron 818 

Bei-ninger, Arias J 818 

Berninger Family 706 

Beniinger, .Jonas 662 

Beyer Family 726 

Beyer, Levi "V 726 

Bibby, Mrs. Julia W 1077 

Bibby, Matthew A 1076 

Biddle Families 291, 644 

Biddle. Dr. John W 644 

Biddle, William 291 

Billig, Cliarles 1160 

Billig. Martin L 1160 

Billmej'er, Alexander 482 

Billmeyer Families 394, 483 

Billmeyer. Harry 483 

Bird Family . . '. 635 

Bitlcr. Benjamin E., M. D.323. 679 

Bitler Families 679, 907 

Bitler, Dr. Sherman E 90S 


Bittner, Archible G 523 

Bittner Family 523 

Black, Alfred B 478 

Black Famih- 479 

Blank Famil'y 946 

Blee Families 587, 727 

Blee, Frank G 587 

Blee, Robert E 727 

Bloss Family 966 

Bloss, Frank E 731 

Bloss, John K 731 

Bloss, Nelson W 966 

Blue Family 715 

Blue, Horace C 715 

Bogart, Aaron 1124 

Bomboy Families 770, 890 

Bomboy, Frank 770 

Bomboy, Leonard E 770 

Boody "Family 572 

Boody, Lincoln H 573 

Boon'e Family 1113 

Boudman Family 835 

Boudman, .J. Roland 825 

Bower, Bruce H 732 

Bower, Clemuel R 1033 

Bower, Edward F 1250 

Bower Families ....598, 613, 
732, 796. 827, 838, 1129, 1250 

Bower, George M 598 

Bower, Hiram R 613 

Bower, Hiram VC 828 

Bower, Oscar M . . •. 838 

Bower. R. Orval 796 

Bower. Solomon 1033 

Boyd, Daniel M 422 

Boyd Family 423 

Boyd, John "C 286, 423 

Boyer Families 681, 689 

Boyer, .Jacob 895 

Boyer. Jacob H 689 

Boyer, Reuben 894 

Boyer. William E 681 

Boyles Family 843 

Boyles. Josluia 185, 842 

Brannen Family 430 

Brannen. James L 430 

Bredbenner Family 831 

Bredbcnner, Mrs. Lydia A... 805 

Bredbenner, Miles S 832 

Bredbenner, Wm. M 831 

Breisch, Ernest E 1177 

Breiseh Families ..588, 1110, 1177 

Breisch. George 1177 

Breisch. Hannon M 588 

Breisch. .John E 1110 

Brewington, Percy 621 

Bright, Hon. Dennis 456 



Bright Families 288, 456 

Brjgiit, Mrs. Lucy M 458 

Briglit, Tfter 388, 457 

Brink Family 975 

Brink, Harry S 975 

Britt Family 1033 

Brittain Family 951 

Brittain, William C 951 

Brobst Families 1017, 1060 

Brobst, Thomas B 1066 

Brock way Family 1088 

Brockway, Roland O 1088 

Brower Family 476 

Brower, William H 476 

Brown, Benton B 561 

Brown, Edward J 1103 

Brown Families 

473, 474, 561, 1103, 1164 

Brown, George B...390, 384, 563 

Brown, James C 473 

Brown, John J., M. D 474 

Brown, W. Earle 1164 

Brown, William G 563 

Bruder, Miss Gussie A 1059 

Bnuler, John A 1059 

Brugler Family 894 

Bruner Family 508 

Bruner, John W., M. D 508 

Brunner Family 825 

Brunstetter, George 1343 

Bryan Family 693 

BrVan. John " G ,693 

Bucci Family '778 

Bucci, Giovanni (John Bush) 778- 

Bucher, Charles E 1113 

Bueher Family 1113 

Buck Family 798 

Buck, Thomas R 798 

Buckalew, Hon. Charles R 403 

Buckaiew Families 403, 630 

Buckalew, Capt. John M 406 

Buckalew, Louis W 502 

Buckingham Family 743 

Buckingham, George A 743 

Burhard, Rev. Edward A.... 824 

Burket Family 786 

Bush Family 981 

Bush, Frederick W 981 

Bush. John (Giovanni Bucci) 778 

Butler, George D 317 

Butler. Kent A 1047 

Butler, Thomas 1047 

Butt Family 517 

Butt, William A 517 

Cadman, Enoch 1247 

Cadman. John 1346 

Campbell. Charles H 1142 

Campbell Families 665, 1137, 1142 

Canouse, David M 1130 

Canouse Family 1130 

Canouse, Mrs. Parah C 1129 

Carrathers Family 802 

Carrathers, John A 802 

Carsc Family 666 

Carse, Robert A 666 

Catterall Families 808, 945 

Catterall, George H 945 

Catterall, .Toseph H 808 

Chalfant, Cliarles 320 

Chalfant, Thomas 291 

Chamberlain Family 735 

Chamberlain, Isadora F 735 

Chapman, Judge tSeth 65, 311 

Childs Family 915 

Childs, William F. P 915 

Chrisman Family 713 

Chrisman, Hon. William 713 

Clapp, Henry C 1353 

Clapp, Mrs. Mary E 1353 

Clark, David 451 

Clark Families 769, 1077 

Clark, Frank R., M. D 769 

Clay, Arthur S 581 

Chiy Family 581 

Clcwell Families 707, 1019 

Clewell, Laurence 1 767 

Cloud, Charles G 865 

Cloud, William J 865 

Cohen, Joseph, M. D 802 

Cohen, Lewis 802 

Coira Family 1053 

Coira, Henry L 1052 

Cole, Jacob H 928 

Cole, Thomas 928 

Coliey Family 730 

Colley, Richard F 730 

Comly Family 315 

Comly, Joshua W 315 

Conner, John 974 

Conner, Samuel J 974 

Conner. Theodore F 737 

Conyngham, Judge John N. . 

.." 66, 312 

Cook, Charles W 1119 

-Cook Family 1119 . 

Cooper, John 314 

Cornelison Families .480, 991, 1231 

Cornelison, James 1253 

Cornelison, Joseph 392, 480 

Cornelison, Robert 1231 

Cotner Family 697 

Cotner, George P 697 

Cotner, Hiram E 697 

Crawford, Clinton 1091 

Crawford Family 1091 

Creasy Families 

...614, 620, 652, 676, 982, 1004 

Creasy, Francis P 614 

Creasy. Dr. George E 620 

Cioasy, Harvey Lewis 982 

Creasy, Joseph A 052 

Creasy, William E 1004 

Creasy, Hon. William T 676 

Creveiing, Daniel H 773 

Creveling Families 774, 984 

Creveiing, Herman G 1210 

Crispell, Chester F 978 

CVispell Family 978 

Ci'ispin, Hon. IBenjamin 533 

Crispin, Benjamin F., Jr 534 

Ci'ispin, Clarence G 536 

Ciispin Family 528 

Crispin, M. Jackson 535 

Croop, Allen B 1064 

Croop Family 1176 

Croop, George 1063 

Croop. Milton H 1176 

Crosslev, Daniel F 708 

Ci'ossley Families. .708, 1069, 1232 

Crosslev, Robert 1069 

Culp, Cliarles 819 

Gulp, Reuben 819 

Cummings Family 713 

Cummings, John W 713 

Currin Family , 767 

Currin, Percival C 767 

Curry, Daniel M 453 

Curry, Edwin A,, M. D. . .323, 453 
Curry Families. .394, 400, 453, 792 
Ciury, John R. M 7U3 

Daniel, L. H 1080 

Daniel, L. L 1080 

Davenport Family 734 

Davenport, Ray H 734 

Davis Families... .583, 1054, 1175 

Davis, John J 1054 

Davis, William T 1175 

Davis, William W 712 

Dean Families 701, 991 

Dean, Joseph 991 

Dean, Mrs. ilargaret B 991 

Deen Familj' 557 

Deen. John, Sr 284. 557 

Deily Family 1219 

Deil'y, John 1319 

Deitrick, Elmer F 815 

Deitrick, William 815 

Delanty Family 853 

Delay, Emmanuel 1115 

Delay Family 1115 

Delay, Mrs. Mary 1115 

DeLong Families. . .592, 668, 1233 

DeLong, Frank E 592 

DeLong, .lerome B 668 

DeLong, Perry 668 

"De Mott. Cyrus 740 

De Mott Family 740 

Dengler Family 848 

Dentler Family 955 

Dentler, Frank D 955 

Depew, Jonathan 1244 

Derr, Cliarles F 1098 

Derr Families. .554, 753, 863, 1098 

Derr, F. C 554 

Derr, J. Miles 753 

Derr, Mont 863 

Deutsch Family 920 

Deutsch, AVilliam L 919 

Dewald, John B 787 

DeWitt Families 641, 1003 

DeWitt. William 641 

Dice Family 1144 

Dice, .Joseph C 1144 

Dickson, Clark L 845 

Dickson, Conway W 579 

Dickson, David C 580 

Dickson Families 580, 845 

Dickson, Sterling W 579 

Dieffenbach Family 833 

Dieffenbach. Hervey E 833 

Diefl'enbacher, Benjamin S...1116 

Dieffenbacher, Daniel N 545 

Diefl'enbacher Families. .545. 1116 

Diehh Charles H 1058 

Diehl Family 1058 

Dietrich Families 866, 1185 

Dietrich, Karl L 1185 

Dietrich, Peter M 866 

Dietterick, Bruce C 1074 

Dictterick Family 1074 

Dietz Family . ." 733 

Dietz, John'H 732 

Dildinc, Charles H 1053 

Dildine Families 1005, 1053 



Dildine, John A 

Dillon. Jolni L 

Dirk, iliss Clara Belle 

Dirk, William J 

Divel Family 

Divel, Judge Henry 

Dixon Family 

Doan Family 

Dodson, Boyd H 

Dodson Familj' 

Dodson, John 

Donnel, Judge Charles G. . .G6, 

Doster, Jacob 

Doster, John 

Doster, .John, .Jr 

Doster, Theodore 

Dreibelbis, Amos W 

Dreibelbis Families 81S, 

Dreisbach, Benjamin F 

Dreisbach Families 749, 

Drinker, Edward R 

Drinker Family 

Drinker, Jliss Lydia W 

Duggan, .John J 

Dutt Family . . . 
Dutt, Nelson S. 
Duy, Albert W. 
Duy Family . . . 

East Family 

East, Harry R 

Eaton, Clark D 

Eaton Family 

Eaton. Frederick H 162. 

Eck. Miss Anna E .' 

Eck Family 

Eck, Reese M 

Eckman, Col. Charles W. .298, 

Eckman, ilrs. Sophia G 

Eckroth Family 

Edgar Family 

Edgar, Thomas 

Edmondson Family 

Edmondson. George D 

Edwards Families ... 

654, 821, 1182, 

Edwards, Henry J 

Edwards. .James S 

Edwards, Jesse 

Edwards. Thomas E 

Eisenhauer Family 

Eisenhauer. John H 

Elliott. .Tohii F 

Elliott. Samuel 

Ellis, Mrs. Annie E 

Ellis Families 565, 591, 

Ellis, James F 

Ellis, .James .J 

Ellis. John D 

Elmes Family 

Elmes, William E 

Elwell Family 

Elwell. George Edward 

Elwell, George Edward. .Jr. . . 
Elwell. .Judge William 

66, 312 

Emmet. .John 

Emmett, Andrew .1 

Emmett Family 

Ent, Charles B 

Ent. Edwin H 


































, 512 




, 454 

















, 886 









, 673 




Ent Families 536, 1073, 1254 

Ent, Gen. Wellington H 426 

Enterline Family 898 

Enterline, W. G 898 

Ervin, Barton E 1090 

Ervin, Stephen 1090 

Eshleman, Benjamin L 948 

Eshleman Families 948, 1096 

Eshleman, Harold 949 

Evans, Andrew J 742 

Evans, Judge Charles C 

70, 314, 432 

Evans, David 875 

Evans Families 432, 

574, 578, 742, 983, 1151, 1155 

Evans, James L 574 

Evans, John D 875 

Evans, John W 1151 

Evans, Oliver E 983 

Evans, Mrs. Sarah E 743 

Evans, William W 135, 577 

Everett, Edward, M. D 587 

Everett Family 587 

Evert Family ' 1099 

Evert, George H 1099 

Eves, C. Scott 553 

Eves, E. Tmman 758 

Eves Families. .553, 733, 759, 1047 

Eves, Joseph C 733 

Eves, John Emery 1047 

Eyer, Luther 594 

Ever, Rev. William J 594, 619 

Fahringer Family 

Fahringer, Harry 

Fairchild Family 

Fail-child. Wesley B 

Fallon, Ed. F 

Fallon Family 

Fallon, William 

Farley Family 

Farley, Robert M 

Faiver Family 

Farver. George 

Faus Family 

Faus, Frank 

Faust Families 937, 

Fedorco Family 

Fedorco, .John 

Fegley, Daniel E 

Fegley Family 

Fensteniaker Family 

Fenstemaker. George C 

Fensterraacher Family 

Fenstermacher, Grant 

Fenstermacher, Michael W. . . 

Fenstermacher. Scott E 

Fergerson Family 

Ferris, Courtney E 

Ferris Families. . .736, 1034, 

Ferris, Olaf F 

Fettorman, David F 

Fetterman Family 

Field Family 

Field. Henry P 

Field. Mrs. Katharine J 

Fielding Family 

Fielding. Wilfred G 

Fiester Family 

Fiester, Henry A 

Fitield, Benjamin P 

Fifield Family 








































Finnigan, .James C 877 

Finnigan, William 877 

Fisher, Charles J 495 

Fisher Families 

: . ..464, 495, 756, 1083 

Fisher, George A 465 

Fisher, Horace M 465 

Fisher, John L 466 

Fisher, William C 466 

Fisher, William H 756 

Fisher, William S 464 

Fister Family 1135 

Fister, Ranslo 1125 

Fleckenstine Family 616 

Flick Families 709, 727, 931 

Forney Family 907 

Fornwald, Cliarles S 964 

Foinwald Family 964 

Foniwald, George A 965 

Fortner Family 1251 

Foster Family 695 

Foster, John G 695 

Foulk, Benjamin F 889 

Foulk, Charles L 868 

Foulk Family 889 

Foust Family 915 

Foust, Philip H 915 

Fowler Families 

569, 1104, 1159, 1208 

Fowler, Jeremiah R 569 

Fowler, Lillian D 569 

Fowler, Theodore B 1104 

Fowler. Willard G 1208 

Fox, Charles S. W 499 

Fox Families 428, 499 

Fox, Dr. James T 428 

Fox. Dr. .John C 429 

Frank, John 1047 

Frazer, Daniel 282 

Frazier, Daniel H 718 

Frazier Family 718 

Freas, Barton D 503 

Freas Families 503, 1074 

Freas, Rush T 1074 

Freeze, Col. John G 424 

Freeze Family 425 

Frey Families 788, 1196, 1212 

Frey, Freeman W 788 

Frey. Henry 1196 

Frick, A. J 317 

Flick, Arthur W 317 

Frick, Dr. Clarence H 321 

Frick. George A 314 

Fritz. Hon. Andrew L 513 

Fritz Families 513, 822 

Fritz, Rush M 823 

Fritz. Verner E 822 

Fry Family 1200 

Fry. George A 1300 

Funk, Rev. Henry 466 

Funk, Nevin U 467 

Furman. Chester S 521 

Furman Family 521 

Furman, Miss Julia H 522 

Gaertner, Emil 942 

Galbraith, Thomas J 318 

Gallagher, Michael 1128 

Gallagher, Miss Rose A 1128 

Garrett. William H 851 

Garrison, Aaron 810 

Garrison, Calvin D 959 



Garrison Families 

539, 752, 810, 1087, 1251 

Garrison, Mrs. Lydia S 959 

Garrison, William 752 

Gaskins, Thomas 284 

Gearhart, Bonliam R., Jr.... 519 

Gearhart, Cliarles P 320 

Gearhart, Mrs. Cordelia E. . . . 451 

Gearhart, Edward S 319 

Gearhart Families 

449, 455, 517, 638 

Gearhart, George M 449 

Gearhart, M. Grier 638 

Gearhart, Robert Y 517 

Geisinger, Mrs. Abigail A. . . 480 
Geisinger, Mrs. Abigail A., 

Birthplace and Home 

(Views) 480 

Geisinger, David 1211 

Geisinger, George F 481 

Geisinger, Mrs. Margaret R..1210 

George Family 1029 

George, William J 1029 

Gernert, John H 925 

Gibson Families ...396,544,901 

Giger Family 775 

Giger, Josiah H 775 

Gilbert Family 468 

Gilbert, Rev. Richard H 583 

Gilds, Charles J 747 

Gilmore Family 989 

Gilmore, W'illi'am H 989 

Girton Families 599, 667 

Girton, Prof. Maurice J 667 

Girvan Family 1023 

Girvan, John A 1022 

Glenn, Edwin A., M. D 1072 

Glenn Family 1072 

Gordner, Jonathan R 1217 

Gotshall Family 1101 

Gotshall, Heniy 1101 

Gotwalds. Francis M 692 

Graham Families 611, 1229 

Graham. Marks 611 

Gresh Family 1236 

Gresh, Joseph D 1236 

Grier Family 412 

Grier, Rev. Isaac ...383, 338, 412 

Grier, Isaac X 317, 412 

Grier, Rev. John B 413 

Grier. Hon. Robert C 314 

Grotz Family 664 

Grotz, John K 664 

Grove Family 540 

Grove, Herbert S 540 

Grozier Family 764 

Grozier, Prof. "Harry .... 184, 764 

Gruber, David L 1081 

Gniber Family 1081 

Guest, David" L 918 

Guest Family 919 

Guie, Edwin B 1097 

Guie. James 1097 

Gulics, John C 283 

Gulliver Family 994 

Gulliver, James H 994 

Hagenbuch. Charles W 1188 

Hagenbuch. Emory D 1190 

Hagenbuch Families 

749, 1036, 1150. 1188, 1190 

Hagenbuch, Frank W 1087 

Hagenbuch, Franklin W 1150 

Hagenbuch, Frederick 749 

Hagenbuch, Mrs. Sarah K...1189 
Hagenbuch, Miss Sarah M... 752 

Hagenbuch, William A 1026 

Hager Family 656 

Hager, William M 656 

Hagerman Family 935 

Hagerman, Joshua 935 

Hall, Horace A 575 

Hancock, Charles P 410 

Hancock Family 410 

Harder, Charles M 765 

Harder, Clark F 581 

Harder Families 

581, 589, 765, 1230 

Harder, Mrs. Sarah B 582 

Harder, Thomas E 589 

Harder, Thomas R 1320 

Harding Family 737 

Haring, David E 564 

Haring Family 564 

Harman Families 435, 514 

Harman, James Lee 435 

Harman, Samuel H 514 

Harmon Family 794 

Harpel, Francis E., M. D.322, 549 

Harris Families 961, 1209 

Harris, Levi 888 

Harris, William J 888 

Harter Family 976 

Harter, Theodore C, M. D... 976 

Hartjine, Prof. Daniel S 872 

Hartline Family 872 

Hartman, Charles L 772 

Hartman Families 

771, 995. 1030, 1035, 1072, 1123 

Hartman. Frank S 1123 

Hartman, Frederick B 772 

Hartman, George A 1020 

Hartman, John F 1035 

Hartman, Nelson C 995 

Hartman, William 283 

Hartman, William E 1020 

Hartzell, John B 853 

Hassert Family 471 

Hassert. George E 471 

Hauck, Charles E 461 

Hauck Families 461, 1259 

Hauck, William H 1259 

Haupt, Clarence E 516 

Hauser, Dr. Raymond J.. 334, 938 

Hayden Family 916 

Hayden, .James 918 

Hayden, Nicholas 916 

Hayman Families 1038, 1094 

Hayman, James P 1038 

Hayman. William H 1094 

Heacock Family 1243 

Heacock, Jeremiah R 1243 

Heim, Joseph 719 

Helm. .Julius 719 

Heller Family 1174 

Heller, Samuel K 1174 

Helwig Family 781 

Helwig, Noah" 781 

Hendershott. Mrs. Mary M. . . 664 

Hendershott. Norman J 663 

Hendricks Family 1311 

Hendricks. George M 1211 

Hendrickson Family 881 

Hendrickson, John F 881 

Henkel, Rev. David M 618 

Henkel Family 618 

Henkel, Mrs. Susan E 619 

Henkelman Family 1005 

Henkelman, George 1005 

Heurie Family 635 

Henrie, William H 635 

Henry Family 986 

Herr Family 543 

Herr, John N 543 

Herring, Alexander B 584 

Herring Families 506, 584 

Herring, George A 506 

Herring, Judge Grant 70, 313 

Herrington Family 690 

Herrington, Frank M 691 

Hertz Family 836 

Hertz, William J 836 

Hess, Bruce A 1174 

Hess, Charles M 1243 

Hess Families . . . 437, 600, 803, 

957, 971, 975, 1173, 1193, 1243 

Hess, Hany F 971 

Hess, Harvey W 438 

Hess, Isaiah J 1173 

Hess, .John 1 920 

Hess, Leslie E 930 

Hess, Dr. Milton J 436 

Hess, Orion M 1193 

Hess, Reuben H 1244 

Hess, William H 600 

Hetler Family 1024 

Hetler, Mahlon C 1024 

Hicks Families 

636, 648, 812; 1257 

Hicks, Joseph S 636 

Hicks, Millard W 1357 

Hidlay Families 751, 1153 

Hidlav. William J 1153 

Hildebrand. Camden W 1049 

Hildebrand Family 1049 

Hile Family ". 1136 

Hile, William H 1136 

Hill Family 750 

Hinckley, .judge Henry M... 

■ 68, 313, 318, 448 

Hine, Daniel E .' . . .1133 

Hine Family 1123 

Hixson, John F 870 

Hock Family 1304 

Hock, Michael B 1304 

Hockman Family 1172 

Hoffa Family 892 

Hoffman Family 747 

Hoffman, Lewis 700 

Hoffman, Simon K 747 

Holdren Family 876 

Holdren, Phineas 876 

Hollingshead, William 546 

Holly, Daniel W 822 

Holly Family 822 

Hoppes. Clarence .J 1216 

Hoppes, Elias 967 

Hoppes Families 1157, 1217 

Hoppes, George T 1157 

Hortman Family 1199 

Hosier Family '. 1138 

Hosier. Georg'e B. W 1139 

Houck Family 1143 

Housenick Family 953 

Houtz F.amily . . ". 839 

Houtz, 0. V 839 



Hove Family 923 

Howe, Fred \V 923 

Hower, Charles E 52-t 

Hower Families. . .534, 1045, 1106 

Hower, Hiester V., M. D HOG 

Hower, Dr. Hiram C 1090 

Hughe.*, Chester K 630 

Hughes, Ellis 282 

Hughes Families 

768, 910, 1169, 11T6 

Hughes, George M 768 

Hughes, Mrs. Harriet 630 

Hughes, Walter A 1169 

Hull, Charles E 823 

Hull Family 823 

Hunsinger Family 103T 

Hunsiuger, .Josiah F 1037 

Hunt, George W 873 

Hunt, John H 873 

Hyde Family 896 

Hyde, Thomas E 896 

Hyssong, Austin L 973 

Hyssong, Elisha B 973 

Ikeler, Judge Elijah R.69, 313, 420 

Ikeler Families 421, 958, 990 

Ikeler, Frank A 422 

Ikeler, Fred T 419 

Ikeler, Mrs. Helena 422 

Ikeler, Roland R 958 

Ikeler, Samuel W 990 

lies Family 852 

lies, William 853 

Irland, James M 459 

Ivey, Edward W 590 

Ivey Families 590, 1185 

Ivey, George A 1185 

Ivey, Ricliard 590 

Jackson, Col. Clarence G 

161, 184, 464 

Jackson Families 416, 1168 

Jackson, Frank R 456 

Jackson. Mordecai W....161, 416 

Jackson, Jlorrison E 624 

Jacobs Families 541, 1152 

Jacobs, George B 1152 

Jacobs, John R 1153 

Jacobs, William F 541 

Jacoby Family 643 

Jacoby, Guy 643 

Jaeoby, John G 819 

Jacoby, Legrand S 819 

James, B. J 916 

James Family 916 

Jarrard, Clemuel L 1021 

Jarrard Families 1021, 1147 

Jan-ard, Merton L 824 

Jarrard, William E 1147 

Jayne, Samuel C 696 

John Families 

346, 632, 833, 1040, 1354 

John, J. Stacey, M. D 1040 

John, Ralph R 632 

Johnson, Bartlett H 527 

Johnson Families 

527, 744, 807, 936 

Johnson, George W 807 

.Johnson, James 1123 

Johnson, .Joseph R 744 

Johnson, Dr. Ralph E 324 

Johnson, Reagan B 999 

.Johnson, Samuel B 

Johnson, Stephen C 

•Johnson, William S 

.Johnston, Charles M 

.Johnston Family 

.Johnston, William C 

Jones, Mrs. Catherine (Maus) 

.lones, Evan 

.Jones, Horatio C 

.Jones, John L 

Jordan, Judge Alexander. . . . 

.Jordan, Francis 

Jordan, Mrs. Jennie B 



Karchner, Charles Franklin. . 1016 
Karchner Families ....1016, 1018 

Karchner, George E 1018 

Kase. Simon P 289 

Kaufman, Mrs. Anna M 905 

Kaufman, Oliver 1 905 

Keck Families 1027, 1213 

Keck, Henry S 1313 

Keifeit Family 1118 

Keifer, Henry H 1118 

Keiner, .Jolm F 997 

Keiner, William 997 

Kelchner Family 1113 

Kelchner. John 1113 

Keller Family 1126 

Keller, William 1126 

Kellev. Bruce C 559 

Kelley Families 559, 1062 

Kelley, James 1062 

Kellogg Family 1034 

Kepner, Bruce A 974 

Kepner Families 

974, 997, 1203, 1355 

Kepner, John A 1255 

Kepner, Samuel F 1303 

Kerswell Family 733 

Kerswell. Thomas F 731 

Kester, Benjamin F 663 

Kester, E. Ross 1113 

Kester Families 663, 1113 

Ivile Family 1333 

Kile. George B 1223 

Kimble Family 1124 

Kimble, Frank 1124 

Kindig Family 1181 

Kindig, Michael E 1181 

Kingsbury, Adelbert R 996 

King.sbury Family 996 

Kirk Family 550 

Kirk, Rev. James W 341, 550 

Kirkendall Family 1026 

Kirkham, Samuel 383, 306 

Kisner Families. . .880, 1199, 1303 

Kisner, Ralph 330, 880 

Kisner, Samuel 703 

Kistler, Benjamin 1080 

Kitchen Family 775 

Kitchen, Frank R 775 

Klase Family 699 

Klase, Jesse 699 

Kline, Abraham 813 

Kline, Cliarles B 1235 

Kline, Cliarles S 467 

Kline, Edgar E 1107 

Kline Families. .415, 438, 467. 

631, 705, 813, 962, 1107, 1225 

Kline, Harry H 962 

Kline, Isaac 813 

Kline, Jacob L 705 

Kline, John J 1064 

Kline, John L. C 622 

Kline, Luther B., M. D 415 

Kline, Riley L 438 

Klinetoh, Dr. Dalbys B 652 

Klinetob, David G 1186 

Klinetob Families 651, 1186 

Klinetob, Harvey L 651 

Kling Family 1086 

Klinger, Elmer 1209 

Klinger, Gideon 1309 

Knapp, Christian F 741 

Knecht, Jacob 817 

Kiieeht, Mrs. Martlia E 817 

Knepper Family 1147 

Knittle, Daniel F 665 

Knittle, Miss Ella 645 

Knittle Families 645, 665 

Knittle, .Joseph B 645 

Knorr Families 786, 793, 985 

Knorr, Harvey E 785 

Knorr, Henry T 793 

Knorr, Samuel M 985 

Knouse, Ehvood 1107 

Knouse F.amily 1107 

ICoeher, Edwin M ] 001 

Kocher Families 

867, 1001, 1038, 1057 

Kocher, Thomas C 1038 

Koons Family 779 

Koons, Julius C 779 

Kostenbauder Families 

1011, 1100 

Kostenbauder, Jesse J 1011 

Kostenbauder, Oscar P 1100 

Kramni Family 905 

Krebs Family 413 

Kreischer Family 1204 

Kreischer, William H 1204 

Kreisher, Clarence E 660 

Kreisher Family 660 

Kressler Family 1014 

Kressler, Samuel P 1014 

Krumm Family 1206 

Kuhn, Isaac S 848 

Kuhn, Mrs. Susan 848 

Kunkel, Charles 1163 

Kunkel Family 1163 

Kurtz Family 720 

Kurtz, Hon. .Jennings U..121, 720 

Landis, David E 571 

Landis, John B 571 

Laiib Families 757, 1117 

Laub. George A 757 

Laub, Jacob A 1117 

Daubach Fam.ilies 552, 1031 

Lazarus, Charles E 940 

Lazarus Families 940, 958 

Lazarus, Henry 959 

Learn, Alexander J 844 

Learn Family 844 

Lechleitner Family 804 

Lechner, .Joseph F 868 

Le Due, Emile J 870 

I^e Due Family 870 

Lee Families 911, 1101, 1177 

Lee, George S 1101 

Lee, Isaac C 911 

Lee. James 1177 

Lee, Thomas M 1224 



Lefller, Mrs. Carrie (Russell) .1259 

Legien Family 1214 

Legien, Herman R 1214 

Lehmau Family 942 

Lehman, Frank 942 

Leiby Family 1114 

Leiby, Simon 1114 

Leidy Family 933 

Leidy, John H 933 

Leidy, Paul 317 

Lemon, Michael 842 

Lemon, William M 842 

Lenhart, C. Fred 526 

Lenliart Family 526 

Lenhart, George W 988 

Letteer Family 1255 

Letteer, Oscar E 1255 

Levan, CD 878 

Levan (Le Van) Families. 501, 878 

Levan, Joseph 1078 

Levan, Wilson 1078 

Lewis, Judge Ellis 66, 311 

Litchard Family 655 

Litcliard, James H 655 

Little, Mrs. Deborah T 419 

Little Family 418 

Little, Judge Robert R 

69, 313, 418 

Livziey, Harvey C 930 

Livziey, William 930 

Lockard Family 1030 

Lockard, James S 1030 

Lockhart, Charles C 1143 

Lockhart Family 1143 

Long, Charles C 846 

Long Families 707, 952 

Long, Jolin F 952 

Longenberger Family 1260 

Loreman Family 962 

Loreman. .Jonathan 962 

Lormer Familv 1128 

Lormer. Scth C 1128 

Lovett, William 997 

Lovett, William T 997 

Lowry, William F. ._ 162, 744 

Lundy, John 286 

Lundy, Rev. John P 286 

Lutz, Charles B 754 

Lutz Family 754 

Lyman Family 486 

McAnall, Charles K 1031 

McAnall, John 1030 

McAnall, John R 1030 

McBride. Charles G 1080 

McBride Family 1089 

McBride, Hugh' D 1080 

McBride, .James D 717 

McBride, Miss L. Rachel 1090 

McBride, Oscar E 10S9 

McCollum, Alfred F 1096 

McConnell Family 593 

McConnell. George 593 

McCormick, James 292 

McHenry, Abram L 1148 

McHenry, B. Frances 320 

McHenry Families 

657, 814, 1148, 1160, 1194, 1235 

McHenry, Ira R 1160 

McHenry, James B 1235 

McHenry, John G 212, 657 

JIcHenry, Dr. Montraville .... 

322, 1161 

JXcHeniy, Oliver S 814 

iloKiUip, Harvey A 573 

Mcilahan I'amily 1225 

JlcMahan, Capt. James 1161 

McJlichael, James 1149 

McMichael, William F 1149 

McNeal, Ann 583 

McVicker F'amily 655 

McWilliams Families ...583, 864 
MaoCrea, Alexander B., M. D. 516 

MacCrea Family 516 

ilacdonald Families. 609, 668, 1156 
lAlacdonald, John T., M. D...1156 

Jlacdonald, John L 609 

Maclntyre Family 668 

Madden Family 693 

Madden, William T 692 

Magill, Dr. William H 

287, 321, 372 

Magreevy Family 1241 

aUllery, Garrick 162, 461 

Maloney Family 1241 

Jlanning Family 1039 

Manning, William H 1039 

Mansfield Family 1131 

Mansfield, William J 1131 

Jlarkle, Daniel R 1169 

Markle Families . 1043, 1140, 1170 

Marks Family 634 

Marks, Robert L 634 

Marr. Alem 314, 325 

Martin Family 583 

Martin, James 941 

Martin, Patrick 941 

Martz, Ambrose 925 

Martz. Charles N 1062 

Martz, David B. F 1042 

Martz, Edward S 1154 

Martz Families 810, 

908. 924, 1042, 1050, 1002, 1154 

Martz, Henrv 924 

Martz, Jacob 90S 

Martz, Jacob W 929 

Martz. Jolm 924 

Masteller Families 478, 1097 

Masteller, William 1097 

Masters Family 619 

ilasters, Francis P 619 

Masters, Mrs. Orpha L 620 

Maus Families 

17, 274, 282, 400, 407, 445 

Maus, Philip E 407 

Mauser, Alonzo A 1191 

JIauser, David 1305 

Mauser Families. .938, 1191, 1305 

JIauser, Jlrs. Sarah J 1306 

Jlelick, Henrv W 1082 

Jlelick Families 1055, 1082 

Mensch Families 

586, 630, 781, 1224 

Menseh, Frank 1324 

Mensch. John S 586 

Mensch, Lewis C 630 

Mensch, William 781 

Jleredith Familv 544 

Meredith, Hugh'B., M. D 

323, 363, 544 

IMericle. Theodore 815 

Merkel Familv 1071 

Mcrkel. William A 1071 

Messersmith Family 787 

Messersmith, Jesse B.... ... 787 

Michael Families. .511, 1139, 1215 

Micliael, Obediah 1140 

Milheim Family 1179 

milliard Family 521 

Millard, William H 520 

Miller, Daniel H 801 

Miller, David M 1125 

Miller Families 

801, 1084, 1125, 1163 

Miller, George W 1084 

Miller, Harry D 801 

Miller, James N 776 

Miller, Reuben J 1163 

Mills Family 684 

Mills, .Samuel A 684 

Milnes F-amily loiQ 

Molyueaux Family iiys 

Molyneaux, Walter R 1195 

Monroe, William R 491 

Montgomery, Ditniel 280 

Montgomery, Gen. Daniel 

274, 280, 337, 360 

Montgomery Families 17, 278 

Montgomery, John C 318 

Montgomery, John G 310 

Montgomery, Gen. William . . 

378, 327 

Montgomery, Judge William. 281 
Montgomery, Rev. William B. 284 

Moomey Familj- 849 

Moomey. George iS 849 

Moore, Evan B 1141 

Moore Families 

525, 631, 1141, 1194 

Moore, John E 631 

Moore, William H 1194 

ilordan Family 1166 

Mordan, Harman L 1166 

Morgan Family 989 

Morgan. John L 989 

Jloser Family 682 

ilourcr, L. K 321 

Mowery Family 1105 

Mowery, George 1105 

Mowrei-, Mrs. Annie S 867 

Mowrer, .John 867 

Mowrer, William K 867 

Jlowrey, Mrs. Eleanora 1216 

Mowrey Family 1216 

Mowrey, George Y 1316 

Mowrey, Isaac 1216 

Munson, David 1122 

Munson Family 1123 

Munson, ilrs. Louisa 1132 

Murray, David E . 658 

Murry Family 1307 

Muriy, Miles 1207 

Musselman, Beverly W., Sr.. 855 
Musselman, Beverly W., .Jr.. 719 
Musselman, Mis.-B Elizabeth L. 850 
Musselman. Miss Sarah C. . . 856 

Myerley. George W 850 

Myerlcy, Mrs. Harriet S 851 

Myers Families 976, 1025 

Newbaker Family 640 

Newbaker. Dr. Philip C..332, 640 

Xewman Family 777 

Newman. -lohn H 777 

Xevhard Familv 840 



Neyhard, Samuel 110, 840 

Noss Family 1037 

Nuss Family 1032( 

Nuss, Jeremiah B 1032 

Oglesby Family 498 

Oglesby, George 498 

Oglesby, Dr. James 333, 498 

Oglesby, William V 330, 499 

Ohl, Boyd T 1007 

Ohl Families 1007, 1111 

Ohl, Michael T 1111 

Oliver Family 1166 

Oliver, William 1166 

Oman Family 1110 

Oman, Thomas C 1110 

Orth, William H 869 

Oswald, Mrs. Anne 6 634 

Oswald Family 636 

Owen, Hudson 955 

Oxley Family 1332 

Oxley, Lewis 1322 

Oyster Family 887 

Oyster, George N 887 

Paden, Claud C 994 

Paden, David F 995 

Parker Family 1244 

Parker, Theodore 1344 

Patrick Family 1347 

Patrick, Gus 1247 

Patten, Robert S., M. D. .325, 855 

Paules Family 1008 

Paules, William R., M. D . . . 

324, 1008 

Peckham, Aaron K 66 

Pentz, E. D 1259 

Peters, Edward W 542 

Petrovits Family 603 

Petrovits, Rev. Joseph J. C. . 602 

Petty Family 945 

Pfahler Family 600 

Pfahler, James F 599 

Pfahler, John E 1059 

Pliillips Families 788, 1353 

Phillips, Lewis S 788 

Phillips, Ralph G 1353 

Ploch. Frederick 831 

Poe Family 615 

Pohe Family 1120 

Pohe, Stephen C 1120 

Polk Family 414 

Polk, Rufus K 414 

Pollock Family 700 

Pollock, Judge James 66, 312 

Pollock, James B 700 

Price Families 496, 947 

Price, Thomas J 496 

Price, William R 947 

Purpur, Edward 459 

Purpur Family ■ 459 

Pursel Families 433, 

505, 555, 560, 820, 1079, 1109 

Pursel, Frank P 432 

Pursel, Henry J 1079 

Pursel, Jasper N 555 

Pursel, Jonathan 1109 

Pursel, Norman S 505 

Pursel, William G 560 

Pursell Family 738 

Quick Family 783 

Quick, John G 783 

Quick, William G 783 

Quigg, Thomas 678 

Quigg, William 678 

Randall, Charles E 585 

Randall Family 585 

Rank, Daniel VV 318, 854 

Rank Family 854 

Rank, Isaac 288 

Raseley, Charles A 573 

Raseley Family 573 

Raup, Abraliam L 1061 

Raup Family 1061- 

Rcagan, George L., M. D 597 

Reagan, Mrs. Tillie E 598 

Rebman, Samuel C 871 

Reed Families 691, 1083 

Reed, Guy A 1083 

Reed, J. Orville 941 

Reed}', Daniel 791 

Reedy Family 791 

Reese, Charles R 809 

Reese Family 809 

Reifsnyder Family 789 

Reifsnydcr, Karl P 789 

Reiter, Augustus 1183 

Reiter Family 1183 

Remley, David 1036 

Renilcy Family 1180 

Reynolds Family 927 

Reynolds, Theodore 926 

Rhawn Family 481 

Rhawn, William H 481 

Rhinard Family 1226 

Rlioads Family 834 

Rhodes, B. K 317 

Rhodes, .John 393 

Riciiard. Frederick J 493 

Richard, Jacob F 494 

Richardson Family 483 

Richardson, John L 483 

Richie, C. W 1127 

Rieketts, Edward 930 

Ricketts, George E 930 

Rider, Lloyd T 537 

Rinard, Abraham L 608 

Rinard Family 607 

Rinard, Joseph H 607 

Ringrose. Aaron 971 

Ringrose, William R 971 

Rishel, Dorance R 434 

Rishel Family 434 

Rishel, James P 863 

Rishel, John R 862 

Rittenhouse Family 1171 

Rittenhouse, MarkE 1171 

Ritter Family 1337 

Ritter, FoiTcst N 1237 

Robbins Family 547 

Robbins, James E., M. D. .334, 547 

Robinson, Edwin H 1132 

Robinson Family 1132 

Robinson, .John M 1133 

Robinson, .Joseph J 1134 

Robinson, Thomas C 902 

Robinson, William M 1132 

Robinson. William R 902 

Robison Family 566 

Robison, .James B 566 

Robison. Miss Martha E 568 

Rockefeller, .Judge William M. 313 
Rodenhoffer Family 943 

Rodenhoffer, George 943 

Roderick, David M 883 

Roderick Family 883 

Rogers, David J 1230 

Rogers, Thomas J 694 

Rogers, William J 694 

Roiirbach Family 1315 

Rohrbach, Lorenzo D 1215 

Rook Family 1028 

Rote Family 551 

Rote, George L 551 

Roup Family 1144 

Roup, William 1144 

Rowe Family 869 

Rowe, George L S69 

Rowe, John 790 

Rowe, Riciiard W 790 

Rowe, Mrs. Sarah 790 

Ruch Families 843, 1090 

Ruch. Henry 574 

Ruch. William F 574 

Ruhl, Robert J 602 

Runyan, Mrs. Ann Maria 1189 

Runyan, Elmer W 1189 

Rupert Family 506 

Russell Family 1258 

Russell, William M. C 1258 

Rutter Family 441 

Rutter, John C, Jr 441 

Ryan Family 871 

Ryan, James 871 

Sandel, ,John H., M. D. . .323, 694 

Sands Family 1122 

Sands. William E 1121 

Savage Family 1045 

Savage, George N 1045 

Savidge Family 1221 

Savidge, Ralph A 1331 

Scarlet Family 440 

Scarlet. James 318, 440 

Schlee, Frederick 1063 

Schlee, Peter 1063 

Schott Family 1237 

Schott, Thomas A 1336, 

Schram Family 784 

Schram, Martin H 784 

Schultz Family 439 

Schultz, Dr. Solomon S. . .333, 429 
Schweppenheiser, Abram.806, 817 
Sehweppenheiser Families . . . 

805, 817, 1337 

Schweppenheiser, William C. .1237 
Sechler Families .... 717, 867, 870 

Sechler, H. B. D 288 

Sechler, Jacob 385 

Sechler, Mrs. Mary C 582 

Sechler, M. De La'fayette 717 

Sechler, Mrs. Rosanna 716 

Sechler, Samuel 582 

Sechler, William A 718 

Seely, Col. Andrew D 856 

Seely Families 739, 856 

Seely, S. Britt 739 

Seidel, Alfred F 858 

Seidel. Arren E 393, 859 

Seidel, Clarence W 859 

Seidel Families 714, S5S 

Seidel, Joseph B 714 

Seidel, Mrs. I^ucy C 859 

Seiple Family 1085 

Seiple, Stephen C 1085 



Seybert Family 1189 

Shaffer, Alfred C 1186 

Shaffer, Hon. Charles A 704 

Shaffer, Edward 1210 

Shaffer Families 

704, 1186, 1210, 1246 

Shaffer, Rev. Theodore B 1246 

Shalter, Edmond H 893 

Shalter Family 891 

Shalter, John 891 

Shambach, Jesse Y 643 

Shannon, Qark W 1093 

Shannon Families 760, 1093 

Shannon, Hun. William W.. . 760 

Sharpk'ss, Arthur W 835 

Sharpless, Benjamin F 970 

Sharpless Families 835, 969 

Sharpless, George H 970 

Shelhart, Jacob 289 

Sheriff, John W 858 

Sheriff, Mrs. Matilda A 858 

Sherman, Nathan 1167 

Shew Family 791 

Shew, John'W. E 791 

Shires, Charles E 874 

Shires Family 874 

Shive Family 842 

Shoemaker, David C 1100 

Shoemaker Families 

834, 888, 1075, 1100 

Shoemaker, William 1258 

Shoop, Gideon M 289 

Shugars Family 1135 

Shugars, Jolm H 1135 

Shnltz, B. F., M. D 290, 333 

Shultz, Charles W 724 

Shultz Families 662, 

734, 830, 903, 936, 1065, 1093 

Shultz, Glen L 1065 

Shultz, Philip G 663 

Shultz, R. M 1092 

Shuman, Ambrose, M. D 512 

Shuman, Mrs. Angeline 511 

Shuman, Cliarles S 541 

Shuman Families 

509, 541, 1077, 1245 

Shuman, Franklin L 510 

Shuman, John T 512 

Shuman, .John W 1345 

Shuman, Paris H 511 

Sidler, Emanuel 548 

Sidlcr Families 548, 686, 875 

Sidlor, William L 686 

Sidler, William S 875 

Simington, Dr. R. S 333 

Sitler, aiarles E 1016 

Sitler Families 648, 796. 

972, 1016, 1032, 1161, 1175, 1182 

Sitler, .James W 1161 

Sitler, Reuben H 796 

Smethers, Miss Amy B 957 

Smethers, Edward H 985 

Smethers Families 

957, 961, 985, 1243 

Smethers, Hurley K 1242 

Smethers, Jacob C 957 

Smethers, John A 1343 

Smethers, John H 1301 

Smethers, Miss Katlierine. . .1242 
Smethers, Philip McClellan.. 961 

Smith, Adam 1103 

Smith, Allen E 1104 

Smith, Charles H 790 

Smith, David 933 

Smith Families 

520, 804, 932, 934, 

944, 1081, 1103, 1118, 1165, 1249 

Smith, Fred K 1248 

Smith, Frederick B 193, 595 

Smith, George W 790 

Smitli, H. Montgomery 520 

Smith, James E 944 

Smith, John B 936 

Smith, Joseph 925 

Smith, Lloyd E 1081 

Smith, Miles W 934 

Smith, Robert M 1165 

Smith, Stephen 926 

Smith. Theodore L 804 

Smithers, Benjamin F 932 

Smithers Family 922 

Snyder, Allen L 1052 

Snyder, Charles W 1096 

Snyder Families . . . .614, 687, 
761, S85, 909, 1052, 1096, 1322 

Snyder, H. Alfred 885 

Snyder, Prof. Harlan R 761 

Snyder, John 755 

Snyder, Joseph H 909 

Snyder, Mrs. Sarah M 615 

Snyder, Stephen E 687 

Snyder, William H 614 

Snyder, W. L 755 

Sober Family 711 

Sober, Dr. Harry M 711 

Sones Family 1146 

Sponenberg, Edward J 807 

Sponenberg Families . 646, 807, 987 

Sponenberg, James E 987 

Sponenberg, Philip 646 

Stackhouse Family 637 

Stackhouse, Milton E 637 

Startzel Family 560 

Startzel, William B 559 

Stees, Harry R 748 

Steinman, Andrew J 681 

Steinman Family 683 

Sterner Families 463, 832 

Sterner, Harry 463 

Sterner, Prof. Lloyd P 833 

Stifnagle, Philip 784 

Stifnagle, William 784 

Stiles, .John J 1188 

Still. Adoniram J 556 

Still Family 556 

Stine Family 1111 

Stine, Michael E 1111 

Stock, George A., M. D 684 

Stone Family 610 

Stout, Mrs. Elleretta 1086 

Stout Families 761, 1025 

Stout, Sheridan W 1087 

Stout. William T 1025 

Strawbridge, Dr. James D... 331 

Stuart Family 1205 

Stver, Cyrus F 893 

Stver Family 893 

Suit, Alonzo ■ J 1010 

Suit Families 1010, 1094, 1197 

Suit, Headley 1094 

Siilt, .Jacob N 1197 

Suplee (Supplee) Families... 

740, 1033 

Sutliff Family 850 

Swank Families 

504, 685, 853, 1208 

Swank, Joseph G 504 

Swank, Thomas J 853 

Sweutek, Mrs. Amelia 939 

Swentek, Paul P 940 

Sweppenheiser, Dr. Claude E. 949 
Sweppenheiser Family 949 

Taylor Families 864, 927, 950 

Taylor, Frank M 950 

Taylor, John H 166, 168, S64 

Taylor, William H 937 

Teple Family 477 

Teplc, James E 477 

Tewksbury, Eugene D 632 

Tewksbury Family 622 

Thomas Families. 1040, 1164, 1250 

Thomas, Martin L 1164 

Thomas, Miss Mary il 1153 

Thomas, Samuel R 1151 

Thompson Family 960 

Thompson, Hugh 960 

Tliornton Family 913 

Tilley, Rodman E 1061 

Tilloy, William 1061 

Tooey, James 933 

Tooey, John 933 

Tooley, John 683 

Tooley, John F 683 

Townsend, Mrs, Elizabeth. . .1057 

Town.scnd Families 1056, 1102 

Townsend, John R 468 

Townsend, Jonah H 1103 

Townsend, Louis J 1056 

Traugh Family 773 

Traugh, Henry F 773 

Trego Family 839 

Trego, William H 829 

Trescott, Boyd 508 

Trescott Family 508 

Trowbridge, Harry M 1046 

Trumbower, Mrs. Mary S . . . . 870 

Trumbower. Samuel M 870 

Tubbs Family 1027 

Tubbs, William E 1027 

Turner, William 938 

Turner, William G 938 

Umstead, David M 1133 

Um.stead Family 790 

Umstead, Mrs. Harriet E 1133 

Unangst Family 826 

Unangst, George B 836 

Updegraff Family 1149 

Utt Family 1093 

Utt, William S 1092 

Van Alen, T. 


Vanderslice, Charles T 


Vanderslice Family . . 


van Fossen. George W. 


Van Horn Families . . . . 



Van Horn. Robert W. . 


Vannan Family 


Vannan, Forbes H.... 


Vannan. Irvin, Sr 


Van Natta Family .... 


Van Natta, Sade 


Vastine Families 


, 603 

Vastine, George H., M. 

D.. . 


Vastine, Dr. Jacob H. 

. .322 

. 444 



Vastino, Jacob M, M. D 445 

Vastine. William 60C 

Vastine, William M 445 

Vincent Familiesi 659, 9G8 

Vincent, Henry 31S 

Vincent, Thomas G 9GS 

Vincent, Walter J 659 

Voris, Charles E 725 

Voris Family 725 

Voris, James 2S7, 725 

Vought Families 594, 1029 

Vought, Peter H 594 

Vought, William C 1029 

W^agenseller Family 1067 

Wagenseller, George 1067 

Wagner Family 938 

Wagner, Harvey G 938 

W^alker, Silas N 731 

Waller, Eev. David J., Jr . . . . 

127, 143, 560 

Walp, Charles 1' 826 

Walp Family 826 

W'alter Family 895 

Walter, Mary Emma 196, 648 

Walton Fami'lies 539, 837 

W'alton, Harry E 837 

Walton, Rev. Morris 539 

Waters, Dennis 858 

Waters Family 1206 

Waters, George W 1206 

Watson Family 879 

Watson, John F 949 

Watters Family 984 

Watters. William A 984 

Watts Family 698 

Watts, James S 698 

Weikert Family 903 

Weller, John " 910 

Welliver. Charles E 538 

Welliver Families 

539, 1001, 1015, 1057, 1078 

Welliver, George W 1001 

Welliver, John E 1078 

Welliver, Samuel J 458 

Welliver, Warren W 459 

Welliver, Wilbur C 1057 

Wells, Mrs. Lemuel E 407 

Welsh, Abner 954 

^V'elsh, Isaac 954 

Welsh, James 682 

^^'elsh, Jayne G 955 

Welsh, Robert G 1041 

Welsh, Thomas C 320, 682 

Weniier Familv 1002 

Weiiner, Frank E 1002 

Wertnian Familv 923 

Wertmaii. Felix P 923 

W'ertman, Henry D 929 

West Family . .■" 492 

West, Isaac "D 493 

West, William Kase 319, 492 

W'halen, Daniel J 1240 

Whalen Family 1240 

Wheeler, Edward 1041 

Wheeler, H. C 1041 

White, Alem B 967 

White, Bruce M 795 

White, Jbs. Esther E 967 

White Families 469, 

795, 967, 1009, 1068, 1192, 1229 

White. Frank B 1229 

White, Harry E 1009 

White, Hiest'er V 409 

W'hite, John P 1068 

White. Leslie H 1192 

Whitmire Families ....1162, 1179 

Whitmire, Morris J 1179 

\Vigfall Family 423 

Wigfall, Samuel 423 

Williams, David C 545 

Williams Families 

666, 912, 982, 988, 995 

Williams, George C 546 

Williams, Guy 988 

Williams, J. J 1128 

Williams. William E 912 

W"illits Familv 623 

Wnilits, Isaiah W^, M. D 623 

W^ilson Family 1108 

W'ilson, Nathaniel 382 

Wilson, W. P 1108 

Wintersteen, Andrew J 900 

Wintersteen Families 

702, 882, 900 

Wintersteen, Henry 702 

\Vintersteen, Joseph H 1232 

Witman, Rev. Edwin H 460 

Witman, Franklin A 768 

Wolf Families 617, 1127 

Wuodin, Clemuel R 162, 489 

Woodin Family 488 

Wuodin, William H. (de- 
ceased) 161, 488 

Woodin, William H 489 

Woodward, \Varren J 66 

Wyatt Family 913 

Yagel, Charles J 1053 

Yagel Family 1053 

Yerrick, John 863 

Yorrick, Rush 863 

Yetter, Clyde C 753 

Yocum Family 623, 1137 

Yorks Family 292, 683 

Yorks, Miss "M. Ida 684 

Yorks, William 683 

Y'ost Family 1201 

Yost, Isaac'E 1201 

Young, A. Philip 570 

Young, Dr. Benjamin F 282 

Young Families 

570, 935, 1051, 1168 

Young, Herman T 1051 

Young, Jeremiah W 1168 

Young, Dr. Jesse B 417 

Young, Mrs. Mary B 1168 

Young, Omer F 935 

Youngman, Maj. John C. . . . 449 
Y"oungman, M. Grier 448 

Zarr Family 956 

Zarr, Frank P 956 

Zarr, Robert R 956 

Zehnder. Cliarles H 162, 460 

Zehner Family 800 

Zehner. William P 800 

Zerbe Family 799 





Civilization struck the native savages of this 
continent hke a bhght. The great and pop- 
ulous tribes and their strong bands of war- 
riors and hunters, fiercer than any wild beast 
and as untamable as the eagle of the crags, 
have faded away, and the remnants of the once 
powerful and warlike nations are now huddled 
upon reservations, and in stupid squalor are 
the paupers of our nation, begging a pitiful 
crust of bread, or in cold and hunger awaiting 
the allowances doled out by the government 
for their support. The swiftness with which 
they are approaching ultimate extinction, the 
stoicism with which they see and feel the in- 
evitable darkness and destiny closing upon 
them and their fate, forms one of the most 
tragic epics in history. Soon their memory 
will be only a fading tradition. To real history 
they will give no completed chapter, because 
they did nothing and were nothing as factors 
in the grand march of civilizing forces. They 
gave the world no thought, no invention, no 
idea that will live or that deserves to be classed 
with the few things born of the human brain 
that live and go on forever. As a race they 
had no inherent powers of self -development 
or advancement. Like the wild animal they 
had reached the limits of their capacity, and 
had they been left here undisturbed by the 
white race they would have gone on indefi- 
nitely in the same circle — savages breeding 

Such are nature's resistless laws that the 
march of beneficent civilization is over a great 
highway paved with the bodies and broken 

bones of laggard nations, nations who pause 
within the boundary line separating the ig- 
norant savage from intelligent progress. 
Nature tolerates none of this sentimental stuff 
of "Lo, the poor Indian." It wastes no time 
in futile tears over the suft'erings of ignorance 
and filth, but "removes" them and lets the 
fittest survive, and to them belong the earth 
and the good things thereof. And yet even 
the poor Indian had rights that civilization 
should have been bound to respect; and civili- 
zation had it within her power to help rather 
than rob the red men of the forest. 

The one characteristic that will ever redeem 
the memory of the Indian race from contempt 
is his intense love for his wild liberty and his 
unconquerable resolution never to be enslaved 
— a menial, drawing the wood and water and 
receiving the blows of the lash from a mas- 
ter's hand. He would sing his death song and 
die like the greatest of stoics, but he would not 
be yoked. When penned up as a criminal, he 
beat against the iron bars like the caged eagle 
and slowly perished, but died like an Indian 
brave, and rejoicing that thus he could escape 
the further tortures that to him were far be- 
yond death itself. 

The treatment of the red men by the govern- 
ment has not been wise and often unjust. Not 
only were they cruelly robbed of their lands at 
times, but government traders swindled them 
of their pelts, furs and game, and gave them 
the worst evils of our civilization — whiskey, 
powder, lying, deceit and hypocrisy. Govern- 
ment agent.= and missionaries preached and 


enjoined upon them our splendid Cliristian 
code of morals, but the busy traffickers robbed, 
swindled and debauched and murdered them 
without hindrance or rebuke. 

William Penn and Lord Baltimore were 
more than a century ahead of their age. Their 
treatment of the Indians is the fairest page in 
the history of American settlement. In their 
dealings with the savages they leaned to the 
side of charity and paid them their own price 
for the lands purchased, respecting their rights 
and keeping the compacts made with them. In 
this respect they earned the unfaltering regard 
and trust of the natives, the only injuries ever 
done to the members of the Society of Friends 
being perpetrated by the renegade allies of the 


It is probable that the aboriginal inhabitants 
of the territory within the limits of this county 
belonged mainly to the Lenni Lenape, who 
held that they were the original people and of 
Western origin. The Delawares claimed that 
their ancestors lived, many hundred years ago, 
in the far distant wilds of the West, and were 
the progenitors of forty other tribes ; that after 
many years of emigration towards the rising 
sun, they reached the Mississippi river, where 
they met the Mengwe, who came from a very 
distant region and had reached that river high- 
er up towards its source; that they found a 
powerful nation east of the Mississippi, who 
were called Alligewi, and from whom origi- 
nated the name of the Allegheny mountains; 
that the Lenape wished to settle near the Alli- 
gewi, which the latter refused, but allowed 
them to cross the river and proceed farther to 
the East; that when the Alligewi discovered 
how multitudinous the Lenape were, they 
feared their numerical strength and slew the 
portion that had crossed the river, and threat- 
ened to destroy the rest if they should attempt 
to cross ; that the Lenape and Mengwe united 
their forces against the Allegewi, and con- 
quered and drove them out of that part of 
the country ; that the Lenape and Mengwe lived 
together in peace and harmony for many years. 

Their tradition relates further that some of 
the Lenape hunters crossed the Allegheny 
mountains, the Susquehanna and Delaware 
rivers, and advanced to the Hudson, which 
they called the Mohicannituck river; that on 
their return to their people they represented 

the country which they had discovered so far 
towards the rising sun to be without people, 
but abounding in hsh, game, fowls and fruits ; 
that thus the Lenape were induced to emigrate 
eastward along the Lenape-zvhittuck, the river 
of the Lenapes, also called Mack-er-isk-iskan, 
which the English named the Delaware, in hon- 
or of Lord de la Ware, who entered Delaware 
bay in 1610 and was governor of the Colony of 
Virginia from about that time until 1618. The 
Dutch and Swedes called it the South river 
to distinguish it from the North river, which 
bears the name of Hudson. 

That such was the tradition preserved by the 
Delawares is truthfully stated by Rev. John 
Heckewelder, a Moravian missionary, in his 
"Account of the History, Manners and Cus- 
toms of the Indian Nations who once Inhab- 
ited Pennsylvania and the Neighboring States," 
published, in 1819, under the auspices of the 
historical and literary committee of the Ameri- 
can Philosophical Society. The passing re- 
mark may here be made that Indian laws and 
historical events were not preserved on parch- 
ment, paper or in books, but were handed 
down by tradition from one generation to an- 


The Iroquois have a tradition that the val- 
ley of the Susquehanna was first inhabited by 
the Andastes, a branch of the Lenni Lenape, 
whose local tribal name was Susquehannocks. 
These the Iroquois drove out and possessed 
themselves of the lands. 

The Shawnees were driven out of Georgia 
and South Carolina, and came to the mouth of 
the Conestoga, within the present limits of Lan- 
caster county, Pa., about 1677, and spread 
thence over what was afterwards Cumberland 
county, along the west branch of the Susque- 
hanna, in the Wyoming valley, and thence 
to the Ohio. As early as (if not earlier than) 
1719 Delaware and Shawnee Indians were 
settled on the Allegheny. About 1724, says 
Bancroft, the Delaware Indians, for the con- 
venience of game, emigrated from the Dela- 
ware and Susquehanna rivers to the branches 
of the Ohio; in 1728 the Shawnees gradually 
followed them, and they were soon met by 
Canadian traders, and loncaire, an adopted 
citizen of the Seneca tribe, used his eloquence 
to win them to the side of the French. 

Over the whole country watered by the 


Susquehanna the Six Nations, composed of 
the Mohawks, Oneidas, Cayugas, Onondagas 
and Senecas, and later the Tuscarora Indians, 
claimed the right of conquerors and reigned 
supreme, and with them all of the treaties 
between the whites and red men were nego- 
tiated. To these savages we owe the musical 
and romantic names borne by the diiTerent 
streams and sections of these two counties. 
Here was the home of the famous chief, 
Tamenund, whose name is perpetuated in the 
Society of Tammany in New York and by a 
county in the State of Louisiana. 

The names of Indian origin in Columbia 
and Montour counties are Susquehanna, mean- 
ing river of the winding shore ; Chillisquaque, 
derived from "Chilisuagi," an Indian word 
meaning a place frequented by snowbirds 
(Conrad Weiser crossed it March 8, 1737; 
he called it "Zilly Squache" in his diary) ; 
Muncy, from the Monsey tribe; Wyoming, 
Maughwauwama — large plains ; Catawese, 
pure water; Loyalsock, middle fork; Mahon- 
ing. The Indian name for Briar creek was 
Kawanishoning, for Pine creek, Tiadaghton 
and for Roaring creek, Popemetung. William 
Penn was called Miquon by the Indians with 
whom he had dealings. 


The valley of the Susquehanna was at one 
time thickly populated by the Indians and the 
remains of many villages and burying grounds 
have been uncovered in the last centurj-. The 
most important legacy from these savage 
predecessors is the foundation they laid for 
subsequent exploration and development by 
means of the numerous trails or paths they 
made through an otherwise trackless wilder- 
ness. Through the dense forest, over the hills 
and amidst the morasses ran these trails, 
scarcely fifteen inches wide, but worn to the 
depth of a foot by their constant use from 
the feet of generations of savages and savage 
beasts, and patted to the density of rock by 
this soft yet resistless pressure. 

The Shamokin path began at Sunbury and 
continued up the West Branch to the mouth 
of Warrior run, where an Indian town was 
located, and thence through the gap to the 
town of Muncy, the home of the Monseys. 

The Wyoming path left Muncy on the West 
Branch, ran up Glade run, thence through a 
gap in the hills to Fishing creek and across 
the creek, passing into Luzerne county through 
the Nescopeck gap, and up the North Branch 
to Wyoming. 

The Wyalusing path was traced up Muncy 
creek to near where the Berwick road crosses, 
then to Dushore, thence to the Wyalusing 

The Sheshequin path ran up Bowser's run, 
thence to Lycoming creek, near the mouth of 
Mill creek, thence up the Lycoming to the 
Beaver dams, thence down Towanda creek 
to the Susquehanna river, thence up the river 
to the Sheshequin flats. 

The Fishing Creek path started on the flats 
near Bloomsburg, ran up Fishing creek through 
Rosemont cemetery to Orangeville, on to or 
near Long pond, thence across to Tunkhan- 
nock creek. It was on this path that Moses 
\'anCampen was captured. 

One of the most frequently traveled trails 
passing through the county was that leading 
from Wyoming to Aluncy. It followed the 
river from Wilkes-Barre to Shickshinny; 
thence through the notch at the eastern end 
of Knob mountain and along the northern 
base of that ridge, entering Columbia county 
near Jonestown, in Fishingcreek township, 
following thence down Huntington creek to 
the Forks and down Fishing creek to near the 
mouth of Green creek ; thence up that creek 
to a point below Rohrsburg; thence along 
the northern base of the Mt. Pleasant hills to 
Little Fishing creek at a point between Mill- 
ville and Eyer's Grove ; thence over the divide 
between the waters of Fishing creek and the 
Chillisquaque, and thence northwestward un- 
til it joined the path up Glade nm from 
Muncy. It must have been a prominent path 
or trail, as frequent mention is made of it in 
the old surveys of 1769 which cover the west- 
ern part of Columbia and the northern part 
of Montour county. It made a short and 
direct route from the North Branch to the 
West Branch and was -free from any steep 
hills, in fact, the grades were so easy that 
when the time came to locate the Wilkes- 
Barre & Western railroad, from near Wash- 
ingtonville to Shickshinny, there was no place 
in a distance of nearly twenty-five miles 
where this railroad was more than a half mile 
from this old trail over which the Indian 
traveled ages before. Near the mouth of 
Green creek above Orangeville this trail joined 
the trail from Nescopeck to the Great Island, 
which was at what is now Jersey Shore, in 
Lycoming county. 

All these trails found their outlet towards 
the settlements by way of Shamokin and the 
river, and when first seen by the whites bore 
evidence of constant use. There was only one 
important trail to the southeastern settlements 


—the one from Wyoming to the forks of the 
Delaware, at Easton. To all other pomts the 
trail along the Susquehanna was not only the 
great Indian thoroughfare for the natives of 
the valley, but for the whole Iroquois con- 


From authentic sources the story of Madame 
Montour is as follows : She was the daughter 
of a French gentleman named Montour and 
an Indian woman of the tribe at that time 
inhabiting Canada. Her first marriage was 
to an Indian of the Seneca tribe. She was 
at Albany in 171 1 and acted as interpreter. 
In 1744 she again acted as interpreter m a 
treaty held at Lancaster, Pa. Her second hus- 
band was Carondawana, a chief of the Unei- 
das and she had altogether four sons and two 
daughters, but by which union they were born 
is not positively known. She seems to have 
been a friend of the proprietaries, for large 
erants were given to her sons, Andrew, Henry, 
Robert and Lewis, on the Chillisquaque, near 
Montoursville and at Shade Gap, in Hunting- 
don county. In 1745 she resided at Shamokin, 
where she died, but the date is not known. 

Madame Montour's daughter Margaret had 
several children, three of them daughters. She 
it was who was termed "French Margaret 
One of her daughters, Esther, married Ech- 
eohund, a chief of the Mousey clan. She was 
accused of complicity in the Wyoming mas- 
sacre although no direct evidence could be 
cxathered to prove the fact. Tradition ascribes 
to another daughter of Margaret the founding 
of the famous Catherinestown, the home and 
temple of the sorcerers of the Cat Clan ot 
the Senecas, who were the enemies alike of 
the whites and the other tribes of Indians. 


Any attempt to locate the sites of Indian 
villages in this part of Pennsylvania must de- 
pend entirelv upon tradition. It is accepted 
as fact that the sites of Bloomsburg, Berwick, 
Catawissa and Danville were at one time oc- 
cupied bv large Indian settlements, as the 
remains and relics continually found at these 
points indicate the presence in the remote past 
of large and thriving communities. Most ot 
the first settlers encountered these natives on 
their arrival and were for some time after- 
wards frequently terrorized by the return of 
occasional bands of Indians who camped on 
the sites which had from time immemorial 
bee;i their favorite stopping places. 

The nearest large village of which accurate 
record has been left us, in this portion of the 
State, is that of Shamokin, now the site of Sun- 
bury, Northumberland county. In 1728 Shi- 
kellamy, a prominent Cayuga chieftain, was 
governor of the village, which was populated 
principally by the Delawares. He governed in 
a wise and judicial manner until his death in 
1749. The natives after that date were gradu- 
ally forced out by the whites, who in 1756 built 
the fort called Augusta at this point. From 
this nucleus grew up the present town of Sun- 

More than a century and a half has passed 
since the withdrawal of the Indians from the 
territory of Columbia and Montour counties, 
and the history of the Indian customs and 
habits would soon be lost if not revived by the 
historian of each decade. It is well, therefore, 
to review in brief the manner of life of our 
aboriginal predecessors as a reminder of the 
contrasts between those days and the present 
age of wonders and achievement. 

The towns and villages of the Indians in- 
habiting the valley of the Susquehanna and its 
tributaries were located immediately upon the 
banks of the streams, on ground high enough 
to be out of reach of floods. But little atten- 
tion was paid to location for defensive pur- 
poses, except that a spot free of timber and 
usually on a point jutting out into the stream 
was selected, in order that canoes could be 
easily landed and the squaws have ready access 
to the water. 

Wigwams were constructed in a substantial 
manner to resist wind and storm, and to keep 
the inmates comfortable during the winter. 
Some were nearly twenty feet in diameter, 
large and roomv, while others were smaller; 
mott of them either oval or round in shape; 
of bark or matting laid over a framework of 
poles stuck in the ground, bunched together 
at the top and tied with thongs. _ The winter 
wigwams were covered with skins, with an 
opening at the top to allow the escape of smoke, 
and flaps at different points arranged to be 
used for entrance, according to the direction 
of the wind. Even in 'these modern days it 
is quite an art to erect a "tepee" that will be 
weatherproof and at the same time not suf- 
focate the occupants with the smoke of the 
fire. In winter these wigwams were lined with 
matting, woven of rushes, grasses and reeds ; 
bunks were built of poles, with skins and furs 
for bedding. The clay cooking pots were hung 
from the center over the ever-burning fire. 

In the larger settlements the Indians built 
loo- cabins, roofed with bark and sod, a hole 


being left in the center to let out the smoke. 
These were often fitted up in a very comfort- 
able manner, and formed the model after which 
the white settlers built their first habitations. 
The whites, however, far exceeded the savages 
in craftsmanship and design, and their homes 
were fitted with that highest evidence of 
superior civilization — the chimney. 

Many persons have read of the Indian 
"lodge," yet few are familiar with its construc- 
tion. Lodges were not used for permanent 
habitation, but mostly for camping and war 
purposes. Saplings were stuck in the ground 
in the form of a bow, something like a series 
of croquet hoops set in a row, only about five 
feet in height. A "lodge-pole" was lashed 
along the tops of the hoops and over all were 
thrown skins or matting, thus forming a long 
hut, in which the sleepers lay. Cooking was 
done outside at the camp fire. 

The agricultural operations of the savages 
were crude and their tools still more primitive. 
Hoes were made from sharpened sticks and 
the earth was simply scratched to receive the 
seed. Corn, beans, pumpkins and tobacco 
were the crops, and the tilled spots remained 
unfenced, the horses being pastured at a dis- 
tance to prevent depredations. After the 
coming of the whites seeds were purchased 
from the traders and the -variety of crops was 
more extensive, some fruit trees being also 
set out and tended. The rude implements 
were replaced by others better fitted for the 
cultivation of the soil, and better tools were 
introduced into the wigwams. Steel traps 
took the place of "deadfalls" and pits ; muskets 
replaced the bow and arrow ; awls and needles 
made from the bones of birds and animals 
were no longer used in sewing the skin cloth- 
ing and fitting together the matting coverings 
of the wigwam; and the iron hoe made culti- 
vation easier for the overburdened squaw. 
Before the introduction of the pots and pans 
of civilization food was prepared by roasting 
on twigs stuck over the fire or, in the absence 
of clay pots, boiled in skin kettles, heated by 
dropping hot stones in them. 


The squaws bore the burden and toil of life 
in an Indian camp. There was no "sufifragette" 
propaganda then. While the male members of 
the village hunted, fished, went on foraging 
and warlike expeditions, or slumbered before 
the fire, the females did the heaviest and most 
degrading labor. They cut poles and built the 
wigwams and cabins, performed all the vil- 

lage drudgery and cooking, cared for the 
ponies, gathered fuel, cultivated the soil, 
planted the seed and harvested the crops, cut 
up and preserved the meat brought in by the 
hunters, tanned the skins and made the cloth- 
ing for the entire family, bore and nursed the 
children, and when on a journey carried great 
bundles of camp equipage. They were un- 
demonstrative and patient, bearing up under 
their eternal burdens with much fortitude, 
and when in the pain of childbirth uttered not 
a sound. The squaw who cried or groaned 
was forever disgraced. It was believed that 
her sons would grow up to be cowards. Not- 
withstanding all these hardships the squaws 
were loyal and divorces were unknow-n, while 
the custom was for a warrior to have but one 
wife, except in rare cases. 

The warrior was the head of the wigwam; 
his wishes were obeyed without question and 
his word was law. The papooses were taught 
from infancy to be quiet and scarcely ever 
cried. The only occasion in which the writer 
ever heard an Indian baby cry was when he 
as a child wandered down to the river and 
found half a dozen papooses suspended on 
boards from the branches of a tree. They 
were facing each other and making a queer 
cooing sound, but as soon as they caught sight 
of the strange white face they set up a chorus 
of howls that quickly brought the squaws to 
the spot. They set upon the trespasser with 
canes and chased him crying from the vicinity. 

In the winter the babies were allowed to 
roll around over the dirt floor of the wigwam, 
and in summer along the lanes between the 
tepees. When carried they were lashed to a 
forked stick or rough hewn board, with ample 
wrappings of skins and blankets. When a halt 
was made they were sometimes suspended 
from a tree if the parents were likely to be 
absent, thus protecting them from animals : 
but if the stop was short the tightly bound 
infant was simply stood against a convenient 
tree, and not always in the shade; yet the little 
one would blink in the glaring sun without a 

As they grew older the children were given 
all the training that would fit them for their 
savage life. The boys were early turned over 
to the men, who gave them instructions in 
fishing, hunting and woodcraft, while the girls 
were soon forced into the dreary routine of 
the squaw's life of drudgery. The young of 
both sexes developed early; at the age of 
fifteen the boys were free to come and go 
without restraint ; two years before that the 
girls had budded into womanhood, and it was 


a rare thing for a maiden to reach the age of 
fifteen without being appropriated by some 

Courtship and marriage were not attended 
with much ceremony or delay. When a buck 
cast his eye on a maiden he went to the father 
and offered a price for her, usually in ponies. 
The main ceremony consisted in the settlement 
of her value between the contracting parties, 
the after-ceremonies of the medicine man 
being brief and simple. Yet these unions were 
seldom broken except by death. 

In moving from place to place the squaws, 
as usual, had all the work to do. The wig- 
wams and household goods were made into 
large bundles and packed on the backs of the 
ponies, or on "sweeps" made of poles lashed 
to each side of the animal and connected be- 
hind with crosspieces. The squaws also car- 
ried some of the burdens, while the bucks 
stalked ahead smoking their pipes. When a 
halt was made for meals the ponies were not 
unloaded, except at night. Sometimes there 
were spare ponies enough to permit the squaws 
to ride, but only after the bucks had been pro- 
vided with a mount. Riding or walking, the 
squaws carried the papooses on their backs. 
All rode astride, with but a blanket beneath, 
and no bridle was used, the animals being 
guided by slaps on the side of the head or by 

On arrival at a suitable location it was the 
duty of the squaws to unload, erect the wig- 
wams, cut the firewood and perform all the 
heavy work without assistance. When their 
work was over they retired to the depths of 
their skin robes, simply removing their clothing, 
with the exception of the skirt, while the war- 
riors retained only the breechclout. 


Indian dress in the earlier times was ex- 
clusively made of skins. Great taste was 
shown in the manufacture of these costumes, 
which were trimmed with fur, and ornaments 
made of fish scales, shells, beads, colored 
grasses and feathers. The designs were beau- 
tiful and artistic, and the material thoroughly 
finished. Indian tanned skins have always, 
even to the present day, commanded high 

After the coming of the whites cloth began 
to be used by the squaws in the manufacture 
of clothing; the brighter the colors the more 
popular the pattern — red being a favorite. The 
squaws dressed in the gayest costumes their 
tastes could devise ; beautifully worked and 

beaded moccasins, soft deerskin leggings, rich- 
ly decorated and fringed with the brightest 
colored beads, ornaments and pendants ; and 
their plump busts and arms were almost 
covered with the many strings of ornaments, 
shells, beads and stone pendants. In winter 
an e.xtra skirt was worn, and furs wrapped 
around the'neck and head. 

Warriors, old and young, were most particu- 
lar as to their appearance. Their hair was 
pulled out by the roots after the age of pu- 
berty had been reached, and but a "scalplock" 
was allowed to grow. To this was fastened 
a plume of feathers or horsehair. Nose and 
ears were pierced for rings ; the bodies were 
left bare to the waist, with many handsome 
belts of wampum thrown across the shoulder. 
The face and body were profusely painted with 
colors made from clays and simple woodland 
flowers, and a belt around the waist bore the 
knife, warbag of charms, and other tools of 
the chase or warfare, and served to hold the 
leggings up. Through this belt was passed 
the ends of the breechclout, made of linen or 
other cloth, in early times of skin. It was 
eight or nine inches wide and nearly a yard 
long, and the manner of wrapping it around 
the body denoted the clan or tribe to which 
the wearer belonged. 

Moccasins of many kinds were worn, and 
in all cases the ankles were covered to protect 
the feet from snakebites and thorns. On long 
expeditions a fringed skirt was worn to protect 
the body from bushes and briars, the leggings 
being then exceptionally heavy. The differ- 
ence between the hunters and the warriors on 
the warpath consisted in the lack of paint on 
the faces of the former and the lack of cloth- 
ing of the latter. On marauding expeditions 
the warrior greased himself all over to make 
the hold of his adversary insecure. 

There was general pride in the skill of the 
hunters and the achievements of the warriors. 
The taking of the first scalp by a young war- 
rior was an occasion of special excitement and 
rejoicing. The return of a party from the 
warpath or a hunting expedition was always 
attended with a public reception in the village ; 
but after the expedition ended the lazy life of 
the heroes began, and when winter set in they 
had nothing to do but lie around until the 
spring should come, smoke their pipes and 
relate their deeds of prowess. On bright days 
they sometimes got up a little excitement over 
a game of football or a footrace ; occasionally 
there was a dance or a feast, but as a rule the 
winters were passed in idleness. Smoking was 
their chief comfort under all conditions, 


whether half asleep in the wigwams, or loll- 
ing in the sunshine outside. Their pipes were 
made of corncobs, clay, stone or wood, and 
upon them were expended all their taste and 
capacity for decoration. 


The Indian government was distinctly social- 
istic in character. In the wigwams and vil- 
lages, with the warriors and hunters, between 
the young and old, in all situations of life, 
there was perfect equality; in their character 
and conduct were seen a strong sense of inde- 
pendence, a great aversion to anything that 
savored of caste or subjugation. They gloried 
in their native liberty, and for one to show a 
feeling of superiority was an effective barrier 
to all further success. A chief being asked if 
his tribe were free, replied: "Why not, since 
I myself am free, although their chief?" The 
chief of a tribe was not a ruler but a coun- 
selor; he could neither make peace nor war, 
and except as others were guided by his ex- 
ample he had no control of tribal affairs. 

A brave was chosen war chief upon his own 
merit as a warrior, after having demonstrated 
exceptional bravery or skill ; the village chief 
was selected as one possessing administrative 
ability, commanding address and great elo- 
quence, and well versed in the traditions of 
the tribe and their relations to neighboring 
tribes. Possessing these distinguishing traits 
of character and influence enough to be chosen 
leader, it was equally necessary for each to 
maintain his standing as a hunter and warrior. 

For purposes of consultation, and as a place 
to assemble the chiefs and braves, a council 
house was usually built near the center of the 
village. There all met on an equal footing to 
determine questions of common interest ; the 
calumets or pipes of peace and war were placed 
side Ijy side, the choice of each to be made by 
the signal taps of the war club. There the 
Indian warriors gave vent to bursts of native 
eloquence, for which they were so justly fa- 
mous. Although an Indian seldom spoke 
under ordinary circumstances, when he did 
break the silence he said something of import. 
It was at these councils that opportunity was 
afforded to acquire that popularity and influ- 
ence which would promote the speaker to posi- 
tion and authority. 


Personal pride was the controlling influence 
in the Indian's religion. He believed that the 

Great Spirit was ruler over all, and that spirit 
was an Indian. Manitou was the name most 
generally given the Great Spirit. The Indians 
believed that they were the first of the human 
race created; that they sprang from the brain 
of the Great Spirit; that they possessed all 
knowledge, and were under the special care of 
their creator. Their traditions were vague, but 
their religious sentiments were clear. They 
had no fixed days or manner of worship. 
They believed in a future state of reward and 
punishment in the "happy hunting grounds" 
beyond the grave; that all who did well would 
be happy, but all who did ill would be mis- 
erable ; they justified their barbarous outrages 
and savage warfare, their cruel torture of men, 
women and children, upon the precept of 
"blood for blood," and among themselves, as 
one of their famous chieftains said, they let 
each individual "paddle his own canoe." 

What principles of religion they had they 
followed closely. They believed in a good 
spirit and an evil one, and a number of lesser 
deities that were active in managing the affairs 
of the universe. To these they made sacrifices 
to avert calamity, to secure blessings and suc- 
cess, and in the way of thanksgiving for bene- 
fits received. They also believed firmly in pun- 
ishment and reward in this life. 

Their medicine men, who had the care of 
the sick and were in charge of all religious 
feasts and observances, were held in great re- 
spect as possessors of supernatural powers. 
By the practice of their magical arts they 
were supposed to have close relations with 
the Great Spirit. Their medicines, made from 
roots and herbs, were in their use surrounded 
with all mystery possible, and all the arts of 
the conjurer were solemnly practiced. 

Indian burials were conducted with as much 
form as any of their ceremonies. In the grave 
with the corpse were buried the rifle and trap- 
pings of the warrior or hunter, his pipe and 
tobacco, and sufficient provisions and parched 
corn to last him on his journey to the happy 
hunting grounds of the future life. There was 
no common place of burial, each grave being 
located in the forest or on the hills, to suit 
tlie wishes of the surviving friends. When 
an Indian or his squaw died the survivors 
would remain in mourning for a year, being 
afterwards at liberty to marry again. 


The regular times for feasts were when the 
green corn could be first used, when the first 
game of the season was killed, and when a vie- 



tory was celebrated. Notices of these feasts 
were sent to the wigwams and to the friendly 
tribes by means of a runner, who bore small 
pieces of painted wood. He would give the 
date and program verbally. When the feast 
occurred the bucks, squaws and young Indians 
would sit around the fires, on which were boil- 
ing the kettles of green corn, juicy venison, 
bear meat, fat coon and hominy. Warriors 
and squaws dressed in their best, and the occa- 
sion was one of vast ceremonial. Each was 
provided with a wooden bowl and a spoon of 
bone or metal, and they helped themselves 
whenever the food had been cooked to their 

None but the warriors participated in the 
wild excitement of the war dance, but the 
youths were allowed to look on in order to 
prepare for their later initiation, which was 
severe and nerve-testing. There were other 
dances in which the young and old joined with 
loud shoutings, the clangor of tomtoms and 
other rude instruments ; winding dances with 
intricate figures ; wild square dances, in which 
the maiden might show her preference for the 
favorite hunter ; and these dances often were 
continued all night by the light of the blazing 
camp fires. 

The sports and pastimes of the savages were 
in character more in the way of preparation 
for and incentive to the objects and pursuits 
of their life, and consisted of running and 
canoe races, jumping, wrestling, shooting, 
throwing the tomahawk, and, in the days be- 
fore the introduction of firearms, of practice 
with the bow and arrow. Football was a very" 
popular game, the excitement lasting some- 
times for days and involving the entire village 
in the sport. 


The Susquehanna and the streams flowing 
into it were the favorite spawning and feeding 
waters for the choice varieties of the different 
fishes native to this section, and during the 
cool months the Indians speared them and 
trapped them in wicker baskets and nets. The 
younger people had great sport in following 
the larger fish in the shoals and rapids and 
killing them with spears and arrows; and in 
winter they cut holes in the ice and through 
them speared the finny denizens of the stream. 

Trapping of animals was the most profitable 
pursuit followed. It was a good school for 
the youths, furnished employment for the old 
or disabled men, and gave the braves the means 
wherewith to supply themselves with neces- 

saries and finery from the traders. It some- 
times happened, when the season was favorable 
and game was plenty, that the whole tribe 
would devote the winter to the traps, which 
were located at all favorable points along the 
trails and streams, sometimes occupying a ter- 
ritory of thirty miles in circumference. Bea- 
ver, otter and bear skins were the most val- 
uable, but the skins of muskrats, mink, weasels 
and other small game also were not rejected. 
The great abundance of game in the woods, 
the rich soil of the valleys in which were 
located the villages, provided an unfailing 
source of supply to the savages. Knowledge 
of woodcraft and of the habits of the birds 
and beasts of the forest was the first requi- 
site for existence in savage life, and in this 
the Indians excelled. They had expedients 
for every emergency. One great accomplish- 
ment was the ability to imitate the notes and 
calls of the birds and the cries of the beasts 
of the forest. Warriors used these calls in 
their forays, and the first white settlers soon 
learned to suspect the cry of a bird if sounded 
at an unusual time. 


The war party was the most carefully organ- 
ized band that left a village, the numbers of 
which it was composed depending upon the 
character of the expedition. One or two 
braves might start on a bushwhacking or 
scalping expedition of their own, or a band 
of five or six might start out to destroy some 
isolated cabins and massacre the inmates. 
Larger parties were made up to attack the 
settlements. When starting out all the braves 
donned the warpaint and oiled their bodies, 
then formed into a single line and marched 
through the village singing war songs. Just 
before leaving the limits of the village a salute 
would be fired, but from that time until the 
attack was made not a sound broke the still- 
ness of the forest. A war party of Indians 
could pass within a few feet of the camp of 
the whites or the cabins of the settlers and 
make not a sound or leave a single trace of 
their passage. 

The Indians' method of fighting, which has 
survived even to the present day, vvas a sys- 
tem of rapid attacks and retreats. They would 
lie in wait for the enemy and after a sudden 
attack would fall back to some other ad- 
vantageous point. In the fight the whole force 
was formed in an irregular line, covered by 
anything that the topography of the country 
afforded. Thev seldom met the enemv in a 


stand-up fight, but would strike suddenly and 
retreat, yet there was not a drop of cowardly 
blood in an Indian. When parties were sent 
out on a raid it was customary to send as sup- 
port in case of reverses a band of hunters, with 
squaws and camp equipage, to locate an ad- 
vanced supply camp not far from the scene 
of battle. From this center the hunters would 
go out after game and act as a rear guard, 
awaiting the retreat of the war party. 

The return of the successful warriors was 
the occasion of much rejoicing and excitement. 
They came in with shouts of victory, waving 
the bloody scalps and driving before them the 
captured victims that had been preserved for 
the sacrifice, their hands tied behind them and 
their faces blackened as a sign that they were 
to be burned at the stake. First the victims 
were made to run the gauntlet. Indians of 
all ages, squaws and children, stood in a long 
double line, between which the prisoner was 
compelled to run, sometimes blindfolded and 
bound. The savages were armed with any 
weapons that came to hand, sticks, clubs, 
switches, whips, knives and tomahawks, with 
which the unfortunate was struck and slashed, 
often to death. Sometimes sand was thrown 
in the eyes to impede progress. In most in- 
stances the captive was allowed to live long 
enough to be lashed to the stake and burned. 

The hardy pioneers of this country became 
inured to these acts of rapine and reprisal 
and in many instances returned the debt with 
interest. It would be impossible to overdraw 
the horrible pictures of death and torture that 
were the experiences of many of the pioneer 
settlers of this country. An Indian would not 
hesitate to dash out the brains of a family of 
children in the presence of the father and 
mother, and then scalp the parents and burn 
the home. In return, there was no quarter 
given the savages when captured. No prison- 
ers were taken by either side in the latter days 
of the warfare between the whites and In- 
dians. A good Indian was usually a dead 
one. Chapter after chapter could be filled 
with the stories of the hardships and cruelties 
suffered by our forefathers, but space will not 
permit their repetition. 

It sometimes happened that prisoners were 
spared by the Indians through superstition or 
intent, and in these cases the captive was care- 
fully guarded against escape while being in- 
itiated into the life of the savage. Some of 
the captives married squaws, became satisfied 
with the mode of life and remained with the 
Indians. Children sometimes were preserved 
from death and adopted into the tribe, in later 

years becoming as much attached to their 
foster parents as if they had been born into the 
life. These seldom were reclaimed to a life of 
civilization. Interpreters for the tribes were 
usually selected from these captives, and it 
was often found they had grown to like the 
savage existence and attained positions of trust 
and responsibility. However, some of the 
white men who voluntarily entered the Indian 
tribes became more fiendish and inhuman than 
the natives themselves. With the names of 
Butler and Brandt are associated all that the 
human mind can conceive that was cruel and 
devilish. They seemed to revel in carnage 
and blood. 

As a contrast to this, instances are to be 
found where the native sense of honor of the 
Indian caused him to withhold his hand from 
the destruction of those who had befriended 
him and to warn them of the attacks of other 
tribes. In this respect the Quakers were 
singularly exempt from attack and murder, 
through their fixed policy of dealing in a just 
manner with the Indians. Few instances are 
recorded where a member of the Society of 
Friends suiifered from the depredations of the 
savages, who had learned of their high sense 
of humanity and justice. 


The treaty and purchase of 1754 between the 
Penns and the representatives of the Six 
Nations caused great dissatisfaction among 
the Shawanese, Delawares and Monseys, who 
considered that they had been defrauded of 
their lands, which had been guaranteed to 
them by the Iroquois. They therefore pro- 
ceeded to go on the warpath, and the settle- 
ments were raided, the settlers scalped and 
their homes destroyed. 

This being brought to the attention of the 
proprietaries, preparations were made for the 
protection of the settlers, and Benjamin 
Franklin ordered the construction of Fort 
Augusta, at what is now the site of Sunbury. 
This was followed by the erection of many 
other forts along the valleys of the North and 
West Branches of the Susquehanna, viz. : 
Fort Jenkins, in Briarcreek township, Colum- 
bia county; Fort Wheeler, on Fishing creek, 
about three miles above its mouth; Fort Mc- 
Clure, on the Susquehanna within the limits 
of the present town of Bloomsburg; Fort 
Rice, on the headwaters of Chillisquaque 
creek, thirteen miles from Sunbury; Mont- 
gomery's Fort, twelve miles below Muncy on 



the West Branch; Bosley's Mills, on the 
Chillisquaque, now the site of VVashington- 
ville, Montour county; Fort Freeland, on 
Warrior run, four miles above its mouth ; Fort 
Meninger, at the mouth of Warrior run; 
Boone's Mill, seven miles from Fort Freeland, 
at the mouth of Muddy run; and Fort Swartz, 
about one mile above Milton. 

These old forts were mainly designed to 
afford temporary shelter to the settlers from 
the raids of the Indians. In time of war they 
were regularly garrisoned by rangers. One 
of the methods of defense, which had been 
brought to America by natives of Europe, and 
formerly one of the weapons of the Romans, 
was the use of the "caltrop" or "crowsfoot," 
an iron instrument having four barbed points, 
which projected in all directions, so that when 
thrown on the ground at least one point stood 
upright. These implements were a great 
deterrent to the barefooted or moccasin-clad 
savage, and the unfortunate who stepped on 
one of them soon gave evidence of his pres- 
ence. After the cessation of hostilities the 
settlers frequently complained of the presence 
of these barbs in their pastures, where cattle 
would get them fastened in their feet, the rusty 
iron often causing inflammation and death. 

It is unnecessary to describe the forts out- 
side of Columbia and Montour counties, as 
they have little bearing on local history, so 
we will simply detail the origin, history and 
ultimate fate of the forts which were erected 
within the present limits of the two counties. 
In relating the history of these forts the nar- 
rative would be incomplete without a brief 
sketch of Moses Van Campen, the builder of 
two of them. He grew to manhood and first 
came into prominence as a member of Col. 
John Kelly's command on Big Isle, on the 
West Branch of the Susquehanna, in 1777. In 
177S he had been promoted from orderly' ser- 
geant to lieutenant, and in that year built Fort 
Wheeler. In 1779 he did scouting duty for 
Sullivan's army near Tioga. In 1780 he was 
captured by Indians, his father, brother and 
uncle killed, and he, Peter Pence and Abram 
Pike carried into captivity. One night they 
rose, and after killing nine of their captors 
and wounding the remaining one made their 
escape. In 1781 Van Campen spent the sum- 
mer in scouting and the winter in guarding 
British prisoners. In 1782 he marched with 
Robinson's rangers, of which he was a lieu- 
tenant, back to Northumberland, and after a 
few days' rest was ordered to build Fort 
Muncy. Later he was sent to Big Isle, where 
he was attacked by a large body of Indians 

and captured. He was sold to the English 
and remained in captivity for some time, but 
at last exchanged, returned home to recuper- 
ate, and then was sent to Wilkes-Barre, where 
he remained until the close of the war. He 
removed to New York State in 1795, and 
there, after an active life as surveyor and 
engineer, he died at the advanced age of ninety- 


This fort was erected in the fall of 1777, or 
during the winter and the early spring of 1778, 
and was simply a stockade around the home of 
a Mr. Jenkins, one of the first settlers. Its 
size was 60 by 80 feet and it stood on the 
North Branch of the Susquehanna in Centre 
township, midway between Berwick and 
Bloomsburg. The old canal passes between 
its site and the river. A heavily wooded island 
stood in the river directly opposite, but re- 
peated floods have long ago destroyed it. 

Soon after the building of the stockade the 
fort was garrisoned by thirty men, under 
Colonel Hartley. Col. Adam Hubley, who 
succeeded him, marched the garrison away, 
and County Lieutenant Colonel Hunter fur- 
nished sufficient men to hold the fort until the 
arrival of Col. Ludwig Weltner and the Ger- 
man battalion. The latter held the post until 
1780, when they departed to assist in the de- 
fense of Forts Rice and Augusta. Soon after- 
wards a party of Tories and Indians came by 
way of Knob mountain, and finding the fort 
deserted set fire to it and the surrounding 

After peace had been declared Mr. Jenkins 
sold the land on which the fort had stood to 
James Wilson, one of the signers of the Decla- 
ration of Independence, who sold it to Capt. 
Frederick Hill. The latter moved onto it, 
built a dwelling on the site of the fort and 
kept a tavern there, calling it the "Fort 
Jenkins Inn." His son Jacob succeeded him 
and conducted the tavern for a time, but was 
converted at a Methodist revival and aban- 
doned the sale of liquor to take up farming. 
Charles F. Hill, the son, followed as owner. 
Charles S. Yorks is the owner of Fort Jenkins 
in 1914. 


In April, 1778, Lieut. Moses Van Campen 
began the building of Fort Wheeler, on the 
farm of Isaiah Wheeler, on the banks of Fish- 
ing creek, about three miles above the present 



town of Bloomsburg, on the Bloomsburg & 
Sullivan railroad, in Scott township, near the 
site of the Paper Mill. It was built of logs 
and surrounded by a stockade sufficiently large 
to accommodate the families of the neighbor- 
hood. They had hardly completed the fort 
before the Indians arrived and attacked it, 
but the defenders soon put them to flight. 

Van Campen made this fort his headquarters 
when not engaged in scouting. One of the 
attractions to him was the daughter of Wheeler, 
for whose hand Van Campen and Col. Joseph 
Salmon, another scout, were rivals. Salmon 
finally married the girl. Van Campen's father 
also for a time lived near the fort. 

Fort Wheeler was the only one of the long 
line of defenses in this section of the State 
that was never abandoned or destroyed by 
hostile hands. Time alone did the work of 
disintegration. Peter Melick, one of the com- 
mittee of safety for Wyoming township, lived 
near here. The old graveyard where the 
soldiers were buried is still recognizable, 
and the spring that supplied the fort with 
water is still running. The land is now owned 
by the Creveling family. John Crawford, 
grandfather of Joseph Crawford, an old citi- 
zen of Orangeville, was the second child born 
in this section, his birth taking place inside 
the stockade of the fort soon after its com- 
pletion, in 1778. No vestiges of the fort are 
now to be seen, but the site is known to most 
of the residents of that section. 


At the time of the destruction of Fort Jen- 
kins there was a line of forts reaching from 
the West Branch to the North Branch of the 
Susquehanna, comprising Forts Muncy, Free- 
land, Montgomery, Bosley's Mills, Wheeler 

and Jenkins. The loss of the latter fort left 
the right flank exposed to the marauders, so 
on Van Campen's return from captivity he 
stockaded the home of Mrs. James McClure, 
on the bank of the Susquehanna, one mile 
above the mouth of Fishing creek, and on the 
later site of the house of Douglas Hughes, be- 
low Bloomsburg. This fortihcation took the 
name of Fort McClure, and became the head- 
quarters for stores and expeditions as long as 
the defense of the frontier was necessary. 
This fort was never seriously attacked, though 
the near residents often fled to it for security. 
It was never more than a stockade and further 
fortifications were not built. A residence now 
stands on the site. A marker has been placed 
here by the Fort McClure Chapter, Daughters 
of the American Revolution, Bloomsburg. 


This only fortified work in Montour county 
was really the stockaded stone mill of a Mr. 
Bosley, in the forks of the Chillisquaque, at 
Washingtonville, Derry township. The mill 
was built in 1773, and stockaded in 1777. When 
the Indians became troublesome it was gar- 
risoned by about twenty men and became a 
place of importance in the lines of defense. 
Captain Kemplon was in command here in 
1780, and assisted in repelling many attacks of 
the savages. 

The site of the old mill is easily recogniza- 
ble by the race and dam at the lower end of the 
town of to-day. The headrace has been con- 
tinued across the road, and the old dam site 
has been used as a location for the more mod- 
ern mill of Snyder Brothers. 

The land on which the fort or mill stood was 
the property in past years of Jacob Hartman 
and Jesse Umstead. 



Two hundred and seventy years ago was 
born in the city of London the subsequent 
founder of the Province of Pennsylvania. He 
was the son of WiUiam Penn, of the County of 
Wilts, a vice admiral in the time of Cromwell, 
whom Charles II knighted for his successful 
naval services against the Dutch. The son, 
William, was a studious youth, and receiving 
religious impressions in his twelfth year was 
converted to the tenets of the Society of 
Friends by the preaching of Thomas Lowe, a 
Quaker leader. While in Oxford College he 
continued his religious practices, which the 
authorities condemned and for which they 
finally expelled him. 

Young Penn's father vainly endeavored to 
turn him from his views on religion, hoping to 
persuade him to follow the profession of arms, 
but finding him obdurate gave him a severe 
beating and turned him from his home. His 
mother prevailed on the father to reinstate him 
and he later took up the study of law, gradu- 
ated, and under the Duke of Ormond served as 
military aide in Ireland. There occurred the 
turning point of his life. He again came under 
the influence of Thomas Lowe, joined the 
Quakers, and was imprisoned for attending 
their meetings. 

Again he disagreed with his father, the 
cause being his refusal to remain uncovered 
in the presence of the king and others. This 
rupture was permanent until just before the 
father's death, when they became completely 
reconciled. The entire estate being left to the 
son he was now in position to devote his life 
to the cause of the persecuted sect, and such 
was his influence with the king that he obtained 
the patent for the Province of Pennsylvania, 
in consideration of his father's services and a 
debt of f 16,000 due the estate from the crown. 
After a long and searching course of proceed- 
ings, lasting from June 14, 1680, till March 4, 
1681, the charter was granted, in which the 
boundaries of the Province are thus prescribed : 
"Bounded on the east by Delaware River, from 

twelve miles distance northward of New Castle 
town (Del.) unto the three and fortieth degree 
of northern latitude, if the said river doth ex- 
tend so far northward, but if the said river 
shall not extend so far northward, then by the 
said river so far as it doth extend ; and from 
the head of said river the eastern bounds are to 
be determined by a meridian line, to be drawn 
from the head of said river unto the said forty- 
third degree. The said land to extend west- 
ward five degrees in longitude, to be computed 
from the said eastern bounds, and the said 
lands to be bounded on the north by the begin- 
ning of the three and fortieth degree of north- 
em latitude, and on the south by a circle drawn 
at twelve miles distance from New Castle, 
northward and westward, unto the beginning 
of the fortieth degree of northern latitude, and 
then by a straight line westward to the limits 
of longitude above mentioned." 

By a calculation of the contents of those 
charter boundaries the Province contained 
35-361,600 acres. The present area of the 
State of Pennsylvania, according to the census 
of 1910, is 45,126 square miles, or 28,880,640 
acres. The area was diminished by the sub- 
sequent adjustment of the boundaries between 
this and the States of Maryland, Virginia and 
New York. The impossible southern line, men- 
tioned in the charter, caused much dispute be- 
tween Penn and Lord Baltimore, which was at 
length permanently fixed by Mason and Dixon, 
who were eminent mathematicians and astrono- 
mers, between 1763 and 1766. 

In December, 1774, the boundary line be- 
tween Pennsylvania and New York was ascer- 
tained and fixed by David Rittenhouse on the 
part of the former, and Samuel Holland on the 
part of the latter, to be north latitude 
42°, with a variation of 4° 20'. (This was the 
declination in 1790. It is now about 10°. ) The 
forty-third parallel of north latitude, men- 
tioned in the charter, extends through central 
New York. Messrs. Rittenhouse and Holland 
placed a stone on a small island in the western 




branch of the Delaware river as a monument 
on the northeast corner of Pennsylvania, vkfith 
the words and figures New York, 1774, and 
the above-mentioned latitude and variation 
cut upon the top. They also placed another 
stone, four perches due west from the former, 
cutting on the top thereof the word Pennsyl- 
vania and the same latitude and variation as 
on the other. The extension of that line 
farther west was postponed until 1786-87, when 
it was completed by Andrew EUicott, on the 
part of Pennsylvania, and James Clinton and 
Simeon Dewitt on the part of New York. 

By act of March 27, 1790, ^300 were granted 
to Reading Howell for delineating on his map 
all the lines of this State, as established by 
law or otherwise ascertained. 

Penn sailed in the ship "Welcome" Aug. 30, 
1682, for his newly acquired province. He 
arrived after a long passage at New Castle, 
Del., where the colonists, English, Dutch and 
Swedes, assembled to welcome him as their 
beloved proprietor. He wished the province 
to be called New Wales, but the king persisted 
in naming it "Pensilvania." In reference 
thereto Penn wrote to his friend, Robert Tur- 
ner, on the 5th of January : 'T proposed, when 
the secretary, a Welshman, refused to have it 
called New Wales, Sylvaiiia, and they added 
Penn to it, and though I much opposed it, and 
went to the king to have it struck out and al- 
tered, he said it was past and would take it 
upon him ; nor could twenty guineas move the 
under-secretaries to vary the name ; for I 
feared lest it should be looked on as a vanity 
in me, and not as a respect in the king, as it 
truly was, to my father, whom he often men- 
tions with praise." 

Notwithstanding his rights under that char- 
ter, Penn, with his characteristic sense of jus- 
tice, purchased the territory from the Indians 
at a fair price. It is sad to relate that later 
owners of land in the State did not follow in 
his footsteps in their dealings with the natives 
and settlers. 

Before leaving England Penn drafted what 
he called the "Fundamental Law and Frame of 
Government of Pennsylvania," from which we 
cite the thirty-fifth section : "All persons liv- 
ing in this province who confess and acknowl- 
edge the one Almightv and Eternal God to be 
the Creator, L^pholder and Ruler of the world, 
and that hold themselves obliged in conscience 
to live peaceably and justly in civil society, 
shall in noways be molested or prejudiced for 
their religious persuasion or practice in mat- 
ters of faith and worship, place or ministry 
whatever." Herein was granted a greater de- 

gree of religious liberty than had been allowed 
elsewhere in the colonies. 


More than a hundred and fifty years elapsed 
from the date of the settlement of Jamestown, 
Va., ere the more venturesome of the pioneers 
came to the portion of the Commonwealth in- 
cluded in the boundaries of Columbia and Mon- 
tour counties, and eighty-six years had elapsed 
since William Penn made his first bargain with 
the Indians. Before detailing the settlement 
of this section we will review the diflierent in- 
cidents which occurred previous to that time 
which had tlieir effect upon the history of the 
counties of Columbia and Montour. 

The first treaty between Penn and the In- 
dians took place in July, 1682, at Shackamaxon, 
and was negotiated by William Markham, the 
former's representative. In the following 
November Penn arrived with a party of col- 
onists and cemented the former treaty, proba- 
blv also making another one. Various other 
purchases were made by the Penns in the years 
1696, 1700, 1718, 1732 and 1736. The pur- 
chase of 1749 came to within a few miles of the 
territory now included in the counties of 
Columbia and Montour. 

At that time few of the white leaders had 
any idea of the vast extent of the country, and 
the Indians could eive them no definite descrip- 
tion of the boundaries or extent of the tracts 
that they had disposed of. Connecticut at this 
time was seeking to enlarge its boundaries, and 
cast envious eyes on the rich Wyoming valley, 
part of which is located in the northern end of 
Columbia county. In a conference held with 
the Indians at Albany in 1754, the Connecticut 
delegates made a large purchase of land in this 
valley and formed the Susquehanna Company, 
to promote the settlement of the lands. The 
proprietaries of the State of Pennsylvania had 
also made a purchase of these identical lands 
at an earlier date, the savages having little re- 
gard for the letter of their obligations and be- 
ing actuallv ignorant in many instances of the 
real location of the several tracts sold. The 
Connecticut company at once began to sell the 
lands thus purchased, and a few venturesome 
settlers came to the portion now included in 
Fishingcreek township. 

The success of the French in 1754 and Brad- 
dock's defeat in the following year brought the 
Indian war into this section and it resulted in 
the depopulation of the country in 1763. It 
was not until the purchase of 1768 that the 
country was finally permanently opened to set- 



tlement. As soon as the Connecticut authori- 
ties heard of the Penn purchase they sent a 
small party of settlers to reoccupy the lands 
abandoned in 1763. This brought on a bitter 
controversy between the two parties who 
claimed the land. Forts and blockhouses were 
erected bv both sides, and some blood was shed. 

The dispute was taken to the London Coun- 
cil, which decided against the Penns. In 1775 
the matter was brought before the Continental 
Congress, who also decided in favor of Con- 
necticut. This decision was rejected by the 
Pennsylvania Assembly, and it was not till 
1802 that Congress finally gave the titles to the 

Settlers from Connecticut had come to 
what is now the eastern part of Columbia 
county and entered upon the land under the 
Connecticut claim, and the grantees from the 
Penns came to the same region and made claim 
to the lands under surveys made in 1769 and 
1772. This led to much friction between the 
settlers and it was finally settled by the Decree 
of Trenton, which awarded all the lands in 
the "Seventeen townships of Luzerne county" 
to the Connecticut claimants and all outside 
of Luzerne county to the Penns, with a pro- 
viso that any lands in the seventeen townships 
which had been sold by the Penns to settlers 
should be ceded to the State and the purchase 
money refunded. From that time on the rival 
claimants lived in peace with their neighbors. 

The Penn treaty made with the savages in 
1768, at Fort Stanwix, was the primal incen- 
tive to the settlement of the land of which this 
history is written. The whites, secure in a 
clear title to the country, took peaceable pos- 
session of their purchases and the Indians re- 
treated to the fastnesses of the hills, but few 
remaining in their old villages of Nescopeck, 
Catawissa, and the one on the Mahoning creek, 
the site of Danville. 

The Revolutionary war brought with it a 
renewed fear of the savages, and after many 
forays and minor attacks the terrible massacre 
of Wyoming occurred, July 3, 1778. This 
caused a general flight of all the settlers in this 
section, most of them taking refuge at Sunbury 
and Northumberland. 

The authorities took prompt measures to pro- 
tect the settlers. Colonel Hartley and a regi- 
ment of the line were at once sent to the scene, 
built a fort at the home of a settler named Jen- 
kins, six miles below Nescopeck falls, pursued 
the Indians and drove them from that sec- 
tion. That winter the savages were not active, 
owing to the extreme cold. The following 
April they attacked the fort, but were repulsed. 

the whites losing three and having four 
wounded. Again in May the Indians attacked 
a party of settlers at Mittlinville, killing and 
scalping four of a family. These ravages con- 
tinued through the entire year, the troops being 
too few to make adequate return. In 1779 the 
campaign of the whites was begun in earnest, 
and by the end of the year the country was in 
a more tranquil state. This resulted in the 
withdrawal of some of the soldiers, and in 1780 
most of the defense of the frontiers devolved 
on the poorly equipped and hard-worked 
militia. In that year the savages made a con- 
certed attack on Fort Jenkins and destroyed 
it, carrying off the stock and burning the stores 
of grain. The garrison had got wind of the 
attack and retreated. 

The following June a company of rangers 
was organized, with Thomas Robinson as cap- 
tain and Moses Van Campen as ensign. Later 
Van Campen was made lieutenant, the com- 
mand devolving on him, as Robinson was not 
experienced in scouting. In the spring of 1781 
this company built a fort on the plantation of 
the Widow McClure, the farm now included 
in the limits of Bloomsburg, and there stored 
their supplies. 

The close of the Revolution brought about 
a cessation of hostilities, and the treaty of 
1784 removed the last barrier to settlement. 


The first settlement in Columbia county was 
made by an Irish Quaker. Next came the 
Diitch, from the Minisinks; the Welsh, from 
Uwchland; the Germans, from Berks county; 
and the Scotch-Irish, from New Jersey. The 
available lines of travel had much to do in 
determining the location of the pioneers, who 
followed the line of the Susquehanna and its 

The Quakers settled at Catawissa and Green- 
wood, but the poor character of the soil at the 
former place caused these thrifty farmers to 
pass on to Ohio and Canada. Those at Green- 
wood, finding the soil satisfactory', remained, 
and their descendants are scattered through- 
out the county. 

The German immigration set in about 1788, 
these people coming mostly from Berks county, 
although many were from the Fatherland. 
They were more persistent and plodding than 
the Quakers, and most of them remained in 
their adopted homes. This nationality forms 
the greater part of the present population. 

The New Jersey immigrants were mostly 
English dissenters. They occupied the coun- 



try north of the river and their posterity com- 
prises the bulk of the population in the northern 
townships. There are also a large number of 
the descendants of the Connecticut settlers to 
be found in that locality. 

In Locust township a considerable portion 
of the population is of Welsh descent, and they 
are among the best of the farmers of the 
county. In Conyngham township there is a 
large population of foreigners of many nation- 
alities, the predominating race being Slavonic. 
These are employed principally in the coal 


The evolution of the present prosperous com- 
munity from the raw material of the past is a 
story of romantic and enthralling interest. The 
casualties in the founding of an empire by war 
are not more numerous than those endured by 
the founders of a community in the wilderness, 
peopled by savages and wild beasts. 

The different members of Columbia county's 
piSneer society came from widely separated 
localities ; they were led to emigrate by a vari- 
ety of motives, and they differed as much in 
social prejudices, habits and conditions as in 
nationality. The common object of all was 
the planting of a new home, where patient, 
persevering toil would gain a moderate compe- 
tence for old age and provide greater advan- 
tages for the growing families. There was no 
established rule for success in this venture, 
and the unbroken forest contained enough dif- 
ficulties to develop the individuality of the pio- 
neer to the fullest. 

The selection of a home site was determined 
largely by accident. The chance acquaintance 
with a speculator, or the story of a friend or 
relative who had emigrated to the new pur- 
chase, led to the removal of the listener to the 
same section. Very often, as is the case in 
present days, the purchase was made before 
examination ; in some cases a careful tour of 
inspection was made ; while in other instances 
the fever of immigration to new territory 
seized the head of the family, and without ade- 
quate preparation the household was broken 
up, property sold at a loss, the few portable 
household goods placed on the backs of horses, 
and the trip begun without definite aim or des- 

With the difficulties of travel, the amount of 
goods brought narrowed down to only the nec- 
essaries that were easily carried. Carts and 
wagons were taken only as far as Sunbury. 
Beyond there, and in other routes into the 

county, the packhorse was the only means of 
transporting goods. Sometimes oxen and 
cows were taken, and their ownership was an 
evidence of wealth. One man was offered all 
the land he could see from a considerable emi- 
nence for one cow, but refused to make the 

The locations were determined by the con- 
dition of the ground and the class of trees upon 
it, and its nearness to water. Many grievous 
mistakes were thus made, as the forest growth 
in this vast empire of the west bears little rela- 
tion to the character of the soil. Some of the 
best land in the county was left to the wild 
denizens of the forest, while poorer soil in 
apparently better locations was eagerly seized 
upon. The location once settled upon the fam- 
ily was to be provided with shelter, and for 
this the abundant timber supplied the materi- 
als ready to hand. But the hewing and shap- 
ing of the trees into the form of a home was 
the work of men, and few of the present gen- 
eration would voluntarily take up the labor of 
constructing a log house with the crude and 
simple implements of their pioneer ancestors. 
Each family was a company of architects in 
itself, and but little aid was needed to erect the 
first rude home. When more pretentious struc- 
tures came into being they were the result of 
the united labors of the entire neighborhood, 
expended during one of the famous old "log 
rollings." With willing hands to assist the 
house was built one day and occupied the ne.xt. 
"Setting to rights" was not a laborious process. 
A few wooden pegs driven into the logs suf- 
ficed to hang a scanty wardrobe, and two larger 
ones over the fireplace supported the rifle and 
powder horn. A puncheon floor — a later lux- 
ury — and a loft were deemed unnecessary until 
the long winter evenings and stormy days pre- 
vented outdoor labor. 

