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3 1833 011 

45 4094 

Gc 974.801 B45m v.l, pt.l 
Montgomery, Morton L. 
Historical and biographical annals 
of Berks County, Pennsylvania 

? '? o 



' i'^ 



. V^-/, Pt. I 











J. H. BEERS & CO. 





HE nrft atrempt at the compilation of local liistory in Berk? Coinny was made in IcSil by 
\Vi) Stable, a -'.ciekee[)cr at Reading. lie publislicd a ?;nall volume of 6^ pages 
in two editions, one in tiie iilnglish language and llie ether in the German, entitled "A 
I ■ Description of the Boroiigli of Reading,"' and it r^'cted chiefiy to t'ne business affairs 

of Reading. T!:e booi< was pn-pared for him by Jao'^son M. Sherman, a young lawyer, who 
had shortly before boon at'.millt <; to practice in the Courts of Berks Coimty. 
I The next attempt was made in 1S44 by L Daniel Rupp of Lancaster. For some years 

I before; he bad. been engaged m collecting information relating to a number of counties in 

f Pennsylvania which were situated to the east and west of the Susquehanna River, and the re- 

{ suit of his persevering inda.>try was published in separate volumes, entitled after the several 

I counties. One or them was the "History of Berks and Lebanon Counties," an octavo volume 

I oi 504 pages. 

I In 1S59, Amob K. Strunk. of Boyertown, publi.'^hed a small book of 12x pages, embracing 

I the names of the cor.nty representatives and officials who served from 17.r? to 18G0 ; and he 

j issued it in two editions, one in t;ie Engiisli language and the other in the German, for use as a 

convenient bock of reference. In 7883, the author of the present work published the "Po- 
litical Hand-Book of Berks County," an octavo volume of 104 pages, which was an enlarge- 
'■ ' ment or Strunk'^ idea, embracing census .nformation of tl.e county, the names of the repre- 

; scntatives and officials of Reading, and also census information of Reading, besides the names 

of the county otticials, from 17-">" to 1S3t. 
I In 1S81, Prof. David B. Brunner, a school teacher at Reading for many years, published 

"The Indians of Berk- County," an octavo volume of 177 pages; Avhich related to the aborig- 
ines of the county and included many cuts (17G), made by himself, of the various relics 
found in the county; and a revised eiiition (2.")7 pages) was issued by him in 1897. 

The author compiled the fcllowmg works on local liistory: In 1«8(', the "History of Berks 
County," a royal octavo volume of lv04 pages, for the publishers. ]^>Iessrs. Everts, Peck & 
' Richards, of Philadelphia, which embraced a comprehensive description and tabulated state- 

\ ments of local affairs, besides numerous biographical sketches of men who were prominent 

! in the industrial, financial, political and professional matters of the county; in 1889, the 

I "School History of Berks County," a duodecimo volume of 300 pages, for use in the public 

I schools of the county as a supplementary reader, which has been used in the local schools 

i since that time; in 1S'J4, "Berks Ccjunty in the Revolution," an octavo volume of 295 pages, 

I for the purpose of shov/ing what services the people of the county rendered the national gov- 

ernment in the establishment of independence; and in 1898, the "Sesqui-Centennial History of 
Reading," an octavo volume of 298 pages, which embraced a concise narrative of local events 
and industrial affairs for 150 years, and a comprehensive description of the anniversary pro- 
ceedings, as an appropriate memorial of the extraordinary occasion. 

The volumes mentioned are the works of a general historical nature which have been 
published of the county. After the lapse of more than twenty years from the time of pub- 
lishing the large county history of ISS'l. the author was encouraged by many persons to re- 
vise that work by bringing the historical detail? down to the present tiine. Arrangements 
were accordingly made with the publishers of tjiis work to pubhsh it under the title of '"His- 
torical and Biographical Annals of Berks County," so as to embrace, besides general history, 
local biography and genealogy, which in that time had becum.e very important in the estima- 

:^ •■;■■ '■•?!:v;fr:/' .vs;l!.;,;^-rr 

J ::,;■->; !■■ J.'-y;- ^iA ■ V. 

tion of many historical societies throughout the State of Pennsylvania, and their publication 
in a convenient and permanent form was encouraged by those societies. 

:\Iuch time has been devoted to the careful preparation of this work in order to pro- 
duce a compilation which should be recognized for its thoroughness in covering every section 
of the county. The table of contents relating to th.e historical annals is comprehensive and the 
ojig list of personal sketches evidences patient inquiry in securing the biographical and genea- 
logical annals; and these tak-n together will be appreciated by the public generally as well 
as by the patrons of the work, as of incalculable value to the people of the countv and to 
the numerous descendants of the First Families who were located in the county before the 
Revolution. Many ot the sketches contain items of history which woul.,1 not be preserved in 
any other way. In nearly every instance the data were submitted to those immediately inter- 
ested for revision and correction. 

"Family Reunions" has been a subject of importance to many persons of the county for 
upward ot ten years, and descendants of different families have assembled at certain pe- 
riods m dirterent places of the county to show respect for their ancestors and to collect bio- 
graphical and genealogical data. Some of them have been vcrv successful. A chapter on the 
subject (XIII) has been included in this work, and it is the first attempt in the colIecMou of 
this particular kind of information. It is to be regretted that many others of the "TTirst 
Families," of equal prominence, have not also in this time formed reunions and held meet- 
ings so as to increase their beneficent social influence in the county and to assist in preserving 
distinct family records and genealogies. 

November, 1909. 



Chapter I — Erection of County 

Physical Geography 1-4 

Mountains, 1 Relative Elevations, 4 

Valleys, 2 Iron Ore. 4 

Streams, 3 Copper Ore, 4 

Scliuyll.ill. 3 Minerals, 4 

Latitude and LonRitude, 4 Geulostj, 4 

Conditions of Tekritopv 4-6 

Pftittons for County 6-16 

Districts at Erection, 7 First Assessment, S 

Boundaries of County, 7 First Taxabies, Nacies of 

in 2C Townships, 8-lf> 


Swedes, 16 Welsb, 19 

Gentians, 17 Irish, 19 

Huguenots, 17 Hebrews, 19 

French, 18 Negroes, 19 

English, 18 

FiKST Occupants, Indians 20-23 

Origin, 20 Retreat of Indians, 22 

Delaware Trilies, 20 Indian Names, 22 

Ganawese, 21 Villages, 23 

Manners and Customs, 21 Indian Relics, 23 

Purchase of Territory 23-24 

Reductions of Tekritory 24 

Northumberland County, 24 Other Counties Propot,ed, 24 

Schuylkill County, 24 

Chapter II — Industry of County 
Agricultupe . . 25-26 

General Condition and Aip-icu!tural Society, 26 

Progress, 25 Farmers' Union, 20 

Iron Industries 27-28 

Furnaces and Forges, 27 General Industiies, 2o 

Industrial Statistics, 27 Memorial for National 

Iron-masicrs, 27 i-'oundry, 28 

Internal Improvements 2S-44 

S'chuvlkill River, 28 Canals, 34 

Fishing and Navigation, 28 Railvvavs, 36 

Freshets, 29 Post-Offices, 40 i . 

Bridges, 29 Telegraph, 43 

Roads and Turnpikes, 31 Telephone, 43 

State Highways, S3 Oil Pipe Lines, 44 

Stages, S3 

Political Sentiment 68-71 

Political Parties. 63 Vote for Prohibition, 89 

Vote for Governor, 68 Election of 1876, 69 

Vote for President, 69 State Conventions at Read- 
Vote for Constitutional ing, 69 

Amendments, 69 Mass-Meetings, 70 

Political Festivals 71-72 

Hiesfer Festival of 1820. 71 Tildcn Festival of 1876, 72 

Harrison Festival of 1840, Cleveland Festivals, 72 


Offices by Special Legislation 72-73 

National Representati\'es 73-74 

Con,;re3s:nen, 72 U. S. Commissioners, 74 

Foreign Ministers, 74 Registers iu Bankruptcy, 74 

Foreign Consuls, 74 

State REPRLSENTATa-Es 74-75 

Delegates to Conventions, 

State Officials 75 

Senators 75 


County On icers 77-87 

Commissioners, 77 Suri-eyors. 82 

Auditors. 73 Poor Directors, 82 

Controllers, 79 Steward?, 83 

Treasurers, 79 Prison Inspectors, 83 

Sheriffs, 79 ' Prison Wardens, 85 

Coroners, 80 Jury Commissioners, 85 

Prothonotaries, 80 Mercantile A,ipraisers, 85 

Recorders. 81 License Comn-issioners, 86 

Registers, 81 Oii Inspectors. 86 

Orphans" Court C:erk5, 81 Sellers of WL-i^hts and 
Quarter Sessions' Clerks, 81 Measures, d6 

District Attorneys, ."Z Superintendents of Common 
Special Detectives, 82 Schools, S7 

County Buildixog 87-90 

Court-Houses, 87 State-House, 89 

Prisons, 89 Poor-House, 90 

Chapter III — Education in County 
Religion 45-54 

Denominations Described, 45 Sunday Schools of Berks 

Pastors Long in Service, 48 County, .^1 

Churches in Townships, 49 Sunday Mails, 53 

General Education 54-58 

Early Encouragement, 54 Tabular Statement of 1903, 

Teachers Before 1752, 54 56 

Charity Schools, 51 Lecture on Conrad Weiser. 

Common Schools. .^5 '►7 

System Accepted by Dis- Purpose of Lecture. 58 

tricts, 55 Teachers' Institutes. 58 

Newspapers 59-61' 

Weekly Newspapers, 59 Daily Newspapers, 60 

Language, Manners and Customs 61-65 

Chapter IV — Government and Officials 

Election Districts 65-n') 

Prominent Rf.pp.esentativt: Men 66-63 

Chapter V — Bench and Bar 

Judges — 1752 to 1790 91-92 

Judges — 1790 to 1909 92-93 

President Judges, 92 Orphans' Court Judges, 92 

Additional Law Judges, 92 Associate Judges, 92 

Attorneys at Law 93-95 

Chapter VI — Medical Profession 
Medical Faclt,ty of Berks County 96-105 

Berk»5 County Medical So- Reading, 08 

ciety, 96 Boroughs. 100 

Reading Medical Associa- Manatawny Sccti'in, TOO 

tion. 98 Ontelauncc .Srction. 101 

Allopathic Practitioners, 98- Tulpehncken Section. 101 

101 Schuylkill Section. 301 

Homoeopathy 101-103 

Homoeopathic Practitioners Homoeopathic Medical and 

Association of Reading, Surgical Hospital of 

102 Reading, in-j 

Homoeopathic Practitioners, 

Osteopathy 103 

Osteopathic Practitioners, - - 


Dentistry 103 

Dental Practitioners, 103 

Veterinary 104 

Veterinary Prjctitioners, 

.<.■■•:. i'cO v;r ■^•■c. 




Market Commissioners, 527 

■ L'.ian! of PiitHc Health. 227 
Mer.bers oi Boird, i.:7 
Kcaltli Conim.r.bioners, £"7 
Plun^hing Inspectofs. :!L'7 
Trustees of Pub'.]'; Library, 

Jjsi-ccs 01 tne Peace, 22.S 
Aldt-r.n»n, 2i9 
Cous^alJies, 22!) 

Census . . 

Ccnsrs Table— 1?50-10J0, 

Se.xis of Pop'j'.ation. 23-1 
Populption North a-.-l South 

ot Street. 23* 
Colored pDpulation. 234 
Comparative Statistxs. C34 
Assessment for 1?9S, 2?4 

School Coiitroliors, 230 
Presidents of School Koard, 

Sccrrfarits of School 

Board. 233 
Treasurers ■! School 

Board. 2JS 
City S'jL.erintendents, 234 
Meat and Milk Inspectors, 



A£scs>,racrt for 190S, 235 
Presidential Vote. 190S, 235 
CompT'ativ*; Statement, 2jr. 
Number oi Buiidinss, 235 
Lunior Licenses ior ISO!', 

Table of Industries in 

1900, 237 

Chapter XI — Boroughs 



Statemsnt Or Banks 

Mercantile License -^ 

Liquor Lk— N3f:s 




state^f of p. o. s. of a 

East of Schcjyikill 

Kutztovn, 24(1 Tcpton. 261 

Hamburg, 247 Leidiartsville. 2';3 

Boycrtuwn, 252 Eechtelsville, 2C4 

Fleetwood, 259 Mount Penn, 2t,0 

West of SrnuYLKiLL 

Womelsdorf. 203 Wvom.ssin?, 281 

Bernville. 2T1 Mohnto-, 2S3 

Bir-.'sborc, 274 V<est Rcadinc. 23 

Ccntrei'irt, 279 bhillington, 293 
West Leesport, 2S0 


Chapter XII — Townships 

Four Sections 

Erection or To"'NStiips 

De\t.lovm;:ni or Sections 

Govern m f.nt 

Rail\va\ and Telecuaph 

!NDUsrRt.\L Situation , 

Rf.lig;on /nd Etiuc^tion 

St-vtistics , 


Towns og^ 

Mercantile Licenses ogg 

Liquor Licenses 09^ 

P. O. S. OF A. CA.\iPS 298 

M.A.N atawny Section 208-303 

Names of Townships, 298 L-on Ore Mines, 301 

Derivation nf Names, 299 Hiehways, 3'il 

Boroughs. 2';9 .\dditioMil Taxab'es fD-jug- 
Names of Tow. ,3. 300 lass. Rockland, and 

First Settlers, 300 Districtl. 301 

Industrial Prominence, 300 Noteworthy Enterprises, 302 

Ontelaunee Section 303-30(i 

Names of Tr.wnsh'ps. 30:; Blue Rocics. 304 

I>erivation of Names. 30? Iron O.-c Mines. 304 

BorouRhf. 304 Htch-.vavs. 304 

Names of Towf-s. 304 Karly Ircti Works. 3n5 

First Settlors, ?,04 Noteworthy Enterprises, 30.5 

Indian Atrocities, 304 


Names of Townships, 306 First Settlers. 306 

Derivation of l\imci, S06 Hii^hways, 306 

Boroughs. 3'^fl Notewoithy Enterprbes. 307 

Names of Towns, 306 Berkshire Country Club. 


Schuylkill Section 308-311 

Names of Townships, 308 Hiehways, 30!> 

Derivation of Nc^.mes, 308 Early Industries. SO!) 

Borouphs, 309 Suburban Towns. 309 

Names of Town;. SOU Noteworthy Enterprises. 310 
First Settlers, 300 

Chapter XIII — Family Reunions 

First Families of County. 

Baer. 313 
B-rtolct. 313 
Rov?r, 314 



lie Lorsc, 314 
Dierolf,' 315 
Dierricu. 315 
Dries^ 315 

Fisher Kartmai!, 316 
Furrv, 316 
Gerv, 310 
Grim. 316 
Hafer. 317 
Haitman-Fisher, 016 
lU'ftner, 317 317 
Kistler, CIS 

Kline. 31 S 
Srick. 318 ~ 
Levongcod. 313 
Ludwie. 319 
Lutz. 319 
Reedy. 31!> 
Ritter. 31>) 
Roh'-Larh. 320 
Saul, 320 
Schaeffer, 320 • 
Seaman. 321 
Sehneider. 321 
Strai-Fs, 321 
Trexle;. 321 
Wanisher. 322 
Yeich. 323 


Biographical 323 


Nicolls, Giistavus A 520 

Nolan, Edward C 576 

Nolan, James 456 

Nolan, VVillium 448 

Nolan, William, Jr 57G 

Nclde, JacoU 600 

Old Swede Building (.First House in County) 17 

Otto, Henry M 920 

Patents, Early, Reading 153 

Peif er, Peter 152S 

Penn Hardware Con^pany 666 

Penn Street (.Harrisburp) Bridge, Old 29 

Pioneer Homesteads, Tulpehocken Valley, 1723, 

Map 306 

Printz, Daniel F 640 

Prutzman, Asaph 808 

Reading, Adminstralion Building of School Dis- 
trict 55 

Reading, Boys' Hig^n School 202 

City Hall 196 

Early Patents 153 

" Federal hin 155 

" First Pi'.Mic School 202 

" First School-bouse 202 

" Free Lihrary 55 

" Girls' High School 202 

" Home for Friendless Children 214 

" " " " " Play Grounds 214 

Hospital 212 

" Penn Square, looking east trom '>th St... 192 
" Penn Square, looking west from 5Lh St... 192 
" Penn Sqrare, looking e:ist from 4th St... 103 
" Penn Square, Nortlj Side, looking east 

from 5th St 200 

Reading, Penn Square, N'orth Side, Ic^oking west 

from 5th St 200 

Reading, Penn Square, Soutli Side, lookins: west 

from 5th St 193 

Reading, Penn Square, South Si ie, looking west 

from 6th St.. 198 

Reading, Plan of Roads to 32 

Post-Ofuce 195 

" Public School Bjildir.g, 5th and Spring 

Sts 203 

Reading. Piihlic School Buildinty. Hth and Pike Sts. •^03 

" Sesqui-Centennial, Executive Conr.nittee 166 

" Sesqui-Centennial, Head of Civic Parade 167 

" Sesqui-Centennial, Division of Industrial 

Parade .167 

Reading, Town Plan 154 

View of City from West 153 

" Widows' Home 213 

Rhoads, Henry W 1335 

Richards, Louis 512 

Rick, Cyrus 544 

Rick, George A 603 

Rick, William 552 

Ritter, Louis 657 

Rocks of Rockland 300 

Rotherniel, Abraham H 44\ 

Rotherniel Coat of Arms 441 

Savior. Benjamin 672 

Schaetfer, Charles H 368 

Schall, David 785 

Schall. William A 786 

Schofer, Henry 1208 

Seidel. Franklin 1416 

Seiders, Henry 1490 

Seltzer. Jonathan R. 824 

Smink, F. C 432 

Smith, Frederick L 464 

Smith, Levi B 416 

Smith, William D 424 

Spat--:, Isaac S 1048 

Spatz, John G 104S 

Speidel. John G 1064 

Spinning Wheel 63 

Stage Coach 197 

State .Asylum (Wernersville) 103 

State House <«) 

State Xormai School (Kutztown) 245 

Staufer, William M 1032 

Strunk. John M 1016 

Tuipchocken Valley, Pioneer Homesteads, 1723. 

Map „306 

Turner, Newton R 1272 

Volunteer Firemen, Monument 196 

Walter, Dr. Robert 504 

Wanner, Peter D 1096 

Vv'tisf r, Conrad, Grave of 331 

Weiser, Conrad, Store of 155 

Whitner, Calvin K 408 

Willson. Gile J 680 

Wool Wlicel 62 

Wunder, W. W 1320 


Additional Law Judges 93 

Agricultural Societies of County 26 

AKfici'l'iire of C^'unty 2'i 

Albany, First Taxables of S 

Albany Township 303 

Ahlcrmen cf Readincr 229 

Allopathic Practitioners ...9S-1C1 

Alsac-?. First Taxable^ of 8 

Albace Township 293 

Amish Denomination in County 47 

Amity, F:r.=t Taxables of 9 

Amity Townshio 298 

Area of County 7 

Armory at Hamburj;- 252 

Arm.ory at Reading 205 

Army Supplies from County in 

Revolution 116 

Asscnuilymen from County... 7S 

Assessment of County, First 8 

Assessment of Reading, 18'jS, 1908 


.■\sse5=.ors of Reading 219 

Associate Judges 92 

A>soc'aiions at Reading 204 

Associators in Revolution ....112 

Attorneys at Law 93 

Auditors cf Co'inty 7S 

Auditors of Reading 218 

2aer Family Reunion 31?. 

Pai-ds at Resding 211 

Rank at Birdsboro 277 

Bank at Fleetwood 261 

P.anI-- at Leecport 3i).) 

Bank st ^^ohnto^ 287 

Bank at Topton 2C3 in Berks County ...151 
Bankruptcy, Registers in, from 

County 74 

Barks at Boroughs, Statement 

of 239 

B.mks ?.t Bovertown 256 

Baiik.i at Hamburg 250 

Hanks at Kutztown 243 

Banks at Reading 209 

Baptist Denomination in County 46 
Battles. Summary of, in Civil 

War 127 

n-.-hirl-'ville. Poronrrh of 2f)4-2<'.G 

T'.rlt Line in Schuylkill Section 310 

Bell Lme of P. & R. R 39 

Bench and Bar of County 91 

Berks and Dauphin Turnpike... 32 

Berks County Law Library 210 

Berks County Medical Society 

96, 210 

Berkshire Country Club 307 

Ben. Fir^; Taxables of 9 

r.(rn T'T.vrship 306 

I'rrrvillc. f'nrough of 271-::;T4 

BcrnviHe Hand in Civil War ..131 
Hcrnville. Cleveland Parade at 72 

IVrtnlct Family Reunion 313 

Bethany Orphans' Home 106, 307 

Brtbel. Fir-t Taxables of 10 

Pethfl Townshin 306 

Heulnh .Xiichorage 214 

r.-,r.',,'.,>rri. Boroi-rrh cf 274--;rS 

Bird br>ro Band in Civil War .132 

Black Spot on Mount Penn ... 2 

IViuc Mountain 1 

Blue Rixks 264, ^04 

Board of Health of Reading ..227 
Board of Public Works of Read- 
ing 219 

Board of Trade of Reading ...203 

Boroughs of County 233 

Boundaries of County 7 

Boyer Family Reunion 314 

Hoyertown, Borough of 2."2-25T 

Eoyertown Opera House F-re 


Brecknock, First Taxables of . 10 

Brecknock Township 303 

Bridges in County 29-31 

Bridges and Ferries at Reading 195 
Brooke Furnace ir. Manatawny 

Section 302 

Brooke Iron Works at Birds- 
boro 2~fi 

Brunswick, Firs: Ta.xables of . 10 
Building Inspectors of Reading 219 

Buildings at Reading 236 

Bureau of Employm.ent at Read- 
ing 212 

Burgesses of Reading 217 

Caernarvon. First Taxables of 10 

Caernarvon Township 308 

Canals in County 34 

Canals, Lottery Privileges for 25 
Captains of County in Revolu- 
tion 116 

Carsonia Park 302 

Cemeteries at Reading 196 

CeTisus of County 146 

Census of Reading 234 

Census Table of County, 1800- 

1900 147 

Centre Township 306 

Centre Turnpike 32 

Centreport. Borough of 27S-2T0 

Chapel Rock 303 

Charitable Associations at Read- 
ing 212 

Charity Schools of County .... 54 

Charming Forge 307 

Chiefs of Police of Reading ...218 

Churches in Townshins 49 

Churches of Borouchs 239 

Churches of County, First .... 45 

Churches of Reading 200 

City Clerks of Reading 227 

City Hall at Reading 196 

Civil War of 1S61-G5 123 

Clavs of County 4 

Clerks of Common Council of 

Reading 226 

Clerks of Orphans' Court 81 

Clerks of Quarter Sessions ... 81 
Clerks of Select Council of 

Readine 221 

Cleveland Festivals in County . 73 
Ch-mor ^L^s.s-Meeti^gs in 18'ir,.. 70 
Colebrookdale, First Ta.xables 

cf 10 

Colebrookdale Iron Works 3"2 

Colebrookdale Mines 302 

Colebrookdale Railroad 39 

Colebrock'iale Township 298 

Colonels of Associated Battal- 

^ions. 1775 113 

Colonels of County in Revolu- 

lion lie 

Colonial Forts in County iOS 

Colored Population of Ctmnty . . ..■.'34 
Comm.issioners cf Ccuiitv ..... 77 
Commissioners of Public Works 

oi Reading 219 

Commissioners of United States 

from County 74 

Common Councilmen of Read- 

^ ing 221-2'26 

Common School System Accept- 
ed by Districts 55 

Common School System in 

County 55 

Common Schools, Tabular 

Staternent of County 56 

Companies from County in Civil 

^'v^ar 128 

Companies from County in Rev- 
olution 113-115 

Conditions of Territory at time 
of First Settlement in County 4 

(congressmen of County '. 73 

Con';olidated Telephone Com- 

, pany 44 

Constables of f\eading 229-';0 

Constitutional .\mendmcnt?, 

Vote for in County 09 

Constitutional Conventions, Del- 
egates from Co'.n-ity 71 

Continental Paiu r .Money 117 

ConrroIIers of Countv ._ 79 

Conlrolle'-s of Reading 21S 

Copper O-e in Coimty 4 

Coroners of Countv 30 

Country Homes in Schuylkill 

Section 311 

County Bridges. Statement oi 31 

County Buildings 87 

Countv Charitable Institutions 106 

County Commissioners 77 

Countv Officers 77 

County, Petitions for 6 

Countv Surveyors S2 

Court-Houses of County ....S7-88 

Croll Family Reunion 314 

Crystal Cave 821 

Cumru. First Taxables of 11 

Cumru Townsbin 308 

Crstoms. Languacre. Manners in 
County 61-65 

Daily Newspapers 60 

D''-larntion of Independence 

1 'ad in Countv 113 

Decline of Staces in County .. 34 
Deii^her Indian Relic* at Kutz- 

town 247 

Dela vare Tribes of Iiid'ai's . . 20 
Delegates to Con^t'trtional 

Convention"; from ("ountv . . 74 
Delegates to Provinci.-l Con- 
ference from County 74 

^.^. ,. ' . J w. ^..-jy. '? 



DeLonff Family Reunion 314 

Dental Practnioncrs in Coun- 
ty 10;i-04 

Dentistry in County lO:? 

Department Stores at Reading 184 
Detect! vti. bpccinl of Countv.... 8:J 

Deysher Stock Farm 311 

Dierolf Family Reunion 31a 

Dietrich Family Reunion ai5 

District Attorneys of County .. 82 

District Township 299 

District Township Taxables ...301 
Districts of County at Erection 7 
Districts of County in lT7f; ...113 
Dives, Pomeroy & Stewart De- 
partment Store 185 

Douglass. First Taxables of ..301 

Etouglass Township 203 

Drafted Militia of Countv in 

Civil War ^ .136 

Drafts of Berks County in Civ- 
il War 126 

Dries Faniily Reunion 31.'5 

Drum Corps at Reading 213 

Dunkard Denomination in 

County 47 

Durell's Battery in Civil War.. 135 

Earl Township 299 

Earl Mountain 2 

Early Furnaces and Forges 27 

Early Roads to Reading 32 

Early Settlements of County . . 5 

East Penn Railroad 33 

Eastern .State Penitentiary ...106 

Education at Reading 202 

Education. Early Encourage- 
ment of 54 

Education, First Teachers 54 

Education in County 15 

Election Districts of Count> . . 65 
Election of 1376 in Countv ... tJ9 
Electric L.ight at Reading . ...199 
Electric Plant in Schuylkill 

Section 310 

Electric Rs.ilwa3's in Countv . . 40 
Elevations at Reading above 

Sea Level 200 

Elevations of Places in Countv 4 

Embargo of 1S07 121 

Engineers of Reading 227 

English, Early Immigrants in 

Conntv 18 

English "War of 1312-15 121 

Enrollment of County for Mili- 
tary Service in 1908 144 

Erection of County 1, G 

Evangelical Denomination in 

County 48 

Exeter, First Taxables of 11 

Exeter Township 293 

Fair Ground in Manatawny Sec- 
tion 303 

Family Reunions 311-322 

Farmers' Union 26 

Ferries and Bridges at Reading 193 
Fertilizer Works in Schuylkill 

Section 310 

Festivals, Political, at Reading. 71 
Festivals, Political, in Countv.... 71 
Filtration of Reading Water 

Supply 194 

Financial Associations at Read- 
ing 209 

Fire Companies at Reading ...205 
First Officers from County 

in Revolution 112 

First Assessment of County ... 8 

First Cliurches of County 43 

First Families of Berks Coun- 
ty 311 

First Settlements of County ... 5 
First Settlers of Manatawny 

Section 300 

First Settlers of Ontelaunee 

Section 304 

First Settlers of Schuylkill Sec- 
tion 309 

First Settlers of Tulpehocken 

Section 306 

l-'ii'st Taxables of County S-16 

P'isher-Hartman Family Re- 
union 316 

Fishing and Navigation in 

County 28 

Fleetwood. Borough of 250-201 

Flying Hills in County 1 

Foreign Consuls from County.. 74 
Foreign Ministers from Coun- 

ly 74 

Forest, district in County 1 

Forts, Colonial, in County lOS-109 

French and Indian War 107 

French. Early Immigrants in 

County .... 18 

Freshets of Schuylkill River in 

County 29 

Fiicndlcss Children, Home for... 213 

Friend? Society in County 46 

I'urnaces and Forges in County 27 
Furry Family Reunion 316 

Ganawesc Indians 21 

Garbage Plant of Reading ....310 

Gas Light at Reading 193 

Geology of County 4 

Germania Band 312 

German Immigrants of County 17 
Germans to Rescue in Revolu- 
tion 112 

Gery Family Reunion 316 

(iibraltar iron Works 310 

Ginseng. Cultivation of 244 

Glen Mills Reformatory 106 

<jIobe Rendering Co. '. 311 

Government of County 65 

Government of Reading 216 

Governor, Vote for in County. 68 
Greenwich. First Taxables of.. 11 

Greenwich Township 303 

Grim Family Reunion 316 

Grosch's Sunset House 307 

Hafer Family Reunion 317 

H:ihnemann Medical Society of 

Reading 102 

Hails at Reading 200 

Hanihiirg. Borough of 247-252 

Hamburg 30 

Harrison Festival of 1840 at 

Reading 71 

Hartman-Fisher Family Re- 
union 316 

Ifassler's Highland House ....307 
Health Commissioners of Read- 
ing 227 

Hebrews in County 19 

Heffner Fatnily Reunion 317 

Heidelberg, First Taxables of . . 11 

Heidelberg Township 306 

Heinly Family Reunion 317 

Hereford, First Taxables of ... 12 

Hereford Township 298 

Hiester Festival of 1820 at Read- 
ing 71 

Historical Society of Berks 

County 210 

Home for Friendless Children 

106. 214 

Homoeopathic Hospital ^13 

Homoeopathic Medical and Sur- 
gical Ho.-.pital Of Reading ...103 
Homoeopathic Practitioners As- 
sociation of Reading ....102, 210 
Homoeopathic Practitioners of 

County 103 

Homoeopathy in County ...101-103 
Hospital at Reading in Civil 

War 126 

Hospitals at Reading 1O6 

House of Good Shepherd ..106, 214 

House Tax of 1799 120 

Huguenots, Ea-ly Immigrants 

of County 17 

Humane Society of Berks Coun- 
ty 214 

Huntingdon Reformatory 100 

Ice Plants in Schuylkill Section 310 
Incumbents -of Positions in Revolu- 
tion 117 

Indian Atrocities 110, 304 

Indians, Murdered and Captured 

by 110 

Indian Names of County 22 

Indian Rcl'cs in County 23 

Indians, Enumeration of 22 

Indians, First Occupants of 

County 20 

Indians, Manners and Customs 

of 21 

Indians, Origin of 20 

Indians, Release of Territory . . 23 

Indians, Retreat of 22 

Indians. Tribes of 20 

Industrial As3'X;iation3 at 

Reading 209 

Industrial Statistics of County 27 
Industries at Reading in 1900 ..237 
Industries at Reading, State- 
ment of 170 

Industries of Boroughs 233 

Industrv of County 25 

Inspector of Meat and Milk at 

Heading 234 

Internal Irriprovements of 

County S'S 

Internal Improvements of Read- 
ing 393 

Irish Mountain 2 

Irish Settlers in County .... 19 

Iron Industries of County 27 

Iron Industries of County in 

Revolution 116 

Iron Masters of County in 

Revolution 117 

Iron Ore of County 4 

Jefferson Township 3OG 

Judges from 1752 to 1790 91 

Judges from 1790 to 1909 93 

Jury Commissioners 35 

Justices of the Peace of Read- 
ing 22s 

Keystone State Normal School 245 

Kistler Family Reunion :;i8 

Kittatinny Mountain 1 

Kline. Fnrihimer & Co. Depart- 
ment Store 184 

Kline Fanrly Reunion 318 

Krick Family Reunion 318 

Kiitztown. Borough f.'' 240-2J5 

Kutztown Branch Railroad .... 39 



Kutztown, Cleveland Parade at ?£■ 

Kutziown Fair Ground 30i 

Kutztown, Hiester Festival at 71 

Ladies' Aid Society in Civil 

War 126 

Lancaster Bridge aO 

Land and Live Stock of Coun- 
ty in 1908 152 

Language, Manners and Cus- 
toms of County 61-65 

Latitude and Longitude of 

County 4 

Lauer Monument 781 

Lebanon Valley Railroad 38 

Leespori Bank 305 

Legal Association of Berks 

County 210 

Lehigh Telegraph Co. in Coun- 
ty 43 

LenhartsviUe, Borough of ...263-2C-t 
Levengood Family Reunion ...318 
Lexington, Battle of, Awakens 

County 112 

Liberty-Poles of 1799 120 

Libraries at Reading 210 

License Commissioners 86 

Light and Power at Reading ..199 
Liquor Licenses oi Boroughs .239 
Liquor Licenses of Reading ..2r!r, 
Liquor Licenses of Townships 293 
Literary Associations at Read- 
ing 210 

Live Stock and Land of Coun- 
ty in 1908 152 

Livingood Family Reunion 318 

Location of Reading 200 

Longitude and Latitude of 

County 4 . 4 

Longsvranip, First Taxables of 12 

Longswamp Township 303 

Lord & Gage Department Store.. 185 
Lottery Privileges for Union 

Canal 35 

Letter/ Privilege for Church at 

Womelsdorf 271 

Lotz Receipt Book in Revolu- 
tion 116 

Lower Aisace Township ....299 
Lower Heidelberg Township ..306 

Ludwig Family Reunion 319 

Lutheran Denomination i n 

County 45 

Lutheran Ministers of County . 46 
Lutheran and Reformed 

Churches of County 48 

Lutz Family Reunion 319 

Maiden-creek, First Taxables 

of 12 

Maiden-creek Road 32 

Maiden-creek Township 303 

Manatawny Section of Town- 
ships ; 29S 

Manners, Customs, Language 

of County 61-65 

Manor of Penn's Mount 2 

^^arion Township 306 

Market Commissioners of Read- 
ing 227 

Market-Houses at Reading ....193 

Mass-Meetings at Reading 70 

Mnxatawny, First Taxables of 13 

Maxatawny Township 303 

^^ayors of Reading 217-213 

Meat and Milk Inspector, Read- 
ing 234 

Medical Associations at Read- 
ing 210 

Medical Faculty of Berks Coun- 
ty 96 

Medical Protession of County .96 
Medical Society of Berks Coun- 
ty 96, 98 

-Membership of Religious De- 
nominations 49 

Memorial for National Foundry.. 23 

Merc.intilf Appraisers 85 

Mercantile Licenses of Bo- 
roughs 239 

Mercantile Licenses of County 293 
Mercantile Licenses of Reading 298 
Mercantile Licenses of Town- 
ships 293 

Mexican War. 1846-48 122 

Military Associations of Read- 
ing 139, 204 

Militia Encampment at Read- 
ing in 1842 142 

Militia Sysiems of County .140-144 
Milk and Meat Inspector, Read- 
ing 234 

Minerals of County 4 

Mohnton, Borough of 285-288 

^loney at Interest, by Districts 149 

Monocacy Hill 2 

Montello Brick Works in 

.'>chuylkill Section" 310 

Monthly Newspapers of County. 60 
Moravian Denomination in 

County 47 

Mould, J. & Co. Department 

Store 184 

Mount Neversink 2 

Mount Penn 2 

Mount Petin. Borough of 266-268 

Mountain Railroads at Read- 
ing 198 

Mountains of County 1 

Muhlenberg Township 299 

Murdered and Captured by In- 
dians 109-10 

Musical Associations at Read- 
ing 210-211 

National Representatives from 

County 73 

Nationalities in County 16 

Navigation of River Encouraged 29 
Navigation of Schuylkill River 28 

Negroes in County 19 

Neversink Mountain 2 

Newspapers at Birdsboro .... 60 

Newspapers at Boroughs 60 

Newspapers at Boyertown .... 60 
Newspapers at Hamburg .... 60 

Newspapers at Kutztown 60 

Newspapers at Reading ...59, 204 
Newspapers at Wcmclsdorf ... 60 

Newspapers, Daily 60 

Newspapers of County 59 

North Heidelberg Tow^nship ..306 
Northumberland County, Erec- 
tion of £'4 

Occupations at Reading, 1909.... 185 

Ot'hccrs of Conntv 77 

Offices by Special Legislation 72 

Officials of County 65 

Officials of County in Revolu- 
tion .. 117 

OfficiaIsj>f^eading 216 

rTof State, from County 75 

:1 Inspectors 86 

Oil Pipe Lines in County 44 

Old Swede Building 16 

Olev, First Taxables of 13 

Oley Hills 2 

Oley Road 32 

Oley Township 298 

Oley Turnpike 32 

Ontelaunee Section of Town- 
ships 303 

Ontelaun«e Township 303 

Orphans' Asylum, St. Cathar- 
ine's Female 106. 214 

Orphans' Court Clerks of Coun- 
ty 81 

Orphans' Court Judges 92 

Orphans' Home at Topton..l06, 2G3 
Orphans' Home at VVornelsdorf 

106, 307 

Orr Stock Farm 3H 

Or%vigsburg, Fliester Festival 

at 71 

Osteopathy in County 103 

Packets on Canals 36 

Paper Mills in Tulpehocken 

Section 307 

Paper Money in Civil War ....127 

Paper Money in Revolution 117 

Park Commissioners of Read- 
ing 219 

Pastors Long in Service 4S 

Pathological Society at Read- 

inR 98 

Patients of County at Stat? 

Hospital 106 

Patriotic Associations at 'Read- 
ing 210 

Pay Schools of County 59,203 

Peace Declared in Revolution 119 

Penn Common at Reading ....195 

Penn Street Bridge 30 

Penn Township 306 

Penn's Mount 3 

Penn's Mount, Manor of 2 

Pennsylvania Schuvlkill Valley 

R. R : 39 

Pennsylvania Telephone Co. in 
County 43 

Perkiomen Turnpike 32 

Perry Township 303 

Petitions for Erection of Coun- 
ty 6 

Philadelphia & Reading Rail- 
road 37 

Physical Geography of County 1 

Pike Township 299 

Pine-Grove. First Taxables of . 13 

Pinnacle 1 

Pipe Lines in County 44 

Plumbing Inspectors of Read- 
ing • 227 

Polish _ Convent in Schuylkill 

Section 311 

Political Festivals in County ... 71 
Political Parties of County ... 68 
Political Sentiment of Coun- 
ty . 68 

Poor Directors of County ...82-83 
Poor-House of County . . . .90, 310 

Poplar Neck 2 

Poplar Neck Bridge 30 

Population of County in 1776 .113 
Population of Countv. 1800-1900 .147 

Post-OfTice at Reading 195 

Post-Offices of County . . .40, 41, 43 
Post-Otficcs, Discontinued, in 

County 42: 

Postage Stamps 40 

Premium for Scalps 109 

President Judges 92 

President, Vote for in County . 6!) 



Prfsideiitial Election of 1876 . 69 
Presidtiiiial Vote by Districts 

in 1908 150 

Presidents of Common Coun- 
cil of Reading 226 

Presidents of Reading School 

Board 233 

Presidents of Select Council of 

Reading 221 

Preston's Sunnyside ..^ 307 

Prison Inspectors of County 83-S5 
Prison Wardens of County ... 85 

Prisons of County SO 

Private Bridges in County .... 30 
Private Market-Houses at itead- 

ing ; 103 

Private Schools at Reading 203 

Professional Associations at 

Reading 210 

Prohibition and License. Vote 

for in County 69 

Prominent Representative Men 

of County 65 

Property Valuation of County 

by Districts in 1S8.' and 1908 143 
Protective Associations at Read- 
ing 205 

Protestant Episcopal Denomina- 
tion in County 48 

Prothonotaries of County .... 80 
Public Charities in County ....105 
Public Library at Reading 210, 2i8 
Public Library. Trustees of ...22S 

Public Parks at Reading 19S 

Public Works. Board of 219 

Purchase of Territory in Coun- 
ty £3 

Quarter Sessions' Clerks of 
County 81 

Railroad Bridges in County ... 31 

Railroads in County 36 

Railways, Electric, in County . 40 

Railways in County 35 

Reading Artillerists in IMexican 

War •. 123 

Reading Artillerists in N. G. P. 143 

Reading, Association? at ..214-215 

" Borough Erected in 

1783 156 

" Borough. 1783-1847 156-159 

" Buildings at 236 

Canals 197 

" Cemeteries 196 

Census of ...147. 234, 235 
" Charitable A s s o c i a- 

tions at 212 

" Church Choral Socie- 
ty 211 

" Churches at 200-201 

City. 1847-1900 . . . 159-164 
" Qeveland Parade at . . 72 
" Clymer Mass-Meetings 

in 1893 70 

" County-Seat 154 

" Development by Dec- 
ades 159-164 

" Distinguished Visitors 

of 158 

" District Established in 

1760 155 

" Early Employments 

before 1783 167 

Early Traffic of 1G7 

" Educational Aflfairs of 

Town 155 

" Education at 202 

Electric Light and 

Power at 199 

Elevation Above Sea 

Level 200 

Employments, Fac- 
tories, etc.. at in 

1840 163 

Ferries and Bridges ..195 
Financial Associations 

at 209 

Fire Company Build- 
ings 195, 205 

First Lots Sold 153 

First Patentees of 

Lots 153 

First Store at 155 

First Patents of Land 153 
First Ta.xables of ... 13 

Gas Light at 109 

Government and Oftj- 

cials of 216-234 

Grant of Land to 

Penn 153 

Ground Rent on Lots.. 134 

Halls at 200 

History of 153-238 

Hospital 212 

Hospital in Civil War 12'6 
Industrial Affairs of 

Borough 157 

Industrial Develop- 
ment ....168-169 

Industries at .170-193. 237 
Internal Improvement 

of 193-200 

Lauer Monument ....784 
Library, Trustees of 223 
Liquor Licenses, 1909.. 236 
Literary Associ,itioiis 

at 210 

Location of 200 

Mass-Mecti'igs at .... 70 
^ledical Association 

98. 210 

Meeting at, in Revolu- 
tion ' Ill 

Mountain Railroad.^ 198 

Musical Associatioiit 

at .2-10 

Nationality of Inhabi- 
tants 155 

Newspapers ..59, 157, 204 

Officials 216-234 

Oldest Buildings ...155 

Panic of 1837 157 

Patriotic Associations 

at 210 

Political Festivals at . 71 
Post-Office Establish- 
ed at 40, 156, 195 

Private Schools at ...203 
Public Bui!din-gs...87, 155 

Public Parks 195. 

Public Roads 31, 194 

Religion at .200 

Religious Associations 

at 214 

Riot at. in 1877 164 

Ritner Young Men's 

Convention at .... 70 
School Buildings at . .203 
Schuylkill Seminnry at 203 
Sesqui-Centennial of 

1898 166 

Sewers 194 

Stage-Coaches at 197 

" State Conventions at 69 
" Statement of Indus- 
tries at 170-193 

Statistics 234--3S 

Steam Heat at 200 

" Steam Railroads 197 

" Store House at, in 

Revolution 116 

Streets 194 

Street Railways at ...197 

Subway 194 

" Sunday Schools of . . 52 

Telegraph at 198 

Telephone at 199 

Town. 1743-1783 153-156 
Town Laid Out ...153 

Turnpikes from 196 

Vote in 1903 235 

" Washington at, in 

1794 120 

" Water Supplies of.... 

193. 303 

" Whig Mass-Meeting of 

1844 at 70 

Reading & Columbia Railroad. ... 33 
Reconimendations for Com- 
panies in Revolution 113 

Recorders of County 81 

Reductions of County 24 

Reedy Family Reunion 319 

Reformed Denomination in 

County 46 

Reformed Ministers of County 46 
Registered Voters by Districts 

in 1908 149 

Registers in Bankruptcy from 

County 74 

Registers of County 81 

Rehrersburg, Cleveland Parade 

at 72 

Relative Elevations of County 4 

Religion of County 45 

Religious Associations at Read- 
ing 214 

Religious Denominations De- 
scribed 45 

Religious Denominations in 

Countv 49 

Representative Men of Coun- 
ty 66 

Return of Soldiers in Revolu- 
tion 120 

Revolution. Cause of 110 

Richmond. First Ta.xables of . . 14 

Richmond Township 303 

Ringgold Band in Civil War ..134 
Ringgold Band of Reading ...211 
Rincrgold Light Artillery in Civ- 
il War IS'S 

Ritner Young .Men's Conven- 
tion at Reading 70 

Ritter Family Reunion 319 

Roads and Turnpikes of Coun- 
ty 31 

Roads to Reading 3'.i' 

Robeson. First Taxables of ... . 14 

Robeson Township 308 

Robesonia Furnace 307 

Rockland Township 2'99 

Rockland Township Taxables .301 
Rohrbach Family Reunion ....320 
Roman Catholic Denomination 

in County 47 

Round-head 1 

Rural Free Delivery in County 42 
Ruseombmanor. First Taxables 
of 14 

.... ^ U»! J 


Ruscombmaiior Tov,-nship 298 

Saul Family Reunion 320 

Scalps. Proniium for 109 

Schaeffcr Family Reunion ....o!-0 
Schneider Family Reunion ....321 
School Affairs of Boroushs ...240 
School Controllers oi Reading 


Schools at Reading 202 

Schuylkill Canal m County ... 35 
Scluiylkil! County, Erection of. 24 

Schuylkill Gap 1 

Schuylkill & Lehigh Railroad . -VJ 

Schuylkill River 3. ?.S 

Schuylkill Road 32 

Schuylkill Section of Town- 
ships 308 

Schuylkill Seminary at Reading -03 

Schwa rtzwald 2 

Scull's Tlill 1 

Sealers of Weights and Meas- 
ures 80 

Seaman Family Reunion 321 

Secret Societies at Reading ...206 
Secretaries of Reading School 

Board 233 

Sections of Berks County 296 

Select Councilman of Reading 


Senators of County 75 

Sewers at Reading 194 

Sheriffs of County 79 

Siiiliincton, Borough of ...203-295 
SignafService of V. & R. R. Co. 39 
Society for Prevention of Cruel- 
ty to Animal!! 214 

Solicitors of Reading 227 

South Mountain 1 

Spanish War of 1893 139 

Special Detectives of County .. 82' 
Special Legislation, Offices by... 72 

Spring Township 308 

Stage-Coaches at Reading 197 

Stages and Stage Lines in Coun- 
ty 33 

Stages. Decline of, in County . 34 
State Appropriations to Coun- 
ty, laOi and I'.'O^ 150 

State Charitable Institurions in 

Conntj'- 105 

State Conventions at Reading.. 69 

State Highways in County 33 

State Hospital at Harrisburg ..106 

State-House of County 89 

State National Guard 143 

State Officials from County ... 75 

State Police in County 144 

State Police Barracks 144, 311 

State Representatives from 

Reading 21'6 

State Representatives of Coun- 
ty 74 

State Roads in County 302, 311 

Statistics of Reading, Compara- 
tive Table 234 

Statistics of Secret Societies 207, 240 
Statistics of the Townships 

147-150, 298 

St. Catharine's Female Orphans' 

Asylum 106,214 

Steam Heat at Reading 200 

Stew.irds at Poor-House 83 

St. Joseph's Hospital 213 

St. Michael's Seminary 303 

St. Paul's Orphans' .Asylum for 

Boys luG, 214 

Stock F'arms in Schuylkill Sec- 
tion 311 

Store House at Reading in Rev- 

uhition 116 

Stoudt's Hill 1 

Strauss I'amily Reunion 321 

Streauii .jf County 3 

Street Railways at Reading ...197 

Streets of Reading 194 

Suburban Towns of Manatawny 

Section 303 

Suburban Towns of Schuylkill 

Section 309 

Subv.ay at Spring Street, Read- 
ing 194 

Sunday Mails, Opposition to .. 53 
Sunday Schools of Berks Coun- 
ty 51 

Sunday Schools of County, Sum- 
mary of 53 

Superintendents of County 

Schools S7 

Superintendents of Reading 

Schools . ; 234 

Superintendent of Water Board 219 
Surgeons from Countv in Civil 

War '. 129 

Surveyors of County 82 

S^vede Building. Old 16 

Swedes, First Settlement by .. 15 

Tnxables of Districts^ MS 

Ta.Kcs from County to .State.. 150. 151 
Teachers' Institutes in County . 58 

Telegraph at Reading 198 

Telegraph in County 43 

Telephone at Reading 199 

Teleplione Exchange in Mana- 
tawny Section 303 

Telephone in County 43 

Temple Furnace 302 

Textile Machine Works at Wy- 

omissing 283 

Tildcn Festival of 1876 in Coun- 
ty 72 

Tilden Township .3'»6 

Topton. Borough of 2r>l-263 

Topton Orphans' Home 263, 305 

Towns of Manatawny Section .300 
Towns of Ontelaunee Section. .. .304 
Towns of Schuylkill Section .309 
Towns of Tulpehocken Section 3(6 
Town-hips of lUrks County 296-311 
Trap Rock in Schuylkill Section 310 

Treasurers of County 79 

Treasurers of Reading 218 

Treasurers of Reading School 

Board 234 

Trcxler Family Reunion 32'! 

Trust Companies at Reading ..209 
Tulpehocken, First Taxables of 15 

Tulpehocken Road 31 

Tulpehocken Section of Town- 
ships 306 

Tulpehocken Township 306 

Turnpikes at Reading 196 

Turnpikes in County 31 

Union Canal 34 

Union, First Taxables of 16 

Union Township 308 

United Evangelical Denomina- 
tion in County 48 

United States Commissioners 

from County 74 

Upper Bern To'^nship 306 

Upper Tulpehocken Township 306 

Valleys 2 

\'alu;ition of Property in Dis- 
tricts 143 

Veterinary Practitioners 104 

Volunteer Militia in Civil War 

136, 137, .138 

\'ote for Constitutional .Amend- 
ments G9 

Vote for Governor 68 

Vote for President 69 

Vote for Prohibition and Li- 
cense 69 

Voters of Districts, Registered, 

1908 149 

Walter Sanitarium 307 

Wamsher Family Reunion 322 

War Periods 107 

Washington at Reading in 1794.. 120 

Washington Township 299 

Water Board of Reading ...218-19 

Waterworks at Reading 193 

W. C. T. U. at Reading 214 

Weekly Newspapers of County 

30, 60 

Weights and Measures, Sealers 

of 86 

Weiscr, Conrad, Lecture on .. 57 
Weiser, Conrad, Purpose of 

Lecture 53 

Welsh. Early Immigrants of 

County 19 

Welsh ^lountain 1 

Wenrich's Grand View 307 

Wernfr=ville State Asylum ...105 
AVest Lee.^pprt, Borough of 2S0-2.S1 
W^est Reading, Borough of 28S-293 

West Reading Railroad 39 

■Western L'nion Telegraph Co. 43 
Whig .Mass-Meeting of 1844 at 

Reading 70 

Whiskev Insurrection in 1794 .120 
White Spot on !Mount Penn ... 2 
\\'hitner. C. K. & Co., Depart- 
ment Store of 134 

Widows' Home 107. 213 

Wilmington & Northern Rail- 
road 38 

Windsor, First Taxables of ... 16 

W'indsor Township 303 

Womelsdorf. Borough of .268-271 
Wyomissing. Borough of ..281-285 

Yeich Family Reunion 332 

Y. M. C. A. at Reading 214 

: !-w^.''-'<^-?'a-. ' - ' i." ' g*^ ' ' ' B .- -y_;^ ' -"J4" -'^ *^--t.?*% *r^ 

r^w.^^^r x'^fp^r*^ 



Abraham, August 1439;h, Henry .1411 

A.chenbacli, John 7;'3 

Adam, Calvin H 1031 

Adam Families 741. 

S52, 1393, 144G. 1G14, 1(3L'3 ItJOl 

Adam, Frederick M IIOS 

Adam, Harry B 1170 

Adam. Herman 1C14 

Adam, Jacob S 144G 

Adam, Michael S. 1]68, Samuel 13'jo 

Adam. William K S32 

Adams. Aaron 1430 

Adams, Albert H . 901 

Adams, E. Ralph 3G0 

Adam=, Mrs. Esther 14S9 

Adams Families. .711, SSO, la.^S, 150S 

Adams, John T 1119 

Adams. jMrs. Loretta L r;")0 

Adams, Thomas F 15i03 

Ada-US. William H '^79 

Adams, William H. (Reading) 


Adams, Williain 1 742 

Addams Families G32, ."liG 

Addanis, Henrietta C 033 

Addams. Isaac (i33 

Addams, John V. R 633 

Addams, Peter 547 

Addams. Rufu.s G33 

Addams, Wellington I G3C ■ 

Ahrens, K 1246 

Ahrens, Ednui.nd H 903 

Ahrens Families 963, 1407 

Ahrens, Hov/.n.rd E 1407 

A'brecht. Charles . . .• 1.''0 

Albrecht, George 777 

.Albright Families .j39, 9.55, 1545 

Albright, George R 539 

Albright. Jacob W 955 

Albright, Mrs. Rebecca 1428 

Albright, Williain H 1545 

Alleman, Grant t, 1665 

Alsace Lutheran Church 1145 

Althouse, Cyrus D. 1119 

Althouse. Mrs. Deborah R 65S- 

A'.thousc P'amilies. . . .651, 1119, 1175 

Althouse, Henry 1078 

Althouse. Hicster 1175 

Althouse. John W 1166 

Althouse, John Z 653 

Althouse, Mary C 107S 

Althouse, Nathan 968 

Althouse. Wilson D 968 

Ames. Isaac 9S9 

Ammarell, Charles 1034 

Ammarell, John B 929 

Ammarell, John S 930 

Ammarell, Ravmond R 930 

Ammarell. Winfield H.. M. D.. 930 

Ammon. George M 165o 

Amole. Fdgar 1531 

Ancona. Syd.-nham E 376 

Anderson, .^l1gustup R 571 

Anderson, Cornelius T 735 

Anderson I'aniilics 571. 1092 

Anderson. John P lOgS' 

Anderson, Mrs. Margaret R 

.Anderson, William S 747 

.■^iigstadt, George P i45i 

-Angstadt. Job-; F 1229 

.\ngbtadt. Jtjshua 1453 

.'X.nspach Families 690, 1639 

Aiic^pucii, Thomas P G90 

.\ii?,pach, Wallace M 1638 

Anthony, Edw.ird L 1381 

Anthony Families 039,1381 

.\nthcny, Henry P 1142 

Anthony, John C. 1406 

Antnony, Mrs. Mary 1142 

Anthony, Mrs. Mary A 1400 

Anthony, William R 593 

Anthony, William F 639 

Armstrong. Ephraim 727 

Armstrong. Mrs. Mary 'iVJS 

Arnold 1-amily 1057 

Arnold. Fred D 1057 

Arnold. Joel A 1329 

Arnold, William 838 

Artz, Calvin W 1198 

Artz, John B 12.39 

Aulenbach, Franklin 1149 

Aulenbach. William 1115 

Aunian, Charle- E 570 

Aunian Family 576 

Austrian, Ben 165S 

Babb. David D 649 

Babb Family 619 

Babst. John ....1511 

Rachman Family- 1459 

Bach.-nan. Joseph S 1117 

Rachman, Eevi 1459 

Bachnjan, Wiiiiam 892 

Eachofcr Family 1717 

Bacliofer. J. Gecrg; 1717 

Bachof er, J. Lewis 1067 

Bacr, Charles A 1082 

Baer Families 

346, 614, 725, 865, 911, 10S3, 1126, 
1180, 1625, 1G38, 1681, 1094 

Bacr, George F 344 

Baer, Henry C 865 

Baer, Jonathan 1682' 

Baer. Moses 1639 

Baer. Samuel A 1180 

Baer, Solomon 911 

Bacr. William 1 014 

Raer. William S 1083 

Bagenstose Families 854, 1495 

Ragenstose, Jacob 854 

Bagenstose. Jerome B 1495 

Bahr Family 1351 

Rahr, Jacob B 1352 

Rahr, John R... 1352 

Balthaser Families 

910. 1040. 1438. 1452, 1477, 1679 

Balthaser, Howard F 1438 

Balthaser, Jerome S 910 

Balthaser. "joel B 1679 

Ralthaser, John C. K 1040 

Balthaser. :VTahlon A 1477 

Balthaser. ^roscs K 145" 

Ranks. John ^ 

Rnptist Churr!;. First. R»adi- 
Barbey, Tarob.. 
Barl>cy. John. 

Barbey, Peter 584 

Hard, A. Raymond 410 

Bard Family 4lo 

Bare Family jijOl 

Bare, Henry G 1601 

Bare, Jolni H 1001 

Bare, John i\I 1601 

Barlow, George 13'i'5 

Barr, Abraham G 1039 

Barr Families 1251, 1638 

Barr, Isaac i,born lSin> 1551 

Barr, Isaac las'" 

Barr, Robert M i„ 

Barsotti. Frank S .' . .100 

Barth, Mrs. Barbara 135 

Barth Families 030, 105.5, 1551 

Barth. Frederick 1355 

Barth, Henry E 1550 

Barth, John D 030 

Barrholomew, Rev. Jo>hin S...;:i09 

Barto Families 1225, l.'J72 

Barto. Toiiathan 1""* ' 

Barto, William C ..IS 

Bashore Family 9 

Bashore. Jonathan K 0' 

Baitctifeld, Louis 131 

Baus, John B ''1 

Bauscher, Annie M 1238 

Bauscher. Daniel 1288 

Bauscher Family 1288 

Bauscher, Dewal't P 1693 

Bausher Families 875, 1693 

Bauscher, Henry 1388 

Bausher, Solon D 875 

Bausher. Thomas C 762 

Baver, Alfred 1231 

Baver. David E 9( 

Beadencu-p, Henry A 7c 

Ber.dencup. I'.Irs. Margaret E.. 7c 

Bear Families 723, 11£ 

Bear, George W 11£ 

Bear, Isaac 81 

Bear, Lieut. Jonathan C T. 

Bear, Levi W 161 

Beard, Elmer H 131 

Beard Families 650, 15' 

Beard, Samuel 6; 

Bechtel. Charles W 6t 

Bechtel, Daniel R 4i- 

Bechtel Families 

463, 515, 533, 1204, xO.3 

Bechtel, Frederick R Sr,6 

Bechtel, Hiram C ir)43 

Bechtel, Irwin H ».. 515 

Bechtel, Jesse F 523 

Bechtel. Oliver K... 1'>74 

Bechtel. Richard D 1204 

Beck, George S 8)0 

Beck, Harry T 1105 

Becker, Mrs. Anna Eliza 947 

Becker Families 948, 1013, 1053 

Becker, Joseph S fi'" 

Becker, Simeon 1^12 

Becker, Walter Y 1070 

P- r, William Z 1053 

-r Willoughby.... 



Behm, Rpubcn F 943 

Behne, Gus;avus A 712 

Behtie, Mrs. Gustavus A.. ..330, 712 

Bchney, Alpheus S 309 

?eh:iey Families 36'J, 1433 

Dehney, John n 143S 

Beiuler Family S50 

Beiiller, Isaac Y 85d 

Keiler Family 1011 

Beiler, Levi. . 1011 

Bell. Ctciee H 704 

Bell, S:imu.-1 349 

Bell. Samuel H 1015 

Belz, August 1159 

Beiiade, James A 157'i' 

Benade, James C 625 

Beruuie, Sarali M 6-:. 

Beiifield, Aaron 1267 

Benfield, Adam W 1267 

Bent'ield Family 1265 

Benfield, Franklm N liiGG 

Tenfield, Henry \V 1267 

cnnecott. Mofes l-)54 

;eniieu-:h Family lo4"2.' 

iennetch, .\[orris 3542 

3enneville, Dr. George de 329 

Benson, Uavid E CSS 

Benson. Dr. Lot 638 

Benson. Susan E 688 

Benz, Theodore 646 

Berg, Charles \V 1018 

^erg P'amily lois 

.rg, L Kenry 1075 

irger Families 480. 1567 

erger, Edward P ,1508 

erger. James C 1567 

erger, Morris C . 480 

isc.^er, Orlando F 3 567 

Berger, Mrs. Sallie J 1568 

Beric Family 16S3 

Berk, Henry 1,,-,S2 

Berkhold, George 1703 

Bern Reformed and Lutheran Un- 
ion Church 986 

Bernd Family 450 

Eernd, Rev. Franklin K 450 

"v.rndt, Calvin Q 1127 

trnet. John L 1148 

^rnhart, Lizzie M 1541 

ernhart. Wiiliam 1541 

■rtolet or Bertolette Families.. 

1262, 1657 

-rtolet, Israel M 1264 

ertolet, Samuel E 1265 

ertolette, Daniel N., M. D 1657 

ertolette. Dr. ^rartin L 126.-, 

eyer (Boyer) Family 583 

haer. Franklin A...' 1624 

ickel, -Amandon 874 

^'ckel, Mrs. Angelina F 461 

Bickel. Cornelius 809 

Bickel Families 461, 874 

Bickel, J. Isaac 461 

Bickel, Paul J... 875 

Bickelman Family 837 

Bickelman, Napoleon 83-5 

Bickley, John H., Jr 701 

Biddle. Edward 326 

Bieber. Benjamin E 415 

Bieber, Daniel .A. 815 

Bieber Families 415, 815, 1106 

Pleber, Dr. Ulvsses S. G 1106 

Bichl fntni'ies 533, 1060 

P.iehl. Georg..- W .')38 

Biehl, Joel Foster S !'"'• 

'n E ■- 

Binganian, William 

Bird, Mark 

Birch, Proi. Robert S 

BiSbinger, Philip 

Pitlcr Families 007, 

Hitler, Henry 

Biti,.r, \V. H 

Bitting Family 

Bitting, Frank VV 

Pitting, John 

Bittner, Daniel F 

Bittner. Mrs. Sarah 

Bixenstine, Christian . . 

Pi-xler, Augustus S 

Bixler Family 

BLxIer, Joseph 

Bi.xier, lilanasses 

Blachnian, Paul H. . _ 

Bland, .Mrs. Esther 

Bland Families 1320, 

Bland, Judge H. Willis '. 

Bland. Robert 

Bland, V\'illiam 

P.lankentiiller, Daniel B 

]^>Iankenbiller Fairiily 

Blankenbillor, Harry B 

Blankitihorn, .Andrew 

Blatt, Cornelius F 

r.latt, D. M 

Blatt Families 1131. 

Blatt, Isaac G '. . 

Blimlinc, Sebastian 

Bloom, Lew 

Bobst. Samuel 

Bobs;, Vvliliam J 

Bodder. Mrs. Mary 

Bodcy, Andrew N 

Bodey, Benton K 

Body, Augustus G 

Body Family 

Bohii, Adam K 

P.oh:i, Edward K 

Bohn Families 8G4, 1581. 

Eoliti. Jerem'ah B 

Bc-hn, Mrs. Mary A 

Bohn, Aforris C 

Bolich Family 

Bolich, Reuben W. 

Bollman, Lewis 

Bond Family 

P.ond, William F 

Boone, Cyrus 

Boone, Daniel 

Boone, Edwin 

Boone Families 1502, 

Border Family 

Border. William 

Bordes, .Alfred 

Bordntr. Cloyd W 

Bordner Families 478 

Bordner, Prof. George C 

Bordner, Jacob M 

Borkert, Albert G 

Borkert. .Augustus 

Borkert Family 

Borkert, Kate .A 

Borkert. Richard G 

Borkert. William D. A 

Borkert. William G 

Borkey Family 

Borkey, William B 

Borneinann, Rev. George 

Borry, Addison W 

°orst, John W 

irtz. George B 

■ Dr. Abr.Tm L 

















1 0-_' I 








1 603 

















86 4 


















. 515 





11. '.9 









430, 539, 540 

Bower, Gen. Jacob ■. . . 333, Dr. Joel B 430 

Bower, John L., M. D 540 

Bower, John X 539 

Bower, V\'iilium L 1453 

Bowman Family 12S3 

Bo\M-ia:i, Israel M 12'84 

Bo .\ man. John M 1284 

Boyer. Abraham 1651 

Boyer, Amos 900 

Boyer, Andrew S 678 

Boyer, Charles A 039 

Boyer. Dr. Chr.rles C 583 

Boyer. Charles G. 1133 

Boyer, Cy ranus F 829 

Boyer. Edwin A 537 

Boyer Families 

o.'jl, 537. 548. 583, 635, T86, 829, 

900, 1132, 1254, 1278, 1651 

Boyer, George F 787 

Boyer, Gottleib 6.31 

Boyer, Harry C 787 

Boyer, Henry 15,24 

Boyer. Horace K 1279 

Boyer. Jacob S 1354 

I'oycr. James K 1279 

Boyer, Jerome L 548 

Boyer. Jesse 1 1332 

Boyer, John A 1623 

Boyer, John H 635 

Boyer, Mrs. Mary S 1623 

Boyer. Morris L H 636 

Boyer. Morris R 1172 

Boyer, Mrs. Rosina G61 

Boyer. Thomas A 531 

Boyer. William McH 706 

Bradley, John C 13^3 

Brant. Irvin S 1056 

Braucher. Albert C 1424 

Brecht (Bright) Families 

674, 1j57, 1166. 1097 

Breed %r Family 1342 

Ereedy. Gee rge J 1342 

Brenei^er. Ci'.arles 736 

Breneiscr Family 736 

Breneiser, Thomas 736 

Brcssler. F. F 604 

Breyfcvgel Family 1719 

Breviogel. Rev. Svlvanus 17J9 

Brickei, Peter F. .' 1150 

Bricker, Edwin 1 1426 

Bricker, Thomas C 1098 

Bridegam, David 606 

Bridegam, William 606 

Bridegam. \Viiliam K 1148 

Briderbaugh Family 518 

Bridonbaugh, John H 675 

Bright. Albert H 675 

Bright, Albert R 675 

Bright (Brecht) Families 

674, 11.57, 1166, 1697 

Bright, Harry L 1157 

Bright, Henrv M 867 

Bright. John H 1697 

Bright, I'^hman 1 675 

Bricht, Willis L 1166 

Briele, Benjamin 1529 

Brigle Family 1529 

Briner. Edward A 1163 

Brintzenhoff. J. K 1386 

Brissel. Charles F 1033 

Britton, John A S06 

Brobst. Dr. Edward 4.13 

Brobst Families 454, 1319 

Brobct, Dr A 1319 

Broden, Albert 482 

Brooke. EdwTrd 338 

Brooke Family ^^^ 

Tj.«..r,Up George 336 



Brooke, Robert E 338 

Brossman, Adam. . 1660 

Brossman, Adam B 1660 

Brossman F.iinily 1059 

Brcssinan, Geor}-:f \V 1149 

Brossman, Isaac *V' 1661 

Brossman, James \i 16C0 

Brossman, Lc\i -\ 1444 

Brossman, Thomas J 16C0 

Broughall, Wiliiim.i 1408 

Brown, Aaron F 1542 

Brown, Adam K 123i2 

Brown, Augustus ^I 401 

Brown, Charles C 1520 

Brown, Daniel F 1557- 

Brown, David 1239 

Brown, Ella AI 1357- 

Brown Families 

401, 12o2, 14.:5, ].320, T55S 

Brown, Frank M 1715 

Brown, John M 1516' 

Brown, George W 1425 

Brown, Kate F 1357 

Brown, Levi 1357 

Brown, Ivforris P 1444 

Brown, .Mrs. Rebecca 1520- 

Brown, Reuben H 1691 

Brown, William "H 1075 

Browne'l Famil v 1T16 

Browncll, John G. L 1716 

Brownmiller, Charles M. 1706 

Brownmiller, Rev. Ephraim S. 1T05 

Brownmiller Family 1704 

Brownmiller, Henry H 1701 

Brubaker Family 431 

Brubaker, Georpe ■■■ 431 

Bruckman, Judge Gt nrge W. 752 

Brumbach, Albert T 3i-7 

Brumbach, Daniel C 1237 

Brumbach, Edwin H 12SS 

Brumbach Families .3 '7, S4'>, 3 2ei) 

Brumbiich, Peter Y S45 

Brumbach, Solomon A SjI 

Brumbach. VVilliani D 923 

Brunner, Alfred R i:i?3 

Brunner, David B 333 

Brunner, Hon. David P, 'rTO 

Brunner Families 508, ]~S3 

Brunner, William 3229 

Brunner. W. B 570 

Bubp, Mrs. Clara 768 

Bubp, John E 767 

Buchanan, Thomas C. M. D. 1206 

Bucher, John S 1^13 

Buck, Charles R 472 

Buck, Nicholas 473 

Buck Families 472, 473, S79 

Bucks, Calvin W 1610 

Bucks Family 1610 

Bucks. William R 764 

Bull, Elijah 350 

Bull Family 351 

Bulles, Augustus 1092 

Burd. Edward 351 

Burgert, Benneville 1698 

Burkey Family 1080 

Burkey, John A 1081 

Burkey, Peter 1030 

Burkey, William F 1080 

Burkhart. Daniel A 1293 

Burkhart. Elmore A 1294 

Burkhart Family IS^OS 

Burkhart. J. TIenry 1293 

Burkhart. J. P.-,ul 12^3 

Burkholder. Albert N 798 

Burkhnlder, Samuel G.. AT. D. 525 

Euricy. Daniel 1604 

Bush. Emanuel L 1038 

Bush Families 403, 1033 

Butz, Daniel C 710 

Butz Family 710 

Butz, Lewis B 711 

Byers, Abel H 861 

Campbell. Mr... Addie J 727 

Campbell, Mrs. Annie L 743 

Ciiinpl.-cll. David 727 

Campbell, Mrs. William L. . . . 743 

Carlance, John 1511 

Castor, Ellis L S47 

Chelius, John 1037 

Christ Churoh, Reading, Pa. ..1390 

Christ. Evan P ]U89 

Christ Families 10s9, 1477 

Christ. Henry D 735 

Christ, Howard L 1164 

Christ. James D 1361 

Christ, Samuel T 1477 

Christian, Daniel H 574, Edward H S89 

Christian Families 574, 889 

Christian. Mrs. Mary C. 576 

Christma n, A. G 1429 

Christman. Charles H 1401 

Chriitman Families 1017, 1401 

Christman, Nathan G 1017 

vChurch, Robert B 1153 

Clauser I'amilics 973, 1342 

Clauser. Harrison K 145i3 

Clauser. Henry S 1458 

Clauser, John H 1342 

Clauser, Mahion B 974 

Clau.=er. Simon B 974 

Cleaver, Chester R 524 

Cleaver Families 524. 560. 990 

Cleaver, Israel. M. D 566 

Cleaver, Jonathan 291 

Cleaver. Mrs. Sarah 991 

Cleaver. William K 990 

Clenimer, David B 1374 

CJipmmer FF.milies 1346, 1374 

Clemmer. Henry G 1346 

Close Familv ifid 

Close. Jackson J 1636 

Clouser. Beniamin 730 

Clcuser. David «51 

Cloi:ser Families 151-5, 1546 

Clouser, Francis L IjIS 

Clouser. J. E 1105 

Clouser, Mrs. Margaret 730 

Clouser. Simon S. 1546 

Clvmer. Daniel R 360 

Hymer. Edward Ml 361 

Clvmer Family 360 

Clymer. George E 362 

Clvmer. TTier-ter 361 

Clymer, William H 361 

Colfman. William H 773 

Cnllctti. Ferdinando, M. D. ..12S5 

Collins. Henry A 652 

ConnoHv. IMrs. Marv 1158 

Connolly. Peter 1158 

Conrad. Jeremiah M 1131 

Cook. George S 1084 

Coonley. Mr=;. Emma C 1132 

Coonley, Frederick W '..1131 

Cranston. Frederick W 765 

Crater Family 362 

Crater. Lewis 362' 

Craumer. Harrv S 1109 

Craumer, Rev. L. W 1109 

Cre^sman. Albert J 1<">35 

Cre=;sman, Chr.rlc": M 1102 

Cre^sman. F. Afarion 1102 

Crc-smnn. Rev. T T 486 

Cre'5<:man. \rr'; Marv E 163.-; H. J 1100 

Croll Family 382 

Croll, Martin S 382 

Croll, William M 491 

Crooks, Harry W iJ'rj 

Crooks, Martha VV i:;'.'2 

Crouse, Abrahan; L 940 

Crouse, Henry 701 

Crouse, Mrs. Afary E 701 

Cro\%, Sam.uel H 104<) 

Crystal Cave 821 

Custer, Ludwig T 1490 

Dampman, John B 421 

Darlington, A. J 1029 

Dauth, Mrs. Lewis &39 

Dauth, William L 1060 

Dautrich, James E 774 

Davidheiser, ilrs. Elizabeth ..1092 

Davidliciser. Elmer lOOl 

Davidheiser, George 1091 

Davies Families 3SS, 1031-^- 

Davies, Lewis 1520 

Davie;. Samuel 388 

Davis Family 1031 -■ 

Davis, Nevin ?.[. , 389 

Davi?, Samnel H. . . . ; 1273 

Davis, Thomas T 1031 

Davis, Warri'n L 331 

Davis, Rev. William F P. ... 6^4 y' 
Deatrick, Rev. Dr. William W. 748 
de Benneville. Dr. George .... 329 

Dechant Family 1609 

Dechant, William H., C. E 1669 

Dechert, Adam 8S8 

Dcchert Families 883, 904 

Occhert, Henry M 904 

Deck, O. W 1307 

Deeds F.-imily 9"fl 

Deeds, T.uke M 950 

Decter, Da.T-ei H ,. 422 

Dceter, Henr}' 422 

Degler, Mo.^es 1603 

De Gonr. Dr. Frank L 1566 

Dehart. David E 1276 

Dehrirt. David G 1553, 1714 

DeHart Families 

1036, 1:>7.-, 1440, 1714 

Detlart. F, P, i,5.v{ 

Dihart, Afrs. Harriet F 1714 

DeHart, Jeremiah i!;76 

DeHart, J. Ir\-in 127C 

Dehart, IVfrs. Matilda )440 

Dehart, Philip 1440 

DeHart. William H iCT.r- 

Deisher (Deysher) Families . . . 

39S, 851, 1160, 1680 

Deisher, Frank A 16:!7 

Deisher, Henry K I16I 

Deisher, I. .\ 30S 

Deisher, Jacob P 1637 

r>e;r>ny, George W 583 

Dellecker. George W. S 1119 

Dellinpcr, Charles T 1670 

DeLong. David 609 

DeLoncr. F.llwood F 406 

DcLong Families ....404, 405. 815 

DeLong, Howard H 1166 

DeLong, Irwin D 4O6 

DcLong, Irwin H. 11G6 

DeLong, Joseph S 770 

DeLong. Mrs. I,ouisa E 404 

DeLong. Mrs. Mary H 771 

DcLong. Milton H 404 I 

DeLong. Tilghman 4O6 / 

DeLong, Victor W 406 ! 

Deneler Families 397, 11:^3 1 

Denelor. George C 113s / 

Dent;Ier, Prof. Tdhri Q .-jgj! ; 

Dcnni^nn. Rolicrt H.. Sr 590 

Dcppen. Dr. Daniel . ' 


Deppen Family 802 

Deppen, Dr. James \V 303 

Dcppcn, Mrs. Mary A 80-1 

Deppen, Samuel R., Esq 802 

Derr, C3'rus G 779 

.Dt-rr Families 1389, 1G4.> 

Derr. Thomas Lutht-r 1389 

Detample, J. Edward 1533 

Detempie, Joseph G 1317 

Detemple, Joseph, Jr 1517 

Detscli, Mrs. Anna Marie ....1020 

Detsch, John 1020 

Dettra, Benjamin F .t^^j 

DeTurck, Abrahain K 1305 

De Turck. Charles P J5(t7 

De Turck, Ezra K 1305 

Di Turck (DeTurk") Families 

493, 10?0. 1503 

Dc Turck, Mahlon L l.v)6 

De Turck. Morris H 1504 

De Turck, Seth L 130t, 

Dc Turck, Sydney' M 90S 

De Turck, Mrs. Susan K 1506 

De Turk, .A.mos M 135S 

De Turk, Edivin P 17i2 

De Turk, E J!,xne P 10S6 

De Turk (De Turck) Fr.m'lies 

493, 105(3, 1303 

De Turk, Jeremiah M 492 

Devlan, F. D 15-76 

Dewees, John M 63 1 

Deysher, Abner S 1074 

Dcy-slier, Ellwood H 810 

Deysher (Deisher) Families... 

398. 851, 1160, 1680 

Deysher, Howard B 851 

Deysher, Isaac D ]\)8l 

Dibert, Samuel D 1187 

Dick, Amos L 7 t4 

Dick, Charles K 715 

Dick. Eli D 745 

Dick Family 744 

Dick, Franklin K 715 

Dick, Henrv 744 

Dick. Mrs. Mary .A 145 

Dick, Nicholas 744 

Dickinson, B. Frank ...1230 

Dickinson, Joseph R 517 

Diefrenijach" Families 474. 1615 

Dieffenbach. Peter 1615 

Dieffenbach, Samuel W 474 

Diener Brothers 7&'6 

D'ener, Henry J 726 

Diener, Irwin A 726 

Dierolf Family 48t» 

Dierolf, Jeremiah 489 

Dietrich, Alfred K 562 

Dietrich, Azariah C : 1014 

Dietrich, Calvin J 560 

Dietrich, Charles W 530 

Dietrich, Daniel F 556 

Dietrich, Daniel P 55.5 

Dietrich, Daniel S 559 

Dietrich Families 

552, 563, 692, 954, 1014, 1446, 1631 

Dietrich, Franklin P 554 

Dietrich, Henry S 562 

Dietrich, Howard M 1446 

Dietrich, Joel D 1722 

Dietrich. Joel L 554 

Dietrich. Col. John 1651 

Dietrich, Josiah S 954 

Dietrich, T.awson G 5/>0 

Dietrich. Levi F 556 

Dietrich, Lewis S 955 

Dietrich. Mahlon C 561 

•.Dietrich. Robert D 559 

Dietrich, Samuel .A 559 

Irich. Prof. S. P 559. 

Dietrich, Mrs. Susanna 539 

Dietricli. William A 554 

Dieirich, \'v'illiam H 5t)3 

Dietrich, William H., Jr 364 

Dietrich, William J 357 

Dietrich, W iison G . 'rM 

Dillon, George C 1099 

Dinino. Pietro 1199 

Dinkcl, George IV^O 

Dippery, Nathaniel S I'JO 

Dippery. Mrs. Salesa M 1130 

Dorv.-ard Fainilv 437 

Dorward, Obadfah B -!37 

Dotterer, Mathias H 1195 

Dotterrer Families t>09, 1195 

Dotterrer, Dr. Charles B 010 

Dutterrcr, Daniel W G!0 

Do rviing, Frank M 993 

Drayor, Tohn T 10S3 

Dreas, Charles E lio2 

Drf.belbies, Rc\'. George A. . . 497 

Iireibel'iies, Alfred H. ."" i'.iS 

Drtibell-iics, Ambrose E 493 

Dreibelbies, Willinm H 498 

Dreibelbis, Alfr'-d 5 1006 

Dreibelbis (Dreibelbies) F.'ini- 

ilies 406, 1534 

Dreibelbis, Carrie J 493 

Dreibelbis, Cleophas S 499 

Dreibelbis. George A 501 

Drei'jelbis, Gustavus 301 

Dreihe-Ibis, Jacob D 300 

Dreibelbis, Joel 500 

Dreibelbis, John S 1533 

DreibelDis, Perrv K 501 

Dre-btlbis. Dr. San-uel h. 502 

Dresher Family 1038 

Dresher. John 1038 

Drc.v CDry) p-jmilies ....1395, 1716 

Drcxel, Mrs. Anna A 1*35 

Drexel, George W 169.'". 

Drexel, Howard L 1046 

Dre.xel, Reuben 1435 

Dries, Worths A 1063 

Driscoll, Daniel J 567 

Driscoll Fam.ily 5G7 

Driscoll, Rev. tohn A 507 

Druckcnmiller,' Ben j. D 1527 

DruTihelier, Anim.on E 1675 

Drumbellcr Families 1029, 1085, 1675 

Drumheller, George 1675 

Drumhellcr, Hiram D 1085 

Drum heller, Jacob B 1675 

Drumheller, Jeremiah 1676 

Drumheller, John H 1029 

Drumheller, Mahlon B 1675 

Drv (Drev) Families 1395, 1716 

Dry, Hiram F 1395 

Dry, Nathan 1716 

Dubbs, Tyrus B 1703 

Dumn, Amos M 1570 

Dumn, Clarence C 1570 

Dumn, J. Frank 1570 

Dumn, Harry J 1571 

Dumn, Wilson M 1570 

Dundor, Adam B., M. D 3.5S 

Dundor, .Adam E 883 

Dundor Family 358 

Dundore, Mrs. Amanda . ....1579 

Dundore, Dr. Darius W 1579 

Dundore, David D 1579 

Dundore Families 358. 883. 1.577 

Dundore, Jacob K 1578 

Dundore, James .\ 1635 

Dundore, Samuel E 1578 

Dunkel. Daniol 939 

Dunkel Families 

477. 851. 939. 1507 

Dunkel, Peter H 1507 

Dunkel, Solomon G 851 

Duiike-lberger Family iruo 

Duiikelbergcr, Mo'varfl H 1707 

Dunkclberg'jr, John L 1700 

Dunkeiberger, Dr. Nathaniel Z. 1706 

Durkeiberger, Samuel G 1130 

Dunkle, Allen H 770 

Dunkie Families 477, 1307 

Dunkle, Samuel .L 477 

Dunkle, Wayne 770 

Dunlap, Alvr.i 535 

Durham, Dr. .Albert R 489 

Duser, Jacob 1622 

F.De-hcs, Jesse E 982 

F.aches, Alarcus B 509 

Eagclman. C. F 97s 

Earl, Samuel F 1577 

Early Familv 443 

Early, Rev. John W 444. 1023 

Ebcrly Family 649 

r.herly, . Marry E 1203 

l-2bcrl\-, Joseph 649 

Kljerly. .Samuel 649 

Ehiing Family 835 

Eblin.g, Obadi'ah -335 

Eck, Charles 1231 . 

Erk, Jacob : 1 146 

Eck, Airs. Siis.v.i 1146 

Eckcnroad, .Ad.-.m 1610 

Eckcnroad (Eckenroth) Family. 1609 

Eckenroad, Francis H 1544 

Eckenroad. George S 1609 

Eckenrcth, Albert L 1609 

Fckimroth (Eckenroad') Family. 1609 

Eckert, Aaron 879 

Eckert, Capt. Conrad 796 

Eckert Families 346. 825, S73 

Eckert, George B 797 

Eckert, George j 825 

Eckert, Henry .S 798 

Eckert, Isaac 346 

Eckert. Isaac ("Born 1800") 796 

Eckert, Airs. Alary T 797 

Eckert, Jo'm 79tt 

F.rkert, Peter 796 

Eckert, Airs. Retiecca G 825 

Eckert. Valentine 798 

Eckert. William J 878 

Eckert. William K 347 

Edinger Families 837, 843 

Edinger, Levi 837 

Eaingcr. William C 843 

Ege, George 332 

Ege, John, M. D 1636 

Egolf. John H 1236 

Ehst Family 374 

Ehst. Irwin T 374 

Eichler, Hugo 1436 

Filer. Howard 1 1669 

Eisenbise, William 1202 

Eisenbrown Family 340 

Eiscnbrown, Penrose F 340 

Eisenbrown, Mrs. Sarah S 341 

Eisenhower, James 1489 

Elliott Family 335 

Emcs. Adam 870 

Emes Family 870 

Emrich, Elias 992 

Emrich Families 580, 992 

Emrich. Levi J 579 

F:ndlich. Gustav A., LL. D 793 

Endy Family 838 

Fndv, James AI 1137 

Endv. lohn L 328 

Fngel Families 973, 1540 

Fngel. Jacob S 073 —- 

Engel, Lyman G l.')40 

Engle Families 376, 1197 

'5rn»\ •»,:'"!■•«• '«SP»"J'r!a*-:"Tfv 



Engk, William 1197 

E'.igle, \\';lli;iui (Reading) 376 

Ensslcn, Mrs. Mary lO'JO 

Ensslen, Rudolph 1000 

Fplcr, Harrisoi: R 1358 

Epler. Jolin P 723 

Erb Fnniilv i4S0 

Erb, Xathaniei G liSO 

Erniold, \\'illiam S i ~i'- 

Ernst, George 131?) 

Ernst, J. George '^S:; 

Ernst. .Martin 1524 

E'-mciitrout, .Mrs. Adcla'de L... 7'iO 

Ennenirout, Hon. Dani.-i 757 

Ertnentroiit Families ■;.')7, Ji.,'.:.' 

Ermentrout. James X 342 

Ermentrout. Jonn S 351 

F.nnentrout, \\ illiain H lf>;'2 

Escbbach, Aaroi: S 1376 

Ecchbach F^unily I'j7t'' 

Eschelman, J. How ard 1104 

Esenweiti, Dr A 723 

Esc:ib;'ch Familv 705 

Escbbach, Levi R 795 

Esclibach, Peter B 795 

Esiielman, iTrs. F.meliiie B 063 

Esheiman FaniiM?? ..MZ, 1101, li>7S 

Esheinian, Henry R 062 

Eshelmaii, John J 167S 

Esser Family S72 

F.sser. Jacob B 8V2 

Essick.'joseph W 357 

Esterly. Danii.1 S f.23 

Esterly Families .'jl'j, C'';^ 

Esterly, Hafrv S 1122 

Esterly, J.>hii S '2'1 

Esterly, Riimanus 546 

Evans, Charles 333 

Evans, Charles V. R 7Vi 

Evans Family lO'.iO 

Evans, Hannah 1091 

Evans, Jane 7U 

Evans. John H 712 

Evar.s, John V. R 1090 

Everts, Garrett B -170 

Fahrbach. Jcbn A 1 443 

Fahrenbach, Charles W 58it 

Fahrerbach. George D 580 

Fahrenbach. George W., M. D.. 581 

Farr, Bertrand H 547 

Farr Family 547 

Faust, Alien E 1228 

Faust, John K 1118 

Feather, M. S 1305 

Feather, William C 1035 

Fegley, Amandns N., M. D 402 

Fegley. Emma S 1211 

Feglcy Families 4U2. 1174, 1211. ]3.'7 

Fegley. George 1 ■-' n 

Fegley. Lewis P. G 1357 

Fegley. Thomas J. R 1174 

Felix Family t^37 

Feli.x, George H 637 

Fenstermacher, Edwin R 1460 

Fenstermacher Families. .. .478, 1460 

Fenstermacher, John D 1550 

Fenstermacher, John P. S 47S 

Ferguson, Nathaniel 1321 

Ferguson. Wilson 1321 

Fessler, Irvin P 1 597 

Fessler. Thomas J 112fi 

Fichthorn. Andrew - 1292 

Fichthorn, Clara C 1292 

Fichthorn, FfTeneer R 1323 

Firhthorn Families 508. 1323 

Fichthorn, George L 995 

Fichthorn. Tames 597 

Fichthorn, J^Irs. Susan M 995 

Fi.lier Families 7l''i, 1063 

FiJ'er, Henry F HViZ 

Fidler. William 74<5 

Field Family S53 

Field, George 617 

Field. William W 853 

Filbert, Charles V 372 

Filbert. Edward H 372 

Filbert Fajnilies 372, 1094, 1573 

Filbert, George 1572 

Filbert. Dr. George W 157+ 

Filbert, Hiester W 1575 

Filbert, James 1570 

Filbert, John, Jr 1575 

f^ilbcrt, Martin S 1574 

Fiibert, Thomas 1575 

Filbert, Wi'liam A 1612 

Filbert. William D 1094 

Fink. Dr. .Allen J 711 

Fink. Andrew J., Jr 455 

Fink. Andrew J., Sr 455 

Fink, Henry J 1012 

Fink, John 1655 

First Baptist Church. Reading. . i::S3 
First U. E. Church, Reading. . 37^0 

Fischer (Fisher) Families 

421, 434, 50S. 511. 626. ,«:;7. SSO 
924. 1150, 12.S5 

Fisher, .Absalom H 1084 

Fisher, Adam M 1156 

Fisher. A. W 62C 

Fisher. Charles M 837 

F'isher, Daniel D 421 

Fishr:r (Fischer I Families 421, 

431, 503. 511, 626. S.37, 880. 
924. 1136, 1285 

Fisher, Henrj- G. lvJ16 

Fishc-r, Jeremiah 881 

Fisher, Jeremiah B . . 1286 

^is>.er Tohn W. ('deceased) .508, 511 

Fis>er, 'John W 1236 

Fisher, ']. Wiimer 434 

Fisher, Mrs. Leah 881 

fisher. Vichoias H 024 

F'isher, Dr. Oliver H 719 

Fisher. Reilv L 881 

Fisher. Rosa E 881 

Fisher, Samuel R 381 

Fisher. Weslev H 1084 

Fisher, ''■Villiam B 1286 

Fi'^her, William E 511 

Fisk, William E 1577 

Fix. Charles H 1395 

Flaig. Joseph F .1398 

Flannerv, John A 892 

Flatt, George W 440 

Flatt. Joseph O., Sr. 439 

Flatt. Joseph 440 

Fieckner, George 1138 

Flei^her, Michael F 1059 

Flicker, Augurtus S 601 

Flicker. Mrs. Emm.a M 602 

Flicker Family . 601 

Flickinger. Christian S 934 

Flickinger. Martin M 1638 

Flower. Samuel 1486 

Focht. .Amos 880 

Focht. Benjamin 1545 

Focht Brothers 880 

Focht Families 375, 443. 1545 

Focht, Jacob 880 

Focht, Tames S 443 

Focht. Levi H 375 

Folger. Walter 1492 

Folk. Charles A 1624 

Folk. John R 1530 

Foos. Charles S 430 

Foos. George 436 

Foreman, Daniel B 981 

Fornwald. Reily M 947 

F:;rry, \V'illi;.!n F 1118 

rortr.a, H'.nry D 1125 

FiiUtz. She-iiKui S ' 471 

Fox, Aaron G 961 

Fox, C\ rus T 1294 

Fox Families OiU. 1308. 1544 

Fo.K, Frederick S 1426 

I- o K. Jim( s £ 1544 

Fox, Joseph D 1398 

Frame. A. L 686 

Frame, Charles X 633 

Frame Familii-.s 638, 1299 

Frame. John M 1299 

Fr:irJvhau?cr, Fremont W 1569 

T'^ranks, .Mfred 1693 

Franks, Cyri-s L 1690 

F^rasso, R. A 1372 

Frnuentelder, W. .Adam 933 

Frederick, William J lo39 

Freeman, Charles W 579 

Freeman Families 578, 1065 

Freeman. Jan^es L 573 

Fveeman, Solomon 1063i 

Frees. Mrs. Lizzie S. (Hatt) .1043 

Frees, William R lllG 

rVetz. Dr. .Abraham X 389 

Frey, Daniel F 1062' 

Frey (Fry) Families. .. .442, 1662 

F'reyberger Famil}' 1029 

Freyberger (jeorge W 1620 

Frick. William 1 1660 

Fricker. Ellsvv'orth 151)2 

Fricker, George W 1676 

Fricker. Jacob 368 

Fricker. Jacob B. 368 

Fricker, Zvlrs. Louisa 1676 

I-'ries, George W 1522 

Fries, Taccb 948 

Fries. John M 740 

Fritch Families 823, 824, 1033 

Fntch, Jeremiah T 823 

Fritch, Levi L 1033 

Fritch. Dr. Miiton L 824 

Fritz. Ajgustus 1536 

Fritz. Edwin 1418- 

Fritz. _Eli 1444 

Fritz raniilies.. 1063. 1418, 1444, 15.-',G 

Fritz, George F 690 

Fiitz, Henry F C90 

Fritz, John S. ' 1093 

Fritz, Le-n-is G '^'^^ 

Fritz, ATrs. Lovina Y 1444 

Fritz. ]V.'artin H 1063- 

Fritz, Ssir.uel E 1103 

Fritz, .Svlvester F l."34 

From, William H 321 

From (Fromm) Family 921 

Fromm. Thoni.iS H 1242 

Fro.ihe'sfr. C'larles Y 1380 

Fronbp-ser Family 1380 

F'rv CFrev) Families 442, 1062 

Fry. I^en'ry H 442 

Fry. Keyscr 8^.0 

Ffvmire. Tohn 1228 

Fulmer, Samuel H 1425 

Fulton. Andrew M 827 

Fulton, Mrs. Catherine R. ... 626 

Fulton Family 626 

Fulton. William M 626 

Funk Families 485, 1311 

Funk, James B 48ri 

Funk. Dr. John H 1311 

Furlow, Henry K 737 

Gabel. Daniel G I'iSl 

Gabel. Daniel L 1281 

Gabel. Ephraim G 1281 

Gabel (Gable) Families ..397, 1280 

'■■ .KM ' .^lUHJ, -.^".-»a:'-7F- >i.» ' f.'... :T 


Gabel, Mrs. Mary A 1282 

Gable (Gabell Families .397. 12.^0 

Gable. Rev. Zena; il 397 

Gaenzle Family 577 

Gaenzie, John 577 

Gailey Family 1713 

Gailey, George A 1715 

Ganger Family 654 

Ganger, George I^ 661 

Ganster, Ed. C 1157 

Ganster, Mrs. Emma R ... 904 

Ganster Families 1157, 1516 

Ganster, George A 993 

"anster, Jo?eph 170S 

Janstcr, Lewis 1516 

Ganter, Joseph B 1.5SR 

Gartmann, Frederick 1189 

Gartmar;n, ATrs. Gertrude ...1189 

Gas?, Mrs. Charity 882 

Gass. Henry 1386 

Gass, Jacob 883 

Gass, Tames 832' 

Gaul. Benneville Af 677 

Gaul Fa.Tiilies ...677, ST'.i, 1232, 1533 

Gaul. Franklin M 379 

Gaul. George S £533 

Gaul, Tames IvI 1231 

Gebhard. Charle.= W 937 

Gebhard, Mrs. Sarah A 937 

Gebhart, Jacob ?66 

Geehr Family 9.')2 

Gechr. Katie L 053 

Geehr, T!ion;as B 953 

Geehr. Titus E 9.'^-:^ 

Gehman Families 811, 1023, 1039 

Cehman, Franklin B 1039 

Gehman, Peter B 1024 

Gehman, Samuel t! 1024 

Gehman, Rev. Williatn 811 

Gebret. Bentr.n R -.341 

Gehret, John 1223 

Gehris Family 1507 

Gehris, Joseph L 1597 

Gthris, L. ITorvard 537 

Gehris. Mahlon E tl4Sr 

Gehris, Dr. Oscar T 1541 

Gehrke. Herbert \V. S 1319 

Gehrke, William L 13i9 

Geiger. Ezra D CS5 

Geiger Families 685, 1033 

Geiger, George H 993 

Geiger, Eewis J 1333 

Geiger, Wellington D 685 

G.'iglev, Ge.irge 828 

Geisewite, H. F 1415 

Geisewite, Percival F 1130 

Geiss, Morris J 904 

Geissler, Christian W 958 

Geissler. John G 415 

Geist Family 813 

Geist. Henry S 813 

Genner, .Alfred J 1364 

George, Daniel S 1308 

George Family 1308 

George, Rev. Jonathan V. ...1309 

George, Samuel 1309 

Gerber, Edwin R 436 

Gerhard Families ...988, 1208 

Gerhard, Rev. George W. . . . 458 

Gerhard, J.ames R., M. D 1297 

Gerhard, Milton J 938 

Gerhardt (Gerhart) Family... 534 

Gerhardt. Howard E 534 

Gerhart (Gerhardt) Families 

399, 534, 1437 

Gerhart, Franklin W 639 

Gerhart. George W 400 

Gerhart, John P 1437 

Gerhart, Peter W., ]c 399 

Gerhart, Mrs. Sarah .A 639 

German, William H 1221 

Gery, .^illen G. ... 972 

Gery. Erwin C 483 

Gcry Families 4S3, 1329 

Gery, William A 1329 

Gettis. Oliver S 1129 

Getz Family 339 

Getz. Hun. Janies K 339 

Gctz, J. Lawrence 810 

Gibson, William H 1490 

dicker, Edward A 1152 

Gicker, Tames M 1042 

Gift, John .M 1247 

Gilbert Fanniies 359, 739 

Gilbert, John W 359 

Gilbert, Milron Z '^'Sg 

Giltclman, John J. K 1592 

Glaos Family 459 

Glaes, John C 459 

Glase. -Alfred W 683 

Glase Families 633, 721, 853 

Glase, Janus L 858 

Glase, J. 721 

Glass, Mrs. Catharine 1202 

Glass, George 1202 

Glass, Ma^-tin W 1243 

Glasser Family 1696 

Glasscr. J acob 1697 

Glasser, Jacob D 1696 

Glassmeyer, William R 1245 

Gnau, Jacob 1384 

Goiifrey, Hamilton 1020 

Goetz, Ferdinand 540 

Gottz, Fred W 541 

Goldman, Edmund 1068 

Goldman. William I 946 

'"ronscr. John R 1713 

Good Familv 1649 

Good, Dr. Franklin H 1348 

Good, JetTerson T 1649 

Gi >od, William A 347 

Goodiiart Families 909, 1510 

Goodhart. Frederick 099 

Goodhart, Reuben 1510 

Goodhart, Reuben (21 1510 

Goodhart, Reuben D 1510 

Goodhart, Victor L 1246 

Goodman, Daniel 1215 

Goodman, James .1479 

Goodman, John E 773 

Gordon. David F 357 

Gossler, Andrew 1521 

Gottschall, Clinton 1207 

Gottschall F.imilies 6.-3. 903, 1075. 1207 

Gottschall, Henrv S 653 

Gottschall, Frank B 1075 

Gottschall. Jacob C 903 

Gougler Family 931 

Gougler. Tames 1 931 

Graeff. Bcniamin 1234 

GraelT Fam.ily 1354 

Graeff, George 611 

GraetT, George M. (deceased).. 611 

Graeff, George M 539 

Graeff, Tsaac 1354 

Graeff, Isaac L 1351 

Graeff. Samuel L 1345 

Grant, Jeremiah K 1324 

Granz, August 702 

Grater (Crater) Family 362 

Graul. Charles F 1431 

Graul Families 848, 1431 

Graul, George 695 

Graul, Mary 695 

Graul, L 848 

Grec!!. Ttop. Henry D 1243 

Greenawald, Benjamin F 1619 

Grecnawald i.Grcenawalt) Fam- 

ili:-? 1588, 1019 

Greeniwald, John S 1591 

Greenavvalt, EJgar D 1590 

Greenawalt, James V 1591 

Gregg, Gtn. David AIc.M 334 

Gregg Family 334 

(ircgory Family 469 

Gregory. George R 469 

Greis.s (Gricss) Families 1117, 1431 

Greiss, Jacob F 1481 

Grcsh P amily 1369 

Gresh, James B 1369 

Greth, Charles .\ 1614 

Greth Family 1612 

Greth, Isaac C 1013 

Greth, Samuel L^ 1613 

Griesemer, Clayton B 1713 

Griesemer, tili B 1421 

Griesemer Families 1377, 1422, 1713 

Griesemer, Jacob L 1422 

Griesemer. Joseph M 1378 

Grieshaber, William 1170 

Gricss (Greiss) Families. .1117, 1481 

Gricss. Jamc; H. S 1117 

GrifTirh, .\ugu3tus M 1186 

Griffith, Biram. 1186 

Grifiith Family 1135 

Griffith, Hiram M 1186 

Grifiith, Wavne F 1186 

Grill, Adam F. E 465 

Grill, Daniel M 743 

Gnll Families .465, 633, 1051, 1550 

Grill, Frank Tsl 1550 

Grill, F. Pierce D 1051 

Grill. John M 778 

Grill. Martin D 633 

■'rrim. Daniel P 1304 

Grim Families 382, 6.">4, 1304 

Grim, Miss Mabella 382 

.Grim, Moses K 654 

Grim. Wilham K 381 

Grimes, Peter 933 

Grimlev, Oliver P 1314 

Gring, Cha-les H 1561 

Gring Families '..70, I42a, 1560 

Gring, Fraii.klin H 1551 

Gring, Harrv R 1429 

Oing, Le vvis \V 1562 

Gring, Samuel H 372 

Gnscom Fr.iniiy 393 

Griscom, Rachel D 393 

Griscom, .'^amuel 392 

Griscom, William 'M 393 

Grohman, Frederick W. E 1340 

Groman, Israel K 645 

G^0£S, Mrs. Christiana 1314 

Gross, David 1313 

Gross, David G 868 

Grube, John 1072 

Gruber. Adam R 863 

(iruber. Christian 1004 

Gruber, Alandon J 1462 

Gruber, Calvin L 1001 

Gruber. Christian, Line of 1004 

Gruber Families 

863, 917, 1000, 1001, 1462 

G-uber, George B 917 

Gruber, Henry 1001 

Gruber, Michael A 1000 

Gruber, Mrs. Rosa K 864 

Gruber, Simon, Line of 1005 

Guldin, Abraham 1053 

Guldin, Charles R 1671 

Guldin, Cvrus Q 692 

Gi'Idin. David Y 1054 

Guldin, Mrs. Esther 1603 

" ~,-ir*^e(w'^^i>^f!rf^;W-" ,r *-?,^-*^^^ 


Guldin Families 

451, 784, 840, 10o3, 1071 

Guldiii Genealcg>- 784 

Guld;n, GcorgL^ Y 1054 

Guldin, Jame;i H 717 

Guldin, Jeremiah R 1602 

Guldin, John 1603 

Guldin, John R 451 

Guldin, John Y 1054 

Guldin, Mary A 1603 

Gu'din, M-s. Sarah B 1053 

Gundo'. Prof. G. Harel 1180 

Guss, Samuel M 1432 

Guth, Amos S lt;24 

Guth Family 1024 

Haag,' A. \V .* 607 

Haage, George De T 1183 

Haak Family 6i4 

Haak, George E tJ24 

Haas, Allison F 1205 

Haas, Franklin 1121 

Haas, Isaac 897 

Hackman, Henry D 1179 

Hafer. Arnmon L 581 

Hafer, F.dwaru E 1176 

Hafer Families 

581, 830, 340, 902. 1147, 1176 

Hafer, Howard M r)02 

Hafer, James W 810 

Hater, Lewis -M 839 

Hafer. Samuel L 582 

Hafer, William B 1147 

ilagenman, George F 550 

Hagenman, Tuage Jeremiaii 33L', o.'.fl 

Hagy. Bennewel! -.1175 

Hagy, Mrs. SaDie .'\ 11T5 

Hagy, William 'i93 

Halin, E. D 925 

Hahn. Rev. Frederick B 5i'2 

Hahn, Mr.=. R. Ella r.'rs 

Hain. Abraham G 349 

Hain, Benjam-in A 895 

Hain, David H.. M. D 661 

Kain Fanii/ies 

572, 334, 844, 849, 895. 949 

Hain. Jacob 949 

Hain, James M 850 

Hain. Dr. Leonard G 572 

Kain, Lewis J 834 

Hain, Miltnn I S96 

Hain, Peter A 1037 

Hain, Richard 844 

Hainly Family 615 

Hainly. Joel W 615 

Halbeisen, Henry A 1553 

Haller, Henry 779 

Hamilton, Robert T 1153 

Hamrn, Charles 1420 

HantFch. G. S?m ^ 332 

Hantsch, James X Ibln 

Hantsch, jilrs. Rebecca J. ...1577 

Harbach, Charles A 1436 

Harbold Families 1640, 1712 

Harbnkl, Horace Y 1712 

Harbold. Samuel B 1640 

Harbster, Ihs. Ellen 528 

Harbster Family 528 

Harbster. Howard E 486 

Harbster. John E 1384 

Harbster, Matthan 536 

Harbster, William 528 

Hare, Mrs. Clara L 1491 

Haring, Daniel E 1197 

tlarner, Augustus 423 

Harncr, D. Z 1475 

Harner Families 428. 1061, 1475 

Harner. Frank 1061 

Harnish, Martin 907 

Harrisoii, George W 1677 

Harrison, i-ienry K 1077 

Hart, G. Howard 1003 

Hart, Harry E 1473 

Kartgen. £dv\ard A 1132 

Hartlinc, Dr. Charles H 130b 

Hartline Family 1306 

Hartline, George C 1307 

Hartline. Warren D 1300 

Hartnian, Adam 11S9 

Hartman. Amnion S 447 

Hartman, Cliarles R 1444 

Hartman, Daniel H 1155 

ilartinan, Daniel 1 1487 

Hartman, Ephraim R 440 

Hartman Families 

445, 930, 937, 941, 994, 1154, 
1155, 1364, 1445, 1487 

Hartman, Frank 93S 

Hartman. Frederick S 911 

Hartman, George H 994 

Hartman, George W 337 

Hartman, Grant 1641 

Hartman. Harrison E 933 

Hartman, Irvin H 937 

Harlman, James Y 1364 

JIartman, John D. L 937 

Hartman, John S 764 

Hartman. Levi R 446 

Hartman, Mrs. Lizzie K 1042 

Hartman, Sidnej' J 446 

Hartman, Samuel ^[ 1154 

Hartman, Winiield L 933 

Hartmann Family 1349 

Hartmann, Henry J 1349 

Hassler, Augustus B 761 

Hassler. Ezra S 494 

Hassler Familv 494 

Hath cr Hatt Families ...948, 1042 

H?.tt. Jacob G 943 

Hatt. Samuel G 1042 

Hauder, Mrs. Catharine E 919 

Hauder. William R 919 

Haueisen Charles A 1217 

Hauser.' Michael 1044 

Hawk, Charles A 1091 

Hawk, George W 370 

H&wlev. Jesse G 472 

Hawman. Albert H 1277 

Hawtnnn, Penrose W 1276 

Ha vvs. John W 1 .^76 

Haws, Mrs. Marv A 1576 

Heberle, William 784 

Hebner, Samuel S 1G20 

Hechler Family 428 

Hechler, William F 428 

Hecht. Edward C 950 

Hecht, Mrs. Matilda 952 

Heckler, Charles T 1464 

Hcckman. Adam M 1539 

Hfckman, Daniel W 1113 

Heckman Families .1019, 1112. 15.39 

Heckman. Harry A 1112 

Heckman, Harry R 1113 

Heckman, Jeremiah W 1019 

Heckman, Monroe 1019 

Heckman. William A 1614 

Heffelfinger. George W 1093 

Heffner, Abraham C3S 

Heffner, Daniel A 616 

Heffner Families 616, 638, 601 

ITeffner. Franklin D 691 

Heil. Samuel D 804 

Heil. Mrs. Susanna 304 

Hei'icr. Mrs. Carolina 1435 

Heilig. Elizabeth M. B 1079 

Heilig. i'rancis M 1078 

Heilig, Nathaniel 1435 

Heilman, .•Vdam 1385 

Heilman, Charles. F 1511 

Ho'n, James H 1047 

Heine, Gregory 869 

-Heine, S. Julia 1508 

Heiiiiy. David L 531 

Heinly, Enoch J 1230 

Hciiily Families 620, 1230 

H.'inly, Harvey F 619, John £ 53C', V\'iili.-iin O. . . , 522 

^ieins Family 457 

Heins, Mary 457 

Keins, Col. William 457 

Heisler, John 1407 

Heisler, Mary 1407 

iieibtand Faaiily 1332 

Heistand, Harvey S 1382 

HeJzmann, Albert A 666 

Heizmann, Dr. Charles L 665 

Heizmann, Charles R 665 

Heiiinann Family 664 

Heizmann, The'^'dore 1 655 

Heizmann. Wrliiam A 666 

Helder, William B 1090 

Heller Farr-iiies 952 975 

Heller, F. P 952 

Heller. Henry .A. 975 

Hemmich. Tiiomas F 998 

Hemmig Families. . .931, 1013, 1334 

ilemmig, Francis M lOlS 

Hcmroig, Francis Y 931 

Hemmig. Harrison H 1334 

Hendel. Mrs. Catharine 048 

HeiKlel, Uaniel J 648 

Hendel, Edwin F 649 

Hendel, Harrison P 648 

Hendel, John 648 

Hendci, George 564 

Hendricks. John S 939 

Hendricks, William H 1440 

Hcnue, Charles W 605 

Heller Families 952. 975 

Henne, Howard F 605 

Hennc, Jacob W. 1123 

Henne, (Dscar D 466 

Henningei, Hiram L 1018 

Henninger, Hunter 1191 

Henninger, Jolin H 76^; 

Henry, .^mandus E 1604 

Henry, Cyrus G >>'2l^ 

Henry Families 402. 1333, 1517 

Henry, Rev. Jonas 492 

Henry, Lewis R 1517 

Henry, Prof. Samuel 1 1338 

Heplcr, Irvin E 1440 

Hepler, John C : 760 

Hepner. Joseph S 932 

Herb Families 1486, 1 710 

Herb, Henry G 1711 

Herb. Hiram 14SR 

Herb, Willou-hhy H 1710 

Herbein. Charles G 1205 

Herhein, Daniel M 1413 

Hcrbfin Families 335, 506, 1412 

Herbein, James B 1412 

Herbein, Rev. M. L 934 

Herbein. Oscar B., M. D. . . . 38.S 

Herbine, Charles 506 

Hcrhinc. Charles W 506 

Herbine. Ezra H 722 

Herhine. Tolin G 1051 

Herbst. Dr. Edwin M 437 

Herbst Familv 4.37 

Herbster. William 1139 

Herman, Charles D 1226 

HcriTian Families 613, 1226 

Herman. Georee C 514 

Herr. .-\bram, D. D. S 507 

'^if^t-.tvutmtf^etf.-yrvr^ « 

-"^ -^.•••e»fT/ 

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Herr Family 

Hertwig, George H 

Hertwig, H. A 

Hertzog, David 

Hertzog. Mrs. Margaret .... 

Hertzog, William R 

Heston, Augustus . 

Heston, Mrs. Caroline D 

Hettinger, luiwin L 

Heydt, .Abraham M 

Heydt FaTnilics 1407, 

Hcydt, Henry B 

Heydt, Isaac F 

Hickman. Glendeur, D. D, S. .. 

Hiester, .Adam \V 

Hiester, Danie! F 

Hie.ster, Edward K 

Hiester, Eli E 

Hiester Families 

352, 510, 755, 1061, 

Hiester, Gabriel (1749-1S-.-4') . . . 
Hiester, Gabriel ( 1770-1834) .. . 

Hiester. Harry K 

Hiester, Isaac 

Hiester, Dr. Isaac 

Hiester, John A 

Hiester, Capt. John A 

Hiester, John K 

Hiester, Joseph 

Hiester, Thomas K 

Hiester, William M. (1818-1878) 

331, 756, 

High, A. M 

High, Charles P 

High. Conrad B 

High, David K 

High, Ezra 

High (Hoch) Families 

381, 617, 1341, 143C, 

High. J.imes M 

High, Peter K 

High, Samuel H 

High, Brig. -Gen. William .... 

High (Hoch), William M 

High, William. P 

High, William R 

Hilbert. Henrv E 

Hildebrand. P. H 

Hill, Charles F 

Hill, Charles S 

Hill, Daniel B 

Hill. Mrs. Emma B 

Hill, Ephraim Y 

Hill Families 

914, 1089. 1116, 1343, 

Hill. James M 

Hill, James S 

Hill, Jonas F 

Hill. Samuel J 

Hiltebeitel. Mr.?. Elizabeth 

Hiltebeitel, Jesse 

Himmelherger Family 

Himmelberger, Franklin R. . . . 

Kine, Charles H 

Kine Family 

Hinkle, Mrs. .Amanda 

Hinnershitz, Mrs. Catherine . . 
Hinnershitz Families ....689, 

Hinnershitz. Frederick A 

Hinnershitz. Peter A 

Hinnershitz, William E. S. . . . 

Hinnershitz. William R 

Hintz, J. George 

Hipsch. Martin H 

Hirrier, Mrs. Christiana 

Hirner. ?Ienr\- C 

Hirshland. Solomon '. 

Hobart. N'athanicI P 

Hoch, Danie! D 




























































Hoch (High) Families 

381, 617, 1341, 1439, 1582 

Hoch. Gi<leon A. D 1583 

Hoch. Henry R 1415 

Hocii, Jacob V. R 1585 

Hoch, Maberry S 1585 

Hoch, M.nrtin R 1341 

Hoch, Phili]) D ]:.S3 

Hoch (High), William M 1439 

HofYa Family 1006 

H otta. Isaac lOOo 

HntTeaitz, Mrs. Clara C. 112S 

Hotteditz Families 1128. loTO 

Tloffeditz. John C 1123 

HotTert Families 1472, 1549 

HoiTert, Mcses M 1473 

Hofferr, Xclson 1549 

Hoffman, Charles P 429, Dr. Christian N. ... 279 

Huffman, -Mr.^. Ellen A 355. 3.-)'3 

Hoffman Families 

oSO, 425, 844, 983, 1135, 13G3, 1640 

Hoffman, Franklin W 1135 

Hoffman, George R 1610 

HofTman, Jacob D 425 

Hoffman. John F£ 1362 

Hoffman, John P 083 

Hoffman, Michael W 1135 

Hoffman. Rev. P. P. A 430 

Moffman, R. Monroe 415 

Hrffman, Samuel F 844 

Hoffmanij, !Mrs. Augusta 751 

Hoffmann, Emil 751 

Hoffmaster, Henry 1637 

Hofmann Family 657 

Holl, Elizabeth 684 

Holl, Mrs. Esther 1517 

Hoil Families 1159, 1523 

Koli, Hen.-v 1517 

Holl, Mark D 1159 

Ho'l. Peler 3 1523 

Holl. Samuel 634 

Hollenbach, Benjamin F 1405 

Hollenbach. Ch.irle? M 162S 

Hollenbach Families 609, 734, 1283 

Hollenbach, George K 733 

Hohenb.'iCh. Isaac 003 

ITollenbrch, Jacob 1232 

Hollenbach. William T 1282 

Hollenback, William S l'.)21 

-Holiis, W. G 700 

Holmes, Joseph W 1111 

Holtry. Mrs. Adeline G •. . . 971 

.Holtry, Daniel 971 

'Holzman. J. .Adam 1203 

Homan. Charles A 1303 

Homan Family ; 130S' 

Homan, John 1 1303 

Homan. Samuel 1303 

Honeker. Andrew 607 

Hoover P amily 1036 

Hoover, Roger S 894 

Hoover, Samuel S 1036 

Hoppes. Charles H 1013 

Hoppes Family 1013 

Hornberger, Charles B 1619 

Hornberger, Cyrus D 1617 

Hornberger Family 1616 

Hornberger. Harry G 1617 

Hornberger. Joseph D 16! 8 

Hornhergcr. josephus S. ^....1617 

TTorning, Aaron 105i6 

Horning. Mrs. Clara 770 

Horning Family 1054 

Horning. T^aac Z 1055 

Horning. Jeremiah 10',5 

Horning. John B 1056 

Horning. Wesley 770 

Horst. .Amos 956 

Hossler Family 462 

Hossler, Fred B 462 

Hottenstein Family 1076 

Houck I-amily 1687 

Houck, Hon. Thomas J. R 1G87 

Howden, Edward 1033 

Howden, Mrs. 1. avina 1033 

Howerter, Sairuel K 1375 

Hoyer Families 971, 1093, 1410 

Hoyer. H'jien A 1411 

Hover. TIen;-y 1410 

Hoyer, Isa.'ic S 971 

Hoyer, Isaiah 1411 

Hover, Jolin 1411 

Hoyer, William 1093 

Hiiber, Charles :>I 1670 

Hubcr. Henry 743 

Hubley, Edv.aru B 334 

Huesman, Henry J 1038 

Hull. Charles Hartoii 371 

Hull. Goi'-ge .A 1314 

fliinibert. Rev. Da\-id K 1336 

Humbert Families 455, 1227 

Humbert, George D 15.> 

Humma. Ifen.-y 1010 

Hunsberger, Charles G 1325 

Hunsicker, B. F 1033 

Hunsicker. Jacob P 1114 

Hunter, Martin D S85 

Huntzinger, Benjamin K 1000 

Huntzinger Family 488 

Huntiiinger, Rev. Franklin K. . . 488 

Humzinger, George H 903 

Hdy. Georare F 1231 

Huyett, A. H 449 

Huyett, D. H 369 

Huyett Families 1096, 1496 

Hnyett. Plarvey T. 1-193 

Huyett, I. 3 369 

Huyett, Irwin W. L 1096 

Huyett. Mrs. Mati'da V 109G 

Huyett. Af. Luther. M. D. ...1499 
Huyt-tt, Robert P. R., M. D. . . . 713 

laeger. Rev. G. F. T 4m 

laeger. ?%irs. IMary A 40? 

lae.ger, Sarauei T 16G2 

laeger. Rev. T -iOi 

Ijnii.'ff. R.Tthold J 493 

Irwm, WiHiam J 1336 

Isctt. Dr. Benjamin F 80'. 

Isett, J. Frederick. M. D 805 

Jackson. William E 16'M 

Jacobs, Mrs. Hannah E '16 

Jacobs, J. Howard Hii"; 

Jacobs, John 6 '7 

Jacobs, John W 1 501 

Jacobs, Mrs. Mary .A Ri7 

Jacobs. O^w-n A. H ■>'■>"' 

Jacobs, William R ...1171 

Jacoby, Conrad i'""^ 

Jacoby Family n~() 

.lanssen. Henry K 3-1 

Jennings, John A. L ■''{'•■■<•- 

Tesberg. TTnrrv D ">"6 

Je=berg. William D "•'' 

Johnson Family t'-"; 

T-^hnson. Mrs. Grahamp D. ...''"1 
Johnson. Harvev C. D. D. S. ..i""' 

Johnson, ff. T 1""° 

Johnson. Morris Y i->- = 

Jones, .Alfred S '*"> 

Jones. .Amanda G i'"^- 

Joncs, Charles H ~^i 

lone?, ^'^s FHen E ■""'' 

Jones Families 

..339, .';54. 384. 694. S"""- ''"" 
Jones, George M ""'^■^ 

i-^r-tv-^^t^v.^r.^-*^ - 



xxm, J. Glancy 323 

Jonc?, John P 327 

Joncs, Levi G 1470 

Jones, Jonathan 353 

Jones, Capt. Richard li J.177 

Jones, Richn.ond L 3S-t 

Jonti, Samuel 355 

Jones, Williani H 6&4 

Kache!, Charles S 005 

Ksche! F'amilies 1210, 1400 

Kachel, Henry T 387 

K<-'chc!, Levi 1210 

Kachel. Xathan G 1100 

Kalil Family 948 

Kalbach, Aiiry E 774 

Kalbach Family 319 

Kalbadi, Willian- A 819 

Kantner Fauuly 408 

Kantner, F. J.. "M. D 408 

Kapp Fainiiics 731, 1184 

Kapp, George J 731 

Kapp, Leonard I ilS4 

Katzenmoyer. Mrs. Mary 763 

Katzenniovtr, William 7G2 

Kaiicher, John R 1322 

Kaurhcr. Wi'liam 1433 

Kautiman, Aibcrt W 171 1 

Kauffmaii. Ephraiui K S3i 

Kanfmar. FaiTiilies 034, 9.30. lOll. 1711 

Kaut>'man, Henry E 1011 

Kauli'man, James G 034 

Kauflfman, O'iver F 943 

Kaufman, David K 738 

Kau/man, Frank V 831 

Kaufman. John M 8^1 

Kaiif m.ann, .Albert B S41 

Keehn. Daniel B 999 

Kcehn. Fet'.--r B 732 

Keeier, Ffenry E 1512 

Keen. George L. M. D 670 

Keen, Morris R 121.''i 

Keeport, .Amos E 1324 

Kehr, Frederick H . . 1546 

Kehs, Irwin P. 1548 

Keim, Mrs. Pef.i- T 496 

Keim. Mrs. Emma T 405 

Keim Familier- 328, 1647 

Keim, Giorge de B. (son of 

George May Keim) 4r.6 

Keim. George de B. fson of John 

May Keim) 359 

Keim, Gen. Georsye May 328 

Keim, Henrv Mav 405 

Keim, Mrs. Lillie T 359 

Keim, ISlrs. Mary A. R 636 

Keim, Gen. William H 327 

Keim, William 'M 636 

Kciin, William R 1647 

Keinard. David 1107 

Keiser, Henry P 1565 

Keith Family 491 

Keith. Michn'el K 491 

Kelchner, Daniel F 410 

Keichner Family 410 

Keller, Mrs. .Amelia 1377 

Keller, David C 1702 

Keller Families 1258, 1700 

Keller. Trvin K 709 

Keller, Jacob ^[ 125S 

Keller, John G 1702 

Kelk-r. Levi 1377 

Kelso Family 1715 

Kemmerer. Flia's R 1564 

Kcnimercr Families ....1393, 1564 

Kemiiierr--. Fr.Trk K 1302 

f>'emmerer. vVi'liam R I">6'. 

Kemp. A'fred L 170S 

Kemp, Alvin F 1708 

Kemp, Auine E 1309 

Kemp Fanulies 964, 17U7 

Kemp, George 1174 

Kemp, Harvey W 1707 

Kemp, Henry 1708 

Kemp, Pierce G. S 964 

Kemp, William \V 1708 

Kennedy, Edwin 1241 

Kennedy, William H 918 

Kepner, Charles E 331 

Keppel, Mrs. Eva M 1450 

Keppel, Samuel B 1449 

Keppelman, Albert 1441 

Keppelman Family 507 

Keppelman, lohn H 507 

Kercher, George S 1631 

Kern, Mrs. Elizabeth 578 

Kern Family ,')78 

Kern, Franklin Boone 578 

Kern, Harrison T 1158 

Kern. John J 1164 

Kern, iiilton 1248 

Kerper, William F 767 

'Kershner, A. M 1372 

Kershner, Edwin 1118 

Kershner Families S67. 1118 

Kershner. James P 609 

Kershner, Lewis P 867 

Kershner, Mrs. Mary .A 868 

Kerst, Henry A 1577 

Kersr, Samuel W 1338 

Kessler Family 811 

Ke?sler, Jacob C 1059 

Kessler, Miss Mary C 811 

Kessler, William A 811 

Kieffer, E. C, M. D 1492 

Kieffer, Lewis M 915 

Killian, Monroe C 1149 

Killian, Mrs. Sue S 1149 

Kilmer, Levi A 1103 

Kindt, Charles D. B .■ 1167 

King:. William D 1677 

Kintzer, l>avid M 394 

Kiiitzer Families 873, S:H, 1330, 13';9 

Kintzer, Mrs. Elizabeth E 395 

Kintzer, Georjje 895 

Kintzer, Isaac Y 1369 

Kintzer, John .A '1330 

Kintzer, Mrs. Matilda 874 

Kiiitzer, Michael 873 

Kirbv Family 818 

Kirby, Stanly J SIS 

Kirk. Nicholas "H 1666 

KirkhotT, Jacob G 1482 

Kissinger, A. N 503 

Kissinger Families 

503. 644, 844, 1229, 1244, 1399, 1443 

Kissiii,B;er, Harvey D 1443 

Kissinger, Mrs. Henrietta Z 1224 

Kissinger, Henry G 1229 

Kissinger, Isaac 1043 

Kissinger, Jacob 844 

Kissinger, John 1399 

Kissinger, John M 1224 

Kissinger. VV^ashington S 503 

Kistler, Rev. Charles E 1144 

Kitchin, Dr. Elias C 453 

Kitchin Family 453 

Klapp, Mrs. Elizabeth 724 

Klapp. Joseph G 723 

Klee Family 820 

Klee, William S 820 

Klein, Rev. Daniel R 954 

Klein. James M 954 

Klcinginna. .Adam L 1667 

Kleii's:nra r.-miily 1667 

Kleinginna, Prof. George L. . . 506 
Kleinginna, George S 1300 

Kieinginna, Peter S 1007' 

Kleinginni, B. Franklin 47.-, 

Kleinginni Family 475 

Kleinginni, Sallie 475 

Kleinschmidt, John C 'JAI 

Klerr.mer. Bennevdle 1025 

Klcmnier. Joseph A 117 1 

Kline, .Albert \V ij09 

Kline, Mrs. Catherine 769 

Kline, David C. M. D 655 

Kline Families 

530, 655, 833, 1201, 1223, 1343, 
1409, 1452, 1509 

Kline. Frank 1098 

Kline, Harry 530 

Kline. Rev. Harry C 605 

Kline, H. Nathan 1223 

Kline, Jerome 1 1409 

Kline, John S ^ 833 

Kline, Joseph G 769 

Kline, J. W 1343 

Kline, Mahlon 716 

Kline, Mahlon N 776 

Kline, Morgan W 1107 

Kline. Morris H 1201 

Kline, Peter S 833 

Kline. Samuel B 1452 

Kline, Simon 1673 

Klinger Families 877, 1030 

Klinger, I.^aac P. 877 

Klinger. John W 1030 

Klohs (Close) Family 1C86 

Klopf), Andrew J 1689 

3<lopp, Cyrus P 979 

Klopp, Edwin J 1691 

Klopp Families 979, 1688 

Klopp, Ir'vin D 1691 

Klopp, Isaac P 1689 

Khisewitz, Mrs. Elizabeth ....1201 

Kluscwitz, La-.vrencc M 14S9 

Klusewitz, Matthias 1200 

Knabb. L;ai:iel Y 856 

Knabb, Mrs. Ellen M 563 

Kuabh F,-.niiiies 5r.s. S56, 1312 

Knabb, Jacob 568 

Knabb, Mrs. Maiinda C 857 

Knabb, Peter H 1312 

Knapp, George 773 

K-iapp, Geoigr. Sr 595 

Kiiapp. Mrs. .Mary 773 

Knetz, Mr=. .Abigail 1543 

Kneiz, John 1543 

Knittle Family 972 

Knittle. Jonathan S 973 

Knoll Fami'ies 1070, 1631. 

Knoll, John L. J 1631 

Knoll. J. Michael 1070 

Knoske Family 404 

Koch Families 1033, 1050 

Koch, Henrv H 1050 

Koch, J. Clinton D 1033 

Koch. 'Johannes 1232 

Koch, John Peter 140] 

Koch, Samuel 1233 

Koch. William 136C 

Kochel, Samuel H 113C 

Kohl Family lOOS 

Kohl, Henrv 115« 

Kohl, Henry R 100? 

Kohl. Milton S 1005 

Kohl. Nathan S lOOC 

Kohl. Nelson S lOOJ 

Kohler, A. Charles 1175 

Kohler, Dr. Daniel R 82; 

Kohler, David A 82; 

Kohler Families 821, 825 

Knib, J. Adam Ill: . 

Koller I•^^miHcs 850. 139) 

Koller, Owen H 139( 



Koller, Solomon S SaO 

Konip Family 073 

Komp, David 673 

Koser Family...^ 587 

Koser, Ralph S 1677 

Kraemer, Adolph 530 

Kraeincr, Loui-. ... :;4y 

Kraemer, Louis F ?,48 

Kramer, Albert F 700 

Kramer, Daniel F 872 

Kramer Families 

737, 871, !•'.)(, IVi*, \r,22 

Kramer, Frank D...j. 9'J4 

Kramer, George F S72 

Kramer. H<.nry F 1532 

Kramer, Milton H 1108 

K.ramlich, Rev. Benjamin E. ..1603 

Kramlich, Prof. George E ibOS 

Kramlich, Rev. Join; F 1603 

Kramlich. .Mrs. Sophia B 1'50S 

Kramlich. Rev. William \V....jGOa 

Krauss. Curtis E 1124 

Kreider Family 596 

Kreider, Milton C 59G 

Kremp, Edward S 408 

Kremp Family 403 

Kremp, Joseph P 1241 

Kremp, Mrs. Laura A. M 1241 

fCremp, Louis 1242' 

Kreps, Frank L 779 

Kressley, Rev. George S 51*1 

Krick, Anna S 631 

Krick, Daniel H 1071 

Krick Families ..529, G27, 1143, 148S 

Krick, Henry B 630 

Krick. Tacob 3 628 

Kri::k. James M 1143 

Krick, Joel H 529 

Krick, John 1 1438 

Krick, Mrs. Mary A "139 

Krick, Richard B 630 

Krick. Rev. I'liomas H 623 

Krick. Wollrngton B 792 

Krick, W;lliam F 6?.0 

Krick, Wiiliam R 1366 

Xriebel, Andrew G M73 

K.-iebcl, Allen S 775 

Kriebel, Howard W 1113 

Kriebel Families 77 j, 13ii7, 1173, lu6i 

Krie> ;1. Jcnas S 13G7 

Kr-.'oel. Lewis G 1664 

Kriebel, Rtv. Dr. vOscar S 775 

Kroningcr F; mily 1022 

Kroninger, Theovlore J 1022 

Krum, Wihon P 915 

Kuhns. James A 1133 

Kulp, M ilton 1483 

Kulp, Solonion 1483 

Kunkel Families 794, 1394 

Kunkel, Nathan 794 

Kunkel, William 1394 

Kupp. D. Webster B.. ^L D... 592 

Kupp Familv .",'^2 

Kurfess, Fra'nk A 1154 

Kurtz, Abram S 1068 

Kurtz, Adam ' MO 

Kurtz, Adam A 1125 

Kurtz, B. Frank l.iSS' 

Kurtz Families 399, 590, 106S 

-1079, 1125, 1331, 1415. 1552 

Kurtz, Mrs. John 1642 

Kurtz. Dr. J. E 661 

Kurtz, John B 1415 

Kurtz, John B. (Reading) 1694 

Kurtz, Kaiiftman C 1331 

Kurtz. Reuben L 1079 

Kurtz, Samuel ( 1235 

Kurtz. Sainuel L.. M. D 399 

Kurtz, WilHnm S 1235 

Kutz, Bcnneville 1193 

Kuiz, Bernard L 727 

Kutz, Calvin J 727 

Kutz, Charles W 1192 

Kutz. Co>mos D 1194 

ICutz. Daniel B 1193 

Kutz, Daniel S 1195 

Kutz, Edwin S 1192 

Kutz Families 406, 1191 

Kutz, Franklin S 1192' 

Kutz, Ira G 1193 

Kutz, John J 406 

Kutz, Nicholas J 1193 

Kutz. Samuel D 1193 

Kutz, S. Jairus 727 

Kutz. William S 1195 

Lacey, Theodore R 1105 

Ladd, Mrs. .\manda S 1152 

Ladd. Samuel W 1152 

Lamm, Charles F 884 

Lamm Family 884 

Lamm. Lewis F 884 

Landis Families 381, 1279 

Landis. Harrison 380 

Landis, Homer L 1280 

Landis, Tohn H 1425 

Landis, Levi S 724 

L.andis, Oliver M 745 

Landis, Reuben T 1279 

Landis, bamuel 1426 

Landis, S. Edward 1439 

Lash, George H 594 

Lash. Mrs. Mary A 594 

Latshaw, ,A.dam 594 

Latshaw, David 514 

Latshaw, David H 5il4 

Latshaw, George 514 

Latshaw Families 513, 593 

Latshaw, Harvey H 513 

Latsha.v, Howard 594 

Latshaw. Jacob S 514 

Latshaw. John . H 513 

Latshaw, Samuel B 514 

Latihaw, Samuel H 513 

Lattemann, Frederick A 1141 

Lauer, Franklin P 783 

Lauer, Frederick 783 

Lauer, George , 734 

Lauer, M'-s, ^lary 784 

Lauer Monument 784 

Lauer, Solo.mon E 1450 

Lauter, Gerhard 1512 

Lawrence, Edward 1458 

Lawrence, Richard L 1322 

Leader, Adam H 594 

Leader Family 594 

Leaver. Effir.ger W 1237 

Lechner Families SS2, 1297 

Lechner, Hamlin Y 1297 

Lechner. Richard 882 

Lechner. Wallace 1 1297 

Leedom, George W 991 

Leedom, John 991 

Lefevre Family 380 

Letcvre, Levi E 330 

LcFcvre. K. E.. M. D 1377 

Lch, Ephraim M 1463 

Lehman Family 1109 

Lehman, Sarah' E 1109 

Leibelspergcr, .Vdam K 1332 

Leibelspcrger Family 1644 

Lcibelsperger, Joel M 1644 

Leibold Family 1392 

Leibold, Tames 1392 

Leidy. .Mbert S 643 

Lcidy Families 643, 1464 

Leidy. Frank G 1-164 

Lcinbach, Rev. Aaron S 1260 

Leinhach. A. Ellsworth 379 

Leinbach, Albert 769 

Leinbach. Mrs. Ann E 1262 

Leinbach, Benjamin F 1342 

Leinbach, B. Franklin (Read- 
ing) 1380 

Leinbach. Calvin A 1108 

Leinbach, Charles li 695 

Leinbach, Daniel G 025 

Leinbach Families ....518, 5S2, 592, 

625, S62, 1108, 125S, 1337, 1342 

Leinbach, George A 592 

Leinbach, James B 582' 

Leinbach, J. Calvin 1337 

Leinbach, Jonathan G 720 

Leinbach. Joseph L 1519 

Leinbach, Llewellyn 1262 

Leinbach. Mahlon .V 1211 

Leinbach, Peter M 862 

Leinbach, Rev. Samuel A 1259 

Leinbach, Rev. Thomas C 1259 

Leinbach, Tyler 1260 

Leinbach, William 1260 

Leininger, Albert G 1046 

Leininger, Charles 818 

Leininger Families 099, 1044 

Leininger. George H 1045 

Leininger, Howard S 1045 

Leininger, Irwin G 999 

Leininger, Isaac G 1045 

Leininger. William G 1046 

Leippe. Charles E 681 

Leitheiser. Charles 1105 

Lencke, Mrs. Alice 1086 

Lencke. Henry 1086 

Lengel Families 855, 1331 

Lengel. Jerome C 1206 

Lengel, Joel S 1331 

Lengel, William W 1468 

Lenhart, Elmer T 1G80 

Lenhart Families 819. 1G2C, 1627, 1G80 

Lenhart, Mrs. Missouri 1630 

Lenhart, Samuel H 1626 

Lenhart, Solomon H 819 

Lerch. George W 1123 

Lesher. Allen R 703 

Lesher, Augustus A 920 

Lasher Families 

703, 919, 112], 1142, 1100, 1513 

Lesher, Franklin W 919 

Lesher, Oscar L 1142 

Lesher, William W 1513 

Lessig, Cj'rub 1225 

Levan, Abraham F 1084 

Levan. Cyrus B ?78 

Levan, Elizabeth H 1546 

Levan. Mrs. Emma 930 

Levan Families 

494, 60S. 873. 

