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ft suiuib coixKcnox or the xost maBaTtsa facts, TE-utmoNSt 



GENunDcu lEstumon or itiit Tow^ismr n the stite. 

nhvhwlad ^ 130 Ibicnrffaica. 





Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year IWl, 

By Joiiw W. B.uiKicH and IIexry IIowe, 

In the Clerk's Oflice of the District Court of Coniu*cticut. 



The design of this volume is to give an account of the most im- 
portant and interesting events relating to the history of the state of 
New York, from its settlement to the present time, with geographical 
descriptions, illustrated by numerous engravings. In collecting the 
materials and preparing them for publication, the compilers of this 
work have unitedly spent more than two years of close and laborious 
application. We have visited every part of the state, and besides 
travelling thousands of miles in the public conveyances, we have 
journeyed many hundreds on foot. 

Although feeling conscious that we have used all the efforts, and 
taken every precaution which could be reasonably expected, in order 
to have this work accurate in every respect, yet we do not claim a& 
entire exemption from those imperfections ever attendant on works' 
of this kind. A degree of diffidence is felt, when it is considered 
who are to be the readers. Travellers in giving accounts of foreign 
countries, may make statements at random, which may pass for truth, 
when there is no one at hand able to correct their errors. This vol- 
ume will come before many persons, who, on some subjects intro- 
duced, have better means of information, and possess more know- 
ledge than the compilers. A certain writer defines history to be 
merely " an approximation towards truth." Although this humilia- 
ting statement will not be allowed to its full extent, yet when the im- 
perfection of every thing human is considered, it must be confessed 
to have some foundation in truth. 

In the prosecution of this work, we have availed ourselves of the 
labors of those who have preceded us. The historian, of necessity, 
derives his information from others. It will be observed, that quota- 
tions have been made from a great variety of publications ; in most 
instances of which, credit has been given. As a general rule, we 
have preferred to have each account appear as it was originally 
given to the public, in the author's own words, from which the reader 
can draw his own inferences. Truth ought always to be preferred 
before elegance of language. In the geographical department much 
information has been derived from Spafibrd's and Gordon's Gazet- 



teers, and the state maps, published at Ithaca by Messrs. Stone 
& Clark. SpafTord may be considered as the pioneer in furnishing 
geographical descriptions of the state : his first gazetteer was pub- 
lished in 1813, the second in 1824. The gazetteer by Mr. Gordon, 
consisting of 800 closely printed octavo pages, containing a map 
of the state, and one of each county, was published in 1836, and 
is by far the most complete and valuable work of the kind relating 
to New York, which has as yet been issued. To this able work, 
we would refer our readers ior a full statistical and geographical 
account of the various places in the state. It not only contains 
a great amount of statistical information, but also the political history 
of the state, abstracts of its laws, and other valuable information. 
It is a volume which ought to be placed in every public hbrary in 
the state. 

The numerous engravings interspersed throughout this volume, 
were, with few exceptions, copied from drawings taken on the spot 
by the compilers of the work. In these engravings, our principal ob- 
ject was to give faithful representations, rather than picturesque 
views, or beautiful specimens of art Before deciding that any of 
these representations are incorrect, we wish our readers to consider 
that the appearance of any place will be materially altered, as 
viewed from different points. In order to form an entirely correct 
judgment, it will be necessary to stand on the spot from whence the 
drawing was taken. 


Acmn, 153 
Acquaboffiie, $• 
Adams, SOO 
Admms Batio, 965 
Adanupon, 531 
Adamtville, 578 
Albion, 431 
AUMfij, 44 


Alfred, 56 
Albkm, 431, 439 
Alexandria, 158, 901 
AiezaiMter, 175 
ALLK«Airr Cocrrrr, 56 
Alkvaoy City, 83 
Alien** Hill, 400 
AUoway, 579 
AnM^aoiet, 530 
Auibvf, 399 
AiuiHiy, 383, 431 
Amenia, 133 
Anbent, 143 
Amity, 56, 428 
AoMterdaiu, 373 
AacnuB. 114 
Andes, 190 
Andover, 57, 375 
AnawilK 300 
Apulia, .'W4 
Arriidia, 578 
Anyie, 567 
Aiivtta, 191 
Arkport, 531 
ArkwrtKht, 87 
Astiford, H9 
Aahville, 90 
Astoiia, 461 
Athens, 181 
Athfil, 563 
Arties, 603 
AtJHtMiry, 149 
Auburn, 74 
AuTPliits, 79 
Auriesvill*'. 978 
Aun>ra, 143 
Au«t»^litz, 114 
Au SaNe, 106 
AT<jca. 598 
Avon, 913 

Babylon, 539 
BainbridfH, 99 
Barker's Mill<s 466 
Bsker'H Rrtdef , 56 
Bsk^mvillf, 113 
BsMwinKVille, 384 
Bslb^mi. 491 
BsllMon Spa, 499 
Baj^tr, 16:1 
Barednna. 93 
Barbrnville, 139 
Baicmarliet, 149 

Baiker, 66 
Bane, 499 
Barrininnn, 605 
Barrjrtown, 140 
Barton, 549 
Batavia, 175 
Batestown, 468 
Bath, 464, 528 
Bathhouse, 937 
Bannivtlle, 573 
Bayleytown, 535. 
Bearys\il]e, 595 
Buavenlam, 543 
Bedford, 5Bt 
Beeknian, 106, 133 
Bell Port, 535 
Bellcwie, 383 
Belleville, 903, 438 
Bdmont, 163 
Beiiiiei*ii Flats, 531 
Beiinet Settlement, 179 
Benntnftnii, 603 
Berfen, 178 
BerkNhire, 549 
Berlin, 464 
B4tnie, 50 
Bethany, 179 
Bt^iel, 547 
Bethlehem, 50 
Betts* Comers, 381 
Bix Plats, 94 
BteKtiamtnn, 66 
Birdcall, 50 
Black Brook, 106 
Black Rock, 143 
BleHcer, 167 
Blenheim, 516 
BloominiEFburE, 547 
Blnoniiojt Grove, 411 
BiorimviUe, 130 
Blnn«nmfivi]|e, 263 
Bluff Point, 605 
Bolivar, 59 
Bolton, 563 
BonilNiy, in3 
Boonville, 360 
Borodino, 4(J3 
Boston. 143 
Bovina, 12(1 
Boylston, 431 
Bradfftrd, 530 
Bmnchport, 605 
T^ ranch. 541 
Brandon, 164 
Brasher. 483 
Bran', 159 
Bn-aknbeen, 518 
Brideehampton, 543 
Rride«port, 900 
Briiljrewater, 360 
RriEliUm. 963, 447 
Briiitol, 4(H, 561 
BrondHlbin, 167 
Rmck|NVt, 971 
BnNikflekl, 355 
Bniokhnven. 533 
BnioklyM, 919 
Broome Countt, 06 
Bruonie, 516 

BrowDTille, 901, 406 
Brunswick, 464 
Brutus, 80 
BuHville, 417 
Burliufbam, 547 
Burlinfton, 440 
Boms, 59 

Bushneirs Basin, 906 
Burton, 89 

Buakirk^s Bridsa, 567 
Butler, 578 
Buttermiis, 440 
Byersvilk!, 351 
Byroo, 179 
Bymville, 518 

Cackemyer*8 Milla, 135 
Cadlx, 85 
CadysviMe, 59 
Cairo, 183 
Caledonia, 944 
Cambridge. 567 
Cainlllus, 383 
Campbell, 530 
Cambria, 348 
Camden, 361 
Cameron, 530 
Canaan, 114 
Caiiaderaga, 447 
Cam^oharie, 374 
Canandaigua, 404 
Canastnta, 960 
Candor, 549 
Caneadea, 59 
Caniiiieo, 530 
Camming, 365 
Caotionsville, 133 
Canoga, 535 
Canterbury. 411 
Canton, 403, 483 
Ca|ie Vincent, 313 
Cardiff, 384 
Carlton, 430 
Can>line, 559 
Careysville, 179 
Carlisle, 516 
Cannel, 448 
Carrol, 88 
Carr*s Comers, 159 
Carter, 313 
Caun. S:iO 
Carthage, 135 
CasHy Hollow, 360 
Cnsrile, 609 
Cnstlelnn, 474 
Catta RACoiTs Coinmr, 89 
Cniherines, 94 
Catlln, 95 
Cato, HO 
CntMkill, 183 
Cauglmawaga, 980 
Cavioa'Cookty, 74 
Cayium, 79 

CedarvUte, 196 
Centre Port, 510 
Cmtreviile, 59, 80, OB, U4, 

Cbamb«*rlain, 85 
Champion, 901 
Champlain, 106 
CtepiiiBville, 408 
Charlotte, 88 
CharfciUeviUe^ 534 
Cterteston, 978 
Chariton, 491 
Chaumoot, 919 
Chaieaugua, 164 
Chatham, 114 


Cha:auque, 86 
Chazy, 106 
Checktowaga, 159 
Clielsea, 475 
Cbeiuung, 05 
CHSMtJHo Comrrr, 94 
Chenango, 66 
Chknanoo Couittt, 99 
Chenango Porks, 66 
Cherry Valley, 440 
Clieny Creek, 88 
Chester, 417, 565 
ChesteriiiM, 155 
Chili. 963 
China, 603 
Chittenango, 960 
CIdttenden Falls. 19S 
Churchtown, 114 
CIrarchville, 366, 484 
Cincinnatus, 133 
Cicero, 383 
Clarence, 159 
Claren«lon, 4.'W 
Clarke's Settlement, 73 
Clnrkmn, 963 
ClarkPtown, 478 
Clarkesx life. 59, 955, 79 
Clavemck, 114 
Clay, 383 
Clayton, 9U1 
Clear Creek, 89 
Cleavelnnd, 431 
Clermont, 115 
CliAon Park, 491 


Clinton, 133 

Clintonville, 106, 133, 4&3 
(^lorkville, 960 
Clyde, 578 
ClVmer, 89 
Ciibleskill, 516 
Cocliectoii, 547 
Co»'ymnii'm 50 
Concord, 153 
Colchester, 198 
Colden, 159 
Coles' Mills, 449 
Colt^ville, 79 
Cold Spring, 83, 449, 46S 
ColHervj||.«, 444 
Collins, l.'>9 
CoiniiHville, 949 
Cokwe. 4.19 
Columbia, 193 
CoLrMniA Corjrnr. 113 
Columluaville, 199, 485 



CoIumboB, 100 
Conetville, 518 
Coney Island^ 837 
Conklin, 73 
Coanewango, 84 
Constable, 165 
Constableville, S43 
Constantia, 431 
CoonsvUle, 408 
Copake, 110 
Oooperatown, 445 
Copenhagen, S30 
Corbeau, 106 
Corfu, 180 
Corinth, 499 
Cornwall, 411 
ComwaflaviUe, 188 
Corum, 534 
Cortlandt, 585 


Cortlandtviile, 1S3 
Coventry, 100 
Covert, 525 
Covington, 603 
Cowkiivil)e, 60i 
Coz^ackic, 188 
Craigeville, 411 
Crawford, 417 
CroUMi, 585 
Crown Point, 196 
Cuba, 59 

Currylown, S83 
Cutchogue, 545 

Danby, 593 
Danube, 193 
DansviUe, 349, 530 
Uarien, 179 
Dashville, 559 
Davenport, 186 
Day, 498 
Dayanville, 343 
Dayton, 84 
DeansviUe, 365 
Decatur, 444 
Deerfleld. 361 
Deer Park, 417 
DefrientvUle, 464 
De Kalb, 484 
Delavan, 87 

Delaware Conrrr, 135 
Delanti, 93 
Delhi, 186 
Delphi, 393 
Denmark, 330 
Depauville, 801, 484 
Depeyster, 484 
DeiMwit, 133 
Dc Ruyter, 856 
Dexter, i!01 
Dexterville, 80 
Diana, 239 
Dickenwn, 165 
Dix, 95 

Dobb's Ferry, 587 
Dora, /3 

Dreaden, 567, 60S 
Dr>'den, 553 
Puane, 165 
Duaneabnrg, 517 
AhiMin, 535 
Dundee, 608 
Dunkirk, 91 
Durham, 188 
Dmbamville, 37S 
DoTCBCM Comrrr, 138 

Eagle Harbor, 430 
East Bkx>mfield, 406 
li^ast Chester, 587 
Eaat Hampton, 535 
Eaaton, 568 
Eaton, 856 
Bdenville, 488 
Eden, 153 
Edinburg, 498 
Ednieston, 444 
Edwards, 484 
Elba, 179 
EUenburg, 106 
Ellenville, 560 
EUery, 80 
Ellicott, 80 
Ellington, 89 
Ellioburg, 308 
Elmira, 95 
Elizabethtown, 156 
Elmore*5 Comers, 556 
Enfleld, 553 
Ephrata, 167 
Erie Coitntt, 148 
Erin, 99 
Esnpus, 556 
Esperane, 583 
Essex, 156 
Essex ComiTT, 154 
Etna, 553 
Evans, 153 
Evans' Mills, 311 
Exeter, 444 

Fabiiis, 384 
Factf^ville, 474, 548 
Fairfield, 193 
Fairhaven, 430 
Fairport Basin. 
Fall Creek, 558 
Fallsbuig, 547 
Farmenville, 84, 585 
FarmiJigton, 406 
Far Rockaway, 450 
Fayetteville, 387 
Federal Store, 137 
Fenner, 358 
Felt's Mill, 318 
Finchville, 483 
Fishkill, 134 
Flanders, 543 
Flatbush, 335 
Flatlands, 335 
Fleming, 80 
Florence, 361 
Florida, 378, 438 
Floyd, 361 
Flushing, 453 
Fluvanna, 69 
Fonda's Bush, 167 
Forrcsibuig, 547 
Forestvllk!, 90 
Fort Ann, 568 
Fort Edward, 560 
Fon Miller, 560 
Fort Covington, 165 
Fort Hunter, 878 
Fort Plain, 878 
Fosterdole, 79 
Fowlersvllle, 851 
Fbwier, 484 
Frankfort, 194 
JBVanklin, 137, 165 
Franklin Countt, 168 
Franklinville, 85, lit, 384 
Prankvilte, 105 
Freedom, 85 
Fkeedom Plains, 07 

Freehold, 188 
Freetown, 124 
French Creek, 89, 301 
French MiUs, 165 
Friendship, 60 
Fulloms Basin, 366 
Fulton, 430, 518 
FultonviUe, 278 

Gaines, 430 
Gainesville, 603 
Galen, 578 
Gallatin, 116 
Galway, 498 
Gardner's Island, 536 
Garretsville, 444 
Gasport, 359 
Gates, 363 
Gayhead, 135, 188 
Genesee, 60 
Gknrsee Countt, 174 
.Geoeseo, 245 
Genoa, 8(1 
Geneva, 409 
Georgetown, 859 
German Flats, 194 
German, 100 
Germantown, 116 
Gerry, 89 
Ghent, 116 
Gilbertsville, 440 
Glluian, 191 
Gleu, 378 
Glenn Falls, 566 
Glencadia, 133 
Glencoe, 119 
Glenham, 135 
Glenviile, 507 
Gorbam, 408 
Goshen, 417 
Gouvemeur, 484 
Grafton, 464 
Granby, 431 
Granger, 60 
Granville, 570 
Gravi>«>ud, 236 
Great Bend, 301 
Great VaJipy, 85 
Greece, 263 
Greenbush, 464 
Greene Coitntt, 181 
Green Haven, 133 
Greene, 100 
Greenport, 545 
GreenfieM, 493 
Green River, 114 
Green's Comers, 370 
Greensbaig, 587 
Greenville, 188 
Greenwich, 571 
Greenwood, 531 
Greggsville, 351 
Griffin's MiRs, 143 
Crrove. 60 
Oroveiand, 346 
Orosvenor's Coroen, 516 
Guilderland, 51 
OuUfonl, 101 

Hague, 565 
Ha& Moon, 498 
Hallet's Cove, 461 
Hairs MUls, 53 
HalseyviUe, 553 
Hamburg, 153 
Hamilton, 350 
Hamilton Comrrr, 189 
Hammertown, 137 
Hammond's Port, 533 

Hammond, 484 
Hamden, 128 
Hampton, 376, 572 
Hanipionburg, 418 
Hague, 565 
Hancock, 128 
Hanford's Landing, 864 
Hannibal, 431 
Hanover, ^ 
Harlaem, 338 
Harmony, 9U 
Harperelieid, 128 
Harpersville, 72 
Harrisburg, 230 
Hartfield, 88 
Harrison, 590 
Hartford, 125, 572 
Hartiaiid, 348 
Hartisville, 142 
Hariwick, 444 
Hartville, 387 
HastingD, 431, 587 
Havana, 94 
Hfhrou, 572 
Havfrsiraw, 476 
Head-of-ihe-river, 541 
Hitbrun, 572 
Hector, 552 
Helena, 4i?3 
Hempe^tead, 455 
Hemptftead Harbor, 463 
Heiidcrsoii. 202 
Henrietta, 254 
Herkimer (Joi'NTy, 191 
Herkimer, 194 
Hermitage. 604 
Hermon, 484 
Iiick8ville, 463 
High Fallfs 558 
Hillsdale, 116 

Hiiclicock's Comers, 133 
Hobart, 132 
Hoffmai), 158 
Hogansburg, 163 
Holland, 153 
Holley, 430 
Homer, 124 
Hoosick, 466 
Hope, 191 
Hopkinton, 484 
Hopewell, 135, 408, 417 
Horicon, 565 
Hornby, 531 
HornelKville, 531 
Houiuifif M, 202 
Housevi]]t>, 242 
Howard, 531 
Hoytes, 523 
Hudson. 116 
Hiich8unville, 135 
Hull's Mills, 143 
Hume, 60 
Humphrey, 85 
Hunter, 188 
Huntington, 539 
Hurley, 556 
Huron, 579 
Hyde Park, 137 

Independence, 60 
Ira, 80 

IrelandviUe, 538 
Irondequoit, 205 
Islip, 540 
Italy, 605 
Ithaca, 558 

Jackson, 444, 578 
Jacksonburg, 444 
Jacksonville, 348, 553 
Jamaica, 458 
Jamestown, 80 
Jamesville, 383 


Thb desim of this Tolume is to give an account of the most im- 
portant andinteresting events relating to the history of the state of 
New York, from its settlement to the present. time, with geographiod 
descriptions, illustrated bv numerous engravings. In collecting the 
materials and preparing them for publication* 3ie cominlers of this 
work have unitedly spent more than two years of close and laborioos 
application. We have visited every part of the state, and besides 
travelling thousands of miles in the jmblic conveyances^ we have 
journeyed manv hundreds on foot 

Although feeling conscious that we have used all the efibrts, and 
taken every precaution which could be reasonably expected, in order 
to have this work accurate in every respect, yet we do not claim n 
entire exemption from those imperfections ever attendant on wodu^ 
of this kind. A degree of diffioence is felt, when it is considered 
who are to be the readers. Travellers in giving accounts of foreigp 
countries, may make statements at random, which may pass for truu« 
when there is no one at hand able to correct their errors. This v(d- 
ume will come before many persons, who, on some subjects intro- 
duced, have better means of information, and possess more knoWi- 
ledge than the compilers. A certain writer defines history to be 
merely *^ an approximation towards truth." Although this humilia- 
ting statement vrill not be allowed to its full extent, yet when the im- 
perfection of every thing human is considered, it must be confessed 
to have some foundation in truth. 

In the prosecution of this woik» we have availed ourselves of the 
labors of those who have preceded us. The historian, of necessity, 
derives his information from others. '*■ It will be observed, that quota- 
tions have been made from a great variety of publications; in most 
instances of which, credit has t>een given. As a general' rule, we 
have preferred to have each account appear as it was originally 
given to the public, in the author's own words, from which the reader 
can draw his own inferences. Truth ought always to be preferred 
before elegance of langua^ In the geocrraphical department much 
information has been derived from Spa&rd's and Gordon's (jazet- 






Parma, 995 
Patchogue, 535 
Paieraon, 449 
Patro4)n*H Miito, 404 
Pavilion, 180 
Pawlinc, 137 
PeelcBfill ^ 585 
Peci(ville, 135 
Pekiu, 348 
Pelhani, 596 
Pembroke 180 
Petidleioii, 357 
Penfleld. SC6 
Peim Van, 007 
Perrintoti, 966 
P«Try, 552, 603 
Penytfburg, 86 
PetTyKvil e, 106» 358 
Peru, 106 
Peruville, 553 
Peterboro', 260 
PetPfsburf , 469 
Perth, 174 
Pliarsalia, 104 
Phelps, 409 
Pbilade!i)hia, 313 
PhiUpsburg, 56, 438 
Philipspon, 547 
PhilipKtown, 449 
PhoBiiix, 439, 444 
Piermoiil, 478 
PUce, 61 
Pliiclciiey, 343 
Pine Hill, 179 
Pine Bridge, 601 
Pine Plains, 137 
Pi«eco, 191 
Pilcaim, 489 
PitclH-r, 104 
Pitts Flats, 400 
PittsfleJd, 447 
Piiisfoid, 9G6 
Pittstown, 409 
Plainfleld, 447 
Plainville, 384 
Platiakill, 516 
Plattekill, 559 
Plattabunt, 108 
Pleasant Plains, 133 
Pieu«nt Valley, 137, 167 
Pleasantville, 503 
Plyraouth, 104 
Poesien KIIL 469 
Poland, 90. 109 
Pompey, 393 
Poolvilte, 350 
Portage, 61, 365 
Porter, 35? 
Portland, 93 
Port Byron, 80 
Port Benjamin, 560 
Port Chester, 507 
Port Douglas, 155 
Port Genesee, 383 
Port Gibson, 408 
Port Henry, 158 
Port Hickson, 560 
Port Jackson, 878 
Port Jarvis, 417 
Port Jrlfersnn, 534 
Port Kent, 155 
Port Randall, 155 
Port Riohmaoi, 475 

Patter, 697 
Potters Hollnw, S3 
Pouglikeep»le, 137 
Pougliquake, 133 
PoQiftfaridge, 507 

prattakim, aas 

Prattavllle, 189 f 

Pratta Hollow, 357 
Preble, 135 
Preston, 1U5 
Princetown, 509 
Providence, 493 
Pulanki, 438 
Pul.eney, 532 
Pulteney ville, 583 


Putnam ValL>y, 453 
PuDiam, 575 
Pulvers Ck>mers, 137 
PunchkUl, 516 

Quaker Hill, 137 
Quecnsbury, 566 


Queensloo Heights, 349 
Quincy, 93 

Ramapo, 483 
Ramerton, 464 
Randolpli. 87 
Ransomville, 551 
Rawsonvllle, 167 
Raynertown, 456 
Reading, 533 
Redfleki, 438 
Redford, 113 
Redhouk, 140 
Red Mills, 449 
Remsen, 366 
Rensselaer, 409 
Rknssklakr Coinnnr, 463 
Rensselaerburs, 484 
Rensselaer's Mills, 469 
RensselaervUle, 51 
Reynales Basin, 350 
Reynoidsville, 553 
Rhlnebeck, 141 
Ricevllle, 86 
Ridgeway, 430 
RtohfleM, 447 
Richfnrd, 551 
Richland, 438 
Richmond, 400 
RicHMOKD Couimr, 473 
Richmondville, 516 
Richville, 180, 484 
Riga, 366 
Ripley, 08 
RIverhead, 540 
Roanoke, 180 
Rochester, 366, 550 
Rock City, 137, 493 
Rock Glen, 135 
Rockland, 547 
Rockland Commr, 475 
Rodman, 313 
Rome, 366 
Romulus, 585 
RondoubC, 557 
Root, 383 
Rossie, 490 
Roaendale, 594 
RnsBvUIe, 475 
Rouses Point 108 
Rotterdam, 500 
Roxbury, 130 
Royaltoti. 350 
Rush, 370 

Rushville, 408, 549, 007 
Rushford, 65 
Russel, 490 
Rustfia, 199 
Rutland, 313 
Rutledge, 84 
Rye, 597 

Sacketta Harbor, 308 
BlH Haibor, 643 

St. Johnfldlle,S83 
Su Regis, 103 
Salem, 93, 575 
SaUna, 303 
Salisbury, 199, 4U 
Salt Point, 137 
Sampsondale, 476 
Sanlord, 73 
Sandusky, 85 
Sandlake, 469 
Sandy Creek, 430, 438 
Sandy HUl, 573 
Sangerfield, 370 
Baranac, 113 
Saratoga, 493 
Sardinia, 153 
Saratoga Comnr, 491 
Saratiiga Springs, 498 
Saugerties, 559 
Saquoit, 366 
Savannah, 583 
Sawpiits, 597 
Scarsdale, 597 
Scoichtnwn, 438 
Schaghticoke, 469 
Schoharie, 530 


Schodac, 469 
Schroon, 158 
Schroeppel, 439 
SchiUtz Comers, 133 
Schuyltfr, 109 
SchuylerviUe, 493 
Sciencevllle, 189 
Scio, 65. 430 
Scipio, 6l 
Scotia, 507 
Scott, 135 
Scottsville, 371 
Scriba, 439 
Searsburg, 417. 553 
SemproniuR, 8i 
Seneca, 409 
Sknkca County, 535 
Seneca Falls, 585 
Sennet, 81 
Separate, 143 
Seward, 534 
Setauket, 534 
Shandaken, 559 
Sharon, 534 
Shawaugunk, 559 
Shelby, 430 
Shelter Island, 541 
SheMon. 603 
Shenandoah, 135 
Sherburne, 105 
Sheridan, 99 
Sherman, 92 
Sherman's Mflls, 409 
Shookville, 137 
ShortsvUle. 408 
Shumla, U3 
Sibley's Comers, 370 
Sidney, 130 
Si loam, 360 
Silver Cn^, 90 
Sbclairville, 88 
Sing Sing, 503 
Skanandoa, 375 
Skeneateles, 401 
Sioaneville, 583 
Slaterville, 553 
Sleepy HoUow, 505 
Smithborough, 551 
Smith's Comers, 83 
Smithfli'ld, 380 
Smithtown, 516, 541 
Smithville, 105,301,303 
Smoky Holtow, 114 
Smvma. 105 
ftrieaviUe, 980 

Soton, 135 
Somerville, 490 
South Bristol, 411 • 
South East, 458 
Southfleid, 475 
Southampton, 543 
Souihold, 545 
Southport, 00 
South Salem, 500 
Spaflbrd, 403 
Sporta, 349, 503 
Speigleton, 468 
Spencer's Basin, 865 
Spencer, 551 
Spencertown, 114 
Spencer's Comers, 137 
Speunk, 543 
Spracker's Basin, 383 
Spthigfieid, 447 
Springmill, 60 
Springport, 81 
Springtnwn, 550 
Spriiigwater, 251 
Spring\ille, 132 
Siamford, 132 
Staflbrd, 180 
Stanford, 142 
Stanton Hill, 189 
Siapleton, 475 
Stark, 199 
Starkey, 606 
Stephentown, 460 
Stcriing, 81 
Steuben, .371 
Stkitbkk County, 527 
Stewart's Comers, 143 
Stillwater, 499 
St. Johnnville, 283 
St. Helena, 6(i2 
St. Lawrbnck Co., 
Stock bridge, 360 
Stockholm, 490 
Stockport, 122 
Stockton, 92 
Stone Arabia, 283 
Stone Mill 212 
Stonybrook, 534 
Stormville, 135 
SU)we'8 Square, 239 
Strailord, 174 
StrykersA ille, 518, 603 
Stuart's Comers, 82 
Stuyvesant, 122 
SurroLK County, 533 
Sugar Loaf, 428 
Sullivan, 260 
Sullivan County, 540 
Summer Hill, 81 
Summer Valley, 57 
Summit, 524 
Sweden, 271 
Syracuse, 395 

Taghkanic, 133 
TakxHt'fl Coreem, 83 
Tateottvinp, 339 
Tannersville, 189 
Tappen, 478 
Tarrytown, 588 
Thereaa, 301 
Thompson, .M? 
Thompsonville, 548 
ThroopsviDe, 80 
Ticondemga, 158 
Tioga, 551 
Tioga County, 548 
Tomhenick, 469 
Tompkins, 133 
Tompkins County, 551 
TompklDsvUle, 474 



153, SSI 

TroupilHirf, SS 

TnuuaiMbuif, S53 
TnuuMi, 135 
Tuni-— iih, 88 
TupperV Cornen, 88 
Turin, 842 
TyteriviUe, SIS 
Tyre, 585 
Tyrone, 538 

Ulatce Conmr, 555 
UlUerriJk, 551 
UijadNIa, 447 
Uoad J.« Fork!, 447 
Union Ooraen, 851 
Onioa F»lli, 106 
Union Squam, 433 
Union Spiiqp^ 81 
Union Vale, 148 
UnloD VlllaffR, 571 
UnioDviUe, 480, 5»3 
Upper Landii«, 135 

Vaktle, 118 
VaryrtMUK, 003 
Van Bureii, 403 
VanbomsTUle, 109 
V«rbanli, 148 

Vernon, 375 
Verona, 3*. 5 

Verper, 4U3 
V««al, 74 
Veteran, 09 
Victory, 88 
Vienna, 375,409 
ViSenuva, 03 
VifKil, 125 
Volney, 439 

Waddington. 485 
Wadliam's Mills, 108 
Wainacott, 5iO 
Waittt Comers, 576 
Walden, 423 
WvAP*, 154 
Wallkill, 438 
Wal 01, 12ri 
Walworth, 563 
Wamps\ilte, 869 
WTarnm, 199, 476 
WAaacN Cousrrr, 561 
WarreiwbuH!, 567 
Warsaw, 604, 605 
Warwick, 438 
Waahtngttm, 148 
WiLaeiNOToic Co., 567 
Wa8hingtmiville,411, 439 
Wa»bingtnn Holtow, 137 
Waterboroiivli, 90 
Waierford, 505 
Waterloo, 536 
Watertown, 818 
WatervUle, 371 

Watenrille Corners, 153 
Watfr Vallev, 153 
WatervUe^ 54 
Watv>r« 318 
WawarxMie, 563 
Wayne, 633 
Watkk Coonty, 578 
W^. bster, 371 
Welir^burg, 90 
We -dsport, 80 
Wells. 101 
West Almond, 65 
West BNmuifteld, 411 
West Farms 597 
Westfield. 93 
Wfst Galway, 167 
West Miirord, 03 
West Point, 411 
Westcheiter, 597 
Westcbkstee Co^584 
Westerlo, 55 
Western, 376 
Westfleld, 475 
Westtbrd, 448 
Weetiiampton, 543 
Wesunoreland, 376 
Westport, 163 
West Troy, 54 
West Tuiin, 313 
Weetviile, 166, 448 
Wethersfield, 601 
WheaiAekl, 359 
WheaUand. 371 
Wheeler, 533 
White's Cornem, 153 
White Creek, 576 
Whitehall, 577 
Whitehaven, 153 
White Plains, 599, 
Whitesbomugh, 377 
Wbiteatovm, 377 

Whltestme, 453 
Wliitesvill;;, 60, 31S 
Wl.nluckvUIe, 584 
Wii et. 135 
Wiliiamsbiirf, 834 
Wiiliamrion, 583 
Wifliamstown, 318, 438 
Wiiiiniusville, 143 
Willtsborouch, 168 
Wilmington, 188 
Wiln;urt, 199 
Wiliia, 319 
Wilson, 359 
Wilton, 5i)6 
WinansviUe, 188 
Windham, 189 
Windsor, 70 
WinfieM, 199 
Wlnton, 199 
Wirt, 66 
Woodburn, 547 
Wnodhull, 533 
Worcester, 448 
Wuriz.boni', 547 
Wynanti^kili, 464 
Wyoming, 603 
Wyoming Couictt,801 

Yates, 430 

YaTBS CotTNTT, 604 

Vatesville, 605, 608 
Yaughcripplebuab, 558 
Yonkers, 6i)l 
York. 351 
Yorkshire, 87 
Yorktown, 601 
VorkvUle, 338, 377 
Youngstown, 357 


Albany, 68,546 

Allegany 40,920 

Broome, 22,318 

Cattaraugus, 28,803 

Cayuga, 50,362 

Chautauqiie, 47,641 

Chemung, 20,731 

Chenango, 40,779 

Clinton 28,178 

Columbia, 44,237 

Cortland, 24,605 

Delaware, 35.363 

Dutcheaa, 52,488 

Erie 62,153 

Eaaex, 23,611 

Franklin, 16,450 

Fulton, 18,033 

Genesee, 59,640 

Greene, 30,446 

Hamilton, 1,907 

Herkimer, 37,378 

Jetferson, 61,064 

Kings, 47,613 

Lewis, 17,849 

Livingston, 35,710 

Madison, 40,007 

Monroe, 64,912 

Montgomery, 35,801 

New York, 312,932 

Niagara 31,114 

Oneida. 85,327 

Onondaga, 67,914 

Ontario, 43,501 

Orange, 50,733 

Orleans, 25,015 

Oiwego, 43,820 

Otsego, 49,412 

Putnam, 12,825 

Queens, 30,324 

Ren8f»elaer, 60.3'J3 


Richmond, 10,985 

Rockland^ 11,874 

Saratoga, 40,450 

Schenectady, 17,233 

Schoharie, 32,351 

Seneca, 24,868 

St. Lawrence, 56,693 

Steuben, 45,992 

Suffolk, 32,469 

Sullivan, 15,630 

Tioga, 20,350 

Tompkins, 38,113 

Ulster, 45,724 

Warren, 13,470 

Washington, 41,095 

Wayne, 42,160 

Westchester, 48,687 

Yates, 20,442 

Total, 2,429,476 

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J wp tr .SM 

Jay* 157 
Java, 003 

Jeflemm, M, US, S» 
jBrFBBsoii CoDimr, 901 
Jenualem, 496, i05 
Jenaakoi ConMn, 153 
JohMtNUiu 366 
Jotanvfuwo, 110, 107 
JohiMODvine, 135, 409 

Kempavile, 39 

Kent, 449 
KiiidrrtoolE, 118 
KindcYtHNik Landinf, 1S3 
Kh^pitnro\ 16H 

KrNS* (>>crirrT, 219 
Kioney** Comen, 431 
KlrkJaml, 361 
Kirfcvinr, 3S7 
KoowteartllB, 430 
Kunz, 51 
Kouxville, 539 
Koftri^t, 130 
Kyanrrille, SSI 

Lafkyettr, 384 

Lalaycfie Cx>mcfii, 137 
La Onncr, 137,603 
LalnkriUe, 376 
Lake Pleannt, 191 
LakevUle, S48, 4ei 
Littk^ Britain, 418 
Laminfbuif , 468 
LawjenviOe, 516 
LaMPbvUle, 167 
Vathmp** Cflrnen, 83 
. .atlnlown, SS9 
Laurena, 444 
Lawrence, 484 
LpbaDcn, 900 
Lee«ville, S94 
Le Faixeville, 319 
LeicevUT, 916 
Leooz. 900 

liconardiville, 955 
Le Ray, 911 
Le Roy, 179. 444 
Leraniia, 80 
Lewfcs 157 
Lewbbnro', 590 
Lkwii Ck>cnrrr, VV 
LMlnfton, 189 
Leyden, 939 
Lfbmy. 530, 517 
Lima, 948 
Llncklaen, 101 
Ltndley, 531 
Lindon, 430 
ListxHi, 484 
Uale, 79 
LltcMdd, 196 
Litde Palta, 196 
Llnle Valley, 85 
Little Udca, 384 
Liverpool, 394 
■ 110 

l4Tiir«iTOjr Cooimr, iff 
UvkwMOfiTllle, fili 
Locke, 80 
Lockvf ne, 578 
LO110 IaLAin>JKKl 
Long Lake, 181 
Lorraine, 911 
Loulavilla, 484 
lK>wvlIle, 939 
LloydsvUIe, 447 
LudloWTille, 553 
Lumberland, 547 
Luzerne, 566 
Lyme, 911 
Lyiidoa, 85 
Lyum, ST9 
Lyander, 381 

MaekavUle, 403 
McLeanariile, 553 
McDooougfo, 101 
McGrawtviite, 194 
Madiion couxtt, 8S5 
Madrid, 484 
Maiden, 559 
MakNie, 165 
ManiakatlM, 547 
Mamamneck, 591 
ManbattanviUe, 338 
Mann*! Valley, 516 
Man«ville, 909 
Marfotebonmirti, SS8 
Marcellua, 387 
Mancheater, 408 
Maratlwn, 195 
Marion, 580 
Marcy, 365 
Martinriiurv, 940 
Maryland, 444 
Mason's Comera, 105 
Maaonville, 130 
MaMcna, 483 
Manatuck, 545 
Manawan, 134 
Manbews Mills, 387 
Matildavllle, 485 
MayAeld, 174 
MayvUle, 88 
Mechanicsvine. 148, 400 
Mtfcklenburg, SS9 
Medina, 430 
Meredith, 130 
Mexico, 439 
Middlebury, 608 
Middleburf, 518 
MkldlefieM, 444 
MIddleport, 190, 390 
Middle Setd'^ment, 985 
Middlesex, 607 
Middleville, 194 
Mkldlelown, 130, 4», 499 

Milan, 80, 137 
Bliil Brook, 158 
MUIers Place, 534 
Milton, 499. 558 
MUlville. 430, 464 

Minerva, 157 
Mohawk, 194, »0 
MoHBOB Couinnr, 963 
Moniesuma, 80 
Montgomery, 493 


MonUcello, 447, 518 
Mooen, 100 
MooeraviUe, 130 
Moravia, 81 
Morehouse, 191 
Mornasville, 180 
Mociah, 158 
Mnriebes, 535 
Morrisiana, 597 
Morrisvilki, 957 
Morrlscown, 485 
Moscow. 946 - 
Motts* Cforaers,599 
Mount Hope, 493 
Mount Morris, 948 
Mount Pleasant, 508 
Mount Upton. 101 
Mud Creek, 598 
Murray, 430 

Napbanock, 560 
Naples, 408 
Narrowsbuif , 547 
Nassau, 468 
Natural Bridce, 919 
Navarino. 389 
Near Rockaway, 450 
Nelson, 9110 
Neskayuna, 54, 508 
Netterville, 509 
NealehiU, 93 
Neversink, 547 
New Ailiion, 86 
Newark, S49, 578 
New Baltimore, 189 
New Berlin, 101 
New Brighton, 474 
Newburg, 494 
New Castle, 596 
New City, 476 
Newconb, 158 
Newflekl, 553 
New Fane, 359 
New Hartford, 365 
New flaven, 439 
New Hudson, 60 
New Lebaixm, 190 
New LiAon, 444 
New London, 375 
New Ohio, 79 
New Palts, 550 
Newport, 199 
New Rocbafle^ 996 
Newry, 188 
New Scotland, 51 
Newstead, 153 
Newtown, 460 
New Windsor, 495 
New York, 984 
Nbw Yobe Cotnmr, 984 
NiAOABA Cotnmr, 347 
Nicholas Pomt, 589 
Nicholsvilla, 174 
If icbolviUa, 484 

Nhieveh, 79 
Nisbecs Comara, 385 
NoblevtOe, 444 
Norfolk, 485 
North Amenia, 137 
Northampton, 174 
North Cutle, S96 
NorthOeld, 475 
North Hempstead, 409 
North East, 137 
North Port, 540 
North Salem, 506 
Nonhville, 174 
Northumberland, 498 
Norway, 199 
Norwich, 109, 463 

Oakhill, 188 
Oak Orchard, 430 
Ohio, 199 
Oiedensbuif , 465 
Old AtUebury, 14S 
Olean, 86 
Olive, 5S0 
Omar, 99 

Oneida Castleton, 375 
Orkida Commr, 380 
Oneonta, 444 
Onondaga, 389 
Omokdaoa Cotnmr, 383 
Ontario, 580 
Otfabio Oommr, 408 
Oppenheim, 174 
Oquago. 70 
Oran, 309 

OBA.1GK Cocirrr, 411 
Orange, 539 
Orangetown, 478 
Orangeville, 6U3 
Oriskany, 377 
Oriskany Falls, 300 
Orleans 913 
Oblkatis Cotmrr, 499 
OrvUle, 383 
Orwell, 433 
Osbom's Brklge, 174 
OHbomevllle, 189 
Ossian, 60 
Oswegatchie, 485 
Oswego, 439 


Owego, 549 
Otego, 445 
Otisco, 399 
Otlsville, 493 
Otto, 86 
Otsego, 445 
Otsboo Cotnmr, 430 
Ovid, 535 
Owensville, 597 
Oxbow, 901 
Oxford, 109,411 
Oyster Bay, 469 
Oyster Pofida, 545 

Pahited Post, 539 
Palatine, 989 
Palenno, 438 
Palmers* Comexi, 105 
Pamelia, 919 
Palmyra, 580 
Paradox, 158 
Panama, 90 
Paris, 366 
Parish. 438 
iFftriahTille, «0 



PatclMifuei 539 
Paieraoii, 449 
Patro(>n*> Mi'Ji, 494 
Pavilioo, IW 
PawUot, 137 
Ptfefcinll , 565 
PeckviUe, 135 
Pekiii, 340 
Pflbam, 506 
Pembroke 180 
PeiidlejNi, 357 
PmfleM, VS 
Ptiin Van, 007 
Perriiilnii. 880 
P«>rr>-, 553, MO 
Perry«burf , 86 
Pemwil e, 106^ 858 
Pttru, 106 
Peravilie, 553 
Peterboro*, 900 
PetHrabiirg, 460 
Penh, 174 
PUaraalia, 104 
Phelps, 400 
PhiUpvbuif , 96, 498 
Pbiiiivport, 547 
Phoenix, 430, 444 
Piermoiit, 478 
Pike, 01 
Piiickiiey, 949 
Pine Hill, 179 
Pine Rridge, 601 
Pine Plain*, 137 

PiM!0», 191 
Pilralni, 480 
Pilcb^-r, 104 
Pitm Flafa, 469 
PittffleM, 447 
Piilafoid, 9G6 
PlttatDwn, 460 
PlainrtHd, 447 
Plainville, 3H4 
Platiakill, 516 
Plattekill, 559 
Plattsbunr, 106 
PieaMiut Plain*, 133 
PloaKant VaUey, 137, 167 
Pleafanlville, 503 
PtyiDouth, IM 
PoeMcn KflL 460 
Pompey, 309 
PimtYiUe, 990 
Portif^, 61, 369 
Ponrr, 357 
Portland, 99 
Port Byron, 80 
Pnn B«q)arain, 900 
Port Chester, 907 
Port IkmglaB, 159 
Port GeiH«re, 963 
Port Henry, 198 
Port Hickeon, 960 
Port Jackaon, 978 
Port Jarvto, 417 
Port Ji-flferann, 534 
Port Kent, 199 
Ptort Mandoll, US 
PMt RidUMii, 475 
Patter, 687 
Pollen Hollow, an 
Pouflikeraide, 137 
Pougfaquake, 133 
PtraiiArid(!e, 907 
r-rilikiiu. TW 

Fmitivllle, 180 
Pratia Hollow, »7 
Preble, 199 
Preston, 109 
FrtncHuwn, 900 
Providence, 493 
Pula«ki, 438 
Pul.eney, 9:i9 
PuUifiieyville, 983 
PrrNAM County, 448 
Putnam Valley, 499 
PuDuun, 979 
Pulvera Comen, 137 
Punchklil, 916 

Quaker Hill, 137 
Quenwbury, 566 
QuKKKs Coirimr, 4S8 
Queensloo Ueigbfei, 349 
Qttlncy, 09 

Ramapo, 483 
Ranierton, 464 
Randolpli. 87 
RauaomviUe, 991 
Rawaooville, 167 
Raynenown. 490 
Redford, 113 
Redhook, 140 
Red Mills, 449 
Remsen, 366 
Rensselaer, 400 
RsMssKLABa Coimrr, 403 
Rensselaerburs, 404 
Rensselaer's Mills, 409 
RensselarrvUie, 51 
Reynales Basin, 390 
Reynoldsvilk*. 5S3 
Rliiitebeck, 141 
RicevUle, 86 
Ridgeway, 430 
Rkhfield, 447 
Richrnid, 551 
Richland, 438 
Richmond, 409 
Rk'HMOkd CouNTT, 473 
RIchmondvUle, 516 
Rlchville, 180, 484 
Rim, 966 
Ripley, 09 
Riverhead, 540 
Roanoke, 180 
Rochester, 966, 590 
Rock Ciiy, 137. 498 
Rock Glen, 139 
Rockland, 947 
Roi-KLAjfD Couirrr, 479 
Rodman, 918 
Rome, 366 
Romulus, 535 
Root, 383 
Rose, 983 
Rosendale, 950 
RossrUle, 479 
Rouses Point, 106 
Rotterdam, 900 
Rozbury, 130 
Royaltoii, 390 
Rush, 970 

RuahvUle, 408, 549, 007 
Rttshfoid, 69 
Russia, 190 
Rutland, 919 
Rye, 997 

Backetts Harbor, 908 

St. Jobnsville,983 
8alem79i 979 
Salkbury. 199, 4U 
Salt Point, 137 
Bampsoiulale, 476 
Sanlord, 73 
Sandusky, 85 
Bandlake, 469 
Sandy Creek, 430, 438 
fHmdy HUl, 579 
Saufer(k*kl, 370 
Baraiiac, 113 
Sardinia, 153 
^AaATUOA Cor.TTT, 491 
Baraiiifca 8prin|{B, 498 
Baiiitertini, 550 
t^uoit, 3(JG 
i^vannaJi. 583 
Saw pitta, 507 
Scarsdale, 597 
Scoichtnwn, 438 
Schaghtiooke, 409 
ScJienectady. 500 
Schoharie, 580 


Schroon, 198 
Schroeppel, 430 
SchiUtz i'orners, 133 
SchuylKr, 109 
Schuylerville, 403 
Bcleiiceville, 189 
tki«), 69. 430 
Scipio, 81 
BcotU, 907 
Scott, 139 
Scottsvill**, 371 
Scriba, 439 
Seamburx, 417, 998 
Senipronius, 81 
Seneca, 400 
Sknkca ContTT, 989 
Seneca Falls, 535 
Sennet, 81 
Separate, 143 
Seward, 534 
Shandaken, 559 
Sharon, 534 
Shawan^unk, 559 
Shelby, 430 
Sbflter Island, 541 
Sbeklon. 603 
Sbenamioah, 139 
Sherburne, 109 
Sheridan, 99 
Sherman, 93 
Sherman's M Ola, 460 
Shookvine, 137 
SbortwvUle, 408 
Shumla, 03 
Sibley's Comers, 370 
Sidney, 130 
Silver Cn«k, 00 
SInclairville, 88 
Sing Sine, 903 
Skanandoa, 373 
Skeneateles, 401 
Sloansville, 583 
Slatervllle, 993 
Sleepy Hollow, 509 
Sniithbon>u«h, 551 
Smith's Corners, 89 
Smithflild, 960 
Smithtown, 516, 541 
Smithville, 105,901,908 
Smoky Hnltow, 114 
Smvma. 105 

BtNnerset, 399 
South Bristol, 411 
South East, 458 
Southtleld, 479 
Southampton, 543 
Souihold, 945 
Southport, 99 
South Salem, 900 
SpalTord, 403 
Sparta, 919, 503 
Speigleton, 468 
Siieedville, 558 
Spencer's Basin, 969 
Spencer, 951 
Sponcertown, 114 
Spencer's Corners, 137 
Speuok, 543 
Spracker's Basin, 983 
SpihigfleM, 447 
Springroill, 60 
8|>rin|rport, 81 
Springtnwn, 590 
Spriiigwaier, 251 
Sprinf>'iUe, 133 
Stamford, 133 
SiatKtrri, 180 
Stanford, 143 
Stanton Hill, 180 
Stark, 190 
Siarkey, 606 
Stephentown, 400 
Sterling, 81 
Steuben, .171 
STBiraKM rouHTT, 587 
Stewart's Comers, 148 
SiiUwater, 499 
St. John»ville, 383 
St. Helena, 61)3 
St. LAwaaiirB Co. 
SUKkbridge^ 360 
Stockholm, 490 
Stockport, 193 
Stockton, 92 
Stone A rabia, 383 
Stone Mill 813 
Stonybrook, 534 
Stomiville, 135 
Stowe'f Square, 939 / 
Stratlord, 174 
Strykeryville, 518, 003 
Stuart's Corners, 88 
Stuyvesant, 133 
Si'FFOLK Covimr, 933 
Sucar Loaf, 498 
Sullivan, 260 
Svllivah CouFrrr, 546 
Summer Hill, hi 
Suntmer Valley, 57 
Summit, 524 
Sweden, 271 
Syracuse, 305 

Taghkanic, 183 
Tateott's Comers, 89 
TakottvlDc, 830 
TannersviUe, 180 
Tappen, 478 
Tarrytown, 588 
Theresa, 901 
Thompson, Sil 
ThompsonviOe, 548 
Throopsvine, 80 
Ttcondemga, 158 
Tioga, 551 

Tomhenick, 409 
Tompkins, 133 
ToMnnNs Cncirrr, 9! 




TmniaiMhuffi 553 
^Tnuum, 1S5 
TunwwMih, fS 
"Tupper** Comeii, 88 

Tjrleraville, SIS 
Tyre, 598 
Ty rose, 535 

UunrsK CowTT, 556 

UomLU Forka, 447 

Vnkm Comera, 851 
Cokm Palla, l« 
Union Squart, 438 
UnfcMi Snlnfi, 81 
Vnkm Vale, 148 
Unfcm VtllafR, 571 
UoMDvlHi!, 480, 5S3 
Upper Landiiv, 135 

Taktie, 118 
Tarynbuiit, 603 
Van Buren, 409 
VaabornvrUle, 198 

Vernon, 3T5 
Verona, 3:5 
Venper, 4(13 
Veteran, 98 
Victory, fii 
Vienita, 375.409 
ViOtrnuva, 93 
VirKil, 125 
Volnvy, 439 

WaddinKion. 483 
Wiidlianj's MiilB, 108 
Watnacott, 5i8 
Waits Comere, 576 
VValden, AXi 
Wal^ 154 
Wallkill, 4S8 
Wal O'l, 13-J 
Walworth, 583 
WampHvtIle, 869 
Warren, 199, 476 
WAaaan Coosttt, 561 
Warrenifburi;, 567 
Wamw, 604, 6U5 
Warwick, 438 
WsMlilntnon, 148 
WAaBi!«OTO!f Co., 567 
WaBbinglonvllle,411, 439 
Waahinstnn Hollow, 137 
Waterbui«, 553 
Waterborousli, 90 
Waterford, 505 
Waterloo, 586 
Watertown, 818 
WaterviUe, 371 

Waterrine Comera, 153 
Water Vallev, 153 
WatervUe^ 54 
Watvir* 348 
WawafM>ux, 563 
Wayne, 333 
Watnk County, 578 
W. iMte % 871 
Wellflmrg, 90 
We 'dsp'irt, 80 
Wuii Almond, 63 
West Bliioinfteld, 411 
Weirt Pnmis 597 
WeMfield. 03 
Wt«t Galway, 167 
Went BlUford, 08 
We«t Point, 411 
VVe«tcb«>^r, 507 
W««terlo, 55 
WeMem, 376 
Wettfleld, 475 
Weattbnl, 448 
Weatliampton, 543 
WetunoreiaMd, 376 
Wefltport, 168 
We« Troy, 54 
Weat Tut in, 348 
WeMviUe, 166. 448 
Wethersfield, 604 
Wheaiflekl. 359 
Wiieaiiand. 871 
Wiiwler, 533 
White*« Comera, 153 
White Cmek, 576 
Wbiteball, 577 
Wiiltehaven, 153 
Wiilte Plains, 593, 
Wtiitesbomugh, 377 
Whitetfown, 377 

Whtiestrme, 453 
Wliliesvilld, 60, 818 
Wi:iTlockvUle, 564 
Wll ei. tSS 
Wilitainsttuff, 834 
WilliauiMon, 583 
Willianifltown, 818, 
Williniiwviile, 143 
VVi^^lH)rnugl1, 168 
Wilmington, 168 
Wiin;urt, 199 
Wiliia. 319 
Wi!()oii, 359 
Wilion, 506 
Wiiiansvine, 188 
Wiiidbam, 189 
Windsor, 70 
WiiiAeld, 199 
Winton, 199 
Wirt, 66 
Woodburn, 547 
WnodhuU, 533 
Worcester, 448 
Wiirizboni*. 547 
Wyriaiithkill, 464 
Wyniiiiof, 603 

WyOMIXO Cot7HTT,60l 

Yates, 430 
Yatbs Cocutt, 604 
Vatesville, 605, 608 
Yaafhcripptebuab, 558 
Yonkera, GJl 
York. 351 
Yorksb1rv>, 87 
Yorktnwn, 601 
YounsBtown, 357 


Albany, 68,546 

AUegnny, 40,920 

Broome, 22,318 

Caiuraugus, 28,803 

Cayuga, 50,362 

Chautauque, 47,641 

Chemung, 20,731 

Chenango, 40,779 

Clinton, 28,178 

Columbia 44,237 

CorUand, 24,605 

Ddaware, 35,363 

Datcheaa 52,488 

Erie 62,153 

EflKZ, 23.611 

Franklin 16,450 

Fulton 18,033 

Genesee, 59,640 

Greene, 30,446 

Hamilton 1,907 

Herkimer, 37,378 

Jefferson, 61,064 

Kings, 47,613 

Lewis, 17,849 

Liritigston, 35,710 

Madison, 40,007 

Monroe, 64,912 

Montgomery, 35,8U1 

New York, 312,932 

Niagara, 31,114 

Oneida, 85,327 

Onondaga, 67,914 

Ontario, 43,501 

Orange 50,733 

Orleans, 25,015 

Ojwego, 43,820 

Otsego, 49,412 

Putnam, 12.825 

Queens, 30,324 

Renai»elaer, 60.303 


Richmond, 10,985 

Rockland^ 11,874 

Saratoga, 40,450 

Schenectady, 17,233 

Schoharie, 32,351 

Seneca, 24,863 

St. Lawrence, 56,693 

Steuben, 45.992 

Suffolk, 32,469 

Sullivan, 15,630 

Tioga 20,350 

Tompkins. 38,113 

Ulster 45,724 

Warren, 13,470 

Washington, 41 ,095 

Wayne 42,160 

Wesichebter, 48,687 

Yaies 20,443 

Total, 2,429,476 


Adimmliirk Moiinlalm 157 

Aiimtfiilnm, Nkiiw, hi lO&i) ^5 

A mirc, inking i)f 4«9 

Andre, ex<>r III li>n irf" 588 

Ao ntoti-tf, ludlcniutf. 44G 

Anvcdott-m Miiiiuliir I<*7 

Alh'ii, Willlaiu 11. r|M(n|ita 118 

Aiaint, ri y ol". 153 

AriMtId llHf traUnr, aiifcdoto of !lR3 

AntniM*. A'*:Miii, irial ol 857 

Artorlloitot* 334 

RatlMT. I.i Mitmanl-colonH. drath of 

Baker, Mim Knchi I, tlM> Alt^'pinx p:<«c)irr, 

Dackiiis AiH, I). l>. t-pnaiHi 

naibir, Robrt. miinler ol 

Hul.ail, i>n I lie df* rticiinn ot' 8ilioiMH::ady. 

I'atu-iy n*id C'nuiU' CJaidt-n 

llfnni.i|!ti>ii, bntiifor 

Dearh. 'rinH».hy, advi'iiturv* of 

near, n>iitlici 

RkUiii|i, Siunii, Immliesk 

ttii Kri.l.', miiu-f ol". 

Diiwnt' Mitiiblnii ilirtift- 

Hoyd. hiciilrlinul, hunlhir dca h of. 

lllnrk Kri U\ iiotioi i.l 

D.m-k IliH'k, nllnrk on 

Brork. !*ir Jnuu'C, tl n h i-l' 

Brant, Jiwpli. im>i*i*«' • »! 

Hinil. I'ltitirii'ncf wild 

Bniwii. ('oln'H'l. iMt.lccof. 

Bread. ■*rna*ity of. 

Brili«lM>ltH-i*itsd«ff:ri,i Hm iH 

Brii4iil. w rrvK of 

Bui|RT-«, l>aiiii I. 0(c«iN' of. 

BiiiVi<>ii<', •iineiiitet of 

BulRtli). biiiinnx «4\ 

Butler llon«ir. M«»linwk 

Bu.knt, iac-«4iiiih> oi 

Biulrr, WaHcr, dealli uT. 

• * • ■ 

Capelrr hoyii of R-m^jelaen-UIe 

(*aiioe(i Falh 

raiK^oim- le, lu\a>iiMi of. 

ra oiiiK', bniniin i4'. 

i'aiiirites OiAald. epiiapli 

Car.iiase Rn«l^ 

l^i»kiil MMin.iun llouM 

Cayiica Bmtte 

CmiMi*. .Nt w Yofk d.y, Sta:r, and tbe Uidte«l 


riMieaiirav. Auitiiviiai 

ChitiaiK|ur ica« f^ipi 

l*hi<d. niM ivM-n in Lo.-^ btend 

Ctilaiiir}' Pi^tit Gulf. 

iliuich. arcieiit. ai (*aii(liiM«ragm 

(^aicii. a. .ci«ii>. A \imny 

Churvbv*. inunDrr ol, InXrW York • 

Cbi4mttaiXe«i t'orfc 

Ciilp|»wa. baiJet/ 

ClMtTy Valk-y. d(«nictkai «#. 

ClMBiunc. kante nf. 

Ciljr HalL N«« VortL 



Ukcial InilnM. 




2 3 






Cork Island, Oxford IM 

Colden, C!overi.or, efB«y of *>7 

(N>lliraitli, Cotoncl, aiiecdote of. 366 

Coxier, E. 9, epi.apli ST5 

CoMuii, Cndwai.ader, iHflice of. 4M 

C-i«ii an, Dr. Julm, epitapli 375 

Cob l«ki.l. at:ack lui 516 

Com, early ine.lMjd of poui>ding 5J1 

Cruiiby, Kmich, ntNlceuf 135 

Cnitua Aqu«luct 336 

Cuatuiubuuaa 3S23 

Dana, General James, notice of 517 

Deaener, execiilioo of. 464 

lie Fooclaire, J. B. V., e|iitapli 173 

l>«fan, Enq., Jam*% notke uf 376 

Difiluiiia tor the Indiana 1*3 

U(hW, Rev. Bethuel, epitaph 38^ 

Downie, CommiNkirK, epitapii 113 

Dover Moiie cliuich 134 

Doxiader, J., tlie tor)-, defeat of. SM 

Dream, remarkable 171 

Duich, nncieiit, churrh 46 

Dutch church, PiiUikill 136 

Dutch church, ai.cini? Sti5 

Dwi)(hiy Dr , dciictip Ion of VVuslchester C<Hinty 
in ibe it'voluUon SOi 

Rdwards, Geoi^ C. epitaph 530 

t^lwanlit, D. D , Jonaitiaii, epita|ih 514 

Krie cetebraiion 3J4 

Eniiuet, Thtmiatf Addiis epi.aph 347 

Ekopus, Indiau attack oo 557 

Fir^, freat. in New York, 1776. 303 

Fire, areat, ill Ntw Yoik, 1835. 3SI 

Fort Erie. ai«auh on 145 

Fort Erie, sortie of 146 

Fort Pwhi. biock-lioute <T9 

Fort .-^lui, battle near 5id 

FnrtEdwaid, plan of. 569 

Foi. Georpe, no.iceoi 454 

Piaxer. Geiierml. d aib of. 5(»4 

Fmich coloT.y. arctHi'it of. 3M 

French ecilsrainis in Greene County 103 

Fulton, Bobetl, uiKice of 340 






Gardner. Lyoo. notice of 

Garretsoii. Freeliurn. notice of. 

Geiio^iv' Falls 

Gleiiw Fails. 

Gleii«ille. incuraon Into 

Gr«)-.CuliHiH. death uf. 

Giaofer. GMkkMi, epiiapb 

Gieitr. Captain, remarkable preiemiiuo nf. 
Gothic or TeniperuKc HaU. 







Harpaa. WinUun wad Jnlw. hdreoliitca oT- 

HaniUmn. Miss Sally, murder of. 

Uaiiionrs Landhif. 

Hale. Captain Naihu. aoiicc of. 

Hatts orJMrkv. 


HamMoB. Alexander. wHic^ of. 

Uawilion. .^iexairicr. cfiiaiph. 

HamltHn €Mk«e. 





« . 


received the name of Colman's Point ; and which, probably, was the 
name that is now called Sandy Hook. 

" On the 8th, 9th and 10th days of September, Hudson still rode 
cautiously at anchor, without the Narrows, and seems to have been 
chiefly employed in trading; with the natives, and in guarding against 
any insidious attacks which might have been meditated by them, and 
which he evidently feared. On the 11th, he sailed through the 
Narrows, and found, as the writer of the journal expresses it, * a very 
g'^od harbor for all winds.' On the 12th, he first entered the river 
wiiich bears his name, and sailed up about two leagues. On these 
two days the ship was visited by great numbers of the natives, who 
brought Indian com, beans, tobacco, and oysters, it, abundance, and 
exchanged them for such trifles as the ship's company were disposed 
to barter. They had pipes of 'yellow copper,' in which they 
smoked. They had also various ornaments of copjper ; and earthen 
pott, in which they dressed their meat. But, although they were 
' civil,* as the writer of the journal tells us, and ' made show of love,' 
Hudson did not think proper to trust them ; and by no means would 
suflfer any of them to remain on board during the night 

"From the 12th to the 22d of September, Hudson was employed 
in ascending the river. The journal represents it in general about a 
mile wide, and of a good depth, abounding with fish, among which 
were * great store of salmons.' As he advanced, he found the land 
on both sides growing higher, until it became ' very mountainous.* 
This high land, it is observed, * had many points ; the channel was 
narrow, and there were many eddy winds.' In his passage up the 
river, the natives frequently came on board of his ship, and sometimes 
in considerable numbers, but always in an amicable manner. 

" Hudson appears to have sailed up the river a little above where 
the city of Hudson now stands ; and beyond that point, he himself 
never ascended. Not considering it as safe to proceed farther with 
his ship, he sent a boat with five hands, (the mate, who had the 
command of the expedition, being one,) to explore and sound the river 
higher up. The boat proceeded eight or nine leagues beyond where 
the ship lay at anchor ; but finding the soundings extremely irregular, 
and the depth, in some places, not more than seven feet, it was judged 
unadvisable to attempt <my farther progress. Ity evident, from the 
whole account, that tne boat went as far as where the city of Albany 
now stands. 

** It is worthy of notice, that the farther they went up the river, 
the more friendly and hospitable the natives appeared. After they 
had passed the highlands, the writer of the journal observes : * There 
we found a very loving people, and very old men ; and were well 
used.' On the 18th .pi September, when the sh.p was lying about 
twenty-five or thirty mil# below the present situation of Albany, 
* the mate/ it is farther observed, * went on shore with an ola savage, 
a governor of the country, who took him to his house and made him 
good cheer.' At this place the savages flocked on board the ship in 
considerable numbeni bringing with them com, tobacco, p umpkin i, 



and grapes, and some of them beaver and otter skins, which th*ev 
exchanged for hatchets, knives, beads, and other trifles. On the 20tK 
of September, Hudson and his crew, for the purpose of making an 
experiment on the temper of the Indians, attempted to make a number 
of their principal men drunk. But though they * were all merry,* 
as the journalist expresses it, only one of them appears to have been 
completely intoxicated. This phenomenon excited great surprise 
and alarm among his companions. They knew not what to make 
of it, and it was not until the next day, when he had completely re- 
covered, that they became composed. This, so far as we taiow, 
is the first instance of intoxication by ardent spirits^ among the IncC- 
ans on this part of the American continent It is very remarkable that 
among the Six Nations there is a tradition, still very distinctly pre- 
served, of a scene of intoxication which occurred with a company of 

the natives when the ship first arrived On the 22a of^the 

month, confidence on the part of the natives being restored, a number 
of their chiefs came on board the ship as she lay at anchor. This 
interview the writer of the journal describes in the following man- 
ner : * At three o'clock in the afternoon they came on board, and 
brought tobacco and beans, and gave them to our master, and made 
an oration, and showed hirrf all the country round about. Then they 
sent one of their company on land, who presently returned and brought 
a great platter of venison, dressed by themselves ; and they caused 
him to eat with them. Then they made him reverence and departed/ 

** On the 23d of September, Hudson began to descend the river. 
On his way down, his men went frequently on shore, and had several 
very friendly interviews with the natives, who expressed a desire 
that they might reside among them ; and made them an offer of lands 
for that purpose. But when the ship came below the highlands, the 
savages appeared to be of a different character, and were extremely 
troublesome ; especially those who inhabited the western side of the 
river. They attempted to rob the ship, and repeatedly shot at the 
crew with bows and arrows from several points of land. Hudson's 
men discharged several muskets at them, and killed ten or twelve of 
them. In these conflicts, which were frequently renewed during the 
first and second days of October, none of the snip's crew appears to 
have been injured* The land on the eastern side of the river, near 
its mouth, was called by the natives * Manna-hattaJ 

^ On the 4th day of October, (just one month firom the day on 
which he landed within Sandy Hook,) Hudson came out of the river 
which bears his name ; and without anchoring in the bay, immedi- 
ately stood out to sea. By twelve o'clock at noon that day he was 
entirely clear of land. He steered directly-for Europe ; and on the 
9th of November following he * arrived,'jLs the writer of the journal 
expresses it, * in the range of Dartmoutn, Devonshire.' Here the 
journal ends. 

** Whether Hudson immediately landed in Endand, cannot now be 
clearly ascertained ; but it appears that he left that country in April, 
1610, and reached the American coast early in the summer. Ha 

foan discovered the ffreat northern bay which bears his name. There, 
after an unwise deny, he was compelled to pass a distressing and 
dangerous winter. In the spring, in addition to all his other misfor- 
tunes, he found a spirit of dissatisfaction and mutiny growing among 
his crew, and at length manifesting itself in open violence. This 
proceeded so far, that on the 22d of June, 1611, a majority of the 
crew arose, took command of the ship, put Hudson, his son, and seven 
others, most of whom were sick or lame, into a boat, turned them 
adrift in the ocean, and abandoned them to their fate. They never 
were heard of more. 

" Hudson did not give his own name to the river which he discov- 
ered. The Iroquois Indians called it CahohiUatea, The Mahicans, 
Mahakaneghtuc^ and sometimes Shatemuck. Hudson styled it em- 
phatically the 'Great River,' or the 'Great River of the Mountains;' 
no doubt from the extraordinary circumstance of such a body of 
water flowing through the mountains without a cataract. The name 
of its discoverer, however, was early attached to it. I find it familiarly 
called Hudson's river, in some of the public documents of the Dutch 
colonial government ; but more frequently the North river, to dis- 
tinguish it from the Delaware, which was discovered by the same 
navigator, and which being within the territory claimed by the Dutch, 
was called by them the South river. 

** The Dutch immediately began to avail themselves of the advan- 
tage which the discovery of Hudson presented to their view. In 
1610, it appears that at least one ship was sent hither by the East In- 
dia Company, for the purpose of trading in furs, which it is well known 
continued for a number of years to be the principal object of com- 
mercial attraction to this part of the new world. In 1614, a fort and 
trading-house were erected on the spot where Albany now stands, 
and called Fort Orange ; and about the same time another fort and 
trading-house were established on the southwest point of Manhattan 
Island, and called New Amsterdam. The whole colony received 
the name of New Netherlands." — Hist Discourse by Samuel Miller j 
D. D.f vol I, ColL New York Hist Soc. 

In 1621, "the Privileged West India Company" was formed in 
Holland ; this company m 1623 began its operations along the Hud- 
son, with a direct view to colonization. A number of settlers during 
this year were sent out, under the command of Comelis Jacobse Mey^ 
who were most heartily welcomed by the few previous inhabitants. 
Before these arrived they had been two years without supplies, and 
had been obliged to cut up the sails of some of their boats for neces- 
sary clothing. In compliment to Capt. Mey, they named the bay of 
New York rort Mey. During the same year the forts New Amster^ 
dam and Orange were cyecteo, upon the sites of the present cities of 
New York and Albany. ' 

In 1625, the West India Company freighted two ships, in one of 
which Peter Minuit arrived in New Netherland, with a company of 
Waloons, who* settled on Long Island opposite New Amsterdam. 
Minuit is considered by some as the first Gk>vemor or I^edor of 



New Netherland. Subordinate to him, the gradation of authority 
and rank seems to have been: 1. Opper-Koopman ; 2. Onder-Koop- 
man ; 3. Koopman ; 4. Assistant The office of Opper-Koopman^ 
chief-merchant or commissary, was vested in Isaac de Raiser. In 
four or five years the trade with the natives was greatly extended, 
attracting dealers even from the lakes, and from the banks of the St. 
Lawrence near Quebec. 

In 1629, the company adopted a charter of " Liberties and exemp- 
tions for patroons, masters, and private individuals, who should plant 
colonies in New Netherland, or import thither any neat cattle." The 
terms of encouragement to those who should send out settlers, were 
great Such as should undertake to plant a colony of fifty souls, up- 
wards of fifteen years old, were to be acknowledged Patroons^ a name 
denoting something baronial and lordly in rank and means. They 
were allowed to select lands for miles in extent, which should descend 
to their posterity for ever. Under this charter, several directors ol 
the company determined to avail themselves of these privileges, 
among whom were Samuel Goodyn, Samuel Bloemart, Killian Van 
Rensselaer, the Heer Pauw, and Jan de Laet These persons sent 
out Wouter Van Twiller, as agent, to inspect the condition of the 
country, and to purchase the lands of the natives for the purpose of 

Owing to some disturbances in the colony, Minuit was recalled in 
1633, and Wouter Van Twiller was appointed in his place. The 
arrival of Van Twiller, as governor, gave a fresh impulse to the set- 
tlements. During his administration, the controversy occasioned by 
the encroachments of the English was begun. In 1638, William 
Kieft succeeded Van Twiller as ffovemor of New Netherland. In 
1642, he broke up the English settlement on Long Island, and fitted 
up two sloops to drive them out of the Schuylkill, of which they had 
possessed themselves. In 1643, the New England colonies entered 
mto a league both against the Dutch and Indians. In 1646, a severe 
battle was fought on part of Strickland's Plain, called Horse Neck, 
between the Dutch and Indians. There appears not to have been 
any particulars of the action preserved ; but it is said the battle was 
contested with mutual obstinacy, and great numbers were killed on 
both sides. The Dutch ultimately remained masters of the field. 

In 1647, Peter Stuyvesant arrived at Fort Amsterdam, as govern- 
or. He was a brave old officer, and had been commissioned gov- 
ernor-general of Curacoa and the Dutch West Indies. He laid claim 
to all the lands and streams from Cape Henlopen to Cape Cod ; he 
went to Hartford, and demanded a surrender to the Dutch of all the 
lands on Connecticut river. These claims were opposed, and left to 
the decision of arbitrators. Long Island was divided : the eastern 
part was to be held by the English, the western by the Dutch ; to 
the main, the boundaries were amicably adjusted. 

In 1664, Charles II. of England, disregarding the Dutch claim on 
New Netherland, made a grant to his brother, the Duke of York and 
Albany, which included all the mainland of New England, begin- 


nmg at St Croix, ext^iding to the rivers Connecticut and Hudson^ 
*• together with the said river called Hudson's river, and all the lands 
from the west side of Connecticut river, to the east side of Delaware 
Bay.'' In order to enforce this claim of England for the New Nether- 
land, an expedition, consisting of three ships, 130 guns, and six hun- 
dred men, was scmt against it, under the command of Col. Richard 
Nichols. On his arrival at Manhattan, Nichols demanded the sur- 
render of the fort. Gov. Stuyvesant was exceeding loth to surrender 
without an attempt at defence, but the favorable terms offered to the 
inhabitants disposed them to an immediate capitulation. After some 
fruitless negotiation, during which Gov. Stuyvesant pleaded the justice 
of the title of the States-General, and the existing peace between them 
and the English nation, the province was surrendered, August 27th, 
1864, upon the most liberal terms to the vanquished. 

Having taken possession of the country, Nichols assumed the gov- 
ernment, with the title of " Deputy-governor under his royal hiffh- 
ness the Duke of York, of all his territories in America." N^w 
Amsterdam was now called, in honor of the Duke, New York, and 
Fort Orange, Albany. (Jov. Nichols proceeded to erect a Court of 
Assizes, consisting of the governor, council, and justices of the peace 
This court compiled a body of laws, collected from the ancient cus- 
toms and usages, with additional improvements, such as the times 
required, regarding English law as the supreme rule. These ordi- 
nances were sent to England, and confirmea by the Duke of York the 
tbllowing year. 

It is supposed that, at the time Nichols took possession of the 
province, the Dutch inhabitants were about 6000 in number. New 
Amsterdam, the metropolis, it is said, contained about 3000 persons, 
about half of whom returned to Holland. Their habitations, however, 
were soon occupied by emigrants, partly from Great Britain, but 
mostly from New England. Upon Hudson river there were many 
Dutch settlers ; and upon the shores of the Delaware, there were 
numerous plantations of Dutch and Swedes. 

Col. Nichols, after having governed the province about three years, 
resigned his office, and Col. Francis Lovelace was appointed by the 
duke to succeed him. Lovelace assumed the government in 1667, 
and continued his edministration till the colony was re-surrendered 
to the Dutch. Wa/ having been declared against Holland, a small 
squadron was sent over by the Dutch, whteh arrived at Slaten Island 
July 30th, 1673. Lovelace being absent from New York, Captain 
Manning, who had the charge of the town, rejected the aid of the 
Enghsh inhabitants, who offered to defend the place, sent a messenger 
to the enemy, and struck his flag before their vessels appeared in 
sight As the fleet advanced, the garrison showed their willingness 
to fight ; but Manning forbade a gun to be fired, under pain of oeath, 
and surrendered the place unconditionally to the invaders. He was 
afterwards tried by a court-martial, and pleaded guilty to all the 
charges preferred. His sentence was as extraordinary as his con- 
duct ; it was, that, ^ though he deserved death, yet, because he had 


once the surrender been in England, and seen the king and duke, it 
was adjudged that his sword should be broke over his head, in pub- 
lic, before the City Hall ; and himself rendered incapable of wearing 
a sword, and of serving his majesty for the future, in any public trust 
in the government" 

Anthony Clove was constituted the Dutch governor, but he remained 
in the office but a short period. A treaty of peace, in 1674, was 
concluded between the Dutch and English, by which New Nether- 
land was restored to the English. The Duke of York, to remove all 
controversy respecting his property in America, took out a new patent 
from the king, and commissioned Major Edmund Andros " Governor 
of New York, and all his territories in these parts." Andros, as the 
agent of a despotic master, was unpopular to the people under his 
government, and involved himself in disputes with the neighboring 
government of Connecticut 

The province of New York, about the year 1678, contained twenty- 
four towns, villages, and parishes. Fifteen vessels, on an average, 
traded yearly with England, importing English manufactures to the 
value of £50,000 sterling. Its annual exports, besides pease, beet 
pork, tobacco, and peltry, consisted of about sixty thousand bushels 
of wheat The city of New York contained 3,430 inhabitants, and 
owned only three ships, eight sloops, and seven boats. " A trader 
worth £500 was considered a substantial merchant ; and the planter, 
worth half that sum in movables, was accounted rich. All the es- 
tates in the colony were valued at £150,000. Ministers were scarce, 
and religions many. The duke maintained a chaplain at New York, 
which was the only certain endowment of the church of England. 
There were about twenty houses for public worship, of which about 
half were vacant The law made it obligatory upon every district 
to build churches, and provide for their ministers, whose compensa- 
tion varied from £40 to £70 a-year, besides a house and garden. 
But the Presbyterians and Independents, the greater and more sub- 
stantial portion of the inhabitants, only, showed much willingness to 
comply with the requisition. There were no beggars in the province, 
and the poor were well cared for. The militia amounted to 3000, 
inoludinf 140 horsemen ; and some regular troops were maintained 
for the torts at Albany and New Yoric. 

Col. Thomas Dongan arrived at New York, in August, 1683, as 
the successor of Andros in the government He immediately, on the 
request of the magistrates of New York, gave orders that an assem- 
bW should be elected by the freeholders. This assembly, consisting 
of^ a council of ten, and eighteen representatives, convened at Hemp- 
stead on the 17th of October. They passed an act of general natural- 
ijBation ; an act declaring the liberties of the people, or a Bill of Rights ; 
one for defiraying the expense of government ; and a few others, regi^ 
iating the internal af&irs of the province. In 1686, James IL havinir 
come to the throne, on the renewal of Gov. Dongan's commissioL^ 
refused to ooafirm the privileges, granted when he was Duke of Yoriu 

Th^ a^SSevnUv ^"^ ptphii^tJL Ami ArdAm YVAm Tiv^ip iQ TVnUfail tD 


•* suffer no printing-press in his government^ Much disaffection 
arose at this time, among the colonists, on account of the appointment 
of professed Catholics to the principal crown offices. At this period 
there were in the province 4000 foot, 300 horse, and one company 
of dragoons. The shipping, belonging to the city of New York, had 
increased to nine or ten three-masted vessels, of abput 80 or 90 tons ; 
200 or 300 ketches or barks, of 40 tons ; and about twenty sloops, 
of twenty-jfive tons. 

In 1687, the French court aimed a blow, which threatened the 

British interests in North America. M. Denonville, virith 1500 French 

and 500 Indians, took the field against the Senecas, one of the con* 

federated tribes of the ** Five Nations^ who were the friends of the 

English. An action took place near the principal Seneca village, in 

which 100 Frenchmen, ten French Indians, and about eighty of the 

Senecas were killed. Denonville, the next day, marched forward to 

bum the village, but found it in ashes. The Senecas had burnt it, 

and fled. After destroyii^ the com in this and several other villages, 

the French returned to Canada. For this attack, and other outrages 

committed by the French, the confederated Five Nations thirsted for 

revenge. " On the 26th of July, 1688, twelve hundred of their men 

landed on the south side of the island of Montreal, while the French 

were in perfect security, burnt their houses, sacked their plantations, 

and put to the sword all the men, women, and children, vnthout the 

skirts of the town. A thousand French were slain in this invasion, 

and twenty-six carriecl into captivity, and burnt alive. Many more 

were taken prisoners in another attack, in October, and the lower part 

of the island wholly destroyed ; only three of the confederates were 

lost, in all this scene of misery and desolation." Nothing but the 

^orance of the Indians, in the art of attacking fortified places, saved 

Canada from being utterly cut ofi*. 

In 1688, it was determined to add New York and the Jerseys to 
the jurisdiction of New England, and Sir Edmund Andros was ap- 

Kinted captain-general and vice-admiral over the whole. Governor 
>ngan was removed from his office of governor, and Francis Nichol- 
son, who had been lieutenant-governor under him, was appointed in his 
stead. The constitution, established on this occasion, was a legisla- 
tjire and executive governor, and a council, who were appointed by 
the king, without the consent of the people. The news of the acces- 
sion of William and Mary, in 1689, to the throne of England, was 
joyfully received in New York. Ajidros, the tyrant of New Eng- 
umd, was seized at Boston. Jacob Leisler, with forty-nine men, 
seized the fort at New York, and held it for the protestant king and 
queen of England. 

Leister's assumption of the command at New York excited a spurit 
of envy and hatred among many of the people, at the head of whom 
were CoL Bayard and the Mayor, who, unable to make any effectual 
resistance, retired to Albany. A letter arriving froi^ ti^ £ngK«h 
ministry, addressed *' To Francis Nicholson, Esq., or, in his abseni^ 
to such as, for the time being» take care for preserving the peace aiul 


administering the laws in his majesty's provmce of New York, dtc," 
to do every thine pertaining to the office of lieutenant-governor, till 
farther orders — ^Nicholson having absconded, Leisler considered the 
letter as addressed to himself, and accordingly assumed the office of 
governor. The people of Albany, though fnendly to William and 
Mary, refused subjection to Leisler. They were however compelled 
to submit to his authority by an armed force under Milbom, his son- 
in-law. The colonists continued in a state of contention nearly two 
years. Dunne this period, the French and Indians from Canada, in 
1690, surprised Schenectady, and massacred sixty men, women, and 

In 1691, Col. Henry Sloughter arrived at New York, as governor 
of the province ; which was, at this time, by an act of the assembly, 
divided into ten counties. The arbitrary acts of James were repealed, 
and the former privileges of the colonists were restored. Leisler 
and Milbom, having made a foolish attempt to retain their authority, 
were imprisoned on a charge of high treason. They were tried by 
a special commission, and sentenced to suffer death. Gov. Sloughter 
hesitated to command their execution, and wrote to the English min- 
isters for directions how to dispose of them. Their enemies, fearinff 
the result of this ajpplication, made a petition for, and earnestly pressed 
their execution. " The governor resisted, until, having been invited 
by the petitioners to a sumptuous entertainment, he was, when his 
reason was drowned in wine, seduced to sign the death-warrant 
Before he recovered his senses, the prisoners were executed." Slough- 
ter died suddenly, in July, 1691, and ended a short, weak, and turou- 
lent administration. 

Upon the death of Sloughter, the government, pursuant to the late 
act tor declaring the rights of the people, committed the chief comp 
mand to Richard Ingoldsby. His authority was terminated by the 
arrival of Col. Benjamin Fletcher, who arrived with the commissicm 
of governor, in August, 1692. Fletcher is represented as a man of 
violent temper, shallow capacity, and avaricious disposition. He 
made considerable disturbance, by his efforts to establish the Episco- 
pal form of church government in the province. By virtue of a com- 
mission which he held, Fletcher attempted to take the command of 
the militia of Connecticut ; and went to Hartford, in that colon^ 
while the legislature were in session, to compel obedience. While 
•attempting to have his commission read to the train-bands at that 

Elace, Capt. Wadsworth, their senior officer, ordered the drums to 
eat, and told Fletcher, who commanded " silence," that if he was 
interrupted he would " make the sun shine through him." Fletcher 
upon this desisted, and returned to New York, 

Early in 1693, Count Frontenac, with a force of 6 or 700 French 
and Indians, made an incursion into the Mohawk country, and sur- 
prised an Indian village on the river, slew many of the inhabitants, 
and took 300 prisoners. Col. Schuyler hastened to the assistance of 
his allies, and with about 300 Indians, mostly boys, followed the re- 
treating enemy, and several skirmishes ensued. When the French 


reached the noT%L branch of Hudson's river, a cake of ice opportunely 
served them to cross it ; and Schuyler, who had retaken about fifty 
Indians, desisted from the pursuit The French, in this expedition, 
k)8t about eighty men, and such were their suffering, that they were 
compelled to eat their own shoes ; the Iroquois, while in pursuit, fed 
upon the dead bodies of their enemies. In 1696, Frontenac made 
another descent, with a large force, and spread devastation among the 
possessions of the Five Nations. After this expedition, the Indians 
m the English interest continued to harass the inhabitants near Mon- 
treal, and similar parties in the French interest to harass those 
near Albany, until the peace of Ryswick, in 1697. 

In 1698, Richard, Earl of BcUamont, arrived as the successor of 
Fletcher, and his commission included the governments of Massachu- 
setts and New York : and for the latter, he brought with hiiA his 
kJDtman, John Nanfan, as lieutenant-governor. Piracy, at this time, 
prevailed in the American seas to a great extent, and the inhabitants 
of several colonies were accused of giving the pirates aid. The most 
noted of these marauders was a Captain Kidd, the remembrance of 
whom is kept alive by the belief that he buried immense sums of money 
along the coast. To suppress piracy was one of the avowed purposes 
of the king, in selecting a man of the high rank, resolution, and integ- 
rity of the Earl of Bellamont The earl died in 1701, and Nanfan, the 
lieatenant-govemor, assumed the command. Lord Combury was 
i|NK)inted governor the following year. 

Combury began his administration by espousing one of the factions 
in the colony which had its rise from Leisler, who was executed for 
treason* By a series of outrageous acts, he endeavored to establish 
the £pisco]raJ party. He prohibited the Dutch ministers and teach- 
ers from exercising their functions without his special license, and 
imprisoned some oi them for disobeying his orders. This tyrant was 
the grandson of the Earl of Clarendon, and first cousin of the queen. 
** Having dissipated his substance in riot and debauchery, and being 
compelled to fly from his creditors, he obtained from his patron the 
government of New York, which was confirmed by the queen, who 
added the government of New Jersey. His character is portrayed 
as a compound of bigotry and intolerance, rapacity and prodigality, 
voluptuousness *and crueltv, united with the loftiest arrogance and 
the meanest chicane." liis dissolute habits and ignoble manners 
completed the disgust with which he was universally regarded ; and 
when he was seen rambling abroad in the dress of a woman, the people 
beheld with indignation and shame the representative of their sove- 
reign and the ruler of the colony. In 1709, the queen was compelled 
to revoke his commission by the complaints of the people of New 
York and New Jersey. When deprived of his office, his creditors 
put him in prison in the province he had governed, where he remain- 
ed till the death of his father elevated nim to the peerage, which 
entitled him to liberation. 

John, Lord Lovelace, Baron of Hurley, the successor of Combury, 
arrived in the province, December, 1708. The hopes entertained, 

S4 ouTUirx enrroET. 

from his exalted chamcter, of a happy administratiol, were frustrated 
by his death on the succeeding 5th of May. The government now 
devolved upon Richard In^ldsby, lieutenant-TOvemor. His admin- 
istration of eleven months is chiefly distinguished by an unsuccessful 
attempt on Canada. In this attempt, the province of New York dis- 
covered much zeal. Besides raising several companies, she procured 
six hundred warriors of the Five Nations, paid their wages, and 
maintained a thousand of their wives and children at Albany while 
they were in the campaign, at the expense of about twenty thousand 
pounds. In 1710, Colonel Schuyler went to England, to press upon 
the ministry the importance of subduing Canada. The more effectu- 
ally to accomplish this object, he took with him five Indian chiefs, 
who gave Queen Anne assurances of their fidelity, and solicited her 
assistance against their common enemies, the French.* 

Brigadier-general Robert Hunter, a native of Scotland, arrived as 
governor of the province, in June, 1710. -He brought with him three 
Siousand Palatines^ who, in the previous year, had fled to England 
from the rage of persecution in Germany. Many of these persons 
settled in the city of New York, others in Livingston Manor in Co- 
lumbia county, while others went into Pennsylvania. In 1711, the 
assembly of New York, in order to assist the enterprise under the 
command of Colonel Nicholson for the reduction of Canada, passed 
an act for raising troops, restricted the price of provisions, and issued 
10,000/. in bills of credit, to be redeemed by taxation in five years. 
Nicholson mustered at Albany two thousand colonists, one thousand 

* ** The trrival of the five sachems in England, made a great bruit through the whole 
kingdom. The mob followed wherever they went, and small cuts of them were soU 
among the people. The court was at that time in mourning for the death of the Prince of 
Denmark ; these American kings were, therefore, dressed in black underclothes, after the 
Engiish manner ; but instead of a blanket, they had each a cloth mantle 
edged with gold, thrown over all their other garments. This dress was directed by the 
dressers of the play-house, and given by the queen, who was advised to make a show of 
them. A more than ordinary solemnity attended the audience they had of her majesty. 
Sir Charles Gotterel conducted them in two coaches to St James's ; and the Lord Cham, 
berlain introduced them into the royal presence. Their speech on the 19th of April, 1710, 
is preserved by Oldmixon, and is in these words : 

" Great Queen — We have undertaken a long voyage, which none of our predecesson 
could be prevailed upon to undertake, to see our great queen, and relate to her those thingi 
which we thought absolutely for the good of her, and us her allies, on the other side of the 

** We doubt not but our great queen has been acquainted with our long and tedious war, 
in conjunction with her children against her enemies, the French, and that we have been 
as a strong wall, for their security, even to the loss of our best men. We were mightily 
rejoiced when we heard our great queen had resolved to send an army to reduce Caaida ; 
and immediately, in token of friendship, we hung up the kettle, and took up the hatdiet, 
and with one consent, assisted Colonel Nicholson, in making preparations on this aide the 
lake : but at length, we were told our great queen, by some important aifairs, was prefvikted 
in her design at present, which made us sorrowful, lest the French, who had hitherto dreaded 
us, should now think us unable to make war against them. The reduction of Canada ia 
of great weight to onr free hunting ; so that if our great queen should not be mindful of us, 
we must, with our famihes, forsake our country, and seek other habitations, or stand neater, 
either of which will be much against our inclinations. 

** In token of the sincerity of these nations, we do, in their names, present our great 
queen with these belts of wampum, and in hopes of our great queen's favor, leave it to her 
most graejoas conwieintion.** 


Plftlatines, and one thousand Indians, who commenced their march 
towards Canada on the 28th of August. A fleet, under the command 
of Admiral Walker, s^led from Boston with a land force of six thou- 
sand four hundred m&, with the intention of joining Colonel Nich- 
olson before Quebec. The admiral arrived in the St Lawrence 
early in August, but owing to fogs and tempestuous weather, eight or 
nine transports, with about a thousand men, were lost by shipwreck. 
This put an end to the expedition, and the admiral sailed for Eng- 
land. Nicholson, who had proceeded as far as Lake George, was 
compelled to retreat. The peace of Utrecht, signed March, 1713, 
put an end to hostilities, and continued till 1730. 

Governor Hunter, after a wise and popular administration, left the 
jwrovince in 1719, and the command devolved on Colonel Peter Schuy- 
ler. In September, 1720, William Burnet, son of the celebrated Bishop 
Burnet, arrived as the successor of Governor Hunter. His administra- 
tion of seven years was prosperous. Soon after his arrival, for the 
purpose of securing the trade and friendship of the Six Nations, he 
erected a trading-house at Oswego, in the country of the Senecas. 
The great merit of Governor Burnet's administration consisted in his 
efiectual efforts to diminish the trade and influence of the French 
with the northern Indians. He failed, however, in his endeavors to 
prevent the establishment of a French fort at Niagara, by which they 
lecured to themselves the possession of the west end of Lake Ontario, 
as they had previously that of the east by the erection of Fort Fron- 
tinac many years befor^. The persecutions in France at this period, 
which ensued the ^evocation of the edict of Nantz, drove many of the 
protestant subjects of Louis XIV. into foreign countries. Many fled 
to this province. The most wealthy settled in the city : others planted 
New Rochelle on the East river, and a few seated themselves at 
New Paltz in Ulster county. 

In 1728, Colonel John Montgomery received from Governor Bur- 
net the seal of the province, and assumed the government. His short 
administration, terminated by his death in 1731, was one of tranquillity, 
and not distinguished by any important event. During his term, in 
1731, the boundary between New York and Connecticut was finally 
settled ; and a tract of land upon the Connecticut side, of 60,000 
acres, called the Oblongs was ceded to the former in consideration of 
another near the Sound, surrendered to the latter. 

Governor Montgomery was succeeded by Rip Van Dam, the old- 
est member of the council, and an eminent merchant of the city, who 
held the government until August, 1732, when William Cosby ar- 
rived, with a commission to govern this, and the province of New 
Jersey. The French, during this year, erected Fort Frederic at 
Crown Point, which gave to them the command of Lake Champlain. 
The finances at this period were much embarrassed ; while the fre- 
quent calls for supplies imposed a heavy burden upon the colony. 

In 1734, the establishment of a court of equity was agitated in the 
assembly. The governors had previously exercised the oflice of chan- 
cellor, which had at times excited the jealousy, and produced much 



controversy among the colonists. The court party insisted that the 
governor was, ex officio^ chancellor of the colony, while the popular 
party warmly opposed this position. After iJie close of the session, 
there appeared in the paper called " Ttengerk New York Weekly 
Journal," severe animadversions on the government. Several printed 
ballads likewise appeared, which ridicided some of the members of 
the legislature. The governor and council considering the subject 
worthy of notice, voted that the obnoxious numbers of Zenker's 
paper, and two printed ballads, were derogatory to the dignity of his 
majesty's government, and tended to raise sedition and tumult. They 
likewise voted that said papers and ballads should be burnt by the 
common hangman. Zenger was imprisoned for eight months, and 
much ferment was produced in the colony. 

Governor Cosby died in March, 1736. One of his last acts was the 
suspension of Rip Van Dam from his seat as councillor of the pro- 
vince. After Cosby's death, the council immediately convened, and 
George Cl&rke, the senior councillor, next after Rip Van Dam, was 
declared president, and assumed the government. A powerful party, 
however, was formed in favor of Mr. Van Dam, as his suspension 
from the council was by many declared illegal. The sharp contro- 
versy on this point was ended in October, when Mr. Clarke received 
his commission as lieutenant-governor. 

During the administration of Governor Clarke, the colony wai 
embroiled in controversies principally relating to the prerogatives of 
the ffovemor on one hand, and the rights of ihe people on the other. 
In meir second session, 1737, the house departed from their accus- 
tomed mode of proceeding, and instead of voting to take the govern- 
or's speech into consideration, voted that his honor the lieutenant- 
governor be addressed. This address is a remarkable production 
for the times in which it was formed. On the sultject of the revenue, 
the house adopted the following bold and energetic language: 

** The true cauBes of the deficiency in the revenue, we believe are too well known to 
your honor, to make it neceesary for ub to say much on that head. Had the conspicnoos 
loyalty of the inhabitants oli this province met with a suitable treatment in retam, it is not 
unlikely that we should now be weak enough to act like others before us, in being lavish 
beyond our abilities, and raising sums unnecessary to be given, and continued the donation 
like them for a longer time than what was convenient for the safety of the inhabitants ; but 
experience has Fhown the imprudence of such a conduct ; and the miserable conditioo to 
which the province is reduced, renders the raising of large sums very difficult if not imprac- 
ticable. V^e therefore beg leave to be plain with your honor, and hope you will not take it 
amiss when we tell you, that you are not to expect that we will raise sums unfit to be 
raised, or put what we shall raise into the power of a governor to misapply, if we can pn»> 
vent it ; nor shall we make up any other deficiencies than what we conceive are fit and 
just to be paid, or continue what support or revenue we shall raise for any longer time ditn 
one year ; nor do we think it convenient to do even that, until such laws are passed ts we 
conceive necessary for the safety of the inhabitants of this colony, who have repoeed a trmt 
in us for that only purpose, and which we are sure you will think it reasonable we shciiU 
act agreeable to, and by the grace of God, we shall endeavor not to deceive them." 

In 1738, Captain Norris, of the ship Tartar, then lying in the city of 
New York, made application to the mayor for hberty to impress thirty 
seamen to man his vessel. The governor and council ordered tm 
mayor to cause the impreasment to be made. The nuiyor refused to 


mibej the order, and the governor and council prudently declined ta- 
Jdog measures to enforce obedience. At the close of Clarke's admin- 
istration, the finances of the colony were in a depressed condition. 
"^ The duties on negro slaves, wine, rum, brandy, cocoa, and 4ry 
floods, from September, 1741, to September, 1742, amounted to 
£2,197 7s. Ijd. only ; while the expenses of government, for about 
the same period, amounted to upwards of £4,600." 

In 1743, George Clinton, the son of the Earl of Lincoln, was ap- 
pointed to supersede Mr. Clarke as governor of the colony. His 
arrival was highly gratifying to the colonists, and a spirit of harmony 
prevailed. In 1744, war was declared between France and England, 
and great preparations were made on both sides, to carry it on with 
vigor. A similar spirit prevailed in their respective colonies in Amer- 
ica. Large appropriations were made by the assembly of New York 
to carry on the war. In 1745, the English colonies united in an ex- 
pedition against Louisburg, on Cape Breton Island. This important 
ibrtress was surrendered in June. Eight thousand pounds was voted 
by the assembly for the promotion of this enterprise. 

The country north of Albany was kept in a continued state of 
alarm by Indian warriors, who ranged in small parties, marking their 
course by conflagration and indiscriminate slaughter. The Ibrt at 
Hoosic was captured by M. De Yaudreuil, in August, 1746 ; and the 
settlements at Saratoga were surprised, and many of the inhabitants 
killed or carried into caotivity. These events caused much distress, 
and occasioned much a/arm even in Ulster and Orange counties. The 
plan of the war, in 1746, was, that a squadron under the command 
of Admiral Warren, with a body of land forces, should proceed up 
the St Lawrence ; while the troops from New York, and other colo- 
nies at the south, should be collected at Albany, and proceed against 
Crown Point and Montreal. The assembly of New York entered 
with great zeal upon this design : they levied a tax of £40,000, to re- 
deem bills issued for the occasion. In July, a congress of the Six 
Nations was held with the governor, at Albany, who was attended 
by Dr. Colden, Mr. Livingston, and Mr. Rutherford, members of the 
council. The indisposition of the governor prevented him from open- 
ing the council in person, and that duty fell upon Dr. Colden. The 
Indians formally renewed their pledge to unite zealously in the war 
against the French. The efforts of the colonies were, however, 
rendered nearly useless by the failure of the promised assistance from 

In April, 1748, the preliminaries of peace were signed at Aix-la- 
Chapelle, and hostilities soon after ceased. After the close of the 
war, the colony enjoyed a period of general tranquillity. The in- 
habitants vigorously pursued the arts of peace, and by industry, 
economy, and enterprise, repaired, in a great measure, the losses sus- 
tained in the preceding war. In 1750, the entries at New York were 
two hundred and thirty- two, and the clearances tij^o hundred and 
aghty-six. Above six thousand tons of provisions, chiefly flour, were 
exported, betides large quantities of grain. 


Governor Clinton having resigned, Sir Danvers Osborne arrived as 
his successor, in October, 1753. ** Clinton is represented to have been 
mercenary ; to have used every plausible device, for enhancing the 
profits of his government ; to have sold offices and even the rever- 
sions of such as were ministerial ; and to have amassed a fortune, 
during his administration of ten years, of more than £80,000 sterling. 
He became, afterward, governor of Greenwich Hospital." The ad- 
ministration of Sir Danvers Osborne endured but a few days only. 
Five days after his arrival, he was found suspended by the neck in 
the garden of Mr. Murray, with whom he resided. This unfortu- 
nate gentleman is supposed to have committed suicide on account 
of grief for the loss of his wife, and by the embarrassments which 
he apprehended would attend the exercise of his office as gov- 

James de Lancey, who had been appointed lieutenant-governor by 
one of the last acts of Gk)vemor Clinton, on the death of Osborne 
assumed the administration of government. At this period, the Eng- 
lish and French extended their settlements in the colonies, and eacn 
weife anxious to secure the most eligible situations for trading-houses 
and forts. Mutual complaints of aggression were soon followed by 
open acts of hostility. 

In 1754, a convention of delegates from New Hampshire, Massa- 
chusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, and Maryland, 
with the lieutenant-governor and council of New York, was held at 
Albany, for the purpose of uniting upon some scheme for the com- 
mon defence. The plan for a political union, drawn up by Dr. Frank- 
lin, a delegate from Pennsylvania, was adopted on the 4th of July. 
This plan had the singular fortune to be rejected by the provincial 
assemblies, because it gave too much power to the crown ; and, at 
the same time, to be rejected by the crown, because it gave too much 
power to the people. 

In September, 1755, Sir Charles Hardy, a distinguished naval offi- 
cer, arrived in New York with commission of governor. Being 
ignorant of civil afiairs, he put himself into the hands of Mr. De 
JLancey, and was guided altogether by his counsels. Early in the 
spring of this year, the colonies n>ade preparations for vigorous exer- 
tions against the enemy. An expedition was planned against the 
French in Nova Scotia, another against the French on the Ohio, a 
third against Crown Point, and a fourth against Niagara. The first 
expedition resulted in the reduction of Nova Scotia. That against 
the French on the Ohio failed by the defeat of General Braddockf 
who was drawn into an ambuscade of French and Indians near Fort 
daQiiesne. ''^^^^SMM^j^ agamst Crown Point, commanded by 
OSk^^m. Johnsoflj^HMMjIsuccessful in its main object, served, in 
a measure, to dispel ^HP^Hnn occasioned by the defeat of Braddock. 
Governor Shirley, of lif assachnsetts, took the command of the expe- 
dition against JQii^qgara. He advanced to Oswego, where, being poorly 
supplied with provisions, the expedition was abandoned, and the troops 
returned to AlDany. During the winter and spring following, put- 


lauding parties of western Indians committed many atrocities in the 
counties of Orange and Ulster. 

In the plan of operations for the campaign of 1756, Niagara and 
Crown Point, then in pos3ession of the French, were the principal 
points of attack. Owing to the improvidence of Gen. Abercrombie, 
then in command, in the absence of Lord Loudon, nothing of import- 
ance was effected by the English forces. In August, Marquis de 
Montcalm, commander of the French troops in Canada, captured the 
two forts at Oswego, which he demolished, took 1,600 men prisoners, 
with 120 cannon, 14 mortars, two sloops-of-war, 200 boats and bat- 
teaux, with a large quantity of stores and provisions. The campaign 
of 1757 was equally unsuccessful on the part of the English. Fort 
William Henry, on Lake George, with a garrison of 3,000 men under 
Col. Munro, was compelled, after a brave defence, to surrender to 
Montcalm. This event gave the French the command of the lake 
and the western frontier. 

In 1758, the celebrated William Pitt, Lord Chatham, now placed at 
the head of the British ministry, gave a new tone to their measures, 
and a fresh impulse to the colonies. The tide of success was soon 
turned in favor of the English, which continued, with few exceptions, 
till Canada was subjected to their arms. The plan for this year com- 
prehended three expeditions, viz, Louisburgy Ticonderoga, and Fort 
du Quesne. Louisburg surrendered to (Jen. Amherst in July. Gen. 
Abercrombie, with an army of 16,000 men, passed Lake George and 
made an attack on Ticonderoga. After a contest of four hours, he 
was compelled to retire with the loss of nearly two thousand in 
killed and wounded. Abercrombie, after his defeat, sent Col. Brad- 
street, with 3,000 men, against Fort Frorrtenac, on the northeastern 
side of the outlet of Lake Ontario. Bradstreet sailed down the lake, 
landed within a mile of the fort, and in two days compelled it to 
surrender.* The garrison at Fort du Quesne, unsustained by their 
savage allies, on the 24th of November abandoned and burnt this 
fortress on the approach of the British army under Gen. Forbes. 

Great Britain, having resolved to annihilate the French power in 

• The expedition under Col. Bradstreet consisted of the following troops : — Regulars, 
135; Royal artillery, 30 ; New York provincials, 1,112 ; Massachusetts do., 675 ; New Jer. 
sey do., 412 ; Rhode Island do., 318 ;, 300 ; and about 60 rangers ; in all 
3,035. The regulars were commanded by Capl. Ogiivie, and the artillery by Lieut. Brown, 
The New York troops consisted of two detachments. The first commanded by Lieutenant, 
colonel Charles Clinton, of Ulster, amounting in the whole ^o440, under Capts. Ogden, of West, 
ehester, Peter Dubois, of New York, Samuel Bladgely, of Dutchess, and Daniel Wright, oi 
Queens. The second was commanded by Lieutenant^olonel Isaac Corse, of Queens, and 
Major Nathaniel Woodhull, of Suffolk, amounting to 668, under Captains Elias Hand, of Suf. 
folk, Richard Hewlett, of Queens, Thomas Arrowsmith, of Richmond, William Humphrey, 
of Dutchess, Ebcnezer Seeley, of Ulster, and Peter Yates and Goosen Van Schaick, of Al. 
bany. The troops left Fort Stanwix, August 14th, 1758, and the fort capitulated on the 
27lh. The commander of the fort was exchanged for Col. Peter Schuyler. Col. Corse, 
who had distinguished himself in the three preceding campaigns, with a part of his troops, 
Tolunteered to erect a battery, in the night of the 26th, in the midst of the enemy's fire, 
which in the mbming commanded their fort, and led to an imm^dflte surrender. The 
colonel received a slight wound, but not so severe as to unfit him for duty. The detach* 
nant renuned to Fort Stanwix the 10th of September.'* — Gordon' § Gax, of New York, 


America, made adequate preparations for the campaign of 1750, 
The colonies now displayed that zeal with which men pursue their 
interests when animated with well-founded hopes of success. The 
legislature of New York authorized a levy of 2,680 men, and issued 
the sum of £100,000 in bills of credit, bearing interest, and redeem- 
able in 1768, by the proceeds of an annual tax. The impositions, in 
•the space of five months of the year 1759, amounted to 9625,000* 
At the instance of Gen. Amherst, a loan of £150,000 was made to 
the crown, which was paid in specie. 

The contemplated points of attack, in 1759, were TiconderogOf 
Crown Point, Niagara, and Quebec. Gen. Amherst took Ticonde- 
roga, and proceeded to Crown Point, which surrendered without op- 
position. In July, Gen. Prideaux invested Niagara, but was slain by 
the bursting of a cohort in the trenches. The fort was, howeyer, 
captured by Sir William Johnson, who succeeded him in commancL 
On the 13th of September, a severe battle was fought between the 
British forces under Gen. Wolfe, and the French under M ontcabn. 
Both these commanders were killed, the French were defeated, and 
Quebec surrendered to the British arms. In the ensuing spring of 
1760, the French made a fruitless attempt to recover Quebec. On 
the 8th of September, Montreal, Detroit, Michilimackinac, and all 
other places within the government of Canada, were surrendered to 
his Britannic majesty. 

The conquest of Canada, by preventing the incursions of the French 
and Indians into the territory of New i ork, removed a grqij||i»bstade 
to the prosperity of the colony. Gov. De Lancey died suddenly, 
July dOth, 1760. Cadwallader Colden assumed the govemmenty at 
president of the council, and received the appointment of lieutenaot- 

Sovemor in August, 1761. Mr. Colden was superseded by General 
Lobert Monckton on the 26th of October. This gentleman being 
{daced at the head of an expedition against Martmique, on the 15tE 
of November, left the government of the province to Mr. Coldait 
under an agreement for an equal division of the salary and per- 

In 1763, the celebrated controversy with New Hampshire, respect- 
ing boundaries, commenced. The territory in question comprised the 
country between Connecticut river and Lake Champlain, since kno'WB 
as Vermont. The original character of the colonies, owing to in> 
perfect surveys of the country, were many of them extremely indeff 
nite, vague, and often contradictory. A grant was made in 1664 
and 1674, by Charles II. to his brother, the Duke of York, containing, 
among other parts of America, '* all the lands, from the west side ol 
Connecticut river, to the east side of Delaware bay." This territoij 
was, however, by many supposed to fall within the limits of Nev 
Hampshire, although claimed by New York, by virtue of the granif 
•iaaJe to the Duke of York. 

The government of New Hampshire, in 1760, made large graiitr 
'^f land to settlers west of Connecticut, and the settlements progressed 


townships had been granted by New Hampshire, extending as far 
west as the shore of Lake Champlain, and to what was esteemed 
twenty miles east of Hudson river. To check these proceedings. 
Gov. Golden issued a proclamation, claiming jurisdiction as far east 
as Ccmnecticut river. He also commanded the sheriff of Albany 
county to make return of all persons, who, under the New Hampshire 
grants, had taken possession of lands west of the river. In opposi- 
tion to this, the governor of New Hampshire issued a proclamation, 
declaring the grant of the Duke of York to be obsolete, and that 
New Hampshire extended as far west as Massachusetts and Con- 

Application having been made to the crown, a decision was ob- 
tained in 1764, by which the western bank of Connecticut river was 
declared, to be the boundary line between the provinces of New 
llampshire and New York. The government of New York proceeded 
t^ organize the new territory, ana to exercise jurisdiction. The new 
^listrict was divided into four counties. The southwestern part was 
J^nnrrrrl to the county of Albany, and the northwestern part formed 
ixito a county, by the name of Charlotte ; east of the Green Moun- 
were formed the counties of Gloucester and Cumberland. Courts 
held in these counties, the grants of land under New Hamp- 
iBhire were declared illegal, and the settlers required to take out new 
^^arters from New York. Some of the towns complied, and pur- 
their lands the second time, but the greater part refused. Ac- 

^^kms ofi|[|hctment were commenced in Albany against several of the 
«uicient sRtlers, which were decided in favor of the New York titles. 
"When the executive officers came to eject the inhabitants, they gene- 
sniiy met with opposition, and were not allowed to proceed in the 
execution of their offices. The militia were called out to support 
the sheriff; but as they agreed in sentiment with the settlers, they 
<lisbanded themselves on the appearance of armed opposition. As 
the efforts of the government were continued, mobs were raised, the 
opposition of the settlers became more bold and daring, and was fre- 
quently characterized by acts of outrage and violence. 

In 1765, much excitement was produced by the stamp act, passed 
by the British parliament, for the purpose of raising a revenue from 
the colonies. This act ordained tnat all instruments of writing, such 
as deeds, bonds, notes, &c., among the colonies, should be null and 
void, unless executed on stamped paper, for which a duty should be 
paid to the crown. In October, a congress of twenty-eight delegates, 
from Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, New 
Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, and South Carolina, was 
held at New York, to consult on the common interest. They made 
a declaration of the rights and grievances of the colonies, and peti- 
tioned for redress. In Connecticut and New York originated an 
association of persons styling themselves the " Sons of Liherty^^ 
which extended into other colonies, who bound themselves, among 
other things, to march to any part of the continent, at their own ex- 
pense, to support the British constitution in America : by which was 


understood, the prevention of any attempt to cany the stamp act into 

In New York, Peter de Lancey, James M'Evers, and other stamp 
officers, obeyed the public voice, and renounced their commissions* 
Gov. Golden, having taken the oath to execute the stamp act, became 
the object of popular indignation. His effigy was carried about the 
city and hung ; nis carriage and other property were burned ; and 
his person was probably preserved from violence, only by his ad- 
vanced age. Wnen the stamps arrived, they were lodged in the fort, 
which the governor, contrary to the advice of his council, put into a 
state for defence. He was obliged to surrender their custody to the 
city corporation, on the assurance of being responsible for their value, 
and to declare that he would take no measures to enforce the act, but 
leave the subject to his successor, who was hourly expected. Sir 
Henry Moore, Bart., who was commissioned governor in July, 1765, 
met tne council on the 13th of November following, and proposed at 
once to attempt the execution of the stamp act. The unanimous ad- 
vice of his council, and the demonstration of public feeling, induced 
him to a more prudent course. 

Gov. Moore's administration was terminated by his death, in Sep- 
tember, 1769. During his term of service efforts were made, unsuc- 
cessfully, to settle the Doundaries between this province and Massa- 
chusetts, who claimed territory to the Pacific Ocean. Emigrants 
from Massachusetts intruded into the counties along the Hudson, and 
settled even in the manor of Rensselaerwyck. They wer^lHquently 
removed by force, and blood was shed more than once in ^Rttempt. 
Gommissioners from both colonies met at New Haven, October, 1767, 
who agreed that the western line of Massachusetts should be fiaed 
at twenty miles east from Hudson river, but differed as to the man- 
ner in which that line should be determined. 

At the termination of Gov. Moore's administration, the supreme 
court consisted of four judges : Daniel Horsemanden, chief Justice ; 
David Jones, second ; WiUiam Smith, third ; and Robert R. Livings- 
ton, the fourth justice. The first received £300, and the others 
£200 per annum. The salary of the governor had been increased, 
from time to time, to £2,000 per annum, with a perquisite of £400, 
granted as an appropriation for fire- wood and candles for Fort Gteorge. 
The attorney had £150, and the colonial agent, Mr. Gharles, at Lon- 
don, £500 per annum. The colony of New York contained, at this 
period, upwards of one hundred and sixty thousand inhabitants. 

By the death of Sir Henry Moore, the government again devolved 
on Mr. Golden. This his third administration, continued till Novem- 
ber, 1770, when he was superseded by John, Lord Dunmore. With 
the service of this nobleman commenced the practice of paying the 

fovemor by the crown. This practice was afterward denounced 
y most of the colonies as a serious grievance, as it made the govern- 
or independent of the assembly. Dunmore governed the colony until 
his removal to Virginia, when his place was supplied on the 8th of 
July, 1771, by William Tryon, the last of the royal governors. 

84 otrruNE histoet. 

of the " committee of observation.'' It was resolved that a provincial 
congress ought to be speedily assembled, to assume the government 
of the colony, to prepare for defence, &c. It submitted at the same 
time the form of an association, to be signed bv the inhabitants, de- 
claratory of their rights and hberties, and of their determination to 
sustain them. This association was sij^ed by the whigs with great 
cordiality, and by the tories under the tear of, or by actual constraint 
The inhabitants generally began to arise under the direction of com- 
mittees. Six hundred stands of arms were seized in the city arsenal 
and distributed among the people : another parcel was taken firom 
the soldiery by Colonel Willet, when on the way to the harbor to be 
exported to Boston. 