The most important part of the home was 
the ample chimney of stone, which in this cli- 
mate was placed at the end of the house, with 
a broad mouth surmounted by a wide mantel, 
upon which accumulated most of the visible 
treasures of the household. This great wide 
fireplace was found in every home, some of the 
more pretentious having one at each end of 
the house. In it were hung the pot-hooks and 
hangers, and the "spit" of the old country 
would sometimes be found there also. Upon 
the massive and ofttimes artistic "firedogs" 
rested the heavy logs that threw out a glorious 
blaze and served for both warmth and light. 
Here stood the "tin oven" and the older "Dutch 
oven," within which were baked the corn pone 
and johnnycake. In the ashes were put the 



potatoes and roasting ears, and while the meat 
was trying in tlie skillet the cottee pot sim- 
mered among tne coals, is there a picture of 
comfort more alluring in these days of restau- 
rants and fiats ? 

Cooking stoves did not make their appear- 
ance until 1835, the old "ten-plate ' stove serv- 
ing as a lieater, if such a luxury could be af- 

The careful housewife had brought with her 
from their former home the homespun bed- 
ticks, as well as bedclothing, and until the hrst 
crop of corn supplied the "shucks" the forest 
was resorted to for dried leaves for the bed- 
ding. The simple methods of transit precluded 
the carrying of furniture, so this lack was sup- 
plied from the forest also. The ax and the 
drawing-knife were all the tools at hand, but 
with these the pioneer fashioned the needed 
articles. Rough benches with sapling legs sup- 
plied the seats and tables, but the bedstead 
literally had but one leg to stand on. The head 
and one side were the walls of the cabin, 
while the poles forming the other sides were 
supported by a post set into the ground at the 
proper distance. Cords or deerskin thongs 
were laced across from the walls to the side 
pieces, supporting the shuck-filled tick. 

It was not an uncommon thing to find a fam- 
ily consisting of father, mother and six or more 
children living in a house about twenty-two 
feet square, with two rooms, and a loft reached 
by a ladder. In the bedroom were two beds 
(not counting the "trundle-bed," which slid 
under the larger one), a "chest of drawers," a 
table and a chair or two. In the kitchen were 
the beds of the older children, surrounded with 
boxes, barrels and the many bins of grain and 
sacks of necessaries. Yet limited as the space 
was, there was room for all. 

But little support could be expected from the 
land at first, so dependence was had upon the 
surplus stores of the neighbors who had come 
previously, and in instances where the family 
were the pioneers there was much suft'ering 
until the fields had yielded their harvests. For- 
tunately the wild game and fish were abundant, 
and there was never recorded a case of actual 

There was no opportunity for the pioneers, 
even had they the knowledge, to carry on "in- 
tensive" farming. The land had to be cleared, 
and the newcomer devoted all of his energies 
to this end. The more industrious families 
worked far into the night burning the logs and 
brush heaps. The soil was filled with unde- 
cayed roots of the herbage, so that the rude 
plows simply tickled the land ; and it laughed 

forth abundantl)- in response. Except for a 
lew simple vegetables, corn alone was culti- 
vated, and supplied all the wants of man and 
beast. Every part served some useful purpose. 

As the resources of the land were gradually 
developed the support of the family became 
a less serious problem. The stock found sup- 
port in the forest and scarcely needed the fod- 
der stored in the log barns. Hogs fattened in 
the forests upon the abundant mast. With 
milk, pork, meal, game, fish and wild berries 
there was small chance of famine in the house- 
holds. A patch of flax was sown after a time, 
spinning wheels and looms fashioned, and each 
home soon became a factory which turned out 
clothing for the whole family. Buckskin formed 
the wear of the men, but the women's chief de- 
pendence was upon "linsey-woolsey," a combi- 
nation of flax and wool, in the manufacture of 
which much skill and taste were employed. In 
those days there was no thought of the "high 
cost of living," neither was there any struggle 
for the cost of high living. Most of the wants 
of the household could be supplied from ma- 
terials at hand, and the outside world was 
almost a sealed book to them. 

In those days amusements were few and 
were allied closely to some useful occupation, 
the result of a night's frolic being an addition 
to the store of clothing or food. The women 
organized woolpickings, quilting and spinning 
bees, while the men reveled in log-rollings, 
house raisings and husking bees. The lack of 
quick communication caused these affairs to 
be strictly local, and the isolated settlements 
of the past were really farther apart than com- 
munities now separated by thousands of miles. 

The religious sects of the time formed their 
own communities and developed customs of 
their homes in the "old country" into many of 
the habits that are now ingrained in their de- 
scendants. The influence of these customs was 
on the whole beneficial, and the religious en- 
thusiasm of the immigrants was slowly modi- 
fied by contact with others of dififerent views 
than those of the communities in which they 
had been born. This mixture of nationalities 
is one of the wonderful causes of the develop- 
ment of the present great American nation — 
a nation without racial or religious prejudice. 


As far as can be ascertained the first actual 
white settler in the territory comprised within 
Columbia and Montour counties was Robert 
McWilliams, who with three sons, Hugh, John, 
and Robert, and a daughter, Jane, wife of 



Robert Curry, came from Ireland in 1771 and 
settled in that part of this section now known 
as Liberty township, Montour county. His 
complete history, as well as that of the other 
pioneers mentioned further on in this chap- 
ter, will be given in the separate sketches of 
the diiTerent divisions. 

James McClure, a Scotch-Irishman from 
Lancaster county, Pa., settled in 1772 near 
where the town of Bloomsburg is now located. 
About the same time Evan Owen (founder of 
Berwick) and John Doan bought land and 
located near him. Another later settler here 
was Samuel Boone, a Quaker, in 1775. 

Moses Roberts, the builder of the first house 
at Catawissa, is next in order of coming. He 
was a Quaker, from Maiden-creek, Berks 

John Eves, the famous Quaker ancestor of 
all the members of that name in this section, 
locateil permanently at Millville in 1774. The 
same year Alexander AIcAuley, whose mysteri- 
ous disappearance later on aroused the entire 
community, settled temporarily in Beaver town- 
ship, on Scotch run. 

In the year 1775 Michael Billheimer and 
Daniel Welliver, both from New Jersey, lo- 
cated amid the headwaters of Chillisquaque 
creek, now in Madison township, Columbia 

On Nov. 26, 1774, William Montgomery pur- 
chased from J. Simpson 180 acres of land on 
Mahoning creek, on the north bank of the east 
branch of the Susquehanna, called "Karkaase," 
and on which the town of Danville was laid out 
in 1792 by his son Daniel Montgomery. In the 
fall of 1776, or early in the spring of 1777, 
William Montgomery moved his family to this 
section and occupied their recently built stone 
house. There, Oct. 8, 1777, was born his 
youngest son, Alexander. This house still 
stands in the town of Danville and is occupied 
by the descendants of William Montgomery in 
1914. It is still in a good state of repair. 

The year after the settlement of the Mont- 
gomerys was not one of general exodus to this 
section, owing to Indian depredations, but in 
1779 an unfortunate family, whose name is un- 
known, were exterminated by the savages soon 
after they arrived at the site of Mifflinville. 

Valley township, Montour county, was the 
next scene of new arrivals, in the persons of 
Philip Maus and family, who came in 1782. 
The year following was the date of the settle- 
ment of the county above Orangeville, the 
leader of the party being Daniel McHenry. 

Abraham Kline, whose name is a household 
word in that section, came from Germany in 

1785 to establish himself and his large family 
on Fishing creek, around Orangeville. Three 
years later Leonard Rupert established his 
home at the mouth of Fishing creek and fixed 
upon that point a name which will forever cling 
to it. 

These were the leaders of the immigration 
to this county and their names will stand forth 
upon the pages of history beside those of others 
of this great nation who have made smooth the 
way of the present generation by conquering 
the wilderness and the savages who shared its 
sovereignty with the wild beasts. 


The conditions of society, the modes of liv- 
ing and the methods of business in Columbia 
county a hundred years ago and for twenty- 
five years thereafter were quite different 
from those of this brisk and prosperous 
age. Mr. I. W. Hartman, a former mer- 
chant of Bloomsburg, living in 1914, re- 
called many interesting things by which 
comparison may be made of the past with 
the present. Mr. Hartman said that if the 
average merchant of today was obliged to do 
business handicapped as they were in those 
days he would consider it almost an impossibil- 
ity. When the everpresent commercial drum- 
mer was an unknown quantity, the only means 
the merchant had of replenishing his stock was 
by personally going to Philadelphia, which he 
did semi-annually, spring and fall. And as 
there was no railroad nearer than Pottsville 
the trip was not only costly but consumed a 
great deal of time. In those days there was 
only little cash business, all goods being sold on 
six months' time. Prior to his going to Phila- 
delphia to purchase the stock the merchant 
would call upon his customers, collect from 
them what was coming, and taking the money 
with him would pay for the goods he had pur- 
chased six months previously. This was re- 
peated twice a year, yet notwithstanding this 
crude financiering many of them amassed what 
in those days was considered an ample fortune. 
Of course a few goods were purchased in the 
interim, but owing to the cost of transporta- 
tion and the time consumed in their delivery 
this was the exception. 

The mailing facilities were as crude as 
others. There was a mail route from Williams- 
port to this place passing through Jerseytown. 
The mail was usually carried by a man on 
horseback, but in inclement weather he used a 
covered wagon. The postage at that time was 
five cents and subsequently reduced to three 



cents, at which sum it remained for many 
years, until within the recollection of many 
it was reduced to two cents. 

The only bank in this section of the State was 
at Northumberland, and William McKelvy, a 
resident of Bloomsburg, who was one of 
the directors, drove down every Monday morn- 
ing to attend a meeting of the board. Mr. Hart- 
man remembers going down on horseback one 
time and making a deposit of $500 for his em- 
ployers, Eyer & Heffley, returning the same 
day. The merchants did but little bank busi- 
ness — scarcely any at all. The principal busi- 
ness was the making of deposits for safe 

In the "good old days of the past" few of 
the present conveniences were even dreamed 
of. As a rebuttal to the claims of the surviv- 
ors of those times that the old days were the 
best, let us review some of the details of life 
in those times. 

In the good old times of the early years of 
the eighteenth century every gentleman wore 
a queue and powdered his hair. His clothes 
were more elaborate than now, more unsan- 
itary, and of brilliant colors which often faded 
badly. There was only one hat factory in 
America, and that made "cocked" hats. Dry 
goods consisted of "men's stuff" and "women's 
stuff," and was limited in character and 

Stoves were unknown and all cooking was 
done before open fireplaces. China plates were 
a great luxury, and were generally objected 
to because they dulled the knives. It seems 
that the only habit left us from the past is the 
one prevalent in some classes of society of 
eating with the knife. A girl was not permitted 
to marry till she could bake a loaf of bread and 
cut it while warm into even slices. When a 
person had enough tea the spoon was placed 
across the cup. Pewter spoons and steel knives 
were highly prized and were handed down 
from one generation to the other. Wooden 
bowls, platters and trenchers were the usual 
table utensils. 

Books were very expensive, many small vol- 
umes costing $15 each. There was not a pub- 
lic library in America, and most of the books 
in private libraries came from Europe. 

Virginia contained one fifth of the popula- 
tion of the United States, and the Mississippi 
valley was not as well known as the heart of 
Africa is now. Two stagecoaches bore all of 
the travel between New York and Boston, and 
the trip required six days. Two days were 
occupied in the trip from New York to Phila- 

delphia, while the journey from New York to 
Charleston by land occupied twenty days. 

In those good old days there was no regu- 
lar post office department, all letters being car- 
ried by private post, the cost of the letter vary- 
ing from one to three shillings. There was not 
a mile of railroad in the country, no steamboats, 
no street cars, no telephones, no telegraph lines, 
and the news in the papers was usually about 
ninety days old when it was printed. 

There were then no kerosene lamps, no elec- 
tric lights, and the chief method of illumination 
was by tallow candles. Matches had not come 
into general use, so flint and steel were car- 
ried by all who went on a journey, while the 
housekeeper kept a coal of fire lit all the time. 
Sometimes when the fire went out it would be 
necessary to mount a horse and go to the near- 
est neighbor for a light, the coals being carried 
in a wooden bucket filled with ashes. 

The church collections were taken by means 
of a bag on the end of a pole, with a bell at- 
tached to awaken the sleepers whom the par- 
son's prosy and long-drawn-out sermons had 
lulled into slumber. If the sermon did not 
suit the hearer he dare not criticise it lest he 
be heavily fined. 

Imprisonment for debt was a common prac- 
tice, and the whipping post and pillory were 
means of punishment. An old copper mine in 
Connecticut was then used as a prison, and 
many of the inmates died from the effects of 
their incarceration in it. Yes, these were the 
"good old days" we sometimes hear about. 

Another important event in those days was 
court week. The county seat was at Danville, 
subsequently removed to Bloomsburg, and peo- 
ple from ail over the county attended. The 
hotels for days were busy making preparations 
for the entertainment of the crowd, and as 
newspapers were scarce it was a time when 
information was exchanged as well as the busi- 
ness which brought them transacted. Mr. I. W. 
Hartman frequently saw men walking from 
the upper end of the county at the present loca- 
tion of Jamison City, to Danville to attend 
court. The first day they would walk as far as 
Orangeville, stay over night, and finish their 
walk the next day. This was necessary, as 
there was no other way of getting there except 
by driving down and many did not keep a horse. 

There were no bridges to cross the river and 
the only one along Fishing creek was at the 
site of the present double bridge at the Lazarus 
farm below town. At that time it was a single 
track affair and very primitive in its construc- 
tion. There was a foot bridge over the creek 



at the red rock on which people crossed in going 
to and from the Foulk mill. 

Going to Catawissa in those days was not an 
easy matter by any means. The only way of 
getting there was by going around by what is 
now the Aqueduct mill and fording the river 
at the site of the Rupert railroad bridge, or 

being pushed in a flat, there being no rope 
ferries at that time. Or one could go down the 
valley to the Deimer farm, then over the hill 
and cross the river at Catawissa in the same 



Separated from the earlier settled portion 
of Pennsylvania by the Kittatinny range of 
hills, and defended from the storms of the 
northwest by the AUeghenies, the portion of 
the State in which lie the counties of Columbia 
and Montour is particularly blessed in the 
possession of both natural beauty and mineral 
wealth. Few of the elevations reach the dig- 
nity of mountains, although they rise in grace- 
ful curves to the height of over 1,500 feet in 
some instances. From their summits may be 
obtained a view of the beautiful and fertile 
valleys, clear streams and gently rolling hills 
of as fair a land as that written of by the Irish 
poet, who said : 

Bounteous nature loves all lands, beauty wanders 

Footprints leaves on many sands, but her home is 

surely there. 

The community in general is distinctly agri- 
cultural. On every hand are to be seen the re- 
sults of men's efforts to gain a support from 
the willing soil. Upon the basis of the pro- 
ductiveness of the land is built the success of 
the two counties, and almost every man of 
affairs can trace back to three generations of 
agricultural progenitors. 

Montour county bears in her center the pro- 
ductive Limestone ridge, from which much of 
the ore and stone of the past have been taken. 
On her southern boundary is the famous Mon- 
tour ridge, like a wall between it and North- 
umberland county. In the eastern end is the 
first rise of Catawissa mountain, which passes 
down through Columbia county, forming the 
division between Main and Locust town- 
ships. At Catawissa the Susquehanna has 
forced a passage through the range, showing 
all the strata of the rocks of this section in all 
their odd and interesting forms. Dividing 
Locust and Conyngham townships is Little 

mountain, with a parallel ridge south of it, 
separating the fertile regions from the anthra- 
cite coal fields, the only evidence of whose 
existence is the black waters of Catawissa 

Between Mifflin and Beaver townships lies 
Nescopeck mountain, which extends from the 
Luzerne county line to Mainville. McAuley 
and Buck mountains, with their small deposits 
of hard coal now almost worked out, complete 
the list of elevations in the southern part. 

North of the Susquehanna the most impor- 
tant elevation is Knob mountain, at the site of 
C)rangeville, a clear cut, green-clad elevation 
of great scenic beauty. Eastwardly this ridge 
is called Huntington and Lee mountains, after 
a division at the edge of the county. The most 
picturesque portion of the county lies in the 
extreme northern part, where a spur of the 
AUeghenies forms the lofty North mountain, 
the source of Fishing creek and its branches. 
This is the home of the trout and the paradise 
of the summer boarder. 

Elsewhere in the counties the surface is 
constantly broken by a succession of hills of 
varying height, the fertile slopes of which are 
cultivated entirely to the top. Around these 
hills meander the numerous streams of this 
well watered country. 

Fishing creek and its tributaries afford the 
sole drainage of that section of Columbia 
county north of the river, with the exception of 
a small portion in the extreme east drained by 
Briar creek. On the south of the river the 
country is drained by Catawissa creek. Roar- 
ing creek and Ten-Mile run. 

Montour county is drained almost entirely 
by Chillisquaque creek and its many branches. 
This stream flows through Northumberland 
county and empties into the West Branch of 
the Susquehanna. The portion of the county 
around Danville is drained by Mahoning creek. 




Columbia and Montour counties lie wholly 
within the Wilkes-Barre and Scranton basins 
of the anthracite region, known as the Wyo- 
ming Valley. This section was part of the ter- 
ritory claimed by Connecticut and afterwards 
awarded to Pennsylvania. It gains the name of 
Wyoming from the Indian title of Maughwau- 
wama, a Delaware word, meaning large plains. 
Although broken by lofty hills, the term applies 
very appropriately to this section of the State, 
owing to the broad and comparatively level 
valleys that lie between the hills. Few of these 
hills attain the dignity of mountains, the high- 
est being but i ,600 feet, but they afford charm- 
ingly varied views of a prosperous and pictur- 
esque country from their different summits. 

The general geological structure of the rocks 
of these counties includes the Pocono or Potts- 
ville Conglomerates in the higher elevations, 
the Catskill and Chemung rocks in the lower 
hills, and in the valleys the outcrops of the 
Hamilton, Lower Helderberg and Salina for- 
mations. These rocks are only included in the 
Older Secondary system and comprise the vari- 
ous strata Nos. \' to XI, inclusive, classihed by 
the second geological survey of the State. 

Columbia and Montour counties are just 
outside of the mining region of the anthracite 
fields, although many mines have been opened 
and operated continuously for years in the ex- 
treme southeastern part of Columbia county. 
The anthracite veins are usually above the high- 
est layers of rock on the summits of the hills of 
these counties, therefore "out of sight" in this 
immediate section, but to the east and south of 
the borders of Columbia the coal veins sink to 
points where they can be profitably mined. The 
soft coal strata of the western part of the State, 
which have made the fortunes of thousands, 
are here completelv eroded away and are the- 
oretically at .IvOOO feet in the air above us. 

The rocks of this section are not only com- 
pressed and twisted into strange forms, but thev 
are forced up into steep ridges and basins, but 
for which the operations of the miner would 
be more difficult and hazardous. This uplift 
has forced many of the strata into the light and 
greatly assisted in the work of mineral research 
and exploitation, besides adding to the pictur- 
esnue beauty of the cliffs and valleys. 

In addition to the action of the subterranean 
forces of past ages the more recent (compara- 
tively) erosion of the glaciers has further di- 
versified the surface of these regions. The end 
of the sreat glaciers or sea of ice that covered 
all of New York State and extended to the 

Susquehanna was marked by a terminal 
moraine, or ridge, of boulders and debris left 
by the melting of the ice. This moraine was 
l^ter torn apart and scattered in places over 
the land by the immense streams of water that 
arose from the rapidly melting ice fields, so 
causing the deep beds of sand and gravel all 
over this section. The glacial rivers also cut 
the deep clefts in the strata to be seen where 
the rivers and creeks force their way through 
Montour ridge and other elevations. 

The mineral products of these counties are 
few, agriculture leading as a source of wealth. 
However, in the past the iron ores were of great 
industrial importance, atid supplied the raw 
material for furnaces at Bloomsburg and Dan- 
\ille. These veins of ore have been worked 
out in the last twenty years, or have been found 
to descend to such depths as to make exploi- 
tation unprofitable. The iron ores of the Lake 
Superior region can be mined and shipped to 
this point for less than it takes to produce the 
native ores, and the old methods of smelting 
being replaced by the more simple modern ones 
caused the abandonment of the furnaces in this 

The quarrying of slate for mantels and roof- 
ing purposes was prosecuted in Hemlock town- 
ship, Columbia county, but through lack of 
knowledge of the business and deficiency of 
funds the enterprise was abandoned some years 
ago. The raw material is still there and, with 
modern machines and a cultivated market, 
would probably make it well worth while to 
revive the industry. 

The mining of limestone for Ijurning pur- 
poses was at one time the leafling industry of 
both counties, but at present the plants in use 
are found only in the vicinity of Lime Ridge, 
in Columbia county, along the line of Montour 
ridge, south of Frostv Valley and as far west 
as Limestoneville, in Montour county. At 
Lime Ridge and west of there two firms are 
quarrying the limestones for ballast and burn- 
ing purposes, producing a fine grade of 
hydrated lime and some small quantities of 
building stone. Near Espy, Rhone Trescott 
has a quarry in the Bossardville limestones 
which contains a thin vein of galena, from 
which he obtains several carloads of ore per 
year, yielding a high percentage of lead. This 
is jirobably the source of the lead brought to 
the Fishing creek neighborhood by the Indians 
during their occupation of the section of 
country near Orangeville. At that time the 
owners of the land believed that the lead was 
obtained at a nearer point. 

The onlv mines of anthracite coal in this sec- 



tioii are to be found in Beaver and Conyngham 
townships, Columbia county, although it was 
formerly thought that coal could be developed 
in Briarcreek township, while in 19 1 4 discover- 
ies of coal have been made in the vicinity of 
Exchange, Ivlontour county. The mines are 
treated m the separate sketches of these town- 


Following are short reviews of the charac- 
teristic formation and elevations of the town- 
ships and boroughs of Columbia and Montour 
counties, Columbia being the tirst in order of 

Columbia County 

Scott — Most of the strata of the Clinton and 
Helderberg formations are exposed in this 
township along Montour ridge. Fossil iron 
ore was formerly extensively mined at several 
points, but is now exhausted. Several quar- 
ries were at one time operated along the ridge 
for lime burning, but are now abandoned. The 
highest elevation of Montour ridge in this 
township is 900 feet. 

Centre — Most of the formations character- 
istic of this part of the State are shown in this 
township, along Montour ridge and Hunting- 
ton mountain. The Bossardville and Lower 
Helderberg limestones are extensively mined 
for lime burning and cement purposes, while 
the Bastard limestone between, which caused so 
much trouble in the past to quarrymen by rea- 
son of its hardness and awkward location, is 
now broken into a fine quality of road material. 
Lead and zinc were found in granular state in 
small pockets in the Upper Salina limestone 
beds, and were supposed to warrant exploita- 
tion, but although thousands of dollars were 
spent in investigation there were no tangible 
results. The entire valley of this township 
south of Lime Ridge is covered with boulders 
and gravel, deposited in the past by glacial 
and alluvial action. The highest point of the 
Huntington mountain in the township is about 
1,500 feet. 

Briarcreek — Here the Montour axis passes 
under the tow-n of Berwick, while Hamilton 
and Knob mountains pass almost entirely across 
the area of the township. Both elevations are 
about 1,500 feet above the sea. Glacial action 
cut the valley between these mountains and re- 
mains of ice deposits of boulders and trash are 
to be abundantly found. These were the ac- 
cumulations from the great terminal moraine 

of the glacier that at one time covered the State 
of New York and extended as far south as 

Mifflin — The rocks of this township extend 
from the Pocono beds in the summit of Nesco- 
peck mountain to the Lower Helderberg lime- 
stone in the bed of the Susquehanna opposite 
Mifflinville. The glacier that came as far south 
as Berwick did not cross the river to this town- 
ship, but poured its melting ice streams into the 
Susquehanna. Later stream action caused the 
deposits of rounded boulders and gravel to 
cover the surface of this section. The crest 
of Nescopeck mountain, which forms the 
southern border of the township, is 1,625 feet 
above sea level. 

Sugarloaf — The rocks of this township be- 
long to the Catskill formation, with the excep- 
tion of a narrow belt of Pocono which forms 
the summit of North mountain. Drift heaps 
and gravel beds cover most of the area. The 
highest elevation in this township is 1,275 f^^t^- 

Benton — The Catskill and Chemung rocks 
predominate here. Drift and gravel beds pre- 
dominate. The greatest altitude in this town- 
ship is 850 feet. 

Jackson — Catskill and Chemung red sand- 
stones are found here, with many boulder beds. 
Glacial remains abound. The greatest altitude 
is 1,280 feet. 

Pine — Chemung, Catskill and Hamilton for- 
mations predominate in this section. Genesee 
shales and Tully limestones are also found. The 
greatest elevation is 1,315 feet. 

Greemvood — Chemung and Hamilton rocks 
here predominate. There are also found areas 
of Genesee black shale. In the Chemung sand- 
stones a quarry was once operated near the 
Mount Pleasant township line, furnishing 
rough building stone. This township is prac- 
tically free from boulders. The land is gener- 
ally free from stones, and the rocks are of the 
black shale. The highest elevation is near 
Millville— 825 feet. 

Fishingcreek — Pocono, Catskill, Chemung, 
Genesee and Hamilton rocks are here exposed. 
Glacial deposits form the great plain along 
Huntington creek. The highest point is Hunt- 
ington mountain, 1,500 feet above sea level. 

Orange — The rocks in this township run 
from the Pocono to the base of the Chemung 
formation. Great heaps of rounded boulders 
are scattered over the hill summits and give 
evidence of the sea having covered this section 
of the State in past ages. From the summit of 
Knob mountain an extensive view is had of the 
counties of Montour and Columbia. This alti- 
tude is 1,430 feet. 



Mount Pleasant — The Chemung, Lower Hel- 
derberg and Salina formations predominate 
here. The limestones are shghtly magnesian 
and would make good Portland cement. Others 
can be burned for lime. At the forks of the 
road near Little Fishing creek the highest point 
above the sea, just above Mordansville, is 535 

Hemlock — Almost a complete section from 
the Catskill formation down to the basal beds 
of the Clinton is found in this township along 
the banks of Fishing creek. A large quarry 
was formerly operated in the Hamilton shales, 
from which a hne grade of slate for mantels 
and tables was sawn, by the Thomas Slate Com- 
pany. At this quarry the Marcellus slates were 
also mined for roofing and school slates. The 
Lower Helderberg limestone was mined at 
this place for the Bloomsburg furnaces, also 
about a mile east of Buckhorn. The Blooms- 
burg Iron Company and William Neal & Sons 
quarried the fossil iron ore in the Montour 
ridge. The highest elevation in this township 
is 975 feet. 

Montour — Catskill, Chemung and Genesee 
shales are the range of rocks in this township, 
covering a section of 4,784 feet. Between 
Catawissa bridge and Rupert the exposures 
along the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western 
railroad, at the end of Montour ridge, are the 
most complete in the county. A student of 
geology will find much of value to observe here, 
and the lover of the picturesque will be gratified 
by the varied scenery to be found at this spot. 
Indications are found here that the Susque- 
hanna once flowed in a channel directly west- 
ward to Danville through the valley north of 
Montour ridge. The Bossardville limestone 
has been quarried for agricultural uses by sev- 
eral persons in this vicinity, but was found too 
impure for building uses. The fossil iron ore 
was also at one time mined about a mile and a 
half west of Fishing creek. The highest point 
of Montour ridge in this township is 755 feet. 
Bloornsbnrg — The Clinton, Salina, Lower 
Helderberg and Hamilton formations are ex- 
posed along the banks of Fishing creek beside 
the Bloomsburg & Sullivan railroad tracks. At 
many places outcroppings of fossil iron ore are 
found and have been almost completely mined 
out in the past. The town of Bloomsburg is 
located on three terraces composed of deposits 
from streams in the past. The highest terrace 
in Bloomsburg is on Second street, where the 
altitude is 571; feet. 

Main — Cutting through Nescopeck moun- 
tain, Catawissa creek here exposes all of the 
Pocono and Catskill formations. The Catskill 

sandstones here were at one time quarried for 
building purposes. About 1,500 feet is the 
height of the mountain at this point. 

Catawissa — All of the diflferent formations 
characteristic of this county are shown along 
the Susquehanna from Catawissa to the 
Bloomsburg bridge, along the bluffs of Cata- 
wissa (or Nescopeck) mountain. None of the 
limestones here have been commercially 
worked. The height of Catawissa mountain is 
estimated at 1,600 feet. 

Franklin — Only a few of the characteristic 
formations of this county are exposed in this 
township. A dividing ridge, part of Catawissa 
mountain, separates the Susquehanna from 
Roaring creek in the central part of the town- 
ship. Elevations range from 900 to 1,400 feet 
above sea level. 

Locust — Little mountain, along the southern 
border of this township, has an elevation of 
1,040 feet, and exposes the Pocono formation 
to some extent. Other strata are shown at 
various gaps in the hills and mountain, made 
by the branches of Roaring creek. 

Montour County 

Cooper — In the tunnel cut to drain the old 
quarry of Grove Brothers, at Grovania, the ex- 
posures of Catskill and Chemung rocks are 
very complete. The Lower Helderberg lime- 
stone is the one quarried here now for lime, as 
it was for furnace uses in the past. Some fos- 
siliferous iron ore was also mined in the past, 
but is now exhausted. The ancient valley of 
the Susquehanna, through vvhich that river 
once flowed before it carved its way through 
the Montour axis, is shown in the center of 
this township, and forms the basis of the best 
farms in this vicinity. The elevation of the 
ridge here is about 760 feet. 

Mahoning — The formations characteristic of 
Montour ridge are to be found in this township. 
A number of limestone quarries were formerly 
operated in this township to supply the fur- 
naces at Danville, but are now idle. Iron ore 
was also extensively mined, but has long since 
been exhausted. About 700 feet is the height 
of the ridge here. 

Liberty — The lowest beds of the Clinton 
slates form Montour ridge here, while the 
Oriskany chert and the Lower Helderberg lime- 
stone make Lime Ridge in the northern border 
of the township. The Hamilton and Bossard- 
ville limestones have here been extensively 
quarried. Montour ridge stands 900 feet above 
sea level, while Lime Ridge is about 100 feet 



Valley — Most of the rocks in this township 
are of the Chemung-Catskill formations. The 
Clinton iron ore has been extensively mined 
along the sides of Montour ridge, being fol- 
lowed to great depths by means of drifts, the 
dip being about 30 degrees. Limestone quar- 
ries were numerous in the days of iron work- 
ing, but now have passed into disuse. About 
800 feet is the greatest elevation in this town- 
ship, on Montour ridge. 

PVest Hemlock — As is the case in the adjoin- 
ing townships, the Chemung-Catskill forma- 
tions here predominate. The Hamilton beds 
are too deeply buried to make profitable work- 
ing here. The greatest elevation in this town- 
ship is almost 1,000 feet above the sea. 

berry — The Hamilton, Helderberg and Che- 
mung rocks are here to be seen. A large quarry 
was formerly operated near Washingtonville, 
the product being lime and building stone. The 
greatest elevation in this township is 900 feet 
above the sea. 

Limestone — Limestone ridge, the southern 
boundary, is composed of the Oriskany sand- 
stones and the Helderberg limestones. Many 
limestone quarries were operated in this sec- 
tion, getting their product from the Bossard- 
ville and Stormville beds.. The greatest eleva- 
tion is 780 feet, on Limestone ridge. 

Anthony — This township was once a vast 
valley filled with a mighty stream, remains of 
whose action are shown in the boulder heaps 
that strew the surface. The only rocks that 
here appear above the horizon are the Hamil- 
ton and Chemung. In the highlands of the 
north the greatest elevation is 1,200 feet. 

Mayberry — The formations in this township 
are of similar character to those in Franklin 
township, Columbia county, adjoining. No 
quarries have been opened here, although the 
rocks have been used for building purposes 
locally. Sharp ridge, running through the 
center of the township, is about 300 feet above 
sea level. 


The mineral productions of Columbia county 
are of considerable value and form one of the 
sources of wealth for the people, but the yearly 
output is only a fraction of that of the past. 
During the operation of the iron furnaces at 
Bloomsburg and other points the production of 
this metal was the most important business in 
the county. All of the ore came from the sides 
of Montour ridge and was of a fossiliferous 
character. Near the surface the ore was like 
loose soil, but below the layers became harder 

and filled with limestone and many fossils. 
Below the fossiliferous horizon the ore is poor 
and the cost of working it prohibitive. For this 
reason the mines of the county were gradually 
abandoned as fast as the upper layers of ore 
became exhausted. 

The discovery of iron ore in Columbia county 
was made in 1822 by Robert Green, a farm 
laborer employed by Henry Young of Hem- 
lock township, while plowing a field near the 
end of Montour ridge, on the bank of Fishing 
creek. He opened a drift and demonstrated 
the value of the vein. For twenty years this 
ore was mined and transported to the Esther 
and Penn furnaces, across the Susquehanna. 

Columbia County Furnaces 

Before the discovery of ore in the northern 
part of the county the Catawissa furnace was 
built in Main township on Furnace run, near 
Catawissa creek, by John Hauck, in 181 5. He 
had the advantage of proximity to the road to 
Reading and abundant wood for charcoal. The 
ore was at first procured from the neighbor- 
hood of Bloomsburg, but after the discovery 
of the deposits in Hemlock township most of 
the raw material came from the latter source. 

For several years this was the only furnace 
in the county. The product was sent to Read- 
ing to be forged and the finished iron returned 
for home consumption. This was changed by 
the construction in 1824 of a forge near the fur- 
nace by Harley & Evans and the double han- 
dling done away with. Both furnace and forge 
were operated until 1883, when the distance 
from the mines and the cost of fuel caused 
their abandonment. The introduction of the 
anthracite process of smelting also made the 
furnace obsolete, as it was of the old charcoal, 
hot-blast design. A crumbling wall, overgrown 
with bushes, now marks the site of this once 
famous iron works. 

The grading of the stage road to Reading 
through Locust township in 181 7 caused the 
construction of the Esther furnace by Michael 
and Samuel Bittler. It was located on land 
originally patented to Samuel Shakespeare in 
1773, on Roaring creek, nineteen miles from 
Fort Augusta (now Sunbury). David Shake- 
speare inherited the land and his executors 
deeded it to Jacob Yocum, from whom it passed 
to the Bittler family. 

There was neither iron nor limestone near, 
but an abundance of wood. Most of the ore 
came from the Fishing creek region after the 
opening of the mines there. After various en- 
largements the furnace was leased successively 



to John and Samuel Trego, and Fincher & 
Thomas. In 1845 Samuel Uiemer became les- 
see. Later owners were John Richards, John 
Thomas, D. J. Waller, Sr., Casper Thomas, 
Jacob Schuyler and J. B. Robison. The open- 
ing of the canal along the Susquehanna in 1832 
made Catawissa the main shipping point of the 
county and the furnace was abandoned. 

The Irondale furnaces were built by the 
Bloomsburg Railroad & Iron Company in 1844 
and were lined-up and blown-in in 1845 by 
James Ralston, a native of Glasgow, Scotland. 
A railroad was built around the hill along Fish- 
ing creek to connect the furnaces with the 
canal. At that time iron ore was found in 
great quantities in the hills all around the 
town and the canal offered a cheap means of 
transporting the coal and finished product. 
During the Civil war there was a mint of 
money in the iron business and the furnaces 
were kept running constantly, turning out 
about thirty tons of pig iron a day, the price 
going at one time to $40 a ton. 

The plant in 1886 consisted of two furnaces, 
a waterpower house and a steampower house, 
a large store, a mansion house, twenty-three 
tenement houses comprising the settlement 
known as Morgantown, and a narrow-gauge 
railroad from the furnaces to the Lackawanna 
& Bloomsburg railroad. The company also 
had leases on many thousands of acres of ore 
lands in the county. 

C. R. Paxton was president of the company 
and resided in the mansion near the furnaces. 
On his removal to Virginia, about 1874, E. R. 
Drinker became superintendent. But the iron 
trade had declined, and the ore beds in this 
section were worked out, necessitating the 
transportation of most of the ore used from 
Snyder county (Pa.) and Maryland, thus in- 
creasing the cost of production. 

In 1889 the stock of the Bloomsburg Iron 
Company was purchased by Col. S. Knorr and 
L. S. Wintersteen, and the management 
changed. But iron continued to decline in 
price, and Colonel Knorr's death occurring soon 
after, the furnaces were shut down. In 1893 
the Bloomsburg Iron Company, through its 
president, L. S. Wintersteen, sold the property 
to H. C. Pease, who tore down the furnaces 
and began the erection of a stone building in- 
tended for manufacturing purposes. This 
operation was stayed by injunction, and the 
executrix of Colonel Knorr's estate, desiring 
an accounting, petitioned the court for the ap- 
pointment of a receiver, which was granted, 
H. A. McKillip being the appointee. After 
proceedings in court. Pease reconveyed the 

property to H. A. McKillip, receiver, and the 
property was sold by him at public sale to the 
Bloomsburg Water Company, the title pass- 
ing on June 11, 1896. So passed out of exist- 
ence what had for many years been the leading 
industry of Bloomsburg. The store building 
has been unoccupied for years, the Paxton 
mansion, whose occupants were so long among 
the social leaders of the town, is now a tene- 
ment house, and every vestige of the furnaces 
has disappeared. The waterpower house has 
passed into the ownership of the Irondale Elec- 
tric Light Company, and been rebuilt, and is 
a well kept property. 

In 1852 an agreement was entered into by 
William McKelvey, William Neal and Jacob 
Melick to erect and operate an anthracite iron 
furnace, taking the ore from the farm of the 
latter, east of Fishing creek. In 1853 seventeen 
acres were purchased from Daniel Snyder and 
Joseph W. Hendershott on the canal, east of 
the town of Bloomsburg, and in April, 1854, 
the "Bloom" furnace was blown-in. In 1873 
the firm name was changed from McKelvey, 
Neal & Co. to William Neal & Sons. Up to 
1875 the gross product of this furnace was 
17,968 tons, but later the yearly product was 
greatly increased. By 18S3 the ore deposits 
near Bloomsburg were exhausted and the fur- 
naces in the vicinity were supplied from mines 
in New Jersey. 

All of these furnaces were abandoned in 
1892, the property sold and the furnaces torn 
down. The site is now occupied by the power- 
house and car barn of the North Branch Tran- 
sit Company, the only visible remains of the 
furnace being the brick water reservoir and the 
slag heaps along the abandoned bed of the 
canal. The slag is now broken up and used 
to ballast the streets of Bloomsburg. 

Two other furnaces were built at Light 
Street between 1844 and 1850 by Gen. Matthew 
McDowell and Samuel Bettle. Both were 
shortlived, their greater rivals at Bloomsburg 
getting the advantage in shipping and receiv- 
ing facilities. One of these furnaces was oper- 
ated by Peter Ent and stood just above the 
upper mill. The B. & S. railroad runs through 
the center of the slag heap. The other fur- 
nace stood at the lower end of the town. Both 
are completely gone. 

Montour County Furnaces and Mills 

The first charcoal furnace was built by Eli 
Trego in 1837, near the crossing of the Read- 
ing railroad at Mill street, Danville. 

The first anthracite iron furnace in 



Montour county was built by Burd Pat- 
terson near the mouth of Roaring creek, 
in Mayberry township, in 1839. After 
passing through successive hands it came 
into the possession of Simon P. Kase, of 
Danville, in 1857, who ran it for a short 
time and then abandoned it. The ore was ob- 
tained from Montour ridge and carried across 
the river on flats. 

In 1838 Patterson built a charcoal furnace 
at the site of the present Lackawanna railroad 
crossing in the eastern part of Danville. This 
he operated for a short time, but the intro- 
duction of anthracite coal soon made the fur- 
nace obsolete, and it was therefore abandoned. 
Later Patterson built a nail factory near it, 
but this also was a failure. 

Michael and John Grove were the first suc- 
cessful furnacenien, after anthracite coal was 
adopted. They built two furnaces, one in 1840 
and the other in 1859, on Mahoning street, Dan- 
ville. A 400-horsepowcr engine ran the blast 
and about seventy-five men were employed. 
They closed down in 1880. 

Chambers & Biddle built two furnaces in 
1840, and another in 1845. A rolling mill was 
added in 1844, and the plant took the name of 
Montour Iron Works. Here the first T rails 
in the East were made, U rails having been 
previously the chief product. A foundry and 
machine shop were added in 1852, and in 1857 
a new rail mill was added. This foundry dur- 
ing the Civil war cast many of the cannon and 
mortars used by the Union forces. It had cast 
in 1842 the first cannon in the United States 
made of anthracite iron. 

In 1880 the works came into the hands of the 
Philadelphia & Reading Iron Company, which 
now operates them. 

The last furnace built in Montour county 
was the Chulasky furnace, on the line of North- 
umberland county, in 1846. Its capacity was 
6,500 tons of soft gray forge pig iron per an- 
num. It was idle after 1893. 

Besides the plants mentioned, Danville has 
had numerous other iron foundries and mills, 
among them being these old ones : Enterprise 
Foundry. Danville Iron Foundry, National 
Iron Foundry, Co-operative Iron & Steel 
Works, Glendower Iron Works, National Iron 
Company's Works and the Danville Stove 
Works. The present plants are the Readmg 
Iron Works, the Danville Stove Works, the 
Danville Steel Works, the Tube Mill and the 
Danville Foundry & Machine Works. 

At present Danville is the only strictly iron- 
making town in the two counties. The Ameri- 
can Car & Foundry Company, at Berwick, have 
a pipe works and a rolling mill, but only for 

their own use. There are two large foundries 
at the car plants, a general machine shop, and 
a small foundry for the manufacture of sash 
weights, at Bloomsburg. This completes the 
list for the two counties in 19 14. 

Furnaces Abandoned 

At present there are no furnaces in operation 
in either Columbia or Montour counties, most 
of the iron works consisting of foundries and 
rolling mills, which obtain their raw material 
from the furnaces around Pittsburg. Those 
who have no knowledge of the old charcoal 
furnaces and their operation will find a descrip- 
tion of the methods then used interesting. 

The early furnaces averaged twenty-five feet 
in height by seven feet across the "bosch," or 
widest part of the interior. The fuel was 
strictly charcoal and the blast was cold, being 
driven by leather bellows through a "tuyere" 
into the mass of charcoal and ore. Later on 
wooden "tubs" were used to create the blast, 
somewhat like short cylinders, with a piston 
working horizontally, the power coming from 
a water wheel in the nearest stream. These 
"tubs" were used as late as 1878, even after the 
introduction of anthracite coal as fuel. 

The product of these charcoal furnaces was 
from ten to twenty-five tons of pig iron per 
week, which sold at the furnace at fifteen dol- 
lars a ton. Some of the furnaces in later years 
produced stoves, pots and plows. 

After the charcoal furnaces were abandoned 
and the process of smelting by anthracite in- 
troduced the highest period of development in 
the iron industry ensued. It was the most im- 
portant source of wealth to the people and 
gave employment to thousands. Owing to 
its success the growth of Danville and Blooms- 
burg from 1844 to 1890 was due, but the clos- 
ing of the mines and the abandonment of the 
furnaces did not seriously affect the prosperity 
of these places, for the wealth gathered from 
the earth was not of an evanescent character 
and the people had made use of their opportun- 
ity to establish the towns on a permanent foun- 

In filling the old anthracite furnaces, alter- 
nate layers of ore, coal and limestone were 
used, about three tons of ore making a ton of 
pig iron. The furnaces were run continuously, 
being filled from the top as fast as the iron 
was drawn from the bottom. Casting was 
done twice a day. Not only did the local foun- 
dries use the product, but" it was in great de- 
mand by the foundries all over the eastern 
half of the State. 

During the years when the iron mines of the 



two counties were in operation the annual 
production was an average of 20,000 tons. For 
each ton of pig iron were required 3.25 tons 
of ore, 2.05 tons of coal and 1.59 tons of lime- 


Practically all the anthracite coal produced 
in the world comes from an area of 484 square 
miles in northeastern Pennsylvania. In this 
region 87 per cent of the total acreage of coal 
lands is owned by eleven railroad corporations. 
The Philadelphia & Reading Railroad Com- 
pany controls 63 per cent of all the anthracite 
coal in the United States, and more than half 
of the mines in Columbia county. These rail- 
roads own the mines, the rails and rolling stock, 
the yards and pockets in the cities, operate the 
wholesaling companies and control the retail- 
ers. Thus they fix the price of coal to the 

The cost of mining a ton of coal in the 
Schuylkill region is Si. 80. The roads owning 
the mines charge $1.50 a ton freight for house- 
hold sizes of coal transported to tidewater. 
This is 30 per cent more than the rate for gen- 
eral merchandise. Coal at the mine mouth is 

$3.75 per ton. The freight charge is $1.50; 

the railroad's wholesaling branch charges 

twenty-five cents for handling, and the retailer 

adds $1.25 more, making the cost of a ton of 

coal to the householder $6.75 in New York. 
The United States government owns and 

operates a coal mine at Williston, N. Dak., 

where the cost of mining a tori is $1.78. This 

includes all charges except transportation. 

Although within the coal region of the east- 
em part of Pennsylvania, Columbia county has 

few mines of that precious mineral. These are 

located in Beaver and Conyngham townships, 

the latter being the only ones profitably 


There is a great difference in the soft and 

hard coal mining regions. In the former the 

beds lie low down in the strata and are regu- 
lar in character and easily mined. But anthra- 
cite coal beds are contorted, turned over and 

jammed into strange and irregular forms. 

Squeezed by enormous pressure in past ages, 

they disappear in one spot only to expand 

Name Location Operator — 1882 Tons 

Bast Big Mine run P. & R. Coal & Iron Co 90,161 

Potts Locustdale P. & R. Coal & Iron Co 83,941 

Hazel Dell Centralia L. A. Riley & Co 7,638 

Continental Centralia Lehigh Valley Coal Co 16,542 

into thick layers in another. They plunge to 
a depth of two thousand feet in one place 
below water level, and in a short distance 
rise more than a thousand feet above the sea. 
In the Pottsville region, of which Columbia 
beds are a part, the coal lies in long, narrow 
basins under the valleys of the streams, the 
edges of which rise to the tops of the moun- 
tains and the centers sink several hundred 
feet below the surface. 

Most of the mining is done by "stripping" 
off the upper layers of conglomerate rock 
which are characteristic of the hard coal re- 
gions, and as the stratum of coal sinks slopes 
are run in the same direction until the bottom 
of the basin is reached. The coal is hauled 
to the "breakers" and there broken, sorted and 
freed from slate. Vast piles of refuse or 
"culm" have accumulated in years around 
these breakers and render the scene gloomy 
and desolate. 

Coal was discovered in Beaver township in 
1826, but not till 1854 was any attempt made 
to mine it. The Columbia Coal & Iron Com- 
pany was formed in 1864 by Simon P. Kase, 
of Danville, and a railroad built to McCauley 
mountain. In 1867 shipments of the coal be- 
gan and in 1869 the mines were exhausted and 
the railroad removed. The mines are now 
operated by the Beaver Valley Coal Company, 
and produced 4,000 tons in 1913. None of the 
companies here have ever made more than 
bare operating expenses, as the coal is on the 
extreme tops of McCauley and Buck moun- 
tains, in shallow strata and difficult of access. 
The mines in Conyngham were opened be- 
tween 1854 and 1867. Most of them are lo- 
cated on the lands of the Girard estate and 
leased by the Reading and Lehigh \'alley Rail- 
road Companies. The principal mines now 
open are the Continental and Repellier col- 
lieries at Centralia ; the Midvalley collieries 
at Aristes ; and the Morris Ridge and North 
Ashland collieries, below Centralia. 

According to the figures published by the 
State Geological Commission in 1882 the total 
production of the mines then in operation in 
Columbia county was 722,114 tons. Follow- 
ing are the names of the mines, location and 
operators : 

Monroe Montana 

Logan Centralia 

Centralia Centralia 

A. H. Church 35,8S4 

L. A. Riley & Co 231,169 

L. A. Riley & Co 88,283 

Bear City Centralia John Q. Williams 2,000 

Morris Ridge Centralia May & Co SS.490 

North Ashland Centralia P. & R. Coal & Iron Co 111,036 



The Bast, Monroe and Bear City collieries 
have been abandoned. With the exception of 
the colliery at Locustdale, all the mines are 
now under the control of the Lehigh Valley 
Railroad Company. Three mines have been 
opened since the above table was published, the 
Repellier and the Midvalley Nos. i and 2. 

From the mines in Conyngham and Beaver 
townships during 1913 there were produced 
1,078,481 tons of anthracite coal. Based on 
the average wholesale selling price of $2.38 
per ton, tiie value of this coal was $2,566,- 
784.78, or almost one and three tenths per 
cent of the total production of hard coal in 
the State. The average cost of mining was 
$2.07 per ton. 

Although the early ironmasters of Danville 
often prospected for coal in various parts of 
Montour county their efforts were never re- 
warded by success. It remained for the 
drouth of 1914 to reveal the hidden veins of 
anthracite to two farmers of the vicinity of 
Exchange, who were seeking deeper veins 
of water for their stock. 

For many years Judge J. L. Brannen of 
Exchange had noticed in the bed of the Chil- 
lisquaque rounded fragments of coal, but he 
did not seek to ascertain their source. In 
October of 1914 P. C. Dennen and William 
Houghton, farmers of the neighborhood of 
Exchange, about the same date dug new wells, 
both going to a depth of over seventy feet. 
At that depth they simultaneously struck a 
stratum of anthracite coal, measuring from 
three to four feet in thickness, which on test- 
ing proved to be of similar character to the 
best product of the hard coal regions. The 
coal lies in the usual basin-shaped form so 
characteristic of this grade of fuel, and will 
be worked by "stripping" and shafts. The 
quantity and extent of the deposit have not yet 
been demonstrated. 

Along the Susquehanna river are a number 
of dredges, which operate in low stages of 
water, bringing up from the river bed the coal 
which has "drifted down in flood time. This 
coal, unlike the soft variety, will not disinte- 
grate. During 19 13 these dredges washed 
out 133,986 tons of salable coal. 

The coal is washed into the river from 
the culm banks, where the slate sinks into the 
crevices, while the coal floats down slowly 
and steadily, year by year, until it is lifted 
to the surface by the dredges. Most of the 
coal taken out has been in the water at least 
thirty years, as its rounded shape would indi- 
cate. The dredges are simple and their cost 
is low, about $200 covering engine and boat. 


No estimate can be had regarding the pro- 
duction of lime and limestone, or cement. 
There are a number of large and small plants 
in both counties, most of which cater to the 
local trade. 

At one time the slate mines near Buckhorn 
were a source of profit to their owners, but 
they have been abandoned for many years. 

The production of galena or lead ore is so 
small as to be of little interest to the reader, 
the greatest quantity being insufficient to war- 
rant exploitation. It is obtained in connec- 
tion with the limestone at mines near Lime 
Ridge and Espy. 

In this connection reference may be made 
to the copper deposits of Sugarloaf township, 
which are of no real value, but were consid- 
ered valuable by the promoters of the company 
who built the smelter near Central and sank 
a large sum of money in the vain endeavor 
to reduce the ore commercially. 


According to the reports received by the 
State Geological Survey the mineral produc- 
tion of Columbia and Montour counties 
showed a decline in 1913 of over $125,000, 
as compared with 1912. This is in marked 
contrast with most of the counties of the 
State and to the State as a whole, which 
showed a very distinct increase in value. 

The products reported were brick and tile, 
anthracite coal, sand and gravel, pottery, lime- 
stone and lime. It is impossible to give the 
details of production, without itemizing the 
individual output. 



Owing to the lack of complete reports from 
the agricultural department of the State, no 
reliable statistics are to be had regarding the 
agricultural productions and stock raising 
possibilities of Columbia and Montour coun- 
ties at present. The principal products of 
these counties now, as in the past, are wheat, 
buckwheat, oats, corn, rye, potatoes, and other 
farm products of lesser importance. Probably 
most of the available land in both counties is 
now under cultivation, and the crops will bear 
comparison in quality and quantity with those 
of the other States of the Union. 

Among the grain producing States Pennsyl- 
vania ranks first in buckwheat, fourth in rye, 
eleventh in wheat, twelfth in oats, and four- 
teenth in corn. In the production of wheat 
this section of the State stands second, but in 
buckwheat it is at the top. One of the famous 
products of Columbia county at one time was 
an Amber wheat, developed and introduced 
throughout the United States by William J. 
Martin, of Catawissa. The numerous grist- 
mills of the two counties, described at length 
in another chapter, are an evidence of the im- 
portance of the growing of grain in this sec- 
tion. Among them is the Millville mill, which 
ranks among the largest buckwheat mills of 
the Union. 

In early times buckwheat was the chief crop 
of this section, as it will grow on new and 
partially reclaimed land, so the pioneer farm- 
ers depended on it principally. This estab- 
lished the fame of the region for buckwheat, 
and the years have seen but little diminution 
of the product. Most of the buckwheat of 
these years is grown around Millville, Benton, 
Orangeville and Washingtonville, although 
quantities are also grown in other parts of 
both counties. The rapid growth of this grain 
is one of the reasons for its continued popu- 
larity, only ninety days being required for 
planting, growth and harvesting, in compari- 
son with the 270 days needed for a crop of 

The flour from buckwheat is used chiefly 
for griddle cakes, one of the prominent hotels 
of New York City making a specialty of serv- 
ing cakes made from Fishingcreek buckwheat. 
A small amount of the flour is used to make 
"scrapple" by butchers, while in Holland it 
is extensively used in the manufacture of gin. 
In 1904, when wet weather damaged the crop, 
quantities of buckwheat were exported to Hol- 
land from Columbia and Montour counties. 

In the matter of wheat but little can be 
ascertained, although there are many mills 
equipped with the modern roller process, 
which grind the grain for the local markets. 
Little wheat is exported from this section, 
the crop being about sufficient to supply all 
demands of the mills, with a small surplus. 

A comparison of the agricultural methods of 
the past and present is unnecessary. It can 
be said, however, that our farmers are sup- 
plied with all the implements that modern sci- 
ence can devise for the harvesting and working 
of farm crops. In addition the Bloomsburg 
State Normal School has a department of agri- 
culture, under the charge of Professor Hart- 
line, which devotes considerable time to lab- 
oratory and field work of a practical character. 

A comparison of values in early times with 
those of the present will be of interest to the 
reader. From an old copy of the Danville 
Observer we learn that in 1824 wheat sold in 
the open market at 65 cents a bushel, rye at 28 
cents, corn at 25 cents, oats at 15 cents, flax- 
seed at 55 cents, buckwheat at 20 cents, bees- 
wax at 28 cents a pound, pork at 4 cents, but- 
ter at 10 cents, and lard at 6 cents. 

In 1914 wheat sold at 90 cents a bushel, 
rye was not in the market, corn sold at 85 
cents, oats at 40 cents, flaxseed was not in the 
market, buckwheat was 65 cents a bushel, bees- 
wax 25 cents a pound, pork 13 cents, butter 
30 cents, and lard 12 cents. 

It is interesting to note that the price of 
beeswax has scarcely changed over three cents 
on the pound for more than one hundred 




years. It is a natural product that man has 
never been able to imitate successfully. 
■ Among the famous products of this section 
was the Creveling grape, propagated by Mrs. 
Charity Creveling. wife of John Creveling, a 
member of the Society of Friends, residing 
near Espy. The first vine, from which cuttings 
were sent all over the Union, ran over a large 
pear tree beside the residence of Mr. Crevel- 

Catawissa, which gave a variety of wheat to 
the world, was also the home of two fruits of 
national fame, which has not been dimmed 
even in this modern and rapid age. The 
Catawissa monthlv raspberry was propagated 
from a single plant discovered in the Friends' 
burial ground there and is noted from the fact 
that blossoms and berries appear at the same 
time from July to October. The Sharpless 
seedling strawberry was originated in 1872 
by J. K. Sharpless, of Catawissa, and extens- 
ively exploited by J. L. Dillon, of Blooms- 

One of the industries of these counties 
wiiich has lapsed into the realm of memory is 
the production of maple sugar. In early days 
maple syrup and sugar were staple commo- 
dities, one townshiji — Sugarloaf — being named 
from the chief of its products. The sugar sea- 
son was as anxiously anticipated as the wheat 
harvest, and was more sure and lucrative. In 
the present time the loss of the noble maples, 
devastated by the woodman's axe, has caused 
an almost entire abandonment of this once 
famous industry. 


Pennsylvania is third in the list of apple 
producing States, and has practically driven 
the western apple from the home market, be- 
cause a better apple can be produced here at 
a lower cost. This is true also of Columbia 
and Montour counties, where several varieties 
of apples have originated, among them being 
the Fornwald. Priestlv and Pennock varieties. 
Some of the best apples exhibited at recent 
State fairs have been from these counties and 
have received honorable mention. 

The pioneer commercial orchardist in Col- 
umbia countv is "Farmer" Creasy, master of 
the State Grange, who has developed to per- 
fection several varieties of apples on his farm, 
east of Catawissa. J. L. John, of Millville. in 
an old orchard that had been declared unpro- 
ductive, produced hundreds of bushels of 
marketable apples. .\. G. Everett of Pine 
township took Inold of an old orchard that had 

never given him a profitable crop, and in the 
tirst year sold over three hundred bushels of 
good apples. The next year he sold almost 
six hundred bushels of a better quality, and 
in the fourth year he harvested nearly twelve 
hundred bushels. 

Another instance is the experience of Ira 
Cherrington, of Roaringcreek township, 
Columbia county. He put brains, hard work 
and attention into an old orchard, and the 
first year after he began experimenting harv- 
ested a larger crop than ever before in its 
history. The following year he picked from 
the old trees a crop of 1,800 bushels of mar- 
ketable apples. 

Instances of this kind are occurring all over 
the two counties, and will be multiplied in the 
coming years, after the intelligent care now 
being bestowed on the orchards brings forth 
fruit. Some of these farmers have received 
over a dollar a bushel for their fruit in the 
local markets, but at less prices the industry 
is still very remunerative. If the counties 
continue to progress in this way during the 
coming vears Adams county, now the foremost 
fruit raising county in the State, will have 
to put forth renewed efforts to retain the prize 

Aside from the big apple crops that are 
raised in Columbia and Montour counties there 
are a multitude of smaller fruits that, while 
singly insignificant, together form an aggre- 
gate of no mean volume, and are a source of 
considerable revenue to the farmer and his 
family. Each farm has a number of cherry, 
peach, quince, pear and other fruit trees, bear- 
ing a more or less valuable burden each year. 
There are one or two large peach orchards, but 
most of the farmers content themselves with 
raising only enough for local trade. Nor are 
the cultivated fruits the onlv profitable prod- 
ucts. The crabapple. huckleberry, elderberry, 
chestnut, walnut and hickorynut are plentiful 
and afford a source of spending money for 
the younger generation that is not of inconsid- 
erable importance. When taken altogether 
the financial value of these fruits and nuts 
assumes proportions that makes them count 
in the statistics of the counties. 


It is taken for granted that the average 
farmer will raise enoueh pork for his own use, 
and that is true of Columbia and Montour 
counties, but in addition enough hogs are 
raised to make the industry quite a lucrative 
one to the shippers supplying outside markets. 



The most popular breeds are the Berkshire, 
Chester- White, Duroc-Jersey and Poland- 
China, all of the fat or lard type of swine. It 
is not possible to designate the particular 
breed that is in the lead, neither can we state 
the number of animals shipped. Sufficient to 
say that the industry is a thriving one and in 
the future will be of considerable importance 
in this section of the State. 


Only enough sheep are raised in Columbia 
and Montour counties to supply the local 
butchers, the wool being a side issue, and of 
little importance in a monetary way. There 
are many reasons for the decline of this in- 
dustry here. First come the many useless 
dogs, which soon develop a fondness for 
sheep killing. Then the fences are rapidly 
being taken down on the farms, and sheep are 
death to crops. Third, the farmers of the 
West are in a better position to raise sheep at 
lower prices than in the East. Lastly, the con- 
stant care required by this most defenceless 
animal makes the industry an unprofitable one 
to the farmer, who can utilize his energies in 
more lucrative employment. 


Before the Civil war the breeding of horses 
was one of the chief of the side lines of the 
farmer in these counties, but in later years the 
Western horses came into the market at prices 
that made home-raised stock unprofitable. 
There was a time when a good Western team 
could be bought for $300, but the prices are 
slowly increasing as the Western ranches are 
cut up into farms, and the local horse breeding 
industry is regaining some of its lost prestige. 

A number of farsighted farmers are enter- 
ing this field, but still the local market cannot 
be supplied by local breeders, and from six to 
ten carloads of Western horses are each year 
brought in by dealers, who hold frequent sales 
at prominent points in both of the counties. 


Montour county has been unfortunate in 
having been the point in central Pennsylvania 
from which the aphthous fever, or foot and 
mouth disease of cattle, originated. The first 
discovery of this disease was made on Nov. 
9, 1908, on the farm of Jacob Shultz, of 
Cooper township. Almost at the same time 
it broke out among the cattle of Edward 

Shultz, of Boyd's Station, on the south side 
of the Susquehanna river, opposite Danville. 
It also infected the herds of the town. The 
first germs came from cattle shipped here from 
Buft'alo, N. Y., in that year. 

About the first of November, 1914, there 
was an outbreak of the aphthous fever, or 
foot and mouth disease, among the cattle of 
Columbia and Montour counties. It was 
brought to this section in shipments of cattle 
from Buft'alo and Lancaster. Several fine 
herds were found to be infected and prompt 
measures were taken by the State Livestock 
Sanitary Board to stamp out the disease. At 
the farm of Henry Cooper in Limestone 
township, Montour county, over thirty head 
of cattle and several hogs were killed by the 
State ; at the farm of Calvin Cooper in Madi- 
son township, Columbia county, about the 
same number \vere killed ; and on the fann of 
Charles Umstead, near Washingtonville, ten 
cows and a lot of hogs were killed. The in- 
fection of all of these came from one ship- 
ment from Buffalo. At Danville two herds 
were found to be diseased and promptly killed. 
They were in the stock-yards of William 
Mourey and at the farm connected with the 
Danville Hospital for the Insane. At the 
latter place over one hundred head of cattle 
and sixty hogs were killed. The infection 
here came from a shipment from Lancaster 


Among the prominent farmers of Montour 
county are Dr. W. R. Paules, whose large 
farm is near Washingtonville ; D. R. Roth- 
rock, owner of Pleasant Hill farm; Alexander 
Billmeyer, who owns fifteen farms, aggregat- 
ing a thousand acres, near Washingtonville ; 
George W. Watson, owner of Buttonwood 
Spring farm; and William L. Satteson, who 
operates Wilmshurst farm, near Exchange. 
T. E. Hyde, a stock raiser and extensive 
fanner, has a farm called Edgemont, on the 
edge of the two counties, near Grovania, that 
is a model in its methods of operation. An- 
other enterprise is the Guernseydale Stock 
Farms, near Rupert, owned by a corporation 
of considerable size, with still another farm 
near Catawissa. 


One of the strongest orders in Columbia 
and Montour counties is that of the Patrons 
of Husbandry, or Grangers, as they are gen- 
erally called. They have existed in Pennsyl- 



vania for forty-two years and nearly every 
township in these two counties has an organ- 
ization in thriving condition, the members in 
many cases owning their hall and conducting 
a cooperative insurance association. Colum- 
bia county has fifteen granges, and Montour 
county, six. Every county in the State has 
a number, the total being 820, with a member- 
ship of 75,000. Columbia county has the most 
prosperous insurance association, the Briar 
Creek Mutual Fire Insurance Company, car- 
rying $14,000,000 of insurance. 

The Master of the State Grange and editor- 
in-chief of the "Pennsylvania Grange News," 
Hon. William T. Creasy, is a resident of Cata- 
wissa township, directly opposite Bloomsburg, 
where he has one of the finest farms in the 

The platform of the Grange calls for equal- 
ization of taxation, the initiative, referendum 
and recall in State matters, and on national 
issues the organization has favored a grad- 
uated income tax, the parcel post, election of 
senators by direct vote, conservation of 
natural resources and waterpower, and opposed 
a ship subsidy, a centralized bank, and the 
sale of American goods at lower prices abroad 
than at home. All of these but the last have 
been accomplished, partly through the efforts 
of the Grange. 

In matters of legislation the Grange counts 
many victories. Through its efforts the agri- 
cultural colleges of the country now teach 
agriculture. Before the Grange turned its 
attention to them they were agricultural only 
in name. It was a Grange demand that de- 
feated the bill to reissue the patents on sewing 
machines and almost immediately machines 
that could not be bought for less than $100 sold 
for less than $25. The Grange secured the 
important and far-reaching decision from the 
courts that the creature is not greater than the 
creator, and that as railroads must come to the 
people for their charters or rights to be, they 
are amenable to the will of the people. The 
Grange made possible the Hatch act for the 
establishment of experiment stations. The 
agricultural departments at Washington and 
Harrisburg owe their existence to the Grange. 
The Inter-State Commerce Commission came 
into being as a result of the interest taken by 
the Grange in the transportation question. It 
was a persistent Grange demand that started 
the rural free mail carrier on his daily rounds 
over country roads. National and State oleo- 
margarine and pure food laws have saved the 
dairy business and have done much to preserve 
the public health. They are on our statute 

books only because of the persistent demands 
of the Grange. Recently the Grange took a 
leading part in securing from Congress the 
denatured alcohol bill. 


The first steps for the exhibition to the pub- 
lic of the products of the ground in Columbia 
county were made by Dr. John Ramsay, B. F. 
Hartman, Caleb Barton, William Neal and 
I. W. Hartman, under the suggestion of Dr. 
John Taggart, who had visited a successful 
county fair in the northern part of the State 
in 1855. The exhibition was held in Mr. Bar- 
ton's field, at the foot of Second street, 
Bloomsburg, the grounds being inclosed by a 
rail fence and almost the entire gate receipts 
at ten cents a person being expended in police 
protection. There was enough left to pay 
two dollars to B. F. Hartman as premium on 
a driving horse, the only one entered. A few 
specimens of grain and vegetables and a 
second-hand grain drill completed the "ex- 

The following year a fair was held in the 
Sloan field, on the south side of Si.xth and 
west side of Market streets, which was char- 
acterized by a marked improvement in the 
number and character of the exhibits. The 
third fair was held in grounds situated on 
Fifth, between Market and East streets, and 
the fourth on the grounds now in use by the 
present organization. 

During the first three years of this move- 
ment each person worked upon his own plan. 
Lumber dealers in the town loaned the ma- 
terial for the sheds, etc., which were torn down 
after each exhibition, but after the organiza- 
tion in 1858 some discipline was introduced 
into the methods. In that year a charter was 
granted to the "Columbia County Agricultural, 
Horticultural and Mechanical Association" on 
the application of B. F. Hartman, James 
Masters, \Villiam G. Shoemaker, Caleb Bar- 
ton, Matthias Hartman, Jacob Harris, J. H. 
Ikeler, A. J. Sloan, Palemon John, E. R. 
Ikeler, C. G. Barkley, Joshua Fetterman, 
Thomas Creveling, Joseph P. Conner and John 
Taggart. After a number of annual meet- 
ings the charter was amended in 1885 to pro- 
vide for perpetual membership and remove 
restrictions against the holding of real estate. 

Before completing the history of this asso- 
ciation we will refer briefly to other societies 
which were at one time or other in existence 
in the county. The "Northern Columbia and 
Southern Luzerne Agricultural Association" 



was chartered Feb. i6, 1884, and held its first 
fair near Berwick in September of that year. 
After five annual exhibitions the association 
dissolved and the grounds were sold, being 
now a part of West Berwick. 

The "Benton Agricultural Association" re- 
ceived its charter on Oct. 3, 1885, held five 
annual fairs, and then closed for lack of finan- 
cial support. 

Since 1886 the Columbia County Agricultural 
Association has added more land to its hold- 
ings, doubled the capacity of the grand stand, 
and developed its fair into one of the largest 
in the State. The association is conducted 
on strictly business principles. It neither pays 
dividends nor levies assessments, the surplus 
going to make improvements to the grounds 
and buildings, and to increase the premiums. 

The officers in 1886 were: Samuel Camp, 
president; William Shaffer, J. M. DeWitt, 
Baltis Sterling, Jere Kostenbauder, vice presi- 
dents ; J. C. Brown, treasurer; H. V. White, 
secretary ; Thomas Webb, librarian ; James P. 
Freas, John Appleman, Dr. A. P. Heller, ex- 
ecutive committee ; K. C. Ent, J. P. Sands, 
George Conner, auditors; Capt. U. H. Ent, 
chief marshal. 

The present officers are : E. D. Hagen- 
buch, president; A. N. Yost, secretary; 
Jacob H. Maust. treasurer; Harry S. Barton, 
librarian ; Ellis Ringrose, A. R. Henrie, A. V. 
Kressler, H. J. Pursel, vice presidents; E. W. 
Hagenbuch, H. B. Correll, Elliott Adams, ex- 
ecutive committee; Austin Ohl, J. C. Cryder, 
Guy Mensch, auditors. 

Montour's f.mrs 

The Montour County Agricultural Society 
was organized Feb. 18, 1856, with the follow- 
ing officers : Thomas R. Hull, president ; 
Philip F. Maus, C. Garrettson, Robert Patter- 
son, P. Wagner, D. Wilson, E. E. Haas, J. 
Sheep, G. Shick, William McNinch, Jacob 
Sechler, vice presidents ; James McCormick, 
secretary; Dr. C. H. Frick, corresponding 
secretary; B. K. Rhodes, librarian; and D. M. 
Boyd, treasurer. The board of managers 
were : John Best, George Smith, James G. 
McKee, James McMahan, Jr., A. B. Cum- 
mings, Jacob Sheeo. A. F. Russell, Stephen 
Roberts. William McHenry. William Yorks, 
Jacob Cornelison, Edward Morrison, J. M. 
Best, Mavberrv Gearhart, Joseph Fevers, John 
Hibler, .Samuel D. Alexander, Robert Blee, 
William Snyder. E. Wilson. 

The fair of that year was held at the mouth 
of Mahoning creek, and the annual fair was 

later held at Washingtonville. In the course 
of time a difference arose between the repre- 
sentatives from the town and country and the 
society divided, the Northern Montour Agri- 
cultural Society being organized. The head- 
quarters of the latter are at Washingtonville, 
where the annual fairs were held. The Mon- 
tour County Agricultural Society held annual 
fairs in Danville. At present there are no 
fairs held in Montour county, most of the 
people attending the Bloomsburg fair. 


Working out the averages of the State, to 
Columbia county, it is ascertained that farm 
laborers in this section work nine hours and 
forty-five minutes each day. There are 148,- 
000 farm laborers in the State and their 
average monthly compensation is $20.60 with 
board and $32 if the laborer boards himself. 

Forty-two out of every one thousand hogs 
die in this county, a decrease of one from the 
figures of 1913. There are 1,130,000 head of 
hogs in the State, and they are valued at 
$15,594,000, or at the rate of $13.80 a head. 

The Columbia county horse has an average 
value of $139. There are 584,000 horses doing 
work on the farms of the State, which are 
valued at over $81,000,000. Last year they 
were only worth an average of $133. 


Grain feeds the world and in the history of 
any nation the grinding of it into flour is 
found to be the first industry to be established. 
Handmills were known to the Chinese, the 
Egyptians, the lesser civilized nomads of 
Asia, and to the barbarians of Europe. The 
development of the handmill into the mill 
driven by animal power, and the subsequent 
application of waterpower to this work, is a 
matter that has been treated by many writers 
of the past. We will describe only the advent 
of the pioneer millers into the valley of the 
North Branch of the Susquehanna. 

When the Quakers and their immediate 
successors, the Germans, came id this section 
of the State they at once noted the ample 
waterpower of the streams, and set to work 
to harness it to the millstone. The early 
settlers in Columbia county had to ride to 
.Sunburv to get their grist ground until the 
first mill in the county was built in 1774 on 
Catawissa creek. It was a crude affair, run 
by the only undershot wheel ever used in the 
county, and was so often out of repair that 



the settlers gave it little work to do. This 
mill was later rebuilt by Christian Brobst. 
Jonathan Shoemaker built another mill on the 
creek here in 1789, which was afterwards 
converted into a paper mill. 

The next oldest mill was the Brown mill, 
on Ten-mile run, in Mifflin township, operated 
for years by successive Browns, ancestors of 
former Postmaster Brown of Bloomsburg, 
and now in the hands of P. A. Fetterolf. it 
is unique in having a wooden flume entering 
its second story, which operated a 22-foot 
wooden overshot wheel. Other mills on this 
stream where the Yohe and Nungesser mills, 
both long since gone. 

In point of age the next is the Jacob Cleaver 
mill, built in 1785 on Roaring creek, near its 
mouth, in Mayberry township. This mill had 
a fine fall of water and a dam bolted to the 
solid ledge of rock above the rock cut forebay. 
It now has a concrete dam and forebay. 

The mill at Slabtown, on Roaring creek, 
in Locust township, was one of the best of 
the efforts of that old-time millwright, Samuel 
Cherrington. This mill had a good fall of 
water and was only once frozen up in winter. 
That freeze caused its destruction, for the 
proprietor sought to thaw it out with straw 
and set it on fire. On this creek were also 
built the Mendenhall, Snyder, Hughes and 
Mourey mills, some of which are still in 

Other mills on Catawissa creek were built 
at Mainville and Shumantown. Some are 
modern in fittings, while others are operated 
by the old methods. 

The oldest mill on the north side of the 
river was the Pepper mill on Hemlock creek, 
in Hemlock township. It is now abandoned. 
The old McKelvey mill below Eyer's Grove 
was last operated by John Betz in 1878. The 
Beagle mill in Hemlock township was aban- 
doned in 1903. 

The first flouring mill was built in Millville 
by John Eves, and has undergone so many 
changes that the former owner would not 
recognize the present structure as the suc- 
cessor of the first. This mill is one of the 
largest buckwheat mills in America and 
produces more flour of that kind than any 
other mill in Pennsylvania. 

The Ever's Grove mill, in Greenwood town- 
ship, is the only brick one in the two counties, 
and bears a strong resemblance to a church. 
It was built in i860 by Jacob Ever, son of the 
founder of PSloomsburg. The lola mill in the 
same township, was built in 1828, and those at 
Sereno, Pine township, and Mordansville, 
Mt. Pleasant township, a little later. 

The Cole mill and the Swartwout mill, on 
Fishing creek, in Sugarloaf township, were 
both old-timers and famous for buckwheat 
flour. There are also the Edson and Thomas 
mills on this creek, the former destroyed by 
fire some years ago. Both are now running 
and have modern ecjuipment. 

The Red and the White mills, on Hemlock 
creek, near Bloomsburg, were both built by 
members of the Barton family, and are still 
in good condition, both having modern equip- 
ment. The Aqueduct mill, at the mouth of 
Fishing creek, has a flume running under the 
old North Branch canal bed, and has the dis- 
tinction of never being out of water. It is a 
finely fitted up mill, grinding a high grade of 
wheat flour. 

The Mather mill at Benton was at first a 
planing mill. It now has a fine concrete dam 
and is modern in every respect. The site of 
the Stillwater mill is now occupied by a paper 
mill, as is also that of the Trench mill, just 
above Bloomsburg. 

The mill at Jonestown, built by the family 
of that name who founded the town, is now 
operated by H. C. Gruver. The Herring mill 
at Orangeville has been superseded by an 
electric light plant. 

The McDowefl and Bettle mills at Light 
Street are both still running, as are Ikeler's 
and Shuitz's mills, near Rohrsburg. 

On Briar creek only one mill remains of the 
several of former years — the Ash mill, near 
the mouth of the stream. The others were 
the Rittenhouse, Hughes, Traugh and Hoff- 
man mills, all in Briarcreek township. 

Bowman's mill, west of Orangeville, has 
remained in the family for several generations, 
and still turns out a high grade of buckwheat 
and excellent wheat flour also. It has modern 

The mills of the White Milling Company 
and R. R. Ikeler at Bloomsburg, the mill at 
Jerseytown owned by Mrs. R. G. Greenly and 
operated by Rohm Brothers, and the mill of 
J. C. Chrisman at Berwick, are steam mills 
with modern equipment and all do a thriving 

The oldest mill in Montour county is the 
Bosley mill, built in 1788, at Washingtonville, 
on the site of the fortified one of early times, 
called Boyle's or Brady's Fort, on the banks 
of the Chillisriuaque. The present mill is a 
modern one and built of stone. 

The first mill built in the county was that 
of William Montgomery, the founder of the 



settlement at the mouth of Mahoning creek, 
which later became the site of Danville. 
Montgomer\-'s mill was probably built about 
1778. It stood until 1S63 and then was razed 
to make way for modern establishments. 

The Crownover mill at Exchange has been 
replaced by a more modern structure, operated 
by Charles J. Yagel. The mill in Liberty 
township, built in 1814 by John Auten, has 
long since passed away, as has also the Simp- 
son mill in \'alley township. 

The mill built by Philip ]Maus at the site 
of Mausdale, in 1793, was quite a pretentious 
structure. The millrace was dug by Irish 
laborers, part of them Protestants and part 
Catholics. Eleven barrels of whiskey were 
consumed in the course of the work, and Mr. 
Maus had frequently to jump in and disarm 
the two factions when a division occurred on 
religious lines. 

There were many other small mills in dif- 
ferent parts of Montour county, along the 
Chillisquaque and its branches, but they have 
long passed away or relapsed into ruin, their 
memories not even being preserved by the old- 
est inhabitants. The comparatively level 
topography of Montour and the absence of 
many streams of sufficient size to aflford 
power deterred the old settlers from building 
mills, and not until the advent of steam did 
the gristmills begin to appear outside of the 
larger towns. 

At present the principal mills of the county 
are located at Danville, Washingtonville, 
Mausdale, Mooresburg and in Limestone town- 
ship. All of them are operated either par- 
tially or entirely by steampower, and most of 
them are fitted with the modern roller process. 

The great majority of these mills began with 
a primitive equipment consisting of a pair 
of grinding stones, many of which were shaped 
from boulders found near at hand and a round 
reel covered with silk cloth. The "system" 
was very short, comprising but two processes, 
namely, crushing or grinding the grain between 
the upper and nether millstones, and separat- 
ing or bolting the mass from the stone on the 
long reel, thus obtaining the good old-fashioned 
flour and the equally good old-fashioned 
"shorts" and bran. 

With the advent of competition came the 
demand for white flour — and more of it from 
a bushel of wheat. Many of the mills put in 
additional "runs" of buhrs and more bolting 
reels, and thus, by first breaking the wheat, and 
scalping off the bran, they were in a position 

to handle the flour-yielding portion to much 
better advantage. The Fowler mill at Espy 
reached the highest state of perfection, hav- 
ing had several runs of large French buhrs 
and a long line of scalping and finishing reels. 

The modern roller mill with its intricate 
system and machinery brought the milling 
business to a scientific basis and the mill own- 
er who did not bring his mill up to date in 
equipment soon found himself with only 
neighborhood custom trade, that yielded little 
or no profit. 

To think of a kernel of wheat traveling over 
a mile and a quarter from the time it entered 
the stock bin until the finished product reached 
the flour sack and feed bag, was beyond the 
ability of the average miller. The man who 
studied the system until he could follow the 
twenty or more reductions and separations, 
and knew when each one was right, and 
changed his mill until all were producing the 
best results, became the successful miller. 
Such men were not plentiful in Columbia 
county, with the result that only a very few 
mills are in position to turn out a "fancy 
patent" flour that will compete successfully 
in the market. 

Quite fittingly, the "gravel picker," which 
has revolutionized the milling of buckwheat 
all over the United States, is the invention of 
a Columbia county man, Charles FoUmer, of 
Benton. Through the inventor's failure to 
patent his machine, which is used today every- 
where buckwheat is milled, it has brought him 
no financial return. 

When the buckwheat heads are harvested, 
it is almost impossible to keep gravel from 
mixing with them. Then, when the seeds are 
ground into flour, the tiny bits of rocks are 
ground with them, and produce gritty flour. 
For years this difficulty could not be over- 
come. Plnally Follmer devised a system of 
three pipes through which air currents were 
drawn. Beneath them the buckwheat was 
passed, the seeds being drawn up, while the 
gravel was left. 

Manufacturers quickly seized upon the in- 
genious device, which Follmer thought too 
simple to be worth patenting. So successful 
was it that on one occasion a car of buck- 
wheat flour sent from the White Mills to the 
South soon after the "picker" had been pro- 
duced was refused. The Southern purchaser 
insisted that the buckwheat flour was too white 
to be pure buckwheat, and could not be con- 
vinced that no wheat flour had been mixed 
with it. Buckwheat under the old system had 
been of dark color on account of the ground 
stone which it contained. 



During the period of early settlement this 
portion of Pennsylvania was a country of 
"magnificent distances." The means of com- 
munication with distant points was slow, te- 
dious and inadequate. As the population in- 
creased and the people gained in wealth the 
urgent necessity for easier means of com- 
munication with the more densely settled por- 
tions of the Commonwealth became apparent. 
The Lancaster turnpike, the first of that class 
of roads in the State, was built in 1795, at a 
cost of $7,516 a mile, and this aroused the 
people of this section to the possibilities of 
road building. 

In 1787 Evan Owen, the founder of Ber- 
wick, was commissioned to superintend the 
construction of a road by the State from Easton 
to the Nescopeck falls, and two years later 
the Indian trail which was part of the route 
was improved sufficiently to permit the passage 
of wheeled vehicles. On March 19, 1804, the 
Susquehanna & Lehigh Turnpike & Road 
Company was incorporated, and in the fol- 
lowing year graded and completed the road 
at an enormous expense for those times. 

In 1806 the Susquehanna & Tioga Turnpike 
Road Company was chartered, and by 18 18 
the road was completed from Berwick to 
Newtown on the Tioga river, in New York 
State. After the completion of the bridge at 
Berwick in 1814 a connecting line of roads 
extended from Towanda to Easton. John M. 
Buckalew, one of the prominent citizens of 
Columbia county, was a stockholder in the 
company and graded a mile of the turnpike for 
the sum of $350. This company has never 
forfeited its charter, and in the annual state- 
ments of the treasurer of the State an item 
of some thousands of dollars appears as an 
asset, consisting of shares in the Susque- 
hanna & Tioga Turnpike Company. 

"Centre" turnpike, so called from being al- 
most in the center of the State, was begun in 
1808, and ran from Reading to Northumber- 
land, passing tlirough the township of Conyng- 

ham, Columbia county. The chief promoter of 
this road was Gen. William Montgomery, of 
Danville. In 1814 a branch turnpike was 
built from Danville to connect with this main 
road, and formed one of the important routes 
from Montour county. In 1788 the Reading 
road was laid out from Catawissa to Ashland, 
Schuylkill county, where it connected with the 
"Centre" turnpike. In 1810 it was made a 
State road and partially rebuilt. About 1817 
a sum of money was appropriated to regrade 
it, and in 1825 a line of stagecoaches was 
established by Joseph Weaver. In 1839 Ben- 
jamin Potts started an opposition line, both 
changing horses at the famous Yeager tavern 
at Slabtown. It was the most important road 
on the south side of the river and bore an 
immense amount of traffic. Great covered 
Conestoga wagons slowly wound their way 
over the tortuous route across the mountains, 
their limit of loading being twenty bushels of 
grain for two horses. The journey to Read- 
ing required eight or ten days then. Now 
an automobile can make it in three hours to 
Ashland, and about the same time to Reading 
from the latter place. This road is now route 
No. 183 of the State highways. 

The second Reading road was opened in 
1812 through Roaringcreek township, Colum- 
bia county, and for a time bore a part of the 
stagecoach traffic, but the superior attractions 
of the older road caused a decline after a short 
time. This road is now the chief route for the 
farmers to the mining towns of Schuylkill 

The turnpike from Bloomsburg to Muncy, 
by way of Jerseytown, Whitehall and Ex- 
change, was established in 1817, and for many 
vears was a prominent road for travelers to 
that section, until abandoned in favor of the 
railroads. The road from Berwick to Milton 
also passed through Jerseytown, making that 
town a prominent point in the days of the 

The road from Benton to Unityville, Ly- 




coming county, was built in 1S28, and made 
a mail route at the same time. It bore its 
share of the traffic of the coaching era. 

In 1856 the State Legislature made an ap- 
propriation for the construction of a road 
through the valley of Little I-'ishing creek from 
Bloomsburg to Laporte, Sullivan county. 


This article would be incomplete without a 
description of the great National Road, or 
Cumberland Pike, as it was sometimes called. 
Passing as it does through a considerable por- 
tion of Pennsylvania, and built at the time of 
the commencement of the coaching era, it is 
of vast historical importance in the present 
age, when good roads are being demanded by 
all the parties and the people. 

This road was proposed in Congress in 1797, 
an act for its construction was passed nine 
years later, and the first coach carrying the 
United States mail passed over it in August, 
1818. It was a splendid road, sixty feet wide, 
built of broken stone over bedstones of enor- 
mous size, with a covering of gravel, rolled 
by an iron roller. Mordecai Cochran was the 
contractor for the section from Cumberland, 
Md., to Wheeling, W. Va., through the south- 
ern part of Pennsylvania, and he employed 
over a thousand Irishmen to build that route 
of 130 miles. 

The intention was to build the road clear 
through to Alton, 111., but it was completed 
only as far as Vandalia, 111., although the route 
was laid out the rest of the way. Over this 
road passed most of the prominent persons of 
the days before the railroads, and for years 
there was a constant stream of vehicles of all 
kinds traveling along this fine route towards 
the West. Since the Highway Commission 
has been established in this State the Nation- 
al Road has been improved greatly. So well 
was the work of the original contractor done 
that in many places the old foundations are 
still in place. 

Not only was this road macadamized, but 
stone bridges were built over the rivers and 
creeks, the distances indexed by iron mileposts, 
and the tollhouses supplied with strong iron 


The first appearance of this wagon in his- 
tory was at the time of Braddock's expedi- 
tion in I7S,S> when Benjamin Franklin issued 
an advertisement for 150 four-horse wagons 

and 1,500 saddle or pack horses for the army's 
use. He agreed to pay fifteen shillings for 
the use of the wagons each day, and to com- 
pensate the owners if the wagons were lost or 
damaged. This oft'er later on was almost the 
cause of Franklin's bankruptcy, as the battle 
resulted in the capture by the English of almost 
all the wagons and stock. 

At the time of Braddock's expedition the 
pack horse was the most common means of 
transporting goods, but after that date the 
roads were widened and the wagons entered 
the field, much to the disgust of the pack driv- 
ers, who fiercely resisted the invasion. 

Pennsylvania may rightly be proud of the 
Dutchman who designed the Conestoga wagon, 
for even in this day it is the ideal wagon for 
the transportation of goods over the roads. It 
gained its name from the township in Lan- 
caster county where the first vehicle of the 
kind was made. These wagons had a boat- 
shaped body with a curved canoe-shaped bot- 
tom which fitted them especially for mountain 
use ; for in them freight remained firmly in 
place at whatever angle the body might be. 
The body of the wagon was arched over with 
six or eight hickory bows, of which the center 
ones were the lowest, covered with a strong 
white hempen cloth, corded strongly down at 
the sides and ends. Underneath hung the 
tar-lodel or greasepot, and the water pail. At 
the rear was the great feed box, with a wood- 
en cover, slanted to shed the rain. On the 
sides were the long tool box and storage box. 
The wheels had broad tires, often a foot wide, 
many of the turnpike companies giving re- 
bates to the teamsters who had wide tires on 
their wagons. 

Sleek, powerful horses to the number of six 
to ten drew these heavy wagons, which could 
be loaded to the top of the cover with a mis- 
cellaneous freight of from four to si.x tons. 
The horses were clad in handsome harness of 
fine leather, bore bells, and were driven mostly 
by word of mouth. The drivers rode some- 
times on the "near wheeler," who bore a sad- 
dle, or on the "lazy board," a seat inserted on 
the left side, but it was more often the case 
that the driver walked alongside his team. 

The number of these wagons on the main 
roads was vast. At one time over 3,000 ran 
constantly out of Philadelphia to the surround- 
ing towns. Most of the teamsters made 
freighting their regular vocation, and lived on 
the road with their teams. They carried their 
own "grub" as well as feed for the horses, and 
also a long mattress for their use in the tav- 
erns or on the road, sleeping usually on the 



lap-ioom floor, paying a small fee for the privi- 
lege. JJefore rcLiring many potations were in- 
dulged in, and from the resulting battles the 
old "wagon inns" gained their hard names. 

These wagons after the development of rail- 
roads in this State became the "prairie schoon- 
ers" of the West, and bore many an emigrant 
and his household to the far distant home- 
steads of that portion of our country. 


The first coach was made in England in 
1555 by Walter Rippen for the Earl of Rut- 
land. Eight years later he made one for 
Queen Elizabeth. The early English stage- 
coaches were clumsy things, without windows 
or seats, but necessity soon developed them 
into the hne vehicles of later years. These 
vehicles were imported into the Colonies in 
1737, but the colonists were compelled from 
the nature of the country to develop their own 

In 1795 a stage line ran from Philadelphia 
to New York, the fare being four dollars. The 
vehicle had four benches, without backs or 
cushions, placed across the interior, the pas- 
sengers being compelled to climb over each 
other to get to the back seat, the coveted one, 
owing to the opportunity to rest the back 
against the rear of the coach. Leather cur- 
tains covered the top, and the passengers had 
to stow their baggage under the seats, where 
it shifted at every move of the lumbering 
coach. Having no springs, this vehicle was 
one to create terror in the heart of the unfor- 
tunate traveler who had a long journey before 

The coaches of 18 18 had "thoroughbraces" 
fitted to them, which made the motion much 
easier. These were leather straps, by which 
the body of the coach was suspended from 
hickory bows. At this date the coach also had 
a seat for the driver, with a footboard, and 
had a trunk-rack bolted to the rear. Many 
other modifications were from time to time 
made in the coaches, all of which were super- 
seded by the famous Concord coach, first built 
in Concord, N. H., in 1827. This famous 
coach is still the model for vehicles of its 
class at the present time. 

The word "stagecoach" strictly applies to 
a vehicle for the transportation of passengers 
over a route at different stages of which the 
horses are changed, and the word "omnibus" 
indicates a coach used for short distances. The 
first stages from Philadelphia to New York 
made the trip in three days, but later the trip 

was made in much shorter time. The National 
Road was a famous coaching route, at one time 
four lines of coaches being run upon it. 

The coaches in this section of the State 
were of similar character to those elsewhere, 
l)ut the roads were not as good and the hills 
more steep. The rivalry between the different 
lines was great and in many instances the war- 
ring drivers cut the rates to almost nothing 
in order to drive their rivals out of business. 
Upon the patronage of these stage lines and 
their passengers depended the prosperity of 
many of the towns of Columbia and Montour 
counties. The village of New Columbus 
(just over the line in Luzerne county) was 
founded especially to cater to the coaching 
traffic, but failed almost in birth, owing to 
the advent of the railroads. 

The journey by stagecoach was a mixture 
of pleasure and pain. The autumn was prob- 
ably the best time to travel, for then the roads 
had settled to their best condition. In summer 
the dust so covered the passengers that some- 
times one could not tell the color of their gar- 
ments. In winter and spring the coaches sank 
to the hubs in the soft soil of the poor roads, 
or bumped over the loose stones of the turn- 
pikes. It seemed to be adding insult to injury 
to demand toll from the passengers for a 
journey over such highways. And the toll- 
gates seemed to appear at remarkably frequent 

There was one curious and most depressing 
condition of stage travel. It seemed no mat- 
ter how little or how long the journey was, 
nor where the destination, the coach always 
started at daybreak, or before. The traveler 
had to rise in the dark, dress by the feeble 
illumination of a tallow dip, and start out in 
the cold, depressing gloom of the early dawn, 
without breakfast. As most deaths occur in 
the early hours before dawn, it is surprising 
that the poor travelers of those days did not 
gladly shuffle off this mortal coil to evade the 
terrors of the journey before them. Some- 
time later in the morning the breakfast post 
would be reached, and something warm taken 
within, just as the victim had almost de- 
spaired of keeping alive the vital spark. It 
was no unusual thing for the coach to make 
ten miles ere the travelers were given their 
breakfast. From three to five in the morning 
were the starting hours of the coaches, and 
the journey often lasted until eight at night. 
In such a journey many miles could be aovered 
in a day. 




The history of Pennsylvania shows that the 
taverns of this State were many and good, 
especially after the Revolution. These taverns 
or inns were generally kept by the most prom- 
inent citizen of the town and were not simply 
drinking places, but the center of social life 
for the inhabitants. The better class of 
taverns usually had a parlor for the women, 
with an open fireplace, from which the roaring 
fire cast grateful warmth and cheerful illumi- 
nation. Most of these parlors were well fur- 
nished and served as a place of resort for the 
family of the innkeeper as well as the traveler's 
wife or daughter. 

The taproom was usually the largest room 
of the inn, had a bar, a great fireplace, and was 
furnished with wooden benches and tables. 
Often there was a rude writing desk for the 
accommodation of the early traveling sales- 
man or lawyer. One of the furnishings of 
the fireplace was a pair of smoking tongs, to 
pull a coal of fire from the embers for the 
pipes of the habitues. Of the drinks that were 
served here and the meals partaken much has 
been written by others, so we will pass over 
that part and give a brief list of the prominent 
taverns or inns of Columbia and Montour 

One of the first inns was that of Frederick 
Hill, who built on the site of Fort Jenkins, 
east of Bloomsburg on the road to Berwick. 
He and his son ran it for many years. When 
the stagecoaches came into constant use in 
1/99 Abram Miller built the "Half-Way 
House," where horses were changed on the 
journey between -the two towns. 

Probably the oldest tavern on the south side 
of the Susquehanna was the Red Tavern, built 
in 1804 by John Rhodenberger on the crest of 
Locust mountain. For almost a decade he 
catered to the immense traffic along the old 
Reading road. An inn still stands on the site 
in 1914, more than a hundred years later. 
Another inn was built about the same time at 
the foot of Buck mountain on the other Read- 
ing road, by Adam Michael. 

^^^^en this Reading road was in its high 
tide of prosperity there were two inns located 
on it that were famous all over this section. 
One was the hostelry of John Yeager, at Slab- 
town, and the other Casper Rhoads' tavern, at 

An inn stood on the road from Bloomsburg 
to Danville at the spot now called Grovania 
(then bearing the title of Ridgeville), but the 
name of the proprietor has passed away with 

the building. In 1838, when the coaches ran 
to every point out of Danville, there were 
four inns at Washingtonville, all of which did 
a rushing business. 

Probably the most interesting of the old inns 
now remaining in this part of the State is 
the one from which the village of White Hall 
gained its name. The first inn here was the Red 
Horse Inn, built in 1810 by Andrew Schooley, 
but it was razed some years later to make way 
for a storeroom. White Hall Inn was built 
in 1818 by Capt. John F. Derr, and rebuilt 
in 1849 by Ferdinand Ritter, who had the 
ambition to make it a famous resort for 
travelers. It is probably the most elaborately 
carved building in this section of Pennsyl- 
vania, the work being done by Samuel Brugler 
of Jerseytown. Over the wide porch is a 
panel of some length, depicting an eagle hold- 
ing two American flags and standing upon two 
cannon. Above the door is a large piece of 
scrollwork, while on each side are fantastic 
animal heads. The panels of the door are 
also hand-carved, as are also the capitals of 
the fine Corinthian columns. When in its 
prime, and with a coat of pure white paint 
upon it, this inn must have presented an im- 
posing appearance to the arriving traveler. 
Even in its last days of decay and neglect it 
has an impressive dignity that makes it over- 
shadow the more modem structures around 
it. The well from which many a traveler 
watered his weary horse is still in use by the 
side of the road in front of the old hotel, 
which is now owned and occupied by John 
O. McWilliams. 

In the larger towns there were many inns 
of more or less repute, chief among them being 
the Cross Keys and Golden Lamb, at Berwick ; 
the Forks Inn and Chamberlain's Hotel, at 
Bloomsburg; the Susquehanna House, still 
standing at Catawissa ; and the Ferry Tavern, 
the Jackson Tavern, the Cross Keys Inn, and 
the Rising Sun Inn, at Danville. 


Before the establishment of post offices and 
mail routes the public had to depend on the 
casual traveler to communicate in writing with 
friends and relatives in other parts of the 
State. The first postriders were men who 
embarked in the carrying of mail for their 
own gain, and many different rates were 
charged, according to distance and condition 
of the roads. In 1773 Hugh Finlay was made 
postal surveyor by the English government 
over the territorv from Canada to Florida, 



the penny post having been established in 
1753. He found many abuses in force, but 
failed to correct them. 

In 181 1 the United States government 
ordered a topographical survey of the post 
road from Passamaquoddy to St. Mary's, in 
Massachusetts, and in 1815 published a list 
of the post towns of the country, their dis- 
tances apart and the charges for letters de- 
livered. To make this information more avail- 
able to the people the report was printed on 
linen handkerchiefs and sold at a low rate. 
Some of these unique records are still in a 
good state of preservation. 

According to this table a single letter was 
conveyed for a distance of 10 miles or less 
for 6 cents ; up to 60 miles, 8 cents ; 100 miles, 
10 cents; up to 250 miles, 17 cents; and for 
450 miles a fee of 25 cents was charged. 

The first post office route was established in 
Pennsylvania in 1683 by William Penn, be- 
tween Philadelphia and New Castle, Del. The 
first postmaster of Philadelphia was Benjamin 
Franklin, in 1737. In 1753 he was made post- 
master for the Colonies, and in 1775 was ap- 
pointed postmaster general by the Continental 

The rates on letters in this State remained 
the same as in the above table until 1842. All 
letters had to be prepaid, postage averaging 
12 cents each, and the postmaster was obliged 
to give the sender a receipt and then forward 
a description of the letter, the amount of post- 
age paid, the date of sending and other neces- 
sary information to the department at Wash- 
ington. Fortunately for the old postmasters 
there were few letters transmitted in those 

The high rates, the poor service and other 
causes broug'ht into existence many private 
expresses, which carried letters in defiance of 
the law for much less than that charged by 
the government. 

Berwick first appears as a post village in 
1797. Three years later Jonathan Hancock 
carried the mail over the route from Wilkes- 

A pony mail was established in 1806 from 
Danville to Sunbury, the round trip being 
made in a week. It took two weeks for an 
answer to be received from Philadelphia. The 
route from Sunbury to Painted Post was 
awarded in 181 1 to Conrad Teter, who sublet 
the route from Wilkes-Barre to Miller Hor- 
ton. The route from Shickshinny to Jersey- 
town, through the Fishing Creek post office, 
was established in 1815. 

A mail route from Fairmount Springs, 
Luzerne county, to Taneyville, Lycoming 
county, by way of Cole's Creek, Campbell and 
Division, was operated on contract by James 
N. Park, his son Orrin being the carrier. All 
mail was carried on foot over the rough and 
almost pathless country, and it was not till 
1848 that the amount of mail matter war- 
ranted the use of a horse. 

in 1856 Capt. John Derr ran the tri-weekly 
mail coach from the Exchange Hotel at 
Bloomsburg to the White Hall Hotel at White- 
hall. In 1857 the route was extended to 

The post office department reduced the rates 
in 1845 to 5 cents for a half ounce, over a 
radius of 300 miles ; a greater distance cost- 
ing 10 cents. As usual, the letters had to be 
prepaid. In 1847 stamps were first introduced, 
but did not come into general use until 1855. 
Rates were reduced to 3 cents in 1863, and 
again in 1883 to 2 cents for each half ounce. 

Free delivery of letters over a restricted 
route in large cities took effect in 1863. In 
1865 it was extended to cover small cities, and 
in 1873, and then in 1887, the delivery system 
was made applicable to small towns and vil- 

In 1896 the rural free delivery, which has 
caused the abolition of so many small post 
offices, was tested in different sections with 
such success that it was greatly extended in 
1904 and later years. At present the rural 
routes are being extended as fast as condi- 
tions warrant into every part of the Union. 

Two of the latest additions to the conven- 
iences of the post office, which have in a short 
time become absolute necessities, are the postal 
savings banks and the parcel post. The latter 
was declared but a few years ago by inter- 
ested parties to be impossible of establishment, 
yet in the two years of its existence it has 
demonstrated its great value and almost put 
the great express companies out of business. 


The first railway mail car was given an offi- 
cial test in 1864. Two mice were responsible 
for the introduction of the traveling post 
office. Before that date the mail was dis- 
tributed according to the addresses at certain 
designated post offices, which usually were 
the distributing points of whole States. It 
was slow and laborious work. At one of these 
distributing points. Green Bay, Wis., a pair 



of mice made their home in a pouch that had 
lain in the post office for several days. When 
Jhe pouch finally reached its destination, near 
the upper shores of Lake Superior, the receiv- 
ing postmaster found not only the rodent 
homeseekers, but also a larger family of little 
mice. They had made beds of chewed-up let- 
ters. The postmaster reported the matter to 
the Chicago office and sent along the mice as 
an exhibit, which was received by George B. 
Armstrong, the assistant postmaster. To pre- 
vent the repetition of such an occurrence Arm- 
strong sought to speed up the mail service, and 
finally evolved the idea of having the mail dis- 
tributed on the trains while in transit. The 
plan was ridiculed. One man declared : "The 
government will have to employ a regiment of 
men to follow the trains to pick up the letters 
that would be blown out of the cars." 

However, the first postal car, an ordinary 
baggage car equipped with racks and pigeon- 
holes, made its initial run from Chicago to 
Clinton, Iowa, over fifty years ago, and today 
every nation in the civilized world is dis- 
tributing a large part of its mail matter in 
railway mail cars. In the United States over 
eighteen thousand railway mail clerks are 
separating over ninety per cent of all the mail 
originating in this country and a large volume 
coming from foreign lands. They have sepa- 
rated in a single year nearly twenty-three bil- 
lion pieces of mail matter, not including reg- 
istered mail. They travel an aggregate dis- 
tance of five hundred million miles every year 
on the twenty-seven thousand domestic trans- 
portation routes having a combined mileage of 
four hundred and fifty thousand miles. 

The service has been raised to the highest 
point of efficiency to-day and the present ratio 
of errors in distribution has been reduced to 
one in ten thousand pieces of mail. The clerks 
are expected to distribute the mail so that there 
will be no rehandling in the post offices of large 
cities, and to separate it into packages corres- 
ponding with each mail carrier's route in the 
cities. In the case of the largest cities they 
must separate it according to sections or sub- 
stations. Considering the speed at which the 
clerks sort the mail, the swaying of the train 
plunging along at fifty miles an hour, and the 
thousands of railway connecting points, the 
locations of over sixty thousand post offices 
in the United States and the frequent illegi- 
bility of the hand written addresses, it becomes 
a marvel how the railway mail clerk can work 
without a greater proportion of errors. 

Post Offices in Columbia County, ipi4 


Beaver Valley- 
Benton — 6 
Berwick — 3 
Bloomsburg — 5 
Briar Creek 
Catawissa — 5 
Elk Grove 

Eyer's Grove 
l<"ishing Creek 
Forks — I 

lola (discontinued July ist) 

Jamison City — i 

Jerseytown — 2 

Light Street — i 

Lime Ridge 

Mainville — i 


Millville — 3 


Orangeville — 2 

Pine Summit 

Roaring Creek — i 

Rolirsburg — i 


Stillwater — i 


Post Offices ill Montour County, 1(^14 


Strawberry Ridge 
White Hall 

Danville — 7 





* The Hgure after the name of the office indicates 
the number of rural routes emanating therefrom. 


For many years Pennsylvania has stood 
almost at the bottom of the list of States in 
the matter of good roads. Except in a few 
isolated instances, very little aid has been given 
in the past to the builders of roads here by 
the State. The first act for the establishment 
of a Highway Department was that of 1903, 
which was supplemented by the acts of 1905 
and 1907. The act under which the present 
State Highway Department is operated is 
commonly known as the "Sproul Road Act," 
enacted by the 191 1 session of the Legislature, 
and approved in May of that year by Gov. 
John K. Tener. 

This act called for a reorganization of the 
existing State Highway Department, and pro- 
vided for the taking over as State highways 
the roads comprising 296 specified routes, 
forming connecting links between county seats 
and the principal cities and towns, and in ad- 
dition forming trunk lines extending from one 
end of the State to the other. The act pro- 
vided that the new department should have 
full charge of maintaining and constructing 
these routes after June i, 1912; carry on ex- 
isting State-aid contracts; and further pro- 
vided for the iiuprovement of township roads 
to the extent of two million dollars, fifty per 
cent of which was to be supplied by the State, 
and the other fifty per cent by the county or 
township applying for aid. 



The department was organized in July, 
191 1, and the State divided into fourteen dis- 
tricts, District No. 3 consisting of Columbia, 
Luzerne, Montour, Northumberland, Snyder 
and Union counties, with headquarters at 
Bloomsburg. The State Highway head- 
quarters is at Harrisburg, the officers consist- 
ing of Edward M. Bigelow, State highway 
commissioner ; Joseph W. Hunter, first dep- 
uty State highway commissioner; E. A. Jones, 
second deputy State highway commissioner ; 
Samuel D. Foster, chief engineer; Howard W. 
Fry, chief clerk ; and W. R. D. Hall, statisti- 
cian. The field work is under the direction of 
a bridge engineer, fifteen assistant engineers, 
and fifty superintendents. The auditing de- 
partment is under the charge of a certified ac- 
countant, and the maintenance department is 
under the direction of a competent engineer. 

In addition to the work done in the counties 
of Columbia and Montour, considerable work 
was done upon the historic highway in the 
southern part of the State, known as the "Na- 
tional Road" or "Cumberland Turnpike." 
This road was built by the United States gov- 
ernment in the years 1804 to 1814, and con- 
nected Baltimore, Md., with Alton, 111. The 
highway department has improved almost the 
entire length of this road through Pennsyl- 
vania, and intends to make it a model road of 
modern construction. The great width of this 
road is a standing rebuke to the "skimpy" 
methods of the road builders of the past in 
this State. 

The funds expended by the highway depart- 
ment in the years 1912-13 were derived from 
the following sources : 

State highway fund appropriation $3,000,000 

Automobile tax receipts appropriated 1,800,000 

State-aid appropriation 1,000,000 

Balance State-aid appropriation, 1907-1909. 660,642 
State-aid funds returned by counties and 

townships 410,950 

National Road appropriation 300,000 

Experiments and tests fund appropriation. . 50,000 

Traveling fund appropriation 88,000 

Contingent fund appropriation 79.000 

Expense fund, automobile division 100.000 

The roads placed under the care of the State 
highway commission aggregated 8,827 miles, 
and the different classes of construction are 
as follows : Brick, asphaltic-concrete, asphalt- 
ic-macadam, waterbound-macadam, and con- 
crete. There were 296 main State highway 
routes and 306 alternate lines, the averaa:e cost 
of surveying per mile being $47.87, plotting 
$11.36 per mile, and checking and tracing 
$7.96 per mile. In addition to surveying the 

State highways, 35,512 miles of country roads 
were surveyed and maps prepared showing 
the roads, towns, villages and other important 
places in the districts. 

The average expense for maintenance of 
approximately 6,000 miles of roads in 1912-13 
was $169 per mile. The following 'numbered 
routes of the State highways are those passing 
through Columbia and Montour counties: 
Route No. 2, Sunbury to Danville; No. 3, Dan- 
ville to Bloomsburg; No. 4, Bloomsburg to 
Wilkes-Barre via Berwick; No. 16, Blooms- 
burg to Laporte via Benton; No. 161, Potts- 
ville to Sunbury via Centralia; No. 183, 
Bloomsburg to Pottsville via Catawissa and 
Centralia; No. 185, Laporte to Wilkes-Barre 
via Benton ; No. 239, Bloomsburg to Williams- 
port via Millville and Sereno; No. 240, Wil- 
liamsport to Danville via Washingtonville ; 
No. 249, Bloomsburg to Lock Haven via Still- 
water, Rohrsburg, Millville, Jerseytown, 
White Hall and Exchange ; No. 259, Danville 
to Lewisburg via Mooresbtirg; No. 283, 
Bloomsburg to Sunbury via Catawissa and 
Pensyl's Mill ; No. 303, lola to Muncy via 
Pine Summit; No. 321, Laporte to Benton, 
and over route No. 16 to Bloomsburg ; No. 
327, Bloomsburg to Berwick via Almedia, 
Espy, Lime Ridge and Briar Creek. 

Under the provisions of the act of 1909 the 
revenues derived from the registration of 
motor vehicles and operators' licenses were 
set aside for the improvement of the State 
roads. From Jan. i, 1910, to June i, 1913, the 
receipts from this source were $2,031,921. It 
is estimated that the annual receipts from this 
source will be over a million dollars a year 

During the period above referred to the 
length of routes in' the two counties under 
discussion was 127.24 miles, and the total 
expended for maintenance upon them was 
$13,659. The work of surveying tlie town- 
ship roads was in progress, but the completed 
maps had not been placed in the hands of the 

The commission is given power to divert or 
rebuild any State roads, when necessary, to 
purchase and free of charges all toll roads, re- 
build all bridges where necessary, take over all 
roads running through towns or boroughs 
where it is necessary to comolete the improve- 
ment of a route, to aid to the extent of fifty 
per cent of the cost of the construction of a 
road through a borough when petitioned, and 
to make regulations regarding the laying of 
railroad tracks and pines or conduits upon 
and under the said roads. 



The State-aid roads are built by the higli- 
way department and maintained by them, one 
half of the cost of building and maintenance 
being borne by the State and the other half 
by the county and township. These roads are 
built to conform with the State standards and 
are under the supervision of the highway de- 

. In 1914 a section of State-aided roadway 
8,555 fsst in length was built in the boroughs 
of Berwick and West Berwick, under the 
supervision of the State highway department. 
The base w^as concrete and the road was sur- 
faced with Watsontown brick, laid in. tar. 
The contract price of the work was $31,265.33. 
A strip on each side of the street, including 
the gutter and curbing, was added by the two 
boroughs and laid under the supen-ision of the 
State engineers ; this additional strip was paid 
for by the boroughs alone. Its length was 
3,200 feet, and extended as far as the settled 
portion of the town of West Berwick. 

The present completed State-aid roads are 
located in Catawissa, Berwick, Danville and 
a stretch north and south of Benton. The 
road from Bloomsburg to Danville and 
through ^Montour county to Northumberland 
is macadamized and kept in a fine state of 
repair, while in other parts of both counties 
work is proceeding on the roads as rapidly 
as the amount of funds on hand held by the 
highway department will justify. 


The Susquehanna was declared a navigable 
highway by the Provincial Assembly of 1771 
and a sum set aside to improve it. "Durham" 
boats, so named from a town below Easton, 
where they were built, were the first to navi- 
gate the river. They were sixty feet long, 
eight feet wide and two feet deep, and drew 
twenty inches of water when loaded with 
fifteen tons of merchandise. Four men, with 
setting poles, moved them against the current 
at the rate of two miles an hour. 

Many attempts were made to increase their 
speed mechanically before the invention of 
steam. Isaac A. Chapman, in 1824, built a 
boat at Nescopeck designed to be operated by 
horsepower, but it failed after repeated trials. 
It was fittingly named the "Experiment." 
Farmers and merchants of these counties re- 
sorted to the use of "arks," rafts and flats for 
the transportation of their merchandise, but 
they often lost the results of months of labor 
in a few moments in the rapids and eddies of 
the treacherous stream. According to the 

Danville Watchman of that year the trade on 
the Susquehanna in 1824, by means of "arks" 
and rafts, from Columbia county, was 100,000 
bushels of wheat, 3,000 bushels of clover seed, 
3,000 barrels of whiskey, 250 tons of pork, and 
a small amount of lumber. It seems that the 
forests were then beginning to be completely 
exhausted along the watercourses. 

In April, 1826, the "Codorus," a steamer 
built at Vork Haven and commanded by Cap- 
tain Elger, passed Berwick on its way to 
Wilkes-Barre and Binghamton. The follow- 
ing month Captain Collins, in the "Susque- 
hanna," a larger boat, attempted to pass the 
falls of Nescopeck, opposite Berwick, and in 
the attempt the boiler exploded, killing four 
and wounding a large number of the passen- 
gers. This settled the fate of navigation in 
the river, and steps were at once taken for 
the construction of a canal. 

Propositions had been made to build a series 
of dams across the river, but never went beyond 
the discussion stage. The North Branch 
canal, which was an extension of the Penn- 
sylvania State canal system, was begun in 
1826, the first excavation being celebrated at 
Berwick by a military parade and salutes from 
the cannon. Alexander Jameson drove the 
oxen and Nathan Beach held the plow handles 
as the first furrows were turned. 

The North Branch canal began at North- 
umberland and extended to the New York 
State line, there connecting with a canal to 
Elmira ; thence boats were towed down Seneca 
lake to the branch of the Erie canal, through 
which either the Atlantic or the Great Lakes 
could be easily reached. The canal was opened 
as far as Nanticoke falls in September, 1831 ; 
the W'yoming extension to Pittston, seventeen 
miles, was completed in 1834; the Tioga 
branch, to connect w-ith the New York canal 
system, was begun in 1836; also the line from 
Pittston to Athens ; the Tunkhannock line was 
begun in 1838. 