957, 1048, 1052, 1066, 13S8, 1491 

Levan, Francis L 1160 

Levan, Francis W 1065 

Levan, Dr. George K 1389 

Levan, George K 1190 

Levan, Harry E 1414 

Levan, Henry B 49 1 

Levan, Isaac B 10(9 

Levan, Jacob B 1052 

Levan. Jacob K 1546 

Levan, James B 1333 

Levan. John S 1491 

Levan, John Y 980 

Levan. Joseph H 878 

Levan, Mrs. Kate 1663 

Levan, Mrs. Mary E 1414 

Levan, Nathan E 957 

Levan, Walton G 603 

Levan, Wellington R 1663 

Levan, William T 1121 

Levan, William's 909 

r » f I 


l.evan. William Y 104S Lutz, John C 1270 Matternes, James G., M. D 504 

Leveiigood, Andrew J. 1630 Lutz. John F 1141 -kfattheu-. John A 414 

Levcngood, WiJliam li 1103 Lutz. Wellington L 1-J71 Mathias Family C5S 

Lewis. Mrs. Anna E 070 Lntz." William B 1143 Muthias. Morris .\I 653 

Le-.vis, Charles A OVO Matthias. John S 639 

Lewis, Mrs. Fmma E 13S4 ,, ^ , „ t t Matthias. Wiiliim C 1310 

Lewis, John ]I H47 -\f*=^aulcy Ta nek J 1140 Matz (.Motz) Families ..1189, 14->8 

Lewis, John P 1,^..'>2 AtcCoriTnck-, V. ilham 515 Matz, Isaac 1427 

Lewis. Mrs. Mary E 1522 ?\IcCulloiii:rh, Joseph 1 1441 Matz', Tames ...'!!. 1189 

Lewis. Samuel P 1334 McCullovigh, ilichael 1441 Mauger,' Davirl B 527 

Leyniaster Brothers 1490 .^fc^>onongh. Mrs. Mary A 1170 Mauger. David F 527 

Leymaster. Charles 14Q0 McGowan, Allison F 718 ^ia-.Tgcr, Mrs. D. L .'!.!. !ll91 

Lcymaster, William 1490 .McGow.:in, non. Houard G. ..Ifi53 Mauger, Dani:! R 1G78 

Lichtciuvallncr, John 1450 McGowan, Ja;nes ir-!:,i Mauger Famiitcs 528, 1678 

Lichtenwalner, Dr. Milton D . . 074 .M cGowan. J. Wallace R 14S4 Mai'.gvr, Saii.uei B ....'.1G78 

Lieb, Aaron L 908 McGowan. .Mt-s. Loni^a 719 Maurer, Charles A 923 

Lieb Families 90S, 926 McHose, Isaac i:jH> Manrer. Dominic 063 

Lieb. Nathaniel W 92G McKittrick, Robert 5r;5 Maurer Families ....603. 923, 1007 

Lightloot, Jr.sper Y 916 McKnight Family 367 -Maurer. Franklin O .'.1008 

JJncohi, Abrr.liam. Berks Conn- McKnigiit, Mrs. Lydia A 1717 -Nlaurer, Isaac 703 

ty Ancestry 324 McKnight, MiltonB m7 A'ay Family 329 

Lincoln Families McKnight, William S i:i7 May, James 32-9 

^..324. 597, .1147 McLean Family 510 Mayer. Samuel C 5.03 

Lincoln, Richard G 1147 McLean. James B 1237 Mays Families 996 1110 

I.incenmuth, Rev. .\rson W...1646 ^icLean, William F 510 Mays, H. R')bert !.1494 

Lindenmuth Family 1646 McLenegan. John A 705 Mays. Jacob il 1110 

i-inuerman Families 800, 1314 McLenegan, Mrs. Mary ,\ 700 Ma3's. William K 996 

Linderman, George K.. 806 MtMurtrie r'amily -ioS Meek, Benjamin 817 

Lindern'.an Wairen F lLil4 McXuiney, John J .1398 Meek Families 641. 841 

Link, William 1524 ^iach-mer. Ho:iry L 1024 Meek, Jacob R '. 817 

Litschi. Charles 76S; Mach.»mer, Henry S 1636 Meek, Randolpn S 641 

Livlngood, ZV'rs. .\nna H 343 Machemer, Joseph B lfio4 Meek. Samuel H 841 

Livingood, Charles J 1227 Mnchmer, Charles H 771 Meckstrotli Famiiv 808 

Livingood, Frank S 66C Machmer Family 771 Meckstroth, William L 808 

Livingood, Jacob B 1251 Aiadeira, Ambrose B 1167 Mee, Francis H 772 

Livingood. William H 343 Madeira. Chat-les S 1165 Megeriy, Charles 1470 

Livingood, W. W.. M. D 1305 :\Iadeira Families ...9.?0, 1167, ]'",45 A!eharg Family 886 

Lcchman, Conrad ... 83.8 Madeira. Lee D 1045 Mebarg, George F 886 

Loder, Joseph 1320 Madeira, Levi lO-tS Mcinholtr. Conrad 974 

Long, Rev. A. Johnson _^)5 Madeira. Roboa W OOP ATc-nig. E. Richard 482 

Long Families ,.5f>-., ;uu, 1122, 13S3 Maiden Creel,- iTosiery Co XG50 Meitzier. Frank E 1111 

Long, Frank B 1383 Mallery. Garrick .',.-.0 Melcher Famiiv 1095 

Long, Henry W 615 Maltzbcrger, Charles C 1219 Meicher. George W 1096 

Long, Joel 615 Maltzberger, Emw.r^ E 13T5 Melcher, John R 1597 

Long, Marcus 700 Maltzberger Family.^ 47 4 ^[, Nidiolas 1095 

Long. Thomas 1122 Maltzberger, George R 474 Meii, John 1356 

Lord, Cyrus !C>90 .Malt.Tberger. Heiiry.... 433 Mcllert, Albert H . 160S 

Lord. Luther W 1673 Maltzberger. Levi 1374 jMellert. roh-i H 1034 

Loft. William K 1300 Malizh.r-ger. ?^l^s. Ma'-gr. rot C. 1219 ilellert, t.Wi. Ludema 087 

L<".z. Casper H 592 Maiusecki. Rev. Adalbert 847 ^ilellcrt. Magnus 087 

L.jtz Families 3:)0, 591, 671 .Manneibacic, Wi'.liam A 1141 Melot, Mo-ris B 1097 

I^otz, George E 592 Manwiller, Daniel H 1-.S5 ^'engel. l\ivid G 9«2 

Lotz, Col. Nicholas 350 Manwiller Families 1047, 1585 Mengei. Ephraim. 1333 

Lotz. Philip H 671 :\Ian wilier. Irvin N 1047 Mengel Families 

Lowe, Lewis N 6S5 March, Isaac F 485 -!00, 520. 9GK. 9S2, 1334, 147G 

Loy, Phaon 1124 :March, Mrs. Sarah R 4S5 Mengel, J. Haiti 1305 

Loy, Walter J 1030 Markert. Geo. A 1415 Mengel. K. Laura 068 

Loy. Walter S 738 Markley. Mrs. Amanda E 018 Mengel, Martin R 742 

Luckcnbill. Cyrus 1CT.3 Marklc}-. D. Frank 018 Mengel. Mckmcthon 1476 

Luckenbill Families 1253. 1400. 1551 .Markley, Frank A 018 Mencel, Ralph H 400 

Luckenbill, Thomas 1551 Marks, George W 1233 Mengel, Solomon 908 

Luckenhii!, Thomas R 1406 :\rarks. Howard F 1034 ^.Icrcer. Jan-es B 1494 

Luden. William H 768 Marks. Dr. William F MOO Merckel (Merke!) Families.... 

Ludwig. Brooke 1079 Marquett, John G. H 907 59s, 618. 739. 1971. 1541 

Ludwig, Charles R 1311 Marquett. Mrs. Mary R 967 Merkel, Augustus P 1541 

i,ndwig. Clayton C 1123 :\Iartin. Adam S 598 Merkel. David 589 

Ludwig Families 1079. 1310 Marx Family 403 Merkel, Elias i 791 

Ludwig, Jam,es M 1310 Martin Famiiv .' 598 Merkel Families 

Ludwig. Philip D 131t> Marx. Frederi'ck A 463 589, 61S. 789. 1071, 1541 

Li:ft, Benjamin 1484 Massev. Dr. Franklin F" 1405 Merkel. Elwood S 792 

Luigard. Edward 14SS Mast Families Merkel, E-ther H 791 

Luken. Harry J 1103 1028, 1143, 1508, 1564 Merkel. James J 1071 

Luppold Family 518 Mast, George L 1508 Merkel. Tames R 618 

Luppold, Wilham H .518 Mast, Hcber 1488 Merkel. fohn E 790 

Lntz. Allen 1271 Mast. John H 1143 Merkel. Airs. Sallie M 590 

Lntz. Charles A 1271 Mast. John R 1564 Merkel. Titu^ S 7)0 

Lntz T--ainilies 1113. 1.270 Mast. Levi 1028 Merkel. \A'-lliam D 700 

i-utz. George K lOOO Mattern. F. L. R.. M. D 1051 Merkel, William S 701 

Lutz, George W 1270 M.'.ttcrnes Family 504 Merkel. Wilson C 791 

",. TjC^ *^wv^:5^■=f^*' 



Merkel, Wilson W 790 

^lerk-el, Zacharias K 7U1 

Merkey Family 1)87 

Merkey. Joseph M 088 

Merritt, Thomas P 480 

Mcrtz, Allen G 1053 

Mcrtz, Elias Y 1>>1-1 

Mertz Families 1000, 5611 

Mertz, Mrs. Florenda 7t;3 

Mertz, G. Fred 1404 

iviertz. Isaac 7G3 

Mervine, Moseh 1519 

Messner. Arciiihald lo.'SS 

Miller, Albert G <)':6 

Miller, Amaiul'jri M Kill 

Miller. Re\. Dr. rier.noviil'.' H. SOi 

Miller, Charles J U51 

Miller, Clayton 1 Ii)fi2 

Miller, Cyrus A lo.TS 

-Miller, Daniel 1174 

Miller, Daniel H. 599 

Miller Fainilies . . ^ 

441. 46,"?. 599. 071. 67'3. 3r>2, S67. 

889, 947, 1017. JiSTJ, 'l227. V.'A?,, 

1302. 1449, 1451, 1467, 1527, 

1538, 1611, 1021, 1641 

>Til!er, Franklin K GO', 

Miller. Prof. Franklin P ?G12 

. IMiller, George 1449 

Miller, George J 1527 

-]Miller, Georpe \V !>49 

Miller. G. Wilson 143? 

Miller, Harry R 1407 

Miller, Harvey A 10'20 

Miller, Henry G 13£'5 

Miller, James" M 1313 

Miller. J. Jerome 1053 

Miller, John H. (Werncrs- 

..viile) 580 

Miller, Jo'm H. (Tonton; . . . . 4o3 

Miller. Tohn T. - ".. •■ SSO 

Miller, T. Milton 573 

Miller, 'Jonathan E,.- 1352 

Miller. Jonathan Ff 698 

Miller, Joshua L *')71 

MiUcr, Lafayette 1G21 

Miller, Levi A^. 1017 

Miller. Lewis 1240 

Miller, Lewis F 867 

Miller, Martin L., M. D 820 

Miller. Mrs. Matilda 1549 

Mirier, Peter S 1G12 

Mil'er, M'rs. Reiiecca S IIS'J 

Miller, Samuel 676 

MiUcr, Samuel F 359 

Miller, Solomon S 1227 

Miller, William A 1611 

Miller, W. Oscar 441 

Miller. William W 1244 

Mills, V/. E 686 

Minkhouse, Albert 1551 

]Vfinnich, Charles O. l^^f 

Minnich Family 1339 

Mishler. John D G95 

Missimer, John D 442 

Mitchell, Augustus D 1470 

Mo-'el, Albert F 131G 

Mogei Families 630. 1316 

Mogel. Dr. Peter S 636 

Mohn. Benjamin 527 

Mohn Family 728 

Mohn, Rev. licnry V 896 

Mohn, Tcrcmiah C} 728 

Mohn, j. G. & Brothers 720 

Mohn, John G 729 

Mohn, Richard 729 

Mohn, Samuel K 730 

Mohn. Wesiev D 527 

Mohn, William H 729 

Mohr, Edwin F 374 

Mohr, John H 1391 

Muhr. R.ivmund 373 

Mohr, Susannah M 1392 

-Mohr, William S 714 

Moll, Chark-; L 545 

Moll Familv 812 

Moll. William B S42 

?\Ionicr, William S 1084 

Montg-omery, Morton L 40:;' 

Moore. A. B 1441 

Moore, Mrs. Amanda 1535 

Moore. George K 1317 

."Moore. Ge.irge 1 1493 

Moore, James 1535 

Mcore. John W lOHS 

Morgan Family 355 

M organ, Jac 4) 3 55 

Morgan, Thomas H 1027 

Morret, H. IZckert, M. D 1232 

Morris, Edward J 545 

Morris F"aniilies "45, 1507 

^1 orris, William Ii07 

Closer, A. Monroe 1153 

Moser. Calvir D 1035 

Mc'Ser, Edwin L 566 

Moser Fainilies 

5o6. 915, 112S, 1212, 1688 

j\Ioser. George fi 915 

^io>er, Henry G V.3SS 

Moser. Hovvard L 1213 

Moser, Samuel H 1230 

Mosser, Benneviile G 1473 

Mosser, Daniei A 1 ] 28 

Mosser. Franklin G 1247 

Mosser. John G 1529 

Mot/, I Mat7) Fjinily 14£8 

Mo'ild, Jo-;athan 704 

Morntz F.-imi!y . j,'^42 

Aiountz. Henry 1542 

Moyer, Adam F 1 .50 

Moyer, .Mfred K lOGG 

Mover, Charles' G 1210 

Moyer Families 714, 814. 8.5J, 996, 

997, 1027, lOiiG. 1067, 1274, 
129^, 1514, 1650, 1693 

Moyer. Frederick 906 

i-ioyer, George B.. . 1514 

Mover, rieorge L 996 

Mover. Jacob 859 

Mover, Jacob B 1007 

Moyer, Jeremiah H 1274 

Moyer. John E 715 

Moyer. Joseph H 1274 

Mover, Joseph H. fdeceascd') . . 6(U 

Moyer, josepli 814 

Mover, Joseph Y 814 

Moyer, T-uther 1547 

Mover, iVIahlon A 715 

?.[over. Mrs Marcraret C 604 

Mover. Nathaniel 1296 

Mover. Peter. Sr 1027 

Mover, Tobias K 1274 

^royer, William' 1404 

Mover. Wil'iam H 609 

ATover. WMlliam J 129> 

Mover, Wilson E 907 

Aliihlenberg. Charles P 793 

ivruhlenherg. Hcnrv- A. d) 440 

Muhlenberg. Henry A. (2) .... 7S0 

Muhlenberg, Henry A. (?^) 783 

Muhlenhera-. Hies'ter H., M. D. 7«0 
Muhlenberg. Dr. William F.... 35.1 

Xaftzirgcr Family 470 

Naftzinger. Jacob E 471 

Nattzinijer. Peter E 471 

Xagle F.aiiii'y 672 

Xagel, Col. George 434 

Xagel, Capt. i'eter 434 

Xagle, Hiestcr M.. M. D 672 

Xagle. Mrs. L 67a Mrs. Lizzie N 503 

Xein, David D 1586 

Xein. William R 1671 

Xewcomet, Dr. Isaac W 1384 

Xevvcomet, Mrs. Sarah K 962 

Xi wcomet, William \V 963 

Xcwkirk, Harry E 1431 

Xewmc'^n, Xewton R 1610 

Xice, Berjamiii, M. D 1044 

Xice Familicb 946, 1644 

Xice, Frank M., M. D 946 

Xice, Dr. Franklin B 503 

Xicks, David L 549 

Xicks Family 549 

Xicks, Henry R .549 

Xicolls, Mrs. Anne H 782 

XicoUs. Frederick W 781 

Xicolls, Gastavus A 5£'0 

Xiethammer Family 393 

Xiethanimer. John G 393 

.Xolan, Edv/ard C 577 

Xolan, James 45'6 

Xolan, William 448 

Xolan, William, Jr 576 

Nolde, Jacob 600 

Noll. Harry N 1077 

Xoll, William H 1413 

Northeimer. John E 1434 

Xortheimcr, Oliver 1 1434 

Xunemacher, Lloyd M 1349 

Xyce, Percival C 807 

Oberhoitzer Family 426 

Oberhol'.zer, Jacob E 42G 

Oborlin Family 533 

Oberlin, Thonias J 5i33 

Oixild F^amilies . .' 597, 1196 

Obold. Harold 1196 

Obold. Tohn H 597 

O'Brien, Harry L 1070 

Odeair Family SG3 

Odeair, William S 863 

O'Harra. Isaac H 843 

O'Harra. Mrs. Maria J 843 

Ohnmacht. .Adam A 14S1 

Ohnma.:ht. Samuel S 1479 

Ohnmacht. William S 1478 

Oneaili Family 003 

Onraill, James". 602 

O'Reiiiy Family 385 

O'Reillv, Joseph P 3S5 

O'Reillv, Tvlrs. Sallie 1321 

Orr Familv 407 

Orr. J. Allison 407 

Orth. ,-\. R 64.5 

Oswald. Beniamin 1641 

Otto Family 920 

Otro. Harry W 733 

Otto, Henry M 9S0 

Otto, Jacob 731 

Otto. Mrs. S. A 920, 950 

Oxenreiter, John S 935 

Paine, Allen C 13~7 

Painter, Georcre W 146o 

Painter. T-hn R 823 

Painter. \Tr5. Rebecca 824 

Pnlm. Atiiton S 1175 

Palmer- Poroner, F. . ; 1510 

PannoHeckfr (Pennj-packer) 

Families 396. 1317 

Parker. T. Heber 11G5 

P:-,r\in. Afnrdecai S 935 

Paul. Harrv T 1531 

Pnxson. Levi B 3S6 

Pearson. John S 934 

.; ^,~-:rT:^..-..^ ■-i..T'.v.-yirvj<.' 



P-ifer, Daniel N 860 

Pt'il'cr Faniilics 800, IS'JS 

Pi-ifor. George N •• ■ St.O 

Peiu-r, I'etef i^-5 

Peifcr, Robert L 1^23 

Peiffc-r. Charles S ^...1065 

pflffcr i-aini'.y l'->6> 

P.-iplior. Ja.:,jb S 1313 

piM^ellv, Edward 533 

Per.ntbacker, Adam M 1213 

I'ennebatkcr. Yiicliard 11 1-'17 

Pcnncpacker, Amos B 390 

Penrvrjacker (.Paniif^bcokcrj 

"rami lies 30i;, ILM" 

Penrose. Georc^e D 350 

Penrose, Mrs. Kate M 35G 

Penta & Radnazzo 112T 

Pepper. Harlar. X l^"-3 

Perkiomep. Seminary "76 

Peters Faniily 13 tS 

Peter?. Jacob -313 

Pii.llip-,. Charles S., -M. D T09 

Phdlips Famines 710, 1063 Frank .1514 

Phdlips. Y If 03 

piiirert Fninily 101'^ 

PilLTcrt, Hei.ry P lOlt 

P!;.n.r. George ^^^ 

Pl;..ik. Charles M 401' 

Pkaik, Is.iac 9"''3 

Plank. J. L 1352 

Plowfield. Frank 1346 

Pohlig. Louis 747 

Poole. Ernest J 163G 

Porter, Robert 3r)3 

Pott, William J4R9 

Potteiger, Abraham L 1594 

I'otteieer. Albert loG4 

Pott?'frer, Albert S 150.-> 

I'otteiKer. Amos W •'44 

Fotreiger, Chrrles F. loDS 

P.itteiger. Charles W i5&5 

Pottei^er Families f)44, 1393 

Potleiger. Howard Vy HUG 

Potteiger, Samuel N *J44 

Potteiger. Sainuel 159r> 

Pr tieiger, Webster J 1594 

Potter Familv 334 

P-tter, William 333 

Potts, .-\t!dre«- ; 1602 

,— Polts Families 345, 1602 

Potts, Howard J 797 

Potts. Mrs. Susan M 845 

Potts. William H. R 845 

Price. Edward C 1023 

Price Family 1023 

Price, Henry 698 

Price. Josiah E 1603 

Price, Lizzie V 1522 

Printz, Daniel F 640 

Printz, John C 651 

Printz, Mrs. Lavinia C 651 

PrintzenhofF Family 435 

Printzenhoff. Henry F 435 

Priitzmon. Asaph 803 

Prntzman, Mrs. Margaretta M. SOS 

Prutzmar.. Walter 1138 

Pnrdy, W. A 1699 

Putt. George 733 

Ouier. Edwin .A 472. 713 

Oi-imhy, ,Mlen G 1007 

Qi'imbv Family 1006 

Uuinter. F. H 1199 

Raab. Ge<:)rgo 1175 

Rn:,b. ('.eorge T l'>72 

R.'nb, Charles t 117.> 

Radenbacli. John 1456 

Radenbacii. Rebecca 1456 

Radnazzo ( Penta & Radnazzo) ll'-H 

Rahn Families 857, 1483 

Rahn, John W 1483 

R.-din, Murkel M 1537 

Rahn, Wilson M aST 

Rarner. H 634 

Ranek Familv 702 

Rr-.nck. II. Herbert 703 

Rankin. Robert A 1115 

Rapp, Eli M li'69 

Rapp. J'dm W 751 

Ratlije Family 1607 

R.ithjc William 1667!'.. Anu.s S 1029 

Rathinan. Hov.-urd C 9^:0 

Raubrnh.>id Family 891 

Raobenhold. Walter M 391 

R.uich, David B 1344 

Ranch Families 537, 1328, 1344 

Rauch, Fra.ik 1 538 

Rauch, James M 1341 

Rauch, Jo'-,n W 517 

Rauch. Wellington K 132S 

Raudenbush. Dr Abraham S. . . esr 
Raudenbush, Dv. Charles H. . 614 

Raudenbiish. Richr.rd E 1563 

Rauenzahn Familv 719 

Rauenzahn, Harr> S 720 

Rauenzaiin, Henry B 720 

Rauenzahn, William B 719 

Ravel. Ger.rge \ 503 

Reber, .Albert D 1043 

Reber, Conrad S., M. D 1056 

Reber. Com-nodore V 1043 

Reber Families 343, 

1043. 1050, 123;'. 1255, 1298, 1320 

Reber. Honr. C. G...: 1321 

Reber, ?Ionry AI 1299 

Fveher , Horatio K 1 ■'^62 

Reber, Ira J. T l'-40 

Rob.-r. fames B 910 

Reber. James T 343 

Rftber. >.irs. Jlary A 15-02 

Reber, Morrir B 896 

Reber, Samuel M.... 12.54 

Rtbcr, Simulecius. .' 7u6 

tieber, Solomon R 12'J9 

Red cay b"amily '667 

Redcay. Tames Elia.s 603 

Redcay, William D 1472 

Reed. Capt. Edward F 6G0 

Reed, Elmer F 590 

Reed Families 

590. 660, 848. 898, 906, 1450 

Reed. Dr. lohn H 347 

Reed, Thomas W 906 

Reed, Wavnc A 398 

Reed. William A 1450 

Reedv Families 877, 900 

Rec'iy. .^ranklm I'OO 

Reedv, Henry 877 

Reedy, J. Thomas K 897 

Reeser, Abraham F 652 

Rceser. Charles C 1463 

Reeser, Daniel H 1372 

Reeser. Eugene S 1420 

Reeser Families 

652, 370. SSfi. 1136, 1371, 1462, 1634 

Reeser. Jacob H 1371 

Reeser, James D 1684 

Reeser. Jarius H 837 

Reeser. Jerome P 1136 

Reeser. Levi 876 

Rec«rr. William D 837 

Rc-ichcrt. J. H 667 

Reichwine. Penrose L 1157 

Reidenaucr Fair.ilics 11)8, 1543, 1537 
Reidenauer. Harrison M 158S 

Reidenauer, Mahlon -M 1533 

Reidenauer, William B 1587 : 

RtidLiiouer, Jonas B 1148 : 

Keider, Daniel T 1485 

Reider. Daniel Q 970 

R..ift' Familv 1635 

Reiff, Charles 1636 

Reitt. Lnt W 1630 

Reiff, William M 1073 

Reifsnyder, Mrs. Anni'j G 597 

Reifsnyder Family 1361 

Reifsnyder. Frank K 1143 

Reifsnyder. John F 596 

Reifsnyder. Samuel S 1361 

Reigncr, S. Y 1400 

Reimer, Mar.x 917 

Reinart, Mrs. Catharine 609 

Reinert, David M 1424 

Reinert, Franklin B 1201 

Reinert, Henry H 676 

Reinert, Samuel B 1102 

ReiTihart. Charles 835 

Reiniger, Daniel J 111^4 

Reinhart Family 83.5- 

Rcitennuer, Irwin G 1471 

Reitnauer, John .\ 1543 

Rcmp, .\aron K 992 

Remp Family 1345 

Remp, Henry E 1344 

Remp, Samuel K 992 

Renninger. David 1139 

Rennitiger. James H 1058 

Rentscnler, .\'.bert 1471 • 

Renitschler Families. .903. 1074, 1471 

Rentschler, John F. 903 

Rentschler. Morr-s F 1074 

Rentz. C. .Milton 1355 

Rei>i)ert. Charles B 1253 

Rhein Families 1123, 1023 

Riiein. Henry S 1623 

Rhein, T. G 762 

Rhein. Mrs. Mury E 762 

Phoads, Ambrose L 1126 

Rhoad-:, ili^n J 431 

Rhoads, C.ilvin S 3713 

Rhoads, Catharine E 1268 

Rhoads. Charles S 449 

Rhoads.! L 1268>. Da-^i-' F '.^17 

Rhoads, Elain H 1^46 

Rhoids (Roth) Families 427. 449. 
431, 670. lOT:, 1.2r,3, 1233. 143.5 

Rhoads. Henry 1417 

Rhoad«. Henrv E 670 

Rhoads. Henrv W 1336 

Rhoads. Tacb H 1076 

Rhoads, James F 427 

Rhoads, j. Xewton 707 

Rhcads. Tolin G ■'82 Xewton I l''S9 

Rhoads, Dr. Reuben B ir;90 

Rhoads, Dr Thomas J. B 1290 

Rnoads. Willir.m T l''«9 

Rhoads, William R 1263 

Rhode, .Nrus ll'«" 

Rhode. Cyrus J 423 

Rhode Famili.-^ 428. 11 iO. ^~"9 

Rhode. Homer T 423 

Rhode. Luther .\ 1667 

Rh.-de. XefF H 1215 

Rhndc. Wi'linm H 12i5 

Rhode. William S 1""^ 

Richards. Rev. Flias L "' 

Richards. Emanuel 6R3 

Richards Faniilies 435. 6«3 

Richards. Joseph W 7^5 

R;;-hard = . Louis 51*? 

Richards. Richard 43.'; 

Richards, Thomas M 413 

- >r'7-p'sti«T7«>«»w*r-»^i^^i^* ' i>i ^"^.^ W; 




Richardson, Charles M 434 

Richardson Families 431, llGj 

Richardson, Robert E 1165 

Richardson, Wilson 946 

Rick, Charles 431 

Rick, Cvrus 544 

Rick Families 431. 538, 544, 552, 1171 

Rick, George A 003 

Rick, Jamci 544 

Rick, John 538 

Rick, Joh'.i G 1222 

Rick, Paul A 1171 

Rick. William 552 

Rickenbach, Levi P lO-'ti 

Riegel, J. Allen 95t) 

Riegncr, Austin H. . . : S26 

Riegner Family. 8i'5 

Riegncr, Robert E 826 

Rieser Family 857 

Rieser. WiUiam S 857 

Rigg Family 801 

Rigg. John A 801 

Rigg. Airs. ]Mary Ellen 1322 

Rigg, Sam'iel E 1322 

Ringler, Airs. Kate 1399 

Ringler, John W 1399 

Ringler, Lewis 907 

Rishel Family : 1685 

Rishel, James I lOSi 

Rishel, William P 3 685 

Ritner, George 1537 

Rittenhouse Family 467 

Rittenhouse, Dr. Jacob S 467 

Ritter, Albert 423 

Ritter, Christian 658 

Ritter, Daniel K 927 

Ritter Families 

423. 656. 912, 928, 1451 

Ritter. Daniel S 763 

Ritter, Getjrge G 1517 

Ritter, Henry L 912 

Ritter, Jacob R 659 

Ritter, Jeremiah G 1451 

Ritter, Hon. John 423. 657 

Ritter, Louis 657 

Ritter, IMrs. -Mary E. \V 657 

Ritter, M rs. Rebecca 763 

Ritter. William C 657 

Ritter, William S (■-56 

Ritzman. Levi W. 1683 

Roberts. John D 916 

Roberts, Owen B 800 

Rodgers, Jos-eiih F 1214 

Roehrich, John 666 

Rohrbach, Daniel 1188 

Rohrbach, Hcnrv H 1707 

Rohrbach, John F 1422 

Rohrbach, Lewis F Ii87 

Rohrbach. William F IISS 

Roland Family 424 

Roland, Frnn.:is. Jr 1630 

Roland, Frederic A 424 

Rolland, Charles L 11G4 

Rollman. Adam M 545 

Rollman Families 545. 13'vG 

Rollman. Frr.ncis 1 1350 

Rollman, William H 1136 

Romich, William H 1417 

Romig. George 1010 

Romig, George W 1 132 

Romig, Joseph 1133 

Romig, Samuel H 1503 

Romig, William E 1503 

Rosch (Rush) Family 403 

Rosenthal, Wilhelm 1177 

Rote, John F 061 

Roth. .Mbert 1442 

Roth (Rhoads) Families 427. 4 49. 
431, 670, 1076, 1140, 12G8, 1288. 148.-> 



Roth, John C 1485 

Rothenberger, Clayton M 934 

Rothenberger, Cornelius K. . . . 669 

Rotheiibcrger, D.^niel 1373 

Rothenbeig'jr. Daniel A 1495 

kotlKiibcrgcr Faiiiiiics 669, 1373, 1486 

Rutl!enl)erger, Francis 146ii 

Rothenberger. Frank M 934 

Rothenberger, Georgi. \V 669 

Rothenberger, Isaac M 914 

Rothenberger, John C 1495 

Rothenberger, Lewis 1374 

Rothenberger, William K. ...1486 

Rotlierme!, Abraham H 440 

Rothermel. Adam S. , 928 

Rothermel, Prof. Amos C. ... 787 
Rothermel, .Mrs. Catherine M. 650 

Rothermel. Daniel tl 851 

Rothermel, Mrs. Deborah S54 

Rothermel, Enoch G 977 

Roi he nuel Families 

650, 851 , 922, 028 

977, 978, 1158, 1184, 1207, 1625 

Rothermel. Frank H llSiS 

Rothermel, Ira P 415 

Rothermel, Jackson 978 

Rothermel, Jacob H 1206 

Rothermel. Jeremiah R 11S4 

John G 922 

John H 1626 

Rothermel. John K 502 

Rothermel, John S 650 

'N'. G 899 

Silas R 1311 

Wilson H., IM. D. . 820 

Row, FVcderick 734 

Rowe Family 491 

Rowe. Joseph Z 1523 

Rowe, William G 491 

Royer. Jereruiaii \\' 1467 

Ri'bnght. Dayid W 1213 

Rudy. John 1120 

Ruhl, Christian H 551 

Ruhl F'amilv 551 

Runyeon, F. G., M D 1494 

Riipp, Dr. Jolm D 1606 

Rush (Rosch) Family 403 

Rush, Jacob 328 

Ruth. CaK-in 1169 

Ruth. Daniel 1630 

Rutii. Ed\vin C 1442 

Ruth, Mrs. Ellen 11.39 

Ruth, Mrs. Emma 1696 

Ruth Families 519, 

833, SfiO, SD3, 1169, 1442, 1634, 1695 

Ruth, Isaac 1634 

Ruth, John A 1138 

Ruth, John J 1700 

Ruth, j'ohn T. CCumru") 833 

Ruth. Leonard AI 519 

Ruth. Leri 1695 

Ruth. Alovris M 1075 

Ruth, William H. (Hotcl- 

keeper^i 893 

Ruth. William H. (Farmer) . 869 

Sailer Family 646 

Sailer. Mrs. Sallie Ann 912 

Sailer, Samuel H 640 

Sailer. Solomon H 912 

Salem Reformed and Lutheran 

L'nion Church 987 

S.illndc. Abraham G 469 

Salladc Family 46S 

-Sal lade. Taroh 332 

Sailade. Dr. James W 468 

Sallade. William H 408 

Sander Faniibv 1634 

Sander, Oliver H 1634 

Sanders, Charles F 1201 

Sandt, Eugene 1 1190 

Sartorius, Henry L 1153 

Sassaman I'amilies 516, 1347 

Sassaman. Geort;e W 1391 

Saisaman, Horace M 1347 

Sassaman, Louis A 516 

Sauer Family 595t 

Saner, John 595 

Sauer, Airs. Margaret 595 

Saul, Daniel 1600 

Sausscr. Albert B 1210 

Savage, James -M 1622 

Saylor, Howard B 672 

Saylor, Benjamin 672 

Saylor, John 672 

Schadel. Amandus G 1478 

Schadler. William P 1487 

Schaeter. Mrs. Fredricka V. . . 771 

bchaefer. J. George 771 

Schacffer, Annie 1558 

Schaeffer, Mrs. Catharine Y. .1023 

Schaeffer, Charles tl 368 

Schaeffer, Charles P 1298 

Schaeffer, Rev. Daniel E 816 

Schaeffer, David Y 1447- 

Schaeffer, D. Nicholas 573 

Schaeffer Families 573, 707, 

801, 816, 1173, 1298, 1456, 1558 

SchaelTer. George B 405 

Schaefifer, Harry D 404 

Schaeffer. Capt. Henry 533 

Schaeffer, Jacob 1558 

Schaeffer, James 801 

Schaeffer, James D 1173 

Schaeft'er, Joel B 893 

Schaeffer, Joel M. 707 

Schaeffer, John E 1456 

Schaeffer. Nathan 1023 

Schaeffer. Dr. Nathaniel C. .. 356 

Schaeffer, Sallie 1558 

Schaicli, Karl A 1133 

Schall, David 736 

Schall .Family 785 

Schall, D. Horace 924 

Schall, Capt. W^m. A 786 

Schannauer, Abraham R 1090 

Schappel (.Schappell, Shapnell) 

Faaiilies 490, 1255 

Scb.appel. Chester E 1257 

Schappell (Schappel-Shappell) 

Families 490, 1255 

Schappell, Franklin S 1£'56 

Schappell. John S 490 

Scharff Family 631 

Scharft', John L 031 

Schealer, John G 682 

Schearer Family 1300 

Schearer, John '.M 1300 

Schearer, Weaver H. 1301 

Scheetz, John D r.93 

Scheifley. John 1427 

Schell. George P 1403 

Schellhammer, Henry W 1712 

Schitler, Hiram W'. IIOI 

Schitler, Milton J. H 1402 

Schlappich, Charles E., M. D. .1403 

Schlasman. James F 1072 

Schlegel. Adam II 1165 

Schlegel. Charles H 044 

Schlegel. Daniel S46 

Schlegel Families 846. 045, 1223 

Schlegel, George S.. D. D. S. . ."37 

Schmcck. Frank H 1703 

Srhmehl. Elias B 1328 

.SchmicJc Faniiiics 1151. 1621 

Schmick, George E 1171 

Schiiiick. Henry J. (Hamburg) 1621 
Schmick, Henry J 1151 

=,;-!s«r»<«c:7rp^«ir-WTr?-S*- ■-:=»• <rrf''H.V>^--'-:T<»J^J(«B^ 


Schmidt (Schniit, Smith) Fam- 

ilie? 042, 915, 975, 1110 

Schmucker, Fred A lo76 

Schnabel. Joseph G 732' 

Schnader Family 1340 

Schih-idor, James F 1340 

Schneider, Augustus 1514 

Schneider (Snyder) Families 
413, 470, 4^4, t;T8, 1100, 1443. 1671 

Scnr.eider, Leander 9S1 

Schoender, Jacob B 1571 

.Schoed!er Families 1454, J 487 

Schoedler, George P 145G 

Scho'er, Charks D I'MO 

Scbofer, Cllri^topher Henry DiOS 

Schofer, Franklin A ll,'09 

Schofer, George E 1209 

Schofer, Harry L i:;09 

Schofer, Jacob A 1209 

Schofer, James A 407 

Scholl, Edward Z 707 

Schollenberger, Edgar R 1248 

Scholienberger (Shollenberger) 

Famil''c5 fi-JI, 1249, 1R99 

Schollenberger. Franklin A. ..1700 

Schra<ler, Charles F. 1401 

Schrciiier, John 1139 

Schroeder, Adan: IT 1206 

Schro(det. Dan-'cl E 6G2 

Schroeder Family 663 

Schucker, Urias M 1647 

Schuez, Charles 1531 

Schiildt, Edward 118S 

Schuler. George J 1448 

Schiiltz, Andrew '. : . . . . 422 

Schaltz, Daniel N 90S 

Schultz, Edwin .V 412 

Schultz Families 411, 42£', .573. 32?- 
975. 1357, l.'?70, 1387 

Schultz, Horatio K 1370 

Schultz, Joseph K 574 

Schultz, Mary A. M 423 

Schultz, Owen K 574 

Schultz, Samuel S 328 

Schulze, Edward 735 

.Schulze, Elias 735. 

Schumacher, John G 1100 

Schutter. Christopher 8".0 

Schwartz, Ellen 1016 

Schwartz. Mrs. Emily S 12GQ 

Schwartz Fatiilies lOlC. 1269 

Schwartz. I) cnry N 1209 

Schwartz, Hiram H 356 

Schwartz, Joseph H 1016 

Schwartz, Thomas H 1016 

Schwartz, William S 12'19 

Schweimler, Andrew L 1035 

Schweitzer, .Augustus W 1526 

Schweitzer, Emery 1526 

Schweitzer Family 1525 

Schweitzer, Franklin K 1379 

Schweitzer, Theodore 1526 

Schweriner. S. S 1413 

Schweyer. Daniel H 1535 

Schweyer (Sweyer, Swover) Fam- 
ilies 1105, 1535, 1553 

Schwoyer. Cosmos M 70s 

Schwoyer, Mrs. Maria 703 

Schwoyer. Peter S 1553 

Schwoyer, Samuel G 1105 

Scott Family 826 

Scott. Miss Laura R 827 

Scott, William A 826 

Scull, Fdward 1334 

Scull, William 13.34 

Seaman, M(^<:es B 939 

Seaman Family 939 

Sechlcr Family 1653 

Sechler, l^vi 1653 

Sechler, Williara 1654 

Seibcrt, George M 1082 

Seibert, Isaiah B 1078 

Seibert, Rush G hM 

Seidcl, Alfred S 703 

Seidel. Benjamit. H 890 

Seidel, Charles V 923 

Seidel. Claude L 1657 

Seidel (Scidlc) Families 853. S'JO, 

023, 932, 1120, 1178, 131.5, 1416, 

1481, 1659 

Seidel, Francis F 1659 

Seidel, Franklin 1416 

Seidel, Fr:iiikhn H Il2i; 

Seidel. Henry spo 

Seidel. Henry C I3i5 

Seidel, Henrv G 1249 

Seidel, Henry U 1481 

Seidel. Jacob J S53 

Seidel, Alafary S 933 

Seidel, Oliver H 1121 

Seider, Jeremiali 646 

Seiders, Henrj' U96 

Seidcrs. Her.rjr E 1245 

Seidle. Thomas C 1178 

Selling. George 1579 

Seitzineer, Mrs. Ann? B 779 

Seitzinger, Lta-idon W 1223 

Seitzineer, William W 779 

Selak, Fraidc C 1222 

Sellers, Elmer J 799 

Sellers, Jan;es P 528 

Seltzer, Charles Yi., 1\{. D. . . . 349 

Seltzer Families 350, 824 

Seltzer, Jonathan R 824 

Sembower, C H 1403 

.Shuaber. Daniel 645 

Shaaber, Harry C 1503 

Sliaaber. Mahfon 964 

Shade, Ignatius 1026 

Shndle, John 1323 

Si-.adle. Airs. Marv 1323 

S!-afTer. Charl-s W 1154 

Shaffer. Mrs. Elizabeth 1154 

ShatiFner. George W 907 

Shalter, Benjamin 599 

Shalter Families 509, 916, 1228 

Shalter, M. J 1228 

Shalter, Reuben G 599 

Shalter, William K 916 

itialier's (Salem) Luth. Union 

Church 987 

Shane, William C 1539 

Shapiro. Philip 662' 

Shappell, Adam A 1256 

Shappell (Schappel-Schappell) 

Families 490. 1255 

Shappell, P. Sassaman. 1257 

Shapoell, Sa.~saman S 1256 

Sharadin Family 1332 

Sharadin. Francis E 1333 

Sharman, David 1580 

Sharman (Sherman) Families 

?25, 1547, 1579 

Sharman. Irwin M 535 

Shartle, Alvin J 1656 

Shartle Families 1397, 1656 

Shartle, Harry H 1397 

Shearer. (Thristopher 724 

Shearer. Christopher H 1566 

Shearer, r)avid R 1222 

Shearer Families 

518. 724. 1040, 1222. 1300, 1598 

Shearer, Frank D 1600 

Shearer, James Y.. M. D 1041 

Shearer. Josepli 1590 

Sliear>'r, Solomon 1599 

Shearer, Wayne L, M. D 518 

Shearer, William Y 1040 

Sheeder, Benjamin F 746 

Sheeler Family ^ji 

Sheeler, Harry W 870 

Sheidy, Joseph 1137 

Sheidy, V.'illi:.m E 1137 

Shenk, Tobias K 713 

Sheradin, William G 1025 

Sherman (Sharman) l>"amilies . 

525, 1547, 1579 

Sherman. George B issi 

Snerman. 'i'homas C 1547 

.S,",i!!ir,g Families 084, 1672 

Shilling, Howard M 1672 

Shi'liiig, Juhn Jacob, Sr r,S4 

Shilling, John Jacob, Jr 1711 

Sriirey, Daniel \V 942 

Shirey, Jesse 1093 

Shirey, AUIton L 1374 

Shollenberger, Calvin D S59 

Shollenberger (SclioMenberger) 

Families 8.'.'.i, 920. 1249. 1099 

Shollenberger. Milton D 929 Family 526 

Shomo, Harvey H 1409 

Shomo, Joseph N 445 

Shomo, William A 525 

Shoup Families 520, 958. 1436 

Shoup. (reorge K 143i:; 

Shoup, Henry 959 

Shoup, James G 959 

Showalter Family 1300 

Sho waiter. El wood 1300 

Showalter, Emma V 1360 

Shultz, Benneville S 976 

Shuit:; (Soliultz) Families 411, 422. 

573. 828, 975. 1357, 1370, 13S7 

Shultz, Henry H 1387 

Shul/e, Gov. John A 332 

Sidel Family 891 

Sulel, James H S91 

Siegfried Family 909 

.Siegfried, Mrs. Mary £ 9n<i 

SiL'gfried, William 909 

Signiund. Matthias C 1356 

.■^immon Family 928 

Sim.iiiou, HeiiTy F 928 

Sinde:, Reuben 1200 

Slater, Samuel W 1397 

Slater. Wilmer H 1151 

Slei.;^'!, W. Scott 1223 

SlicLter, Frank W 1531 

S'ipp, Johi'. W 832 

Smeck. Charles M 1213 

.Smink, F. C 43S' 

Smink, Harry A 432 

Smith. Charles .A 591 

Smith, Cyrus B 843 

Smith, Hon. Edmond L 949 

Smith, Edn-ard D 1518 

Smith, Edwin F 371 

Smith. Emma E 747 

Smith Families 

417, 464, 642, 843, 975, 1058, 1110 
Smith, Judge Frederick ...354. 464 

Smith, Frederick 464 

Smith, Rev. George B 042 

Smith, George W 1531 

Smith. Isaac 747 

Smith, James F 372 

Smith, Joseph 821 

Smith, Levi B 416 

Smith. Mrs. Magdalena R. ... 949 

Smith, Marie C 465 

Smith, Mrs. Mary E 1141 

Smith, Milton \V llio 

Smith, Thimas J 1058 

Smith. William A 646 

Smith, \Viili,ini B 973 

Smith, William D 424 



Smover. Henrv L 1210 

Snell. Johr. H 15CS 

Snyder, Cimrles W 475. 

Snyder (Schneider) f-':imil!;-3 

413, 4rc, 4St, ers, iioo, 144:;^, iori 

Snydtrr, George VV tyr's 

Siiydcr. JaniL-s E '. C7S 

Snyder, Jefferson 413 

Snyder, Jonu; 11 loOS 

Snyder. Jonas K 1101 

Snyder, Joseph S IIUO 

Snyder, ^irs. Louisa R ObO 

Snyder, Peter II 9'22 

Snyder. William M 144:5 

Siivdor, William T. 4.U 

Snyder. W illuini W C-'J 

Snvdsr, WiLson S 1070 

Soaar, Eclw.Trd W l?,u?, 

Snaar .F:;m,'lv iHi'.y 

Spaar, Wiliiam J ir/J« 

Spang Fsini!i'-i .'19, 1371 

Spang, Frederick 15S."> 

Spang. Tacob K l.'i'l 

Spang. Robert. W 734 

Soang. K 519 

Spanglcr. Harry 105.^ 

Spangler, Jchn l.'ilO 

Spannuth Family 5'.»5 

Spannuth, Karvev .\ 595 

Spatz, Adam P 852 

Spatz, Charles B 45() 

Spatz, Cyrus K 650 

Spatx Families ^.".O. ■S.'f;. nsi 

Spatz. Isaac S 1043 

Spatz, Jchii H 104S 

■■ijpatz. Samuel K IISI 

Spavd. Ch.irlcs E l;-'00 

Snayd, John 340 

Snayd, Henrietta 943 

Spayd. W-iiiiam 942 

Spears. Cyrus G 16.">3 

Spears, Ida M 1653 

Spears, James 733 

Specht. Prof. Charles G 809 

Speidel. John G 10ti4 

Spengler. Jacob P. 1508 

Sperry. Wm. H 1302 

Spiess Ret. and Liith. Union 

Church r,84 

Spohn. Evan -M 385 

Spohn Family -. 384 

Spohn. Lewis E 885 

Sponagle, James W 1430 

Sponagle, John 1013 

Spotts. Mr>. Emma 1099 

Spotts. John J 1099 

Sprecher, Jesse ]M 1113 

Sproesser, William H 1537 

Spuhler, George M S86 

Spuhler. John M 868 

St. James Luth. Church. Read- 
ing 1700 

St. John's Evan. Lnth. Church, 

Boyertown 1391 

St. John's Evan. Luth Church, 

Hamburg 1378 

Sr. Luke's Evan. Luth. Church 1381 
St. Paul's Church. Windsor 

Township 1379 

St. Paul's Memorial Ret. 

Church 1393 

Stahl, Edwin C 1220 

Stahl. Otto J 1110 

Stamm. .Vdam S 542 

Stamm, Cornelius S 542 

Stamm. Mrs. Emma M. 543 

Stamm ['.imily 541 

Stamm, Rev. tames C 5 12 

Stamm, Levi S 541 

St:'.mm, William J 5»42 

Stamm. William \V. B 543 

.St.ingier. Charles E It55 

Sm^jrctoii, John P UjO 

Stark. John 1663 

Siauiit. .Xarun 1 1094 

Staudt (Stoudt, Stout) Fam- 

il:es 505, 804. Iw93 

141!>. 14:i2. 1461, 1462, 1484, 1(;8:: 

Staudr, Franklin 11 1484 

Staudt, Henrv L 109 t 

Sl.uidt, William B 1422 

Staufer Family 1032 

Staulcr, \Viili:im M 1032 

Stauffer, Abncr K 390 

Suuffer, Flhner E 413 

StaufFer Fam^i^' 414 

Stauffcr. Iui'i,'e' T(.l-.!i 390 

Steckler, i)a^id H 1044 

Stcckler. Mrs. Theresa ..1044 

Steckline. Ge'jrge L ..1106 

Stecklii-e. Mrs. Kate M 1106 

Stefie, C. Gilbert 532 

Steffy, Benjamin Fr.-ir.k'.in 1049 

Steftv, Joseph K 101:2 

StcfTv Famiiie? 10J2. riS.".. l.'.4."> 

Steftv, John 962 

Steffy. John 1 1 l.">45 

StetcS-, Pierce K 13S5 

Steffy. Rudolph 962 

Stehman, D. W 436 

Stehman. T^Irs ^]a.Ty V. R 430 

Ste'.,ger, Samuel S 903 

.Steigerwald. Thomas 1234 

Stein. Jacob D 1475 

Stei.Tcr, P 1146 

S;ein:i-,ger Waiter G 1304 

S^'iiinnan Family 1304 

Stf:iniT;an. (jeorge H 13*05 

Sieinman. John F I36.'i. 

Stephan, David 1512 

Stepiian. Mrs. Julia A 1.U3 

Sterley. Mrs. Amanda R 5S5 

Sterlev Farnilv 585 

Sterley. John B 585 

Sternhergh, Herbert AI 515 

Sicrrbc-gh. Tames H 341 

Sterrett, 'Jacob K 1623 

Stetson, Capt. Prince R li'o'O 

Stetson. Mrs. Rebecca .H 1623 

Stetr^ler, Jeremiah W 1252 

Stevens Family 543 

Stevens. Garrett B 783 

Stevens. J. B 782 

Stevens, William K... 543 

Stewart. ]\Ir.s. Angelina 493 

Stewart. Lemuel, M. D 493 

Stiely, .Adam S 944 

Stimmei. Elton, D. D. S 098 

St^mmri Family 9f>7 

Stinimel. William F 997 

Stirl, Cxcor-e S 1099 

Stitzel. Ephraim H 1569 

Stocker. John G 1447 

Stocker, J. George 1447 

Stoltzfus. Chri'^tian U 1526 

Stoncr, John H 447 

Stoncr. S'domon 909 

Stoudt, Edwin B 1419 

Stoudt (see St.iudt. Stout) Fam- 
ilies 804, 1093 

Stoudt. George B 1420 

Stoudt, George W 739 

Stoudt, Rev. John B 804 

-Stoudt, [ohn R 1012 

Stoudt, "loscph 1461 

Stoudt, Lewis B. 14 19 

Stoudt. T.ucian ...1682 

Sioudt. Xathanie! P 1462' 

Stout, David E -J)5 

Stout, Edward H 505 

Stout (Stoudt, Staudt) i'aniilies 

505. 804. 1093 

:419, 1422, 1461, 1462, 1484, 1682 

Stoyer Family 493 

Sto)-cr, Henrj' 493 

Stra?£(;r, Cornelius H 1082 

Strasser Families 586. 1082 

Strasscr, Robert E.. -M. D 589 

Strasscr, Dr. Thomas A 5S8 

Strasscr, Wilson H 1032 

Strauser, Thomas 170i 

Strauss, B. Me->rris 386 

.Strauss, Cameron E 1057 

Str.'iuss Family .386 

Strauss. James. 1108 

Sirohecker. .\lbert J 1449 

Str-'hecker, John A 1390 

Strobecicer. Sarah L 1524 

Strong, William 343 

Stroud, Edward 1681 

Stroud, Mrs. Susan 1681 

Stroup, John 1050 

Strouse. M 1468 

Strunk, .-Xmnion S 477 

Strunk (Strunck) Families 476, 1016 

Strunk, Henry S 477 

Strunk. Jacob S 477 

Strunk, John M 1016 

Strnr.k, Milton R 956 

Stump, Adam G 1134 

Stump, Calvin S 679 

Stump F'amilies 

.•419, 670. 1076, 1127. 1133 

Stump. Franklin S 1127 

Stump, Henry L .....1076 

Stump, Jacob H 679 

Snirr.p, Tohn R fOIcv Tp.'! 1077 

Stvmp. John B 1133 

Stump. Milton L 1134 

.Stump, William B 1134 

Stupp, Aaron S. . . .^. 1443 

Suender, George C 610 

Suender. James W 1004 

Sullenberger Family 858 

Sullenberger. Henry M 858 

Summons. Edwin S 1173 

Suuflav. Elias B 860 

Sunday Families 860. 977, 1620 

S\indav, Tohn A 1620 

Sunday, William 977 

Swavely Families.. 1533. 1556. 1553 

Swnvely, Frank S lr.''8 

Swavely. John L 1556 

Swavely, Wellington G. 1532 

Sweitzcr, Abraham 989 

jsweitzer, FIdward E 088 

Sweitzcr, Harry K .1526 

' Sweney, 'Mrs. Pamclia C 696 

Sweney. Thomas W 695 

.Swope. Jacob 1250 

Swopc, Jonathan ■. . . 1250 

Swover. Albert M 1377 

Swoyer. Eli H 876 

Swover. Tacob S 1069 

Swoyer. Walter D 1069 

Symons, William S 1557 

Tallev, James F 1327 

Tavlor. S. Banks, M. D 1307 

Teel. Rev. Warren F 383 

Temnlin. Tames 1562 

Templiri. William 1563 

Tiiiry. Oden F 1224 

ThoTTipson. John S 370 

Thompson, Nicholas 370 

Th.MTipson. William D 1213 

Thornburg, WMliani C 1515 

rrgr;ragfrnrv:r v ' -.-v ^':" g " : g ^.. "-»-'°Tiigg?';'" 

'■•^-'»;??i^!f*;jvt?v*f« liKTifW'si?!. 


Ihun. Ferdinand 432 

'i\-4)iar-, Albert tl )5,)u 

'l\.L)i;ii, Charles H 1035 

IV'hias, Charles L 1437 

Tubias Families J4S7, 1,jj4 

Tobias, Herman R 1 '> jj 

Tcl^ias, Jamu:. R l<-^r 

T'-'bias, Solomon H i."ijj 

Todti, C W. B.... ... 4>l 

'I'amlinson, Lewis K 'J'jij 

Townsend, F>ank A ry.-i 

To^vnscnd. Prof. R. A 4.V-' 

Trate, James 14M 

Trate, Airs. Sarah i ITu 

Treat, Albert J j>:i 

Treat Family :',S7 

Treat. Isaac G :;.^7 

Tr^-ichler, David G K!7.-. 

Treichler Families 4S:.', t:j75 

Trtichler, James G -i^:. 

Trethewcy. Rich.ard 7:iO 

Troxler Families a:i'J, Hiii4 

Tre.vler, Benjamin K loi/V 

Trexler. Charles L n;w) 

Trcvler, Joel H.oT 

Trexler, Jonas ir.07 

Trexler, Jonathan D U'.l,G 

Trexler, ISlrs. Leanda S ]i;('6 

Trexler, Levi B ]ijii7 

Trexler, Nathan D Ii'.OG 

Trexler, Richard G 1007 

Trexler, Col. William jVJ 

Trickel, Joseph »i71 

Trinity Lutheran Church 13S5 

Trinity Rctormed L'hurch 0S5 

Troop, Mrs. JNIagdalena 1")24 

Trostle Families 704. 838 

Trestle. Henry ¥ 701 

Troup, Theodore lOJ? 

Trout, Daniel M 14G5 

Trout, James R f)76 

Troutman Family r'.50 

Troutman, Frank \V l.t.'^O 

Troutman, John ii :;i50 

Troxel, John E 1-J47 

Turner, Amos IL'TS' 

Turner, Newton R.. 1:.'72 

Ubil, James G 10';2 

Udree, Col. Daniel "o'.i 

Ulle, Frrncis A Ills 

Ulrich. Morris J I iio 

Umbc'ihauer Family SIS 

Umbenhauer, Isaac S S18 

Cmhlc, Joseph D. C 533 

Undcrcufflf.T, Harvey B 1210 

Unger, Allen S 152S 

Unger, .Mue F 125 1 

Unger, Calvin A 1477 

"Unger, Charles W SOI 

Unger Families 

466, 8'n. 1255, 1477, 152S 

Unger. George W 4t;6 

Lnger. Isaac 465 

Unger. Mrs. Svria 466 

Untcrkoflcr, Daniel 15r>8 

Urich, Ellsworth P 993 

Van P.u-k-i'-k. I'.phraim 1420 

Van Dcnbcrc:, J. E. Delner. . . .1521 
Van Reed Families. .. .471. 479. C81 

Van Reed, George R 479 

Van Reed, Hcnrv 359 

Van Reed. S. I..' .' fisi 

Van Reed. Wellington 471 

Vath. Leonard A.. Jr 1517 

Verrendo. Leonardo 1127 

Voolker. Chailes 401 

Voelker. Charles T 401 

Vogel, Mrs. Annie E 1520 

Vogel. l->ancis F 1520 

Von Nicda, Rev. J. HciIcr Iii65 

U'ageniiorst Brothers 1204 

Wajenhorst, Llewelh-n I2i)5 

\Vagenhor~t, Mahlon v^or, 

W'ageiier, Samuel B 14~2 

Wagner. S 745 

Wagner, Mrs. Cathariu.j 035 

\\ agncr. Mrs. Cathc.-ine M.... 724 

W agncr Families 

..45S, 579, 745, 1315. M70, 1559 

Wagner, Frank 12'..0 

Wagner, Frank K 14(59 

Wagner, George W J 177 

\\'agner, Henry T 570 

Wagner, James H 45,S 

Wagner, Dr. John R i3i4 

Wagner, John S 724 

Wagner. Julius r,85 

Wagner, Levi F.. M. D 1559 

Wagner, Moses li 1568 

Wagi;er. William H n42 

Wahl, Dr. J. H 7iO 

Walbcr^, Levi .\ jis 

W.'.lley, Sainud N 1065 

W alter, Dr. Ro:)err 504 

Wa'tcr. Robert F 1159 

\Va!::cr, William A j31S 

Wakcr, Col. William F 1318 

Wanner, Abram K.. M. D 1557 

Wanner, Charles A til3 

Wanner. Daniel R 15^3 

Wanner, Elmer E ti?4 

Warner Families 

420. 612, 907. 925, 1090, 1453, 1557 

Wanner, Frank R 907 

Wanner. Jacob M53 

W'anner, Jacob S 925 

Wanner, J. Edward 420 

Wanner, Peter D 1096 

Wanner, Solon A 613 

Wnriier, .Aaron R .:70 

Warren. Joh.n 1245 

Wartmar. George W 1052 

Wartman, Lewi- .M. . . 1199 

\\arttnan. Mr.=. Mary A lO'.J 

Wartzcnluft, Daniel 1 S36 

Wartzenlutt Family ?3G 

Weand. Harry B 1 iu3 

Weand. O. :\I 1677 

Weasncr. Harvey K 751 

Weaver Families .817, 965. l.'^35 

Weaver, Henry G 955 

Weaver. William 1335 

AVeavcr, Wilb'am B 817 

\\'ebber. William W 1137 

Weber. Fidel 462 

Wooer Families 462. 966. 1556 

Wei)cr. Albert S 1557 

Weber. Tf arry C "> 635 

\V el)er, Herman G 1673 

Weber. Paul 577 

Weber, Rudolph S 1556 

Weber, William F 462 

Weber, W. Wayne 462 

Weida. George W 1472 

Wc-<lenhammer Family 1048 

Weidenhammer. George S 16 iS 

Weidman Families 960. 1571 

Weidman, Joel K 960 

Weidman. Marion D 1572 

Weidman. William M. M. D...1571 

Weidner. Caleb 394 

Weidiicr, Daniel IT in "2 

Weidner Farriiits 395. 505, 

903. 1211, 1343. 1414, 143:,' 10^!) 

Weidner. George .X 1414 

Weidner, George L 1*11 

Weidner, Harry J 134s^ 

Weidner, John 1437: 

Weidner, John V ir,4'j 

Weidn;r, .Mahlon E >ij 

Weidner, .Milton N yu3 

\V'eidaer, William R 1002 

Wfigley Family si2 

Weigicy, Miss Lizzie R ^ i:j 

\v eiglcy, Jonathan W sij 

Wcii, -\1 ji ris ic,54 

\V ciler, John 519 

Wei- Family (,02 

\\ e;s. Sairiuel S 602 

Weiser. Alviii 911 

Weiser, Conrad 330 

Weisner Family 169 1 

V.'eisner, Jonathan A 1091 

Welter, Em.anuei M 1402 

>VeIler Fair.ilies 5u9, 1402, 1421 

A\ eller, Harvev H 1421 

Weller, Joel H 509 

Weller, Nathan N 1402 

Wells, I'.Irs. Anna S 834 

W'clls, Llewellyn U 7(il 

Wells, Wesley' H 834 

Wendler. Harry J 1041 

VV'cndling. Frank R 1147 

Wenger.'Leroy J., M. D 800 

Wenrich, Albert D 901 

Wenrich, Ezra S 1019 

Wenrich h'amilies 400, 508, 981, 1074 

Wenrich, Mart H . .' 981 

Wenrich. Nathan M 1074 

Wenrich, Paul A 1163 

Wenrich, Dr. Reuben D 508 

Wf.iit?.el, Augustus L 835 

Wciitzel. David S 1459 ■ 

Went-'el FamiHos 855. 1459 

>\'crley, Dr. Charles D. 1179 

Werley, Cj rus ]•., 938 

Werley, Thomas G^ 852 

Werner, F.phraini G 647 

Werner Family 963 

Werner, Joiin C 989 

Werner, William G 963 

V/ercer. William W 747 

Wf rt. Mrs. .-\me!ia 742 

Wert, Daniel R 1632 

Wert Family 1632 

Vv''ert, George 742 

VVerlz, Edward S 378 

Wertz Family 839 

Wertz, George W 839 

Wertz, Samuel 378 

Wesley. John H 740 

Wessner. Jerry M 1418 

Westley Family 1009 

Westley. John L 1009 

Weyman, William A 1135 

Wharton, Hon. Thomas 325 

Wharton, Susan F 325 

White. John R 1694 

White, Joseph A 700 

Whitman, Abraham S 607 

Whitman. Joel W. D 763 

Whitman. Richard M 007 

Wliitner. Calvin K 408 

Whitner F'amily 409 

Wieand, Rev. Daniel 1002 

Wieand, Mrs. Alatilda 1662 

Wilder. O. B. S 670 

Wilgcrotli. John 1400 

Wilhelm. Mrs. Catherine i490 

Wi!helm, Hcnrv- .-\ 1457 

Wilhelm. William H 1490 

Williams. Jacob N .... 1219 

Wiis, >n. Giie J 680 

Willson, M. Elizabeth 680 

Wilson, Chalkley 1203 

' ^PEfSf WRSHawaftff 

~'?«r-.'.'a.v--yv-«*»ls.T*At'fi-i»a«-J:'-r -».. > .i:--— '.■■; 


Wilson, John B S07 

Windbigler, Charles HtS 

Winings, Howard K 1073 

VViiUer, FerdiiiaiKl Ijl3 

Wiiiler, Mahlon D lO'JO 

Winters. John M. S 927 

Wi^e l\Veis3) Family HOI 

Wise, Haivey L 1101 

Wise, Warren L 1534 

Wise, Wtllington L 1101 

Wisser, Stephen S 14 JS 

Withers, Eli M Sd4 

Withers, Mrs. Emeline 7~'3 

Withers Family aG4 

Withers, Martin M 723 

Witman, Ephraim 841 

Witman Family f 41 

Witman, John F 1115 

Witman, William A IC'OO 

Witnioyer, Mr;. Elizabeth l-'-'O 

Witmoyer, John vs:0 

Wittich, Arthur 5ol 

Wittich, John D 531 

Woerner. Oscar L 1432 

Wolf, James G OSO 

Wolfe, David S 1 tiS3 

Wolfer:>bertrer, Richard A 1109 

Wolff Family 525 

Wolff, Oliver M 526 

Woodward. Warren J 34.? 

Wootten, John 1443 

Wootten. Mrs. Martraret A. ...1443 

Worley, Ellis M....T 12-12 

Worley Fatr.ily 1474 

Worley, Henry H 1475 

■VVorley. Levi 6S3 

Worley. Mrs. Marv M G.U 

Worley, W. M 1242 

Wrede, Mrs. Barbara I'SiZ 

Wrede, Christian 1522 

Wren. William W 1"25 

Wunder, William L li:)S 

Wunder, W. W 1320 

Xander, John G 438 

Yarnell Family • 1366 

Yarnell. Jared G 13r.6 

Varrington Family 356 

Yeager, Edward 1492 

Yeager Families. .. .600, 1202, 14y2 

Yeagcr, Hiram P 1262 

Yeager, William B 606 

Vcagley, George W 1037 

Ycakel, Dr. Isaac B 1630 

Yeakel, Joseph B 1642 

Yerg.r Families 604. Ii65 

Ycrgcr, James M 004 

Yerger, Joiin 140'> 

Yettcr, Charles M 1244 

Yetzer, Joseph 1100 

Yocom, .\lbert S 935 

Yocom, Charles S 13^.1 

Yocom Families 935. 1350 

"iKocom, llarry Y 1350 

Yocom, William S 1717 

Yocnm, Mr.s. Agnes G 342 

Yocum, James \V 312 

Yocum, Valeria 1634 

Yocum, William 1G33 

Yoder. Absalom S 623 

Yoder, Adam 1088 

Yoder, Amos 1083 

Yoder, Amos S 1423 

Yoder. Augustus K 1225 

■^'odcr, Daniel B 62;-; 

Yoder. David S 623 

Yocier Families 

620. r".'5, 1225. 12'.»5, 1401, 1423. 1185 

Yoder. Frank D 1295 

Yoder, Frederick F 1485 

Yoder. Fred-.-rick 5 995 

Yoder, Henrv H 621 

Yoder. John "S 1423 

Yoder. Kensic \' 995 

Yoder, M ahry K 633 

Yoder, Alary B 622 

Yoder. \at;i:.n R 1!04 

Yoder, Samuel I) 12C5 

Yoder. S. Herbert 1003 

Yoder, Solomon R 1439 

Yorgey, A' (red B 1339 

Yor^ev Familv 1339 

Y'ost, Albert R 1102 

Y'ost Fa.niiies 708. 1102, 1494 

Yost. Heber Y 1^94 

Yost, Henry H 309 

Yost, Tames F. R 709 

Y'ost, Rufus R 709 

Y'oung Families 641, 131S 

Y'ouiig, Henry G €41 

Y'oung, Mrs. Hettic A 642 

Y'oung, Walter S 1315 

Y'oung, William J 811 

Young, VN'illiam S 642 

1 ouse, .Abraham H 1381 

Youse, Charles H 840 

Y'ouse, Edwin S 1173 

Y'ouse Families S41, 13SS' 

Yundt Family 827 

Yundt. Horace A 827 

Zable, Harry 1524 

Zarharias, Daniel K 1483 

Zacharias, iarah 1483 

Zelier. George M 752 

Zeller, Wilson B 754 

Ze'krs, John 1168 

Zellers, William F 1108 

Zerbe (Zerby) Families 717, 866; 98» 

Zerbe, Levi M 717 

Zerbe, Rcily 988- 

Zerby, Thomas J 866 

Zerby. William A 71T 

Zerr Family 777 

Zerr. John'H 78.'. 

Zerr, Ben H 77T 

Zerr, Samuel 778 

Zieber. Philip S 544 

Zieher. William E 921 

Zieglcr. Capt. Aaron 417 

Zieglcr, Jarius W 765 

Ziegler, J. F 1361 

Ziegler. Mrs. Sarah A 551 

Ziegler, Dr. Philip M 5*50 

Zimmerman, Eldridge 433 

Zimmerman F"amilie3 43o, 66S 

Zimmerman, Mrs. Sarah B 547 

Zimmermin. C 36S 

Zion's Church, Perry Township 


Zion's (Spiess) Ref. and Luth. 

Church 984 

Zook, Christian 1071 

Zook Family 1071 

Zook, Mrs. Susan 1071 

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Mountains. — The Appalachian chain of moun- 
tains extends through the eastern territory of the 
United States from the St. Lawrence river on the 
north to the State of Georgia on the south. The 
greatest heights are in North Carolina. There they 
are between 6,000 and G.SuO feet above the sea. This 
conspicuous chain includes all the ridges ; and two 
ridges extend through Berks county. Thev are the 
Blue Mountain and the South Mountain. 

The Blue Mountain, in its course south twenty- 
five degrees west from the Delaware at Easton to 
the Susquehanna at Harrisburg, forms the present 
northern boundary line cf }'.crks countv. It was 
a barrier to migration in the earliest settlements 
of this section of the State, and it was the limit of 
the "earliest surveys which were made northwest- 
wardly from the Delaware river. The earliest map 
of surveys, whicli was prepared by Lewis Evans, 
and published by him in 1T4!». is in the possession 
of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania at Phila- 
delphia. Several drafts of earlier dates appear in 
the first two volumes of the Pennsylvania Archives, 
and relate to purchases of land from the Indians. 

The apex of this mountain undulates. Its aver- 
age height above the -ea is about l,"?f»0 feet. The 
distinguishing peculiarities in the formation of the 
mountain in Berks county are the "Pinnacle," the 
"Schuylkill Gap," the "Round Head." and numerous 
ravines which were washed out in the mountain- 
side by rolling waters in the course of time, and 
came to be useful to man in having marked out for 
him easy passes over the mountain. 

From a distance, the mountain has a bluish ap- 
pearance. Hence it was and is called Blue Ridge. 
On one of the early maps it is called the "Kittatinny 
^Mountain." corrupted from the Indian word Kau- 
ta-tin-chunk, meaning endless. It is also sometimes 
called North ^dountain. 

The South Mountain extends through the countv 
southeastwardly. It enters about the m.iddle of the 
western Ixmndary. near the corner-stone of the 
dividing line between Lancaster and Letianon coun- 

ties. At this point it is distant from the Blue 
Mountain about fifteen miles. It is called South 
^Mountain because it lies south of the Blue Moun- 
tain. The distance between them increases as they 
diverge eastwardly. At Reading it is about twenty- 
three miles. The highest point in this mountain 
is near the county line in Lebanon county, on a 
spur extending several miles southwestwardly. Its 
height is about twelve hundred feet. 

In the southern section of the count}-, this moun- 
tain has a greater width. It includes a succession 
of rolling hills, alm.ost entirely covered with grow- 
ing trees. Some portions have been cleared and 
converted into farming lands. This district, being 
thus covered and having the appearance of a forest, 
is called "The Forest." The ''Welsh Mountain" i 
and the "'Flying Hills" are included in this range, i 

The "Flying Hills" extend along the southerly i 
side of the Schuylkill river for several miles. They i 
comprise a small ridge broken by gorges, and were ] 
given this name by the early settlers because num- 
erous grouse were seen fJyi>i^^ there. Thev are in- 
dicated on an early map of 1743. and from that 
time till now they have been so known and called. 
They can be seen and identified for forty miles 
down the Schuylkill X'alley. From afar they re- 
semble great monuments, and thev were famous 
for game until about 1860. Of the gorges men- 
tioned, the "Gibraltar" is the most remarkable and 

Numerous hills are scattered throughout the 
county, which subserve the agricultural districts 
admirably in respect to wood and water. Their 
natural arrangement and distribution are wonderful. 
The cupidity of man is, however, gradually break- 
ing up this harmony of nature by cutting down 
the trees and tilling the land. 

In the western section, the most conspicuous hills 
are "Stoudt's Hill," located at the great bend of 
the Schuylkill, about six miles north of Reading 
(named after the owner of the land), and "Scull's 
Hill." distant about five miles farther to the north 
( named after Nicholas Scull, the sur\'eyor-general 
of the province from 174s till 1761"). 

•;?'- .. ...«*^ ,r«^ -^;; •«. ^M^r^i 

r,fr^J^y',rr~.^ -^ftftuf n 



In the eastern section, the county is consider- 
ably broken by intersecting- hills which extend in 
ditierent directions, nio-tly, however, to the north 
and south. The "Oley Hills" are most conspicuous 
in a historic aspect. They are 'nentionetl in patents 
and deeds of land- before !?•.'<•. Since 1783 the 
most prominent iiill in that vicinity has been called 
"ILarl Mountain," because it was cut from Oley 
and included in a new township of that name then 
erected. The "Monocacy Hill." cone-sb.aped. is 
situated several miles southwardly, near the river. 

The "Reading Hills" are the most conspicuous 
in the central section in a natural aspect. They 
were included in the "r^Ianor of Penn's Mount," 
a large tract which was set apart for the use of 
the Penns before the erection of the county, and 
included about twelve thousand acres. The hill 
known by the citizens of Reading as "Penn's 
Mount" adjoins the city on the east. To the north 
and west its elevated top commands a magnificent 
view of the Schuylkill and Lebanon Valleys, which 
are especially rich in agriculture, manufactures and 
internal improvements ; and it overlooks an area of 
territon- including about five hundred square miles. 
It has two conspicuous spots at the apex, facing 
the west, wdiich are called "White Spot" and "Black 
Spot." They are visible to the naked eye for a 
distance of thirty miles, and were so called by the 
first inhabitants of Reading. Their general appear- 
ance does not seem to change ; they are bare spots 
on the hillside, composed of stones and rocks. The 
"White Spot" is the nearer and more accessible. 
It has been for many years, and is still, resorted 
to for stones for building purposes; and it is fre- 
quently visited also by resident and stranger for 
the view it commands. The removal of the stones 
gives the spot a white appearance. Time and the 
weather are not given an opportunity to darken 
the surface of the stones. The "Black Spot" was 
not disturbed till 1889, when the ^ft. Pcnn Gravity 
Railroad was constructed, and the "Tower" erected 
on the top: hence its black appearance. Their ele- 
vation above the Schuylkill river at the foot of 
Penn street is as follows: \\'hite Spot, 7Cu.CA 
1 feet: Black Spot, 879.78 feet. The elevation of 
the higher point above the sea is about 1.100 feet. 

The hil! knowm as the "Neversink" adjoins the 
city on the south. Its highest point is somewhat 
lower than Mt. Penn. It rnnimandN a magnificerit 
view of the Schuylkill \'allcy to the southeast for 
forty miles, and of "The Forest" to the south and 
southwest for upward of ten miles. It overlooks 
the double bend in the river, which forms a large 
S, both projections being mo'^tly farming land : the 
one extendincf northwardlv bcincf known as "Lewis's 
'Xeck" (from the first settler there), and the other 
southwardlv as "Poplar Xcck" (from the great 
poplar trees') for more than one hundred and tiftv 
years. This hill lies east and west and forms, with 
Mt. Penn. a large T. Its northern declivity i-^ 
ratlier gentle, but the southern steep and rugged. 
It lias been known bv the name of "Xeversink" 

for many years. It is mentioned in surveys of ad- 
joining land which were made as early as 1714. 

An interesting, though ridiculous, tradition is 
connected with its origin. It was said by early 
settlers that an Indian had devised a flying ma- 
chine, by which he proposed to fly from the one 
hill (Flying Hill at Poplar Xeck) to the other and 
"never sink." His etforts proved a failure. In- 
stead of flying into fame he sank into shame. The 
word is of Indian origin, "X'avesink," and means, 
fishing-ground. The Scliuylkill river in this vicin- 
ity was fomierly a famous fishing-ground for shad. 
Fisheries were carried on successfully until the con- 
struction of the canal about 18".30. 

"Schwartzwald" is situated several miles to the 
east. It was included in the "Manor lands." The 
woods are dark and like a forest. This name was 
given by the early settlers in commemoration of 
their native place. 

"Irish Mountain" is near the center of the 
county. It is prominent and overlooks the Schuyl- 
kill \"alley from the Blue Mountain to the South 
Mountain, especially the fertile lands which adjoin 
the Maiden creek and its tributaries. . The early 
settlers round about were mostly Germans. They 
named the hill after English settlers who had lo- 
cated or rather "squatted" there. The language 
and manners of the latter were more or less objec- 
tionable to them, and they among themselves en- 
tertained contempt for the intruders, and in con- 
versation called them the "Irish." 

"Spitzenbcrg" is a cone-shaped hill near by the 
Pinnacle. Its peculiar shape makes it conspicuous. 
It is not as elevated as the mountain to the north. 

Vallei's. — X^ature has arranged the earth's sur- 
face within the borders of Berks countv in a super- 
ior manner. Its xolling character, interspersed 
with liills and mountains, and intersected by num- 
erous irrigating rivulets and streams, renders it 
most admirable for successful cultivation with or- 
dinary labor. The well-directed energy and enter- 
prise of the farmers have enriched and improved 
it to a wonderful degree. 

.A. depression in the central portion of the county 
extends from the Blue Mountain on the north to 
the boundary line on the southeast, a distance of 
thirty-two miles. It resembles an L irregularly 
drawn. It is called "Schuylkill Valley," and takes 
its name from the meandering river that flows 
through its bosom. It is not distinguished for 
width. Above Reading it is rather open, below 
rather confined. Valleys enter it on the east and 
on the west. The most conspicuous of the eastern 
valleys are the Maiden-creek, the .\ntietam. the 
^lonocacy and the Manatawny: and of the western, 
the Tulpchocken. the Wyomissing. the Allegheny, 
and the Hav-creek. .-\11 take their names from the 
streams v.-hich flow through them. On both sides 
they begin at the extreme limits of the county, ex- 
cej)ting the .Antietam and the Monocacy, which be- 
gin in the central portion. 


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NOTE. — Gan'-sho-han'-nt, meaning "the mother of waters," is the Indian name for the 
Schuylkill river. The Dutch name, Sihuylkill, means hidden stream, the outlet of the 
Schuylkill flowing into the Delaware river being so widi- as not to be ohse.Table. 

The Schuylkill is the principal stream of Berks county, with important branches — Onte- 
launee and Manatawnv, flowing int.i it from the east, .ind Tulpcho^kcn and Allcghenv from the 
west. They together flow into the Delaware river below Pliiladelphia, and thence into the 
Atlantic ocean. 

p mjir.'mji. .yix'9 



Together those va!lev> present a remarkable con- 
formation. They distribute the water supply equal- 
ly. Their depression is from the limits of the county 
toward the center, with a southerly inclination. 
The principal valley has the lowest points of the 
county from tiie northern limit to the southern. 
The limits on the east, west and south are water- 
sheds to a great degree: in^ide the waters flow 
inwardly, but at the lines and outside they flow 
outwardly — on the east into the Lehigh river and 
Perkiomen creek, and on the west and south into 
the Swatara creek and Conestoga creek, which 
empty into tl:£ Susquehanna river. These valleys, 
therefore, gather all the waters within the county 
and direct them into and through its territory for 
the great benefit of its industrious inhabitants be- 
fore they allow them to depart. 

Berks county occupies the central portion of the 
large district, in area forty-si:c hundred square 
miles, which lies between the Delaware and Sus- 
quehanna rivers. The plan of distribution of val- 
leys and waters between these rivers is marvelous, 
and the leaders in the movement for the erection 
of the county in this large body of land displayed 
remarkable foresight and knowledge in obtaining 
such boundary lines. 

The Tulpehocken Valley forms the eastern sec- 
tion of the Lebanon Valley, the Swatara Valley 
(which extends westwardly through Lebanon and 
Dauphin counties) the western section. These two 
valleys together are about fifty-four miles long, and 
they take the name of Lebanon X'alley from the 
town which occupies the highest point midway. 

There are other ^'alleys. but they have only a 
local character and take their names from the re- 
spective streams ^vhich flow through them. There 
are several gaps in the county, but the Schuylkill' 
Gap in the Blue [Mountain, where the Schuylkill 
river enters, possesses the most marked features. 

Streams. — Springs are the great sources of all 
streams. Thev arise mostly in the mountains and 
elevated portions of country, and supply all the 
streams in Berks county, almost the entire quan- 
tity floW'ing from numerous springs which are sit- 
uated within its borders. This is exceptional; for 
comparatively little water is drained from the ad- 
joining counties into Berks county, but a great 
quantity is drained from Berks county into all the 
adjoining counties, excepting Schuylkill county on 
the north. This indicates that the borders of Berks 
county are higher than the surrounding territory. 

Bethel township, in the northwest, is entirely 
drained by the Little Swatara creek into the i>wa- 
tara, and the waters pass through Lebanon and 
Dauphin counties into the Susquehanna river. 
Caernarvon township, on the south, is entirely 
drained bv the Little Conestoga and Muddy creeks, 
into the Conestoga, and the waters pass through 
Lancaster county into the Susquehanna river. A 
part of L'nion township, on the southeast, is drained 
bv French creek, and the waters pass through 
Chester countv into the Sohuvlkill river. Consid- 

erable parts of the ea-'tern townships (Colebrook- 
dale, \Vashington and Hereford) are drained by 
Perkiomen creek, and the waters pass through 
Montgomery county into the Schuylkill. And the 
greater part of Longswamp township on the north- 
east, and the remaining part of Hereford, are 
drained by the Little Lehigh into Lehigh river, and 
the waters pass through Lehigh county into the 
Delaware river. 

The streams of the county are numerous. They 
irrigate every section and contribute much to the 
natural fertility of the soil. The most conspicuous 
feature of the water system is the Schuylkill river. 
Streams flow into it from the east and from the 
west, and the territory on each side, thus supplied, 
is about equal in area. On the eastern side, begin- 
ning in the upper section, they are 1, Windsor; 
2, Perry; 3, ]\Iaiden creek (which has two principal 
tributaries flowing into it, both on the east — !Mose- 
lem and Sacoiiy) ; 4, Laurel Run; 5, Bernhart Run; 
G, Rose \'alley run; 7, xA.ntietam ; 8, ]\Ionocacy; 
and 9, ]\L-inatawny (which has two principal tribu- 
taries flowing into it — the Ironstone from the east, 
and the Little ]\Iaiiatawny from the wesf). Of 
these, the Maiden creek and Manatawny are espe- 
cially large. The Bernhart run and the Antietam 
( formerly, for a time, known as Ohlinger creek) 
have been entirely appropriated by the city of Read- 
ing for a' municipal water supply. 

On the western side they are 1. [Mill creek; 2, 
Irish creek; 3, Tulpehocken; 4. .. Wyomissing; 5, 
Angelica; 6, Allegheny; 7, Hay creek; 8, S'xpenny; 
and" 9, Mill creek. Of these, the Tulpehocken. Wy- 
omissing and Hay creek are especially large. 

All the streams mentioned afford valuable water- 
power. They attracted the attention of the early 
settlers of the county and their ine.xhaustible sup- 
ply was fully appreciated, having been appropriated 
immediately by the settlers, and turned to account 
in running gristmills and iron forges. Many of 
the earlv deeds on record relate to this. 

Schuylkill— The word Schuylkill is of Dutch or- 
igin and means Hidden creek, or Skulk creek. The 
Dutch named the river when they took possession 
of the land about its mouth. The outlet is very 
wide and deceiving, and appears to be a part of the 
Delaware river instead of being a tributary. By 
some persons it is said to be of Indian origin, but 
this is not correct. The name given to it by the 
Indians was "Ganshowehanne/' which means a 
roaring or falling 'Stream. Rupp says they called 
it "Manajung," which means mother. The river 
rises in Schuylkill county. It flows generally in a 
southeasterly direction and traverses the State for 
a distance of one hundred and twenty-five miles, 
until it empties into the Delaware river at Phila- 
delphia. It has many important branches which 
flow into it on the east and on the west, from its 
source to its mouth. These contribute much to the 
phvsical and productive welfare of the southeastern 
section of the State. Together they drain a very 
large area of territory. 

r^^^^fW^:^ ii.— ^Ji 

' "-;:=«^-*F.'- •^r_''«»ss'<Vf-'.\'5«*. ; « c^;*~' 


The imiwrtant branchc- are the followino:: On 
the east, beginning- in the north: 1, Main Branch; 

2, Little Schuylkill ( formerly called Taniaqua) ; 

3, Maiden creek; 4, .Mauatauny; 5, i'erki'>men; 
and 6, Wissahickon : and on the \\e>t : 1, West 
Dranch ; 2, Bear creek; ;), Tnlpeht x.'ken ; 4. W'vi'- 
missing; 5, French creek; and 6, Pickering. Each 
is conspicuous for length and large tlow of water: 
and in a general way they are about ec[ual in these 
respects. This harmony in their proportions is 
wonderful. The earliest drafts ^how the Maiden 
creek, Manatawny and Tulpehocken, which indi- 
cates that the surveyors regarded them of more 
than ordinary importance. The Schuylkill is not 
only the grand trunk of this sy.-teni of water, but 
it occupies the central line of the territory in which 
this system is arranged. 

Latitude and Loxgitlde. — The county of Berks 
lies in the lower central portion of the Xorth Tem- 
perate Zone, between 40° and 41° Xorth Latitude, 
and between ^° and 1^° East Longitude, reck- 
oning from Washington. 

Relative Elevations. — The following state- 
ment exhibits the elevation, above mean ocean tide, 
at Philadelphia, of the several places in FJerks coun- 
ty, and other places out of the county, as compared 
with Reading, in different directions. The figures 
to the left of the places indicate the distance in 
miles from Reading, and those to the right, the 
elevation in feet. 


Seventh and Penn "Streets 265 feet 

Foot of Penn Street 198 feet 

Miles North F''<=' 

17 Hamburc; 372 

35 Pottsville 611 

Tamaqua 800 

18..-) Topton 482 

36 Allentovvn 254 


Mana'.awny 189 

Boyertowii 386 

Barto 466 

9 Birdsboro 170 

18 Pottstown 147 

41 Norristown 72 

58 Philadelphia 25 


13.0 White Bear 346 

19.2 Joanna 624 


8.5 Fritztown 460 

10 Deep-Cut 570 

35 ; . . . .Lancaster ^-''O 

45 Columbia 261 


.15 -. Womelsdor ' 453 

2S Lebanon 463 

54 Harrisburs 318 

Iron Ore. — The mining of different ores wa<^ 
carried on quite extensively from the beginning of 
the settlements in Berks county, particularly iron 
and copper. The former of these was mined in 

coimection with the manufacture of charcoal iron. 
Rich deposits were found at many places within 
the limits of the county, and became a great source 
of profit to miners and manufacturers. These de- 
posits v.ere mostly in the townships of Cumrn, .Al- 
sace, Oley, Ruscombmanor, Colebro<:>kdale and 
Caernarvon, and along the East Penn Valley. 

In 1S80 the Census Report placed Berks county 
third in the list of ore-producing counties in Penn- 
sylvania, and seventh in the United States. The 
iron ore ])roduced in that year was 2'y-l,\) U) tons and 
over one hundred mines were in successful opera- 
tion. The character of the ore v.'as^primitive and 

Copper Ore. — It is believed that copper ore was 
found in the southern section of the county before 
1700. Subsequentl} . a tract of one thousand acres 
of land came to be owned and occupied by David 
J(jnes. in 1735, and he mined large quantities of 
copper ore, causing the locality to be known from 
that time until now as the "Jones Mines." X^o sta- 
tistics have been published relating to it. It was 
operated at different times afterward for nearly one 
hundred and fifty years. — A number of beds of clay have been 
found and worked in recent years, which are de- 
scribed in the several townships where the opera- 
tions have been carried on. 

Minerals. — Prof. David B. Brunner (prominent 
educator of Berks county for many years) tabu- 
lated a list of the minerals found in the county and 
this list comprises seventy different kinds. 

Geology. — A geological survey of Pennsylvania 
was made from iSSS to 1S57 by the State, and this 
immediate section, including Berks county, was 
found to contain four principal strata, which 
extend through the county from nurtheast to south- 
west. By a published map it appears that the slate 
formation covered nearly the upper half of the 
county, or four-tenths; the limestone, the central 
section, or three-tenths; the white sandstone, the 
lower central, or one-tenth ; and the red sandstone, 
the lower, or two-tenths. 

When the province of Pennsylvania was granted 
to William Penn by Charles II., King of Great 
Britain, in 1681, no township or county organiza- 
tions existed within its limits. But the arrival of 
Penn was the dawn of governinent, progress and 
civilization, and within a month afterward he 
caused three counties to be laid out — Bucks, Chester 
and Philadelphia. County government then began, 
and county representation in the Provincial As- 
sembly was inaugurated. 

During this period, thousands of immigrants 
came into the province and effected permanent set- 
tlements ; and each succeeding year found them 
farther removed from the county-seats of the coun- 
ties named. They proceeded up the courses of 
streams mostly. \'ery few followed the 'Streams 
from their sources to their outlet^. Only one col- 


*.';— •wi':T?'.:^y,i. :■«"' 

• •*f^';:,9t«oi^s^ r^>^v 

^ iVd 


ony came from New York overland, and this was 
nearly fifty years after the settlements liad Leg-un, 
and the g-overnment had been gjiven a fixed ciiarac- 
ter. Nearly all landed at I'hiiadelphia : and thence 
the great majority proceeilcd toward the interior 
districts and the head-waters of -treams. This is 
particularly the case with the Schuylkill river and 
all its tributaries. 

The settlements between the Schuylkill and Del- 
aware rivers were numerous before ITOO. Every 
decade thereafter found them farther northward 
from the \\'is^ahicko.n to the Perkiomen, from the 
Perkiomen to. the .Manatawny, and from the Alan- 
atawny to the Maiden creek. And so they pro- 
ceeded between the Schuylkill and Susquehanna 

Gradually those who had settled in the interior 
districts toward the niounfj.ins began to feel the 
inconvenience and expense incident to their location. 
They were compelled to travel, regardless of roads 
or weather, to the county-seat far removed from 
their settlements, and to haul their goods many 
miles to the market before they could realize any 
value for the products of tlieir hard manual labor. 
Naturally they felt inclined to improve their condi- 
tion. A county organization was the first step 
toward accomplishing this object, as well to bring 
the county-seat into their midst as to create a mar- 
ket near by for the disposition of their produce. 

But. notwithstanding the numerous settlements 
and the large population in the great district of 
territory east of the Schuylkill and south of the 
Blue Mountain, no additional counties were erected 
before 1750. It was different to the west of the 
Schuylkill. The tide of immigration seems t^v have 
been greater in that direction. They did not have 
the natural facilities to enable them to reach their 
county seat in Chester county, as the settlers had 
in the districts to the east of them, which lay in 
Philadelphia and Bucks counties. In 1129 they, 
induced the Executive Coimcil to separate them 
from Chester county and erect their settlements 
into a new county, which they called Lancaster. 

During the first quarter of the eighteenth century 
many immigrants proceeded to the right into Per- 
kiomen Valley along the West Branch, and into 
Oley Valley along the Manatawny and its tribu- 
taries. These were mostly Germans: some were 
EngHsh, and others Swedes. Other immigrants, 
mostly Welsh, proceeded to the left into Conestoga 
Valley. The settlements for miles on both sides 
of the river were mostly confined to the south of 
the .succession of hills commonly called South 
Mountain. This was especially the case to the right. 
In this district of territory the settlements were 
then known by the names ".\mity," "Oley" and 
"Colebrookdale." But to the left, a small settle- 
ment of Germans had taken place in the Tulpe- 
hocken \'a]ley, the enterpri;^ing settlers having come 
down the Susquehanna river from New York, and 
migrated eastwardly to the head-waters of the Tul- 
pehocken creek; and another settlement, of English 

(commonly called "Friends"') and Welsh, had taken 
place along the Allegheny and Wyomissing creeks. 
These settlements were known by tUe names "Tul- 
pehocken" and "Robeson," An earlier settlement 
t(i the south was called "Caernarvon." Accord- 
ingly, durmg the tirst quarter of that century, six 
distmct settlements in this vicinity had come to be 
formed and recognized. 

During the second quarter, the way for settle- 
ments north of the South Mountain was opened b}- 
the purchase of the territory from the Indians- 
The Friends were the first to enter the new dis- 
trict to the right of the river. They took up large 
tracts of land along the Ontelaunee, called by them 
Alaiden creek. Many Germans followed imme- 
diately afterward. x\nd to the left, many Germans, 
Friends, and Welsh were added to the settlements 
along the Tulpehocken, Wyomissing and Alleghenv 

Improvements were carried on with great energv 
and success throughout the great valleys which lay 
between the South Mountain and the Kittatinny 
Mountain (sometimes called "North," but com- 
monly "Blue Ridge"). New districts were formed 
to encourage local government and to facilitate 
intercourse. To the right they were called Doug- 
lass, Exeter, Ruscombmanor, Alsace, Maxatawny, 
Maiden-creek. Richmond. Longswanq) and .\llc- 
mengle; and to the left, Heidelberg, Bern, Cumru, 
Bethel and Brecknock. Altogether, till 1750, the 
districts were twenty in number. This was the 
territorial situation of the settlements in this sec- 
tion of the province toward the close of the second 
quarter of the eighteenth century. 

The settlers had provided themselves with meet- 
ing-houses and schools for their religious and secu- 
lar education. In this respect they had exhibited 
commendable zeal. The German population pre- 
dominated ; consequently, the preaching and teach- 
ing were mostly done in the German language. But 
the Friends were not backward. Thev were prom- 
inent in Oley, Exeter, Robeson and Maiden-creek: 
and their schools were distinguished for excel- 

Manufactures were carried on ever\'where : spin- 
ning was a common, if not a necessary employ- 
ment in every household. \\'earing apparel was 
home-made; carpenters, masons, blacksmiths and 
shoemakers were in every locality: and iron ore 
mines and furnaces and forges were in operation 
to the north, south, east and west. 

The great highways were comparatively few, 
the most prominent public road being the Tulpe- 
hocken. It extended from the Tulpehocken settle- 
ment in the west, in a southeasterly direction, -•;« 
the ford across the Schuvlkill (now the site of. the 
Penn street bridge at Reading^ and Pine Iron 
Works, to Philavlelphia. From this ford a prom- 
inent road extended to the north, on the eastern 
side of the river, called Maiden-creek road; and 
another to the south, on the- western side, called 
Schu\lkill road. 


i.r-^fT 'UAirmy-}^ 


This point of concentration naturally attracted 
attention toward thi? locality as a practicable place 
for a town-site. Elsewhere, for many miles 
round about, there was no town, not even a village; 
and there were then apparently no step- toward 
foundinj^ either. But just as the settlers had labored 
for years to establish a count\- out of the surround- 
ing territory, similar efforts were expended for a 
town here. 


The first efforts for the establishment of a new 
county out of the upper sectiLms of Philadelphia 
and Lancaster counties, adjoining the Schuylkill, 
were niade in the latter part of 17ob. (,)n Jan. 
13th, of that year, the Lieutenant-Governor of the 
province laid before the Council two petitions ad- 
dressed to him — one from the inhabitants of Prov- 
idence, Limerick, etc., in Philadelphia county : and 
the other from the inhabitants nf the northeast 
side of the county of Lancaster ( with a map of the 
Province of Pennsylvania) — praying that a new 
county may be bounded as by the dividing lines 
in the said map, for that they labor under great 
inconveniences and damage by reason of their 
distance from the courts held at Philadelphia and 
Lancaster, and for many other reasons in the said 
petition mentioned ; which were read and ordered 
to lie on the table for further consideration. The 
first petition has not been found : but a copy of 
the other is in the possession of the Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania at Philadelphia, and it 
includes the names of 172 subscribers, of which the 
first 61 were Welsh, the others Germans. 

In May, 1739, the Lieutenant-Governor addressed 
a message to the Assembly, in which he referred 
to these petitions, but the Assembly took no action. 
The petitioners waited patiently for six years with- 
out any progress in the matter ; then they forwarded 
another petition, renewing their request for a new 
county. It was read to the Council, "and their case 
being thought proper to be recommended to the 
Assembly, the same was done," in a message sim- 
ilar to the first. The Assembly ordered it to lie on 
the table. It was signed by John Potts, Henry 
Harry, William Bird, Francis Parvin and num- 
erous other inhabitants. 

On Jan. 1-1, 174."), a similar petition was ]ire- 
sented, in which the petitioners (the persons named 
"in behalf of themselves and a great many other 
inhabitants") prayed "that their former petition 
might now be considered." It was read and or- 
dered to lie on the table. The next day (15th) 
it was again read, but referred for further con- 
sideration. In two weeks afterward Ton the 3nth). 
another "petition from a considerable number of 
inhabitants of Philadelphia and Lancaster counties, 
praying to be set off into a new county," was pre- 
sented, read and ordered to lie on the table. On 
Feb. 28, 1745, sundry persons appeared before the 
House and urged the matter of the erection of this 

new county, but the matter was dropped for five 
years more. 

In the mean time settlements had been extended 
westwardly and northwestwardly beyond the Sus- 
quehanna river. York county was erected on Aug. 
19, 1749, and Cumberland county on Jan. 27, 175U, 
both out of the westerly part of Lancaster county. 
This successful action on the part of the German 
settlers west of the Susquehanna awakened a new 
interest in behalf of the new county between the 
Susquehanna and the Delaware ; for, some months 
afterward (^Ia\ 7, 1750), a petition was presented 
and read, but again it was not effective. If they 
were then disappointed, they were not discouraged. 
Their determ.ination prepared them for another 
effort. A year afterward, they tried it again. 
They caused their petition to be brought up before 
the Assembly Aug. 16, 1751, and read a second 
time; but it was "referred to the consideration of 
the next Assembly." 

When the next Assembly met, these earnest 
petitioners were on hand. They prepared the way 
by presenting still another petition, Feb. 4, 1752, 
which represented — 

Tliat they were inhabitants of Reading-town, upon 
the Schuylkill. That they had settled in the said town, 
expecting that it would be a great place of trade and 
business, and had put themselves to vast expenses in 
building and removing thither with their families, several 
of whom had left tolerably good plantations; that though 
the said town had not above one house in it about two 
years ago (17o0), yet it now consisted of one hundred 
and thirty dwelling-houses, besides forty-one stables and 
other out-houses; and that there were one hundred and 
sixty families, consisting of three hundred and seventy- 
eight persons, settled therein; that they had good reason 
to believfe that in another summer they would be much 
increased, as the chief part of the province that could 
be settled was already taken up, and the settling of the 
town would be of great benefit to tradesmen and others 
who are not able to purchase tracts of land to live on; 
that they humbly conceived it their interest, to the iion- 
orable proprietaries as well as to themselves, and that 
unless this House would be pleased to erect part of the 
counties of Philadelphia. Chester and Lancaster into a 
separate county, they slioidd be '-ntirely disappointed 
in their expectations, notwithstanding all the cost and 
trouble they had been at; they therefore prayed that this 
House would take their case into consideration and grant 
theni relief by erecting such parts of said counties as 
they should think most proper into a new county, with 
the same privileges that the other counties of this prov- 
ince enjoyed; and that the seat of judicature should be 
fi.xed within the said town of Reading. 

.A.nd on the following day (5th) another petition 
was presented, in which they stated that 

Although their grievances were laid before the As- 
semblies of this Province several years past, and their 
petition again renewed at the last sitting of the .Assembly. 
yet as they find the causes of their complaint still grow- 
ing, they humbly beg leave further to represent tiiat 
they are settled at a very great distance from the place 
of judicature, many of them not le=s than one hundred 
miles, which i* a real hardship upon thn<:e who are so 
unhappy as to be -iued for debts, their charges in long 
journeys, and sometimes in severe weather, with the 
officers' fees, amounting to near as much, if not more, 
than the debts; that the hardships on jurymen, consta- 


-V'V'V^ V.%li»?S:«fi»^.--:^4*li«''?'"«?"'>'S;<---i /•■^i-TS" If/' 


Lies, etc., in being; olilit^ed to attend when required, is farther on : which caused complaint-^ to arise bo- 

alio verv great: that new there is a rcw town laid out „_„<-„ ti.^ ^^i,v:„-„ ^- t • , ' , ' 

by the Proprietaries' Order, within nftecn perches of the ""^^^^^ ^'''^ adjoinm- counties claimed and exer- 

division line between Phila.Ielphia and Lancaster coun- ci>ed the right of levying taxes On the inhabi- 

ties, and above one hundred and thirty houses built, and tants and their property aloncr the line"? 

near as many_ families liv>n,,' therein; it is very easy ^,, ^^^^ ^^.^^ therefot^e pass^'ed On Februarv 18 

for rogues ana others to escape justice by crossing the -.^..o ,.• , ^i ■ i , . . ' ' 

Schuylkill, which has alreadv been their practice for 1' <^-: ^^ ''^^h authorized three commissioners to run 

some years; that, though their grievances when laid ^''^ '""'e^ between Lanca.-ter, Cumberland and Berks 

before the Assembly some years past were not redressed, counties on the west, and between Northampton 

because of other weighty affairs being at that time under and Berks counties on the northeast, bv actual sur- 

consideration, yet the pravcr of their petition was thought .,,„, „_,i «..f„_,i ^u^„, ;„ „ .u \. ' ' m 

,, J i. u • ■ u • ■ ^'-Y' '^nci extena tnem in at northwestwardly course 

reasonable, and the number ot petitioners being since "^ u i i » i. >" v-otvv ai uiv (_uui5c 

doubled by the increase of the back inhabitants; they ^^ tar as the lands extended which were purchased 

therefore pray that this House would grant relief in the from the Indians by the Proprietaries in 1708. 

premises, by erecting them into a separate county. The territory to the east of the Schuylkill river 

bounded as to the wisdom of the House shall seem ,,,.,. 4.,.i.-„„ f,.^~ xji -i^^^i u- . ' , , 

jjgg^ was taken from Philadelphia county, and that to 

the west from Lancaster and Chester counties. The 

In pursuance of the reference, the [>etition estimated area of the county, as at present bounded, 

was read on the 5th, and referred for the next from each of them is as follows: 

day. The Gth arrived and it was read again and 

referred. On the 12th, the same proceedings ,-,,., . , , . Acres 

, , A 1 r- 1, . ^ ,, , . Jrnilaaelpnia county 280 nnn 

were had. And finally, on the 13th, the monotony r ' " ^su.noo 

r J. , r ' .1 r u ' Lancaster county 238,500 

of readmg and reterence was broken; for then Chester countv 7 50o 

the House, after having considered the petition, ' 

and also the petitions from Reading. "Resolved, 526 ooo 

that the petitioners have leave to bring in a bill ^^ „ 

pursuant to the praver of their petition." Districts at ERECTiox.-At the time of the 

On that day, some of the petitioners presented '""'f^" J^ '^^ county there were twenty districts 

4.U 1 u r ..u Tj- I 1 • J 1 .L o^ townships, and takmj^: the river as the natural 

themselves before the House and desired leave to ,• •,• i- , " , „ 

u u J .• 4.U T, J I • u .u 1 dividing line, thev were as follows: 

be heard respecting the bounds which they under- ^ > . 

stood the House proposed for a new county in eastern division 

case it should be granted. Tlieir objections were Am,„„ t 

, , A i4. ■ -u ^- Albany - Longswamp 

heard ; and, atter answering such questions as Alsace Maiden-creek 

were put to them, they wiihdrev\-. Amity Maxatawny 

On the 18th, the bill was read the first time nnnX°«'''^''' ^'"'^ a 

, , , ,. , ,, /-,,,„, Douglass - Richmond 

and ordered to lie on the table. On the 19th, Exeter Ruscombmanor 

it was read a second time, considered paragx-aph western division 
by paragraph, and. after some debate, ordered 

to be transcribed for a third reading. On the ^"^ , 9^^J^, 

on^u •<. J 4.U- J ^- A ^u Bethel . Heidelberg •: 

20th, It was read a third time, and, upon the ques- Brecknock Robeson •■ 

tion that the bill do pass it \vas ordered to be Caernarvon - Tulpehocken 
given the Governor for his concurrence. After .^ /- -r-i • , 
some consideration and amendments, the Act was Boundaries of County.— The county is bound- 
finally passed on March 11, ir.V?. So, after the ^^ O" ^^e northwest by Schuylkill county, the Blue 
lapse' of fourteen years, the zeal and persistent Mountain forming a natural boundary line in length 
efforts of the petitioners were at last crowned with about thirty-six miles ; on the northeast by Lehigh 
success. The Act specified the name of the county county, the line extending S. 49 degrees E., twentv- 
to be "Berks," fixed the boundarv' lines, authorized four miles; on the southeast by Montgomery countv 
the erection of county buildings for the public serv- and Chester county, the line along the former ex- 
ice, and gave the inhabitants the customary powers tending S. 33i degrees W.. si.xteen and one-fifth 
of local government, etc. j^jles^ an^j the' line'" along the latter. S. 53 degrees 
,^^"'^^>'"? Commissioners, appointed in the Act ^y ^j^^^^ ^^j ^ half miles; and on the southwest 
|Edward Scull ot Philadelphia countv, Benjamm ^v Lancaster county and Lebanon countv, the entire 
Lightfoot of Chester countv, and ihc>mas Cook- ,.' , ,. ,,- ,\, , t^- ^i • ^ ' • •, 
son of Lancaster countvV made a survey of the Ime extending N. 49^ degrees W .. thirty-mne tniles. 
boundarv- lines of the new county extendfng them ^^°"S the former county nineteen miles, and along 
as far as the Susquehanna river, which y,-as then ^he latter twenty miles. 

the limit of settlements. The population of the new coumy at the time 

The settlers, soon ascertaining that the lines of its erection cannot be approximately estimated. 

were run, then extended their settlements rapidly It may have been about twelve tbousand. 

'TV^n ■f,.':..i1'-K 


First AsiCi^iiEXT, 1T34 


Dislr^cts Tax Levied X^"*' ' Collectors 

•AlbaiiT. ;^ 1'^ Is. 6d. 63 Corm'lius Trci:.s 

AUacJ 1 IT 14 , 59, 

Amity I -1.V 9 ' 1 139, John Webb 

CoiLbrookdale. . . ; 23, 4 G . 81,.\icholas Isch 

Dougi.iss , ; I ! i 

Exettr : 31i 2 16 'i S.i'Jacob Wilcr. 

Greenwich ; 22j 3 j | 7.) Frederick .N[uye'r 

Hereford j 24 15 .G | 69 Bencdic Lei.-:,cr 

Longswamp ' 25; ,6 | S2 Frederick llelwi^ 

Maiden-creek ,| 21 1 5 6 I SGiPaul Rodarniell 

Maxatawnv 3li 6 , i !32 .\ndre\v lla;;rk 

Oley " 301 |6 115 Jchn HUl 

Reading | 36|l6 ;6 . 140,Chrisi.;iij!ier Witman 

Richmond 1 18'19 JR j OG'Abrain Kicier 

Ruscoinbmanor. . I 14il0 M ' 53, Anthony Peck 

Win dsor i 28ll6 G ' 10], Leonard Re c ver 

409 6 1.250 




Brecknock. . . 
Caernarvon . . 


Heidelberg. . . 







6i 3 








84f 3 


u! 4 

16^ Jacob Reescr 
09 1 Nicholas Wolf 
27 i Henry Brandle 
94fJohn Morris 

127 i Leonard Grow 
73}Ephraim Jackson 

284, Christopher Wciser 
4L Thomas Pratt - " 



Brunswick | £lCilSs.l 

Pine Grove I 3;i6 !6 

56 i Francis Yarnal) 
291 Nicholas Long 


9 6 2,247 

erection of tb.e couiu\ (Greenwich, Here i or. 1. 
Readin;^, \\'ird--or, I'nion, Brunswick and Pine- 
Gruve). This is the hr.^t time that tiie naines of 
these laxahlcs v.ere publi.^hcd, and no attempt was 
made to correct the improper spe.'hng in many in- 
stances as reporttd bv tlie several assessors. 

Alsace. — Ta--: ccUectnr same as Reading. 

Caernarvon. — Tax co'lector same as Union. 

Douglass. — Established in 173G, included with Aniify. 

Brunswick and Pine Grove had not yet been estal)lislied 
as Districts, but tlie taxable inhabitants there were as- 

Assessment made after erection of the count>-, 
the additional districts having been established and reco'g- 
nized in the meantime. 

First Taxables. — Tlie fnllowint;- hst-^ sh.nv the 
names of the taxables as thev appear in a record 
recently found. It i'^ believed that the .Assessment 
was made in the year 1752 or shortly afterward 
by direction of the Commissioners for the purpose 
of levying the necessary tax to carry on tlie local 
government : but 1T54 has been set in at the head of 
the preceding tabic as the year when it was probablv 
prepared, tlie Commissioners having in the mean- 
time doubtless taken the assessinent made of the 
districts in the original counties as a guide until 
they were enabled to put the legal inachinery in 
proper motion. It will be noticed that seven ad- 
ditional districts came to be recognized since the 



.\nthon>- .\dara 
John Raily 
.Vrnold Bittick 
.Adam Boose 
Geo. Orchard 
Anrireu- Haign 
John Creeker 
Chris;o(jlier Celphack 
George Clcannian 
Philip Co>.glcr 
John Michael Corker 
Jacob 'Cuntz 
Adam lirnrci 

Nicholas F.mricli 
W'illiam Firmer 
Julius Flack 

Casper F'oolweiier 

George Gorncr 

Jacob Hacker 

George Hard 

C'hristian tlefteler 

Christian Henrick 

Michael Herbester 

Fredrick Hower 

Jacob Jarkmer 

Martin Kelfer 

John Ke-dor 

Peter Kis'jner 

Jacob Lantz 

George Lemher 

George Lentz 

F"redrick Mensel 

Tohn Miller 

Jacob Backer 
Henr>' Bi!;er 
Detrick Bittleman 
Dewait Boom 
George Born 
John Clo^e 
Herman Dchaven 
lacob Delia ven 
"Mathias Drenkle ■ 
Simon Driseliogh 
John Eabling 
Micliael Fether 
Micliael Fisher 
-Adam Garrett 
FTenry Garrett 
Rudolph Garrett 
Leonard Giaser 
Fredrick Goodhart 
Tohn Haberacker 
Philip Haflick 
Jacob Heidelshoe • 
George Heir 
Samuel High 
Barnard Keller 
Conrad Keller 
Christian Kinsey 
George Kline 
Mathsas Knip 
Joh.T Kuip 

Michael Mowner 
Casper Nigh 
Valentine Peter 
.Anthony Petershiminer 
Michael Proabst 
Martin Probst 
Felty Probst 
Nicholas Ratick 
Henry Reifcldorfer 
Fredrick Rickeidorfor 
Henry Ritter 
Jacob Stam 
William Smader 
William Stamp 
Philip Staiiipack 
Tobias Stapleton 
Nicholas Strawser 
Daniel Smith 
Christopher Swing 
Peter Treese 
Henry Treese 
Simon Treese 
Cornelius Treiss 
-Andreas Wenner 
Nicholas Wenner 
John Witt 
Henry Zimmerman 

Single Men 

Nicholas Milderberger 
Solomon Packerman 
Adam Staler 


John Lamer 
Jacob Lansiscus 
George Lorah 
Casper Millhouse 
Baltser Moon 
Christian Morian 
George Nees 
Peter Norgong 
W^illiam Null 
Conrad Pop 
Philip Rcaser 
Adam ReifiFel 
Rinehard Rorcbausrh 
Christopher Spangk-r 
-Adam Sv.-asbogh 
Jonas Seely Esq. 
Ernst Seydel 
John Smeck 
Bolser Swenck 
Peter Smith 
Henry Snider 
Victor Spice 
George Sowerbeir 
Stephen Shlunacker 
.Adam Wagoner 
Lawrence VVinscl 
Hen-y Woif 
Francis Yost 
Nicholas Yost 

v^jpnsr^TisvT^ v'A-^s.** 



Rinehard Abcrshan 
Abraiii Andrew 
Daniel Androw 
Mary Anti5 
Jacob Arlv 
Philip Jacob Eakcl 
Tliornas Banfield 
Thomas Barnard 
Joseph Boone 
Moses Bower 
John Boyer 
John Boyer 
Nicholab Boyer 
Thomas Bromtield 
James Burn 
Andrew Busserd 
Samuel Busserd 
David Cnnibell 
John Campbell 
Godfrey Cassebe 
Derick Cleaver 
Balster Creesman 
John Child 
Michael Cogel 
John Colter 
Lawrence Cooper 
John Close 
Jacob Crust 
Bridget Davis 
Cornelius Dehart 
Marg't Dehart 
Edward Douyhty 
Edward Drury 
Francis Eckerman 
Aaron Eppler . 
Lodwic Eisey 
Morris Ellis 
Daniel Fraley 
John Fretz 
Lodwic Filiiiger 
George Adam Fii-her 
John Eye 
Francis Gibson 
Ellis Griffith 
John Griner 
Lodwic Govvger 
John Hammer 
George Hanslcman 
Rowland Harris 
Adam Hatfieid 
Joseph Holoway ■ 
^Taf-tha Howard 
Michael Hufnian 
Andrew Huling 
John Hulings 
Marcus Huling 
Jonas Jones 
Nicholas Jones 
Peter Jones 
Felty Keely 
John Kerlin 
Peter Kerlin 
John Klinper 
Simon Lightner 
Peter Livergood 
Daniel Lodwick 
Jacob Long 
John Lowrow 
George Lutts 
William Macky 
Patrick Magwire 

John Abler 
Christinn V'brccht 

Stin Maybcrry 

Hugh McCattcry 

Michael r^Ieiiiuger 

Hugh Mitchell 

Mathias Moud^ 

Jacob Xaugk- 

Philip Near 

Martin Peker 

Walter Price 

John Potts 

John Powell 

Adam Reed 

Andrew Rcingbcrry 

Jacob Roads 

Leonard Rodermel 

Barnabas Rhoads 

John Rutter 

Abijah Sands 

John S.mds 

Balster Si'u 

George Shedler 

John Ralph Snider 

George Stiniier 

George Swiger 

John Ta\lor 

Joseph Thomas 

Michael Trump 

Henry Van reed 

Jacob Waren 

James Waren 

John Waren 

Jacob Weaver 

Peter Weaver 

John Webb 

George Adam Weidner 

Isaac Weisman 

Stophel Wigel 

Daniel Will 

Elisabeth Williams 

William Winters 

Fredrick Wombach 

Daniel Won;eldor!T ^ 

Peter Yoacam 

John Yocam 

Jonas Yocam 

Single Men 

Michael Berfenstone 
Jeremiah Boone 
Solomon Bromfield 
Hugh Caain 
Solomon Davids 
William Davis 
Adam Drinknut 
Joshua Evars 
Alexander Gey 
Tames Hicklc 
Samuel Hucrhns 
M^ountz Jone? 
Valentine Liirhtner 
Henry Martin 
Xicholas Mcissner 
Peter Jesse Minker 
Valentine Morte 
'^rcdrick Stone 
Joseph Wallick 
Daniel Walter 
'^osenh Williams 
William Williams 


'^Cob Albmcht 

Jacob Appier 

Valentine Appier 

Jacob AUwine 

Christian Althousc 

Joim Althouse 

Llrick Bak'rnstove 

Jacob Bayicr 

George Belloman 

George Benter 

Christian Fierger 

David Brecht 

Adam Boone 

Philip Boyer 

John Bugs 

Jacob Burkey 

Jaeub i-;urkce jun'r 

Christian Eyler 

Nicholas Clay 

Jacob Conrad 

Hans Curtr 

Titus Denning 

Jacob Dilman 

Mathias Dombach 

Benedic Domma 

John Ebbert 


Adam Eiler 

John Faust 

Christian Fight 

John Fight 

Christian Fi;-,hcr 

Hieronimus Fisher 

Philip Foust 

Jacob Fox 

Fredrick Frum 

Christian Furry 

George Gernant 

Eberhard Geshwind 

Jacob Gicker 

David Grim 

Jacob Grim 

Jacob Grim 

Jacob Good 

Abram Hna:; 

John Haas 

Jacob Hackley 

Lawrence Hansel 

Peter Harpine 

Jacob Hartzler 

William Hatrick 

Yost Heck 

Jacob Heek 

Hieronimus Helming 

John Hester 

Yost Hester 

Valentine Himmelberger 

Jacob Hocnstutlar 

Peter Hofman 

Nicholas Holler 

John Holly 

John Hutman 

Jacob Jeis 

Paul Junger 

Christian Kaufman 

Isaac Kaufman 

Jacob Kaufman 

Jacob Kaufman 

John Reabert 

Benedic Keprer 

George Kershner 

Martain Kershner 

Christian Kershberger 

Henry Ketner 

Peter Krchiel 

Henry Kicke'- 

Christian King 

Samuel King 


Stephen Kurtz 
Hans Lantz 
\V iduw Leib 
Michael Lindemoth 
George Loose 
Valentine Long 
William Lymister 
George Magner 
Jacob Mayer 
Philip Magemer 
Jacob Mast 
John Meat 
John Megemer 
Fredrick .Me\tr 
George Miller 
Jacob Miller 
John Miller 
Nicholas .Miller 
Simon Mink 
Valentine Mogel 
Jacob Neis 
Lodwic Nicholas 
Joseph Obald 
Casper Philips 
Peter Radinbach 
Ulrich Radmacker 
Jacob Reeser 
Adam Rickenbach 
Nicholas Rime 
Philip Jacob Rode 
John Runkle 
Nicholas Runcle 
Sebastian Rutt 
Barnard Shartlj' 
Henry Staly 
Jacob Stain 
Adam Stam 
George Schall 
Albright Strauss 
Lodwic Seaman 
Martain Specht 
John Sieber 
Conrad Snider 
John Snider 
John Snider 
Samuel Spilbert 
Nicholas Souder 
John Shock 
Yost Shoemaker 
Philip Strouse 
Adam Stoudt 
John Stout 
Martha Stoudt 
Michael Stout 
Christian Stutzman 
Jacob Stutzman 
John Tomlinson 
\\'^ininm Tomlinson 
George Tripner 
Baltas I'r' 
George Wagoner 
Herman Weaver 
Mathias Weaver 
Jacob Weidman 
George Weidman 
Andrew Weiler 
Jacob Wet:^ler 
Christian Kurtz ^ViIlets 
James Williamson 
Andrew Winter 
Samuel Wollason 
Barnhard Wommer 
Nicholas Wommer 
Christian Yoder 
Christian Yoder Jun'r 
Tacob Yoder 
John Yoder 

if. -ibj **■>•'■': 



John Young 
Rolar.d Young 
Joseph ZoUbcrKcr 
Chr;=tian Zoog 
Moritz Zocg 
Hans Zimmerman 

John Apple 
Christian Bartorf 
John Adam l^>artorf 
George Berger 
Henry Berger 
George Besehore 
Thomas Bover 
Adam Daniel 
Jacob Dene 
Peter Delrick 
John Eichgelberyer 
Martin Eichgeiberger 
Martin Eisenhocker 
Balster Emrich 
John Emrich 
Jacob Emrich 
George Emrich 
Leonard Emrich 
John France 
Conrnth Further 
Nicholas Gebhart 
George Groft 
Michael GrofF 
Michael Groseman 
Lorentz Haucks 
Christopher Herold 
Martin Kapler 
Christopher Knebel 
Andrew Kremer 
Henry Kowbel 
John Kitncle 
Adam Kussel 
Francis Leyenberger 
Jacob Leynincr 
Dav'd Marks 
Nicholas Marks 

John Ahtonberry 
Kenry Brnndle 
Adam Bclimer 
Christian Betz 
Daniel Comer 
Daniel Ct'.per 
Joh.n France 
Adam Fellbon 
Jacob Fry 
Valentine Fry 
John Plemick 
Lodwick Herman 
Peter Holler 
Charles Hornbery 

Michael Zuber 

Siit^ii: Men 

Henry Reeser 
Peter Suei\:r 
Cliriitopher Winter 


Pt'ter Mayer 
Rudy Mover 
Chrissel Newcomer 
William P;.r?ons Esq. 
Peter Picklcr 
Xichola? I'l.'ncio'.is 
Wendel Reeger 
George Rt-ni'igcr 
Christopher Rier 
Nicholas S-'innan 
Martin Spi.rk 
Werich Scllier 
Jacob Seirer 
Caiper S:5' .a\cl\- 
Daniel Sneider 
Ulrick Spice 
Wendel Siverf 
Detrich Sixth 
Andreas Smith 
r.aitser Smith 
Cliarle? Smith 
Jacob Smifh 
Rastian Stone 
Henry Shuhin 
Ti'hn Shuy 
Fredrick Frester 
Martin Trestcr 
John Adam Walliorn 
Michael Weitand 
Nicholas Wolf 
Jacob Zerbc 

Teeter Marcle 
Peter Leening 


Adam Housh 
Tohn Loy 
Lawrence I.yfred 
Francis Marshall 
William ^loore 
Adam Niduc 
Henry Oiirwaser 
David Pealer 
Peter Sliarman 
Baltser Snider 
Michael Sloug>- 
Leopold Yost 
'^eremiah Zenier 


John Adams 
Burgoon Bird 
Valentine Bomgartner 
Abram Boulebaugh 
John Bushe 
Tohn Costnets 
Stephen Coiifrnan 
George Crow! 
Tohn Cloii^er 
Peter Conrad 
Michael Dewer Ellas 

John Fincher 
George Fitchime 
Jacob Fudge 
John Green 
Adolph Henry 
George Honsinger 
Michael Humble 
Paul Hyme 
Tfihn Jones 
Joseph Jordan 
P'-,ilip Kinder 
Henry Kitner 

Daniel LaJee 
Nicholas Miller 
Henry Miller 
Adam Miller 
Daniel ^lilberger 
Goorge Mock 
Polser Nifong 
Michael Platner 
Barnabas Purtese 
John Rersh 
Sylvenus Robinson 
Moses Rolip'^on 
Joseph Rue 
Jacob R'lst 
John Starreti 
Richard Stevens 
George Sheffer 

John Brackin 
Michael Close 
John Davis 
John Dobbins 
Robert Eilis 
John Farn 
James Fisher 
Nicholas Hudson 
James Jaines 
Daniel Jones 
David Jones 
Valentine Kirby 

Andrew Asshenbach 
John Backer 
Jeremiah Bacon 
Francis Beally 
Conrad Beam 
Fredrick Eettenman 
Casper Brocke 
David Bookcrt 
Casper Bowman 
Jacob Buckwalter 
Michael Cline 
Peter Clingersmith 
Jacob Cunez 
Michael Deiner 
Peter Erctt 
Fredrick Erne 
Philip Fisse! 
Adam Gerber 
John Gerber 
Frederick Goss 
John Goulden 
Jacob Haucke 
Stephen Hauck 

Rudolph Hover 
Nicholas Isch 
Geortre Joseph 
Fredrick Kchlcr 
David Kepler 
Peter Kill 
Jacob Klodz 
Conrad Leachlider 
Hans Adam Link 
Deobalt Long 
Peter Lubber 
Nicholas Mathias 
Jacob Mattis 
Jacob Miller 
Cunrad More 
Paul Moser 
Tobia"^ Mouck 

Jacob Shearman 
Peter Smelkcr 
Barnabas Sidle 
Hanteeter Switese 
Nicholas Timmerman 
George Webb 
Thomas Willits 
George Widener 
Francis Yarnall 

Single Men 

Wm. Anderson 
Conrad Creebaum 
Joseph Lodwic 
John Sheaver 
John Willits 


Jacob Light 
John Light 
Christian Long 
William Low 
Ruth Morgan 
Mark Pealor 
Aaron Ratow 
William Robinson 
John Witson 

Free Men 

Christian Longs 


Emanuel Pifer /> 

Thomas Potts 

Widow Potts 

Peter Pyfer 

John Adam Reidener 

Casper Rickert 

Mathias Rode 

Conrad Roude 

Paul Rutter 

Thomas Rutter 

Thomas Sehone 

John Sleagle 

George Schwinharth 

Hermanus Sossamauhous 

Michael Spots 

Daniel Stover 

Lawrence Shuller 

Jacob Tongier 

Rudolph Totterolph 

Mathias Tutrow 


Bernhard Wanmacker 

John Werstlcr 

Thomas Willson 

Charles W"ise 

Single Men 

George Church 
John Wollrick Dumari 
Henry Elagle 
John George Eagle 
Erasemus — (tailor) 
Francis Gerleck 
Jacob Machline 
Valentine Machline 
fohn Negrom 
John Pile 
Anthony Spaez 
Peter Shene 
Thomas Walker 







Jacob Ashman 
John Best 
Martin Briner 
Christian r.ow:naii 
Jacob Bowman 
Francis Crock 
Jacob Cloward 
Michael Crowl 
Nicholas Cmir 
Martin Colber 
John Duvis 
James Davis Sen'r 
Wm. David 
Tames Davis 
Elisabeth Davis 
John Dealy 
John Dealy 
David Edwards 
Joseph Evans 
David Evans 
David Evans 
Nathan Evans 
George Enslehart 
John Englebrown 
Jacob Ecoy 
Sam'l Emry 
Henry Freyley 
Jacob Frymire 
Geo. Hague 
Conrad Hart 
Henry Harry Esq. 
Andrew Hicman 
Adam Household 
Tho's James 
Wm. Jones 
Michael Laph 
James Lewis 
Geo. Lewis 
Rich'd Lewis 
Eleanor Lewis 
John Little 
Widow Loyd 
George Mawra 
Geo. Minder 
Lodwick Moon 
Werner iMoon 
John Moon 

Martin Alstatt 
Nicholas Alstatt 
Jacob Bacly 
Fred'k Baker 
John Bishop 
Adam Bouman 
Joseph Boone Jun'r 
James Boone 
William Boone 
Benjamin Boone 
Jacob Boyer 
Christoplier Boyer 
Joseph Browne 
Peter Cime 
James Cooper 
Paul Durst 
Rowland Ellis 
Enoch Flower 
Martin Gerich 
George Henton 
John Heeler 
Rudick Heeler 
Jacob Hesterly 

John Morri,; 
ilorgan Morgan 
Peter Munich 
Tho's Nicholas 
Henry Olsloff 
Jno. Geo. Pak 
Tho's Paine 
Evan Price 
John Pinclay 
John Pugh 
Michael Rood 
Geo. Roleman 
Peter Rood 
Jacob Rood 
Matis Ryton 
Henry Staupher 
Francis Steal 
Jacob Steak- 
Jonathan Stephen 
Casper Sfiver 
Adam Sigler 
Mich'l Shoemaker 
Peter Shoup 
John Stoic 
Wm. Thomas 
Evan Thomas 
Peter W?idner 
John White 
Sam'l Wilkinson 
Warner '\\'isei 
Casper Winernan 
Jacob Worst 
Philip Worstloff 
Isaac Young 

Single Men 

Evan Evans 
James Goudye 
Peter Hause 
Wrn. Howell 
Thomas James Jun'r 
Nicholas Kilicn 
Daniel Murphoy 
Thomas Perkins 
Peter Penon 
Thomas Weaver 


Peter Hewett 
Ellis Hu-hes - 
Samuel Hughes 
John Hughes _ 
Edward Hughes 
Leonard Hye 
Henry Kerner 
Jlenry Kcrsten 
Michael Keister 
Nicholas Kime 
John Lark 
Isaac Levan 
John Lebo 
Michael Lodwic 
William Maugridge 
Valentine Messersmith 
Martin Moll 
John Mnre 
Ulrick Moore 
Michael Mure 
John Ourhawn 
Benjamin Parks 
Robert Patterson 
George Ritter 

Ferdenand Rutter 
Francis Rutter 
George Rutter 
William Riissel 
Widow Sadler 
Peter Sneider 
John Stitzel 
Maihias Teetler 
Henry Thompson 
James Thompson 
Michael Turlings 
Martin Walls 
Peter WatTer 
Wjdov.' Wagoner 
Venal Wawl 
John Webb ' 

Jacob Wiler 
Christian Wicks 
- Adins Williams 
Henry Wolf 

Paul Zerleafel 

Single Men 

Peter Beckley 
John Boone 
George Cross 
Nicholas Herner 
Fredrick Keller 
George Keller 
William Kirbe 
Joseph Kirbe 
Jacob Koop 
Abram Levan 
Mordecai Lincoln 
George Messersmith 
Peter Nol 
John Stadwiller 
Henry Shlieg 
John Thompson 
Martin Vesner 
John Wainnght 


Henry Aspbach 

Lawrence Beaver 

Jacob Beel 

Melchior Beele 

Geo. Bouman 

Fredrick Bower 

Adam Bower 

Widow Buzzard 

Rudy Buzzard 

Philip Callback 

George Creamer 

Fredrick Creiner 

God f rid Cremer 

Simon Derek 

John Duncle 

Philip Foust 

Jacob Foust 

Leonard Fox 

Jacob Grenoble 

Nicholas Gotshall 

Fredrick Hairn 

Peter Kaucka 

Sim.on Isenberager 

Gabriel Iseiiberger 

Peter Kardent^ingcr 

John Keller 

Mathias KefTer 

John Keel 

Philip Kerker 

Daniel Kline 

George Komp 

George Koser 

John Kooler 

Mathias Lay 

Peter Lenard 

Michael Lesher 

Fredrick Leve_v's Widow 

Geo. Mich'l Liver 

Jacob Liver 

John Long 
Daniel Manusmith 
Fredrick Mayer 
George iMiikr 
Charla Palmer 
Henry Polender 
Mathias Reamer 
Geo. Wm. Reel 
Conrad Reigleman 
Anthony Starren 
Adam Staup 
Fred'k Shallaberager 
Henry Sheafver 
Rudolph S'.ear 
John SweeJner 
Jacob Sittleniier 
Michael Smith 
Nicholas Shoemaker 
George Spone 
Peter Suites 
Daniel Teer 
And'w Unaugust 
Mich'l Uvidercuffeler 
Jacob Wery 

Single Men 

Jacob Adam 
Christian Baum 
Martin Beeker 
Abraham Clease 
Conrad Dennis 
Adam Foust 
Conrad Kefner 
George Keller 
Henry Miller 
Jacob Sheffer 
George Swinger 


John Arts 
Nicholas Bachtle 
John Blank 
Abram Besler 
Simon Bennet 
Peter Betz 
George Brindle 
John Boyer 
Aridreas Boyer 
Henry Bnyer Sen'r 
Henry Boyer Jun'r 

Adam Bonevitz 
Adam Brown 
Michael Bush 
Frantz Brustman 
Nicholas Cl.-it 
John Cowbel 
Fredrick Cowbel 
Andrew Croir 
Thomas Davis 
Christian Deby 
George Derr 

; Hv.' 