It was deemed of importance, in order to put the country in a pos- 
ture of defence, to secure the fortresses at Ticonderoga and Crown 
Point. On the 10th of May, Colonel Ethan Allen took possession of 
Ticonderoga by surprise : on the same day, Crown Point was sur- 
rendered to Colonel Warner ; a third party surprised Skeensborough, 
(now Whitehall.) The capture of an armed sloop at St. Johns soon 
after, gave to the Americans the entire command of Lake Champlain. 
Governor Tryon, who had been absent on a visit to Europe, returned 
to. New York on the 24th of June. He was much esteemed by 
many of the citizens, and received a complimentary address from the 
city authorities. His exertions to promote the royal cause, soon ren- 
dered him extremely unpopular. In OcAber, he became alarmed for 
his personal safety, and retired on board of the Halifax paak|t 

On the 22d of May, 1776, a provincial congress, consistin^^f about 
seventy members, convened at New York. The proceedings of the 
convention were determined by counties ; New York having four, 
Albany three, and each of the others two votes. Two regiments 
were authorized to be levied ; bounties were offered for the manufac- 
ture of gunpowder and muskets in the province ; fortifications were 
projected at Kingsbridge, and the Highlands ; and Philip Schuyler 
and Richard Montgomery were recommended, the first as major- 
general, the second as brigadier, to be appointed by the continental 

Upon the adjournment of the congress, in September, for a month, 
they delegated their powers to a ** Committee of Safety ;" and this ex- 
pedient was resorted to upon every subsequent adjournment Ordina- 
rily, this committee was composed of three members from the city, 
and one from each of the other counties. When on the re-assembling 
of the congress, and at other times, a quorum was not present, the 
members resolved themselves into a ** committee of safety," and thus 
the public business was never interrupted. The committee was em- 
powered to execute the resolves of the provincial and general con*- 
gresses, to superintend the military affairs of the province, to appro*- 
priate money for the public service, and to convene the congress 
when and where they deemed necessary. 

While General Washington was enj^aged u unganizing the main 


cioo was planned against Canada^ the conunand of which was assign- 
ed to Generals Schuyler and Montgomery. General Schuyler having 
retired on account of ill health, Montgomery, with a force of one 
thousand men, proceeded to Montreal, and from thence led h.s gallant 
little army to (Quebec During his progress. Colonel Arnold, with a 
boldness and perseverance rarely surpassed, passed up the Kennebec 
river and pursued his course through a trackless wilderness of three 
hundred mdes, and joined Montgomery at Quebec. On the last day 
of the year, (1775,) General Montgomery, with a force of less than 
eight hundred, attempted to take Quebec by storm. This brave com- 
mander fell in the assault, and the Americans were repulsed with the 
loss of about half their number. Arnold, now in the command, en- 
camped about three miles from Quebec, where he maintained his 
position till spring. He was afterward compelled to make a disas- 
trous retreat, and by the 1st of July the whole army was driven from 

Congress being informed that a large number of the inhabitants of 
Tryon county were disaffected to the American cause, and, under the 
direction of Sir John Johnson, were making military preparation, re- 
solved to disarm them. General Schuyler, to whom this business 
was committed, in January, 1776, called out seven hundred of the 
Albany militia, and commenced his march. But such was the enthu- 
siasm of the people that, on his arrival at Caghnewaga, his force 
amounted to near three thousand, including nine hundred of the 
Tryon qo^anty militia. The approach of this formidable body awed 
the rojWsts into submission. The whole number disarmed was 
supposed to amount to about six hundred. About the same time, a 
considerable number were entrenching themselves on Long Island, 
in order to support the royal cause. A detachment of the Jersey 
militia was sent over, by whom they were disarmed, and their lead- 
ers secured. 

The fourth provincial congress convened at White Plains on the 
&th of July. This body took the title of " The Representatives of the 
State of Hew York^ and exercised all the powers of sovereignty, 
until the establishment of the government under the constitution. On 
the first day of their meeting, they received from the continental con- 
gress The JDeclaration of independence. They immediately passed 
an unanimous resolution, fully approving of the measure, and express- 
ing their determination at all hazards to support it. The convention, 
on the 16th of July, on the motion of Mr. Jay, declared that all per- 
sons abiding in the state, and who were entitled to the protection of 
the laws, wno should aid or abet its enemies, should on conviction 
suffer death. 

In 1776, it was expected that the enemy would make New York 
their principal point of attack. Gen. Washington arrived in the city 
on the 14th of April, and great exertions were made for putting the 
place in a posture of defence. On the 22d of August, Lord Howe 
landed a force, estimated at 24,000 men, on Long Island, at Gravesend 
bay. The Awfiricws, JTOQ^nting tp 15,000, un^der the command of 


Gen. Sullivan, were encamped on a peninsula near the village of 
Brooklyn. On the 27th, an obstinate battle was fought, and the Ameri- 
cans were compelled to retire to their entrenchments with great loss. 
On the night of the 30th, a safe retreat was effected from the island. 
On the 15th of September, the British took possession of New York, 
the American troops having retired to Harlaem and King's Bridge. 
A few days after the British took possession, a fire broke out, in which 
about one thousand houses were destroyed, being about one fourth 
part of the city. 

A large proportion of the distinguished and wealthy inhabitants of 
the city of New York, and many m the adjacent country, were loy- 
alists, and, of course, enemies to American independence. On the 
arrival of the British army, the disaffected in this part of the state 
and the neighboring parts of New Jersey, embodied themselves under 
officers selected by tnemselves. Oliver de Lancey was appointed a 
general, with authority to raise a brigade of tories, and a like com- 
mission was given to Courtland Skinner, of New Jersey. These 
troops committed many murders and robberies on both sides of the 
Hudson river, but more especially in Westchester county. The pro- 
vincial congress now adopted energetic measures. The " Council of 
Safety" were empowered to send for persons and papers, and to em- 
ploy military force. By its dread power numerous arrests, imprison- 
ments, and banishments, were made throughout the state. Many 
tories and their families were sent into New York, others expelled the 
state, others required to give security to reside within pipescribed 
limits ; and occasionally the jails, and even the churches, were crowded 
with its prisoners, and many were sent for safe-keeping to the jails 
of Connecticut. The personal property of those who had joined the 
enemy was confiscated. 

The American army being in point of numbers greatly inferior to 
that of the British, General >Vashington drew off the main body of 
his army from York Island, and encamped at White Plains. Lord 
Howe advanced upon him with 15,000 men. An engagement ensued 
on the 28th of October, but no decisive advantage was obtained ; the 
Americans retired to a strong position on the heights of North Cas- 
tle, which the enemy declined to attack. General Washington, leav- 
ing about 7,500 men under General Lee to defend North Castle, 
crossed the Hudson and continued his retreat to the southward. The 
American army continuing to retire from New York, Sir William 
Howe embraced the opportunity of reducing Fort Washington and 
Fort Lee, on the Hudson. While these operations were gomg on in 
the southern part of the state, the northern division of the army, under 
General Gates, was engaged at the north in putting Ticonderoga in 
a state of defence, and made preparations to secure the command of 
Lake Champlain. General Arnold, who commanded the American 
fleet, being pursued, was obliged to blow up his vessels, and, afler 
firing the fortress at Crown Point, retreated to Ticonderoga. The 
British general, Carlton, after reconnoitering the latter place, deemed 
it prudent on the approach of winter to return to Canada. 


New Hampshire grants. General Stark collected the militia in that 
vicinity, and an obstinate engagement took place, in which the British 
were totally defeated. On the 3d of August, St. Leger, with about 
1,800 men, invested Fort Schuyler, under the command of General 
Gansevoort He had a severe conflict with General Herkimer, who 
was advancing to the relief of the garrison, and was obliged to aban- 
don the siege and return to Montreal. General Burgoyne, having 
advanced as far as Saratoga, found himself surrounded by a brave 
army, from which he endeavored in vain to efiect a retreat. In this 
extremity, on the 17th of October, he was compelled to surrender his 
whole army, consisting of more than 5,700 men, to General Gates. 

During the operations at Saratoga, Sir Henry Clinton, with three 
thousand men, proceeded up the Hudson, with the view of effecting 
a diversion in favor of Burgoyne. On the 6th of October, he made 
an attack on forts Montgomery and Clinton. These works were car- 
ried at the point of the bayonet, but most of the garrisons escaped. 
Forts Independence and Constitution were evacuated, and General 
Putnam, who had the command on the Hudson, retreated to Fishkill. 
General Tryon on the following day burned Continental Village, 
where considerable stores were deposited ; General Vaughan with a 
strong detachment, proceeding up the river, devastated the settle- 
ments along its banks, burned the village of Kingston, and then em- 
barked for New York. 

In the campaigns of 1778 and 1779, nothing decisive was effected ; 
the British engaged in no enterprise of much importance, and appear 
to have aimed at little more than to plunder and devastate the unpro- 
tected parts of the country. Many acts of cruelty were committed, 
and a great amount of pubhc and private property destroyed. The 
main body of the American army was concentrated near West Point, 
for the protection of that important fortress. General Clinton, having 
seized the works at Verplanck's Neck and Stoney Point, Genersu 
Washington formed a design for their recovery. The reduction of 
the fortress at Stoney Point by Gen. Wayne, by assault, on the 16th 
of July, 1779, was one oFthe most bold and daring enterprises which 
occurred during the war. 

The Indians of the Six Nations (with the exception of the Oneidas 
and a few others) had been induced by the presents and promises of 
Sir John Johnson, and with the desire of plunder, to invade the fron- 
tiers, and wherever they went they carried slaughter and devasta- 
tion. To put a stop to these incursions, congress, in August, 1779, 
sent General Sullivan with an army against them. Sullivan, with a 
force of 3,000 men, marched from Easton, Pennsylvania, to Tioga 
Point, where he was joined by General Clinton, who marched from 
the Mohawk with a force of about one thousand men. The Indians 
collected their forces, and took a strong position near Newtown, Tioga 
county, determining to resist the advance of Sullivan. They stood 
a cannonade for more than two hours, during which time they repelled 
several assaults ; they were, however, compelled to give way and 
abandon their works. Grenerals Sullivan and Clinton penetrated witb* 


which progressed with astonishing rapidity. Commerce, also, expe- 
rienced' a rapid revival on the return of peace. In 1791, the exports 
to foreign ports amounted to above two million five hundred thousand 
dollars. In 1793, six hundred and eighty-three foreign vessels, and 
one thousand three hundred and eighty-one coasting vessels, entered 
the port of New York. 

Tne controversy relative to the New Hampshire grants still con- 
tinued. Frequent application had been made by both parties to the 
general congress for the interference of that body, but no decisive 
result was obtained. In 1789, the legislature passed an act in order 
to settle this controversy, and acknowledging the territory as an in- 
dependent state. Commissioners were mutually appointed, and in 
1790, after a controversy of twenty-six years, the subject was brought 
to an amicable adjustment In 1791, the new state was admitted into 
the Union, with the name of Vermont 

In 1786, the state of New York, to quiet or put at rest certain an- 
tiquated claims of Massachusetts to a portion oi her territory, granted 
that state large tracts of vacant lands. These lands consisted of two 
parts : one part comprehended all that part of the state lying west 
of a line beginning at the north at the mouth of Great Sodus bay, 
on Lake Ontario, and running thence southerly to the north line of 
Pennsylvania, except one mile on the east side of Niagara river, and 
the islands in that stream. This tract consisted of six millions oae 
hundred and forty-four thousand acres, and was called the Genesee 
Country. The other tract comprehended ten or twelve townships, 
of six square miles each, embraced in the counties of Broome and 
Tioga. These cessions embraced about 10,000 square miles, nearly 
one fourth of the state, New York ceding every thing, save sove- 
reimity, to Massachusetts without an equivalent The government 
of Massachusetts sold the first tract to Oliver Phelps and Nathaniel 
Gorham, for one million of dollars, and the other to John Brown 
and others, for three thousand three hundred dollars and some cents. 

The *^ Military Lands, * as they were called, were set apart by the 
legislature, in 1782, for the officers and soldiers of the state of New 
York, who should serve in the army of the United States till the end 
of the war, according to law. The military tracts contained about 
one million eight hundred thousand acres, comprehending, generally 
speaking, the counties of Onondaga, Cortlandt, Cayuga, Tompkins, 
^M Seneca, and parts of the counties of Oswego and Wayne. Pre- 
vious to the cession made to Massachusetts, and the grant made to 
the soldiers, the Indian title was not extinguished. Messrs. Phelps 
and Gorham, and the government of New York, had to extinguish 
these before settlements could be made. The first permanent settle- 
ment made in the western territory was by Hugh White, in 1784, in 
company with four or five families from Connecticut, who seated 
themselves at Whitestown, near Utica. 

A party of emigrants, in 1790 or 1791, made a road through the 
woods from the settlements of Whitestown to Canandaigua. Emigra- 
tion now increased from year to year. The winter was the season 


aid from the congress of the United States. De Witt Clinton and 
Governeur Morns were appointed to lay the subject before the gen- 
eral government. They proceeded to Washington, and presented a 
memorial to congress ; but were unsuccessful in their application to 
that body for assistance. In March, 1812, the commissioners again 
made a report to the legislature, and insisted that now sound pohcy 
demanded that the canal should be made by the state on her own 
account. The subject was, however, soon after suspended by the 
breaking out of the war with Great Britain. 

War having been declared in 1812, the attention of the Americans 
was early directed to the invasion of Canada, and troops to the num- 
ber of eight or ten thousand were collected along the line for this 
purpose. They were distributed into three divisions ; the northwests 
em army, under General Harrison ; the army of the centre^ under 
General Stephen Van Rensselaer, at Lewiston ; and the army of the 
north, in the vicinity of Plattsburg, under General Dearborn, the 
commander-in-chief. Great exertions were also made in preparing a 
naval force u|)on the lakes, the command of which was intrusted to 
Commodore Chauncey. About the 1 st of October, Commodore Chaun- 
cey, with a body of seamen, arrived at Sacketts Harbor ; several 
schooners which had been employed as traders on the lake were 
purchased, and fitted out as vessels of war. Lieutenant Elliot was 
despatched to Black Rock, to make arrangements there for building a 
naval force superior to that of the enemy on Lake Erie. 

On the 13th of October, a detachment of one thousand men under 
Colonel Van Rensselaer crossed the Niagara river at Lewiston, and 
attacked the British on the heights of Queenston. They succeeded 
in dislodging the enemy, but not being reinforced from tne American 
side, as was expected, were afterward repulsed, and compelled to 
surrender. During the ensuing winter, the operations of the war on 
the New York frontier were mostly suspended. Some skirmishing 
took place along the St. Lawrence ; but the opposing enemies being 
divided by a barrier of ice, not sufficiently strong to admit of the 
transportation of artillery, no enterprise of importance was attempted. 
In April, 1813, General Dearborn made dispositions for a descent 
upon York, the capital of Upper Canada. The enterprise was com- 
mitted to a detachment of one thousand seven hundred men, under 
^|#command of General Pike, assisted by the fleet under the com- 
-, ^mnd of Commodore Chauncey. General Pike was killed in the 
^.. ' attack, but the place, with large quantities of military stores, fell into 
the hands of the Americans. Commodore Chauncey having returned 
r with the fleet to Fort Niagara, it was immediately resolved to make a 
descent upon Fort George, situated upon the opposite shore. An 
attack was made on the 27th of May, and after a short contest the 
place fell iiito the hands of the Americans. 

During these operations of the Americans, several enterprises were 
undertak^n.'by t^he enemy. About the last of May, a detachment of 
about on^'linicand British soldiers, under Sir George Prevost, made 
an attaq|i^moacketts Harbor, but w^e repulsed with considerable 


loss. On the 10th of September, Commodore Perry captured the 
British fleet on Lake Erie. The operations on Lake Ontario were 
less decisive. During the latter part of summer and autumn, frequent 
skimaishes took place, but no important advantage was obtained by 
either party. After the victory on Lake Erie, great preparations 
were made for the conquest of Montieal. This object was to be 
eflfected by two divisions under Generals Wilkinson and Hampton, 
who were to effect a junction on the St. Lawrence. The division 
under Wilkinson moved down the river early in November ; on the 
1 1th, a severe but indecisive engagement with the enemy took place 
at Williamsburg. General Hampton made a short incursion into 
Canada, but no junction was effected. The enterprise against Mon- 
treal was abandoned, and the troops retired to winter quarters at 
French Mills, near St. Regis. Fort George was evacuated and blown 
up by the Americans. In December, the British crossed over above 
Fort Niagara, and took that place by storm. After the capture of the 
fort, they proceeded up the river and burnt Lewiston, Youngstown, 
Manchester, and the Indian village of Tuscarora. On the 30tn, a de- 
tachment of the British crossed over near Black Rock. They were 
feebly opposed by the militia, who soon gave way, and were totally 
routed. Having set fire to Black Rock, the enemy advanced to 
Buffalo, which mey laid in ashes, thus completing the desolation of 
the Niagara frontier. 

Early in July, 1814, Fort Erie was taken by the Americans, and 
during the same month sanguinary battles were fought at Chippewa 
and Bridgewater. On the 11th of September, Sir George Prevost, 
with an army of fourteen thousand men, made a descent upon Platts- 
burg, and aner a severe engagement was compelled to retire with 
great loss. The British fleet, under Commodore Downie, was cap- 
tured by Commodore Macdonoueh, on the same day. The war 
was terminated by the treaty of Ghent, signed by the commissioners 
of both countries, December 24th, 1814, and ratified by the president 
and senate on the 17th of the following February. 

On the termination of the war, the consideration of the great plan 
for the internal navigation of the state was resumed. During the 
session of 1817, a memorial was presented, signed by upwards of 
one hundred thousand citizens, calling upon the legislature to, pass 

laws for the commencement and execution of the proposed cnals. 
An act was accordingly passed, and large appropriations ma<Mlil">^ 
this purpose. The Erie and Champlain canals were immediately "^ 

commenced and vigorously prosecuted. The Erie canal, from.^1- 
bany to Buffalo, was completed in 1825, at an expense of about tj|j|ht 
millions of dollars, and is one of the most magnificent works of the 
kind ever constructed. The Champlain canal, seventy-one miles in 
length, was completed in 1823, at an expense of $875,000. 

m 1817, Governor Tompkins was chosen vice-president of the Uni- 
ted States, and De Witt Clinton was elected to succeed him as gov- 
ernor of New York. In 1822, Mr. Clinton declining a re-election, he 
was succeeded by Joseph C. Yates. During this year, (1822,) the. 


constitution of the state having been revised by a convention at 
Albany the preceding year, was accepted by the people in January. 
In 1824, De Witt Clinton was again re-elected to the office of gov- 
ernor. He died suddenly, February 11th, 1828, and the duties of his 
office devolved on Nathaniel Pitcher, the lieutenant-governor. Mar- 
tin Van Buren was next elected governor. He entered on the duties 
of the office on the 1st of January, 1829, which, after holding for three 
months, he resigned. He was succeeded by Enos T. Throop, who 
exercised the office of governor from 1829 to 1833, when he was 
succeeded by William L. Marcy. Governor Marcy was succeeded 
in the office of governor by William H. Seward, in 1837. - 


Albany County was originally organized in 1683; but its limits 
have since been greatly altered. In the year 1768, there were but 
ten counties in tne state, viz: New York, Westchester, Dutchess, 
Orange, Ulster, Albany, Richmond, Kings, Queens, and Suffolk. 
This county then embraced the whole of the territory of New York 
lying north of Ulster and west of the Hudson river, as well as all 
northward of Dutchess on the east side of the Hudson. Its greatest 
length now is 28, and greatest breadth 21 miles. The surface and 
soil are very much diversified. Along the Hudson are alluvial flats, 
nowhere exceeding a mile in width, susceptible in some places of 
high cultivation. From these flats, the surface rises abruptly 140 
feet, and thence gradually westward to the mountains. On the Mo- 
hawk, the land is broken, rugged, and naturally sterile ; on the west 
are the Helderberg Hills, precipitous and craggy, with a soil of cal- 
careous loam. Centrally the county consists of undulating grounds 
and plains, with small marshes and tracts of cold, wet sands and 
clay, but which of late years have been greatly fertilized by gypsum, 
converting the piney and sandy desert into fragrant clover and fruit- 
ful wheat fields. Still, large tracts in this county are unimproved 
an^erhaps unimprovable ; but the greater portion is productive of 

# "^Hit, of which a large surplus is annually sent to the New York 

* market The country is well watered by streams which, flowing 
frqm the highlands, empty into the Hudson, affording valuable hy- 
drwlic power. This county is divided into ten towns. Population 
in 1840 was 68,536. 

Albany, the capital of New York, and the oldest city in the Uni- 
ted States, lies in 42° 39' 3" N. Lat, and 3° 12' E. Lon., from Wash- 
ington. It received its present name in the year 1664, in honor 
of James, duke of York and Albany, who afterward mounted the 
throne of Ekigland as James II. Its original Indian name was 
Scagh-nMgh-im^t «gnifyi&g» ** Vib 9nd of tke piM tvoods^" and this 


name for the same reason was applied by the aborigines to the site 
of the city of Schenectady, where it is yet retained with a shjght va- 
riation in the orthography. The Dutch named Albany "Beaver- 
wyck,'' [i. e. Beaver-town,] and afterward, " Willemstadt." It was 
never known as Fort Orange, or Urania, as has been asserted ; but 
the fort only was called Fort Orange.* Albany was probably never 
visited by a white man till Sept., 1610, when Hendricke Chry stance, 
who was sent up the river by Henry Hudson to explore the country, 
first landed here; and as far as can be learned from tradition and 
some documentary evidence, he landed somewhere in the present 
North Market street In that or the succeeding year, a party of 
the Dutch built a blockhouse on the north point of Boyd's Island, a 
short distance below the Albany ferry. 

This house was erected for a two-fold purpose ; first, to open a 
trade with the Indians for furs; the next, to secure themselves against 
any sudden attack from the savages. But it was soon demolished, 
for the next spring's freshet and ice swept the whole of it away. 
This party then chose a hill, subsequently called " Kiddenhooghtenf'\ 
within two miles of Albany, for the erection of another trading- 
house. The Indians called this hill " Ta-wass-a-gun-shee," or the 
** Look-out Hill." Not long afterward, this spot was abandoned, 
and a tnore convenient post selected. The place last chosen was in 
the vicinity of the house now called " Fort Orange Hotel," in South 
Market street. The Dutch there erected a Fort, " mounting eight 
stone pieces '*X and called it " Fort Orange.** 

Until after the year 1625, the Dutch did not contemplate making 
any permanent settlements in this state. They merely visited the 
country in the autumn and winter, with a view to the fur trade 
with the Indians, returning in the spring to Holland, or " Vader- 
landt." But in that year, the Dutch West India Company first en- 
tertained the idea of colonizing their newly discovered territories in 
America, and accordingly offered large appropriations of land to 
such families as should " settle" in their colony of New Netherlands. 
This soon brought many over, and from that period till 1635, several 
of our most respectable Dutch families arrived ; among them were the 
ancestors of the Van Schelluyne, Quackenboss, Lansing, Bleeker, 
Van Ness, Pruyn, Van Woert, Wendell, Van Eps, and Van Rensse- 
laer families. 

It does not appear that any stone or brick building was erected 
here (the fort excepted) until the year 1647, when, according to 

• For moat of the statementB ^ven respecting the early history of Albany, the authors 
are indebted to the " Historical Reminiscences,*' publjshed in the American Journal, 1835. 

T Kiddenhooghten, or Kidds-heighU or hillf received its name about the year 17U1; and, 
according to tradition, in memory of the pirate Kidd^ so celebrated " in song and story," 
who it is supposed concealed fwuch of his ill-gotten treasure in the vicinity. It is, however, 
doubted whether Kidd ascended the Hudson as far as Albany. 

X According to Mr. Vander Kempt, the translator of our Ehitch records, they were called 
•• Stien^estucken,** or stone pieces, because they were loaded with stone instead of iron 
6aW. They were formed of long and strong iron bars, longitudinally laid, and bound with 
iron hoops, and wera of immenaa caliber. 


a " letter from Commissary De la Monlagnie" to the Dutch gor- 
emor at New Amsterdam, (New York.) a stone building was erected 
near the fort, and he complains of the "enormous hbalions" upon 
the occasion of celebrating its completion : " No less" (he says) 
" than 8 ankers (128 gallons) of brandy were consumed." 

About 100 years since, Albany was protected against sudden ii^ 
nipttons from the Indians by the erection of palisades,* part of the 
remains of which ^ere visible within the last forty years. Barrack 
(now Chapel) street, was the principal place for business. The gov- 
ernment of the city was extremely rigid, and often cruel ; it bore 
the character more of a military despotism than that of a civil po- 
lice ; hoavy penalties were imposed for the least infraction of the 
laws regulating the trade with the Indians, and many families conse- 
quently ruined. This severity drove some of the "traders" to the 
Schenectady flats, where they intercepted a considerable portion of 
the fur on its way to Albany, and which occasioned for many years 
the most bitter animosities between the inhabitants of both places. 
The circulating medium then in use consisted principally of seviant, 
or wampum. 

Mmisters of the reformed religion were regularly sent out from 
Holland to the colonv. In 1657, the Rev. Gideon Schaats sailed 
from Amsterdam for tkis colony, and about the same time thcDutch 
West India Company wrote a letter, stating that they would send a 
bell and a pulpit, " for the inhabitants of Fort Orange, and of the vil- 
lage of Beaverwick, for their newly constructed little church." In 

Ancient Dutch Church, Albany, 

1715, this church became loo small for the congregation, and the 
proprietors adopted a singular mode of enlarging it. Beyond and 
on every side of the ancient building, they sunk a new stone wall ; 

■ Thew palisidM cannated of Iwse pigcei of tim 
diiven eodwiae into ihe grmuul, ud auB m opani 
which wars cluwd at oigfat. 


this foundation they raised a larger structure. Having thus com- 
jpletely enclosed the first church, they took it down and removed the 
-^hole, with only the loss of public worship for three sabbaths. The 
-mew edifice, which had been constructed in this manner, was one 
0tory high, of Gothic appearance, having its windows richly oma- 
-snented with coats of arms. This church, of which the preceding en- 
graving is a representation, stood about ninety-two years in the open 
area formed by the angle of State, Market, and Court streets. It 
'was taken down in 1806, and the stone of which it was constructed 
^as used in the erection of the South Dutch Church, between Hud- 
son and Beaver streets. * Fort Orange, on the river bank, appears to 
have been but a slight fortification. In 1639, a complaint was 
made by the commandant of the fort to Gov. Stuyvesant, stating 
** that the fort was in a miserable state of decay, and that the hogs 
had destroyed a part of it,'* A later work built of stone was erected 
on the river hill, at the west end of State-street. The EngLsh Church 
was just below it, at the west end of a market. 

As has been stated, the government of Beaverwick, or Albany, 
while under the Dutch rule was rigid and arbitrary. It was in the 
hands of three or more " commissaries," appointed by the governor 
and council, who usually held their offices for one year. Without the 
pennission of the commissaries, no one was allowed to build houses, 
buy or sell, or to establish manufactories, stores, shops, taverns, or 
beer-bouses. In 1647, Jan La Battie applied for permission "to 
build a brewery," which was granted " on his paying yearly six beav- 
^Sf a duty of perhaps of about eighty dollars. The duties were 
generally farmed out, or sold at auction ; and during this year and 
several years afterward, the duties on beer in Beaverwick exceeded 
^^ght hundred dollars. The fines imposed for the violation of ordi- 
nances were generally distributed in the sentence in this way : " one 
^fd to the church, one third to the public, and one third to the 

" I^rofeasor Kalm, who visited Albany in 1749, has left us some facts. All the people 
j^f n Understood Dutch. All the houses stood gable end to the street ; the ends were of 
^^^*^« and the side walls of planks or logs. The gutters on the roofe went out almott to 
Uie ciiiddle of the street, greatly annoying travellers in their discharge. At the stoopes 
(Pof ches) the people spent much of their time, especially on the shady side ; and in the 
®'®niug8 they were filled with both sexes. The streets were dirty by reason of the cattle 

'^^'J^^^Bing their free use during the summer nights. They hacL no knowledge of stoves, 

5?^ ^heir chinmies were so wide that one could drive through them with a car^ and horses. 
A^y people still made wampum to sell to Indians and traders. Dutch manners every. 

^"^r^ prevailed ; but their dress in general was after the English form. They were re- 

^"'^^d as close in traffic ; were very frugal in their house economy and diet. Their 
^*^cn were over-nice in cleanliness, scouring floors and kitchen utensils several times a 

rpf ^K ; rising very early and going to sleep very late. Their servants were chiefly negroes. 

i.^^fX' breakfast was tea without milk, using sugar by putting a small bit into the mouth. 

f j^ir dinner was buttermilk and bread ; and if to that they added sugar, it was deemed 

«eU<iiou8 »__ jp-^^„.. Sketches of Olden Times in New York, • 

-^bany was incorporated as a city, under Governor Dongan's 
'^^^Tiinistration, in 1686. The charter limits were one mile on the 
'^'^er, and extended northwest to the north line of the manor of Rens- 
•^^aer, and retaming that width thirteen and a half miles ; the fee simple 


of wliich was vested in the corporation. Its bounds were enlarged 
by the addition of part of the small town of Colonic, in 1815, which 
now forma the fifth ward. The government of the city is now lodged 
in a mayor, recorder, ten aldermen, and ten assistant aldermen, who 
are annually elected on the first Tuesday of May, The plat on which 
the cAy is built is uneven. A low alluvial flat extends along the river 
from fifteen to one hundred rods wide ; west of which rises abruptly 
a hill of clay and aand, in the first half mile one hundred and fifty- 
three feet, and in the next about sixty-seven feet high ; from ttus 
summit the country extends in nearly an even plain to Schenectady. 
The position of Albany, necessarily makes it a greet thoroughfare. 
The completion of the canals has given it a great commerciiU im- 
portance, makbg it the entrepot for a great proportion of the pro- 
ducts destined for the New York ma^cet. To accommodate this 
trade, a basin has been constructed by the citiEens on the river, in 
which all the northern and western canal boats are received. It 
consists of part of the river included between the shore and a pier 
eighty feet wide, and four thousand three hundred feet long. The 
pier contains about eight acres, on which stores have been built, and 
where immense quantities of lumber and other articles of trade are 
deposited. The basin has an area of thirty-two acres. 

State and City Halls, Albany. 

The above is a west view of the State and City Halls, the fronta 
of which face the Academy Park, a small section of which appears 
on the left. The building on the right is the City Hall, constructed 
of white marble, hewed out by the state prisoners, at Sing Sing, and 
distinguished above all other edifices in this country by its gilded 
doffw, like the Invalides at Paris. It was completed in December, 1832. 
In the rotunda of this building there is a statue of Hamilton, a copy 
4>f that by Greenqugh, in the Merchants' Exchange, destroyed by tne 
great fire in New York, in 1835, There are also two designs in bass- 
relief, executed by W. Coffee, at the cost of the citizens, commemora- 
tive of De Witt Clinton and Sir Walter Scott A bust of each if 


introdoced in thedesigua; that of Clinton ia surrounded by figures, 
representing Commerce, Agriculture, Science, a canal lock, &c. ■ The 
bust of Scott is accompanied with a female figure, presenting a volume 
inacribed " Marmion ;" the words " Minstrel and " WaverTy" appear 
on a scroti below ; the Genius of History, Fame, and the emblems of 
death and immortality, are also introduced. The New State Hall, par- 
tially seen on the left, was commenced in 1835, It covers an area of 
one hundred and thirty-eieht by eighty-eight feet, and is sixty-five feet 
in height. The materials of the building are brick and stone ; the 
exterior faced with marble, from Mount Pleasant ; the ceilings are 
ircbed with brick, and the whole fire-proof. This edifice contains 
the oflices of the secretary of state, comptroller, treasurer, attomey- 
jgeneral, surveyor-general, &.c. 

East View of the Capitol at Albany. 

The above is an eastern view of the capitol, situated at the head 
"f State-street, one hundred and thirty feet above the level of the 
fiver. It is substantially built of stone, at an expense of $120,000, of 
which the city corporation paid 834,000. The hall of the repre- 
•^Qtatives and the senate chamber, each contain full length portraits 
?f* AVashington, and of several governors of the state. The Academy 
" oq the north side of the public square ; is a fine building, con- 
■^•"^icted of Nyac stone, three stories high and ninety feet front; 
'^'*st, at the city charge, $90,000, exclusive of the site and some im- 
J***~tant donations. The Albany Institute has commodious apartments 
>" the Academy, Its library contains about two thousand volumes, 
^•i its museum more than ten thousand specimens in geology, 
'"^tleralogy, botany, coins, engravings, casta, &c. It publishes its 
*^-*isactions from time to time, and has a high reputation abroad. 
• "^e' Albany Female Academy, is a beautiful Duilding, erected by a 
C'^tHpany incorporated February, 1821 ; this institution has a high 
Imputation. The Exchange, Stanwix Hall, the Museum, and^sfeveral 


of the churches, are fine buildings. The Atheneum, was established 
in 1827 ; the Albany Library, established in 1792, and now connected 
with the Atheneum, has about n!ne thousand volumes. 

There are s.x banks, viz: — Bank of Albany, incorporated in 1792; 
capital, $240,000. New York State Bank, incorporated 1803; capi- 
tal, $369,600. Mechanics and Farmers' Bank, incorporated 1811; 
capital, $442,000. Commercial Bank, incorporated 1825; capital, 
$300,000. Canal Bank, incorporated 1829 ; capital, $300,000. Al- 
bany City Bank, incorporated 1834 ; capital, $500,000. The Albany 
Savings Bank was incorporated in 1820. 

There are 25 churches : 4 Presbyterian ; 1 Associate do. ; 8 
Dutch Reformed ; 4 Methodist Episcopal ; 1 Protestant Methodist ; 
1 Colored do. ; 3 Baptist ; 1 Colored do. ; 2 Catholic ; 3 Episcopa- 
lian ; 1 Friends ; 1 Universalist. Population, 33,663. Albany is 
distant from New York 148 miles ; from Washington city, 376 ; Phil- 
adelphia, 237 ; Boston, 171; Hartford, 92 ; Montreal, 247 ; Quebec, 
394 ; Detroit, 664 ; Buffalo via Utica by land, 296 ; via Cherry Val- 
ley, 282 ; by the canal, 363. 

Upon the northern bounds of the city is the mansion house of the 
late Stephen Van Rensselaer, Esq., the patroon of the manor of Rens- 
selaerwick. It is almost entirely surrounded by a thick forest of 
trees, giving it an unusually retired aspect. " The name of this gen- 
tleman can scarcely be mentioned without a passing tribute to his 
merit. Blessed with great wealth, which so frequently leads to sel- 
fish egotism and exclusiveness, he has through life been distinguished 
as an active and efficient public man ; bestowing his personal services 
and his fortune, to the encouragement of every species of innprove- 
ment in literature, science, and art. His name, as a benefactor, is 
associated with most of the charitable and scientific institutions of the 
state ; and he has perhaps done more than any other citizen to foster 
agriculture and internal improvements." — GordorCs Gaz. 

Berne, centrally distant west from Albany 20 miles, was taken 
from Rensselaerville in 1795. Population, 3,740. This town was 
settled during the revolutionary war, by a number of Scotch families. 
Berne, East Berne, and Readsville, are the names of postoffices. 
Ccntreville, is a small village. The lands in this town are leased by 
Mr. Van Rensselaer. 

Bethlehem, the first town south from Albany, was taken from 
Watervliet, in 1793. Pop. 3,225. The flats on Hudson river are 
inhabited by the descendants of the early Dutch settlers. There are 
here extensive limestone caves, one of which has been explored for 
about a quarter of a mile. Coeyman's creek and the Novmans kill, 
afford valuable hydraulic power. Cedar Hill postoffice, on the Hud- 
son, is 8 miles south from Albany. Mills Island, a fertile tract in 
the Hudson, lies partly in the town. 

CoEVMANs, taken from Watervliet in 1791. Pop. 3,107. It was 
early settled by the Dutch, and received its name fi*om one of the 'first 
settlers, himself a proprietor. Coeyman's village, at the jimction of 
Coeyman'« rreek v''*h tH^ Hudson, id milps «joMtH '^f \Ib^T''" 'nr»lnH- 


iw the Square, coDtaina 150 dwellings. Coeymas's Hollow, is a poat 
village, Id the central part of the town on Hawnakrans kill. 

Gl'ilderland, taken from Watervliet in 1803. Pop. 2,790. Guild- 
eriand. West Guilderland, Guilderland Centre, and Dunsvilie, are 
postof&ces. The town is centrally distant from Albany 10 miles. 

Knox, taken from Berne in 1822. Pop. 2,143. The lands are 
leased by Mr. Van Rensselaer. Knoxvilie, or Union Street, 21 miles 
west from Albany, has about 80 dwellings. 

New Scotland, taken from Bethlehem in 1832. Pop. 2,914. New 
Scotland, 8 miles southwest of Albany, has about 40 dwellings. 
New Salem, Clarksville, Union Church, are postoffices. Callagan's 
Comers, is a small settlement in the southeast part of tite town. 

^EifflSELAERviLLE, taken from Watervliet in 1790. Pop. 3,712. 
Rensselaerviile, a village of about 125 dwellings, is situated on Ten 
Mile creek, at the junction of the Albany, Delaware, and Greenville 
liinpikcs, 24 miles southwest from Albany. The following view 

Northeastern View of Rensselaerviile. 

Was taken near the Episcopal church seen on the left. The church 
on the hill is the Presbyterian, and that on the right the Methodist. 
The Baptist church is not seen from this point. On the Ten Mile 
creek there is an arlificini reservoir or dam, flooding 80 or 100 acres, 
which affords great hydraulic power. This stream approaches the 
village through the ravine, seen between the hills in the engraving, 
and in the course of half a mile falls 150 or 200 feet. In 1788, the 
first mill in this town was erected by Messrs. Samuel Jenkins and Joel 
Culver on this creek, near the site of the village. This town was 
firsi settled during the revolution by Mr. Henry Vandyke, an elderly 
gentleman, who locatL'd himself in the southwest part. Samuel Jen- 
Wits, Melatiah and Nathaniel Hatch, Joseph Woodford, Thomas 
l^rown, Joel Culver, Jonathan Crocker, Ashbel Culver and others, 
**^i'-led here about 1788. They were mostly young men, from Con- 


necticut, Massachusetts, and Dutchess county. They built their log 
cabins, cooked their provisions, remained during warm weather, and in 
winter returned east. These first settlers were very poor. For the 
first year or two, not a horse was owned within a mile of the village, 
and they were obliged to carry their maple sugar 20 or 30 miles on 
their backs, exchange it for com, and return in the same manner. 
The first log cabin in the village was located on the spot where Mr. 
Charles L. Mumford's store now stands, and was erected by Mr- 
Samuel Jenkins. In the hollow near the village, the tories, during 
the revolutionary war, had a secret place of rendezvous. Here they 
built a hut of bass-wood logs, oblong in its form, with the logs 
meeting at the top, and capdile of holding 50 or 100 men. An 
unsuccessful attempt was made to surprise them. The military rorid, 
built during the old French war, between Athens and Schoharie, pass- 
ed a little west of the village site. Preston Hollow, 30 miles south- 
west of Albany, on the Athens and Cherry Valley turnpike, has ah ^ut 
40 dwellings. Potter's Hollow, 2 miles south of the above^and Hall's 
Mills, about 5 miles south firom Rensselaerville, are small settlemeuls, 
having postofllices. 

The lollowing account of the captivity of two lads, John and Rob- 
ert Brice, is drawn from a pamphlet bv Mr. Josiah Priest, entitled 
" The Captive Boys of Rensselaervilk. 

The parents of these children emigrated from Scotland in 1774, and settled in that part 
of the Rensselaerwick patent formerly comprised in the limits of this town, but now in 
those of Berne. The war of the revolution had raged with various success for about fbnr 
years, when the few scattered families of this vicinity began to be in constant fear from tho 
incursions of the tories and Indians, who had now commenced their depredations and acts of 
cold-blooded cruelty upon the inhabitants in the neighborhood of Old Schoharie. The 
family o^ Mr. Brice, having ffot out of bread, sent one morning on horseback, Robert^ the 
youngest of the two boys, who was then about eleven years of age, with a bag of meal to 
get ground at a place called the Beaver Dam, eight or nine miles distant from their dwelU 
ing. He arrived safely at the mill, in company with three other lads, who went thither on 
a similar errand. By the time their meal was ready, the day was far spent ; and as their 
route back mostly lay through a long and deep forest, they all but little Robert concluded 
to remain with the miller overnight. John Brice, the elder of the two bo>'s, was at this 
time at work with a farmer by the name of Johannes Deitz, who resided about three miles 
from the mill, and thither Robert was determined to go and spend the night, and n turn 
the remainder of the way home on the next morning. The bag of meal being placed oa 
the horse, the little fellow pursued liis lonely way through the wilderness. It was near the 
commencement of twilight, the last beams of the descending sun were flashing their golden 
glare among the peaks of the mountains, when, on approaching the house where he intended 
to have posFod the night, an Indian horribly painted rose up suddenly from the roadside, 
and seizing the bridle uf the horBc, without saying a word, or seeming to notice the rider, 
lead the horse directly towards the house. On passing the barn door, the boy was inspired 
with additional terror on beholding old Mr. Deitz lying on the ground weltering in his 
blood. .Between the house and barn, he saw in a similar situation the wives of old Mr. 
Deitz and son, with four small children of the latter, and a servant girl, in all eight persoDS, 
their newly shed blood scarcely yet cooled in the evening air. He now perceived the 
house to be full of Indians, hideously painted, busily and silently employed in canying out 
its contents — provisions, clothing, Slc, In casting his eye around, he beheld at a little dis- 
tance from the house his brother John and Captain Deitz, the son of the old man, tied to 
a tree, prisoners. The work of robbery and butchery being accomplished, the Indians 
packed their plunder on the backs of several horses which they had stolen, and hurried from 
the place. They had gone but a little way from the scene of butchery, when hearing a 
crackling noise behind them, the lads looked back, and saw the house, bam, and outhouses 
all in flunes. Ths first night of their captivity they slept within a mile of Uieir parents, in 


the unu of tlw nvages. Evly the next marmng they reeumed their flight ; their prognm 
WB8 slow through the woods, occasioned by the bulkiness of their baggage, while they 
directed their way towards the head waters of the Cattskill creek, sleeping that night some, 
where in the neighborhood of what is now called Potter's Hollow, a few miles southwest 
of Oakhill, in Greene county. From this place they again set off in the morning towards 
the Schoharie river, and at the close of the day, while ascendin/; to the height of land aim- 
ing to reach the river above Middleburgh, the Indians suddenly became very much alarmed. 
News, it appeared, had reached the garrison at Schoharie of the outrage, and they had 
tBnC out a party to intercept the Indians in their retreat ; but the savages had discovered 
them in season not to be surprised. Abandoning their horses, plunder and all, the three 
prisoners and eight scalps excepted, the Indians fled into the woods on the side of the ridge, 
and the darkness of night soon hid them from the fury of their purauers. If they had not 
been disturbed in their course, their intention was to have availed themselves of the war. 
rior*B path on the Schoharie river, leading to the place called Brake-a-bin^ from thence to 
Harpersfield, and so on to the Susquehannah, the Chemung, Genesee, and Niagara. As 
aoon as it was day, having slept that night without fire, they set forward again, much cast 
down in their minds ; pursuing the range of the mountain till somewhere near Gilboa, they 
crossed the creek, and passed on through the woods to Harpersfield ; from thence to th» 
Charlotte river, coming to the Susquehannah at McDaniePs Mills, since so called, and 
thence onward down that river to the Oquago. 

Having now lost all their provisions, they felt the sufferings of hunger, and had no way to 

relieve themselves, lest their tell-tale guus should report them to tJheir pursuers. Three 

days and nights they were compelled to subsist on nothing except what the bushes might 

Afibrd — wintergreens, birch bark, and now and then a few wild berries. Captain Deitz was 

a peculiar sufferer, as suspended from a stick were the aged scalps of his father and 

mother, his wife and the four bloody memorials of his babes, adorned with the half.grown 

hair of their infant heads. These were constantly in his view, and oftep slapped in his 

face by the savage warrior. Captain Deitz finally died at Montreal with a broken heart. 

On the third day, when not far from the mouth of the Unadilla river, they considered them. 

■elves out of danger, consequently travelled more at leisure, stopping frequently to hunt. At 

■ach times, as when they went out to hunt a day, intending to return by night, the Indians 

always bound Captain Deits and Robert's brother to a tree, laying them flat on their backs, 

ymih their legs a little elevated to a limb ; in this uneasy posture they were compelled to 

auflfer till their return. The owner of Robert had received a wound in the leg, when the 

party were pursued by the detachment from the garrison at Schoharie, and after a few days 

travelling, he became so lame as to be unable to travel as fast as his companions. The 

poor boy was now separated from his brother and Captain Deitz, and was left behind with 

liis master and two other Indians. The first intimation to the boy thai they had arrived in 

ihe Genesee or Indian country, were the yells which they uttered, and the responses they 

received from a great distance, which were continued until within sight of each other. 

Here commenced a persecution which the little fellow had not anticipated ; for the Indian 

children about his size and age immediately fell upon him with their whips and fists, amus. 

ing: themselves to see him jump about and cry. He ficd for protection to his master, but 

obtained none from that quarter. His next resort was to fly to a hut, although full of Indians, 

all laughing at his misfortunes ; he sprang in among them, trembling, pale, and bleeding, 

^'hen hu pursuers desisted. Whenever they approached on Indian settlement, the same 

ominous yells were renewed, when the same sort of persecution again befell him ; but as 

necessity at first had taught him to fly to a hut, so he now had learned to press forward 

with all hts power to the door of the first wigwam which offered to his view, never being 

repulsed on his entry. Four times on passing from one settlement to another, he-experi. 

enced the same sort of treatment ; which custom at one time had nearly cost him his life. 

An Indian lad much larger than himself, who ought, even according to their notions of 

dignity and manners, to have known better, knocked him down with a club, but he sprang 

up, and soon found the accustomed asylum, drenched in blood. At length, the three In- 

dians came to a place called the Nine Mile Landing, on Lake Ontario, where was the 

home of his master. Here ;hey shaved his head and adorned it with feathers, and painted 

him after their manner, intending to bring him up as an Indian, taking him with them on 

their fishing and hunting parties, initiating him as fast as possible into their mode of living. 

A few weeks after, his master took him to Fort Brie, opposite to where Buffalo now stands, 

and sold him for fifteen dollars to the captain of a vessel on Lake Eric, who was a Scotch. 

man. From this time he saw his Indian acquaintance no more, going immediately with his 

new master to Detroit. Supposing that if he continued with the captain, and followed a 

■ea-fering life, all oppormnity would be forever lost of returning to his parents, he contrived 

a plea to be left at Detroit, to which his master consented. At this place he remained until 


the close of the revolutionary war, when, according to the articles of peace, the prisoners of 
both countries were to be sent to their homes. His brother, at the time of their separation, 
was sent to Fort Niagara, and he, in company with Robert and many others, were released 
and sent to their respective homes. — Robert Brice is now, or was recently, still living in 
Bethlehem in this county ; a respected citizen of the farmer class. 

Watervliet was organized in 1788. Pop., including West Troy, 
10,146. It includes the islands in the Hudson on the east ; centrally 
distant north from Albany 6 miles, extending 10 miles along the 
Mohawk river, and its lowest branch or sprout, and 6i along the 
Hudson. Havers, Van Schaicks or Cahoes, and Green or Tibbets 
islands, are formed by sprouts of the Mohawk. They were occupied 
by the American army under General Gates, in 1777. The lands of 
the town' are principally comprised in the manor of Rensselaerwick. 
Cahoes, Neskayuna, and West Troy, are villages. The small but 
flourishing manufacturing village of Cahoes is situated near the falls, 
on the bank of the Mohawk, within a short distance of the junction 
of the Erie and Champlain canals. The water-power developed 
here is very great, and the advantages of this position for manufac- 
tures, are among the best in the state. 

** The Cahoes Falls, in full view of the village, and seen with special advantage from the 
bridge, have a total descent of 78 feet, and a perpendicular pitch of about 40. Above the cat. 
aract, the bank on the lef has nearly 100 feet perpendicular elevation, and below, 170 feet 
On the right above the pitch, the bank is low ; but below it, the shore is between 60 and SK) 
feet high ; below the falls the nver runs in a deep, rocky and broken bed for a short dis. 
tance, expanded into the placid pool formed by the state dam, and glides over that dam in 
one lovely sheet of about | of a mile in length, whose gentle fall of 7 feet makes a pleasant 
eontrast with the great cataract above. In floods, the whole bed at the latter is covered 
with water, which descends in one unbroken torrent about 900 feet wide. At such sea- 
sons, the high rocky barriers which confine the stream, the roar of the cataract, the dash, 
ing of the troubled waters as they descend the rapids, and the striking assimilation of the 
torrent with the wilderness abov% give to the scene unusual sublimity.** 

West Troy, incorporated in 1836, comprising Gibbonsville, Wa- 
tervliet, and rort Schuyler, is situated upon the Hudson, opposite 
Troy [See view of 

TVoy.] A communication is constantly kept up with it by ferries, 
and a fine macadamized road 6 miles in length along the river con- 
nects it with Albany. A valuable water-power is derived from the 
Junction canal, and used at the arsenal and other works. The village 
has, by the census of 1840, a population of 4,607 ; and enjoying all the 
advantages of navigation possessed by Troy, grows rapidly. The 
United States arsenal, located here, comprises several extensive 
buildings of stone and brick, in which there are a large quantity of 
arms, with workshops for their repair. Among the cannon are some 
pieces taken at Saratoga and at i orktown ; others, presented to the 
United States by Louis XIV., with some cast in New York and Phil- 
adelphia during the revolution. A. suburb of Troy, called 
North Troy, has been laid out upon Tibbets island, upon which is 
the railroad depot 

At Neskayuna, there is a small society of Shakers, which wa« 
established here in September, 1776, by Ann Lee. They own 2,00< 

"C^f**" ^f firO'^'^ '•»nd- ^''oP '•»il*ivat'»d ^X^t^ Hi^id^'^ info ^cii* fprmo, r^\ 


each of which is a family^ the whole amounting to about 80 persons 
of both sexes and all ages. From a very small beginning, the society 
has grown into several communities, the largest of which is estab- 
lished at New Lebanon, Columbia county. 

Ann Lee, or " Mother Ann^ (as she is usually called,) was bom at 
Manchester, England. About the year 1758, she joined herself to the 
society of Shakers, so called from the singular tremblings and shak- 
ings with which these people were affected at their religious meetings. 
According to the account given by her biographer, she passed 
through great trial and distress of mind for the space of nine years, 
during which period she had many visions and revelations. She set 
up herself as a religious teacher, and soon collected a number of fol- 
lowers, who believed her to be the " elect lady," spoken of in the 8d 
of John. After having been imprisoned in England and confined in 
a madhouse, she set sail for America, in the spring of 1T74, with a 
number of her followers ; particularly, Abraham Stanley, her hus- 
band, William Lee, her brother, James Whitaker and John Hock- 
nell ; and arrived at New York the following August. It appears 
that Mother Ann remained in New York nearly two years, and then 
went to Albany, and thence, in the following September, to Neskar 
yuna. In 1781, she began a progress through various parts of the 
country, particularly of New England, which lasted, we are told, 
about two years and four months. She died in 1784. The follow* 
ing lines are from a book entitled ** Christ's Second Appearing ;" they 
are extracted from a poem called ^ A Memorial to Mother Ann, 
and will serve to show in what light she is viewed by her foUowenk 

At Manchester, in England, this burning truth began, 
When Christ made his appearance in blessed Mother Ann ; 
A few at first received it and did their lust forsake, 
And soon their testimony brought on a mighty shake. 

For Mother's safe protection, good angels flew before. 
Towards the land of promise, Columbia's happy shore ; 

^ Hail, thou victorious Gospel, and that auspicious day, 

^ When Mother safely landed in North America. 

About four years she labor'd widi the attentive throng. 
While all their sins they open'd and righted ev'ry wrong ; 
At length she closed her labors and vanished out of sight, 
And left her faithful children increasing in the lighL 

How much they are mistaken who think that Mother's dead. 
When through her ministrations so many souls are fed ! 
In union with the Father, she is 'he secoQd Eve, 
Dispensing full salvation to all who do beheve. 

Wbstkrlo, taken from Coeymans and Rensselaer in 1815. Pop. 
89OO6. Centrally distant from Albany, southwest, 21 miles. The 
western part pertains to the manor of Rensselaerwick ; the eastern 
part is in Coeyman's Patent The Dutch and Germans commenced 
settlements m 1759, around the lowlands. In 1794, they were much 
increased by the arrival of many emigrants from New England. 
Disbrows and South Westerlo are postoffices. 




Allegany county was taken from Genesee in 1806. It is 44 
miles long, 28 wide, being part of the tract ceded to Massachusetts. 
The two western tiers of towns are within the Holland Land Com- 
pany's purchase. The Genesee river flows through the county by a 
deep channel, depressed from five hundred to eight hundred feet below 
the higher hills. By an act passed in 1828, this river was declared 
a public highway from Rochester to the Pennsylvania line. The soil 
is of a good quality, there being extensive tracts of alluvion, and the 
uplands embrace a variety. The northern part is best for grain, but 
as a whole it is better for grazing. Wheat and com thrive weU in 
the valley and on the river flats. Of the former, twenty-five bushels 
an acre are an average crop, and of the latter forty. Cm the upland, 
com, rye, potatoes, oats, and buckwheat, are productive crops. The 
growth of forest trees being heavy, lumbering is carried on^ exten- 
sively. The Rochester and Olean canal, chartered in 1836, and now 
constructing, enters the county at Portage and terminates at Olean, in 
the adjoining county of Cattaraugus. The line of the Erie railroad 
also passes through it. The county contains 30 towns. Pop. 40,917. 

Alfred, taken from Angelica in 1808, distant firom Albany 246, 
and from Angelica, east, 10 miles. Pop. 1,637. The town is a sood 
one for farming. Alfred and Vandemark are postofiices. Baker's 
Bridge and Alfred Centre are villages. In 1821, Almond and Inde- 
pendence were taken from the town. 

Allen, taken from Angelica in 1823, since reduced ; distant firom 
Albany 244, from Angelica, north, 6 miles. There is a postoflice at 
Allen, and one at Allen Centre. Pop. 870. 

Almond, taken from Alfred ; since reduced in area. Pop. 1,434. 
The Bath and Angelica turnpike passes through it Almond, the 
largest village, 16 miles east from Angelica, has about thirty-five 
dwellings. Centre Almond and North Almond are postoffices. |p 

Amity, taken from Angelica and Scio in 1830 ; distant fi^m Al- 
bany 258, from Angelica, south, 6 miles. Pop. 1,356. The Genesee 
crosses it northwestwardly, upon which are flats from half a mile to a 
mile wide. Phillipsburg,a very flourishing post village, lies on the river 
and line of the Erie railroad in the northeast angle of the town, and 
has one Presbyterian and one Methodist church. There is a fall here 
of twelve or fourteen feet, yielding an excellent water-power. Phil- 
lipsville, Hobbieville, and Genesee Valley, are postoffices. 

In the vicinity of Phillipsburg are the remains of three Indisth forts, 
on the largest of which there formerly stood eight aged trees. On 
the bark of one of them was carved a figure of a turtk, underneath 
which there was also cut a canoe, with seven Indians in it, headed 
down stream. This was done, according to the account given by 
the natives to the first settlers, by a party of seven Indians of the 
Turtle tribe, to inform their companions that they had gone down the 



AvcorEK, taken from Independence in 1824 ; distant from Albiiny 
352, from Angelica, southeasterly, 15 nu)es. Pop. 664. 

Angeuca, ionned from Leicester in 1805; from i.lbony 256, and 
from Xew York 327 miles. The Genesee crosses the southwestern 
angle of the town. Pop. 14J61, 

View of the Public Buildings at Angelica. 

Angelica Village, 2 miles east of the Genesee river, 40 miles west 
frnrn Bath, 52 S. from Batavia, incorporated 2d of May, 1835, is the 
county scat. The above view, taken near the residence of Mr. John 
T. Wright, shows all the public buildings excepting the Baptist 
church. The gothic structure, on the left, is the Episcopal church ; 
the building with a spire, the Presbyterian ; the one with a cupola, 
the courthouse ; and that on the extreme nui, the Mrthodist church. 
There are in the village about one hundred and thirty dwellings and 
two printing-offices, each issuing a weekly paper. About three miles 
southwest of the village, is the seat of Philip Church, Esq., called 
Belvidere, where there is a fine house with a farm under high culti- 
vation. The county was first settled by this gentleman, in 1804, nnd 
the towTi is named after his mother, Mrs. Angelica Church, the eldest 
daughter of General Philip Schuyler. 

Belfast, taken from Caneadea, by the name of Orrinsburg, in 
1824; name changed in 1825; distant from Albany 264, nnd from 
Angelica, west, 6 miles. -Pop. 1,684. Summer's Valley, Rockville, 
and Belfast, arc post-offices. 

The following account of a tornado, which passed over this region 
% few years since, is taken from Silliman's Journal for July, 1839 : — 

" Hiving Yisiled uid eMmined Iho scene of Iho luniado, ho well dencribed by Mr. Wilhi 
Gtrlord, of Oiiico, Onondaga Cminty, N. Y., in rfic GencBec Fnrmcr, Nov. 10, 1838, wo 
mbo ctn bear witneu to the (tetncndous devsatalion which (hat whirlwind pn>dunod. 

"We wfre on (he p-ound in Srptemher, obou( (wo monihe nfirr the tvcdt. Bfliire (he 
uvnado, a r^oD of 4 or !>00 acres had been covered by a denie fbreat of pine trees, many 


of them very tall and large ; roads had been cut through this forest, and a lew soEtary 
houses were planted in it, here and there. Now we looked in vain over the whole tract 
for a single perfect tree. Those which had not been uprooted or broken in two near the 
ground, were shivered and twisted off at different elevations, leaving only a portion of a 
shattered trunk, so that not a single tree top, and hardly a single branch, were found stand- 
ing in the air : there were instead only mutilated stems, presenting a striking scene of de. 
eolation wherever our eyes ranged over the now almost empty aerial space. On the ground 
the appearances were still more remarkable. The trees were interwoven in every posnUe 
way, so as to form a truly military abattis of the most impassable kind ; nor immediataly 
after the gale could any progress be, in fact, made through the gigantic thickets of entangled 
trunks and branches, without the labor of bands of pioneers, who cut off the innumerable 
logs that choked every avenue. We had before seen many avenues made through forests 
by winds, proetrating the trees and laying them down in the direction of its course : but 
never had we seen such a perfect desolation by a gyratory movement, before which the 
thick and lofty forest and the strongest framed buildings vanished, in an instant, and their 
ruins were whirled irresisiibly around like flying leaves or gossamer. 

** Still, it was truly wonderful that people were buried in the ruins of their houses, and 
travellers with their horses and cattle were exposed to this driving storm of trees which 
literally filled the air, and still not a single life was lost, although some persona were 

** We were assured that this wind had marked a track of devastation for twenty milee or 
more, but this was the scene of its greatest ravages. Two or three miles from this place, 
we saw a wing of a house which had been moved quite around, so as to form a right angle 
with its former position, and still the building was not broken.'* — Editort. 

** The first appearance of severe wind, (says Mr. Gaylord,) was, as we learned, in the 
town of Rushfoiil, some fifteen miles from the place where we observed its efiects. The 
day was hot and sultry, and the course of the gale was from the N. of W. to 8. of ESast. 
At its conmiencement in Rushfbrd, it was only a violent thunder gust, such as are frequently 
experienced, but it soon acquired such force as to sweep in places every thing before it. 
In its passage the same violence was not at all times exerted ; some places seemed wholly 
passed over, while in the same direction and at only a small distance whole forests were 
crushed. In the language of one who had suffered much from the gale, * it seemed to 
move by bounds, sometimes striking and sometimes receding from the earth,' which in. 
deed was most likely the case. 

** It passed the Genesee river in the town of Belfast, a few miles below Angelica, and iti 
fury was here exerted on a space of country perhaps a mile or a mile and a haJf in width. 
The country here is settled and cleared along the river, but the road passes at a Mttle dis. 
tance fi-om the river, and at this point wound round one of the finest pine woods to be 
found on the stream. Of course when it came over the higher lands firom the N. W., the 
tornado crossed the river and the plain before encountering the groves of pine. In the 
space occupied by the central part of the tornado, say three fourths of a nule in width, 
nothing was enabled to resist its fury. Strong framed bouses and bams were crushed in an 
instant, and their fragments and contents as quickly scattered to every point of the com- 
pass ; while those out of the direct line were only unroofed or more or less damaged. 
Large oaks and elms were literally twisted off, or crushed like reeds. 

** The road fi-om the north approached the pine woods on what was the northern verge 
of the tornado, and the first appearance of the country in finnt was that of woodlands, in 
which all the trees had been broken off at the height of 30 or 30 feet, leaving nothing but 
countless mutilated trunks. On entering the narrow passway, however, which with im- 
mense labor had been opened through the fallen trunks, it was perceived that much of the 
largest part of the trees had been torn up by the roots, and lay piled across each other m 
the greatest apparent confusion imaginable. Fortunately for our view of the whole ground, 
a few days before our arrival, fire had been put in the * windfall,' and aided hy the extreme 
dry weather, the whole was burned over so clean, that nothing but the blackened trunks 
of the trees were remaining, thus disclosing their condition and position most perfectly. 
This position was such as to demonstrate l^yond the possibility of a doubt, the fact, that 
the tornado had a rotary motion against the sun, and in perfect accordance with the cotirae 
which we in a former volume of the Farmer have ascribed to such electric aerial currents^a 
theory first developed by Mr. Redfield of New York. 

** The first tree met with, prostrated by the tornado, was a large pine, which lay with its 
top exactly to the N. of West, or precisely against the general course of the storm. Hun. 
dreds of others lay near in the same direction on the outer part of the whiri, but immedi- 
ately after entering the fallen timber, the heads of the trees began to incline to the centre 
of the «pace torn dowa, and south of this, the incUnatioQ was £rectly the reverse until tibe 


ouride of the wfaiil was reached, when they all lay with their tope to the east This 
afanoel regular poeition of the fallen timber, was most distinct in the bottom courses, or that 
which was first blown down, those that resisted the longest, being, as was to be expected, 
pitched in the most diverse directions. That there was also an upward spiral motion, caua. 
ing a determination of the rushing air to the centre of the whirl, would appear probable 
Bmn the &ct that articles from the buildings destroyed were carried high in the air, and 
thea appareniy thrown out of the whirl, into the conomon current ; and fdso from the fiust, 
chat a large miyjority of the trees both from the south and to the north of the centre of the 
gale, lay with their heads inclined to tliat point, while the centre was marked by the 
greatest confusion imaginable. A diagram formed of a continued succession of curcles 
moving from the right to the left, would illustrate the position of the trees first uprooted, as 
these Uy as when first crushed fay the approach of the whirlwind. 

** Many curious facts illustrative of the force of the wind were related by the inhabitants 
in and near the place. A fiirmer attempted to drive his team of horses to the bam, but the 
tempest was too soon upon him. When the rush was over, and it was seemingly but a 
moment, he found the bam torn to pieces, himself about thirty rods in one direction from 
it, and his horses as many rods the other, and what was most remarkable, with scarcely a 
fragment of harness upon them. A wagon was blown away, and a month afterward one 
of the wheels had not been found. A house standing near the Genesee river, and a little 
ont of the line of the gale, was completely covered with mud that must have been taken 
from the bed of the river. And appearances render it very evident that near the centre of 
the whirl the water was entirely taken from the chaimel." 

BisosALL, taken from Allen and Almond in 1829 ; distant from Al- 
bany, southwest, 245 miles. Pop. 328. Birdsall post-office is 12 
miles northeast from Angelica. 

Bolivar was taken from Friendship, in 1825 ; from Albany 275, 
and from Angelica, southwest, 19 miles. Pop. 408. Bolivar Village 
has about twenty-five dwellings. 

Burns, taken from Ossian in 1826; distant centrally from Angelica, 
northeast, 16, and from Albany 239 miles. De Witt's Valley and 
Whitney's Valley are post-offices. Pop. 847. 

Caneadea, taken from Angelica in 1808 ; distant from Albany 267, 
from Angelica, northwest, 11 miles. Pop. 1,647. Caneadea Village 
is centrally situated. The Caneadea Indian reservation commences 
here, and extends northward on the river about ten miles, through 
Hume into Portage and Granger. 

Centreville, taken from Pike in 1819 ; from AngeHca, northwest, 
18 miles. Pop. 1,504. Centreville Village, centrally situated in the 
town, has about thirty-five dwellings. 

Clarksville, taken from Cuba in 1835 ; from Angelica, southwest, 
18 miles. Clarksville is a post-office. Pop. 326. 

Cuba, taken fronr Friendship in 1822 ; distant from Albany 275, 
and from Angelica, southwest, 18 miles. Pop. 1,761. Cuba Village, 
centrally situated, near which the lines of the Erie railroad and the 
Rochester and Olean canal intersect, is a very floiu-ishing place, and 
has about eighty dwellings, one Presbyterian, and one Baptist chm-ch. 
Cadysville is 2 miles north of the village. 

The famed Seneca Oil Spring is in this town, within eighty rods of 
the county line. The spring rises in a marsh, distant three and a half 
miles from the village. It is a muddy, circular, stagnant pool, about 
eighteen feet in diameter, with no visible outlet. The water is coated 
with a thin layer of mineral oil, giving it a yellowish-brown color, 
similar to dirty molasses. The oil is collected by skimming it from 


the fountain, and is used for rheumatism in man, and sprains and sores 
for man or beast. The spring was highly valued by the Indians, and 
a square mile around it has been reserved for the Senecas. The oil 
sold in the eastern states is obtained from Oil Creek, in Venango 
county, Pennsylvania, where it is more pure and abundant The 
spring gives name to a post-office. 

Eagle, taken from Pike in 1823 ; centrally distant from Albany 
264, from Angelica, northwest, 24 miles. Pop. 1,222. 

Friendship, taken from Caneadea in 1816. Pop. 1,230. Friend- 
ship Village, on the line of the Erie railroad, 10 miles southwest from 
Angelica, contains about sixty dwellings. 

Genesee, taken from Cuba in 1830 ; from Angelica, south west, 
25 miles. Pop. 569. Little Genesee and West Genesee are names 
of post-offices. Little Genesee is a small village. 

Granger, taken from Grove ; centrally distant from Angelica, north, 
12 miles. Grove, Short Tract, and Hickory Swale, are post-offices. 
Pop. 1,064. 

Grove, taken from Nundain 1827 ; from Angelica, north, 14 miles. 
East Grove is a post-office. Pop. 625. 

New Hudson, formerly named Haight, and taken from Rushford 
in 1825 ; from Albany 268^and from Angelica, west, 13 miles. Black 
Creek is a post-office. The summit level of the Rochester and CHean 
canal is in this town. Pop. 1,488. 

Hume, taken from Pike in 1822 ; from Albany, southwest, 260 miles ; 
drained by the Genesee on the southeast. Pop. 2,305. Hume and 
Cold Creek are post-offices. At Mixville, a post village, 15 miles 
northwest from Angelica, there are about twenty dwellings, and an 
excellent hydraulic power, comprising foiur perpendicular falls, making 
in the whole seventy-five feet descent 

Independence, taken from Alfred in 1821 ; from Albany 262, and 
from Angelica, southeast, 20 miles. Pop. 1,398. Independence Cen- 
tre, Independence, Whitesville, and Spring Mill, are post villages. 

NuNDA, taken from Angelica in 1808 ; from Albany 253, and firom 
Angelica, northeast, 18 miles. Pop. 2,614. The name is a corrup- 
tion of an Indian word signifying " potatoe ground," applied when 
this town comprehended the rich flats of the Genesee. Nunda and 
East Hill are post-offices. The village of Nunda Valley, upon the 
Cashaqua creek, is a place of much and increasing business ; the Ro- 
chester and Olean canal is to pass through it. 

The following is a southern view of the open square in the business 

f)ortion of the place, taken at Whitcomb and Co.'s store. The vil- 
age was first settled about the year 1826, by Deacon Rawson, Asa 
Heath, Samuel Swain, David Basset, James M. Heath, and others. 
The latter-named person built the first tavern, in 1826, of logs. The 
Baptist and Presbyterian churches were erected in 1832. The vil- 
lage contains about one hundred dwellings. 

OssiAN, taken from Angelica in 1808 ; from Albany 233, and from 
Angelica, northeast, 20 nules. Pop. 945. Ossian village is centrally 


CerUral Part of Nunda YalUy Village. 

PiKK, taken from Nunda, March, 1818; from Albany 255, and from 
Angelica, northwest, !8 miles. Pup. 2,181. Pike, centrally situated, 

hu one Presbyterian, one Methodist, and one Baptist church, and 
about ninety dwellings. East Pike and East Koy are post-offices, ■ 

PoBT AGE, taken from Nunda in 1827; centrally distant from Al- 
bany247,and from Angelica, north, 18 miles. Pop. 4,715. Portage- 
ville, OD the Genesee river at the head of the rapids, is a flourishing 
Tillage, containing about sixty or seventy dwellings. The line of the 
Olean and Rochester canal passes through it. Hunt's Hollow and 
Oiklaud are post-offices. 

This town is located in an exceedingly interesting region, both from 
ibe wild grandeur of its river scenery, and the exhibition of human 
enterprise and skill in the construction of a tunnel for the canal, 
through the solid rock, which here bounds the valley of the Genesee, 
" There are three distinct falls on the river, respectively sixty, ninety, 
and one hundred and ten feet high, within the space of two miles, 
rack differing in character, and each having peculiar beauties. Al- 
though the cascades are highly admirable, they are almost disregarded 
in the wonder and fear caused by the stupendous, perpendicular walls 
of tile river, rising to four hundred feet in height, and extending along 
Ihe stream for three miles, with almost as much regularity as if con- 
structed by art To this great depth the river has worn its bed in 
the solid rock, in turns as short and eracefol, as if winding through 
the s:)ftcst meadow." The middle fails, which are the highest, have 
l^tii the scene of several narrow escapes, of which, perhaps the fol- 
Wing is the most remarkable. Early in the spring of 1827, a boy 
about fourteen, named Joel Burgess, took a boat into the river above 
the falls, for the purpose of obtaining a duck which he had shot, in 
'tis eagerness to secure the prize, he lost sense of his peril and floated 
down the stream. On going over the dam, which is situated about 
twelve rods above Ihe cataract, he was thrown out of the boat, but 
•till held on with both hands. Thus clinging to the frail bark, he was 
fast hurrying to an awful death, when his feet struck a small project- 
iog rock in the bed of the river. With admirable presence of mind. 


he let go of the boat and stood fast. His situation was even now 
full of danger. On each side the water was deep, and the current 
running with an irresistible force. Chilled and exhausted by the cold- 
ness ot the element, he waa about losing hold of the slippery rock, 
when those ashore succeeded in throwing him a rope, which ife tied 
around his waist and was dragged exhausted to land. Under these 
falls, on the northern side, is the ** Devil's Oven," a cave fifteen feet 
in height, and sixty feet deep. * 

Pass of the Genesee at Portage FaOs. 

The above is a. representation of the gorge, at that point where the 
river, coming from the south, takes a sudden and abrupt bend to the 
east. It ia situated below the middle and upper falls; both of which 
are in full sight from near this point. The spectator is supposed to 
be standing in the valley, and looking eastwardly in the direction of 
the lower fiills, which are about a mile and a half distant. Imme- 
diately in front rise massy, perpendicular rocks, to the height of four 
hundred feet, their summits crowned with gigantic pines and hem- 


locks, the aged sentinels of an hundred years. In the perspective, 
the river meanders along its rocky bed, until finally lost to the view 
behind projecting precipices. Far in the distant horizon is seen the 
hills of the Cashaqua, and to the right " Hornby Lodge," standing on 
the verge of the precipice, resembling an ancient chateau ; its rude, 

¥)thic architecture in keeping with the wildness of the situation. 
he sketch for the above engraving was taken at the close of the 
year. Winter had thrown her snowy mantle upon the face of na- 
ture. The huge evergreens and naked limbs of the other forest trees 
were enveloped in their drapery of white ; immense icicles hung 
from the rocks ; while the blue of the distant hills, contrasting with 
the icy splendor and sublimity of the foreground, combined to render 
it a scene of indescribable grandeur. Some years since, a party of 
surveyors cut down an immense pine, standing on the verge of the 
precipice. It turned one somerset in its descent, and struck its butt 
perpendicularly upon the rocky bottom of the gorge. Every limb 
fell to the earth with the shock. It stood for^ moment, a tall, limb- 
less trunk, quivered, and fell with a crash. 

The tunnel, eleven hundred and eighty feet in length, to which al- 
lusion has been made, commences at a point on the southern side of 
the gorge, about six hundred feet east^f the lodge, and has a south- 
western termination near the middle falis. The following description 
of this work, and the " lodge," is from an interesting series of letters, 
entitled " Midsummer Ranioles," published in the New York Com- 
mercial Advertiser in the summer and autumn of 1840. " The trunk 
of the tunnel is to be twenty-seven feet wide and twenty feet high. 
Fortunately, the character of the rock (sandstone) is favorable to the 

Jrogress of the work. The contractor for this section is Eusha 
oHNsoir, Esq., formerly mayor of Rochester, and one of its most 
enterprising citizens. Mr. Johnson commenced this vast excavation 
last year, nrst running a shaft or * heading' five and a half feet near- 
est tne roof, and of the entire width required, through the whole length 
of the tunnel. One of the lateral drifts, for the introduction of air 
and light from the river brink to the main tunnel, had also been pre- 
viously completed," the opening to which is seen in the engraving 
on the rock in front of the " Lodge." 

** The entire excavation of this tunnel, including the gallery, shaft, 
and lateral drifts, will amount to more than twenty-five thousand cubic 
yards, for which the price paid is four dollars per. yard. This, how- 
ever, will not, by a great amount, cover the entire cost of the tunnel ; 
for since the excavation has been commenced, such is the character 
of the rock — thrown together apparently by nature in loose masses 
and blocks — that it now appears that the entire roof and sides of the 
tunnel will require arching with solid mason work. Indeed, tempo- 
rary arches of wood have been found necessary during the progress 
of almost every successive yard of the work. It is by far the great- 
est undertaking of the kind that has been attempted in our country. 
** PerceivinoL at the outset, that his contract would require a long 
time for its completion, Mr. Johnson, whose daily presence was 


Hornby Lodge at Portage FaUs. 

necessary, wisely detcrnuDcd to aurround himself by his family. He 
accordingly prepared ' a lodge' for them in the ' wildemesB.' The 
site selected is wild and picturesque in a high degree. It stands 
upon a small plain or table, upon the highest verge of the precipitous 
bank of the river so often adv^ed to, a few yards only from the edge, 
which juts out, and almost impends over the abyss, threatening to 
descend and overwhelm ali that may be below. The site of the 
building is near the southwestern entrfljice of the tunnel.* Facing 
that direction, a full view is presented of the chasm of the river, and 
the upper and middle falls ; the roar of which is incessant, and the 
ascending clouds of vapor of which form objects of ever- varying and 
incessant interest and beauty. ' Hornby Lodge' is the name of Mr. 
Johnson's castle, and the grounds around it — purposely kept as wild 
as nature herself has made them — are called ' Tunnel Park,' 

" The house, or lodge, is of itself a great curiosity. In shape it is an 
6ctagon, sixty feet in diameter, and two stories high — ^with ■--, 
wings — according to the ground-plan annexed. It is sup- ^'^"^*^ 
ported by the trunk of a nuge oak tree, standing in tnelZl ^D 
centre, from which the beams and rafters radiate to the vV^ 
outward circumference. It stands directly over the main 
tunnel, the roof of which is 100 feet beneath the base of the lod^. 
The work is prosecuted by relief parties night and dav ; and wmle 
the miners were at work directly oeneath the lodge, the explosions 
of the powder used in blasting were both heard and felt by the family, 
essentially disturbing their slumber at night. The ornaments of the 
lodge, over the doors and windows, and much of the furniture, are 
truly Gothic, being formed from the crookedest limbs of trees thai 
coulibe found. On the whole, it is a most picturesque establish- 
menf standing alone in its rustic beauty, and looking out fearfidly 

■ Hsiing fannerly been aome yev» enmgui on public worics, we were natunUr inter- 
eeled in the conBiniciion at ihis place. Much credit is due to Mr, Edwtrd A. StiUn mi, ■ 
young man of 22, who is ll;e reeidenl iivlrvmtniat engineer, llis line^sTe iMmininiriril 
n luccem aa compaied wilh limilsr works in Europe. — H. H. 


upon the' confined deep. I was a partaker of Mr. Johnson's hospi- 
tality for one night. It was a beautiful moonlight night ; and both 
by day and night I enjoyed the scene to the full." 

To the foregoing description, we would add that the building pre- 
sents a similar appearance from every direction. There is between 
each pair of wings a door which opens into an octagonal saloon, 
occupying the whole of the basement, excepting the wings. This 
saloon is m true " log cabin" style. The trunk of the huge oak, pre- 
viously alluded to, with its shaggy bark covering, rises from the floor 
in the centre of the room as a pillar to support the ceiling. The fur- 
niture, chairs, sofas, &c., in this apartment are formed of the rough 
limbs of the forest. The wings are divided into rooms of convenient 
size answering the respective purposes of parlor, library, office, 
consen'atory, Kitchen, &c. &c. The structure approaches to the 
Swiss Gothic style, and its peculiar and novel feature is, that while 
the lower story is an octagon, the upper is a quadrilateral, diamonding 
with the base. 

We will close our account of this region by a description of the 
lower falls, taken from the " Rambles." " The water at the lower 
falls rushes around an immense rock in its descent, close under the 
southeastern bank. Fortunately for visiters, as yet the scene has 
been thus far permitted by man to remain in a state of nature. It is 
therefore as wild and romantic as can be desired. A dark screen of 
evergreen, hang^ing over the cataract so near and thick as to render 
it unsafe to pusn through it, partially hides the descending torrent of 
foam, which dots after its final plunge the river to a considerable 
distance with cream-like ornaments. Partly detached from the main 
wall wUch confines the river to its narrow bed, a huge rock partially 
conceals (he fall, tapering upward like a sugar-loaf, and crested with 
evergreens. On the opposite, or western side, the top of the rock 
around which the waters hurry in their maddened wrath, is level as 
the house-floor, and large enough for a company of 

Those ijallant sonaVho shoulder guns 
And twice a year go out a-training, 

to perform their martial exercises upon. Midway from the top, the 
sugar-loaf is united to the main buttress. The depth of this fall is 
96 feet" 

RusHFORD, taken from Caneadea in 1827, is centrally situated 
from Albany 270, and from Angelica, northwest, 20 miles. Pop. 1,502. 
Rushford village contains 1 Methodist church, and about 70 dwellings. 

Scio, taken from Angelica in 1823, and centrally distant, south, 16 
miles. Scio and Wells ville are post-offices. Pop. 1,150. In its ter- 
ritorial limits, this town is far the largest in the county. Its surface 
is high and much broken by streams, and heavily timbered with 
pines, hemlock, (fee. Most of the township is in its primitive wilder- 
ness state. 

West Almond comprises township No. 4 in the first range of 
Morris' Reserve, and was taken from Almond, Angelica and Alfred 
in 1836 ; from Angelica, east, 7 miles. Pop. 810. 



Wirt, taken from Friendship and Bolivar ; from Angelica, south- 
wefFt, 14 miles. Pop. 1^208. South Branch and Richburg are post- 


BiooME C0X7NTT, named after Lieut Grov. Broome, was taken from 
Tioga in 1806. Length, on the Pennsylvania line, 87 miles ; breadth, 
on me Tioga boundary 28, on the Delaware 13, and midway 17 
miles. Centrally distant from New York, northwest, 252, and from 
Albany, southwest, 145 miles. The surface of the country is broken 
and mountainous. Among its principal elevations are the Cookqus^o, 
the Oquago, and the Randolph mountains. The valleys bordering 
on its numerous streams are extensive and fertile, producing large 

auantities of wheat The soil is generally better adapted to grazing 
idn the culture of grain. Fruit succeeds well. The inhabitants 
are principally farmers, and its agriculture is respectable. The 
Chenango canal enters the county on the north, follows down the 
valley of the Chenango river, and enters the Susquehannah river at 
Binghamton. The Ene of the Erie railroad passes through the 
county. The county is divided into 1 1 towns. Population, 22,348. 
. Barker was taken from Lisle in 1831; drained by the Tioughni- 
oga river crossing it diagonally from northwest to southeast rop- 
ulation, 1,258. Chenango Forks, post village, 12 miles north from 
Binghamton, ha^ about 30 dwellings. There is a small collection 
of houses at Hyde settlement 

Chenango was organized in February, 1791 ; since reduced in 
limits. It is centrally intersected by Chenango river, which enters 
the Susquehannah at Chenango Point Along the valleys of both 
these streams are rich alluvial flats from one to two miles wide. The 
land is broken and hilly, containing large quantities of pine and other 
timber for market Population, 5,476. The village of Binghamton 
in this town, formerly called Chenango Point, the shire village of the 
county, was incorporated in 1813, 1824, and 1834. It derived its 
present name from William Bingham, a munificent benefactor of the 
village in its infant state. This gentleman was possessed of a large 
estate, and was the proprietor of a large patent of land lying on both 
sides of the Susquehannah, including the site of the village. Mr. 
Bingham was a native of England, and came to this country when a 

oung man, and went into the mercantile business in Philadelphia. 

~e was a member of congress for some years while it held its ses- 
sions at Philadelphia. His two daughters married, the one Alexander, 
the other Henry Baring, two noted bankers in London. Mr. Bing- 
ham died in London in 1804. 



Western View of Binghamton. 

The above shows the appearadce of the village as it is entered 
from the west side of Chenango river, by the redbridge, (so called,) 
which is 600 feet loog. The village ta principally on the east side 
of the Chenango, and contains about 400 nouses, 30 stores, and 2,000 
inhabitants. There arc six churches, viz : 1 Episcopal, 1 Methodist, 
1 Presbyterian, 1 Congregational, 1 Baptist, and I Catholic. There 
are two female seminaries, a large school for boys, two printing- 
offices, the courthouse and prison ; two banks — the Broome County 
Bank incorporated 1831, with a capital of $100,000, and the Bing- 
bamtOQ Bank, which commenced its operations in 1639, with a camtal 
of 9100,000, and the privilege of extending it to one million. Th6 
village of Binghamton is 150 miles from Albany, 90 from Utica, 40 
from Norwich, 22 from Owego, and 7 from the Pennsylvania line. 
The great medium of transportation to the place is by the Chenango 
canal. This canal, which terminates at Binghamton and Utica, is 
95 miles long, 46 feet wide, and 4i deep. The number of locks in 
the whole route is 105. The canal was commenced in 1834 and 
completed in 1837, and cost nearly two millions of dollars. 

The tract of country in which Binghamton is situated, became 
first known to the whites by the expedition of Gen, Sullivan against 
the Indians in 1779. Upon the site of Binghamton, a brigade of 
American troops under the command of Gen. James Clinton, the 
lather of De Witt Clinton, encamped for one or two nights on their 
way to join the main body under Sullivan, then penetrating westward. 
The first white man who made a permanent settlement in what is 
claimed for the village vicinity, was Capt. Joseph Leonard, who was 
originally from Plymouth, Massachusetts. He first emigrated to 
Wyoming, Pennsylvania, He owned a farm in that place, and was 
under arms there at the time of the massacre, though not on the field 
of action. He moved from Wyoming in 1787, with a young wife and 
two little children. His wife and children were put on board a 


canoe, with what ^oods he brought up, and the canoe rowed by a 
hired man ; while he himself went up on land with two horses, keep- 
ing the shore, and regulating his progress by that of his family on the 
river. A Capt Baldwin, who settled on the Chemung river, moved 
up at the same time in company with him.* 

Capt. Leonard received his first information of this region from 
Amos Draper, then an Indian trader in these parts. On his first ar- 
rival, he found a Mr. Lyon, who lived in a temporary log house near 
where Col. Page's ashery now stands. In two or three weeks after- 
ward. Col. Wm. Rose and his brother, from Connecticut, came on to 
Binghamton, and fixed their location a little above Capt Leonard's. 
During this year, (1787,) Joshua Whitney, Gen. Wm. Whitney, and 
Henry Green, from Hillsdale, Columbia county, came to this place, 
and settled on the west side of the Chenango, about two miles above 
its junction with the Susquehannah, on what was afterward called 
Whitney's flats. At the time the above families settled here, their 
nearest white neighbors were at Tioga, a distance of forty miles. 

Previous to the settlement of these first emigrants, a number of 
persons from Massachusetts came on an exploring tour to this region ; 
on their return they obtained a grant from the legislature of Massa* 
chusetts of a large tract, which they afterward purchased of the In- 
dians. This tract contained 230,000 square acres, for which the 
company paid to the state £1,500. It appears that when the agents 
of the company came on, they found that patents had already 
been granted to Bingham, Wilson, and Cox, by the state of New 
York, which interfered with their grants. This claim of Massa- 
chusetts to this part of the state, originating in some ancient colonial 
claims, was finally satisfied by the grant ot the right of pre-emption 
to certain lands in western New York. The facts respecting the 
treaty with the Indians, &c., is from the Annals of Binghamton. 

" They made their propositions to the Indians for the purchase of it, 
appointed a time and place for the negotiation of the bargam, and 
returned home. These individuals, at first, designed to form a com- 
pany to consist only of eleven persons ; but conceiving the purchase 
too heavy for so small a number, and having so many applications 
for co-partnership, the number of the company was finally fixea at 
sixty. This company appointed as commissioners to treat with the 
Indians, Elijah Brown, Gen. Oringh Stoddard, Gen. Moses Ashley, 
Capt. Raymond, and Col. David rixley. These gentlemen met the 
Indians in treaty, in the first instance on the Chenaneo river, the east 
side, two or three miles above the present village of Binghamton, in 
the forepart of winter. But at this treaty the negotiation was not 
fully completed, and they adjourned to meet at the rorks of the Che- 
nango. At this second treaty, there were between three and four 
hundred Indians. 

* The authors are indebted for the history of Binghamton, to a work published at that 
place in 1840, entitled " Annals of Binghamton, and of the country connected with it, 
from the earliest settlement, by J. B. Wilkinson.'* 


** At this and the former treaty, it is said, the Indians, who were fur- 
nished with provisions and liquor at the expense of the company, 
would get drunk, almost to a man, by night, but be sober through 
the day. While the subjects of the treaty were under discussion 
from day to day, they would sit in circles upon the ground, and listen 
with the utmost decorum. Their chiefs, when they spoke, would 
speak in substance, if not in form, in accordance with parliamentary 
rule. Captain, and afterward Esquire Dean, was their interpreter, 
and did their business. 

** The nominal sum paid for this tract is not now known, but the 
payment was made, one half in money, and the other moiety in goods, 
consisting of rifles, hatchets, ammunition, blankets, and woollen cloths. 
The last, it is said, the savages, in perfect character with their taste, 
inunediately tore into strings for ornament. 

** An estimation was made of the entire costof these ten townships, 
to wit : the purchase price, the expense of the treaties, and the sur- 
vey made of it, and found to amount to about one shiUing per acre. 
The number of acres contained in the tract, as has just been stated, 
was 230,000 square acres. This, equally divided among the sixty 
proprietors, would give to each 3,833 acres, with a fraction over. 
The price for which the land was sold, in the earliest sale of it, was 
uniformly at twenty-five cents per acre ; but it, after a little, rose to 
one dollar per acre, and even to more. 

** The land upon the shores of the two rivers, and for some distance 
back, was, even at the time of the purchase, partially cleared, so far 
as the Indians have their lands cleared. The under-brush was 
cleared, having been kept down by burning, and grass growing on 
the flats. The Indians uniformly keep dovsm the shrubby part of 
their hunting grounds, that they may, with the more facihty, discover 
and pursue their game. Col. Kose says, that he could see deer upon 
the mountains im mediate! v back of him for half a mile, so free were 
they of under-brush. He observes, also, that the woods exhibited a 
sombre appearance, from their annual burnings. The large island 
opposite Judge Stoddard's, was, when the first settlers came, covered 
with grass and the anacum weed, a tall kind of weed, the roots of 
which they were in the habit of digging and drying, and then grind- 
ing or pounding for bread stuff*; or rather its apology, perhaps, 
when their com failed them. 

** The Indians, in their treaty with the New England commissioners, 
reserved to themselves the right of hunting upon the lands they had 
sold, for the term of seven years ; and also made a reserve of one 
half mile square, as their own possession. This reserve was situated 
near the mouth of Castle creek, and went by the name of the Castle 
Farm. Upon this reserve the Indians of the neighborhood who did 
not remove to New Stockbridge, or Oneida, resided. Their number 
on the farm is said to have been about twenty families. They by no 
means confined themselves to this little spot. They cultivated the 
ground of the farm, more or less, but depended chiefly, in accordance 
with their long custom and native propensity, upon hunting and fishing.** 


In the summer of 1789, a very considerable accession was made 
by persons who settled in the Susquehannah and Chenango valleys. 
Daniel Hudson, afterward a major and judge, settled between Capt 
Leonard and Col. Rose ; Jonathan Fitch settled upon the creek that 
took his name : he was a merchant from Wyoming, and had been 
sheriff of the county ; it is believed he was the first representative to 
the state legislature from the new county of Tioga. The first reli- 
gious society formed within the bounds of the settlement was a Bap- 
tist church, consisting of 10 or 12 members, formed by Elder Howe, 
a very early settler in the place. He was succeeded by Elder FisL 
This society became extinct about the year 1800. A Dutch Re- 
formed church was founded about 1798, by the Rev. Mr. Manly, 
who was succeeded in his ministrations by the Rev. Mr. Palmer: this 
church was afterward merged into the rresbyterian. The present 
Presbyterian church was organized in 1817. Mr. Niles, their minister, 
was ordained the next year. He died in 1828, and was succeeded by 
Mr. Lockwood, who continued his pastoral relation till 1833. He 
was succeeded, in 1836, by the Rev. John A. Nash: in 1838, Mr. 
Nash was succeeded by Kev. David D. Gregory. The Episcopal 
church was incorporated in 1816. Rev. Mr. Keeler was the first 
officiating clergyman. He was succeeded by Rev. F. H. Cumming. 
In 1821, Mr. Cumming was succeeded by Rev. Mr. Gear. The 
clergymen succeeding have been in the following order : Rev. Na- 
thaniel Huse, in 1824 ; Rev. Mr. Cumming, in 1829 ; Rev. Hiram 
Adams, in 1831; Rev. Mr. Shimeall, in 1835; and Rev. Edward 
Andrews, in 1836. The Methodist society was formed in 1817. In 
1822, the Methodist chapel was purchased of the Episcopalians, and 
moved from the site of the present Episcopal church to where it now 
stands. The present Baptist church was instituted in 1829. Elder 
Frederick was its first pastor. The succeeding pastors have been in 
the order following : Revs. Jason Corwin, Henry Robertson, Davis 
Dimmick, William Storrs, and Rev. James M. Coley. The Congre- 
gational church was organized in 1836, and the Kev. John Stark- 
weather was called to be their pastor ; he was succeeded by Rev. 
Samuel W. Bush. A Catholic church was finished in 1887. In 
Jan. 1838, a Universalist society was organized. 

Windsor, the ancient Oquago, was taken from Chenango in 1807; 
has a mountainous surface, and is centrally intersected by tne Susque- 
hannah. Great quantities of locust timber, valuable for shipbuilding, 
have been taken from this town. The principal settlement is on 
the west side of the Susquehannah, and has about 60 dwellings, and 
350 inhabitants ; 16 miles from Binghamton, and 128 from Albany* 
Pop. 2,368. 

The valley of Oquaffo was settled by the whites about the vear 
1788. The most of the earlier inhabitants were from Waterbuiy 
and Watertown, in Connecticut. The Rev. Mr. Buck was the firrt 
minister who preached in the place. He was called by the first settlers 
Major Buck, as he had held that office during the revolutionary war. 
Mr. Williston, a missionary from Connecticut, appears to have been 


tbe next Soon after the formation of the Presbyterian church. Rev. 
Seth Sage became the settled pastor, and remained such till his death. 
The Episcopal church was organized in 1803, by Bishop chase, then 
a missionary in Western New York. The Presbyterian meeting- 
house was erected in 1800, the Methodist in 1833. 

Oquago was the residence of a tribe of Indians. It appears to 
have b^n a half-way resting-place for the " Six Nations^ as they 
passed south of Wyoming, and also for the tribes of the Wyoming 
Talley as they passed north. Jonathan Edwards, the celebrated 
divine, while a minister at Stockbridge, Mass., took a deep interest 
in the welfare of the Indians in this place. He procured a mis- 
sionary for them, Rev. Mr. Hawley, and three other persons, Mr. 
Woodoridge, Mr. and Mrs. Ashley. The three latter returned. Mrs. 
Ashley, it appears, was employed during her stay as an interpreter. 
Mr. Hawley remained their missionary until the commencement of 
the French war, when it was considered unsafe for him to remain 
longer. About one year previous to this time, Mr. Edwards sent 
one of his sons, a lad of about nine years of age, to Oquago, under 
the care of Mr. Hawley, to learn the Indian language, in order to 
become an Indian missionary. When the war commenced, a faithful 
Indian, who had special care of the lad, took him and conveyed him 
to his father, part of the way on his back. This lad was afterward 
President of union College. 

The following, relating to the privations and difficulties encountered 
by the first settlers of Oquago valley, is from Wilkinson^s Annals of 

"In about the year 1794, there was what was called itie pumpkin 
freshet, in the month of August; the Susquehannah rising much 
above its usual height, and sweeping down in its tide the productions 
of the fields — com, pumpkins, potatoes, &c. A great scarcity was 
the natural consequence. During this scarcity, Maj. Stow shouldered 
a bushel of wheat, in which the whole neighborhood had a common 
share, and started for Wattles' ferry to mill, a distance of more than 
forty miles, carrying his grist the whole distance on foot. He got 
his wheat ground, and returned in the same trudging manner. 
During his journey, he purchased one quarter of a pound of tea — at 
that time a rare article with the settlers — to help out the repast 
which he anticipated at his return. Upon his arrival home, the 
neighbors, who held an interest in the grist of wheat — and most pro- 
bably others also — collected at the major's house, to hold a sort of 
thanksgiving ; which was to be celebrated by preparing and partak- 
ing of as sumptuous a feast as their stores would admit. Out of the 
flour they made short-cake ; but having no bog's lard, they would 
have come short of this luxury, had not the major bethought himself 
of some beards grease which he had in the house, and which answer- 
ed as a substitute. Their tea was quite a ncvr article to them, for 
"which they were not prepared. They had no teakettle, no teapot, 
no teacups. Instead of the first, a small kettle was furnished to boil 
the water in ; they put the tea into the same to steep it ; and instead 


of cups and saucers, they used a wooden bowl, which they passed 
around from one to the other. Still they made a merry cheer of it ; 
felt the glow of sociability, and told each his best anecdote. These 
early inhabitants, when they became old, would tell the story to their 
children and more recent inhabitants, with moistened eyes ; but said, 
it was then a heart-felt thanksgiving and a merry time." 

Coles viLLE, taken from Windsor in 1821 ; drained centrally by 
the Susquehannah river; from Albany 123 miles. Pop. 2,617. Har- 

Esrsville, 17 miles N. E. from Binghamton, has about 30 dwellings, 
olesville. New Ohio, Nineveh, Dora, and Susquehannah, are post* 
offices. Bellona springs in this town, so named from some sulphur 
springs, has been irequented for health and pleasure. 

CoNKLiN, taken from Chenango in 1824 ; having the Susquehannah 
river running N. W. through it in a deep valley with fertile flats. 
Pop. 1,471. Conklin and Corbotville arc post-oAces: the former of 
which is about 4 miles £. of Binghamton. 

Lisle, taken from Union in 1801 ; from Binghamton, N. E., 18 
miles. Lisle, Lisle Centre, and Union Village, are post-offices. This 
town was settled in 1 792 by emigrants from the eastern states. Pop. 

" A congregational church was organized in what is called Lisle, in 
the year 1797, by the Rev. Seth Williston, who had, a short time pre- 
viously, been sent there by the Connecticut Missionary Society, upon 
the personal application of Mr. Edwards. The church consisted, in 
its first formation, of sixteen members, eleven of whom were by pro- 
fession. In 1801, William Osbom was elected to the office of a 
deacon ; but it was not till 1810 that he was consecrated by the im- 
position of hands from the presbytery ; and his colleague, Andrew 
Squires, was consecrated at the same time. 

" Mr. Williston employed about half of his time in pastoral duties in 
this congregation; the rest of his time he missionated in Union, 
Owego, and in Oquago. He was installed pastor of the church in 
Lisle, in October, 1803 ; and from this period he appears to have em- 
ployed all his time within the pastoral limits of this one congregation, 
until he was dismissed from it in 1810. The church of Lisle was the 
earliest organized, it is believed, of any west of the Catskill and south 
of Utica. At the time of Mr. Williston's installation, the council or- 
ganized what then was called ' The Susquehannah Association/ tak- 
ing in some of the northern counties of Pennsylvania. 

** In the year 1796, Mr. E. Edwards built the first saw-mill on the 
Onondaga or its waters ; and was nearly, if not quite, the first that 
came down the Chenango with a raft He subsequently carried on 
lumbering to a great extent ; and the' pine timber of that section being 
of a superior quality, compensated for his being so far back from the 
broader stream of the Susquehannah. The first grist-mill was built 
much later, by Dr. Wheeler. Previous to this, the inhabitants came 
down to Castle creek for their grinding ; and when that mill failed 
for want of water, thev were obliged to go to Tioga Point." 

Nanticoke, taken from Lisle in 1831 ; from Albany 144 miles. 


There are sulphur springs in the N. W. part of the town ; 14 miles 
N. W. from Binghamton. Pop. 418. 

Sandpord, taken from Windsor in 1821 ; from Albany 121, from 
Binghamton, £., 24 miles. The town is thinly settled, being stony 
and mountainous. Pop. 1,172. 

Triangle, so named from its shape, taken from Lisle in 1831 ; 
from Albany 132, from Binghamton, iSi., 17 miles. Pop. 1,692. Tri- 
angle post-office is at Clarke's settlement, near the E. line, where 
there are about 30 dwellmgs. At Union Village is the post-office 
named Upper Lisle. 

Union was organized in 1791 ; lies on the north side of the Sus- 
quehannah ; its surface is undulating, with a fertile soil of gravelly 
loam. The village of Union is on the Susquehannah, 9 miles W, 
from Binghamton, containing about 50 houses and 300 inhabitants. 
Maine post-office is in the northern part of the town. Pop. 2,600. 

The town appears to have been first settled about the year 1789. 
One of the most prominent settlers was Gen. Oringh Stoddard, one 
of the commissioners appointed by the Boston Company to treat with 
the Indians. Amos Patterson, afterward judge of Broome county, 
and Joshua Mersereau, one of the earliest judges of old Tioga 
county, were early settlers in Union. Judge Mersereau and his 
brother Jolm, were originally from New Jersey. Previous to the 
revolutionary war, these two brothers removed to Staten Island, 
where they kept a large tavern. It is stated that they were the first 
persons who commenced a line of stages from N6w York to Philar 
delphia, uniting their line with the boats that plied between their own 
dock and New York. 

When Staten Island fell into the hands of the British, Judge Mer- 
gereau and his brother, being zealous in the American cause, left the 
island and entered into the American service. These two brothers 
were the principal agents in preventing the British from crossing the 
Delaware in their pursuit of Washington. Judee Mersereau, who 
was a commissary through the war, was much about the person of 
Washington. When he had crossed the Delaware, he was asked if 
he was sure that he had removed every thing that could be employed 
to transport the enemy over. Washington replied he thought he 
had. Judge Mersereau begged the privilege of re-crossing with his 
brother and making search. They went back and searched the. op- 
posite shore, and found, below the surface of the water, two Durham 
Doats, which had been timely sunk by a royalist who lived near^ 
They raised them up and took them to the Pennsylvania side. 

** Several of the Indians, whose particular location was at the Castle 
farm, had temporary huts or wigwams in Union, near the river, and 
on both sides. These they occupied more or less for several years 
after the country was settled. Where, and in what manner, they ob- 
tained their salt was always a mystery to the whites. They would 
strike a course over the mountain about opposite Judge Merscreau'Sy 
on the south side of the river, and after an absence of about twelve 
hours, would return with a pail or kettle of salt ; and that, too, im- 



mediately upon their return, would be warm. Old Mr. Richards 
used to say, that the Indians would cross the river below Willow 
Point, rise the mountain, and bring back salt. Sometimes it would 
be warm. He inferred that there must be a salt spring near, but it 
never could be found. John D. Mersereau relates, that when a lad, 
his father and himself have endeavored to follow the Indians when 
they were known to have set out for salt ; but they soon would ap- 
pear to be apprehensive that they were watched, and would either 
remain where they were, or turn from their course. Never more 
than two would set out upon the expedition. They used the utmost 
precaution to prevent the whites from ever discovering the secret 
spot. They had other places to which they resorted for salt, one or 
more in the neighborhood of Oquago. Why these sources of salt 
have never been found by the whites, is a mystery. 

Vestal was taken from Union in 1823, being divided from that 
town by the Susquehannah. It is a lumbering tovim, being but a 
small part of it cultivated. Major David Barney was one of the first 
settlers. He came down the river from Cooperstown with a large 
family of children in a canoe. Vestal is 8 miles S. W. from Bin^- 
hamton. Pop. 1,250. There are two post-offices, Vestal, S, Vetw. 


Cayuga county was formed from Onondaga in 17TO; but other 
counties have since been taken from it. Greatest length N. and S. 
65, greatest breadth E. and W. 23 miles. From Albany, W., 156 
miles, from New York, 301. Upon the S. the surface rises into 
ridges, along the Cayuga lake, the Owasco lake and inlet, and the 
Skaneateles lake. The disposition of the waters shows an irregular 
surface. The Poplar ridge, E. of the Cayuga lake, rises in some 
places to 600 feet above, but has a gentle slope towards the lake, dis- 
playing finely cultivated farms. The eastern declivity of this and 
other hills are more abrupt On the N. of Auburn, the country is 
comparatively level, yet has a rolling appearance from the many 
large gravel hills scattered over the plain, assuming in many places 
the semblance of stupendous mounds formed by art This grave 
has much limestone, and produces excellent wheat Few porti'**** 
of the state possess more fertile lands, or can boast of higher culti^c^ 
tion. In all the fruits of the climate, this county is prolific. Abon 
two thirds of the land is under improvement. The southern portion 
s most thickly settled. The Cayuga lake, which forms a large pr»^ 
jf the western boundary, is a beautiful sheet of water, 36 miles long 
and from 1 to 4 broad. The county is divided into 22 towns. Pop 

AfTiirr^w was t^l^'^*^ frow \.ur**l>*w ^1^. 18^^ ^^^ to'na* ^ nxilep bj 


2, comprehending lota of the old military tract, is included within 
the chartered limits of the village. The compact part of the village 
lies 2) miles from Lake Owasco, on the outlet of that name. It IB 
156 miles from Albany, 314 from New York, 7 from Weedsport on 
the Erie canal, and 339 from Washington. Pop. 5,626. There are 
3 Presbyterian churches, 1 Episcopal, 1 Baptist, 1 Universaiist, and 
1 Catholic ; a state prison, courthouse, theological seminary, an 
academy, 2 banks, 4 printing-offices, and a number of splendid hotels. 
Auburn is one of the most thriving and beautiful villages in the state. 
Its principal streets are adorned with lofty buildings of brick and 











Eastern pari of Genesee street Auburn 

Auburn was first settled in 1793, by Col. John L. Hardenbergh, 
and was for many years called " Hurdenbergh's Comers." It became 
a post village in 1800, and in 1805 the county town ; and received its 
present name from Dr. Crosset, At this time, the villaee consisted 
of but a few log dwellings, a store or two, a grist-mill, &,c., all situ- 
ated near the bank of the creek, not f;ir from the spot occupied by 
the establishment of Messrs, Leonard & Warden. 

In 1807, the building of the courthouse was commenced, and the 
county courts removed to this place from Aurora. In 1811, the vil- 
lage is supposed to have contaim^d about 300 inhabitants ; the court- 
house was the only public building ; even this was in an unfinished 
state. The construction of an academy, a three-story brick building, 
and a neat little Episcopal church were commenced, and a Pres- 
byterian society formed during this year. 

in 1615, Auburn was incorporatea a village, at which time it con- 


Uined 1,000 inhabitants. From this period, its improvement became 
more rapid and uniform ; walks were now put down on the principal 
streets, which before were muddy and uneven. In 1816, the state 
prison was founded in tliis place ; the first Presbyterian church in 
North-street was commenced, and tiie Bank of Auburn, capital 
9300,000, was chartered. In April, 1817, the village contained 
1,506 inhabitants, 148 dwellings, 20 stores, and 40 mechanic shops. 
A railroad connects Auburn with Syracuse. This road is S6 miles 
long, and was constructed at an expense of 8400,000. A railroad is 
now constructing between this place and Rochester, which passes 
some distance S, of the Erie canal, through the flourishing villages 
of Canandaigua and Geneva, a distance by this route of 77i miles. 

Auburn Theological Seminary. 

The Auburn Theological Seminary was established by the synod of 
Geneva in 1619, and by the act of incorporation, in 1820, was plaoed 
under commissioners, chosen by the synods of Genesee, Geneva, and 
Oneida. There are four professors in the institution. Over 300 
clergymen have been educated sinci: its establishment. In 1839, the 
number of students was 71. The principal building is of stone, 
senting a front of 500 feet The library exhibits a valuable c( 
tion ol choice theological works, and contains upwards of 5,000 
No charge is made for the use of the library, rooms, or furniture. 
The MeUifKlist Episcopal society was organized in 1821 ; their house, 
on Chapcl-strcet, was erected soon after, and has been since sold to 
the ('alholics ; their present stone chapel, on Nnrth-strect, was erected 
in 1833. The Bnjitisl society was organized in 1825, and built a 
church on South-street, (since sold to the Universalists,) in 1829; 
their church on Gcncsce-street was erected in 1834. The Second 
Prp.sbyleriun society was organized in 1829, and the foundation of 
their house laid. In 1833, the Universalist society organized; 

»nd in 1834, the Catholics fitted up their church on Chapel-street. 
The following is a representation of the state prison as viewed from 

■^e N. ; the cupola of the courthouse ia seen in the distance. Th9 


Slate Prison at Auburn. 

erection of this prison commenced in 1816. " It occupies a plot of 
ground forming a square 500 feet eacii way, enclosed witli a boundary 
wall 2,000 feet in extent, 30 feet high, and 4 feet thick at the base. 
A small river or creek runs along the S. side of the boundary, and 
sufficient power from the stream is obtained, by means of a water- 
wheel and shaft through the wall, to worii the machinery within the 
prison. The prison buildings stand back about 60 feet from the 
road, and form three sides ot a square ; the front part being about 
380 feet long ; each of the return wings is 240 feet lung and 45 in 
depth." The cost of erecting the prison was more than 8500,000. 
The usual number of prisoners of late years has been between 6 and 
700. The earnings of the prison during the year ending Sept. 1839, 
was C60,ldl.46; tne expenditures during the same period, 851,671.31. 
Religious instruction is regularly given by the ehaplain. Sunday 
schools are instituted in the prisons, in which the students in the the- 
ological seminary and other pious persons assist ; the younger por- 
tion of the convicts, if illiterate, are taught to read, write, and cast 

" The building contained originally 550 cells. More, we believe, 
have lately been added. They are principally distributed into f»ur 
tiers or stories, and constructed on ouch side of the block or wing. 
The cells are each 7 feet long. 7 feet high, and 3i wide. They are 
sufficiently lighted, well warmed, and ventilated. The area between 
the cells and thfi parallel walls, 10 feet wide, is open from the ground 
to the roof; and of this interval. 3 feet adjoining the cells are occu- 
pied by the galleries. This space in front of the cells forms a com- 
plete soundine-gallery. so that the wati'hman in the open area on the 
ground can hear even a whisper, from a distant cell in the upper 

"Such are the provisions and precautions for the separate confine- 
ment of the prisoners at nizht. In the daytime, they are comp';lled 
to labor together, in an orderly ami penitential rnannfr. S'«fn after 
daylight, on a signal given by the prison bell, the turnkey unlocks the 


Prisoneri at the Stale Prison at Avium. 

doors of the cells, when the convicts, each with his night tub, water 
can, and mush liid, march out; and having disposed of these arliclefl 
according to the order of the prison, proceed to the workshops, 
where they commence the hibor of tlie day. At a fixed hour another 
bell is rung, when they form again in line, and march in silence, with 
closed files, to the mess-room, where they breakfast at narrow tables, 
so arranged that they are uniible to exchange even looks or signs. 
Aftpr an interval of 20 to 30 minutes, they return in the same manner 
to the workshops. At 12 o'clock, they dine under the same care to 
prevent intercourse. On the approach of night, they wash their 
faces and hands, smd at tlie ringing of the bell, form a line according 
to the number of their cells, march out of the shops to their tubs, and 
at the word of command take them up, sfep forward and empty Into 
the drain the water which had been placed in them in the morning 
to purify them. They then proceed, with closed files, the tubs bang- 
ing on their arms, to the waah-rooni, adjoining the kitchen, where 
their mush and molasses in a kid, and water in a can for drinking, 
have been placed together, in rows, by the cooks ; and, witbcnit 
breaking their step, they stoop and take up tlic ■can and kid, march to 
their respective g:dlcries. enter their cells as they arrive at them, and 
pull the doors partly shut Each gallery is occupied by one compa- 
ny, which is marched and locked up by one turnkev, with two kej*, 
diflering from each other, and from all the rest, "fhe convicts then 
eat supper in their respective cells. At an early hour they are re- 
quired, by the ringing of a Ijcll, to take off their clothes and go tfS 
bed, upon their canvass hammocks; when well, they are not permitted 
to lie down before the bell rings, nor to get up again, but from neces- 
sity, until the ringing of the morning bell. During the night, turn- 
keys are constantly moving round the galleries, wearing woollen 
socks on their feet, and walking so noiselessly that the convicts are 
not able to discover their presence or absence ; and thus the whole 


wing, containing several hundred convicts, is preserved in perfect 
stillness and order. It is obvious that no communication can talce 
place between the convicts at night, witlioiit the connivance or negli- 
gence of the turnkeys, which is guarded against by the visits of the 
Keeper and his deputies at different hours." — Gordon's Gaz. 

The following inscriptions arc copied from monuments in the grave- 
yard N. of the village. 

■■ riiifwiiii Hiat. Bcclei Politiiequa nostro Revercnda Matthaea Lb Rue Perrini D. D. 
qmndedm a&nos m principio in Seminsno Aubuman^i thvologico qui sruditua dileciu» mo- 

mul T ItDCCLXXVlI mnrilurus eiitum pruspciil Uanquillua paiiens benigniu ape in 
CtiriHo ado tadianig chrislum esse venun dvum el redempturem suum gloriaeieeimuin 
podem confenun el precalus Iriumphavit suls benedixit gloriae uccndil Feb. XII 
SiDCCCJXXVI Hunc lapidcm amici nonnuili urban poeuere." 

[To the manuny of Rev. Mal[hew Lu Rur Pi'ione, D. D., Professoi of £i:deeia8liciil 
Hiiloiy and Folily, ('" fifteen yfxs, in ihc TheoJngical Seminary al Auburn. Hs wan 
learacd, uniabl^, and modeM, end lived in einccrc pieiy lowatds God and good wit! towerda 
■11 meD cieaied in tbe inia^ of God. He waa bom May 5, 1777. Id the near proapecl 
of death he wag mnquil and paiitni, illumined by hope in Christ alone, whom he joyfully 
eonfenei lo be the Irue God and his moat glorious Rediemer. Having prayed, he iri. 
nmpbad over deaih, blessed hia friends, and ascended to ^lory, Feb. IS, 1B3G — Some of 
hii bereaveit friends have erected this monument la hia miinory.] 

■* 1 Cor. 15 ; 57. > Bui ilianks be [a Gjd which givi'ih us (he victory thmugh our Lord 
JcaUB Christ,' Bee. William Leaii, Jr., son of \Vm. and Mary Lewis of 'hia vicinity. After 
hii course of prepamlory studies in Williamn College and Auburn Thco. Seminary, and 
■uecenluJly devoting himself lo the cause of Education, Temperance and Piety in Canada, 
New York, Indiana, and Ohio, ho wcnl home lo God, 4 April, 183tt, aged 36 years. From 
(he bible clan, his interest in rcligiun began. Hus faith and character were formed on the 
KUe; and he went down (he dark valley saying 'all a 1ij;ht.' " 

AuBEUua, organized in 1789; bounds since altered; from Albany 
159 miles. Pop. 2,644. Cayiu;a, 8 miles W. from Auburn, has about 
30 dwellings. Aurelius and Fosterdale are small villages. Clarks- 
Tille* 1 mile W. from Auburn, has about 50 dwellings. 

Cayuga Bridge. 