The North Branch Canal Company was in- 
corporated in 1843 and took over the unfin- 
ished portion between the Lackawanna river 
and the New York State line, but did not 
carry out the contract, and in 1848 the State 
regained control of that part. The entire 
canal and its branches was finally completed 
in 1853, but not fully opened until 1856, when 
the "Tonawanda" passed up from Pittston to 
Elmira with a cargo of coal. The total cost 
of the North Branch canal and its branches 
was $1,598,379.35. 

The length of the canal through the counties 
of Columbia and Montour was about twenty- 



four miles. In this section there were five 
locks, located at Berwick, Bloomsburg, Rupert 
and Lime Ridge and one near Danville. These 
locks were twenty feet wide, twenty feet deep, 
with three sets of gates at distances of ninety 
feet. They were very substantially built of 
earth, lined with stone, covered with a wooden 
sheathing fastened to the stones by iron rods 
and wedges. The capstones along the walls 
were of Pottsville conglomerate, fastened to- 
gether with iron staples sunk in holes previ- 
ously filled with melted lead. Some of these 
locks could easily be used at present, while 
others have been destroyed by fire and flood. 
The most important monument in Columbia 
county to the ability of the old canal builders 
is the aqueduct at Rupert, which is now used 
by the electric railroad as a bridge. The stone 
piers are in excellent shape and the timbers 
are still in fair condition after eighty-three 
years of use. 

In 1830 the first canalboat — the '"Wyom- 
ing"^-built at Northumberland passed Ber- 
wick in the river, the canal being still un- 
completed. The following year the "Luzerne" 
came up the canal. In 1835 the first boats 
built exclusively for passenger trade, the 
"Denison" and the "Gertrude," constructed 
by Miller Horton and A. H. Cahoon, were 
launched at Northumberland for the trade 
between that town and Wilkes-Barre. They 
were drawn by six horses. For a period of 
some years before the advent of the railroads 
the canal was a favorite route for passenger 
traffic, as the stagecoaches were barely com- 
fortable and more expensive. Although the 
progress on the canal was slow — about six 
miles an hour — the scenery was beautiful, the 
accommodations excellent, and the food could 
be eaten in peace and at leisure. Many picnic 
and excursion parties were made up and the 
practice continued even down to the last years 
of the life of the canal system, when small 
light-draft steamers were used for the pur- 

Boatyards were established at Northumber- 
land, Espy and Wilkes-Barre, where the boats 
were built and repaired. The canal company 
in later years operated its own boats, but any 
person could carry on a freight business by 
paying the regular tolls and complying with the 
rules. In winter the canal was emptied of 
water and all the necessary repairs were then 
made. In the spring it was necessary to mow 
the long grass in the canal bed before the 
water was let in, as it greatly interfered with 
rapid transit. 

For some years the business done by the 

canal was immense. It was the main avenue to 
the seaboard and coal could be profitably sent 
through it to Philadelphia for one dollar a ton 
from Wilkes-Barre. The railroad rate is now 
nearly double that. Canalboats were on an 
average eighty-five feet long and drew two 
feet when loaded. The average depth of the 
canal was five feet. The largest cargo ever 
shipped in one boat was a mixed one of 285 

The entire canal system in this section of 
the State was sold in 1858 to the Sunbury & 
Erie Railroad Company and by them to the 
North Branch Canal Company. In 1869 it 
was sold to the Pennsylvania Railroad Com- 
pany, who formed the subsidiary company 
which for some years operated it under the 
name of the Pennsylvania Canal Company. 

In 1880 the traffic on the canal began to de- 
cline and in ten years after that it became 
apparent that the canal would have to be 
abandoned. The unprecedented freshets of 
1889 had destroyed the Juniata division, from 
Newton Hamilton to Rope Ferry, a distance of 
fifty-six miles, and the West Branch canal was 
also damaged, all that portion west of the 
Loyalsock being almost totally obliterated. 
Having no connection below Northumberland, 
the canal became almost useless and was finally 
abandoned in 1891. The Pennsylvania Rail- 
road Company sold it to the Delaware, Lacka- 
wanna &• Western Railroad Company, the pres- 
ent owners, later on. 

The Pennsylvania Canal Company operated 
the section of the canal from Northumberland 
to Wilkes-Barre, a distance of sixty-five miles, 
but owned altogether about 338 miles of canals. 
Their capital stock was fixed at $5,000,000 and 
the officers were all Philadelphians, stockhold- 
ers of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company. 
The locaP superintendents in this section were 
Hugh D. Quick of Rupert and Hudson Owen 
of Berwick. The chief engineer was Thomas 
H. Wierman of Harrisburg. 

In this year of 1914 there is little evidence 
in sight of the past glory of the canal, although 
but a few years have elapsed since its abandon- 
ment. Nature has done her best to obliterate 
the work of the past and man has assisted her 
by tearing down the embankments and de- 
stroying the stone work. The authorities at 
Danville have almost entirely filled up the bed 
of the canal, but in Bloomsburg and Berwick 
and along most of the intervening space it re- 
mains open, filled in places with stagnant water, 
a menace to the health of the public. The locks 
at Rupert and Bloomsburg are still visible, 



but those at Dainille and Berwick are covered 
up under tons of earth. 

The Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Rail- 
road Company has placed metal signs along the 
line of the canal, warning the public against 
trespassing. Many persons object to this pro- 
hibition, but in a way it is a blessing to the peo- 
ple. It prevents adjacent landowners from 
shutting off the river from the public use and 
has permitted the growth of trees to continue 
unrestricted, thus converting many parts of 
the canal towpath into a veritable "lovers' lane," 
embowered with foliage and affording a shady 
walk for miles along the beautiful Susque- 
hanna. The canal could be easily converted 
into a level and permanent highway at but 
moderate expense, if the railroad could be in- 
duced to turn it over to the State Highway 


The honor of being the first to promote and 
construct a railroad in this section of Pennsyl- 
vania belongs to citizens of Catawissa, the 
head of the project, and for a time the only 
advocate of the plan, being Christian Brobst. 
The story of the building of this road is an 
interesting and romantic one, and has been 
compiled in the follovving accurate narrative 
by Charles E. Randall, editor of the Catawissa 
News Item and vice president of the Columbia 
County Historical Society. 

In the issue of Jan. 20, 1825, Danville 
Watchman, appeared a letter from Christian 
Brobst, Catawissa, dated Jan. 15th. At that 
time water transportation was considered the 
solution of the problem of communication be- 
tween the great manufacturing centers, the 
State canal being partially completed. A route 
for water communication was sought between 
the Schuylkill river and the North Branch of 
the Susquehanna. 

In his letter to the Watchman Mr. Brobst, 
who was one of Catawissa's "live wires," a 
merchant miller, owning the upper mil! at that 
place, the farm now owned by Harman Breisch, 
and a number of other properties in this sec- 
tion, advocated a route between the two rivers 
by way of the Little Schuylkill river and Cata- 
wissa creek. He claimed the route was prac- 
tical and that he was acquainted with every 
foot of the way. His plan was to come up the 
Schuylkill river, then up the Little Schuylkill 
to its headwaters ; cross over to the headwaters 
of Catawissa creek, "a distance of three miles, 
part of the way through a small mountain" ; 
then down Catawissa creek to the North Branch 

of the Susquehanna; "the levels showing that 
every foot of the waterways could be made 

"This could be made a part of a route from 
Philadelphia to the lakes," he stated, "by going 
down the North Branch and up the West 
Branch to Sinnemahoning creek, 100 miles; up 
the Sinnemahoning to Toby's (or Sandy) creek, 
40 miles ; down Toby's creek to Allegheny river, 
Oo miles ; up the Allegheny to French creek, 
25 miles; up French creek to Waterford, 28 
miles; then by canal 14 miles across country 
to Erie." This route, he claimed, would neces- 
sitate the construction of but thirty miles of 
canals. Flis idea was that the streams could 
all be made navigable by a series of dams. 

Nothing ever came of this project, and it 
was not until 1829 that the transportation 
question came up again. This time it was the 
railroad project. Mr. Brobst had been elected 
to the Legislature from Columbia county, and 
kept hammering at the State authorities for 
transportation between the Schuylkill and the 
North Branch. Fortified by the survey he had 
made on the waterway project, he succeeded 
in getting the Legislature, in 1828, to pass an 
act authorizing the Pennsylvania Canal Com- 
mission to "employ a competent engineer to 
make surveys and examinations between a 
point on the Schuylkill canal near Pottsville, 
and a point on the Susquehanna river between 
the towns of Catawissa and Sunbury," as to 
the feasibility of building a railroad between 
those points. 

The waterway levels taken by Mr. Brobst 
were by means of a "Jacob's staff" and a home- 
made water level, made by himself, and they 
were so accurate that in surveys in later years 
by professional engineers the levels varied only 
about six feet in the entire distance between 
Catawissa and what is now Lofty. An engi- 
neer named Robinson was employed by the 
canal board to make the surveys, three terminal 
points on the North Branch of the Susque- 
hanna river being considered — Catawissa, 
Danville and Sunbury. The engineer elimi- 
nated Danville on account of "insurmountable 
natural obstacles," and after a lengthy survey 
reported to the commissioners in favor of a 
route through the Ouakake and Catawissa val- 
levs with Catawissa as the terminal, saving 
that this route was "adapted to locomotive en- 
gines." while the route with Sunburv as a 
terminus was "adapted to horse nower only 
for the greater part of the route." Besides, 
"the Catawissa route would p^ive three distribu- 
tive points — Pottsville. Little Schuvlkill and 
the Lehigh." 



In spite of the engineer's report the canal 
commissioners favored the Sunbury terminus, 
one of their number, Gen. Daniel Montgomery, 
being particularly active in Sunbury's support. 
On February 7, 1829, a meeting was held at 
the home of Christian A. Brobst (a son of 
Christian Brobst), Catawissa, to "protest 
against the activity of said Gen. Daniel Mont- 
gomery, he being a canal commissioner, in 
furthering Sunbury's claims as a terminal 
against the report of the engineer in favor of 
Catawissa." Mr. Brobst was chosen presi- 
dent of the meeting and Joseph Paxton and 
Dr. Isaac Pickering, secretaries. A committee 
was appointed to see that the Catawissa route 
got a fair show, the committee to attend the 
meeting of the canal commission at Harris- 
burg. The committee was as follows : Col. 
Joseph Paxton, William McKelvy, Joseph 
liroljst (a son of Christian), Dr. Harnian Gear- 
hart and Dr. Isaac Pickering. 

The project of the State building the rail- 
road fell through, but the Catawissians did not 
give up the idea, but turned to Philadelphia 
capitalists and business men with whom they 
had business connections. Two years later 
they succeeded in interesting Philadelphia capi- 
tal and the Little Schuylkill & Susquehanna 
Railroad Company was formed. 

In the charter granted by the Legislature 
on March 21, 1831, Charles Sidney Coxe, 
George Troutman, Thomas Reeves, Jr., Rob- 
ert Earp, Nathan Smith and George W. Tryon, 
of Philadelphia ; George DeB. Keim and 
Mathias S. Richards, of Reading, Berks 
county; William Audenreid, Burd Patterson, 
of Pottsville, Schuylkill county ; Christian 
Brobst and Joseph Paxton, of Catawissa, 
Columbia county; and Wm. McElwy (Mc- 
Kelvy) and Ebenezer Daniel, of Bloomsburg, 
Columbia county, were appointed commission- 
ers to open books for stock subscriptions. 

By 1S35 sufficient money had been raised by 
stock subscriptions and the financial support 
of a Philadelphia bank (either the Bank of 
North America or the Bank of the United 
States) to start the work. 

One provision of the charter was "that the 
said road shall not be more than four rods 
wide, and shall not pass through any burying- 
ground, or place of public worship, or any 
dwelling-house, without the consent of the 
owner thereof, or any outbuildings of the value 
of three hundred dollars, without such con- 

Edward Miller was appointed chief engineer 
and he came to Catawissa early in 1835 and 
started the survey. The first right of way 

secured was of John Fortner, whose farm 
(i'ranklin township), now owned and tenanted 
by his granddaughter, Miss Alvaretta Fortner, 
extended down to Catawissa creek. The sur- 
vey began at the west line of the Fortner prop- 

Chief Engineer Miller built the house known 
as the "Monroe house" at the corner of Sec- 
ond and South streets, and the office of the 
company was located there. The property is 
now owned by Oliver Miller, of Aristes. 

The work continued during 1835-36-37-38, 
the right of way being secured, the grading 
completed and the bridges erected, the line 
enduig at what was later known as the Lehigh 
Valley switchback, below Ryan's tunnel, at the 
foot of an inclined plane starting midway be- 
tween Lofty and Ryan's tunnel and ending half 
a mile below in the Quakake valley, where the 
Wilkes-Barre turnpike crosses the Little 
Schuylkill river. It was the intention to con- 
tinue the line through the Quakake valley to 
Philadelphia. The grade of the plane was 10 
feet 9 inches, to the one hundred feet. 

The bridges were wooden lattice-work, the 
timber being sawed by sawmills set up on the 
ground. Not a bolt or spike was used in any 
of the bridges, the framework being put to- 
gether with wooden pins. 

Not a rail was laid on the right of way, how- 
ever, though a quantity had been prepared and 
stored at the foot of the inclined plane. The 
stringers were sawed out of logs to a suitable 
size and a strap rail of iron nailed on the top. 
The old plane, graded in 1838, is plainly tracea- 
ble today from the trains passing that point 
on the Reading. 

A locomotive was built in England for the 
Little Schuylkill & Susquehanna Railroad Com- 
pany, but was never used as no track had been 
laid. It was stored at Philadelphia until the 
Catawissa, Williamsport & Erie Railroad was 
built. It weighed about fifteen tons and was 
called the "Catawissa," and was about the 
size of one of the little "dinkeys" used in later 
years by superintendents. It was never run 
practically, except on the C. W. & E. Railroad, 
where it was used for a short time to haul the 
officials over the road, having been first over- 
hauled by Harry Clayton, of Tamaqua, master 
mechanic of the Little Schuylkill railroad. 

In 1838 the bank that had financed the road 
failed and the work stopped, not to be re- 
sumed until 1853, when it was taken up by a 
new corporation, the Catawissa, Williamsport 
& Erie Railroad Company, chartered in 1850, 
which took over the property of the Little 
Schuvlkill & Susquehanna Railroad Company, 



and was authorized to extend the road to 
WiUiamsport. This company surveyed a new 
route from the head of the old inchned plane, 
abandoning that route, going to Tamanend, 
where it connected with the Little Schuylkill 
Navigation & Railroad Company, which was 
built irom Port Clinton to meet them. 

The contractors from Catawissa to Taman- 
end were Alexander Christy and a man named 
Malcom, both Scotchmen. They tore down 
the old lattice-work bridges and erected trestles, 
except at Alainville, Fisher's, Aline Gap and 
Long Hollow, where Burr arch bridges were 
erected. The old bed graded by the original 
company was repaired and used. The road 
was completed to Rupert in 1854. 

Beyond Rupert to Milton, where it joined 
the P. & E. railroad, Thomas Emmet was chief 
engineer and contractor, and he was permitted 
to make out his own estimates. He must have 
been an honest man, as no charges of graft 
were ever made against him. The road was 
completed to Milton in the fall of 1854. 

The first locomotive used on the line, the 
one used in track-laying and ballasting, was 
the "Massachusetts." It was built in that State 
by Hinkly & Drury, and was delivered at 
Columbia, Pa., from where it was brought to 
Catawissa on a canal flat in 1853. It was un- 
loaded at a point opposite the head of the 
"cove" below town, run over a cribbed-up track 
to the river bank, where it was loaded upon a 
large flat and ferried across the river to a 
point near the dwelling house that used to stand 
just below the Pennsylvania junction. From 
that point it was hauled up a temporary track 
to an engine house that had been erected near 
the old Nick Fisher home, the end of the grad- 
ing then. The rails used were made at Dan- 
ville, weighed 56 pounds to the yard, and were 
delivered across the river and hauled over the 
bridge by teams, being stored at the engine 
house and at the paper mill crossing. 

The "Massachusetts," afterwards known as 
No. 2, weighed about twenty-five tons, was a 
wood-burner, and had Samuel Carpenter as 
engineer and Frank Wright as fireman, both 
from Columbia. Joseph Shuman, of Beaver 
Valley, was night watchman at the enginehouse 
and engine wiper. 

In 1853 a line was run from the old grading 
at the Fortner line down the river to Danville, 
crossing the river at Boyd's. Colonel Paxton, 
one of the promoters of the company, owned 
the farm at the mouth of Fishing creek (now 
the Boody farm) and wanted the railroad to 
go to Danville by way of his farm. He suc- 
ceeded in getting passed a supplement to the 

act of the Legislature incorporating the Cata- 
wissa, WiUiamsport & Erie Railroad Co., ex- 
tending the line to WiUiamsport, "Provided, 
That any road located under authority of this 
section shall not diverge more than one mile 
distant from the mouth of Fishing creek." The 
road was built by way of Fishing creek and 
the town of Rupert resulted. 

Another line was run from Rupert through 
Millville and Aluncy to WiUiamsport, but noth- 
ing was ever done with this route. 

The Catawissa-Tamanend end of the road 
was completed first and mixed trains were run 
between Port Clinton and Catawissa, the first 
one on the i6th or 17th of July, 1854, the C. W. 
& E. having trackage rights over the Little 
Schuylkill to Port Clinton, where they con- 
nected with the Reading main line. The creek 
bridge had been completed and the Catawissa 
station was located on the present site. The 
yard comprised the home of Isaac S. Monroe, 
who sold to the company and purchased the 
home built by Chief Engineer Miller at the 
corner of Second and South streets. The old 
Monroe homestead was moved down opposite 
the station and was for many years used as 
offices, being torn down a few years ago. 

The first through train from Port Clinton to 
Milton (with connections through from Phil- 
adelphia) was run in September or October, 
1854. The first scheduled train started from 
Catawissa to Port Clinton on Monday in July. 
It came up from Tamaqua on Sunday, the i6th 
or 17th, to be here ready for Monday's start. 
There were two trains running from opposite 
ends of the line. The engineer of the first reg- 
ular train out of Catawissa was John Johnson, 
afterwards a machinist in the shops here, and 
the fireman was his brother-in-law, a man 
named Coe. The conductor's name was Du- 
Bois. That Sunday was a gala day in Cata- 
wissa, thousands of people coming from all 
over this section to see the train come in. W. 
G. Yetter, then sixteen years of age, saw the 
train arrive that afternoon. The first station 
agent at Catawissa was George Hughes, father 
of Mrs. Sarah Vastine. The first at Rupert 
was George S. Gilbert, a member of the en- 
gineer corps. 

The locomotive was turned at this place by 
means of a Y, that extended out to the river 
bank from the old station and back to Roberts' 
run (now Corn run). 

The C. W. & E. was built at a uniform grade 
of 33 feet to the mile from Catawissa to Lofty. 
The maximum curvature was 12 degrees, ex- 
cept at "Nigger Hollow," where it was I2>4. 



From Lofty to Tamanend the descending grade 
was 66 feet to the mile. 

The Catawissa railroad had seven wooden 
trestle bridges (the largest being that at Dark 
Run, which was 546 feet high and 574 feet 
long) and about as many tunnels. The bridge 
at Mainville was 115 feet high and 727 feet 
long. It was the only one in Columbia county. 
A fine steel bridge now occupies its place, the 
old piers of the first one still remaining. All 
the others have been replaced by steel. 

The Catawissa' shops were built in 1864, the 
repair work before that time being done at 
Tamaqua. The first master mechanic was 
George H. Prescott, and his brother, "Andy" 
Prescott, was foreman. 

The Catawissa railroad was extended from 
Milton to Williamsport in 1871, under George 
Webb, superintendent and chief engineer, with 
W. G. Yetter as assistant engineer. In 1882 
W. G. Yetter, resident engineer, laid out and 
built the extension from Williamsport to New- 
berry. The extension from Milton to Wil- 
liamsport cost $1,200,000, the estimate hav- 
ing been $1,000,000. 

The Catawissa, Williamsport & Erie had a 
strenuous time and in i860 gave up the ghost. 
The property was purchased at public sale by 
the Catawissa Railroad Company, a corpora- 
tion formed for that purpose. In 1872 the 
road was taken over by the Philadelphia & 
Reading Railway Company under a lease, 
under which the latter company still holds con- 
trol and operates the road. 

The officers of the road have been: Presi- 
dents—William D. Lewis, T. H. Dupey, M. P. 
Hutchinson and Franklin B. Gowen (after the 
Reading took charge in 1872) ; superintendents 
— Thomas M. McKissock; Henry Fondy ; 
Stanley H. Goodwin, who resigned in May, 
1863 ; followed by George Webb, who resigned 
in 1872 ; succeeded by Daniel Reinhard until 
March 17, 1887, when W. G. Yetter was ap- 
pointed until June, 1893, when the Catawissa 
railroad was consolidated with the Shamokin 
Branch of the P. & R. under Mr. Bertolet as 
superintendent, until he was succeeded by A. 
T. Dice, who was followed by J. E. Turk, the 
present superintendent. 

The second railroad built through this sec- 
tion of the county was the Lackawanna & 
Bloomsburg road, projected by citizens of 
Wilkes-Barre, who had no means of reaching 
Philadelphia but the circuitous route through 
Scranton and New York City. This road was 
completed in 1857 to Rupert, connecting there 
with the Catawissa road, and the first train 
passed Bloomsburg on Jan. i, 1858. Two years 

later the road was extended to Northumber- 
land. At first but two trains, one passenger 
and one freight, were in service, but addi- 
tions of two trains were made every ten years 
until 1881, when it came into the control of 
the famous Lackawanna, "The Road of An- 
thracite," which now operates the line. At 
present four passenger trains are run daily 
each way, and an equal number of freights. 
The line is equipped with automatic block sig- 
nals and is one of the finest in the State. 

The North & West Branch railroad was con- 
ceived in the mind of Rev. D. J. Waller, of 
Bloomsburg, who reasoned that the logical 
route for a railroad was along the southern 
bank of the Susquehanna. This route had 
previously been the one selected by Simon P. 
Kase as the one for his telegraph line, but 
was abandoned in favor of the Hazleton route. 
Mr. Waller wrote the charter for the new road, 
and Hon. C. R. Buckalew had it passed by the 
Legislature in 1871. It was ten years, how- 
ever, before the road was completed to Wilkes- 
Barre from Catawissa. J. C. Brown was chief 
engineer, and Samuel Neyhard, assistant. The 
charter of the company provided that a bridge 
be built over the Susquehanna, with a wagon 
way beside the tracks, the county to pay two- 
fifths of the cost. That bridge was never built, 
but the road was constructed under the name 
of North & West Branch Railroad Company, 
with almost unlimited powers to construct 
branches, etc. It came into the control of 
the Pennsylvania system in 1886. At the pres- 
ent time the road is in a prosperous condition. 
Six passenger trains and numerous freights 
are run daily through Catawissa. 

In 1870 the Danville, Hazleton & Wilkes- 
Barre road was built by the efforts of Simon 
P. Kase, of Danville. It, also, is now in the 
control of the Pennsylvania. It follows the 
east bank of the Catawissa creek, passing 
through Main and Beaver townships, connect- 
ing Catawissa with Hazleton and the hard coal 

The Bloomsburg & Sullivan Railroad Com- 
pany received its original charter from the 
State in 1883, and was completed in 1888. The 
first ground was broken at the bridge a short 
distance north of Orangeville, in August, 1886, 
the road was completed and operated to Benton 
the following year, and to Jamison City in 1888. 
The promoters of the road were: Hon. C. R. 
Buckalew and Col. John Jamison, of Blooms- 
burg, and the constructing engineer was John 
A. Wilson, of Philadelphia. James C. Brown, 
a former postmaster of Bloomsburg, was 
the surveyor of the line. The entire right of 



way was secured through the efforts of Capt. 
H. J. Conner and Silas McHenry. John Bush 
(Giovanni Bucci), of Bloomsburg, was the 
contractor. The road is twenty-nine miles 
long, its route being through the beautiful and 
historic Fishingcreek valley, where at many 
points are located the camps and cottages of 
the summer residents from Bloomsburg, Cata- 
wissa, Berwick and the adjoining towns in the 
county. There are many highly productive 
farms along the line, which passes through 
Light Street, Orangeville, Forks, Stillwater, 
Benton, Coles Creek, Central and Jamison City. 
Connection is made at Bloomsburg with the 
Lackawanna and the Reading, and at Paper 
Mill with the Susquehanna, Bloomsburg & 
Berwick roads. The road operates six pas- 
senger trains each day, and several freights, 
although the trade has fallen off since the re- 
moval of the sawmills at Jamison City. An 
extension was projected northward to connect 
with the Lehigh Valley road, and a route was 
once surveyed, but nothing further has cul- 

The present officers of the road are : Samuel 
Wigfall, president; H. T. Dechert, vice presi- 
dent ; \V. C. Snyder, superintendent and treas- 
urer ; George A. Ritter, secretary and auditor ; 
W. C. Fortune, supervisor. About fifty men 
are employed by the company. 

The Wilkes-Barre & Western railroad was 
commenced in 1885, ran the first train from 
Watsontown to Millville in 1887, and in 1891 
was completed to Orangeville. Subsequently 
the management changed hands, the name was 
changed to the Susquehanna, Bloomsburg & 
Berwick Railroad Company, the line to Orange- 
ville abandoned, the route made through Light 
Street and the line completed to Berwick in 
1903. Over this road most of the cars manu- 
factured by the American Car & Foundry Com- 
pany, of Berwick, are forwarded to their 

The line traverses a picturesque region of 
hills and deep valleys, passing through Light 
Street, Paper Mill, Jerseytown, Eyer's Grove 
and Mordansville, with a branch to Millville. 
The terminus of the road is at Watsontown, on 
the west branch of the Susquehanna. Samuel 
B. Haupt, president of the road, died in Sep- 
tember, 1913, from injuries received when his 
private car was struck by a switch engine in 
the Berwick yards. Since his death the road 
has come into the control of the Pennsylvania 


For the following concise and correct his- 
tory of the development of gas and electricity 
in the counties of Columbia and Montour we 
are indebted to A. W. Duy, a prominent attor- 
ney of Bloomsburg, who is personally associ- 
ated with these companies. 

Gas Lighting 

The first gas company to be incorporated and 
begin operations in Bloomsburg was the Blooms- 
burg Gas Company, which corporation received 
its charter from the court of Common Pleas 
of Columbia county on May 9, 1874. The au- 
thorized capitalization was $30,000 (Deed 
Book 27, page 433), and the promoters of this 
enterprise were as follows : H. J. Clark, John 
La Wall, Freas Brown, D. A. Beckley, Samuel 
Knorr, H. H. Grotz, E. R. Ikeler, Enos Jacoby, 
A. L. Turner, J. C. Brown, J. K. Grotz, A. C. 
Smith, C. Bittenbender, C. F. Knapp, J. H. 
Maize, Ed. M. Warden, Jacob Schuyler, C. G. 
Barkley, D. J. Waller, William Peacock, J. J. 
Brower, I. W. Hartman, Robert F. Clark, 
John A. Funston, C. W. Neal, Joshua Fetter- 
man, W. M. Reber, D. Lowenberg, M. C. 
Woodward, J. S. Sterner, E. H. Little, Louis 
Bernhard, Wm. B. Koons, Isaiah Hagenbuch, 
W. F. Sloan, H. L. Dieffenbach, C. W. Miller. 

These gentlemen after receiving their char- 
ter purchased the tract of land at the intersec- 
tion of Seventh and Market streets in the town 
of Bloomsburg, there constructed a gas plant 
and laid mains throughout the main portion 
of the town, and conducted a very prosperous 
business until Sept. 2, 1899, when the company 
leased its property, rights and franchises for 
a period of nine hundred and ninety-nine years 
(Misc. Book 6, page 454) to the American Gas 
Light Company of Bloomsburg, a corporation 
formed under the act of 1874, for the purpose 
of taking over the property, rights and fran- 
chises of the old Bloomsburg Gas Company. 

The American Gas Light Company of 
Bloomsburg received its charter Aug. 25, 1899 
(Misc. Book 8, page 665), its authorized capi- 
talization being $40,000, together with an issue 
of bonds of equal amount, and the incorpora- 
tors of the company were: William D. Boyer, 
John B. Russel, Grant Pelton, George W. Rey- 
nolds, P. R. Bevan, all of Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 
It continued in business until Nov. 16, 1906, 
when by virtue of an agreement of merger and 
consolidation between it and the American 
Electric Light Company, the property, rights 
and franchises of the company became vested 



in the United Gas and Electric Company of 
Bloomsburg, the incorporators of the last 
named company being E. li. Tustin, John B. 
Russel, P. R. Bevan, Harry S. Barton, A. W. 
Duy. The gas business in Bloomsburg was 
conducted under the management of this com- 
pany until Feb. 7, 191 1, when by another agree- 
ment of merger and consolidation it was 
merged with twenty-two other gas and electric 
companies, covering the territory between the 
borough of Nescopeck in Luzerne county, and 
the borough of Riverside in Northumberland 
county, both inclusive, forming the Columbia 
Gas and Electric Company, the details of whose 
consolidation are referred to later on. 

The Columbia Gas and Electric Company 
sold and conveyed all of its property, rights 
and franchises to the Columbia and Montour 
Electric Company in March, 1913, and the gas 
business is now being conducted under the 
management of that company and is keeping 
pace with the rapid strides in the general in- 
dustrial development of Bloomsburg. 

The Danville Gas Company was created by 
special act of Assembly, approved the 8th day 
of May, 1854 (P. L. 1855, page 710). This 
company purchased the lot of land where the 
present gas and electric plant is located and 
erected a gas plant, constructed mains through- 
out the borough of Danville and proceeded to 
engage in the business of furnishing gas to the 
citizens of that borough. The property of the 
Danville Gas Company was next acquired by 
the Consumers Gas Company, a corporation 
which was created under the act of 1874, on 
Nov. 8, 1882, and this company conveyed by 
lease for the term of nine hundred and ninety- 
nine years, its property, rights and franchises 
to the Standard Gas Company (Deed Book 19, 
page 606). 

Electric Lighting 

The pioneers in the electric lighting business 
in Columbia county were the following gentle- 
men and firms : W. R. Tubbs, Harman & Has- 
sert, Robbins & Peacock, W. H. Brower, C. M. 
Creveling, L. S. Wintersteen, B. F. Sharpless, 
T. L. Gunton, Isaac S. Kuhn, J. R. Schuyler, 
J. C. Brown, I. W. Willits, Frank P. Billmeyer, 
C. W. Miller, N. U. Funk, E. V. Hartman, H. 
V. White, L. T. Sharpless, C. A. Kleim, A. G. 
Briggs, J. E. Wilson, J. M. Robbins. Mathias 
Geist, R. W. Oswald, James McCloskey, H. P. 
Chamberlain, L. N. Moyer, D. W. Kitchen, 
W. R. Kocher, H. J. Clark & Son, Freas 
Brown, Charles G. Barkley, Paul E. Wirt, 
George Rosenstock, David Hensinger, Frank 

P. Drinker, M. G. Hughes, John Appleman, 
James Magee, J. H. Mercer, William Chris- 
man, L. E. Waller, John A. Funston, B. F. 
Gardner, William Krickbaum, H. W. McRey- 
nolds, L. Gross, John L. Moyer, C. W. Neal, 
John B. Casey, J. H. Maize. 

On Dec. 11, 1889, the above gentlemen, all 
of whom were prominent in the affairs of the 
county, received a charter from the governor, 
effected an organization under the name of 
Bloomsburg Electric Light and Power Com- 
pany (Misc. Book 3, page 440), purchased a 
lot at the northeast corner of tlie intersection 
of Eighth and Catharine streets, Bloomsburg, 
and there erected an electric light plant, the 
original equipment consisting of two small 
Keeler boilers ; two fifty horsepower Taylor- 
Beck engines; two fifty kilowatt Thompson- 
Houston alternating generators, one fifty light 
direct current Thompson-Houston arc gener- 
ator, and a wooden panel switchboard. 

A contract for lighting the streets of Blooms- 
burg was secured from the town council, pole 
lines and wires were erected throughout the 
built up portion of the town, arc lights placed 
at the intersection of the principal thorough- 
fares and electric light turned on about the 
1st of April, 1 89 1, a truly historic event in the 
advancement of Bloomsburg. 

This company on Sept. 2, 1899 (Misc. Book 
6, page 451), leased its property, rights and 
franchises to the American Electric Light Com- 
pany, a corporation which was formed for the 
purpose of taking over the old company, hav- 
ing received its charter Aug. 21, 1899 (Misc. 
Book 8, page 664), of which company the in- 
corporators were William D. Beyer, Grant Pel- 
ton, G. W. Reynolds, P. R. Bevan, all of 
Wilkes-Barre. This company conducted the 
plant until the i6th of November, 1906, when 
it entered into an agreement of merger and 
consolidation with the American Gas Light 
Company of Bloomsburg, forming the United 
Gas and Electric Company of Bloomsburg 
(Misc. Book 9, page 17). 

The Irondale Electric Light, Heat & Power 
Company was incorporated on April 7, 1902 
(Misc. i3ook 7, page 503), the incorporators 
being C. M. Creveling, W. S. Moyer, Dr. W. 
M. Reber, Charles W. Runyon, N. U. Funk, 
Grant Herring, H. A. M'Killip, J. N. Thomp- 
son, C. A. Kleim, J. C. Brown, Dr. J. J. Brown. 

The Irondale Electric Light, Heat and Power 
Company acquired by purchase the dam, mill 
race, wheel house, and water rights of the 
Bloomsburg Iron Company, and in the year 
1902 erected and equipped at Irondale a hydro- 
electric plant, receiving its waterpower from 



Fishing creek, the water being conveyed from 
the old Irondale dam by way of the headrace 
and developing about two hundred horsepower. 
For a number of years the Irondale Electric 
Light, Heat and Power Company and the 
Bloomsburg Electric Light and Power Com- 
pany were both engaged in the furnishing of 
electricity to the community, developing a spir- 
ited competition, resulting in a rate which while 
beneficial to the citizens produced disastrous 
results to those having investment in the enter- 

The Berwick Electric Light Company was 
incorporated on Aug. 4, 1892 (Misc. Book 4, 
page 70), the following gentlemen being in- 
terested in the enterprise at that time: F. H. 
Eaton, C. D. Eaton, W. F. Lowry, C. C. Evans, 
F. W. Brockway, W. E. Elmes. They subse- 
quently incorporated the West Berwick Elec- 
tric Light Company, which was a company 
subsidiary to the Berwick Electric Light Com- 
pany, furnishing electric current in the borough 
of West Berwick. These two companies later 
joined the merger and consolidation forming 
the Columbia Gas and Electric Company. 

The first electric light company to be incor- 
porated in the borough of Danville, Montour 
county, was the Standard Electric Light Com- 
pany, which received its letters patent from 
the Commonwealth on Oct. 6, 1899 (Deed Book 
21, page 435), the incorporators being John 
B. Russel, W. D. Boyer, G. W. Reynolds, Grant 
Pelton, P. R. Bevan, and this company took 
over by purchase the electric light business in 
Danville which had formerly been conducted 
by John R. Bennett, as an individual. 


The first electric railway company organized 
in Columbia county was the Bloomsburg Elec- 
tric Street Railway Company, which was in- 
corporated on June i, 1892, under the act of 
1889 (Misc. Book 4, page 41), by J. L. Dillon, 
L. E. Waller, C. C. Peacock, I. W. Willits, W. 
R. Tubbs, C. W. Miller, for the purpose of 
constructing two miles of road in the town of 
Bloomsburg. This enterprise was subse- 
quently abandoned, as the traffic was not 
deemed sufficient to support it. 

The Bloomsburg and Berwick Electric Rail- 
way Company was incorporated Feb. 9, 1899 
(Misc. Book 6. page 265), by R. Steen Martin, 
Franklin Ingraham, J. M. Emery, L. E. Waller, 
F. E. Miller, C. W. "Miller, with its route from 
Bloomsburg to Berwick. This road was com- 
pletely financed through the efforts of Mr. C. 
W. Miller, but owing to the inability of the 

company to procure all of the rights of way 
from abutting property owners, the subscribers 
temporarily abandoned the construction of the 

The North Susquehanna Transit Company 
was incorporated Aug. i, 1895 (Misc. Book 
7, page 449), by the following named gentle- 
men : E. S. Whitney, Robert E. Wright, Allen- 
town, Pa. ; Wilson M. Gearhart, James Scar- 
let, R. S. Ammerman, John K. Geisinger, Dan- 
ville, Pa. ; E. R. Sponsler, J. M. Fitzgerald, 
Harrisburg, Pa. ; all of whom constituted the 
first board of directors. The charter route of 
this company extended from the borough of 
Danville in Montour county through the town 
of Bloomsburg to the village of Espy in Colum- 
bia county. 

On Oct. 31, 1899, the Bloomsburg and Ber- 
wick Electric Railway Company and the North 
Susquehanna Transit Company entered into 
an agreement of merger and consolidation, 
forming the Columbia and Montour Electric 
Railway Company, with an authorized capital- 
ization of $375,000; bonds were issued in the 
sum of $375,000 secured by a first lien mort- 
gage to the Commonwealth Trust Company of 
Harrisburg, as trustee, the company secured a 
tract of land, the site of the old Neal furnace, 
where they erected a powerhouse and car barn, 
and the first electric railway in the history of 
Columbia county was constructed and com- 
pleted between the borough of Berwick and 
the town of Bloomsburg, with a branch four 
miles extending from the town of Bloomsburg 
to the borough of Catawissa. The road was 
opened for traffic in October, 1901. 

The Danville and Bloomsburg Street Rail- 
way Company was incorporated on Sept. i, 
1903 (Alisc. Book 8, page 259), with an 
authorized capitalization of $250,000. The in- 
corporators were R. H. Koch, W. C. Billman, 
Frank C. Angle, Charles P. Hancock, W. F. 
Pascoe. Bonds in the sum of $250,000 were 
issued secured by a first lien mortgage to the 
Easton Trust Company, of Easton, Pa. They 
secured a site at the village of Grovania, half 
way between Danville and Bloomsburg, and 
there erected a powerhouse and car barn, and 
constructed the road between Danville and 

A number of charters for other electric 
railways to be constructed with terminus at 
Bloomsburg have been granted, but up to 1914 
none of them went further than the projected 
stage. The exception was the Bloomsburg & 
Millville Railway Company, incorporated in 
1901. A route from Millville to Bloomsburg 
was partially graded and about two miles of 



track laid. The cgmpany was then reorgan- 
ized as the Bloomsburg, Millville & Northern 
Railway Company and preparations were made 
to equip the line with storage battery cars, but 
nothing detinite was accomplished. The offi- 
cials and promoters of this road in 1913 were: 
D. O. Coughlin, president, Wilkes-Barre ; 
Walter Hughes, treasurer, West Berwick; W. 
P. Zehner, secretary, Bloomsburg; directors, 
William Masters and Ellis Eves, Millville; 
Walter Hughes, C. W. Miller, J. C. Brown, 
James Magee, W. P. Zehner, Bloomsburg; J. 
B. Kester, Mainville; L. E. Waller, Wilkes- 

In passing it seems well to observe that in all 
of the foregoing enterprises, which have con- 
tributed so much to the development of Colum- 
bia county, Mr. C. W. Miller, a member of 
the Columbia county bar, was the pioneer, and 
to his indefatigable energy and farsightedness 
the community is largely indebted for the prog- 
ress which it has made, not only in the de- 
velopment of public service corporations, but 
many manufacturing industries as well. 

In the fall of 1908, at a time when the de- 
velopment of the electrical industry in the 
nation was beginning to assume that position 
in the economic scheme which it is one day 
destined to attain ; and when science had dem- 
onstrated the fact that electrical energy might 
be profitably transmitted for long distances, 
certain gentlemen affiliated with the Pardee 
coal interests, at Hazleton, conceived the idea 
of establishing a gigantic electric power plant 
adjacent to the vast culm banks at the Har- 
wood Mines, and a corporation w'as formed 
known as the Harwood Electric Company, 
who there erected a modern electric plant at 
a cost of over a million dollars, with capacity 
to furnish electric energy and distribute it for 
hundreds of miles. 

Recognizing the possibilities which this en- 
terprise offered, Mr. A. W. Duy, of Blooms- 
burg, at that time counsel for the electric rail- 
way company and the gas and electric com- 
panies, together with Mr. E. R. Sponsler, of 
Harrisburg, Pa., the president of the Colum- 
bia and Montour Electric Railway Company, 
conceived the idea of amalgamating all of the 
electric light, gas and electric railway com- 
panies in Columbia and Montour counties, and 
a corporation was formed by them under the 
laws of Delaware, known as the Columbia 
Power, Light and Railways Company, with an 
authorized capitalization of $850,000, and an 
authorized bond issue of like amount. The 
incorporators of this company were E. R. 
Sponsler, Harrisburg; A. W. Duy, Blooms- 

burg; W. F. Lowry, Berwick; Myron I. Low, 
Lime Ridge; C. M. Creveling, Almedia; R. H. 
Koch, Pottsville; W. C. Billman, Reading; P. 
R. Bevan, Wilkes-Barre; M. F. D. Scanlon, 
St. Davids; B. F. Meyers, Harrisburg; W. M. 
Pyle, Wilmington, Del. ; R. Scott Ammerman, 
Danville, Pennsylvania. 

This company acquired by purchase a con- 
trolling interest and in some instances all of 
the capital stock, a majority of the bonds, and 
in some cases all of the bonds, of the follow- 
ing companies : Berwick Electric Light Com- 
pany of Berwick; West Berwick Electric 
Light, Heat and Power Company, of West 
Berwick ; United Gas and Electric Company 
of Bloomsburg; Irondale Electric Light, Heat 
and Power Company of Bloomsburg; Standard 
Gas Light Company of Danville ; Danville 
Electric Light Company of Danville; Nesco- 
peck Light, Heat and Power Company of 
Nescopeck ; Columbia and Montour Electric 
Railway, and Danville and Bloomsburg Street 
Railway Companies. 

In order that the territory of operation of 
the company might be legally organized and 
the light, heat and power furnished by any one 
of the subsidiary or operated companies man- 
aged by the company and as required by the 
statutes of the Commonwealth, the company 
procured to be organized and purchased all of 
tlie capital stock of the following named light, 
heat and power companies : Briar Creek Elec- 
tric Company, Catawissa Electric Company, 
Centre Township Electric Company, Cooper 
Electric Company, Gearhart Electric Company, 
Hemlock Electric Company, Mahoning Elec- 
tric Company, Miftlin Township Electric Com- 
pany, Montour Electric Company, Riverside 
Electric Company, Salem Electric Company, 
Scott Township Electric Company, Shickshin- 
ny Electric Company, Valley Township Elec- 
tric Company. West Hemlock Electric Com- 
pany — $5,000 each, the total being $75,000. 

It was the ultimate purpose of the company, 
as the sole or principal stockholder of the re- 
spective subsidiary or operated companies, to 
cause the merger of the railway companies 
into one company and all of the light, heat and 
power companies into one company, so that 
the subsidiary or operated companies should 
consist of one transportation company and one 
light, heat and power company. This was 
accomplished bv agreements of merger and 
consolidation dated Feb. 7, 191 1, forming the 
Columbia and Montour Electric Railway Com- 
pany and the Columbia Gas and Electric Com- 
pany, and all the territory operated by the 
company through its subsidiary companies in 



the counties of Luzerne, Columbia and Mon- 
tour brought under the requirements of the 
statutes of the State relative to tlie supply 
of light, heat and power within the territory 
of the franchise and to persons and companies 
in the territory contiguous thereto. 

In undertaking the work of the operation 
of the various subsidiary companies, the neces- 
sity of a change in the power for operation 
was early felt. Each of the respective operated 
companies was producing its own motive 
power, with a multiplicity of engines, gen- 
erators and machinery, and each with its force 
of employees. Indeed it was one of the pri- 
mary conceptions in the economic operation of 
these companies to secure either a common 
center of power within the territory, or a 
power from a distance outside of the terri- 
tory from which all the subsidiary companies 
might be operated from a common source or 
by the manipulation of a single unit. In con- 
summation of this design the company, through 
the Nescopeck Light, Heat and Power Com- 
pany, on the 5th day of June, 1909, caused the 
execution of a contract for the supply of 
power with the Harwood Electric Company, 
by which the latter named company agreed 
to furnish by the ist of January, 1910, suffi- 
cient common power to operate the transporta- 
tion companies and all of the light, heat and 
power companies, to the maximum amount of 
five thousand kilowatts. 

The plant of the Harwood Electric Company 
is located at Harwood Mines, in Luzerne coun- 
ty. Pa., distant some sixteen miles southeast 
of Berwick. The steampower for the genera- 
tion of electricity is produced by the consum])- 
tion of the refuse of the mining operations of 
the Pardee Estate extending over a period of 
some forty years, which, having been produced 
in mining operations when only the choicest 
coal was sent into commerce, contains vast de- 
posits of washable and commercial coal as 
used in modern economics, amounting to mil- 
lions of tons, which under the present rate of 
consumption will not be consumed in half a 
century. In addition to this, vast deposits of 
virgin coal owned by the estate may be con- 
sidered supplementary or additional to the 
capacity of this vast concern. 

The plant proper constitutes one of the 
finest, if not the finest, plants for the produc- 
tion of electricitv known to modern engineer- 
ing. It has been recently constructed, with 
the most approved and latest appliances, at an 
expenditure of several millions of dollars, and 
has a present contemplated maximum capacity 
of some twenty-five thousand kilowatts, now 

operating 9,000 kilowatts and supplying an ex- 
tensive territory in the immediate location of 
the plant, besides the power furnisned to our 
local companies. The current is transmitted 
by a douDie line of triple wires or cables, con- 
stituting two units of transmission, so that 
an accident to one line may be overcome by 
the use of its alternate. 

Under the contract, the power is delivered 
at a point in Nescopeck township, Luzerne 
county, on the south bank of the Susquehanna 
river and is carried thence over the river by 
cables suspended upon steel abutments or 
towers, clearing the entire water space by one 
span, the length of which is 2,300 feet. Tlience 
it is carried to Berwick, where it is measured 
by a system of meters and reduced and divided 
to the uses of the respective operated com- 
panies. This is accomplished by a line of 
cables extending from Berwick to Danville, 
erected proportionately by each of the respec- 
tive power companies the territory of which is 
invaded by the line, each company using such 
part of the current as its necessities may re- 
quire. The transportation companies use the 
current after a transmutation from alternat- 
ing current to direct current, by efficient gen- 
erators employed by these companies. 

As an auxiliary and additional power, the 
plant of the Irondale Light, Heat and Power 
Company has been equipped to develop its 
waterpower to a potentiality of eight hundred 
horsepower, with an equal alternate or auxil- 
iary steampower, which under the Harwood 
contract may be used singly or doubly, at the 
pleasure of that company. The powerhouse 
at Irondale has consequently been remodeled 
and new and effective machinery installed for 
this general purpose. The primary purpose of 
the Irondale equipment is to act as a governor 
and reduce the peak of the load, and in opera- 
tion not only does this, but reduces the general 
consumption of the Harwood current. This 
effects the most approved engineering scheme 
for the reduction of the cost of power under 
the contract with the Harwood Electric Com- 
pany and in effect produces in the operation of 
both plants a constant, unfluctuating and effi- 
cient current, which is surpassed at no plant 
in the United States. 

All of the various subsidiary companies were 
operated by the Columbia Power, Light and 
Railways Company as a holding company un- 
til May 26, 191 1, when the gentlemen inter- 
ested in the company, believing that its securi- 
ties would find a more ready market if each 
company were operated direct, rather than 
through the medium of a holding company. 



caused to be incorporated the Columhia and 
Montour Electric Company. 

The incorporators ot this company were E. 
R. Sponsler, \V. F. Lowry, Myron I. Low, 
C. M. Crevehng, A. W. L)uy, the company 
having an authorized capital of $525,000 and 
an authorized bond issue of $525,000. This 
company subsequently purchased outright 
from the holding company and from the 
various subsidiary companies all the right, 
property and franchises of the gas, electric 
light and power companies, and they are now 
being operated by the Columbia and Montour 
Electric Company, which company also ac- 
quired ninety-hve per cent of the capital stock 
of the Columbia and Montour Electric Railway 
Company, and controls the management and 
operation of that corporation. 

In 1913, the name of the Columbia and 
Montour Electric Railway Company, because 
of its similarity to the name of the power 
company, was changed by appropriate action 
and is now the North Branch Transit Com- 
pany. Since June i, 1913, both the power 
company and the transit company have been 
under the management of H. D. Walbridge & 
Company, No. 14 Wall street. New York. 
Nearly all of the original local incorporators 
retained an interest in the two companies. 

Through the firm of H. D. Walbridge & 
Company the local companies are affiliated with 
the Northern Central Company and the North- 
umberland County Gas and Electric Company, 
and supply w^ith gas and electricity the follow- 
ing territory : Nescopeck, in Luzerne county ; 
Berwick, West Berwick, Bloomsburg, Cata- 
wissa and intermediate villages, in Columbia 
county; Danville, in Montour county; Selins- 
grove and Lewisburg, in Union county; Sun- 
bury, Northumlierland, Milton, Watsontown 
and Turbotville, in Northumberland county. 



The first bridge across the Susquehanna at 
Berwick was authorized by the Legislature in 
1807, and an organization was made five years 
later, with Abraham Miller as president; John 
Brown, treasurer, and Silas Engle, Thomas 
Bowman and Elisha Barton as managers. This 
bridge was completed in 1814 by Theodore 
Burr at a cost of $=^2,000. Its length was 1,260 
feet and it rested on timber piers, boxed in 
with heavy planks. In the winter of 1835-36 
it was carried away by the ice. The follow- 
ing year Jesse Bowman, Josiah T. Black, 

Samuel F. Headley, A. B. Wilson and Robert 
McCurdy secured an appropriation of $10,000 
from the Legislature and erected the second 
bridge. This was a covered wooden arch 
bridge, and was operated for some years as a 
toll bridge by the company. It was made a 
free county bridge by proceedings in court in- 
stituted by a petition of citizens of Berwick 
and Nescopeck filed May I, 1899. A. J. Derr, 
J. C. Brown and G. W. Keiter were appointed 
viewers, and on Sept. 25, 1899, they reported 
in favor of a free bridge, and assessed the 
damages to be paid to the bridge company at 
$25,349, which action was approved by the 
grand jury. After some delay caused by a 
motion for time to file an appeal by the bridge 
company, the court made an order on Feb. 5, 
1900, declaring this bridge a free county 
bridge. This being a bridge between Colum- 
bia and Luzerne counties similar action had 
been taken in the Luzerne County court, and 
a similar order made. The Luzerne county 
viewers were George J. Llewellyn, W. H. 
Sturdevant and C. A. Shea, who with the 
Columbia county viewers had met and con- 
sidered the matter, and had made their joint 
report in favor of the bridge and assessing 
the damages on July 21, 1899. This bridge 
was destroyed by the flood of March, 1904. 
Proceedings were at once started to have it 
replaced by the State in April, 1904. The 
report being favorable, the contract was let 
on June 13, 1905, to the York Bridge Company 
for $209,500, and an iron and steel bridge 
was erected and completed in 1906. It is 
one of the finest structures that crosses the 
river anywhere. A free ferrv was maintained 
by the two counties during its construction. 


The Danville Bridge Company was chartered 
Jan. 2, 1S28, the officers of the company being: 
Daniel Monts'oinerv, president ; James Long- 
head, treasurer; John Cooper, secretary; John 
C. Boyd, William Colt, Peter Baldy, Sr., Wil- 
lifim Boyd, Andrew McReynolds, Robert C. 
Grier, managers. On the 3d of March of that 
year a contract was made with John P. Schuy- 
ler and James Fletcher for the construction of 
the first bridge. The work on the foundations 
began in that month, and in January, 1829, 
the bridge was completed, the company accept- 
ing it the following month. The State held a 
small amount of stock in this bridge. Daniel 
HofTman was appointed the first toll collector, 
at a salary of $65 a year. 

On Alarch 14, 1846, the bridge was swept 



away by a flood, Daniel Blizzard being carried 
down with it and rescued with great difficulty 
near the old stone house. The company until 
then had declared eleven dividends, but it was 
not till 1863 that another was declared. After 
the destruction of the bridge the company 
made a contract with Chester Evans and David 
N. Kownover to rebuild it. Evans disposed 
of his share in the contract, and his partner 
completed it. 

The second bridge stood the storms and 
floods for many seasons, until 1S75, when it 
too was swept away by the terrific impact of 
the Catawissa bridge, which was borne down 
upon it by a tremendous flood on St. Patrick's 
day of that year. The following year the 
bridge was rebuilt, H. F. Hawke & Co. doing 
the stone work, and the Smith Iron Bridge 
Company, of Ohio, the framework and super- 
structure. This was also a toll bridge and 
the toil keepers at different dates were : Daniel 
Hoffman, Rudolph Sechler, E. Mellon, Isaiah 
S. Thornton and Joseph Hunter. The bridge 
was a fourth of a mile in length, with a 
covered footway on each side, shut entirely off 
from the central roadway. 

The officers of the company in 1886 were : 
A. J. Frick, president; J. C. Grove, secretary 
and treasurer; W. H. Magill, A. J. Frick, Isaac 
X. Grier, Wilson Metter, G. M. Shoop, B. R. 
Gearhart, Amos Vastine, managers. 

This bridge was replaced in 1904 by a steel 
structure of truss construction, by the State 
and county authorities of Montour and North- 
umberland, and was made a free bridge by 
order of court. Henry R. Leonard was the 
engineer for the State, and the contractors 
were the King Bridge Company, of Cleveland, 


The necessity for a bridge across the river at 
Catawissa induced citizens of that town to pe- 
tition the Legislature as early as 1816 to 
authorize the opening of subscription books 
for that purpose. Although some stock was 
subscribed for, the project languished for 
twelve years. Then the near completion of 
the North Branch canal caused renewed inter- 
est and an appropriation of $5,000 was obtained 
from the State. Subscriptions were obtained 
with more ease and a committee, consisting of 
George Taylor, Jacob Alter, Philip Rebsome, 
George Keim, John Rebsome, George Getz, 
Henry Foster. John C. Appelman. Samuel 
Brooke, Benjamin Beaver, Peter Schmick, 
George H. Willets, Stacy Margerum, John 

Barton, William McKelvey, reorganized the 
company on a firm financial basis and erected 
a bridge at a cost of $26,000. It was opened 
for travel Jan. 15, 1833. 

The location was changed from that first 
selected, at the mouth of Fishing creek, to the 
site of the present bridge. This bridge suf- 
fered several times from freshets and ice. In 
1846 five spans were destroyed, but were re- 
built the following year. In 1875 the entire 
superstructure was swept away, and a truss 
bridge was built to replace it the same year. 
All of these bridges were operated on the toll 

When proceedings were started for a free 
county bridge at Bloomsburg, the stockholders 
of the Catawissa toll bridge became fearful 
that their property would be depreciated there- 
by, and so they and other citizens filed a peti- 
tion in court in December, 1892, asking the 
appointment of viewers to report on the ex- 
pediency of making the Catawissa bridge a free 
county bridge. H. H. Hulme, J. W. Hoffman, 
White Snyder, Joseph Sponenberg, A. K. 
Smith and P. Hippensteel were appointed 
viewers, and filed their report in September, 
1893, in favor of the proposition, fixing the 
price to be paid by the county at $34,000. On 
the same day the grand jury approved the re- 
port. Exceptions were filed, and after a hear- 
ing and numerous delays the court ordered the 
bridge made free of tolls on Nov. 9, 1893. The 
same day the commissioners approved of this 
action, and tolls ceased at 2 :30 p. m. on Friday, 
Nov. II, 1893. 

In September, 1896, the bridge was lifted off 
the piers from end to end and thrown over into 
the river by a windstorm. The commission- 
ers, acting under the law of 1895, providing 
that the State shall rebuild county bridges that 
are destroyed by stonn or fire, took the prop- 
er legal steps to have the State replace the 
bridge. The contract for an iron and steel 
bridge was let to the Penn Bridge Company, 
for $124,900. It was completed and accepted, 
and used until March 9, 1904, when the ice 
flood carried away two spans. Again the State 
rebuilt it, putting up an entirely new struc- 
ture, much better than the first one. This 
was opened for travel in May, 1908. During 
the intervals when these bridges were build- 
ing the county maintained a free ferry at this 


On Aug. 23, 1S92, a petition was presented 
to the court by citizens asking for a free county 



bridge across the Susquehanna river at Blooms- 
burg, and on the same day the court appointed 
C. H. Moore, M. C. Vance and Simon Hons 
viewers to report on the same. On Sept. 21st 
a petition was presented by citizens of Cata- 
wissa to stay the proceedings. An answer was 
filed and depositions taken, and Judge Savidge 
of Sunbury was called in by Judge Ikeler to 
hear and decide the case. The latter petition 
was dismissed by Judge Savidge, and to this 
action exceptions were filed, and also a peti- 
tion for reviewers, the first viewers having re- 
ported in favor of a bridge. After some 
skirmishing between the parties, C. W. Eves, 
W. S. Fisher and G. B. Hendershott were ap- 
pointed, and on May i, 1893, they reported in 
favor of a bridge; this report was laid before 
the grand jury on May 3d and approved by 
them with the recommendation that the bridge 
be erected at the expense of the county. 

On May 4th more exceptions were filed by 
opponents of the bridge, and the matter 
dragged along from time to time until Nov. 
9th, when the court made the following order: 

"And now, November 9, 1893, all excep- 
tions having been withdrawn in open court and 
all adverse proceedings abandoned, the report 
of the reviewers and Grand Jury is approved, 
and it is adjudged that the said bridge is neces- 
sary as a county bridge, and that the same is 
too expensive for the township of Catawissa 
and tile Town of Bloomsburg to bear, and upon 
the concurrent approval of the same by the 
county commissioners the said bridge is ordered 
to be entered of record as a county bridge." 

The commissioners concurred, and on Nov. 
25th they had a letting, and after due consid- 
eration awarded the contract for the super- 
structure to the King Bridge Company, and 
for the masonry and other work to Joseph 
Hendler. J. C. Brown was employed by the 
commissioners to prepare the plans and speci- 
fications, and to make an estimate of cost, and 
also to be the supervising engineer of the work. 
The estimated cost was $69,256. Jesse Rit- 
tenhouse, B. F. Edgar and C. L. Sands were 
the county commissioners at the time. The 
bridge is iron and steel, and is 1,150 feet long, 
with six spans. The cost of the superstruc- 
ture was $35,500; of the substructure $35,- 
415.46, and the riprapping and filling $2,384.21, 
making the total cost $73,299.67. 


Feeling the necessity for a bridge across the 
river at Mifflinville, citizens of Mifflin and 
Centre township presented a petition to the 

court on January 7, 1901, asking for the ap- 
pointment of viewers. T. H. B. Davis, J. P. 
Fry and J. C. Brown were appointed. On 
Feb. 4th the viewers reported in favor of a 
bridge, and on the same day the grand jury ap- 
proved it. Then came exceptions and a peti- 
tion for reviewers, but this finally resulted in 
an order of the court in favor of the bridge 
on July 7, 1902, and the same day the commis- 
sioners approved the same. On July 26th the 
commissioners adopted plans, specifications 
and estimates submitted by J. C. Brown at their 
request, he having been selected as supervis- 
ing engineer. The estimated cost was $96,547. 
The contract was awarded to C. H. Reimard 
for $93,985, who sublet the superstructure to 
the King Bridge Company for $56,600. The 
work was well under way, and three spans 
were completed when the flood of 1904 de- 
stroyed the bridge. It looked then as if the 
bridge would never be rebuilt by the county. 
In 1905 a bill passed the Legislature which 
authorized the State to build uncompleted 
bridges exceeding 1,000 feet in length over any 
river, whenever any portions of said bridge 
already erected have been destroyed by floods 
before final completion thereof, and where it 
appears that over half of the contract price has 
already been paid before such destruction. 
The bill was drawn by Hon. Fred Ikeler while 
a member, and was passed largely through 
his influence. Proceeding under this law, a 
petition was filed in the Dauphin County court 
asking for the appointment of viewers in the 
matter of rebuilding the bridge across the Sus- 
quehanna river at Mifflinville. W. H. Eyer, 
C. A. Small and E. C. Hummer were appointed, 
and filed their report on June 25, 1905, in favor 
of the bridge. The report was approved by 
the court, and the bridge ordered to be built 
by the State. Exceptions were filed and after 
some delay by litigation the contract was 
awarded to the York Bridge Company for the 

The work was progressing and the second 
span was just completed when, Dec. 10, 1907, 
as the workmen were fastening it to the pier, 
the false work underneath was carried away 
by the flood in the river at the time, and the 
entire span went down, carrying with it forty 
men, all but seven of whom were rescued. 
The bodies of the latter excepting two were 
recovered down the river at various points, 
some a long distance away. The loss to the 
builders was about $10,000. The bridge was 
completed and opened for travel in 1908. A 
long delay was caused by litigation with the 
Pennsylvania Railroad Company, the latter 



objecting to a grade crossing. The litigation 
ended by a decision of the Supreme court that 
an overhead crossing must be provided, and 
this was accordingly done. This bridge is 
1,226 feet long, with six spans, and is a fine 
structure of iron and steel. 

Prior to the building of the Mifflin and 
Bloom bridges ferries were operated at Mifflin- 
ville. Lime Ridge, Espy and Bloomsburg. 

In 1914 Columbia county has over two hun- 
dred bridges to keep in repair. Most of the 
smaller bridges are being replaced by con- 
crete structures, which will last for ages with 
no repairs. The one at Slabtown, over Roar- 
ing creek, built in 1913, is as fine an example 
of this class of bridge as can be found in the 


The Susquehanna valley was visited by a 
flood in January, 1904, which surpassed in ex- 
tent any previous flood in this section. The 
river was gorged with ice, and the rapid rise 
of the water turned it from the channel out 
on the low lands all along the course of the 
river. The lower portions of Bloomsburg, 
Catawissa, Rupert, Espy, and all along the line, 
were submerged, and the trolley and railroads 
were unable to operate for three days. Great 
damage was done to property, but no lives 
were lost. The flood subsided without carry- 
ing away any of the river bridges, but the ice 
gorge still remained. 

Only two weeks later the waters rose again, 
causing the greatest flood in the history of the 
valley. The first movement in the ice gorge 
was observed at Berwick on Tuesday, Feb. 
9th, and the Berwick bridge was soon torn 
from the piers and toppled over into the rag- 
ing flood. One span was carried down stream 
on the ice to Mifflinville, where it jammed into 
the uncompleted iron bridge, and carried of? a 

span. The remaining spans soon followed. 
Of the other spans of the Berwick bridge, one 
lodged near the Berwick falls and the others 
were carried downstream to a point near 
Briar Creek. The commissioners of Luzerne 
and Columbia counties at once decided to burn 
these spans to prevent their being carried down 
stream to do damage to the bridges below, and 
this was accordingly done. 

For two weeks the flood conditions im- 
proved. There were warm rains which gave 
rise to the hope that this would rot the ice, so 
that it would break up and pass off without 
gorging. And then came a third flood, more 
disastrous than the first two, the water ris- 
ing more than forty-one feet above the low 
water mark. When it is stated that in some 
places icebergs weighing many tons were left 
in fields a half mile away from the regular 
channel of the river, the extent of the flood 
may be more fully realized. All the railroads 
except the Bloomsburg & Sullivan were again 
out of commission, and great damage was 
done from one end of the valley to the other. 
The Bloomsburg bridge seemed doomed, as 
the ice was up to the floor, but it escaped with 
only the west end being sprung out of place 
about three feet, and when the ice passed 
away it settled back into place. 

The Catawissa bridge did not fare so well. 
Two of the spans were carried ofT, and lay 
bent and twisted about one hundred yards be- 
low. The covered wooden bridge at the paper 
mill over Catawissa creek was swept away 
and lodged up against the Pennsylvania rail- 
road bridge. By an agreement with the com- 
missioners the railroad company was permitted 
to destroy it to save its own. Many other 
county bridges were also destroyed by this 

As previously stated, the Catawissa bridge 
was again erected by the State, and completed 
in 1908. 

County Bridge at Bloomsdl'kg, Pa. 

Berwick Bridge — Where Steamboat Accident Occurred 



The earliest influence tending to bind to- 
gether the colonists in Columbia and Montour 
counties was a religious one. Most of the 
pioneers had strongly cherished religious 
affiliations, and were thus brought togetlier 
in the practice of their individual form of 
worship of the Creator. These bonds of 
sympatuy compacted the community and 
eventually led to some more permanent form 
of organization in a religious way. By this 
means the various denominations in early 
times established the foundations of their 
churches which have since been most faith- 
fully preserved and deepened, until in 1914 
the strength of religious convictions has be- 
come so firmly fixed in the two counties as 
to be a part of the life and well-being of the 
entire community. 

Fifty years ago it was no uncommon thing 
for a country minister to travel twenty miles 
on a Sunday to serve three congregations. 
Now, in 19 14, the automobile has made travel 
so much easier that even the little country 
parsonage has a garage attached to it and the 
parson may often be seen speeding along the 
highways to visit a parishioner or hold Sab- 
bath services. The auto has also proved an 
important factor in the reduction of the coun- 
try church attendance. Farmers can now at- 
tend the larger churches in the towns and 
mingle with the urban worshipers there, often 
causing such a dwindling of attendance at the 
little village church that it is finally forced to 
close. Many of the wayside temples are now 
abandoned, while others are opened only at 
irregular and infrequent periods. The final 
abandonment of many of them has been de- 
layed by the associations of the old burying 
grounds beside them, where fathers and grand- 
fathers, mothers and grandmothers are laid at 
rest. Manv of these cemeteries are over a hun- 
dred years old — for example, Hidlay in Scott 
township, the Quaker burying grounds at 
Catawipsa. Millville, Roaringcreek and Green- 
wood, Columbia county, and the old cemeteries 

at New Columbia (Swenoda), Derry, VVash- 
ingtonville and Danville, Montour county. 
These ancient places of sepulture will always 
be tenderly cared for, and the old churches 
near will be preserved as monuments to the 
piety of the past. 

In this year of 1914 the work of country 
ministers is difticult and poorly paid. Most 
of them serve several charges, which means 
holding service in one church in the morning, 
another in the afternoon, and a final service 
in the evening. The salary of the pastor is 
seldom large enough to warrant the purchase 
of an auto, but many of the ministers of 
Columbia and Montour counties have been 
compelled to draw upon their meager stipend 
for this purpose. Still, as in the past, these 
faithful pastors jog along the country roads, 
chatting with the farmers, cheering the down- 
hearted, comforting the disconsolate, settling 
petty quarrels, praying with their parishioners, 
marrying them, baptizing the little ones, mak- 
ing their wills, and finally burying them and 
giving consolation to the mourning family. 

Rev. A. Houtz, of Orangeville, is one of 
these old-time pastors carried on into the mod- 
ern days, and now retired from active work. 
He says that the labors of the country pastor 
are as hard as in the early days of the churches, 
but the compensation is still the same. How- 
ever, he says the congregations in the country 
churches are more appreciative — they seem 
almost to hunger for the services. 

The growth of the churches here has been 
steadily upward, as may be seen from the de- 
tailed descriptions which follow. The oldest 
sect, the Societv of Friends, which was at one 
time the most important in the State, has 
dwindled in numbers greatly during the years 
that have elapsed since the first monthly meet- 
ing was established, but though the tendency 
of the present day for more worldly methods 
of worship has diminished the numbers of the 
Quakers, their deeds and records of the past, 
all of a beneficial and substantial character, 




religious and material, will always remain 
'interwoven in the fibre of the history of Penn- 
sylvania, and brighten its pages for all time. 

Were it not for the custom of the Quakers 
to care for the education of the children, but 
few of the settlers of other sects could have 
gained a knowledge of the necessary rudiments 
of the English language. And still more cred- 
itable to the admirable system of the Quakers 
was the fact that any could attend these schools 
without attempts being made to influence their 
religious belief. 


In the absence of regular ministers the 
Society of Friends was best equipped for 
establishing public worship, and the presence 
of a considerable number of this sect at Cata- 
wissa led to the founding of a meeting there 
in 1787. For twenty years it continued to be 
the rallying point for the denomination in this 
region. A monthly meeting was established 
here in 1796, but in 1808 this was removed to 
Muncy on account of extensive emigration of 
the sect from Catawissa. 

In 1795 a meeting was established in Green- 
wood township, and a year later another was 
established in Locust. In 1S14 a monthly 
meeting was established at the latter place 
and is still continued. A monthly meeting was 
also established at Berwick in 1800, which con- 
tinued with gradually diminishing strength un- 
til about 1865, when it ceased to e.xist. 

The society was more firmly established in 
Greenwood township, where many members 
of the sect have resided continuously since the 
first settlement. In 1834 the different meet- 
ings of the sect were associated in a half-yearly 
meeting here, and in 1856 the Muncy meeting 
was transferred here also. Although the 
name is retained and occasional meetings held 
in Locust and Catawissa, the chief activity of 
this denomination is confined to Greenwood, 
where there are two well supported meetings. 


The Scotch-Irish were an important element 
in the pioneer life of this State and gave early 
prominence to the Presbyterian denomination, 
to which they generally belonged. James Mc- 
Clure, who came to the region of Bloomsburg 
in 1772, was probably the first representative 
of this sect in Columbia county, but it was 
some years later before any organized effort 
was made to propagate its tenets here. 

In 1789 this region is mentioned under the 
name ot ' Fishingcreek, in connection with 
Mahoning, Chilhsquaque and neighboring 
localities, as in the Presbytery of Carlisle. This 
Presbytery had been formed three years be- 
fore, but this region probably remained un- 
occupied until 1792, when Rev. Mr. Wilson, 
a licentiate of the Synod of New York, and a 
Mr. Henry were appointed to cultivate the 
field. Two years later Rev. John Bryson was 
sent to this region and became pastor at War- 
rior's Run and Chilhsquaque, where he con- 
tinued to serve for nearly half a century. In 
the following year Rev. John Porter was com- 
missioned to start from Fishing creek and 
missionize up the river to Wyoming and Tioga 
Point. The names of Rev. Benjamin Judd, 
Ira Condit and William Spear, the latter a 
licentiate, appear also as appointed to mission- 
ize at this period along the east branch of the 
Susquehanna. Revs. Andrews and Gray also 
did more or less missionary labor in this field. 

The first church of this denomination, known 
then as "Briarcreek" and at present as "Hid- 
lay" Church, was organized about 1796 in 
Centre township, the house of worship being 
built in that year. In 181 7 a second church 
was organized in Bloomsburg with three mem- 
bers, who immediately set about erecting a 
commodious building. A third organization 
was eft'ected at Berwick in 1827; another in 
Orange township in 1842 ; in Greenwood the 
following year; in Scott in 1853; in Sugarloaf 
in 1858; and in Centralia in 1867. The Sugar- 
loaf church was later removed to Benton. 

The first pastor to reside permanently in this 
section was Rev. Asa Dunham, whose home 
was near Buckhorn. He was a soldier of the 
Revolution, having served directly under 
Washington. In 1799 he was appointed to 
serve in the counties of Luzerne and North- 
umberland, the latter then including Columbia 
county, and for many years served the churches 
at Briar Creek and Fishing Creek, traveling 
through the entire region and preaching 
wherever a class could be assembled. 

After 1817 Rev. John B. Patterson and Rev. 
Samtiel Henderson were engaged in the work 
in these counties, the former at Bloomsburg 
and the latter at Briar Creek. From 1824 to 
1830 the pastors who labored in this field were 
Revs. John Niblock, James Levs'ers, Crosby, 
Matthew B. Patterson, Robert Bryson, Robert 
Dunlap and Ezra S. Ely. 

In 1832 Rev. John P. Hudson, a Virginian, 
was appointed stated supply for the churches 
at Bloomsburg, Briar Creek and New Colum- 
bia. He always rode a blooded horse, famous 



for speed, which served him well in the many 
and lengthy trips around the circuit. 

The succeeding pastor to this charge was 
Rev. M. Tobey, who remained but a short time. 
Rev. Daniel M. Barber, who had established a 
school for young ladies near Washingtonville, 
ne.xt took the New Columbia charge. At the 
same date Rev. D. M. Halliday was pastor at 

Next in 1838 came Rev. D. J. Waller, Sr., 
whose life work in both the religious and 
material field has left a permanent impress on 
the history of Columbia county. His charge 
embraced all the country from the mouth of 
Roaring creek to Little mountain, and along 
the Susquehanna to Nanticoke, with North 
mountain for the upper boundary, a territory 
nearly forty miles square. One sermon a fort- 
night was all that could be allotted to Blooms- 
burg and Berwick, while other points were 
restricted to services once a month. 

At first the residence of the pastor was at 
Espy, as the most central point, but later, when 
Berwick was set ofif as a separate charge, Cata- 
wissa offered better inducements for a time. 

Among the early pastors in this section may 
be mentioned Revs. Daniel M. Barber, A. H. 
Hand, S. S. Shedden, George W. Thompson, 
Charles Williamson and James J. Hamilton, 
in Columbia county ; and Revs. John Bryson, 
Halliday, Yeomans, John B. Patterson, Dun- 
ham, William Smith, Nicholas Patterson, 
Isaac Grier, Hood and Ijams, in Montour 

Detailed histories of the different churches 
of both counties will be found in the chapters 
devoted to the separate divisions. The list of 
pastors, location of churches, and other statis- 
tics for 1914 are here presented : 


Pastor Members School 

William Gemmill, Millville 

J. Horner Kerr, Orangeville 70 72 

John B. Grier, Danville 

James W. Kirk, Mahoning 337 27s 

William R. Mather, Raven Creek 

Spencer C. Dickson, Bloomsburg 443 440 

Edward A. Lou.x, Berwick 499 361 

Robert P. Howie, Mooresburg 92 132 

Arturo D'Albergo, West Berwick 

G. A. Lenkel, Centralia 48 60 

All of the above churches are in the Presby- 
tery of Northumberland. The following 
churches are vacant, the pulpits being occa- 
sionally filled by request : Briar Creek, New 
Columbia, Washingtonville, Benton, Derry and 


The introduction of Methodism into Colum- 
bia county was made probably through the in- 
strumentality of Bishop Asbury, the founder 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church in Ameri- 
ca. It was under his preaching in Northamp- 
ton county that the Bowmans were converted. 
They subsequently removed to Berwick, and 
it was probably through their representations 
that the Bishop was led to come here. At that 
time he ordained these men who subsequently 
became such a power for good. Other itin- 
erants who came here on missionary tours were 
Revs. William Colbert, James Paynter, Morris 
Howe and Robert Burch, but they did not seem 
to etfect any permanent organization. 

In the valley of Briar creek, four miles dis- 
tant from Berwick, near the present village of 
that name, resided the Bowmans, Thomas and 
Christopher, both ministers of the Methodist 
Church. In order that the neighborhood could 
have regular religious services, Thomas Bow- 
man fitted up the third story of his rather 
pretentious stone house as a place of worship, 
and invited the Methodists to hold services 
therein. This house was used for religious 
purposes for many years and stood in a fair 
state of repair until 1912. It is now only a' 
ruin. Rev. Thomas Bowman later became 
the celebrated and eloquent Bishop Bowman, 
whose death occurred in 191 4. 

In the year 1805, under the joint ministry 
of Revs. James Paynter and Joseph Carson, a 
great revival was held, the country for forty 
miles around feeling the impulse. As a direct 
result a class was formed at Berwick, and this 
point was made a regular appointment of the 
Wyoming circuit, which extended from North- 
umberland to Tioga Point. In 1806 it was 
attached to the Northumberland circuit, with 
which it. was associated until 1831, when the 
church work had so increased that the Ber- 
wick circuit was formed, embracing twenty- 
eight preaching places, of which the following 
were in Columbia county : Benton, Berwick, 
Bloomsburg, Buckhorn, Espy, Jerseytown, 
Light Street, Mififlinville and Orangeville. 

In 1886 there were forty-two churches in 
Columbia county of the Methodist denomina- 
tion, and in Montour county there were eight. 
Since that date the denomination has grown 
steadily in strength and numbers and in the 
year 19 14 is the strongest religious denomina- 
tion in both of these counties. 

The first regular conference appointments 
for the different stations in Columbia county 
were made in 1791, when it was in the North- 



uniberland circuit, which extended from that 
town up the North Branch to the Wyoming 
valley, and up the West Branch to Great Island. 

The distance traveled by the circuit rider 
in making his rounds was three hundred miles, 
which was accomplished in six weeks. When 
the nature of the country and roads, and the 
pittance allowed the ministers of those times, 
are taken into consideration it may well be 
admitted that their labors were distinctly un- 
selfish, and the results of their efforts re- 

This territory was for many years supplied 
by only two ministers and included the pres- 
ent circuits and stations of W'illiamsport, 
Newbury, Muncy, Milton, Northumberland, 
Mifflinburg, Lewisburg, Catawissa, Blooms- 
burg, Berwick. Bloomingdale, Orangeville, 
Sunbury and Bellefonte. Previous to 1804 
Danville circuit belonged to the Philadelphia 
conference, but in that year was transferred to 
the Baltimore conference. In 1807 it was re- 
turned to the Philadelphia conference, in 1810 
it was included in the Genesee conference, and 
in 1S20 it was reassigned to the Baltimore con- 

The preachers who labored in the old North- 
umberland circuit were : 

1791 — Richard Parrott. Lewis Browning. 

1792 — James Campbell. William Colbert. 

1793 — James Campbell, James Paynter. 

1794 — Robert Manley. Jolm Broadhead. 

1795 — James Ward. Stephen Timmons. 

1796 — John Seward, Richard Sneath. 

1797 — John Lackey, Jolm Higby. 

179S — John Lackey, John Lead. 

1799 — James Moore, Benjamin Bidlack, David 

1800 — Ephraim Chambers, Edward Larkin, Asa 

1801 — Johnston Dimham, Gilbert Carpenter. 
1802 — .^nning Owen, James .'\ikins. 
1803 — Daniel Ryan, James Ridgeway. 
1804 — Thomas .\dams. Gideon Draper. 
1805 — Christopher Prey. James Saunders. 
1806 — Robert Burch. John Swartzwelder. 
1807 — Nicholas Willis. Joel Smith. 
1808 — Thomas Curren, John Rhodes, 
1809 — Timothy Lee, Loring Grant. 
1810 — .Abraham Dawson, Isaac Puffer, 
l8n— B. G. Paddock, J. H. Baker. R. Lanning. 
1812 — George Thomas, Ebenezer Doolittle, 
1813 — Joseph Kincaid, Joseph Chambcrlayne. 
1814 — John Haggard. Abraham Dawson. 
1815— Reynolds M. Everts, I, B. Cook. 
1816 — John Thomas. Alpheus Davis. 
1817 — Benjamin Bidlack, Peter Baker. 
1818 — Gideon Lanning, Abraham Dawson. 
1819 — John Rhodes. Darius Williams. 
1820 — John Rhodes. Israel B. Cook. 
1821 — Marmaduke Pearce, John Thomas. 
1822 — John Thomas, Mordecai Barry. 
1823 — Jacob B. Shephard, Mordecai Barry. 
1824 — Robert Cadden. F. McCartney. 
1825 — Robert Cadden, Richard Bond. 

1826 — John Thomas, George Hildt. 
1827 — John Thomas, David Shaver. 
1828 — Charles Kalbfus, William James. 
1829 — James W. Donahay, Josiah Forrest. 
1830 — James W. Etonahay, A, A, Eskridge. 

Berwick circuit was formed in 183 1, Dan- 
ville remaining in the old Northumberland cir- 
cuit until 1836. The pastors of the Danville 
circuit were : 

1831 — David Shaw. 

1832 — Marmaduke Pearce. James Forrest. 

1833 — Josiah Forrest, James Reed. 

1S34 — Henry Tarring, Oliver Ege. 

1835 — Henry Tarring. Jolm Guyer, R. Beers, Thomas 

1836— Joseph S. Lee, R. W. H. Brent. 
1837 — Samuel Ellis. Stephen Hildebrand. 
183S— Robert T. Nixon, William Hirst. 
1839 — Robert T. Nixon. J. W. Houghewent. 
1840 — George Bergstresser, Joseph A. Ross. 
1841 — George Bergstresser, George Guyer. 
1842 — Tohn Ball, Tames Guyer. 
1843— John Ball, S. G. Hare. 
1844 — James Ewing, George A. Coffey. 
1845 — James Ewing, B. ¥. Brooks. 

Pastors of the Berwick circuit were : 

1831 — William Prettyman, Wesley Howe. 
1832 — William Prettyman, Oliver Ege. 
1833 — Marmaduke Pearce. Alem Brittain. 
1834-35 — John Rhodes, J. H. Young. 
1836— J. Sanks, J. Hall. 
1837 — J. Sanks, George Guyer. 
1838— Charles Kalbfus, J. Hall. 
1S39 — Charles Kalbfus. Penfield Doll. 
1840 — James Ewing. William R. Mills. 
1841 — James Ewing, W. F. D. Clemm. 
1842 — Thomas Taneyhill, Joseph A. Ross. 
1843 — Thomas Taneyhill, Thomas Bowman. 
1844 — Francis N. Mills, W, L. Spottswood. 
1845 — John Bowen, W. F. Pentz. 
1846— John Bowen, J. W. Bull. 

The Bloomsburg circuit was formed in 1847, 
and the pastors in charge were : 

1847 — S. L. M. Couser. J. Turner. 

184S— G. H. Dav, J. W. Elliott. 

1849— John W. Gere. G. H. Dav. 

1850— J. S. Lee, E, H. Waring. 

1851— J. S. Lee, T. M. Goodfellow. 

1852 — Thomas Taneyhill, W, E, Buckingham. 

1853 — Thomas Taneyhill. J. A. DeMoyer. 

1854— J. A. Ross, A. W. Guyer. 

1855 — J. Moorhead, F. M. Slusser. 

1856 — George Warren, S. Barnes. 

1857 — George Warren. N. W. Colburn. 

1858-59 — J. Guyer, T. Sherlock. 

i860— F. Gearhart, A. R. Riley. 

After 1862 the Bloomsburg circuit was di- 
vided and Bloomsburg was made a station. 

The following are the circuits and stations 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church in Colum- 
bia and Montour counties, together with the 
number of members, value of church property 
and the names of the pastors in charge in 1914 : 



Station or Circuit Members I'aluation Pastor 

Benton circuit 335 $21,000 H. W. Newman 

Berwick station •. 1,094 68,000 J. H. Ake 

West Berwick station 148 10,200 J. E. Beard 

Buckhorn circuit 136 6,000 George Martin 

Catawissa station 304 21,500 R. H. Stine 

Centralia station 185 8,000 Charles W. Bryner 

Conyngham circuit 230 17,000 H. E. Crow 

Danville station— St. Paul's 384 33.5oo C. H. Witman 

Danville station— Trinity 312 27,500 Alexander Scott 

Elysburg circuit 313 19.050 T. F. Ripple 

Espy — Lime Ridge circuit 306 3.000 Edmund J . Symons 

Jamison City circuit 251 9,ooo J. N. Diehl 

Jonestown circuit 177 8,000 Philip Thomas 

Mifflinville circuit 240 6,500 J. W. McAlarney 

Millville circuit 332 IS.7S0 William Faus 

Orangeville circuit 268 12,800 Ariel R. Turner 

Roaring Creek circuit 179 8,600 John H. Greenwalt 

Rohrsburg circuit 106 7,000 William Shannon 

Washingtonville circuit 80 3.900 L. A. Remley 

REFORMED AND LUTHERAN creek, Miftlin and occasionally Fishingcreek 

townships. His missionary labors extended 

Most of the German immigrants to this all over both Columbia and Montour counties, 

section were members of either the Lutheran and througii him the church was placed on a 

or Reformed Churches, and they brought their firm basis. In 1822 lie removed to Espy and 

religious books with them. These they read continued there to preach until his death in 

and discussed constantly, in the effort to pre- 1824. He devoted himself so completely to 

serve their religious convictions, hoping when the work of the church that he acquired con- 

the time was propitious to be able to have the sumption and brought to an untimely close a 

benefits of the ministration of leaders of their career whose importance to the community 

sects. They were not long without the service was just beginning to get appreciable results, 

of their pastors. Among the first of the Luth- He was a fine singer, and he preached ex- 

eran missionaries who came to this section clusively in the German language, 

were Revs. Seeley, Sharretts, Plitt, Pauls, Kra- In 1829 Rev. Daniel S. Tobias took charge 

mer and Baughey, who organized churches — of the Bloomsburg congregation, and in 1844 

in 1795 at Catawissa ; 1805 in Briarcreek ; 1808 he was assisted by Rev. Henry Funk, who held 

in Locust; 1809 in Mifflin; 1810 in Hemlock; services in the English language. In 1854 

and 1812 in Orange townships. In 1886 the Rev. W. Goodrich succeeded them, serving 

Lutherans had eighteen churches in Columbia his people for half a century. At the close of 

county and ten in Montour county. his ininistry the charge consisted of six con- 

The denominational lines between the Luth- gregations, and by his advice the Orangeville 
erans and the adherents of the Reformed charge was formed, consisting of the Orange- 
Church were not very strictly regarded in ville, Zion and St. James congregations, while 
pioneer times, the first churches built by the the remainder included the Bloomsburg, Heller 
German settlers being used by both denomina- and Catawissa churches. In 1886 there were 
tions, alternately, all the people usually attend- twelve Reformed churches in Columbia county 
ing both services. This custom of having and three in Montour county. In most in- 
union churches has continued until the present stances the congregations were cooperating 
time in almost every instance, the occasional with the Lutherans in the use of a single 
exceptions being due to local disagreements, church building. This is also the case in some 
The schism in the Lutheran Church has about instances at the present time, although in the 
equally divided. the denomination in these two ^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ denominations are separated, 
counties but there is a lack of the rancor be- j^ ^,^^ Susquehanna is the dividing line 
tween the members sometimes met with m , ^ ^ i, ^ . „, . , „ />„ 
other parts of the State. ^^^^V^^" the Wyoming Classis and East Sus- 

The first minister of the Reformed Church quehanna Classis, both of which take in parts 

in this section was Rev. Jacob Dieffenbach. of the counties of Columbia and Montour. 

He came to Bloomsburg "in 1815, when he There are sixteen churches of the Reformed 

was in the prime of life, "and preached in that denomination in the two coiinties, details of 

town as well as in Mahoning, Catawissa, Briar- which are given in the following table: 



No. of 
Church Members 

Mainville — Emmanuel 138 

Mifflinville— St. Matthew 36 

Numidia — St. Paul 300 

Bear Gap — Grace 164 

Briarcreek — St. Peter 32 

St. James 164 

Zion 69 

Orangeville 75 

Hidlay 49 

Bloomsburg 249 

Danville — Shiloh 432 

Danville— St. John 114 

St. James 114 

Strawberry Ridge — Trinity 225 

Emanuel 93 

Berwick — Salem 10 

Rev. W. S. Gerhard was succeeded in October, 1914, by Rev. J 





R. Ira Gass 

R. Ira Gass 


John F. Bair 

John F. Bair 


J. K. Adams 


W. S. Gerhard 


W. S. Gerhard 


W. S. Gerhard 


W. S. Gerhard 


P. H. Hoover 


J. N. Bauman 


F. W. Brown 


F. W. Brown 


A. F. Dreisbach 


A. F. Dreisbach 


J. K. Adams 

M. Shaffner 


Among the New Jersey immigrants to this 
section were many who adhered to the Estab- 
lished Church of England, the American 
branch of which was the Protestant Episcopal 
denomination. Rev. Caleb Hopkins was chief- 
ly instrumental in establishing the church at 
Bloomsburg in 1793, and in 1812 at Sugarloaf. 
A third organization was effected at Jersey- 
town at an early date, but no records what- 
ever are available regarding it. In i860 Rev. 
E. A. Lightner began services in Catawissa 
which resulted in the founding of a church 
there, and in 1866 Rev. M. Washburn did a 
similar work in Centralia. These were the 
only churches in Columbia county in 1868, and 
in 1914 the number has been increased to five, 
the church at Berwick having been founded in 

The Episcopal Church in Montour county 
came into being at Danville in 1828, under the 
ministrations of Rev. James Depew, of Blooms- 
burg. St. James' Church at Exchange was 
erected in 1848. Services had been held there 
by Rev. Edwin Lightner from 1843, how- 
ever. In 1914 the number of Episcopal 
churches in Montour county was two. 


This denomination was chiefly recruited 
from the English settlers of the county. The 
first church in Columbia county was organ- 
ized in Madison township, through the efforts 
of Revs. Wolverton, Smiley and Coombs. Two 
years later Revs. Joel Rogers and Elias Dod- 
son organized another one in Jackson town- 
ship, and about 1841 other churches were 
founded in Berwick and Bloomsburg. In 1851 
an organization of thirtv members was inade 
in Centre township, and in 1886 another of 
twelve members was effected in Centralia. 

The first Baptist services in Montour county 
were held in the courthouse at Danville in 
1841, Rev. J. S. Miller being the leader at 
that period. Services were also held at that 
date in the schoolhouse at Exchange. The 
Danville church was built in 1844. Rev. An- 
drew F. Shanafelt assisted in the organiza- 
tion of the church at Whitehall in 1858, and 
the same year the first building there was 

At present there are five Baptist churches in 
Columljia county, and three in Montour 


Although one of the latest of the religious 
denominations to establish themselves in this 
section, the Roman Catholics have within re- 
cent years attained considerable prominence 
and are possessed of valuable property in 
various parts of the two counties, while the 
congregations have shown a steady and 
healthy growth. 

The sacrament of the Mass was celebrated 
in Bloomsburg as early as 1829, by Father 
Fitzpatrick of Milton, but there is no record 
of other services liere until 1844, when Father 
Fitzsimmons held services on several occa- 
sions in a private house. The first regular 
services in a building of their own were held 
by the members of this denomination in 1874. 
The organization of the church at Centralia 
was made in 1869 by Father D. J. McDermott, 
and the cornerstone of the church there was 
laid in the same year. The church at Berwick 
was established in 1899, under the ministra- 
tions of Father J. R. Murphy, of Bloomsburg. 

The mission of Father J. P. Hannigan, in 
1847, resulted in the establishment of St. 
Joseph's Church at Danville. The first church 



there was built the same year, while the pres- 
ent one was built in 1869. St. Hubert's church 
was built at Danville in 1862. St. James' Ro- 
man Catholic Church at Exchange was estab- 
lished many years ago, and in 1910 the old 
church on the hill was abandoned and a splen- 
did new one built in the village. These repre- 
sent the number in Montour county in 1914. 
In Columbia county there are two churches in 
Berwick, one in Bloomsburg, one in Centralia, 
one in the edge of the county at Mount Car- 
mel, and one in Locust township, just com- 
pleted in 1914. 


This denomination came to Columbia county 
in 1848, and to Montour county in 1858. In 
1886 it had three churches in Scott township, 
one at Mifflinville, two in Jackson township, 
two in Centre township, two in Briarcreek 
township, one in Beaver township, and one in 
Bloomsburg. In the same year there was one 
church in Danville, and two in other parts of 
Montour county. The present number of 
churches in Columbia coiinty is thirteen. In 
Montour county there are now three churches. 


The Methodist Protestant, United Brethren, 
Christian, Pentecostal and Greek Catholic de- 
nominations are represented in the two counties 
by organizations which are mentioned in the 
sketches of the different sections in which 
they are located. 

The following table will convey some idea 
of the relative standing of the different de- 
nominations in both counties. It might be in- 
ferred that the Methodists have lost in num- 
bers in both counties, but such is not the case, 
the only loss being in the number of the 
churches, caused by the removal of the mem- 
bers to the cities and towns. In fact, the 
majority of the denominations have gained in 
numbers steadily, the exceptions being the 
Quakers and the Methodist Protestant sects. 

Columbia Montour 

Co. Co. 

. Denomination 1886 1914 1S86 1914 

Methodist 42 36 10 9 

Lutheran 18 21 10 10 

Evangelical 13 13 I 3 

Reformed 12 12 3 5 

Presbyterian 8 10 5 5 

Baptist 6 5 3 3 

. Episcopal 4 5 2 2 

Roman Catholic 2 S 2 3 

Christian 6 5 

United Brethren S 3 

Greek Catholic 2 4 

Pentecostal I 

Society of Friends (Quakers) 3 3 

Methodist Protestant 2 


was organized at Bloomsburg in 1868, and in- 
cludes all Protestant evangelical Sunday 
schools in the county. It is an auxiliary of 
State and national organizations of similar 
names, and has held many annual conventions 
since its formation. Rev. Alfred Taylor, of 
New York, was the conductor of the first meet- 
ing and was probably the organizer. 

The second convention was held in 1870 at 
Bloomsburg, but no records are to be had re- 
garding it. In 187 1 the third convention was 
held at Espy, and here J. B. Robison was 
elected president. He was succeeded after 
one year's service by a series of presidents, all 
ministers, well known in the county, among 
them being Revs. Stuart Mitchell, A. Houtz, 
N. Spear, F. P. Manhart and U. Myers. This 
continued until 1889, conventions having been 
held each year to the present since 1873. ex- 
cept in the year 1879, when the records merely 
state that the secretary had died. 

In 1889 H. R. Bower, of Berwick, was 
elected president and served three years, when 
he was succeeded by Myron I. Low, who has 
served ever since, making a record for con- 
tinuous and efficient service unequaled in the 

At the first convention of which we have a 
record there were eighteen delegates from the 
local schools and twenty-five from outside the 
county, representing in all sixteen schools. 
This does not convey, however, an idea of the 
number of Sabbath schools in the organization 
at the time, since every Protestant evangelical 
school in the county became automatically a 
part of the association. 

In 1880 the executive committee was di- 
rected to effect the township organization, and 
at the 1882 convention district or township vice 
presidents were appointed, within a few years 
every township or borough in the county 
being represented by an organization. This 
system prevailed until a redistricting along less 
cumbersome lines was authorized by the con- 
vention of 191 1, and before the 1912 conven- 
tion was held the county had been subdivided 
into thirteen districts, all of which are actively 
at work. 

About 1900 departmental organization was 
begun, and at present there are at work in the 
county superintendents of elementary, second- 
ary, adult, teacher training, home, temperance, 
mission and rural departments, with a com- 
plete corresponding organization extending 
throughout the districts. 

In 1907 the State Association erected a 



high standard of organization for its counties, 
and Columbia was one of the first two coun- 
ties to attain this standard, maintaining and 
passing beyond it year by year until 1913, when 
a still higher standard was set by the State, 
and again Columbia was one of the first to 
attain it. 

Some idea of the growth of the work in the 
county may be had by the statement that for 
some years less than forty dollars was the 
amount of annual receipts, and this was not 
all used at first. In 1913 the county expenses 
were over four hundred dollars, the amount 
being contributed by the schools and indi- 
viduals interested in the work. 

Besides what is accomplished by volunteer 
helpers, the county organization during the 
years 1906-1907 maintained its own field secre- 
tary, Miss Martha Robison, who gave her en- 
tire time to the work, relinquishing the posi- 
tion in 1908 to take a similar one with the 
State Association. Since that time the work 
has been carried on by the corps of county 
officers, now nvmibering almost twenty. 

At present there are in the county, and there- 
fore a part of the association, 135 Protestant 
evangelical Sundav schools, with a total en- 
rollment of over 22,000, and reporting in 
19 1 3 over 2,000 accessions. Twenty-five per 
cent of these schools reported a complete or- 
ganization, almost all had "Cradle Rolls," and 
the other departments of the work were main- 
tained in the same proportion. One of the 
sources of strength of the association was the 
continuous service of manv of the officers, who 
were familiar with the county and therefore 
able to do the most efficient work. In 1877 
A. W. Spear became treasurer of the organiza- 
tion, and served until i88s, when he was made 
corresponding secretary, which office he still 
holds. Mrs. Anna McHenry has served as 
treasurer since 1800. while other officers also 
have rendered valuable and extended service. 

The present officers are: Myron I. Low, 
president : H. R. Bower, Thomas Ash, C. A. 
Shaflfer, L. C. Mensch, M. E. Stackhouse. 

Peter Wills, vice presidents ; Miss Martha 
Robison. field and statistical secretary ; Miss 
Ethel Creasy, assistant secretary ; Mrs. C. E. 
Kesty, recording secretary ; A. W. Spear, cor- 
responding secretary ; Fred Holmes, financial 
secretary ; Mrs. Anna McHenry, treasurer. 
The department superintendents are : Miss 
Mabel Moyer, elementary ; O. H. Bakeless, 
teacher training; Mrs. C. E. Trescott, home; 
Rev. C. E. Miller, O. A. B. C; R. L. KHne, 
temperance; Rev. W. J. Dice, missions; Rev. 
P. H. Hoover, secondary ; N. Beishline, rural. 
A summary of the statistical report for 1913 
is as follows: District No. i, Berwick and 
vicinity, total enrollment, 4,870; church acces- 
sions, 745 ; increase in enrollment, 768. Dis- 
trict No. 2, West Berwick and vicinity, enroll- 
ment, 1,971; church accessions, 107; increase 
in enrollment, 226. District No. 3, Centre 
and part of Briarcreek townships, enrollment, 
1,137; increase in enrollment, 190; church ac- 
cessions, 180. District No. 4, Bloomsburg, 
Catawissa, Montour townships. Espy and Al- 
media, enrollment, 6,250; increase in enroll- 
ment, 317; church accessions, 456. District 
No. 5, Orangeville and Light Street and vicin- 
ity, enrollment, 977 ; increase in enrollment, 
17; church accessions, 6. "District No. 7, Ben- 
ton and vicinity, enrollment, 1,002; increase, 
75 ; church accessions, 55. District No. 8, 
Sugarloaf township, enrollment, 492; decrease 
in attendance, 78. District No. 6, Benton and 
Fishingcreek townships, enrollment, 760; de- 
crease, 75 ; accessions, 43. District No. 9, Mill- 
ville and vicinity, enrollment, 840 ; increase, 76 ; 
accessions, 11. District No. 10, Hemlock and 
Madison townships, enrollment, 671 ; increase, 
43; accessions, 33. District No. 11, Cleveland, 
Locust, Roaringcreek, Franklin and Cata.wissa 
townships, enrollment, 1.002; increase, 75; 
accessions, q8. District No. 12 (last year's 
figures, partly), Conyngham and Centralia, 
enrollment, 835 ; accessions. 140. District No. 
13, enrollment, 446; increase, 69; accessions, 
18. Totals, enrollment for county, 21,770; 
church accessions for county, 1,923. 



In entering into the history of the Bench 
and Bar of this district it may not be out of 
place to compare the present with the past. 
The lawyers of eighty years ago in the rural 
districts found all their surroundings, as well 
as the legal procedure, very different from 
those of to-day. The country was compara- 
tively new, the facilities for travel by public 
conveyance most meager. Carriages with el- 
liptic springs had not yet been invented. The 
judges and members of the bar usually trav- 
eled on horseback, sometimes riding fifty miles 
in a day to reach a distant county seat. The 
districts were then much larger than now. The 
courthouses were not of the present style of 
architecture, the accommodations often being 
of the most primitive character. A wood 
stove furnished heat for the usually small 
room, and the work at evening was done by 
the light of tallow candles. Court was con- 
vened by the sound of a dinner horn blown 
by the crier at the door. Trials were long- 
drawn-out owing to the necessity of writing 
down all the testimony of witnesses and other 
proceedings, by the judge and counsel. Ste- 
nographers were then unknown, their intro- 
duction in the courts not having become gen- 
eral until within the last forty years, and the 
innovation has enabled the courts to transact 
in one day what formerly required three or 

Splendid courthouses, some of them palaces, 
with all the conveniences of modern inven- 
tion, have taken the place of the old-time seats 
of justice, and with these changes have come 
changes in legal procedure intended to facili- 
tate the dispatch of public business, though 
in regard to the latter there lingers in the 
minds of the laity a belief that there is still 
room for improvement. While the transac- 
tion of business has thus been expedited, there 
still remains the delay and uncertainty in the 
administration of justice, by reason of the 
fact that able lawyers, inspired by a large re- 
tainer on either side, differ in their interpreta- 

^ 65 

tion of the law where the facts are not dis- 
puted. The court below may differ with both, 
and the higher courts may differ with the 
court below — frequently bringing on a new 
trial, with a repetition of the costs and worry. 
While it is generally agreed that a remedy 
for this condition is desirable, no one has ever 
been able to suggest an acceptable one, and 
probably no one will ever be able to do so 
until the time shall come when all men are of 
one mind, a situation that is not likely to oc- 
cur before the millennium. 

During his administration it was no un- 
common experience for Judge Elwell to see 
practicing before him in Columbia county 
many of the ablest lawyers of the State, some 
of whom — previously or subsequently — held 
prominent public positions. Among them may 
be mentioned Judge Jeremiah S. Black, Chief 
Justice George W. Woodward, Judge John W. 
Maynard, Hon. F. B. Gowen, Judge James 
Ryan, Gov. Henry M. Hoyt, Judge Edward 
O. Parry, Judge F. Carroll Brewster, Attorney 
General Henry W. Palmer, Judge W. A. Marr, 
Hon. George F. Baer, Hon. John B. Packer, 
Hon. Francis W. Hughes, Hon. S. P. Wolver- 
ton, as well as many other gifted men. 

From 1814 to 185 1 Columbia and North- 
umberland counties formed the Eighth judicial 
district with Lycoming and Union counties. 

Hon. Seth Chapman, the first judge of 
this district, held court in January at Dan- 
ville, which was then the county seat of Co- 
lumbia county, court convening in the sec- 
ond story of a log house on the river bank, 
a few doors east of Mill street. Gen. Wil- 
liam Montgomery and Hon. Leonard Rupert 
were his associates. Henry Alward, of Mil- 
ton, was the first sheriff. The first prothono- 
tary was George A. Frick, who later became a 
prominent attorney of Danville. 

Of those who came to the court at Dan- 
ville to practice law were Charles Hall, 
Charles Maus of Berlin, Hugh Bellas of Sun- 
bury, Samuel Hepburn of Rlilton, Bradford 



and George Porter of Center county, James 
Carson of Philadelphia, and Ebenezer Green- 
ough of Sunbury. Judge Thomas Duncan 
and Judge Charles Huston came here from 
Center county to attend court. They were 
both afterwards members of the Supreme 
court. William G. Hurley, of Bloomsburg, 
James Pleasants of Catawissa, Alexander 
Jordan and Charles G. Donnel, of Sunbury, 
attended court in Danville regularly. 

Judge Ellis Lewis, who succeeded to the 
bench in 1833, was a native of Lewisburg, 
Pa. He began life as a printer, subsequently 
occupied the editorial chair, studied law, and 
was admitted to the bar at the age of twenty- 
five. Two years later he was appointed dep- 
uty attorney general for Lycoming county ; 
in 1832 was elected to the Legislature; in 
1833 was appointed attorney general for the 
Commonwealth, and the same year appointed 
as successor to Judge Chapman. After ten 
years of service here he was transferred to 
the Second district^ later elevated to the Su- 
preme court, in 1851, and became chief justice 
in 1855. Subsequently he was appointed one 
of a committee of three to revise the criminal 
code. He died March 19, 1871. 

Charles G. Donnel, of Northumber- 
land county, was appointed to the vacancy on 
the bench of the Eighth district Jan. 14, 1843, 
and held his first term in April of that year. 
He died the following year, before he could 
accomplish his work, but held high in the 
respect and esteem of those who had known 
him and admired his attainments. 

Judge Joseph B. Anthony, who suc- 
ceeded to the bench in 1844, was the first to 
hold court at Bloomsburg after the removal 
of the county seat from Danville. His first 
session there was held in January, 1848. Judge 
Anthony was a native of Williamsport. In 
1830 he was elected to the State Senate, and 
in 1834 to Congress, and reelected two years 
later. In 1843 he was appointed judge of 
the court for the adjustment of the Nichol- 
son claims, and in March, 1844, to the bench 
of the Eighth judicial circuit. He died in 
185 1, nine months before the expiration of 
his term. 

Judge James Pollock was born in Milton 
and studied law under Judge Anthony. He 
graduated from Princeton and was admitted 
to the bar in 1833. Two years later he was 
appointed district attorney, and in 1844 was 
elected to Congress from the Thirteenth dis- 
trict. In 1851 he was appointed to the bench 
to succeed Judge Anthony, and held the place 
until the judges were made elective, in 1851, 

when he refused to be a candidate. In 1854 
he was elected governor; in i860 appointed a 
delegate to the peace congress at Washington ; 
in 1861 appointed director of the mint at 
Philadelphia; resigning the otSce under the 
administration of Johnson, he was reappointed 
by Grant in 1869, held the position until 1882, 
and was then made collector of internal rev- 
enue. He is the originator of the motto on 
American coins, "In God We Trust." He 
died April 19, 1890. 

John Nesbit Conyngham succeeded Judge 
Pollock on the bench in 1851.- He went 
upon the bench of the Luzerne district 
in 1839 by appointment of the governor, and 
when Columbia was put in that district Judge 
Conyngham became the president judge here, 
and so continued until the formation of the 
Twenty-sixth district, in 1856, composed of 
Columbia, Sullivan and Wyoming counties, 
which took Columbia out of his jurisdiction. 
He was one of Pennsylvania's most eminent 
jurists, and presided in the Luzerne district 
for thirty years, until 1870, when he resigned. 
In 1871 he met with a railroad accident which 
resulted in his death. He was beloved and 
respected by all who knew him. 

Warren J. Woodward was appointed judge 
in May, 1856, and in October following was 
elected for a term of ten years. He served 
until December, 1861, when he resigned to 
accept election as president judge of Berks 
county, and moved to Reading. At the expira- 
tion of this term he was reelected for a second, 
and served until 1874, when he was elected a 
justice of the Supreme court, which position 
he occupied until his death, in 1879. Judge 
Woodward was born in Bethany, Wayne 
county, and received an academic education 
in Wilkes-Barre. He taught school, learned 
the printer's trade, and later studied law at 
Wilkes-Barre, where he became the leader of 
the bar. He was a hard student, a conscien- 
tious and upright judge, and a man of intel- 
lectual power. He was considered one of the 
ablest Supreme justices of his time. 

Aaron K. Peckham was appointed to fill 
the unexpired term of Judge Woodward, De- 
cember. 1861, after which he declined to be 
a candidate for election to the position, and 
resumed his practice at Tunkhannock, where 
he remained until his death. 

William Elwell was elected president 
judge of the Twenty-sixth district in 1862, ac- 
cepting the nomination at the request of a com- 
mittee of the bar. He had no opposition at 
the first election, and none at the time of his 
reelection in 1872. In May, 1874, Wyoming 



and Sulli\an counties were placed in the 
Forty-fourth district, and Columbia and 
Montour made the Twenty-sixth, which is the 
condition in 1914. On the expiration of Judge 
Elwell's second term the bar of the district 
unanimously requested him to accept a third 
term, to which he consented, was later nomi- 
nated on the tickets of both leading parties, 
and at the following election was unanimously 
given the office. Afterwards, at different 
times, he was urged to become a candidate 
for the Supreme bench, but declined. He 
also refused to have his name used in the 
canvass for the office of governor, although 
warmly urged. 

In 1871 Judge Elwell was chosen to um- 
pire the difficulties between the miners and 
the operators in the coal regions, which he 
did to the satisfaction of both sides. Later 
the Mollie JMaguires case, a description of 
which is given at the end of this chapter, was 
tried before him. His decision in this case 
was affirmed by the Supreme court. 

It is believed that Judge Elwell tried more 
cases than any other judge upon the bench 
of the State, as many important cases were 
certified to Columbia county from other dis- 
tricts and tried before him. It is worthy of 
mention that of all the cases tried in the courts 
of Oyer and Terminer, Quarter Sessions and 
the (Drphans' court, not a single one from this 
county was reversed during the more than 
twenty-six years he was upon the bench, and 
very few in the Common Pleas court. 

It may not be out of place here to record 
the fact that a tribute was publicly paid to 
Judge Elwell during his lifetime that does not 
often fall to the lot even of distinguished citi- 
zens. It is almost the universal custom to 
wait until after the cold clods have rattled 
upon the casket before public appreciation of 
a man's life and character is expressed. When 
such action is taken during a man's life- 
time it is a matter of great gratifica- 
tion to him who receives the recognition, and 
it is also highly creditable to those who are 
responsible for its expression. As the inci- 
dent here referred to has appeared in print 
only in the newspapers, the files of which are 
accessible to but few people, and as the mat- 
ter is a part of the history of the court of 
Columbia county, it is deemed proper for it 
to be here recorded in full, so that it may be 
preserved in permanent form. 

On Monday morning, Sept. 2.^, 1889, when 
court opened, the room was filled with an 
audience including many ladies, who had been 
drawn there by the report that proceedings of 

an unusual character would transpire at that 
time. The president judge, Hon. E. R. Ikeler, 
and Hons. C. B. McHenry and C. G. Murphy 
were upon the bench. Court Crier D. R. Coft- 
man opened the session by the usual proclama- 
tion, and then B. F. Zarr, Esq., soHcitor to 
the county commissioners, W. G. Girton, 
Jesse Rittenhouse and Ezra Stephens, ad- 
dressed the Bench in the following words : 

"If Your Honors please, before the court 
proceeds with its regular business, I wish to 
bring to your attention a matter in which we 
all feel a lively interest. 

"There presided in these courts for a period 
of more than twenty-five years a jurist dis- 
tinguished for his legal knowledge, high moral 
character, courteous treatment of the bar, uni- 
form kindness and impartiality to all — the 
Honorable William Elwell. The best years 
of his life were spent here, and he is to-day 
a venerable citizen of the county, one whom 
the people delight to honor. 

"Appreciation of the qualities that endear 
a man to his countrymen is testified not more 
by the rearing of imposing monuments than 
by giving fitting expression to the sentiment 
in their hearts. There may be in all the 
walks of life great men, but great only when 
by their acts they have signally benefited man- 
kind. The preacher becomes great only when, 
by his power and p>ersuasiveness, he causes 
men to reverence and to obey the laws of God. 
The soldier becomes great when, by his con- 
quests over the enemies of liberty, he gives to 
the people liberty and a home ; the statesman, 
when by his wise economy he secures to them 
prosperity ; the philanthropist, when he has 
alleviated human suffering; the judge, when 
he has faithfully administered the laws. True 
greatness is always recognized and honored 
by the people, and the man who makes it his 
life work to labor for the good of the race is 
entitled to such recognition and honor . 

"The citizens of Columbia county hold in 
the highest estimation the ability and integrity 
of Judge Elwell. His reputation as an able 
and conscientious administrator of the law 
is not confined to the limits of the county, but 
extends throughout the length and breadth of 
the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and even 
beyond her borders. His opinions and rulings 
are cited with confidence by the pleader in 
the courts, and are received by the highest 
tribunals as authority of weight. 

"The countv commissioners, joining with 
other citizens in their just estimate of the 
distinguished services rendered to the Com- 
monwealth by Judge Elwell, have deemed it 



eminently proper to cause to be prepared this 
portrait" (here Prothonotary W. H. Snyder 
withdrew a green cloth hanging on the wall 
behind the Judges, disclosing a lifesize bust 
portrait in handsome gilt frame) "of the Hon- 
orable William Elwell, and to place it in this 
temple of justice, not so much as a monument 
to the past as a testimonial to the future, and 
as an offering by which he himself may learn 
the kindly feeling of our hearts. ... It 
is my privilege, and I assure you my pleasure, 
on behalf of the commissioners of the county, 
to present to the court, to the bar, and to the 
citizens, this portrait of His Honor, Judge 

Judge Ikeler made the following response : 
"In behalf of the bench, the bar, and the 
citizens of the county, we accept this portrait 
of Judge Elwell, as an appropriate memento 
of him and of his honorable judicial career. 
It cannot fail to be a constant reminder to us 
who have been intimately associated with him, 
to follow so far as possible in his footsteps. 
Of the present commissioners of Columbia 
county, a majority reside at a distance from 
the county seat. Their act is undoubtedly 
prompted and sustained by the public senti- 
ment of respect, admiration and love for Judge 
Elwell, which permeates the county _ to its 
remotest bounds, but which, great as it is, is 
only an index of our appreciation of his merits. 
We, the members of the bar, who have been 
closely associated with him in the administra- 
tion of justice, though ours has been the fo- 
rensic strife about a question of property, of 
liberty, or of life, while it has been his office 
well fulfilled to hold the seat of Justice with 
her* sword and scales, conducting before him 
unawed, unruffled and unswayed our legal 
struggles, we have been taught by his rulings, 
led by his learning, instructed as to manhood 
by his dignified bearing. The perpetual pres- 
ence here of this portrait, reminding us of 
him and of his character, will be to us a con- 
tinued incentive to diligence in our calling, and 
to the cultivation of all manly graces. It will 
stimulate the young men in training for the 
bar ; they will learn the history of the eminent 
jurist whom this portrait represents, and they 
will be stirred with emulation of his great at- 
tainments in legal lore, and of his surpassing 
virtues as judge, and they will be infused with 
new energy in working for the highest ideal 
of achievement, and to usefulness in their 
day and generation. 