,.;i/-.- Ml. 

r.-i:ia .nioiti 



John Desler 
John Henry Dick-i.rt 
John Ditter 
Casper Durst 
Eleazor Evans 
John Echard 
Peter Eberly 
Conrad Ernst 
Christ Frantz 
Peter Peg 
Leonard Peg 
W'ilhain Fisher 
Joiin Jacob Fisher 
Henry Fidlcr 
Philip Fitzinier 
Peter Fitzer 
Conrad Finck 
Yost Fox 
Peter Fciist 
Anthony Foust 
Henry Fry 
Fredrick Gerrard 
Leonard Grow 
Henry Haines 
Fredrick Haines 
Hans Christian Haines 
George Haines 
Peter Haines 
Casper Haines 
Adam Haines 
Peter Haus 
Henry Hetterick 
Martin Hehdorn 
Yost Hederick 
William Johnson 
Jacob Kern 
Valentine Kcyser 
John Keller 
John Klinger 
Peter Knop 
Jacob Knhl 
Henry Kru'oer 
Casper Lerg 
Martin Link 
Paul Lingle 
John Martin Longf 
Georgo Loi'ck 
Michael Lower 
Nicholas Tsktrtin 
Dietrick r.iarshall 
Melchor Mchl 
Ulrich Micliael 
Christian Miller 
Fredrick ^filler 

Hans Moyer 
Catherine Mountz 
G'joTKC _ X;iglc 
Peter Newman 
John Melchor Norr 
Ba5tian Obaldt 
Michael 0berh;iuser 
Martin Pattniger 
Tobias Pickle 
Henry Printz 
Peter Pricker 
Gabriel Razar 
William Rceser 
Nicholas Roi-d 
Peter Reedly '-^J-.-. 
Ulrich Richard 
Nicholas Rooi 
Conrad Sharp 
Detrick Shall 
Casper Shaffer 
Nicholas SIialTer 
Jacob Sencebach 
^^ch3el Smell 
Thomas Stierns 
Adam Shorf 
Phiiip Stort 
Catherine StruiicKin 
Michael Shower 
Adam Shower 
John George Shock 
Adam Spohn 
Henry Spohn 
William Spotz 
Henry Stnrt 
John Snrby 
Henry Sugar 
John Stump 
Peter Werner 
Balser Wendrick 
Mathias Wendrick 
Philip Weiser 
Conrad Weiser Esq. 
Lazarus Winncrt 
Nicholas Weinhart 

Siiis'e Men 

Lodwick E)urr 
Jacfih Fox 
Peter Fry 
Henry Klasner 

R udolph 

Henry Stort 
Peter Werlau 


Thomas P>ansfield 
Abram Beightle 
George Eeiffhtcll 
John^ Beightle 
Michael Bower 
Abram Bower 
Samuel Bower 
Martin Craden 
Valentine Crasmore 
David Coley 
George Cones 
^''alentine Dclinger 
lacob Evener 

Vichotes Fink 

acob Fisher 

Christian Gamman 

ohn Gregnrv 

lichard Gregory 

'hilip Hciney 

Vnncis Latchor 

irnedic Leeser & Brother 

Fredrick Mason 
David Masters 
Gregorics M^aster 
Scpliia Mayb'.-rry 
George ?vIcrcL' 
Jacob Miller 
White Miller 
Adam Moser 
Peter Mnll 
I'redric Nesler 
Andrew Oldnian 
Conrad Pope 
Conrad Popp 
William Rickert 
John Ri'lcnour 
George Rorcbach 
Jacob Rosman 
George Sailer 
Michael Shell 
Theodore Schneider 
Widow Stoneinan 

Daniel Stover 
Jacob Stover 
John Stopp 
l!enedic Stroam 
Christopher Shultz 
2>re!chor Shutts 
iMartin Sturtsman 
Mason Tark 
Peter Teddrolfe 
Melchor Wagoner 
Jacob Walter 
John Walters 
Peter Welkr 
Jacob WeL.sel 

\'alentine Wibell 

Single Men 

Leonard Crascmer 
Jacob Creesmer 
Richard Gregory Jun'r 
John Godfrey 
John Latcher 
Philip Lawr 
John Aleene 
Casper Meyers 
Henry Routh 
Philip Routh 


Cl'.ristian Abenshen 
Jacob Bard 
Michael Beeber 
Jacob Beery 
Nicholas Beringer 
Frederick Boffenmoyer 
Henry Bollinger 
-Martin Boger 
Jacob Buger 
Samuel Burgher 
Philip Burgher 
Baltus Cleaner 
George Cumb 
Jacob Danner 
Henry Delong 
John Dieh! 
Mathias Eigener 
John Egg 
Philip Emert 
George Falk 
Barnard Fegely 
T.icob Fenstermacher 
Philip Fenstcrm.acher 
John Fiamer 
Satnuel Fogel 
Frederick Hehvig 
Christian Henry 
John Hess 
Jacob Huffman 
Martin Hurcher 
Jacob Hum 
Nicholas Jacoby 
Dewalt Karl 
Georpe Keplinger 
Jacob Kieffer 
Frederick Kieflfer 
Nicholas Kintz 
Bernhr.rt Klein 
Dewalt Klein 
Henry Knoblich 
Lorentz Lofer 
Jacob Long 

Jacob Long 
Nicholas Long 
Nicholas Martz 
Peter Martz 
Joast Mertz 
Henry ]Mentz 
Andreas Milshlegel 
^rathias Morell 
Michael ^^othstein 
Michael Nederaur 
Inias Noel 
Peter Putser 
Peter Redler 
George Severt 
George Shaffer 
Andreas Sharley 
Frederick Sheffer 
Christian Shick 
George Shroder 
Michael Shroder 
Henry Strickler 
Nicholas Swartz 
Henry Tear 
Conrad Treiss 
Frederick Ulry 
Jacob Wimer 

Single Men 

Anthony Abal 
John Agncr 
John Cline 
r.ielchoir Danner 
Jacob Droliinger 
Adam Gary 
Philip Heesner 
Adam Helwig 
Philip Hen 
Martin Ibert 
Michael Jacobe 
Elias Klenler 
Peter Kline 
Michael Long 


John Barger 
Stephen Barnett 
Anthony Brest 
Melclior Clinefelter 
Jacob Dipra 
Geiirge Flagly 
Pheliz Franfelter 
Michael Feller 
Philip Fitzsimons 
Rnily Hoy 
John Hutton 
Tames Hutton 
James Jordan 
James Kays 
Thomas Kirbv 

Jacob Lightfoot 
Leonard Mire 
Edward Moran 
Godfred Orby 
Francis Parvin Esq. 
Thomas Pearson 
Richard Penrose 
Joseph Penrose 
William Penrose 
Elias Read 
John Ree.-er 
Jacob Richard 
Paul Rodarmell 
^^oses Star 
Moses Star Jun'r 

■,u v.-i.«,<. 




Me rick Starr 
L'rban Shettle 
John Sook ■ 

Philip Wax- f 

Xully W'hce ^ 

Henrv Willits 
John Wily ' 

John Wily -^ 

SinL;le 1/,.;, 
Peter Ax 
Simon Harder b 
Ihomas^. Vr 
Fredrick Chr .;'[;„„ 

Barnabas C 



Conrad ',• u , 
Christon^'f'^"^" , 
Christi.-^, H ^'"''-■'^ 

Johrv;:,'/^lt tccv.r 

Di- ^^M^ j"-^'-^' 

\ if.-ter Ber.ier 
R fnthony Bcnsiiiizer 
\ -"udolph Btrgy 
1, S'lbram Berling 
i_ ; jhn Bost 
■> 1 i,,odwick Buss 
i;^\lichael Crcasman 
i / l^'Iichael Clir.e 
•^ -\Tenry Christ 
' t^Vido'w C'.ut7 (Kutz 
i Fredrick Delaplaiik 
/ John Delong 
f Peter Dick 

Peter Delontc 
Anthony Fisher 
Urbon Fribi-ll 
Henry Grar.U 
Jacob Graul! 
Jacob Gireadm (Sha 
Lorentz Groin 
William Grol^f 
William Gross 
N'ichola? Harmcny 
John Hartman 
Andrew Huick 
Conrad Hcniner 
Michael Henninger 
John HerRenroeder 
John Hill 
John Hostader 
Widow Hiittenstein 
Dewalt Kemp 
Julius Kerper 
Casper Kil'.rain 

Robert Dicky 
Martin Houesman 
Jacob Housnian 
Owen Hughes 
f'eter Kirby 
B Parvin 

Francis Parsin Jun'r 
Jeremiah Starr 
James Starr 
John Starr 
George Secre 
Casper Stroal 
Beniamin Wiley 


Jacob King 
Dcrst Kursner 
George Kutx 
Jacob Kutz 
Daniel Levan 
Jacob Levan 
Sebastian Levan 
Henry Lukenbill 
Conrad Manusmith 
Nicholas Muffly 
Casper Reap 
Christopher Ruth 
George Sassman 
Andrew Sassman 
Casper Smack 
Martin Sick 
Joseph Sickfred 
) John Sigfred 

Jacob Sigfred 
jost Henry Sossamanhous 
Henry Wetzstone 
Peter Will 
Casper Wink 
Sabastian Zimmerman 

Single Men 

raden) George Bauder 
Joseph Bridle 
Ulrick Bruner 
Phillip Cr.nil 
Nicholas Dehoe 
Andrew F.-idle 
Peter F-ick 
Jacob Floher 
William H;iuck 
Philip Hen 
Henry King 
Jacob Kumerer 
Michael Man 
Michael Steinborn 
George Shriber 
Peter Weiler 

Benjamin Hufnail 
Valentine Hufnail 
John Hunter 
Nicholas Hunter 
Adam Ingboden 
George Katesen 
Jacob Kaufman 
Simon Kraus 
John Kegle 
John Keplinger 
Widow Kersten 
Jacob Kime 
Widow Kin'.e 
Samuel Lee 
Thomas Lee 
Anthony Lee 
John Lee 
John Lesher 
Nicholas Lesher 
Abram Levan 
Fredrick Limcbach 
Henry Limebach 
John Limcbach 

Peter Lobach 
Benjamin Longworthy 
Jacob Loutz 

Nicholas Matery 

Peter M^athcw 

Jacob Miller 

Henry Neunkerch ( New- 

George Oyster 

Abram Peter 

Peter Priel 

William Pott Jnn'r 

Conrad Reif 

Stephen Report 

Valentine Rice 

Widow Richard 

Christian Riplc 

Leonard ShatTer 

John Stapleton 

William Stapleton 

Henrv Shefer 


Conrad Arnold 
John Barto 
Abram Bartolet 
Fredrick Bartolet 
John Bartnlet 
John Bechtold 
George de Benneville 
Gabriel Boyor 
George Brown 
Nicholas Clemmons 
Casper Crecsmer 
Jacob Dcplank 
Jnhn Dorke 
Mordecai F.llis 
Jacob Engle 

John Fredrick 
Conrad Fi^^her 
William Fonlk 
John Gclbach 
Casper Gregory 
Fredrick Gulden 
Samuel Gulden 
Peter Harpel 
Jonathan llarpine 
Peter Herpinc 
Samuel High 
John High 
Jacob Hill 
NTichael Hiller 
Henrv Hose 

Jacob Selser 
Jacob Sncider 
Martin Shinkle 
George Shitz 
Nicholas Shlichter 
Jacob Stover 
Dehecus Weidner 
Lazarus Weidner 
George VVindbegler 
David Weiser 
Anthony Yager 
John Yoder 
John Yoder Jun'r 
Samuel Yoder 
John Yoder Yost 
Jacob Young 
Valentine Young 
Widow Younkam 

Single Men 

William Collins 
John Fredrick- 
Samuel Gulden 
Jacob Hart 
Christopher Harple 
John Hercher 
John Hill 
Daniel Hoch 
John Hoch 
John Hoof 
Elias Hufnail 
Michael Knap 
John Mertz 
Henry Alusk 
Degcnhart Pott 
John Pott 
Peter Reed 
Philip Reiff 
John Schneider 
Nicholas Smith 
Jacob Stutz 
Jacob Yoder 
John Yoder Yost 


Jacob Barger 
John Bresler 
Mathias Brickie 
Christopher Bollinger 
Willpart Compart 
Leonard Conrad 
John Donder 
Nicholas Eshway 
Philip Graver 
Michael Gimberlc 
Christopher Hedrick 
Henry Kline 
Andrew Kockcndorfer 
Lodwick Kornmer 

William Armon 
William Armald 
Peter Baum 
Marks Beek 
James Biddle 
Peter Bingaman 
Joseph Brimlinger 
Jacob Boldce 
Farhard Bomgartner 
Jacob Boocher 
Conrad Bower 
Henry Boyle 
Abram Bro>ius 

Nicholas Long 
Jacob ]Miller 
George Miney 
Peter Miney 
John Mozt 
Casper Newfong 
:>rartin Potaker 
George Rith 
Philip Smell 
Jacob Stealy 
George Six 
Peter Smith 
Jacob Shope 
Philip Summer 
Nicholas Youngblood 


Fredrick Brown 
Samuel Cays 
NLirtin Craft 
John Curtz 
John Crul 
Conrad Deboy 
Fredrick Degohard 
George Devil 
George Dom 
George Douglass 
Ludwic Fmlan 
Andrew Engle 
Hieronimus Eigelberger 

I \r.A'-:\~t^n'^ 



Peter Feather 

Michael Ficrtliorn 

Lawrence Fix 

Charles Frikcn 

Fredrick F'oUind 

George Gisler 

Henry Goodhart 

Christopher Gotschall 

Bastian Growser 

Joseph Hank 

Philip Hart 

Peter Hans 

Henry Hawa 

Craft Heiner 

Moses He>nian 

Michael Hollich 

Peter Holtzscider 

Samuel Flude 

William Huttenstone 

William Iddings 

Paul Iselore 

Israel Jacobs 

Evan Jones 

Casper Kepperlin 

Jacob Kern 

Abram Kerper 

Christian Kimro 

Alexander Klinger 

Peter Klinger 

Peter Kooch 

Peter Kop 

Martin Kost 

John Knorr 

Paul Lebo 

Jacob L^ibrook 

Christopher Lemon 

Benjamin Liglitfoot. Esq. 

John Margen 

George Marks 

William Marks 

Everhard Martin 

Jacob Masoner 

Henry Medcalt 

Baltser Meyerly 

David Meverly 

William Miller 

Jacob Morgan 

Jacob Mover 

Philip Xagle 

Tidrick Parlet 

Benjamin Pearson 

Paul Perlet 

Michael Prest 

Nicholas Pick 

Jacob Pick 

Derst Pister 

John Philippi 

Evan Popkins 

Jacob Rabolt 
James Read, L;q. 
John Ream 
Josiah Recs 
Henry Reidmeyer 
Michael Renner 
John Richards 
Earhard Roade 
Michael Rouch 
Leonard Rupert 
Philip Sailer 
Joseph Shaino 
Nicholas Seysinger 
Adam Sheck 
Adam Slegel 
George Steel 
Henry Shier 
Abram Smith 
John Smith 
Peter Smith 
George Scwerpry 
Nicholas Shofart 
Michael Spot 
George Shuler 
George Shulf 
Tobias Wagner 
Peter Weiser 
Isaac Wickcrsham 
Fredrick Windish 
Adam Witman 
John Witman 
Lodwic Witman 
Christopher Witman 
George Wonder 
Adam Wordenberger 
Jacob Yager 
George Yoe 
Nicholas Yost 

Single Men 

Christian Busse 
David Fox 
William Graff 
James Gjbbins 
Stephen i-Iaveracker 
George Isenbeis 
Peter Momah 
Christian Mourer 
Lyon Natlian 
John Readinger 
David Rinc 
John Rose 
Conrad Sigtor 
Bernhard Shisser 
Mathias Souermilk 
Michael Shun 
Andrew Wolf 
Martin Young 


Michael Adam 
Peter Adolph 
Jacob Breon 
Peter Biel 
Henrick Burget 
William Cowwood 
Jacob Dreblepiss 
Henry Dilbon 
Christopher Disher 
Henrich Edle 
David Ely 
Abram Ely 
Conrad Fogelfender 
John Glas 
Peter Grcnewald 
Henry HefTnur 

Michael Hcsler 
Michael Hessely 
Daniel Hoy 
Jacob Huttenstone 
Henrick Kelkner 
George Kern 
Abram Kiefer 
Peter Merkle 
Nicholas Mcrckel 
George Merckle 
Conrad Miller 
George Nutes 
George dinger 
Baltas Reim 
Michael Revert 
John Riel 

Peter Rodor 
John Rodermtll 
Christian Rotermel 
George Shefier Jun'r 
Michael Steinbumer 
Christopher Shlegel 
Peter Sjiiin 
Philip Suntz 
Martin Wanner 
Michael Weiman 
Fredrick Zirr 

Sins'ie ^Jen 
George Michael Derr 

James Bird 
Josiah Boone 
Walter Burk 
Jacob Bychle 
John Cadwaliader 
France Colony 
Jacob Cough 
Henry Cough 
Garrett Dewese 
Cornelius Dewese 
Stephen Douty 
George Dycass 
Felty Eamse 
Isaac Edwards 
Christopher Ergate 
Enos Ellis 
Christopher Freat 
David Garrad 
Richard George 
Christopher Giger 
Tohn Griffith 
Philip Hart 
Marg't Harris 
William Ilarvot 
Michael Flewet 
David Howel 
John Howman 
VVidow Hoyle 
Hudson Flughes 
Owen Humphrey 
Ephram Jackson 
Evan Jones 
Thomas Lewis 
Peter Liking 
Robert Long 
Samuel Mooney 
John Moore 
Richard More 

Peter Dilbone 
Paul liboiman 
David Kimb 
Martin Kanib 
John Kaniber 
Jacob Lupfer 
Christian Merkle 
Casper Merckle 
John Rany 
Jacob Shoemaker 
Christopher Wanner 
Conrad Wolf 


Jenkins Morris 
James Nox 
Jacob Ovcrdear ■- 
Thomas Pew 
Elias Redkey 
Jacob Redkey 
Griffith Rees 
Israel Robeson 
John Scarlet 
Adam Shaver 
Samuel Scely 
Robert Stewart 
William Sowers 
George Sowers 
Fredrick Stoncr 
Willctrick Stoner 
William Talman 
Thomas Thomas 
Thomas Thomas 
John Thomas 
David Thomas 
Benjamin Williams 
George Windle 
Henry Winterberry 

Single Men 

Andrew Allen 
James Cadwalader 
Joseph Dowdle 
Thoiuas Emry 
George Hart 
Jonas Likins 
Owen Nicholas 
Jacob Overdear 
Samuel Robinson 
James Thomas 
Jacob Wilkler 


Adam Ahar 
George Angstat 
George Angstat 
Julius Bauhman 
Philip Berninger 
Peter Breifogel 
John Rudolph Camber 
Peter ColI> 
Mathias Colb 
Jacob Diser 
Jacob Ely 
Titer Fohl 
Jacob Fox 
Bastian Gernant 
NichohT; Gnliard 
Peter t3uidleman 
George Hcfnor 
Caspar Hoofman 
I.udwic Hospolb.on; 
Christian Hufnai! 
Philip Keller 

Peter Kulter 
Henry Long 
Jacob LibLert 
Philip Lining 
Tacob rvlichael 
John Miller 
Ciodlick Nolick 
Conrad Price 
Anthony Peck 
Casper Piking 
John Reel 
Peter Rcit 
George Rock 
Casper Routzhorn 
George Swartz 
Christian Shoemaker 
Adam Shurel 
John Sowers 
N'ost Wagner 
John Wickenhammer 
Michael Widower 

U •-.?,»"', 

^^,^.v -.> -V! 

:-,"<•.■ l\-'',in 



John William. 
John Yon 
Jacob Zangi.T 

Stng le 

Fredrick Bia 
Stophel Colb 


Jost Faall 
Teeter Folb 
George Kiher 
John Kohl 
Michael Miller 
Henry Rincer 


John Ansbach 
Leonard Ansbach 
Peter Ansbach 
Michael Albert 
William Albert 
George Bachtcl 
John Bachtcr 
JeremiaVi Barr 
Adam Crick- Bawni 
William Crick- Bawm 
Jacob Beck 
George Beel 
Felty Bensel 

Christian Bergke (Burkey) 
Ge-orge Blei stein 
Phiiip Bleistein 
Jacob Breck 
Jacob Biznian 
Simon Boreit'f 
Fish Eornen 
George Boyer 
Henry Boyer 
Jacob Brown 
Philip Brown Sen'r 
Philip Brown Jun'r 
Jacob Buhz 


Jacob Casser 
Fredrick Clasbrener 
George Christ 
Stephen Conrad 
Peter Grouser 
Nicholas Deck 
Adam Deiffebach 
Barthel Deisinger 
George Dollinger 
Jacob Bonder 
^^eIchor Dotweiler 
Mathias Dnbeler 
Andrew Eber 
John Eder 
Jacob Ezberger 
Jacob Eichler 
Adam Emrich 
Bastian Eruth 
Nicholas Ely 
George Faurs 
Nicholas Framer 
Christian France 
George Fenikle 
Widow Fidler 
Jacob Fisher 
Ulrick Fisher 
George F'olk 
Jacob Fomler 
John Force 
Adam Fox 
George Gardner 
Peter Gebhart 
Philip Gebhart 
George Goodman 
Leonard Grow 
Jacob Grub 
Henry Haine 
Michael Hambarger 
John Hartman 
Michael Hartman 

Jacob Hartman 
George Hauck 
John Haveler 
Peter Hecman 
Samuel Herman 
Jacob Hoi'man 
Fredrick HoitLiier 
Thomas Hon 
Adam James 
David Kaderman 
Jacob Kaderman 
John Kaler 
John Kaufman 
Michael Keal 
David Keisler ' 
George Klein 
Mathias Ken^p 
Daniel Kremcr 
Rudolph Kcndel 
Thomas Kern 
Daniel Kenzner 
William Kesran 
Peter Kreyer 
Michael Keyser 
William Keyser 
George Kinler & Son 
Nicholas Kinser 
Peter Kissener 
Michael Kitner 
Christian Krugar 
Jacob Kubellcr 
Christian Kurtz 
George Kutner 
John Kofp 
Jacob Konner 
^lichael Kope 
Thomas Knorr 
Fredrick Koufman 
Nicholas Kouger 
Christian Lawferweller 
Abram Lebo 
Peter Lebo 
George Lechner 
Jacob Lederman 
George Lehman 
Adam Lesh 
William Lightner 
Jacob LiverQ-ood & Son 
George Lodwic 
Casper Long 
John Long 
Nicholas Long 
Jacob Lost 
Christian Lower 
Daniel Lucas 
Abram Luke 
Abram Luke Jun'r 
Peter Luke 
Jacob Lux 
Francis May & Son 
Daniel Maver 
Philip Meat 
Jacob Miller 
Jacob Miller 
Nicholas Miller 
Wende! Miller 
Jacob Millcisin 

Jacob Ming 

Michael Moser 

John George Moule 

Daniel Moushavner 

Bernhard Mounti 

Christian Moyer 

John Moyer 

Rudy Moyer 

Jacob Moz 

Valentine New 

John Nokle 

George Noll 

Mathias Noxser 

John Oberle 

Andrew Oleback 

George Paft'enberger 

Christian Pens 

John Poncious 

Jacob Portner 

George Procias and two 

married sons 
Michael Rice 

John Rigelmiller < 

Zacharias Rockroch / 

Henry Rodebach 
George Rool 
Joseph Rozs 
Mathias Rozs 
Michael Rimcle 
Adam Rya! 
Casper Read 
John Ream 
George Read 
Conrad Reber 
Casper Reed 

Casper Reed . 

Fredrick Reed 
Jacob Reed 
Leonard Reed 
Leonard Reed 
Peter Reed 
Widow Reed 
Christopher Reeser 
Andrew Reger 
Godfred Rehrer 
Jacob Rehrer 
Abram Reiber 
Daniel Reigel 
John Repman 
Andrew Shafer 
George Shaffer 
John Shaffer 
Michael Shaffer 
Michael Shaffer Jun'r 
Fredrick Shaffer 
Peter Shaffer 
Michael Sauser 
John Snably 
Jacob Swanger 
Lodwick Swartz 
John Swartz 
Henry Seller 
George Seller 
Jacob Seibcr 
Philip Seiper 
Philip Shearman 
Widow Shell 
Adam Stein Jun'r 
Adam Stein Sen'r 
Peter Stein 
Bastian Sweyger 
George Shireman 

Adam Smith 
George Smith 
Mathias Smith 
Abram Snider 
Benjamin Spicker 
Peter Spicker 
Nicholas Swingel 
Adam Shelter 
Bernhard Shoon 
Adam Sonday 
John Shop 
George Stock 
Jacob Stock 
Henry Stoll 
Fredrick Stop 
Martin Stoup 
John Snow 
Michael Summay 
Casper Stump 
Melchor Tabler 
Adam Team 
John Thearri 
Melchor Ticeler 
William Ticeler 
Oly Tonkleberger 
John Troutman 
George Ulrick 
Valentine Unrow 
Christopher Urns 
Christopher Ury 
Peter Wagoner 
Mathias Wagoner 
Widow Walborn 
George Weber 
Adam Weeber 
Jacob Wellielm 
Christopher Weiser 
David Weiser 
John Weiser 
France Wenrich 
Henry W^ilberger 
Conrad Wirth 
Fredrick Winter 
Jacob Wolf 
Jacob Wolf 
George Wolf 
George Wolf 
Michael Wolffart 
John Wolleben 
John Wombledorf 
John Zerbe 
Peter Zerbe 
Peter Zerbe Jun'r 
John Zellor 
Oley Zoleberger 
John Zollete 

Single Men 

Fredrick Anters 
Jacob Arbs 
Peter Carbrigh 
Godfret Carkert 
Henry Cuns 
Valentine Grasey 
Jacob Gessler 
Geo. Goodman Jun'r 
Adam Haverle 
Little Jacob 
Fredrick Miller 
Jacob Precias 
William Resman 
John Roster 
Nicholas Sneider 
Lorentz Simple 
John Strosneider 
John Unrue 


Thomas Banf.eld 
Jacob Bashance 
William Bird 
Jeiikin Davis 
Evan Evans 
John German 
John Godfrey 
Mordecai Harris 
John Harrison 
Caleb Harrison 
John Haus 
Andrew Hoffman 
John HollMw.-n 
Mathew Hopkin 
Edward Hnuh 
Mounce Jones 
Steven Lewis 
Morgan Lewis 
John Lincorn 
Charles Magrew 
Jonathan Millard 



Joseph Millard 
Benjamin Millard 
Timothy Millard 
Thomas Pratt 
Christian Standly 
John Stone 
Henry Sudlar 
Conrad Walter 
Abram Wanger 
Andrew Wolf 
Daniel Yodcr 

Single Mev 
Fennel Evans 
Fredrick Hause 
Obediah Jerman 
Jeremiah Jerman 
Paul Ryley 
Andrew Smith 
Charles T^erdman 
George Tishler 
George Trust'e 


i Alsboch 





,.iz Donclebcrger 
, ccer Donkkberger 
Michael Duiikle 
Martin Fell 
Nicholas Fey 
Patrick Finley , 

John Carver 
Jacob Grave 
George Godtchall 
Afichael Hansel 
John Hart 
Fredrick Hershe 
Fredrick Hess 
Daniel Hill 
Daniel Hill Jun'r 
John Daniel Hill 
Tacob Hill 
John Hill 
Philip Hingel 
Valentine Hoof 
John Hossinger 
John Hnuser 
Christian ITousgneit 
Conrad Housman 
Jacob Howcr 
Wendel Mowers 
Widow Hughes 
Philip Huniel 
Jacob Hummel 
Michael I>eman 
Daniel Kamh 
Michael Kei=lier 
Leonard Kcplinger 
Conrad Kersner 
George Kersner 
Henry Kime 
Adam Kline 
John Koch 

Christopher Kosner 
Michael Kower 
Widow Kuhn 
Peter Kluke 
Valentine Kyme 
George Lindermood 
Adam. Lookinbill 
George IMillcr 
Hans Moyer 
Jacob Petery 
George Poust 
Henry Proabst (Brobst) 
Leonard Rcever (Rcber) 
Barnard Rend 
George Resler 
Lawrence Rodermell 
Peter Rodermell 
Jacob Rouse 
Martin Rouse 
Nicholas Roust 
Michael Slcer 
Elias Stein 
.i\ndreas Sidle 
Henry Shiera 
George Shnider 
Jeremiah Shoppel 
Mathias Trayer 
George Adam Wagner 
Theobald Warner 
Peter Weaver 
Philip Wensil 
Caret Will 
Jacob \\'^inger 
Nicholas Winger 
Nicholas Winger 
Thomas Wright 
Jonathan Worral 

Single Men 
Lips Adam 
William Anderson 
William Andlcmon 
Peter Cratsler 
Tacob Dewald 
Jacob Hill 
George Hower 
Andrew Humel 
Leonard Ketz 
George Lusher 
Tames Mnlone 
Jacob ^^cycr 
John Mingel 


S\VEDii;s. — The fir.-t iiermanent settlement along 
tlie Delaware in Pcinisylvania was etfected by a 
small colony uf Sw.'iles in 1638. Ten vears before 
this, the subject of encouraging Swedes to settle 
in Pennsylvania, for purposes of trade, had been 
discussed by the King of Sweden ; but hi.s warfare 
with the Germans about that time, and h?s sudden 
death, ended the matter, till it was reconsidered and 
revised bv his lord chancellor under the patronage 
of his daughter, the young Swedish Queen Chris- 
tina. The whole number of settlers then in the 
new country (which they called New Sweden) did 
not exceed fifty. The Swedes effected the most 
of their settlements on the western side of the 
Delaware river, and extended them along this river 
and its prominent tributary, the Schuylkill. In ten 
years, their number did not increase to one hun- 
dred. Notwithstanding their success in carrying on 
trade, they could not acquire such a finn hold iipt^n 
the country as to continue their governnitnt a score 
of years. In 1655, their Governor surrendered to 
the Dutch, and this ended the rule of the Swedes 
in Pennsylvania. But those who had settled and 
taken up lands along the Delaware and Schuylkill 
did not abandon their settlements. Penn, upon his 
arrival nearly thirty years afterward, encouraged 
them to move toward the interior. 

The English settlers multiplied rapidly after Penn 
had given a fixed government to the province, and 
toward the close of the seventeenth century the 
Swedes began to consider the propriety of accept- 
ing Penn's offer. A small colony, under the lead- 
ership of Andrew Rudman, found suitable land 
along the Schuylkill, several miles above the mouth 
of the ]Manatawny creek, and they in 1701 petitioned 
for ten thousand acres. Immediately afterv/ard, in 
pursuance of warrants issued, certain tracts, aggre- 
gating 10,500 acres, were surveyed and laid off for 
them. The natnes of these Swedes were Andrew 
Rudman, Andrew Ban_kson, Benjamin Burden, 
Peter Boon, Benjamin ?,oox\, Mounce Tones, Justa 
Justason, Mounce Justice. John Cock, Peter Cock, 
Otto Ernest Cock, Jacob Culinn, Matthias Holston, 
Morton Morton, Richard Roads and Jonas Yocum. 

All of these, excepting Rudman, remained and 
inade permanent settlements. A building erected 
by one of them, in 1716, is still standing though 
somewhat altered. It is the oldest building in the 
county. Descendants of some of thcin are still 
in the township fcalled Ainity shortly afterward), 
notably the Joneses and Yocums. This was the 
only colony of Swedes which came into the county, 
and the only section of the county in which they 
took up lands : and they did not wander away, re- 
maining in the township almost entirely. 

They were the first settlors who erected a build- 
ing for religious worship in this county. They 
were members of the Lutheran denomination, and 
thev possessed admirable characteristics to take up 
and develop a new coimtry. They remained more 




ininic(iiate!y t'\qetiitr tlian any other subsequent 
class of settlers. The Ii'dian^ must luive appre- 
ciated their virtues in -"UrYerini; tliem to remain 
unmolested before the land was released. Hence 


they were a peaceable people. There was amity be- 
tween them, and so the township came to be named 
in 1720. 

Germ.\xs. — The German immigrants were the 
second to enter this section of territory. The first 
settleinent by them was eiTected in IT 10, along the 
Manatawny, in Oley. Alany arrived within the 
next decade. To the east of the Schuylkill river 
they proceeded northwardly from Philadelphia. To 
the west, however, the first colony of Germans, be- 
fore 1730, entered from the west, proceeding from 
New York southwardly and from the Susquehanna 
river ea.stwardly into Tulpehocken \ alley. The 
total number of Germans who settled in the county 
previous to 1752 cannot be estimated, but they 
were certainly more numerous than all the other 
nationalities taken together. In 1747 Governor 
Thomas stated that the German? of F'ejinsylvania 
comprised three-fifths of the whole population, or 
about one hundred and twenty thousand. 

Many of them were redemptioners, or persons 
who had bound thcmselvL-s or one or more of their 
children to the masters of vessels, upon their ar- 
rival, for a term of years, to pay for their passage 
across the ocean. The usual terms of sale depended 
upon the age, strength and health of the persons 
sold. Boys and girls generally served from five 
to ten years, till thev attained the age of twenty- 
one years. Many parents were compelled to sell 
the service of their own children in order to sat- 
isfy their passage-money, so that t'ley might be 
released from the vessel upon which they were 
brought to tbis country. Children under five years 
nf age could not be sold to service. They were 
'lispo^ed of gratuitously to persons who agreed to 
raise them and give them their freedom when they 
attained the age of twenty-one vears. In this man- 
ner the redemptioners came to cKcupy a very hum- 
hie position: but "from this class there have sprung 
'ome of the mo^t reputable and wealthy inhabit- 
ants of the province." 

Prior to 1727, most of them brought considerable 
means, but afterwards, many of them were poor, 
and they came to be redemptioners on that account. 
The years in which they arrived were 1728, 1729, 
1737, 1741, 1750 and 1751. The principal part of 
them were farmers ; but many were mechanics who 
brought with them a knowletlge of those arts 
which are necessary and useful in all countries, com- 
prising carpenters and builders, weavers, tailors, 
tanners, shoemakers (cordwainers), comb-makers, 
smiths of all kinds, butchers, paper-makers an<l 
clock-makers. They became perfect mechanics and 
workmen through a custom of "Peregrination," 
(Wandcrschafi), which, as young men, "just after 
the close of their apprenticeship, they carried on for 
one or more years in order to make themselves 
inore proficient in their several trades. This was 
required of young mechanics before they were per- 
mitted to set up for themselves. By this course, 
they were atTorded opportunities of acquiring much 
useful knowledge which books could not supplv, 
besides proficiency in their trade. They were called 
"Traveling Journeymen' (Handzccrks-Burscli). 

This was the class of Germans which settled 
the countr)- along the Schuylkill and its tributaries. 
They were a valuable acquisition to Penn and his 
sous in the development of their great province. 
They were just what a new country needed to 
start it grandly in the march of material progress. 
Their labor, economy, perseverance and stability 
added great and increasing wealth to the cotmtry. 
In this manner they prepared the way for the erec- 
tion of a new county, and having thus^ fitted the 
settlements for a separate political organizatiom 
they proceeded earnestly in behalf of its establish- 

The Germans were along everv stream except- 
ing the Wyomissing, Allegheny, and Hav creek in 
the southern section. They were in the vallevs and 
on the hills rather than along the Schuylkill. This 
selection of locaHties was not accidental, for thev 
found the best quality of land away from the Sohuvl- 
kill. The best farms in productiveness and ap- 
pearance are in the localities where they settled — 
in Oley, in Maxatawny. and in Heidelberg. And in 
these respective localities we still find the grand- 
children and great-grandchildren of the first Ger- 
man patentees. 

And the Germans were extreme Revolutionists, 
having encouraged the war for Independence to the 
utmost of their ability. Their conduct was admir- 
able through the whole trying period, and when 
the great struggle was succcssfullv ended, with 
the acquisition of increased power to the people, 
they naturallv asserted their rights and took elect- 
ive oflfices to themselves. 

Hrnt'F.xoTS. — Manv of the earlier immigrants 
were Huguenots, who had been encouraged by Penn 
and the English government to emigrate to Penn- 
svlvania and New York. In France, this name was 
used as a term of reproach for those who aimed 
at a reform of religion according to the principles 



enunciated by Calvin. The n^ime attaclied itself 
to tliese rofonr.ers when liiey broke oti nil connec- 
tion with Lnthtraiii-m and began u> orixanize them- 
selves both as a church and as a political budv. 
Their chvirclies sprang up with wonderful quick- 
ness during the middle of the sixteenth century; 
but they became very unpopular. 

After the massacre of St. Bartholomew's day. in 
1572, the subordination of their religious interests 
to their political interest- became inevitable, and 
having become followers of Henry of Xavarre, 
heir to the French crown, their sub-equent discon- 
tent obtained from him, as King Hcnrv IW. in 15!.'S 
(April 13th), the famous Edict of Xante?. But 
the provisions of this Edict were found as help- 
ful for Catholics as for Protestants, and thev were 
so modified as to show a decreasing favor of the 
Calvinists, wdio had dreamed of dominance and 
had hoped for equality, but were put ot'f with tol- 
erance. This situation caused them to become dis- 
satisfied with the Edict; and the King then deter- 
mined to reduce them to nothing. 

About 1590, the Huguenots carried on worship in 
about thirty-five hundred chateaux and two hun- 
dred towns, which were situated chiefly in the south 
and west of France. When Eouis XI\'. took up 
his reign, the tranquility of the Huguenots began 
to pass away. In 1657, they were forbidden to 
hold colloquies, lest they might take to politics ; 
and in 1G50, they were told to hold no more synods. 
Soon the court went further and conversions were 
undertaken. Wherever a pastor could be bribcl., 
converted or got rid of, his temple was torn down. 
Their worship then became almost impossible in 
towns. As the King's conscience grew morbid, he 
became more eager to expiate his own crimes by 
punisliing heretics. Within twenty years seven 
hundred churches were destroyed. Throughout that 
trying period, whilst thousands of them yielded to 
oppression or bribery, thousands ot others fled the 
land. The emigration began in and contin- 
ued for fift_v years. It is probable that, in 16fi0, 
there were over two millions of Huguenots who 
were regarded as the best and most thrifty citizens 
in that countr\- ; and of these it is said fully a mil- 
lion escaped from their inhospitable fatherland. At 
last, the King revoked the Edict of X'antcs, because 
he thought that the Huguenots were suppressed. 
This w-as on Oct. 15, IfiSo. and it was the sentence 
of civil death on all Huguenots. It crushed more 
than half of the commercial and manufacturing in- 
dustry of the kingdom. 

Fren'ch. — Among the Huguenots, there were 

many settlers with French names, which may be 

found in the li-ts of the first ta.xables to the east 

of the Schuylkill. The spelling has been changed 

so much that they can hardlv be recognized, this 

having been done by the assessors to conform to 

the English or the German pronunciation. Some 

i of these names and changes will be enumerated : 

: Bardo or Barto was Bardeau : Bushong. Reau- 

! champ; Bushoisr. Boucher or Buchat: Bertolet, 

BerthoUet; Bast, Baste; Deisher, Duchere ; Deturck, 
De Turcg; Dippcry, Duprez; Dilplain, Delaplaine: 
Lessig, Lesecq: Lorali, Larue; .Monyer, .Monnicr; 
Plank, De !a Piank ; (3irardiu; Shappel. 
Ciiapelle; Shomo, Several of the un- 
changed names are Boyer, Delcamp, De Long, Le- 

English. — The English entered this territory 
and took up lands shortly before 17-,^0. They were, 
accordingly, the third class of settlers. Their first 
families were the Boones, Ellises, Lees and Lin- 
colns. They settled in Oley, — the Ellises and Lees 
in the eastern section, along the Alanarawny. and the 
Boones and Lincoins in the central and western 
sections along the Monocacy and the Schuylkill. 
Within ten years after their permanent settlement, 
they established a meeting-house for religious wor- 
ship. This w'as about 1726, at a point where the 
Exeter meeting-house stood until recently, in an 
elevated position near the northwestern limit of the 
Swedes' tracts, then called .Amity township. 

Shortly after 1730, they also settled along and 
about Hay creek and Allegheny creek, to the west 
of the Schuylkill, and also farther north, along and 
about the ^Maiden creek, immediately after the In- 
dians had released their rights to the territory. 
The first families in the former settlements were 
the Embrees, Lewises, Humphreys, Scarlets, Har- 
rys, Prices, Webbs, Hughes. ]\Ioores, \\'illiam?es 
and Thomases : and in the latter settlements the 
Parvins, Lightfoots, Huttons, Starrs, Davises, Pen- 
roses. Pearsons, Wileys, Wrights, Willits. Flarveys 
and Reeds ; and these respective families also es- 
tablished meeting-houses in the rnidst of their set- 
tlements, about the year 1736 — the one at the 
cross-roads near the center of Robeson township, 
and the other near the center of 3.1aiden-creel:. 

All these families were connected with the 
Friends. Thev exerted a strong influence in tliese 
three sections of the cottnty. The numerous Eng- 
lish names given to the townships cast of the Schuyl- 
kill were suggested by them. George Boone was 
particularly prominent in the lower section, and 
Benjamin Lightfoot in the upper section, in res- 
pect to proceedings for setting apart new townships. 
They were surveyors and men of more than ordi- 
nary ability. And just as these two men were prom- 
inent in their branch of service, Anthonv Lee and 
Francis Parvin were equally, if not more, prom- 
inent in these respective sections as justices of the 
several courts of the county. Indeed, until the Rev- 
olution, the Friends exerted the most influence in 
directing political aflfairs here notwithstanding their 
numbqr was far le^s than the Germans. But dur- 
ing the Revolution and immediately afterward, 
the natural energy of the Germans carried them 
forward in political matters, just as it had carried 
them forward in agriculture and manufactures be- 
fore it : and Indepeinlence having elevated them into 
political rights, thev cxerci'^ed thc^e by placing 
themselves into power. So the Friends lost their 

fir"->q r };■; . /'.•;•.,:,',"! ,J; 



orticial positions and consequently their public influ- 

Before the Revolution, their number was strong 
and their religious meetings were active and suc- 
cessful, but since that time they have gradually de- 

There were English people here besides the 
Friends. At fir-t, between IToo and 1740, before 
the erection of the county, they were in the south- 
ern and southeastern sections, the one body in Caer- 
narvon township, and the other in Amity. They 
were members of the Establislied Church of Eng- 
land, here called Episcopalians. Afterward, when 
the county was erected, they also ^'ppeared in Read- 
ing, though without sutlicient strength to cause the 
erection of a church for themselves untillS24. 

Welsh. — ^Just as the Swedes settled in the coun- 
ty on the eastern bank of the Schuylkill, so the 
Welsh settled in the county to the west of this river. 
They migrated through Chester county till they 
crossed the South ^Mountain, and though some of 
them reached a point beyond the' mountain before 
the purchase of the territory from the Indians in 
1732, yet the most of them entered this district im- 
mediately afterward. The Swedes did not have a 
township named after any of their places, but the 
Welsh Avere earnest in this behalf, having named 
three townships, Caernarvon, Cumru and Brecknock. 

The Welsh had purchased from Penn in England, 
before 1700, a large body of land, aggregating 40,- 
000 acres, to be selected in Pennsylvania : and these 
acres they located to the west oi tiie Schuylkill. 
They settled the country so numerously that, before 
1698, they had named six townships in the county 
of Chester. 

Rovv-land Ellis was a prominent Welshman who 
induced a large emigration from Wales to this coun- 
tr}-. After having persuaded Thomas Owen and 
his family to emigrate and settle in Chester county, 
he. himself, in IGSG. embarked with 109 W'elshmen. 
Some of the settlers were named Thomas Evans, 
Robert Evans, Owen Evans, Cadwallader tvans, 
William Jones, Robert Jones, Hugh Griffith, Ed- 
ward Foulke and John Humphre\-. The territory 
which lav to the south of the South 'Mountain and 
west of the Schuylkill was gradually settled by these 
Welsh people, and they migrated farther and farth- 
er up the river during the next fifty years. Before 
1740. several hundred of them had settled in the 
district beyond this mountain. They were adher- 
ents of the Baptist denomination. Their lands were 
taken up mostlv along and in the vicinity of the 
W yomissing and Caconing creeks, and there they 
w-ere most thickly settled, the manv tracts they took 
"P aRS^fcgating 20.000 acres, before 17.")2. They 
were enterprising, having a gristmill along the Wy- 
omissing before 1740. This flowing stream was 
appreciated bv them for its superior water-power, 
and they accordingly erected different factories 
along its banks for the manufacture of gun-barrels, 
files, etc. .Agriculture was the prmcipal emplny- 
Tnent. Like the Swedes, they remamed in their first 

settlement, southward of the Schuylkill and Cacoos- 
ing. They co-operated earnestly with the Germans 
in obtaining a new county out of the upper sections 
of Lancaster and Philadelphia counties. 

Irish. — Per?on3 of Irish nativity did not settle in 
Pennsylvania for nearly forty years, after Penn had 
obtained the province. Penn visited Germany in 
this behalf, kindling a strong interest in the prov- 
ince ; but it would seem that he did not care for the 
Scotch or Irish., not having encouraged them to emi- 
grate. Accordingly, neither of these came until 
after his death ; and when they did arrive, they set- 
tled that portion of the province which lay mostly 
along the southern borders, adjoining Alaryland. 
Though some of them followed the course of the 
Susquehanna and settled in Lancaster county, the 
great body of them migrated into the country which 
lay west of the river. Very few proceeded up the 
Schuylkill Valley. 

Doubtless the German element in this direction 
was not agreeable to them. Hence, they directed 
their way to the westward from Philadelphia, im- 
mediatelv after landing, rather than to the north- 
ward. No settlement was effected by them in any 
of the districts which are now included in Berks 

HecrevvS. — The same can be said of the Hebrews 
in this respect. Their immigration was so limited 
and so quiet that no notice was taken of them. 
Some of them have been in the county for many 
years, but almost entirely at Reading. A nimtber 
of them settled along the h.ead-watcrs of the Tulpe- 
hocken at or in the vicinity of ]\Iyerstown. Single 
individuals wandered to Womelsdorf, and even to 
Reading. In 183G there were six of them at Read- 
ing — Abraham Speier. John Siegel. Mayer Siegel. 
Mayer Arnold, Alexander Pleyman and Bernard 

The Hebrews here have been engaged almost ex- 
clusively in trading, and used the German language 
amongst themselves for many years. Through their 
children and local education, however, the English 
language has become prevalent among them. 

In 1S64 the following were in Reading: Bernard 
Dreifoos, Solomon Hirsch, Abraham Speier, flayer 
Einstein, Aaron Henlein, Solomon \\'eil, Marcus 
Lyons, Isaac Mann, Isaac Hirschland, Joseph Loeb, 
Jacob Levy, Ralph Austrian. Abraham Arnold, 
Aaron Einstein and Isaac Schwerin. 

Negroes. — The negro is also worthy of mention. 
Slaverv existed here to a very limited extent. The 
slaves of which anv notice was found were owned al- 
most entirelv by early ironmasters, but they were 
few in number. This condition of servitude was in- 
compatible with the notions of our early settlers ; 
hence it was not encouraged. The farmers had no 

Pennsvlvania in'^tituted an early movement for the 
gradual abolition of slavery. An Act of Assembly 
was passed on March 1, 17S0. to this end. The Act 
required the owner of slaves to file a statement in 
the Quarter Sessions' office, giving age, surname. 

■J <::>.. 1 •■:i. 

iiT'i ::£ f'ji"'.!}-'!! ffif.. 



etc., of eacli slave. A statement of this kiii'l could 
not be fouml in the office. 

Colored people were at Readinij soon after it was 
founded. It was not, however, till after 1>'20 that 
they became sufficiently stron.i^ tn form a society 
for religious purjioses. Some f>f them owned real 
estate before L-^OO, and loni;'' before their enfran- 
chisement in ISij;), they were orderly, industrious 
and progressive. 

Descendants of many of the fir^t settlers are 
still flourishing in numbers, industry, wealth and 
social, religious and political influence in the county, 
and they have continued persistently engaged in 
agriculture upon or in the vicinity of the original 
settlements. Some mc>ved to other districts of the 
county ; others to Reading. }ilanv sons and daugh- 
ters migrated to the West and settled particularly 
in Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Michigan, Wis- 
consin, Kansas and Colorado. Some of the sons 
turned to tlie professions, and others to trades and 
manufactures, in which they realized rich rewards 
for their industry and well-directed energv. In 
tracing down all the pursuits of life carried on in 
the county, it is only occasionally that a complete 
stranger appears and identifies himself with her 
onward movement for any considerable length of 
time. This is especially the case in our politics. 
The names of the old families are continually on 
the surface. Not particularly dem.onstrative, they 
are like expert swimmers in deep water and float 
on majestically in the great stream of time, their 
heads always visible, their endurance prevailing. 


Origix. — Where the Indians of this vicinity came 
■from and when they settled in this immediate sec- 
tion of country no one has yet determined. It has 
been generallv conceded that they migrated east- 
wardly hundreds of years ago till they reached the 
large bodv of water which we call the Atlantic 
Ocean. As a nation, they were known as the Lcnni 
Lcnapc (original people). This general name 
comprehended numerous distinct tribes which spoke 
dialects of a common language — the .ll^onquin. 
According to the traditions of their ancestors, the 
Lcnni Lcnapc were an unmixed and unchanged 
race, residing many centuries ago toward the set- 
ting of the sun, somewhere in the western part of 
this continent. For some reasons not explained, 
they determined to migrate toward the rising of the 
sun. After journeying for a time they arrived at 
the Mississippi river (Xaniasi Sipii. meaning Fish 
River). There they fell in with another nation of 
Indians, who were also in quest of a new home to 
the ea<^tward. Those were the }[cn<^wc. or. as they 
have been named by the French, the Irnquois. At 
that river both nations imited their forces, because 
they anticipated opposition to the ea-t of the river 
from the A!li\^c7i'l. who were a populoxis race of 
gigantic form. Shortly after their union, and before 

they had advanced any distance, they realized their 
anticipations, fur they were compelled to fight manv 
severe battles in carrying out their determination 
to march onward. At last their enemy, the .^llli^cici, 
to escape extermination, abandoned the countrv, fled 
far southward and never returned. The victors 
then divided the country between themselves — the 
Iroquois choosing the country to -the north along 
the great lakes and their tributary streams, and the 
Lcnapc taking possession of the country to the south 
of them, from the river eastward to the ocean. 

The Lcnapc, on their way hither, became divided 
into three separate bodies. One body settled along 
the Atlantic ocean and the country adjacent for 
some hundrerls of miles, comprising, it was sup- 
posed, one-half of the nation; and the other bodies 
settled to the east and to the west of the Mississippi 
river. That part of the body which was situated 
in Pennsylvania became known as the "Dclazivres." 
The word "Delaware" is unknown in the Indian 
language. At first the Indians thought that the 
white people had given this name to them in deri- 
sion, but when they were informed that they were 
named after a great while chief — Lord de la Ware 
— they were satisfied. 

Delaware Tribes. — The Delawares divided 
themselves into three tribes — the Unajnis or Turtle, 
the Unahiclitj^o or Turkey, and the Minsi (some- 
times called Monseys) or Wolf. The first two were 
settled on the territory which lay nearest to the 
ocean, between the coast and the high mountains, 
and, as they increased in niunbers, they extended 
their settlements from the Hudson river to the Po- 

The Minsi Hved back of the other tribes, to form, 
as it were, a bulwark for their protection and to 
watch the actions of the Mengivc. Their settle- 
ments extended from Minisink. on the Hudson ( a 
place named after them where they had their coun- 
cil-seat), to the west, far beyond the Susquehanna. 
Their northern boundaries were supposed to be 
along the head-waters of the great rivers, Delaware 
and Susquehanna, which flowed through their ter- 
ritory, and their southern boundaries along that 
rirlge of hills known in Pennsylvania by the name 
of Lehigh. 

Manv clans sprang from these tribes. They se- 
lected distant spots as places of settlement, and 
gave themselves names or received names from 
other tribes. Their names w-ere generallv taken 
after simple natural objects or something striking 
or extraordinary. Though they formed separate 
and distinct clans, yet they did not deny their ori- 
gin, retaining their affection for the parent tribe, 
of which they were proud to be called grandchildren. 
Many families, with their connections, lived by 
themselves. They were settled along the streams 
throughout the coimtrv. They had towns and vil- 
lages, in which they lived in '-eparate clans, with 
a chief in each clan ruling over them. The<e chiefs 
were subordinate to the council which comprised 
the great chiefs of the nation. 



Minsi Clans. — The clans of the !Minsi Indians 
wert- the Schuylkills, Susquehaiinas, Xcshamines, 
Conestogas, Assunpinks, Rankakos, Andastakas and 
Sliackmaxons. They were regarded as the most 
warlike of all the Indians in these tribe-. Each 
clan liad a chief to control its actions. The chief 
of the Schuylkill clan, which was settled along the 
Schuylkill and its tributaries, was, for a time, .\Ian- 
angA' ; and each chief was under the command of 
a Grand Sachem. 

Gaxawese. — The Ganawese (sometimes called 
the Shawnees, or Piscataway) were also one of the 
tribes of the Lcitni Lcnapc. They had lived for- 
merly along the Potomac river, and were permitted 
by the governor of Pennsylvania to locate among 
the Schuylkill Indians, near Tulpehocken, in pur- 
suance of a request from Manangy (the Indian 
chief in this section) with a guaranty of their 
friendship by the Conestoga Intlians. This request 
was made in 1705, because the Ganawese had been 
reduced by sickness to a small number, and had 
exprcsse'd a desire to settle here. It is not known 
whether they came immediatelv or ix^t ; but four 
years afterward they were classed with the Indians 
in this vicinity. In 1728 they were represented at 
Philadelphia by their king, Manawkyhickon, who 
was called Shekellamy, also Winjack; and he was 
appointed then by the "Five Nations." It is sup- 
posed that he lived at Shamokin, his tribe having 
by this time removed thither beyond the Blue Moun- 

After Conrad Weiser had settled in Tulpehocken, 
in 1729, an intimacy was cultivated between him 
and Shekellamy. In 11:^2 these two were appinnted 
to travel between the Indians and the settlers, "in 
order to speak the minds of each other truly and 
freely, and to avoid misunderstandings" : and as 
such agents thev performed invaluable services in 
our earlv history by the satisfactory and amicable 
adjustment of disputes. "They were universally re- 
spected for their wisdom in council, their dignity 
of manner, and their conscientious administration 
of public affairs." 

Grand Sachems. — The sachems of the Lcnrd 
Lcnapc, from the time of the first English settle- 
ments till the Indians retreated before the onward 
march of civilization and eventually disappeared en- 
tirely from this part of our country, were, in suc- 
cession, Kekerappan, Opekasset, Taminent, AUum- 
apees (who was afterward also called Sassoonan) 
and Teedyuscung. They had their headquarters at 
Minisink, on the Delaware river, some miles above 
the F.lue Mountain (now in Pike countv). and al'^'> 
at Shamokin, on Shamokin creek (in Berks county 
for a period of twentv vears, and since 1773 in the 
eastern part of Northumberland county). 

M.vN'XERS .Nxn CrsTONts. — The earlv settlers of 
Pennsylvania found the Indians possessed of a 
kindly disposition and inclined to share with them 
tite comforts of their rude dwelling-places. A\'heu 
they were guests of the Indian'^, their persons were 
regarded as sacred. Penn said that thev excelled 

in liberality ; that they never had much, for thev 
never wanted much; that ihtir wealth circulated 
like the blood ; that none wished for the property 
of another; and ihat they nere exact observers of 
the rights of property. "'They are not disquieted 
wuh bills of lading and exchange," said he, "nor 
perplexed with chancery >uits and exchequer reck- 
onings. We sweat and toil to live; they take pleas- 
ure in hunting, fishing and fowling, which feeds 
them. They spread their table on the ground any- 
where, and eat twice a day, morning and evening. 
They care for little lor they want but little, if 
they are ignorant of our pleasures, thev are free 
from our pains." 

The Indians, in their peculiar savage life, pos- 
sessed, on the one hand, certain personal virtues — 
a high sense of honor (according to their concep- 
tions of duty), mutual fidelity among individuals, 
fortitude that mocked the most cruel torments and 
devotion to their own tribe, for whose welfare thev 
were ready to make any sacrifice ; but, en the other 
hand, they had no appreciation of domestic virtues, 
for they treated their wives with cruelty and their 
children with indifference. They were gloomy, 
stern and severe, and strangers to mirth and laugh- 
ter. They permitted no outward e.xpression of pain. 
Remarkable indifference to the good or ill of life 
was one of the peculiar elements of their character: 
and they exhibited no pleasure in anything, save 
boisterous joy in the moment of victory. They had 
a great aversion to regular labor, and yet they were 
capable of enduring the greatest possible exertions 
during the chase or times of war. Thev were ex- 
tremely improvident. When they had an abundance 
of food and liquor they ate and drank great quan- 
tities, not thinking of the morrow and the famine 
they might have to endure. They recognized po- 

They believed in the existence of a Supreme 
Being, and of a Being in a subordinate position. 
The former was the Great Spirit to them wdiich did 
not require prayers for aid and protection, but the 
latter was looked upon as hostile to them, and to 
this they atldressed their worship. And they also 
believed in a future state, where the souls of brave 
warriors and chaste wives enjoyed a happy exist- 
ence with their ancestors and friends. Their fun- 
erals were conducted with great decorum. They 
dressed the deceased persons in their best clothes, 
and disposed of their bodies in various ways and in 
different places, some in the air on scaffolds, some 
in the water, and .some in the earth. They also 
practised cremation. 

The general dress of the Indian in the temperate 
and cold parts of the country, previous to the ar- 
rival of the Europeans, consisted of three articles 
— a cloak of buffalo skin (which hung from the 
shpulders), a piece of skin used as an apron, and 
a pair of mcKcasins or loose lx)ots, manufactured 
out of undressed skin. The women wore a long 
robe of buffalo skin which was fastened around 
the waist. 

-jdi i;i 


Their habitations were huts or cabins, generally 
of a circular form, con^^^ucte^i of poles fixed in 
the ground and tied together at the top. The outer 
covernig consisted of the bark of trees. A hole 
was left open at the top for ventilation or the es- 
cape of smoke. Beds and seats were made out of 
skins. The diameter of some huts was thirty feet, 
and even forty. 

The painting of their bodies was a universal cus- 
tom. Tattooing was practised. Some painted only 
their arms ; others both arms and legs. Those 
who had attained the summit of renown in suc- 
cessful warfare Iiad their bodice painted from the 
waist upward. This was the heraldry of the In- 
dians. Besides this ornamentation, the warriors 
also carried plumes of feathers on their heads. 

Tneir weapons consisted of the tomahawk, knife, 
club, and bow and arrow. \\'hen the Diitch arrived 
the ritle was introduced to them : and then the In- 
dians became as expert in the use of this weapon 
as the\- had been in the use of the tomahawk and 
bow and arrow. 

They subsisted chiefly on wild game and fish. 
They were great hunters and fishers. In the use 
of the spear in fishing they were very successful. 
They carried on agriculture to a limited extent in 
raising maize, beans and pumpkins. But the labor 
v.-as performed entirely by their women. 

Each tribe was governed by an elected chief and 
council. In matters of great importance all the 
warriors were consulted. In their deliberations, 
questions were decided by the consent of all, not 
by a majority. Their assemblies were conducted 
with great formality. Their debates were carried 
on by set speeches which abounded in bold figures 
and bursts of impassioned eloquence. The oldest 
chief always commenced the discussion. The young 
men were permitted to attend, but not to speak. 

They conducted their warfare in a particular and 
peculiar manner. They declared war by sending a 
slave with a hatchet (the handle of which was 
painted red) to the ofifending party. In taking the 
field for action, they proceeded in small squads ; 
and from the time of entering the enemy's territory 
they killed no game, they lighted no fires, they made 
no disturbance of any kind : but they advanced with 
the utmost caution, not even speaking to one an- 
other, only communicating bv signs and motions. 
In making an attack, they would first lie flat a whole 
night, and at the break of day, upon the signal of 
the chief, rush upon the enemv. If thev succeeded 
(as they generally did succeed in such a quiet but 
deliberate mode of warfare) their horrifying deeds 
baffled description. 

Retreat of Indians. — The Indians having 
moved north of the Blue Mountain in 1T32. the 
Friends then entered and took up large tracts of 
land in the Maiden-creek \'allcy ( Ontelaunee Sec- 
tion"). Within the previous decade, a '^mall colonv 
of Gennans had settled in the Tulpehockcn Valley, 
having migrated thither from Xew York asrainst 
the complaints and protests of the Indian^. Before 

ITjU, these settlers had even occupied tracts of 
land beyond the mountain, reaching as far north 
as the sources of the Schuylkill river. And thus 
it appears, as the settlers pressed forward, the In- 
dian^ retreated westward. 

In 1749, the Delaware Indians left the great 
region beyond the Blue Mountain for thousands 
of square miles, and they departed with the firm 
intention of remainin.,^ a\v;iy. But shortly after- 
ward, having been deceived by misrepresentations 
of the French, they returned, not to retake pos- 
session, but to murder the settlers. In this mali- 
cious invasion, they were very successful, and thev 
kept the country in an unsettled condition for eight 
years. Then they fled, never to return. In lfS9, 
the general government placed them on a large 
resen-ation of land in the State of Ohio. In 181S, 
they were located in ^Missouri. Numerous removals 
followed during the next fifty years, when, in IS'GC, 
they accepted land in severalty in the Indian Ter- 

A popular notion prevails that the Indian tribes 
are disappearing and their numbers growing less. 
But it has been ascertained that, though certain 
tribes have decreased in number, and others even 
disappeared entirely, many of the tribes have in- 
creased ; and therefore the Indian population, as a 
whole, in North xAmerica, has not decreased verv 
much since the advent of the Europeans. In ISS'O 
there were in the United States 300, .513 Indians 
(of which 340,136 were on reservations and 6(i, 107 
were civilized); in 1890, 248,2.53; in IPOO. 237,- 
19G ; and in 1908, the number was estimated at 

The general policy of our government has been, 
for some years past, to treat with the Indian tribes 
in a respectful manner, purchase their lands, place 
them upon certain reservations, where thev are re- 
quired to remain, and appropriate supplies for them 
in the nature of food, clothing, arms and ammuni- 
tion. In this manner the government has been hu- 
manely endeavoring to civilize them. And it has 
accomplished considerable good results in respect 
to some tribes, but failed in respect to others. 

Indian Names. — All the prominent streams in 
the county have been given Indian names ; also two 
townships and two mountains. These names are 
as follows: 

Antictaiu — 

AUc^hcn\' — Fair water. 

Gaiislwrcclw}titc — Roarinq: or tumbling stream. 
This is now known as the Schuylkill. In old deeds 
it is called Manaiunk. the signification of which 
word was a mother of stream.s. 

Gokhosing — Place of owds : now Cacoosing. 

Kaii-ta-tin-chunk — Endless (applied formerlv, 
now changed, to Blue Mountain"). 

Lcchauxi'cki — Place of forks; now Lehigh. ' 

M'acJtksitliaitne — Bcar's-path creek: now Maxa- 
tawny. • 

Masclnlainclianuc — T^^ut stream : now Moselem. 



Mcndkissc — Stream with large bends ; now Mo- 
-W'here we drank 

liquor; now 



.Wnrsink — Place of fishing; now Neversink. 

Olink — Hole, cavern or cell ; al^o a cove or tract 
uf land encompassed by hill^ : now Oley. 

Ontclaiiiicc — Little maiden: now Maiden creek. 

Pakiliuioniink — Place of cranberries ; now Perki- 

Sakttnk — Place of outlet, where a smaller stream 
empties into a larger ; now Sacony ; also Saucon. 

Sinnc-haime — Stony stream; now Stony creek. 

Sipnas-haiine — A plum stream: now Plum creek. 

Tamaqiie-Jianne — Beaver stream — a stream across 
which the beaver throws a dam ; now Beaver creek ; 
also changed to Little Schuylkill. 

Tulpczu-ihaki — Land of turtles ; now Tulpeliocken. 

lVyo7nissiiig — 

\^iLi.AGES. — Some of the Indians had villages in 
this district of territory-. They were located in 
different sections, more particularly, however, along 
the Schuylkill and its principal tributaries, and 
known as follows : 

1. Angelica — opposite "Neversink," at mouth of 
Angelica creek. 

2. GansJio-Ju'chaiinc — in the central section, ad- 
joining the Schuylkill, near the northern base of 
"Neversink," at the mouth of Rose Valley creek, the 
place being included in Reading. 

3. Machksithannc — in the northern section, the 
place being now in Maxatawny township, near 

-1. Maschilainchaniic — situate some miles east 
of Sakunk. on the stream of the same name, now 
known as Moselem. 

•5. Sakunk — in the northern section, on the 
Maiden creek in Richmond township at the mouth 
of the. Sakunk creek, now called Sacony. 

6. Menhaltanink — at a large spring now in Am- 
ity township, several miles northeast of Dougiass- 

7. Naz'csink — a short distance below the soutliern 
base of "Neversink." near the Big Dam. on the 
Deturck farm : and it is believed that a village was 
also in the "Poplar Neck'' on the PTigh farm. 

8. Olink — in Oley township, a sliort distance 
south of Friedensburg. on land included in the 
Bertolet farm. And it is believed that a large vil- 
lage was situated several miles to the eastward, on 
the Lee farm, adjoining the ^ilanatawny creek. 

9. Tulpczi'chaki — in the wc'^tcrn section of the 
county, a short distance cast of Stnuchsburg. near 
the Tulpehocken creek. 

Indi.\n Rf.lics. — A large number of Indian relics 
have been found in different parts of the county, 
numbering about twenty thousand. Many of them 
were found at certain places w-here villages were 
situated. Over sixty-five hundred were found on 
and in the vicinitv of Poplar Neck and Lewis's 
N'cck. " Prof. David B. Brunner secured a large 
individual collection, numbering over forty-three 

hundred. The relics of Ezra High, found on Pop- 
lar Neck, were presented to the Historical Society 
of Berks County. 

Henry K. Deishor, of Kutztown, has a superb 
collection, local as well as general, the total number- 
ing upward of twenty thousand. [See mention 
of it in the Borough of Kutztown, Chapter NI; 
also in his biographical sketch, which appears in this 


Immediately after Penn had obtained his charter' 
for the province from King Charles II. in 16b 1. and 
had begun his administration of its various affairs, 
he negotiated with the Indians for the purchase of 
their lands. lie regarded them as the rightful own- 
ers of the territory by virtue of their possession. 
Alany purchases were made by him. He gave in 
consideration for the land mostly articles which 
the Indians regarded as useful, such as blankets, 
coats, guns, powder, lead. etc. Comparatively little 
money was paid to them. Rum was occasionally 

There are two deeds for lands in Berks county 
in which we are particularly interested. One is 
dated Sept. 7, 1733. It is from Sassoonau, alias 
Allummapis, sachem of the Schuylkill Indi?ns, Ela- 
lapis, Ohopamen, Pcsqueeiomen, Mayeemoe. Par- 
tridge and Tepakoaset, alias Joe, on behalf of them- 
selves and edl the other Indians of the said nation, 
unto John Penn, Thomas Penn, and Richard Penn. 
The territory contained in the grant is described 
as follows : 

All those tracts of land lying on or near the river 
Schuylkill, in the said province, or any of the branches, 
streams, fountains or springs tliereof, eastward or west- 
ward, and all the lands lying in or near any swamps, 
marshes, fens or meadows, the waters or streams of which 
flow into or toward the said river Schu)'lkill, situate, 
lying and being between those hills, called Lechay Hills, 
and those called Keekachtancmin Hills, which cross the 
said river Schuylkill about thirty miles above the said 
Lechay Hills, and all land whatsoever lying within the 
said bounds; and betw^-en the branches of Delaware river, 
on the eastern side of the said land, and the branches 
or streams running imo the ri\er Susquehannah, on the 
western side of the said land, together u'ith all mines, 
minerals, quarries, waters, rivers, creeks, woods, timber 
and trees, with all and every the appurtenances, etc. 

The consideration mentioned in the deed con- 
sisted of the following articles: 

20 brass kettles. 100 stroudwater matcncpats of two 
yards each, 100 duffels do., lOu blankets. 100 yards of half 
tick, 60 linen shirts. 20 hats, 6 made coats. 12 pair of 
."ihoes and buckles, .^0 pair of stockings, .300 lbs. of gun 
powder, fiOO lbs. of lead, 20 fine guns, 12 gun-locks. 50 
tomahawks or hatchets. 50 planting hoes, 120 knives. 60 
pair of scissors, lOO tobacco tongs. 24 looking-glasses, 40 
tobacco boxes, 1000 flints. .> lbs. of paint. 24 dozen of 
gartering, G dozen of ribbons. 12 dozen of rings. 200 awl 
blades, 100 lbs. of tobacco, -JOO tobacco pipes, 20 gallons 
of rum and 50 pounds in money. 

The other deed is <latcd Aug. 22. 1749. It is 
from nine different tribes of Indians unto Thomas 
Penn and Richard Penn. The several tribes were 
represented hv their chiefs, who appeared and exe- 
cuted the deed in their behalf. The consideration 


was £500 lawful iiionov of Pfnn-»ylvariia. The tract 
of land conveyed lay north of the Blue Mountain, 
and extended from th.e Delaware on the east to the 
Susquehanna on the west. It inchuleil the whole 
of Schuylkill county. Conrad W'eiser was the in- 
terpreter for the Indians in this transfer. 

The lower section of the county, lying- south- 
ward of the South .Mountam (or "l.cchay Hill"), 
had been released by the Indians in IT 18. it having 
been included in previous purchases of territory. 


XoRTHUiiCERLAXD CouxTY. — As nearly as it 
was possible to do so, the provincial o-overnment 
kept the settlers from going- beyond the limits of 
the purchases from the Indians. After the purchase 
of 1749, the settlers extended the settlements be- 
yond the Blue }^Iountain. Within the next score 
of years, numerous settlements w-erc made in that 
territory, especially in the district which lies be- 
tween the Blue [Mountain and "Schneid Bcr^" 
(Sharp Mountain, named so from the sharpness of 
its ape.x). Alany persons located beyond the pur- 
chase, in the vicinity of the great fork in the Sus- 
quehanna (Shamokin, now Sunbury) : and this in- 
duced the additional purchase of 1T68. 

Within the next four years, the Governor was 
persuaded to feel the necessity of erecting another 
county, even in that remote locality, notwithstand- 
ing a much larger population existed within the 
limits of the purchase of 1749. Its distance (aver- 
aging seventy-five miles) from the county-seat, 
Reading, was the principal cause of complaint, and 
the prime reason to the Assembly in granting .the 
prayer of the petitioners. X'orthumberland was 
erected on March 21. 1772. It comprised about 
one-third of the v.hole State, including the north- 
western section. Over three-fifths of Berks county 
was cut to it. XTo townships had been formed in 
that section. Immediately after the erection of the 
new county, townships were formed, and a county- 
seat was established and laid out at Shamokin. 
named Sunbur}-. Fort Augusta, at the fork of the 
river, was a conspicuous place during the French 
and Indian war. It was erected in 1750. 

Schuylkill Cou.vty. — Forty years afterward, 
Berks county was again reduced in area by contrib- 

uting territory toward the erection of another coun- 
ty. Many surprising developments had been made. 
not only in settlements and population, but more 
especially in internal resources. The condition of 
afTairs in the county was equal to that of any sec- 
tion of the State. Coal was discovered as early as 
1775, along the head-waters of the Schuylkill. Its 
need had come to be felt. It quickened enterprise 
in developing new means of transportation. Agri- 
culture had enriched the land wonderfully. Xumer- 
ous furnaces and forges were carried on success- 
fully, not only in the more populous parts south of 
the Blue ]\Iountain, but also north of it, even in the 
vicinity of the coal regions. 

The population and improvements beyond tlie 
purchases of 1749, when Northumberland county 
was erected in 1772, were comparatively trifling. 
But within this purchase they had grown to large 
proportions when the second county came to be 
erected out c>f a part of its territory ; for the popu- 
lation numbered about six thousand, and the sev- 
eral townships together contributed over eight 
hundred dollars in taxes. The new county was 
erected on March 11. 1811. and called Schuylkill. 
The greater portion of the territory was taken from 
Berks county, and the other portion from North- 
ampton. The portion from Berks had been erected 
into seven townships, as' follows: 

Erected Taxable^ 

in ISU 

Brunswick 1768 359 

Pine-Grove 1771 2.';i 

Manhein- 1790 2G9 

Schuylkill 1802 136 

Xorweijian 1803 108 

:.Iahantan50 W02 141 

Upper-Mahantango 1807 103 


Other Counties PRorosEn. — Between the years 
1824 and 1S55, twenty applications were made be- 
fore the Legislature to establish new counties out 
of portions of Berks county, comprising town- 
sin'ps in the northern, eastern, southern and west- 
ern sections, but fortunately they all were unsuc- 
cessful, notwithstanding the great efiforts expended 
in that bel.alf. 






General Cuxditiox anu Progress. — W'lien the 
first settlers entered this territory, they found it 
entirely without cultivation or imi)rovement of any 
kind. The land along- the Schuylkill and its tribu- 
taries was in a primitive statu in every respect, but 
in a good condition fur fannini^ purposes. Its lo- 
cation was fine, its irrie^ation superior, and al- 
together it was very inviting to them. Labor stood 
out prominently before them as the one thing nec- 
essary to cause it to become fruitful. Fortunately 
for them, they possessed this personal quality in the 
highest degree ; and with this quahty they also 
possessed other qualities equally imjiortant in tak- 
ing hold of an uncultivated country — economy, per- 
severance and patience. They were in every way 
adapted to their situation. Their preparation was 
of the best order: and driven from their native 
land by religious persecution, they must have re- 
joiced in finding such a pleasing situation, such 
inviting conditions. 

After the beginning had been made, can we won- 
der that immigrants came by the thousand? They 
knew their sutiferings, their uncertain condition at 
home, and their sense of well-being induced them 
to leave. But in leaving the valleys and hills so 
dear to them, they came to possess and enjoy a 
country equally favored for beauty, for health and 
for profit; and it was more highly favored in res- 
pect to a condition which was to them more import- 
ant than all the others combined — freedom. It is 
surprising to find, in the course of time and govern- 
ment, the development of a condition for mankind 
so unfortunate, so objectionable, so discouraging; 
but it is equally surprising to find, in the same 
course of time and government, though in a countn,' 
far removed, over three thousand miles across a 
dreaded sea, a condition exactly opposite — fortunate, 
acceptable and encouraging! 

The condition of the settlers was encouraging, 
not only in respect to an acceptable country, but 
also in respect to their own constitution, physically, 
mentally and morally. Thev were strong and en- 
during in physical development, they were sensible 
and practical in thought and feeling; and thev were 
sound, hopeful and trustful in religious convictions. 
These fitted them admirably for their vocation. 

The land was cultivated then as it is now, by 
manuring and enriching the soil, by turning the 
sod, by sowing and planting seeds, and by rotat- 
ing crops ; but the manner was infinitely more 
laborious. Every act was performed by muscular 
exertion and endurance, with the assistance of 
horse-power. The plow, the harrow, the scythe, 
the sickle and the rake .were important aids then, 
and by comparing the past with the present we 
can readily appreciate the va-t dit^erence. Their 

farming implements were rude and simple in con- 
struction and continued so for many years. The 
whole of the eighteenth century passed away with- 
out any improvement. The farmer labored on ear- 
nestly and faithfully year after year, and decade 
after decade with the same muscular exertion, and 
these rude implements required him to be at his 
place all the time if he wished to be in season. But 
his devotion was equal to the task, for he was 
up with the sun in the morning; and with the 
moon in season. He was never behind, for he 
could not be without great loss and inconvenience. 
His implements were satisfactory to him, because 
he gave them no thought beyond the assistance 
which they afforded. And sons followed in the 
footsteps of their fathers, by imitation; and half 
of the nineteenth century also passed away with- 
out any material advancement beyond the days of 
1700, of 1750, and of ISOO. Labor-saving machin- 
ery had begun to be introduced within a score 
of years before 1850; and this naturally led to an 
improvement in farming implements. The mower 
came to be substituted for the scythe, the rea[)er 
for the sickle, and the drill for the hand, im- 
proved plows of various patterns were introduced. 
And now we have the combined reaper and binder, 
a machine truly ingenious. 

The same slowness, simplicity but earnest labor 
followed the threshing of grain after it had been 
harvested. The flail and the walking of horses 
on the barn floor were continued for a hundred and 
fifty years. Indeed, some of the poor, non-pro- 
gressive farmers in districts distant from railroads 
and prominent highways still carry on this labor- 
ious performance. But about 1840 the threshing 
machine was introduced ; and also the horse-power 
machine for running it with speed and success. 
Patent hay-rakes, hay-forks, corn-shellers. and im- 
plements and machines of various kinds, are also 
used in every section of our county. All these 
things were developed because of the ease with 
which iron could be manufactured mto any shape. 
Accordingly, the foundry played an important part 
in these improvements ; and at the bottom of all 
this progress we find iron, coal and steam. 

We no longer see from ten to thirty or forty 
persons engaged in haymaking and harvesting on 
our farms, as they were seen one hundred, indeed, 
only thirty, years ago. A farmer and his own 
family, with the aid of his h(5rses and improved 
farming machinery, can carry on all the work from 
beginning to end successfully. 

During the last fifty years numerous manufac- 
turing establishments have been erected in our 
country, and these have caused a great demand 
for working people: and this demand has been 
supplied to a great degree from the farming dis- 

:f' \-.:i- 

■[«;<;. ■lOi- "^ 

"i , '>". 'It ."■.1 1 

t rii-.fn ; 'n-.T »,;'i'.-T ---..,■ ;• /'fit j^-( ••. ?' \/lii '! ^■■: ■ .■;.■ 

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tricts. The nianntacturcr pai<l Iii.i^lier wages tlian 
tlie farmer and limited tiie time ui daily labor to 
ten hours; and towns and cities (at which these 
establishments were almo>t entirely situated) af- 
forded the workinL;-pe(iple more and better advan- 
tages and facilities in rc-^iject to ^chL>oi^ and 
churches, pleasures and associations. These nat- 
urally inclined them to quit lalxjrinef on farms and 
enter establi^hments in pC'pulons places. Accord- 
ingly farm laborers began to grow scarce and farm- 
ers became alarmed; but fortunaiely for farming, 
whilst enterprise was drawing one way again-t its 
interest and welfare, genius was acting with equal 
force m the other for them, and the result has ac- 
tually come to be beneticial to the farmer, more 
especially in respect to making him more self-de- 

By the industrial statistics in the next portion 
of this chapter, it will appear that in iSOi; there 
were upward of one hundred and fifty grist-mills, 
which were scattered throughout the county. Af- 
ter the several railroads in operation began to make 
themselves felt in the industrial affairs of the county, 
these grist-mills came to be abandoned, and as they 
grew less in number the value of farms began to 
decrease, and this decrease continued until the value 
in many cases was one-half, even two-thirds, less 
than it had been. This was noticeable from ISTo to 
1900. The abandoned mills have not been rebuilt; 
and the farm values have not yet improved. This 
was a direct result of imported grain from tlie Wes- 
tern States at reduced rates, much having been said 
of the increased flour-producing character of this 
grain over the Eastern grain ; and also of Western 
flour. And this abandonment of .the grist-mills and 
decrease of farm values led many thousand of peo- 
ple to move from farms and locate in towns and 
cities, in the county and out of it. The cer.sus and 
assessment returns show this plainly. Before 1835. 
without the aid of steam and railroads and stimu- 
lated industrial affairs, farming communities had 
increased and improved for fiftv years: but after 
1875, even with these extraordinary aids to the 
people, they have decreased and retrograded, and 
the major part of the population and wealth have 
come to concentrate in the county-scat. 

Agricultural Society. — Tn IS'23, a State Agri- 
cultural Societv was lirst suggested tr> the people 
of the State by an Act of Assembly. Imt nearly 
thirtv years elapsed before a successful movement 
was in'ade in that behalf. A public letter was ad- 
dressed to the farmers of the State, in May. IS.jO. 
which suggested a convention at Harri^burg. in 
Tanuan.-, ISol, for the purpose of forming a State 
Agricultural Societv. Delegate- from the several 
counties were in attendance and it resulted in a 
State Fair which was held in Octolicr. 1>.">1. 

This movement having met with success, a pre- 
liminary meeting for organizing a societv in the 
countv Was held at the "Kevstone Flouse" rnow 
"Hotel Penn""). in Reading, on Dec. ^0. 1S51. It 
was attended bv a number of prominent citi'^eu'^ 

of the county, who caused a public address to be 
issueil ; and a formal organization was ettected at 
the court-house on Jan. 13, ISO':?, 108 persons sub- 
scribing the cou'^titution. 

The lirst exhibition was held on Aug. IT, Iboi, 
at Reading. It was confined principally to grains, 
vegetables, fruit~ and flowers ; and though small, 
it exceeded all expectations, having attracted a 
large number of visitors from Reading and all parts 
of the county. 

The first agricultural fair was held in October, 
1853 ; the exhibition of speed took place on a large 
lot on the northeast corner of Sixth and Walnut 
streets ; of fanning implements, stock, poultrv, etc., 
on a lot on the southeast corner of Fifth and Elm 
streets ; and of grain, fruits, flowers, fancy articles, 
etc., in the Academy building, on the northeast 
corner of Fourth and Court streets. It was a great 
succes-; — the attendance having been estimated at 

In a report to the society on April 5, 1S53, a 
recommendation 'was made that the public park 
and parade-ground be secured as a suitable locality 
for the erection of buildings, etc., to promote agri- 
cultural science. This recommendation was acted 
upon, and on }klay ]3, 1854, the county commission- 
ers leased to the society the ground known as the 
"commons," for the purpose of holding its annual 
fairs, for the term of ninety-nine years. The third 
annual fair was held there in October, 1854; and 
every succeeding year the fairs were conducted on 
the "Fair Ground" until 1SS7 excepting during the 
Civil war for three years (18G2-3-4), when it was 
occupied liy the United States government for the 
purposes of a militar}- hospital and camp. In that 
year it was removed to the large inclosure at the 
end of North Eleventh street, and the annual ex- 
hibitions have since been held there. 

The annual "Fair" is the principal object of the 
society. ^lonthly m.eetings are held for the dis- 
cussion of topics pertaining to agricultural and hor- 
ticultural progress. These have been held in the 
third ston- of the court-house for many vears past. 
Formerly, thev were held at different places, prom- 
inent among them being the "Keystone House" and 
"Keystone Ffall." 

A similar society was formed at Kutztown in 
1870. which also gave annual exhibitions until 1003. 
.-\nother "Fair Ground" was established in 1905. 
on the north side of Kutztown. with a superior half- 
mile track. 

Farmlrs' Uxiox. — Tn 1900, a number of farmers 
of the southern section of the county in the vicinity 
of Geigertown organized a "Farmers' Union" for 
educational and mutual benefit and erected a fine 
hall (32x45) costin.g $1,500, with cement base- 
ment and shedding. It has been carried on in a 
successful manner and its lectures on agricultural 
topics have been highlv appreciated. Membership, 
100. Officers: E. jNI. Zerr. president: H. G. Mc- 
("riiwan. treasurer: H. C. Hohl, secretarv- ; D. C^wen 
Brooke, cnrrc^pcnding secretary. 



IRON ixd;:strjes 

FcKXACES AND FoRGES. — In cacli pdrticn of the 
county there were iron industries at an early per- 
iod in its history, especially in t[ie lower portion. 
They were scattered many niilt-s from one another, 
extending- from the southern boundary to the north- 
em. and from the eastern to the western. All were 
located along strong- streams for water-power, and 
in the midst of thickly wooded territory for char- 
coal. The greater number were ca.-t of the Schuyl- 
kill. The nine following streams were occupied 
before the Revolution : IManatawny and its tribu- 
tary Ironstone, \\est-Branch of Perkiomen. Mose- 
lem, French, Flay, Allegheny, Tulpehucken and 
its tributary, Spring. 

Until that time there were the following indus- 
tries — the year indicating the time of erection : 


Colebrookdale 1720 Hopeu ell 1759 

Mt. Pleasant 173S Berkshire 1760 

Hereford 1740 Oley 1765 


Pool (2) 1717 Oley 1744 

Spring 1729 Charming 1749 

Mt. Pleasant 1738 Moselem^ 1750 

Pine 1740 Gibraltar 1770 

Hay Creek 1740 

From 1775 to ISOO, the following were estab- 
lished in the county : 


Union 1780 Joanna 1792 

District • I'ISO Reading 1794 

Mary Ann 1789 Greenwood 1796 

Dale 1791 Sallv Ann 1800 



Erobst's .^ 1780 

Rockland 1783 

Dale 1791 

Burkhart'? 1792 

District 170.> 

Speedwell 1800 

All of these industries were operated successful- 
ly for many years and contributed a great deal to 
the material welfare of the county; but most of 
them were discontinued shortly after" the Civil war. 
Three of them are still in active operation, tliough 
much enlarged: 

Hay Creek (Birdsboro) 
Reading (Robesonia) 


Among the more recent furnaces and forges in 
the county, there were the following, the date after 
the name indicating the year of erection: 


Sally Ann 1811 Maiden Creek 1854 

Reading ( Sevfert. 

McManus '& Co. ■)...! 854 

second stack 1873 

Temple 1867 

Keystone 1809 

second stack 1872 

Topton 1873 

East Penn (2 stacks). 1874 

Kutztown 1875 

Rechtelsvil'.e 1875 

Do-Well 1825 

Mover's .. . ., 1825 

Mdseieni 1325 

Si.Npenny 1825 

Xonh-Kill IS.'JO 

rUoom 1830 



.Moselem 1823 

Mount Penn 1825 

Earl 1835 

Mount Laurel 1836 

Henry Clay 1844 

second stack 1854 

Monocacy 1852 

Leesport' 1853 

E.xetcr 1S36 

Mount Airy 1840 

Seidel'.'; 1853 

Keystone 1354 

Rending 1857 

Douglass ville 1878 

Industrial Statistics. — In the year ISOG. Berk'- 
county was distinguished for its numerous manu- 
facturing establishments, its trade and enterprise. 
The following iron industries were then in opera- 

Tilt hammers 9 

S'.itting-mill 1 

Other industries: 

Powder-mills 4 

Fulling-mills 14 

Hemp-mill; 2 

Paper-mills 10 

Saw-mills 235 

Distilleries 212 

Furnaces S 

Forges 20 

Grist-mills 155 

Tanneries 49 

Oil-mills 20 

Hat factories ( Read- 
ing) 40 

In 1830, there were: furnaces, 11; and forges, 
24; which employed 2,770 men. 

In 1840, there were: furnaces. 11; forges, 36; 
flour and grist-mills, 141; oil-mills, 15; sawmills, 
108; powder-mills. 3; stores, 119; paper-factories, 
5 ; potteries, 3 ; distilleries, 29 ; breweries, 6. 

In 1851. there were 41 iron works — more than 
in any other county in Pennsylvania ; and no other 
county in the United States contained more. The 
estimated and reported capital then invested was 

In 187G, there were 27 furnaces, 4 forges, and 10 
mills, whose total production was 58,G41 tons ; and 
in 1884, there were 19 furnaces, 6 forges, and 9 
mills, whose total production was 135.947 tons. 






1,414 I 8.991 i.«!ll.l.S2,r.O;^. .S2.711.2:n !.S10,046,049 

i,0t4 I lo.oos I2..v22,i40 :-;,n77.:ii:> 1 Kt.djc,;^.",! 

075 I' 2ii,.-.iT..jiu I T.oTS.iiiJi iT.';i;t.;'.i':( 

1,690 I 25,o7& I 37,279.817 I ! 2.". .".112.41 17 





Irox-masters. — Tlie iron-masters of the county 
include many men noted for their enterprise, suc- 
cess, wealth and patriotism, all through the history 
of the county, from its earliest settlements till now. 
A great proportion of the material prosperitv and 
enrichment of the county has been contributed by 
them. They have, to a great degree, influenced 
its social, political, and industrial welfare. In the 
settlement and development of its several sections, 
they have lieen pioneers. Though their great and 
influential industry (lix>s not antedate agriculture in 
the affairs of the countv. it has, nevertheless, been 

'.■■■-/ u 

■•j:j: ;■ rj "~ -'i : 

♦•?:?■ I . I o' 



a traveling companion ; and, like agriculture, it has 
been transmitted from qrand father to son and 
grandson. Their name^ reveal the fact that the 
great majority of them Iiave been Germans or of 
German origin. 

Gf.m-:ral IxDfsTRiK.s. — The industries previously 
mentioned were prominent in their several sections 
on account of the capital invested and the men cm- 
ployed to carry them on successfully. But besides 
these there were many other industries in the sev- 
eral townships. Blacksmith shops and wheelwright 
shops were located and conducted in every commun- 
ity. They were necessary for the accommodation 
of the settlers. Only a few individuals worked 
together — mostly a master workman and his ap- 
prentice. Grist-mills f(jr Hour antl feed were situ- 
ated along all the large streams. Cooi)er shops 
were also quite numerous. The Welsh were me- 
chanics who conducted their trades in small factories 
along the W'yomissing. Rope-makers were common 
in every section, for ropes and cords were largely 
used in the daily affairs of life. This industry was 
conducted for many years by individuals at their 
homes ; but improved machinery and steam caused 
its decline, and small ropewalks were compelled to 

Carpenters and builders were numerous. They 
were finished workmen, preparing the articles out of 
wood by hand. Some of the old buildings, still in 
a good state of preservation, attest the excellence 
of their workmanship. Doors, windows and frames 
of all kinds, used in building operations, were hand- 
made. This custom amongst them continued till 
the introduction of the planing-mill about 1S35, 
and then it began to decline. The country sawmill, 
run by water-power, was active then in preparing 
lumber; but great steam mills in the lumber regions 
have caused them to become less and le=s active. 
Great rafts of logs are no longer towed down the 
canals to Reading, especially the Union canal from 
the Susquehanna river, to aitord employment to 
our sawmills. The railroads instead deliver finished 

Every commimity had a weaver, who conducted 
his business at his home. He wove carpets and 
coverlets (plain and fancy") and linen and cotton 
stufiFs for domestic use. He did not carry a large 
stock on hand ; he manufactured articles to order. 
So with other trades. Fulling-mills, paper-mills, 
oil-mills, and distilling-mills were conducted for 
cloths, paper, oil and whiskey, but they were limited 
in capacity. 

Me.mgri.vl for N.\TinxAL Foundry. — In 1845, 
a memorial was presented to Congress, setting forth 
reasons why Reading should be selected as a site 
for one of the national foundries. It referred to 
the securitv of Reading in time of war, its central 
position with regard to points of defense and sup- 
ply of ordnance, its transportation facilities, its sup- 
ply of iron, coal and other materials, and its low 
wacfcs ; and it includerl an itemized statement of 13 

furnaces and "^iS forges, with their respective dis- 
tances from Reading. 

Seven years before, upon the ojK'ning of the rail- 
road from Reading to Philadelpiiia, there had been 
a similar movement. 


The internal improvements of the county relate 
to the several prominent atifairs which have been 
established and carried on for the general conven- 
ience, develf>pment and enrichment of the whole 
community. They comprise the following subjects: 
Schuylkill River, Bridges, Roads and Turnpikes. 
Stages, Canals, Railways, Post-Offices, Telegraph, 
and Telephone. 


In a natural aspect, the Schuylkill river has occu- 
pied an important position in the well-being of 
the county. We can only appreciate this by 
realizing the great adantages which it has af- 
forded us in leading away successfully to the Del- 
aware river the enormous quantities of water 
throughout the year, from the mountains and val- 
leys. And its meanderin.g channel is worthy of con- 
sideration, inasmuch as the flowing waters are there- 
by detained in their onward course, to moisten the 
air and vegetation, and to proceed with only such 
speed as not to injure the adjoining country. 

FisHixG AND Xavig.vtiox. — In a practical aspect, 
it has been valuable in various ways — two especially, 
fishing and navigation. In respect to fishing, it was 
a source of profit and subsistence to the early set- 
tlers who occupied the adjoining properties. They 
discovered this fact immediately after settling here: 
and, to facilitate the catching of large quantities of 
fish with little labor and expense, they erected weirs, 
racks and dams in the river, into which the fish 
were driven by fishermen, who either waded afoot 
or rode on horseback through the water. And in 
respect to navigation, it was likewise a source of 
advantage in enabling them to carry conveniently 
by boats, flats and canoes, at little expense, great 
quantities of grain and goods of all kinds, to the 
market at Philadelphia. Canoes were of consider- 
able size so as to carry a large quantity of wheat. 
They were hewn out of the trunk of a tree. The 
growth of the trees in the wild, extended forest of 
that early day was very large. William Penn 
stated in a letter, written in IfiS.'i, that he had seen 
a canoe made from a poplar tree which carried four 
tons of brick. Penn had hardly landed here before 
he found that navigation in the river was obstructed 
by fishing weirs and dams : and believing them to be 
objectionable, he encouraged legislation against 
them. \'arious .A.cts were passed, but the weirs 
and dams were not abandoned. 

There was no trouble along the Schuvlkill above 
the mouth of the Manatawny creek in reference to 
weirs and dams, thoutrh fishing was carried on to 
a great extent, especiallv bv citizens of Reading. 
There were two fishing-pools which were particu- 
larly famous for their supplies of fish, "Levan's" 

; r. 

, 'T 1 • •/•iiTT^ > 



and '"Lotz's," the former at the io<>t of "Xever- 
sink Hill," and the huter a ^hurt distance atxi^ve. 
Fishing was continued successfully for seventy 
years in these pools, until tlie construction of the 
darns in the Schuylkill canal, which f(jrced their 
abandonment. Fishi'.ij,'- widi nets was conunon. It 
was a regular pursuit with some people. 

Navigation Encouk.xgeo. — The Schuylkill river 
forms the western boundary of Reading. In its 
natural state, before it was contracted on both sides 
by the construction "f the Schuylkill canal along 
its eastern bank, and of the Union canal along its 
western, it was over six hundred feet wide. Its 
bed was capable of confining a large body of water. 
It was useful in the transportation of merchandise 
by boats to Philadelphia. Spring was generally 
selected as the time when the shipment of goods 
could be most conveniently and satisfactorily made, 
for then the v.ater was higher than during the other 
seasons of the year. Heavy, cargoes on flat-boats 
would float down the river with ease, requiring only 
proper and careful steering. The steersmen were ex- 
pert in keeping the boats in the channel, and very sel- 
dom failed to reach their destination successfully. 
Besides the long paddle at the stern of the boat, for 
guiding purposes, there were polemen at the bow 
with long, stout poles, who directed the boat to 
the rig'ht or left as necessity required. Pohng was 
not generally required to propel the boat with the 
current; this labor was practised in returning 
agciinst the current. There were no tow-paths the'i. 
The improvement of the river to facilitate navi- 
gation was a subject of consideration by the early 
inhabitants, both of the county and county-seat, for 
jnany years. The matter was of such importance 
as to gain the attention of the Provincial Assembly 
in 17()0 and secure appropriations for that purpose. 
The river, notwithstanding these early efforts, re- 
mained about the same as to navigation for many- 
years. The only substantial improvement worthy 
of mention was efifected sixty years afterward, by 
the construction of the Schuylkill canal ; and dur- 
ing that time the inhabitants continued to transport 
their grain, ir.erchandise and iiroductions on boats 
and flats, as they had done before. 

The navigation of the river induced the organi- 
zation of the first Board of Trade at Reading. A 
number of nrominent liusiness men of the borough 

assembled on March 13, l^nr. to consider this sub- 
ject, and then they ftjrnu-d a -ociety under the name 
of "The Society for Promoting the Clearing of the 
River Schuylkill"; but nothing was accomplished. 
Eighteen years afterward, the difficulty was solved 
bv the construction oi a narrow channel for slack 
water, with numerous locks whereby to overcome 
grade and detain the water in certain levels to facili- 
tate navigation. 


Freshets. — Numerous freshets have swept down 
the river and its tributaries w^hich inflicted great 
losses upon the adjoining property-holders. Those 
worthy of special mention are the following: 


1757 In feet 

1786 20 feet, 7\ inches 

1822 I'i feet, 9i inches 

' 1S39 17 feet, li inches 

1841 10 feet 

1850 25 feet . _ .- 

18G2 IT feet 

■ - ■ 1869 23 feet 

1902* 25 feet 

♦ Shortly before this great freshet, there was a very cold spell 
of weather, after a fall of rain and snow, which cau-ed large quan- 
tities of ice to form mi all the trees, and the weight of the ice 
hrokc off the tops and branches of thousands of trees throughout 
I'.erks county and the nirrouiiding counties, the evidence being 
still visible in lHon. 


Long, before the first settlements in this vi- 
cinity, there had been a ford across the river at 
Reading, and this was the only convenient ford for 
some distance above and below. It was used for 
seventy vcars after the town had been laid out. The 
onlv step in advance of the first settlers was the 
introduction of a ferry-boat. 

'ix^Ss^t^:::^^'^ _- '--^^ 


iic'i 'sd 

K' ■■ :'■ I I'.l 

M "■ ,1 'I'M' :, ; ,■ / ^".v'^f 



Pexn" Street Bridge. — In 170.'), a petition was 
presented to the court to order the grand jury to 
consider the advisabihty of causing tlic erection of a 
stone bridge over the river at the foot of Penn 
street. The grand jury recommended an appropria- 
tion of $3'2,(JU0. but thii sum was deemed insutti- 
cient. In 119(3, the petitioners tJien devised the plan 
of raising sufficient money by a "lottery," but it 
proved unsuccessful. In ISOl. another application 
was made to the Quarter Sessions for a view, and 
an appropriation, the petitioners concluding with a 
prayer for a "wooden bridge." and estimating the 
probable expense at iG, 000. The grand jury recom- 
mended an appropriation of Slii.OOO, to be assessed 
at three yearly payments. The court approved of 
their action on Aug. Gth, and the county commis- 
sioners proceeded to cause its erection. The con- 
tract was awarded, and the contractor began opera- 
tions in earnest, but he failed at the piers. The 
tounty commissioners had expended S;)0,000, and it 
was estimated that S*'0,000 more would be required 
to complete the bridge, if built of stone. 

In 1805, a third unsuccessful eflfort was made, but 
for six years afterward this necessary improvement 
lay in idleness; then (Feb. 22, lSl'3) an Act was 
passed, authorizing the county coinmissioners to 
build a stone bridge and charge toll ; and providing 
that, when the principal invested in its construction 
was realized from the tolls, it should be declared 
free. Still the matter halted, and another Act be- 
came necessary, which was passed on F"eb. 21, 1S14, 
modifying the previous Act by giving the commis- 
sioners the power to build either a stone or wooden 
bridge. Then operations were resumed and the 
bridge was so far completed in December. 1815, as 
to be passable, and it was finished at last in ISIS. 

It was GOO feet long, three spans of 200 feet each, 
covered bv a roof. The first passage over it was 
made by Coleman's stage-coach on Dec. 20, 1815. 
Many persons were present to witness the occur- 
rence and they demonstrated their joy by loud ap- 
plause. Such was the exertion, and so long was 
the period, to obtain the "Penn street bridge," the 
first public improvement of the town beyond the 
court-house and the ])rison ! 

The subject of a "Free Bridge" was agitated as 
early as 1821, just three years after the bridge had 
been completed, but this related more particularly 
to persons, and. to accomplish this purpose, a peti- 
tion was presented to the Fegislature in February, 
1821. It continued to be agitated for over thirty 
years and the county bridges ('Harrisburg. Lancas- 
ter and Poplar- Xeck) were not declared free till 
18S.3. This great step forward was obtained 
through the citv council^ of Readincf. an earnest 
-and successful application in this behalf having been 
made to court, upon the representation that the tolls 
received excoeiled the cost of erecting and maintain- 
ing them, and the iudgcs decided that the bridcrcs 
must be declared free under the legislation which 
authorized their erection. The adjudication was 
made on :March 28. 1883. 

In 1S84, this bridge was demoiishcil l)y the Penn- 
sylvania Schuylkill \'alley Railroad Co., and this 
company erected in its stead a superior iron bridge 
at an expense exceeding SIOU.UOO, the county com- 
tr.issioners appropriating Soo.OiK) toward the cost. 
The new bridge became a necessity, owing to the 
railroad improvements along the river. 

Hamburg Bridge. — During the progress of the 
■'Penn street bridge" at Reading, the subject of a 
bridge was disctissed at Hamburg, and the spirit 
created thereby was sufficient to result in the pas- 
sage of an Act of Assembly on March 19, 1816. for 
its erection, but no practical results flowed from 
this first cftort. Eleven years afterward ("April 14, 
1S2T). an Act was passed appropriating SG.ndti by 
the State for the erection of a bridge over the 
Schuylkill, near Hamburg, on the State road from 
Jonestown (Lebanon county) to Xorthampton 
county. The bridge was erected during the follow- 
ing year bv the commissioners of the county, and 
confirmed by the court on Jan. 12. 1829. Toll was 
charged till December, 1883. when it wa.s made a 
free bridge. 

Lancaster Bridge. — The countv commissioners 
were authorized by an Act passed April 23, 1829, 
to erect a bridge over the river at Gcrber's ferry, 
on the road from Reading to Lancaster. It was 
finished in 1S31. Its length was 352 feet, in two 
equal spans. It has been known since as the "Lan- 
caster bridge." 

In 1839, a part of the bridge was swept away by 
the freshet; in 1850 two spans were swe])t away; 
and in 1SG9, the eastern half. In ISrG (July 9th) 
the bridge was destroyed by fire — the act of young 
incendiaries. Shortly before, there were loud com- 
plaints about its insecurity and darkness and its 
unpleasant condition on account of dust. The coun- 
ty commissioners caused a fine iron bridge to be 
erected in its stead, which was opened to travel on 
Jan. 2, 1877. It was the first large iron bridge- 
structure erected in the county. It was declared 
free of toll in 1883. 

Poplar Xeck Bridge. — After the completion of 
the "Lancaster Bridge," the Legislature, in 1832. 
authorized the erection of a county toll-bridge 
across the river at "Poplar X'eck." about three miles 
below Reading. And a covered wooden bridge was 
accordingly built during 1832 and 1833. It w-as 
declared free in 1883. At this place a ferry had 
been conducted for many years, known as "Lewis's 

Other Cot;xTY Bridges. — Since the agitation and 
establishment of free bridges, the county authori- 
ties have caused the erection of other necessary 
bridges' across the river as follows : — Stoudt's N^o. 

2, ; Cross Keys, 1S91; Schuylkill avenue, 1892; 

I'.xetcr, 1S93; Bern Station. ISOt]. 

There are now altogether eighteen county bridg- 
es crossing the river; fourteen, the Tulpehocken 

.(. -•••;} 



creek ; nine, the 2\Ianata\vny creek : twelve, the 
Ontelaiinee creek; and sixty-four, the i>ther streams 
in the different sections of the county; making a 
total of 117. 

The building of concrete bridges has latterly been 
encouraged by the county commissioners ; for. from 
1905 to 1909, they caused the erection of thirteen 
bridges, twelve of which were re-enforccd concrete, 
costing together upward of 810,000. The Dauber- 
ville bridge, crossing the Schuylkill, built in 1908, 
is a particularly fine sample; four arches, each 75 
feet, costing upward of S'20.00O. 

Private Bridges. — The following private bridges 
were erected across the Schuylkill by individuals or 
stock companies, and toll was exacted until they 
were purchased by the county and made free : 

Windsor Haven f Shoemakersvilk) 1862 

Mohr's CMohr.svillc) 1837 

Althou>e's ( Lecsport") 18.35 

StoiuJt's Ferrv (Tuckcrton) 1357 

Leize's ' 13X3 

Kissinger's ( now Sclui\Ikill .Xvonue") 1810 

Bell's I at Tulpehocken ) 1833 

Birdshoro 1845 

Monocacy 1871 

Douglassville 1832 



M.\X.\T.\WXV CREEK. 9 

Poplar Neck 
Lancaster .\venue 
Penn Street 
Sclniylkill Avenue 

Stoudt's No. 1 
Stoudt'p No. 2 
Cross Keys 
Lee.- port 
Mohrs\ ille 
Shoemakers ville 
Bern Station 




; 18S5 



1 1S70 





















1 1SS4 















1 ^5 














' 104 















Wertz' Mill 

\\ ooden 



Van Reed's" 







Blue Marsh 
















Schaeffcr's Ford 




Sunday's Mill 




Knck's Mill 

Beam Deck 



Charming Forge 





Stone .\rch 




Concrete .Arch 



Ego If 







Pine Iron 



























s Mill 












1 1883 


Stone .\rch 
























103 i 



Iron Ponv 



Kemp ton 





Stone -Vrch 


1841 1 

R.\iLRO.\D Bridges. — Thirteen substantial bridges 
have been erected across the river by the several 
railroad companies operating in the county, viz.: 

Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, four — one 
near Tuckerton — high arch, built of stone; one, of 
iron, at Birdsboro; and two, of iron, on '"Belt Line," 
one above Reading and the other below. 

Lebanon A^alley Railroad, one, within limits of 
Reading, built of iron. 

Berks County Railroad (now Schuylkill & Le- 
high), three — one at and two below Reading, built 
of wood. 

Pennsylvania Schuylkill Valley Railroad, five — 
one near Hamburg ; one at Reading and two below ; 
and one at Douglassville ; all built of iron. 


IxDi.-\N P.\THS.— There were paths through this 
section of country long before Reading was laid out. 
The "Schuylkill Ford" was a central point for the 
Indians. Nature would seem to have selected the 
site for the town rather than the Penns. 

TuLPEHOCKEX Ro.\D. — The earliest mention of a 
road in this vicinity is the road which was tnarked 
out in 1GS7, from the Delaware at Philadelphia to 
the Susquehanna, by way of this ford, and was 
known for many years as the "Tulpehocken road." 
In 17G8, a road was regularly laid out from Read- 
ing to the Susquehanna, at "Fort Augusta." by way 
of Middletown (now W'omelsdorf ) and Rehrer's 
Tavern (now Rehrersburg) . over the Blue and 
Broad Mountains, in pursuance of a petition from 
a considerable number of inhabitants of the county. 
The report was presented to the executive council 
on Jan. 19, 17fi9. The road began "at the east end 
of Penn street, in the town of Reading, and extend- 
ed through the same to the banks of the river Schuyl- 

:i?-fVlJl M:^.. /UK'. 


kill, west 34G porches ; thence south ^s7 dcijrees, west 
33 perches across said river; thence four courses 
westward!}' witli a totrd di'-tancc "f 1,1">'; perches 
to Sinking Spring- Town: thence by titteen ci>ur>cs, 
westwardly, a total (li>tance of v;,sl4 jierches 
to Second street, in Aliddktown (new \\ oniels- 
dorf) ; thence across the Tulpehocken creek, and by 
way of John Rice's tavern and Xicliolas Kinser's, 
northwestwardly to Godfried Rehrer's tavern ( now 
Rehrersburg), and thence by way of Henry Derr's 
house to Fort Henry, and over the P.lne nu)untain, 
etc., in a northv.estwardly course to Fort Augusta." 
Berks and Danpliin Turn pike. — Fifty years after- 
ward, this road from Reading to Micldletown. and 
thence westwardly through Dauphin count v, be- 
came a turnpike, a company for this purjiose hav- 
ing been incorporated in l.sO.~), under the name of 
"Berks and Dauphin Turnpike Company." The 
turnpike, however, was not begun until in 181G. 
just after the Penn street bridge had become passa- 
ble. It was finished in 1817, and it was maintained 
successfully for nearly ninety years. In lOu."), the 
company voluntarily released the toll charge for use 
of pike by removal of toll-gates, to a point two miles 
west of the bridge ; and it was freed to Werners- 
ville, eight miles, in 190G by the assessment of dam- 


Maidex-creek Road.— a road was surveyed by 
Samuel Lightfoot in 1745, from Francis Parvin's 
mill, near the mouth of the Maiden creek, scmth- 
wardly to the ford, the present site of Reading, 
in almost a straight line about six miles in length, 
and confirmed in June of that year. In 1753, it 
was regularly laid out from Reading northwardly, 
and extended to Easton by commissioners from 
Berks and Xorthampton counties who were ap- 
pointed by the executive cmuicil at Philadelphia. 

Centre Turnpike.- — A turnpike was constructed 
on this road from Callowliill street in Reading, over 
the "long hill" (at cemetery) to the mouth of the 
Maiden creek, and thence northwardlv bv wav of 

Hamburg and Schuylkill Gap; and northwc'^twardly 
over Broad Mountain, I)\- way of a point now .\sh- 
!and, to Sunbury. A con:pany for this purpose 
was incorporated in 1805, called "Centre Turnpike 
Comjiany." The turnpike was completed .-hortly 
before 1812. It was operated successfully and tolls. 
were exacted until 1885, when it was abandoned. 

Oeev Road. — In September. 1T27. a petition was 
presented to the court at Philadelphia for a road 
to extend from the "Lutheran 2vIeeting-house" at 
the Tulpehocken creek to the highroad at the 
'■Quaker Meeting-house," near (jeorge Boone"s mill, 
in Oley. Eight years afterward, the court appoint- 
ed ^lordecai Lincoln. Marcus Hulings, fames 
Thompson, Peter Robeson, Benjamin Boon and 
Thomas Potts to lay out this road from the high- 
road westwardly to the Schuylkill ford. They re- 
ported a road at June session, 173G. which began 
at the ford, and proceeded a little south of east,, 
in almost a direct line, to a road called the "King's 
Highway." Its eastern terminus was at a point 
now Amityville. 

Perkiouicn Turnpike. — The road just mentioned 
was the road to Philadelphia for many years, until 
a road from a point near the "Black Bear Inn," by 
way of Bishop's Mill, to a point near Molatton 
church, now at Douglassville, was substituted. In 
1810, a turnpike was authorized to be constructed 
on this latter road from Reading, by way of "White 
Horse Tavern" (Douglassville) and Pottsgrove, to 
Perkiomen Alills, at Perkiomen creek. In 1811, 
commissioners were named, and they immediately 
commenced its construction, completing it in four 
years at an average cost of $7,000 per mile. It was 
made free in 1902. 

In 1S22 the State held subscriptions of stock in 
the three turnpike companies, as follows : Berks 
and Dauphin, $29,000 (individual subscription SG:'.,- 
905) ; Centre, $80,000 (individual subscription 
$62,000) ; Perkiomen, $53,(U»0 (individual subscrip- 
tion $133,000). Length reported: first, 34 miles; 
second, 75 miles; third, 28 3-4 miles. 

Oley Turnpike. — The road from the "Old Phila- 
delphia Road," near Schwartzwald Church, to the 
King's Highway (Pleasantville to Amityville) was 
laid out and confirmed in 1755. The "Oley Turn- 
pike" is constructed on this road from Jackson- 
wald eastward. The companv for this superior, 
well-kept turnpike was incorporated in 1862. The 
road extends from "Black Bear Inn" to Pleas- 
antville, ten miles, and the total cost was S50,0()0. 

Schuylkill Ro.\d. — A road was ordered by the 
court of Lancaster county in 1750 to be laid out 
from Chester county line, in Caernarvon township, 
in a northwestwardly direction to Reading. It was 
surveyed bv George Boone, and reported in 1751. 
This is the road from Warwick, by way 
of Plow tavern and Green Tree tavern, through 
Union, Robeson and Cumru townships and along 
the western bank of the Schuylkill, to the Tulpe- 




'y.Vi-j'ii '■.'- Vl/-Xr: 

^n-,-",f: K- %;m 

;n-,.t';7/ '.a J vo ■■;,•■ vt! 



I;'ick<-n road opposite Reading. It was twelve and 
a hali miles in length. 

L)tiii:r Roads. — Xczrrsiiik RoaJ, from Reading 
.-uuthwardly to Flying Hill, in 1T.j3. 

.-llsacc Cliurch Road, from Reading northwardly 
thri-aigh Alsace township, in IT-jS. 

Lancaster Road, from Reading southwestwardly 
tliroiigh Cumru township, in 176"^. 

Siiiibiiry Road, from the fork in the Schuylkill 
above the Blue ^lountain to the fork in the Sus- 
(jnehanna at Sunbury — fifty-live miles, in 17-TO. 

Bern Road, from Reading northwestwardly over 
rlie Schuylkill at a point now- occupied by the 
Schuvlkill avenue bridge, through Bern township. 

in ir':2. 

Alsace Road, from Reading eastwardiv through 
Alsace township into Oley, to a point in the "King's 
Highway" (supposed to be near Friedenc^burg, and 
now called the Friedensburg road), in ITTG. 

Fla'S of Ro.\ds to RE.\niN.G. — The accompanying 
plan will indicate in a general way how the promi- 
nent roads extended from Reading during its earlier 
history, and these have continued to be the chief 
thoroughfares for travel till now. 

St.ate Highways. — The substantial improvement 
of the public roads was a subject of discussion for 
many years, but it was not until 1905 that any 
special legislation was secured. The taxpayers of 
Berks county immediately began to show their ap- 
preciation of the State's liberality. Cumru town- 
ship was the first to take practical steps by ordering 
the improvement of that portion of the Lancaster 
road from the Schuylkill river to the Three-Miie- 
House in Shilhngton, commonly called the "Three- 
Mile-House-Road," and it was constructed under 
the supervision of the State Highway Commissioner 
by Adam R. Leader of Reading, as the contractor, 
during 1905-0G-07, at a total cost of S18.3'26 : of 
which the county paid one-sixth and the township 
one-si.xth. This section of road had been usetl a 
great deal for driving purposes for many years and 
this marked improvement increased its use. Some 
time before 1905 it had been improved bv the ex- 
penditure of a considerable sum of money (about 
$500) with the assent of the township supervisors, 
which had been collected mostly from the drivers of 
speedy horses at Reading. 

The next township to take up the matter success- 
fully was Washington and in 190S the State Depart- 
ment looked after the construction of a new high- 
way from Barto to Rallv and thence toward Siiultz- 
ville and Shultz's grist-mill, upward of three miles. 
The total cost, including fine concrete bridge, was 
aljout $43,000. of which the county paid one-eighth 
and the township one-eighth (the reduced propor- 
tion having been caused bv the amended road law 
of TOOT). 

And the third township was .Amity, for the im- 
provement of the road from .Amityville. via Weaver- 
town, to the Monocacy creek, about two miic? 
in longfth. It was constructed in 190S. including a 
superior concrete bridge. 


The first coach in New Etigland began its trips 
in 1741. The first stage line between New York 
and Philadelphia (then the two most populous cities 
in the Colonies) was established in 1T5U. The trip 
was made in three days. When the Revolution be- 
gan, most of these public conveyances ceased to 
run. and they did not take the road till the return 
of peace. 

The first public conveyance at Reading was a 
two-horse coach. It was instituted by .Martin Haus- 
man in 17S9, and traveled weekly between Read- 
ing and Philadelphia for the transportation of pas- 
sengers and letters. The distance was about fifty- 
one miles, and the passage was made in two days. 
The fare was two dollars, and letter carriage three 
pence. During that year, he transferred the estab- 
lished business to Alexander Eisenbeis, who operat- 
ed it two years, and sold it to William Coleman. 
From that time onward, for nearly seventy years, 
without intermission, the Coleman family were 
prominent throughout eastern Pennsylvania for 
their connection with this great enterprise. 

Soon after Coleman had obtained possession of 
this stage line, he extended it westwardly. by way 
of Womelsdorf and Lebanon, to Harrisburg; and 
northwardly, by way of Hamburg, Orwigsburg. 
Sharp ^Mountain Gap and over the Broad Mountain, 
to Sunbury. In 1818, the stages ran twice a week 
from Philadelphia to Sunbury. They left Philadel- 
phia on Tu.csdays and Saturdays at 3 a. m.; ar- 
rived at Reading at 5 p. >t., and lodged at Ham- 
burg on the same days : and on the following morn- 
ings left at 3 A. M. and arrived at Sunbury on the 
succeeding days at 10 A. M. And they ran thrice 
a week from Philadelphia to Harrisburg — Tuesdays, 
Thursdays, and Saturdays; leaving Philadelphia 
at 4 A. M., lodging at Readingt and arriving at Har- 
risburg the next evening. The same order was ob- 
served in returning. 

In 1S20 William Coleman died. His widow car- 
ried on the stage lines for a year, when their sons 
John and Nicholas purchased and conducted them. 
In 1823, they ran weekly stages to the southwest 
to Lancaster, over a natural road, in length thirty- 
two miles ; and to the northeast to Easton, over 
a natural road, in length fifty miles. 

In 1825. Colder & Wilson ran the "mail stage" 
between Reading and Harrisburg three times a 
week. The passenger fare was 50 cents to Womels- 
dorf : Si to Lebanon, and $2 to Harrisburg. 

In 1826, a combination was made between the 
Colemans. Jacob Peters, and Colder & Co.. to run 
a dailv line of stages between Philadelphia and 
Harrisburg via Reading. The stages left Philadel- 
phia daily except Monday at 4 a. jr.. dined at Read- 
ing, lodged at Lebanon, and proceeded to Harris- 
burg next morning. Returning, they left Harris- 
burg dailv. except Tuesday, in the afternoon, lodged 
at Lebanon, took breakfast at Reading next morn- 
ing and arrived at Philadelphia at 8 p. M. Through 
fare, SG ; to Reading. S3. 



From the begiiiniui; till lS"^(i, the stag-e-coach in 
use was called a ■'steambi:iat" — an uncovcrcil wagon, 
capable of holding' twenty pa.-->engers. Then a 
sharp competition aro-e between three lines; first, 
the '"Old Line" (Coleman'-), which conveyed the 
mails; second, Reeside ^: i'latt's: and third, Milti- 
more & Mintzer's. A new and improved stage- 
coach was introduced as a consequence, called the 
"Troy Coach." It held eleven passengers, with 
room for five or more on top. In 18;iO, the com- 
petition was full of life. The rates were reduced 
one-half. But the "'Old Line" forced the others to 
withdraw. Its mail contracts were a great support 
and enabled it to bear th.e pressure. It had a hun- 
dred horses always on hand. 

Decline of Stages. — The stage business contin- 
ued active and profitable in the several directions 
from Reading till the introduction of the railways, 
when it was discontinued. The stage-coacli could 
not compete with the railroad train, or horse-p<.>wer 
with steam-pov/er ; and in this respect, as in others, 
the fittest and strongest survived. The discontin- 
uance on the several lines was as follows: From 
Philadelphia, 1S3S ; from Pottsville. 1S45 ; from 
Harrisburg, 1S")S ; from Allcntown, IS.jO : from Lan- 
caster, 1SG4. 

•The following stage lines (all carrying merchan- 
dise and passengers, and several al^o main are still 
operated to and from Reading to accommodate the 
public : 

Boyertown line, via Yellow House, daily 17 miles 

Friedensburg line, via Stony Creek .Mills, daily.... '.» miles 
Pleasantville line, via Oley Turnpike, tri-weekly . .14 miles 

Bernville line, via State lull, daily 14 miles 

Terre Hill line, via An,gelica. tri-weekly V'> miles 

Hummel's Store line, via Green Tree, daily 1." miles 

Strausstovvn and Womelsdorf line, daily 12 miles 

Strausstown and Hamburg line, daily 1- miles 

Millersburg and Myerstown, daily S miles 


Great internal improvements in thi^ country were 
first projected in Pennsylvania, and the enterprise 
of her early citizens directed public attention to 
the establishment of canals and turnj)ikes h>r con- 
venient transportation. In Ki'.ti), William Penn 
suggested the idea of connecting the Susquehanna 
and Schuylkill rivers by means of a canal. l)ut it 
was not acted upon. Seventy vears afterward, this 
idea was again considered, and then a survey was 
made by David Rittenhouse and others. .V cour>e 
was marked out for a canal between the<e two 
rivers, but nearly seventy year^ more elap-e^i be- 
fore the great scheme was reniized and put iiuo 
practical and successful nperaiii ii. 

L'xiON Cax.xl. — In IT'.U. the Legi-laturc of 
Pennsvlvania passed an Act iiKMrji. ^rating the 
Schuylkill and Susquehanna Xavi'.:aiiii;i Company, 
for the purpose of connectiui^f the t\\<> river- b\- a 
canal, and facilitating traffic : and in 17''"?. another 
company was chartered, under the name of the Del- 
•^vare and Scluiv Ikill Canal Com{>any. for the pur- 
pose of cxtcp.ding a canal ironi the eastern termi- 

nus of the canal mentioned at Reading, along the 
Schuylkill to the Delaware river at Philadelphia. 
These canals were to be part of a great scheme 
conceived by an association of enterprising individ- 
uals in onler to promote internal improvements, 
whereby Philadelphia and Pittsburg were to be 
connected by water communication. 

On April '2, 1811, an Acl was passed to incor- 
jiorate "The L'nion Canal Company of Pennsyl- 
vania." The name was chosen because the new 
corporation was really a union of the old Schuyl- 
kill and Susquehanna and the Delaware and Schuyl- 
kill Canal Companies. The preamble recited that 
those corporations had made streiuious efforts to 
carrv out the objects of their charters, but failed. 
A new company was formed by the stockholders 
of the old corporations, but seventeen years passed 
before the canal was finished. The first canal- 
boat, which went west, left Philadelphia on ^larch 
•^0. 18:28, by way of the Schuylkill canal to Read- 
ing, and thence by the L'nion canal to Middletown, 
arriving at the latter place on the '2">(1. The event 
was duly celebrated at ]\Iiddletown. There were 
seventeen Union canal boats in service in July, that 
year, and over two hundred were in operation be- 
fore the end of the year. 

The length of the canal was 791 miles, with 91 
locks, 8 basins. 0:3 bridges, 16 dams, and 17 
aqueducts. From the summit (four miles east of 
Lebanon) to the mouth of Tulpehocken creek the 
distance was 37 miles. This section of the canal 
was 2() feet wide at bottom, and 3G feet at water 
surface ; depth of water, 4 feet, and width of tow- 
ing path, 10 feet. 

The number of locks required to overcome the 
fall of 310 feet was o2. The locks were faced with 
dressed sandstone ; chambers 8^ feet wide and 75 
feet long; and lifts varying from o to 8 feet. About 
18."),"). the locks were enlarged to correspond with 
the locks of the Pennsylvania canal, from the Swa- 
tara eastwardly to Reading. 

The success of this canal was dependent upon 
the con.structicn of a similar canal along the Schuyl- 
kill, in order to encourage traffic from the Sus- 
quehanna to Philadelphia bv way of Reading. A 
company had been chartered in 1815 for this pur- 
])ose, which began the improvement desired, and 
finished it in 18'25. 

In 1830. the canal was extended along the west- 
ern bank of the Schuylkill, three miles below Read- 
ing, to the Little Dam, having its outlet in the 
Big Dam, about a thousand feet farther down. But 
this portion was washed so badly by the freshet 
of 1850 that it was rendered useless, and connec- 
tion was made with the Schuvlkill canal at a lock 
near the Ilarri-lnirg bridge. .\t this point, about 
1"^'.*8. the companv had con=;tructed a dam called 
"L'nion Dam" (commonly known as "Lotz's 
Dam"), for the purpo>e of forming a connection 
with the Schu\ Ikill canal : and this was the onlv 

■/I •,'!■!. 

Ir J''>bri^j,:3 

)n -jT!I]!'.Ii)tV'>. ? 



connection till ISoo, wlu-n the canal was extended 
to a point opposite "Jackson's Luck," at the foot 
of Sixth street, where connection was afterward 

In order to form an idt.a of the extent and q^rowth 
of the business over this canal, soon after it was 
completed, the following statistics are presented: 

For the week ending May 27, IS.Tl. SO boats passed 
Reading going down, 4.5 loaded with lumber and coal, 
and the others with Hour, whi-kcy, ca-tini;s, etc.: antl 
tjO passe<l going up, 17 loaded witli n;erchandise. For the 
week ending June 14. ISJJ, 1L'.J loaded boats passed down, 
and 112 loaded boats passed uj). Snnie years after- 
ward, the tonnage and tolls were as follows: 

Tons Tolls 

1847 139,2.-)G:$91.3.jG 

184S 153,222 9.j,9.-)3 

1849 143,332! 86,800 

The boats w-ere diminutive, being only 18 tona' 
capacitv at the opening of the canal ; afterward, in 
1S-.?S, increased to '^3 tons; and afterward, the size 
was increased until 184.5, when the capacity was 
GO tons. 

Lottery Privileges. — T'ne amount of money 
raised in the course of the prosecution of ^the 
canal enterprise, between the Schuylkill and Sus- 
quehanna rivers, was enormous, not so much from 
the actual cost of the improvements as in the waste- 
ful way in which the money was raised, and the 
amount taken from, t'le community which did no 
good to the undertaking. The capital of the two 
companies was insufficient for the execution of 
the work, and the Legislature granted them power 
to raise money "by way of lottery." The whole 
amount specified in the grant was $400,000, of 
which the Schuylkill and Susquehanna Company 
was to have two-thirds, and the Delaware and 
Schuylkill Company one-third. This Act was passed 
April 17, 1795, and under it the companies exer- 
cised the privilege of issuing lottery tickets. L'n- 
til 1810, the companies had realized only 860,000. 
a sum wholly insufficient for their purposes. They 
complained that their affairs "had fallen into dis- 
order and einbarrassment ; that thev were covered 
with reproach and ridicule." and that the public 
confidence was impaired. This led to the union 
of the two corporations in ISll. In the Act, the 
lottery privileges were renewed ; and. as the com- 
pany had not made much bv their own management, 
they were empowered to sell or assign their lotterv^ 
rights to any persons whom they might select. 
Sf> the company leased out the lottery privileges and 
under this arrangement the lotteries became very 
>itcccssful. The managers took in large amounts 
<n' money, but the Canal Cotnpany did not have 
much added to their funds, and a report to the 
Lcgi.slature stated that the lottery managers made 
many millions, while the Union Canal Companv 
.i^'H but 5269,210. This caused great scandal. 

An Act was passed for the suppression of lot- 
teries in Pennsylvania after March 1, 1833, which 

declared that the lottery rights of the company 
were exhausted, and prohibited the sale of lottery 
tickets of any kind after Dec. olst of that year. 
But, as a compensation for the privileges taken 
from the company, the Governor was authorized 
to subscribe for one thousand shares of stock on 
behalf of the State of Pennsylvania. 

The lotteries of the Union Canal Company were 
drawn at stated periods from the gallery of the 
stairs in the tower of the State-house, which led 
to the upper chambers, and the drawings were at- 
tended by hundreds of persons. 

The canal was supposed to be the only possible 
means of conveyance, except bv the common road, 
long after all the companies connected with the 
navigation of the Schuylkill had been chartered. 
Rut the Columbia railroad, under the management 
of the State, began to be a rival of the 
Union canal in bringing produce and passen- 
gers from the Susquehanna as soon as it 
was finished. The movement for its establish- 
ment commenced in 1826, w-hen a company 
was incorporated to build a railroad from Lancas- 
ter and Columbia to Philadelphia. The plan not 
proving successful, in 1828 the State authorized 
a survey and followed it up in after years by ap- 
propriations, under which the work was carried on. 
The road was finished to Lancaster in April, 1834. 
and opened through to Columbia in the summer of 
1835. Just as soon as this means of transportation 
was finished, the Union Canal Company lost a large 
share of its business and prospects. The railroad 
offered a shorter route and quicker method of com- 
munication between the Susquehanna and Delaware 
rivers. The opening of the Lebanon \'alley rail- 
road from Reading to Harrisburg in ls.")7, through 
the same section. of territory, proved the final and 
crushing blow to the Union Canal Company. From 
that time onward it began to decline more and 
more until it was finally abandoned, about 1890. 

Schuylkill Can.vl. — The Schuylkill Canal Nav- 
igation Company was incorporated on March 8, 
1815, for the pttrpose of transporting coal, lumber, 
merchandise, produce, etc.. by a system of canals 
and slackwater navigation, by appropriating the 
water of the Schuylkill river from Mill creek, in 
Schuylkill county, to Philadelphia. The transporta- 
tion of articles was then carried on over the Centre 
turnpike to Reading, and the Perkiomen and Ger- 
mantown turnpikes to Philadelphia. Certain com- 
missioners were named in the Act. and they were 
directed to open subscription books at various places 
in ^lay, 1815. The par value of a ^hare of stock 
was fixed at fifty dollars, and twentv-five hundred 
shares were to be subscribed at Reading — one-fourth 
of the total shares. 

The first board of directors was elected at Nor- 
ristown on Oct. 5. 1815. It included two members 
from r.erks county — Lewis Reese, of Reailing, and 
John Wiley, of ilaiden-creek. Samuel Pajrd, of 

'UM.i V'i'i '"' 



Pottsgrove (now Pottstown), was also a member, 
but he soon afterward removed to Reading and 
practised law. 

The construction of the canal was begun in 1817, 
and completed in iS'ii, from John I'otts's. at the 
mines, to within one-half a mile of Hamburg, be- 
low the Blue ^lountain. The lower section, from 
the Schuylkill bridge at Philadelphia to Reading, 
had been finished. Boats carricil during IS'.'l over 
the completed portion of the canal, from the coal 
mines to the vicinity of Hamburg, large quantities 
of coal, which were deposited there and sold out 
by the ton to the countn- people from the neigh- 
borhood and for many mile? distant. The unfin- 
ished Dortion of the canal was reported to have 
been completed during the year l.'S22 ; and this was 
the first completed navigation in the country. 

The total length from ^Vlount Carbon to Phil- 
adelphia was 105 miles (62 of canal and 43 of 
pools in river) , with a fall of 588 feet ; in- 
cluding 120 locks (81 above Reading and 39 be- 
low) : 28 dams, 17 arched stone aqueducts, and a 
tunnel 450 feet long, cut through solid rock. The 
total cost was $1,800,000. 

In 1827-28, the canal was extended to Mill cre^k. 
making the total length 108.23 miles ; and, by an 
enlargement in 1846, the numljer of locks was re- 
duced to 71, with a total fall of about 620 feet. 
The size of the locks was 18 by 110 feet: width 
of canal, 60 feet; depth of water, 6 feet. The 
capacity of boats was ISO tons. 

The cost of transportation by land from Read- 
ing to Philadelphia was 40 cents a hundredweight; 
by canal it was reduced to 12^ cents. The toll on 
coal from ^^It. Carbon to Philadelphia in 1825 was 
6 cents a bushel or $1.68 a ton. 

Horses or mules were not used for towing boats 
previous to 1826. The boats were first towed 
through the canals by men at the end of long tow- 
lines. Two men drew a boat after them bv press- 
ing their shoulders or breasts against a stick fast- 
ened crosswise to the end of the tow-line. With 
such locomotion, a trip from Mount Carbon to 
Philadelphia and back gencrallv required six 
weeks. At this time there were no tow-paths along 
the pools of the navigation ; hence the necessity 
for man-power. 

The following statistics show the great trafific 
over the canal during the fir=t five years after its 
completion : 

~Pa? sed down Canal I I SL'ii I 1Si;7 I I'^JS I IsL't^ I l.< iiT~ 

Barrels of flour. I -JlL't.-' ■.i^ A'r.r,: \;r..K(->\ I -'.<>-2X 1 T.7W 

Tons of coal I laT'H ! .^1 rc^tV A-.^J^l TO.OT::! S0.!tS4 

Tons of iron ore 1 -.''-111 1.4"-; 1,**'74' r,.-»i;| yVi'2 

Tons of iron I l..''.-: LS."".! O.'S Ml;.-, 

Tons of whi^kev I 42"' 4>:;' l.l.-.L'! SC.s' 1.14f, 

Total tons descending ] C'.r.i'.l' ,''..". 7^2 St.K;:; lTJ.7iM inc,. .,;>,! 

Total tons ascendini? ' i'!.-4:'. 11.7I'.> L''J!'' •Jl.SiMi' 4 l.i:.%4 

Total tolls received :<;43.1ii'~ S.^s.140 .■tS7.171(.<1L'i>.ti:'.l' $T4.S.HV. 

J In tons. 

The traffic continued to increase from year to 
year. In 1842, it was over 5(H».nnO tons, and the 

tolls over $400,000. Ample dividends were made; 
and shares, which cost originally $50, were sold 
as high as $175, and even $180. In 1851, the total 
tonnage was 842,097 tons, of which there were 
579,156 tons of coal; and the total toll was $285,- 
621. After 1861, the canal tonnage reached in some 
vears nearly 1,400,000 tons of coal and 300,000 tons 
of merchandise and miscellaneous articles. The 
capacitv of the canal was estimated at 1,800.000 tons 
descending, and at least 500,000 tons ascending. 

The boats were from 17' to 17^ feet wide, and 
100 to 101 and 102 feet long, with a maximum 
capacity of 190 tons. 

After the year 1858, the company offered prem- 
iums for dispatch in transportation. Two boats 
competed energetically and proved that a trip from 
Port Carbon to New York and return could be made 
in seven days. This was regarded as an extraordi- 
nary performance. The interest taken in this con- 
test' was so great that a boat came to be loaded at 
the canal landings in eighteen minutes from the 
time the boat reached the wharf till the trip was 
resumed. Finally, trouble was anticipated from 
this rivalry and the company put an end to it. The 
company continued to operate this great enterprise 
till 1870, when they leased it to the Philadelphia 
and Reading Railroad Company for a term of nine 
hundred and ninety-nine years. 

P.\CKETS. — In 1825, John and Nicholas Coleman 
introduced the sy.stem of running packets through 
the canal from Reading to Philadelphia. Trips were 
made three times a week. The fare was $2.50, and 
a trip was made in a day. The packets had no 
berths for sleeping purposes, but a large dining- 
room. Cooking was done aboard, and meals were 

These packets were well patronized, and contin- 
ued in successful operation till about 1832, when 
the increasing traffic on the canal forced them to 
be withdrawn. Theretofore boats, loaded and emp- 
ty, would turn out or lay over for an approaching 
packet, which was given the right of way. 

The first steamboat on the canal came from Phil- 
adelphia to Reading on Dec. 5, 1826. Twenty years 
afterward, a line of Steam Packets was begun be- 
tween Reading and Philadelphia. The first packet 
arrived on Sept. 28. 1846. It was built of iron, with 
two Ericson propellers. 85 feet long, and 13i feet 
wide. Thev departed from Reading every day, ex- 
cept Sunday, at 2 p. m.. and arrived at Philadelphia 
the next morning. And they departed from Phila- 
delphia and arrived at Reading on the same time. 
The fare was $1 a trip. But this enterprise did not 
continue long in operation. 


The first railway in Pennsylvania was built in 
1827 from ^Vlauch Chunk to Summit Hill, in length 
nine miles. It was constructed to complete the 
transportation of coal from Mine Hill to Philadel- 

•I ■-'■' .M ..rifiji 



piiia. From Mauch Chunk to Pliiladelphia a canal 
had been constructed shortly before by the Lehi!J:h 
Coal and Navigation Company. But the canal could 
not be extended to Mine Hill; so the company was 
compelled to build a railway to take the place of 
ordinary roads. Soon afterward, The Little Schuyl- 
kill Railroad Company was incorporated, and it con- 
structed the railroad from Tamaqua to Port Clinton. 