The above view of Cayuga Bridge, which crosses the Cayuga 
lake OD the great western turnpike, was taken on the western bank, 
and shows on the opposite side of the lake a portion of the little vil* 
lage of Cavuga. The large building on the right is the wcll-Lnown 
tavern of Mr. Titus, having superior accommodations. This bridge, 
BO famous in political estimates, was commenced in May, 17U9, and 


finished in September, 1800. It was built by the Manhattan Com- 
pany of New York, and cost $150,000. Its length is one mile. 
" This bridge is the longest in America, perhaps in the world, and 
yet five years ago," says a traveller in 1800, " the Indians possessed 
the shores of the lake, imbosomed in almost impenetrable woods." 
The first bridge was built on mud sills — the second on piles — the 
third and last was erected in 1833, and cost about 915,000. 

Brutus, taken from Aurelius in 1802. Pop. 2,045. Weedsport, 
incorporated in 1831, on the canal 7 miles N. of Auburn, 26 irom 
Syracuse, 87 W. of Utica, and 197 by canal from Albany, is a flour- 
ishing village, with about 120 dwellings. Centre ville is a small vil- 
lage on the canal. 

Cato, taken from Aurelius in 1802; bounds since altered ; from 
Albany 155, from Auburn, N. E., 13 miles. Cato Comers and Cato 
are small villages. Pop. 2,380. 

Conquest, taken from Cato in 1821 ; from Albany 162 miles. 
Pop. 1,911. The post-office is 19 miles N. N. W. of Aubur% 

Fleming, taken from Aurelius in 1823 ; from Albany 160 miles. 
Pop. 1,330. Fleming, 5 miles S. of Auburn, has about 20 dwellings. 

Genoa, organized by the General Sessions of Ontario county, in 
1789, by the name of Milton; name and bounds since altered; from 
Albany 185, from Auburn centrally distant, S.,20 miles. Pop. 2,591. 
Genoa, formerly called the " Indian Fields," has about 40 dwellings. 
Northville has about 20 dwellings. Kings Ferry, Five Comers, and 
East Genoa are post-offices. 

Ira, taken from Cato in 1821 ; from Albany 189 miles. Pop. 2,282. 
Ira, 24 miles N. of Auburn, has about 25 dwellings. 

Leoyard, taken from Scipio in 1823. Aurora, post village 18 
miles S. W. from Auburn, is beautifully situated upon the lake in a 
fertile country, and has several churches, the Cayuga Academy, and 
about 125 dwellings. Levana, also upon the lake, 14 miles from 
Auburn, is a small village. Pop. 2,500. 

Locke, taken from Milton, original name of (^enoa, in 1802 ; from 
Albany 166, from Auburn centrally distant, S. £., 21 miles. Milan, 
at which is the post-office of the town, has about 50 dwellings. Pop. 

Mentz, originally named Jefferson, and taken from Aurelius in 1808; 
from Albany 161 miles. Pop. 4,215. Port Byron, on the canal, 3 
miles W. from Weedsport, and 8 from Auburn, has about 150 dwell- 
ings. Throopsville is a small manufacturing village on the Owasfeo 
outlet, 3 miles N. W. from Auburn. Montezuma Village is situated 
at the junction of the Seneca, Cayuga, and Erie canals. It con- 
tains an Episcopal and a Baptist church, a collector's office, and 
about 75 dwellings: distant, 10 miles from Auburn, 21 from Geneva, 
64 from Rochester, 7 from Cayuga, 35 from Syracuse, and 206 from 
Albany. In 1839, the state was successful in sinking a shaft about 
800 feet, from which issues a large quantity of the best salt water in 
the state. The salt made from it is remarkably free from impurities, 
and the facilities for its manufacture are great, the ground being good 

CAYVQA counrrr. 81 

and fire-wood plenty. No lime is used in the manufacture of salt 
from these springs. The Montezuma marshes commence about a 
mile westward of the village : they are gradually drying away, and 
it is believed that the healthfulness of this town is now equal to 
any in the vicinity. 

" This marshy tract,** says a well known writer, " is the paradise 
of musquetoes^^ which tiny and troublesome insect are here notorious 
tor their numbers, size, and ** penetrating proboscis." The following 
is said to be the tradition of the Onondagas respecting the origin of 
this ** musical insect :" 

** There were, in times of old — many hundred moons ago — two huge feathered monsters 
permitted by the Manitou to descend from the sky and light upon the banks of the Seneca 
river, near the present route of the canal, at Montezuma. Their form was exactly that of 
a muaquetoe, and they were so large that they darkened the sun like a cloud, as they flew 
between the earth and it. Standing the one upon one side of the river, and the other op. 
posite on the other bank, they guarded the river, and stretching their long necks into the 
eanoes of the Indians as they attempted to paddle along the stream, gobbled them up aa 
the stork king in the fable did the frogs. The destruction of life was great, jEbr the em. 
borgo was so strictly enforced that not an Indian could pass without being devoured in the 
attempt. It was long before the monsters could be exterminated, and then only by the 
etMnbused efibrts of all the warriors of the Cayuga and Onondaga nations of Indians. 
The battle was terrible, but the warriors finally triumphed, and the mammoth musquetoes 
were slain. But, sad to relate, as their carcases decomposed in the sun, every particle be. 
came vivified, and flew oflT daily in myriads of clouds of musquetoes ! And they have filled 
the country ever since." 

Moravia, taken from Sempronius in 1833 ; from Albany 157, from 
Auburn centrally distant, S. E., 20 miles. Settlements were com- 
menced here in 1794. A branch of the Owasco inlet here falls per- 
pendicularly 70 feet. Pop. 2,010. Moravia is a small village. 

NiLEs, taken from Sempronius in 1833; from Albany 160, from 
Auburn centrally distant, S. E., 15 miles. Kellogsville and West 
Niles are post-offices. Pop. 2,234. 

OwAsco, taken from Aurelius in 1802; from Albany 164 miles. 
Owasco, a small village, is 8 miles S. E. from Auburn. Pop. 1,331. 

SciPio, organized as part of Ontario county in 1789 ; bounds since 
altered; from Albany 180, centrally distant S. from Auburn, 10 
miles. Scipio, N. Scipio, Sherwood's Corners, and Scipioville are 
post-offices. Pop. 2,255. 

Sempronius, organized in 1799; from Albany 153, from Auburn 
centrally distant, S. E., 16 miles. Skaneateles lake touches it on the 
N. Pop. 1,304. 

Sennbt, taken from Brutus in 1807; from Albany 160 miles. 
Sennet, 5 miles N. of Auburn, has about 30 dwellings. Pop. 2,060. 

Springport, taken from Scipio and Aurelius in 1823 ; from Albany 
166 miles. Pop. 1,891. Union Springs, so called from two springs 
whose united waters form a useful mill-stream, laid out in 1813, on 
the Cayuga lake, 10 miles S. W. from Auburn, has about 50 dwellings. 

Sterling, the northernmost tovni, formed fromCato in 1812 ; from 
Albany 172, from Auburn, N., centrally distant 28 miles. Sterling, 
Martville, and Little Sodus are post-offices. Pop. 2,536. 

Summer Hill, originally named Plato, and taken from Locke in 



1821; from Albany 147, from Auburn, S. E., centrally distant 25 
miles. Summer Hill, in the south part, has about 20 dwellings. 
Pop. 1,446. 

Venice, taken from Scipio in 1823 ; W. from Albany 162 miles. 
Smith's Corners, 14 miles S. W. of Auburn, Talcott's 15, Tupper's 17, 
and Stuart's Comers, are small villages. Pop. 2,105. 

Victory, taken from Cato in 1821 ; from Albany 167, from Auburn 
N., 20 miles. Lathrop's Comers has about 25 or 80 dwellings. 
Pop. 2,371. 


Cattaraugus county, taken from Genesee in 1803 ; centrally dis- 
tant from New York via Catskill, 384 ; from Albany, 292 ; from 
Buffalo, S. £., 50 miles. Length, E. and W., 39, and greatest breadth 
N. and S. 36 miles. It derives its name from the Indian word Gah^ 
ta-ra-ke-ras, signifying stinking shore or beach, originally applied to 
Lake Erie, ana thence extended over the adjacent country. This 
county is highly elevated, being from 500 to 1200 feet above Lake 
Erie. Its surface is broken by some hills of no mean pretensions to 
the character of mountains, but in general it is but moderately uneven, 
and in some parts quite level. In the S., along the Allegany river, 
there are broad belts of white pine, behind which there are marshes ; 
excepting these, the lands are generally firm, and timbered with a 
variety of trees of lofty growth. No region of this state, and proba- 
bly none of any other in the Union, was originally covered with an 
equal amount of valuable timber. Some of the trees hayemeasured 
230 feet in height, and five of them have been known tt^Jhmish an 
hundred " lumber-man's" logs. Shingles and boards for tbe supply 
of the whole western World, have been manufactured in the shingle 
shanties and saw-mills upon the Allegany and its tributaries. The 
lands in the N. part are warmer and better adapted to grain and 
grass crops than in the south, except at the S. W. comer. This 
county formed part of the Holland Land Company's purchase, who 
oriff nally owned it all excepting the Indian reservations. About one 
eighth of the county is under improvement The county is divide 
into 26 towns. Pop. 28,803. 

AsHFORD, taken from EUicottville in 1824 ; from Albany 282, from 
Buffalo 40, from EUicottville, N., 10 miles. Pop. 1,462. Not more 
than a tenth part of the town is yet under improvement. The valley 
of the Cattaraugus creek, on the northern line of the town, is fit)m I 
to 2 miles broad, and fertile. Ashford is a small village. 

Burton was taken from Great Valley in 1831 ; centrally distant 
from EUicottville, S. E., 16 miles. Pop. 511. "Allegany city,** is a 
plot laid out some years since upon the Allegany river, near the east- 


em botmdary. Not more than one thirtieth part of this town is under 
improvement • 

Cold Speino was taken from Napoli, of which it formed the south- 
ern part. Pop. 673. This township is intersected by the Allegany 
river. At the mouth of Cold Spring creek, which enters this stream, 
is an ^ Indian village called Tunes-assah ; the reservation, one mile 
in width along the river, extends some miles above and several be- 
low this point into Pennsylvania ; this remnant lately had at its head 
the celebrated chief Complanter^ who died early in the year 183d, 
aged about 100 years. Some of the tribe are wealthy ; have large 
stocks of cattle, and some saw-mills. Much is due for the improve- 
ment of their condition to the judicious efforts of the society of 
* Friends,' of Philadelphia, who have long maintained instructers 
among them, teaching the primitive arts of civilization, and who 
have a settlement in the southern part of the town." Some of the 
last of the Indian prophets incorporated a part of the tenets of Chris- 
tianity into their pagan system. A few years since, a portion of the 
Indians in this town were in the practice of collecting around a log 
about 30 feet long, worked into a resemblance of the human form, to 
which they performed a kind of worship. The son of Complanter 
subsequently persuaded them to throw it into the river. 

Complanter, the chief above-mentioned, it appears, was the son of 
a white man, who lived in the vicinitv of Fort Plank ; his mother was 
a young woman of the Seneca tribe. The Seneca Indians, during 
the revolutionary war, were led on against the Americans in the Mo- 
hawk valley, by Complanter, who, in one of his incursions, took his 
father prisoner. He however treated him well, aod released him 
from confinement. In a letter written by Complanter to the govem- 
or of Pennsylvania in 1822, complaining of the attempt to impose 
taxes upon him and the Senecas residing on the Allegany, he began 
as folloyrf : 

•* When I was a child, I played with the butterfly, the grasshopper, and the frogs. As I 
grew up, I began to pay some attention, and play with the 1/idian boys in the neighborhood, 
mod they took notice of my skin being a different color from theirs, and spoke about it. I 
inquired of my mother the cause, and she told me that my father was a resident of Albany. 
I ate still my victuals out of a bark dish : I grew up to be a young man, and married me a 
wife, but I had no kettle or gun. I then knew where my father lived, and went to see 
him« and found he was a white man and spoke the English language. He gave me victuals 
while I was at his house, but when I starred to return home he gave me no provision to eat 
on the way. He gave me nei her kettle nor gun, neiJier did he tell me that the United 
States were about to rebel against the government of England,** &c. &c. 

" Complanter lived to a great age, having deceased within the last eight or ten years. 
He was an able man, distinguished in subsequent negotiations. He was eloquent, and a 
great advocate for temperance. He made a very effective and characteristic speech upon 
that subject in 1822. * The Great Spirit firat made the world, and next the flying animals, 
ftnd found ail things good and pro^^perous. He is immortal and everlasting. After finish. 
ing the flying animals, he came down upon the. earth and there stood. Then he made dif. 
ferent kinds of trees, and woods of all sorts, and people of every kind. He made the 
spring and other seasons, and the weather suitable for planting. These he did make. But 
MU, to make whiskey to give to Indians, he did not make.* » » » * » The Great 
Spirit told us that there were three things for people to attend to. First, we ought to take 
care of our wives and children. Secondly, the white people ought to attend to their farms 
and cattle. Thirdly, the Great Spirit has given the bears and deers to the Indians.* * * » 
* The Great Spirit has ordered mo to quit drinking. He wishes ms to inform the people 


that they should quit drinking intoxicating drink.' In the course of the same speech, he 
gave evidence tliat he i^na not overmuch pleased with the admixture of his own blood. 
• * * * The different kinds tiie Great Spirit made separate, and not to mix with and 
disturb eaeh other. But the white people have broken this command, by mixing their 
color with the Indians. The Indians have done better by not doing so.' *' — Stont^a Idfe 
of Brant. 

Gariothjowaneh, a distinguished chief of the Seneca tribe, was, it 
is said, a superior orator to Red Jacket. He was called by the 
whites, Big Kettle, that being the signification of his Indian name. It 
is stated that he never tasted ardent spirits, and opposed the practice 
among the Indians, and suffered some persecutions on this account 
During the early period of his life, he was opposed to the introduction 
of Christianity, but latterly was rather in favor of it. Mr. Wright, 
the missionary, now living among the Senecas, near Buffalo, attempt- 
ed to persuade him to embrace the Christian religion. When told 
that he was a sinner in the sight of God, Big Kettle appeared to be 
somewhat surprised ; throwing himself in an oratorical attitude, he 
recounted a long list of his good deeds, and endeavored to make it 
appear that he was not a sinner. He once came to Mr. Wright, and 
asked him the question, " Does God overrule all things ?" " Certainly," 
replied Mr. Wright. " I tell my people so, in council," replied Big 
Kettle ; " but when I am alone, and think how much iniquity is prac- 
tised by the white people m getting away our lands, &c., and how they 
go on without being punished, I have my doubts." He said that the 

f)reaching of the missionaries was good, and that the Indians would 
isten to, and follow it, but he said it would be useless : the bad habits 
of his people were so strong, the attempt to break them up would be 
as idle as to " stop the wind from blowing down Lake Erie." 

CoNNEWANGo, formcd from Little Valley in 1823; from Albany, 
312, from EUicottville, S. W.,20 miles. The soil is excellent. Pop. 
1,316. Rutledge is a small post village. 

Dayton, taken from Pcrrysburg in 1835 ; from Albany 8^, from 
EUicottville, N. W., 25 miles. Pop. 922. The surface of twtown is 
undulating, and generally heavily timbered. 

Ellicottville, taken from Ischua in 1820 ; was named after Joseph 
Ellicott, late principal agent of the Holland Land Company. Pop. 

EUicottville, the county seat, is from Albany 292, frojn New York, 
by the way of Cattskill, 384, from Mayville, E., 50, from Angelica, 
W., 35, and from Buffalo, S. W., 60 miles. Grove Hurlburt and 
Orrin Pitcher were the first settlers, and came here in 1815. The 
following view of the county buildings was taken near Gregory's 
tavern. The Episcopal church is seen on the left. The courthouse 
is the larger building, fronting the spectator. The jail, a stone struct- 
ure, is seen on the right. There are here, besides the above, 2 
land and 2 weekly newspaper offices, a fine hotel, a Presbyterian 
church, and about 90 dwellings. The scenery of the valley and sur- 
rounding hills is beautiful, and has been compared to the Italian. 

Farmebsville, taken from Olean in 1812 ; area since much re- 
duced; from Albany 280, and from EUicottville, N. £., 19 miles. 


h/pk 1,294. Parmersville is a small post village. About one fourth 
part of the town is under cultivation. 


SotUhem View of the Public Buildings, EllicoUville. 

FaAMKUNViLLE, taken &om Olean, by the name of Ischua, in 1812. 
Pop. 1^76. Franklinvilie Village in the N. E. angle of the town, 
IS mile* N. B. from Ellicottville, has about 60 dwellings. Cadiz, a 
mile below on the Ischua creek, has about 40 dwellings. 

Fbbsimm, formed from Ischua, or Franklinvilie, in 1820. Pop. 

1381- Freedom Village. 26 N. E. from Ellicottville, Chelsea 21, 

and Sandusky 24 miles, are small settlements. There ia here an oil 

spring, similar in many respects to the famous Seneca oil spring at 

uba, Allegany county. 

G&EAT Vallev, taken from Olean in 1818 ; from Albany 299, cen- 
trally distSDt S. from Ellicottville 1 1 miles. Chamberlain is a village. 
Kilbuck and Great Valley are post-offices. The Indian reservation, 
about a mile wide, extends along the river to the cast line of the 
town. Pop. 843. 

Hinsdale, taken from Olean in 1820. Pop. 1,937. Hinsdale, 26 S. 
C, and West Hinsdale, 16 miles from Ellicottville, are post villages. 

Hl-hphsey, taken from Burton; from Ellicottville, S, E,, centrally 
distant 10 miles. Chapelsburg is a post-office. Pop. 459. 

Leon, taken from Connewango in 1833; from Albany 307, from 
Ellicottville, W., 18 miles. Leon Centre is a small village. Leon 
acd Leon Mills are post-offices. Pop. 1,325. 

Little Valley, taken from Perry in 1818 ; Little Valley village 
ifl a small settlement, 7 miles S. W. from Ellicottville. Bucktooth is 
a post-office. Not one fortieth part of the town is settled. The In- 
dian reservation extends along the Allegany river through this town. 
Pop. 671. 

Lyndon, taken from Franklinvilie in 1829 ; from Albany 277, and 
from Ellicottville, E., 20 miles. Hopkins is a post-office. Pop. 628. 


Machias, taken firom Yorkshire in 1827 ; from Albany 288, firom 
Ellicottville, N. E., 10 miles. Machias, a post-office, and Machias 
Comers, are small settlements. Pop. 1,085. 

Mansfield, taken from Little Valley in 1830, originally named 
Cecilius ; from Albany 296, and from Ellicottville, W., 5 miles. 
Pop. 960. 

Napoli, originally named Cold. Spring, and taken from Little Valley. 
Seeleysbmrg, 13 miles S. W. from Ellicottville, is a post-office. Na- 
poli is a small village. Pop. 1,142. 

New Albion, taken from Little Valley in 1830 ; from Albany 302, 
from tlllicottville, W., 10 miles. New Albion is a post-office. Pop. 

Olean, organized in 1808 ; bounds since much reduced. Pop. 638. 
Olean Village, at the junction of the Olean creek with the Alleghany 
river, is the oldest place in the county. It was founded by Major 
Hoops, and named by him, in honor of Gen. Hamilion, ^ Hamilton on 
the Allegany.** Major Hoops was originally from Philadelphia, and 
served as an aid under Washington during the revolutionary war. 
This is a flourishing village, and is destined to become a place of im- 
portance. The ]>few York and Erie railroad is to pass through it ; 
and the Genesee Valley canal, now constructing Irom Rochester 
south, is to terminate here. The width of the Allegany river is 20 
rods, with a channel free from obstructions. The amount of lumber 
annually sent to market by it, is about 200 millions of feet, board 
measure, of superior quality. 

Otto, taken from Perrysburg in 1823 ; from Albany, W., 300 miles. 
Waverly, 1 1 miles N. W. from Ellicottville, is a small village. Otto 
and East Otto are names of post-offices. Pop. 2,125. 

Perrysburg, originally named Perry, was taken from Olean and 
Ischua in 1814. It is in the northwestern angle of the county ; from 
Albany 304, and from Ellicottville 30 miles. Perrysbunymd Ver- 
sailles are small villages, and North Perrysburg a post^moe. Pop. 

Persia, taken from Perrysburg in 1835; from Albany, W., 800 
miles. Pop. 870. Lodi, 25 miles N. W. from Ellicottville, upon 
both sides of the Cattaraugus creek, is partly in Erie county. It was 
first settled on the Erie county side of the creek, in 1811, by Mr- 
Turner Aldrich, one of the society of Friends ; and on the Cattarau- 
fus side, about the year 1813, by Benjamin Waterman, Thomas 
ams worth, Daniel and Ahaz Allen, and others. Both of the 
churches, the Presbyterian and Methodist, were built in 1832. At its 
first settlement, there was not a white inhabitant south of here in the 
western half of the county, and no road to Pennsylvania in the county, 
excepting an Indian trail. The village contains about 100 houses, 
an academy, and a weekly newspaper office. The creek in this 
town affords a valuable water-power. 

Portville, the S. E. town of the county, recently taken jBrom 
Olean ; from Albany 296 miles. Pop. 462. Riceville is a small set* 
tlement ; Mill Grove a post-office. 


Randolph, taken from Connewango in 1828 ; from Ellicottville, 
S. W., centrally distant about 35 miles. East and West Randolph 
are smaiJ settlements. Pop. 1,283. 

Yorkshire, taken from Ischua in 1820 ; from Albany, W., 281, 
from Ellicottville, N. E., 15 miles. Yorkshire, Yorkshire Forks, and 
Delavan are small post villages. Pop. 1,292. 


CHATAvavE COUNTY, the southwestern county of the state, was 
formed from Genesee in 1808. The name is a corruption of the In- 
dian word Ots-ha-ta-ka, which signifies a foggy place, and was ap- 
plied to the country around the head of the Chatauque lake, even now 
raraous for its fogs. Its greatest length N. and S. is 40, and greatest 
breadth E. and W. 36 miles; centrally distant from Albany, W., 
330, and from New York, by way of Cattskill, N. W., 428 miles. 
Th^ soil generally is strong clay loam, very productive of large crops 
of wheat, barley, and com ; the last is however destroyed sometimes 
by the early frosts to which the country is subject. The plain upon 
the lake is hig(ily fertile, and produces the fmest fruits adapted to the 

This county, though bordering on Lake Erie, is situated on the 
elevated ground known as the " Chatauque Ridge," which divides the 
waters oi the northern lakes from those of the Allegany river. This 
ridge is generally from 5 to 10 miles from the shore of Lake Erie, 
ana elevated from 790 to 1400 feet above it. The general surface 
of the county, though hilly, is not mountainous, and the highest hills 
are arable to their summits and frequently adorned with valuable farms. 
The soil along the shore of Lake Erie from 1 to 4 miles wide is a border 
of rich alluvion, and along the margin of the rivers. The upland is 
generally a most loam. Grain is raised in considerable quantities, 
and the county is generally well adapted to g^'azing. Fruit, such as 
apples, pears, and plums, succeeds well. 

Chatauque Lake is a fine sheet of water 16 miles long, and from 1 
to 4 wide. Its elevation is 1,305 feet above the ocean, and it is navi- 

gated by steamboats. This county formed part of the Holland Land 
'Ompany's purchase ; and wild lands were offered by them at 8 1 50 
to $4, per acre ; but a company from Batavia bought their interest in 
the wild land of the county. More than three quarters of the county 
are yet unimproved. The county is divided into 20 towns. Pop. 

Arkwright, taken from Pomfret and Villenova in 1829 ; distant 
from Albany 310, centrally situated from Mayville, N. E., 16 miles. 
Pop. 1,418. 

BuBTi, formed from Ellicott and Harmony in 1823 ; from Albany 

88 CHATAuanE courtt. 

334, from Mayville, S. E., 17 miles. Its surface is hilly, and the soil 
good. Pop. 1,749. 

Carroll, taken from Ellicott in 1825; from Albany 336, from 
Mayville, S. E., 29 miles. Carroll and Frewsburgh are small set- 
tlements. Scarcelyone third of the town is yet improved. Pop. 1,633. 

Charlotte, taken from Gerry in 1829; from Albany 325, and 
from Mayville, N. E., 13 miles. Charlotte Centre is a post-officCi 
and SiiiclairvtUe a small post village. Pop. 1,42S. 

CiiATAuacB, organized as part of Genesee county in 1804 ; since 
much reduced in area. It is upon the " dividing ridge " but chiefly on 
its ea^em declivity, and produces excelleot crops of com, wheat, 
and grass. Pop. 2,980. 

into MayviOe. 

Mayville the county seat, incorporated in 1830; distant, 386 
miles W. of Albany ; from New York, via Cattskill, 434 ; from Buf- 
falo, S. W., 66 ; from Erie, Penn., 35 ; from Warren, Penap40 ; from 
Portland Harbor, E., 7 miles. This is one of the most beautihtl 
sites for a village in the state, and is situated upon the high grounds 
at the head of the lake. The above view was taken near the resi- 
dence of Mr. M. P. Bemas, on the road to Westfield, at a point com- 
manding a view of the principal street and the lake in the distance. 
The top of the courthouse, a substantial edifice, costing 99,000, is 
seen on the lefl. Further down is the spire of the Episcopal church, 
nearly opposite to it the Baptist, and on the right of the engraving 
the Academy. The Methodist and Presbyterian churches are not 
seen from this point. The Episcopal, the first church built here, was 
erected about 1824. Mayville has about 80 dweirngs. In the 
northern part are two springs on the " dividing ridge within ten 
minutes walk of each other. One of which flows into those streams 
which empty into the Gulf of Mexico, and the other into those which 
flow into the Atlantic by the St Lawrence. Hartfield, 2 miles E. of 
Mayville, is a small village. There is a post-office at De WittviUe, 
and one called Magnolia. 

CuBRRT CaEEE, taken from Ellington in 1829 ; from Albany 830, 


od from Mayville, E., 18 miles. There is a post-office at Cherry 
Creek village. Pop. 1,141. 

Cltmer, formed from Chatauque in 1821 ; from Albany 353, and 
from Mayville, S. W., 15 miles. Clymer is a small village, and 
Clymer Centre a post-office. Pop. 800. 

Ellbrv, on Chalauque lake, taken from Chatauque in 1821 ; from 
Albany 342, and from Mayville, S. E., 13 miles. Pop. 2,252. El- 
lery Centre is a small post village, 

Ellicott, taken from Pomfrel in 1812 ; limits since reduced ; from 
Albany 330, and from Mayville, S. E., 22 miles. Pop. 2,568. 

Southern view of Jamestoum. 

Jamestown, the principal village in the county, is on the Chatauque 
(nitlet, 4 miles below the lake, and contains about 200 dwellings. 
The above view was taken near the sawmill on the Chatauque out- 
let, seen in front, and shows the principal portion of the place. The 
gpire in the centre of the view, is that of the Congregational church. 
The steeple on the left ia the Presbyterian, and that on the right the 
Academy, There arc also a Methodist and a Baptist church, and 
2 weekly newspaper offices in the place. A steamboat plies on 
the lake between here and Mayville. James Pendergrast, Esq., 
from Pilt^town, Rensselaer CO., established himself here in 1811 or 
'12. and laid the foundation of the village. The first tavern was bnilt 
riiortly after by Jacob Fenton, But lew dwellings were erected till 
1816, when the place rapidly increased by emigrants principally from 
the eastern part of the state. Fluvanna and Dexterville are v.flages. 

Elungton, taken from Gerry in 1824 ; from Albany 320, from 
Mayville, E., 20 miles. Pop. 1,709. Ellington and Clear Creek are 
small villages, 

French Cbegk, taken from Clymer in 1829; from Albany 355, 
from Mayville, S. W., 17 miles. Pop. 621. The greater part of the 
town is yet in its wilderness state. 

Gerbv, divided from Pomfret in 1812; from Albany 320, from 
Mayville, S. E., 13 miles. Vermont is a small village. Pop. 1,240. 
About three fourths of the town is yet unimproved. 

Hanover, taken from Pomfret in 1812. Pop. 3,898. 


Silver creek, 33 miles from BufTdo, lies on a harbor on Lake Erie, 
and has about 100 dwelhngs. Forcstvillc, on Walnut creek, 6 miles 
from the Lake, has about 100 dwelhngs, and a weekly newspaper 
office. Naahrllle, Smith's Mills, Irving, and Le Grange, are small 


" Walnut creek in this town hiu iU name from ■ bUck walnut tree, wfaicli fomicrlf stood 
■ mile abuve its mouth, end was 36 feet in circumference at iis bue, graduitlj' and graca- 
fuUf tapering 80 feet M the lirsl tiinb. Its enlire height was 150 feet, and wa> estimated to 
contain ISOcordsofwood.orSD.UOOfeelofitich boards. The bark was a foot thick. Ilia 
tree was enlitely sound wheti blown down in 1S33, and was suiqxised to have been 500 
years old. The bull, 9 feet in length, was iranaportcd to Buflato, having been eicarated, 
and was there occupied as a grocery. It was aubaequenily carried by the canal to the At- 
lantic ci.ieg, and, splendidly ulomed, wis exhibited for money to thausinda of admiren."^ 
Gordan'i (fax. 

Habmonv, taken from Chatauque in 1816 ; from Albany 338, from 
Mayville, S., 13 miles. Ashville and Panama are small villages. 
Pop. 3,333. About one fourth of the town is under improvement. 

MiNA, taken from Clymer in 1824; from Albany 353, from May ville, 
S.W., 13 miles. Pop. 870. There ia a small settlement at Mina, and 
one at Finiey's mills. Most of the town is yet in its wiidemesa state. 

Poland, taken from Ellicott in 1832 ; from Albany 316, from May- 
ville, S. E., 20 miles. Kennedy's Mills and Watcrborough are small 
hamlets. Pop. 1,082. 

PoMFBET, taken from Chatauque in 1808, is on the " divided ridge." 
Pop. 4,556. Fredonia village was incorporated in 1829 ; is on the Can- 
adaiva creek, 315 miles from Albany, 22 N. E. from Mayville, 45 S. 
W. from Bulialo, and 3 from Lake Erie at Dunkirk. It is the oldest 
village in the county, and was formerly called Canadawa, from the 
creek. It contains about 120 dwellings. The annexed view was 

Southern view of Fredonia, 

taken near the residence of Samuel Johnson, Esq. The large build- 
ing with a square tower is the Johnson House ; the steeple next to it 
is that of the Baptist church ; the third is the Academy, incorporated 
in 1830; the fourth the Prcsbyteriiiii, and the tilth, on the extremo 


right, the Episcopal church. The Methodist and Universalist church- 
es are not seen in the drawing. Laona, 2 miles above Fredonia, has 
a valuable water-power and about 45 dwellings. 

The following account of the Gas springs in this vicin'ty, is from 
the Report of Dr. Lewis C. Beck, published in the New York Geo- 
logical Reports for 1832. 

** Chatauque Gaa Springs. — By far the most interesting exhibitions of the evolution of 
earburet:ed hydrogen, which occur in this state, are to be observed in the county of Cha- 
tauque. The village of Fredonia, indeed, has attracted much attention in consequence of the 
gas springs found in its immediate vicinity, although they are by no means confined to this 
particular locality. The gas springs seem to have their origin in the strata of slaie which 
form the bed of the stream, and which are everywhere met with in this vicinity, a short 
distance from the surface of the earth. This sla'« has a bluish color, and some of the 
layers are exceedingly fragile, requiring only a few years exposure to be completely con. 
verted into a clayey soil. The lower strata, however, resist atmospheric agencies, and are 
sometimes used as a building material. When recently broken, this slate always emits a 
strong bituminous odor, and it frequently contains thin Feams of a substance resembling 
bituminous coal. Most commonly, however, this bituminous matter occurs in patches, hav. 
ing more the appearance of detached vegetable impressions than a regular stratum. Through 
fissures in this rock in the creek near the village, are everywhere to be seen bubbles of 
gas rising through the water. The evolution, how3ver, is most abundant at the bridge, and 
about three quarters of a mile below. The gas, whjn collected in a proper vessel and fired, 
bums with a white flame tinged with yellow above, and blue near the orifice of the burner. 
Its illuminating power is not inferior to that of ordinary coal gas. When mixed with 
atmospheric air and ignited, it explodes violently. It contains no admixture of sulphuretted 

** The illuminating power of this gas, and its abundant supply, suggested the idea of its 
employment in lighting the village. A copious dischaige of the gas was observed issuing 
from a fissure in the rock, which forms the bed of the creek, which it was thought could be 
diverted to a boring on the bank. A shaft was accordingly sunk through the slate about 
32 feet in depth, which occasionally passed through layers of the hi uminous substance, 
already described, and the result was that the gas left the creek and issued through the 
shaft. By means of a tube, the gas was now conducted to a gasometer, and from thence to 
difiercnt parts of the village. The gasometer had a capacity of about 2:20 cubic feet, and 
was usually filled in about 15 hours, affording a sufficient supply of gas for 70 or 80 lights. 
Bubbles of the same gas are here and there seen rising through the water in this creek for 
nearly three quarters of a mile below the village. But the largest quantity is evolved at 
the latter point. It was not possible for me, with any apparatus which I could command, to 
determine the amount of gas given out at this place in a given time ; but bubbles rise with 
great rapidity from an area of more than 20 feet square, and I should probably be wttxanted 
in asserting that it is 5 or 6 times greater than that obtained at the village. 

" At Van Buren harbor, on Lake Erie, 4 miles from Fredonia, bubbles o{ inflammable 
gas may be seen rising through the water, when the lake is calm, a rod or two from the 
shore. In the town of Sheridan, six and a half miles from Fredonia, the same gas is also 
abundantly evolved in various places ; and a short distance below Portland harbor, near 
the shore of the lake, there is supposed to be a sufficient supply to light a city. It is em. 
ployed in the lighthouse at the harbor, 75 feet above the level of the lake." 

Dunkirk, formerly owned by the Dunkirk Land Company, is 
pleasantly situated on Lake Erie, and is destined to be a place of 
great importance from its being the terminating point of the line of 
tiie New York and Erie railroad. The distance from Buffalo is 44 
miles, and to Piermont, on the Hudson, (about 22 miles N. of New 
York,) by the line of the railroad, 446 miles. This whole distance 
from Dunkirk to New York, on the completion of the road, will be 
accomplished in from 20 to 24 hours. The U. S. government, view- 
ing the growing importance of the place, has expended large sums in 
the improvement of its harbor. This port is occasionally open many, 
daysy and even weeks, earlier in the spring and later in the fall, than 


Northeastern view of Dunkirk Harbor. 

that of Buffalo. The above view was taken about a mile firom tbo 
village, seen on the left. The large cupola is that of the hotel, a 
capacious brick structure ; the steeple next to it is that of the Presby- 
terian church, and the smaller one the Academy. The opposite riiore 
of the harbor is seen beautifully curving around in the distance, end ii 
lined to near the water's edge with a fine growth of forest trees. 
Van Buren is of a place laid out as a city 2 miles above Dun- 
kirk, where there is a good harbor. Shumla and West Milford are 
small villages. Cassadaga is a post-ofHce. 

PoBTLAND, taken from Chatauque in 1813; distant from Albany 
354, and from Mayvillc, N., 6 miles. Salem and Centreville are small 
settlements. Pop. 2,136. About half the town is under improve- 

RiPLEV, taken from Portland in 1S17, on the "dividing ridge," has 
a hilly surface. Distant from Albany 348, and from Mayville, W., 
12 miles. Pop. 2,lfl7. Quincy, formerly called Ripley, contains the 
post-office and about 50 dwellings. 

Sheridan, taken from Pomfret and Hanover in 1827; 340 miles 
from Albany, and 20 N. E. of Mayville. East Sheiidan and OniDg- 
ton are post-offices. Pop. 1,S83. 

Sherman, taken from Mina in 1822 ; from Albany 348, from May- 
ville, S. W., 12 miles, Sherman is a small village. Pop. 1,100. 
More than two thirds of the town is yet a forest. 

Stockton, formed from Chatauque in 1821 ; distant from Albany 
323, from Mayville, N. E., 8 miles. Delanti and Casadaga are small 
villages. Pop. 2,078. 

ViLLENovA, taken from Hanover in 1823 ; distant from Albany 
318, from Mayville, N. E., 22 miles. Omar is a small village. Fop. 
1,655. About one fourth part of the town is under cultivation. 

Webtfield, formed from Portland and Ripley in 1829, Pop. 
8,199. Near the shore of Lake Erie, about three quarters of a mile 
below Portland harbor, is a carburetted hydrogen spring, the gas 
of which is luHiciently abundant to light a city, and is used for the 
lighthouse at the harbor, seveDty-Sve feet above the lake level. Mcln- 


Se's sulphur spring, on the banks of the Chatauque creek, 3 milea 
m the lake, was formeriy much frequented. 

Westfield village, from Albany 342, from Mayville, N. W., 6, 
and from BiifTalo, S. W.. 60 miles ; was incorporated in 1833. It is 
a pleasant, bustUng little village, situated on the border of a handsome 

Vieu) in central part of Westfield Village. 

plain, and containing about 100 dwellings. The above view was 
taken at Edson &. Son's store, and shows on the left the Episcopal, 
and on the right the PrcBbyterian churches. The other public build- 
ings are the Methodist church, Academy, and Westfield Hotel, a sub- 
stantial brick edifice, with a cupola. About two and a half miles 
from the village, near the road to Mayville, is a remarkable gulf, 
known as the " Hogs Back," which is much resorted to in the sum- 
mer. The first settler with a family in the county, was a Mr. John 
McMahan, from Northumberland county, Penn. He came here about 
the year 1803, and bought of the Holland Land Company a tract 
six miles square, on the Chataoque creek, in this town. Portland, or 
Barcelona, one mile from Westfield, on the lake, was early occupied 
by the French, who had a military post at this place. The lighthouse, 
40 feet in height, standing on a bluff, is a conspicuous object, and vis- 
ible at a great distance on the lake. The village contains about 40 
dwellings. Rogersvilie, Volusia, and Nettle Hill are post-offices. 



Chemung* county was formed from the western part of Tioe^a in 
1836. Greatest length, N. and S., 28 ; greatest breadth, E. andW., 
20 miles. The surface of the county is hilly. The soil consists gen- 
erally of sandy and gravelly loam, interspersed with patches of marl 
and clay. The uplands are commonly better adapted to grass than 
grain ; but the valleys gtve fine crops of wheat and com ; oats, 
beans, barley, peas, and hops thrive almost everywhere. The pine 
plains, principally in the towns of Elmira and Biff Flats, formerly 
considered almost worthless, are now deemed hig;hTy valuable ; pro- 
ducing by treatment with plaster, and due succession of crops, abun- 
dant returns in wheat. Indian' com, and clover. The Chemung canal, 
connecting Elmira with Cayuga lake, is about 20 miles in length. 
The New York and Erie railroad passes through the towns of Che- 
mung, Southport, Elmira, and Big tlats. Chemung county is divided 
into ten towns. Pop. 20,731. 

Big Flats, taken from Elmira in 1822; from Albany 207, from 
Elmira centrally distant, NW., 10 miles. The navigable feeder of 
the Chemung canal passes centrally through the town in an easterly 
direction. There are extensive flats on the Chemung river. Pop. 
1,375. • 

Catherines was taken from Newtown in 1798 ; from Albany 184 
miles. Havanna, founded in 1829 by Mr. David Ayres, and incor- 
porated in 1836, 18 miles N. from Elmira, is a very thriving village, 
containing about 700 inhabitants. It is situated upon a small stream 
rushing over a high hill from the west, with three cascades, making 
together a fall of over 100 feet. 

This town appears to have derived its name from its having been 
the residence of Catherine Montour, the wife of an Indian sachem or 
king. She has sometimes been called Queen Esther. This remark- 
able woman, it is said, was a native of Canada, a half-breed, her 
father being one of the French governors, probably Count Frontenac. 
During the wars between the Six Nations and the French and Hu- 
rons, Catherine was taken prisoner, when she was about ten years 
old, and carried into the Seneca country, and adopted as one of theii 
children. At a suitable age she was married to a distinguished chief 
of her tribe, by whom she had several children. Her husband was 
killed in battle about 1730. She is represented as having been a 
handsome woman when young, genteel, and of good address. She 
frequently accompanied the chiefs of the Six Nations to Philadelphia, 
and other places where treaties were holden. On account ol her 
character and manners, she was much caressed by the American la- 
dies of the first respectability, and invited and entertained at their 
houses. Her residence was at the head of Seneca lake. She has 

* Chemung is eaid to be big hom^ or great horrid in the ancient Indian dialect And 
that a yery \^ge horn was found in the Chemung or Tioga river, has been well 


been accused of perpetrating some savage atrocities at the massacre 
at Wyomlnff, but the account does not appear to be well authenti- 
cated. At the period of the revolutionary war, Catherine's town con- 
sisted of thirty houses, cornfields, orchards, &c. ; these were all de- 
stroyed by Gen. Sullivan, Sept. 3, 1779, in his expedition into the In- 
dian country. 

Catlin, taken from Catherine in 1823; from Albany 190, from 
Elmira, NW., 12 miles. A great portion of the town is yet unsettled. 
Catlin, West Catlin, and Martins Hill, are post-offices. Pop. 1,119. 

Cayuta, taken from Spencer in 1824; from Albany, SW., 188, 
firom Elmira, NE., 20 miles. It is rather thinly settled. Cayuta, 
West Cayuta, and Van Eltensville, are post-offices. Pop. 835. The 
surface of the township is hilly and broken ; the hills are covered 
with pines and hemlocks. 

CsHiruNo, organized in 1791 ; from Albany, SW., 198, from El- 
mira, E., 12 miles. Surface is hilly, and broken with fertile flats 
along the Chemung river. Pop. 2,377. The Chemung upper and 
lower Narrows are formed by high, rocky cliffs, projecting into the 
river, along which the road is conducted with great labor. 

** In the south part of the *own is a mound, called Spanish Hill^ elevated 1 10 feet above 
the plain, and near the river bank, described as a work of art ; but this suggestion is ren. 
dered incredible fr^ the fact, that the area of its summit comprises four acres. Upon this 
■ummit, however, we vestiges of fortifications, displaying much skill in the art of defence ; 
having regular entrenchments, which perfectly commanded the bend in the river. — GordoiVB 

Dix, taken from Catlin in 1835, is the NW. town of the county ; 
from Elmira 20 miles. Pop. 1,990. Townsend, Moreland, and 
West Catlin are post-offices. Jeflcrson, post village, partly in Steuben 
county, at the head of Seneca lake, 3 miles N. of Havanna, was 
founded in 1828 by Dr. Watkins, and has about 50 dwellings. 

Elmira was taken from Chemung by the name of Newtown, in 
1792. Much of the land in this township is rich and productive, par- 
ticularly the flats on Chemung river. Pop. 4,791. Elmira village 
is situated at the confluence of Newtown creek with the Chemung 
river. It was formerly the half-shire village of Tioga county, and is 
now the seat of justice for Chemung co. It was incorporated in 
1815 by the name of Newtown, which name was changed to Elmira 
in 1828 : its ancient Indian name was Conewawah, a word signify- 
ing ** a Aearf.oTi a joo/e." Elmira is admirably situated for the pur- 
poses of trade, in the midst of a fertile valley, eight to ten miles in 
extent from N. to S., and from twelve to fifteen miles E. and W. 
The place is connected with Pennsylvania and Maryland, in trade, 
by the Chemung and Susquehannah rivers, and with almost every 
portion of the state by means of the Chemung canal, which leads 
through Seneca lake, and thence by the Seneca to the Erie canal. 

The village contains about 230 dwellings, 4 churches — 1 Presbyte- 
rian, 1 Baptist, 1 Methodist, and 1 Episcopal — 2 newspaper establish- 
ments, 1 bank, and a number of select schools. The village is on 
the line of the Erie railroad. 

Distant mew of the Village of Ebnira. 

The above view was taken near the Sullivan mill,' about a mile 
eastward of the village, near the junction of Newtown creek with the 
Chemung river. The first spire on the right is that of the PrcBbyte- 
rian church, the next tu the left tlie courthouse ; the <^crs are those 
of the Episcopal and Baptist churches. The bridge^en extending 
across the Chemung is 000 feet in length. 

The section of country in which Elmira is situated became known 
to the whites during the revolutionary war. When Gen. Sullivaa 
was. penetrating into the Indian country, in 1779, the Indians under 
Brant, and the tories under Colonels Butler and Johnson, made a 
stand to oppose his progress at the SE. point of this town. They 
entrenched themselves by a breast-work of about a half a mile in 
length, so covered by a bend in the river as to expose only their 
front and one of their flanks to attack. On SuiUvan's approach, Aug. 
29th, an action commenced which is sometimes called the " Battle of 
the Chemung ;" the force of the Indians and tories has been estimated 
from 800 to ],500, while that of the Americans was between 4,000 
and 5,000. The following account of the battle is extracted from the 
2d vol. of " Stones Life of Brant." 

" The pnemf'g poaition was dii'covc'n'd by Major Parr, commanding tba advance gaud, 
at abuul 11 o'cluck in the morning of ihe 29(h of Auguel. Generai Hand immediildr 
formed ihe lighi infanrry in a wwid, at iho dietnnce of aboni 400 ymiii from Ae bimil. 
work, and waited unlil the main body of the army arrived un iho ground. A aJumuihilH 
was, h<iwGvor, kcpl up by boih aidea — the Indians sallying oul of ibeir works bf amalt par. 
tiae, firing, and auddanlf reireaiing — making the woods al iho same linie to reaoniid irilfa 
their war.whoopH, piurcing the air from point (o paint as though the tangled fbreat wera 
alive with ihfir griin-visaged wnrriora. Correctly judging that the hiil upon his right wu 
occupied by ihc savogcs, Gen. Sullivan orden-d Poor's btigada to wheel off, and endeaior 
to gain their left flank, and, if poeuble, tu surround Ihem, while the artillery and main bodf 

■ So called from its being only a 
camped boih on the advance of, ann retui 
aits of the fortresa which Sullivan built, ci 

's landing place, wh 
ion against the Indi 
a Siom the aoulh « 


«f the Americana attackod them in front. The order was prompdy executed ; but as Poor 
cfimbed the ascent, the battle became animated, and the possession of the hill was bravely 
conteetcd. In front the enemy stood a hot cannonade for more than two hours. Both 
toriee and Indians were entitled to the credit of fighting^ manfully. Every rock, and tree, 
and bush, shielded its man, from behind which the winged messengers of death were 
thickly sent, but with so little effect as to ercite astonishment. The Indians yielded ground 
only inch by inch ; and in their retreat darted from tree to tree with the agility of the pan- 
ther« c^ten contesting each new position to the point of the bayonet — a thing very unusual 
even with militiamen, and still more rare among the undisciplined warriure of the woods. 
Thayandanegea was the animating spirit of the savages. Always in tlie thickest of the fight, 
be ined every effort to stimulate hi8 warriors, in the hope of leading them to \ictory. Until 
tbe ertiUery began to play, the whoops and yells of the savages, mingled with the rattling of 
mutkietrji had well-nigh obtained the mastery of sound. But tlicir whoops were measur. 
mh\j drowned by the thunder of the caimon. This cannonade * was elegunt,* to adopt the 
phneeology of Sullivan himself, in writing to a friend, and gave the Indians a great panic. 
SdUt tlie battle was contested in front for a length of time with undiminished spirit. But 
ihm eeverity of flghdng was on the flank just described. As Poor gallantly approached the 
point wluch completely uncovered tlie enemy's ruar. Brant, who had been the first to pene- 
trate the design of the American commander, attempted once more to rally his forces, and 
^th the asBistance of a battalion of tlie rangers, make a stand. But it was in vain, al- 
though be exerted himself to the utmost for that purpose — fljring from point to point, seem- 
ing to be everywhere present, and using every means in his power to reanimate the flag. 
ging i^rits, and reinvigorate the arms of his followers. Hnving ascended the steep, and 
gumed his object without faltering, the enemy's flank was turned by Poor, and the fortunes 
of the day decided. Perceiving such to be the fact, and that there was danger of being 
BQiroanded, the retrcat-halloo was raised, and the enemy, savages and white men, precipi. 
tateiy abandoned their works, cro8sed the nver, and fled with the utmost precipitation — 
ihe Indians leaving their packs and a number of their tomahawks and scalping.knives 
behind them. The battle was long, and on the side of the enemy bloody. Eleven of their 
dead were found^pon the flcld — an unusual circimistance with the Indianiii, who invariably 
exert themselves to the utmost to prevent tlie bodies of their sluin from falling into the 
hands of their foea. But being pushed at the point of the bayonet, they had not time to 
bear them away. They were pursued two miles, their trail affording indubitable proof that 
a portion of their dead and wounded had been carried off. Two canoes were found cov. 
ered with blood, and the bodies of 14 Indian warriors were discovered partially buried 
among the leaves. Eight scalps were taken by the Americans during the chase. Consid- 
cring the duration of the battle, and the obstinacy with which it was maintained, the loss 
of the Americans was small almost to a miracle. Only 5 or 6 men were killed, and be- 
tween 40 and 50 wounded. Among the American oflicers wounded, were Muj. Titcomb, 
Capt. Clayes, and Lieut. ColHs — the latter mortally. All the houses of the condguous 
Indian town were burnt, and die comflelds destroyed." 

The first settler of Newtown, now Ehnira, was Col. John Hendy, 
a native of Pennsylvania and a veteran of the revolution. In the 
summer of 1788, he came into this town and erected a log hut on the 
point where Sullivan had encamj)ed, about half a mile from the pre- 
sent centre of the village of Elmira. He brought his family to this 
place in the fall of the same year. It was dunng this year that this 
section of the country was surveyed by Gen. James Clinton, Gen. 
John Hathom, and John Cantine, Esq., as commissioners on the part 
of the state. The land at this time was estimated and sold bv the 
state at eighteen pence per acre to the first settlers. The second log 
house was built by John Miller near the bank of the river on the farm 
now occupied by Capt. Partridge. The same year, and the year fol- 
lowing, (1789,) several families came in and settled on the south side 
of the river, in Southport. In the same year, Thomas Hendy and a 
Mr. Marks built log houses at the east end of the site of the village. 
When Col. Hendy built his log cabin on the pine plain of Conewawah, 
the only highway or road existing in the country for hundreds of 



miles round, was what was called the Indian pathway, extending 
from Wilkesbarre, Penn., to Canada. This pathway crossed the lot 
of Col. Hendy, and was for a long period the only avenue by which 
emigrants from the south reached Niagara and the northwestern part 
of the state. 

The following anecdote relative to Col. Hendy, is taken from a pub- 
lication, in a pamphlet form, entitled ** Views of Elmira," by Solomon 
Southwick, Esq. It is from this publication that the historic notices 
of this place are mostly taken. 

** They [the Indians] knew nothing of ceremony, and never waited for an invitadon*^ Tint 
the cabins of the white settlers ; but would stalk in and sit themselves down as freely as 
they had been used to do in their own huts ; nor were they less scrupulous in their attacks 
upon whatever food or beverage presented itself. If any of the whites disliked this freedom, 
they found it their best policy to bear patiently with the ofurepeated demands upon their 
hospitality which flowed from it ; but in spite of their philosophy were sometimes involved 
in serious strife with their lawless visiters. One evening of a summer's day. Col. Hendy, 
having returned from the labors of the field, found two Indians at his house, one of whom 
was John Harris, celebrated for his quarrelsome and malignant temper, as well as vigorous 
and athletic frame. He had insulted Mrs. Hendy, and evinced such bad intentions, that 
his companion, aided by Col. Hendy's son, had found it necessary to bind him down in a 
chair, which operation they had just performed when Col. Hendy came in. Whilst the 
friendly Indian laid down and went quietly to sleep, the Colonel seated himself to watch 
the motions of the unruly savage. The fellow was so mortified by the compulsion and re- 
straint imposed upon him, that he became apparently humble, and the Colonel, on his 
promise to behave well, unbound him, and ordered him to lay down on the floor and go to 
sleep, whilst he threw himself on the bed, but did not think it safe to un^aess or sleep ; and 
the event proved the necessity and prudence of his precaution. For the Hvage, ruminating 
on the disgracefiil circumstance of his having been bound, till his revengeful temper was 
roused to a high degree, rose up suddenly crying out " Me be many" a well known ezcla. 
mation of the Indians when prepared to commence a fight single-handed with one of their 
own, or that of the white race. This was a critical moment for Hendy, who quickly per- 
ceived there was no time to be lost ; he therefore rose up, exclaiming " You be many — 
You none at all — / be many /** and as the Indian sprang forward to grapple with turn, 
brandishing a long knife, the veteran gave him a blow on the side of his head which laid 
him prostrate on the hearth ; and then seizing him by the hair, beat his head upon the 
heanh, till the savage yielded up his knife, well convinced by the Colonel's demonstrations, 
that if he was many, his host was many more, or at least too many for him — and the next 
morning he was as quiet and peaceable as a lamb." 

** In 1790, we believe it was, Elmira was visited by some ten or twelve hundred Indians; 
one of the oldest settlers assures us there were not less than eleven hundred. Their object 
was the negotiation of a treaty with the United States. On our part the venerable Tmou 
THY PicKERiNO was the principal negotiator. Guy Maxwell acted as his secretary, and 
transcribed the treaty. On the part of the Indians there were chiefe of all the Six Nations, 
among whom were Red Jacket, Big Tree, Trench Peter, Farmer's Brother, &-c. Jasper 
Parish, of Canandaigua, was their interpreter. It was on this occasion that Red Jacket 
made one of his most eloquent and powerfiil speeches. One of the chiefe, and several of 
the subordinates, died during the negotiation ; and their bones, it is said, have been re- 
cently found in digging the cellars for the elegant row of buildings, called Benjamin^M Bloek^ 
on Front-street. The treaty was held immediately east of the present courthouse in Lake- 
street, under an ancient oak.tree, which thenceforth, if not before, was known by dis 
name of the council tree." 

In 1792, Nathaniel Seely built the first frame house in the village 
of Newtown, now Elmira. The original patentee of the towns of 
Southport and Newtown was Moses De W itt ; he sold out to a Mr. 
White. In 1794, Guy Maxwell and Samuel Hepburn purchased 
the village plot of Elmira from Mr. White. In 1797, Elmira re- 
ceived a visit from Louis Phillipe, the present king of France, the 
Duke de Nemours, and the Duke de Berri. These distinguished per- 


wtmngen had been sjpending some time at Canandaigua, under the 
hospitable roof of Thomas Morris, Esq., son of Robert Morris, to 
whom the United States are so much indebted for his services as a 
financier in the revolution. Mr. Morris gave the royal exiles a letter 
of introduction to Henry Tower, Esq., who then resided here. They 
travelled an foot through the Indian pathway from Canandaigua to 
£Imira, a distance of more than 70 miles. Mr. Tower, on theuT 
arrival, fitted up a boat — an American ark or batteau — ^in which he 
took them down to Harrisburg, through the Chemung and Susque- 
hannah rivers. 

EiiN, taken from Chemung in 1822; from Albany 186, from El- 
mira, NE., 12 miles. Erin is a post-office, centrally located. Pop. 
1,441. The surface of the town is hilly and broken and the soil 
rather of an indifferent quality. 

SouTHPORT, taken from Elmira in 1822 ; from Albany 203 miles* 
It has broad and rich flats upon the Chemung river, which forms m 
part the northern boundary. Wellsburg on the Chemung river, 6 
miles SE. from Elmira, is a small post village. Southport and Seeleys 
Creek are post-offices. Pop. 2,100. 

Veteran, taken from Catherines in 1823 ; from Albany 190, fit>m 
Elmira, N., centrally distant 12 miles. Pop. 2,279. Millport, Pine 
Valley, and Veteran are post-offices. 


Chenango county was formed from Herkimer and Tioga counties 
in 1798 ; the northern part of which was erected into Madison county 
in 1806. Its form is irregular ; the greatest length N. and S., 35 
miles; greatest width, 28. The. general surface of the county is 
broken and hilly, though not mountainous. Its valleys are extensive, 
rich, and fertile, producing large crops of grain ; while the uplands 
are well adapted to grazing. Its agriculture is respectable, and its 
inhabitants are generally formers. Live-stock is one of their prin- 
cipal exports. The Susquehannah river crosses the SE. comer of the 
county. The Chenango river, one of its principal branches, flows 
southerly through the centre of the county. The Unadilla river 
forms most of the eastern bounds of the county. The numerous 
streams in this county furnish abundance of fine mill sites. The 
Chenanffo canal passes through the county in the valley of the Che- 
nango nver. This county was principally settled by emigrants from 
the eastern states. It originally included the twenty townships of 
the " Governor's purchase,** a pan of which are now in Madison 
county. The county is divided into 19 towns. Pop. 40,779. 

Bainbridge, organized as part of Tioga county, by the name of 
Jericho, in 1791 ; name since altered and umits much reduced. Pop. 


3,324. The town forms part of a tract given by the state to su^r- 
crs in former grants to the present state of Vermont 

Bainbridge, incorporated in 1829 ; a large and thriving village, 

tleasantly situated upon the W. branch of the Susquehannah, upon the 
rister and Delaware turnpike; 110 miles from Albany, and 14 S. 
from Norwich ; has about 90 dwellings. E. Bainbridge, N. Bain- 
bridge, and S. Bainbridge are names of post-offices. 

Columbus, taken from Brookfield in 1805 ; from Albany 83, from 
Norwich, NE., 16 miles. Columbus is a small village, and Columbus 
Comers a post-office. Pop. 1,561. 

Coventry, taken from Greene in 1806; from Albany 117, from 
Norwich 16 miles. Coventry and Coventryville are post villages, 
on the Cattskill turnpike. Pop. 1,681. 

Geeman, taken from De Ruyter in 1806 ; from Albany 115, from 
Norwich, W., 15 miles. Pop. 975. 

Greene was formed from Union and Jericho in 1798 ; limits since 
reduced. The Chenango river passes in a SW. direction through 
the town, upon which are rich alluvial flats. Pop. 3,452. Greene, 
the principal village, is on the river, 20 miles SW. from Norwich, and 
19 N. from Bingham ton. It contains 3 churches, 11 stores, and 
about 90 dwellings. It was laid out in village form in 1806, and 
was at first called Hornby. East Green and Genegansette are post- 
offices. • 

The first person who settled in the vicinity of the village of Greene, 
is supposed to have been Conrad Sharp, a Dutchman, who located 
himself about two miles above the village in 1794 ; a number of 
other Dutchmen came in and formed quite a settlement in his vicinity. 
The names of some of the other principal settlers were, Stephen 
Ketchum, David Bradley, Derick Race, Joseph Tillotson, Mr. Gray, 
a Baptist elder, and Elisha Smith, who was the agent, for a number 
of years, in behalf of the Hornby Patent ; he surveyed the town of 
Greene and laid out the village. 

The first white inhabitants who located themselves on the site of 
the village, were eight or ten French families, who fled from their 
country during the revolutionary period. The first one who came 
appears to have been Simon Barnet, who is said to have been a 
Creole from the West Indies. He came to this place from Philadel- 
phia, probably sent as a pioneer for the French company. One of 
the emigrants, M. Dutremont, was a man of considerable talents, 
learning, and wealth. This gentleman contracted for the lands settled 
by the company. The purchase was made of William W. Morris 
and Malachi Treat, the patentees. Capt. Juliand, one of the French 
emigrants, came into the place in 1797, a little after the first company. 
About the year 1795, the celebrated French statesman, Talleyrand, 
visited this place, when on a sylvan jaunt on horseback from Phila- 
delphia to Albany in company with a French gentleman. When here, 
he became acquainted with the son of M. Dutremont, with whom he 
was so much pleased, that he obtained the consent of his parents to 
take him to France, where he became his private secretary. By the 


death of M. Dutremont, the financial affairs of the Uttle colony be- 
came deranged. He was drowned while fording a river on horse- 
back, on his way to Philadelphia. As he had not paid for the land 
occupied by the emigrants, it reverted back to the patentees. The 
emigrants became discouraged, and after a few years left the place, 
moved down below Towanda, and joined a French settlement at a 
place called Frenchtown, now Asylum. Capt. Juliand, however, re- 
mained in Greene, and to him and Judge Elisha Smith the founda- 
tion of the village is to be ascribed. 

** There were no Indians in thia particular section, when first settled by the whites. But 
we have to record a roost remarkable mound, the relic of Indian superstition and indnstiy. 
There are now to be seen only some imperfect traces of it. It was situated about two 
milefl south of the village, and about thirty rods from the river bank, on what is now the 
furm of Mr. Lott. The mound, before it was dug down or ploughed over, was about six or 
■even feet above the surface of the ground, and forty feet in diameter ; being nearly cir- 
cular. There was also, till within a few years, a laige pine stump in the centre of it, the 
temaina of a large pine-tree which was standing when the whites came in. It was then, 
however, a deed tree. When it was cut down, there were counted 180 concentric ciroles 
or jreerly growths. Estimating the age of the mound by the concentric circles of the 
■tump, it must have been over 200 years old when this section of the country was settled. 
An examination of this mound was made in 1829, by digging, and there were found hu. 
man bones to a great number ; and lower from the surface, there were found bones that 
had been evidently burnt ; suggesting the idea, that the mode of disposing of the dead, 
when iheae bones were deposited, was burning the dead body. No conjecture could be 
formed as to the number of bodies t^uried here. They were found lying without order, 
veiy much jumhledt and so far decayed as to crumble, or fall apart, when brought to the 
air and handled. The supposition would not be an unlikely one, that these bones were the 
remains of bodies which had fallen in battle, and were afterward hurriedly thrown together 
and buried. • * * • In the mound near Greene, there were found, lying quite in one pile, 
900 arrow heads, cut after their usual form, and all either of yellow or black /Itnf. It wiU be 
recollected that there are no stones of thb kind found in this part of the state of New 
York. In another part of the mound there were found, lying together, about sixty, made 
after the same form. A silver band or ring was also found, of about two inches in di. 
ameter, extremely thin, but wide, with the remains — in appearance— of a reed pipe, lying 
within it. The supposition is, that it was some sort of musical instrument. There was 
also found a number of stone chisels, of different shapes, evidently fitted to perform differ- 
ent species of work. A large piece of mica also, cut into the form of a heart ; the border 
much decayed, and the different luininx separated." — Annals of BinghamUm. 

Guilford, taken from Oxford in 1813, by the name of Eastern; 
name since changed ; from Norwich, centrally distant S., 10 miles. 
Pop. 2,828. Guilford is a small post village, ilockdale a post-office, 
and Mount Upton a small settlement. 

LiNCKLAEN, taken from German in 1823 ; since reduced in area ; 
from Albany 128, from Norwich, NW., 20 miles. Lincklaen and 
West Lincklaen are post-offices. Pop. 1,249. 

McDoNouGH, named in honor of Commodore McDonough, taken 
from Preston in 1816; from Albany 128, from Norwich, W., 14 
miles. Pop. 1,369. Near the south line of the town is a sulphur 
spring much frequented. McDonough is a small village. 

New Berlin, taken from Norwich in 1807. Pop. 3,086. New 
Berlin, an incorporated village, 13 miles NE. from Norwich, and 
90 W. from Albany, on the Unadilla river, has 1 Presbyterian, 1 
Episcopal, 1 Baptist, and 1 Methodist church. There are here 154 
dwellii:^,.10 mercantile stores, a weekly newspaper office, and sev- 


end large manufacturing establishments. South New Berlin, miles 
eaat from Norwich, ha» about 40 dwellings. New Berlin Centre is a 
small village. 

NoBwicH, formed from Jericho and Union, aa part of Tioga county, 
in 1703; area since much reduced. Pop. 4,146. Norwich village, 
the county seat, is delightfully aitualed upon the Chenango river, lis 
site is much admired by travellers. It is surrounded by lands in a 

Courthouse and other b]/tildingt in Norwich. 

high state of cultivation, and well supplied with pure and wholesome 
water. There is a mineral spring near the village resorted to for 
cutaneous diseases. The above view shows the courthouse in the 
centre of the engraving i the building with a spire on the left, is 
the Presbyterian church. The courthouse has been but recently 
erected. It is buUt of freestone, and is one of the most splendid 
structures of the kind in the state. Besides the above, there are in 
the village 1 Episcopal, 1 Baptist, and 1 Methodist church, 2 weekly 
newspaper offices, the Chenango Bank, several manufactories, and 
about 200 dwellings. 

Qtbelic, taken from German in IS17; distant from Albany 110, 
from Norwich, NW., 20 miles. Otselic is a small village, and Soodi 
Otselic a post-office. Pop. 1,621. 

OxFOBD.* "The present town of Oxford was originally a part of the 
township of Fayette, a tract which was laid out soon after the war 
of the revolution, and sold at auction in New York, in lots of a mile 

Suare. This township, and a tract called the Gore, bought by Gen. 
ovey and Judge Melanclon Smith, containing about 7,000 acres, 
were incorporated into a town in 1703, and in 1794 the first town 
neeting was held at the house of Gen. Hovey ; this building stood 
Ml tbe site of the Fort Hill house, (burnt in 1639.) Previous to 1791, 

• CammimicWed to llw tuthon bf Banry BL Hfd*, &q. 


there were no settlers on the western part of Fayette except two, 
Mr. Elijah Blackman, and a man named Phelps. They lived on lot 
92, in the bounds of the present village. 

•* From the time the settlement was commenced, by the exertions of 
Gen. Hovey, whose enterprise and hardihood surmounted every ob- 
stacle, the population rapidly increased. The pioneers who com- 
posed the settlement, were distinguished for quali^cations rarely pos- 
sessed by men in their laborious occupations. Their intelligence was 
proverbial In fact, many of them were persons of considerable sci- 
entific attainments. They obtained an act of incorporation for an 
academy as early as 1794, and sustained the institution in the most 
creditable manner, under all difficulty. Gen. Hovey, whose name 
seems to be connected with nearly all the occurrences in the early 
days of the town, was a man of uncommon business abilities, and 
was a favorite of the distinguished men who were at that time at the 
head of affairs in this state. He was a member of assembly in 
1798, and was also a judge of the county. He afterward removed 
to tlie Ohio, and at the time of Burr's expedition down the Mississippi, 
he was the general agent of a company, compose4l^f some of tne^ 
first men of the Union, for the purpose of canalling the Ohio at the 
fidls opposite Louisville. The project failed, and Gen. Hovey was a 
severe sufferer in consequence. He died about 1815. 

*^ Nearly ail the settlers were natives of New England, and a ma- 
jority were from the state of Connecticut There are at present 
living many of the hardy pioneers who commenced the settlement. 
Of these, Mr. Francis Balcom, Mr. Jonathan Baldwin, Judge Anson 
Gary, Col. Samuel Balcom, James Padgett, and some few others, are 
now residing in this town. Judge Uri Tracy, who was some years 
since a member of congress from this district, and who died three oi^ 
four years since, was likewise an early resident, and principal of the 

•• The Indian aniiquitiea in and about the village of Oxford Ire worthy of notice. Of 
these, the Old Fort hoA always attracted the most attention. This fort stood upon the hill 
in about the middle of the village, and the ditch is yet to !>€ distinguished, in front of the 
house of Ira Wilcox, Esq. When discovered, it was a regular semicircle from the river, 
and enclosed about three quarters of nn acre, and the ditch, when the ground was cleared, 
was in many places four feet deep. The interior of the fort was covered with the largest 
kind of maple and beach trees, and on the top of the bank hove up, stood a dead pine 
stump, which, when cut, left a stump on which was counted two hundred grains or circles. 
This tree evidently sprang up after the ditch was dug. There were upon the north and 
wnith sides of the fort, two places where the ground had evidently never been disturbed. 
These are supposed to have been gates. The ditch was four or five feet wide, and on the 
river side, the bank having been almost perpendicular. The fort must have been a strong 
position. Nothing short of cannon from the neighboring hills could annoy the fort. In 
the course of subsequent excavations in and about it, human bones, cooking utensils, 
and other relics, have been found. Of course, nothing is known about the object of this 
fortification, or by whom built. The Oneidas have a tradition running many generations 
back, but they can tell us nothing definite. The Oneidas leave us thifl tradition : that 
about a century or more since, a gigantic chief occupied it, who destroyed all their 
hunters who came into this quarter. They called this chief Thick Neck. The Onei. 
das made several attempts to decoy him from his stronghold, but without success. 
They at length managed to go between him and the fort, when he ran down the river 
about six roUes and secreted himself in the marsh around the pond called Wam*s Pond. 
Here he was discovered and killed by the Oneidas, who buried him and scratched the leaves 


0*M his gnte that no TPBlige of him ihonld temsin. The nmnuit of his tribe min 
odoplcd by ihe Oneidu, >nd an Indiuii who w&b hung st Murriaville mBny feani eioca 
nanieii Abram Anlone. was ■ deKendani from Thick Ntck. 

" There is an incidEUt connected wiih a amail ieland a few rod" mhove the bridge orer the 
Cbenango. Bome yearn ago, two worthies residing in ibe lawn, having quarrelled about 
aome mSing maiter, resolved 10 exchange ehota, in vindication of iheit honor. The place 
selected for rhe tniiisictiaD wbb this island. On the day appointed, [lie belligerents mads 
Ibeir appeamnce on the .xpot. The seconds, however, were agreed that neither should 
salTer harm, and loaded the pistols with cork instead of ball. Each second ioapiied hia 
principal with cot;rage, by imparting to him The information that hia ontagonist^a piatol waa 
loaded with cork, at the same time aseuring him that hia own contained the lead. The 
coneeqaence was, iha duellists manifesied great bravely — no one waa hurt, and the aetor* 
were highly complimented for their chivalry, and unbesitatiii^y pianODOced men of Ammt. 
The iaUod bM since been called Cork laland." 

Central part of the Village of Oxford. 

The above view waa taken on the banks of" the Chenango cana), 
and shows the principal public buildings in the village. The church 
on the left is the Presbyterian, the smaller building with a cupola in 
the centre is the Academy, and the two spires seen on the right are 
those of the Episcopal and Baptist churches, which latter structures 
sUnd near the site of the old fort. There is also a Methodist church 
in the village, 2 weekly newspaper offices, and about 170 dwellines. 
There are several bridges over the Chenango river, aod-Jibo Appian 
way, from Newburg, terminates here. The village is 8 miles MHith 
of Norwich. There is a post-office at South Oxford. PopulatioftoT 
the town, 3,177. 

Pharsalia, first settled in 1708, and taken from Norwich in 1806, 
by the name of Stoninglon ; name afterward changed j distant from 
Albany 114, from Norwich, NE., 11 miles. Pop. 1,213. Pharsalia is 
a small post village, and East Pharsalia a post-office. 

Pitcher, formed from German and Lincklacn in 1827; from Al- 
bany 127, from Norwich, W., 17 miles. Pitcher is a small post 
village. Pop. 1,501. 

Plymouth, taken from Norwich in 1806 ; from Albany 107, firom 


Norwich, NW., 7 miles. Frankville, formerly known by the name 
of the French settlement, has 30 or 40 dwellings. Pop. 1,625. 

Pbeston, taken from Norwich in 1806; from Albany 115, from 
Norwich, centrally distant W., 7 miles. Pop. 1,117. The Chenango 
river and canal pass through the SE. section of the town. Mason 
and Palmer's Comers are small villages. 

Shebbcrne, taken from Genoa in 1806 ; from Albanv 96, from Nor- 
wich, N., 11 miles. Pop. 2,791. The flats on the Chenango river, 
which flows through this town, are remarkably fertile. The portion 
of the town called " the Quarter," was early settled by 20 families 
from Connecticut, who bought one quarter of the township. They 
formed themselves into a religious society of the Presbyterian denom- 
ination before emigrating. They arrived on a Thursday, and by the 
succeeding Sabbatn had erected a log meeting-house, in which they 
assembled for public worship ; and not a single Sunday has since 
passed without divine service being performed. Sherburne, post vil- 
lage, has about 100 dwellings. 

^MiTHviLLE, taken from Greene in 1806; from Albany- 131, from 
Norwich, SW., 20 miles. Pop. ir762. SmithvilfcHis a village of 
about 40 or 50 dwellings. 

Smyrna was taken from Sherburne in 1808. Pop. 2,240. The 
first settler was Joseph Porter, who emigrated here in 1792. The 
first post-ofl[ice was established in 1808. The village of Smyrna was 
incorporated in 1834; it is 101 miles from Albany and 11 NW. of 
Norwich, and contains about 60 dwellings. 


Clinton county lies on the western shore of Lake Champlain, at 
the northeastern extremity of the state, about 170 miles N. from Al- 
bany. Soon after the conquest of Canada, in 1759, the shores of Lake 
Champlain were visited by speculators in quest of pine and oak tim- 
ber, but no permanent settlements were made until about the close of 
the revolution. Its greatest length N. and S. is 40i miles, greatest 
breadth 37 miles. The northeni boundary being latitude 45°, indi- 
cates the rigors of a cold northern country. The natural advantages 
enjoyed by this county have been undervalued. Along the whole 
eastern border, adjoining the shore of Lake Champlain, a wide tract 
of land extends, moderately uneven or quite level, with a pretty 
strong inclination ot depression eastward, averaging 8 miles in width 
of no inferior quality. It amply repays the labor ot the husbandman. 
The western part is mountainous, but these mountains are covered 
with timber, and the counfy with rapid streams and mill sites, and 
abounds with the richest and best of iron ores, already extensively 
manufactured. The soil is of various qualities. On the broad belt 



of comparatively level land above noticed, it is principally a clayey 
with some tracts of a sandy loam. The streams supply a profusion 
of good natural sites for all sorts of hydraulic work. With these 
advantages, this county looks forward with confidence to increased 
sources of business and profit. About one fifth part is settled. Pop. 
28,180. The county is divided into 10 towns. 

Au Sable, taken from Peru in 1839 ; distant 155 miles N. from 
Albany, centrally distant from Plattsburg 15 miles. Pop. 3,229. 
The village of Clintonville on the Au Sable river, partly in Clinton 
and partly in Essex counties, was incorporated hi 1825. It contains 
2 churches, 1 Presbyterian and 1 Methodist, 8 mercantile stores, 
upwards of 80 dwellings, and 730 inhabitants. It is 6 miles W. of 
Keesville, 17 from Elizabeth, and 18 from Plattsburg. The exten- 
sive works of the " Peru Iron Company" are located in this village. 
They have a forge of 18 fires, an extensive rolling-mill, a nail and a 
cable factory, furnace, &c. All these works were commenced 
when the place was comparatively new, by I. Aiken, Esq., but little 
was done till the organization of the company by the legislature about 
the year 1825.^ • 

Beekman, taken from Plattsburg in 1820 ; distant from Albany 
167, NW. from Plattsburg, 18 mUes. The township is 6 miles in 
width, and stretches across the country 37 miles ; the eastern part 
of the town is level or undulating, the western mountainous. Pop. 

Black Brook, taken from Peru in 1839 ; from Albany 163, from 
Plattsburg, SW., 25 miles. Black Brook and Union FaUs are small 
villages. Pop. 1,054. 

Champlain, organized in 1788; from Albany, N., 185 miles. 
Champlain village, on the left bank of the Chazy, 5 miles from Lake 
Champlain, has about 40 dwellings. Rouses Point, 23 miles N. from 
Plattsburg, Corbeau, and Perrysville, are small villages. Pop. 2,950. 

Chazy, taken from Champlain in 1804. Pop. 3,592. Chazy, 15 
miles N. of Plattsburg on the state road from Albany to Canada, and 
West Chazv, are small villages. Chazy Landing, on Lake Champlain, 
is 3 miles from Chazy village. 

Ellenburo, taken from Mooers in 1830 ; from Plattsburg, NW., 
25 miles. Pop. 1,164. 

MooERs, named in honor of Gten. B. Mooers, was taken from 
Champlain in 1804 ; from Plattsburg, NNW., 18 miles. Pop. 1,701. 
Mooers is a small post village on the Chazy river. 

Peru, taken from Plattsburg and Willsburg in 1792 ; bounds since 
altered. Pop. 3,183. Peru, post village, 10 miles S. of Plattsburg 
and 4 from Lake Champlain, has 1 Presbytqrian, 1 Methodist, and 1 
Catholic church, 70 dwellings, and 360 inhabitants. Unionville 
and Port Jackson are post-offices. The first settler in Peru village 
was John Cochran, who came here in 1794. Rev. Heman GarUck 
was one of the first ministers who preached in this section. It is 
said that he used to cross the lak^, in a boat, and walk 30 miles to 
preach to a oongregatioa. 


The fbllowing is an account of the conflagration of the steamer 
PhcBnix, which took place near here, on Lake Champlain, September 
5, 1819. 

The steamboat left Burlington for Plattsburg about midnight, and had proceeded by one 
6'clock in the morning as far as Providence island, when the alarm was given. The boat 
at this time was temporarily commanded by a son of the captain, Richa^ M. Sherman, a 
young man of twenty.two. " Amid the confusion, danger, and difficulties attendant on this 
lerribie disaster, he displayed an energy and presence of mind, not only worthy of the 
highest pmise, but which we might seek for in vain, even among iho*^ of riper years. To 
qualities like these, rightly directed as they were, was it owing that not a person was lost 
OD that frarfiil rught. In that burning vessel, at the dead of night, and tfuce miles from 
(he nearest land, was the safety of every one cared for, and ultimately secuicd, by the 
promptness, energy, and decibiun of this young commander." 

Shortly after the fire was discovered, it raged with irrepistible violence. " The passen. 
gen, ruosed by the alarm from their slumbers, and waking to a terrible sense of impending 
destruction, rushed in crowds upon the deck, and attempted to seize the small-boats. 
Here, however, they were met by young Sherman, who, having abandoned all hope of 
■aving his boat, now thought only of saving his passengers, and stood by the gangway with 
a fRstol in each hand, determined to prevent any person from jumping into the boats be- 
fore they were property lowered into the water, and prepared to receive their living freight. 
With the utmost coohiess and presence of mind he superintended the necessary prepanu 
tions, and, in a few minutes, the boats were lowered away, and the passengers received 
salely on board. They then shoved off, and pulled through the daiteess fur the distant 
oiiore. As soon as this was reached, and the passengers landed, the boats returned to the 
•toamboat and took off the crew, and, as the captain supposed, every hving soul except 
himself. But, shortly after the boats had left the second time, he discovered, under a seu 
tee, the chambermaid of the Phoenix, who, in her fright and confusion, had lost all con. 
■cioaaneas. Lashing her to the plank which he had prepared for his own escape, this gal. 
lant captain launched her towards the shore ; and was thus left alone with his vessel, now 
ODe burning pile. Having satisfied himself that no living thing remained on board his boat, 
and with 3ie proud consciousness that he had saved every life intrusted to his care, he 
■pnmg from the burning wreck as it was about to sink beneath the waters, and, by the 
means of a settee, reached the shore in safety.^ — ^This is no exaggerated story. It is the 
simple narrative of one of the most heroic acts on record. We have only to add, that the 
captain who so faithfully and fearlessly discharged his duty on this trying occasion, is still 
(1840) in command of a noble boat on Lake Champlain, and is known to every traveller 
as Captain Sherman, of the steamboat Burlington." 

7*he foUowing description of this terrific scene was written by one of the passengers : — 
^ I awoke at the time of the alarm, but whether aroused by the cry of fire, the noise of feet 
trampling on deck, or by that restlessness common to persons who sleep in a strange place, 
with a mind filled with sorrow and anxiety, I am unable to tell. I thought I heanl a faint 
cry of fire, and, after a short interval, it seemed to be renewed. But it came so weakly 
upon my ear, and seemed to be flung by so careless a voice, that I concluded it was an 
unmeaning sound uttered by some of the sailors in their sports on deck. Soon, however, a 
hasty footstep was heard passing through the cabin, but without a word being uttered. As 
I approached the top of the cabin stairs, an uncommon brilliancy at once dispelled all 
doubts. Instantly the flames and sparks began to meet my eye»^ and the thought struck 
me that no other way of escape was left but to plunge half naked through the blaze into the 
water. One or two more steps assured me that this dreadful alternative was not yet ar. 
rived : I hastily stepped aft, — a lurid light illuminated every object beyond with the splen. 
dor of a noon-day sun ; I fancied it was the torch of death, to point me and my fellow, 
travellers to the tomb. I saw no person on deck ; but, on casting my eyes towards the boat 
which was still hanging on the larboard quarter, I perceived that ahe was filled, and that 
ber stem.8heet8 were occupied with ladies. I flew to the gangway, and assisted in lower. 
in^ the boat into the water. I then descended the steps, with an intention of entering the 
boat ; but perceiving that she was loaded deep, and that there was a strong breeze and a 
high sea, I desisted. The painter was soon cut, and the boat dropped astern. I ascended 
the steps with the design of submitting myself to the water upon a plank ; for I had great 
confidence in my skill in swimming, and I acted under an impression that the shore was 
only a few rods, certainly not half a mile distant. Judge of what would have been my as. 
tonishment, and probably also my fate, had I done as I contemplated ; when the fact was, 
that the steamboat at this period was in the broadest part of Lake Champlain, and at least 


llirM mile* from an; land. 1 hul leb the deck about two honn before, and Ibn cluuige 
had occurred in the mean time. I looked round upon the deck u> lind a Builablo board, or 
■omeibing of aufficient buoyimcj', thai I could miai to amid Huch waves as I saw were run- 
ning. Tliere wbh nothing Ibtec enough lo deserve such confidence ; I looked aft over tlie 
laffrail, every thing there looked gloomy and forbidding ; I cagt my eyes furwiird, the wind 
waa directly ohend, and the flanieB were lorced, in the nioet terrific manner, towards ths 
alem, threatening every thing in its range with instant destraclion. I then thought if I 
could paen the middle of the boat, which seemed also lo be the centre of the lire, I might 
End security in standing to windward on tlie bowsprit. I made the attempt. It was vain. 
The flames were an insurmountable barrier. 1 was obliged to return towards the stem. 
There wnB then no one in sight. I stepped over upon the Btsrboard side of the quarter- 
deck. I Ihnught all was gone with me. At that moment 1 saw a lady come up to Iha 
cibin door; she leaned against the side of it, and looked with a eteadtast gaie and dis- 
Inicted air lowarda the flumes ; ehe turned and disappeared in the cabin. Il waa Mrs. WIL 
■on, the poor unfortunate lady who, afterward, with the captain's assisUnee, as he informed 
me, committed lietself, vrith many piercing shtieiis ond agonizing exclamations, to (he 
■nschetous support of a small bench, on the troublous bosom of the Iske. I iben looked 
over the Warboard tuarter to know whether the other boat was indeed gone. 1 had ib< 
happiness to see her i she seemed to be full, or nearly so ; one or two paasengeia were 
standing on tlie lower steps of the sccommodalion ladder, apparently with the design ol 
en'ering ttio boat when ^ came within reach, t was determined to enter her el all rtiks, 
and instantly leaped over the quorier and descended into her. I found her knocking under 
ihe counter, and in danger oi foundering. The sleam-veBael still continued to advance 
through the water: the waves dashed the boat with considerable violence against her, and 
most of (hoBi> who had sought safety in the boat, being unacquainted with water scenea, 
were much alarmed, and by their ilUlirected eflurls were adding to the risk. Under ihewg 
circumstances ii became necesaiy to cut the fast, which wss dune, and the boat, and liume 
thai were in it, were instantly secure. All these incidents occurred in a shorter time ihsD 
I have consumed in writing Ihem. Prom the moment of my hearing the first alarm to diat 
of leaving the sleamboat, was not, I am satisfied, near ten minutes ; I believe it was not Sve." 

View of Plattsburg. 

Plattbboeh, organized in 1785, Pop. 6,397, Plattsburg, an incor- 
porated village and county seat, is distant from New York 319, from 
Albany 164, Irom Whitehall 1 IS, and from Ogdensburg, E., 120 miles. 
The accompanying view was taken on the eastern bank of th^Sa- 
ranac, about 30 rods above the bridge. The first steeple on the left 
is thnt of the Presbyt£rian church, the second the Methodist, the third 
the courthouse, the Iburth the Episcopal, and the fifth the CathoUd. 


Besides the above-mentioned public buildings, there is an academy, 
the Clinton county bank, and about 300 buildings. 

A setriement was commenced in this village " previous to the revo- 
lution, by a Count Vredenburg, a German nobleman, who, marrying 
a lady of the household of the queen of England, obtained a warrant 
for 30,000 acres of land, which he located on Cumberland bay, 
whither he removed, although he did not perfect his title by patent He 
built a large house on the spot now occupied by the United States 
Hotel in rlattsburg, where he resided, as tradition reports, in extraor- 
dinary luxury, having his floors covered with carpets, and his win- 
dows shaded with damask curtains. When the revolutionary strug- 
gle commenced, he sent his family to Montreal, but remained some 
time after their departure, and then suddenly and mysteriously disap- 
peared : his house, and a saw-mill he had built 3 miles above, on the 
Saranac, * at Vredenburg's* Falls,' being at the same time burned. He 
was generally supposed to have been robbed and murdered by some 
one covetous of the money and plate which he displayed. 

** In July, of 1783, after the preliminaries of peace had been settled, 
Lieut (since Maj. Gen.) Benjamin Mooers, adjutant of Hazen's regi- 
ment of Canadian and Nova Scotia refugees stationed at Newburg, 
on the Hudson, with 2 other officers and 8 men, left Fishkill Landing 
in a boat, and by way of the Hudson, the portage from Fort Edward 
to Lake George, and by that lake and Champlain, reached Point au 
Roche, 9 miles N. of rlattsburg, where he and his companions, on 
the 10th August, commenced the first permanent settlement of the 

** A company, consisting of Judge Zephaniah Piatt and others, form- 
ed soon after the war for the purchase of military warrants, located 
their warrants on Lake Champlain. In August, 1784, the judge, 
Capt Nathaniel Piatt, and Capt. Reeve, personally surveyed tne 
Plattsburg patent on Cumberland bay, and laid off, among others, 10 
lots of 100 acres each, to be given to the first 10 settlers who came 
on with families. Another tract of 100 acres was allotted as a dona- 
tion to the first male child bom on the patent. Messrs. Jacob Ferris, 
John Burke, Derrick Webb, Jabez Pettit, and Cyrenus Newcomb, 
were the first settlers on the * gift lots,' and Piatt NewcomB, Esq., 
was the fortunate first born male, but not the first child born on the 
patent ; Mrs. Henry Ostrander having previously given birth to a 
daughter, who intermarried with a Mr. Wilson, of Chateaugua, of 
Franklin county. From this period the settlement of the county 
steadily progressed. 

" The first court was holden at Plattsburg on the 28th day of Oct., 
1788, of which the following persons were officers: Charles Piatt, 
judge ; Peter Saily, Wm. McAuley, and Pliney Moore, assistant jus- 
tices ; Theodorus Piatt, justice; Benjamin Mooers, sheriff; John 
Fautfreyde, coroner ; Robert Paul, John Stevenson, Lott Elmore, 
Lewis Lezotte, and Jonathan Lynde, constables. Grand jui^^ Cle- 
ment Goslin, Allen Smith, -Abner Pomeroy, Jonas Allen, Joseph 
Shelden, Peter Payn, Moses Soper, Edward Everett, Elnathan Rog- 


ers, John HofTnagle, Cyrenus Newcomb, Melchor Hoffnagle, Stephen 
Cuyler, Jacob Ferris, John Ransom, and John Cochran." — GordorCs 

Plattsburg is rendered memorable as the place of the victory of 
Com. McDonough and Gen. Macomb, over the British naval and 
land forces, in Sept. 1814. The following account of the military 
movements on the land are copied from the statements given by Maj. 
A. C. Flagg and Gen. St. J. d. L. Skinner, who both were actors in 
the scenes described. 


On the 3l8t Aug., (says Mtg. Flagg,) the advance of the British armynnder Gen. Brisbane 
entered Champlain, and encamped on the north side of the great Chazy river, and on the same 
day Maj. Gen, Mooers ordered out the militia of the counties of Clinton and ESssez,' en moMe. 
* The regiment from Clinton co., under Lieut. Col. Miller, immediately assembled, and on the 
2d Sept. took a position on the west road near the village of Chazy ; and on the dd, Gen. 
Wright, with such of his brigade as had arrived, occupied a position on the same road, about 
8 miles in advance of this place. On the 4th, the enemy having brought up his main body 
to Champlain, took up his line of march for Plattsburg. The rifle corps, under Lieut. Col. 
Appling on the lake road, fell back as far as Dead creek, blocking up the road in such a 
manner as to impede the advance of the enemy as much as possible. The enemy advanced 
on the 5ih, within a few miles of Col. Appling*s position, and finding it too strong to attack, 
halted, and caueed a road to be made west into the Beekmantown road, in which the ti^t 
brigade under Gen. Powers advanced ; and on the morning of the 6ih, about 7 o'clock, 
attacked the militia, which had at this time increased to nearly 700, under Gen. Mooers ; 
and a small detachment of regulars under Maj. Wool, about 7 miles from this place. After 
the first fire, a considerable part of the militia broke and fled in every direction. Many, 
however, manfully stood their ground, and with the small corps of Maj. Wool, bravely con- 
tested the ground against five times their number, falling back gradually, and occupying 
the fences on each side of the road, till they arrived withm a mile of the town, when they 
were reinforced by two pieces of artillery under Capt. Leonard ; and our troops occupying 
a strong position behind a stone wall, for some time stopped the progress of the enemy.' 

" At this point, one of the finest specimens of discipline ever exhibited, was shown by the 
British troops on the occasion of the opening Capt. Leonard's battery upon them. The 
company to which I was attached, formed a part of the left flank of our little army, and 
was on the rise of ground west of the road leading from Mr. Halsey's comer to Isaac C. 
Piatt's, and about midway between the artillery and the head of the British column ; and 
the whole scene was open to our view. Here, (at Halsey's comer,) was a battery of two 
field-pieces, so perfectly masked by a party of the infantr}', tliat the enemy probably was 
not aware of it, until it opened upon him. There a dense column of men, with a front 
equal to the width of the road, and extending nearly half a ipile in length, pressing on with 
a buoyancy and determination of spirit, betokening an expectation that they would be per. 
mitted to walk into our works without much opposition. How sad the disappoinlment to 
the victorious veterans of so many bloody fields of Europe ! So perfect was the motion of 
the troopft in marching, that they seemed a great mass of living matter moved by some 
invisible machinery. Yet I can now almost fancy we could hear them cracking their 
jokes, and each claiming for himself the honor of being the first to make a lodgment in 
tlie Yankee forts ; when suddenly, with the noise of thunder, the sound of a cannon came 
booming through the air. It sent forth a round shot which took effect near the centre of 
the front platoon, about breast high, and ploughed its way through, sweeping all beim it, 
the whole length of the column ; opening a space apparently several feet wide, whkfa, 
however, was immediately closed, as if by magic ; and on the column pressed as if nothing 
had happened. A second shot was fired with the like effect, and similar consequences ; 
but when the third discharge came, with a shower of grape shot, there was a momentazy 
confusion. Immediately, however, the charge was sounded by some dozen British bngiee ; 
which through the clear and bland atmosphere of a bright September morning* wai the 
most thrilling and spiriustirring sound that could greet a soldier's ears. In on inatant of 
time, the men forming tlie advance of the column had thrown their knapsacks on either 
side the road, and bringing their pieces to the charge, advanced in double quick tune upon 
our miniature battery. 

" ' Our troops being at length compelled to retire, contested every inch of groimd« until 
they reached the south bank of the Saranac, where the enemy attempted to punue them* 
but was lepulsed with lots. The leas of the British in thit ikinmih, waa CoL WtUmgtoiit 


a Lieat. of the 3d Biif&, and two Lieuts. of the 58th, killed ; and one Capt. and one 
LieuL of the 58di light company wounded, together with about 100 privates killed and 
wounded, while that on our part did not exceed 25. The corps of riflemen under Col. 
Appling, and detachment under Capt. Sproul, fell back from their position at Dead creek 
in time to join the militia and regulars just before they entered the village, and fought with 
their accustomed bravery. The British got possession of that part of the village north of 
tihe Saranac about 11 o'clock, but the incessant and well-directed fire of our artillery and 
moakatry from the forts and opposite banks, compelled them to retire before night beyond 
the reach of our guns.' The bridge in the village was defended during this day by Capt. 
Bfartin I. Aikin's company* of volunteers, who were stationed in the saw.mill on the south 
bank of the river for that purpose. The enemy arrived towards night with his heavy anil- 
lery and baggage on the lake road, and crossed the beach, where he met with a warm re. 
ception from our row-galleys ; and it is believed, suffered a heavy loss in killed and wound, 
ed. On our side, Lieut. Duncan of the navy lost an arm by a rocket, and 3 or 4 men were 
killed by the enemy's artillery. The enemy encamped on the ridge west of the town, his 
right near the river, and occupying an extent of nearly 3 miles, his left resting on the lake 
aboat a mile north of the village. From the 6th until the morning of the llUi, an almost 
continual skirmishing was kept up between the enemy'^ pickets and our militia and volun- 
toeia stationed on the river, and in the mean time both armies were busily engaged — ours 
in strengthening the works of the forts, and that of the enemy in erecting batteries, collect. 
ing ladders, bringing up his heavy ordnance, and making other preparations for attacking 
tho forts. On the morning of the 7th, a body of the enemy under Capt Noadie, attempted 
to cross at the upper bridge about 7 miles west of the village, bu* were met by Capt. 
Vaughn's company o^ about 25 men, and compelled to retire with the loss of two killed, and 
fleToral wounded. On the morning of the 11th, the enemy's fleet came round the Head 
with a tight breeze from the north, and attacked ours which lay at anchor in Cumberland 
bay, two miles from shore east of the fort. 

** * The enemy ccmmienced a simultaneous bombardment of our works from 7 batteries, 
from which several hundred shells and rockets were discharged, which did us very little 
iqjury ; and our artillery had nearly succeeded in silencing them all before the contest on 
the lake was decided. 

** * The enemy attempted at the same time to throw his main body in the rear of the fort, 
by crossing the river 3 miles west of the town, near the site of Pike's cantonment. He 
succeeded in crossing, after a breve resistance by the Essex militia and a few of the Ver. 
mont volunteers, in all about 350, stationed at that place, who retired back a mile and a 
half from the river, continually pouring in upon them an incessant fire from behind every 
tree, witil Lient. Sumpter brought up a piece of artillery to their support, when the enemy 
commenced a precipitate retreat. 

^ * The Vermont volunteers, who had hastened to the scene of action on the first alarm, 
fell upon the enemy's left flank, and succeeded in making many prisoners, including 3 officers. 

^ * Had the British remained on the south side of the river 30 minutes longer, he must 
have lost nearly the whole detachment that crossed. Our loss in this aflair was five killed 
and eight or ten wounded, some mortally. 

** * Immediately on ascertaining the loss of the fleet. Sir George Prevost ordered prepanu 
lions to be made for the retreat of the army, and set off himsolf, with a small escort, for 
Canada, a little after noon. The main body of the enemy, with the artillery and baggage, 
were taken oflfin the afternoon, and the rear guard, consisting of the light brigade, started at 
daybreak and made a precipitate retreat ; leaving their wounded and a large quantity of pro. 
visions, fixed ammunition, shot, shells, and other public stores, in the different places of 
deposit about their camp. They were pursued some distance by our troops, and many 
prisoners taken ; but owing to the very heavy and incesrant rain, we were compelled to 
return. The enemy lost upon land more than 1,000 men, in killed, wounded, prisonerH, 
and deserters, while our aggregate 'loss did not exceed 150.' " 

The following account of the naval action is from " Perkins^ His- 
tary of the kUe War!* 

" T^ American fleet, under Commodore McDonough, lay at anchor in the bay, on the 
right flank oX. the American lines, and two miles distant. Great exertions had been made 

• uThli eoBipany wm eompnaed of young men and boys of the villafte, moat of whom were not subject to 
Biilitanr duly, wbo volunteered afler the mlHtia had gone out on the Chazy road, offered their services to 
Chn. Macomb, who aoeepted their otTer, aimed the company with rifles, and ordered them to repair to the 
haad-qaartars of Oea. Mooeis, and report for duty." Three only, k Is said, of the membem of this corps 
won over 18 yeaia oC age. 


by both parties to produce a superior naval force on this lake ; the Araerieans at Otter 
creek, and the British at the Isle auz Noiz. On comparing their relative strength on the 
11th of September, the American fleet consisted of the Saratoga, flag.ship, mounting 36 
guns; Eagle, 20 guns; Ticonderoga, 17 gims; Preble, 7 guns; 6 galleys, of 3 guns each, 
13 guns ; four, of one, 4 guns ; making in the whole, 86 guns ; and 820 men. The British 
fleet consisted of the frigate Confiance, flagship, mounting .39 guns ; Linnet, 16 guns ; 
Cherub, 11 guns; Finch, 11 guns; five galleys, of 2 guns each, 10 guns; eight, of one, 8 
guns ; making in the whole 95 guns, and 1,020 men. 

" The British land forces employed themselves from the 7th to the 11th, in bringing up 
their heavy artillery, and strengthening their works on the north bank of the Suranac. 
Their fortified encampment was on a ridge a little to the west of the town, their right near 
the river, and their left resting on the lake, 1 mile in the rear of the village. Having deter, 
mined on a simultaneous attack by land and water, they lay in this position on the morning 
of the 11th, waiting the approach of their fleet. At 8 o'clock, the wished-for ships appear- 
ed under easy sail, moving round Cumberland head ; and were hailed with joyous acclama- 
tions. At 9, they anchored within 300 yards of the American squadron in line of battle ; 
the Confiance opposed to the Saratoga, the Linnet to the Eagle ; 13 British galleys to the 
Ticonderoga, Preble, and a division of the American galleys. The Cherub assisting the 
Confiance and Linnet, and the Finch aiding the galleys. In this position, the weather 
being perfectly clear and calm, and the bay smooth, the whole force on both sides became 
at once engaged.* At an hour and a half after the commencement of the action, the star, 
board guns of the Saratoga were nearly all dismantled. The commandant ordered a stem 
anchor to be dropped, and the bower cable cut, by means of which the ship rounded to, 
and presented a fresh broadside to her enemy. The Confiance attempted the same ope. 
ration and failed. This was attended with such powerful effects, that she was obliged to 
surrender in a few minutes. The whole broadside of the Saratoga was then brought to 
bear on the Linnet, and in 15 minutes she followed the example of her flag.ship. One of 
the British sloops struck to the Eagle ; 3 galleys were sunk, and the rest made ofl^; no ship 
in the fleet being in a condition to follow them, they escaped down the lake. There was 
no mast standing in cither squadron, at die close of the action, to which a sail could be 
attached. The Saratoga received 55 round shot in her hull, and the Confiance 105. The 
action lasted without any cessation, on a smooth sea, at close quarters, 2 hoim^ and 30 
minutes. In the American squadron 52 were killed, and 58 woimded. In the British, 84 
were killed, and 110 wounded. Among the slain was the British commandant, Com. 
Downie. This engagement was in full view of both armies, and of numerous spectators 
collected on the heights, bordering on the bay, to witneH) the scene. It was viewed by the 
inhabitants with trembling anxiety, as success on the part of the British would have opened 
to them an easy passage into the heart of the country, and exposed a numerous popidadon 
on the borders of the lake to British ravages. When the flag of the Confiance was struck, 
the shores resounded with the acclamations of the American troops and citizens. The 
British, when they saw their fleet completely conquered, were dispirited and confounded.** 

" A short distance from the village, are the ruins of the cantonment and breastworks 
occupied by Gen. Macomb and his troops. A mile north, is shown the house held by Gen. 
Prevoet, as his head.quarter8, during the siege ; between which and the village die marks 
of cannon-shot on the trees and other objects are still visible. Further onward about 5 
miles, on a hill overlooking the village of Bcekmantown, is the spot where a sanguinary 
engagement took place between the American and British troops, which resulted in the 
death of the British Col. Wellington and several men of both armies.** — Gordon^a Gax, 

The following inscriptions were copied from monuments in the 
graveyard in Plattsburg. 

** In memory of Gen. Benjamin Mooers, who died Feb. 20, 1838. He served as lien. 
tenant and adjutant during the revolutionary war. He commanded the milida at the battle 

* " 1 will mention one circumstance for the purpoee of showing the fnme of mind In whkb the bmvs 
McDonotigh entered t)N* banle, and in whom he put his trutt for succev. After the enemy*t fleet bove In 
flight, the men of his ship were asseinblcd on the aiiarter-declc, when be kneeled down, and la huBMe, aad 
fervent prayer, commended himself, hid men, and the cause in which they were engaged, to the God of Bat- 
tles, and arose from Uiat posturo, with a caJmiiess and serenity depicted on his brow, which sbowed be bad 
received comfon and aaurarice from above. Oiie other little incident, and 1 will proceed with my nlifect 
During the hottest part of the battle, the hit\ coop was shot away, when a cock escaped and flew up taMO tfM 
rlgginff, flapped his wings, and crowed most manfully ! The sailon considered this as a sure omen n snoeflfli, 
and, cheenng from one end of the rihip to tJie other, went to their work of dealing death to die enemy whli 
redoubled exertion. The cock remained in the rigging during the whole of the engagement, ever and aooB 
cheering ilic men on to a greater exertion by bis dear shriU voice."— tfen. SkUm&'M meanuU ^ tkM Btttk tf 

IlfTT. ] 18 

tttHxulmf, Sept. 11th, 1B14. He wu the fim mUlsTin this eowatf who rsmiiDed hara 
dmragli life. He was the fust sheriff of ihe county, and for 30 yon coon 17 Ireiaurar. H« 
repeuedlf repreKtiled ihia leetjoa af coualry in the usembtf and aenats of (he (tale, and 
■liachaTged the imponanl duties which devolved upon him as a ciiiien, a loldier, and a 
CluiMiaa, with fiddly to hia country, and iacegrity to hia God." 


1 lo the memory of Geokoe Downte, Esq., a poal-ceplain in the BiiliA likVyi 
«rlio gloriously fell on board hia B. M. S. Confiance, while leading the vesaeb under ius 
cominand 10 the attack of the American Flotilla, at ancboi in Cumberland Bay, o9* Platla- 
bdlK, on the 11th of Sept., 1814." 

"To nuA the ipot where the remains of a gallant ofScerandtincere friend were honor* 
ably interred, this atonahea been erected by his aSectionatB Bister-iii-iaw, Mary Dawnie." 

Sabanac, taken from Plattsburg in 1834 ; from Albany, N., 145 
miles. Pop. 1,464. Redford, 21 miles southwesterly from Platts- 
burg, has about CO dwellings. Here are the extensive works of the 
Redford Crown Glass Company. Bakersville is a small village 
about 5 miles NE. from Redford. 


Columbia county, taken from Albany in 1786 : its greatest length 
on the E. line 36f medium breadth 18 miles. Centrally distant N. 
from New York 125, from Albany, SE., 34 miles. The surface of 
the county is considerably diversified, though no part can be called 
mountainous. Ranges of small hillocks are interspersed with exteii' 
sive plains or valleys, and much of rich alluvion. There are some 
excellent lands, and much of the larger portion may be, by judicious 
culture, rendered highly productive. Nature, in the abundant beds 
of hme, has furnished the means, as if by a special providence, of 
tempering the cold and ungrateful constituents of the clay ; and ia 
many places the lime in the form of marl does not require burning to 


become a stimulant Scarce any portion of the state is better adapted 
to the raising of sheep, and the profits from this source, already great, 
are yearly increasing. This county is famed for the quantity and 
quality of its Indian com Lead and iron ore are found in this county. 
It is divided into 19 towns. Pop. 44,237. 

Ancram, originally named Gallatin, and taken from Livingston in 
1803 ; from Albany, S., 61, centrally distant S. E. from Hudson 21 
miles. Pop. 1,769. The Ancram Iron Works operate quite exten- 
sively in castings and bar iron from the celebrated ore of Salisbury, in 
Connecticut. Ancram is a small village near the W. line of the town. 

AusTERLiTZ, taken from Hillsdale, Canaan, and Chatham, in 1818 ; 
surface hilly and mountainous. Pop. 2,090. Spencertown, 15 miles 
NE. of Hudson, and Green River, are small villages. 

Canaan, orgluiized in 1788 ; bounds since altered. Canaan Cor- 
ners 24, Canaan 18 miles NE. from Hudson, and Red Rock are 
small settlements. The surface of the town is mountainous, with 
some fertile valleys. Pop. 1,957. 

Chatham, taken from Canaan and Kinderhook in 1795. Pop. 
3,650. Chatham Four Corners, on the Albany and Hartford and the 
Hudson and New Lebanon roads, is a small settlement, 20 miles SE. 
of Albany and 14 NE. from Hudson. Chatham, North Chatham, 
New Conroic, and •►*• .•••.•••«• ••• are post-offices. 

Claverack, organized in 1788. Pop. 3,053. This name is derived 
from Klauver-rack literally Clover-reach ; so called in its early settle- 
ment from the immense fields of clover which aboundejL here. Cla- 
verack post village, 4 miles E. of Hudson, was the seat of justice for 
the county, from 1787 to 1806, when it was removed to Hudson. It 
is a beautiful village, and contains about 60 dwellings. Churchtown, 
Smoky Hollow, and Centreville are small villages. This country was 
settled at a very early period by the Dutch. The following extracts 
from ancient newspapers, show that difficulties between the land- 
l(^ds and tenants are not confined to our time. 

To the printer of the New YM Gazette, dated May 20th, 176G. 

Sir, — For many months past we have heard a great deal of the uneasiness and riotous 
behavior of the tenants upon several of the large manors of this govemin€nt. And u 
these disorders have risen to a very great and dangerous height, and the causes of theoi 
variously spoken of, and not well understood, (some imputing the fault to the landlords, 
and others the tenants,) it is surprising that more care has not been taken to set the wMe 
affair in a clearer light ; which, besides that it might tend to an aiyicable settlement of tl^ 
difference, would dispose the public to join in discountenanrinnpie blameable putjr, and 
obtain redress for the injured. On the one hand, it seems strarrijRhEt the landlordt tlioidd 
draw upon themselves so much trouble and vexation, so much w^H and opposition froita 
their tenants, imlese the matters they insist on are just and v^bnaUe, and of veiy groat 
importance. On the other hand, it seems equally strange that tm tei^lB should takcLSHch 
desperate steps, and hazard the ruin of their families, the less- of psoperty, and even UA 
itself, unleiis their grievances are of the most insupportable kind, and such as itii.wbrto 
than death to bear. If these matters were explained by an impartial nairative, it would, I 
believe, do service to the parties and oblige the public, &c, A. B. 

Extracts from letters from Claverack, near Albany^ dated June 37thi.X76d.. 

** For some months a mob has frequently assembled and ranged the ea8tflfl|| part of tHo 
manor of Rensselaer. Lost week they appeared at Mr. Livingston's with. il^6 proposals 
to him ; buf be being from home, tliey returned to Mr. Ren»elaer*s 8on^||^jEhU|fefo "* 


fi«ni CliTenck, when, not finding him at home, thef used ■ome insalting worde, tnd left 
a mesBage for Mr. Renaselaerf that if he did not meet them next day at their rendezvous, they 
would come to him. On the 36ih, the sheriff of Albany, with 150 men under his com- 
mand, went to disperse the rioters, who were assembled it is supposed to the number of 60 
in a house on the manor. On the sherifi^s advancing to the house they fired upon him, 
and shot off his hat and wig, but he escaped unhurt — many shots were exchanged on both 
Adea. Of the militia, Mr. Cornelius Tenbrook, of Claverack, was killed, and seven 
wounded. Of the rioteia, three were killed (two of whom were the ringleaders) and many 
wounded, among whom was Capt. Noble (one of the chief instigators) in the back. The 
rioters retreated to Capt. Noble's house, where they formed a breastwork, and did not quit 
the house till the sherifTs party left the place. He afterward went to Poughkeepsie to get 
assistance fit>m the regulars to disperse the whole ; but the regulars were gone to Pender, 
graft's house, on Philip's Patent, in Dutchess county. 

** We hear fix>m Fredericksburg, in Dutchess county, that on Saturday last, as a party of 
regulars stationed there, under the command of Major Brown, were crossing a bridge, they 
were met by about 30 of the rioters, who were going to join Pendergraft, their chiefs 
party — a skirmish ensued, whereon two of the regulars were wounded, and it is supposed a 
much greater number o( the rioters, who generally dismounted and fled to the cornfields 
and bushes, leaving some of their horses and gims, which were taken, and one prisoner. 
Several more were taken that night. The next evening they sent a flag of truce wi;h 50 
fc^owers, who were all lodged in the meeting-house, and the next day several more partiee 
came in. Pendetgraft's wife was gone to persuade her husband to accept of the governor's 
mercy, as were many more wives of the rioters. We hear of no lives lost. It was reported 
that 300 of the rioters lodged at Quaker Hill, intending to attack the regulars on the 13th 
nJi.** [How many uneasy moments must such of these senrible regulars feel, who are pur- 
maded that they are employed to support Ik Equity ?] 

From the New York Gaxette, dated November 10th, 1768. 

** On Saturday last, the great cause between the Crown and Mr. John Van Rensselaer 
was ended. It was tried by a struck jury, and came on before the Hon. Justice Jones, on 
Tuesday the 95tl^^^ctober, and continued (with evening adjournments by the consent 
of pardes) until ^^^^^nst. lljle stdft' was for intrusion upon the croMoi lands, to try the 
limits of that pail^^^Bdtflensselaerwick manor and estate called Claverack. It was pro. 
moted by certain ^MIMT ofiicers upon a supposition that there was a great unpatented 
vacancy between the manor of Rensselaerwick and Livingston, and the patents of Kinder. 
hook and Westenhook, and carried on at the expense of the crown. There never was a 
trial in this colony so solemn, important, and lengthy. The counsel spent about eleven 
boors in summing up the evidence : Mr. Attorney General, Mr. Mayor, Mr. Duane, and 
Mr. Kissam, were of the counsel for the crown ; and Mr. Smi:h, jr., Mr. Scott, and Mr 
Thomas Smith conducted the defence. The judge was clear in his charge upon the 
construction of the old patent in the Rensselaer family, and the jury in two hours agreed 

on their verdict for the defendant This estate was attached upon the same prmci. 

pies, by certain petitioners a few years ago ; but their petitions were dismissed by the^r. 
emor and council, in the administration of Gen. Monckton, on the 20th October, 1762,% 

Clermont, organized in 1788 ; from Albany, S., 43 miles. Pop. 
1^31. Clermont, 12 miles S. of Hudson, is a small post village. It 
was the ancient seat of the Livingston family, and the residence of 
Chancellor Livingston, the well-known patron of Fulton, who named 
his first American steamboat the " Clermont." The following biogra- 
phical sketch is extracted from the Encyclopaedia Americana. 

" Robert R. Livingston, an eminent American politician, was born in the city of New 
York, November 27di, 1746. He was educated at King's College, and graduated 
in 1765. He studied and practised law in that city with great success. Near 
the commencement of the American revolution he lost the office of recorder, on ac 
count of his attachment to liberty, and was elected to the first general congress of the 
colonies ; was one of the committee appointed to prepare the Declaration of Independence ; 
in 1780, was appointed secretary of foreign affairs ; and throughout the war of the revolu. 
tion, signalized himself by his zeal and efficiency in the revolutionary cause. At the adop. 
tion of the constitution of New York, he was appointed chancellor, which office he held 
until he went, in 1801, to France, as minister plenipotentiary, appointed by President Jef. 
lienon. He was received by Napoleon Bonaparte, then first consul, with marked respect and 


eordiolity, and during a rendence of several years in the French capital, the chancellor np. 
peared to be the favorite foreign envoy. He conducted, with the aid of Mr. Monroe, the nc^o. 
tiation which ended in the cession of Louisiana to the United States, took leave of the iirt*t 
consul, (1804,) and made an extensive tour on the continent of Europe. On his return 
from Paris, Napoleon, then emperor, presented to him a splendid snuff-box, with a minia. 
tare likeness of himself, (Napoleon,) painted by the celebrated Isabey. It was in Paris that 
he formed a friendship and close personal intimacy with Robert Fulton, whom he materially 
assisted with counsel and money, to mature his plan of steam navigation. In 1805, Mr. 
Livingston returned to the United States, and thenceforward employed himself in promoting 
the arts and agriculture. He introduced into the state of New York the use of- gypsum, 
fmd the Merino race of sheep. He was president of the New York Academy of fine arts, 
of which he was a chief founder. He died March 26th, 1813, with the reputation of an 
able statesman, a learned lawyer, and a most useful citizen." 

CoPAKB, taken from Taghkanic in 1824; from Albany, S., 57 
miles ; from Hudson, SE., 16 miles. The town is part of the Liv- 
ingston manor. Pop. 1,505. The eastern part of tliis township is 
mountainous ; on the western border is Copake lake, which covers 
about 600 acres, and embosoms an island of about 20 acres, which 
has been the residence of members of the Livingston family. 

Gallatin, taken from Ancram in 1830; from Hudson, SE., 15 
miles. Pop. 1,645. 

Germantown, organized in 1788 ; from Albany, S., 39, and from 
Hudson, S., 12 miles: commonly known by the name of the German or 
East Camp. Pop. 968. There are three landings on the Hudson. 
In June, 1710, seventy of the palatines sent out by Queen Anne set- 
tled on this spot, then part of Livingston manor. L^725, pursuant 
to an arrangement between George I.* an<ft the pj^^^or. this tract 
was granted by letters patent to the persons he\ftiff/^o East Camp, 
as the settlement was called, in trust to appropriate 40 acres for the 
use of a church and school, and to divide the rest equally among the 
inhabitants. The settlement first commenced by tliree small lodges, 
or dorfe, the German word for village, named respectively after the 
supenntendent of each, as Weiser's Dorf, Kneiskems Dorf, <kc. 