"If any of us should be so fortunate as to 
arrive at the advanced age that Judge Elwell 
has already reached, he will be happy if he 

is able to look back upon a life's work as well 
done as his — upon every duty as scrupulously 
and zealously performed as it was by him 
whose likeness hangs upon this wall." 

In this connection it should be noted that 
after the death of Judge Ikeler his portrait 
was presented to the county. Of all the judges 
who have presided over the courts of Co- 
lumbia county, the likenesses of these two 
jurists are the only ones that hang upon the 
walls of the court room. 

In November, 1887, Judge Elwell con- 
tracted a cold which resulted in chronic 
catarrh, and so affected his hearing and his 
general health that he tendered his resigna- 
tion to the governor, to take effect on July 31, 
1888. From that time he led a retired life 
until his death, which occurred on Oct. 15, 
1895, when he was aged eighty-seven years. 
A more complete story of the life of this great 
judge appears among the biographies. 

Judge Elwell's resignation left a vacancy to 
be filled at the November election, with an ap- 
pointment by the governor of a president 
judge to serve until January, 1889. Henry M. 
Hinckley of Danville received the appoint- 

Judge Henry M. Hinckley was born June 
2, 1850, in Harrisburg, Pa., where he received 
his early education, and was graduated at 
Princeton College in 1874. Having pursued 
the study of law during his college course, he 
was admitted to the bar of Montour county in 
1875, and to the Supreme court in 1878. He 
has long been recognized as one of the ablest 
attorneys in this section of the State. He was 
nominated for president judge by the Repub- 
lican party in the district to succeed himself, 
but the district being strongly Democratic he 
was not elected. During the brief period of 
his incumbency he discharged all his duties 
with fidelity and marked ability. Since his 
retirement from the bench he has devoted him- 
self to his profession, and has a large prac- 
tice, not only in Montour and Columbia coun- 
ties, but in other counties outside of the dis- 
trict. Before his appointment to the bench 
he was for some years associated with I. X. 
Grier, Esq., of Danville, in law business. 

For the first time in the history of this ju- 
dicial district, after Judge Elwell resigned 
there were opposing aspirants for the nomina- 
tion for president judge on the Democratic 
ticket, Elijah R. Ikeler and Charles G. Bark- 
ley, both of Bloomsburg, being the candidates. 
An active and energetic canvass was made, 
resulting in the nomination of Mr. Ikeler in 
both counties, and he was elected in Novem- 



ber, 1888, entering upon his duties in January, 
1889, and serving until Aug. i, 1898, when the 
hand of death was laid upon him. He con- 
tracted a cold which resulted in pneumonia, 
and after only a week's illness passed away. 

Elijah R. Ikeler was a self-made man. 
His studious and industrious habits enabled 
him to obtain sufficient education at Green- 
wood Seminary to enter upon the study of 
law, which he took up after being engaged in 
the milling business for a number of years. 
He moved from Millville to Bloomsburg and 
registered as a law student with Colonel 
Freeze in 1864, and was admitted to the bar 
in May, 1867. He soon forged ahead, and be- 
came one of the leading practitioners of the 
county. As a judge he was patient and care- 
ful, always evincing a desire to do right ac- 
cording to his best judgment. 

At the time of his death Judge Ikeler was 
a candidate for renomination, his opponent 
being Robert R. Little — both Democrats. The 
county conventions of both counties had been 
held, Montour county instructing its conferees 
for Ikeler, and Columbia county for Little. 
The death of Judge Ikeler brought about a 
complication in the judicial situation, such as 
had probably never before occurred in the his- 
tory of the State. On Aug. 10, 1898, Gov- 
ernor Hastings appointed Grant Herring as 
president judge to serve until January, 1899. 
Robert R. Little was the Democratic candidate 
in Columbia county for election for the full 
term. What the situation was in Montour 
county no one seemed to know, as Judge Ike- 
ler had named his conferees in that county, 
but they had not yet accepted. It was also 
doubted whether their appointment would 
stand after his death. There were also com- 
plications in the Republican party on the 
judgeship, Montour county having instructed 
for James Scarlet and the Columbia conferees 
favoring Charles C. Evans, Scarlet being 
afterwards made the nominee. 

•Appreciating the necessity of taking some 
action in the matter, a call was issued for a 
meeting of the Columbia bar on Aug. 17, 1898, 
which was signed by thirty-eight members. 
The call stated that "impressed by the convic- 
tion that the selection of a president judge is 
of transcendent importance to the public, and 
observing that the ordinary agencies for the 
nomination of a candidate do not in this in- 
stance promise to succeed in giving to the 
people harmonious and desirable results, we 
do agree to confer together upon the selection 
of a judge who shall be competent, inde- 
pendent, and impartial, who shall be free from 

faction, without friends to reward or enemies 
to punish, and, if possible, wholly unconnected 
in position or interest with past or present con- 
troversy or dispute upon the question of the 
judgeship, and take such action as the major- 
ity of those present shall judge to be advisable, 
prudent, wise, and necessary, to secure or aid 
in securing, the selection of a president judge." 

But eighteen of the signers were present at 
the meeting. Hon. C. R. Buckalew was 
chosen chairman, and a resolution was adopted 
for the appointment of a committee, "to act 
for and represent us in the conference which 
must take place and enable us to present for 
endorsement by the people of this district a 
man competent and eminently fitted to serve 
as president judge." Nothing ever came of 
this action, however, mainly for the reason 
that no lawyer from outside the district could 
be found who was willing to enter the con- 
test as a candidate, where there were so many 
local aspirants, and where he would be a com- 
parative stranger. 

Meanwhile the fencing for advantage went 
on. On Aug. 10 Mr. Little and conferees went 
to Exchange, Montour county, and there met 
the conferees appointed by Judge Ikeler, and 
a judicial conference was organized, resulting 
after several ballots in Mr. Little's nomina- 
tion. The next day the Democratic standing 
committee met at Danville. Judge Herring 
claimed that the conference at Exchange was 
void, for the reason that the conferees named 
by Judge Ikeler had no authority to act, as it 
ceased when Judge Ikeler died. The com- 
mittee took this view of it and proceeded to 
name a new candidate for Montour county, 
Judge Herring being their choice. Judge Her- 
ring then carried the matter to the Dauphin 
county court to settle the question as to whose 
name should be printed on the ballots as the 
regular nominee. After hearing, the court 
decided that the Exchange conference was a 
nullity, as the evidence showed that the Ikeler 
conferees had not been appointed in fact. 
Judge Herring then appointed conferees for 
"Montour, and after several meetings Herring 
withdrew and Little was unanimously nomi- 
nated, and was elected in November, 1898, de- 
feating James Scarlet, the Republican nomi- 
nee. He served until Feb. 26, 1906, when his 
death occurred, after a protracted illness. 

Judge Robert R. Little was born in Ber- 
wick in May, 1852, and was the son of E. H. 
Little, who was for many years a prominent 
attorney of Columbia county. He graduated 
at the Normal School in 1871, and subse- 
quently attended the University of Rochester, 



and Hamilton College, New York, after which 
he read law with his father, and was admitted 
to the bar on Sept. 4, 1874. He was elected 
district attorney in 1878 and again in 1881, 
filling the office with much ability. He was 
possessed of an even temperament and quick 
perception, and was considered a safe and 
careful counsellor. 

The death of Judge Little again made a 
vacancy on the bench of the district to be 
filled by an appointment by the governor. 
There were a number of aspirants among the 
Republican members of the bar, and strong 
influences were brought to bear. On March 
30th Governor Pennypacker appointed Charles 
C. Evans, Esq., of Berwick, as president 
judge, to serve until January, 1907. He was 
nominated by the Republican conventions of 
both counties to serve for a full term. In the 
Democratic party the candidates for the nomi- 
nation were John G. Harman and Grant 
Herring, both of Bloomsburg. The Montour 
county primaries were held first, resulting in 
a vote of 1,030 for Herring and 528 for 
Harman, giving the former twenty-three dele- 
gates in the convention, and the latter five. 
The following week the Columbia county pri- 
maries were held, when Harman received 
2,484 votes and Herring 1,912, thus giving 
the conferees to Harman. This resulted in 
a deadlock, and in September the case was 
carried to the Democratic State executive 
committee by Mr. Harman, after every effort 
to secure an agreement by the conferees had 
failed. The committee after several hear- 
ings decided that they had jurisdiction, and 
nominated Mr. Harman, to which Mr. Her- 
ring filed exceptions in the Dauphin county 
court, and after hearing the court decided that 
Harman's nomination was invalid, thus leav- 
ing the Democrats without a nominee. Both 
candidates filed nomination papers. This 
made a three-cornered fight, which resulted 
in the election of Judge Evans, the Repub- 
lican and Prohibition candidate, by a plural- 
ity of 241 votes in the district, Evans receiv- 
ing 4,474 votes, 3,325 in Columbia county and 
1,149 in Montour; Harman, 4,233, 3,578 in 
Columbia and 655 in Montour; Herring, 
2,936, 1,964 in Columbia and 972 in Montour. 

Thus for the first time in its history has 
the district had a Republican president judge 
elected for a full term. Judge Evans's term 
will expire in January, 1917. 

Judge Grant Herring, who served from 
August, 1898, to January, 1899, was a son of 
George A. Herring, and was born in Centre 
township, Columbia county. He graduated 

at the Bloomsburg Normal School in 1879, 
and at Lafayette College in 1883. He read 
law with E. R. Ikeler, Esq., and was admitted 
to the bar in February, 1885, entering into 
partnership with his preceptor at once, and 
so continuing until Mr. Ikeler's elevation to 
the bench. He served four years as collector 
of internal revenue of this district during 
President Cleveland's administration, and as 
State senator from 1890 to 1894. A man of 
strong personality, a brilliant speaker, and an 
able lawyer, he acquired a large clientele. In 
1907 he moved from Bloomsburg to Sunbury, 
and entered into a law partnership with Hon. 
S. P. Wolverton which continued for several 
years, when it was dissolved, and Judge Her- 
ring engaged in practice by himself. In 191 1 
his health began to fail, and in 1912 he went 
to Europe to visit his daughter, who was 
studying music in Berlin, and to seek medical 
assistance. While in Germany an attack of 
his old complaint resulted fatally, and at his 
own request he was buried there. His death 
occurred on Aug. 4, 1912, in Berchtesgaden, 

Judge Charles C. Evans was bom in 
Briarcreek township, Columbia county, Jan. 
10, 1858. He graduated at the State Normal 
School at Bloomsburg in 1877, ^"d ^t Lafay- 
ette College in 1881. He immediately entered 
the law office of Hon. Simon P. Wolverton, 
at Sunbury, and July 14, 1883, was admitted 
to the bar of Northumberland county. In 
August. 1883, he commenced the practice of 
law at Berwick, where he continued to prac- 
tice until his appointment to the bench. 

Judge Evans has made a good record on 
the bench. He is careful and conscientious, 
of even temperament, and his opinions show 
that he makes exhaustive research in arriving 
at legal conclusions. Like all judges, he has 
had some of his decisions reversed by the 
higher courts, but in this respect his record 
will compare favorably with most of the judges 
of the State. He has been called a number of 
times to hold court in Wilkes-Barre, Scranton, 
Philadelphia, and other places. 


The territory now embraced in Columbia 
county was formerly a part of Northumber- 
land county, and was included in the Eighth 
judicial district, composed of Northumber- 
land, Union and Luzerne. Later on it was 
placed in the Eleventh judicial district with 
Montour, Luzerne and Wyoming, and again 
with Sullivan and Wyoming in the Twenty- 



sixth. In 1872 Columbia and Montour be- 
came the Twenty-sixth district, and have so 
remained until the present (1914). 

Herewith we give a list of the president 
judges who have presided over the courts in 
this territory since 1813, with the dates of 
their appointment or election. The first court 
held in Bloomsburg, after the change of the 
county seat from Danville, was in January, 
1848, Judge Joseph B. Anthony presiding. 
Col. John G. Freeze, at the time of his death, 
July 8, 1913, the oldest member of the Co- 
lumbia county bar, personally knew all of 
these judges from Judge Anthony to the pres- 
ent incumbent. 

President Judges 

Seth Chapman, appointed July 11, 181 1, re- 
signed Oct. 10, 1833 ; Ellis Lewis, appointed 
Oct. 14, 1833, served until Jan. 14, 1843; 
Charles G. Donnel, appointed Jan. 14, 1843, 
died March 18, 1844; Joseph B. Anthony, ap- 
pointed in March, 1844, died Jan. 10, 1851 ; 
James Pollock, appointed Jan. 16, 1851, com- 
mission expired Nov. 5, 1851; John N. 
Conyngham, appointed Nov. 15, 1851, district 
changed; Warren J. Woodward, appointed 
May 19, 1856, resigned Dec. 10, 1861 ; Aaron 
K. Peckham, appointed Dec. 10, 1861, com- 
mission expired Nov. 3, 1862 ; William Elwell, 
elected Nov. 3, 1862, commission expired in 
January, 1873; re-elected Nov. 6, 1872, com- 
mission expired in January, 1883; re-elected 
Nov. 7, 1882, resigned July 31, 1888; Henry 
M. Hinckley, appointed Aug. i, 1888, com- 
mission expired ]an. i, 1889; E. R. Ikeler, 
elected Nov. 6, 1888, died Aug. i, 1898; Grant 
Herring, appointed Aug. 10, 1898, commission 
expired Jan. i, 1899; R. R. Little, elected Nov. 
8, 1898, died Feb. 26, 1906; Charles C. Evans, 
appointed March 30, 1906, commission ex- 
pired in January, 1907; elected Nov. 6, 1906, 
commission expires in January, 191 7. 

Associate Judges 

John Murray, appointed Oct. 11, 1813; 
William Montgomery, appointed Aug. 5, 1815; 
Leonard Rupert, appointed June 27, 1816; 
William Donaldson, appointed March 26, 
1840; George Mack, appointed March 27, 
1840; Samuel Oakes, appointed March 6, 
1845; Stephen Baldy, appointed March 11, 
1845; George H. Willits, appointed March 12, 
1850; John Covanhoven, appointed March 
12, 1850; Leonard B. Rupert, elected Nov. 10, 
185 1 ; George H. Willits, elected Nov. 10, 

1 851; Peter Kline, elected Nov. 12, 1856; 
Jacob Evans, elected Nov. 12, 1856; Stephen 
Baldy, appointed Jan. 12, 1861, elected Nov. 
23, 1861 ; John McReynolds, elected Nov. 23, 
1861 ; Peter K. Herbein, elected Nov. 8, 1866, 
died in office April i, 1869; Iram Derr, elected 
Nov. 8, 1866; James Kester, appointed April 
23, 1869 ; Charles F. Mann, elected Nov. 26, 
1869, died in office Jan. 24, 1870; Isaac S. 
Monroe, appointed Feb. i, 1870; Iram Derr, 
elected Nov. 17, 1871 ; George Scott, elected 
in November, 1875, died in office April 10, 
1876; Mayberry G. Hughes, appointed April 
26, 1876; Franklin L. Shuman, elected in 
November, 1876; Isaac K. Krickbaum, elected 
in November, 1876; Franklin L. Shuman, 
elected in November, 1S81 ; James Lake, 
elected in November, 1881 ; Charles G. Mur- 
phy, elected Nov. 2, 1886 ; James Lake, elected 
Nov. 2, 1886, died in office Jan. 4, 1887; Cyrus 
B. McHenry, appointed Jan. 8, 1887; elected 
in November, 1887, died in office Jan. 8, 1890 
Mordecai W. Jackson, appointed Feb. 3, 1890 
Charles G. Murphy, elected Nov. 3, 1891 
Mordecai Millard, elected Nov. 4, 1890, and 
Nov. 5, 1895; James T. Fox, elected Nov. 3, 
1896, and Nov. 5, 1901 ; J. U. Kurtz, elected 
Nov. 3, 1896; William Krickbaum, elected 
Nov. 4, 1902, and Nov. 5, 1907; E. C. Yeager, 
elected Nov. 6, 1906; Charles E. Houck, 
elected in November, 191 1; M. H. Rhoads, 
appointed in January, 1913, elected in Novem- 
ber, 1913. 

The Columbia County Bar Association was 
organized Dec. 3, 1878. Morrison E. Jackson, 
of Berwick, was the first president ; Col. J. G. 
Freeze, vice president ; George E. Elwell, sec- 
retary; and C. G. Barkley, treasurer. Mr. 
Jackson died in July, 1879, and Colonel Freeze 
was elected president, which position he held 
up to the time of his death in July, 1913, Mr. 
Elwell continuing as secretary up to that time. 
The present officers (1914) are: A. W. Duy, 
president ; C. C. Yetter, vice president ; H. 
Mont. Smith, secretary; H. R. Stees, treas- 

Members of the Bar * 

Robert C. Grier, 
William G. Hurley, 
James Pleasants, 
Samuel F. Headley, 
Morrison E. Jackson, 
LeGrand Bancroft, 
B. K. Rhodes, 
Charles R. Buckalew, 










* Names listed in order of admission. 



Robert F. Clark, 
Reuben W. Weaver, 
John G. Freeze, 
Robert S. Howell, 
Elisha C. Thompson, 
Franklin Stewart, 
Ephraim H. Little, 
Alexander J. Frick, 
Oliver C. Kahler, 
Wesley Wirt, 
Agib Ricketts, 
W. A. Peck, 
Charles G. Barkley, 
Samuel Knorr, 
Hervey H. Grotz, 
William H. Abbott, 
Chas. B. Brockway, 
Wellington H. Ent, 
M. M. Traugh, 
James K. Brugler, 
Peter S. Rishel, 
Michael Whitmoyer, 
M. M. LaVelle, 
Russel R. Pealer, 
Elijah R. Ikeler, 
Charles W. Miller, 
George S. Coleman, 
James B. Robison, 
J. H. James, 
M. E. Walker, 
O. B. Mellick, 
James Bryson, 
Milton Stiles, 
LeRoy Thompson, 
John M. Clark, 

B. Frank Zarr, 
A. C. Smith, 
Hervey E. Smith, 
John A. Opp, 
Warren J. Buckalew, 
George E. Elwell, 
Robert R. Little, 
Nevin U. Funk, 
William L. Eyerly, 
Charles B. Jackson, 
Frank P. Billmeyer, 
Levi E. Waller, 

T. J. Vanderslice, 
H. C. Bittenbender, 
W. H. Rhawn, 
William Brvson, 
Paul E. Wirt. 
Robert Buckingham, 
L. S. Wintersteen, 
Andrew L. Fritz. 
Andrew K. Oswald, 
Jacob H. Maize. 

C. C. Peacock, 
Hiester V. White. 
A. E. Chapin, 
John C. Yocum. 
David Leche, 

Guy Jacoby. 
William Chrisman. 
W. H. Snyder. 
William E. Smith, 
Grant Herring, 
A. N. Yost, 
C. E. Geyer, 
S. P. Hanley, 
Sterling W. Dickson, 














































Montclair, N.J. 



Lincoln. Nebr. 





New York, 

























not practicing. 








left the county. 




left the county. 

left the county. 

left the county. 


left the county. 








not practicing. 






not practicing. 








not practicing. 



not practicing. 

left the county. 












James M. Fritz, 
William Leverett, 

A. M. Freas. 
James A. Rohrbach, 
William D. Beckley, 
E. H. Guie, 

J. Simpson Kline, 
H. A. McKillip, 
Fred Ikeler, 
Thomas B. Hanley, 
James L. Evans, 
Charles H. Weaver, 
John R. Sharpless, 
R. Rush Zarr, 
Wilson A. Everet, 
John G. Harman, 
George M. Tustin, 
Charles H. Bates, 
Christian A. Small, 
Frank Ikeler, 
Edward J. Flynn, 
Ralph R. John, 
G. M. Quick, 
H. J. Patterson, 

B. F. McHenry, 

D. Sylvester Pensyl, 
Albert W. Duy, 
Clemuel R. Weiss, 
Harry M. Hamlin, 

C. J. Fisher. 
Wm. C. Johnston, 
Clyde C. Yetter. 
Clinton Herring, 
J. Alexis Guie, 
Harry R. Stees, 
Harry M. Persing. 
C. H. Marks, 

C. E. Kreisher. 
R. O. Brockway, 
J. G. Jayne, 
L. C. Mensch, 
Boyd F. Maize, 
H. Mont Smith. 
William E. Elmes. 
Alex. C. Jackson, 
Charles S. Kline, 
A. J. Robbins, 
Warren S. Sharpless, 
Neil Chrisman, 
John A. Moran, 
Conway W. Dickson. 
Clark Dickson. 
G. W. Moon, 






Seattle, Wash., 




New Y'k City. 



















Seattle, Wash., 



















not practicing. 

left the county. 

not practicing. 






left the county. 


not practicing. 

left the county. 



left the county. 


not practicing. 



left the county. 


left the .county. 

left the county. 


left the county. 

not practicing. 





not practicing. 







The most important criminal case which 
ever came up before the courts of Cohtmbia 
county was the trial of the "MolHe Maguires" 
in 1869. This case was the beginning of a 
series of incidents which became of almost 
national fame, and finally resulted in a second 
trial, in 1877, which closed the matter for all 

On Sunday, Oct. 18. 1868, the body of Alex- 
ander W. Rea, agent for the Locust Mountain 
Coal & Iron Company, of Centralia, was 
found in the bushes on the road from Cen- 



tralia to Mount Carmel, riddled with bullets. 
On Nov. 17, 1868, John Duffy, Michael Prior 
and Thomas Donohue were arrested for the 
murder, and lodged in the Pottsville jail. 
Later they were sent to Bloomsburg to await 
trial. Suspicion also fastened upon Patrick 
Hester, who had hastily decamped to Illinois, 
and he later on returned to Bloomsburg and 
surrendered. At the December session of 
court a bill was found against Donohue, Duffy 
and Prior, and at the February session, 1869, 
a similar bill was returned against Hester. 

The case was called by the district attorney 
on Feb. 2, 1869, Judge Elwell presiding, and 
separate trials granted the prisoners. The 
Commonwealth was represented by District 
Attorney E. R. Ikeler, Linn Bartholomew, 
Robert F. Clark, Edward H. Baldy and M. M. 
LaVelle. The prisoners were defended by 
John W. Ryon, John G. Freeze, Myer Strouse, 
S. P. Wolverton and W. A. Marr. 

The theory of the prosecution was that, 
Saturday being a general pay day in the coal 
regions, a party of assassins concealed them- 
selves at the point where the body was found 
in the hope of securing the large sum of 
money which Rea would carry. It was his 
custom, however, to pay off the men on Fri- 
day, a practice well known to all residents of 
the vicinity. This caused the prosecution to 
infer that the murder was committed by 
some persons unfamiliar with the locality. 

Donohue was tried and acquitted on Feb. 
II, 1869; on the nth of May the case against 
Hester was dismissed from lack of evidence, 
and on the same date Duffy was tried and 
acquitted. Prior also was tried and acquitted. 
Seven years then passed and no further clews 
to the murder were discovered. 

Made bold by the release of the accused 
miners, some laborers fn the hard coal regions 
developed an organization for purposes of in- 
timidation which soon absolutely controlled 
the community and caused a complete reign 
of terror over all of the southern part of 
Columbia county and a great part of Schuyl- 
kill and Carbon counties. 

A common method of intimidating the 
better class of coal miners was for a gang of 
ten or more toughs to sweep through the min- 
ing camps, forcing every man to join them, 
the gradually increasing numbers overawing 
any inclined to resist. On June 3, 1875, 0"^ 
thousand men stopped work at several mines 
near Mahanoy City, and a similar band did 
the same at Shenandoah. The same night a 
breaker at Mount Carmel was burned, and a 

few days later two contractors at the Oakdale 
mine were shot. 

Depredations became so common that every 
passenger train passing through the affected 
section had to be preceded by a locomotive 
carrying an armed posse. Watchmen and 
station agents were beaten, loaded cars put 
upon the main line, switches misplaced, ware- 
houses plundered, and bosses particularly 
hated by the malcontents were served with 
notices to leave, under pain of death. Such 
threats were almost invariably executed. 

The chief source of these atrocities was an 
organization formed by the lawless element 
and christened the "Mollie Maguires." They 
terrorized the entire coal region from 1865 to 
1875, had signs and passwords, and developed 
such strength that not a man could be hired 
unless he was approved by the society. 

In exposing and suppressing this society the 
president of the Philadelphia & Reading Coal 
& Iron Company, Franklin B. Gowen, em- 
ployed James McParlan, of the Pinkerton De- 
tective Agency. McParlan posed as a miner, 
joined the order, became one of the leaders, 
and finally brought most of them to justice. 
Nine of the "Mollies" were sentenced to death 
in Schuylkill county, two in Carbon, and some 
others were imprisoned for long terms. 

At this time there was a man named Daniel 
Kelly, an abandoned criminal, confined in the 
Schuylkill county jail on the charge of larceny. 
Suspicion having been directed against him as 
having some knowledge of the murder of 
Alexander W. Rea, he became frightened and 
offered to turn State's evidence if allowed to 
go free. Accordingly, on his testimony, Peter 
McHugh and Patrick Tully were arrested in 
the fall of 1876 as participants in the murder, 
and Patrick Hester was again arrested as ac- 
cessory before the fact. They were first 
lodged in the Pottsville jail, but later brought 
to Bloomsburg for trial. 

On Feb. 7, 1877, the trial began, Messrs. 
Hughes, Buckalew and District Attorney John 
M. Clark appearing for the Commonwealth, 
while Messrs. Ryon, Wolverton, Freeze, 
Brockway, Mahan and George E. Elwell ap- 
peared for the defense. All the accused 
pleaded "not guilty" and were arraigned to- 
gether. Daniel Kelly, pardoned by the gov- 
ernor, was made the chief witness against 
them. The trial lasted three weeks, when the 
jury brought in a verdict of guilty, and the 
prisoners were sentenced to hang. New trials 
were refused them and the governor and 
board of pardons would not interfere, so on 
Aug. 9, 1877, Tully, McHugh and Hester 



were executed upon a gallows at Bloomsburg, 
borrowed from the authorities of Carbon 
county. Two weeks before the execution 
Tully confessed to Attorney Elwell that he 
was guilty and corroborated the evidence of 
Kelly. Hester and McHugh did not confess 
their guilt in a public manner, although they 
had the ministrations of a priest on the morn- 
ing of their death. What they told the father 
confessor is not known, as the secrets of the 
confessional are kept inviolate by the Roman 
Catholic Church, but the priest saw Tully's 

confession and approved of its publication. 
The informer, Kelly, was subsequently 
made a witness in a similar trial at Wilkes- 
Barre, where he confessed to an appaUing 
series of crimes. His evidence was there 
given without stipulated immunity, but as his 
punishment would have prevented the bring- 
ing of others to justice through similar con- 
fessions of witnesses, he was allowed to go 
free. He left this section, and what subse- 
quently became of him is not known. 


(By Luther B. Kline, M. D., Catawissa, Pa.) 

The noble profession of medicine has had 
many representatives in the past who have left 
their impress upon the history of Columbia 
county. Doctors have always been the inti- 
mate counselors and true friends of the peo- 
ple, and in this county there are many who 
have a warm spot in their hearts when the 
family physician is discussed. To the pioneers 
of this section of Pennsylvania the old-time 
country doctor was one of the welcome visitors 
at their isolated homes. In those days the 
practice of medicine required good horseman- 
ship, rugged health and all the courage and 
endurance that the physician could command, 
for the roads were often mere muddy trails, 
the homes far apart, and the dangers of the 
forests and morasses were added to by the 
terrors of wild beasts and still more ferocious 

All of the earlier physicians were obliged to 
keep at least three good horses on hand at all 
times, for often when the doctor had ridden 
home from a twenty-mile trip he would have to 
retrace his tracks without sufficient time to 
make a change of garments. And besides the 
hardships of the constant and long rides, the 
old physicians were expected to wait for their 
pay for an indefinite time. In the days of lack 
of currency and trading there was some excuse 
for this, but at the present time the physician 
is still a waiter, and usually a good one. Most 
everyone gets his money before the doctor is 
paid, yet there is seldom a complaint from the 
long-sufifering medico. 

The first doctor who came to Columbia 
county is supposed to have been Dr. E. B. 

Bacon, who hailed from Connecticut, by way 
of Kingston. At that time his practice ex- 
tended from Catawissa to the headwaters of 
Fishing creek. He removed to Wellsboro in 
1817 and engaged in farming. 

Drs. Townsend and Krider were the next 
arrivals, and they located in Bloomsburg. The 
former remained but a short time, but the lat- 
ter practiced in the town until his death. 
About 1818 Dr. Roe came, and divided his time 
between healing and teaching school. He then 
removed up Fishing creek and went to farming. 

Dr. Ebenezer Daniels came to Catawissa 
about 1822, and was followed the next year 
by Dr. Harmon Gearhart, whom he highly 
recommended to the people of the town. Dr. 
Daniels sold his practice in 1834 to Dr. John 
Ramsay, and removed to Indianapolis. Dr. 
Gearhart died in 1833. 

Dr. Ramsay removed to Bloomsburg and 
took a leading part in the affairs of the town. 
He was especially active in the paths of educa- 
tion. He died suddenly in 1863. 

Dr. William Petrikin came to Bloomsburg in 
1834. He was a son of the famous Dr. David 
Petrikin, of Danville, and had all of his fa- 
ther's energy and brilliancy, but death carried 
him off in 1842. 

Dr. David N. Scott came to Bloomsburg in 
1842 and resided in the part of town nick- 
named "Scottown" from the fact that the 
Doctor laid it out into lots, and built the first 
house there. He removed to Kansas some 
years later. 

Dr. Thomas Vastine came to Bloomsburg in 
1833, but soon left for Williamsport. Later 



he located permanently in St. Louis. Dr. Ed- 
ward Hawkins also came to the town for a 
short time and then went to Michigan, after 
1848. Drs. George Hill and Thomas Butler 
were residents of Bloomsburg for a few years 
after 1846, the former going to Muncy. 

Dr. J. B. McKelvey came to Bloomsburg in 
1851. He had previously located at Mifflin- 
ville, in 1849, from there going to Graysville, 
Ky., and Arkadelphia, Ark. He continued to 
reside in Bloomsburg until his death. During 
1914, while some workmen were excavating in 
the alley beside his house on Main street, they 
uncovered some human bones, which had prob- 
ably been buried there after use in demonstra- 
tion work. For a few hours all sorts of rumors 
were current, until the true explanation was 
found. The Doctor had a wide circle of 
friends, and his death was a matter of regret 
to all. 

Mifflinville had few doctors at any period of 
its history. One of the first was Dr. F. C. 
Harrison, who located there in 1855. He 
afterwards went to Lewisburg and became a 
banker, a much more profitable occupation. 
After his departure Dr. Wells, of Wilkes- 
Barre, located there for a short time. 

In 1855 Dr. William H. Bradley came to 
Bloomsburg to practice, but soon after began to 
edit a weekly paper. In 1868 Dr. William M. 
Reber arrived in Bloomsburg. He had been a 
surgeon in the navy and was a man of much 

In 1874 Dr. Benjamin F. Gardner came to 
Bloomsburg from Tennessee. He had been a 
surgeon of high rank in the Confederate serv- 
ice, and his change of location proved a wise 
one. He found more opportunities and 
speedier payment for his services in the North 
than in the impoverished South. He is still 
living, and is much respected by all the towns- 

Dr. Hugh McReynolds, another of the older 
physicians, came to Bloomsburg from Buck- 
horn, where he had practiced for some years 
previous to 1872. 


This society had its origin in 1858. On 
July 31st of that year a number of physicians 
of Columbia and Montour counties formed an 
organization for mutual protection and inter- 
change of experiences. Dr. John Ramsay pre- 
sided. In the following month it was decided 
to become auxiliary to the State society, and 
to invite the members of the profession in 
Northumberland county to unite with them. 

The name was changed to Susquehanna Union 
Medical Society in 1859, but in 1864 it was 
changed to Columbia and Montour Medical 
Society. Still later the name was restored 
to its first form. 

By the act of June 18, 1881, all members of 
the profession were required to register with 
the State authorities. All who had been in 
practice from 187 1 were permitted to continue, 
even if not graduates of a medical school. 
Others must produce certificates of graduation 
to continue in the profession. 

The years following organization were in- 
teresting ones for the members of the society. 
Many papers were read at the meetings and 
much done to elevate the standards of the pro- 
fession. So pleasant were the relations be- 
tween the members from the two counties that 
no thought of separation was held until June 
16, 1874. Then the members from Montour 
county, having quietly nominated only Co- 
lumbia county men for all the offices and suc- 
ceeded in getting them elected, stated their 
intention of organizing the Montour County 
Medical Society. The separation took place 
without a particle of friction, and the two 
societies still interchange ideas and visits. 

At present the Columbia county society 
meets in rotation at Berwick, Bloomsburg and 
Catawissa the second Thursday of every 
month, except in July, when the meeting is 
held at Benton. A paper called "The Roster" 
is issued monthly, edited by Dr. Luther B. 
Kline, of Catawissa, and contains reviews of 
the past work, programs of the future, and 
articles of special interest to the members. It 
has a circulation of 125 copies. The meetings 
are well attended and are taken up with dis- 
cussions of matters of value to the medical 
profession. The society has forty-four active 
members and one honorary member. Dr. John 
C. Rutter. 

The officers and committees for 1914 are: 
President, Dr. Joseph Cohen, Berwick; first 
vice president, Dr. Benjamin F. Gardner, 
Bloomsburg; second vice president, Dr. John 
M. Gemmell, Millville ; secretary and treasurer, 
Dr. Luther B. Kline, Catawissa; librarians — 
Dr. John W. Bruner and Dr. James R. Mont- 
gomery, Bloomsburg. Censors — Dr. J. Elmer 
Shuman, Bloomsburg; Dr. John H. Bowman, 
Berwick ; Dr. Charles K. Albertson, Fairmount 
Springs. Committee on Public Policy and 
Legislation — Dr. B. Frank Sharpless, Cata- 
wissa; Dr. John W. Bruner, Bloomsburg; Dr. 
Charles T. Steck, Berwick. Scientific Pro- 
gram — Dr. J. Brooks Follmer, Berwick; Dr. 
William C. Hensyl, Berwick; Dr. Edwin A. 
Glenn, Berwick. 




Jefferson Medical College 
University of Pennsylvania 
University of Pennsylvania 
Pennsylvania Medical College 
Homeopathic Medical 
Jefferson Medical College 
Medical College of Virginia 
Jefferson Medical College 
Jefferson Medical College 
Bellevue Hospital Medical College 
Long Island Hospital 
University of Vermont 
Jefferson Medical College 
Hahnemann Medical College 
Jefferson Medical College 
University of Pennsylvania 

Philadelphia College 
Philadelphia University 
University of Pennsylvania 
Jefferson Medical College 
Eclectic Medical College 
Jefferson Medical College 
Jefferson Medical College 
Jefferson Medical College 
University of Pennsylvania 
Eclectic Medical College 
University of Pennsylvania 

Jefferson Medical College 
Jefferson Medical College 

Jefferson Medical College 
Jefferson Medical College 
Jefferson Medical College 
Pennsylvania Medical College 
Jefferson Medical College 
Hahnemann Medical College 

Jefferson Medical College 
University of Pennsylvania 
Jefferson Medical College 
Castleton Medical, Vermont 
Jefferson Medical College 
Jefferson Medical College 
University of Pennsylvania 
University of Pennsylvania 
University of Pennsylvania 
University of Pennsylvania 
Physicians and Surgeons, Baltimore 
Physicians and Surgeons, Baltimore 
Jefferson Medical College 
Hahnemann Medical College 
Jefferson Medical College 
University of Baltimore 
Jefferson Medical College 
Physicians and Surgeons, Baltimore 
University of Pennsylvania 
Jefferson Medical College 




♦John K. Robbins 


March lo, 


*J. B. McKelvey 


April 8, 


*H. W. McReynolds 


April 8, 


♦Jacob Schuyler 


March 7, 


John C. Rutter 


March 3, 


♦William M. Reber 


March 10, 


B. F. Gardner 


March 11, 


Isaiah W. Willits 


March 11, 


Luther B. Kline 


March 9, 


♦Thomas J. Swisher 


March 10, 


Alexander B. McCrea 


June I, 


♦George L. Reagan 




tF. W. Redeker 


March 12, 


Alfred P. Stoddard 


March 12, 


J. Jordan Brown 


March 12, 


♦Thomas C. McHenry 


March 30, 


tRalph M. Lashell 


♦D. H. Montgomery 


March 10, 


♦John B. Patton 


Feb. 23, 


♦Josiah Smith 


April I, 


J. R. Montgomery 


March 13, 


♦Abia P. Heller 


Feb. 22, 


♦Pius Zimmerman 


April 2, 


♦J. H. Vastine 




♦Charles C. Willits 


March 30, 


tjohn W. Carothers 


April 13, 


♦L. A. Shattuck 


May 6, 


Charles T. Steck 


March 28, 


♦John G. Schaller 


♦Samuel A. Gibson 


George L. Jolly 


March i, 


J. C. Wintersteen 


April 2, 


N. J. Hendershott 


Isaac L. Edwards 


March 11, 


Isaac E. Patterson 


March 12, 


♦William B. Robbins 


March 12, 


David E. Krebs 

Light Street 

March 3, 


♦Frank P. Hill 


March 14, 


tEverett W. Rutter 


March 6, 


J. R. Gordner 


B. F. Sharpless 


March 23, 


tChristian Leuker 


March 12, 


♦J.'R. M. Evans 


March 5, 


♦0. A. Megargell 


June 15, 


♦Louis J. Adams 


March 10, 


♦John C. Fruit 


March 7, 


Honora A. Robbins 


Ambrose Shuman 


June 7, 


John H. Bowman 


May I, 


Ralph E. Miller 


June 15, 


C. F. Altmiller 


May 25, 


Delbert M. Hess 


April 29, 


J. B. Follmer 


March 4, 


John S. Hoffa 


May 23, 


Allen V. Carl 


June 8, 


E. A. Alleman 




J. S. Lazarus 




Frank R. Clark 


April 7, 


Jesse W. Gordner 




George F. Drum 


April 14, 


♦Irving C. Breece 


Samuel B. Arment 


March 10, 


Howard S. Christian 


March 15, 


J. F. Pfahler 


J. Stacy John 




L R. Wolfe 


♦ Deceased. 

t Removed. 




tAndrew Graydon 
tGeorge A. Poust 
tRuth Tustin 
Clifton Z. Robbins 
tjohn Rhodes 
tThomas C. Kutter 
tj. K. Levan 
tReuben O. Davis 
*Montraville McHenry 
tCarl H. Senn 
tDavid A. Hart 
■(■Frederick E. Ward 
tjames C. Davis 
tWalter C. Shew 
*George H. Vastine 
John T. MacDonald 
Edward L. Davis 
John M. Gemmell 
Theodore C. iriarter 
Edwin A. Glenn 
Henry Bierman 
tjacob A. Baer 
Joseph Cohen 
George E. Follmer 
John VV. Bruner 
Wilham T. Vanee 
tH. V. Hower 
J. E. Shuman 
William C. Hensyl 
tJ. F. Gardner 
J. M. Vastine 

Jamison City 

The following physicians are residents of 
Columbia county, but are not members of the 
local society, being either retired or connected 

Lewis R. Davis Centralia 

Howard C. Fortner Centralia 

J. Bruce Hess Benton 

Charles B. Yost Bloomsburg 


Diploma Institution 

1902 Jefferson Medical College 

1900 University of Pennsylvania 
1906 University of New York 

1890 Jefferson Medical College 
1868 University of Vermont 

1901 Medico-Chirurgical 

igi3 Baltimore Medical College 

1906 Medico-Chirurgical 

1909 Jefferson Medical College 
1906 Jefferson Medical College 

1891 University of Pennsylvania 

1910 Medico-Chirurgical 

1899 University of Pennsylvania 
1906 Maryland Medical College 

1881 College of Physicians and Surgeons 

1904 Hahnemann Medical College 

1888 Hahnemann Medical College 

1901 College of Physicians and Surgeons 

1906 University of Pennsylvania 

1907 Jefferson Medical College 

1890 Jefferson Medical College 
1881 University of Maryland 

1887 College of Physicians and Surgeons 

1891 University of Pennsylvania 
1904 Jefferson Medical College 

1900 Medico-Chirurgical 

with other societies (Dr. Everett is a member 
of the Lycoming county society) : 

Edward Everett Millville 

Honora C. Grimes Bloomsburg 

George L. Jolly Orangeville 

Thomas Kealy Centralia 











































The border troubles kept the military spirit 
of the pioneers of Columbia and Montour 
counties alive until the second war with Eng- 
land. Then followed the Black Hawk war, 
the Seminole war, the Mexican war, and lastly 
the Civil war. In these conflicts the two coun- 
ties took part to the extent of furnishing men 
and munitions of war, principally during the 
Civil war. During the period between that 
memorable conflict and the Indian times sev- 
eral companies were organized in Danville, 
Bloomsburg and Berwick, mention of which 
is made in the chapters devoted to those 

During the war of 1812 the scene of hos- 
tilities was too far away to affect this sec- 
tion directly. When the British threatened to 
attack Baltimore, Governor Snyder ordered 
the militia of Northumberland, Luzerne and 
Columbia counties to rendezvous at Danville, 
under Major Post. For a few weeks they re- 
mained in camp, but the battle of New Orleans 
and the termination of the war caused the 
camp to be abandoned. 

The requirements of the militia system were 
at this time so simple that the military spirit 
of the county became quiescent until the out- 
break of the Mexican war caused its sudden 




This military company, belonging especially 
to Danville, but famous all over Columbia 
county by its service in two wars, was organ- 
ized at Danville in 1817. At the breaking out 
of the Mexican war it was under the com- 
mand of Capt. John S. Wilson, and its offer 
of assistance being accepted was mustered 
into the United States service Dec. 28, 1846. 

A number of citizens of the county escorted 
the Guards as far as Pittsburgh, on their way 
to the seat of war, and all along the journey 
they met with a continuous ovation. They 
were placed in the 2d Regiment, Pennsyl- 
vania Volunteers, then commanded by Colo- 
nel Wyncoop, and later under Colonel Geary, 
afterwards governor of Pennsylvania. 

Captain Wilson died at Vera Cruz on April 
10, 1847, and the command devolved upon 
Dr. C. H. Frick, who gallantly led the Guards 
during the campaign. Their first engagement 
was at the storming of \ era Cruz, and the 
second at Cerro Gordo, where they lost one 
man, John Smith. At the battle of Chapul- 
tepec they lost two men, William Dietrich 
and John Snyder. On approaching the City 
of Mexico, the defense of San Angelo, with 
all of the militarj' stores, was committed to 
the Guards, and on the 13th of September, 
1847, they were among the first to enter the 
City of Mexico in triumph. 

The Guards returned to Danville on July 
28, 1849, and the whole town turned out to 
welcome them. Hundreds of persons from 
all over the county thronged the streets, and 
such a demonstration as was then made has 
never been seen in Danville before or since. 

The Guards kept their organization until 
the opening of the Civil war, when they 
entered the service under Capt. Oscar Ephlin. 
On the expiration of their term they were 
honorably discharged, and the company then 

The following is the muster roll of the 
Guards soon after their organization (see 
Chapter IV, IMontour county, for list of those 
in Mexican war). 

John S. Wilson, captain ; Clarence H. Frick, 
first lieutenant: Edward E. LaClerc, second 
lieutenant; William Brindle, second heuten- 
ant; George S. Kline, first sergeant; James D. 
Slater, second sergeant; Robert Clark, third 
sergeant; Charles Evans, fourth sergeant; 
John Adams, first corporal ; James Oliver, sec- 
ond corporal; John Smith, third corporal; 
Arthur Gearhart, fourth corporal ; Thomas 
Clark, drummer; Jesse G. Clark, fifer. 

The private soldiers were : Charles W. 
Adams, Alvin M. Allen, Jacob App, George 
W. Armstrong, Frederick Brandt, Samuel 
Bums, Flam B. Bonham, William Banghart, 
John Birkenbine, Samuel D. Baker, Francis 
Bower, Francis B. Best, William Brunner, 
William H. Birchfield, Randolph Ball, Peter 
Brobst, Abram B. Carley, Michael Corrigan, 
Wm. Dieterich (Dietrich), Wm. Erie, Daniel 
S. Follmer, Charles W. Fortner, Robert H. 
Forster, Sewell Gibbs, Edward Grove, George 
Garner, Thomas Graham, Shepherd W. Girton, 
Samuel Huntingdon, Adam Heisler, Henry 
Hemcastle, Oliver Helme, William S. Kertz, 
William King, Jerome Konkle, Charles Lytle, 
Ira Lownsberry, Robert Lyon, John A. Low- 
ery, Benjamin Laform, Benjamin J. Martin, 
Jasper Musselman, Edward McGonnel, George 
?^Iiller, William Moser, Archibald Mooney, 
Mahlon K. Manly, John G. Mellon, Alex. 
McDonald, Daniel Martial, Richard H. Mc- 
Kean, Charles Moynthan, Robert McAlmont, 
Hugh AIcFadden, James AlcClelland, Nor- 
man B. Mack, William McDonald, Casper 
Oatenwelder, Daniel Poorman, Peter S. Reed, 
Philip Rake, James A. Stewart, Peter M. 
Space, Jona R. Sanders, Oliver C. Stevens, 
Daniel Snyder, Edward Seler, Peter Seig- 
fried, John C. Snyder, John N. Scofield. Wil- 
liam Swartz, Joseph Stratton, William W. 
Sawaney, John A. Sarvey, Benjamin Tumble- 
ton, Adam Wray, William White, George 
Wagner, Jacob Willet, Jerome Walker, George 
Wingar, Peter W. Yamell. 


Abraham Lincoln was inaugurated Presi- 
dent of the United States Alarch 4, 1861. Fort 
Sumter was fired on April 12th, and on the 
15th of that month the President called on 
the loyal States for 75,000 men. Calls and 
orders were subsequently issued, under dates 
of May 3d, July 22d and July 25th, for an 
aggregate of 500,000 men. On the 2d of 
July, 1862, there was another call for 500,- 
000 men. and on the 4th of August one for 

On Sept. 5, 1862, the Confederates invaded 
Maryland, and a levy en masse was called in 
Pennsylvania. On Sept. 15th a large number 
of "emergency men" left Bloomsburg, and on 
the 17th the battle of Antietam was fought. 
On the 1 8th the Confederates evacuated 
Sharpsburg and recrossed the Potomac, and 
on the 22d more "emergency men" left 

On June 15, 1863, a proclamation was made 



for the militia. On Oct. 15th there was a 
call for 300,000 men, and on Feb. i, 1864, the 
President ordered a draft for 500,000 to be 
made on the loth of March. On the 14th 
there was a call for 200,000 more, on the 
1 8th of July one for 500,000, and on the igth 
of December one for 300,000. Besides these 
there were a lot of "ninety-day militia" and 
other irregular musters. These various calls 
were filled by enlistments, volunteering and 

There were four drafts made in Columbia 
and Montour counties — one by the State 
authorities for the militia; one Sept. 17, 1863, 
to fill previous calls; one on June 3, 1864; and 
one on April 14, 1865. Lee having surrendered 
April 9th, the men liable for service under the 
last were released. The last battle of the war 
was fought May 12, 1865, and the surrender 
of the last of the Confederates, under Kirby 
Smith, occurred on May 26th of the same 

During the war there were for Pennsyl- 
vania two great emergencies, the first in Sep- 
tember, 1862, relieved by McClellan's victory 
at Antietam. At that time Governor Curtin 
called for 50,000 men, and Columbia county 
responded by sending four companies, and 
Montour sent two. The second emergency 
was in June, 1863, when the President called 
for 100,000 men. Of the number required, 
Columbia county sent five companies, and 
Montour two. 

The first company in Columbia county to en- 
list for the Civil war was the "Iron Guards," 
under Col. W. W. Ricketts, from Orangeville, 
and the first man to enlist from the county 
was C. B. Brockway. Ricketts was a West 
Point cadet, and he soon had his company 
completed. He ofl:'ered it to the government, 
but was rejected. Not daunted, the members 
chartered canalboats and went to Harrisburg, 
where they were finally accepted. 


At the beginning of the Civil war the mi- 
litia of Pennsylvania existed practically only 
on paper. There was a form of military 
organization, and a tax was levied on each 
voter liable to duty save those in volunteer 
companies, but there were few companies in 
a complete state of organization. 

In 1862 an enrollment was ordered, and 
the number subject to military duty in Colum- 
bia county was found to be 4,587 ; the quota, 
under all calls, was 1,447 ; the number in serv- 
ice, 626; leaving a balance of 821 men to be 

supplied by draft or otherwise. The draft 
was ordered by the State to fill the ranks. 
The townships of Catawissa and Pine, and 
the borough of Berwick, filled their quota 
with volunteers, but in the other divisions of 
the county a total of 696 men were drawn. 
Bloom supplied 45; Briarcreek, 49; Beaver, 
40; Benton, 27; Conyngham, 60; Centre, 54; 
Fishingcreek, 50 ; Franklin, 5 ; Greenwood, 45 ; 
Hemlock, 25; Jackson, 19; Locust, 40; Mon- 
tour, 24; Main, 18; Mount Pleasant, 27; Mif- 
flin, 46; Madison, 48; Orange, 9; Scott, 36; 
Sugarloaf, 29. 

No opposition was manifested to this draft, 
in fact it had the effect of stimulating enlist- 
ments in the national service. The later drafts 
on the part of the national government, how- 
ever, were not received with equal unconcern. 
The first was drawn at Troy, Pa., Sept. 17, 
1863, and called for 634 men from Columbia 
county. There was considerable opposition, 
particularly in Fishingcreek, Benton, Sugar- 
loaf, Jackson and Pine townships, and the 
neighboring portions of Luzerne and Sullivan 
counties. A series of semi-public meetings 
was held in the disafifected sections for the 
purpose of discussing the situation, at which 
the usual windy oratory prevailed, but no 
definite plans were made to meet the ques- 
tion at hand. Some advocated resistance to 
the draft, others suggested the hiring of sub- 
stitutes, but all finally acted on their own sug- 
gestions, individually. There were a number 
who refused to report for duty, and, as is cus- 
tomary in wartime, they were declared to be 
deserters by the military authorities. This 
angered the people greatly and many wild 
threats were made by individuals, who after- 
wards regretted their sudden ebullition of tem- 
per. The culmination of the trouble came 
when, in August, 1864, Lieutenant Robinson 
of Luzerne county was shot and fatally 
wounded by a party of citizens whom he had 
challenged on the road near Raven Creek 
post office. It has since been established that 
Robinson had no official authority to appre- 
hend deserters. 

In the same month a detachment of United 
States troops arrived in Bloomsburg and 
camped at the Fair Grounds, ostensibly for 
the purpose of enforcing the draft. This 
force was increased later until it included 
almost a thousand men, a company under Colo- 
nel Lambert, part of the Keystone Battery 
from Philadelphia, under Lieutenant Roberts, 
a battalion of infantry under Lieutenant Colo- 
nel Stewart, and a battalion of the Veteran 
Reser^-e Corps. On Aug. i6th Major Gen- 



eral Couch, commanding the Department of 
the Susquehanna, arrived and conferred with 
leading citizens. He was assured of the non- 
resistant character of the inhabitants of the 
affected townships, so he offered to remit the 
charge of desertion if the drafted men would 
report themselves before noon of the follow- 
ing Saturday. He returned to Harrisburg be- 
fore the time set, and the recalcitrants not hav- 
ing reported Colonel Stewart proceeded with 
a body of troops to Benton on Aug. iSth. On 
the 28th Major General Cadwallader arrived 
in Bloomsburg from Philadelphia, assumed 
command, and followed the first troop to Ben- 
ton. On the 31st about a hundred arrests 
were made and the prisoners brought to Ben- 
ton, where a preliminary examination was 
made. Of the number, forty-four were dis- 
patched under guard to Harrisburg. The sur- 
rounding country was explored for alleged 
"forts" and other evidences of resistance, but 
none was found. General Cadwallader re- 
turned to Philadelphia and the larger number 
of the troops were withdrawn, but some re- 
mained and arrests were made from time to 
time. The aggrieved parties and their friends 
took legal steps to release the prisoners and 
to test the legality of the arrests. On Oct. 17, 
1864, twenty-one of the prisoners were granted 
conditional release. Of these five had been 
previously discharged owing to illness and one 
had died in prison. On the same date the 
trials of the remaining twenty-three were be- 
gun before a military commission at Harris- 
burg. Seven were convicted and sentenced 
to terms ranging from six months to two 
years. One prisoner paid a fine of $500, one 
was pardoned by President Lincoln and five 
by President Johnson, several were acquitted, 
and the charge against the rest was later with- 

Among the citizens of Columbia county even 
at this late day there are conflicting opinions 
regarding these troubles, their origin and the 
results of the trials. One side claims that 
there was an organized and armed opposition 
to the drafts, that threats were made against 
the authorities, that peaceable citizens were 
threatened by violent sympathizers, and that 
the military occupation was necessary to re- 
store order and safety. The other side claims 
that dishonest enrollment was made, that there 
was no organized resistance, that no threats 
were made, military interference was unnec- 
essary, that the soldiers were guilty of many 
outrages, that many innocent men were im- 
prisoned without warrant of law, and that the 

main object was to intimidate Democratic 
voters in the presidential election of 1864. 

These are matters that will in time work 
out to a definite series of facts of history, and 
the trouble will be looked upon with the same 
lenience with which the old veterans of the 
Civil war now view the deplorable conflict in 
which they participated. 


Notwithstanding the draft troubles, Colum- 
bia county was well represented at the front 
of battle in the war. One of the first com- 
panies to see service was the "Iron Guards," 
mentioned previously. As members of the 
35th Regiment, 6th Reserves, they were mus- 
tered in July 27, 1861, participated in many 
battles and skirmishes all through the war, 
and were finally mustered out June 11, 1864, 
at Harrisburg. 

The 178th Regiment, drafted militia, was re- 
cruited in Columbia, Montour, Lancaster and 
Luzerne counties. Companies A, H and I 
were from Columbia county, and F and G 
mostly from Montour county. They were 
mustered in Oct. 30, 1862, and mustered out 
July 27, 1863, at Harrisburg. They were in 
several skirmishes, but no important actions. 

Company H, i ith Regiment, was from Mon- 
tour county and served for three months, be- 
ing in the engagement at Falling Waters, Md., 
against the redoubtable "Stonewall" Jack- 

Company C, 14th Regiment, was also from 
Montour county, but did not see much service, 
being on guard duty near Washington. On 
the termination of the three months' service 
many reenlisted in other regiments. 

Company C, i6th Regiment, from Berwick, 
was mustered in April 30, 1861, for three 
months' service, and saw much fighting in 
Virginia. Many of the company re-enlisted 
after their first term ended. 

Company C, 193d Regiment, was from Mon- 
tour county, was mustered in July 17, 1864, 
and mustered out Nov. 5, 1864. They served 
as guards along the Baltimore & Ohio railroad 
and on scout duty, but were never in any bat- 
tles or skirmishes. 

Company A, I32d Regiment, from Montour 
county, was mustered in Aug. 15, 1862. It 
had a first-class war record, being in the bat- 
tles of South Mountain, Antietam, Fredericks- 
burg and Chancellorsville, and was mustered 
out May 24, 1863. Clinton W. Neal, of 
Bloomsburg, was quartermaster of the regi- 
ment. Company E of this regiment was com- 



posed of the "Columbia Guards," recruited in 
Bloomsburg. Company H, mustered in at 
the same date, was the "Catawissa Guards," 
recruited entirely from that town. 

Company I, 136th Regiment, was from Co- 
lumbia county and first formed part of the 
defense of Washington. Later it went through 
a number of engagements, the regiment at the 
battle of Fredericksburg losing 140 men. It 
was mustered out May 29, 1863, at Harris- 

Company A, 74th Regiment, was recruited 
mostly in Columbia county, for one year's 
service, in March, 1865, did guard duty along 
the Baltimore & Ohio railroad, and was mus- 
tered out at Clarksburg, Va., Aug. 29, 1865. 

Company B, 103d Regiment, coming mostly 
from Bloomsburg, was mustered into service 
in the early part of 1865, and mustered out at 
Newbem, N. C, June 25, 1865, after a few 
skirmishes and lots of guard duty. 

Company E, 209th Regiment, was recruited 
in Columbia county in 1864 and sent to the 
front at once, but saw little fighting except at 
Forts Steadman and Sedgwick, which latter 
they captured. After railroad work and scout- 
ing they were mustered out May 31, 1865, at 
Alexandria, Virginia. 

Company E, 35th Regiment, 6th Reserves, 
was recruited in Montour county. May 14, 
1861, and saw service at South Mountain, 
Fredericksburg, Gettysburg and Spottsylvania 
Court House. They were mustered out June 
II, 1864, with an unstained military record. 

Battery F, ist Artillery, 43d Regiment, was 
recruited in Columbia and Montour counties 
in 1 86 1 and participated in the engagements 
at Winchester, Bull Run, Chantilly, Antietam, 
Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, 
Bristoe Station, Mine Run, Wilderness, Spott- 
sylvania, Cold Harbor and Petersburg. It 
remained in service till the close of the war. 

Company G, 52d Regiment, was recruited 
in Columbia county in 1861, being among the 
first in the field and the last out. They saw 
service in the advance on Richmond, in the 
battles of Fair Oaks and Mechanicsville, the 
assault on Port Royal, S. C, the attacks on 
Forts Johnson and Sumter, and were at Ral- 
eigh when Johnston surrendered. They were 
mustered out at Harrisburg July 12, 1865. 

Company D, 84th Regiment, also known as 
the "Hurley Guards," was recruited in Co- 
lumbia and Montour counties, a few men be- 
ing later received from other points. They 
reached Hancock, Md., Jan. 2, 1862, and were 
in the battles of Winchester and Port Re- 
public. They were also in the battles of Fred- 

ericksburg and Chancellorsville, and the cam- 
paign in the Wilderness, down to Petersburg. 
In 1862 they were mustered out, but many of 
them entered the 57th Regiment, Pennsylvania 
Volunteers, serving until June 29, 1865. Sam- 
uel M. Bowman of Columbia county was colo- 
nel of the 84th Regiment. 

Company H, 93d Regiment, was composed 
of the "Baldy Guards," recruited in Dan- 
ville and named from one of the town's prom- 
inent citizens. It saw much and arduous serv- 
ice, many of its members being killed and 
wounded. They were in the following en- 
gagements : Yorktown, Williamsburg, Fair 
Oaks, Malvern Hill, Fredericksburg, Marye's 
Heights, Salem Heights, Gettysburg, Wilder- 
ness, Spottsylvania, Cold Harbor, Petersburg, 
Opequan, Fisher's Hill and Cedar Creek. On 
Jan. 25, 1865, they were mustered out. Col. 
Charles W. Eckman, of Montour county, rose 
to the command of the regiment. 

Company B, 184th Regiment, was recruited 
in Montour county and joined the Army of the 
Potomac as it crossed the Pamunky river. May 
28, 1864. The next day they were in the bat- 
tle of Tolopotomy creek. At the battle of 
Cold Harbor they lost heavily, and in constant 
service in the assaults lost 350 men in twenty- 
six days. They were continuously in battles 
and skirmishes until the surrender at Appo- 
mattox Court House, and then participated in 
the grand review at Washington. 

Company C, 187th Regiment, was formerly 
Company D, 1st Battalion, organized for six 
months' service and mustered out Jan. 9, 1864. 
Upon reenlistment they went to Cold Harbor, 
arriving there during the battle. Later they 
were in all the heavy fighting before Peters- 
burg. They headed the procession^ at the 
burial of Lincoln, and were mustered out Aug. 
2, 1865, at Harrisburg. 

Battery F, 2d Artillery, 112th Regiment, 
was recruited in Columbia and Montour coun- 
ties. They garrisoned Washington for some 
time and" then participated in the battles of 
the Wilderness, Cold Harbor and Petersburg, 
losing heavily at the famous mine explosion. 
At Fort Harrison they lost 200 killed and 
wounded. They remained in Virginia after 
the evacuation of Petersburg until the end of 
the war, being discharged at Philadelphia. 

Company A, 52d Regiment, Pennsylvania 
Volunteers, contained many Columbia county 
men. It was in the Peninsular campaign, the 
movement against Richmond, the taking of 
Charleston, and its flag was the first that 
floated over recaptured Fort Sumter. A num- 



ber of Columbia county men were also in Com- 
pany H of this regiment. 

The 7th Cavalry, 80th Regiment, contained 
a number of men from both of these counties, 
to be found on the rolls of Companies D and 
H. They saw long and severe service under 
Buell in Kentucky and Tennessee, being dis- 
charged Aug. 23, 1865. 


With the world at war in 1914, it is inter- 
esting to read the report of the assessors of 
that year to the adjutant general at Harris- 
burg, showing the number of men in this 
county, between the ages of twenty-one and 
forty-five, subject to military duty. The total 
is 4,572, and in addition there are many who 
would volunteer in case of war, thus making 
a very respectable showing. The number by 
districts is as follows : 

Beaver 81 

Benton Borough 82 

Benton Township 82 

Berwick 525 

Bloomsburg, East 375 

Bloomsburg, West 354 

Briarcreek 1 56 

Catawissa Township 56 

Catawissa Borough 225 

Centraha, ist 167 

Centralia, 2d 180 

Centre 143 

Cleveland 73 

Conyngham 210 

Fishingcreek 60 

Franklin 62 

Greenwood 136 

Hemlock 144 

Jackson 53 

Locust 90 

Madison 123 

Main 80 

Mifflin 120 

Millville 59 

Montour 79 

Mount Pleasant 26 

Orange Township 52 

OrangeviUe Borough 23 

Pine 74 

Roaringcreek 57 

Scott 45 

Sugarloaf 102 

Stillwater Borough 8 

West Berwick, ist 146 

West Berwick, 2d 325 



The three original counties laid out by the 
immortal founder of Pennsylvania were Bucks, 
Philadelphia and Chester. Though the Prov- 
ince was divided in 1682 into the three men- 
tioned counties, their boundaries were not 
distinctly ascertained until several years there- 

In 1729 the extension of the settlements and 
the purchases from the Indians led to the estab- 
lishment of Lancaster county. At that time 
the Susquehanna marked the western limit of 
the Province, but the purchase of 1736 opened 
a triangular area west of the river, which was 
attached to Lancaster county until the increase 
of settlements demanded the erection in 1749 
of York county, and in the following year of 
Cumberland. The Indian boundary line of 
the Kittatinny range marked the northern lim- 
it of these counties. In 1752 the counties of 
Berks and Northampton further divided this 

In 1771 Bedford county was erected, and 
in 1772 the county of Northumberland, from 
the territory of which Columbia and Montour 
counties have since been formed, came into 

being. It included an area now covered by 
twenty-six counties and originally extended to 
the border line of New York. It was organ- 
ized March 27, 1772, and took in all the valley 
of the West Branch of the Susquehanna, and, 
with a small exception, the whole of the north- 
ern part of the State. It contained 28,922 
square miles, a territory larger than Connecti- 
cut, Delaware, Massachusetts and New Jersey 

At the first court held in that county, on 
April 9, 1772, the county was divided into the 
townships of Penn, Augusta, Turbut, Buffalo, 
Bald Eagle, Muncy and Wyoming. Columbia 
and several other counties were included with- 
in the three townships of Augusta, Turbut and 
Wyoming, the other four townships being cut 
off from Northumberland in 1786 and included 
in Luzerne county. 

The territory of Northumberland was again 
curtailed in 1789 by the formation of Mifflin 
county; by Lycoming in 1795 ; Center in 1800; 
Union and Columbia in 1813 ; and Montour in 
1850. The townships also were gradually cut 
up. Turbut township was bereft of territory 



in 1775 to form Mahoning, and in 1786 another 
portion was removed to torm Derry township. 
The same year Chillisquaque was formed from 
Mahoning. In 1785 "Catawassa" was formed 
from Augusta, the name of that township grad- 
ually being changed in spelling to "Catawese," 
"Catawessa," and finally remaining as "Cata- 
wissa." This latter township was again re- 
duced by the erection of Ralpho or Shamokin 
township in 1788, and by Mifiiin township in 


In 1786 the county of Luzerne took away 
part of Wyoming township and the remainder 
was named Fishingcreek. In 1797 this area 
was again abbreviated by the formation of 
Green Briarcreek township, and the following 
year the township of Bloom was erected. In 
1799 Greenwood was formed from Fishing- 
creek, and in 1812 Harrison or Sugarloaf was 
formed from the latter. 

Columbia county was taken from North- 
umberland and separately organized in 1813, 
by an act of Assembly of March 226, and in- 
cluded the townships of Chillisquaque and 
Turbut. Danville was named in the report of 
the commissioners appointed by the governor 
to lay out the county and select a county seat. 
In 181 5 the two townships of Chillisquaque 
and Turbott (or Turbut, as it is now spelled) 
were returned to Northumberland. This 
prompt return of the townships after the loca- 
tion of the county seat was construed by many 
to be a trick to give Danville preference over 
Bloomsburg, and for years thereafter a con- 
tinual controversy raged between the rival 
towns as to the location of the courthouse. 

In 1816 the Assembly restored a portion of 
the two townships to Columbia county, the 
parts annexed being now Liberty and Lime- 
stone townships in Montour county. Again 
in 1818 another legislative act cut off a large 
part of the eastern side of Columbia and gave 
it to Schuylkill county. This dismemberment 
of the county did not satisfy any of the rival 
claimants for the county seat. Repeated ap- 
plications were made to the Legislature to re- 
move the seat of government to Bloomsburg, 
and finally in 1845 the act was passed to author- 
ize a vote on the question. The result was a 
decisive one, the majority for removal being 
1,334 out of a total of 4,492 votes. The 
county buildings being completed, the records 
were removed from Danville in November, 
1847. 'ind the first session of court was held 
in Bloomsburg in January, 1848. 

But the location of the county seat at 
Bloomsburg created another complaint from 
those who now had to travel a great distance 

to reach the courts and officials, and the case 
was as bad as before, except that now Danville 
was the sufferer. So by an act approved May 
3, 1850, the county of Montour was created, 
including the townships of Franklin, Mahon- 
ing, Valley, Liberty, Limestone, Derry, An- 
thony, and the borough of Danville. 

The wrangling was not over, however, and 
complaints were made that too much territory 
had been taken from Columbia, so finally in 
1853 the division line between the two counties 
was established as it is at present. By the 
same act, what was Madison township in 
Columbia county was renamed Pine, and the 
parts of Madison township which had been 
set off to Mount Pleasant and Hemlock were 
reannexed to the old territory in Columbia 

The division line as named in the act was as 
follows : Beginning at the Northumberland 
county line, at or near the house of Samuel 
Reader, thence a direct course to the center 
of Roaring creek in Franklin township, twenty 
rods above a point in said creek opposite the 
house of John Vought, thence from the middle 
of said creek to the Susquehanna river, thence 
up the center of the same to a point opposite 
where the present county line of Columbia and 
Montour strikes the north bank of the river, 
thence to the said north bank, thence to the 
schoolhouse near the residence of David Smith, 
thence to a point near the residence of Daniel 
Smith, thence to the bridge over Deerlick run 
on the line between Derry and Madison town- 
ships, thence by the line between said town- 
ship of Madison and the townships of Derry 
and Anthonv to the line of Lycoming county. 

The township of Roaringcreek and parts of 
the townships of Franklin, Madison and West 
Hemlock were also taken from Montour and 
reannexed to Columbia. As at present consti- 
tuted, Columbia countv contains an area of a 
little over 400 square miles, and a population of 
48,467 persons. 

The division line of 1850 so dismembered 
the townships of Madison, Hemlock and Mon- 
tour that some readjustment of the lines be- 
came necessarv, so in 1852 what remained of 
Madison south of Millville was attached in 
part to Mount Pleasant and part to Hemlock, 
the old name adhering to that portion which 
extended alonsf the coimty line northwest of 
Greenwood. By the act of 1853 the latter was 
renamed Pine, and the restored portion, with 
those attached to Hemlock and Mount Pleas- 
ant, formed into a township under the old 

The division effected in the township of 



Roaringcreek by the act of 1850 was subse- 
quently made permanent, the restored portion 
being named Scott. This was found to con- 
flict with a township north of the river, then 
under the advisement of the court, and a 
month later the name of the southern township 
was changed to Locust. Scott township was 
formed the same year at the same session of 
court, from the township of Bloom, which 
had become too unwieldy for the election 

A petition was laid before the court in 1855 
stating that the township of Locust was from 
twelve to fourteen miles long and from eight 

to ten miles wide, and that the southern end 
was chiefly a mining district, while the north- 
ern end was devoted to farming, and asking 
for the formation of a new township from 
part of it. The commissioners reported 
favorably, the court confirmed the report, and 
the new township was named Conyngham, 
after the judge of that date. 

Finally, to complete the division of Colum- 
bia county, the township of Cleveland was 
formed from Locust in 1893, and named after 
the president who had just been elected on 
the Democratic ticket. 



The year 1850 fixed the date of the new 
dispensation for Columbia county and the 
birth of Montour county. At that date the 
population of Columbia was 17,700. From 
then until the present year of 1914 Columbia 
county has steadily gained in population and 
prosperity. Although the townships and some 
of the smaller towns have lost somewhat, this 
is only due to the modern tendency to concen- 
trate in the places of greatest size and attrac- 
tions. However, it is believed that the coming 
years will show another exodus to the land 
and give to this county the agricultural stimu- 
lus which is all that is needed to make it an 
earthly Eden. 

The population of Columbia in i860, accord- 
ing to government census figures, was 25,065 ; 
in 1870 it was 28.766; 1880, 32,439; 1890, 
36,832 ; 1900, 39.896 : 1910, 48,467. The total 
area of the county is a little over four hundred 
square miles. 


The first courthouse, which was used dur- 
ing the time that this county also included 
the territory of Montour county, is described 
in the annals of the latter county in another 
part of this volume, as its history has always 
been a part of the history of Danville and it 
was later again used for the business of the 
new county of Montour. 

One of the arguments of the opponents of 
the removal of the county seat from Danville 
to Bloomsburg was that the cost of the erec- 
tion of the necessary public buildings would be 

a severe burden upon the Bloomsburg people. 
The act removing the county seat provided 
that within three years thereafter the citizens 
of Bloomsburg should erect at their own ex- 
pense suitable buildings of brick or stone of 
the most approved plans, and that the old pub- 
lic grounds and buildings at Danville should 
be disposed of, to pay the original subscribers 
thereto, the surplus, if any, to revert to the 
county treasury. 

The Bloomsburg people met all these argu- 
ments with the offer to donate the ground and 
erect the buildings at their own expense, and 
in carrying out these engagements they acted 
in no niggardly spirit. William McKelvey 
and Daniel Snyder were the prime movers in 
this matter, and as soon as the question of re- 
moval was settled entered actively upon the 
work of erecting the courthouse and jail. 
Elisha H. Biggs, who had made a liberal sub- 
scription to the fund for erection, bought the 
lot opposite the "Exchange Hotel," which he 
at that time owned, and offered this as the site 
of the courthouse. William Robison, who 
owned the lot on the upper side, also donated 
sufficient land, so that after the alleys on each 
side were laid out the building site contained 
about ninety feet front. Mr. Snyder con- 
tributed two lots fronting on Center street, and 
extending back to the upper line of the court- 
house lot, for a jail site, which was accepted. 
At this time the Presbyterian Church was plan- 
ning for a new house of worship, and Rev. 
D. J. Waller, Sr., went to Philadelphia to 
secure approved plans for the two structures. 
These plans were drawn by Napoleon Le Brun, 

Old Courthouse, Bloomsburg, Pa. 

Columbia County Courthouse, Bloomsburg, Pa. 






and were scrupulously followed by the con- 

The new courthouse was constructed of 
brick, burned by Daniel Snyder himself, and 
was of the pure Ionic order of architecture. 
It was 40 by 60 feet in size, with the county 
offices below and the court and jury rooms 
above. The cupola was fitted with a bell and 
clock, the former put up in 1848, at a cost of 
$400, and the latter provided by private sub- 
scription. In 1868 the courthouse was ex- 
tended by the addition of a 25-foot building, 
the upper story for the law library and the 
use of the judges and juries, and the lower 
for the court records. The roof was also 
raised at this time, which destroyed the true 
architectural proportions. In 1882 a new clock 
was installed in the cupola, and a year later 
steam heating was introduced into the build- 

At the September session of court, 1890, a 
petition, signed by a large number of taxpayers, 
was presented, asking for some changes and 
improvements to the courthouse. This was 
referred to the grand jury, who recommended 
that an addition be built to the front of the 
old building. In accordance with this the 
county commissioners inspected plans sub- 
mitted by architects, adopting those of A. S. 
Wagner, of Williamsport. Bids were invited, 
and the contract awarded on Nov. 19, 1890, 
to Matthias Shaffer, for $21,600, that being 
the lowest responsible bid. There was some 
opposition to the expenditure of this money, 
as there always is to public improvements, and 
a move was made to procure an injunction to 
prevent Shaffer from beginning the job, but 
before this could be done he was at work with 
his men early in the morning, and had the stone 
steps and part of the porch at the front of the 
building torn away. There was no injunction 
asked for. While the work was in progress 
Mr. Shaffer died, and the contract was com- 
pleted by his son. Barton Shaffer, as adpiin- 
istrator. The work was finished, and ac- 
cepted by the county commissioners on Feb. 
29, 1892. 

The board of commissioners at the time the 
contract was made was composed of William 
G. Girton, Jesse Rittenhouse, and Ezra 
Stephens, with J. D. Bodine as clerk. In 
January, 1892, a new board went in office, 
consisting of Jesse Rittenhouse, B. F. Edgar 
and C. L. Sands. C. M. Terwilliger was 
elected clerk. 

This addition to the courthouse is 70 feet 
on Main street and 40 feet deep to where it 
joins on the old building, and is three stories 

high, with a large square tower and a portico. 
In the new part are the offices of the prothono- 
tary and commissioners, on the first floor. On 
the second floor are the judge's office, county 
superintendent's office, jury rooms, and a re- 
tirnig and rest room for women. A second 
courtroom, 26 by 44 feet, is located on the third 
floor, where is also a room occupied by the 
Historical Society. The other county offices 
remain as before. The building is heated by 
steam and well supplied with all modern con- 
veniences. The material in the addition is 
brick, with brownstone trimmings. It pre- 
sents an imposing appearance. 


The first jail was constructed of brick and 
stone, and combined the usual features of 
jailer's residence and prison. It served the 
county well for thirty years, although its in- 
security in later years caused considerable 
complaint. For a number of years successive 
grand juries recommended the erection of a 
new jail, but the opposition of the people pre- 
vented any action. Finally the county com- 
missioners made it known that if another jury 
recommended action it would be taken. The 
fourth grand jury sanctioned the report of its 
predecessors, and in 1877 the county commis- 
sioners began measures for the construction of 
a new jail. For various reasons it was decided 
to abandon the old site, and the Pursel lot, on 
Market street, below Third, was conditionally 
purchased for $4,000. These moves gave rise 
to severe criticism of the commissioners' 

The plans for the new prison were drawn 
by a Mr. Wetzel, and on April 21, 1877, the 
contract was awarded to Charles Krug. This 
action intensified the dissatisfaction of the 
critics, who rapidly included a large propor- 
tion of the population in their ranks. It ap- 
pears that there had been ten proposals, rang- 
ing from $41,075 to $119,025, and that the 
award was made to the second lowest bidder, 
at a price $5,900 higher than the lowest one. 
It was at once charged that these were grave 
reasons for suspecting jobbery on the part of 
the architect. The commissioners were urged 
to dismiss him, abandon the new, expensive, 
"mud-bottom" location, and either order a new 
letting or promptly accept the lowest bid. The 
commissioners refused, and on April 27th an 
injunction was applied for to restrain the 
authorities from building on the Pursel lot 
and from entering into a contract with Krug. 
The hearing developed that the lot was too 



narrow, and would require changes in the plans 
that were radical, therefore the court granted 
a temporary injunction. 

In the meantime Rev. D. J. Waller, Sr., had 
offered a lot on Iron street, between Seventh 
and Eighth, and in July the commissioners 
abandoned the former location and accepted 
Mr. Waller's donation. The new site was 
open to some of the objections of the first one, 
but the commissioners adhered to their final 
decision. In the construction of the building 
they evaded the order of the court by grantmg 
contracts for the different parts of the struc- 
ture to various contractors, some of whom 
were smiply hirelings of Krug. Another com- 
plaint was made that the cost had been in- 
creased from the contract price of $56,975, to 

The prison is a picturesque stone structure, 
surrounded by bearing fruit trees and well 
kept lawns. It has a high basement, and two 
stories above, with a square tower on the 
middle front. An oblong extension in the 
rear contains the cells, which are arranged in 
two tiers on either side of a corridor, lighted 
by skylights in the arched roof. In the base- 
ment are the workshops, steam heating plant 
and the dungeons. Baths, closets, ventilation, 
lighting and heating are all well provided for, 
and the cells are reasonably secure, being lined 
with metal and having two doors, of steel and 


The only other public buildings in the county 
are the several district poorhouses. In early 
years the poor were "farmed out" to outsiders, 
a most unsatisfactory method. In 1866 an act 
was passed authorizing a county poorhouse, 
but when the question was submitted to a vote 
it was found that only Bloom, Greenwood and 
Hemlock townships supported the project. In 
1869 an act was passed authorizing the erec- 
tion of a poorhouse in Bloom township and 
providing that the application of ten taxables 
in any other township should cause an election 
to be held to decide whether that township 
should unite with Bloom to form a poor dis- 
trict. Under this act the townships of Scott, 
Greenwood and Sugarloaf united with Bloom. 
A farm of 100 acres on Fishingcreek was 
purchased, in Mount Pleasant township, hav- 
ing thereon a brick and a frame house, the 
inmates being housed in the former. Other 
additions and imnrovements have since been 
made. In later years the borough of Millville 
has united with the Bloom poor district. 

In 1869 the township of Conyngham and 
the borough of Centraha organized a district, 
and a farm of seventy-five acres was pur- 
chased, together with suitable buildings, all 
of which were exempted from taxation. In 
1872 Madison township also formed a poor 
district and bought a farm of 100 acres, upon 
which its poor are comfortably provided for. 
The county itself has never had a poor farm, 
and apparently it is not greatly needed, for 
paupers are scarce in this thrifty section of the 


The several townships of Columbia county 
and the dates of their erection are as follows: 

Catawissa 1785 

Fishingcreek 1789 

Briarcreek 1797 

Bloom 1798 

Greenwood 1799 

Mifflin 1799 

Hemlock 1801 

Sugarloaf 1812 

Madison 1817 

Mount Pleasant 1818 

Roaringcreek 1832 

Montour 1837 

Jackson 1838 

Orange 1839 

Franklin 1843 

Centre 1844 

Main 1844 

Beaver 1845 

Benton 1850 

Locust 1853 

Pine 1853 

Scott 1853 

Conyngham 1856 

Cleveland 1893 

Scott, Pine, Locust, Conyngham and Cleve- 
land townships were formed after the erection 
of Montour county. 

There are fifty-five election districts in 
Columbia county in 19 14, their names being as 

Beaver, Benton borough, Benton township, 
Berwick northeast, Berwick southeast, Ber- 
wick northwest, Berwick southwest, Bloom 
first. Bloom second, Bloom third, Bloom 
fourth, Briarcreek east, Briarcreek south, 
Briarcreek west, Catawissa township, Cata- 
wissa borough, Centralia first, Centralia 
second, Centre north, Centre south, Cleveland, 
Conyngham east-north, Conyngham west- 
north, Conyngham west No. i, Conyngham 
west No. 2, Convngham southwest, Conyng- 
ham southeast, Fishinecreek east, Fishing- 
creek west, Franklin, Greenwood east, Green- 
wood west. Hemlock north, Hemlock south. 



Jackson, Locust north, Locust south, Madison, 
Main, Mifflin, Millville, Montour, Mount 
Pleasant, Orange township, Orangeville bor- 
ough. Pine north. Pine south, Roaringcreek, 
Scott east, Scott west, Sugarloaf north, 
Sugarloaf south, Stillwater borough. West 
Berwick No. i, West Berwick No. 2. 


In the smaller counties the offices of protho- 
notary and clerk, and register and recorder, 
are consolidated. Under the constitution of 
1790 the county officers, with the exception of 
the sheriff and coroner, were appointed by the 
governor, but in 1838 it was provided that they 
be elected. The old constitution provided that 
the people elect two candidates each for the 
offices of sheriff and coroner, and that the gov- 
ernor appoint one of them. By the amend- 
ment of 1838 the people were permitted to 
select these officers themselves, the governor to 
commission them. The various offices have 
been filled as follows : 

Prothonotaries and Clerks 

George A. Frick, appointed 1813; David 
Petrikin, appointed March 15, 1821 ; John Rus- 
sell, appointed Jan. 14, 1824; Jacob Eyerly, 
appointed Jan. ly, 1830; James Donaldson, ap- 
pointed Jan. 8, 1836, May i, 1838, and Jan. 10, 
1839; Valentine Best, appointed Jan. 18, 1839; 
Jacob Eyerly, elected in 1839; Jesse Coleman, 
elected 1863; Wellington H. Ent, elected 
1869, died Nov. 5, 1871 ; R. H. Ringler, ap- 
pointed 1871; B. F. Zarr, elected 1872, and 
1875; William Krickbaum, elected 1878, and 
1881 ; William H. Snyder, elected 1884, and 
Nov. 8, 1887; G. M. Quick, elected Nov. 4, 
1890, and Nov., 1893 ; W. H. Henrie, elected 
Nov. 3, 1896, and Nov. 3, 1899; C. M. Terwil- 
Hger, elected Nov. 4, 1902, and Nov., 1905 ; 
Freeze Quick, elected in November, 1908, and 
again in 191 1. 

Registers and Recorders 

Josiah McClure, appointed in 1814; Ellis 
Hughes, appointed 1821 ; Rudolph Sechler, ap- 
pointed 1824; John Cooper, appointed 1830; 
Alexander Best, appointed 1836; Philip Bill- 
meyer, appointed Jan. 18, 1839, and elected in 
the fall of 1839; Charles Conner, elected in 
1842 and 1S45 ; Jesse G. Clark, elected in 1848 
and 185 1 ; Daniel Lee, elected 1854, and re- 
elected twice ; John G. Freeze, elected 1863 
and 1866; Williamson H. Jacoby, elected 1869, 

and reelected three times; George W. Sterner, 
elected 1881 and 1884; Charles H. Campbell, 
elected 1S87 and 1890; Charles B. Ent, elected 
1893 and 1896; John C. Rutter, Jr., elected 
1899 and 1902; Frank W. Miller, elected 1905 
and 1908; James H. Mercer, elected 1911. 

District Attorneys 

District attorneys were first elected in 1854. 
Up to that time the duties were performed by 
a deputy attorney general appointed for each 
county. The following persons have held the 
office of district attorney since it became elec' 
tive : 

Robert F. Clark, 1854 to 1857; E. H. Little, 
1857 to 1868; E. R. Ikeler, 1868 to 1871 ; James 
Bryson, elected in 1871, resigned 1874; John 
M. Clark, appointed Dec. 7, 1874 (to fill Bry- 
son's unexpired term, his own term com- 
mencing in January) ; John M. Clark, 
elected in 1874; Robert R. Little, 1877 
to 1883; Robert Buckingham, elected in 1883, 
resigned 1885 ; F. P. Billmeyer, appointed in 
1885; F. P. Billmeyer, elected in November, 
1885, and in 1888, resigned in 1890; William 
Ciirisman, appointed in April, 1890, elected in 
November, 1890; Thomas B. Hanley, elected 
in November, 1893, resigned June 27, 1896; 
John G. Harman, appointed July 11, 1896; 
John G. Harman, elected in November, 1896, 
and in November, 1899; A. W. Duy, elected in 
November, 1902 ; C. A. Small, elected in 1905, 
reelected in 1908 and 191 1. 


The constitution of 1790 provided that sher- 
iffs and coroners shall be chosen by the people 
at the regular election ; two persons were 
chosen for each office, one of whom respec- 
tively was appointed by the governor. They 
held office for three years or during good be- 
havior, and until a successor was qualified, 
but the sheriff could hold office only one term 
in any period of six years. This was amended 
by the constitution of 1838, so that only one 
person could be chosen for each office. The 
following persons have filled the office of 
sheriff since the organization of the county : 

Henry Alward, commissioned Jan. 13, 1814; 
Joseph Prutzman, commissioned Oct. 10, 1816; 
John Underwood, commissioned Oct. 8, 1819, 
died in office; William Robison, appointed to 
fill vacancy, Sept. 16, 1822 ; Andrew McRey- 
nolds, commissioned Oct. 14, 1822 ; John 
Rhoads, commissioned Oct. 22, 1821; ; William 
Kitchen, commissioned Oct. 22, 1828; Isaiah 



Reed, commissioned Oct. 24, 1831 ; Isaiah Sal- 
mon, commissioned Oct. 25, 1834; William 
Kitchen, commissioned Oct. 18, 1837; John 
Fruit, commissioned Oct. 30, 1840; Iram Derr, 
commissioned 1843; Benjamin Hay man, com- 
missioned Nov. 5, 1846; Peter Billmeyer, com- 
missioned Oct. 24, 1849; John Snyder, com- 
missioned 1852; Stephen H. Miller, commis- 
sioned 1855 ; John Snyder, commissioned 1S58; 
Josiah H. Furman, commissioned 1861 ; Sam- 
uel Snyder, commissioned 1864; Mordecai Mil- 
lard, commissioned 1867; Aaron Smith, com- 
missioned 1870; Michael Gruver, commis- 
sioned 1873, <i'^d in office; Charles G. Murphy, 
coroner, was sworn in April 5, 1876, and served 
until May 5, 1876; Charles S. Fornwald, ap- 
pointed by the governor May 5, 1876, served 
until January, 1877 ; John W. Hoffman, elected 
fall of 1876; Uzal H. Ent, elected fall of 1879; 
John Mourey, elected fall of 1882 ; Samuel 
Smith, elected fall of 1885 ; John B. Casey, 
elected fall of 1888; John Mourey, elected fall 
of 1891; J. B. McHenry, elected fall of 1894; 
W. W. Black, elected fall of 1897; Daniel 
Knorr, elected fall of 1900; W. W. Black, 
elected fall of 1903 ; Charles B. Ent, elected 
fall of 1906; W. P. Zehner, elected fall of 
1909; B. F. Rice, elected fall of 1913. 

County Commissioners 

The following persons have served as county 
commissioners in the years mentioned, since 
1866. From that date until 1875 °^^ person 
was elected each year for a term of two years. 
After that three commissioners were elected 
every three years. 

1866 — Montgomery Cole, Allen Mann, John 
F. Fowler. 1867 — David Yeager, John F. 
Fowler, Montgomery Cole. 1868— W. Grier 
Quick, Montgomery Cole, David Yeager. 1869 
— David Yeager, W. G. Quick, Cyrus Robbins. 
1870 — W. G. Quick, Cyrus Robbins, H. J. 
Reeder. 1871 — William Shaffer, Cyrus Rob- 
bins, H. J. Reeder. 1872 — William Lawton, 
H. J. Reeder, William Shaffer. 1873— Wil- 
liam Shaffer, William Lawton, John Herner. 
1874 — William Lawton, John Herner, John 
Ent. 1875 — Silas W. McHenry, John Herner, 
Joseph E. Sands. 1878 — Stephen Pohe, 
Charles Reichert, A. B. Herring. 1881 — 
Charles Reichert, B. F. Edgar, Joshua Fetter- 
man. 1884 — Stephen Pohe, Washington Parr, 
Theodore Mendenhall. 1887— W. G. Girton, 
Jesse Rittenhouse, Ezra Stephens. 1890 — 
Jesse Rittenhouse, B. F. Edgar. C. L. Sands. 
1893— G. M. Ikeler. J. G. Swank. W. H. Utt. 
1896 — John N. Gordon, William Krickbaum, 

N. Kitchen. 1899— W. H. Fisher, William 
Krickbaum, N. Kitchen. 1902 — W. H. Fisher, 
William Bogart, G. W. Sterner. 1905 — C. L. 
Pohe, J. A. Hess, Elisha Ringrose. 1908 — C. 
L. Pohe, J. A. Hess, C. F. Lenhart. 191 1 — 
G. S. Fleckenstine, C. E. Welliver, C. F. Len- 

Commissioners' Clerks 

Since 1866 the clerks to the county commis- 
sioners have been : Robert C. Fruit, William 
Krickbaum, John B. Casey, J. D. Bodine, C. 
M. Terwilliger, D. Z. Mensch, R. F. Vander- 
slice, J. W. Hidlay, A. B. Black, Charles E. 

County Treasurers 

This list shows the incumbents of this office 
during the terms in the years before their 
names, prior to 1870; from and after that time 
the dates show when they began their terms : 

1816, James Langhead; 1818, Josiah Mc- 
Clure; 1820, 1822, William Wilson; 1826, 1828, 
Andrew McReynolds; ' 1830, Hugh McWil- 
Hams; 1832, 1834, John Fruit; 1836, 1838, 
Hugh McWilliams; 1842, Leonard B. Rupert; 
1844, David Clark; 1846, Charles F. Mann; 
1S48, Emanuel Lazarus; 1850, Amandus Lev- 
ers; 1852, Samuel Creasy; 1854, John Doak; 
1856, Jacob Harris ; 1858, James S. McNinch ; 
i860, John A. Funston ; 1862, James S. Mc- 
Ninch ; 1864, Daniel McHenry; 1866, John J. 
Stiles; 1868, Jacob Yohe ; 1870, David Lowen- 
berg; 1873, John Snyder; 1876, H. W. McRey- 
nolds ; 1879, H. A. Sweppenheiser ; 1882, A. M. 
Johnson; 1885, P. A. Evans; 1888, George A. 
Herring; 1891, John L. Kline ; 1894, J. R. Fow- 
ler; 1897, G. S. Fleckenstine; 1900, Jeremiah 
Snyder ; 1903, A. B. Croop ; 1906, M. H. 
Rhodes; 1909, John Mourey; 1912, I. L. Rabb. 

Toivnship and Borough Assessors 

The township and borough assessors for 
1914 are as follows : Beaver — Emanuel Har- 
ger ; Benton borough — O. E. Sutton ; Benton 
Tp. — John Ipher ; Berwick — Cyrus Smith ; 
Blooni, W.— W. C. Sloan; Bloom, E,— P. B. 
Heddens ; Briarcreek — William Ash ; Cata- 
wissa Tp. — James Bibby ; Catawissa borough — 
O. D. L. Kostenbauder ; Centralia, ist — M. W. 
Brennan ; Centralia, 2d — A. T. Conway ; Cen- 
tre — Frank Harris ; Cleveland — F. P. Small ; 
Conyngham — Peter J. McHale ; Fishingcreek 
— H. W. Hess; Franklin— D. M. Reeder; 
Greenwood — W. L. Kelchner; Hemlock — • 



Chas. L. Hartman; Jackson — M. O. Everhart; 
Locust — D. C. Yocum; Madison — John J. 
Kreamer; Main — Jerry Kelchner; Mifflin — P. 
C. Glodfelter; Millville— Tillman Stadler; 
Montour — Albert Newman ; Mt. Pleasant — 
R. M. Creasy; Orange Tp. — Elmer Kline; 
Orangeville borough — VV. W. Allabach ; Pine 
— B. F. Karshner; Roaringcreek — C. M. 
Yocum ; Scott — Harry Deiterick ; Sugarloaf — 
Jesse Fritz; Stillwater borough — George 
Dresher; W. Berwick, ist — William Croft; 
W. Berwick, 2d— L. M. Pettit. 

Representatives in Congress 

Columbia county has been joined with a 
number of other counties at dili'erent times in 
the formation of a Congressional district. It 
was originally placed in the Tenth district, 
which included the counties of Northumber- 
land, Union, Lycoming, Luzerne, Bradford, 
Potter, Susquehanna and Tioga, with two Con- 
gressmen, and was represented by the follow- 
ing persons : William Wilson and Jared Irwin, 
elected 1814; William Wilson and David 
Scott, elected 1816. In 1817 Mr. Scott was 
elected a judge and resigned, and John Murray 
was elected to fill the vacancy. John Murray 
and George Dennison were elected in 1818; 
George Dennison and W. C. Ellis in 1820. In 
1 82 1 Ellis resigned, and Thomas Murray, Jr., 
was elected to fill the vacancy. 

In 1822 Columbia was put in the Ninth dis- 
trict, with Union, Northumberland, Luzerne, 
Susquehanna, Bradford, Lycoming, Potter, 
Tioga and McKean, having three members, as 
follows : W. C. Ellis, Samuel McKean, George 
Kreamer, elected 1822 ; Samuel McKean, 
George Kreamer, Espy Van Horn, elected 
1824 and 1826 ; Philander Stevens, James Ford, 
Allen Marr, elected 1828; Lewis Dewart, Phi- 
lander Stevens, James Ford, elected 1830. 

In 1832 Columbia was placed with Luzerne 
as the Fifteenth district, with one member. 
Andrew Beaumont was elected in 1832 and 
1834; David Petrikin in 1836 and 1838; B. A. 
Bidlock in 1840 and 1842. 

In 1843 Wyoming was joined to Columbia 
and Luzerne, forming the Eleventh district. 
Owen D. Leib was elected in 1844 and 1846; 
Chester Butler in 1848; Hendrick B. Wright 
in 1850. 

In 1852 Columbia was in the Twelfth dis- 
trict with Luzerne. Montour and Wyoming. 
Hendrick B. Wright was elected in 1852; 
Henry M. Fuller in 1854 ; John G. Montgomery 
in 1856 (he died before taking his seat, and 
in 1857 Paul Leidy was elected) ; George W. 

Scranton in 1858 and i860 (he died in March, 
1861, and at a special election in June, H. B. 
Wright was elected). 

In 1861 Columbia was joined with Bradford, 
Montour, Sullivan, Wyoming and all of North- 
umberland, except Lower Mahoning township, 
in the Twelfth district. Northumberland was 
transferred to another district in 1862, and the 
remaining counties elected Henry W. Tracy in 
1862; Ulysses Mercur in 1864, 1866, 1868 and 
1870; Dr. J. D. Strawbridge in 1872. Mercur 
resigned in 1872, having been elected to the 
Supreme bench, and at a special election, in 
December, Frank Bunnell was chosen for the 
short term. 

In 1S73 Columbia was put in the Eleventh 
district with Montour, Carbon, Monroe and 
Pike counties ; the townships of Nescopeck, 
Blackcreek, Sugarloaf, Butler, Hazel, Foster, 
Bearcreek, Buck, Salem, Hollenback, Hunting- 
ton, in Luzerne county; Fairmount, Roaring 
Brook, Spring Brook, and that part of Scran- 
ton south of Roaring Brook creek and east of 
the Lackawanna river, in Lackawanna county ; 
and the boroughs of Dunmore, New Columbus, 
Gouldsboro, White Haven, Jeddo, and Hazle- 
ton, in Luzerne and Lackawanna counties. It 
was known as the "Shoestring" district. F. P. 
Collins was elected in 1874 and 1876; Robert 
Klotz in 1878 and 1880; John B. Storm in 
1882 and 1884; C. R. Buckalew in 1886 and 

In 1890 the Sixteenth Congressional district 
was made up of Columbia, Montour, Northum- 
berland and Sullivan counties, and so remains 
in 1914. S. P. Wolverton was elected in 1890 
and 1892; M. H. Kulp, 1894 and 1896; Rufus 
K. Polk, 1898 and 1900 (died in office, and 
Alexander Billmeyer was elected to fill the un- 
expired term) ; Charles H. Dickerman, 1902; 
E. W. Samuels, 1904; John G. McHenry, 1906, 
1908 and 1910 (died shortly before the expi- 
ration of his third term, and the vacancy was 
not filled) ; John V. Lesher, 1912 and 1914. 

State Senators 

Columbia county was first placed in a Sena- 
torial district with Luzerne, Susquehanna and 
Union, Columbia and Union being added upon 
the formation of the counties. This district 
elected two senators, Thomas Murray, Jr., and 
William Ross, Murray being reelected in 1814, 
the first election for senator in which Columbia 

In 181 5 the Ninth Senatorial district was 
formed, and included Northumberland, Colum- 
bia, Union, Luzerne and Susquehanna, with 



two senators, chosen alternately, the term being 
four years. Charles Frazier was elected in 
1816; Simon Snyder, 1818; a special election 
was lield in i8iy to till the vacancy caused by 
the death of Simon Snyder, and Kobert Wil- 
lett was elected. In 1820 Redmond Conyng- 
ham was elected. 

In 1822 the Tenth Senatorial district was 
formed of Luzerne and Columbia, with one 
member. In 1824 Robert Moore was elected. 
The term was then changed to three years. 
In 1827 Moore was reelected; Jacob Urum- 
heller, 1830; Uzal Hopkins, 1833. 

Another change of district took place in 1830, 
when Columbia and Schuylkill were made the 
Ninth district, with one senator. Charles 
Fraley was elected in 1837; Samuel F. Head- 
ley, 1840. 

In 1843 Columbia and Luzerne were again 
put together, as the Thirteenth district. Wil- 
liam S. Ross was elected in 1844; Valentine 
Best, 1847. 

In 1850 Montour was added to these two 
counties, and the district became the Sixteenth. 
Charles R. Buckalew was elected in 1850 and 
reelected in 1853; George P. Steele, 1856. 

In 1857 Columbia, Montour, Northumber- 
land and Snyder formed the Thirteenth dis- 
trict, and C. R. Buckalew was elected senator, 
but resigned at the end of one session. Reuben 
Keller was elected in 1858 to fill the vacancy, 
and reelected in i860. D. B. Montgomery was 
elected in 1863. 

In 1864 Sullivan was substituted for Snyder, 
and the district was changed to the Fifteenth. 
George D. Jackson was elected in 1866, and 
C. R. Buckalew in 1869. 

In 1871 Lycoming was substituted for North- 
umberland, and Thomas Chalfant was elected 
in 1872. 

In 1874 the State was redistricted, no change 
occurring in this district except the change of 
the number to the Twenty-fourth. In 1874 
and again in 1876 Robert P. Allen was elected ; 
George D. Jackson, 1878, died in office, and 
E. J. McHenry was elected in 1880 to fill the 
vacancy; W. W. Hart, 1882; Verus H. Metz- 
ger, 1886; Grant Herring, 1890; J. Henry 
Cochran, 1894. 1898, 1902 and 1906; Charles 
W. Sones. 1910 and 1914. No change has 
been made in the formation of the district 
from 1871 to the present (1914). 

Members of General Assembly 

By the Eighth section of the act creating 
Columbia county in 1813 it was provided "that 
the inhabitants of the counties of Northum- 
berland, Union and Columbia shall jointly elect 

four representatives" to the General Assembly. 
Samuel Bound, Leonard Rupert, Thomas 
Murray, Jr., and George Kreamer were elected 
in 1813; David E. Owen, Robert Willett, 
Joseph Hutchison and Henry Shaffer in 1814. 

In 1815 Columbia was made a separate dis- 
trict, with one member, and James McClure 
was elected in that year; Samuel Bond, in 
1816, 1817 and 1818; James McClure, 1819; 
John Snyder, 1820; John Clark, 1821. 

In 1822 the county was given two members, 
and William McBride and Alexander Colley 
were elected, and reelected in 1823; John Mc- 
Reynolds and Eli Thornton, 1824; John 
McReynolds and William McBride, 1826; John 
McReynolds and Christian Bropst, 1827; John 
McReynolds and John Robinson, 1828. 

The representation was reduced to one mem- 
ber in 1829, and John Robinson was elected; 
Uzal Hopkins, 1830 and 1831 ; Isaac Kline, 
1832 and 1833; John F. Derr, 1834 and 1835; 
Evan O. Jackson, 1836; John Bowman, 1837; 
William Colt, 1838 and 1839; Daniel Snyder, 
1840, 1841, 1842, 1843; Thomas A. Funston, 
1844 and 1845 ; Stewart Pierce, 1846, 1847, 
1848; Benjamin P. Fortner, 1849. 

In 1850 Columbia and Montour were joined 
in a district, and John McReynolds was elected ; 
M. E. Jackson in 1851; George Scott, 1852 
and 1853; James G. Maxwell, 1854; John G. 
Montgomery, 1855; Peter Ent, 1856. 

In 1857 Columbia, Montour, Sullivan and 
Wyoming were put together, with two mem- 
bers, and Peter Ent and John V. Smith were 

elected ; George A. Jackson and — ■ — 

Oakes, 1858 and 1859 ; H. R. Kline and 

Osterhaut, i860; Levi L. Tate and 

Tutton, 1861 ; G. D. Jackson and J. C. Ellis, 
1862 and 1863. 

In 1864 Columbia and Montour were made 
a district, and W. H. Jacoby was elected that 
year and 1865; Thomas Chalfant, 1866 and 
1867: George Scott, 1868 and 1869; Thomas 
Chalfant, 1870. 

In 1871 Columbia was placed alone, and C. 
B. Brockway was elected, and reelected in 1872 
and 1873. 

In 1874, in accordance with the provisions 
of the new constitution, Columbia was made a 
separate district, and g^iven two members, and 
the term of office was fixed at two years, E. J. 
McHenrv and S. P. Rvan being first elected; 
E. J. McHenrv and David S. Brown, 1876; 
T. T. Vander^lire and Joseph B. Knittle, 1878 
and 1880: William Brvson and T. J. Vander- 
slice, 1882: A. L. Fritz and William Brvson 
1884; A. L. Fritz and James T. Fox, 1886 
James T. Fox and William Krickbaum, 1888 
William Krickbaum and E. M. Tewksbury, 



1890; E. M. Tewksbury and A. L. Fritz, 1892; 
A. L. Fritz and William T. Creasy, 1894 ; W. T. 
Creasy and William Chrisman, 1896 and i8g8; 
W. T. Creasy and Fred Ikeler, 1900 and 1902 ; 
W. T. Creasy and John G. Harman, 1904. The 
representation was then reduced to one mem- 
ber, and W. T. Creasy was elected in 1906; 
Charles A. Shaffer, 1908, 1910, 1912 and 1914. 


The total valuation of property in this county 
in 1914, according to the report of the county 
commissioners, was $13,987,354. This was 
probably less than half the real value of prop- 
erty, when the immense coal deposits in 
Conyngham township and the materials and 
finished products of the many factories and 
industrial establishments are taken into con- 

Bloomsburg west of Center street alone had 
a valuation of $1,586,830, which is remarkable, 
considering the large amount of unoccupied 
space. Bloomsburg east of Center street fol- 
lows with a valuation of $1,538,095, and Ber- 
wick is third in position, with a valuation of 
$1,321,375. Following is the complete list: 

Beaver township $ 222,425 

Benton township 212,375 

Benton borough 172,010 

Berwick borough 1,321,375 

Bloomsburg— east 1,538.095 

Bloomsburg— west 1,586,830 

Briarcreek township 494,750 

Catawissa township 142,305 

Catawissa borough 527,635 

Centralia borough — 1st ward 186,520 

Centralia borough — 2d ward 98,400 

Centre township 518,700 

Cleveland township 223,672 

Conyngham township 1,356,327 

Fishingcreek township 31S.71S 

Franklin township 186,730 

Greenwood township 351,180 

Hemlock township 338,960 

Jackson township 109,075 

Locust township 319,003 

Madison township 393,240 

Main township 203,810 

Mifflin township 375,585 

Millville borough 158,305 

Montour township 270,185 

Mount Pleasant township 218,615 

Orange township 176,430 

Orangeville borough in ,555 

Pine township 129,099 

Roaringcreek township 146,378 

Scott township 413.535 

Sugarloaf township 153,935 

Stillwater borough 65,345 

West Berwick — ist ward 604,010 

West Berwick — 2d ward 345,245 

Total $13,987,354 

The amount of money out at interest in 
Columbia county in the year 1914 was as 
follows : 

Beaver township $ 24,733 

Benton borough 74,143 

Benton township 24,733 

Berwick borough 238,200 

Bloomsburg — east 209,303 

Bloomsburg — west 241,442 

Briarcreek township 33,790 

Catawissa township 10,705 

Catawissa borough 145,560 

Centralia borough — 1st ward 7,i47 

Centralia borough — 2d ward 48,925 

Centre township 55,241 

Cleveland township 40,897 

Conyngham township 3,498 

Fishingcreek township 26,700 

Frankhn township 14,065 

Greenwood township 33,287 

Hemlock township 37,4l6 

Jackson township 6,751 

Locust township 1 13,665 

Madison township 25,025 

Main township 42,402 

Mifflin township 54,II3 

Millville borough 66,389 

Montour township 10,191 

Mount Pleasant township 7.594 

Orange township 6,819 

Orangeville borough 75, 136 

Pine township 10,963 

Roaringcreek township 44,175 

Scott township 102,682 

Sugarloaf township 34,593 

Stillwater borough 15,188 

West Berwick — 1st ward 29,960 

West Berwick — 2d ward 61,745 

Total $1,968,402 

Even though the fact is acknowledged that 

Columbia county has been almost denuded of 
timber, there still remained in 1914 a total of 
75,356 acres of timberland. Of this Conyng- 
ham is credited with 11,135 acres, but most of 
it is mountain scrub, unfit for any purpose but 
mine props. The timber areas in acres are as 
follows : 

Beaver township 4,565 

Benton borough 413 

Benton township 8,895 

Briarcreek township 1,741 

Catawissa township 1,310 

Catawissa borough 9 

Centre township 1,303 

Clevelnnd township 2,913 

Conyngham township 1 1, 135 

Fishingcreek township 3,113 

Franklin township 1,499 

Greenwood township 3.709 

Hemlock township 1.720 

Jackson township 4,188 

Locust township 2,319 

Madison township 5,185 

Main township :,.... 1,283 

Mifflin township 1,998 



Millville borough 29 

Montour township l.i/i 

Mount Pleasant township 1,879 

Orange township 1,98c) 

Orangeville borough 54 

Pine township 7,220 

Roaringcreek township 4,277 

Scott township 273 

Sugarloaf township 7,264 

Stillwater borough 441 

Total 75,356 

In addition to numerous lots in various bor- 
oughs, Columbia county has 164,880 acres of 
cleared land, according to the returns of the 
assessors in 1914. Madison township leads the 
county with 12,806 acres, with Fishingcreek 
and Centre close seconds. 

The acreage by districts is as follows : 

Beaver township 6,658 

Benton borough 413 

Benton township 8,895 

Bloomsburg — east 861 

Bloomsburg — west 436 

Briarcreek township 6,899 

Catawissa township 4,574 

Catawissa borough 182 

Centralia borough — ist ward 150 

Centre township 11,358 

Cleveland township 7,5o8 

Conyngham townsliip 5 

Fishingcreek township II,SI2 

Franklin township 6,152 

Greenwood township 10,941 

Hemlock township 7.640 

Jackson township 6,003 

Locust township 8,370 

Madison township 12,806 

Main township 5,558 

Mifflin township 8,346 

Millville borough 439 

Montour township 3,885 

Mount Pleasant township. . . . ; 7.292 

Orange township 5.478 

Orangeville borough 225 

Pine township 7.102 

Roaringcreek township 5,39i 

Scott township 3.317 

Sugarloaf township 4.949 

Stillwater borough 1,092 

West Berwick — ist ward 22 

West Berwick — 2d ward 421 

Total 164,880 

In addition to the above the following num- 
ber of lots have also been returned : Benton 
borough, 237; Berwick, 1,178; Bloomsburg 
— east, 1,246; Bloomsburg — west, 902; Briar- 
creek, 959 ; Centralia — 1st ward, 328 ; Centralia 
— 2d ward, 138; Conyngham, 411; Fishing- 
creek, 55; Millville, 200; Orangeville borough, 
123; West Berwick — 1st ward, 1,177; West 
Berwick — 2d ward, 2,241. 

The number of taxables in Columbia county 

in 1914 showed an increase of 8,582 over the 
statement for 1882, the date of the publication 
of these figures in Colonel Freeze's history of 
the county. For purposes of comparison the 
following table is compiled : 

1882 J914 

Beaver township 257 171 

Benton borough zgi 

Benton township 292 258 

Berwick borough 660 3,202 

Bloomsburg — east 9S6 1.780 

Bloomsburg — west 1,348 

Briarcreek township 284 876 

Catawissa township 646 150 

Catawissa borough 802 

Centralia — 1st ward 385 521 

Centralia — 2d ward 444 

Centre township 296 325 

Conyngham township 512 898 

Fishingcreek township 366 322 

Franklin township 117 132 

Greenwood township 431 383 

Hemlock township 227 310 

Jackson township 157 146 

Locust township 456 349 

Madison township 271 285 

Main township 153 162 

Mifflin township 272 377 

Millville borough 246 

Montour township 154 195 

Mount Pleasant township 171 163 

Orange township 253 108 

Orangeville borough 154 

Pine township 218 232 

Roaringcreek township 129 152 

Scott township 412 469 

Sugarloaf township 215 381 

Stillwater borough 50 

West Berwick — ist ward 1,030 

West Berwick — 2d ward 954 

Total 8,320 16,908 

The occupational tax of Columbia county 
for 1914 was as follows: 

Beaver township $ 14,690 

Benton township 6,170 

Benton borough 25,515 

Berwick borough 169,440 

Bloomsburg — east 146,320 

Bloomsburg — west 1 18,600 

Briarcreek township 54.575 

Catawissa township 6,630 

Catawissa borough 70,110 

Centralia — ist ward 4i,970 

Centralia — 2d ward 37.440 

Centre township 16,610 

Cleveland township 8,480 

Conyngham township 83,890 

Fishingcreek township 12,280 

Franklin township 5.295 

Greenwood township 13.620 

Hemlock township 12,930 

Jackson township 3,200 

Locust township 14,205 

Madison township 9,400 

Main township 8,470 

Mifflin township 23,095 



Millville borough I9.4IS 

Montour township 13,060 

Mount Pleasant township 5.080 

Orange township 2,300 

Orangeville borough 13.010 

Pine township 5.285 

Roaringcreck township 3.600 

Scott township 34.915 

Sugarloaf township 11,930 

Stillwater borough 3.520 

W. Berwick— 1st ward 99,i5S 

W. Berwick— 2d ward 48,360 

Total $1,162,565 

In 1914 Columbia county had 6,558 horses, 
mares, geldings and mules, over the age of 
four years, with an aggregate valuation of 
$330,160. Madison township led, with Green- 
wood a close second, but the average assessed 
value varied greatly, according to the views 
of the different assessors. The figures are as 
follows : 

Animals Value 

Beaver township 200 $10,820 

Benton township 299 15,645 

Benton borough S8 2,170 

Berwick borough 148 8,915 

Bloomsburg— east 148 6,905 

Bloomsburg — west 92 5.695 

Briarcreek township 303 17.870 

Catawissa township 149 7.455 

Catawissa borough 69 2,450 

Centralia — ist ward 37 520 

Centralia — 2d ward 19 760 

Centre township 374 '5.945 

Cleveland township 307 13,820 

Conyngham township 229 9,l6o 

Fishingcreek township 286 12,260 

Franklin township 179 9.010 

Greenwood township 414 28,375 

Hemlock township 274 14,500 

Jackson township I7S 8,060 

Locust township 385 16,185 

Madison township 430 25,040 

Main township 197 11,360 

Mifflin township 269 11,870 

Millville borough 66 2.710 

Montour township 167 11,245 

Mount Pleasant township 266 13,060 

Orange township 178 7,560 

Orangeville borough 36 1,27s 

Pine township 217 10,425 

Roaringcreek township 178 9,370 

Scott township 170 7,685 

Sugarloaf township 137 5,SI0 

Stillwater borough 24 2,570 

W.Berwick — 1st ward 33 1,905 

W. Berwick — 2d ward 45 2,055 

Totals 6,558 $330,160 

For a number of years Madison, Centre and 
Greenwood townships have striven for the 
honor of having the largest number of cattle 
within their borders in comparison with the 
other townships of this county. More than one- 

fifth of all the cattle in the county can be found 
within these three townships. All of the town- 
ships and districts except the 2d ward of Cen- 
tralia have at least one cow, but that spot has 
not one; and in spite of its large size, Conyng- 
ham township has but five cattle in its confines. 
The names of the divisions, number of cattle 
and valuation, according to the assessors' 
figures, are as follows : 

No. Value 

Beaver township 141 $ 2,820 

Benton township 273 5,455 

Benton borough 24 480 

Berwick borough 8 200 

Bloomsburg— east 44 1.080 

Bloomsburg — west 58 2,430 

Briarcreek township 300 9,040 

Catawissa township 122 3,635 

Catawissa borough 10 310 

Centralia — ist ward 5 no 

Centre township i77 9,375 

Cleveland township 205 3.89S 

Conyngham township 5 'OO 

Fishingcreek township 311 6,390 

Franklin township 109 2,495 

Greenwood township 374 10,750 

Hemlock township 251 5,240 

Jackson township 152 2,205 

Locust township 216 4,330 

Madison township 385 9.6l5 

Main township 169 3,380 

Mifflin township 260 5,450 

Millville borough 42 455 

Montour township 181 4,390 

Mount Pleasant township 250 5,035 

Orange township 170 4,165 

Orangeville borough 15 300 

Pine township I93 3,295 

Roaringcreek township 120 2,400 

Scott township 145 3,210 

Sugarloaf township 144 2,780 

Stillwater borough 21 915 

W. Berwick — ist ward 10 280 

W. Berwick — 2d ward 20 515 

Total 5.1 10 $116,604 

The amounts paid for liquor licenses by the 
various townships and boroughs for the year 
1914 were as follows: 

Beaver township $ lOO 

Benton borough 200 

Benton township lOO 

Berwick borough 1,850 

Bloomsburg 4.500 

Briarcreek township 200 

Catawissa township 200 

Catawissa borough 1,250 

Centralia borough 4,100 

Conyngham township 975 

Fishingcreek township 100 

Greenwood township 200 

Locust township 300 

Madison township 100 

Main township lOO 

Mifflin township. 100 

Montour township 200 



Mount Pleasant township loo 

Orangeville borough 400 

Pine township 100 

Sugarloaf township 300 

West Berwick borough 3,400 

Total $18,925 

The tabulated statement of the mercantile 
license fees paid in 1914 was as follows: 

Beaver township $ 41.23 

Benton borough 196.89 

Benton township 6.30 

Berwick borough 1,844.46 

Bloomsburg borough 1,718.30 

Briarcreek township 66.25 

Catawissa township 5.65 

Catawissa borough 418.66 

Centralia borough 426.78 

Centre township 72.66 

Cleveland township 14.86 

Conyngham township 18843 

Fishingcreek township 43.15 

Franklin township 20.58 

Greenwood township S9.91 

Hemlock township 14.24 

Jackson township 10.80 

Locust township 87.68 

Madison township 21.79 

Main township 35-99 

Mifflin township 97.04 

Millville borough 166.95 

Montour township 23.21 

Mount Pleasant township 14.50 

Orange township 6.50 

Orangeville borough 93.90 

Pine township 10.51 

Roaringcreek township 20.24 

Scott township 1 14.38 

Sugarloaf township 55-01 

Stillwater borough 10.63 

West Berwick borough 221.30 

Total $6,128.78 



As in most of the counties of Pennsylvania, 
the growth of education in Columbia was con- 
temporary with that of religion. As soon as 
the pioneer had established his home in the 
wilderness and begun to accumulate a little of 
this world's goods he took note of the educa- 
tional needs of his growing family. The first 
one to turn to was the pastor of the sect to 
which his religious allegiance was given. The 
primitive pastor was often the schoolmaster 
as well, and well did he perform that duty. To 
these olden-time preachers we owe the deep 
religious sentiment and honesty of the genera- 
tion of which the present members of the com- 
munity are sons. 