P. & R. R. — In lS3;j, a railroad was projected 
from Port Clinton ria Reading- to Philadelphia. 
The Little Schuylkill Railroad Company was auth- 
orized to extend its railroad to Reading, and to 
construct one from Reading to Philadelphia. A 
company was chartered on April 4, ISSS, under the 
name of the "Philadelphia and Reading Railroad 
Company." Twenty-seven commissioners were ap- 
pointed, including George de B. Keim, [Matthias S. 
Richards, Isaac Hiester and James Everhart, of 
Reading. Immediate steps were taken to construct 
this road. A considerable portion wa$ finished dur- 
ing 1835. By December, 18.37, one track of the 
road was completed from Reading to Pottstown. 
An excursion party, comprising one hundred citi- 
zens of Reading, made a trip on the 6th of Decem- 
ber in five freight cars, temporarily fitted up with 
seats and drawn by five horses. It started from the 
depot at 9 a. m., and arrived at Pottstown in two 
and three quarters hours, including all stops. In 
returning, it left at 2 p. ii. and arrived at Reading 
at 5 p. M. The first regular train from Reading to 
Pottstown ran on IMay 1, 1S3S ; to Norristown, on 
July IG, 1S38; and to Philadelphia in December, 
1S39. The fare was: First-class, $3.50 ; second- 
class. $2. 

The Little Schuylkill Railroad Company being 
unable to construct the road from Port Clinton to 
Reading, the charter of the Philadelphia & Reading 
Railroad Co. was therefore extended to cover the 
construction and operation of a railroad from Read- 
ing to Pottsville; and notwithstanding the financial 
<liftkulties which prevailed about 1838, the project 
was completed within four years afterward. The 
first train ran over the whole line from Philadelphia 
to Pottsville, ninety-three miles, on Jan. 1, 1842, and 
tlie road was opened for general travel on the 10th. 
The second track was laid in 1843, and opened for 
travel in January, 1844. The distance from Read- 
ing to Philadelphia was traveled in two hours; to 
Pottsville in one hour and twenty minutes. 

In the establishment of this great enterprise, the 
construction of two long tunnels is worthy of men- 
tion — one near Phoenixville, in length 1.031 feet, at 
•I cn^t of $150,000 ; the other near Port Clinton, in 
hii.gtii l.fiOG feet, at a cost of S125,7S2. Tlie latter 
<'\tcnds through the Blue r^fountain, and the depth 
5rom the surface at the top of the mountain is 119 
'eet. .A third tunnel was constructed at Manavunk, 
in length 940 feet, costing $75,000. The Phoenix- 
viilo and I'^Ianayunk tunnels were enlarged in 1859. 

A superior, large stone bridge across the SchuylkiU, 
above Tuckerton. is also noteworthy. 

The introduction of this railway immediately 
stimulated enterprise at Reading, and caused energy 
and capital to be directed toward manufacturing. 
The increasing tide of affairs induced people and 
capital to concentrate here more and more every 
succeeding year; and buildings multiplied rapidly 
to answer the demands of the increasing population. 
The company established its workshops here when 
the railway was completed, and the^e have grown 
here in capacity with the ever-increasing iratfic of 
the road. The first large shop occupied the half 
block on the west side of Seventh street between 
Franklin and Chestnut streets, where it continued 
for over sixty years. Its extensive and costly shops 
are now situated along the northern extremitv of 
Sixth street. Each succeeding decade found the 
company with more extended shops of all kinds for 
the manufacture of engines and cars, affording in 
the n-icantime constant employment for an t-ver-iu- 
creasing number of workmen. The total annual in- 
come to the people of Reading from this single 
source during the past seventy years counts into 
millions of dollars, all of which contributed directly 
toward the substantial growth of this community, 
in its buildings, stores, factories, churches and 

The passenger station (or "depot" as it was 
generally called) was located at the northwest cor- 
ner of Seventh and Chestnut streets, and contimsed 
there till 1874, when it was removed to the "junc- 
tion" of the Lebanon \'alley and East Pennsylvania 
railroads, nearly a mile to the north, called "Main 
Station," where a fine large building had been erec- 
ted. This was done to accommodate the large pas- 
senger traffic. It is surmounted with a large and 
elevated clock-tower. Extensive covered platforms 
are constructed over the three roads, nearly a half- 
mile in length; eastern, 1,038 feet; northwestern, 
709 feet ; southwestern, C92 feet ; the tirst being 47 
feet wide, and the others 42. The passenger trains 
to Philadelphia and Pottsville pass through the first; 
those to Harrisburg and to Allentown through the 
second ; and those to Columbia, Slatington, and Wil- 
mington, through the third. It was begun in 1871, 
and completed in 1874, when the lower station was 
abandoned. In 1884 the company re-established the 
station at Franklin street. 

The stations in the county are the following: . 
Douglassville, Monocacy, Birdsboro, Exeter, Frank- 
lin Street, Reading, Tuckerton. Leesport, ]\Iohrs- 
ville, Shoemakersville, Bern, Hamburg. The length 
of the railway from the southern extremity of the 
county to the northern is forty miles. 

The train service for passengers, coal and freight- 
over the Philadelphia & Reading railroad and 
its several branches, is very extensive, as will ap- 
pear by the following statistics for July, 190S, at 

.,. ( ',r!< <»-r /'.H 

,{.^r^tt l.-ir. !>. 

■'. -f:.,.n 

tilK :.:' '-■■ ''f ■>« 



Passenger trains 94 first ground was broken at a spot, now the highest 

Ccal and freight— point of the cut, a short distance north of Temple 

Main Line 90 Station, on June 11, 18.J7 ; and it was prosecuted 

Lebanon Valley 65 with energy for two years. The la=;t spike was 

i'adS'^'cdumbia ■.■;;.■;.■.■.■.■.;;;•.■.■.;■.:;::::::::?? ^'.'■'^■^" '^"^^p"' ^"^ i^^-'- ^"^i the completion was 

Wilniington &- XortlKTii 19 S'.STnalizcd by a demonstration at 1 emple on 

Scliuylkill & Lehigh 4 May 11th. On that day, trains began to run be- 

T T s \ . 1 \ -1 1 tween Reading and Allentown Tunction. a di'^tance 

Lebanon \ alley. — An Act was passed April 1, r ^^■.^, ■ ,;•, j^ , ."■' ^^"' • '' , :, , ,^ 

loo^ • »• .1 -r 1 1- 1! r> -1 1 °^ thirty-sLx mdcs. It was eased to the Phdade - 

1836, mcorporatmg tlie Lebanon \ al ev Railroad ,.,• <..' r> ^r , t>,-i i r- • ^r ;^ ""-i"^' 

r- •■ r ^'-i 1 ; r> r \ ri P'"^ "^ Keading Railroad Co. in Mav, 1S6'J. bv 

Comoany, for a railroad trom Reading to Hams- ,..i,,- i ;,. i •, i . , ■ - ' ' - 

, ' T ■ , , . . ^ . , which it has been operated since. 

burg. It required an actual subscription ot four tu,. t .,^nrtu r^f ruJ .,;i,-^ i • .i . • . 

, ^ , , ^ r . I V. r 1 I . 1 11 I'lelength ot the railroad in the county IS twentv- 

thousand shares of stock betore the charter shou d ^j,,^^ ,^^j,^^^ ^^.j^j^ ^,,^. fallowing stations: Temple 

become operative. This number could not he ob- p.iandon. Fleetwood, Lyons, Bowers Topton 

tained by private subscriptions, and the project was ;Mertztown Shamrock 

allowed 'to slumber for seventeen years. In 1853, ' Readinx' & Columbl^.— Whilst the Lebanon 
the idea was conceived that Lebanon and Reading, \'allcv and East Penn railroads were bein- con- 
as municipal organizations, should encourage the en- struct'ed, the subject of extending a railroad from 
terprise by a large subscription of the stock, the Sinking Spring fa station on the former) to Col- 
former, two thousand shares, and the latter, six urnbia was discussed with earnestness. In this be- 
thousand. half an Act was passed on .Alay lU, lS5r, incorporat- 
A supplem.entary Act was accordingly passed on ing the "Reading & Columbia Railroad Company," 
April 5, 1853, with a provision that the subject of and naming fifteen commissioners. The first pro- 
a subscription be submitted to the taxables of the ject was to extend tlie road from a point in Read- 
respective places. The city councils of Reading ing; but in 1861 an Act was passed authorizing a 
discussed this subject on 'Slay 11, 1853, and ordered connection to be made with the former railroacTat 
an election to be held on June 15th following. This any point between Reading and Sinking Spring, 
election was to decide for or against a subscription Numerous meetings were held at Ephrata, Lancas- 
of four thousand shares, amounting to $200,000. ter, Columbia and Reading, and reports pertaining 
The result of the election was 1.658 for subscription, to the business which the territorv would afiford 
and 682 against. The election having tenninatcfl were made to encourage the construction of the 
favorably^ certain taxables applied to the Supreme road ; and these eventually terminated in its suc- 
court for an injunction, but it was refused. The cessful completion in ]\Iarch, 1864, from Sinking 
subscription by the city councils was made, and Spring to Columbia, a distance of forty miles. The 
in payment thereof city bonds were issued amount- first passenger train ran in May, 1864. The length 
ing to $200,000. During the completion of the road o^ ^}^^ railroad in the county is five miles, with two 
an Act was passed, ^Idv 5, 1857, to authorize the stations, Fritztown and \'inemont. 
consolidation of the Lebanon Vallev Railroad Com- ^^■iLMI^•GTOx & Xortherx. — A railroad was also 
pany with the Philadelphia & Reading Railroad encouraged through the southern section of Berks 
Company, upon first obtaining consent of the stock- county, by inhabitants of Robeson, Union and Caer- 
holders.' The city councils approved of the consoli- narvon townships, and they obtained an Act on 
dation, especiallv upon having been assured bv the ''^I?"^ ■'^*^*- '^^^'^- The road was to extend from a 
Philadelphia &' Reading Railroad Companv' that P°'"t on the Philadelphia & Reading railroad, at 
the citv bonds would 'be returned and that its "^ "^^.'j Birdsboro, by the most available route, to 
company would assume the subscription of four any raikoad built in Chester county. The incorpor- 
thousand shares. The road was completed, the con- f-}'''^ '^"'1>' ^^"^•; "''^"^^^ ^"'^^^ and Chester Railroad 
solidation effected, an.i the citv bonds were returned <-^'"Pany ; and the company was authorized to con- 
Trains began to run to Lebanon in Time. 1857; ft"^" branch railroads not exceedmg nine miles 
and to Harrisburg in Tanuarv. 1858. " Length of "/ '''"•^^ -J" V^''f^ authority was giveii to connect 
this railroad in the countv, sixteen miles; with the '^^/^^^l ^vith the Delaware and Pennsylvania State 
following stations; Sinking Spring, Wernersville, ^ "' J!''™"^,' ^",1 '^''' ^ con..ohdation with this 
Robesonia. Womelsdorf. company under the name of the \\ ilmington & 
Pvc-r P,-N-^- r\ Afo.^i, a iQ-r "v . Keading Railroad Companv. The n.ame was sub- PLNN.-On -^arch f). 1S..6, an Act was sequentlv changed to Wilmington & Xorthern Rail- 
RnilrinT" "^ ^'''^"•7 '-^"^1 Lehigh road Companv: The road was opened for travel 

tl f.1 SVTrV, ".V'r" *T?'?',^""'" ^-^ ^■^"^^^^•^'^^ ■•F'-^'" Wilmington to CoatesviUe, 

tion of the I hi adelphia ^ Reading and the Lebanon thirtv-three miles, in December, 1861) ; to P.irdsboro 

\aley railroads at Rea<lmg. to the Lehigh Wnlley sixtv-three mile., in [une. 1870; and to Reading 

railroad at Allentown. The title of the company seventv-two miles, in Fcbruarv 1874 It was con- 

wns changed to "East Penn^vlvania Railroad Com- structed to a point in Poplar Xeck. and the road 

pany, by Act passed April 21. 1857. The construe- from that point was exten.led through Reading by 

tion of the roadw ay began in June following. The the Berks Countv Railroad Companv. 

. tr,, i 01' in.p 

•i I-,',. 




Tlie passenger station of the companv at Read- 
ing was for a time at the bOuth\ve>t corner of Sec- 
ond and Cherry streets. In 1S82 the company eti'ec- 
ted an arrangement to run its trains to and from 
the station of tlie Philadelphia &. Reading Rail- 
road Company; and in llt()-3 the road was leased to 
the latter company. 

The following stations are in the county: Eirds- 
boro, White Bear, Geigcrtown, Joanna. The pas- 
senger station at Birdsboro is a handsome structure. 
Length in county, twenty miles. 

West Re.vdixg. — The manufacturers situated 
along the Schuylkill canal secured an Act on ^larch 
'i(>, 1S60, to construct a railroad from the Lebanon 
X'alley railroad at Fourth street to a point on Canal 
street near the gas works, and to organize a com- 
pany under the name of \\'est Reading Railroad 
Company. The road was constructed, in length 
nearly two miles, and opened for traffic in 1S63. 
This company operated it for ten vears. and then 
transferred it to the Pliiladelphia & Reading Rail- 
road Co., by which company it has been used since, 
as a branch road in delivering and receiving freight. 

CoLEBROOKDALE. — In ^larch, 186.J, a railroad was 
constructed from the Philadelphia & Reading rail- 
road at Pottstown to Boyertown and a company 
was incorporated under the name of "Colebrookdale 
Railroad Company." The road was constructed to 
Barto, a distance of nearly thirteen miles, and 
opened to travel in November, 18(;9. 

The stations in the county are Zvlanatawny, Iron- 
stone, Colebrookdale, Boyertown, Bechtelsville, 
Barto. It was leased to the Philadelphia & Read- 
ing Railroad Companv on Jan. 1, 1S70, for twenty 
years, which lease was renewed. 

KuTZTowN Br.\xch. — In 1854 a company was 
incorporated under the name of the .Allentown Rail- 
road Company, to construct a railroad from Allen- 
town to the Philadelphia & Reading railroad at any 
point between Reading and Port Clinton; and if 
this railroad should not be extendetl by way of 
Kutztown, a branch should be constructed to that 
place. Subsequently a section of the road was con- 
structed from Topton to Kutztown, in length four 
and a half miles, and opened for travel in January, 
l^TO. It has been operated since by the Philadel- 
phia &: Reading Railroad Companv under a lease. 

SciTuvr.KiLL & Lehigh. — In March. 1871, a com- 
pany was incorporated for the purpose of construct- 
ing a ntilroad from a point on the Wilmington & 
.Northern railroad, at or near Birdsboro, through 
Koading, to connect with any railroad or railroads 
in the county of Lehigh; commissioners were ap- 
ponncd and a company was created by the name of 
■ r.erks County Railroad Companv,"' and it was con- 
-tnictcd from the "Cut" in "Poplar Neck," through 
Reading, by way of the Maiden creek, to Slating- 
t-'U. where connection was made with the Lehigh 
\'alley railroad, a total length of forty-five miles. 
The road was opened for travel in July, 1874. 
Sh(-.rtly afterward, the road was sold and' a reor- 
ganization effected under the name of "Berks & 

Lehigh Railroad Company"; and subsequently tlrs 
name was changed tu "Schuylkill & Lehigh Rail- 
road Company." The road is carried on by the 
I'hiladelphia & Reading Railroad Company under 
. a lease. The length of the road in the county is 
twenty-four miles, and the stations are Maiden- 
creek, Evansville, ^losekm. \irginville. Lenharts- 
\ille, Kempton. 

Belt Line. — For a number of vears the increas- 
ing traffic on the main line of the Philadelphia & 
Reading railroad rendered its passage through 
Reading more and more difficult to handle, and 
finally, in 1900, the management determined to re- 
lieve the great congestion wliich extended from the 
"Walnut street Cut" northward several miles, by 
constructing a "Belt Line" around Reading ; which 
started at a point called the "Junction," in^Muhlen- 
berg township, about a mile north of the main sta- ' 

tion at Reading, thence crossing the river and pass- 
ing through Bern, Spring and Cumru townships, ; 
and ending in the main line about two miles south ! 
of Reading. It was opened for traffic in 190-2. 

SiG.VAL Service. — From the beginning of the 
service on the P. & R. railroad the company main- 
tained along the main line a number of ''signal 
towers" for the purpose of notifying the trainmen 
as to the situation and movement of the trains ; then 
the "Hall block system" was introduced, as a more 
reliable system, and it has proved very useful and 
satisfactory. } 

Pennsylvania Schuylkill Valley. — The | 
Phoenixville, Pottstown & Reading Railroad Com- 
pany was incorporated on Sept. oO, 1882, for oper- 
ating a railroad from Phoenixville to Reading, by 
way of Pottstown ; and on the same dav. the Phil- 
adelphia, Norristown & Phoenixville Railroad Com- 
pany was incorporated for operating a railroad from 
Philadelphia to Phoenixville. On May 1, 1883, 
these two companies were consolidated, under the 
name of Pennsylvania Schuylkill Vallev Railroad 
Company, and a month afterward a lease was effec- 
ted with the Pennsylvania Railroad Companv. The 
latter company then constructed the railroad from 
Philadelphia to Reading, by way of Norristown and 
Phoenixville, during 1883 and 1884, opening it to 
Reading on Nov. 15. 1884. In the course of its 
construction the company erected four substantial 
bridges across the Schuylkill within the countv — 
Douglassville. Poplar Neck. Little Dam, and Read- 
ing — and three handsome passenger stations : Doug- 
lassville, Birdsboro, Reading. 

The length of this railroad from Reading to the 
Montgomery county line is fourteen miles. 

The Penn street bridge stood in the way of im- 
provements by this company at the foot of Penrr 
street, and, in pursuance of a proposition bv this 
company to substitute a superior iron bridge in its 
place, at a cost of $100,000, provided the county of 
Berks contributed $33,000. the old wooden bridge 
was removed and the present handsome iron bridge 
was erected during the years 1S84 and 1885. 

•^S.w : . .■,'.i\1 .'. 

J" si:\rr v4 ■fiA'i'j:'.' 



The Reading & Pottsville Railroad Company was 
incorporated afterwaril for operating' a railroad 
from Reading to Pottsville. by way of Hamburg 
and Port Clinton, and this was constructed during 
1884 and 1885, as a continuation of the railroad 
from Philadelphia to the coal regions. It was op- 
ened to Hamburg on Dec. 7, ISs^o, and in 1S8G to 
Pottsville. On Dt^c. 1. 188.5, this road was also 
leased to the Pennsylvania Railroad Company. The 
company erected a fine station at Hamburg. The 
length of the railroad northward from Reading to 
the .Schuylkill county line is twenty miles ; and the 
total length in the county is thirty-four miles. A 
fifth bridge was constructed obliquely across the 
Schuylkill river at Hamburg. 

Electric Railways. — Street railways began to 
be laid down in Reading in 1874, but a number of 
years elapsed before they were operated success- 
fully. The first extensions of the system were made 
into the surrounding country districts as follows : 

To the Black Bear Inn and Stony Creek in 1890; 
and an extension was made from a jwint near the 
latter place to Boyertown in 190'?, bv way of Jack- 
sonwald, Oley Line, Friedensburg and Siianesville; 
and -an extension from Black Bear Inn to Birds- 
boro in 1904 by way of Seyfert and Gibraltar. 

To Shillington and Alohnsville (now Mohnton) 
in 1890 ; and an extension to Adamstown was con- 
structed in 1894. 

To Womelsdorf, on the bed of the Berks and 
Dauphin turnpike, in 1894. 

To Temple in 190'-3 ; which was extended to Kutz- 
town in 1904. A line had been extended from Al- 
lentown to Kutztown in 1898 and operated to that 
point. When the connection was made in 1904, 
through travel was eft'ected from Reading to Allen- 
town ; and this route then began to be utilized for 
cheap Sunday excursions to Xew York in the sum- 
mer season. 

These suburban lines opened travel to all points 
surrounding Reading, excepting to Hamburg to the 
north, and to Bernville, Rehrersburg and ]\Iillers- 
burg to the northwest. The former point is reached 
conveniently by two steam railways, but the latter 
can still only be reached by stage lines or by pri- 
vate conveyance. 

The extension of these lines from Reading has 
encouraged building operations and the develop- 
ment of suburban towns to a remarkable degree, 
more especially since 1900. This is apparent at 
Hyde Park to the north ; at Wyomissing to the 
west; at Oakbrook and Shillington to the southwest; 
and at Mt. Pcnn and Esterly to the southeast. 

Additional lines are in contemplation : f n^m 
Womelsdorf to Mycrstown, westward : from Temple 
to Hamburg, northward: and from Lyons to Top- 
ton and Eniaus, northward. 

A line was completed in 1908 from Pott-town 
to Boyertown via Ringing Rocks Park and Gil- 


The postal department of the public service is 
classed with the internal improvements of the coun- 
ty. The first attempt to systematize and regulate 
postal communication in the American Colonics was 
made by the British government in 1060 ; and this 
subject received the attention of William Penn 
shortly after his arrival in Pennsylvania, he having, 
in July, 1GS3. issued an order for the estal)lishment 
of a ix)st-oftice at Philadelphia. The postal facili- 
ties in that early period were only such as were af- 
forded by personal accommodation among the col- 
onists. In 109?, the rate of postage to and from 
Philadelphia, within a radius of eighty miles, was 
fourpence-half penny. 

The office of Postmaster-General for America 
was created by Parliament in 1704. In 1737, Benja- 
min Franklin was appointed postmaster at Phila- 
delphia, and in 17o;5, deputy postmaster-general. 
The delivery of letters by the penny post began in 
17^3 ; and also the practice of advertising unclaimed 
letters which remained in the office at Philadelphia. 

In 1774 Franklm became obnoxious to the British 
government, and he was therefore dismissed. This 
caused private arrangements to be made for carr\-- 
ing letters, and in 1775, the Colonies established 
their own postal department, and on July 26th 
Franklin was unanimously chosen postmaster-gen- 
eral. This was an important action in connec- 
tion with the movement for independence. In 179"?, 
rates of postage were established, which remained 
unchanged for over fifty years. 

Re.\dixg Office Established. — The first post- 
office in the county was established at Reading on 
!\Iarch 20, 1793. The department had been in prac- 
tical existence for nearly twenty years. The popu- 
lation here was large and business transactions were 
numerous, but correspondence was limited. Letters 
had been carried for several years previously by a 
'^tage line to Philadelphia and to Harrisburg, at the 
rate of threepence postage; and about the year 1800 
they began to be carried to Sunbury once a week 
on horseback, and to Lancaster and Easton once a 
week in a private two-horse carriage. After the 
stage-coach hatl become a fixed mode of transpor- 
tation for people and light articles of merchandise. 
at regular intervals, postal matter began to be car- 
ried bv it from place to place. 

The mails were carried by stages till the intro- 
duction of the railways ; then passenger trains were 

St.vmps. — X^o postage stamps were issued bv the 
national government till .-\ugust, 1847, when two 
denominations were issued — five-cent and ten-cent. 
The idea of using postage stamps was first sug- 
gested in 1841. Previously, postage had been col- 
lected entirely in money: and in all cases, pre-pay- 
ment was optional. The two denominations men- 
tioned continued in use four years ; then new de- 
nominations for one cent and three cents appeared, 
and shortly afterward others for five, ten, twelve. 

'.nn '.A :)fE 

r-i-rf .-'!,'., ii,>'»rii 

') Ti 7; - ' ' r -. 

? .'1 1.. ■- -, , ■ '.■>■;: '■[! .■ '■■■'■ I 

-. 1- 

I' ; .-.vniv = ; .;; rjii 


twenty-four, thirty and ninety cents. In ISGl this 
series was called in by the postmaster-general, and 
a new series issued. On July 1, 1SG3, the first two- 
cent stamp appeared : which was to accommodate 
local postage. In 18G9 a new seric<; was issued, of 
x\\c denominations of one, two. three, five. six. ten, 
fifteen, thirty and ninety cents: and a year after- 
ward, the following designs were adopted for these 
stamps : One-cent, Franklin ; two-cent. Jackson ; 
three-cent, Washington; five-cent, Jackson; six- 
cent, Lincoln: ten-cent, Jefiferson ; fifteen-cent, 
Webster ; thirty-cent, Hamilton ; ninety-cent. Perry. 
Desi'^ns of persons on stamps in honor of distin- 
guished representative men of our country had been 
in use from their first introduction, particularly of 
I-Vanklin and Washington. 

Post-Offices of County. — The following post- 
offices have been established in the county. They 
are arranged in the order of their priority. 

No. Xanie Established 

1. Readinir March 20, 1T93 

2. Hamburg July 1,1793 

3. Kutztown July 1, 1805 

4. Morgaiitown Jan. 1,1806 

5. \Vomel?dorf July 1, 1807 

6. Rehrersbiirg May 27, 1818 

7. Longswamp April IS, 1822 

8. Blandon . . ; Nov. 2, 1825 

0. Kliiie'^ville Dec. IG, 1825 

10. Bethel Dec. 21, 1827 

11. Brower Jan. 7,1828 

12. Dnle Jan. 25, 1828 

13. Colebrookdale Feb. 4,1828 

14. Royertown Feb. 14. 1828 

15. Oley March 14,1828 

15. Brumfield March 27, 1828 

17. Geiger's Mill March 27, 1823 

18. New Jerusalem May 26, 1823 

19. Douglassville March 3, 1829 

20. Grimville Jan. 14, 1830 

21. Shartlesville Feb. 9, 1330 

22. Hereford March 6, 1830 

23. Joanna Furnace Dec. 29, 1830 

24. Sinking Spring June 25, 1831 

23. Stouchsburg March 22,1832 

26. Berrville Aug. 16, 1332 

27. Slioeniakersville Jan. 14, 1833 

2'«. Pikeville March 12, 1834 

29. Pricetown Feb. 6, 1835 

?0. Lohachsville .\pril '10,, 1835 

•11. Pa-jm^town '. Dec. 21, 1835 

• ■i2. Mohrsville ' May 10, 1836 

33. Gibraltar June 16, 1836 

34. Tuckcrton Jan. 26, 1833 

•"!'. F.arlville Aug. 2, 1838 

36. Molltown Aug. 30, 1839 

■'•7. Virijiiiville .Aug. 30, 1839 

ri". Lower Bern June 12,1841 

:'9. .Mhany Dec. 23, 1345 

io. Mo^clem Springs Jan. 14, 1846 

<1. Stoncrsville .Jan. 13, 1847 

••2. Monterey May 19, 1847 

<3. Srr.nusstown Nov. IS, 1347 

4 4. Rnbc>onia Furnace Feb. 28, 1S49 

4.V rros?kiIl Mills Oct. 16, 1S49 

■•6. Sicsholtzville Nov. 8, 1S49 

«'• Tiilpehocken March 19,1850 

■tS. Gayton June 21, 1850 

49. Birdsboro Jan. 

.■lO. Leesport Jan. 

51. Manatawny March 

52. Spangsville '. . Sept. 

53. Fleetwood Feb. 

54. Leinbach's Feb. 

55. Beckersville Feb. 

56. Host .\pril 

57. Bechtelsville May 

58. Greshville Feb. 

59. Dr>-ville .■ May 

60. Wernersville May 

61. Fredericksville Aug. 

02. Landis' Store ' -\ug. 

63. Ma.xatawny Nov. 

64. Mount .\ctna Oct 

65. Lenhartsville Dec. 

66. Goiiglersville July 

67. Monocacy Jan. 

68. Knauer's March 

69. Moselem July 

70. South Evansville July 

71. Windsor Castle July 

72. Wintersville July 

73. Temple , July 

74. Mohn's Store* Nov. 

75. Mertztown Dec. 

76. Cumru March 

77. Kirby ville ' Oct. 

78. Bower's Station June 

79. Lyons Station Oct. 

80. Topton ■ 

81. Exeter Dec. 

82. Maiden Creek April 

83. Eagle Point Aug. 

84. Fritztown Nov. 

85. Alsace Feb. 

86. Upper Bern Aug. 

87. Hill Church May 

88. North Heidelberg June 

89. Lower Heidelberg July 

90. Krick's Mill ' Sept. 

91. Hiester's Mill Dec. 

92. Yellow House May 

93. Mountain Sept. 

94. Shanesville May 

95. Centreport June 

96. Stonv Run Jati. 

97. Scarlet Mill Aug. 

98. Hummel's Store Sept. 

99. Griesemcrsville June 

100. Lime-Kiln '. . . . June 

101. Jacksonwald Nov. 

102. Pine Iron Works Feb. 

103. Little Oley April 

104. Monocacy Station May 

105. West Leesport Sept. 

106. Huff's Church March 

107. Trexler Nov. 

108. East Berkley March 

109. Bern .....' May 

110. Cacoosing June 

111. Stony Creek Mills May 

112. MeckviUe Dec. 

113. Berks Dec. 

114. Vincmont April 

115. Garfield June 

116. Kempton May 

117. Barto March 

118. .Xneelica Mav 

119. Eckvillo Sept. 

120. New Berlinville Feb. 

121. Bally .Aug. 

122. Sclnveycrs .April 

123. Shamrock Station May 

124. Schubert June 

'Changed to Mohnton .Aug. D. lOiiC. 


6, 1851 

21, 1851 

19, 1851 

19, 1351 

16, 1352 

16, 1852 

13, 1852 

22, 1852 , 

7, 1852 

10, 1853 

3, 1853 

3, 1853 

20, 1853 

20, 1853 i 

5, 1853 1 

. 2, 1854 

11, 1354 j 

16, 1855 ( 

29, 1856 

3, 1856 

8, 1856 

8, 1856 
18, 1856 

10, 1S57 

20, 1857 

6, 1357 

8, 1857 

6, 1853 

31, 1850 j 

25, 1860 

25, 18G0 

29, 1861 

25, 1S61 ' 

18, 18G2 

14, 1862 

12, 1862 

12, 1863 ! 

28, 1863 I 

27, 1864 

22, 1864 

1, 1864 ; 

11. 1865 

2, 1865 

9, 1866 i 

19, 1S66 

2, 1867 

11, 1868 

11, 1869 

4, 1869 

29, 1369 

29, 1870 

29, 1870 

11. 1870 

24, 1871 

21, 1871 

13, 1872 

30, 1872 

2, 1874 

9, 1874 

12, 1375 

23, 1878 

6, 1878 

20, 1879 

17, 1879 

23, 1879 

19, 1S80 ■ .; 

25, 18S0 

17, 1331 

16, 1SS2 

22, 1882 

8. 1SS2 

23, 1833 

7, 18S3 

14, 1884 

14, 1884 

6, 1834 

»./ ' ■ .3 '.'A 



125. Shillington July 

i2t). Lorah Dec. 

127. Athol Jan. 

US. Walter's Park March 

129. Kniniville July Calcium July 

131. Robesonia Jan. 

132. Schofer Feb. 

13:!. Obold .\pril 

134. Eshhach May 

135. Dreibelbis June 

136. Scull Hill \uj;. 

137. Deiiglcr's* Nov. 

133. Hancock March 

139. Strause Aug. 

140. Greenawalt March 

Rural Fkek Delivery. — The followinq- 58 rural 
free delivery routes were established in Berk.^ coun- 
ty from 1900 until Dec. 1, 1U08, the first having 
been established at Hamburg in the extreme north- 
ern part of the county, Sept. 1, 1900. and their ar- 
rangement being set forth in the order of priority : 



































Hamburg 2 

Reading 1 

Dougiassville 4 

Fleetwood 1 

Bechtelsville 2 

Shoemakcrsville 1 

Hamburg 2 

Boyertown 1 

Kutztown 1 

Robfsonia 2 

Birdsboro 2 

Sinking Spring 3 

Reading -. 1 

Geigcr's !Mills 1 

Blandon 1 

Fleetwood 1 

Leesport 1 

Shoemakersville 1 

Temple , 1 

Mertztovvn 1 

Boyertown 1 

Stouclisburg 1 

Wernersville 2 

Kutztown 4 

Rarto 2 

Mertztovvn 1 

West Leesport 1 

Oley .■ 3 

Bernville 1 

Kempton 2 

Mohnsville 1 

Oley 1 

Geiger"s Mills 1 

Mohrsville 1 

Bernville 1 

Mohnsville 1 

Vircinville 1 

Bethel 1 

Stony Creek Mills 1 

Lenhartsville 1 

The following fifty oflfices have been 
since 1900 as a direct result of introduc 
free delivery : 





Oct. 15, 
April 1. 
April 1, 
.Mav 2. 
Sept. 1. 
Oct. 15, 
Nov. 1. 
Xov. 15, 
Xov. 15, 
Xov. 15, 
Xov. ]5. 
Xov. 15, 
Dec. 1, 
Jan. 2, 
Jan. 16, 
Jan. 15. 
Feb. 1. 
Feb. 15. 
Feb. 15, 
Feb. 15, 
April 15, 
Mav 1, 
May 1. 
Mav 1.5, 
Mav 15. 
Mav 23, 
Aug. 1. 
Oct. 16, 
Xov. 1, 
Xov. 15, 
Dec. 1, 
Xov. 1, 
April 16. 


ing the rural 

Office Date 

Alleglien\-v'ille Oct. 31, 1903 

Alliance Oct. 13, 1905 

* Changed to Mount Penn, December 11, 19D3. 

.Angelica May 31, 1905 

Basket May 31, 1905 

Baumstown .April 30, 1904 

Beckersville Oct. 31, 1906 

Brower Jan. 31, 1903 

Rrumrieldville Aug. 15, 1905 

Cacooiing Oct. 31, 1002 

Cro^s-kill Mills June 15, 1905 

Dale Dec. 14, 1903 

Dreibelbis Nov. 30, 1905 

Eagle Point March 31, 1904 

East Berklev April 30, 1908 

Eshbach Feb. 2S, 1907 

Freeman June 15, 1905 

Gablesville Aug. 15, 1906 

Garfield Jan. 31, 1907 

Gouglersville Jan. 14, 1906 

Greenawalt .April 29. 1905 

Greshville Aug. 15, 1906 

Grill Jan. 31, 1907 

Harlem Xov. 14. 1904 

Huffs' Church Oct. 31, 1906 

Kirbyville June 30, 1903 

Kiiauur's Oct. 31, 1905 

Leinbach's Jan. 31, 1907 

Lesher Jan. 15. 1906 

Liscum Feb. 15, 1905 

Lobachsville June 30, 1906 

Lorah Jan. 31, 1907 

Lower Heidelberg Jan. 31, 1907 

Moselem Dec. 14, 1907 

Moselem Springs May 31, 1908 

North Heidelberg Jan. 31, 1907 

Oakbrook Oct. 31, 1906 

Obold Oct. 15, 1907 

Passmore March 31, 1908 

Pikeville June 30, 1906 

Pricetown June 30, 1905 

Schubert Nov. 30, 1905 

Schweyers Nov. 30, 1904 

Scull Hill Oct. 14, 1905 

South Evansville Jan. 31. 1907 

Stonetown April 1, 1904 

Strausstown April 30, 1907 

Tuckerton June 15, 1905 

Upper Bern Sept. 29, 1906 

Windsor Castle May 31, 1906 

Wintersville Jan. 14, 1905 


The m«il formerly addressed to the following discon- 
tinued post-ofFices, is sent as follows : 

.Alsace mail to Oley 

.Angelica mail to Mohnton 

Baumstown mail to . , Birdsboro 

Bccker.sville mail to Geiger's Mills 

Brower mail to Dougiassville 

Brumtioldville mail to Dougiassville 

Cacoosing mail to Sinking Spring 

Colebrookdalc mail to Pottstown 

Crosskill Mills mail to Myerstown 

Cumru mail to Shillington 

Dale mail to Barto 

Eagle Point mail to ; Kutztown 

East Berkley mail to Blandon 

Eckville mail to Albany 

E.xeter mail to Lorane 

Garfield mail to Bernville 

Gouglersville mail to Reinholds 

Greshville mail to Boyertown 

Hciilelherg Lower mail to Wernersville 

Heidelberg Xorth mail to Robesonia 

TTicster's Mill mail to Robesonia 

Kirbv\-i!ie mail to Fleetwood 

< r 

;:'>^:r.'vO'r'^ ^ •y-Kt 



Kr.nm'r's mail to Mohnton 

Loiiib.ich's mail to Reading R. F. D. No. 2 

Loi-achsvilL- mail to Oley 

Loni,'>wamp mail to Mertztown 

Lerah mail to Sinking Spring 

I,, .wer Hern mail to Robesonia 

I )]uAd mail to Robesonia 

I'lkcvillc mail to Oley 

rricctovvn mail to Fleetwood 

Si liwfvcrs mail* to .Mertztoun 

Sifsho'ltzville mail to Alburtis 

South Evansville mail t" West Leesport 

St'netown mail to Birdsboro 

Strange mail to West Leesport 

Tuckcrton mail to Reading R. F". D. Xo. 2 

L'pper Hern mail to Hamburg 

Windsor Castle mail to Hamburg 

Wmtersville mail to Richland 


The following offices were in Berks county in January, 
lOO'j. The tigures after post-offices denote number of rural 
free delivery routes running from that office. 

Albany Maxatawny 

Athol Meckville 

R.illy Mertztown— 2 

p,;,rta — 2 Mohnton — 2 

Btchtels\ille— 2 Mohrsvillc— 1 
Berks , Molltown 

I'.tfne Monocacy 

Bernharts ■ Monocacy Station 

Bcrnvilie — 2 Montello 

Bithci — 1 Monterey 

!'.ird~boro — ^2 Morgantown 

r>!andon — 1 Mount Aetna 

Bowers Station Mountain 

]-!.)ycrtown Mountain Sunset 
Calcium - , ' ". " Mount Penn 

Cer.treport "New Berlinville 

Chapel New Jerusalem 

Clayton Oley — i 

Daubcrville ■ Pine Iron Works 

Douglassville — 1 ■ Plowville 

Dryville * Reading— 2 

Earlville Rehrersburg 

Esterly Robesonia — 2 

F'leetwood — 2 Ryeland 

Frcdericksville Scarletts Mill 

Fritztown Schofer 

Gciger's Mills — 3 Siesholfzville 

Gibraltar Shamrock Station 

Griesemersville Shanesville 

Grimville Shartlesville 

Hamburg — 1 Shillington 

Hancock Shoemakersville — 2 

Hereford Sinking Spring — 3 
Hill Church " ■ Spangsville 

Host Stonersville 

Hummel's Store Stony Creek Mills — 1 

Tnckfonwald Stony Run 

Joanna Stouchsburg — 1 

Kempton — 2 - Strausstown 

Klinesville Temple — 1 

Krick's Mill Topton 

Krunisville Trexlcr 

Kut7town Vinemont 

I.andis Store Virginville — 1 

l-ccsport — 1 Walter's Park 

Ix-nhartsville Wernersville — 2 

Limekiln West Leesport — 1 

Little Oley West Reading 

Lorane Womelsdorf 

Lvons Station Wvomissing 

.Maiden-creek Yellow House 


In 184-1, the telegraph was successfully intro- 
duced for the transmission of messages by elec- 
tricity. The first mcssa,i,'e was senr throu.c^h a wire 
elevated on poles between WashinGfton and Balti- 
more, May 27, 1S44. Consjre^s had (in ]\Iarch 
previously) appropriated S3U.OnO to Prof. Morse 
for experiments with his instrument, to demonstrate 
the practicability of his invention. 

P. R. & P. T. Co. — A company was incorporated 
under the name of Philadelphia. Reading- & Potts- 
ville Telegraph Company, by an Act passed !\Iarch 
15, 1847, for the purpose of making-, using- and 
maintaining telegraph lines between Philadelphia, 
Reading and Pottsville, and commissioners were ap- 
pointed to effect its organization. This company was 
org-anizcd in April, and the telegraph line was suc- 
cessfully established shortly afterward. Communi- 
cation was completed between Philadelphia and 
Reading on Hay 10, 1847 ; and the first message for- 
warded to Reading related to the ^Mexican war. 
The line has been maintained successfully ever 

Upon the construction and operation of the sev- 
eral railroads ruiming from Reading, telegraph 
lines were extended to Harrisburg, Allentown, Col- 
umbia, Lancaster, Slatington, and \\'ihnington. 

Western Uxiox. — The American Telegraph 
Company introduced a line of telegraph here in 
18G3 : and, in lS(i5, the AVestern Union Telegraph 
Company. These two then formed a union ; and 
the lines have been operated since under the latter 
name. In l.s71t, this company and the Philadelphia. 
Reading & Pottsville Telegraph Company effected 
an arrangement for co-operation ; since then they 
have conducted their lines together. 

Lehigh. — The Lehigh Telegraph Company was 
organized at Allentown, and opened ati office at 
Reading in September, 1880. It formed a connec- 
tion with the principal cities in the L'nited States 
through the American Union Telegraph Company, 
but this connection was continued only for a year 
and a half, when it was changed to the "^ilutual 
Union" for an equal period, and it was operated 
under this name till January. ISSi, when its lines, 
etc., were transferred to the r>ankers' & Merchants' 
Telegraph Company. This company has been op- 
erating the lines under the name of the United 
Lines Telegraph Company, by which it is known 
throughout the country. .At Reading it is known 
as the "Postal." 


Pennsylv.\ni.\. — The telephone was introduced 
' at Reading by Henry W. Spang, in October, 1870. 
He organized a system of communication in the 
city and carried it on successfully until November, 
1880, when he formed a stock company for main- 
taining lines and exchanges in Berks. Montgomery. 
Schuylkill and Lebanon counties, under the name 

't ■ .' J. - I 


:?, .:rt','i k; ''■■,:y vso 

:\r t .?! ;/ .vijnr.-o. 



of East Pennsylvania Telephone Company. This 
company then extended the system, makincf con- 
nection with Pottstown, Pottsville, and Lebanon ; 
set up an increased number of instruments, and 
operated it successfully until Tan 1. is.So, when the 
entire business, includinc^ wires and instruments, 
was transferred to the Pennsylvania Telephone 
Company, a similar org-anization. which had ex- 
tended its lines to Lebanon from Harrisburg. The 
latter company has since conducted the business 
very successfully. The extent of its system in the 
county until March, 1909, is shown in the following 
particulars : 

Miles of -wire in county, 7,720 (of which 6,200 are in 

Instruments in county, 3,776 (of which 3,332 are in 

Operators, 45: employees, llj. 

Estimated daily calls, 25,000. 

CoN30LiD.\TED. — The Consolidated Telephone 
Companies of Pennsylvania was organized under 
the laws of Pennsylvania in August, 1901, and by 
June, 1902, the plant was established in Berks coun- 
ty with a "central exchange'' at Reading. In Feb- 
ruary, 1809, lines radiated from the exchange for 
a distance of forty miles from Reading, touching 
all the small towns and villages in the county ; and 
the toll system had connections covering a radius 
of several hundred miles to all points in Pennsyl- 
vania, New Jersey, ?^Iaryland and West A'irginia, 
and also to many points in New York and Ohio. 
The subscribers in Berks county numbered 3,200. 

In the system at Reading, there were then l.lGl 
miles of wire; underground in multiple duct con- 
duits, more especially in the central parts oi the 
city, 34 miles. 


The National Transit Company , constructed a 
pipe line, for the purpose of conveying petro- 
leum, in the fall of 1897 from ]\Iillway, in Lancaster 
county, through the lower end of Berks county 
bv way of Maple-Grove school-house. White-Bear 
Station. Douglassville Station, and Maxatawny Sta- 
tion, to a place called Centre Bridge on the east 
bank of the Delaware river in Bucks county, fifteen 
miles north of Trenton. The line was constructed 
from the oil fields of northern Peimsylvania, which 
connected with lines conveying oil from West \'ir- 

In the fall of 1908 a similar line was constructed 
bv A. C. Bedford across the central section of 
Berks county from the pumping station near Myers- 
town to a pumping station located at Barto, near 
the railroad station, private persons purchasing the 
right of way presumably in behalf of the Standard 
Oil Company. The capacity of this line is about 
20,000 gallons a day. It is a continuation of the 
line from the oil fields in Illinois, which enters Penn- 
sylvania near Negley, in Ohio, and passes a point 
south of Altoona and Duncannon to ^lyerstown, 
and from Barto by way of Ouakertown to Centre 
Bridge: from which point it is pumped by way of 
other pipe lines to the seaboard, where it is refined. 

•M «!;rr -;;:^i,,f 

'V.v u:?T7fU'fi;;: -r' ::>: ■.. .iWJv''^ rf. 



The spirit of religion was manifested by the first 
inhabitants from the very beginning,'- of their set- 
tlcincnts in this section of Pennsylvania. They did 
not erect churches immediately because they were 
(•'>Ii<,'ed lo look after tlie erection of home;, for them- 
-(.Ives and barns for their stock and products, and 
tn get the soil in proper condition for cultivation. 
Xattirally, this required some years and until they 
-ccured churches of their own, they traveled long 
(li-tances toward Philadelphia for the purpose 
I'f attending- worship. Funerals were necessarily 
Conducted in their homes, and burials were made 
in small lots of ground set apart in the far corner 
I'f an adjoining field. 

Ily studying the time of the erection of the 
churches in the several sections of the county, it 
i> apparent that the subject of religion occupied a 
great deal of public attention, and that the feeling 
was general. Members of the Lutheran denomina- 
tion erected the first church in the county, a small 
church in the southerly end of Amity township 
near the Schuylkill river, about 1T03, having been 
Swedes; and members of the Friends' Society es- 
tablished the next church, locating it in the ex- 
treme upper end of the township, about 1705. 

During the next twenty-five years, thirty-five 
additional churches were established by different de- 
nominations. So that by the tune tlie county was 
erected, in i:52, there were altogether thirty-eight 
churches within its borders, south of the Blue 
^fountain. There was also one beyond the moun- 
tain (the "Red Church"), settlors having ventured 
into that region of territory. Their distribution 
in the several sections was as follows: 



























































/^X "' 

•<' '•- ■" -''r^^n^'"^^^'?'"'*'^ -• •^■^i5^^~,■p~:ZJ.lL,~'~*^ •'■:;*''';. 


n'^-''j;i*A»4'iw , _jX. 


riie_ territory lying between the South Mountain 
nnd North (or Blue) Mountain ranges was not 
.^ t released by the Indians. Xeverthdess. the set- 
J'ers in the Tulpehncken section, being Lutherans 
jTuin the Palatinate, established a church along the 
lulpehocken creek at the western end of the main 
t-ioroughfare. This was also about 1725. Accord- 
'"glv. three churches were established in this part 
of the Province until 1725. 

This table reveals the fact that the religious in- 
fluence in this large area of territory, about thirty 
miles square, was mostly directed by the Lutheran 
and Reformed denominations; and this was so in 
all the sections in about the same proportions ex- 
cepting the Schuylkill section, where there was no 
Lutheran nor Reformed congregation at all until 
17ii5. This controlling influence has been continued 
throughout the county from that time until now, 
not only in the country districts but also in the city 
of Reading and the boroughs. 

In the next twenty-five years, until the Revolu- 
tion broke out in 1775, fifteen additional churches 
were established as follows : 

East of the Schuylkill river, 2 Lutheran, 4 Re- 
formed, 4 Union, and 1 Episcopal (at Reading) ; 
and west of the river, 1 Lutheran and 3 L'nioii^. 

The Molatton Lutheran Church in Amity had 
become Episcopal in 17G5. 

At that time, there were in the county 53 


j _ Lutheran. — Immediately after Penn had arrived 
in Pennsylvania, a number of Germans immigrated 
to the province and among them there were Luth- 
erans. The tide of their immigration began in ear- 
nest in 1710. Then about three thousand immi- 
grants, chiefly Lutherans, settled in Xew York, hav- 
ing been encouraged to do so by Queen Anne, after 
leaving the Palatinate on account of religious intol- 
erance, and arriving in England. In 1713, one hun- 
dred and fifty families settled in Schoharie, New- 
York, .-^ome of which ten years afterward came to 
Tulpehocken, Pennsylvania. In 1727. a large num- 
ber of them came into Pcnnsvlvania from various 

• id; •■ ( ; ,, -•(;.'!') 


:/' 1 ' ■:. : •:■ I'i.'j '■\-tl 



parts of Germany, cliietly from the Palatinate ; and 
it i> bi-iieved that many of the.-e settlctl in this sec- 
tion of territory, aiong^ the .Manatawny and Tulpe- 
liocken creeks. 

The Lntheran religion exi-ted in tlie connty, botli 
witli the Suedes and (iermans to tlie east of the 
Schnylkill and also with the Germans to the west. 
Many of the Germans were adherents of the Re- 
formed religion. The cluirclies built by these de- 
nominations were mo-tl} '"union" churches. In 
nearly every instance the memliers of the two de- 
nominations imited m iiearing the cost jointly, — 
having appointed separate committees to co-operate 
in conducting the building operations. .\nd the 
church services alternated cverv iwu Sundays. 

The harmony between these denominations in 
such a peculiar and jealous matter as religion dis- 
played the singular excellence and liberalit\- of the 
Germans. These people were alike in general af- 
fairs, dress, speech, labor, maimers and customs ; 
and a difference in their religious notions did not 
develop any antagonism between them. Indeed, the 
one denomination frequently visited the church 
services of the other denomination. 

The earliest Lutheran nnnisters who preached in 
this territory before the Revolution were Gerhari 
Henckel, Van Dueren. Casper Stoever, Cas- 
per Leutbecker, J. Philip Aleurer, Gotilob Puett- 
ner, Henry Melchoir Muhlenberg. John Xicholas 
Kurtz, Tobias Wagner, \'alentine Kraft, Peter 
Ali.shler, Emanuel Schulze and Frederick A. C. 

Rev. Henry ]^Ielchoir 'Muhlenberg is generally 
regarded as the father of the Lutheran Church in 
America in respect to making it an organized re- 
ligious body. He was stationed at the Trappe in 
1742, whence he visited different Lutheran organi- 
zations as far north as the Blue ^^lountain, and as 
far -vest as the Tulpehockcn settlement. During 
his ministerial journeys he made the acquaintance 
of Conrad Weiser and shortly afterward, 1743, 
married his daughter, r^Iaria. 

Reformed. — As mentioned in the previous sec- 
tion, persons attached to the Reformed faith were 
also amongst the early settlers, but they Avere known 
as "German Cah'inists,'" or "Dutch Reformed." 
Their first churches were in Oley, in Greenwich, 
and in Heidelberg. In meeting-houses, however, 
they were mostly connected with the Lutherans. 
The early Reformed ministers in Pennsylvania 
were assisted by the church in Holland. In 1741. a 
number of German Bibles (],.')U0") were sent here 
for their use. In 174(). Rev. Michael Schlatter, the 
great Reformed missionary from Switzerland, ar- 
rived, and he preached in Oley and Tulpehocken. 

The active ministers of the Reformed congrega- 
tions in the several sections of the county before 
ISOO were the following: 

Samuel Giildin John Henry Helffrich 

John Philip r.ochm J. Wm. Hendcl. Sr. 

Geo. Mich'I \\'ei-s Willinm Otfcrhein 

John Peter Miller Philip J. Michael 

Micliael Schlatter Daniel Wagner 

\\'iili;nii li. Stoy F. J. Berger 

Jiihn W'aldschniid John W. Boos 

Thomas li. Lcinhach J. Conrad Bucher 

John C. Guldin • L. F. Herman 

lohn Ziiilch • Chas. G. Herman 

J.,hn J. Zutall ■ Philip PauU 
.Andrew J. Loretz 

Those in the countv about 1840 were: 

J. Conrad Bucher 

Thos. H. Leinbach 

Chas. G. Herman 

L. C. Herman 

.\. L. Herman 

J. Sassaman Herman 

William Hendel 

Au;4ustus Pauli 
William Pauli 
I>aac ^liei^e 
David Bossier 
David Hassinger 
Piiilip Mover 
Chas. Schulrz 

Friends. — The Friends were the third sect of 
people who settled in the county. They erected a 
meeting-house in 1725 near the Monocacv creek, 
along the western line of the Swedes' settlement, 
then known as Amity township. Within the next 
score of years, they erected two more meeting- 
houses, one in Maiden-creek township antl the 
other in Robeson township. Thcv built a fourth 
at Reading, supposed to have been in 17.j1, three 
years after the town had been laid out and just as 
the building improvements began to be active. They 
were most active about that time when the county 
was erected and for fifty years afterward. They 
then exerted the most pohtical intiuence in the 
county through the recognition of the proprietaries 
of the government, who were also Friends. And 
their religious influence was large and wide in the 
several localities mentioned. But they remained 
where they first settled. They did not extend be- 
yond Oley and Exeter along the Manatawny and 
IVlonocacy creeks, Zvlaiden-creek and Richinond 
along the Ontelaunee, and Robeson along the Hay 
and Allegheny creeks. And yet their families were 
numerous and their population was considerable. In 
this time it was estimated that they numbered about 
two thousand. Their moral principles were superior 
and their habits and customs admirable. Simple, 
unostentatious, earnest and clever, with good edu- 
cation and large means, they occupied a position 
which was eminently respectable, and this they 
maintained for many years after they had lost con- 
trol of political power. 

E.VPTIST. — The first Baptist church in Pennsyl- 
vania was established in KisS at Pennypack fnow 
called Lf>wer Dublin). In 1738, a number of Bap- 
tists reinoved from Chester and Philadelphia coun- 
ties and settled near the banks of the Tulpehocken 
creek, founding the Tulpehocken Baptist church, 
and Thonras Jones was ordained the pastor. The 
congregation had two meeting-houses. The first 
was built in 1740 on a lot of three acres, the gift 
of Hugh ]Morris, Evan Lloyd and Evan Price, in 
the township of Cumru, on the Wyomissing creek, 
about two miles from its outlet in the Schuylkill. 
The building was only 2(1 by IG feet. 

Another building of the same size, about three 
miles west from the first, was built the same year 

: nr ■'■:; r'f ! W '."■> .'.• -MUC 



on a lot of one acre, the trift of Thomas Bartholo- 
:iR\v and tlannaniah Pugh. This was at a point 
III the "Ukl Tuli)ehockt--ii Road," now ""Sinking 
S'lring." Tlic building" is still standing but con- 
v<.Ttftl into a dwelling. It is built of brick, octa- 
gonal in >na]K'. A graveyard lies at the rear, with 
a ip.unher of graves marked by headstones, now il- 

The church (with ^Ir. J(jnes as pastor) reported 
annually until 1774, when its name disappears 
frcni the records of the Baptist Association, the 
]>astor about that time having removed to Chester 
civunrv. From that time until now, no church or- 
ganization of this den.omination has been in the 
county outside of Reading. 

DcNK.ARD. — A religious denomination known as 
tlie '"Dunkards" existed at an early day in Jhe 
county. It was also called "The Brethren" and 
- >nK'timcs '"German Baptists." Certain persons of 
I his denomination emigrated from Germany in 1719. 
In j7"-1. thev iicid a large general convention in this 
di-trict. .A.nother convention was held ih Oley in 
IM".'. which was attended by "four priests of the 
congregation at Ephrata." 

.\ meeting-house of this denomination was erect- 
en in Ru^combmanor (at Pricetown ) , and an- 
other in Bethel (north of I\Iillersburg) , before 17o"i. 
Tlie Dunkards were numerous m Oley from 1730 
to 1745. 

.\n.->ther congregation was formed in the north- 
western section of the county, and comprised set- 
tlers in Bethel and Tulpehocken townships. They 
( ncted a church in the former township, along a 
hrnuch of the Little Swatara creek, about the vear 

There was also a third congregation in Bern 
and I'pper Tulpehocken townships, along the 
Northkill, several miles above the continence of this 
stream with the Tulpehocken. A church was erect- 
ed in 1748. In 1750 Elder George Klein came from 
New Jersey and settled amongst tiie members. 
Ti^rC'Ugh his energy the congregation flourished for 
twenty years. Then settlements in the western part 
of the State influenced most of the members to move 
away. This left the congregation without sufficient 
support, and it naturally ceased to exist. 

l^doR.wiAN. — The ^Moravians were among the 
early settlers of the county. This peculiar sect was 
represented here bv Count Zinzendorf, who came 
to Pennsylvania in 1741. In 1743. he conducted 
a synod in Oley ; and afterward visited the inhabi- 
tants of Tulpehocken. Shortly after this visit, a con- 
gregation of ^loravians was organized in Bethel 
tcwnship. Between 1742 and 1750 two churches 
were erected in Heidelberg, and one in Oley. 

In September. 1742, Count Zinzendorf visited 
Shamokin, accompanied by Conrad Weiser, and 
they co-operated with the Moravians for several 
vears. Tobias Beckel and George Beckel. brothers, Turkheun, in Rhenish-Bavaria, immigrated to 
Pennsylvania in the fall of 17.'>G and settled in this 
part of the province, the former in Heidelberg 

township, south of Tulpehocken creek, and the lat- 
ter in Bern township, along the Schuylkill river. 
They organized small congregations and preached 
to them. Several years afterward, George Beckel 
removed to the northern portion of Heidelberg and 
there carried on his ministrations in a church which 
was erected on land donated by his brother. 

Andrew Aschenbach was one of the pioneers of 
the Moravians in this vicinity. He settled in Oley 
in 1740, and preached for two years with great suc- 
cess. Zinzendorf was deeply interested in this con- 
gregation and devoted much time to its affairs. 
.Some years afterward disagreements arose between 
Aschenbach and the members, and these contintied 
until the ^Moravians lost all their intiuence ; and by 
17*15 the church was abandoned. 

Amish. — The Arnish denomination is a branch 
of the }kIennonites. The first bishop in this vicinity 
(comprising Berks, Chester and Lancaster counties) 
was Jacob Mast, who settled here in 1750, when 
a bov about twelve years old, and began to exhort 
and preach about 1765. He continued in active and 
faithful service for many years. The second bishop 
was Peter Plank, wlio moved from Oley and settled 
in Caernarvon. And the third was John P. Mast, 
who officiated as a faithful and devoted minister for 
nearly fifty years. His father, Danie! !Mast, had 
been a minister from 1830 till 1883. 

At one time there were three other congregations 
in the county — one in Cumru, one in [\laiden-creek 
and the third in Bern township (called Northkill). 

RoitAN Catholic. — The early settlers of the 
coimty until 1740, were entirely Protestants. Then 
the Roman Catholics appeared. Their number was 
verv small compared with the number of the other 
denominations. The Protectants having been driven 
here by religious persecution, caused by the Roman 
Catholic religion, and feeling the terrors of this per- 
secution, it was natural for them to discourage this 
religion from obtaining a foothold in their midst; 
which accounts for the strength of the one class 
and the weakness of the other. In 1741 the Roman 
Catholics had a congregation and meeting-house in 
the extreme eastern part of the county (now in- 
cluded in Washington township) and a congrega- 
tion in ^Maxatawny. 

Some years afterward, it would seem that their 
number had grown so as to aw-aken public concern. 
The matter was forced upon the attention of the 
iustices of the county, who (being Protestants) im- 
Iiibed the feeling of insecurity entertained by the 
>urrounding communities. The excitement incident 
to the "French and Indian war" was sufficient to 
arouse their jealousv and suspicion, and it was be- 
lieved that tiie Roman Catholics manifested sym- 
pathv for the French in their cruel warfare against 
the Colonics. The justices of the county therefore 
addressed a letter on the subject to the Governor 
of the province on July "?•'). 1755, but nothing was 

In 1757, the Roman Catholics of the province 
were enumerated with a total of 1,3^5; in Berks 

.^ ,, -n. 

'J vr< vi i:,i-n:i j-f'. i v, .iy';"i ,••'■;.' u 

■A) or, 



countv 205, in two congregations. Under Rev. 
Theo. Sclnieider, U2 men and 55 women; under 
Rev. Ferdinand Farmer, 46 men and 42 women 
(among whom tliere were eight Irish peiiple). 

At Reading, they had an association soon after 
the town was laid out ; and this association was 
maintained, notwithstanding the smalhicss of their 
number and the opposition of the Lutheran and Re- 
formed people. About lT(ii». they succeeded in es- 
tablishing a small log church at Reading. 

Protestant EpiscorAL. — Three churches of this 
denomination came to figure prominently in the re- 
ligious history of the county. The first was the 
St. Thomas near !Morgantown. in Caernarvon 
township, which was established on ground devised 
by Thomas Morgan about 1740. It was removed 
in 1792 to the town, where a lot was set apart by 
Jacob [Morgan for that purpose. Several vears be- 
fore, the congregation had secured the first regular 
rector. Rev. Levi Eull. A substantial building was 
erected in its stead in 1S24. 

The second church was the St. Gabriel's, which 
was established at Molatton (now Douglassville) 
in Amity township in 1765, and Rev. Alexander 
Murray was the rector. A larger building was 
erected in its stead in 1801, which is still standing. 
And a third was erected near by in 1S80-S4. 

And the third church was the St. ]Mary's (after- 
ward Cnrist's) at Reading. The congregation ^vas 
organized by Rev. Alexander ^Murray about 1763, 
and the services were held in the same dwelling- 
house which had been secured for holding the ses- 
sions of the countv courts. Xo church was erected 
tmtil 1825. 

Evangelical. — The only other religious denom- 
ination which established itself in the county outside 
of Reading to any considerable extent was the 
Evangelical Association, but not until nearly one 
hundred years after the countv had been erected. 
The first congregation was organized by Rev. 
Joseph 'M. Saylor at Reading in 1S44. Within the 
next ten years, others were organized in different 
parts of ti-.e county, and the Association persevered 
until it came to possess churches in most of the dis- 
tricts. But the buildings were small, especially out- 
side of Reading, and the membership was limited. 
Their Christian zeal was strong and their purpose 
very determined and commendable. 

This sect was started by Jacob Albright in 1800, 
after he had preached several years, and the first 
tangible results of his religious work were made to 
appear in the eastern part of Berks county, near the 
Colebrookdale Iron Works. In that vicinity, he had 
preached in the homes of Samuel Lieser. Joseph 
Buckwalter and .\braham Buckwalter. and the sec- 
ond class of the organized body had come to be 
formed out of the members of the families of the 
three persons named, with ]\Ir. Lieser as the clas=- 
leader. In a similar manner, the work was extended 
throughout the State. But though the real work 
was started in the countrv. the churches of the As- 

sociation were not erected there first, for the first 
one in the comity was not established until 1844, at 

About 18Ut a spirit of opposition began to mani- 
fest itself in relation to church government and this 
increased until 1^90, when the Association separ- 
ated into two great parties with about GO, 000 ad- 
herents. on each side, called respectively the Dubsites 
and Esherites. After litigating for four years, the 
Esherite? were sustained by the courcs in this State 
and others, and they therefore retained all the 
churches and the name Evangelical Association. 
The Dubsites adopted the name United Evangelical 
and immediately began the erection of churches for 
themselves. In 1''05, the Evangelical .Association 
had 5 churches in Reading and 15 in the townships, 
and the L'nited Evangelical, 4 in Reading, 8 in the 
boroughs, and 11 in the townships : and both together 
43. Active work in some of the churches in the 
country districts has been suspended, either par- 
tially or entirely. 

Other Dexomixations. — Other denominations 
than those mentioned were not organized in the 
countv until after 1825. Their names and the time 
of organization will be found in the several districts 
where established, more especially at Reading. It 
is surprising that only the Evangelicals should gain 
any foothold worth mentioning outside of Reading. 

Pastors Loxg in Service. — Some of the pastors 
have served their congregations for many years in 
succession, until 1909, indicating their fidelity and 
devotion to a remarkable degree. Those most not- 
able in this respect at Reading are the following: 

Christian S. Haman. United Evangelical 54 years 

John J. Kv.cndig, Lutheran 50 years 

T. Calvin Leinhach. Reformed 49 years 

Benjamin Bailsman, Reformed 4r> years 

George Borncmann, Roman Catholic 44 years 

Samuel A. Lcinbach, Reformed 42 years 

John J. CresBman. Lutheran 41 years 

Daniel D. Trcxlcr, Lutheran 41 years 

Zcnas H. Gable, Lutheran 41 years 

Franklin K. Hnntzinger. Lutheran 40 years 

Richard S. Appel, Reformed 3S years 

Ferdinand F. Ruermeyer, Lutheran 33 years 

Jeremiah K. Fehr, Evangelical 38 years 

Edward T. Horn. Lutheran 37 years 

William P. Orrick. Protestant Episcopal 36 years 

Sylvanus C. Breyfogel, Evangelical 36 years 

William H. Weidner. Evangelical 36 years 

I. J. Reitz, United Evangelical 35 years 

Mahlon H. Mishlcr. Reformed 33 years 

Isaac S. Stalir, Reformed 32 years 

A. M. Sampal. L^nited Evangelical 32 years 

William H. Myers. Lutheran 31 years 

Levi D. Stambaugh. Reformed 30 years 

William J. Kerschner. Reformed 28 years 

George S., Lutheran 27 years 

Franklin K. Bernd. Lutheran 26 years 

George W. Gerhard. Reformed • 26 years 

Lutheran .\xd Churches. — The 
Lutheran and Reformed churches have been 
grouped together. At Reading, they have been tab- 
ulated separately, but in the boroughs and tow'n- 
ships thev have been run together, and they can be 
distinguished by the letters placed after them, re- 

(■"■*• ° ' 



spectively; L. standing- for LutliL-ron, R. f^r Re- 
formed, and U. for Union. They number altog-eth- 
er, including' chapels. lo4: Lutheran. oT, Re- 
formed, 2G, antl Union, ",1. 

By comparing the tables it will be observed that 
the distribution of these churches in the several sec- 
tions is alike to a remarkable degree : and this fact 
is particularly noteworthy when we consider that 
the distribution covers an area of nine hundred 
square miles. They have evidently been carrying 
on a friendly rivalry, or rather co-operation, for 
nearly two hundred yeais. which is trulv commend- 
able. And they have covered this large area so 
thoroughly that the other denominations secured 
only a limited foothold in several of the districts 
outside of Reading. 


The following religious denominations were in 
Berks count}' in lOOfi, and the statement exhibits 
the number of the respective churches and the mem- 
bership as nearly as could be ascertained. Oiher 
information relating to them will be found in the 
chapter on Reading, on the Boroughs, and on the 
Townships, under the topic of religion. 

Denomination Number Members 

Lutheran 92 20,154 

Reformed S6 23,931 

Protestant Episcopal 7 1,213 

Roman Catholic 5 7,600 

Presbvterian 3 335 

Methodi5 1 Episcopal 11 2,389 

Baptist 7 451 

Evargelical 13 1,461 

United Evansciical 23 3,430 

United Brethren 5 1,107 

German Baptist Brethren 3 

^^ennonite 4 296 

Schwenkftlder 1 

Church of God 1 

The following statement embraces the churches 
s'tuated in the several sections of Berks county. 
The churches at Reading and the boroughs will be 
found in the chapters relating to these divisions of 
the county. 

The figures which appear after the names of the 
churches in the following tabulated statements in- 
dicate the time of institution or erection, and of 
rebuilding or improvement. The name of the pas- 
tor serving in 1900 has been placed after the re- 
spective churches. 

Lutheran and Reformeti Churches in 
Manataw.ny (S. E.) Section 
(L. indicating Lutheran; R., Reformed: and U., Union, 
both using the church, alternately) 

Zion's (Spies's) (U.). l"S4-18tri*ST. . >r. L. Herhcin (R.),.Ti<; 
E. S. Brownmiller (L.), 400 

Salem (Shaker's) (U.) 1S60 (vacant) (L), 

M. L. Herbein (R.), 136 
Alsace, Loiver : 

Bethany Chapel (U.), 1S08 \V. O. Laub. (L.), 238 

Amity : 

St. Paul's (.Amityville) (U.). 1753-'J5-1?73 

Geo. W. Rotn iR.). 217 

A. W. Lindenmuth (Lj, 4 25 
Weavertott-n Chapel (U.). 157a 
Monocacv Chapel (U.), Jf^Oi 

Douzlass: '•' 

Glcndale Cfcafel (,U.), ltS3 
Excier : 

Schwart/iwald (U.). 17471SHJ-'T0. . .Joseph R. Brown (R), C31 

W. O. Laub (L.), 435 
Eaumstown Chapel (IT.) 
Lorant: Chi;K^I ( U, ) 
St. Lawrence Chapel (U.) 
Stonersville Chapel (U.) 

Huff's (t.:..l, T51,'-'S1 0. R. Frantz (R.), 277 

William F. Bond (L.l. 695 
Herefcrdville Chapel (U.) ISOO 

AKace (XortU Reading), 17-)o-'9r,-ls.-0-190S 

Charles E. KisUer (L.), SOO 

(Reformed also there from 1796 to I'lOS) 

Grace (R.), 19ns F.lam J. Snyder, 803 

Hinnershiiz (U.), 1S50-'S3 Geo. W. Gerhard (R.), 336 

G. S. Seaman (L.), 368 
Otcy : 

Oiey (R.), 173.^-1S22.'S0 1.;aac S. Stahr, 398 

(Lutheran also there from 173.5 to I'^lij 

Christ's (L.). 1^21-'7?-'&5 E. S. Brownmiller. 271) 

Friedcns (U.>, Friedensburg, 1830-'86. .Isaac b. btalir (K.), 300 
\. W. Lindenmuth IL.). 340 

St. John's (L.). rieasantville. 1S7IJ uacant) 

Oley Line Chape. (U.), 1897 

St. Joseph's (Hill) (U.), 1747-'SG-lS.i3.. . .^r. H. Mish:er (R), 350 
H. W. Warmkesscl (Lo, 768 
(Lutheran also from 1747 to 17SR) 

St. Paul', a'.), Lohachsville, l.s;!4.'77 (vacint> (R.), 

H. W. Warmkesse! (L.), 177 
Rockland : 

Christ (Dryville) (L.), 1733 '64-'97-1879 J. O. Henry, 400 

New Jerusalem (U.), 1S40 Isaac S. Stahr iR.), 90 

William F. Bond (L.), 349 
Ruscombrtianor : 

St. John's (U.), 1840-1902 Isaac S. Stahr (R.), 76 

.■\. W. Lindenmuth (L.), 55 
Lutheran and Reformed Churches in 
O.vtelausee (N. E.) Section 

Jerusalem (Red) (U.). 1742-1812 ^V O. Robert (L.), 220 

(Lutheran until 1>12) 

New Bethel ( (U.1. 1750-■!:^-,i O. ?. Scheirer (L.), 170 

Frieden's (White; (U.J. Wessncrsvil'c. 177n-Hto 

O. S. Sc'ieirer (L.), 240 

r. S. Barth.^Uimew (K.) 
Grccnvich : 

New Jerusalem (Dunkel's) (U.), 1744-'90-1859 

J. S. Bartholomew (R.), 200 

O. S. Scheirer (L.), 210 
(Reformed until 1790) 

Bethe! Zions (U.), 1761-1S03-'S1 R. S. .Appel (R), 

O. S. Scheirer (L.), 325 
(Lutheran also until 1844) 

Longswamp (U.), 1748-'90-1852. . Wm. L. Mecks'roth (R.), 335 

W'm. F. Bond (L.), 435 
(Reformed until lt37) 
St. Paul's (U.'>, Mertztown, 1S37..M. II Brcnsinser (R.), 8S 

F. K. Bernd (L.), 321 
Maiden-creek : 

Blandon (U.), 1860 M. H. Brensinger (R.). 168 

J. O. Henry (L), 365 
Maxatau'iiy : 

Trinity (Bower's) (L.), 1859-1901 W. F. Bond, 132 

DeLong'? (Bower's) (R.). 17.".0.1 STlino] . . G. B. Sinitli 

(Lutherans used it from 18,')9 to 19Cn'> 
Zion's (Siegfried's) (U.), lS28-'00 F. K. B-rnd (L.), 236 

G. B. Smith (R.) 
St. Paul's (Lvon's) (L.). lS6i J. M. Ditzler 

Lyon's Chapel (U.) 

St. John's (Gernant's) (U.), 1794-1863. .D. E. Sc'nacffer (R.). 2.57 

G. S. S-? (I..). 361 
Trinity (Leesport) (U.), 1867-'75-'81. . .D. E. Schacder (K.), 23!> 

G. S. Seaman (L.), 157 
Perry : 

Zion's (Zieeel's) (U.), 1761-1804-'fi0 

J, S. Bartholomew (R.), 350 

U. C. Kline (L.), 340 

St. Luke's (U.), Shoemakersville, 1833 1901 

n. E. Schaefter (K.) 136 

D. G. Gerbcrich (L). 146 
St. Timothy's (L'.), Mohrsville, 1S64.D. E. Schncti'cr (K.), 24 

J. M. Ditzler (L.) 

Zion's (Moselem) (L.1, 1734-'61-1S94 R. B. Linch, 195 

St. Peter's (R.). 1762 LixiO E. H. Lcinbach, 122 

St. Peter's (CecKcr's). (U.). 1S66-'91 . . . R. S. Appel (10,130 

F. K. BernJ (L.), 194 
.«:t. Paul's Chapel (U.) 

St. Paul's (U.), 1756-'63-1332-'92. .J. S. Bartholomew (R), 50 

H. C. Kline (U), 113 
(Lutheran until 1832) 

■■^•/y,.i.i < fi'..i /.u-s; 

;■ . .:?■>.; .r_'(c\:-- ■"' 


'y:rv.S'. '.-.r,; ■-. '',M-. -.f- 

. .1 




TuLPSHocKES (N. W.) Sectio.k 


Bern (U.), 1740-'621S37 M. L. Heibein (R.), 264 

E. S. Brownmiller (L.), S60 
(Reformed until 1837) 

Epier's (L'.), 173I-'S-.1S31 George W. Gerhard (R.), 327 

G. S. Seaman (L.), ISO 
(Refonned until ISL'5) 
Bern, Uffcr: 

I-'rieden's (V.). Shartlesvillc. 1S71-190;..R S. Appel fR.), S3 

D. U. Trexler (L.), 185 

Salem (R.), Mil!er,bu'-.iT. 1810-'5(;-'9:?. . .C. A. Biitz (R.), 210 

D. D. TreTler (L.). 125 
(Lutheran by permission since 1850) 

Belleman's (U ), 174'-.-lS13-'46 M. H. Mishler (R.). 350 

D. G. Gerberich (L.), 380 
Heidelberg : 

St. Daniel's (Corner) (L.), 17J0-1S14 0. E. Pflueger, 777 

Robesonia (R), l'.tii5 E. S. Leinbach, 240 

Heidelberg^ Lower: 

Hain's (R ), 1735-'GB-1S7S W. J. Kerschner, 607 

Trinity (Wernersville) (L.). 1S97 J. W. Lazarus, 91 

Wernersville Chapel (R.), 1901 
Heidelberg, No-th: 

Noth IJcidelbtig (Uj, 1744-184G E. S. Leinbach (R.), 125 

(vacant) (.L.) 
(Originally Moravian until 1835) 
Jefferson : 

Christ (U.), Little Tu!peh.>cken, 1733-1809 

E. S. Leinbach iR.), 50 

(vacant; (L.) 

St. Paul's (U.), Schaefferstown, 1S75-'S4 

L. D. Stambaugh (K.), 45 

., . (vacant) (L.), 75 


Zion's (L), 1725-'45-lo37-'95 E. S. Brownmiller, 75 

Christ (L.), 1743-'8C-1SS5-'SS (vacant), 325 

St. Peter's Chapel (.U.), 1S49- 

Tilden : 

St. Michael's (U.), 1769-1810-'75 S. .\. Leinbach (R.), 375 

_ , , , D. G. (Serbcrich (L.), 670 

Tulpchocken : 

Host (U.), 1738-1SS5 E. S. Leinbach (R.), 450 

,„ , , O. E. niueger (L.), 243 

(Reformed untjl 1S5S) 

R»hrershurg fL.), 1757-1 ?0S-'S2 (vacant), 375 

St. John's (U.>, 1S47-'U7 L. l). Stamhaiieh (R.), 135 

^ ^ D. D. Trexler (L.), 90 

St. John's (U.), Mt. Aetna L. D. Stanibaui-h iR.), 170 

^ O. E. Pflueger (L.) 

Tulpchocken Upper: 

Zion's (U), 1734-1819-1903 E. S. Leinbach (R.), 250 

o „ .. ,T V O- E. Pflueser (L.). 441 
St. Paul's (L.), 1861 (vacant) 

Lutheran and Reformed CHtRciiES in 
Schuylkill (S. W.) Section 
Brecknocl.' : 

Allegheny (U.), 1765-1800-'7S J. V. George (R.), 201 

Z. H. Gable (L.), 350 
Cuniru : 

Yocom's (U.), 1822-'54 W. T. Kershner (R). 81 

\V. O. L:iiib (L. ). .I.IO 

Wyomissing (R), 1850-'86 J. \'. George 219 

Ck)UgIersville ;L.), lSCi4 Z. H. Gabic, 300 

Redeemer ((Dakbrook) (L.), 1903 F. F. Buermyer, 21 

Robesor. : 

Plov/ (U.), 1764-1811-'G9 J. V. Cn^orge (R,), 54 

Z. H. Gable (L.), 350 
(Lutheran until 1?11) 

St. John's (.U.), Gibraltar J. V. (^corce (R.), SO 

Z. H. Gat.;e -r..), 320 
Frieden's (Wicklein) (Ind.), 1866... J. V. George (R.), 

St. John's <S. Spring) (R.). 17!141S12'S.->. .W. T. Kerschner, 295 
(Lutheran also from 1812 to 1S97) 

Kissinger's (U.), 1S51-'91 R. S. .\ppel (R.), 105 

E. S. Brownmiller IL.), 05 

St. John's (S. Spring) (L.), 1897 J. W. Lazarus, 328 

Union : 

St. James (Geigertown) (L.), lS50-'96 Z. H. Gable, 75 





Orthodox 1759 

Hicksite 1853 

Bent: , 1745 

Robeson: I735 

Protestant Episcopal 

St. Gabriel's, 17G5-lS00-'34 Wm. R. Holloway, . 41 


St. Thomas, 1740-1824 (vacant), 29 

RcMAN" Catholic 
Bally, 1743-1837 Charles Sauer, 1,000 


Robcsonia Chapel, ISGO 

Methodist Episcopal 


Morgantown, 3833-'78 W. C. Amthor, 206 

Harmony, 1871 I. S. Seitz 


Forest, 1773-185S I. S. Seitz 

Monocacy, 1873 A. I. Collom, 20 


Rock. 1844 (vacant) , 15 


Millmont, 1S93 J. A. Maxwell 

Brecknock ' 
Allegheny and Gehman. These two churches are 
connected with Bowmaiisville, in Lancaster county, 
under Bishop Benjamin Weaver. 

Bally-Old, 1743-1899 ^^ Jo"hn "Ehs^^"'^' ^° 

New, 1851-'97 A. S. Shelly, 206 


1824-'83 0. S. Kriebel 


Zion's, 1872. .' G. Burrell, 6 

Salem, 1883 G. Burrell, 26 


Centreville, 1852 N. Simon, 3 


Jerusalem, 1862 N. Simon, 11 


New Berlin ville, 1850 

Longszcamp : 

Shamrock, 1870 


Blandon, 1875 N. Simon, 33 


Leesport, 1901 N. Simon, 23 




Shoemakersville, 1857 N. Simon, 18 


St. Paul's, 1852 

United Evangelical 

Robesonia, 1895 S. Buntz 


Bethesda Thomas Knecht 


Friedcnsburg, lSSl-'89-'95 John T. Lavton | 137 

Pleasantville, 18G9-'95 John T. Layton j 


Vircinville, lS83-'95 H. J. Kline 


Pricetown, 1857-'95 John T. Layton 

?-(^'' f 




Mohn's Hill, 1845-'95 C. S. Mengel, 30 


Clayton, 1899 Thomas Knecht 

GFJtMAN Baptist Brethren' 
-Mohrsville (continuation of Xorth-kill Church^. 

1748 (vacant), 42 

Pricetown (continuation of Olcv Church), 1740-'S0- 
1807 '. (vacant) 

United Bkethren- 

( Morgantown ) 


Salem, 1876 


Sinking Spring, 1S67 


Loose's, 1870 


Trinity, 1848-'85 

The thirty-third annual convention of the Berks 
County Sunday School Association was held in the 
First Presbyterian Church at Reading on April 22, 
1909, and the attendance was very large. Th; 
county has been divided into eighteen districts and 
all of them were represented. Thirteen religious 
denominations were represented. 

The association was organized in 1S75 with J- H. 
Sternbergh as the first president and Lewis Crater 
as the secretary. In 1881 Samuel J. W'eiler was 
elected secretary, and he has served continuously 
until the present in a most efficient manner, withoi;t 
compensation. He prepared the following valuable 
statement, which shows the Sunday-schools of the 
respective denomiiiations. the superintendents, and 
the membership. Charles H. Leinbach, superin- 
tendent of St. Andrew's Reformed Sunday-school, 
served as president for the vear 1908-09. and was 
re-elected to serve for the year 1909-10. 

1st District — Birdsboro. Union 

Eckville Union, .•\lb.iny Reuben Bolich .... 

Frieden's Union, Sti>iiy Run J^mcs A. Schroeder 

Kempton Union, KcmTttt>n lames Leibold 

New Lelhel Union, Keripton James S. Focht .... 

Lenharfjville Union, Lc;iliart-viile A. B. Grcenawait . 

New Jerusalem Union. Stony Run.. Calvin Krause 

Salem Evaneelical, .Albany Tames E. SnyJer . 

St. Paul's Union. Virginvilie Milton L. Leiby .... 




4th District — Boyertoun, Bechtelsville, Colebrookdale, Douglass, 
Name Supt Members 

Good Shepherd Reformed, Boyei- 

town Daniel D. Lcidv 436 

St. John's Lutheran, Hoyenown. .Tims. R. Ilo'jcic U4."> 

Ebenezer M. E.. l!nyertown W. W. Wrcnn 74 

Trinity U. E., Boyertown E. E. Stautler lU'J 

Hereford New Mennonite, Here- 
ford Dr. O. II. Burkey 17S 

Brethren, Boyertown ... F. Ritter Sj 

Zion's Evangelical, New Berlin- 

ville H. B. StautTer .' . . 40 

Trinity Union. Bechtclsville Alfred Urur.ibach 292 

Union, Pine Iron \\ ork^ Mrs. F. Kurtz 103 

Bethany U. E, Clayton Wni. Clemmer 9o 

Union, Gabelsville lesse K. Bechtel 114 

Union, Greshville J. Weller 112 

Sth District — West Reading, M'yom 

First Reformed. Weniersviile. . . . 
Trinity Lutheran. Werners/il'e. . . 
Green Terrace Un., Wernersville. 
OaU- Hill Union, Lower Heidelberg 

Kissinger's l.'nion, .Spring Tp 

Marsh Union. Lorah 

Olive Leaf Union. I'ritztown 

St. John's Ref.. Sinking '■•pring.. 

Salem U. B., Sinking Spnncr 

St. John's Luth., Smkincr Spring. 
St. James Ref., West Reading.. 

Vinemont L'nion, Spring fp 

Evans Union, Spring Tp 

Bethanv Luthefan. West Reading. 
Memorial U. £., Mohn's Hill 


issing, St'ring, Lower Heidelberg 

Supt. Members 

.Leonard M. Ruth 255 

.T. C. Bricker 95 

John A. Werner 89 

.Solomon A. Brossman ... 153 

.Henrv G. Kissinger B2 

,X L. Bickel 77 

,E. R. Eckenroth 139 

E. H. Zechtnan 210 

H. il. Cake 115 

Henry H Vost 136 

Milton ('rring 431 

Henry Johnson 94 

..A. I. Noll 69 

W. O. Laufa 265 



6th District — 'Hamburg, Tilden, IVindsor, Upper Bet 

Name Supt. Members 

Bethany M. E.. Hamburg H. R. Shollenberger .... 159 

St. John's Lutheran. Hamburg. .. .H. C. Kl-ne SfiS 

Salem U. E., Hamburg William B. Miller fiS 

First Reformed, Il.nmourg Iivin .A. Diener 303 

St. Paul's Union, Windsor Tp Isa^c Krick 105 

Libertv Cn^ss Roads Union. Tilden. C 1'. S. Ketner 77 

St. Mjchaei's Union, Tilden F. H. Naftzinger, O. F. 

Bereer 295 

Bern Union. Tilden P. E. Naftzinger 74 

West Hamburg Union, Tilden .Vlfrcd M. H. DeLo'ng ... 105 

Zion's Union, Windsor .A. F. Baver 195 

.Shartlesville Union, Shartlesvill^. . fames F. Naftzinger .... 222 

Salem U. B., Tilden , .V. K. Fisher 96 

Bern Union, Upper Bern ..K. M. Heckman 75 

Name Supt. 

Birdsboro M. E.. Birdsboro G. F. Handwork 

Monocacy M. E., Monocacy Cjkb IF Bl.ind 

Trinity Evan., Birdsboro Ed. McOalackcr 

Calvary U. E.. Birdsboro \nna WiUard .. 

Grace U. B., Birdsboro S. C. Millard .. 

St. Mark's Lutheran, Birdsboro. .. .riiarles Khoads . 

St. Paul's Reformed. Birdsboro Jacob De Turk . 

St M'chael'? Episcopal, Bird.;horo. .Harry Kissin.gcr 

Kulptown Union, Union Blond ... 

Cedar Hill Union, Union Ifarry HotTman . 

St. Paul's M. E., Geig«rtow-n L. M. High ... 

St. James' Lutheran, (jeigertown. . .E. M. Zerr 




7th District — Topton, District, Longswamp, Hereford 
Name Supt. Members 
Grace U. E.. Topton Edgar Rohrbach . . : 118 


St. Peter's Union, Topton F. J. Fisher 

Longswamp L^nion. Longswamp. . .Ro>' E. Maybry... 

Pilgcrt's Union, Langswamp 

Bush's Union. Longswamp Augustus R. Frey 

St. Paul's Union, .Mertztown Charles B. Miller . 

Hancock Union, Longswamp Cliarles E. Aliller . 

Stemer's Union, Di=:trict ...Peter K. Sterner . 

L.^ndisville I'r.inn. District Elmer H, Bechtel . 

Huff's Church L'nion. Hereford. .. .Jacob Gries 

Chapel Union, Hereford Fred W. Hiiber .. 

Schlossburg Union, Longswamp. .. -Lizzie M. Findly . 












id District — ■Robeson, Caernarfon 
Name Supt. 

St. John's L'nion. Gibraltar H. K. Winings 

Robeson Union. Plowville M. J. Eshleman 

Harrnony M. E., Joanna J. W. Jacobs 

Mt. Shiloh Evan., nr. Morgantown.-Varon Trait 

"Morgaatown >L E, Morgantown. .George H Muhlenberg 

Gibraltar Union. Gibraltar Samuel W. Kerst.... 

Seyfcrt Holiness Chris., Seyfert \. J. Smith 

Zion's Union. Robeson W. Piersol 


3d District— Lenhartsi-ille, Greenwich, Albany 
Name Supt. 

Bethel Zions Union, Grimville .\. A. Fister 

Hover Mill Unirn. Stonv Kun Fred I^cin'-ir 

Dunkcl's Church Union, Virginville C. S. Merkcl 

*The word Union after trie name of the Sunday-schoo' 
Lutheran and Reformed combined. 



. . Ill 


Sth District — Mt. Penn, Lower 

St. Lawrence Union. Esterlv 

I^.ethany Union. Stonv Creelc Mills 
Baumstown L'nion, Uaumstown... 

Snvdrrville Union, Limekiln 

Trinity Reformed. Mt. Penn 

Locust Dale U. F.., Locust Dale.. 

L'nion Union, Monocacy 

Lorane L^nion, Lonne 

Fair\'ie\v L'nion. I'aumstown 

Douglassville L'n.. Ll"UgIassv!ile. . 
Tacksonwald L^nion, Tarksonwald. 

Amityville Union, Atl.ol 

Weavert<'wn C'n., Bnimfieldsvi1.!e. . 
Stoncrsville Uni.'n. .Sti,nrrsvi!le. . . 

.Mlsorts Unii'n, Neversiiik 

St. Ciahriel's Kpisc. Douglas-sville. 
Faith Lutheran, Mt. IVnii 

Alsace, Exeter, Amity, Eciri 

Supt. Members 

W. D. Brumbach 2S2 

R. T. Calm 

C. L. Shantz 

Chas. Knaab 

,J. R, Dickenson 

L M. Kehler 

I. R. Kline 

J. E. Troxell 

Howard Happle 

C. H. Hine 

C. R. Bortz 

C. R. Geiger 

fL V HarhoM 

■ Charles Kline 

.IL S. Ludwig 

S. McElwee 

George Hartline 






^ ,ii«^M:,' •,.- r. 




s)//i District— .4l.acc, Oh-y. Pike 
N'ame Stipt. 

Oley Union, Spangsville Tohn 1'. Tielier 

St Tosepu's Union. Hill Church...!) M. Dun. r lli' 

Frie'ilcn's Lutncran, DIev f. P. Sclicil 190 

Fric.len's Rcfornu-d. Ulci ). li. Unnb:-.cli 23s 

Zion U. K., Oley I. M. Bertulet .'l> 

Spies's Union. Alsuce Tp Ch.Trles )!. M.-ver --'' 

St. Paul's Union. I. ibaJi^ville L. ¥. Roiivb.ich llfi 

Bethany U. 1-, -Manatawny Ciiariei L. Sclierer .S3 

luih Distfict — Ce^trcfort, Cei.trc, West Lccsport, Bern 
Name Supt Members 

Bern Churcl; Union. Bern Tp Tare! L. SnyJcr 250 

White 0:\k Union, liern Tp Tared L. Snydir F9 

Meeting House Kvang., Bern Tp. ..Tohn Scbaurer 65 

Epler's Lhurch U.-.ion, Bern Tp I-'. B. Aiiimarcll 147 

Belleman's Union. Centre Tp .\. D. K.-iijenstose lol 

Bethany U. E., West Lecsport Simucl Bell 52 


Jltli District — Fleetwood, Rnscombmanor, MaiJcti-Creck, Richmond 
N'ame Sunt. .Members 

St. John's Union. Pricetown Mrs. <.i. V\ fb. Brown.... !I2 

Mennonite Brethren. Blandon Oscar B. Adam 59 

St. Paul's Union. Kleetwo-.d C. II. Adam 242 

U. E., Fleetwood D. F. Ktlchner 1T5 

Blandon Union. Blandon Tacb Shuman ],.S7 

Kirbyville Union. K.rby\il!c Irvmlloch 53 

Center Union, Mo'-.elcrn Snrim;?. . . .lloward Kah.i 110 

SchleniTTjjville Union, Mrlltown. . .B. .Adrim 1*7 

Walnuttown Un.. near Flcetwnod . .Matthias Mont? SO 

St. Stephen's U. E.. VirjrinviUe. . .William Sh.ippcl ;)(! 

Salem U, E., PricetoA-n Mrs. Catharirc Moyer ... 49 



tith District — M(<htiton, Cuiriru. Brecknock 
Name Sunt. 

Eshlenian's Union, Charles Griffith .... 

Wyomissinp Luth., Gouglcrsville. .. Sadie Price 

Allegheny Union, Knauer's _. 

Wyomi^sinc: Un., *^".''ai:lcrsvillc . . . . J'rank Eckenroth .. 

Millmont Baptist, Millnrmt Harry Stctlor 

Oakbrook Lutheran, ''lakh-oik... ^ 

Grace Lut/ieran, Shillinjrton T, >. Xajle 

Salem EvauReiical Molniion Inhn Werner 

Enjanuel Reformed. .>'iilhiigton W. A. Miller .. 

7ion's U, V.., Mohiiton tieor^c H. Lcininper 

St. John's LuthTnn. Mohnton C. B. Kindt 

"i'ocum's Union, Grill W. W. .Andre' 

Anpcliea Linton, Ci.mru . H. 0. Frey . . 

Gebhart's Union, Cumru Hcnrv Srvfirt 

Five .Mile }!ouse Union, Cumru... T. White 

St. Luke's U. E., Shiliin-IOH C. E. Colic 

lith District — R.-adini;, Muhlenberg 
Xanie Supt. 

St. Mark's Reformed, Green\.ich 

and Ritt-er n. V. R. I -id-vic: .. 

First Reformed. Washingtou end 

Rccd Selos R. Barnctt 1.8^4 

St. Stephen's Reformed, Ninth 

and Greenwich W. D. IJeEong .1.26C 

St Andrew's Reformed, Spruce 

and Miller C. H. Eeinb.ich 1,135 

Zion's Reformed. Washingtjn and 

Ced,->r \ndrcw S. SIG 

St. Paul's Reformed, Sixth above 

Washincton C. E. Creitz '56 

St. John's 'Reformed. Xint'i and 

"Chestnut William A. Levan .. 

Calvary Reformed, Centre Ave. 

and Oley .\. V. Cassclman ... 

St. Thomas' Reformed, Eleventh 

and Windsor E. F. Hendricks 

Second Reformed, Sixth below 

Cherrv John ll. Brideobauvrh 

Faith Ref..rmed. Bincaman bet. 

Fourth and Fifth . Di. I). S. Grim Grace Reformed. Ku'ztown 

Road Gcrr.;e McKenilv ... 

Olivet Ref..rnHd. Centre Ave. 

and Exeter Willi.nm I.einbach . . 

Temple Reformed, Temple, Pa. Joseph A. Wise 








St. Luke's Lutheran. N. Ninth 

near Green Benj. Grnbtr . . . 

Trinitv Lutheran, Sixth and 

Washinirton .V Raymond Bard 

Grace Luilicran, Eleventh and 

• Cherry L C. Hollow.ay . 

St. I'lms Luin., Church and 


Hope l-uth., Front and Green- 


St. Matthew's I.uth., Fifth and 


r-.t. lames Luth.. Fifth and , v t- .. 

(-y.j...jpy( SaniucI K. Knanb 

St. Mark'f. Lutii!." Tenth and 

WiniJsor rieury E. Hilbcrt 

A. Bendel 

Jacob T. Drumh'-ller 
C. W. HauR 



Alsace Lutheran. Kutztown Road D. D. Beck 

St. I'aul's Luth., Sixteenth and 

Pcrkiomen P. H. Lash 

St. Jolin's Mission Luth , Chap- 
el Terrace anove Lotton A. Bcmlel ., 

St. Peter's Luth., No. ' Doug- 
lass A. .•\. Koser 

Peace Lutheran, Riverside 

Covenant, M. E., Ninth and Elm H. J. Printz . . . 
St. Peter's M. E., h'ifth and 

Pine F. F. Boas 

Windsor St., ^L E., Front and 

Windsor W. H Morris . . 

Holv Cross. M. E., N. Fifth nr. 

Buttonwcod 'iValter S. Davis 

People's -M. C, S. Fourth above 

Franklin A. W. Heim . . . . 

Bethel -\. M. E., N. Tenth nr. 

Washington T. J. Long 

People's Primitive M. E., No. 

ln'Jj N. Tenth Bert LcSuer ... 

East End .M. E., No. 1338 N. 

Tenth F. C. S. Snyder 




First U. E., Eighth and Court W. H. Hendel 971 

Si. Paul's U. E., Mc*5 and 

Greenwich William W. Fetter 75S 

Grace U. E.. Sixth and Elm S. N. Walley 407 

Trinity U. E., S. Eleventh near 

Spruce H. J. Heck 275 

Bethany U. E.. Second and Dour- 


Salem Evanftelical, Eighth near 

Court William H. Miller, Jr. .. 540. 

Immanuel Evan., S. Sixth and 

Ket|ier Harry EisenDerg 420 

Ebene/er Evan., Ninth near But- 

tonwoe.d Waiter C. Hoffman 3!)7 

Christ Evan., Eleventn and R'.ib- 

eson R. B. Uavis Z7G 

St. Matthew's Evan., Eighteenth 

and Cotton George Boyer 21S 

Salem U. B., Tenth and Spring... F. G. Leibold 61S 

Zion's U. B . Ninth below V'enn. .William J. Levan il'J- 

Memorial U. B., Buttonv ood and 

McKnijjht William K. Taylor 101 

Otterbcin U. B., Eighth and Elm G. Waiter Behney 272 

First Bapti=t. F'ifth and Chestnut.. H. G. Kurt/ 

Berean Baptist, N. Ninth above 

Dougla.-s R. A. Rankin 

Schvl. Av. Baptist, Schvl Av. nr. . . 

'Greenwich ." Tlavid 11. Wvle . . . . 

Zion Baptist, No. 231 Poplar Mrs. E. D. Ilarris . 

Shiloh Baptist, No. ]2l'. N. Tcnt!i..Mrs. Mary Clippent 

German Baptist, between Green- 
wich and Oley Tim Wiess 

St. Barnabas Epis., Sixth and 

Bingaman Ira W. Stiatton 

Christ Episcopal, Fifth and Court. . Tlio'i. as P. Merritt 

St. .Marv's Epis., Front and 

Wi,,d.sor H. P. Walter 

St. Luke's Epis., Robeson and 

Mulberry W.llia-u P. Bu-k 

First Presbvterian, Fifth nr. 

Franklin ' H. J. Havdcn 

Olivet Prcs.. Eighth and Wash- 
ington J. R. Mortimer 

Washington St. Pres., Miiiber-y 

and Washington Geo. T. Flawkins 

First Christian. Chris., Chestnut 

above fourth Morris S. Glass 

Church of Our Father, l.'niv., 

Franklin above Fourth Samuel F. Guss 

Mennonite Brcth. 
near Oley . . 

Friendship Mission. Reformed 

Evan.. Cotton above Tenth. . .Jacob H. Kutz 


Calvary Mission. Followers of 

Christ. Washington nr Second .. Hci !» 

People's Mission. Followers of 

Christ. Little Gordon Pastor 

Mifflin St.. F. llowcrs ot Christ, 

No. 210 Mifflin Mrs. Rishell 

Neversink, Interdenom., No. 72,S 

P.ingnnian .\. H. Reist 

Temple, Interdenom., Temple, Pa. . . .\. H. Reist 














Windsor and Huni- 

fuvKr .„■. 



Scientists. Christian Science, No. 

■i-JO Walnut Lillian D. \Vil*jn 

ilinncrshitz Union, Eeformed 

and LutU., Tuckerton William Fisher ... 


14th District — Bethel, Tulfehocken. Cffcr Tuitchocker. 
Name Sii^r. Members 

Host Union. Tulpehccken O. F. Oxcnreider, W. W. Dcrr 152 

Zioa's Union, Strausstown . . . . C. A. Lnyer Itfl 

St John's Reformed, Mt. 

Aetna C. P. Klopp 115 

U. B., Mi. Aetna John D. KIopi TO 

Lutheran, Mt. .Aett:a Joan .\. dru'it-r 61 

Union, Rchrersburg E. fl. Moyer Ifio 

Lutheran, Rehiersburg W. J. Kurr (•' 

Union, Winters. lUe Ralph Weber 05 

Moll's Union, Upper Tulpe- 

hocken L. C. Freeman 52 

Cerman Baptist. Ciosskill Mills. Ira Giblilo .t8 

Ziegler's Baptist, Rehrersburg. Htnry L". Zic«'er ~'i 

Merkcy's Baptist, Bethel Samuel Sherman 66 

Bethel Union, Bethel P. C. Clemmens 118 

Kcener's Unioi., Tulpchock- 

en F. J. Paulus. .jO 

Schubert s Union, Bethel T.-^mes R. Roth +6 

Merkey's Union, Bethel John I'ortrr 4S 


Ijth District — Bertivilh, Jefferson, Fenn 
Name Supt. Members 

Mt. Picisant Union, Mt. 

Pleasant James O. Kreider 130 

Berbers Union, Scull Ilill M. J. Potteisei- 130 

Jefferson Uniun. J-Jferson Tp. .Daniel Kcii;el ii3 

St. Paul's Union, Tetierson Tp. .James .NL Balthei«cr 6! 

Groft's Union, Jefferson Tp.. .Percival GrufT 75 

St. Thomas' Union, Bern- 

ville S. P. Wilhelni 155 

Friedcn's Lutheran, Bernville J. Paul Eurket C2 

Cross Keys Un'on, Krick's 

Mills '. B. J. Anderson 100 

' 80U 

l6th District — Kutcto-cn, liLi.ratiiwny, Rocklaitd 
Name Si'pt. Members 

St. John's Reformed. Kjtz- 

town Clem. T. Stirhkr ;;:l:i 

St. Paul's Lutheran, Lyons J i\. .Stie.walt 140 

Christ's Reformed, llowers J. J. T)e[,iing 101 

Zicn's Union, Alaxatawny Joe! Ilcff'ncr, Georyc C. Her- 
mann 2.'>0 

St. Paul's Reformed, Kiitz- 

town _. ..Francis ShariHan l-'i3 

Trinity Luth., Kut7tovvn pu'iiton T). Hermann 271 

Union Union. L> ons S. M. Ilocli 100 

St. John's Lutiicran, Ivutz- 

town Samuel Heffncr 224 

Grace U. E.. Kutztown Thomas S. I.evan 02 

Christ's Lutheran, Dryville .....\mos F. Urcideram 137 

New Terusalem Reformed. 

Roc-kland A. .\. r)cl,»na 10;i 

Bethel Union. Rockland William A. Sclnvoycr 104 

Ruppert's Union. Rockland .....A. P. Rupprrt VG 

Dry ville Union, Rockland A. S. Aunfstadt Co 


Union, ifobrsviile James H. Wagner 169 

i^ion's Union, Windsor Cas- 
tle \. F. Baver 404 

Gernant's Union, !,r. ;,;,iirt ....Charles L. Kershner 100 

Ebenezer E"angelicai, Shoe-.. 

makersvillc Mrs. A.-nanda Voh 25 

Perry Union, VirqinviUr- Wils'.n P. Adam Jl 

Evangelical, Leesport Frank W . Adam <8 

North Heidelberg 

I7ih District— Womclsdorf, Heidelberg. Mar 
Name Supt. 

Robesonia Reformed, Robe- 

sonia T. L. T. Stoudt 174 

U. E., RobCFOnia Jacob B. Putt 45 

V. ¥.., Womeltdorf .\. Bauer OS 

Stouchsburg Union, Stouchs- 

burg P. W. Gerhart l.'l 

Bcthar.v O Home Rcf., Wom- 

elsdorf '.Vihop. T. Mo., re 153 

St. Daniel's Lutheran, Robe- 
sonia H. W. Sludcr 127 

Good Samaritan Union. Wom- 

elsdorf C. R. L-inhach 200 

Tannery Union. Heiib'.here ...Dr. F. F. M.assey 08 

HiU Union, North Heidel- 
berg Thoi. J. Zerbe 09 

Zion's Lutheran, Stouchsburg. . E. K. Kline 1!2 

Long's Lutheran. Stouchsburg ..\. T. Lmn; !I0 

Moycr's Union, Marion Tp Edwin Miller ;'0 

tSth District — Lccsport, Perr\\ Or.tclaimce 
Name S'.ipt. 

Salem U. E., Siioemakcrs- 

vi'.Ie H. S. Madeira 

Trinity T'nion. Ler-port .. .C._ K. Sjn'.d 

XTnion, ShoemakersvUle W. K. Smith 




... .'23 



1st 12 12 177 l,.'i99 1,775 

2d 8 7 115 807 1,003 

3d 11 4 167 965 1,171 

4th 12 10 235 1,983 2,278 

5th 15 9 365 1,815 2,265 

6th 13 10 255 1,731 2,137 

7th 12 5 213 1,173 1,406 

8th 17 17 272 1,563 1.8S7 

9th 8 7 148 990 1,109 

10th 6 3 131 500 724 

11th n 6 203 1,042 1,245 

12th 16 12 314 2,437 2,771 

13th 73 73 2,451 24.089 30,190 

14th 10 11 230 1,031 1,320 

15th 8 5 178 601 809 

10th 14 10 269 1,829 2,153 

17th 12 10 184 1,235 1.459 

18th 9 7 167 1,054 1,224 

Total 273 217 0,077 46,534 57,032 

Sunday AIait.s. — During the winter of 1829-30, 
a great excitenient prevailed throuijhont tlie coun- 
try respecting- tiie transportation of mails on Sun- 
days. iVttcmpts had been made by petitions of cer- 
tain religious societies to the Congress of the prev- 
ious year, to induce legislation on the subject, bu*^ 
the general remonstrance was so earnest that the 
committee of reference reported adversely, inti- 
mating that Congress uught not, and could not, 
legally exercise the power of legislation on ques- 
tions involving religious observance and the rights 
of conscience ; and these attempts were renewed 
before the Congress then sittmg, causing the de- 
velopment of great feeling ever}where on the sub- 

A large meeting of citizens of the county was 
held in the court-house at Reading on Jan. 23, 1830, 
for the purpose of uttering a protest against inter- 
ference en the one hand or legislation on the other, 
and a committee of distinguished citizens was ap- 
pointed to draft approj)riate resolutions. It was 
composed of David F. Gordon, Esq.. George M. 
Keim, Esq., George Fox, Isaac Ritter and Dr. Wil- 
liam J. C. Baum. The attempts to induce legisla- 
tion prohibiting the of mail on Sun- 
day were disapproved, because it was believed that 
such attempts were incipient st'jps toward the at- 
tainment of an object fatal to religious freedom — 
the unii)n of civil and ecclesiastical authority in the 
same individuals. 

Appropriate petitions were circulated, subscribed 
by many persons, and these were forwarded to 

/li^ ,,. 

,-;-.. i 

M-(V'*H .-in^H-vViC-l. 

: ; I r , 

-: : ■'? ;»j t.i-;.: 




Congress; and this expression of public sentiment 
caused t];e relie^ious movement, to cease ita agitation 
and finally pass away. Tlie transportation of mail 
on Simday was not prohibited, but continued as a 
work of nccetoity. 


Early Enxoukagi-mext. — The first settlers ap- 
preciated the imi)Ortance of education, and encour- 
aged it as a means of promoting the general welfare. 
They erected churches wherever they had effected 
a considerable settlement, and in them they caused 
their children to be taught the common branches of 
education, such as spelling, reading, writing and 
arithmetic. This teacliing was influenced to a great 
degree by the religious spirit that prevailed amongst 
them ; indeed, religious principles were considered 
a vital pan of their education. 

During the first settlements and until the passage 
of the common school la\v of 1S34, the education 
that pT-evailed throughout the length and breadth 
of tiie countv was almost entirely German. The 
prevalence of German education was a natural con- 
sequence from the great predominance of German 
settlers over all other nationalities. In Exeter, Oley, 
Maiden-creek, Robeson, and Reading districts, the 
Friends v/ere rather numerous, and they established 
English schools at an early period, which they con- 
tinued for m.any years. 

The first German settlers had brought along teach- 
ers and ministers, who were .so recognized before 
emigration. If there were no minister, the teacher 
oflficiatcd in both capacities. Some teachers even 
practised their trades, such as tailoring or shoemak- 
ing, whilst teaching. 

A notion has obtained that education was not car- 
ried on to any considerable extent in the county at 
an early da-, , and till the adoption of the common 
school system, but this is wrong. A good idea can 
be obtained from the following extract from a let- 
ter, dated Readiiig, April 9, 1763. addressed by Rev. 
Alexander ?>Iurray to the secretary of the Venerable 
Society for Propagating the (Jospel in Foreign 
Parts, stationed in England : 

The county for miles around this town is thick peopled, 
but what few else than Germans and Quakers, the former 
being computed twelve to one of all other nations tog^ether. 
and seem to be abundantly well provided in teachers of 
one denomination or another, and as lonij as they are so 
blindly attached to their native tongiic, as they are ar 
present, an English .minister can be of no great service 
to them. For this they mi£;ht be at no loss for English 
school-masters, yet they choose to send their children 
rather to German schools, which ilicy haz'c cz'cryn'hcrc in 
great plenty. 

The INIoravians, during their settletncnt in Oley, 
erected two dwellings on land donated to them by 
John de Turck. The first was occupied earlv in 
1745; and the second in 1748. for school purposes. 
In the latter there was a flourishing boarding-school 
for several years ; into which were incorporated the 
Aforavian schools of Gcrmantown and Frederick 

On July 31, 1750, a beginning was made to dis- 
solve the Moravian school in Frederick township, 
by transferring pupils to other ."schools, and in the 
last week of August, 1750, sixteen Vicre transferred 
to Oley. 

FiKST Te.\ciiers. — The following persons were 
teachers before 1752: 

Gvorye Sticfel. Joim Nicholas Kurtz, and Casper Leut- 
bteker in Tulpehockcn. 

Frederirk Hoelwit; in Loni,'swamp. 
John Valentine Kraftt in Richmond. 
Theodore Schneider in Htretord. 
George Youngman in Oley. 

In 1743, the following provision was made in 
Richmond township toward the encouragement of 
teaching : 

That it is our most earnest desire that the teacher, as 
well as the preacher, shall be fairly compensated so that 
he can live with his family as an honest man, without 
being ubliiTcd to engage in any business foreign to his 
profession. To this end the teacher and the preacher 
shall ha\e the land and tiic house on it free, as long as 
they officially serve the congregation. 

Pay schools were maintained in every district, the 
pupils paying several cents a day, according to the 
number of branches taught ; and this custom pre- 
vailed from the beginning until k>ng after the sys- 
tem of 1834 had been introduced. 

Parochial schools were carried on and encouraged 
in connection witli churches in the several sections 
of the county, being always situated near by. The 
preachers, eiders and deacons were expected to see 
that the teacher maintained good order and that 
each pupil received proper attention. The teacher 
had to possess a good character, and ability to sing 
and teach singing as well as to teach the common 

Charitv ScHoor-S. — A charitable society was es- 
tablislied early for the instruction of poor' Germans 
and their descendants in Pennsylvania. Previous to 
1751, certain Reformed ministers who had settled the immigrants found them in distress. Thev 
entreated the churches of Holland to commiserate 
their unhappy fellow-Christinns, and contributions 
were sent to these remote parts. In 1751, Holland 
and West Fnesland granted two thousand guilders 
per annum for five years toward instructing the 
Germans and their children in Pennsylvania. Great 
encouragement was given to this .scheme bv per- 
sons of the first rank in Oeat Britain, King George 
III. having contributed ^1,000 toward tins object, 
and the Princess Dowager of Wales ilOO; and 
the proprietaries engaged to give a considerable 
sum every year to promote the undertaking. The 
society then adopted certain resolutions for thj 
management of the scheme, and proposed a plan 
for establishing schools. The Governor of the 
Province recognized the utility of the scheme and 
ajipointed a Ijoard of trustees for its proper direc- 
tion. Conrad Weiser was one of the members of 
this board, and Rev. Michael Schlatrer was appoint- 
ed general supervisor. Petitions from Reading and 
Tulpehockcn were addressed to the board in the 

•lit: )( 

. 1^ ■ ; , 

■I . 'ilVK ';?•>« 


^, , flil 

.'iA^, _ 



-1'J;'SP qn-j';- . 



' A. 

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,,r '■f .-/ ■ -- ' , -- _ 

'■'--t. 'ff^-v^fcaw^itfc*:/ JrC 


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early part of 1755 to secure the benefit of these In ISo?^. when the State contained about eig-ht 

contributions so as to establish some of the schools, hundred thousand children, less than twenty-five 

and Schlatter accordingly organized a school at each thousand attended the common schools — just one 

of the places named. in thirty-one, or about three per cent, notwithstand- 

But the charity schools proved an utter failure, ing the ofifer of education at the public expense. 

and Schlatter was personally the chief sufferer. But in 1SS:>, the State contained about two million 

His official position as superintendent rendered him children ; and the number attending common schools 

the main object of popular hatred, though for a was over nine hundred and fifty thousand, nearly 

time the Lutheran and Reformed ministers had sus- one-half, an increase of sixteen-fold in fifty years, 

tained him. The German I'cople lost confidence in The general system, provided bv the act of 1834, 

this undertaking through the denunciations of Chris- is attributable to a society which was organized at 

topher Salter, who asserted in his Gennan news- Philadelphia in 1827. The express object of this 

paper (published at Germantovvn) that these schools society was general education throughout the State, 

were intended to prepare the wav for establishing and its efiforts, after laboring in this behalf for seven 

the Church of England in this part of the province, years against bitter opposition, culminated in the 

and in this way it was believed Schlatter's influ 
ence was entirely destroyed. 

Common Schools. — Various and repeated legis- 
lative attempts were made toward general educa- 
tion throughout the State, and they gradually devel- 
oped a public sentiiuent in its beh.alf until finally 
there was e.stablished the compulsory system, pro- 
vided by the Act of 1849, which" was improved by 
the Act of 1854. 

The Constitution of 177G had provided that "a 
school or schools shall be established in each countv 
by the Legislature for the convenient instruction 

of youth, with such salaries to the masters paid by Ruscuinbmanor 1837 

the public as may enable them> to instruct youth at Cokbrookdale 1S38 

low prices"; and that of 1700; "The Lcgi?latur<: 
shall, as soon as conveniently may be, provide by 
law for the establishment of schools throughout the 
State in such manner that the poor may be taught 
gratis." This provision continued in the fundamen 

passage of the act mentioned. In 1835 a great ef- 
fort was made to repeal this act, but it failed. The 
credit of preserving the system at that time is given 
to Governor George Wolf and Hon. Thaddeus 

System Accepted bv Districts. — The following 
statement shows the year when the several districts 
of the county accepted the common school system: 

Reading 1834 

Caernarvon 1834 

Rolicson 1836 

Union 1836 

Womc-lsdorf 1836 

HamhtirK 1838 

Kutztovvn 1833. 

I\rarion 1839 

Hereford ISir, 

.Alsace 1849 

Exeter 1849 

Heidelberg 1S49 

Rockland 1850 

Spring 1850 

Tulpehocken 1850 

Washington 1850 

Windsor 1850 

Eern, Upper 1851 

Bcrnville 1851 

Centre 1851 

Earl 1851 

Greenwich 1851 

Longbwamp 1851 

Muhlenberg 1351 

Ontelaunec 1851 

Penn 1851 

Perry 1851 

Pike 1851 

Maxatawnv 1852 

Bethel ..' 1854 

Richmond 1854 

.\lbary 18.55 

Jefferson 18.55 

Tulpehocken, Upper ..1855 

tal law of the State unchanged until the new Con- Maulen-creek 1849 

stitution of 1873, when it was modified as follovv-s : ^"^'^-' ^^^y 

"The General Assembly shall provide for the main- Brecknock 1850 

tenance and support of a thorough and efficient sys- Cumru 1S50 

tern of public schools wherein all the children of nouglass 1850 

.1 • /- ,.1 I 4.1 r ■ _^ „,^,, Heidelberg, Lower. ... 1850 

this Commonwealth above the age of six years may Heidelber|, North. .. .1850 

be educated, and shall appropriate at least one mil- Qjcy . . . .' 1850 

lion dollars each year for that purpose." 

A great weakness in its early history was the All the districts had accepted the system of 1834 
incompetency of teachers. Educated men and worn- before the compulsory provision had gone into ef- 
en of experience in teaching could not be obtained feet, excepting District township, which held out 
because duty to themselves and to their families until 1807. refusing iir the meantime to accept the 
obliged them to labor in vocations which afforded State appropriation. The districts subsequentiv es- 
better remuneration ; and a pronounced opposition, tablished. acceptecl the system at the time of their 
on account of burdensome and unjust ta.xation to erection. 

support the system, discouraged those who felt in- Pleasantville was established as a separate district 
clined to teach. But a greater weakness than in- out of Oley township in 1857. 

competent teachers existed. It was the distinctive Altogether the districts in the countv number 
feature of the public schools and of the children sixtv-one. 

attending them, for they were called "pauper In 1854, the schools numbered 30?, and the schol- 
schools," and "pauper scholars." and this made them ars lO.llfi : in 1881. the schools. 509, attd the schol- 
odious to the very class that was to be principally ars, 20,848; and in 1008, the schools, 855, and the 
benefited, ' scholars, 28,340. 


«*! . 




" .' -i 

'' ■ ■ ' -TT ,•(;:,? ^: 








Ta'x and Rate 
Per Cent 







? S 







•^ r 

o- 5 











= 3 

c 1 



~ ;r 



^ = 









^ 1- 





J5 t. 

"k £"3 























SI. 99 

■5? Sir? or. 


Alsace, Lower 4 

Amity Hi 

Bechtelsvilie 2 

Bern 12 

Bernville 2 

Bern, Upper 

Bethel 15 

Birdsboro 11 

Boyertown 9 

Brecknock f> 

Caernarvon 7 

Centre 9 

Centreport 1 

Colebrookdale 9 

Cumru 26 

District 1 

Douglass S 

Earl 6 

Exeter 15 

Fleetwood 5 

Greenwich 11 

Hamburg 12 

Heidelberg 10 

Heidelberg, North.... 5 

Heidelberg, j./Owcr.... 21 

Hereford 8 

Tefierson 7 

Kiitztown 4 

Lenhart.-iville 1 

Lonpswanip 16 

Maiden-creek 11 

Marion 7 

Maxatawny 15 

Mohnton 7 

Mount Penii 3 

Muhl(Hibc!g ■ ■. . 12 

Oley 23 


Penn S 

Perry 12 

Pike C 

Pleasantville, Ino 1 

Reading SSI 

Richmond It 

Robeson 17 

Rockland 8 

Ruscon-.hmanor 9 

Spring ir> 

Tilden 6 

Topton 3 

Tiilpehockcn 14 

Tulpehocken, Upptr... S 

Union 9 

Washi'njton 9 

West LeespcTt 3 

West keadini; 7 


Womels'lorf 6 

Wyomissing 3 


























50. nO 






























































GO. 00 





















46. 6(-, ' 







53 on 





4 3.75 











5" 61-, 




















5 I., '2 






















4 c;. 61! 
















50. Ill 








47. 7^^ 











Sllillington included still with Cumru, 

Note: State appropriation to district? 
Total estim.Ttcil valii'.- of school pfprrty 
Total receipts in county for school purp^ 

J. 71 












4,284.4 t 
8. 56,". 68 

3,504 31 
2,660 5b 
1,401. 15 

315 27 

1.058. 70 

liich S64.155.80 to Reading. 
I in State. $90, 363.211 
Jges, $37; 

total expenditures, $620,086. 

T:.. -I '.••■.'' 
%'. ttt.I 




r.ECTL'RE ON Weiser. — Extracts taken from the 
compiler's lecture on the "'Life of Conrad Weiser," 
dehvered in diififerent parts of the county during 
IbS'l. 1S92 and 1^93, bv way of describing- the 
direction and intluence of the echicational system 
of the State on the people of Beri^s county : 

The general education of the people of Berks county 
has been going on contmuously from the time of the 
first settlements until now. Starting at a time when a 
considerable population was settled in all sections of the 
county, say in 1752 when it was erected as a political 
organization in the State, and extending over a period 
embracing a century, the education of the people through 
the instrum.entality of sciiools was confined to the rudi- 
ments, that is, the ordinary accomplishments which en- 
a'olfd them to carry on industrial and social affairs in 
a successful manner. It was rather of a practical nature, 
and therefore more inclined to the useful than the orna- 
mental. A common education consisted of a genera! abil- 
ity to read, write and cipher, and to talk in the English 
language reasonably well, and this was regarded as suffi- 
cient for the ordinary demands of life. 

In 17.')2, schools were scattered in all the sections of 
the county. There were several in a township, and the 
scholars farthest distant were about five miles off. There 
was no taxation for school purposes. Each scholar paid 
two or more cents a day. according to studies, and the 
teacher earned about a dollar a day. The buildings were 
ordinary btruciures, built mostly of stone or log. The 
money expended was made to reach as far as possible. 
The education obtained was necessarily of a simple nature, 
so as to be easily acquired. Everythir.g connected with 
it was expressive of economy. idea stood out very 
prominently, and it had a good effect upon the manners 
and habits of the people. The perceptive faculties were 
more active than the imaginative. Labor was king, not 
education. Labor was regarded as the foundation of ev- 
erything, and education only as a means for facilitating 
its intelligent direction. Everybody labored — men and boys 
at farniirig and industrial pursuits, women aiui girls in 
household affairs. It was labor that produced and im- 
proved, and economy that multiplied results. Hence the 
county grew lapidly. There was little or no waste. No- 
tions and p.-actices of this kind prevailed in a general 
way until about 1S54. 

Then a unifo'-m system of education was established 
by the State government and tips has prevailed since. 
It has been encouraged by increasing annual appropria- 
tions for school purposes. The enormous amount for the 
year 1893 ($6.0(ii>,U(>U ) shows tlie people's extraordinary 
spirit of liberality towards general ediication. In the in- 
terior districts, the school buildings have not advanced 
much beyond the buildings of 1S."4, but those of the cities, 
even of some of the towns, show a remarkable growth in 
size and appearance. By comparison of general results, 
it will be found that the system of 1S">-1 has inclined in this 
time more towards the ornam.ental than the useful. The 
scholars are led to devote too much time and energy to 
information that they do not use, and are not expected 
to use in the ordinary associations of life; also to matters 
anrl things that are too much disposed to develop the 
imaginative faculties rather than the perceptive. 

In tills way t'le love of labor has come to lose its hold 
upon a large proportion of the people, and consequently 
labor is no longer king. The spirit of education has grown 
so much that it is of more consequcnge than tlie spirit 
of labor. Through it the school cliildrcn are getting to 
be more and more inclined to settle in employments that 
are designed to produce or serve things for ornament 
rather than use, and they are nuining more towards 
clerking, soliciting, negotiating and kindred employments 
which require earnest action of the mind rather than of 
the body far beyond the natural and equitable demands 
of society. .And the sustenance of tliis increasing number 
with their numerous niagnified waiUs is obtained at the 

expense of the physical exertions of a large proportion 
of the people. Thi.s has been stimulated to such a degree 
that it has become burdensome in a very appreciable man- 

A growing inequality in various ways is more and more 
apparent, especially in respect to property, money and 
income, and the influences which they exert; and as this 
inequality grows on the one hand, extrava,gance manifests 
itself on the other, indeed, to such an extent that it is 
commonly regarded as necessary to social existence. A 
prominent desire, flowing from this inequality, is to profit 
by the labor of others without mental or physical exer- 
tions; and though this is admittedly a great disadvantage 
against the industrious element of any commiuniry it is 
justified and enconra.ged without the slightest compunc- 
tion. A desire growing entirely too common is to fill 
an office, exercise municipal power and dispose of public 
funds, all of which lead the mind and conscience away 
from a just conception of industry and from the real 
value of money. And another injurious desire, not only 
in Berks county but elsewhere, is the migration of many 
industrious people from country districts to populous 
places where equality, co.Ttfort and contentment are not 
half of what they formerly enjoyed. Decrease of popula- 
tion in townships and increase of it in the cities is a bad 
indication for the general welfare. Evidently some evil 
inrtuence is at work that produces such a result in social 

This general tendency must be changed. It must be 
guided into the channel that was occupied naturally be- 
fore 1834. Labor nuist be restored to its position as the 
recognized king. The practical m.ust be studied and en- 
couraged in preference to t!;e ornamental; and the devel- 
opment of the perceptive faculties must receive a lar.ger 
share of consideration than the imaginative. Each one 
of us should be so taught as to obtain a proper idea of 
industry and to feel the absolute necessity of contributing 
his share of useful labor in the production of things of 
real, not speculative value. And industrial alYairs slViuld 
be so conducted, or rather they should be permitted to 
so regulate themselves without legislation or other inter- 
ference, that the small communitie's shall have equal op- 
portunities with populous cities in the race of progress. 
The question may well be asked : Can thi-~j be accomp- 
lished? If so, how is it to be done? 

I would answer through our scho'ds by teaching branch- 
es of knowledge that can be utilized by the scholars when 
they come to act fnr themselves and that will fit them 
for the stations which they may be expected to occupy ; 
through a proper conception of the importance of labor 
and of local rights, aiul a uniform desire to co-operate in 
the several affairs of life: and also through lecturing on the 
character of men and women who have been usetul, just 
and honorable to the communities in which they lived. 
In this behalf I have selected Cux-i.\ri Weislr as a proper 
subject for our consideration. By studying his career 
we shall find for our guidance the useful things of life 
rather than the ornamental. The former constitute the 
basis of general association and incline us to co-operate 
with one another in individual and social affairs; but the 
latter create a spirit of ri\alry and incline us to strike 
out for ourselves regardless of consequences to others. 

Ornamental education lias been to us for some years 
a proud and presumptuous mistress, but we have come 
to find at last that she has misdirected otir efforts and 
generosity and misled many of us away from the sta- 
tions for which we were adapted by nature and associa- 
tion. Through her a great many persons have diifted 
into unproductiveness, ulleiiess, or restlessness to siic'i 
a degree that it behooves us to stop and see if we cannot 
find what steps must be taken to restore useful industry 
and produce general c*ontentment. Investigation and re- 
flection will lead us to conclude that labor must be sub- 
stituted as master in the place of education as mistress. 
In this way only can we come to adopt and hold on to 
the useful and practical, and to transmit our individuality 
to future generations. 



Enf CATioxAL PuKi'OST-: OF W'eiser Lecti'ue.— Ail 
irtro'luction to the compiler's lecture, txpiaiiatorv 
of his purpose, was published and distributed with 
the lecture under the auspices of the Rcading^ Board 
of Trade in ISiKj, and the forcibleness and truthful- 
ness of his remarks at tiiat time, sixteen years aq-o, 
will be appreciated by studying^ the condition of edu- 
cational, political and indu^t^ial atl'air-; at the pres- 
ent time, in the year I'JU'.). The introduction was as 
follows : 

The tendency of tlie times for some years lia> been 
against the uniform development of the districts that con- 
stitute larger divisions of territory, as counties and States. 
Like the draining waters of creeks and rivers into the 
ocean without artificial impediments — as in the primeval 
period when mechanical power was not den^.andcd — in- 
dustries, wealth, and population have been drifting, or 
rather drained. to'A-ard uaeat centers, such as Boston. Xew 
York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Cincitmati, Chicago, St. 
Louis and San Francisco. It is even to be noticed in 
inland counties like Berks, Lebanon and Lehigh, for the 
county-seats are growmg so rapidly that they are com- 
ing to have the major part of assessed proprrty anrl popu- 
lation, notwithstanding tlie area of territory occupied is 
comparatively limiled. Political and social influences arc 
thereby developed in cliannels leading to personal distinc- 
tion rather than general welfare. In this way too much 
power is permitted to settle gradually but surely in 
certain persons, and their individual judgment is taken 
as public opinion. This is against the substantial inter- 
ests and prosperity of the people taken as an organized 

General education and government have been carried on 
for many years by a prescribed system for the general 
advantage of all the inhabitants. The. manifest design 
of this legislation was to build up the parts which con- 
stitute the whc>le, on the theory that if tlie. several parts 
be recognized for intelligence and self government the 
whole ntust necessarily he distmguishcd in these respects. 
But with all our State and locril appropriations for the 
purposes of education and government, many parts are 
fcuTid to b; deteriorating, while only few are improving. 
This is particularly noticeable in respect to property, pop- 
ulation and social infiuenct-r arid" in respect to mdividual- 
ity, co-operation, confidence and reliability, the average 
development is not what we ha\e a right to expect in 
return for the ta.xes levied and expenditures made. Elect- 
ors contribute their share of the ta.xes to enable the several 
parts or districts to be successfully maintained and devel- 
oped, but the substantial and uniform local benefits for 
which the taxes are assented to without complaint arc not 

Steam and electricity have latterly become so important 
in the development of industr>- for the superrluities of 
life, and capital and speculation have concentrated so • 
largely in metropolitan places, from which they c.xert 
a most extraordinary influence over the manners, cus- 
toms and desires of society, rt^aching out huiidrcds if 
not thousands of miles, that little hope can '..e entertained 
of effecting a chnngt; by the discus.~ioii of local rights 
in the interior parts of Pennsylvania along the moun- 
tains, I mean such a change as would give to labor a due 
proportion of its products in the districts where it is 
carried on. 

The wafers rise not in the mountains simply to flow 
on to the sea witlnHit advantage to the people as they 
pass, nor are men and women intended to establish do- 
mestic relations in the interior parts of the country sim- 
ply to permit their otTspring to be drawn away to swell 
the population of great cities, nor are they expected to 
work and practice rigid economy simply to give the real 
benefits to financier'^ and speculators far removed from 
the seat of industry; but they are designed to serve a 
more direct purpose in tlic atlairs of mankind. Tlie nat- 

ural results would be more advantageous to the locality 
if ihey were not commonly and persistently drawn away 
I'y selfish manipulations. .\ true conception of local right's 
would greatly modify these manipul.atioiis in such a man- 
ner as to encourage plans and sclu-mes of distribution that 
would produce a uniform appreci.ation and development of 
the general rights, privileges and conveniences of the people. 
Circumstances, sometimes accidental, but mostly the result 
of deliberation, may enable a man or body of men to take 
an unfair advantage over (jthers, whether as neighbors 
of the same loc.ility. or as fellow citizens of adjoining or 
ilistant localities, but in the short span of a life-time this 
advantage will be found to result eventually in a disad- 
vantage of some kind, either of a personal or general 

Our education bei^ig intended for social elevation, and 
our government for political equality, the former should 
incline us to be just and fraternal, and the latter in all 
its departments to be impartial, whatsoever the situation 
of the several localities. But nt}- historical researches, 
with a collection of statistics, have brought me to see 
an opposite social and political tendency; and believing 
it to be inji'.rious to the general welfare, I was led to 
study the career of Con'rad Weiser, a most zealous advo- 
cate of local rights, and to present the result of my re- 
llections to the people in the form of a lecture, with the 
hope that thereby public attention would be directed to 
the rights and demands of the respective parts of Berks 
county, and that this tendency might be changed in the 
interest of practical not theoretical political equality, of 
general not individual industrial power, and of real not 
imaginary social progress. 

Te.-\cher5"' Ix.stitutes. — An institute, composed 
of many of the school teachers of the county, was 
first held in ^.Tarch, 1S51. in the Court-House at 
Reading, for the pitrpose of encouraging tlie general 
work of educatirm by a di.scussion of improved 
rnethods of teaching, an organization having been 
effected in January preceding. The meeting was 
largely attended, and it was very successful. In- 
stitutes were held for several years in succession 
and then discontinued. 

fn 1SG7. the State Legislature passed an i\.ct of 
Assembly rccpiiring the county superintendent of 
common schools "to call upon and invite the teach- 
ers of the common schools and other institutions of 
learning in his county to assemble together and or- 
ganize themselves into a teachers' institute, to be de- 
voted to the improvement of teachers in the .science 
and art of education, and to continue in session for 
at least five days.'' In conformity with the provisions 
of this law, the county superintendent, Prof. John 
S. Ermentrout, held a county institute in ISGS, at 
Reading. It was largely attended by teachers from 
a.ll sections of the county, and great interest was 
manifested. Since that time, annual institutes have 
been held with increasing attemlance and success. 

In LSGt), when Prof. D. B. Brunner became 
county superintendent, he inaugurated the systeni 
of local institutes, and during that year he held 
eight institutes in different sections of the county 
which proved verv succe-^sful. Tiiis enabled the 
teachers in remote districts to attend an institute 
and become familiar with its proceedings, and also 
to take a part in its discussions, an opportunity 
being afforded and an inclination to <lo so being 
encouraged. This latter feature was particularly 

.,;;;,,, k', \.:n. 

:,■,.'. 1 "■ i;i J 



?ppreciable, for in a local institute the teachers were 
thoroughly acquainted with one another, and, not 
being so numerous, they were enabled to partici- 
pate practically in its discussions. Each succeed- 
ing year till now has shown an ever-increasing in- 
terest in them. 

The Pennsylvania State Educational Association 
was tirst organized in 1850. Three of its conven- 
tions were held at Reading; in isGo, in ISTS, and 
in 1905. 

Pay Schools. — Various pay scb.ools were con- 
ducted in the county, out of the limits of Reading, 
before the establishment of the compulsory system 
and afterward for many yea'rs, more especially in 
Union and Oley townships, and at Boyertown, 
Kutztown and W'omelsdorf. But they have all 
been discontinued excepting the Keystone State 
Normal School which is described in connection 
with Kutztown. 


There was no newspaper published in the county 
before 17S'J. News was communicated bv persons 
to one another mostly at inns and stores, of which 
the number was large in proportion to the poDula- 
tion, more especially at -Reading. The latest acci- 
dent, death, transaction or crookedness of any kind 
was communicated from one to the other, or to 
small groups of persons; and so it was carried 
from building to building and from place to place, 
not in the English language (for English was little 
spoken then bv those w!io assembled at inns) but 
Gennan, which was used almost entirely, through- 
out the county in the daily affairs of life, both secu- 
lar and rehg'ous. 

During this early period, the Pcnnsyk-^iiiia 
Gazette, published at Philaiielphia, had a lim- 
ited c;rc4.dation in Reading and in the county. 
It was an interesting messenger to the peo- 
ple; and its weekly arrival must have been an 
event of more than ordinary importance. A copy 
was doubtless busy in passing amongst ])erscms 
who could read English — not for the personal mat- 
ters which it contained, but for foreign affairs. 
market reports, letters published, etc. Christopher 
Sauer's Journal, a newspaper printed in German, 
and published at Germantown, had a more extended 
circulation in this vicinity, and it exercised a large 
influence over the residents. 