Ghent, taken from Claverack, Kinderhook, and Chatham in 1818. 
4|bulation 2,557. Ghent is a small village, 10 miles NE. of Hudson. 
4Greenport, recently formed from Hudson. Pop. 1158. 

Hillsdale was organized in 1788; centrally distant 14 miles E. 
of Hudson. Pop. 3,470. Green river and Hillsdale are post-oli'ces. 
Unhappy disputes relative to titles to land in this town, long agitated 
the inhabitants, and several lives were lost in the controversy b*^fore 
it was finally settled by arbitration. 

Hudson, the capital of Columbia county, is situated oh the E. bank 
of Hudson river, 110 miles from New York, 29 from Albany, and 28 
from West Stockbridge, Mass. Lat 42° 14' N., long. 14' E. from 
New York. The city is finely situated on an elevation of about 
50 feet above the Hudson, the western part of which is a bold cliff 
or promontory projecting into the river, more than 60 feet high. 
The principal part of the city is built on a street one mile long, ex- 
tending in a straight line from the foot of Prospect Hill, to the prom- 
enade on the extremity of the cliff. Nearly all the streets intersect 
each other at right angles, except near the rivor, where they confonn 


to the shape of the ground. The promenade at the western extrem- 
ity, and fronting the principal street, commands a beautiful view of 
the river, the village of Athens opposite, the country beyond, and the 
towering Catskill mountains. The bay south of the city is locked in 
by a lofty eminence, anciently termed RorahiLck^ now called Mount 
Merino^ in consequence of there being a sheep farm established here 
some years since. The city contains 5 churches — 1 Presbyterian, 1 
Episcopal, 1 Baptist, 1 Methodist, and 1 Universalist. There is an 
academy, a number of classical schools, the Hudson Lunatic Asylum, 
a private hospital for the reception and cure of lunatics, 1 bank, and 
3 printing-offices. An elegant courthouse has been recently erected. 
W ater is brought in subterranean pipes from the foot of Becraft's 
mountain for the use of the city. Pop. 5,671. 

Hudson was founded in 1783, by enterprising men of property 
from Rhode Island and Nantucket, of the names of Jenkins, Paddock, 
Barnard, Coffin, Thurston, Greene, Mintum, Lawrence, and others, in 
all thirty persons. About twenty of this company, in the early part of 
1783, sailed up the Hudson to find some navigable situation on which 
to commence a new settlement. They selected and purchased the site 
on which the city now stands, which at that time was occupied as a 
farjn, with a single store-house on the bank of the river. In the fall 
of this year, two families arrived and commenced a settlement. In the 
spring of 1784, the other proprietors arrived, bringing with them seve- 
ral vessels ; they were soon followed by other emigrants from the east- 
ward. Between the sprmg of 1784 and that of 1786, there were 150 
dwelling-houses erected, besides wharves, warehouses, shops, bams, 
dtc, and several works connected with manufactures ; and the pop- 
ulation had increased to 1,500 persons. In 1795, Mr. Ashbel Stod- 
dard removed from Connecticut, established a printing-office, and 
issued a weekly paper, the " Hudson Gazette." 

Hudson was incorporated a city in 1785. At this period about 
twenty-jive vessels were owned in the place, which were mostly em- 
ployed in the West India trade ; a few were engaged in the whdlb 
and seal fishery, which was carried on with considerable success, and 
Hudson rapidly increased in wealth and population. During the rev- 
olutionary struggle in France, and the long protracted war in Europe, 
such was the demand for neutral vessels, and such the high prices of 
freight, that the vessels owned here were engaged in the carrying 
trade. This trade was not long enjoyed, for British orders in council 
and French decrees swept many of them from their owners. Other 
losses followed by shipwreck, and the embargo, non-intercourse, and 
the war which succeeded, almost finished the prosperity of Hudson. 
The city was a port of entry till 1815. The immense losses at sea 
produced much embarrassment and many failures, and kept the place 
in a state of depression for a considerable period. From this de- 
pression it is gradually and steadily advancing. The Hudson and 
berksbire railroad proceeds from this city, across the route of the 
New York and Albany railroad, 31 miles to the west line of Massa- 



chusetts at West Stockbridge, whence it is continued for two miles, 
till it unites with the great western railroad of that state. 

The following inscriptions are copied from 
monuments in the graveyard in this place : 

** To the memory of William Howard Allev, lieutenant io 
the U. S. Navy, who was killed in the act of boarding a piratical 
schooner on the coast of Cuba, near Matanzas, on the 9th of 
November, 1823, JE 32w-William Howard Allen. His remains, 
first buried at Matanzas, were removed to this city by the U. 
S. government, and interred under the direction cf the Com. 
mon Council of this city, beneath this marble erected to his 
honor by the citizens of his native place, 1833. William How. 
ard Allen was bom in the ciiy of Hudson, July 8, 1790; ap. 
pointed a midshipman in 1801, and a lieutenant in 1811 ; took 
a conspicuous part in the engagement between the Aigus and 
Pelican in 1813, and was killed while in the command of tb) 
U. S. schooner Alligator. 

'* Pride of his country's banded chivalry, 
His fame their hope, his name their battle cry, 
He lived as mothers wish their sons to Uve, 
He died, as fathers wish their sons to die.** 

AUeift Mmaament. 

** In memory of John Miltok Mamn, M. D., who was drowned crossing the Hud- 
son from this city to Athens, August 24, A. D. 1809, aged 43 years. This monument is 
erected as a token of their love by his bereaved wiife and children. Doctor Mgim was 
bom in Attlebury, Massachussetts ; he was educated at Brown's University in Providence, 
Rhode Island ; and came to reside in Hudson, A. D. 1800. This city is indebted to him 
for the introduction of vaccine innoculation, though here as el8ewhc|^, the plalanthro|ric 
enterprise was obliged to contend against prejudice and misrepresentatioii. The Common 
Council of Hudson, of which body he was a member, voted that they would attend Us fu- 
neral and wear crape on the left arm thirty days on account of their respect for his char, 
acter, and their regret for his loss. Here are laid the remains of one whom society re. 
spected and his kindred loved. He was a wise scholar, a skilful physician, a kind husbftod 
and father, and a sincere Christian. Deeply is he bewailed. Few men of his time pos. 
sessed a mind more happily turned to the acquisition of science, or exhibited more per. 

S'cuously patience and vigor, than Doctor Mann, Alas ! just as his faculties had become 
iture, and society had learned their value — just when in the prime of bodily and mental 
manhood, with his honors thickening upon him, death struck him down. But let not in. 
fidel grief regard his mind as having been cultivated or his knowledge accumulated in vain ; 
for so he was enabled to enter the future life with enlarged capacities of er^oyn^^Q^ ^^ 
more worthy views of his own nature and destiny, with a dearer apprehension of his 
heavenly Father's will, and with added incitement to constant obedience. We will not 
moum, then, as they who have no hope." 

KiNDERHooK was Organized in 1788 ; the surface of the town is di- 
versified, soil gravelly clay of sandy loam, and generally well culti- 
vated. Pop. 3,512. This place was settled at an early period by 
some Dutch and Swedish families. Its name is of curious origiui and 
signifies childrerCs corner^ or point ; so called from the number of 
children belonging to a Swedish family that anciently lived on a point 
of land about half a mile above the present upper landing. Several 
of their descendants are now Uving of the fourth and fifth generaticm. 
Valatie is a large manufacturing village in this town, 14 miles N. of 
Hudson, at the junction of the Valatie and Kinderhook creeks. It 
contains 1 Presbyterian, 1 Methodist, and 1 Lutheran church, 8 mer- 

(xn-omiA ccxnrTr. 119 

cantite BtereSt 300 dwellings, and 1,700 inhabitants. Kinderhook 
Tillage on the old post-road to Albany, 13 N. of Hudson, 5 E. from 
the nver, and 20 miles S. from Albany, is finely situated on a beauti- 
fiii level plain. Many of the dwellines have spacious yards and 
gardens decorated with shrubbery ; and groves of trees interspersed 
Sere and there give this place a pleasing aspect There are several 
chuicnM, SD academy in high repute, and about 90 dwellings. 

Birthplace of Preiident Van Buren, Kinderhook. 

The above is a representation of the house in which Martin Van 
Buren, recently president of the United States, was bom. It is situ- 
ated about 60 rods E. of the central part of the village, near the 
banks of the creek. It was at that time occupied by his lather, Abra- 
ham Van Buren, as a tavern, and the town meetings of former 
days were held within its walls. Originally it had a gable roof with 
two attic windows, in Dutch style ; and the small building seen on 
the right stood in the rear and was used as a kitchen. On a beam id 
the cellar, cut rudely with a penknife, are the initials, M. V. fi ; a 
memento of the president's youthful days. 

The following epitaph of president Van Buren'sbrother wascopied 
from a tablet in the new graveyard, about three fourths of a mile N. 
of the village. 

** b mensOTj of Abkabm A. Vxn Bureh, who died at HudHin, Oct. 30lh, 1836, in the 
49tli yau of hia age. He had beeo for many yean, and was al du time of hii death, gur- 
TDftte of ihe connty of Columlna; and byhistalenla and integri^, tecured univenal reaped 
•M etieen. Peace be lo hit aobea." 

LirnfflBTON was organized in 1788. Glenco, miles SE. from 
Hudson, and Johnstown, are small villages. Pop. 2,534. 

** LrringHon manor or lordship, originally contained that Inci which now compotes the 
tmrai of Livingston, Taghkanic, Ckipake, Ancram, Gallatin, Clermont, and Germsulowa 
It wai granted by the English government, while America waa a colony, to Robert Livings. 
Ion, who had been some yean settled in this countty snd who was a member of the Briu 
iA king^ council. This consisted of several distincl grants made in the years 1GB4, 1685, 
and 1686- In ITIO, agreeable to an arnngemeni with Queen Anne, the proprietor con. 
Ttjed a Enci conisining 6,000 acre* adjoining the Hudson from the SE. pert iif [he manor, 
to a niunbei of Palalinea, who had aervsd in her aimies, imd were now driven from Ger- 


many bf lh« French army. This tract conatituied the lownahip of G«nnaiilown. In 1714 a 
DEW granl, or grant and canfinnBiiun, was made of the manor to the anginal proprietor, 
and erecteil inlo a lordship, wiih ihe uaual privilegca and royalliL>a at thai day annused to 
baronies. He was authoriicd to conatitule a Court Baron, and appoint Ihe officera thereof; 
•nd tbe manor tenants were entitled to elect a metnbcr to the legislative sssenibly for the 
manor, and without losing their voles in the county elections, which privilege they eier- 
cised until the revolution." 

Kew Lebanon was taken from Canaan in 1S18. Lebanon Springs 
village is 25 miles from Albany, 32 NE. from Hudson. There are here 
about 35 dwellings, and several taverns for the accommodation of 
visiters at the sprtng. The spring is ten feet in diameter and four 
deep, and discharges water sufficient to turn several mills near its 
source. The water is tasteless, inodorous, and sof^, and is deemed 
beneficial' in interna) obstructions, salt-rheum, and cutaneous affec- 
tions generally. The place is much resorted to for health and amuse- 
ment The surrounding country is salubrious and picturesque. New 
Lebanon is a small settlement, one mile and a halt S£. of the spring. 

Shaker Buildings in New Lebanon. 

New Lebanon, Shaker village, called by its inhabitants the Tillage 
of the " Millennial Church" is two and a half miles S. of the spring, 
on the western side of the Taghkanic mountain, and contains about 
six hundred inhabitants. The annexed view shows one of their 
dwellings (containing a family of 150 persons,) and their meeting- 
house, which was erected in 1823. This place of worship is some- 
what singular in its construction. It is eighty feet long by sixty-five 
wide, all in one room, without beams or pillars, having a domic^ root 
covered with tin ; and a porch thirty-four by twenty-seven feet, roofed 
and covered the same way. The building is of wood, but the founda- 
tion and flights of steps are of marble, 

" This edifice," says a visiter, " stands in a beautiful grass plat, in 
the centre of the village. There are no seats in the house, except for 
spectators of their worship. Their stone walls and other fences are 
constructed with the utmost regularity and' precision, and their gate- 
posts are of massive marble columns, of many tons weight They 
manufiicture a great variety of articles for sale, which are remarka- 
ble for their neatness and durability ; and, in short, their tarmi, the'iT 


gardens, their manufactories, and houses, all exhibit tlie pleasing efiecta 
of industry and rural economy. Indeed, they are one independent 
community ; — their property is all held in common, and * nowhere,' 
•ays Professor Silliman, * in any community, can the moralist, the 
philosopher, or the statesman, see such a demonstration of the power 
of industry and economy.' They cheerfully pay their proportion of 
the public taxes, and share all the burdens of government except the 
bearing of arms, which they deem to be unlawful. They never ask 
charity for any purpose, but always have hands and hearts to give. 
We were conducted throuffh the whole establishment in every de- 
partment Their internal domestic arrangement is excellent. Their 
standing motto seems to be, to save time and labor, and all their va- 
rious machines and utensils are constructed to this end. We visited 
their extensive dairy, their washing-house, mills and manufactories, 
all of which evinced the most consummate skill and nicety. We also 
visited their school, consisting of about one hundred hearty, rosy- 
cheeked, and contented children, from eight to fifteen years of age. 
They underwent a very creditable examination in the various branches 
of astronomy, grammar, reading, spelling, arithmetic, &c., and gave 
us the most satisfactory proof that they are not trained up in igno- 
rance As far as our observation extended, they are as willing 

to fet others think for themselves, as they are to cherish their own 
peculiarities ; and, surely, if they are tolerant we should not be in- 
tolerant They are indeed a most singular people, but they have 
many, very many, excellent qualities. They are plain in their de- 
iXHrtment and manners, close though honest in their dealings, but kind, 
oenevolent, and hospitable ; and they remember and treasure up 
every kindness shown to them. In short, they are inoffensive, quiet, 
and valuable citizens ; and notwithstanding the idle, and even abomi- 
nable stories that have been put forth against them, after close ob- 
servation for many years past, it is our deliberate conviction that among 
themselves they strictly live up to their professions, and that their 
conduct and morals are irreproachable."* 

The society own about 2,000 acres of land in this town, and about 
half as much more in Hancock, Mass., the adjoining town. Within 
a few years after " Mother Ann," as she is usually called, made an 
establishment at Neskayuna, (see Watej^lietj p, 55,) another was be- 
gun at New Lebanon, which is now the principal Shaker establish- 
ment in the stated Their religious tenets must, of course, necessarily 
affect the order of their societies, by producing an entire separation 
of the men from the women. 

The leading qharacteristic in the worship of this people, is their 
dancing. This they^describe as the involuntary result of the exhilirat- 
ing and overpowering delight received through the outpouring of di- 
vine grace upon their hearts. The evolutions and changes in the 
dance, by constant practice, become as precisely correct as the man- 
ceuvres of a regiment of experienced soldiers ; it becomes in fact a 

* New York Commercial Adverdfer. 



mechanical movement. No one ever makes a mistake, or throws the 
rank in disorder from inattention or inexperience ; but every thing is 
conducted in the most exact order, as if every step and movement of 
the body was directed by a gauge and rule. Dances are sometimes 
held in private houses, when variations are frequently introduced. 
On some occasions it is said their movements are so rapid, that the 
eye can scarce follow or keep pace with their swift motions. 

" The principal doctrines of the Shakers are a belief in the second 
appearance of Christ in the person of the holy mother. They admit 
of but two persons in the Godhead, God the Father, and God the 
Mother, which they say is according to the order of nature, being 
male and female. To relieve the depraved race of man, they believe 
that it became necessary for God to take upon him the real character 
of human nature as it is, male and female, and that his first appear- 
ance was in the person of man, and the second in the person of wo- 
man, whereby the work of redemption was finished and completed. 
The confusion and wickedness that prevailed in the Catholic Church, 
during the long period which preceded and followed the reformation, 
they ascribe to the work of redemption not being completed in Christ's 
first appearance, it being the necessary period that must intervene 
between the making and fulfilment of the promise of Christ, that he 
would establish his law of righteousness on earth. They believe in 
perfect holiness, and insist that salvation from sin here is necessary 
to salvation from misery hereafter. They regard the Bible as a tes- 
timony of Christ's first appearance, but denv that it contains the word 
of God, or of life, as they consider a belief in the second appearance 
of Christ, or in the spiritual character and mission of the holy mother, 
as indispensable to salvation." 

Stockport, so named from Stockport, England, the native place of 
Mr. Wilde, the proprietor of the mills at Columbiaville, was taken from 
Hudson, Ghent, and Stuyvesant, in 1833. The Claverack and Kin- 
derhook creeks unite near the centre of the town. In breaking 
through the high bank of the river, these streams, within three miles, 
have several falls which amount to about one hundred and sixty feet, 
and this water-power has given rise to the several flourishing manu- 
facturing villages named below. Columbiaville, vca miles N. of Hud- 
son, has very extensive cotton factories, and about forty-five dwell- 
ings. The Hudson river Seminary is located here. The print vnn-ks 
for printing calicoes, were established fourteen yeart since, by J,....r - 
Marshall & Co., and employ about two hundred and fifty hands. 
There are in this vicinity about seventy dwellings. Chittenden's 
Falls are seven, and Springville two and a half miles from Hudson. 
At Glcncadia, on the Kmderhook creek, three and a half miles from 
Hudson ritv, there are two falls amounting to about seventy feet, on 
which are situated extensive cotton factories. Pop. 1P14. 

Stuyvesant was taken from Kinderhook in 1823. Stu}^esant or 
Kinderhook Landing, on the Hudson, is one hundred and twenty-five 
miles N. of New York, five W. from Kinderhook, twenty S. of Al- 
bany, and contains about fifty dwellings. Pop. 1,946. 


Taqbkanic, taken from Livingston, in 1823, by the name of Gran- 
^ ; name and bounds since altered. It is one of the towns of Liv- 
'~a manor, and lies SE. of Hudson fifteen miles. Pop, 1,784. 


CoKTLAND COUNTY, taken from Onondaga in 1808, and named in 
honor of Gen, Pierre Van (^orllandt, who was a large landholder 
here : centrally distant NW. from New York 200, and from Al- 
bany, W., 145 mites. This county forma part of the high central 
section of the state, it has the dividing ridge between the northern 
and southern waters across its northern and western borders. It is 
consequently elevated. Its surface is composed of easy hills and 
broad valleys, giving it a gently waving and diversified aspect. The 
Boil is generally a gravelly loam, rich and productive. 1 his county 
comprises four whole and two half townships of the tract granted by 
the state to the soldiers of the revolution, and is settled chiefly by 
emigrants from the eastern states. Pop. 24,605. It is divided into 
11 towns. 

CiNciNNATUB, taken from Solon in 1604; W. from Albany 131, 
from Cortland, SE., 15 miles. Pop. 1,301. ^incinnatus, the post 
village, contains about 30 dwellings. 

CoBTLANDViLLE, taken from Homer in 1829 ; 142 miles from Al- 
bany. Pop. 3,799. The following view shows the principal public 

Public buildings in Cortlandvilk, 

buildings in the village. The first building on the right is the Meth- 
odist church, the second the Academy, the third the Presbyterian, 
the fourth the Baptist, and the last the UniversaLst church. The 

184 COBTLAND couN-ry. 

courthouse ia seen on the opposite aide of the atreet The village is 
pleasantly situated and laid out in regular squares. There are nere 
two weekly newspaper offices and about 120 dwellings, some of them 
splendid, with neat door-yarda adorned with trees, shrubbery, &c. &c. 
McGrawsville, a small village, is 4 miles E. from Cortiandville. South 
Cortland and Port Watson are post-offices. 

The following epitaph was copied from a monumeDt in the grave- 
yard at Cortiandville. 

" In memory of MEirtha Merrich, wife of David Merrick, who died Apiil f), 1831, in the 
ESd yesr of ber age. She had poswd the laat 33 yeui of her life in this town and Hdmer, 
bating been uaung the ftrat aetllera in this county. She departed thii life in the fidl faidl 
of a blened Saviour. She lived respected and died regreiied." 

Freetown, taken from Cincinnatus in 1818 ; from Albany 140, and 
from Cortland, SE„ 10 miles. Fceetown Comers is a small village, 
and Freetown is a post-office. Pop. 949. 

HoMEB, organized in 1794. The township is level; the soil a 
Bandy and clay loam. Pop. 3,573. Homer village, the largest in 
the county, is beautifully situated upon a plain, upon the W. bank of 
the Tioughnioga river ; from AibaLy 138 miles, 40 N. from Oswego. 
80 S. from Syracuse, 2i N. from Cortlaud village. The following 
new shows on the right the Episcopal church, the building next is 

PubHc indldingi 

the Academy, the third the Presbyterian, the fourth the Methodist, 
and the fifth the Baptist church. The Cortland Academy a a highly 
flourishing institution, havinga collection of philosophli^al apparatus 
and a cabmet of minerals. The public buildings are upon a square 
of 6 acres. The village was incorporated in 1825, and hag about SOO 

The following is the copy of an inscription on a monument in the 
graveyard in this village. 

"Bet. EudlTKUi Wilzek, waabom at Taunton, Man., Feb. Tlh, ITBO; gndiuMd M 
Bmrnl College, Rhoiie Uatid, Sept. 1th, I8D3. Joined Uu ehunh in Di^uoa, Um., 


Jan. 31, 1805, was ordained and installed Paator of this church, Oct. 35th, 1809. Died 
June 4th, 1820. This monument is erected by an affectionate people as the last teatimoDf 
of respect to their beloved pastor. Rev. Mr. Walker settled over this church when it con. 
■Red of 99 members. Admitted during his ministry 481. Left when he died 440. Hav. 
ii^ ended his labors and called upon God, saying Lord Jesus receive my spirit, he fell 

Maeathon, originally named Harrison ; taken from Cincinnatus in 
1818 ; from Albany 146, and from Cortland, SE., 15 miles. Pop. 
1,063. Marathon is a small village about 4 miles from the county 
line, on the south. 

Feeble, taken from TuUy in 1808 ; from Albany 138, from Cort- 
land, N., 10 miles. Preble, a small post village, is seven miles N. of 
Cortland. Pop. 1,247. 

Scott,* taken from Preble in 1815; from Albany 146 miles. The 
sur&ce of the township is broken by ridges of hills running N. and 
8., with valleys of good land. Pop. 1,332. Scott Centre, post vil- 
lage 10 miles NW. of Cortland, has about 20 dwellings. 

Solon, organized in 1798; from Albany 140, from Cortland, E., 
10 miles. Solon and East Solon are post-offices. Pop. 2,311. This 
township has a soil of good quality, and the inhabitants have been 
much engaged in rearmg cattle. 

Teuxton, taken from Solon and Fabius in 1808 ; limits since 
changed ; from Albany 128, NE. from Cortland 12 miles. Pop. 
3,058. Truxton village, pleasantly situated on the right bank of the 
river, has about 40 dwellings. Cuyler is a post-office. 

ViEoiL, organized in 1804 ; from Albany 148, from Cortland, S., 
Smiles. Yirffil and Hartford are small post villages. Pop. 4,501. 

Willet, taken from Cincinnatus in 1818; from Albany 137, from 
Cordand, SE., 17 miles. Pop. 870. This is a hilly township and 
bat thmly settled. 


Delawabe county, formed from Ulster and Otsego counties in 1797, 
is centrally distant from New York via CattskQl 166, SW. from 
Albany 77 miles. Greatest length NE. and SW. 60 ; greatest breadth 
SE, and NW. 37 miles. 

The county has a broken and diversified surface — from the rugged, 
lofty, and barren mountain side and summit, to the subsiding hill and 
^e high and low plain, with the rich valley, and the low and fertile 
^luvion. Its climate is subject to sudden and great changes of tem- 
perature, yet not unfriendly to health and longevity. It is principally 
Watered by the northeastern sources of the Delaware, a large navi- 

f^ble river of Pennsylvania, on which stands the city of Philadelphia, 
he east branch of the Susquehannah, another large stream of Penn- 
sylvania, forms a part of the northeastern boundary, as does the Del- 


aware a part of its southwestern. The Cookquago branch of the 
Delaware, or the true Delaware, as it ought to be called, runs nearly 
centrally through the county from NE. to SW. ; the Popacton brancn 
runs nearly parallel with this, a short distance to the south of it 
These streams with their branches, and many smaller streams, spread 
plentifully over the whole county, and supply a vast profusion of fine 
sites for mills. The quality of the soil is as various as the surface. 
On the upland there is a large proportion of chocolate-colored loam^ 
and the valleys and alluvial flats have a rich mould. The whole may 
be pronounced a good country for farming, well watered by small 
springs and rivulets. The heavy trade of this county follows the 
course of its lumber, which goes in rafts by the Delaware and Sub- 
quehannah rivers to Philadelphia and Baltimore ; while considerable 
traffic is carried on with the towns on the Hudson, to which there 
are turnpikes in various directions. The value of the wild lands in 
the county is from two to three dollars an acre, and the improved 
lands in the valleys average about 30 dollars, while those on the hills 
are worth about 5 dollars the acre. West of the Mohawk branch 
of the Delaware, the county was divided into several patents ; but 
east of it was included in the Hardenburgh patent. In 1768, William, 
John, Alexander, and Joseph Harper, with eighteen others, obtained 
a patent here for 22,000 acres of land, and soon after the Harpers 
removed fi-om Cherry Valley, and made a settlement which was 
called Harpersfield, but which was broken up by the Indians and 
tories during the revolutionary war. About one quarter of the county 
is under improvement. Pop. 32,033. The county has 18 towns. 

Andes, taken from Middletown in 1819 ; from Albany 90, centrally 
distant SE. from Delhi 15 miles. Shavertown and Andes are post- 
offices. This town and Bovina were principally settled by the Scotch. 
Pop. 2,176. 

Bovina, taken from Middletown, Delhi, and Stamford, in 1820; 
distant from Albany 89, from Delhi centrally situated E. 10 miles. 
Bovina and Fish Lake are post-offices. Pop. 1,403. 

Colchester, taken from Middletown, part of Ulster county, in 
1792; bounds since reduced; from Albany 91, from Delhi S. 21 
miles. Colchester and Popacton are post-offices. Pop. 1,667. The 
surface is hilly, somewhat mountauious. The settlements are princi- 
pally on a branch of the Susquehannah, which passes through the 

Davenport, formed in 1817 ; from Albany 65, from Delhi centrally 
situated N. 11 miles. Davenport, West Davenport, and Davenport 
Centre, are post-offices. Pop. 2,054. 

Delhi, taken from Middletown, Kortwright, and Walton, in 1798 ; 
area since much reduced ; from Albany 77, west from Cattskill 68, 
from Kingston 67 miles. Pop. 2,555. 

The following view of Delhi village, the county seat, was taken on 
the eastern bank of the Delaware. This village was incorporated in 
1821. The building with a steeple seen on the extreme right is a 
factory— the spire near the centre of the view is that of the Epis- 


Eastern view of Delhi Tillage. 

«0|«I church, the one to the left the Presbyterian, and the cupolas 
are respectively those of the Courthouse, Jail, and Academy. The 
academy here, under the charge of the Rev. Daniel Shepherd, is ia- 
corporated and flourishing. The village contains about 100 dwellings. 

Delaware LOerary Institute, FrankKn. 

FiANKLiN, taken from Harpersfleld whilst part of Otsego county, in 
1%; area since much altered. It was settled in 1765. Pop. 3,035. 
^Wklin village is pleasantly situated 16 miles W. from Delhi, 80 
torn Kingston, and 60 S, of Utica, and contains 1 Presbyterian, 1 
Baptist, and 1 Methodist church, and about 600 inhabitants. " The 
Waware Literary Institute was incorporated in 1935. The build- 
bgis of stone, 86 feet long, 42 wide, and 4 stories high. It contains, 
limdes rooms to accommodate 80 male students, a chapel, two re- 


citation rooms, and one for apparatus. Cost, including the site, 87,500. 
It has a chemical, a philosophical apparatus, and a library. It is di- 
rected by a board of 24 trustees. It has a male and female depart- 
ment, and five teachers are employed in instruction. Rev. Silas Fitch 
is principal, and Merit Piatt lecturer and instructer in natural science. 
It has 110 students. The moral influence and pecuniary advantages 
it affords are considered highly favorable." East Franklin and North 
Franklin are post-offices. 

Hamden, taken from Walton and Delhi in 1825 ; from Albany 85, 
from Delhi, SW., 8 miles. Hamden is a small post village on the 
Delaware. Pop. 1,469. 

Hancock, a large and somewhat mountainous township, was taken 
from Colchester in 1806 ; from Albany 129, and from Delhi centrally 
distant SW. 27 miles. Hancock, East Branch, Bloomfield. Paulina, 
and Partridge Island are the post-offices. Pop. 1,027. The inhabi- 
tants, who are principally engaged in lumbering, are chiefly settled 
upon the Popacton branch of the Delaware. 

Harpersfield, organized in 1788 as part of Montgomery county; 
bounds since much reduced ; from Albany 62 miles. It has a moun- 
tainous surface. Pop. 1,696. Harpersfield, 18 miles NE. of Delhi, 
and West Harpersfield, are small post villages. North Harpersfield 
is a post-office. 

The following is extracted from Mr. Campbell's interesting and 
valuable work entitled " Annals of Tryon County :** 

** In 1768, WUliam, John, Alexander, and Joseph Harper, with eighteen other individuals, 
ohtained a patent for twenty.two thousand acres of land lying in the now county of Dela. 
ware. The Harpers removed from Cherry Valley soon after, and made a settlement there 
which was called Harpersfield. This settlement had begun to flourish at the commence- 
ment of the war. Col. John Harper had the command of one of the forts in Schoharie. 

The following account of a successful enterprise of Col. Harper, was furnished by the 
Rev. Mr. Fenn, who received the information nrom him. He infonned me that in the year 
1777, he had the command of the fort in Schoharie, and of all the frontier stations in this 
region. He left the fort in Schoharie, and came out dirough the woods to Herpenfield in 
the time of making sugar, and from thence laid his course for Cherry Valley to investigate 
the state of things there ; and as he was pureuing a blind kind of Indian trail, and was as. 
cending what are now called Decamr Hills, he cast his eye forward and saw a company of 
men coming directly towards him, who had the appearance of Indians. He knew that if 
he attempted to flee fi-om them they would shoot him down ; he resolved to advance right 
up to them, and make the best shift for himself he could. As soon as he came near enough 
to discern the white of their eyes, he knew the head man and several others ; the head 
man's name was Peter, an Indian with whom Col. Harper had of^en traded at Oqnago be- 
fore the revolution began. The colonel had his great-coat on, so that his regimentaJs were 
concealed, and be was not recognised ; the first word of address of Col. Harper^ was, 
* How do you do, brothers V The reply was, * Well — how do you do, brother 7 Which 
way are you bound, brother ?* * On a secret expedition : and which way are yon bound, 
brothers 7* * Down the Susquehannah, to cut oflf the Johnston settlement.' (Panon John. 
ston and a number of Scotch families had settled down the Susquehannah, at what is 
now called Sidney's Plains, and these were the people whom they were about to destroy.) 
Says the colonel, * Where do you lodge to-night 7' * At the mouth of Schenevas cieek,' 
was the reply. Then shaking hands with them, he bid them good speed, and proceeded on 
his journey. 

** He had gone but a little way from them before he took a circuit through the woods, a 
distance of eight or ten miles, un to the head of Charlotte river, where were a mnnber of 
men making sugar ; ordered them to take their arms, two days' provisions, a canteen of 
rum, and a rope, and meet him down the Charlotte, at a small clearing called £Svaniini|ilaiceY 


«t a eotaui hoar that afternoon ; then rode with all speed throuj^ the woods to Harpers- 
field ; collected all the men who were there making sugar, and being armed and victualled, 
fteh man with his rope laid his course for Charlotte ; when he arrived at Evanses place he 
baud the Charlotte men there, in good spirits ; and when he mustered his men, there were 
fifteen, including himself, exactly the same number as there were of the enemy ; then the 
colonel made his men acquainted with his enterprise. 

** They marched down the river a little distance, and then bent their course across the 
hiO to the mouth of Schencvas creek ; when they arrived at the brow of the hill where 
they could overlook the valley where the Schenevas flows, they cast their eyes down upon 
the flat, and discovered the fire around which the enemy lay encamped, ' There they 
ire,' said Col. Harper. They descended with great stillness, forded the creek, which was 
bmstJiigh to a man ; after advancing a few hundred yards, they took some refireshment, 
and then prepared for tlie contest— ndaylight was just beginning to appear in the east. 
When they came to the enemy, they lay in a circle with their fieet towards the fire, in a 
deep deep ; their arms and all their implements of death, were all stacked up according to 
tile Indian custom when they lay themselves down for the night : these the colonel se- 
cured by carrying them off a distance, and laying them down ; then each man taking his 
rope in his hand, placed himself by his fellow ; the colonel rapped his man softly, and said, 
* Come, it is time for men of business to be on their way ;* and then each one sprang upon 
fan man, and afler a most severe struggle they secured the whole of the enemy. 

** After they were all safely bound, and the morning had so fur advanced that they could 
discover objects distinctly, says the Indian Peter, * Ha ! Col. Harper ! now I know thee — 
why did I not know thee yesterday V ' Some policy in war, Peter.* * Ah, me find em 
» now.* The colonel marched the men to Albany, delivered them up to the commanding 
officer, and by this bold and welUexecuted feat of valor he saved the whole Scotch settle. 
ment from a wanton destruction. 

** Early in the spring of 1780, a party of tories and Indians, under the command of Brant, 
destroyed Harperefield. The inhabitants had generally left the place ; but a few of the 
men were at the time engaged in making maple sugar. Nineteen were taken prisoners, 
and several killed. A consultation was held in the Indian language in presence of the 
prisoners relative to a contemplated attack upon the upper fort, in Schoharie ; the Indians, 
Mttisfied with the booty and prisoners already obtained, were unwilling to risk any thing 
in an uncestain expedition ; some of the tories represented the plan as proniieing success, 
and advised the Indians to kill tlie prisoners, that they might not he cncumbertd with them. 
BrmDt came up to Capt. Alexander Harper, one of the prisoners, and drawing his sword, 
asked him if there were any troops in the fort ; saying his life should be taken if he did 
not inform him correctly. Harper knew enough of the Indian language to have learned 
the subject of the foregoing conversation, and immediately answered that it was well gar- 
riiM^ned, believing that they would all be kilh'd should he answer diffrrcntly. Another pris- 
i^ncr, not knowing the determination of the Indians, and fearing their vengeance should the 
fdUehood be detected, stated truly that there were few if any troops in the fort. Harper 
insisted that his statement was true ; he was believed, and they returned to Niagara. The 
last night of their journey they encamped a short distance from the fort. In the morning 
the prisoners were to run the gauntlet. Harper, knowing the hostility of the Indians to. 
wards hitn, and fearing they miglit take his life, requested Brant to interfere and protect 
him, which he promised to do. The Indians arranged themselves in two parallel lines, 
facing inward, with clubs and whips in their hands. 

** Harper was selected fuvt ; he was a tall, athletic man, and on the first signal sprang 
from the mark with extraordinary swiftness. An Indian near the end of the line fearing 
l^might escape with little injury, stept befure him ; Harper struck him a blow with his fist, and 
trcn springing over him, ran towards the fort ; the Indians, enraged, broke their ranks and 
fuUowed him. The garrison, who had been appri:«ed of the movements of the Indians, 
were upon the walls when they saw Harper approaching ; they threw open the gate, and 
he rushed in, when they immediately closed it. It was with difficulty they could ktf p the 
Indiana back. The other prisoners took different courses and got into the fort without 
pwir^g through this, if not fiery, yet bloody ordeal."* 

* " WilUam HarptT was an active member of the provincial eottfrtm. and alter tbc war was severa! 
ftea a member of the state legwiature. VVIu^n Otttc^co cminty wan Tormt'd, he wa<« ap[i«iinit*<l one of the ai»- 
liflant judfi*, William Cooper, Ei«., beint first judifi*. Ho live4 to a fiwtn a^, and dii-d a few yenr? since 
aft miford, in OiMfO county, retalniiiff to the 'a»t that strong deidre for infomintion wliicli had cliaractrrized 
kb public life. Col. John Harper dit^ in HarpcrsiltrM, and Alexander and JoKt>ph, Koon atU'r the war, ob- 
laliMd a irraiit of some land in the wnMem part of the state of Ohio, whither thfy rt-movod. The qiii<!t of 
tbe country, and tlie approach of civilization, was iK)t congenial to them. They preA'rred the ilfe of a boT' 
r, and sought it amid the botmdlasi foresUi whkh then covered that beautiful «tate/' 



KoRTRiGHT, organized as part of Otsego county in 1703 ; from Al- 
bany 68 miles. JBloomville, 7 miles NE., and Kortright 14 miles from 
Delhi, are small villages. South Kortright and North Kortright are 
names of post-offices. Pop. 2,442. 

Masonville, taken from Sidney in 1811 ; from Albany 105, and 
from Delhi NW. centrally distant 24 miles. Pop. 1,420. This town 
contains great quantities of pine, and lumbering is the principal oc- 
cupation of its inhabitants. 

Meredith, taken from Franklm and Kortrieht in 1800 ; from Al- 
bany 77, and from Delhi centrally situated N. 8 miles. Meredith 
and West Meredith are small settlements. Pop. 1,640. Dr. Dwight, 
in his journey to the Niagara Falls in 1804, passed through this town. 
He says : " Meredith is in the fullest sense a new settlement In the 
year 1800 it contained only 213 inhabitants, and in the year 1810, 
726. Peculiar efforts have been made by Mr. Law to introduce into 
this township sober, industrious, virtuous settlers. In this manner he 
has probably secured its prosperity, both moral and physical, for a 
century. Since the date of my journal, the inhabitants have built an 

academy, in which they assemble for public worship From 

the house of Mr. Law, a handsome mansion in the centre of the town, 
the prospect stretches to the south, over a valley ultimately bounded 
by mountains at the distance of thirty miles ; and to the north, over 
another valley which extends ten miles. The hill which limits the 
northern prospect is covered with a magnificent growth of white 
pines ; one of which having fallen down was measured by ^fr. Law, 

and was found- to be two hundred and forty-seven feet in length 

It is not improbable that the next generation may never see a white 
pine of the full size, and may regard an exact account of this noble 
vegetable production as a mere feble." — DwigMs Travels^ vol. 4, 

MiDDLETowN, takcu from Rochester and Woodstock as part of Ul- 
ster county, in 1789 ; area since much reduced ; settled by emigrants 
from New England, and by Scotch, Dutch, Irish, and German emi- 
grants ; from Albany 79, from Delhi centrally situated SE. 20 miles. 
Middletown, Ashvifle, Colesville, and Halcottsville, are post-offices. 
Pop. 2,608. 

KoxBURY, taken from Stamford m 1799; area smce altered; per- 
manently settled by New England emigrants in 1790; from Al- 
bany 63 miles. Roxbury, formerly called Beaver Dam village, bjm} 
Mooresville, 2S miles E. of Delhi, are small villages. Pop. 3,004^^ 

Sidney, taken from Franklin in 1801 ; from Albany 100, and from 
Delhi, NW., 24 miles. Sidney Plains, Sidney, and New Road, are 
post-offices. Near here is a locality called " the Beaverdamt" where 
there are the timbers remaining of a dam constructed by the beavers 
which flooded 30 or 40 acres of land. Pop. 1,720. 

One of the first settlers of this town was Timothy Beach, originally 
from Fairfield county, Connecticut. At the close of the revolutionary 
war, Mr. Beach, with his son, a lad of about 12 years, proceeded up 
the Hudson river to Cattskill, and from thence struck across the wil- 


Being considered dangerous to penetrate that distance without a 
ffuide, they procured the services of an Indian conductor. Mr. 
Beach selected his farm near Wattle's ferry, on the Susquehannah, 
then in a wilderness state, since known as the Ketchum farm. He 
then returned through the same woods, carrying his boy on his horse 
behind him, till he arrived in Connecticut. On November 11th, 1784. 
Mr. Beach with his family went up to Albany, and from thence con- 
tinued their journey till they arrived at Otsego lake, the head waters 
of the Susquehannah. Here they left their teams, as the road pro- 
ceeded no further, put their effects on board of a batteau, and glided 
gently down the lake, a distance of nine miles to its outlet, where they 
encamped in the open air, on the spot where the village of Coopers- 
town is now built. On the third day after leaving this place, Mr. 
Beach arrived at his farm, on which was a small clearing, having a 
log house in a ruinous state, in the centre. It appears that the place 
had belonged to a Scotchman who was killed by the Indians in the 
revolutionary war. 

" The shortness of time,** says Mr. Priest, (in a pamphlet giving an account of the adven. 
tons of this family,) " between their arrival here and the setting in of winter, prevented the 
bmiding t iaiger and a better log house. During this winter they became experimentally 
acquainted with cold, hunger, and a variety of sorrows, known only to the pioneers of an 
entire new country. Money was of but little use, as food was not to be bought where 
dwre was none for sale, as scarcely any as yet had been produced. There were but five 
lamilifls in the whole community, who having come in the spring of the same season, had 
not therefore bad time to raise but little, cons^^40[T}|f7o&d^f i^^ind was scarcely to be 
Ibund among them. To procure it from a distar)pc was >)lso e^b^mcly diim^ult, there being 
no aettlement where it could be had, nearer t^j^^afegbolMitlbsTltdifttahce^f about seventy 
miles, to which place at that time the road was noimuTrti oe^ter>kS||^ nonf; at all. 

**This dreadful winter at length passed away, and with it, in a measure, their sufferings; 
as by this time they had learned of the Indians how to catch fish, which abounded in the 
liver, £oves, and creeks of the country. Without this relief they must have finally perished. 
Bat Aow a new scene of things, such as they had never before witnessed, says Mrs. Priest, 
we/e about to captivate their attention. March had begun to yield its rains ; the snow to 
feel its dtssohing power ; every rill and creek of the mountains to swell and roar, plunging 
forward over crag and cliff to the vales below. The devious Susquehannah began to put 
an majesty, drinking largely of its annual libation from earth and sky, swelling the headlong 
waters, w*hich as they rose lifted and tore away the ice from the shores and promontories. 
IfOud sounds were heard to moan along the thick-ribbcd ice, the covering of the waters 
bunting in ten thousand places with the noise of tempests. But now commenced a more 
amazing display of the power of the waters. Already its banks were overflown, and the 
distant forests of the fiats along the river, inundated with the sweeping fiood to the very 
baae o{ ihe hills. The broken ice began to move, large islands of it to rush upon each 
other, still breaking more and more, urging its way forward with resistless fiiry. Now the 
roej increases, large fields of ice plunge into the woods on either shore ; the trees bending, 
^roan and snap asunder beneath the oven^'hclming load, still passing on till thrown in huge 
he^v along the shores and in the adjacent woods. Still the main channel pursues its way, 
every moment adds to the enormous weight it bears. As far as the eye can view from 
the tope of commanding eminences, above, below, all its commotion, plunging onward 
^th a loud and steady roar till stayed on some long level in the river. Here it makes a 
standi or but slowly moves ; as a vast army on the verge of battle, which halts to adjust 
its prowess, then to move again. So the river in its grandeur resumed its course a mo. 
ment, while from shore to shore the ice stood piled in pyramids, chafing up and down as if 
in anger. But now the level narrows to a defile between the mountains, when all at once 
the maas for many miles above, with whirling eddies, stood at bay. So halts the embattled 
hoat, whose scouts descry the foe ; the council, cool in war, debate the safest mode to bring 
their legions fiercely to the fight. Now suddenly the waters rise and boil and foam through 
•n its heaps and ranks of massive ice ; as generals do, inspiring courage in the soldier's 
The upper fiooda having gathered head, urge on with augmented power its course ; 


expectation stands aghast ; the lowing herds widi stupid gaze wonder at the noise, de^er 
from their coverts scamper to the hills, dogs howl from fear at the dismal sounds, hon»t:s 
snort, bounding with staring eyeballs both right and left ; when all at once the frozen dam 
gives way and rushes on with sound of thunder. Fury and desolation mark its progress, 
trees torn from their roots plunge here and thei%, old timber with fences swept from the 
fields and woods, mingle in the ruin ; onward roars the unconquered deluge, till from Otsego 
lake to where the frightful Caughnawaga dashes to foam the descending river with the sub- 
dued and shivered ice : which ends the scene. 

Stamford, taken from Woodstock, and organized as part of Ulster 
CO. in 1792; from Albany 58, from Delhi, centrally distant NE., 16 
miles. Pop. 1,681. Hobart, upon the Delaware river, is a village 
containing about 80 dwellings. Stamford is a small village near the 
head of the river. 

Tompkins, originally named Pinefield, and taken from Walton in 
1808; it has a mountainous surface. Pop. 2,032. Deposit village, 
upon the Delaware, and partly in Broome co., 116 miles from Albany, 
40 S W. from Delhi, and on the Erie railroad, has about 70 dwellmgs. 
Cannonsville and Barbersville are small settlements. 

Walton, taken from Franklin in 1797; from Albany 94, from 
Delhi, centrally situated SW., 17 miles. Walton village, on the 
Delaware, has about 70 dwellings, within the area of a mile. Pop. 

Dutchess county was organized in 1683. It is on the E. side of 
the Hudson river, 75 miles S. of Albany, and 74 N. of New York. 
Greatest length N. and S. 38, greatest breadth E. and W. 26 miles. 
This county is one of the most opulent in the state, though its area 
has been reduced by the erection of the small county of Putnam from 
its southern end. Along the eastern border towns there are rangei 
of hills called the FishkiU or Matteawan mountains. Along the west- 
em borders of these, the surface is tossed into ridges and valleys, 
InoUs and dales, fancifully diversified, producing a great variety of 

fiosition, of soil and aspect, and a multitude of brooks and springs. 
n the southern part are some of the highest peaks of the Highlands. 
That called the Old Beacon, two miles from Matteawan village, and 
three from Fishkill Landing, raises its crest 1,471 feet, and the New 
Beacon or Grand Sachem, half a mile southward, towers 1,686 above 
tide. Their names are derived from the Beacons placed on their 
summits during the revolution. From the top of the latter, the view 
on the S. embraces the country upon the Hudson, for 25 miles to 
Tappan bay ; on the SE. includes Long Island and the sound ; and 
upon the NE. and W. comprehends, in the diameter of a circle 50 
miles in extent, scenery of every diversity, blendmg the beauties of 
cultivation with the stern and unchangeable features of nature. The 
principal streams are the Hudson river on its western boundary. Ten 


MQe, Fishkill, and Wappinger*s creeks. As a whole, the county is 
liighly fertile, producing abundantly wheat, rye, corn, oats, and grass, 
and an immense amount of produce is annually exported to New 
York. This county is divided into 18 towns. Pop. 50,926. 

Am BNiA, from Albany 75, and from New York 95 miles. Pop. 
2,179. Until 1761, Amenia was part of the Crom Elbow precinct, 
when it was erected into a separate one, and in 1788, into a town- 
ship with its present name. Ameniaville, 24 miles E. of Poughkeep- 
aie, is a small village. The Amenia Seminary, in Ameniaville, has 
been in operation about 5 years, and is in a flourishing condition. 
The village of Hitchcock's Comers, 29 miles from Poughkeepsie, lies 
partly in this town, and partly in Sharon, in the state of Connecticut 
It is pleasantly situated in a beautiful and populous valley, rich in the 
resources of agricultural wealth. The township comprises the width 
of the oblong tract, and the E. tier of lots, in the Great Nine Part- 
ners, — a large tract from the Hudson to the W. line of Connecticut, 
granted to nine proprietors or partners. It is stated in SpafFord's 
Gazetteer, that "in 1711, Richard Sackett and family lived on this 
tract, and continued the only white family until 1724, when Ulric or 
Oliver Winegar removed thither from the German Camp in Livings- 
ton manor, with a few other families. But the improvements were 
very small until 1741, when several families emigrated here from 

Beekman, organized in 1788 ; from New York, NE., 87, from Al- 
bany, S., 90 miles. Pop. 1,400. The Clo^ vale in this town, which 
was early settled by the Dutch, is extremely fertile. " On the Sprout 
creek, which rises in this town, a great quantity of human bones have 
accidentally been discovered, lying promiscuously, as if a vast pile 
of human bodies had here been made, and left to rot. No tradition 
has been preserved of this event, but it is supposed the spot was once 
the scene of a bloody Indian battle, and that the slain were hastily 
thrown toother, probably friends and foes, and left to the raven, the 
fox, and the worm." Beekmanville, on the Fishkill, 16 miles E., 
Greenhaven, 18, and Poughquake, 18 E. of Poughkeepsie, are small 
settlements. At the Beekman furnace 1,000 tons of pig iron are an- 
nually manufactured. 

Clinton, organized in 1788 ; NE. from New York 90, from Al- 
bany, SE., 70, and from Poughkeepsie, NE., 16 miles. Clinton ville. 
Pleasant Plains, Clinton Hollow, and Schultz Comers, are small set- 
tlements. Pop. 1,830. 

Dover, taken from Pawling in 1807 ; from New York, N., 80, and 
from Albany, S., 90 miles. This town was early settled by the Dutch. 
Pop. 1,999. Dover, South Dover, 24 E. from Poughkeepsie, and 
Chestnut Ridge, 2 miles S. from Dover village, are small settlements. 

Near Dover village is a remarkable cavern, which, from the re- 
semblance of the entrance to the pointed Gothic arch, is called the 
Stone Church. The following description is from the pen of a late 
visiter: — 

** The Stone Church consists of a fissure in the rock on a declivity 

131 suTcaeea countt. 

of the mountain, and near its 
base, through which passes a 
rippling streamlet, which, inits 
passage down until it reaches 
theground-workorfloorof the 
church, forms numerous and 
extensive cascades, some of 
thirty feet in height, and from 
ten to fifteen in breadth. This 
current has been looked upon 
as the great architect of the 
work. The opening, though 
so narrow at the top as to ap- 
pear almost closed, gradually 
widens to its base, so that it 
forms a vast arch of very con- 
siderable regularity, of per- 
haps twenty feet span and up- 
wards. Its greatest depth is 

and the mner . or principal 
apartment, (it being divided into two spacious halls,) is about 
seventy feet in length, and is well lighted and aired from above. The 
ante-chamber, as it may be termed, or hall of entrance, is separated 
from the church by a huge mass of rock, which has detached itself 
from the side or roof, and is aptly styled the pulpit The view is 
well fitted to inspire feelings of devotion. The heart, touched by 
the religious gloom and solemnity of the place, acknowledges the 
power of the Creator, and rises in admiration of his works." 

FisHKitL was organized in 1788. Pop. 10,436. This town was 
settled by the Dutch, previous to any other in the county. Its earlv 
inhabitants called it Vis-kill, that is, fish creek ; kill beinAhe DutcTi 
for creek, — hence its present name. Matteawan is a beautinii manufac- 
turing Tillage upon the FiRhkill creek, about a mile from the landing, 
at the foot of the Matteawan mountain. It was founded in 1814, by 
Messrs. Schenck and Leonard, about which time the Matteawan cont- 
pany was formed. There are Itere several large cotton mills, and 
factories of various descriptions. There are about 3,000 perstxiB 
connected with and employed in the works. S. Grosvenor ot Com- 
pany, are the agents of the company in New York. There are many 
neat dwellings, and two beautiful churches, one Presbyterian and one 
Episcopalian, at whose sabbath schools 250 children attend. No 
intoxicating liquors are permitted to be sold, and almost the whole 
population have pledged themselves to abstain from their use. * The 
deep valley, with its cascades and rapids ; the village, with its Deal 
white dwellings, magnificent factories, and ornamental churchei, 
overhung by the stupendous mountain, render this one of the most 
beautiful scenes in the state, where enlightened, cheerful, and pen»- 

' " " ^^^m^ 

(W«-~.-s^-;v .: :.'A ■■- 

"^^w^_ -^ 

I ,^ ' illllillll n?- ^5l "— v^ 



^, ,1 

Factory Buildings in Malieawan, FixhkiU. 

Tcring industry is reaping its due reward. It attracts much atten- 
tion, and is greatly resorted to in tlic summer season." 

Glenham, Franklin ville, and Rocky Glen, are small manufacturing 
villages. Fishkill Landing, Hopewell, New Hackcnsaek, Cartilage, 
Upper Landing. Johnsonville, Huglisonvillc, Storniville, Sticnandoah, 
Cackemeyer's Mills, Gay head, and Peckville, arc small villages or 
hamlets. Fishkill village, on the creek, 5 miles from the Hudson 
riser, and 16 from Poughkecpsie, is situated upon a beautiful plain, in 
a fertile country, and has about eighty dwellings, an academy, one 
Episcopal, and one Dutch church. A portion of the American army 
were located here in the revolutionary war. Their barracks were 
about half a mile south of the village. The head-quarters of the 
officers was the dwelling now occupied by Isaac Van Wyck. Esq., 
generally ■known by the name of the '■ Wharton House."* The bar- 
racks commenced about 30 rods north of this dwelling, from the resi- 
dence of the widow, Mrs. Cornelius Van Wyck, and extended south- 
wardly near the line of the road, to the foot of the mountain. The 
soldiers' graveyard was situated near the base of tin; mountain, where 
a road turns off from the turnpike to the east. While the army was 
here, the tory and other prisoners were confmod in the old Dutch 
itone church, represented in the following engraving. In this church, it 
is said that Enoch Crosby was conlined, and escaped in an apparently 
miraculous manner. 

The following is an inscription on a -monument in the graveyard, 
sdjoining the church : 

• Thin dwrlling »nd im \ic-inity '«• \\\t sri-a* <>S " Tlit Spy," hy J. Coi.prr, 
Svmr fein since a wnrk wiu puhlishtd, riitilJcd " EniH-li Cnvhy, or [lie Spy I'liitiaekcd," 
»bieh uttmpted t,i idfniify ihc lioro ul Ci">iiit'ii ni'vi'l wiili b [i. rKnii iliui liviiii;. This 
pniduclion i> generally bt'Iivvrd in have lui atinht fi>unilntiiiii in rrmli. It is nut, liowcvtr, 
qorsiluntd, bul thai ihere wan «urh a ppucjn on Knorli Crcicliy, ami ihnt wimc rjf the advin. 
*nn iinibuied lo him wiually Inpprncd. He died »t Sonili ICuin, in Puinain vu., aboai 
>0 ar la ysu. nncc. 


" Glory 10 God alone ! Sacred to Ihs meiQOry of die Reverend Nichalos Van Vnirtchmv 
niinLster of Jehovah Jeaua, and PaHlor of ibe Dulch Reformed Congregalions of Rshkill. 
HopeweU, and New Hackensack. This eiceUeit man lived tenderly beloved, and died 
deeplf latnenled, by the people of his charge. He was horn Ibe !14tb of May, 1763, apd 
departed in peace and rested in hope, the 30lta of May, 1804, aged 41 yean, 11 months 
•nd 19 days. The Lord gave, and the LorJ lakeih away ) blesaed b« the name of the 

Old Dutch Stone Church, FishkiH 

The following extracts are from newspapers published at the time 
to which they refer : — 

" Julu lilh, 1765.— We hear from the Fishkilla, that for a week or two piM, a ligfr or 
panther baa beeri seen in the wooda in that neighborhood, not far from Mr. Depeysler'a 
bouae. It had hilled Beveral dogs, torn a cow so that ahe died the same day, and carried 
off (he calf; it likewiae carried off a colt of about a week old. E^ght men with ibeir 
guns went in search of il, and started il at a distance ; it fled with great nwiftnen, and has 
been since seen at (he Fiahkilla." 

"AagvM S8fi, 1776. — A few days since about 100 women, inhabitanla of DutcbcM 
county, went to the house of Colonel Brinkerhoff, at Fishkill, and ineialed upon having lea 
at the lawful price of mi ahillinga per pound, and obUged thai gentleman to accommodate 
(hem with one cheal from his store for thai purpose. Shortly after be sold his cargo to 
some Yorkers, who, for fear of another female attack, forwarded (he nefbitous B(uff lo (be 
North river precipitately, where il is now afloat, but the women have placed ibeir guard on 

*' Forty Dollars Reward will be paid by the subscriber, besides idl leasonabls eipsncea, 
for detecting and bringing to justice, one or mors of a gang of viliaioe, eight or ten in num. 
ber, who, on the night of the ITlh c^ August last, aimed with guns, bayonets, and sworda, 
surrounded the house of Mrs. Phebe Thomas, on Quaker Hill, in Dutchess county, which 
some of their number forcibly entered, and after many threatening eipreseiuns, robbed the 
subscriber of the following articles, vii. ISO silver dollars, 38 guiiMai, 9 batf Johanneaas, 
1 green silk purse, opening with a spring with a laige silver hook, and coDtaining between 
£4 and £5 in amall silver, with one guinea ; two paiia of silver shoe buckles ; 1 ailvsr 
table-apatm, marked with the letiera R. M., with a T at top between them) 1 small sUver 
inutT-boi, marked A. S.; 1 large paper snuff-box ; one silver thimble ; two penknives, (ona 
with a mother-of-pearl handle.) in cases ; one carved ivory tooth-pick case ; one lawn band. 
kerchief I one red and while linen do.; three cotton stockings, and one pair of white yam 
knit garters. One pair of buckles has been found upon a fellow, who went by the namo 
of Williama, who iuniierly uxed to profcus himself a painter in New York; was lately 
taken np on a cbai^ of some other felonies, and imprisoned at Kington, in UlatcT connty. 


from whence, on tbo approach of the British incendiaries, ho was removed (with the other 
pnsoners,) into the state of Connecticut, where ho is now confined. 
" Quaker Hill, Nov. 5, 1777. MARY FERRARI." 

" FiMhtiU^ February 7th, 1783. — It is with pain and regret, that we mention the death 
of LieutenanuColonei Burber, who was unfortunately killed at camp the 11th ult. The 
circumstances which led to this unhappy catastrophe, we are told, are as follows : Two 
soidiers were cutting down a tree ; at the instant he came riding by it was billing, which 
he did not observe, till they desired him to take care ; but the surprise was so sudden, and 
embarrassed his ideas so much, that he reined his horse to the unfortunate spot where the tree 
fell, which tore his body in a shocking manner, and put an immediate period to his existence." 

H YDE-PAKK, SO Called from the country seat of the late Dr. S. Bard ; 
taken from Clinton in 1821 ; from New York, N., 81, and from Alba- 
ny, S., 68 miles. Pop. 2,364. Hyde Park village and landing are 
about 7 miles N. from Pou^hkecpsie. The village has several church- 
es, about 80 dwellings, a distinguished female seminary and a classi- 
cal school for boys. The maj^niiicent seat of the late Dr. Hosack iff 
here- Staatsburg is a post-office, 2 miles N. of Hyde Park. 

La Grange, origmally named Freedom, and taken from Beekman 
and Fishkill in 1821 ; from Albany, S., 77, and from Poughkeepsie, 
S£., 8 miles. Freedom Plains, Spouts Creek, and Arthursburg, are 
names of post-offices. Pop. 1,851. 

Milan, taken from North East in 1818 ; from Albany 63 miles. Mi- 
lan, Shookville, 25 N., and Lafayette Corners and Rock City, each 
24 miles from Poughkeepsie, are small villages. Pop. 1,726. 

North East, organized in 1788. The surface of this township 
is covered with portions of the Taghkanic and Mattcawan mountains. 
The western mountains are cultivated to their summits, and have 
excellent lands for sheep pasturage. Spencer's Corners, 31 NE., 
North Amcnia, 28 NE., and Federal Store, 25 miles NEi from Pough- 
keepsie, are small villages. The form of this town is nearly that of 
a boot, 10 miles long E, and W., 5 wide at the tup or W. end, S 
across the ancle, and with a foot 7 miles in length. Pop. 1,381. 

Pawling, organized in 1788 ; from Poughkeepsie, SE., 22 miles. 
Pop. 1,571. Pawlingville and Quaker Hill are small post villages; 
the latter was first settled by Friends in 1740. 

Pine Plains, taken from North East in 1823; from Albany 72 
miles. Pine Plains, 28 miles NE. from Poughkeepsie, has about 40 
dwellings. Hammertown and Pulver's Comers are small settlements. 
The western part of this township is mountainous. In the north- 
eastern part there was formerly an extensive plain covered with 
pines^ — hence the name of the town. Pop. 1,324. 

Pleasant Valley, taken from Clinton in 1821 ; from New York 
84, and from Albany 82 miles. Pleasant Valley is a manufacturing 
village, 7 miles NE. from Poughkeepsie, beautifully situated upon the 
right bank of Wappinger's creek, and has 1 Presbyterian, 1 Metho- 
dist, 1 Friends, and 1 Episcopal church, and about 100 dwellings. 
Salt Point, 12 miles NE. from Poughkeepsie, and Washington Hol- 
low, are small villages. Pop. 2,219. 

Poughkeepsie was organized in 1788: its name is said to have 
been derived from the Indian word Apokeepnng, signifying safe har- 



bor. The face of the country along the Hudson river is somewhat 
broken, but the general surface is but moderately uneven. Pop. 
10,006. The village of Poughkeepsie, one of the most thriving and 
Bubstantial places in the state, was first founded bv a number of 
Dutch familcs somewhere about the year 1700. feeing situated 
about half-way between New York and Albany, it occasionally be- 
came, in early periods of its history, the placeof legislative deliberations. 
The convention wh ch met to del berate on the Federal Constitution, 
and voted lor its adoption met m this place n 1 788 The annexed 
engravmg taken from one pubhshed m the Family Magazme Dec. 
1638, is a representation of the lirst house erected in this place. It 

Van Kkek House. 

was built in the year 1702, by Myndert Van Kleek, one of the earliest 
settlers of Dutchess county. The house and grounds attached are 
still in possession of his descendants. It belonged to Matthew Yaa- 
sar, Esq., in 1835, the year in which this house was demolished. — 
The distant building seen on the left, is that of the old brewery, tiiis 
ancient edifice exhibited its port-holes, a feature so common in the 

buildings of the early settlei-a, they beinc necessarj' for detence against 
the original possessors of the soil. In 1787, this building, then a 
public house of some note, was used as a stadt-housc ; the eleventh 
seasion of the legislature of this state was held therein. George 
Clinton was then governor of the state, and Pierre Van Cortlandt, 
afterward mayor oi New York, lieutenant-governor. 

Poughkeepsie is by the river, 70 miles Irom Albany, and 75 from 
New York. 18 from Kingston, 14 from Newburg, and 42 from Hud- 
son. Population of the village in 1840, was 7,7)0. The central part 
of the village is nearly a mile from the landing place on the Hudson, 
standing on an elevated plain about 200 feet from the river. Several 
roads conveniently graded, and the principal one paved, lead from 
the shore to the plain above, which on the north is overlooked by a 
beautiful slate hill, from which is a commanding prospect of the adja- 
cent country. The Fall creek or kilt meanders through the plain on 
which (he village is built, and finally passes into tlie HudM» by a 


a of cataracts and cascades, which together fall more than 
160 feet, affording water-power for a number of miilB and factories. 
There are 13 churches, viz ; I Dutch Reformed, 2 Episcopal, 2 Meth- 
odist, 2 Friend, 1 Baptist, 1 Catholic, 1 Congregational, 1 Presbyte- 
rian, 1 Universalist, and 1 Africau. There are Shanks, 5 newspaper 
offices, and a variety of manufacturing establishments. Within the 
hmits of the village are 12 male and female schools, all of which are 
of a superior order. 

Poughkeepsie CoUegiate School. 

The above is a representation of the Poughkeepsic Collegiate 
School, erected on the summit of an elevated lull about a mile n-om 
the Hudson, and half a mile northward from tlie business part of the 
village. This structure is modelled after the Parthenon at Athens, 
and is 35 by 115 feet in size, exclusive of the colonnade; inclusive, 
77 by 137 feet. It cost, enclusive of the ground, about forty thousand 
dollars. This inatitution was opened for the reception of pupils in 
Nov., 1836, under the superintendence of Mr. Charles Bartlctt, as- 
sisted by eight competent teachers. During the first term, there 
were 50 pupils ; the second, 84 ; the third, 94 ; and the fburth term, 
108. "Its situation is truly a noble one; standing on an eminence 
commanding an extensive view of almost every variety of feature 
necessary to the perlection of a bcautitui landscape. From the col- 
onnade, which entirely surrounds it, the eye of the spectator can 
compass a circuit of nearly fifty miles : on the south, at a distance of 
twenty miles, the Highlands terminate the view, within which an 
apparent plain stretches to their base, covered with highly cultivated 
farms, neat mansions, and thriving villages. Similar scenery meets 
the eye on the cast, but more undulating. On the west and north, 
the Hudson rolls on in its pride and beauty, dotted with the sails of 
inland commerce and numerous steamboats, all laden with products 
of industry and busy men. In the dim distance, the azure summits 
of the Cattskill, reared to the clouds, stretch away to the north, a dis- 
tance of forty miles, where the far-famed 'Mountain House' is dis- 
tmctly seen, like a i>earl, in its mountain crest, at an elevation of 
learly three thousand feet above the river. At our feet, like a beau- 
,iful panorama, lies the village of Poughkeepsie, with its churches, its 
iterary institutions, and various improvements in view, indicating the 
••^W"^Tv-p '>'' • 'ihoroi ,-)i-: f>''u>F>l].'|''-er'r"^,enterpris'''' The Dutch- 


ess County Academy was erected in 1836, in the southeast part of 
the village, at an expense of about 814,000. The average number 
of its pupils is about one hundred. " The objects of this institution 
are to prepare young men for college, for teachers of common schools, 
for the counting-house, or any of the active pursuits of life." 

The following is copied from the ancient records in Poughkeepsie, 
and will serve to show one form of a legal instrument in olden times. 

rw r« ) Thomas Sanders Esqr. Justice of the peace 

Dutchess County > ss. c -jri ^a* j ^ 

) for said County Assigned. 

To all Constables and other officers as well within the 

[L. S.] said County as Elsewhere within the Collony of New 

York to whom the Execution hereof doth or may 

Concern Greeting 

WHEREAS I have Received Information and Charge against one 
James Jones Lately Come from Lebanon In ye County of Windham 
In ye Collony of Conecticut and Liveing in Dutchess County at the 
house of one Ellexander Griggs Calls him self a Weaver a Lusty 
Well Sott Likely man full faced Brown Complextioned and wares a 
Black Wigg Irishman ; by birth by the brogue on his Speach Who 
is Charged before me to be a Dangerous person and is suspected to 
have Stolen a Silver Spoon or the Digest part of a Silver Spoon ; as 
by a Warrant Produced ; and the Complaint of William Iterddy of 
Lebanon in County afores^ Some time in the month of this Present 

Notwithstanding Seavvrall Endeavours for apprehensions of him 
he hath not as yett been apprehended but hath withdrawn himself 
and fled — Lately from Lebanon in ye County of Windham In ye 
CoUoney of Conecticut and is Come to our County of Dutchess These 
are therefore in his majesties name to Command you and Every of 
You to make diligent Search within your Severall Precincts and 
Districts for said James Jones and to make hue and Cry after him 
from Town to Town and from County to County and that as well 
by horsemen as footmen according to Law and if you shall find the 
said James Jones that then you do Carry him before some one of his 
majesties Justice of the Peace Within the County or place Whare he 
shall be taken to be Dealth withall according to Law Hereof fails 
not at your perrills^^-^ Given Under my Hand In Dutchess 

County this Seventeenth Day of November In the fourth year of our 
Reaign And In the Year of our Lord God Everlasting An° 1730 
To franc Cooll High Constapel ^, , ^ "^PmL o j 

In Dutchess County pursue After The mark of ^ Thomas Sanders 

the Person In this Hue and Cry Justice of the Peace. 

Red Hook, taken from Rhincbeck in 1812; from Albany 55, and 
from New York 96 miles. Pop. 2,833. Red Hook is a small village, 
25 miles N. from Poughkeepsie. Upper Red Hook, Barrytown, and 
Tivoli, are post-offices. 


RmmBioK, oraanued in 1788, u oentnlly distant from Poogh- 
keepne 17, trom Albany 67, «nd trom N. York 91 miles. Pop. 3,740. 
The surtace of the township in the eutern part is rolling, in tlw 
western it is level. The Rntnebeck Aata, near the centre, are noted 
for easy culture and fertility : the WirleTHburg tract, in the SB. pert 
of the town, has a light soil, which has be«i rendered productive 1^ 
the use of plaster. This town was settled at an early period, t^ 
some German families, and derives its name irom the river Rhine in 
Germany, and Beekman, an original proprietor. Much of the land 
was formerly holden in large tracts, and leased out to tenants in small 
farms. The village of RKinebeck Flats was inco^orated in 1SM> 
and is 3 miles E. &om the Hudson. It contains 1 Dutch Ref. 1 Bap. 
and a Methodist church, an Academy, with upwards of 100 hoDMi 
in the vicinity. Rhinebeck Landing, on the river, is 90 miles from 
New Yorii and 55 from Albany. 

Methodist Church and Academy, at Rhinebeck. 

The above is an eastern view of the Methodist church and the 
Academv in the central part of the village. The Methodist church, 
a plain out substantial stone structure, is seen on the left, and the 
Academy on tho right. The church was erected in 1833 ; the Rev. 
Freeborn Garrettson, a reiident of this town, contributed largdy to 
its erection. Mr. Garvettson was one of the pioneers of the Mleth- 
odist deoonunation in this part of the state, and on account of his 
labors to proowte the cause of Christian!^, and of his exemplary lif^ 
bia memory is deservedly cherished with respect and aSection. Mr. 
G. was bom in Maryland in 1753. His parents were members of 
the Church of England, and educated their children in the same faith. 
About the beginning of the American revolution, some of the first 
Methodist preachers who came over to America labored in the vi- 
cinity of his father's residence. He joined the Methodist society, and 
soon after became a travelling preacher. He was remarkably con- 
•cientioat m the performance of whatever he considered his dut;)r. 
Bdi^ convinced that ilavebcdding was wrong, be gave his slaves thmr 
bee&ta, teDtng them, that they aid not belong to him, and he did not 
deaire their Mnriees, without making tham a compensation. Having 


conscientious scruples which deterred him from taking the prescribed 
state oath, during the revolutionary period, he suffered some persecu- 
tions on this account. In one instance, he was seized by a mob, who 
took him to a magistrate, by whom he was ordered to prison. While 
part of the mob were taking- him thither, they were dispersed by a 
remarkable flash of lightning, and he was left unmolested. In 1788, 
Mr. Garrcttson was appointed presiding elder for the district north 
of New York, then including all the circuits from New Rochelle to 
Lake Champlain. In 1793, he was married to Miss Livingston, 
daughter of Judge Livingston, of Clermont, in the manor of Livings- 
ton. In 1799, a mansion-house was erected on the bank of the 
Hudson, in Rhinebeck, where his family were settled during the re- 
mainder of his life. The following is a copy of the inscription on 
his monument, in the graveyard attached to the church represented 
in the engraving. 

** Sacred lo the memory of the Rev. Freeborn Garrettson, an itinerant minister of the 
Metliodist Episcopal church. He commenced his itinerant ministry in the year 1775. In 
this work he continued until his death, laboring with great diligence and success in various 
parts of the United States and of Nova Scotia. He died in peace, in the city uf New 
York, September 27th, 1827, in the 76th year of his age, and 52d of his ministry. — * Mark 
the perfect man, and behold the upright, for the end of that man is peace,' Psalm xxxvi. 
37. — * I have fought the good fight, I have finished my course, I have kept the faith : — 
Henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous 
judge shall give me at that day, and not to me only, but all them also tliat love his a|^ar. 
ing,» 11 Tim. iv.7, 8." 

Stanford, taken from Washington in 1788 ; from New York 110, 
and from Albany 78 miles. Pop. 2,278. Stanford, with Clinton and 
Washington, comprised Charlotte precinct before the revolution. 
This precinct has been settled about 100 years. Bangall, 20 miles 
NE. from Poughkeepsie, Attlebury, Old Attlebury, Separate, Hull's 
Mills, Stewart's Comers, and Bare Market, are small settlements. 

Union Vale, taken from Bookman and La Grange in 1827; from 
New York 75, from Albany 90, and from Poughkeepsie, E., 15 miles. 
Pop. 1,499. Verbank and Clove are post-offices. 

Washington, organized in 1788 ; from Poughkeepsie, E., 16 miles. 
Pop. 2,833. The principal portion of the early settlers were Friends 
or Quakers, from Long Island and the eastern states. Mechanics- 
ville, 1 5 miles E. of Poughkeepsie, and Hartsville, are small villages. 
At the former place is me Nine Partners Orthodox Friends school 
which was established in 1797, and is now ilourishmg. 


Erie county was taken from Niagara county in 1821. Greatest 
length N. and S. 44, and greatest breadth E. and W. 80 miles. 
Centrally distant from New York 357, from Albany, W., 298 milee. 
Lake Erie and the Niagara river form its western boundary, the 


Tonawanta creek its northern, and the Cattaraugus its southern. 
The many streams which empty into Lake Erie furnish fine mill sites. 
The Erie canal enters the Tonawanta creek on the northern border ; 
from which a towing path has been constructed along the bank of 
the creek, which is used as a canal 12 miles to the Tonawanda vil- 
lage, a short distance above its junction with Niagara river, near 
Grand Island. A railroad connects Buffalo with the village at Niag- 
ara Falls, and one with the Black Rock ferry. The surface in the 
northern part of the county is level or gently undulating ; the southern 
is more diversified, but no part is hilly. Generally the soil is good ; 
consisting in the northern half, of warm, sandy, and gravelly loam, 
occasionally mixed with clay, and adapted to wheat ; in the southern, 
clay prevails, and is productive of grass. Both portions yield excel- 
lent and various fruits. About one third of the land is under im- 
provement. The whole county was within the Holland Land Com- 
5any's purchase, excepting a strip a mile wide on the Niagara river, 
'he county has 21 towns. Pop. 62,251. 

Alden, taken from Clarence in 1823 ; from Albany 272 miles. 
Pop. 1,984. Alden, 20 miles E. of Buffalo, is a small village. 

Amherst, taken from Buffalo in 1818; from Albany 283 miles. 
Pop. 2,440. Williamsville, 10 miles NE. from Buffalo, is a thriving 
village containing about 60 dwellings. 

Aurora was erected in 1818, when the former town of Willink 
was divided into 3 towns, Aurora, Wales, and Holland, abolishing 
the name of Willink, which had been given in honor of one of the 
principal proprietors of the Holland Land Company. It has an un- 
dulating surface, soil clay and gravelly loam. Pop. 2,909. Aurora 
village is 15 miles SE. from Bimalo ; it contains about 700 inhabit- 
ants, 1 Presbyterian and 1 Methodist church, and 150 dwellings. 
The Baptists are the most numerous denomination in the village, and 
occupy the Presbyterian church one half of the time. The hydraulic 
privileges within one fourth of a mile from the village are very great, 
and can be used to almost any extent. Griffin's Mills is a small set- 
tlement 3 miles SW. from Aurora. The Aurora Seminary was 
incorporated in 1833. 

Boston, taken from Eden in 1817 ; from Albany 289, from Buffalo, 
SE., 18 miles. The land is elevated, the soil a moist or wet loam, 
and adapted for grass. Boston, Boston Centre, and North Boston, are 
small settlements. Pop. 1,746. 

Black Rock, recently organized, comprises what was formerly the 
southern part of the town of Buffalo. The village of Black Rock is 
in tw6 divisions, the upper and lower. The post-office, which is in 
the sqg^h part, is 3 miles from Buffalo, opposite the village of Water- 
ioo^on the Canada side. 

The following is a distant northern view of part of the village of Black 
Rock ; the Canada side, on which is the village of Waterloo, is seen 
on the right and Lake Erie in the extreme distance. A ferry boat 

Slies between Waterloo and the south part of Black Rock village, 
uagara river at this point is three fourths of a mile wide, 20 feet 


DistatU view of Black Rock and vicinity. 

deep, and runs with a current of 6 miles oo hour. The harbor of 
Black Kock is 4,565 yards long from N. to S., and from 88 to 220 
yards broad, containiDg an area of 136 acres. It begins in the lake 
opposite Bufiaio, at Bird Island, and is continued, by a mole of double 
wooden cribs filled in with atone 18 feel wide and 2,915 yards long, 
to Squaw island, and is raised from 1 to 4 feet above the surface of the 
river, rising gradually towards the north. A dam at the end of Squaw 
island, connecting it with the main land, raises the water about 4i feet 
to the level of the lake. The average depth of the water in this harbor 
is 15 feet. By means of the dam, great water-power is obtained, and 
mills of various kinds are established at the lower village. The vil- 
lage of Black Rock contains about 350 dwellings, and 2,000 inhabit- 

Black Rock, in common with other places on the Niagara fron- 
tier, was ravaged and burnt hy the enemy in December, 1813. On 
the 11th of July previous, the British made an attack on the place. 
The following particulars of this event are compiled from the Bu^o 

" Tbe British trDOpa which crDaeed over Bt Black Rock on the lOdi ioM. were commaadod 
hy Ci>Ib. Bishu[i and Warren. Tber croBBed the Niagara below Siiuaw iaiuid, and marctird 
fiir above Ihc navy yard before any alarm was given. Thodelached milida being aunnwad, 
relrcBied up the beach, and left the enemy in quiui poaeeasian of ibe villags, who proceeded 
to bum ihe MLiJura' barracka and block-houses at the great ballery. They Iben proceeded 
to the balleriee, diamnunted ajid spiked ibreo IS poundera, and (oak iway 3 fwki-piecee 
and one 13 pounder ; Ihcy took from a aiurGbouBe a quantity of wbiakey, aall, Boui, pori^ 
&c., which, wiih four citiiena, Ihey took acroaa the river. At the Etat moment of the aiam. 
Gen. Porter left Black Ruck fur Butlslo, at which place tie asKmbled a body of rolnaleen 
and a lew regiilara, which, with 100 milida and 3S Indians, fbnued a junclioa aboU ■ mile 
from the enemy. After being formed, with the mihtia and Indians on the flanki and the 
voluntcen and (he regulars in tbe centre, (hey attacked, and the enemy, ifler a contact of 
90 minutea, retreated in the utmoet confueion to the beach, embarked in a«eral oT our 
boats, and pulled for the oppoaile shore ; all the boata got off witboul injury, eice|ylM Itat, 
which BufTured severely from our fire, and from appearance nearly ell tbe men iMer wen 
killed or wounded. The British lost 6 killed on Ibe field, besidea those kilted and (rodttded 
in the boats. We took 15 prisoners, who were sent to Bstavia. Capt. aanndan, at the 
British 49th, was wounded while stepping into his boat; he was conveyed to Oui. Pottai^ 
house. Ho states that Col. Bishop was badly wounded and cairied into the boat, vti tfe 
also, that several killed and wuunded were csrricd into the boata. On our aide, Sarfsant 
Haiunan. Jonathan Thompson, and Joseph Wiighi were killed, and Swounded,9 of wbinn 
VSR Indiana. The Indians behaved well und commiltad no wt of enwl^. Thej iboBtU 


because they were friendly to the United States, and because their own poesessions, which 
■re very valuable, were in danger of invasion. They are opposed to crossing the river 
to 6ght, but are ready to meet the enemy at the threshold in defence of the country which 
protects them. Maj. King was at Black Rock overnight, and was present and assisted in 
the action. Two hujidred regulars have arrived from Erie at Black RocIe, where they are 
to be Btationed.** 

Fort Erie, about a mile S. from the ferry at Waterloo on the Can- 
ada side, was a post of much importance during the last war. After 
the battle at Niagara, the Americans fell back to Fort Erie, of which 
they had previously taken possession. This fortress is situated on 
the margin of the lake, at its outlet into the Niagara river ; being 
nearly a horizontal plain 15 feet above the level of the water, it pos- 
sesses no natural advantages. On the 13th of Aug., 1814, the British 
troops, having invested the fort, opened a brisk cannonade, which was 
returned from the American batteries. At sunset on the 14th, one 
of their shells lodged in a small magazine, which blew up without any 
injurious effects. The following account of the assault which took 
place a few hours afterward, is taken from " Perkin»* History of the 
Late Warr 

•• Gen. Gaines, expecting an assault in the course of the night, kept his men constantly 
at their posts. The night was dark, and the early part of it rainy ; at 2 o'clock in the 
morning, the British columns, enveloped in darkness, were distinctly heard approaching the 
American lines. The infantry under Maj. Wood, and Captain Towson's artillery, opened 
a brisk fire upon them. The sheet of fire from this corps, enabled Gen. Gaines to discover 
this column of the British, 1,500 strong, approaching tlie American left. The infantry were 
protected by a line of loose brush representing an abattis bordering on the river. The 
British, in attempting to pass romid thi?, plunged into the water breast high. The com- 
manding general was about to order a detachment of riflemen to support Maj. Wood, but 
was assured by him that he could maintain his position without a reinforcements The 
British columns were twice repulsed, and soon afterward fled in confusion. On the right, 
the lines were lighted by a brilliant discharge of musketry and cannon, which announced 
the approach of the centre and left columns of the enemy. ' The latter met the veteran 9th 
regiment, and Burton's and Harding's companies of volunteers, aided by a 6 pounder, and 
were rcptibed. The centre column, under Col. Drumniond, approached at the same time 
the most assailable points of the fort, and with scaling ladders ascended the parapet, but 
were driven back with great carnage. Tlie assault was twice repeated, and as often check- 
cd ; this column, concealed by the darkness of the night and the clouds of smoke which 
rolled from the cannon and musketry, then passed round the ditch, repeated their charge, 
reasctnded their ladders, and with their pikes, bayonets, and spears, fell upon the artilleristsi 
Most of the officers, and many of the men, received deadly wounds. Lieut. McDonough 
being severely wounded, and in the power of the enemy, surrendered and demanded quar- 
ter; Col. Drummond, refusing it, drew a pistol and shot him deed. In a moment after- 
ward, as he was repeating the order to ^ve no quarters, Col. Drummond was shot through 
the heart. The bastion was now in the possession of the British. The battle raged with 
increased fury on the right ; p-inforceinents were ordered and promp*ly furnished from Maj. 
Wood's corps on the left. Cqpt. Fanning kept up a spirited and destructive fire from his 
artillery on the enemy as they were approaching the fort. Majs. Hindman and Trimble, 
failiniT to drive the British from the bastion, with the remaining artillerists and infantry, 
and Capt. Birdsall's detachment of riflemen, rushed in through the gateway, to the assisu 
ance of the right wing, and made a resolute charge. A detachment, under Maj. Hall, was 
introduced over the interior of the bastion, for the purpose of charging the British, who still 
held possession, but the narrowness of the passage, admitting only 2 or. 3 abreast, prevented 
its accomplishment, and they were obliged to retire. At this moment, every operation waa 
arrested by the explosion of the principal magazine, containing a large quantity of cartridges 
and powder, in the end of a stone building adjoimng the contested bastion. Whether tjlis 
was the effect of accident or design, was not known. The explosion was tremendous,, and 
its effects decisive. The British in possesion of the bastion were destroyed in a moment. 
As soon as the tumult occasioned by that event bad subsided, Capt. Biddle posted a field. 
piece, so as to enfilade the exterior plain, and the saheal glacia. FaiMUDig't battasf at thi^ 

19 • 


game time opened on the Britbh who were now returning. In a few minutes they were all 
driven from the works, leaving 222 killed, 174 wounded on the field, and 186 prisoners. 
To these losses are to he added, those killed on the left flank hy Maj. Wood's infantry and 
Towson*8 artillery, and floated down the Niagara, estimated in the c^cial reports at 200. 
The American loss during the hombardment of the 13th and 14th, was 9 killed, and 36 
wounded, and in the assault of the night of the 14th, 17 killed, 56 wounded, and 11 missing.*' 

The British troops still continuing their investment of Fort Erie, 
on the 17th of September a part of the American garrison made a 
sortie^ and took the British works about 600 yards in front of their 
line. The British had two batteries on their left, which annoyed the 
fort, and were about opening a third. Their camp was about 2 miles 
distant, sheltered by a wood ; their works were garrisoned with one 
third of their infantry, from 1,200 to 1,500 men, and a detachment of 

** £!arly on the morning of the 17th, Genera] Porter, with a large detachment, was order- 
ed to penetrate through the woods by a circuitous route, and get between the British main 
body and their batteries ; while General Miller was directed to take a position in the ravine, 
bet>%'een the American lines and the batteries, and attack them in front. The advance of 
Gen. Porter's command consisted of two hundred riflemen, under Colonel Gibson. The 
right column, of 400 infantry, commanded by Col. Wood ; the left, under Gen. Davis, of 
500 militia, designed to act as a reserve, and to hold in check any reinforcements from 
the British main body. Gen. Porter's corps carried the blockhouse in the rear of the third 
battery by storm, the magazine was blown up, and the garrison made prisoners. The 
leaders of the 3 divisions under Gen. Porter, all fell nearly at the same time ; Col. Gib. 
son, at the head of the riflemen, at the second batter}-, and Gen. Davis and Col. Wood in 
an assault upon the first. While these transactions were taking place in the rear of the 
enemy's works. General Miller in front penetrated between the first and second batteries, 
and aided by the operations of Gen. Porter in the rear, succeeded in carrying them. With, 
in 30 minutes from the commencement of the action, 2 batteries, 2 blockhouses, and the 
whole line of entrenchments were in possession of the Americans ; and immediately after, 
ward, the other battery was abandoned by the British. Gen. Ripley was now ordered up 
with the reserve, and at the close of the action, was dangerously wounded in the neck. 
Strong reinforcements from the British main body arrived while the Americans were en. 
gaged in destro3ring the works, and took part in the action. The object of the sortie being 
fully accompHshed, the American troops were ordered to return to the fort. During the 
action. Gen. Porter, in passing from the right to the left column of his detachment, accom. 
panied with only 2 or 3 ofHcers, suddenly found liimself within a few yards of a body of 
60 British soldiers, who had just emerged from a ravine, and were hesitating which way to 
go. The general immediately advanced, and ordered them to surrender ; approaching the 
first man on the left, he took his musket, and pushed him towards the American Hncs : in 
this w^ay he proceeded nearly through the whole company, most of the men voluntarily 
throwing down their arms, and retiring towards the fort : when on a sudden, a soldier, 
whose musket the general was about to seize, presented the bayonet to his breast, and de. 
manded kin surrender. Gen. Porter seized the musket, and was about wrenching it from 
him, when he was seized by a British officer, and 3 or 4 men who stood in the ranks, and 
thrown on the ground. He succeeded in gaining his feet, when he found himself sur- 
rounded by 15 or 20 men, with their guns presented at him, demanding his surrender. By 
this time, several American officers with a number of men weie advancing to the scene of 
action. Gen. Porter, now assuming an air of composure and decision, told them they 
were now surrounded and prisoners, and if they fired a gun they should all be put>»4|^e 
sword. By this time a company of Cayuga riflemen had arrived, and after a momentary 
scene of confusion and carnage, the whole British party were killed, or made prisonerB." 

The American loss was 79 killed, 432 wounded and missing. The 
British loss, as estimated by the American commander, was 600 in 
killed and wounded : 385 prisoners were taken, and their advance 
works were destroyed. On the night of the 21st, Gen. Drummond, 
alter an investment of 56 days, broke up his camp, and retired to his 
intrenchments behind Chippewa river. 


Immediately after the unfortunate termination of the battle of 
Queenstown, Gen. Van Rensselaer resigned the command to Gen. 
Smyth, and retired from the service, tf pon taking the command. 
Gen. Smyth issued two proclamations to the citizens of New York, 
one of which was an appeal to their patriotism, and calling upon them 
to join him in an expedition to conquer Canada and secure peace to 
the American frontier. This call was answered, and a highly re- 
spectable force assembled for the expedition. The result of this en- 
terprise is thus given in Perkins' History of the Late War. 

" On the 27th of November, 1812, the military force collected at Black Rock, under Gen. 
Smyth, prepared for the invasion of Canada, amounted to 4,500 effective men, consisting 
of New York volunteers under Gen. Porter, and regulars and volunteers from Pennsylvania 
and Baltimore : 85 boats were prepared for crossing the river, capable of transporting it 
once the necessary artillery and 3,500 men. On the night of the 27th, two parties were 
sent over, one under Colonel Boerlster, and the other under Capt. King, assisted by a com- 
pany of marines, under Lieut. Angus, to destroy the British batteries. They effectually ac- 
complished this object, routed the enemy, spiked their guns, and drove them from the 
shore. Capt. King, in attempting to return, was captured, with two boats belonging to his 
party. Colonel Winder, with a party of 250 men, in attempting to land at a difficult point 
on the river, was prevented by the rapidity of the current, and obliged to return to the 
American side. The general embarkation commenced in the morning of the 28th, but 
was not completed until afternoon. They then moved up the stream from the navy yard 
to Black Rock, and were ordered by Gen. Smyth to disembark and dine. After dumer, 
the expedition was postponed to a future day. This attempt gave the enemy full notice of 
the plans of the American general. The two following days were employed in preparations 
fur a second attempt. At 3 o*clock^n the morning of the Ist of December, the embariLS- 
tion commenced a second time ; the regulars on the right. Gen. Tanehills's brigade in the 
centre, and the New York volunteers on the left. Gen. Porter, accompanied by Majs. 
Chapin and Macomb, Capt. Mills of the cavalry, and Adj. Chace, with two pilots, took lus 
station in the front boat, hoisted his flag, and advanced to the head of the line to lead the 

** The troops, in fine spirits and in eager expectation, awaited their orders from Gen. 
Smyth, when, after considerable delay, they were given, not to proceed to the Canada 
shore*, but to disembark and go into winter quarters. Nothing could exceed the chagrin 
and disappointment of the troops upon this occasion; disorder and insubordination ensued; 
Gen. Smyth's life was threatened, and in imminent danger ; the militia disbanded and sent 
home ; and Gen. Smyth, finding the Canadas were not to be taken by proclamation, and 
being disinclined to make use of more powerful means, retired from the service." 

Buffalo city is situated at the outlet of Lake Erie, at the head of 
>i'iagara river, at the mouth of the Buffalo creek, and at the western 
extremity of the Erie canal : Lat. 42° 53' N., long. 2° west from 
Washington. Distant from Albany by the great western road 298 
miles ;. by the Erie canal, 364 ; from New York, by Albany and Utica, 
445 ; by Ijllpi^f tsjown, N. J., Owego, and Ithaca, 357 ; from Rochester, 
73 ; frortv Iroi^'ra Falls, 22 ; from Erie, Penn., 90 ; from Cleveland, 
Ohio, 103 ; from Detroit, Mich., 290 ; from Toronto, U. C, 72 ; from 
Montreal, hft C., 427 ; and from Washington City, 376 miles. Buffalo is 
the port of entry for the Niagara district, including Silver Creek, 
Dunkirk, ^d Portland, and all above the falls. It is an entrepot for 
the great and growing trade between New York and a large portion 
of Upper Canada and the great west. 

Buffalo was originally laid out in 1801, by the Holland Land Compa- 
ny, on a bluff or terrace rising 50 feet above the water, and partly on 
the low and marshy ground extending from the terrace to the creek 
and lake. This marsh has been drained, and a large portion of the 


business part of the city lies upon it. The Erie canal from Tone- 
"wanda village is continued along the margin of Niagara river and 
the shore of the lake to the city. A mole or pier of wood and stone, 
1,500 feet long, extends from the south side of the mouth of the creek, 
forming a partial breakwater to protect the shipping from the gales 
which are felt here. For the better accommodation of trade, a ship 
canal, 80 feet wide and 13 deep, was completed in 1838, across the 
harbor near the mouth of the creek, a distance of 700 yards. A light- 
house built of limestone stands on the end of the pier, 4G feet in 

From the time of the foundation of this place to 1812, it increased 
doyvly. In that year it became a military post, and in December, 
1813, every building in it was burnt save two, by the British and In- 
dians. Many of the inhabitants were taken prisoners to Montreal. 
The place was soon rebuilt, and by 1817, it contained 100 houses, 
some of which were large and elegant. It w^as incorporated as a 
village in 1822, and, in 1823, had the courthouse and jail, and upwards 
of 300 buildings. It had then felt in advance the influence of the 
Erie canal, and much improvement was made in anticipation of the 
completion of that great work. In 1829, it had 400 houses and more 
than 2,000 inhabitants. It was incorporated as a city in 1832, and 
contains at this time about 2,000 houses, and 18,041 inhabitants. 
There are 13 churches, viz : 1 Presbyterian, 1 Episcopal, 1 Free 
Congregational, 1 German Lutheran, 1 Unitarian, 1 Methodist Epis- 
copal, 1 Methodist Reformed, 1 Baptist, 1 Umversalist, 2 Catholic, 1 
German Evangelical, and 1 Bethel, a literary and scientific academy, 
incorporated in 1827, 3 banks, 5 weekly and 2 daily newspapers, 
and many hotels and taverns required for the great concourse of 
strangers here. The buildings, public and private, are generally good, 
many of them four stories hign, among which are fine specimens 
of architecture. An enterprising citizen, Mr. Rathbun, during the 
year 1835, erected 99 buildings, at an aggregate cost of about 
$500,000 ; of these, 52 were stores of the first class, 32 dwellings, a 
theatre, &c." 

The followiing is a western view of the Seneca Mission church, on 

the Indian reservation, four miles from the main street in Buffalo. The 

church is somewhat on the congregational plan. This building was 

erected in 1829, almost wholly at the expense of the Indians. The 

Rev. Asher Wright is their minister, and resides a short distance from 

the church. In order to render himself more useful to them, he has 

acquired their language, as they are but partially acquainted with 

the English. They seem to be much attached to him. The Indian 

burying ground is about 25 rods north of the church. This spot is 

the site of an Indian fort, on which some vestiges of the wall are still 

remaining. The Senecas have a tradition that there was a great battle 

fought here against a hostile tribe ; that the bodies of the slain were 

-*.ollected, and burnt-sacrifices were offered, &c. This is strongly 

'^corroborated by the fact of human bones, those of animals, and com 

>r ) bnmt state, having been dug up on this spot Four or five graves 


Seneca Mission Souse, Buffalo Reservation^ 

only have monumqpW The following inscriptions were copied from 
two of them. Red Jacket's monument was erected by some persona 
connected with the theatre in BufFalp : 

" S'iBOTr.WAtiu, Keeper Av/ike, Wk Jacket; chief of the WolTTrib* of (he SeneCM, 
the Iriend ind jtrutecior of his people. Died Jan. 30, ISSS.agEd 78 yeare. Erected by — •■■ 

" In meraory of ' The While WomMi,' Msr^ Jcmison, djughlor of Thorns* JetAiaon 
and Jane Irwin, bom on^fbe ocean belween Ireland and Philadelphia in 1743, or '43, ta- 
ken capdte at Msrsh Creek, Penn., in 1755, carried dawn the Ohio, adopted into an I^ 
dian family in 1759, removed lo Genesee river, was nalur^zed in 1817. removed to t^r 
place in 1H3I, and hav^ survived two buBbauds and iive children, leaving three eliU alive, 
■hedicd 3ept. 19ih, IBsi, aged about 91 years, having s few weeka heroic expreeeed a 
hope of pardon through Jesus Christ. The council of tlje Lord shall stand." 

There are about nine hundred Indians on the Buffalo creek reser- 
vation ; of this number about six hundred and seventv-five are Sen- 
ecas, the rest Onondagas, Oneidas, Tuscaroraa, a few IVIohawks, and 
four or five Slockbridgc Indians. They have eight peace and two 
war chiefs, who have a seat in the council of the confederated Six 
Nations. There are about ninety chiefs in the Seneca nation, per- 
sons authorized to sign treaties, &c. These chiefs preside over about 
2,400 Indians, who live on the Buffalo creek, Tonewanda, Allegany, 
and Cattaraugus reservations. Many attempts have been made, by 
treaty and otherwise, to gel possession of the Indian lanjs in the 
vicinity of ^Buffalo. It is believed that the ftill extent of the bribery, ■, 
fraud, and viljany which has been practised upon the Indians, in 
order to make them sign treaties for their lands, will never be fialiy 
kuown. At present, only about one fourteenth part of the Indians 
are willing to remove. Whether the recent attempts of the land 
speculators to get the Indian territory into their possession will prove 
successtial, remains to be seen. 

The following is an eastern view of the house of William Jones, and 
the cabin of Red Jacket, both situated about SO rods from the Mis- 
sion church. The house of Jones, which is seen on the right, is a 
iair specimen of the better sort of Indian houses. It is said that 
Jones was offered ten thousand dollars bv the land speculators, if he 

3ouse of Bed Jacket, on the Buffalo Beiervation. 

would sign his name to the treaty, conveying ^^ray the Indian lands. 
Although as anxious and diligent as most white mln in the pursuit of 
wealth, yet consideringit would be injurious to his Indian orethren, 
he refused the bribe. The cabin seen^i the left, is constructed of 
hewed logs, and was the residence Of the celebrated chief Red 
Jacket, during the latter period*of his life. It stands back a few rods 
from the road, and ts quite humble in its appeara^e. 
4^ The following biographical sketch of Red Jacket is taken princi- 
pally from the 14th vol. of the New York Mirror, and partly irom 
persons on the reservation, who were acquainted \#th the subject of it 

Red Jacket was bam in 1756. His binhplice ii Buppoeed (o hava been at a place for. 
mtTif eallcd " Old Caate," about 3 miles weat of Geneva, in the preaent Lmita of the cowa 
of SenecB. His Indian name waa Sa-go.i/ou-Kal.ka, a word ngnifyiog one who keeps 
•wake by magical influence. During the revolution, tlie Senecaa fbogfat under the Briliah 
BtindBrd. Allhoogh quite young, hie activity and inlelligencc allncted ibe attentioa of the 
BriliBh officers. By them he was presented with a richiy enibruidercd scarlet jacket. Thia 
be wore on all occaaiona, and Irom tliia circumstance arcae ihc name by which be ii known 
among 'the whites. During the reTcituiion he took little or no part as a warrior, but hi* 
pereonal aclivitj' and tninscFndcni talenla won the esteem of bis tribe. A gentleman who 
knew him intimately for mote than 30 years in peace and in war, epeaka of him in the liit. 
lowing terms. " Red Jacket was a pcifect liidian in every reaped, in cuatume, in his 
contempt of the dresa of the white men, in his hatred and apposition to the miadonsdes, 
and in his Bliacbmeni to, and veneration for the ancient cuauims and traditions of his tribe. 
He had s contempt for the English language, snd disdained to use any other than hia own. 
He was the finest specimen of the Indian character that 1 ever knew, and wtained it with 
more dignity than any other chief. He was second to none in authority in bis tribe. As 
an orator he was unequalled by any Indian I ever saw. His language was beauiiftd and 
figumlive, as the Indian language always ia, and debvcred with the greatest eaas and 
fluency. His gesticulalian waa eaay, graceful, and natural. His voice was distinct and 
clear, and he alwaya spoke with great animation. His memory was very strong. I ba*g 
acted at interpreter to moat of hie speeches, to which no Iranalstion coidd do adequate jus. 

ulier point* of chancier, as 

, a dispute aToaeb«l«een 
e yeara standing. The 

The following interesting anecdolca are illualralivi 
well as of his ready eloquence. At a councd held with the Seneci 
Gov. Tompknia and Red Jacket, conni^cied with a treaty of so 

governor stated one thing, and the Indian chief insistad that the reverse was true. Uni.itwaa 
re}ained, " you have forgotten — we have it written down on paper." " Tlw paper then 
tell* a lie," was the confldent answer; " I have it written here," continued thecbiet^ placing 
Jiia hand with great dignity upon his brow. >■ You Vankera are bom with s feather be- 
tween your fingeni but your paper does not speaii the truth. The Indian kaapi his ^ 

EftlE COUNTY. 151 

knowledge here — this is the book the Great Spirit gave iis — it does not lie !*' A reference 
was immediately made to the treaty in question, when, to the astonishment of all present, 
and to die triumph of the tawny statesman, the document conlirmed every word that he 
had littered. 

It happened during the revolution that a treaty was held with the Indians at which La. 
hjetxe was present, the object of which was to unite the various tribes in amity with 
^neriea. The majority of the chiefs were friendly, but there was much opposition made 
to ic, eqwcially by a young warrior, who declared that when an alliance was entered into 
with America, he should consider that the sun of his country had set forever. In his travels 
through the Indian country, when last in America, it happened at a large assemblage of 
chiefc, that Lafayette referred to the treaty in question, and turning to Red Jacket, said, 
** Pray tell me, if you can, what has become of that daring youth who so decidedly opposed 
all propositions for peace and amity ?" " I myself am the man,** replied Red Jac^^et ; 
** the decided enemy of the Americans, so long as the hope of successfully opposing them 
remained, but now their true and faithful ally until death.** 

During the late war. Red Jacket with his tribe enlisted on the American side. He fought 
through the whole war, and displayed the most undaunted intrepidity ; while in no instance 
did he exhibit the ferocity of the savage, or disgrace himself by any act of inhumanity. 

Red Jacket was the foe of the white man. His nation was his god ; her honor, preser. 
Tation, and liberty, his religion. He hated the missionary of the cross, because he feared 
some secret design upon the lands, the peace, or the independence of the Senecas. He 
never understood Christianity. Its sublime disinterestedness exceeded his conceptions. 
He was a keen observer of human nature ; and saw that among white and red men, sordid 
interest was equ^ly the spring of action. He therefore naturally enough suspected every 
stranger who came to his tribe, of some design on their little and dearly prized domains. 
His tribe was divided into two factions, one of which, from being in favor of the missionaries, 
was caUed the Christian, and the other, from their opposition, the pagan party. His wife, 
who would attend the religious meetings of the Christian party, received much persecution 
from him on this account. During his last sickness there seemed to bo quite a change in 
regard to his feelings respecting Christianity. He repeatedly remarked to his wife, that he 
was sorry that he had persecuted her, — that she was right and he wrong, and as his dying 
advice, told her, " Persevere in your religion^ it is the right way .'** 

A few days before his decease, he sent for Mr. Harris, the missionary ; but he was at. 
tejKling an ecclesiastical council, and did not receive the message until after the death of the 
chief. In his last wandering moments it is said that he directed that a vial of cold water 
should be placed in his coffin, so that he might have something with which to fight the evil 
spirit. A considerable number of people from Buffalo attended his funeral, some of whom 
wished him buried in the ancient or pagan 8t>'le. He was, however, interred in the Christian 
manner, in accordance with the wishes of his relatives. He left two wives, but none of 
his children survived him. Two of his sons are supposed to have died Christians. Rer. 
Jabez B. Hyde, a teacher to the Senecas before the war of 1812, states that one of the sons 
of Red Jacket was the first convert f<» Christianity from this tribe. 

For some months previous to his deutli, time had made such ravages on his constitution 
as to rt'!ider him fully sensible of his approachinsf dissolution. To that event he often ad- 
verted, and always in the language of philosophic calmness. He visited successively all his 
most intimate friends at their cabins, and conversed with them upon the condition of the 
nation in the most afi'ecting and impressive manner. He told them that he was passing 
away, and liis counsels would soon be heard no more. He ran over the history of his peo. 
pie from the most remote period to which his knowledge extended, and pointed out, as few 
could, the wroncrs, the privations, and the loss of character, which almost of themselves 
constituted thai history, ** I am about to leave you," said he, " and when I am gone, and 
my warning shall no longer be heard or regarded, the craft and the avarice of the white 
man will prevail. Many winters have I breasted the storm, but I am an aged tree, and can 
stand no longer. My leaves are fallen, my branches arc withered, and I am shaken by 
every breeze. Soon my aged trunk will be prostrate, and the foot of the exulting foe of 
the Indian may he placed upon it in safety ; for I leave none who will be enabled to avenge 
such an indignity. Think not I mourn for myself. I go to join the spirits of my fathers, 
where age cannot come ; but my heart fails when I think of my people, who are soon to 
be scattered and forgotten.** 

At the time of the burning of Buffalo in the last war, most of the 
regular American troops were removed from the Niagara frontier. 
Gov. Tompkins, on being informed of this, ordered out tlic militia for 


its defence. On the 25th December, 1813, Gen. Hall had assembled 
at Black Rock and Buffalo 2,000 men. On the night of the 29th, 
the enemy were discovered approaching the American shore in great 
force. The militia were ordered to oppose their landing, but the 
main body fled on the approach of the enemy. Col. Blakesley's regi- 
ment, with other detached corps, amounting in the whole to about 
600 men, formed in a line, and poured a destructive fire on the enemy 
as they approached the shore. They were, however, overpowered 
by numbers, and forced to retire. Gen. Hall retired with the remains 
of the dispersed militia to Eleven Mile creek, where he was able to 
collect only about 300 men to cover the flying inhabitants. The 
firontier presented one scene of universal desolation. ** The misera- 
ble inhabitants who escaped the Indian tomahawk, fled into the in- 
terior, without shelter or means of support, in the depth of winter, 
and subsisted on the charity of their friends." The following, relative 
to these events, is extracted from an official letter to Gov. Tompkins : 

" On my arrival at Batavia, I found that the inhabitants of that place, and the country 
west, as far as BuiTaio on the main road, had, on receiving information of the landing of 
the enemy, fled and left tlicir homes, but were generally returning. I proceeded to Bufialo, 
and found that flourishing village totally destroyed. The onlj^ buildings remaining in it are 
a jail, which is built of stone, a small frame house, and an armorer's shop. All the houses 
east of Buffalo on the Batavia road, for two miles, excepting log-houses, are also destroyed, 
and almost every building between Buffalo and Niagara along the river, had, I was informed, 
shared the same fate. The enemy had with him at Black Rock and Buffalo, a number of 
Indians, (the general opinion in that country is about two hundred,) who pursued their ac- 
customed mode of horrid warfare, by tomahawking, scalping, and otherwise mutilating the 
persons who fell into their bands. Among the victims of their savage barbarity, was a Mrs. 
Lovejoy, of Buffalo, who was tomahawked and afterward burnt in her own house. The 
conduct of these savages has struck the minds of the people on the Niagara frontier with 
such horror, as to make it absolutely necessary that a more efficient force than the ordinary 
militia of the country should be employed for its protection, to prevent its becoming en. 
tirely depopulated. There was, when I left Batavia, between five and six hundred militia at 
WilliamsvUle and in its vicinity, under the command of Gen. Hopkins, and about the same 
number on the ridge road near the arsenal, under the command of Col. Hopkins. It was 
the intention of Gen. Hall, who was at Batavia, to make up the number at each of these 
stations to 1,000 men. There was also at Batavia about 100 regulars, under the eommand 
of Major Riddle, who had received orders to march to Williamsville.'* 

Brant, recently formed from Collins, is situated in the southwestern 
comer of the county, bounded partly on the S. by Cattaraugus creek ; 
centrally distant from Buffalo 26 miles. Pop. 1|068. 

CHEEKTrfwAGA, recently erected from the southern portion of Am- 
herst ; from Buffalo, W., 7 miles. The line of the Bunalo and Bata- 
via railroad passes centrally through the town. Pop. 1,137. 

Clarence, organized in 1808 ; bounds since altered ; from Albany 
265 miles. Clarence, 18 miles NE. from Buffalo, has about 50 
dwellings. Pop. 2,271. 

CoLDEN, taken from Holland in 1827; from Albany 287, from 
Buffalo. SE., 21 miles. Pop. 1,085. 

Collins, taken from Concord in 1821 ; from Buffalo, S^ 80 miles. 
Lodi village is partly in this town and partly in Cattaraugus co. 
(See Persia, Cattaraugus co.) A large portion of this town was set- 
tled by Friends. Pup. 4,227. Collins Centre and Can's Cornen are 
small villages. 

EBIB ooinvTT. 163 

Concord, taken from Willink in 1812 ; from Albany 282 miles. 
Springville village, incorporated in 1834, 28 miles S£. from Buffalo, has 
1 Baptist, 1 Methodist, and 1 Presbyterian church, a flourishing 
Academy, 110 dwellings, 7 mercantile stores, a large flouring mil^ 
erected at the expense of $20,000, two woollen factories, &c., and 
about 700 inhabitants. Concord Centre and Waterville Corners are 
smsdl villages. Pop. 3,004. 

Eden, organized in 1812 ; centrally distant from Buflalo, S., 16 
miles. Eden and Eden Valley are small villages. Many German 
and Swiss emigrants have settled in this town. Pop. 2,172. 

Evans, taken from Eden in 1821 ; from Albany 293, from Bufialo, 
SW., 19 miles. Jerusalem Comers and Evans are small villages. 
Pop. 1,822. 

Hamburg, taken from Willink in 1812; from Bufialo centrally dis- 
tant, SE., 10 miles. Hamburg, E. Hamburg, Water Valley, Whites 
Comers, and Hamburg on the lake, are small settlements. Pop. 3,734. 

Holland, taken from Aurora in 1818 ; bounds since altered ; from 
Bufialo, SE., 24 mile^. Holland is a small village. Pop. 1,242. 

Lancaster, taken from Clarence in 1833 ; from Albany 280 miles. 
Lancaster, 10 miles E. of Buffalo, is a small village. Towti Line, on 
the Lancaster and Alden line, is a post-office. Pop. 2,083. 

Newstead, originally organized by the name of Erie, as part of 
Genesee county, and taken from Batavia in 1804 ; from Albany 260 
miles. Akron, 24 miles NE. from Buflalo, and Fisher's Falls, are 
small villages. Newstead is a post-oflice. Pop. 2,653. 

Sardinia, taken from Concord in 1821 ; from Albany 273 miles. 
Sardinia on the Cattaraugus creek, 34 miles SE. from Buffalo, has 
about 50 dwellings. Pop. 1,741. 

Tonewanda was recently taken from Bufialo. It comprises Grand 
Island, in the St. Lawrence, and a small tract of the adjoining main- 
land. Pop. 1,250. Tonewanda village lies at the mouth and on 
both sides of Tonewanda creek, the portion lying on the north side 
of the creek being in Wheatfield, Niagara co. It is 16 miles SW. 
from Lockport 1 1 N. from Bufl^alo, on the lines of the Buffalo and 
Niagara railroad and the Erie canal, which latter here runs in the 
Tonewanda creek. Grand Island, called by the Indians Owanungah, 
in the Niagara river, commences about 5 miles below the termma- 
tion of Lake Erie, runs down 8 miles, and ends within 3 of Nia- 
gara Falls. Its breadth varies from 3 to 6 miles. Originally this 
with the small islands of Strawberry, Snake, Squaw, and Bird, be- 
longed to the Senecas, and were purchased of them by the state for 
•1,000, and an annuity of $500. " The state, in 1833, sold Grand 
Island to the East Boston Co., who have erected upon it, on the site 
of the proposed Jewish city of Ararat, opposite to the mouth of the 
Tonewanda creek, the village of White Haven, (named after Mr. 
Stephen White, who resides upon Tonewanda island nearly opposite,) 
where they have a steam grist-mill and saw-mill 150 feet square, with 
room for 15 gangs of saws, said to be the largest in the world, several 
dwellings, a building used for a school and church, a commodious 



wharf, several hundred feet long, and a spacious dock of piles for 
storing and securing floating timber. The principal object of the 
company is to prepare timber for vessels on the lakes and the ocean, 
fitting the frames to the models given ; in which they avail them- 
selves, not only of their special resources on the island, but of all 
which the vast region around the upper lakes afrords.** The oper- 
tions of this company are at present suspended. 

" la 1816 and '17, a number of persons from the United States and Canada vrent on this 
uland. They marked out the boundaries of their different poasessionB ; elected magistrates 
and other officers from among themselves ; and gave out that they were amenable to neither 
government, but an independent community. After the question of boundary was settled, 
Uie state of New York passed a law to drive them off; but that was not effected till the 
aevere measure was resorted to of destroying their houses, which was done by the sherifi* 
and posse of Erie county. * Grand Island was selected by Miyor Noah, (now of the city 
of New York,) on which to build a city, and establish a colony of Jews, with the view of 
making it the Ararat, or of that dispersed people. 7*here it was anticipated 
that their government would be organized, and thence the laws would emanate which 
again were to bring together the children of Israel, and reestablish them as a nation upon 
the earth. The European Rabbi did not sanction the scheme, and it vanished as a day. 
dream of the learned and worthy projector." — SteeWs Book of Niagara Falls, 

The monument erected by Major Noah is now standing. It is 
about 14 feet in height. The lower part is built of brick, — the upper 
or pyramidal portion is of wood, and the whole painted white. The 
following is inscribed upon the tablet, which faces the east 



Pounded hy Mordbcai M. Noah, in fAe itfbtUA Tinu, 5586, 

September, 1835, and in the 50th year of American 


Wales, taken from Willink in 1818 ; from Buffalo, SE., 20 miles. 
Wales, S. Wales, and Wales Centre, are villages. Pop. 2,441. 