Then came the era of "subscription schools." 
These were inadequately supported by the con- 
tributions of the parents and were at first held 
in private homes. Later, voluntary subscrip- 
tions were taken to build special habitations 
for the schools, and they were of the same 
primitive character as those of the household- 
ers. The furnishings of these temples of 
knowledge were also primitive in character. 
The seats were puncheons, with peg legs ; the 
desks lined the walls under the small windows, 
the scholars stood up to use them ; and the 
heat in wintertime came from an open and 
wide-mouthed fireplace, the door of the hut 
being made sjiecially wide to allow the scholars 
at noon to roll in the great logs to replenish the 

fire. A tin cup and a wooden pail completed 
the furnishings. 

In one respect Columbia county fared better 
than her western neighbors in the counties near 
to the Allegheny river — she did not have to 
submit her little ones to the tender mercies of 
the "Irish schoolmaster," that "knight of the 
rod and bottle" so common in the western coun- 
ties. Her teachers usually were drawn from 
the families of the neighborhood, and though 
sometimes of limited capacity were sober, earn- 
est and religious instructors. Many of the 
first schools were held in the homes of the 
teachers and the children were given more care 
and attention than at a later date, when the 
common school laws came into effect. 


In 1833, the year before the common school 
system was inaugurated, it was estimated that 
less than 24,000 children were educated at pub- 
lic expense, and most of these by very incom- 
petent teachers. These schools were called 
"pauper schools," and were despised by the 
rich and shunned by the poor. The children 
were classified as pay and pauper scholars, and 
thus the law practically separated the rich from 
the poor, causing the development of the 
"caste" idea in a democratic republic. 

The svstem inaugurated bv the school law 



of 1834 provided that each township could 
accept or reject the plan, but this was iQund to 
be unwise, and in 1849 the act was made com- 
pulsory on every township. In 1857 the gen- 
eral supervision was taken out of the hands of 
the secretary of the Commonwealth and the 
same year the normal school law was passed. 
The school laws found some opposition in 
Columbia county from the Germans, who were 
greatly attached to their native tongue and 
feared the teaching of English would cause 
its abandonment by the younger generation. 
Their forebodings were afterwards realized, 
the stronger tongue gradually forcing out the 
weaker, and English now prevails over all 
other languages. 

The equipment of the scholar of the olden 
days was simple. A Webster speller, an Eng- 
lish reader or a Testament, DaboU's arithme- 
tic, a slate, a goose quill and a few sheets of 
coarse writing paper covered the entire range 
of known material winter after winter, so long 
as he attended school. Later on Maltebrun's 
geography and Smith's grammar were added, 
and perhaps a Colton atlas. Contrasted with 
the vast array of books laid before the present 
scholar these first essentials were few and 


The first organized educational movement 
made in the county was that of the Society of 
Friends at Millville, who partitioned off one 
end of their meetinghouse for use as a school- 
room by Miss Elizabeth Eves. This school was 
not sectarian in character, the children of all 
denominations being welcomed. Other 
schools were established — by the residents of 
Fishingcreek in 1794, Benton in 1799, Berwick 
in 1800, and other townships in rapid succes- 
sion thereafter. These local schools are treated 
in chapters devoted to the various townships. 

The ambition for higher education was early 
developed in this county, Berwick taking the 
lead with her academy in 1839. It served its 
purpose, and finally the building was torn down 
in 1872. Millville high school was established 
in 1851, became Greenwood Seminary in 1861 
and is still running, although with but few 
scholars. Orangeville Male and Female Aca- 
demy was incorporated in 1858, opened the 
following year, continued as an orphans' school 
during 1864-66, and in 1894 was sold to the 
township for common school uses. Catawissa 
Seminary was chartered in 1866, having been 
operated since 1839 as an academy, and finally 
suspended in 1872. The history of these insti- 

tutions, as well as that of the State Normal 
School, will be found in the chapters devoted 
to the local history of their home towns. 


Complete reports of the schools for different 
years since the beginning of State supervision 
would take up too much room in this work. 
Reports may be had from the proper author- 
ities at any time. We will, however, give a 
few isolated figures for comparison, in addi- 
tion to the latest reports available from the 
county superintendent. 

A writer of 1847 states that general educa- 
tion had been neglected in many of the town- 
ships, although but two — Miftlin and Valley- 
had failed to adopt the common school system. 
The compensation of the teachers — $16 for 
the men and $9 for the women — was not such 
as to induce competent persons to take up the 
profession of teaching. At that date there 
were in the county 104 schools, in operation 
seven months in the year, employing 98 men 
and 31 women teachers. 

In 1885 there were 196 schools, in operation 
for a little over six months ; 97 male teachers 
and 124 female teachers, the men receiving an 
average of $35 and the women $28 per month ; 
and the number of scholars in attendance was 
4,602 males and 4,187 females. The resources 
of the schools in that year were $2,300 and the 
liabilities $26,445, while the total expenditures 
were $66,469. 


Possibly in no other particular is there 
clearer evidence of the growth of Columbia 
county in the last quarter of a century than 
that shown by the advancement of education. 
Perhaps the most fundamental improvement 
has been the establishment of a uniform course 
of studies. The boroughs were the first to see 
the wisdom of this nlan and the countn,' dis- 
tricts soon followed their example. The coun- 
try children are now graded just as carefully 
as those in the towns, promotions are made in 
the same manner, and, in fact, there is little to 
choose between the city and country school. 

One of the best results of systematic study 
and work in the county has been the stimulus 
it has given to the establishment of township 
high schools. Under the old methods the pupils 
never advanced by grades, never graduated, 
and there was no means of determining where 
the common school should leave of? and the 
high school begin. As soon as the present sys- 



tern was adopted the pupils began to look for- 
ward to something higher and school work 
seemed to be worth while. 

Within the last fifteen years there has been 
a steady increase in the number of high schools 
in the county, scarcely equaled in the rest of 
the State. Fishingcreek, Mifflin, Scott, Sugar- 
loaf, Hemlock, Madison, Briarcreek, Centre, 
Beaver, Roaringcreek, Main, Locust, Green- 
wood and Mount Pleasant by 1912 all had good 
high schools, thoroughly established and en- 
thusiastically patronized. The special appro- 
priation for these high ^schools for the year 
1912 was over $5,000. Besides the above there 
have been high schools established at Benton, 
Orangeville, Stillwater and Millville, and in 
every township except Pine, Montour and 
Jackson. The attendance at these schools is 
remarkable, over ninety per cent of those who 
begin the course remaining to graduate, a rec- 
ord which some of the more wealthy and popu- 
lous counties cannot equal. Wherever a high 
school has been in operation for a few years 
there will be found a social center composed of 
intellectually bright young men and women who 
will assist in the future development of the 
mental and moral character of their section. 

Each month the teachers in the different dis- 
tricts meet to discuss ways and means of im- 
proving their work, and each month the lead- 
ing teachers of the county spend a day at the 
county seat, where they listen to talks by some 
of the greatest educators of the State. 

In every district a local educational mass 
meeting is held thrice yearly, and is largely at- 
tended by the people. County institutes are 
growing steadily in popularity ; graduation 
exercises and commencements are held yearly ; 
school frolics for the improvement of the 
school buildings are often held ; an eight weeks' 
summer review school is held each year at Ben- 
ton and attended by 150 students ; an excursion 
of progressive farmers, teachers and pupils 
is made each year to the State College, to get 
acquainted with the progress of scientific agri- 
culture ; and a series of debating leagues are in 
operation to develop the latent oratory of the 
pupils. An exhibit of the schools of this county 
at the National Educational Association in 
Philadelphia in 1913 was pronounced to be the 
best of any country schools in the State. 


The character and equipment of the school- 
houses have kept pace with and often out- 
stripped that of the educational end. The old 
rural schoolhouse of twenty-five years ago was 
a frame structure, with an entrance directly into 

the schoolroom, and no arrangements were 
made for ventilation, the windows being closed 
for the winter and seldom opened until the 
warm breath of spring compelled it. As an old 
resident said about the pioneer schoolhouses 
and churches, "the atmosphere was carefully 
preserved from one season to the other, and 
one could tell he was in a schoolhouse or 
church, even when his eyes were closed, by the 

There were then no decorations or embellish- 
ment of the walls or exterior, and often a sad 
lack of repairs. The furniture consisted of 
plain wooden benches and desks, the seats 
sometimes having a close capacity for three or 
four children together. The outbuildings were 
small, dilapidated and unsanitary to the fullest 

But these conditions do not prevail now. 
The contrast is remarkable between the old- 
time school and the one of these days. Even 
the country schoolhouse now is often built of 
enduring brick, and where wood is used the 
style of architecture and furnishings are in 
consonance with all that modern science can 
show, while the efforts of the directors, teach- 
ers and pupils are constantly directed to the 
end of housing the scholar in a building where 
he can gain an education without losing his 
health and cheerfulness. 

The location and character of the high 
schools of the county are given below, and even 
where there is no comment on the school it is 
to be understood that the building is in as good 
a state of repairs as its age will allow. The 
grammar schools of the different townships 
are described in the chapters devoted to the 
general history of those divisions. 

Superintendent Evans was elected to the of- 
fice which he holds in 1901 and has been re- 
peatedly reelected up to 1914. Most of the 
recent educational growth of the county is due 
to his efforts. His unflagging energy and 
abundant resources of mind and body, coupled 
with a genial personality, have endeared him 
to all with whom he has been associated. He 
has a fine and artistic sense, and through his 
efforts the schools have had their lack of deco- 
rative appearance filled by the placing upon 
their walls of hundreds of finely framed pic- 
tures from the old masters and modern artists. 

Within the last year Superintendent Evans 
had the honor given him of the presidency of 
the Columbia County Historical Society, and 
he intends to enlist the teachers and scholars 
in the work of gathering material and relics 
for the rooms of the society in the county court- 
house. This will be a method of teaching his- 
tory in a practical and effective manner. 



Location Building 

Beaver— Beaver Valley New .. 

Benton— Benton Remodeled 

Berwick OJd 

Bloomsburg Old 

Briarcreek- N. Berwick New 

Centre— Grange Hall New 

Catawissa 01° ' ,' ',■ ',■ 

Centralia ■' • • Kemodeled 

Conyngham— AVistes New, 8 rooms J. A. Shovlin 

Fishingcreek— Jonestown New bamuel J. Seesholtz 

Greenwood New Hazel Kester 

Hemlock— Buckhorn New Maurice Girton 

Locust— Newlin New Charles W. Keeler 

Myrtle Rice 
L. Ray Appleman 
J. Y. SliaiTibach 
W. C. Mauser 
R. C. Cole 
Frank Adams 
Frank A. Frear 
R. A. Fetterman 

Main — Mainville 

. New John E. Klingerman 

Madison— Jerseytown New 

Mifflin— Mifflinville Remodeled 

MillviUe New 

Mount Pleasant— Canby New . . . . 

Orangeville— Academy Remodeled 

Roaringcrcek— Gulp New 

Scott— Espy Old 

Stillwater New 

Sugarloaf — Grassmere New 

West Berwick , New Harlan R. Snyder 

In looi tliere were 246 teachers in the ability of County Superintendent Evans. Fol- 

county ; now there are 325. Much of the re- lowing is the statement of the number of 

cent educational growth is owing to the wide- schools, teachers, and financial standing of the 

spread influence of the Normal School, and to county for the year 1912, taken from the re- 

the unflagging energy and the fine organizing port of Superintendent Evans : 

Kimber Hartman 
Chas. W. Potter 
Jjeo. M. Leehman 
Amos Gruber 
M. D. Mordan 
Florence Hauck 
Ernest Merrill 
Ida Dreibelbis 
A. S. Fritz 



> B 



" s 

2 ^ 



Tax and Rate Per Cent Receipts 

> u 
— ' c 


Beaver township 8 

Benton horougli 6 

Benton township 7 

Berwick borough 2i 

Bloomsburg 25 

Briarcreek township 14 

Catawissa borough 12 

Catawissa township 3 

Centralia borough 8 

Centre township. 10 

Cleveland township 7 

Conyngham township 17 

Fishingcreek township.... 9 

Franklin township 4 

Greenwood township 11 

Hemlock township 8 

Jack'^on township 4 

T.orust township 11 

Madison township 10 

MTtn township 6 

MifRin township 10 

MillviUe borough 4 

Montour townsliip 4 

Mount Pleasant township. 8 

Orange township 4 

Orangeville borough 3 

Pine township 8 

Roarinccreek township. ... 5 

Scott township 8 

Stillwater borouch 3 

Sugarloaf township 12 

West Berwick borough. . . 20 









83 $2.08 

























































1 1 

SO. 00 






I 99 





























































SO. 00 












1 1 











































































1. 141. 52 





































































1.132. 51 










1. 71 



1. 197-53 












































I 10 










































































290 7.8 92 222 $59.68 $47-33 4.896 4.861 8,124 87 $2.49 8.34 I $144.036.19 $69,320.09 





rt X o 

to rt 

X to ^ 

^^ u p 

C D D. 

5 O =1- 

P m rt 


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o w - 

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Beaver twp $3,878.97 

Benton bor 3,626.19 

Benton twp 1.998.98 

Berwick bor 56,835.61 

Bloomsburg 44.745.66 

Briarcreek twp 5.527.22 

Catawissa bor 8,750.90 

Catawissa twp 1,267.91 

Centralia bor 10,001.94 

Centre twp 2,950.11 

Cleveland twp 2,397.77 

Conyngham twp 16,750.30 

Fishingcreek twp...l. 2,764.68 

Franklin twp 1,366.78 

Greenwood twp 3.164.96 

Hemlock twp 2,334.23 

Jackson twp 1,200.19 

Locust twp 3,876.87 

Madison twp 4,687.41 

Main twp 2.959.23 

Mifflin twp 3.633.87 

Millville bor 3,079.53 

Montour twp 1,951.84 

Mount Pleasant twp., 2,352.30 

Orange twp 1,339-48 

Orangeville bor 1,281.22 

Pine twp 6.942.75 

Roaringcreek twp 1,391.67 

Scott twp 2,907.96 

Stillwater bor 93187 

Sugarloaf twp 4.421.99 

West Berwick bor. . . . 16,426.54 

$5. 369-19 





8. 535-07 










































































































































42. oS 









































$227,746.93 $297.067.02 $42,649.09 $137,905.54 $7,768.27 $10.740.46 $2.392.26 $2,947.42 $82,629.77 $287,032.81 


The eleventh annual session of the Benton 
Summer School was held in 19 14, the term 
being from May i8th to July 3d. During the 
ten previous years over fifteen hundred stu- 
dents had attended the sessions, many of them 
coming from distant points. 

Not only is the school designed for teachers, 
but it is also of immense value to students who 
desire to advance themselves rapidly and cut 
down the time of high school work. The re- 
markable success of this school is due to the 
interest the teachers take in the work and the 
lack of "frills and fads" in the work. Several 
prominent speakers address the classes during 
the term each year. 

The faculty for 1914 were : William Evans, 
county superintendent ; L. Ray Appleman, 
principal Benton high school ; Mary Shambach, 
Berwick high school ; M. D. Mordan. Orange- 
ville: Gordon Baker, Medico-Chirurgical Col- 
lege, Philadelphia; George M. Lehman. Mill- 
'ville high school; Charles W. Potter, IMifflin 

high school; Ida Walter, Catawissa primary 
school ; Blanche Shultz, State College ; T. R. 
Griffith, supervisor of music. West Berwick 
schools ; Daisy Olive Buterbaugh, drawing, of 
State Normal College, Indiana, Pennsylvania. 
The enrolled students for 1914 were: Hazel 
L. Krapp, Hester Beach, Cora Kline, Beaver 
Valley; Pansy Brink, Frank Brink, Rupert 
Belles, Maude Cole, Myrtle Conner, Larue 
Hess, Bessie Hess, Florence Hess, E. E. Haney, 
\\'arren Kile, Susan Kile, Flossie Siegfried, 
Edna Snyder, Arthur Wood, Griffith Yocum, 
Fannie Harris, Benton ; Edward F. Bower, 
Clara Cole, Charles Cole, Jesse Eves, Helen 
Ferster, Earl Hartman, Helen Spaide, Letha 
M. Smith, Berwick; Charles Butler, Anna 
Bogart, Bloomsburg ; Mary E. Achy, Effie 
Bittner, Austin Cherrington, Newton Rider, 
Gruver Rhoads. Edward C. Rhoads, Harry 
Berninger, John Goodman, Hester Barndt, 
Ross Creasv. Hazel Bucher, Catawissa : Anna 
Kealy, Ella Rooney. Anthony McDonald, Char- 
lotte Price, Ethel Fennessy, Pearl Singleton, 
Loretto Conroy, Annie Gallagher, Martha Bod- 



man, Hannah McHale, Margaret Kostenbau- 
der, Griffith Yocum, Mary Maguire, Mary 
Steelfox, Irene Mohan, Centraha; G. R. Hart- 
man, Espy ; Stanley R. Davis, Frank Hartman, 
Leota Hess, Mamie L. Wenner, Harland 
Thomas, Forks ; Lulu Sutliff, Central ; Pearl 
Eves. Zelpha Hendershott, Rosa D. Hill, Helen 
Sees, Myrtle Mordan, Marian Turner, Jersey- 
town ; Belma Colder, Jamison City ; Lulu 
Giberson, Eva Hess, Lulu Hess, Fred Stout, 
Leona Harrington, Marie Fritz, Jamison City ; 
Harold Sutliff, Laquin; Helen Cole, Henry 
Fought, Clara Shoemaker, Grace Thomas, 
Margaret A. Welsh, Jay Watts, Mamie Kess- 
ler, Frank Fought, Millville; Harry Hauck, 
Fannie Gearhart, Mainville ; Florence A. 
Gruver, Emory Seely, Calvin E. Dice, Nesco- 
peck ; Chloe Trivelpiece, Fairmount Springs ; 
Freda Brown, Harold Campbell, Helen Creasy, 
Edith Oman, Elva Hayhurst, Myrtle Hartman, 
Mae Kline, Phyllis Turner, Orangeville; Car- 
roll Appleman, Roy Girard, Ora Miller, Emer- 
son Reece, RohrslDurg; Effie Hehvig, Lester 
Yeager, Roaringcreek ; Angie Beishline, Sallie 
Beishline, Her\-ey Reinard, Edna Pealer, Still- 
water; Anna Heydenreich, Strawberry Ridge; 
Bertelle Hayman, New Columbus ; Walter 
Stackhouse, Forrest Peterman, Unityville ; 
Anna Kasnitz, Francis Peters, Ruth McCleery, 
West Berwick ; Edith Lindermuth, Zion. 


The act of 1854 provided for the election of 
county superintendents of public schools. In 
some of the old histories of Columbia county a 
partial list of the different incumbents of this 
office has been printed, but below will be found 
the first correct list of names, together with the 
dates of election or appointment. The names 
of the county superintendents from the first 
year to the present date (1914) are as follows: 

Joel E. Bradley, elected June 5, 1854; Reu- 
ben W. Weaver, appointed Jan. i, 1855; Wil- 
liam Burgess, elected May 4, 1857; Lewis 
.Appleman, elected May 7, i860 ; William Bur- 
gess, appointed Oct. 23, 1861 ; John B. Patton, 
appointed March 31, 1863; Charles G. Bark- 
ley, elected Mav 4, 1863, reelected May i, 
1866, and May 4, 1869; William H. Snyder, 
elected May 7, 1872, reelected May 4, 1875, ^"d 
May 7, 1878 ; J. S. Grimes, elected May 3, 1881, 
reelected May 6, 1884. and May, 1887; Wil- 
liam C. Johnston, elected May, 1890, and re- 
elected May, 1893; J. K. Miller, elected May, 
1896, and reelected May, 1899; William W. 
Evans, elected May, 1902, and reelected 1905, 
1908, 191 1 and 1914. 

Under the school code of 191 1, the term 
of office was extended to four years. 



Probably the most potent force in shaping 
the actions of a community is the newspaper 
published by the leading men and read by the 
majority of the people. Columbia county has 
had a number of these mouthpieces and most 
of them have left an impress upon the history 
of the county. This review of the rise and fall 
of the different organs of the parties and 
leaders of the past and present is gathered 
from many sources, and is considered correct. 


The Bloomsburg Register, published by 
James Delevan, was begun about the first of 
October, 1826, as appears by the oldest copy 
which was in the possession of Hon. Leonard 
B. Rupert, in 1883, bearing date May 10, 1827, 
and being Vol. I, No. 32. It was a sheet io>< 
by 17 inches. 

In April, 1828, Thomas Painter purchased 
the paper from the owners and changed the 
name to the Columbia County Register. He 
continued the publication until April, 1844, 
when it was discontinued. The Register was 
devoted to the party opposed to the Democ- 
racy, and was vigorously edited by Mr. Painter. 

The Columbia Democrat was established by 
John S. Ingram, and the first number issued 
April 29, 1837. Then, or shortly after, he was 
joined by Franklin S. Mills. They conducted 
the paper for one year, and in 1838 sold it to 
Capt. Henry Webb. He gave it permanence, 
and in March, 1847, sold it to Col. Levi L. 
Tate, who continued it until 1866, and in Feb- 
ruary of that year sold it to Elijah R. Ikeler. 
He consolidated it with the Star of The North, 
and called the combination the Democrat and 
Star, the name changing subsequently to the 
Bloomsburg Democrat. It was continued 



under that name until January, 1869, when it 
was bought by Capt. Charles B. Brockway, 
and merged into the Columbian. The paper 
was, under all its names and varying fortunes, 
consistently Democratic in its politics, and was 
always deservedly influential. Of its editors, 
Ingram went from here to Pottsville, Mills to 
New Jersey, Tate to Williamsport. 

The Star of the North was established by 
Reuben W. Weaver and Benjamin S. Gilmore, 
Feb. I, 1849. Gilmore retired Aug. i, 1850, 
and the paper was continued by Mr. Weaver 
until his death, Dec. 2, 1857. It was subse- 
quently sold by his administrator and bought 
by Williamson H. Jacoby in January, 1858. 
He published it until Oct. 16, 1862, when he 
went into the army, and the paper was sus- 
pended until August, 1863, when he returne'd 
and resumed the publication. It was carried 
on under the old name until February, 1866, 
when it was consolidated with the Columbia 
Democrat, then owned by Elijah R. Ikeler, as 
the Democrat and Star. At the end of about 
seven months Mr. Ikeler sold his interest in 
the establishment to Josiah P. Shuman, and 
Jacoby and Shuman ran the paper until Jan- 
uary, 1867, when Mr. Shuman retired, Jacoby 
continuing the paper as the Bloomsburg Demo- 
crat until January, 1869, when he sold it to 
Capt. Charles B. Brockway, who merged it into 
the Columbian. 

The Columbia County Republican was estab- 
lished in Bloomsburg March i, 1857, by Dr. 
Palemon John. In 1869 he sold the paper to a 
stock company, and Dr. WilHam H. Bradley 
was editor. Dr. Bradley and Lewis Gordon 
subsequently purchased the paper, and in 187 1 
sold it to Daniel A. Beckley and John S. 
Phillips, who became the publishers, the edi- 
torial department being managed by Mr. Beck- 
ley. In 1873 E. M. Wardin bought the interest 
of John S. Phillips, and not long after that of 
Daniel A. Beckley and became the sole pro- 
prietor. On the first of August, 1875, James 
C. Brown purchased the paper from E. M. 
Wardin, and for a number of years conducted 
it with D. A. Beckley as associate editor. Mr. 
Beckley retired, and Mr. Brown continued as 
sole proprietor until 1908, when he sold the 
paper to O. B. Ammerman, and subsequently 
the ownership was changed into a stock com- 
pany, with Mr. Ammerman as president. It 
was published and managed by C. W. 
Matthews as a semi-weekly, for the company, 
for a short time, when Mr. Matthews retired 
and John S. Woods succeeded him. The pres- 
ent owner is the Bloomsburg Publishing Com- 
pany, and Charles E. Kesty is the editor. 

The Columbian was established in Blooms- 
burg May 5, 1866, as the organ of the Johnson 
Republicans, under the management of George 
H. Moore, who published thirty-five numbers. 
The good will, subscription list and material 
were then purchased by a number of Demo- 
crats of the county, and placed under the 
charge of John G. Freeze, Jan. 4, 1867, as a 
Democratic newspaper, beginning Vol. I, No. i. 
He continued until Feb. 15. 1867, when Capt. 
Charles B. Brockway became associated with 
him, and eventually bought up the stock and 
took entire charge and ownership of the paper. 
It was enlarged July 12, 1867, and began to 
be printed on a steampower press. On the 
1st of January, 1869, by the purchase of the 
Bloomsburg Democrat from Mr. Jacoby, the 
Columbian became the sole Democratic paper 
in the county. On the ist of January, 1871, 
Henry L. DiefTenbach bought the paper and 
published it one year, when Captain Brockway 
resumed the control. In July, 1873. Mr. Dief- 
fenbach again took the paper, and continued 
until Oct. I, 1875, when Charles B. Brockway 
and George E. Elwell purchased it. They con- 
tinued it to Oct. I, 1879, when Captain Brock- 
way retired, and on that day John K. Bitten- 
bender purchased Brockway's interest in the 
paper, and the publishing firm became Elwell 
& Bittenbender. It continued under this man- 
agement until Feb. 20, 1893, when Mr. Bitten- 
bender sold his interest to George E. Elwell, 
who became the sole proprietor. 

In September, 1909, Mr. Elwell associated 
with him his son, G. Edward Elwell. Jr., and 
on April i, 1910, the son became a partner, the 
firm name changing to George E. Elwell & 
Son. On April 7, 1910, the publication of the 
Columbian ceased, for the reason that the job 
printing part of the business had so increased 
as to demand all the time of the proprietors, 
and the further reason that the financial re- 
turns from a weekly newspaper were no longer 
commensurate with the labor required. Prop- 
ositions to sell the paper, and to consolidate 
with another, were both declined, and the 
establishment retains the name of the "Colum- 
bian Printing House," by which it has been 
known for the last forty-six years. 

From January, 1867, the Columbian was 
Democratic in politics, and devoted to the gen- 
eral policy of that party. In October, 1881, 
the office was moved into its own three-story 
brick building, 25 by 75 feet, erected especially 
for it, on Main street. The presses are run 
by electric power, and in all its appointments 
the office is one of the finest printing establish- 
ments in the interior of the State. 



The Christian Messenger was started by 
Edward E. Orvis, at Benton, in January, 1870. 
It was a monthly of twenty-four pages. In 
1872 the name was changed to the Messenger 
and Laborer, and D. Oliphant, of London, 
Canada, became co-editor, with Mr. Orvis as 
pubHsher. The paper was enlarged to thirty- 
two pages. In January, 1875, it was changed 
to a four-page weekly. The office was moved 
to Orangeville Oct. i, 1875, and the paper sus- 
pended on Dec. 26th of that year for lack of 

The Democratic Sentinel was established in 
Bloomsburg in 1871, by Charles M. Vander- 
slice, who conducted it in a building which 
stood at the rear of the lot now occupied by the 
Townsend building. On April 12, 1885, the 
paper was purchased by William Krickbaum, 
and the office was subsequently moved to its 
present location, east of the courthouse. In 
1888, J. C. Rutter, Jr., was made manager of 
the plant, and continued in that position for 
eighteen years. In 1892 a daily edition was 
started in the Sentinel office under the title of 
the Bloomsburg Daily, the first daily paper 
published in the county, except the short-lived 
Sun. J. C. Rutter, Jr., was the editor and 
manager. On January I, 1904, Mr. Rutter 
purchased the plant and made the Sentinel a 
semi-weekly, continuing the publication of the 
Bloomsburg Daily. He held the office under 
his control until June, 1906, when he sold to 
John G. McHenry. Percy Brewington, the 
present editor of the Benton Argus, was made 
editor and held that office for a year. The 
business was incorporated as a stock company 
and in 1908 the daily was .called the Daily 
Mail, the corporation the Sentinel Printery, 
and George D. Herbert was made president 
and manager. In July, 1909, J. C. Rutter, Jr., 
succeeded him, remaining until March, 1914. 
The Dailv Sentinel came into being in Febru- 
ary, 1892, and is at present published by Dr. 
C. F. Altmiller, who is also editor-in-chief. 
J. P. Ziegler is business manager; C. A. Har- 
rington, city editor; and C. R. Smith, foreman 
of the mechanical department. 

The Independent JVeekly was started by 
William H. Smith and E. E. Orvis in Benton 
on April i, 1874, as a Democratic newspaper. 
On Oct. I, 1875, they removed it to Orange- 
ville with the Messenger and Laborer, and 
Smith & Orvis dissolved partnership. Smith 
continuing to publish the Independent. 

On April I, 1876, the Independent JVeekly 
was moved back to Benton, where it was pub- 
lished until September, 1877, when the plant 
was removed to Milton by Mr. Smith, who 

started a paper there called the Argus. His 
office was totally destroyed in the great Milton 
fire in 1884, but he started it again and con- 
tinued it until 1892, when he went back to 
Benton and reestablished the Argus, which he 
conducted until August, 1892, when he died. 
Its publication was continued by his widow 
until Aug. 30, 1901, with Percy Brewington 
as manager. On the latter date it was pur- 
chased by Brewington and Alfred Edgar, who 
owned it until May, 1906, when Mr. Brewing- 
ton purchased his partner's interest and became 
sole owner. In 1913 the ownership changed 
to C. L. Hirleman, Mr. Brewington remaining 
as manager, and he is now again the owner. 
It has a large circulation in the upper end of 
the county. 

The Bloomsburg Journal was begim in 1876, 
by G. A. Potter, as a temperance and family 
newspaper. It was a five-column, four-page 
paper. In October, 1881, the form was 
changed to a quarto of twelve pages, and then 
of sixteen pages. In September, 1882, Dr. 
Jacob Schuyler purchased a half interest in 
the paper, and the new firm changed the form 
to the old folio style. Mr. Potter again became 
owner in 1887 and moved the plant to Mill- 
ville, where he started the Weekly Tablet. 
Since the death of Mr. Potter the paper has 
been published by his son-in-law, Boyd Tres- 
cott, who is also a surveyor and justice of the 

The Sun. a daily paper, was started in April, 
1S81, by Alem B. Tate and H. W. Kahler, and 
about eighty numbers were issued. Dissen- 
sions in the management and difficulties grow- 
ing out of a want of support put an eclipse upon 
the Sun. at the end of about three months. 

The Herald of Freedom was published by a 
gentleman named Case, between the years 1850 
and i860. It was a sort of workingman's free- 
soil advocate. After an unsuccessful struggle 
the establishment was transported from 
Bloomsburg to McEwensville ; and the paper 
ceased to be published there after a few 

The Morning Press was established in 
Bloomsburg on March i. 1902, by Paul R. 
Eyerly and Charles Thomas Vanderslice, as 
a morning daily. From the first issue it sprang 
into favor. Beginning as a four-page, six- 
column sheet, the demands upon its space grew 
so rapidly that in the fall of the same year it 
was enlarged to six pages, and the next spring 
to eight pages, which it has since maintained. 
The handsome and commodious home which 
the Press now occupies is in striking compari- 
son with the quarters in which it first was 



printed. When the paper was bom in 1902 
two small rooms in the Dentler building on 
Main street were all that were required, and 
into these were crowded both the editorial and 
composing rooms, while a small corner of the 
basement was given over to the pressroom. 
There on the night before the first paper was 
issued the proprietors battled all night with 
a flood, wading knee-deep in the water until by 
daylight they had reduced its level sufficiently 
to enable them to print the first edition. Thus 
the birth of the Press is associated with the 
memorable flood of 1902, for the second day 
of its existence brought the news of the terri- 
ble destruction wrought. The Press was the 
only paper that managed to circulate through 
this section that day, and the enterprise of the 
proprietors in getting and publishing the news 
then set a standard which has never been sur- 
passed, and which they have lived up to in 
every period of the paper's subsequent history. 
The new home of the Press, erected in 1908, 
on Main near Market street, is unquestionably 
one of the most artistic and substantially con- 
structed buildings in central Pennsylvania. 
Classical in design, it is essentially different in 
appearance from any other buildings in this 
section, and commands the admiration and 
attention of the beholder. The front of the 
building is perhaps the finest example of ar- 
chitecture in the county, and is the work of 
Verus T. Ritter, an architect of more than 
local fame. The entire front is designed in 
the form of an arch, the stonework of which 
is distinctive and extremely decorative. Into 
the design have been worked a number of orna- 
ments surrounding the doors and windows, 
and the whole is surmounted by a globe repre- 
senting the two Americas, encircled by a 
wreath. This front is in part stone, grey 
pressed brick and metal, the delicate shades 
and contrasts forming a harmonious whole. 
The construction of the entire building is most 
substantial, double floors being used exclus- 
ively, while vibration has been completely elim- 
inated by the use of heavy steel beams and 
wall anchors for the joists. With an outside 
measurement of 23 by 64 feet, the building 
has four floors, the pressroom being in the 
basement. Here are the large Duplex press, 
the folders and the mailing department. The 
equipment of the composing room is the most 
complete that experience and foresight could 
provide. Here are located the typesetting ma- 
chines and the necessary equipment for the 
production of a modem daily paper. The job 
department is fitted up in the most scientific 
and convenient manner, and is provided with 

sufficient material and machines to produce the 
higher class of commercial printed stationery. 
At the head of the mechanical and business 
department is C. T. Vanderslice, a member of 
the firm and a printer of many years' experi- 
ence, and he has surrounded himself with as- 
sistants of ability in the various departments. 
Paul R. Eyerly, another of the proprietors, is 
in charge of the outside news gathering and 
other business. Charles Kline is the circula- 
tion manager. 

With a circulation at the outset of 500 the 
paper grew to 2,400 at the end of the first year, 
and in 1914 is above the 5,000 mark, and this is 
claimed to be the largest of any inland paper 
in similar territory in the State. 


The first newspaper published in Catawissa 
was the Catazvissa Advertiser, which was 
started in 1876 by Henry John and Joseph 
Rhinard. It did not survive to the end of its 
first volume. 

The Nezvs Item was established in Catawissa 
by G. E. Myers on May 16, 1878, as a five- 
column folio. In 1879 it was increased to 
twenty-four columns, and in 1881 to twenty- 
eight columns. Mr. Myers conducted it until 
1884, when Charles E. Randall and J. C. Yo- 
cum became the owners, continuing until 1887, 
when Mr. Randall became sole owner, and has 
so continued to the present time. The Nezvs 
Item has a large circulation on the south side 
of the river. Mr. Randall is a fearless and 
pungent writer and enjoys merited prosperity. 


In the following the facts concerning the 
newspapers which existed in Berwick up to 
1883 are gleaned from an article written by 
Col. John M. Snyder, a veteran editor, now 
deceased, which appeared in Freeze's History 
of Columbia County (1883). 

The Independent American was established 
in the spring of 1812 or 1813, by WilHam 
Carothers, who continued it until 1818, when 
it came into the possession of David Owen, son 
of Evan Owen, the founder of Berwick. In a 
short time he was succeeded by Orlando Por- 
ter, under whose management it remained until 
1827. He was followed by Daniel Bowen, who 
conducted it until 1832, when' George Mack 
became the owner, and changed the name to 
the Berzvick Gazette; he made it a Democratic 
journal. After several years the office came 
into the possession of Evan O. Jackson, who 



continued it as a Democratic paper until 1839, 
when he disposed of it to Col. Levi L. Tate, 
who changed the name to the Democratic Sen- 
tinel. In 1840 Colonel Tate took A. M. 
Gangewere in as partner, Mr. Gangewere re- 
tiring in 1883. Colonel Tate then established 
the Enquirer, and in 1845 B. S. Gilmore pur- 
chased a half interest in the paper and took 
charge of the office, Colonel Tate going to 
Wilkes-Barre, where he started the Lucerne 
Democrat. In 1847 ^'^^- Gilmore bought 
Colonel Tate's interest in the Enquirer, and 
Colonel Tate about the same time purchased 
the Columbia Democrat from Capt. Henry 
Webb, and removed to Bloomsburg. The pub- 
lication of the Enquirer was continued by Mr. 
Gilmore until the spring of 1849, when he 
moved the office to Bloomsburg and formed a 
partnership with Reuben W. Weaver, estab- 
lishing the Star of the North, an account of 
which will be found among the Bloomsburg 

The Sentinel, a Whig paper, was started in 
1834 by John T. Davis, and continued until 
about 1838, when it was bought by Wilbur & 
Joslin and the name changed to the Independ- 
ent Ledger. It was made an eight-page liter- 
ary paper, and conducted for about one year, 
when it was bought by several gentlemen, and 
the name again changed. 

The Conservator was issued by them with 
John T. Davis as editor. It continued through 
the "Hard Cider" campaign of 1840, and is 
supposed to have been discontinued after the 

The Star of the North was started by A. M. 
Gangewere in 1843, and published by him 
about one year. He sold it to N. J. Jones and 
John H. Winter, who continued it until 1848, 
when they sold it to Dewitt C. Kitchen, who 
changed the name to the Standard, and made 
it politically opposed to the Democrats. He 
issued it from 1848 to 1850, when it again 
changed hands and name. Col. John M. Snyder 
being the purchaser. 

The Telegraph was the new title, and the 
policy returned to the Democracy. From 
April, 1850, until the spring of 1851 it was thus 
published, when Colonel Snyder sold it to 
James McClintock Laird, who published it 
until the spring of 1853, when it was sold, 
but to whom does not appear. 

The Investigator was established in 1853 by 
Stewart Pearce and John M. Snyder, the 
former retiring at the end of a month. Colonel 
Snyder continued it until the spring of 1855, 
when it was purchased by Col. Levi L. Tate, 
and the name changed to the Berwick Gazette. 

The Berzi'ick Gazette was conducted by Tate 
& Irvin until 1856, when they were succeeded 
by Walter H. Hibbs. He was followed by 
Alem B. Tate, who continued it until i860, 
when it was purchased by Jeremiah S. San- 
ders and issued by him here until 1869, when 
he moved the outfit to Hazleton. This left 
Berwick without a local paper for the first 
time in fifty years. 

The Independent was started by Charles B. 
Snyder on June i, 1871, with a new outfit. 
Frank L. Snyder was assistant editor, and 
Col. John M. Snyder the local editor. For 
about nine years the Snyders published an 
excellent paper, until Sept. i, 1879, when they 
sold it to Robert S. Bowman, who changed the 
title to the Berwick Independent. Mr. Bow- 
man conducted it ably until July, 1904, when 
he sold it to C. A. Rasely, who consolidated it 
with the Berivick Weekly Enterprise. 

The Berwick Gazette, the third of that name, 
was started on March 25, 1882, by J. H. Diet- 
erick. On Jan. i, 1884, he sold it to M. B. 
Margerum, who in September, 1885, associ- 
ated H. R. Reedy with him as a partner. This 
paper ceased publication after a brief exist- 

The Berwick Weekly Enterprise was estab- 
lished by C. A. Rasefy on Feb. 3, 1900. In 
July, 1904, he purchased the Independent and 
consolidated the two under the name of the 
Berznck Independent. He continued this pub- 
lication until Jan. 31, 1907, when it passed out 
of existence. 

The Berzvick Daily Enterprise, the first daily 
paper published in Berwick, was launched by 
C. A. Rasely April 6, 1903. It was a sprightly 
paper and filled a long-felt want. He con- 
ducted it until Jan. 31, 1907, when he sold 
the newspaper to C. T. Vanderslice and Paul 
R. Eyerly, owners and publishers of the 
Bloomsburg Morning Press. Mr. Rasely re- 
tained the job printing department of the office, 
and still conducts it. He has a well equipped 
modern printing office. 

Vanderslice & Eyerly moved the Enterprise 
to another building, where they soon installed 
a new press, enlarged the paper, and are giving 
Berwick and vicinity an up-to-date journal. 


The Centralia Journal was started by Her- 
skovits & Co. in Centralia in December, 1893. 
It was a small weekly paper and expired after 
a short life. 



Bloomsburg is essentially a city of homes. 
Its abundant resources make it an ideal place 
in which to live and raise a family, and as the 
biographical portion of this history will show 
the people have not been neglectful of these 
advantages. In the heart of a rich and pro- 
gressive agricultural district, supplied with the 
finest of soil, provided with an abundance of 
pure water, elevated to a height above the sea 
which gives purity of air, and with a popula- 
tion noted for culture, refinement and intellec- 
tual attainments, there is nothing to prevent 
the continued growth of this beautiful town. 
And beautiful she is, in truth. Most of the 
streets are shaded by closely set maple trees, 
the roadways are kept in smooth and dustless 
condition, the residents vie with each other in 
the cultivation of flowers, and a spirit of civic 
pride induces everyone to exert his best efforts 
to keep the town at the front in every endeavor 
that will make for her growth and advance- 


In 1772 the site of the present town of 
Bloomsburg was not only located in the town- 
ship of Fishingcreek, county of Northumber- 
land, of the State of Pennsylvania, but at the 
same time designated by the State of Connec- 
ticut as part of the township of Wyoming, of 
their county of Westmoreland, claimed by 
them at the time. Under the Connecticut 
claim James McClure came here in May, 1769, 
and located a home site, while on his way to 
Wyoming, but he seems to have believed in 
the right of Pennsylvania to dispose of the 
land, for he obtained a patent from Francis 
Stewart in 1772. Stewart had never at- 
tempted to improve the land, which he had 
surveyed in 1769 under the title of "Beau- 
champ." McClure, after his purchase of the 
tract, built a log house, and within that humble 
domicile James McClure, Jr., the first white 
child born within the forks of the Susque- 
hanna, saw the light. 

The McClures were not long alone. During 
the year of their arrival Evan Owen (the 
founder of Berwick ) and John Doan came 
from Chester county with the intention of 
founding a settlement of Quakers. Owen lo- 
cated south of Kinney's run, while Doan set- 
tled near its mouth. Samuel Boone, also a 
Quaker, emigrated from Exeter township, 
Northumberland county, in 1775, and secured 
title to four hundred acres at the "Point," be- 
tween the river and Fishing creek, extending 
along the banks of both. From all the evi- 
dence so far unearthed it seems that the only 
other families living on the site of Bloomsburg 
before the Revolutionary war were the Clay- 
tons, Coopers and Kinneys. Thomas Clayton 
was a Quaker from Chester county, Kinney 
was from New Jersey, while nothing is known 
of the nativity of Cooper. 

Just before the commencement of the Revo- 
lutionary war James McClure died, but his 
widow cultivated the plantation until the Wy- 
oming massacre, in 1778, when she placed all 
her portable possessions on a raft and floated 
down the Susquehanna to Lancaster, remain- 
ing there until all danger was over. With her 
went the widow of Capt. Lazarus Stewart, 
who had been killed at Wyoming. Maj. Moses 
\^an Campen, who had married the daughter 
of Widow McClure, built the second fort in 
the county on her farm, one mile above the 
mouth of Fishing creek, calling it after his 
respected mother-in-law. The site of this fort 
is now marked by a tablet placed there by Fort 
McClure Chapter, D. A. R., of Bloomsburg. 

The fate of the last of the pioneers of 
Bloomsburg — Cooper — was most unfortunate. 
Robert Lyon, a soldier of Fort Augusta (Sun- 
bury), was sent to Wyoming with a boatload 
of stores. He landed at the mouth of Fishing 
creek and left his canoe and gun in the care of 
his dog, intending to visit the daughter of 
Cooper. He was captured a short distance 
away by Shenap, an Indian chief, and taken to 
Niagara, where he was finally released by his 




brother, an officer in the British army. Cooper 
had been somewhat antagonistic to the suit of 
Lyon, so that the latter's sudden disappear- 
ance caused his arrest. While on his way to 
the jail at Sunbury a rifle belonging to one of 
the posse was dropped into the river, and in 
the altercation Cooper, who was accused of 
throwing it overboard, was struck by the 
owner with a tomahawk. He lived for twenty 
days, and then expired in prison. Later on 
Lyon returned and the dead man's innocence 
was established. 

After the peace of 1783 immigration once 
more turned toward this section, but Blooms- 
burg, owing to its supposed swampy location, 
was not the gainer. Thomas Clayton had 
meanwhile removed to Catawissa, while Evan 
Owen had gone to found Berwick. In 1783 
Elisha Barton came to this spot. He built the 
"Red" mill on Hemlock creek, owned a large 
farm there and became justice of the peace, 
the first one in this section of the county. 
Upon Owen's departure his land came into the 
possession of Joseph B. Long, of New Jersey, 
who later sold it to Ludwig Eyer, the founder 
of Bloomsburg. In 1801 Joseph Hendershott 
and Andrew Schooley arrived, as also did 
Jacob Wanich. 

Ludwig Eyer at this time decided to give 
impetus to the settlement of the locality and in 
1802 laid out the town of Bloomsburg. At the 
time the town was laid out there were three 
buildings on the site, the Episcopal church, 
John Chamberlain's tavern and a deserted log 
house. But these were soon increased by the 
building operations of the incoming settlers. 
Soon after the founding of the town George 
Vance, a Scotch-Irish Presbyterian from New 
Jersey, built a cabin on the south side of Main 
street, at the junction of East. Abraham 
Grotz came from Easton in 1806 and built the 
first frame house in the new town, at what is 
now the corner of Second and Iron streets. 
Christopher Kahler and John Coleman also 
came from New Jersey in that year, the latter 
occupying the first mentioned deserted log 
house until he could build on what is now the 
corner of Center and Third streets. He 
planted there the first orchard in the town. 
In 1S09 Philip Alehrling, a native Hessian, 
opened the first store, near where the "Central 
Hotel" now stands. Daniel Snyder came in 
1810 and bought land next to the town plat 
from John Vance. At this time the town bore 
the name of Oyertown or Eycrstaedtel. 


From reminiscences of an old resident of 
the town a mental picture of the appearance 
of Bloomsburg in 1812 can be made. At that 
time a log house stood on First street at the 
site of the Tustin home ; the frame home of 
Daniel Fry stood at the corner of First and 
West ; at the forks on the east end of Second 
street was a one-story log house, owned and 
occupied by Daniel Snyder, who later opened 
a hotel there ; .\hraham Grotz, the hatter, was 
at the southwest corner of Second and Iron 
streets ; Christopher Kahler's home was on a 
lot east of the "Central Hotel": John Cham- 
berlain, the hotelkeeper, lived in a frame 
house on the site of Moyer's drug store ; oppo- 
site Kahler's house was the home of John 
Hagenbuch, and on the northwest corner was 
the one-story frame store of Philip Mehrling, 
who was later succeeded by William McKel- 
vy, Cyrus Barton and E. H. Biggs; a two- 
story frame hotel occupied the site of the 
present "Exchange Hotel" ; a one-story frame 
was at the comer of Jefferson alley and Second 
street, occupied by Mrs. Mooney ; a log house 
on the corner of Center and Second, owned by 
Mr. Fisher ; the two-story frame hotel of John 
Chamberlain on the northv^'est corner of 
Second and Center ; and on the opposite corner 
the Episcopal church, where the Townsend 
building now stands. On the north side of 
Second street there was no house nearer than 
the log home of John Hess, at the site of the 
residence of J. C. Rutter, Jr. The original 
town laid out by Eyer was from Iron to West 
streets. All of the section on East street, be- 
low Third, was called "Hopkinsville," after 
Rev. Caleb Hopkins, the Episcopal minister 
who laid out an addition to the town at that 
point. At that date a subscription school, 
taught by a Mr. Ferguson, stood at the north- 
east corner of Second and Iron streets. 


At the time John Chamberlain kept his tav- 
ern each guest was expected to spend at least 
sixpence at the bar for the privilege of sleep- 
ing on the bare floor of the public room that 
night. His establishment was a pretentious 
frame structure on the corner of Second and 

Casper Chrisman was the host of a smaller 
tavern on the site of the present "Exchange 
Hotel." This house was burned Feb. 24, 1870, 
when Henry J. Clark was the proprietor. The 
second building on the site was erected soon 



after, by John S. Sterner, and sold to W. B. 
Koons. The property was again damaged by 
fire in 1877. Soon after this it was bought by 
I. W. McKelvy, who leased it to George H. 
Brown, W. R. Tubbs, and James McClosky, 
successively, until 1894, when Gehrad Snyder 
bought it, and conducted it until 191 1. Then 
James Magee became the owner. Since then 
Robert J. Huntzinger has been the landlord. 

Conrad Hess ran a hotel on Main street, 
below Jefferson, on the site of the former I. 
W. Hartman property, for a number of years. 

The predecessor of the "Central Hotel" was 
a log structure erected in 1818 by Philip Mehr- 
ling, who was accidentally killed during its 
construction. Subsequently a brick building 
was erected on the site and conducted and 
owned by John Laycock from 1853 until his 
death, in 1879. Other owners were I. S, Kuhn, 
C. B. Ent, and J. Kline. Among the other 
former landlords were George H. Brown, 
George Aurand, Bernard Stohner, C. B. Ent 
and James Kline. It is now owned by Mrs. 
James Kline and is leased by George Wagen- 
seller, who has given the house a high reputa- 
tion. The hotel has in late years been much 
enlarged and improved. 

The "Forks Hotel," which stood at the head 
of Main street, at East street, was built in 1825 
by Daniel Snyder, and for many years the 
older settlers resorted there to pass the evening 
in interchange of stories and reminiscences. 
It was torn down in 1875. Among the various 
landlords of the "Forks" were G. W. Mauger 
and T. Bent Taylor. The pump at the corner 
furnished the hotel water supply. 

The "St. Elmo Hotel" was first opened by 
J. L. Girton in the property of James Cadman. 
It has since had a number of tenants, among 
them H. F. Deitterich, and George Wagen- 
seller. It is now conducted by H. S. Kelchner. 

The "City Hotel" was first opened by G. W. 
Sterner, who bought the land of I. W. Hart- 
man in 1875 and erected the building. He sold 
to the present proprietor, W. A. Hartzell, in 

Back in the early seventies there was a pub- 
lic house in the building now owned by Moyer 
Brothers, called the "City Hotel." It was 
built by Bernard Stohner, and he and George 
H. Brown and J. L. Girton were the successive 
landlords vmtil 1881, when it was purchased 
by Moyer Brothers, rebuilt and enlarged, and 
since then used by them in their extensive 
drug business. 

"East End Hotel" was operated for many 
years by William Giger. Since then it has had 
several tenants, a few years ago coming into 

the hands of J. L. Fisher, the present landlord. 

"Hotel Stauffer" was first opened some 
years ago by Mrs. B. Stohner. It had several 
tenants and several changes of name until P. 
B. Heddens became the owner and changed 
the name to "Hotel Heddens." A few years 
ago he leased it to the present landlord, E. 

"Hotel Irvin" is leased by Irvin A. Snyder, 
who for many years was connected with the 
"Exchange Hotel." It is a modern structure 
at Main and Railroad streets, and was first 
called "Hotel Lee" after the landlord. The 
next tenant, T. B. Brittain, changed it to 
"Hotel Brittain," and Mr. Snyder christened 
it with its present name. 

"Hotel Hidlay" when first licensed was 
managed by W. F. Stohner. At the end of a 
year Bruce Hidlay leased it, and later trans- 
ferred it to his father, A. C. Hidlay, who con- 
tinued it until 19 1 4, when he sold to O. E. 
Myers, the present occupant. 

The "Colonial Hotel," Metheral and Guin- 
ard, proprietors, is a new and commodious inn 
at Fifth and East streets. It was opened in 


Philip Mehrling, the first of the Bloomsburg 
merchants, appears to have been a man of 
wealth for those times. He assisted in the de- 
velopment of the town and built many of the 
houses as well as a hotel. In 1810 a Mr. 
Bishop opened a store at the northwest corner 
of Second and Center streets, and John Barton 
also opened a store about this date. The larg- 
est store in the town was opened by William 
McKelvy in 1816, on Market Square, and 
conducted by him and McKelvy & Neal for 
sixty years. They were succeeded by I. W. 
McKelvy, until 1894, when the store passed 
into the ownership of F. P. Pursel, the present 

The wholesale drug business of Moyer 
Brothers was founded in 1835 by John R. 
Moyer, with a capital of but $100. Another 
well known store was that of Eyer & Hefley, 
which was carried on from 1835 to 1845. In 
1843 I. W. Hartman began business in the old 
Arcade building, which stood on the site of 
the present Townsend building, comer of 
Market and Second streets. 


Many small shops were established at differ- 
ent early periods in Bloomsburg, catering to 



the wants of the few people, and the town was 
amply supplied with blacksmiths, carpenters, 
weavers, etc. The first industry of importance 
was the tannery of Daniel Snyder, at Main 
street and Light Street road, started in 1812 
after many obstacles of a financial nature. 
Another tannery was opened by Philip Christ- 
man, who sold out afterwards to William 

The first wagon shop was started under 
peculiar circumstances. In the year 1816 a 
stranger came to Bloomsburg and stopped at 
one of the taverns overnight. Inquiries of the 
landlord elicited the fact that he was a wagon- 
maker, his name was James Wells, and he was 
from Connecticut. The landlord needed a 
waeon, as did also others, this useful vehicle 
being conspicuous by its absence at the time in 
the town. Wells endeavor^ to obtain the use 
of tools from the carpenters of the town, but 
the prejudice against "Yankees" was so great 
that he was repeatedly refused. Finally Wil- 
liam Sloan agreed to let him have a bench and 
the use of tools in his shop, then located on 
Market street on the site of the present Lu- 
theran church. They went to the farm of Sloan 
near Bloomsburg and procured from the 
fences sufficient seasoned wood to build the 
first one-horse wagon ever seen in the town. 
Sloan at once began the manufacture of wag- 
ons, the product being of the "Dearborn" 
class. He sent salesmen around and soon had 
a thriving business. In 1832 John K. Grotz 
became his partner and decided to add the 
making of plows to the factory. He went to 
Lewistown, Mifflin county, to buy a plow, and 
started for home with it in his wagon, but on 
the way sold the latter, and fastening a sapling 
to the plow point hauled it sled-fashion more 
than half the way. The making of plows was 
not very successful, but the wagon business 
prospered under the original founders and 
their successors, M. C. Sloan & Brother, until 
1890, when it was discontinued. 

In 1832 a number of canalboats of the "ark" 
variety were built in Bloomsburg by John 
Whitenight, John Barton, Isaac Green, Samuel 
Ludwig and George Frey. These boats were 
loaded with grain and other products and 
shipped to southern ports, where both the 
boats and their contents were sold. 

Other smaller plants of the past were the 
foundry of S. M. Hess, which produced car 
wheels and fencing, and the establishment of 
the Bloomsburg Planing & Cabinet Company. 

In 1864 Peter S. Harman and Benjamin F. 
Sharpless opened a foundry and machine shop, 
running it for four years, after which Mr. 


Harman severed his connection and Mr. 
Sharpless continued the establishment for 
some years as the Eagle Iron Works. It stood 
on Third street, next to the Colonel Freeze 
property, and was removed when Center street 
was opened through it. 

One of the local industries between 1838 
and 1841 was the culture of the silkworm by 
Robert Cathcart and William G. Hurley, their 
mulberry grove being on the north side of 
First street. But it was mainly a "fad" and 
soon languished, the promoters hardly making 


The growth of the town was gradual and of 
a substantial character, and never savored of 
the "boom" method which so often wrecks a 
town as well as the promoters. In 1838 the 
population was a little over three hundred and 
the log and frame houses had for the most part 
been superseded by brick structures. The dis- 
covery of iron in the hills near had resulted 
in an increase of population, but it was not un- 
til the building of the furnaces in the early 
fifties that the town took its first spurt of 

After the establishment of the iron business 
the advent of the Lackawanna & Bloomsburg 
railroad in 1858 gave a fresh impulse to the 
population. This road had a station originally 
outside of the town limits, but before many 
years the depot was well within the built-up 
portion. In 1881 the North & West Branch 
railroad was built and helped somewhat to de- 
velop the river side of the town, l)ut for some 
years the only means of reaching the depot 
across the river was by ferry. 

In 1888 the bridge question was agitated 
and the Bloomsburg Bridge Company was or- 
ganized. The Pennsylvania Railroad Com- 
pany proposed the erection of a bridge to cost 
$100,000, they to take $55,000 of the stock, 
and the Bridge Company $45,000. After sev- 
eral interviews the project was abandoned, 
and the Bridge Company dissolved in 1890. 
An account of the subsequent building of this 
bridge is given elsewhere. 

These lines of railroad seemed to presage 
the development of Bloomsburg into a railroad 
center, but so far the prediction has not been 
fulfilled, although there is little to complain 
of in the way of shipping or passenger facil- 
ities. The only thing needed to complete the 
chain of railroads is a through line north and 
south connecting the Reading with the roads 



in Sullivan county by way of the Bloomsburg 
& Sullivan. 

Until 1889 the nearest point to reach the 
Philadelphia & Reading railroad from Blooms- 
burg was at Rupert, two miles distant, where 
an omnibus line met all passenger trains. 
Travelers of those days will remember the 
dusty ride to town in the rumbling coach. A 
branch of the Reading was constructed into 
Bloomsburg in 1889, with its terminal at Fifth 
and Railroad streets, where a building was 
erected by courtesy called a station. It was 
something better than a "shack" but not much 
more than a respectable "shanty." At one 
time an effort was made to locate the station 
on Market street diagonally across from the 
Lackawanna depot, which would necessitate 
crossing the tracks of the latter company be- 
low the town. This was resisted by the Lack- 
awanna Company, but after several years' 
litigation the Reading procured a favorable 
decision from the Supreme court. The project 
was abandoned, however, owing to the finan- 
cial stringency of the Reading at that time, and 
also to the fact that heavy damages were de- 
manded by property owners in case their lands 
were confiscated by the railroad. The old lo- 
cation was retained, and in 1912 a handsome 
new depot was erected, the grounds neatly 
laid out, and every convenience provided for 
both passenger and freight traffic. Mr. F. R. 
Carpenter was the agent of the Reading Com- 
pany at Rupert before the building of the an- 
nex, from 1883, and since 1889 has had charge 
of the Bloomsburg station. His services at 
the two places cover a period of thirty-one 
years, and he has always been and is a most 
efficient and obliging official. 

The Lackawanna Railroad Company also 
has been fortunate in having as its agent at 
Bloomsburg a man whose efficiency and popu- 
larity have caused his retention in that posi- 
tion from 1882 up to the present time. Mr. 
W. R. Kocher, while thoroughly attentive to 
his official duties, is also engaged in the coal 
trade. He is an active and useful citizen, in 
both business and religious relations, being an 
officer of the Methodist Church and also of 
the Business Men's Association. He was 
president of the town council in 1897. 

The Lackawanna freight station was de- 
stroyed by fire on May 2, 1914, and a new brick 
structure has taken its place. It is of rough 
pressed brick made by the Bloomsburg Brick 
Company, and is far more commodious and 
attractive than the former one. 

The returns of the mercantile appraiser for 
1886 showed an aggregate of seventy-one 

dealers in various commodities. Hardly one- 
third of that number existed in 1858. In 1914 
the appraiser's figures for Bloomsburg are 
165 dealers, wholesale and retail. 

As the town grew in size the plat was added 
to by many lots and additions, under various 
names, most of which are now forgotten. Be- 
sides "Hopkinsville," before mentioned, there 
were the suburbs of "Port Noble," on the 
banks of the canal ; "Snyder's addition," made 
in 1837; "Welsh Hill," formed by Rev. D. J. 
Waller in 1845 ; "Ramsay's addition," from its 
owner, Dr. John Ramsay; "Hurley's addition" 
of 1848; "Scottown," from Dr. David N. 
Scott, on the southwest ; the "Rupert & Barton 
addition," bounded by Fourth, Iron and East 
streets and the canal; "Morgantown," at the 
Irondale furnaces ; and "Rabbtown," at the 
Bloom furnaces. 


Bloom township was one of the original 
twelve with which the county was organized in 
1813. From it at various periods were taken 
portions to be added to Mount Pleasant, 
Orange, Centre and Scott. The final remains 
were organized in 1870 as the Town of 
Bloomsburg, and include all the land between 
the two great bends of Fishing creek, the 
Susquehanna and the township of Scott. 

After the last slice had been taken from 
Bloom township and the town incorporated 
the population in i860 was 2,668; in 1870, 
3,340; in 1880, 3,702; in 1890, 4.635; in 1900, 
6,170; in 1910, 7,413. 

The town council consists of a president and 
si.x memljers, who are elected annually. Since 
the organization of the town the officials have 
been as follows : 

1870 — President, Elias Mendenhall ; mem- 
bers, Joseph Sharpless, Stephen Knorr, W. B. 
Koons, F. C. Eyer, Caleb Barton, C. G. 

1871 — President, Elias Mendenhall; mem- 
bers, Joseph Sharpless, C. G. Barkley, Stephen 
Knorr. W. B. Koons, F. C. Eyer, John Rinker. 

1872 — President, Elias Mendenhall; mem- 
bers, Freas Brown, Stephen Knorr, Caleb 
Barton, John S. Sterner, James Dennis, J. H. 
Maize vice W. B. Koons, resigned. 

1873 — President, Stephen Knorr ; mem- 
bers, Louis Bernhard, Charles Thomas, C. W. 
Miller, Samuel Knorr, J. S. Evans, John S. 

1874 — President, David Lowenberg; mem- 
bers, Joseph Hendershott, P. S. Harman, J. K. 



Eyer. Louis Bernhard, Stephen Knorr, W. 

1875 — President, David Lowenberg; mem- 
bers, E. R. Drinker, G. W. Sterner, Eli Jones, 
Isaiah Hagenbuch, W. O. Holmes, Welling- 
ton Hartman vice John Cadman, resigned. 

1876 — President, David Lowenberg; mem- 
bers, Peter Jones, Isaiah Hagenbuch. E. R. 
Drinker, George E. Elwell, W. O. Holmes, E. 
M. Knorr. 

1877 — President, David Lowenberg; mem- 
bers, E. R. Drinker, W. Rabb, W. O. Holmes, 
Peter Jones, G. W. Correll, G. E. Elwell. 

1878 — President, G. A. Herring; members, 
J. S. Evans, E. R. Drinker, W. Rabb, G. E. 
Elwell, B. F. Sharpless, W. O. Holmes. 

1879^ — President, I. S. Kuhn ; members, T- 
S. Evans, W. O. Holmes, G. M. Lockard, B. 
F. Sharpless, E. R. Drinker, W. Rabb. 

1880 — President, G. A. Herring; members, 
W. Rabb, J. S. Evans, B. F. Sharpless, Charles 
Thomas. George Hassert, W. O. Holmes. 

t88i — President, G. A. Herring; members, 
W. Rabli, George Hassert, J. K. Lockard, I. 
W. Hartman, G. W. Correll, C._W. Neal. 

1882 — President, G. A. Herring; members, 
C. B. Sterling, W. Rabb, George Hassert, W. 
S. Moyer. L. E. Waller, I. W. Hartman. 

1883 — President, G. A. Herring; members, 
C. B. Sterling. W. Rabb, George Hassert, I. 
W. Hartman, L. E. Waller, W. S. Moyer. 

1884 — President, L. B. Rupert; members, 
C. B. Sterling, W. Rabb, Eli Jones, C. A. 
Moyer, Isaiah Hagenbuch, L. T. Sharpless. 

1885 — President, L. B. Rupert; members, 
C. B. Sterling, J. C. Sterner, Henry Rosen- 
stock, C. A. Moyer, Isaiah Hagenbuch, L. T. 

1886 — President, B. F. Zarr; members, C. 
B. Sterling, T. C. Sterner, Henry Rosenstock, 
E. B. Clark, "L. T. Sharpless, W. J. Correll. 

1887 — President, P. S. Harman ; members, 
Chnton Sterling, F. D. Dentler, E. B. Clark, 
L. S. Wintersteen, R. H. Ringler, James 

1888 — President, P. S. Harman; members, 
Clinton Sterling, John Wolf, Charles Hassert, 
James Cadow, E. C. Wells, R. H. Ringler. 

i88g — President. P. S. Harman; members, 
R. H. Ringler, E. C. Wells, Louis Gross, 
Joshua Fetterman, Fred Schwinn, I. E. Yost. 

1890 — President, G. A. Herring; members, 
William Rabb, S. W. Shntt, E. C. Wells, Louis 
Gross, J. Fetterman, F. Schwinn. 

1891 — President, P. S. Harman ; members, 
Thomas Gorrey, W. B. Allen, J. S. White, I. 
W. Willits, E. R. Furman, Harry Rhodes. 

1892 — President, F. P. Drinker; members. 

C. C. Peacock, W. O. Holmes, W. H. Gilmore, 
William Kreamer, Harry Rhodes, Thomas 

1893 — President, F. P. Drinker; members, 
Stephen Knorr, Thomas Gorrey, C. C. 
Peacock, W. O. Holmes, W. H. House, W. H. 

1894 — President, F. P. Drinker; members, 

B. F. Hicks, S. C. Creasy, J. E. Wilson, 
Stephen Knorr, Clinton Sterling, Isaac Yost. 

1895 — President, S. C. Creasy; members, 
W. F. Hartman, J. E. Wilson, Stephen Knorr, 
G. M. Lockard, E. M. Kester, Thomas Gorrey. 

1896 — President, W. O. Holmes; members, 
F. J. Richard, E. A. Rawlings, W. D. Brobst, 
Thomas Gorrey, Charles Kunkle, W. R. 

1897 — President, W. R. Kocher; members, 

F. J. Richard, Thomas Gorrey, John Kelly, H. 

G. Supplee, W. S. Rishton, Henry Hower. 
1898— President, W. O. Holmes; members, 

W. S. Rishton, J. S. Blue, W. L. Demaree, D. 
Butler, G. M. Lockard, F. B. Hartman. 

1899 — President, W. O. Holmes ; members, 
F. B. Hartman, W. L. Demaree, T. L. Smith, 
J. R. Cox, Con Cronin, J. S. Blue. 

1900 — President, Frank Ikeler ; members, 
Con Cronin, H. F. Dieffenbach, John R. Cox, 
Theo. Smith, F. B. Hartman, J. S. John. 

1901 — President, Frank Ikeler; members, 
Thomas Webb, Con Cronin, W. Kashner, H. 
F. Dieffenbach, F. B. Hartman, C. F. Rabb. 

1902 — President, John R. Townsend ; mem- 
bers, G. M. Hughes,"W. Kashner, C. H. Reim- 
ard, J. L. Wolverton, Josiah Giger, John A. 

1903 — President, John R. Townsend; mem- 
bers, C. H. Reimard, J. H. Giger, Samuel 
Pursel, G. M. Hughes, J. A. Cox, Charles 

1904 — President, John R. Townsend; mem- 
bers, C. H. Reimard, Josiah Giger, Samuel 
Pursel, Charles Gulp, M. H. Rhodes, G. M. 

1905 — President, C. C. Yetter; members, 
M. H. Rhodes, James Magee, C. W. Runyon, 
J. W. Mifflin. Josiah Giger. John Deily. 

1906 — President, C. C. Yetter; members, 
J. E. Fidler, R. R. Hartman, James Magee, W. 
Kashner, C. W. Runyon, John Deily. 

1907 — President, J. H. Coleman ; members, 

C. W. Runyon, James Magee, J. W. Zeigler, 
John Deily, William Kashner, H. C. Rulon. 

1908 — President, J. H. Coleman; members, 
James Magee, H. C. Rulon, A. B. Naylor, 
Jacob Stiner, C. A. Pursel, C. W. Runyon. 

1909 — President, F. J. Richard; members. 



James Magee, I. L. Rabb, W. Kashner, C. W. 
Runyon, C. A. Pursel, H. C. Rulon. 

1910 — President, Joseph L. Townsend; 
members, I. L. Rabb, C. A. Pursel, C. W. 
Runyon, Thomas Gunter, H. C. Pollock, H. 
C. Rulon. 

191 1 — President, James Magee; members, 
G. H. Welliver, C. A. Pursel, R. R. Hartman, 
Oscar Lowenberg, J. W. Bruner, Isaiah Ohl. 

191 2 — Under amendments to the State con- 
stitution last year's council held over. 

1913 — President, Oscar Lowenberg; mem- 
bers. Karl F. Wirt, C. A. Pursel, A. C Hidlay, 
J. H. Coleman, H. C. Rulon, Dr. G. H. 

George Nathan Wagner, chief of police of 
Bloomsburg, elected in 191 2, is a native of 
Conyngham, Luzerne county. Previous to his 
assuming his present office he served one en- 
listment in Battery E, 4th Coast Artillery, and 
two enlistments in Troop D of the State Con- 


The election of the first town couhcil was 
the beginning of municipal improvements. 
Most of the repairs to the streets and town 
bridges had previously been made by the town- 
ship supervisors, or by benevolent and enter- 
prising citizens who paid for them out of their 
own pockets. In 1874 Market street was 
finally opened clear through by the removal of 
the house of Martha Wells, below Third street. 
In the following year the brick "Forks Hotel" 
was removed and Second street extended to 
the Normal grounds. Center street was also 
opened and extended from Second to First. 
Samuel Neyhard drew the plans in 1872 for 
the grading of East street. He afterwards 
drew the plans for the regrading of almost 
every street in the town. [Mr. Neyhard died 
Oct. 27, 1914.] 

Contemporary with the street improvements 
the problem of water supply w^as solved by the 
organization of the Bloomsburg Water Com- 
pany in 1874 for the purpose of procuring a 
supply of water from Stony brook, and a prop- 
osition made to the town council. However, 
an act of the Legislature was passed prohibit- 
ing an increase of the bonded indebtedness of 
the town, and the company dissolved. In 1877 
a second company was organized, the directors 
being D. T- Waller, L. N. Mover. M. S. Apple- 
man, E. H. Little, R. C. Neal, C. G. Barkley, 
J. A. Funston, George E. Elwell and H. J. 

As no springs of sufficient height above the 
level of the town could be found, a reservoir 
was dug on the hill immediately north of town, 
the water taken from Fishing creek to a brick 
well and from there pumped to the reservoir, 
whence it was distributed over the town by 
means of iron pipes. 

The waterworks have been greatly improved 
and enlarged since 1886, notably by the build- 
ing of a second reservoir, enlarging the power- 
house and adding new machinery, and in 
March, 1913, a filtering plant was completed 
at a cost of $50,000. Paul E. Wirt is president 
of the company, Frank P. Zarr, secretary, and 
the directors are Paul E. Wirt, A. Z. Schoch, 
B. F. Sharpless, L. N. Mover, W. H. Hidlay, 
A. B. Grotz, L. E. Waller, Ellis Eves. Dr. J. J. 

In May, 1874, the Bloomsburg Gas Com- 
pany was formed, and in October of that year 
the streets were first illuminated by this 
method. Col. S. Knorr was the first presi- 
dent, and C. W. Miller the first secretary, of 
the company. 

The first public sewers were introduced in 

1884 and since then a complete system of 
drainage has been installed. 

The first paving done in Bloomsburg was 
on Main street, from Market Square to Iron 
street, in 1906, J. R. Fowler being the con- 
tractor. In 1914 the paving was extended from 
Iron street to East street, and also from 
Market Square to West street, under the 
supervision of the council. 

An interesting and novel plant is that of the 
Bloomsburg Heating Company, which pro- 
vides heat for many of the public buildings, 
business houses and residences of Bloomsburg. 
This comparatively modern method of heat- 
ing was introduced in the town as early as 

1885 by the incorporation of the Bloomsburg 
Steam & Electric Light Company. In con- 
nection with their electric light plant they in- 
tended to use the waste steam for heating pur- 
poses, but the heating department was devel- 
oped first. Pipes are laid to the homes and 
stores, and steam at a good pressure is sup- 
plied even in the coldest weather. In 1908 
the plant was purchased by J. T. Tracy and 
A. W. Sharpless, who soon made it an im- 
portant business investment. Since the death 
of Air. Tracy the sole ownership has been 
vested in Mr. Sharpless. Having a number 
of coal dredges in operation in the summer, he 
is assured of an abundant and cheaply obtained 
supply of fuel, taken from the bed of the 
Susquehanna river. 




The original electric light company in the 
county was the Bloomsburg Electric Light 
Company, organized in November, 1890, with 
the following officers: President. W. R. 
Tubbs ; secretary, L. E. Waller ; treasurer, Dr. 
I. W. Willits; directors, C. W. Miller, J. H. 
Mercer, P. S. Harman, C. C. Peacock, F. P. 
Drinker. The light was turned on for the 
first time March 10, 1891. The company con- 
tinued to operate until 1899, when it passed 
into the hands of the American Electric Light 
& Gas Co., which at the same time purchased 
the Bloomsburg Gas Co., and consolidated 
the two under one management. The name 
was subsequently changed to the United Gas 
& Electric Company, and this a few years 
ago passed into the control of the Columbia 
Power, Light & Railways Company. The 
Bloomsburg Electric Light Company had its 
plant at Eighth and Catherine streets ; it is now 

The Irondale Electric Light, Heat & Power 
Company was organized in April, 1902. Those 
actively interested in it at its inception were 
W. S. Moyer, Dr. J. J. Brown, Dr. W. M. 
Reber, C. W. Runyon, J. C. Brown, N. U. 
Funk, C. A. Kleim, Grant Herring, C. M. 
Creveling, H. A. McKillip. The old power- 
house formerly used by the Bloomsburg Iron 
Company at Irondale was purchased from the 
Bloomsburg Water Company, including the 
dam at Arbutus Park and the race. The 
building was remodeled and powerful turbines 
instead of the old overshot water wheel, and 
the latest machinery for both steam and water 
power was procured. A complete modern 
equipment for the manufacture of commercial 
electric current was erected, and the company 
began business in August, 1903. In 19 13 the 
timber dam was torn out with great difficulty, 
owing to the many cribs and piling in the 
creek bed, and a new timber dam, 12 feet 
high and 760 feet long, placed in position. A 
concrete dam could not be built owing to the 
fact that bed rock was over ten feet below the 
creek bed. The old dams had been subject 
to frequent damage by freshets. 

For a time there was sharp competition be- 
tween the Irondale Company and the Blooms- 
burg Electric Light Company, until a few 
years ago, when both companies passed into 
the control of the Columbia Power, Light & 
Railways Company. The officers at the time 
of the consolidation were : C. M. Creveling, 
president; N. U. Funk, secretary: M. Mill- 
eisen, treasurer; directors, C. M. Creveling, 

M. Milleisen, Dr. J. J. Brown, N. U. Funk, 
Robert Runyon, C. A. Kleim, J. C. Brown, Dr. 
C. S. Altmiller, J. L. Moyer. 


Until 1868 Bloomsburg had no protection 
against fires but the "bucket brigade." When 
a fire occurred two lines of people were formed 
at a well or cistern, and full buckets were 
passed along one line to the fire, the empty 
buckets being returned by the other line. If the 
water supply became exhausted, the fire con- 
tinued as long as there was anything left to 
burn. In February, 1868, the Bloomsburg Fire 
Company was organized. A subscription fund 
of $450 was raised, and with it a hand engine 
was purchased from the Friendship Fire Com- 
pany of Philadelphia by William H. Gilmore. 
It was a double decker, made for city use, 
with water supplied from a plug. It arrived 
in Bloomsburg on April 2, 1S68. Having no 
suction pipe it was still necessary to supply it 
with water by the lines of bucket passers, but 
it was an improvement on the brigade because 
a stream could be thrown farther. Much 
good work was done with it, and it saved 
property worth many times its cost. 

After the erection of waterworks the old 
hand engine made its appearance only in fire- 
men's parades. It was sold in November, 1886, 
to the Volunteer Firemen's Association of 
Philadelphia, and was kept by them as a relic 
of the early days of the city fire fighters until 
1892, when it was destroyed in a fire. 

In 1880 the Bloomsburg Fire Company was 
changed to Friendship Fire Company, No. i. 
The town purchased a steam fire engine in 
1890, and put it in the charge of this com- 
pany, where it has remained ever since. Of the 
charter members but few are living, among 
these being W. H. Gilmore, J. H. Long, J. L. 
Walter, W. J. Correll, F. M. Gilmore, Jacob 
Av\\, Edward Searles, John Roadarmel, Charles 
Decker, William Thomas and T. L. Gunton. 
This company has quarters in the town hall*, 
having well appointed rooms for the appa- 
ratus and for meetings. For more than forty 
years this company has held an annual ball 
which is always largely attended. 

The Friendship Fire Company is contem- 
plating the purchase of an automobile chem- 
ical fire engine. 

Rescue Fire Company was incorporated 
Feb. II, 1869. The petition for the charter 
was signed by J. I. Stees, F. M. Everett, P. E. 
Wirt, A. T. Drake, Cain Mauser, W. Marr, W. 
J. Buckalew, S. W. Shutt, E. S. Shutt, J. Gir- 



ton, G. Warr, T. W'arr, W. Wirt, W. Roan. 
There were many more charter members. The 
name was changed to Rescue Hook and Lad- 
der Company on May 12, 1900. This com- 
pany's location is on East Fifth street, above 
East street, where by its own efforts a fine 
brick building has been erected, up-to-date for 
the purposes, with pool table, kitchen, quar- 
ters for apparatus, and with rpeeting rooms on 
the second floor. 

Winona Fire Company, No. 3, was organ- 
ized in July, 1880, and chartered Aug. 20, 1880. 
The charter members were : Robert Buck- 
ingham, S. F. Peacock, Arthur A. Clark, E. B. 
Clark, C. B. Robbins, W. Clark Sloan, Geo. E. 
Elwell, J. F. Peacock, Less Alexander, C. F. 
Woodhouse, E. E. Moyer, T. K. Bittenbender, 
F. P. Pursel, R. F. Snyder", H. W. McKelvy, 
F. S. Kinports, L. S. Wintersteen, F. D. Dent- 
ler, W. D. Beckley, R. R. Little, Paul E. Wirt, 
W. B. Allen, Frank Maloy, J. W^ Gibbs, W. C. 
McKinney, H. M. Rupert, Harry Billmeyer, 
John Palmer. The company occupied the third 
floor over what is now the Bloomsburg Na- 
tional Bank in handsomely furnished rooms, 
and for six or eight years kept up an active 
organization. Each year during the holidays 
it gave a ball which was the leading social 
event of the year. But for various reasons 
the interest died out, and the organization was 
abandoned. Later on, however, it was renewed 
by younger men, and still exists with a goodly 
number of brave fire fighters. The company 
has very comfortable rooms over the J. L. 
Sharpless store. 

Liberty Fire Company, No. 4, was incor- 
porated Feb. 10, 1906, with a large number 
of charter members. They own their own 
house through their own eff^orts. It is located 
on Leonard street near Main street, and ad- 
mirably adapted to their uses, containing ap- 
paratus and meeting rooms, pool tables, kitch- 
ens, etc. 

Another company known as the Good Will 
Fire Company organized about the same 
time, and provided themselves with a chemical 
outfit, but disbanded after a few years' ex- 

With three fire companies in town there was 
no arrangement for concert of action in case 
of a fire, as there was no recognized head, and 
so the companies each appointed a committee 
to confer with the others, and to draft a con- 
stitution and by-laws for the organization of a 
fire department. The committees performed 
their duty and on Jan. 25, 1881, the result of 
their work was presented to the town council, 
and approved by that body, and stands to-day 

with few if any changes. Among other things 
it provided that a chief engineer and three as- 
sistants shall be elected annually in December 
by the several fire companies, and that the 
officers shall rotate among the companies, be- 
ginning with Friendship No. i, and so on, the 
assistants coming from the companies not hav- 
ing the chief. 

A fire alarm system was installed in 1900 
connected with the courthouse bell, with alarm 
boxes in various parts of the town. H. P. 
Chamberlin was the contractor. 


David Stroup died in August, 1884, and in 
his will made a bequest "to the Town of 
Bloomsburg to assist in supplying the same 
with water, two thousand dollars, to' be in- 
vested and kept at interest, the latter to be 
applied to that object, or to be expended upon 
water works erected or maintained by the 
Town, or to be invested in stocks or bonds of 
any water company organized to supply the 
town with water, on such terms as the Town 
Council may prescribe." 

The Bloomsburg Water Company proposed 
that if the town council would cause the money 
so devised to be expended in the erection of a 
fountain at or near the public square the com- 
pany would furnish water for it free of ex- 
pense. This proposition was accepted by the 
council, and a petition setting forth these facts 
was presented to the court on Aug. 18, 1892. 
After the necessary legal proceedings Judge 
Ikeler made a decree granting the petition. 
The town council appointed President F. P. 
Drinker and Councilmen W. O. Holmes and 
W. H. Gilmore a committee to select a foun- 
tain and also the drinking fountain which now 
stands at the post office corner. The fountains 
were selected, and their erection completed in 
October, 1892. An inscription on the large 
fountain reads: "Erected by David Stroup, 


The town hall was erected at East and Main 
streets, and dedicated on Sept. 14, 1890. The 
occasion was observed by a parade in which 
numerous organizations took part. A pro- 
gram consisting of music, and speeches by a 
number of citizens, was followed, and a large 
crowd was present. The town is justly proud 
of the hall. It is a three-story brick building 
of pleasing architecture. On the first floor is 
the council room. Friendship Fire Company 



room, and lock-up. On the second and third 
floors are two large rooms, and several smaller 
rooms, for public meetings, the fire companies, 
etc. The building is supplied with all modern 
conveniences. David Hensinger was the con- 
tractor and builder, and the cost was $15,000. 
Up to the time of the erection of this building 
the town had occupied rented quarters for a 
council room. 


One of the oldest industrial establishments 
in Bloomsburg is the extensive foundry and 
machine shops of Harman & Hassert. This 
business was founded by Peter S. Harman and 
George Hassert in 1875. Mr. Harman had 
had many years' experience in the foundry 
business, and Mr. Hassert was a machinist of 
unusual skill. They began on a small scale in 
a building 60 by 50 feet, making plows and 
stoves, but the business grew rapidly, demand- 
ing additional buildings and machinery. Start- 
ing modestly, they soon did a business of 
over $2,000 a year, but by 1879 the trade had 
increased until they were employing thirty per- 
sons, and had entered the manufacture of min- 
ing cars. By 1886 they were doing a business 
of $55,000 per annum and were preparing to 
enlarge when in 1888 the entire works were 
destroyed by fire. They immediately replaced 
the burned frame buildings by ones of brick, 
and added others, making the plant the largest 
in the town at that time. At present the plant 
turns out mining cars, hand cars, casts col- 
umns, and does general custom machine work. 
The famous old founders of the company 
passed to their final reward some years ago, 
and the business has been continued by mem- 
bers of their families. It is now an incor- 
porated concern under the name of Harman 
& Hassert, with the following officers : Presi- 
dent, general manager and treasurer, J. Lee 
Harman ; vice president, George E. Hassert ; 
secretary, John G. Harman. 

Carriage Works 

One of the oldest concerns in this section 
is the establishment of J. B. Brobst, known as 
the Bloomsburg Carriage Works. The busi- 
ness was established by David Brobst in 1849, 
and conducted by him for thirty-five years. 
In 1884 it came into the hands of J. B. Brobst 
and his brother. This partnership continued 
until 1907, when J. B. Brobst assumed entire 
control and management of the plant. The 
premises occupied consist of a repair and 

blacksmith shop and carriage factory. In a 
separate building across the street are the paint 
shops, a large new brick building and a 
frame building. In the conduct of this busi- 
ness Mr. Brobst is ably assisted by his son 

American Car & Foundry Company 

The Bloomsburg branch of the American 
Car & Foundry Company had its origin in 
the machine shop and foundry of Semple & 
Taylor, started in 1863. In 1S71 more capital 
was enlisted, the facilities increased and the 
manufacture of mine cars commenced, under 
the firm name of the Columbia County Iron 
Manufacturing Company. The company be- 
coming involved during the panic of 1873, the 
plant was sold to M. \V. Jackson, of Berwick, 
who sold an interest to G. M. & J. K. Lock- 
ard, who had been foremen in the old shop. 
In 1879 they became sole owners and that year 
fire destroyed the entire works, with a loss of 
$40,000 and only $18,000 insurance. How- 
ever, in three months they rebuilt and entered 
upon a career of prosperity, during the follow- 
ing four years producing over four thousand 
cars, and doing a business of more than one 
million dollars annually, having two to three 
hundred men on their payroll, with a wage 
list of $10,000 a month. Subsequently the 
plant became the property of the Bloomsburg 
Car Company and was incorporated on the 
consolidation of the American Car & Foundry 
Company in 1900. The plant consists of a 
group of frame buildings which cover the 
larger part of a city block, and which are fit- 
ted with the latest improved machinery and 
labor-saving devices, and employment is given 
to over three hundred skilled workmen. The 
capacity is two thousand freight cars and 
three thousand mine cars annually, which find 
a market throughout the coal regions and in 
several of the South American countries. In 
1914 an addition to the export building, of 
65 by 112 feet, was made, and the company 
started on an order of four hundred cars for 
the Lehigh Valley railroad. 

The Bloomsburg Woolen Mills 

were established in 1882 by S. A. Caswell, M. 
E. Caswell, E. C. Caswell and H. C. Half- 
penny. They are located at Sixth and West 
streets. After the death of the first two part- 
ners named above, and the withdrawal of Mr. 
Halfpenny, the firm name was changed to 
E. C. Caswell & Co., the other member of the 



firm being Carlton A. Caswell. This plant 
has twice met with misfortune, once by fire, 
and again in 1896 by a cyclone which destroyed 
the upper part, leaving only the first story 
standing. In spite of this it recovered from 
the loss and has prospered, being one of the 
leading industrial establishments of Blooms- 
burg. It has seldom been shut down for lack 
of orders since its founding. From 1887 to 
1901 J. M. Staver had an interest in the busi- 
ness of the factory. In the latter year his 
interest was purchased by Carlton A. Caswell, 
who was already a half owner of the plant. 
Mr. Staver died in 191 2, E. C. Caswell died 
in February, 1914, and C. A. Caswell is now 
sole owner. 

The Bloomsburg School Furnishing Company 

was an important industry for some years. It 
was incorporated July 17, 1885, "for the pur- 
pose of manufacturing school and church fur- 
niture, and doing general planing mill, foundry 
and machine work." The officers were: C. W. 
Miller, president; W. S. Moyer, Dr. D. J. 
Waller, Jr., A. Z. Schoch, W. M. Reber, 
J. C. Brown, directors. It was successfully 
operated until February, 1899, when it was 
sold to the American School Desk Company. 
The plant was operated by them for several 
years, when, largely by reason of troublesome 
strikes, it was shut down, and the machinery 
removed to other factories of the corporation. 
Bloomsburg thus lost an industry that em- 
ployed many skilled mechanics. On Aug. 30, 
1888, the factory was destroyed by fire, the 
loss on buildings and finished product being 
about $60,000, with insurance of less than half 
that amount. It was rebuilt. About 1909 the 
American School Desk Company sold the plant 
to the Fred Fear Match Company. 

The Bloomsburg Silk Mill 

was founded in 1888 by Joseph Ratti, and in 
1890 was incorporated as a company. At the 
branch factory in Lock Haven the company 
manufactures dress silks, linings and tie silks. 
The Bloomsburg plant is of commodious size, 
having 45,000 square feet of floor space, which 
in all its appointments is most modernly fitted 
for convenience, and over three hundred looms 
are installed. The company gives employment 
to three hundred and fifty skilled operators. 
During Mr. Ratti's lifetime he was ably as- 
sisted in the management of the mill by Mr. F. 
G. Yorks, a gentleman of wide experience in 
silk manufacture. In 1906 Mr. Ratti went to 

his home in Italy in the spring, as was his 
custom, and became ill while there. In the 
fall news of his serious condition reached here, 
and Mr. Yorks, already a large stockholder, 
made a flying trip to Italy, where he secured 
a majority of the stock by an agreement with 
Mr. Ratti. The death of the latter occurred 
on Oct. 25, 1906, at Rogeno, Italy. Under 
Mr. Yorks's guiding hand the mills continued 
to prosper, and are now among the largest 
employers of labor in this section. The dress 
silks made at the Bloomsburg mills have at- 
tained a high standing wherever they have been 
introduced, and that means over a large por- 
tion of the United States. On the morning 
of Sept. 12, 1913, Mr. Yorks died suddenly 
after but a few hours' illness. Thereafter the 
management of the mills passed to his son, 
Milton K, Yorks, who had been an able assist- 
ant to his father for several years. At present 
he is the general manager. 


The Hyssong Pottery was started by Rabb 
& Rehm about 1874. They were succeeded by 
A. L. Hyssong, who carried on the business 
until 1913, when he was succeeded by his son, 
C. A. Hyssong. This is the only pottery in this 
section of the State and has been located at 
the same spot in the west end of Bloomsburg 
ever since the beginning. The clay is procured 
from New Jersey and the product is stone- 
ware, jugs, poultry fountains, water coolers, 
glazed flower pots, jardinieres, dipping cups 
for the dye works, drain tile and sewer pipe. 

The Magee Carpet Company 

is the outgrowth of a small plant of twenty- 
five looms which were run in Philadelphia by 
James Magee & Co. at Tulip and Palmer 
streets. Mr. James Magee comes from a fam- 
ily of carpet manufacturers, his father having 
started in Philadelphia at the close of the Civil 
war with four hand looms. In those days the 
modern mill was unknown. A manufacturer 
used the lower rooms of his home or else an 
outside shed in which to carry on his work. 
James Magee started in his father's mill, 
sweeping the floors. From this he passed 
through the various departments, spooling, 
winding, weaving, fixing, until he became the 
superintendent of the mills in Philadelphia, 
moving the machinery from a crowded, ill 
adapted mill to one of the best appointed in 
that city. In 1885, on his return from a year's 
experience in the West, feeling that there 



would be no opportunity of rising in his 
father's mill, he founded a partnership with 
a yarn spinner and commenced the manufac- 
ture of ingrain carpets. 

After running the plant in Philadelphia sev- 
eral years, believing that it would be more ad- 
vantageous to manufacture in a country town, 
he visited Bloomsburg, as well as a number of 
other places, and decided to remove his plant 
there, which he did in 1891. He brought with 
him his cousin, James Magee (ist), and W. H. 
Vanderherchen, both practical men, and with 
thirty-five looms the company was started, 
making nothing but ingrain carpets. Foresee- 
ing the gradual disuse of this class of carpet 
in 1896, the tapestry mill and spinning mill 
were built and the manufacture of tapestry 
carpets was started. The company partnership 
meanwhile had sold out to the Bloomsburg 
Carpet Works and the latter merged a few 
years later into the Magee Carpet Works. 
The company's brand of "Bar None Tapestry" 
was favorably known throughout the country. 
A short time afterwards velvet carpets were 
made, to be followed later by the manufacture 
of seamed rugs. In this work the company 
brought out a grade of velvets which had 
never been produced before. In fact, it was 
freely asserted that the grade could not be 
done. But it was, and "Blue Ribbon Velvets" 
were sold in every city of the Union. Again 
the caprice of fashion compelled a complete 
readjustment of plant. The demand was for a 
seamless velvet rug. To supply their trade 
with this the company made the biggest effort 
of its business life, erecting in 1913 one of the 
finest mills of the country, with 500,000 feet 
of floor space, and enough looms to produce 
three hundred rugs every day. 

The Magee Carpet Company is one of the 
largest producers of velvet carpet and rugs 
in the country, its plant covering ten acres of 
floor space, and being a model of its kind. All 
of the equipment is up-to-date, and the product 
goes into every State of the Union, also to 
Porto Rico, Chile, and Hawaii. All processes 
of the business are done at the mills. The raw 
wool is imported from Russia, China, Turkey 
and other foreign countries. Both worsted 
warp and woolen yarns are spun in the com- 
pany's own plant. A large dyehouse and tap- 
estry printing department color the yarns by 
the use of the latest machinery. After being 
steamed, washed and dried, the printed yarns 
are spooled, and then go to the setting depart- 
ment, where skilled operatives "set" the pat- 
tern, straightening out the crooked lines and 
beaming the yarns ready for the weaver. The 

weaving department is on the top floor of the 
new mill, where abundance of light and ven- 
tilation may be obtained. To save vibration, 
the floor was made 7 inches thick, resting on 
heavy steel girders. The contract called for 
a carrying load of 300 pounds to the square 
foot. On this floor are narrow looms which 
weave the carpets, the small rugs and the car- 
pets for carriages and automobiles. It may 
not be generally known that the Magee Carpet 
company produces three fourths of the car- 
pets used in carriages and automobiles, having 
made a specialty of such carpets for many 
years. The weaving department also con- 
tains broad looms which weave a 9 by 12 rug 
without a seam. They are marvels of con- 
struction, handling a wire 10 feet long, put- 
ting them in and cutting the loops and with- 
drawing them, all automatically. Some idea of 
the size of these looms can be obtained when 
the reader is told that they weigh 22,000 
pounds each. From the weaving room the 
rugs are taken to the finishing rooms, where 
they are cleaned, steamed, stretched, worked 
and rolled up with a pole in the middle to 
keep them from breaking in transportation. 

The older portions of the building are re- 
served for storage purposes, where many thou- 
sands of rugs are kept ready for prompt ship- 
ment on receipt of orders. The company has 
a private siding for shipping in carload lots 
and for taking in wool and coal in bulk. The 
plant burns 6,000 tons of coal a year, uses 
500,000 gallons of water per day, works up 
6,000,000 pounds of wools and yarns every 
year, employs over seven hundred people and 
pays out in wages every day over $1,200. The 
management is in the hands of men who are 
practically conversant with the business, and 
who give their full time and attention to the 

Mr. Magee also conducts the I-eader Depart- 
ment Store, one of the largest of Bloomsburg's 
mercantile establishments. 

The Monroe-Hall Furniture Company 

is among the leading progressive industries of 
the town. The plant is thoroughly equipped 
with modern woodworking machinery for the 
production of high-grade furniture of all 
kinds. It was originally built in 1891 by W. H. 
-Schuyler, Theodore Redeker and Jacol) Keifer, 
who conducted it about one year, when the 
Bloomsburg Furniture Company took over the 
plant and conducted it for a time. This com- 
pany was reorganized under the name of the 
North Branch Furniture Company, who ran 



the plant until 1898. It was then leased to 
Robert Hawley and William H. Slate, they 
conducting it until 1906, when the present 
company was formed and incorporated. The 
officers are : W. R. Monroe, president, treas- 
urer and general manager; H. A. Hall, secre- 
tary. This company has built up a magnifi- 
cent trade, extending throughout the United 
States, as a result of its up-to-the-minute busi- 
ness methods. 

"The Pen is Mightier Than the Sword" 

Among the products of Bloomsburg which 
have gained world-wide fame there is none 
more favorably known than the Paul E. Wirt 
Fountain Pen, one of the first of these famous 
writing instruments which have become a ne- 
cessity to Americans and by them have been 
carried to the ends of the earth. The factory 
in Bloomsburg was started in 1885 by Paul 
E. Wirt, one of the leading attorneys of the 
town, and has been carried on ever since with 
continued and increasing success. Millions of 
these pens have been sold, the sales in the 
United States exceeding five hundred thou- 
sand in a single year. So widely known has 
this pen become that there is scarcely a coun- 
try on earth which is not supplied with it 
through retail merchants. The pen is a "loop- 
feeder" and has stood the test of time, having 
many imitators, but none equal to it. Although 
there are many other firms marketing foimtain 
pens, the sales of the Wirt pen have never 
fallen ofl^, but have increased yearly. 

The factory where the pens are made is a 
two-story building, 25 by 75 feet in dimen- 
sions, with an addition 40 by 75, recently 
erected. Forty employees are engaged in the 
manufacture, divided between the gold pen, 
rubber case, assembling and shipping depart- 
ments. Most of the employees have been with 
the firm for years and have become unusually 
skillful. Every part is made in the factory, 
the gold for the pens being received from the 
mint, the rubber from South America, and the 
iridium from which the pen points are made 
from Russia. This metal has a value of $125 
an ounce. 

Mr. Wirt and his son, Karl, have become 
substantially identified with the life of the 
town and are connected with many of the other 
important industries, as well as holding posi- 
tions in the local government and the board of 
trustees of the State Normal School. C. W. 
Funston has been associated with this industr\- 
almost from its inception. 

Paragon Plaster & Siipph Company 

The Bloomsburg plant of this company was 
established in 1895, but the company has been 
incorporated for 24 years. The business is 
housed in a brick and concrete building 70 by 
200 feet in size, which is supplied with the best 
facilities for the manufacture of "Paragon" 
plaster. The company also manufactures 
"Paragon" high-grade lime in the new plant, 
built five years ago at the lime works of Low 
Bros. & Co., at Lime Ridge, and also deals 
wholesale and retail in lime, plaster, cement, 
hair, marble dust, flue linings, etc. The head 
offices of the company are located at Scranton, 
the local branch being under the efficient man- 
agement of W. L. White. 

The Artificial Ice & Cold Storage Company 

was established in 1892 by the Bloomsburg 
Cold Storage and Artificial Ice Company, and 
later was operated by T. J. Pugsley. Finan- 
cial difficulties closed it down in August, 1914, 
when it was purchased by C. R. Dickerman, of 
Milton, at sheriff^'s sale. 

The Bloomsburg Brick Company 

has an extensive shale brick plant at Blooms- 
burg. The officers are : George L. Low, presi- 
dent ; Dr. J. E. Shuman, vice president ; W. R. 
Kocher, treasurer; H. R. Mears, secretary; 
W. W. Swengel, general manager. The com- 
pany has an authorized capital of $30,000, and 
has acquired control of a valuable deposit of 
particularly fine red shale suitable for the man- 
ufacture of high-grade pressed brick, paving 
brick and other products. The plant has a 
capacity of 6,000,000 bricks per annum, and is 
electrically equipped and fitted with the latest 
and most approved brick making machinery. 
The product is among the best, and large quan- 
tities are being shipped to distant points ; a 
big home trade is also supplied. Most of the 
plant was destroyed by fire in September, 
1914, but has been rebuilt. 

Planing Mill 

The planing mill of A. Bruce Hartnian is a 
handy shop conducted by a handy man, where 
all kinds of woodworking is done, and odd 
pieces made. It is a. great convenience to the 
community and receives liberal and well mer- 
ited patronage. 



The Ricliard Manufacturing Company 

is a plant of great value to Bloomsburg, both 
in the employment of skilled workmen and the 
money the products bring to the town, and 
also in the advertising value to this place from 
the fact that some of the greatest public works 
in America bear the name of this firm on 
their mechanical and structural parts. The 
work of this company may be found all over 
the Union and in England and France. The 
business includes the manufacture of almost 
anything in iron or brass, but the specialty is 
wire and tube drawing machinery. The com- 
pany has fitted out some of the largest plants 
in this country with wire-drawing machines, 
making what is probably the simplest and rnost 
successful of this class of machinery. Besides 
producing ammunition lifts, torpedo anchors, 
observation towers and lighthouse lanterns for 
the government, the Richard Company built a 
cast-iron sectional lighthouse for the Miah 
Maue shoals in Delaware bay, erecting the 
structure in Bloomsburg upon a concrete foun- 
dation and then dismounting it and shipping it 
to the spot where it finally was located. As 
a single order in 1907 over 100,000 pairs of 
roller skates were put out for a customer. One 
of the notable and historic orders filled by this 
firm was for a miter lock for the great gates 
of the Panama canal locks, the first one used 
when the canal was opened to the public. 
Bloomsburg's name is fixed for many years 
upon these gates. 

The firm was organized in 1899 by F. J. 
Richard, S. H. Harman and J. L. Richardson. 
The present officers are : F. J- Richard, presi- 
dent and general manager; j. L. Richardson, 
treasurer; C. F. Altmiller, secretary. 

TIic Bloomsburg Hosiery Mills 

Barger, Bains & Munn, proprietors, was estab- 
lished nine years ago, and is a branch of the 
plant owned and conducted by this firm in 
Philadelphia, where the company's specialty is 
ladies' hosiery. In Bloomsburg the product 
manufactured is' exclusively infants' hosiery, 
finished at the Philadelphia mills, and the 
goods are marketed throughout the United 
States. The local plant is situated in a mod- 
ernly constructed brick building, which is con- 
veniently fitted and supplied with the latest and 
best makes of knitting machines. The indi- 
vidual members of the company are Charles C. 
Barger, Edward Bains and W. F. Munn. The 
two former are active in the business, while 
Mr. Munn holds other large interests. Mr. 

Barger is a resident of Bloomsburg. J. P. 
Barger, his son, is the superintendent of the 
Bloomsburg plant. There is a branch mill at 
Nescopeck, Pennsylvania. 

The Fred Fear Match Company 

is one of the more recent additions to the in- 
dustries of the town, having been established 
in T909, with a capital stock of $500,000. The 
plant consists of a group of brick buildings 
covering about four acres. The Fred Fear 
Match Company is owned by Fred Fear of 
Fred Fear & Co., New York. The products 
made are double tip and parlor matches, which 
are manufactured under special processes 
owned by the company. The plant is specially 
fitted for this work and the best and most 
modern machinery used in the manufacture of 
matches is installed. 

The company is also engaged in the manu- 
facture of salad dressing, fly paper and Easter 
egg dyes. It has plants also in Bradford, Pa., 
Chicago and New York. The officers are: 
Fred Fear, president and treasurer ; C. C. Yet- 
ter, vice president and secretary ; A. E. Nal- 
trett, superintendent. 

The White Milling Company 

was established in 1885 by H. V. White and 
ably conducted by him up to 1900, when the 
White Milling Company was incorporated with 
the following officers: President, H. V. White; 
treasurer, A. B. White ; secretary, M. Powell. 
The company manufactures and deals in all 
kinds of milling products, including spring and 
winter wheat flour, rye flour, buckwheat flour, 
corn meal, feeds, chops, etc., making a spe- 
cialty of its celebrated "White Seal" flour 
and other well known brands. The mills have 
a capacity of 125 barrels of wheat flour, one 
hundred barrels of buckwheat flour, twenty- 
five barrels of rye flour and twenty-five tons 
of feed per day, besides other products. The 
plant is a group of modernly constructed build- 
ings, including the main mill, elevators, ware 
and store houses. Each department is sup- 
plied with the best improved milling ma- 
chinery. The board of directors is: John 
Eves, G. FI. Harter, Elhs Eves, J. C. Brown, 
O. W. Cherrington, A. C. Creasy. The head 
miller is P. C. Beyer. 

The Bloomsburg Roller Mills 

were established in 1897 by R. R. Ikeler. The 
plant is built of brick and is fitted with im- 



proved machinery, including the roller process, 
and has a capacity of sixty barrels of flour 
per day exclusive of the corn meal and feed 
mills. Mr. Ikeler is a practical miller of many 
years' experience. In connection with the mill- 
ing business he handles coal and wood. 

The Dillon Greenhouses 

are among the largest establishments of the 
kind in the State. In 1875 this enterprise was 
established in a comparatively small way by 
the late J. L. Dillon, who for a number of 
years was one of Bloomsburg's leading busi- 
ness men. The original houses were located 
back of the normal school, having something 
over 40,000 square feet of glass. Twenty 
years ago the houses on Fifth street were com- 
menced and these were added to from time 
to time, until there are now fifteen, having 
almost 100,000 square feet of glass. Some 
years ago the normal school purchased the land 
where the greenhouses stood on the hill, and 
in accordance with the agreement the buildings 
were removed and possession delivered to the 
school in May, 1913, the entire Dillon busi- 
ness being removed to the Fifth street location. 
After Mr. Dillon's death the business was for 
a time conducted by his heirs. It is now in 
the hands of his widow, who is ably assisted 
by her son Charles and her nephew, Charles 

Miscellaneous Mercantile Houses 

At the head of the list of mercantile estab- 
lishments in Bloomsburg are the department 
stores. The store of Gelb & Mayer carries 
everything for the household and in the line 
of wearing apparel, except men's clothing. 
David Mayer is the managing proprietor. 
The other department stores are the Leader 
Store Company, Limited, with two branches, 
at the corner of Fourth and Market streets, 
and in the Exchange Hotel ; and F. P. Pursel, 
the oldest and largest in town, at the corner 
of Main and Market streets. Heyman Broth- 
ers carry men's and women's wear, and Bres- 
nick's Women's Shop has everything for 

The druggists are Moyer Brothers, C. A. 
Kleim, T- H. Mercer, W. S. Rishton, George 
A. McKelvy, G. P. Ringler. 

Hardware Dealers — J. R. Schuvler, W. 
McK. Reber, H. B. Sharpless. 

Electrical Supplies — H. S. Kauf?man, F. P. 
Edwards, George E. Keller. 

The grocers and provision dealers are : J. F. 

Tooley & Co., C. R. Stecker, J. L. Sharpless, 
Schneider Brothers (wholesale), C. H. Sharp- 
less, H. G. Pennington, A. L. Snyder, J. K. 
Pensyl, Fritz & Fritz, C. H. Harris, S. A. 
Lutz, J. C. Kahler, A. J. Learn, Theodore Gar- 
rison, F. M. Everett, T. C. Snyder, George 
Trump, K. M. Moon, Mrs. E. Cronin, G. P. 
Davis, U. W. Cherrington, Mrs. C. E. Kelch- 
ner, Mrs. S. David, J. C. Hile, Mrs. W. H. 
Hartzell, J. L. Turner. 

Confectionery and ice cream parlors are con- 
ducted by E. M. Savidge, Harmany Brothers, 
Alexander & Co., J. L. Pohe & Son, W. F. 
O'Neill, P. B. Irvin, John Bush, Joe Fest, A. 
Svveisfort. The restaurants are kept by Mrs. 
Freeze, Ralph H. Smoyer, W. Eastman, and 
Alexander & Co. 

There are but five licensed retail liquor es- 
tablishments in Bloomsburg, exclusive of the 
hotels, which are licensed, and they are kept 
by Gilmore Bros., John Gross, J. E. Zeigler, 
Frank Derr, Joseph Sands. J. S. Bachman is 
the only licensed wholesale dealer. 

Of the exclusive cigar stores there are four, 
the establishments of \\'illiam Vial, The Pal- 
ace, J. Ralston, Edward Shaffer. There are 
many barber shops, kept by E. F. Row, James 
Reilly, Glasgow Cameron, Frank Parks, Frank 
Gensemer, Charles Fisher, Fred Vanderslice, 
A. R. Kashner. 

Meat Markets — Frank Bomboy, D. L. Bom- 
boy, R. A. Hicks, C. Bergold, Paul & Pensyl, 
J. E. White, C. P. Kressler. 

Coal Dealers— J. S. Edwards, W. R. 
Kocher, R. R. Ikeler, Harman & Hassert, 
W. H. Henrie, O. W. Drake. 

Wall Paper— P. K. Vannatta, S. R. Bidle- 
man, S. L. Appleman. 

Plumbers— W. O. Holmes & Son, W. F. 
Hartman, L. C. Conner, William Ludwig. 

Millinery — Mrs. John Tracy, Mrs. Elmer 
Brugler, Mrs. C. "C. Furman, Miss Bessie 
Quick, Miss Ada Cox. 

Pianos and Music — Mrs. F. Anstock, James 
H. Saltzer. 

Shoes — Buckalew & Kemp, C. M. Evans, A. 
Davis, Ralph H. Smoyer. 

Shoemakers — R. R. Hartman, Otto Wolfe, 
Lloyd Hartman. 

Clothing — John R. Townsend, D. Lowen- 
berg Estate, C. C. Housenick & Co., L. Gross 
& Son, A. Evans, Emil Kroll, B. T. Pursel, 
Manufacturers' Clothing Co. 

Jewelers — James E. Roys, George W. Hess, 
George Rosenstock. 

Saddlers — M. L. Kline, Samuel Pullen. 

Five and Ten Cent Stores — F. W. Wool- 
worth & Co., The Fair. 



Liverymen — H. J. Shoemaker, Charles 
Brink, Charles Moss. 

Garages — Fernand Seller, Jules Seiler, C. S. 
Gheen, J. W. Wright, H. B. Correll, Gunter 
& Knittle. 

Miscellaneous — Lesser Alexander, whole- 
sale cigars and confectionery; J. W. Moyer, 
stationery ; J. Keller's Sons, wholesale notions ; 
W. H. Brower, carpets; Zehner Brothers, M. 
P. Whitenight, F. W. Miller, farm imple- 
ments; W. W. Crawford, mineral waters; Jo- 
seph E. Gross, soft drinks ; H. E. Dieffenbach, 
W. B. Ferguson, ice; J. Papania, fruits; S. C. 
Creasy, lumber; E. W. Ritter, newsdealer; E. 
M. Savidge, H. W. Walter, bakeries; C. E. 
Crawford, lunchroom; W. A. Watters, laun- 
dry; W. J. Correll & Co., furniture. 


This institution was promoted by Joseph 
Ratti, the principal owner of the Bloomsburg 
Silk Mill. He and a number of friends met 
on March 8, 1905, for organization. A. Z. 
Schoch was elected president of the corpora- 
tion; J. G. Harman, secretary; Joseph Ratti, 
treasurer ; F. G. Yorks, assistant treasurer. 
The residence of W. L. Ritter on East Fifth 
street was purchased by Mr. Ratti, and exten- 
sive repairs and improvements made to adapt 
it for hospital purposes. Friends of the en- 
terprise were solicited, and contributed $6,190, 
Mr. Ratti supplying the balance, about $9,000, 
to meet the expense incurred. The equipment 
included a complete set of the most modern 
surgical instruments, and an operating room 
fitted with all the sanitary appliances known 
to the surgical profession. 

In April, 1905, action was taken to change 
the name to the Joseph Ratti Hospital, which 
was done at the May term of court. 

At the meeting in January, 1910, action was 
taken looking to the erection of a new build- 
ing. The Legislature of 1909 had appropriated 
$5,000 towards the project. Plans for the new 
building prepared by McCormick & French of 
Wilkes-Barre were adopted in 191 1, and the 
contract was awarded to the Shamokin Lum- 
ber Company. The Legislature of 191 1 ap- 
propriated an additional $3,000 for the build- 
ing. A canvass of the community for sub- 
scriptions was made, which with several lega- 
cies enabled the corporation to complete the 
building ready for occupancy in July, 1912. 
The property has cost $55,000. 

The legacies received up to 1914 have been: 
Julia Waller, $1,000; Mrs. Antoinette Tellier, 
$4,000; Capt. H. J. Conner, $1,000; Col. John 

G. Freeze, $1,000. A new laundry building, 
ample in size and modernly equipped, was 
completed in 1913. 

At the meeting in January, 1912, action was 
taken towards changing the name back to 
"Bloomsburg Hospital," in order to remove the 
impression of the public that it was a private 
hospital conducted for personal gain, and by 
action of the court of that year the institution 
is now named the Bloomsburg Hospital. 