Forty years in the historv of Reading elapsed 
before the newspaper became a local institution. 
The entire period of its local life as a town, with all 
its many important events, passed away without 
havin,g it intrc>duced. This would seem to be a long 
while for such a factor to obtain a foothold in a 
community otherwise energetic and progressive ; 
but this delav is capable of explanation. The peo- 
ple were interested in home rather tiian in foreign 
aflairs, and strove to give thein successful develop- 
ment. Local matters required no printed publica- 
tion, for. the town being small and the populatioti 
limited, they were easily communicated. But a'^ 
the town grew into a borough, and especially as the 

borough grew into a city, with its territory en- 
larged, the inhabitants more widelv scattered and 
the population largelv increased, the natural way 
became more and more incapable of satisfying the 
inquisitiveness of the people and an artificial wav 
had to be introduced — and this was supplied by the 

After the lapse of a century, general progress 
came to be so wonderfid, the people so numerous 
and scattered, and their relations so intermingled, 
that, just as the natural way had to yield to the 
artificial, so did tlie old and slow process of print- 
ing on a hand-press, with its limited capacity, have 
to make way for the new and spirited process, by 
a steam-press, with its unlimited capacity. In the 
beginning, the newspaper was weak in every res- 
pect, small in size, limited in circulation, uncertain 
in financial support, and v,-anting in mental vi.gor 
and originality ; hut afterward it became strong, 
rich, energetic and inventive. 

The newspapers of the county comprise two 
classes, weekly and daily. Some of them were 
printed in the GeiTnan language, but most of them 
in the English. The following statement shows 
the names of the several newspapers instituted 
at Reading and in the county ; also the names of 
the founders, the lime when instituted, and the dur- 
ation of the publication. Though published almost 
entirely at Reading, they have been placed in this 
chapter on account of their general circulation 
throughout the county and elsewhere. 

Name rovindi.T 

Neuc Unparthcyische I Johnscm, P.arton \ 

Readinger Zeitung ) & Jiingmann j' 

JVcck'ly Advertiser Gottlob Jungmann 1796-18 IC 

r, J- IT I J Jacob Schm-ider and | .._,- .^„, 

Reading Herald.. ^^eorgo Gerrish ^.■l'96-i,3u 


Rcadinsier Adler* . 


Jacob Sclinciflcr and 

George Gerrish 

U'ch Bothc Hcnrv B. Sage ... 

Berks and Sehuylkill** 

Journal George Gctz 1316-1909 

Readinger Post Bote. . .Ch-arles A. Bruckman. . . 1816 IS-'r, 
^, . ■ r .; T- Samuel Mvers and } , ,, ,„^. 

Chronicle of the 7^"""- -Douglass W. Hyde ^ ' ' 1-2-1S..6 

Jackson Democrat Charles J. Jack 1826-1826 

„ .. r. . Jeremiah Schr.eider ? ,„„p -„^. 

Readinger Democrat.... '^^^ 5^^^^,^, ^j^.^^^ ^ . . . . c8-6-1S.,d 

Berks County Press Samuel Myers 1S3.=;1S05 

Jefferson Democrat Robert W. Albright 1S?.S-J818 

Liberale Bcohachtcr .Xrnold Puwellc 1339-]S6o 

Reading Gazette and Jacob Knabb and ) 1840-1878 

Democrct J. Lawrence Getz \ 

Alt Berks William B. Schocncr. . .1840-1845 

Sonne von Alt B.-r/ti. . .Charles W. Guenther. . . 1S4.--1S48 
Reading Herald Abraham S. Whitman. . ]S:6-18.">o 

People's Advocate -^ S. Whitman and ) is:>0-1552 

Joseph E. Berret ) 

r, , ^ . n , Samuel L. Young and) 

Berks County Democrat Andrew M. Sallade J J8-"=-3»-S 

James Millholland and,> „.„,^.„ 
School Album Albert R. Durham jl8.,S-18.,9 

* Ritter family connected witli publication since 1802. 
"Owned by publishers of Rcitdit\g Times since ISCd. 

' '• ■ ' 1 ''.'If ■:!'■ 



Rcjormirter Hausfrcund 

Banner von Berks 

Die Bicne 

Die Deutsche Eiche . . . . 
Rct'uhlikancr I'on Berks 

Spirit of Berks 

Reading W^-eklv Eagle. 
Readin- Iferklv Herald 
Reading Weekly Xez^'s.. 
Reformed Cl:nrch Ree'd 

Reading Democrat 

Labor Advocate 

Union Sentinel 

J. Robley Dunglison 18G0-1861 

Daniel Miller 1807-1904 

William Rosenthal*. . . .1.^54-1009 

William Rosenthal* 1S67-1909 

William Rosenthal* 1S09-1OO9 

Daniel Miller 1SG9-1S99 

Daniel S. Francis ISTO-lSSl 

Jesse G. Hav.Iey 1S7S-1909 

John B. Dampman 1SS1-1S06 

William S. Ritter lSSl-1900 

R. FJausman 1SS8-190.) 

W. C=car Miller 1894-1809 

Harrv U. De Gour 1900-1909 

Federated Trades 

Council 1901-1909 


Name FouuiJcr Year 

Litteratur Blatt \usust Eendel lSS3-190(j 

lUustrirtc Jiigrvdblaftcr. Auizust Rendel is;<4-19i)9 

Pennsyhania Philatelist Clifford a. Kissinger. . .1891-1903 

Greater Reading: Walter .S. Haniaker 1897-1S9S 

Greater An.'erica Walter S. Hamaker ly.lS-lOO.T 

Preacher's Assistant Frank J. Boyer 1889-1009 

Mengel & Ment^el have issnej a Real Estate Reg- 
ister monthly since January, IS!).", relatincr to the 
conditions of real estate at Reading and vicinity. 



Name Founder Year 

Neutralist William Harmon v 1S:!3-1S41 

Geist dcr Zeit .Hawreciit ?z Wink 1811-1863 

Der Hirf J. S. Hermnn isvt-isr.r, 

K-utztozi.'n Journal Isaac F. Christ 1S70-1909 

National Educator T.'.aac F. Christ .... ^. . .1872-^ 

American Patriot Isaac F. Christ 18T-!-1900 

Name Founder Ve^r 

TT I c 1 11^ J. John Fchcifiv and? ,„,, ,,,„. 

Ilar.iburg Sclivel post. . .\x--,y ci i . r . . . .lStl-190.) 

'Hamburg Advertiser. . . .M. H. -Sho-llenlierprer. . . . i8'i,')-lS53 

Rural Press J. K & T. G. Smith 18T-'-lS7:) 

Hamburger Bcrichter . . .WiWiam F. Tyson 187:2-1874 

Hamburg Weekly Item .'innnvA .\. Focht 1S7J-1909 


Name Fo.'oder Year 

Boyerto'titi Bauer .0. P. Zink 

Boyertown Democrat .. .Gi:nri::c Sa:<sanian 

Name Fuiuidtr Year 

Wonielsdorf Gccettc Samiul Mourv lSt7-lSlS 

Womclsdorf Herald Michael K. Biiycr 1S79-1SS0 

Wovielsdorf Nezi-s Joel Wcidman 1S8?-1SS5 


. .is(;s-i'.)(io 

Name Founilcr Year 

Birdsboro Pioneer B. F. hries 1873-1870 

Birdsboro Dispatch Rapp &- Ryan lSS.-)-lOOO 

Birdsboro Rcvte^c Harry E. Hart IS'.KMOOS 

D.Mi.Y XF.w.-^PAri-.RS. — Weekly newspaper publi- 
cations v.-ere carried on at Keadinc: fe)r over sixtv 
years before a daily was thoui^ht of, at least before 
a public proposition to this end was ma<lc. .Manv 
weeklies had been institiuoil in that time; but thcv 
all suspended exceptinc^ two, and those two arc 

'John Weller, an employer snd min.Tvier for many years, bcca:ne 
the proprietor June 20, isuis. 

wortliy of especial mention for their entrg-y, success 
and lonq-cvity — the Adler and tlie Journal — the for- 
mer a German publication founded in 1190. and the 
latter an F-n.t,dish publication founded in ISIG, which 
is strictly a continuation of the Weekly Advertiser, 
started also in ITUG. The poi'ulation was certainly 
here to support a daily newspaper. The rapid in- 
crease of the people would seem to have warranted 
— if it did not inspire — such an enterprise in that 
period of time. Education was quite jreneral, 
though stimulated with marked public energy after 
183-}:; and the English language was growing grad- 
ually into favor. The railroad was constructed, 
various shops and factories, especially for the man- 
ufacture of iron goods, were erected; even English 
churches were founded. 

The second period of Reading was unusually 
prolific in producing great things for the common 
progress of its citizens. In 1810 the population 
was 8,410, and in 1817 it was about 12.000; and 
in the respective vears named tlie entire countv had 
about 05,000 and 70.000. The railroad extended 
through the entire Schuylkill Valley to the north 
and to the south, and the stages ran daily in every 
direction. These means facilitatetl the distribution 
of newspapers, and encouraged the spirit of pub- 
lication ; and the borough was advanced into a 
city. Still there was no daily uewsjiaper. 

When the third period was begim there were 
seven weekly newspapers; carried on successfully, 
Adler, Journal, Berks Countv Press, Liberalc Bco- 
haeJiter, Alt Berks, Jefferson Democrat and Reading 
Gazette. They were issued upon ditterent days in 
the week, but mostly on Saturday. X'aturally, this 
nimiber was sutficient to discourage the thought 
of a daily publication. But the snirit of enterprise 
was working its way through the people in different 
channel.^; buildings were multiplying, trade wa« 
growing, population was incrca^iing, and matiy 
strangers were locating here permanently. The 
daily events necessarily grew with the general 
growth, and the disposition to know them at once 
was preparing the way for a step beyond the ueekiy 
publication, and just as the stage-coach and canal- 
boat, through, the energy of trading, came to be 
slow and had to make way for the steam-car, so the 
weekly newspajier was coming to be late in com- 
municating news, the feeling against the delav was 
growing .stronger and stronger, public eagerness 
clamoring for an improvement. 

Three months after Reading was incorporated 
as a city, .-\braham S. Whitman — a practical votmg 
printer of Rearling — took the first step beyond a 
weekly [lublication by instituting and carrying on 
a tri-weekly newspaper, which he.einitlcd Tlie 
Reading Herald, and within two months he en- 
larged its size and improved its appearance. But 
he scxm found that he had stepped beyond his, 
and was therefore compelled to issue the publica- 
tion as a weekly newspaper. 

- ^ 

^'^■•on's ji» 


•1 I- <■;.'- ;,'■.■!' 

I -A > . 

i'. ■ .»'*.i'i •<•■ 



About the sa-me time, J. Lawrence Getz, publisher 
of the Reading Gaccttc (v.-eekly), made the edi- 
torial announcement that he would undertake the 
publication of a daily newspaper, if supi)orted : but 
the support was so limited that he was forced to 
discontinue after an earnest trial of nine days. 

These first efforts were in 1S47. Ten years 
elapsed. In that time two new railroads were ex- 
tended from this business center, one to the west 
through Lebanon \'alley. the other to the north- 
east through East Penn \'alley. From 12.000 ths 
population of the city had increased to 20,000, and 
from TO,UOO the population of the county had in- 
creased to 90,000. The post-oftices round about 
in the county had multiplied from forty-one to 
seventy — a wonderful increase in this department 
of the public service. The added wealth to the 
community from all sources was estimated not by 
the thousands of dollars, but by the millions, and 
the hand-press for newspapers had become sup- 
planted by the steam-press. Mr. Getz doubtless 
reasoned in this manner in 1S57, and, satisfying 
him.self that tlie prospects were favorable, he started 
in this enterprise a second time. He continued 
the publication successfully, though under discour- 
aging patronage, until Feb. 3, 1S58, when he 
changed the time of its issue to the evening, and 
reduced the price from ten cents a week to six 

His second experiment was, however, carried on 
for only three weeks, and he was again compelled 
to suspend publication. The Berks and Scluiylkill 
Journal complimented his spirit and enterprise, 
but expressed the opinion that the suspension was 
by no means creditable either to the intelligence or 
to the public spirit of a citv with 20,000 inliabitants. 
Its list of patrons embraced four hundred and fifty 
regular subscribers ; but only sixteen out of two 
hundred and forty business men of Reading took 
sufficient interest in its success to give it advertis- 
ing patronage. 

Immediately after the suspension of the Gazette, 
a stronger feeling for a daily newspaper manifested 
itself b\^ the citizens and so a third attempt was 
made. This was by J. Roblev Dunglifon, a young 
man from Philadelphia, who had settled at Read- 
ing about that time. He issued the first number 
of his paper on July 19. 18.")N. which" was entitled 
Reading Daily Times. It was a folio, printed hi 
the English language. IG by 24 inches, with five 
columns to the page, and issued in the' morning. 
He published it until Dec. 9, IS.jO, when he sold it 
to Henry Lantz. Lantz publi'-lied it until September. 
ISGl, when (owing to his enlistment in the Civil 
war) he sold the paper to A. S. Whitman and 
Charles F. Hause. who published it very success- 
fully during the Civil war. In ISG."). F. B. Shakers 
became interested, and in 1>^C,'P, the sole owner and 
editor. In 18C9. the paper was purchased by J. 
Knabb & Co.. the publishers of the Ber/cs and 
Sclinylkill Journal, and this nmi and its succes- 

sor, the Reading Time- Publishmg Company, have 
published it ever since. 

The Ez'ening Dispatch was issued as an evening 
daily paper from Feb. lit, iMjC, until April 4, IbTO, 
when it was purchased by J. Knabb & Co. and 
merged with the Reading Times, and Alfred S. 
Jones had started the Daily Reporter on April 2G^ 
18G4, and issued it for nearlv a vear. 

The Daily Eagle was founded bv William S. Rit- 
ter and Jesse G. Ilawley (publishers of the Reading 
Adler), on Jan. 28, 18GS. In 1874, Hawiey pur- 
chased the entire interest, and published the paper 
until his decease in 1903. By his great enterprise 
he enlarged its circulation very much and distrib- 
uted its issue not onlv into every town and town- 
ship of the county, but into neighboring and distani; 
counties in the Schuylkill, East Penn and Lebanon 
Valleys. Since his decease, its publication has been 
continued with equal and deserved success by his 

The first daily German newspaper at Reading 
was founded by '\\'illiani Rosenthal on Jiuie 1, 18G8,. 
under the title of Die Readinge Post, and he 
issued it successfully until 1908. when he sold it 
to John Weiler. 

The Daily Xezi-s was issued by William S. Ritter 
(proprietor of the Adler) from May, 1880, until 
May, 18SG. 

The Daily Spirit of Berks was started by Daniel 
S. Francis on Aug. G. 18S1. and published by him 
until November following, when he sold the dailv 
and the weekly issue of this paper to John B. 
Dampman and A. C. Buck waiter, who then changed 
the naiiies tc the Daily Herald and Weeklx Herald. 
\\'illiam McCormick became the purchaser in the 
fall of 189G and discontinued the ]l'eeklv pa])er, 
but has issued the Dai^x since. During the Spanisli 
war in 1898 he published a morning and evening 
issue of the daily, but discontinuecl the morning 
issue at the close of tliis war. 

The Reading Telegram, a daily, owned bv the 
Reading Telegram Publishing Company, has been 
issued since 1887. 

Other daily newspapers were started at Reading 
and issued for various periods, but not beyond sev- 
eral years, such as tlie Daily Leader, Ez-ening Star, 
Ez'cning Record. Daily People, Daily Graphic, Ez'e- 
ning Rez'iew, and Ezrning Jl'orld. 


L.\NGr.\GE. — The great majority of the early set- 
tlers of Berks county were Germans, and through 
them their language, manners and customs be- 
came predominant. ]Most of them remained here, 
and, to a great degree, where the several families 
first settled and prospered. Their number iidhi- 
enced the early erection of the county in 17~e2. 
Their industry, perseverance and econoniv Iniilt u[i 
and enriched its valleys and hills with substantial 
improvements. Nearly two hundred years have 
elapsed since, but the general features of the whole 
community l.ear their impression. Their manners 

'U.1'1 ■•■,, r, 

rji:: 'i 

>'>:n"«} ■)/{: V 

r ').-.r..;;-jj,. .j,ff^ ^.1,5- 



and customs have been handed down from c^enera- 
tion to generation, witli little change ; and their 
language is still in general use in every section. 
This permanonce exhibits inherent strength. The 
introduction of other peoples, with ttift'erent lang- 
uages, but mostly English, have not weakened their 
hold upon the people. 

Their language is composed of words princi- 
pally from German dialects, such as the Alleman- 
nisch, the Pfalzisch, and the Schwabisch, and some 
from the German proper. Its preservation to such 
a marked degree is due mostly to their German 
Bible. Martin Luther performed a great service 
to one of the strongest and most prolific nations -of 
the earth in translating the Latin Bible into the Ger- 
man, for through it he made the use of the German 
language here persistent and continuous. Their 
German hymn-books and prayer-books, and Arndt's 
IVaiircH CJiristcnthum (True Christianity) assisted 
greatly in this behalf. 

The use of the English language in courts of jus- 
tice, and in legal documents of all kind-., did not, 
and apparently c:ould not, interfere with its preser- 
vation. Even English teaching, through a general 
system of school education, has not disturbed it 
very much, though two generations have passed 
away since its introduction. This system has caused 
the introduction of numerous English, mixed and 
contracted words, and doubtless induced the lan- 
guage to be called ''Pennsylvania German" — or 
"Pennsylv'ania Dutch." These remarks are particu- 
larly ajiplicablc to tlie country districts, for the 
teachers are mostly young people, who, in many in- 
stances, are not qualified to use the English lan- 
guage accurately. Through them many peculiar 
and incorrect expressions have been engrafted upon 
the language of our locality; and the German people 
themselves have occasioned the introduction of a 
considerable number, through an earnest desire to 
succeed in their business relations witii the citizens 
of Reading. The sounds, expressions and intona- 
tions are peculiar anil cannot be communicated in 
a published narrative. 

The Pennsylvania-German language has been 
presented admirably in a number of poems which 
Thomas C. Zimmerman translated from the Eng- 
lish, lie liaving selected a \arietv of stvles of com- 
position in order to sliow tlie capabilities of the 
dialect for metrical expression. This variety com- 
prehends sul)iects both, grave and gay, as well as 
humorous and pathetic. His first translation was 
the Christmas poem bv Clement C. ]Vloore entitled, 
'"Twas the Xight before Christmas."" 

Harbangh's "Harfe," and Fi^ciier's "Pennsvlvan- 
ischT)eutsche Gedichte" and '"Kurzweil und Zeit- 
vertreib," are publications in the Pennsvlvania- 
German which are worthy of especial mention. 
Th.ey contain numerons interesting poems in this 
dialect, and introduce in a superior stvle tiie notions, 
manners and customs of the German people in 
Berks ccuntv. 

The English language, both written and spoken, 
has been in use from the time oi the earliest settle- 
ments by the Englibh in the county, and it is nat- 
ural to suppose that in all these years through ju- 
dicial proceedings, business transactions and 
general education, it should have made con- 
siderable progress, especially during the last fifty 
years ; but frequent visits to churches and schools, 
stores and families throughout the county in this 
time enable the compiler to say that the German 
language is still prominent in the country dis- 
tricts. Another generation will have to pass away 
before the Englisli language can take its place. 

The circulation of English newspapers is increas- 
ing gradually ; but their total circulation is small 
compared with our population. They are a strong 
agency in effecting a change from the Gerntan to 
the English; in reality, they are a stronger agency 
in this respect than the common sciiools. This is 
particularly apparent in Reading. Before the daily 
English newspaper was established here, the Ger- 
man language was commonly used by the major 
jiart of its inhabitants in their daily affairs ; but now 
the PInglish has its place, and principally through 
the gradual introiluction of the news]:'aper. The 
increasing convenience of distribution facilitates its 
growth. The national government is contributing" 
much aid by extending and increasing the postal 
facilities and the deliven- of mail matter throughout 
the countv. 

VVO( .-[.-WHEEL 

Manners and Customs. — The buildings and im- 
provements throughout the county are mostly the 
result of German energy and thrift. Profits from 
labor have been almost entirely ajipropriated toward 
increasing the value of land rather than toward en- 
lightenment. Fine barns, dwellings and fieUls are 
prominent in every locality. They are superior to 
those which existed in the previous century. This 



is apparent m live stock, in the cultivation of fruit, 
in the possession of improved inipleincnls and ma- 
chinerv, besides a better class of dwellinti^s and 
barns. A hig"her order of taste in the adornment 
of persons and places has made its way through 
increasing liberality. 


Domestic habits, in re^pect to home-made articles, 
have changed. Spiiming and weaving have been 
abandoned. The loom and the factorv supply all 
the materials required. A change began to be made 
about 1840. Before that time, spinning was com- 
mon everywhere in the county, for it was one of 
the necessary accomplishments of mothers and 
daughters. Till then, reels and spinning-wheels 
were sold at different stores in Reading. Sales 
then declined gradually, and within, twenty years 
afterward there was no demand at all for these 

Gardening is still carried on successfully in the 
country districts. Besides supplying vegetables for 
family use, it is a source of profit to mothers and 
daughters, who dispose of a large proportion of 
garden products in the markets at Reading and the 

The almanac is a common guide to indicate by 
the changes of the moon the jirojier time for plant- 
ing. The practice of consulting the moon's phases 
is regarded l)y many persons as a su]ierstitious no- 
tion ; but it still prevail-. So fences are erected 
when tlie points of tlie moon are up; shingle roofs 
arc nailed in position when the points arc down ; 

and woods are clearetl when the moon is full. But 
the custom is not so general as it was, especially 
in towns and cities, where building operations are 
conducted through all seasons ; and walls, fences 
and roofs are placed in position regardles.s of the 
face of the moon. 

A funeral in the country districts is still largely 
attended, especially the funeral of a citizen of 
prominence. The services are generallv conducted 
in the German language in the church of which the 
deceased was a meml)er. as well as at his home, 
briefly. Afterward the guests return to the house 
of mourning and participate in a large dinner. This 
custom has continued time out of mind. Great 
sociability is exhibited upon such an occasion. 
Friends travel miles to attend a funeral in order 
to show respect for the deceased. And the entire 
neighborhood is represented. The burials are gen- 
erally made in the burying-ground adjoining a 
church. But the first settlers made burials in pri- 
vate grounds set apart on farms for this purpose. 
It was instituted as a matter of convenience ; and 
then the funeral service was held at the The 
change of farm ownership caused this custom to 
be gradually abandoned. Seventy years ago, private 
grounds were still numerous ; afterward church 
cemeteries began to be more encouraged and bur- 
ials in them increased. 

The country store was a great institution years 
ago. F3ut its influence, trade and popularitv are 
jnuch reduced. This change was effected through 
the introduction of competing stage lines and the 
railway. Variety of goods and cheapness are con- 
siderations which induce the people to visit the 
towns and the county-seat for their purchases. It 
is noticeable that the railway is drawing the pat- 
ronage of Reading to I'hiladelphia more and more; 
so that as our townships come to patronize Read- 
ing, Reading goes to patronize Piiiladelpliia. This 
is apparent elsewhere — the cities attracting the 
trade of towns, and the towns that of the country 
districts. The trolley lines are particularly useful 
and influential in this behalf. 

The country inn was also a popular place for 
many years. Frolics and dances were common ev- 
erywhere years ago; and they were carried on suc- 
cessfully at the inn. The '"fiddler" was an impor- 
tant person upon such occasions. And "Battalion 
Day" brought nnicli profit to the inn that was near 
by the place where the military exercise was con- 

^Military aft'airs were active throughout the coun- 
ty from the close of the Revolution until the be- 
ginning of the Civil war, a period covering nearly 
eighty years. Companies of men were formed in 
every section, and battalions were drilled annually 
at the prominent towns, mostly at Reading, Kutz- 
town, Hamburg. Rehrersburg. Womelsdorf, I'.over- 
town and Morgantown. These exercises occasioned 
the day to be called "Battalion Day." Thev afford- 
ed the men much pleasure and a great change in 
their daily employment in the field, barn and work- 

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shop. Many sons of early families became quite 
prc'ininent as military men. 

The old "Conestoi^a wa.<;on'' is no Ioniser seen 
passing over our highways. Seventy vears a.tro it 
was in prominent u-e everywhere. Many were seen 


moving together in transporting great loads of 
wheat, and other products such as manufactured 
articles, whiskey, etc., to distant markets, especially 
to Philadelphia. Each one was draw'u by four 
horses, sometimes by five and six; whicli attracted 
much attention, witli jin.gling sweet-toned bells on 
the lead-horse of the team to indicate its movement 
on the way. Its capacity was from two thousand 
to three thousand pounds. It via.s covered with a 
strong canvas top. In returning, store goods of 
various kinds were brought along. After the open- 
ing of the railroad in l.s3S, this business of hauling 
in Conestog'a wagons graduallv ceased. Since then, 
the only considerable hauling by farmers is in con- 
veying their grain, hay, etc., to the market at Read- 
ing; and this is done almost entirel}' in one wagon 
at a time. 

In a "'moving" by a farmer about April 1st, many 
teams are used to convey the wiiole stock, furniture, 
etc., in a day. The long train affords to a certain 
degree an idea how the Conestoga teams apjieared. 

The life of the fanner is comparatively little be- 
yond hard, earnest labor and rigid economy thrrmgh- 
out each succeeding year. His daily reflection is 
upon his stock and crops. All the improved imple- 
ments aiul labor-saving maciiinery are devised and 
introduced by others for his benefit. He woidd 
have continued in the same manner of conducting 
his farming operations practised from 1T"0 to ISOO, 
and even till 18-jt\ if inventive genius had 
not created new methods for him. The farmer of 
our own county has not produced anything to im- 
prove his situation in respect to lalior. He adopts 
what is brought to him. This singular inactivitv 
keeps him back of the advancing times. Through 
it. tiic products of his labor arc pernn'tted to be 
drained to populous places. One of the chief con- 
sequences is little rcnumeration. The men of 

thought and cnert^y in cities absorb the greater pro- 
portion of the profits, [f his daily habits were not 
sim[)le and his expenses small, he could not keep 
what he has, much less accumulate more. His net 
income from actual labor is limited. Compared 
with, tjie incomes of business men, agents, officers 
of corporations and clerks in cities, it is insignificant. 
His' manners are the same in this respect as in 
others. If we examine them closely and compare 
them w^ith the condition of things one hundred 
years ago, we find little progress. His household 
furniture, bedding, clothing, tablev.-are, social habits 
and general customs are generally the same. His 
walls are not decorated udth co.stly paintings; his 
floors are not covered with fine, soft carpets ; his 
beds are not composed of easy springs and hair or 
wire mattresses; his table does not glisten with pol- 
ished silver or sparkle with cut glass; his dwelling 
is not after the modern style, with arrangements 
for health and convenience; and he himself is not 
a patron of art, literature or amusements. In towns 
and cities, however, we find all these things, not 
only in the dwellings of bankers, lawyers and mer- 
chants, but also of industrious mechanics, agents 
and clerks ; and art, literature and various anuisc- 
ments are largely patronized and encouraged. 

This great difference is caused bv the spirit of 
progress, which obtains more in populous places 
where the people are led in numerous wavs to inter- 
mingle daily with one anotlier. Association creates 
the laudable ambition to develop improvements in 
the various departments of domestic and social life: 
and it relieves the monotony of daily labor bv lit- 
erary, musical and dramatic amusements. In car- 
rying on its amusements successfully, it is convert- 
ing night more and more into day and devising new- 
methods for social pleasure and excitement. Im- 
proved light facilitates and encourages it in the 

Traveling is a great agciicv in stimulating it. 
Indeed, in certain respects, it is hke steam on the 
one hand and electricity on the other — active and 
energetic in mo^^ng about from place to place, and 
l:)rilliant and powerful in providing the necessary 
light to accommodate its conceptions. Horse- 
power, and locomotion attorded by this means, may 
suffice for the people in the country districts, but 
steam and railroads afiford locomotion which is not 
too rapid for the people in the towns and cities. 

Restless energv is introducing wonderful changes 
in the manners and customs of tlie people. In the 
mountainous and farming districts, where distanci' 
still separates many inhabitants and the means for 
rapid intermingling are imi)racticable, the changes 
are imperceptible. Their situation does not warrant 
changes, especially such as are constantlv going on 
in the cities, for it could not su])port them. TIk^ 
profits of labor and investment in them are too 
slow and too small. Hence their manners and cus- 
toms, their dwellings and churches, their roads and 
movements, their speech and actions, their dress 
and associations, are the same or nearlv the same as 

,(| I 

go\'p:rx-Mext axd officials 


thev were a hundred years ai^-o. Their energy is 
inseparable from the plow and ihe hoe and niiiscn- 
lar exertion. But the cities protluce and support 
these changes, and in them energy partakes more 
of the mind than of the body. And these changes, 
and this n;ental energ-y, are more active amongst 
their inhabitants. 

In comparing-- the situation of the people of Al- 
bany and Caernarvon townships, districts located 
at the extreme northern and southern ends of the 
county, thirty miles apart ; also of Hereford and 
Bethel townships, districts located at the extreme 
eastern and western ends, forty miles apart, with 
the situation of the people of Reading, the county- 
seat, the difference is apparent at a glance. One 
hundred years ago they were alike, or nearly so. 
But just as Reading is in advance of the districts 
mentioned, so is New York, the great metropolis of 
our vast country, in advance of 

By contrasting the two extremes, oar mountain- 
ous districts with the great metropolis, the differ- 
ence in the manners and customs of the respective 
inhabitants is truly wonderful. And yet the fore- 
fathers of each, as immigrants, started alike. In 
the one, oil 'and tallow are still used, and even the 

open fireplace for the production of light in a simple 
and inexpensive way ; in the other, these have long 
passed away, especially for public purposes, and 
the people have light from electricity. ]n the one, 
thousands of inhabitants arc scattered over miles 
of territory, but in the other thousands are concen- 
trated upon a few acres, if not in a few very large 
buildings. In the one, a few hundred dollars suffice 
to make the inhabitants contented and happy ; but 
in the otlier, millions of dollars are invested and 
expended to carrv out successfidly the manners and 
customs of its inhabitants and such changes as am- 
bition, competition and rivalry produce. 

Contentment would seem to be the companion of 
slowness, if not of stillness; but discontentment, of 
energy and activity. In the otic, the expense of 
a few extra dollars in travel or amusement is looked 
upon as luxury, if not extravagance ; but in the 
other, thousands of dollars are expended as a mat- 
ter of necessity for the same purpose. These 
strong contrasts enable us to see our own manners 
and customs as they are or were or as they will be, 
more especially in the more populous places, the 
nearer that steam and electricity come to be con- 
nected with us in our material progress. 



Provision was made for free and voluntary elec- 
tions by William Penn in the laws agreed upon in 
England in HiS'i, for the government of PeTUisyl- 
vania and the right of election was given to every 
freeman of the province. A freeman was defined 
to be "every inhabitant that is or shall be a pur- 
chaser of one hundred acres of land or upward; and 
every person who shall have paid his passage and 
taken up one hundred acres of land at one penny 
an acre, and have cultivated ten acres thereof; and 
every person that hath been a servant or bondsman 
and is free by his service, that shall have taken up 
fifty acres of land and cultivated twenty thereof ; 
and every inhabitant, artificer, or other resident that 
pays scot or lot to the government." 

At that time, the territory comprising Berks 
county was occupied by Indians. Xot a single white 
man had yet settled upon it. There was no need, 
for election laws then, nor for districts to facilitate 
elections. But in one hundred years afterward, 
many permanent settlers had entered the territory, 
and the necessity lor government in all its forms 
had become apparent. Townships had been organ- 
ized and the county had become erected \\ ilh all its 
offices in that interval of time. Independence had 
been declared ; government established ; and elec- 
tions of various local officers held. 

The elections for county officials were held at 
Reading from the beginning of the county in i','j2 

till 1789. During this time tlie county comprised 
one election district; and a,ll elections were directed 
to be held at the Court-House, in the countv-town. 
Then the county was divided into five election dis- 
tricts, and the electors of the several townships 
were required to vote at the places named: 
Reading, 1st District, at the Court-House . 













Kittclozi'u, 2d District, at public licuse of Philip Gehr 

Greenwich Maxatawny 

Hereford Richmond 

Longswamp Rockland 

Hamburg, .Sd District, at public house of John Moyer 

Bern, Upper 


Tulfcliockcii, 4th District at public house of Godfrey 



Amity, 5th Di>trict, at pi'blic liouse of W'ni. Witman- 
called "White Horse " 





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There were then twenty-nine townships and one 
borough. Reading. In the performance of this poh- 
tical chity many elector.s traveled a distance of fif- 
teen miles. But this was an improvement on what 
had been required four years before — those living 
in the townships farthe^t removed from Reading 
having been required to travel froin twenty-five to 
thirty miles. 

Subsequently, until now, additional districts have 
been established to facilitate elections. As a matter 
of historical interest they arc presented in the order 
of priorit}-; in the subdivisions of the county (as 
made in Chapter I). 

^fa)•)ly Secticn 

Muthr.rt's, 1794 — comprising Colebrookdalc, District 
Earl and Hereford. 

Hereford, ISM. 

Keely's, 1812 — comprising Douglass, Amity, Colebrook- 
dalc and Earl. 

Oley, 1814. 

Ruscombmanor, 1815. 

Rockland, 1816. 

Pike. 1816. 

Earl, 1317. 

Reading, two wards, 1317. 

District, ISIS. 

Amity, 182*?. 

Douglass, 1824. 

Colebrookdalc, 1827. 

Exeter, 1839. 

Alsace, 1840. 

Washington. 1840. 

Reading, 1840, four wards; 1841, tilth ward. 

Muhlenberg, IsriO. 

Boyertown, 1800. 

Reading, 1804, nine wards; lS7ri. eleven wards; 138.5, 
thirteen wards; 1892, fifteen wards; lS9t, si.xtccn wards. 

Alsace, Lower, 18S8. 

Mt. Penn, 1904. 

Ontclmiuee Section 

Croll's 1799 — comprising .Albany and Greeiiwich. 

Maiden-creek. 1817. 

Longswamp, 1817. 

Albany, 1819. , ■ 

Perry, 1821. 

Richmond, 1823. 

Greenwich, 1827. 

Windsor. 1830 (at Hamburg). 

Hamburg, 1837. 

Maxatawny and Kutztown, 1841. 

Ontelaunee, IS.iO. 

Fleetwood, 1873. 

Topton, 1877. 

Lenhar'isvillc, 18S7. 

Tulpehockcn Section 

Womelsdorf. 1797 — comprising Bethel, Tulphocken and 

Bethel, 1803. 

Tulpchocken, 1809. 

Shartlc's, 1812 — comprising Upper Bern and Upper Tul- 

Bern, Upper, 1822. 

Tulpehocken, I'ppcr, 1829. ... • 

Bernville, 1820. 

Heidelberg, Lower, 1834. 

HeidellxTg. 1839. 

Bern. 1840. 

Penn, 1842. 

Centre. 1843. 

Marion, 1843. 

Hcjdelberg, North, 1845. 

Jetterson, 1851. 

Cent report, 1S84. 

TiUlen. 1887. 

West Leesport, 1001. 

Schuylkill Sccliosi 

Forest, 1791 — comprising then Caernarvon, Robeson and 


-Marquart's, 179.8 — comprising same townships with Breck- 
nock added. 

Caernarvon, 1818. 

Union, 1829. 

Robeson, 1829. 

Brecknock, 1829. 

Cumru, 1840 (at Reading). 

Spring, 1850. ' ■'' . " : _ . ■ 

Birdsboro, 1872. 

Wyomissing, 19O0. 

West Reading. 1907. 

Mohnton, 1907. 

Shillington, 1908. 

Section beyond the Mountiiin 

Pine-Grove, 1797 — comprising all north of the Blue 

Orvvigsburg, 1798 — t-omprising Brunswick and ^Man- 

Mahantango, 1S02 — comprismg that township. 

The election districts in the county now noOO) 
comprise 10 wards of Reading, 2 wards of Birds- 
boro and 2 of Hamburg; l."> boroughs, and 4.'> town- 
ships, altogether 7S. 


Before 1820, it would seem that the major part 
of the voters of the ccmnty did not show- so strong 
a partisan spirit in reference to tlie election of their 
representatives to Congress as they did afterward. 
Joseph Hiester was a very popular man with liis 
constituents, and he maintained tlieir confidence 
and political support through a period embracing 
thirty years, notwithstanding his identification with 
the Federal party and ihc publication of certain 
letters in local newspapers refiecting against liis 
political character. He succeeded in accomplishing 
what no other man in the history of the county ha> 
been able to do; for. besides securing his repeated 
election to Congress on the ticket of the minority 
party, he even int^uenced the sufi'rage of the Dem- 
ocrats in the county in his own behalf against their 
own regular nominee for Governor to such an ex- 
tent as to be elevated to the highest executive c<ifire 
of the State. 

During the period from 1820 to 1S44. Rev. Hen- 
ry A. Muhlenberg (the son-in-law of Hiester) was 
the most prominent political representative. Bv a 
reelection to Congress for five consecutive terms 
he evinced much popularity. In IS:;.";. lie received 
the nomination of the Democratic partv for ( lover- 
nor; but he was not elected, owing to the action 
of an independent element in the j-arty whiih wa-^ 
led by Governor Wolf, the incunibeiit then in the 
executive office and concludin"- Jii^ seeond term. 

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At that time, the Anti-Mason party was ^tronc;' 
in the State, and, through the division of the Dem- 
ocratic party, it was enabled to elect its candidate, 
Joseph Ritner. Muhlenberg polled the largest vote 
of the three candidates in the county. 

Several years afterward. President \'an lAiren 
appointed Aluhlcnberg to be the first minister to 
Austria, and, upon accepting this distinguished ap- 
pointment, he resigned his seat in Congress. This 
was the first honor conferred by a President of 
the United States upon the county of Berks, and 
the people appreciated it higlily. In 1844, ]Muhlen- 
berg again became the regular nominee for Gov- 
ernor on the Democratic ticket, but he died before 
the election. 

There was a great difference between Hiester and 
Muhlenberg ; the former was a Federalist in a Dem- 
ocratic county, successful in wiiming and holding 
a strong political support for him.self. and a stanch 
advocate of a protective tariff, of the free school 
system, and of the United States Bank (of v.hich 
it is probable that he was one of the original sub- 
scribers of stock) ; but the latter was a Democrat, 
and opposed to the measures mentioned. 

Twenty years after Muhlenberg's time in Con- 
gress, the first considerable dissatisfaction arose in 
the Democratic party in the county, which resulted 
in the defeat of Hon. J. Glancy Jones, the regular 
nominee. He had been the ■re[)resentative from this 
district since 1851, and while serving his fourth 
term announced his candidacy for re-election. But 
a great political change was then working its way 
amongst the people throughout Pennsylvania, and 
to a certain extent this change was manifesting 
itself also, in Berks county. It. was created princi- 
pally by the action of Buchanan's administration on 
the Kansas question, and Jones — one of Buchan- 
an's ablest supporters — having been intimately asso- 
ciated with it, the leaders of the c^ipposition naturally 
took advantage of the situation to extend their feel- 
ing into the county so as to operate against him. 

Though Jones had made the nomination before 
the County Convention almost by acclamation, im- 
mediately afterward certain inHrential Democrnts 
of the county developed sufficient strength against 
him to be able to call another convention aiid ex- 
press opposition to his re-election — the principal 
ground being his course on the subject of the tariff. 
The Independent Democrats therefore nominated 
John Schwartz — a prominent ironmaster of large 
ability and experience, and a highlv respected sur- 
vivor of the war of 1812-1."). 

The Republicans united in supporting Schwartz, 
and this co-operation causetl the defeat of Tones 
by a small majority — -the first real defeat which the 
Democrats had met with in the history of the party 
in the coimty. 

The defeat of Jones was both a surprise anrl a 
disappointment to President Brchanaii. and immed- 
iately after hearing it he appointed Joises to the 
.'\ustrian Mission. Jones accepted this appointment 
and thereupon resigned his seat in Congress. He 

represented the national government at Vienna for 
two years with great distinction. 

But the political activity in the campaign of 1858 
was not permitted to subside with the defeat of 
Jones. His resignation having caused a vacancy 
which the electors were obliged to fill the Democrats 
nominated Joel B. Wanner, Esq. (who had, two 
years before, served a term as mayor of Reading), 
and the Republicans nominated General William H. 
Keim, a man highly respected for his business qual- 
ifications and very popular throughout the county 
in military affairs. A special election was held in 
November, 1858, but the vote was small, especially 
for the Democratic candidate, and Keim was elect- 

Previously, on two occasions, in respect to coun- 
ty offices, a similar result had occurred. In 1846, 
David Voder, a prominent and infiuential farmer of 
Olcy and a descendant of one of the first families 
in that township, was elected, as a Whig, to the 
office of county commissioner, because the nominee 
on the Democratic ticket was alleged to have been 
an Irishman, the Irish as a class not being par- 
ticularly appreciated by the German element in the 
county. And in 1853, Charles Van Reed, also a 
prominent farmer aiul paper manufacturer of Lower 
Heidelberg township, was elected as a W'hig to the 
office of county treasurer. The nominee on the Dem- 
ocratic ticket was .Adam Leize, who had held the 
office from. 184D to 1851. The incumbent during 
the election was William Ermentrout, whose son 
was married to Leize's daughter. Many Democrats 
thought that one family was obtaining too m.uch 
political preferment and therefore they opposed the 
election of Leize. 

Between 1789 and 1820, Daniel ^Messersmith and 
John K. IMesser.smith had continued to hold the 
office of treasurer alternately for a period of thirty 
years; David Bright from 18:2r> to 1835; and Peter 
Nagle from 1835^o 1843. The office was filled by 
appointment until 1841, when it became elective. 

In 1841, the Hon. John Banks (then the president 
judge of the county) was the nominee of the ^^'hig 
party for Governor. The Democratic party was 
at that time under thorough organization and Gov- 
ernor Porter was elected by a largely increased ma- 
jority, in the county as well as in the State. Sub- 
sequently, in 1817. while the Whigs were in the 
majority in the State Legislature, Judge Banks was 
elected to the office of State treasurer for one year 
by the united support of all the Whigs. 

Between 1850 and 18(;(), there were two promi- 
nent representatives from the county in the State 
Legislature — William M. Hiester, in the Senate 
from 1853 to 1855, serving as speaker during the 
latter year: and J. Lawrence Getz, in the House 
for 1856 and 1857, also serving as sjjcaker during 
the latter year. Mr. Getz subsequently served three 
terms in Congress from this district, 1867 to 1873. 
Hiester Clymer occupied great political promi- 
nence in the county for twenty years, from 1861 to 
]SMl. He was in the State "Senate from 1861 to 

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18GG. In lS(i(]. he received the nmr.inntion for they have coniinuecl to be till now. A ?mgular 

Governor on the Democratic ticket, hi-.t he was not change -if not a transformation— in re-pect^ to 

elected. Readint^r was tiien Republican in political party names, arose afterward. As early as 1TP3, 

sentiment bv a small majoritv and the nominee on the Anti-Federal party was -called the Democratic- 

the Repul>li'can ticket received the full party vote, Republican party; but the word "Republica!!"' was 

notwithstanding- Reading- was the home of Mr. dropped in 1S05, and the name Democratic alone 

Clymer. He was the representative in Congress used. Thence the Federals, or Whigs, or Republi- 

from 1ST3 to 188 1. cans, have been on the one side and the Democrats 

Daniel Ermentrout succeeded Clymer in political on the other, the latter party keeping- its identity 

prominence, having been State senator from IST-i here for over a century. For twenty-five years. 

to 1880, and the rcprcbcntative in Congress from 
1881 to 1889, and from 1897 to 1S99, dying before 
the end of his last term. 


from 18:50 to IS.Jo, the Anti-Mason party for ten 
vears, and the Whig for fifteen, were substituted 
in the place of the Republican party. 

The Declaration of Independence was published 
on the 4th day of July, ITTli. Smce the Revolution, 
Political Paktils.— From the beginning of the that day has been regarded as the nation's birthday, 
county, there have been two parties in political af- and it has been made a holiday by the several State 
fairs. Before the Revolution, agitation of political governments. Annually for about eighty years, the 
questions was not general or continuous. The elec- partie.s of each community celebrated this great 
tive franchise was a recognized privilege, but it was holiday by assembling at popular places and drink- 
not particularlv encouraged by the creation of con- ing- toasts, making addresses and enjoying: them- 
venient or numerous polls to 'enable electors to ex- selves generally. At Reatiing, the parties celebrated 
press political preferences. Local offices for the the day regularly in this manner. I'he I'"ederaii£ts 
townships and the town were filled bv election,, but and the Whigs assembled on the island in the 
county officials were appointeil, and this feature Schuylkill river, several hundred feet above the 
contiriued in respect to the major part of them until ferry, at the foot of Biiiganian street ; and the Dem- 
1841. when an Act of Assembly was passed wliich ocrats at Mineral Spring, east of the limits of Read- 
provided for a general change to election. For over ing. \\'l;en the Civil war broke out. this custom 
thirty-five years Berks countv comprised ')ne gen- was discontinued, and it has not been revived, 
eral election district, witi; the court-house at Read- \'otf. for Govf,kxok. — Since 1788. the people of 
ing as the polls. In 1789. the districts began to the county manifested a most remarkable adherence 
increase; and they have increased graduallv, to sat- to the Democratic parly and the tjrinciples which it 
isfy the demands and encourage the facilities for advocated, chief them the principle of local 
election, till they now number seventy-eight. ->eIf-governnient. In 180:?. the Democratic vote was 

During the Revolution, tiie people' formed them- eight times that of the Federal. After-.varfl this 
selves into two parties, especially those who mani- proportion was at no time suri)assed, not even 
fested any concern in the government : the one class, equaled. The vote v/as regularly for the Demo- 
favoring- a continuance of the royal g^overnment, cratic candidate, excepting two occasions, in 1817' 
called "Tories"; and the other, favoring a free, rep- and 18-?0, when the people of the county manifested 
resentative government, called "F"ederals," or their respect for foseph Iliester, though on the op- 
"Whigs." The distinction was marked, and fortu- posing ticket. These occasions were when Hiester 
nately for the people of the county, as of the State was a candidate on the Federal ticket for Governor, 
and the great confederation of States, th.e latter He had distinguished himself in political aflfairs 
party won a decisive victory. Upon the establish- through a period of forty years. 
ment of freedom, new parties arose. These pro- Berks county was not alone in honoring him. for 
ceeded from Whigs, and were recognized cither as of the eleven counties in the southeastern sectiorr 
the Government Whigs, or Federals, who desired of the State, he had eight in 1817. This important 
a Republican form of gnvernment, with checks section of the State gave a majority of 7,191, 
upon the impulses or passions of the people, and though the State wa*^ against him by a niajority of 
with libertv regulated, strengthened and confirmed 7.0(i.">. Anrl in 1S?0 he had nine of the eleven 
by central authority: or as the Particularist \Miigs. ct)unties. with a majority of 8.191. and in the State 

or Anti-Federals, who desired the same form of 
government, but Democratic in spirit, with the 
rights of local self-gr>vernment. and uf States ever 

In 1781, there were two parties in the province, 
called Republicans and Constitutionalists. Most of 
the electors of this countv were of the latter party. 
In a certain sense, the latter took the place of 
the "Tories." and were called "Republicans." They 
were the dominant party in the county then and 

a majoritv of LGOTi. In this connection, the vote 
of Iliester for Congress, as again-^t Daniel Clymer, 
in 1798, can be mentioned in order to show Hiester's 
popularity. The vote was more than four to one 
in his favor. .Ml tliC districts in the county except 
one gave him large majorities, and this exception 
was the "Forest" district, intluencefl by the Clymer 
family, resident in Caernarvon township. 

FX-cn through the excitement incident to the Civil 
war, 18Gl-(l-5, the county continued Democratic by 

i ■' 

;/ ■, ■ i^?i. :■- ' ■: . : iV '■.■;■] "I Oi ■'■'■ 

V- ' 'I .1,; 



lartfe majorities. The city of Rcadinj;;- was other- 
wise, though theretofore also generally Democratic : 
fur, at the election previous to ISUO, it was almost 
three to one Democratic, hut in 18()0, 1S0:>, snd 
IhGt! it was Republican. Since then, it has been 
Democratic, excepting'at the election of ISD-l. when 
the Republicans received a ])Iural;ty of l,r2;i. 

\'0TE FOR pRESiDicxT. — In ls->,s. the vote for 
Jackson in Berks was five to one against Adams. 
Then it was that the county distinguished itself in 
voting for Jackson. It would seem that the people 
here, as the people elsewhere, had felt keenly the 
outrage perpetratetl upon them by the House of 
Representatives, in not respecting the will of the 
majority by the selection of a candidate for Pres- 
ident whose electors had received the greatest nnni- 
ber of votes. The idea of self-government was 
again uppermost in their minds, and this idea they 
felt it their duty to express by ballot in a most un- 
equivocal manner. The vote of Reading was in 
the same proportion. And at Jackson's re-election 
in 1833, the result of the vote, both in the county 
and city, was for him in the proportion of about 
four to one. The vote in the county for President 
from 1828 to 190-1 was always Democratic by a 
large majority. 

The city of Reading was also Democratic by a 
considerable majority till I860 ; then a decided 
change tooic place through the great upheaval in 
political affairs. Lincoln was given a majority of 
more than 500 over Breckenridge. and of more 
than 300 over all, Douglas and Bell included. 
This Republican feeling in th.e city prevailed till 
the re-election of Grant, when, remarkable to say. 
a majority of 1,207 was given for him. In the elec- 
tion of McKinley. there was a pluralitv of 1,717 
for him in 1896. and of 1,111 in 1900 ; in the elec- 
tion of Roosevelt, there was a plurality of 3,069 for 
him in 190-1; and in the election of'Taft, of 866 
for him in 190s. 

Vote for Coxstitutionai. Amexoments. — On 
the question of amending the State Constitution, the 
election returns are interesting. In 182-5, the coun- 
ty was against the Convention by a vote of five to 
one; and in 1835. also against it. of over two to 
one. But in 1838. on the question of ratifving the 
work of the Convention, the county voterl for the 
.Amendments. The chief provision gave electors the 
right to elect county officials, excei)ting the judges. 
and this the county electors appreciated verv much. 
The State adopted them, but by a verv small major- 
ity compared with the total vote. 

In 1850, on the question of making the judges of 
the Supreme and County co-rts elective, the countv 
was for it by a large majority ; and the State was 
for it by a vote of two to one. 

Tn 1871, the question of a C^'uvention was again 
si'bmitted to the voters. The county was against 
it by a remarkable vote of two t'> one. but the State 
was for it by a vote of almost five to one. flow- 
ever, on the ratification of the rcnort of the Con- 
vention at a special election in l.s73, the countv 

w_as_ decidedly for the Xew Convtitntion bv a vote 
of five to one. 

\0TE FOR PRoiiiiiiTiox .\xn LicicxsE.— The liquor 
question was submitted twice to a vote of the elec- 
tors ; first in 1854. and again in 1873. On both 
occasions, the county was decidedly in favor of li- 
cense; first, by a vote of four toCine ; and next, 
three, to one. 

Election of 1876.— The Democrats in Berks 
county were certain of victory in 187(i. They were 
taught to expect it. and when" the night of the elec- 
tion arrived they looked for it. But the news was 
doubtful. They had counted upon a "Solid South," 
and also certain Northern States. Their leader had 
calculated with great shrewdness, but neither he 
nor aiiy of his followers had thought the loss of 
three Southern States within the range of possi- 
bility. And this result actually occurred. Late on 
election day, the chairman of the Republican 
X'ational Committee atmounced that Hayes ha-.i 
185 electoral votes, and would be the next Presi- 
dent. This came to be exactly so. But during 
the four intervening months,' great excitement 
prevailed antl fears of a political revolution 
were entertained. At Reading, excited crowds 
of people assembled for many nights in suc- 
cession to hear the returns which were reflected 
upon screens — the Times screen having been set up the Jameson building on the Sixth street 
side, above the portico, so as to show the figures 
down Penn Square, and the Ea'i^lc screen in front 
of the Eagle building. Son.e of the cartoons were 
striking and afforded much merriment in reliev- 
ing the monotony of election returns. The ele- 
phant figured conspicuously in them. At one time 
he came out with a rooster in his trunk lashing 
it around wildly in the air ; then with a rooster 
tied to his tail, running away with it ; now jump- 
irig for joy at a favorable report, then Iving on 
his back as if dead from a Democratic victorv. v\ith 
a rooster crowing lu.stily over his fallen bod v ; Jeff 
Davis was represented as sitting up in a sour apple 
tree, and different prominent Democrats were 
drawn in various laughable positions ; and numer- 
ous short witticisms appeared frequentlv. Alto- 
.gether, the exhibition awakened a thrilling interest 
in the people. 

State Coxvextioxs at RE.\nixG. — Three Demo- 
cratic State Conventions were held at Reading at 
which candidates for Governor were nominated: 
the first on June 4. 1851, when William Bigler was 
nominated by acclamation; the second on Feb. 29, 
■'8(i(). when Henrv D. Foster was nominated; and 
the third on May 3(>. 1872. when Charles R. Bucka- 
lew wns nominated. 

A Democratic State Convention assembled at 
Reading in the Academy of Music on Aug. 31. 1897. 
■" hich was reported to have been the most turbu- 
I'-nt in the history of conventions in the State of 
Pennsvlvania. The was to nominate candi- 
dates for auditor-general and State treasurer. lion. 
Daniel Krmentror.t of Reading was elected tern- 

f-.-M ,- - 


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: ■'l■^■f ■■!■ y-.X r 
,: ■ . ... ,.• ti it.i • -'w-i. 



porary chairman and lie hllcd the position uiuIlt 
adverse and exciting circumstances. 

Mass-Mi:eti.\c;s. — Xumeroiis mass-meetings Iiave 
been held at Reading by tlie respective political 
parties. The earliest meeting of which any extend- 
ed notice was given, was held by the Democratic 
party Sept. 4. 185"<;. for the purpose of ratifying 
the nomination of Franklin Pierce as the Dcitio- 
cratic candidate for President. IMiiladelphia sent 
a delegation of fifteen hundred men, accompanied 
by three fine bands of music ; and large delegations 
were in attendance from Dauphin, Lebanon. Lan- 
caster, Chester, Bucks, Montgomery, Lehigh, 
Schuylkill and other counties, whilst from the hills 
and valleys of Berks county hundreds of the in- 
domitable Democracy came to swell the assembled 
multitude. Conspicuous among those from the 
county were the Xorth Ifeidelberg delegation in 
large hay-wagons and vehicles of every description ; 
the Boyertown Pierce Club in carriages with flags, 
banners and wreaths of flowers ; and the Kutz- 
town Pierce Club in carriages, with flags and music. 
It was the largest meeting ever held at Reading till 
that time, and it included the largest number of 
great political leaders which the citizens had ever 
seen together here. A platform was erected at the 
upper end of the Western Market-House and 
around it the crowd assembled and heard the speech- 
es of such distinguished men as Hon. James Bu- 
chanan, Hon. Stephen A. Douglas, Gov. Enoch 
Lowe (Maryland), Gov. William Bigler (Pennsyl- 
vania), Hon. Barnabas Bates (X'cw York), Hon. 
Charles J. Faulkner (Virginia), Hon. B. F. Balktt 
(Massachusetts), Chief Justice LeGrand (I\Iary- 
land), Hon. John A. Wilcox (Mississippi), and 
Hon. John H. Savage (Tennessee). Addresses 
were made from noon till midnight. ]\Ir. Buchanan 
was chairman of the meeting during the afternoon. 
and, in tlie course of his opening remarks, he com- 
plimented Berks county for "her undeviating jtatri- 
otism and entire devotion to Democratic princi- 

RiT.VER YouxG ^Ien's Coxventiox.- — The young 
men of Pennsylvania, who were favorable to the 
election of Joseph Ritner for Governor held a con- 
vention at Reading on June 4-5, 1S."S. Seventeen 
hundred delegates assembled from all parts of the 
State. Their meeting was held in the Trinitv Luth- 
eran Church, and it was distinguished for earnest 
enthusiasm. Appropriate addresses were made and 
resolutions passed. The meeting was the largest 
of a representative character ever held at Reading 
until that time. It was conducted with ability and 
occasioned much excitement. But it did not in- 
crease the strength of the .\nti-Mast)n j^arty in 
this section of the State. It was the first and cmly 
political convention ever assembled in a church 
building at Reading. Permission was granted bv 
the church vestry because there was no large hail 
in the borough then, and the Trinity Church was 
the only phice in which so large a body of men 
could assemble v.'ith convenience. 

W'liu; M.\ss-MEETixr, of 1844.— The t'residcntial 
campaign of 1S44 was particularly exciting, tlenrv 
Clay was the \\'hig candidate for President, and 
James K. Polk the Democratic candidate. The 
former enjoyed a very high degree of popularity 
tiiroughout the county, and his friends conducted 
a very active campaign in his behalf. The Whigs of 
Pennsylvania exhibited much enthusiasm for" him 
during the canvass, for he was a great favorite in 
every section of the State, especially where man- 
ufactures were carried on. Reading was tlien a 
growing centre for industries of various kinds, and 
the Whigs here idolized him for his earnest labors 
in the cause of protection to home industries. They 
held a inass-meeting at Reading, on Sept. :-?T, 1841. 
Over five thousand persons were in attendance, 
delegations having come from different sections 
of the surrounding country. The da\ was especially 
noted for a large procession in which the various 
trades and employments were represented. Minia- 
ture shojjs and factories were hauled about tiie 
town and successfully operated. 

The living raccoon again figured conspicuously 
in the procession, as it had in the previous cam- 
paign. The singing of campaign songs added in- 
terest to this occasion, just as it had been practised 
four years before, wdien there was one universal 
shout for "OKI Tippecanoe and Tyler too." Not- 
withstanding this great efiFort of the Whigs, they 
could not weaken the devotion of the Democrats 
in the county or lessen their majority. The poke- 
berry was brought into great prominence by 'the 

During this campaign, the Democrats also held 
a large mass-meeting. One of its prominent fea- 
tures was a large boat, rigged as a "Ship of State." 
manned by a number of boys dressed as sailors, 
and drawn on wheels in the j^rocession bv many 
young men. The majority for Polk in the borough 
was odD, and in the county 4,(174. This result in- 
dicated the thorough organization of the Democrats. 
Dallas, their candidate for \'ice-President, visited 
Reading during the campaign and delivered an 
address at the "^lineral Spring," dwelling narticu- 
larly upon and favoring the tariff. Gen. Sam 
Houston from Texas was also present. 

Clymer M.vss-AIef.tixgs IX 18(i(]. — Hon. Heister 
Clymer, a citizen of Reading, received the nomina- 
tion for Governor on the Democratic ticket in ISCG. 
He had been State senator from 18<11 to 18{i6. dur- 
ing which time he had acquired considerable popu- 
larity throughout the State. Gen. John W. Geary 
was the Republican candidate. Both parties were 
under thorough organization and they labored ear- 
nestly for success. Many mass-meetings were heM 
in different jiarts of the State, and at all of them 
much enthusiasm was manifested. 

In Berks county the leaders of the jiartv were 
I)articularly active. X^umerous public meetings were 
held and many speeclies delivered. General politi- 
cal excitement prevailed from the begiiming until 
the close of the campaign ; which increased as the 

t '■■!... I. 

,; li-Mi >} ■■ M'-'' 



day of election approached. Two Democratic mass- 
meetings were held at Rcadiufr. one on July 18th, 
and the other on Oct. 3d : and upon cacii occasion 
a multitude of people assembled. At the former 
there were delegations from four-tifths of the coun- 
ties in the State. Hon. Richard \'aux acted as 
chairman of the meeting, and addresses were made 
bv IMr. Clymer, Hon. Montgomery Blair, Hon. 
George H. Pendleton, and other distinguished poli- 
tical leaders. High party feeling was produced 
under the great excitemenj. so high, indeed, that 
it almost resulted in riots with certain Republicans 
wOio were equally earnest and demonstrative for 
their leader, General Geary. There was a grand 
procession, with Gen. Tobias Barto as chief mar- 
shal, estimated to contain five thousand persons in 
a hne two miles long. Many wagons, teams, bands, 
and banners of all kinds accompanied the numerous 
delegations, and the enthusiasm was unbounded. 

Notwithstanding all this exertion and expense 
by the Democrats, th.e citv of Reading was not car- 
ried for Clymer. It had been Republican through 
the war, and this political sentiment still prevailed 
by a small majority which Clymer could not over- 
come, even witli the aid of local prejudice and en- 
thusiastic demonstrations. The vote in Reading for 
him was '•^,089 and for Geary 2,704 — a majority of 
15 against him; and in the county for him 13,288 
and for Geary 7,121^a majority of (i.lGT for him. 


HiESTKR Festival of 1820. — In 1817, the Hon. 
Joseph Hiestcr. of Readings was nom.inated as the 
Federal candidate for Governor against the Hon. 
William Findlay as the Democratic candidate ; but 
he was defeated by a majority of 7,003. In 1820, 
the same candidates were again on the respective 
tickets, and Hiester was electetl by a small majority, 
l.GOo. The success of this election contest, by 
which the most distinguished citizen of Berks county 
was chosen to be the chief executive officer of Penn- 
sylvania, v^as an event which could not be permitted 
to pass away in the annals of local affairs without 
signalizing it by ati impressive public demonstration. 
He was then concluding his ninth term in Congress, 
and resigned his seat soon after the election. Flis 
fellow-citizens had therefore come to regard him 
with more than ordinary feelings of respect and 
honor. And what means could they have selected 
more adapted to display their satisfaction and joy 
than a feast at which they could eat, drink and be 
merry? Accordingly, in honor of this event, pursu- 
ant to public invitation, a grand festival took place 
on Wednesday, Xov. 1. 1820, on the "Common" 
near the "arched spring," east of the borough. Peo- 
ple assembled from everv part of the county and 
nianj' distinguished politicians came from Philadel- 
phia and counties adjoining Berks to participate in 
the fea<t. (^ver four thousand persons united in 
the demonstration. A procession was first formed 
by the Committee of Arrangements on Pcnn Square, 

about 11 o'clock in the morning, which marched 
up Penn street to the "Common," arriving there 
about noon. An area comprising several acres was 
surrounded by a barrier, with, a large platform on 
the eastern side, upon which the articles for the 
feast were placed. Two fat bullocks on spits, and 
a bear and a hog on gridirons, were roasted en- 
tire. The four skins had been stutted and mounted 
on cars. The area was occupied by the Committee 
of Arrangements, High's Dragoons, Getz's Guards, 
and a band of music from Philadelpliia ; and it in- 
cludetl thousands of spectators, whose orderly de- 
portment was highly commendable. 

The butchers commenced to carve the roasted 
animals about 2 o'clock. The first slice of each 
animal was taken to the residence of Hiester on 
Penn Square (adjoining the Farmers" Bank on 
the west) by two butchers, who were escorted by 
a detachment of the Guards ; and the carving then 
contiiuicd until all were satisfied. After the feasting 
was concluded, a meeting was organized and twenty 
toast.s, expressive of patriotic and comjilimentarv 
sentiments, were read, all of which were received 
with loud applause. Then a unanimous desire was 
expressed "to see the Revolutionary X'eteran." and 
he was accordingly escortetl to the meetings from his 
residence by a special committee, his presence 
awakening "'indescribable effusions of joy." At 4 
o'clock, the procession was reformed and, with the 
"Governor-elect" supported by two stalwart citi- 
zens, it paraded through the principal streets of 
the borough, halting opposite his residence, where 
they were dismissed in jierfect harmony. 

In the eveniiig, the celebration w^as continued bv 
a "torch-light procession." .-\ transparent temple 
was carried by four men through the principal 
streets, preceded and followed bv a train of citi- 
zens who held lighted candles in their hands. The 
sides of this temple were illustrated: the front pre- 
sented a likeness of Washington, the rear the arms 
of the LInited States, and the right and left sides 
well-executed likenesses of Hiester. 

A similar festival, to celebrate the same event, 
was held at Orwigsburg. in Schuylkill countv. on 
X'ov. 10, 1820. The moni'ng of that dav was ush- 
ered in by the firing of cannon and the ringing of 
bells. A meeting was first organized in the Court- 
House; then the people formed into line and pro- 
ceeded under the leadership of three marshals, as- 
sisted by a band of music, to "Mount Monroe." .\s 
they marched, bells rang and cannon boomed. A 
fine ox. and deer were roasted, and a large num- 
ber of persons, seated at tables especially arranged, 
participated in a great feast. At a meeting, after- 
ward formed, thirteen toasts were oft'ered and 

On the same day. a festival was also held at 
Kutztown. Twenty-five toasts were offered and 
drunk at a large meeting. 

H.ARRISON Festiv.\l OK 1840. — The IVe.-identi;'! 
camprdgn of 1840 was conducted with, great etuhu- 
siasm, and it developed much political excitement 

'.-./It.-- 1 


throughout the country. Grand processions were 
witnessed in every community. The voters of Read- 
ing and the surrounding districts in tiie county 
caught the feehng. especially on the side of the 
Whigs. One of the ])r(X'essions was distinguished 
for its log cabin and living raccoons. The election 
resulted in a victory for the Whigs, an event which 
elicited from them particular demonstrations of joy. 
It was their first victory, and they felt great pride 
in it. What could they do upon such an occasion 
but demonstrate their feelings as their party, under 
the name of "Federals," had done twenty years be- 
fore? The leaders therefore decided to signalize 
their triumph by a "grand ox-roast," on the "Com- 
mon," on Wednesday, Dec. 9, 1840, and they issued 
a public notice that "an ox will be roasted whole 
and plenty of hard cider will be provided." The 
day was accordingly celebrated under the direction 
of an organized meeting, wiih men promment in 
respect to business. ]>olitics and military as its offi- 
cers. Thirteen toasts were announced, and appro- 
priate responses were made. Many persons parti- 
cipated in the feast. 

Tii-DEN Festival of ISTG. — The Presidential 
campaign of ISTfi was full of enthusiasm fromx the 
beginning to the end. Samuel J. Tilden, of X^ew 
York, was the Demiocratic candidate, and Ruther- 
ford B. Hayes, of Ohio, the Republican. The Dem- 
ocrats throughout the county were very hopeful 
of success with so distinguished a candidate as Mr. 
Tilden, and they therefore carried on the political 
contest with all the energy that they could com- 
mand. The leaders of the party in the county were 
particularly active. Toward the close of the cam.- 
jjaign thev made arrangements for a "buffalo roast" 
in order to enable their party the more thorough- 
ly to demonstrate their feelings in a public manner, 
and they selected a day for that purpose. The pre- 
vious festivals in 1820 and 1840 were held after 
the election, but this was to be lield before the elec- 
tion. The announcement was made, giving the pub- 
lic to know "that the Democratic citizens of Berks 
and adjoining counties will have a — 

lately captured on the western plains, and a 

JuniLEE P.^R.\DE 

in honor of their candidates for President and Vice- 
President, and the gallant frecmcti of the 
West, at the Fair Grounds, City of Read- 
ing, on Thursday, October 2G, 18TC, 
and also an 

Old-F.\shion'E!) Demock.\tic Pkocessiox, 

in which soldiers and sailors, farmers and me- 
chanics and all good citizens, with their wives 
and daughters, arc respectfully invited 
to participate 

The day arrived and the programiue w;is carried 
out very successfully. In the morning manv dele- 
gations came to Reading from all parts of the 
county, and by 11 (Vclock the "Ji'])i!ee I'.irade" 
v.'as formed, when it wa^ marched over a long route. 

besides tiic usual demonstrations in a procession 
of ttiis character, there wa^ an "elephant in boots," 
veritably walking in the parad.e. hired from I'ore- 
paugh (the .^bowman) for the occasion. The sym- 
bol of the Rcadiiii^ Times, in signalizing a political 
victory on the morning after an election, for many 
years, was the "elephant in boots" at the head of its 
columns; but the Democrats desired to show by a 
living cartoon that they had taken, its elephant cap- 
tive, and were going to carry it along in their tri- 
umphant march. This conception created much 
amusement throughout the entire route. It was the 
centre of attraction. On the way, the elephant 
kicked off one of his Democratic boots, just as if 
he were walking in doubtful company and on a 
doubtful platform, and desirous of freeing himself. 
The procession was nearly an hour in passing a 
point, and ended in the "Fair-Ground," where the 
feast on roasted buffalo was enjoyed by many hun- 
dreds of persons. Speeches were made by promi- 
nent men from ditiferent parts of the country. The 
most distinguished guest ui>on this unusual fx:casion 
was Gen. George B. ^.IcClellan, whose presence elic- 
ited great applause wherever he went. 

CLi:vEr..\XD Festivals. — The election of Grover 
Cleveland, the Democratic candidate for President 
in the election of X'oveniber, 1884, was the occasion 
of g-reat rejoicing. In the county the pluralitv of 
Cleveland over Blaine was (i.yOT, and in Reading, 
499. The victory was of such an extraordinary nat- 
ure that the Democrats could not refrain from pub- 
he demonstrations of various kinds. 

In Reading, a grand "Salt-River I'arade" took 
place on Nov. 12th. in which there were fifteen hun- 
dred men in line, with numerous teams and eighty 
men on horseback, as well as many humorous trans- 
parencies and a prostrate stuffed elephant on one 
of the floats. 

At Bernville. and also at Rehrcrsburg, there were 
ox-roasts on Nov. lath, which elicited a great deal 
of public excitement. 

At Kutztown, on X'ov. 21st, there was one 
of the grandest political demonstrations ever 
witnessed by the inhabitants. An ox, weigh- 
ing twelve hundred pounds, was roasted, and 
after a grand parade, in which three hundred men 
on horseback from all the surrounding districts par- 
ticipated, including a large delegation from the 
"Americus Club" of Reading, there was a grand 
feast and much hilarity. A "Libertv Pole." IGO feet 
high, was erected to signalize the victory. 

The next dav after the election, there was a con- 
siderable fall of snow, and the epigrammatic expres- 
sion — "And the next day it snowed" — caused nuich 
merriment among the participants in this demon- 
stration, as well as in tlie demonstrations elsewhere. 


The general ]-)olitical hi^torv of Berks corntv is 
siiiiil;ir to of the whole State in respect to its 
gcp.^'al goven^'Tcnt. Legislation created territorial 

■ '::. .-lAft ,n- 

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, ,y,' ■ 1 ' II' 

H\ /. '- 

■ I' ;; .' ■ , ', ■ ' • ;. ,!'■ )fl(:'' !', 

:■!'■ I'; (; -VV/< 



• livisions and provided offices of variou? kinds for 
them in order to facilitate tiie rcq-ulation of local 
affairs, and the representation of the people in the 
letjislative bodies of the State and nation. And 
tiie-e offices have been tilled either by election or 
bv appointment from the bciijinning ot our political 
exi>tence as a county until now. A •sameness ex- 
tends throughout the whole period. Comparatively 
little special legislation has been done for our county 
in the way of creating positions. 

Four Acts of the General Assembly are worthy 
of mention: One passed in I62i, relative to the 
management of poor affairs; another in is 18, rela- 
tive to the management of prison affairs ; a third 
in liSGO, relative to the election of an additional 
law judge; and a fourth in ]S^:^ to the election 
of an Orphans' court judge. 

A marked change was introduced by the Consti- 
tution of 1ST3, enabling the minority party to elect 
officials. In Berks county this applied to county 
commissioners and county auditors. Theretofore, 
these officials in the county were almost entirely 
Democrats since their election in 1841. 

The first Republican commissioner and auditor 
under this provision were elected in IST."). And in 
1873, the Act of 1848 creating the board of prison 
inspectors was so amended as to enable the minor- 
ity party to elect three out of nine inspectors or an- 
nually one out of three. 

The Act of 1824, relating to the poor directors, 
which provides for the annual election of .i director 
for three years, lias not yet been amended to meet 
the spirit of the times and of the State Constitu- 

In 1867, when jury commissioners were author- 
ized to 'be elected, provision was made tliat each 
elector should vote for one person for this office, 
and the two persons having the highest vote should 
be the commissioners. This provision enabled the 
minority party in tlie county to elect one commis- 
sioner, and accordingly, the Republicans have elect- 
ed a jury commissioner since 1SG7. 


The office of representative to Congress of the 
United States was created by the Constitution of 
the United States which was adopted Sept. 17. 1787, 
and ratified by the Convention of Pennsylvania 
Dec. 12, 1787. The term of office was tlicn made 
two years; and so it has continuerl to the present 

Representatives were apportioned among the sev- 
eral States according to population, which was enu- 
merated within three years after the first meeting 
of Congress, and every ten years thereafter. 

The first apportionment by Congress gave Penn- 
sylvania eight representatives. These were appor- 
tioned by the State Legislature. :March IC, 1701, 
to ei::f'-t districts. T'.erks. Xorthampton. and Lu- 
zerne counties were erected into one distriei. wltli 
<^ne member. In 1'. !);1. the State <Mven thirteeit 

members. These v;ere apportioned by the State 
Legislature on April 22. 17'.»4, \vhen Berks and Lu- 
zerne counties were made the Fifth Congressional 
District for the next ten vears, with one mem- 

In 1802, Berks, Cb.ester, and Lancaster formed 
the Third District, with an apportiom^ient of three 

In 1812, Berks and Schuylkill formed the Sc\enth 
District, with one member. 

In 1822, Berks, Schuylkill, and Lehigli formed the 
Seventh District, with two niembers. 

In 1832, Berks became a separate district, called 
the Xinth, with one member. 

In 1843, and eyery ten years successively until 
1887, Berks comprised the Eighth Congressional 
District, with one member. 

By the Act of May 19, 18S7, in the apportionment 
of the State, Lehigh, county was included with 
Berks county in the formation of the Xinth Dis- 
trict, and through delegates of the Republican and 
Democratic parties from the twc> counties, respec- 
tively, an agreement was entered into that Berks 
county should have the nominee for three consec- 
utive terms and Lehigh for two as long as they 
continued together. 

By the Act of July 11, 1901, in the apportion- 
ment of the State these two counties constitated 
the Thirteenth District. 

The following persons represented Berks county 
in Congress : 

Name Term 

Daniel Hiester ^. . . .17S9-PT 

Joseph Hiester* 1797-1807 ; 1815-20 

M.itlhias Reichf rt 1807-1 1 

John M. Hyiiemant 1811-1.3 

Djiiicl Udrec 1813-15 ; 182? 25 

Ludvvig VVormant 1821-22 

William Adams 1825-29 

Henry A. Muhlcnbergg 1829-38 

George M. Kcim 183S-4o 

John Rittcr 1843-47 

William Strong 1847-53 

J. Glancy Jones|l 1851-53 ; 1854-58 

Henry A. Muhlenberg, Jr.^ 1853-54 

William H. Keim 1858-59 

John Sch\v,-rt7' * lS5C'-f.O 

Jacob K. J.IcKenty 1860-Cl 

Sydenham E. .^ncona 1S61-67 

* Jo^ieph Hiester was elf.cted Covtrnnr of Pennsylvania in Oct- 
ober. 1830. and resipned his in Coni:iess^ PanicI UHrec was 
ejected in I)eceinnpr. 1S;?0, to succeed liini f )r the uncxi»ireil term 
endintr March .•?. 1S21. 

>' Jiilin >r. Ilyncmaii was re-elected: hnt he resigned his scat, and 
Daniel t^diee was elected to till the vacancy for the unLxpired term 
ending -March 3, 1SI5. 

t ^^ldwig Wonnan died Oct. 17. IS'JO. whilst fillinir this offic-. 
and Udree was elccteii in Oeccniber follow ing to fill the iincxpircd 
term cndinp in M.'irch. l.'^-;:. 

5 Henry A. Muhlenberg resiivne 1 his seat in February, l*^:!*. an! 
accepted the Mission to Austria as tli" lirst Minister. ' CtorRC M. 
Keim was elec.ed in March. ISHS. to fill the unc;-;pired term cndirg 
.Marrh :!. IS.'^O. 

II J. Glancy Jonrs reslcr-d in October. !,>:.«. nnd accepted Mis- 
sion to .\nstria. William H Keim was elected on .Nov. 30, 1,S')3, to 
fin I'tiexpired t'^nn endirij March .';. 1.*^.''.' 

•■ tlenrv A. ^tnlilenhere. Jr., .lied at Washincton on Tan. <>. l«->4. 
He had appeared in Coui^ress only a siniilc liay. when he was taken 
^ick with typhoifl fever, and thereafter was unable to resume his 

"■John Schw.Mt.- died in Tnlv. T^IO. .and Jac.b K. McKenty 
was elected to t:ll nnexpirt.i i;-Vm ei-.d>nv Man h 4, I.s'.l. 

>d' "; ■ J'? I'fm' ) O' '■'<• 



J. Lawrence Gi.ti; ISoT-Ta 

Hiesttr Clyincr ]8r:;-Sl 

l.»ani<.l Ermentrout ISSl-S'J; Is'JT-'JO 

David h. Ijru:iiur ] SS J-9.i 

C'jiistaiiliiie j. E'.'lnKir:* l^..'.;-jr 

Hcniy U. Green 1S'.)'J-1'J():5 

Mareiis D. Kline'' liKKl-UiUT 

John H. Rothcrniel 1907-1911 


Henry A. Mulilrnl)crs, to Austria. 
J. Glancy Jones, tu Austria 

. is:js-i() 

, ISJS-C.l 


John Endlicli. at Dink. SwitzerLand 

Henry Alay Keim, at Prince Edward Ibland 


W'il'.iani Strong 

Sa:ni'.cl L. Young 18J3-1901 

William J. Young 1901-05 

Henry I^faltzberger 1905 


Harrison Maltzberger 18C7-92 

Christian H. Kuhl 1S9S-1904 

Sanuiel E. P.erio'ef 19(':> 

The "Contiiiontal Ccm.L^rcs.s" passed a resolution 
on May 15, 17TG, calliin;- r.pcn the respective Assem- 
bhcs of the "United Colonies" '"to adopt svich gov- 
ernment as shall in the ojMnion of the re]iresenta- 
tives of the people best conduce to the happiness 
and safety of their constituents in particular and 
America in general." Li pursuance thereof a Pro- 
vincial Conference was hold in "Carpenter's Hall." 
at Philadelphia, on Tuesday, Jinic 18, 1770. It was 
attended by representatives from all the counties of 
the province, then eleve!i in number. The repre- 
sentatives — or delegates, as they were called — from 
Berks county were: 

Jacob Morgan Benjamin Sp>ker Joseph Hiester 

Henry Haller Daniel Hunter Chas. Shoemaker 

Maik Bird Valentine Eckert 

Bodo Otto Nicholas Lut? 

This Conference decided tlial a fVovincial Coti- 
vention should be called to meet on Monday, July 
15. 17';'G, for the express purpose of "forming a new 
government in this province on the authority of 
the peofjle only" ; fixed the qualifications of electors, 
the number of representatives from each county and 
the time of their election ; ordered an address to 
the people; an.d agreed uT)on a "Declaration of In- 
dependence" of tile province, the truthfulness, for- 
cibleness, and elegance of wliich are worthy all pos- 
sible praise and admiration. 

Accordingly, on July 15. 177t'i. the Convention 
assembled, composed of delegates from eacli coun- 
tv. The delegates from P.erks countv were: 

Jacob Morgan 
Gabriel lliester 
John Lesher 

!'.crijaini:i .Spyker 
Daniel Hunter 
Valentine Ilckert 

Chas. Slioe:naker 

Thoinas In 

A constitution was agreed upon on Sept. 
17 7(;, comprising a Preamble, Declaration 

'■' Frmi Lt:hi(.li cour.ty. 

. Jr 


Riglits and i'"rame of Government. Tlu' "Declara- 
tion of Rights" was reported by a committee of 
eleven, of which John Le.sher from Perks was a 

By the 47th section of the "Frame of Govern- 
ment" a provision was made for the election of 
Censors in 17b3 and every seventh vear thereafter, 
who were "to inquire whether the Constitution was 
preserved inviolate in every part." The Censors 
elected in 1783 to represent Berks county were 
James Read and Paltzer Cehr. 

The General Assembly of the State met at Phil- 
adelphia on March '34. 17S9. The representatives 
from Berks countv were: 

Joseph Fiester 
Gabriel Hiesler 

Joseph Sands 
John Ludwig 

Daniel IJrodhead 

Trie Assembly decided that alterations and 
amendments to the Constitution of 17 70 were nec- 
essary; and the Assembly met again on Sept. 15, 
1789. A resolution was reported by a committee 
of the whole Assembly which favored the calling 
of a convention to amend the Constitution, and 
it was adopted. 

Deleg;ites were accordingly elected by each of 
the districts in the S^ate. and those from Berks 
countv we/e: 

Joseph Hiester 
Christian Lower 

Abraham Lincoln 
Paul Groscup 

Balser Gchr 

The Convention assembled in the State House, 
at Philadelphia, on Nov. X.'4, 1789, and a New Con- 
stitution was agreed upon, all the delegates sub- 
scibing it on Sept. 2. 1790. h \\as soon afterward 
submitted to the people of the State by a special 
election, and adopted. • 

This Constitution continued as the general 
political law of the State until the adoption of a 
New Constitution in 1S73. In the mean time ef- 
forts were made to improve it, .\n Act of Assem- 
bly was passed March 28. 1R25, which provided 
for an election to be held at the next succeeding 
election to ascertain the opinion of the people rela- 
tive to the call of a Constitutional Convention, but 
they decided by ballot that such a convention should 
not be called. The vote in Berks county was 
against it. 

In 1835 a convention was again recommended, 
and the people decided that it was nece>£:ary. The 
vote in Berks county was against it again. 

In 1837 a Convention was duly assembled at Har- 
risburg and various amondnients to the Constitu- 
tion were recommended, which were adopted at 
the regular election in ( )ctober. 1^38. The vote 
in Berks county was for them. The delegates at 
this Convention fro-m Herk-^ couiiiv were: 

John Kittcr 
George M. Keim 

William High 
Mark Darrah 

James Donagan 

Subsequently, till 1873. various amendments 
were propo^jed by .\ct? of Assembly and adopted by 
elections of the people. 

„'l,.,':l l:.;'i.\'l 


,1 ,\<'iy '-*■■' -,■],. 

:i . <, - -w^'H 

-i;.;.., '.' -AM 




An Act of Assembly was passed in 1871 which 
provided for the caliins^ of a trenerai convention to 
amend the Constitution r,i IT'jii. It was .-ubmitted 
to the people at tlie ,q-encral election of October, 
1871, and ratified. Tlie vote in Eerks county was 
ag'ainst the proposition. 

"Delegates were accordingly elected ; the Conven- 
tion assembled — first at Harrisburg, then at Phil- 
adelphia ; and the result of their labor was 
submitted to the people in 1S73, and adopted. The 
vote in licrks county was favorable. The delegates 
from Berks county were : 

Gecrge G. Barclay Henry \V. SmithHenry Van Reed 

Under the Provincial Constitution, and a~fter- 
ward under the State Constitutions of 17TG, 1790, 
and 1873, the officers named in the subsequent 
pages were elected and appointed. 


The following persons from Berks county held 
State offices : 

Charles Biddle, Supreme Executive Councillor, elected 
by the Legislature, 1T8J-87. 

Joseph Hiester, Governor, elected, 1820-^3. 

Gabriel Jliester, Sar\eyor-GcnL-ral, appuinted by the 
Governor, 3S24-30. 

Frederick Sniitli. Supreme Associate Justice, appointed 
by the Governor, 1S28-30. 

Jacob Salladc. Surveyor-General, appointed by the 
Governor, 1839-4-). 

John Banks, State Treasurer, elected by the Legisla- 
ture, IS'-iT. 

William Strong, Supreme ^Vssociaie Justice, elected, 
] 857-68. 

William M. Hiester, Secretary of State, appointed by 
Governor, 1808-60. 

William H. Keiin, Surveyor-General, elected, ISCO-fil. 

Warren J. Woodward, Supreme .Associate Justice, 
elected, 1874-70. 

David McMurtrie Gregg. Auditor-General, elected, 18'.i2- 


The office of State senator was created by the 
Constitution of 1790. The State was thereby ap- 
pK:)rtioned into senatorial districts : and again in 
1793, and subsequently every seven years till the 
adoptirm of the New Constitution of 1873, where- 
by the apportionment was thereafter to be made 
on the decennial census of the I'nitcd States. In 
the beginning. P.erks and Dauphin counties com- 
prised a district with an allotment of two mem- 
bers; and they continued together till ISOS, when 
Berks was erected into a separate district with two 
members, .\fter the erection of Schuylkill county 
in 1811, it was added to Berks, and they together 
comprised a district with two members till 183G. 
when Berks was again erected into a district by 
itself with one member, and continued so from 
that time till now. The term, was four years from 
1790 to 1838; and three years thence to i874, when 
the New Constittition fi.xed it at four ye:irs again. 

The members from I'crks aU^ic are mentioned: 

X.ime lerin 

Joseph Hiester 1790-94 

Gabriel Hiester 1795-96 ; 1805-12 

Christopher Lower 1797-1804 

John S. Hiester 1809-12 

Charles Shoemaker 1813-16 

.Marks John Biddle 1817-20 

Conrad Fegcr 1821-24 

George Scliall 1825-28 

Daniel A. Bertolet 1829-32 

Paul Geigcr 1833-36 

John Miller . . . 1837-40 

Samuel Fegely 1841-46 

John Potteiger 1847-49 

Henry A. Muhlenberg 1850-52 

William M. Hiester* 1853-55 

John C. Evans 1856-58 

Benjamin Nunnemacher 1859-60 

Hiester CljTiier 1861-66 

J. Depuy Davis 1867-73 

Daniel Ermentrout 1874-80 

Edward H. Shearer 18S1-84 

Frank R. Brunner 1835-88 

Henry D. Green 1989-96 

W. Oscar Miller 1897 1900 

Edward M. Herbstf 190l-l'J08 


The office of assemblyman was first created by 
William Penn in establishing a government for 
the province : and representatives thereto, from the 
several counties as they were erected, were elected 
annually till the Declaration of Independence and 
the adoption of a Constitution by the State in 177G. 
It was continued by this Constitution, and afterward 
bv that of 17 90, v.herebv members to the Assembly 
were elected annually till tlie adoption of the New 
Constitution of 1S73. Then the term was increased 
to two vears. In all these years — from 17r.2 to the 
present time — Berks county was a separate dis- 
trict, excepting after the erection of Schuvlkill 
county out of portions of Berks and Northamp- 
ton, when it was added' to Berks, and continued so 
for a period of eighteen years — from 181 1 to 1829. 

The nttmber of representatives from Berks was 
as foIlow'S : 

1752-71 1 

1772-76 2 

1777-81 4 

• 1782-8f: 6 

1787-1829 5 

1830-57 4 

1858-74 3 

In 1874 six members were apportioned to Berks. 
to so continue until an apportionment be duly made 
on next census of Unhed States (1880) — namely, 
to the citv of Reading two members, and to the 
county of P.erks four. 

By the Act of May 12, 1887, in the apportion- 
ment of the State for representatives, the county 
of Berks became entitled to five members — the 
city of Reading as the First District to elect two 
members, and all the county outside of Reading 

* William M. llicstcr w.t; elected and served ai Sneaker of the 
Scr.-it.- lor lS=ij. 

t Keelectei'. in November, 1508. 


■ ■ !<- If; 



:as the Second District to elect tliree members ; 
-.which has continued unchanged. 

The representntives from tlie county were as lol- 

Xa:.u- Ter:n 

.Closes Stprr 1752-54 

Francis Parvin 1735 

Thomas Vorke 170G-57 

James Boone 1758 

John Potts 1750^)1 

John Ross 17t);:-tJ4 

Adam Witman 1765-65 

Edward Biddk* 1767-81 

Henry Christ 1771-81 

Valentine Eckert 1776-79 

Henry Halicr 1770-81 

John Lesher 1776-81 

Jonathan Jones 1779-80 

John Hiester l~S~ 

'Gabriel Hiester 178^; 1787-89; 1791; 180r.'-(>4 

Baltzer Gehr 1782 ; 1780 ; 1792-99 

Daniel Hunter 1 7S3 

Benjamin VVeiser 178'2 

Joel Bishop 1782-84 

Daniel Qvmer 1783-81: 1787; 1701 

• Chris. Lower 1783-85 ; 1793-94 ; 1790 

Abraham Lincoln 1783-80 

John Ludwig 1783; 1789; 179',l-92 

John Patton 1T83 

George Egs 1'i'^''3 

Nicholas Lotz 1784-80 ; 1790-94 

John Rice 17S4 

Henry Spvker 1' 35-86 

David Davis 1785-88 

Martin Rhoads 1785 

Philip Kraemer 178')-87 

Joseph Hiestoi 1787-00 

Charles Biddle 1T8S 

Joseph Sands 1788-90 

Daniel Brodhead 1789 

Daniel Leiiibach 17!'0 

James Collins 1791 

' C. Shoemaker 1792-1801; 1810; 1812 

Paul Croscup 1792-98 

John Christ 1795-90 

John Spavd 1795-1810 

Peter Frailcy 1797-1801; ISIO; 1812 

William Lewis 1797-08 

D. Rose : 1799-1804; 1800-OH; 1811-12 

Daniel Udree 1799-1803; 1805 

William Witman 1800-05 

Frederick Smith 1802-03 

Isaac Adams 1804-05 

Jacob Rhoads 1804-05 ; 1809 

Jacob Epler 1805 ; 1816 

Elias Redcav 1800 07 

Valentine Probst 1800-08 

Jacob Schaefler 1890-08 

John Bishop ISOO 

Daniel Yoder 1807-08 

Bernard Kepner 1S08 

Jacob Schneider 1809 

David Kerbv 1809-12; 1815; 1S17 

John M. Hyneman 1809 

James McFarlaiid 1809 

Adam Ruth 1810-11 

Conrad Fester 1811-14 

John Miller 1813; 1815 

Jacob Krehs 1813-14 

John Adams 1813-14 

Jacob Snssaman 1813 

George Marx 1S14 

Jonathan Hudson 1814 

Daniel Kcrper 1815 

• Ii> ]"7t EdwarJ RlfMIe of ilie Assembly. 

Name Term 

Daniel Rhoads, Jr 1815-17; 1S22 

Jacob Dreibelbis 1815 

Christian Haldcman ISlO 

D. Hottensteir, 1810; 1822-24; 1827 

William SchoL-ner IS 17 

Godfried Rochrer 1817; 1820; 1823 

Michael Graett 1817-19 

Joseph Good 1813-19 

Jacob Levin 1818-19 

Elisha Geiger 181S 

Jacob Griesemcr 1818-19 

John Xeikerch 1819; 1822 

John Kohler 1820 

Abraham Mengel 1820 

John W. Rosebcrrv 1820 

George 1820-21 

Samuel Jones 1821 

Joseph Good 1821 

Jacob Rahn ' 1821 

Jacob Schneider 1821 

William Adan;s 1822-24 

John Gehr 1822-23 

William Audenri. d 1823-24 

Henry Boyer 1824-27 ; 1832 

James Everhard 1824-20 

George Ralm 1825 ; 1827-2'^ 

Jacob Gehr 1825-26 

Geo. M. Od'.T.hcimer 1825 

Daniel A. Beriolctte 1826-23 

Michael Graeff 1826 

Philip A. Good 1827-29 

Mordecai Lewis 1828 

John Stauffer 1829-31 

rhos. J. Roehrer 1829-30 

G.-orgc Klein 1829 

Paul Geigcr 1829-31 

Tohn Wanner 1830-32 

John Poltciger 1831-34; 1842-44 

William High 1832 

Peter Klein, Jr 1833-34 

Benjamin Tvson 183;^ 

Jacob M. Snyder 1833-34 

Adam Schocner 1831; 1839-40 

William Hottenstein 1835-30 

Lewis W. Richards 1835 

John Ulrich 1835-30 

John Tackson 1835-37 

John Sheelz 1830-37 

Michael K. Bover 1837 

S. P'cgclv 1837-39 ; 1848 ; 1849 ; 1851 

Jacob Walborn 1838-39 

Abrahan- Hill 1838-39 

James Geiger 1838 

Henrv Flannerv 1840-41 

Peter Filbert - 1840 

Daniel B. Ktitz 1840-41 

Robert M. Rr.rr 1841 

Samuel Moore 1841-43 

John Shcnk 1842-13 

Joseph Bachmnn 1842-43 

henrv W. Smith l«44-45 

[ohn'C. Evans 1844: 1850-52 

Alfred J. Herman 184 1 

Jacob Tice 1845-40 

Michael HorTman 1845-46; ]8-,7 

Honrv G. Stetler 1845-46; 1848 

Charles Levan 1846-47 

Tohn I^n- 1847-48 

(ohn C. Mvers 1347-40 

[acoh Gra. ft 1847 

William SiiainiLT ; ia4't-5'i 

Daniel Zcrbev 1840-50; 1853 

Alex. S. Feather 1850-51 

Tacoh Rcif snvdcr 1851 52 

'Isaac Yost ' 18.52-53 

George Dengler 1852-53 

-M ' .H 



Name Term 

Jacob Wick'.cin 1S.J3-54 

juhu B. Smith 1854 

George Shenk 18r)4-")5 

IXiTi'l" V. R. Hunter 1S54 

Jcnniiah Mengel 1855 

I .hn F. Linderman 1855 

Samuel Shearer . ■ 1855 

Andrew il. Sallade 1855 

J. Lawrence Getz* 18.'j6-57 

William Heins , . .1856-57 

Dcnj. Xiinnemacher 135f>-58 

Mich lel Hoffman 1857 

Edmund L. Smith 1858-59 

Amos Wciler 1858 

Solomon L. Custer 1S59-60 

Augustus F. Beriolct 1859 

Joshua S. Miller 1860 

Elijah Peiin Smith 1800-61 

Michael P. Boyer 1S61 

Henry B. Rhoads 1861 ; 1865-67 

Charles A. Kline 1S62-64 

Daniel K. Weidncr ]8iV3-63 

William N. Potttigcr 1862-64 

John P. Missimer 1864-66 

Frederick Harner 1865-67 

Richmond L. Jones 1867-68 

Henr} S. Hottenstcin •. ..18«s-69 

Henrv Brobst 1868-70 

Aaron T. C. KefTer 1870-72 

Hiram H. Schwann 1870-72 

John A. Conrad 1871-73 

Benjamin E. Dry 1873-76 

Michael McCullough 1S73-74 

Aaron Smith 1874-76 

Daniel L. Batdorf 1875 

Xicli'ilos Andre ' ]8:5-7S 

Joseph B. Conrad 1876-78 

George D. Schacffer 1877-80 

Stephen J. Smith 1877-80 

Tames Liggett 1879-82 

John H. Ri^gel 1879-82 

C. A. Seidel 1881-84 

George K. Lorah 1881-84 

Isaac Z. Deck 188.<-86 

James W. Sponagle 1883-80 

Benjamin C. Baer 1884-SS 

L. V. G. Fegley 1SS4-88 

X. S. Kauftman 1887-90 

John E. Pautsch 1887-90 

Cyrus W. Kutz 1889-92 

Samuel B. Kcppel ' 1891-94 

F. I^onard Rcber 1891-94 

Jacob G. Herzog 1893-96 

Cyrus J. Rhode 1ST5-9S 

Jacob M. Weible 1895-98 

Charles B. Spatz 1897-1900 

Frank H. Xa'ftzinger 1899-1902 

Lot \V. Reiff 1 899-1902 

Kinicr E. Sciuibi) 1901-04 

Francis W. Balthaser '. 1903-06 

Thomas R Houck 1903-06 

Jacob A. Lcsher 1905-06 

Howard G. McGnwan 1907-08 

Irwin "SL Sharman 1907-10 

David H. G. Kuscr 1907-10 

Alvin K. Lesher 1900-10 

COUNTY offici:rs 

Commissioners. — The board of countv conmii^- 
sioners comprises three membirs. IVevioiis to 
'i^Ti'). one was elected annually for three years. The 
Constitution of IST;?. nrovideil for tlie election of 

* Spc.ilxr of House in lg57. 

the three coniniissioners in ISTo and every third 
year thereafter. 

The board of county auditors also comprises 
three members. Previous to ISOO they were ap- 
pointed by tile county judq-cs. An Act was passed 
March IG, ISOO, providing for the annual election 
thereafter of three auditors. In ls]-J. this pro- 
vision was mtxlified so that a new auditor was in- 
troduced into the board annually thereafter. This 
practice prevailed until the Con.stitution of 18T3, 
which provided for the election of three auditors 
in 1875 and every third vear thereafter. 

In respect to both commissioners and auditors, 
"each qualified elector shall vote for no more than 
two persons, and the three persons having the 
highest number of votes shall be elected."' This 
was a marked departure from the old system, by 
which all of one political party were elected. It en- 
abled the opposite party to elect one member. 
Since 1875, these officers have been elected — two 
by the Democrats and r^ne by the Republicans. 


Name Term 

Evan Price 1752-53 

Edward Drury 1752-56 

John Godfrey 1752-61 

Jacob Lightfnot 1753-56 ; 1759-62 

Thomas Rutlcr 1756-59 

William Recser 1757-60 

Samuel High 1760-63 ; ] 773-75 

Christian Witinan 1761-64 

John Hughes 1762-65 

(""red'k Weiser 1763-66 

Richard Lewis 1764-67 

Isaac Lcvau 1765-6S 

Xicholas Harmony 1.766-69 

Christian Merkcl 1707-70 

Jacob Snyder 1769-71 

John Jones 1769-72 

Henry Rightmeyer 1770-73 

Davis Brecht 1771-74 

.'\brahani Lincoln. 1772-78 

Michael Brecht 1774-77 

Christian Lower ] 776-79 

John Kerlin 1777-30 

Adam Witman 1778-Sl ; 1784-87 

Thomas Jones 1779-82 ; 1783-86 

Thomas Parry 1780-83 

Daniel Messersmith 1781-84 

Michael Forrv 1782-85 

Conrad Eckcrt 1785-91 

Daniel Lcinbacli 1780-89 

John Keim 1787-90 

Jacob Boyer 1780-92 

Jacob Bower 1790-93 

John Riegel 1791-94 

George Lorah 1792-95 

Philip Miller 17U3-9S 

Peter Kershner 1794-97 

William Witman 1795-98 

Xicholas Dick 1796-99 

Isaac .-\ddains 1797-18 10 

Jacob Rhoads 1798-1801 

Peter E'eather 1799-1802 

Jacob Epler lSOO-03 

Casper Merkel 1801-04 

John Cunnius 1«i>l'-05 

Daniel Voder lS03-<n5 

.•\dam Ruth 1804-07 

'>.: Ji ■.■b': <• ;■/ 



Name Term 

Henry Hahn 18'J.'>-0S 

Henry Hottciistein lSOtj-09 

Xicholas Leib • ISOT-IO 

Jacob -Miller lSOS-11 

N^ilcntine Bovtr 18)0-12 

Daniel RutJi'. 1810-13 

George Boyer 1811-14 

Jacob Gchr 1812-15 

William Addaiiis iSi:!-](j 

GeorfJte Shreffler 1814-17 

Daniel Levan 1815-18 

William High 181t)-19 

Peter Slichttr 1S17-20 

George X. Lechncr 1818-21 

Feter Knabb 1819-22 

David Bright 1820-23 

George Kemp 1821-24 

Fred'k Stamni 1822-25 

Henry Reeser 1823-26 

John Wanner 1824-27 

John Potteiger 1825-28 

John Hahn 1820-29 

Stanley Kirby 1827-30 

George Gernant 1828-31 

Anthony Bickel 1829-32 

Daniel K. Hottenstein 1830-33 

John Filbert _. 1831-34 

Jacob Goodman '. 1 832-35 

Daniel Snvder 1833-36 

John Deysher 1834-37 

John Y. Cunnius 1835-38 

John Seibcrt 1836-39 

David Kutz 1837-40 

Michael Reifsnyder 1838-41 

George Weilcr 1839-42 

John Long 1840-43 

William Arnold 1S41-44 

John Sharman 1342-45 

Adam Lcize 1843-46 

Fred'k Print/. 18 14-47 

Michael Gery 1845-48 

David Yoder 1846-49 

Charles Fichthorn 1847-50 

Conrad Clousc 1848-51 

Thomas Shaner 1849-52 

Joseph A. Schneidf r 1850-53 

John McGovvaii 1851-54 

Beniamm Kut/ 1852-55 

Jacob Young .' 1853-56 

Gabriel Filbert 1854-57 

William Knabb 1855-58 

Samuel Summons 1856-59 

D. L. Wenrich 1857-60 ; 1863-60 

William Miller 1S58-61 

John F. Moer? r 1859-62 

Pari Wenrich. Sr 1860-63 

J. Donahower 1861 

George K. Lor?h 1861-64 

H. R. Hawman 1S62-65 

Adam Stein 1864-67 

Wm. S. Young 1865-71 ; 1879-81 

Jacob Schnrtel 1866-69 

Benjamin l.evan 1867-70 

Tohn L. Mover 1869-72 

William Rabn 18;o-73 

Toscnh Mutharl* 1871-74 

David Lord 1872-75 

Henrv Scidel 1873-74 

William Fry 1873-75 

William Umbonhauer 1874-7'i 

Henrv W. Smith 1876-78 

William Davidheiser 1876-7S 

William G. Moore 1876-73 

John Walborn 1879-81 

* Miithnrt dicri in AprI!. 1ST2. and SriJcl v. .T! aiipointed to fili 
vaciticy fn*- unexpire-l Term. 

Name Term 

Jeremiah R. Guldin 1879-81 

Samuel G. Jiattield 1882-S4 

Peter Spang 1882-84 

David C. Keller 1882-84 

John L. Wagner 1885-87 

Samuel K. Fisher 1885-87 

David C. Keller ' 1885-87 

Samuel G. Herbine 1888-90 

Cyrus Levan 1888-90 

Samuel K. Deppcn ] 888-90 

C yrus W. Kauttman 1891-93 

Jacob H. Reeser 1891-93 

Franklin Seidel 1891-93 

Jeremiah Hartinan ' 1894-96 

Henry Stoyer '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'..'. 1894-96 

John Wunch* 1894-96 

George K. Linderman 1896-99 

Weslej- K. Loose 1897-99 

Charles E. St?ngier ! 1897-99 

Alfred Gunkel 1900-02 

Frank H. Moyer 1900-02 

John W. Slipp ..'.'.'.'.'.'..'. 1900-02 

Harry L, Johnson 1903-05 

Jacob Miller 1903-05 

Oliver H. Sander.-. , 1903-05 

James M. Yergcr 1906-08 

James F. Fisher 1906-03 

Chester B. Cleaver 1906-08 

Jacob yi. Bordner 1909-11 

Augustus R. -Anderson 1909-11 

Eugene I. Sandt 1909-11 

Xame Xerni 

Thomas Lightfoot 1797 98; 1803-05 

'yVilliam_ Moore 1797- 1800- 1803-08 

John Bishop 1797-98 

I'anl Groscup 1799-1800 

Jacob Bov.-er 1799-1800 

V. illiam Green 1801-02 

William Bell 1301-02 ; 1806-08 

George De B. Keim 1301-02; 1809 

James May 1803-05 

John Wilman 1S06-0S 

Lewis Reeser 1809 

Fred'k Frick ] 809 

John Richer isio 

George Boyer 1810-11 

Daniel Yoder ]810 

Christopher Shearer 181 1; 1817-19 

John S. Hiester ]8ll 

George Lorah 1812 

Philip Moyer 1812 

John Adams 1S12 

Henry M. Richards 1813-lG 

U'il'iain Addanis . 1813-14 

Peter Trcxler 1813 

Abraham Mengel •. 1814-17 

William High' 1815-18 ; 1835-38 

Peter High 1817-20 

Peter Sheetz 1818-21 

George Getz 1819-22 

Jacob Dick 1820-23 

Geo. U. Odenheimer 1821-24 

Jacob Sciineidcr 1822-25 

Peter Adnin^; 1823-26 

iJenry S. Klein 1824-27 

J'.lijah Dechcrt 1S25-2S 

Tohn S. l^earson 1826-29 

John Beitemnan 1827-30 

Simon Seyfert 1828-31 

John Jackson 1829-32 

* John \^'^:lch iiavliig rtiod. ('cnrfee K. Lindern-an was ajvpointed 
T'li'c 1», IS!*!'.. t'» serve Lincxpircii t-^rin. 

-•} l.^r 

;')/ n/.-il 


Name Term 

John Seltzer lS;{0-33 

John M. Keini .* 1831-34 

Daniel V. R. Hunter n;:;-^ ; i83ii-42 

Thomas Wanner 18:i;'.-3o 

Jacob Klein 1833-30 

Jacob Fricker 1834-37 

Daniel Yuung 1830-39 

William WunJer 1837-39 

John L. Rightmyer 1338-41 

H. H. Muhlenberg 1839-40 

John F. Moers 1840-43 ; 185-'-5S 

lacob K. Boyer 1841-44 

David Schall 1842-45 

John L. Reifsnycler 1843-40 

Chas. H. Adams '. 1844-50 

Jacob Dick 1845-48 

Michael Kraemer 1846-49: 1804-67 

Paul Geiger 1848-51 

John Y. Cunnius 1849-52 

Charles J. Cunimenb 1850-56 

Daniel Laucks ■. . . 1851-54 

Reuben R. Kline 1854-57 

Samuel M. Klec 1850-62 

Amos K. Strunck 1857-60 

Henrj' F. Felix 1858-01 

William Ste^fe 1860-63 

Joseph S. Hoycr 1861-64 

Ezra D. Yorgcy 1803 65 

Andrew Kurr 1803-09 

John G. Glase 1865-68 

James Bel! 1807-70 

Peter S. Albright 1868-71 

William Y. Shearer 1869-72 

Daniel G. Knabb 1870-75 

Henry H. Dubson 1871-74 

Harrison M. Keber 1872- 75 ; 1870-73 

Wm. H. Sallaac 1875; 1S76-7S 

Henry Z. Van Reed 1870-78 

Jacob D. Holtiiian 1870-81 

Charles S. Tobias 1879-81 

William H. Clark 1879-31 

Isaac S. Bagcnstose 1882-84 

Jacob S. Yoder 1882-84 

James M. High 1882-84 

Morris H. Bovcr 1885-87 

Jared B. Kramer 1385-87 ; 1888-00 

Allen B. Aulenbach 1885-87 

Franklin G. Krick 188S-93 

Reuben Rhoads 1888-90 

Howard Spat/ 1801-96 

George F. Schock 1891-03 

Nathan D. Trexler 1894-96 

Edwin H. Weller 1894-99 

Henry M. DeTurk 1897-1901 

Peter Hartman 1897-1901 

Charles B. Reis 1900-01 

Controllers. — The Act of June 27. 1S9.T, pro- 
vided that counties of the State liaviiin^ l.jO.OOt) 
population shall elect a controller to take the place 
of county auditors, and it a])pearin'::f 'n- the United 
States census of I'JOO that Berks county had a pop- 
ulation in excess of MO.OOO. the Governor, on ^lay 
22, 1901, appointed Joseph X. Shoino as controller 
to serve until Jan. (>, 11)02, wlien an incumbent duly 
elected \vould be qualified to fill the office. 

Xame Term 

Joseph X. Shomo 1001 

John F. Ancona 1902-04 

Horace F. I.iving-iod 1905-07 

Ambrose L. Rhoads .....1908-10 

Trl.\surlrs. — Previous to 1S41 the countv treas- 
urer was appointed annually by the countv com- 
missioners. On May 27, is'n, an Act waspassed 
providing for the election of this officer in October 
follow iiig and every two years thereafter. The 
Constitution of 1873 increa>eil tlie term to three 
years after 1S75. 

Name Term 

Jonas Seely 1752-63 

Christopher Witnian 1768-79 

Daniel Levan 1779-89 

Daniel Messersmith 1789-1807: 1809-11: 1814-17 

John K. Messersmith 1807-09; 1811-14; 1817-20 

Daniel Rhcadi 1820-23 

David Briglit , 1823-35 

Peter Xagic 1835-43 

Henry X'agle 1843-45 

William Arnold 1845-47 

Henry Hahs 1847-49 

Adam Lcize 1849-51 

William Ermentrout 1851-53 

Charles Van Reed 1853-55 

George Feather 1855-59 

David Flank 1859-61 

William Herb.^t 1861-03 

John Kurtz 1 803-65 

Isaac R Fisher 1805-67 

Charles H. Fritz 1867-69 

Samuel Alerkel 1809-71 

Abraham Y. Yoder 1871-73 

Hiestcr M. Xagle 1873-75 

Abraham H. Schaeffer 1876-78 

Adam M. Dundore 1879-81 

John Kr-rschner 1882-84 

John S. Hoh/man 1885-87 

David W. Mogel 1888-00 

Isaac F. March 180t-93 

.\mendon Bright 1894-90 

Cosmos D. KutE 1807-09 

.A.Itred K. Eentschlcr 1900-02 

Edwin G. Ruth 1903-05 

Henry H. Fry 1905-08 

William M. Croll 1909-11 

Sheriffs. — The Duke oi Yorke's laws (intro- 
duced into Pennsylvania Sept. 22, KwG) provided 
for the r.omination. by the justices of the county, of 
three persons within their jurisdiction, out of which 
the Governor .should make choice of one to be sher- 
iff for the year ensuing. By virtue of his office the 
sherifif was then a justice of the peace. 

In the Fratne of Government, prepared bv Wil- 
liam Penn for the province in l(j82, it wa.s provided 
that the freemen of the counties should annually 
elect and present to the Governor a double number 
of persons to serve for sheriff, justices, and coroner 
for the year next ensuing, out of which the Gov- 
ernor should nominate and commission the proper 
number for each office. After the erection of the 
county, the first aiipointments of sheriff and cor- 
oner were made Oct. 4. T;.">2. 

The Constitution of 1790 |)rovided f(ir a sinnlar 
election and appoinimcnt of sheriff and coroner; 
but the term of service was increased to three years, 
and no person was to be twice api-Muted .slieri ff in 
any term of six years. The Cnu'^tituti'in of 1S:*.S 
provided that one person for said offices re-pective- 

■I . •- 'j'i: fil 

' •■ .'. •/ -ir, 

'V i)(':';»»Oj 


"<-r . 








Iv should 1)0 elected by the people fur the term of 
three vear-. And the>e ofhces have thence been so 
filled. " 

Xamp TeriTi 

Benjamin Liglitfoot 175::-:>4 

William Boont 1 

Tlionias Lincoln 17 

Jacob Weaver 1739-00 ; 1 

Henrj- Qirist 1 

Jasper Scul! 1 

Jacob Shoemaker 1 

Geoige Xagle 1 

Heni-y Vandersli^e 1 

Daniel Levan 1 

Henry Iloffa i 

Philip Kraeiner 1782-84 ; 1 

Peter Filbert 1 

Jacob Bower 1 

Peter Frailey 1 

John Christ 1 

Nicholas Dick 1800-02 

John Spycker 1803-05 

Conrad Fegcr 1806-08 

George Marx ISOO-i I 

Daniel Kerper 1SI2 14; 1824-20 

Peter Aurand 1815 17 

John ^Miller 1818-20 

Henrv Betz 1821-23 

John Bickel 1827-29 

James Sillvnian 1830-32 

Henry Bovvman 1833-35 

George Fox 18:;6-3S 

Henry Binkley 1838-41 

Daniel Esterley T84t-44 

George Gernanl 1844-47 

John S. Schrocdcr 1847-50 

John Potteiger ' 18.50 53 

John Manderbach 1853-50 

Henry H. Manderbach 1856-59 

Jeremiah D. Bitting 1859-02 

Abraham R. Koer.ig 1802-05 

Tobias Earto 1805-03 

William B. Albright 1868-71 

Evan Mishler 1871-74 

George R. Yorgev 1875-77 

Alfred C. Ken.p .'. 1878-80 

Levi M. Gerhart 1881-83 

George D. Bover 1884-86 

George B. Schaeffcr 1887-89 

Elias Becker 1890-92 

George D. Fahrenbach 1893-95 

Frank H. Schmeck 1890-98 

Frank Brohst 1899-1901 

Albert F. Mogel 1902-04 

Jacob PL Sassaman 1905-07 

John C. Bradlev 1908-10 


Kame Term 

William Boone 1752-54 

Benjamin Parvin 1755 — 

John Warren 1759 

Jacob Kern 1760-61 

Adam W'itman 1762 

Samuel Weiser 1763-65 

Christopher Witman 1766 

Henrv Hallcr 1767 

Jas. Whitehead. Jr 17GS-09; 1779-80 

Sarniul Jackson 1 770 

Isaac Levan, Jr 1771-72 

Peter Brecht 1773-75 

Philip Kreamer 1770-78 

Same Term 

Peter Xagle . . .1781-87 

Peter Feather • 1788-93 

Thomas Wildbahn 1704-99. 

Peter .Aurand ISOO-112 

Daniel Kerper 1303-05 

Heiirv Rieser 1800-11 

J. Christian 1812-14 

Samuel Feather 1815-17; 1821-29 

Samuel Ritter ! . .1818-20 

.\dam Reitmver 1830-32 

John Hahn..' 1833-3 t 

John Fox 1835-37; 1859-64; 1S;8-7C 

Wdliam Stable 1838-49 

John H. Seltzer 1850-52 

William Keen 1853 58 

Henry Palm 1805-67 

Geo. S. Goodhart 1877-7'J 

Will'am H. Kellv l88')-t>2 

Henrv D. Schocdler 1883-85 

Frank H. Denhard 1886-88 

Dr. John G. Hoffman 1889-91 

Dr. Frank J. Kantncr 1892-94 

John C. Griescmcr 1805-97 

Dr. W^ilson H. Rothermel 1898-1900 

Reuben E. Mover 1901-03 

Dr. Albert N. Seidel 1904-06 

Dr. Robert E. Strasscr 1907-09 

Protiionot.mufs, Rix'okder.s, Registkks. Clerk.-- 
OF Oi<i'H.\xs' Cox:kt, .\xu Clerks of Quarter Ses- 
sioxs. — The offices of prothoiiotary, recorder, regis- 
ter, clerk of Orplians" court, and clerk of Quarter 
Sessions were created with the county courts. Imme- 
diately after the erection of Berks county, they 
were established at the county-town, anrl filled by 
ap])oinliiient of the Governor. The Amended Con- 
stitution of J.'^o.S changed the manner of filling the 
offices named from appointment by the Cicvernor 
to election by the people; and tlie .Vet of July 2, 
1839, fixed the term of ol^ce at three years. The 
first officers v/cre elected in October, 1839. Xo 
change has been made since. From that time, the 
tenns of the ofticers began on the 1st day of De- 
cember following their election till the adoption of 
the X'ew Constittttion, when the time was changed 
to the first r\Ionday of January follov.-ing their elec- 
tion. This change included also tlie other county 

Name 1 em Read 1752-75 ; 1777 

Thomas Dundas l^'O 

Jacob Shoemaker l~~^' 

Daniel Levan 1779-89; 1791 

John Otto 1790 

George Eckert 1792-1800 

John S. Hiestcr ISOt-OS 

Gabriel Hiester, Jr 1809-17 

Samuel D. Franks iSlS 

John .\da:ns 1819-20 ; 1824-20 ; 1830-35 

Marks Tohn Biddle 1821-23 

Jacob Sallade 1827-29 

Alex. H. Witman 1836-38 

Benj. Tyson 1839-42 

Daniel Young 1842-45 

IVtcr Strohecker 1S45-48 

Michael K. Bover 1818 51 

Charles H. Hunter '5''' ?* 

josiah Hearing 1854-57 

"David Fistor 1857-fin 

.Adam W. Kauffm.m 1800-63 

Jonathan L. RlIkt 1803-60 



N'aire Term 

Wclli'igion B. Griesemer 1S66-69 

Gior^'t K. Levan 18ti0-72 

Hpliriiim Arnisti ony 1872-75 

Charles F. Rentschler 1870-78 

Amos Wciler 1879-81 

William U. Althouse 18S2-84 

Levi F. Dietrich 1885-87 

Dpniel H. Schwcyer 1888-90 

loshua R. Burkey 1S'J]-9J ; 1894 

'William H. B. Schoenlv* 1894 

Oliver J. WolfT 1895-07 

Daniel R. Schineck 1898-1900 

John G. Rhoads 1901-03 

Edward J. :Morris 1904-00 

Eldridge Zinimerman 1907-09 

Name Term 

James Read 1752-70 

Henrj Christ 1777-89 

John Christ 1790-91 

Jacob Bovver 1792-99 

Peter Frailey 1800-08 

Jacob Schneider 1809-17 

John Adams 1818 

Daniel Rhoads 1819-20 

John Millev 182l-2:i ; 1830-35 

John Fred'k Smith 1824-29 

Joseph Ailgaici 1830-38 

John Green 1839 

William Wunder 1839-42 

Henrv H. Maurer 1842-45 

John ' W. Tyson 1845-48 

Israel R. Laucks 1848-51 

John Bush 1851-54 

Hiram S. Getz 1854-57 

Xichoias Heckman 1857-60 

Charles N. Keller 1800-03 

Isaac Laucks 1803-00 

Henry Reider 1800-09 

Daniel Hummel 1809-72 

Charles Hill 1872-75 

Jefferson M. Keller 1870-78 

William Zimmerman 1879-81 

Isaac M. Bechtel 1882-84 

W. Ber.ton Slolz 18S5-87' 

James F. Dunm 1888-90 

Simpson Becker .1891-93 

Isaac W. Kcimt 1894 

Amos F. Dumn 1894 

James W. Sponagle 1895-97 

Daniel H. Rieser 1898-1900 

Frank F. Bressler 1901-03 

Henry H. Holzman 1904-06 

Jeremiah A. Bausher 1907-09 

N'ame Term 

James Read : 1752-74 

Collinson Read 1775-70 

Henry Christ 17V7-80 

John Christ 1790-91 

Jacob Bower , 1792-99 

Peter Frailey 1800-08 

Jacob Schneider 1809-17 

Daniel Rhoads 1818-20; 1824-29 

Peter Aurand 1821-23 

Gi(irc;e Smith 1830-35 

William Zicber 1830-38 

Joel Rittcr 1839-42 

John Green 1842-45 

Isaac Flv 1845-43 

JoM.iih Ritter 1818-51 • 

Jacob Snell 1851-54 

Daniel Buskirk 1854-57 

'Died on March 11. 1-04, .iilI the Derntv T..^liiia R. Hurkey 
w,-i^ anpoii-tril to r,!! otT.ce until first .Moil. lav of Jar.uaiv- l^!',,. 
t r>K<l .\,,ri! i;, l„J4 

J obias Barto 1857-60 

Benjamin E. Dry 1800-03 

Michael S. Thirwechter 1803-00 

J. Daniel Wann'T lSCO-09 

Hiram S. Getz 1809-72 

Fienry C. Croll 1872-75 

Peter Y. Fdelmaii 1870-78 

Solomon S. Kindt 1879-81 

Jonas M. Shollenberger. . . . '. 18S2-S4 

Amnion S Strunk 1885-87 

Albert- H. Fcgely 1888-90 

Henry D. Strunk 1891-93 

\\'ill)am H. Schaftner 1894-96 

George B. Miller 1897-99 

Levi S. Mabry 1900-03 

William R. Kemmcrer 1903-05 

Wilson M. Dumn 1900-08 

George R. Gregory 1909-11 

Xame Term 

jaraes Read 1752-76 

Henry Ciirist 1777-SS 

James Scull 1789-91 

Jacob Bower 1792-99 

Peter Frailey 1800-09 

John M. Hyncmaii 1810-15 

John Adams 1810-17 

William Schocncr 1818-23 

Matthias S. Richards 1823 

Jacob Sallade 1824-20; 1830-31 

Nathaniel P. Hobert 1827-29 

Jacob Alarshali 1832-35 

Henry Rhoads 1830-38 

William H. Miller 1839-41 

James Donagan 1842 

William Shearer 1842-45 

Zacharias H. Maurer 1845-48 

William W Dichl 1848-5] 

Charles J. \Vink 1851-54 

Daniel Pottcigcr ; 1854-57 

Ephraim Friiz 1857-60 

Daniel Hahn 1800-03 

.Solomon Close 1803-60 

Levi H. Lies? 1866-60 

Malilon F. Wolff 1809-72 

Isaac K. Knoll 1872-T5 

C harks M. Clouse 1870-73 

Ephraim Dunkle 1879-81 

William H. Gilmer* 1882-83 

Xanic Term 

James Read 1752-76 

James Whitehead 1777-78 

Henry Christ 1779 

Daniel Levan 1780-91 

George Eckert 1792-99 

John S. Hicster 1800-08 

Gabriel Hiesier, Jr 1809-12 ; 1814-17 

John M. Hyncman 1813 

Samuel D. Franks 1818 

John Adams 1819-20 

Henry M. Richards 1821-23 

Jacob Marshall 1823 

Jacob Sallade 1824-20 

Nathaniel P. Hobert 1827-29 

Philip A. Good 13,30-32 

William Schoener ■ l£33-35 

Charles Tro.xell 1830-38 

William H. Miller 18,39 

Samuel Myers 1839- »3 

John L. Rightmycr 1842-51 

Zacharias H. Maurer 1851-54 

F.dwin H. Brockway 1854-57 

Joseph S. Hoyer 1857-60 

* l'r'.->ii Ihc f sta1)1i^limi-r,( nf a ^^cpaiat^- nrnl:ar,,.' l:):-,-t in T-"^"). 
this (jthciT was di^cciitintit-rl, .ind the Rcyister became the Clerk, 
as provided by law. 

'ivrtiU<A ',;'^,; 

ii-f ?. ,ii''.\, ,;■ 

-1',>!| 1,1: ■f.rHi. 

;'> '» ril','.'/ 



Nanu- Term 

James Bell 1800-63 

Francis Roland 18C3-f.O 

Levi M. Gcrhart 18G6-69 

Adam H. Snilor 1869-72 

Jacob H. } Iain 187::-75 

.Alahldn A. Sellers 1376-78 

Enoch S. Matthias 1879-81 

Isaac Eckeit 1882-84 

Alorris H. Shaefter 1885-87 

Henrv G. Heinlv 1S88-90 

William H. Sallade 1S91-9.1 

Henrv H. Holl*' 1894-9") 

Edwin T. lirown 1895 

Harrv J. Dumn 1890-93 

Daniel A. Br.usher 1899-1901 

Jacob B. Esscr 1902-04 

Peter S. Holl 1905-07 

Samuel T. Bordner 1908-10 

District Attorxev?. — The office of district at- 
torney was created by Act of 2^Iay o. 1850. and 
made elective, with a term of three years. Prev- 
iously, the Attorney-General of the State appointed 
an attorney in the several counties to represent the 
Commonwealth in the prosecution of criminal cases. 

The Act of 1850 required a residence of one year 
in the county and a practice of two years at the bar. 
The latter was reduced to one year by the Act of 
1852, but increased attain to two years by the Act 
of April 2G, 1883. 

Name Term 

Jacob Hublcv 1789-1817 

Frederick Smith 1818-20; 1824-27 

Charles Richards 182 1 

Daniel J. Hiester 1822-2:i 

Joseph II. Spavd 1828-29 

Joseph D. Biles 18.'5()-31 

Alexander L. Kiiig 18:!2-.'i5 

George G. Barcla'- 18:' 

J. Fringle Jones' 18J9-4G 

Peter Filbert 1847-4S 

John S. Richards 1S49-30 

Jeremiah Hageman 1850-56 

Jacob K. McKentv 185G-5U 

James B. Bechtcl 1859-62 

Daniel Ernientroiit 1862-65 

Wharton Morris 1SG5-68 

Edward H. Shearer 18G8-71 

Peter D. Wanner 1871-74 

Henrv C. G. Reher 1875-77 

William M. Goodman 1878-89 

Hiram Y. Kanffm.nn 1881-S:! 

Israel H. Rothernicl 1884-86 

leremiah K. Grant 1887-89 

W. Oscar Miller 1890-92 

Frank K. Flood 1893-95 

Adam B. Rieser 1896-98 

Abraham H. Rotlerme! 1899-1901 

George W. Wagner 1902-04 

Ira G. Kntz 1905-07 

Harry D. Schaeffcr 1908-10 

Spkci.\l DETiXTiviiS. — Au Act was passed May 
19. IST-l. which provided for the appointment of a 
special detective officer in the ^everal counties of 
the State, by the district attorney, with the approval 
of the court of Quarter Sessions. The first appoint- 
ment was made in February, IST.j. The officers 
were : 

* Died April 4, 1895. 

Xanie Term 

William L. Grniil 1S75-77 

John Denhard" lS7S-s;i 

LawreiKV P. Resslcr 1883 — 

James P. Ker^hiier 1881-86 

Georse Kramer 1887-89 

lohn Wimch 1890-92 

Frank H. Dcnhard 18it3-'.i5 

Henrv C. W. MiUi;** 1895 Binkncch- 1S9G-9S 

lames P. Kcrshner ' 1899-1900 

Daniel J. McDermott 1901 

Eugene W. Feueh 1902-04 

James J. Merkel 1905-10 

SuRVEyoK.s. — The office of surveyor-g-eneral of 
the State was created April 9, 1181 ; and this officer 
was then empowered to appoint a deputy or deini- 
ties in any county of the State. The first appoint- 
ment of a deputy-surveyor for Berks county was 
made in 1800. One deputy was appointed from that 
time to 1834, when two deputies were appointed. 
The appointment of two was continued till the pas- 
sag-e of the Act of April 9, 1800, which provided 
for the election of a county surveyor in October 
follov.-ing', for the tenn of three years, and every 
third year thereafter, and since 1850, this officer 
has been elected by the people. 

Xame Term 

Joseph Hoch 1800-13 

John M. Hyneman 1814-22 

Matthias S. Richards 1823-34 

Daniel A. Bertolette . . .1835-.';7 

Thomas H. Jones 1837-38 

Aaron Albright 1838 

Michael K. Boyer 1839-44 

Benjamin Dclong 1839-49 

Daniel J. Warmer 1841-47 

Daniel Potieige:- 1845-50 

Samuel Hoffman 1848-50 

-Augustus F. Bertolet 1850-56 

.Andrew Kurr 1856-62 

Daniel S. Zacharias 1862-77: ISSl 

Henrv C. Zacharias 1877-80 

Solomon K. Dreibelbis 1882-1901 

Xevin .\I. Davis 1902-04 

Orlando F. Bergcr 1905-10 

Poor Diuectoi;.s. — Previi.ius tu 1809, "overseers" 
of the poor were appointed by the justices of the 
county. On March 11, 1809. an Act was passed 
authorizing the election of the overseers annually. 
The poor of the C(iunty were provided for by c>ver- 
seers till the pa>>ai;-e of an Act of Assembly on 
March 29. Is24, e>lK^ciaiIy for Berks county, where- 
by the county commissioners were authorized to 
lew a tax for the purpose of purchasing- land and 
erecting thereon and furnishing necessary buildings 
for the emijloyment and support of the poor of the 
couiUv; and seven directors were ajipointed to pro- 
ceed in the establishment of the institution. At 
the following election, in October of that year, 
three directors were elected in pursuance of th.e 
Act — one for one year, one for two years, and one 

* lolm Dcnhar.i wa^; npr.iinnd for a soenti.l term. ls-<I-93: b.-t 
he wa^ clcctc.l to the ofVirc .if .M.lcrmaii of tnc KU'hth Waid. Read- 
ing, in .\laj-, lss:i. when he resipiieJ. and Lawrence 1'. Kesi^ler was 
appoitittd tor tlif im.-Niiiti-d tiim. 

*• 1-rom .\up. 2."), IS'.'j, to lill vacancy cau5eil bv death of Frank 
ir. Denhard. 

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for three years; and annually after said election one 
director was elected for three yoars. This law has 
not been altered. The directors appointed a stew- 
ard and other officers aniuially. to superintend and 
carry on the mana;.,'-ement of the institutioi: success- 
fully. The board organizes annually on third Mon- 
day of November. 

The first seven directors appointed by tlic Act to 
serve till the election of three directors as required 
were : 

John Ritter John Bcitcnman 

Jacob Mast Samuel Adams 

David Bright John Wanner 
Abraham Knabb 

Name > Teiin 

John Beitenman 1824-2') 

Daniel K. Hottenstein 1824-2fi 

David Bright 1824-27 

George Gcrnant 182.-i-28 

John Levan 1826-20 

George Royer 1827-30 

David Ludwig 1828-31 

David Dcysher 1829-32 

Henry Reeser ' 1830-33 ; 1835-36 

Daniel Oyster 1831-34 

Joseph Sclmuicker 1832-35 

John Bickel 1833-35 

Jacob Gilbert 1834-37 

John Filbert 1835-38 

Ilenrv Schoener 1830-39 

Daniel KrufTmar. 1S37-3S 

William Fisher 1838-40 

Peter Fi.ster 1838-41 

Abraham Kerper 183'J- 12 

John Shollenberger 1840-43 

Jacob W. Scit/inger 1841-44 

Abraham Kerper 18 12-45 

Daniel Baum 1813-45 

William Bertolet 1844-47 

John Dotterer 1845-46 

Michael Nuniicmachcr .' 1845-48 

John Gernarit 1846-49 

Daniel Sohl 1S47-48 

Conrad Reber 1848-49 

Jacob S. Fbling 1848-51 

Peter Kershncr 1849-53 

William Knabb 1849-52 

William Arnold 1850-57 

William Lorah 1852-55 

John Riciiardi 1853-56 

John R. Kdelman 1855-53 

George K. Haag 1850-59 

Jacob Malsbcrgcr 1857-60 

Samuel Slianer 1858-61 

Samuel Filbert 1859-62 

Aaron Getz 1800-06 

R. F. Drumheller 1861-04 

Peter Marshall 1802-05 

Ezra Z. Griesemcr 1803-07 

George Fish 1865-08 

Joseph Muthart 1806-69 

Silas W. Fisher 1807-70 

Daniel B. Lorah 1808-71 

Jacob B. Mast 1869-72 

Daniel Y. Peter 1870-73 

Henry Ammon 1871-74 

Michael Goodman 1872-75 

Samuel Sirunk 1873-76 

Isaac Y. Beidler 1874-77 

George Hcckman 1875-78 

John Herbcin 1876-79 

Mahlon Vogclman 1877-80 

Francis Roland 1878-81 

Name Term 

John H. Bauer 1879-82 

Flias Obold 1880-83 

Klias Bickel 1881-84 

Henry Shearer 1882-85 

John P. F. Marshall 1883-86 

-Michael E. (ieigcr 1884-87 

George Herbein 1885-88 

Jacob Miller 1886-89 

Isaac D. Whitman i8S7-90 

.\braham Schkgel 1883-01 

Samuel Z. Deck 18S9-92 

Frederick Roland 1890-93 

Milton H. De Long 1891-93 

William H. Seitzinger 1892-95 

Tilghman De Long 1 893-94 

John A. Hiester 1893-1902 

Jonathan Schwartz 1894-97 

JLarrison S. Matz 1895-98 

Daniel M. Herbein I8n7-10ii0 

Cornelius Blatt 1898-1901 

William M. Kase 1900-03 

John W. Fisher ' 1901-04 

Wellington G. Woods 1902-05 

Jacob Hollenbach 1903-06 

facnb Kes'lcr 1904-07 

George G. Ritter 1905-08 

Peter H. Knabb 190C-03 

William W. Field 1907-10 

Joel Krick 1908-11 


Name ' Term 

Abraham Knabb 1825-32 

Henry Bovcr 1833-37 

Marshall B. Campbell 1838 

Daniel Kauff man 1839-45 

Daniel Baum 1846-48 

Daniel Sohl 1849-52 

Jacob Coniad 1853-08 

Philip Eagle 1869-70 

Silas W. Fisher 1870-77 .A.nder?on 1878-82 

Reuben Hctrich 188385 

Joseph Hornbcrger ..'. 1885-92 

Jolm W. Gilbert 1892-96 

Oliver C. Sitler* 1896-1905 

William J. Hollenbach 1905-09 

Prison Inspfxtors. — The first county prison was 
erected in 1770. It stood at the northeast corner 
of Fi'fth and Washington streets. Reading, until 
1S48, and upon the completion of the new prison at 
the head of Penn street the prisoners were removed 
thither, and the old prison was sold and converted 
into a store building. The walls are still standing, 
though changed. Under the law then prevailing, 
the sheriti: had control of the prison during his offi- 
cial term; and he vvas authorized to appoint keepers. 
This practice continued till the passage of the Act of 
April 8, 1848, expressly for l^.erks county, whereby 
seven prison insjjectors were to be ajjpointed. four 
by the judges of the court of Quarter Sessions, and 
three by the county commissioners, who were to com- 
prise the "board of inspectors,"' the terms of office 
to be as follows: for three, three years; two, two 
vears; and two, one year; and afterward, all terms 
three vears. The inspectors were authorized to 
appoint, v\itli sanction of the court, a keeper, 
matron, etc. 

• Sitler re'-iunril nn April 7, 1905, nnd Hcillenbach was apj'-jinted 
on April ir)th to l\ll unexpired term. 