Essex county, formed from Clinton in 1799, was originaUy settled 
from New England. Its greatest length N. and S. 43, greatest 
breadth E. and W. 41 miles ; centrally distant from New York 271, 

* Trant. — ** Hear, O Inrnel, the Lord our Gk>d it one Lotd.*'-<-D8iit tL 4. 


and from Albany 126 miles. Pop. 23,620. The county is divided 
into 15 towns. '^ The surface of this county is decidedly mountain- 
ous, in which respect it bears a striking contrast to the St Lawrence. 
In addition to this, it may be remarked, that the hills, as well as the 
mountains, are steep and abrupt, and almost uniformly present, on 
one side, a precipice nearly perpendicular. In this county there are 
no long and gradual slopes, or gentle risings towards the moun- 
tain summit, but they are always bold and difficult of ascent A sur* 
face of country thus characterized, combined also with great height, 
both of the general surface and especially of numerous peaks, alters 
to a very great extent its agricultural character. By this combina- 
tion, the mean temperature of the county is reduced so low, that the 
cultivation of some of the most useful vegetables is prevented, or they 
are crops so uncertain, on account of late springs and early autumnal 
frosts, that little inducement is held out for trying them even as matters 
of experiment. There are, however, some bright and favored places 
where most of the essential vegetable productions are raised, and even 
grow luxuriantly, as along the shores of Lake Champlain and the 
valleys of the upper Hudson." But the agricultural poverty of this 
county is amply compensated by her immense mineral resources. 
** Many years must elapse before a correct estimate can be formed 
in regard to their real extent and value. To say that there are here 
numerous beds of magnetic iron ore, would scarcely convey a true 
idea of the enormous deposits of that mineral which are found in 
various parts of the county. The ore is everywhere of sufficient 
purity for the manufacturer, and if only a small portion of it can be 
wrought, Essex must become one of the most thriving counties in the 
state.'* — State GeoL Rep. 

Chesterfield, taken from Willsborough in 1802. Pop. 2,697. 
Port Kent, a small village 25 miles from Elizabethtown, upon the 
lake, is the stopping place for the steamboats. Port Douglass, also 
upon the lake, is the shipping place for the Clintonville iron works. 
Port Randall is a village in the SB. part Keeseville is a flourishing 
manufacturing village on the Au Sable river, which forms here the 
boundary line between the counties of Clinton and Essex. It is 21 
miles from Elizabethtown, and 16 from Plattsburg. There are 1 
Presbyterian, 1 Baptist, and 1 Catholic church, an Academy, 10 mer- 
cantile stores, 225 dwellings, the Essex County Bank, and 1,800 inhabit- 
ants. This place is now the centre of business for the great iron 
and lumber district of the Au Sable valley. A railroad 4} miles in 
length connects it with Port Kent Keeseville was originally named 
** Anderson's Falls," from a Mr. John W. Anderson, who settled here 
about the year 1813. At this time he was almost the only inhabitant 
in the place. In 1819, a post-office was established, and the present 
name was given to the village in honor of Mr. Richard Keese, a 
partner of Anderson's. The first clergyman was the Rev. Elijah 
Crane, a pious and devoted minister of the Methodist persuasion, who 
located himself here in 1825, and was very efficient in reforming the 
morals of the place. Near here is the High Bridge of Keeseville, on 


the Au Sable river, which is one of the greatest natural curiosities in 
the state. 

Crown Point, organized in 1780; from Albany 100 miles; cen- 
trally distant SE. from Elizabeth 20 miles. Pop. 2,212. Crown Point, 
whence the name of the town and ancient fort are derived, is sit- 
uated at the NE. extremity, and is formed by an extensive deep bay 
on the west, skirted by a steep mountain, and on the north and east 
by the body of the lake. Fort Frederick, at this place, was built by 
the French in 1731. This fortress was a star work, being in the form 
of a pentagon, with bastions at the angles, and surrounded by a ditch 
walled in with stone. This post secured the command of Lake 
Champlain, and guarded the passage into Canada. It was through 
this lake, by the route of Crown Point, that the parties of French and 
Indians made their bloody incursions upon the frontiers of New Eng- 
land and New York. This fort was subsequently blown up ; and its 
site is now marked by a heap of ruins. This place being abandoned 
by the French, in 1759, to Gen. Amherst, fort Crown Point was after- 
ward erected, about a quarter of a mile from the shore, and has at a 
distance something the appearance of Ticonderoga. The walls were 
of wood and earth, 16 feet high, 22 thick, enclosing an area of 1,500 
yards square, surrounded by a deep broad ditch cut into granite. There 
were here a double row of stone barracks, and on the north, a gate 
with a drawbridge and covered way leading to the lake. These 
works and those adjoining, which were extensive, are now mostly 
heaps of rubbish. Crown Point fell into the hands of the Americans 
at the time of the capture of Ticonderoga, in May, 1776, but was 
evacuated the next year. The disastrous expedition a^gainst Canada 
was terminated near this place, by the destruction of the lake fleet 
under the command of Gen. Arnold, Oct 18th, 1776. Arnold, on his 
retreat from Canada, on board his fleet, was pursued by the enemy 
so closely, that he was obliged to run his vessel on shore and blow 
up five gondolas. The British soon established themselves, with their 
army and fleet, at Crown Point, and strengthened the fortifications ; 
but ere long they abandoned the station and retired to Canada. 

Elizabethtown, settled in 1785, and organized in 1798; from Al- 
bany 126, from Lake Champlain, W., 8 miles. Pop. 1,061. Eliza- 
beth, the county seat, is a small village of 30 or 40 dwellings. About 
a mile SW. of the village is a detached mountain called the Giant 
of the valley, the summit of which is elevated 1,200 feet above the 

fJain, and commands a very extensive prospect to the eastward. 
t embraces a view of the whole valley of Lake Champlain, compris- 
ing Plattsburg, Burlington, Vergennes, Middlebury, and many other 

Essex, taken from Willsborough in 1805 ; from Albany 133 miles. 
Pop. 1,681. Essex village, handsomely situated upon Lake Cham- 
plain, has about 40 or 50 dwellings. About 12 miles NE. of Elizap 
beth is the noted Split Rock. This curiosity is part of a rocky pro- 
montory projecting into the lake about 150 feet, and elevatedf 40 
above the water. The part broken ofiT contains half an acre covered 


vitfa trees, and is separated about 20 feet from the main rock. Tbe 
opposing sides fit the prominences of the one, correspond ing with the 
cavities of the other. . Through this fissure a line has been let down 
to the depth of 500 feet without reaching the bottom. There is a 
third post-otKce called Weasex. 

Jay, settled in 1790, by emigrants from New England. "The 
Forks," Upper Village, and Jayville, are manufacturing villages ; the 
latter is 20 miles NW. of Elizabeth, the county seat. There is a 
lar^ quantity of Iron annually manufactured in this town. Pop. 2,260. 

Keene, taken from Elizabeth and Jay in 1808 ; from Albany 138, 
from Elizabeth, W., 12 miles. The settlements at the " Flats'* were 
commenced in 1797, and those at the "Great Plains," in 1804. 
Ptop. 780. 

Adirondack Mountains. 

The Adirondack mountains, which arc partially in this town, were 
comparatively but little known until explored by the state geologists. 
They named them from the Adirondack Indians, who formerly dwelt 
in this region. The group, as a whole, is more lofly than the White 
Hills of New Hampshire, though the main summit, Mount Washing- 
ton, exceeds the highest by 787 feet. Mount Marcy (named in honor 
of ex-governor ftlarcy) is the most lofty, being StSS*? feet, or 57 
feet over a mile in height. Large banks of snow nave been observed 
on this peak as late as the middle of July ; and there is reason to be- 
lieve that ice is formed there every night in summer. 

Lewis, settled about 1600, and taken from Willsborough in 1805. 
This township has its surface much broken by high mountains. Iron 
ore is abundant. Lewis, 5 miles N. from Elizabeth, is the post vil- 
la^. Pop. 1,500. 

MiNEivA, uken fi-om Schroon in 1804. Minerva Four Comers, in 
the SE., S2 miles NE. from Albany, 40 SW. from Elizabethtowo. is 
the post village. Fop. 4&S. 

166 ESSEX CallNTT. 

MoRiAH, on Lake Champlain, taken from Crown Point and Eliza- 
bethtown in 1808; from Albany 114, from Elizabethtown centrally 
distant S, 10 mileB, Iron ore of excellent quality abounds here. 
Pop. 2,595. This place was first settled about 1785, by William 
Mackenzie, Esq. Moriah, West Moriah, Port Henry, and Millbrook, 
are post villages. Pondsville is a post-office. 

Newcomb, taken from iMinerv'a and Moriah in 1829 ; N. from Al- 
bany 120, centrally distant SW. from Elizabethtown 30 miles. Pop. 
74. The Adirondack mountains are partially in this town, Mount 
Marcy, the highest, being on the dividing line between this and Keene. 
Newcomb is a small settlement, centrally situated. 

ScHRooN, taken from Crown Point in 1804. Schroon, 30 miles S. 
from Elizabeth, Paradox, and Hoffman, are small post villages. Pop. 

Ruins of Fort Ticmt^roga, 

TicoNDEBoGA,* taken from Crown Point in 1804 ; from Albany 196, 
S. from Elizabeth 30 mites. Alexandria and Ticonderoga are thriv- 
ing villages ; the former at the upper fall, near Lake George, and the 
latter on the lower falls, near I^ake Champlain, about one mile apart. 
Pop. 2,168. 

The above is a representation of the ruins of Fort Ticonderogia, 
the fortress so celeorated in colonial and revolutionary history. 
These ruins are situated on a peninsula of about 500 acres, elevated 
upwards of 100 feet above Lake Champlain, at the mouth of Lake 
George's outlet. This fortress was originally erected by the French 
in 17.56, and was called by them Carillon, and was a place of much 
strength by nature and art, surrounded on three sides by water, and 
having half the fourth covered by a swamp, and the only approach- 
able point defended by a breastwork. It was, however, commanded 
by Mount Deliance on the south side of the creek or outlet) which. 


towers 750 feet above the lake. It was on the summit of this moun- 
tain that Gen. Burgoyne's troops showed themselves on the morning 
of July 4th, 1777, with a battery of heavy cannon, which they had 
drawn up along the ridge during the night. The distance from the 
summit to the fort, in a straight line, is about a mile. The position was 
so commanding that they could count all the men in the fort, and 
fully justified Gen. St. Clair in ordering an immediate retreat of the 
garrison. Mount Independence, connected in history with Ticonde- 
roga, lies in Vermont, one mile from the fort on the east side of the 
lake. There are here also remains of military works. 

The following account of the defeat of Gen. Abercrombie before 
Ticonderoga, July 8, 1758, is from the 3d volume of Macauley's His- 
tory of New York : 

" The expedition against Ticonderoga and Crown Point was conducted by Abercrombie 
in person. In the beginning of July he embarked his forces, amounting to nearly seven 
thousand regulars and ten thousand provincials, on Lake George, on board of nine hundred 
batteauz, and one hundred and thirty.five whale boats, with provisions, aruilery, and ammu- 
nition. Several pieces of cannon were mounted on rafts, to cover the proposed landing at 
the outlet of the lake. Early the next morning he reached the landing place, which was 
in a cove on the west side of the lake near its issue, leading to the advanced guard of the 
enemy, composed of one batalion, in a logged camp. He immediately debarked his 
ibfeea, and after having formed them into three columns, marched to the enemy's advanced 
post, which was abandoned with precipitation. He continued his march with the army to- 
waids Ticonderoga, with the intention of investing it ; but the route lying through a thick 
wood that did not admit of any regular progression, and the guides proving extremely ig. 
nonmt, the troops were bewildered, and the columns broken by falling in one on another. 
hard Howe being advanced at the head of the right centre column, encountered a French 
detachment, that had likewise lost its w^y in the retreat from the advanced post, and m 
Winn akinniah ensuing, the enemy were routed with considerable loss ; and one hundred 
and forty^igfat were taken prisoners. This advantage was purchased at a dear rate. Lord 
Howe, and one other officer, besides privates, were killed. The former is spoken of in 
very lugh terms for his bravery.* Abercrombie perceiving the troops were greatly fatigued 
and disordered, deemed it advisable to fall back to the landing place. Then he detached 
LieutenanUcolonel firadstreet, with a detachment, to take possession of a saw.mill in the 
vicinity of Ticonderoga, which the enemy had abandoned. This post being secured, 
Abercrombie advanced again towards Ticonderoga, where, he understood from the prisoners, 
the enemy had assembled eight battalions, with a body of Canadians and Indians, amount, 
ing in all to six thousand men. The actual number, however, was considerably less, not 
exceeding four thousand men, as was afterward ascertained. These, they said, being en- 
camped before the fort, were employed in making a formidable intrenchment, where they 
intended to wait for a reinforcement of three thousand men, who had been detached, under 
the command of M. de Levi, to make a diversion on the side of the Mohawk ; but upon 
intelligence of Abercrombie's approach,werc now recalled for the defence of Ticonderoga. 
This information induced Abercrombie to strike, if possible, some decisive blow before the 
iunction could be effected. He therefore early next morning sent his engineer to recon- 
noitre the enemy's intrenchmcnts ; and he, upon his return, reported that tlie works being 
Btill unfinished, might be attempted with good prospect of success. A disposition was 
made accordingly for the attack, and after proper guards had been left at the saw.mill and 
the landing place, the whole army was put in motion. The troops advanced with great alacrity 
towards the intrenchmcnts, which, however, they found altogether impracticable. The 
Iweastwork was raised eight feet high, and the ground before it covered with an abattis, 

* ullito young officer was the idol of the army. From Ma firat arrival hi America, he had accommodated 
MiMelf and hia refimeiit tu the peeullar MUure of the aervlee. He cut hia hair sliort, and induced the rvgl- 
vent to follow the example. He faahioiied their clothing for the activity of aervice, aiid divested himself 
and them of every article of auperfluoua baggage. When near IMconderoaa, major, afterward Gen. Putnam, 
with about 100 men, advanced In front of iht; army aa a Itind of aeouilng party. Puuiam endeavored to 
pwem Lori Howe from accompanying him, aaylng, > My Lord, if 1 am Itilled, the hws of my life will be of 
Ude eonaequeace, but the preservation of youre ia of inttnite Importance to thia army.' The only answer 
waa, < PuauuD, your life ia aa dear to you, ay mbie is to aie: I am determined to go.' They anon met the left 
flank of ttie eaeny'S advance, by whose firat fire hia kvdataip MV'—Bmi^krtft Life of Pataom. 


or felled trees, with their boughs pointing outward, and projecting in sach a manner as to 
render the intrenchment tUmoat inaccesBible. Notwithstanding these discouraging diAcnl 
ties, the troops marched up to the assault with an undaunted resolution, and sustained a 
terrible fire. They endeavored to force their way through these embarrassments, and some 
of them even mounted the parapet ; but the enemy were so well covered, and defended 
their works with so much gallantry, notwithstanding their greatly inferior numbers, that no 
impression could be made ; the carnage became fearfully great, and the assailants began to 
fidl into great confusion, after several attacks, which lasted several hours. Abercrumbie by 
this time saw plainly that no hope of success remained ; and in order to prevent a total de- 
feat, sounded a retreat, leaving about two thousand men on the field. Every corps of the 
army behaved, on this unfortunate day, with remarkable intrepidity ; the greatest loss sus- 
tained among the corps, was that of the regiment of Lord John Murray." 

The seizure of the fortress of Ticonderoga, by Col. Ethan Allen, 
on the 10th of May, 1775, is thus related by Ramsay, in his history 
of the American Revolution : 

" It early occurred to many, that if the sword decided the controversy between Great 
Britain and her colonies, the possession of Ticonderoga would be essential to the security 
of the latter. Situated on a promontory, formed at the junction of the waters of Lake 
Geoige and Lake Champlain, it was the key of all communication between New York and 
Canada. Messrs. Deane, Wooster, Parsons, Stevens, and othere of Connecticut, planned 
a scheme for obtaining possession of this valuable post. Having procured a loan of 1,800 
dollars of public money, and provided a sufficient quantity of powder and ball, they set off 
for Bennington, to obtain the co-operation of Colonel Allen of that place. Two hundred 
and seventy men, mostly of that brave and hardy people who are called green mountain 
boys, were speedily collected at Castleton, which was fixed on as the place of rendezvous. 
At this place Colonel Arnold, who, though attended only with a servant, was prosecuting 
the same object, unexpectedly joined them. He had been early chosen a captain of a vol. 
unteer company by the inhabitants of New Haven, among whom he resided. As soon as 
' he received news of the Lexington battle, he marched off with his company for the vi. 
cinity of Boston, and arrived there, though 150 miles distant, in a few days. Immediately 
after his arrival he waited on the Massachusetts committee of safety, and informed them, 
that there were at Ticonderoga many pieces of cannon and a great quantity of valuable 
stores, and that the fort was in a ruinous condition, and garrisoned only by about 40 men. 
They appointed him a colonel, and commissioned him to raise 400 men, and to take Ti- 
conderoga. The leaders of the party which had previously rendezvoused at Castleton, ad- 
mitted Colonel Arnold to join them, and it was agreed that Colonel Allen should be the 
commander in chief of the expedition, and that Colonel Arnold should be his assistant. 
They proceeded without delay, and arrived in the night at Lake Champlain, opposite to Ti- 
conderoga. Allen and Arnold crossed over with 83 men, and landed near the garrison. 
They contended who should go in first, but it was at last agreed that they should both go 
in together. They advanced abreast, and entered the fort at the dawning of day. A sentry 
snapped his piece at one of them, and then retreated through the covered way to the pa. 
rade. The Americans followed, and immediately drew up. The commander, surprised in 
his bed, was called upon to surrender the fort. He asked. By what authority 7 Colonel 
Allen replied, * / demand it in the name of the great Jehovah, and of the eoniinetiial 
congreae,* No resistance was made, and the fort, with its valuable stores and forty-eight 
prisoners, fell into the hands of the Americans. The boats had been sent back for the le* 
mainder of the men, but the business was done before they got over. Colonel Seth War- 
ner was sent off with a party to take possession of Crown Point, where m sngeant and 19 
men performed garrison duty. This was speedily efiected. The next object, calling for 
the attention of the Americans, was to obtain the command of Lake Champlain, but to ac* 
complish this, it was necessary for them to get possession of a sloop of war, lying at St 
Johns, at the northern extremity of the lake. With the view of capturing this sloop it 
was agreed to man and arm a schooner l3dng at South Bay, and that Arnold should com- 
mand her, and that Allen should command some batteauz on the same expedition. A fo. 
vorable wind carried the schooner ahead of the betteaux, and Colonel Arnold got wwadi 
ate possession of the sloop by surprise. The wind again favoring him, he returned witk 
his prize to Ticonderoga, and rejoined Colonel Allen. The latter soon went home, and the 
former with a number of men agreed to remain there in garrison. In this rapid manner 
the possession of Ticonderoga and the command of Lake Champlain were oUiined, wkb. 
out any loss, by a few determined men.** 


The following account of the evacuation of Ticonderoga by Gen- 
eral St Clair, on July 6, 1777, and some of the events which follow- 
ed, is from the 3d volume of Macauley's History of New York : 

** From Crown Point, the British army advanced on both sides of the lake ; the navtl 
force keeping its station in the centre ; the frigate and gun-boats cast anchor just out of 
csnnon-ehot from the American works. On the near approach of the right wing, which 
advanced on the west side of the lake, on the second of July, the Americans abandoned 
and set fire to their works, block-houses and saw.mills, towards Lake George ; and with- 
out attempting any serious opposition, suffered General Phillips to take posees^ion of Mount 
Hope. This post conmianded the American lines in a great degree, and cut off their cool* 
munication with Lake George. The enemy charged the Americans, on this occasion, with 
lupinencss and want of vigor ; but this charge seems not well-founded ; they had not men 
enough to make any effectual opposition to the powerful force which threatened to endoser 

** In the mean time, the British army proceeded with such expedition in the constructioD 
of their works, the bringing up of their artillery, stores, and provisions, and the establish. 
ment of posts and communications, that by the fifth, matters were so far advanced as to 
require but one or two days more to completely invest the posts on both sides of the lake* 
Mount Defiance had also been examined, and the advantages which it presented were so 
important, that it had been determined to take possession, and erect a battery there. This 
work, though attended with extreme difficulty and labor, had been carried on by General 
Phillips with much expedition and success. A road had been made over very rough 
ground, to the top of the mount ; and the enemy were at work in constructing a level for a 
battery, and transporung their cannon. As soon as this battery should be ready to play, 
the American works would have been completely invested on all sides. 

** The situation of General St. Clair was now very critical. He called a council of war^ 
to deliberate on measures to be taken. He informed them that their whole efifective num. 
ber was not sufficient to man one half of the works ; that as the whole must be constantly 
on duty, it would be impossible for them to endure the fatigue for any considerable length 
of time ; that General SSchuyler, who was then at Fort Edward, had not sufficient forces to 
relieve Uiem ; and that, as the enemy's batteries were nearly ready to open upon them, and 
the place would be completely invested in twenty.four hours, notlnn^f could save tlie troopa 
bat an immediate evacuation of the posts. 

** It was proposed that the baggage of the army, with such artillery stores and provisions 
as the necessity of the occasion would admit, should be embarked with a strong detach, 
ment on board of two hundred butteaux, and despatched under convoy of five armed gal- 
le)r8, up the lake to Skeensborough, (Whitehall,) and that the main body of the army should 
proceed by land, taking its route on the road to Castleton, which was about thirty mites 
noutheast of Ticonderoga, and join the boats and galleys at Skeensborough. It was thought 
necessary to keep the matter a secret till the time should come, when it was to be ex. 
ecuted. Hence, the necessary preparations could not be made, and it was not possible to 
prevent irregularity and disorder, in the different embarkations and movements of the 

** About two o'clock in the morning of July the sixth. General St. Clair left Ticonderoga^ 
and about three, the troops at Mount Independence were put in motion. The house which 
had been occupied by General do Fennoy was, contrary to orders, set on fire. This afforded 
complete information to the enemy of what was going forward, and enabled them to see 
every movement of the Americans — at the same time, it impressed the latter with such an 
idea of discovery and danger, as precipitated them into great disorder. About four o'clock. 
Colonel Francis brought off the rear-guard, and conducted their retreat in a regular man. 
ner ; and soon after, some of the regiments, through the exertions of their officers, recov. 
ered firom their confusion. When the troops arrived at Hubbardton they were halted for 
nearly two hours, and the rear-guard was increased by many who did not at first belong to 
it, but were picked up on the road, having been unable to keep up with their regiments. 
The rear-guard was here put under the command of Colonel Seth Warner, with orders to 
foQow the army, as soon as the whole came up, and to halt about a mile and a half short 
of the main body. The army then proceeded to Castlcton, about six miles further — Colonel 
Warner, with the rear-guard and stragglers, remaining at Hubbardton. 

" The retreat of the Americans from Ticonderoga and Mount Independence, was no 
sooner perceived by the British, than General Frazer began an eager pursuit with his bri. 
gade. Mi^or-general Reidesel was ordered to join in the pursuit with the' greater pVt of his 
Cvermana. General Frazer continued the pursuit through the day, and having received iiw 



fenigenoe that the rear of the American army was at no great distance; ordered his men to 
lie that night upon their arms. On July seventh, at five in ihe momingf he came up with 
Colonel Warner, who had about one thousand men. The British advanced boldly to the 
attack, and the two bodies formed within sixty yards of each other. The conflict was 
fierce and bloody. Colonel Francis fell at the head of his regiment, fighting with great 
^lantry. Warner was so well supported by his ofi[icers and men, that the assailants broke 
and gave way. They soon, however, recovered from their disorder, formed again, and 
charged the Americans with the bayonet, when they, in their turn, were put into disorder ; 
these, however, rallied and returned to the chaige, and the issue of the battle became du. 
hious. At that moment. General Reidesel appeared with the advance party of his Ger- 
mans. These being led into action, soon decided the fortime of the day, and the Amer- 
icans had to retreat. The loss in this action was very considerable on the American side. 
Colonel Hale, who had not brought his regiment, which consisted of militia, into action, 
although ordered so to do, in attempting to escape by flight, fell in with an inconsiderable 
party of the enemy, and surrendered himself, and a number of his men, prisoners. In 
killed, wounded, and prisoners, the Americans lost in this action three hundred and twenty. 
four men, and the British one hundred and eighty.three in killed and wounded." 

Westport, taken from Elizabethtown in 1815. Iron ore abounds. 
Pop. 1,932. Westport, a thrivinff village at the head of NW. bay of 
Lake Champlain, 8 miles east of Elizabethtown, contains about sixty 
dwellings. Wadhams Mills, on the Boquct, is a small village. 

WiLLSBORouGH, Originally organized as part of Clinton county in 
1788; since modified. Pop. 1,667. Willsborough, Smiles from the 
mouth of the Boquet river, N. from Albany 138, and from Elizabeth 
E. 13 miles, is a manufacturing village, and has about 50 dwellings. 

Wilmington, taken from Jay in 1821 ; name and boundaries since 
altered; from Albany 148, from Elizabeth NW. 20 miles. The 
White Face Mountain here commands a view of more than 100 miles 
in extent, including Montreal, Ogdensburg, and Lake Ontario. Pop. 


Franklin county, taken from Clinton in 1808, is centrally distant 
from New York 287, from Albanv NW. 142 miles. Greatest length 
60, greatest breadth 30 miles. The hich northern latitude sufficiently 
indicates the rigors of the climate. The forests are very dense, con- 
sisting of trees of immense size. In the southwestern part are some 
lofty ridges of mountains, but of all the rest a large portion is rather 
level than hilly. The settlements are almost wholly in the northern 
part, extending about 15 miles S. from the N. line, and even here are 
sparse ; much the larger portion of the county being as yet covered 
with the primitive forests. The soil is a sandy loam, occasionally 
mixed with clay, stony, and the fields commonly among thrifty farm- 
ers are fenced with stones gathered from the surface. Some wheat 
is raised, but it is an uncertain crop, whilst grass, oats, barley, conkf 
&c., generally are very productive. No portion of the state is per- 
haps better adapted to the sugar-beet Grazing and lumbering are 
the chief pursuit of the inhabitants, who find meir market upon tb6 

St JLawrenee river. Pop.^ IMM. I^e coo&tf ii 6MMk iiil», it 
towns. */ 

Bangok, taken from Dickenson in 1813 ; distant JHir.fiosi AKi^ 
891 miles. Pop. 1^18. Bangor, 5 nules W. of Mabne, and W» BilKf 
gor, are post villages. The population is principally distributed «kNij|; 
two roads about 3 miles asunder, known as the North and South street 

Belmokt, taken from Chateaugua, in 1883 ; N W. from AUwiiy IML 
Fbp. 470. Belmont is a small village, 12 miles SE. of Mabme. - 

Bombay, taken from Fort Covii]^n in 1833 ; NW. from Makme JHf 
niiies. Pot. 1,446. The Indian village of St Regis lies on the left bai^ 
of the St. Kegis river, upon the northern boundary. The resemililNi 
of this tribe lies partly in this town and partly in Fort Covingtbiii^ 
ezt^ding 3 by 1 1 miles. Hogansburg and .Bombay Four Comgff 
,m villages. The present or late chief of the St Begis Indians, it or 
was a descendant of the daughter of the Rev. John Williatiui tht 
minister of Deerfield, Mass., who was with most of his fiumly ini 
neighbors taken prisoners to Canada in 1704. Mr. Williams >raa 
earned to Lake Champlain, and from thence to Montreal and Quebecw 
In 1706, a flag-ship was despatched to the latter place, aod B^ 
Williams and 57 otner captives were redeemed und sent to BosIm: 
dl his children returned with the exception of his daughter Bupio^i^ 
who, at the age of 1 years, was left behind. She adopted the. mamieni 
of the Indians, to one of whom she was married, and became coi^verte| 
to the Catholic faith. Some time after the war, she, with her husbaiML 
visited her relations at Deerfield, dressed in the Indian costume; am 
tbough every persuasive was in vain tried to induce her to abandon 
him and remain among her connections, she still persisted in wearing 
her blanket and countns her beads, and returniE»l to Canada, where 
she ended her days. Her descendants still coptlnue to visit their 
relatives in New England, by whom they are hospitably received. 
One of them, by the name of Eleazer Williams, has been educated by 
his friends in New England and employed as a missionary to the 
Indians at Green Bay. IVfr. Williams some years since, when on a 
visit to Canada, found the Bible of his great-grandfather, the Rev. J^ip 
Williams, with his name in it He states, that when Deerfield^^iK^ 
destroyed, the Indians took a small church bell, which is now hang- 
ing in the Indian church at St Re^is. It was conveyed on a sludge 
as fer as Lake Champlain and buried, and was afterward tsikw up 
and conveyed to Canada. , 

The first standard captured from the enemy in the late war'was 
taken at this pl&Lce by Maj. Guilford Dudley i oung, on the 2fd of 
Oct, 1812. The following account of this event is extracted from 
newspapers published at the time. 

** Bi^or Young, of the Troy militia, eominandant of a detaebment atationed at F^WMdi 
BfiDa, on the St. Regis river, having reeeived infonnation that a party of the enemy had 
•nivfld at the viUage of Sl Regis, and that more were shortly expected, formed a resolofiott 
to take them before they were reinforced. For this pozpose, he marched a detachment, at 
II (^doek on the night of the 31st of October, croased the river at Gray*s Bfills about 3, 
wM at 5 in the morning arrived within half a mUe of the village unexpected by the enemy. 
Ban the m^or made nwh a jodidons dvpoaitioa ef his men, that the enemy were Milirily 


■orroanded, and after a few dischai^es, surrendered themselves prisoners with the loss of 
5 killed. The result of this affair was the capture of 40 prisoners with their arms, equip, 
ments, &c., one stand of colors and two batteaux, without a man of our party being hurt. 
They got safe back to camp at 11 o*clock in the morning. The prisoners were sent off to 
Plattsbuig. Maj. Young has thus had the honor of takmg the fi»t standard from the ene. 
my in the present war." 

From the Albany Gazette of January^ 1813. 

** On Thursday, the 5th inst., at 1 o'clock, a detachment of the volunteer militia of Troy 
entered this city, with the British colors taken at St. Regis. The detachment, with 3 superb 
eagles in the centre, and the British colors in the rear, paraded to the music of Yankee 
Doodle and York Fusileers, through Market and State streets, to the capitol, the officers 
and colors in the centre. The remainder of the vestibule, and the grand staircase leading 
to the hall of justice, and the galleries of the senate and assembly chambers, were crowded 
with spectators. His excellency the governor, from illness, being absent, his aids, Cols. Lamb 
and Lush, advanced from the council chamber to receive the standard.'* Upon which Maj. 
Young, in a truly military and gallant style, and with an appropriate address, presented it to 
the people of New York ; to which Col. Lush, on the part of the state, replied in a highly 
complimentary speech, and the standard* was deposited in the council room, amid the loud 
huzzas of the citizens and military salutes. Subsequently to this achievement, Maj. Yoimgt 
was appointed a colonel in the U. S. army. 

B&ANDON, taken from Bangor in 1828 ; centrally distant SW. from 
Malone 30 miles. The settlements are in the north part of the town. 
Pop. 560. 

Chateaugua, taken from Plattsburg and Champlain as part of 
Clinton county. Chateaugua Four Comers, 1 3 miles E. from Malone on 
the turnpike to Plattsburg, is a small village. West Chateaugua is a 

E5St-office. Pop, 2,820. There is in this town a cascade on the 
hateaugua river of 90 feet perpendicular, over granite rock. Cha- 
teaugua was settled in April, 1804, by Benjamin Roberts, from Man- 
chester, Vermont; William Bailey, Esq., and Mr. Nathan Beman, 
came about the same time. Mr. Beman acted as a guide in conducting 
Col. Ethan Allen into Ticonderoga. At the first settlement of this 
place, there were no other settlers in the limits of the county, except* 
ing a few Canadians at French mills, now Fort Covington. 

A skirmish took place in this vicinity during the late war, between 
the British and a portion of the American army under General 
Hampton, which was designed for the co-operation upon Montreal. 
The lollowing account of this afiair is taken from " Perking History 
of the Late War."" 

'^— — - -- I I _ II . I ■ ■_ ^_ _ 

* The standard w at present remaining in the capitol at Albany. 

f This officer waa a native of L«>banon, Conn. «' AfW the war be entered the patriot aenioe under G«i. 
Mina, and hmt h\» life in th*> strufvk for Mexican independence in 1817. The patriots, S60 in number, had 
poestasion of a small fort which was invcsti'd bv a royalist force of 3,500 men. The auppltea of prorkioii 
and water beiuK cut otT, the sufferinijs of the garrison and women and chJIdren in tlie fort becamt inlolerabia; 
many of the sdidiKrs deserted, m> tiiat not more than 150 efTective men remained. Col. Young, however, 
knowine tlu; piTfidy of the enemy, determined to defend the fort to the last . After having bravely dufeated 
the enemy in a number of ende{ivors to carry the fort by storm, Col. Young was killed by a cannon ahoc, 
from the battery raii^ airaitMt the fort. « On the ern'my's last retreat, the colonel, anxious to observe all tbefar 
nioveinen:s, fearlissly expo;M>d hU pcrwn, by stepping on a large f4one on the ramparts; and while conversing 
with Dr. Heimes.sey un the succ(>5ee8 of the day, and on the dastardly conduct of the enemy, ibe taal ibot 
that was tirad from their batter}- carried olf his head. Col. Young was an officer, whom, n^xt to Mini, the 
American part of the diviMion had been accustomed to resfiect and admire. In every actkm ha had Men 
conspiciiouB for his daring courage and skill. Minn reposed unbounded confidence In him. In the tear of 
danger be was collected, gave his orders with precision, and, sword in hand, was always in the lioltBBt of ibe 
combat Honor and tinnncm marked all his actions. He was generous in the extreme, and endorad prlvft- 
tions with a cheerfuluesB Kuperior to tliat of any other officer of the division. He baa been In Um (J. B. 
service as Lieut. Col. of the 29th regiment of itifantry. Uia body was interred Iq^ tbe few Amerlone wte 
oould be spared from duty with every poarible mark of honor and respect ; and the general ^oon wUck ptr* 
vaded the division on this occasion was the dncerest tribute that could be offered by them to tlia inf Mij of 
their brave chief.* '^-^Barber** Hittorieal CoUtoHan* and JtntifMHi$$ «\f OmmtetiewL 


** On the moraing of the Slst of October, 1813, the anny commenced a movement down 
die Cfaateaugay. An extensive wood of 10 or 12 miles in front, blocked up with felled 
timber, and covered by the Indians and British light troops, impeded the progress of the 
umy. Gen. Izard was detached with the light troops and one regiment of the line to turn 
theee impediments in flank, and seize on the open country below, while the army, |xreceded 
by a working party, advanced in a more circuitous, but practicable route. The measure sue 
ceeded, and the main body reached the advanced position on tiie Chateuugay, on the evennig 
of the 23d. The 23d and 24th were employed in getting up the artillery and stores. There 
was now in front of the army 7 miles of open country, at the end of which commenced a wood 
of some miles in extent, which had been formed into an entire abattis, filled with a succession 
of wooden breastworks, the reannost of which was supplied with ordnance. The Indians 
and Ught troops were placed in front, and a heavy force in the rear. On the evemng of 
ibe 95th, Col. Purdy, with the light troope, was detached to gain the rear of this poeitionv 
while Gen. Izard made a simultaneous attack in front. Col. Purdy was misled by his guidea, 
the attempt failed, and the advanced corps retired, with a loss of 50 killed, wound^, and 
miaaing, to a position 3 miles in the rear. On the 28th, Gen. Hampton, under an impression 
that Sir Geoige Prevost might be in the way of his further advance, fell back to his fcmner 
poaition at the Chateaugay Four Comers,** and immediately conducted his army back to 
Flattsboig for winter quarters. 

Constable, taken from Harrison as part of Clinton county in 1807 ; 
bounds since altered. Pop. 1,121. Constable is a small village 7 
miles N. of Malone. East Constable is a post-office. 

Dickenson, taken from Harrison (original name of Malone) in 
1808 ; from Malone centrally distant SW. 30 miles. Pop. 1,006. 
This town is about 50 miles long, N. and S., and 6 broad. The set- 
tlements are in the northern part. 

DuANE, taken from Malone in 1828 ; centrally distant S. of Ma- 
lone 20 miles. The post village lies in the N. part of the town, where 
there is a considerable quantity of iron and steel manufactured from 
ore in the vicinity. Pop. 324. 

FoBT Covington, named after Gen. Covington, who was slain at 
the battle of Williamsburg in Canada, November 11, 1813; taken 
from Constable in 1817; from Malone N. 7 miles. In the Fork, 5 
miles S. of the St. Lawrence, is the post village of Fort Covington, 
formerly called " French Mills," which contains about 150 dwellings. 
Fort Covington of the late war was in this township. A large lum- 
ber business is here conducted by the way of the St. Lawrence. 
Pop. 2,098. 

Franklin, recently formed from Belmont; centrally distant 28 
miles SE. from Malone. The post-office is at Merritsville. Pop. 192. 

Malone, taken from Harrison, and organized as part of Clinton 
county in 1805 ; from Albany 212 miles, trom Plattsburg W. 51, and 
from Ogdensburg E. 70 miles. Pop. 3,229. Malone village, the 
county seat, is situated upon both sides of the Salmon river. This 
stream is here crossed by a stone bridge, having an arch of 97 feet 
span and a roadway of 70 feet above the original bed of the stream. 
This town was first settled by Nathan Wood, an emigrant from 
Vermont, who located himself about a mile north of the village. The 
following view was taken near Hosford's tavern, and shows the prin- 
cipal part of the village. The public building on the extreme left is 
the academy, the one adjacent, the Baptist church ; the steeple of a 
large cotton factory is seen near the centre of the engraving, at the 
foot of the hill, and the courthouse on the right ; the Presbyterian 


View of Mahne. 

church, a large and aubstantial stone structure, is not brought into 
this view, being at tlie eastero end of the village. 

During the iate war, (Feb., 1814,) a detachment of British made an 
incursion into this place, and proceeded as far as Chateaugua Four 
Comers. They were commanded by Col, Scott, of the 103d Britisii 
regiment, and numbered about 2,300 men, including many Indians. 
Hearing of the approach of the American troops, they retreate"! in 
great confusion, thougli not without destroying the bridges in their 
rear. The whole party suffered severeiy in tlieir retreat by a tre- 
mendous storm of snow and haii which prevailed at the close of the 
day, and lost upwards of 200 men by desertion. 

MoiBA, taken from Dickenson in 1827; from Albany 225, centrally 
distant W. of Malone 14 miles. Pop. 964. Moira is a small village. 

Webtville, taken from Constable in 1829 ; from Albany 233. from 
Malone centrally distant NW, 9 miles. Westville is a small village. 
Pop. 1,033. 


FuLTOM COUNTY was taken from the northern part of Montoomeiy 
county in 1838 ; NW. from Albany 40 miles ; length E. anJW. 33 
miles, breadth N. and S. 17, The surface of the northern part of 
this county is hilly, with some ranges of a mountainous character. 
The Kayadcrosseras range of mountains enters the county on the 
NE,, but sinks to the general level in the town of Northampton. Th« 
county is well watered and contains several small lakes. It is divid* 
ed into 9 towns. Fop. 18,033. 


Blvbksb, taken from Johnstown in 1831 ; from Albany 53 miles, 
from Johstown JV. 13. There are three inconsiderable; settlementa in 
the town. The soil ia quite poor and covered with small evergreens. 
Fop. 346. 

Broadalbiv, taken from Caughnawaga in 1793; from Albany 47 
miles, from Johnstown NE. 10. A settlement was made in thia town 
in 1776, by Daniel Mclntyre, and a few other emigrants from Scot- 
land -, but it was broken up during the revolutionary war. Fonda's 
Buih or Rawsonville, 10 miles from Johnstown, incorporated in 
ISIS, has about 800 inhabitants. West Ualway and Union Mills 
are small post villages. Pop. 2,728. 

' Efbkata, taken from Palatine in 1827; from Albany 58 miles, 
frwn Johnstown centrally distant W, 10. This town was settled in 
1724, by Germans. Pup. 2,009. Pleasant Valley, Ephrata, and 
Lasselsville, are small villages. 



SoulJtern v 

of Johnstfivn, 

Johnstown, originally njinicd Caughnawaga, was founded about the 
year 1770, by Sir William Johnsmi, wlio resided hen; during the lat- 
ter period of his life, esscniiiillv in the rank, and with much of the 
splendor of a nobleman. Sir William and his family, by various 
means, became possessed of vast tracts of valuable land in this section 
of the country, and had many tenants and retainers under them. 
Their great possessions, however, were confiscated during the revo- 
lutionary war, on account of their adherence to the British cause. 
The village of Johnstown is about 4 miles JV. of Fonda, the seat of 
justice for Montgomen,' county, and 44 from Albany. The accom- 
panying engraving shows the appearance of the village as viewed 
from the first elevation south, on the road to Caughnawaga or Fonda 
village. The courthouse is the first building seen on the left with a 
spire ; Mayfield mountains appear in the extreme distance. The vil- 
lage contains a bank, an academy, 4 churches — 1 Presbyterian, 1 
Episcopal, 1 Dutch Reformed, and 1 Methoiist — and about 250 

dwellings. It is situated on a handsome plain, skirted on the N. 
and W. ^ Cayadutta creek, and on the S. by a hill of moderate ele- 
vation. It was regularly laid out by Henry Oothoudt, Jeremiah Van 
Rensselaer, and Christopher P. Yates, state commissioners, in J784, 
and was incorporated in 1807. The village of Kingsboro is 4 miles 
NE. from Johnstown ; it has a Presbyterian church, an academy, 
and about 40 or 50 dwellingH. This village has acquired some celeb- 
rity, as being the place where great quantities of dressed deer-skin 
gloves and mittens have been manufactured. The town of Johns- 
town was originally organized by the name of Caughnawaga in 
1798, Its temtonal hmits have since beea much renuced. 'Fop. 

Johnson Hall, in JoHnstoum. 

The above is a southeastern view of the mansion-honse built by 
Sir William Johnson, called "Johnson HalL" This house, now oc- 
cupied by Mr. Wells, is situated about three fourths of a, mile NW. 
of the courthouse, on ground gently elevated above the village. The 
hall itself is built of wood, but the buildings or wings on each side 
are of stone, pierced with loop-holes for musketry. When Sir Wil- 
liam occupied these buildings, he had them surrounded by a stone 
breastwork. While in possession of the Johnson family, this was a 
place of resort for the sachems of the Six Nations, and all the Mo- 
nawks repaired thither to receive their presents from the British gov- 

William Johnson was bom in Ireland abont the year 1714; he 
was a nephew of Sir Peter Warren, the naval commander who dim 
tinguished himself at the siege of Louisburgin 1746. Sir Peter hav- 
ing married a sister of Chief-justice De Lancey of New York, pur- 
chased a large tract of land on the Mohawk, and about the year 
1734, sent for his nephew to come to America and superint^id this 
estate. Young Johnson dnt established himself at tlfe mouth of the 
Schoharie, afterward erected a house in the town of Amsterdam, 
and subsequently the hall at Johnstown. To fulfil the duties of hit 
eommisiion, he learned the language of ^ Indiana, studied tbeir 

wmtom ooOMf • 4m 

■liiniinl H and eultiyated their acquamtanee* Hit aituatioii betwseii 
AHnuiy and Oswego presented a fine opportiHiity for trade, and lie 
carried on a large traffic with them^ supplyiog them with ffooda» and 
raeeiTing in return beaver and other skms. Ev a course of sagaciooa 
measures he obtained an influence over the Indians greater than waa 
ever possessed by any other white man. 

In 1757, Johnson was intrusted with the command of the provineial 
troops of New York, whom he led to. Lake G^rge, where was 
•chieired the first victory gained on the Britisrh side, in the war com- 
mencing at that period For this victory, towards which he did bat 
liftie more than oarely hold the place of commander*in-chie( he re* 
oeived from the house of commons £6,000 sterling. ; and from the 
king, the title of baronet, and the office of superintendent of Indian 
affiura. In 1759, being at the head of the provincial troops employed 
under Gen. Prideaux to besiege Fort Niagara, he became, when that 
officer was killed, the commanler-in^chief ; by his activity axid skill 
lie defeated the enemy and obtained possession -of the fort and garri- 
■OQ. In 1760, when G^n. Amherst embarked at Oswego on his ex* 
ped(i|Wi to Canada, Sir William brought to him at that place 1,000 
IndJIimi ^f the Iroquois ^r Six Nations, which was the largest number 
that 'hii^. ever been seen in annis at one time in the cause of ]&igland« 
^8k William Johnson possessed coiisiderable talents as ^ui orator, 
and his influence over the Indians was not a little owing to the im^ 
pressicm made upon them by means of his elocution* • » • • He had 
iiives and concubines, sons and daughters, of difierent colors." By 
Lady Johnson he had 3 children — 1 son and 2 daughters. His son. 
Sir John Johnson, took side with the British^ in ue revolutionary 
war, and became the scourge of the Mohawk valley. One of the 
daughters married Col. Claus, and the other Sir Gay Johnson. Sir 
William died suddenly, at Johnson Hall, July 11th, 1774, aged 60 
years ; and was succeeded by his son in his title, and also to ms post 
as major-general of the militia. 

The foflowing anecdote respecting Sir William, seems to evince, 
that in his dealings with the Indians, who have a good reputation for 
cunning, he was not outwitted Hendrick, the chief of the MohawkSy 
was at the house of Sir William when he received several rich suits 
of laced clothes. Soon after, the chief came to him and said, ** I 
dream.'' ** Well ! what did you dream ?" ** I dream you give me 
one suit of clothes." This hint could not be mistaken or well avoided, 
and accordingly Hendrick received a suit Some time afterward 
Sir William meeting Hendrick, said to him, " I dreamed last night" 
Did you I What did you dream ?" "I dreamed you'gave me a tract 
of land," describing it Hendrick at first paused at me enormity of 
the demand, but at length said, ** You may have the land ; buttve no 
dream again, you dream too hard for me." The tract of land thus 
obtained, is stated to have been 12 miles square, in the present county 
of Herkimer ; the title to it was confirmed by the king, and was caUed 
the " Royal Grant" 

The power which Sir William Johnson acquired over the Indians 



descended to his son and to his nephew, Col. Guy Johnson, who suc- 
ceeded him in the agency of Indian affairs. As the family had de- 
rived most of their wealth and consideration from the crown, they 
were, as might be supposed, devoted loyalists. In 1775, Gen. Schuy- 
ler prevailed upon the Indians to agree to be neutral in the coming 
conflict. It appeared, however, that the influence of the Johnson 
family prevailed with the Indians, and induced them to join the 
British cause. It also appeared that Sir John was fortifying his 
house and arming the Scotch Highlanders, his tenants and adherents. 
Congress having heard of these movements, sent Gen. Schuyler to 
disarm these persons, and take other measures to secure the tranquillity 
of Tryon county. Schuyler set out on this mission with 700 militia, 
but before he reached Caughnawaga his force had increased to three 
thousand. At Schenectady a deputation of Mohawks under the in- 
fluence of the Johnsons met him, and with much artfulness endea- 
vored to dissuade him from advancing. On the 1 6th of January, 
1776, Gen. Schuyler despatched a letter to Sir John, requesting him 
to meet him on the morrow ; they accordingly met, and after some 
subsequent delay, he and the Scotch gentlemen agreed to make a 
delivery of the arms of the inhabitants. Sir John likewise agreed 
that he would not go westward of German Flats and Kinsland dis- 
trict, and that six Scotch inhabitants might be taken as hostages. On 
the 19th, Schuyler marched into Johnstown and drew up his men in 
a line ; the Highlanders were drawn up facing them, and grounded 
their arms. The military stores were surrendered : and this service 
being performed, Schuyler and the militia returned. It was found 
afterward that the Highlanders had not delivered up their broad- 
swords or ammunition. 

Gen. Herkimer was left by Gen. Schuyler to complete the disarm- 
ing of the hostile inhabitants. Sir John, notwithstanding his word of 
honor, continued his hostile intrigues with the Indians, and otherwise 
forfeited his promises. It was found necessary to secure him, and in 
May, 1776, Col. Dayton was sent on this duty. The tories in Al- 
bany gave notice to Sir John of his approach, and the knight and his 
followers fled to the woods, and escaped to Canada, arriving at Mon- 
treal after nineteen days of suffering and starvation. He left his re- 
sidence in much haste : an iron chest with the family Bible and papers 
were buried in the garden. On arriving in Canada, the baronet was 
commissioned a British colonel, and raised the regiment of tories called 
the Royal Crreens. By his adherence to the British, his immense estate 
was forfeited, and this appears to have inspired him with implacable 
revenge. On Sunday, the 21st of May, 1780, at dead of night, Sir 
John Johnson, with a force of about 500 men, part of whom were 
Indians, made an incursion into Johnstown. He had penetrated the 
country by way of Lake Champlain to Crown Point, and thence 
through the woods to the Sacondaga river. The following account 
of this incursion is from a newspaper published June 15th, 1780. 

'* By the latest intelligence from Schenectady, we are informed that Sir John JchnBom^ 
(who atylM hittwalf Li«ut. colonel commanding the King's Royal Yorken, in die pMcala 

gifvi to tenw of the inMonen,) OD LordHi day flveiriiig, 1^ 
at Johnacm Hall, undiscorercMl by any but his firieadst who no doubt warn ia 
On Monday, about daybreak, they be^n to burn all the housea except those of tha toikiL 
boginning at Aaron Putnam's, below Tripe*a HQl, and continiied boming lo AnthoDi^ 
Nose, or Acker's house, except a few wiuch by the tigilaaca of the pao|iIa wan p«t Ml 
after the enemy had set them on fira. Thara have been burnt 38 houses and am hsum 
and a mill ; many cattle were killed in the fieU, and 60 or 70 sheep burnt in a birtk 
Eleven persons were killed. C(A. Fishef [Visscher] and his two brothers fouglu with gmt 
bravery, when the two brodiers ware killed and soalpiBd ; tha eoloiial went op staira And thMi 
dalended himseM^ but being overpowered, was knocked down and scalped, on which ikmf 
plundered the house, set it on fire, and then went o£ The colonel recovering a little, thoqipi 
he was left by the enemy for dead, he pulled one of his dead brothers out of the house thM 
in flames ; the other was consumed in the house. It k said that the doctors have hoMM 
that CoL Fisher wiU recover. His uMther Ind a narrow escape for her life, being V'VMffai 
an her head by an Indian ; but she is like to do well. Capt. Hansen was killed by an k 
diah, who had formerly been used by him widi kindnees, and professed much gratita^ 
Old Mr. Fonda was cut in sevstal parts of h^ head with a tomahawk. Had it not b«HI 
for the alertnesa of Mr. Van Vrank, probably mote would have been butchered bf tlNtf 
aavage hands ; he alarmed the people along the way to Caughnawaga, who by cromm' 
the river saved dieir lives. Having done all the miachief to the dis t r e ss e d inhabitants thlf 
possibly could, they returned to Johnson HsU in the alkemoon ; when Johnson dog i^ llB 
■late, and about sundown marched for tha Scotch Bosh, ahoat liMffmiles, tha*. evening. U 
has 15 or SO of hia negroes who had been soM ; several of his tmiants and odisn have gam 
with him. He hu permitted some of his prisoners to return on parole. His whole mi) 
whan ha landed at Grown Point, is said to be abont 500 man, 900 of tham Britiali, part dr 
his own regiment, and Indians. Capt. Putnam and four man followed them in their tetmH 
foor dayi^ on their way to Lake Champlain. He aaw him 94 miles from Johnsdn HaL 
Some think thejr will take their route to Oswagatchie ; but this seems improbable, sa ditf 
have not provisions sufficient with them. His excellency the governor has coUectad a 
body of miliiia to intercept thair way to Lake Champlain; a number have iko tbaidbfti, 
ftooi dia New Hampshirs grants for the same purpose: Col. Van Schaiok, with BOO om^ 
is m purniit of him by tha way of Johnstown. We hear that the enemy had thair foal 
ameh aweOed by their long march ; and being greatly fotigued, it is hoped our people mif 
np with and give a ^>od account of the lieut. cokmel and his murdaring iMiidltfl.* 

In this incursion, Mr. Sampson Sammons and his three sons, all 
stanch whigs, residing in Joniistown, were captured by the enemv 
and their dwelling laid in ashes. The elder Mr. Sammons and hii 

Joungest son, a youth of eighteen, were released bv Sir John, bat 
acob and Frederick, the other sons, were taken to Canada and con- 
fined in the fortress of Chamblee. From this jdace thev made their 
escape, and after a series of dreadful sufierin^, in their ffight through 
the wilderness, arrived in safety among their firiends. A long and 
interesting account of their adventures is given in CoL Stone's JUfe 
of Brant 

** A singular but well^ttested occurrence,** says Cd. Stone, ** closes this mtaresto^ pttf* 
sonal nairatiTe. The fomily of the elder Sammons had long given up Fredariek as lost 
On tha morning after his arrival at Schenectady, he despaiehed a letter to hk fother, by tha 
r, hand of an officer on his way to Philadeiphia, who left it at tha house of a Mr. Levi Ds 
Witt, five miles distant fix>m the residence of the old gentleman. The same night oa 
wl^ tha letter was thus left, Jacob dreamed that his brother FVedeiick was Kyiiy, and 
that thara was a letter from him at De Witt's announcing tha joyfol tid^fs. The drsam 
was lapeated twice, and the contents of the letter were so strongly iinprsssed upon hii 
mind, diat he repeated what he believed was the very language, on the ensuing momiiM*-» 
insisting tiiat such a letter was at the place mentioned. The fiimily, his &ther in paroeik 
lar, kiughed at him f jr his credulity. Strong, however, in die belief that there wss such a 
aoflunimieatioR, ha repsired to the place designated, aid asked for iha letter. Mr. De Witt 
Isakad for it, but replied there wss none. Jacob requested a mora dioroiwh search, and 
bahold the letter was found behind a barrel, whore it had follon. Jacob then re<iueatad 
Xr. Da Witt to open the letter, and examine while ha rsdtad its contant^. He did so, and 
te Jl— mar lapaatad it woid for word." 

■ I 


In the summer of 1781, another expedition was sent against Johns- 
town. This was conducted with so much secrecy, that on the 24th 
of Oct, the enemy, about one thousand in number under Majors Ross 
and Butler, were upon the settlement at Warrensbush before their 
approach was suspected. Col. Willet, who was at Fort Rensselaer 
about twenty miles distant, on hearing the news, immediately marched 
for Fort Hunter, which he reached early on the following morning 
with all the forces he could muster, being but 416 men in all. When 
he arrived here, he learned that Ross and Butler had the preceding 
day crossed the river some distance below Tripe's Hill, and arrived 
at Johnstown about the middle of the day, killing and taking the peo« 
pie prisoners, destroying buildings and cattle on their way. Having 
effected the passage of the river, Col. Willet pushed on in pursuit of 
the enemy. Havmc ascertained their position, he detached Major 
Rowley, of Massachusetts, with part of his force, by a circuitous 
march, to fall upon the rear of the enemy while he attacked them in 
front, a short distance above the Hall. The battle became spirited 
and general, but the militia under Col. Willet gave way, and ran in 
tile utmost confusion to the stone church in the village. Here the 
colonel succeeded in bringing them to a halt. But the defeat would 
have been complete, had not IVIajor Rowley, at this period of the ac- 
tion, emerged from the woods and fell upon the enemy's rear in the 
very moment of their exultation at their easy victory. The fight 
was now maintained on both sides with obstinacy till near sunset, 
when Willet was enabled to collect a respectable force, with which 
he returned to the field, and a^ain mingled in the fight. The battle 
was kept up till dark, when the enemy, pressed on all sides, fled in 
disorder to the woods — nor stopped short of a mountain six miles 
distant. The loss of the Americans in this conflict was about forty. 
The enemy lost about the same number killed, and about fifty pri- 

" Migor Roes retreated up the north side of the Mohawk, marching all night, after the 
battle. In the morning he was pursued by Col. Willet, but was not overtaken. The re- 
gion of country over which Roes retreated, after he had passed the settlements, lies twenty 
or thirty miles north of Fort Schuyler, and at that time was uncultivated and desolate. His 
army suffered much from hunger. — ^It was on this retreat that Walter Batler was killed : 
he was pursued by a small party of Oneida Indians ; when he arrived at West Canada 
creek, about 15 miles above Herkimer, he swam his horse across the stream, and then turn, 
ing round, defied his pursuers, who were on the opposite side. An Oneida immediately 
discharged his rifle and wounded him ; he fell. Throwing down his rifle and his blanket, 
the Indian plunged into the creek and swam across ; as soon as he had gained the opponta 
bank, he raised hie tomahawk, and with a yell, sprang like a tiger upon his fiilen foe. 
Butler supplicated, though in vain, for mercy ; the Oneida with his uplifted axe, shouted in 
his broken EngliHh, — * Sherry Valley ! remember Sherry Valley !* and then buried it in his 
brains : he tore the scalp from the head of his victim still quivering in the agonies of death, 
and ere the remainder of the Oneidas had joined him, the spirit of Walter Butler had gone 
to give up its account. The place where he crossed is called Butler^t Ford to this day.**— 
Ctunpbelts ArmaU of Tryon County. 

The following is a copy of a kind of diploma, in possession of the 
New York Historical Society, which it would seem the Johnson 
family were in the habit of giving to those Indians in whom they 
confided. In the vignette* a British officer is seen presenting a mediJt 

FOLTON ooinrrr. 

or aomething resembline it, to an Indian dressed in the aboriginal 
style) — the counci] fire, uie pipe of peace, the chain of friendship, 6tG„ 
are all represented. 

** Bjr 4m Honcnble. Sir Williun Johnson, But., Hk M^aMy*! Mila Agent uid Snpvifs. 
taaduil of Indiui Allkin for the Ifarthem Deptrtmenl of Nonh Ameho, Colonal of dw 
Sii Unilel Nation*, ihcir Allia uuj DcpenduiU, Slc. Su:. 

" To WhQiu3, I hare received repealed pn>o6 of your »tl»chment to bin 

Kntannic Mqaty*! Interests ind Zeal for his service upon sundry occasions, mors paitien^ 
Urlf I do tharefore give you ihia public Testimonial thereof, as a proof 

of iim H«iett|r's Ealeem sad Approbation, Declaring you, the said to be a 

of yoor and recommending il lo ail hia Majesty's Subjects and faithjiil Indi«n AL 

lias (o Treat and Consider you upon all occasions agreeable 10 your character, Slanon and 
•ernces Gitem under my hand and aeal at Arms at Jobnaan Hal] the day of 17 

Bf Commaud of Sir W : Johnson. 

The following inscriptions are copied from monuments in the grave- 
yard in the village of Johnstown : 

" Sacred to the memory of the Rev. Stmnn Hoiack, D.D., minister of the Preabytarian 
church, Johnstown, who died May 19, 1833, in the T9ih year of his age. He was b«n 
in Raaihire, in the north of Scoilatid, in Mareh, A.D,, 17SS. He received s finished edu- 
cation in the Uniteraity of Aberdeen, and completed his theological course in the sonu. 
nary connected widi thai institution. Aa a man, he was judicious and prudeul — aa a Chris- 
lian, hia conveiaalion was in MeSYen, and whaunever things were true, honest, just, pure, 
lovely, and of good report, these were his— aa a minister of the gospel, he was evangelic^ 
in faia senninenn, i:ircunispect in his walk, imd watchful of the spirilual welfare of hia 
people, of whieti be had ihe ovenight fur the extended period of tS yean. Hia death, 
which, though deeply and sensibly felt to be a gtral loes by all who well knew and tighdy 
appreciated hia sterling worth, was to him great gain." 

" Tbia stone waa erected by ^rtne McKentle, in grateful remembrance of her afleelion. 
Bte husband, Dugsld McKeozie, who departed this lite on the Tth of Sept., 1609, agwl 
37 yeaia and 7 mondis. 

No private interest did his soul invade. 

No fi>e he injured, no kind friend betrayed ; 

He followed virtue aa his surest guide. 

Lived Uke a Christian, like * Christian died." 


Ma YFiELD, taken from Caughnawaga in 1793; from Albany 40, 
and from Johnstown, NE., 8 miles. Cranberry Creek, Mayfield, and 
Ricefield, are post-offices. Pop. 2,615. 

Northampton, taken from Broadalbin in 1801. At the confluence 
of the Scandaga river and the Mayfield creek, lies the small village 
of " Fish House," where Sir William Johnson had his sporting lodge, 
or summer retreat Northampton, or Fish House village, 17 miles 
NE. from Johnstown, is a small village. There is here a splendid 
bridge across the river, costing about 860,000. Northville and Os- 
bom's Bridge are small settlements. Pop. 1,526. 

Oppenheim, taken from Palatine in 1808; from Albany 63, from 
Johnstown, W., 18 miles. This town was settled in 1724, by Ger- 
mans. Its present inhabitants are characterized by the hardy in- 
dustry and frugalitv of that nation. Oppenheim and Bracket's Bridge 
are post-ofiices. Pop. 2,169. 

Perth, recently taken from Amsterdam, of Montgomery county ; 
it is 10 miles £. of Johnstown, and is the smallest town in the county. 
Pop. 737. 

Stratford, taken from Palatine in 1805 ; from Albany 63 miles. 
Nicholsville is a small settlement, 23 miles NW. from Jolmstown, on 
the west line of the county. Pop. 500. 


Genesbb county was taken from Ontario in 1802, and has lince 
been much reduced by the formation of several counties from it ; 
centrally distant from New York 321, from Albany 258 miles. This 
county pertains to the great plain of the west, and forms with Wyo- 
ming the highest portion of it. Upon the west, the streams run to 
Lake Erie, and on the east to the Genesee river : as in limestone 
countries generally, the streams are subject to much fluctuation. 
The soil is generally highly fertile, and produces as fine crops of 
wheat as any part of the state. By the recent erection of Wyoming 
county from the southern portion, this county is reduced to twelve 
towns, and a population of about 30,000. 

The following is a list of articles and rates of wages, taken from 
a history of Genesee county, published in 1804, by Robert Monroe: 

" Wheat from 62 cents to $1 per bushel ; com, from 30 to 50 cents a huAtH ; hay, 
from (6 to $12 a ton ; butter and cheese, from 10 to 16 cents a pound ; a yoke of onn, 
from ^^0 to $80 ; milch cows, $16 to $25 ; a pair of good working horses, $100 to 
$125 ; sheep, $2 to $4 ; pork, freshed killed in winter, $4 to $6 a 100 lb.— malted in 
Spring, $8 to $10 ; whiskey, 60 to 75 cents a gallon ; salt, $1 a bushel, weigtung M 1km, , 
field ashes, 4 to 9 cents a bushel : 600 bushels may be manufactured into a ton of pot or 
pearl ashes, which has been sold at market at $li25 to $1.50 ; and some penona byaavinc 
itheir aahea, or by manufactuiing them, have nearly cleared the oott of imprynaf UmL 

eKHBSSE ootmrr. 17S 

TliB w«g«* of a laborer, 910 to SIS a monlb and board ; a suit of clothm, made from M 
to 95; a pair of Bhosi, $1.T5 lo $2.50. Sure goode are sold al very nioderale prices, UM 
expense of carriage from New York lo Albany being about $3 a hundred weight." 

Alabama, taken from Pembroke and Shelby in 1826 ; from Albany 
257 milea. The greater part of the town was in the Tonawanta 
Indian reservation, part of which waa sold in 1827-8. The Indi- 
aos have yet here, and in Niagara and Erie counties, a tract of 
13,000 acres. Their village, containing about 300 inhabitants, is sit- 
uated in this town. Alabama post-office is 13 miles NW. from Ba- 
tavia. Pop. 1,798. 

Alexander, taken from Sheldon in 1612; from Albany 247 miles; 
drained NE. by the Tonawanta creek. Alexander, on the Tona- 
wanta railroad, incorporated in 1834, has about seventy dwellii^;s. 
Brookvilie is a small settlement, 6 milea south of Batavia. The 
Alexander classical school, in this town, was incorporated in 1834. 
Pop. 2,241. 

Batavia was orc;anized in 1802; it has a level surface and is drain- 
ed by the Tonawanta creek. Batavia, the shire village, incorporated 
in 1823, IB lati out upon a plat about 2 miles square. The village is 
principally built on a single street upwards of a mile long, on the 
eastern side of Tonawanta creek, distant from Albany 244 miles, 
Buffalo 40, Rochester 34, Canandaigua 49, Genesee 29, LOckport 32 
miles. Population of the town, 4,219. A railroad connects Batavia 
with Rochester. 

Western view of the central part of Batama. 

The above is a western view of the central part of Batavia, as 
seen from the bridge over the Tonawanta creek, about 40 rods NW. 
from the courthouse seen in the central part of tho engraving. The 
village considig of about 300 dwellings, many of which arc finely 
constructed of brick. The spire of tho Presbyterian church is seen 
on the left, the tower of the Episcopal on the right. The state arse- 
nal is about a mile NW. of the courthouse. There are in the village. 

176 flBSBflBE COUHTT. 

1 bank, and 2 printing offices, and the office of the Holland Land Com- 
pany. Dr. Dwight, who on his visit to Niagara Falls passed through 
Batavia in Oct., 1804, states that at that time it contained "from 20 
to 30 houses ; a considerable number of them built of logs ; the rest 
small, and chiefly of one story. The courthouse, a well-looking 
structure, has three stories, the second of which is the county jail. 
He also says, " in the season when we were on the ground, so many 
persons were ill of the diseases common to this region, that those who 
remained well, were scarcely able to nurse the sick." 

O^e of the Holland Land Company. 

The above is an eastern view of the office of the Holland Land 
Company in Batavia, about 60 rods northward from the courtliouse. 
The state of New York, in 1766, granted the state of Massachusetts 
more than six million acres of her western territoiy, {see page 40,] 
which that state sold to Oliver Phelps and Nathaniel Gorham, for one 
million of dollars. These gentlemen soon after extinguished the In- 
dian title to a part of this territory ; they surveyed it into tracts, 
denominated ranges and townships, and sold large parcels to specu- 
lators and actual settlers. In 1790, they sold nearly the whole of 
the residue of the survey, 1,204,000 acres, to Robert Morris, of Phila- 
delphia, for eight pence the acre, who resold it to Sir William Pull- 
ney. Phelps and Gorham being unable to fulfil their contract in full 
with Massachusetts, compromised and surrendered that p&rt of the 
land to which the Indian title was unextinguished ; in consideration 
of which, the slate relinquished two thirds of the contract price. In 
1796, Robert Morris purchased from the state this portion also — ex- 
tinguished the Indian title— sold off several large tracts upon the east 
side, and along the Genesee, and mortgaged the residue to Wilhem 
Willink, of Amsterdam, and 1 1 associates, called the " Holland Land 
Company." This company, by the foreclosure of the mortgage, ac- 
quired full title to the land, surveyed it, and opened their first iand- 
office in Batavia in 1801. " Having sold a large proportion of the 
country, they, in 1S05, conveyed the residue of tne wild lands to 
several companies, who have undertaken to retail them." 


** The Holland purchase was bounded on the east by a transit 
meridian line due north from latitude 42°, embracing the two west- 
em ranges of the county of Allegany, and with an offset, west, of 
two and a quarter miles, extending north to Lake Ontario, on the 
west line of Murraytown, Orleans county — two fifths of Allegany 
county, the greater portion of Genesee and Orleans counties, and 
all of Niagara, Erie, Chatauque and Cattaraugus," with the exception 
of some small Indian reservations. 

Batavia has acquired celebrity from its being the place from which 
William Morgan was abducted in 1826, for attempting to reveal the 
secrets of free masonry, Morgan, it appears, was bom in 1774, in 
Culpepper county, Va. His occupation was originally that of a 
bricklayer and stone mason. He removed from Virginia in 1821, 
and went to. York, U. C. ; from thence he removed to Rochester. 
From various misfortunes, he became quite reduced in his circum* 
stances, and in the summer of 1826 he resided in the village of Bata- 
via. While here, he became connected with D. C. Miller, a printer, 
for the purpose of publishing a work disclosing masonic obligationsy 
secret signs, &c. Morgan, it appears, was a royal arch mason ; and 
when the fact became known that he was preparing a work to reveal 
the secrets of masonry, many of the masonic iraternity became much 
excited, and appeared determined to put an end to his disclosures. 
For this purpose, his character was assailed in the public prints. In 
July, 1826, Morean was arrested on a civil suit at Batavia, and gave 
bail ; he was afterward arrested and hurried to jail, without time 
being given him to procure bail, and search was made at his lodgings 
for his papers on some pretended process, the sheriff in the mean 
time absenting himself. An attempt was afterward made to bum 
down Miller's printing office, where "Morgan's Book** was print- 

On Sunday, Sept. 10th, application was made to J. Chipman, Esq., 
a magistrate of Canandaigua, for a warrant to apprehend Morgan for 
stealing a shirt and cravat, which it appeared afterward he had only 
borrowed. The warrant being issued, the constable at Canandaigua, 
attended by five other persons from that place, immediately set out 
for Batavia, where they arrived in the evening. Early the next 
morning, (Monday,) Morgan was arrested and taken to the public 
house where the party had slept ; an extra stage-coach was procured, 
and the party left Batavia for Canandaigua, with Morgan in their cus- 
tody. Miller attempted to procure the release of Morgan just as the 
carriage was starting, but he was pushed aside, and the ariver was 
urged to drive fast till he should get out of the county. Having 
arrived in Canandaigua, Morgan in the evening was taken before the 
magistrate who had issued the warrant, and was by him examined 
and discharged. One of the party then immediately applied to the 
same magistrate for a warrant against Morgan for a debt of about 
•2, which he said had been assigned to him by a tavern keeper. 
Judgment was entered against Morgan for $2.69, debt and costs, 
and an execution immediately issued. Morgan took off hit coat, and 



oiFered it to the constable to levy upon for the debt. The constable 
declined receiving it, and Morgan was committed to the Canandaigua 
jail the same evening, where he remained till the evening of the next 

On the 12th of Sept., about 9 o'clock in the evening, the wife of tke 

Biler, at the request of the plaintiff in the execution, consented to let 
organ out of the prison. As he was leaving the jail steps, he was 
violently seized by two persons ; he struggled, and cried " murder," 
a number of times. Two other persons now came up, one of whom 
stopped Morgan's outcry by thrusting a handkerchief, or something 
similar, into his mouth. At a signal given by one of the party, a two- 
horse carriage now drove up ; two of the party thrust Morgan into 
the carriage, and then got in themselves. This carriage arrived in 
Rochester about day-dawn the next morning. Another carriage 
was procured, and relays of horses were obtained. When the party 
arrived at New Fane, about 3 miles from Lockport, they sent to the 
sheriff of Niagara county, to assist them in getting Morgan into 
Canada. The sheriff accordingly left Lockport, attended the party, 
and assisted them in procuring horses, (fee. They arrived at Lewis- 
ton about midnight ; here another carriage was procured, and the 
party was driven to the burying ground near Fort Niagara. Here 
they left the carriage and proceeded with Morgan in their custody to 
the ferry, and crossed over to the Canada side. After conferring with 
a number of persons in Niagara village, Morgan was brought back, 
as arrangements had not been completed for his reception. This 
event it appears had been anticipated. Morgan was taken to the 
magazine of Fort Niagara, and locked in before day-dawn, on the 
morning of the 14th of September. 

On the day that Morgan was put into the magazine, a royal arch 
chapter was installed at Lewiston, which event called together a 
considerable assemblage of masons from the vicinity. ** In me even- 
ing, 20 or 30 persons came to the fort from Lewiston. About mid- 
night, 7 persons, stated to be royal arch masons, held a consultation 
on the plain near the graveyard, as to the manner in which Morgan 
should be disposed of. The prevailing opinion among them appeared 
to be, that Morgan had forfeited his life for a breach of his masonic 
obligations, and that they ought to see the penalty executed by 
drowning him in the river ; some of the company discoverbg a re- 
luctance to go to such lengths, the project was abandoned at that time. 
On the night of the 15tn, a similar consultation was held between 
four persons, but nothing was decided on. " As to the disposition of 
Morgan, after the evening of the 14th of September, nothing has yet 
been known judicially, but circumstances are strong, to induce the 
belief that he was put to death on the night of the 19th of Sept, 
1826, by being cast into the depths of Niagara river."* 
Beroen, taken from Murray in 1818 ; bounds since altered. Bar- 

^— ^■^— »- ■ ' — — »— .^^ ^i»»— ^»^— ^■^-^— 

* Report of Mr. Whittlesey and othcEs, at the United States anti.maaonic conTCiitioii, 
held at PhUadelpfaia, Sejrt. 11th, 1630. 

WTT. 179 

gen is a small village, 16 miles NE. from Batavia. North fiergea 
and Stone Church are post-offices. Pop. 1,835. 

Bethany, taken from Batavia in 1812; from Albany 241 miles. 
Bethany, 8 miles SE., Linden 10 miles S. from Batavia, Bennet's 
Settlement, and East Bethany, are small villages. Pop. 2,28S. The 
Genesee Manual Labor Seminary, in this town, was incorporated in 
1832 — capital 820,000, with a farm annexed. 

Byron, taken from Bergen in 1820; from Albany 247, from Ba- 
tavia, J\E., 10 miles. Byron and South Byron are small villages^- 
the latter of which is on the line of the Batavia and Rochester rail- 
road. Pop. 1,U08. In the SW. part of the town, sulphuric acid is 
E reduced in great quantities in a diluted and concentrated state, in a 
iUock 230 feet long and 100 broad, elevated 5 feet above the plain. 

Darien, taken from Pembroke in 1832 ; from Albany 355 milei. 
Darien, 13 miles SW. from Batavia, and Darien Centre, are small 
villages. Pop. 2,406. 

Elba, taken from Batavia in 1820 ; from Albany 350 miles. Rne 
Hill, 6 miles N. from Batavia, Oakfield, and Careysville, are small 
villages. Pop. 3,161. 

Eastern vieto of Le Roy Village. 

Lb Roy, named after Mr. Jacob Le Roy, a French gentleman fiiom 
Paris, who was a large proprietor, was taken from Caledonia in 1812, 
and organized by the name of Bellona ; from Albany 234 miles. Le 
Roy village was founded in 1810, by Mr. Le Roy, and incorporated 
in 1834. It contains 1 Episcopal, 1 Baptist, 1 Methodist, and 1 Pres- 
byterian church, and about 260 dwellings, surrounded by ample lots 
and of very neat appearance. The annexed view was taken on the 
eastern bank of Allen's creek, near the Baptist church. The fail in 
the creek here, and in the vicinity, is considerable. At the village it 
is l8 feet; within a mile is another fall of 27, and within 2 miles a 


third of 80 feet South Le Roy is a small settlement, 12 miles from 
Batavia. Pop. 4,335. 

Pavilion, organized in 1841. This township comprises the north- 
ern psurt of the original town of Covington, now in W yoming county. 
Pavilion is a small village, 11 miles SE. from Batavia. 

Pembroke, taken from Batavia in 1812; bounds since altered; 
from Albany 257 miles. Richville, 14 miles W. from Batavia, and 
Corfu, are small villages. East Pembroke is a post-office. Pop. 

Dr. Dwight, who travelled through this town in Oct., 1804, notices 
the circumstance of his passing, when in this part of the state, through 
oak plains or openings. These grounds are described as having a 
varied surface, and in a great degree destitute of forests, but covered 
with grass, weeds, and shrubs of various kinds : he supposes these 
openings to have been caused by the Indians burning them over, to 
produce pasture for deer. The following is extracted from the 4th 
vol. of his Travels. 

*' When one of these plains is seen at a little distance, a traveller emerging from the forest 
naturally concludes, that it is the commencement of a settled country, and as he advances 
towards it, \b instinctively led to cost his eye forward to find the village of which it is the 
joutskirt. From this impression his mind will be unable to free itself: for the thought, 
though given up, will recur again and again, in spite of his absolute conviction that he is 
in the heart of an immense wilderness. At the same time a sense of stillness and solitude, 
a feeling of absolute retirement from the world, deeper and more affecting than any which 
he has even suspected before, will be forced upon him while he is roving over one of these 
sequestered regions. No passage out of them is presented to his eye. Yet though the 
tract around hun is seemingly bounded everywhere, the boundary is everywhere obscure ; 
being formed by trees thinly dispersed, and retired beyond each other, at such distances, as 
that while in many places they actually limit the view, they appear rather to border dim, 
indistinct openings into other tracts of country. Thus he always feels the limit to be un. 
certain ; and unUl he is actually leaving one of these plains, will continually expect to find 
a part of the expansion still spreading beyond the reach of his eye. Af every little distance, 
especially on the higher grounds, the view is widely, though indefinitely extended along the 
surface ; and a little above where he looks through the stems of the trees, is bounded only 
by the horizon. On every side a multitude of chasms conduct his eye beyond the labyrinth 
by which he is surrounded ; and present an imaginary paasage back into the world, from 
which he is withdrawn ; bewildering him with expectation, continually awakened to be 
continually disappointed. Thus in a kind of wild, romantic rapture, he wanders over these 
plains, with emotions similar to those with which, when a child, he roamed through the 
wilderness created in Arabian tales, or the imaginary regions spread before him in a dream. 
He is not only separated from all human beings, but is every mmnent conRnous of this 
separation. Whenever he ascends one of the superior elevations, he seems to stand above 
the rest of the globe. On every side he looks downward ; and beholds a prospect with 
many vistas, opening indeed around him, but conducting his eye to no definite object, and 
losing it in confusion and obscurity. His view is confined by neither forests nor moun. 
tains : while yet trees in a thin dispersion partly interrupt it ; but at the same time discover, 
through their various openings, that it has no other limitation than the skirts of the heav. 
ens. — While he wanders on through this bewildering scenery, he cannot fail to remember, 
that on these plains Indiniis have lived, and roved, and hunted, and fought, ever since their 
firat arrival from thn shores of Asia. Here, unless they molested each other, there was 
nothing to molest them. They were the sole lords, the undisturbed possessors of the 
country. Here, therefore, he will call up before his imagination the secret windings of the 
scout ; the burst of the war.hoop ; the fiiry of an Indian onset ; the triumphant display of 
scalps ; and the horrors of the war^ance before ^e tortured and expiring captive. Whether 
these thoughts will be excited in the mind of any fiiture traveller, I know not : in my own 
they sprang up instinctively." 

Stafford, taken from Batavia and Le Roy in 1820 ; from Albany 
238 miles. Stafford Centre, 6 miles E. from Batavia, Morgajisvilie 
If and Roanoke 9 miles, are small villages. Pop. 2fi60. 



Greene county, on the west side of the Hudson river, was taken 
from Ulster and Albany, counties in 1800 ; greatest length 42 miles ; 
greatest breadth on the Hudson 28 miles ; centrally distant from 
New York 130, and from Albany 35 miles. The surface is every- 
where hilly, and the larger portion mountainous. The Cattskill 
mountains, after following the southern boundary of the county in an 
easterly direction to the southeast angle, turn north and northwest, 
and pass nearly through the centre of the county into Schoharie. 
The general elevation of this range is from 2,000 to 2,500 feet above 
the adjacent country ; while many of the peaks are elevated from 
3,000 to 3,800 feet above the level of the Hudson. Round Top has 
an elevation of 3,718 feet, High Peak 3,804, and Pine Orchard 3,000 
feet. The whole southwestern part of the county is hilly and moun- 
tainous, yet it affords a fine soil for pastures, with some arable land. 
The northeastern and eastern parts of the county are less hilly, and 
have many valleys, rich and extensive. Much attention is paid to 
agriculture, and more leather is manufactured in this than in any other 
county in the state. The county was originally settled by the Dutch. 
A large proportion, however, of the present inhabitants are of New 
England descent, and are noted for morality and industry. Pop. 
30,446. The county is divided into eleven towns. 

Ateens was taken from Cattskill and Coxsackie in 1815. Athens 
Tillage was incorporated in 1805. It lies on the west bank of the 
Hudson, opposite the city of Hudson ; from New York 116, from 
Albany 29 miles. It is beautifully situated, extending along the shore 
about a mile and a half, and is viewed advantageously from the city 
of Hudson. [See view of Hudson,'] The northern section of the 
village was laid out about 1790, by Edward Livingston, Brockholst 
Livingston, Elihu Chauncey Goodrich, and associates.; the southern 
in 1801, by Isaac Northrop, Alexander Alexander, Patrick Hamilton, 
and others. The village now contains several churches, and about 
150 dwellings. It is a place of much business, and its natural ad- 
vantages are such, that in time it must be one of considerable im- 
portance. A ferry plies constantly between it and Hudson. Pop. 

The following account of the murder of Miss Hamilton, in 1813, 
is taken from a newspaper published at the time : 

^^Amo9t daring atrocity. — Hudson^ August 1, 1813. — On Saturday afternoon last, the 
body of MisB Sally Hamilton, the daughter of Samuel Hamilton, Esq., of Athens, (on the 
opposite bank of the North river,) was found in the creek which empties itself into the 
river, about one hundred rods north of the upper setdement of that village. The circam- 
stances attending the daring deed which produced this young lady*s death, are most agoni* 
zing, and such as at once exhibit a most wretched deterioration in the morals of society. 
The facts as we have been able to collect them are as follows : 

•* On Wednesday evening last, about 8 o'clock, Miss Hamilton left the house of her 
sster, in the lower setdement of the village of Athens, where she had been visiting, to re. 
tam to ber father's house in the upper settlement, 'the two settlements are towards half • 


mile apart,) accompanied by several of her acquaintances. On reaching the upper settle, 
ment, part of her company stopped at a store to make some purchases, and on being desired 
to go in, she also stopped at the door, but excused herself, urging that she had been from 
home aJi day and was anxious to return. When she left this store it was precisely half- 
past 8 o'clock. From here she was accompanied by two elderly ladies, and when she 
parted from them, was within twenty rods of her father's house. After she parted from 
these ladies no positive account of her can be traced, although the twenty rods she had to 
walk to reach her father's house is nearly as thickly settled as any part of the city of Hud 
son ; and it was not until (he next afternoon that her absence was discovered, when hex 
sister, at whose house she had been the preceding day, visited her father's, and both parties 
missing the favorite of the family, mutual inquiries of her were made, which, on further in. 
quiry among the neighbors, resulted in the distressing eclaircissement embraced by the pre 
ceding detail. The alarm was instantly given, and search made for her in every direction 
without effect. 

** The only intelligence that could be obtained that in any way tended to elucidate her 
fate was, that between 8 and 9 o'clock in the evening in wliich she disappeared, a woman 
who was in the back part of the house at the opposite comer of the street to that to which 
she had to turn to go to her father's, came into the front part of the house, and inquired 
with some agitation if they had just then heard the stifled cries of a woman in distress. 
The reply being given in the negative, the inquiry was dropped. This comer of the street 
is within a stone's throw of the water side, and turning which, from the street she was last 
parted with in, to go to her father's house, she would leave the road that led direct to the 
creek beyond the village. About 9 o'clock, also, or a little after, the cries of a female in 
distress were heard by the people of a house about 80 rods beyond the creek ; they were 
heard twice^or thrice very distinctly, and afterward rather faintly; but imagining that they 
must be deceived, and that it was the noise of the boys in the village, they thought but Utile 
of it until the next day, when the absence of Miss Hamilton was ascertained ; blood was 
found upon the timbers of the bridge that crosses the creek, where two of the plank were 
missing. The creek \^'as now searched, but all to no purpose ; and, in this state of painful 
incertitude, the search was renewed on Saturday, the third day of her absence, when the 
body was found about half a mile up the creek beyond the bridge, nearly as far as a boat 
could be pushed. The body was afterward placed in the charge of a jury summoned for 
the purpose, (on which were two physicians,) who conveyed it to her father's house ; and 
after an examination of evidence, &c., they were unanimously of opinion that the young 
lady had been wilfully murdered by some person or persons unknown. From the coroner and 
several of the jury, we understand that the skull above the left eye was fractured, that the 
upper part of the check bone under the left eye was broken, that the hands were much 
lacerated, each arm near the shoulder bore the marks of having been seized there with 
violence, and on her breast there were marks of blows — but that lower down on her body 
there were no signs of violence liaving been offered her. 

" The conclusion drawn from all these circumstances is, that at the time of her p«a«^'ng 
the comer into the street that led to her father's house, where the stifled cries of a woman 
were heard, she was forcibly seized by niflians, and conveyed by land or water to some 
place in the vicinity of the creek before mentioned, where the alternative was probably 
offered her, of submitting to the helUsh embraces of these murderers, or of instant death. 
At this time it most undoubtedly was, that she uttered those moving shrieks which were 
heard at the house north of the creek, and when, to stop her cries, and prevent, as they 
probably conceived, all possibility of detection, the blows were inflicted that terminated her 
existence. After this, it appears probable that the murderers took the body to the bridge, 
and from thence plunged it into the water and it drifted up the creek ; or else that it was 
lowered down from the bridge into a boat, and conveyed to near the place where it was 
found ; one of the planks of the bridge being found near the body, is in support of the 
fonncr position, but the circumstance of there being little or no current in the creek from 
the tide, argues tliat the latter mode was adopted. 

" Miss Hamilton was about 20 years of age, of a very respectable family, and poeseased 
to the full an equal share of the attractions and accomplislmients of her sex ; superadded 
to which, she ei\joyed a most irreproachable character. Her funeral was attended on 
Sunday, by a large concourse of citizens from this city, as well as fVom the vilisge of 
Athens ; and no occurrence has ever taken place in this vicinity, that has ever excited to 
an equal degree the sensibility of the community. Suspicion rests upon no peiaon re. 
siding in this neighborhood ; but to be more particular on this head at the present moment, 
might jeopardize the prospect there is of apprehending the perpetrators of this atrt>cioiis act, 
for we are not without the strongest hope of soon being able to announce to the public 
ihat the vilUans have been detected." 




In 1815, Patrick Cavanagh confessed himself the murderer, and re 
lated in detail the manner in wrhich it was committed ; but on his trial 
it was ascertained that he was insane, and he was accordingly 
acquitted. Some time after, Lent, a soldier in the U. S. army, conl- 
plained of a comrade by the name of Sickler, as being the author of 
the crime. At the trial. Lent testified that he was with Sickler at the 
time, and stood silently by and witnessed, although he did not partici- 
pate in the transaction ; and that previous to the murder, Sickler 
committed an outrage upon her person. In the course of the trial 
it became evident that the whole story was a fabrication on the part 
of Lent, for the purpose of obtaining the offered reward. Sickler 
was acquitted, and Lent arrested, tried, and condemned to the state 
prison for perjury, where he died some years since. 

Nearly thirty years have elapsed since the murder, and as yet the 
transaction remains a mystery. The following inscription is from 
the monument in one of the burying grounds at Athens : 

** Sacred to the memory of Sally Hamilton, who was mardered by unknown handa in 
the evening of the 25th of August, A.D., 1813, in the 5K)th year of her age. Parental 
affeetion erects this monument. 

•^Does youth, does beauty lead this line ? 
Do sympathetic tears their breast alarm 7 
Speak, Heavenly Spirit ! breathe a strain divine, — 

- Ee'n from the grave thou shalt have power to charm ; 
Tell them them that tho' it is an awful thing to die,— 
*Twas e*en in thee, — yet the dread path once trod, 
Heaven lifts its everlasting portals high, 
And bids the pure in heart behold their God." 

Caiso, orijginally named Canton, was taken from Catskill, Cox- 
sackie, and Freehold, (now Durham and Greenville,) in 1803. The 
surface of the town is mountainous and hilly. Pop. 2,862. Cairo, 
upon the Susquehannah turnpike, 10 miles NW. of Catskill, has 1 
Presbyterian, 1 Episcopal, 1 Baptist, and 1 Methodist church, and 
400 inhabitants. Acra, 14 miles NW. from Catskill, is a small settle- 

Catskill was organized in 1788 as part of Albany county; since 
modified. The town had a small annexation from Saugerties in 
1892. The surface and soil are quite diversified. On the west are the 
Kaatsbergs, of a lofty mountain character, bordered by many hills 
of no inferior magnitude ; and the intervening plain that extends 
towards the Hudson has a broken surface, especially in the southern 
rart, whilst the northern has a high level plain of sand and clay. 
The Catskill creek runs through the northern part of the town, re- 
ceivinfif in its course a number of fine mill streams, which, with the 
Catskul, are bordered with rich tracts of alluvial land. Pop. 5,339. 
Leeds and JeflTerson are small villages. 

The village of Catskill was incorporated in 1806, and is the seat 
of justice for the county. The village is principally built in the deep 
valley of the Catskill, between which and the Hudson is a bluff 150 
feet in height The annexed engraving is a NW. view of the village, 
as aeen from an elevation called Ashley Hill, at its northern extremi- 
ty. The drawbridge over the Catskill is seen on the right, and will 


A '-,■ 


Northwestern view of CatskilL 

admit the passage of sloops some distance above it. The mouth of 
the creek makes a good harbor for sloops ; and a long and broad 
dyke, walled with stone, connects the sliore with an island in the 
river, affording a place for buildings, and a commodious landing for 
steamboats. The principal street in the village is about half a mile 
in extent, having quite a business-like appearance. The steamboat 
landing is about 1 mile distant. There are in the village 1 Dutch Re- 
formed, I Episcopal, 1 Presbyterian, 1 Baptist, and 1 Methodist 
church. There are 2 banks, 2 newspaper establishments, and about 
300 dwellings. Distant 6 miles from Hudson, 111 from New York, 
and 33 from Albany. 

" Although not in the town, yet as connected by name and many 
relations with Catskill, we may describe here the Pine Orchard and 
Mountain House, noted attractions to tourists. They are in Hunter, 
near its eastern boundary, 12 miles west from Catskill village. The 
road from the village to the foot of the mountain, 9 mifes, has little 
of interest. The ascent of tlie mount.iin is by a good tliough circui- 
tous road of 3 miles, but which, often running upon the brink of a 
deep ravine, or beneath frowning precipices, excites an unwelcome 
degree of terror. The hotel, erected by ' The Kaatskill Mountain 
Association,' at the cost of 922,000, is on a circular platform of rock, 
of uneven surface, having an area of about 6 acres. The building is 
140 feet by 24, 4 stories high, with piazzas in front, and a wing for 
lodging rooms, and is duly fitted and furnished for the accommodatioD 
of its numerous guests. 

" The prospect from this rock is more extensive and diversified 
than, perhaps, from any other point in the United States. Petty 
inequalities disappear, and the whole surrounding country is sprisad 
out as a plain. The eye roves, in endless gratificalion, over larms, 
villages, towns, and cities, streichlng between the Green mountains 
of Vermont on the north and the Highlands. The Hudson river, with 


CaUkill Mountain House, 

its green isles and thousand sheets of white canvam, becomes visible 
fer 60 miles in a clear atmosphere. At times, a thick curtain of 
clouds of ever-changing form, veils the region of lower earth from 
sight ; and in their respective seasons, storms of rain and enow spend 
tt^ir force in mid air, beneath the rays of a bright sun which gilds 
the mountain above them. The scene, when gradually unfolded with 
the day, is most enchanting. 

" A few years since this delightful position was almost unknown 
and rarely visited ; but the reports of the extent, beauty, and gran- 
deur of its prospects, and the salubrity of its atmosphere, at length 
fixed public attention. The number of visiters at each successive 
season increased, until the temporary buildings at first erected gave 
place to the edifice wc have described. The following heights on 
the mountain have been given by Capt. Partridge : Mountain housei 
2,212 feet above the Hudson; 1,882 feet above Lawrence's tav- 
ern ; 1.547 feet above the turnpike gate, at the foot of the mountain, 
and 947 above Green's bridge, 

" Two miles from the hotel are the Kaaterskill Pfells, upon a stream 
flowing from two lakes, each about a mile and a half in circumfer- 
ence, and about a half mile in the rear of the house. After a west 
course of a mile and a half, the waters fall perpendicularly J75 feet, 
and pausing, momentarily, upon the ledge of a rock, precipitate them- 
selves 85 leet more, making the whole descent of the cataract 260 
feet. Below this point, the current is lost in the dark ravine or clove 
through which it seeks the valley of the Catskill. The water-fali, 
with alt its boldness, forms, however, but one of the interesting fea- 
tures of this scene. From the edge of the first falls is beheld a dreary 


chasm, whose steep sides, covered with dark ivy and thick summer 
foliage, seem Kke a green bed prepared for the waters. Making a 
circuit from this spot, and descending about midway of the first fall, 
the spectator enters an immense natural amphitheatre behind the 
cascade, roofed by a magnificent ceiling of rock, having in front the 
falling torrent, and beyond it the wild mountain dell, over which the 
clear olue sky is visible. The falls on the west branch of Kaaterskill 
have a perpendicular descent of more than 120 feet, and the stream 
descends in rapids and cascades 400 feet in 100 rods. The Kaaters- 
kill has a devious and very rapid course of about 8 miles, to th« Cats- 
kill, near the village. The falls are best seen from below ; and the 
view from the Pine Orchard is better between 3 o'clock, P. M. and 
at sunset, than in the middle of the day." — Gordon! s Gaz, 

The following description of this view from the Catskill mountain 
house is given by Miss Martineau : 

'* After tea I went out upon the platform in front of the house, having heen warned not 
to go too near the edge, so as to fall an unmeasured depth into the forest below. I sat 
upon the edge as a security against stepping over unawares. The stars were bright over- 
head, and had conquered half the sky, giving promise of what we ardently desired, a fine 
morrow. Over the other half, the mass of thunderclouds was, I supposed, heaped together, 
for I could at first discern nothing of the champaign which I knew must be stretched below. 
Suddenly, and from that moment incessantly, gushes of red lightning poured out fi^m the 
cloudy canopy, revealing not merely the horizon, but the course of the river, in all its wind, 
ings through the valley. This thread of river, thus illuminated, looked like a flash of light. 
ning caught by some strong hand and laid along in the valley. All the principal features 
of the landscape might, no doubt, have been discerned by this sulphurous light ; but my 
whole attention was absorbed by the river, which seemed to come out of the darkness like 
an apparition at the summons of my impatient will. It could be borne only for a short 
time ; this dazzling, bewildering aJtemation of glare and blackness, of vast reality and 
nothingness. I was soon glad to draw back from the precipice and seek the candlelight 

" The next day was Sunday. I shall never forget, if I live to a hundred, how tlie world 
lay at my feet one Sunday morning. I rose very early, and looked abroad from my win. 
dow, two stories above the platform. A dense fog, exactly level with my eyes, as it ap. 
peared, roofed in the whole plain of the earth ; a dusky firmament in which the stars had 
hidden themselves for the day. Such is the account which an antediluvian spectator would 
probably have given of it. This solid firmanent had spaces in it, however, through which 
gushes of sunlight were poured, lighting up the spires of white churches, and clusters of 
ftinn buildings too small to be otherwise distinguished ; and especially the river, with its 
sloops floating like motes in the sunbeam. The firmament rose and melted, or parted oflT 
into the likeness of snowy sky mountains, and left the cool Sabbath to brood brightly over 
the land. What human interest sanctifies a bird's-eye view ! I suppose this its peculiar 
charm, for its charm is found to deepen in proportion to the growth of mind. To an infant 
a champaign of a hundred miles is not so much as a yard square of gay carpet. To tb' 
rustic it is less hn witching than a paddock with two cows. To the philosopher, what is i. 
not 7 As he csdts his eye over its glittering towns, its scattered hamlets, its secluded homes 
its mountain ranges, chureh spires, and untrodden forests, it is a picture of life ; an epitome o 
the human uni\ erse ; the complete volume of moral philosophy, for which he has sought iu 
vain in all libranes. On the loft horizon are the Green mountains of Vermont, and at th** 
righ^ extremity sparkles the Atlantic. Beneath lies the forest where the deer are hidinf 
and the birds rejoicing in song. Beyond the river he sees spread the rich plains of Con- 
necticut ; there, where a blue expanse lies beyond the triple range of hills, are the churches 
of religious Massachusetts, sending up their Sabbath psalms ; praise which he is too high tc 
hear, while God is not The fields and waters seem to him to-day no more truly property 
than the skies which shine down upon them ; and to think how some below are btuyii% 
their thoughts this Sabbath^iay about how they shall hedge in another field, or multiplj 
their flocks on yonder meadows, gives hinva taste of the same pity which Jesus felt in hit 
BoUtude when his followers were contending about which should be greatest. It scitaM 
str*'*Qw i'> hivn p^ V th#* man ■h'^*^ld c<*U ^^v i}»r\tr A*' ^ut the oowe ^»h*'*h i^ In bias^ *n^ 


wUch can create aomewhat more vast and beautiful than all that this horizon encloaef^ 
Here he gains the conviction, to be never again shaken, that all that is real is ideal ;. that 
the joys and sorrows of men do not spring up out of the ground, or fly abroad on the wingi 
of the wind, or come showered down from the sky ; that good cannot be hedged in, nor 
evil barred out ; even that light does not reach the spirit through the eye alone, nor wisidoa 
through the medium of sound or silence only. He becomes of one mind with the s|Mrituai 
Berkeley, that the face of nature itself, the very picture of woods, and streams, and mead* 
OWB, is a hieroglyphic writing in the spirit itself, of which the retina is no interpreter. The 
proof is just below him, (at least it came under my eye,) in the lady, (not American,) who» 
after glancing over the landscape, brings her chair into the piazza, and, turning her back lo 
the champaign, and her face to the wooden walls of the hotel, begins the study, this Sun. 
day morning, of her lapful of newspapers. What a sermon is thus preached to him at this 
moment from a very hackneyed text ! To him that hath much, that hath the eye, and ear, 
and wealth of the spirit, shall more be given, even a replenishing of this spiritual life firona 
that which to others is formless and dumb ; while from him that hath little, who truata in 
that which lies about him rather than in that which lives within him, shall be taken away, 
by natural decline, the power of perceiving and ei\joying what is within his own domain. 
To him who is already enriched with large divine and human revelations this scene is, for 
all its stillness, musical with divine and human speech ; while one who has been dMtfwiUMl 
by the din of worldly af&irs can hear nothing in this mountain solitude." 

The annexed anecdotes, extracted from the New York Commer- 
cial Advertiser, are from the well-known pen of the editor. 

** Passing through the little village of Jeflferson, we arrived at the still laiger and mora 

bustling one of Madison, 4 miles from CattskiU. The principal house at this plaoe, 

is an ancient stone edifice, and for a generation past occupied as a store and as a tavern. 
Its builder and late proprietor was the late M — g S — ^n, Eaq.^ an ancient and somewhat 
eccentric Dutch denizen, who stood six feet six in his shoes, weighed 15 stone, and was in 
a way somewhat of a wag withal. — The valley of the Kaatskill was chiefly settled by the 
Dutch ; and the house of mynheer was the principal place of resort for the Van Bokkelina, 
Van Ordens, and Van Der Speigles of the neighborhood to smoke their pipes, and crack 
their jokea of long winter evenings, before their peaceful country was overrun by the Yan» 
keea, who have swarmed over this once happy region hke the locusts of E^pt, equally 
hungry and destructive. It was the worthy host of huge dimensions whom we have de. 
aeribed, who was so grievously taken in, once on a time, in an encounter of wiU with on* 
of those keen^yed, cunning Yankees, who prowl over the country, seated on tin carta, 
with bags of feathers, or some other " notion*^ for their cushions. After some sporting and 
bantering between mynheer and Jonathan, who had shown off some common slight of hand 
tricks, with cards, to the great astonishment of the " moors'* who were looking on, he, that 
is, the said Jonathan, declared that he could swallow his robustuous host ! Notwithstanding 
that Jonathan had already played off several of his Yankee tricks which puzzled the aooa 
people exceedingly, yet this assertion was too great a mouthful for them to swallow, if the 
pedlcr could. A bet sufficient to moisten the throats of the whole company wss the conse- 
quence between the principal parties, though the landlord in proposing it had no idea that 
his customer would accept, when, as he supposed, he must be certain of losing. Jonathan 
then directed that mynheer should be divested of his coat and boots, and be stretched longi- 
tudinally upon the old oaken table which had stood in the bar-room for half a century. 
These arrangements having been made, Jonathan voraciously seized up<Mi the honest land, 
lord's great toe, which he pressed rather violently between his teeth, giving the good man a 
twinge which caused a writhing movement and a groan. * Dunder and blixem,' exclaimed 
Mynheer : * Vat de tend do ye pite me sho vor !' * Why you darned great fool,' said Jona- 
than, * you didn't think I was going to swallow you whole^ did you V A burst of laughter 
proclaimed Jonathan victor, and mynheer had to pay the toast and toddy. 

**.... Before reaching Cairo, an ancient and spacious stone house was pointed out 
to us bearing date of 1705, in large iron figures. This venerable mansion stands in the 
fnidst of an extensive farm of about 1,000 acres, well cultivated, and presenting a scene 
which, for a single farm, is hardly anywhere to be equalled for the rich, picturesque, and 
hoautiful. The cultivation denotes the hand oi industry rather than taste. The practised 
htjfticulturist had not been there ; but rank pastures, heavy waving fields, and luxuriant 
meadows, indicated rich returns to the husbandman. The small clumps of trees left here 
and there in the fields to afford fiiel in the winter, and lend a grateful shade in summer, 
diversified the scene and rendered it still more delightful. We linger longer at this spot 
than oar wonted manner is, in conaequenee of aa interesting tale connected with it, which 


is no fiction. During a part of the 17th and nearly the whole of the 18th century, it be. 
longed to a single owner ! When young he was a man of violent passions. A servant 
girl having once run away, he pursued and overtook her, and, in his exasperation, tied her 
to his horse's tail to lead her home. By a fright, or some other cause, the horse ran off, 
and the unfortunate girl was dashed to pieces against some rocks and stones. The unhappy 
master was arrested, tried, and cpnvicted of murder ! He was rich, of a powerful family for 
the times, and dirough the combined means of wealth and family influence, it being on all 
hands allowed to be a hard case, he was sentenced to be executed at ninety^nine years old. 
He lived on ; and generations passed away — and yet he lived ! Death seemed to have no 
arrow barbed for bim. At length the time approached. Ninety, ninety^ve, ninety.«ight 
years had rolled away since his birth. The ninety-ninth came on, and yet he lived ! But 
generations had risen up and gone down to the tomb since his offence. Nay, the tale had 
almost become a forgotten tradition, although many years before the keen eyes of super, 
stition had seen, and her tremulous tongue related, many tales of startling terror concerning 
the appearances at the fatal spot, pointed out to this day, where the poor girl had lost her 
lifie. The hopeless swain, who, in returning from visiting his rustic mistress, was so un. 
lucky as to have been detained in the lap of bliss to the solemn hour of midnight, was sure 
to encounter a nocturnal appearance of some sort. Sometimes sighs and lamentations were 
heard in the air, like the plaintiveness of the soft whistling wind. At others, a white cow, 
which was said to have been a favorite when the deceased was alive, would stand lowing 
among the rocks, while again at others, a shagged white dog would stand pointing and 
howhng towards the mansion. But they always vanished on approaching them, though 
perhaps it would be difficult to prove that the spectators approached very near. A white 
horse of gigantic size, with fiery eyeballs and distended nostrils, was often seen to run 
past the fatal spot, with the fleemess of wind, dragging a female behind, with tattered gar. 
ment and streaming hair, screaming for help. At other times the horee would appear to 
drag a hideous skeleton, clattering after him, half enveloped in a winding sheet, with cries 
and dismal bowlings ; while again a female figure would at times appear sitting upon a 
huge fragment of rock, with a lighted candle upon each finger, singing wildly, or uttering 
a piercing cry, or an hvsterical laugh. People, too, began to wonder that the murderer did 
not die, while many shook their heads and indicated that he could not, — that his soul was 
bound to earth till the time should come. But these things, too, passed away. And now 
the revolution had intervened, — a new government bore rule ; and the old man was not 
molested. For 75 years he had led a quiet and inoffensive life, and who would rudely 
break in upon his repose 7 He died tranquilly at more than a hundred years old. Peace 
be to his ashes ! Tradition has added to his sentence that he was to wear a cord contin. 
ually upon his neck; and a few years ago, there were those living, who pretended that 
they had seen a neat silken string worn in compliance to the sentence, but to appearance 
as an ornament." 

CoxsACKiE was originally settled by the Dutch ; it was a part of 
Albany county, and organized in 1788. Pop. 3,539. It derives its 
name from an Indian word, meaning " hooting of owls." Coxsackie vil- 
lage and landing, on the Hudson, lies 124 miles from New York, 20 
from Albany, and lU N. of Cattskill. The village is over a mile W. 
of the landing, and has about 100 dwellings. At the landing there is 
a jni%<; village, where there is a good deal of business transacted 
connected with the river. 

Durham was originally named Freehold, and taken from Coxsackie 
in 1790; from Cattskill, NW., 24, from Albany, SW., 30, and from 
New York 134 miles, Durham, South Durham, Com walls ville, Wi- 
nansville, and Oak Hill, are small settlements. Pop. 2,813. 

Greenville, taken from Coxsackie and Freehold, and organized in 
1803 by the name of Greenfield, afterward changed to Freehold, and 
finally to its present name ; from New York 130 miles, and from Al- 
bany, S., 25 miles. Freehold, 15 miles NW., Greenville 16, Newry 
18, Gayhead 13 miles from Cattskill, are small villages. Pop. 2,888. 

Hunter was taken from Windham in 1813, by the name of Green- 
land, and changed to its present one in 1814 ; from New York 180» 


and from Albany 58 miles. Pop. 2,019. Tannersville is a small 
villaee in the central part of the town, upon the main branch of 
Schoharie kill, 22 miles from Catskill. The surface of this town is 
mountainous, having on the north the main ridge of the Kaatsbergs. 
The Mountain House, on the Catskill mountains, so noted among 
tourists, is within the limits of this town. (See Catskill.) 

Lexington, taken *from Windham in 1813. Leiinffton Heights, 
30 miles W. from Catskill, and Lexington 34, are small settlements. 
E. Lexington and Westville are post-offices. Pop. 2,813. 

New Baltimore, organized in 181 1. Pop. 2,306. New Baltimore, 
upon the Hudson, 15 miles below Albany, and 19 N. of Catskill, has 
about 50 dwellings, and is a place of considerable trade. Four Cor- 
ners, 16 miles from Catskill, and Stanton Hill, are small settlements. 

Prattsvxlle, taken from Windham in 1833 ; from Albany, SW., 
50 miles, from Catskill, NW., 36. Pop. 1,613, The town lies be- 
tween two great ridges of the Kaatsbergs. Prattsville, on the Scho- 
harie kill, is a small villa£;e. 

Windham, taken from Woodstock in 1798 ; from Albany 39 miles, 
from Catskill centrally distant W. 26. Pop. 2,417. Windham, 
Osbomeville, and Scienceville, are small villages. Union Society 
and Big Hollow are post-offices. 


Hamilton county was provisionally erected, in 1816, from the N. 
end of Montgomery county, but not organized. It remained attached 
to Montgomery county until 1838 ; when, by the division of Mont- 
gomery, it became attached to Fulton county. It is not yet separately 
organized ; though probably from its flourishing condition it will soon 
become detached from Fulton. It is 62 miles long N, and S., and 
with an average breadth, E. and W., of 30 miles ; centrally distant 
from New York 250, and from Albany, westerly, 105 miles. This 
county contains 7 towns. Pop. 1,907. 

The following remarks respecting this county, which is yet a wil- 
derness and comparatively unknown, are extracted from the report 
of E. Emmons, Esq., one of the geologists employed by the state. 
** Contrary to the published accounts, and to common opinions, which 
are of course formed principally from those accounts, especially from 
Burr's and Gordon's statistics of this county, I have the pleasure of 
stating that it is far from being the wety cold, swampy^ and barren dis- 
trict which it has been represented to be. The soil is generally 
strong and productive ; the mountains are not so elevated and steep 
but that the soil is preserved of sufllicient thickness to their tops to 
secure their cultivation, and most of the marshy lands may be re- 
claimed by ditching ; by this means they will become more valuable 


than the uplands for producing hay. In fine, it will be found an ex- 
cellent country for grazing, raising stock, and producing butter and 
cheese. The strength of the soil is sufficiently tested by the heavy 
growth of timber, which is principally of hard wood, as beach, maple, 
yellow birch, butternut, and elm. The evergreens or pines, are con- 
nned mostly to the lower ranges of mountains. Some of them are 
of the largest growth of any in the state, and are suitable for the 
main shafts of the largest of the cotton mills. In the main, the county 
resembles the mountainous districts of New England, and like these 
produces the same intermixture of forest trees, and has about the 
same adaptations for the production of the different kinds of grain, as 
wheat, rye, oats, peas, barley, together with fine crops of potatoes. 

** The face of the country varies from hilly to mountainous. A 
low range of mountains cross the county between the town of Wells 
and Lake Pleasant ; the whole width is not far from six miles. 
This range, in its progress northeastwardly, increases in elevation 
until it constitutes the highest* mountain group in the state, in the 
towns of Moriah and^Keene, in Essex county. 

" The most interesting physical features in this county arise from 
the number and beauty of the lakes which are sprinkled liberally and 
picturesquely over its surface. Much has been said of the clearness 
of the waters of Lake George, and not without reason ; if, however, 
the traveller will extend his wanderings to Lake Pleasant, Round, 
Piseco, and Racket lakes, he will find them its equals, if not its rivals. 
The clearness of the waters in all these lakes is owing to the primi- 
tive character of the region in which they occur. The lakes of 
Hamilton form a beautiful addition to the scenery of our country. 
Although the mountains are not so high as those of Scotland, still it 
will be a matter which will occasion no surprise, (when Americans 
shall have acquired sufficient independence to admire a thin^ that is 
American,) if these lakes do not become objects of admiration, and 
shall be considered as vieing with those of Scotland. Settlements 
are now forming on the margin of those beautiful sheets of water, 
and were buildings erected suitable for the accommodation of travel- 
lers, in some central place among these mkes, (which we doubt not 
will be the case in a short time,) our pleasure-seeking community, of 
whatever cast, could spend a few days or weeks with as much zest 
as is afforded by any of the places of public resort which are so 
thronged during the heat of summer. As I have already intimated, 
the axe has been laid at the root of the tree, and ere long where 
nought now greets the eye but a dense, and to all appearance impa8< 
sable forest, will be seen the golden grain waving with the gentle 
breeze, the sleek cattle browsing on the rich pastures, and the wmer 
with well-stored granaries enjoying the domestic hearth.** While 
thousands are annually emigrating to the unsettled regions of the 
^ far west," it should be remembered that here is a tract which per- 
haps offers as strong inducements as the former, with the additional 
advantages of a near market, and of becoming ere long poasesMd of 
all the bT<»9siog8 of an old country. 


AwBTTA was erected in 1630, from Lake feasant It is about 55 
miles lon^, with an average breadth of 6}. Pop. 209. The site 
designated for the county seat is at Piseco, in this town, a flourish- 
ing village on the Piseco lake. 

GiLMAN was erected m 1839, from Wells. It is about 37 miles 
long, N. and S., and 5 broad, £. and W. Pop. 98. 

Hope, the SB. comer town, was taken from Wells in 1818. It is 
about 10 miles long, £. and W., and 7^ broad, N. and S. Hope, 
Hope Centre, and Henson, are post-oi&ces. Pop. 711. 

Lake Pleasant, taken from Johnstown in 1812 ; centrally distant 
from New York 255, from Albany 120, and from Johnstown 48 
miles. It is about 50 miles long, N. and S., and 7 broad, £. and W. 
Pop. 296. Lake Pleasant is a small village, about 16 miles N. of 
Fulton county line. 

Long Lake is £. and W. 28 miles long, by about 12 broad, and 
occupies the whole breadth of the northern portion of the county. It 
was erected in 1838, from Wells, Lake Pleasant, Arietta, and More- 
house. Pop. 59. 

MoEEHousE, the westernmost town of the county, was taken from 
Lake Pleasant in 1835. It is about 40 miles long, N. and S., by 
about 6i broad, £. and W. Pop. 169. Morehouseville is a small 
village, in the southern part 

Wells, the easternmost town of the county, is about 40 miles long, 
N. and S., with an average breadth, £. and W., of about 5 miles. 
Wells post-office is in the b. part Pop. 365. 