There are four public wards, with accommo- 
dations for sixteen patients, and also sixteen 
private rooms. In an emergency this capacity 
may be considerably increased. The adminis- 
tration of the hospital is in charge of a board 
of twenty-five directors, in five groups, elected 
for terms of five years each. For 19x4 they 
are, Paul E. Wirt, C. M. Creveling, Dr. J. J 
Brown, Dr. B. F. Gardner, Dr. L. B. Kline, 
For 1915, L. N. Moyer, Dr. I. R. Wolfe, J. G 
Harman, Dr. J. S. John, Dr. J. E. Shuman 
For 1916, A. Z. Schoch, J. C. Brown, Dr. J 
W. Bruner, Dr. J. R. Montgomery, James 
Magee. For 1917, Dr. R. E. Miller, Frank 
Ikeler, M. K. Yorks, Dr. A. Shuman, S. C. 
Creasv. For 1918, Dr. S. B. Arment, Dr. C. 
F. Altmiller, L. E. Waller, Dr. C. Z. Robbins, 
I. X. Grier. 

The building committee was composed of 
A. Z. Schoch, J. C. Brown, S. C. Creasy, Dr. 
J. J. Brown, Dr. J. W. Bruner. Dr. Bruner 
was the first chief of staff, and Dr. John is 
now in that position, which he has held for 
some years past. The present officers are : Dr. 
J. S. John, president ; J. C. Brown, secretary 
and treasurer : Dr. C. Z. Robbins, assistant 
treasurer. The Sisters of Mercy have the di- 
rect care of the patients, and Sister M. Stanis- 
laus is the superintendent. A number of 
trained nurses are graduated each year from 
the institution. 

The hospital has already in its brief career 
earned an enviable reputation for the success- 
ful treatment of critical surgical cases, due 
largely to the ability of the physicians and the 
careful nursing of the Sisters. While many 
gave valuable assistance in the establishment 
of the hospital, the successful outcome of the 
project is due more to the untiring efforts of 
A. Z. Schoch and J. C. Brown than to any 
other two persons., 


The charter of the Bloomsburg Library 
Company was adopted Feb. 19, 1889, and the 
management of the company's affairs vested in 
a board of directors made up of the follow- 



ing: Rev. Frank P. Manhart, president; 
Maud C. Walker, vice president ; Eva Rupert, 
secretary; Mrs. E. H. Little, treasurer; Martin 
P. Lutz, Anna M. Frymire, Mary A. Correll. 
Mr. Manhart having very shortly after re- 
moved from town, Col. John G. Freeze suc- 
ceeded him as president. 

The Library shared its first quarters with 
the W. C. T. U., this organization very gen- 
erously making over a collection of books 
which it owned to the control of the Library 
directors. In the spring of 1891 this partner- 
ship was dissolved, and the Library's equip- 
ment moved to the Y. M. C. A. room. After 
operating for four years its afifairs, like those 
of many other early semi-public libraries, 
languished, and for over ten years the town 
was without any active organization. Before 
the expiration of this time the women's clubs 
began to agitate the matter of a public library, 
and in 1902 the Civic club with its Library 
department was organized. 

In 1902 the project of a public library which 
should also be free, was put forth by the wom- 
en's clubs of the town. Contributions of books 
and money were solicited and entertainments 
given, with the result that practically every cit- 
izen of the town owned some share in the suc- 
cess which attended the institution from the 
start. The largest sum given by an individual 
was the thousand-dollar bequest of Mrs. D. J. 
Waller, and the largest amount from any one 
source was the $1,100 from the Bloomsburg 
Centennial fund. The Civic, Century, Wednes- 
day and Ivy clubs stood sponsors at its incep- 
tion, and have been loyal supporters through- 
out its years of growth. 

The new Library Company is operating the 
free public library under the original charter, 
although its by-laws were amended to increase 
the number of directors to twelve, including 
two members of the town council. The first 
board after the reorganization was as follows : 
Mrs. S. C. Creasy, president; Mrs. J. L. Dil- 
lon, vice president ; Miss Sarah E. I. Van Tas- 
sel, secretary; Mrs. C. W. McKelvy, treasurer; 
Miss Laura Waller, Mrs. E. B. Tustin, Mrs. 
J. P. Welsh, Col. J. G. Freeze, C. W. Miller, 
Louis Cohen, O. H. Bakeless, John R. Town- 

A room was secured in the Clark building 
on Center street, the Library organized by 
Miss Elizabeth Renninger, and on June 18, 
1903, with Mrs. Mary S. R. Worthington as 
librarian, and with four thousand books on the 
shelves, the Bloomsburg Free Public Library 
was opened to the people. Five years later 
the Library was expanded to its present size 

of two large rooms and storage space. The 
same year, upon petition of the people, council 
came to the financial aid of the institution. 
Since that time the appropriation has been in- 
creased until in 191 1 the present ruling was 
passed : Council voting to duplicate any sum 
raised by the board of directors, provided 
that sum be not in excess of $1,000. The 
library has also accumulated, despite its scanty 
resources, an endowment fund which at pres- 
ent stands at somewhat over $3,000. With 
over 4,500 volumes added to the original col- 
lection, and with all possible storage space 
crowded with unbound periodicals and other 
needed material, the Library has reached its 
limit of growth in the present situation. It is 
generally conceded by the board and by towns- 
people that a building of its own is the only 
solution of this congested condition, and that 
this building when erected must be commen- 
surate with the town itself in beauty, and fitted 
to the growth of the town for at least twenty 
years to come. 

The board at this time consists of the fol- 
lowing persons : J. R. Townsend, president ; 
James H. Coleman, vice president; Miss Mary 
Unangst, secretary ; Mrs. Samuel Wigfall, 
treasurer; Mrs. C. W. McKelvy, Miss Sarah 
E. I. Van Tassel, Mrs. C. W. Funston, Mrs. 
H. G. Eshelman, Miss Anna Creasy, C. W. 
Miller, O. H. Bakeless, Dr. G. H. Welliver, 
James Magee, Dr. J. W. Bruner. Trustees, 
J. R. Townsend, A. Z. Schoch, George E. 

The following librarians have served as 
noted: Mrs. Worthington, 1903-1908; Miss 
Irene Mercer, 1908-1909; Miss Clark, June, 
1909; Miss Blanche Williams, 1909-1911; 
Miss Edith Patterson, 1911-1914. 

Each year the library is financially aided by 
a "tag day," in which the townspeople as well 
as traveling public are importuned by girls 
selected for the occasion to buy a tag or 
streamer, the price varying with the inclination 
of the purchaser. In 1914 seventy girls par- 
ticipated and the sum realized was $270, the 
largest on record. 

soldiers' monument 

The erection of a monument in honor of 
the men of Columbia county who fought for 
the preservation of the LInion in the Civil war 
was a subject agitated and discussed for many 
years before its accomplishment. Back in the 
seventies an eff'ort was made to raise a fund 
for this purpose. A small amount was real- 
ized by entertainments and in other ways, but 



Erected Ijy the County at Bloomsburg 
Dedicated Nov. 2Q, tqoS 

Sol.DIIiKS' ]\[()XLMEXT. C" ATA W I SS A. L'a. 

ColAMlllA L'uL-XTV IaIL, J '.1.( k )M SI'.T R( 1, I'a. 



the public interest in the movement did not 
appear to be sufficiently aroused in the project 
at that time and so it slept for more than 
twenty years, when the agitation was again 
started. This culminated in 1898 when, on 
Feb. 8th, a petition was presented to the court 
by citizens asking for the erection of a monu- 
ment. Aftei being approved and disapproved 
by various grand juries through several years 
a contract was finally awarded to J. U. Kurtz, 
of Berwick, whose bid was $7,795, the lowest 
of five. The monument was erected in Mar- 
ket Square. 

The dedication of the monument, which 
took place Nov. 19, 1908, was probably the 
most imposing open-air ceremony ever wit- 
nessed in the county. The weather was fine 
and thousands of people were present. The 
program included a parade which started at 
the Town Hall, headed by Chief Marshal W. 
O. Holmes, County Commissioners J. A. Hess, 
C. L. Pohe and Elisha Ringrose, Assistant 
Marshals W. G. Lentz and R. A. Hicks, all 
mounted. The procession included five brass 
bands, mounted police. Sons of Veterans, 
Patriotic Order Sons of America, the Drum 
Corps of Danville, Knights of the Golden 
Eagle Commandery, Improved Order of 
Red Men, speakers of the day in carriages, 
veterans of the Civil war, Ladies of the 
G. A. R., Bloomsburg Fire Department. The 
parade ended at the monument, Market 
Square, where the exercises were opened by 
J. C. Eves, president of the Monument Asso- 
ciation. After "America" and a prayer, Presi- 
dent Judge Charles C. Evans in a very excel- 
lent address, on behalf of the county commis- 
sioners, presented the monument to the public 
generally, and to the war veterans in particu- 
lar. E. E. Bittenbender, commander of Ent 
Post, G. A. R., delivered the address of thanks 
for the monument. An eloquent and impress- 
ive speech was made by Hon. W. E. Andrews, 
of Washington, D. C, the orator of the day, 
and was followed by Congressman John G. 
McHenry, whose address closed the exercises. 
This monument has often been declared to be 
more beautiful than some costing twice as 


The first post office at Bloomsburg was 
established on Oct. I, 1807, with William Park 
as postmaster. He held the position until 
April I, 1810, when John Park succeeded him. 
Then came John Barton, on April 17, 1819, 
who continued until March 21, 1837, when 
Bernard Rupert was appointed. John R. 

Moyer assumed the position May 10, 1840, 
the office being located in his store on Mar- 
ket Square, where the residence of the late 
John L. Moyer now stands. Then came 
Leonard B. Rupert, on June 3, 1847; John M. 
Chamberlin, June i, 1849, office in his build- 
ing on Main street, now occupied and owned 
by Josiah Ralston; Philip Unangst, May 6, 
1853, office in his shoe shop, corner of Main 
and Center, on the site of Gelb & Mayer's store ; 
Leonard B. Rupert, April 7, 1858, office in 
building where Moyer Brothers building now 
stands, below the square on Main street ; 
Palemon John, April 9, 1861, office in room 
now occupied by Western Union Telegraph 
office and Andrew Evans' tailor shop ; D. A. 
Bcckley, April ]2, 1865, office in same location ; 
John B. Pursel, Aug. 9, 1866, office in store 
room on west side of what is now the Farm- 
ers' National Bank building; D. A. Beckley, 
April 5, 1869, office in a one-story frame build- 
ing that stood on the site of the Morning Press 
building; George A. Clark, May 5, 1885; A. B. 
Cathcart, Aug. 2, 1889; James H. Mercer, Feb. 
5, 1894. The three last named had the office 
in the Paul E. Wirt building where the 
Bloomsburg National Bank now is. The old- 
fashioned boxes and fixtures of the former 
office were discarded, and new modern appli- 
ances were adopted. O. B. Mellick became 
postmaster on Feb. 25, 1898, and the office con- 
tinued in the same quarters until June 16, 1899, 
when it was moved to the L. N. Moyer build- 
ing in the room now occupied by the Columbia 
& Montour Electric Company, the fixtures that 
were in the Wirt building being retained. Mr. 
Mellick was succeeded on March 7, 1902, by 
James C. Brown, who held the office until Sep- 
tember, 1914, when J. H. Maust was appointed. 
On Sept. 29, 1906, the post office moved into 
its present commodious quarters in the First 
National Bank building, where it was equipped 
throughout with up-to-date appliances. 


The Industrial Building & Loan Associa- 
tion was organized in 189 1. It has been so 
carefully conducted that it has never been 
obliged to foreclose a mortgage on any of its 
loans. The officers are: John R. Townsend, 
president ; F. R. Carpenter, vice president ; H. 
S. Barton, secretary ; Samuel Wigfall, treas- 
urer. Directors: George E. Elwell, O. W. 
Cherrington, W. H. Hidlay, Willie Law. 
From the time of its organization up to De- 
cember, 1913, it made loans amounting to 




There are three financial institutions in 
Bloomsburg in 1914, the First National Bank, 
the Fanners' National Bank and the Blooms- 
bury National Bank. 

On Feb. 5, 1S64, a company was formed for 
the transaction of a bankmg business by Wil- 
liam jMcKelvy, William Neal, I. W. McKelvy, 
Robert Cathcart, Robert F. Clark, John K. 
Grotz, George Hughes, Lloyd Paxton and 
Charles R. Paxton. On Feb. 29, 1864, it was 
authorized to become a national bank, and on 
March 7th it was formally opened for busi- 
ness with C. R. Paxton as president, and J. 
P. Tustin as cashier. Its capital was $50,000, 
and it was located in a room in the corner of 
the building that was then the residence of Wil- 
liam ]\IcKelvy. After Mr. McKelvy's death the 
building was purchased from his estate by Col. 
S. Knorr and L. S. Wintersteen, and subse- 
quently was bought by the First National 
Bank. In 1906 the building was practically re- 
built and enlarged, a third story being added 
and the entire interior changed, making one of 
the most imposing structures in the town. The 
bank occupies the first floor and is equipped 
with all the most modern banking fixtures, 
with banking rooms that will compare favor- 
ably with many in the large cities. It now has 
a capital of $100,000, and in June, 1914, a 
surplus fund and undivided profits of $144,- 
862.20. The present officers and board of 
directors are: M. I. Low, president; George 
L. Low, vice president; Frank Ikeler, cashier; 
Fred Ikeler, S. C. Creasy, Louis Gross, Clinton 
Herring, Dr. H. V. Hower, M. E. Stackhouse, 
A. W. Duy, Dr. R. E. Miller. 

The Farmers' National Bank was organized 
in January, 1891, with a capital of $60,000, and 
the first board of directors were : W. S. Moyer, 
C. A. Kleim, W'. Kramer, C. M. Creveling, G. 
A. Herring, W. Gingles, C. W. Runyon, J. W. 
Eves, P. A. Evans. W. S. Moyer was presi- 
dent, and Frank Ikeler, cashier. It began busi- 
ness in a room in what was then Mrs. M. E. 
Ent's building, its quarters being much less 
than half the size of its present offices. In 
1909 the bank purchased the building and re- 
built it, adding a third story and changing it 
throughout. The bank occupies the entire first 
floor, elegantly fitted with all the modern con- 
veniences, finished in mahogany and marble, 
one of the handsomest banking houses in the 
State. Its capital stock in June, 1914, is 
$60,000, with a surplus and profits of $137,- 
850.93. C. M. Creveling is president, and AI. 
Milleisen, cashier. The directors are : W. L. 
White, N. U. Funk, C. A. Kleim, C. M. Crev- 

eling, Dr. J. J. Brown, M. Milleisen, J. E. 
W hite. Dr. J. S. John. 

The Bloomsburg National Bank was organ- 
ized in 1899 and began business on Aug. ist 
with a capital of $60,000, which was increased 
to $100,000 in 1905. The bank is located in 
the building of Paul E. Wirt ne.xt to the Ex- 
change Hotel, occupying the entire first floor, 
is beautifully finished, and fitted with every 
appliance for modern banking. In June, 1914, 
its surplus and profits amounted to $106,480.08, 
in addition to its capital stock. A. Z. Schoch 
is president ; W. H. Hidlay, cashier ; and the 
directors are : Paul E. Wirt, IM. K. Yorks, 
Dr. M. J. Hess, Dr. J. E. Shuman, R. J. Ruhl, 
C. A. Caswell, W. M. Longenberger, Samuel 
Wigfall, W. H. Hidlay, A. Z. Schoch. 

The deposits in the three banks aggregated 
$2,087,111.45 on April 4, 1913. 

The Bloomsburg Banking Company went 
out of business in 1896. 

The Bloomsburg Board of Trade was or- 
ganized in 1886, and during its existence was 
instrumental in helping to bring to Bloomsburg 
both the carpet mill and the silk mill. After 
a few years of usefulness the organization 

The Bloomsburg Chamber of Commerce was 
organized in 1907. The following are the 
present officers : President, C. C. Yetter ; vice 
president, Paul E. Wirt ; treasurer, Dr. C. F. 
Altmiller; secretary, A. N. Yost; trustees, A. 
Z. Schoch, J. M. Robbins, Dr. D. J. Waller; 
executive committee, Karl F. Wirt, F. T. Rich- 
ard, C. W. Funston, Dr. Altmiller, C. "C. Yet- 
ter. Through its efforts largely the Fred 
Fear Match Factory was brought to Blooms- 
burg. It is still an active organization, and has 
done much to foster and develop the manufac- 
turing and business interests of the town. 

The Business Men's Association of Blooms- 
burg was first organized as the Business Men's 
Protective Association in the spring of 1910. 
At a meeting of business men held in the Town 
Hall on May 9th of that year a committee was 
appointed to draft a constitution and by-laws. 
These were adopted on May 20th. The or- 
ganization was effected May 31, 1910, when 
the officers were elected as follows : President, 
James Magee II ; vice president, J. W. Craw- 
ford ; secretary, G. Edward Elwell, Jr. ; treas- 
urer. Tames E. Rovs ; directors, F. P. Pursel, 
\Y. S.'Rishton, W. McK. Reber, William Low- 
enberg, Lewis W. Buckalew. These officers 
were reelected at the subsequent election on 
Jan. 10, 191 1. The organization prospered 
until May, 191 1, when a period of inactivity 
set in, which continued until Jan. 10, 1913, 





when it was reorganized under the new name, 
and the following officers elected : President, 
H. V. White; vice president, James E. Roys; 
secretary, G. Edward Elwell, Jr. ; treasurer, 
C. H. Sharpless; executive committee, F. P. 
Pursel, W. R. Kocher, W. McK. Reber, Lewis 
W. Buckalew, WilHam Lowenberg. 

The aim of the association in general is town 
betterment. Its membership of over one hun- 
dred includes merchants, wholesale and retail, 
in all lines, manufacturers, clergymen and 
professional men. It has the functions of a 
board of trade, a credit rating bureau, collec- 
tion agency and civic club. An office with a 
stenographer is maintained in the First Na- 
tional Bank building. The officers for 1914 
are the same as above, except the following: 
Secretary, R. S. Hemingway; executive com- 
mittee, J. S. Coleman, W. R. Kocher, G. E. 
Elwell, Jr., William Lowenberg, Paul Bom- 


Oak Grove Park Association was organized 
on May 26, 1886, "for the purpose of pur- 
chasing Or leasing grounds to be fitted up as a 
park, within the Town of Bloomsburg, Pa., or 
any other portion* of the County of Columbia, 
to be used for holding celebrations, picnics, and 
any and all purposes for which similar places 
are used." The capital stock was $10,000. 
The incorporators were : W. R. Tubbs, Har- 
man & Hassert, J. R. Schuyler. Buckalew 
Brothers, J. C. Brown, R. C. Neal, David 
Lowenberg, J. F. Peacock, J. H. Mercer, J. 
W. Gibbs, I. W. McKelvy, James McClosky, 
George E. Elwell, J. L. Moyei', H. H. Grotz. 
C. W. Neal, G. W. Creveling, C. B. Robbins, 
E. Jacoby, L. T. Sharpless, F. P. Billmeyer, 
L. E. Waller, C. M. Creveling, I. S. Kuhn, 
C. W. Miller. 

The main object of this organization was to 
preserve the beautiful grove at East Fifth and 
Park streets, as the town was in need of such 
a resort, and it was feared that these fine old 
trees would be felled for commercial purposes. 
The company made a lease with Mr. Nesbit 
and the Hoyt heirs, the owners, and pro- 
ceeded to beautify the place. A high fence 
was built around it, the grounds were cleaned 
up, a large rustic dancing pavilion was erected, 
water was introduced and a fountain con- 
structed, walks made, kitchen built, tables and 
benches and swings provided, and the whole 
grove made attractive, at a cost of about 
$2,000 to the stockholders. 

At first it was patronized fairly well, but 

the income was not sufficient to pay the rent, 
so that at the end of five years the company 
proposed to turn over the park with all the 
improvements to the owners, the Land Im- 
provement Company, which had purchased it 
in the meantime, in payment of rent due, 
which was accepted by the latter, and in 1891 
the lease was cancelled and Oak Grove Park 
Association disbanded. The members, who 
were among the leading business men of the 
town, lost all they invested, and the town lost 
a beautiful grove, whose site will some day be 
within the built-up portions of Bloomsburg. 

Then the town of Bloomsburg bought the 
grove from the Land Improvement Company 
for $5,500, and paid $1,000 on it, under the 
agreement that the town should pay a rental 
of $1,500 a year, and after a certain number 
of payments the town was to own the grove. 
The rent was not paid, however, as subsecjuent 
councils refused to recognize the contract, and 
the company sued the town and obtained a 
verdict of $2,300, subject to a reserved ques- 
tion of law as to the power of the town to 
buy parks. In December, 1905, Judge Staples, 
who heard the case, filed an opinion finding 
in favor of the town on the ground that the 
town had no legal right to make the purchase, 
and therefore the contract could not be en- 
forced. In 1912 the Improvement Company 
sold the timber, and it has all been removed, 
a few stumps being all that is left to mark 
the site of this once beautiful grove. 


For many years the only easily accessible 
grove in this section was what was known 
as Hess' Grove or Rupert Grove, near the 
bridge over Fishing creek at Rupert. It was 
used for picnics, festivals, camp meetings and 
other gatherings, and though not large was 
an attractive spot. It was owned by Thomas 
Knorr and his estate for many years before 
being used as a grove. Reuben Hess bought 
the Knorr property, and fitted up the grove for 
picnic grounds. For a number of years it was 
used each summer for a week or more as a 
camp meeting ground by the A. M. E. Church, 
and other gatherings were of frequent occur- 
rence. Subsequently G. W. Keiter purchased 
the grove from Mr. Hess, and on Jan. i, 1904, 
C. A. Kleim became the owner. He improved 
the grounds by enlarging the pavilion and add- 
ing to the attractions and conveniences gener- 
ally. The trolley cars on the Catawissa line 
pass close to the grove, making it easily 




The town of Bloomsburg purchased from 
Rev. D. J. Waller, Sr., on Dec. i8, 1873, three 
acres of land on Seventh street between Center 
and Iron, "to be used for public purposes" as 
stated in the deed. The intention at the time 
was to make a public park of it. The price 
paid was $2,000. Forty-one years have passed 
and it is no nearer being a public park than 
the day it was bought. It has been used mostly 
for a ball ground, and several times leased to 
circuses. At one time the Civic club planted 
a number of trees therein, which if they had 
been properly cared for would by this time 
have afforded some shade. There are great 
possibilities for a beautiful public resort here, 
and it is to be hoped that the next historian 
will be able to record that the original purpose 
for which the purchase was made has been 


The first school of any consequence in 
Bloomsburg was taught by George Vance in 
a log building on the site of the present 
Episcopal church in 1802, and about the same 
time Ludwig Eyer taught a German school in 
a building on the northeast corner of Market 
and Second streets. Other teachers of early 
date were Robert Fields, William Ferguson, 
Murray Manvilie and Joseph Worden. 

The highest branches taught in these schools 
were the "three R's," the advanced classes 
reading in the Bible. The second schoolhouse 
on the site of the first one was of frame con- 
struction and was taught by William Love. 
The next school was established in a build- 
ing in the lower end of the town, on the site 
of the cabinet shop of Joseph E. Barkley, now 
owned by the C. S. Furman estate. Robert 
Fields was the first teacher here. .A.bout the 
year 1830 a school was opened in a chair or 
wagon shop at the site of the Masonic Temple, 
Hiram W. Thornton being the teacher. 

The old academy was erected on what at the 
present time is the site of Dr. Montgomery's 
residence, contained four class rooms, and was 
used for school purposes until 1875. 

The first actual high school was conducted 
between 1850 and i860 by Prof. Joel E. Brad- 
ley in a room later used by tlie Democratic 
Sentinel, while Airs. Anna Drake taught pri- 
mary classes in the adjoining room. About 
the same period Miss Mattie Wells taught a 
select school in a building later occupied by 
William Gilmore, and Miss Susan Painter had 
another in the rear of her father's ofince on 
Market street. 

Upon the passage of the public school act 
in 1842 schoolhouses were built at various 
points in town, but there was no system of 
grading or general supervision until 1870, 
when the Fifth street school was built at a 
cost of $12,000, and opened with F. M. Bates 
as principal and George E. Elwell, assistant 
principal. Three years later the Third street 
school was built, I. E. Schoonover being the 
first principal. In 1885 all the schools were 
placed under the superintendency of D. A. 
Beckley, who prepared a regular course of 
studies and greatly improved the condition of 
the schools. 

The increase in the number of pupils in 
the schools was such that a third building soon 
became necessary, and so it was determined to 
erect a high school building. The lot formerly 
occupied by the jail on First street was pur- 
chased from the county by the school district, 
and in 1888 the present imposing edifice was 
completed. The directors at the time were : 
John R. Townsend, J. C. Brown, O. T. Wilson, 
W. Kramer, W. Chrisman, Joseph Garrison. 
The architect was E. E. Ritter, and the 
builder, David Geisinger. Since D. A. Beck- 
ley's time the following persons hSve been 
principals of the high school : William J. 
Wolverton, J. F. Harkins, L. P. Sterner and 
W. C. Mauser. L. P. Sterner was elected su- 
pervising principal of the schools in 1891 and 
most efficiently filled that position until July, 
1914, when he was elected district superin- 
tendent, and the district thus became inde- 
pendent. Large additions have been made to 
the three buildings from time to time, with 
sufficient additional room supposedly for 
many years in the future, but on the opening 
of the schools in the fall of 1914 every room 
was filled to overflowing, and the necessity for 
a fourth building was made imperative ; steps 
are being taken for its erection. In 1914 W. 
C. Mauser is principal of the high school, 
B. H. Johnson of the Third street school and 
Harry Rider of the Fifth street school. E.x- 
tensive improvements were made to the latter 
grounds this year, and recent additions have 
been made in the chemical, scientific and com- 
mercial departments of the high school. Man- 
ual training has been introduced in the other 
two schools, and sewing classes are conducted 
for the girls. 

State Normal School 

Crowning an elevation 150 feet above the 
Susquehanna and overlooking the town of 
Bloomsburg, the situation of the State Normal 










School is one of unrivaled beauty and health- 
fulness. The buildings are grouped in such a 
way as to be easy of access to the students 
and are surrounded with well kept lawns and 
numerous trees of nearly every variety capable 
of growth in this latitude. Bloomsburg is a 
city of homes and the Normal pupils gain 
thus all the advantages of homelike surround- 
ings and social opj)ortunities, without the 
temptations of a larger city. 

This school is one of the largest in the 
United States and many of its graduates fill 
positions of importance throughout this and 
other States. The school is one of the best 
disciplined in the country, while the educa- 
tional work is so carefully supervised that a 
strong corps of university and college trained 
teachers has been brought together for a fac- 
ulty. As a result the young men and women 
graduated from the college and preparatory 
courses are taking high rank among their fel- 
lows and reflecting great credit on their alma 

Nineteen acres of campus afford ample 
space for lawns and athletic grounds and in- 
clude a beautiful oak grove, while the seven 
buildings are admirably adapted to their differ- 
ent uses. Institute Hall, built in 1867, con- 
tains six spacious classrooms, and an audi- 
torium on the second floor with a seating ca- 
pacity of 1,000. The Model School building, 
where the prospective teachers are given 
classes of little ones to instruct, thus getting 
practical experience in their life work, is a 
handsome three-story building next to Insti- 
tute Hall. It is 80 by 90 feet in dimensions 
and contains twenty-eight study and recitation 
rooms, well ventilated and fitted out for the 
most improved methods of instruction. 

The main dormitory is four stories high, 
having a frontage of 165 feet and an extension 
of 75 feet, and a wing 40 by 104 feet. This 
wing furnishes accommodations for seventy 
students. Extending across this wing forward 
to the front building is the most attractive por- 
tion of the entire cluster of school buildings. 
It is a piazza 140 feet in length, which fronts 
the beautiful Susquehanna, and from this 
vantage point one of the most charming views 
in eastern Pennsylvania may be enjoyed. The 
river, like a ribbon, edges the plain on the 
south, disappearing through a bold gorge three 
miles to the southwest. Rising immediately 
beyond the river is a precipitous ridge 400 
feet high, backed by the majestic brow of 
Catawissa mountain. The town spreads be- 
fore the eye to the right and left, while in 
front is an expanse of green and golden field 

and farm. This is a spot to rest and feast the 
eye, and is always at the service of the student. 

In this main building is located the dining 
room, with a floor space of over four thousand 
square feet. It is in charge of a professional 
chef and meals are served by individual orders. 

What is known as the north end addition 
was built within a few years past and ex- 
tends to within a short distance of the Model 
School building, with which it is connected by 
a two-story covered passage-way. Here are 
located the study hall, library, dormitories for 
young men, etc. At the northwestern ex- 
tremity of this building is the gymnasium 
building, 45 by 90 feet, fitted with all the 
necessary appliances, and one of the best in 
the State. The main building is equipped with 
an elevator and sanitary appliances, and all 
buildings are thoroughly illuminated, heated 
and ventilated. 

Science Hall, on the west, was erected 
within recent years at a cost of $65,000 and 
is a model of its kind. North Hall is 40 by 70 
feet, three stories high, with a basement that 
contains the laundry. A part of the top floor 
is fitted up as an infirmary. 

Besides the instruction in the classrooms, 
many of the classes in botany, agriculture, ge- 
ology, etc., are taken on long trips weekly 
around the country to study their subjects 
at close quarters. These trips are useful, in- 
structive, entertaining and healthful, and are 
eagerly attended by the students. 

The beginning of the present Normal School 
was made in 1839, when a building at the 
corner of Third and Jefferson streets, Blooms- 
burg, was opened as a private school for in- 
struction in the higher branches. The first 
teacher proved incompetent and the same year 
C. P. Waller, a graduate of Williams College 
and subsequently a president judge of this 
State, was induced to come here and found an 
academy. He remained for two years and left 
the institution in a flourishing condition. 
After this teachers in the public schools in 
their summer vacations taught in this school, 
one of them, Joel E. Bradley, restoring to 
some extent the high standard set by Mr. Wal- 

About the year 1854 Mr. B. F. Eaton 
opened a classical school in the Primitive Meth- 
odist church (on what is now the site of St. 
Columba's church), and continued it with 
such success that his friends took measures to 
make it permanent. In 1856 Rev. D. J. Waller 
prepared a charter and William Robinson and 
others circulated it. The original signers 
were : A. J. Sloan, M. Coffman, E. Menden- 



hall, A. T. Evans, William McKelvy, J. J. 
Brower, 13. F. Hartman, S. H. Miller, J. M. 
Chamberlain, Philip Unangst, Jesse G. Clark, 
A. Witman, Michael Henderson, John G. 
Freeze, Levi L. Tate, Peter Billmeyer, M. C. 
Sloan, Jonathan ^Iosteller, Alexander J. 
Frick, E. B. Beidleman, Robert F. Clark, A. 
M. Rupert, R. B. Menagh, W. J. Beidleman, 
Robert Cathcart, A. C. Mensch, H. C. Hower. 
The charter provided for the establishment 
and maintenance of a school to be known as 
the "Bloomsburg Literary Institute," for the 
promotion of education in both the ordinary 
and the higher branches of English literature 
and science, and in the ancient and modern 
languages. Under the articles of incorpora- 
tion Rev. D. J. Waller, William Robinson, 
Leonard B. Rupert, William Snyder, Elisha 
C. Barton, William Goodrich, Joseph Sharp- 
less, John K. Grotz and I. W. Hartman were 
constituted trustees. 

For a time after the granting of the charter 
the school was conducted with varying degrees 
of success by William Lowrey, Daniel A. 
Beckley and Henry Rinker in the old "acad- 
emy," and by others in the Episcopal church 
building, until it was for a time suspended. 
The "church building" was the first building 
erected as the Episcopal church upon the 
present property of that denomination. Being 
a frame building it was moved to the back 
part of the lot on the southwest corner of 
Main and Center streets, and in it Joel E. 
Bradley and subsec]uently William Lowrey 
conducted a school. 

The need for a higher school than the 
'regular public institutions was becoming more 
acute, however, and at this critical period the 
right man appeared on the scene in 1866. 
Henry Carver, a native of Binghamton, N. Y., 
came through the valley on a pleasure tour 
and was introduced to Rev. D. J. Waller and 
others. The fact that he had been principal 
of an academy and in the preparatory depart- 
ment of the University of California induced 
the citizens to persuade him to remain and re- 
open the school in the old academy building. 
He did, and his success exceeded all previous 

After continuing the school for a year Mr. 
Carver refused to carry it on longer unless 
better accommodations were made for the rap- 
idly increasing classes. The general confidence 
in his methods caused the townspeople to de- 
cide to revive the charter of the Literary In- 
stitute. This was done, the elected officials 
being Rev. D. J. Waller, president : I. W. 
Hartman, secretary ; John G. Freeze, R. F. 

Clark, William Neal, trustees. A committee 
was appointed to secure money and another 
to decide on a suitable location for the insti- 
tute. After much discussion the site offered 
by William Snyder was accepted and plans 
drawn for a building to cost not exceeding 
$15,000. The selection of the final site was de- 
cided by the agreement of the town authorities 
to remove the old "Forks Hotel" from the cen- 
ter of Main street. The building was finally 
completed in 1867 and dedicated on April 4th 
of that year, the occasion being made a gala 
one by the citizens of the town. The total cost 
of the building and its furniture was $24,000. 
The following year a bell, costing $1,200 and 
weighing 2,171 pounds, was secured by sub- 
scriptions through the eft'orts of D. J. Waller 
(son of Rev. D. J. Waller), George E. Elwell 
and Charles Unangst, the members of the class 
of that first year of the new school. Two of 
them are prominent residents of Bloomsburg. 
Rev. D. J. Waller heads the institution so ably 
promoted by his father. Mr. Elwell's father 
was president of the board of trustees for 
eighteen years, and he succeeded his father as 
a trustee, for nearly twenty years. Mr. 
Unangst resides in New York City, vi'bere he 
is a prosperous lawyer. The first faculty in 
the academy was composed of Professor Car- 
ver, mathematics and the higher English 
branches; Rev. J. R. Dimm, Latin and Greek; 
Miss Sarah Carver, the lower English 
branches. Two courses of study were ar- 
ranged and four years allowed to complete 

Thus the school opened under local control 
and with a small attendance, but the year had 
scarce begun before steps were taken to add a 
State Normal school to the one just completed. 
A meeting was held in 1868 at which it was re- 
solved to establish a State Normal under the 
act of 1857 and to procure grounds and erect 
a building as soon as $70,000 had been sub- 
scribed. Rapidly the plans developed and on 
June 25, 1868, the cornerstone of the Normal 
School building was laid by Gov. John W. 
Geary. Hon. William Elwell spoke in behalf 
of the trustees and Hon. Leonard B. Rupert 
read the history of the Institute. Within nine 
months the dormitory building was completed 
at a cost of $36,000, and the school was for- 
mally recognized by the State Feb. 19, 1869. 
None of the functions of the "Literary In- 
stitute" were canceled when it became a nor- 
mal school; the charter name is still "The 
Bloomsburg Literary Institute and State Nor- 
mal School" and the courses of study orig- 
inally provided for the Institute are still main- 



tained, according to the terms of the original 
agreement with the Commonwealth. As a con- 
sequence this school is different from other 
normals in that it prepares students for col- 
leges and maintains courses in both vocal and 
instrumental music. The work of the Insti- 
tute has never interfered with the training of 
teachers ; in fact, the necessity of keeping well 
trained instructors in the sciences, languages, 
mathematics, history and literature to comply 
with the requirements of the Institute has pro- 
vided better instruction in the elements of 
these branches for students of the normal de- 
partments. The school at all times has at least 
125 representatives in the various colleges and 

The first principal of the school. Prof. 
Henry Carver, held the position until Decem- 
ber, 1 871. He was an excellent disciplinarian 
and organizer and had the happy faculty of 
inspiring young people to make the most of 
themselves. After his withdrawal from the 
principalship the school passed through a finan- 
cial struggle that is best described in the words 
of Col. John G. Freeze, in his "History of 
Columbia County," as follows: 

"The very large amount of money required, 
the falling off of subscribers, the want of 
prompt payment of those which were good, 
the talk of those who were not in sympathy 
with the movement, were all discouraging cir- 
cumstances. The trustees were therefore 
obliged to assume personally the cost of carry- 
ing on the work. They had upon themselves 
at one time, as a personal obligation, more than 
$20,000, repairs, expenditures and deficiencies 
to the amount of from $1,000 to $3,000 annu- 
ally having been provided for by them, on 
their personal responsibility. They have given 
days and nights to the business of the school, 
they have borne, for the public and general 
good, burdens which no man in the town has 
struggled under in his own business. When 
State aid came slowly or not at all, when sub- 
scriptions failed, when the daily pressure of 
debts was almost unbearable, the trustees 
shouldered the work and accepted the respon- 

The second principal of the school was the 
well known lawyer, Charles G. Barkley, Esq., 
previously County Superintendent of Schools, 
who accepted the position temporarily and on 
condition that he would be relieved as soon 
as possible. His principalship extended only 
from Dec. 20, 1871, to March 27, 1872, but a 
marked improvement in the school in all re- 
spects was apparent at the time of his resig- 
nation, and the trustees would have been glad 

to retain him at the head of the institution. 
He was for years one of the leading trustees 
of the school, being chairman of the committee 
on instruction and discipline. 

Mr. Barkley's successor was Rev. John 
Hewitt, rector of the Episcopal Church of 
Bloomsburg, who held the position until the 
end of the school year in June, 1S73. Im- 
provement continued, but still the income did 
not meet expenses and the struggles of the 
board of trustees continued. In September, 
1875, the boarding hall was burned, the loss 
being only partially covered by insurance. 
The hall was rebuilt in the ensuing year. Mr. 
Hewitt was succeeded by Dr. T. L. Griswold, 
who continued as principal until June, 1877. 
Under his administration the school first paid 
expenses. In the fall of 1877 Rev. David J. 
\\'aller, Jr., assumed the duties of principal 
and his administration was very successful. 
It was during his administration that the model 
school building and the east wing of the dor- 
mitory were erected. Throughout the thirteen 
years of his connection with the institution 
there was a constant growth in its material 
equipment, size, and efficiency; and when, in 
1890, Dr. Waller was appointed State super- 
intendent of public instruction the school was 
in a most prosperous condition. 

In July, 1890, Judson P. Welsh, Ph. D., as- 
sumed the duties of the position. The "Na- 
tional Educator," in its issue of March 18, 
1896, says of the prosperity of the school un- 
der his administration : "Through the influ- 
ence of Dr. Welsh, the growth and prosperity 
of the school has been phenomenal. We will 
briefly enumerate some of the material changes 
which have gone hand-in-hand with the edu- 
cational improvements. New furniture came 
first, then the beautiful auditorium was re- 
modeled. Next the large four-story dormi- 
tory and the gymnasium were built. Electric 
lights, the new library, the elevator, and the 
servants' dormitory soon followed. The new 
athletic field is another remarkable feature of 
this growth. In short, the school has grown 
so wonderfully that those who have not visited 
it for five years would be astonished to see the 

Science Hall was built under the adminis- 
tration of Dr. Welsh, and opened in the fall of 
iqo6, just after his resignation. It was erected 
and equipped at a cost of $65,000. 

In August, 1906, Dr. Welsh resigned the 
principalship to accept a position in the State 
College, and the trustees for the second time 
extended a call to Rev. D. J. Waller, Jr., who 
upon retiring from the office of State superin- 



tendent had been elected principal of the Nor- 
mal School at Indiana, Pa. He accepted, and 
again became principal here in the fall of 1906. 
The school has continued to grow, the attend- 
ance in 191 2 reaching eight hundred during 
the year. Several additions to the buildings 
have been made during these years, the most 
notable being Science Hall. In April, 1913, at 
a meeting of the stockholders, it was voted to 
sell the school to the State under the provisions 
of the School Code, and in the near future its 
ownership and control will pass to the Com- 

The State Normal School is under the care 
of a board of trustees of eighteen members, 
nine of these representing the Commonwealth 
and nine representing the stockholders. The 
stockholders are the contributors of the orig- 
inal $30,000 which the State requires to be 
furnished by the community in which a nor- 
mal school is established. They are not stock- 
holders in the sense of being participators of 
the earnings of the school, but they elect the 
trustees annually and suggest to the Common- 
wealth those who may be appointed to repre- 
sent the State. The trustees of this school 
have upon more than one occasion furnished 
funds to the institution from their private 
means, and have frequently compromised their 
personal estates by placing their names on 
paper to help the school out of financial em- 
barrassment, when the State failed to appro- 
priate sufficient funds, or withheld payment of 
funds appropriated. The annual appropria- 
tion of the State to the school at present is 
$7,500, which is not half the sum paid in 
salaries to the instructors. 

The State also makes an appropriation of 
one dollar and fifty cents per week to stu- 
dents at least seventeen years old, who take 
the teacher's course of instruction and declare 
their intention to become teachers for not less 
than two years in the public schools of the 
Commonwealth. This aid to the students is 
of no direct value to the school, as it does not 
furnish any additional funds. 

The following well known business and pro- 
fessional men constituted the 1913 board of 
trustees: A. Z. Schoch, president; J. C. 
Brown, vice president; J. M. Clark, secretary; 
Col. John G. Freeze, N. U. Funk, L. E. Wal- 
ler, 0. W. Cherrington, Hon. Voris Auten, G. 
J. Clark, on the part of the stockholders, and 
T. R. Townsend, C. W. Miller, Dr. J. J. Brown, 
R. C. Neal, M. J. Hess, Paul E. Wirt, A. L. 
Fritz, F. G. Yorks, A. W. Duy, W. H. Hid- 
lay, treasurer, on the part of the State. Of 
the above trustees, four died between July 8th 

and Sept. 21st, 1913, namely, Col. John G. 
Freeze, A. L. Fritz, F. G. Yorks and R. C. 
Neal. At the May election, 1914, these vacan- 
cies were filled by the election of Milton K. 
Yorks by the stockholders, and M. G. Young- 
man, L. E. McGinnes and Benjamin Apple 
for the State. 

Rev. D. J. Waller, Sr., was the first presi- 
dent of the board of trustees. He was suc- 
ceeded by Hon. L. B. Rupert, who continued 
in office until 1873, when Hon. William Elwell 
was elected. He resigned in 1891 and was 
followed by William Neal until his death, 
when A. Z. Schoch was chosen and still fills 
the office (1914). I. W. Hartman is the only 
survivor of the original trustees. 

Four fifths of the yearly income of the 
school is spent in the town, and it is esti- 
mated that the students in their personal ex- 
penditures bring into the town each year at 
least $15,000. During seven years previous 
to 1898 the annual income of the school in- 
creased from $42,000 to $69,000, or almost 
sixty-five per cent. The income expended in 
Bloomsburg during that time was $346,000 
for rqnning expenses. Add to this the sum 
expended by the students and the estimated 
total is $431,000. Besides this the additions 
and repairs to the school buildings repre- 
sented $70,000, which was disbursed among 
residents of the town, so that the grand total 
that the town gained from the proximity of 
the school was at least half a million dollars. 


The history of the fraternity of Freemasons 
in Bloomsburg is coincident with the history 
of the town itself. While the town was still 
a small village, practically a settlement, Rising 
Sun Lodge, No. 100, F. & A. M., was organ- 
ized, and met at the house of WiUiam Miller 
in Bloomsburg. The warrant was dated Jan. 
2, 1804, and the first worthy master named 
was Daniel B. Potter, who however declined ; 
Christian Brobst was named in his stead. In 
1805 and for a number of years thereafter 
the meetings were held alternately at Blooms- 
burg and Catawissa. There were twelve mem- 
bers of the lodge, among them John Clark, W. 
M. : Philip Moyer, S. W. ; Casper Christman, 
y. W. ; Gabriel Lount, secretary, and Isaiah 
Willits, treasurer. This lodge continued until 
about 1820 or 1822, when it surrendered its 

The next lodge here was formed on March 
15, 1852, when Christian Frederick Knapp, 
33°, William Sloan and others met and 



organized Washington Lodge, No. 265, F. 
& A. M., which is still in successful existence, 
holding its meetings in the Cathedral. 

The Scottish Rite bodies of Freemasonry 
were organized in Bloomsburg May 19, 1865. 
Conspicuous among the fourteen charter mem- 
bers were Christian Frederick Knapp, ^^°, 
Elisha W. M. Low, 32°, and Jonathan Rose 
Dimm, 32° ; Dr. Dimm, now president-emeri- 
tus of Susquehanna University, at Selins- 
grove, being the only surviving charter 
member. These bodies have a membership of 
over twelve hundred and occupy their own 
building, known as Caldwell Consistory Ca- 

The Cathedral is located on Market Square, 
a building which, with its complete appoint- 
ments, is the pride of Bloomsburg, as it might 
well be of a much larger city. It is a three- 
story brick with brownstone trimmings. On 
the first floor is a large entrance hall, with 
wide stairs at the back leading to the second 
floor. On either side of this hall are the 
rooms of the Craftsman Club, which include 
reception rooms, reading rooms, card room and 
billiard room, with all modem conveniences. 
Back of these are an immense banquet hall, 
capable of seating five hundred or more per- 
sons at the tables, and a kitchen fully equipped 
witli all the latest accessories necessary to pre- 
pare a meal for so large a number. 

The auditorium or lodge room is on the sec- 
ond floor. It has a gallery around the sides 
and one end, and a perfectly arranged stage 
with beautiful scenery, and electric lights of 
various colors. This floor also contains cloak 
rooms, office rooms and a large reception room. 
The building is used exclusively for Masonic 

At one time Washington Lodge, No. 265, 
F. & A. M., occupied rooms in the building 
now owned by Moyer Brothers on Main street, 
below Alarket Square. When J. J. Brower 
erected the three-story brick building east of 
the courthouse, now owned by Paul E. Wirt, 
the Masons moved to its third floor and re- 
mained there until the completion of the 

Prior to 1906 the growth of the order had 
made larger and more commodious quarters 
imperative, and various locations were consid- 
ered for the erection of a temple. In January, 
1906, purchase was made of the property then 
owned by the Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion, formerly for many years the home of 
William Neal. Plans were procured for a 
building that would cover the entire lot. The 
work of demolishing the old building was soon 

begun, and the foundation walls progressed 
so that the laying of the cornerstone took place 
on June 14, 1906, with impressive ceremonies 
conducted by Right Worshipful Grand Master 
George W. Kendrick, Jr. Other members of 
the Grand Lodge who were present were: 
Deputy Grand Master George B. Orlady, 
Senior Grand Warden George W. Guthrie, 
Junior Grand Warden W. C. Gorgas, Grand 
Treasurer Thomas R. Patton, Grand Secretary 
William A. Sinn. The following was the or- 
der of ceremonies : 

Formation at Lodge Room, ii 130 A. M. 

Opening Prayer, Gra}id Chaplain. 

Music, "Spirit of Power and Might," 
Caldwell Choir. 

Proclamation, Grand Marshal. 

Address to R. W. Grand Master, Chair- 
man of Building Committee. 

Invocation, Grand Chaplain. 

Deposit of Box in Cornerstone, Grand 

List of Articles Deposited, Grand Secre- 

Music, "Who Enters Here," Caldwell 

Preparation for Laying Cornerstone, 
Right Worshipful Grand Master. 

Plumb, Level and Square, Grand Officers. 

Cornerstone Placed in Position, Right 
Worshipful Grand Master and Grand Officers. 

Music, "Great Architect, Our Heav- 
enly King," Caldzvell Choir. 

Cornerstone Laid, Right Worshipful 
Grand Master. 

Music, "Shine on Our Souls," Caldwell 

Corn, Wine & Oil, Grand Officers. 

Music, "God Is My Strong Salvation," 
Caldzvell Choir. 

Presentation of Architect, Chairman of 
Building Committee. 

Music, Hymn, "Jerusalem the Golden," 
Caldzvell Choir. 

Proclam.'^tion, Grand Marshal. 

Oration, /. Henry Williams. 

Chorus, "Glorious Things of Thee Are 
Spoken," Caldzvell Choir. 

Benediction, Grand Chaplain. 

Chant, "So Mote It Be," Caldzvell Choir. 

The building was completed in September, 
1907, and the dedication of the Cathedral took 
place on the 24th, 25th and 26th of that 
month. On Tuesday morning, the 24th, the 
opening services were held. In the Lodge of 
Perfection, H. A. McKillip presiding, the re- 
port of Architect Reitmyer was read, followed 



by the report of the building committee by 
R. E. Hartman, its secretary. The key of the 
building was then handed over to Frederick 
W. Ulrich, Commander in Chief, by the 
builder, E. E. Ritter, and passed by him to 
John R. Townsend, chairman of the board of 
trustees. In the afternoon, the ceremony of 
dedication was conducted by Hon. Henry L. 
Palmer, 33°, M. P. Sovereign Grand Com- 
mander of the Supreme Council, N. M. J., 
assisted by James Isaac Buchanan, 33^, Dep- 
uty for Pennsylvania, and the officers of the 
Supreme Council. 

The reception on Tuesday evening was at- 
tended by about fifteen hundred people, in- 
cluding members of the Consistory and of 
other Masonic bodies, and their wives. The 
guests were received by the officers of the 
Supreme Council, and the officers of the Con- 
sistory. Each lady was presented a souvenir 
in the shape of a hatpin, the head being a 
triangle with the figures 32 in the center. 

A concert was given by Charles P. Elwell's 
orchestra of twelve pieces in the auditorium. 
Following this, Caldwell Choir rendered an ex- 
cellent vocal program for a half hour. During 
the early part of the evening refreshments 
were served in the banquet hall. At 9 130 the 
banquet hall was utilized as a ballroom, and 
lovers of the dance enjoyed themselves until 
after midnight. Wednesday and Thursday 
were occupied with Masonic work, a large 
number of candidates being advanced to the 
thirty-second degree. The celebration ended 
with a banquet in the banquet hall in the 
evening, at which H. A. McKillip, 33°, pre- 
sided as toastmaster. Provision was made for 
550 guests. 

The following were the officers of Cald- 
well Consistory at the time of the dedication : 
Frederick W. Ulrich, 32°, 111. Com. in Chief ; 
John R. Townsend, 32°, 111. First Lt. Com.; 
John S. Mack, 32°, 111. Sec. Lt. Com.; E. 
Skyles McKillip, 32°, 111. Min. of S. G. O.; 
Eugene F. Carpenter, 32°, 111. Chancellor; 
George L. Low. 32°, 111. G. Treasurer : H. A. 
McKillip, 33°, 111. G. Sec. & K. of S. & A. ; 
David S. Bachman, 32°, 111. G. Eng. and A.; 
William J. Hehl, 32°, 111. G. Hospitaler; Wil- 
liam M. Tinker, 32°, 111. G. Master of C. ; 
Alfred L. Reichenbach, 32°, 111. G. Stan. 
Bearer; Joseph L. Townsend, 32°, 111. Capt. 
of the G.; Birch B. Freas, 32°, 111. G. Sen- 
tinel. Trustees, John R. Townsend, 32°, 
Robert E. Hartman, 32°, Harrv J. Achenbach, 

The bodies which meet in the Cathedral are : 
Washington Lodge, No. 265, F. & A. M. ; 

Bloomsburg Royal Arch Chapter, No. 218; 
Mount Moriah Council, No. 10, R. & S. 
M.; Crusade Commandery, No. 12, Knights 
Templar ; Orient Conclave, No. 2, K. of R. C. 
of C. ; besides the four bodies of the Ancient 
Accepted Scottish Rite of the Valley of 
Bloomsburg: Enoch Lodge of Perfection, 14° ; 
Zerubbabel Council, P. of J., 16° ; Evergreen 
Chapter, R. C, 18° ; and Caldwell Consistory, 
S. P. R. S., 32°, the latter body being owner 
of the Cathedral, whose present trustees are 
Cortez B. Robbins, 33° ; C. Thomas Vander- 
slice, 32° ; Robert D. Young, 32°. 


Theta Castle, No. 276, Knights of the 
Golden Eagle, is one of the most prominent 
lodges of Bloomsburg. It has a large mem- 
bership, and a considerable fund mvested. 
One of its features is the commandery, a 
handsomely uniformed and well drilled body 
of young men, whose maneuvers have elicited 
great applause wherever they have appeared. 

La Valletta Commandery, No. 91, A. & L. 
O., Knights of Malta, was organized July 2, 
1891. The present officers are: Sir knight 
commander, John Fortner; sir knight gener- 
alissimo, John W. Harman; treasurer, J. 
Lewis ; recorder, D. W. Campbell ; prelate, 
William Lemon; captain general, William 
Traub; senior warden, C. H. Gilmore. 

Bloomsburg Conclave, No. 254, Improved 
Order of Heptasophs, was organized March 
7, 1893. The present officers are: Archon, 
John Lewis ; secretary, T. C. Harter ; financier, 
H. M. Sommer; treasurer, C. A. Kleim; past 
archon, R. G. Phillips; provost, T. J. Morris; 
prelate, J. E. Aloyer; inspector, G. P. Ringler; 
warden, W. F. Hartman ; trustees, G. P. Ring- 
ler, John Posten, R. G. Phillips. 

Washington Camp, No. 319, Patriotic Order 
Sons of America, was organized May i, 1888. 
Present officers are: President, John F. 
Adams ; vice president, Paul Harvey ; past 
president, J. W. Robison ; financial secretary, 
Isaiah Deily ; recording secretary, Clark Kash- 
ner; treasurer, C. E. Whitenight; master of 
forms and ceremonies, Jacob Stiner; con- 
ductor, James Yost; inspector, W. E. Miller; 
outside guard, D. R. Stiner; trustees, C. L. 
Rupert, Isaiah Deily, J. Stiner. Chaplain, 
C. S. Ranck ; assistant secretary, S. G. Kash- 
ner; sentinels, Jacob Millard. Irvin Askew, 
James Hunsinger, Clark Evans. 

Honayawas Tribe, No. 372, Improved Order 
of Red Men, was organized Aug. 21, 1907. 
The officers now are: Sachem, N. J. Hofer; 
prophet, John Tringle ; senior sagamore, B. 

\ ( 



Lanyon; junior sagamore, H. Cleaver; chief 
of records, A. W. Walters; collector of wam- 
pum, W. L. Earnest; keeper of wampum, J. B. 

The Protected Home Circle was organized 
Aug. 27, 1895. The present officers are: R. 
H. Smoyer, president ; C. H. Kline, secretary ; 
Fred Holmes, treasurer. 

Bloomsburg Lodge, No. 436, of the Benev- 
olent I'rotective Order of Elks, of the United 
States of America, was granted a charter April 
14, 189S, and the following have served (each 
one year) as exalted rulers of this organiza- 
tion: I. A. Snyder, William K. West, W. H. 
Henrie, C. E. Randall, P. W. Gordon, Hon. 
John G. Harman, Clyde Charles Yetter, Esq., 
Charles M. Evans, C. A. Small, Esq., Edward 
Schenke, Gerald Gross, Anthony Menzebach, 
William D. Holmes and David W. Powell. 

This organization accumulated resources, 
and on the 18th day of March, 1909, purchased 
the Hartman property on Market Square, 
which was remodeled. The home with the 
furnishings today is valued at forty thousand 
dollars. It is a three-story brick structure with 
a store and basement. The second and third 
stories are used for lodge and club purposes. 
The organization frequently gives the use of 
its quarters for charitable and civic purposes. 
It has a membership of 208 men, and its char- 
ity fund at all times of the year is distributed 
with such promptness and in such a manner 
that it has received the commendation of 
Bloomsburg citizens. The present officers are : 
Joseph Flaherty, exalted ruler; Dr. C. F. Alt- 
miller, esteemed leading knight ; Myron E. 
Sands, esteemed loyal knight; J. H. Coleman, 
esteemed lecturing knight ; J. F. Watson, sec- 
retary ; F. D. Dentler, treasurer ; W. G. Lentz, 
esquire; D. W. Campbell, chaplain; R. N. 
Wolverton, inner guard; M. W. Betz, tiler; J. 
E. Roys, organist. Trustees, K. F. Wirt, F. J. 
Richards, Frank Ikeler. 

The lodge has been honored by the appoint- 
ment of Clyde Charles Yetter, Esq., one of its 
members, to the office of district deputy grand 
exalted ruler, of this District, which comprised 
nineteen lodges in the years 1912-13. 

Bloomsburg Nest, Order of Owls, No. 1133, 
was organized June 30, 1913. The officers are : 
Past president, Jeremiah Geese ; president, A. 
E. Tillburg ; secretary, J. H. Fahringer ; treas- 
urer, E. L. Buck. 

Bloomsburg Camp, No. 9808, Modern 
Woodmen of America, was organized March 
30, 1905. The officers now are: Venerable 
consul, Robert Eunson ; worthy adviser, P. C. 
Bomboy ; banker, J. L. Townsend ; clerk, W. 

B. Linville; escort, J. B. Creveling; sentry, 
Rhode Huff ; managers, W. P. Zehner, G. W. 
Hess, L. E. Smith. 

Bloomsburg Lodge, No. 2557, Knights and 
Ladies of Honor, was organized April 22, 
1904. The officers are: Past protector, Aliss 
Grace Cook; protector. Miss Lusetta Achy; 
vice protector. Miss Lizzie Wilson; recording 
secretary, Frank H. Evans; financial secretary, 
J. Hurley Walters; treasurer, L. E. Smith; 
chaplain. Miss Bertha Gross; guide, Wildie 
Dent; guardian. Miss Harriet Barber; sentinel, 
Simon Poust; trustees, J. H. Walters, F. H. 
Evans, Wildie Dent. 

Bloomsburg Lodge of the Junior Order of 
United American Alechanics organized Nov. 
22, 1890. In 1905 there was a split in the or- 
ganization and the local lodge went with the 
Order of Independent Americans, becoming 
American Union Council, No. 537. The pres- 
ent officers are : Past councilor, J. H. 
Cramer ; councilor, Rush Cook ; vice councilor, 
J. W. Cadow ; recording secretary, R. W. 
Alexander; assistant recording secretar}', A. L. 
Sobers; financial secretary, M. C. Jones. 

Bloomsburg Camp of Woodmen of the 
World was organized in December, 191 1, by 
Charles S. Myers, district deputy. The of- 
ficers are : Consul commander, E. H. B. Ab- 
bett; adviser lieutenant, Robert F. Shaffer; 
clerk, Joseph H. Dennis; banker, E. J. Gear- 
inger. There are four other camps of this 
order in the county, located respectively at 
Benton, Berwick, Millville and Numidia. 

Van Camp Lodge, No. 140, I. O. O. F., 
was chartered Nov. 17, 1845, with these of- 
ficers : Andrew D. Cool, noble grand ; Eph- 
raim Armstrong, vice grand ; Edward Keifer, 
secretary; Henry Webb, assistant secretary; 
George W. Abbott, treasurer. George Cath- 
cart, the last surviving charter member, died 
in Danville in 1879. The present officers for 
1914 are: W. H. John, noble grand; George 
A. Fornwald, vice grand ; Hurley E. Walter, 
recording secretary; G. W. Hippensteel, finan- 
cial secretary ; Theodore Kreigh. treasurer : R. 
A. Hicks, William Vial, S. C. Beagle, trustees. 

Bloomsburg Council, No. 146, Order United 
American Mechanics, was chartered July 16, 
1868. with these members: H. F. Bodine, To- 
bias Henry, Harman Kline, H. J. Evans, M. S. 
Housekne'cht, M. M. Snyder, A. S. Crossley, 
Robert Roan, J. M. Thornton, Frederick Gil- 
more. George Nicholas, I. K. Miller, J. S. 
Jacobv, Edward Searles, William Thomas, Jo- 
seph Christman, M. M. Johnson, J. S. Evans, 
I. Hagenbuch, P. Welsh, J. Schultz, Henry 
Shutt, W. M. Furman, John Gulp, George 



Moyer and C. W. Miller. The officers in 1914 
are : J. Edward Faust, councilor ; D. R. Kash- 
ner, vice councilor; Silas Rhoat, assistant sec- 
retary ; Joseph Rhoat, inductor ; Cleve Brodt, 
examiner; J. H. Fahringer, outside protector; 
Clark Miller, inside protector; H. W. Giger, 

The Daughters of Liberty, Council No. 81, 
has these officers: M. C. Jones, councilor; F. 
J. Rubenstein, recording secretary ; ^Irs. M. C. 
Jones, financial secretary; Mrs. Fanny Davis, 

Ent Post, G. A. R., No. 152, Department of 
Pennsylvania, was first organized in .A.ugust, 
1868. with the following officers: Samuel 
Knorr, post commander ; J. B. Robison, 
senior vice commander ; X. W. Sample, 
junior vice commander ; F. P. Drinker, quar- 
termaster; Dr. \V. H. Bradley, surgeon; G. K. 
Beidleman, officer of the day; A. Croop, offi- 
cer of the guard; C. S. Fornwald, adjutant; 
Ross Creveling, chaplain. 

After a few years the charter was sur- 
rendered, and in 1880 the post was reorganized 
as No. 250, with the following officers: H. J. 
Conner, post commander; C. P. Sloan, senior 
vice commander; G. W. Mears, junior vice 
commander ; W. H. Swentzell, quartermaster ; 
N. B. Fowler, chaplain; G. K. Beidleman, offi- 
cer of the day; W. H. Jacoby, officer of the 
guard; Daniel Boice, surgeon; C. S. Forn- 
wald, adjutant. 

The present officers (1915) are: Dr. J. S. 
Lazarus, post commander; William Thomas, 
senior vice commander; Thomas Downs, 
junior vice commander; W. R. Ringrose, 
quartermaster ; Clark Kressler, chaplain ; J. 
W. Shuman, officer of the day; F. M. Gil- 
more, officer of the guard ; Charles Kunkle, 
surgeon; C. S. Fornwald, adjutant. 

The living members are: L. R. Bomboy, G. 
K. Beidleman, George Brant, J. S. Bachman, 
A. J. Beagle, W. J. Correll, C. H. Campbell, 
O. B. Case, Louis Cohen, T. M. Dawson, 
George Farver, C. S. Fornwald, B. B. Freas, 
J. H. Fahringer, W. H. Gilmore, F. M. Gil- 
more, A. V. Hower, Albert Herbine, Isaiah 
Holter, W. C. Hagenbuch, Jonas Hughes, 
William Hopper, G. W. Jacoby, L. D. Kase, 
Jonas Kline, Charles Kunkle. Clark Kressler, 
William Kern, Jonty Lemons, Frank Mc- 
Bride, John McCormick, J. H. Maize, G. W. 
Mears, "R. T. Morris. Camden Mears. Charles 
Muffly, T- R. Alills. O. B. Price, W. B. Poust, 
W. R. Ringrose. Ellis Ringrose. L. T. Rider, 
John Roadarmel, John Shellenberger, E. A. 
Searles. B. F. Sharpless, William Shoemaker, 
H. H. Sands, William Thomas, T- H. Town- 

send, John Turner, Charles Titel, William 
Traub, Elias Utt, W. H. Utt, James Warr, 
Amos Whitenight, Jerry Wagner, Robert 
Watkins, Dr. I. W. Willitts. 

About one hundred and twenty-two of the 
members have died since the post was organ- 
ized. The post occupies a hall in the Wells 
building on Main street, and keeps up active 
work, ably assisted therein by the ladies' 

In addition to the above there are lodges of 
the Maccabees, Royal Arcanum, Daughters of 
Rebekah, and Daughters of Pocahontas in 


The social life of Bloomsburg is well repre- 
sented by the many clubs formed for mutual 
interchange of ideas and the improvement of 
the mind and body. Many of these societies 
and clubs are of much value to the future 
progress of the county, and others, especially 
the Historical Society, will confer incalculable 
benefits upon the coming generations. 

The Bloomsburg Wheelmen 

The Wheelmen was Bloomsburg's oldest 
social club. Organized in the days of the 
bicycle craze, the club's name became some- 
what of a misnomer, but the members never 
had a thought of changing it, but rather of 
retaining the name in memory of the days they 
rode awheel. The clubhouse was first located 
on Third street, in the present home of W . H. 
Fisher, and later moved to Main street, to the 
building now occupied and owned by the 
Ostrich Farm & Feather Company. The 
organization of the Craftsman so reduced its 
membership that in 1912 it moved to two 
rooms in Wirt's building, and after one year 
there disbanded, and the funds on hand were 
donated to the Bloomsburg hospital. The 
club's social events were always among the 
most delightful affairs in this section, its an- 
nual banquets being one of its leading features. 

Craftsman Club 

Among the most beautifully appointed club 
rooms in central Pennsylvania are those of 
the Craftsman Club, for membership in which 
it is essential that the applicant must be affil- 
iated with the Masonic fraternity. Located on 
the first floor of the handsome Caldwell Cathe- 
dral, the rooms are, without question, among 
the most elaborate to be found in anv clubhouse 



of the State. Beautiful in themselves, they 
are most elaborately furnished, and excite the 
admiration of all who have ever seen them. 
The membership is large and fast growing. 
Ever since the club came into existence it has 
taken a prominent part in the social life of the 
town. Its annual Christmas dance is the prin- 
cipal social event of this part of the State, while 
its ladies' day has become popular with those 
ladies of town eligible to enjoy the hospitality 
of the club. 

The Elks 

With a large number of Bloomsburg's repre- 
sentative business and professional men in- 
cluded among its membership, the Elks lodge 
of Bloomsburg has exceptionally attractive 
clubrooms in the Hartman building, purchased 
a few years ago. Two of the floors devoted to 
their own use are handsomely furnished and 
arranged. The first floor is a large and hand- 
some store room, and the third floor contains 
the lodge rooms. A janitor and an expert chef 
are in constant attendance. The charitable 
acts of this organization are among its leading 

The Centurv Club 

In the autumn of 1893 Dr. J. P. Welsh, prin- 
cipal of the Normal School, was the prime 
mover of the "University Extension," held in 
Bloomsburg for several years. It was well 
received by the people of the town who were 
inclined to the. study of literature. At the 
second lecture of the first course it was sug- 
gested by the lecturer that a number of the 
people club together to study the author for 
the next lecture, one of the English poets. 
After the second lecture seven young women 
came down Normal Hill together. Before 
separating at Center street they had decided to 
meet the following Friday evening at the home 
of one of the party. When the seven young 
women had been holding their meetings for 
some time, some one suggested that it would be 
well to have a name. One of the members 
very happily sugeested "The Pleiades." In 
1896, when others were added to the list, it 
became necessary to change the name of the 
club. The name "Century Club of Blooms- 
burg" was selected. Mrs. ]. L. Dillon was 
elected the first president, which position she 
very ablv filled for five years. The original 
object of the Century Club was for social and 
literary work and for the establishment of a 
library. The last twenty years have been 

spent in the study of literature, several foreign 
countries, miscellaneous programs, the Bible, 
and the "Racial Element in the Formation of 
the People of the United States," under the 
title of "Our Great Republic." The club has 
the following active members, honorary mem- 
bers and associate members: Mrs. O. H. 
Bakeless, Mrs. W. H. Brooke, Mrs. R. C But- 
ler, Mrs. R. F. Colley, Mrs. S. C. Creasy, Mrs. 
J. L. Dillon, Mrs. R. E. Hartman, Mrs. G. H. 
Hemingway, Mrs. S. J. Houk, Mrs. R. R. 
Little, Miss Helen Low, of Lime Ridge, Miss 
Georgia Pursel, Mrs. J. L. Richardson, Mrs. 
L. P. Sterner, Mrs. H. M. Smith, Miss Mary 
Tustin, Miss Mary Unangst, Miss Sarah Van 
Tassel, Mrs. R. R. Zarr, Mrs. J. S. Grimes, 
Mrs. E. B. Tustin, Mrs. J. K. Miller, Mrs. 
C. A. Caswell and Miss May Sharpless. 

The present officers are : Mrs. S. J. Houk, 
president ; Miss May Sharpless, vice president ; 
Miss Mary Unangst, treasurer; Mrs. Carlton 
A. Caswell, secretary. 

The Ivy Club 

Early in the nineties Miss Helen John, Miss 
Ida Bernhard, Dr. Eva Rawlings, Mrs. Ed- 
ward Ever (Miss Emma Townsend) and Miss 
Stella Lowenberg held weekly meetings for 
reading and discussion. In November, 1894, 
this reading circle organized a literary society 
known as the A. A. P. Club. It remained as 
such until March 6, 1897, when it was reor- 
ganized as the Ivy Club with a membership 
of eight persons. The main oljjects of the Ivy 
Club are to aid in maintaining the Public 
Library and the advancement of its members. 
The club was admitted to the State Federation 
of Women's Clubs in 189S. The organization 
has fifteen members and the officers are : Pres- 
ident, Miss Margaret Waller ; vice president, 
Miss Helen John ; secretary, Mrs. D. S. Hart- 
line; treasurer, Mrs. J. W. Bruner. 

The Wednesday Club 

The Wednesday Club, of Bloomsburg, was 
organized as a reading circle in the fall of 
1892, taking for its first work "The Discovery 
of America," by John Fiske. There were 
fifteen members of the club at that time. In 
January, 189=;. Miss Eva Rupert was elected 
president. The same year the name of the 
reading circle was changed to the Mosaic Club. 
In January, 1898, the Mosaic found that the 
purchase of books would be necessary to en- 
able them to do the work that they had planned. 
It was decided that these books should form 



the nucleus of a public library for the town of 
Bloomsburg. The club joined the State Fed- 
eration of Women's Clubs in June, 1898, and 
still belongs to the Federation. On June 29, 
1899, the name of the Mosaic Club was 
changed to the Wednesday Club, of Blooms- 
burg. In all these years the moneys from 
fines, dues and entertainments were devoted 
to the use and maintenance of the Public 
Library. The officers now are : Mrs. Samuel 
Wigfall, president; Mrs. R. E. Miller, vice 
president; Mrs. D. J. Waller, Jr., secretary; 
Mrs. George E. Elwell, treasurer. 

The "S" Club 

This club was organized on Oct. 21, 1912. 
The "S" stands for "study and service." The 
first officers were Miss Harriet Waller, presi- 
dent ; Miss Mary Demaree, vice president ; 
Miss Margaret C. Brooke, secretary ; Miss 
Jean Andres, treasurer. 

The object of the club is the intellectual im- 
provement of its members, and town better- 
ment. The present officers are : . Mrs. G. Ed- 
ward Ehvell, Jr., president : Miss Gertrude 
Gross, vice president ; Mrs. William W. Fagely, 
secretary ; Mrs. Frederic O. Mvisser, treasurer ; 
Mrs. Charles C. Housenick, club reporter. 

The membership includes Miss Jean Andres, 
Miss Armantine Arment, Mrs. William 
Lawrence Butler, Mrs. Arthur Stevenson Clay, 
Mrs. Edward C. Creasy, Mrs. John M. De- 
laney, Mrs. George Edward Elwell, Jr., Mrs. 
William \\'. Fagely, Miss Gertrude Gross, Mrs. 
Paul Z. Harman, Mrs. Charles C. Housenick, 
'\fi';s Margaret Jenkins, Mrs. Ralph Keller. 
Mrs. Clyde Kemp, Mrs. Frederic O. Musser. 
Miss Edith Patterson. Miss Harriet Waller, 
Mrs. Karl Funston Wirt. 

Fort McClure Chapter. D. A. R. 

Fort McClure Chapter of the Daughters of 
the American Revolution was organized April 
10, 1905, and the date of its charter is April 
22, 1905. The charter members were: Miss 
Martha L. Caldwell, Mrs. S. C. Creasv, Mrs. 
W. L. Demaree, Mrs. Geo. E. Elwell, Mrs. M. 
E. Ent, Mrs. Helena Ikeler, Miss Mary P. 
Leverett. Miss Anna T. Leverett, Mrs. R. R. 
Little, Mrs. C. W. Miller, Mrs. R. G. Phillips, 
Mrs. F. P. Pursel, Mrs. L. P. Sterner. Miss 
Mary Tustin. ]\Tiss Sarah E. I. Van Tassel, 
Mrs. H. V. White. Mrs. Mary Worthington. 
Other resident members are: Mrs. M. F. 
Caswell, Miss Ethel Creasy, Miss Hannah 
Evans, Mrs. C. W. Funston, Miss Julia H. 

Furman, Miss Clora G. Furman, Mrs. S. J. 
Houk, Mrs. D. S. Hartline, Mrs. J. S. John, 
Miss Martha McNinch, Mrs. H. R. Mears, 
Mrs. C. Z. Rpbbins. The club meets weekly 
from September to June, and papers on his- 
torical subjects are read by the members. 

In 1907 this club erected a suitable marker 
on the site of Fort McClure on the Hughes 
farm, and dedicated it with appropriate exer- 
cises on April loth. The marker was unveiled 
by Miss AlcClure, a direct descendant of Maj. 
James McClure, after whom the fort was 
named. In the afternoon a public meeting was 
held in the courthouse, and among the exercises 
was an address delivered by Rev. A. J. P. Mc- 
Clure, a great-grandson of Major McClure. 

The object of this society is the preservation 
of that spirit of liberty which animated the 
fathers and mothers of the .\merican Revolu- 
tion. The present regent is Miss S. \'an Tas- 
sel ; vice regent, Mrs. C. W. Funston ; secre- 
tary, Mrs. C. Z. Robbins ; treasurer, Mrs. R. G. 
Phillips; chaplain. Miss Mary Tustin. 

Columbia County Historical Society 

The first steps for the formation of this 
society were taken May 9, 1914, at a meeting 
held in the courthouse at Bloomsburg, which 
was called by the officers of Fort McClure 
Chapter, D. A. R. The meeting was called to 
order by James C. Brown, who made a few 
remarks and then introduced Dr. S. P. Heil- 
man, of Lebanon County, secretary of the 
Pennsylvania State Federation of Historical 
Societies. Dr. Heilman gave a practical talk 
on his experiences in the sixteen years he had 
been in the work. His address was full of 
hopeful suggestions and of great benefit to the 
organization. William W. Evans moved a 
vote of thanks be given Dr. Heilman, seconded 
by Professor Hartline and carried unani- 

Fort McClure Chapter presented to Mr. 
Brown a copy of a constitution and by-laws 
which they thought would fill the needs of the 
proposed Columbia County Historical Society. 
The constitution and by-laws were read and 
accepted and ordered printed. George Parke, 
representing J. H. Beers & Co., publishers, 
Chicago, 111., gave a short address, telling of 
his work along historical lines in Columbia 
County, and presented one copy of this His- 
tory of Columbia County to the society, also 
many interesting photographs he had made, 
and local material that would be very valuable. 
Mr. A. W. Duy moved that Mr. Parke be 



thanked for his generous offer, seconded by 
Mrs. C. A. Caswell and carried. 

The nominating committee then presented 
the following names for the offices mentioned 
and they were elected : President, Wil- 
liam W. Evans : vice presidents, Charles E. 
Randall, Catawissa, John W. Evans, Berwick ; 
secretary. Miss Elizabeth A. Low, Lime 
Ridge; treasurer, John W. Shuman, Blooms- 
burg; librarian. Miss Martha L. Caldwell, 
Bloomsburg ; executive committee : Clinton 
Herring, Orangeville ; Miss Myra M. Eves, 
Millville ; Mrs. I. R. Wolfe, Espy ; Miss May 
McHenry, Stillwater; W. M. Longenberger, 
Mainville ; John H. Aikman, Cabin Run ; L. P. 
Sterner, Bloomsburg; Miss Sarah M. Hagen- 
buch, Centre township; R. W. Smith, Mifflin. 

William W. Evans thanked those present 
for giving him the honor of being the first 
president of the Columbia County Historical 
Society. He emphasized the fact that what we 
of today are doing will be of the same interest 
to posterity as the days of our forefathers are 
to us, and our inability to learn simple facts of 
those days shows the importance we should 
give today's happenings in our county. 

At the second quarterly meeting six stand- 
ing committees were appointed, viz. : history, 
biography, genealogy, relics and curios, necrol- 
ogy, and household arts. The committee on 
history, consisting of A. W. Duy, Esq., Mrs. 
L. P. Sterner and Miss Edith Patterson, col- 
lect and collate books, newspapers, manu- 
scripts, letters and histories of the industries 
of the county, as well as historical data pertain- 
ing to the county's past. The biographical 
committee, consisting of J. C. Brown, Dr. I. W. 
Willits and Mrs. M. E. Ent, prepare and tab- 
ulate the data of the lives of the men who have 
aided in the county's development and secure 
portraits and paintings of those prominent in 
its history. Charles E. Randall, of the Cata- 
wissa A^ezvs Item: Dr. J. R. Montgomery, of 
Bloomsburg, and Miss Sarah M. Hagenbuch, 
of Centre township, are the members of the 
genealogical committee, whose work lies along 
the lines of co-operating with the organized 
family reunions, tracing the antecedents of 
the prominent families to an earlier date. 

The relic and curios committee, consisting 
of Mrs. C. W. Funston, Mrs. H. H. Grotz, of 
Bloomsburg, and Miss Myra Eves, of Mill- 
ville, have the task of collecting tools, imple- 
ments and especially firearms that were used 
by the early settlers of the county, and secur- 
ing a history of each article. 

The necrology committee. Prof. D. S. Hart- 
line, Dr. Jeannette M. Trench and Mrs. J. R. 

Schuyler, investigate ancient tombstones in the 
county graveyards and keep a record of deaths 
throughout the county. Household arts in the 
county receives attention at the hands of the 
Historical Society with especial attention to 
the work that was done by the early settlers. 
Specimens of spinning, weaving, old wearing 
apparel, and old-fashioned playthings are 
among the articles collected. Miss Sarah E. 
VanTassel was elected corresponding secre- 

A room was secured from the county com- 
missioners, to be used as an office and for the 
preservation of the various articles collected by 
the society. 

The members who signed the charter were 
(from Bloomsburg except as noted): Mrs. 
M. E. Ent, Mrs. M. A. John, Mr. and Mrs. 
A. W. Duy, Prof, and Mrs. D. S. Hart- 
Hne, Mrs. C. A. Caswell, Anna Leverett, Eliza- 
beth Lowe, Helen Chrisman ; Sarah M. Hagen- 
buch, Centre township ; Sarah Van Tassel, 
Mrs. J. S. John ; Ella G. Stewart, Orangeville ; 
Mary P. Leverett, Mrs. H. H. Grotz, Mrs. J. 
R. Schuyler, Mrs. C. W. Funston ; Myra Eves, 
Millville ; Mrs. H. A. M'Killip, Martha Cald- 
well, Clara DiefTenbach, John W. Shuman, J. 
C. Brown, W. W. Evans, Dr. I. W. Willits, 
Dr. J. R. Montgomery, Edith Patterson, Dr. 
Jeannette M. Trench, Mrs. G. P. Frymire, 
Mrs. R. G. Phillips, Mrs. L. P. Sterner; W. 
M. Longenberger, Mainville; May McHenry, 
Stillwater; L. P. Sterner; Mrs.'S. B. Karns, 
Benton: H. A. M'Killip; Mrs. I. R. Wolfe, 
Espy; Dr. T. C. Harter, Charles E. Randall, 
Catawissa; Clinton Herring, Orangeville; H. 
\'. White, Mrs. Paul E. Wirt, Mrs. H. V. 
White ; John W. Evans. Berwick : Mrs. Clinton 
Herring, Orangeville; J. Bruce Hess, Benton; 
T. H. Aikman, Cabin Run ; R. W. Smith, Mif- 
flinville ; Mrs. E. H. Sloan, Orangeville ; O. D. 
McHenry, Stillwater ; S. B. Karns, Benton ; 
Mrs. Nellie T. Vastine, Catawissa; Larue 
Funston Clark, Catawissa. George Parke, 
who was engaged in the compilation and prep- 
aration of this history of Columbia and Mon- 
tour counties, was elected the first life corre- 
sponding member. 


The fact that Bloomsburg would reach the 
one hundredth anniversary of its founding in 
1902, with the suggestion that the occasion be 
properly observed by a celebration, was first 
mentioned in the issue of The Columbian of 
Jan. 2, 1901. No steps were then taken, but 
in April, 1902, the subject was again agitated 



by the Morning Press and the Bloomsburg 
Daily. This cuhninated in a public meeting at 
the courthouse on April i8th, held for the pur- 
pose of ascertaining public sentiment in the 
matter. Mayor John R. Townsend presided, 
and the prospects were so encouraging that 
it was decided to organize and arrange for a 
centennial celebration, to be held on August 27, 
28 and 29, 1902. 

A general executive committee was ap- 
pointed consisting of Col. John G. Freeze, Dr. 
[. P. Welsh, Louis Cohen, J. C. Brown, H. B. 
Clark, W. S. Moyer, Dr. W. M. Reber, George 
E. Elwell, L. N. Moyer, C. C. Peacock, A. Z. 
Schoch, H. V. White, Paul E. Wirt, W. H. 
Slate, W. O. Holmes, W. S. Rishton, R. E. 
Hartman, I. M. Staver, A. W. Duy, H. A. 
McKillip, F. G. Yorks, Frank Ikeler, W. P. 
Meigs, J. G. Wells, F. P. Pursel, William 
Chrisman, F. J. Richard, J. Lee Harman, E. C. 
Caswell,- C. W. Aliller, M. F. D. Scanlan. 

A meeting of the general committee was 
held on April 29, 1902, when the following 
permanent officers were elected : Chairman, 
John R. Townsend; secretary, George E. El- 
well; treasurer, L. N. Moyer; vice presidents, 
A. Z. Schoch, Dr. J. P. Welsh. Committees 
on finance and program were appointed, and 
it was decided to hold a public meeting in 
the courthouse on the evening of May 9th, to 
which a special invitation was extended to the 
ladies. This meeting was largely attended, the 
courtroom bting filled to its capacity. Colonel 
Freeze presided, and remarks were made by 
him, and bv Rev. M. E. McLinn, F. B. Hart- 
man, J. K.' Miller, H. V. White, Rev. J. D. 
Smith and J. C. Brown. A report was made 
by the program committee. Music was fur- 
nished by the Bloomsburg Band. It was an 
enthusiastic meeting, and from that time the 
success of the celebration was assured. 

The finance committee soon canvassed the 
town, and subscriptions came in cheerfully and 
liberally. The town was divided into districts 
and solicitors were appointed for each dis- 
trict, with the result that nearly $2,700 was 
realized. This sum was subsequently increased 
in various ways, from the sale of privileges, 
from badges and souvenirs, from the Winona 
Minstrel show ($65.93), Historical Museum 
($220.24), base ball games ($173.10), P. O. 
S. of A. excursion, and in other ways, until 
the whole amount that came into the hands of 
the treasurer reached a total of $3,586.83. 

At a meeting of the executive committee 
held on June 5th it was reported that the 
town council had granted the control of all 
privileges on the streets to the committee. The 

Columbia & Montour Railway Company of- 
fered to donate ten per cent of their receipts 
for two days of the Centennial. The American 
Electric Light Company offered to furnish 
current for the illumination of all the arches 
on the streets, and the Patriotic Order Sons of 
America tendered one half of the profits of 
their annual excursion. All of these offers 
were accepted, and a vote of thanks extended 
to all for their liberality. The committees 
were appointed at this meeting, except those 
on finance and program which had been previ- 
ously selected. 

That all of these committees performed their 
duties in the most thorough and efficient man- 
ner was evidenced by the grand success of the 
Centennial in every particular. The general 
public had no conception of the vast amount 
of detail work that was done by the active 
men and women who so unselfishly gave much 
of their time and labor in the preparation of 
the event. For more than two months Chair- 
man Townsend gave his attention almost ex- 
clusively to it, and to his fine executive ability 
and good judgment was ascribed much of the 
credit for the successful outcome. The secre- 
tary and others gave almost as much of their 
time, and from start to finish no one shirked | 
any duty or responsibility that was assigned ,1 
to him. The newspapers all gave valuable •■) 
assistance in publicity. Twenty meetings of 
the executive committee were held, all of 1 
which were well attended and at which busi- 1 
ness of importance was transacted, so that I 
when the appointed time arrived everything i 
was in readiness. ,-', 

Among the many thoughtful arrangements 
was a rest room in charge of the Civic club, 
for women and children, in the courthouse ; 
a hospital in St. Paul's parish house for emer- 
gency cases of sickness or accident ; an ambu- 
lance ; a police patrol wagon ; barrels of ice 
water with drinking cups at numerous points 
on the streets ; and a detective force from 
Pinkerton's Detective Agency at Philadelphia, 
to guard against pickpockets and other crooks. 

The Celebration < 

.■\nd now the eventful day, to which all had 
been looking forward for four months with 
pleasurable anticipation, arrived. The town 
was lavishly decorated. The entire length of 
Main street in the business portion was a grat- 
ifying exposition of the decorator's art. 
Everywhere throughout the town flags and 
bunting were in evidence, not only on the 
buildings, but also on the trees and poles, and 



even the wires lent themselves to the purpose 
of the decoration committee, all uniting in 
making a scene that was gorgeous in its mag- 
nificent splendor. There was scarcely a resi- 
dence within the town limits that did not show 
its loyalty to the spirit of the occasion. Many 
strangers were heard to exclaim that the deco- 
rations were more elaborate than they had ever 
seen in a place the size of Bloomsburg. Beauti- 
ful arches electrically illuminated were erected 
at the Town Hall, Courthouse, Market Square, 
Fifth and Market, West and IMain, Leonard 
and Main, East and Fifth streets. That at 
Market Square was erected by the Knights of 
the Golden Eagle and the Royal Arcanum, and 
the others out of the general fund. 

The Centennial exercises opened on 
Wednesday evening, Aug. 27, 1902, in the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, where an audi- 
ence of#wo thousand people assembled. It 
was an inspiring sight, and an occasion never 
to be forgotten. On the platform sat all the 
clergymen of the town, and addresses were 
made by Rev. D. N. Kirkby, rector of St. 
Paul's Episcopal Church, whose text was 
Psalm xlviii, 9-14; Rev. J. R. Murphy, pastor 
of St. Columba's Roman Catholic Church, 
whose stibject was "The Ethics of Politics"; 
and Rev. Dr. W. M. Frysinger, pastor of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, who took for his 
discourse, "What do we owe to the Blooms- 
burg of a hundred years ago, and what do we 
owe to the Bloomsburg of a hundred years 
from now?" The addresses were all able and 
appropriate, and were listened to with marked 
attention. Rev. J. D. Smith of the Baptist 
Church offered the invocation ; Rev. W. R. 
Whitney, Methodist, read a scripture lesson ; 
Rev. M. E. McLinn, Lutheran, made a prayer ; 
and Rev. J. W. Bentz, Evangelical, proiiounced 
the benediction. 

The music for the occasion was furnished 
by the Centennial Chorus, organized from the 
various churches and numbering nearly one 
hundred, led by Prof. O. H. Yetter. 'They 
rendered Kipling's hymn, "God of our 
Fathers," and Mozart's "Gloria," and led in 
the hymns, "All Hail the Power of Jesus' 
Name," "Holy, Holy, Holy," and "America." 
Made up as it was, of the town's best vocal 
talent, the music was all beautifully rendered. 
Mrs. Fred Holmes presided at the organ. 

Never before had there been such an assem- 
blage in Bloomsburg. Never before had an 
audience listened to addresses from the same 
platform, at the same time, by Episcopalian, 
Roman Catholic and Methodist clergymen. It 
was a most auspicious opening of the celebra- 

tion, and it was fitting that we should show 
our loyalty to our town by first showing our 
loyalty to the Great Creator. 

On Thursday morning, Aug. 28th, at 8 
o'clock, the ringing of all the church bells and 
the blowing of all the factory whistles for five 
minutes ushered in the program of the day. 
Brass bands arrived from Wilkes-Barre, Cata- 
wissa, Berwick, Buckhorn and Lime Ridge. 
The Bloomsburg Band gave its service gratu- 
itously both days. All incoming trains brought 
throngs of visitors, and the streets looked like 
a county fair. 

Governor Stone, who had accepted an invi- 
tation to be present, arrived in the morning, 
accompanied by his private secretary, in time 
to attend the Historical meeting in the Normal 
School auditorium at half past ten o'clock. A 
large audience was present. Upon the stage 
and in the audience were many men and 
women who helped to make Bloomsburg a pro- 
gressive industrial and educational center. 
Mayor Townsend presided, and opened the 
meeting with appropriate remarks. He then 
presented to Roland Hemingway the prize 
offered by the Century club for the best his- 
torical essay on the "Town of Bloomsburg," 
the prize being ten dollars in gold. Addresses 
were made by Governor Stone and Hon. Fred 
Ikeler, a brief history of the several churches 
in Bloomsburg was read by Rev. D. N. Kirkby, 
and an historical address on Bloomsburg was 
delivered by Col. J. G. Freeze. Several selec- 
tions were sung by the Centennial Chorus. 

At half past two the civic and industrial pa- 
rade started from the fair grounds. It was 
headed by mounted police, followed by W. O. 
Holmes, chief marshal, and his aides, C. W. 
Funston, C. W. McKelvy, A. W. Duy and 
S. H. Harman. Then followed, in order, the 
Bloomsburg Band ; Governor Stone and Mayor 
Townsend ; Bloomsburg town council ; Dan- 
ville Post, G. A. R. ; Ent Post, G. A. R. ; the 
Catawissa Band ; Knights of the Golden Eagle 
of Bloomsburg and Catawissa ; Lime Ridge 
Band ; Patriotic Order Sons of America ; Or- 
der of United American Mechanics ; Orange- 
ville Band ; Junior O. U. A. M. ; Bricklayers' 
and Masons' Union of Berwick ; Y. M. C. A. 
Cadets of Berwick, led by Col. A. D. Seely; 
John Knox Commandery, Knights of Malta, 
No. 12, of Wilkes-Barre; the Berwick Band; 
the Locomobile Club of Bloomsburg; the 
Ninth Regiment Band of Wilkes-Barre; in- 
dustrial and mercantile floats. A prize of $25 
was awarded John Knox Commandery for 
best appearance of secret organizations, and a 
special prize of $20 for exhibition drill. 



The various floats were prepared by the 
following: F. P. Pursel, three floats; Richard 
Manufacturing Company; G. W. Keiter; Alex- 
ander Brothers ; Stegmaier Brewing Company ; 
J. Saltzer; Morning Press; Moyer Brothers; 
Tooley & Co., two floats; J. L. Dillon; White 
Milling Company ; D. Lowenberg ; L. T. 
Sharpless ; Harman & Hassert ; Atlantic Re- 
fining Company; R. E. Hartman; J. F. Hid- 
lay; Brower & Glover; Bloomsburg Car Com- 
pany ; H. G. Supplee ; W. F. Slagle ; Blooms- 
burg Fair Association ; Corner Thomas. A 
wagon io6 years old was driven by Harvey 

The parade was reviewed by Governor 
Stone and Mayor Townsend from a stand 
erected on Market Square. After the parade 
the Governor was given a reception by Ent 
Post, G. A. R., in their hall, and after lunch 
at the Normal School he returned to Harris- 
burg. It was estimated that at least fifteen 
thousand people were present on this day. 

In the evening at 8 130 o'clock a fine pyro- 
technic display was shown on the Neal cinder 
tip, and concerts were given earlier in difi^erent 
portions of the town by the visiting bands. 

Friday, Aug. 2Sth, was Firemen's day, and 
the visiting companies arrived on early trains 
and were met by their hosts and escorted 
to the various hose houses. Visitors came 
from all parts of this section of the State, 
until it was estimated that there were from 
twenty thousand to twenty-five thousand 
people in the town. The weather was all 
that could be desired. The parade started 
at half past one from the Town Hall, under 
the direction of William H. Gilmore, chief 
marshal, and his aides, William Webb, J. Ohl, 
S. H. Harhian, John Welliver and G. W. 
Sterner. It was nearly a mile long. The vis- 
iting companies were : No. 3 Hose Company, 
Plymouth ; Hook & Ladder Company, North- 
umberland ; Eagle, Pittston ; Lewisburg Fire 
Department ; Good Will, Friendship, Conti- 
nental, Washington Hose Companies, Dan- 
ville : Reliance, Rangers, Berwick ; Lape Hose 
Company, Mowrey Hose Company, Nanti- 
coke. The following bands were in line: 
Bloomsburg, Berwick, Catawissa, Buckhorn, 
Danville, Lime Ridge and three drum corps. 
The Northumberland Company had with them 
a hand fire engine 106 years old. 

The parade was the finest of the kind ever 
seen in this section. It was reviewed by 
Mayor Townsend and members of the com- 
mittee from the stand on Market Square. 
After the parade the drill corps of Eagle 
Hose Company gave an exhibition drill, and 

was awarded a prize of $25, Then followed 
a hose contest by the Eagle, Reliance and 
Mowrey Companies, Eagle winning, with Re- 
liance second. 

The baseball games both days were attended 
by large crowds, the first day's game being 
between the Cuban Giants and Berwick, score 
5-4, and the second between the Giants and 
Danville, score 9-4. A handsome sum was 
realized for the Centennial fund from these 

Other attractions were the war balloon at 
Seventh and Market streets, where passen- 
gers were carried up one thousand feet, and 
an exhibition of wireless telegraphy by the 
Consolidated Wireless Telegraph and Tele- 
phone Company of Philadelphia, under the 
direction of Professor Shoemaker. Stations 
were erected at the Courthouse and Normal 
School, and the snapping of the spwks could 
be heard for some distance. This was the 
first exhibit of the kind in the interior of 
the State. 

But the leading attraction, aside from the 
parade, was the Historical Museum. A won- 
derful collection of antiques was gathered 
by the Civic club in the old brick Presby- 
terian Church that stood on the present site 
of the Yorks residence. The articles were 
attractively and systematically arranged, and 
thousands of visitors were delighted by a 
visit there. Such a collection was never be- 
fore, and probably never will be again, seen 
in Bloomsburg. It is impossible to name 
the thousands of articles here. One of the 
very interesting features at the Museum was 
the spinning by Mrs. J. S. Woods, an aged 
lady, on a spinning wheel. Mrs. S. A. Petri- 
ken was also present part of the time and 
operated a wheel that had been in her family 
since 1810. On the opening night Mrs. Petri- 
ken, aged eighty-seven years, sat at a piano 
which was bought for her by her father, 
Daniel Snyder, when she was a little girl. 
It was the first piano ever brought to Blooms- 

In the picture gallery of the Museum were 
portraits of many of the men who had helped 
to make Bloomsburg. Among them were 
Rev. D. J. Waller, Sr., Judge William Elwell, 
Senator Charles R. Buckalew, David Lowen- 
berg, Prof. Henry Carver, William McKelvy, 
William Neal, Elisha Barton, L. B. Rupert, 
Peter Billmeyer, Daniel Snyder, Sr., William 
Snyder, William Sloan, A. J. Sloan, George 
Vance, Robert Cathcart, William Robison, 
Rev. J. P. Tustin, Tohn R. Mover, Joseph W. 
Hendershott, Dr. J. B. McKelvy, Gen. W. H. 



Erit, Capt. C. B. Brockway and others. Alto- 
gether the Museum was an exhibition such 
as is rarely seen even in the large cities. 
The work of the ladies of the Civic club 
in preparing it was an arduous task, requir- 
ing many weeks, and they reaped a rich re- 
ward in the praises that were showered upon 
them for the splendid success of their ef- 
forts, and in the receipt of a substantial 
amount of money for the Centennial fund. 

After all the expenses were paid there re- 
mained about $1,400 in the treasury, and this 
was subsequently donated by the committee 
to the iiloomsburg Public Library. 


Probably nothing illustrates more strikingly 
the pride which the citizens of Bloomsburg 
take in their town than the deep religious 
and artistic sentiment expressed in the many 
magnificent houses of worship which have 
been constructed for the different religious 
denominations here. The First Methodist 
Church, the First Presbyterian Church, St. 
Paul's Episcopal Church and St. Columba's 
Roman Catholic Church have homes than 
which there are few finer in this section, and 
they are soon to be followed by others, sev- 
eral congregations having taken definite steps 
to rebuild. 

The congregations of St. Matthew's Lu- 
theran Church and the Reformed Church, 
both of which have celebrated their centen- 
nials, have a growing building fund in hand, 
and the Baptist and Christian Churches, hav- 
ing outgrown their present homes, are pre- 
paring to build as soon as the funds warrant 
the outlay. 

Many thousands of dollars are already in- 
vested in Bloomsburg church properties and 
the next five or ten years will mark the ex- 
penditure of many thousands more. It is no 
exaggeration to state that the church proper- 
ties themselves represent an intrinsic value 
that is as great, if not greater, per capita 
than any other town of equal size in the 
United States. 

St. Paul's Episcopal Church 

Among Bloomsburg church properties the 
one which first assumed its present handsome 
proportions is St. Paul's Episcopal. For 
years the property occupying a commanding 
position at the corner of Main and Iron 
streets, extending almo.'^t a half square on 
Iron and more than that distance on Main, 

has been one of the show places of the town. 
The church and parish house, built of gray 
stone, are of Gothic architecture, and with 
the handsome tower, covered with beautiful 
ivy, make a picture that once seen is always 
remembered. The grounds surrounding the 
parish house and church proper are large and 
beautifully kept, and the rectory, on the sarne 
property, is one of the handsomest homes in 
this town of many beautiful residences. 
Handsome as is the church's exterior, the 
interior is equally beautiful. It is most hand- 
somely finished, the soft coloring making an 
exceptionally attractive effect. Improvements 
have been made from time to time, but the 
original building lines have never been 
changed. The church property is one of the 
most valuable in central Pennsylvania. 

St. Paul's parish is the oldest religious 
organization in Bloomsburg, dating from 1793, 
when Rev. Caleb Hopkins was appointed rec- 
tor of the territory comprised within the 
forks of the Susquehanna. At this date a 
crude log building was erected in the town 
on the west side of the road "leading from 
the house of Esquire Elisha Barton to Ber- 
wick." It was through the efforts of Mr. 
Barton that the building was erected and the 
rector appointed. This church had no fire- 
place, but was heated by means of a charcoal 
fire in a rude grating before the chancel, the 
rector's face frequently being obscured by 
the smoke. 

Rev. Caleb Hopkins officiated at this 
church at irregular intervals until 1806, when 
he was made stated minister, his field of labor 
including the churches of Bloomsburg, Jer- 
seytown and Sugarloaf. He resided in that 
part of Bloomsburg known as Hopkinsvijle 
until his retirement in 1819. Rev. Mr. Snow- 
den succeeded Mr. Hopkins in 1820 and took 
measures to have the church incorporated. 
This event occurred in 1824, the wardens and 
vestrymen being Daniel Pursel, Baltis Appel- 
man, Littleton Townsend, Isaac Green, Rob- 
ert Green, Philip Appelman, Elias Bidleman, 
Peter Melick and John Barton. Rev. William 
Eldred succeeded Mr. Snowden in 1825 and 
was the last to officiate in the old log church. 
This structure was replaced in 1827 by_ a 
frame building of larger size, which contin- 
ued in use until the completion of the third 
church, a brick edifice, the cornerstone of 
which was laid in July, 1837. The next effort 
at church building was inaugurated in 1868, 
when legislative action was secured for the 
disinterment of and removal of the dead 
from that part of the burial ground at the 



corner of Second and Iron streets in order 
to make room for another building, the cor- 
nerstone of which was laid in September, 
1868. The first service in the building was 
held on Oct. 28, 1870, but it was not 
till June 28, 1 88 1, that the dedication took 
place, Bishop Howe conducting the services 
and former rector Rev. T. H. Cullen preaching 
the sermon. E. R. Drinker, the senior warden, 
read the certificate of the vestry. 

The cost of the building was $28,000. The 
acre of ground upon which the church and 
rectory stood was secured from Joseph Long 
for the sum of five shillings, by Elislia Bar" 
ton, John Trembly and Edmund Crawford, 
in 1795. The rectory stands upon the site of 
the brick church, and was built in 1883. In 
1850 the church came into possession of a 
house on East street by the will of Eliza- 
beth Emmitt, and the proceeds of its sale 
were applied to the purchase of a pastoral 
residence on First street. The present rectory 
was erected in 1876 during the incumbency of 
Rev. L. Zahner. 

In 1886 the parish extended a call to Rev. 
William C. Leverett, the rector of St. John's 
Church, Carlisle, which was accepted, and he 
remained in charge until 1895. During his 
incumbency tht parish house was begun, and 
completed in 1892. It is a handsome stone 
structure with an auditorium, and choir and 
guild rooms on the first floor, and a dining 
hall and kitchen in the basement. It stands 
on the church grounds and is connected with 
the church by a stone corridor. The furni- 
ture for the auditorium was presented by 
Mrs. Hester Barton. 

In 1 89 1 the uncompleted tower of the 
church was finished by Col. J. G. Freeze, and 
a peal of bells was placed therein by Paul E. 
Wirt, Esq., both as memorials to deceased 
members of their families, and Mr. and Mrs. 
John A. Funston presented new stained glass 
windows for the chancel. A concrete pave- 
ment was laid about the church properties, the 
interior of the church was newly decorated, 
largely through the efforts of the late George 
S. Robbins, and a vested choir organized in 
1892, by George E. Elwelk 

With all these improvements, the parish 
was ready for the centennial which was held 
on May 29, 30 and 31, 1893. On these dates 
sessions of the archdeaconry of Williamsport 
were held in St. Paul's and Right Rev. N. S. 
Rulison, assistant bishop of the Diocese, and 
twenty-three clergymen were present, includ- 
ing two former rectors. Services were held 
in the church on each evening, and on Tuesday 

and Wednesday mornings, with addresses at 
different times by the Bishop, Rev. T. H. Cul- 
len, Rev. H. L. Jones, D. D., Archdeacon 
Groff, Rev. W. C. Leverett, and others. A 
luncheon was served in the parish house on 
Wednesday to the visitors. The close of the 
first century of St. Paul's Church was marked 
by a season of delightful exercises. 

Owing to physical infirmities, Rev. W. C. 
Leverett resigned on April 15, 1895, and was 
succeeded by Rev. D. N. Kirkby, who took 
charge on June 9th of the same year. In 
1898 a new pipe organ was purchased, costing 
over $3,000, in place of the smaller organ 
purchased in 1874, the latter being the first 
one brought to this county. Mr. Kirkby re- 
signed in i'904, and was followed by Rev. R. S. 
Nichols, who served as rector for two years. 
Rev. J. W. Diggles was then called, and re- 
mained until Aug. I, 1912, when he resigned. 

In October, 1912, the vestry extended a call 
to Rev. F. O. Musser, curate of St. Stephen's 
Church, Wilkes-Barre, which was accepted, 
and Mr. Musser entered upon his duties as 
rector of St. Paul's on Nov. i, 1912. In May, 
1913, the annual convention of the diocese 
iif Harrisburg was held in this church. 

The following is a list of clergymen who 
have officiated here : Rev. Caleb Hopkins, 
1704-1818; Rev. Mr. Snowden, 1823; Rev. 
William Eldred, 1823-24; Rev. James Depuis, 
1828-^2; Rev. Benjamin Hutchins, 1832-33; 
Rev. G. C. Drake. 1833-42; Rev. William H. 
Bourne, 1842-44; Rev. Samuel T. Lord, 
1845-46; Rev. A. A. Marple, 1846-4S; Rev. 
Joel Rudderow, 1848-53 ; Rev. Henry Tullidge, 
"185^-57; Rev. A. M. Weilly, 1859-60; Rev. J. 
A.' Russell, 1860-62; Rev. t. H. Cullen, 1863- 
70; Rev. John Hewitt, 1870-77; Rev. Louis 
Zahner, 1877-86; Rev. W. C. Leverett, 1886- 
95; Rev. D. N. Kirkby, 1895-1904; Rev. R. S. 
Nichols, 1904-06; Rev. J. W. Diggles, 1906-12; 
Rev. F. O. Musser, 1912 to the present. 

In 1906 George E. Elwell resigned the posi- 
tion of choirmaster, after an almost contin- 
uous service of thirty-five years, about twenty 
vears of which he was organist. He was in- 
strumental in raising the money for the pur- 
chase of both pipe organs, and was a vestry- 
man for thirty-three vears. 

In 1907 the vestibule at the church entrance 
was tiled. \\'qinscoted and decorated by the 
members of St. Margaret's Guild, and in 1909 
the aisles were tiled by the same organization, 
and the chancel was similarly improved by 
Mrs. George S. Robbins as a memorial to her 
husband. The beautiful brass lectern in the 
church was the gift of the children of Mrs. 



Mary Drinker as a memorial to her, and a 
very iiandsome brass pulpit was presented by 
Robert C. Neal, Jr., of Harrisburg, as a 
memorial to his grandmother, Mrs. Martha H. 

The present vestrymen are Paul E. Wirt, 
A. W. Duy, G. B. Boggs, Uriah Thornton, 
John Morris, J. L. Woods, James Mills, W. C. 
Fortune, C. S. Ranck, A. E. Rogers. Col. J. 
G. Freeze was a vestryman from 1886 to the 
time of his death, which occurred on July 
8, 1913. 


During the first fifty years of their history 
here the Lutherans, organized under the name 
of St. Paul's congregation, worshipped in a 
small building at the corner of First and 
Center streets, built in 1808 in partnership 
with the Reformed congregation. It was 
almost square, with galleries on three sides 
and a wineglass-shaped pulpit on the fourth 
side. It was of logs and held about five 
hundred persons. This building was re- 
oved in 186 1, but the two congregations 
still own the lot and the burial ground adjoin- 
ing. The old graveyard is now a serious 
olistruction to the improvement of that part of 
town, being overgrown with weeds and poison 
ivy. The joint ownership has prevented a 
division and sale of the property. This plot 
originally was bought from Ludwig Eyer for 
fceight dollars. 

Rev. Frederick Plitt was the first regular 
Fpastor for the Lutherans, but as early as 1800 
[Rev. Mr. Frederitze held services in the Epis- 
copal church. The constitution of the church, 
adopted in 1808, was signed by Mr. Plitt and 
I John Dietterick and Bernard Lilly, elders and 
[trustees, and Bernard Stetler, deacon. The 
[early records were in German, as were also 
[the services until 183^. Thereafter both Eng- 
lish and German were used alternately until 
185 1, when the tongue of the Fatherland was 
abandoned. The church was incorporated in 
1856 as St. Matthew's. 

Since Rev. Mr. Plitt the successive pastors 

I have been: Rev. J. Frederick Engel, 1809-16; 

[Rev. Peter Kessler, 1817-2Q; Rev. Jeremiah 

Schindel, 18-^0-37 : Rev. William J. Eyer, 1S37- 

4S: Rev. Monroe J. Allen, 1845-47; Rev. Wil- 

j liam T- Ever, 1847-51; Rev. PJiilip Weaver, 

i8qT-5^: Rev. E. A." Sharretts. 1853-58; Rev. 

I J. R.^Dimm, 1850-67; Rev. B. F. Alleman, 

186*7-72; Rev. T-R. Williams, 1872-75; Rev. 

J. MrCron. 1875-78: Rev. O. D. S. Marclay, 

TS78-81; Rev. F. P. Manhart, 1881-80: Rev. 

^P. A. Heilman, 1890-96; Rev. M. E. McLinn, 

1896-1903; Rev. J. E. Byers, 1903 to the pres- 
ent date. 

The church building on Market street now 
occupied by the Lutherans was erected in 1857, 
and in the following year was the meeting 
place of the East Pennsylvania synod. Since 
that time the building has been remodeled and 
additions built from time to time to meet the 
needs of the congregation, but it is still too 
small for their comfort. A larger and more 
imposing structure is in prospect and funds 
are being collected for the work. Several 
thousand dollars were expended during Mr. 
Manhart's pastorate upon chancel and pulpit 
furniture, repairs to property, and a pipe organ 
costing $900. A new parsonage was completed 
in 1 89 1, and first occupied by Mr. Heilman, 
and the same year the lower room of the 
church was improved. 

A few years ago, during Mr. Byers' pas- 
torate, a fine new pipe organ was purchased, 
Mr. Andrew Carnegie contributing $800, and 
the congregation the balance, and the church 
was newly papered and carpeted. In Novem- 
ber, 1907, this church observed the fiftieth an- 
niversary of the dedication of its present 
church building, and the hundredth anni- 
versary of the building of the first Lutheran 
church in Bloomsburg, by a celebration lasting 
from the 17th to the 24th, and including varied 
and very interesting exercises, participated in 
by a number of former pastors and others. 
The organizations of the church are : A large 
Sunday school, Young People's Society, Ladies' 
Aid Society, Women's Missionary Society, and 
Men's Brotherhood. A fund has been started 
for the erection of a new church. The present 
members of the church council are : Rev. J. 
E. Byers, pastor and president ; F. H. Jenkins, 
lay president ; W. A. Watters, secretary ; W. 
H. Hidlay, treasurer. Elders, J. L. Wolver- 
ton, C. H. Albert, J. H. Birch, F. Bomboy, 
Daniel Creveling. Deacons, C. D. Bankes, W. 
A. Watters, Edward Roth, Claude Maust. 

Reformed Church 

Among the German settlers in Bloomsburg 
this denomination has been well represented. 
The first pastor to preach to them was Rev. 
John W. Ingold, the first services being held 
in the Episcopal church. Being denied the 
use of this building in 1806 the congregation 
made use of a schoolhouse on Fiphing creek 
until the buildingr of the co-operative church 
on the corner of First and Center streets, in 

Rev. John Dietterich Adams succeeded to 



the pulpit on the death of Mr. Ingold in 1807, 
and was followed by Rev. Jacob Dieitenbach 
in 1815. The latter removed his family to 
Espy, where a parsonage had been built for 
him, and entered upon a pastorate that covered 
but ten years, yet in that time he laid the foun- 
dations of most of the Reformed Churches in 
Columbia county. His field of labor included 
Bloomsburg, Briarcreek, Mifflinville, Muncy, 
Nescopeck, Wapwallopen, Shamokin, Cata- 
wissa, and several smaller points. His imme- 
diate successor was Rev. Mr. Larose, who died 
in office, of malarial fever. Rev. Richard 
Fisher of Catawissa preached at intervals until 
1828, when Rev. Daniel S. Tobias became the 
pastor. Following came Revs. Henry Funk, 
William Goodrich, L. C. Sheip, F. J. Mohr, 
T. F. Hoffmier, G. D. Gurley, Walter E. Krebs, 

0. H. Strunck, S. R. Bridenbaugh. 

On March i, 1887, Rev. J. S. Wagner 
entered upon the duties of the pastorate of 
the Bloomsburg Reformed Church. Owing 
to ill health he served only one year. Rev. 
William T. .\uman was pastor from June i, 
1889, to June 13, 1892. He was succeeded by 
Rev. C. H. Brandt, who served from Feb. i, 
1893, to Oct. 24, 1898. The new parsonage 
was erected during his pastorate. On Jan. 

1, 1899, Rev. John D. Thomas, Ph. D., became 
the pastor, and continued his labors until May, 
1909, when he was called to a charge in Ohio 
and was succeeded by Rev. W. C. Slough, the 
latter entering upon his duties Oct. i, 1909, 
and serving until 1913. Rev. P. H. Hoover 
became pastor in the early part of 1914. 

During the pastorate of Rev. Dr. Thomas 
the church celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of 
its establishment on the present site at the 
corner of Third and Iron streets, and the one 
hundredth anniversary of the founding of the 
Reformed Church in Bloomsburg. This cele- 
bration was held from Oct. 25 to 31, 1908, and 
was a most interesting occasion, not only to 
the members of the chtirch, but to the entire 
community. An excellent program was suc- 
cessfully carried out. 

Some years ago a vocalion was presented to 
the church by Mrs. M. E. Ent, and the same 
generous donor later supplanted the vocalion 
with a much larger pipe organ, dedicated on 
Palm Sunday, 1910, as a memorial to her 
daughter, Mrs. Fred Ikeler, her mother, Mrs. 
S. A. Petriken, and her grandparents, Mr. and 
Mrs. Daniel Snyder, Sr. 

The church building and parsonage were 
thoroughly repaired and much improved by 
desired alterations during the summer of 1909. 

The officers of the church in 191 3 were the 

following : Elders, X. U. Funk, O. W. Cher- 
rington, I". L. Smith ; deacons, \\'. C. Maustel- 
ler, U. A. Leiby, H. 1. Leiby. 


Even before the founding of Bloomsburg 
by Ludwig Eyer the Presbyterian denomina- 
tion was active in this section of the county. 
As early as 1789 Asa Dunham, a native of 
Middlese.x county, N. J., and a Revolutionary 
soldier, bought a farm on the hillside near the 
site of Buckhorn, the birthplace later of the 
Pursel family of Bloomsburg. Mr. Dunham 
lived there with his wife, mother-in-law and 
two brothers. While he was away from home 
one day the house ^urned and his entire family 
lost their lives. Some years later he married, 
the lady being his fifth wife. He preached 
occasionally at the barn of Elias Furman, be- 
tween Bloomsburg and Espy, and at the Briar- 
creek or Hidlay Church. 