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This Act of Assembly continued in force till the 
passag-e of the Act of April 10, liST3, whereby nine 
in-;pectors were to be elected at the next regular 
election, when each elector w as to vote for six can- 
didates, and the nine hig-hest to be the inspectors. 
The elected candidates were to draw lots for one, 
two, and three years. And annually thereafter, 
three inspectors were to lie elected for tliree years, 
the electors to vote for two, and the three having 
the highest vote to be the inspectors. 

The following persons were the first inspectors 
under the Act of 1848 : 

Appointed by the Court .\tig. 7, 1S4S 
Name Term 

Jacob Lightfoot 3 yrs. 

J. Glancy Jfines 3 yrs. 

William Heiilcnreich 2 yrs. 

Thomas Shaner 1 yr- 

Appointed by County Commissioners Aug. 10, 1S48 
Name Term 

John Banks 3 yrs. 

Henry Nagle 2 yrs. 

Charles Kesslcr 1 yr. 

Appointed from IS-IS to 1873 
Name Term 

Jacob Liglitfoot 1848-57 

J. GLancv Jones 1848-51 

William Heidcnrcich 1848-50 

Thomas Shaner 1848-55 

John Banks 1848-49 

Henrv Xasrle 1848-59 

Charles Kessler 1848-51 

William Peacock 1849-51 

David P-lster 1850-53 

J. Bowman Bell 1851-57 

Lewis Briner 1851-C4 

Samuel Frees 1851-54 

David Kuf .-^ 18.-;.'',-fi8 

William I lenrv 1854-60 

Jacob Dick 1855-57 

Daniel Young ; . .1857-66 

Abr. D. Hill '. 1S57-G6 

Levi B. Smith 1858 

Tames Lee 1858-64 

Jacob Young 1S59-71 

Samuel Summons 1860-72 

Charles H. Fritz 1864-70 

Henry Z. Van Reed 1864-70 

T Glancy Tone? 1864-68 

bavi.l Mcknight 1864-70 

David L. Wenrich 1868-71 

Amos Weilcr 1868-69 

Calvin Goodman 1860-72 

Peter A. Kline 1860-72 

George Lerch 1870-73 

Joseph Ganser .1871-73 

W. B. Griescmer 1872-73 

William Grim 1872-73 

Isaac R. Fisher 1872-73 

Benjamin Levan l^'i'3 

Jacob IVIiller IS ' 3 

Elected under Act 1S7.'? * 

Name Term 

■ John Gcrnant (1 vr.) 1873-74; 1874-77 

Wm. Stump Cl vtA 1873-74 ; 1874-77 

S. Schmchl (1 vr.) 187.3-74 : 1878-81 

Samuel Buch (2 yrs.) 1873-75 

Ainendon Bright (2 yrs.) 1873-75 

William Hcrbst (2 yrs.) 1873-75 

W. Y. Lvon (3 yrs.) 1873-76; 1876-70 

Tobias Barto (3 yrs.) 1873-76 

• The first nine n.nmed comprised the first board elected in 1S7:"'.. 
After ornaniT.-ition. on the 1st dav of TVccmbcr. lots were cast {■■r 
the terms of ihi-ie in^pcclor-i. The bo.ird org.inizes annually on 
the 1st day of December. 

Name ' Term 

Jacob .Miller (3 yrs.) lS7:!-76 

Calvin Goodman 1875-77 

Peter Rapp 1874-77 

Jacob Sha tTner 18"5-73 

Peter A. Kline 1875-78 

Peter L. TLain 1875-7S 

James T. Reber 1876-79 

Wm. S. Rittcr 1877-82 

.^dam Minnich 1877-80 

Daniel L. Rhoads 1877-80 

David Brown 1877-so 

losiah Boit7 1878-81 

Isaac H. Rahn 1878-81 

Lewis L. Mover 1879-8? 

John StietY 1879-82 

.Adam H. Potteigcr 1880-83 

Charles S. Wentzel 1880-83 

Milton T. Donmover 1880-83 

Wm. D. Klopp 1881-84 

Wm. A. Schall 1881-84 

Wm. W. Lewis 1881-82 

Wm. Schweitzer 1882-8.* 

Tohn Obold 1882-85 

"Henrv Riecrer 1882-85 

Jacob S. Wisler 1882-85 

Tohn S. Wenrich 1883-80 

Samuel H. Mensch 1SS3-80 

Dallas Leinbach 1883-86 

John B. Clemmcr 1884-87 

William H. Seitzincrcr 1884-87 

Daniel D. Hinterlciicr 1884-87 

John H. Obold 1885-94 

ITenry Rieger 1885-88 

Wm. H. Wetherhold 1885-88 

Franklin H. Brintzegholl 1880-92 

Levi 'M. JN'cischwender 1886-89 

Wilson Sweitzer 1886-89 

Charles S. Dcngler 1887-93 

Reuben Updegrove 1887-90 

Joseph B. Clemmer 1887-90 

Tohn Mavcr 1888-91 

William Hiijh 1888-91 

Albert Stamm 1889-95 

John M. Gift 1889-92 

William A. Lindemiith 1890-93 

Darius E. Sheidv 1890-91 

Augustus B. Forrey ...: 1891-93 

Tohn M. Smith 1891-94 

David E. Snvder l''91-94 

Charles H. Knabb 1892-94 

Abraham Grimes 1892-98 

Henrv Z. Kramer 1893-96 

Amos' Glass 1893-99 

Levi S. Reber 1893-96 

George H. Xagle 1894-1900 

John H. Kintzcr 1894-97 

.Alexander Schlottman 1894-97 

Tohn Fndv 1894-95 

Urias Rothenberger 189.V9S 

Lcnious Wessner ... - 1895-9 1 

Tsa.ic L. De Tnrck i897-;is 

George Clous .1896-99 

George B. V^'aener .1896-99 

Toel H. Krick 1897-1906 

"Tohn T,. Seidcrs 1897-l'.Mr, 

Daniel Gross 1898-1907 

Tohn Warren 1898-1907 

A. M. Lesher 1898-19MI 

Daniel F. Kramer 1899-I9ns 

T, Hcbor Witmau 1899-191 1 

Edmund A. Schenck 1899-1902 

.Martin Hauck* 1900-05 

.\llrn W Eritch 1901-01 

Albert Sei wcrt 1902-05 

* Died .^pril 12, 19n.j, and Charles P. Saylor appointed to fill 
unexpired term. 

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Name Term 

Israel il. Weiitzcl 1903-09 

David K. Manniiller 1904-10 

lohii Warren 1904-10 

David B. Gross 1904-07 

Charles P. Savior 1905-09 

Jacob S. Kelciincr 1905-OS 

Nathan K. Dundore 1906-09 

John H. Rhoads 1907-10 

Hcnrv G. Ho.> cr 1908-11 

Edmund A. Shcnk .1908-11 

Xame Term 

>rablon Bertolet 1849-53 

Dr. Henry Tyson 1853-05 

Joseph Ganser 1805-70 

Daniel S. Francis 1870-73 

Thomas Will 1873-76 

Isaac K. Knoll 1870-79 

Adam B. Erossman 1879-82 

Dr. R. B. Rhoads 1882-85 

Aaron M. Wenrich 1385-88 ; 1 S98-99 

Isaac D. Lutz 1S38-91 

Samuel H. Mensch 1891-92 

John M. Smith 1892-95 

Isaac Y. Kintzer 1895-93 

William W. Xewcomct* 1899-1904 

Jeremiah M. DeTurk 1904-09 

JuRV Co.MMissiONERS. — Before 1867 the jurors 
for the trial of ca.^es in the several courts of the 
county were selected from the qualified elector'^ 
by the county commissioners and the sheriff. On 
April 10, ISiiT, a gener.i1 Act was passed for the 
State requiring the election of two jury cominis- 
sioners in October following, for the term of three 
years, and every third year thereafter, for the pur- 
pose of selecting jurors from the qualified electors. 
The Act provides that each elector shall vote for 
one person for this office, and the two persons hav- 
ing the highest vote shall be the commissioners. 
They are to select a number designated by the 
tourt, and place the names in a jury wheel in the 
presence of a Judge of the court : and they and 
the sheriff are to draw panels of jurors as grand, 
petit, and traverse jurors of the countv as there- 
tofore. The number generally designated for the 
jury wheel previous to 1875 was a thousand nan.ies ; 
then, upon the introduction of an additional law 
judge, the number was increased to twelve hun- 
dred. Since 18(i7 the jurors for the quarterly 
terms of the several courts of the county were 
selected and drawn as mentioned, by the following 
commissioners, who were elected for that purpose: 

George W. Bruckman } 

Charles J. Faher j ; 

Zacharias H. Maurer ) 

Joseph Rrelsford ji 

Israel R. Laucks I 

Sanmel U. Hollcnbach 5 

Michael K. Boyer } 

Reuben Rhoads j 

Henrs- Graul ] 

Edward H. Harnerf 1 18S0-S2 

Jacob K. Sterrett J 

' Oied in office June 27. ir>il4. .ind Tcrenii.ih It TKTurk, the 
lUi.ntv-wr.r.ler. v as aii.ointfl Jiilv .'>tll to til'. 11r- v:ic.iiicv. 

'' IMwar'l H. U.irncr reniovi-ii from tlic county, and J. K. Sterrett 
wa? aiipointed ''eb. 20, ISSl, for unexpired term. 





, ..1883-85 







. . . 1904-06 

Cosmos Swoyer / 

John B. Sn_\der J 

William G. Welder } 

Da!iiel Sheirer j 

Frank R. Wanner } 

Ephraim R. Wagner j 

Jacob A. Spaiigler / 

David Brown f 

Constantine Jones ) 

John S. W enrich ) 

Constantine Jones ) 

Kaut'fman C. Kurtz | 

Constantine Jones / 

Adam .S. Klce f 

J. Henrv Burkhard j 

Elias W. Seidel 5 • 

Isaac Barr 1907-10 

William F. Renno 1907-10 

Merc.vntile Appr.visers. — Previous to 184G. 
only dealers in foreign merchandise w^ere required 
to take out a county license to enable them to make 
sale thereof. But on April ?3, IblG, an Act was 
passed requiring all dealers in goods, wares, and 
merchandise to take out a countv license, and there- 
by the county commissioiiers of each county were 
empowered to appoint annually a mercantile ap- 
praiser, who was directed to assess and classify 
all dealers, and furnish a list of them to the county 
treasurer. From 18o0 till this Act was passed, 
the constables of the to\vnships, etc., of the county 
furnished under oath ;i. list of the foreign dealers 
to the clerk of the Quarter Sessions, and the as- 
sociate judges and county commissioners classiried 
them and delivered a list to the county treasurer. 
Before FSoO, the foreign dealers were returned by 
the constables to the clerk of the court of Quarter 
Sessions ; the clerk certified the returns to the 
State treasurer, who forwarded a list to the countv 
trca.surer for the collection of the license fees. 

In Berks county, the constal.(les still tijade tlicir 
returns for the years 1840 and 1847. The county 
commissioners made the first appointment for 1848. 

N'ame Term 

Mahlon r.ertolet 1843 

William Karns 1349-51 

Adam Leiss 1352 

Solomon Klohs 1853 

J. H. Kelly 1854 

Isaac S. Hottciistein 1855 

I'pbraitn Fritz 1S5G 

Daniel S. Kutz 1357 

George K. Lorah 1858 

.•\lbert C. Henrv 1859 

Henry Reidtr : 1860 

T"ranklin S. Ludw icr 1861 

Henrv R. Hawman 1802 

Elias' Filbert 1863 

David Lord 18G4 

Caspar Keifsiivdcr 1805 

William H. Kellv 1366 

.Andrew S. Stras^burger 1867 

Jo'ieph Harvcv 1868 

John C. Reed 1369 

.Alfred Dreibelbis • 1370 

Charles Hill ....1371 

.■\arnn Snyder 1S72 

Charles Hottenstein 1373 


Xame Term 

Abraham Schacffer lS7t 

Henry F. Bush 1875 

Jonathan L. Rhoads ISTO 

Michael Seltzer 1ST7 

Benjamin Klahr 1ST8 

Morris Giildin 1879 

Edward Scinnehzer 18S0 

Wilhani A. Young 1881 

Levi J. Fisher 188:: 

George M. Fryermuth 1 8Sj 

Peter Spang, J r 18^4 

John Stang-ier 1885 

J. M. S. Stertzler ]8S(J 

Edwin IJnibenhauer 1887 

James P. Kershner 1888 

Daniel P. Rotiiermel 1889 

Cyrus E. Rollinyer 1890 

John S. Dunkle 1891 

Elias R. Kemniercr 1892 

Harry D. Wagner 1893 

William D. Reeser 1894 

Frederick Roland 1895 

Peter H. Knabb 1896 

J. Howard Eshelman 1S97 

John E. Stangier 1898 

Jacob H. Sassaman 1899 

Frederick Siephan. Jr 1901) 

Xathan RotherincI 1901 

James Sclilae^nian 1902 

John Z. Rieser 1903 

Jacob Bordiier 1904 

Abraham B. Johnson 1905 

William Sanders 1906 

George Rcider 1907 

Charles Brinlzeghoff 1908 

John G. 1 1 erbein 1900 

License — In 1G7G, the Duke of 
Yorke's laws required a license for the sale of 
liquors in the province of Pennsylvania. This was 
granted by two justices of tiie peace in the Quarter 
Sessions, for the term of one year, upon the ap- 
plicant furnishing "a certificate of his good be- 
havior from the constable an,d two overseers of the 
parish" wherein he dwelt. In 1710, the law re- 
quired tlie application to be recommended by the 
justices of the county courts to the Governor, 
who issued the license. The number vi'as unlimited. 
But in IT 94. the law required the judges of the 
Quarter Sessions at the first session of every year 
thereafter to limit and declare the number of tav- 
erns and public houses to be licensed for the \ear 
following; and the judges were to have "regard 
to the particular neighborhoods and situations 
the most suitable for the accommodation of 
the inliabitants and travelers."' The Governor 
still granted the licenses upon the proper recommen- 
dation ; and he continued to grant them till the 
passage of the Act of March 8, ISlo. when the 
judges of the Quarter Sessions issued them upon 
the recommendation of the ajiplicant bv twelve rep- 
utable citizens of the district in which the tavern 
was to be kept. 

On April 23. ISiV.), an Act was specially iias>ed 
for P>erks county, whereby a board of license com- 
missioners was created to issue licenses. The 
first board was coiui)0.--ed of three members; the dis- 
trict attorney in office rx olTicin: one member a;)- 
poinled by the judges of the Quarter Sessions for 

a term ending February, isll ; and the third bv 
the county commissioners for a term ending Feb- 
ruary, is;.;. .And every tw(j }ears after ISGO. the 
court or commissioners were authorized to appoint 
a person for a term of four years. Licenses in the 
county were accordingly issued annually by this 
board till the law was rejiealed ^lay 5, 18TG.' 

In the year previous, on .\pril 13, 18T."3, a gen- 
eral law to restrain and regulate the sale of liquors 
was jias'^ed by the Legislature for the State, ex- 
cepting in those counties for which sjjecial provi.s- 
ion was made. .After the repeal of the Act of 18G9, 
the court of Quarter Sessions issued licenses pur- 
suant to the Act of IsT.j. And this is the law 
under which the licenses are still issued. 

In respect to licenses a general Act was passed 
March 2'r, 1872, "to permit the voters of this State 
to vote every three years on the question of grant- 
ing licenses to sell into.xicating liquors." The time 
for the first general election on the question in every 
city and county was fixed for the third Friday in 
.March, 1873, and every third year thereafter on 
the day for the annual municipal elections. It wdll 
be observed that the time was set in the spring of 
the year, in order to obtain the expression of poli- 
tical sentiment unintluenced by the general tide of 
opinion of the fall elections. One election was held, 
but before the first three years had expired the 
Act was repealed, on April 12, 1875. 

The board, during the seven years in which thc 
Act prevailed, comprised the following 'nembers; 

Ex officio, being tlie District Attorneys 
>ranic Term 

Edward H. Shearer 1809-71 

Peter D. Wanner 1871-74 

Henry C. G. Reber 1874-76 

X'amc Term 

Richard Ludvvig 1869-75 

John H. Snyder 1869-73 

William Hints 1873-76 

Elias Obold 1873-76 

Oil Inspectors. — The office of oil inspector was 
created by the Act of May 15, 1874, "to provide 
for the better security of life and property from 
the dangers of coal and petroleum oils." By this 
Act the standard or fire test of all burning "fluids 
was fixed at 110 degrees Fahrenheit. The inspec- 
tor is appointed by the court of Common Pleas of 
the county for the term of three years ; and he is 
required to furnish security in $10,000 for the 
faithfid discharge of his duties. The first appoint- 
ment was made in August, 1877. 

Charles .\. Z. Griesenier was the fir^t inspector. 
He was re-appointed in 1S8(». and again in 18s;5. 

Sealers of Wehuits axd Measures. — In 183-1. 
a law was enacted which required the Governor 
to furnish the county conmn'ssioners of each count v 
with standards of weights and measures, which 
were to be used for the purpose of adjusting 
weights and measures; and these standards were 
to he examined, and, if necessary, corrected at least 
(jnce in every ten years. The standards as required 

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a county superintendent, au'l the superintendents 
have been : 

N'ame Term 

.William Good 1854-60 

John S. Enneiitrout 3 860 -69 

David B. Bruimcr 1809-75 

Samuel A. Baer 1875-81 

David S. Keck 1881-90 

William M. Zechman 1S91-96 

Eli -M. Rapp 1896-1911 


Tlie county buildings comprise the Court-Housc, 
Prison, and Poorhouse. 

uere furnished to the county commissioners, and be levied, directors to be elected, etc., and to see 
de;x)sited in the Court-House for the purpose in- that the branches df a comniun education were 
tended. L'.ut there was no provision for an officer properly tau.cht. teaciiing directed, established grad- 
whose duty it was to test all weights ami measures, ed schools maintained, and uniformity in course of 
In li54o, this discrepancy was supplied by an Act studies preserved: a C(->unty superintendent was to 
passed on April 1 Jth. It authorized the Governor be elected for a term of three years by all the direc- 
to appoint a sealer of weights and measures for tors of the county. Since 1«.3 J- the system of edu- 
such respective counties as should apply for and cation i^rovidcd by the State has been carried on 
obtain copies of the standards, as provided in this successfully in the cou!ity by school directors and 
Act, for the term of three years. And it was made 
the duty of the sealer '"at least once in every year 
to go to stores, houses, stalls, and offices of the 
makers, venders, or proprietors of beams, scales, 
weights, and measures within the county, and try 
and adjust all beams, scales, weights, and measures, 
and seal the same with the ijiitials of his last or 
surname, and the current year." Under this 
law the first appointment v.-a^^ made on June IG, 
18.53. This office, however, became burdensome 
and offensive to the people of the county, 
and accordingly they, witli the people of seven 
other counties of llie State — lUicks, Dauphin, 
Lancaster, Lehigh, Montgomery, Franklin, and 
Westmoreland-— who felt similarly burdened and 
otTended, effected the passage of a Special .\ct nn 
March 22, 1850, whereby the office within the coun- 
ties named was abolished. After the lapse of; 
eighteen years thereafter, it would seem that thef 
weights and measures of this county, as well as: counties of the State, needed the test of ihe: 
standards. So they were brought to the notice of-; 
the people again by the passage of a general law J 
on April 4, 1877. By it the Governor was author- - 
i.^ed to appoint one person as sealer, in tb.e several 
counties where no such office existed, for the term ': 
of three years. The first appoin.tment under this" 
law was made April 30. ISTT. - 

And strangely enough, as previously, the office ^ 
only survived six years, and was again abolished.; 
by an Act passed on March S, 1883. The standan 
are, therefore, not carried around throughout thc^^ 
whole county to remind the dealers and storekeepers P^ 
that they must at least give true measure, if not p^ 
good, pressed down, and running over. The mar- -|[;-_^ ^ 
ket commissioner of Reading, who visits the mar- ==;i\ 
kets under the city ordinance, is the onlv tester ->:^_^ 
now with the standards. The scalers were: --=■' 


Michael S. Thirwcchter 

Solomon Spohn 

George K. Rover , 

William Geiger 

Matthew Rhoda , 

James D. Lont? 



18,-)8— J 

, 1877-78 ^-. 

, 1879-81 ""-^ 

18S-J-83 "' 



-Xinn-^j^'- — 
erous legislative attempts were made to popularise " 
and thoroughly introduce public education. Fifty 
years were spent in endeavors to educate the poor- 
er classes of chili Iren by proposed taxation, with 
comparatively little prf\gress. Finally an Act was 
passed May 8, 18.")1, which made ])rocce(lings in tl'.is Court-I lofsr.s. — The first Cnurl-IIousc of the 
behalf compulsory, and authorized a school tax to county was erected in ITG"?, at the intersection of 


r. i> •■:!• 



Penn Square and Callowhill street, now Fit'tii. It 
was built of stone, plastered, and marked oft in 
imitation of cut stone, and it was surrounded by a 
brick pavement about thirteen feet wide. The tirst 
floor was arranged in one large room for the 
"courts," and tiie second floor in three rooms — the 
eastern l;a!f iiaving been in one room, and the 
western in two rcjums. An entry separated the 
former from the latter. The stairway was con- 
structed in the southeast corner of the court-room. 
The "bench" was arranged along the northern side 
of the room, and the "bar" was inclosed by a semi- 
circular railing, the ends of which extended to the 
wall on both sides of the "bench." The "jury box" 
was situated in the nortluvest corner of tlie room. 
The court-room w^as entered by two door-ways. 
one on the south side and the other on the west. 
The latter was little used. A large stove was lo- 
cated near by and wood was generally piled up 
against the door, on the inside, during cold weather. 

The crier's seat was situated a few feet west of 
the center of the room, adjoining the "bar," and the 
"prisoners dock" was next to it on the east. The 
crier was a prominent figure in the room by reason 
of the elevation of his seat. 

The floor was laid with brick. Dcnches 
were arranged on inclined platform.^ 
along the southern and eastern ualls. 
The seating capacity was rather limited 
for a public place. The dimensions of 
the building were about forty by fifty 
feet. A marble tablet was built in tlic 
eastern wall near the centre, which con- 
tained the following inscription : 
J. L., C. W., S. H.. 17GL\ 

These initial letters represented tlie 
names of the officiating county commis- 
sioners, Jacob Lightioot, Christopher 
V»'itman and Samuel High. 

The steeple contained a bell and 
town-clock. The bell was cast in Eng- 
land in ]TG.", esiiecially for the county; 
and the clock was a thirty-hour clock, 
imported from London about 1755. 

Previously, for ten years, the jutlges 

of the courts held their sessions of court 

in an inn of the town. There were no 
riiOins in the building for the county official, but 
many were not necessary, for five oftice'- were 
vested in one individual lor upward of iwentv 
years, these having been prolhonotary. reconler. 
register, clerk of the Orphans' court aufl clerk 
of the Quarter Sessions, and the per-on was Iamc-> 
Read, a lawyer. 

By a letter addressed to the Pcuusylraiiia Gazette. 
dated the SOth of February. 17Ca;, it would ap- 
pear that "public offices were opened on ^liondav 
previous at Reading." It ib not known in which 
building they were opened, if not in the Court - 

I-'lecfion polls were held at the several window- 
on the first floor, which were prnin:rly narked for 

3the voters. The poll for the electors of Reading 
was at the eastern window on the side facing south. 
This building was used for the purposes of hearing 
and determining criminal and civil matters until 
1S40, tlic last term of court having been the April 
term. During the follow- 
ing three months, the coun- 
ty records were transferred 
from the "State-House" to 
the new Court-House. It 
was sold to Joseph Kendall 
at public sale and he re- 
moved it in May, 1811. 





The smallncss of t!ie -)ld building had. been felt 
for many year.-, and the increasing inconvenience 
had become so objectionable by the year Is;)'' that 
the taxjiayers and officials determined to remedy 
the difficulty by securing a new building, and in 
that behalf a petiti(.n wa> pre.--ented to the judges 
at the .\ugu>t .'^fvsions. setting forth — "That, in 
consequence of the rapid increase of the population 
and public bu>ine>s of the county of I'erks, the pres- 
ent (. ourtT louse has become too small and incon- 
\-enient for the ti.-uisaction i^f l)usines>, and aisr. for 
the .-icconiniod.itton of tho>e persons who are obliged 
to ;utend court." and iiraving the court "to recoin- 


;;;;> ' •■■'. i, 



niend to the county commissioners the erection of 
the necessary buildings for the accommodation of 
the Court and the Public." 

This petition was referred to the grand jury, and 
thcv recommended a new building, selecting the 
iMftheast corner of Fifth and Penn streets as the 
place for its erection. This return was approved 
bv the court on Aug. 11, 1H'S7 . but the site was 
changed to the northeast corner of Sixth and Court 
streets, in order to obtain a larger lot for the pro- 
posed building. The county commissioners then 
purchased two adjoining lots (l::iO by ^30 feet) 
and during the years 1S3S, 183!) and 1840 erected 
on the site the western half of the present three- 
story brick building which fronts on Sixth street, 
the dimensions being {i2 feet wide, IIS feet long 
and 60 feet high. The total cost was $63,000. A 
substantial hre-proof two-story extension was added 
at the rear in 1869 ; and this was subsequently en- 
larged, when numerous important improvements 
were introduced. The first session of court was 
held in it at August Term, 1840. 

Gas was introduced for lighting purposes in ]\Iay, 
1849, shortly after the Reading Gas Co. had estab- 
lished its plant. Previously oil in lamps was used. 

A new clock was placed in the steeple in October, 
is.jl. The bell weighed nearly -seventeen hundred 
pounds. From that time on, this has been the 
'"town-clock," and town-bell for indicating "town- 
time." The clock-dials have been illuminated at 
night-time by electric light since 1895. 

The first floor was arranged in four compartments, 
the corner room, facing the streets, having been 
occupied as an office by the sheriff; and the second 
floor in four compartments for prisoners. The 
sheriff and family occupied the remaining rooms 
of the building: and this practice was continued 
till the prison system v,-as changed by special legis- 
lation for Berks county, in 1S48. The property was 
sold on Feb. o, 1849, to William Rhoads, for $7,460, 
and by him converted into a store. It has been oc- 
cupied for store purposes ever since. 

A new prison was erected on the "Common." at 
the head of Penn street, by the comity commission- 
ers in 1847-48, at a cost of $17,000. It is construct- 
ed of stone from Penn's Mount, and is situated on 
a lot of ground 170 by 300 feet, which is inclosed 
on the north, east and west by a high stone wall. 
The tower is 96 feet high. It is still standing, a 
fine specimen of superior workmanship. 

An addition, or "anne.x," was erected at the rear 
in 1869. The total number of cells is 9'J — in the 
main part, 44, and in the annex, 50 ; arranged in 
two stories. — The "State-House" was erected 
by the county commissioners in 1793 for the accom- 
modation of the county officers and the public rec- 
ords. It was situated on the northeast corner of 
Fifth and Penn streets: built of brick, two stories, 
3" b}' 90 fei.t, with a narrow alley extending along 
the eastern wall from the front to the rear. An 



■ '. '-M^^myT^^W ' -- 

J L 


Prisons. — The first prison was erected in 1770, entry extended acro^s the buildintr near the center, 

on the northeast corner of Callow'nill and Thnnia< wuh itb (lo<~>rway on hifth street; and a stairwav 

streets (Fifth and Washington). It was construct- led from this entry to the second floor. The fir^-t 

cd of stone and plastered, two -tories in height, and floor was divided into three compartments; llie first, 

in dimensions 30 by 70 feet. The lot was 60 by •?30 adjoining I'enn street, having been used for the 

feut. A subr-tantial stone wall, ".^n feet high, was prothonotary".s (ifiice and clerk of Quarter Sessions ; 

erected to inclose the lot to the depth of 130 feet, the central for the recorder, register and clerk of 



the Orphans' court : and the rear tor county com- 
missioners and count}- treasurer. The second floor 
was divitlcd into two compartment-^, the front room 
having been occupied mostly for Sunday-school pur- 
poses and public meetings from ISIO for about 
twenty years, and the rear room for lodge purposes. 
The building was sold by the county commissioners 
upon the removal of the county offices and records 
to the new Court-lluuse. 

The rear room on the first tl(X>r was used a^ the 
post-office from isiJl to IbiJo. 

necessary buildings, and seven directors were ap- 
pointed to proceed in the establishment of this public 
institution. They served till the election of three 
directors in < October following, as provided in said 
Act. In the mean time (^lay ;5U, 18"^ -1) they pur- 
chaseil the "Brown farm," formerly known as the 
"Angelica farm," in Cumru township (owned and 
occujMed during the Revolution by General Thomas 
Miftlin), three miles from Reading, situated on the 
Lancaster road, and containing iir} acres, for the 
consideration of $l(;,(i!)(), and there erected a com- 

,.,:.,- .v., ,^^j r^^ r^^^ ^^ ^1^ 

^wii^ -G^ Ife '^^ ^^^ ^^Mei \M^ 

^'■■np^i';;^-'! '^ i-jj^: j.;:; miiVvA wm t- --4 

r-^fei- ,i;..-;^ m^ mB f,.--i :M^1!;':1 \r^ ' ;- ; J 



In January, 1ST2, a large fire broke out in 
Stichter"s hardware store, near by, which spread 
over the adjoining buildings to the we>t, and con- 
sumed the entire corner, including the "State- 
House." The inscription stone was preserved and 
given a place in the rear wall of the building which 
was soon afterward erected in its stead. 

PooK-HousE. — The poor people of the county 
were provided for by "overseers" till the passage 
of an Act of Assemblv on ?^Iarch 29, 182-i, especially 
for this county, whereby the county commissioners 
were authurizcd to levy a tax for tlie purjjose of 
purchasing land and erecting and furnishing the 

modious building to accommodate the poor people 
of the county. This building was finished in 182.j. 
It has since been known as the "Main Building." 
Oilier improvements Nvere subsequently made upon 
the premises, prominent among thein being the "In- 
sane }'.uilding." erected in 1837' and 1843, and the 
"Hospital," in 1871-1ST4. The tirst poor persons 
were admitted on Oct. 21, 1825, from Reading. 
Dining the first year 130 inmates were admitted. 
Annually afterward the average number increased 
until isTS, when they reached (313; but since then 
they have gradually decreased until now, being 
about 2-50. 


By the charter of William Penn and the several 
yrants thereunder, various laws and ordinances 
were enacted from time to time "for the g-ood £jov- 
ernment of the province," and the regulation <.>[ its 
affairs was directed by officers, either appointed or 
elected, for the entire territory or for the counties 
comprising- it. The several officers for the county 
were as follows: 

JUDGES— 1752 to KOO 

\'arious Acts of Assembly were passed before 
1T22, for a period of forty years, to establish the 
powers of courts for the puqwsc of protecting- men 
in the enjoyment of their personal rights, of re- 
dressing wrong's, of adjudicating the rights of prop- 
erty, and of administering estates, and in that 
year the law for the several courts of the provmce 
became settled, continuing so till the Revolution, 
with tlie exception of certain amendments bv two 
supplementary Acts passed in 17-"J!) aurl 1707. 

From the time of the erection of the county in 
17.j2 down to 1776, the following persons acted in 
the capacity of justices, the length of service of 
several of them being unknown : 

Name Term 

Conrad Weiscr 1752-60 

Francis Parvin ] 752-06 

-Anthony Lee 

Jonas Seely 175:2-66 ; 17C9 

Henry Ilarvcv 1752-02 

William Bird' 1 752-55 

William Maiigridgc 1756-66 

Mosts Starr 

James Boone 

Jacob Levan 1752-62 

James Read 

Peter Spvckor 176:^-90 

Joseph Millard 1768-69 

Benjamin Lightfoot 1771-74 

George Wtbb 1770-71 ; 1 774 

Thomas Riittcr 1770-71 

Jacob A'organ 1768-69 ; 1772 ; 1774-77 

James Dieiner 1766-71 

John Pcitton 1766-75 ; 1777 

George Douglass 1768-73 : 1775-84 

Henry Christ 1766-71 ; 1784-90 

Sebastian Zimmerman 1707-71 ; 1778-84 

Nicholas Harmony 17()(>-71 

Mark Bird 1775-76 

Daniel Brodhead 

William Reeser 1778-84 

Jonathan Potts 1776-77 

Balthaser Gehr 1775-84 

Thomas Dunlap 

In 177n, the first constitution of the State pro- 
vided that a Supreme Executive Council should con- 
sist of twelve persons, who were to be chosen by 
ballot by the respective counties for the term of 
three years. The apportionment gave one to I'.erk- 
county. The following councillors were elected 

from Berks till the adoption of the Constitution of 
17!)(l. The term of the first was fixed at two years; 
and afterward three years. 

Xame Term 

Richard Tea. elected in 1776, but declined to serve 

Jacob Morgan 1777-78 

James Read 1779-81 ; 1788-90 

Sebastian Levan 178-2-84 

Charles Biddle 1785-87 

This Constitution also provided for the establish- 
ments of courts of justice in every county of the 
State. The following persons officiated as judges 
of the county, from 177G till 171)0. The first three 
were president judges of the courts for a time. 

Name Term 

James Diemcr 

Henry Christ 1784-90 

Peter Sypcker 1776-90 

James Read 

Daniel Levan ' 

Valentine Eckert 1785 

John Ludwig 1785 

Jacob Morgan 

Charles Shoemaker 1785-90 

Paul Groscup 

John Eckerf 1785-87 

Jacob Weaver 1785 

John Otto 1786-87 

Matthias Rcichert 1788-90 

Nicholas Hunter 1788 

Egedius Mevcr 1789-90 

Jolm Christ 1789-90 

And -it provided also that each election district 
should elect two or more persons for the office of 
justice of the peace, and that the president of the 
Executive Council shc)uld coinini^sion one or more 
for each district for seven years. The following 
justices were elected in Beiks county, an<l commis- 
sioned, from 1777 till 17'.)0 — the dash after the vcar 
indicating- tincertainty whether or not the full term 
was served, and the repetition of the year indicating- 
re-election : 

Xanie Term 

Ff enry Christ 1777-84 ; 1784— 

Jacoli Slioemaker 1777— 

James Read 1777— 

Daniel Hiester 1777 — 

Peter Spvcker 177(;-90 

Tacob Weaver 1777-S4; 1784— 

John Lndvvig 1777-84 ; 1784 — 

Benjamin Shott 1777— 

Christopher Sclnilt/ 1777 — 

Samiiel Ely 1777-84 ; 1784- 

Tacob Waggiiner 1777 — 

Daniel Rothermel 1777— 

John Old 1777— 

Chas. Shoemaker 1777-84; 17s4— 

Egedius .\lever 1777-R4 ; 17S4— 

Jacob Morgan 1777-81 ; 17S4— 

Thiinias Parry 1777— 

Michael Lindenirnith 1778 — 

■!' i^^ 

1:Ur:-J '^-.n 

■:ii i;.:.'hir'>i'. 

■ 1 ';:i .' . ', :i ':) ,!)3(ii 

w .'.•• --:'■:')■ ^;!(;7<! 

( ■. -^..J . .... 

. ,!l./i 



Name Term 

Gabriel Hicster 1778— 

John Guldin 173i) — 

Valentine Eckert 17S4— 

Paul Gro5cup 17S4 — 

John Eckert 17S4 — 

John Otto 17S.") — 

Matthias Reichert 17SS-91 

Nicholas Hunter 17SS — 

James Dienier 17SS-91 


The Constitution of ITOO pro^-ided for the estab- 
lishment of Circuit courts in tlie State to be com- 
posed of certain counties — not less than three nor 
more than six ; and for tlie appointment by the Gov- 
ernor of a president judf^e of the courts in each 
circuit, and also of other judges, not less than three 
nor more than four in number, whose residence 
should be in the county. All the judges appointed 
were to hold their offices during good behavior. 

In l?yi, in pursuance of the Constitution of 1790. 
the State was divided into five judicial circuits or 
districts, and each district became entitled to a pres- 
ident judge. The Third District comprised Berks, 
Luzerne, Northampton, and Northumberland coun- 
ties. In 180<j, the State was divided into ten dis- 
tricts, and Berks, Northampton, and Wayne com- 
prised the Third District. In 1811. Schuylkill countv 
was erected and included in the district, but it was 
cut off in 1815. In 1812, Lehigh county was erected 
and included in the district. In 18:-!4, the State was 
divided into seventeen districts, and Berks, Lehigh, 
and Northampton comprised the Third District. 

The county of Berks was erected into a separate 
judicial district by the Act of April 5, 1819, and 
called the Twenty-third District. It has since been 
a separate district, witli this number in the judicial 

In 1810 the associate judges were limited to two 
in number. The provision in reference to the tenure 
of office was niodified by the Amended Constitution 
of 1838, whereby the term of president judge was 
fixed at ten years, and of associate judge at five 

In 1850 an amendment to the Constitution was 
adopted which provided for the election of the 
judges for the terms mentioned. The first election 
"was held in October. 1851. 

The office of additional law judge was cre;)ted 
by the Act of April 15, 18G9. for Berks county, with 
powers and term similar to those of president judge. 

The office of Orphans' court judge was created 
for the county by the Act of June 13. 1883. pursuant 
to the New Constitution ; and on the 29th of June 
following, the Governor made the first appointment. 
His judicial powers are confined to matters which 
arise in the Orphans' court; and the term of service 
is ten years. 

The office of associate judge was abolished bv 
the New Constitution, the incumbents to continue 
in office until their terms of scr\-ice expired. 

Before 1871. county officials t'>ok their offices on 
the second Mondav of December succeedins: their 

election. The New Constitution provided that 
lliereafter tliey should take their offices on the first 
Monday of Jamiary succeeding. 

N'amc Term 

Jacob Rush 1791-1305 

John Spayd lSOG-09 

Robert Porter t810-:;:3 

Gai rick Malicry 1S33-3.J 

John Banks lS36-4«) 

J. Prin^'le Jones • 1847-43; ISji-c,] 

Da\id F. Gordon 1849-51 

W. J. Woodward*.. 1861-71; 1S71-74 

Jeremiah llauenmant 1873-79 ; ISSo-so 

Jaines X. KruK-ntroutj .' 1890-1908 

(lustav A. Endlich 1908-00 

Name. Terra. 

Henry Van Reed§ 1869 ;1S75 

Jeremiah Hagennian i 18(59-7 ; 

.-\ugustus S. SaSiaman 1S7G-8G 

James X. Ermentrout 1S87 89 

Gustav .\. Endlich 1890 I9(i^ 

\Vm. Kerper Stevens^ 1908-09 

orphans' CO'JRT JUliGES 
N'ame. Term. 

Hiram H. Schwartz** 18S:!-]891 

H. Willis FJland 1891-19 — 

Name Ttrm 

James Dieraer 1791-lsi'.) 

George Ege 1791 1S18 

Matthias Rcichort 1791-97 

Josci)li Hiester 1791-94 

.Vichnlas Lotz 179.") isoil 

tlenjamin Morris 1798-]S()9 

Gabriel 11 tester 1819 23 

Charles Shoemaker 18r.;0-2:; 

\\'illi;iin Witnian 1823-28 

Jacob Schneidrr 1824-29 

Alatthias S. Richards 1829-4:> 

William Darlir.g 1830-38 

William .A.ddains ; 1839-42 

John Stauffer 1843-51 

William High , lS4r,-.-,0 

Samuel P.ell is.'il 

Daniel Young 18.">l-r)r) 

'\\'i!iiam Heidenreich 1851 -.'lO 

David Schall 1856-60 

* Warren J. Wf>odu'arii Mas electi;J one of the associate justices 
of tlie SuprcTTic C'Urt of I'ciinryivania, ok Nov. R. 1S74, for the 
term of twcntv-oi.c He tool< and held his seat from lanuarv, 
IST.j. till his .leath 0:1 Sept. 23, l.STD. 

t Jeremiah Has'enni.Tii succeeded Warren T. Wooihvard, by pro- 
motiun, on Tan. 1", 1S75, when he was sworn as president jiidije 
for the remainder of the term, ending Jan. 5, IS.SO. He was elected 
in November, 1879, for a term of ten" yi ars. Xot having been re- 
eltcted, JudfTe Ermentrout was rroniotcd by law to be president 

;. Died .\iur. 3 0. IftOS. and succeeded by Gustav .\. Knrllich. 

S Henrv \'an Keed. a meuiher of the couutv bar. was 3i)pointed 
on July 1.1. lSfi9, by the Governor, John W. Geary, to fdl the ofTic-, 
and he held his seat till his successor, duly elected, was qualified. 
1 >tc. t'. ] sun. He was appointid a second time by the Governor, 
John F. Ifartranfr. on Jan. 1?. 1S7.'). to fill the vacancy in this 
oftice, can=ed by the promotion of Jeremiah Hac;enni.'.n to the oh-ce 
of president judse. until his fuccessor. Augustus S. SJassaman, a 
ir.iniber of the countv bar, dulv elected, was qualified i^n Jan. i. 
lS7fi. for ten years. 

Jeremiah llaccnman v.-ns elected Oct. 12. ISnp, to this office for 
ten years from Dec. fi, 1SG9. He was promoted to the office of 
inrsidcnt jud:;e, for the remainder of his term, on Jan, 1,S. 1^7,"., 
to fill the vacancy caused bv the re'ijrnation r f Warren J. Wood- 
ward. v.hii had been elected to the Supretne bnich. 

' Appointi-d, bv Governor Sept. Hi, irmS, to serve till first 
M.Mulav in J.m'.rlrv. I'llO. 

*' Hiram H. Sclnvartz was appointed on June 29, 1S83. to serve 
in this ntiicc till Tan. 7. ISM. He was nominated for the olVicc. 
for the full term, bv the Hemocratic Convcntii>n in .Nui'MSt, 1S~^H, 
and .-lectcd in Xovember f..;i,>winc. }'.c di.-d before Iho eo.iration 
of h;= term, on .\i:l'. 2... TStll, when TI. Willis IJlainl was a|tpoii.icd 
liv the (, on Sept. 1(>. l.-tM, an." he was elcct.-d. November, 
IS'.iJ. for a full term: and at its expiration he was re-elected. 

1 -J?. I ' 
•pa -: 

( ... "■^' ■' 

.1; ', ■ f ■ ■■ ■ '• : ■ 



Name Term 

C^orac D. Stitzcl IS06-OG 

C luirles Kessler lSGO-71 

I ).n ill Kutz* 186r.-70 

Henry Rhoacis :8TO-7i 

licorge W. Brucknian 1871-76 

Uaiiicl Buskirk 1871-76 


The office of attorney at law i? not an elective one. 
It never was. But it has existed time out of mind. 
It began with the administration of justice, and is 
inseparable from it. The history of attorneys would 
be the history of the courts of judicature. They 
have always occupied a- prominent place. Their 
prominence lias resulted from enercr>' well directed 
in behalf of the ritjhts and property of mankind, and 
also in behalf as well of the establishment as of the 
development of principles regulative of associations 
in everv department: of life. 

A law was enacted in this State as early as 1710 
in relation to this office. Then the ju"^tices were 
authorized to admit anv attorney or attorneys to 
plead in any of the established courts during good 
behavior. Xo provision was made as to the number 
or ability. In ITlo, however, the authority of the 
justices was modified. They might admit 'a com- 
petent number of persons, of honest disposition and 
learned in the Law, to practise as attorneys who 
shall behave themselves justly and faithfully in 
their practice." And in 1127 a provision wa-> made 
requiring such persons before they were admitted 
to take the following oath: "Thou shalt behave thy- 
self in the office of attorncv within the court, ac- 
cording to the best of thy learning and ability, and 
with all good fidelity as well to the court as to the 
client ; thou shalt use no falsehood, nor delav any 
person's cause for lucre or malice." And these qual- 
ifications have continued to this day. Since the 
adoption of the State and national constitutions 
they have qualified to support them. This last 
qualification is common to all statutorv officers. 

The following attorneys have resided in the coun- 
tv of Berks and practised in its several courts. 
The date after each name is the time of admission 
to practice. 

Name Admitted 

Jaine-! Biddle 
David TTeiulerson 
Tanie.s Wliitcliead, Jr. 
Edward Bi<ldlc 

Daniel Levnii. Jr Xov. 11, 1700 

Collinson Read Aug. 13. 1772 

James Potts Aug. 1, 1773 

Daniel CI ymcr May 4, 1776 

-Mexander Gravdon Mav 14, 1770 

Edward Scull . ". Aug. 17, 1770 

Xathaniel Potts \ug. 14, 17S1 

Jacob Huhley Xov. 14. 178G 

George Eckert Feb. 19. 1 7S7 

James Scull Feb. 10. 17S7 

Joseph Huliley .Aug. 14, 1787 

John Spayd Feb. 14. 1788 

Peter Hoofn.\g!e Feb. 14, 1788 

* DuM.l Km? hnviiiR died in oft'ic; TuK- Oft. isro. ttenrv Rho.ids 
»a5 ^ hv Gcv. Jolin W. Giarv. on Aug. 3, If-Tii, for uiKX- 
pired ttrm ending Dee. 4, 1S71. 

Name Admitted 

Marks John Biddle Dec. 0,1783 

Jacob R. Howell Feb. 11, 1780 

Charles Evan; Aug. 9,179] 

U'illiam Witman Aug. 20. 170." 

Frederick Smith \ug. 4, 1705 

Levi Pauling Aug. IS, 179o 

Bird Wilson Mav 14, 1798 

Andrew Graff. Jr .April 0, 1798 

John Hicster Au.g. 6, 1798 

William S. Biddle June 2, 1801 

Frederick John Haller Xov. 4, ISOl 

AVilliam rvlorris .Aug. 9. 1804 

.Anthony Morris Xov. G, 1804 

Samuel D. Franks Aug. 10, 1805 

James B. Huble\ \pril 4, J300 

John Spayd April 2, ISIO 

Samuel Baird, Jr .April 10, 1810 

William .Morris. Jr Xov. 8. ISIO 

Thomas B. Smith July 4, 1814 

James Biddle .Aug. 9,1815 

Francis S. Muhlenberg 'Nlay 8. 1816 

Xathaniel P. Hobert Jail. V.i, 1818 

Charles Davis .Aug. 4,1818 

Charles Whitman '. .Aug. 0, 1818 

William Darling Xov. i:^, 1818 

Edward B. Hubley .April 5, 1820 

James L. Dunn Xov. 10, 1821 

\V. C. Lea\ en worth .Aug. 18. 1822 

Daniel J. Iliester .Aug. 4,1823 

Lloyd Wharton March 26, 1824 

Lawrence S. Lardner .April 8, 1824 

David F. Gordon .Aug. 6. 1824 

Thomas Morris Xov. 1, 1824 

Vv'm. Fullerton Duncan Jan. 3, 182.5 

David Evans Jan. .5, 1S2j 

Htnrv W. Smith Jan. 5. 182.5 

John S. Whnrton ^ra^cI! 4, 1325 

Edward P. Pearson May 23. 1S2.5 

Charles J. Jack .Aug. 1, 1825 

Robert M. Brook .Aug. 2. 1825 

John IL Shectz \ug. 3,1825 

Joseph W. Roland Aug. 20, 1825 

George AI. Kejm , ■•^ug. 11, 1826 

Joseph H. Spnvd Xov. 8, 1826 

Philip Kendall.' Ja.n. 1, 1827 

F;iij;ih Deckcrt Tan. 4, 1827 

Levi B. Smith Ian. 10, 1827 

William Af. Biddle April 4,1827 

Jacob Hoffman Xov. 10, 1820 

Robert M. Barr Jan. 3, 1S31 

Peter Filbert.. Jan. 6,1831 

John Maver Jan. 8. 1831 

Henry Rhoads April 3, 1832 

William Strong Xov. 8, 1S32 

George S. Wharton .Aug. 15, 1832 

James Pauling X'ov. 7. 1S33 

Francis .Aurand Xov. 13, 1833 

William Betz Jan. 10, 1834 

George G. Barclav .April 10, 1835 

Xewton D. Strong .Aug. 3. 1835 

-Aucnstus F. Boas .Aug. 4, 1835 

J. Pringle Jones Xov. 2, 1835 

.Anthonv F. Miller .Aug. 15, 1836 

Franklin B. Schoener Jan. 3. 1837 

John S. Ricliards April 4, 1837 

Garrick Mallerv '. .Aug. 14, 1837 

Dennis W. O'Hricn .Aug. 7,1838 

Jeremiah D. Bitting..".. Aug. 8,1838 

.Andrew M. Sallade ■. .Aug. 11, 183S 

Tackson H. Sl-.erman .Aug. 7, 1839 

William M. Hiestcr Jan. 7,1840 

Peter Shearer .April 7. ]S40 

Matthias Alengel .April 8.1840 E. Ludwig .Xov. 3. 1840 

tames Donngan Dec. 22, 1841 

Samuel Sohl .April 5, 1842 

r(>i V ,.iT 

;iMir>,i;^:-^; '!.'-. 

■ ' I 

:'i <(••; 



Nan-.; A.lniuti i 

Jeremiah H^ue-ininn Xpril 7. 1843 

J. Dur.das May IT. isri 

Charles Wiernian May IT. }Sr2 

George W. Arms March 8, 1S4:; 

John K. Longnecker X"V. •''. 1S4:5 

Henrv Van Reed April J, 1S44 

William M. P.aird Kpril 1l'. 1S44 

Henry A. I^Iiihlenberg- July o. 1844 

Isaac High Keiiii Julv 5, 134 1 

Franklin B. .Miller T^ec. 14, 184 4 

Jacob S. Livingood Jan. 7, 1845 

J. Glancv Jones Jan. 7, 1S45 

Silas E. Rnzard April 8. 1845 

Edward W. Scudder Vug. 4, 184.'. 

Edward M. Clynier \ug. 4, 184.-) 

J. Hownian Bell Jan. .5, 1846 

J. Lavvrence Get/ \u£;. 0, 1845 

William B. Schoener \ug. 1.", 184G 

J Dc Puy Davis Jan. 5, 1847 

James Mav Jones Jan. 5, 1847 

John Bank's April 7. 1847 

Samuel L. Young Aug. 10, 1847 

A. Lucius Hennershotz Xov. 11, 1847 

J. Biddle Gordon Jan. 6. 1848 

James A. Banks Feb. 21. 1848 

J. Bright Smith April 5,1848 

William. F. Filbert Aug. 9, ISiS 

A. Jordan Swartz Sept '-'S. 1848 

Joel B. Wanner Jan. Ki, 1849 

Jacob M. Salladc \pril f., 1849 

John A. Banks .April G, 1849 

Hiester Chmer April 6.1819 

Charles B. Weaver Xov. 3, 18.50 

Jacob K. AIcKenty April 7, 1851 

Henry C. Kutz April 24, 1851 

W'ni. Edmund Banks April 25. 185 1 

Wni. S. Marx \ug. 4, 1 85 j 

Albert G. Green Xov. 11. 1851 

Ednuind L. Smith Xov. 11, 1851 

George DcP>. Kcim April 8. 1 852 

Charles K. Robeson April 8, 18.52 

E. R. ZimmermaTi April 8, 1852 

Carl O. Wagner Xov. 5, 1 852 

Michael P. Boyer Aug. 8. 1853 

Wharton Morris Xov. 15, 185 t 

George J, Eckert April 28,«1855 

Frederick L. Smith Xov. 10, 1855 

Amos H. Wanner Jan. 12. 1857 

B. Frank Bovcr March 15. 1S57 

Daniel R. Clymer Aug. 20, 1857 

James B. Bechtel .April 14, 1858 

William K. Loose April 14. 1858 

Cha<;. Ph. Muhlenberg Xov. 8. 1859 

Daniel Eniientrout Aug. D, 1859 

Wni. H. Livingood Jan. 19. 1860 

Hiram H. Schwartz Julv 14, 18G0 

Jesse G. Hawlcv Sept. 20. 1800 

Thomas S. Brenholtz Sept. 20. 1800 

J. George Seltzer Feb. 5. 1801 

Abncr K. Stau.fler April 15, 18G1 

Edward H. Shearer April 15. isoi 

John Ralsf(jn Aug. 14, 1802 

Frank B. Schniucker Aug. 25. 1802 

William P. Bard Fel). 9, 180:i 

Charles Henrv Jones April 14. 180:5 

Richmond L. Jones .April 14, 180;! 

Daniel E. Schroedcr April 2.1.180.'} 

Charles A. Leopold April 2.1. 1803 

J. Warren Tryon Xov. 14. 1S03 

J. Howard Jacobs Xov. 14. 1S03 

Augustus S. Sassaman Jan. 9, 1804 

Israel C. Becker Jan. 28, 1804 

Francis M. Banks May 21, 1804 

Horace A. 'S'undt Aug. 9, 1804 

Cbarle- H. Schaeffer \ug. 9, 18r,4 

Franklin B. Laucks Aug. 13. 1804 

N'amc Admitteil 

William AL Goc^dnian Aug. 1.3. i^i' i 

I'dwin Shalter Aug. i:;, i»i;4 

Louis Richards Jan. n;, i^r,.-, 

Irenaeus Shalter Jan. 10. isr,-, 

J. Ross .Miller .Aug. 7. iv,.-, 

J. Dallas Schoener Aug. 7, 1S05 

f Icnry May Keini Aug. 7. 1S05 

Harrison .Maltzl)erger Aug. 7. 1805 

Peter D. Wanner Xov. 4, 1805 

Llewellyn Wanner Aug. — . lS(;i; 

William M. Riglumyer Jan. 21, 1807 

George M. Ermentrout Xov. 27, 1SG7 

James X'. Ernientrout X'ov. 27. 1807 

Geo. F. Bacr Jan. 22. ISGS 

Chas. F. Evans April 28, 18GS 

T. H. Garrigues Aug. 10, 1808 

Ben. B. Laucks Jan. 11, 1809 

H. Willis Bland April 12, 1809 

Henry C. G. Rebcr April 12, 1809 

Cyrus G Dcrr .Aug. 12, 1S70 

Wm. L. Guinthei- Xov. 14. 1870 

Morton L. Montgomery -Aug. 28. 1871 

Garrett B. Stevens .Aug. 12, 1872 

Horace Roland ., Aug. 12, 1872 

Edgar M. Levan Aug. 17, 1S72 

Frank R. Schell Sept. 16, 1872 

Edwin White Moore Sept. 30, 1872 

James .A. O'Reilly Jan. 13. 1873 

Stephen AL Aleredith Aug. 11. 1873 

Dan'l H. Wingcrd Sept. 29. 1873 

Hiram Y. Kaufn\an Xov. 9, 1874 

John C. K. Heine April 12, 1875 

B. Frank Dcttra .April 12, 1875 

B. F. Y. Shearer April 12, 1875 

C. H. Ruhl April 15. 1875 

B. F. Mc.Atee .April 15, 1875 

Jno. I'. Smith .Aug. 9, 1875 

Jefter-ii:n Snyder Aug. 9, 1875 

John B. Danipm;ui X'ov. 8. 1875 

l-{enry .A. Muhlenberg X''ov. 8, 1875 

Daniel B. A'oung Jan. 10, 1876 

-Adam H. Schmehl Jan. 10, 1S70 

Edwin B. Wiegand Jan. 18, 1870 

Wesley D. Horning April 1", 187G 

Gustav -A. Endlich Xov. 12, 1S77 

Simon P. O'Reilly Jan. 14. 1877 

W'ayne Ha\Tnan Jan. 14, 1877 

Henry A. Zieber .April 10. 1S"8 

Isaac Hie'ter Aug. 13. 1878 

J. H. Marx Aug. 13, 1873 

Jeremiah K. Grant X'ov. 11, 1873 

Walter B. Craig Nov. 12. 1878 

D. Xicholas Schaeffer Xov. 12, 187S 

AL Bravion McKniij^ht Xov. 12, 1878 

Israel C. Becker. . .'" Dec. 12. i878 

Daniel G. Guldin Jan. 2o. 1879 

Warren Woodward Jan. 20, 1873 

Chas. P. Sherman .Aug. 11, 1879 

Frank S. Livingood Aug. 11, 1879 

John W. .Apple .Aug. 11. 1879 

{ lenry D. Green X'ov. 10, 1879 

William C. Heacock .April 12, 1880 

AVilliam O. Aiiller .April 12. 1880 

Chas. M. Plank Xov. 22. 1880 

William J. Rourke X'ov. 22, 1880 

.Albert R. Heiliff Xov. 22, 188.9 

.Alonzo i:. Ream X'ov. 22, 1380 

r,eo. F. Hagenman Jan. 24. 1881 

Lrael H. Rothermel .Aug. 20, 1881 

John H. Rothermel .Aug. 20, 1881 

Daniel I-". We>tlcy X'ov. 14. 1881 

Charles C. Kehr Xov. 14. 1881 

Henry Alaltzberger Xov. 14. 1881 

George J. Gross. Jr Xov. 14. 1881 

Henrv O. Sclirader Xov. 13. 1S>*3 

I. Comlev Fetter Xov. 13, 188 i 

■I ': • -I 

:i-. ; ;■••.■>. 

f. ',:i.^ 

.M,v..' l'-' " 



Name AflmitteJ B. Baker Xov. ]:'.. 1SS2 

■\i!.an B. Rieser Xov. 13, ISS:! 

niwood H. Devsher Xov. 13, 1882 

Kicl.arJ H. Koch Xov. 12, 18S.3 

i ii nrv P. Keiscr Xov. 12, 18S3 

I. F.dWard Miller Xov. 12. 1883 

Filix P. Kremp Xov. 12, 1SS3 

Ciirirks H. Tyson Xov. 10, 1 S84 

William B. Rcchtel Xov. 10, 1SS4 

Frank K. Flood Xov. 10, 388 1 

Philip S. Zicber Xov. 10. 1884 

William Kerper Stevens Xov. 10. 18S1 

Howard P. Wanner Xov. 9, 1885 

William P. Schcll ■ March 13, ]88(> 

Daniel F. Ancona Xov. 8. 18§ii 

Caleb J. Bieber Xov. 8. ISSf. 

F.dwin Sassaman March 28, 1 SS7 

David Lcvan Xov. 14, 1887 

Morris H. Schaffer Nov. 14, 1837 

.\rr.mon S. Strunk Xov. 14, 18S7 

Samuel X. Potteiger Nov. 24, 1888 

Abraham H. Rothermel Xov. 24, 1888 

Hcrl>ert R. Green Jan. 21, 1888 

Ira P. Rothcrniol Jan. 21, 18SS 

George R. VanReed Jan. 21, 1888 

Edward S. Krenip Xov. 23, 1883 

David F. Mauger Xov. 23, 188') 

John II. Zweizig Xov. 23, 1889 

John J. Kutz Nov. 10, 1800 

George W. Wagner Xov. 10, 18'.)0 

William J. Young Xov. 10. 1800 

Fitz-Daniel Ermentrout Xov. 7, 1802 

Lcc F'riday X^'ov. 7, 1802 

J. Fred Ilavtgcn • Nov. 6. ISO:', 

Ralph 11. ^[engcl Nov. 6, 1893 

Silas R. Rothcrniol XV)v. fi, 1803 

Ilov.-ai d L. Greenawahl Xov. 12, 1S04 

Marvey F. Hei-ih Xov. \'2. 1804 

Louis A. Sassanian Xov. 12, 1804 

Walter S. Young Xov. 12, 1804 

Sherman H. Ilovcrtc r X''ov. 11. 180.1 

John II. Millhnlland Xo\ . 11, 189.T 

F'rtderick W. Xicolls Xov. 11, 1S9.'> 

Robert P. Shick Xov. 11, 180.-) 

Hiester A. Bowers Nov. 11, ISO.") 

S. Leo Fjonovan Xov. 9, ISOG 

Wilson Ferguson X^ov. 9, 180G 

J. Wilmer Fisher X'ov. 9, 180f. 

J?nifs P. Long Xov. 9. 180C 

William Rick X'ov. 9, 1800 

Ira G. Kutz X'ov. 8, ISO: 

Thomas K. Leidy Xov. 8, 1807 

Name Admitted 

William A. Hope May 21, 189S 

George D. Humbert Xov. 14. 1S9S 

George M. Joiks Xov. 14, 1898 

Flarvey F. Kantner X'ov. 14, 1808 

J. Mil'ton Miller Xov. 14. 1893 

Paul H. Price Xov. 14, 1898 

Harry D. Schaet^er Nov. 14, 1S9S 

Henrv Seidcl Throm Xov. 14, 1898 

.Alien' S. Hottenstcin Dec. 13, 18i)3 

Harry J. Dumn Jan. 3,1899 

Samiiel E. Rcrtolct Xov. 13, 1S99 

Joseph R. Dickinson Xov. 13, 1899 

Edw in W. Kalbach Xov. 13, 1S99 

Edwin S. Livingood X'ov. 13, 1899 

William H. Sadler Xov. 13, 1899 

Edward D. Trexkr Nov. 13, 1899 

Charles S. Slialtirs Dec. 23, 1S99 

Garrett Stevens Dec. 23, 1899 

Foster S. Biehl Nov. 12, 1900 

Charles K. Derr Nov. 12, 1900 

John M. F^rame Xov. 12, 1900 

William E. Fisher Xov. 12, 1900 

Walter B. Freed Nov. 12, 1900 

Earl I. Koch : Nov. 12, 1900 

Oliver G. Lpnt.T Nov. 32, 1900 

Frederick A. Marx Nov. 12, 1900 

Charles G. Moyer Nov. 12, 1900 

Wilson S. Rothermel N^ov. 12. 1900 

Charles R. Wanner Jan. 7, 1901 

J. Bennett Nolan Nov. 18, 1901 

Oliver }.L Wolff Scprt. 8, 190-j 

John H. Rridei.baugh Nov. 10, 1902 

E. Carroll Schaefifcr Nov. 10, 1902 

John B. Stevens Nov. 10, 1002 

Thomas laegcr Snyder Xov. 10, 1902 

FF Robert .^^ays . '. Feb. 20, 1004 

II. Franklin Brossman March 7, 1904 

William A. Shcnio Oct. 3, 3904 P.. Ro1an<l Xov. 7, 1904 

Walter G. Steininger Feb. 13, 190.5 

William Abbott Winnan, Jr Feb. 13, 190.5 

J. Howard Jacobs Aug. 14, 1005 

James B. ^Mercer \ug. 14, 1905 

Randolph StautTer Feb. 13, 1906 

FI. C>tto Lowe May 14, 1903 

Robert Gray Bushong Sept. 22, 1900 

Leonard G. Yoder Sept. 22, 1905 

Frank D. Arnold Oct. 9, 1906 

John S. Eader Nov. 5, lOOr, 

John K. Halm March 11,1907 

John .Arthur Keppclman Sept. 19, 1007 

Wayne W. Light Feb. 10, 1908 


Practitioners of medicine were located in all the 
sections of the county from the earliest settlements, 
but their names have not been preserved because 
there was no place to reg-ister them. But they 
were scattered many miles apart. On this account. 
cases of ordinary sickness were generally attended 
to by the parents of the family, and the adminis- 
tration of home remedies was practised. The phys- 
icians in active j)ractice v/cre of the allopathic school 
altogether, chose of the homeopathic school not 
having started in the county until about 1S3S. I\Iid- 
wifery was in genera! use. Pow-wowing was prac- 
tised to a considerable extent until in recent years. 
when it was gradually abandoned as education be- 
came more thorough and regular physicians more 

IVlEbic.^L F.xcuLTv OF Berks County. — The 
practising physicians of this county, having 
associated and become a body politic in 
law (incorijoratcd July 1-1. 18"^4), under the 
above style and title, met agreeably to public 
notice, on Saturday evening, Aug. 7. lS'i4. at the 
public building of this borough, and duly orga- 
nized their institution. Dr. Isaac Iliester 
called to the chair, and Dr. Charles Baum ap- 
pointed secretary. The charter and bv-laws hav- 
ing been read, the following gentlemen were 
elected officers for the ensm'ng year: Isaac Hies- 
ter, president ; C. L. Schlemm and John B. Otto, 
vice-presidents: Charles Baum. recording sec- 
retary; William J. C. Baurn and Edward Hay- 
dock, corresponding secretaries; George Eckert, 
treasurer; Bernard M' Neil and Gerhard G. 
Bishop, curators. 

The president delivered a short address to the 
association, and then proceeded agreeably to the 
by-laws to appoint a standing committee of 
three members for the examination of candi- 
dates for the grade of junior membership. The 
following gentlemen composed the committee: 
C. L. Schlenmi, John B. Otto and Charles Baum. 

The following resolutions were then ottered, 
discussed and adoi)ted : 

Resok'cd. That the members of the Medical F.^culty be 
requested to furnish nioiithly to the correspcmdint; secre- 
taries, a list of the disea'^os and deaths that may occur in 
their respective ncighljorhoods. and an account of tlie 
general health of the county, t.opctl-ier with such remarks 
as they may deem proper for pulilicalion. 

Resolved. That it is expedient to apprize the public of 
the existence of small pox in tliis bi->roui:h. and that ina;.- 
-much as this body retain^ undimini.-hed conlidence in v:ic- 
cination, this mild and safe nreventative be .^tronsly recom- 
mended in all cases deemed liable to the infection of that 
loathsome and too often fatal disease. 

Resokcil. Tl'.at the students in medicine of Berks county 
have pernii<-i(in to ;ittv nd the meetings and dcHhorations 
of this hodv. 

Rcsohcd. That one hundred copies of the constitution) 
and by-laws of the Medical Faculty of Berks couiitv bo 
printed in pamphlet form, uniler the superinten<lcnce of a 
committee consisting of Drs. Otto, Baum and Bishop, ar.d 
that the proceedings of tliis evening, together with t'l.- 
inaugural address of the president, be published in x\w 
several papers of this borough., signed iiy the presideiu 
and attested by the secretary. 

On motion, Rcsohcd, Tliat the president deliver an ora- 
tion in public as soon as may be convenient, in the riaiii'.- 
and on behalf of this faculty. 

The faculty adjourned to the next stated meeting on the 
iirst Saturday in October next, at 7 o'clock, r.M. 

CHAKt,KS Eatm. Recording Secretary. 

The members who subscribed the charter of in- 
corporation were as follows: 

William Wood 
Isaac Iliester 
John B. Otto 
John F. Baum 
Charles Baum 
William Cries 
Geo. N. Eckert 
Jacob Rodrock 

Bernard M'Xeii ( N. Y.) 
Jonathan F. Evans 
F.nos Chichester 
Gcrk G. Bischotz 
Edward Ilaydock 
August Klein 
C. L. Schlemm 
William J. C. Baum 

The charter was ai>j. roved by hVcderick Sinilh 
(of Reading), then attorney-general of Pennsyl- 
vania, on June 3, 1824; and by William Tilghman, 
John B. Gibson and Thomas Duncan, judges of 
the Supreme court, on June 4, 1824 

Dr. Hiester, ujion assuming the diities of the 
oflice to v.-hich he was unai:imously chosen, deliv- 
ered an admirable address to the faculty. Among 
other things, he said that this organization was 
the first of the kind in Pennsylvania, excepting the 
College of Physicians and Medical Society of Phil- 

This society continued to e.xist, hold regular meet- 
ings and annually send representatives to the State 
^Medical Society for a period of twenty years. On 
Feb. 23, 18.t0. the society was reorganized and the 
name changed to the "Medical Society of the City 
of Reading and the County of Berks." with the 
object of cultivating the science of medicine in ail 
its collateral branches, to elevate and sustain medi- 
cal character, to encourage a system of profes- 
sional etiquette and to promote mutual improve- 
ment, social intercourse and good feeling among 
the members of the medical profession. No person 
could become a memticr' of this society unless he 
were a graduate of some recognized medical col- 
lege. In 18r>f), the name was changed to Berks 
County .Medical Society. In 18r.r it trmk the first 
steps toward establishing a public hospital at Rcaii- 
ing. which eventually culminated in the Reading 

The society was disbanded in 1870, with a nntn- 
bership of thirty-seven. This dissolution grew out 

n:-A :••(=; 


'Ui'. !:■ <'.'']■'>• 




oi a factional fight over an attempt to expel one 
..f its prominent members. The one faction, num- 
bering twenty-two physicians, immediately after 
the dissolution, on the same day (Nov. 22, 1870), 
assembled at the office of Dr. John B. Brooke, 
Xo. 41 North Fourth street. Reading, and organ- 
izetl anotlier society entitled ''Berks County Med- 
ical Association.'' The names of the organizers 
were as follows : 

]. S. Amnion 
J. Brobst 
Edward Brobst 
J B. Brooke 
Geo. W. Eyerie 
Joseph Coblertz 
A. B. Dundor 
J. S. Hunsberger 
S. L. Kurtz 
De B. Kuhii 
C. Kreye 

J. ^r. Matthews 
William Moore 
J. -M. Xewpher 
J. Y. Shearer 
J. K. Seaman 
J. R. Sterley 

C. Turner 

D. A. Ulrich 
Edward Wallace 
Charles Weber 

W. Murray Weidman 

After a temporary organization, a resolution was 
passed to the effect that the new society be formed 
for mutual improvement in connection with the 
Pennsylvania State IMedical Society and the Amer- 
ican Medical Association. The constitution and by- 
laws were adopted at a meeting held Jan. 3, 1S71 ; 
and a permanent organization was et¥ected by elect- 
ing William !Moore, president; J. S. Ammon and 
James M. Matthews, vice-presidents ; W". r\Iurray 
Weidman, recording secretary; J. B. Brooke, cor- 
responding secretary ; D. A. Ulricli, treasurer ; Ed- 
ward \^^'lllace, J. A. Brobst, De B. Kuhn, censors; 
and Joseph Coblentz, curator. 

The name was then clianged from the Berks 
County Medical Association to the Medical Society 
of the County of Berks ; and it was decided that the 
meetings be held bi-monthly and a business meeting 
should alternate with a m.eeting for the discussion 
of topics relating to the profession. 

At the meeting of the pocictv held in Stauffcr's 
Hall fthe meeting place at that time and for several 
years afterward) March 7, 1^71, Drs. S. L. Kurtz, 
D. A. Ulrich and Edward Wallace, a cominittee 
appointed to represent this societv at the annual 
meeting of the State Medical Societv at Philadel- 
phia, reported that they had gained recognition 
from that body, were admitted as members and the 
board of censors had approved of the society's con- 
stitution and by-laws. 

The first delegate election of tin's societv for 
sending representatives to the American Medical 
Association was held on March 7, 1S71, and Drs. 
Kuhn, Wily and INIoore were selected for that pur- 

Tlie societv made its first annual visit to the 
Poor-House in March, isn. 

In 1872, the subject of vaccination received the 
official indorsement of the societv. 

In 1S(75. the place of meeting of the societv was 
changed to the oflfice of Dr. J. B. Bro<->ke. 

In 1878. it favored tlie passage of a law bv the 
State Legislature concerning "privileged communi- 
cations," so as to place phvsicians on an cqualitv 

with other professions as witnesses in a court ot 
justice ; and in that same year, the delegates to the 
State Society were in.-tructed to favor a resolution, 
in connection with other countv societies, that no 
member should admit into his office a student of 
medicine until he presented a certificate showing 
his educational qualifications ; which the State So- 
ciety adopted. Shortly afterward, they encouraged 
the movement relating to the registration of all 
practising pii_\sicians, which culminated in the pas- 
sage of the Act of June 8, 1.^81, which required 
every practitioner to register his name and qualifi- 
cations in the prothonotary's ofiice. 

In 1880, the society first started lectures on special 
topics, and on Sept. 7th, Dr. E. H. Coover, of Har- 
risburg, delivered a lecture on "spinal curvature." 

In 1881, the meeting place of the society was 
changed to the Reading Library, where it remained 
for several years, and tiicn it was removed to the 
council chambers temporarily. Tiie subiect of per- 
manent quarters was then discussed and a commit- 
tee (cc>nsisting of Drs. Cleaver. Bachman and 
Keiser) was appointed to make the necessary in- 
quiries, not only for a meeting place but also for a 
"Medical Library," which had been earnestly advo- 
cated. In the course of their inquiries. Dr. John 
B. Raser, druggist, voluntarilv offered a room in 
his store building at Sixth and Walnut streets, sec- 
ond story front, free of rent for an indefinite time, 
and this offer the society gratefully accepted. The 
quarters were then established in the Raser building 
and the meetings have been held there regularly 
ever since. The membership in l!)U'.i was 100. 

Immediately after its removal to this^ convenient 
place. Dr. W. Murray Weidman took a special in- 
terest in the establishment of a Medical Library 
and collected a large number of medical works as 
the foundation for its development, and this inter- 
est he continued with i^reat earnestness until his 
decease in 1902, all the members of the society 
recognizing his services in that behalf. The library 
embraced a fine collection of the best medical works 
and in 1909 numbered altogether about 1,275 

In 1882. the by-laws were amended, relatmg to 
the requirements of students and condemning the 
practice of copyrighting common pharmaceutical 
preparations under trade-marks ; and in 1883, the 
society passed a re-^olu;ion encouraging the estab- 
lishment of a suitable building at \\ ashington for 
a National Medical Library and Surgical ^luscum. 

In 1SS4. the State delegates of the society were 
instructed to favor the creation of a State Board 
of Health; which came to be established in 188."). 

In June, 1891, the Medical Society of the State 
held its forty-second annual convention at Reading. 
The proceedings were interesting and among the 
papers read there was one by Dr. Israel Cleaver, 
entitled the "History of tlie Medical Profession in 
P.erks Cotmty." In that paper Dr. Cleaver stated 
that the State Society had been organized at Lan- 
caster in 1848, and its first annual convention had 


I '■. ; if 

"--rjr . '(,; 'j 



been held at Roadinj; in l.M'i. Then the local so- 
ciety had a menibershii) uf twenty-six. 

Two of the presidents of the State Society had 
been selected from the ]'eiks County Society: Dr. 
John P. Hie--ter, in 1:^5". ; and Dr. Edward \\ allace, 
in 18(52. 

Since the or^-anization of the Society in ISTO, the 
members have held annual banquets in January and 
outings in August, which have been distinguished 
for their literarv excellence and true sociability. 

The member.-'hip in I'.M)'.), numbered 87. 

REAniXG Mf.dical Associatiox was organized 
May 27, 18.50, with the following physicians as its 
first officers : 

President, William M. Cries; vice-president, John 
P. Hiester; recording secretary, Edward Wallace; 
corresponding secretary, L. L. Stewart ; treasurer, 
Charles H. Hunter. 

The meetings v,ere not held regularly until 1867; 
then, on July ;!(ltl;. a third re-organization having 
been elTected, a new constitution and by-laws were 
adopted. Its meetings have been held ever since 
at the same places as the county society. The mem- 
bers are practising allopathic physicians of Reading 
and the surrounding towns. Membership in ]901) 
was Go. 

The Patiioi-ogical Society was organized ^lay 
10, 1871, with the following physicians as its first 

President, D. L. IJeaver; vice-presidents, ^lartin 
Luther, B. F. Bmm ; secretary and treasurer, AI. 
Albert Rhoads. 

The members constituted tlie other faction of 
physicians upon the disbanding of the "Berks 
County Medical Society." and they kept up its meet- 
ings for nearly twenty year.-. During this time, 
the bitter feeling, shown in such a marked manner 
in 1S70, had entirely subsided and the surviving 
members had graduallv identified themselves with 
the "Medical Society of Berks County.'' 

ALf-OPATHic Practitioxers. — The names of the 
allopathic physicians of the county, with college 
and year of graduation, are presented herewith in 
alphabetical order; and thev have been classified a'^ 
at Reading, in the boroughs, and in the several 
sections of the county. [D indicates decease; R. 
removed out of county.] 


Jacob S. .'Xnimon. D U. of Pa., 18G8 

George W. .\mnion. D JcfFcrs(-)n, ISSS 

Jacob D. .\lbriclit Phila. Med.-Chi.. is'.i:! 

Solomon G. P.irch. D JetTcr.son, 1S;3.". 

Joseph F.rackhill U. of Pa., ISfiO 

George P.. M. P.nwcr Maryland Univ.. 1SS7 

Henry G. P.ncr Jefferson, ISSS 

John L. P.owor Jefferson. 18SS 

Samuel R. Pricker. Jefferson. 1RS9 

Francis H. P.robsr Jefferson, 1SSR 

Daniel R. Probst Jefferson. lS!i.'. 

John M. Pertokt Teffer-^on, IS'.IO 

Hiester Puclur l'. of Pa.. 1S07 

Josiah T. Piintin;:, R U. of Pa., 1S04 

Thomas C. Piich.Tnaii U. of Pa.. Unio 

Samuel G. Piirkholilfr !n. W. Univ., Hioo 

John B. Brooke. D Jefferson. i--,. 

U. Llewelhn Beaver, D Pa. Colk-o. imi 

Daniel B. D. Beaver U. of Pa.. i>:i 

Charles W. Bachmaii Jefferson. I'-^i 

Darius Z. Boivman. D Baltimore, i^-u 

Jeremiah K. Bowers Pliila. Amer. Uni\., i-::; 

John X. Becker Jefferson, l-- ; 

Frank W. Bucks Jefferson, is-.', 

William S, Bertolet U. of Pn , IO'id 

Henry P. Brunner U. of Pa.. lOO* 

Joseph Coblcntz, D U. of Pa., l--4'.i 

Israel Cleaver U. of Pa.. 1 sr>:! 

Alfred J. Cressman, D U. of Pa., iSTO 

Emma O. Cleaver Pa. Woman'--, i.'.i;, 

Fcrdinando Colletti Italy. l--',ir, 

R. M. Culler Jeffersoii, irnii 

George Rav Currv Bait. Med. Collese, rMji; 

Charles .\. Deinin-er, D U. of P., is,".", 

William X. Davis, D Jefferson, ISf.n 

Adam B. Dundor Jefferson, ISH'.; 

W. X'. Davis. D Jefferson, isr.n 

Aaron C. Detwei'er. D Jefferson, IS'U 

Washington C. Detweiler. D Jefferson, 1?;7 

Thomas A. Dunkel. D Jefferson, l^c,.-, 

William B. Dewecs, D U. of P., 1877 

Joseph C. Da\ i;". Jeffer-^on, 187.J 

C. A. F. Detweiler Phila. Med.-Chi., isss 

Charles J. Dietrich U. of Pa., 1003 

George E. Dietrich Med.-Chi., lOiir, 

Samuel C. Ermentrout U. of Pa., ISCii 

Jacob R. Esteriy, R . .Jefferson, 1891 

Albert F. East Jefferson, 1893 

John V. Epler, D Pa. College 

Oliver H. Fisher U. of Pa., 1872 

James A. Fisher, D Pa College, IS.",?. 

Elias H. Frantz, D Jefferson, 1S73 

F. W. Frankhauser Jefferson, ISSii 

Oscar Edwin Fox U. of Pa., icni; 

John F. Feick Jefferson. 1872 

• John R. Fau-^t Baltimore, 1886 

F. H. Fcnstermaker Baltimore, 1898 

William E. Fisher U. of Pa., 1809 

Lloyd H. Feick Baltimore, 1002 

George S. Goodhart, Ei Pa. College, J 849 

Frank H. Good. D U. of Pa.. is:.s 

John B. Griesemer, D J efferson, IS.'f) 

'Charles H. Gerhard U. of Pa., 1008 

W. H. Goodenongh. D l<r,r. 

Frederick Grander. R Jefferson, 18S.') 

David S. Grim Michigan Univ., 1000 

James R. Gerhard U. of Pa., 1901 

Malcolm Z. Gearhart Jefferson. IOOm 

Franklin J. G;ihle Tefferson. 1907 

Wellington D. Griesemer Jefferson, 190S 

Charles H. Hunter. D U. of Pa., 1841 

Frank M. Hiester, D U. of Pa.. IS.VJ 

Samuel R. Heckman. D lefferson, ISC,''' 

I. S. Ilinnershot,-:. D U. of Pa.. 1881 

Robert P. Huyett Jefferson, 1870 

Tames M. Hoffman, D Jefferson, IS.'jS 

H. H. Herbst, R U. of Pa., IS'l 

Joseph H. Hagenman. D U. of Pa., 1871 

Charles Edward i lot'fman. D 

Isaac Hiester. D U. of Pa., 

Tr,hn P. Hic.tor, D U. of Pa., 

James M. Hoffman. D U of Pa.. 

Henrv Hagenman, D IS.'!.". 

Hnw.ard F. Haii<oll Tefferson, 18'; 

Harrv .\. Hc,iler U. of Pa.. 18s,^. 

William T. TkMTman, D Tefferson. is.".! 

Trvin H. Ilarlnian U. of Pa.. 1^9') 

William .-\. J. Ilalbeisen Jefferson, IS07 

Oscar E. Hofniann Jeffer.son. 1907 

Grace M. Harcurt. R Baltir-ore. 190! 

Ralph .\. Harding Geo. Washington Univ.. 190s 

Erie G. llawman U. of Pa., lOO.". 

John V. Hoffman. P Jefferson, 1850 

W-i, .'! ■,!-!l 

" iw-r.-r. '1:1 in '•' 

I , ' .1 



Isaac B. Hacker Jefferson, 

Frank X. Irvin, R U. of Pa., 

George F. Johnson Jefferson, 

Jacob R. Joluis Jefferson, 

Charles \V. l". Kreye. D Germany, 

Samuel L. Kurtz Jefferson, 

L. De B. Kuhn. R U. of Pa., 

Ellis J. Kurtz Jefferson, 

James \V. Keiser. D U. of Pa., 

Thomas E. Krum Baltimore, 

Clarence ^[. Kurtz Jefferson, 

Elizabetii Kendig. R Pa. VX'onian's, 

Henrv G. Krause Phila. Mcd.-Chi., 

Clift'ord L. Kaucher Med. -Chi., 

Franklin J. Kantner Jefferson, 

Chester K. Kistler Jefferson, 

Elmer C. Kieffer Phila. Med. -Chi , 

Alvin J. Kistler Jefferson. 

J. \V. Kaufman Jefferson, 

Clara Shelter Keiser Pa. Woman's, 

George W. Keh! Pa. W. Univ., 

Morris W. Koch, R Jefferson. 

Aleyer J. Katz. R Jefferson. 

Martin Luther, D Jefferson, 

Henry Landis, D U. of Pa., 

E. J. Longhorn, R 

Charles G. Loose U. of Pa., 

Daniel G. Long LT. of Pa., 

James B. Lewis . . .U. of Pa.. 

Bernard R. Lee, R Jefferson. 

Thomas II. I-eidy JetTerson. 

Emi! C. Luks Berlin, 

Daniel Longaker Pa. \V. Univ., 

John \V. Luther, R U. of Pa., 

Israel J. K. Li^^^ht, R U. of Pa., 

William W. Livingood Pa. W. Univ., 

George K. Levan M ed.-Chi.. 

Jacob Marshall. D U. of Pa.. 

Miles F. McTaggart, R Pa. Eclectic, 

Isaac L. Mingle Jefferson. 

James D. Y. Madeira Jefferson. 

Thomas B. Miller Baltimore, 

Edward G. Meter Phila Mcd.-Chi., 

John E. ^[eulcy Phila. Med.-Chi., 

Thomas II. }\Iackin Pa. W. Univ., 

William F. Mubknherg U. of Pa., 

James M. Matthews Jefferson, 

Philip D. :Marshall. D Jefferson. 

inija Martin 

Charles McDonough, D Pa. College, 

Henry C. Mohr. D Jefferson. 

John C. McCov X. Y. Univ.. 

Matthias Meng'el, Jr., R U. of Pa.. 

Frederick LeRoy ^^atter^ Jefferson. 

Rudolph C. Mollmann U. of Pa.. 

Hiester M. X'agle, D Jefferson. 

William V. D. Xichols. R U. of Pa.. 

Bodo Otto. D Gottingen, 

John A. Otto. D 

John B. Otto. D L^. of Pa.. 

George W. Overholser Pa. W. L'^niv., 

John H. Orff Baltimore. 

Jonathan Potts. D Phila. Med. Inst.. 

Theodore Pachla. D Germany, 

James B. R. Powell U. of Pa., 

Louis W. Prevost • 

Howard M. Parvin Baltimore. 

.■\mbrose Peft'er, R Jefferson. 

Frank Rieser Pa. College, 

M. S. Reber U. of Pa., 

M. Albert Rb(5ads, D Jefferson, 

Simon Reinln)ld Germany, 

.\. S. Randenbush Tefferson. 

Walter S. Ricgel. R U. of P;i.. 

Harrv F. Kentschier jL-lferMni, 

Howard S. Reeser Jeffer-on. 

^^'ilson H. Rothemiel Jefferson. 

ST9 Walter A. Rigg U. of Pa.. 189.5 

89r> Maver Rosen Jefferson, 181)7 

837 Charles Roland LT. of Pa., 1898 

S89 John II. Rorke U. of Pa.. 1901 

t<45 Homer J. Rhode Pa. \V. Univ.. 1901 

?r,i Samuel B. Rigg U. of Pa.. 190:5 

854 Frank G. Rum eon U. of Pa., VM.i 

8S0 Charles T. Reber. D Jefferson, 1856 

883 R. B. Rowe U. of Pa.. 1885 

8S6 C. W. G. Schlcmm. D Pa. College, 1848 

856 W. E. Schlemm. D TJ. of Pa., 1854 

SSC John Stephen. D U. of Pa.. 184(5 

S>7 C. E. Shoemaker. D Pa. College. ISGO 

907 John B. Sterlev, D Phila. Med.-Chi., 1857 

83S W. Scip Jeffer^^on. 1863 

807 Adam Schoener. D Pa. College, 1840 

809 Decatur G. Schoener, D Pa. College, 1853 

902 Frederick Spang. D "Jefferson, 13G0 

890 Charles J. Schulze. D Germany (1S48). 1853 

S35 Erastus R. Scholl. D Pa" College. ISSfi 

891) Aaron Smith. D ' N. Y. Med.. 1854 

896 Thomas A. Strasser U. of Pa.. 1867 

90:? S. W. Sine U. of Pa., 1871 

818 Ann Jane Schulze 1863 

861 Juhn Stolze. D Phila. Eclectic, 1865 

871 Walker R. Stephen, D U. of Pa., 1873 

868 I. X. E. Shoemaker, D 1870 

875 John Schoi nfeld, D 1861 

878 Stanlcv Smith Jefferson, 1868 

879 John tC. Seaman X. Y. Bellevue, 1869 

809 Albert Simon. D 1870 

85.3 Rudolph B. Schulze Tefferson, 1883 

89 1 Albert W. Sovereen Ontario, 1870 

89'J Marv A. Swavzc. R. Pa. Woman's. 1873 

899 Horace E. Schlemm Jefferson. 1886 

899 Tohn M. Stephen Jefferson. 1887 

908 Eli/.a A. Shetter. R Pa. Woman's, 1886 

8 to Tacob W. Seip Jefferson, 1883 

865 ira G. Shoemaker Phila. Med.-Chi., 1891 

866 George R. Sbenk Jefferson, 1889 

883 William Seaman U. of Pa.. 1893 

896 John Sb.artle Tefferson. 189:*. 

897 Edwin D. Schaeffer Baltimore, 1893 

898 Se vmour T. Schmehl Tefferson, 1891 

900 Harrv D Stryker U. of Pa., 1893 

868 Marv McD. Shick Pa. Woman's, 1895 

840 Alvah A. Swayze Baltimore, 1897 

853 Christoi)hcr Shearer U. of Pa., 1897 

861 Albert X. Seidcl Baltimore, 1901 

848 Edwin Y'. Sevier Baltimore, 1003 

871 Amos B. Schnader. R Jeft'erson, 1903 

879 Wavne L. Schearer U. of Pa., 1904 

885 Charles K. Seide! Baltimore, 1904 

903 Sidney J. Sondheim U. of Pa., 1907 

908 Walter IT. Scheehi •... Med.-Chi., 1907 

857 Henrv Tvson. D Pa. College, 1843 

S85 L. H. Thompson, D JefTer,-,on, 1S53 

735 Oan J. Thompson JctFerson, 1895 

Louis L. Thrinipson Jefferson. 180'> 

808 Samuel B. Tavlor Jefferson. 1895 

903 Daniel A. Ulrich. D JetTerson. 1841 

904 Alexander H. Witman. D U. of Pa.. 

768 Harrison T. Witman Jefferson. 1861 

865 Edward Wallace. R U. of Pa.. 

878 W. Murrav Wcidman. D U. of Pa.. 1860 

886 M. LeRov Wenger. D X. Y. Bellevue, 187 1 

887 Gershoni Wenger U. of Pa.. 1881 

887 W. W. .\. Wullingh. D Amsterdam. 1876 

853 .\lbcrt P. Walter Baltimore. 1884 

863 lA-vi F. Wa-ner Phila. Med.-Chi.. 1890 

863 Victor W. Wickcrt Tefferson, 1891 

Sii.-l William S. Wrav, R t^. of Pa., 1896 

S64 A. Wildbergcr U. of Pa., 1893 

893 .Abraham K. Wanner Jefferson, l'<98 

s'i3 I.i-Koy J. C. Wenger X. Y. L'niv.. 190-, 

867 William C. Wcrls. R Baltimore. 1904 

H9 t John G. Wilson, R Phila. Med.-Chi.. 1904 




-j^- -^/^v 

* '^P^V^f ' W ^ <^' W -V 

<■'■''•! ,,'1 

I ,. I ■'/'/ 
-' .-,.|. , I, 



Raymond K Weber Jefferson. 1905 

Jes'se Levan Wagner U. of Pa., 1007 

Harrv H. Wanner TefTerson, 1907 

Rex S. K. Wood U. of Mich, and Jeff.. 1007 

Abel E. West Leonard Coll.. X. C. i;ii'- 

C. K. Young Baltimore, 1879 


Enoch Bricker. Bernville. D 

William S. Biebcr, Kntziown 

Wellington G. Ryerle. Bernville JetTerson, 

John A. Brobst. Bernville U. of Pa., 1807 

Edward Brobst. Weft Leesnort. D Pa. College, 18 jH 

Martin L. Bcrtolette. Mt. Peiin U. of Pa., 1S78 

John S. Bowman, Boyertown U. of Pa., 1378 

Benjamin F. Bunn, Birdsboro, D Jefferson, 1840 

Henry B. Brusstar, Birdsboro, R Jeffersi.m. 

John S. Borneman, Boyertown U. of Pa., 1873 

Daniel Deppen, Bernville, D 

James Donagan. Kntztown 

Darius D. Deppen, Bernville. D Pa. College, 

Darius W. Dundor, Womclsdorf U. of Pa., 

Frank P. Dundor, W'est Leesport Jefferson, 

Charles B. Dotterer. Bovcrtown Med. -Chi., 

C. F. DcLong, Bechtelsville, D X. Y. Univ., 

N. Z. Dunkelbergtr. Kutrtown Phila. Med. -Chi., 

George X^. F.ckert. WomcNdorf. D 

L. K. Francis Boyertown U. of Pa., 

A. M. Fretz, Fleetwood U. of Pa., 

A. P. Foglemaii. Womclsdorf U. of Pa., 

George W. Fahrcnbach. Bernville Baltimore, 

William Gries. Womel.=dorf, D U. of Pa., 

Charles A. Gerasch. Kutztown. D Germany 

Alexander S. Gillars. Birdsboro JetTerson, 

Oscar T. Gehris. Fleetwo(jd Boston Univ.. 

Reuben Haines, Kutztown 

W. PI. J. Henkey, Boyertown Jefferson, 

Edward liottenstein. Kutztown Jeffcr?on. 

Edward I-. Hottcnstcin, KiUzfown Jefferson. 

A. C. L. Hottenstein, Kutztov.ii Jefferson. 

William Harris, Hamburg. D Jefferson, 

William J. Hottenstein. Kutztown Jefferson, 

Eugene T. Hancock. Boyertown, R Jefferson, 

A. S. C. Herman, Topton U. of Pa., 

M. A. Hengst, Birdsboro. D Jefferson, 

Charles A. Hottenstein, Kutztown Jefferson. 

Aaron E. Hain. Birdsboro U. of South. 

James A. Harris, Hamburg Jefferson, 

Milton E. Hartman, Fleetwood Jefferson, 

E. K. Hottenstein. Kiitzlown Jefferson. 

George Hetrick, Birdsboro Jefferson, 

Henry W. Johnson. Boyertown. D Jefferson, 

Frederick S. Kaufman, Kutztown U.of Pa., 

Isaac I. Kalbach, Centreport Jelicr?on, 

Oscar F. Kunkel, Lenhartsville Jefferson. 

James C. Livingood. Wonielsdorf. D 

Louis Livingood. Wonielsdorf. D JelTerson, 

John Lesher. Wonielsdorf 

John Livingood, Wonielsdorf, D 

Horace F. Livingood, Womel-dorf Jefferson, 

Charles E. Lercli. Wonielsdorf Jefferson. 

George PL Landis. Birdsboro. D 

Caleb Liggett. Birdsboro. D 

James Lincoln. Bird-^boro, D Tefferson. 

Frank P. Lytle. Birdsboro Pa. W. Univ. 

Rufus E. Le Fevrc, Boyertown. R Jefferson, 

William Moore, Wonielsdorf, D X. Y. L'niv.. 

Joseph E. Miller. Kutztown Jefferson, 

Joseph F. Merkel, Boyirtown, R U. of Pa., 

James G. Matterncss, Centreport Jefferson. 

Ira K. Moser. Birdslioro. D Jefferson. 

William J. Martin. Hamburg Jefferson. 

F'ranklin V. Xyce. Hamburg. D Jefferson. 

Franklin M. Xyce. Hambuicr Jefferson, 

Benjamin Xyce. Hamburg. D Jefferson. 

Henry G. Xyce, Hamburg Jefferson, 









87 S I 

Howard Y. Xeyman. Boyertown, R Jefferson, 1S7'.» 

Jonathan B. Potteiger, Hanibure Jefferson, 185 » 

Walker S. Phillips, Womelsdr.rf I8r,'.» 

George ¥. Potteiger, Hamburg Jefferson. 1890 

George H, Pflueger, Topton Baltimore, 1905 

Thomas J. B. Rhoads, Boyertown ...Baltimore, ISi'.l 

Pius Rotiicrmel, I'irdsboro U of Pa., 1SS9 

Reuben B. Rhoads, Boyertown Jefferson. Is57 

Clarence C. Rether, Centreport Jefferson, 1>=S4 P. Rothermel, Lenhartsville Med.-Chi., lOos 

Christian L. Schlenim, Kutztown, D, Gottingen Univ.. 1798 

F. L. Sallade, Wonielsdorf Jefferson, 187C 

John H. Spatz. Centreport Pa. College, 1848 

Samuel B. Swavelv, Birdsboro, R Jefferson. 1877 

Henrv H. Suavely. Rernville 1878 

Frank R. Sallade, Wonielsdorf Jefferson, 1893 

Adam F. M. Stump. Fleetwood Phila. Med.-Chi., 1002 

Charles C. Stauft'er. Boyertown. R U. of Pa., 1903 

Henry M. Saul, Kutztown Baltimore, 1894 

Charles E. Schlappig, Bernville Baltimore, 190S 

Jeremiah S. Tre.Kler, Kutztown. D U. of Pa., 1853 

Samuel M. Todd, Bovertown, D U. of Pa., 1865 

W. D. Tre.xler. Topton X. Y. Bcllcvue. 1866 

John H. Todd, Boyertown. R U. of Pa., 18'J3 

Cli.irles H. Wanner, Kutztown D 

William Woods, Wonielsdorf, D 

Cvrus Wanner, Kutztowr;. L) 1875 

John R. Wagner, Hamburg X. Y. Eellevue, 1886 

Charles D. Werlcy, Topton Jeft'crson, 1889 

S.-.muel E. Wertman, Bcclitelsville, K Jefferson, 1889 

William S. Wolfe. Fleetwood JetTerson. 1897 

George White. Womclsdorf ... .Ky. School of Med.. 1905 

George W. Ziegler, Lenhartsville,. . .Ky. Sell, of Med.. 1887 


Charles Baum. Exeter. U 

Wm. J. C. Baum. .\niity, D 

Trijm C. Baum. Amity. D 

Peter G. Bertolet, Olev, D U. of Pa., JS45 

Oswin W. Berkv, Washington Phila. Med.-Chi., 1901 

Walter M. Bertolet. Olev Jefferson. 1902 

Frank R. Rrunner. Eshbach. D Jefferson, 1861 

Daniel W. Bortz, Esterlv Baltimore, 1385 

Calvin K. Christman, Ballv. D U. of Pa., 1869 

Monroe F, Clouser, Oley Med.-Chi., 1908 

George de Benneville, Oley, D France, 1745 

Mark Darrah, .\mitv. D 

George S. En.gler. Temple, D U. of Pa., 1803 

J. Wilson Eckert, Temple Jefferson, 1894 

Ephraim H. Egolf, Aniityville Jefferson, 1884 

Amandus X. Feglev. Spangsville Jeft'crson, 1S70 

M. O. Greenewald. Shanesville, D U. of Pa.. 1872 

Alfred O. Gerv. Hercfordville Jefferson, 1803 

John C. Hersh,' Herefordville U. of Pa., 1876 

Charles H. Hartline. Friedensburg Jefferson. 1892 

William Herbst. Pikeville. D lefferson. 1825 

George E. M. Herbst, Oley Jefferson, 1878 

\\"il!iam F. Hertzog. X'ew Jerusalem; L. Island Col.. 1830 

T. .\. Hatst^eld, Olev. R U. of Pa.. 1862 

Roswell F. Herman. Douglassville U. of Pa.. 1870 

Warren E. G. High. Esterlv. R U. of Pa., J89t 

John A. Jack. Oley. D U. of Pa., 1862 

Augustus Knoske. District. D 

P.ud Kreye. Oley, D 1371 

Hlias Ivitehen. Amity. T) Vermont College, 1850 

.Xndrian Loewen, P'riedensburg. D Prussia. 1825 

Tacob S. Lu.lwig. Aniitvvilh, R... Phila. Med.-Chi., 1903 

Ralph Y. Lechncr. Hereford Jefferson. 1890 

Tames May, .\niity. D 

n.inici McLean, .\mitv , Jefferson. 1S73 

Michael Ludwig. .Amity. D U. of P\i., 1815 

F.iani B M.uiger. Douglass, R Jefferson, 1875 

Tacob Plank. Olev, D. Switzerland, 1700 

Nlilt..n W, Pbdlips. Eshbach Med.-Chi., 1908 

1) Kotlirock. Rusce''-, D 

John .\. Rotii, Sie.sholtzville, R U. of Pa., 1S7.> 



r,cl Y. Schelley. Hereford. D 

'William S. Schantz, HutT's Church U. of Pa., 

Jnrob .A. Trc.xler, Pilci-ville, R JetTerson. 

Charles Weber, Pricctown, D Germany. 

Isaac B. Yeakel, Bally U. of Pa., 


Wilson D. DcLoiig, Rlandon Vermont Univ., 

.Milton H. Fritch. Virgin\illc JetTerson, 

Nicholas K. Fisher, Shoemakers ville Jefferson, 

W. E. Hunsberger, Maiden-creek Jefferson, 

Adam J. Heberly, Kempton 

Irwin F. Huff, Kempton Vermont Univ., 

William F. Howerter, Kempton. ... Phila. Med. -Chi., 

Henry H. Herb, Mertztown !.. Phila. Med.-Chi., 

A\ illiam H. Hunsbcrger, Maiden-creek JetTerson, 

Morris H. Koch, Lyons X. Y. Bellevue, 

Jesse G. Kistler, Albany Baltimore, 

M. S. Long, Longswamp, D U. of Pa., 

John A. Long, Longswamp Baltimore, 

Howard A. Long. Longswamp Baltimore, 

Howard U. Miller, Leesport Med.-Chi., 

Milton S. Richards, Ma.xatawny, D Jefferson, 

John D. Rupp, Richmond N. Y. Bellevue Hosp., 

H. W. Swcnk, Krumsville N. Y. Bellevue, 

Wilson M. Snyder, Mohrsville Baltimore, 

Henry ]\L Schall, Shoemakersville Jeft'erson, 

James Smith, Maxatav.'ny Jefferson, 

I. M. Shollcnberger, Lyons Baltimore, 

Owen H. Wily. Berkley, D.. Jefferson, 

Penrose Wily, Leesport, I) Jefferson, 

James F. Wertz, Longswamp, D Pa. College, 

Peter W. Wertz, Longswamp, D U. of Pa., 

Bartholomew Yeager, Lyons, D Germany, 


Thomas M. Angstadt. Strausstcwn, Jefferson, 

William S. Ruehler, Werncrsvdle Jefferson, 

Thomas G. Binkley, Sinking Spring Jefferson, 

John M. Braiise, .ShartlesviUe JetTerson, 

George A. Bickel, Rchrersburg, D Jeffeison, 

Levi G. P.atdorff, Mt. Aetna, D Pa. College, 

Henry Batdorff, Miliersburg, D U. of Pa., 

M. D. M. Batdorff, Miliersburg. D U. of Pa., 

Daniel B. Brobst, Stouchsburg Jefferson, 

Henry L. Bollman, Robcsonia Jefferson, 

John A. Conrad, Robesonia. . . .Long Island Hospital, 

William F. Christ, Rehrerslnirg 1,S71( 

James W. Depiieii, Wernersville, D N. Y. Univ. 

Jacob H. Drawhaugh, Robesonia Baltimore 

Thomas C. Fanning, Walter's Park, R...N. Y. Univ. 
John W. Frankhouser, ShartlesviUe,. Phila. !\Ied.-Ch:., 

C. R. Gaul. Smking Spring U. of Pa. 

Oratio W. Gass, Mt. Aetna Phil?.. Med.-Chi. 

David H. Hain, W'ernersville Jefferson 

Charles F". Hertzog, Mt. Aetna Phila. Med.-Chi. 

John H. Home, Scliaefferstown Jeft'erson 

Leonard G. Hain. Wernersville Jefferson 

Christian X'. Hoffnian, Sinking Spring, D. . . Jetter'-on 

J. S. Herbein. Sinking Spring. D Jctfersoii 

Isaac S. Herbein, Strausstown. D Jeffer.son 

Oscar B. Herbein. Strausstown Jefferson 

Samuel S. Hill, Wernersville .Asylum.. Pa. W. Univ. 

T._ B. Ho.ssler. Upper Bern, D 

Warren F. Klein. Strausstown Jefferson 

Aldcn B. MacUonald, Wernersville. R Jefferson 

Isaac W. Newcomet, Stouchsburg Pa. W. Univ. 

James S. Preston, L. Heiilelberg. Hygeo-Thcrap. X. Y. 

Robert P. Preston. L. Heidelberg Jefferson 

Mary Preston, L. Heidelberg Pa. Woman's 

.■\brani Rutli. Fritztown. iJ Pa. College 

\\'. F. Ross, Wernersville, R Baltimore 

.-\dani Schoencr, Rehrerslnirg. D U. of Pa. 

C. B. Slroluu. ShartlesviUe, '^D 

■Adam I. Schooner. RehrersburL'. D P.i. Colb-e 

J. M. Strohm, Sliartlcsville X. Y. Univ. 





84 S 







Stephen W. Sevman. Wernersville. . Phila. Med.-Chi., 1899 

H. Forsvthe Stapp, Bethel Bait. Univ., 1907 

Micliael 'Tryon, Relirersburg, D 

Jacob Tryon. Rehrerjilnirg, D 1821 

John S. frvon, Rehrersburg. D U. of Pa., 18.-.7 

John A. Tennv, Werntrsville, D.. Hvgeo-Therap, X. Y., 1868 

Reuben I. Weiirich, Wernersville U. of Pa., 1864 

E. C. L. Walter, Walter's Park, Ih geo-Therap. X. Y., 1870 

Maud M. Walter, Walter's P.irk Pa. Woman's, 1898 

John H. Wahl, Hiester's Mills Indiana College, 1838 

George G. Weiirich. Wernersville L'. of Pa., 1894 

John .A. Wenrich, Wernersville U. of Pa., 1906 

William .\. Ycnser, Strausstown Jefferson, 1893 

Lucia Anna Wheeler, Wernersville. Women's Med. Col., 1907 


Eugene R. DeLong, Geiger's Mills Jefferson, 1891 

Tobias S. Gerhard, Beckersvllle U. of Pa., 1864 

F. R. Gerhard, Union U. of Pa., 1809 

Isaac Halterman, Bcckersville 1848 

Martin L. Huvett. Shllbngton Pa. W. Univ., 1900 

D. W. B. Kupp. Gibraltar U. of Pa., 1882 

Daniel W. Tvlartin, Morgantown Jefferson, 1907 

D. Heber Plank. Morgantown, D U. of Pa., 1867 

Henry Palm. Geigertown Pa. College, 1S.50 

Jonathan Pounder, Morgantown. D 1830 

Herbert L. Qiiickel Med.-Chi., 1909 

Conrad S. Rtbcr, West Reading Jefferson, 1903 

William Rollman. Gci^^ertown JetTerson, 18J7 

John Vaughaii Smith, Joanna, D U. of Pa., 1829 

J. Howard Smith, Joanna, D U. of Pa., 1338 

James Y. Shearer, Sinking Spring Jefferson. 186'-; 

R. S. Schv/eitzer. Shillingtoii Baltimore, 1881 

lohn Schnader, Brecknock 1864 

W. B. Schoener, Mohnsvillc U. of Pa., 1882 

.Allison A. Stamm. Mohnsville Vermont Univ., 1883 

Frank W. Wilev, Mohnsville Jefferson. 1887 

William S. Yoder, Morgantown Phila. Med.-Chi., 1898 

Joseph .A. Zook U. of Pa., 1909 


The practice of the Homoeopathic ■school of med- 
icine was started at Reading in 18 JO, by a German 
physician of (Hstinction, named Adolph Lippe. He 
practised here two yeais, then removed to Carh'sle. 

Dr. John Henry Bchne was a ,£,rra<hiatcd allopathic 
physician from Wuerzburg, in Bavaria, and emi- 
grated to Pennsylvania in 1840, when fortv years 
old, locating at Reading. He became intimate with 
Dr. Lippe and through him was converted to the 
practice of honioeopathy. He was a man of fine 
literary culture and superior character and had a 
large and lucrative practice. He died at Reading 
in 1876. 

Dr. George R. Starkey (of Maine) settled at 
Reading in 1855 and practised hom()eo])ath\- for 
several years and tlien removed to Philadelphia. 
He was followed by Dr. R. Sargent, who also prac- 
tised for a few years; and then Dr. Benjamin R. 
Bratt began in 1858, who continued in active and 
successful practice until his decease in 1^72. By 
that time, homoeo]iathy had become thoroughlv e*;- 
tablished, and it has been carried on successfully 
and prominently until now by a number of physi- 

Rev. John Helfrich became the first homoeopathic 
physician in the country district-^, having graduated 
in 1835 at Allentown and afterward settled at 
Kutztown. He was succeeded bv his son, Dr. John 

;.-i<" , ,•.. . ,1'. i 

1 .■'■■;,r" I! ..a. 

•i I', '.i' 



Henry Hcltrich, who practi>ed at Kutztown from 
IbUt; to ISTT and then removed to AUcntown. 

Dr. F. R. Krebs j^rncti-^ed at Hamburg from iSoT 
to l!Sl»4, when lie removed to Rcadini^; and !ic \va^ 
succeeded In- Dr. Frederick Isctt, and Dr. Joseph 
Hatzfield, wlio had been students under him. 

The H.xhnemanx Meuilal .Society of Reauim', 
was organized in l6b'?, in the oliice of Dr. Samuel 
R. Rittenhouse, at Xo. 38 South Fourth street, by- 
eight homoeopathic p!i_\sicians of Rea(Hng, and it 
had an active existence for about ten years. 

The Homoeop.\thic Pk.vctitio.n'ers Associ.mion 
OF Re.vdixg was organized in ISDG and it has con-ie 
to be the representative society of the homoeopathic 
school of medicine in this vicinity. The meetings 
are held monthly for the discussion of scientific 
papers ; and the Julv or midsummer meeting is held 
at one "of the mountain resorts near the city. The 
midsummer meeting is also attended by members 
of the homoeopathic county societies of eastern 

The following named homoeopathic physicians 
constitute its membership : 

W. F. Marks 

D. C. Kline 

H. F. Schaiitz 

Marg.iret Has'^lcr Sciiantz 

C. R. Haman 

F. W. Seidd 

C. M. Richards 

M. L. Miller 

F. E. Howcl! 
J. E. Harner 

G. I. Keen 
\V. A. Haman 

E. M. Deacon. 

F. F. Massey 

Homoeopathic }^Iedical and Surgical Hospi- 
tal OF Reading. — During- the summer of 1888, Dr. 
E. R. Scholl inviti'd the hom.oeopathic physicians 
of Reading to assemble at his office, Xo. 517 Wal- 
nut street, to organize a Homoeopathic Dispensary 
Association, and an organization was then effected 
by the election of Dr. Scholl as president and Dr. 
D. C. Kline as secretary. They proceeded immedi- 
ately to open a dispensary at the corner of F'ranklin 
and Plum streets, and rendered mucli needed serv- 
ice to the poor of the city. Upon being incorpor- 
ated in 1S91, a board of trustees was organized and 
the present property on Xorth Sixth street, beyond 
Washington, was purchased through the generosity 
of friends and the public; and the trustees were 
enabled to open the hospital in July, isTSl. 

Many ladies became interested in its welfare and 
they organized a "Ladies Auxiliary," which rend- 
ered valuable service in the maintenance of the 
hospital. Later a "Young Ladies Auxiliary" was 
organized '" to supply flowers, delicacies and luxur- 
ies" to patients, and they raised funds at various 
times for the renovation of parts of the hospital, 
and the purchase c>f instruments and sujiplies. 

A training school for nurses has been conducted 
in the hospital from the beginning, proving of great 
benefit to the hc'spltal in addition to the training of 
young women as nur^e-^. in the commiinitv. 

From time to time various improvements were 
made to the building, fitting it more thoroughlv for 
a hosj;ita], until in r.)0.'> tile demand for rooms be- 

came so great that a new building was erected in 
the rear of the main building, increasing the capa- 
city to seventy-five beds in public and private ward- 
and private rooms, and giving the city a modern 
and up-to-date hospital under homoeopathic man- 

The staff of the hospital is selected from the 
members of the "Homoeopathic Hospital and Dis- 
pensary Association," and while varying somewhat 
from time to time the following phvsicians consti- 
tuted the staff for IDuO: W. F. Alarks, S. L. Dreib- 
elbis. L. A. Shollenberger, D. C. Kline, FF. F. 
Schantz. C. R. Haman, M. Flassicr Schantz. L. ^1. 
Richards, F". E. Flowell, and W. A. Haman. 

FIo.moeopathic Practitioners. — The names of 
the homoeopathic pnysicians are presented also in 
alphabetical order for the entire county on account 
of the limited number in the distiicts out of 

H. M. Allen, Reading Phila. Med.-Chi., ISOi 

George W. Crock. Reading Hahnemann, ISS'.) 

Samuel L. Dteibelbis, Reading Hahnemann, ISGl 

D. Frank Drtibelbis, Reading, R Hahnemann, TSOii 

Edward M. Deacon, Rirdsboro Hahnemann, jSOl 

C. A. F. Detwcikr, Reading Med.-Chi., 18SS 

Solomon L. Dreibelbis, Reading Hahnemann, 1907 

John Fge, Reading Hahnemann, ISS.". 

David W. Ensinger. Mt. Aetna Hahnemann, 1002 

J. G. Grosscup, Reading, D Hahnemann, 1S7:J 

Pa-jl H. Gerhardt. Reading Hahnemann, lOOS 

William A. Haman. Reading llahnemann, ISSrj 

P'rederick E. Hovcll. Reading Hahnemann, lOOM 

Charles R. Haman. Reading Hahncmaini, isi.if 

George W. Heck, Reading •. Hnhneniann. 19'iT 

Charles T. Haines, Sinking Spr'ng Hahnemann, 19i)S 

Joseph F. Isett, Hamburg Hahnemann. 1870 

John C. Knauer, Reading 

Col. of Phys. & Surg., Baltimore. 18S6 

Chester B. Jennings. Reading Hahnemann, 1S81 

L. J. Knerr, Reading. R I lahnemann, 1880 

D. C. Kliiie, Reading Hahnemann, 1SS3 

Calvin L. Kicpp, Stonchsburg. D }1ahneniann, 1SS7 

George I. Keen, Reailing Hahnemann, 1892 

Henry R. Klopp. Reading. R } lahnemann, 1394 

Egljert Leroy Kloek, Reading Hahnemann, 1906 

Frank H. Lawrence, Reading Hahnemann, 1906 

Franklin F. Massey, Womelsdorf Hahnemann, 190;! 

A. S. -McDowell. Reading Hahnemann, lS9f> 

William F. Marks. Reading Hahnemann. 1809 

-Alvin I. Miller. Reading. R H.ihncmann. 1S7-' 

Martin L. Miller, Mohnsvillc Hahnemann, 1S9S 

William E. Morgan, Reading. R Hahnemann. 1900 

Theodore Pachali, Reading 

.Med.^Dept. U. of Kiel, Germany, 1809 

Isadore L. Peters, Kutztown Hahnemann. JSs.s 

John S. M. Pratt. Re.idng. R Hahnemann. 190.'? 

J. S. Reading Hahnemann, 1385 

Charles M. Richards, Reading Hahnemann, 1890 

J. C. Sanders. Reading X. Y. Homoeopathic, 1900 

I'rancis R. Schmucker, Reading D 

X. Y. Homneopathic, 1S7.-? 

E. Z. Schmucker, Reading, D Hahnemann. 187i» 

V-. K. Steckel. Kutztown H.ihncmann. IS.s-t 

I,. .\. SchoHcnberger. Reading Hahnemann, ISSi 

.K. Cecil Stewart. Ridgewood, R 

X. Y. Homeopathic. 18S7 

Hor.'ice T. Shinkle, Reading. R Hahnemann. issi> 

Henry V. Sch:inl/. Rearliug Hahnemann. 1891 

Frank W. Seidel, Re.'iding Hahnenianii, 1894 

M. I lasslcr Sciiantz, Readinu 

Cleveland Homo. Med. Col., 1892 




. . Thihiicnunn. 
. . HahiH-manii. 
. . Hahnemann. 
. . Hahnemann, 


F. \V. Snnandy. Hyde Park 

Wiliiam I . Vanshn. Stouchsbnri,'. . 

}• im' B. W'aldman, Readin;.^ 

Kl.liert L. Walter. \Vaher'> Park. 

K'liert Waher. Walter".-; Park 

Hvgeo-Therapentic. \. V., ISr:;. Halmemann. 18S8 
Joseph .^I. Walbcrn, Fleetwood Hahnemann, 1U07 


A school of medical science whose therapeutic 
system constitutes a practice of treating disease in 
all forms without the aid of drug^ was instituted 
in 18T4 by Dr. A. T. Still, of Baldwin, Kans., who 
is known as the founder of the "School of Osteop- 

The first college was started in 1894 in Kirk.svillc, 
Mo. Since that time other colleges have been es- 
tablished in the principal centers of the United 
States, and there are now osteopathic practitioners 
in all the large cities and most of the larger towns 
in the country. 

The practice of osteopathy has been legally ac- 
knowledged in thirty States : and in many States 
there is an independent examining and licensing 
board, or an osteopathic representative on the State 
Board of Health. 

A bill was laid before the Legislature of Penn- 
sylvania at the session of 1904 for the purpose of 
legalizing the practice in Pennsylvania, but it was 
not passed. It was, however, recognized in 1909, 
the Act regulating the practice having been ap- 
proved March 9th. 

The osteopaths have been organized into State 
associations ; also one national, called "The Amer- 
ican Osteopathic Association.'" 

Osteopathy was first introduced into Reading in 
February, 1S99, by Dr. Anna C. Towle. but owing 
to ill health after having practiced for nearly a 
year, she di.'^posed of her practice to Dr. PI. II. Wal- 
pole. and he continued it until 190S, when he left 
the city. P'our practitioners are now at Reading, 
namely : 

Laura De Long 

H. L. Ma.xv.ell and his wife 

H. J. Vastine 


The practice of dentistrv was not carried on as a 
distinct profession in Berks county until about 18o0. 
The first dental college was establisb.ed at Balti- 
more shortly before that time, and the next was at 
Philadelphia in 1851. Theretofore regular physi- 
cians extracted teeth. Previously the repair of 
teeth and the supplv of false teeth were rare, con- 
fined almo.'-t entirelv to great cities and indulged in 
by people of means. 

Alx3ut that time and for twenty years afterward 
the per.sons who were inclined to dentistry would 
spend several months with a recognized dentist and 
under him acqmre some practical experience, then 
{■tart out ft>r themselves. The first graduated dent- 

al surgeons in Berks county from a college were 
Dr. William H. SchoU and Dr. John \V. Clemson, 
both of Reading, who graduated from the Penn- 
sylvania Dental College at Philadelphia in l8G.j. 
Dr. SchoU has practised his profession at Reading 
ever since, but Dr. Clemson never practised here, 
having shortly afterward removed to Bordeaux, 
France, and there carried on (until now) the manu- 
facture of dental ;>upplies. 

The earliest recognized dentists at Reading were 
John Piper, John Arnold, W. K. Breneizer, T. 
Yardly Brown, and F" rank Hickman, the last two 
still surviving but residing c>ut of the county. 

In 18TG, an Act was passed — on April 17th — by 
the Legislature of Pennsylvania which required 
dental surgeons who practised in the State to be 
graduates of a reputable institution where this spe- 
cialty was taught, and to register their diplomas 
in the county where they resided. The diplomas 
were to be registered within three months after the 
passage of the Act. But the Act was not to apply- 
to any surgeon who had practised dentistry for 
three years prior to its passage. The following 
statement shows the registered practitioners in the 
county, with college and year of graduation. 
Where no college is given, the year shows the time 
when the practitioner started. 

The Act of lS7t] established a State Board of six 
examiners, who were to be selected by the State 
Dental Society, and this Board was to approve the 
di]jlomas before registration. This Act was amend- 
ed in 1.S9T, and Dr. C- V. Kratzer. of Reading, was 
one of the members of the first Board imder tins 
amended Act, having been appointed by the Gov- 
ernor, but he served only several months, until the 
the appointment of a new Board by the succeeding 
Governor in January, 1898. 

Dr. Wilson D. De Long, of Reading, was ap- 
pointed as one of the State examiners in September, 
190(1, for the term of three years. 

The thirty-fourth annual meeting of the Lebanon 
Vallev Dental As.sociation was he'd at Reading, in 
the Masonic Temple, Alay 11, 1909. 


Morris R. Adam, Reading Pa. University, 1903 

Charles S. Bcrtolet. Reading Pa. University, 1900 

Abram L. Bower. Boyertown Pa. Unircrsity. 1901 

Samuel L. Bovver, Bovcrtown Philadelphia. 190-.? 

John T. Bair. Reading Pa. University, 190,-; 

Joseph H. Borneman. Boyertown, D 1S67 

Daniel B. Bowrr. Bover'own 18G7 

N. S. Borneman. Bovertown, D 18SI 

Joel B. Bower, B.nertown ^. 1SS2 

Henrv W. Bohn, Reading Pa. Universitv, 

Daniel L. Bower, Bovertown. D Philadelphia, 189:J 

Edward W. Bohn. Reading Pa. University. 1S97 

Harry L. Cleaver, Reading Pa. University, 1S9G 

Raymond S. De Long. Reading Pennsylvania. 1900 

Georce F. De Long. Reading Pa. University, 1903 

IVaiik L. DeGour. Reading Pennsvlvania, 1S70 

.\rfhur B. Davis, Reading, R Philndelphi.i, lS9f. 

Wilson D. DcLong. Reading Pa. Universitv, 1S07 

William G. Du.sto. Reading Medico Chi., 19iir, 

Charles S. Fry. Reading T^72 

Charles E. Grim. Reading Philadelphia, I'JOl 

I,,.!f (.-.••IV 



Milton U. GL'rharil. Rt^adiiig Pa. University. lOiK; 

Jacob M. Gartinan. Reading' Pennsylvania, I'.to:; 

Clarence B. Grim, Rcadini,' U. of Pa., I'.tnr 

Walter S. llerr. Reading Pennsylvania, I'^'.iT 

Abrani Herr. Reading ]^W 

H. B. Hamaker, Womel.^dorf Isr.T 

Kurtz D. Mill Penn.sylvania, ISSl 

Glyndeur Hickman. Reading Philadelphia, ISsr. 

Ziba Hickman. Reading Philadelphia, 1S8S 

H. J. Hickey, Reading. R P.altimore. 18S4 

Charles .-K. Hottensteiii. Kiitztown Pennsylvania, IS'J'J 

Edwin E. Howerter, Reading Medico-Chi.. l!>ii:} 

Raymond L. Hamaker. Womelsdorf. . Pa. Dent. Col.. lUOS 

Abraham B. Johnson. Kutztown ]SSO 

Harry T. Johnson. Reading 18S0 

Harvey C. Johnson. Reading Philadelphia, 18S9 

J. F. Kinsey, Reading, U. . . 7 1804 

William H. Kalbach. Hamburg ISfili 

William H. Kilmer, Readi'.ig Pennsylvania, 1878 

Henry D. Kurtz, Reading, R Baltimore. 18SI 

C. V. Kratzer, Reading..' Pennsylvania, 1S97 

Frank P. Lewis, Reading Baltimore, 18S0 

George M. Maxwell. Birdsboro Baltimore. 189S 

William Meter. Reading Phila. Med.-Clii.. 1900 

Jonathan P.. Miesse. Reading Philadelphia, 1ST2 

Peter S. Mogel, Reading Pa. University. ISso 

George S. Rothermel. Fleetwood Pa. University, 19ihi 

J. L. Ritter, Reading, R 1S7:} 

G. H. P. Rabenhold, Hamburg Pennsylvania, 1890 

Levi H. Reinhart. Birdsboro. D .-.Philadelphia. 1894 

George S. Schlegel, Reading Pa. University, 1900 

Otto J. Specker, Reading Pa. University, 1902 

Myron B. Sliunian. Reading Pa. Universitv. 190^ 

U. of Pa.. 190.-, 

Eli Slegel. Reading. D 18.-,.-> 

William H. Sclioll, Reading Pennsvlvania. 18G.') 

Joel E. Slegel, Readine. D Philadelphia. 180^ 

Charles R. SchoU, Reading Philadelpliia, 1SS8 

Calvin G. Shomo, Hamburg Pennsvlvania, 1S89 

Walter R. Slegel. Reading Philadelphia, 1891 

Elton Stiinniel, Reading Pennsylvania. ISO:! 

D. Ambrose Stein, Readin-. R Pa. Universitv, 1894 

Samuel E. Slegel, Reading Philadelphia. 1897 

John F". Schocnbcrger. Reading Medico-Chi.. 190? 

George Stimmel. Kut/.town Pa. Dental College. 1905 

Carlos H. Thimme, Reading, R Philadelphia, 1870 

Jacob F. Reading. R 1882 

Elwood Tate. Reading Pennsylvania. 1891 

S. Edmund Tate, Reading Pennsvlvania. 1897 

Caleb 1). Thomas. Reading Pa. Dental College. 190t) 

Herman G. Wotherspoon, Reading U. of Pa. 1007 

Kensie N. Yodcr, Wernersville Pa. L'niversity, 100?, 

William L. Yocum. Reading, R Philadelphia, 1891 

Levi Zimmerman, Bethel, R Boston. 1877 

From the bci::;innin_c: of the first settlements until 
the year 1880, the practice of medicine and surcjery 
in connection with domestic animals was carried on 
without anv legal restrictions. F""armers and men 
of experience, who had become familiar, through 
long- observation, with animal sicknesses and dis- 
eases, prescribed and administered the necessary 
remedies, and in every section of the county there 
came to be men who were recocrnized for their skill 
in curing domestic animals of their various ail- 
ments. Then (Aiiril 11th) an .\ct of .\s>embly 
was passed by the Le^tifislature of Pennsylvania 
which related to the practice of veterinaiy medicine 
and surgery, and every ()ractitioner of this particu- 
lar branch of the profession wn< oblipred to be a 
graduate of a regularly chartered veterinary col- 

lege, and to recri>ter his qualitications in the pro- 
thonutary's office of the county where lie practi.-ed ; 
but all those who had practised for five years before 
were allowed to register by filing the necessarv 
affidavits, within six months after the passage of 
tlie Act. This legislation was brought about bv 
the efforts of the Pennsylvania State X'eterinarv 
Association, which had been orq-anized in 18S:',. 
The first president was James W. Sallade, then of 
Pottsville. but formerly of P.erks county. In 1!)04 
and Idor, Dr. Otto G. Xoack, of Reading, was the 
president. Membership in 1909 was two hundred; 
from Berks county, five. 

In 189.5. a State P>oard of \'eterinary Examiners 
was established by an Act passed on Mav IGth. and 
all practitioners after that tlate not theretofore reg- 
istered were obliged to secure a certificate from 
this State Board, which had to be filed in the pro- 
thonotary's office of the county where the practi- 
tioner resided ; but tliis Act was amended in 190.j, 
which authorized the secretary of State to issue a 
license on the Board's certificate, and this license 
qualified the pr.-'ctitioncr to practise anvwhere in 
the State. 

This Board was created for the purpose of look- 
ing after the sanitary condition of the live stock 
in Pennsylvania. In 190;. Dr. Xoack was appoint- 
ed agent for the entire State. Since the creation of 
this Board over four hundred cows in Berks county 
have been killed on account of tuberculosis. 

In 1908 tiiere were five veterinary surgeons in 
Reading- and tliirty-fi)ur in Berks counlv. 

The followint,'- statement shows the registered 
veterinarians cf Berks county, with college and year 
of graduation. A\'here no college is given, an affi- 
davit was filed without specifying- the time of start- 
ing practice. [D after name indicates deceased; C. 
ceased to practice; R, removed out of county.] 

Emanuel Althouse. Reading 1889 

John .\lbright. Onielannee 1889 

William .\pi>el. R Xcw York. 1889 

Joel r.iehl. ;\Iose!cm Springs jsso 

John K. Biehl. Molltown 1889 

Flarris S. Borneman. Boyertown Ontario, 1882 

William B. Blatt. Centreport. D 1S89 

Joii.-ithan Blatt. Centre, I") [ /_ iS89 

Christian Baum, Hamburg is89 

Daniel L. Barlgenstos, Str;insstown 1889 

Ciiarles W. Brossman. Wiunelsdorf Ontario. 1891 

Samuel K. Biehl. Reading. C 1891 

Ulys^s G. Bieber. Kut-town -American (X. Y.'"). 1S92 

A. V. Bavcr. Krunisville Chicago, 1904 

William U. Custer, Re;iding, D Pa. Vet. Assn., ISS,'. 

Owen E. Collins, Mt. Pleasant, D ' 1889 

Cbarles O. Collins, W<'sl Leesport Ontario, 1887 

Kilburn H. Cleaver. Reading Ontario, 1S70 

I'.enjamin S. Clausen Upper Tulpehocken .' 1880 

George W. DeHard. Stoiiersville. D 18S9 

James B. Dry. B"wers. D 1889 

Samuel DeWees, Fleetwood. D 18*9 

I'erry K. Dreibelbis. Greenwich Ontario. 188.'. 

J"bn .\. Dorward. Ivcading. C .' 1889 

William Deck. Bethel.... 1889 

James Dubson, RusciMiibmanor is9i 

(Icorgc W. Dunlap, P.irdsboro, R Ontario ISOr. 

Martin D. DeTurk, Hh-y Cliicag,. Vet. College. lUOf. 

Daniel H. DeTurck. Birdsboro. .Chicago Vef. College, 1008 


,: /I .!.•■( ■(! , \ :■ 


y ■■'■ 


11.'; ,.ii ■'; ■ . ■'•.//■:'•' 


r» »«^ *»-l»J5=- 1^ ■ ■ 


iv'-< \>:^-jJ' 



RcuK-n Ebert. Trexlers 1SS9 

\rthur C. Foo-;. Reading, R Ontario, 1SS7 

F.liis Groff. Jefferson 1830 

\\il!iam D. Gross, Kutztovvn Ontario, ISS.") 

Iknrv L. Gilbert, Colebrnokdale 1880 

Samuel Goldsniith. Reading, R 1889 

Charles D. Gruber, Bernville Ontario, 1888 

Salomon K. Hoffman. Haniburt;, C 1SS9 

Abraham Henricli, Colcbrookdale 1889 

Teniamin Y. Ileffner, RiciuTionii 1889 

Frederick B. Hassler, Tilden 1889 

Walter G. Huyett. Wernersville Chicago, 1890 

William Jacoby, Lenhai tsvillc 1889 

lacob Kerchncr, Windsor Castle 1889 

Peter I. Ker4iner. I'leetvvood Ontario, 1891 

Allen Z. Keelor. Bovertown Ontario, 1891 

Fhner G. Kricbel, Hereford 189'2 

naniel R. Kohler, Bovertown Ontario, 189:1 

John Lutz, Klopp's Store. D 1889 

Tobias E. Landis, Xew Berlinville 1889 

Nathaniel F. Lutz, Jefferson 1889 

Henrv R. Liitz. Jefferson, D 1889 

David B. Levan, Kutztown Chicago Vet. College, 1908 

Franklin W. :\Iiller. Gouglersvilie 1839 

Pierce M. stiller. Gongler.sville 1889 

Jared Miller, Jefferson 1889 

Henrv B. Mover, Hereford 1889 

Fmendon Mogel, Bernville 1889 

Henrv .A. Miller. Rnsconibmanor 1889 

William H. Mover, Womelsdorf. R Ontario, 1891 

Rudolf Mertz. Reading, R Ohio, 

James W. McXeil. Reading Boston, 

John P. Miller. Reading Pa. University, 

Adam F. Xoll, Reading 

Otto G. Xoack, Reading Berlin (Germanv). 

Walter S. Phillips. Reading Pa. Vet. Assn.. 

Sannitl ^I. Petersbcim, Ca^ernarvon 

Charles Phillips. Womelsdorf. D , 

John M. Richards. Rea.ling. D 

John L. Richards, Yellow House ( Bird^boro) T 

Amos B. Roberts. Blandon. D 

Jonathan Rcber, Hicster's Mill 

Owen B. Roberts. Bland. m 

Henry K. Rentschler, Shartlesville 

Roijert O. Rotherniel, Reading Pa. Universitv, 

John H. Shaft'er, Mt. Aetna .'. 

William H. Seitzinger. Wcrners\illc 

William Schaeffcr, Jefferson 

George B. Sebastian. Rehrersburg 

James D. Schaeffer. Fleetwood 

Jared Spcngler, Penn. D 

Howard L. Stein, Friedensburg, D Ontario, 

Albert H. Schmoycr. Bovertown Chicago, 

Xicholas L. Schaeffer. Fleetwood Chicago, 

Elias Troutman. Tulpehocken 

Amos G. Weidenhammcr. Richmond 

Kerby D. Werley, Virgin villc Chicago, 

Henry S. Yoder. PIcasr;nt\ illc ; 

Edwin C. Yoder, Kutztown Ontario, 



From 1S24 to 18G!), all matters relatincr to the 
poor inhabitants of Berks county, who needed pub- 
lic assistance, were referred to the poor directors 
of the county; but by ISG'J the institutions of a 
charitable, reformatory or correctional character in 
the State had assumed such proportions, and the 
number of inmates had become so larg-c that the 
Legislature passed an Act of Assemlily, establishing 
a State Board of Public Charities for the purpose 
of inquiring into the methods of instruction, gov- 
ernment of inmates, conduct of managers, condition 
of buildings, and all other matters pertaining to 
their usefulness and good management. 

In 187-1, the Act of IBfiO was amended, author- 
izing the State Board to appoint three or more per- 
sons in any county to act as visitors of the poor- 
houses and other institutions in such county as an 
aid to the State Board ; and to cause the removal 
of insane jiersons in the county almshouses to State 
Hospitals for proper treatment. The State Board 
appointed Sydenham E. Ancona, Charles Brenei^er 
and George D. Stitzel as its representatives in Berks 
county and thev have served (excepting Stitzel, 
who died Dec. 'l2. 1005, E. R. Gerber being ap- 
pointed in his place) gratuitously ever since, 
visiting the several institutions, penal and chari- 
table, and reporting to the State Board. 

A large three-story brick building was erected on 
the poor-house property from 1S71 to IS? 1 for 
an "Insane Hospital" and the indigent insane peo- 
ple of the county have been cared for there, unless 
removed to the State IIos))ital at Harri^burg. 

The particulars relating to the poor-house' and 
the pri.son are mentioned in connection with the. 
county buildings in Cliapter lY. 

Wernersville State Asvll-m. — In 1S91, an Act 
was passed for the establishment of an Asylum for 
the Chronic Insane of Pennsylvania, and in this 
behalf a commission was appointed by the Governor 
to select a site and erect the asyluuL After cxain- 
ining thirty-one sites, in nineteen counties of the 
State, they selected a site in Lower Heidelberg 
town.ship, Berks county, a short distance west of 
Wernersville, as the one best adapted for the pur- 
pose designated. Several tracts of land, embracing 
510 acres, were purchased, and a suj)erior, com- 
modious building was erected at a total cost of 
$500,000. The institution was dedicated in a for- 
mal manlier on Sept. 5, 18!tl, with the Governor 
presidiiTg over the exercises. Since 1005, two new 
buildings have been erected: an infiimary building, 
costing $30,000, and a buiUling costing $;]5.0(i0. the 
first floor to be used as an additional dining-room, 
the second floor as a si!ting-nx)ni for women. L'ntil 
the end of 1S9-4 the total luimber admitted was (>'")•<?: 
in 1895, 357; in 18n(i, lU; in 1897, 14(5: from 1S9S 
to ]900, 107: and from ]901 to 1901, 109. 