Hebkimee countt was originally constituted in 1791. Greatest 
len^h N. and S. 90, greatest breadth E. and W. 23 miles. Cen- 
trally distant from New York 260, from Albany 115 miles. This 
county has a broken and diversified aspect. South of the Mohawk, 
within this county, is the great dividing ridge separating the waters 
of the Mohawk n'om those of the Susquehannah. A high range of 
hills extend across the valley of the Mohawk at the Little Falls, and 
the whole county north of the Mohawk is of a mountainous charac* 
ter. Most of the county south of the Mohawk, and for many miles 
north of it, is under cultivation, which the greater portion of the hills 
will admit of to their summits. There is a variety of soil, but the 
greater part of the county is better adapted for grass than grain. 
The extensive alluvial valley of the Mohawk, and those of some of 
the smaller streams, are among the finest grain lands in the state. 
The northern part of the county is elevated, and covered with exten- 
sive forests of everffreens and marshes, and is of a cold and sterile 
soil. The Mohawk river runs across its whole width. The East 


and West Canada creeks, (laree branches of the Mohawk,) form the 
former part of the eastern, and the latter part of the western bounda- 
ry of the county. Black river of Lake CfntarJo, has its sources in the 
northern part, and also some of the branches of the Oswegatchie 
liver. Several small streams running into the Mohawk, and some of 
the sources of the Susquehannah, have their rise in the southern part. 
The Erie canal and Utica railroad cross the county in the Mohawk 
valley. The long level of the canal, 69i miles, extends from Syra- 
cuse, Onondaga county, to Frankfort, near the western boundary of 
this county. From thence across the county the canal has a descent 
of 97 feet by 12 locks ; 5 of which are at the Little F&Wa, at which 
place there is an aqueduct over the Mohawk, built of 3 arches, one 
of 700, two of 50 feet each. The lands of this county were originally 
granted in large tracts ; such were the " Royal Grant," to Sir Wil- 
ham Johnson, embracing the country between the East and West 
Canada creeks; the " Jerserfield patent," covering a larger portion 
of the northern part of the county, made in ITIO; the "German 
Fiats patent," granted in 1725, and others. The county haa 19 towns. 
Pop. 37,378. 

Columbia, taken from Warren in 1813 ; from Albany 75, from 
Herkimer S. 10 miles. Pop. 3,130. This town was settled previous 
to the revolution, by some Germans. Columbia and South Columbia 
are post-offices. 

Danube was taken from Minden in 1817 ; from Albany 76, from 
Herkimer SE. 10 miles. Pop. 1,907. Near the mouth of the Nowa- 
daga, a small stream in this town, formerly stood a Mohawk castle 
with a church and bell. 

Gerierai Herkimer ktmse, Danvbe. 

The above is an eastern view of the Gen. Herkimer house, in Dan- 
ube, now owned by Mr. Connor. This house is built of brick, and is 
upwards of 2 miles eastward of the village of Little Falls, just below 
the rocky pass of the Mohawk. It is situated but a few rods south 
from the Erie canal, fronting the beautiful interval of the Mohawk, 
at this place. This house was built by the general, whc^ after being 


wounded at the battle of Oriskany, was brought here, where he died. 
He was buried on a little knoll, a few rods in a southerly direction 
from his house, in the family burying ground, without a monument to 
tell where he lies. 

The battle of Oriskany was fought on the 6th of Aug., 1777; and 
Gen. Herkimer did not long survive his wound. The following ac- 
count of his last moments, and his character, is taken from CoL 
Stone's interesting account in his Life of Brant, vol. I. 

'* He was conveyed to his own house near the Mohawk river, a few miles below tke 
Little Falls ; where his leg, which had been shattered 5 or 6 inches below the knee, was 
amputated about 10 days after the battle, by a young French suigeon in the anny of Qen, 
Arnold, and contrary to the advice of the generars own medical adviser, the late Dr. Pe- 
trie. But the operation was unskilfully performed, and it was found impossible by his 
attendants to stanch the blood. Col. Willet called to see the general soon after the opera- 
tion. He was sitting up in his bed, with a pipe in his mouth, smoking, and talking in ex- 
cellent spirits. He died the night following that visit. His friend, Col. John RolT, was 
present at the amputation, and affirmed that he bore the operation with uncommon fortitude. 
He was likewise with him at the time of his death. The blood continuing to flow — there 
being no physician in immediate attendance — and being himself satisfied that the time of 
his deparmre was nigh, the veteran directed the Holy Bible to be brought to him. He then 
opened it and read, in the presence of those who surrounded his bed, with all the composure 
which it was possible for any man to exhibit, the 38th psalm — applying it to his own situa-^ 
uon. He soon after^'ard expired ; and it may well be questioned whether the annals of 
man furnish a more striking example of Christian heroism— cakn, deliberate, and firm in 
the hour of death — than is presented in this remarkable instance. Of the early history of 
Gen. Herkimer, but little is known. It has been already stated that his family was one of 
the first of the Germans who planted themselves in the Mohawk valley. And the massive 
stone mansion, yet standing at German Flatts, bespeaks its early opulence. He was an 
uneducated man — with, if potsibie, less skill in letters, even than Gen. Putnam, which is 
saying much. But he was, nevertheless, a man of strong and vigorous understandiitf — 
destitute of some of the essential requisites of generalship, but of the most cool and dauntless 
courage. These traits were all strikingly disclosed in the brief and bloody expedition to 
Oriskany. But he must have been well acquainted with that most important of all bookfr— 
The Bible. Nor could the most learned biblical scholar, lay or clerical, have selected a 
portion of the Sacred Scriptures more exactly appropriate to the situation of the dyinf sol- 
dier, than that to which he himself spontaneously turned. If Socrates died like a phdoso- 
pher, and Rousseau like an unbelieving sentimentalist. Gen. Herkimer died like a Chios. 
TiAN Hero^ Congress passed a resolution requesting the governor and council of New 
York to erect a monument, at the expense of the United States, to the memory of this 
brave man, of the value of five hundred dollars. 

" Sixty years have since rolled away, and the journal of Congress is the only monument, 
and the resolution itself the only inscription, which as yet testify the gratitude of the repub. 
lie to Ge^tebal Nicholas Herkimer." 

Fairfield, taken from Norway in 1796; from Albany 76, from 
Herkimer NE. 10 miles. Pop. 1,836. The village of Fairfield is 
centrally situated, and contains 1 Methodist, 1 Episcopal, and 1 Pres- 
byterian church, and about 50 dwellings. 

The college of physicians and surgeons of the western district is 
located in this village, and numbers 6 professors and 105 students; 
also, a flourishing academy, under the charge of the Rev. Henry 
Bannister, and numbering 150 pupils, including males and females. 
In the following view, the two buildings shown on the right are the 
medical colleges, the structure with a steeple is the academy chapel, 
and the building partially seen on the left is the one appropriated for 
the male department of the academy. These buildings are favorably 
located on a fine green. The building for the females is not shown 



Medical College, and Academy, at Fairfield. 

in this view. Middleville, on West Canada creek, on the west line 
of the town, and partly in Newport, has 1 church and about 50 

Frankfort was taken from German Flats in 1796; from Albany 
8S miles. Frankfort, a manufacturing village upon the canal 4 miles 
NW. of Herkimer, has about 00 dwellings. Frankfort Hill is a post- 
office. Pop. 3,096. 

German Flats was organized in 1788. Its surface is undulating, 
rising from the Mohawk river on the northcra boundary. The ex- 
tensive alluvial flats in this town, as well as those in Herkimer, were 
settled at an early period by German families, and have now been 
known as the German Flats for more than a century. The soil of 
the township is uncommonly good, particularly the flats on the Mo- 
hawk, which are proverbially fertile. Centrally distant from Herki- 
mer 5, and from Albany 75 miles. Pop. 3,245. 

Mohawk, a amail post village on the Mohawk river and Erie canal, 
is nearly 2 miles from Herkimer, the county seat ; contains an ancient 
stone church, the westernmost of the line of those structures built un- 
der the auspices of Sir William Johnson. A short distance E. of the 
church stood the large and massive-built mansion of the Herkimer 
family, whi<;h, like the church itself, was used as a fort. Hence it 
was called Fort Herkimer. " It was at this place," says Col. Stone, 
" that the first liberty pole in the valley was reared in the spring of 
1775." White, the sheriff of Tryon county at that time, came up 
the flats with a large body of militia firom Johnstown, and cut it down. 
When the Mohawk valley was ravaged in 1778 by the tories and 
Indiana, there were 34 dwellings on the south side of the Mohswk 
laid in ashes. 

Herkimer was organized in 1788. The surface of the township 
on the north is hilly ; on the south, along the banks of the Mohawk, 
which forms its southern boundary, are the German flats, so noted for 
their fertility. This place was nn early German settlement, " origin- 
ally called If umetsfield, from the circumstance that the patent had 
been granted by Gov. Bumct. This patent extended OTer the richeit 


and most beautiful section of the Mohawk valley, comprehending the 
broad alluvial lands directly beyond the junction of the West Canada 
creek and river, and including about 10 miles of the valley from £. 
to W." Pop. 2,369. 

Vietc of Herkimer, from the Erie canal. 

The above shows the appearance of the village as seen from an 
elevation rising from the south bank of the Mohawk and the Erie 
canal, about a mile distant. The village was incorporated in 1807— 
1625, and is built on a gravelly plain elevated some 10 or 15 feet 
above the surrounding flats, occupying the site of the ancient Fort 
Daj^on. The village consists of upwards of 100 dwellings, the 
countv buildings, 1 Dutch Reformed and 1 Methodist church, a print- 
ing oftice, &c. The principal street runs N. and S., and is about half 
a mile in extent ; the railroad passes through the village at its south- 
em extremity. 

The following account of the destruction of this place by the toriea 
and Indians in 1779, is from Stone's Life of Brant. 

te writing, ibe Betilement an the Bouih ride of ihe river 
d there were eboul an equal number upon the north nde, 
logeiher with bs tnany bsms and other outbuiJ dings, and several mills. The populadan, 
for the number of bouaea, waa numerous. The londs, rich by nature, and well ciillivsled, 
had that year biaugbl forth by handfuls ; so that the bams were amply alored with their 

" It WBH at the close of August, or early in the month of September, that this fine diilriet 
was laid waste by ihe Indians under the direciion of Brant. Moat providentially, however, 
the invasion was altended with the Iobb of but two Uvea — one man being killed outright, 
and another, named McGinnia, perished in the flomea. The particulars of this hosiile irrup- 
tion were these : — Entenaining some suspicions of Brant, who waa at Unadilla, a scout of 
four men had been deapalchcd into that vicinity for observation. Three of iheae men were 
killed Bl the Edmeston seillemeni. The fourth, John Helmer, succeeding in making hi* 
escape, and returned to the Flan at half an hour before BUnJown, just in time to announce 
that BranI, with a large body of Indians, was advancing, end would, in a few houre, be upon 
Ihera. All was, of course, terror and alarm through the seillemeni i and the inhahitants — 
men, women, and children — were gathered into foria Dayton and Herkimer for secuiity. 
la flying to those defences, they gathered up the moat valuable of iheir aaaSt, and b; until* 


of boats and canoes upon the river, succeeded, in the course of the evening, in collecting a 
large portion of their best articles of furniture. But they had no time to look after their 
docks and herds. 

" Early in the evening Brant arrived at the edge of the settlement, but as the night came 
on rxcessivply dark and rainy, he halted with his forces in a ravine, near the house of his 
tory friend Shoemaker, where the younger Butler and his party were captured the preceding 
year. Here the chieftain lay with his warriors until the storm broke away towards morning 
— ^unconscious that his approach had been notified to the people by the scout in seaion to 
enable them to escape the blow of hia uplifted arm. Before the dawn he was on foot, and 
his warriors were sweeping through the settlement ; so that the torch might be almost aim. 
ultaneously applied to every building it contained. Just as the day was breaking in the 
east, the fires were kindled, and the whole section of the valley was speedily illuminated by 
the flames of houses and bams, and all things else combustible. The spectacle, to the 
people in the forts, was one of melancholy grandeur. Every family saw the flames and 
smoke of its own domicil ascending to the skies, and every farmer the whole product of his 
labor for the season dissolving into ashes. 

" Having no fire-arms larger than their rifles, the Indians avoided even a demonstration 
against the forts, notwithstanding their chagrin that neither scalps nor prisoners were to grace 
their triumph. But as the light of day advanced, their warriors were seen singly, or in small 
groups, scouring the fields, and driving away all the horses, sheep, and black cattle that 
could be found. Notliing upon which they could lay their hands was left ; and the settle- 
ment, which, but the day before, for ten miles had smiled in plenty and in beauty, was now 
houseless and destitute. Happily, however, of human life there was no greater sacrifice 
than has already been mentioned. After the Indians had decamped with their booty, a 
force of between 900 and 400 collected, and went in pursuit — ^fdlowiog as £ir 
as Edmeston's plantation on the Unadilla river, where the bodies of the three scouts were 
fonnd and buried. But no other results attended this expedition.'* 

Litchfield was taken from German Flats in 1796; from Albany 
88, centrally distant from Herkimer and Utica 1 1 miles. Cedarville, 
partly in the towns of Winfield and Columbia, has about 40 dwellings. 
Litchfield is a post-office. Pop. 1,672. 

Little Falls was taken from Herkimer, Fairfield, and German 
Flats, in 1820. It has a hilly and broken surface, lying on both sides 
of the Mohawk. Pop. 3,881. The first settlement in the town ap- 
pears to have been made at the falls of the Mohawk, by or under the 
direction of Alexander Ellis. This gentleman was a Scotch mer- 
chant, who, under the favor of Sir William Johnson, had obtained a 
patent of the wild mountain gorge, through which the Mohawk leaps 
from the upper into the lower section of the valley. 

The engraving shows a southern view of part of the village as 
seen from a point about 20 rods below the aqueduct over the Mo- 
hawk. The village consists of upwards of 300 dwellings, 6 churches — 
viz, 1 Presbyterian, 1 Baptist, 1 Episcopal, 1 Methodist, and 1 Cath- 
oUc — a bank, an academy, 2 newspaper printing offices, and various 
manufacturing establishments. The village is supplied with water 
brought from a spring in the granite mountain, 300 feet above the 
tops of the houses. The singular building with a spire, seen in the 
engraving on the left, on elevated ground, is the oldest church in the 
village, formerly used by the Scotch Presbyterians, but now occupied 
by the Catholics. 

** This spot is remarkable for the passage of the Mohawk river 
through the mountain barrier ; for its wild and picturesque scenery ; 
and for the difficulties which have been overcome in constructing the 
Erie canal through the pass. It receives the name of the Little Falls, 
in contradistinction to the Great Falls at Cahoes. The falls extend 

iqMtt Uw river about three fburtha of a mile, descending id that dli> 
taupe 43 'feet, and consist of two long rapids, separated 07 a stretf^ ' 
of de>ep water, occupymg each about the fonrth of a znile. The up- 
per' rapids are most considerable. Above them, a dam across the 
stream renders it placid, over which the waters, separated by a ima]! 
iataod, form beautiful low cascades, falling into a deep pool beneatji, 
vfiemee' the current rushes, murmuriag and foaming, over ridges and- 
smorphoua masses of granite and j^eiss rock, flowing with compar- 
ative gentleness beneath the overarching bridge and aqueduct, and 
• theQce hurrying, with new impetuosity, over the stony bed below. 

'This waterfall would be beautiful anywhere; but it acquiies. 
grandeur here, from the high hills which confine it, and which the 
slightest observation teaches us have been cut down by its ever eo- 
during and irresistible force. The defile is two miles long, wjtb a 
mediu breadth of one hundred rods. On either bank, the hill, on 
which deciduous and evergreen trees are pleasingly intermingled, 
rises from 360 to 400 feet, and the (all, over which may have once 
poured the waters of Lake Ontario, may have had a very little infe- 
rior altitude. A mound, raised here to the height of 70 feet, wo,uld 
now cause the waters to overflow the Rome summit, and send them 
again by Wood creek and the Oneida lake to Ontario. 

* That the hill has been so abraded is incontestibly demonstrated by 
the many cavities, basins, and channels, worn ui the rock, at the bot- 
tom and sides of the dehle, visible throughout its extent, and at an 
elevalioo of 60 feet. Below the Gulf Bridge, on the north side of the 
road, is an insulated rock, having a remarkable water-worn cavity or 
fiionel ; its top is between 30 and 40 feet above the low-water mark 
of the river, and the rock in which it is formed is 16 feet high. The 
funnel, 2} feet diameter, descends perpend icul^Iy fromt he top be- 
low the exposed part of the base. Near the base it is broken to 
that the ukj may oe seen as through a chimney. This fimnel hw 


doubtless been worn by the violent action of water upon loose stones 
within its cavity. Similar indications of like action are common here, 
and some have lately been disclosed by removal of the soil from other 
portions of rock. 

" At the foot of the falls the river expands into a basin more than 
a hundred feet deep, into which the high cataract once poured its 
floods, and from whose depths rocky spires rise above the surface. 

'* A canal, with 5 locks, was constructed here by the Western Inland 
Navigation Company, in 1802, which now gives a valuable hydraulic 
power, and serves as a feeder for the Erie canal, with which it is 
connected by a noble aqueduct of marble, 214 feet long, 16 feet wide, 
confined by walls 14 feet high and 4 feet broad, sustained by three 
arches, the central one of 70, and the outer ones each of 50 feet span. 
The western parapet, guarded with an iron balustrade, forms an 
agreeable promenade, from which a great portion of this varied 
scenery is visible. This beautiful structure is best seen from a fine 
stone bridge immediately above it. 

** This defile presented an obstacle to the Erie canal, inferior to none 
save the deep excavation at Lockport. Here, two miles of deep rock 
cutting were necessary ; years were supposed requisite to accomplish 
the work ; but the perseverance and skill of the contractors effected 
the most difficult portion in less than 90 days. 

" The canal descends the pass by 5 locks, 40 feet in the distance of 
one mile, and the time of the passage permits the traveller in boats 
to view, leisurely, the natural scenery and artificial improvements. 

" This place has much attraction for the student of natural science. 
The geologist will find the various formations curiously blended in its 
vicinity. The rocks, immediately at the falls, are granite, gneiss, and 
hornblende, with calciferous sand rock overlaid oy transition lime- 
stone. Beautiful quartz crystals of unusual size, purity, and lustre, 
and fine specimens of tourmaline, may be obtained." — GordorCs Gax. 

In 1780, a party of tories and Indians made a descent upon the small settlement at 
Little Falls, for the purpose of destroying the mills, which were of much importance to the 
inhabitants in this section. This was easily accomplished-^—^* the enemy having stolen 
upon the settlement unawares, and the flouring mill being garrisoned by not more than a 
dozen men. Only a few. shots were exchanged, and but one man was killed — Daniel Pe. 
trie. As the Indians entered the mill, the occupants endeavored to escape as fast as they 
could — some leaping from the windows, and others endeavoring to conceal themselves be. 
low. It was night, and two of the number, Cox and Skinner, succeeded in ensconcing 
themselves in the race-way, beneath the water-wheel — Skinner having previously made 
fight hand to hand, and been wounded by a cut from a tomahawk. Two of their com- 
panions, Christian Edick and Frederick Getman, leaped into the raceway above the mill, 
and endeavored to conceal themselves by keeping as much under water as possible. Bat 
the application of the torch to the mills soon revealed the aquatic retreat, and they were 
taken. Not so with Cox and Skinner, who survived the storm of battle, and the mingled 
elements of fire and water ; the showers of coals and burning brands being at once extin- 
guished as they fell around them, while the water-wheel served as an effectual protection 
against the fulling timbers. The enemy retired After accomplishing their object, caitying 
away five of six prisoners." — Life of Brant. 

Manheim, taken from Palatine in 1797; from Albany 69 miles. 
Manheim, on the Utica turnpike and railroad, 14 miles east from Her- 
kimer, is a small village. Manheim Centre is a post-offioe. This 


town was settled by Germans in 1770. During the revolution the 
inhabitants were driven from their possessions, rop. 2,095. 

Nbwpoet, taken from Norway, Fairfield, and Schuyler in 1806; 
firom Albany 95, from Herkimer N. centrally distant 13 miles. Pop. 
2,020. Newport village has about 100 dwellings. Middleport is a 
small village, partly in the town of Fairfield. 

Norway, taken from Herkimer in 1792 ; from Albany 90, from 
Herkimer N. centrally distant 18 miles. Pop. 1,046. Norway is 
a small village. 

Ohio, erected from West Brunswick ; from Herkimer centrally dis- 
tant N. 22 miles. Pop. 692. West Brunswick is the post-office. 

Russia, originally named Union, and taken from Norway in 1806; 
from Albany 94, centrally distant NN W. from Herkimer 20 miles. 
Pop. 2,196. Russia and Poland are small villages ; Cold Brook and 
Portville, post-offices. 

Salisbury, taken from Palatine in 1817 ; from Albany 76 miles. 
It has a mountainous surface, with broad valleys on the northeast 
Salisbury 14 NE., Salisbury Centre 17 miles, and Winton, are small 
villages. Pop. 1,859. 

ScBUYLER, taken from Herkimer in 1792; from Albany 86, cen- 
trally distant from Herkimer 8, and from Utica 6 miles. East Schuy- 
ler and West Schuyler are post-offices. Pop. 1,798. 

Stark, taken from Danube in 1828 ; from Albany centrally distant 
29, fix)m Herkimer SE. 16 miles. Pop, 1,766. Vanhornsville is a 
small village, and Starkville a post-office. " The Otsquake creek in 
this town. Bowing 9 miles to the Mohawk river, is remarkable for the 
number and extent of the calcareous incrustations and petrifactions 
along its banks and tributaries near its source. A fine example is pre- 
sented of the former about half a mile above the first mill, where a tu- 
faceous rock stretches across the dell from 60 to 70 yards, with a 
breadth of 16, and a height of 2 yards, enclosing masses of petrified 
wood. The most perfect petrification, in a ravine of a small stream de- 
scending to the creek, is the trunk of a hemlock tree, 2 feet in diameter, 
in whicn the concentric circles and color of the wood are admirably 
preserved. This curious laboratory of stone is still in action." — Chr" 
don^s Gazeteer, 

Warren, taken from German Flats in 1796 ; from Albany 68, from 
Herkimer centrally distant S. 10 miles. Subterranean streams burst 
forth here in large volumes sufficient for hydraulic purposes. Pages 
Corners and Crains Corners are post-offices, and Little Lakes a small 
village. Pop. 2,003. 

WiNPiELD, taken from Richfield and Plainfield of Otsego county, 
and Litchfield of Herkimer county, in 1816; from Albany 75, from 
Herkimer SW. 15 miles. Winfield and West Winfield are small 
villages. Pop. 1,652. 

WiLMURT comprises the whole northern and unsettled section of 
the county : in length about 50, and in breadth about 16 miles. Pop. 60. 



Jeffesbon county, taken from Oneida in 1805, is ^tuated at the 
E. end of Lake Ontario, and on the St. Lawrence river, comprising 
Chaumont bay, and most of the islets called the " Thouaand Isles," 
and is a territory having as many natural advantages as any portion 
of the interior of the slate. It is centrally distant NW, from New 
York 305, and from Albany 160 miles. Length N. and S. 48 miles; 
greatest breadth E, and W. 36. This county in its surface is either 
quite level or agreeably diversified, waving in gentle undulations. 
Generally, the soil is of a sandy loam of a superior quality, with some 
gravel and clay, and yields abundant crops. The natural growth oi 
timber is luxuriant. Originally it was covered with trees of an enor- 
mous height. The many and very rapid streams of this county furnish 
an abundance of hydraulic power. The cattle sent to market from this 
county exceed 4,000 head per annum. It? horses are equal to any 
in the state, and their sule is a source of much revenue. The raising 
of sheep is a growing business. The roads in the county are numer- 
ous ana good ; among which may be noticed a turnpike from Brown- 
ville to Cape Vincent, 21 miles, the St. Lawrence and Ocdensburg 
turnpikes, and the great military road between Sacketts Harbor ana 
Plattsburg. on Lnkc Champlain. About one half of the exports de- 
scend to Montreal. It is divided into 19 towns. Pop. 61,028. 

Southern view of Adams, Jefferson County. 

Adams, taken from Mexico, tst April, 1802 ; NW. from AlbutT 149 
miles. It was originally the property of Mr. Nicholas Low, of Hew 
York, and was srttliHi in 1801, by New England emigrants. Among 
the early settlers were David Smith, Elihu Morton, a Mr. Brown, 
and the Salisbury family. Here have been found many of thow aa- 


cient works so common in the western country. Keces of coarse 
earthenware and pipes have frequently been met with, and old stone 
hearths, many feet under ground. There have also been discovered 
seven of the tumular remains, of moderate height, with the ditch en- 
circling them, the area from a half to two acres each. Adams vil- 
lage, 14 miles south of Watertown, has 1 Presbyterian and 1 Meth- 
odist church, a select school, a seminary for young ladies, and 120 

The preceding view of the central part of the village was taken a few 
rods south of the bridge, in the principal street. The academy stee- 
ple and the Presbyterian church are seen on the right, and the bridge 
m the centre of the engraving. Adams Centre contains a church 
belonging to the society of the Seven-day Baptists. Appling and 
Smith ville are post villages. Pop. of the town, 2,941. 

Alexandria, settled by New Englanders in 1817; taken from 
Brown ville and Le Ray in 1821, including the islands in the St. Law- 
rence river fronting the town. Pop. 8,472. The river, from two to 
five miles in width, is 'Speckled by the " Thousand Isles." Indian 
river flows across the east part of the town, having falls of 80 feet 
near Theresa. There are nere many useful mill-streams, and 12 
small lakes well stocked with fish. Alexandria village, on the St. Law- 
rence, 30 miles above Ogdensburg, has about 30 dwellings. Theresa, 
25 miles from Ogdensburg, has about 25 dwellings. Plessis, MiUta- 
ry Road, and Redwood, are post-offices. 

Antwerp, taken from Lc Ray in 1810. Antwerp, upon Indian 
river, 164 miles from Albany, and 20 NE. of Watertown, has about 
40 or 50 dwellings. Oxbow, on the Oxbow of the Oswegatchie river, 
25 miles NE. from Watertown, has about 30 dwellings. One mile 
west of the village is a rock called ** pulpit rock," in the form of a 
pulpit, where public worship has occasionally been performed. Pop. 

Brown VILLE, taken from Leyden in 1802 ; surface level ; soil mar- 
ley loam on limestone, of excellent quality, anjji highly improved, and 
producing much wheat. The town has its name from Mr. John 
Brown, an early settler, and father of the late Gen. Brown. Brown- 
ville, on the right bank of the Black river, 3 miles from its mouth, 
and at the head of navigation, 4 miles below Watertown, is a large 
manufacturing village, containing about 100 dwellings, and 1 Presby- 
terian, 1 Episcopal, and 1 Methodist church. The fall of the river 
here is 24 feet. Dexter is a small but flourishing village, at the head 
of navigation, on Black river, a few miles below Brownville. Li- 
merick and Perch River are post-oflUces. Pop. 3,972. 

Champion, settled principally by emigrants from Connecticut; taken 
from Mexico in 1800 ; from Albany 148 miles, from Watertown E. 
centrally distant 12 miles, and drained by the Black river. Cham- 
pion and Great Bend are small post villages. Pop. 2,206. 

Clayton, taken from Orleans and Lyme in 1832; from Albany 
180 miles, from Watertown centrally distant N. 14 miles. Depau* 
ville and French Creek are small villages. Pop. 4,042. 



Ellisburg, settled in 1793, by Mr. Lyman Ellis, and taken from 
Mexico in 1803; from Watertown centrally distant SW. 17, from 
Albany 169 miles. Pop. 5,356. Bellville, Woodville, Ellisburg, and 
Mannsville, are small post villages. There are in the north part of 
the town some remains of ancient fortifications, consisting of seven 
mounds, surrounded by ditches, varying from a half to two acres in 
area. Stone instruments, as axes, wedges, knives, &c., are ploughed 
up from time to time in the adjacent fields. 

Henderson, taken from Ellisburg in 1806 ; from Albany 173 miles. 
Pop. 2,478. Henderson is a post village and port, at the head of 
Hungry bay, where vessels of 100 tons may find safe harborage. 
At the dock there are about 15 or 20 dwellings. At the village, on 
Stony creek, three quarters of a mib from the dock, there are about 
70 dwellings. Smitliville, 12 miles SW. from Watertown, and 5 
from Sacketts Harbor, has about 65 dwellings. 

The following account of an action which took place in this town 
during the late war with Great Britain, is from a newspaper published 
at that time, entitled " The War." 

" On the 30ih ult., (May, 1814,) a number of boats coming from Oswego, with cannon 
d rigging for the new vessels, put into Sandy Creek, about 16 miles from the harbor, — 
being well manned with sailors, riflemen, and Indians, under the command of Capt. Wool. 
8cy of the navy ; who, on entering the creek, despatched an express for reinforcements, 
which were immediately ordered on, but they did not arrive until the business was over. 
The captain apprehending an attack, placed the riflemen and Indians in the woods on each 
aide of the creek, and sent a few raw militia, with the show of opposing the enemy's land- 
ing. The plan succeeded. The militia retreated on the first fire, pursued by the enemy ; 
but as soon as they had paB.^ed the Indians and riflemen, who were in ambush, these last 
attacked them in the rear, while a battery of four field.picces opened upon them in fivnt. 
Thus cut oflT in their retreat, after a smart action of 20 minutes, in which they had 20 killed 
and 40 or 50 wounded, the whole force of the enemy, 137 in number, surrendered with 
their gun-boats, five in number. — One of these boats carried a 681b. carronade ; one, a long 
32 ; one, a long 24 ; one, two long 12s. ; and one, two brass pieces ; one of which they 
threw overboard. Not a man escaped. There were among the enemy's killed, one Lieut 
of marines, and one midshipman. Among the prisoners arc two Poet Captains, one the 
commander of the Wolf, 4 Ueutcnants, and 4 midshipmen. The British force consisted of 
sailors and marines. Our loss, is one Indian killed and three wounded. The prisoners 
were conducted to Sacketts Harbor by the militia. — Another gun.boai from the Bnrish 
fleet, with 36 men, went up the creek, where they were attacked and captured after a few 

HouNSFiELD, taken from Watertown in 1806; drained west by 
Black river and some small creeks. Thi^ town was settled ha .1801, 
by Augustus Sackctt, agent for the owners. Pop. 4,143. 

Sacketts Harbor, incorporated in 1821, on the SW. side of Black 
river bay, on Lake Ontario. The settlement of this town waa com- 
menced in 1802, by Augustus Sackett, Esq., a^ent for the owners, 
who came from New York and settled at the harbor which derives 
its name from him. The first house built here, erected by Judge 
Sackett, is now standing in Baird-street, and is occupied by Mrs* 
McGwinn. The progress of the settlement was slow until 1812. 
After the declaration of war this spot became an important mili- 
tary and naval position. The harbor is the best on the lake for 
shipbuilding and as a naval depot. The following view was taken 
(rom the military hospital. The small building on the point of the 

nrrsMBoH codmtt. 

Northern vieu of SacketU Harbor, N. Y. 

harbor, on the right of the engraving, is the old blockhouse which 
stands near, or on the site of old Fort Tompkins. The large build- 
ing on a rock V island a few rods from the shore, is a ship^honse, 
which covers the frame of the " New Orleans," a 110 gun ship c(mi- 
menced during the fate war. The steeple on the left is that of the ' 
ftesbyterian cnurch. There is also an Episcopal and a Methodist 
church in the place, and about 1,800 inhabitants. A considerable 
trade is carried on here by the lake and St. Lawrence river, and by 
the Oswego, Erie, and Welland canals. After the late war, business 
very much decreased, but it has since grown with the general ira- 
provemeut of the country. 

The troops destined fur the attack upon York, (U. C.) embarked 
from this place. The following account of the expedition is from 
Thompson's History of the late war: 

" On ihB 2M tnd a3d of April, 1813, agreeably lo previous srnngtment wilh Comma. 
dor* Cbsuncejr, who had ihe loniniahd of ihe fleel on Lako Onmrio, Gtneral Dearborn 
uid his iuiie, wiih ■ force of auveiiicen hundrpd men, embarked on ihis eipediiion, but Iha 
ptenlrnce of « videni ■lorm prevented ihc sailing of ihe iquadron, until Ihe SSlh. On 
that dar it movBd iuto Lake OnUuio, and having a favorable wiud, arrived uJely al 7 
o'clock, on ibe morning uf Lhe HTih, about one mile lo the westward of the niira of Fort 
Torooio, and two and a half from the town of York. The eieculion of that part of (be 
f^ which applied immediately lo the attack upon York, waa confided lo Colonel Rio, of 
lbs ISih regiment, who bad ibeii been promoted to the rank of a btigadiBr-gencral, and iha 
poaiiion which bad been fixed upon for landing the Uuope, waa the site of the old fort. 
The approach of the fleet being discovered from the enemy's garrison, General Shea^, Iha 
Briliah eommandant, hastily collected his whole force, consisting of upwards of aevan 
buiulr«d and fifty regulars and militia, and one hundred Indians, and dispoard ibem in ths 
bM nunoer lo resist the landing of the American force. A body of British grenadian 
ware paraded on the shore, and Ihe Glengary fcncibles, a corps which had been disciplined 
with DQcMnman psina since Iha commencemeni of the war, wen iiitioned at anolhar 
poiDl. Bodica of Indians were observed in groups in'diflerenl diraciions, in and about the 
woods below tbe site of the fort, and numbers of hone men' "were stationed in the clear 
fTOond BUiTOunding il. These were seen moving inlo ihe lawn, where strong field woHu 
EmI been thrown up to oppose the assailsnia. The Indians were taking post ai staliona, 
wbieb were pointed oui lo them by the British oflicen wilh great skill, from which cber 
ceuU annoy the Americans at the point where Ihe water and the weather would compel 
ibam 10 land. Thus posted, they were lo aet as ttrraiUtaT: The regulars were disco* 
and to he moving out uf their works in open celumiis of platoons, and niarching along lh« 
bank in Ibai ardar into tbe woods. 


" At 8 o'clock the debarkadon commenced ; at ten it was completed. Major Foreythe 
and his riflemen in several large batteauz, were in the advance. They pulled vigorously 
for the designated ground at the site, but were forced by a strong easterly wind a conf-id. 
erable distance above. The enemy being within a few feet of the water, and completely 
masked by the tlnickness of a copse, commenced a galling fire of musketry and rifle. To 
have fallen further from the clear ground at which he was first ordered to land, would have 
subjected, not only bis own corps, but the whole body of the troops, to great disadvantages ; 
and by landing at a greater distance from the town, the object of the expedition might be 
frustrated. Major Forsythe therefore determined upon making that part of the shore on 
which tlie enemy's principol strength was stationed, and desired his men to rest a moment 
on their oars, until his riflemen should return the shot. General Pike was at this moment 
hastening the debarkation of Uie infantry, when, as he was standing on the ship's deck, he 
observed the pause of the boats in advance, and springing into that which had been re»er\'ed 
for himself and'his staff, he called to them to iump into the boat with him, ordered Major 
• King of the 15ih (the same who had distinguished himself in carr>'ing the enemy's batteries 
opposite Black Rock,) to follow him instantly with three companies of that regiment, and 
pushed for the Canadian shore. Before he reached it, Forsyihe had landed and was already 
engaged with the principal pan of the British and Iiviian force, under the immediate com- 
mand of General Shraffe. He contended with them \icarly half an hour. The infantry 
under Major King, the light artillery under Major Eustis, the volunteer corps commanded 
by Colonel M'Clure, and about thirty men, who had been selected from the 15th at Platts- 
burg, trained to the rifle, and designed to act as a small corps of observation, under Lieu- 
tenant Riddle, then landed in rapid succession, and formed m platoons. Genera] Pike took 
command of the firat, and ordering the whole body to prepare for a charge, led them on to 
the summit of the bank, from which the British grenadiers were pouring down a volley of 
musketry and rifle shot. The advance of the American infantry was not to be withstood, 
and the grenadiers yielded their position and retired in disorder. The signal of \ictory was 
at the same instant heard from Forsythe's bugles, and the sound had no sooner penetrated 
the fcars of the Indians, than they gave a customary yell and fled in every direction. The 
Glengary corps then skirmished with Forsythe's, whilst a fresh body of Grenadiers, sup- 
posed to have been the 8th or King's regiment, made a formidable chaige upon the Amer- 
ican column, and partially compeUed it to retire. But the officers instantly rallied the 
troops, who returned to the ground, and impetuously charged upon, and routed the grena. 
diers. A reinforcement of tlie remainder of the 15ih then arriveid, with Captain StecPs 
platoon and the standards of the regiment, and the Americans remained undisputed mas. 
lers of the ground. A fresh front, however, was presented by the British at a distance, 
which gave way and retired to the garrison, as soon as the American troops were again 
formed by Major King, for the charge. The whole body of the troops being now landed, 
orders were given by General Pike to form in platoons, and to march in that order to the 
enemy's works. The first line was composed of Forsythe's riflemen, with firont and flank 
guards ; the regiments of the first brigade, with their pieces •, and three platoons of reserve, 
under the orders of Major Swan ; Major Eustis and his tram of artillery were formed in 
the rear of this reserve, to act where circumstances might require. The second line was 
composed of the Slst regiment, in six platoons, flanked by Col. M'Clure's volunteers, di- 
vided equally as light troops, and all under command of Colonel Ripley. Thus fonned, an 
injunction was given to each officer, to suffer no man to load ; when wifhin a short distance 
of the enemy, an entire reliance would be placed upon the bayonet ; and the column laoved 
on, with as much velocity as the streams and ravines which intersected the road along the 
lake would permit. One field-piece, and a howitzer, were with diflficulty passed over ane 
of these, the bridges of which had been destroyed, and placed at the head of the colimm, 
in charge of Lieutenant Fanning, of the 3d artillery. As the column emeiged from tha 
woods, and came immediately in front of the enemy's first battery, two or three 24 pound. 
ers were opened upon it, but without any kind of effect. The column moved on, uid the 
enemy retreated to his second battery. The guns of the first were immediately taken, and 
Lieutenant Riddle, having at this moment come up with his corps to deliver the priaonera 
which he hud made in the woods, was ordered to proceed to take possession of the second 
battery, about one hundred yards ahead, the guns of which. Lieutenant Fraser, aid^e-camp 
to the general, reported to have been spiked by the enemy, whom he discovered retreating 
to the garrison. General Pike then led the column up to the second battery, when he 
halted to receive the captured ammunition, and to learn the strength of the garrison. But 
as every appearance indicated the evacuation of the barracks, he suspected the enemy of 
an intention to draw him within range of the shot, and then suddenly to show himself in 
great force. Lieutenant Riddle was sent forward with his corps of observation, to discover 
if there were any, and what number of troops, within the garrison. The bantckt mam 


three hundred yards distant from the second battery, and whilst this corps was engaged in 
reconnoitering, General Pike, after removing a wounded prisoner from a dangerous sitoa- 
ation, had seated himself upon a stump, and commenced an examination of a British ser. 
geant, who had been taken in the woods. Riddle having discovered that the enemy had 
abandoned the garrison, was about to return with this information, when the magazine, 
which was situated outside the barrack yard, blew up, with a tremendous and awful explo- 
sion, passed over Riddle and his party, without injuring one of his men, and killed and 
wounded General Pike, and two hundred and sixty of the column. The severity of Gen. 
eral Pike's wounds disabled him from further scT\icc, and the command of the troops de. 
▼olved upon Colonel Pearce of the IGth regiment, who sent a demand to the town of Ywk 
for an immediate surrender. The plan of the contemplated operations was known only to 
General Pike, and, as General Dearborn hud not yet landed, the future movements of the 
troops would depend upon the will of their new commander. He ordered them immedi. 
ately to form the column, and to march forward and occupy the barracks, which Migor 
Forsythe, who had been scouring the adjoining wood, had already entered. Meanwhile 
the British regulars were retreating across the Don, and destroying the bridges in their rear. 
After the explosion, which killed about fifty of the enemy who had not retired in time fipom 
the garrison. Lieutenant Riddle with his party, then reinforced by thirty regulars under 
Lieutenant Horrei of the 16th, pursued the enemy's route, and annoyed his retreating guard 
from the wood. This was the only pursuit which was made. Had a more vigorous purii 
followed the abandonment of the enemy's garrison, his whole regular force must have been 
captured, and the accession of military stores would have been extensively great. The 
majority of the officers were well aware of this, and as it was known that the stores were 
deposited at York, they urged the necessity of the immediate approach of the whole column, 
to prevent their removal. Colonel Pearce then marched towards the town, which was die. 
tent three^uarters of a mile. About half way between York and the garrison, the column 
was intercepted by several officers of the Canadian mihtia, who had come out with terms of 
capitulation. Whilst these were discussing, the enemy was engaged in destroying the mil- 
itary storehouse, and a large vessel of war then on the stocks, which in three days might 
have been laimched, and added to the American squadron on Ontario. Forsythe, who Wee 
on the left in advance, being aware of this, despatched Lieutenant Riddle to infonn CoU 
onel Pearce. Colonel Ripley was at the same time urging a rapid march, and the troope 
again proceeded. Colonel Pearce enjoined the observance of General Pike's orders, tfaiu 
the property of the inhabitants of York should be held sacred, and that any soldier who 
should so far neglect the honor of his profession, as to be guilty of plundering, should, oo 
conviction, be punished with death. At 4 o'clock in the afternoon, the Americans were in 
poaseesion of the town, and terms of capitulation were agreed upon, by which, notwith- 
standing the severe loss which the army and the nadon had sustained by the death of the 
general ; the unwarrantable manner in which that loss was occasioned ; and the subtlety 
with which the militia colonels offered to capitulate at a distance from the town, so that the 
column might be detained until General Sheaffe should escape, and the destruction of the 
pabUc property be completed, although one of its articles stipulated for its delivery into the 
hands of the Americans ; the militia and inhabitants were freed from all hardship, and not 
only their persons and property, but their legislative hall and other public buildings were 
protected. The terms of the capitulation were, * that the troops, regular and militia, and 
the naval officers and seamen, should be surrendered prisoners of war. That all puUie 
^oreSf naval and military^ should he iimnediately given up to the commanding officers of 
the army and navy of the United States, and that all private property should be guaranteed 
to the citizens of the town of York. That all papers belonging to the civil officers should 
be retained by them, and that such surgeons as might be procured to attend the wounded 
of the British regulars and Canadian militia, should not be considered prisoners of war.* 
Under this capitulation, one lieutenanUcolonel, one major, thirteen captains, nine lieuten- 
ants, eleven ensigns, one deputy adiutanUgeneral, and four naval officers, and two hundred 
and non-commissioned officers and privates, were surrendered. The American 
iB&ntzy were then ordered to return to, and quarter in the barracks, while the riflemen 
were stationed in the town. 

" When General Pike's wound was discovered to be mortal, he was 
removed from the field, and carried to the shipping with his wounded 
aids. As they conveyed him to the water's edge, a sudden exclama- 
tion was beard from the troops, which informed him of the American 
having supplanted the British standard in the garrison. He expressed 
his satisfaction by a feeble sigh, and after being transferred irom the 


Pert schooner to the commodore's ship, he made a sign for the British 
flag, which had then been brought to him, to be placed under his 
head, and expired without a groan. Thus perished in the arms of 
victory, by the ungenerous stratagem of a vanquished foe, a soldier 
of tried valor and invincible courage, — a general of illustrious virtues 
and distinguished talents. 

" When the British general saw the American column advancing 
from the woods, he hastily drew up the articles of capitulation, and 
directed them to be delivered to a colonel of the York militia. This 
colonel was instructed to negotiate the terms, after the regulars 
should have retreated. General Sheaffe, therefore, considered the 
garrison to be as much surrendered, as if the articles had been act- 
ually agreed upon and signed. Yet he treacherously ordered a train 
to be laid, which was so calculated, that the explosion of the maga- 
zine should be caused at the time when the Americans would arrive 
at the barracks. Had not General Pike halted the troops at the en- 
emy's second battery, the British plan would have attained its con- 
summation, and the destruction of the whole colunm would have been 
the natural consequence. The train had been skilfully laid, and the 
combustibles arranged in a manner to produce the most dreadful 
effect. Five hundred barrels of powder, several cart loads of stone, 
and an immense quantity of iron, shells, and shot, were contained in 
the magazine. The calamity which followed the explosion, caused 
no discomfiture among the troops. A number of their officers of 
high rank, and of equal worth, were either killed or wounded, and 
they became actuated by a desire to revenge their fall. * Push on, 
my brave fellows^ and avenge your general^ were the last words of 
their expiring commander. They instantly gave three cheers, formed 
the column, and marched on rapidly. Had they been led directly to 
York, the issue of the expedition would have been fruitful with ad- 
vantages. As it was, however, the enemy's means were crippled, his 
resources cut off, and the military stores of the captors extensively 
multiplied. Most of the guns, munitions of war, and provisions, ne- 
cessary to carry on the campaign by the enemy, had oeen deposited 
at York, and notwithstanding tne firing of the principal storehouse, 
an immense quantity fell int6 the hands of the Americans. The 
baggage and private papers of General Sheaffe were left at York, in 
the precipitation of his flight, and proved to be a valuable acquisition 
to the American commander. These and the public stores were the 
only articles of capture. The conduct of the troops needed no re- 
straint Though their indignation was highly exciteo, by the circum- 
stance of a scalp having been found suspended near the speaker's 
chair, in the legislative chamber, neither the ornaments of the cham- 
ber, the building itself, nor the public library, was molested. A large 
auantity of flour, deposited in the public stores, was distributed among 
le inhabitants, on condition that it should be used for their own con- 
sumption ; and those whose circumstances were impoverished, were 
supplied with many other articles of the captured provisions. The 
balance was taken on board the fleet, with the naval storesy or de- 
stroyed upon the shore. 


*'*fomiediately after the fafl of General Pike, the commander.iii^hief landed with 
staff, bat he did not reach the troops until they had entered York. He there made arrange- 
ments to expedite their departure for the other objects of the expedition, and they were 
soon after re-erabarked. 

** The cooperation of the squadron was of the greatest importance in the attack upon the 
enemy*a garrison. As soon as the debarkation was completed, Commodore Chauncey di- 
rected the schooners to take a position near the forts, in order that the attack of the army 
and navy might, if possible, be simultaneous. The larger vessels could not be brought op, 
and in consequence of the wind, the schooners were obliged to beat up to their intended 
position. This they did, under a very heavy fire from the enemy's batteries, and having 
taken their station within six hundred yards of the principal fort, opened a galling fire, and 
contributed very much to its destruction. The loss on board the squadron, was three killed 
and eleven wounded. Among the killed were midshipmen Thompson and Hatfield, the 
latter of whom, in his dying moments, had no other care than to know if he had performed 
his duty to his country. 

** In the action the loss of the American army was trifling ; but in consequence of the 
explosion, it was much greater than the enemy's loss in killed and wounded. Fourteen 
were killed and thirty.two wounded in battle, and thirty-eight were killed and two hundred 
and twenty.two wounded by the cxplosiop, so that the total American loss amounted to 
330 men. Among those who fell by the explosion, besides General Pike, were seven cap- 
tains, seven subalterns, one, one acting aid, and one volunteer aid. The en- 
emy's loss in killed and wounded amounted to two hundred, and in prisoners to five htm- 
dred and fifty. His wounded were left in the houses on the road leading to and in the 
neighborhood of York, and were attended to by the American army and navy surgeons. 
The prisoners were all paroled, and the troops withdrawn firom York immediately after its 

The following is an account of the attack on Sackett's Harbor 
by the British, May, 1813: 

** Whilst the troops were preparing to embark at York, for the expedition against Fort 
George, the British at Kingston, having gained intelligence of their absence firom Sacketfs 
Harbor, of the batteries at that place having been principally dismantled, and of the small- 
ness of the force which had been left for its protection, hastily collected all their disposables, 
and embarked on board their fleet, under the command of Sir George Prevost. The fleet 
was commanded by Sir James Yeo. On the night of the 27 th day of May, five hours sfter 
the capture of Fort George, the British appeared ofl" the entrance to the harbor. The 
American force consisted of two hundred invalids, and two hundred and fifty drsgoons, 
then newly arrived from a long and fatiguing march. Two small vessels, under Lieutenant 
Chauncey, were stationed at its mouth, and gave instant signals of alarm, at the approach 
of the British squadron. Expresses were immediately forwarded to General Brown, then 
at his seat, eight miles firom the harbor, and he immediately repaired thither, to take the 

** The tour of duty of the militia of his brigade had expired many weeks before, but he 
had been requested by General Dearborn to take the command of the harbor, at any time 
when the enemy should ai^roach it, and to provide for its defence. Immediately on his 
arrival dispositions were made to that eflfect. The movements of the enemy indicated his 
intention to land on the peninsula, called Horse Island. General Brown, therefore, deter, 
mined on resisting him at the water's edge, with the Albany volunteers, under Colonel 
Bfills, and such militia as could be instandy collected. Alarm guns were therefore fired, 
and expresses sent out for that purpose. Lieutenant^olonel Backus, of the first regiment 
of United States dragoons, who commanded at Sackett*s Harbor in the absence of the 
officeiB who had proceeded to Fort George, was to form a second line with the regulars. 
The regular artillerists were stationed in Fort Tompkins, and the defence of Navy Point 
was committed to Lieutenant Chauncey. 

** On the 38th, the Wolfe, the Royal Greorge, the Prince Regent, the E2arl of Moira, and 
one brig, two schooners, and two, with thirty.three flat-bottomed boats and 
barges, containing in all twelve hundred troops, appeared in the ofling, at five miles dis- 
lance. They were standing theii^course for the harbor, when, having discovered a fleet of 
American barges, coming round Stony Point with troops fi'om Oswego, the whole of their 
boats were immediately despatched to cut them ofi*. They succeeded in taking twelve of 
them, after they had been run on shore and abandoned by their crews, who arrived at the 
harbor in the night. The remainder, seven in number, escaped from their pursuers, and 
foC aedfely in. The British commanden, being then under an impression that other barges 


would be sailing from Oswego, stood into South bay, and despatched their aimed boats to 
waylay them. In this they were disappointed ; and during the delay which was caused by 
this interruption of their intended operations, the militia from the neighboring counties col. 
lected at tlie harbor, and betrayed great eagerness to engage in the contest with the in. 
vading enemy. They were ordered to be stationed on the water side, near the island on 
which Colonel Mills was posted with his volunteers. The strength at that point was near, 
ly five hundred men. But the whole force, including the regulars, effectives and invalids, 
did not exceed one thousand. The plan of defence had been conceived with great skill, 
and if the. conduct of the militia had proved to be consistent with their promises, it would 
have been executed with equal ability. Disposed of as the forces were, in the event uf 
General Brown's being driven from his position at Horse Island, Colonel Backus was to ad. 
vance with his reserve of regulars, and meet the head of the enemy's column, whilst the 
general would rally his corps, and fall upon the British flanks. If resistance to the at. 
tack of the enemy should still fail. Lieutenant Chauncey was to destroy the stores at Navy 
Point, and to retire with his two schooners, and the prize schooner, the Duke of Gloucester, 
which had been a few weeks before captured from the enemy, to the south shore of tlie 
bay, and cost of Fort Volunteer. In this fort the regulars and militia were to shut them, 
selves up, and make a vigorous stand, as their only remaining resort. Every thing being 
thus ordered. General Brown directed his defensive army to lay upon their aims, whilst he 
continued personally to reconnoitre the shores of the harbor, during the whole night <Mr the 
28th. At tlie only favorable point of landing, he had caused a to be thrown 
up, and a battery en barbette to be erected. Behind this most of the militia were stationed. 
*' At the dawn of the 39 ih, the enemy was discovered with his vessels drawn up in line, 
between Horse Island and Stony Point ; 'and m a few minuses, all his boats and baiges 
approached the shore, under cover of his, those being the heaviest of his vessels 
which, in consequence of the lightness of the winds, could be brought up. The troops 
with which the boats were filled, were commanded by Sir George Prevost, in person. 
Commodore Yeo directed the movements of the barges. General Brown instantly issued 
his orders, that the troops should lay close, and reserve their fire until the enemy should 
have approached so near, that every shot might take effect. This order was executed, and 
the fire was so destructive, that the enemy's advance boats were obliged to make a tempo, 
rary pause, and numbers of their officers and men were seen to fall. Encouraged by the 
desired effect of the first fire, the militia loaded their pieces with the utmost quickness, and 
the artillery was ordered to be opened at the moment of their second. But, before the 
second round had been completely discharged, the whole body of the militia, none of whom 
had ever seen an enemy until now, and who were entirely unaccustomed to subordination, 
though they were well protected by the breastwork, rose from behind it, and abandoning 
those honorable promises of noble daring which they had made bnt a little while before, 
they fied with equal precipitation and disorder. A strange and unaccountable panic seized 
the whole line ; and with the exception of a very few, terror and dismay were depicted in 
every countenance. Colonel Mills, vainly endeavoring to rally his men, was killed as he 
was reminding them of the solemn pledges which they had given ; but the fall of this brave 
officer served rather to increase their confusion, than to actuate them to revenge it. 

" General Brown seeing that his plan was already frustrated, and 
fearing his inability to execute any other without the vigorous co-op- 
eration of the militia, hastened to intercept their retreat ; and, finding 
one company, of about one hundred men, who had been rallied by 
the active and zealous conduct of Capt. M'Nitt, of that corps, he 
brought them up, and ordered them to form in line with the regulars 
and volunteers, who had continued to keep their ground. 

" In the interval which had thus elapsed, the enemy had efiected 
his debarkation, with little opposition; and drawing up his whole 
force on Horse Island, he commenced his march for the village ; on 
the road to which, he was met by a small party of infantry, under 
Major Aspinwall, and a few dismounted dragoons under Major Laval, 
who opposed him with much gallantry. Two of the gun-boats 
ranged up the shore, and covered the field with grape. This handful 
of troops then gradually retired in good order, from an immense su- 
periority of numbers, and occupied the intervals between the bairacks. 


"Lieutenant-colonel Backus, with his reserve of regulars, first en- 
gaged the enemy, when the militia company of Captain M'Nitt was 
formed on his flank ; and in the vigorous fight which then followed, 
this company behaved with as much gallantry as the bravest of the 
regulars. The whole force was compelled to fall back, however, by 
the superior strength of the enemy's column, and resorting to the 
barracks for what shelter they could aflford, they posted themselves 
in the unprotected log houses, and kept up an incessant and effective 
fire. From these, the most violent assaults, and the repeated and 
varying efforts of the British, were incompetent to dislodge them. 
Colonel Gray, the quartermaster-general of the enemy's forces, ad- 
vanced to the weakest part of the barracks, at the head of a column 
of regulars, and after exchanging shots with an inferior party of mili- 
tia and regulars, led his men on to the assault. A small boy, who 
was a drummer in Major Aspin wall's corps, seized a musket, and lev- 
elling it at the colonel, immediately brought him to the ground. At 
that moment Lieutenant Fanning, of the artillery, who had been so 
severely wounded by the explosion at Little York, and was yet con- 
sidered to be unable to do any kind of duty, leaned upon his piece 
whilst it was drawn up, and having given it the proper elevation, dis- 
charged three rounds of grape into the faces of the enemy, who im- 
mediately fell back in disorder. At this instant. Lieutenant-colonel 
Backus fell, severely wounded. 

** Whilst the battle was raging with its greatest violence, informa- 
tion was brought to Lieutenant Chauncey, of the intention of the 
American forces to surrender. He therefore, in conformity to his 
previous orders, relating to such an event, fired the navy barracks, 
and destroyed all the property and public stores, which had pre- 
viously belonffed to the harbor, as well as the provisions and equip- 
ments which had been brought from York. The destruction of these 
buildings, and the conflagration which was thence produced. Was 
thought to have been caused by the troops of the enemy, and although 
the undisciplined militia and volunteers, and the invalid regulars, were 
suspicious of being placed between the fire of two divisions of the 
enemy, they continued to fight on, regardless of their inferiority, or 
the consequences of their capture. 

•* General Brown was all this time actively superintending the operations of his little 
army. He now detennined on making a diversion in its favor, which, if it should be suc« 
ceseful, would be the only means of saving the place, or of relieving his exhausted troops. 
Having learned that the militia, who had fled from their stations in the early part of the en- 
gagement, had not yet entirely dispersed, and that they were still within a short distance 
of the scene of action, he hastened to exhort them to imitate the conduct of their brave 
brethren in arms. He reproached them with shameful timidity, and ordered them instantly 
tf> form and follow him, and threatened with instant death the first man who should refuse. 
His order was obeyed with alacrity. He then attempted a stratagem, by which to deceive 
the enemy, with regard to the forces against'which he was contending. Silently passing 
through a distant wood, which led towards the place at which the enemy had landed, Gen. 
eral Brown persuaded the British general of his intention to gain the rear of his forces, to 
take possession of the boats, and effectually to cut off their retreat. 

*• This was done with such effect, at the moment when the fire of Lieutenant Tanning's 
piece had caused the destruction in the British line, that General Sir George Prevost was 
well convinced of the vast superiority of the American force to his own. He gave up all 
tboughts of the capture of the place, and hurrying to his boats, put off immediately to the 



British squadron. He was not pursued, because, if the real number of the American 
troops had been exposed to his view, he would have returned to the contest, might easily 
have outflanked, and in all human probability, would still have captured the army and the 

** But the precipitation of his flight was such, that he left not only the wounded bodies of 
his ordinary men upon the field, but those of the dead and wounded of the most distin. 
guished of his of&cers. Among these were Quartermaster^eneral Gray, Majors Moodie 
and Evans, and three captains. The return of his loss, as accurately as it has been ascer. 
tained, amounted to three field officers, one captain, and twenty .five rank and file, found 
dead on the field ; two captains and twenty rank and file found wounded ; and two cap- 
tains, one ensign, and thirty.two rank and file made prisoners. In addition to which, mai^ 
were killed in the boats, and numbers had been carried away previously to the retreat. 
The loss of the Americans was greater in proportion, as the number of their men engaged 
were less. One colonel of volunteers, twenty regulars, privates, and one volunteer private, 
were killed ; one lieutenant.colonel, three lieutenants, and one ensign of the regnlars, and 
seventy .nine non.coinmi»sioned officers and privates, were wounded ; and twent}r.six non. 
commissioned officers and privates were missing. Their aggregate loss was one hundred 
and ten regulars, twenty.ono volunteers, and twenty.five militia ; making a total of one 
hundred and fifty.six. It was severe, because of the worth, more than of the number of 
those who fell. The injury in public stores, sustained at Sackett*8 Harbor, though not by 
any act of the invading enemy, was extensive ; but the gallantry of several individuals 
prevented its being more so. Lieutenant Chauncey was no sooner apprized of the error of 
the report which had been brought to him, than he made every exertion to save as much of 
the public properly as it was possible to rescue from the increasing conflagration, and to 
that effect, he ran the Fair American and the Pert up tlie river. The new frigate, the Gen 
eral Pike, which was then on the stocks, was saved ; and Lieutenant Talman, of the army, 
at the imminent risk of his life, boarded the prize schooner the Duke of Gloucester, which 
was then on fire, with a considerable quantity of powder in her hold, extinguished the fire, 
and brought her from under the flames of the storehouses. 

" Notwithstanding this signal repulse, the British commanding officers attempted to play 
off the stratagem which Sir James Yeo afterwiiird adopted at the Forty Mile Creek. They 
sent in a flag with a peremptory demand for the formal surrender of tlie poet, which was as 
peremptorily refused.** 

The British colonel, Gray, fell near the present residence of Mr. 
John Hall, in Hill-street, and the stump against which he reposed his 
head, is still to be seen by the sidewalk. He was a noble-looking 
man, about six feet in height, and about forty years of age. Beside 
him was a Glengarian officer, mortally wounded. A private named 
David Johnson, from Berkshire county, Mass., lay near, wounded in 
a most horrible manner. This young man was a widow's only son. 
At the time of his enlistment at Greenbush, his mother requested the 
sergeant to take good care of him. His face was carried away by a 
side shot from below his forehead, downward, including his eyes, 
nose, upper jaw, tongue, and some of the teeth of the lower jaw. He 
notwithstanding had his reason. Being requested by the bystanders, 
if he wanted water to lift up his right hand, he did so. A soldier 
who was shot by a musket ball through the abdomen, informed his 
captain, who gave him permission to leave the ground, with the ex- 
pectation that he would fall before he had got many rods distant An 
nour or two after the battle, the officer was astonished to meet the 
man quietly walking in the streets of the village. He asked him 
where he had been ? " To get some milk^ was the reply. It appears 
that he had not eaten any thing for thirty hours previous to the ac- 
tion, and the ball was thus enabled to pass through the intestines 
T^ithout mortal injury. 

The following is a view of the barracks from the military hosintal. 


NortkeniviaoofJeg^enimBarrackttSaciettaBarhor. . 

The two long ranges of buildlDga in the distance, &cing the fpecti4or> 
are the officergT quaiters. The ouildingB at each ead are the sol(U(^ 
bsrntcks. These structures are of limestone, about 3S0 feet in leqg^ 
two sloHes in height, with neat piazzas io front, forming three sides of a 
aqoBTG, OQ which is the parade ground. The large bdlding on the 
r^ht is the commissary's department The barrckcks were commw- 
CM in 1816, and finished in 1619. The grounds attached include 
about forty acres, and the whole is surrouoded on three sides by a 
log picket fence, painted white, and about 8 feet in height The 
iburui side is open to the water. 

On a monument io the military burial place, which is included in 
Ibe barrack grounds, are the following inscriptions : 

andk tide^" In msmoiT of Gen. Z. M. Pike, killed at York, U. C, 37 April, 1811— 
C*{it. Jon|ih Hicholsoo, liiafuitr]', aid-de-caiop toGsn. Pike, da." Eait lidt. — *'Ia ntm- 
oc^of Loeut. Col. John Mill*, volunuer; killed u Siekeia Harbor, 39 Mir. 1B13^— Gut 
A. Speneet, S9 iirfnutry, sid-de-CBntp to Mq. Gen. Brown, killed al Lund; 'B Lane, Hi Jmj, 
IBU." North lilies" la bibibotj of Col. Tutae, Ltaut. Col. DU, Maj. Johnma, UmK. 
TaoderanUr." WtMt tide. — "In msmory of Brig. Gen. L. CovingUin, killed at C^Mf 
nelda, U. C, 11 Nov. 1813. Lieut. Col. E. Backus, lit dragoom, killed at S. Haibor, 89 
Mar, 1813." 

** BacTOd to the memorr of Frederick Angiutm Leonard, eon of Jamee and Merer LaoB. 
vd, of New York, aged 93 rein, 3 moothi and 13 daja; » aaUiiw-maaiM ia tke Anaii- 
eaiv aavf, who died an the 13th of May, 1R13, by i Tiolent iUoew brou^i on br Mga» in 
die wuuk. of the Alnericui fbrcea on York, in Upper Canada, April 97lb, 18t3r— m* 
motHtment b erected by hb brother, Capi. Jamea T. Leoaard of ibe navr." 

Li Rat, settled in 1803 and organized in 1806; from Albany IM 
miles. Evans Mills, 10 miles KK from Watertowo, and Le Rayt- 
rille, are small but flourishing villages. Sandfords Comers and West 
Le Ray are post-offices. Pop. 3,723. 

LosRAtNE,originally nameaMalta,and taken from Mexico in 1804 ; 
from Albany 145, and from Watertown S. 16 miles. Lorraine is a 
jx» Fop. 1,721. 

Ltms, taken from Brownville in 1817; frt>m Albany 165 mil'ss. 
PUfk 5,467. It includes several islands in Lake Ontario and one in 


the St. Lawrence river. Cape Vincent, port of entry of Cape Vin- 
cent district, at the fork of Lake Ontario and at tlie licad of the 
St. Lawrence, 25 miles from Watertown, has about 70 dwellings. 
Chaumont, at the head of Chaumont bay, 14 miles from Watertown, 
has about 30 dwellings. At Tibbets point there is a lighthouse. 
Three Mile Bay, Mileno Bay, and Peninsula, are post-offices. 

Orleans, taken from Brownvillc in 1821 ; from Albany 184 miles. 
Le Fargeville, named from John Le Farge, the original proprietor 
of the town, 16 miles N. from Watertown, and Stone Mill, in the SW. 
angle of the town, are small settlements with post-offices. Pop. 3,000. 

r AMELIA, taken from Brown ville in 1819 ; from Albany 166 miles. 
Williamstown has about 40 dwellings, and is on the bank of the river 
and connected with Watertown by a bridge. Pamelia and Pamelia 
Four Corners are post-offices. Pop. 2,119. 

Philadelphia, settled principally by Friends, and taken from Le 
Ray in 1821 ; from Watertown centrally distimt NE. 16 miles. Pop. 
1,888. The Friends settlement has about 60 dwellings. 

Rodman, originally named Harrison, taken from Adams in 1804, 
and settled in 1801, by New England emigrants; from Albany 154, 
centrally distant from Watertown S. 10 miles. Pop. 1,703. Rod- 
man has about 40 dwellings. Whitesville is a small post village. 
Several Indian mounds are in this town, with ancient fortifications 
Pop. 1,700. 

Rutland, formed in 1802; from Albany 154, from Watertown cen- 
trally distant E. 6 miles. There are here remains of ancient works. 
There is an old camp or fort near the Watertown and Rutland line, sit- 
uated on a hill surrounded by a hollow that seems to have been a ditch 
enclosing about four acres of ground. Its form is an irregular oval. 
On one side is a triangular projection of 50 paces, terminating in an 
acute angle, surrounded, like the camp, by an intrenchment On dig- 
ging into this, many remains of human bones were found, and a part 
of a human skull imbedded in two or three quarts of Indian com, 
which seems to have been parched to a dark chocolate-brown color, 
but was sound and well preserved. The place was lately covered 
with lofty trees, like the surrounding ground, which must have been 
some centuries in growing. South Rutland, Tylersville, Felts Mill, 
and Lockport, are small post villages. Rutland Centre is a post- 

Watertown was organized as part of Oneida county in 1800. 
Pop. 5,025. Watertown, incorporated village and seat of justice for 
the county, is from New York NW. 325 miles, from Albany 176, 
from Utica NNW. 81, from Sacketts Harbor E. 10 miles. It con- 
tains 2 Presbyterian, 1 Episcopal, 1 Methodist Episcopal, 1 Univer- 
salist, and 1 Catholic church, an incorporated academy, the Jefferson 
Company and Watertown banks, an insurance company, county 
buildings, and about 550 dwellings. 

In March, 1800, this town was first settled by Henry Coffin, who 
originai/y came from New Hampshire, and built his log caUn on 
the brow of the hill about 3 rods easterly from the front door of 

die AiMru^Bn Hotel Soaa after lie wa» joined by Zeehaiwh Botlet^ 
field, who built fiis cabin on the ground now occupied by Davenport's 
tavern* Both of these individuals brought with: them their famUiefc 
The unevenness and apparent unproductiveness of the soil were mixril 
than counterbalanced, in the discemix^ minds of these pioneers, by^ttjie 
immense hydraulic power aj^ropriabte, from the numerous falls wd 
rapids of Black river at this pomt, which in the space of about a 
mue amount to nearly 100 feet descent In thif, as well as the n<^ 
nest atfd^fertility^of the adjacent country^ they wisely believisd that 
they discovered the elements of future prosperity and greatncfss. V 

Hart and Isaiah Massay, who came from Windsor, Yermcfiitf 
joined them in the succeeding year. In 180% the first ^veri^ \)ras 
op^ied by Isaiah Massay, and the first saw-mill erecteil.on the pr^ 
eaat site of W. Pattridge's woollen factory. The high reputation; of 
the Black river country now" began to be sounded abroad, and the 
number of settlers rapidly augmented. Among the other eariieit. 
emigrants were Aaron Bacon, Jonathan Cowan, two brothers by the 
name of Thornton, Jesse Doolittle, M. Canfield, Aaron Keyes, "B. 
Hontin^n, William Smith, John Paddock,. Chauneey Calhoun, Pbilo 
Johnson, and John Hathway. 

^An inventory of the entire effects of each settler, as he arrived 
upon the ground., would have been a short and easy matter. Those 
with families had possessed but small estates in the places from which 
they emigrated, and generally found their means exhausted wh^i 
tfaey had procured an outfit for their westward journey. The whole 
possessiim of many a young man who planted the germ of his for- 
tune here, was comprised in the axe that he brought upon his shoul^p 
der, and in the nerves of the vigorous arm which wielded it Very 
littte money was brought into Watertown by its first inhabitants. 
They were all thrown upon their immediate exertions for subsistence. 
In these circumstances, want, with its horrors, might have visited 
them, had it not been the case that quick returns of fruitfid harvests 
were made to their industry. It is a well-known fact, that through- 
out the whole of Western New York, the first harvest reaped from 
the soil is often more abundant than any succeeding one. The for- 
ests here are found to be unencumbered with the mass of dead leaves, 
and undeeomposed vegetable matter, which, in many parts of our 
country, the farmer finds so, prejudicial to the cultivation and produc- 
tion of his new land. There is that, either in the climate or the soil 
itself^ which seems to eflfect the decomposition of vegetables very 
soon after they are deprived of life. From this circumstance, the 
deposition upon the ground of a ^reat body of forest leaves, every 
season, instead of opposing an obstacle to immediate production, 
fiicilitates it, and contributes to the richness and fertility of the soil. 

"The enterprising mechanics and agriculturists in Watertown 
did not long allow their hydraulic privileges to remain unimproved. 
In 1803, Jonathan Cowan built the first ^ist^mill. This was an in- 
valuable acquisition to the place, as it reueved the inhabitants from 


the necessity of travelling to a great distance for the flouring of all 
their grain. 

" In 1803, the first bridge across Black river, at Watertown, was built at the site of the 
lower bridge, on the Brownville road, by Henry Cofieen and Andrew Eklmonds. The 
business of the little community increased as their number was augmented, and soon de. 
manded some medium of disposing of the products of their industry. Accordingly, in 1805, 
a store was opened by J. Paddock and WUliam Smith. The year 1807 brought with it the 
accession of a paper-mill, built by Gurden Caswell, and a brewery, by Gursham Tuttle. 

*' At this period, and for a considerable time after, the manufacture of potash was an 
object of much attention with those who had land in their possession. The high price 
which this article then commanded, and the fine adaptation of the timber and the soil to 
the production and the preservation of ashes, rendered it one of the most lucrative branefaes 
of business to which the settlers could devote themselves. As every barrel of potash yield, 
ed the manufacturer $25, the purchasers of lots, by their characteristic enterprise and pru. 
dence, were enabled to realize a sum fully equal to the first cost of their lands firom this 
article alone. 

'* The principal commercial operations in the years 1806-7-8, conosted in the exchange 
of goods for potash, which took place between the agricultural portion of the community 
and the merchants before mentioned. The amount of exchanges thus eflfected during this 
period was not inconsiderable, when we consider the limited number of persons engaged 
in the transaction. In 1806, it was not less than $3,500; in 1807, about $6,000; and in 
1808, it exceeded $9,000. A comparative view of the business of the place may be had, 
by staring in this connection, that the goods sold in Watertown during the year 1839, in. 
eluding those manufactured in it, amounted to about $500,000. 

** The first cotton factory which reared its form in this village is still standing, and known 
as the * Old Cotton Factory* — now under the proprietorship of the Watertown Cotton Mills 
Company. It was erected by a company, and went into operation in 1814. The machin. 
ery was manufactured by James Wild, of Hudson, much of which is still in use ; and al. 
though cotton machinery has been much improved by 25 yeare^ experience, few cotton 
fiustories do more* or better work. This establishment was succeeded in 1827 by a similar 
one, erected by Levi Bebee, upon the island which bears his name. It was, however, on 
a much more extensive plan ; being a building 250 feet in length, 50 in breadth, and 4 
stories high, built of limestone, of the most substantial character. This building was de. 
signed to receive 10,000 spindles ; and half that number, with 128 power looms, had been 
put into it, when it was destroyed by fire in 1832. It was erected, and thus fiir completfed, at 
an expense of $120,000, employed a great nifmbcr of hands, directly and indirectly, and its 
destruction gave a shock to the village of Watertown fi'om which it has yet hardly recov 
ered. The ruins still stand, frowning upon a majestic and beautiful cascade, whose waters 
leap past them, as if in terror, lest the columns of ragged stone should precipitate themsehrea 
upon their bosom ; or, as if in haste to escape from the gloom and sadness of their pres. 
ence. They also remain a monument of the enterprise and public spirit of their late pro. 

" In the eariy settlement of the county, strenuous efforts were made to fix the coanty aeat 
at Brownville. Gen. Jacob Brown was appointed one of the commissioners by the state, to 
lay out and open two roads ; one firom Utica, through Boonville, to some point on Black 
river ; and one from Rome, through Redfield, to the same point. Brownville was fixed 
upon as this point. Every exertion was then put forth by those interested, and every aigu. 
ment pressed, which the circumstances of the case, policy, and ingenuity could supply, to 
efiect the location of the county seat at that place. The commissioneta, who were to deaig 
nate the site of the courthouse, decided however upon placing it at Watertown. Bat by 
way of compromise they selected its present site, then quite remote from the village. 

*' The first courthouse was built in 1807, by William Rise and Joel Mix ; its eraetioii was 
superintended by William Smith. It being thus placed at a distance horn the centre of the 
village, had a tendency to draw attention, and induce settlement in that direciioii. Anoth- 
er circumstance had a considerable influence in fixing the location of mills and manifiKta- 
ries remote from the common centre. Mr. Jonathan Cowan was the owner of all die hf* 
draulic privileges here, at the point where his mills were situated. From a mistakMi belief 
as to the best method of stimulating industry and enterprise, ho refiised, <m all occtaons, 
to sell, without limiting the purchaser to one kind of business. The spirited Bettlen vmki 
not brook this fetter upon their enterprise, and determined not to submit to the nUmlian, 
so long as the waters of Black river were free. This policy occasioned the ereoiiiMi of a 
dam further down die river in 1807, and another above in 1814. Although, fiir t ifaney 


ddi BiipMed to check the growth of the village, it ultimately operated to iti advantage, by 
•nlaigiDg its sphere of action, and more fully developing its resources. 

^ It ia generally the case, that in planting new settlements, a very early attention to the 
ealtivaiion of the intellect and moral powers of ihe community, is prevented by the ardu- 
00011688 of the duties and the engroesment of mind incident upon their condition, as well as 
their remoteness from institutions of learning and the great centres of literary and moral 
influence. lb Watertown, however, as early as the year 1811, efforts were made for the 
establiahment of an academy. A piece of ground was given for this purpose, by Mr. P. 
Kevee, near where the first church now stands. A building was commenced the same 
jreer, and completed in the following, 1812, simultaneous with the commencement of the 
last hostilities between the United Sates and Great Britain. The declaration of war occa. 
noned the stationing of a garrison of soldiers in Watertown ; who finding the academy 
bailding conveniently situated for barracks, took possession of it and occupied it for that 

** The proximity of WatertoMm to the Canadian frontier and the site of several battles, as 
abo its exposed and unprotected condition, produced, during this conflict, a constant agita. 
ti<Hi and an intense excitement of the public mind, which forbade the inhabitants thinking 
of any thing but the * war.* The project of the academy was in consequence abandons^ 
After, the evacuation of the building by the troops, which took place in 1814, it was taken 
down^ and the materials of which it was composed transferred to what is now known as 
Clinton-street, and erected into a schoolhouse. This, until recently, has been employed for 
the purposes designed. The land thus left vacant, according to a condition in the deed gNen 
by Mr. Keyes, could be sold by appraisal. A part of it was thus sold, and a part went into 
the possession of the First church. 

" With this failure, however, the efforts for the accomplishment of the truly noble design 
did not cease. Another commodious academy building was erected a few years after, upon 
the street which has taken its name from this circumstance. This academy was opened 
under fiivorable auspices, and for a considerable time prospered flourishingly. But, although 
the noble stone edifice still stands in its beautiful and sequestered location, as an abode of 
learning it is now superseded by the Black River Literary and Religious Institute — a school 
moat deservedly popular, an ornament to the place, and an honor to its conductors and 

** The religious opportunities of the inhabitants of Watertown, for the first few years, 
were necessarily Umited. For the purpose of public worship, they were accustomed often 
to aasemble at the dwelling of some one of the Uttle community, to hear read a sermon, 
from the pen of some excellent New England divine ; and whence, no doubt, many a peti. 
tion went up to Him who ' regards not the condition of men,* as fervent and acceptable, as 
if uttered in the stately temple embellished with cornice and damask. They were occa. 
sionally visited by an itinerant minister of the Methodist connection, but seldom by any 
otheiB. The place was regarded as proper missionary ground, and the work of proclaiming 
to the inhabitants the * Word of life,' as demanding the exercise of as much benevolence 
and self-denial as is now required in him who would carry the Bible into the savage regions 
west of the Rocky mountains. This is well illustrated by the remark of a benevolent, 
hearted herald of the cross, while on his way to the settlement here ; being asked whither 
he was bound and what was the object o( his mission, he replied, ' / am going to preach to 
the heathenJ' In 1803, a church was organized by the Rev. Ebenezer Lazel — Presbyterian 
in its confession of faith, and Congregational in its form of government. .The Presbyterian 
clergymen located here, were, successively, the Rev. Messrs. Leavenworth, Porter, Cook, 
and, immediately after the war, Mr. Banks. As the population of the place increased, 
bringing together, of necessity, persons of various religious sentiments, churches of the dif. 
ferent persuasions were organized, from time to time, until the village now embraces t^o 
churches of the Presbyterian denomination, (the 1st and the 2d,) 1 of the Baptist, 1 of the 
Methodist, 1 of the Roman Catholic, 1 of the Episcopal, and 1 of the Universalist ; all oc- 
cnpying attractive and commodious houses of worship. 

** In the early years of the village it was remarkable for nothing, perhaps, more than the 
union and harmony of its inhabitants. Common dangers, privations, and labors, begat a 
community of interests and feeling, and actuated to a mutal reciprocation of assistance and 
benefits. The proeperity and joys, as well as the griefe and misfbrttmes of one, were 
shared by all. Death never invaded their number, without throwing a gloom over the 
whole community, and touching every heart with the affliction. The melancholy circunu 
•taneea attending the first instance of mortality, afibrded great occasion for the exercise of 
these sympathetic feelings. 

•* Late at the close of a still, sultry day in summer, Mrs. Thornton, 


the wife of one of the young settlers, ^ave the alarm that her husband 
bad not returned from the forest, whither he had gone in the afternoon 
to procure a piece of timber for a particular purpose. Immediately 
every man in the settlement answered to the call, and hastened to 
the place designated for meeting to concert a plan for search. Here 
all armed themselves with torches of lighted pine knots or birch bark, 
and calling every gun in the place into use for firing alarms and sig- 
nals, started out, in small companies, into the forest in all directions. 
After a search of several hours, the preconcerted signal-gun announ- 
ced that * the lost was found.* All hurried to the spot ; and upon the 
ground where now stands the Black River Institute, crushed beneath 
a tree which he had felled, lay the lifeless body of their companion. 
He was laid upon. a bier, hastily prepared for the occasion, and con- 
veyed through the ffloom of midnignt, by the light of their torches, 
back to his house. VVhat must have been the emotions of the be- 
reaved young widow, when the mangled corpse of her husband, so 
suddenly fallen a victim to death, was brought in and laid before her ! 
She did not, however, mourn alone. As the remains were borne to 
their resting-place, — the first grave that was opened in Trinity church- 
yard, — it needed no sable emblems of mourning to tell of the griet 
which hung dark around every heart Each one of the httle com- 
pany, as he returned from periorming the last duties to his departed 
companion, /e/^ as if from his own family one had been taken. 

*' A similar incident occurred, a short time after, in the death of a child, which wm killed 
by the failing of a tree, on the present site of the courthouse ; thus designating with hlood, 
as one can imagine, the location of the halls of justice and science in onr village, and con- 
secrating the ground of each by a human sacrifice. 

** Notwithstanding the general union and hannony which prevailed, clashing interssts 
and individual enmities would sometimes show, that even the common dangers and haid« 
ships of the wilderness nave not power to change the character of human passion, or to 
soften its malignity, when occasion arouses it. One incident will illustrate this. 

'* By some unfortunate circumstance, a feud was enkindled between 
one of the settlers in Watertown and his neighbor, 15 or 20 miles 
distant ; for, be it known, distance was then no barrier to neighbor- 
ship. Not long after the commencement of hostihties between the 
Carties, it came to the ears of the one in Watertown, that his enemy 
ad offered a reward of $5 for his head. Feeling rather uneasy 
under this summary outlawry — as it necessarily, he thought, rendered 
insecure the tenure by which he held his life, — and being unwilling 
to dispose of it except upon more reasonable terms, he determined to 
go and negotiate the matter, propria persona, with this dealer in per* 
sonal estate, and, if possible, induce him to withdraw the reward. 
As there was no road practicable for travelling by horse, he was 
obliged to accomplish the whole distance on foot. This he did ; and 
having arrived at the residence of his enemy, he found him in com- 
pany with two or three of his nearer neighbors. Wishing to avoid 
)ublicity in the affair as much as possible, he requesteaa private 
nterview. But he was tartly replied to, that there was nothmg be- 
Tween them that required secrecy, and if he had any thing to say, he 
oust * speak out.* Being o^ligftH thu? to »ir»«kp kp'^'^n his «5rrand 


publicly, rather disturbed his equanimity ; but his situation was des- 
perate. Here was his last hope of effecting a reconciliation ; and he 
therefore commenced by saying, he had learned, with much regret, 
that their late difficulties had drawn from him the offer of a reward 
of 95 for his life ; he hoped it was not the case. But he bad come 
to learn the truth from his own lips ; and if it were really so, if pos- 
sible, to compromise the affair, and adjust their differencesw His 
enemy quickly retorted, that it was a *most rascally untruth — ss 
great a lie as ever was told.' * I never,' said he, * have offered 85 
lor your head ; never — not I. I may have said that I would give 
twenty shillings ; but I never went over that.' With this very satis- 
factory information, he was obliged io return and await patiently the 
issue of the struggle which was to determine whether, he could be 
allowed to retain his head, between the consciences of his fellow 
settlers, and their cupidity7 so strongly appealed to by the twenty- 
shilling reward. 

** Such circumstances were then, however, of rare occurrence. Unanimity of sentuneilC 
and feeling was the general law ; these were but the exceptions. No doubt that amidit 
the dangers, the rugged toil, and the coarse fare of this new settlement, happiness wm 
found to dwell with as much fulness and purity, as with the safety, the ease and the refine* 
ment of the town or city. Ask those venerable pioneers of the wilderness who still remain 
in our midst, and they will tell you, that they look with less complaisance and pleasure 
upon the last few years of their lives, than upon those in which the forests were fulling be. 
neath their axes ; or, in their tow.frock»— the insignia of their priestly office — they perA>nn. 
ed the obsequies of the monarchs of the wood, at their funeral piles. They are now nade 
to witness scenes of more wealth and action, but not of more tranquillity and purity. The 
afiecdons then were warm, and confidence mutuaL At their convivial assemblies, which, 
at the close of a day*8 toil, they sometimes found tnne to convene, the simplicity of their 
rude entertainments, served up as they often were upon an oak slab, elevated to its proper 
position by substantial wooden pegs, was more than compensated by the full flow of spirits, 
and the absence of rivalry and envy. The heart had not then lost its radiating power by 
the polish of excessive refinement, and the freedom of communication was unfettered by 
the stiff formality of modem etiquette. 

" It is a fact worthy of remark, that almost every cent of the wealth in this village has 
been created upon the ground. But a small amount of capital has been brought into it 
from abroad ; and this not for the purposes of speculation, but in obedience to the demands 
of established business. It has never stood in need of foreign assistance. Its resources 
have ever been, and are still inexhaustible. The secret of its commanding influence, how. 
ever, is to be found in the immense hydraulic force of Black river at this point. By a pretty 
accurate computation, it has been ascertained that the quantity of water, at low.water 
mark, is seldom less than 60,000 cubic feet per minute. This, with economy, under 9 feet 
head and fall, would be sufficient to turn 150 runs of stone. Now, by considering that the 
water, in passing from the upper end of the village to the lower, a distance of about a mile, 
falls 88 feet, over 7 artiiieial dams and 5 natural cascades, and at each of these dams the 
whole body of water can be used, we have a force sufficient to turn more than a thousand 
runs of stone, or to apply to the driving of other machinery. 

*' With this great power before us, and reflecting that Watertown is surrounded by a rich 
and fertile country, — ^prosecuting a firmly established and well.balanced business — a busi. 
nesB that has never been affected by the insane spirit of speciUation whieh has often raged 
over onr country — it is not difficult to account for its great prosperity, and to anticipate for 
it a still more vigorous end rapid progress." — Hist. Sketch of Watertown, htf J, P. Fitch. 

The following view was taken on the west bank of the river, a few 
rods below the bridge. The ruins seen in front are those of the 
Bebee manufactory, noticed in the foregoing sketch. Just beyond 
the bridge, the river descends in a perpendicular fall of 18 feet. The 
steeple on the left, is that of the 2d Presbyterian church, the one 



View tn Waterlown, Jefferson county, JVew York. 

further to the right, that of the Catholic, and that on the extreme 
ri(fht, the Institute. Thii is a wild and picturesqoe spot, and the 
ruins remind the spectator of some time-decayed structure of a former 
age. On the bank of the river, seen beyond the opening between 
the pines, is a place where the rite of baptism is administered by im- 
mersion. A traveller who here recently witnessed a scene of this 
kind, describes it as " unusually solemn and impressive." Amid the 
roar of the rapids ascended the prayer of the clergyman, and the mu- 
sic of the assembled worshippers was soAcncd by the sound of the 

Well would the language of the poet have applied : 

" Ye beullong tairenU, rapid ind profound. 
Ye softer floods, (hat iread ibe humid mus, 

Sound his alupendous pntise 

And aa each mingling flune increuea each. 
In one united ardor rise to heaven." — 

In the limestone rocks which bound the Black river at this polat 
are numerous caves, two of which are very extensive, and nave 
never been explored to their terminations. The first, called the " old 
cave," is situated a few rods west of tlie bridge, at Bebee's island, in 
the town of Pamelia, and running up in an easterly direction, is sup- 
posed to go under the falls. The other, entitled the " ncio or ice cave," 
IS about 50 rods below the bridge on the eastern bank of the stream, 
and was discovered about two years since. It has been explored 
about i a mile. Some distance in it there is an extensive excavation, 
which forms a large room of about 20 feet square, and as regulariy 
shaped ns )>iough effected by human agency. Columns of ice formea 



by the infiltration of water from the ceiling to the floor, resembling 
marble pillars neatly polished, are to be seen in this apartment even 
in the warmest of weather. Both of these caves have many branches, 
and are beautified with varied petrifactions, stalactites of all shapei, 

Estrified bats, <&c., <S^c. About 50 rods in a N£. direction from the 
ebee ruins, back of the knoll, is a singular oval-shaped basin in the 
sand, of about 7 rods in its greatest diameter. It is about 100 feet 
in depth, and water never remains in it even during the most rainy 

WiLNA, taken from Le Ray in this, and Leyden in Licwis county, 
m 1818 ; from Albany, NW., 151, from Watertown distant E. 17 
miles. The place was settled by Irish and New England emigrants. 
The Count Survilliersn(Joseph Bonaparte,) brother of the Emperor 
Napoleon, purchased here 80,000 acres of land and erected a large 
mansion. Carthage, at the head of Long Falls, on the Black riv^r, 
has about 75 dwellings. A large quantity of iron is manufactured 
here. The Natural Bridge, where there is a small settlement, is pi 
curiosity. It is about 12 feet wide,' and 6 above the water. Wihia 
and North Wilna are post-offices. Pop. 2,583. 


Kings county was organized in 1683, by an act of the colonial 
assembly dividing the province, and abolishing the ridings which 
previously existed. Its greatest length is 12, and greatest breadth 7 
miles. The county includes Coney and Barren islands, and all other 
islands south of the town of Gravesend. The surface on the NE. 
for three or four miles back from the river is hilly and ridgy. Upon 
the SE. a plain of sandy loam and sand extends to the ocean. The 
soil for the most J)art is light, warm, and when properly manured, 
fertile. It is generally well improved, and supplies a large portion of 
the vegetables sold in New York. The first settlement in tne county 
was made at Brooklyn in 1625. In 1641, the Dutch government 
permitted some English settlers to locate themselves at Gravesend. 
Ail the other towns of the county appear to have been settled by the 
Dutch. The county courts were originally held at the village of 
Gravesend; they were removed in 1686 to Flatbush, where they 
were held till 1832, when they were removed to Brooklyn. The 
county contains six towns. Pop. 47,613. 

Brooklyn. This town, the whole of which is now included within 
the corporation of the city of Brooklyn, lies upon the extreme western 

?art of Long Island, opposite the southern portion of the city of New 
''ork, and scFparated therefrom by the East river, which is here about 
three quarters of a mile in width. Its length from NE. to SW. is 
six, and its greatest breadth four miles ; giving an area of 9,200 


aeres, mast of which has been apportioned into city lots. " The sur- 
face is high, broken, and stony ; and the more elevated points afford 
beautiful and romantic sites, many of which have been built upon, 
and are not excelled in elegance by any others in the country. The 
ioil, in common with the whole county, was originally claimed by the 
Canarsee Indians, a numerous tribe inhabiting the more southern 
parts of the county, and from whom the title to the lands was pro- 
cured by the Dutch government. 

" Tbe name conferred upon this town by the Dutch was Breucklenf (or broken land ;) 
and in the act for dividing the province into counties and towns, passed November 1, 1685, 
it is called Breucklyn; nor does the present appellation appear to have been generally 
adopted until after the revolution. Many changes have doubtless taken place upon the 
shore, and it is believed that Governor's Island was formeriy connected with Red Hook point. 
It is well known that a short period previous to the war of ii^pendence, cattle were driven 
across what is called Buttermilk Channel, now sufficiently deep to afford passage to vessels 
oi the laigest class. The alteration is no doubt in great measure attributable to the vast 
extension of the wharves on both sides of the river, thereby diverting the course, and in. 
ereasing the force of the currents. The first European settler in this town is supposed to 
bave been George Jansen de Rapclje, at the Waalboght, or Waaloons Bay, daring the Di. 
nectorsbip of Peter Minuit, under the charter of the West India Company. In a family 
record in the possession of Jeremiah Johnson, E^., it is stated that the first child of Rapelje 
was Sarah, bom in 1625, unquestionably the first white child bom upon Long Island. 
Watson sa3rs she was bom on the 9th of June, and honored as the first-born child of the 
Dutch settlers; also that, in consideration of such distinction, and of her widowhood, she 
was afterward presented with a tract of land at the Wallabout. She was twice married ; 
first to Hans HanscBcrgen, by whom she had six children, namely, Michael Hanse, Jons 
Hanse, Jan Hanse, Jacob Hanse, Breckje Hanse, and Marytje Hanse. Her secpnd has. 
band was Teunis Guisbertse Bogart, by whom also she had six children, namely, Aurtie, 
Antje, Neelje, Aultje, Catalyn'je, and Guysbert. The account of this remarkable woman 
in the archives of the New York Historical Society contains the names of the persons to 
whom eleven of her children were married, and the places where they settled. The 
twelfth, Breckje Hanse, went to Holland. In the journal of the Dutch Council in 1656, it 
is related that ** the widow Hans Hanson, the Christian daughter in New Nether, 
lands, burdened with seven children, petitions for a grant of a piece of meadow, in addi. 
tion to the twenty morgen granted to her at the Waale.Boghu' There is a tradition in 
Che family, that the Indians, induced by the circumstance of her being the first white child 
bom here, gave to her father and his brethren, the other French who followed them, the 
lands adjacent to the bay; hence called (says Judge Benson) HeUWaale Boght^ cormpted 
to Wallahout Bay, A few of the other associates of De Rapclje were Le Escuyer, Duryee, 
La Sillier, Cershow, Conscillaer, Musserol ; these, with some changes in the mode of spell, 
ing, are still found among us. It appears by the Dutch records, that in 1634 a part of the 
land at Red Hook was the property of Wouter Van Twiller, being one of the oldest titles 
in the town. The carHcst deed for land was fi'om Govemor Kiefi to Abraham Rycken, in 
Xfi36. The oldest grant recorded is to Thomas Beeker in 1639. This must be considered 
as the commencement of permanent Dutch settlements on Long Island, and there is no 
evidence of any direct and svstematic efforts being made for the purpose till this period.** — 
Thompson's UisU of I/mg Island, 

It seems to have been enjoined upon the overseers and constables 
to admonish the inhabitants to instruct their children and servants in 
matters of reUgion, and in the laws of the country. The inhabitants 
at first attended divine worship at New Amsterdam, (New York,) 
and at Flatbush. In 1659, the inhabitants of the town apjdied to 
Gov. Stuyyesant for permission to call a minister for their congrega- 
tion. This request was granted, and the Rev^ Henry Solinus, bein^ 
approved by the classis of Amsterdam, was sent over from HoUand, 
^d installed their pastor in 1660. The first Dutch church was built 
in 1B86, -qnd «*ood about ^'^rty y^arsc w^^'^r another wa" e-'*cted on 


the same spot, which was taken down in 1810, and a new and nb- 
stantiaj one built in Jerolemon street ; this last has given place to a 
more splendid edifice on nearly the same site. An Episcopal society 
existed in this town as early as 1706. In, 1705, St. Ann's church wu 
occupied for the first time. The first Methodist church was incor^ 
poratcd in 1704 ; the first Presbyterian in 18!22 ; the first Baptist in 
1822 ; the first Catholic in 1822 ; and the first congregational in 1838. 
The first printing press established in this town, was by Thomas 
Kirk, in 1700, who issued a newspaper, entitled the " Courier, and 
New York and Long hland Advertiser" which continued lour years. 
The first number of the ** Long Island Star" was also issued by Mr. 
Kirk, in 1800. , 

The most compact part of Brooklyn was incorporated into a villwe 
in 181(5, which, although much opposed by a portion of the popula- 
tion, cave a new impure to the spirit of improvement, which has re- 
suited in raising it to be the second city in point of population in tbe 
state of New York. In April, 1834, the whole territory of the town 
was incorporated under the name of the " City of Brooklyn." It ii 
divided into 9 wards ; the powers of the corporation are vested 'y^ k 
mayor, and a board of aldermen, composed of two elected from each 
ward. Brooklyn contains 28 churches, viz : 6 Episcopalian, 2 Dutdh 
Reformed, 7 nesbyterian, 2 Baptist, 4 Episcopal Methodist, 1 Cen- 
tenary Episcopal Methodist, 1 Primitive Methodist, 1 Wesleyan 
Methodist, 2 Roman Catholic, 1 Unitarian Congregational Churdi, 
and 1 Friends Meeting-house. Population in 1820, 7,175; in 183Si 
10,790 ; in 1880, 15,394 ; in 1835, 35,312 ; in 1840, 3ej2S8. 

Northern vieto of the Navy-yard at Brooklyn. 

The above shows the appearance of tbe buildings, shipping, &c., 
at the navy-yard, at Brooklyn, as seen from Corlear's Hook. The 
United States possess about forty acres at this spot, including tbe old 
mill-pond. Here have been erected a spacious navy-yard, public 
stores, machme shops, and two immense edifices, in which the largest 
ahips are protected from the weather, while building. On the east 
side of the Waliabout bay, opposite the navy-yard, stands the U. S. 
Nsval Hoiirital, a magnificent structure. The Waliabout ii reD> 


dered memorable in the revolutionary period, from having been the 
scene of the heart-rending sufferings of many thousand American 

Prisoners confined in the prison ships stationed in the bay. The fol- 
>win^, relating to these vessels, communicated to the editor of 
the "Naval Magazine,'' in 1836, was written by Jeremiah Johnson, 
Esq., of Brooklyn, a gentleman who has filled many public offices in 
this place. 

** The subject of the naval prisoners, and of the British prison iliips stationed at the WaL 
labout during the revolution, is one which caiuiot be passed by in silence. From printed 
journals published in New York at the close of the war, it appeara that eleven, thousand 
five hundred American prisoners had died on board the prison ships. Although the num. 
ber is very great, still if the number who perished had been less, the commissary of naval 
prisoners, David Sprout, £!sq., and his deputy, had it in their power, by an official return, 
to give the true number exchanged, escaped, and dead. Such a return has never appeared 
in the United States. This man returned to America af^er the war, and resided in Phila- 
delphia, where he died. He could not have been ignorant of the statement published here 
on this interesting subject. We liiay therefore infer, that about that number perished in 
the prison ships. A large transport, named the Whitby^ was the first prison ship anchored 
in tile Wallabout. She was moored near * Remsen*s Mill,* about die 20th of October, 

1776, and was crowded with prisoners. Many landsmen were prisoners on board this 
vessel ; she was said to be the most sickly of all the prison ships. Bad jvovisions, bad 
watfr, and scanted rations were dealt to the prisoners. No medical men attended the sick. 
Disease reigned unrelieved, and hundreds died from pestilence, or were starved, on board 
this floating prison. I saw the sand-beach between a ravine in the hill and Mr. Remsen's 
dock become filled with graves in the course of two months ; and before the 1st of May, 

1777, the ravine alluded to was itself occupied in the same way. In the month of May of 
that year two large ships were anchored in the Wallabout, when the prisoners were trans, 
ferred fixim the Whitby to them. These vessels were also very sickly, from the causes 
before stated. Although many prisoners were sent on board of them, and were exchanged, 
death made room for all. On a Sunday afternoon, about the middle of October, 1777, one 
of the prison ships was burnt ; the prisoners, except a few, who, it was said, were burnt in 
the vessel, were removed to the remaining ^p. It was reported at the time that the pri. 
soners had fired their prison ; which, if true, proves that they preferred death, even by fire, 
to the lingering sufferings of pestilence and starvation. In the month of February, 1778, 
Che remaining prison ship was burnt at night ; when the prisoners were removed from her 
to the ships then wintering in the Wallabout In the month of April, 1778, the Old Jersey 
was moored in the Wallabout, and all the prisoners (except the sick) were transferred to 
her. The sick were carried to two hospital ships, named the Hope and Falmouth, anchor, 
ed near each other about two hundred yards east from the Jersey. These ships remained 
in the Wallabout until New York was evacuated by the British. The Jeney was the re. 
ceiving.8hip— the others, truly, the sAsjw «/ Death ! It has been generally thought that all 
the prisoners died on board of the Jersey. This is not true ; many may have died on board 
of her who were not reported as sick : but all the men who were placed on the siekJist 
were removed to the hospital ^ps, from which they were usually taken, sewed up in a 
blanket, to their long htme, 

" After the hospital ships were brought into the Wallabout, it was reported that the sick 
were attended by physicians; few, very few, however, recovered. It was no uncommon 
thing to see five or six dead bodies brought on shore in a single morning ; when a small 
excavation would be made at the foot of the hill, the bodies be cast in, and a man with a 
shovel would cover them by shovelling sand down the hill upon them. Many were buried 
in a ravine on the hill ; some on the farm. The whole shore from Rennie's Point to Mr. 
Remsen's dock.yard was a place of graves ; as were also the slope of the hill near the 
house, the shore from Mr. Remsen^s bam along the mill-pond to Rapeye*s farm and the 
sandy island, between the flood-gates and the mill-dam ; while a few were biuied on the 
shore, the east side of the Wallabout. Thus did Death reign Aere, torn 1776 nntU iha 
peace. The whole Wallabout was a sickly place during the war. The atmosphere seemed 
to be charged with foul air from the prison ships, and with the effluvia of the dead bodies 
washed out of their graves by the tides. We have ourselves examined many of the dknttt 
lying on the shore ; fi-om the teeth, they appear to be the remains of men in the prime of 
life. A sioguiarly daring and successfiU escape was efiected from the Jersey about 4 o'clock 
on* afumoon, in December, 1780.' The best boat of the ship had retumed from Mew 


York, was left fastened at the gangway, with the oars on board. It was atonny ; the wind 
Uew from the northeast, and the tide ran flood. A watchword was given, and a num. 
ber of prisoners placed themselves between the ship's waist and the sentinel ; at this June, 
tnre four eastern captains got on board the boat, which was cast off by their friends. The 
boat passed close under the bows of the ship, and was a considerable distance from her 
before the sentinel on the forecastle gave the alarm, and fired at her. The boat passed 
Hell-Gate, and arrived safe in Connecticut next morning." 

The following additional account of the sufferings of these unfortu- 
nate men was obtained from the prisoners, and published in the 
Connecticut Journal of Jan. 30, 1777. It is painfully minute in its 

" As soon as they were taken they were robbed of all their bag- 
gage, of whatever money they had, thoi^^h it were of paper and 
could be of no advantage to the enemy, of their silver shoe-buckles, 
knee-buckles, &c., and many were stripped almost naked of their 
clothes. Especially those who had good clothes, were stripped at 
once, being told that such clothes were too good for rebels. Thus de- 
prived of their clothes and baggage, they were unable to shift even 
their linen, and were obliged to wear the same shirts for even three 
or four months together, whereby they became extremely nasty and 
lousy ; and this of itself has been suincient to bring on them many 
mortal diseases. 

•* After they were taken, they were in the first place put on board 
the ships and thrust down into the hold where not a breath of fresh 
air could be obtained, and they were nearly suffocated for want of 
air. Particularly some who were taken at Fort Washington, were 
first in this manner thrust down into the holds of vessels in such num- 
bers that even in the cold season of November, they could scarcely 
bear any clothes on them, being kept in a constant sweat. Yet these 
same persons, after lying in this situation awhile, till the pores of their 
bodies were as perfectly opened as possible, were of a sudden taken 
out and put into some of the churches in New York, without cover- 
ing or a spark of fire, where they suffered as much by the cold as 
they did by the sweating stagnation of the air in the other situation ; 
and the consequence was, that they took such colds as brought on the 
most fatal diseases, and swept them off almost beyond conception. 

" Besides these things, they suffered extremely for want of provis- 
ions. The commissary pretended to allow half a pound of bread 
and four ounces of pork per day ; but of this pittance they were 
much cut short. What was given them for three days was not 
enough for one day ; and in some instances, they went for three days 
without a single mouthful of food of any sort. They were pinched 
to that degree that some on board the ships would pick up and eat 
the salt, which happened to be scattered there ; others gathered up 
the bran which the lighthorse wasted, and ate that, mixed with dirt 
and filth as it was. Nor was this all, both the bread and pork which 
they did allow them was extremely bad. For the bread, some of it, 
was made out of the bran which they brought over to feed their 
lighthorse, and the rest of it was so muddy and the pork so damni- 
fied, being so soaked in bilge water in the transportation from Europe, 


that they were not fit to be eaten by human creatures ; and when 
they were eaten, were very unwholesome. Such bread and pork as 
they would not pretend to give to their own countrymen, they gave 
to our poor, sick, dying prisoners. 

" Nor were they in this doleful situation allowed a sufficiency of 
water. One would have thought that water was so cheap and plen- 
tifiil an element, that they would not have grudged them that. But 
there are it seems no bounds to their cruelty. The water allowed 
them, was so brackish and withal nasty, that they could not drink it, 
till reduced to extremity. Nor did they let them have a sufficiency 
even of such water as this. 

" When winter came on, our poor people suffered extremely for 
want of fire and clothes to keep them warm. They were confined 
in churches where there were no fireplaces, that they could make 
fires even if they had wood. But wood was only allowed them for 
cooking their pittance of victuals ; and for that purpose very spar- 
ingly. They had none to keep them warm even in the extremest of 
weather, although they were almost naked, and the few clothes that 
were left them were their summer clothes. Nor had they a single 
blanket or any bedding, not even straw allowed them till a little be- 
fore Christmas. 

** At the time that those were taken on Long Island, a considerable 
part of them were sick of the dysentery, and, with this distemper on 
them, were first crowded on board of ships, afterward in the church- 
es in New York, three, four, or five hundred together, without any 
blankets, or any thing for even the sick to lie upon, but the bare floors 
or pavements. In this situation that contagious distemper soon com- 
municated from the sick to the well, and who would probably have 
remained so, had they not in this manner been thrust in together 
without regard to sick or well, or to the sultry, unwholesome season, 
it being then the heat of summer. Of this distemper numbers died 
daily, and many others, by their confinement and the sultry season, 
contracted fevers and died of them. During their sickness, with these 
and other diseases, they had no medicines, nothing soothing or com- 
fortable for sick people, and were not so much as visited by the phy- 
sician by the month together. 

" Nor ought we to omit the insults which the humane Britons 
offered to our people, nor the artifices which they used to enlist them 
in their service and fight against their country.* It seems that one 
end of their starving our people was to bring them, by dint of necessi- 
ty, to turn rebels to their own country, their own consciences, and 
their God. For while thus famishing, they would come and say to 
them, * This is the just punishment of your rebellion. Nay, you are 

* treated too well for rebels ; you have not yet received half you de- 

* serve or half you shall receive. But if you will enlist into His 
' Majesty's service, you shall have victuals and clothes enough.' 

^ As to insults, the British officers, besides continually cunuDg and 
swearing at them as rebels, often threatened to hang them all ; and 
at a particular time, ordered a number, each man to cmooie hii Wter 



out of a parcel offered, wherewith to be hanged ; and even went so 
far as to cause a gallows to be erected before the prison, as if they 
were immediately to be executed. They further threatened to send 
them all into the East Indies, and sell them there for slaves. In these, 
and numberless other ways, did the British officers seem to rack their 
inventions, to insult, terrify, and vex the poor prisoners. The mean- 
est upstart officers among them would insult and abuse our colonels 
and chief officers. 

" In this situation, without clothes, without victuals or drink, and 
even water, or with those which were base and unwholesome, with- 
out fire, a number of them sick, first with a contagious and nauseous 
distemper ; these with others crowded by hundreds into close con- 
finement, at the most unwholesome season of the year, and continued 
there for four months without blankets, bedding or straw ; without 
linen to shift or clothes to cover their bodies ; — ^no wonder they all 
became sickly, and having at the same time no medicine, no help of 
physicians, nothing to refresh or support nature, died by scores in a 
niffht ; and those who were so far gone as to be unable to help them- 
selves, the workings of their distemper passing through them as they 
lay, could not be cleansed for want of^ change of clothes. So that 
many lay for six, seven, or eight days, in all the filth of nature and of 
dysentery, till Death, more kind than Britons, put an end to their 

"By these means and in this way, above 1,500 brave Americans, 
who had nobly gone forth in defence of their injured, oppressed coun- 
try, but whom the chance of war had cast into the hands of our ene- 
mies, died in New York ; many of whom were very amiable, promk 
ising youths of good families, the very flower of our land. And of 
those who lived to come out of prison, the greater part, as far as I 
can learn, are dead and dying. Their constitutions are broken, the 
stamina of nature worn out, they cannot recover, they die. Even 
the few that might have survived, are dying of the small-pox. For 
it seems that our enemies determined that even these, whom a good 
constitution and a kind Providence had carried through imexampled 
sufferings, should not at last escape death, just before their release 
from imprisonment infected them with that fatal distemper. 

" To these circumstances, I shall subjoin the manner in which they 
buried those of our people who died. They dragged them out of 
their prisons by one leg or one arm, piled them up without doors, 
there let them lie till a sufficient number were dead to make a cart 
load ; then loaded them up in a cart, drove the cart thus loaded out 
to the ditches made by our people, when fortifying New York ; there 
they would tip the cart, tumble the corpses together into the ditch ; 
and afterward slightly cover them with earth. 

" While our poor prisoners have been thus treated by 

our foes, the prisoners we have taken have enjoyed the liberty of 
walking and riding about within large limits, at their pleasure : have 
been- fully supplied with every necessary, and have even lived on the 
hi of the land ; so none have heea so well fisd, so healthy, so plump, 



and 80 merry as they. And this generous treatment it is said they 
could not but remember. For when they were returned, in the ex- 
change of prisoners, and saw the miserable, famished, dying state of 
our prisoners, conscious of the treatment they had received, they 
could not refrain from tears." 

In 1808, a tomb was erected to the memory of these martyrs to 
liberty, on the comer of Jackson-street, nearly opposite the end of 
Front-street, in the vicinity of the navy-yard. Thirteen coffins were 
filled with their bleached bones, and interred in it with great venera- 
tion and respect. There was a grand civic and military procession 
on the occasion, at which fifteen thousand persons are said to have 
been present. ** The tomb is a small square frame building, sur- 
mounted by an eagle on the point of the roof; the interior is an ante- 
chamber to the vault beneath, in which the coffins are deposited ; 
there is a row of posts and rails in front of the tomb, on which the 
names of the 13 original states of the Union are inscribed ; the area 
around the tomb is enclosed by a rail fence, over the entrance of 
which is the following inscription: ^Portal to the Tomb of 11,500 
Patriot Prisoners, who died in dungeons and prison ships^ in and 
about the city of New York during the revolution,^ " 

The following account of the blowing up of the steam-frigate Ful- 
ton at the navy-yard in this place, June 4th, 1829, was written on 
the morning after the explosion : 

** The Fulton has ever since the war been occupied as a receiving ship, and was moored 
within two hundred yards of the shore. The magazine was in the bow of the ship, and 
contained at the time of the explosion but three barrels of damaged powder. The explo. 
sion was not louder than that produced by the discharge of a single cannon ; and many 
persons in the navy.yard supposed the report to have proceeded from such a source, until 
they saw the immense column of smoke arising from the vessel. Others about the yard 
saw the masts rising into the air before the explosion, and immediately after, the air was 
filled with fragments of the vessel. It is not a litde remarkable, that a middiipman who 
was, at the time of the accident, asleep on board of the frigate United States, within two 
hundred yards of the Fulton, was not at all disturbed by the report of the explosion, and 
was not aware of th^ occurrence, until he was told of it after he awoke. 

'* The Fulton is a complete wreck ; the bow being destroyed nearly to the water, and the 
whole of this immense vessel, whose sides were more than four feet thick, and all other 
parts of corresponding strength — b now lying an entire heap of ruins, burst asunder in all 
parts, and aground at the spot where she was moored. Althou^ she was but 200 yards 
from the navy.yard, and many vessels near her, not one of them received the least dam. 
age ; nor was the bridge which led from the shore to the Fulion at all injured. The sen. 
tinel upon the bridge received no wound whatever, and continued to perform his duty after 
the accident, as unconcerned as though nothing had happened. The sentinel on board the 
ship was less fortunate, and escaped with merely (a light accident on such occasions) a 
broken leg. There were attached to the Fulton, by the roll of the ship, 143 persons ; and, 
at the time of the explosion, there were supposed to have been on board the yeesel about 
sixty persons. 

" It happened fortunately that sixty-two men, formerly attached to the frigate, were drafted 
on Tuesday, and had proceeded to Norfolk to form part of the crew of the frigate Constel- 
lation, then on the eve of departure for a foreign station. The band, 17 in number, were 
on shore. This dreadful accidenfwas occasioned by the gunner's going into the nugasine 
to procure powder to fire the evening gun. He was charged by one of the officers pre. 
viously to his going below, to be careful ; and soon after, the explosion took place. We un. 
derstand that he was a man between fifty and sixty years of age, and had just boen ap. 
pointed to that office ; the old gunner having been discharged the day before. He was de. 
sired by Lieutenant Breckenridge to be cautious with the light, and to place it in the loca. 
tion invariably provided for it, on soch occasions, viz. behind a rsflectiiig glan in tbe parti- 

KING! OOimTT. 9S7 

tioo, througfa which the rays of light are thrown. It n mppoted ha hid been careieM in 
this particular, and that having carried tha candle into the magaiine, some of its qtarki 
were communicated to the powder : but as he is among the deaid, nothing certain on thk 
point can ever be known. Lieutenant Mull states, that die necessary precaudons had been 
taken for opening die magazine, and a sentinel placed at the hatch before he left die deck, 
and that after being in the ward room some twenty minutes the explosion took place. 

" At the time of the explosion, the officers were dining in the wiud room. The lady of 
Lieatenant Breckenridge, and the son of Lieutenant Piatt, a lad about nine years old, were 
gueets, and one account says both were slighUy wounded. Another account says, Lieuten- 
ant Mull, who was sitdiig next to the son of Lieutenant Piatt, widi great presence of mind, 
caught hold of him and placed him in one o( the port-holes, by which means he escaped 
unii^jured. Lieutenant Piatt had returned only yesterday morning, having been absent one 
month on leave. Commodore Chauncey, with the commander of the frigate. Captain New- 
ton, left her only a few minutes before the explosion — the former having been on boanl on 
a visit of inspecdon. 

** The escape of Midshipman Eckford seems to have been ahnost miraculous. When 
Commodore Chauncey (who was one of the first to reach die vessel) got on board, the fint 
ol(ject he saw was young Eckford hanging by one of his legs between the gan^eck, whither 
he had been forced by the explosion. A jack-screw was immediately procured, by meana 
of which the deck was raised and he was extricated from his perilous situation. 

** The room in which the officers were dining was situated about midships. The whole 
company at the table were forced, by the concussion, against the transom widi such violence 
as to break their limbs, and otherwise cut and bruise them in a shocking manner. 

** The magazine was situated in the bows of the vessel. This part of the ship, as may 
well be imagined, is completely demolished. Indeed the ship remains as complete a wreck 
as probably was ever beheld. The ambers throughout appear to have been perfecUy rotten. 
Many of the guns were thrown overboard, and some of them (of large dimensions) hung 
as it were by a hair. 

** The bodies of the dead and wounded were brought on shore as soon as circumstancea 
would permit. The former, after being recognised, were put into coffins. The latter were 
carried to the hospital of the navy.yord and every attention paid to them. The bodies of 
the dead were shockingly mangled ; their features distorted, and so much blackened, that 
it was difficult to recognise them. 

^ Commodore Chauncey and the officers of the station were on board the wreck, after 
the explosion, giving directions to remove the scattered timber, in order that a search might 
take place for such bodies as might be buried in the ruins. The ude being at the ebb, im« 
mense quantides of the fragments of the ship floated down in front of the city, and hun- 
dreds uf small boats were seen busily engaged in securing them. 