Before the organization of the Presbyterian 
congregation in the town of Bloomsburg, in 
181 7, the people had been dependent on the 
generosity of the Episcopalians and Lutherans 
for the use of their houses of w'brship. After 
the organization the use of the Episcopal 
church was obtained for the nominal rental of 
$7 a year. The first elders elected were James 
McClure, Paul Leidy and Peter Pursel, and 
they at once prepared to erect a church build- 
ing. They bought the lot now occupied by the 
Manse on Third street and erected a 36 by 40 
foot building, with a deep gallery around three 
sides. Some discussion arose whether the 
entrance should be from the rear, as was the 
custom, or from the street. The new method 

The congregation united with the Briarcreek 
and Shamokin Churches in extending a call 
to Rev. Samuel Henderson, his services to be 
equally divided between the three churches, al- 
though the Bloomsburg Church had made 
jjreparations to provide the greater part of the 
support. He came the year of organization 
and greatly assisted in the building of the 
church. He continued to serve the church un- 
til 1824, when he was succeeded by Rev. John 
Xiblock, from 1824 to 1826; Rev. James Lew- 
ers, an Irishman ; Rev. Mr. Crosby, an eastern- 
er, the founder of the first Sunday school ; 
Revs. Matthew B. Patterson, Robert Bryson, 
Irvin and Bigman. 

Rev. John P. Hudson, a Virginian, ser\-ed 
from 1832 to 1838, and was followed in quick 
succession by Revs. Tobey and Daniel M. 
Barber. Then in the fall of 1838 a call was 



made to Rev. David J. Waller, a licentiate of 
the Newcastle Presbytery, who had preached 
in Eloomsburg in the summer of 1837. He 
accepted the call and was installed in May, 
1839, his charge consisting of all of Columbia 
county. His pastorate continued uninter- 
ruptedly for thirty-three years, and his activi- 
ties were such that not only did his congrega- 
tion gain thereby, but the whole of the sur- 
rounding country formed the scene of his 
labors, as much in a material as in a spiritual 
way. Through his unflagging energy a rail- 
road was built, industries establislied, many 
families brought to swell the population of 
Bloomsburg, and there was not a movement 
for the betterment of the condition of his 
people in which he did not take a prominent 
part. His home was the stopping place of all 
sorts and conditions of people, who were en- 
tertained with great hospitality. So many 
came to his home at one time that when the 
landlord of a neighboring inn put up a new 
sign some wag hung the old one over the door 
of Mr. Waller's house. 

Subsequent pastors of this church have 
been Revs. Stuart Mitchell, D. D., until 1888; 
I. M. Patterson, until September, 1896; Rev. 
Dr. G. H. Hemingway, 1897 to 1909; and the 
present pastor. Rev. S. C. Dickson. 

When the county seat came to Bloomsburg 
the congregation prepared to build anew, and 
the site on Market street was purchased. Na- 
poleon LeBrun prepared the plans, and the 
second church was built at a cost of $3,000. 
The last services in the Third Street church 
were held in Au.giist, 1848, and the new church 
was dedicated the following Wednesday. Its 
site was that of the present Yorks home. 

The lot formerly occupied by the old church 
on Third street was also used for cemetery 
purposes, and had long been sadly neglected. 
By proceedings in the court the remains were 
ordered removed, and a fine brick parsonage, 
known as the Manse, was erected upon this lot 
in 1880. The subject of building a new church 
had been under consideration for some time, 
and a fund started for this purpose. This 
culminated in the purchase of several lots at 
the corner of Fourth and Market streets, and 
the erection of the present handsome edifice, 
which was completed in 1891. It is of Hum- 
melstown brownstone. and is very complete 
and beautiful in all its appointments. The 
officers of the church at the time were : Rev. 
I. M. Patterson, pastor : trustees. William 
Neal, H. V. White, C. A. Mover, S. A. Wilson, 
L. Runyon ; elders, William Neal, C. A. Mover, 
Dr. J. Schuyler, C. G. Barkley. The building 

committee consisted of C. W. Miller and L. E. 
Waller. The last service was held in the old 
church on Sunday, June 7, 1891, and on June 
nth the new church was dedicated, and with- 
out a debt. A large pipe organ was put in at 
this time. 

The old brick church was used successively 
as a chewing gum factory, a printing office 
and for other purposes until purchased in 1903 
by F. G. Yorks, who tore it down and erected 
there the stately mansion that is one of the 
ornaments of Bloomsburg. 

At the time of the dedication of the present 
church the membership was 136, now it is 448, 
and the Sunday school has an enrollment of 
319. The present officers are : C. W. Miller, 
W. L. White, R. J. Ruhl, W. B. Sutliff, A. N. 
Yost, elders; W. H. Brower, clerk; Arthur 
S. Clay, R. J. Ruhl, M. K. Yorks, trustees ; M. 
Milleisen, treasurer; W. H. Eyer, secretary. 
The superintendent of the Sunday school is 
Prof. W. B. Sutliff. 

On July 13, 1914, Rev. D. J. Waller, Jr., son 
of the former pastor, and principal of the 
State Normal School, delivered the dedicatory 
address at the laying of the cornerstone of the 
Sunday school building, which will be a model 
of utility, sanitation, convenience and beauty. 
It is 40 by 80 feet, connected with the church 
by a wing 28 by 54 feet, and is constructed of 
Hummelstown brownstone, to correspond with 
the church. It is estimated to cost thirty thou- 
sand dollars. Composing the building com- 
mittee are : Arthur S. Clay, John Lewis Moyer, 
Frank P. Pursel, David J. Waller, Jr., and 
Hiester V. White. The treasurer of the build- 
ing fund is Robert J. Ruhl ; the architect of 
the building, George E. Savage, of Philadel- 
phia ; the contractor and builder, Aaron C. 
Jury, Bloomsburg. 


One of the most imposing edifices in this 
section of the State is the First Methodist 
Episcopal church of Bloomsburg, at Market 
and Third streets. Massive in construction 
and artistic in design, it is a religious home 
of which the congregation may well feel proud. 
The first Methodist service was held in the 
Episcopal church in Bloomsburg in 1829 by 
Rev. George Lane of Berwick. Rev. Wesley 
Howe, stationed at Berwick in 1831, preached 
occasionally in the churches in Centre town- 
ship and at Bloomsburg, and in the latter part 
of that year exchanged with Rev. Alem Brit- 
tain, who preached to a large audience in the 
Bloom.sburg schoolhouse. This was the be- 



ginning of regular services here, and in the 
tollowing year a class was formed, which in- 
cluded Dr. Harman Gearhart, William Paul, 
Jesse Shannon, Delilah Barton and others. 
Preaching was sometimes held in the school- 
house, and when the attendance was small in 
the carpenter shop of William Paul, on Mar- 
ket, between First and Second streets. 

In 1835 a frame church was built on Third 
street, being replaced in 1857 by a brick struc- 
ture, dedicated by Bishop Levi Scott. The 
pastor at that time was Rev. George Warren. 
A list of the pastors of this church will be 
found in the previous chapter on religious de- 
nominations of the county. Most of them up 
to 1862 were in charge of other churches in 
addition to that of Bloomsburg. At present 
it is a charge by itself. 

Pastors exclusively in charge of the Blooms- 
burg Church have been : Revs. D. C. John, 
R. E. Wilson, J. A. Price, J. A. Melick, B. H. 
Crever, X. S. Buckingham, J. H. McGarragh, 
J. S. Mc]\Iurray, M. L. Smyser, E. H. Yocum, 
John Donahue, D. S. Monroe, F. B. Riddle, up 
to 1886. It was during the pastorate of the 
last named that the present commodious par- 
sonage was purchased — 1884. After that date 
the rapid growth of the congregation made the 
building of a larger church very necessary, 
and steps were taken looking towards that end. 
The lots between the church lot and Market 
street were purchased, and during the pastorate 
of Rev. B. C. Conner active measures were 
adopted and the new church scheme culmi- 

Ground was broken in the fall of 1895, and 
on Sunday, May 2, 1896, the cornerstone was 
laid. The contract for the stone work had 
been awarded to Thomas Evans, of Danville. 
The walls were about completed when, on Aug. 
24, i8q6. Mr. Evans accidentally fell from the 
northeast corner to the ground, a distance of 
about thirty feet, and was killed. A stained 
glass window, the gift of his workmen, marks 
the point where he fell. 

The new church was dedicated on Sunday. 
Sept. iq, i8o7, with imposing ceremonies. It 
is built of Elk Run graystone, trimmed with 
Indiana limestone, and cost S65.000. It is one 
of the largest and finest church edifices in this 
section, having a seating capacity of 1.200 in 
the auditorium, and bv opening the glass parti- 
tion between that and the Sunday school room 
800 more can be seated. The large stained 
glass window at the front, and the fine pipe 
or?an. were the gifts of Mrs. Freas Brown. 
The other windows were contributed by classes 
and individuals. The trustees of the church 

at the time of the building were: G. W. Cor- 
rell, J. C. Brown, L. N. Moyer, Dr. J. J. Brown, 
M. P. Lutz, C. C. Peacock, L. E. W hary, W. R. 
Ringrose, S. C. Creasy. The building commit- 
tee consisted of Messrs. J. C. Brown, Moyer, 
Peacock, Correll, W. R. Kocher. The pastor 
was Rev. B. C. Conner. 

The pastors of this church since Rev. F. B. 
Riddle, 1886, have been: S. M. Frost, 1886- 
88; S. W. Sears, 18S9-91 ; W. G. Ferguson, 
1892-94; B. C. Conner, 1895-99; ^^ ■ M- Fry- 
^iiiger, 1900-02; W. P. Eveland, 1903-05 ; P. F. 
Eyer, 1905 ; M. L. Ganoe, 1906-07; E. R. Heck- 
man, 1907 to the present. 

The officers are as follows: J. C. Brown, 
president of trustees ; W. R. Kocher, secretary ; 
Dr. J. J. Brown, treasurer; C. H. Kline, finan- 
cial secretary; Fred Holmes, official board 
treasurer; F. B. Hartman, Sunday school 
superintendent. The church membership in 
1913 is 1.036, and of the Sunday school, 1,465. 

Baptist Church 

Among the several congregations of town 
which contemplate new church homes in the 
near future is the Baptist congregation, whose 
present edifice is located on Third between 
Iron and Catherine streets. Established fifty- 
five years ago at the same location, the church 
has had a steady, substantial growth, and at 
different times, to satisfy the growing demands 
of the congregation, improvements have been 
made to the church structure, but at the pres- 
ent day it is again inadequate to the needs. 
The parsonage of the church is located on 
First street. 

The first efTorts to establish the Baptist faith 
in Bloomsburg were made in 1840 by Rev. J. 
Green Miles, who preached in the Methodist 
church once and in the union meetinghouse 
six times. The next minister to come was Rev. 
William S. Hall, of Berwick, who preached 
two sermons in 1843 and baptized John Snyder 
in Fishing creek in January of that year. This 
was the first immersion in the town. For some 
years afterward services were held at various 
places in Bloomsburg bv Revs. Joseph B. Mor- 
ris and A. D. Nichols'. In 1858 Rev. J. R. 
Shanafelts. of Berwick, began to preach once 
in three weeks in the courthouse, and in less 
than a year a house of worship was dedicated. 
This structure, with many alterations, is the 
one at present in use. 

The church was organized with Martin C. 
Woodward as deacon; John Snyder, clerk; 
Daniel Breece. treasurer ; and with nineteen 
members on the roll. They were: Martin C. 



Woodward, Sarah J. Woodward, Isaac Tyler, 
Susan Tyler, Harriet Roan, Lena Fidler, Sarah 
A. Phillips, John Snyder, Richard Edwards, 
Martha Edwards, Daniel Breece, Robert Roan, 
Elizabeth Cadman, Maria Logan, Margaret 
Derr, Mary A. Breece, Lucy Cosper, Mary N. 
Powell, Mahala Brittain. 

Mr. Shanafelts resigned after a three years' 
ministry and his successors have been : Revs. 
J. G. Penny, G. W. Scott, J. P. Tustin, C. W. 
Smith, D. J. R. Strayer, and again, in 1885, 
Rev. J. P. Tustin. Rev. W. T. Galloway came 
in 1888 and during his term the church was 
improved at a cost of $1,100. Subsequent 
pastors have been : Rev. George Weeks, 1892- 
95; Rev. William M. Tinker, 1896-97; Rev. J. 
D. Smith, 1898-1903; Rev. W. M. Tinker, 
1903-06; Rev. R. G. Smith, 1906-10; and the 
present pastor, Rev. T. E. Jepson, who came 
in 191 1. In 1903 further improvements were 
made to the church, and in 1913 the Sunday 
school room was enlarged. 

Rev. T. E. Jepson, pastor of the church, is 
one of the youngest veterans of the Civil war 
in the State, having enlisted as a drummer boy 
at the age of twelve. 

The present officers are : Deacons, C. B. 
Edwards, T. E. Hyde, M. E. Stackhouse, 
James Sterner; trustees. Dr. H. Bierman, W. 
C. Johnston, John Shultz, James Reeser, 
Franklin Keller ; clerk, T. V. Gunter ; treasurer, 
H. R. Kahler. 

Roman Catholics 

The first religious services held in Blooms- 
burg agreeably to the ritual of the Roman 
Catholic Church were in the days of the con- 
struction of the Pennsylvania canal, the work- 
men on which were mostly Irish Catholics. 
Father Fitzpatrick of Milton officiated at dif- 
ferent times during this period. In 1844 
Father Fitzsimmons held Mass on several 
occasions for the workmen who erected the 
Bloomsburg iron furnaces. These services 
were held at the home of Michael Casey on 
Iron street, near the canal, every month, but 
the floating population departed and the re- 
mainder was too small to support a pastor. 
From then until 1874 a congregation was 
slowly collected under the ministrations of 
Fathers Sherdon, Murray, McGinnis, Smith 
and Noonan, from Sunbury; and Schleuter, 
from Danville. 

Finallv the stone church once occupied by 
the Primitive Methodists, on Third, between 
Iron and Center streets, was purchased, re- 
built and rededicated under the protection of 

St. Columba. The pastoral residence adjoin- 
ing was bought in 1883. Fathers O'Brien, 
Reilly, Clarke and McCann were successive 
pastors until 1889. Father J. R. Murphy suc- 
ceeded Father McCann, and was followed in 
1910 by Rev. Father E. A. Burhard, the pres- 
ent incumbent. 

The present handsome brick church was 
erected in 1913, and dedicated on Oct. 12th of 
that year. The brick residence on the corner 
of Third and Iron streets was removed seventy 
feet to the west and on its site the new church 
was built. The residence is used as a rectory. 
The new church is 43 by 85 feet, and the total 
cost of the building and furnishings was over 
si.xteen thousand dollars. Improvements to 
the rectory, pavements and the grounds totaled 
a cost of over four thousand more. 


The Central Pennsylvania Conference of the 
Evangelical Association in March, 1873, de- 
cided to occupy Bloomsburg as a mission and 
place it under the care of Rev. R. C. Bower- 
sox, together with several other points. Serv- 
ices had been held in the "Port Noble" school- 
house in 1867 by Rev. U. W. Harris, and a 
class formed with George Rishel as leader. 
Other members were Joseph Garrison, Henry 
Garrison, Elijah Strohm and Tobias Henry. 
Regular services had been held after that, but 
it was not till 1880 that the congregation 
worshipped in their own house, built on a lot 
purchased in 1873. Bishop Thomas Bowman, 
himself a native of Briarcreek township, dedi- 
cated the completed building on Dec. nth. 

Pastors of this church have been : Revs. 
R. C. Bowersox, 1873-74; J. N. Irvine, 1875- 
76; A. W. Sheuberger, J. S. Hertz, 1877; G. 
W. Hunter, 1878-79: L. K. Harris, 1879-80; 
S. E. Davis, 1880-81 ; S. P. Rehmer, 1882-84; 
H. W. Buck, 1885-88; J. F. Shultz, 1888-89; 
A. W. Swengle, C. W. Hunter, 1889-90; C. L. 
Sones, 1890-93 ; J. Womeldorf , 1893-95 ; G. W. 
Currin, 1895-99; J. W. Messenger, 1899-1900; 
J. W. Bentz, 1900-03; J. Shambach, 1903-07; 
E. B. Bailey, 1907- 11 ; and Rev. S. E. Koontz, 
the present pastor, who came to the parish in 

During 1894 the congregation became known 
as the L^nited Evangelical Church, owing to 
the denominational change of name. In 1898 
the present parsonage on Fourth street was 

The church has made remarkable strides 
financially and spiritually, and recently the 



mortgage on the parsonage was entirely paid, 
freeing the church completely of debt. 

Church of Christ 

Starting out a few years ago with only a 
few members who held regular meetings in a 
room over the Hess jewelry store, the congre- 
gation of the Church of Christ has grown 
rapidly until now they own a large corner lot 
at Fourth and West streets and occupy a 
handsome frame structure built upon the West 
street side of the lot. Intervening between 
these two extremes, however, there were years 
of struggle and toil, the results of which the 
congregation is now reaping. After purchas- 
ing the present lot they built a small rude 
structure on Fourth street in which they met 
until it proved to be inadequate to meet the 
demands of the congregation, so the present 
structure was erected. 

This church was organized March lo, 1902, 
the first pastor being Rev. R. H. Sawtelle, of 
the Stillwater Church. He was succeeded in 
1904 bv Rev. G. C. Zeigler. Following pastors 
have been Revs. H. R. Bixell, 1910-12; H. H. 
Carter, 1912-14; and C. V. Huffer, the pres- 
ent pastor. The present officers of the church 
are: G. G. Baker, A. M. Stevens, W. Brook- 
ing, J. W. Mordan, A. L. Walter, C. D. Foll- 
mer, O. W. Ashworth, Charles Alunson. 

Pentecostal Church 

The Eighth Street Mission Church was 
erected in 1893 by W. B. Cummings, and was 
first called the Methodist Mission. On July 
9, 1908, it was organized as the Pentecostal 
Church of the Nazarene, with Rev. H. G. 
Trumbauer as pastor. He served until July, 
1912, when he accepted a call elsewhere, and 
was succeeded by Rev. H. N. Haas, who be- 
gan his pastorate on April i, 1913. 

A. M. E. Church 

The African Methodist Episcopal Church 
was organized in 1870. Rev. D. J. Waller, Sr., 
gave the building site on First street, near 
Market, and Mrs. Edgar donated the lumber 
for the building. The first pastor was Rev. 
John Henson, who had been a slave at one 
time. His successor was Rev. William West. 
The present pastor is Rev. W. T. Watson, who 
also has charge of the Danville Church. 


The Y. M. C. A. of Bloomsburg was organ- 
ized Nov. 16, 1890, in Hartman's hall, and the 

first officers elected were: Rev. D. J. Wal- 
ler, Jr., president; W. H. Brooke, vice presi- 
dent; A. N. Yost, secretary; W. B. Cummings, 
corresponding secretary ; E. B. Tustin, treas- 
urer. Rooms were secured in the second and 
third floors of the Dentler building, and in- 
cluded a meeting hall, reading and game rooms, 
which were conveniently fitted up and nicely 

In 1899 the William Xeal property was pur- 
chased and rearranged for the use of the asso- 
ciation. Dr. Waller was president until 1894, 
and his successors were Dr. J. P. Welsh, S. C. 
Creasy, F. N. Turner, C. H. Albert and W. L. 
White. The successive secretaries were B. F. 
Armstrong, C. E. Kesty, C. D. Lynn, B. F. 
Armstrong, U. G. Morgain, A. E. Barton and 
W. H. Walters. 

Excellent work was done, but the financial 
support was not sufficient to warrant a con- 
tinuance, so in December, 1905, an offer hav- 
ing been made for the purchase of the prop- 
erty, it was sold to Caldwell Consistory for 
$12,000, and the association suspended April 
I, 1906. They then purchased from J. L. 
Dillon the Phillips lot, on Market street, next 
to the post office, for $8,000, and in .-Xpril, 
1906, sold 4 feet front and 90 feet depth to 
the First National Bank for $1,500. The re- 
mainder of the lot is still owned by the Asso- 
ciation, but is vacant, and there is no imme- 
diate prospect of its being utilized for Y. M. 
C. A. purposes. 


A power for good in the life of Bloomsburg 
was the Young W'omen's Christian Associa- 
tion, which, organized several years ago, en- 
deavored and succeeded in doing for the girls 
of the town what the Young Men's Christian 
Association did for the men. Not only was the 
religious part of the girls' lives given careful 
direction, but classes in practical subjects were 
conducted, the better preparing them for fu- 
ture careers. Located in the Evans building, 
the Association succeeded in getting close to 
a large number of the girls of the community 
and the work has without doubt left its im- 
print. Many social affairs given under the 
direction of the Association aided mightily in 
maintaining interest. Unfortunately the work 
lagged for want of financial support, and the 
organization disbanded. Mrs. George E. Wil- 
bur was the organizer and the leading spirit 
during its existence. 




This club is a development of the Bible class 
of St. Matthew's Lutheran Church, which 
started with five members. At a banquet in 
19 1 3 the proposition was made to organize a 
club for young men of the town, regardless 
of religious affiliation, who were without a 
proper place for social meetings and amuse- 
ments. The result was the formation of the 
Young Men's Club, which has grown in 1914 
to a membership of 118, with an average age 
of twenty-five years, and has become a power 
for good in the community. In the latter 
year they rented the old office of Col. John G. 
Freeze, on Center street, near Third, where 
they have a library, reading room, game and 
smoking room. The officers are : D. *L. Bom- 
boy, president ; S. J. Johnston, vice president ; 
W. E. Shafifer, secretary ; Howard Bomboy, 
treasurer. Any young man is eligible for 
membership and the monthly dues are very 
low. It is under the direct care of the Luth- 
eran Brotherhood. 


The Rosemont Cemetery Company was or- 
ganized by a number of leading citizens in 1854. 
Prior to that time there were burial grounds on 
several of the church properties. The Episco- 
palians used their grounds up to the time of 
the erection of the present stone church, its 
predecessor, the brick church, then standing 
on the site of the rectory, up to 1868. Where 
the Presbyterian manse now is their church, a 
frame building, stood, and the surrounding 
grounds were used by them as a cemetery. A 
number of graves were in the Methodist lot, 
and the Welsh Baptists also buried around their 
church, which stood on the site of Paul E. 
Wirt's mansion. The Lutherans and German 
Reformed congregations owned jointly the lot 
on First and Center streets where their union 
church stood. The church was torn down many 
years ago, but the graves still remain, in a dilap- 
idated condition. When the other grounds 
named were needed for other purposes the dead 
were removed to Rosemont. 

The first minutes of the meetings of the 
board of directors of the Rosemont Cemetery 
Companv are dated June 1 1 . 1854, when a meet- 
ing was held at the home of Daniel Snyder, Sr., 
those present being Mr. Snyder, Daniel Melick, 
Jesse Shannon, Erastus Barton, Rev. William 
Weaver and Rev. D. J. Waller, Sr. The first 
board of directors consisted of those gentle- 
men and Anthony Witman, Bernard Rupert, 

E. P. Lutz, L. B. Rupert and S. Mendenhall. 
A committee composed of Messrs. Waller, Wit- 
man and B. Rupert was appointed to select a 
site for the cemetery. They reported, and at 
a meeting of the stockholders, Nov. 9, 1854, 
■'the hill north of the town, and immediately 
adjoining it," was selected. D. Snyder was the 
first president, and E. P. Lutz the first secre- 
tary. L. B. Rupert succeeded Snyder, and Mr. 
Waller was elected president in 1856, and con- 
tinued to serve until 1893, when Colonel Freeze 
was chosen and so acted up to the time of his 
death in 1913, when Frank Ikeler was elected. 

The Soldiers' Circle was donated May 2, 
1862. In 1888 additional land was purchased 
from the Bloomsburg Iron Company, and other 
lands were added at various times. Improve- 
ments have been made by the erection of a 
sexton's lodge and a superintendent's office, at 
either side of the entrance ; by a fountain ; and 
by a brick pavement from the entrance to the 
top of the liill. In 1895 a large tract of land 
up the Light Street road was purchased, and 
named New Rosemont, but very few inter- 
ments have been made there, probably on ac- 
count of the location, being up a long hill. 
In 1914 thirty acres were bought by the com- 
pany along the road between Bloomsburg and 
Espy, and a new cemetery has been laid out, 
which will no doubt be needetl in the near 
future, owing to the crowded condition of 
Rosemont. The present officers of the com- 
pany are : Frank Ikeler, president ; C. L. 
Pensyl, secretary; W. H. Hidlay, treasurer; 
W. R. Ringrose, superintendent ; other direc- 
tors, G. G. Baker, J. W. Harman, W. E. Shaf- 
fer, T. L. Smith. "J. G. Quick. C. A. Kleim, 
P. K. \'annatta. 

Mr. Ringrose has been superintendent since 
1902. He is the first one in that position who 
has given his entire time to the care of the 
grounds, and under him they have been greatly 
improved. When he assumed the office the 
company had a debt of $5,500. This was paid 
off, and $5,000 additional has been expended 
for more land and for betterments, under the 
direction of the efficient board of directors. 


The Bloomsburg Opera House was built in 
1874 by B. H. \'annatta and Edward Rawlings. 
At that time it was far ahead of any public 
hall the town had ever had. its predecessors 
having l)een merely rooms on the upper floors 
of store buildings. Snyder's hall, in the build- 
ing now occupied bythe H. B. Sharpless hard- 
ware store and the City Cafe, and Hartman's 



hall, on the third floor of what is now the Elks' 
building, were the leading ones. Neither had 
a stage. The opera house was conducted by 
the lessees of the owners until 1876, when it 
passed to the ownership of I. W. McKelvy, 
whose lessees operated it until 1895. Then P. 
A. Evans and J. R. Fowler bought it, and the 
latter managed it until Mr. Evans's death, when 
his half interest passed to his daughter, the 
wife of Dr. J. S. John. A few years later Mr. 
Fowler died, and Dr. John purchased his inter- 
est. The auditorium was much improved, the 
stage was enlarged and a gallery built, and the 
name changed to the Columbia Theatre. It 
v^fas run by lessees until September, 1914, when 
Dr. John assumed the management. 

The Neiv Lyric is an attractive moving pic- 
ture house in the L. T. Sharpless building. 
The first floor was rebuilt for this purpose, and 
opened in 1911 by L. T. Sharpless and W. W. 
Fagely, who have made it a popular place of 

The Arcade was the next bidder for public 
favor. It is in what was the furniture store 
of W. J. Correll & Co., and was opened in 
19 1 3 with H. B. Correll as manager. It enjoys 
a liberal patronage. 

The Victoria, built by L. J. Chamberlin, of 
Shamokin, and opened early in 1914, is one of 
the handsomest picture houses in this section, 
costing about $25,000, and with a seating ca- 
pacity of 1,200. It is up to date in every 
respect. J. W. Earned is the manager. 

Three other moving picture rooms have been 
opened, at various times, but succumbed after 
a short run. 

The Midway, owned by Thomas B. Moore 
and H. J. Achenbach, opened in 1906, is an 
amusement hall that has met the public wants 
in various ways. It has been used as a bowl- 
ing alley, billiard room, dance hall, for poultry 
exhibitions, industrial fairs and the like. The 
building is well adapted to its uses, and its 
motto, "A nice place for nice people," has 
always been well maintained by the manage- 


Among those who were prominent and active 
citizens in the earlier davs, and who have gone 
to the "great beyond." the descendants of 
many of whom are now among the representa- 
tive citizens of the town, were Dr. Davi'd Scott, 
Dr. John Ramsay, Daniel Snvder, Sr.. William 
Robison, Philip Chrisman, William McKelvv. 
Rev. D. J. Waller, Sr.. William Hurlev. Caleb 
Barton, EH Barton, Elisha Barton, William 

Neal, John R. Moyer, L. B. Rupert, Elias Men- 
denhall, William Sloan, Joseph W. Hender- 
shott, A. J. Sloan, Robert F. Clark, Philip. 
Unangst, John M. Chamberlin, David Lowen- 
berg, Dr. Jacob Schuyler, John K. Grotz, I. S. 
Kuhn, J. J, Brower, Issachar Evans, A. J. 
Evans, Col. Samuel Knorr, M. C. Sloan, John 
A. Funston, James K. Eyer, Joseph Sharpless, 
Andrew Rupert, E. P. Lutz, C. F. Knapp, John 
Wolf, Senator Charles R. Buckalew, Judge 
William Elwell, Dr. J. B. McKelvy, Isaiah W. 
McKelvy, Rev. J. P. Tustin, H. J. Clark, E. R. 
Drinker, Charles G. Barkley, C. B. Brockway, 
M. S. Appleman, Josiah Furman, G. W. Cor- 
rell, P. S. Harman, Robert Cathcart, Peter Bill- 
myer, William Snyder, Gen. W. H. Ent, George 
Hassert, Henry Rosenstock, B. F. Hartman, 
as well as many others. 


For many years Bloomsburg has had at least 
one brass band. Before the Civil war there 
were two, and from these one was organized 
and went to the war with the Iron Guards. In 
1865 at a citizens' meeting a subscription w'as 
taken up, and W. H. Gilmore was authorized 
to go to Harrisburg and purchase instruments 
for a band organized at that time, with John 
Hower as leader. 

In 1871 the Bloomsburg Band was started 
with T. L. Gunton as president, and A. W. 
Monroe as leader. In 1884 the band obtained 
a charter. It has had a number of leaders, 
among them Davis Brooks, who served faith- 
fully for many years. The most notable one 
was F. H. Losey, who afterwards attained 
prominence as a bandmaster and composer. 
The band has had its ups and downs, but 
through it all T. L. Gunton, its first and only 
president and manager, has never wavered, 
and now has the satisfaction of having a fine 
band of about thirty members, mostly young 
men, well equipped, a credit to the town and to 
themselves, as the result of his persistence. 
The present leader is Clarence G. Herr. 

In 1888 William H. Gilmore organized a 
band and equipped it with uniforms and instru- 
ments. It was known as Gilmore's Band, and 
Thomas Metherel was the leader. After doing 
good service for five years the organization was 
discontinued in iSq"?, and the town had but one 
band for the next fourteen years. 

The Citizens' Band was organized in April, 
TOO/, with eleven members, who had left the 
Bloomsburg Band. Charles P. Elwell was the 
bandmaster, and a few months later E. M. Sav- 
idge became manager. Through Professor 




Elwell's efforts additional members were se- 
cured among the more experienced players, 
until it numbered nearly thirty men. Rapid 
progress was made under his direction, and 
the band established a high reputation as one 
of the best musical organizations in this sec- 
tion. He retired in 19 lO, and Frank Hower 
served as leader for a time, when he was suc- 
ceeded by L. I.. James, the present efficient 


Fernville, although a suburb of Bloomsburg, 
is in Hemlock township, situated just across 
Fishing creek at the Hemlock bridge at Rail- 
road street. The land on which it stands for- 

merly belonged to the Bloomsburg Iron Com- 
pany and later was purchased by E. R. and 
F. P. Drinker, who laid out the level part of 
it in town lots about 1890. County Commis- 
sioner C. E. Welliver erected the third house 
that was built there. The village contains about 
fifty-five houses. The population is about three 
hundred. Fernville is in the south election 
district of Hemlock township and has about 
seventy-five voters. A good schoolhouse fur- 
nishes educational quarters for the cliildren in 
the grades, while some attend the Bloomsburg 
high school or the normal. 

Here are located the dairy farms of J. G. 
Quick and H. J. Traub, and the greenhouses 
of George Kressler. 



Nature prepared the site of Berwick and 
man has established upon the spot an ideal 
modern industrial community of almost 14,000 
souls. The first settlers considered it a logical 
site, and their wisdom has been proved by 
the subsequent development of the town. 
When the borough was laid out the limits 
were made one mile each way, but this re- 
stricted area has been overflown, and the re- 
sult is the existence of three growing suburbs, 
which absorb the overflow in part, the borough 
of Nescopeck, in Luzerne county, caring for 
the remainder. 

With the territorial expansion which fol- 
lowed the industrial development of Berwick, 
the populated area was extended across the 
west line of the town, and West Berwick came 
into being, with a population of 5,512; on the 
north line grew up the suburb of North Ber- 
wick, in Briarcreek township, with a popula- 
tion of 1,430; East Berwick, lying in Salem 
township, Luzerne county, is actually a part 
of Berwick and holds a population of 1,350; 
while Nescopeck, just across the Susque- 
hanna in Luzerne county, could well be termed 
South Berwick, with a population of 1,578. 
Add to this the population of Berwick proper, 
and we have a total of 15,227 persons de- 
pendent in a great measure upon the car 
works, shops and foundries of Greater Ber- 

The expansion of Berwick has but partially 
met the growing demands of the people, not 
from failure to realize the necessity, but be- 

cause of the growth setting the pace for the 
promoters of improvements and expansion. 
Within the ten years previous to 1914 fifty- 
three new streets, totaling a length of twenty- 
three miles, have been laid out ; ten miles have 
been graded, two miles paved with brick, and 
sixteen miles of sidewalks laid. Twenty-eight 
miles of new water mains have been laid, and 
eleven miles of gas mains. 

Upon the public schools the sum of $105,000 
has been expended, while over $60,000 has 
been spent upon modern sewers. Part of this 
amount has come from the American Car and 
Foundry Company, a history of which is 
found further on, the company employing dur- 
ing working seasons at full capacity 6,200 
men, to whom is paid out the monthly sum 
of $260,000 in wages. Besides this, the 
monthly wage list of the Baer Silk Mills, the 
smaller factories and shops, and the numerous 
stores and mercantile establishments, form a 
total of no mean proportions, unequaled by 
any other town in Columbia county. 

With this fitting introduction to the indus- 
trial city we will turn backward to the little 
village of Berwick, or "Owensville," the 
nucleus of the present city. 


When the land office was opened by the 
Penns in 1769 for the sale of the estate of 
Pennsylvania, Evan Owen, a member of the 
Society of Friends, was one of the first to 



take advantage of the opportunity to obtain 
a home in the new world. He made his first 
journey of reconnoissance with Benjamin 
Doan and others in 1772, coming from Harris' 
Ferry in a "Durham" boat, and stopping at 
the mouth of Fishing creek, but the troublous 
times caused him to return to a more civilized 
locality. In 1780, eight yeans later, he came 
back and selected as a permanent residence 
the point opposite the mouth of Xescopeck 
creek. He himself did not settle here until 
a period of six years had intervened. In the 
meantime John and Robert Brown were in- 
duced by Owen to go to his lands and make 
a home. 

The Browns and their families made the 
journey overland to Catawissa, where the 
Quakers had already a thriving settlement, in 
the period between 1780 and 1787. From that 
village they went in canoes to the falls of 
Nescopeck, landed on the site of Berwick and 
located their separate allotments of land. Dur- 
ing the first year they fastened treetops to- 
gether, covering them with bark, and thus 
made shelters for the period between their 
arrival and the harvesting of the simple crops 
of the virgin soil. The following year more 
substantial homes of logs were erected, as the 
farming land had proved to be of good quality. 

The influx of actual settlers and the admir- 
able site of the settlement induced Owen to 
lay out a permanent town in 1786. The act 
was a wise one. The location, two hundred 
feet above the river, with the opening in the 
hills southward offering an outlet to the older 
settlements, and the ample supply of fuel and 
water, combined with the picturesqueness of 
the surroundings, offered a site that has dem- 
onstrated its suitability through all the follow- 
ing years. 

The first settler to erect a dwelling was 
John Brown, who built on the south side of 
Front street, near Market, Robert Brown 
locating on the opposite side. Evan Owen 
himself built a house on the site of the present 
"St. Charles Hotel," while Samuel Jackson, a 
brother-in-law, took the opposite corner. 
Josiah Jackson, brother of Samuel, opened 
the first hat shop on Front street, below 
Market. James Evans, a millwright. John 
Smith and Henry Traugh complete the list 
of the first settlers. 

Owen made an extended trip through the 
lower counties of the State, selling lots in the 
projected town, and was fairly successful. 
James Stackhouse, a wealthy farmer of Bucks 
county, came and built a home on Second 
street. He planted the first orchard, which 

was vigorous for many years after the in- 
corporation of the town. Others who came 
were Thomas Cole, James Herrin, Benjamin 
Doan and Jacob Cooper. 

At first the town was laid off into lots and 
the streets marked by blazing trees. From 
these arboreal surroundings arose the names 
of the streets Oak, Vine, Mulberry, Pine, 
Chestnut and Walnut. At first the residents 
called the town Owensville, but the Quaker 
proprietor was modest and the name he gave 
it was that of his old home in England — 
Berwick-on-Tweed — with the hyphenated at- 
tachment dropped. After the settlement of 
the conflicting claims of Connecticut and 
Pennsylvania part of the town plot was taken 
from Owen and included in Salem township, 
Luzerne county. This portion is now the site 
of East Berwick. 

In 1800, John Jones opened the first store 
in the town on what is now the site of T. H. 
Doan's hardware store. In the course of 
time travel through the town increased and 
the necessity of taverns became evident. The 
first one in the town was opened in 1804, at 
the comer of Second and Market streets, by 
John Brown. He gave it the title of the 
"Golden Lamb." John Jones was the next 
proprietor, and was succeeded by Abraham 
Klotz and Frederick Nicely. During the lat- 
ter's ownership the place was known as the 
"Cross Keys." Before the bridge was built 
William Brien established a ferry and kept a 
tavern at the site of the old bridge. As an 
adjunct to this hostelry Richard Smith built 
a log house below Brien's place, where he 
carried on the vocations of shoemaking and 
the distilling of a brand of "squirrel" whiskey. 
Samuel F. Headley later kept a public house 
at the comer of Front and Mulberry streets, 
which he called the "Stage Coach Inn." - 

In 1805 a market house was erected in the 
center of the street afterwards named from 
it, between Second and Third. It was sup- 
ported on large square pillars, the space be- 
neath being adapted to the storage of wagons 
and the protection of the horses. It was lighted 
by small green glass "bull's-eyes," which gave 
but little light and almost completely pre- 
vented ventilation. This building was devoted 
to school purposes, preaching, public assem- 
blies and elections, and most of the denomina- 
tions of the present day had their birth in 
this humble and crudely built edifice. At this 
time the housewives of the village were accus- 
tomed to spend "washday" on the banks of 
the river, and the whole year round they left 



their iron kettles hanging along the trees that 
fringed the shore. 

The first children born in Berwick were 
John and Anne Brown, children of Robert 
Brown (Anne was the wife of Jesse Bow- 
man, deceased, and the first person married 
in Berwick). The first church built was the 
Quaker, a log building, where C. C. Evans' 
residence now stands. The first lawyer was 
named Bancroft; first judge, John Cooper; 
doctors, Mooreland and Beisswick; post- 
master, William Brien ; schoolmaster, Isaac 
Holloway ; preachers, Carson and Painter. 


As time passed the necessity for adequate 
roads to attract the patronage of the traveler 
caused the founders of Berwick to apply to 
the State for help. In 1787, Evan Owen was 
appointed to superintend the construction of 
a State road from Nescopeck falls to the 
Lehigh. Two years later the work was com- 
pleted and the Indian trail supplanted by a 
passable road. On March 19, 1804, the Sus- 
quehanna & Lehigh Turnpike & Road Com- 
pany was incorporated, and in 1805 the old 
road was made over into a graded turnpike 
at a great expense, both to the State and to 
private capitalists. Andrew Shaner, of Ber- 
wick, was one of the contractors, and Chris- 
tian Bowman was the first traveler to make 
the journey through to Easton. The Susque- 
hanna & Tioga Turnpike Road Company was 
chartered in 1806 to build a road to the north- 
ern line of the State. This road was finally 
completed to Towanda. Pa., in 1818. Among 
the projectors and stockholders were Nicholas 
Seybert, Andrew Shaner, Jesse Bowman, 
Jacob Mack, McKinney Buckalew and John 

William Brien's ferry being inadequate for 
the demands of the public, in 1812 a bridge 
company was formed, with the following of- 
ficers : President, Abram Miller, Sr. ; treas- 
urer, John Brown ; managers, Silas Engle, 
Thomas Bowman, Elisha Barton, Jr. Theo- 
dore Burr received the contract and completed 
the bridge in 1814. It was 1,260 feet long, 
with piers of heavy planked timber, and cost 
$52,435. The bridge formed the connecting 
link for the highways, and a continuous route 
was thus established between Towanda and 
Easton. The position of Berwick at the junc- 
tion of these two roads was of immense ad- 
vantage, and she dated her growth and pros- 
perity from the time of their construction. An 
era of building was inaugurated. Frame and 

brick houses replaced the simple log structures 
of the pioneers and the village began to as- 
sume the aspect of a town. The first frame 
dwelling built at this period, by Robert Brown, 
stood on Front street until 1902, when it was 
torn down, although still in a fair state of 
preservation. The first brick house erected 
in the town, by Honteter Seybert, in 1816, 
was a tavern, named after himself. It later 
received the name of "St. Charles." The pres- 
ent hotel of that name is built on the site of 
the old one. 


The force of the current in the Susquehanna 
induced Evan Owen to build a gristmill on the 
banks, in the hope of utilizing the water- 
power, but the attempt resulted in failure. 
John Jones was more successful in his estab- 
lishment of a limekiln on the banks of the 
river. He obtained his raw material from a 
ledge on the island that at that time existed in 
the river near the Berwick side. The site is 
simply a sandbar now. The forge across the 
river on Nescopeck creek added to the pros- 
perity of Berwick somewhat during later 
years, as did the foundry of George Mack, 
located at Foundryville, about a mile north 
of town. 

The first assessment list gives these names 
of the founders of the respective industries 
and vocations in Berwick : John and Peter 
Suit, coopers ; John Brown, carpenter; Aquilla 
Starr, blacksmith; Benjamin Doan, tailor; 
Abel Dalby, chairmaker and painter ; Jonathan 

Cooper, mason ; Bush, dyer ; Henry 

Traugh, tanner; Vallershamp, dentist; 

Herman Inman, tinner; Sleppy & Co., gun- 
smiths ; James Evans, wheelwright ; 

Marshall, silversmith ; Roxanna Cartwright, 

milliner; Stackhouse, butcher; Polly 

Mullen, weaver; Samuel Herrin, cabinet- 
maker; Col. John Snyder, saddle and harness 
maker ; John Jones, lime burner. 

Paul Thompson came to Berwick in 1798 
and erected the first pottery for the manufac- 
ture of crocks, jugs and other coarse uten- 
sils, on the spot where the Methodist church 
now stands. He owned a flatboat and sold his 
goods along the river. His son Hugh enlarged 
the pottery and ran it till 1842, when his sons, 
Joseph D. and Richard, took charge. Together 
they operated the pottery on an extensive 
scale until 1853, and then Joseph D. Thomp- 
son continued it alone until 1863, when he 
closed the business, owing to lack of demand 
for that kind of goods. 



Among the names that will be remembered 
in connection with the history of Berwick 
are these : Dr. Samuel Headley, Honteter Sey- 
bert, Paul Thompson, Richard Smith, Mr. 
Davenport, Samuel Herrin, Josiah F. Beach, 
Wm. Kitchen, Dr. A. B. Wilson, Dr. Jackson, 
Dr. Langdon, Thos. Coles, Sebastian Seybert, 
A. Miller, Sr., Robert Smith, Charles Snyder, 
Joseph Stackhouse, Lawrence Ruch, Judge 
Mack, Andrew Shiner, Jonathan Cooper, Hugh 
Thompson, Thomas Richardson, William 
Herrin, J. W. Dietrick, John McAnall, Hud- 
son Owen, Michael Frantz, Frederick Nicely, 
Jesse Bowman, and Mrs. Eckert, nearly all of 
whom died at an extremely old age. 

Dr. Samuel Headley was one of the larg- 
est landowners in Berwick. Where the rolling 
mill now stands was part of his farm. Mul- 
berry street was once all in his orchard. He 
also owned the land from Judge Kurtz's resi- 
dence up to the county line and back as far as 
Fifth street, as well as the old ferry landing 
on this side of the river. Christian Kunkle 
owned the ferry landing on the Nescopeck 


Berwick appears as a post village first in 
1797. At that time the postmaster at Wilkes- 
Barre appointed a post rider and designated 
certain houses in Nescopeck and Berwick as 
places for the distribution of the mails. In 
1800 Jonathan Handcock carried the mail, and 
several years later William Brien was ap- 
pointed the first regular postmaster at Ber- 
wick. In 181 1 Conrad Teter was awarded a 
government contract for establishing mail 
coaches between Sunbury and Painted Post. 
He transferred that portion of the route be- 
tween Sunbury and Wilkes-Barre to Miller 
Horton, who owned the first line of coaches 
between these points. In 1824 Jesse Miller 
and Louis Horton assumed control of a mail 
route from Baltimore to Owego, by way of 
Harrisburg and Sunbury. A new era was in- 
augurated. Four-horse coaches, substantial, 
comfortable and attractive, rolled into Ber- 
wick every day. The crack of the driver's 
whip and the blast of his horn relieved the 
otherwise monotonous quiet of the village. 
John Jones, tavern keeper, farmer and lime 
burner, also became a stage owner, operating 
a line of coaches to Easton. The journey to 
that point then required two days. Joshua 
Dodson drove the first coach from Berwick 
to Elmira, a week being required for the round 
trip. Joshua Kindy was toll collector on the 

Towanda road, beyond Berwick. Philip Ab- 
bott and George Root were also long con- 
nected with these routes of travel, the latter 
driving a stage for more than forty years. 
The first telegraph line was constructed 
through Berwick in 1850. 

The postal service kept progress with the 
growth of the town. At present there are five 
rural routes starting from Berwick, and the 
carrier service covers the city and the sur- 
rounding suburbs in a most satisfactory man- 
ner. J 

Following is the list of postmasters at Ber- 
wick from the first: William Bryan (Brien), 
appointed Jan. i, 1801 ; John Snyder, Jan. i, 
181 5 ; David E. Owen, Nov. 20, 1820; Thomas 
C. Foster, June 5, 1821 ; Robert McCurdy, 
Jan. I, 1824; Isaiah Bahl, March 9, 1837: C. B. 
Bowman, March 9, 1S42; Stephen Mansfield, 
May 16, 1845; M. E. Jackson, June 25, 1846; 
William B. Gardner, April 9, 1849; Adrian 
Van Houten, Aug. 13, 1850; Isaiah Bahl, May 
26, 1853; John J- McHenry, May 21, 
1857; Levi F. Irwin, Oct. 28, 1857; John 
Ruch, Aug. 17, 1858; E. G. Horn, April 22, 
1867; John McAnall, Dec. 14, 1867; J. S. 
Sanders, Dec. 20, 1867 ; John Ruch, March 
17, 1869; Robert S. Bowman, Feb. 6, 1885; 
Charles H. Dorr, May 18, 1893 ; Louis J. 
Townsend, Oct. 8, 1895 ; Robert S. Bowman, 
Dec. 20, 1899; J. U. Kurtz, Feb. 20, 1909; 
Oscar E. Letteer, 1913. 


Perhaps the most extraordinary event of 
the early history of Berwick was the explosion 
of the steamboat "Susquehanna" in 1826. 
The navigation of the Susquehanna had long 
been an accomplished fact so far as rafting 
and flatboating were concerned, but no attempt 
had been made to operate power boats further 
than the forks of the north and west branches, 
with the exception of a few experiments in 
the way of horse-driven "arks." But the dis- 
covery of steampower caused attention to be 
directed to the Susquehanna by parties inter- 
ested in the then great traffic thereon, and it 
was deemed feasible to operate steamboats in 
the trade. The Susquehanna had been de- 
clared a navigable highway in 1771, and a sum 
of money appropriated for its improvement. 

The steamboat "Codorus" was built at York 
Haven in 1825 and launched in October of 
that year. She was sixty feet long, nine feet 
wide, had a sheet iron hull, and drew seven 
inches of water unloaded. The hold was two 
and a half feet deep, two boilers supplied the 



steam for a ten-horsepower engine, and sev- 
enty persons could be carried, thirty in the 
cabin and forty on deck. Under the command 
of Capt. John Elgar the boat made a success- 
ful trip up the Susquehanna from Harrisburg 
in March and April, 1826, up to Binghamton, 
New York. 

The success of the "Codorus" caused the 
owners of the "Susquehanna,'" a larger boat, 
to attempt the trip. The "Susquehanna," 
Captain Collins commanding, was built in 
1825 at Baltimore, was eighty feet long, four- 
teen feet wide, drew twenty inches when 
empty, had an iron wheel, nine feet in diame- 
ter, as well as an iron hull, was operated by a 
ten-horsepower engine, had two boilers, and 
accommodations for almost two hundred per- 
sons. Her speed was ten miles an hour. The 
first trip was made in 1826, and on the after- 
noon of May 3d of that year an attempt was 
made to pass the Nescopeck rapids, where the 
Berwick bridge now stands. The current be- 
ing too swift, the captain allowed the boat to 
drift down until she stranded on the rocks 
near the shore, about the center of the chan- 
nel below the present bridge. This caused the 
stoppage of the wheel, and as one of the crew 
was holding down the safety valve, the strain 
became too much for the crude boilers, and 
one of them exploded. The boat was not seri- 
ously injured, but two men were instantly 
killed and several scalded badly by the escap- 
ing steam. Among the passengers who es- 
caped with little injury was Col. Joseph Pax- 
ton, of Rupert, who thus described the ac- 
cident in an article printed in a Danville pa- 
per: "With our pitch pine we succeeded in 
raising a full head of steam, and set off in 
fine style to ascend the rapids. The strength 
of the current soon checked our headway, and 
the boat, flanking towards the right bank of 
the river, struck a rock. I stood on the for- 
ward deck with a long ash pole in my hand, 
and was in the act of placing it in the water 
hoping to steady her, when the explosion took 
place. Two young men standing near were 
blown high into the air, and I was hurled sev- 
eral yards into the water. I thought a cannon 
had been fired, and shot my head off." Other 
fortunate passengers on the ill-fated boat were 
Christian Brobst of Catawissa, William \\'ood- 
side, William Colt and Sheriff Underwood of 
Danville, and John Foster, ^^^illiam G. Hur- 

tley and Isaiah Barton of Bloomsburg. The 
injured were borne to a warehouse near the 
river bank and tenderly cared for by the peo- 
ple of Berwick, the uninjured went to their 

ways, while the dead were laid at rest in the 
cemetery near the present Berwick Store. 
Some of the victims of the explosion were 
taken to the old brick building at the corner of 
Front and Mulberry streets, which was at that 
time a public tavern. The ballroom on the 
second floor was covered with bales of cotton 
saturated with oil and in this the suft'erers 
were rolled. The stains of the oil are on the 
floor to this day. The house now owned by 
Mrs. Anne Jackson was also opened to the 
injured, who were given every attention by her 
people. Near the entrance gate of the ceme- 
tery are the graves of the two principal victims 
of the explosion, the tombstones being of sand- 
stone, crudely carved with quaint lettering and 
ornamentation, the inscriptions being as fol- 
lows : 


This dust and ruin that remain 

Are presious in his eyes, 
These ruins shall be built again 

And all that dust shall rise. 

JOHN TURK— Aged 23 Yrs. 

Farewell to all my dearest friends, 

I rest me here from pain 
I hope when christ shall call me hence 

To see you all again. 

The attempt of the "Susquehanna" deterred 
other boats and the navigation of the river was 
abandoned for all time. The agitation for the 
building of the canal was taken up afresh and 
by 1828 sufficient funds had been accumulated 
to make the project a success. 


The first work on the Pennsylvania canal 
system in the central portion of the State was 
inaugurated at Berwick by the breaking of 
ground, July 4, 1828. The occasion was made 
one of iinposing ceremonial. A procession of 
all the societies and organizations of the town 
and the local and visiting officials, headed by 
Col. N. Hurlbut of Wilkes-Barre and William 
G. Hurley of Bloomsburg, as marshals, pa- 
raded the streets towards their destination, the 
point near the river bank selected for the first 
operations of digging. First came Dr. Whip- 
ple, the chief engineer of the work, with two 
assistants. Next, Nathan Beach of Beach 
Grove, holding the handles of a plow, the oxen 
dragging it being driven by John Lockhart of 
Salem. Then followed Jesse Bowman of 
Briarcreek and John L. Butler of Wilkes- 
Barre, pushing wheelbarrows ; Alexander 



Jameson of Salem and Arnold Colt of Wilkes- 
Barre, carrying spades. The Berwick Infantry, 
under Col. John Snyder, and the Luzerne 
County Cornet Band, followed. 

The first earth was thrown out by Gen. 
Daniel Montgomery of Danville and Judge 
Hollenback of Wilkes-Barre. After the cere- 
monies it was intended to have a dinner on the 
river bank for all the crowd, but a severe 
downpour prevented this, so the repast was 
served in the "Cross Keys Tavern," only part 
of the assembly being provided for, although 
the rooms of the tavern were crowded to the 

The building of the canal did much to in- 
crease the growth of the town, but it scarcely 
improved its moral tone, for in 1830, when the 
first boat passed through, there were fourteen 
drinking places in the village. After the open- 
ing of the canal many of the workmen who 
had assisted in the construction remained and 
made their homes in Berwick, thus adding a 
large Irish strain to the German of the first 

When the canal was finally abandoned the 
Dela-ware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad 
Company in 1904 filled up the bed, covering 
the old locks of stone completely. It is in- 
teresting to conjecture the opinions of the ex- 
plorers of the next century who may uncover 
these stone remains and find the old corner- 
stone at the bottom of a deep excavation. 

As an illustration of the growth of Berwick, 
brought about mainly by her manufactories, it 
will be noted that the population in 1840 was 
452; in 1850, but 486; in i860, it had only 
reached 625; in 1870 the growth of the Jack- 
son & Woodin Company had caused it to in- 
crease to 923, and by 1880, so rapid had been 
the growth of the plant, the town's population 
was 2,094. In 1890 the population was 2,701 ; 
in 1900 it was 3,916; and in 1910, 5,357. 


As the population gradually increased their 
wants were correspondingly catered to by 
storekeepers and mechanics. John Jones 
opened the first store about 1800, and was soon 
followed by William Brien, at his hotel. 
George Payne and Thomas Richardson came 
from Boston in 1807 and opened mercantile 
establishments, the former at the corner of 
Market and Second streets, and the latter on 
the west side of Second street, between Mar- 
ket and Mulberry. 

Others who had business establishments in 
the period between 1830 and 1886 were: 
Matthew McDowell, J. & A. Miller, Wright & 
Slocum, Robert McCurdy, J. & E. Leidy, 
Stowers & Ellis, J. & J. Bowman, Clark, John 
Deily, Samuel Scoville, Rittenhouse & Shu- 
man, Headley, McNair & Co., and George 


So great was the traffic attracted by the 
canal that in 1858 the Lackawanna & Blooms- 
burg railroad was built through the county, 
thus adding to the transportation facilities. In 
1882 the North & West Branch railway be- 
came a factor of importance in the transporta- 
tion field. It is located on the opposite side 
of the river from Berwick, and is now part of 
the Pennsylvania system. The last steam 
railroad to enter the town, the Susquehanna, 
Bloomsburg & Berwick, was built in 1903. 
Electric roads connect Berwick with Nesco- 
peck, Bloomsburg, Danville, Catawissa, and 
the smaller towns intervening. 


An old history of 1847 states that Berwick 
then contained about one hundred dwellings, a 
Methodist church, an academy, several stores 
and taverns, and had about eight hundred in- 


The list of firms doing business ifi Berwick 
in 1 914 is as follows : 

Department Stores — Berwick Store Com- 
pany, Philadelphia Bargain House, Joseph M. 

General Merchandise — A. H. Baer, H. B. 
Dodson, Garrison Bros., Harter & Son, Har- 
ter & White, M. C. Hetler, F. A. Hippensteel, 
James Lee, J. A. Rhodes, J. M. Schain, S. L. 
"Seesoltz, Shiner Bros., J. C. Stone, Williams 
Bros., C. B. Wilson. 

Grocers — S. Aimetti, Charles Battista, C. A. 
Benscoter, Vitale Bevilacqua, Tohn Cordora, 
Thomas Cretella, Daroczi & Kish, Bruce H. 
Hartman, E. H. Harvey, M. W. Hicks, W. C. 
Keller, A. Kromo, Alfonso Marsicano, I. Mit- 
tleman, John C. Oberdorf, J. W. Roberts, Cos- 
imo Sacco, F. M. Smith, M. G. Smith, S. S. 
Smith, John Timbrell. 

Hardware — R. E. Benscoter, A. E. Bren- 
ner, Harvey T. Doan. 

Cigars and Tobacco — C. W. Bower, Eli Bull 
& Co., George A. Confair, Diamond Cigar 




Store, W. F. McMichael, Oscar Thornton, 
United Cigar Stores Co. 

Druggists — Clewell & Currin, Gould's Drug 
Store, N. B. Shales, C. T. Steck, Edward A. 
Steck, H. T. Waldner. 

Confectioners — Boston Candy Kitchen, H. 
H. Brown, George Confair, B. D. Fenster- 
macher, John R. Gould, L. J. Manning, H. T. 

Bakeries— Berwick Bakery, H. M. Fet- 
terolf, W. C. Heckman. W. I. Herbine, Jant- 
zen's Bakery. 

Barbers — E. Bickel, H. H. Brown, James 
Canouse, D. E. Lewis, J. M. Pollock, W. I. 

Blacksmiths — Louis Dauber, C. E. Trescott, 
Joseph E. Moore. 

Restaurants — H. W. Prutzman, Plicks' Res- 
taurant, Frank L. Wright, William F. Boyer, 
George E. Clemens, S. K. Heller, Edward 
Schenke, H. S. Williams. 

Five and Ten Cent Stores — Robert W. 
Harman, Sterling Store, F. W. Woolworth. 

Florists— W. C. Brittain, D. W. Davis, 
Dixon's Greenhouse, John A. Smethers & 

Flour and Feed — T. M. Bomboy, John C. 
Crisman & Son, H. L. Harrison & Bro., T. J. 
Garrison, Howard Greenly. 

Furniture — F. L. Distlehurst, Wilson Har- 
ter, James Tierson. 

Jewelers — S. E. Fenstermacher, W. D. 
Hons, M. Sherman. 

Ladies' Furnishings — Philadelphia Bargain 
House, Bon Ton Bargain Store. 

Liverymen — Ralph Edwards, D. W. Mitch- 
ell & Son, H. O. Ruch, W. A. Sutliff, W. B. 

Lumber and Builders' Supplies — Berwick 
Lumber & Supply Co., Harry Fahringer, Wil- 
liam Krug, W. I. Mansfield, T- W. Sitler. 

Meat Markets— C. H. Belles, E. A. Hart- 
man, A. Kromo, S. L. Seesoltz, C. B. Wil- 

Men's Furnishings — Housenick & Co., Marx 
Levy & Son, A. A. Lerch, Moss Clothing 

Tailors— B. & B. Tailoring Co., Mike Broth- 
ler, Bogard's Tailor Shop. 

Millinery— Mrs. L. W. Hart, Mrs. G. P. 
Wakefield, Bon Ton Bargain Store, Miss E. 
B. De Voe. 

Photographers — William J. Hertz, J. E. 

Plumbers — J. J. Clark, B. L. Eshleman & 
Son, W. G. Fowler, O. W. George, Kirken- 
dall & Brownson, Charles H. Smith. 

Printers — Berwick Enterprise, B. F. Schol- 

lenberger, Learn's Printing House, C. A. 

Real Estate — S. W. Dickson, J. W. Evans, 
S. T. Styer. 

Shoe Dealers — Martin Basch, S. Bruan, Jo- 
seph Badolato, L. Hofl:man, L. J. Manning, 
A. B. Messersmith, R. O. Bower, H. H. Mer- 
rion & Co., The $1.98 Shoe Store. 

Undertakers — G. G. Baker, I. J. Hess & 
Son, Kelchner, H. E. Walton. 

Contractors — D. B. Beck, John Heavener, 
William Krug, W. J. Mansfield, H. E. Shot- 
well, C. E. Sitler, J. W. Sitler, Zeiser Bros., 
Zimmerman & Kendig. 


One of the handsomest hotels in central 
Pennsylvania is the Hotel Morton, Berwick, 
of which George H. Morton is the proprie- 
tor. The substantial brick building, with 
seventy rooms, is located on the corner of 
Front and Market streets, the site of the old 
Cross Keys tavern built in early times by 
John Jones. 

The St. Charles Hotel, built on the site of 
the original home of Evan Owen, the found- 
er of Berwick, is now operated by John P. 
Brenner, and is one of the best in the county. 

Other hotels are the Aimetti, Algatt, Ber- 
wick, Central, Columbia, Exchange, Fedora, 
Bishop, Fairman, Friedman, Hanover, Reiter, 
Linden, Kupsky, Alarko, Morton, Rome, 
Schangler, Sponenberg, Weiss, Susquehanna. 


The resident physicians in Berwick are Drs. 
E. A. Alleman, J. H. Bowman, F. R. Clark, 
Joseph Cohen, E. L. Davis, R. O. Davis, J. B. 
Follmer, M. J. Freas, E. A. Glenn, W. H. 
Ilensyl, P. H. Jamison, A. B. MacCrea, J. P. 
Pfahler, C. T. Steck, R. E. Warntz. 

The attorneys resident in Berwick are: R. 
O. Brockway, Conway W. Dickson, S. W. 
Dickson, W. E. Elmes, James L. Evans, A. C. 
Jackson, J. G. Jayne, W. S. Sharpless. 

Dentists: Drs. Paul W. Eves, B. G. Klein- 
tob, H. H. Long, C. E. Schweppenheiser. 


First National Bank 

Org-\nization. — During the summer of 
1864 several informal meetings of the busi- 
ness men of Berwick, Pa., were held with the 
object of taking advantage of the National 



Bank Act passed by Congress Feb. 25, 1863, 
and to give Berwick banking facilities which 
it had lacked up to that time.- After the pre- 
liminaries had been complied with, the articles 
of association were drawn and signed by the 
following gentlemen : M. W. Jackson, P. M. 
Traugh. Jesse Bowman, M. M. Cooper, Fran- 
cis Evans, F. Niceley, S. B. Bowman, A. Mil- 
ler, W. H. Woodin, M. E. Jackson, William 
Lamon, H. Lamon. 

The request of the association to enter the 
National Banking System by virtue of the 
charter was granted by the comptroller of the 
currency under the title of the First National 
Bank of Berwick, Pa., No. 568, Sept. 21, 1864, 
for a term of twenty years. 

The first meeting of the stockholders was 
held Sept. 21, 1864, and organized by elect- 
ing Jesse Bowman president of the meeting, 
and A. Miller, secretary. The stockholders 
at this meeting elected the following gentle- 
men to serve as directors : M. W. Jackson, 
Jesse Bowman, P. M. Traugh, A. Miller, W. 
H. Woodin, Francis Evans, S. B. Bowman. 

The board of directors elected by the stock- 
holders held their first meeting the same day 
(Sept. 21, 1864) and organized by the election 
of M. W. Jackson to the office of president 
and M. E. Jackson to the office of cashier. 

The bank commenced business with a capi- 
tal stock of $50,000, which was later increased 
to $75,000, at which figure it has remained. 

At the first annual meeting of the stock- 
holders, which was held in the banking rooms, 
the first board of directors and officers were 
reelected. At this time the bank showed the 
following condition : 


U. S. Bonds $50,000.00 

Revenue Stamps 150.00 

Treasury Notes 5,000.00 

Due from Banks 4i-6i 

Loans and Investments 12,891.09 

Cash and Reserve 43,747.25 


Capital $50,000.00 

Circulation 40,000.00 

Due to Banks 382.56 

Deposits 21,447.39 

At the annual meeting of the bank held 
Jan. 9, 1866, M. E. Jackson resigned as cash- 
ier. His resignation was accepted with regret 
by the board. At this meeting M. W. Jackson 
was reelected president and Mr. B. R. Davis 
was elected cashier. Mr. Davis ser\'ed as 
cashier of the bank until Jan. 12, 1869. At 

this meeting S. C. Jayne was elected cashier, 
which position he still holds. Mr. Jayne has 
the distinction of sending as cashier of a na- 
tional bank for a greater length of time than 
probably any other cashier in the State of 

On ]\Iay 12, 1869, John W. Evans was 
elected teller, resigning Nov. 30, 1875, to take 
effect Jan. i, 1876. 

At the annual meeting held in January, 
1876, AI. W. Jackson was elected president; 
S. C. Jayne, cashier; and B. F. Crispin, teller. 
The death of M. E. Jackson, attorney for the 
bank and a member of the board, was offi- 
cially announced. 

On May 3, 1880, B. F. Crispin was unani- 
mously elected a director to fill a vacancy 
on the board caused by the death of Clarence 
G. Jackson, who died May 3, 1880; and on 
March 25, 1881, F. R. Jackson was elected 
a director to fill a vacancy which then existed 
on the board, while S. C. Jayne was elected 
to the board Jan. 8, 1884. 

Extended Corpor-^te Existence. — At a 
regular meeting of the board held May 27, 
1884, on motion it was resolved to extend the 
corporate existence of the association for 
twenty years, or until 1904. The articles of 
association at this time were signed by the 
following stockholders: M. W. Jackson, S. 
B. Bowman, C. B. Jackson, Francis Evans, F. 
R. Jackson, B. F. Crispin, S. C. Jayne, Anne 
Y. Glenn, Mary B. Glenn, Freas Fowler, Eu- 
dora W. Hanley, Elizabeth F. Woodin, J. W. 

At this meeting of the stockholders, Benja- 
min Evans was elected a director and ser\'ed 
as such during the balance of his life. 

At the annual meeting of the stockholders 
held in January, 1885, the following state- 
ment was presented to the stockholders, show- 
ing the condition at the close of business Jan. 

3, 1885: 


U. S. Bonds $ 53,526.25 

U. S. Treasury 1.350.00 

Furniture and Fi.xtures 1,500.00 

Due from Banks 5,952.21 

Loans and Investments 156,709.50 

Cash and Reserve 38,624.53 


Capital $ 75,000.00 

Surplus 40,000.00 

Circulation 27,000.00 

Undivided Profits 1.919-59 

Due to Banks 4.584.18 

Deposits 109,158.72 




M. W. Jackson, who had served as presi- 
dent of the bank for thirty years, died July 
i8, 1894. The board at its meeting held Aug. 
II, 1894, elected B. F. Crispin, president, and 
C. B. Jackson, vice president. Mr. Jackson 
served as vice president until his death Nov. 
5, 1900, and he had been connected with the 
bank officially as director, attorney and vice 
president for a period of twenty years. B. F. 
Crispin served as president until his death in 

On Aug. 3, 1903, Messrs. H. P. Field, C. 
G. Crispin and M. Jackson Crispin were 
elected members of the board to fill vacancies 
then existing, and at the same meeting F. R. 
Jackson was elected president. 

The necessity of additional help was felt 
during the year 1903, owing to the increased 
business of the bank, and the board elected 
W. J. Hehl assistant cashier Oct. 5, 1903. 

The bank had now been opened for busi- 
ness for almost forty years, and at a regular 
meeting of the board held Aug. i, 1904, on 
motion, an application was made for a new 
charter, which was granted by the comp- 
troller, and the corporate existence was ex- 
tended for a period of twenty years from 
Sept. 21, .1904. 

The statement presented to the stockhold- 
ers at the annual meeting held in January, 
1905, was as follows: 


U. S. Bonds $ 25,000.00 

U. S. Treasury 1,250.00 

Furniture and Fixtures 25,000.00 

Due from Banks 252.51 

Bonds and Investments 431,521.13 

Cash and Reserve 76,448.33 

. ... $559,471-97 


Capital $ 75,000.00 

Surplus 50,000.00 

Circulation 25,000.00 

Undivided Profits 30.282.56 

Due to Banks 7,597.i8 

Deposits 371 ,592.23 

F. R. Jackson, president of the bank, died 
June 22, 1909, after a service of twenty-seven 
years as director and six years as president. 
The board at a meeting held July 22, 1909, 
elected as president M. Jackson Crispin, and 
Messrs. Francis Evans and C. G. Crispin as 
vice presidents, Mr. Evans it might be noted 
being the only living director of the original 
board. .A.t this meeting F. E. Brockway was 
elected director to fill a vacancy on the board. 
Three Generations Presidents. — M. 
Jackson Crispin, the present president, is a 

son of the late B. F. Crispin, and a grandson 
of M. W. Jackson. Thus it will be seen that 
three generations of the same family have 
served as president of the institution. 

It might be well to note that during the fifty 
years the First National Bank of Berwick has 
been oi>en for business it has passed through 
periods of panics and depression unscathed. 
The deposits have increased consistently and 
remarkably, indicating the confidence mani- 
fested by the public. A glance at the state- 
ments incorporated herewith will show that 
the resources have doubled in each period of 
twenty years. This is a record of which the 
stockholders may well be proud. 



U. S. Bonds $ 25,000.00 

U. S. Treasury 1,250.00 

Real Estate, F. & F 25,000.00 

Other Real Estate 1.500.00 

Overdrafts 896.44 

Due from Banks 5,212.69 

Loans and Bonds 1,020,411.25 

Cash and Reserve 154,425.17 


Capital $ 75,000.00 

Surplus 100,000.00 

Circulation 25,000.00 

Undivided Profits (net) 32,309.66 

Unearned Interest 28.970.14 

Due to Banks 3.270.68 

Deposits 969,145.07 


The bank began to pay dividends June i, 
1865, and has continued to pay dividends with 

The First National Bank of Berwick, Pa., 
was the first bank in Columbia county to pay 
interest on time deposits. On Feb. 2, 1903, 
the board resolved to pay 3 per cent, per an- 
num on time deposits. This was an important 
factor in stimulating the savings habit in the 
community and resulted in greatly increased 

The success of the bank has been due to 
the fact that it has been conducted along the 
most consen'ative lines and with one object in 
view — the mutual benefit of the stockholders 
and the public. 

A strong financial institution is the Berzvick 
National Bank, organized April 3, 1902, with 
a capital stock of $50,000 and a surplus of 
$12,500. The first officers were: C. C. Evans, 
president; S. W. Dickson, vice president; B. 
D. Freas, cashier. This bank is located in 
the Dickson building, one half of the first 
floor having been specially constructed for it. 



handsomely fitted up, and admirably adapted 
to the needs of the business. 

The Benvick Savings & Trust Company 
was founded to fill the want of a savings bank 
for the workers of Berwick, and it has grown 
into strong popular favor. Business was be- 
gun in 1903 with a capital stock of $125,000, 
paid in, and the following were the first offi- 
cers: S. W. Dickson, president; O. F. Fer- 
ris, Isaiah Beaver, vice presidents ; B. D. 
Freas, treasurer; C. C. Evans, solicitor. Di- 
rectors: H. F. Glenn, H. R. Bower, J. M. 
Schain, J. U. Kurtz, W. W. Hanly, F. A. Wit- 
man, M. M. Harter, C. C Evans, Duval Dick- 
son, B. H. Dodson, W. F. Lowry, J. J. Myers, 
R. H. Davenport, O. F. Ferris. C. D. Eaton, 
Isaiah Bower, F. Carkins, F. E. Brockway, 
J. E. Smith, J. L. Evans, S. W. Dickson. 

The bank is located in the Dickson build- 
ing, and conducts a general banking busi- 
ness, while the trust department acts as ex- 
ecutor, administrator, guardian and trastee, 
and in all other fiduciary capacities. 

The Berwick Building and Loan Associa- 
tion was organized in 1894 and has done a 
good work in enabling persons of small means 
to acquire homes. In 1914 the association 
had $65,625 outstanding on mortgages; $6,185 
on association stock; a net profit of $4,019 for 
the year, and 967 shares outstanding. The net 
profits from the time of organization were 
$28,782. The capital authorized by the char- 
ter is $500,000. The officers for 1914 are: 
A. D. Seely, president; James E. Smith, vice 
president ; John W. Evans, treasurer ; John H. 
Smethers, secretary ; James L. Evans, solicitor. 
Directors: B. D. Freas, Frank Shive. James 
L. Evans, C. C. Lockhart, A. D. Seely, John 
A. Kepner, P. C. Currin, Charles F. Hartman, 
James E. Smith. 


Berwick was incorporated as a borough Jan. 
29, 1818, but the names of the first officers 
have become buried in the archives of the 
past, too deep for the writer to unearth. 

The officials in 1914 are: F. R. Kitchen, 
burgess ; C. E. Sitler, C. E. Ross, W. T. Stout, 
Thomas Morton, William Raup. E. A. Glenn, 
Elliott Adams, councilmen. The city hall is lo- 
cated on Second street. 


A petition presented Sept. 2, 1901, was ap- 
proved on Sept. 5th, and on Dec. 9th the final 
decree was made declaring West Berwick a 
borough. There were then seventy-five free- 

holders within the limits of the town. An 
election was ordered held in February, 1902, 
but on the 3d of that month the court an- 
nulled the decree on the ground that all the 
requirements of the law had not been com- 
plied with. A new petition was filed, and on 
May 10, 1902, the borough was declared to 
be legally established, the election day being 
fixed as June 24th. The election resulted as 
follows : Eli Sherwood, burgess ; J. M. Fair- 
child, John Dodson. Walter Hughes, J. C. 
Sponenberg, Clark Heller, William Zerinden, 
councilmen ; Jacob Smith, Samuel Hess, O. F. 
Ferris, George E. Laub, R. Funk, C. G. Cris- 
man, school directors ; Wilson Bond, Chester 
Marr, overseers of the poor. On Sept. 7, 1905, 
the borough was divided into two wards. 

The officials for 1914 are: Chief burgess, 
C. W. Freas ; members of council, D. R. Far- 
rell, George Knecht, Harry Rasley, Wesley 
Fairchild, C. W. Helt, James Levan ; poor 
overseers, Frank Creasy, Chester Marr ; 
justices of the peace, Frank Fenstermacher, 
Samuel Grouse. 

The West Berwick city hall is a frame 
building, erected in 1903. The upper part is 
used for council meetings and the lower floor 
for the fire department. 


The Berwick Water Company, one of the 
oldest incorporated companies doing a pub- 
lic service business in the eastern part of 
Pennsylvania, dates its beginning as a char- 
tered service company with the founding of 
the borough of Berwick, within the territory 
of which it has carried on its operations— 
a contemporary indeed of the borough; for 
the town of Berwick settled in 1786 was in- 
corporated as a borough by act of Assembly 
Jan. 29, 1 81 8. while the Berwick Water Com- 
pany was incorporated Jan. 27, 1818. 

Following the passage of the act provid- 
ing for the incorporation of the company the 
promoters of the enterprise began to secure 
subscriptions to its capital. "A suitable book," 
as directed in the act, was provided and is 
still in existence among the archives of the 
company, in which the subscriptions of some 
sixty persons are recorded in the original 
handwriting. Among the names appears those 
of many of the progenitors of the citizens of 
this vicinity, for example: John Brown, Sam- 
uel Headley, Thomas, Jesse and Christopher 
Bowman, Samuel Jackson, Robert McCurdy, 
Thomas C. Foster, Amassa Burlingame, John 
Cooper. Hugh Thompson, Evan Owen, George 
Mack, .'^amuel Herrin. 

The incorporators early set about putting 



in operation their corporate privilege, namely : 
that of "introducing water into the borough by 
means of pipes, trunks or acqueducts." A 
water main constructed of good-sized logs, 
bored with a four-inch diameter opening, fitted 
and coupled with iron bands, was laid from 
the town out Market street along the road to 
a stream near the little village of Foundry- 
ville, the water from this stream entering Briar 
creek, impounded and tapped and thus con- 
veyed into the town. For several years this 
system of supply was kept in operation, but 
as the population increased it eventually 
proved inadequate, for according to the testi- 
mony of older citizens who recall this pipe 
line the logs would become clogged or ob- 
structed. The pipe itself became rotten, the 
different kinds of logs used at times making 
repairs difficult and unsatisfactory. This con- 
dition probably contributed to the need for 
securing water elsewhere, for it is also a mat- 
ter of history that children of that day were 
frequently sent to the springs in the river 
below the old dug road and carried the water 
therefrom to supply the family needs. The 
quality and quantity of water in these springs 
being of the best, the use evidently was very 
early suggested to the citizens of that time, 
and they early became the property of the 
Berwick Water Company. The water was 
pumped into the mains by means of water- 
power at the waste- weir at the locks at Ber- 
wick. "The Works" were thus established 
prior to the year 1848. 

In 1852 the Legislature extended to the 
Berwick Water Company the right previously 
granted the Hydraulic Company of the bor- 
ough of Berwick to use the waterpower at this 
waste-weir. This old method of pumping 
water by means of an old-type turbine or 
water-wheel was continued with more or less 
change and improvement until the late sev- 
enties ; for "water wheel and pumping ma- 
chinery'' appears in the balance sheets of 
that day as one of the valued assets of the com- 

Some time prior to the Civil war, on land 
still owned by the company on Second and 
Chestnut streets, a reservoir was constructed 
for storage. In 1883 a seven and a half 
foot standpipe was added to this reservoir, and 
its use was continued until about 1890, when 
the reservoir at Glen Brook was completed. 
Following the era in which log pipe was used 
the company constructed other conduits or pipe 
lines of cement, and in late years these old 
log and cement pipes have been at times ex- 
cavated by the company's workmen. It is in- 
teresting to know the manner of construc- 

tion of this old cement pipe : A 2-inch wrought 
pipe was covered with a layer of cement of 
the thickness of two or more inches, and over 
this cement covering a layer of sheet iron 
was placed and secured by bands of iron. 
When this cement had hardened sufficiently 
the 2-inch pipe was withdrawn and the ce- 
ment construction was in condition for lay- 

Cast iron pipe in varying sizes, 2, 3, 4 and 
6-inch, succeeded this old log and cement pipe. 
In 1883, when the late George Depew be- 
came superintendent of the company, an in- 
ventory submitted by him to the board of man- 
agers established the fact that the company 
had four and three quarters miles of pipe lines, 
all sizes. 

The car and manufacturing business located 
in the borough developed with great strides 
after the Civil war and with this growth in 
business the demands upon the water com- 
pany's capacity to supply water became acute, 
and in turn the company was put to the neces- 
sity of meeting the increased demands for 
water. Some time in 1884 and 1885 a stand- 
pipe was erected at Market and Third streets, 
primarily to accommodate the Jackson & 
Woodin Company. In 1899 and 1900 a reser- 
voir was constructed on property located in 
Briarcreek and Salem townships, at the junc- 
tion of the Wolfinger and Cope creeks, which 
gave capacity for the storage of 15,000,000 
gallons of water. This is now known as the 
Glen Brook resenoir. The reservoirs at Glen 
Brook were known as No. i and No. 2. This 
in turn was followed by the construction of 
another reservoir in Salem township, on the 
Varner creek, in 1895, known as the Salem 
reservoir. No. 3, having a capacity of some 
3,000,000 gallons. 

The pumping equipment had always been 
kept in proper condition to operate in con- 
junction with the storage supply at Glen Brook 
and Salem reservoirs, and for a period of 
approximately fifteen years had met the de- 
mands of a growing population. 

In 1899, the large manufacturing interests 
of the town having been incorporated in the 
American Car and Foundry Company and a 
boom in general business following, Berwick 
experienced a great increase in population. 
The new steel car plant, new foundries, ma- 
chine shops and mills provided work for from 
five thousand to six thousand men. with a de- 
pendent population of twenty thousand to 
twenty-five thousand people in the boroughs of 
Berwick, West Berwick and Nescopeck. In 
1908 and 1909 a very large addition to the 
storage capacity at Glen Brook was construct- 



ed, the old reservoirs excavated and enlarged, 
and a new reservoir built to impound a quan- 
tity of 75,000,000 to 80,000,000 gallons. In 
1906 a 20-inch main was laid from the 
reservoirs some three miles, connecting with 
mains at the north end of Market street and 
Freas avenue. This provided the requisite pres- 
sure for fire protection and distribution of the 
increased supply. Upon the building of the 
steel plant at the west end of the borough 
limits, and extending into Briarcreek township, 
the new borough of West Berwick came into 
corporate existence. In 1892, prior to the be- 
ginning of the new borough, the West Ber- 
wick Water Supply Company was incorpo- 
rated and pipe lines laid throughout the town 
of West Berwick. Increase of population to 
the east and north of the old borough limits 
of Berwick made further demands upon the 
company's water supply, and at that time the 
supply companies were organized : West Salem 
Water Supply Company and Briar Creek 
Water Supply Company were incorporated in 
1903 and 1904, respectively. The Nescopeck 
Water Supply Company was incorporated to 
supply water to the inhabitants of Nescopeck 
in March, 1894, the water mains from Ber- 
wick being connected by a line through the 
Susquehanna river, approximately 1,300 feet 
in length. These supply companies are con- 
trolled and operated by the Berwick Water 

The erection of a new filter plant on the 
property of the company alongside of the 
Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad 
Company's tracks at the foot of Market street 
was begun in 1913 and at this date (1914) is 
in operation and is furnishing filtered water 
for the boroughs. The pumping equipment is 
undergoing changes, the pumping capacity is 
more than doubled, and is to be operated by 
electricity. The company has its own labora- 
tory, and frequent examinations of water in 
compliance with the present day demands are 

The company has always been well financed. 
From the earliest to the present dividends have 
been paid with regularity upon the capital in- 
vested, while the fixed interest charge on the 
bonded indebtedness of the Berwick and West 
Berwick companies has always been paid with 
punctuality. The tangible assets of the com- 
pany are easily twice the amount of the in- 
debtedness. From the report made to the 
Water Commission of Pennsylvania the pipe 
mileage exceeds thirty-two miles. Water pres- 
sure is from eighty-five to ninety pounds, and 
affords ample fire protection. 

Prominent citizens of this section have in 

the past been identified with the upbuilding 
of the property, and we find mention in the 
old records of : Morrison E. Jackson, Jesse 
Bowman, Mordecai W. Jackson, Seth B. Bow- 
man, F. Nicely, William H. Woodin, Sr., H. C. 
Freas, John W. Evans, G. L. Reagan, C. H. 
Zehnder, S. P. Hanly, S. C. Jayne, Freder- 
ick H. Eaton, Wm. H. Hager, W. H. Woodin, 
Jr., C. D. Eaton, W. W. Hanly, Capt. F. E. 
Brock way. 

The present board of managers consists of : 
Clarence G. Crispin, vice president of the 
First National Bank of Berwick ; Hon. Chas. 
C. Evans, president judge of the Twenty-sixth 
Pennsylvania Judicial district ; W. S. Johnson, 
general superintendent of the American Car 
and Foundry Company at Berwick; Howard 
C. Wick, and M. J. Crispin. 

The officers of the company are: C. G. 
Crispin, president ; C. C. Evans, vice presi- 
dent ; F. A. Witman, secretary and treasurer. 

J. S. Hicks, who succeeded George Depew, 
referred to elsewhere in this article, is the 
very efficient superintendent of the company's 

From log and cement pipes to 24-inch cast 
iron mains and laterals extending over thirty- 
two to thirty-five miles of territory and 
equipped with controlling valves ; from the old- 
style turbine water-wheel to electrically driven 
centrifugal pumps ; from simple diversion of 
a stream into a log pipe line to the modern 
reservoirs constructed to impound upwards 
of a hundred million gallons, as well as other 
conditions that might be contrasted, measures 
the activities of a company whose history 
lacks only three years of reaching the century 


The first fire company of Berwick was the 
Fearless, organized May 20, 1880, as a volun- 
teer company. They purchased a hand en- 
gine, two hose carriages and 350 feet of hose. 
The officers were: R. W. Oswald, president; 
S. W. Dickson, treasurer; J. W. Fry, secre- 
tary; W. M. Boyles, foreman. This company 
was disbanded in a few years, the Rangers 
inheriting the fire apparatus. In 1914 there 
are three fire companies in the borough. 

The Rangers have a handsome club house 
on East Front street, and use the old frame 
Lutheran church as an engine house. Their 
improvements upon the property have in- 
creased its valuation to over $9,000. 

The Reliance Fire Company has a fine brick 
building on South Mulberry street, erected in 



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C C ^ AC^SO^■ Vice PK 



The Defender Hose Company has a brick 
building of its own on Sixth street. 

West Berwick Hose Company has a frame 
home on West Front street. All of these fire 
companies use the water from the mains for 
fire purposes, as it has ample pressure for the 


The growth of the town of Berwick and 
the prosperity and happiness of its people are 
so closely associated with the great car works 
there, which grew from a small foundry, 
owned by two men, into the present gigantic 
establishment, employing thousands, that the 
story of one is the history of the other. With- 
out this industrial development, brought about 
by the energy and farsightedness of these two 
men and their successors, Berwick might yet 
be a village of but a few hundred inhabitants. 

The foundations of the present immense 
plant were laid in 1840, when Mordecai W. 
Jackson and George Mack erected on the cor- 
ner of Third and Market streets a foundry, 
25 by 40 feet, with a small shed in the rear, 
for the manufacture of agricultural imple- 
ments. The firm remained Jackson & Mack 
until 1843, when Mr. Jackson purchased 
Mack's interest and took into partnership Rob- 
ert McCurdy, adding to the manufacture of 
agricultural implements that of hollowware. 
About fifteen men were then employed, four 
horses furnishing the power for running the 
blower and lathe, the only machinery then in 
use. Col. Clarence G. Jackson, afterwards 
president of the company, was then a boy of 
seven, and drove the horses that supplied the 

In 1846 the firm of Jackson & McCurdy was 
dissolved and M. W. Jackson continued the 
business alone, adding to the foundry a black- 
smith shop, under the charge of Louis Enke, 
and commencing the btiilding of heavy wagons. 

In 1S40 William Hartman Woodin, who 
had established a furnace and foundry at 
Foundryvillc in 1847 ^^r the manufacture of 
stoves and plows, united with Mr. Jackson, 
and thus the famous firm of Jackson & 
Woodin was born. Mr. Jackson was an ex- 
pert mechanic and a fine manager of men, 
while Mr. Woodin was a broad-gauge man, 
possessing farsightedness and selling ability 
that soon made the firm prominent in the local 
field and in time placed them foremost in 
their line among the manufacturers of the 
State. A small machine shop was added to 
the plant, the horses supplanted by an up- 
right steam engine, and the manufacture of 

the "Robb" stove, with open grate; a round 
stove, with a bake oven on top, and the old- 
time "Bull" plow, were undertaken. Tinware 
and spouting were also made. The force was 
increased to twenty-five men, and in 1850 
the contract was taken to cast the pipes for 
the Berwick waterworks, between five hun- 
dred and one thousand pounds of iron being 
melted in a day. 

Rapid expansion followed, and in 1855 the 
firm was making castings for the Lackawanna 
& Bloomsburg Railroad Company, of which 
Mr. Jackson was then a director and super- 
intendent. Mill gearing and stationary en- 
gines were also made, and in 1858, a con- 
tract being taken to furnish the bridge cast- 
ings for the Philadelphia & Erie railroad, an 
addition was built to the foundry, about a 
ton of iron melted in a day, and fifty men 
were given employment. 

In the fall of 1861 an order was received 
for the building of twenty cars of four wheels 
each, for the use of G. W. Creveling in his 
limestone quarry at Espy, Columbia county. 
To prepare for this (then) large order a 
shed about nine feet high, in which the plows 
were formerly painted, was boarded up, and 
from this primitive car shop the first cars 
were turned out. Two men were employed 
on this branch of the work, and they suc- 
ceeded in producing but one car a week. 
The material was mortised, planed and framed 
by hand, holes being cut in the roof to per- 
mit the insertion of the iron rods into the 
frames. During the following summer small 
lots of cars were built, sometimes two a week, 
the wheels being pressed onto the axles by 
means of a hand press. 

In 1862 some machinery was advertised for 
sale at the car works at Taylorville, Luzerne 
county, and Mr. Woodin attended the sale, 
there buying a crosscut saw, a fifteen-foot one- 
side bed planer, a tenoning machine, a hy- 
draulic wheel press, and other pieces. These 
he stored in a barn until needed. The pur- 
chase proved extremely fortunate, for in a 
short time a contract came in for the con- 
struction of one hundred cars for H. S. Mer- 
cur & Co., Pittston. Anxious to complete the 
order in the time set, the saw was brought 
from the barn and attached to an inch-and-a- 
half line-shaft. This was a wise move, and 
proved such an advantage that in a short time 
the planer and wheel press were also set up 
and attached to the line-shaft. Thus was the 
first machinery solely for the manufacture of 
cars in Berwick set in motion. The tenoning 
machine was next set up, and the work pro- 
ceeded so rapidly that five four-wheel cars 



were completed in one week. Finally one 
car a day became the capacity of the plant, 
Mr. Woodin remarking that they "didn't want 
to build more than one car a day." But so 
well did matters progress that additions were 
made to the machine shop, foundry, car and 
blacksmith shops, a planer double the size 
of the old one purchased, wooden tracks for 
handling the cars laid around the works, and 
two four-wheel cars were turned out in a 

By this time the firm of Jackson & Woodin 
had acquired extensive repute as car build- 
ers, and soon increased contracts called for 
expansion. Another car shop, 24 by 80 feet, 
was erected alongside the railroad "under the 
hill," a forty-horsepower engine installed, and 
two box cars were made there each day, the 
repairing of old cars being done at the old 
works. In 1863 another addition was made 
to the car shop, increasing its capacity to six 
four-wheel cars and two box cars per day. 
Thus step by step the plant grew, until in 
the winter of 1865-66 five or six eight-wheel 
coal cars for the Philadelphia & Erie railroad 
were being built every day, and about 150 men 

A critical period in the history of the town 
as well as the plant occurred when, on the 
morning of March 17, 1866, the works were 
totally destroyed by fire. A consultation was 
held at the bank the following day, at which 
many of the employees were present, and aft- 
er a thorough discussion of the matter the 
anxiously awaited decision was announced — ■ 
that the plant would be rebuilt. Plans for 
the new buildings were at once prepared, ma- 
chinery purchased, and out of the ashes arose 
a better and more modem manufacturing es- 
tablishment. So rapidly did the works grow 
after this date that the necessary additions 
soon encroached on the farm lands of M. W. 
Jackson, in the rear of the plant, and in 1869 
the firm was employing 550 men. 

In March, 1872, the Jackson & Woodin 
Manufacturing Company was organized, with 
C. R. Woodin, president; C. G. Jackson, vice 
president; Garrick Mallery, treasurer; M. W. 
Jackson and W. H. Woodin, executive com- 
mittee. The senior members of the firm then 
retired from active management of the afifairs 
of the company to enjoy a well-earned period 
of rest, leaving their sons to continue the 
work of developing the plant. The first move 
of expansion then made was the building of 
the "long switch," to connect the works with 
the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western rail- 
road. This was completed in 1872, and ran 
from the main line up a ninety-foot embank- 

ment, with a grade of 150 feet to the mile, 
to the rolling mill (then in process of con- 
struction), thence into the works. Previous 
to the building of this switch the finished cars 
were drawn by horses through Market street 
to Canal, down Canal, with a grade of 400 
feet, to the railroad ; a heavy toothed drag 
and a brake being used to prevent the cars 
sliding down the hill. 

In the latter part of 1872 the rolling mill 
was completed, thus enabling the firm to make 
and shape their own iron work, which had 
previously been done outside, and fill orders 
for the general market. From year to year 
thereafter other additions were made, notable 
among them being the pipe works, for the 
casting of gas and water pipe. 

C. R. Woodin retiring from the presidency 
in 1892, C. H. Zehnder was made president 
and general manager. Under his direction the 
company prospered greatly. In 1896 he ten- 
dered his resignation and Frederick H. Eaton 
was elected to succeed him. 

Upon the organization in 1899 of the Ameri- 
can Car and Foundry Company Mr. Eaton 
was made first vice president of the corpo- 
ration, and W. H. Woodin, son of C. R. 
Woodin, was appointed district manager of 
the Berwick plant. On June 27, 1901, the 
newly elected board of directors met in New 
York and elected Mr. Eaton to the presidency 
of the corporation, and W. H. Woodin as his 
assistant. William F. Lowry, who had been 
with the Jackson & Woodin Company for 
many years, was made district manager, in 
charge of the plants in Berwick and Blooms- 

Many interesting stories are told of the 
energy and versatility of the founders of the 
works. At one time a Root blower was 
broken, and the shipment of the part to the 
West for repair would have incurred expen- 
sive delay, owing to slow freight methods, 
as the entire works depended on the opera- 
tion of the blower. So Mr. Woodin took the 
broken part to the factory himself, had it re- 
paired, and learned there how to keep it in 
repair afterward. 

The old upright engine that supplanted the 
horses for power in the first car works was 
used for a time to run a chop mill near Espy; 
then E. A. Sneidman used it to run his ma- 
chinery in a blacksmith shop at Almedia. 
Next the engine served as power on a coal 
dredge for Hoffman & Custer, until 1912.' 
They then sold it to a junk dealer at Blooms- 


American Car and Foundry Company, Berwick, Pa. — Upper Works 

Soft Foundry, Wood Car Erecting Shops, Wood Machine Shops, Pipe Foundry, 

Lumber Yards. General (Jffices and lierwick Store Co. to Left. 1903 

American Car and Foundry Company, Berwick. Pa. — Lower Works 

Rolling ;\Iill, Smith Shop, \Mieel Foundry, Truck Shop and Paint Shops. Steel 

Car Department in the Background. 1907 



The Modern Car Works 

When the business of the Jackson & Woodin 
Manufacturing Company at Berwick was 
taken over by the American Car and Foundry 
Company in 1899, the Berwick plant was the 
largest car building concern in the eastern 
part of the United States, and was serving 
the principal railroads of New England and 
the tier of States along the Atlantic seaboard. 
There were then employed from two thousand 
to two thousand five hundred workmen in the 
upper and lower works. The upper works 
included the car shops proper, equipped for 
preparation of lumber and the building of 
freight cars of wood construction, of every 
variety then current upon modern railroads, 
an extensive lumber yard, a foundry for the 
manufacture of grey iron castings and a foun- 
dry for the production of water and gas pipes 
for city and town service. As an adjunct to 
these an iron machine shop, fully equipped 
with lathes, planers, drill presses and kindred 
machinery, occupied the brick building on the 
northeast corner of Third and Market streets, 
now (in 1914) used as a storehouse for car 

The lower works in 1899 were made up of 
the rolling mill, forge shop and wheel foun- 
dry, producing materials used in wood car 
building and supplying outside trade. 

In 1902-03 the "Big Boom" came to Ber- 
wick. The railroads of the country began 
to call for a freight car of all-steel construc- 
tion for the transportation of coal. The Amer- 
ican Car and Foundry Company gave a quick 
response to that call and erected shops at St. 
Louis, Detroit and Berwick, fitting them out 
with the most up-to-date machinery and fa- 
cilities for this new line of car building. This 
meant a tremendous addition to the already 
large Berwick plant. About three millions 
of dollars were spent in the purchase of addi- 
tional land, erection of buildings and installa- 
tion of machinery. A central powerhouse, 
equipped to furnish hydraulic, pneumatic and 
electric power, was erected for the new steel 
plant. Preparation, construction and erection 
buildings of steel, brick and glass, of most 
modern plans, were erected. These were 730 
feet in length, with three aisles of 100 feet 
width, or 300 feet. In these were set up hy- 
draulic presses exerting a power of one thou- 
sand tons pressure per square inch, great 
shears capable of cutting steel plates one 
inch in thickness by ten feet in length, power 
punches planned to punch seventy-two holes 
at one stroke, together with innumerable other 
and smaller presses, shears, punches, drills. 

riveters and what not going to make up an 
up-to-date factory. Over these aisles travel 
by electric power seven cranes of ten tons' ca- 
pacity lift. 

At the north end of the plant is situated 
the storage yard for steel plates and shapes 
arriving from manufacturing mills. This 
yard, 200 by 300 feet, has two overhead travel- 
ing electric cranes, ninety-foot span and ten- 
ton lift. Thousands of tons of plates and 
shapes are lifted from incoming trains of cars, 
piled in the yards, and later transferred to the 
shops adjacent, where the processes of shear- 
ing, punching, pressing, riveting and erection 
are carried on until from the other end of the 
vast shop rolls a finished all-steel car with a 
capacity for carrying a load of 100,000 to 150,- 
000 pounds. 

Supplementing the shops just mentioned, 
other shops were erected at the "lower works" 
— shops of steel and brick, 400 by 80 feet, 
heated by steam, in which cars are painted 
and lettered ; a shop 350 by 100 feet in which 
wheels and axles are machined and mounted 
and the completed trucks built to receive the 
car bodies ; storehouses, offices for superin- 
tendents and engineers, and many other build- 
ings made necessary by the great operations. 

Vast as the preparation was, the demand 
for steel freight cars soon outstripped the ca- 
pacity, so that 200 feet were added to the 
length of the steel freight car shops, bringing 
their length to 930 feet. With this increase 
more machinery was added to powerhouse and 
shop equipment. 

The erection of the "steel plant" demanded 
greater railroad facilities than those supplied 
by the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western 
alone, especially as that road had to be reached 
over a switch two miles long down a steep 
grade. The demand was met by the building 
of the Susquehanna, Bloomsburg & Berwick 
railroad, which runs between departments of 
the plant of the American Car and Foundry 
Company, reducing the private switching of 
cars to a minimum. 

The railroads, having seen how good is a 
steel freight car, must have also an all steel 
passenger car. Again the Berwick plant of 
the American Car and Foundry Company 
answered the cry of its customers. The sub- 
ways of New York contain the earliest product 
along this line, delivered in 1904, while in 
1905 the first all steel passenger car ever pro- 
duced for standard railroad service was turned 
out of these shops. Many orders from the 
leading Eastern railroads were booked and 
passenger car shops of Berwick plant stand- 
ards, steel, brick, glass, cement floored and 



steam-heated, were erected alongside the 
freight car shops. The passenger car finish- 
ing, equipment, painting and varnishing shops, 
in part two stories, are i,oio by 130 feet. 

The several departments of the works are 
connected by standard railroad tracks, which 
with tracks for storage measure more than 
thirty miles, on which are operated four loco- 
motives, two locomotive cranes and two hun- 
dred railroad cars owned by the plant for the 
inter-transfer of materials. Up-to-date stor- 
age battery electric engines are also in service 
at special points about the works. 

In 1907, when railroad buying in the United 
States reached its maximum, the Berwick plant 
was employing 5,500 men and produced its 
greatest output. In November of that year, 
with twenty-five working days, a total of 2,550 
cars was built, an average of 102 for each 
working day, made up of all steel passenger 
cars, all steel freight cars and steel under- 
frames with wood superstructures. This is 
equivalent to four average freight trains per 

During the process of continued develop- 
ment to this writing in 1914 many changes 
have occurred in the plants. When a fire de- 
stroyed the grey iron foundry at the upper 
works a new and modern foundry took its 
place, located at the extreme north of the 
lower works. An iron machine shop 300 by 
90 feet was erected and in it grouped machin- 
ery before scattered throughout other build- 
ings. A nut factory fully equipped with novel 
machinery, operated electrically, was erected 
for the production of nuts used in the many 
plants of the company, east and west, supply- 
ing also outside trade. 

The plant of to-day covers eighty-two acres 
of land, has modern shops, equipped with ma- 
chinery of highest efficiency, is the largest sin- 
gle plant of the fourteen owned by the Ameri- 
can Car and Foundry Company, the only one 
producing both passenger and freight cars, and 
embraces within itself more varied depart- 
ments than any other. It has a capacity of 
two finished passenger cars daily ; sixty all 
steel coal cars of fifty tons' load, or their equiv- 
alent in the varied cars of other designs; 600 
wheels for freight cars; 300 wheels for mine 
cars ; 200 tons of bar iron ; 50 tons of flanged 
pipe; 100 tons of grey iron castings, forgings, 
nuts and kindred products. The plant has 
never known an absolute shut down, the di- 
versity of products, in the dullest times, keep- 
ing a comfortable percentage of workmen em- 

"Safety First" is to-day a watchword on 
the lips of all superintendents and foremen. 

Fifty thousands of dollars have been expend- 
ed in the last two years to safeguard ma- 
chinery and prevent accidents to workmen, and 
the end of the expenditure is not yet. The 
management hopes to attain the high point 
where the works are "fool proof" in their 
operation, so that even the careless may not 
be in danger. 

Temperance in Columbia county has its 
strongest advocate and support in these works. 
Men given to the drink habit are excluded and 
the so-called moderate drinker finds he must 
change his plan of life or look elsewhere for 

Among the employees are many "Old 
Timers" — the list is too long to be given in 
detail in this article. 

The local management and shop organiza- 
tion is made up of young men, comparatively 
speaking, and a very unusual fact is that the 
leaders are either native Berwickians or have 
been connected with the plant all of their busi- 
ness careers. A few of the names, with the 
positions into which they have grown through 
the years, are appended : 

William F. Lowry, district manager; C. G. 
Crispin, assistant district manager ; William S. 
Johnson, general superintendent ; Frank Faust, 
superintendent car department ; J. H. Catterall, 
superintendent rolling mills ; John A. Kepner, 
superintendent wood shops ; L. E. Hess, super- 
intendent steel car department ; J. Frank Long, 
local auditor; W. J. Harris, supply agent. 

The American Car and Foundry Company 

The American Car and Foundry Company 
was incorporated Feb. 20, 1899, in New Jer- 
sey, for the purpose of manufacturing rail- 
way cars and supplies, pipe and lumber. The 
company manufactures cars of all types, 
classes and construction ; also cast iron water 
pipe, car wheels, merchant bar iron, pig iron, 
castings, forgings, interior woodwork, car 
floats, repair parts and various other articles 
and supplies of a miscellaneous character. The 
following plants have been acquired from time 
to time, those marked with an asterisk being 
acquired at the time of incorporation : 

Bloomsburg Car Mfg. Co.. .Bloomsburg, Pa. 
*Buft"alo Car Mfg. Co Buft'alo, N. Y. 

Common Sense Bolster Co Chicago, 111. 

*Ensign Mfg. Co Huntington, W. Va. 

Indianapolis Car Co Indianapolis, Ind. 

Jackson & Sharpe Co Wilmington, Del. 

*Jackson & Woodin Mfg. Co.. . .Berwick, Pa. 

*"Michigan-Peninsular Co Detroit, Mich. 

♦Missouri Car & Foundry Co.. . St. Louis, Mo. 
*Murray, Dougal & Co Milton, Pa. 


American Car axd Fhuxdry Company, Bervvu k, Pa. 

Steel Car Department — Freight and Passenger. Iron Machine Shop. Xut Factory 

and Soft Foundry in the Background. 1913 

Berwick Store Company's Dep.\rtment Store, Berwick, Pa. 



♦Niagara Car Wheel Co Buffalo, N. Y. 

*Ohio Falls Car Mfg. Co.. .Jeffersonville, Ind. 
*Pennock Bros, (dismantled) .Minerva, Ohio 

*St. Charles Car Co St. Charles, Mo. 

Southern Car & Foundry Co. Memphis, Tenn. 

*Terre Haute Car & Mfg. Co 

Terre Haute, Ind. 

*The Wells & French Co Chicago, 111. 

*Union Car Co Depew, N. Y. 

The manufacturing plants owned and oper- 
ated consist of the following: Four passen- 
ger car plants; sixteen freight car plants; 
eleven wheel foundries ; twelve grey iron 
foundries ; two water and gas pipe foundries ; 
one malleable iron foundry; one brass foun- 
dry; two sawmills; three rolling mills and 
forges ; an architectural wood-working mill, 
and a plant for building and repairing car 
floats and light capacity vessels. The works 
aftd store yards cover over 530 acres of 

When running to capacity the company em- 
ploys over 25,000 men and its annual sales 
are approximately $100,000,000. The com- 
pany has purchased a large tract of land at 
Gary, Ind., adjacent to the new works of the 
United States Steel Corporation, -with the 
view of constructing there a plant with a 
daily capacity of about one hundred steel 

The annual capacity of the plants is 125,- 
000 freight cars; 1,500 passenger cars; 350,- 
000 tons of wheels ; 300,000 tons of forgings ; 
150,000 tons of castings; 300,000 tons of bar 
iron; 30,000 tons of cast iron pipe; 75,000 
tons of bolts and nuts ; and 30,000,000 feet of 

The American Car and Foundry Company, 
combining as it did eighteen matured car- 
building plants, had in it the germs of a most 
successful business proposition, but the prob- 
lem of consolidating and amalgamating the 
diverse methods in vogue so that the maxi- 
mum economies would result called for 
marked executive ability. The company was 
fortunate in having at its command talent of 
the highest order, and under the tutelage of 
W. K. Bixby, of St. Louis, who was its pres- 
ident from 1899 to 1901, and of Frederick 
H. Eaton, of New York, Mr. Bixby's suc- 
cessor and its present president, it has realized 
fully its destiny. The company stands today 
the premier institution of its kind. With its 
product known in every civilized country, it 
is the greatest manufacturer of cars in the 

During the life of the American Car and 
Foundry Company railroad carriers have 

been revolutionized. When it came into exist- 
ence 60,000-pound capacity wooden cars, with 
their limited life and high repair costs, and 
wooden passenger coaches with their limited 
protection to passengers, were standard every- 
where. The company has matured and com- 
mercialized the high-capacity steel freight car 
— an economic advance of inestimable value 
to the railroads. It has originated and devel- 
oped the non-flammable steel passenger coach, 
the greatest guarantee of safety the travel- 
ing public has known. 

Concurrent with the technical development 
of its art has taken place an equally satis- 
factory development of the financial strength 
of the company. New plants have been built, 
old plants modernized and the entire prop- 
erty built up and maintained at a high pitch 
of efficiency. The varying nature of the de- 
mand for its product necessitates a large work- 
ing capital, which is being successfully met 
by accretions from earnings from time to 
time — over $13,000,000 having been added in 
this way since the formation of the com- 
pany. Satisfactory dividends have at the same 
time been distributed to the stockholders of 
the company. Aggressiveness has been tem- 
pered with conservatism, resulting in an insti- 
tution which is held throughout the world of 
commerce to be a model industrial creation. 

The capital of the American Car and Foun- 
dry Company is fixed at $60,000,000 and the 
number of plants in the consolidation is eigh- 
teen, of which the Berwick plant is the third 
largest. The general offices are in New York 
City and the present officials are: Frederick 
H. Eaton, president; William H. Woodin, as- 
sistant to the president; J. M. Buick, W. C. 
Dickerman and Clarence Price, vice presi- 
dents ; William M. Hager, secretary ; S. S. 
Delano, treasurer; N. A. Doyle, auditor; 
Charles J. Hardy, general counsel. 

The executive committee is composed of 
Frederick H. Eaton, C. R. Woodin and H. R. 
Duval. The directors are : Frederick H. 
Eaton, Berwick ; W. G. Oakman, New York ; 
S. S. Delano, New York ; Thomas H. West, 
St. Louis; J. M. Buick, St. Louis; A. P. Hep- 
burn, New York; E. F. Carry, Chicago; H. R. 
Duval, New York; C. R. Woodin, Berwick; 
Gerald Hovt, New York ; George H. Russell, 
Detroit ; William H. Woodin, New York ; Wil- 
liam M. Hager, Roselle, N. J.; W. N. Atac- 
Millan, London, England. 


Closely identified with the history of Ber- 
wick, and therefore of Columbia county, is 



that of the Berwick Store Company, which, 
founded in a small partnership, though large 
for the period, has kept pace with every 
stage of the town's growth. Its business has 
developed into a store of some thirty depart- 
ments, with a floor space equalling if not ex- 
ceeding any modern establishment in the oth- 
er towns and cities within a radius of fifty 
miles. The extent of this store's merchandise 
distribution may be understood when it is 
stated that it will sell a customer any and 
everything needed for personal and house- 
hold requirements. 

Some time prior to the building of the 
Lackawanna & Bloomsburg railroad, when 
the merchant of that day traveled by packet 
to the city to "'lay in his stock of goods," and 
before the Civil war, the predecessor of the 
Berwick Store Company, the "old grocery at 
the canal," had its beginning. Located along- 
side of the canal, in those days the "main ar- 
tery of travel," the old building and its wharf 
occupied an ideal situation. The old store 
was built primarily to cater to the canal 
trade, but the disposition of the owners to 
enlarge their activities soon made it a center 
for a wider trade. The foundryman of that 
day found it necessary in "the course of trade" 
to finance his business by the exchange of 
groceries and dry goods for labor and the 
products of the foundry; for not until the 
Civil war period of the sixties did the bank- 
ing system of the country assume any kind 
of connected existence. The old State bank- 
ing system with its uncertain currency and 
scarcity of ready money made it necessary 
for every man doing business to resort to 
the old method of barter and trade, and such 
were the conditions that made it necessary 
for M. W. Jackson and W. H. Woodin, who 
composed the firm of Jackson & Woodin, to 
establish a store which in the process of time 
was destined to a development characteristic 
of many of the great business places of the 
country at large. 

The recollection of the little old two-story 
building, across the Lackawanna & Blooms- 
burg railroad tracks, near the foot of the 
"old dug road," with its associations, lives in 
the memory of many of the present genera- 

Of the employees of the old store, there 
remains in the employ of the present store 
Mr. John H. Taylor. With George B. Thomp- 
son, of Pittston, Pa., Joshua F. Opdyke, of 
Easton, Pa., Garrick Mallery, of Philadelphia, 
Pa., the late S. P. Hanly and R. G. Crispin, 
he was early associated with the original Jack- 
son & Woodin store. 

Among the hardships and inconveniences 
which attended the business of keeping store 
in that period, aside from the scarcity of ready 
money, it is recalled that many a time, and 
particularly during the "high water of 1865," 
the cellar of the old building was flooded; 
that the mackerel and mess pork floated freely 
and unopposed in the depths until the "pumps 
were manned" and the place drained ; also, 
that the hams and shoulders stored in the 
dark room on the second floor were periodi- 
cally removed, inspected, and freed from the 
onslaught of the germs of that day, after- 
wards carefully replaced, and sold — no pure 
food inspector under high government com- 
mission being in reach to decree otherwise; 
that the clerks with congenial associates 
roomed and slept peacefully on the second 
floor next to the old meat room, disturbed per- 
chance only by the ripple of the "Falls of the 
Susquehanna" near by. 

Sometime in 1872 or 1873 the caqal store 
was abandoned and its stock of merchandise 
transferred to more commodious quarters in 
the new building of the Jackson & Woodin 
Manufacturing Company on Market street, 
next to the homestead of the late Hon. M. W. 
Jackson. The store occupied the first floor 
of the new building, while the Jackson & 
Woodin Manufacturing Company's general of- 
fices occupied the second floor, together with 
the banking firm of Jackson, Woodin & Jack- 
son. Later the Young Men's Christian As- 
sociation opened rooms on the second and 
third floors of this building and here first 
conducted its work for young men and boys 
in especially equipped reading rooms and li- 
brary, the latter for that time comprising a 
very well selected collection of books in charge 
of Mr. Albert G. Kimberley, whose early train- 
ing in the libraries of Birmingham, England, 
well equipped him for the position of librarian. 
Here began the annual courses of lectures and 
entertainments which from the beginning to 
the present have been continued over a period 
embracing some thirty-five years. 

In this new environment the store busi- 
ness rapidly grew and became the leading 
trading place for Berwick and the surround- 
ing country, under the superintendence of J. 
F. Opdyke and R. G. Crispin, and, for some 
twenty odd years, Mr. C. C. Long; under 
Mr. Long's supervision two additions were 
made to the building, enlarging the facilities 
for handling feed, grain and surplus stocks 
of merchandise. 

On Aug. I, 1 891, the old store's interest 
was sold, together with the store building, 
to a new partnership formed under an act 



of Assembly, and continued its progress for 
a brief period under the name of the Ber- 
wick Store Association, Limited, its original 
incorporators being W. F. Lowry, C. H. Zehn- 
der, F. H. Eaton, W. H. Woodin, S. P. Hanly, 
S. H. Watts. 

In December, 1892, this association liqui- 
dated its affairs and in its place a new part- 
nership, the Berwick Store Company, Lim- 
ited, came into existence. 

In 1896, Mr. Long having resigned, he was 
succeeded by R. H. Davenport, who had had 
several years of association with the busi- 
ness. A decided enlargement of the company's 
operations took place at this time, it being 
a period of rapid growth of the boroughs of 
Berwick and West Berwick, as well as the 
neighboring borough of Nescopeck across the 
river. The transfer by purchase and sale of 
Berwick's foundries and general car manufac- 
turing business having taken place in 1899, 
the boom in business and in consequence the 
rapid growth in all phases of the community's 
life made opportunity for the further en- 
largement of the store company's establish- 
ment. A new addition to the present store 
building in the rear, making a total depth of 
approximately 150 feet and a new office and 
store room alongside of the original building, 
more than doubled the original capacity and 
enabled the company to add many new de- 

Mr. Davenport having resigned to enter oth- 
er business, the management passed in May, 
1905, to W. C. Garrison, who having had large 
experience in department store practice in 
the West brought to the expanding business 
ripe experience and ability, and as a result 
the resystematizing of the business was put 
into effect with marked expedition and suc- 
cess. In addition, a readjustment of the ac- 
counting system and the rearranging of the 
store's departments, with further enlargement 
and modifications of the buildings, was ac- 
complished in 1905, greatly enhancing the 
• value of the floor space and otherwise mak- 
ing for economical operation. 