The average weekly cost of each patient has been 
less than $3. On Sei>t. 30, 190S, the total number 
of patients was 859; men. C,~>2 : women, 207. 

I'rom the opening of the A.sylum until Sept. 30, 
1905, there were 70 inmates fnnu Klerks county, 50 

J, I ^><( , 

-i^a'nriAH'; ')! m'vi r^^^i.•rr*•rAl^■^ 

:;;.] ur;',. 

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men and 'JO women. During the fir.-t year (Sept. 30, 
1893, to Sept. 30, 18l»t) there were -iC, entered, 31 
men and lo women. On Sej-st. 30. I'JU.j, there were 
20 men and i) women from llerks county; Sept. 30, 
1906, 21 men and 9 women; Sept. 30, 19n;^ -^.s men 
and 9 women; Sept. 3o, IMOS. '^7 nien and 10 

Henry ^I. Dechert, Esq. ( forme rK- of Reading, 
but for nearly sixty years at Philadelphia), has offi- 
ciated as president of the board of trustees since 
the opening of the Asylum, in a most creditable 

The following trustees from Reading have served 
on the board : George E. Baer. 1S94 to 1897 ; 
Thomas P. Merritt, ""isgi: to 1899 r officiating, as 
treasurer), and since 19<i3 ; William H. Schick, 189-1 
to 1895; Thomas C. Zimmerman, since 1899. 

State Hospital. — Complete statement of the 
patients in the State Hospital at llarrisburg, from 
Berks county, from the time it was openc.d and the 
cost of their maintenarice, which was paid by the 









































1S57 . 











5,79 l.S.-, 



























1,78'< 80 









13.501 02 








































3 900 




















































Glex Mill.s Reformatorv. — A reformatorv for 
boys and girls was established at Glen Mills in i3ela- 
ware county in 1827. The first inmate from Berks 
county was entered in 18 12. Until 18.^0 there were 
altogether H; and from 18.51 to 1900. 190. In 1901. 
there were 7; in 1902. 11 ; in lOO."!. 21 : and in TOOK 
9. The total admitted until Jan. 1. l!Hi:i, was 3o2 ; 
and tlie average cost per diem has been from 20 
to 2.T cents. The cost for the county of this institu- 
tion from 1901 to Jan. 1. liMi:), was about Si 1.000 to 
Oct. 1. 190r., and $11,337.02 from then until Jan. 1, 
1909, but only one-half was j^aid bv the count\ . the 

other half being paid by th.e State. Previous to 
19(11 the State paid the entire cost. 

Eastern State Pexitextiarv. — Previous to the 
year LS^n, no data on the subject can be obtained. 
From 1850 to 1809 inclusive, i() prisoners were re- 
ceived from Berks county. From 1870 to 1891 no 
prisoners from the county were confined here. Thc 
following table shows the number from the countv 
here each year from 1,MI5 to 19(i8 inclusive. The 
average cost of each per diem was about 21 cents. 


No. o£ prisoners 


No. of 


















I S99 












Huntingdon Reformatory. — This institution 
for the reformation of boys was established by the 
State of Pennsylvania and' opened in 1889 ; and the 
first boy from Berks county was entered in 189 1. 
who continucfl to be the niilv one during 1895 and 
1890; there was none received in 1897 and 1898; 
then the number began to increase as follows : 8 
in 1899; 11 in 1900"; 17 in 1901; 24 in 1902; 43 
in 1903; 54 in 1904; 52 in 19i)5; 55 in 190G; 5i] 
in 1907 ; and (50 in 1908. 

The cost for 1904 to tlie county was $3,838.73 ; 
and the total cost for all the years named wa.s 


There arc a number of charitable institutions i;'> 
the county, partly sujiportcd by appro])riations from 
the public fund.s ; which reflect the liumane senti- 
ment and generous nature of our people in a mo-t 
commer.dable manner. They are classified as Hos- 
pitals, .Schools, and Widows' Home. 

Hos,piT.\LS. — Three hospitals have been estab- 
lished at Pleading, dcscribefl with the Associations 
of Reading in Chapter X., namely: Reading, St. 
Joseph's and Homoeopathic. 

Homes. — The homes munber seven: Bethanv 
Orphans' Home, foimded in 1807, m Heidelberg 
township, by the Reforn-.ed church. 

Topton Orphans" Plome, founded in 1897, in- 
Longswamp township, by the Lutheran church. 

St. Catharine's Female Orphans' Asvlum. found- 
ed in 1871, at Reading, by Mrs. Catharine Aladary, 
and devised by her tc the Roman Catholic church r 
by which it has since been enlarged, improved and 
successfully maintained. 

St. Paul's Orphans' Asylum for Bovs, founde.f 
in 18S9 at Reading, by the' St. Paul's Roman Cath- 
olic church. It has been enlarged several times, 
evidencing its successful management. 

House of Good .Shepherd, fouiuled in 18.s9, at 
Reading. l)y the Roman Catholic church, and re- 
moved to Bern township in 1900. 

Tlomc for bViendless Children, f.xmded in 1.t>8, 
at Reading, under the au=pice= of the P.urr;iu of 
Emiiloymtnt ( liaving been started in 1S8 1}; in 

;..:", J i.i I : I '.% 1 

:t:--:',; t'.'ll 

■ I ■:. 

,1 !;■. Mi '111 !■!'■ I' I ■ i ' 
,,:i i-'. /'. r- .M) ■•' ' I 



wliich William D. Smith has shown spt'cial intcr- 
c-t toward its enlargement and success. 

Widows' Homk, fonnded in ls7.j at Reading, liy 
the Society of the "Home for Widows and Sinfrle 
Women" which became an incorporated body in 
isTG. A superior, commodious structure was es- 

tablished by the society in;, at Sixteenth and 
Haak streets. 

Ihe tl.iree hospitals, and Home for Friendless 
Children, and the Widows' Home have been aided 
and encouraged b}' State appropriations. 

The foregoing institutions are also mentioned in 
Chapter X., under the head of Associations. 


Cause of War. — Whilst the Penns were endeav- 
oring to locate a town on the eastern bank of the 
Schuylkill river at the "F'ord'' (now Reading), war 
was being carried on between England and France, 
•and the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle was formed be- 
tween them in the same year in which the town was 
laid out (1748). But this treaty of peace did not 
settle the controversy between them, in respect to 
territory on the American continent. The English 
Colonies were originally planted along the sea- 
coast, but they advanced westwardly, and tlierefore 
the English claimed the right to extend their set- 
tlements across the continent from ocean to ocean. 
The French, however, had possessed Canaila to the 
north, and Louisiana to the south, and they too 
claimed the intervening territorv which lay along 
the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. Both parties hav- 
ing claimed the same country, they, in order to 
maintain their respective '■ights, rushed into a fierce 
and bloody war for lands which belonged to neither 
of them, and which after the termination of hos- 
tilities passed away from both, and became vested 
in a new power whose national existence grew out 
of their contentions. It was accelerated bv a grant 
of six hundred thousand acres of land in that dis- 
puted territory by the English to certain persons 
who associated under the title of the "Ohio Com- 
])any," and the company having agitated a scheme 
for its settlement, the French became alarmed. Re- 
monstrances and com])laints were fruiUess and each 
party seized and plundered the .'subjects of the other, 
ending in hostilities wdiich resulted in the defeat of 
Braddock in the western section of Pennsylvania 
in 1T.T.5. 

The Indians, having united with the French 
through misrepresentation ,and finding the frontier 
open, proceeded eastwardly to repossess the terri- 
tory which had formerly been theirs and out of 
which they believed they had been swindled. On 
their way, they connnitted depredations and cruel- 
ties which resulted in a great loss of life and prop- 
erty; and notwithstanding forts were erected by 
the provincial government along the Blue Mountain, 
from the Delaware river to. the Susf|uehanna river 
to afford protection to the settlers in the vicinity, 
and garrisoned with twenty-five companies, com- 
prising 1,400 men, tliey crossed the mountain and 

carried their arson and murder into the counties 
adjoining. Berks county was entered, and numer- 
ous persons (including men. women and children) 
were killed, and many dwellings and barns burned. 
This naturally spread consternation throughout the 
county, and the settlers ^along the mountain aban- 
doned home and property. The enemy soon extend- 
ed their incursions to a point near Reading, alarm- 
ing the inliabitanls of the town fc>r their safety. In 
consequence of this, the> armed and organized them- 
selves to defend the town, and marched to the 
mountain to assist in driving the cruel foe out of 
the county. Many letters have been published which 
describe the wretched state of the people who lived 
in the townships to the north and northwest of the 

The cruelties of the Indians and the unsettled 
condition of the inhabitants of the upper section 
of the county continued during ]7.").'>, ]T.">G and 17o7. 
During that time, the Elnglish were un^uccessful in 
their campaigns against the French and Indians, and 
their affairs here were in an awful situation. Their 
efforts had produced only expense and disapjjoint- 
ment. But in 1758, the tide turned in their favor 
through the vigorous administration of a new leader, 
William Pitt. The Indians retreated and victory 
crowned the British armies everywdiere during the 
succeeding years until 17GU, when the I'rench were 
dispossessed of all territories in dispute and forced 
to surrender Canada. Peace was declared in 17G3. 
The town of Reading had just been fairly started' 
when this terrible shock fell upon the inhabitants. 
Though discouraged they did not abandon their 
new settlement and its bright prospects, as the set- 
tlers were forced to do along the mountain. It 
is probable that the unsettled condition of affairs 
there during that period contributed much toward 
the rapid growth of the town. 

Troop.s IN' Cou.XTY. — The provincial milit;iry offi- 
cers of the county in 1754 were: Lieutenant-Colo- 
nel, Conrad Weiser; Captains, Christian Busse (at 
Fort Henry), Frederick Smith, Jacob Orndt, and 
facob Morgan (at Fort Lebanon) ; Lieutenant. 
Philip Weiser; Ensigns, Harry (at Fort Leban- 
on) and Edward Biddle ; Sergeant, Peter Smith; 
Corjjoral, SchaefTer. 

vi3 t^'lif 
.';x.ty<ni' .^ i: 

,i'" '■ 

M ;■ )j. 

•I ;t?ff 



W'eiser \va< Iieutcnant-coIi:'nel of the ?(1 Baltnlioii 
of the rennsyhania Regiment, which con^isted of 
nine companies. Tiiis was a p<ortion of the troop? 
ordered by the Governor to be raised for the pur- 
po'^e of repelHnor the invasion. The total force was 
to comprise twenty-five companies, numbering; l.-lOU 
men. Of the nine companies tmder W'ciser, one 
and one-half companies were at Fort Flenry, and 
one company was at Fort Williams. 

In March, 175G. an independent company of 
grenadiers, in General Shirley's regiment, was sta- 
tioned at Reading on duty. Upon receiving orders 
to march to X'ew York, 25 men, under the command 
of a lieutenant, were ordered to Reading, to remain 
on guard until further orders. In June, the town 
was occupied by a company of men, untler the 
command of Conrad W ciser. It was composed of 
two sergeants and 2.S privates. The ammunition 
at Reading then consisted of 2o good muskets, 25 
muskets out of repair, 11 broken muskets, cart- 
ridge-boxes, 2-iO pounds oi ])Owder, (100 pounds of 
lead. In August. IToT. 50 men from Curnru and 
other townships near Reading set out in exjiecta- 
tion of bringing in some Indian scalps. 

In February, 1758, Fort Williams was garrisoned 
by Captain Morgan and 53 men : and Fort Henry 
by Captain Busse with 8S men, and Captain Weiscr 
with 105 men ; and Fort Augusta with eight com- 
panies, numbering 302 men. The whole number 
of men then receiving pav in the province was 

In June, 1758, Berks county had in the service 
5G good and strong wagons, each wagon furnished 
with four horses and an expert driver. These wag- 
ons were formed in two divisions, tb.e first di\!sion 
containing 2G wagons, and the second :]0. A depu- 
ty wagon-master was over each division. Their 
names were Jolm Lesher and Jacob Weaver, able 
to speak the English and German languag'cs, and 
they understood smith and whieelwright work. 

In the limits of Berks county, in 17 58, there were 
at Fort Henry two companies, comprising 105 men ; 
at Fort AMlliam (Forks of SchuylkilH, one com- 
panv of 53 men ; and at Fort Augusta, eight com- 
panies with 3^2 men. 

In 1761, the inhabitants of Tulpchockcn and 
Heidelberg to^vushijis raised 15iJ men as rangers 
to guard the county lines of Berks and Lancaster 

Coi.oxiAL F-OKTS. — When tlic officials of the 
provincial government learned that the In- 
dians and French had united for the ])ur- 
pose of coo])erating against the English 
on thi.s continent, they decided to afford 
protection to the settlements near the fron- 
tiers by the erection of forts ; and the number 
of settlers who liad gone beyond the Blue [Nloun- 
tain till this time having been small, they deter- 
mined to locate these forts along this tiatural 
boundary line from the Delaware on the east to 
the Sus(|uehanna on the west. The obiect oi tlie-e 
forts v.-as .simply for refuge — a retreat icr the in- 

l;al)itants when danger was iniminent. They w ere 
erected hastily to serve a temporary purpose. I'u- 
fortunately for the people, they were too few in 
number and too far apart to serve the purpose f.,;- 
which they were intended, especially to those who 
were somewhat removed. The Indians d\<\ iiot 
marcli over the mountain in large numbers together. 
and they did attack the forts. They came quietlv. 
in small parties, and without warning thev fell up- 
on the unprotected families like a thunderbolt: ami 
after murdering men, women and children indis- 
criminately and setting fire to dwellings and barns, 
they departed like a Hash. Their success in the>e 
wicked incursions was truly wonrlerful. 

In 1758, the location of the forts and distances 
apart were reported as follows : 


From W'md Gap to Doll's Blockhouse 20 

Thence to Fort Lehigh 8 ' 

Thence to I-'ort -Allen 10 

Thence to Blockhonse 20 

Thence to Fort Evi-rit 10 

Thence to Fort Wiliiams 12 

Thence to Fort Flenry 22 

Thence to Fort Swatara 14 

Thence to Fort Flunter. on Susquehanna 24 

Total distance 140 

F"oRTS IN County. — The following forts were 
erected in the territorv wliich was embraced in 
Berks county, the first five having been along the 
Blue Mountain, and the last at Sliamokin ( now 
Sunbury) : Fort Flenry, Fort Dietrich Snvder, Fort 
Xorthkill, Fort Lebanon, F^ort Franklin and I'^ort 

A log house was built v.ithin the stockades, 
and it was often crowded uncomfortably by the 
neighboring inliabitants in times of danger. The 
stockades were logs, about eighteen feet long, cut 
in the woods where the forts v.-ere built, and plantt^d 
in the ground as closely as possible. They were 
intended to protect the house and jirevtut the 
Indians from shooting its occupants when they 
stepped outside. 

Fort Henry was situated in Bethel township, in 
what was, and still is, commonly known as "The 
Flollow," about three miles north of the present 
village of ]\lillersbnrg, fiftv vards to the east of 
the "Old Shamc^kin Road,'" which leads over the 
mountain. The spot was elevated, to enable the 
guard to look out some distance in every direction. 
There is no particular mention of this fort in the 
Colonial reconis, and this omission induces the 
belief that it was a frirt erected by the people of 
that vicinity for their protection. It was some- 
times called ■T)ietrich Six's," doubtless it 
stood on the land of Dietrich Six. The record- 
nientifin several times that t!ie people fied to Diet- 
rich Six's, but the })Iacc wa< not indicitc!! a- a 
military post. The field where it was situated has 
Ijeen lunler cuki\ation for manv vears, and not 

).;t.'' .1 


,.;;/ >{■■'•>■! .■; 0,,.,. > /'.y. - iv-r.,'' • 

ll ,; l.-i I 



a single mark remain? to indicate' where it stood. 
It was erected some time before June. 17-J4. In 
tl;e bej::inninr:f of June, 11. '7. the Governor visited 
Tort Henry, having been escorted thither by sixty 
substantial freeholders of the county on horse- 
back, completely armed. They presented a very 
dutiful address to his honor, in which they ex- 
prc'^'^ed the warmest loyalty to the King- and the 
greatest zeal and alacrity to serve ?Iis Majesty in 
defense of their country. 

I-ort Dietrich Siiydcr. — A fort situated on 
the top of the mountain, north of Fort Xorthkill. 
It occupied one of the mo^t prominent spots, and 
being within two miles of Fort Xorthkill, it is sup- 
posed that it was designed for an observatory or 

Fort Northkill was in Tulpehocken town- 
ship, near the Xorthkill (a branch of the Tulpe- 
hocken creek) abcnit two miles east of Strauss- 
town and a mile south from the base of the Blue 
Mountain. It was built in the early part of 1704. 
.-\s to the dimensions of the fort Conmiissary Young 
says, June 20, ITTii): "The fort is about nine miles 
to the westward of the Schuylkill, and stands in 
a very thick wood, on a small rising ground, half 
a mile from the middle of X'orthkill creek. It is 
intended for a square about thirty-two feet each 
way; at each corner i^ a half-bastion of very little 
service to llank the curtains. The stockades were 
ill fixed in the ground, and open in manv places. 
Within is a very bad log-house for the people : it 
has no chimney and can afford Init little shelter in 
bad weather." 

There was an attack in the neighborhood of this 
fort on Oct. 1, I'i'u. Api)lication was made to 
Conrad Wciser ( then at Reading) for immediate 
assistance, and Captain Oswald (who commanded 
the guards about Reading) sent two lieutenants 
with forty men to the relief. 

Fort Lebanon was situated about six miles be- 
yond the r.lue ^Mountain, a short distance east of 
the Schuylkill river. It was erected in the begin- 
ning of 1754. In 17 oS, it was known as "Fort 
Williams," and called sometimes "Fort Schuylkill." 
It is freqitently mentioned in the Pennsylvania 
Archives. Two vears after its erection, it was des- 
cribed as follows: '"Fort Lebanon, about twenty- 
four miles from Gnadenhutten, in ilie line to 
Siiamokin. — Fort, KXi feet square. Stockades. 14 
feet high. House within, built .">0 by 20, with a 
large store-room. A spring within, and a maga- 
zine. 12 feet square. On a barren, not much timber 
on it; IdO families protected by it within the new 
purchase. Xo townshi]\ lUiilt in three weeks. 
Something considered given by the nciglibors to- 
wards it." 

Fort Franklin. — The fifth fort on the frontier 
ot the county was several miles above the IJlue 
Mountain, on Lizard creek. It was built about 
two years later than the other forts. It was some- 
times called Fort AHemaengel ( 'all wants"). 

Fort A!ii:^usta.— The first allusion to this fort is 
in a letter by Governor Morris, on Feb. 1, 17.j(;, in 
which he states that he proposed to build a fort 
at Shamokin, at the forks of the Susquehanna, a.^ 
soon as the season would admit a passag'e of that 
river. And in a letter dated July 2Uth following, 
he stated that a fort was then building at Shamokin 
(where a camp was statione<l for some time) by 
Colonel Clajjliam, who had five hundred men with 
him. Shortlv afterward (.Aug. 14) the Colonel ad- 
dressed a letter to the Governor dated at "Fort 
Aug-usta," in reference to a necessary supply of 
military stores. This fort was therefore built dur- 
ing July and August, 17 •")<). X'o dimensions are 
given. But it was large and commodious, affording 
room for many men and a large quantity of military 
stores. Frequent reports of the supplies on hand 
and of the forces stationed there appear in the 
Records and Archives ; and cruelties by the Indians 
were committed in th.c vicinity. 

Pkemium for Sc.\Li'S.— In pursuance of a resolu- 
tion for carrying on active measures against the 
Indians, the Board of Commissioners decided on 
April J), 17.5(), to recommend to the Governor that 
bounties, or premiums, be paid fc^-r prisoners and 

For everj- male Inrlian pri'^nner nbovc ten years old, 
that shall be delivered at any of the government 
forts or towns . ... $150 

I'or every female Indian prisoner or male prisoner, 

of ten years old and under, deluervd as above 130 

For the scalp of everv male Indi;ui above ten vears 

old '. " 13i> 

l""or the scalp of every Indian woman 50 

Peace Declareix — After the French had receded 
into Canada before the advancii'.g army of English 
soldiers, the Indians naturallv followed their allies. 
Hence the cruelties here ceased after 1758; and 
when Canada was surrendered in 17G0, the peace 
and safety of our community were assured. The 
declaration of peace was delayed for three years, 
and when it was published in 17C-3, only a few Li- 
dians reinained in the eastern section of Pennsyl- 
vania. A small settlement of them ( who were 
friendly to the government and the inhabitants) re- 
mained at Shamokin ; and some families were scat- 
tered in different parts of the countv, where they 
remained for many years afterward. 

Before the war, considerable trade had been car- 
ried on successfully between the settlers and the 
Indians, continuing without interruption from the 
time of the first settlements until 1744, and even a 
decade afterward. The relations had become so 
pleasant and firm that certain Indians remained 
in the county unmolested during the war, and car- 
ried on their peaceful vocations, such as basket- 
making, bead-work, etc., and after the war, travel- 
ing parties of them frequentlv visited the county 
and sold articles of their handiwork. 

MuRnrKii) AVI) CArxrKF.D. — During this war. the 
Indians killed about one hundred and fifty, and cap- 
tured thirtv inhabitants of the countv. Several of 

M:i: ' '.\-)il 

■ I ■ ' ;.' 'i'i ' A •(]'' n. 

. ■' .-'ii 't.':.!;' I .. 1.;' 
■■.->■,■■ ■' 0/';;' (iM)f;i i-"^"! 

I'- ' .'.'in •■■il' 



those who were taken captive rcturncil after th-.' 
war. Man\- persons were woiui'led and some of 
them died from their wound-. But. during- these 
eight years, only four of t!ie Indians were killed in 
the county, so far as ascertained. 


June, lTo4 — Peter Goisinger. Tiilpcl'.f'ckon. 

June, ITJ-l — Fred. Myers iunl wile. Tulpehocken. 

June. 1754 — Young girl, Tulpelioeken. 

June, lT.i4 — Ho^tetter family. Bern , 

June, 1754 — Sebastian Erosius, Bethel. 

October. 1755 — Henry Hartman. Bethel. 

October, 1755 — Two men (unknown). Bethel. 

October, 1755 — Odwaller and another unknown,' Bethel. 

November, 1755 — Thirteen persons, unknown. Bethel. 

November, 1755 — Child eight year? old, daughter of a 
man named Cola. Bethel. 

November, 1755 — Cola's wife and two children older. 

November, 17.".5 — Philip . n shoemaker. Bethel. 

November, 175.5 — Casper Spring, Bethel. 

November, 1755 Beslinger," liethel. 

November, 1755 — Child of Jacob Wolf, Bethel. 

November, 1755 — John Leiiiberger, Bethel. — 

November, 175." — Rudolph Cnndcl. Beihel. 

November, 175.5 — Sebastian Bro.^ius, Bethel. 

November, 1755 — Six men killed,^ Bethel. 

November, 1755 — Unknown man, a shoemaker at 
Brown's house. Bethel. 

November, 1755 — .A. chdd scalped and died.' Bethel. 

November, 1755 — -A woman' and male ciiild. Bethel. 

November, 1755^F;fteen persons (excluding live pre- 
ceding), Betlitfl. 

November, 1755 — Christopher Ury, Bethel. 

November, 1755 ^'ou^gtllan. Bethel. 

No'.-enibcr, 1755 — Wife of Kobel.' Bethel. 

February. 1755 — -Two children of Frederick Reichclder- 
fer, Albany. 

February, 17,">6 — One man, two women and six children,' 

February, 1756 — -George Zeisloff and wife, two boys and 
a girl, Albany. 

February, 1756 — Wife of Ealser Neyfong. Alban}-. 

March, 1756 — Peter Kiuck and family. Albany. 

March, 1756 — .-\ woinan at Linderman's honf;, Alhany. 

March, 1756 — ^^'illiam Yeth, Hereford. 

March, 1756 — Wife of John Krau-her. Hereford. 

October, 1756 — Two married women and two bovs,' 

November. 1750— Wife, daughter and son-in-law of 
Philip Culmore. Alljany. 

November. 1756 — Martin Fell. Albany. 

November, 1756 — Two old men." Bethel. 

November, 1756 Stonebrook. Albany. 

June, 1757^ — ;Man unknown, near Fort Fleiiry. Bethel. 

June, 1757 — Tv,-o persons near F'ort Nonhkill, Tulpe- 

June, 1757 — Adam Trum;,." .\lba;iy. 

June, 1757 — Peter Ger^inger. Bethel. 

July, 1757 — Three men and four children. " Bethel. 

1 P'Wsibly these two and the t« 3 immediately before arc the same. 

' Xear by an Inriiaii — of Dcl.-iuare tribe— vv.t; found dead ami 
scalped — *icalped by Trederick Weiscr. Another was shot and 
scalped several weeks afterward. 

3 Supposed to have been soldiers. 

* Two others also scalped. 

5 Under this woman, her babe only fourteen days old was found. 
It was alive. w-rai>ped up in a little cuslti'jn. 

* Four of their children w ere "icalped at llie s.ime time. They 
had eicht children with them. Two probably died. The father 
was wounded. 

* .\11 killed at house of Jacob Cerhart. situate in tbe'upper sect! mi 
ot the townshio. commonly known as the "Kck" (corner). Eight 
of them were burned. 

8 One of them reported ,*iS likely to die from scalpinc. 

'Ten women an'l cl'-iidrt-n were rescued at this from the 
cellar of a burniiitc '.•n!d;ii,'. 

1" Found with a knife and a spear (I'^xeil to a pole four feet 
lonir) in his 

'lAll murdered and scalped in one h.nise. 

Julv, 1757- 
luh-, 1757- 
julv, 1757- 
Julv, 1757— 
Julv. 1757- 
July, 1757- 
April, 175.S- 

April, 175S- 

April, 175S- 
June, 1753- 
June. 1758— 
October, 17 


Miller,'^ Alba 
November, . 

-Two children near Bickel's. 
Martin Jaeger and wife.'"' Greenwich. 
-Two children of John Krausher, Greenwich. 
-One child of A. Seciilcr, Greenwich. 
-C>ne child of P'lilip Eshton, Greenwich. 
-Ten people.'^ 

1757 — A man shot in bed whilst sick. 

1757 — Two families." 
—Jacob Lebenguth and Margaret his wife, 

—Wife and two children of Nicholas Geiger. 

—Wife of ^iichael Ditzeler, Tulpehocken. 

-Wife of Joliii Franlz. Tulpehocken. 

-Son of Joh.n Snabele. Tulpehocken. 

58 — A man. Bethel. 

176.3 — Jfihn F'incher, wife and two sons, 

176.'^— F'our cliildren at house of Nicholai 


1763 — Two children of Frantz Hubler, P'^rn. 

.176o — Three men near forks of Schuylkii'." 


June, 1754 — Daughter of Balser Schmidt (fifteen years 
old), Tulpehocken. 

June, 1754 — Three rliildrcn of Frederick Myers (two 
boys, 10 and C years old, an.d a girl S years old), Tulpe- 

June, 175-t — Son of — — Reichard (eight years old), 

February, 1756 — Son of Balser Neyfong. Albany. 

March. 1756— Son of William Yeth. Hcroford. 

November, 1756 — Girl named Stonebrook. Albany. 

June, 1757 — Son of Adam Trump, .\!bany. 

June, 1757 — YoLUig woman from nc;,r F'ort Henrv, 

July, 1757 — Three children from near Bickel's. 

July. 1757 — Two children at same time. 

September, 1757 — F"i\e children. 

June, 1758 — Three children of Jolm Frantz, Tulpe- 

September, 1763 — Wife and three children of Frantz 
Hi'bler, Bern. 

November, 1756 — Wife and child of Martin Fell, Al- 

November, 1756— A boy seven years old. .-\lbany. 
October, 1758 — Tliree men missing, Betiul. 
September, 170."^ — Daughter of John F'incluT, .\lbany. 
September, 1703 — Wife of Nicholas Miller, Albany. 

RE\T)LUTIOX. r.r.-. S3 
C.\USE. — Tlie rarliament of Great Britriin passed 
an Act on starch '^v, ITH.j. whidi required all in- 
struments of writing, such as deeds, honds and 
promissory notes, to he written on parchment or 
paper stamped with a 'specific duty, otherwise they 
were to have no legal effect : but this measure met 
witli such ge;ieral oj^position in Great Britain and 
llirougiiout the American Colonies, and was found 
to be so unpopular, that the Act was repealed in 

'-John KraushtrV wife ar.d child. -Abraham Serhler's wife. jnJ 
a child of .Adam Claiiss were scalped at the same time and badly 

i"' .Minded to in Wciser's lotter. Probably he referred to party 
killed in (ircenwich. 

*■* No nun:hcr mentioned. 

''■"' Two of Mil'er's ehildrt-ii w t^re prisoners, but were rescued. 
When rescued they were tied together, in which manner they had 
br<-ii driven along. 

'"These are suiiposed to hive been the last persons kiibd by 
th" Iiiilians at tlii-; time. Hut diiriiK the Kv.liiti'.nT-v w ir. i:i 
.^r.cust, ITSo. John Xevman Tind bis two youni; children wer~ 
cr'.icUy n)iirdi red by the Indians thirty thi-eo mi'.t^ from Readinir 
on road to Shamokin: and at the same time i little ^irl was carried 




rh.e lolloning year. Tlic cbeape>t stamp was of the 
value of one siiillinij. The stamps on documents 
increased in value according^ to iheir importance. 
.\11 the colonists manifested unbounded joy over 
the repeal of this odious law. 

This opposition, however, led Parliament to pass 
a deciaiatory Act (which accompanied the repeal- 
ins^ Act) asserting- their power over the Colonies 
in all cases whatsoeA'er. And in 11 ('i", an Act was 
passed imposinj^ certain duties on tea. c;^!ass. pajjer. 
and painters' colors that were imported into the 
Colonies. There was no representation in Parlia- 
ment from the several Colonies ; and they, retrard- 
ing- taxation of this kind as unjust and tyrannical, 
held public meetings, formed associations to dis- 
courage, and even to prevent, the importation of 
British goods, and passed appropriate resolutions ; 
which they forwarded to the King. His ministers, 
believing that a reduction of the tax would restore 
tranquility, ordered this law also to be repealed, 
saving only a tax of three pence per pound on tea ; 
and in 1770 an Act \vas passed accordingly. But 
even this was not satisfactory to them, and their 
recommendations to one another not to receive any 
tea were strictlv carried out. 

In the meantime, the East India Company had 
accumulated seventeen million pounds of this article 
on hand, and fearing great losses, they led Parlia- 
ment to authorize the exportation of tea to any 
part of the v.'orld free of duty. With such encour- 
agement, the com|>any in 1771 loaded several ships 
with tea and sent them to the American Colonic"^ : 
but the colonists were firm in their resolution and 
determined to obstruct the sale of it and to refuse 
to pay even so slight a tax as three pence per pound. 
When the ships arrived near T'hiladelphia and Xew 
York, the captains were warned not to land, and, 
fearing this warning, they returned to England. 
The tea sent to Charleston was landed, but it could 
not be solfl. and after having been stored for a 
while in damp cellars it became a total loss to the 
company. And at Boston, while efTorts were being 
made to land the tea, certain men in the disguise 
of Indians stole their way u[)on the vessels, broke 
open 312 chests of tea and threw the contents 

When Parliament heard i)i these proceedings, an 
Act was passed, called the "Boston Port Bill," di- 
recting the port of Boston to be closed and the 
custom house to be retnoved to Salem : and other 
humiliating Acts were also passed whicli were 
oflFensive to the people of Boston. Information 
about these .Acts reaclicd Boston on May K'th, and 
on the 13th, at a town meeting, the inlial)itants 
resolved : 

That, if tlie other Col(iiii<.s woiiM uiiiie ivitli tlieni to 
stop all inipurtations from Groat Britain niid the \Ve=t 
Indies until those .Acts should he rtin.aled, it would prove 
the salv.-ition of Xorth .\nierica ;'nd her lilierties; hut if 
they should continue their exports and imiiort;. there 
was reason to fear that fraud, f.ower and th.- n)0':t odious 
oppression would triumph over justice, right, social I'.appi- 
ncss and freedom. 

Copies of this resolution were transmitted to all 
the other Colonies. It awakened not only a feeling 
of sympathy but a strong spirit of co-operation, 
and led them to concur in the propriety of calling 
a Provincial Congress. Public meetings were held 
at different places, such as county towns, and, be- 
sides disctissing topics so important to liberty and 
the general welfare, committees of correspondence 
were appointed to communicate the actions of the 
several meetings to one another throughout the Col- 
onies. In this way, it was discovered that the same 
feeling prevailed everywhere, and naturally there 
came to be tinited efforts toward accomplishing a 
common result for the benefit of all. 

About this time the terms "Whigs" and "Tories'" 
were introduced to designate either those who were 
arrayed on the side of the Colcvniei in sympathy 
with Boston, or those who were in sympathy v/ith 
the policy of the British government. 

^If.iiTiXG AT Rf..\dixg. — When the news reached 
Reading, in Berks county, the citizens manifested 
great excitement, and meetings were lield at which 
the action of the British government was con- 
demned. These meetings were calleil by notices 
headed "Boston Port Bi!l," and posted throughout 
the town. 

At one of these meetings (which comprised a 
respectable body of inhabitants of the county) held 
in the Court-House at Reading, (:>n July "?. 1774, 
iidward Biddle, l^sq., in the chair, tlie following 
resolntions were adopted: 

This assembli., taking into their very seriou''- considera- 
tion tlie present critical situation of American affairs, do 
unanimously resolve as follows, viz.: 

1. That the inhabitants of this county do owe, and will 
pay due allegiance to our rightful Sovereign, King George 
the Third. 

-. That the powers claimed, and now attempted to he 
put into execution by the Eritish Parliament, are funda- 
mentally wrong, and cannot he admitted without the utter 
destruction of the liberties of .\nierica. 

3. That the Boston Port Bill is unjust and tyrannical in 
the extreme, .-vnd that the measures pursued against Bos- 
ton are intended to operate e'lually against the rights and 
liberties of the other colonies. 

-1. That this assembly dotli concur in opinion with their 
respective brethren of Philadelpiiia. that thee is an abso- 
lute necessity for an imniediatc congress of the deputies 
of the several athicos. in order to deliberate iipi-m ancl pur- 
sue such measures as may radicallv our present un- 
happy disturh.iiices, an 1 settle with precision th.e rights 
and lil)erties of .America. 

o. That the inhabitants of this county, comiding in the 
prudence and ability of the deputies intended to I)e chosen 
for the general congress, will cheerfully submit to any 
measures which may be found by tlic said congress best 
adapted for the restoration of h.irmony between the 
mother-country and the colonies, and for the security and 
firm establishment of tlie rights oi America. 

R. That, as the people of Boston are now suffering in 
the grand and couimon caiisi- of American liberty. 

Rrsnlrrd. That it is the duty of all tiie inhabitants to 
contribute to tlu- support of the said sutTerers. and that the 
committee hereafur named do o(Hn suliscriiitions for their 
relief. .And fuifhrr, that the saiil eomtiiitte.- do lay out 
the aniouTit of Mich snl)-.criptioii» in inirchasiug tlour and 
otl'.er provisions, to be s"nt by tticn; to (.uk said suttenng 
brethren. • 

jn,.- Vl- 

'f'1 'il 

.'I'-,-.. •■;)!. vrii '; Hit:, i' ■'• J' 

r, . . ).■>■ 



7. That Edward RiddK-. .lame- Read, Dani -1 Drorlhead, 
Henry Christ, Hsiis.. Clirisiophcr Schullz. Thomas Duiidas 
and Jonathan Pctts, ge!itli.nii.n, be, and they are hereby 
appointed a committee to meet and correspond with the 
committees from the other co.inties of tlie Province. 

The comiiiittte raised money and forwarded 
flour and provi>ioii> to the suffering- brethren at 
Boston soon after the meetinsf. Reachng- was a 
prominent center of trade in 1774, and the country 
round about possessed an abundance of grain and 
provisions. There were numerous gristmills within 
a radius of ten miles, and the collection of many 
barrels of flour was a comparatively easy matter 
for such a worthy cause, especially under the appeal 
of such influential men as composed the committee. 
Biddle and Read were attorneys; Christ an inn- 
keeper ; Potts a physician : Dundas a merchant : 
Brodhead a larg^e miller of Heidelberg; and Schultz 
a prosperous farmer of Hereford. 

From this meeting to the close of the Revolution, 
the people of Reading and of the county partici- 
pated actively in al! the affairs of the province. 
Thcy were represented by delegates at the several 
conferences; and they contributed their quota of 
men, money and supplies in the successful prosecu- 
tion of the war. 

Lexixgto.n' Awakens Cou.xtv. — The battle of 
Lexington was fought on April 19, 17'7.5, and when 
the news of tiie b.^ille reached Reading, about a 
week afterward, a ci>ni[)anv of men was formed, 
who wore cra})e foi a cockade as a token of .sorrow 
for the slaughter of their ; and each town- 
ship in Berks county resolved to raise and discipline 
a company of soldiers. And tiie following extract 
of a letter from Reading, dated April l*r>, 177.j, 
shows forcibly the feeling that prevailed: 

We have nised in this town two companies of foot 
under pro[KT officers: and such is the spirit of the people 
of this free connty. that in iliree weeks time there is not 
a township in it th.nt will not have a company raised and 
disciplincil, ready to assert at the risk of their lives the 
freedom of America. 

The companies tnentioued were commanded by 
Capt. George Xagel and Capt. Joitn Spohn. 

First Officers From County. — The first meet- 
ing of the Committee of Safely at Philadelphia was 
on Jan. 2, 177C!. which Edward Biddle attended. 
Congress had recommended that Pennsylvania fur- 
nish four battalions of trooits ; and at this meeting 
the Committee were to agree upon the four colonels 
who were'to be placed in command. On the Itli of 
January, they selected field officers, George X'agel. 
of Reading, being one of thein. Tlien thev also 
selected thirty-otie captains for the four battalions, 
among those chosen being John Spohn. Peter Scull 
and Peter Decker, all of Reading, and on Jan. Hth, 
they selected thirty-two lieutenants, among them 
Daniel Brodhead of Reading. 

Germ.\ns to RicsCfE. — I'.y looking over the 
nnmc>^ of the mnnerotis men in P.irks coimtv who 
participated in ihe inovemem for independence, it 
will be found that thev are almost entirclv German. 

The i)opulation of the county was largely German 
and of German descent, and this preponderance of 
names over those of all other nationalities wa-- •■-) 
be expected. The pro[)ortion was fully nine-tentji-. 
They used the German lang-uage in their dailv 
affairs, excelling the transfer of title to real estate, 
which was reqtured to be in the English language 
by a provincial law. The location of the Englivji 
people m 1775 was mostly at Reading, and in Roljc- 
son. Caernarvon. Union, Exeter, Oley, Maiden- 
creek and Richinoiul townships, or eight districts 
out of twenty-nine ; but the major part of the people 
in these districts also were German, excepting tlic 
southern section of the countv. 

It can be stated that Perks county was then dis- 
tinctively the most German county of the eleven 
counties in the province. It was natural for the 
electors of the county to show a positive sympathv 
for this movement, because it was in accordance 
with their notions of political freedom. They liad 
a firm belief in local government and desired to 
carry it on successfully without nmiecessary re- 
strictions or burdens. Taxation without represen- 
tation was to them an unreasonable and unjust doc- 
trine, and they were not disposed to tolerale its 
continued enforcement. 

The system of militia, wdiich had been provided 
by the Assembly, was appreciaterl by them, and they 
co-operated .sincerely in its estaljlishment through- 
out the coimty. Thev etTected an organization and 
responded to the call for trcKips in a willing and 
prompt manner. The militia returns of the county 
for 177.5 show the organization of seven battalions; 
and by July there w-ere at least fortv companies 
ready to answer the call for military dtitv in actual 
warfare. Their zeal will be more fully appreciated 
when we understand that there was not a single 
post-office in the county, and that the only means of 
dispatching communications was by express riders. 

Associ.vtok.s. — At the inception of the Revolution, 
there were eleven counties in the province of Penn- 
sylvania : 







On June .".(). 1775,, the General Assembly aj)- 
proved of "the Association entered into bv the 
good people of this Colony for the defense of their 
lives, liberties and properties" ; decided to pav the 
necessary expenses ot the officers and soldiers wliile 
in active service, rc|)elh'ng anv hostile invasion of 
British or other tro-ips ; and recommended the coun- 
ty commissioners of tiie several counties to "im- 
mcfliately provide a priii)er number of good, new 
firelocks witli liayonets fitted {o them, cartridge 
b(>xes with twenty-three rotnnls of cartridges in 
cverv box. and kiiaiKacks." Tiie allotted number 
for Berks county was four hnuflred. 

Edward Biddic and Henry Ciiri-t were then t!ie 
representatives frcjin Berks county: am! Bicidle wa-; 

,'! }■ 

,1);.' H .< I' 



selected by the Assembly as one of the Committee 
of Safety "for calling forth sucli and so many of 
the Associators into actual ?er\-ice when necessity 
requires." The committee consisted of twenty-five 

The preamble to the Articles of Association read 
as follows: 

We, the officers and soldior.s, engaged in the present 
association for the defense of Amoric:'.n liberty, being 
fully sensible that the strength and sccinily of any body 
of men acting together consists in just regularity, due 
subordination, and exact obedience to comniand, without 
wnich no individual can have that confidence in the sup- 
port of those aliout him, that is so necessary to give firm- 
ness and resolution to the whole, do voluntarily and 
freely, after consideration of the following articles, 
adopt the same as the rules by which we agree and re- 
solve to be governed in all our military concerns and 
operations, until the same or any of them shall be 
changed or dissolved by the Assembly or Provincial Con- 
vention, or in their recess, by the Committee of Safety, 
or a happy reconciliation sfiall take place between Great 
Britain and the Colonies. 

There were thirty-two articles which provided for 
the regulation of military affairs, and these articles 
the Associators were expected to sign. The Com- 
mittee of Safety in Berks county recommended the 
adoption of the Articles. 

Recommend.\tioxs for Companies. — On July 
28, 1775, the Assembly approved of the resolution 
of Congress, passed July ISth, which recommended: 

That all able-bodied men bctvvei^n sixteen and sixty 
years of age in each colony immediately form themselves 
into regular companies to consist of one captain, two 
lieutenants, one ensign, four sergeants, four corporals, a 
clerk, drummer and fifer, and sixty-eight privates. 

That the officers of each company be chosen by the 
respective companies. 

That the companies be formed into Battalions, offi- 
cered with a Colonel, Lieutenant-Colonel, two Majors, 
and an Adjutant or Quartcrmastc*. 

That the officers above captain be appointed by the As- 
sembly or b\' the Committee of Safety. 

And that each soldier be furnished with a good musket 
that will carry an ounce ball, with a bayonet, steel ram- 
rcd, worm priming wire with brush fitted thereto, a cut- 
ting sword or tomahawk, a cartridge box that will con- 
tain twenty-three rounds of cartridges, 12 flints, and a 

The musket barrels were three feet eight inches 
long, and the bayonets sixteen inches long ; the bore 
of the barrels of sufficient size to carry seventeen 
balls to the pound. 

CouNTV Colonels. — Delegates from the eleven 
counties, numbering altogether fifty-three, assem- 
bled at Philadelphia on Aug. 19. ITT.", for the pur- 
pose of adopting Articles of Association. They 
were colonels of the Associated Battalions, and the 
representatives from Berks countv were: 

Edward Biddle 
Mark Bird 

Daniel Brodhead Christian Lower 
Balscr Geehr 

of Independence, and rlirecting it to be read on 
Monday, July 8th, at 1"^ o'clock noon, at the place 
where the election of delegates was to be held. 
This was done by Henry \'anderslice, the sheriff 
of the county, on that day at the Court-House, on 
Penn Square, the bell having been riing earnestly 
beforehand, as elsewhere, to call the people together 
so that they should learn the significance of that 
important public document. 

Population and Districts. — In 17 7G, the terri- 
tory of Berks county included not only that part 
which lies within the present boundary lines to the 
south of the Blue Mountain, but also nearly the 
entire area of Schuylkill county to the north, the 
excepted portion being about one-sixth part at the 
eastern end. But that section beyond the mountain 
was sparsely settled, the resident taxables number- 
ing about one hundred and fifty, and the population 
about six hundred. The total population (as near 
as it can be estimated) was about twenty thousand; 
and the taxables numbered about four thousand, the 
same number as those subject to military duty be- 
tween the ages of eighteen and fifty-three years. 
The estimated population of Pennsylvania then was 
three hundred thousatul white people, and two thou- 
sand black. 

The townships or districts established in the 
cotmty numbered twenty-nine. They were distrib- 
uted as follows: 


Maiiati!iv)iy Section 

Alsace Douglass Reading 

Amity Exeter Rockiand 

Colebrookdale Hereford Ruscombmanor 

District Oicy 

Ontclaunce Section 

Albany Maiden-creek Richmond 

Greenwich Maxatawny Windsor 



Schiixlkill Section 

Declaration Read in County. — In pursuance of 
a resolution of Congress, the State Board of Safety 
addressed a letter to the Committee of P.erks County 
on July r>, 1770. enclosing a copy of the Declaration 




Ttdpchockcn Section 

Bern Heidelberg Tulpehocken 



Brunswick and Piiie-Crove. ■ • 

The following companies from Berks county were 
in the Revolution from its inception in 177.3 to its 
successful termination in 1783, so far as tiie com- 
piler has been able to ascertain them. This table 
is as complete as it can be made at this time and 
presents sufficient evidence to show the [latriotic 
spirit of the people and the response they made to 
the government in its numerous calls for troops. 
I'he names of the colonels and captains only can 
be given. 

- -»-•<«? .{i '• i-,''.' I I t 

ry..- 1 

ia;^f> r"'';, ■ ■■ ;n; 

' -I. ••;' ■ , '■■1. -C ?! J7,.i.; r,( 




During the year 1775 

Company of Capt. George Xagel (Reading), 93 men, 
at Cambridce. Mass., from July, 1775, to March 1776. 
He subsequently became a Colonel. 

During flu- year i//'6 

Company of Capt. Jonathan Jones (Caernarvon"), 83 
mtn ; at .Montreal, Quebec. Ticonderoga. and Trenton 
from Jai.u.'iry, 1776, to January, 1777. 

Battalion of Col. Henry llaller (Reading), which com- 
prised eight companies commanded by tlie following 
captains : 

John Spohn (Reading), 7S men 
Peter Decker (Reading), 86 men 
Henry Christ (Reading). 87 men 
Joseph Hiester (Reading) _.- 

Jacob Graul (Reading) 
Jacob Maurer (Maiden-creek) 
John Ludwig (Heidelberg) 
George Douglass (Amity) 

The total number of men was estimated at 666. They 
were in active service at New York and Long Inland 
from June, 1776, to January, 1777. Lieut. -Col. Nicholas 
Lotz was in command of the men. and he was among the 
prisoneri taken at the BatMe of Long Island. 

Also, in that vicinity during August and September, 

1776, four companies, estimated at 300 men, commanded 
by the following captains : 

John Old (District) 
George Will (Reading). 72 men 
Daniel Deturck (iMsace), 72 men 
George May (Windsor) 

A.lso, in t!iat vicinity (South Amboy) during the same 
time, four companies of the battalion of Col. John Pat- 
ton (HiMdclberg), estimated at 300 men, commanded by 
the following captains: 

John Lesher (Tulpehocken) 
Michael W-'olf (Bethel) 
George Miller (Tulpehocken) 
^Michael Furrer (Tulpehocken) 

Also, in that vicinity during the same time, the 4th 
Lattalion nf F!erks County Militi.-\ uder the comimnd 
of Col. Balser Geehr (Bern\ It arri\ed at Bethlehem 
on the way on Sept. 1st. The full battalion of six com- 
panies is supposed to have gone to the field, but the 
names of ihc captains ana the number of men have not 
been as yet ascertained ; men estimated at 300. 

Also, in that vicinity during the same time, the bat- 
talion of Col. Mark Bird (Union), which he equipped at 
his own expense. The names of the captains have not 
been ascertained but the number of men was said to have 
been about 300. 

The company of Capt. Benjamin Weiser (Heidel- 
berg), 53 nien. was at Trentnn in December, 177C, and at 
Princeton in January, 1777. 

The quota of 500 men from Berks county, made up 
from the battalion.'; of Col. Henry Haller and Col. Danit'l 
Hunter, were also in the vicinity of Trenton in Decem- 
ber, 1776, and at Newtown. Rucks county, in Jaiiu.iry, 

1777. Only five of the captains have been ascertained : 
In the Haller battalion, three captains — 

George Will (Reading), 40 men 
John Diehl (Reading). 20 men 
Nicholas Scheffer (Tulpehocken), 32 men 
And in the Hunter battalion, two captains — 
Conrad Eckert (Heidelberg) 

In February, a detachment of the company of Capt. 
Peter Nagel, 17 men, wa^ det.iiied on duty to guard 
prisoners at Reading. 

In September, a detachment of the company of Cap! 
Conrad Geist, 39 men, was detailed on duty also to gu-rd 
prisoners at Reading. 

Besides the captains mentioned, there is positive evi- 
dence that four additional captains were in the service 
in the summer: Jacob Moser (Reading), John Soder 

(Bern), Stephen Crumrine ( ColeKrookdale), and 

Meyer, they having been paid by the E.xecutive Council. 
Number of men estimated r.t 300. 

During the year lyjj 
The companies commanded by the following captains 
were enlisted in the Continental Line — men estimated at 

3d Reg't, Peter Scull (Reading) 
4lh '■ John Mears (Reading) 
6th " Jacob Moser (Reading), 67 men 
6th . " Jacob Bovver (Reading) 
11th " Samuel Dewees (Heidelberg) 
12th " Peter Withington (Reading) 
The battalion of Col. Daniel Hunter (Olcy) was mus- 
tered into service on Aug 7, 1777, with 365 men, and 
participated under General Washington in the campaigns 
round about Philadelphia from August to December, dur- 
ing which the battles of Brandywine and Germantown 
were fought. It comprised six companies, which were 
commanded by the following captains : 

Henry Knause (Colebrcokdale) . ' 

Charles Crouse (Longswamp) 
Jacob Whetstone (Brunswiclc) 
Conrad Geist (Reading) 
John McMurray (Robeson) 
John Lesher (Oley.) 
The battalion of Col. Daniel Udree (Oley) was mus- 
tered in at the same time with 301 men. and was engaged 
in the same service. It comprised six companies with 
the following captains : 

Stepiien Crumrine (Colebrookdale) 
Peter Smith (Reading) 
.Conrad Minirh (Brunswick) 
John Reitmyer (Reading) 
John Essington (Union) 
Ckorge Battorf (Bethel) 

The battalion of Col. Michael Lindenmnih (Bern) was 
mustered in on Sept. 27, 1777, with 286 men, and was en- 
gaged in service in the' Schuylkill Valley from that time 
until Washington went into v\in:er quarters at Valley 
I'orgo on Dec. ISth, wiicr. ;t is supposed the men returned 
lo the county. It comprised six companies with the fol- 
lowing captains : 

Sebastian Lentz (Rockland) 

Jacob Rodarmel (Ri'-hinond) 

Francis L'mbenhauer (Born) 

Daniel Deturck (.Msacc) 

John Wagner (Bern) 

Daniel Womelsdorf (Heidelberg) 

The battalion of Col. Joscj^h Hiester (Reading) was 
Inustercd in at the same time with 263 men. and was en- 
gaged in the same service r.s the I.indcnmuth battalion. It 
comprised six companies with the following captains: 

Jacob Roth (.Amity) 
Jacob Dreibelhis (Greenwich) 
Sebastian Emrich (Bctliel) 
Peter Nagel (Reading) 
John Graul (Reading) 
Conrad Weiser (Heidelberg) 

The battalion of Col. Henry Siiyker (Tulpehocken) was 
mustered in on Nov. 0. 1777, and was ciigaged in the serv- 
ice for sixty days in the Schuylkill Valley, between Valley 
Forge and Germantown. It comprised seven companies 
and 367 men, with the following captains : 

Michael Vovgc (Richmoi'd) 
Jacob Shadel (Bern) 

•,.,.' "/M -..:! 



George Riehm (Cumru) 

Jacob Rhoads (Amity) 

Michael Brctz (Fine Grove) 

Conrad Ecken (Heidelberg) 

Henry VV'eaver (Tulpehocken) 
The battalion of Co!. Jacob Weaver (Amity) was mus- 
tered in on Dec. 13, 1777, and was also engaged in the 
service for sixty days in the same vicinity as the Spyker 
battalion. It ci:)mprised eight coinpaincs and 361 men, 
with the following captains: 

Daniel Reiff (Oley) 

Henry Egncr ( Longs wamp) 

Ferdinand Ritter (Albany) 

Sebastian iMiikr (Cumru) 

Philip Krick (Cumru) 

David Morgan (Caernarvon) 

Jacob Krcame: (Bethel) 

Philip Filbert (Heidelberg) 
The company of Capt. Charles Crouse (Longswnmp), 
with 40 men, was on guard duty at the Windsor powder 
magazine for some time before Jan. 3. 1778. 

The company of Capt. Jacob Hill (Windsor), with 41 
men, was mustered into service on Oct. 25, 1777. and was 
also stationed at the same powder magazine for some time, 
doing guard duty. 

And two companies, each comprising 40 men, were sta- 
tioned at Reading in September, for the purpose of guard- 
ing the military stores — the n.imes of the commanding 
ofhcers not having been ascertained. 

During the year ijjS 

In January, General Washington recommended that 
Capt. Edward Scull (Reading) should recruit 150 men 
in Berks county for the Battalion of the State in the Army, which was done. 

A company, commanded by Lieut. Joseph Talbot 
(Caernarvon), v/ith 5-i men. v,-as mustered into service on 
Jan. 5th, and detailed for guard duty at Reading. 

In April, 200 men were ordered on guard duty at Fiead- 
ing, and 10 men on guard duty at Boone's Mill (supposed 
to have been in Exeter). 

■ During the middle of this year, 10 men were enlisted 
at Reading to m;ike up the company of Capt. Bartholomew 
Von Hccr, for the purpose of performing provost duty. 
They were mounted and accoutered as Liglit Dragoons, 
to apprehend deserters, rioters and stragglers. 

Col. Jacob Morgan reported in A.ugiist that he had for- 
warded 180 men to Sunbur_\. and T-3 men to Easton to 
render frontier service .-igainst the Indians. 

Two battalions, the quota ordered from Berks county, 
were sent to Philadelphia in October, to serve under Gen- 
eral A.''mstrong, in anticipation of an invasi<jii b.y the Brit- 
ish, the number of men being estimated at 500. 

Dxiring the year lyyi) 
No evidence of the enlistment of men from Berks coun- 
ty during this year has been discovered, nor any orders 
from the E.xecutive Council to the lieutenant of the 
county for men. 

During the year 1780 

In May, one class of men, numbering GO men, was 
taken from the battalion of Col. Michael Lindenmuth 
(Bern) for frontier fervicc. 

In June, a company of 52 men was raised as volun- 
teers in Berks county and sent to Philadelphia under the 
command of Major Edward Scull. 

In August. 120 men were sent to Brunswick township 
from the county to render frontier service. 

In August, the fith Battalion of County Militia, under 
the command of Col. Josc|ih Hicster. joined the army of 
Gen. Joseph Reed in .\'ew Jersey, near C.undcn, in pur- 
suance of an order to supply COO men, who were to co- 
operate with the main army near Philadelphia. It was 
m service for thirty days frnm Aug. 10th. The names 
ot 437 mnn have been ascertained of this qnnt.i There 
were six companies, conunanded by tl;e following captains : 

Charles Gobin (Reading) 
Ferdinand Ritter (.Mbany) 
Conrad .'>herman (Tulpehocken) 
John Ludwig (Heidelberg) 
Jacob Baldy (Ma.\atawny) 
Henry Strouch (Ruscombmanor) 

In September, two companies, numbering 120 men, from 
the battalion of Col. Samuel Ely, were sent from the 
county to perform frontier service against the Indians. 

During the year 1781 

In May, one class of the battalion of Col. Michael 
Lindenrrtuth. nimil>ering 64 men, was forwarded from 
county to render frontier service. 

In June, two cla<=ses of the Cth Battalion of Militia, 
commanded by Col. Joseph Hiester, numbering 128 men, 
were placed under the comniand of Maj. Bayley, to guard 
the encampment of German prisoners at Reading. 

In August, a detachment of Lieut. Daniel Stroud's com- 
pany, numbering 40 men. was ordered on guard duty, and 
it served during .August and September. 

A detachment of Capt. Charles Grouse's company, num- 
bering 36 men, was on duty at Reading guarding pris- 
oners from .'Xug. Kith to Oct. 16th. 

In September, there were 153 men recruited at Reading 
and forwarded. 

Three clashes of Col. Samuel Ely's Battalion, numbering 
.■iOO men, were in service at Newtown from Oct. Ist to 
Oct. ISth. Two of the companies are believed to have 
been conunanded by 

John Robinson (Caernarvon), 56 men 
Jacob Ladich (Brunswick) 

The other companies have not been discovered. 

Three other companies, about the same number of men. 
were also organized in the county, but on account of the 
want of arms the lieutenant of the county (then Col. Val- 
entine Eckert), could not then forward them. 

In October, a company of ritlcmcn. ntimbering 83 men, 
was organized in the western end of the county, and in 
service under the command of Capt. Jacob Livingood 
(Heidelberg) until Jan. 1, 1782. The place of service has 
not been ascertained, but the men were paid on Jan. 
IG, 1783. 

Militia from Greenwich and Maxatawny townships, 
numbering 120 men, were on a tour of duty. 

Detachments from the 2d and nth Battalions of Militia, 
numbering 169 men, were on duty at Reading guarding 

During the year iyS3 

In February, the company of Capt. John Robinson, 
numberin.g 60 men, was in service at .Vorthumberland. 

In February, the first class of rniiitia, numbering 40 
men, was in service at Reading guarding prisoners. 

In August, there were two detachm.ents of militia, one 
numbering 27 men, and the other 50 men, who rendered 
frontier service in the county. 

In September, 125 men were sent from the county to 
render frontier service in X'orthumhcrland county. 

In September, a det^c'imcnt of Capt. Peter Nagcl's com- 
pany, numbering 40 men. was detailed to guard prisoners 
who were sent from Reading to Philadelphia. 


For the year 1775 95 

For the year 1776 2,858 

For the year 1777 2,404 

For the year 1778 1,233 

For the vear 1770 

For the vear 1780 952 

For the vear 1781 1,093 

For the year 1783 342 





Miscellaneous fiilistnunts as-ccrtained not ini-liided 

in above statement 56 

Total estimated 9,033 

The number of men for the years ITlHl and 1TT7 
appears incredible, but the reader will take into 
consideration that the men for each year were not 
all in service at one time. Taking the reports of 
men in service that have been given in detail, and 
understanding- that it was not possible to discover 
all the men that were enlisted, it can be said that 
the estimated total, as arranged, is not above, but 
rather below, the real number supplied by the coun- 
ty during the Revolution. 

The system of supplying men was simple, and 
it was carried on in such a manner as to render as- 
sistance to the government with as little injury as 
possible to the several districts from which the men 
were called. The number demanded at one time 
was not extraordinary, compared with the total 
number subject to military duty, and the term of 
service was limited to such a period that the busi- 
ness interests of the people should not suffer seri- 
ous losses. In this way it was possible to have at 
least several hundred men from a county in service 
all the time. 


Mark Bird 
Daniel Rrodhead 
Valentine Kckert 
Sami;cl Ely 
Balser Gechr 
Henry Halier 
Jcseph Iliester 
Daniel Hunter 
Michael Lindcnr.uuh 

Nicholas Lotz 
Jacob Morgan 
Jacob Morgan, Jr. 
George N,-.gel 
John Patton 
Henry Spyker 
Daniel Udrec 
Jacob \\'eaver 


Jacob Baldy 
George Battorf 
George Beaver 
Jacob Bower 
Michael Rretz 
Henry Christ 
Charles Grouse 
Stephen Crumrine 
Peter Decker 
Daniel Detiirck 
Samuel Dewees 
John Diehl 
Jacob Dreibelbis 
Conrad Eckert 
Henry Egner 
Sebastian Erarich 
John Essingtoit 
Philip Filbert 


George Focbt 
Conrad Gei'it 
Charles Gobin 
Jacob Graul 
John Graul 
Thomas Herbert 
Joseph Hiester 
Jacob Hill 
Jonathan Jones 
George Kemii 
Henry Knruiso 
Philip Kreanicr 

Philip Krick 
JacoD Larlich 
Sebast:a:i Lentz 
John Lesher 
Jacob Livingood 
John Ludwig 
Jacob !Maurer 
Ge-orge May 
John McMurray 
John Mears 
George Miller 
Sebastian Miller 
Conrad ^.Iinich 
David Morgan 
Jacob ifoser 


George Nagel 
Peter Nagel 
John Old 

Dirck Pennvbacker 
Daniel ReitI 
John Reitmyer 
Jacob Rich<;tein 
George Richm 
Ferdinand Ritter 
John Robinson 
Jacob Rotli (Rhoads) 
Jacob Rothermel 
Nicholas SchefTer 
Edward Scull 
Peter Scull 

Francis Umbenhauer 
Bartholomew Von Heer 
Peter Wanner 
John Wagner 
Benjamin W'eiser 
Conrad Weiser 
Henry Weaver 
Jacob Whetstone 
.Matthias Wick 
George Will 
Daniel Womelsdorf 

William Scull 
Jacob Shadcl 
Henry Sliepler 
Conrad Sherman 
Casper Snieck 
Peter Smith 
John Soder 


John Spohn 
Leonard Stone 
Henry Strauch 
Joseph Talbot 

Akmy Supplies fro.m County. — During the 
Revolution, many army supplies were either manu- 
factured or produced in the county of Berks, more 
especially in the years 1775, 1776 and 1777; and 
these were collected from the several districts and 
deposited at Reading, for the purpose of enabling 
the Commissioners of Forage to fill the propor- 
tional allotirients of the districts with reasonable 
dispatch. They consisted of grain, flour, hay, pow- 
der, clothing, accoutrements, horses and wagons. 

The superior geographical situation of Reading 
led Congress to select the place as a general depot 
for storing sttpplies of all kinds. It was far enough 
from Philadelphia that General Howe could not 
entertain any thoughts of capturing the stores with 
safety to his army, and yet it was near enough to 
enable the storekeeper to fill orders made upon him 

Stoke House at Reading. — In a letter of Col. 
Jacob Morgan to the Executive Council, dated Sept. 
IS, 177?, he stated as follows: 

There is at pres2nt a great quantity cf powi'er and 
other stores bclongini,- to the State in this town [Read- 
ing] and there are two companies now out of said classes 
mounting guard over said stores. The people of the town 
are vastl}- uneasy at having so much powder here, and, 
unless it be ver\' vi-ell guarded, that uneasiness will in- 
crease to a great degree, as lire happening to the house 
where the powder is lodged v ould tear the t.'iwn to pieces 
and destroy the v.hole body of inliabitants. Many persons 
of the towr., above oO years of age, woidd make part 
of a guard if taken into pay, which would rendc it c.isy 
to send so many more of the militia as would othi-rwisc 
be requisite for such guard. The Continental Press and 
Medicinal store also require some guard. 

By a letter of the same day front Christ and Shoe- 
maker [Justices] to the Council it would appear 
that they had called two companies of militia to 
guard the said stores — "not forgetting the Conti- 
nental Treasurer." The stores included a "vast 
number of ammunition in the town, or near it." 

Lotz Receipt Book. — In 1803, the compiler saw 
the receipt book of Col. Nicholas Lotz in which re- 
ceipts were taken for nioncys paid from Aug. 12, 
17S0, to Dec. 5, 1781. The total amount was $20?,- 
0-3.3. Some of the items were reckoned in pounds, 
shillings and pence, btit the most of them were in 
dollars. A great part of the amount was paid to 
him in currency, which was never redeemed, 
whereby he and others suffered great losses. 

Iron Industries. — Thirteen prominent iron in- 
dustries were carried on successfully in tiie c. miily 
during the Revolution. Thev were situated in the 

' •■ '[', 

O. I 



four sections of the county, along- strong- streams 
of water, as follows : 


Oley, in Oley, on Manatawny creek. 

Mt. Pleasant, in Colebrookdale. on West Branch of 

Hereford, in Hereford, on West Branch of Perkiomen. 

Hope-ii'ell, in Union, on French creek. 

Berkshire, in Heidellicrg on tributary of Tulpehocken 


Pine, Spring and Oley, in Douglass, District, and Oley, 
on Manatawny creek. 

Mt. Pleasant, in C.olebrookdalc. on V/e-t Branch. 
Bird's, in Robeson, on Hay creek. 
Gibra'tcr, in Robeson, on Allegheny creek. ■< 
Moselem, in Richmond, on Ontclaunee creek. 
Charming, in Tulpehocken, on Tulpehocken creek. 

Ironmasters. — The ironniasters, the proprietors 
of tlie foregoing industries, were Mark Bird, John 
Fatten, John Lesher. David Potts, John Old, Thom- 
as Alayberry, Daniel Udree, George Ege and Chris- 
tian Lower. The assessed value of the property 
■of these men in the different sections of the county 
amounted to a very large sum in the aggregate, 
showing that thev were in a situation to contribute 
a strong" influence toward the successful prosecu- 
tion of the war. They stipplied the Continental 
Government with cannoti-balls, cast-iron and 
wrought- iron in variiius sha])es, and they cooper- 
ated lieartily in the great sociril movement for rep- 
resentative government. Their nS'^istance was of 
lhe greatest consequence arid cannot be overesti- 
m.ited. We can take great pride in the fact that 
the county then possessed such enterprising, pub- 
'lic-spiritL'd and patriotic men. 

Other Industries. — There were other indus- 
tries which are equally worthy of mention, such as 
numerous grist-mills, saw-mills, gun factories, 
wheelwright shops and blacksmith shops. These 
were also situated along the strong streams in dif- 
ferent sections of the county and the\' rendered 
•great assistance to Congress and the Council. 
Nicholas Lotz, Sebastian Levan, and Daniel Brod- 
liead were three extensive millers, and Valentine 
Eckert and Christian Lower were two influential 
"blacksmiths, who identified themselves prominently 
with public affairs at that tiine. Knapsacks and 
gun-barrels were made in different parts of the 
county. And numerous energetic, hopeful and per- 
sistent farmers constituted the very foundation of 
the public welfare. 

During the progress of the Revolution, the gov- 
ernment was compelled to resort to the emission 
of "hills of credit" with which to purchase army 
supplies, etc., and to sati-^fy the demands of carry- 
ing on the war. Gold and silver were not then 
known to exist in the country in any quantity equal 
to the demands of the war, nor could thev be pro- 
cured, i^ircct taxation, tliongh practicable, was 
■vlccined impolitic. The only plausible expedient m 

the power of Congress was the emission of these 
bills. Congress therefore resolved in June, 1775, to 
emit such bills to the amount of two millions of 
dollars; in July, ordered a million more; and in 
November, three millions more : and for their re- 
demption, pledged the Confederated Colonies. Sub- 
sequently, other emissions were made ; and such 
was the animation of the times that these several 
emissions, amounting to twenty millions, circulated 
for some time without any depreciation, and com- 
manded the resources of the countiy for public 
service equally with gold or silver. But there 
was a point both in time and qtiant'ity beyond which 
this process ceased to operate ; that time was about 
eighteen months from the date of first emission 
and that quantity twenty millions. The rulers 
thought it still preniature to urge taxation, and 
they, therefore, resorted to the expedient of fur- 
ther emissions. The ease with which the means 
of procuring supplies were furnished by simply 
striking off bi'ls of credit, and the readiness with 
which the people received them, prompted Con- 
gress to n:!ultiply them beyond the limits of pru- 
dence, and a depreciation of their value was the un- 
avoidable consequence. 

At first, this depreciation was scarcely percepti- 
ble, but it increased daily, till finally the currency 
became worthless. It began at different periods 
in different States ; but in general about the middle 
of the year 1777, and then increased progressively 
for ,^e\eTal years. In the latter part of 1777 it was • 
two dollars in currency for one in specie; in 1778, 
five for one; in 1779, twenty-seven for one; in 
17S0, fifty for one. After 17?6, the circulation was 
limited tr> certain localities ; but where the currency 
passed, it depreciated to one hundred and fifty dol- 
lars for one. In Pennsylvania, the Executive Coun- 
cil resolved, as late as Feb. 1, 17S1, that Continen- 
tal money should 'be received for puWic dues at 
the exchange of seventy-five dollars in currency for 
one in specie. But an Act provided that after June 
1st following, only specie or equivalent bills of cred- 
it should be received for taxes or other public 
dues; and this rendered the currency worthless in 
the State. This extraordinary depreciation brought 
great loss to many of the people who had aided 
the government in the grand struggle for freedom. 
In this respect, the soldiers suffered most. The 
people of Reading,- arid especially of the county, 
met with considerable losses thereby. Some of 
them had large quantities which were transmitted 
for some time until lost or destroyed. It was not 


The follow'ing men from Berks county occupied 
the positions named, for the time stated, during the 
Revolution : 


Delegate in Continental Congrcis 
Edward Biddlc, 1774-75; i775-7G; 1778-70. 

t .. ,') w 



IVagon Mastt'rs General 

Secretary of Boa'-d of War 
Edward Scull. May 16, 1778. 

Dr. Jonathan Potts Dr. Bodo Otto 

Surz'eyir.}; Defurtment 
William Scull, January, 177S. to September, 1779. 

Dcf^uty Quartermcitcr-Gcncral 
Jacob Morgan, Jr., April. 177S, to 1783. 


Delegates to Provincial Conference, June i8, 1776 

Jacob Morgan 
Henry Hr.Iler 
Mark Bird 
Bodo Otto 
Benjamin Spyker 

Daniel Hunter 
Valentine Eckert 
Nicholas Lotz 
Joseph HiestcT 
Charles Shoemaker 

Delegates to Constituticuil Convention, July is, 1776 

Jacob Morgan 
Gabriel Hicster 
John Lesher 
Benjamin Spyker 

Daniel Hunter 
Valentine Eckort 
Charles Slioemaker 
Thomas Jones, Jr. 

Henry Haller, June, 1779, to Aug. 14, 1780. 
Jacob Morgan, Jr., Aug. 14, 1780, to 1783. 

Superintendent of Commissioners of Purchases 

Jacob Morgan, Jr., Aug. 14, 1780, to 178,3. 

Register cf Court of Admiralty 

James Read, Jane 5, 3 7S1. 

Prothonotary of Supreme Cowt 

Edward Burd, Esq., appointed -A-Ug. 12. 1778 ; he con- 
tinued until Jan. 20, 1780, when he was re-appointcd. 

C'onunittec on Correspondence, July 2, 1774 

Edward Biddle Christopher Schu'tz 

James Read Thomas Dundas 

Daniel Brodhead Jonathan Potts 
Henry Christ 

Committee on Observation, Dec. 5, 1774 

Metnbers of Assembly 

Edward Eiddle 
Christopher Schult? 
Jonathan Potts 
William Reeser 
Balser Geehr 
Alichael Bright 
John Patton 
]\Iark Bird 

John Jones 

John Old 
Sebastian Levan 
George Xagcl 
Christopher Witnian 
Jacob Shoemaker 
James Lewis 

Colonels of Associated Battalions, 177J 

Balser Geehr 
Christian Lower xiuiuer ;-",'' r>enjdm,n weiser 1.01 Edward Biddle 

P, ^ , 7S, 81 John Bishop .1731 Mark Bird 

Balser Geehr 1777 Darnel Ulymer . 1782 '83 Jonathan Potts 

'80, 81 Abraham Lincoln. . 17s2, 83 i.-. n_,,,„. 

Edward Biddle 1774 Valentine Eckert 1779 

'75, '78 Christian Lower 1779 

Henry Christ 1774. '75 '82, '83 

Henry Haller 177G George Ege 1779 

John Lesher 1776 '80, '82 Edward Biddle 

James Read 1777 Jonathan Jones. 1779 Mark Bird 

Benjamin Spyker 1777 John Patton 1780 '82 Daniel Brodhead 

Sebastian Levan 1777 Thomas Miliiin 1780 ,■ ' r~ 

'78, '79 loseph Hiester 1780. 'SI Standing Committee, 1775 

Daniel Hunter _m7 Benjaniin ^Weiser 17S1 Edward Biddle Collinson Read. Sec. 

Valentine Eckert 
Nicholas Lotz. Chairman 

T ^. -, ,, ,,„o X- 1 . 1 . ,-c, 'o., Daniel Brodhead • Sebastian Levan 

Jonathan Potts..- 1.78 Nichoi.-iS Lulz 1.S2, 83 p^i^^^ r^^u^ u- 1 1 t 

Mark Bird 177S. 'SO '^^''^'^ '^^^^^ Richard -Tea 

Gabriel Hicster 1778 John Ludwig 1782 Lieutenants of County 

'79, '81 John Rice . .' 1783 

Jacob Morgan, June 9, 1777, to 17S0; Valentine Eckert, 

Edward Biddle was Speaker of the Assembly for the Jan. 8, 1781, to 1783. 
year 1774-75. c j, r • 

The representation of the county was as follows: Two i,ub-Ueiitenants 

for the years 1774 and 1775, and six for the remaining tfenry Shoemaker 

years. Christian Lower, Jr. 

The foregoing Representatives were elected the several Valentine Eckert 

years named for the term of one year. ^ , _ ,,-,■• 

I aynxisters of Ccuvty Mintta 

Executive Ccuncillors t^ • , tt , ,, ^ , 

Daniel Hunter, 177fi, to -Aug. 2.">. 1777; Henry Spyker, 

Richard Tea ("ironmaster of Hereford township) was .Aug. 2G. 17'. 7. to 17S3. 

a councillor for a time. He was elected in 17V6, and ■Jerved ,. . , , r, > 

until April, 1777. when he resigned. Superintendent of I urelwscs 

Jacob Morgan, Jr.. was qualified on Sept. 3, 1777. He John Patton. 1778. 

resigned .April 4. 1778. upon accepting the appointment of Commissioners of Forage 
D. Q. M. General. On Mav 25, 1778, an order was drawn 

to him for £301, 5^., f.jr attending Council ISO davs, in- Valentine Eckert 177S Nicholas Lotz.. 1780 to 1783 

eluding mileage. ' J<^''t> Lesher i778 

James Read succeeded him. and was qualified on June y„ OcfolHr. 1779. Col. Michael Linrienmnth was ap- 

30, 1778 On Dec. 1, 1778, he received one vote for Pres- pointed Ccnmiissioner to purcha-e tlour for the iMcnch 

ident of the E.\-ccutive Council. He resigned June 4, 1781. tleet. 

and on the 5th. was elected Register of the Court of .\d- r- ,1 . / r- • 

miraltv f.f Penn<;ylvania. Collectors of F.Aase 

Sebastian Levm, of Maxalawny, was a!<:o a CMunrillor. lo!-,n Biddle 1774 JmIiii Witman 1780-81 

and ofticKited from Oct. 31, 1781, to Oct. 15, 1734. Daniel Levan 1779-80 Ccnrad Foo3 17.S2-83 

Daniel Udree 
Jacob Sweyer 
John vicars 


.. ^ "-( 

."^' ^nh'r.uwuii 'VM. 

'-t'i , . - . . 
■•rvi . . 




Henry Haller, 1778 to 17S3 

Jacob Morgan, Jr., 1778 

Storekeeper at Reading 
Joseph Cowperthwaitc, 1778 

Local Comniittces 

Owing to the aid given h)- dixers inhabitants to the 
enemy, the Council in September, 1777, appointed com- 
mittees to dispose of the prciperty of such otfendcrs and 
make return of their procecdinpfs xindcr oath. The fol- 
lowing comtnittee was appointed lor Berks county : 

County Commissioners 

Samuel Hoch 177.'<-7r) 

Michael Bright 177.J-77 

Abraham Lincoln. .. 177,i-7S 
Christian Lower .... 1777-79 

John Kerlin 1778-80 

Adam Witman 1779-Sl 

Thomas Parry 
David Morgan 
Peter \agel 
Henry Haller 

Dame! Udree 
Henry Sp\kcr 
Joseph Hiester 

This conmiiitec appointed two persons in each district 
to make provision for distressed families whose husbands 
and fathers were in service. The appointees for Reading 
were lienry Hahn and Peter Feather. 

On Nov. Sth. the Council also appointed committees to 
collect arms, clothing, etc., from the inhabiiants who aid 
not take the oath of allegiance, or who aided the enemy, 
and to deliver them to the clothier-general. The com- 
mittee in Berks county was : 

Henry Christ 
Henry Haller 
Thomas Parry 
Daniel L'dree 
Philip Miller 

Xathan Lev\is 
John Lower 
Godfrey Riehm 
Jacob Seltzer 
Nicholas Scheffer 

Committee on Attainder and Vesting Forfeited Estates, lyySi 

Thomas Parry 
Henrv Haller 

David Morgan 

Auditing Committee 

Francis Richardson, Reynold Keene, Colliiisnn Read, 
James Piddle and Henry Haller were appointed Jan. 23, 
1777, commissioners for the county, to audit and settle 
the accounts for arms and accoutrements purcliased, the 
property of persons lost in actual service, and of those 
who were killed, died in service, or were made prisoners. 


Peter Spycker 177.5-83 

George Douglass. .. 177r,-83 

P.alser Geehr 177.".-83 

John Patton 1775-77 

Jacob Morgan 1775-77 

Mark Bird 1775-70 

Jonathan Potts 1776-77 

Daniel Levan 1777 

Sebastian Zimmerman .... 


William Recser 1778-83 

Peter Spycker was appointed president judge of all the 
courts on Nov. IS, 1780. • 

Jtcstices of the Peace 

1777 — Henry Christ, Readinij;; Jacob Shoemaker. Wind- 
sor; Janies Read, Reading; D;iniel Hiester, Heidelberg; 
Peter Spycker, Tulpeliocken ; Jacob WVavcr, John Old, 
.\mity; John Ludwig, Exeter; P.enj. Sliott ; Cliristopher 
Schuitz, ikreford: Sannu 1 iCly, Richmond; Jacob Wag- 
oner, Bern; Daniel RoiIuthhI, Maiclen-( reek ; Charles 
Slioiniaker, Windsor; ICgedius Meyer. Jacob .Morgan, 
Caernarvon ; Thcnias Parry, Union. 

1778 — Benjamin Wei-^er, Hei.lrllicrg: Michael Lindeii- 
niiiih, Bern; Gabriel Hiester, Bern, 

17MI — John Guldin, 0!ty. 

Thomas Tones 1780-82 

Thomas Parry.. ,.1781-83 

Daniel Messersmith 


Michael Furrer 1783 

a . . ^, . . ■ 


George Xagel 1775 Henry Hoffa 1780-81 

Henry Vanderslice,, 1776-77 Philip Kraemer 1782-83 

Daniel Levan ..1778-79 


Christopher 1775-79 Daniel Levan 1780-83 


The assessors appointed by the county commissioners 
for tlie years r.anied were: 

1776 — Vernor Stamm. Michael Furrer, Prul Geiger, 
John Spohn, John Kerlin. John F.gner. 

1777 — John Hartman, Michael i'urrer, John Robinson, 
John Egner, George Kelchner, Joseph Sands, 


The surrender of Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown 
on Oct. 19, 1781, was virtually the end of the war 
between Great Britain and America. The news 
of the surrender reached London or the Bath of 
November, following. Several months afterward, 
the warfare in the American Colonies was discussed 
and its continuance discouraged in the House of 
Commons. T}iesc discussions were continued with 
earnestness till they culminated in a preliminary 
treaty of peace on Nov. 30. 1 TS-3. In the first arti- 
cle of this treaty, "the independence of the thirteen 
United States of America" was recogriized. The 
treaty was not made final then, owing to the three 
allied powers- — Great Britain, Prance and Spain — 
having been pledged to one another not to conclude 
3 treaty- except by common consent. The final 
treaty was concluded at t^aris on Sept, o, 1783, and 
thereby the United States was acknowledged to be 
"free, sovereign and independent," 

During these two years of negotiation and de- 
lay, there were no general military operation>. But 
groat anxiety was felt over the prospects tor a per- 
manent peace. Through the inactivity of the army, 
the ofticers and soldiers became restless ; aLo dis- 
contented, because they were not rewarded for 
their patriotic services. An attempt was made 
by anonvmous and seditious publications to inflame 
their minds and to induce them to unite in redress- 
ing their grievances whiNt they had arms in tKcir 
hands. But Washington succeeded in quieting 
them. His wisdom and eloquence elicited from the 
otiiccrs the unanimous adoption of a resolution by 
which they declared "that no circumstances of dis- 
tress or danger .should induce a conduct that might 
tend to sully the reputation and glory they had ac- 
f|uin'fi ; that the army continued to have unshaken 
confidence in the justice of Congress and their 
country ; and that they viewed with abhorrence and 

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rejected with disdain tiie infamous proposition in 
the late aiionvmous address to the officers of the 

Return' of Soi.uieks. — In order to avoid tlie in- 
conveniences of (hsmibsing a great number of sul- 
diers in a body, furiouglis were freely granted. In 
this way, a great jiart of the unpaid army was dis- 
banded and di-ipersed over the Slates without tu- 
mult or disorder. As they had been easily and 
speedily formed out of farmers, mechanics and la- 
borers in ITT.J, so with equal facility did they throw 
off their military character and resume their for- 
mer occupations. They had taken up arms earn- 
estly for political freedom, but when these were no 
longer necessary, they laid them down peaceably 
to become again good citizens, as they had been 
for eight years patriotic soldiers. 


Cause. — As early as ITot), the province of Penn- 
sylvania had looked to excise on ardent spirits for 
the means of sustaining its bills of credit. The 
original law was limited to a period of ten years; 
but it was extended from time to time as necessi- 
ties pressed upon the treasury. During the Revo- 
lution, the law was generally evaded in the we-t- 
ern part of the Stale by couc^idering all spirits as 
for domestic use, such having been excepted from 
excise. But, when the debts of the Revolution be- 
gan to press upon the States, the government offi- 
cials became more vigilant in the enforcement of 
the law and Congress, after a long debate, passed 
an Act in March. 1791. increasing the duty on im- 
ported spirits and levying a tax of four pence ])er 
gallon on all distilled spirits, which went into o])era- 
tion in July following. The Legislature had in- 
-structcd their representatives in Congress to vote 
against the law. 

Opposition arose at once in the western counties 
of the State, and resolutions were adopted at pub- 
he meetings demanding an unconditional aii]>eal. 
Liberty-poles were erected, and people even as- 
sembled in arm? to resist officers in the enforce- 
ment of the law. Various public excitements con- 
tinved until 1791, when an insurrection ensued. 
Governor Mifflin declined to call out the militia to 
suppress the insurrection, and. as a consequence, 
the spirit extended into contiguous States. 

President Washington called on Pennsylvania, 
N>w Jersey. Maryland and \'irginia for fifteen 
thousand men. and sent conmiissioners to the scene 
of the disturbance in Washington countv. with 
power to arrange for jicaceful sulnni-sion an\- time 
before Sept. 11, 179 1. P.ut the comniis-inners re- 
trrncd to Philadelphia ten (lay= after that date 
without a 'settlement. The trooj)s were prmuptiv 
put in molion, the governors of the several States 
named conmianding their respective Ciov<.r- 
nor Lee, of \'irginia, had chief command <>\ the 

arniv. Un the ap))earance of the troops in Novem- 
ber, the insurrection subsided. There was no oppo- 
sition and no bloodshed. Among the Pennsylvania 
troops, there was a company from Reading, under 
the command of Caj^t. Daniel De B. Keim. This 
company was formed from certain . survivors of 
the Continental army, which had been commanded 
by Lieut. -Col. Nicholas Lotz, and was called the 
"Reading Union Volunteers." It was afterward 
known as the "Reading Artillerists." This insur- 
rection cost the government SI. 100, 000. 

Troops from Countv. — The proportion of troops 
which was to be supplied by Berks county toward 
the quota of Pennsylvania militia under the requi- 
sition of the President of the United States, was 
434 officers and privates, and ?(> cavalry. The 4o4 
men were placed under the command of Brig. -Gen. 
I'rancis Murray, in the 2d Brigade. The Adjutant- 
General of the State issued an order on Sept. 11, 
1794. requiring the quota for the counties of Bucks, 
Northampton and Berks to assemble at Reading, 
receive arms, equipments and camp equipage, and 
march thence by way of Harrisburg to Carlisle. 

The Quartermaster-General of T'ennsylvania, 
Clement Biddle, arrived at Reading on Sunday 
evening, Sept. 28, 1794. In a letter by him to Gov- 
ernor Mifflin dated the day following, he remarked 
about the Berks county troops : "Colonel Cowperth- 
waite had collected four hundred men in the en- 
campment at Peter.s's farm, who were fully fur- 
nished with everything Ihey^ required. The drafts 
from the county continued to come in and he pro- 
posed marching tomorrow." And he reported that 
Captain Forrest's troopb had moved from Read- 
ing on Saturday (27th ) ; that he expected the 
P.ucks County Militia here on aOth ; and that the 
Militia of Berks County would assemble on Oct. 
1st ; also that the rear of the Jersey troops would 
march from here on the .'M)th under General 

Wasiiixgtox at Reading, — In anotiier letter to 
Governor ATifflin, dated at Reading. Oct. 2, 17D1, 
he stated that — "The President was here last night, 
and went on this morning to Carlisle." He also re- 
ported then that "the cavalry of this county [P.erks] 
are bv this time at Carlisle. Captain Spayd has a 
fine companv of infantry readv to march, and I shall 
hasten the drafts from the county oft to-morrow." 
The cavalrv mentioned was ?^Ioore's. 

Cause. — During the early ])art of Adams's ad- 
ministration. Congress passed an Act requiring a 
direct tax to be ievierl upon houses. This tax was 
called the "honse-ta.x."' also "window-tax." The 
Federal government, in collecting it in \.{ie eastern 
counties of Pennsylvania, caused considerable ex- 
citement and opposition, which eventually broke out 
in an insurrection in 17'.»9. The leader was John 
IVies. of Bucks county, who was tried and convictcl 
of high treason and sentenced to be hanged, but 
President A;kuus. against the advice of his cab- 
inet pardoned him. and also issued a general am- 


. )<;• 



ncsty for all the offenders. The excitement extend- 
ed into the northeastern border of Berks county. 

RxciTEMEXT AT RE.xniXG. — Thc insurrection was 
indirectly the cause of a considerable commotion at 
Reading. Certain troops were called out to sn]j- 
press the insurrection : and among' them was Cap- 
tain Montgomery's company of Light Dragoons 
from Lancaster. Their way to the scene of excite- 
ment was through Reading. Upon arriving here 
they cut down certain "Liberty-poles,'' insulted the 
people, etc. ; and these unwarranted performances 
induced the Adlcr to publish a letter, criticising 
their conduct. This appeared whilst the company 
was on the way to Northampton county. F.ut upon 
their return they heard of it, and this naturally 
developed in them as soMiers a spirit of revenge. 
So' they went to Jacob Schneider, the senior pro- 
prietor of the Adlcr, and demanded from him the 
name of the person who had written the letter con- 
demning and ridiculing them. But he refused to 
comply and his refusal led the soldiers to spend 
their anger on him by taking him forcibly to the 
market-house and giving him a certain number of 

Xir. Schneider made complaint before a justice 
of the peace and caused the criminals to be arrested, 
but Captain Montgomery denied the authority to 
make the arrest^ and the matter was referred to 
General Macpherson, who said iie would look into 
it. By the time Montgomery's troops returned to 
Reading on their way home, Stroheckcr liad erected 
3 liberty-pole in the place of the one erected by his 
children. Hearing this, the soldiers went to Stro- 
hecker's place and attempted to compel a common 
laborer to cut down the "offensive wood," notwith- 
standing he protested against doing so. They suc- 
ceeded in divesting the pole, and with it as a trophy 
they rode through thc streets of Reading to their 
quarters. In a few days they left, but on the 24th 
of April an army, mider Gen. IMacphcrson. arrived 
at Reading. They apprehended some of the insur- 
rectionists, who were afterward tried ; some of them 
were found guilty, some fined and imprisoned, and 
others condemned to be capitally punished ; but 
none atoned with their lives — they were pardoned 
through executive clemency. 

Kkim's Company Compltmextkd. — Upon the 
breaklng-up of the headquarters at Reading, on 
April 22, 1799, General Macpherson addressed the 
following interesting letter to Capt. Daniel Keim : 

While I conprntnl.Tte >on and the company you com- 
mand on their return lionic, I take an additiijnal pleasure in 
expressing my complete satisfaction with every part of 
their steady and soldier-liko conduct during a very fa- 
tiguing thouRh short expedition. It is much to be rc- 
Rretted that in a country blessed as this i-. by an cxcelh-iit 
constitution faithfully administered, there should be found 
any portion of its inhnbitanis so ignorant, or so wicked, 
as to oppose laws peculiarly adapted to thc case of the 
niass of the people, since tlie burden falls inmicdiately 
upon the opulent. lUit it i.s a great consolation to see 
^^cntlcmcn, such as compose your comp:u!\-. come forward 
•nnd biave fatigue and danger in 'iupprirt of thc honor 
and happines.s of their country. Accept, sir, iny sincere 

thanks for this instance of your patriotisni and be pleased 
to convey to every individual my particular acknowledg- 
ments, best wishes and at'fectionate farewell. 

Congress passed an Act on Dec. 22, 1S07, laying 
an embargo on all the ships and vessels in the ports 
and harbors of the United States in pursuance of 
a recommendation of President Jefferson. It pro- 
hibited the departure of all American vessels and 
all foreign vessels, except those in ballast. No 
merchandise whatever was to be exported. The 
Act was not simply to save American ships froin 
danger, as Jefferson suggested in his message, but 
it was a measure of aggression against England. 
It was unpopular in ]jroportion as men were or 
were not engaged in commerce. The maritime 
States thought th?t the agricultural States took a 
special satisfaction in a quasi war, of which all the 
burden fell at first upon commerce; but the burden 
at length became universal. Thc men whose to- 
bacco, corn and cotton could not be sent to market 
soon learned that they also, as well as the carriers 
of those products, wore paying a heavy tax by this 
interdiction of conmicrce. Under the pressure of 
public opinion, this Act was repealed on March 1, 
1800, and another Act was then substituted which 
interdicted the commercial intercourse between the 
L^nitcd States, Great Britain and France, and 
forbade imports from Europe. From this policy of 
non-intercourse and from other difficulties, wliich in 
a state of war hindered importations from Europe, 
there v.'as born unexpectedly that gigantic system 
under which the United States has become a great 
manufacturing nation. 

During this interdiction, the people of Berks 
county began to feel the evil effects of this policy 
of non-intercourse. A number of millers and other 
citizens met at Reading on April 11, 1812, "for the 
purpose of t.aking into consideration the late meas- 
ures of Congress, the perilous situation of otir com- 
mon country, and of consulting and devising such 
means or measures as may tend to relieve us from 
the distress which impends over u«" ; and passed res- 
olutions disapproving of the action of Congress. 

ENGLISH WAR, 1812-15 
Cause. — The Revolution was carried to a suc- 
cessful termination, and Independence, which the 
Colonies had declared in 177G, was thereby estab- 
lished. But though peace was declared to exist be- 
tween the two nations, the British government con- 
ducted itself persistently in an offensive manner 
toward thc people of the L'nited States, their com- 
merce, etc.. and to their great injury for thirty 
years. The United States governrnent passed natur- 
alization laws whereby foreigners C'-uld be natur- 
alized and become citizens, but the Briti>li g<jvern- 
ment contended that a British subject cotdd not be 
naturalized, and claimed the right of stoj^ping 
L'nited States vessels, searching for seamen of Eng- 
lisli birth, and imprcs>ing them into their service. 

iij :- 

t. • ' 



In exercising^ this ricrht, tliey stationed ships at 
harbors of the United States and searched every 
departing and arriving vessel. They were so vigi- 
lant that within a period of eight years they cap- 
tured nine hundred vessels and impressed over six 
thousand seamen into their navy. All this humilia- 
tion was borne with patience, but finally the com- 
plaints became too loud, and the injuries too griev- 
ous to be endured any longer, and President Madi- 
son made them the subject of a message to Con- 
gress on June 1, 181?, which ended in a declaration 
of war on June 19, 1812. 

Anticipating this Declaration of War, Governor 
Snyder issued an Order on May 12th, requiring the 
quota of troops from Pennsylvania, fourteen thous- 
and, to be promptly raised and formed into tv.'o 
divisions. The first division included the troops 
from Berks county and was placed under the com- 
mand of ^laj.-Gen. Isaac Worre'l. A noble res- 
ponse was made to this call; for the troops tendered 
exceeded three times the quota requested. 

The naval battle on Lake Eric was fought on 
Sept. 10, 1S13, with brilliant success. Commodore 
Perry then sent his famous despatch to General 
Harrison : "We have met the enemy, and they our 
ours." The news reached Reading on the 21 th of 
September following, and a grand illumination of 
the town took place in the evening from 7 till 10 
o'clock, to sig^ialize the glorious c^euL. 

Families fkom PiixLADEr,;>inA. — PJuring thi:. 
period a number of English families, resident at 
Philadelphia, left the city for the interior parts oi 
the country owing to a law which required them 
to move away from the sea-coast and ports at least 
fifty miles. Som.e of these families went to Read- 
ing, and took quarters at the "Tyson Inn," at the 
head of Franklm street (where the Park public 
school is situated). Whilst here (in August, 1814> 
the city of \\'ashington was captured by the English, 
who wantonly destroyed the government buildings, 
excepting the patent office. This news caused 
these families to rejoice ; and, to express their joy, 
they carried on dancing with the assistance of 
music; but they misconceived the temper of the 
German people of this inland borough, and soon 
found that their conduct wounded their national 
pride. In the midst of their demonstrations, they 
were suddenly attacked by a party of c'tizens, and 
the attack was made so earne"^tlv as to require the 
building to be closed and the performance to be 

This destruction of the Capitol and public build- 
ings at Washington, and the threatened attack on 
Baltimore by the enemy shortly afterward, brought 
the war near to Pennsylvania. The inarch of the 
enemy toward the interior by way of the Potomac 
river and Chesapeake bay naturally stimulated the 
military spirit of the State and a great number of 
men rallied in her defen-c. Whon the news reached 
Reading this spirit hecaine tiioroughly aroused in 
the entire countv. 

CoMP.\xiES FKOM CouxTV, — There were eleven 
companies enlisted in this war from Berks county, 
classified with the 2d Brigade, under the command 
of }^Iaj.-Gen. Daniel Udree, oi Oley, in tv.-o regi- 
ments: the 1st Regiment, commanded by Lieut. - 
Cul. Jeremiah Shapi)ell, of Windsor, and the 2d, 
by Lieut.-Col. John Lotz, of Reading. 

Eight of the companies in the 1st Regiment were 
commanded by the follov/ing captains: 

John May George Ritter 

Jchn Mauser - Henry Willotz 

Jacob Marshall Jonathan Jones 

George Marx George Ziebcr 

And three of the companies in the 2d, by the fol- 
lowing captains : 

Thomas Moore Gabriel Old 

John Chri.stman 

These eleven companies Vv-ere stationed at 
York, Pennsylvania, from September, 1814, to 
?ilarch, 1815. 

There was a twelfth company from the county, 
the Reading Washington Guards, commanded bv 
Capt. Daniel Dc B. Keim. It rendered service at 
Wilmington, Delaware, in the latter part of Sep- 
tember, 1814; and afterward it was attached to the 
"Advance Light Brigade"' as the 11th Company in 
the 1st Regiment of the Penna. Volunteer Infantry, 
commanded by General Cadwalader, with which it 
continued until the close of the war. 

Pe.-\ci-: Declared. — Peace was concluded at Ghent 
on Dec. 24, 1814, but it was not till Feb. 22, 1815, 
that the event became known at Reading. During 
that day, the citizens of the borough signalized it 
by shooting off cannon, and at night by a grand 
illumination in which sixteen hundred pounds of 
candles were consumed. 

^lEXICAX WAR, 181G TO 1848 
Cause. — The Mexican war arose out of the ques- 
tion relating to the annexation of Texas to the 
United States. The constitution of Alexico prohib- 
ited slavery in Texas, and this p'ovision was a sufli- 
cient reason why ttie Southern States should wish 
to control it. President Adams and also President 
Jackson had made fruitlesr. efforts to buy the prov- 
ince; and subsequcntK for some years the scheme 
of annexation was considered. One of the last acts 
of Jackson's official life was the appointment of an 
oP.lcial agent to Texas, thereby acknowledging the 
independence of the province. This was looked 
upon as the first step toward obtaining possession 
of territory large enough for five new slave States. 
Henceforward, the project was urged with persist- 
ence, but little success till about 1S42. when Presi- 
dent Tyler gave it his encouragement. It was ar- 
gued that if slavery were abolished in Texas, the 
ruin of the Souihern States was inevitable, but if 
the province were annexed to the T'niou, the fniure 
of tlie slave States would be brilliant. 

In 1841, Calhoun became Secretary of State, and 
he "believed in annexation at anv cu;t, " and Pre^i- 

J!:' ; 

),' •.' .Mi; 

:.':7 ■•['. :;nr 



dent Tyler jiistified Callioun's invitation to Texas 
to join the United States because he thought Great 
Uritain was engaged in a diplomatic intrigue to 
abolish slavery in Texas. Calhoun then made a 
treaty with Texas in reference to annexation with- 
out the consent of ^Mexico, but offered ^lexico $10,- 
000,000 as an indemnity. At the close of Tyler's 
administration, a joint resolution was passed annex- 
ing Te.xas ; and Tyler acting under this resolution, 
the annexation was carried. But as Tyler went out 
of office with the scheme carried through Congress, 
Polk came into office with the certainty of war with 
Mexico. In the beginning of INIay, l.S-K;. the regu- 
lar troops imder General Taylor were intercepted 
along the Rio Grande by the Alexican troops under 
General Arista, and the battles of Palo Alto and 
Rcsaca de la Palma ensued. Before the news of 
these events reached Washington, Congress had de- 
clared war on the 13th of May, and authorized the 
President to call for fifty thousand volunteers for 
one year. After carrying on war for nearly two 
years, the Mexicans were conquered, and a treaty 
of peace was signed in February, 1848, at the City 
of Mexico, whereby the United States acquired not 
only Texas, but also Arizona, New Mexico and 

Reading Artillerists. — During the excitement, 
a great patriotic feeling was developed at Reading, 
and on Mav 20, 18 Id, a large town meeting was 
held, presided over by Chief Burgess William I'.etz ; 
at which the national government was sustained. 
A second meeting was held on the next day, at 
which appropriate resolutions v.'ere adopted, ap- 
proving the course of President Polk. A prominent 
prevailing sentiment was — "Our country, our whole 
country, our country right or wrong." And dur- 
ing that week the volunteer companies of Reading, 
— Reading Artillerists. Washington Grays, and 
National Grays— tendered their services to the 
, President. The first company, commanded by Capt. 
Thomas S. Leoser, was accepted. 

A town-meeting was held in the Court-House on 
Dec. 19, 184G, for the purpose of devising means 
to aid the volunteers and a committee of prominent 
citizens was appointed to escort the C(>mpany to 
Philadelphia. The meeting recommended to tOAvn 
council that one thousand dollars be appropriated 
toward the comfort of the soldiers and the relief 
of such of their families as needed assistance, and 
subsequently a loan for this amount was authorized. 
A similar apprcvpriation was recommended by the 
grand jury of the county on the 5th of January, 
following, to be made by the county commissioners. 

Departure for Mexico. — The company left 
Reading for Philadelph.ia on Dec. 2C>th. and arrived 
on the afternoon of the same day. .\fter their ex- 
amination, the I'nited States Surgeon pronounced 
them the finest body of men he had vet ])assed into 
the service. On the day previous to their depar- 
ture, the ofiicers were the recipients of numerous 
tcstitnonials of regard, the workmen of the railroad 

company's shops distinguishing themselves in this 
respect. The Captain and the Second and Third 
Lieutenants were in the company's employ. The 
officers were presented with swords. Sergeant Mc- 
Michael was presented an elegant sword, revolver, 
sash, belt and accoutrements by his friends and 
shopmates engaged at Johnston's foundry. And 
numerous pistols and liibies were also presented. 

The Artillerists left Philadelphia by railroad on 
Monday morning, December ::.'8th, and arrived at 
Plarrisburg in the afternoon. They proceeded by 
railroad to Carlisle and Chambersburg, where they 
arrived on Tuesday morning, at 2 o'clock. After 
breakfast, they immediately proceeded afoot on 
their way to Pittsburgh. That day they walked to 
McConnellsburg, twenty-two miles, and Wednesday 
they walked to Bloody Run, twenty-six miles. The 
distance was arranged tliat Pittsburgh might be 
reached by Tuesday, Jan. -tth. Three large six- 
horse baggage teams accompanied them, having 
been sup])lied by Joel Ritter, who was sent by the 
citizens of Reading to pay their exi)enses to Pitts- 
burgh. They arrived on Jan. 5th. On the same 
day, the company were mustered into the service 
of the United States, as Company A, in the 2d 
Regiment of Pennsylvania Volunteers, under the 
command of Col. William P.. Roberts. 

B.attles Engaged in. — The company, with other 
companies, left Pittsburgh on the 8th of January, 
in the boat "Anthony Wayne," and proceeded by 
wav of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers to New 
Orleans, arriving there on the loth. It sen'cd with 
distinction throughout the war and was [)articularly 
recognized for its bravery. It was engaged in the 
following battles: Vera Cruz. March 10th to 28th; 
Cerro Gordo, April 18th; Chapultepec, Sept. 12th; 
Belen Gate, Sept. 13th. 

Return of Co>rrANY. — The City of T^Ie.xico was 
taken on the 14th of September, the ^Mexicans hav- 
ing evacuated the capital during the previous night, 
owing to the capture of the San Cosmo Causeway 
and the Belen Road. The troops, including Com- 
pany A, were stationed in this famous city till the 
18th of December, when they were removed to San 
Angel, at which place they continued till peace was 
declared. Thev were ordered home in June, 1848, 
and then inarched to Vera Cruz (consuming about 
a month in the march) where they took transporta- 
tion for New Orleans. 1 hence they proceeded up 
the Mississippi and Ohio rivers to Pittsburgh, and 
were there mustered out of service on the 21st of 
July. They then took packets and traveled by canal 
to Harrisburg. and thence by railroad to Phila- 
delphia and Reading. Some of the men went by 
stage directlv to Reading. Upon their arrival, on 
the 2rtth of July, thcv were given a brilliant military 
reception. Numerous Iniildings and streets were 
handsomelv decorated with flags and wreaths. 

CIVIL WAR. 18(;i to is(!.-i 
Cause. — The Civil war broke out in A])ril. 18(n. 
The direct cause was the agitation of the subject 


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whicli related to slavery. After ISoO, the extension 
of slaverv on the one hand, and its restriction on 
the other, became thoroug-hly national questions and 
their animated disca^^ion re>ulted in a severe 
struggle for the supremacy. Till this time, the 
.South had control of political affairs through lead- 
ership and legislation, hut the Southern statesmen 
then saw that their political power was in reality 
passing away through the wonderful growth of 
the Xorth in population and wealth, and in political 
representation in the national government. A sim- 
ilar growth could not be effected in the South ; so 
its leaders desired to extend the rights of slavery. 
This was particularly apjjarent upon the admission 
•of Kansas as a State. 

The Republican party, the exponent of restrict- 
ing slavery to territory then occupied, became an 
active political factor in the country in ISoG; but 
its Presidential candidate was defeated. Threats 
•of secession by the Southern States had been made 
about that time, and it was thought that if the Re- 
publican party had been successful, secession would 
have been attempted. For four years this question 
v/as prominent above all other questions. Buchanan 
preserved the peace during his administration, but 
he could not preserve the balance of power. Pub- 
lic opinion grew more favorable toward the Re- 
publican party, and in 18G0 this party appeared be- 
fore the people with renewed strength. During 
that time the Democratic party agitated the ([uestion 
of slavery to such an extent that two branches of 
the party were created, one. the Douglas branch, 
for submitting the qut stion to the people of a new 
State upon its erection, anrl the other, the Brecken- 
ridge branch, for submitting it to the Supreme court 
for adjudication under the national Constitution; 
and in the Presidential campaign of ISGO their poli- 
tical power was divided. The party was still strong- 
enough, as a whole, to elect a candidate; but it 
was not strong enough to bear a division, especially 
such a division as Douglas was able to create by 
the support which he had -won through public dis- 

Lincoln, the Republican catulidate, was elected. 
From the sentiments of his party, especially from 
the sentiments of its ultra-leaders, who were styled 
"Abolitionists." the Southern leaders felt con- 
strained to take earnest steps toward secession, and 
these were taken between the day nf the election in 
November and the day of Lincoln's inauguration in 
March, not only vigorously but successfullv without 
the slightest hindrance on the part of the national 
government. Prominent cabinet official-, senators 
and representatives withdrew from their respective 
positions and caused their several States to pass 
ordinances of secession, declaring the contract be- 
tween them aud the national government broken. 

When Lincoln took possession of the government, 

the status wa^ not only discouraging bv.t alarming. 

In his inaugural address he stated that ap[)rehcn- 

sion seemed to exist among the people nf the 

- Southern States that, bv the accession of a Republi- 

can administration, their property, peace and per- 
.^onal security were to be endangered, but that there 
never had been any reasonable cause for such ap- 
prehension; and he declared that he had no pur- 
pose, directly or indirectly, to interfere with the in- 
stitution of slavery in the States where it e.xisted ; 
he had no inclination to do so on the one hand, and 
on the other he had no lawful right, and those who 
had elected him did so with the full knowledge that 
he had made these declarations, which he had never 
recanted. Notwithstanding his plain and direct lan- 
guage to perform the duties of his office according 
to the Constitution and laws, without any mental 
reservations or any purposes to construe them by 
hypercritical rules ; and his expressed sentiments for 
peace and inseparable union of the States, the 
Southern leaders persisted in secession and dis- 

Call for Troops. — On the morning of the 12th 
of April, 1>S61, the military forces of Soutli Carol- 
ina, under the leadership of Gen. Robert Beaure- 
gard, began to tire uixm Fort Sumter, which was 
under the command of Maj. Robert Anderson. 
The President, finding the laws of the country 
opposed and the execution thereof obstructed in 
seven Southern States (South Carolina, Georgia, 
Florida, Alabama, ^lississippi, Louisiana, and Tex- 
as) "by combinations too powv'rful to be suppressed 
by the ordinary course of judicial proceedings or by 
the powers vested in the marshals by law," issued 
a proclamation on the 15th flay of A])ril, calling 
for sevcntv-five thousand militia of the several 
States of the Union, "to suppress said combina- 
tions and to cause the laws to be duly executed" ; 
and he appealed "to all loyal citizens to favor, facil- 
itate and aid this effort to maintain the honor, in- 
tegrity and existence of our national Union, and 
the perpetuity of popular government, and to re- 
dress the wrongs already long enough endured.'" 
A requisition was made on Pennsylvania for six- 
teen regiments, two being wanted within three days, 
inasnmch as the city of Washington was entirely 
unprotected and a sudden dash upon it was strongly 

The national government had not before done 
anything to cause the South to feel alarmed, and 
it was hoped that this simple manifestation of ex- 
ecutive authority woidd restore peace, but the or- 
ganization at the Soutn was too thorough, and its 
purpose to establish a confederation by itself too 
])remeditat(:-d. I\fen therefore rushed to arms; call 
after call for troops was made; thousands of lives 
were sacrificed ; and millions of dollars were ex- 
jiended, in the two sections, for a right which each 
claimed, the one to establish a confederation and 
the other to maintain constituted authority; and 
this terrible contest continued four years before 
peace was restored. 

P.\TRiOTis>r OF CouxTV. — TIic feeling in the 
count V for maintaining the Union ;nul upholding 
the constitution was strong and continuous during 
the entire period from the beginning to the close 

. ■)!;•;.:,•-: 

;■ '-'If.- 



of the war; and this wa:^ exhibited by Democrats 
and Repubhcans alike. Brcckcnridu,re had received 
a inaioritv over Lincohi. excecdinc^ two thousand 
votes, but the sentiment for the Union v.-as general 
in all the districts, especially at Reading. Com- 
panies >vere raised rapidly and mustered into ser- 
vice, altogether 10-1, almo^t entirely enlisted in and 
from the county, and they went to the rescue 
freely, moved by the highest patriotic impulse. Pub- 
lic meetings were numerous and earnest sympathy 
for the cause was manifested at all of them. The 
prominent men took the lead. Our judges, law- 
yers, merchants and business men generall}-, with- 
out respect to party affiliations, united to encourage 
and sustain the national administration. Their pro- 
nounced opinion in the matter created and pre- 
served a proper spirit in the community. The 
county and city governments were constantly liberal 
in appropriations of money toward encouraging 
volunteer enlistments. 

The county contained a large majoritv of people 
who were against the war, if we inteqsret their 
opinion from the exercise of their political suftrage 
at elections ; but they were submissive and they 
caused no trouble, no riotous demonstration. They 
went to the war by the thousand ; they endured 
conscription without opposition ; and they permitted 
the assessment of burdensome taxation. They en- 
couraged appropriations of money, amounting to 
nearly a million of dollars, expressly for the enlist- 
ment of men; and they invested large sums of 
m.oney in the national securities. These, taken to- 
gether, truly constitute significant evidence of de- 
votion to their country and to the administration 
of its affairs by an opposite party, a party whose 
principles were not onlv different from theirs, but 
in fact objectionable, if not repulsive, to them. 
Their general co-operation under such circumstan- 
ces is therefore commendable. 

Capt. James ]\IcKnight offered his company of 
Ringgold Light Artillery, and it was the Hrst mili- 
tary organization that responded to the call for 
troops by the President and moved to the defense 
of the country. This historical fact is worthy of 
especial mention, for in it our people take a just, 
patriotic pride ; and it is a distinction in this great 
crisis of our coimtry which no other community 
enjoys. Hon. William ^I. Hiester prepared a 
paper to establish the fact beyond question, and 
read it before the Historical Society of Berks 
County on June 14. 18T0. 

During this period, the excitement throughout 
the county was ever active, and several times when 
the State was invaded by the Rebels, and our own 
county was threatened with the horrors of war, it 
became alarming. This was particularly the case 
at Reading. Penn Square was dailv, more or less, 
in commotion with the enlistment of men, the for- 
mation and exercise of companies and their depart- 
ure to the seat of war or their return from it. The 
music of fife and drum and the marching of men 
(fathers, hu.<;bands, brothers and sons) thrilled the 

entire communitv time and again. These were, in- 
deed, events that made a lasting impression upon 
that generation. 

The encampments (one in the northern part of 
Reading in liSG"2, and another in the eastern part 
in l.S(;;j) attracted much attention. They afforded 
the people an opi)ortunity of forming a proper con- 
ception of camp life and military discipline. If 
our peaceful inhabitants did not realize the actual 
terrors and horrors of warfare by the booming of 
cannon, the explosion of shells and the destruction- 
of property; if they did not see blood and death 
in tiieir highways and upon their fields as the 
evidence of bitter opposition and revenge; they 
saw officers and soldiers in uniforms and witnessed 
military exercises with tl;e weapons of war, and 
thev knew by their own personal observations that 
earnest preparations were made for encounters 
with the enemy. 

How they looked at these military cities, with 
tents and streets under strict regulation! how they 
watched the men in drill, by platoons and com- 
panies and battalions ! how they pointed out gen- 
erals and colonels and captains as the men who- 
had been in war and passed safely through the 
jaws of death ! But when the wounded, the dyin.g 
and the dead were brought home to them, then 
they felt that the curse of rebellion was in the 

The "Union League," a Republican association 
at Reading, orgain'zed after the great "Union 
League" at Philadeliihia, was very active in en- 
listing men for military service ; and so were the 
various secret societies, especially the "Junior Sons 
of America." 

In the midst of the great excitement incident to 
the general feeling for war and the necessary 
preparations to carry it on successfully, our local 
energy displayed itself to a remarkable degree in 
everv departirient of business. Trade was active 
and profitable, and it stimulated various enter- 
•prises. Railroads were projected and .substantial 
improvements were made in every section of the 
county, especially at Reading ; and matters per- 
taining to education and religion were directed 
with earnestness and success. The ])rices of all 
kinds of material were high ; but money was 
abundant and a spirit of increased liberality kept 
it moving about actively from hand to hand, from 
store to store, from bank to bank, and from place 
to place. 

W.\R ^Ieetixgs. — After the election of Lin- 
coln, a sentiment of fear for the preservation of 
the Union developed more and more rapidly with 
each passing day. This was more especially 
caused by the action of certain Southern States on 
the subject of secession. This fear obtained at 
Reading; and in order to cxjiress the opinion of 
this communit}- on the subject of "preserving the 
integrity of the Union," a large meeting, including 
prominent men of both political parties, was held 
in the Court-House on Dec. 13. iSti'J. Appropriate 


U'.: ;; .,'7' 



resolutions were adopted, favorable to the Union, 
but particularly recommending non-interference 
with the rights of property in slaves guaranteed 
by the Constitution to the Southern States. 

On the 10th dav of December (three days be- 
fore) the Democratic City Club had met and re- 
ported a "Memorial to Congress on the State of 
the Union," prepared by a committee of thirty- 
three prominent Democrats, in which similar senti- 
ments of non-interference and compromise had 
been expressed. 

In July, 1SC>2, when there was a threatened in- 
vasion of Pennsylvania, our people became 
much alarmed for the safety of their lives and 
property. Large and enthu'=ia?tic meetings were 
held in the Court-House to devise means for pro- 
tection. They included all the prominent and in- 
fluential citizens of Reading. Their public ex- 
pressions were thoroughlv patriotic ; and in pur- 
suance of their earnest recommendation the county 
commissioners offered a bounty of iifty dollars to 
every officer and private mustered into the service 
from the county. In September following, the 
commissioners again offered the same bounty for 
every volunteer soldier; and the city councils ap- 
propriated ten thousand dollars additional for this 
purpose of encouraging volunteer enlistments. In 
June, 1SG3, similar meetings were held. 

Appropriations. — The city of Reading appro- 
priated altogether for war purposes, in bounties, 
reHef, etc., $373,179 and the county of Berks, the 
sum of $1.52,389. The boroughs likewise apprci- 
priated moneys for these purposes and displayed 
the same patriotic .spirit. 

L.VDiE.s' Aid Societv. — The women are also 
worthy of mention for their patriotism. They did 
not enlist in practical military service ; but they 
gave the national administration a moral support 
which is truly praiseworthy. Just as the "Ring- 
gold Light Artillery'' were preparing to take the 
railroad train on the afternoon of April IG, ISHl, 
to proceed to Harrisburg in answer to the Presi- 
dent's call for troops, certain influential ladies of 
Reading assembled in the parlor of Airs. Dr. Dil- 
ler Luther, at Xo. 530 Pcnn street, and formed a 
society which they entitled "Ladies' Aid Societv." 
Its object was to supply the soldiers with clothing 
and materials useful v/hilst in military service 
awav from home. It was actively engaged dur- 
ing the entire ])eriod of the war. collecting and 
forwarding tons of materials. A "depot" was es- 
tablished at Reading, to which all the goods were 
carried and from which they were consigned. The 
country districts- co-operated in this work and the 
women responded nobly by forwartling inanv ma- 
terials to Reading. 

This was the first society of the kind organized 
in the country; and as we take a just pride in hav- 
ing fumi'^hed the militarv company which was the 
first to respond to the call for troops and to report 
at Harrisburg for service, so di> wo take a similar 
pride in having organized this Ladies' .\id Societv, 

which was the first to take active and succe-^fr.l 
steps toward providing for the comfort and wel- 
fare of the soldiers. 

This society participated actively in the matter;; 
pertaining to the Sanitarj- Commission at Phila- 
delphia ; and it was represented by a number ( ,i 
ladies at the "Sanitary Fair." which was held in 
that city for the purpose of raising funds to re- 
lieve the wants of the soldiers. 

Re.\ding Hospit.vl. — A "jNIilitary Hospital" wa^ 
fitted up at Reading during the middle of June. 
1SG2, in the main exhibition building of the Agri- 
cultural Society on the "Fair Ground," with cot- 
sufiicient to accommodate 130 patients, and suc- 
cessfully conducted till the spring of 1863. Tlie 
"Ladies' Aid Society" of Reading took an active 
interest in the welfare of the sick and wounded 
soldiers, and performed admirable service during 
the continuance of the hospital. The regularlv 
commissioned surgeons in attendance were Dr. 
Martin Luther and Dr. John B. Brooke. 

Dr.a,ft axd Quotas of Berks County. — Dur- 
ing the progress of the war, requisitions for troops 
became so frequent that the government was com- 
pelled to resort to the conscription of men so as to 
prosecute the war with success. Though numer- 
ous volunteers enlisted from Berks county, and the 
citizens of this district responded nobly to the sev- 
eral calls for troops, here, as elsewhere, the draft to be made. There were four drafts, one in 
each of the years 1SG2, 18G3, 18G 1 and 18G.J. The 
provost marshals of this di^trict were, in succes- 
sion, Henry I. Kupp, Jacob C. Hoff and George 
W. Durell. 

The first draft was conducted in October, 1SG2. 
The total enrollment of nioi^ in the county num- 
bered 17.809; the volunteers, 3,18G; and the quota. 
2,719. Th.e number of men who volunteered in 
lieu of draft was 3-15 ; and the substitutes who en- 
listed for three years numbered 146. The total 
number of men drafted in the county was 1,212. 
These men were encamped on the "Hiester Farm.'" 
adjoining the Evans' cemetery on the north, formed 
into companies, and placed under the command of 
Col. Charles Knoderer ; and they were mustered 
into service as the 167th Regiment. 

A second draft was made August 2G-29, 1S63. 
The quota of men from the county was 1,55'1 — 
this number having been fifty per cent in excess, 
to provide against exemptions. 

The third draft proposed in !\Iarch, 18G1, for 
Berks county, was postponed for a time. The 
quota in the call for two hundred thousand men 
was 767; the deficiency of the countv under former 
drafts was 298; total number required. 1,0G5; and 
the credit of the county on .\pril 15. 18G1, for men 
sujiplierl to tlie government, 1,":!G. This deficiency 
of 29 men was more than supplied bv re-enlisted 
veterans, .'subsequently, however, in Mav, a draft 
was nrdered. upiin finding a deficiency in certain 
sub-districts in the countv and each sub-district 

i : 'I- 

■'r:i: > .I'.^J 

■■'.i.Mi;;r (Ml. -I jri 



was required to fill its own quota. The total num- 
ber drawn was 17?. 

A call for five hundred thousand men was made 
on July IS, lSC-±. The quota for Berks county was 
l.t^ST; for Readmg-, 45U. On Aug. 1st. the defi- 
ciency in tiie county was 1,6:25 ; in Reading 212. 
A draft was made on Sept. 22d, but only for 
one sub-district — Ruscombmanor, 52 men, all the 
other sub-districts having supplied their deficiencies. 
A fourth draft was made Feb. 23-25, 18G5. Reading, 
Upper IJern, Bernville, Cumru, Douglass, Spring, 
Upper Tulpehocken, and Womelsdorf had supplied 
their quota of men by volunteers. The call was 
made in December, ISfil, for three hundred thou- 
sand ; the quota for Pennsylvania was 49,5G3, and 
Berks county, 1.5G0. 

Northern j\Ien in Service. — The aggregate 
number of men furnished by Pennsylvania was 
366,326 ; reduced to three years' standard. 267', 55S. 

It is estimated that during the war fifty-six thou- 
sand soldiers were killed in battle ; about thirty- 
five thousand died of wounds in hospitals, and one 
hundred and eighty-fonr thousand by disease. The 
total casualties, if we include those who died sub- 
sequent to their discharge, were about three hun- 
dred thousand. The loss of the Confederates was 
less in battle, owing to the defensive character of 
their struggle ; but they lost more from wounds 
and by disease, on account of inferior sanitary ar- 
rangements. Tiie total loss of life caused by the 
Rebellion exceeded half a million men and nearly 
as many more were disabled. 

SuMM.\RY OF Battles. — In the four years of 
service, the armies of the Union (counting every 
form of conflict, great and small) had been in 2,- 
265 engagements v.'ith the Confederate troops. 
From the time when active hostilities began until 
the last gun of the war was fired, a fight of some 
kind (a raid, a skirmish or a pitched battle) oc- 
curred at some point on our widely-extended front 
nearly eleven times a week upon an average. 
Coimting only those engagements in which the 
Union loss, in killed, wounded and missing, ex- 
ceeded one hundred, the total number was 330. 
From the northernmost point of contact to the 
southernmost, the distance bv any practicable line 
of communication was more than two thousand 
miles. From east to west, the extremes w'cre fif- 
teen hundred miles apart. During the first year of 
hostilities (one of preparation on both sides) the 
battles were naturallv fewer in number and less de- 
cisive in character than afterward, when discipline 
had been imparted to the troops by drill, and when 
the materiel of war had been collected and stored 
for prolonged campaigns. The engagements of all 
kinds in 1S61 were thirty-five in number, of which 
the most serious was at Bull Run. In 1S62, the 
war had greatly increased in magnitude and inten- 
sity, as is shown by the eighty-four engagements 
between the armies. The net result of tlio vcar's 
operations was highly favorable to the Rebcliiiin. 
In 186.'] the battles Vicre one hundred and ten in 

number, among them some of the most significant 
and important victories for the Union. In 1861, 
there were seventy-three engagemeiUs ; and in the 
winter and carlv spring of 1865 there were twenty- 

Paper ]\Ioxev. — Before the Civil war. it had 
been the uniform practice of the ditt'erent States to 
allow banks to be established for the issue of notes, 
payable in specie on demand, and the liability of 
the shareholders was limUed. Banking then was 
quite free, and all individuals could carry it on 
provided they observed the requirements of the 
law. But under this system there was great fluctu- 
ation in value, which produced much bankruptcy 
and ruin. Between 1811 and 1820, many banks 
became bankrupt; and . twenty years afterward, 
another financial panic occurred. The inflation of 
the banknotes was wonderful between 1830 and 
1837 ; but just as the amount had been increased, 
so it decreased during the following si.x years till 
1843; and this caused the ruin of many moneyed 
institutions among them the Bank of the United 
States, the renewal of wiiose charter had been 
denied by President Jackson. 

At the beginning of the war, the paper money 
in circulation amounted to $200,000, 000 ; of which 
three-fourths had been issued in the Northern 
States; and the coin amounted to 5275,000,000. 
The early necessities of the national treasury in 
this trying period compelled the government to 
borrow money, and in FeDruary, 1862, Congress 
authorized the issue of treasury notes amounting 
to $150,000,000, declaring them' to be legal tender 
except for customs duties and interest on the na- 
tional debt. 

A premium on gold naturally followed, causing 
it to be drawn entirely from circulation, and this 
increased as the treasury notes mitltiplied. Then 
the National Banking .System came to be intro- 
duced to supply a circulating mediinn. having been 
created on b'eb. 25, 18C3, and amended on June 3, 
1864. A Bureati was established in the Treasury 
Department, with power to authorize banking as- 
sociations, imder certain provisions for public se- 
curity, and the .State banks were rapidly trans- 
formed into national banks. The currency of the 
country in this maimer came to consist of treasury 
demand notes (which in 1865 amounted to .$450,- 
000,000) and of national bank-notes (which ap- 
proached the limit of 8300,000.000). The latter 
circulated as freely as the former, because their 
ultimate redemption was assured by the deposit of 
an adequate amount in United States bonds at the 
national treasury. This system was found supe- 
rior in the protection which it afforded ; but it 
could not prevent a financial crisis from sweepiner 
over the country, especially when other causes, such 
as excessive mamifactures and cnorniM'us losses 
from fire, contributed greatlv toward the result. 
Congress also authorized small notes for five, 
ten, twcntv-five ami fiftv cent- to be issued fnr 
the pi;rp<>se of snpi)l}-ing the I'lss of the small <le- 

r. "I :ji;. ' ;:r 


■ 1 i ; ■ 

if: fTi I.. 

■ Jf'',l '/ .Mil 

■ / . i ' n ' ; ; ; 

' .1';- ■,;*, 

VI,:: /|(.' 



nominations of coin money from circulation. This 
was commonly known as "currency," and it was 
all redeemed after the war. 

During this period, our merchants at Reading 
!Si;ued and circulated for a time their own fraction- 
al demand notes for the purpose of encouraging 
trade in ihe community and it was gradually re- 
deemed as the national currency was supplied. 




The following IM 1 companies of men were enlisted 93 

from Berks county and mustered into the service "■'^ 

of the national government in the Civil war. ^^ 

Twelve of the companies included men accredited 104 

to other counties. Reckoning all the men in the 104 
companies named and those found in ditYerent 

companies not classified, it can be asserted that ^g^ 

about ten thousantl men of our county were ' en- ^82 
gaged in the great struggle for the preservation of 
the Union. • 



Three months' service, 3SR1 733 1~'S 

Three years' service, lsr)l-64 3.657 128 

Nine months' service. 1S62-63 1,003 128 

Volunteer militia of 1SG2 543 128 

Drafted m.ilitia of 18R2 1,2C.^ 128 

Emergency troops of 1863 1,438 128 

One hundred dnys' service, 1SC4 357 151 

One year's service, 1864-65 895 151 

Miscellaneous enlistment in Regular U. S. service, 151 

etc 250 151 



The detailed statement.* showing the several regiments 

and companies, the nunibei of men in each company, K<^-'^- 

and the names of the captains, is as follows : 


Three Months' Scrz-icc — 1S61 11 


Rert. Co. Men Captain on 

25 A 104 James McKnijiht ~p, 

1 G 78 Geo. W. Alexander "^ 
5 H 77 Frank M. Cooley 
5 Band 16 E. Ermentrout, Leader 
7 C 7G Isaac .Schrocder 

7 I) 78 Geo. .S. Herhst ^'■'^■ 

7 G 77 A. F. Riglnmver . '"^'^ 

14 A 77 David A. Griffith ^^'^ 

14 E 80 John C. Shearer ^^'^ 

25 C 58 Henrv Xatjle ^^'^ 

25 Band 17 John A. Hocli, Leader ^^7 


Three Years' Scrz'iee — 1S61-64 ic>7 

Resrt. Co Men CaiMain 167 • 

2fi Band 13 Henrv Grime, Leader 107 

32 .\ 100 Jacob Lenhart, Jr. 167 

32 D 115 \Vm. Briner 179 

33 F 100 Wash. Riciiards 179 
36 I 33 Joseph G. Holmes (Berks and 

Lebanon counties ) 

43 F 38 R. B. Rickets, 1st Artillerv ' R^gj 

44 L l.V-> T. C. A. Iloffeditz 31 ' 
44 M 154 Thos. S. Richards 42 
40 E 173 Cornelius Wise 4'> 
46 Band 10 R. T. Stanlev 40 
48 D 40 Daniel Xngle 42 
50 B 166 Hcrvev Herman 42 
50 E ISl Wm. H. Dichl 40 
50 H 177 Thos. S. Brenholtz 43 
53 A&B 27 Wm. S. Pons 42 

* rr^parcd by tlie c( nipilrr nf titi-: history- for tl.c Historical Society . 

of Berks County, ami rc.iJ at a regular' meeting on Feb. 14, 190j. '' 





Men Captain 

191 John C. Shearer 
33 Stephen H. Kdgett 

94 Geo; E. Clymer, Gth Cavalry 

50 Wm. J. Bart (Berks and 

Adams counties^ 

64 C. C. McCormick ( Berks and 
Northumberland counties) 

197 Geo. W. Knahb 

192 Henrv A. Mvers 
19G David A. Griffith 

20 E. Ermentrout, Leader (Ring- 

185 John E. -Arthur 

183 A. C. Maitland 

74 David C. Keller 

31 Jas. M. Douden 

50 Jacob W. Glase 

195 Wm. F. Walter 

297 Geo. W. Durrell, Ind. Battery 

25 Henry Ungerer 

16 A. ^L Halberstadt 

76 Geo. F. Cooke, 21st Cavalry 

Nine Months' Service — 1S62-6J 

Co. Men Captain 

A 99 L. Heber Smith 

B 93 Wm. McNall 

E 98 Wm. U. .Andrews 

H 76 John Kennedv 

I 89 Richard H. Jones 

K 88 Geo. Newkirk 

E 93, Jacob S. Graff 

G 83 Levi M. Gcrhart 

H 83 Wm. K. Boltz 

I 100 Wm. L, Grav 

K 101 Jas, W. Weida 

Volunteer Militia of 1S62 

Co. Men Csptain 

G 70 F. S. Bicklev 

E 104 Chas. H. Hunter 

I 95 N. M. Eisenhower 

G 70 Wm. Geiger 

H 45 Samuel Harner 

I 92 Frederick S, Boas 

67 • Samuel L. Young 

Drafted Mi'itia of 1S62 — p ;)WJ. 

















Men Captain 

113 Jonathan Sec 

105 Chas. Melcher 

102 Peter V. Edclman 

113 Samuel .A. Haines 
101 H. H. Miller 

100 Josiah Groh 

114 William A. Schall 
105 A, H. Schaeffer 
in J, M. ShoUenberger 
105 Edw. F. Reed 

99 .Amos Drenkel 

95 John B. Wagoner 

Eiiiergeiicy Troops — 1S63 




David .A, Griffith 
Wm. F. Walter 
Samuel Harner 
John E. .\rtlnir 
Wm. D, Smith 
Tno. McKnight 
Ecntly H. Smith 
.Samuel A, Haines 
Tohn Obold 
Edw. Bailev 

,^',>p'.\' •■.«• 



■.-I- I- 

'ilvi;" <>° 

rfv,' ;•' ,• 









Jacob Deppt n 




Jos. G. Holmes 




Aug. C. Greth 




R. L. Jones 




Jacob Lehman 



W. C. Ermentroiit 

le Huv.dri 

(/ Days' Scrziee—iS64 








H. E. Quimbv 




H. D. Mark-ley 




H. .Maltzbcrger 




G. S. Rowbotham 

One Year's Service — 1S64-6J 








R. W. McCartney ( Berks and 
Dauphin counties) 




John Teed 




H. D. Markley 




Isaac Schroeder 




Wm. L. Guinther 




Jos. G. Holmes 




Wm. F. Walter 




F. Schmehl 




J. W. Kennedy 

patch announcing the attack on Fort Sumter found 
the company at drill at some distance from the 
city.* The effect was electrical, and all were impa- 
tient to move at once to the defense of the tlag. 

Surgeons from County in Cix'i! War 
The following medical practitioners of Berks county 
were engaged in the Civil war, and the statement shows 
the regiment with which they were connected and the 
district of the county where they resided. 
33d Regt. — Dr. John B. Griesemer, Exeter, Surgeon 
34th Regt. — Dr. Harrison T. Witman, Reading, Asst. 

Surgeon • 

47th Regt. — Dr. Jnhn H. Sheetz, Reading. Asst. Surgeon 
48th Regt. — i)r. Charles T. Reber, Reading. Asst. Sur- 
73d Regt. — Dr. Jeremiah S. Trexler, Kutztown, Asst. 

75th Regt. — Dr. Manoah S. Long, Longswamp, Asst. 

76th Rfgt. — Dr. Erasmus R. Scholl, Reading, Surgeon 
108th Regt. — Dr. Hiester M. Xagle, Reading, Surgeon 
141st Regt. — Dr. Wellington G. Byerle, Bernville, Asst. 

154th Regt. — Dr. John M. Hoffman. Spring, Surgeon 
154th Regt. — Dr. lilias C. Kitcb.en. Amity, Surgeon 
166th Regt. — Dr. Alexander IL Witman, Reading, Assl. 

167th Regt.— Dr. Daniel T. Batdorf, Bethel. Asst. Surgeon 
U. S. Xavy — Dr. Tonathan Bertolctte, Surgeon 

Ringgold Light ARTii.LtRV. — The first troops 
to respond to the President's call were the Ring- 
gold Light Artillery of Reading; the Logan Guards 
of Lewistown ; the Washington Artillery and the 
National Light Infantry of Pottsville; and the 
Allen Rifles of Allentown. 

On Jan. 21, ISdL :\Iaj.-Gen. William II. Keim 
(then Surveyor-General of Pcimsylvania, from 
Reading), with characteristic sagacity, had advised 
Captain McKnight that the services of his com]iany 
would probably soon be needed, and counseled him 
to hold them in readiness for immediate service. 
From that time till April IHth. almost daily drills 
were practised. On the 21?d of February, they were 
in readiness to obey marching orders. The dis- 

• Ir.I. Artillery 


^ "^^^p' 


On the morning of the IGth of April, marching 
orders were received from Governor Curtin ; and, 
on the afternoon of that day, the company v/as 
taken on the Lebanon Valley railroad to Harris- 
burg, where it arrived at 8 o'clock in the evening. 
The com])any numbered 108 men, fully arintd and 
equipped as light artillery. On reporting at the 
Executive OflTice, the Secretary of \\'ar telegraphed 
that the company be forwarded by the earliest 
train, 'but this order was countermanded by the Sec- 
retary of the Commonwealth later in the day. 