** What is a very remarkable circumstance, although several of the persons at dinner in 
the ward room escaped with their lives, and some of tiiem unirijurcd, not a vestige of the 
table, chairs, or any of the furniture in the room remains. Every thing was blown to atoms. 

" The Fulton was built with two keels, or rather was in fact two 
boats, joined together by the upper works. The sides were of im- 
mense thickness, and the whole frame was, when built, probably the 
strongest of the kind ever constructed. But the timbers had now be- 
come very rotten, and the whole hulk was, as it were, kept together 
by its own weight. It is supposed that the rotten state of the vessel, 
making her timbers give way easily, rendered the destruction greater 
than if she had been new and sound. 

" Midshipman Eckford was standing in the starboard gangway, and 
was strangely tumbled to the inside, instead of beinff blown out upon 
the platform. He was then caught under one of the beams, where 
he hung fast by one leg. 

** While he hung in this painful condition, not a groan, nor a com- 
plaint, nor a word of supplication escaped him. His cheek was un- 
blanched, and his features composed, while he held on to the beam 
with his arms to keep his head up. 

" Attempts were made to raise the beam, but there was such a mass 
of materials above, that no muscular force could move it Id thit 


emergency, Commodore Chauncey, wita great promptness, ordered 
the jack-screw to be brought from the shore. TT his took time, and it 
was not then the work of a moment to apply it, and bring it into ac- 
tion. An hour went by, ere the youth was extricated ; and yet not a 
flingle murmur of impatience was heard from his hps. His only 
words were in direction or encouragement to those who were aiding 
him — exclaiming from time to time, * Hurra my hearties P * There it 
moves r His only reproof was to the sailor, who, when the beam 
was raised, attempted, rather rudely, to withdraw the fractured limb. 
The sailor supported him whilst he performed the office himself. 

" The whole number of killed was thirty-three, including Lieuten- 
ant Breckenridge and the three women. Twenty-nine were reported 
as wounded, but there were many more who were slightly injured. 
Nearly every person on board received at least a scratch. 

" The greatest part of the mischief was done by the force of the 
fragments and splinters. These were driven into every part of the 
flhip. Captain Newton, who commanded the ship, employed all the 
force he could spare, to clear the wreck, and find the bodies of the 
unfortunate sufferers. Twenty-four were taken out of the ruins at 
the time, but some of the others weje not found till a considerable 
time after. One was found horribly mutilated, and drifted ashore on 
Staten Island. Another got fastened to a beam, and was picked up. 
Two were picked out of the water near the wreck." 

Brooklyn is distinguished as bein^ the scene of important military 
operations, and was for a long time m possession of the enemy durin&[ 
the revolutionary war. The most sanguinary part of the battle of 
Long Island, August 27th, 1776, took place in this town. The fol- 
lowing account is from Thompson's History of Long Island. 

" After the commencement of hostiUties in 1776, New York being 
situated near the centre of the colonial sea-board, and readily acces- 
sible from the sea, was selected by the enemy as a principal point for 
their fiuture operations. With this view, a first division of their army 
arrived at Staten Island in the latter part of June of that year, fol- 
lowed, about the middle of July, by the grand armament under Lord 
Howe, consisting of six ships of the line, thirty frigates, with smaller 
armed vessels, and a great number of transports, victuallers, and 
ships with ordinance. 

"The Americans anticipating the invasion of Loi^ Island, had 
fortified Brooklyn before the arrival of the British at Staten Island. 
A line of intrcnchment was formed from a ditch near the late Toll- 
House of the Bridge Company at the navy-yard to Fort Green, then 
called Fort Putnam, and from thence to Freek's mill-pond. A strong 
work was erected on the lands of Johannis Debevoice and of Van 
Brunt ; a redoubt was throwm up on Baemus' Hill opposite Brown's 
mill, and another on the land of John Johnson, west of Fort Green. 
Ponkiesburg, now Fort Swift, was fortified, and a fort built <m the 
land of Mr. Hicks on Brooklyn heights. Such were the defences of 
Brooklyn in 1776, while a chevaux de frise was sunk in tbe nuuua 

dunfiri of the hTo- beiow New York. The troops of both divisioBi 
of the British army were landed an Staten Island after their arrival 
in the bay, lo re^roi: ihrlr stren^ih and prepare for the coming ooii* 
flicL It was not tZI the middie oi August, that a first landing qd 
Long Island was made by ihem at Xew I'trechL Here they were 
join^ by many royaLsts frcnn the neighborhood, who probably acted 
the infamous pan of iniormei^ and guides to the enemy. General 
Sir Henry Ciinton arrived abr*u: the same time, with the troops re^ 
coDducied a^om the eiped!::on to Charles: on- 

**Comm«>dore Hoiham already appeared there with the reinforce- 
ments under his escort : so that in a short time the hoetile anny 
amounied to aboc: twecty-four liioasand men. — English, Hessians, 
and Waldeckers. Several regiments of Hessian infantry were ex- 
pected to amve shortiy. when the army would be swelled to the 
number of thirty-five thousand combatants, of the best troops of £u- 
Tope^ all abuiidantiy supplied with arms and ammunition, and mani- 
festing an extreme ardor for the service of their king. The plan 
was, brst to get possession of New York, which was deemed of most 
essential importance. 

" To nmsi dci ispeadiz;^ •;onn, Cocgmi hmd ordained the cocstractioB of raAa, gm. 
boto, £ajl«r&, and ^Mtutg baircneB, tor Uie aelence of the pon of New York and ibe 
mouth of iLt HudMQ. They had aiso decreed ±a: thirteen 'iioosand of the provincal 
nfliiia £h'<ajd join '.nt annr of Washingioa, who, bei^g seasonably apprised of ibe danger 
of Nev York, had made a moTement inu> that quaner; they also dlrecied die orgnniift. 
lioD of a cfxjK of len thoTzsand men. destined lo serre as a reserve in the province of th» 
centre. All the veakest pass had been caretully insenched, and tumisbed with MXuOiafm 
A strong cetachmeQi occupied Long Island, to preTent the English trom landing then, or 
to lepu^ them if they »oaki effect a debarkation. But the army of Con g ress was veiy 
iar from baring aii the necessary means to suppun the burden of m> terrible a war. It 
wanted arms, and it was wasted by diseases. The rsiterated instances of the commandcr- 
in-chjef had drawn into his camp the militia o( *Jie neighboring pronncee, and aone regvltf 
regime r/bS trom MaryiaTid. trom Pennsylvania, and from New England, which had swelled 
ha army to ioe cumber of !wea:y.^ven thousand men ; hot a fourth of these tioopa woe 
composed of invaLds, and scarcely wa? another founh furnished with arms. 

** The AraeRcan army, such as i: was, occupied the positions most suitaMe to cover die 
menaced points. The corp« which had been stationed on Long Island, was commanded 
by Major^eneral Greene, who, on account of sickneai, was afterward succeeded by Gene. 
ral Suilivan. The main body of the army encamped on the island of New York, which, it 
appeared, was destined lo receive the first blows of the EngUsh. 

** Two feeble detachments guarded Governor's Island and the point of Panlus* Hook. 
The imiitia of the province, commanded by the American General Clinton, were posted 
upon the banks of ifae Sound, where they occupied the two Chesters, Elast and West, and 
New Rochelle. For it was to be feared that the enemy, landing in force upon the north 
shore of the Sound, might peneoate to Kingsbridge, and thus entirely lock up all the Amer. 
ican troops on the island of New York. Lioni Howe made some overtures of peace upon 
terms of submision to the royal clemenc>', which, resulting in nothing, decided the British 
general to attack Long Island. * Accordingly,* says Botta, * on the twenty.aecond of Au- 
gust, tbe f^eet approached the yarrows; all the troops found an easy aixi secure landing- 
place between the villages of Gravesend and New Utrecht, where they debarked withoat 
meeting any resisunce on the part of the Americans. A great part of the American army, 
under the command of General Pumam, encamped at Brooklyn in a port of the island which 
forms a sort of peninsula. He had strongly for ified the entrance of it with moats and in. 
trenchmenis ; his left wing rested upon the WalUbomt bay, and his right was covered by a 
marsh contiguous to Gottantu^ Cove, Behind him he bad Governor's Island, and the aim 
uf the sea which separates Long Island from the Island of New York, and which gave him 
a direct communication with the city, where the other part of the army was stationed uiider 
Washington himself. The, perceiving the battle was approachingt 
eostiniiaUy ethorted hit men to keep their zankny and •ammen all tbaar courage : he re. 


minded them that in their valor rested the only hope that remained to American liberty ; that 
upon their resistance depended the preser\'ation or the pillage of their property by barbarians ; 
that they were about to combat in defence of their parents, their wives, and tlieir children, 
from the outrages of a licentious soldiery ; that the eyes of America were fixed upon her 
champions, and expected from their success on this day either safety or total destruction.' 

** The English having effected their landing, marched rapidly for- 
ward. The two armies were separated by a chain of hills, covered 
with woods, called the heights, and which, running from west to east, 
divide the island into two parts. They are only practicable upon 
three points : one of which is near the Narrows ; the road leading to 
that of the centre passes the village of Flatbush ; and the third is ap- 

!)roached, far to the right, by the route of another village called FlaU 
ands. Upon the summit of the hills is found a road, which follows 
the length of the range, and leads from Bedford to Jamaica^ which is 
intersected by the two roads last described : these ways are all in- 
terrupted by precipices, and by excessively difficult and narrow 

** The American general, wishing to arrest the enemy upon these 
heights, had carefully furnished them with troops ; so that, if all had 
done their duty, the English would not have been able to force the 
passages without extreme difficulty and danger. The posts were so 
frequent upon the road from Bedford to Jamaica, that it was easy to 
transmit, from one of these points to the other, the most prompt in- 
telligence of what passed upon the three routes. Colonel Miles, with 
his battalion, was to guard the road of Flatland, and to scour it con- 
tinually with his scouts, as well as that of Jamaica, in order to recon- 
noitre the movements of the enemy. Meanwhile the British army 
pressed forward, its left wing being to the north and its right to the 
south ; the village of Flatbush was found in its centre. The Hes- 
sians, commanded by General Heister, formed the main body ; the 
English, under Major-general Grant, the left ; and the other corps, con- 
ducted by General Clinton, and the two lords, Percy and Cornwallis, 
composed the right. In this wing the British generals had placed 
their principal hope of success ; they directed it upon Flatland. Their 
plan was, that while the corps of General Grant, and the Hessians 
of General Heister, should disquiet the enemy upon the two first de- 
files, the left wing, taking a circuit, should march through Flatland, 
and endeavor to seize the point of intersection of this road with that 
of Jamaica ; and then rapidly descending into the plain which extends 
at the foot of the heights upon the other side, should fall upon the 
Americans in flank and rear. The English hoped, that as this post 
was the most distant from the centre of the army, the advanced 
guards would be found more feeble there, and perhaps more negli- 
gent : finally, they calculated that, ui all events, the Americans would 
not be able to defend it against a force so superior. This right wing 
of the English was the most numerous, and entirely composed of se- 
lect troops. 

^ The evening of the twenty ^xth of August, General Clinton commanded the vingutrd, 
which consisted in light infantry ; Lord Percy the centre, where were found the grenadien, 
the artillery, and the cavalry; and ComwaJlis, the rear..guard, followed by th« biM^age 

KINGS coumnr. 381 

some regimentB of infantry and of heavy artillery ; all this part of the English army pot 
itself in motion with admirable order and silence, and leaving Flatland, traversed the coon, 
iry called New Lots. Colonel Miles, who this night performed his service with little ex. 
actness, did not perceive the approach of the enemy ; so that two hours before day the 
English were already arrived within a half mile of the road to Jamaica, upon the heights. 
Then General Clinton halted, and prepared himself for the attack. He had met one of the 
enemy's patrols, and made him prisoner. General Sullivan, who commanded all the troops 
in advance of the camp of Brooklyn, had no advice of what passed in this quarter. He 
neglected to send out firesh scouts ; perhaps he supposed the English would direct their 
principal efforts against bis right wing, as being nearest to them. 

** General Clinton, learning from his prisoners that the road to Jamaica was not guarded, 
hastened to avail himself o( the circumstance, and occupied it by a rapid movement. 
Without loss of time he immediately bore to his left towards Bedford, and seized an im- 
portant defile, which the American generals had left unguarded. From this moment the 
success of the day was decided in favor of the English. Lord Percy came up with his 
corps ; and the entire column descended by the village of Bedford from the heights into 
the plain which lay between the hills and the camp of the Americans. During this time 
General Grant, in order to amuse the enemy, and divert his attention from the events 
which took place upon the route of Flatland, endeavored to disquiet him upon his right : 
accordingly, as if he intended to force the defile which led to it, he had put himself in mo. 
tion about midnight, and had attacked the militia of New York and of Pennsylvania, who 
guarded it. They at first gave ground ; but General Parsons being arrived, and having 
occupied an eminence, he renewed the combat, and maintained his position till Brigadier, 
general Lord Stirling came to his assistance with fifteen hundred men. The action be. 
came extremely animated, and fortune favored neither the one side nor the other. The 
Hessians, on their part, had attacked the centre at break of day ; and the Americans, com- 
manded by General Sullivan in person, vaUantly sustained their efforts. At the same time 
the English ships, after having made several movements, opened a very brisk cannonade 
against a battery established in the Uttle island of Red Hook, upon the right flank of the 
Americans, who combated against General Grant. This also was a diversion, the object 
of which was to prevent them from attending to what passed in the centre and on the left. 
The Americans defended themselves, however, with extreme gallantry, ignorant that so 
much valor was exerted in vain, since victory was already in the hands of the enemy. 
General Clinton being descended into the plain, fell upon the %{t flank of the centre, which 
was engaged with the Hessians. He had previously detached a small corps, in order to 
intercept the Americans. 

" As soon as the appearance of the English light infantry apprized 
them of their danger, they sounded the retreat, and retired in good 
order towards their camp, bringing off their artillery. But they soon 
fell in with the party of royal troops which had occupied the ground 
on their rear, and who now charged them with fury ; they were 
compelled to throw themselves into the neighboring woods, where 
they met again with the Hessians, who repulsed them upon the Eng- 
lish ; and thus the Americans were driven several times by the one 
against the other with great loss. They continued for some time in 
this desperate situation, till at length several regiments, animated by 
aii heroic valor, opened their way through the midst of the enemy, 
and gained the camp of General Putnam ; others escaped through 
the woods. The inequality of the ground, the great numbers of po- 
sitions which it offered, and the disorder which prevailed throughout 
the line, were the cause that for several hours divers partial combats 
were maintained, in which many of the Americans fell. 

" Their left wing and centre being discomfited, the English, desir- 
ous of a complete victory, made a rapid movement against the rear 
of the right wing, which, in ignorance of the misfortune which had 
befallen tne other corps, was engaged with General Grant. Finally, 
having received the intelligence, they retired. But, encountering 


the English, who cut off their retreat, a part of the soldiers took 
shelter in the woods ; others endeavored to make their way through 
the marshes of Gowan's Cove ; but here many were drowned in the 
waters or perished in the mud ; a very small number only escaped 
the hot pursuit of the victors, and reached the camp in safety. ^-The 
total loss of the Americans, in this battle, was estimated at more than 
three thousand men in killed, wounded, and prisoners. Among the 
last were found General Sullivan, and Brigadier-genera] Lord Ster- 
ling. Almost the entire regiment of Maryland, consisting of young 
men of the best families in that province, was cut to pieces. Six 

Eces of cannon fell into the power of the victors. The loss of the 
glish was very inconsiderable ; in killed, wounded, and prisoners, 
it did not amount to four hundred men. 

** The enemy encamped in front of the Americanjines ; and on the 
succeeding night broke ground within sis hundred yards of a redoubt 
on the ieit, and threw up a breaat-work on the Wallabout heights, 
upon the Debevoice farm, commenced firing on Fort^ Putnam, and 
reconnoitred the American forces. The Americans were here pre- 
pared to receive them ; and orders issued to the men to reserve theb: 
fire till they could see the eyes of the enemy. A few of the Bntish 
officers reconnoitred the position, and one, on coming near, waa shot 
by William Van Colls, of Bushwick. The same afternoon Captain 
Rutgers, brother of the late Colonel Rutgers, also fell. Several other 
British troops were killed, and the column which had incautiously 
advanced, fell back beyond the range of the American fire. In this 
critical state of the American army on Long Island — in front a nu- 
merous and victorious enemy with a formidable train of artillery, the 

Washington's Qwirters at Oowanus, Brooklyn.* 

fle0t indicating an intention of forcing a jassaee up the East tivw, 
the troops lying without shelter from oeavy raina, fatigued and dii^ 
pirited— General Washingtt>n determined to withdraw me anny from 

■ This dwelling, ilie hend-qnanera of WKBhiii|:ton wbeo oa Lmg Utnd, ii dow «wiied 
bf Mr. Cortelrou, and is niuBied on the Guwanu* rood neu ths lem Aen, ■ mOia and | 
lutrdinuit firom ihe Muih feirj. 

Kiircn couNTT. S38 

the island ; and this difficult movement was effected with great skill 
and judgment, and with complete success. The retreat was to have 
conmienced at eight o'clock in the evening of the 29th, but a strong 
northeast wind and a rapid tide caused a delay of several hours ; a 
southwest wind springing up at eleven, essentially facilitated its pas- 
sage from the island to the city ; and a thick fog hanging over Liong 
Island towards morning, concealed its movements from the enemy, 
who were so near that the sound of their pick-axes and shovels were 
distinctly heard by the Americans. 

** General Washington, as far as possible, inspected every thing 
firom the commencement of the action on the morning of the 27th ; 
till the troops were safely across the river, he never closed his eyes, 
and was almost constantly on horseback. After this the British and 
their allies, the tories and refugees, had possession of Long Island ; 
and many distressing scenes occurred, which were never made pub- 
lic, and can therefore n^nxr be known. The whigs, who had been 
at all active in b^ehalf of independence, were exiled from their homes, 
^ and their dwellings were objects of indiscriminate plunder. Such as 
could be taken, were incarcerated in the church of New Utrecht 
and Flatlands ; while royalists, by wearing a red badge in their hats, 
were protected and encouraged. It is believed that had Lord Howe , 
availed himself of the advantages he possessed by passing his ships 
up the river between Brooklyn^ and New York, the whole American 
army must have beei^ almost inevitably captured or annihilated. 
General Washington saw but too plainly the policy which might 
have been pursued, and wisely resolved rather to abandon the island 
than attempt to retain it at the risk of sacrificing his army." 

BusHWicK is situated in the NE. exiremity of Kings county. Pop- 
ulation of the town, including Williamsburg, 6,389. The settlement of 
the town was commenced by the Dutch, who were joined many years 
after by a number or-Huguenot families, whose descendants are nu- 
merous and respectable in this and the neighboring towns. The name 
is of Dutch origin, indicating that the territory was remarkable for 
the woods which covered its surface in early times. From the or- 
ganization of the town till 1690, it was for certain civil purposes 
associated with the other towns in the county, except Gravesend, 
constituting a separate district under the appellation of the "Five 
Dutch Towns,^ and for which a secretary or register was specially 
commissioned by the governor to take proofs of wills, of marriage 
settlements, &c. These five towns formed but one ecclesiastical 
congregation. The population of Bushwick was inconsiderable at 
the time of the revolutionary war. The vicinity of its forests to the 
garrisons and barracks of New Ygrk and Brooklyn, led to the entire 
waste of the valuable timber, which abounded at the commencement 
of the contest. 

** On tht 13tfa of May, 1664, the magistrates of this town sentenced one John Van Ly 
den, convicted of publishing a libel, to be fastened to a stake, with a bridle in his mouthy 
«^t rods under his arm, and a label on his breast with the words, * writer of lampooiu, 
/(dm aeeu$er, and defamer of magistrates^* upon it, and then to be banished from the colo. 
wif. An imtance alio occoiPMlt of a doigyraan, who had imptoptily manied a couple, 


-234 inaes coitrtt. 

bnnfc wntencfld to 'Jtagging sml hanulantnt,' but which, od accoimt of ths adeanctd age 

of tbe detinquenl, vru miiigHted by the governor lo banahment only. Anolbet penoa, 
eODTicled of [hefl, wu compelled lo stand for the space of three boura under s gilJows, 
with I tope BiDiind his neck and an empty scabbard in his hands. In 16M pentiissiDn was 
{JTen by the town to Abraham Janson to erect a mill on Maspeth Kilt, which was probably 
the liiBl water-mill built wiihin the town, and for grinding of the lown'a ^ain he was to 
nctin Iht • aatamary duliet: November 13, 1695, the court of seniona of Kings county 
made BD order 'That Mad Jamet should be kept ai the eipense of die couoty, and thai 
the deacons of each towne within the same doc forthwith meet together, and connder about 
their pnperaim for maintaiaence of said Jamea.' " 

Western view of Williamsburg, New York. 

The above shows the sppearance of the central part of the village 
of WilUamsburg,* as seen from the New York side of the East 
river. This flourishing village was till within a few years an iocon- 
siderable place, although it was commenced by a few spirited indi- 
viduals nearly thirty years ago, by erecting a few houses and estab- 
lishing a ferry between it and the foot of Grand-street. In 1817, a 
ferry boat, impelled by horse power, gave Williamsburg a new im- 
pulse, and in 1637, an act of incorporation was obtained. The vil- 
lage has a bold water front upon the East river, one mile and a half 
in extent, and a sufficient depth of water for all commercial purposes. 
Several laree and substantial wharves and docks have been con- 
structed, affording safe and convenient moorings for vessels oven of 
the largest class. Its ferry is the nearest approximation to the uppei 
parts 0? the city of New York from the eastern towns of Long Island, 
by two lines of steam ferry boats. So great has been the progress 
of improvement that the ancient village of Bushwick can scarcly be 
identified, having been amalgamated with Williamsburg. The vil- 
iMe has now upwards of 70 streets permanently laid out, about thirty 
of which have been graded and regulated, some paved, and one mac- 
adamized. There are upwards of six hundred dwellings, 6 churches — 
8 Methodist, 1 Dutch Reformed, and 1 Episcopal— a newspaper 
rarinting office, and manufacturing establishments of variom kindi. 
Population of the village 5,094. 

■ WilliajOMbuix b«> recently been sivclad into ■ Mpanta (own. 


Flatbubh, called by the Dutch Midwout, or Middle Woods^ was 
first settled in 1651. In Dec, 1654, Gov. Stujrvesant, who seems to 
have exercised ecclesiastical as well as civil and military authority, 
gave orders that a house of public worship should be erected in this 
town, " sixty feet long, thirty-eight wide, and fourteen feet in height 
below the beams.^ In 1655, he issued his commands that the people 
of Brooklyn and Amersfort should assist the people of Midwout in 
getting timber for the house. This building cost 4,637 guilders. This, 
it appears, was the first church erected on the island. The Rev. 
Johannis PoUiemus was employed to preach soon after its erection, 
wjth a salary of 1,040 guilders, (about $460,) raised by assessment 
upon the towns in which he officiated. " He was required by the 
governor in 1656, to preach every Sunday morning at Midwout; 
and in the afternoon, alternately at Amersfort and Brooklyn. 

The soil in this township is generally of a good quality, and by 
careful cultivation is made highly productive. The village of Flat^ 
bush is about four miles from the City Hall of New York, and has 
several £(^lendid private residences finely situated. The courthouse 
of the county was erected here in 16S5, and the courts continued to 
be held therein till it was destroyed by fire in 1832. Erasmns Hall^ an 
academical institution, was incorporated in 1787, and has ever main- 
tained a high reputation. Pop. 2,099. 

Flatlands was originally called by the Dutch, New Amersfort 
The settlement was commenced in 1636 ; and one of the^ first grants 
for land was that for Barren Island, which at that time was much 
larger than at present, and covered with cedar and other timber 
which has long since disappeared. Ex-governor Van Twiller had 
a farm in this to\\Ti at the time of its first settlement. The village 
of Flatlands, situated about 8 miles from Brooklyn, is a pleasant 
spot, in the centre of which is the Dutch church, originally erected 
in 1661, and has been since twice rebuilt. Pop. 810. 

** 'She surface of the town is, as its name indicates, a perfect level ; 
the soil, a light sandy loam, warm and pleasant to till ; and from the 
skill and industry of its farmuig population, yields a large amount over 
and above the wants of the inhabitants. The people, generally, are 
conspicuous for habits of economy ; and modem fashions have not 
yet extinguished their love of simplicity and substantial comfort" 


An extraordinary interview took place on the 2d day of April, 1691, between the gor- 
emor of New York and a sachem of Long Island, attended by his two sons and 20 other 
Indians. The sachem, on being introduced, congratulated Gov. Slaughter, in an eloquent 
manner, upon his arrival, and solicited his friendship and protection for himself and his 
people ; observing that he had in his own mind, fancied his excellency was a mighty UM 
tree, with wide spreading branches ; and therefore he prayed leave to stoop under ths 
shadow thereof. Of old (said he) the Indians were a great and mighty people^ but now 
they are reduced to a mere handful. He concluded his visit by presenting the governor 
with 30 fathoms of wampum, which he graciously accepted, and desired the sachem to viat 
him again in the afternoon. On taking their leave, the youngest son of the sachem handed 
a bondle of brooms to the officer in attendance, sajring at the same time, * that as Leiaier 
and his party had left the house very foul, he had brought the brooms with him for the pur. 
pose of making it clean again/ In the afternoon the sachem and his party again visited 
the governor, who made a speech to them, and on receiving a few presents they departed." 


Gravesend occupies the most southerly part of Kings county. 
Much of this town consists of salt marsh, not more than one third 
being under cultivation ; the surface is generally level, but near the 
fieashore there are some ridges of sand hills. Coney Island, which 
covers the town on the ocean, is about 6 miles long by 1 in breadth. 
The central part of the town is about 10 miles from the city of New 
York. Pop. 799. This place was settled by English emigrants from 
Massachusetts as early as 1640, who gave it the name of Gravesend, 
they having sailed from a place of that name in England, on their 
departure for America. They were soon after joined by Lady 
Deborah Moody, a woman of rank, education, and wealth, who, wilh 
her associates, were obliged to leave Lynn, and other places in Mas- 
sachusetts, on account of their religious sentiments. 

" Considering the simation of this town calculated it for the site of a commercial village, 
they proceeded almost immediately to lay out 10 acres of ground near the centre, into streets 
and squares, which they enclosed with a palisado defence. The plan of the village is still 
preserved in the clerk's office of the town, and is worthy admiration for its simplicity and 
beauty. It seems the project was soon after abandoned on discovering the insufficient 
depth of the water for the approach of large vessels. One of the original squares of the 
contemplated city was occupied by the courthouse of the county so long as the courts con. 
tinned to be held here; another contained the first Duch church; and a third has long 
been used for a public cemetery. On the same plot are a considerable number of graves 
of the first Quakers, the whole of which have been levelled by the plongh, except that of 
Peter Sullivan and his wife, at the head of which is a large granite slab, containing only the 
names of the deceased. As this particular sect make no use of such memorialB, it was 
probably placed^ere by some friend or relative who was not a Quaker.** 

In 1645, a general patent for this town, written in Dutch and Eng- 
lish, was obtained from Gov. Kieft. The patentees named therein are 
Lady Deborah Moody, Sir Henry Moody, Baronet, Ensign George 
Baxter, and Sergeant James Hubbard with their associates. We 
find in Mr. Lewis's '* History of Lynn," that Lady Moody came to 
that town in 1640 ; also, 

" That in 1635, she went from one of the remote counties in England to London, where 
she remained in opposition to a statute which directed that no person riiould residetlbyond 
a limited time from their own homes. On the 21st of April in that year, the court of star- 
chamber ordered that * Dame Deborah Mowdie,* and others, should return to their heredita* 
ments in 40 days, as a good example necessary for the poorer class. Soon after her arrival 
at Lynn, she united with the church of Salem ; and on the 13th of May, the court granted 
her 400 acres of land. In 1641, she purchased the farm of the depnty-govemor, John 
Humphry, called Swamscut, for which she paid JC1,100. Some time after aiie became im. 
bued with the erroneous idea that the baptism of infants was a sinful ordinance, and she 
was therefore excommunicated ; and in 1643, she removed to Long Island. Governor 
Winthrop, in his journal says, that * in 1643, Lady Moody was^in the colony of Maasachtu 
setts, a wise and anciently religious woman ; and being taken with the error of denying 
baptism to infants, was dealt with accordingly by many of the elders and others, and ad. 
monished by the church of Salem, whereof she was a member ; but persisting still, and to 
Avoid further trouble, &c., she removed to the Dutch settlements, against the advice of her 
friends.* *■ After her arrival at Long Island, (says Mr. Lewis,) she experienced much trouble 
from the Indians, her house being assailed by them many times. Her wealth enabled her 
to render assistance to Gov. Stuyvesant, in some trouble with the neighboring settlers, m 
1654 ; and so great was her influence over him, that he conceded, in part, the norainatkm 
of the magistrates to her. In the quarterly court records, her son is styled Sir Heniy 
Moody.* * At the same court, 14th December, 1642, the Lady Deborah Moodv, Bin. 
King, and the wife of John Til ton, were presented, for holding that the baptism of kfiuits 
IB no ordinance of God.* From these historical records we leain the reason why die Ltdy 
Moody, her son Sar Henry Moody, Ensign Baxter, Sergeant Hubbaid, John illton, tna 


othen of her associates and friends, left New England, and located themselves at Graves, 
end, where they hoped to enjoy the most perfect freedom of opinion, unawed by the civil 
power, and be allowed unmolested to propagate those religious opinions which to them 
seemed most agreeable to their principles of reason and justice. 

^ On the first of January, 1643, a soldier was convicted before the court of sessions at 
C^vesend of having left his station while on guard, and was punished by being compelled 
Id sit upon a wooden horse during the parade, with a pitcher in one hand, and a drawn 
■word in the other, to show that he liked beer better than his duty, and that his couragte 
was alwa3rs in proportion to the quantity of beer he consumed. * At a town meetings held 
September the 27th, 1644, it was votedj ihat those who have boweries, (farms,) should 
have 50 morgen of upland, with meadow proportionable to their stock ; and it was further 
mrdered, that if any did not build a habitable house upon it before the last day of May next, 
should be defaulted, and forfeit their land to the town.' The records of this town, which 
were uniformly kept in the English language, are still preserved almost entire. They com- 
mence with the year 1645 and for a series of years are chiefly occupied with the records 
of wills, inventories, letters of administration, and a variety of private contracts, bargains, 
■ales, &.C. In January, 1648, the town elected Sergeant James Hubbard, a man of respee. 
tability and influence, to execute the office of schout, or constable, which was considered as 
one of much importance. On the 14th of April, 1649, John Furman agreed wiih the town 
to keep their calves three months for 20 guilders a month, to be paid in money, tobaceOf or 
com, and some bitters, if desired." 

"Coney Island, on the seaboard, is a place of CTeat resort for 
strangers in the summer season, is constantly fanned oy cool breezes, 
and anords an unlimited view of the ocean. 

^ It is separated from the main of Long Island by a narrow creek or inlet, over which a 
handsome bridge has been erected. There is a fine spacious hotel here, called the Ocean 
House, which is conducted in a superior manner ; a railroad is attached to the establishment, 
and can leave the hotel for the beach, a distance of 80 rods, at particular intervals during 
the day. The bathing at this place is not surpassed by any in the United States. The 
beach is a beautiful white sand. The island is about 5 miles long and 1 wide, and is en- 
tirely an alluvial formation. The destructive effect of ocean storms has long been very visi. 
Ue here, for much of what was once Coney Island has now disappeared. It has been 
eonjectured by some persons that Coney Island proper. 200 years ago, lay at the entrance 
of Sandy Hook, and was separated from the present Coney Island by a channel of condd^ 
erable width, which is supposed to have been entirely demolished by a storm about 1715. 
It is well ascertained that in 1643 there was a convenient harbor for vessels of a laige 
size, which is now in a great measure filled up. The exposed situation of this island sub. 
jects it to great encroachments of the sea, and to the probability that at some future (ihou^ 
perhaps distant) period it will be entirely destroyed. In a terrible gale which occurred 
upon the coast on the 26th of January, 1839, the whole of Coney Island, with the ezcep. 
tion of a few sand-hills, was completely inundated by the sea ; the basement of the Ocean 
House was filled with water ; the bridge was carried away, several small vessels were caet 
on shore, and one was driven a considerable distance towards Flatlands." 

New Utrecht is at the west end of Long Island, opposite the Nar- 
rows ; 9 miles S. from Brooklyn. The soil of the township is mostly 
a light loam or sand. Pop. 1,283. Bath House and village are upon 
the margin of the bay, a mile and a half from the Narrows, having a 
full view of the military works at that place. It is quite a favorite 
place of resort during the warm season. It was near this delightful 
spot that the British army, under the command of Sir William Howe, 
effected a landing, August 22, 1776, a few days previous to the disas- 
trous battle of Long Island. Fort Hamilton, at the Narrows, has 
become an important military station ; several handsome buildings, 
with an Episcopal church, have been erected at this place, and few 
situations can boast of a finer prospect. The town appears to have 
been first settled in 1654, by about 20 families fi-om Holland, and a 
few Palatines, who at first erected a blockhouse, as well for security 


against the natives, as from the hordes of wandering savages, robbers, 
and pirates, which for some time infested the country and this part 
of the coast. 

** Some years ago, on digging a few feet below the surface at the Narrows, more than a 
wagon load of Indian stone arrow-heads were discovered lying together, under circumstan* 
oes calculated to induce the belief, that a large manufactory of those indispeiuMible articles 
of Indian warfare once existed at this place ; they were of all sizes, from one to six inches 
in length, some perfect, others only partly finished. There was also a number of blocks 
of the same kind of stone found in the same rough state as when brought from the quarry ; 
they had the appearance of ordinary flint, and were nearly as hard ; not only arrow.head8, 
but axes, and other articles of domestic utility, were made from these stones. It will per. 
haps forever remain a matter of surprise and coivjecture, how these native artificers, desti. 
tute, as they were, of iron tools, or even a knowledge of the use of them, could form and 
polish, with such exquisite art, so many various instruments from so haid a material." 


Lewis county was taken from Oneida in 1805, and named in 
honor of Gov. Morgan Lewis. Centrally distant NW. from New 
York 275, and from Albany 130 miles. Greatest length N. and S. 
54 ; greatest breadth E. and W. 35 miles. The whole of this county 
was included in the patent from the state to Alexander Macomb, and 
was sold by him to William Constable, and by the latter in parcels : 
the portion west of the Black river, to capitahsts in New York city, 
among whom Nicholas Low, Richard Harrison, and Josiah Ogden 
Hoffman, were principal purchasers ; and the portion on the east of 
the Black river, to a French company in Paris. From thes^ sources 
the present possessors derived their title. The first settlements com- 
menced here in 1795, by pioneers from Massachusetts and Connecti- 
cut, who with characteristic enterprise and perseverance entered the 
wilderness with a determination to surmount the most formidable 
obstacles. There were at this time small settlements at Utica and 
Fort Stanwix, (now Rome,) whence the settlers made their way into 
this county, by a line of marked trees, to the High Falls, on Black 
river ; and thence floated with the stream to the town of Lowville, 
where they established themselves. Their families followed in the 
succeeding winter, shod with snow shoes ; mothers making their way 
with their infants in their arms, whilst their husbands and fathers 
trod paths through the snow for their cattle and teams. It was not 
unusual, some time after, for farmers to go forty miles to mill, and to 
carry the grist upon their shoulders. 

The Black river divides the county into two not very unequal por- 
tions. Upon this river are broad alluvial flats, of easy cultivation 
and highly productive. Of the Black river we may observe herey 
that below the High Falls at Leyden, which are 63 feet in altitude, 
it has a tranquil course of nearly 40 miles through the country ; in 

«n which, it is navigable for steamboats. The Black river ea&al, the 
construction of which was authorized in May, 1830, commences at 
Rome in Oneida county. 

The county is at present thinly inhabited, but it merits attenticm 
fiom the ^reat forests of useful timber which incumber the soil, the 
beds of iron ore which lie beneath it, and the. vaist water*power 
which the streams supply. The staple products are wheat, rye, 
Indian com, peas, beans; oats, and barley, and the whole country is 
adapted to grass. It is divided into 11 towns. Pop.. 17,849. 

Denmark, taken from Harrisburg in 1807 ; NW. from Albany 143 
miles. It is watered by the Deer river, which has at one place a fail 
of 175 feet, nearly perpendicular. Denmark, 14 miles N., and Copen- 
hagen, 12 miles N W. of M artinsburg, are small villages. Pop. 3,398* 

Diana, taken from the northern part of Watson in 1830 ; from 
Albany 150, and N£. from Martinsburg 22 miles. Louisburg is a 
post-office. Pop. 883. 

Grbig, taken nrom Watson in 1828, by the name of Brantingham; 
NW. from Albany 150, S£. from Martinsburg 18 miles. Branting- 
ham and Lyonsdale are post-offices. Pop. 592. 

HAftRisBURo, taken from Turin as part of Oneida county in 1803, 
and settled that year ; NW. from Albany 150, centrally distant NW. 
from Martinsburg 1 1 miles. Harrisburg post-office is on the Low* 
ville and Whitesville road. Pop. 850. 

Lbtden, taken from Steuben when part of Herkimer county, in 
1797 ; NW. from Albany 116, from Martinsburg, S., centrally distant 
14 miles. Leyden Hill and Talcottville are small villages. Pop. 

LowvTLLB, taken from Mexico when part of Oneida county, in 
1800; and named after Mr. Nicholas Low. Pop. 2,047. This 
place is distant from Albany 132 miles. The first settler was Jona- 
than Rogers, who emigrated from Branford, Ct., in the spring of 1795. 
At this time there were no settlements between here and the Canada 
line. Many others emigrated in the succeeding summer and fkll, 
among whom were Moses Waters, James Bailey, Isaac Perry, Wil- 
liam and Charles Davenport, Judge Kelly, Silas Stow, Esq., Moses 
Coffin, and David Cobb. Rev. Isaac Clinton, a Presbyterian, was the 
first settled clergyman. During the early settlement, a few hundred 
of the St. Regis Indians were accustomed to hunt in this vicinity, and 
were of much assistance to the settlers. This is one of the best 
towns in the county, being bounded on the east by the rich lowlands 
of the Black river. Lowville, on the great road from Utica to Sack- 
etts Harbor, 3i miles from Martinsburg, in a pleasant valley, hand- 
somely laid out in squares, is the largest village in the county, and 
contains 1 Presbyterian, 1 Baptist, 1 Methodist church, and 1 Or- 
thodox Friends meeting-house, a flourishing incorporated Academy, 
a printing office, publishing a weekly paper, 1 large grist and saw- 
mill, and 60 neat dwellings. Stowe's Square has 1 Presbyterian 
church, and a few dwellings. There is a post-office called West 
Lev Hill. 


Soutfteastem view of LowviUe. 

The above engraving is from a drawing taken on the road to Mar- 
tinsburg in the SE. extremity of the village. The Presbyterian 
church is at the head of the street, and the spire of the Baptist at the 
letl. The steeples of the Academy and Methodist church are seen 
on the right. 

Martinsblibo, talien from Lowville, Champion, and Mexico, as part 
of Oneida county, 22d of February, 1803 ; NW. from Albany 129, 
and N. from Utica 48 miles. The first settler was Elijah Baldwin, 
who came here with his family in July, 1801, from Washington 
county. The first week they encamped in the forest, and their mid- 
night slumbers were disturbed by the howling of bears and other 
wild animals. Baldwin was in the employ of Gen. Walter Martin, 
who came shortly after him, and whose wealth and enterprise soon 

S laced the settlement in a prosperous condition. Eherd Stevena and 
Fathan Cheney came about the same time with Gen. Martin, after 
whom the place was named. Rev. James Murdock, a Presbyterian, 
was the first settled clergyman. Martinsburg, post village and county 
town, is situated upon a high and commanding site, contains a court- 
house and prison of wood, I cotton, and 1 woollen factory, 40 
dwellings, the Lewis County Bank, and a printing office. West 
Martinsburg has about a dozen dwellings and a post-office. This 
town has 5 churches — viz : 2 Baptist, 2 Methodist, and 1 Presbyterian. 
Pop. 2,488. 

About two miles in a southwesterly direction from the village of 
Martinsburg is a remarkable chasm, near the junction of two forki 
of the Whetstone creek, a tributary of the Black river. This chasm 
is about two hundred feet in depth, and of a bowl-like shape. On 
the north and west sides the rocks are nearly perpendicular, but on 
the south sloping and covered with lofty trees. It derives its name) 
that of Chimney Point, from the resemblance which a prominence in 
the slate rock bears to the termination of a conical pointed chimnoy, 
while the horizontal strata increase the likeness by their similarity to 

Chimney Point Gulf, Martnubiirg. 

tiles. The above drawing waa taken on the south side, part of the way 
down the chasm. Thf" point opposite, about six or eight rods dJitantf 
is the one trom which its name is derived, and the beautiful cascade 
of nearly one hundred feet fall is one of the tbrlts of the creek, the 
vaJley of tho other being aeen in the distance. The two anile a few 
rods Co thi' east of the Chimney Point. The visiter usually approaches 
. this spot from the south. The surface of the ground in the vicinity 
is nearly level, and as he comes upon its brink suddenly, ita wildnesa 
strikes him with awe. Opposite and on the left are dark, massy, per- 
pendicular rocks : before him are lofty pines and hemlocks, and far, far 
below, as it were in the very bowels of the earth, throujrii the open- 
inas in rhe loliage, indistinct plimpses are caught of the foaming riv<>- 
let^ while the roar of the watertall and the grandeur of the swrounding 
landscapi; add an interest to the scene rarely experienced. Although 
nnknown to the fashionable tourist, this place is not without incident. 
About 20 rotla below, and on the same side where the drawing waa 


taken, is a rock called Peebles Slide, which derives its name from the 
following circumstance. In the spring of 1834, as Mr. Chillus L. D. 
Peebles, of Martinsburg, was drawing logs near the precipice, which 
here ffenerally forms the boundary ot the river, his foot slipped, and 
he fell. For the first twenty or thirty feet he slid, then descended 
from the precipice perpendicularly for nearly one hundred feet, when 
striking, some loose rock and sand, he rolled thd remainder of the dis- 
tance to the bottom of the ravine. He was enabled to walk to a 
neighboring house, and although badly bruised, he soon recovered. 

riNCKNEY, taken from Harrisburg and Harrison in 1808; NW. 
from Albany 153, and from Martinsburg centrally distant NW. 14 
miles. The town was settled by William Henderson, Esq., the ori- 
ginal proprietor. Pop. 907. 

Turin, organized as part of Oneida county in 1800 ; NW. from 
Albany 121, centrally distant SE. from Martinsbui^ 6 miles. Turin 
Four Comers and Houseville are small villages, rop. 1,704. 

Watson, taken from Ley den in 1821 ; NW. from Albany 136 
miles. Dayanville is a small village founded by Charles Dayan, Esq., 
on the falls of the Crystal creek, 9 miles N. of Martinsburg. Bel- 
fort and Carter are post-offices. Pop. 1,707. 

West Turin, taken from Turin in 1830 ; NW. from AHjany 130, 
centrally distant SW. from Martinsburg 15 miles. ConstableviUe 
and CoUinsville are small post villages, rop. 2,042. 


LrviNGBTON COUNTY was taken from Ontario and Genesee counties 
in 1821. Greatest length N. and S. 30 ; greatest breadth E. and W. 
28 miles. Centrally distant N W. from New York 360, and from Al- 
bany W. 224 miles. The surface of the country is in some parts 
hilly, in others quite level, or but gently undulated. Flats of rich 
alluvion border the (Jenesee river in its course through the county 
from 1 to 2 miles in width, but a gravelly loam predominates on the 
upland. The great staples are wheat, pork, and cattle. Of the first, 
it is estimated that there is an annual surplus of over a million of . 
bushels. The Genesee Valley canal enters the county at Caledonia, 
and following the valley of the Genesee, crosses the same near Mount 
Morris, and passing along the valley of the Cashqua creek, leaves the 
county in the southern portion of Mount Morris. Four miles south 
of Mount Morris village, a branch runs to Dansville. The county is 

EBirt of the tract ceded to Massachusetts, and is divided into 12 towns, 
op. 35,710. 

Avon, originally named Hartford, and organized by general ses- 
sions of Ontario county in 1789 ; from Albany 220 miles. This town 

LnmroBTo^ county. MS 

was settled in 1790, by five families from Fannington in Connecticat 
Avon is a village upon the upper bank of the Grenesee, 10 miles NW. 
from Geneseo. It was laid out in 1826, by James Wadsworth, Esq., 
and contains an academy and about 70 neat dwellings. The river is 
navigable 20 miles for boats to the Erie canal, at Rochester, with 
which it is connected by a feeder. " The situation of the village in 
one of the most fertile and beautiful portions of western New York, 
and the valuable medicinal qualities of its springs, combine to render 
this one of the most attractive watering-places in the state. Three 
springs have already been discovered here, and as their chemical 
composition does not differ materially, it is probable that they exert 
similar effects on the animal economy. The first, called the New 
Avon Bath Spring, was discovered in 1835. Its depth is about 86 
feet, and the formation through which the water passes is limey slate. 
Its water, when heated, assumes a beautiful green color. These 
waters were known to the Senecas, who, until within a few years, 
inhabited a village on the opposite bank of the river called Canawa- 
gus. The Indian chief. Reel Jacket, held them in high estimation. 
These springs are rapidly rising in public favor, and the place ere 
long is destined to become a second Saratoga. Upon the nats there 
is a singular pond about 2 miles in diameter, in an irregular circular 
form ; a neck of land runs into and expands within the circle occupy- 
ing the centre, on which are remains of ancient Indian works.'* East 
Avon, 1 1 miles NE., and Littel's Mills, 8 miles N. from Geneseo, are 
small villages. South Avon is a post-office. Pop. 2,908. 

The Genesee in the early French histories is called the Seneca 
river, probably from the circumstance that its rich valleys were stud- 
ded with the villages of the Senecas. This tribe, one of the Five 
Nations, was on terms of friendship with the English, while the Indi- 
ans of the upper lakes were strongly attached to the French. The 
subjects of these rival nations were exceedingly jealous of each other, 
particularly with respect to the Indian trade, which both endeavored 
to monopolize. Hence hostilities between these parties often occur- 
red. In 1787, Monsieur De la Barre, the governor of Canada, having 
made an unsuccessful attempt against the Five Nations, the Marquis 
De Nonville, his successor, resolved to retrieve the fallen honor of 
his countrymen. For this purpose he sent messengers to the tribes 
around the northern lakes, and succeeded in collecting a consfiderable 
body of Indians to assist him in his enterprise against the Senecas. 

•• Preparatory to this expedition, De Noiiville collected large supplies at Cadarackui, 'now 
Kingston,) in anticipation of the march of his troops, and the Indians firom the neighbor, 
hood of Quebec, to that post. The advance of his army, consisting of two or three hundred 
Canadians, were commanded by M. Campagnie, who surprised two villages of the Five 
Nations, in the neighborhood of Cadarackui, and put the inhabitants to death with great 
cruelty, to prevent them, as it was said, from conveying intelligence of the movements of 
the French to their own people, as it was supposed they had done in regard to the last ex. 
pedition under M. De la Sarre. These people, however, had settled there at the invitadon 
of the French, and anucipating no harm, were the more easily surprised. * They were 
cairied in cold blood to the fort,* (says Dr. Golden,) * and tied to stakes to be tormented by 
the F^nch Indians, (Christians as they were cidled,) and during the torture continued sing 
iof in their oouocry manner, and upbraiding the French with their perfidy- end ingntitade * 


** Several attempts of the English to sow dissensions amonjf the upper lake Indi- 

au, and divert them from their purpose, having proved unavailing, and Dc Nonville's pre- 
parations for the expedition being completed, he departed from Cadarackui fur the entrance 
of the Genesee river on the 23d of June, 1687, embarking his army in canoes, ond sending 
one half thereof along the northern shore of the lake, while he, with the other half, passed 
coastwise by the southern shore, that no accidents by wind might altugetiier defeat the ex- 
pedition. So punctually were the arrangements executed, that both divisions arrived at 
Irondequoit on tlie same day, where their Indian allies appear to have been already ossein- 
bled. Immediately after lending, the canoes were hauled up, ond a miliiar>' defence was 
constructed, in which a guard of four hundred men was left, while the main body of the 
forces advanced upon tlie principal town of tho Senecas — the site of which, at that lime, 
was upon the Genesee river, within tho territory now fonning the tDwn of Avon. Before 
departing from Irondequoit, however, a young Canadian Frenchman was phot for the crime 
of having conducted a party of Englishmen to tlie upper lakes The charge was that of 
being a spy, although France and England were then at peace. 

*• During the march, the Indians, led by a party of Indian traders, formed the van, while 
the regular troops and Canadian militia composed the main body of the forces. They ad- 
vanced four leagues on the first day, without discovering an enemy. On the morning of 
the second, scouts were despatched in advance, who approached the cornfields of tlie vil- 
lages without making any discoveries — a circumstance not very creditable to the sagacity 
of De Nonvillc*8 Indians, since they passed within pistol shot of un ambuscade of five hun- 
dred Senecas. Supposing the warriors had all fied, De Nonville pushed rapidly forward, 
for the purpose at least of coming up with and capturing the women, children, and old men. 
But no sooner had the French reached the foot of the hill, (a short distance north of Com- 
8tock*8 hotel, between tlie present village of Avon and the river,) than the war-whoop of 
the ambuscade rang in their ears, while a well-directed volley of musketry brought many 
of them to the gronnd. 

*^ The surprise was complete, and tho panic so great that the divisions of the French 
separated in the woods, and in their confusion fired upon each other. Availing themselves 
of the advantage, the Senecas rushed in upon their foes with tomahawk in hand, and the 
battle was fierce and bloody until De Nonville*s regulars had time to rally and move again 
in phalanx. The brave Senecas were then repulsed ; but it was an empty victory to De 
Nonville. He was so dispirited by the surprise he had met, that even his Indians could not 
jwrsuade him to a pursuit that day. On the following day he marched upon the villages, 
with a view of burning them ; but that labor had been periformed to his hands by the Sene- 
£as themselves. Two prisoners only were made by the invaders— old men, who were dis- 
covered in the castle — and who were cut to pieces and boiled into soup for De Nonville*8 
allies. The invaders remained five or six days, traversing tho valley of tho river for a few 
miles, and destroying the growing com in the fields. They then returned to their canoes, 
and back to Canada — stopping awhile at Niagara, where a small fort was erected, in which 
a garrison was left of one hundred men. The Indians from the upper lakes were gratified 
¥nth the erection of this post, believing that it would bo of essential service in their opera- 
tions against the Five Nations, whom De Nonville promised yet to assist them in subduing. 
But that promise was never fulfilled. On the contrary, the fort at Niagara was so closely 
invested by the Five Nations, that eighty-eight of the hundred died of hunger, and but for 
the aid of a party of French Indians, the others would have shared the same fate. The 
Five Nations, moreover, afterward carried the war into Canada, even to Montreal and Que- 
bea Ths loss of the French, killed in the battle, was one hundred hieu and ten Indians. 
The Senecas had about eighty warriors slain. In the coiu^e of the expedition, De Non- 
ville contrived to make thirteen captives, who were sent to France as trophies, and thence 
as slaves to the galleys."* 

Caledonia, originally named Southampton, and organized as part 
of Genesee county in 1802 ; from Albany 228, from Geneseo cen- 
trally distant N. 12 miles. Pop. 1,985. Caledonia village has about 
50 dwellings. 

CoNEsus, originally named Freeport, afterward changed to Bow- 
ersville, and finally to its present name, was taken from Livonia and 

* The above accoimt, and that relating to Geneseo, are extracted fixxn a series of htrtoii- 
cal and descriptive letters, published in the New York Commercial Advertiser during lh» 
auxnmer and autumn of 1840. They were written by the editor, William L. Stone, E^. 


Groveland in 1819; from Albany 2'il, centrally distant SE. from 
Geneseo 10 miles. Conesus and West ("nnfisus are poat-officei. 
Cotwsus Centre is a small village. Pop. 1,65'1. 

Geneseo, from the residence of James Wadsworth, Esq. 

Genebeo is a large township, having; an area of 36 square miles. 
Pop. 2,892. The rich alluvial botioin-laitds of the river are'spread 
out in lliis section to their broadest expansion. Tlie village of Gen- 
eseo, thit seat of jusliee uf Livingston county, about one mile from 
the river, was incorporated in m32. It contains about 120 dwell- 
ings, the county buildings. 3 churches, the Livingston county high 
school, 2 newspaper printing olTices, and a hank. Distant from Al- 
bany 22fi, from Washington 345. and from Rochester about 27 miles. 
"The village is plcnsuntly situated upon a site sloping to the west, 
and enjoys a delightful prospect, stretching across the valley, and in- 
cluding the town of Leicester, The landscape, embracing aa area 
of perhaps fifteen miles in diameter, agreeably undulated with gentle 
hills and valleys — rich in the garniture of fields, agreeably interrupted 
by masses of woods, and enlivened by villas, bespeaking the comfort- 
able circumstances of their owners — forms a prospect of matchless 
beauty. It is rendered still more picturesque by the river, which 
flows lazily through the valley, but disclosing only here and there a 
section of the stream, breaking through the bovver of trees and clus- 
tering vines by which its bright waters arc overarched, 

"This town was first settled by William and James Wadsworth 
in 1790. Lands being cheap, and they being gentlemen of sagacity, 
who foresaw the rapid growth of the country in no distant prospect- 
ive, thev were enabled to accumulate splendid estates. The former, 
Gen. VVilliam Wadsworth, served with his militia command upon the 
Niagara frontier during the last war with England, and acquitted 
himself with gallanlrj'. Mr. James Wadsworth yet survives in a 
green old age, the patriarch of the Genesee country. The whole valley 
of the Genesee was studded with Indian towns, when the white men 


made their advances thither, and the country was full of Indians 
when he planted himself down among them. His mansion, the abode 
of refinement and elegant hospitality, is finely situated at the south- 
em extremity of the principal street of the village, embosomed in 
groves of ornamental trees, thickly sprinkled, among which are the 
elm, locust, and willow, and looking out upon a princely domain of 

his own, including a broad sweep of flats Adjacent to the 

mansion is a large garden, rich with every description of fruit which 
the climate will allow, and adorned with flowers of every variety and 
class of beauty. 

" .... It was at this point that the memorable campaign of (Gen- 
eral Sullivan in 1779 was brought to a close. In setting this expe- 
dition on foot, it was the intention of Washington that the American 
forces should pass through to the great Indian and loyalist rendez- 
vous at Niagara ; but having ravaged the most populous portions of 
the Indian country, Sullivan, for reasons never fully explained, pro- 
ceeded no further than Genesee — sending a detachment across the 
river, however, to Little Bcardstown, (now the town of Leicester.) 
The Indian town of Genesee, lying on the eastern side of the river, 
was the largest of their populous places, containing according to Sul- 
livan's official report, * one hundred and thirty-eignt houses, most of 
them very elegant. It was beautifully situated, almost encircled with 
a clear flat, extending for a number of miles ; on which extensive 
fields of com were growing, together with every kind of vegetable 
that could be conceived.' This and the neighboring towns, together 
with thousands of acres of corn, were destroyed. The Indians were 
disposed to make a stand for the protection of their towns, but the 
numbers and discipline of Sullivan's army were too much for them. 
At no great distance south of the village a consider- 
able stream, called Fall Brook, crosses the road, and descends into 
the river. Before it reaches the flats' it plunges abruptly into a 
chasm one hundred feet deep. It is a tradition of the neighborhood 
that in one of the fights with Sullivan, many of the Inaians were 
driven to the brink of this precipice, whence they leaped into the gulf, 
and were killed by the fall. There Is no mention of any such inci- 
dent in the official account of Sullivan, or in the other chronicles of 
the day." Sullivan's army encamped on or near this spot, and it is 
said that the initials of some of his soldiers are now plainly to be seen 
carved on the trees, to the left of the cataract. 

Groveland, taken from Sparta in 1812; from Albany 287, from 
Geneseo S. 7 miles. Pop. 1,993. Groveland Hill and Groveland 
are hamlets. 

Leicester, organized in 1802 as part of Genesee county; since 
changed ; from Albany 232, from Geneseo W. 5 miles. Moscow is 
a village, Gibson ville a post-ofl?ce. Pop. 2,419. 

During Sullivan's expedition, Lieut. Boyd with a scouting party 
had a severe battle with a superior force of Indians in this vicinity. 
Boyd and a man named Parker were taken prisoners, and the former 
tortured in the most horrible manner. Tne following account in 
from Wilkinson's Annals of Binghamton : — 



** From Canandaigua the army proceeded to Honeoye which they destroyed ; and passiiig 
by Hemlock Lake, they came to the head of Conniwius Lake, where the army encamped 
lor the night, on the ground which is now called Henderson's Flats. 

'* Soon a^ter the army had encamped, at the dusk of evening, a party of men, 
imder the command of Lieut. William Boyd, was detached from the rifle corps, which was 
commanded by the celebrated Moigan, and sent out for the purpose of rcconnoitcring the 
ground near the Genesee river, at a place now called Wiiliamsburgh, at a distance from die 
place of encampment of about seven miles, and under the guidance of a faithful Indian 
pilot. The place was then the site of an Indian village ; and it was apprehended that the 
Indians and rangers, as their allies were called, might be there, or in its vicinity. 

** When the party arrived at Wiiliamsburgh, they found that the Indians had very re. 
Gently left the place, as the fires in their huts were still burning. The night was so far spent 
when they got to the place of their destination, that the gallant Boyd, considering the fatigue 
of hia men, concluded to remain quietly where he was, near the village, sleeping upon their 
arms, till the next morning, and then to despatch two messengers with a report to the camp. 
Accordingly, a little before daybreak, he sent two men to the main body of the army with 
infonnation that the enemy had not been discovered, but were supposed to be not far (Us- 
tant, from the fires they found burning the evening before. 

" After daylight, Lieut. Boyd and his men cautiously crept from the place of their con. 
cealment, and upon getting a view of the village, discovered two Indians lurking about fho 
settlement. One of whom was immediately shot and scalped by one of the riflemen, by 
the name of Murphy. Lieut. Boyd — supposing now that if there were Indians near diey 
would be aroused by the report of the rifle, and possibly by a perception of what had just 
taken place, the scalping of the Indian — thought it most prudent to retire and make his best 
way back to the main army. They accordingly set out, and retraced the steps they had 
taken the evening before. 

** On their arriving within about one mile and a half of the main army, they were aor- 
prised by the sudden appearance of a body of Indians, to the amount of five hundred, un- 
der the command of Brant, and the same number of rangers, commanded by the infamous 
Bailer, who had secreted themselves in a ravine of considerable extent, which lay across 
the track that Lieut. Boyd had pursued. These two leaders of the enemy had not lost 
sight of the American army since their appalling defeat at the narrows above Newtown, 
though they had not shown themselves till now. With what dismay they must have wiu 
nessed the destruction of their towns and the fruits of their fields, that marked the progress 
of our army ! They dare not, however, any more come in contact with the main army, 
whatever should be the consequence of their forbearance. 

** lieut. Boyd and his little heroic party, upon discovering the enemy, knowing that the 
only chance for their escape would be by breaking through their lines, an enterprise of 
most desperate undertaking, made the bold attempt. As extraordinary as it may seem, the 
first onset, though unsuccessful, was made without the 1(M8 of a man on the part of the 
heroic band, though several of the enemy were killed. Two attempts more were made, 
which were equally unsuccessful, and in which the whole party fell, excepting Lieut. Boyd 
and eight others. Boyd and a soldier by the name of Parker, were taken prisoners on the 
spot; a part of the remainder fled, and a part fell on the ground apparently dead, and were 
overlooked by the Indians, who were too much engaged in pursuing the fugitives to notice 
those who feU. 

•* When Lieut. Boyd found himself a prisoner, he solicited an intemew with Brant, 
preiemng, it seems, to throw himself upon the clemency and fidelity o{ the savage leader 
of the enemy, rather than trust to his civilized colleague. The chief, who was at that mo- 
ment near, immediately presented himself, when Lieut. Boyd, by one of those appeals and 
tokens which are known only by those who have been initiated and instructed in certain 
mysteries, and which never fuil to bring succor to a distressed brother, addressed him as the 
only source from which he could expect respite from cruel punishment or death. The ap. 
peid was recognised, and Brant immediately, and in the strongest language, assured him 
that his life should be spared. 

*' Boyd and his fellow.prisoner were conducted immediately by a party of the Indians to 
the Indian village called Beardstown, after a distinguished chief of that name, on the west 
side of the Gentsee river, and in what is now called Leicester. After their arrival at 
Beardstown, Brant, being called on service which required a few hours* absence, left them 
in the care of Col. Butler. The latter, as soon as Brandt had left them, commenced an in. 
teiTOgation, to obtain from the prisoners a statement of the number, situation, and intentions 
of the army under Sullivan ; and threatened Jiem, in caae they hesitated or prevaricated 
m their answers, to deliver them up immediately to be maasacred by the Indians ; who, in 
BnMtm ■bssnce, and with the enooucsgement of their more savsge commander, Butler, 


were ready to commit the greatest cruelties. Relying probably upon the promises which 
Brant had made them, and which he most likely intended to fulfil, they refused to give 
Butler the desired information. Upon this refusal, burning with revenge, Butler hastened 
to put his threat into execution. He delivered them to some of their most ferocious cne- 
mies, among which the Indian chief Little Beard was d^tinguished for his inventive fe- 
rocity. In this, that was about to take place, as well as in all the other scenes of cruelty 
that were perpetrated in his town. Little Beard was master of ceremonies. The stoutest 
heart quails under the apprehension of immediate and certain torture and death ; where 
too, there is not an eye that pities, nor a hrart that feels. The suffering lieutenant 
was first stripped of his clothing, and then tied to a sapling, when the Indians menaced 
his life by throwing their tomahawks at the tree directly over his head, brandishing thtir 
Bcalping.knives around him in the most frightful manner, and accompanying their ceremo. 
nies with terrific shouts of joy. Having punished him sufficiently in this way, they made 
a small opening in his abdomen, took out an intestine, which they tied to a sapling, and 
then unbound him from the tree, end by scourges, drove him around it till he had drawn 
out the whole of his intestines. He was then bc^headed, and his head was stuck upon a 
pole, with a dog*s head just above it, and his body left unburied upon the ground. Through- 
out the whole of his suiTerings, the brave Boyd neither asked for mercy, or uttered a word 
of complaint. 

** Thus perished William Boyd, a young officer of heroic virtue and of rising talents ; and 
in a manner that will touch the sympathies of all who read the story of his death. His 
feUow-soldier, and fellow-sufferer, Parker, was obliged to witness this moving and tragical 
scene, and in full expectation of passing the same ordeal. According, however, to our in- 
formation, in relation to the death of these two men, which has been obtained.incidentally 
fi"om the Indian account of it, corroborated by the discovery of the two bodies by the 
American army, Parker was only beheaded. 

** The main army, immediately after hearing of tlic situation of Lieutenant Boyd's de. 
tachment, moved towards Genesee river, and finding the bodies of those who were slain in 
the heroic attempt to penetrate the enemy's fine, buried them in what is now the town of 
Groveland, near the bank of Beard's creek, under a bunch of wild plum-trees, where the 
graves are to be seen to this day." 

Lima, originally named Charleston, and organized by general ses- 
sions of Ontario county in 1789; from Albany 213 miles. Pop. 
2,186. Lima village, centrally situated on the great western road, 
has about 100 dwellings, remarkable for their neatness. The Gen- 
esee Wesleyan University, a highly flourishing and well-endowed in- 
stitution, is situated here. 

Livonia, taken from Pittstown in 1808 ; from Albany 217 miles. 
Livonia Centre, Lakeville, 6 miles E. from Geneseo, Jacksonville, 
and South Livonia, are villages. Pop. 2,719. 

Mount Morris, taken from Leicester in 1818; from Albany 230 
miles. Pup. 4,547. " On the bank of the river in this town, an an- 
cient mound was discovered and opened in 1835, in which were some 
human skeletons in a very decayed state, and unconimonly large, 
with some stone arrow-heads, stone knife and cleaver, and a copper 
skewer, about the size of a pipe shank, flattened at one end and 
slightly twisted. The knife was of fine hard stone of the thickness 
of a quire of paper, with sharpened edges. The cleaver was of slate. 
These articles were of the rudest workmanship." There was for 
merly an Indian village here called Allenshill. It was named aflei 
Ebenezer Allen, the first miller in Rochester, a monster in humai 
shape. Many are the tales related of his wickedness, almost too 
painful for recital. One will suflice. " During the revolution he wp^ 
a tory, and on one occasion, when on a scouting party with some Ii* 
dians in the Susquchannah country, th'^v ent'^^'^d «* dw^^Uing where 

tfaey fbimd a man, and his wife, and one child, in bed. As they (»• 
tered, the man sprang upon the floor to defend hiftiielf, but Allen nllad 
him at a blow, strucl on his head, and tossed it bleeding into the bad 
with the hapless woman. He then snatched the infant from te 
mother's bosom, and dashed its head against the jamb of the fir^ 
place." Allen died in 1814, on the river De Trench, in Upper Cb»- 
ada — three of his wives and their children surviving him. 

Wettem view of Mount Morrii village, Livingiton county. 

The Indians sold out this country to Messrs. Phelps & GorhaiOf 
making, however, the reservation known as the Gardeau reservation. 
This, commonly called the White Woman's* land, is partly in thit 
town, and partly in Nunda, and in Castile, Wyoming county. Mr. 
Thomas Morris from Philadelphia, from whom the town is named, 
boueht out Alleo, and in 1804 the village was founded, mostly by 
families from Connecticut Mount Morris village, incorporated in 
18S5, is at the head of the boat navigation on Genesee river, S6 mile* 
S. of Rochester, and by the Genesee valley canal 38^, from Geneseo 
SW. 6 miles. The site is beautiful, being elevated above the fertile 
flats which border the river. The annexed view was taken tiear the 
residence of Mr. Joseph Starkey. The three churches seen in front 
are respectively the Episcopal, Baptist, and Methodist ; the spire on 
the left is that of the Presbyterian church. The hills in the distance 
are on the opposite side of the Genesee flats. The village contains 
about 120 dwellings. The post-offices are River Road, River Road 
Forks, Tuscarora, at Brushville village, and Brooks Grove. 

Spabta, organized as port of Ontario county is 1789 ! area since 
reduced; from Albany 331 miles. Pop. 5,841, Dansville village, 
IS miles SE. from Geneseo, is at the bead of the Genesee valley, 45 



Western mew in DansviiU, Livingston county. 

miles from Rochester. A side-cut connects this village and the 
valley of the Canascraga with the Olean and Rochester canal. The 
above is a central view in Dansville. There is a Lutheran and a 
Methodist church bf^sides the one shown, which is a Presbyterian, 
and a flourishing Academy. This is a thriving place and rapidly 
increasing. Within the circle of 6 miles, there are no less than CO 
saw-mitls. There are now in the village about 200 dwellings. The 
first settler in the village was Amariah Hammond, originally from 
New London, Conn. He came here in 1795, and erected in June of 
that year the first log cabin, which stood a few rods south of his pre- 
sent residence. Shortly after came Samuel Stillwell, Alexiinder Ful- 
ferton, Frederick Covert, Richard Porter, and others. The village 
was laid out in 1706, by Daniel Faulkner from Dansville, Penn., after 
which it was named. He was a wealthy enterprising man, and 
making large purchases of land, held out inducements to emigrants. 
When Mr. Hammond came, there was no blacksmith nearer than 40 
miles, at Bath. The usual price for laborers was $2, and some, by 
jobbing, would earn 4 or 5 a day. In the spring of 1796, the settlers 
were alarmed by a loud noise like the report of a cannon. It was 
immediately ascertained to be the bursting out .of a stream on the hill 
east of the village. The water came vrilh such force as to throw 
forth earth and stones weighing two or three hundred pounds. An 
oak two and a half feet in diameter was cast butt foremost down the 
hill. The stream is supposed to be the outlet of a pond one and a 
half mile distant, on the summit of the mountain. It continues to 
flow to the present day, and is used to turn the wheels of a tannery. 
Before the revolution, according to tradition, a battle took place on a 
hill, a few miles distant, between the Canisteo Indians and those liv- 
ing in this vicinity, during which a chief of the latter was killed. 
When the whites first settled here, the spot where he fell was marked 
by a large hole dug in the earth in the shape of a man with arms' ex- 
tended. An Indian trail led by the place, and the Indians, on passing, 
were always accustomed to clear away the dry leaves and brum 
which had blown in. This chief was buried in an old Im^bd \naj- 


ing ground which stood on the present site of the Lutheran church* 
and was thickly covered with graves to the extent of two or three 
acres. His monument consisted of a large pile of small stones gath- 
ered from time to time by the natives from a hill a mile distant ; who, 
on passing, were accustomed to take one in their hand and add to 
the heap. His bones were afterward disinterred by the settlers, and 
judging from them, and the length of the hole on the hill, he must 
have been 7 feet or more in height Scottsburg, Byersville, Kysor- 
ville, and Union Comers, are small villages. Sparta is a post-otfice. 

Spring WATER, taken from Sparta and ^faples in 181G ; from Gene- 
seo, SE., 18 miles. Springwater valley is a small village. Pop. 

York, taken from Caledonia and Leicester in 1819 ; from Albany 
237 miles. Pop. 3,644. Fowlersville, on the Genesee, 10 miles N., 
Greggsville, 4 miles NW. from Geneseo, and York Centre, are small 


" Long Island may be described as the southeasterly portion of the 
state of New York, and extending from about 40° 34' to 41° 10' 
north latitude, and from 2° 58' to 5° 3' east longitude from Washing- 
ton city ; being in length from Fort Hamilton, at the Narrows, lo 
Montauk Point, nearly one hundred and forty miles, with a mean 
range north, 90° 44' east. Its breadth from the Narrows, as far east 
as the Peconic bay, varies from 12 to 20 miles in a distance of ninety 
miles." A ridge or chain of hills commences at New Utrecht, in 
Kings county, and extends with occasional interruptions to near 
Oyster Pond Point, in Suffolk county. The surface of the island 
north of the ridge is in general rough and broken, while the surface 
south of the range is almost a perfect plain, with scarce a stone ex- 
ceeding in weight a few ounces. 

On the south side of the island is the great South bay, extending 
from Hempstead to the eastern boundary of Brookhaven — a distance 
of more than seventy miles of uninterrupted inland navigation. It 
varies in width from two to five miles, communicating with the sea 
by a few openings in the beach, the principal of which is opposite 
the town of Islip, called Five Island Inlet. In this bay are very ex- 
tensive tracts of salt marsh, and islands of meadow furnishing im- 
mense quantities of grass ; while its waters contain great quantities 
of shell and scale fish. Wild-fowl of many kinds and in almost 
countless numbers are found here, and many hundreds of people are 
engaged in taking them for the New York market The north shore 

* A history of Long Island in an octavo volume of 536 pages, by B. F. Thompson, E^., 
has been recently published ; it is to this valuable and interesting work that the authotB are 
deeply indebted for the account given of the various towns on Long Island. 


of the island is very irregular, and where not protected by masses of 
rock and stone, has been worn away by the sea to a considerable 
extent. The soil on the north side generally consists of loam, on the 
south side it consists more of sand, while through the middle of the 
island it consists chiefly of sand and gravel. The soil on the high 
ffrounds is in most cases better than that upon the plains, yet that 
found upon the necks or points on both sides is better than either. 
The soil in the vicinity of New York is highly productive and valua- 
ble, but in the greater part of the island it is naturally light and poor. 
Much of the land in the central part of the island is covered with a 
vast pine forest, in which wild deer are still to be found. 

" Long Island Sound is a bay, or inland sea, with two outlets. If 
considered as extending from the Battery, in New York, to Fisher's 
island, its length is the same as that of the island. Proceeding from 
the city, easterly, it has a tortuous course of 16 miles, in which it 
varies from half a mile to two miles in width. From the Battery to 
Harlaem river, the course is NNE. 8 miles, and thence to Throg's 
Point, nearly E., 8 more. This portion is known as the East river. 
At the bend, opposite to Harlaem river, is the noted pass of Helle Gat 
(Dutch) or the gut of hell, narrow, crooked, and to the inexperienced, 
dangerous. The water here, when the tide is rising or falling, forms 
cataracts and vortices, which may dash to pieces or swallow up the 
largest vessel coming within their influence. The best times for pass- 
ing it are at high and low water. 

" Above Throws Point, the Sound, properly speaking, commences, 
and turns to the NE. 18 miles, between Lloyd's neck and Stamford, in 
Connecticut. Thus far the shores are rugged and the channel rocky, 
and much interrupted by small islets and projecting points ; but be- 
yond Lloyd's neck it opens into a noble elliptical expanse, from 8 to 
20 miles wide, and with depth sufficient for the largest vessels of 
commerce or war ; presenting, alonff its northern shore, a continued 
picture of gradually rising hills, bold promontories, and commodious 
havens, which is chased before the eye like a brilliant phantasmago- 
ria, in the rapid passage of the steamboats." 

Long Island was claimed by the Dutch and EngUsh nations re- 
spectively by right of discovery. The Dutch commenced their set- 
tlements as early as 1625, at the west end of the island. In 1623, 
the Plymouth company, by order of Charles I., issued letters patent 
to William Alexander, Earl of Stirling, for the whole of the island. 
The English made settlements at the east end ofi the island, but they 
were for a season resisted by the Dutch. The settlements, both at 
the E. and W. end, were nearly cotemporary. In the Dutch 
towns, the Indian title was bought by the governor, and the lands 
granted to individuals by him ; in the EncUsh towns lands were ob- 
tained under the license of the agent of Lord Stirling, and after his 
death, by the people of the several towns for their common benefit 
The line of division between the two nations was a source of much 
contention and many complaints. The several English towns united 
themselves with the colonies of Connecticut and New Haven. After 

Connecticut received her royal charter, in 1M2» she exerdsed join* 
diction, and gave each of the towns who united with her, penniasion 10 
send a deputy to the general court But before these measures oooM 
be fully completed they were frustrated by the grant of Long Isiandi 
to the Duke of York. 

The following account of the Indians on Long Island, is takcai 
from ^ WootTs History itf lM>ng Island^ puUished in 182d. 

** When the fiist sectkinents were made oo the Mand by die Dutch ind E^ghih, it i^ 
peeis, from the onginal lodun deeds, that the pvincipal tribes that occupied it, wtm Si 
follows: — 

^ The Canaise, the Rockawaj, the Merikoke, the Siarsapeagae, the Secmtsgue, and 4m 
Patchague, oa the south aide^— the Matinecoc, tha Niasaqaague, the Satauket, and tha Goit* 
chaof , oo the north side ; die Shinecoc, the Manhanaet, and the Montaok, boat tha Caittt 
Place on Monrauk Point. 

" The Canaise appeals to hsTe been the only tribe, or the only tribe of any coaae ginaaot, 
in Kings county. This tribe claimed the chief part of the lands in KLoga conn^, and a 
part of the lands in Jamaica. 

^ The Rockaway tribe claimed the territory aroimd Rockaway, and moia or ksi of thi 
lands in Newtown and Jamaica. 

**The Merikoke and Maisapeagne tribes extended from Rockaway through QasMl 
county into Suffolk, on the south side of the island. 

*' The territory of the Maiinecoc tribe extended from Flnahing doovigh QnaoM OMM^ 
to Fresh Pood in Suffolk, on the north side. 

^ The Niasaquague tribe extended from Freeh Pond to Stonybrook. 

" The Satauket tribe claimed from Stooybrook to the Wading river. 

" The Corchaog tribe extended frran the Wading river throii«h Soath Old on te bqi<^ 

^ The territory of the Manhanset tribe was ShelterJUand. 

^ The territory of the Secatang tribe a4ioined that of the Maiaapeagiae, md ezleidtd Is 

** The territory of the Patchogne tribe extended to Sooth Hampton. 

" The Shinecoc tribe extendi from the Canoo Point to Monuuk, and diat panuMnla 
was the seat of the Montauk tribe. 

" There are one or two other tribes named in die old records, bat the place they ooes. 
pied cannot be ascertained, and it is evident from that circomatance, that they must havo 
been very small, perhaps the mere remnants of tribes which had been destroyed in their 

'* Those above enumerated are the principal tribes that occupied the island when te 
English and Dutch commenced their settlements there, and the original purchases of ths 
several towns were made of these tribes. 

" The Indian settlements were all on the bays, creeks, and harbors on the north and 
south sides of the island, and their territories were divided from each other by the middlo 
of the island. 

** At the time of the first settlement of the island, the whole Indian population wo coa- 
siderable, but by no means as great as the facilities of subsistence would have authoiiied ni 
to expect, nor as great as it probably had formerly been. 

** The shell banks which indicate the sites of their villages, on the western half of thi 
island, are large and numerous, and beds of shells of some size or other are found at inter* 
vals of a few miles all around the margin of the island. From these it would seam that 
the population of some parts of the island was once very numerous, or must have been sta. 
tionary there a long time.* 

" The state of the Indian population must be ascribed to their perpetual v^an, by whkk 
they had been diminished. 

" All savage nations are addicted to war. The causes of war amcmg them are nnmorovi, 
and the mode of carrying it on destructive to their numbers. 

* ** The shell banks in the western towns of Suffolk cotmty are much laiger and mora 
numerous than in the eastern towns, where shell 6sh are as abundant : which proves that 
the western part of the island had been the longest tottlod, and that tha Indian emigiitioA 
proceeded from west to east." 


^ It appears that Long Island had been oveirun by hostile tribes, and many of the natiTes 
must have been destroyed by them. 

" The confederacy o{ the Five Nations extended their conquests as far south as Manhattan 
Island, and had passed over to the west end of Long Island, and subdued the Canarse 

" There is a tradition among the Dutch, that at the time of the first settlement of the 
island, the Canarse tribe paid the Mohawks an annual tribute of wampum and dried clams, 
and that they discontinued the payment of it on the persuasion of the whites, in conse- 
quence of which a party of the conquerors came and destroyed the whole tribe, except a 
few who happened to be from home. 

" Some writers have supposed that the conquest of the Mohawks extended to the whole 
island, but there is no tradition to support it, and it is believed that the conquest never 
extended beyond the territories of the Canarse Indians. This may have been owing to the 
fact, that all the other Indians were in subjection to the Pequots. It is well known that 
this tribe never was subdued by the Five Nations, and it would have been a violation of their 
rules of warfare, to have turned their arms against a tributary people, when they had not 
subdued the power that held them in subjection. 

** The Montauks had probably been the most warlike tribe on Long Island, had overrun 
the other tribes on the island east of the Canarse territory, and had reduced them to some 
kind of subjection. At the time of the first settlement of the island, the Montauk sachem 
claimed and exercised some kind of sovereignty over the whole territory, and it is stated 
that he justified his claim before the governor and council in virtue of a former conquest of 
the country. In 1659, he conveyed the territory which constitutes the town of Smithtown, 
then occupied by the Nissaquague Indians, to Lyon Gardiner. 

" It was under a belief of his superiority over the chiefs of the other tribes, that the first 
settlers were anxious to have their purchase deeds signed by that chief^ a^ well as by the 
sachem of the tribe of whom the land was purchased. 

"The confirmation deed of Hempstead in 1657, the deed for Lloyd's neck, and others, 
are executed in this manner, and in some of the original deeds the Mantauk chief is styled 
the sachem of Long Island. 

** The superiority ascribed to the chief of that tribe after the settlement of the country, 
might have arisen in part from the distinction conferred on him or recognised by the com. 
missioncrs of the united colonies. In 1651 it is stated in some of our early records, that 
they constituted one, who is supposed to have been the Montauk chief, grand sachem of 
the Long Island Indians. It is probable that the commissioners only recognised or con- 
firmed an authority with which they found him invested. 

** It is evident from the eariy writers of New England, that the Pequots, who occupied 
the country around New London, and was the most warlike tribe in Connecticut, had sub. 
dued the Montauks with their tributaries, and that at the time of the first settlement of 
New England, the Long Island Indians were in subjection to the Pequots, and paid them 
a tribute. The victory over the Montauks involved the subjection olf all the tribes that 
were under them, and the conquest of the Pequots must have embraced all the tribes on 
the island east of the Canarse territory. 

" In 1637, the New England colonics made war on the Pequots, to avenge the murders 
and other hostile aggressions which they had committed on the whites, and subdued and 
dispersed the whole tribe. The Long Island Indians who had been subject to the Pequots, 
immediately repaired to the English to make their peace with them. Winthrop, in his 
journal, states that on the reduction of the Pequots in 1637, * sachems from Long Island 
came voluntarily and brought a tribute to us of twenty fathom of wampum each of them.* 

** From this time they seem to have considered themselves to be in subjection to the 
English, and to have paid them tribute, perhaps the same they had paid the Pequots. In 
1644, they appHcd to the commissioners for some evidence of their relation to them, and 
the commissioners gave them a certificate in writing, in effect promising them security 
from injury by the English, and all others in friendship with them ; at which time tliey as. 
sured the commissioners * that they had been tributaries to the Enghsh ever since the Pe. 
quot war, and that they had never injured the English or Dutch, but had been friendly to 
both,* which implied that they had been subject to the Pequots and followed their fiite. In 
1650, the commissioners sent Captain Mason to Long Island to require payment of the 
tribute due from the Indians there, and to settle a way in which it might be pnnetatlly 
discharged in fiiture. 

** In 1656, the Montauk chief visited the commissionerB at Boston, and in answer to an 
inquiry whether he had paid the tribute due from him, stated that he had paid it at Haftfoid 
for the space of ten years, and that it was in arrear for the four last years, which they vt* 
mitted in consideration of his distrened condition by the lata war in wluoh he 


engaged with the Namgansetts. In 1653, Ninnigrate, the chief of the Nehantic Indiam, 
who were either a tribe of the Narragansetts or closely connected with them, made war on 
the Long Island Indians, which lasted seyeral years, and reduced them to great extremity. 
He invaded the territory of the Montauks, and would have extirpated the whole tribe, if 
they had not found protection in the humanity of the people of East Hampton. 

** They were obliged to abandon their villages, and to flee for refuge to East Hampton, 
where they were kindly received, sustained, and protected. They continued to reside in 
that town for several years, before they deemed it safe to return to Montauk. 

Long Island is divided into three counties, Kings, Queens, and 
Suffolk. An account of the various tov^rns on the island, with his- 
torical notices, &c., is given under the head of these counties in their 
alphabetical order. 


Madison county was taken from Chenango county in 1806, and 
named after James Madison, president of the United States. Great- 
est length N. and S. 33, greatest breadth E. and W. 32 miles. Cen- 
trally distant from New York 250, from Albany 108 miles. The 
surface of the coimty is much diversified. The middle and southern 
towns are more or less uneven and hilly ; but the northern is more 
level. In the northern part much wheat is produced : the southern 
is better adapted to grass. The county is generally well watered. 
The route of the Chenango canal follows up the Oriskany, and crosses 
thence into the Chenango valley. The Erie canal runs westerly 
through the northern towns of Lenox and Sulhvan. The county is 
divided into 14 towns. Pop. 40,032. 

Brookfield, taken from Paris when part of Herkimer county, in 
1795 ; from Albany 90 miles. Pop. 3,695. Clarksville, incorporated 
in 1834, has about 60 dwellings. Leonards ville, on the Unadilla 
river, 22 miles SE. from Morristown, is a small settlement. 

Cazenovia, taken from Whitestown and Paris when part of Her- 
kimer county, in 1795 ; from Albany 113 miles. When erected, this 
town comprised an area nearly equal to that of the county. Pop. 
4,153. It was first settled in 1793, by Col. John Linklaen, from Am- 
sterdam, agent for a company in Holland, who were owners of large 
tracts in this and the adjacent towns, and sold them out in farms 
principally to New Englanders. Cazenovia village was founded by 
Col. Linklaen, about 1695, and incorporated in 1800. 

It is situated upon the margin of Cazenovia lake and its outlet, and 
upon Chittenango creek, 8 miles S. of the Erie canal, 1 1 from Morris- 
ville, 40 from Utica, and 113 from Albany. The following engraving 
is a SW. view of the village as seen from the bridge, at tne outlet of 
the lake. The village contains upwards of 200 dwellings, 1 Presby- 
terian, 1 Methodist, 1 Baptist, and 1 Congregational church, a bank, 
2 printing offices, and the " Oneida Conference Seminary," incorpo- 
rated in 1825. This institution was established under the patronage 


South Western 

>f Caienoua. 

of the Methodist denomination for the education of youth of both 
sexes. ]t_ has ever maintained a high standing. The number of 
pupils in 1840 was 327. Woodstock is a small village. 

Db Ruvteb, taken from Cazenovia in 1796; from Albany 1S3 
miles. Pop. 1,799. De Ruyter village is 17 miles SW. from Mor- 
risville, ana was incorporated in 1833. It contains about 80 dwell- 
ings and the De Ruyter Institute, a flourishing lityary seminary, ea- 
tablished a few years since under the patronage of the Seventh-day 
Baptists The annual citaloguc for 1840 gives 162 as the numbei 
of pupils male and lemale A newspaper entitled the " Seventh-day 
Baptist Register" is published in the \illage. 

E\T »i mmcd in honor of General William Eaton, settled in 1794, 

Northeast view of the public buildings in MorrisvUU. 
Wd tnken fn»T> Hsmi'ton ir «ft7 • fro-r iJUoy mo mil-. Pop 

MADISON oovmr. 267 

3,408. Morrisville, the county seat, on the three great western turn- 
pikes, 102 miles from Albany, 15 S. of the Erie canal at Canastota, 
was founded in 1803 by Thomas Morris, and incorporated in 1833: 
settled principally by emigrants from Connecticut. The above view 
shows the county buildings and all the churches in the village ex- 
cepting the Baptist. The first building on the left is the jail ; the 
second, with a cupola, the county house ; the third, the county clerk*« 
office ; the fourth, the Methodist church ; and the two on the right, 
are respectively the academy and the Presbyterian church. There are 
in the village and vicinity about 100 buildings. Eaton village, some- 
times called the Log City, 4 miles SE. from Morrisville, was founded 
in 1790 by Mr. Joseph Morse, and has about as many dwellings as 
Morrisville, and 1 Baptist and 1 Presbyterian church, rratts HoTlow, 
3i miles N. of Morrisville, is a small village. 

In September, 1823, an Indian by the name of Abram An tone was 
executed at tliis place for murder. The following narration is drawn 
from a memoir published at that time. 

Abram An tone was horn in the year 1750, on the banks of the Susquehannah. When 
a boy, his parents removed to Chenango. During the revolution he took up arma in fiivor 
of the Americans, and besides being in several battles, it is said, was employed on a secret 
mission by (Governor Clinton. Bold, adventurous, and revengeful, few dared to encounter 
his wratli. Years might elapse before the opportunity for revenge was afforded : but then, 
when pcrhapH the hapless offender least expected, he paid the price of his temerity with hia 
life. " But the most atrocious deed of all, was one at which humanity starts with horror— 
the murder of an infant child, and that child his own ! The circumstances of this event are 
almost too horrible to relate. It appears from the account of his wife, that returning from 
an assembly of Indian one evening to his wigwam, he found his little child of four or^ve 
months old vociferously crying. Impatient at the noise, the monster snatchec^jflBl' child 
from its mother's arms, and raking open a hot bed of coals, buried the infant oeneatb 

The following arc the circumstances connected with the murder for which he was executed. 
— " In the year 1810, Mar>', the dnui?hter of Antone, formed a connection with a young 
Indian, it is said of the Stockbridge jpibe ; however, the connection was soon broke off, and 
the young savage left his former mistress for one more agreeable. This so enraged the he- 
roine, that she determined to kill her rival, which she effected by stabbing her with an 
Indian knife. When arrested, and on her way to prison, she manifested a remarkable , 
indifference as to her fate, justifying herself concerning the murder of the squaw, by obeenr. 
ing that she had got away her Indian^ and deserved to die. She was executed in Smith. 
field, in this county. John Jacobs was the principal evidence against her. He had also 
been very active in her arrest. In short, he was considered by Antone as the principal 
cause of his daughter's death, and both before and after her execution he openly threatened 
to kill him the iirst opportunity. Jacobs hearing of it, left the country, and did not return 
till Antone sent him word that he would not molest him, probably for the purpose of getting 
him into his power. The circumstances of the poor fellow's death are these : Relying on 
Antone's promise, he did not take all the precaution which seems to have been necessary. 
He was hoeing corn in a field, with a number of men, when Antone came up in a friendly 
way, shaking hands with each one until he came to Jacobs, and while grasping his hand 
in apparent friendship, slipt a long knife from out the frock sleeve of his \eh arm, pronouncing 
* Hoto d*ye do, brother /' and quicker than lightning plunged it into the body of Jacobs, 
striking him three times under the short ribs. He fell at the first blow. Antone giving a 
terrific yell, bounded off before any one had recovered presence of mind sufficient to puraue 

"The same night, the Indians, learning where he had secreted himself,, to the nmn- 
ber of fifteen or twenty pursued him. He had encamped in a thick copse of under. 
brush, and had provided himself with dogs that might give the alarm in case he was dis. 
covered. He had also with much labor cut a path through the thicket, which was almost 
impassable. On the approach of the pursuers the dogs gave the alarm, and Antone, flying 
with the speed of a deer through the narrow path wh^ hm had cut, escaped. Shortly 



aftar, a company compoaed of about thirty white men and Indiana, followed him t» his 
hiding-place. They approached within twelve yards before they discovered him. Again 
by hifl agility he escaped, the night also favoring him. He went constantly armed with a 
rUle, two or three knives, and it has been said that he wore pistols in his belt ; this, how. 
ever is not certain. His two sons were almost constantly with him, well armed, and, as 
they declared, for the purpose of defending their father. One of the brothers, called Charles, 
was a most powerful and desperate fellow. He was said to be the strongest Indian of his 
tribe. He died some years since in Chenango county, having undertaken to drink a quart 
of nim on a wager. 

'* There was an attempt made to take Antone while encamped on a Mr. John Guthrie's 
land, in the town of Sherburne. Two large and resolute Indians having obtained informa- 
tion that Antone was alone in his camp, his two sons having left him for a few days on a 
bunting tour, went with the full determination of securing him. They approached his camp 
undiscovered. Antone was making a broom ; but the ever watchful Indian hearing a rust, 
ling at the entrance of his camp, seized his rifle, and as they suddenly entered, pointing at 
^e foremost, declared if he advanced a step further he would shoot him dead. His deter, 
mined manner appalled the pursuers, and after parleying with him a short time, they with, 
drew, very much mortified at the result of their enterprise. But the most curious circum- 
stance of all was that Antone's rifle was not loaded at the time. He has ^quently boasted 
since of having scared two Indians with an empty rifle. He at length grfiw so fearless that 
he marched through our towns and villages in open day, without any fear of being taken. 
It is even said, that in the village of Sherburne he entered a store in which were about 
twenty men, and drank till he was completely intoxicated. 

*' There was nothing remarkably interesting in his trial. His honor Judge Williams, of 
Utica, presided. The prisoner was brought to the bar, and plead not guUty, The wit. 
nesses against him were principally uncultivated sons of the forest. But it was remarked 
that their testimony was given with a carefulness and precision scarcely to be expected. 
The testimony was clear and decisive. The court appointed Judge Piatt and General 
Krkland his counsel. They rested their defence altogether on this, that the state of New 
York had no jurisdiction over the Indian tribes within her territory. The court, however, 
overruled the ol^ection, and Antone was sentenced to be hanged on Friday, the 12th of Sep. 
tember, 1823. The prisoner has always objected to a trial, except by his own people. He 
■a3rs that he has paid two hundred and sev^pty dollars to the diflerei)t tribes for a ransom, 
and thinks it hard that he should die when he has made his peace with the Indians. He 
particul&rly objects to the mode of execution, which he thinks is very degrading. * No 
good wai/t* said he, putting his hands around his neck — * No good way,* and then pointing 
to his heart, he observed that he should be willing to be shot. 

" Two or three diflferent tribes have sent petitions praying for his release ; but the Oneida, 
of which tribe he is said by some to be a chief, have i^Iected it. This is said to be owing 
to the influence of the head chief, who is the enemy ot Antone. Without doubt the Indi- 
ans generally would be pleased with his release ; though it is certainly a very singular cir. 
cumstance that the same ones who volunteered in pursuit of him after the murder of John 
Jacobs, and to whom he was always a particular object both of dread and fear, should now 
turn and petition for him. The natives do not generally assent to our jurisdiction over 
them, and it may perhaps be thought that they petition for Antone on this principle. 

** It may be interesting to some to know what ideas of religion are entertained by An. 
tone. As is usual, pious people have talked with him and endeavored to explain the prin- 
ciples of the Christian religion. But he either cannot or will not understand them. He 
has no idea of a Saviour — indeed he appears to be utterly ignorant of every principle of 
Christianity. He mentioned through the interpreter that he put his trust in God, or more 
properly the Great Spirit. He was then asked whether it was the God of the Chrisiiaoa, or 
the Spirit which was worshipped by his fathers. The eye of the warrior sparkled as he 
readily replied, * The God of my Fathers!* Until within a short time he has nourished 
some hopes of being reprieved, but they seem to have failed him. He myB that he is will- 
ing to die, and only complains of the manner. He is very anxious respecting hii body, 
being fearful that it will be obtained for dissection. 

'* To look at the old warrior, one would scarcely suppose that he could be guilty of se 

enormous a crime. He has a noble countenance, in which there is not the least ei^pnmoa 

^f malice. On the contrary, there is something placable, and bordering on aerenity in his 

eatures. His eye is penetrating, but yet expresses no cruelty. His voice is aoniewhat 

broken by age, but pleasant and sonorous.*' 

Fenner, taken from Cazenovia and Smithfield in 1823 ; from Alba- 
xy Vy miles, ^op. 1,897. Perry sville, on the SuIUvan line 16 milet' 

NW. from Morrisrille, and Fenner ceotrally litutied, an noall nt* 

Gbobgetowh, taken from De Ruyter in 1815; from Albany 108 
mUes, and frum Morrisville centrally distant SW. 12 miles. George 
town is a small settlement, near the centre of the town. Pop. l,190i 

Hamilton was origioally taken from Paris, when part of UeiiinMr 
county in 1801. At the period of its incorporation k compriied 
townships No. 3, 3, 4, and 5, Eaton, Madison, HamjUoit, and Lsti*- 
non. The surfuce of the toWnshtp ii hilly, but the soil is of a iitBW* 
rior quality : it is drained on the south by the Chsnango riv^ BSa itt 
branches. Pop. 3,738. 

Northern view of Hamilton village, Madison county. 

Hamilton village is 8 miles SW. of Morrisville, 38 from Utica, and 
96 from Albany ; it contains nearly 100 dwellings, 1 Baptist, 1 Pt«i- 
byterian, and I Methodist church, and a newspaper printing office. 
The above engraving shows the appearance of the village as seen 
from a point near the burying erouna. The buildings of the ** Ham- 
ilton Literary and Theological Seminary" are seen on the elevated 
ground on the left This institution was incorporated in 1819, and 
commenced operations in 1620. The principal building, which was 
e>«cted in 1827, is of stone, 100 by 60 feet, 4 stories, containing 84 
rooms for study, 34 lodging rooms, a reading room, library, and a 
large chapel. Another large stone edifice, 100 feet by 60, was erect 
ed in 1834. There is a boarding-house, a joiner's shop, and a farm 
of 130 acres belonging to the society. The regular course of studiei 
IS six years ; four in the collegiate, and two in the theological depart- 
ment. This seminary was established under the patronage of the 
Baptists, and it is said to be the largest theological institution of that 
denomination in the world. " The institution is open to young men 
having the ministry in view from every denomination of evan^lical 
Christians." Poolville, Hamilton CcDtre, and Colchester, an small 

260 MypiSON COUNTY. 

Lebanon, taken from Hamilton in 1807; from Albany 110, from 
Morrisville centrally distant S. 9 miles. Lebanon, Smith's Valley, 
and the "Centre," are small settlements. Pop. 1,794. 

Lenox, taken from Sullivan in 1809; from Albany 118 miles. 
Pop. 5,441. Clockville, 10 miles NW. from Morrisville, has about 60 
dwellings. Canastota, post village, on the line of the Erie canal and 
great Western railroad, 15 miles from Morrisville, has 1 Dutch Re- 
lormed and 1 Methodist church, 7 mercantile stores, and 750 inhab- 
itants. The village takes its name from a cluster of pine trees that 
united their branches over the creek which passes through the centre 
of the village and bears its name, called in the native dialect of the 
Oneidas, Kniste. The tract on which the village is located was pa- 
tented in 1810 by the state of New York to Capt. Reuben Perkins, 
its first, and now its oldest inhabitant The present site of the village 
was a wheat field when the Erie canal was laid out and constructed. 
The first framed house was erected by Capt. Perkins on an eminence 
where it now stands, near the cluster of pines. The Rev. Mr. Young 
was the first settled minister. Wampsville, 13 miles from Morris- 
ville, Lenox, and Lenox Basin, are small villages. 

Madison, taken from Hamilton in 1807; from Albany 94 miles. 
Madison, Bouckville, 6 miles E. from Morrisville, Madison Centre, 
and Solesville, are small settlements. Pop. 2,344. 

Nelson, taken from Cazenovia in 1807 ; from Albany 109 miles. 
Erieville, 9 miles SW. from Morrisville, has about 45 dwellings. 
Nelson Flats is 7 miles W. from Morrisville. Pop. 2,100. 

Stockbridge, recently taken from Smithfield ; centrally distant 7 
miles NE. from Morrisville. Cooks Comers and Munsonville are 
small settlements. Knoxville is a post-office. Pop. 2,344. 

Smithfield, taken from Cazenovia in 1807 ; from Albany 108, cen- 
trally distant N. from Morrisville 5 miles. Pop. 1,699. Peterboro, 
centrally situated, has about 60 dwellings, 2 churches, and a school 
for the education of colored persons. Siloam and Stockbridge are 
villages. The principal part of this to\rn and Stockbridge was leased 
of the Oneida Indians by Peter Smith in 1794, and purchased by the 
state in 1795. These towns comprise the larger part of the New 
Petersburg tract, and a portion of the Oneida reservation and New 
Stockbridge tract. 

Sullivan was first erected in 1803, then in Chenango county; and 
in 1809 the eastern and largest part was erected into the town of 
Lenox. Canaseraga and Bridgeport are villages. Joslin's Comers 
is a post-office. Pop. 4,390. 

The above shows the appearance of Chittenango village as it is 
entered from the SE. The village consists of upwards of 100 dwell- 
ings, 3 churches — 1 Dutch Reformed, 1 Methodist, and 1 Baptist — a 
large woollen factory, and several other manufacturing establisnments. 
The Methodist church is seen in the central part of the engravii^ ; the 
woollen factory, built of stone, is seen on the left ; the spire of the BaptiBt 
church is seen towards the right, near which is the spire of the youths' 
Bethel. The Dutch Reformed church, a large stone structure^ is a pro* 



y .^ffl^p" 1 

.•-f Effl-'Xi^-i -Ll^ 


iSbutAAMtera weio o^ ChUtenango. 

neot object as ths village is entered oo tbe road from the Erie caapt 
but it could not be seen front the spot from whence the above view 
was taken. The site of the -village was probably at a former period - 
a lake ; it is surrounded on almost every side by elevated Krouo4% 
in which are found numerous pctri&ctions of trees, branches, &e^ 
in various stages of conversion. In the valley of the Chittmango 
creek, about a mile above the villagei are two mineral springs, one 
mostlv sulphur ; the other has b large portion of magnesia ; botit 
have been found efficient in some diseases. The village is situated 
one mite S. of the Erie canal, 2 from the Utica and Syracuse rail- 
road, 8 from Cazenovia, 16 from Morristown, S4 from Utica, and IS 
from Syracuse. Canesaraga and Bridgeport are post villages. The 
latter is 20 miles from Morrisville, and has grown within a few yean 
from a hamlet to a thriving village. 

The murder of Robert Barber, by Lewis Wilber, on the line of Uie 
Erie canal in this town, August 30th, 1837, caused a great sensation 
in this part of the country. Robert Barber was from Coleraine, in 
the northern part of Massachusetts, and was a man of respectability, 
and in easy circumstances. He was a widower of upwards of fif^ 
Years of age, and had children and numerous respectable relatives in 
Coleraine. He left home on the 28th of August, for the .purpose of 
marrying a lady residing at Onondaga, N. Y. On his journey to 
Utica he became acquainted with Wilber, who was about 31 years 
of age, a native of Saratoga, N. Y. This person was of a low and 
vicious character, and in the habit of thieving from his childhood. 
The following account of the murder is from a pamphlet published in 
Morrisville in 193d. 

" At LTlKB, Wilber firei entertained the thought of muidaiing tbe old man. For that 
object, or, any similsr one, he purchaBed a camman ■liM.kliUe, u he laid, — but lucb a una 
uii oftcn'csUed > bread-knife, with I afaup point and ■ tnmed wooden handle; ilcialeifh. 
tatn pence. Tbia he wrapped in a paper, and earned it iQ*a pocket in iha ikirt ofbia eoat. 

*■ Bomiiime towatda evening of the aame it-j, (tbe SSibJ ih«T both look ■ Hue boat ta 
fa wan, itf which Edwin H. Monger wai cqilaiit; tbaanwof tfaaboat beeonU nMm. 

262 Hadison county. 

collect Night coming on, they lodged together in the same berth. Little of interest oc> 
curred during the passage until morning, when they arrived very early at Burr's Tavern, 
on the canal, in Sullivan, about three miles east of the Chittenango Landing. There, the 
boat having stopped, Wijber and his companion (for they had by this time become consid- 
erably acquainted, and the old gentleman familiar with him) stepped off from the boat, 
went into the house, and drank something at the bar that they called for, which was handed 
to them by a woman. 

" They then walked along the towpath to Lee*s Bridge (so called,) about eighty rods 
west, and had some conversation about going on foot to Chittenango Landing ; and at the 
suggestion of Wilber, they crossed over Lee's Bridge, and took a westerly direction in the 
highway leading to Chittenango Landing. They passed the crotch of the road that leads 
off towards Canesaraga, and turning west, went on beyond all the houses and buildings. 
When they reached the last open field on the right, before entering the woods, Wilber in. 
formed the old gentleman that it would lessen the distance to turn to the right from the 
road, and cross the woods in that direction. They accordingly got over this fence, and 
walked in the direction of the woods, which they soon reached and entered. In the direc 
tion they were travelling at the time, the woods, where they entered them, were about 
sixty rods from the highway, and the distance through the woods to the canal (towards 
which they were going at an angle of about forty.five degrees to the general coarse of the 
canal,) must be not far from a quarter of a mile. 

** When they arrived at the place where the body of the old gentleman was subsequently 
found, (eighteen or twenty rods distant from the canal,) Wilber said he took from his 
pocket the knife before described, and a pistol that he carried, which at the time was not 
charged — and presenting the pistol to the old gentleman, demanded of him his money, at 
the same time showing him the knife. Here he said he became much agitated, and appa- 
rently more so than the old gentleman. The latter deliberately took his pocket-book from 
a side.pocket in his coat, and a purse from his pantaloons pocket — sa3nng at the same lime, 

* I did not think that of you — I thought you was my friend.' Wilber then told him to throw 
down the pocket-book and purse, which he did. * I was afraid to take them up,' said he, 

* and told him to he down and hide his face, and not look up for half an hour.* He then 
laid down in the same position in which he lay when found, according to the testimony of 
the wimesses. Here Wilber resolved to take the money and leave him. He took the 
pockeubook and purse, and secured them. Then, standing by the right side of the old 
gentleman, who lay on his face, with his right hand under his eyes and his hat on his head, 
a second thought warned Wilber of the danger of detection if the old gentleman should 
live ; and throwing up the skirt of his coat, with a back.handed stroke he plunged the knife 
into his body, near the back-bone and below the ribs. This he repeated several times. 
He said that from the time he struck the first blow with the knife, no signs of life appeared. 
Lideed, he never moved from the original position, in which he laid down. 

*' But this seemed not enough. He then stepped a few paces to the west, and thinking 
that by possibility his victim might survive, he picked up a large stone, and approaching 
him as he lay, threw it at him, and it struck his head. This he thought made die fracture 
in the skull above the left ear, on the back of the head, which appeared when the body 
was found, and also a similar corresponding hole in the hat. 

" In describing this scene — which he did with a great deal of accuracy and minuteness — 
his feelings frequently overcame his utterance, and the burden of his thoughts choked him 
to silence. He would pause, and groan and weep ; and when he spoke again, it would be 
by exclamations and ejaculations, accompanied by the most frightful writhings, manif(Mting 
the greatest mental suffering. He declared that if the old gentleman had made the least 
resistance or noise, he should have fled, and left hrm untouched." 

Wilber after the murder proceeded on to Buffalo, and from thence 
to Cleaveland, Ohio, where he was arrested in April, 1838. AAer 
Mr. Barber was missed by the captain of the boat, from which he 
went with Wilber, his trunk was kept on board through to Buffido 
and back again to Albany, where he saw a notice respecting the dis- 
appearance of Mr. B. His suspicions now rested on Wilber as his 
murderer. Search was made lar and near on the north side of the 
canal ; this was in October, and the winter passed away without any 
discovery. In March, 1838, the body A^as accidentally discovered, 
which immediately led to the apprehension of Wilber. He wa» ex- 
ecuted at Morrisville, October 3d, 1839. 

mnoB o(Knn# Mil' 


Monroe county was taken from Ontario and Genesee in 1821. 
Distant from New York by way of Albany NW. 865, and from 
Albany W. 219 miles. Greatest len^h £. and W. 34, greatest 
breadth N. and S. 24 miles. The sumce is level, or gently wav- 
ing. The mountain ridge, a high terrace of land neariy parallel with 
Lake Ontario, extends across the county, as also the alluvial way, 
supposed to have been formed by the action of the waters of that 
lake at some former period. The soil is generally a rich mould imd 
very productive. ** It is said that an analvsis of the Genesee, wheats 
for which this county is so celebrated, exhibits more saccharine thain 
that of the southern states ; whilst the latter combines with a larger 
portion of nolo- in the composition of bread. This may explain ^y 
southern flour is more acceptable to the baker, and Genesee to the 
consumer. It is common for extensive farmers to sow from 50 to 
200 acres with wheat, and to reap an average crop of 20 bushels to 
the acre. The product is sometimes 30, 40, and even 50 bushels to 
the acre." The long level of the Erie canal continues 2J miles E. 
of the Genesee river. In the towns of Rochester, Mendon, and Gates, 
there are sulphur springs. " The towns of Parma, Offden, Chili, Riga, 
Gates, and Greece, E. of the Triangle, belonged to me great tract of 
Phelps and Gorham, together with that portion of the county E. of 
the Genesee river. Clarkson and Sweden, part of the Triangle, a&d 
Wheatland, were of the tract purchased by Robert Morris from Mas- 
sachusetts. Phelps and Gorham sold out Greece and Gates, in frac- 
tional parts to settlers ; and Parma, Ogden, Riga, and Chili, in mass 
to Robert Morris. The lands on the east side of the river were sold 
by them in parcels, consisting of whole and parts of townships. The 
county was settled chiefly by emigrants from New England, with. a 
few from Pennsylvania and the lower parts of New York." It con- 
tains the city of Rochester and 19 towns. Pop. 64,912. 

Brighton was taken from Small wood and Penfield in 1814; NW. 
from Albany 216, from Rochester E. 3 miles. Pop. 2,337. Blos- 
somsville, situated on the canal, is a small settlement. 

Chili was taken from Riga in 1802 ; NW. from Albany 230, from 
Rochester S W. 1 1 miles. Chili, North Chili, South Chili, and aCoh- 
nelsville, are post-ofiices ; around which are small settlements. Pop. 

Clarkson was taken from Murray in 1819 ; NW. from Albany 
238 miles. Clarkson on the Ridge road, 18 miles W. of Rochester, 
is a small village. Pop. 3,486. 

Gates, originally named Northampton^ and organized in 1802; 
fit)m Albany 225, from Rochester W. 6 miles. Pop. 1,728. 

Greeck was taken from Gates in 1802 ; NW. from Albany 225 
miles. Pop. 3,6^9. Port Genesee, formerly called Charlotte, at the 
mouth of the Genesee river, on Lake Ontario, 7 miles N. of Roches- 


ter, is a small village. It has a customhouse, a pier over half a mile 
in length, for the protection of the harbor, with a lighthouse built by 
the United States. Hanford's Landing, 3 miles N. of Rochester on 
the west bank of the Genesee, was formerly a place of considerable 
business. " It was the first landing on the river. for lake navigation, 
and here in 1798 was built the first dwelling, and in 1810 the first 
store, on the river below Avon, on the west side of the Genesee riv- 
er." Greece is a small settlement on the ridge road, 9 miles N W. 
from Rochester. North Greece is a post-office. The following 
relative to Hanford's landing is from Mr. O'Reilly's History of Roch- 

** A settlement was formed here in 1796. In 1800, the English traveller Maude men. 
tions that, as he could not find any accommodations for refreshment — * not even a stahic 
for his horse* — at *he place where the city of Rochester has since sprung into existence, he 
* was obliged to proceed to Gideon King's, at the Genesee Landing, where [he] got a good 
breakfast on wild pigeons. Mr. King is the only respectable settler in this township, (No. 
1, short range,) in which there are at present twelve families, four of whom have established 
themselves at the Landing. King, though the proprietor of 3,000 acres, Kves in an in- 
different log house : one reason for this is, that he has not been able to procure boards. 
The Landing is the port from whence all the shipments of the Genesee river must be 
made ; but further improvements are much checked in consequence of the titles to the 
lands being in dispute. The circumstances are as follow : Mr. Phelps sold 3,000 acres in 
this neighborhood to Zadok Granger for about ^ 10,000, the payment being secured by a 
mortgage on the land. Granger died soon after his removal here ; and having sold part of 
the land, the residue would not clear the mortgage, which prevented his heirs from admin, 
istering on his estate. Phelps foreclosed the mortgage and entered on possession, even on 
that part which had been already sold and improved. Some settlers, in consequence, left 
their forms — others repaid the purchase money — and others again, arie endeavoring to make 
some accommodation with Mr. Phelps. A son of Mr. Granger resides here, and Mr. 
Greaves, his nephew, became also a settler, erected the frame of a good house, and died. 
The Landing is at present aii unhealthy residence, but when the woods get more opened it 
will no doubt become as healthy as any other part of the Genesee country. I went to see 
the new store and wharf. It is very difficult to get goods conveyed to and from the wharf, 
in consequence of the great height and steepness of the bank.* 

** As illustrative of the condition of things in the way of roads as well as navigable facili. 
ties, we may note a remark of the traveller, that * yesterday, August 18, 1800, a schooner 
of forty tons sailed from this Landing for Kingston, U. C, laden with potash, which had 
been sent from Canandarqua to Rundicut Bay, and from thence round about in boats to 
this (Genesee) Landing.* 

** * Tlus Landing,* adds Maude, * is four miles from the mouth of the river, where two 
log huts are built at its entrance into Lake Ontario. At this Landing the channel runs 
close along shore, and hoB thirty feet depth ; but upon the bar at the mouth of the river the 
water shoals to sixteen or eighteen fceU This place is about equally distant from the east, 
em and western limits of Lake Ontario, and opposite to its centre and widest parts, being 
here about eighty [sixty] miles across.* 

** In January, 1810, Frederic Hanford opened a store of goods at what was called the 
Upper Landing or Falltown — the name of Genesee Landing was no longer strictly applica. 
ble, as another Landing had been estabUshed at the junction of the river and lake, at the 
village called Charlotte. Hanford's was the first merchant's store on the river between 
Avon and Lake Onuirio — a distance of about twenty.five miles. Hence the place has since 
been termed * Hanford's Landing.* 

** In the same year Silas O. Smith opened a store at Hanford's Landing, but in 1813 re. 
moved to the new village of Rochester, where he built the first merchant'^ store ; tha |dat 
of Rochester having been planned only the previous season. 

** As at the present steamboat landing on the river at the north part of the city of Roches- 
ter, railways were used to facilitate the transit of freight between the top of the bank at 
Hanford*s Landing and the warehouses or vessels on the margin of the river. The nilway, 
the warehouses; and the wharves at Hanford's were burned in 1835.** 

Henrietta was taken from Pittsford, when part of Ontario county. 


in 1818 ; from Albany 228 miles. Henrietta Comers is a small post 
village 8 miles S. of Rochester. West Henrietta is a post-office. 
Pop. 2,085. 

iRONDEauoiT, recently taken from Brighton, of which it formed the 
northern part. It receives its name from Irondequoit bay, which 
extends through the eastern part of the town. Pop. 1,252. 