The stables and warehouse of the com- 
pany, situated on Bowman and Third streets 
within easy access of the main store build- 
ing, and occupying approximately two acres 
of ground, were erected under the present 
management in 1907, and comprise a very nec- 
essary adjunct in the storage of merchandise; 
in the selling of horses, of which seventy head 
can be housed at one time ; and for the storage 
of all classes of vehicles, including automo- 
biles, a large and increasing volume of busi- 

ness being done in the handling of automo- 

The meat department does probably the 
largest single business of its kind in this part 
of the State. The thoroughly equipped mod- 
ern abattoir, near Oak and Ninth streets, 
along the tracks of the Susquehanna, Blooms- 
burg & Berwick Railroad Company, erected 
in 1907, also forms a part of the company's 
plant. Mr. T. B. Brobst, the manager of 
this department, buys a carload of cattle 
every two weeks, and in season a carload 
of hogs a week. Forty steers can be dressed 
at one time and refrigerated. 

The main store rooms have a frontage of 
100 feet, large plate glass windows admit 
the display of a great variety of attractive 
merchandise, and the interior as well as the 
window displays are marked features of the 
store's publicity policy, in charge of C. J. 
Gilds, the decorator. 

The spacious floors encompass the activi- 
ties of twenty-six departments, and the de- 
partmental arrangement includes the follow- 
ing classification of merchandise : Dress goods 
and silks, domestics, wash goods, notions, 
fancy goods, ladies' hosiery, corsets and un- 
derwear, men's furnishings, infants' wear, 
jewelry, stationery, drugs, groceries, hard- 
ware, house furnishings, furniture, wall paper, 
tobacco and cigars, candy, meats, flour and 
feed, green groceries, wagons, horses, automo- 
biles, coal. 

A complete elevator service and a well ar- 
ranged delivery system augment the conven- 
iences in all the departments. Eight delivery 
wagons, five meat wagons, ten coal wagons, 
and six auto trucks are used in the transfer 
of goods from counter to customer. The use 
of the telephone in the attention given to the 
Store Company's large trade is a feature that 
the Store Company very early began to adopt, 
and "order by telephone" has grown to be 
a settled method through which the store 
gives special accommodation to its customers. 

Frequent renewals and repairs to the Store 
Company's buildings and equipment operate 
to keep the properties in a well maintained con- 
dition, for the convenience of customers and 
the anticipation of their requirements. 

The refrigerator plant in the main building, 
with five or six large refrigerators for the 
storage of meats, fruits and vegetables, is 
kept continuously in operation. For the up- 
keep of the property, the refrigerating ma- 
chinery, light and heating, etc., an engineer 
and carpenters are constantly employed. 

The volume of business done enables the 
company to buy in large quantities at first 



hand, and thus always insures to the cus- 
tomers the freshest, newest and best goods at 
the lowest available prices ; for instance, sugar 
is bought in carload lots ; canned goods are 
contracted for before the vegetables are actu- 
ally planted, and large shipments are received 
and find their way to the company's ware- 
house. This can be said also about flour and 
feed and other merchandise largely con- 

The above narrates in a historical way the 
beginning, changes and growth of a business 
the e.xact counterpart of which it would be 
difficult to find ; the early situation as to the 
manner of conducting trade that surrounded 
the efforts of the founders of Berwick's 
large business enterprises and the logic in 
holding on and developing a well earned and 
established place. 

The purpose and policy of the Berwick 
Store Company as announced in its advertise- 
ment, namely, to furnish "everything to every- 
body," states its principle to present its mer- 
chandise to everyone in clean and attractive 
condition and in courteous and expeditious 
manner ; customers have always been given 
full value at right prices. Fresh goods are 
always kept on hand, and the store stands 
ready to return cheerfully the money paid for 
goods which for any reason have not proved 

The popularity of the store is attested by 
the attendance on the special sale occasions 
by residents from surrounding towns and the 
large territory contributing to the town's gen- 
eral business. 

The oldest employee in the service of the 
company is Mr. John H. Taylor, who has 
been connected with the business, as previous- 
ly stated, since the early days at the foot of 
the "old dug road" on Canal street. Others 
who have seen many years of service in the 
company's employ are Messrs. Oscar E. Mc- 
Bride and Harry M. Evans. 

In November, 191 1, the limited partner- 
ship under the title of the Berwick Store Com- 
pany, Limited, passed out of existence by 
sale to the newly incorporated company, the 
present Berwick Store Company, the per- 
sonnel of this concern being: W. C. Garrison, 
president and manager; F. A. Witman, treas- 
urer and secretary; R. L. Kline, credit mana- 
ger; C. E. Ferris, assistant manager; C. J. 
Gilds, artist and decorator; T. B. Brobst, man- 
ager meat and automobile departments. 

The United States Lumber & Supply Com- 
pany, a Virginia corporation, which has a 
branch office in Berwick, has here a fine four- 
story planing' mill and lumber yard, to sup- 

ply the local trade in building materials. A 
two-story novelty plant is attached, in which 
many articles used by builders are made. The 
yards and buildings are on Second street. 

The Standard Shirt Factory in the north 
end of Berwick, owned by I. B. Abrams, is 
two stories in height, electrically operated, em- 
ploys seventy-five people and produces five 
hundred dozen fine shirts weekly. The fac- 
tory was established here in 1902 by Mr. 
Abrams, in a small building, but in three years 
had outgrown its quarters to enter the pres- 
ent fine building. 

The Berwick Silk Throiuing Mill of the 
Universal Industrial Association, a New York 
concern, is located in West Berwick. It was 
formerly the Baer Silk Mill, until 1914. About 
sixty employees are engaged in the manufac- 
ture of silk yarn. The building is of brick, 
three stories in height, and is one of the prin- 
cipal industrial establishments of the borough. 
Edward J. Hartman, son of the founder of the 
mills at Danville, is the present manager of 
the Berwick mill. 

The Berwick Granite and Marble Works 
were established in the town in 1870 by Levi 
Kurtz, and are now in the control of his son, 
J. U. Kurtz. Mr. Kurtz is an exceptionally 
artistic carver and designer, and his work is 
to be found all over this section of the State. 
He erected the soldiers' and sailors' monu- 
ment at Bloomsburg. 


The early history of the Berwick schools 
will probably never be told, for time has 
erased all evidences of the old buildings, and 
those whose memories bore records of the 
old-time teachers and their pupils have also 
passed away. 

The first recorded school in Berwick was 
opened by Isaac Holoway in the brick Quaker 
meeting house. From that time until 1837 
this and the market house were the only 
buildings used for purposes of education. 
Prominent among the teachers of the period 
prior to 1818 were David E. Owen, son of 
the founder of Berwick. Drs. Dutlon and Roe, 
David Jones and James Dilvan. Between 1818 
and 1837 the teachers were Rev. Mr. Crosby, 
Simon Haik and Messrs. Comstock, Hoyt and 

Berwick Academy, "for the education of 
youth in the English and other languages, and 
in the useful arts and sciences and literature," 
was incorporated June 25, 1839, the trustees 
being Marmaduke Pearce, John Bowman, 
Thomas McNair, A. B. Wilson, George Mack 
and A. B. Shuman. Rev. John R. Rittenhouse 

Old Methodist Church AxNd Academy, 
Berwick, Pa., in 1840 

1'riexds" ^Ieetixg House, Catawissa. Pa., Erected in 1775 

Passenger Boat on the Pennsvlv.vnia C.\.nal in i8C)8 

First Jackson & W'oodin Store on the 

River and Canal — Taken in 1865, 

During High Water 



and Miss Jones, of Troy, N. Y., were the 
first teachers. George Waller and Joel E. 
Bradley were also among the instructors con- 
nected with this institution during its thirty- 
three years of existence. A frame building 
for the academy was erected in 1839 ^Y 
Thomas Connelly on the site of the old mar- 
ket house, but was removed in 1873 and the 
proceeds applied to school purposes. The 
languages, sciences, higher mathematics, 
music, drawing and painting were taught, and 
the academy ranked as a very fine educational 

The Market street school building was 
erected in 1870. In 1875 the Sixth street addi- 
tion was built, and in 1893 the Fifth street end 
was added. The directors under whose care 
the present handsome edifice was completed 
were: J. U. Kurtz, C. C. Evans, Dr. A. B. 
MacCrea, W. F. Rough, John W. Evans, C. C. 

The Berwick Academy was abandoned in 
1870 and the classes were removed to the 
Market street schoolhouse. This school grad- 
uated its first classes in 1871. In January, 
1887, the high and grammar grade pupils en- 
tered the (then) new high school building on 
Third street. The school at Foundryville 
which had supplanted the one taught previ- 
ously in the old Quaker church was installed 
in the Market street building, which accommo- 
dated all grades up to the sixth, inclusive. 

The Market street schoolhouse accommo- 
dated all the grades and the high school until 
1886. In that year C. R. Woodin donated 
the lots on Third street upon which the pres- 
ent high school stands, and the main portion 
of the building was then erected. The classes 
were moved from the Market street school in 
the fall of 1886, and in June, 1887, the first 
class was graduated, under the principalship 
of Professor Clark. 

The addition to the high school was made 
in 1901. The school directors of that time 
were: Dr. F. P. Hill, Thomas Sherwood, S. 
W. Dickson, H. E. Walton, J. E. Smith, W. S. 

From 1887 to i8go the principal of all the 
schools had personal supervision over the 
Market street school. Since the removal of 
the high school in 1890 the principals of the 
Market street school have been as follows : 
Lloyd Bullard, 1890-93 ; Orval H. Yetter, 
1893-94; A- U. Lesher. 1894-1912; Eckley 
Hoyt, 191 2 to the present time. 

The Chestnut street schoolhouse was 
erected in 191 1. The school directors of that 
date were: Henry Traugh, W. S. Johnson, 

B. H. Bower, J. E. Smith, Walter Suit, H. P. 
Field, Jr., L. E. Hess, Dr. F. P. Hill, Harvey 
Doan. The principals of this school have 
been : John Hause, Atlee Cryder and Howard 
F. Fenstermacher. 

On April 16, 1913, a bronze tablet at the 
entrance of the Market street school in honor 
of Professor Lesher, who died the summer 
previous, was unveiled by- Helen Lesher, the 
Professor's daughter. The tablet bears the 
following inscription : 

In Memory of 

Prof. Albert Ulysses Lesher, 

Teacher — Scholar — Poet — Patriot 

Principal of the 

Market Street School 

From Sept., 1894, to June, 1912, 

This tablet is placed by the teachers, 

pupils, directors and friends of 

the Berwick public schools. 

Songs composed by Professor Lesher were 
sung by children and addresses made by Prof. 
R. M. Ebert, Rev. E. A. Loux, J. U. Kurtz, 
William F. Lowry, Rev. B. S. Botsford, Rev. 
E. A. Long and Rev. J. K. Adams. 

The principals of the high school have been : 
Timothy Mahoney, 1858; Michael Whitmire, 
1859; Joseph Yocum, i860; Henry Keim, 
1861 ; J. G. Cleveland, 1862; Samuel E. Furst, 
1863; Reece W. Dodson, 1864; William Pat- 
terson, 1865; J. H. Hurst, 1866; S. C. Tayne, 
1867; H. M. Spaulding, 1868; H. D. Albright, 
until 1872; J. G. WilHams, 1873; H. D. Al- 
bright, 1874; C. F. Diffenderfer, 1875; A. H. 
Stees, 1876; W. E. Smith, 1877-81; J. T. 
Bevan, 1882; L. T. Conrad, 1883; Amelia 
Armstrong, 1884-85; Henry G. Clark, 1886- 
88 (resigned) ; Andrew Freas, April, 1888, to 
June, 1889; Charles Dechant, 1889-91; E. K. 
Richardson, 1891-97; Elmer E. Garr, 1897-99; 
Charles H. Winder, 1899-1902; John W. Sny- 
der, 1902-06 (resigned); James S. Sigman, 
1907-13 (resigned) ; E. R. Ebert, January to 
June, 1913; S. Irvine Shortess, September, 
1913, to present time. J. Y. Shambach was 
elected supervisory principal of the schools 
in 1913 for three years. 

The principal departments of the schools 
which have been added since their establish- 
ment are : The English department, added in 
1900, with Miss Marie Kschinkia in charge, 
to the high school; the primary department, 
added in 1901 as a special branch. Miss Sarah 
M. Hagenbuch being given the position of su- 
pervisor, which she has held ever since ; draw- 
ing, introduced in 1902 in all grades, with 
Miss Grace Conner as instructor; the com- 
mercial course, established the same year in 



the high school, under the charge of Miss 
Emma S. Liggett ; music, which became a 
part of the course in all the grades in 1906, 
Miss Bertha A. Bartley presiding; manual 
training and penmanship, introduced in 1913, 
under the direction of Frank Titman. 

Having given the lot for the Y. M. C. A. 
extension in 1894, Mr. C. R. Woodin desired 
to do something for the girls of Berwick also. 
He therefore offered to bear half the ex- 
pense of the course if cooking was introduced 
in the schools as a regular part of the work 
of the girls. This offer was accepted and in 
September, 1894, the course was started. But 
at the end of three years the sentiment of the 
people was so antagonistic to the course that 
it was abandoned. Mrs. Fred Richardson was 
the instructor at this time. In 191 3 a rever- 
sion of feeling brought the cooking course 
into favor again, and it was reintroduced in 
connection with sewing, under the charge of 
Miss Robertson. Mr. Woodin, however, did 
not renew his offer, so the course is not as 
complete or as thorough as at the first intro- 
duction of the work. 

Miss Emma S. Liggett, the former instruc- 
tor of the commercial course in the high school, 
is now with her sister, Isabella, in the Ching 
Hua College, Pekin, China, having accepted a 
second term of five years, the first term be- 
ing for three years. 

Previous to the Boxer uprising in China 
the government had sent many boys to Ameri- 
can colleges to gain a knowledge of occidental 
manners and language. After the suppression 
of the rebellion the property of the principal 
Boxer chief was confiscated and on the site 
a college was erected for adult scholars, the 
money coming from America, which had re- 
turned the indemnity given by China for the 
damages Jo American missions and citizens. 
As a measure of gratitude for this fairness 
the Chinese government selected all of the 
eighteen teachers from America. Miss Emma 
S. Liggett and Miss Isabella Liggett being 
two of the number. 

Most of the scholars are married men and 
form the leading class of reformers of modem 
China. The old Chinese school calendar has 
just been superseded by the Western one in 
1913. Letters from the school come by way 
of Siberia and Europe and take twenty-seven 
days for the trip. 

The school directors of Berwick are : Henry 
F. Traugh, B. H. Bower, L. E. Hess, J. B. 
Fulmer, N. G. Baker, James E. Smith, W. S. 


The Ferris Heights school was built in 1908, 
and the West Berwick high school in 191 3, 
on the same hill. Prof. Harlan R. Snyder is 
principal of the high and grammar schools, 
the Ferris Heights school being on the same 
lot with the high school, and under the prin- 
cipal of the latter. William C. Belong is prin- 
cipal of the Fairview school. 

The school directors of West Berwick bor- 
ough are : Frank Wenner, Harry Fahringer, 
Walter Hughes, Thomas Hutchings, N. D. 
Peters, William Fairchilds, E. M. Ritter. 


The church growth of Berwick has been 
marvelous, and no city in this section of the 
State possesses more active ministers or more 
loyal congregations. Thirteen denominations 
are represented, there are eighteen resident 
ministers, and twenty churches, including three 

The religious growth has kept pace with 
the growth of population. Ministers of Ber- 
wick foresaw the expansion into outlying dis- 
tricts, and in many instances lots were pur- 
chased before a house was built where now 
the church building is the center of a built-up 
community. Since Berwick's last boom there 
have been eleven new congregations organized, 
ten of which have erected churches, and four 
parsonages. There have also been three new 
churches erected by congregations which out- 
grew old quarters, and one church built by a 
congregation which had been for some time 
organized, but not strong enough to under- 
take the construction of a home. 

That Berwick is a church-going community 
is shown by the size of the congregations and 
the expansion of the pastorates. Revival serv- 
ices have also reaped large results, an exam- 
ple being the Stough campaign of 191 3, in 
which the Bower Memorial Evangelicals 
gained 125 converts; the Methodists, 210; and 
the West Berwick Evangelical Church, 100 


The first to erect a house of worship in Ber- 
wick was the Society of Friends, who pur- 
chased on Oct. 21, 1799, the ground on which 
in 1801 they built a small brick meetinghouse. 
On Nov. II, 1800, a request was laid before 
the Catawissa monthly meeting for permission 
to hold services in Berwick on the first day of 
each week, signed by Aquilla Starr. On April 



25, 1801, the request was granted. The first 
attendants were Evan Owen, Joseph Stack- 
house, Andrew Shaner, William Rittenhouse, 
Joseph Pilkington and Joseph Eck. The old 
meetinghouse was used for a few years and 
then abandoned. In 1837 or 1840 it was torn 
down, the site now being occupied by the resi- 
dence of C. C. Evans. 

First Methodist Church 

To a narrative prepared for and published 
by Rev. Martin L. Smyser, then pastor of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church of Berwick, 
in "The Berwick Methodist," under date of 
March 18, 1882, the writer of this sketch is 
indebted for the facts relating to the history 
of the local church from the beginning to the 
year 1882. 

Origin. — Methodism entered Berwick amid 
the fervor of a religious revival in Briar- 
creek valley, about four miles distant from 
Berwick, where resided Rev. Thomas Bow- 
man, an ordained local preacher of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church, a man of zeal and 
eloquence, who, with his brother. Rev. Chris- 
tian Bowman, sowed pure Methodist seed in 
all this region of country. In order that his 
neighbors might have the regular ministra- 
tions of the gospel he fitted up the third story 
of his dwelling, a stone house (still standing 
together with the original stone church near 
Fowlerville in Briarcreek township), as a place 
of worship, and invited the Methodist itiner- 
ants to hold services therein. Here in the 
year 1805, under the ministry of Rev. James 
Paynter and Rev. Joseph Carson, occurred a 
revival of great power and widespread influ- 
ence. As an immediate result of this re- 
ligious awakening a Methodist class was or- 
ganized in Berwick, then a small settlement on 
the frontier of civilization. This class con- 
sisted of the following members : William 
Stahl, leader ; Jane Herin. Rachel Traugh, 
Hugh Thompson, Nancy Thompson, Robert 
Brown, Samuel Steele, James Herin, William 
Sisty, INIary Sisty, Andrew Pettit and Benja- 
min Doan. Previous to this, however, occa- 
sional visits were made by Revs. William 
Colvert, James Paynter, ]\Iorris Howe and 
Robert Burch, who, if they attempted to or- 
ganize a class, did not receive the encourage- 
ment necessary to success. Following the 
organization of this class Berwick became a 
regular appointment on the Wyoming Circuit, 
which then extended from "near Northum- 
berland in the State to Tioga Point in the 
State of New York." This circuit was trav- 

eled by Revs. James Paynter and Joseph Car- 
son, who made its extensive rounds once in 
every four weeks. Rev. Anning Owen, a con- 
verted blacksmith of Kingston, Pa., and a 
zealous evangelist of Wyoming valley, was 
presiding elder, and was untiring in labor to 
plant Methodism along the Susquehanna river 
and its tributaries. 

Northumberland Circuit. — In 1806 Ber- 
wick was attached to what was known as the 
Northumberland Circuit, with which it stood 
connected until 1831, and was served by the 
following regularly appointed ministers : 

1806, Robert Burch, John Swartzwelder ; 

1807. Nicholas Willis, Joel Smith; 1808, 
Thomas Curren, John Rhodes; 1809, Timothy 
Lee, Loring Grant ; 1810, Abraham Dawson, 
Isaac Puffer: 1811, B. G. Paddock, J. H. 
Baker, R. Lanning ; 1812, George Thomas, 
Ebenezer Doolittle ; 1813, Joseph Kinkead, I. 
Chamberlain ; 1814, John Hazzard, Abraham 
Dawson: 1815, R. N. Everts, I. Cook; 1816, 
John Thomas, Alpheus Davis; 1817, Benjamin 
Bidlack, Peter Baker; 1818, Gideon Lanning, 
Abraham Dawson ; 1819, John Rhodes, Darius 
Williams ; 1820, John Rhodes, Israel Cook ; 
1821, Marmaduke Pearce, J. Thomas; 1822, 
John Thomas, lilordecai Barry ; 1823, J. R. 
Shepherd, M. Barry; 1824, R. Cadden, F. 
Macartney, R. Bond; 1825, Robert Cadden, 
R. Bond; 1826, John Thomas, George Hildt; 
1827, John Thomas, David Shaver; 1828, 
Charles Kalbfus, William James; 1829, James 
W. Donahay, Josiah Forrest ; 1830, James W. 
Donahay, A. A. Eskridge. 

Berwick Circuit. — Owing to the enlarge- 
ment of the work, incident to the opening up 
of the country, advancing population, multi- 
plied congregations, and increasing demands 
for ministerial service, in 1831 Berwick Cir- 
cuit was formed, embracing twenty-eight 
preaching places in Columbia and Luzerne 
counties north of the river and including the 
following pastoral charges : Bloomsburg, 
Buckhorn, Jerseytown, Benton, Orangeville, 
Espy, Light Street, Mifflinville, Beach Haven, 
Bloomingdale, Muhlenburg and Berwick, all 
within the bounds of the Baltimore Confer- 
ence. The following pastors served this cir- 
cuit: 1831, William Prettyman, Wesley 
Howe; 1832, William Prettyman, Oliver Ege ; 
1833, Marmaduke Pearce, Alem Brittain; 
1834-35, J. Rhodes, J. H. Young; 1836, J. 
Sanks, J- Hall; 1837, T- Sanks, George Guyer; 
1838, Charles Kalbfus, J. Hall ; 1839, Charles 
Kalbfus, Penfield Doll ; 1840, James Ewing, 
William R. Mills; 1841, James Ewing, W. T. 
D. Clemm ; 1842, Thomas Tanneyhill, Joseph 



A. Ross; 1843, Thomas Tanneyhill, Thomas 
Bowman ; 1844, Francis N. Mills, W. L. Spotts- 
wood ; 1845, John Bowen, W. F. Pentz, T. 
Bowman: 1846, John Bowen, J. W.,Bull, T. 
Bowman ; 1847, A. Brittain, J. S. McMurray, 
T. Bowman; 1848, A. Brittain, N. S. Bucking- 
ham; 1849, Philip B. Reese; 1850, P. B. 
Reese, B. B. Hamlin; 1851, H. G. Dill, Justice 
A. Melick ; 1852, H. G. Dill, James Curns ; 
1853, John Moorhead, J. Curns; 1854, John 
Moorhead, Thomas Sherlock; 1855, Thomas 
Barnhart, Samuel Barnes ; 1856, Thomas 
Barnhart, M. L. Drum; 1857, H. ,G. Dill, 
Thomas Sherlock; 1858, H. G. Dill, John 
Guss; 1859, A. W. Gibson, C. H. Savidge; 
i860, A. W. Gibson, S. L. Bowman; 1861, 
S. L. Bowman, J. F. Porter ; 1862, A. M. Bar- 
nitz, W. C. Hesser; 1863, A. M. Barnitz, F. 
E. Church; 1864-65, M. P. Crosthwaite, S. C. 
Swallow; 1866, John A. Gere, W. H. Nor- 

Berwick Station. — Berwick having grown 
in size and importance, and the church requir- 
ing the entire time and service of a pastor, the 
members petitioned the presiding bishop of 
the East Baltimore Conference (Bishop Kings- 
ley) in 1867 to set aside Berwick as a separate 
charge. Accordingly, Berwick Station was 
duly established, with Rev. John A. Gere, 

D. D., as pastor. Under his wise administra- 
tion and superior management the station, with 
a membership of about 140, was thoroughly 
organized and equipped for the work before 
it. The official board of the new charge em- 
braced the following well-known persons ; 
Jesse Bowman, William H. Woodin, Morrison 

E. Jackson, Mordecai W. Jackson, Clemuel 
R. Woodin, Henry C. Freas, Paul Fortner, 
William J. Knorr, E. B. Hull, J. W. Bowman, 
James Jacoby. William H. Woodin was 
elected recording steward and Sunday school 
superintendent and in both capacities he served 
the church with marked fidelity and success. 
The ministers from this period forward have 
been as follows: 1867-68, John A. Gere; 
1869-70, Finley B. Riddle; 1871-73, William 
W. Evans; 1874-75, Samuel Creighton ; 1876- 
78, Tames H. McGarrah; 1879-82, Martin L. 
Smyser; 1882-84, William W. Evans; 1885- 
87, Ezra H. Yocum ; 1888-90, Benjamin H. 
Mosser; 1891-93, Richard Hinkle ; 1894-96, 
T. L. Tomkinson; 1897-99, Alexander R. Mil- 
ler; 1900-06, Richard H. Gilbert; 1906-10, 
Orlando G. Heck; 191O-15, J. Howard Ake. 

ANCY. — The Methodist Church of Berwick in 
1867 was connected with a large district with 
many appointments and in extent embraced a 

territory equaling a quarter of the Common- 
wealth of Pennsylvania, while at an earlier 
period the circuit formed part of a district 
which extended from Montreal in Canada to 
Berwick and Clearfield in Pennsylvania. The 
Berwick Methodist Church has been connected 
with three Annual Conferences, the Baltimore, 
the East Baltimore and. the Central Pennsyl- 
vania. The itinerant ministry has given Ber- 
wick a large number of ministers of diversified 
talents, some of whom were giants in their 
day and prominent in the councils of the 
church. One of her ministers, born in Briar- 
creek, near Berwick, Rev. Thomas Bowman, 
who was attached to the Berwick appointment 
in early manhood, became president of Dick- 
inson Seminary, at Williamsport, Pa., and 
later the president of DePauw University, at 
Greencastle, Ind., and subsequently, in 1872, 
was elected a bishop of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church. His death at the advanced age 
of ninety-six years occurred in 1914. Another, 
Rev. Jesse B. Young, D. D., soldier, preacher, 
author and editor, was born in Berwick and 
entered the ministry from the local church, 
filling many appointments, was elected editor 
of the "Central Christian Advocate" of St. 
Louis, and in quite recent years published a 
history of the battle of Gettysburg, pronounced 
by critics a most accurate and comprehensive 
account of this great battle. 

Property. — For a few years the Methodists 
occupied as a preaching place the second story 
of the old Market house (also used for school 
purposes), which stood in the center of Mar- 
ket street immediately opposite the site of the 
present church building. Afterwards an old 
log building, originally erected as a dwelling, 
later arranged as a storeroom, became the 
sanctuary of these devout people. In 181 1, on 
the completion of his new dwelling on Second 
street, Hugh Thompson tendered to the grow- 
ing society the use of his "best room" for di- 
vine service, and, being accepted, the "old log 
building" was vacated. On special occasions 
of extraordinary interest, the house not af- 
fording sufficient accommodation, the congre- 
gation worshipped in the barn. Encouraged 
by the increase in membership means were 
taken towards the erection of a church. A lot 
on the corner of Mulberry and Third streets 
was secured and in 1817 a brick edifice was 
raised thereon and dedicated. This building 
still stands, now occupied as a dwelling. The 
increasing congregations and growth necessi- 
tated a more commodious and better arranged 
edifice. The lots on the corner of Market and 
.Second streets, then valued at $400, were do- 



nated by Robert McCurdy and a two-story 
brick church was erected having a seating ca- 
pacity of 350, the entire cost of the structure, 
then the finest church of the denomination in 
the county, aggregating $5,000. It was dedi- 
cated in the year 1845, under the pastorate of 
Revs. John Bowen, William F. Pentz and T. 
Bowman. In 1870, under the pastorate of 
Rev. Finley B. Riddle, this church gave place 
to another, of symmetrical elegance, dedicated 
Sabbath, Feb. 19, 1871, bv Revs. Thomas Bow- 
man, D. D., and Robert L. Dashiel, D. D. The 
whole cost was $26,000. In subsequent years 
this building was improved and enlarged and 
a pipe organ, the gift of Mrs. Elizabeth S. 
Jackson (wife of Col. C. G. Jackson), was in- 
stalled. In the spring of 1902, under the pas- 
torate of Rev. Richard H. Gilbert, D. D., the 
third church building to occupy the present 
site, the fourth to be owned by the denomina- 
tion in Berwick, was begun. It is a beau- 
tiful and commodious stone edifice, and was 
dedicated in May, 1903, with appropriate serv- 
ices lasting over a week, the late Bishop 
(Chaplain) Charles C. McCabe conducting the 
services of dedication. The finances were di- 
rected by John W. Powell, of Buffalo, N. Y. 
The cost of this structure was $50,000. The 
present parsonage on Market street was 
erected under the pastorate of Rev. W. W. 
Evans, D. D., in 1883. 

Organizations. — The first Sunday school 
was organized about 1825 and was held in the 
Methodist Church at the corner of Mulberry 
and Third streets. Daniel Bowen, a Presby- 
terian, was superintendent. Shortly after its 
organization, about 1828, the Presbyterians 
withdrew and the school became a Methodist 
school, though the superintendent, Daniel 
Bowen, continued in his relation as superin- 
tendent. The Epworth League was organized 
about 1894. The school and league have been 
and are great factors in the life of the church. 
The growth of the school has been commen- 
surate with the growth of the community and 
under the energetic pastorate of Rev. J. How- 
ard Ake ranks numerically the second in the 
county, having an enrollment of over 1,400 
persons in all grades. The Sunday school can 
soon celebrate its centennial. 

Much attention has been given the musical 
features of the church services. The several 
choirs through the years past, as at the pres- 
ent, have proved greatly attractive to the citi- 
zens of the community. 

Space prevents more elaborate mention of 
many individual men and women, as well as 
its present day officials, ministers excepted. 

who have been and are identified in lay ca- 
pacity with her activities. The membership of 
the church has included many of the most 
progressive business men of the region. The 
policy of the church in spiritual and temporal 
matters was molded by these men. To their 
example the church owes its spirit of benevo- 
lence. In a very liberal way she has sup- 
ported the benevolent enterprises of the 
church. Some of her members have been 
prominent in the affairs of the State. Several 
of her laymen have represented the Annual 
Conference at the General Conference, to- 
gether with several of her ministers. One of 
her pastors, Rev. Richard H. Gilbert, D. D., 
whose service in the inception and consumma- 
tion of the plan leading to the present church 
building, deserves acknowledgment, was a del- 
egate to the Ecumenical Conference of Meth- 
odism in London, England, in 1901. The 
church to-day is thoroughly representative, 
well organized, well appointed, centrally lo- 
cated, evangelical in spirit, and seeks the best 
interest of the Greater Berwick in which it 
serves. The membership is 1,100. 

St. John's Ltitheran Church 

In the year 1794 Evan Owen, the founder of 
Berwick, donated a lot about in the center of 
the town to Jacob Kisner, William Martz and 
Sebastian Seybert, in trust, for the German 
Lutheran Church of Berwick. This lot was 
subsequently exchanged for another, on Mar- 
ket street, in 1873. 

There was no substantial organization of 
this church before 1892, although several pas- 
tors had preached in the town hall and the Y. 
M. C. A. building before that date. Among 
these pastors were Revs. Bahl, Fox, Henry, 
Steck and German. 

In 1892 Rev. Mr. Stupp became pastor of 
this parish and moved into the parsonage, now 
the club room of the Rangers, on East Front 
street. He soon took in the situation and be- 
gan to canvass the town for Lutheran people. 
His energies proved fruitful, and on the even- 
ing of Nov. 30, 1892, an Evangelical Luth- 
eran congregation was organized, with twenty 
members. The first services were held in the 
parlor of the parsonage, but later the Y. M. 
C. A. hall was secured for regular services. 
On Feb. 13, 1893, the court granted the peti- 
tion for incorporation. Arrangements were 
made on April 9, 1893, to build a chapel on 
the ground next to the parsonage, and the 
completed building, a frame, was dedicated 
Dec. 10, 1893. 



In 1894 Rev. Mr. Stupp accepted a call to 
another congregation, and Rev. G. G. Kunkle 
was called to the parish, where he labored for 
two years. In x'\pril, 1897, Rev. N. Scheffer 
was called, serving faithfully for seven years. 
He was succeeded in August, 1904, by Rev. 
J. A. Schofer, who worked in this field for 
three years. Near the close of his pastorate 
the charge of five congregations was divided, 
and the old chapel and parsonage sold to the 
Rangers Fire Company. 

The three congregations of St. John's Ber- 
wick, St. Paul's, Salem township, Luzerne 
County, and St. Peter's, Briarcreek town- 
ship, Columbia county, formed the new Ber- 
wick charge in 1906. Soon afterwards the 
formation of a Lutheran congregation in Nes- 
copeck, across the river from Berwick, so 
depleted the membership of St. John's that it 
was taken over by the Mission board, and has 
since continued a mission. 

In 1907 the three congregations built a 
parsonage on East Eleventh street, and St. 
John's laid the foundations for a new church 
building at the corner of Eleventh and Pine 

On July 19, 1908, Rev. W. II. Berk was 
called to the pastorate. For ten months serv- 
ices were held in the new parsonage, there be- 
ing thirty members in good standing in attend- 
ance during that time. In May, 1909, the new 
church building, which cost $5,500, was dedi- 
cated and occupied thereafter. The present 
church membership is loi, that of the Sun- 
day school, 95. 

Protestant Episcopal 

Although the Episcopalians were in Ber- 
wick in sufficient numbers to have had an or- 
ganization of some kind sufficient to own 
property in 1804, there is no record of services 
here before that date, nor until 1870. On 
Dec. 26, 1804, Evan Owen deeded two lots to 
the "Society of the Episcopal Church of Eng- 
land," represented by Robert Brown, John 
Brown and William Cox, for use in erecting a 
church and schoolhouse, and for a burying 
ground. Nothing was heard further regard- 
ing this donation until 1873, when Col. John 
G. Freeze investigated and found that both 
lots had been appropriated by Jesse Bowman 
and the Berwick Cemetery Association. 

After a friendly suit Mr. Bowman trans- 
ferred to the church the lot on the corner of 
Market and Jackson streets, in return for the 
lot he had taken. The lot in the cemetery was 
allowed to remain in its use as a burying 

ground by the Cemetery Association, having 
been partially used for interments. 

Services were held in Berwick intermittently 
until March 31, 1902, when St. Mary's mission 
was organized, and thereafter regular services 
were held by Rev. Frederick Wenhani in the 
Y. M. C. A. building. In the spring of 1903 
the present frame church was built at a cost 
of $2,100, the first services being held April 
22d. When dedicated the church was given 
the name of Christ. At that time there were 
117 baptized persons and 45 communicants in 
the church. 

During 1905, under the rectorate of Rev. M. 
A. Shipley, Jr., the church was renovated and 
repaired. In 1906 the final payments on the 
building were made and the church was ad- 
mitted to the convention. The parish house 
was built in 1914 at a cost of $2,000. 

Rev. C. C. Kelsey, a native of England, took 
the charge on Nov. i, 1912, and during his in- 
cumbency the debt of the church has been 
materially reduced. The communicants now 
number loi and the Sunday school is grow- 
ing rapidly. The frequent promotion of heads 
of departments of the American Car and 
Foundry Company, many of whom are mem- 
bers, and their consequent removal from town, 
has kept this church from growing as fast 
as others in Berwick. 

Besides those named. Revs. J. W. Diggles 
and C. R. Fessenden have served as rectors of 
this parish. 

Benvick Presbyterian Church 

The first organization of the Presbyterians 
of this town was made at a meeting held in the 
Brick Meeting House on Nov. 24, 1827, by 
Rev. Joseph M. Ogden. The members of this 
first congregational meeting were: William 
and Sarah Wilson, Daniel Bowen, Isaac and 
Abigail Hart, Mary and Eliza Pollock, Thomas 
and Eleanor Lockart, Emanuel Kirkendall, 
Rachel wife of Nathan Beach, Klonah wife 
of Christian Kunkel, Frances wife of H. B. 
Wilson, A. B. and Mary E. Shuman, Thurma 
and Nancy McMaer, Benjamin F. Rittenhouse, 
John H. Rittenhouse, Hannah H. Ritten- 
house, Rachel Perkins, Sarah Sink, Rachel 
Traugh, Elizabeth Palmer, Sarah Ann Solt, 
Margaretta Traugh, Eliza and Nancy Adams, 
Anna, Mary McNair, John Drake, Hamett 
Drake, Thomas Edunder, William Edunder, 
Mrs. David Walker, Isaiah Styles, William 
Reed, James Evans, Andrew Seely, William 
Sink, Samuel Pollock and wife, Matthias 
Harns, Sr., Mrs. Jane Edwards, Mrs. William 



Edwards, Mrs. David Sink, Mrs. E. Harris, 
Miss Susanna Kiinetob, Miss M. Remaley, 
Miss Hannah Shinly, Miss Melinda Dennis, 
Miss Harriet Pollock, Miss Eleanor Kiinetob, 
James Lamon, William Adams, Evan Adams, 
Mrs. Hannah Lamon, Mrs. J. Moyer, Mrs. 
Solomon Bower, Mrs. Andrew Seely, Mrs. 
Anton Bowman, Hudson Onin, Clinton Trow- 
bridge, A. B. Shuman, Alfred Longshin, 
Tames Solt, Robert F. Russel, Mrs. Samuel 
kelchner, Mrs. Catherine Adams, Mrs. Sidney 
Pollock, Mrs. Clement Jones, Mrs. Kiziah 
Brundage, Miss Martha C. Walker, Mr. and 
Mrs. William Lindsley Walker, Christian 
Kunkle, Mr. and Mrs. William Pollock, Mr. 
and Mrs. Samuel Deprey, Nathaniel L. Camp- 
bell, Mr. and Mrs. James Campbell, Sr, Mrs. 
Silas Tacobs, Hannah Bonhams, Mrs. David 
Hart, Mrs. Alexander Heltezton, J\lrs. John 
Pollock, Mrs. Elizabeth Freeman, Mrs. Jane 
Oilman, Mrs. Lyden Reder, Mrs. Hannah 
Baird, Mrs. Hannah Kiinetob, Mrs. Sarah 
Freas, Mrs. Lydia Freas, Mrs. Ephmain 
Evans, Mrs. Mary Thompson, Mrs. Massy 
Evans, Mrs. Elizabeth Nihart, Miss Rebecca 
Adams, Jacob Cope, Frances Evans, John 
McAnall,"Stephen H. Miller, Leonard Kirken- 
dall and wife, Samuel J. Seely, Cornelius 
Kirkendall, Miss Mary Kirkendall, Miss Eliza- 
beth Grover, Miss Sarah Beck, Sarah A. De- 
prey Rober, Mrs. Mary F. Pollock, Samuel 
Pollock, Mrs. Paul Kirkendall, Mrs. Anna 
Charity Evans, Mrs. Margaret Adams, Mrs. 
Leah Bredbender, Miss Celinda Deprey, Miss 
Mary E. Patterson, Miss Nancy J. Cortright, 
Miss Sarah L. Patterson, John Pollock, Mrs. 
Dekonah Doak, Mrs. Jacob Cope, Mrs. An- 
drew Seely, Mrs. Mamina Walton, Jacob Pol- 
lock, Albert Kiinetob, Mrs. Sarah Adams, 
Miss Elizabeth Seybert, Miss Susan Ranbach, 
John Schleppy, Mrs. Sarah Counos. 

On the following Sabbath Daniel Bowen, 
Isaac Hart and Thomas Lockart were installed 
as ruling elders. 

On July 30, 1839, Rev. David J. Waller 
preached in Berwick and entered on the min- 
utes of this congregation that the church had 
for a long time been without a pastor; "and 
though their number was small, they with 
great liberality, resolved: That they would 
unite with Bloomsburg and Briarcreek in the 
support of a minister. Mr. D. J. Waller, a li- 
centiate of New Castle Presbytery, was invited 
to take charge of these congregations and was 
ordained by the Presbytery of Northumber- 
land and installed Pastor of the church in 
Bloomsburg, with one-half of his time at his 
discretion." Rev. D. J. Waller served the Ber- 

wick Church in this way until relieved by Rev. 
A. H. Hand in 1842. 

At his own recjuest Rev. A. H. Hand took 
this congregation into his extensive charge, 
entered upon his duties July 17, 1842, and at 
once took steps to revive the church ; also 
ministering to Briarcreek and Salem churches. 
He succeeded so well that in the following year 
a completed brick church with basement was 
dedicated by the Rev. George W. Yeomans, 
President of Lafayette College. In 1881 this 
building was improved by the addition of a 
tower and was remodeled. 

Rev. A. H. Hand resigned on account of ill 
health and Aug. i, 1845, Rev. Alexander Heb- 
erton became pastor. He was followed by 
Rev. James F. Kennedy, who served from Jan. 
23, 1848, to April 27, 1850. In turn he was 
followed by Rev. T. K. Newton, who served 
from August 18, 1853, to Sept. 29, 1855. R^^. 
P. W. Mellick was pastor from (October, 1863, 
to 1865. The preaching appointments were at 
this time Berwick, Briarcreek, Stone Church, 
Moore's Schoolhouse and Lockport (now 
Beach Haven). The ne.xt minutes were en- 
tered on Oct. 24, 1868, by Rev. James Dickson, 
who served until Nov. 2, 1879. Following pas- 
tors were: Rev. L. M. Kumler, 1880-88; Rev. 
George H. Stephens, 1890-98; Rev. Joseph 
Hunter, 1899-1905; and Rev. Edward A. 
Loux, 1905-14. At different periods Rev. A. 
M. Morgan, Rev. J. F. Kennedy, Rev. Joseph 
Marr, Rev. Edward Kennedy, Rev. James M. 
Salmon and Rev. James R. Gibson have sus- 
tained pastoral relations with this church. Rev. 
Edward Franklin Reimer, A. M., B. D., a 
graduate of Lafayette College and Princeton 
Seminary, who also spent a year in post- 
graduate study in Princeton University and 
Princeton Seminary, receiving then his divinity 
degree, was installed pastor Oct. 31, 1914. He 
is a native of Easton, Pa., and has had exten- 
sive experience in evangelistic, missionary and 
literary work. 

The congregation has grown greatly in mod- 
ern years, and at present numbers over 500 
persons, with a Sunday school of 350 attend- 
ants. The cornerstone of the present hand- 
some brick building was laid in 1895, and the 
completed building was dedicated the following 
year, during the pastorate of Rev. George H. 
Stephens. It is an attractive edifice, of modern 
design and fittings, and is exceedingly com- 
modious and artistic. 

The church officials in 1914 are: Elders — 
Francis Evans, William F. Lowry, O. F. Fer- 
ris, Horace Breece, James E. Smith. Trustees 
— T. Harv.ey Doan, Fred W. Bush, Thomas 



Morton, Willard Smith, George Henkleman, 
C. E. Ferris, W. S. Johnson, John H. Smeth- 
ers, Charles C. Evans. 


Preaching was held in Berwick in 1841 by 
Rev. J. S. Morris for the Baptists of the grow- 
ing town, but it was not till the coming of 
Rev. William S. Hall in 1842 that a regular or- 
ganization was effected. The sermons of Mr. 
Morris were delivered in the Methodist church, 
but Mr. Hall held a series of meetings con- 
tinuously in the storeroom of Samuel F. Head- 
ley, corner of Second and Mulberry streets, 
the result being forty-two conversions. On 
Sept. 25, 1842, the congregation was organized 
in Williams Grove, Nescopeck, with thirteen 
members, as follows : J. T. Davis, B. S. Brock- 
way, J. S. Havner, Levi L. Tate, Abram Mil- 
ler, J. B. Dodson, Casper Reed, Joel E. Brad- 
ley, Jacob Rider, Perry Gilmore, Thomas P. 
Coles, Thomas Wilford and John Whitman. 
The first deacons were Messrs. Davis, Miller 
and Tate. 

As the Baptist cause prospered, need of a 
permanent place of meeting became impera- 
tive. A charter for the new church was se- 
cured, and a site for the new building, located 
on the south side of West Front street, be- 
tween Mulberry and Vine streets, was do- 
nated by Sister Ann P. Evans ; and a frame 
structure, with a seating capacity of about 
two hundred, was erected, dedicated July 4, 


At a time when the church had just finished 
paying ofif a debt of $1,400 for repairs, at an 
early hour, on Wednesday morning, Aug. 14, 
1878, the building was burned to the ground. 
It was decided to rebuild at once ; funds were 
solicited, and the cornerstone of the new 
structure was laid on Sept. 27th of the same 

The cornerstone of the present church 
building was laid on Thursday, June 6, 1894, 
the sermon being preached by Rev. Dr. 
Woods, of Williamsport. This was made 
necessary by reason of the fact that the old 
building had been found to be unsafe 

Within the last five years extensive im- 
provements have been made to the church ; a 
slate roof put on, a steam heating plant in- 
stalled, the Sunday school room and audito- 
rium frescoed, the church recarpeted, the base- 
ment remodeled, and other lesser improve- 
ments made. The present pastor, Rev. Charles 
E. Miller, came to Berwick in 1909. 

Pastors of the church since organization 

have been: William S. Hall, 1842; Roswell R. 
Prentiss, 1845; Levi Hamlin, 1849; John S. 
Miller, 1850; John H. Worrell, 1852; E. M. 
Alden, 1854; John R. Shanafelt, 1858; Wil- 
liam W. Case, 1863; William Leacock, 1865; 
George J. Brensinger, 1866; O. S. Rhoads, 
1868; Walter Cattell, 1870; R. C. H. Catterall, 
1880; William T. Galloway, 1884; P. S. 
Brewster, 1889; Albert Hatcher Smith, 1894; 
N. C. Naylor, 1901 ; W. Gordon Jones, 1906; 
Horace C. Broughton, 1907; Charles E. Mil- 
ler, 1909. 

The officials for the year 1914 are: Deacons 
— Hiram Eveland, E. M. Kocher, Harry Fah- 
ringer, W. J. Harris, J. F. Birth. Trustees — 
J. H. Catterall, president; O. K. McHenry, 
secretary ; W. J. Harris, E. M. Kocher, Joseph 
Kirkendall, J. F. Birth, Stephen Knelly, J. G. 
Welch, Walter Swank. 

Bower Memorial Church 

Bower Memorial United Evangelical Church 
was established in March, 1871, with Rev. P. 
H. Rishel in charge. At that time a class, com- 
posed of Isaiah Bower, Hannah Bower, Henry 
J. Clewell, Susan Clewell, Elizabeth Clewell 
and Fannie Kirkendall, met in the town hall 
and held services there weekly until 1874. In 
Alarch, 1871, Rev. W. H. Buck was placed in 
charge, remaining until 1872. Rev. E. Swen- 
gle followed him. In 1873 Rev. W. H. Buck 
returned, and the congregation having in- 
creased greatly it was decided to build. Dur- 
ing that year the first church, of brick, was 
begun, and in January, 1874, was finally dedi- 
cated by Rev. H. B. Hartzler (now Bishop), 
Revs. M. J. Carothers, George Hunter, S. T. 
Buck and H. W. Buck assisting. That build- 
ing cost $5,750, and was located on Second, 
between Pine and Chestnut streets. 

The congregation has been served by the 
following pastors since its foundation : H. W 
Buck, 1871-73; S. P. Reemer, 1874; W. M 
Croman, 1875-76; J. A. Irvine, 1877-78; J 
M. Ettinger, 1879-81 ; H. W. Buck, 1882-84 
J. J. Lohr, 1885-87; E. Crumbling, 1888-90; 
G. E. Zehner, 1891-92; A. Stapleton, 1893- 
94; J. C. Reeser, 1895-98; J. J. Lohr, 1899- 
1901 ; H. W. Buck, 1902-04; J. W. Thompson, 
1905-08; I. E. Spangler, 190S-12; W. B. Cox, 

During the pastorate of Rev. J. W. Thomp- 
son it was decided to replace the old building 
with one of larger size and modem construc- 
tion, and this resulted in the dedication of 
the present beautiful church on Sept. 23, 1906. 
The congregation unanimously decided to 



change the name to Bower Memorial Church, 
in honor of Rev. Isaiah Bower and his wife 
Hannah, who had contributed not only their 
services to the upbuilding of the church, but 
given the sum of $10,000 towards the con- 
struction of the new home. The total cost of 
the completed edifice was $48,000. The build- 
ing is located on the corner of Pine and East 
Second streets and is of orange terra cotta 
brick, trimmed with Hummelstown brown- 
stone. The brick were especially burned for 
the work at Green Grove Furnace, Adams 
county. A $2,000 pipe organ supplies the 
musical requirements of the congregation, and 
the interior is finished in a most artistic and 
utilitarian manner. 

On May 4, 1913, the last dollar due upon 
the building was paid, although the congre- 
gation has no wealthy members and has a 
clause in its constitution forbidding such ex- 
pedients as raffles, lawn parties, suppers or 
entertainments at which admission is charged. 
The following Monday after the payment of 
the last note the church decided to build a 
parsonage, with the result that the present 
orange shale brick dwelling was erected on the 
corner of Pine and East Front streets at a 
cost of $10,000, including the lot. 

This congregation has enjoyed a number of 
extensive revivals. The first meeting held in 
the town hall resulted in the conversion of 
100 persons; under the ministrations of' Rev. 
Mr. Reeser there were 200 conversions ; Rev. 
Mr. Spangler obtained 140 converts during 
his ministry; and in 1913 there were 148 con- 
versions under the ministrations of Rev. Mr. 
Cox. During the latter's pastorate there have 
been 393 accessions to the church in two years, 
181 of these being partly through the union 
revival campaign of Rev. W. H. Stough. At 
present there are 765 members in the church, 
and 800 in the Sunday school. This is the 
largest congregation in the Central Pennsyl- 
vania Conference of the United Evangelical 
Church. Since the founding of this church in 
Berwick eight young men have been given to 
the ministry from the congregation. 

North Berwick United Evangelical Church 

During the pastorate of Rev. E. E. Shaffer 
on the Columbia circuit the congregation was 
organized in North Berwick, being made an 
appointment in April, 1901. In December of 
that year the cornerstone of the present frame 
building was laid, the completed edifice being 
dedicated July 6, 1902. The cost of the 

building was $3,500. In 1904 a parsonage was 
built at a cost of $2,500. 

The church was constituted a mission, in 
connection with the West Berwick Church, in 
March, 1903, but in March, 1904, it was de- 
tached. In March, 1914, it was changed from 
a mission to a station and made self-support- 

Rev. E. E. Shaiifer (now deceased) con- 
tinued pastor until March, 1907, when he was 
succeeded by Rev. Noah Young, the present 
pastor. During the summer of 1913 the 
church was enlarged and much improved, at 
a cost of $3,000. The remaining debt in 1914 
is $1,100. The present valuation of the church 
is $8,000, and of the parsonage, $2,000. The 
membership of the church is 360, and 425 
children are attendants of the Sunday school. 

Holy Trinity Lutheran Church 

Holy Trinity Evangelical Lutheran Church 
was organized Jan. 15, 1893, '" the Y. M. C. A. 
building, by Rev. C. M. Aurand and wife, 
Gertrude Aurand, P. E. Bergeman, Simon 
Berry, Mrs. Simon Berry, Sarah Berry, John 
Berry, Charles Berry, B. F. Driesbach, Mrs. 
B. F. Driesbach, Mrs. Ira Hampton, A. T. 
Ibach, Mrs. Daniel Loudenslager, A. F. Martz, 
Mrs. A. F. Martz, Maggie Martz, Mrs. John 
H. Martz, Mrs. A. T. Ibach, Mrs. C. E. 

The present church building was dedicated 
Dec. 16, 1894. It is of brick, of commodious 
size and artistic design, and together with 
the lot cost $10,000. The present mem- 
bership is as follows: Communicants, 200; 
confirmed, 290; baptized, 412. The Sunday 
school enrollment, including officers, teachers 
and scholars, is 462. 

The successive pastors have been Revs. C. 
M. Aurand, 1893-98; M. M. Allbeck, 1899- 
1904; W. Morgan Gross, 1904-05 ; J. B. Focht, 
supply in January and March of 1906 ; and the 
present pastor, Rev. C. R. Botsford, who came 
in 1906. 

First Christian Church 

This church was organized May 17, 1903, 
in the rooms of the Young Men's Christian 
Association of Berwick, by Rev. L. O. Knipp, 
late of Plymouth, Pa., the movement having 
its culmination through the efforts of Mrs. 
Jennie Whitesell and Mrs. C. E. Trescott. 
The first members were A. P. Girton, G. C. B. 
Whitesell. Mrs. Jennie Whitesell, Mrs. Ada 
Boyd, A. W. McHenry, Mrs. Alice McHenry, 



A. W. Harvey, William Berkey, Mrs. Jennie 
Berkey, Miss Blanche Berkey, Miss Maine 
Berkey. Mrs. O. M. Hess, Miss Ida Berkey, 
Albert C. Young, Mrs. Jessie Young, Harry 
O. McHenry, Mrs. VV. F. McEwen, Mrs. Jen- 
nie Mann, Mrs. Lizzie Hartman, Mrs. Elnora 
L. Trescott. 

The present church, a neat frame, seating 
about 225 persons, was erected in 1905 and 
dedicated July 29, 1906. Its total cost was 
$7,000. The congregation is about 200, and 
the Sunday school, 150. 

The pastors have been : Rev. L. O. Knipp, 
who preached for a time as supply ; Rev. H. 
J. Dudley, the first settled pastor; Rev. George 
C. Zeigler; Rev. Theodore B. Shaffer, who was 
accidentally killed while assisting at the con- 
struction of a tabernacle in 1913 for the 
Stough evangelistic campaign ; and Rev. C. 
M. lams, who came in March, 1914, and is 
still occupying the pulpit. 

The elders of this church in 1914 are: K. 
P. McHenry, S. S. Michael, A. C. Young, O. 
M. Hess; deacons: Milton Sitler, Levi Blank, 
Luther Coates, Charles Zimmerman, Charles 
Woolley, Charles McHenry, John Hartman, 
John Kyttle, John Wilson, Charles Chamber- 

ice in the Austrian army. His successor was 
Father John N. Danneker, of Lock Haven, 
Pa., who took charge in 1914. Father Petro- 
vits spoke and read nine languages ; Father 
Danneker speaks only three. These require- 
ments are necessitated by the many nationali- 
ties represented in the congregation. 

Salvation Army 

The Salvation Army has been established in 
Berwick for ten years and has done excellent 
work among the poor and needy. The local 
corps is under the charge of Captain Hen- 


With a large foreign population, speaking 
ten or more different languages or dialects, 
West Berwick is provided with many small 
churches, most of them missions, and all 
built since the growth of the population of 
Berwick forced the laying out of this separate 
borough beside the older one. 

Grace Lutheran Church 

Zwingli Reformed Church 

was established in 1903 and the same year the 
frame building on Vine street was built. The 
congregation numbers about ninety, and the 
present pastor is Rev. D. J. Ely. 

Roman Catholics 

St. Mary's Roman Catholic Church was es- 
tablished in 1902, and the present handsome 
frame church on Mulberry and Cemetery 
streets was built in 1903. Some services 
were held in Berwick during the building of 
the canal, but the departure of the workmen 
who had formed the congregation caused the 
services to be abandoned for a time. 

Father J. R. Murphy, pastor of the Blooms- 
burg Church, organized a mission in Ber- 
wick in 1902, and in the following year suc- 
ceeded in getting together funds for the erec- 
tion of the present church. He continued to 
serve the Berwick Church until his departure 
for Hanover, Pa., where he is now in charge 
of St. Vincent's Church. 

Father Joseph Petrovits was the next pas- 
tor, serving until the beginning of the great 
European war, when he volunteered for serv- 

Rev. M. M. Allbeck, the pastor of Holy 
Trinity Lutheran Church of Berwick, made a 
canvass of the territory now known as West 
Berwick and, as a result of his labors, organ- 
ized a Sunday school May 26, 1901. The first 
session was held in the old "White school- 
house" in the afternoon with fifty-three per- 
sons in attendance. Rev. Mr. Allbeck first 
acted as superintendent, until the election of 
Rufus Funk to fill the position. The other 
officers were as follows : Adam Smith, assist- 
ant superintendent; A. G. Birt, secretary; W. 
C. Bond, treasurer; Miss Emma Pullen, or- 

After the session of Sunday school on May 
4, 1902, Rev. Mr. Allbeck issued the call for 
the organization of a congregation. A consti- 
tution and by-laws were at once adopted. The 
following persons were elected and installed as 
the first church officers : Deacons — Dean 
Funk, F. W. Hildebrand, William Pullen. 
Elders — Charles Pullen, George H. Myers, 
Samuel Michael. 

The charter members of the congregation 
were: Dean Funk, George H. Myers, Mrs. 
George Myers, Samuel Michael, Mrs. Samuel 
Michael, Willard Michael, William Pullen, 
Mrs. William Pullen, Charles Pullen, Emma 
Pullen, Z. T. Beagle, F. W. Hildebrand. 



The meetings still continued to be held in 
the schoolhouse until the church building was 
erected on the corner of Arch and Fairview 
avenues, and was formally dedicated to the 
service and glory of God on Dec. 28, 1902. 

The work growing too large for Rev. Mr. 
Allbeck to take care of the field along with his 
own pastorate, it was decided to call a regu- 
lar pastor. Rev. H. E. Harman was called 
and took charge on April 15, 1903. 

The Sunday school outgrew its quarters, and 
Sept. 18, 1904, ground was broken for the 
annex to the church building. The dedicatory 
service was held Jan. 24, 1905. The basement 
was also fitted up for church use. The parson- 
age was commenced July 3, 1905, and was 
occupied by the pastor and his family on 
Feb. I, 1906. 

Since its founding the church has had the 
following pastors: M. M. Allbeck, 1901 until 
April 12, 1903; H. E. Harman, April 15, 1903, 
until Fek i, 1912; Clarence E. Arnold, April 
10, 191 2, to the present time. 

The membership of the church is 250, and 
of the Sunday school, 325. The present offi- 
cers are as follows : Elders — D. B. Beck, N. 
H. Ney, T. C. Kocher, William Pullen. Dea- 
cons — I. H. Shellhammer, Charles Hock, Roy 
Beagle, Andrew Beck. 

Other Churches 

St. Paul's Evangelical Church of West Ber- 
wick was organized in 1903, and the frame 
church erected in that year at a cost of $5,500. 
There are 302 members in attendance, and 
the number of scholars in the Sunday school 
is 450. The present pastor is Rev. W. C. 

The Methodist Protestant Church in West 
Berwick was built in 1903 on Park avenue and 
Front street. There was no regular pastor, 
the congregation having slowly reduced in 
numbers, and the services here were abandoned 
in 191 1. 

Calvary Methodist Episcopal Church of 
West Berwick has a frame building, erected 
in 1904 and remodeled in 1907. The church 
property is valued at $7,200, the parsonage at 
$3,000. It is a mission church and is under 
the charge of Rev. John E. Beard. The 
membership is 148. 

The Chiesa Evangelica Presbyteriana, or 
Italian Presbyterian mission of West Berwick, 
is under the charge of Rev. Arture D'Albergo, 
who serves a large congregation. The frame 
church was built in 1907. 

St. Peter's Staviansk\ Methodist Mission is 

under the charge of Rev. George Olejar and 
is attended by many different branches of the 
Slavonic race. The frame church was built 
in 1909. 

The Ruthenian Greek Catholic Church in 
West Berwick is dedicated to Saints Cyril and 
Methodius, and is under the control of the 
Roman Holy See. The services are held here 
regularly by priests from Wilkes-Barre. The 
congregation numbers over 300 and is com- 
posed of many nationalities. The frame church 
was built in 1907 and has been greatly en- 
larged in 1914. The total cost will be $8,000. 

The orthodox Russian Greek Calholic 
Church of the Annunciation, West Berwick, 
was organized in 1909, under the charge of 
Rev. A. Boguslavsky. The congregation is 
composed mostly of Russian Slavs from Aus- 
tro-Hungary and numbers about six hundred 
persons, speaking many diflr'erent dialects. The 
church is a fine frame, the interior being 
decorated with excellent oil paintings of By- 
zantine character, on sacred subjects. There 
are no pews in the church, a few seats being 
])laced around the sides for the old people, but 
the main body of the congregation stand all 
during the long services. The cost of the 
church was $10,000 and it was erected in 1910. 
A school is conducted on Saturdays in the 
building. The successive pastors have been : 
Revs. Peter Shiskin, N. Borisoff, J. Stephano, 
John Dzvonchik, Paul Bezkishkin, and the 
present pastor, a native of Wilkes-Barre and 
of Russian descent. Rev. Andrew \'anyush. 


The Young Men's Christian Association of 
Berwick was organized Jime 9, 1878, in the 
basement of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
by C. H. Zehnder, of Danville, secretary of 
what was known at that time as the Seventh 
I'ennsylvania District, assisted by George S. 
Rippard and George S. Bennett, of Wilkes- 
Barre, all of whom were connected -with the 
Y. M. C. A. movement at that period. The 
meeting was public and was attended by the 
representative men of the town. An organiza- 
tion was effected by the election of Col. Clar- 
ence G. Jackson, of the Jackson & Woodin 
Manufacturing Company, as president and 
Isaiah Bower, as vice president. 

The third floor of the Jackson & Woodin 
Manufacturing Company's oflice building was 
fitted up and placed at the disposal of the As- 
sociation free of charge, and here the first 
Young Men's Christian Association rooms 
were opened, with the beginning of a library 



that has now grown to some five thousand 
volumes. There was donated by the Jackson 
& Woodin Manufacturing Company a very 
choice selection of over one thousand books, 
considered by good authority to be one of the 
most complete in the possession of any of the 
smaller libraries of the country, and chosen 
largely through the advice and supen-ision of 
Albert G. Kimberley, who had been connected 
with the public library of the city of Birming- 
ham, England, and who at that time had taken 
up iiis residence in Berwick. This was about 

In 1879 ^^•'- C. H. Zehnder was elected sec- 
retary of the Association and served for some 
considerable time, until the Association got 
well started in its work. The Association 
thus very early became fi.xed on a firm founda- 

The question of a building for Association 
purposes was agitated about 1883. The As- 
sociation was incorporated in that year, the 
board of trustees being: W. H. Woodin, M. 
W. Jackson, C. R. Woodin, B. F. Crispin, F. 
R. Jackson, S. P. Hanly, L. F. Bower, S. C. 
Jayne, C. H. Zehnder. The following year, 
1884, C. R. Woodin deeded to the trustees 
three lots on the corner of Market and Second 
streets, part of the homestead of the late Jesse 
Bowman, and also gave the sum of $11,000. 
Mrs. Elizabeth S. Jackson, whose husband, the 
late Col. C. G. Jackson, was the first president 
of the Association, donated a dwelling house 
on Market street, and also made cash sub- 
scriptions of over $2,000. Steps were at 
once taken to utilize these donations, and 
the State secretary, Samuel W. Taggart, 
came to Berwick and solicited subscriptions 
for this purpose. So well did the pub- 
lic respond that in the spring of 1885 a 
new building was completed and the associa- 
tion took up its quarters therein. This build- 
ing was dedicated April 7, 1885. 

From this period the Association grew 
steadily in numbers and power for good in 
the community. The library was a special 
feature, while baths and reading rooms, to- 
gether with the hall on the third floor, were 
all agencies used to make pleasant and useful 
quarters for the Association work. 

For a number of years Rev. Henry S. 
Mendenhall was the employed librarian and 
did much to direct the reading of the youth 
of the town who patronized the library. 

The following persons have filled the office 
of president: C. H. Zehnder, 1885; S. W. 
Dickson, 1886-87; James E. Smith, 1888-90; 
S. W. Dickson, 1890-93; J. S. Hicks, 1893-95; 

John A. Kepner, 1895-98; S. W. Dickson, 
1898-1900; John A. Kepner, 1900-05; S. W. 
Dickson, 1905-11; W. S. Johnson, 1911-13; 
Leslie E. Hess, 1913-14. 

The employed secretaries : S. T. Dimmick, 
1884-86; W. N. Multer, 1886-89; H. A. Lord, 
1889-93; Horace Breece, 1894-1903; John R. 
Riebe, 1903-06; E. A. Jesson, 1906-07; R. E. 
Bomboy, 1907-13; W. B. VanScoter, 1913-14. 

From the opening of the building in 1886 
to 1907 the Association performed a very ex- 
cellent work for young men and boys. The 
increase in the population of Berwick by rea- 
son of the chief industry of the town having 
made large additions to its mills and car 
shops, made it very apparent that the Associa- 
tion needed increased facilities and larger 
quarters for the carrying on of its work, and 
in the period between 1907-14 the Association 
therefore has received its greatest impetus. 
The membership was increased to over one 
thousand and subsequently the building was 
remodeled and refurnished, a third story add- 
ed, and an addition of 50 by 86 feet built in 
the rear, together with a gymnasium 47 by 69 
feet, equipped with modern apparatus. The 
third story is furnished with dormitories, 
while a swimming pool and bowling alleys 
complete the equipment in the basement. The 
Association has other property from which a 
small revenue is derived. 

Besides the Library features, that is, the 
library and reading rooms, the Association has 
from the beginning — extending now over a 
period of thirty-five years — conducted a series 
of lectures given by the best talent on the 
American lecture platform, every winter, and 
their courses are looked forward to by the 
public and patronized very substantially and 

The Association maintains classes in com- 
mercial and technical work for boys and men 
who are employed during the day. Free lec- 
tures are also given, and in numerous other 
ways it seeks to exercise a leading part in 
the community in the moral and spiritual up- 
lift of its members. 

In 191 1 there was a reorganization of the 
board of managers with the following result: 
W. S. Johnson, president; J. H. Smethers, 
treasurer; G. B. Vance, recording secretary; 
directors, S. W. Dickson, J. A. Kepner, J. S. 
Hicks, E. M. Kocher, L. E. Hess, F. W. Bush, 
W. C. Garrison, J. H. Catterall, R. L. Kline, 
C. E. Ferris, E. A. Glenn, M. D., J. W. Shef- 
fer, J. B. Landis. 

The demands of the Association were such 
that this board was selected with more than 



usual care to handle to the best advantage 
new and growing conditions in the Associa- 
tion work. 

The report of the secretary, W. B. Van- 
Scoter, for the year 1913-14 shows a total of 
972 members, of whom 786 were men and 
186 boys. The average daily attendance at 
the building was 350, and thirty men were 
residents of the dormitories. Free tuition in 
the different classes was given to members, 
and 312 students were enrolled in these dif- 
ferent classes, to the number of sixteen. The 
subjects taught include arithmetic, shorthand, 
bookkeeping, typewriting, mechanical drawing, 
freehand drawing, shop mathematics, electric- 
ity and common school branches for foreign- 
ers ; there is also a day class for men who are 
employed during the night. The Association 
also provided rooms for a kindergarten which 
was conducted by Miss Grace Hill from 9 
to 12 A. M. Thirty-one practical talks were 
given to men and boys besides the lecture 
course herein referred to. One Book per day 
during the year was the number donated by 
friends of the library, and 1,825 books were 
drawn out by the readers. 

Among the many organizations that used 
the building as a meeting place were the 
Women's Christian Temperance Union, the 
Twentieth Century Club, Sunday School 
League, Ministerium, Patriotic Order Sons of 
America, Retail Clerks' Association, Personal 
Workers' League, Daughters of the American 
Revolution, Civic League, King's Daughters, 
and the Anti-Saloon League. The Ladies' 
Auxiliary of the Young Men's Christian As- 
sociation, which has been in existence as a 
separate organization since the time that the 
first building was opened, and which has al- 
ways rendered effective help in the manage- 
ment of the Association, has frequently used 
the rooms to give delightful entertainments 
and furnish refreshments during the year. 

The religious work also has been a great 
benefit to those who participated. Fourteen 
different Bible classes were held, with an at- 
tendance of 530 men and boys and a force of 
sixteen teachers and assistants. Twenty-four 
Sunday meetings were held, with an attend- 
ance of 3,945 young men and boys. Shop 
meetings are a feature and are largely at- 
tended, while two shop Bible classes were 
continuously conducted. 

The work for the boys was both educational 
and religious, and an important addition to 
the equipment was donated by Mrs. Jane 
Jackson-Gearhart, in honor of her mother, 
the late Mrs. Elizabeth S. Jackson, consist- 

ing of a moving picture projector and optical 
lantern. By means of this outfit many in- 
teresting lectures were given. 

Besides the regular physical classes there 
was formed a Boy Scout Troop, which has 
helped in the work of developing the boys 
into men of credit to the community. In the 
gymnasium the attendance for the year was 
7,281 men and boys. 

In 1913 the entire basement was remodeled 
and two new bowling alleys added, also a 
men's game room. The total expenditures 
for the year were $9,691, the receipts being 
slightly less. The Association, however, is 
self-supporting, the small difference being 
caused by the expense of numerous improve- 
ments and additions. Such is a brief state- 
ment taken from the last annual report, 1913, 
and indicating in a general way the activities 
of this modern Association. 

The officers and board of managers for the 
present are : Leslie E. Hess, president ; John 
H. Smethers, treasurer; Bernard G. Vance, 
secretary; J. B. Landis, E. A. Glenn, M. D., 
lohn Sheffer, C. E. Ferris, R. L. Kline, E. M. 
kocher, J. S. Hicks, W. E. Elmes, John A. 
Kepner, Frederick Bush, W. S. Johnson, W. 
C. Garrison. W. B. VanScoter is the gen- 
eral secretary of the Association and with 
him is associated B. T. Pond, the physical 

In addition to the board of managers, the 
property of the Association is vested in the 
following trustees : C. R. Woodin, Frederick 
H. Eaton, S. W. Dickson, W. H. Woodin, R. 
L. Kline, Francis Evans, W. C. Garrison, C. 
G. Crispin, F. A. Witman. 

The money invested in the property, that 
is, the lots, the buildings, its library and fur- 
nishings, represented originally the sum of 
$30,000. With the addition in 1907-08 ; with 
new furnishings and bowling alleys in 1913, 
there is now invested a sum equaling in round 
figures $100,000. For all this the Association 
has been indebted through the years to the 
enterprise of the citizens of greater Berwick 
and its neighborhoods, but more largely in- 
debted to the members of the trustees board 
in control of the large car and foundry manu- 
facturing business located in the town for 
most liberal financial contributions to the in- 
vestment and the maintenance of the Associa- 
tion's work, without whose support it would 
not be possible to maintain the standard set up 
nor to make good the title, the Industrial 
Young Men's Christian Association of Greater 




The first step towards the organization of 
women for the undertaking of chib work was 
taken under the leadership of Mrs. S. P. 
Hanly. Ten women met at the Y. M. C. A. 
Oct. 20, 1898, for the purpose of estabhshing 
systematic readings and discussions. A Cur- 
rent Events Club was the result, the following 
officers being elected: Mrs. S. P. Hanly, 
president; Mrs. H. F. Glenn, vice president; 
Mrs. S. C. Jayne, secretary, and Mrs. W. H. 
Woodin, treasurer. Looking over the outline 
of work, the first three years' study consisted 
of discussions of inventions, politics, music, 
art, stage, educational interests and religious 
interests. Certain periods were also spent in 
reading portions from standard works of 
literature, principally those of Shakespeare, 
Dickens and Longfellow. During the third 
year programs were arranged and printed, a 
plan which has been followed each succeeding 

In 1901 the club joined the Federation of 
Clubs of Pennsylvania Women as the Twen- 
tieth Century Club of Berwick, Pa. The mem- 
bers comprising the club are : Mrs. E. Adams, 
Mrs. F. K. Crisman, Mrs. F. R. Clark, Mrs. 
C. G. Crispin, Mrs. A. L. Canavan, Mrs. Dis- 
telhurst, Mrs. T. H. Doan, Mrs. C. C. Evans, 
Mrs. J. W. Evans, Mrs. B. F. Evans, Mrs. J. 
L. Evans, Mrs. F. Faust, Mrs. W. C. Garrison, 
Mrs. Eudera Hanly, Mrs. L. E. Hess. Mrs. A. 

C. Jackson, Mrs. Anna Kirkendall, Mrs. E. A. 
Loux. Mrs. William McKinney. Mrs. W. F. 
Lowry, Mrs. J. H. Taylor; associate members : 
Mrs. Theodore Berger, Mrs. S. W. Dickson, 
Miss Dodson, Miss Elizabeth Glenn, Miss 
Dickson, Mrs. Elizabeth Jackson, Miss Jame- 
son, Miss Anna Oswald, Mrs. H. F. Glenn, 
Mrs. Elizabeth Oswald ; non-resident members, 
Mrs. M. M. Allbeck, Monongahela, Pa. ; Mrs. 
M. J. Crispin, New York City; Mrs. F. H. 
Eaton, New York City; Mrs. W. M. Hager, 
Roselle, N. J. ; Mrs. Emma Jackson, Tiffin, 
Ohio ; Mrs. T. S. Lewis, Philadelphia, Pa. ; 
Mrs. R. H. Davenport, Kansas City; Mrs. C. 

D. Eaton, Plainfield, N. J. ; Mrs. N.'C. Naylor, 
Shenandoah, Pa. ; Mrs. Elizabeth Reber, 
Bloomsburg, Pa. ; Mrs. C. L. Rodgers, Sligo, 
Mo.: Mrs. N. Scheffer. R/feadville, Pa.; Mrs. 
A. H. Smith, California; Mrs. P. Sturdevant. 
Passaic, N. T- : Mrs. C. R. Woodin, New York 
City ; Mrs. W. H. Woodin, New York City. 
Mrs. F. Faust is the president in 1914. 


Moses Van Campen Chapter, D. A. R., was 

organized in Berwick Feb. 19, 1912. The 
name was adopted for the reason that Moses 
\an Campen was a resident for many years 
of the section immediately west of Berwick 
and his achievements were part of the history 
of this section of the State. Van Campen 
was born Jan. 21, 1757, and died Oct. 15, 
1849. Some account of his life and acts will 
be found in the earlier chapters of this work. 
This branch of the D. A. R. meets the first 
Friday of each month, from October to May, 
at Berwick, and at these meetings addresses 
are made and papers read on matters pertain- 
ing to the history of America, the L'nitcd 
States and the section of the State now in- 
cluded in the counties of Columbia, Montour 
and Luzerne. 

The first officers elected by this chapter 
were : Mrs. Clarence G. Crispin, regent ; 
Mrs. C. E. Ferris, recording secretary ; Miss 
Sarah M. Hagenbuch, corresponding secre- 
tary ; Miss Harriet J. Alexander, registrar ; 
Mrs. A. C. 'Jackson, historian; Miss Doretta 
Distelhurst, treasurer; Mrs. E. A. Loux, chap- 
lain. The only change made since organiza- 
tion has been the election of Mrs. A. T. 
Lowry as registrar in place of Miss Harriet 
J. Alexander, who became vice regent. 

The charter members of the chapter were : 
Harriet Jenkins Alexander, Bessie Belle 
Bishop, Elma Caroline Bishop, Mae L. Crispin, 
Louise W. Crisman, Grace E. Distelhurst, 
Doretta Chandlee Distelhurst, Gertrude May 
Follmer, Carrie K. Ferris, Harriet Arabella 
Ferris, Adelaide Lepha Ferris, Martha Jeane 
Freas, Sarah Margaret Hagenbuch, Edna K. 
Jackson, Anna C. Loux, Caroline H. Sponsler, 
Helen Emily Trescott. Martha W. Williams. 


The purposes of this organization, as stated 
in the charter of April 15, 19 10, are the pur- 
chase and maintenance of a private park and 
facilities for baseball and other innocent ath- 
letic sports, including clubs for that purpose. 
The yearly income of the association is re- 
stricted to $20,000 from other sources than 
real estate. 

The number of directors is fixed at nine, 
the first board being J. U. Kurtz, M. C. Hetler, 
Freas Fowler, George Confair, J. N. Harry, 
\\'illiam Linden, John C. Crisman, J. W. 
Evans, Charles C. Lockhart. The capital 
stock was fixed at $5,000 and divided into 200 
shares of $25 each: At present there are about 
eighty-five stockholders. 

The first officers were : J. N. Harry, presi- 




dent ; John H. Sniethers. secretary ; Mahlon 
C. Hetler, treasurer and business manager. 
The present officers are : John C. Crisman, 
president ; George Linville, secretary ; George 
Confair, treasurer; M. C. Hetler, manager. 

In the spring of 1910 the association leased 
for five years a plot of ground in West Ber- 
wick from Freas Fowler, calling it Fowler 
Field. This property is valued at $9,CX30, and 
the association has an option on it and has 
made $6,000 worth of improvements, includ- 
ing a grandstand. Here are held bicycle and 
athletic meets, which attract crowds aver- 
aging 2,500 persons, several times a year. 

When the Susquehanna Baseball League of 
six clubs was formed the association sup- 
ported the home team. The league first con- 
sisted of the Nescopeck, Shickshinny, Nanti- 
coke. Bloomsburg, Berwick and Danville 
clubs, for one year. The next year the Nesco- 
peck, Shickshinny and Nanticoke clubs 
dropped out, and the Sunbury club was added. 
Many of the former members of the league 
later played in the big national baseball 


The Berwick Marathon Association has held 
meets for seven consecutive years, at which 
only the highest grade athletes have been seen, 
in many contests for prizes, consisting mainly 
of diamonds. The principal event is the ten- 
mile foot race, in which the fastest records 
in the Union have been made. The first meet 
took place in 1908 on Thanksgiving Day, which 
has been the day set for all the meets which 
have taken place since. The officers of the 
association are : A. E. Domrelle, Detroit, 
president ; Prof. James Y. Sigman, Ph. G.. 
Berwick, vice president; C. N. MacCrea, Ber- 
wick, secretary-treasurer. 

THE grinders' CLUB 

This unique organization combines fraternal 
and social objects with literary and athletic 
aspirations of varied character. Originally 
organized by a few young men in West Ber- 
wick in December, 191 1, as a debating society, 
it has since expanded its arms to include mem- 
bers from Bei^ick and Nescopeck. The 
charter contains a clause prohibiting the sale 
by the club of intoxicants and the by-laws 
provide that gambling and the bringing of in- 
toxicants into the clubrooms will be the cause 
for expulsion of members. Card and game 
playing on the Sabbath are also prohibited. 

In the summer of 1912 members of the 

Grinders' Club won the pennant in the Penn- 
sylvania League of baseball clubs. In the 
same year they pulled down the team prize in 
the Berwick Athletic Association, also winning 
the shield for the relay race, running against 
a formidable field in both events. 

In 1913 the club won the first prize in the 
New Year's celebration by parading a com- 
plete "Uncle Tom's Cabin'' troupe, sixty 
strong, including the bloodhounds, as well as 
Eva and Topsy. The Grinders, Jr., a branch, 
won the boys' prize in the parade with a com- 
plete Zouave company. 

In the following year the club was winner 
in -the New Year's parade with a company of 
Jackson's soldiers of the war of 1812, com- 
pletely uniformed, even to the buttons. The 
"Grenadiers." an offshoot of the Grinders, Jr., 
of the previous year, won the boys' prize over 
all competitors. 

In the summer of 1914, after a bad start, 
the Grinders' team won both series of the City 
League, after a grueling finish. Their man- 
ager was Ed. Tustin. The club also won a 
number of debates that year and were suc- 
cessful in the checkers and pinochle tourna- 

In the season of 1913-14 the members won 
the bowling championship of the City League, 
under the management of V. R. Cousins. 

Each year a banquet to the members and 
their lady friends is given at the "St. Charles 
Hotel." The club has presented flags to all 
the public schools of both boroughs ; initiated 
the custom of celebrating Surrender Day by 
a reception in the town hall to the surviving 
veterans of the Civil war; and made a national 
reputation by establishing a camp. at the his- 
toric battleground on the celebration of the 
fiftieth anniversary of the battle of Gettys- 
burg. The club has always been ready to 
respond to appeals for help from the two bor- 
oughs and has also furnished a room in the 
new Berwick hospital at an expense of several 
hundred dollars. 

The first president of the club was P. B. 
Lowry and the second Clyde Croft. William 
Sherman was the first secretary-treasurer. 
The present officers are : John A. Beeber, past 
president ; Edward Foster, president ; W. B. 
Croft, vice president; Frank M. Carey, 
financial secretary; Clyde K. Croft, recording 
secretary ; J. J. Kallbach, treasurer. 

The club is located in commodious quarters 
on Front and Orange streets, but a program 
of larger scope is being prepared for the com- 
ing year, which will necessitate the building 
of a home of its own. 




With handsomely furnished and equipped 
rooms, the Berwick Club plays an important 
part in the life of Berwick. The club was 
organized in May, 1894, and its popularity 
among the membership, which comprises many 
of Berwick's most representative citizens, has 
been constantly increasing. Reading room, 
card room, pool room and grill room com- 
prise the suite on the second floor of the Evans 
building which has been occupied by the club 
since its organization. Among the members 
are some of the best pool shots in this section, 
and pool tournaments are always a feature 
during the winter. 


"Training Day," coming in the latter part 
of May, was one of the important periods of 
the year when the memory of the Revolu- 
tionary and border wars was fresh in the 
minds of the people. A motley crowd of men 
and boys would gather in the streets and 
march around to the tune of the fife and the 
roll of the drum. An ancient cannon was 
generally procurable, and this was cleaned, 
loaded, primed and fired amid the delighted 
shouts of the small boys and the shrill screams 
of the ladies. Among the leaders of the past 
on these occasions are recalled the names of 
Capt. Matthew McDowell, the organizer of 
the first military company ; James Pratt, the 
drillmaster; John M. Snyder and John Bitten- 
bender, colonels ; and George Kelchner and 
Christopher Bowman, majors. 

Berwick furnished a full quota of soldiers 
in the Civil war, a company of thirteen en- 
listing in May, 1861, and twenty-three a short 
time afterwards, while many others joined the 
armies during the progress of that great 
struggle. A number of soldiers repose in the 
cemetery at Berwick, two of the number, 
Moses Davis and James Pratt, being veterans 
of the Revolution ; three of the war of 1812, 
and two of the Mexican war. 

A number of military organizations existed 
in the town in the past. The Jackson Guards, 
organized in 1871, disbanded" in 1880. The 
Berwick Guards, organized by Julius Hoft, a 
student of the Prussian military academy, in 
1886, with C. G. Jackson as captain, was 
chiefly a juvenile company and had a short 

Capt. Clarence G. Jackson Post, No. 759,. 
Grand Army of the Republic, was chartered 
Jan. 26, 1886, with the following members: 

George A. Buckingham, J. T. Chamberlain, 
Samuel Simpson, D. W. Holley, Abner Welsh, 
Reuben Moyer, George Keener, W. H. Mor- 
ton, John Withers, R. H. Little, W. C. Bar- 
nard, Minor Hartman, Martin 'McAllister, 
Leroy T. Thompson, Tighlman Moharter, i. 

C. Jayne, A. D. Seely, W. J. Scott, Michael 
Thornton, John Wooley, E. D. Lipkicher. 
This post is the successor of the one for- 
merly known as W. W. Ricketts Post. 

John H. Styer Camp, No. 25, Sons of 
Veterans, was instituted May 29, 1862, with 

D. C. Smith, captain; E. P. Wolfe, first 
lieutenant; Harry Lowe, second lieutenant; 
David Thomas, chaplain ; Augustus Lowe, 
surgeon ; George Hoppes, orderly sergeant ; 
Harry Barnato, sergeant of the guard; David 
Thomas, quartermaster; Jerome Pifer, color 
sergeant; Albert Lowe, corporal. 


Charles H. Stoes, the famous bandmaster 
of Danville, came to Berwick about 1857 ^nd 
gave private lessons to a number of musically 
inclined young men of the town. He also 
organized a band and purchased a number 
of instruments. For a time the band partici- 
pated in many of the events of the day, but 
the interest finally lagged and disbandment 
followed. The instruments were stored away 
until 1868, when interest was revived, and the 
permission of the surviving members of the 
old band being obtained, the instruments were 
given to the new organization. 

The Berwick Cornet Band was organized in 
April, 1868, with the following members: E. 
M. Klinger, Capt. A. H. Rush, William Ruch, 
Isaiah Bower, Dr. R. H. Little, Joseph Faust, 
Col. A. D. Seely, Hiram A. Bower, Riter Keck, 
Daniel Reedy, Isidore Chamberlain, Lyman 
Fowler, Alem Connelly, Theodore Wein- 
garten, Charles Becker, J. R. McAnall, J. F. 
Opdyke, Theodore Fowler, Fred Spiker, Mor- 
decai Bropst, Joseph E. Fry. 

Under Harry Grozier, as leader, the band 
made its first public appearance on Decora- 
tion Day, May 30, 1870. They marched 
proudly to the top of the hill, and the signal 
being given, began to play. But scarce had 
the first note been blown allien Col. Frank 
Suit, who had planted his fieldpiece at the left 
of the hilltop, pulled the lanyard, and a tre- 
mendous explosion shook the earth, stopped 
the band music and split the lips of most of 
the players. Thereafter the music was of a 
very poor quality and volume. 

Mr. Grozier resigned after a few years and 



George Rupert was elected to the position of 
leader. He was followed by Richard Stout 
and Prof. Adam Schalles, of Stockton, Pa. 
During the latter's term (in 1888) the_ band 
was incorporated, owing to the necessity of 
protecting its property from loss and damage. 

The next leader was Prof. J. O. Boyles, 
who has been connected with the band since 
he was a small boy, and under him the band 
has reacht;d its present high position in the 
musical world. The band has received prizes 
at six county firemen's conventions, at Blooms- 
burg, Scranton, Mahanoy City, Hazleton, 
Danville and Milton; first prizes at the Red 
Men's conventions at Williamsport and 
Shamokin ; first prizes at the Elks' conventions 
at Mahanoy City and Milton, and prizes at the 
P. O. S. of A. convention at Scranton. 

The first quarters of the band were in a 
room over the wagon shop of Jeremiah See- 
sholtz, where the Fenstermacher photograph 
studio is now located. Next they located over 
Wilson's drug store, now the Levy building, 
and were then successively on the third floor 
of the original Jackson & Woodin building, 
over the stable of the "Warnett Hotel" (later 
the "Fairman Hotel"), in the Thiel Pottery 
building on Sixth street, in the Adams build- 
ing, now occupied by Smith Brothers; in the 
J. C. Furman blacksmith shop, over Joseph 
Faust's carpenter shop, on the third floor of 
the "Morton House," in the Town Hall, on 
Second street ; and lastly in the brick building 
belonging to the American Car and Foundry 
Company, on Market street, which they now 
use free of rent. 

The Berwick Band, as it is now called, has 
a membership of fifty-five musicians, and an 
equipment of the latest make of instruments. 
They wear blue fatigue uniforms and scarlet 
and white parade dress, and the entire equip- 
ment is valued at $8,000. The present officers 
are: J. O. Boyles, director and manager; 
Christopher Tubbs, president; W. E. Adams, 
secretary; J. E. Fry, assistant secretary; 
Harry Hayman, treasurer. 


Berwick has more secret and ritualistic 
societies than any other town in Columbia 
or Montour counties. These societies include 
within their circles the most substantial mem- 
bers of society in the town and exert a tre- 
mendous influence for good throughout the 
community. The oldest of the organizations 
and one of the strongest is the local lodge of 
Odd Fellows. 

Berwick Lodge, No. 246, I. O. O. F., was 
instituted Jan. 23, 1847, the first members 
being: Isaiah Bahl, O. H. P. Kitchen, Aaron 
Dietterich, James S. Campbell, Stewart 
Pearce, G. VV. Nicely, William Brewer, B. S. 
Gilmour. A hall was built by the lodge in 
1868 at a cost of $12,000. 

Washington Camp, No. 105, P. O. S. of A., 
was established in 1869, but disbanded in 1878. 
On Feb. 27, 1880, it was reorganized with the 
following members : S. W. Dickson, W. A. 
Ross, C. A. Croop, S. C. Marteeny, F. R. 
Kitchen, C. E. Ross, H. C. Learn, F. S. Hart- 
man, Anselm Loeb, Will H. Owen, W. M. 
Hampshire, Conway Dickson, J. U. Kurtz, J. 
S. Hicks, Charles W. Freas, F. P. Hill, George 
B. Kester, J. C. Dietterick, John W. More- 
head, J. C. Reedy, J. M. Witman, M. E. Rit- 
tenhouse, William F. Rough, A. J. Learn, F. 
G. Hull, J. E. Fry, A. Z. Hempfield. In 
April, 1886, the fine hall now used by the 
camp was first occupied. It was built by the 
Odd Fellows in 1868 and purchased by the 
P. O. S. of A. soon after the fire which par- 
tially destroyed it in 1880. The building was 
rebuilt and is now used for meeting purposes 
and as a location for a motion picture theatre. 

In 1914 the lodge reached the even figure 
of 700 in membership, and was in exception- 
ally fine financial condition. The officers for 
that year were: J. W. McElwee, president; 
Gaylord Spangler, vice president ; Arthur 
Bechtel, master of forms; Walter Miller, con- 
ductor; Samuel Garrison, inspector; Adam 
Miller, guard; Cyrus Smith, trustee; Irvin 
Spangler, secretary. The board of directors 
were : C. E. Ross, J. O. Edwards, F. R. 
Kitchen, A. N. Sheerer, H. E. Rabert, C. J. 
Cortright, S. L. Hess, Guy Henrie, H. H. 

Berwick Lodge of Elks 

Berwick's new lodge of Elks has hand- 
somely furnished club rooms on West Second 
street. The large John W. Evans dwelling 
house has been converted into a home that 
makes the club particularly popular. There 
is a large game room, reading room with 
papers, and a pool room. The lodge room and 
the ladies" parlor are on the second floor. The 
building throughout is finely fitted with mis- 
sion furniture and the appointments of the 
meeting room are particularly fine, being of 
hardwood. The lodge has been rapidly grow- 
ing in membership and with excellent quarters, 
a fine location and the high personnel of its 
membership promises to be an ever-increasing 
factor in the life of the community. 




Knapp Lodge, No. 462, Free and Accepted 
Masons, of Berwick, was constituted March 
2, 1870, with the following officers and mem- 
bers: John W. Taylor, worshipful master; 
Frank E. Brockway, senior warden ; George 
B. Thompson, junior warden. Charter mem- 
bers: John H. Taylor, Frank E. Brockway, 
George B. Thompson, Clarence G. Jackson, A. 
B. MacCrea, Henry C. Freas, Clemuel R. 
Woodin, Samuel Hetler, Hudson Owen, 
Daniel Reedy, William H. Woodin, Adrian 
Vanhouten, R. H. Little, J. W. Dreisbach, 
Nicholas Seybert, George W. Fisher, Joshua 
F. Opdyke, Joseph H. Hicks, Seth B. Bow- 
man, N. W. Stecker, Benjamin Evans, William 

Meetings are held on the first Friday of 
each month in the Evans building. The 1914 
officers were : Worshipful master, Roland 
O. Brockway ; senior warden, Ernest H. 
Stiner ; junior warden, Herman T. Waldner; 
treasurer, John W. Evans, P.M.; secretary, 
James E. Smith, P. M. ; trustees, Charles T. 
Steck, P. M., Stephen C. Seiple, P. M., Miles 
S. Bredbenner, P. M. ; representative in grand 
lodge, John C. Crisman, P. M. Past masters 
by service : John H. Taylor, Frank E. Brock- 
way, John F. Woodin, J. F. Hicks, J. F. Bit- 
tenbender, David H. Thornton, William A. 
Baucher, W. S. Heller, Henry C. Angstadt, 
John W. Everard, Benjamin F. Crispin, Jr., 
Robert G. Crispin, William E. Smith, Julius 
Hoft, John W. Evans, J. Simpson Kline, Elias 
P. Rohbach, John A. Kepner, William T. 
Emery, James E. Smith, Charles T. Steck, G. 
Fred Miller, Elmer E. Garr, Je"nnings U. 
Kurtz, William L. Houck, Barton D. Freas, 
William D. Kline, Jesse Y. Glenn, Charles H. 
Dorr, Henry P. Field, Jr., William E. Elmes, 
Frank E. Patten, Nelson W. Bloss, Stephen 
C. Seiple, Horton J. Kirkendall, Miles S. 
Bredbenner, Dayton L. Ranck. John C. Cris- 
man. Non-affiliated past ma'ster, Olaf F. 

Knights of Malta 

Susquehanna Commandery. No. 18, Ancient 
and Illustrious Knights of Malta, was. insti- 
tuted at Berwick Aug. 25, 1887, with A. E. 
Shuman as commander. Starting with a mem- 
bership of seventy-two, it has grown steadily 
and substantially until in 1914 it numbers 230 
members. Being a religious, beneficial and 
fraternal organization, it has drawn to its 
roster many of the best and most influential 

men of the community. Three of the mem- 
bers of this commandery were also members 
of the Supreme Commandery of the Continent 
of America, A. E. Shuman, John R. McAnall 
and George W. Suit (deceased). The grand 
commandery of Pennsylvania held the annual 
session in Berwick in 1893, with W. J. Rough, 
grand commander. The commandery now 
meets every Thursday evening in the Odd Fel- 
lows' hall. Reagan 13. Johnson is the present 
commander, and I. L. B. Martz, recorder. 

Anak Siesta, No. JJ, Princes of Bagdad (a 
side degree of the Knights of Malta), was 
organized in 1907, with a membership of 
eighty. It has had a steady increase in mem- 
bership and has proved the cementer of bonds 
of brotherhood between the younger members 
of the knights. 

Other Lodges 

Berwick Encampment, No. 131, Knights of 
Khorassan ; Berwick Council, No. 176, Royal 
Arcanum; Pewaukee Tribe, No. 240, Im- 
proved Order of Red Men ; Tuscawilla Coun- 
cil, No. 156, Daughters of Pocahontas; Ber- 
wick Council, No. 698, Junior Order United ' 
American Mechanics ; Berwick Castle, No. 
249, Knights of the Golden Eagle ; Berwick 
Conclave, No. 783, I. O. H. ; Aerie No. 1281, 
Fraternal Order of Eagles ; Berwick Tent, No. 
282, Knights of the Maccabees. 


This association was composed of plot 
holders in the old cemetery and was formed in 
1873 for the purpose of securing control, by 
purchase or otherwise, of the grounds, thereby 
to be enabled to improve and care for the 
graves. The land had been given to four re- 
ligious denominations by Evan Owen. In 
May, 1 88 1, the association acquired control of 
the land and immediately commenced the work 
of improvement, which has gone on without 
interruption up to the present time. The first 
officers of the association were : H. C. Freas, 
president; C. B. Jackson, secretary; O. H. P. 
Kitchen, treasurer and superintendent. 


The Berwick Hospital Association was or- 
ganized in January, 1905. The ladies of Ber- 
wick were instrumental in collecting the funds 
to furnish the first building, which was owned 
by C. R. Woodin and accommodated twenty- 
two patients. The first officers of the associa- 

Berwick Hospital. Berwick, Pa. 

Bloomsbukg Hospital, Bloomsburg, Pa. 



tion were: Mrs. S. P. Hanly, president; 
Mrs. C. C. Evans, first vice president; Mrs. 
R. L. Kline, second vice president ; Miss Eliza- 
beth Glenn, secretary; ]\Iiss Ella Moyer, 

I-'rom the first hospital six nurses were 
graduated yearly, all of whom lived in the 
building; but soon the quarters became over- 
crowded and in 1912 a meeting was held to 
secure funds for the erection of a larger 

Much enthusiasm was aroused in the cam- 
paign for funds, and the erection and furnish- 
ing of the new hospital became a community 
affair in which all classes participated. The 
American Car and Foundry Company gave 
large sums, workmen gave a day's wages to 
the fund, and the Odd Fellows, Elks, P. O. S. 
of A., Grinders' Club, Salem Grange, Frances 
Willard liible Class of the Methodist Church, 
and a number of other organizations, each 
furnished a room in the hospital, at an average 
cost of $150. 

The new building was completed in 1913 at 
a cost of $28,000, and the old building aban- 
doned in January, 1914. The building is of 
Bloomsburg brick, with limestone trimmings, 
97 ^y 37 feet, with two floors, basement and 
attic. There are four large wards, with a 
capacity of thirty beds, ten private rooms, 
space for four cribs for children, and rooms 
for fourteen nurses and hospital help. The 
training school will educate ten nurses, who 
will graduate in 191 5. The new building is 
located on Mulberry street and Garfield 
avenue, in the north end of the town, while 
the old building was situated on Maple street. 

The number of free patients in 1913 in the 
old building was 201 ; pay patients, 161 ; num- 
ber of deaths, 23. The cost of maintenance 

during the first five months after the occu- 
pation of the new building was $5,000. 

The officers of the Hospital Association for 
1914 are: J. H. Catterall, president; J. U. 
Kurtz, first vice president ; Frank Faust, 
second vice president; B. D. Freas, treasurer; 
Conway W. Dickson, secretary. The trustees 
are: J. M. Schain, B. D. Freas, H. E. Wal- 
ton, John W. Evans, Walter Hughes, J. H. 
Catterall, A. N. Sheerer, three years; M. C. 
Metier, J. U. Kurtz, C. W. Dickson, Wilson 
Harter, Frank Faust, Wilbur Smith, James 
Lee, two years; M. J. Crispin, M. F. Williams, 
J. N. Harry, Jason Rhoades, J. W. Roberts, 
Harry Fahringer, C. G. Crispin, one year. 

The following are life members of the asso- 
ciation : C. W. Sones, C. C. Lockhart, C. A. 
Raseley, James Fox, A. C. Jackson, I. B. 
Abrams, C. E. Sitler, M. C. Hetler, W. A. 
Hughes, H. H. Long, J. A. Rhodes, M. G. 
Smith, B. D. Freas, J. W. Roberts, Jacob 
Kupsky, John M. Fairchild, J. C. Oberdorf, 
H. E. Walton, S. C. Jayne, R. E. Warntz, 
John Murko, W. F. McMichael, S. E. Fen- 
stermacher, E. W. Garrison, Jacob S. Garrison, 
R. O. Bower, Jno. W. Evans, George Unangst, 
Elliott Adams, A. A. Lerch, F. A. Witman, 
W. C. Garrison, J. F. Pfahler, Herbert Levy, 
J. W. Sitler, Frank Fahringer, Hugh Thomp- 
son, J. J. ;\Iyers, George W. Seybert, John K. 
Adams, Wm. J. Fairchild, R. L. Kline, L. I. 
Clewell, P. C. Currin, John N. Harr>', T. Har- 
vey Doan, James L. Evans, T. B. Brobst, H. 
R. Bower, Mary A. Lockhart, Conway Dick- 
son, C. T. Steck, J. H. Bowman, W. C. Hensyl, 
Jos. M. Schain, E. L. Davis, H. T. Waldner, 
Joseph Cohen, M. F. Williams, John Frank, 
Frank Faust, J. U. Kurtz, J. H. Catterall, 
Wilson Harter, Jas. Harman, W. S. Johnson, 
J. L. Halyburton. 



Catawissa township was formed from Au- 
gusta in 1785, and originally included all of 
ijeaver, Lonyngham, trankhn, Locust, Main, 
Mittim, Mayoerry of Montour county, and 
part of bnion township in Schuylkill county. 
it was reduced in size by the lormation of 
Roaringcreek township in 1832, l^'ranklin in 
1843, and Main in 1844. It is the oldest sub- 
division of the county and contains the oldest 

Authorities differ as to the meaning of the 
Indian name "Catawese." Redmond Conyng- 
ham, after whom the township of that name 
was called, stated that the Piscatawese had a 
settlement here. Stewart Pierce stated that 
the Shawanese had a town here in 1697. The 
word "Catawese" occurs in several of the 
Indian dialects, and means "pure water." The 
greater part of the eastern portion of the 
township is occupied by the majestic Catawissa 
mountain, the brow of which overshadows the 
town. In the summer many parties are made 
up to visit this eminence, from all parts of 
the county. It was a favorite resort of the 
Indians. Within a short distance of the sum- 
mit is a fine, ever-flowing spring. Beside this 
stood for many years an immense gum tree, 
the only one for miles around, which was 
looked upon with reverence by the savages. 
The tree was overturned by a high wind some 
years ago and has rotted away, but younger 
descendants of the forest monarch are spring- 
ing up to take its place. 

The first European to visit Catawissa was 
James LeTort, a French trader, who bore mes- 
sages of amity to the Delaware chieftains and 
the celebrated Madame Montour in 1728, pre- 
senting each a "strowd match coat," as a token 
of friendship. After the visit of this French 
trader no mention is made of the place until 
1754, when Conrad Weiser, the noted Morav- 
ian missionary to the Indians, writes from 
Shamokin, mentioning in the letter the Indian 
village of "Oskohary," which was identical 
with the Catawissa of the present. At that 

time the chief of the village was the famous 
Lapackpitton, a Delaware. Soon after this 
date the place seems to have been abandoned 
by the savages as a place of residence. 

The first settlers in the Catawissa valley 
were a number of English Quakers, from 
Maiden-creek and Exeter in Berks county, who- 
came by way of the valley of the "North 
Branch." They arrived between 1774 and 
1778. Before their arrival a number of per- 
sons had obtained patents from the Penns, 
among them being William Collins, William 
Hughes, James Watson, John Lore, John 
Mears, Isaiah Willits and John Lloyd. Other 
settlers arrived at different periods, most of 
them following the trails over the Broad, Blue, 
Locust and Little mountains on horseback. The 
first house in the vicinity of Catawissa was 
built by Moses Roberts in 1774. 

Among those who reached Catawissa in 1782 
were Michael Geiger, Joseph Mclntyre, John 
Furry, Thomas Wilkinson, George Huntzinger 
and Conrad Wamphole. Soon after their ar- 
rival a party of Indians came and occupied the 
old site of their town. Their fishing operations 
were interfered with by Wilkinson, who was 
made to swim the river to escape their arrows. 
He tried to explain to his friends that he was 
only gauging the depth of the water, and thus 
earned the nickname of "Tom Ganger." In 
the same year a party of Indians made a raid 
on the settlement, scalping and killing John 
Furry, his wife and two daughters. Three 
sons, John, Jonas and Lawrence, were absent 
at the gristmill at Sunbury and thus escaped, 
while another son, Henry, was taken captive. 
Years later the three brothers met Henry in 
Montreal, Canada, where he had developed into 
a prosperous trader after his imprisonment 
there by the French had ended. 

This was the era of the "great retreat," dur- 
ing which most of the settlers of'the valley fled 
from their homes in fear of Indian raids. The 
Quakers, owing to their confidence in the In- 




dians' promises to the Penns, remained. This 
confidence was never betrayed. 

In 1787 VViUiam Hughes laid out the town of 
"Hughesburg, in the County of Northumber- 
land, State of Pennsylvania, North America, 
on the banks of the northeast tract of the river 
Susquehannam near the mouth of Catawessey 
creek, about twenty miles above Sunbury and 
about one hundred and si.x miles above Phila- 
delphia." William Gray and John Sene were 
the surveyors. According to the custom of the 
day the lots were disposed of by lottery. Wil- 
liam Henry was the original owner of the tract 
in 1769, the patentees were later Edward and 
Joseph Shippen, and from them the title was 
transferred to William Hughes. In 17S9 John 
Mears, a physician and justice of the peace, 
secured title to sixty-five lots. In 1796 the 
Roberts addition was laid out by James 

Although the original town plot was large 
it was but thinly settled. The first industry 
established was the tannery of Isaiah Willits, 
in 1780, at the corner of Third and South 
streets. The ferry was then run by Knappen- 
berger & Willits. The first merchant was 
Isaiah Hughes, who opened a store at an early 
date on the river bank near the foot of South 
street. Joseph Heister followed with a store 
on Water street, near Main. He sold out to 
John Clark, who kept it for some years. 

The history of the township is so wrapped 
up in that of the town that it is necessary to 
include both in this sketch. The few farmers 
remained near the town, for better protection 
from the Indians, the most prominent ones in 
those days being the Watsons, Jacksons, 
Lounts, Lloyds and Hayhursts. The first jus- 
tices of the peace were George Hughes and 
William Mears. The first mill in the county 
was liuilt on Catawissa creek in 1774 by a mem- 
ber of the Societv of Friends whose name 
cannot be ascertained. It was so crude in con- 
struction as to be frequently out of repair, in 
which event the farmers had to go to Sunbury 
to get their grist ground. In 1799 Christian 
Brobst rebuilt this mill. It was later operated 
by Hollingshead & Scott, and last by T. M. 
Fields, who received it from his father. It 
was burned in IQ12, and is now but a ruin. 
The fall of water was slight, so the wheel was 
one of the widest and smallest in diameter of 
any in the county. In 1797 a mill was erected on 
the north side of the creek (but a few steps 
above the present paper mill), by Jonathan 
Shoemaker, and at once received the cream of 
the patronage of that section of the town. In 
1700 Christian Brobst built a mill about a 

quarter of a mile above the former mill, on 
the same side of the creek. The Shoemaker 
mill was purchased by John Clark and Ben- 
jamin Sharpless in 1809 and the machinery 
removed to the stone mill (McKelvey mill, 
now the oldest standing in this section) across 
the creek, which they had just built. In 
1811 Mr. Sharpless established a paper mill 
in the old Shoemaker mill, which was later 
enlarged, and then torn down when the own- 
ers rebuilt on the present site — a group of 
four large brick buildings on the north side 
of the creek. At the time of the rebuilding 
of the Brobst mill there was a regular line of 
boats on the Susquehanna and the proprietor 
became the chief man of the town of Cata- 
wissa, operating the mill, a store and other 

Other merchants of the days of the town's 
early growth were Thomas Ellis, Stephen and 
Christopher Baldy, Daniel Cleaver, Jacob Dyer 
and Samuel Brobst. There was little money 
then in circulation, trading being conducted by 
the interchange of products and goods. The 
shad fisheries ranked among the principal 
sources of income, fish being exchanged for 
salt, at the rate of six cents each. 

From an old magazine in the possession of 
the Columbia County Historical Society the 
fact is gleaned that in August, 1801, there were 
but forty-five houses in "Catawissy," one of 
which was stone and the rest mostly log. At 
that time an old Indian burying ground near 
the river had washed out and some of the skele- 
tons were exposed to view. The writer had 
made the trip from Reading in that month, 
stopping on the way at "Lavenberg's," on the 
road near Little mountain. 

One of the first buildings in the town was a 
market house, built soon after the village was 
laid out in lots. There appears to have been 
but little need for this public building and it 
soon became a home for the stray cows and 
hogs of the place. An old resident said that 
it was a noted resort for the elusive flea and 
was declared a public nuisance. It was decided 
in 1820 to demolish it, and a short time there- 
after a loud explosion in the night sounded the 
knell of the building. Slight effort was made 
to discover the perpetrators of the deed, and 
the building was not replaced. In 183 1 a prop- 
osition was made to build a town hall and 
market house on the site, but the proposal 
brought on an acrimonious discussion which 
defeated the nroject and caused the dissolution 
of the onlv fire company in the town. 

From an old history, published at Phila- 
delphia in 1847, the information is had that in 



1840 Catawissa had a population of Soo, ex- 
ceeuing that of Bloonisburg by 150. The town 

then contained tliree churches, several stores 
and taverns and upwards ot two hundred 
dwellings. There were a loundry, a paper mill 
and several tanneries in and near the town. 
I'he Germans predominated in the population 


The building of the Catawissa railroad, a 
description of which is found on another page, 
was a blessing to the town and caused a rapid 
increase of population. Six months after the 
opening of the road the headquarters were 
established in Catawissa and extensive repair 
shops built in 1864. Thus the town became the 
home of many operatives, and as the other 
roads came in became quite a railroad center. 
These operatives brought their families, estab- 
lished homes and became important factors in 
the growth of Catawissa for a number of years, 
until the extension of the Reading road from 
Shamokin to Milton caused a removal of much 
traflk from the Catawissa division and reduced 
the number of employees in the repair shops. 
There are still a number of employees of the 
Reading and Pennsylvania roads in the town, 
but few compared with the past. 

The rapid increase of population and the de- 
mand for homes was the cause that led to the 
organization of the Catawissa Land and Build- 
ing Company and the Catawissa Mutual Build- 
ing Fund Association, in 1865 and 1870, re- 
spectively. The result of their formation was 
a period of building activity, extending from 
1869 to 1S73, during which many persons who 
otherwise could not have obtained money were 
enabled to own homes. The demand for homes 
and lots caused F. L. Shuman to purchase the 
Zarr farm and lay out the Shuman addition in 

One of the prominent citizens of Catawissa 
was Clark F. Harder, who built the planing 
mill in 1866. He made it one of the chief in- 
dustries of the town, and in 1885. during the 
building boom, put up seventeen houses, fur- 
nishing his own materials from the mill. Most 
of the better class of residences of that date 
were built by him. 

David Cleaver, a pioneer merchant of the 
town, built the "Susquehanna House" in 1868, 
and leased it to several parties. It is now 
operated by William Goodhart. 


The first movement to make Catawissa a 
borough was taken in 1885, when a petition was 

presented to the proper court. It was opposed 
by some who feared added taxation, and by 
others who did not wish to be left out of the 
town. The grand jury of that year disap- 
proved the petition. Again in 1887 a similar 
petition met with a like fate. On Sept. 26, 
1892, a third petition was presented by 250 
freeholders, and in December of that year con- 
firmed by the court. 

The necessary officers for holding an elec- 
tion were appointed, and the following officials 
elected : C. C. Willits, chief burgess ; O. D. L. 
Kostenbauder, C. O. Brown, E. B. Guie, I. H. 
Seesholtz, T. E. Harder, William Hartman, 
councilman. The first school board consisted 
of J. B. Yetter, L. B. Kline, S. Raup, C. E. 
Clewell, J. J. Lewis, A. S. Truckenmiller. 

The present borough officials are: A. H. 
Sharpless, burgess; W. H. Vastine, president 
of the council: J. Berninger. Daniel Knittle, 
Edward Billig, Alexander Lillie, Joseph Hart- 
zell, councilmen ; G. H. Sharpless, clerk : L. C. 
Mensch, solicitor. 

The postmasters of Catawissa borough have 
been as follows, together with the dates of their 
appointments : 

John Shoemaker, July i, 1802; John Clark, 
July I, 1803; Joseph Paxton, Nov. 3, 1821 ; 
Michael Fornwalt, June 23, 1829; C. A. Brobst, 
May 18, 1841; Paul R. Baldy, Dec. 6, 1844; 
John Schmick, Dec. 26, 1846; Charles Hart- 
man, Feb. 15, 1849: John .Schmick, Jan. 27, 
1853; Casper Rhawn, May 6, 1853; Levi 
Keiler, Jan. 17, 1861 ; S. D. Rinard, Oct. 12, 
1861 ; George H. Willis, Aug. 24, 1869; Luther 
B. Kline, Sept. 24, 1878; Calvin Clark, Oct. 24, 
1878: Joseph B. Knittle. Sept. 15, 1885; Wil- 
liam H. Berger, April 27, 1889; J. H. Geary, 
Dec. 20, 1889; Charles L. Pohe, May 6, 1896; 
Christian E. Geyer, June 5, 1900; Charles M. 
Harder, Aug. 2, 191 3. 

C. S. W. Fox' was mercantile appraiser in 


According to the United States census figures 
the population of Catawissa township in 1820 
was 2,520; in 1830, 3,130; in 1840, 2,060; in 
1S50, 1,143: in i860, 1,176; in 1870, 1,627; in 
1880, 2,003: in 1890, 2,348; in 1900, 560; in 
1910, 503. 

The population of Catawissa borough was 
2.023 in 1900, and 1,930 in 1910. This gives 
evidence of the fact that most of the popula- 
tion of the township resided in the borough 
in the early days. 




One of the first of the nidustries of the town 
was a nail factory, operated by Thomas Hart- 
man, the product being handmade. In 1845 
Fincher & Thomas, owners of the Esther fur- 
nace, erected the "Penn" furnace near the 
mill of Christian Brobst, a short distance 
above Catawissa, on the creek. They ran it 
for a short time only, the cost of transport- 
ing the ore and coal being prohibitive, in 
competition with the furnaces at Danville and 
Bloomsburg. There was also the foundry of 
O. D. Leib & Co., which made a specialty of 
"ten-plate" stoves. Owen and George Hughes 
were its last owners. 

The largest manufacturing establishment in 
Catawissa was the paper mill established in 
1811 by Benjamin Sharpless. He was a resi- 
dent of Sunbury, and while on a visit to a 
brother in Ohio became acquainted with the 
process of papermaking. Returning to Cata- 
wissa he formed a partnership with John Clark, 
bought the old Shoemaker gristmill and altered 
it to accommodate the new industry. The 
ancient hand process was used, the raw mate- 
rial being rags. After passing through dif- 
ferent hands and being greatly enlarged the 
mill came into the possession of William Mc- 
Kelvy, and was operated by his son, C. W. 
McKelvy. At the death of the proprietor the 
plant was managed by E. B. Guie, for the 
estate, until it was sold to Edward and John 
McCready, of Philadelphia. It was destroyed 
by fire in 1882, but soon rebuilt for the exclus- 
ive manufacture of wood pulp. McCready 
Brothers met with financial reverses and the