The five companies named were nuistered into 
the service of the L'nited States at Harrisburg for 
three months, and departed for Washington by rail- 
road on the ISth of April, at 9 o'clock a. m. They 
arrived at P.altimore at 1 o'clock p. m., being under 
the necessitv of marching two miles through the 
city, from Bolton to Camden station. On leaving 
the cars, a battalion was formed in the following 
order: 4th Artillery (regulars); Logan Guards; 
Allen Rifles, of Allentown : Washington Artillery 
and National Light Infantry, of Pottsville: with 
the Ringgold Artillery bringing up the rear. As 
the column was fornn'ng near Bolton station, the 
police of Baltimore appearetl in large force, headed 
bv Marshal Kane, and followed by a mob which 
at once commenced an attack upon the volunteers, 
countenanced by a portion of the police, who had 
been sent to give safe conduct through the citv. 
Orders were given to the men to preserve their 
temper and make no reply to anything that should 
be said to them. At the command "forward." the 
mob commenced hcxoting, jeering and yelling, and 
proclaimed, with oaths, that the troops should not 
pa'=s through their city to fipht the South. 

* Poor-hou'f Farm in ShiUinKton. 

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Arriving near the center of the city, certain reg- 
ular troops filed otT toward Fort .McHenry, leavint,'- 
the voUinteers to pursue their way through 
the city as well as they could. At this juncture, 
the mob were excited to a perfect frenzy, breaking 
the line of the police, and pushing through the files 
of men. in an attempt to break the column. Every 
insult that could be heaped upon the troops was 
offered, but no word of reply was elicited. The 
officers and men marched steadily on toward Cam- 
den station. At every step, the mob increased till 
it numbered thousands of most determined and des- 
perate men. 

As the volunteers were boarding the train at the 
station, the angry mob hurled a sliov/cr of bricks, 
stones and clubs into their disorganized ranks, for- 
tunately, however, inflicting only slight injuries. In 
the midst of the confusion, an attempt was made 
to detach the engine from the train and run it 
away, but this was prevented by the determined 
character of the engineer and his assistants, who 
drew revolvers and threatened to shoot any who 
dared to do so. At length, amidst the demoniac yells 
of the crowd, the train moved off. carrying the vol- 
unteers safely beyond the reach of their desperate 
assailants. They arrived in Washington at 7 o'clock 
in the evening. Arms, ammunition and equipments 
were furnished and ihe w^ork of barricading the 
Capitol was commenced immediately. Squads of 
the Rebel soldiers were then drilling on the opposite 
side of the Potomac river in full vie v.- of the Capi- 
tol. It having been ascertained on the 23d of April 
that an attempt would be made to capture Wasl.- 
ington by vvay of the arsenal and the navy-yard. 
the "Ringgold Artillerists" w'ere ordered to report 
to Captain Dahlgrccn at the navy-yard, and three 
twelve-i>ound howitzers were assigned to them. 
Excepting a detachment of twelve men, detailed to 
guard the "Short Bridge." the entire command was 
required to man these guns. On the STith. a ser- 
geant and six men were detailed to serve as a 
guard on the steamer "Powhatan," which was dis- 
patched to make a rcconnoissance down the Poto- 
mac for the purpose of searching for obstructions 
and of ascertaining if forts were being erected along 
the river. On the 2(ith. the company were ordered 
to duty at the Capitol : and on the 15th of Alay, the 
Secretary of \\'?.r a'^signed them to dutv at the 
Washington Arsenal, where they remained till the 
expiration of their term of service, excepting a 
short interval, when thev were detailed to mount 
guns in the forts about Washington. Thev were 
mustered out at Harrisburg. They had been class- 
ified as Company A. of the 25th Regiment. Edward 
P. Pearson, Esq., of Reading, was Adjutant of the 
Regiment ; he subscquentlv became an officer in the 
regular army and served for many vears with 
great distinction. 

Col. A. C. Buell, in his book, entitled "The Can- 
noneer, Recollections of Service in the Armv of the 
Potorjiac bv a detached volunteer in the Regular 

Army," published the following interesting infor- 
mation about this distinguished company : 

Spe.ikiriR of the "Stolidity of the Pennsylvania Dutch," 
history records some nianiieitations of it that are admir- 
abie. For example, there was a battery in the Civil war 
wliich entered the Union service as "The Riiipgold .\rtil- 
lery of Reading" and its connnander was Capt. James 
McKnight. It was the first vohmteer artillery organiza- 
tion to reach Washington in April, 1801. At the end '^f 
its three montlis' service, it re-cnlisted in a body for 
three years and was nitiftored into the regular army as 
Battery M, 5th U. S. .Artillery, being the only volunteer 
organization transferred bodily to the regular army in 
all our history. Its composition may be inferred from 
the names of its sergeants in ISG4 when I was personally 
acquainted with it. They were as follows: Daniel Yoder. 
Philip Weidner, William Eeckhardt, Joseph Gcrhardt and 
Frederick Volkman. Of its 107 enlisted men in the Valley 
Campaign of lSt34, 84 were Pennsylvania i?utchmen from 
Berks. Schuylkill and Lehigh — ail native Americans — 12 
Americans of English descent, and 11 Irisiimcn, one of 
whom, Patrick Flytm Hunt, late of Templemore, Couiity 
Tippcrary, was acting sergeant on temporarv detail from 
Battery E. Battery M served all through the war in the 
Gth Corps. At Cedar Creek it was in lir;e with Getty's 
(Sd) Division of that Corps and took the butt end of the 
Con federate attack in the tirst attempt of the Union forces 
to stop thejont in the early stages of that dramatic battle. 
In its first position it lost one gun, a lieutenant and 9 
men, tlie gun however being retaken by the 10th Vermont 
Infantry. In its second position the whole battery was 
taken by Kershaw's South Carolina Brigade and almost 
instantly retaken by part of the Old Vermont Brigade in 
a rough-and-tumble, which resulted amorig other things 
in the killing or disabling of 19 men with the bayonet 
alone, few shots being fired. Out of this last motion. 
Battery M emerged wilh 2 guns and 27 n-;en fit for duty 
who at once resumed their fire with double canister. This 
remnant was commanded by Sergeant Daniel Yoder, Cap- 
tain ^'cKnight being at that moment acting Chief of At- 
tillery of the Corps, and the remaining lieutenant (Henry 
M. Baldwin) having been killed in the previous struggle. 
.\ftcr the [jattle. Gen. Horatin Wright romplunented Cap- 
tain McKiiiglit on the belia\ior of his hatterv in the pres- 
ence of the few men that remained. Said he, '"Your Penn- 
sylvania Dutchmen don't seem to know when they are 
whipped." To which the Captain replied, "F)nn't know 
when they are whipped? By God, General, most of them 
don't know when tlioy are killed." 

All the losses of Battery ?J at Cedar Creek were 
either killed or wounded, none were missing. Buell 
was a private when' this happened, but he became 
a colonel afterward. 

1st Rkgi.mext. — The 1st Regin:ent was organ- 
ized at Harrisburg on April 20th, In pursuance of 
orders, it performed duty at several places in Penn- 
sylvania, Maryland and \'irginia till Julv 23d. when 
it returned to Harrisbn.'g, and was there honorably 
discharged on the 2Tth. During its service it did 
not participate in any battles ; but it accomplished 
much good bv checking- anv movement on the part 
of the Rebels in arms along the borders. It in- 
cluded Company G. which was recruited at Read- 
ing, and mustered into service on April 20, ISHl. 

5tii Rfx.tmext. — The 5th Regiment was organ- 
ized at Camp Curtin niarri-burg) on April 21st. 
It performed guard duty mostiv at Baltimore, 
Washington and Alexandria. It wa<; at the latter 
place during the disastrous battle of Bull Run, in 
which the brigade (to which it had been tians- 

-.1 :■' • ■ . : I •, 

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ferred) participated. It was discharged at Harris- 
burg on July ^5th. 

Company H was recruited at Reading. It was 
mustered into service on April "^0. 18(J1. Dr. E. R. 
Scholl, of Reading, was the regimental surgeon. 

Reading City Baud was attached to this regi- 
ment. It comprised sixteen men (six from Leb- 
anon), with Emanuel lumentrout as leader. Left 
Reading on May "^i, 18G1, for Washington, via Har- 
risburg and Baltimore, and was mu:>tered in there 
on the 2od. Remained there until the '29th and 
then went to Alexandria, where it was in active 
service until July x!lst. Then it was ordered to 
Harrisburg and there mustered out on July 26th. 
The members from Reading returned home. 

7th Regiment. — The 7th Regiment was organ- 
ized- and mustered into service at Camp Cur- 
tin on April 22d. It was encamped over a 
month at Chambersburg. On June Sth it moved 
southwardly. It was stationed at Williams- 
port on the 19th. On July 2d, it began the march 
to Martinsburg. On the way, it confiscated the 
contents of an extensive flour-mill (a large amoimt 
of grain and flour and one hundred and fifty barrels 
of whiskey), the owner havmg been a captain in 
the Rebel army. Shortly afterward, it was en- 
camped at Charlestown, where it remained until 
ordered to Harrisburg, and it was mustered out of 
service on July 29th. Three companies were re- 
cruited in Berks county, C, G, and D : the first at 
Friedcnsburg : the second at Pleasantville; and the 
third at Reading. 

14th Regiment. — -The 14th Regiment was or- 
ganized at Camp Curtin on April 30th. Richards 
McMichael was elected lieutenant-colonel, and 
Joseph A. McLean major. Both were from Read- 
ing'. It was encamped at Camp Johnston, in Lan- 
caster, til! June 3d, and subsequently it marched 
to Chambersburg, Hagerstown, Sharpsbnrg, Mar- 
tinsburg. Bunker's Llill and Harper's Ferry, doing 
picket and guard duty, and making various expedi- 
tions to encounter the enemy. Whilst at the latter 
place, the term of enlistment expired and it was 
ordered to Harrisburg. On its way, it encamped 
and remained two weeks at Carlisle, where it was 
mustered out of service Aug. 7th. It included two 
companies from Berks county: A, recruited at 
Reading and mustered in on April 27th: and E, 
recruited at Womelsdorf, and mustered in on 
April 24th. 

2.5th Regiment. — Company C of Reading was 
also in the 2.5th Regiment, in the three months' 
service with Company .\. It was recruited at Read- 
ing out of the surplus men of the Rincrgold Light 
Artillery and seventeen men of the National Light 
Infantry of Pottsville. and mustered into service 
on April 18, 1801. The regiment had been organ- 
ized at Harrisburg. It wa<= mustered out of service 
on Aug. 1st. 

Rcgi)ncntal Band.- — The regimental band of the 
SSth Regiment was engaged in the three months' 
service, having been mustered in at Washington. 

in April, ISGl, and mustered out at Plarrisburg, 
in July, IS'Jl. It comprised sixteen members 
under the leadership of John A. Iloch, fourteen 
of them taken from the Ringgold Band. The other 
two were from I'ottstown. 


The insurrection having become too powerful to 
be suppressed by the first display of military au- 
thority, the President issued a second proclamation, 
calling upon the States to furnish two hundred 
thousand men who were to be enlisted for three 
years. The quota of men from Pennsylvania was 
soon filled by the patriotic impulses of her people. 
Companies from Berks county were in the follow- 
ing regiments : 

26th Regiment. — The Bernville Band with 
Henry Grime as leader, and numbering thirteen 
men, was mustered into the service at Bladens- 
burg, Md., on Sept. IG, 1861, as regimen- 
tal band of the 26th Regiment of Penn- 
sylvania Volunteers, and attached to Plooker's 1st 
Brigade. It remained in camp at Bladensburg 
about two months ; then it moved to Budd's Ferry, 
in Lower Potomac, on Maryland Shore, and con- 
tinued there aU winter. During the latter part of 
April, it joined McClcllan's army at Fortress Mon- 
roe, and was engaged in the Penmsular campaign, 
commencing at Yorktown and ending at Plarrison's 
Landing. It was mustered out of service at Plar- 
rison's Landing on Aug. S, 1SG2, by reason of an 
Act of Congress passed to dispense with regimen- 
tal bands. The men returned to Philadelphia, 
where they were paid off and sent home, 

32d Regiment.— The 32d Regiment included 
companies A, D and F from Berks county, and 
was mustered into service at Harrisburg on July 
27, 18G1, after having remained at Easton in camp 
for two months. The regiment was at Washington. 
Tennallytown, and Langloy until March 10, 1SG2, 
when it- joined the Army of the Potomac. It par- 
ticipated in its marches to and from Richmond until 
February, 1863, having been engaged in the battles 
of Gaines' Mill, Hall's Hill, Antietam and Freder- 

Then it was transferred to the defenses of Wash- 
ington and became a part of the 22d Army Corps, 
where it remained until January, 1864, when it was 
ordered to duty in \V''est Virginia under General 
Sickel. Afterward it was at Martinsburg and 
Harper's Ferry until April, then proceeded to the 
Kanawha \'al'ey and participated in the engage- 
ments at Princctown and Meadow Bluff. On May 
22(1, it marched to Millville. While there its term 
of service expired, and then it proceeded to Phila- 
delphia, via I'ittsburg. where it was mustered out 
nf service on June 17. 1864. 

36tii Regiment. — The 36th Regiment was com- 
posed of companies recruited in several counties 
east of the Alleghany Mountains. Company I was- 
inadc up nf men recruited in Berks and Lebanon 
counties. The men from Berks cotmtv mmibered 

I '■; i ; , r 

I / ' -r ' / 



thirty-three, and were recruited at Reading. The 
regiment was mustered into service July ~T, lt>01. 
It was not in any lighting- until the latter i)art of 
June, lbG3, when it was engag-ed in the battle of 
Gaines' Mill, occupying the left of the line. Its 
next engagement was at Charles City Cross Roads, 
June 30, 1SG2. It passed through seven days of 
fighting, and upon mustering the regiment only 
two hundred men were present to answer to their 
names. It was also engaged in the battles of An- 
tietam, Fredericksburg and the Wilderness. Xearly 
the entire regiment was captured in the last battle, 
and the men were imprisoned at Andersonville. 
The regiment was mustered out of service June 16, 
1864, at Philadelphia. 

43d Regiment. — In Battery F, of the 43d Regi- 
ment of Pennsylvania Volunteers (1st Artillery i, 
recruited in Schuylkill county, there were included 
thirty-eight men from Berks county. It was organ- 
ized at Philadelphia in June, J 861, for three years' 
service, and mustered out at Harrisburg on 
June 9, 18G5. 

Tlie Battery participated in the following battles: 
Winchester, second Bull Run, Chantilly, Antietam, 
Fredericksburg, Chancellorsviile. Gettysburg. Bris- 
toe Station, ]\line Run, Wilderness, Spottsylvania, 
North Anna, Tolopotomoy, Cold Harbor, Peters- 
burg, and Dee]) Bottom. 

44TII Regiment. — The 44lh Regiment (lA Cav- 
alry) was recruited in a number of counties. Com- 
pany L from men of Berks, Lebanon and Lancaster 
counties, and Company AI from men of Berks coun- 
ty. Both were recruited at Reading. 

Company L was mustered into service as an inde- 
pendent company on July 30, 1861, and stationed at 
Baltimore for live months ; and Company M on Aug. 
5, 1861, and stationed at same place until Oct. 3d. 
On Jan. Tth, these companies joined their regiment 
and moved with the army toward Manassas. They 
were eng-'agcd in the battles of .Strasburg. Wood- 
stock, Harrisonburg and Fredericksburg during the 
year 186';^; and in" 1863. in the battle's of Brandy 
Station, Beverly Ford and Aldie. They were con- 
cerned in Sheridan's raid upon Richmond, during 
the spring of 1864, in which they encountered the 
enemy in a number of engagements, and in the fol- 
lowing summer tliey were engaged in fighting the 
enemy at Saint Mary's Church, Malvern Hill, 
Gravel Hill, and Ream's Station. On Aug. 29th 
they were encamped on the Jerusalem Plank Road, 
near the left of the army. Tlieir term of service 
having expired, they withdrew from the front on 
Sept. 1st, and proceeded to Philadelphia where they 
were mustered out of service Sept. 9, 1S64. 

46th Regiment. — The 46th Regiment was or- 
ganized at Harrisburg on Sept. 1, 1861, and in- 
cluded Company E. recruited at Reading. It was 
ordered to Harper's Ferry and placed under the 
command of General Banks. Its first conflict was 
at Winchester, where for five hour'- it held its po- 
sition with great coolness and liravery whilst re- 
treating toward the Potomac before Gen. Stonewall 

Jackson. On Aug. 8. 1S62, it was in the battle of 
Cedar Mountain, and on Sept. 11th in the battle of 
Antietam. In May, 18G3, it participated in a fierce 
engagement near Chancellorsviile ; and in July it 
took a prominent part in the battle of Gettysburg, 
occupying the extreme right of the line on the 3d. 

After the withdrawal of Lee from Pennsylvania, 
tlie regiment was attached to the Army of the Ten- 
nessee under General Rosecrans. In January, 1864, 
it proceeded to Pennsylvania on a veteran furlough, 
and the greater part of the of^cers and men re- 
enlisted for three years. 

Among the re-enlisted men in the regiment, there 
was a young man, Henry Weidensaul, a native of 
Morgantown, in Berks county. He entered the 
regiment when fourteen years old and participated 
in the battles of Winchester, Cedar Mountain, Chan- 
cellorsviile, Gcttysl>urg, Resaca, Dallas, Kenesaw 
[Mountain and Peach Tree Creek. He was wounded 
at Cedar ^lountain. taken prisoner, and confined 
in Libby Prison for five weeks. He was also 
wounded at Peach Tree Creek and Atlanta. On 
July 1. 1863, he was scz'cutccn years old, and the 
Keystone State claimed him to be the youngest 
veteran soldier in the service. 

L'pon recruiting its ranks, the regiment rejoined 
the army at Chattanooga, and participated in the 
Atlanta campaign under General Sherman in iiis 
great march to the sea. After nearlv four vears of 
faithful service, it was mustered out on July IG, 
isr.r^, near Alexandria, Virginia. 

Birdsboro BahJ .— lliis Tiand was mustered into 
service for three years on Aug. 27, 1861, as the 
regimental band of the regiment ; but discharged on 
Aug. 16. 1862. in pursuance of an order dispensing 
with regimental bands. 

48th Regi.ment — Company D of this regiment 
was recruited at Pottsville, in Schuylkill county, 
mustered into service in October, 1861, and mus- 
tered out July 17, 186."). Forty of the men were 
from Hamburg, in Berks county. The regiment 
was in the battles of Antietam and Second Bull 
Run. It was prominent in the Petersburg cam- 
paign, having exploded the great mine. 

The Port Clinton Artillerv was connected with 
this regiment. Included with the battery there were 
twenty-five men from Reading and Leesport. ac- 
credited to Schuylkill county. It was mustered in 
.May. 1861. 

John D. Bertolette. of Reading, was the adjutant; 
and Dr. Charles T. Reber. surgeon. 

•tOtii Regiment.— The ."iOth Regiment included 
three companies from Berks county, B. E and H, 
which were recruited at Reading. It was organ- 
ized at Harrisburg on Sept. 2.5, 1861. Capt. 
Thomas Brenholtz, of Company II, was selected as 
lieutenant-colonel. The regiment i)rocceded to 
Wasiiington on (Jet. 2d. and on the Dth to .\nnap- 
olis. where it was assigned to .Stevens' Brigade, 
which was then fitting out for an expedition to 
Suuth Carolina. On Oct. 10th, the regiment em- 
harked upon transports. Companies B and E on the 



"Winfield Scott" and Company H on the "Ocean 
Oueen." On the night of Xov. Isr, a heavy gale 
was encountered oti Cape llatteras, and the "W'in- 
lield Scott," an unseaworthy craft, was in imminent 
peril. Her masts were cut away, the freight and 
camp equipage were thrown overboard, a portion 
uf her officers a'ld crew deserted her and every- 
thing was given up for lost. She was finally saved 
through the superhuman efforts of the soldiers, 
who had been left to their fate without food or 
water. The regiment went into camp on the island 
at Hilton Head and was employed in building forti- 
fications. On Dec. Gth, it proceeded to Beaufort 
and there experienced its first st<irmish with the 
enemy. It participated in the battle of Coosaw on 
Jan. 1, 1862. In General Hunter's demonstration 
against Charleston, Lieutenant-Colonel Brenholtz 
and six companies took a prominent part, driving 
the enemy from a railroad bridge which spanned 
a stream near Pocotaligo. 

The regiment remained near Beaufc>rt till July 
l?th; then proceeded to Fortress Monroe. Subse- 
quentlv it was engaged in the first and second 
days' fights at Bull Run. Brenholtz commanded 
the regiment. He was one of the wounded in 
the second day's fight. On Aug. 1st, it participat- 
ed in the battle of Chantilly, and several weeks 
]ater in the battle of Antietam. Subsequently 
it was moved to Kentucky and participated in 
the siege of Vicksburg. There Brenholtz, wiulst 
gallantly leading his men before the enemy's works, 
was mortally wounded. His fall was greatly la- 
mented at Reading, where he had been a success- 
ful teacher in the public schools. JMuch of the 
credit which the organization had acquired was 
due to his excellent qualities as a soldier. Xo 
braver man ever led in battle, and upon his 
death the service lost one of its most valued lead- 
ers. In August, onlv eighty of the regiment were 
present for duty, and nearly all had chills and 
fever. The other men of the regiment were in 
hospitals suffering from wounds or malaria. In 
October and November, 18ii3, it took part in en- 
gagements, at Blue Springs, Lenoir Station, and 

Nearly the entire regiment re-enlisted on Jan- 
uary 1, 1SG4. During Januarv it was marched to 
Nicholasville, a distance of two hundred miles, 
in ten days. Many of the men were barefooted 
and walked through the snow. In February, they 
proceeded .to Harrisburg on a veteran furlough, 
and visited their homc^. In March, the regiment 
encamped at Annapolis. On Mav Gth. it was en- 
gaged in the battle of the Wil'lcrness, and on the 
^th, in the battle near Spottsylvania Court-House. 
Among the killed was Cajitain Cleveland, of Com- 
pany H. Three days afterward the regiment had 
another desperate encounter, in which the men had 
a struggle hand to hand. Adjutant Kendall, three 
sergeant'^ and twenty-five privates were taken pris- 
oners. From tlic Xy river to the North Anna, 
and thence to Cold Harbor, the reL,iment was en- 

gaged almost daily. At Cold Harbor, on June 
'^, lbi>A, it occupied the front hue and suttered 
severely. Shortly afterward, it lay in line before 
Peter.sburg. On June 18th, Captain Lantz, of Com- 
pany E, and several men were killed. Jt then per- 
formed picket duty during July and participated 
in the siege and great explosion of the mine. 
During August it was engaged in almost contin- 
uous fighting. It remained at the front during 
September, October and November, when it went 
into winter quarters inuncdiately before Peters- 

The Union lines began to close in on the Rebel 
works on April 1, IbGo. The regiment was en- 
gaged during the operations of the :3d and 3d, and 
it wa.s among the first of the regiments to enter 
Petersburg upon its fall. It moved to City Point 
on April 15tli, and thence by boat to Washington, 
where it remained til] June 30th. Lpon the re- 
commendation of Lieutenant-General Grant, this 
regiment was ordered to rcjjresent the infantry of 
the amiy upon the occasion of laying the corner- 
stone of the national monument at Gettysburg on 
July 4, 18G5. From Gettysburg it went into camp 
near Georgetown, where it was mustered out of 
service on July 31st. 

Henry T. Kendall, who was Adjutant, became 
Captain of Company II in January, ISG.'j. 

53i) Regiment. — Company B of this regiment 
included twenty-three men from Birdsboro; and 
Companv A, four men from [loycrtow n. It par- 
ticipated in many battles. 

.joTii Regiment. — The -ioih Regiment was re- 
cruited during the summer and autunni of 18G1, 
and included Company B from Berks county, re- 
cruited at Robesonia. It was organized at Harris- 
burg, and in November proceeded to Fortress 
Afonroe. It experienced some service near Franip- 
ton in October, 1SG2. For a year afterward, it 
performed picket duty at Port Royal Ferry. On 
Jan. 1, 18G-4, the major part of the men rc-enlistcd 
for three years, and were given a furlough. In 
!vlarch, the regiment returned to South Carolina, 
and in April was stationed at Gloucester Point, op- 
posite Yorktown. Here it was assigned to the 3d 
Brigade, 3d Division, 10th Corps, Army of the 
James, and partici[)ated in the movements and en- 
gagements of this corps under the command of 
General Butler. It reached Richmond on .\pril 
25th, and encamped near by, performing fatigue 
and guard duty till the latter part of July; then 
it was stationed at different ])(jints surrounding 
Petersburg till it was mu>tcrcd out of service on 
Aug. 30, 18(;.5. 

William G. Moore, of WomelMlorf, was Cap- 
tain of Company D in this Rcgmienl, from Jul}' 
13, 18G4. to June Id, ISG.-.. 

•jOtii Regiment. — 'l"hc .-)9th Regiment (2d Cav- 
alry) included thirty-three men who were recruit- 
ed at Reading, in ?»Iarch. 18(;2, and became part of 
C'ompany K, under commarid of Captain Chaimcey. 
It cxperiencctl much severe and ])artici- 

'. '! ,.;,.-; ,■ / ■ ''' 



patcd in a number oi battles, promincm among tlicm 
being Bull Run, Chantillv, Gettysburg, and the Wil- 
derness cami)aign. Jt was present at the surrender 
at Appomattox and participated in the grand re- 
view at Washington on r^lay 'i'S, 1>SG5 It was 
mustered out of ?ervice at Cloud's ]\lill, \'a., on 
July 13, I8r,5. 

William F. Dougherty, of lierks county, was 
captain for a time; and Stephen 11. Edgelt from 
March, isi;."), to June, isc.j. 

70x11 Regiment. — The Totli Regiment ((it!) 
Cavalry) was composed of I'liiladelphia men. ex- 
cepting Company G, which was recruited at Read- 
ing, in July, 181)1. under cnu'imaiKl of Capt. George 
E. Clymcr. It participated in the Peninsular cam- 
paign, and in various engagements, the most prom- 
inent being Antietam and Gettysburg. Subse- 
quently it took part in the \irginia campaigri. and 
in the famous raid by General Siieridan. It was 
also present at the surrender at Appomattox, and 
participated in the grand review at Washington. 
It was mustered out of service at Louisville, Ky., 
Aug. 7, 18G-J. 

There were tv. enly men from the county 
in other companies of this regiment: t\s'elve in 
Company F; one in Company 1); four in Com- 
pany I ; two in Company K ; and one in Compan\- .Al. 

Dr. G. S. Engler, of Muhlenberg township, was 
the regimental assistant surgeon. 

7-lrH Recumext. — C'ompany G, of this regi- 
ment, was composed of men recruited in Berks 
and Adams counties, during February, 18G5, for 
a service of one year. It was attached in Alarch 
to this regin>ent, originally organized in 18G1. It 
was engaged in guard duty at Beverly, Clarkslnirg 
and Parker.-burg, from April to August '2'Jth. wlien 
it was mustered out of service nt Clarksliurg. It 
was disbanded at Pittsburg. 

SOth Reiiimext. — The soth Regiment (7 th 
Cavalry) included some men who were recruited in 
Berks county, and mustered into service with Com- 
pany L. It participated in various engagements 
with the Army of the Tennessee, where it had 
been ordered to service. In ^larch, ISGo, it march- 
ed under General Wilson across the Gulf States. 
and in the beginning of April participated in the 
battles of Phmtersville and Sehna, Ala. .\.t die 
latter place, the regiment led in the assault upon 
the works and the conthict of the men was highly 
meritorious. Its last engageir.cnt was near Col- 
umbus, on April IG, isc..^. h was then stationed 
at Macon, Ga., from April 20th to .August 13th, 
when it was mustered out of service. This company 
was recruited in Berks and Xorthumbcrland coun- 
ties, and was mustered out Aug. '33, 18G.5. 

S.Stii Recinfext. — This regiment included three 
companies, recruited in Berks countv. .A. B. and 
H. It "was mnstererl into service at Philadelphia 
in October. ISGl, and then ordered to Washington. 
It performed guard duly in th;it vicinity until May. 
ISG'3. Subsetnientiy. it participated in the follnw- 
ing battlps : Thoroughfare Gap. B.ull Run, Antie- 

tam. Fredericksburg-, Cedar Mountain. Secon! 
Bull Rim, Clianlilly, Gelty^bu^g. South Momuain. 
Gainesville, Wilderness, Chancellorsville. Xurih 
Anna, Tolopotomoy, !Mine Run, Petersburg. Wel- 
dun Railroad, Spottsylvama and Bethesda Church.. 
It continued in active operations until Genera! 
Lee surrendered, when it proceeded to Washing- 
ton, where it was mustered out of service on June 
3U, 18G.J. 

David A. (jrifhth. of Reading, was maior of 
the regiment from September to December, 

Joseph A. r^IcLean, of Fveading. was the lieuten- 
ant-colonel until he was killed at the battle of 
Bull Run on Aug. 30, 1SG2. McLean Po^t, Xo. 
IG, G. A. R., of Reading, v.-as named after him 
in 18GG. 

Riiii^'^oLi Baud. — The regimental band of the 
8sth Regiment was the '■Ringgold" from Reading, 
with Emanuel Ermentrout, as leader, and twenty 
men. It v.-as mustered into service at Ph.iladel- 
phia on .\ug. 30, 18G1. and mustered out at .Man- 
assas Junction on June 21, 18il"3. pursuant to a 
general order dispensing with the services of bands 
of music. 

93i) Regiment. — ^This regiment was organized 
at Lebanon, Pa., in October, 1861. and included 
two companies, B and G, and part of Company K, 
from Berks county. It proceeded to Virginia and 
jiarticipated in the following battles; VVilliams- 
burg, Yorktown, Fair Chiks, IMalvem Hill. Fred- 
ericksburg. Marye's Heights. Gettysburg. Wikler- 
ness, Spottsylvania, Cold Harbor, Petersburg, Op- 
equan, Fislier's Hill, and Cedar Creek. After the 
surrender of General Lee, it marched to Danville 
to co-operate with Sherman lor the defeat of Gen- 
eral Johnston. .Xfter remaining in cam]) there 
for several weeks, it proceerlecl to Washington, 
and was mustered out of service on June 27, 

John E. Arthur, of Reading, was lieutenant- 
colonel from Jul)' to X'ovember, 18G"2 ; David C. 
Keller, major, from September. ISGI. to December, 
l^G 4. when he was appointed lieutenant-colonel, and 
on .April 2. ISG-j, brevet colonel. 

\\'. A. H. Lewis was adjutant from October 
IsGl. to August, 1SG2; and Jolm B. Dcwces from 
r^Iarch to June 27, 1SG5, when mustered out as 

9Gth Regimext. — The 9Gth Regiment was re- 
cruited mostly in Schuylkill county. Some men 
from Hamburg and of Berks county were includ- 
ed in Conipany G. It was mustered into service 
on Sept. 23, ISGl, at Pottsville, and participated in 
various engagements in the Peninsula, at Gettys- 
bm-g. in the \\'i!derness campaign, and in the 
Shenandoah \'alle\. It was mustered out of ser- 
vice in West T'liiladelphia on TVt. 21. ISGl. 

lOlTii Regiment. — The greater pari of Com- 
l)anies B, and II in this regiment consisted of men 
from Berks county : and amonc the field officers 
was Tohn M. dries, from Readin^r. chosen as 



major. During 1863, the regiment participated in 
the siege of Yorktown. and in tlie battles of Sav- 
n-ie Station and Fair Oaks, in the Peninsular cam- 
paign. In the beginning of 18G3, it was ordered 
to South Carohna, and there took part in the siege 
of Charleston and the capture of Fort Wagner. 
During August. 186-1, it was stationed in Florida, 
guarding a line of railroad from Jacksonville to 
l!aldwin. Thence it proceeded north to Alexan- 
dria, where it performed duty in the fortifications 
on the southern side of the Potomac river, till its 
term of service expired. It was mustered out 
of service at Philadelphia on Sept. 30, 1861. Some 
of the rnen from Berks county re-enlisted in this 
regitnent. There were veterans and recruits suf- 
ficient to form a battalion of five con^panies. Its 
principal service afterward was in the siege of 
Petersburg, participating in the assault on the city, 
April 3 and 4, 186.5. It was mustered out of ser- 
vice at Portsmouth on Aug. 3.3, I860. 

Durpxl's B.VTTirRY. — Tliis was the famous In- 
dependent Battery D, commonly known as "Dur- 
ell's." It v.'as organized at Doylestown on Sept. 
2-i, 1861, and proceeded to Washington on !\ov. 
6th, where it was equipped as a six-gun battery. 
Afterward two additional pieces were provided. 
It had a very active career, and participated in 
the following battles: Kelly's Ford, Bristoe Sta- 
tion, Bull Run, Chantilly, South Mountain, Antie- 
tam, Sharpsburg, Sulphur Springs, Fredericks- 
burg, Vicksburg, Wilderness, and the siege of Pet- 
ersburg. It v.-as mustered out of service on luiie 
13, 1865. 

152d Regi.ment. — Company K. of regiment, 
known as the 3d Artillery, included twenty-five 
men from Berks county. The regiment was ori- 
ginally organized for special duty at Fortress ?,Ion- 
roo, but it performed a large share of field ser- 
vice. It had the reputation of being remarkably 
well drilled in every branch of artillery service, 
as well as in infantrv and naval service. All the 
field and nearly all of the line officers of the 188th 
Regiment were promoted from its ranks, and the 
excellent discipline and soldierly bearing of the 
command were frequent subjects of remark and 
commendation by its superior ofiicers. The reg- 
iment was mustered in at Philadelphia ; and nearly 
all the companies (including Company K ) were 
mustered out at Fortress iMonroe on Nov. 9, 1865. 

181.ST REGiMn:.NT. — Sixteen veterans from Berks 
county were enlisted in Com.pany FI of this reg- 
iment upon its re-organization in February, 1861. 
having previously been in the six months' service. 
It was in the Shenandoah A'allcv canifiaign under 
Generals Sigel, Hunter, and Sheridan, au'l parti- 
cipated in numerous battles, including Xew Mar- 
ket, Piedmont, Quaker's Church, Liberiy, Salem. 
Snicker's Gap and Gordonville ; also m various 
battles during the conchiding campaign before Pet- 
ersburg, the regiment occupying the extreme left. 
It was mustered out of service July 13. 1S(;5, at 
Cloi'd'-; Mills. \"ir'''inia. 

183d Regime.xt. — In January, 1861, authority 
was given to re-organize this regiment for three 
years (as the 21st Cavalry) and over half of Com- 
pany H were enlisted at Reading. About the mid- 
dle of May, the regiment was ordered to Washing- 
ton (from camp near Chambersburg) and thence 
sent to join the Army of the Potomac. It partici- 
pated in the battles of Cold Harbor, Petersburg, 
Weldon Railroad, Poplar Spring Church. Boyd- 
ton Road, and Bellefield. It was mustered out of 
service at Lynchburg. \"a.. on July 8, 1SC5. 


138x11 Regiment. — This regiment was recruited 
in response to the proclamation of the Governor, 
calling for troops to serve for nine months, issued' 
July 21, 1862. Companies A, E, E, H, I and K 
were recruited in Berks co:intv. Tlie regiment 
rendezvoused at Camp Curtin, and was mustered 
into the service from the 13th to the 15th of Aug- 
ust. The majority of the regimental officers were 
selected from the companie'; named. On the 16th 
cf August, it was ordered to Washington, moving 
under the command of Capt. William H. Andrews, 
of Company E, because no officers had been as yet 
commissioned. Soon after its arrival at the capital, 
it crossed the Potomac, and was encamped on 
Arlington Heights for a week. (?)n the 31st, it 
moved to Fairfax Seminary; and on the 20th, to 
Fort Woodbury, where for a week (during the 
fierce fighting at Bull Rim and Clianhdlv) it was 
incessantly engageil in felling timber and erect- 
ing fortifications. C)n .Sept. 6t!i. the regiment, m 
light marching orders, recrosscd tiie Potomac and 
entered upon the ^^laryland campaign. y\.t Fred- 
erick City, on the 14th, it was assigned to Craw- 
ford's brigade, of Williams' tlivision, IMansfield's 

It was engaged in active service and participated 
in the battles of Antietam and the Wihlerness. In 
the latter battle, the regiment was surrounded by 
the enemy and the greater part of ihe officers 
and men were taken prisoners to Richmond. After 
the battle, the remainder of the reg-iment (reduced 
to 1T2) marched to Stafford Court-House. where 
its term of service expired. It was ordered to Ilar- 
risburg. and there mustered out on May 10, 1863. 

Captain Smith, of Company A, was promoted 
to lieutenant-colonel on Feb. 1. 1863. Joel B. 
Wanner was major: James II. Gentzler, adiutant. 
and Dr. J. B. Potteigcr, assistant surgeon of the 

151.ST Regimevt. — Companies E. G. H. K. and 
part of I, were recruited in I'.erk^ cnnntv, the re- 
maining part of Company I in Schu_\Ikill county. 
They rendezvoused at Camp Curtin during Sep- 
tember, 1863, wliere a regimental organization was 
effected. On Nov. 36th, the regiment moved for 
Washinglnn, and. npon its arrival, proceeded to 
.\rlington ITcicrht';. On Di'c. 3fl. it marched to 
.\lexandria, and tlience I'roceeded by rail to Un- 
ion Mills. 




About the middle of February, the reg-iment was 
transferred to Belle Plain, where the men suffered 
much from sickness and exposure. Just previous 
to the opening- of the Chancellorsville campaign, 
the regiment, with the 3d Division, was sent to 
Port Conway, on the Lower Rappahannock. 

Before marching to the battle-field at Chancel- 
lorsville, it was twice subjected to a vigorous shell- 
ing from the enemy posted on the opposite shore. 
During Sunday (the "d) and Monday (the 4th) 
the regiment occupied a position on the picket line, 
between the Elv and Germania Ford roads, where 
it confronted the enemy. Considerable sickness 
prevailed here, the morning report at one time 
showing IGO on the sick list. 

The march to Gettysburg commenced on the 
12th of June. The right wing ui the army (com- 
posed of the 1st and 11th Corps under General 
Reynolds) made a forced march of 10.5 miles in 
three days, throwing itself suddenly between Lee's 
armv (which was moving down the Shenandoah 
Valley) and Washington. At Broad Run, they 
halted for the enemy to develop his plans. As the 
enemy pushed on into Pennsylvania, Reynolds fol- 
lowed, and on the Ist of July his cavalry, under Bu- 
ford, met the head of .the enemy's columns, and 
immediately commenced the battle. The Jst Bri- 
gade (commanded by Col. Cha.pman Biddle) arrived 
upon the field at half-past 10 a. m., and took a po- 
sition on the extreme left fiank (jf the corps, the 
151st Regiment under conmiand of Lieutenant-Col- 
onel McFarland, in the absence of Colonel Allen, 
holding the left of the brigade line. As it moved 
into position, it was saluted by the booming of can- 
non and the rattle of musketry. 

The heroism displayed by the regiment in this 
battle was highly praiseworthy. It went into the 
fight with twenty-one officers and 46G men ; of 
these two officers and 187 men were wounded, and 
100 were missing, an aggregate loss of 367. Lieuts. 
Aaron S. Seaman and George A. Trexlcr were of 
the killed; Lieutenant-Colonel ]\IcFarland, Adjt. 
Sanmel T. Allen, Capts. George L. Stone and 
James W. W'eida, and Lieuts. Benjamin F. Oliver, 
Thomas L. Moycr, Ilenry H. ^.lerkle, \\"illam O. 
Blodget and Albert Yost were wounded ; and Capts. 
William K. Boltz and William L. Gray, and Lieuts. 
James L. Rebcr and Charles P. Potts were taken 
prisoner.-. At C o'clock on the morning of the Gth. 
the regiment moved with the army, in pursuit of 
Lee, coming up with his rear-guard at Funkstown 
on the P.?th. and hi- main body near Williamsport 
on the 14th. That night the encmv escaped. The 
regiment's term of service had now nearly expired. 
It was accorilingly relieved from duty on' the 10th, 
and returned to liarri.-burg. where i^ was mustered 
out on the ?7t]i. 

Francis. Parvin. of P.erk'^ county, was quarter- 
master of the regiment. 


When the Rebel army acliieved its triumphs in 
the second battle of Bull Ruii. it hastened northward 
and commenced crossing tlie Potomac. The result 
of the struggle on the plains of Manassas was no 
sooner known than the helpless condition of Penn- 
sylvania, which had been apparent from the first, 
became a subject of alarm. On Sept. 4th, Governor 
Curtin is-ued a proclamation, calling on the people 
to arm and prepare for defense. He recommended 
the immediate formation of companies and regi- 
ments throughout the commonwealth. On the 10th, 
the danger having become imminent, and the en- 
emy being already in Maryland, he issued a general 
order, calling on all able-bodied men to enroll im- 
mediately for the defense of the State, and hold 
themselves in readiness to march upon an hour's 
notice: the following- day he called for fifty thou- 
sand men. The people everywhere Hew to arms, 
and moved promptly to the State capital. 

On the 14th, the head of the Army of the Poto- 
mac met the enemy at South Mountain, and hurled 
him back through its passes ; and on the evening 
of the IGth and on the 17th a fierce battle was fought 
at .\ntietam. In the nieantime, the militia had rapidly 
concentrated at Hagerstown and Chambersburg. 
The enemy was defeated at Antietam, and re- 
treated in confusion across tlie Potomac. The 
emergency having passed, the militia regiments 
were ordered to return to Ilarrisburg, and in ac- 
cordance with the conditions on which thev had 
been called into service, thev were mustered out 
and disbanded on the '24ih. "The train on which the 
20th Regiment was returning over the Cumberland 
X'alley railroad collided, upon ncaring- Harrisburg, 
with a train passing in an opposite direction, by 
which four men were killed and thirty injured. 

The following seven companies from Berks 
county were enlisted in this special service : 

Company G, in 2d Regiment, organized Sept. 6- 
13, 1SG2, and discharged" Sept. 23-25. 

Companies E and I, in 11th Regiment, organized 
Sept. 12, 1^G2, and discharged Sept. 24-25. Charles 
.-\. Knoderer. of Reading, was the colonel of this 

Companies G. H and I. in 20th Regiment, organ- 
ized. Sept. 18. L9G2, and discharged Sept. 2G-.30. 

An Independent Cavalrv Companv was organ- 
ized Sept. 17. 1SG2, and discharged Sept. 27. 

During the }-ear 18i)2, the militarv operations 
were conducted with such energy, and so manv men 
were required, that volunteer companies were not 
sufficiently mmierous to supply the increasing de-- 
mands for troops. The government was therefore 
driven to the extreme measure of impressing men 
into service by drafting them for that iniri-)osc. Ten 
companies wliich constituted the lG7th Regiment. 
and two companies. I and K, of the 17'.it'.i Regi- 
ment, were comi)osed of drafted men from Berks 

J.-l Tin;.' 

'l,'ii ji J)) ■' 




countv. They were mustered into service for nine 

IGTth Regiment. — This rcg-iment was excUi- 
vivelv from Berks county, and was or<:;anized in 
Xovcmber, 1SG2, with the followin'T field officers: 
Cliarles A. Knoderer, colonel ; Dei'uy Davis, heu- 
lenant-colonel : Gustavns A. Worth, major. Soon 
after its organization, the regiment was ordered to 
Suffolk, \'a. It was actively engaged in fatigue 
dutv upon fortifications (in the planning of which 
Colonel Knoderer was an adept) and in reconnoit- 
ring and outpost duty. Late on the evening of Jan. 
29, 18G3, General Corcoran (who commanded a di- 
vision untler General Peck) moved with his column 
toward the Blackwater. and at Deserted Farm, 
seven miles out, encountered a strong force of the 
enemy, under Gen. Roger A. Pryor. Corcoran im- 
mediately made an attack, and a fierce night en- 
gagement ensued. The fighting was principally 
with artillery and the KjTth Regiment was fearfully 
exposed to the enemy's fire. At the opening of the 
battle, Colonel Knoderer ordered his men to he 
down, and fortunately few were injured; but the 
horses of the officers, with the exception of that of 
the adjutant, were all killed, and the Colonel him- 
self received a mortal wound. The enemy was 
finally driven back and the command returned again 
to camp. Lieutenant-Colonel Davis succeeded to 
the command of the regiment, and was subsequently 
commissioned colonel. It participated iri the des- 
ultory operations which were kept up until the be- 
ginning of April, when the right wing of the Rebel 
army under General Longstreet, numbering some 
forty thousand men, advanced upon the place and 
attacked it, but failed to carrv it. He then laid siege 
to it, and constructed elaborate works for its re- 
duction. For nearly a month, these operations were 
vigorously pushed ; and for many days the bom- 
bardment of the fortifications was almost inces- 
sant; but so skillfully had they been planned, and 
so well constructed, that General Peck, with a force 
of only about a third of the number of the invading 
army, successfully repelled every attack, and finally 
compelled Longstreet to raise the siege. The IGTtii 
Regiment was actively • employed in the defense 
throughout the siege, and rendered efficient service. 
Toward the close of Jmie. and during the time of 
Lee's invasion of Penn<;ylvania. the regiment 
formed part of the command which was sent to 
demonstrate in the direction of Richmond, and up- 
on its return was ortlered to ioin the armv of the 
Potomac, then in pursuit of Lee's armv in Mary- 
land. It formed a junction on the l.")th of Julw the 
day after the escape of the enemy across the Po- 
tomac, and was assigned to the 1st Brigade, 1st 
Division of the 1st Corps. With that corps, it par- 
ticipated in the pursuit of Lee beyond the Rappa- 
hannock, when, its term of service being about t<i 
expire, it was relieved at the front, and ordered to 
Reading, where, on Aug. 12, ISfi:'., it was mustered 

IT'.iTii Rkgimi-xt. — This regiment included two 
companies, I and K, from the county of Berks. 
It was organized in companies at jjeriods ranging 
from the 2;3d of October to the Uth of December, 
lsii2, at Philadelphia and Jlarrisburg; and on the 
bth of December a regimental organization was ef- 
fected. Soon after its orgaui.Tation. it proceeded to 
I-'ortress Monroe and thence to Yorktown, where 
it formed part of the garrison at the fort, anrl was 
encamjied within its wall-^. It did little else than 
garrison duty until the ja-t of July, when it was 
called out to join in the movement made by General 
Dix up the Peninsula. During the march to White 
House and thence to BaltiuK^re Cros^; Roads, the 
regiment was prompt and ready, and always well 
in hand. In the return march the lT;>th Regiment 
crowned its reputation as a first-class organization 
by being always promptly in its place, whilst other 
regiments were scattered for miles along the road. 

Upon its return to camp, it was ascertained that 
Lee had invaded Pennsylvania, and though its 
term of service was about to cxiiire, bv the unan- 
imous vote of the men by companies, their further 
services were tendered to Governor Curtin as long 
as he should need them for the defense of the State. 
This offer w-as accepted ; but by the time the regi- 
ment had reached Washington, en route to the front, 
the Rebel army had retreated to Virginia. It was 
accordingly ordered to Plarrisburg, where it was 
mustered out of service on July 2'th. 

The triumph of the Rel)el army at I'redericks- 
burg in December, lS(i2. and its success at Chan- 
cellorsville in !May, ISfi:!, emboldened its leader to 
again plan an invasion f)f the North. It becoming 
daily more evident that the enemy intended to cross 
tlie Potomac in force, the President on June 15th 
called for one hundred thousand men from Penn- 
sylvania, Ohio, Maryland and West Mrginia, to 
serve for a period of six months, unless sooner dis- 
charged; and of this number Pennsylvania was to 
furnish fifty thousand. Governor (Turtin then is- 
sued a proclamation, calling upon all men capable 
of bearing arms to enroll themselves in militarv 
organizations and encourage all others to aft'ord as- 
sistance toward protecting the State. In pursuance 
of this call, many troops were r.-ised throughout 
the State. The citizens of P,erks county responded 
promptly and raised sixteen companies of men ; ten 
of which wore formed into one regiment called the 
42d : two of the 4Sth : three of the .33(1 ; and one of 
the 31st. They were nnistercd into service in Tnlv 
and moved to the front, but so rapid were the move- 
ments of the arnu'es, and the decisive battle of 
Gettysburg was fought so soon after the call for 
the militia, that the men had scarcelv arrived in 
catup before the danger was over. The Rebel armv 
niade its escape on the 13th and 1 Ith of lulv, and 
then the canniaign was at end. But the militia wa<, 
however, held for -^ome time after thi';. having 
been employed ov various duty. 

.J ■■,■ .v.>l 



With the clo.-e of this raiti, tlie Rebel invasiijii of 
liSG3 eiideil. Further service was no lon^'-er re- 
quired of tlie mihlia, anJ (hiring-- the months of 
August and September the majority of the men 
were mustered out. With few exoeptiLins, t!icy were 
not brought into mortal contiict, but tlie\-, never- 
theless, rendered most important service. They 
came forward at a moment when there was pre.-^s- 
ing need, and their presence gave great moral sup- 
port to the Union army. 

The 31st Regiment was organized at Ilarrisburg 
on June 30, 1S(;3. with Caiit. David A. Griffith, of 
Reading, as lieutenant-Cdi'ine!, and mustered out 
on August .'"ith. 

The 4?d Regiment was organized at Reading on 
July 6th, with Dr. Charles H. Hunter, of Reading, 
as colonel ; John E. Arthur, of Reading, as lieuten- 
ant-colonel ; Bcntley H. Smith, of Joanna, as major; 
and Frank R. Schmncker, Esq.. of Reading, as ad- 
jutant : and mustered out on Aug. ll-12th, at 

In the 4Sth, Frederick R. Fritz, of Reading, was 
lieutenant-colonel, and William W. Dieid, of Read- 
ing, major. It was organized at Reading on July 
6th, and mustered out on Aug. 2Gth. 

In the .">3d. Israel C. Becker was adjutant, and 
Jeremiah D. Bitting, quartermaster, both of Read- 
ing. It was organized at Reading on July 13th, 
and mustered out on Aug. 20th. 

Enlisted in this service was the Independent Bat- 
tery commanded bv Ca|)t. William C. I^rnicntr.iut. 
It was organized at Reading on July 3d, and mus- 
tered out 26th. 


Four companies from Berks county were in the 
one hundred davs' service, having been enlisted in 
July, ISGl: 

IP-JTii Reoimext. — This regiment was recruited 
in ten counties of the State, Company I having been 
from Berks countv. It was organized at Camp Cur- 
tin on July 22, If^CA, with Richards McMichael, of 
Reading, as lieutenant-colonel. On the day of its 
organization, it moved to Baltimore. About the 1st 
of September, it moved to Camp Carroll, a mile 
southwest of the citv, on the line of the Baltimore 
and Ohio railroad. Companv I and five other com- 
panies of the regiment were stationed at various 
points in the city for provc>st duty. At the expira- 
tion of its term, it proceeded to Ilarrisburg, where, 
on the nth of X'ovember. it was nmstcred out. 

195th Regiment, — This regiment was principally 
recruited in Lancaster county in July. ISG K to serve 
for a period of one hundred days. It included two 
companies, A and B, frr-m Tierks comity. It was 
or.jjanized at Camp Ciu'tin on the 2 1t]i of July. 
Oliver C. Tames, of Reading, of Comi>anv B. was 
elected major, and Dr. llani-'on T. Witnian, (^f 
Reading, as assistant surgeon. On the da\- of its 
organizati(.in it proceeded t'> Baltimore, ihencc to 
Monocacy JuiH'tion. whei'e fnr a periled of two 
months, it wa> engaged in guarding the Ijridge 

which .-pannetl the creek, and the lines of railwav. 
( )n the l.-t of Octoljcr it proce'cdied to Berkeley 
county. W. \'a., and uas ported along the line of 
the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, with headquarters 
at Xorih ^Mountain station, where it remained till 
the expiration of its term of service. Three hun- 
dred of the men re-enlisted to serve for one year 
and the • were consolidated in three companies. 
They remained on duty under the command of 
Capt. Henrv D. Markley, of Company A, Subse- 
quently seven other companies were recruited, and 
they together were reorganized as the lO-lth Reg- 
iment with Captain Marklcy as major. It per- 
formed guard duty at Kabletown, Berrxville, and 
Staunton. At the latter place, the three veteran 
companies were mustered out in the middle of 
June, iJSOo. 

lOGxii REc.niEXT. — This regiment was recruited 
under the auspices of the Union League at Phil- 
adelphia, to serve for c>nc hundred days, and it 
was known as the 5th Union League Regiment, 
It included Company I, of Berks county. It wa.'^ 
organized at Camp Cadwalader, Philadelphia, on 
July 20, lSG-1, and a week later proceeded to Camp 
Bradford, near Baltimore. About the middle of 
August, it was ordered to Chicago, 111., where it 
performed guard duly at Camp Douglas, a large 
number of prisoners of war having been confined 
there. Early in X'ovember, it returned to Phil- 
adelphia, and was thence ordered to duty at h'ort 
Delaware. It was mustered out at Philadelphia 
on Xov. ir, 18G4. 

Six volunteer companies from Berks county 
were in the service for one vear from September, 
1SG4, to August, 18G5. 

83d Regiment, — After the battle of Hatcher's 
Run on Feb. G, 18G5. this regiment went into camp 
at Hampton station, and while there four full com- 
panies were assigned to it, including Company 1, 
recruited at Harrisburg for a service of one year. 
There were a number of men from Reading in 
this company. The concluding efforts of the great 
strife were started on March 29th. and in quick suc- 
cession this regiment was engaged in the battles of 
Tones' Farm, White Oak Road, Gravelly Run, Five 
Forks, Sutherlanrl Station, Jeilersonville, and Ap- 
pomattox Court-House. It was mustered out of 
service on June 28th at Washington and thence it 
proceeded to Harri>;hurg. where it was finally 
banded on July 4th. 

1020 IvEontENT. — In July, 18Gt, a regiment was 
recruited in Philadeljihia. for a service of one hun- 
dred daw-, and mustered in as the 102d. It was 
mustered out of service in X'ovcmber following. 
One of the companies re-enlisted for one year, ai:d 
in February, 180.'). nine new companies unitcil with 
it, which were nui'^tered in as ;i second regiment of 
the same number. One of the nine companies was 
Coniijany V. recruited at ]\cading. The regiment 
was organized at Harper's Ferry, and when the 

•I. .' i:''n 'j. ■" J .■ ';- 

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'! !■ 



spring campaign opened, it moved up tiie valley to 
Staunton and Lexington. It was retained in the 
department and engaged in various duties till Aug. 
24th, when it was mustered out of service at Har- 
per's Ferry. 

lOoTii Regiment. — Three companies of the 
IDoth Regiment in the one hundred days' service 
were re-enlisted in the one year's service, which in- 
cluded Company A, commanded by Capt. Henry 
D. Markley. It classitied with other companies 
which became the lUSth Regiment. Captain ^ lark- 
ley became the major; and Dr. H. T. W'itrnan, the 
assistant surgeon. It was organized on the field in 
February, lyi^o, at Martinsburg, \'a., and Com- 
pany A was mustered out at Summit Pomt, Ya., 
on June 21, 1865. 

On April 1, 18G5, the regiment was sent to guard 
the fords of the Shenandoah river; and on the ?2d 
it was ordered to Berryville. 

198th Regiment. — This regiment was recruited 
at Philadelphia during the summer of IBGl, under 
the auspices of the Union League, to enter service 
for one year, and included Conipanies D and G 
from Berks county. It was organized Sept. 9th, 
and September 19th following it proceeded to join 
the Army of the Potomac in front of Petersburg. 
Upon its arrival it was assigned to the 1st Brigade, 
1st Division of ihe Corps. It participated in 
the battles of Peelile's Farm, Hatcher's Run, and 
White Oak Sv.-amp. At the last named Capt. 
Isaac Schroedcr was mortally wounded. It vvas 
mustered out at Arlington Heights June 3, 18G.5. 

205th Rei;imext. — Companies B, E and H of 
this regiment were recruited in Berks county. They 
rendezvoused at Camp Curtin, where, on Sept. 2, 
186-1, field officers were selected, including William 
F. Walter, captain of Company E, as lieutenant- 
colonel, who had served in the 104th Regiment. On 
the 5th, the regiment left Harrisburg, proceeded 
to Washington, crossed the Potomac, and went in- 
to camp at Fort Corcoran. Afterward it was en- 
gaged in picketing from the left of the army line 
to the James, and in building forts and earthworks 
for the defense of City Point. On Oct. 9th. it was 
ordered to the Army of the James. With the ex- 
ception of occasional marches in support of aggres- 
sive movements, the regiment remained in camp, 
near Fort Prescott on the Army Line railroad dur- 
ing the winter, wdiere it was engaged in drill and 
fatigue duty. On March 25, 18C5, it participated in 
the retaking of Fort Steadman, and afterward in 
the siege of Petersburg. It was mustered out of 
service at Seminarv Hill on June 2. 18G5. 

21:^th Regiment. — This regiment was recruited 
at Philadeliihia, and in Berks, Chester and Juniata 
counties, with the assistance of the Union League. 
It was organized c>n March 2, 18G5, and two days 
afterward transferred to Annapolis. Md., to guard 
Camp Parole. Part of the regiment was -ent t(^ 
Frederick, Md., for dutv on the line of tlie B. 
&• O. railroad. In April, it was conceiitrated at 
Washington, and posted along the northern de- 

len'^es, where it continued until Xov. iSth. when it 
was mustered out of service. Coinpanv D was re- 
cruited in Berks count\. 

About 225 men from the count) were enlisted in 

other companies but not enough of them in any 

company to be classified in the foregoing list. 
5th U. S. Autielerv. — Battery tl included 

seven men from Marion township, Berks countv. 
19th U. S. Ixfantkv. — Company G, commanded 

by Capt. Edmund L. Sm.ith, of Re.uling, included 

seven men from Berks county. 


A nimibei of associations have been organized 
since the close of the Civil war bv the survivors 
or their sons : 

Gr.\nd Armv Po.sts. — McLean Post, Xo. i6, G. 
A. R., was organized at Reading and chartered Dec. 
12, 186G, having been named after Lieut.-Col. Jo- 
seph A. McLean, of tlie 88th Regiment. It has 
maintained a successful organization since then. 
It has collected an extensive library of military Ht- 

Kciui Post, Xo. j6. G. A. R., chartered Feb. 
22, 1878, also at Reading. It has also maintained 
its organization since, with separate quarters. It 
was named after Gen. William H. Keim. 

Mcadc Camp, Xo. i6. Sons of I 'ttirans, was 
instituted Oct. 30. ll<81, being a branch of the Sons 
of veterans at Philadelphia, and designed to keep 
active the memory of the sacrifice of their fathers 
in the Civil war. 

Loyal Ladies' League. Xo. 6, was instituted April 
17, 1884, at Reading. Only mothers, wives, daugh- 
ters and sisters of honorably discharged soldiers 
and sailors of the Civil war are admitted to mem- 
bership. It is an auxiliary to the Grand Army of 
the Republic. 

McLean JVoniaiis Relief Corps, Xo. lO, was 
instituted C)ct. 1, 1884, as an auxiliary to Post Xo. 
IG, G. A. R. It has held a number of fairs and 
camp-fires for the benefit of the Pose and thereby 
contributed much pecuniary aid. 

Ex-Prisoners of A\'.\r. — Certain enlisted men in 
the Civil war from Berks county, who were pris- 
oners of war, also formed an association for mu- 
tual aid and social intercourse on July 10, 1884. 
and thev too have maintained an active organization 
since then. 

The war of the United States with Spain grew 
out of the oppression of the people of Cuba by the 
Sjianish government, which extended through a 
long period of time, and the repeated cftorts of the 
people toward establishing a republican form of 
government elicited the earnest sympathy of our 
republic. The crmduct of our own government was 
alwavs reserved and guarded, but when our l>att!e- 
sln}i "Maine" was blown up in the harbor of Havana 

. 1 !;■•-' '.• i;;- M i:s>y:M; 

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on Feb. 1"). IS'.is. causinc: the loss of '-i^'iG saili>rs, 
the feehiiq- of our per. pie. incited by the metropoli- 
tan nc\vspa]>er.-, became so intense against Spain 
that it culminated in a proi>osed declaration r,i war 
in Congress on March ■^I'th, and in the recogniiinn 
of the independence '<i Cu')a on .\]iril lUth. Two 
days after this reci.s^mition. our .\lini>ter to Spain 
was unceremoniously dismis>ed from Madrid; four 
days afterward President ^^IcKinley called for 1"^",- 
000 volunteers : and -ix days afterward, a formal 
declaration of war was ]:)assed by Con,t:ress. Wb.en 
this signal was given, the military operations be- 
came immediately very active and determined, and 
within a week more the g-reat naval battle in .Manila 
harbor had taken place, with unprecedented success 
to the American fleet of battleships under the com- 
mand of Admiral Dewey, and the total destruction 
• of the Spanish fleet. 

While these events v.ere transpiring, the patriotic 
■spirit at Reading was aroused, and tlie "Reading 
Artillerists,'' under the command of Capt. Samuel 
'Willits, res])onded to the President's call, and pro- 
ceeded to Mt. Gretna, where it was mustered into 
.service on May 9th, with the 4th Regiment of Penn- 
sylvania X'olunteers. The reg-iment was transferred 
■to Chickamauga Park, in Georgia, arriving there 
•on May IGth; and after having been quartered at 
several other places, it finally reached Guanica, in 
Porto Rico, on Aug. 2d, and thence it proceeded 
to Arroyo, the hills near by being shelled bv tlie 
American troops while the disembarkment of the 
men took place. Tlie regiment ]>articipated in the 
movements which led up to the battle and the 
•capture of Guayama without Ijccoming actually 
■engaged; and shortly afterward it constituted 
-part of the 1st Battalion and wagon-train 
which marched toward Guayama to supjwrt 
the advancing arm) . The enemv was endeavoring 
to execute a flank movement when the regi- 
ment was ordered to occupv a commanding position 
and while engaged in this Important work the news 
of the "Peace Protocol" was circulated, which 
■•caused further operations to cease. Then the regi- 
ment was directed to withdraw to a point on the 
Ponce Road, near the town, and there it remained 
• on outpost duty until August '^Hth. when it niarched 
about fifty miles to the city of Ponce, and thence 
to tiie Port de Playa. It then took passage on the 
transport "City of Chester" for Xew York Citv, 
where it arrived on Sejit. Cth. and was then fur- 
longhed for sixty days. It was nnistered o"t of 
service on Xov. Pith. The company reached R-ad- 
ing on SeT)t. Tth, at 4 a. m.. and many person- were 
at the railroad station to extend a cordial welome 
to the men. A nubile reception v.-as tenderv 1 to 
the company in the form of a large parade in four 
divisions, with one th(-iusand men in line, and a 
ban(|uet In Rajah Temi)le. on W'edncsdav evening, 
Sept. l.'ith. Peini street was crowflcd with inan\- 
thousand enthusiastic people who the 

John C. HIntz, the Fir.>t Lieutenant of Company 
A, died June -Jfith. in Lclter Hospital, in Chlcka- 
mai!ga I'ark, while tb.e compan_\ was lying thcri.- 
awaiting orders to march and his remains were 
forwarded to Reading and burled with an imp.>.- 
mg ceremony. 

Company G, of the Hth Regiment, Pennsylvania 
Volunteer Infantry, recruited at Reading, was also 
enlisted in the service. This regiment was mustered 
in at Mt. Gretna on Mav 11, ISfiS, and encamped 
at Chickamauga Park, on ]\Iay 20th. On Alay 2r,th, 
the President issued a second call for seventy-tive 
thousand men, and four additional companies were 
added to the regiment, one of these being Companv 
G, commanded by Capt. Henry D. Green, of Read- 

(Jn August 20th, the regiment as a part of the 3d 
Division, 1st Army Corps, was ordered to Lexing- 
ton, Ky., and on the 2.5th it was encamped at Camp 
liamllton, about five miles from Lexington. It re- 
mained at that place until Sept. ISth, when it was 
ordered to W'ilke^-P.arre, Pa. There it was given an 
enthusiastic reception and then furlougiied for 
thirty days. It arrived at Reading on Sept. 20th, 
and on tlie evening of the 22d, a public reception 
was extended to it similar to that extended to Com- 
pany A, but the parade could not be made on ac- 
count of a severe rain. 

Both companies participated in the "Peace Jub- 
ilee" at Philadelphia on C)ct. 27, 1.S98. 

Comjiany E of Plamburg, of the same regiment, 
was mustered in on May 10, 1898, at Mt. Gretna, 
and participated in the same services as Company 
A ; and it was mustered out of service on Xov. 
K;, LS9S. It was also in the I'cace Jubilee at Phil- 
adelphia. It -was commanded by Capt. William 

MILITIA SYSTEM— 1770-1909 
The Convention of 17;f;. in framing the first Con- 
stitution of Pennsylvania, made provision for the 
establishment of a military system; and In pursu- 
ance of this provision, the General Assembly es- 
tablished the necessary regulations. The of 
Berks, under the direction of the designated officer 
(called a "lieutenant," with the assistance of "sub- 
lieutenants"), was enabled to supply promptlv and 
successfully all the orders made by the government 
for troops during the progress of the Revolution. 

IVevious to this system, the military affairs were 
governed l)y ".-\rtlcies of .-\ssociation." The men 
who associated together for purposes of defense 
were commonly known as "Assoclators." and those 
who acted in opposition cither openlv, or secretlv, 
were called "X'on-Associators." roR 17 70. — The following officers had 
been chosen for the several battalions of the .Asso- 
clators of r.erks cr>u,nty for the year l77.")-7(;. the 
company rosters having been puldished In that con- 
nection : 


..r./ -■; 

I !. 

. t r, r,<i ■;, 

ni'.. • :r.N 



1st Battalion — Ccntial Section 

Lieut-Col., Henry Ihillcr. Major, G:ibricl liiester. 

2d Battalion — Southern Section 

Lieut. -Col* Mark Bird. Major,. John Jones. 

Sd Battalion — Central Section 

Lieut.-Co!.. Nicholas Lotz. Major. John Old. 

7//1 Battalion — Xorthcrn Section 

Lieut. -Coi., Kalsci Geehr. Major. Michai.1 Lindcnuith. 

Sth Battalion — U'estcr)i Section 

Lieut. -Col., John Patton. Major, John Thornburgh. 

6th Battalion — Eastern Section 
Lieut.-Col., Daniel Hunter. Major. Conrad Leffler. 

7//j Battalion — Xortheastern Section 
Lieut. -Col., Sebastian Lcvan. Major, Samuel Ely. 

Returns for 177G. — Seven battalions were 
organized in the county, as appeared by the 
delegates sent to tlie election at Lancaster on July 
4, 1776, for two brigadier-generals. The meeting 
comprised the officers and privates of fifty-three 
battalions of Associators. A full ratio of men was 
sent by the militia of Berks county. The following 
delegates represented the county at that meeting: 

1st Battalion: Officers — Major, (labriel Hie.^te^; Lieu- 
tenant, Philip Cremer ; privates, John Hartnian, Peter 

2d Battalion: Officers— Colonel, Mark Bird; Major, 
John Jones; privates, David Mortran, Benjamin Tolbcrt. 

3d Battalion: Officers — Lieutenant-Colonel, Nicholas 
Lotz: Captain. George Richm; privates, Henry Spohn, 
Matthias Wenrich. 

4th Battalion: Officers— Major, Michael Lindemut ; 
Captain, George May: private, Michael Closer. 

$th Battalion: Officers — Colonel, John Patton: Lieu- 
tcnant-Colonc!, John Rice; privates, Jacob Seltzer, Chris- 
tian Winter. 

6th Battalion: Officers — Major, Leftler ; Lieu- 
tenant, John Miller: privates. John IJill, Henry Lark. 

7th Battalion: Officers — Colonel. Sebastian Levan : .-Vd- 
jutant. Samuel Ely; privates, I'hilip W'isters, Casper 

Returns for 1777. — Col. Jacob ^lorgan and 
his sub-lieutenants met at Reading, on April 25, 
1777, for the purpose of receiving returns of the 
inhabitants of Berks county between the ages of 
eighteen and fifty-three years. The number then 
returned was about four thousand. These were 
arranged in six districts, and meetings were or- 
dered to be held on the oth and Gth of Alay follow- 
ing, for the purpose of electing officers and form- 
ing companies. Morgan rejiorted that he had for- 
warded to the Executive Council an exact list of 
the field-officers, captains, subalterns and court-mar- 
tial men, comprising the six battalions of the Berks 
county militia, or one battalion for each district. 
This list appears in tlie Popiisxli'auia rissociators, 
Vol. 2, pp. 2r)7 to 27G. The several battalions were 
returned on May IG, 1777. 

Battalion Section of County Colorcl 

1st Eastern Daniel Hunter 

2d Northeastern Daniel L'drec 

■ 'Sd ■ Northern Michael Lindenmuth 

4th Central Nicholas Lotz 

.")th Southern Jacoli Weaver 

6th Western Henry Spyker 

New SvsTI•:^t. — After the foregoing returns had 
been made, the Assembly deemed it necessary to 
provide a next militia system, because the Associa- 
tors had lost their efifectlveness. Shortly after the 

battle of Princeton, whole companies deserted. In 
this behalf, a law was parsed on June 13, 1777. 

Oath of Allcylancc. — (Jne of the first require- 
ments was the taking of an oath of allegiance, 
which had to be done before July 1, 1777. This 
was allowing only seventeen tlays ; but in this time 
its provisions had become thoroughly known in 
Berks county for the time for deliberation ^r hes- 
itation had passed, and prompt action was neces- 

Persons who neglected or refused to take this 
oath were declared to be incapable of holding any 
office; serving as jurors; suing for debts; electmg 
or being elected; buying, selling, or transferring 
real estate ; and they were liable to "be disarmed by 
the county lieutenants and deputies. If they were 
not provided with passes, they were liable to be 
arrested as spies, upon being found out of the 
city or county away from their immediate residence ; 
and forgery of a certificate was punishable with a 
Hogging and a fine of ioO. 

in pursuance of the Act, over forty-nine hundred 
men took the oath of allegiance in Berks county 
dprintr the years 1777 and 1778, before llie justices 
of the peace in the several sections of the county. 
The greater number was taken from June to Oc- 
tober in 1777. 

County Districts Established. — This law directed 
the counties to be divided into districts, and each 
district was to contain not less than 410 men, nor 
more than GSO. fit for duty, to be arranged in eight 
comp.anies. The ofilicer in cliarge of a county was 
called a "lieutenant" ; and of each di.strict, a "sub- 
lieutenant." It was the duty of the "lieutenant" 
to enlist the people, collect the fines, and execute the 
details of the law. 

Battalions, Companies and Classes. — Each dis- 
trict was subdivided into eight parts, with due re- 
gard to the convenience of the inhabitants, and 
elected its officers from lieutenant-colonel down to 
subalterns. The term of service was three years. 
A company was set apart for each '-ulidiviston, 
and this was also divided by lot into eight parts, 
called classes, as nearly equal as possible, and the 
several classes were numbered from one to eight in 
numerical order. Berks county was divided into 
six districts. Accordingly, the county liad six bat- 
talions, or forty-eight companies. 

The rank of tiie battalions and their officers, 
also of the captains and subalterns was determined 
bv lot. The precedence of the officers of the sev- 
eral counties, as to rank, was arranged according to 
the seniority of the counties, Philadelphia being 

In case of invasion, or assistance were asked by 
Congress, the militia was called out by classes. The 
first draft con>isted of class one of each company, 
and if insufficient, then class two. and so on, as oc- 
casion required. F:ach class was liable to serve two 
months, and it was relieved by the next class in 
numerical order. 

"»'( b';i. V"i>--i':i !>;.;• u'-'Wi 

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F'ax and Rations. — The pay and rations were the 
same as Continvnlal troops. They were to com- 
mence two days before marching:, and to W allowed 
at the rate of twenty miles a day till the men re- 
turned home. 

Days of Drill. — Days of drill were set apart in the 
spring and fall for military exercises; in companies, 
on the last Momlay vi April, and first three Mon- 
days of May; also, on the last two Mondays of 
August, the last two ^^londays of September, and 
the third Mondav of October: and /;/ battalions, on 
the fourth Mondays of May and October. 

Fines. — Enrolled men who refused to parade 
were fined Ts. (jd. per diem ; absent officers, lOs. ; 
non-commissioned officers and privates, 5s. On 
field days, the fine for non-attendance \vas i5, and 
for non-commissioned otricers and privates, 15s. 

Pensions. — Pensions were allowed for incapaci- 
tating injuries not exceeding one-half the pay re- 
ceived; and for persons who died from wounds, 
or were killed in service, the Orphans' Court was 
authorized to allow support to the families in 
amounts not to exceed one-half the pay of such 

Persons E.x'cn-pted from Sendee. — The excepted 
persons from, bearing arms were delegates in Con- 
gress, members of the Executive Council, judges of 
the Supreme court, masters and faculty of colleges, 
ministers, and servants purchased bona fide. 

Subsequent Returns. — Militia returns were made 
and reported for tlie succeeding years of the Rev- 
olution until 1783, and those for the years 1778, 
1780, and 17S3 have been published in the Penn- 
sylvania Archives. 

Since Revolution. — The military spirit of the 
people continued to prevail after the Revolution, 
and the State encouraged it for the purpose of 
maintaining familiarity with its affairs. Compan- 
ies, regiments and brigades were organized and 
drilled at certain fixed times and places within the 
county. The meeting was commonly called "Bat- 
talion Day." It preserved a strong general interest 
in public affairs, especiallv in public defense. This 
interest enabled the several organizations to re- 
spond promptly to calls for their services, and their 
promptness was a distinguishing characteristic. 
Fortunately for them and especially for the coun- 
try, their services were not needed frequently. X'ot 
to mention the "Whiskey Insurrection" and "X'orth- 
ampton Affair" as of any miiitarv consequence, 
there were but two occasions for a period covering 
over sixty years in which their services were re- 
quired, one having been the English war of 1S12-15, 
and the other the Mexican war of 184(i-i8. each. 
by a strange coincidence, occurring after a period 
of about thirty years. These miiitarv exercises were 
continued until the beginning of the Rebellion ; but 
this outbreak of the Southern States against the 
Northern was of sucli a serious, long-continued and 
costly nature that the spirit for a return to military 
exercise had come to be entirely exhausted. 

Protler Services to President. — In 1798, a mis- 
understanding arose between our Xational govern- 
ment and the I'Yench on account of tl^nr seizing and 
detaining many of our vessels for examination, to 
ascertain whether or not we, as a neutral govern- 
ment, were carrying English commodities. Some 
conthcts arose on the sea. but Xapoleon, upon tak- 
ing control of the French government, soon estab- 
lished a cordial understanding between the two 
countries and American vessels were no longer mo- 
lested ; and two years afterward Louisiana was 
purchased by the Cnited States. 

During this excitment, the officers of the Berks 
County Brigade met at the Court-House in Read- 
ing on June 30, 17r'S, and addressed a patriotic 
letter to President Adams, offering their services 
to assist in resenting the insult of the French to 
our government; to which the President gave them 
a ver\- appreciative acknowledgment. 

Military Dizisiori. — In 1807 PJerks and Dauphin 
counties comprised the Sixth Division. In lSl-1 two 
new counties, Schuylkill and Ecbanon, were added 
to this division, Dauj-'hin and Lebanon fonning the 
1st Brigade and Berks and Schuylkill the 2d; and 
in 184!), Dauphin, Lebanon and Berks comprised 
the 5th Division. The last Act before the RebeUion 
was passed m 1858, by which Berks was still a part 
of the same division. 

Encampment at Reading. — A large and success- 
ful encampment of militia was held at Reading in 
1842. It was arranged along the I>ase of Penn's 
Mount and continued from May 18th for one 

The following troops attended: 

Company Men 

Reading Troop 30 

Rcadin.5 Artillerists 52 

Washington Grays ("Reading) 40 

Xational Grays (Readinji) 35 

Xational Troop (Oley) 4.5 

Hamburg Troop 30 

llanihiirg Artillerists .52 

Woraeisdorf Legion 46 

BcrnviHc Rifle Gravs 65 

r.crks Rille Rangers 54 

T'oltsviiie Cavalry 28 

Pottsville Infantry 44 

Orwigsburg Grays 40 

.A.Ileiuown Guards 34 


Attendance from Reading. 15"; from country districts, 
202. Prii^.-Gcn. William High was in command o{ the 
Rcrk? County Brigade. The commander-in-chief of the 
State was also present. 

The dailv ihitv at the encampment was similar 
to armv regulation during actual war. It was as 

!Morninff gun at daybreak Grand parade, 10 A.^^. 

Reveille Dinner. 12 m. 

Roll-call Regular parade. -1 p.m. 

Morning parade Evening gnn. f. p.m. 

Breakfast Tattoo and countersign, 10 

Detail (if guards r.^r. 

InsiKctiiin Lights extinguished, li r. M. 

And 11 P.M. to daylight "the sentry walked his 

lom-lv roimd." . 

.h-''- f.-:>--r!ai 

i' , ; ,J r .■'■' V 



A review of the troops was held on Saturday, 
Mav 21st. The day was tine, and thousands of 
persons were in attendance. 

Gen. \\'infield Scott, accompanied liy his aids, 
arrived at Reaihng on the day of the review. He 
was met at the "depot" (Seventh and Chestnut 
streets) by a detachment of mihtary and escorted 
to "Herr's Hotel" (United States, north side of 
Penn Square, between Fourth ami Fifth streets), 
followed by many citizens. Fie spent Sunday at 
Reading. On Monday. 33d. he reviewed the troops 
at the encampment and during this day medals were 
shot for. General Scott expressed himself as highly 
pleased with the discipline and appearance of the 
encampment and he paid a special compliment to 
the "Reading Artillerists." WHiilst here he presented 
each of the Revolutionary survivors with a $20 gold- 

Battalions in j8^6. — In 18.j(l tliere were in the 
county twenty-four companies of militia, arranged 
in six battalions, v.diich compri'^ed the 1st Brigade, 
of the 3lh Di\ ision of Pcnnsvlvania Volunteers: 



Company Men 


Section Offirer 

Reading Major \V. H. Keim 

Hamburg Major T. A. Beitcnman 
Maiden-creek .Major D. B. Kaufman 

Oley ^[ajor Isaac Schrocdcr 

Union Major W. J. Scliocner 

Marion .Major John Bechtnid 

Total men, 1,4G3; total force of troops in the county, 

These battalions were in active existence when 
the Civil war broke out in ISCl. 

St.\te National Gu.\rd. — In ISGI, a new sys- 
tem was provided which still prevails. The assess- 
ors of the county are required to enroll "every able- 
bodied male citizen resident within the State, of the 
age of twenty-one years and under the age of forty- 
five years," excepting certain persons specified ; and 
this roll of persons is placed on record in the office 
of the county conmiissioners ; and the whole num- 
ber of persons liable to military duty is reported by 
the commissioners to the adjutant-general of the 
State. The enrolled militia shall he subject to 
no active duty except in case of war, invasion, riot, 
etc. The commander-in-chief may order the militia 
to be drafted from the persons liable to dutv or ac- 
cept as many volunteers as may be re(|uired. The 
organization is similar to the previous systems, 
but the State is divided into tweiitv divisions, each 
county to form a separate brigade. Berks. Leb- 
anon and Dauphin counties cmnprise the .^th Di- 
vision. Subsequent mf)difications hn\c been made. 

The active militia is styled the "Xational Guard 
of Pennsylvania." In time of i)eace it shall com- 
prise an aggregate not to exceed ten thousand of- 
ficers and men and "consist of two luuidred com- 
panies, fully armed, uniformed and equipped, to 
be distributed among the several militarv divi'^ions 
of the State according tr» the number of its taxable 
population." .And provisi(in is ma<le tor drilling, 
inspections and encampments. This system is car- 

ried on successfully, but witliout causing any pi-.blic 
excitement, excepting during the time and in the 
vicinity of any encampment. 

RcaJini^ .'lrtillcrists.—'l'\K Reading Artillerists 
is one of the most prominent military organi- 
zations in Pennsylvania. It was organized at 
Reading, March 33, 1791, and has continued in ac- 
tive existence until the present tiine, exceptitig from 
the close of the* Civil war in 1«G.5 until 18si, when 
it was re-organized. At first it was known as the 
Reading Union X'olunteers, and in tlie English war 
of 1813-15 as the Reading Washington Guards, 
and about 1830 it took the name of Reading Artil- 
lerists which it has retained until now. The first 
captain was Daniel de B. Keim and he served as such 
from 1T94 to 1S30. It was engaged in the Whiskey 
Insurrection of 1794; in the Xorthampton riot of 
1799; in the English war of 1813-15; in the Phil- 
adelphia religious riots of 1844 ; in the ^vlexican 
war of 1846-48 ; in the Civil war of 18G1-65 ; in the 
Homestead riots of July. 1893; in the Hazleton 
riots of September, 1897 ; in the Spanish war of 
1893; in the Schuylkill riots of 1900; and in the 
Northumberland and Luzerne riots frotn Septem- 
ber, 1903, to April, 1903. 

The captain of the coinpany since Feb. G, 1905, 
has been Dr. H. Melvin Allen, and he has devel- 
oped the coinpany to a high grade of efficiency ; 
for, in the first year the company ranked fourth in 
the regiment, the second year it ranked second, and 
the third year it ranked first, having in 1907 readied 
the average of .!)9 55-100. In the fourth year, how- 
ever it dropped to second place, the company which 
it had surpassed in 1907 having reached first place 
in 1908 by the remarkable average of .99 G.5-100 
(the Artilieri.sts being .99 GO-lOO). 

The following is a list of the captains of the 
coinpany : 

Daniel de B. Keim, 1704-1S:;0. 

George Mav Keim. 1S30-3 1. 

William n. .Miller, IsrM-r.O. 

William Strong, 1839-44. 

Thomas S. Leoser, 1S44-40. 

Marks John Biddlc. lS49-,50; 1S52-55. 

Daniel R. Chmer, 1S50-52. 

William I. Clous. lS.".j-5T. 

George W. Alexander, 1S57-61. 

William H. .-\ndre\vs, 1SC,2. 

Tliomas M. Richard, ]8r,2-63. 

Robert H. Savage, ISSl-s-J. 

William H. Soudcrs, 1SS2-83. 

Samuel H. Stahr, 1883-85. 

Henry J. Christoph, 1885-95. 

Samuel Willits. 1805-99. 

Edward E. Machamer, 1899-1902. 

Reuben C. Potteiger, 1902-05. 

H. Melvin Alkn, since 1905. 

A militar\- company was organized at Flamburg, 
.-Vpril 13, 1875, and became attached to the N. G. P. 
as Company K. 4th Regiment, having been a con- 
tiiuiation of the "Blue Alountain Legion." It was 
called into active service to assist in quelling the 
riots at Reading in July, 1877, at Homestead in Julv, 
In93. in Schuylkill connty, in 1900. and in North- 
umberland and Luzerne counties from September, 

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ir»0->, to April, r.tti:!. It was also'^S^^J i" the 
Spanish war with t!u- 4th Rcj^nment of i'ennsylvania 
W'luiitccr Jiifaiitry, having been mustered into the 
X'ational service May K', 1SS)S, and mustered out 
Xov. Ii5. Isii'S. It participated in the movements of 
the army in Porto Rico, and was tlien commanded 
by Capt. William Kummerer. [See reference to 
Company and Armorv in description of Hamburg, 
Chapter XL] It connnanded Ijy the following 
captains : 

Edward F. Smith, lST5-8;i. 
Charles F. Seaman.' 1883-93. 
John F. Ancona, 189:;-0r. 
Benjamin F. Gehris. 1897-08. 
Dr. John R. Wagner. 1898. 
William KumnKTcr. 1S08-1902. 
Monroe M. l)r<-ibclbis, 10(li;-07. 
Wilson S. Lewis, since 1907. 

Company G, of the 9th Pennsylvania \"olunteer 
Infantry, organized at Reading by Henry D. 
Green (a prominent attorney) in response to a sec- 
ond call of Presidait AIcKinley for 75,000 addi- 
tional troops, and mustered into the X'ational service 
July 27, 1S9S. It was encamped in Kentucky dur- 
ing August and part of September, and was mus- 
tered out of service Oct. 21), 1908. 

These three com]3anies (Company A, Company E, 
and Companv G) from Berks county participated in 
the great Peace Jubilee at Philadel]jhia on Oct. 27, 
1898, after the successful termination of the Spanish 

Company I, of the 4th Regiment, X". G. P.. was 
organized in 1S9S as a provisional company in order 
to maintain a military organization of the X'ational 
Guard at Reading during the absence of Comi)any 
A, and mustered in June 9th, with a full quota. It 
became attached to the X'ational Guard of the State 
in 1900. Harry l\l. I'hillippi was the captain until 
he resigned in 1901 ; Jerome Seider from 1901 to 
1903, and Ralph R. Koser from 1903 to 1901. 

The comijany was re-organized by Capt. Charles 
G. :Millcr in" October, 190G, after it had been allowed 
(0 retrograde for five years to the point of disband- 
ing, with only thirty-five enlisted men. In two years 
he brought it to the standard of sixty men and three 
officers, and secured for the company an average 
of 97, and a rating as the fifth conijiany in the reg- 
iment ; which evidences in a high degree his superior 
character and abilitv as its commanding officer. 

The company was called out to assist in quelling 
the labor troubles in Schuylkill county in 1900, and 
in X'orthumberland and Luzerne counties in 1902-0.1. 

This company is a re-organization of the historical 
companv known for manv vears as the "Reading 

The 4th Regiment. X. G. P., comprises the com- 
panies from I'erks, Lancaster, Lebanon, Lehigh and 
Schuylkill count ic'^. 

ExROi.T.Mr.N'T FOR MiiiTAKV Sfuvicf,. — In .\u- 
gust, 1908. the countv had 29.10.") men en- 
rolled for military service as reported to the Com- 
missioners bv the assessors of the several di-tricts; 

■* Elected major of rtgiinent in UX>'X 

an increase of 2,198 over the number for 190.". 
Reading contained over half. 1G.383. The number 
for the several districts was as follows: 



Albany 1.ti"> 

Alsace, Lower iy9 

Alsace 118 

.\mitv isr 

Bern 197 

Bern, Upper lOG 

Bethel -•:.'T 

Brecknock 12C) 

Boyertown 317 

Bechtelsville J7 

Bernville 56 

Birdsboro. E. W 304 

Eirdsboro, W. W.... l.-)7 

Centreport 20 

Centre 209 

Caernarvon 87 

Cuinru .7 630 

Colebrookdale 237 

Douglass 152 

District S8 

Earl 120 

Exeter 320 

Fleetwood 217 

Greenwich ISO 

Hamburg, W. W 208 

liatTiburg, E. W 214 

Heidelberg, X 101 

Heidelberg 236 

Heidelberg, L o83 

Hereford 131 

Jefferson 123 

Knt;ctov\n 27.') 

Lenhartsville 20 

Longswamp 200 

Maiden-creek 253 

Marion 135 

Maxatawny 443 

Mohiuon 295 

Muhlenberg 455 

Mt. Penn 131 

Olcy 311 


Ontelannee 157 

Pike S3 

Penn 1G4 

Pen > 2.-,o 

Richmond 262 

Robeson 369 

Rackland 141 

Ruscombmanor 177 

Spring 585 

Tilden 162 



Tulpehocken 2'28 

Tulpehocken, L'. . . 





West Lcesport . . . . 


West Reading 

. . 305 




. .. 214 


. . . 135 

Reading — 

I'irst ward 

. . . 587 

Second ward ... 

. . . 739 

Third ward .... 

. . . 834 

Fourlli ward . . . 

. . . 346 

Fifth ward 

. . . 479 

Sixth ward 

. .. 1,722 

Seventh ivard . . 

. .. 815 

Eiglith ward . . . 

. . . 866 

Xinth ward 

. . . 1,0(50 

Tenth ward .... 
Eleventh ward . . . 
Twelfth v.ard . . 
Thirteenth ward , 
P'o'.u'teenth ward 
Fifteenth v.-ard . 
Sixteenth ward . . . 

Total for city and 
county '. 




The inefficiency of the local police authorities 
throughout Pennsylvania, more especially in the 
coal regions where many foreigners from diilerent 
nations had come to be residents, was a subject of 
serious discussion for many }ears without any re- 
lief or satisfactory protection, notwithstanding the 
gradual increase of lawlessness and crime. Einally. 
the Legislature, under the recommendation of Gov- 
ernor Pennypacker. passed an Act for the estab- 
lishment and regulation c^f a new department of gov- 
ernment called the State Police, which he approved 
on May 3, 190."). In pursuance of this Act, a super- 
intendent was apjiointed by the Governor and four 
troops were carefully qualified, the system going 
into operation throughout the State on the same 
day, Dec. 15. 190.-,. 

The superintendent, Capt. John C. Groome. se- 
lected Reading as one of the four stations in th'- 
State for the location of Troop C from which to 
carrv on the ]ialrol of the surrounding country 
within a radivs of thirty miles, in the performance 


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(_,f tlifir duty; and lie established a "Barracks" on 
tiic Scitzinger homestead, situated along the \Vy- 
oiiiissing road, a short distance west of the Schuyl- 
kill river (having leased the premises for two years, 
and afterward extended the term for two years 
more;. Ten sub-stations have been established in 
the district, with two in Berks county, one at Hani- 
burg' and the other at Manatawny, along the Cole- 
brookdale railroad. 

William P. Taylor, of Reading, was appointed 
Xov. 11, 190.J, as the captain of Troop C, and he 
filled the position until June 15, 19(iG, when he 
resigned. The Troop comprised a captain, a lieu- 
tenant, four sergeants and thirtv privates, which 
were subsequently increased to fifty-seven. Anoth- 
er trooper was selected from Reading, C. !^I. Wil- 
helm, first sergeant. 

Upon the resignation of Captain Taylor, the lieu- 
tenant was promoted, and he discharged his duties 
as the captain of the Troop in a superior manner 
until Aug. 1(), 1908. He was succeeded by Capt. 
Lynn G. Adams, who was tiansferred from Troop 
B at Wyoming; and at the same time Lieut. Wil- 
liam Marsh was transferred from Troop IJ, at 
Punxsutawney, to Troop C, to fill the same posi- 
tion; and they have discharged their trying duties 
in their respective positions in an admirable man- 
ner until now. 

Immediatelv after establisliing its quarters at 
Reading, Troop C began to patrol the district and 
though for a tmie the moving troopers along the 
highway in different direction> from Reading were 
more or less objectionaitle, and excited adverse 
criticism, their dignified, straightforward, cour- 
teous behavior soon won the respect of the people, 
and their utility came to be apjjreciatcd for the pro- 
tection to life and property which they cheerfully 
and promt)tlv gave whenever required, and the ap- 
preciation of the taxpayers has been so tmiversal 
in this district that they have come to regard the 
troopers as a necessarv part of the government. 

In ^L1rcll, 1006, a strike occurred amongst the 
laborers at a stone-quarrv between Lebanon and 


Cornwall, and serious troul>le wiili them ha\ing 
been anticipated, the "State Police" at Reading was 
notified. A detachment of thirty-five troopers inider 
the command of Lieutenant Smith was sent there 
and they soon controlled the .^itualion, which evi- 
denceil their infiuence and power in such an emer- 
gency and justified the establishment of this im- 
portant branch of the government. 

A month afterward, a more serious incident oc- 
curred at I\rt. Carniel. in Xorthumberland county, 
and again Lieutenant Smith, with forty-three troop- 
ers, was dispatched to that place, and the troopers 
again caused the threatening excitement to subside ; 
however, not without the unavoidable shooting of 
twenty-two rioters and the injury of five of the 
troopers. And in April, 1908, a detachment was 
ordered to Chester on account of the strike of the 
trolley-car operators, and the troopers remained 
there two weeks, until their assistance and presence 
were no longer required. 

Cm the night of Sejit. 15. l!Mi7, Timothy Kelle- 
her, one of Troop C, v.hile on his way from Read- 
ing to the "Barracks" by the short cut over the 
Pemisylvania railroad bridge, was stabbed and 
killed by two Italians, who were apparently assault- 
ing a woman along the railroad., hearing 
the disturbance, went boldly t<i the woman's assist- 
ance, and the Italians, thinking that he was interfer- 
ing with them, assaulted him with fatal result. They 
were caught several days afterward, while trymg 
to escape, tried and convicted ; one of them of mur- 
der, he being hanged, and the other of man- 
slaughter, he being sentenced to the Eastern pen- 
itentiary for twelve years. 

The State Police, in four }'ears, came to be highly 
regarded in the vicinity of Reading, and the county 
officials treated the troopers with the utmost con- 

On May ol. 1909. Company C was removed to 
Pottsville,' Schuylkill county, because its presence 
in that communitv was found to he more necessary. 

■}:■•-- i . ;;^: 

■ ) ';■ «; /:. ! 

.'y'' 'f i>':/i VI ji\t 


Xo regular enumeration of tlie inhabitants of 
Pennsylvania was made previous tu 17'JO. The 
first provision for enumcralinn was made bv the 
Constitution of th.e L'nited States, adopted Sept. 
17, 1TS7. Therein provision was made for the 
apportionment of re]'resentati\'es from the several 
States to (/' inpre.-s. and of direct taxes : and to 
efTect a ju>t apportionment the actual enumeration 
was required to be made within three years after 
the first meeting- of Congress, and within every 
subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as 
they shall by law direct. 

It has been ascertained that in 1741. the follow- 
ing taxablc> were situated in the eastern division 
of the county, then part of Philadelphia cotmtv : 

Amity 70 

Allam ingle* 37 

Colebrookdalc S5 

Douglass oS 

Exeter 76 

Maiden-creek 75 

Manatawnyr Ill 

Total J12 

Estimated Population 2.500 

The number of laxables in the various couiuies 
of I'ennsylvania in 17(10 arid 177n are >hown as 
follow> : t 

1760 1770 

Phiiadelphia 8,3lM ]0.I 1.> 

Bucks ;i]4S :^.ir7 

Chester 4,701 5. !sr; 

Lancaster .5,0?.! (i.r.dS 

York .'>,:;i)2 -i.4_'o 

Cumberland 1..50! 3,.")-:;i 

Berks 3.010 3.:;o-,.' 

Nortliampion 1,0S7 2.7 03 

31,007 39,00o 

The first census of Pennsylvania was taken .m 
Sept. 7. 1701 ; and within everv ten years there- 
after, the census has b^-en regularly taken to the 
present time. The result of each enumeration 
is set forth in the following table. The figures 
were taken from the Census Reports of the L'nit- 
ed States, publishetl in- order of Congress. The 
blank spaces in the table opposite certain districts 
indicate non-existence of those districts at the time 
of enumeration. 

Where large decrease of population in certain 
districts for a succeeding census is observable, it 
indicates reduction of tiie districts by the erection 

t lloiibt'pss intcn.liil for OVy. 
t 14 Col. Rec, -XW. 

of Others. For instance. Alsace in 1S.50 had a pop- 
ulation of i'.GL)7; but in ISiJO it had only l,2l'[t. 
The township of Muhlenberg was cut otif in I^-IO 
and erected into a separate district. Also, Windsor 
in 1870 had l.:.m, but in 1880 only 830. The 
township was reduced in area by the extension of 
the limits of the borough of Hamburg. This ex- 
tension was made in 18"; 1. 

For convenience in making comparisons, the fol- 
lowing statement is presented in order lo show 
when the districts with tb.e blank spaces were 
erected, and from which districts they were taken : 

Alsace, Lower, taken from Alsace 18R8 

Pjcchtelsville, " " Wasliington IS'JO 

Bern, Upper, taken from Bern 1739 

Bcrnville, taken from Penn 18.J1 

Birdsboro, '' " Union and Robeson 187;; 

Boyertown, " " Colebrookdale 180*1 

Centre, " " Bern and Bern. Upper 1S42 

Centreport, " " Centre 1881 

Fleetwood, " " Richmond 1373 

Hamburg, " "' Wnidsor 1830 

Heidelberg. Lower, taken from Heidelberg 1842 

Heidelberg, North. " " " ^ ....18-4 

Jefferson, take:i from Tulpchocken and Tulpehocken. 

Upper 1851 

Kutztown, " " Maxaiawny 1815 

Lenh'rtsv'le. " " Greenwich 18S7 

Marion, " " Tulpehocken 1843 

Mohnlon, " " Cumru 1007 

Muhlenberg, taken fmm AL-ace 1850 

OnteJaunee, " " Maiden-creek 1850 

Penn, " " Bern and Bern, Upper 1840 

Perry, " '• Windsor 1849 

Pike. " " District 1P13 

Shillinglon. " " Cumru 1903 

Spring, " " Cumru 1850 

Tiiden " " Bern, Upper 18.S7 

Topton. " ■' Longswamp 1877 

Tulpehocken, Upper, taken from Tulpehocken 1820 

Washington, taken from Colebrookdale and Here- 
ford 1839 

West Reading, taken from Spring 1907 

\\'omelsdorf, " " Heidelberg 1833 

Wyoinissing, " " Spring 1905 

In ISOf). Berks county included three organized 
towtiships whic'i lav north of the P.lue Mountain, 
whose enumeration was as follows : 

Brunswick 1--^ ♦ 

Maiiheim 1,073 

Pinerrove -^^ 

Unoryani/ed 903 

Total Population 4,238 

The population of the countv is given in the table 
at 3'2.407, but the number of inhabitants ''■•en in 
that Dart which lay south of the mountain was 

Tn ISIO. the covmtv included seven townships 
north of the mountain, whose enumeration was as 
follows : 


•■/■ ii.'ji 



?bta^o;i:ower-::;;::::::;:;:::::::::::;:;::;'S The population of me county for isio is ^^iven at 

Mnlinniango, Upper 489 ^-^.IKj, but the number then in that part of the 

v''r,l'^of-,n ^'?;\^ county south of the mountain was 3G,S38. The 

.Nurwci^iaii 415 

I'liit-Grove 1,290 townships named were cut to Schuylkill county in 

Schuy'ki'l ■ .^53 its erection in ISll. 

Total Population 6,303 

Census of County, ISOO to 1000 

1800 1810 1820 

Reading 2.386 3,462 4,3:'.2 

Albany s:>S 99.j 1,1S2 

Alsace 890 1,275 1,640 

Alsace, Lower 

Amity 817 1,090 1,279 


Bern , 2.0*9 2,266 1,791 

Bern, Upper 1,3 12 2,017 


Bethel 817 924 1,294 



Brecknock 338 495 536 

Caernarvon 541 723 829 



Coiebrookdale 671 792 1,046 

Ciunru 1,413 2,017 2,4';2 

District 753 805 509 

Douglass 450 660 700 

Earl 489 794 9:m 

Exeter 802 1,194 1,3S1 


Greenwich 1.004 1,1U4 1.337 

Hambiug 329 

Heidelberg 1.569 2,802 3,605 

Heidelberg-^ Lower 

Heidelberg, Xorth 

Hereford 923 1,140 1.4,3.1 


Kutztown 203 ' 


Longswamp 863 99S 1.371 

Maiden-creek 770 918 1,192 


Maxatawny 929 1.630 1,847 


Oley 968 1.284 1,410 




Pike 645 

Richmond 731 971 1,135 

Robe<;on 1.232 1.807 2,065 

Rockland 848 1,026 1,130 

Rusconibinanor 375 932 1,057 




Tulpehockcn 2.119 2,204 3.238 

Tulpehocken. Upper 

Union 669 766 921 


Windsor 993 1,358 1.050 

Womclsdorf 370 

1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 ISSO 

5,856 8,410 15,743 23,162 33,930 43,278 

1,129 1,057 1,406 1,586 1,510 1,603 

1,042 2,498 2,697 1,299 1,294 1,523 

1,384 1,664 1,.566 1,596 1,646 1,508 

2.154 3.149 1,734 2,516 
2,117 2,906 1,747 2,027 

1.482 1,458 1,871 2,159 


















1.407 1.629 




































1 .956 

























? 169 































1 ,269 
2,1 198 

2 4^.'! 
2.5! 4 
1 .082 














2, .503 






28.160 37,864 46.: 

53.152 64,560 77,129 93,818 106.701 122.597 137.327 150.61." 

In 1790. Reading had a population of 2,235; and the whole county of Berks had 30,179. 


iX'fc'l or tx.<(i( 

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,c i'ii'',s: '(.',- ■;i'^. ■;"(;, 1 

;:v,: -!{,'r.r ?>;•.£ t';';,t 

.1 '':'2.i 

f.-': 'I. C' !=:.':• ! ?' 

• .■■;•.:'> Of./.-. 

■h J,- . ; T",:' 







Alsace, Lower 



Bern, Upper 













HcidcnKTg. l,o\\t:r 

Heidelberg. North 



Longs warn p 

















Tulpchocken, TJpp:r 
















Mt. Penn 



West Leesport 

West Reading 




City of Reading 

Total of Berks County 34.158 





















































■ 984 





































































Townships 1883 I'.His 

Albanv $ 734,446 $ 588,73:; 

\Uaca 505. 199 255. IIk; 

Alsace, Lower 39O.S03 

Amity 900,040 800,859 

Bern 1 .204.^02 1,009,7-10 

Born, 1.-228,1GG 42S.5J0 

Bethel 1,203,383 850,900 

Brecknock 421,303 377,478 

Caernarvon 522,558 420,756 

Centre 875,349 712,020 

Colebrookdale 709,000 605,059 

Cumru l,4i5,87S 2,050,0(i:; 

District 283,442 201,697 

Douglass 453,411 393,941 

Earl 293,252 231,082 

Exeter- 1.432.830 1,476,449 

Greenwich 954,907 662,910 

Heidelberg 1,181,743 1,162,487 

IJeidelber-, Lower 1,484,363 1,943,379 

HeideilxTg, North 564,021 456,821 

Hereford 749,171 547.265 

Jefferson 592,774 480,254 

l.ont,-wamp 1,111,980 905,015 

Maiden-creek 1,057,563 982.615 

Marion 1,124.934 878,772 

Maxatawny 1,770,988 1,70:^,407 

Muhlenberg 1,237,837 1,420,410 

Olcv 1,676,734 1,370.277 

Ont'elaunee 806,987 669.473 

Penn 844.340 612,804 

Perry 901,259 801,258 

Pike 329.935 221.527 

Richmond 1,223.167 1,051,738 

Robeson 951.427 916.109 

Rockland 518,315 395,921 

Ruscombmanor 419,727 354,455 

Spring 1.698,004 1,640.061 

iildcu ' 488,083 

Tulpehocken 1.104,424 922,470 

Tulpchocken, Upper 602,707 ■ 4.52.270 

Union 607,398 461.095 

Washington 941.451 607,060 

Windsor 472,828 401.944 

Total $ 37,304,974 $ 33.378.205 

Tiorouclis 1885 1908 

Bcchtelsville $ $ 137.485 

Bernville 140.380 135,310 

Birdsboro 764,033 1,246,204 

Bovertown 648,780 1,188,444 

Ccntreport 45.600 48,910 

Fleetwood 295,233 609,514 

Hamburg 628,848 951.950 

Kutztown 430,833 793,175 

I.enhartsville 65,410 

Mohnton 338.910 

Mt. Penn 426,705 

Shillington * 

Topton 139,357 347,25n 

West Leesport 154.275 

West Reading 658.725 

Womelsdorf 402.532 552,439 

Wyomissing 774.809 

Total $3,501,590 $ 8,429,515 

City of Reading $ 23,780,222 $50,488,000 

Total of County $04,580,792 $92,205,720 

h'xemptcd propcrtv for churches, etc.. in 1908: City, 
$7,'-^l5.0.-.O; r.or.mgh's. $052,036; Town.ships, $2,183,810; 
Total. $10,081,196. 

•Included in Cunini. 

•' * ■ ' 





TownshiIJ^ IS.'^O i;KW 

\lbany $ lyoaii-i $ l.-:!,4y:i 

Alsace 135,954 63,532 

Alsace, Lower 255,436 

'\mitv 215,582 152,697 

Ccrn' 208,261 101,844 

Bern, Upper 166,722 135.395 

Bethel 249,926 127,446 

Brecknock 68.011 60,060 

Caernarvon 60,842 33,023 

Centre 104.682 66,876 

Cokbrookdale 109.821 95,171 

Cuniru 234,944 269,164 

EHstrict 41,323 16,170 

Douglass 31.012 34,480 

Earl 65,920 80,203 

Exeter 189,329 275,325 

Greenwich 132.729 119,358 

Heidelberg 123.774 164.258 

Heidelberg, Lower 289,014 395,834 

Heidelberg, North 52,521 30,665 

Hereford 180.923 125,284 

Jefferson 76.572 57,401 

Longswamp 239,340 89.462 

Maidcn-ci cek 159.6S3 112.420 

Marion 241,445 128,505 

Maxatawny 502,410 532,012 

Muhlenberg 216,996 295,385 

Oley 657,240 C42.818 

Ontelaunee 140.139 143.544 

Penn 159,666 132,092 

Perrv 111,039 166.011 

Pike 54,243 60,69) 

Richmond 175,014 177,200 

Robeson 117,688 141.432 

Rockland 80,002 79.763 

Ruscombnianor 111,257 48.900 

Spring 274,738 320.317 

Tilden 59.400 

Tulpehocken 190.019 114.077 

Tulpehocken, Upper 123,508 48.950 

Union 136,493 105,121 

Washington 255,949 151,128 

"Windsor 76.003 41.650 

Total $ 7,064,920 $ 6,404,993 


Bcchtelsville $ $ 17,576 

Bernvillc 116,127 62.227 

Birdsboro 403,874 278,154 

Eoyertown 242,678 398,048 

Centreport 21,610 " 47,226 

Fleetwood 203,492 254.440 

Hamburg 188,917 314,486 

Kutztown 240,775 464,073 

Lenhartsville 1,520 

Monnton 124,490 

Mt. Pcnn 62.937 


Topton 77,008 86.001 

West Leesport 102.127 

West Reading 45.725 

Womelsdorf 182.420 258.990 

Wyomissing 55,841 

Total $ 1.676.891 $ 2,573,861 

City of Reading 5,049,482 13,434,847 

Total of Berks County $ 13,791,303 $ 22,412.701 


The registered voter.-; of the county in Scptemhcr, 

1008. numbered 2.". 012. The numi)er in tlie scv- 
'cral districts was reported as follows: 

I)ist:ict Xumber 

.Albany, 1st Precinct 168 

Albany, 2d Precinct 149—317 

Alsace 207 

Alsace, Lower , 201 

Amity '. . . . 384 

Bern, 1st Precinct 173 

Bern, 2d Precinct 115 

Bern, 3d Precinct 12.5 — 413 

Bern, Upper 199 

Bethel, 1st Precinct 263 

Bethel, 2d Precinct 67 

Bethel, 3d Precinct 93 

Bethel, 4th Precinct 8.5—508 

Bechtclsville 119 

Bernvillc Ill 

Birdsboro, East Ward 464 

Birdsboro, West Ward 267 

Boyertown 592 

Brecknock, 1st Precinct Ill 

Brecknock, 2d Precinct 126 — 237 

Caernarvon 229 

Centre 340 

Centreport 32 

Colebrookdale 394 

Cumru, 1st Precinct 389 

Cumru, 2d Precinct 195 

Cumru, 3d Precinct 166 

Cumru, 4th Precinct 118 

Cumru, 5th Precinct 204-1,072 

District 1 56 

Douglass, 1 St Precinct 165 

Douglass, 2d Precinct 121—286 

ELarl, 1st Precinct 92 

Earl, 2d Precinct 169—261 

Exeter, 1 st Precinct 498 

Exeter, 2d Precinct 196—694 

Fleetwood 364 

Greenwich, 1st Precinct 137 

Greenwich, 2d Precinct 219 — 356 

Hamburg, North Ward 337 

Hamburg. South Ward 338 

Heidelberg 447 

Heidelberg, North l'i'4 

Heidelberg, Lower, 1st Precinct 600 

Heidelberg, 2d Precinct 220 

Heidelberg, 3d Precinct 112—932 

Hereford '. 295 

JefTerson 217 

Kutztown 486 

Lenhartsville 46 

Longswamp, 1st Precinct 242 

Longswamp, 2d Precinct 256 

Longswamp, 3d Precinct 125 — 623 

Maiden-creek 482 

Marion 304 

Maxatawny. 1st Precinct 184 

Max.-itawnv, 2d Precinct 216 

Maxatawny, 3d Precinct 322—722 

^^ohnton 405 

Mount Penn 200 

Muhlenberg, 1st Precinct 445 

^ruhIenberg. 2d Precinct 395—840 

Olcv. 1st Precinct 305 

Oley. 3d Precinct 234—539 

OiUelavmce 295 

Penn, 1 st Precinct 150 

Penn. 2d Precinct 156 — 306 

Pcrrv 427 

Pike 191 

Ricluuond 433 

Robeson, Irt Precinct 189 

Robeson. 2d Precinct 338 

Robeson. 3d Precinct 137—664 

Rucki.uid 304 

RuscDnibm.mor 322 

Shillington 367. 


')ii "^M 

nnw ,. ■' r 



Districts Number 

Spring, 1st PrL-citict JG 

Spriiiir, 2d Prccincl -ij2 

Spring, 3d Precinct 257 — 705 

Tildon, 1st Precinct 124 

Tildcn. 2d Precina i:.7— 281 

Topton 219 

Tulpt-hocken. 1st Precinct 2i6 

Tulpchocken, 2d Precinct 180—396 

Tulpehocken. L'pi^er 287 

Union, 1st Precinct 304 

Union. 2d Precinct VJ — 383 

Windsor 157 

Washington, 1st Precinct 21.'. 

Washington, 2d Precinct 21 1-— 120 

West Leesport 13G 

West Reading 4S3 

Woniclsdorf 3V5 

Wyoniissing 205 

Total number registered 23,012 

Total registered February 22,542 

Increase 409 



Districts Rep. 

Albany, 1st Precinct 27 

.•Vlbany, 2d Precinct 20 

Alsace 31 

Alsace, Lower 57 

Amity 144 

Bern, 1st Precinct 18 

Bern, 2d Precinct 19 

Bern, 3d Precinct 30 

Bern, Upper 56 

Bethel, 1st Precinct 44 

Bethel, 2d Precinct 12 

Bethel, 3d Precinct 19 

Bethel, 4th Precinct 12 

Brecknock. 1st Precinct 8 

Brecknock, 2d Precinct '. 15 

Bovertovvn 149 

Bechtclsville 2*^ 

Bernville 47 

Birdsboro, West Ward 158 

Birdsboro. East Ward 312 

Caernarvon 133 

Centreport 7 

Centre 51 

Colebrookdale 65 

Cumru. 1st I^rccinct 116 

Cumru, 2d Precinct 47 

Cumru, 3d Precinct 26 

Cumru, 4th Precinct 52 

Cumru. 5th Precinct 09 

District 24 

Douglass. 1st Precinct 52 

Doughi^s. 2d Precinct 10 

Earl, 1st Precinct 9 

Earl. 2d Precinct 17 

E.xeter. 1st Precinct 110 

Exeter. 2d Precinct 59 

Fleetwood 108 

Greenwich, 1st Precinct 12 

Greenwich. 2d Precinct 15 

Hamburg. North Ward 115 

Hamburg, South Ward 107 

Heidelberg 134 

Heidelberg, L., 1st Precinct 120 

Heidelberg, I.., 2d Precinct 21 

Heidelberg, I T'd l"'recirct 42 

Hcidel'ierg, .\'oi tb 22 

Hereford 52 

















Taft llvrau 

Di-tricts Ren. IV..,, 

Jefferson 22 142 

Kutztown 122 245 

Le!iharts\ iile 9 ;:i 

Longswamp, Isl Precinct 60 'j; 

Lni;oj\vamp, 2d Precinct 93 'xt 

Longswamp. 3d Frecir.ct 30 O'J 

-Maiden-creek 107 225 

Marion 50 102 

-Ma.xatawny, 1st i'recinci 30 luo 

Maxata.vny, 2d Precinct 40 122 

Maxatawny, 3d Precinct 89 145 

M olintcn 168 S; 

^luhlenbcrg, Ist P'-ecinct 78 184 

-Muhlenberg, 2d Precinct 57 175 

-Mt. Penn 56 82 

Oley, 1st Precinct 86 145 

01e> , 2d Precinct 40 153 

Ontelaunee 90 110 

Pike 14 112 

Penn. 1st Precinct 14 92 

Penn, 2d Precinct 11 102 

Perry 65 233 

Richmond 39 227 

Robeson, 1st Precinct 85 39 

Robeson, 2d Precinct 106 140 

Rob( son, 3d Precinct 24 72 

Fiockland 28 172 

Ruscombmanor 58 119 

Sprmg, 1st Precinct 3 24 

Spring, 2d Precinct 117 216 

Spring, 3d Precinct 34 104 

Shillington 162 113 

Tildcn, 1st Precinct 79 130 

Tilden, 2d Precinct 39 77 

Topton 79 107 

Tiilpehorken, Isi Precinct 35 171 

Tulprliocken, 2d Precinct 17 120 

Tulpehocken. Upper 30 177 

Ur.ion, 1st Precinct 159 94 

L^nion. 2d Precinct . , 40 25 

Washington, 1st Precinct 34 99 

Washington. 2d Pi ecinct 50 90 

West Leesport 39 7:; 

West Reading 128 191 

Windsor 12 110 

Womelsdorf 142 154 

Wyamissing 70 C6 

Total county 5,651 10,123 

Total city 7,825 6,9.')0 

13,470 17,032 

Bryan's pluraiity in Berks 3,606 

I'arker's plurality over Roosevelt in the 

whole county in 1904 was 78G 

Tiie plurality of Roosevelt then in Read- 
ing, however, was 3,369 

Receivcd by County from State 

Per 1904 190S 

Personal Prriperty $ 51,^93.72 .< 67.243.84 

Salaries— Judges 12,072.50 1 7,639.79 

Charities — Hospitals and .-\syknns 

for Insane 3 1. 835.97 154,989.33 

— Hospitals 08.916.48 25,000 (id 

—Homes 5,037.44 3,000.00 

Schools — Common 152.996.20 201,143.08 

— Normal ]0,n2:!.S2 27,742.14 

— Superintendent's Salary . . 2, 000. 00 2,250.00 

$337,776.13 $502,008.18 


, I i ! 'i '/ 



Received by State from County 

From ir»0-l llHiS 

Personal Property Tax $69,10102 $ 80,(;58.45 

Loans, Municipal 3,oOr.70 2,448.66 

Writs, Wills, etc 4,270.16 4,499.49 

Loans, County 441.94 

Collateral Inheritance . .'. 3,396.08 20,927.72 

Miscellaneous 175.00 175.00 


Retail Mercantile 15,500.84 17,835.90 

Wliolcsale Mercantile 2,771.35 3,007.53 

Retail Liquor 15,397.37 15,720.75 

Wholesale Liquor 10,397.50 11,838.00 

From 1904 

Brewers' $ 8,407.50 

Distillers' 2,984.75 

Bottlers' 1,409.75 

Bi'l'^'fils l,010..5O 

Brokers' 432.53 


Peddlers' '.'."■ 

Theatre, etc 313..'iO 

Eating House 429.40 


$144,461.61 $181,854.20 


Banks and Trust Companies . Resources 

Farmers National Bank $ 3,229,115.40 

National Union Bank 2,498,800.55 

First National Bank 1,491,003.07 

Second National Hank 1,898.052.05 

Penn National Bank 1,800,830.90 

Keystone National Bank 975,472.37 

Reading National Bank 1,580,840.45 

Schuvlkill Vallev Bank 084,530.53 

Neversink Bank 210,378.07 

Pennsylvania Trust Co 4,011,463.81 

Reading Trust Co 1,872,748 59 

Colonial Trust Co 1,144,979.03 

Berks County Trust Co 1,380,930.55 

Commercial Trust Co 340.281.03 

Total, City $23,120,743.58 


Hamburg Savings Bank 642.710.49 

National Bank of Bovcrtown 1.118,378.0-; 

Farmers Nat. Bank, Bovertown 207,005.91 

First Nat. Bank of Birdshoro 358,890.33 

Kufztovvn National Bank 44S.2G2.2V 

Womelsdorf Union Bank 405,984.70 

Werncrsvillc National Bank 273.578.CS 

National Bank of Topton 137.484.40 

First Nat. Bank of Olev 141,277.42 

First Nat. Bank of Bernville 122.462.21 

First Nat. Bank of Fleetwood 143.675.47 

Mohnton National Bank 137,701.78 

First Nat. Bank of Ilamhurg 129.817.78 

Total, County $ 4,327.235.53 

Total, City and County $27,453,979.11 

Surplus anJ Profits 
$ . 856,275.02 




$ 4,484,118.21 














S 521,280.20 

S 5,005,404.47 

$ 1,528,327.78 


















S 2.7S.S.025.59 


Loans, Discounts 
and lnvestn".ents 

$ 2,382,219.44 




















$ 3,320.760.22 


<'M! ,Yq.\ ;■•:.',!; -v:":'::.r!:;j i/^M ' v.; o,-' i... :;,\j.; 





Albany 14.207 

Alsace, Lower 1,110 

Alsace 4,V4 j 

Amity 11,14:; 

Bern l:2,4')9 

Bern, Upper 7,183 

Bethel 16,4 U) 

Brecknock 8,831 




Birdsboro, East Ward 

Birdsboro, West Ward 330 


Centre 12,427 

Caernarvon 6,089 

Cuniru 12,838 

Colebrookdalc 5,063 

Douglass 6,794 

District 5,838 

Earl 4,599 

Exeter 15,139 


Greenwich 1 5,636 

Hamburg, X'orth Ward 

Haml.iurg, South Ward 112 

Heidelbcrtr, North 8,058 

Heidelbertr 7,294 

Heidelberg, Lower 10,925 

Hereford 8,552 

Jefferson 10,009 


Lenhartsville 95 

Longswamp 10,220 

Maiden-creek S.274 

Marion 9,152 

Maxatawny 18,856 

Mohnton 118 

Muhlenberg 5,548 

Mt Penn 48 

Oley ., 15.233 

Ontelaunee 5,372 

Pike 4,576 

Penn 11,228 

Perry 11.239 

Richmond 13,029 

Robeson 13.002 

Rockland 7,021 

Ruscombmanor 5.587 

Spring 11,047 

Tilden 8,005 


Tulpehocken 14,288 

Tulpeliocken, Upper 9.166 

Union 7,234 

Washington 7,455 

West Tx'csport 116 

West Reading 

Windsor 8,017 

Womelsdorf 255 


Total 418,753 

Total for City 

Total for County 

1 ^ 


z o 



$ 15,095 

$ 12,4411 































































' 23,270 




















15,835 ■ 






































■ ii,s;>5 

















































































































































































f»> f ; 






<-X' . '^ 

■My ■ 

■■■■'? A 


.^ „_J 


TOWN, ]74S TO KS3 

Gkaxt to Pexx. — -The English came to own the 
ii-rritory comprising Pennsylvania hy conquest from 
tlu- Dutch in lG6i; and Kinc Charles II. in 1G81 
i;iantccl the province to A\'illiam Pcnn in satisfac- 
tion of a debt due to his deceased father. Admiral 
i'cnn. for meritorious services. Notwithstanding 
tliis grant, William Penn recognized the claim of 
the Indians to the land, and therefore obtained their 
rckase. He died in ITIS, jwssessed of this section, 
and devised it to his children. 

First Patext.s. — In the genera! desire to dispose 
of lands in this section, the Penns directed surveys 
to be made and patents issued, which will appear by 
the following statement : 


1. Richard Hockley, tract for l,l-.0 acres; survev, Feb 
19, 1733. 

2. Thomas Lawrence, tract for 300 acres ; survev March 
19, 1733; patent, Oct. 27, 1733. 

3. Thomas Lawrer.ce. tract for 137' acres; survev April 
22. r.3S; patent, Feb. 10, 1739. ' " 

4. Samuel Finney, tract for 150 acres; survey, Feb 10 
1733. ^ 

5. Proprietary land, tract for 126 acres; survev, Julv 3 
1741. .• J . , 

0. Part of tract 1 ; on which lots were laid out, afterward 
called "Hockley Out-lots." 

The tract for 1,1,30 acres adjoined the river and 
extended from a line now occupied bv llocklev and 
Woodward streets to a line beyond the Charles 
Evans cemetery, known for many years as Hiester's 

Some years after these patents had i)ecn issued, 
alx>ut 1740, while ciTorts were being made to erect 
a county (Perk-'-), the Pcnns -xonceived the idea of 
la\ing out a town at this point, but finding that the 

land had been sold, they endeavored to re-purchase 
!t. Lawrence, however, declined to re-sell his two 
tracts. Their agent then investigated the matter, 
and on Sept. '?8, 17 43, addressed a letter to them 
in reference to the proposed "Town of Reading." 
This is the first mention of a town at this place, "in 
1745, lots were laid out on part C, and this ac- 
tion induced Lawrence to re-convey his tracts. 

Towx L.uD Out.— During the fall of 174S, 
Penn's two sons, Thomas and Richard, caused a 
town to be laid out by Nicholas Scull, their sur- 
veyor-general, on the land adjoining the Schuylkill 
(Lawrence tract), at the "Ford," in the road that 
extended from the Tulpehocken settlements to Phil- 
adelphia. It was named Reading, after the countv- 
town in Berkshire, F.tigland. The town-plan com- 
prised 5-20 lots, and 'J04 out-lots, numbered con- 

The lots between t!ie river and King {'Third) 
street were laid out in 177 G. The double line 
through these lots, on the accompanying plan, indi- 
cates the canal whicii extended tln'ough that part 
of the town from 182^ to 18:; 1, At that time there 
w-as not a town, not even a villai;-.-, in all the sur- 
rounding tcrritoiy f(.r many miles. The nearest 
towm was Lebanon, twent\-cight miles to the west, 
which had been laid out in 1740; and the next was 
Lancaster, thirty-three miles to the southwest, which 
had been laiil out in 1728. 

Lot? Solo. — Penn's sons then appointed Conrad 
Weiser, Francis Parvin and William Hartley as 
commissioners, to sell tlie. lots; and on Jime' 15, 
1749, they sold a large number of theiri. In 1751, 
1752, 17oo and 1754, patents were issued for 241 
lots, and if the conditions of sale were comiphed 
with, there were in the town, by the year 1755, at 
least two hundred dwellings autl one thousand in- 

First P.xtentees. — The following statement 
shows the years in wdiich the buildings were prob-" 
ably erected, and to whom and ir\T which lots pat- 
ents were issued. It is possible that buihiings were 
erected in, and even before, 1751, and the patents 
taken up afterward. 

For the scar 17^1 

Lot Patentee 

2. Conrad Wei.'ser (.iu?tice') 
11. Daniel Sleinnietz ('mer- 
chant of rhiladelphial 
20. I?aac Levan (K.xtttr. yeo- 

Lot Patentee 

o4. Conrad WcUer 
lOfi. .Adam Witman (shop and 

114. Isaac Levan 
120. Conrad WVi.-er 

.■?. Conrad Wei-cr 
4. Conrad Bower 

For the year i~s^ 

R. John Epler (Bern, 

(shop aad 

5. Martin CnnR ,0 5 Haniel .Sfeinmetz 

>eoM^nV ^^"'l^'^''"'^''*^"' '- 1 .'acob (inn-kee 

7. MosVs Sttrr f Mai.!en-cr-;-k, "' ' 

13. Jacob Morgar. 

' !.t-.i! ;\r 

,t,; ■•»_' ••■. :i.l,'y\ 

I.! i; 'Vai 

I •■,■'■! 




' I V nu-'^ r-yVjl. ... ''I 1 J 

..11,. .Ir, , (..,.(.;-'■,■, ,-,• i .hirf- 

'{)■.' . y: >>:' 

Ui -u ^:u: 





14. Peter Haws (inn-keeper i 

15. Daniel Hiefter uMo::;soni- 

try Co., lannerj 

18. Francis Parvin uMai'Jtn- 

cr., taimci) 

19. Conrad Wii^cr 

20. John Lcjcc (Tuli-. > '•■>^- 

;;i. Peter Weidner ((.umrv., 

24. Pav'iJ Kvauj i C'umru, vom- 

nian.) , t ■ i i 

25. Michael SUimcU (lU'>Jvl- 

berg, yeoman) 

"6 Ben'amin Parvir. (,Mai.!en- 

crock. ytoman) 

27. William Recser X^ordwain- 


28. Chriftoiiher ^^tuInp (.Lan- 

caster county, yeoman) 
30 William Parson? (l•:a^tnn) 
33 Waggoner '.c.erkj 
35 George Albert i, 
3t5." Gcorgj Voh (yeoman) 

39. Isaac Weidner (Alsace, yeo- 


40. Peter Weidner (.\i=ace, 


41. Peter Kuth (Cumru, yeo- 


42. Simon Scherker 

44. Conrad Kissinger (yeo- 

t"=>"^ ^ , „ 

45. ChristOT'her Gottschalk 

46. Jacob Ki'.^^inuer (yeoman) 

48 laccb Kern (Cunvu, g-.nt > 

49 ilenrv Wolf (Cuniru, cord- 

51 George iJauni (cordwam- 
■> 54. John Schneider Cyeorrar) 
^ 55. Peter Schnc.der (|-.xeter. 
blackfinith ) 
CI. Conrad Uowtr 
62. Reinhard Waldtz 
&-i. Philip Weisjr 
C>C>. \Villiani Erman ( 

69. Beniamin Lichrfoci (-hop- 


70. Willian. Parens 

71. Willia-n T' 

72. Conrad W.:;c.- 

74. Abraham I'.ro-ius (tail.^r) 

75. Tacob Lol'.itiKcr 

76. Michael Graui (Alsace, yeo- 


77. Wtii Hottenstein (potter) 

79. John Wel,cr. 

81. Phi'.ii. J. Moycr (h.ak..-r) 

82. Andrew Wo'f i, Cumru, yeo- 

85. Nich. KcnncU njec'-brrw- 

87. Georjje Shei-er 

80. Christopher Witimn (cord- 


90. Christopher Witman 

91. ^rich.ud Xn^ter (-addler) 

92. George l)-nn' (-addler) 
9.'). rred'k Marsteiler 

Lot I'atcr.tee 

Uli. Henry Me!.;hior Muhlen- 
berg (minister) 

07. Henry Soviter 

i'V Sam del lirackman 

■.i:i. I'el.r Knt^rr 
]•»►. Benjamin Pear«on (joiner) 
111.",. .\da;n S. K'.ihu (Lancaster, 

ln7. LIcano'r V.agi,oner 
111^. Ge.-rye Hiiiier (Philadel- 
phia, merchant) 

111. Adam Gcrharl (.Msace, 5 e-j- 
man 1 

11'!. Henry Keuthmyer (wheel- 

ll."!, Ernest Kurtz iPhila., to- 

lit*. Peter ilinganian * . Msace, 

117. Mary Bishop 

lis. Henry l;ovlc 

1!!'. Kriit lluner (baker) 

122. IVter Tiumbour (yeoman) 

IIM. Jacob Cucher 

l.';ii. I'harle.s J'ricker 

JJl. Paul Derst (E.xeter, inn- 

i:'2. Andreas Sh.ack 

1'4''.. Petei Feder (inn-keeper) 

v.::,. lohn F.arlv .'Lane, joint-) 

]:;<•.. HcT.ry Bo;.Ie 

137. lializer Schwenk (.Msace. 

1.30. John Wll.,on (Lane, mil- 

14(-.. Pete- Mmna 

147. Henry llahn (b!acksniith1 

1-lS. Henry Lick 

iV-i. I-^van Popkins (copper) 

151. George . Mich. Kieter 


152. flrich Richard (Heidel- 

lie'-g. yeoman) 
l.')'. Paul Parlct (carpenter) 
ir.4. William .Miller (carpenter) 
Itu. Sebastian Grauser (carpen- 
IT'!). Henry C,r3ul (Green tavn) 
i.;0. Phihp Ziegler (TuI|,ehoc- 

ki.n, veoinan) 
KU. Henry Goodhart 
1113. Tohn Ki-siiiger 
1(V» Peter Kaj.n (buf^he;) 
B;."). 'ieoigc Crumlauf 
160. Jacob Cnnrai'. (Virg., 

IC'7. rv_;er Baum (turner) 
J"l>. Fred'k Goodhart (.Msace. 

17.". Pet?r Baum 
jSil. Tolin Kissinger 
190. Plenry Gerritt {.Msace, 

:9ir J.'hn NichokiS Yost (Cum- 
ru. innkeeper) 
B)0. George Chris. Spengler 
;'•■■'. I- ran. IS Ft her 
lOU. Abrahfim Rrosius 
2i'iSi. .Sin^on Scheiker 
271. Henry Gr;,ul 
27."i. Joseph Wilkinson 
27.S. Isaac I.evan 

2s I. 



Philip Jacob .Moyer 

Henrv Feeiei 

Conrad Boi.ei 

Chri-tian Bentzer (Lane. 

Fred'k Weiser (Heidei't erg. 

Philip Jacob Moyer 
Jacob .Morgan 

Jacob I.eiiirock (baker) 401. 

-Micha.-! Ludv-ig (An:ity) 401. 

Conrad J'ower 405. 

Conrad Bower 

Lot. Patentee 

3SC. Xichola.s Retschcw 

George Yoh (potter) 
Abraham Smith 
ConraJ Bower 
1. Philip Krpf (Lancaster 

For the year 

41/J. Adam Eeifell (Alsace, cur- 
Geo. Francis \\ inter 
Francis .'ilorean '.yeoman) 
Jacob Erpf 
Phdip Reaser 


17 L 





21 1-1. 


George Douglass 
Christophc- VVitinaii 
Isaac Weidner (yeoman, 

.lonas Seely (justice) 
lonas Seely 
"William Thomas (Chester 

Xichcias Werner 
Chri-to|iher Canicrer 
Philip Erpf 
.Mark Starr 
James St.-rr (brewer) 
.lohn Smith (shopkeeper) 
George l>ou*^lass 
Peter Wei.-er (Heidelberg) 
Peter Weiser 
Hcniy Sbc'rer 
Frederick Weiser 
Tost IL Sassamanhou'-en 
James Biddle Gawyer) liiddle 
Henry Sl-ejrcr 
Simon Slitrker 
Isaac Levan 
.•\braham Levan 
lohn Steel 
Peter VN'ciser 
Wendell Hains 
George Saurbrev 
Adam Scl leeell '(taiIor^ 
Hans Martin Gai icii 
Georr;e Hn;n_r 
JUchael Rt.sch 
Lawrence .Spats 
Michael Fichthorn 
Will'am Cluse 
I'anI Durst 
John Philip Kiinger 
-Mexander Klingcr 
Martin .Moll 
Andrew Engel 

For the 










40; I. 






. Hans Geo. Back (baker) 

Paul Uur-t 

-\n.drcw Steger 

Everhard Martin (soap- 

Martin .Moll 

Geo. Mich'l Kreter 

Christopher Witman 

Casper Zm 

Jacob Zia 

Fredericka Waggoner 

Philip Jacob Erpf (maion) 

-Uidrew Fuclis • 

Francis Morgan 

20.J, (,'onrad Bower 

William .Marck 

William Bird 

Geo .Mic'..'l Kreter- 

Jaccib Morgan 

-Michael Schrack 

Conrad Stichter 'weaver) 

X'aleniine Sticiiter 

Isaac Weidner 

William .Marck 

Jacob Hitler 

Joseph Brendlinger 

IVtcr Klingcr 

Jacob Morgan 

3."'i7. Fredc;r.ek Volant 

.Martin K Kraft 

Ad.,in Kcticll 

Xichola, Saiver 

■3'.>7. .\dam ReifeM 

Court hou:c and I'rison 

Chnstopiier Spengler 

Henry Schneider 

George K; ; pus (Ma'on) 

Geor;;e Ka-, pu^ 
4:11. i-ranci- (.reek 

Francis Wenrich 

Elizabeth Godschalk 


«. Christian Bussy 
123. Philip i'reitenbach 
17-3. .Xicliolas Keim 
205. ChristoDher God-chalk 
270. Frederirk Fern-Ier 
2S.'. Maria Barbara Bishoft 
2!'ii John Hartrnan (tai'.jr) 
2(13. Jacob Kappoit i.tiler) 

3^5. Tacob Morgan 

.■f(l.s. "Francis Morgan 

3.88. Nicholas Scitzingcr (inn- 

40(^ 407. Lmiicran Church 

421,424. Calvinist Church (Re- 
formed J 

509, 512. Peter Haws 


X \ 



Gi<ocNn-RKXT.— When the lots were laid oat 
provision was made that each lot should be subject 
to a ground-rent of seven sliiilino^s, payable an- 
nually on the fin-t day of yiay : but notwithstanding 
this provision, numerous lots were sold withoui 
the charge. 


By an Act of Assembly, passed Xuv. 27, 1779, 
the estates of the Proprietaries in Pennsylvania 
became vested in the State and were plac