" This bay, [Irondequoit,] well known in the early history of the country, is now wholly 
unfitted for navigation, owing to the sandbar formed at its junction with Lake Ontario. It 
is now much frequented by parties from Rochester, for gunning, fishing, &.c. The geolo. 
gist also has many attractions for a \'isit thither ; for * on the borders of the bay, and of the 
creek of the same name which discharges itself there, the surface of the earth presents a 
most extraordinary and picturesque appearance — a multitude of conical or irregular mounda 
of sand and light earth, sometimes insulated and sometimes united^ rising to an average 
height of 200 feer, fonn a perfectly level meadow of the richest alluvial loam.' 

" The history of Irondequoit is intimately connected with that of the Military and Trad, 
ing Posts of western New York. A station was established there in 1726, to aid the Brit. 
ish in securing the trade with the western Indians, to the exclu&ion of the French at the 
lower end of Lake Ontario. 

^ In connection with the fact that there was a city laid out at Irondequoit bay, it might 
be mentioned that formerly supplies from New York, desdned for our western posts, wero 
sent to the head of that bay, (instead of the Genesee river,) there freighted in batteaux, to 
proceed through Lake Ontario to Niagara river — thence to be taken across the portage to 
Fort Schlosser ; and there re.cmbarked to proceed up the Niagara river, through Lake Erie, 
&c. The city was laid out at the head of the bay, near the route of the present road be- 
tween Cannndaigua and Rochester. 

" It may amuse some readers to learn that Maude, a traveller in 1800, mentions that the 
cargo of a schooner which sailed from Genesee river for Kingston, U. C, had * been sent 
fj-om Canandarqua for Rundicut bay, and from thence in boats round about to Genesee 
river landing,' for sliipment in the above schooner. [The cargo thus circuitousrly forwarded 
from Canandaigua was potash — and * no potash w*s then made about Irondequoit or Gen- 
esee landings for want of kettles* in 1800.] 

" The mouth of Irondequoit is about four miles eastward of Genesee river on Lake On- 
tario ; and the bay extends southwardly aboat five miles, nearly to the present main.traveUed 
route through Brighton between Rochester and Canandaigua. 

** * The Teoronto bay of Lake Ontario,' says Spafford, * merits more particular notice, if 
for no oth«;r purpose than to ypeak of Gcrundegut, Irondequoit, and Rundicut — names by 
which it id also known. The Indians called it * Teoronto' — a sonorous and purely Indian 
name, too good to be supplanted by such vulgarisms as Gerundegut or Irondequoit I The 
bay is about five miles long and one mile wide, communicating with the lake by a very 
narrow opening — or such it used to have — and Teoronto, or Tche-o-ron-tok, perhaps rather 
nearer the Indian pronunciaiion, is the place where the waves breathe and die^ or gasp and 
expire. Let a person of as much discernment as these savages watch the motion of the 
waves in this bay, and be will admire the aptitude of its name, and never again pronounce 
Gerundegut, Irondequoit, or Rundicut.' " 

Mendon was taken from Bloomfield in 1812; from Albany 209 
miles. Pop. 3,435. Mendon, incorporated in 1833, is a small village 
near the eastern line of the town. West Mendon is 10 miles S. of 
the Erie canal, on the Honeoye creek, which has here a fall of 60 
feet, on which are extensive manufacturing establishments. There 
are here upwards of 100 dwellings. North Mendon is a hamlet. 

Ogdex, taken from Parma in 1817; from Rochester 10, and Alba- 
ny 230 miles. Pop. 2,404. Adams and Spencers basins, on the 
canal, are post-offices, and small settlements. At Ogden, post-office, 
2 miles S. from the canal, 10 W. from Rochester, are 1 Presbyterian 
and 1 Baptist church, and a small number of dwellings. 

Parma, organized as part of Genesee county in 1808, and taken 
from Northampton, the original name of Gates ; from Albany 230 



miles. Pop. 2,651. Parma village, on the ri^ge road, 12 miles W. 
from Rochester, is a small village. At Parma Centre, 15 miles from 
Rochester, there is a small collection of dwellings. 

Penfield, taken from Boyle in 1810 ; NW. from Albany 211 miles. 
Pop. 2,842. Penfield village, on the Irondequoit creek, 8 miles SE. of 
Rochester, has about 30 dwellings. The creek in passing through 
the village has a descent of 90 feet, forming the high falls of me 
Irondequoit, affording a valuable water-power. 

Perrinton, taken from Boyle in 1812 ; NW. from Albany 209 
miles. Pop. 2,513. Bushnells, Fulloms, and Fairport, are basins and 
settlements on the canal. At Bushnells basin, 11 miles SE. from 
Rochester, is the great embankment over the Irondequoit creek. 
This embankment is the greatest work on the canal ; it is nearly a 
mile in length and from 40 to 76 feet in height. It is partly natural, 
partly artificial, and extending in a winding direction across the val- 
ley. The following is extracted from the journal of De Witt Clinton, 
while on his exploring tour with the canal commissioners in 1810. 

•* We arrived at the tavern at Penrin*s, in the town of Boyle, [now Perrinton,] twenty-one 
miles from Canandaigua, four and a half from Gerundegut or Irondequoit landing, and 
fourteen from Charlottcsburgh. A vessel of thirty tons can go to the bead of this landing 
[from Lake Ontario ; but the sandbar at the mouth of the bay now prevents all intercourse 
of that sort.] The sign of the tavern contains masonic emblems, and is by S. Felt &. Go. 
Felt is a man in the landlord*s employ ; and the object of this masked sign is, as the land, 
lord says, to prevent his debtors from avoiding his house. ♦ ♦ ♦ We drew lots for the 
choice of beds ; and it turning out in my favor, I chose the worst bed in the house. I was 
unable to sleep on account of the fleas, d&c. * * ♦ At this place we eat the celebrated 
whitefish, salted ; it is better than shad, and cost at Irondequoit landing $12 per barrel. 

** We departed from here at seven o'clock, after breakfast ; and after a ride of eight and 
a half miles, arrived at a ford of the Genesee river about half a mile from the Great Falls, 
and seven and a half from Lake Ontario." 

PiTTSFORD was taken from Smallwood in 1814 ; NW. from Albany 
215 miles. Pop. 1,983. Pittsford, a thrivinff village on the canal, 6 
miles SE. from Rochester, was incorporated in 1827 ; it has about 
100 dwellings. 

Riga was taken from Northampton in 1808 ; from Albany 230 
miles. Pop. 1,983. Churchville and Riga are the post-oflSces. The 
pleasant little village of Churchville is on the Rochester and Batavia 
railroad, 15 miles SW. from Rochester. 

Rochester, one of the most remarkable instances of a rapid and vig- 
orous growth as a village or city hi this country, is situated in lat N. 
43°, long. W. 40' ; distant from Albany 217 miles, Buffalo 73,Canan- 
daigua 28, Batavia 35, S. from Lake Ontario 7, and 361 miles from 
Washington. In the year 1810 there was not a house where Roch« 
ester now stands. The first allotments for a village were made in 
1812, when Nathaniel Rochester, Charles H. Carroll, and William 
Fitzhugh, surveyed the hundred-acre tract for a settlement, under the 
name of " Rochester,^' after the senior proprietor. This tract was a 
•* mill lot," bestowed by Phelps and Gorham on a semi-savage called 
Indian Allen, as a bonus for building mills to ^rind com and taw 
boards for the few settlers in this region at the time. The millff de- 
cayed, as the business of the country was insufficient la •upport thein^ 


and Allen sold the property to Sir William Pulteney, whose estate 
then included a large section of the " Genesee country." The sale 
to Rochester, Fitzhugh, and "Carroll, took place in 1802, at the rate 
of $15.50 per acre, or $1,750 for the lot, with its " betterments." 
Some of the land on the east side of the Genesee in Rochester, (the 
hundred-acre tract being on the west side,) was sold by Phelps and 
Gorham in 1790, for eighteen pence an acre. 

The last war with Great Britain, which produced much distress in 
this frontier region, impeded the progress of Rochester to such a de- 
gree that the population at the commencement of 1816 amounted to 
only 331. By the opening of the Erie canal, Rochester became the 
great thoroughfare between the seaboard and the inland waters. On 
the incorporation of the village in 18 J7, about 750 acres were includ- 
ed within its limits. The city charter, in 1834, extended the bounds 
so as to embrace upwards of 4,000 acres. The staple product of the 
fertile valley of the Genesee is wheat, remarkable for its quantity as 
well as its quality. Its celebrity is increased by the skill with which 
it is prepared for market. By the immense water-power formed by 
the falls of the Genesee, Rochester is the largest as well as the best 
flour manufactory in the world. There are now within the city 20 
mills, (exclusive of grist-mills,) with nearly 100 runs of stone. These 
mills are capable of manufacturing 5,000 barrels of flour daily, and 
when in full operation, require about 20,000 bushels of wheat daily. 
About half a million barrels of flour are yearly manufactured. There 
are 12 saw-mills, and various other establishments that use the water- 
power, such as turning, stone-cutting, grinding dye-woods and bark. 
There are 1 cotton and 3 woollen mills. Carpets, edge tools, and vari- 
ous other articles are here manufactured. The business portion of 
the city is compactly built, and contains many splendid houses and 
stores four stories high. The east and west portions of the city are 
connected by several bridges, and by the great aqueduct of the Erie 
canal, upwards of 800 feet long. There are 3 banks, having an ag- 
gregate capital of about one million of dollars ; 6 newspapers, and 
numerous religious, benevolent, and literary associations. Population 
in 1840 was 20,202. 

The following is a list of the churches in Rochester, with the date 
of their organization.* 

First Presbyterian, 1815 

St. Luke'8, (Episcopal,) 1817 

Friends. 1817 

First Baptist, 1818 

Fiitfi Methodist Episcopal, 1820 

St. Patrick's, (Catholic,) 1820 

Third Presbyterian, 1827 

Orthodoi Friends 1828 

Reformed Presbyterian, 1831 

Free Presbyterian, 1832 

Brick, formerly second, (Presbyterian,) 1833 

Second Baptist, 1834 

Zion church, (African,) 1835 

German Evangelical Lutheran, 1835 

German Roman Catholic, 1836 

Second Methodist Episcopal, 1836 

Free Will Baptist, 1836 

Bethel Free, (Presbyterian,) 1836 

Free Congregational, 1836 

Universalist, 1837 

Grace, formerly St. Paul's, (Episcopal,) 1833 African Methodist Episcopal church,... 1837 

* For this and most other facts respecting this place, the authors are indebted to a work 
entitled ** Sketches of Rochester; with incidental Notices of Western New For*, &c., 
by Henry O'Reilly." This volume was published in 1838 ; it is a duodecimo of 416 
pages, full of interesting historical details, and illustrated by 43 engravings. 


No longer ago than 1813, pagan rites were performed on the spot 
where so many Christian temples have been since erected. The fol- 
lowing account of the last sacrifice of the Senecas, near where the 
Bethel church now stands, is from Mr. O'Reilly's History. 

** It may be premised that the Senecas, and probably others of the Six Nations, have 
five feasts annually ; on which occasions it is customary to return thanks to Nauwanew for 
his blessings, or to deprecate his wrath. At these times also the chiefs conversed upon the 
affairs of the tribes, and generally urged upon the people the duty of demeaning themselves 
80 as to ensure a continuance of the favor which bad attended them in their pursuits of 
peace or war. These feasts followed the consummation of the mattets usually watched 
with most interest by Indians in peaceful times— one of the ceremonies occurring after 
* sugar.time ;' another after planting ; a third called the greenhorn feast, when the maize 
firat becomes fit for use ; the fourth after the corn-harvest ; and the fifth at the close of their 
year, late in January or early in February, according to the moon. 

" The latter ceremonial was performed for the last time in Rochester in January, 1813. 
The concluding rites were seen by some of the few persons then settled in * these parts.' 
From Mr. Edwin Scrantom, now a merchant of the city, who was among the spectators, 
we have had an account of the ceremonial, as far as he beheld it, which corresponds with 
the accounts given by the Rev. Mr. Kirkland, long a missionary among the Six Nations, 
and by the * White Woman/ that remarkable associate of the Senecas. The latter person- 
age related, that when the Indians returned from hunting, ten or twenty of their number 
were appointed to superintend the great * sacrifice and Uianksgiving.* Preparations were 
made at the counciUhouse or other place of meeting for the accommodation of the tribe 
during the ceremonial. Nine days was the period, and two white dogs the number and 
kind of animab formerly required for the festival ; though in these latter days of reform and 
retrenchment (for the prevailing spirit had reached even the wigwams and the altars of the 
Senecas) the time has been curtailed to seven or five days, and a single dog was made the 
scapegoat to bear away the sins of the tribe 1 Two dogs, as nearly white as could be pro- 
cured, were usually selected from those belonging to the tribe, and were carefully killed at 
the door of the council-house by means of strangulation ; for a wound on the animal or an 
effusion of blood would spoil the victim for the sacrificial purpose. The dogs were then 
fantastically painted with various colors, decorated with feathers, and suspended about 
twenty feet high at the council-house or near the centre df the camp. The ceremonial is 
then commenced, and the five, seven, or nine days of its continuance are marked by feast, 
ing and dancing, as well as by sacrifice and consultation. Two select bands, one of men 
and another of women, ornamented with trinkets and feathers, and each person furnished 
with an car of com in the right hand, dance in a circle around the council-fire, which is 
kindled for the occasion, and regulate their steps by rude music. Hence they proceed to 
every wigwam in the camp ; and, in like manner, dance in a circle around each fire. Af- 
terword, on another doy, several men clothe Uiemselves in the skins of wild beasts, cover 
their faces with hideous masks and their hands with the shell of the tortoise, and in this 
garb they go among the wigwams, making horrid noises, taking the fuel from the fire, and 
scattering the embers and ashes about the floor, for the purpose of driving away evil spirits. 
The persons performing these operations are supposed not only to drive off the evil spirit, 
but to concentrate within themselves all the sins of their tribe. These sins are afterward 
all transfused into one of their own number, who, by some magical dexterity or aleight-of. 
hand, works off from himself into the dogs tlie concentrated wickedness of the tribe ! The 
scapegoat dogs arc then placed on a pile of wood, to which fire is applied, while the sur. 
rounding crowd throw tobacco or other incense upon the flame, the scent of which is 
deemed to co-operate with the sacrifice Of the animals in concihating the favor of Nauwa. 
new or the Great Spirit. When the dogs are partly consumed, one is taken oflf and put 
into a large kettle with vegetables of various kinds, and all around devour the contents of 
the ' reeking caldron.' After this the Indians perform the dances of war and peace, and 
smok£ the calumet : then, free from wickedness, they repair to their respective places of 
abode, prepared for the events of the new year." 

The following is a view of the middle or main falls, as seen from the 
east bank of the Genesee. The Rochester and Auburn railroad 
bridge is viewed a few rods north of the falls. The perpendicular fall 
of the water at this place is 96 feet ; towards the right of the engrav- 
ing is seen a small tabular projection from the general line of the 


Genesee Falls at Rochester. 

verge of the precipice. From this projection, in the fall of 1829, 
Sam Patch took a last leap, and perished, not much unlike many oth- 
ers before him, 

" aceking the bubble reputation, even in (he cuinon'B mouth." ',, 

The river below this fall is broad and deep, with occasional rapids . 
for a mile and a half to the Lower Falls, the first 25, the other 64 feet, 
making a total descent of J09 feet in a few rods. Just below this place 
stood the celebrated Carthage bridge, remarkable in its fate as in its 
construction. It ^as completed in February, 1919; it consisted of 
an entire arch, the chord of which was 352 feet, and the versed sine 
54 feet. Its entire lengih was 718 feet, and the width 30; the sum- 
mit of the arch was I9G feet from the water. " The most lofty single 
arch at present in Europe, is llti feet less in length than this was, 
and the arch not as high by 90 feet." This daring work stood but 
one year, and one day ; which latter period saved the builders from 
li>ss, as they guarantied ihal the structure should endure for one year. 
It ciiiilaiiied about 70,000 feet of timber, running measure, besides 
64,620 feet of board measure. " The immense weight of timber press- 
ing unequally upon the arch, threw up the centre from its equilibrium, 
and the whole tumbled into ruins." A port of entry was established 
at what is now known as the harbor of Rochester, in 1805; when 
Samuel Latta, residing at the junction of the river and lake, was ap- 
pointed the first collector. The Rochester or Genesee revenue dis- 
trict has a frontier of about 70 miles on Lake Ontario, extending 
westward froin Sodus bay, Wayne county. The port of Rochester, 
at the Ontario steamboat landing, is situated at the north line of the 
city, about five miles from the lake. The largest vessels on the lake 
can ascend the river to this point. There are three railways for 
facilitating the business between the vessels and the warehouses oa 
the upper banks, which are here about 100 feet high. -^ 


** A serious alann, attended by some amusing consequences, occurred in May, 1814, 
when Sir James Yeo, with a fleet of thirteen vessels of various sizes, appeared off the mouth 
of the Genesee, threatening the destruction of the rude improvements in and around Ro- 
chester. Messengers were despatched to arouse the people in the surrounding country for 
defence against the threatened attack. There were then but thirty.three people in Roches- 
ter capable of bearing arms. This little band threw up a breastwork called Fort Bender, 
near the Deep Hollow, beside the Lower Falls, and hurried down to the junction of the 
Genesee and Lake Ontario, five miles north of the present city limits, where the enemy 
threatened to land ; leaving behind them two old men, with some young lads, to remove 
the women and children into the woods, in case the British should attempt to land for the 
capture of the provisions and destruction of the bridge at Rochester, dtc. Francis Brown 
and Elisha Ely acted as captains, and Isaac W. Stone as mi^'or of the Rochester forces, 
wliich were strengthened by the addidons that could be made from this thinly.«ettled region. 
Though the equipments and discipline of these troops would not form a brilliant picture for 
a warlike eye, their very awkwardness in those points, coupled as it was with their sagacity 
and courage, accomplished more perhaps than could have been effected by a larger force 
of regular troops bedizzcned with the trappings of military pomp. The militia thuv hastily 
collected, were marched and countermarched, disappearing in the woods at one point and 
suddenly emerging elsewhere, so as to impress the enemy with the belief that the force 
collected for defence was far greater than it actually was. (The circumstances here related 
are substantially as mentioned to the writer by one who was then and is now a resident 
of Rochester.) An officer with a flag of truce was sent from the British fleet. A militia 
officer marched down, with ten of the most soldierlike men, to receive him on Lighthouse 
Point. These militiamen carried their guns as nearly upright as might be consistent with 
their plan of being ready fur action by keeping hold of the triggers ! The British officer 
was astonished : he * looked unutterable things.* * Sir,* said he, * do you receive a flag of 
truce under arms, with cocked triggers 7' * Excuse me, excuse me, sir ; we backwoodsmen 
are not well versed in military tactics,' replied the American officer, who promptly sought 
to rectify his error by ordering his men to * ground arma .'* The Briton was still more as. 
tonishod ; and, after delivering a brief message, immediately departed for the fleet, indicat. 
ing by his countenance a suspicion that the ignorance of tactics which he had wimessed 
was all feigned for the occasion, so as to deceive the British commodore into a snare ! 
Shortly afterward, on the same day, another officer came ashore with a flag of truce for 
further parley, as the British were evidently too suspicious of stratagem to attempt a hostile 
landing if there was any possibility of compromising for the spoils. Gapt. Francis Brown 
was deputed with a guard to receive the last flag of truce. The British officer looked sus- 
piciously upon him and upon his guard ; and, after some conversation, familiarly grasped 
the pantaloons of Gapt. B. about the knee, remarking, as he firmly handled it, * Your cloth 
is too good to be spoiled by such a bungling tailor ;* alluding to the width and clumsy as- 
pcct of that garment. Brown was quickwitted as well as resolute, and replied jocosely, 
that * he was prevented from dressing fashionably by his haste that morning to salute such 
distinguished visiters !* The Briton obviously imagined that Brown was a regular officer 
of the American army, whose regimentals were masked by clumsy overclothes. The pro- 
position was then made, that, if the Americans would deliver up the provisions and military 
stores which might be in and around Rochester or Gharlotte, Sir James Yeo would spare 
the settlements from destruction. * Will you comply with the offer 7* * Blood knee-deep 
first ." was the emphatic reply of Francis Brown. 

" While this parley was in progress, an American officer, with his staff, returning from the 
Niagara frontier, was accidentally seen passing from one wooded point to another; and 
this, with other circumstances, afforded to the British ' confirmation strong* that their suspi- 
cions were well founded ; that there was a considerable American army collected ; and that 
the Yankee officers shammed igirorancc for the purpose of entrapping ashore the commodore 
and his forces 1 The return of the last flag to the fleet was followed by a vigorous attack in 
bombs and balls, while the compliment was spiritedly returned, not without some effect on 
at least one of the vessels, by a rusty old six-pounder, which had been furbished and mount- 
ed on a log for the important occasion. After a few hours spent in this imavailing manner. 
Admiral Yeo run down to Fulteneyville, about twenty miles eastward of Genesee riTer, 
where, on learning how they had been outwitted and deterred fi^m landing by such a 
handful of militia, their mortification could scarcely restrain all hands fiom a hearty lau^ 
at the * Yankee trick.* ** 

Rush was taken from Avon in 1818 ; from Albany 229 miles. Pop. 
1,929. Rush, 12 S., Sibley's Comers and Green's Corners, each 15 
mil^ from Rochester, HartwelFs Comers and Davis' Comers, are 
small settlements. 


CoUegiuU hu-ildiug at lirockpart. 

Sweden, taken from Murray in 1613; from Albany 241 miles. 
Pop. 3,133. Brockport village was incorporated in 1829, It is situ- 
ated on the Erie canal, 20 miles SE. from liocheater, and 239 from 
Albany. The village consists of about 300 dwellings, some of them 
three and four stories high, built of brick or freestone. The citizens 
have erected a noble stone building five stories high, for a collegiate 
institution, at an expense of V25,0OU, of which the above engraving is 
a representation. Large quantities of wheat have been purchased in 
this village for the Rochester mills; 451,000 bushels were bought 
here in 1833. The first buildings in the village were erected in 1880; 
the population is now upwards of 1,300. 

Webbter. 14 miles NE. from Rochester, was recently taken from 
Penfield, of which it formed the northern part The township is 
bounded on the north by Lake Ontario. Pop. 2,235, 

Wheatland, originally named Inverness, and taken from Caledo- 
nia in 1821 ; from Albany 232 miles. Pop. 2,871. Scottsville, on 
Aliens creek, 12 miles SW. from Rochester, near Genesee river, con- 
tains several churches, and upwards of 150 dwelhngs. The water- 
power here has been lately much improved by a canal one mile in 
length, taken from the creek to the Genesee river, by which a head 
of about 16 feet is obtained. Indian Allen, bo called, was the first 
settler at the mouth of the creek which goes by his name. In the 
year 1800, Isaac Scott located himself where the village is now built 
From this pioneer of the wilderness the village derives its name.. 
There are within three miles of this place the remains of four ancient 
fortifications. Trees have grown on these mounds indicating a lapse 
of from four to five hundred years since they were constructed. Mum- 
fordsville, also on Aliens creek, 18 miles SW. from Rochester, is 8 
small settlement. There is a small collection of dwellings in the vi- 
cinity of Wheatland post-office and at Garbettt mills. 



MoNTGOMEET COUNTY wos named afler the lamented Gen. Montgom- 
ery, who fell at the attack on Quebec, in the revolution. Its greatest 
length is 34 E. and W,, greatest breadth N. and S. 13 miles. It was 
originally taken from Albany and named in honor of William Tryon, 
then governor of the province. Its name was changed in 1784, It 
embraced all that part of the state lying west of a line running north 
and south nearly through the centre of the present county of Schoharie. 
It was divided into five districts — subdivided into precincts. The Mo- 
hawk district included Fort Hunter, Caugnawaga, Johnstown, and 
Kingsboro' ; Canajoharie district embraced the present town of that 
name, with all the country southward, comprehending Cherry Valley 
of Otsego, and Harpersfield of Delaware comities ; Palatine district, 
north of the Mohawk, extended over the region so called, and Stone 
Arabia, &c. ; German Flats district and Kingsland covered the most 
wealem settlements. The Eric canal crosses the county on the south 
Bide of the Mohawk, and the Schenectady and Utica railroad on the 
north side. The Erie canal passes the Schoharie creek through a 
pond formed by a dam across the stream below. Its fall within this 
county is 86 feet, by 12 locks. The county is divided into ten towns. 
Fop. 35,801. 

Soulkem view of Sir Guy Johnson's house, Amsterdam. 

Amsterdam, taken from Caugnawaga in 1793. It has a rolling 
surface and fertile soil. Pop. 5,329. Amsterdam village, incorpo- 
rated in 1830, upon the Mohawk river and turnpike and Utica rail 

oad, 16 miles W. of Schenectady, contains several churches, ar 
academy, and about 700 inhabitants. The Erie canal is on the south. 

tide of the river, over which there is a commodious bridge. 
The above shows the appearance of the mansion house of Coloner 

5uy Johnson, as seen from the opposite side of the river. It is built 
of stone, on the north bank of the Mohawk, about a mile from An. 

iterdam village. The western railroad now passes a few rods north. 

■nd in front It is n bepnfifiil fliiMBtlon, and -"na formorb '-aJM "Gu' 



'^^iZZ^i^'^ c^^^^^^ 

[Fac^mile of the signatures of the JokntonSf and of Colonel John Butler, and hit mm 

Park." The house occupied by Sir John Johnson is further to the 
west, on the opposite side of the road. These men hved here essen- 
tially in the rank and splendor of noblemen, till their possessions were 
confiscated by the state for their adherence to the British cause. Sir 
John was not as popular as his father, Sir WilUam Johnson, beinff 
less social and less acquainted with human nature. He accompanied 
his father on some of his military expeditions, and probably saw 
considerable service. After his flight from Johnstown to Canada, he 
in the month of January, 1777, found his way into New York, 
then in possession of the British troops. •* From that period he be- 
came not only one of the most active, but one of the bitterest foes of 
his own countrymen of any who were engaged in the war, and re- 
peatedly the scourge of his own former neighbors. He was unques- 
tionably a loyalist from principle, else he would scarcely have 
hazarded, as he did, and ultimately lost, domains larger and fairer 
than probably ever belonged to a single proprietor in America, Wil- 
liam Penn only excepted. 

After the flight of Sir John from Johnson Hall, [see Joknstoion] 
lady Johnson, his wife, was removed to Albany, where she was re- 
tained as a kind of hostage for the good conduct of her husband. 
" She wrote to Gen. Washington complaining of this detention, and 
asking his interference for her release ; but the commander-in-chief 
left the matter with Gen. Schuyler and the Albany committee. After 
the confiscation of the property of Sir John, the furniture of the 
hall was sold at auction at Fort Hunter. The lata Ueutenant-gov- 
emor of New York, John Taylor, purchased several articles of the 
furniture ; and among other things, the bible mentioned in the text. 
Perceiving that it contained the family record, which might be of 
great value to Sir John, Mr. Taylor wrote a civil note to Sir John, 
offering its restoration. Some time afterward a messenger from the 
baronet called for the bible, whose conduct was so rude as to give 
offence. * I have come for Sir WiUiam's bible,' said he, * and there 



hanj. The fort i> demolialied. Natbing of ii temains except i circumvslUtioit or trench, 
which, although nearly obliteraled by ibe plough, Btill indicaleB to the curious traveUer 
Bufficieni evidence of a fonificBlioo in days by-gone."--J'or( Pioin JourBoIiDee, 26, 1837. 

Hendrjck, a celebrated Indian chieftain, lived in this town. He is 
sometimes called old King Hendrick, and the great Hendrick. 

" ' The Bite of his houee," says Dr. Dwigbl, ' is b handsome ekvilion, commandiiij' B 
considerable prospect of the neighboring counlry. It will be sufGcienl to observe here, 
that for capacity, bravery, vigor of mind, and immoveable integrity united, he excelled all 
the aboriginal inhabitants of the United Stales of whom any knowledge has come down U> 
the present time. A gcnileman of very rcspecinblo character, *bo was present at a couti. 
oil held with the Six Nations, by (he governor of New York, and several agents of digtinc- 
tion from New England, informed me (hat his figure and coLintenonce were singularly im. 

tressive and comtnandjng ; that hia eloquence was of the ssjne superior cberscter, and (hat 
e appeared as if born to control otiier men, and possessed an ail of maiesty unriTalled 
within his knowledge' In the French ware he led forth hia Mohawk warriora and fought 
aide by side with Sir William Johnson. Through all the intrigues of tha French he re- 
mained faithful to his alliance. He was alao highly esteemed by the whits inhabitants. 
During some of the negotiations with the Indians of Pennsylvania and (he iuhabilania of 
that Slate, Hctidrick was present at Pliiladelphia. His likeness was taken, and ■ wai figure 
afterward made which was a very good imiialion. After the death of Hendrick, an old 
friend, a white man, visited Philadelphia, and among other things was shown thia wax 
figure. It occupied B niche, and was not observed by him until he had approached within 
a few feel. The friendship of former days came fresh over liis memoiy, end forgetting for 
the moment Hendrick's death, he rushed forward and clasped in his arms th« frail, icy 
image of (he chieftain." 

MoiiAWR, the ancient Caughnawaga, recently organized, was form- 
erly the aouthera section of the town of Johnstown, from which it 
was taken in 1637. Pop. 3,106. Since the formation of the new 
county of Fulton, the seat of justice for Montgomery county has been 

East mew of the Courthouse and Hotel in Fonda. 

located in this town. The above is an engraving of the courthouse 
and hotel recently erected in the new village of Fooda. The railroad 
passes between these two buildings. The central part of the village 
of Caughnawuga is about half a mile eastward of the courthouse, 
and consists of about 30 dwelling-houses, on the north side of the 
Mohawk, 40 miles from Albany, and 4 miles S. from Johnstown. 
The village occupies the site of an ancient Indian village, one of the 
principal towns of the Mohawk tribe. Its name, Caughnawaga, is 
■mil' 'o signify " a coffin," which it received from the circunutanae of 


over the river, connecting the village of Palatine Bridge with Cana- 
joharie. Central Canajoharie, Ames, and Freysbush, are post-offices 
in this town. 

In the spring of 1780, the Indians again made their appearance in 
the Mohawk valley. Gen. Clinton hearing of their movements, sent 
orders to Col. Gansevoort on the Gth of June, to repair to Fort Plank 
with his regiment, to take charge of a quantity of stores destined for 
Fort Schuyler. These stores were to be transported in batteaux, 
and carefully guarded the whole distance. Joseph Brant, the cele- 
brated chieftain, at the head of four or five hundred Indians, was in 
the vicinitv, and he artfully caused a rumor to be circulated that he 
intended to capture the batteaux, in order to divert attention from 
other points of attack. This artifice proved too successful ; the mili- 
tia of the lower section of the couiitv were drawn oil' to fjuard thd 
convoy. Brant now made a circuit through the woods, and coming 
in the rear of them, laid waste the whole country around Canajoharie. 
On the first approach of Brant in Canajoharie a few miles eastwardly 
of the fort, the alarm was given by a woman, who fired a cannon for 
that purpose. The following account of this incursion is given by 
Col. Samuel Clyde, in a letter to Gov. George Clinton, dated at Can- 
ajoharie, Aug. 6, 1780: — 

** I here send you an account of the fate of our district. On the second day of this in. 
fltant, Joseph Brant, ai the head of about four or five hundred Indians and tones, broke in 
upon the settlements, and laid the best part of the district in ashes, and killed sixteen of 
the inhabitants that we have found ; took between fifty and sixty prisoners, mostly women 
and children, twelve of whom they have sent back. They have killed and drove away 
with them upwards of three hundred head of cattle and horses ; have burnt flfty.three 
dwelling-houses, besides some uuuhouses, and as many barns, one very elegant church, and 
one grist-mill, and two small forts that the women fled out of. They have bunit all the in. 
habitants* weapons and implements for husbandry, so that they are left in a miserable con. 
dition. They have nothing left to support themselves but what grain tlu;y have growing, 
and that they cannot get saved for want of tools to work with, and very few to be got here. 

" This affair happened at a very unfortunate hour, when all the militia of the county 
were called up to Fort Schuyler to guard nine batteaux about half laden. It was said the 
enemy intended to take them on their passing to Fort Schuyler. There was scarce a man 
left that was able to go. It seems that every thing conspired for our destruction in this 
quarter ; one whole district almost destroyed, and the best regiment of militia in the county 
rendered unable to help themselves or the public. This I refer you to Gen. Rensselaer for 
the truth of. 

" This spring, when we found that we were not likely to get any assistance, and knew 
that w6 were not able to withstand the enemy, we were obliged to work and build our. 
selves forts for our defence, which we had nearly completed, and could have had our lives 
and effects secure, had we got liberty to have made use of them. But that must not be, 
we must turn out of them ; not that we have any thing against assisting the general to open 
the communication to Fort Schuyler, but s^ll doubted what has happened while we were 
gone. But it was still insisted on, that there was no danger when we were all out ; that in 
my opinion there never has been such a blunder committed in the cojuity since the war 
commenced, nor the militia so much put out ; and to send generals here without men, is 
like sending a man to the woods to chop without an aze. I am sensible had the general 
had sufficient men, that he would have been able to have given satisfaction both to the pub. 
lie and inhabitants here.** 

The parents of Joseph Brant, the celebrated Mohawk chieftain, 
resided at the Canajoharie castle, the central of the three castles of 
the Mohawks, in their native valley. He appears to have been 
bom in the year 1742, on the banks of the Obio, while his parents 


were on a hunting excursion in 
that part of the country.* " In 
July, 1761, he was sent, by Sir 
William Johnson, to the ' Moor's 
Charity school,* at Lebanon, Con- 
necticut, established by the Rev. 
f^nuuofBr^s.,gnat^ Dr. Whcclock, which was after- 

ward removed to Dartmouth, and became the foundation of Dart- 
mouth College. The following mention of him is made in the me- 
moirs of that gentleman : — 

" Sir William Johnson, superintendent of Indian Affairs in North 
America, was very friendly to the design of Mr. Wheelock, and, at 
his request, sent to the school, at various times, several boys of the 
Mohawks to be instructed. One of them was the since celebrated 
Joseph Brant ; who, after receiving his education, was particularly 
noticed by Sir William Johnson, and employed by him in public busi- 
ness. He has been very useful in advancing 'the civilization of his 
countrymen, and for a long time past has been a military officer of 
extensive influence among the Indians in Upper Canada." 

In confirmation of these statements it may be added, that he trans- 
lated into the Mohawk language the gospel of St. Mark, and assisted 
the Rev. Mr. Stewart, the episcopal missionary, in translating a num- 
ber of religious works intrf the Indian tongue. Brant being a neigh- 
bor, and imder the influence of the Johnson family, he took up arms 
against the Americans in the revolutionary contest. • "Combining 
the natural sagacity of the Indian, with the skill and science of 
the civilized man, he was a formidable foe. He was a dreadful 
terror to the frontiers. His passions were strong. In his inter- 
course he was affable and polite, and communicated freely rela- 
tive to his conduct. He often said that during the war he had killed 
but one man in cold blood, and that act he ever after regretted. He 
said, he had taken a man prisoner, and was examining him ; the pris- 
oner licsitated, and as he thought equivocated. Enraged at what he 
considered obstinacy, he struck him down. It turned out that the 
man's apparent obstinacy arose from a natural hesitancy of speech. 

" In person, Brant was about the middling size, of a square, stout 
build, fitted rather for enduring hardships than for quick movements. 
His complexion was lighter than that of most of the Indians, which 
resulted, perhaps, from his less exposed manner of living. This cir- 
cumstance, probably, gave rise to a statement, which has been often 
repeated, that he was of mixed origin. He was married in the win- 
ter of 1779 to a daughter of Col. Croghan by an Indian woman. 
The circumstances of his marriage are somewhat singular. He was 

* The Indian name of Brant was Thayendanegea^ a word signifying, it is said, iwO'SHcks^ 
X)f-tDoo(Lboun(Liogether^ denoting strength. The life of Brant, in two octavo volumes, has 
been recently written by William L. Stone, Esq., editor of the Commercial Advertiser, 
Hevr York« This valuable and highly interesting work is one of great research, and em- 
Jbracae a full history of the border wars of the revolution, and much other matter connected 
frith Indian history. 


present at the wedding of Miss Moore from Cherry Valley, who had 
been carried away a prisoner, and who iparried an officer of the 
garrison at Fort Niagara. 

Brant had lived with his wife for some time previous, according to 
the Indian custom, without marriage ; but now insisted that the mar- 
riage ceremony should be performed. This was accordingly done by 
Col. Butler, who was still considered a magistrate. After the war 
he removed, with his nation, to Canada. There he was employed in 
transacting important business for his tribe. He went out to Eng- 
land after the war, and was honorably received there. He died about 
ten or fifteen years since, at Brantford, Haldiman county. Upper 
Canada, where his family now reside. One of his sons, a very in- 
telligent man, has been returned to the Colonial Assembly." 

The following is an account of the taking of the three Mohawk 
castles, which were situated in this vicinity, by the French and Indi- 
ans, in the early settlement of the country. It is drawn from Colden's 
History of the Six Nations. 

In January, 1692-3, a large body of French and Indians, amounting 
to six or seven hundred, started on an expedition from Canada, for 
the purpose of punishing the Five Nations, who had the previous 
summer carried the war into Canada, and in small parties had rav- 
aged the whole country. Count de Front^nac chose the winter sea- 
son for this incursion, whea the enemy could not, without great hard- 
ship, keep scouts abroad to discover them, or their allies, the English, 
give assistance. 

On the 15th of January, they set out from la Prairie de Magda- 
leine, and endured innumerable hardships. The ground was at that 
time covered with a deep snow, and the foremost, marching on snow- 
shoes, beat a track for those which followed. At night the army was 
accustomed to divide itself into small groups, and each party to dig 
a hole in the snow, throwing up the snow all around, but highest to- 
wards that side from whence the wind blew. The ground was then 
covered with the small branches of fir-trees, and each man wrapped 
in his cloak with his feet pointed towards a fire in the centre, would 
thus pass the night. * 

They passed by Schenectady on the 8th of February. The two 
first forts of the Mohawks being in the neighborhood oi the English 
settlements, were not fortified, and were therefore easily taken. At the 
last Mohawk fort, which was strongly garrisoned, they met with con- 
siderable resistance, and the French lost thirty men before the Indi- 
ans submitted. The Indians at Schenectady having obtained infor- 
mation of the capture of their castles, sent to Albany for assistance 
to pursue the enemy. Col. Peter Schuyler, with a body of militia, 
regulars, and Indians, pursued the enemy on their retreat, and had a 
severe skirmish with them. On the 20th, Col. Schuyler was obliged 
to give up the pursuit, the weather being very cold and provisions 
scarce. Schuyler lost only 8 men killed and 14 wounded. The 
French lost 59 men in killed and wounded, besides several by deser- 


tion. Schuyler's Indians ate the bodies of the French whom they 
found. The colonel was invited to partake of broth with them : he 
ate quite hearty until, putting the ladle into the kettle to draw out 
more, he brought up a Frenchman's hand, which put an end to his 

Tlie French arrived at their settlements in a state of starvation, 
having been obliged to eat their shoes on their march. 

Charleston, organized in 1788, by the name of Mohawk; part 
erected into a separate town, and the residue called Charleston, 
in 1793; from Ponda S. 8 miles, from Albany 40. Charleston, 
Charleston Four Corners, and Bensonville, are post-offices. Pop. 

Florida, taken from Mohawk in 1793; from Albany 35 miles. 
Pop. 5,162. The town was settled by some Dutch families from 
Schenectady, who in 1750 were joined by some Germans, subse- 
quently by Irish and Dutch, and lastly by New Englanders. Fort 
Hunter, 5 miles SE. of Fonda, is a small settlement Port Jack- 
son, on the Erie canal, is a flourishing village. Minaville, 4 miles S. 
of the canal, is a village of about 40 dwellings. Fort Hunter, which 
formerly stood on the line of the canal in this town, was a place of 
some importance in colonial history. At this place also stood Queen 
Anne's Chapel, a stone structure, built by Queen Anne of England 
for the use of the Mohawk Indians. The English Episcopal mis- 
sions to the Mohawks appear to have been commenced as early as 
1702, and continued down to the beginning of the revolutionary war. 

Glen, taken from Charleston in 1823; from Albany 43 miles. 
Pop. 3,697. This town was originally settled by the Dutch. Ful- 
tonville, on the canal, 1 mile S. from Fonda, 57 from Albany, and 53 
from Utica, has about 50 dwellings, and a Dutch Reformed church. 
Auriesville or Smithtown, on the canal, 3 miles E. of Fultonville, and 
Voorheesville, are small settlements. ^ 

** Somewhere between this [Schoharie] creek and Caughnawaga, commenced an Indian 
road or foot.path, which led to Schoharie. Near this road, and within the northern bounds 
of Schoharie county, has been seen from time immemorial a large pile of stones, which has 
given the name * stone heap patent' to the tract on which it occurs, as maybe seen from ancient 
deeds. Indian tradition saith that a Mohawk murdered a brother (or two of them) on d^ 
spot, and that this tumuhis was erected to commemorate the event. A similar practice is 
supposed to have been in vogue among the Hebrews ; in Scotland uid in Wales, nnany 
heaps of stones, called * cairns,' are to be found, probably constructed for a similar purpose* 
May not the bonrs of this Indian Abel be found here sepulchred ? ESvery individual 
passing this way made an offering to propitiate the manes of the deceased, or Uie Blinetto 
of the place ; which was performed by the act of adding another stone to the pile ; and a 

r. It 

person was but a few years since living, who had wimessed this ceremony. 
fidontly believed by the Indians that those who neglected to do it would meet with 

misfortune In the early settlement of the province, Benoni Van CorUar^ a great 

favorite and friend of the Indians, on a certain occasion, passed this stone heap in eompUkf 
with a party of Mohawks on their way to Canada. They all cast a stone npon the pito 
eicept Van Corlear, who refused, alleging that it would be folly for him to comply with 
an idle superstition. His Indian companions considered the matter in a more serions jfght, 
and expressed great alarm lest some mishap might befall him or the party. Hiese preaaget 
were not unreal, for by one of those coincidences which the Almighty sometimes pendfs, 
Van Corlear lost his life before he arrived at the end of his journey. He was drownad in 
the lake now called Lake Champlain. The Indians in memory of this eyent calladlt Van 
Oori'^ar'a Lake, which name it retained for some time, until called by the Canadian Ctlho- 


r the MMOn tbej bad aelectsd. Mid used ita wMsre for u. 

MiNDGN was taken from Canajoharie in 1798. The town was 
settled at an early period by Germans, who suffered severely from 
the incursions of the Indians and tories during the revolutionary war. 
The surface of the township is agreeably diversified by gentle hills 
and fertile vallevs on Mohawk river and Otsquake creek. Pop, 3,507. 
The village of ^ort Plain is situated on the Mohawk river and Erie 
canal, 15 miles from Fonda, 12 miles from Cherry Valley, 22 from 
Cooperstown, and 60 from Albany : it consists of about 80 houses, 
2 churches — 1 Presbyterian, 1 Universalist — a printing office, and a 
aumber of mills. 

.^i0: Hi:.; 

Ancient Blockhouse, Fort Plain. 

The above is said to be a correct representation of Fort Plain, from 

which the village derives its name. 

"The fori was rituored on the brow of the hill, about hoif a tnile nonhwest of ihe vil- 
iago, 10 u to cotnniaiid a full view of the vallty, and the rine of the ground, for several 
tnilee in any direction ; and liriice it douhileas derived its name, b«C9U!ie its beautiful loca- 
tion commundud a 'plain' view of the aiirroundiiig couniry. It was ereclcd by the gov- 
ernment, as a fortreaa, and place of rctreal end safety for the inhabiianta and familia« in 
caae of incurwone fruni the Indians, who were then, and, indeed, more or lew during the 
whole revolutionary war, infesting the xptllenients of ihi« whole region. lie farm wae en 
octagon, having port.hales far heavy ardnaucc and muaketa on every side. It contained 
three etories or apartntents. The fimt alury was thirty feet in diameter ; the aecond, forty 
feel; the third, fifty feel; the laal iwo alnriea prDJecring Gve feel, aa represented by the 
drawing aforesaid. Ii was consimcted (hroughout of huwn timber about fifteen inches 
aquare ; nnd, besides the pun-holeg aforesaid, ihc second and third stories had perpendicular 
port-holes thruufjh ihnse parw ihut projecied, so as to alfotd the rogulais and militia, or set- 
tlers garmoned in the fort, annoying faciliueD of dcfiioce for ihemselven, wives, and chil- 
dren, in ease of close asaauU from the relentless savage. Whenever ecoule came in with 
tidings that a hostile party was appfoaching, a cannon was fired from the fort as a agaei to 
flee lo it for safety. 

" In the eariy part of the war there was built, by the inhabiianta probably, at or near the 
site of the one above described, a fort ifiea lion, of maierials and Gonstrvciion that ill com- 
ported with the use and purposes for which it was intended. This induced goveroment to 
erect another, (For' Plain,) under the superintendence of an eiperienced French enpneer. 
As a piece of architecture, it was well wrought and neatly finished, and surpassed all the 
fons in that region. After the termiaation of the revotulionary war. Fort Plain was used 
for some years as a depo«i of military atorea, under the direction of Captain B. Hudion. 
Theaa store* were finally ordered by (he United Statei goTemmeni to be removed to Al- 


buif. Tlie fort ii dctnalit^hed. Notfaine of il remiiins exrcpl ■ circumTtllillan or treurh, 
which. ■Iihough nearly oljiiriirmlcd by ihe plouirh, still imiicaifa lo Ihe curious timveller 
niffiuieai evidcni^e of « funificntiun iii duyi by-t'one." — Fori Plain Journal, Dec. 26, leST. 

Hendrick. a celebrutod Indian chieftain, lived in this to^^ii. He is 
somc'Iimcs called old King }Icndrick, and the great Hendrick. 

"'The vilr of his hoiwr,' ray* Dr. I><rii[ht, 'is n linndBumc rlcvation, cummuidinf > 
COMlderable prmipFCI uf ibc npiichlHirinK ruunlry. li will be miBicirnl lu ubnervc hrre, 
tlwl for vapariry, bravciyi vwnr if miiid, and imni'ivpablc inicgriiy united, he excelled all 
the tbiiri^pnal inhsbiianu otibe t'niipd Siam iif whura any knouivdire bas came down ii> 
the prcM'ai lime. A gcnili'mBn *if viry irrpo'iaUlc characiuT, who wa» pre^mii ai a coun. 
til brld with ihr Sii Saliim*, by ihr guvirnur of Ni'w York, and ^cvcial igcnla of diviinc. 
lion frum New BtiKland, iiifonncd iiic that hi& luiin- and counlvnancc were singularly im. 

rMve and coniiiiahdint; ; [hat hi* ehii|Uiiiov wa« uf the same Bujicnar character, and ihal 
ipprared an if born lit cuntnil ntlu-r men, and |iuwie»»ed au air of majealy unrivalled 
wiihia his knowledge' [n ihi? French ware he led funb hi* Mohawk watriora and fought 
aide by nAr wiih t^r Willinni Johnixin. ThruuKh ull the iiiiricucs of the French he re. 
Biained faithful in liia alliance. He was alKO highly cslecmcd by the white iiihabitaan. 
During notiie uf ibe nvKoliationi with the Indians of Pennsvlrinia and the inhabitantB of 
that aiuip, Hendrick wia prewnt at Philadelphia. Hit likenen was taken, and a wai H^nire 
aiierwanl niiule which was a very good inlitalion. After l!ip death of Hendrick, aii old 
friend, a white, mati, visiicd Philadelphia, and uinnng other ihinga waj shown thi« wai 
figure. It occupied n niche., end wan not observed hr him until he had approached niihui 
a tew feel. The fHcndfhip of funiier daya came frenh over hi« memory, and forgcttine for 
the nininriu Ilitidrii-k'e death, hr rushed forwaiil and clai<ped in hia arma the tVail, icy 
image of the chieftain." 

MfiHAWK, the ancient Caughnawnga, recently organized, was form- 
erly the southern section of the town of Jolinstown, from which it 
was taken in 1837. Pop. 3,10(i. Since the formation of the new 
county of Fulton, the seat of justice for Montgomery county has been 

of the Courthouse and Hotel in Fonda. 

located in this town. The above is an engraving of the courthouse 
and hotel recentiv erected in the new village of Fonda. The railroad 
passes between these two buildings. The central part of the village 
of Caughnawaga is about half a mile eastward of the courthouse, 
and consists of about 30 dwelling-houses, on tlie north side of the 
Mohawk, 40 miles from Albany, and 4 miles S. from JohnstowTi. 
The village occupies the site of an ancient Indian village, one of the 
principal towns of the Mohawk tribe. Its name, Caughnawaga, is 
•aid to signify " a coffin," which it received from the circumstance of 


there being, in the river opposite the place, a larre black stone, (still 
to be seenj resembling a coffin, and projecting above the surface at 
low water. 

The annexed is a representation of 
the ancient Dutch church in Caughoa- 
waga. It is a massive stone structure, 
ana is believed to have been erected in 
1763. The following is a copy of the 
inscription on tlie stone tablet which 
was formerly placed over the door. 

" Komt laett ons op gaen tot den 
Bergh dcs Hecren, to den huyse des 
Gooes Jacobs, op dat hy ons leere van 
syne wegen, en dat wy wandele in 
syne paden." 

[" Come ye, uid let (ugo up M ihe mountun of 
the Lord ; (o (he houM of tba God of Jacob, ud 
he will twch ui hi> wafs, and we will walk ia im 

AnaenI CAurth, Mohaak. 

The following, relating to the history of this town, is taken from 
a newspaper published in Schenectady a few years since. 

" The Caugtmawaga flate eilend from the wenern bue of Tripe'* Hill to the CayadnUa 
creek, a diaiance of foiir miles. A patent for 2,500 acres of those Sats, waa granted ia tho 
jear 1713, to JoLd, Edward, and Margaret Collini. Those individuala alisned to Myndert 
Wcmple, Douw Foodn, and Hcndrick A. Vrooman ; and naay of their deKendanli an 
proprietora at the preieni day. & 

" Undl 1695, there were no bnildingi'on the site where CsughnaWBga now sUnds, ei- 
eepi a Dutch church edifice and a parsonsge. This ehurth waa founded in 1762, by the 
pntronage of Sir WiULam Johnson. Its principal beneftctorB were the Fonda, Vrooman, 
Wemple, and Veeder families. The church edifice ia still staoding, but in a dilapidated - 
condition. lu fint poseur was the Rev. Thomes Rumeyn, who died in 1T94. He was 
succeeded bjr ibe Rev. Abraham Van Home, of Mew Jersey, who continued his paatoral 
duties until a few j^ara ainee. 

" Cauglinawasa hardly deserved lo be called a hamlet until 1T95, when Msssis. Donw 
and Henry Fonda, of Albany, erected several buildings. 

" This place euficred much during the revolurion. At the western extremity of the Hals, 
ia a amoll hill called by ibe Dutch ' Ttabarg' ur Tealiill. It was a place of resort, duiing 
the lime of the French war, by the Caughnawaga ladies during the absence of their faofc 
baodi, (0 iiululga in their delicious beienige otiea. It waa considered a good place of JM. 
treat from danger, and from wbicb ibe approach uf tlie enemy might be seen. The MJ^ 
hawk name of this elevalion ia ' Kahtka-nBada.' or 'hill of berries;' probably becailJM 
many berries are found there. The ancient Mohawks required their male papooBea to nm 
Dp and down this hill, and those who flagged under the exercise, wei« desBwd unqualified 
to endure the fatigues of war. 

" The first aellleia of Tripe'a Hill, were raappctoble yeomen. Nicholaa Hanson's family 
emigrated thither about 1795, from Albany. His son Hendrick waa the first white child 
bom in ths Mohawk valley weat of Schenectady, on the north aide of the river. About 
1738, a Now Gt^glnndor by the name of Bowen, and a Mr. Pumam from Schenectady, took 
Dp their residence here. The descendants uf the Hanaona and Futnams are lo found lo 
Ibia day in this region, and the creek on the eastern aide of Tripe'a Hill received its name 
from the circumalance of the Putnam family owning the land through which il passes. 

" About the time the colonies declared their independence, itw Bowen, with several 

Other families, took part wiih the mother luimiry and moved to Canada. They were iru 

duced to take this coune in conacqiienco of their attachment to Sir William Johnson, who, 

wtiaievBi his faults might have been, poaseaaed much iran».heartedli««* and benevolence. 



Had ha lived during the [evolutionary cunIe■^ it is genenlty believed he would hive don* 
mnch tawirds reitraining the ferocity of the bloodlhirety loriei and dieir savage allie*, 
wboM murdrroua ettaclu on the defencelen inhibitsnta of (he valley,' are ao famoua in 
mdilion. Bui the mantle of Sir Williatn did not descend on hia eon Sir John Juhnaon. 
The litier with a pany of lories, moat of whom had formerly reaided at Tripe's Hill, and 
among whom Henry and William Bowen held conspicuous atalionx, made an anangiuneal 
liir a descent im ihis setllcmeni. The musl leslous whi); at ihs ' Hill' was Garret PutoBin, 
eaplain uf a company of taiigeis. He hod rendered himself particularly obnoiioua to Iht 
Briliih in conseqiisnce of [he fearlen and zealous siand which lie hsd taken against thenb 
On the ISlh of May, 1T80, he received orders lo repair to Fort Hunter; which he did, 
taUng his family along with him. He leased his house to William Gorland James Ptatenu, 
two Englishmen, who, although torins, took no active part and were Ihemfore unmolmtMl 
by the whigs. About midnight on the aOlh of May, Sir John's party reached the ■ Hill,' 
and stealthily entering Mr. Fuliiam'a house, instantly ktUed and scalped its inmates. The 
hapless victima had not an opportunity to reveal themselves. The enemy supposed tbrjp 
had the scalps of Caplsin Putnam and hie sun, and were not undeceived until the muming 
light revealed to them die corpsea of their two brother loiiee, Gon and Flaleau. The 
•ame night Henry Hamon, a teaJoua whig, was also murdered." 

The annexed is a repreeentatioti 
of the house of Col. Butler llie loyal- 
. ist, and is probably the oldest dwell- 
ing in the town ; it is now owned 
i and occupied by Mr. Wilson. It is 
! situated on a commanding eminence 
? about one mile in a NE. direction 
from the courthouse, in Fonda, over- 
Builrr't HouK, Mokaak. looking the beautiful Mohawk val- 

ley at this place. At the breaking out of the revolutionary war, 
John Butler was lieutenant-colonel oT a regiment of the Tryon county 
militia, of which Guy Johnson was the colonel, and Jelles Fonda the 
major. Sir John Johnson had been commissioned a genera! after 
the decease of his father. " Colonel John Butler," says Mr. Tryon, 
in his Annals, " had some good traits of character, and in his calmer 
moments would regret the ravages committed by the Indians and 
tories; but Walter Butler was distinguished from youth for his severe 
acrimonious disposition. After the massacre at Cherry Valley he 
went to Quebec ; but Gen. Haldiman, governor of Canada, gave out 
that he did not wish to see him." 

Palatine, organized in 1782; from Fonda, W., 14 miles. This 
town was first settled by the Dutch, in 1724, and though constantly 
under cultivation, ever since that time its choice lands can hardly tie 
said to have lost any of their original fertility ! Palatine is 13 miles 
W. of Johnstown, on the river, turnpike, and Utica railroad. Pala- 
tine Bridge is also on the river, turnpike, and railroad, immediately 
opposite Canajoharie village, with which it is connected by a bridge. 
(See view of Cannjohariet) Stone Arabia is 3 miles N. from Cana- 
joharie. The above are all small villages. Pop. 2,845. During the 
revolutionary war there was a small stockade erected in this town, 
at Stone Arabia, called Fort Paris. When Sir John Johnson waa 
ravaging the valley of the Mohawk, in 1780, this fort was in command 
of Col. Brown, with a garrison of one hundred and thirty men. Gen, 
Van Rensselaer, who was pursuing Sir John up the valley, having 
received information that tie intended to attack Fort Paris oa ths 


19th of Oct., despatched orders to Col. Brown to inarch out and check 
his advance, while he fell upon'^his rear. Col. Brown accordingly 
sallied forth, and gave Sir John battle near the site of a former wodk, 
called Fort Keyser. Van Rensselaer having failed to advance at tlie 
appointed time, Brown's force was too feeble to check the progress 
of the enemy. Col. Brown fell gallantly at the head of his little divi- 
sion, of which from forty to forty-five were also slain, and the re- 
mainder sought safety in flight* 

Root, taken from Canajoharie and Charleston in 1823; from 
Albany 61 miles. Sprackers Basin, on the canal, 9 miles W. of 
Fonda, and Currytown, are small villages. " In the rocky cliffs of the 
Nose, near the river, is a remarkable cavern known as Mitchell's 
Cave. Fourteen apartments, some it is said at the depth of 500 feet, 
have been visited. The ceilings are ornamented with stalactites, the 
walls with incrustations, and the floors with stalagmites. On the 
Plattekili, a mile from the river, there is a waterfall of about 80 feet 
in 10 rods, with a perpendicular pitch of 60 feet'* Pop. 2,000. 

St. Johnsville, recently taken from Oppenheim of Fulton county. 
The township is small in its territorial limits, being a narrow strip of 
land on the north bank of the Mohawk. Pop. 1,923. The village 
of St. Johnsville is about 20 miles from Fonda, and 77 from Albany. 

In the falfof 1780, when Sir John Johnson ravaged the Mohawk 
valley, he made a stand near the western line of this town, when pur- 
sued by Gen. Van Rensselaer. This was at Fox's mills, about eight 
miles above Fort Plank, (or as it is now called, Fort Plain,) and two 
miles below the upper Mohawk castle. 

** On the north side and on a flat, partly surrounded by a bend of 
the river, he posted his regiment of regulars and tones. A small 
breastwork was thrown across the neck of land. The Indians occu- 
pied a tract of elevated land to the north, and in the immediate 
vicinity, which was covered with a thick growth of shrub oak. In 

* Colonel Brown was a brave soldier of high moral worth. He was early in the senriee, 
and was engaged in the disastrous campaign in Canada. Col. Stone, in his Life of Bniit, 
states that Col. Brown detected, or believed be detected, a design on the part of Gen. Ar- 
nold to play the traitor vhen the American army was at Sorel, by an attempt to run off 
with the American flotilla and sell out to Sir Guy Carleton. During the winter of 1776-7« 
while Arnold and many other officers were quartered in Albany, a difficulty arose between 
him and Col. Brown. The latter published a handbill severely reflecting on Arnold, and 
concluded with these remarkable words — ** Money is this marCs God^ and to get enough 
of it he would sacrifice his country.^* This publication produced quite a sensation among 
the officers. Arnold was greatly excited ; he applied a variety of course and harsh epithets 
to Col. Brown, calling him a scoundrel, and threatened to kick him wherever he should 
meet him. This coming to the ears of the latter, he proceeded to the dining place of Ar. 
nold, where a company of officers were assembled ; going directly up to Arnold he stopped, 
and looked him in the eye. After a pause of a moment, he observed : " / understand, sir, 
that you have said you would kick me: I now present myself to give you an opportunity 
to put your threat into execution ."* Another brief pause ensued. Arnold opened not his 
lips. Brown then said to him — ** Sir, you are a dirty scoundrel /*' Arnold still remained 
silent. Col. Brown, after apologizing to the gendemen present for his intrusion, left the 
room. Arnold appears to have kept an unbroken silence on this occasion, which can only 
be accounted for on the supposition that he feared to provoke inquiry on the charges of CoL 
Brown. A monument to the memory of Col. Brown has recently been erected by his son, 
at Stone Arabia. 


this position Sir John awaited the approach of Gen. Van Rensselaer, 
who was joined by the Canajoharie militia and the tones from Fort 
Plain under Col. Du Bois. After a slight skirmish, the Indians were 
driven from their position, and fled up the river to the fording place, 
near the castle, where they crossed, and directed their course towards 
the Susquehannah. Sir John's troops made a more effective resist- 
ance, though they were almost exhausted by the forced marches 
which they had made and the labors they had performed. The at- 
tack had oeen commenced late in the day. Though it was conducted 
with considerable spirit, night came on before the works of Sir John 
were carried. In this situation Gen. Van Rensselaer ordered his 
troops to fall back a mile and encamp. Many of the militia were eh- 
raged on account of this order, and refused to obey it They re- 
mained during most of the night, and took several prisoners, who 
informed them that the enemy were on the point of offering to capit- 
ulate, when Gen. Van Rensselaer ordered his troops to fall back. 
A detachment of the Canajoharie militia under Col. Clyde took one 
of their field-pieces during the night. 

" On the following morning, when Gen. Van Rensselaer advanced 
with his troops, the enemy had entirely disappeared. They had left 
their ground, and retreated up the river a short distance, and then 
crossed to the south. The river was deep and rapid wHire it formed 
the bend, which would have, ensured Gen. Van Rensselaer a com- 
plete victory had he prosecuted his attack with more vigor. A 
detachment was sent in pursuit, who discovered in the trail of the 
enemy evidence of the extreme state to which they were reduced 
by hunger and fatigue. The whole country on the north side of the 
river, from Caughnawaga to Stone Arabia and Palatine, had been 
devastated — which, with the ravages of Brant on the south side of 
the river, in the previous August, almost completed the destruction 
of the Mohawk settlements. 

" If here and there a little settlement escaped their ravages, each 
were like an oasis in the desert, affording temporary shelter and pro- 
tection, and, like them, liable to be destroyed or buried up by the 
next whirlwind which should sweep over the land." 


The county and city of New York are of the same extent, com- 

[)rising the whole of New York, or Manhattan Island, about 14i miles 
ong, varying from half a mile to two miles in width ; area 21f square 
miles, or 13,920 acres. It is bounded on the north and east by Haer- 
lem and East rivers, south and west by the Hudson, or by New York 
' bay and the state of New Jersey. The legal subdivisions of the 
county and city are the wards, 17 in number, of various extent, ao- 


nw YOU oovmrr* 

eordiag to local oonyenience. AgreeaUe to the charter of New York 
its jurisdiction extends to the lands under the adjoining waters as fisur 
as to low- water mark on the opposite sides. The compact part o( 
the city is at the southern part of the island, and covers about one 
sixth part of its surface. Its latitude and longitude, reckoned from 
the City Hall, were determined in 1817, by order of the corporation, 
as follows : N. lat 40^ 42' 48'' ; W. long, from Greenwich, England, 
73^ 69' 40"^ and E. long, frpm the city of Washington 3^ 1' 18". 

A tMe of the fopuUUion of theeUu^ New York, of the eitOe of New Torkymnd o/ tftt' 


Yean. C^y, 

1856 1,000. 

1697 -4,30a. 

1731 ^,629. 




1750 10,000.; 100,060 1,000,000 

1774 32,750.,. '^ iJ50,000 3,000,000 

1800 ^ 60,489.,..;:.....- ,J5a6,000... 5,309,750 

1810 ^...,96.373 ;.959,l»0 7,236,903 

1820 63,706.. 4,372312.....,; 9,63e4»6 

1830 502,589 1,918,608, 

1835 .270/>89 v 5^74,517, 


1840 312,932 .....5,429/481..... 17,068,112 

The relatiTv proportion of tfaepqpulatioo of the city to Uiat of the whole ftote, h«i fm. 
ereUy been from one^sighi to om4evth; and the 9tate rfNewTmrk hu home the nme re- 
Uthre proportion also to the whde United Btatee. 

^ The munber of huildiogs in die eonpect pan of die dtjr of Ne^r Yotk n 32,116 ; of 
which there are used, ae breweries, diatiUeriee,, tanneriea, and the like 46 ( aa dweUiiv 
houses ezcIuaiTely, 16,458 ; aa dwelfioga widi ahops 6,614 ; aa atorea and officea ezchaivel^ 
«3,855 ; as taverns and private boarding-houaea 736 ; as hatha 9 ; as factories, with engines 
equal to 1100 horse power, 74 ; as large &ctories, widi labor.«aving power, 172 ; aa private 
stables 2,603 ; as livery stables 137 ; aa dairy stables 57 ; miscellaneous 1,355. 

" The valuation of real estate in the city, aa corrected by the board of supervisori in 
1840, is $187,222,714 ; and of personal estate 965,013,801. Aggregate $252,235,515. 

" From 1810 to 1841, the corporation haa expended for opening, widening, and improving 
streets, &c., $6,275,317. 

** The total amount derived from the city, by die state, from auction duties, from 1816 to 
1840 inclusive, is $4,249,527. 

** The receipts into the general Treasury during the year 1840, from the ordinary rav- 
enues of the city, from the negotiation of i&B stocks, and from the management of iti ' trust 
accounts,* including the cash on hand at the commencement of the year, amonntad to 
$6,004,610 12. 

** The amount of warrants drawn upon the Treasurer, for the ordinary expenses of tbs 
city government, the pasrment of its pre-existing debts, for its disbuisementa on the pnblie 
works, and on ita * trust accounts,' including the warran&B outstanding at the eommencement 
of the y^, amounted to $6,0074^60 54 ; from which is to be deducted the wanrnnta om. 
standing and unclaimed at th^ cloae of the year, amounting to $176,899 50. Tha raanlt 
ahowing the actual amount paid by the Treasurer, during the year to be $5^30^1 04; 
and the cash balance in the treasury January 1st, 1841, to be $174,179 06." 

Populati4m of the oeveral Ward* in New York, 

1st ward 10,629 

2d ward 6,408 

3d ward 11,581 

4di ward, 15,770 

5th ward. 19,159 

OUiward: ^ 17,199 

7di ward iJ2,985 

8th ward .29,173 

9ihward .24,795 

lOdiward ^ J»,093 

lldiward ^ 17,052 

12Uiward ...11,678 

13diwani 18,516 

1401 ward 20,230 

ISdiward ...17,769 

16th ward 22,275 

nUiward « «. 18,622 


The bay of New York spreads to the southward, and Is about 8 
miles long, and from 1^ to 5t broad. It is one of the finest harbora 
in the world, generally open for vessels at at! seasons of the year, 
but is, at rare intervals, obstructed for a few days in very sBvere 
winters by ice. The currents in the bay are rapid and strong, cir- 
cumstances that are of great importance in keeping the port of New 
York open, while others further to the south are obstructed by (rosL 
The usual tides at New York are about six feet, and the depth of 
water sufBcient for the largest ships. The bay contains Govemoi's, 
Bedlow's, and Ellis' islands, upon which are strong fortifications 
guarding the approach to the city. There are also fortificationB on 
Long and Staten islands, commanding the narrows. 

Stadt Huys, built l642~-razed 1700. 

New York derives its orimn from the colonizing and commercial 
spirit of the Hollanders, and the general spirit of adventure which 
prevailed among the maritime nations of Europe after the discovery 
of the western continent by Columbua. The Dutch immediatdy 
after the discovery of Hudson in 1609, began to avaU themselves of 
the advantages which his discoveries presented to their view. Id 
1614 or 1CI5, a kind of fort and trad inji- house was erected on the 
southwest point of Manhattan or New York Island, which was named 
New Amsterdam. In I6I4, an expedition from South Virginia; under 
Capt, Argal, was sent out by Sir Thomas Dale, and took possession 
of New Amsterdam. At that time there were only four houses out- 
side of the fort. But an arrangement was soon after made with the 
English government, by which the Dutch remained in possession of 
Manhattan Island, and of the trade of the neighboring country for 
fifty years. 

The above is a representation of the ancient " Stadt Huyi," or 
City Halt, which was built early in the Dutch dynasty, in 1642. It 
was built of stone at the head of Coenties slip, facing Pearl-street 
About the year 1700, it became so weakened and impairrf, tfiat it waa 
sold, and a new one erected by the head of Broad-street, which wai 
afterward the Congress Hail, on the comer of Walt-street. 


The city was laid out in streets, some of them crooked enough, in 
1656. It then contained by enumeration ' 120 houses, with extensive 
garden lots,' and 1000 inhabitants. In 1677 another estimate of the 
city was made, and ascertained to contain.-'; 368 houses, ■ In the 
year 1674, an assessment of 'the most wealthy inhabitants' having 
been niade, it was found that the sum total of 134 estates amounted 
to £95,t)00. 

Nieuw Amsterdam, in 1659. 

IA,lkft«l. B.tlMchuRh. C, the •nnd-min. D, Ib<<fli«, whkta bi boliM wlini*rw)iirT)Tcln[DR. 

During the military rule of Governor Colve, who held the city for 
one year for the statesofHolInnd, after its re-capture from the British, 
every thing partook of a military character, and the laws stiil in 
preservation at Albany show the energy of a rigorous discipline. 
l^wn the Dutch mayor, at the head of the city militia, held his daily 
parades before the City Hall, (Stadt Huys,) then at Coentics slip ; and 
^very evening at sunset, he received from the principal guard of the 
^fbrt, jjpHcd the hoofd-u-agt, the keys of the city, and thereupon pro- 
cecdcd^ith a guard of six to lock the city gates ; then to place a 
Burger-wagl — a citizen-guard — as night-watches at assigned places. 
The same mayors also went the rounds at sunrise to open the gates, 
anil to restore the keys to the oiBcer of the fort. All this was surely 
a toilsome service for the domestic habits of the peaceful citizens of 
that day, and must have presented an irksome honor to any mayor 
who loved his comfort and repose. 

" It may Bmiwe Bome of tho ptearni gencralion, so lillla itied lo Dutch DtDiea, lo leant 
■omp ol' tbe tiilpa onrp si> familiar in Nuw Yutk,>nd now so little uadenlood. Such ■■— 
Dt llftr OJicitr, ar J/oo/i&iouf— High^heriff. De Fitaul, or Pnatrtm Gm^-Altor 
ney Gpntrnl. Wiet- Mr filfrt — Guardians of orphans. Roif-MteMlen — Rfgulnwra of 
fences. Grool Bitrgrrrecht and Klein Burgerreclit — Tha graal snd nnall ciiiieuship, 
which then marked the two orders of society. £yck-MetiteT— Tbe Weigh Master, Tie 
Sekimt, (the Sheriff.) Bourgomiuteri and Seiewtu then ruled the citj ' u in all cities of 
Ihe Fatlierliind.' Gtheim Sfhrurrr—Kucoldel of aecren." — WaUan't Oldtn Tima, 
Nob Yark. 



The preceding cut shows the principal buildings standing on the 
present site of tne city of New York in 1669. The folio wmff de- 
scription of New York at about that period, is copied from " Ogilby's 
America!^ a large folio volume illustrated by engravings, published in 
London in 1671. This work contains a view of Novum Amsteroda- 
mum, (as it is called,) similar to the engraving from which the annexed 
cut is copied. 

" It is placed upon the neck of the Island Manhatans looking towards the Sea ; encom- 
passM with Hudson's River, which is six Miles broad, the town is compact and oval, with 
vpiy fair streets and several good Houses ; the rest are built much after the mamier of 
Holland, to the number of about four hundred Houses, which in those parts are held con- 
siderable : Upon one side of the Town is James.Fort, capable to lodge three hundred soul, 
diere and Officers ; it hath four bastions, forty Pieces of Cannon mounted ; the Walls of 
Stone, lined with a thick Rampart of Earth, well accommodated with a spring of Fresh 
Water, always furnifih'd with Arms and Anmiunition against Accidents : Distant from the 
Sea seven Leagues, it affords a safe entrance, even to unskilful Pilots ; imder the Town 
side, ships of any burthen may ride secure against any Storms ; the Current of the River 
being broken by the interposition of a small Island, which lies a mile distant from the Town. 

** Abuut ten Miles from New York is a place call'd Hell Gate, which being a narrow pas- 
sage, th(Tc runneth a violent Stream both upon Flood and Ebb ; and in the middle lie some 
Rocky L^lands, which the Current sets so violently upon, that it threatens present Ship, 
wrack ; and upon ihc Flood is a laige Whirlwind, which continually sends forth a hideous 
roaring ; enough to affright any Stranger from passing farther ; and to wait for some Charon 
to conduct him through ; yet to those who are acquainted little or no danger : It is a place 
of great Defence agunst any Enemy coming in that way, which a small Fortification would 
almolutely prevent, and necessitate them to come in at the West End of Long Island by 
Sandy Hook, where Statten Island forces them within the Command of Ae Fort at New 
York, which is one of the best Pieces of Defence in the North parts of America. It is 
built most of Brick and Stone and cover*d with Red and Black Tyle, and the Land being 
high, it gives at a distance a most pleasing prospect to the Spectators. The inhabitants 
consist most of English and Dutch, and have a considerable trade with Indians for Beaver, 
Otter and Rackoon Skins with other Furrs ; as also for Bear, Deer, and Elke^kins ; and 
are Rupply'd with Venison and Fowl in the winter, and Fish in the Summer by the Indians, 
which th(iy buy at an casie Rate ; and having the Countrey roimd about them, and are 
continually furnish'd with all such provisions as are needful for the Life of Man, not onely 
by the English and Dutch within their own, but likewise by the adjacent Colonies. 

" The Manhattans, or (^reat River being the chicfest, having with two wide Mouths 
wash'd tlie mighty Island Watonwalu, falls into the Ocean. The Southern Mouth is callM 
Port May, or Oodyns Bay. In the middle thereof lies an Island called * The States Island ; 
and a little higher the Manhattans, so calM from the Natives which on the E^tside of flie 
River dwell on the Main Continent They arc a cruel people, and enemies to the Holland, 
dcrs, OS also of the Sarhians which reside on the Western Shore. Farther up are the 
Mackwacs and Mahikans which continually War, one against another. In likj^LZnanner ^ 
all tho Inhabitants on the West Side of the River Manhattan, are commonly aPeninity * 
witli thoso that possess the Eastern Shore ; who also us'd to be at variance vfitk the Hoi- 
liincJf'tT», \y\wn as the other People at the Westward kept good correspondency with them. 
On a small Island nrar the Shore of the Muckwaes, lay formerly a Fort, provided with two 
Drakes arnl eleven Stone Guns, yet was at last deserted." 

" The settlement and fort continued to bear the name of Nieuw 
Amsterdam, by the Dutch, down to the time of the surrender by 
Governor Stiiyvesant to the English, in 1G64. Then for ten years 
under the rule of Cols. Nicolls and Lovelace, acting for the Duke'of 
York, it was called Neiv York ; but in August, 1673, a Dutch fleettin 
time of war, re-captured it from the British, and while exercising 
their rule for their High Mightinesses of Holland, tP the time of the 
peace in 1674, they called the place New Orange, in compliment to 
the prince of Orange, and the i'ort they called Willem Ilendrick. 

" The city being restored to. the British by the treaty, was rc-deliv- 


ered to the British in October, 1674. The fort then took the name 
of Fort James, being built of quadrangular form, having four bastions, 
two gates, and 42 cannon. The city again took the name of New 
York, once and forever. 

The following extracts are from a pamphlet publication by J. W. 
Moulton, Esq., entitled "View of the city of New Orange (now New 
York) as it was in the year 1673." 

** Fort Amsterdam, senaamt James-Fort by de Engelsehe, Fort Amsterdam, otherwise 
called James-Fort by the English. The name officially given to the fort in 1673, was * fort 
Willem Hendrick.' It was first erected and finished in 1635, by Gov. Van TMriUcr, neg- 
lected by Governor Kieft, repaired and surrounded by a stone wall by Governor Stu3rye. 
aant, and demolished, and the ground levelled in 1790 and '91. It was situated directly 
south of the Bowling green, on high ground, was in shape of a regular square, with four 
bastions, had two gates, and mounted forty-two cannon. 

** Gereformeerde Kerch, The reformed Dutch church was erected within the fort, by 
Governor Kieft, in 1643. It was of stone, and covered with oak shingles, which exposed 
to the weather, soon resembled slate. The motives that induced Governor Kiefl to become 
the founder of the first church in this city, may be best related in the words of captain Da. 
vid Pietersz de Vriez * artillery meester van *t noorder Quartier,' who performed three voy. 
ages to New Netherlands, associated with Killiaen Van Rensalaer and others, in 1630, to 
colonize this region, attempted a colony at the Hore-Kill on the Delaware, in the time of 
Van Twiller, and another on * Staaten Eylandt,* which he sustained till the troubles with 
the Indians in the latter time of Kieft drove him to abandon the country. De Vriez ob- 
serves : * As I was every day with Commander Kiefi, dining generally at his house when I 
happened to be at the fort, he told me one day that he had now made a fine tavern, built 
with stone, for the English, by whom, as they passed continually with their vessels from 
New England to Virginia, he had suffered much, and who now might take lodgings there. 
I told him this was very good for travellers, but that we wanted very badly for our people 
a church. It was a shame that when the English passed, they should see nothing but a 
mean bam, in which we performed our worship ; on the contrary, the first thing that they 
in New England did, when they had built fine dwellings, was to erect a fine church : we 
ought to do the same, it being supposed that the West India Company were very zealous in 
protecting the Reformed church (Calvinist) against the Spanish Qranny, that we had good 
materials for it, fine oak wood, fine building stone, good lime made of oyster shells, being 
better than our lime in Holland. Kieft asked me then who would like to attend to this 
building 7 I replied the lovers of th^ reformed religion, as certainly some of them could be 
found. He told me that he supposed I myself was one of them, as I made the proposition, 
and he supposed I would contribute a hundred guilders ! I replied that I agreed to do so, 
and that as he was Governor, he should be the first. We then elected Jochem Pietersz 
Kuyter, who having a set of good hands, would soon procure good timber, he being also a 
devout Calvinist. We elected also Jan Claesz Damen, because he lived near the fort, and 
thus we four ** Kerk mcestcrs*' formed the first consistory to superintend the building of die 
church. The governor should furnish a few thousand guilders of the company's money, 
and would try to raise the remainder by subscription. The church should be built in the 
fort, where it would be free from the depredations of the Indians. The building was soon 
started of stone, and was covered by English carpenters with slate, split of oakwood,' (that 
is, with oak shingles, which by rain and wind soon became blue, and resembled slate.) 

** The contract for the erection of this church is upon record. It was made in May, 
1642, before the secretary of the New Netherlands, between 'William Kieft, church, 
warden, at the request of bis brethren, the church-wardens of the church in New Nether, 
land, and John Ogden of Stanford, and Richard Ogdcn, who contracted to build the church 
of rock-stone, 72 feet long, 52 broad, and 16 feet high above the soil, for 2,500 guilders 
(£416 13 4) ** in beaver, cash or merchandize, to wit, if the church.wardens are satis, 
fied with the work, so that, in their judgment, the 2,500 guilders shall have been earned — 
then said church-wardens will reward them with one hundred guilders (£16 13 4) more,'* 
in the mean time assist them whenever it is in their power, and allow them the use, for a 
month or six weeks, of«the Company's boat, to facilitate the carrjring of the stone thither.* 

** The chiu-ch was not completely finished until the first year of Governor Stiiyvesant's 
administration. In July, 1647, he and two others were appointed kcrk-mecsters, (church, 
wardens,) to superintend the work, and complete it the ensuing winter. 

" The town bell was removed to this church. Besides the office of calling the devout to 



meeting, and announcing the hour of retirement at night, the bell was appropriated fb. 
various singular uses. In October, 1638, a female, for slandering the Rev. E. Bogardus, 
was condemned to appear at fort Amsterdam, and before the governor and council, * to 
declare in public, at the sounding of the bellf that she knew the minister was an honest 
and pious man, and that she lied falsely.' 

** In 1639, all mechanics and laborers in the service of the Company commenced and 
leA work at the ringing of the bell^ and for every neglect forfeited double the amount of 
their wages, to the use of the attomey^eneral. 

" In 1647, all tavern keepers were prohibited, by the placards of Governor StuyvesanC 
and council, from accommodating any clubs, or selling any ardent liquor, after the ringing 
of the bellf at nine o'clock in the evening. 

In 1648, two runaways were summoned into court by the ringing of the bell, to defend 
themselves. And in 1677, an ordinance was passed by the common council of New York, 
imposing a fine of six shillings on any members of the corporation and jurymen, who should 
neglect to appear in court at the third ringing of the heU. The bell-ringer was an. 
ciently the court messenger. In 1661, amid lus multifarious official duties, he was to ^as- 
sist in burying the dead and attend to toll the belL* 

** The proclamation of governor Lovelace, issued December 10, 1673, is a document too 
curious to be omitted. It was in the following words : — 

** * Whereas it is thought convenient and necessary, in obedience to his Sacred Majesty's 
Commands, who ei\joynes all his subjects, in their distinct colonyes, to enter into a strict 
Allyance and Correspondency with each other, as likewise for the advancement of Nego. 
tiation. Trade and Civill Commerce, and for a more speedy Intelligence and Dispatch of 
8^13^-68, that a messenger or Post bee authorised to sett forth from this City of New-Yorke, 
monthly, and thence to travaile to Boston, fi*om whence within that month hee shall re. 
tnme againe to this City : These are therefore to give notice to all persons concerned, 
That on the first day of January next (1673) the messenger appointed shall proceed on his 
Journey to Boston : If any therefore have any letters or small portable goods to bee con. 
veyed to Hartford, Connecticott, Boston, or any other parts in the Road, they shall bee 
carefully delivered according to the Directions by a swome Messenger and Poet, who is 
purposely imployed in that AfTayre ; In the Interim those that bee dispos'd to send Letters, 
Ictt them bring them to the Secretar^s office, where in a lockt Box they shall bee preserv'd 
till the Messenger calls for them. All persons paying the Poet before the Bagg bee seald 
up. Dated at New Yorke this 10th day of December 1672.* 

*' Stuyveeant Huys. Governor Stuyvesant*s house or dwelling was built about four 
years before he surrendered his government to the English. It fronted the public wharf and 
stood on the west side of the present Whitehall-street, nearly opposite the commencement 
of the present Water-Slreet. 

** The public wharf and harbor or dock, were built by the burgomasters of the city about 
the year 1658. Here vessels loaded and unloaded, and a wharfage duty was exacted at 
first of eight stivers per last. The harbor was constructed to accommodate vessels and 
yachts, in which, during winter, the barques stationed there might be secured against the 
floating ice ; for which large vessels paid annually * one beaver, and smaller in proportion, 
to<the city, to keep it in order.' This wharf and harbor are now a part of WhitehaU.8treet, 
Whitehall slip having since been formed into the river. 

" De Waegh, The weigh, or balance. This was erected in 1653, by Governor Stuy- 
vesant, and the standard weight and measure kept in the balancchouse, was mcc(mling to 
those of the city of Amsterdam. To this standard merchants were obliged to conform, and 
to pay the eyck.meeeter for marking their weights and measures. Goods were here also 
brought in bulk and weighed, before they were stored in the public store-houses. . 

" In front of the City-Hall were also the stocks and The ducking-stool, 
or rather cucking-stool, was not yet erected, notwithstanding the Lutheran minister in 1673 
pleaded in bar to a public prosecution against him for striking a female that she ' provoked 
him to it 65^ ecoldingJ' The Dutch had the credit of introducing the wooden-horae, but the 
cucking-stool was reserved for the superior ingenuity of the English, who deriving a aanc 
tion for their want of gallantry from the immemorial authority of their Common Law, or- 
dered in February, 1692, * at a meeting of a grand Committee of the Coimnon CoancU, a 
pillory, cage and ducking-stool to be forthwith built.' " 

The following relation from Knickerbocker's New York, of the 
manners and customs of the early Dutch inhabitants of this city, al- 
though humorously exaggerated, is by no means devoid of historical 



** I will not grieve their patience, however, by describing minately the increase and im. 
^provement of New Amsteidam. Their own imaginations will doubtless present to them 
the good burghers, like so many pains-laking and persevering beavers, slowly and surely 
pursuing their labors — they will behold the prosperous transformation from the rude log.hat 
to the stately Dutch mansion, with brick front, glazed windows, and tiled roof— from the 
tangled thicket to the luxuriant cabbage garden ; and from the skulking Indian to the pon- 
derous burgomaster. In a word, they will picture to themselves the steady, silent, and un- 
deviating march to prosperity, incident to a city destitute of pride or ambition, cherished by 
a fat government, and whose citizens do nothing in a hurry. 

** The sage council, as has been mentioned in a preceding chapter, not being able to de- 
termine upon any plan for the building of their city— the cows, in a laudable fit of patriot, 
ism, took it under their peculiar charge, and as they went to and from pasture, established 
paths through the bushes, on each side of which the good folks built their houses ; which 
is one cause of the rambling and picturesque mms and labyrintha, which distinguish certain 
streets of New York at this very day. 

" The houses of the higher class were generally constructed of wood, excepting the gable 
end, which was of small black and yellow Dutch bricks, and always faced on the street, as 
our ancestors, Uke their descendants, were very much given to outward show, and were 
noted for putting the best leg foremost. The house was always furnished with abundance 
of large doors and small windows on every floor ; the date of its erection was curiously 
designated by iron figures on the front, and on the top of the roof was perched a fierce 
little weathercock, to let the family into the important secret, which way the wind blew. 
These, like the weathercocks on the tops of our steeples, pointed so many different ways, 
that every man could have a wind to his mind ; — the most stanch and loyal citizens, how. 
ever, always went according to the weathercock on the top of the governor's house, which 
was certainly the must correct, as he had a trusty servant employed every morning to cUmb 
up and set it to the right quarter. 

** In those good days of simplicity and sunshine, a passion for cleanliness was the leading 
principle in domestic economy, and the universal test of an able housewife,^.a character 
which formed the utmost ambition of our unenlightened grandmothers. The front door 
was never opened except on marriages, funerals, new year's days, the festival of St. Nich- 
olas, or some such great occasion. It was ornamented with a gorgeous brass knocker, 
curiously wrought, sometimes in the device of a dog, and sometimes of a lion's head, and 
was daily burnished with such religious zeal, that it was ofttimes worn out by the very 
precautions taken for its preservation. The whole house was constantly in a state of inun- 
tiation, under the discipline of mops and brooms and scrubbing brushes ; and the good 
housewives of those days were a kind of amphibious animal, delighting exceedingly to be 
dabbling in water — insomuch than an historian of the day gravely tells us, that many of his 
townswumen grew to have webbed fingers like unto a duck ; and some of them, he had 
little doubt, could the matter be examined into, would be found to have the tails of roar, 
maids — but tliis I look upon to be a mere sport of fancy, or what is worse, a wilful miarep. 

** The grand parlor was the sanctum sanctorum, where the passion for cleaning wm 
indulged without control. In this sacred apartment no one was permitted to enter, excell- 
ing the mistress and her confidential maid, who visited it once a week, for the purpose of 
giving it a thorough cleaning, and putting things to rights— always taking tho precaution of 
leading their shoes ai the door, and entering devoutly on their stocking feet. After scrub- 
bing the floor, sprinkling it with fine white sand, which was curiously stroked into angles, 
and curves, and rhomboids with a broom — afler washing the windows, rubbing and polish- 
ing the furniture, and putting a new bunch of evergreens in the fireplace — the window 
shutters were again closed to keep out the flies, and the room carefully locked up until the 
revolution of time brought round the weekly cleaning day. . 

** As to the family, they always entered in at the gate, and most generally lived in the 
kitchen. To have seen a numerous household assembled around the fire, one would have 
imagined that he was transported back to those happy days of primeval simplicity, which 
float before our imaginations like golden visions. The fireplaces were of a truly patriarchal 
magnitude, where the whole family, old and young, master and servant, black and white, 
nay, even the very cat and dog, enjoyed a community of privilege, and had each a right to 
a comer. Here the old burgher would sit in perfect silence, puffing his pipe, looking in 
the fire with half^hut eyes, and thinking of nothing for hours together ; the goede vroaw 
on the opposite side would employ herself diligently in spinning yam, or knitting stockings. 
The young folks would crowd around the hearth, listening with breathless attention to 
some old crone of a negro, who was the oracle of the family, and who, perched Uke a raven 
in a corner of the chimney, would croak forth for a long winter afternoon a string of in. 


credible stories about New England witches — grisly ghosts— hones without heads— «iid 
hairbreadth escape and bloody encounters among the Indians. 4 

'* In those happy days a well-regulated family always rose with the dawn, dined at eleven, 
and went to bed at sundown. Dinner was invariably a private meal, and the fat old 
burghers showed incontestible symptoms of disapprobation and uneasiness at being surprised 
by a visit from a neighbor on such occasions. But though our worthy ancestors were thus 
singularly averse to giving dinneis, yet they kept up the social bands of intimacy by occa- 
sional banquetings, called tea parties. 

*' These fashionable parties were generally confined to the higher classes, or noblesse, that 
is to say, such as kept their own cows, and drove their own wagons. The company com. 
monly assembled at three o'clock, and went away about six, unless it was in winter time, 
when the fashionable hours were a little earlier, that the ladies might get home before dark. 
The tea table was crowned with a huge earthen dish, well stor^ with slices of fat pork, 
fried brown, cut up into morsels, and swimming in gravy. The company being seated 
around the genial board, and each furnished with a fork, evinced their dexterity in launch, 
ing at the fattest pieces in this mighty dish — in much the same manner as sailors harpoon 
porpoises at sea, or our Indians spear salmon in the lakes. Sometimes the table was graced 
with immense apple pies, or saucers full of preserved peaches and pears ; but it was fUwaya 
sure to boast an enormous dish of balls of sweetened dough, fried in hc^s fat, and called 
doughnuts, or oly kocks — a delicious kind of cake, at present scarce known in this city, 
excepting in genuine Dutch families. 

" The tea was served out of a majestic delft teapot, ornamented 
with paintings of fat little Dutch shepherds and shepherdesses tending 
pigs — with boats sailing in the air, and houses built in the clouds, 
and sundry other ingenious Dutch fantasies. The beaux distinguish- 
ed themselves by their adroitness in replenishing this pot from a huge 
copper tea-kettle, which would have made the pigmy macaronies of 
these degenerate days sweat merely to look at it To sweeten the 
beverage, a lump of sugar was laid beside each cup — and the com- 
pany alternately nibbled and sipped with great decorum, until an 
improvement was introduced by a shrewd and economic old lady, 
which was to suspend a large lump directly over the tea table, by a 
string from the ceiling, so that it could be swung from mouth to 
mouth — an ingenious expedient, which is still kept up by some fami- 
lies in Albany ; but which prevails without exception in Communi- 
paw, Bergen, Flat Bush, and all our uncontaminated Dutch villages. 
** At these primitive tea parties the utmost propriety and dicnity of 
deportment prevailed. No flirting nor coquetting — no gambolling of 
old ladies nor hoyden chattering and romping of young ones — ^no 
self-satisfied struttings of wealthy gentlemen, with their brains in 
their pockets — ^nor amusing conceits, and monkey divertisements, of 
smart young gentlemen, with no brains at all. On the contrary, the 
young ladies seated themselves demurely in their rush-bottomed 
^hairs, and knit their own woollen stockings ; nor ever opened their 
ips, excepting to say, yah Mynher, or yah ya Vrouw, to any question 
hat was asked them ; behaving, in all things, like decent, well-edu- 
.ated damsels. As to the gentlemen, each of them tranquilly smoked 
"lis pipe, and seemed lost in contemplation of the blue and white tiles 
vith which the fireplaces were decorated ; wherein sundry passages 
j{ scripture were piously portrayed — Tobit and his dog figured to 
^reat advantage ; Haman swung conspicuously on his giboet, and 
7onah appeared most manfully bouncmg out of the whale, like Har- 
equin through a barrel of fire. 

NEW YORK coinrrr. 398 

** The parties broke up without noise and without confusion. They 
were carried home by their own carriages, that is to say, by the ve- 
hicles nature had provided them, excepting such of the wealthy as 
could afford to keep a wagon. The gentlemen gallantly attended 
their fair ones to their respective abodes, and took leave of them with 
a hearty smack at the door ; which, as it was an established piece of 
etiquette, done in perfect simplicity and honesty of heart, occasioned 
no scandal at that time, nor should it at the present — if our great 
grandfathers approved of the custom, it would argue a great want of 
reverence in their descendants to say a word against it. 

" In this dulcet period of my history, when the beauteous island of 
Manna-hatta presented a scene, the very counterpart of those glowing 

Elctures drawn of the golden reign of Saturn, there was, as I have 
efore observed, a happy ignorance, an honest simplicity prevalent 
among its inhabitants, which, were I even able to depict, would be but 
little understood by the degenerate age for which I am doomed to 
write. Even the female sex, those arch innovators u{ffin the tranquil- 
litv, the honesty, and greybeard customs of society, seemed for a 
while to conduct themselv^ with incredible sobriety and comeliness. 

" Their hair, untortured oy the abominations of art, was scrupu- 
lously pomatomed back from their foreheads with a candle, and cov- 
ered with a little cap of quilted calico, which fitted exactly to their 
heads. Their petticoats of linsey woolsey were striped with a va- 
riety of gorgeous dyes — though I must confess these gallant garments 
were rather short, scarce reaching below the knee ; but men they 
made up in the number, which generally equalled that of the gentle- 
men's small-clothes ; and what is still more praiseworthy, they were 
all of their own manufacture — of which circumstance, as may well 
be supposed, they were not a little vain. 

** These were the honest days, in which every woman staid at home, 
read the Bible, and wore pockets — ay, and that too of a goodly size, 
fashioned with patch- work into many curious devices, and ostenta- 
tiously worn on the outside. These, in fact, were convenient recep- 
tacles, where all good housewives carefully stored away such things 
as they wished to have at hand ; by which means they often came 
to be incredibly crammed — and I remember there was a story cur- 
rent when I was a boy, that the lady of Wouter Van Twiller once 
had occasion to empty her right pocket in search of a wooden ladle, 
and the utensil was discovered lying among some rubbish in one cor- 
ner — but we must not give too much faith to all these stories ; the 
anecdotes of those remote periods being very subject to exaggera- 

" Besides these notable pockets, they likewise wore scissors and 
pincushions suspended from their girdles by red ribands, or among 
the more opulent and showy classes, by brass, and even silver chains 
— ^indubitable tokens of thrifty housewives and industrious spinsters. 
I cannot say much in vindication of the shortness of the petticoats ; 
it doubtless was introduced for the purpose of giving the stockings a 
chance to be seen, which were generally of blue worsted with mag- 


nificent red clocks — or perhaps to display a well-turned ankle, and 
a neat, though serviceable, foot, set off by a high-heeled leathern 
shoe, with a large and splendid silver buckle. Thus we find that 
the gentle sex in all ages have shown the same disposition to infringe 
a little upon the laws of decorum, in order to betray a lurking beauty, 
or gratify an innocent love of finery. 

** From the sketch here given, it will be seen that our good grandmothers differed conmd- 
erably in their ideas of a fine figure from their scantily dressed descendants of the present 
day. A fine lady, in those times, waddled under more clothes, even on a fair Bimimei*s 
day, than would have clad the whole bevy of a modern ball-room. Nor were they the lea 
admired by the gentlemen in consequence thereof. On the contrary, the greatness of a 
lover's passion seemed to increase in proportion to the magnitude of its object — and a to. 
luminous damsel, arrayed in a dozen of petticoats, was declared by a Low Dutch sonnetteer 
of the province to be radiant as a sunflower, and luxuriant as a full blown cabbage. Cer. 
tain it is, that in those days, the heart of a lover could not contain more than one lady at a 
time ; whereas the heart of a modern gallant has often room enough to accommodate half 
a dozen. The reason of which I conclude to be, that either the hearts of the gentlemen 
have grown larger, or the persons of the ladies smaller — this, however, is a question for 
physiologists to detqunine. 

" But there was a secret charm in these petticoats, which no doubt entered into the con. 
sideration of the prudent gallants. The wardrobe of a lady was in those days her only for. 
tunc ; and she who had a good stock of petticoats and stockings, was as absolutely an 
heiress as is a Kamschatka damsel with a store of bei9 skins, or a Lapland belle with a 
plenty of reindeer. The ladies, therefore, were very anxious to display these powerfiil 
attractions to the greatest advantage ; and the best rooms in the house, instead of being 
adorned with caricatures of dame nature, in water colors and needle-work, were always 
hung round with abundance of homespun garments, the manufacture and the property of 
the females — a piece of laudable ostentation that still prevails among the heiresses of our 
Dutch villages. 

*' The gentlemen, in fact, who figured in the circles of the gay world in these ancient 
times, corresponded, in most particulars, with the beauteous damsels whose smiles they 
were ambitious to deserve. True it is, their merits would make but a very inconsiderable 
impression upon the heart of a modem fair ; they neither drove their curricles nor sported 
their tandems, for as yet those gaudy vehicles were not even dreamt of— neither did they 
distinguish themselves by their brilliancy at the table, and their consequent rencontres with 
watchmen, for our forefathers were of too pacific a disposition to need those guardians of 
the night, every soul throughout the town being sound asleep before nine o'clock. Neither 
did they establish their claims to gentility at the expense of their tailors — for as yet those 
ofTenders against the pockets of society, and the tranquillity of all aspiring young gentle- 
men, were unknown in TSew Amsterdam ; every good housewife made the clothes of her 
husband and family, and even the goede vrouw of Van Twiller himself thought it no dis- 
paragement to cut out her husband's linsey woolsey galligaskins. 

" Not but what there were some two or three youngsters who manifested the first dawn. 
ings of what is called fire and spirit. Who held all labor in contempt ; skulked about docks 
and market places ; loitered in the sunshine ; squandered what little money they could pro. 
cure at hustlccap and chuck.farthing, swore, boxed, fought cocks, and raced their neigh- 
bor's horses — in short, who promised to be the wonder, the talk, and abomination of the 
town, hud not their stylish career been unfortunately cut short by an affair of honor with a 

** Far other, however, was the truly fashionable gentleman of those days— his dress, 
which served for both morning and evening, street and drawing-room, was a linsej wooU 
sey coat, made, perhaps, by the fair hands of the mistress of his affections, and gallantly 
bedecked with abundance of large brass buttons. — ^Half a score of breeches heij^iiened the 
proportions of his figure — his shoes were decorated by enormous copper buckles— a low. 
crowned broad-brimmed hat overshadowed his burly visage, and his hair dangled down 
his back in a prodigious queue of eel skin. 

** Thus equipped, he would manfully sally forth with pipe in mouth to besiege some fiir 
damsel's obdurate heart — not such a pipe, good reader, as that which Acis did sweedy tone 
in praise of his Galatea, but of one of true delft manufacture, and furnished with a chaxge 
of fragrant tobacco. With this would he resolutely set himself down before the fbrtrsss, 
and rarely failed, in the process of time, to smoke the fair enemy into a surrender, upon 
honorable terms. 


'* Such was the happy reign of Wouter Van Twiller, celebrated in many a long-foigotten 
Bong as the real golden age, the rest being nothing but counterfeit copper-washed coin. In 
that delightful period, a sweet and holy calm reigned over the whole province. The bur- 
gomaster smoked his pipe in peace — the substantial solace of his domestic cares, after her 
daily toils were done, sat soberly at the door, with her arms crossed over her apron of 
snowy white, without being insulted by ribaJd street waliiers or vagabond boys — those 
unlucky urchins, who do so infest our streets, displaying under tlie roses of youth the 
thorns and briers of iniquity. Then it was that the lover with ten breeches, and the dam- 
eel with petticoats of half a score, indulged in all the innocent endearments of virtuous love 
without fear and without reproach ; for what had that virtue to fear, which was defended 
by a shield of good hnsey woolseys, equal at least to the seven bull hides of the invincible 

** Ah, blissful, and never to be forgotten age ! when every thing was better than it has 
ever been since, or ever will be again — when Buttermilk Channel* was quite dry at low 
water — when the shad in the Hudson were all salmon, and when the moon shone with a 
pure and resplendent whiteness, instead of that melancholy yellow light which is the conse- 
quence of her sickening at the abominations she every night witnesses in this degenerate 

** Happy would it have been for New Amsterdam could it alwa)r8 have existed in this 
state of blissful ignorance and lowly simplicity ; but alas I the days of childhood are too 
sweet to last ! Cities, like men, grow out of them in time, and are doomed alike to grow 
into the bustle, the cares, and miseries of the world. Let no man congratulate himself, 
when he beholds the child of his bosom or the city of his birth increasing in magnitude and 
importance — let the history of his own hfe teach him the dangers of the one, and this ex- 
cellent little history of Mannahatta convince him of the calamides of the other.** 


The celebrated Negro Plot, 1741, occurred when there were about ten thousand inhabi. 
tants in this city, of which one sixth part were negro slaves. 

** After a lapse of a century, we look back with astonishment on the panic occasioned by 
the Negro Plot, and the rancorous hatred that prevailed here against the Roman Catholics. 
To judge from tradition, and the journal of the proceedings against the conspirators, no 
doubt can be had of the actual existence of a plot ; but its extent could never have been so 
great as the terror of those times depicted. The very mode adopted to discover abettors 
by mutual criminations and confessions, tended in the progress of the trials to inculpate 
every negro slave in the city. We accordingly find, that the number of conspirators daily 
increased. As it was impossible to prove all equally guilty, the ringleaders only were ex. 
ecuted ; and those who, to save their lives, plead guilty, and threw themselves on the mercy 
of the court, were transported. 

*' Insurrections and conspiracies were at this juncture fi'equent in the West India islands, 
and great apprehensions were entertained of an invasion by the French and Spaniards. 
These circumstances agsn'^vatcd tlie horror of a domestic plot to such a degree, that the 
white inhabitants, regarding every negro slave as an incendiary and an assassin, carried 
their apprehensions and resentment beyond all bounds. 

" A holy hatred of the Roman Catholics was at that period inculcated by church and 
state. Our Dutch forefathers, glowing with all the §eal of the early reformers, emigrated 
to this country shurtly after the emancipation of the United Netherlands from the Spanish 
yoke, and fostered all the rancor of their race against Papists and Spaniards. It was the 
policy of the English government, after tlie conquest, to cherish this animosity, and those 
of our readers who were born and educated before the American revolution, will recollect 
how religiously they were taught to abhor the Pope, Devil, and Pretender. The act of our 
Provincial Assembly, against Jesuits and Papist priests, passed 2d WiUiam and Mary, and 
which continued in full force until our independence, was owing, not only to these prqu- 
dices, but to the exposed situation of the colony, the northern frontier of which was bounded 
by Canada, at that time in possession of France, the natural and ever-daring enemy to Eng. 
land. The intolerant spirit of this act shows the horror and detestation in which the Roman 
Catholics were held, and will account why so few of this profession existed in this city and 
colony before the revolution. 

* In olden times the channel was but a little creek vNch se^^vated the mainland from 
Governors Island. 


'* In estimating this angular event in our colonial history, the ciremnstancee of the ttmea 
should be duly considered, before we too hastily condemn the bigotry and cmeky uf our 
predecessors. The advantages of a liberal, indeed of the plainest education, was the happy 
lot of very few. Intercourse between the colonies and the mother countiy, and between 
province and province, was very rare. Ignorance and illiberal prejudices universally pre. 
vailed. Their more favored and enlightened posterity will therefore draw a veil of lilia] 
affection over the involuntary errors of their forefathers, and emulating their simple virtues, 
endeavor to transmit a brighter example to their successors." — Hist, of Negro Pl&t^ 8vo. 
New York, 1810. 

'* The first suspicion of a plot among the negroes, and which sufaeequently led to a lull 
investigation and discovery, was caused by frequent alarms of fire, and a robbery committed 
at a Mr. Hogg's, * from whence were taken divers pieces of linen, and other goods, and 
several silver coins, chiefly Spanish, and medals, and wrought silver, &c., to the value, in 
the' whole, of sixty pounds and upwards.' The scene of this famous robbery was in a house 
in Broad su^eet. On Wednesday, the 18th March, 1740, about 1 6*clock, a fire broke out 
of the roof of His Migesty's house, at Fort Geoige, within this city, near the chapel, on the 
east side, and the wind blowing a violent gale at southeast, it soon became impossible to stop 
its progress. The citizens and engines assembled promptly on the ringing of the chapel 
bell, and assisted in saving the records and papers in the office of the Se<^tary of State, 
over the fort gate, which formnately were preserved, although in the hurry they were tossed 
out at the windows, and the papers blown and scattered. An alarm being given, the peo^ 
pie were soon after fearful of an explosion, and stood aloof, although assured by the Gofw. 
emor that it was groundless. In one hour and a quarter, the Governor's house, and the 
venerable old Dutch Church, were thus consumed. A plumber had that morning been at 
work, with his pot of coals and soldering iron, to mend a leak in the gutter, between the 
house and the chapel, and the high wind had no doubt blown some sparks on the dry shin* 
gles, or under the eaves. On the 25th of March, a week after the fire at the fort, another 
broke out at the southwest end of the town, and on the 1st of April, another at the east 
end of the town, at Van Zandt's, corner of Burling's slip and Water..street On the 4th of 
April, two other alarms were made, and fire discovered ; and on the 5th, being Sunday, 
Mr. Murray's haystack, standing near some stables and houses in Broadway, had some five 
coals put under it, which went out of themselves. On Monday, three more fires occurred, 
and the panic commenced. Many negroes were arrested, and the investigations were long 
and intricate. By the course of the evidence, it appeared that the city was destined to be 
fired, and the inhabitants massacred on coming out of the finglish Church in Broadway. 

** St Patrick's night was selected to begin the bloody scene, and many Irish Catholics, 
lately arrived, enlisted in the gang, were even detected as being concerned. The negroes 
were led on by a villian named Hughson, at whose house they were finely entertain^, 
and brought theur stolen goods, and were sworn to secrecy. Ury, a priest, was also deeply 

** It is somewhat remarkable, that London has had its Popish Plot and fire ; Boston and 
Salem its delusions of witchcraft, and New York its Negro Plot: and there can be no doubt 
that some innocent persons we're at those times accused, and suffered. 

** One hundred and fifty.four negroes, and twenty white persons, were committed to pri- 
son, of which fifty.five were convicted, and sevonty-eight confessed. Thirteen negroes 
were burnt at the stake, at a place then out of town, but simated near the present in. 
terscction of Peari and Chatham streets, where there formeriy was a hoDow place, as recoU 
lected by one of our oldest citizens, svho was present at the execution, and declares diat 
the horrible shrieks and cries of the miserable victims still dwell on his memory. Twenty 
were hung, (one in chains, * on the island, by the,' where the Arsenal now 
is, in Elin street.) Seventy were transported to foreign parts, viz. Newfoundland, Madeira, 
Ilispuniola, Cape Francois, Curra9oa, Surinam, &c., &c., anid fifty were discharged. 

" Although the black population has increased from that period to the present, in this 
city, yet the proportion they now bear to the whites is much leu than at that time, being 
only one-twelfth part ; then they were one^ixth." 

The following extracts are from newspapers published previous to 
and during the revolution : they will serve to throw light on the his- 
tory of the times. 

" JVicto York, Notember 4, 1765. — The late extraordinary and unprecedented prepars- 
tions in Fort George, and the securing of the Stamped Paper in that garrison, havii^ greatly 
alarmed and displeoped the inhabitants of this city, a vast nimiber of them assembled last 
Friday evening in the commons, from whence they marched down the Fly, preceded hy a 


number of lights, and having stopped a few minutes at the Coffee House, proceeded to the 
Fort Walls, where they broke open the stable of the L — t G r , took out his coach, and 
after carrying the same through the principal streets of the city, in triumph marched to the 
commons, where a gallows was erected ; on one end of which was suspended the effigy of 
the person whose property the coach was. In his right hand he held a stamped Bill of 
Lading, and on his breast was affixed a paper witli the following inscription, * The Rebel 
Drummer in the year 1715 :* at his back was affixed a drum, the badge of his profession ; 
at the other end of the gallows hung the figure of the devil, a proper companion for the 
other, as *tis supposed it was entirely at his instigation he acted : after they had hung there 
a considerable time, they carried the effigies, with the gallows entire, being preceded by 
the coach, in a grand procession to the gate of the fort, where it remained for some time, 
from whence it was removed to the Bowling Green, under the muzzles of the fort gUDB» 
where a bon-fu'e was immediately made, and the drummer, devil, and coach, &c., were 
consumed amidst the acclamations of some thousand spectators, and we make no doubt, 

but the L— t G ^r, and his friends, had the mortification of viewing the whole proceed. 

ing fi^m the ramparts of the fort : But the business of the night no^ being yet concluded, 
the whole body proceeded with the greatest decency and good order to Vauzhall, the house 
of M — r J 8, who, it was reported, was a fiiend to the Stamp Act, and had been over 
officious in his duty, from whence they took every individual article to a very considerable 
amount ; and having made another bon-fire, the whole was consumed in the flames, to the 
great satisfaction of every person present ; after which they dispersed, and every man went 
to his respective habitation. The whole affiiir was conducted with such decorum, that not 
the least accident happened. 
" The next evening another very considerable body assembled at the same place, having 

been informed that the L — t G ^^had qualified himself for the distribution of the Stamped 

paper, were determined to march to the fort, in order to insist upon his delivering into their 
hands, or to declare tliat he would not undertake to distribute the same ; but before this 

resolution could be executed, the minds of the people were eased by the L — t G^ r's 

sending the following declaration from the fort, viz : — 

***rrMiE Lieut Governor declares he will do nothing in Relation to the Stamps, but leave 
JL it to Sir Henry Moore, to do as he pleases on his arrival. Council Chamber, New 

York, Nov, 2, 1765. By Order of His Honor. Ww. Banyar D. CI. Con. 

*• * We can assure the Gentlemen of the neighboring Provinces, That every Importer of 

European Goods in this City, have agreed not to Import any Goods from England next 

Spring, unless the Sugar Act, and 3ie Oppressive and Unconstitutional Stamp Act are 

repealed.* " 

" New York, Jan, 8ih, 1763. — Thursday next is appointed to celebrate the birth of the 
Prince of Wales, when there is to bo a treble discharge of all the artillery in this place, and 
the evening is to be concluded with the play of the Fair Penitent, by the officers of the 
army, in a theatre built for that purpose." 


** New York, Dec. 13, 1765. — We are credibly informed that there were married last 
Sunday evening, by the Rev. Mr. Auchmuty, a very respectable couple, that had been pub- 
lished at three different times in Trinity church. A laudable example and worthy to be 
followed. If this decent, and for many reasons, proper method of publication was once 
generally to take place, we should hear no more of clandestine marriages, and save the ex- 
pense of hcenses, no inconsiderable sum these hard and distressing times." 

" New York, March 13th, 1766. — Upon a supposition that the cannon upon the Battery 
in this city were spiked by order of LieutenanUgovemor Colden, his effigy was exhibited 
last Thursday, sitting upon a piece of ordnance, properly mounted with a drill constructed 
in such a manner as to be continually working ; at his back hung a drum as a badge of his 
former profession : On his bh-east was fixed a paper on which were the following lines : 

* Pm declived by the devil and left in the lurch ; 
And am forced to do penance, tho* not in the church.* 

** After it had appeared in the principal streets of the city attended by many thousand 
spectators, (although it rained great part of the time,) it was carried to the common, where 
a fire was immediately made, and the whole consumed by 5 o*clock in the afternoon, 

amidst the acclamations of the multitude, who dispersed directly thereafter The 

affair was conducted with such order and decorum, that no pereon sustained the least 



" N. B. Tho public are desired to take notice, that the cannon still remain apiked ; and 
it is expected that no further hint will be necessary." 

" New Yorkf May 3, 1766. — The play advertised to be acted last Monday evening, 
having given offence to many of the inhabitants of this city, who thought it highly improper 
that such entertainments should be exhibited at this time of public distress, when great 
numbers of poor people can scarce find means of subsistence, whereby many persima might 
be tempted to neglect their business, and squander that money which is necessary to the. 
payment of their debts and support of their families, a rumour was spread about the town 
on Monday, that if the play went on, the audience would meet with some disturbance from 
the multitude. This prevented the greatest part of those who intended to have been there 
from going ; however, many people came and the play was begun : but soon interrupted by 
the multitude, who burst open the doors, and entered with noise and tumult. The audi, 
ence escaped in the best manner they could ; many lost their hats and other parts of dress. 
A boy had his skull fractured, and was yesterday trepanned ; his recovery is doubtful : several 
others were dangerously hurt, but we heard of no lives lost. The multitude immediately 
demolished the house, carried the pieces to the common, where they consumed them in a 

From the New York Gazette of August 3, 1769. 

** Extract of a letter to a gentleman in the city from a correspondent in the country, dated 
July 20, — * Sir : As a sincere fiiend I give you a caution now to be particularly on your 
guard against the importation of English goods ; for I fiar you will not get them sold at any 
rate, as it appears quite plain from this hint of facts, you may depend upon. Within these 
few weeks I happened to be present at several meetings of some towns here, when among 
other things, they took into their most serious consideration the affair of buving English 
goods from your merchants, and it was strongly reasoned thus : We have gone (said they) 
these several years post clearing new lands and raising grain only, and have foolishly neg. 
lected the raising of sheep and flax, because we vainly thought we could buy them cheaper 
at the stores than make them at our houses ; until now our cash is wholly carried to Eng- 
land for their fineries, and here it has got so scarce, that in a whole town one guinea is 
scarcely seen in a year's time : so that when a man goeth to buy any necessaries at a mer- 
chant's shop, instead of his purse, he must take a wagon load of grain, and sell it to the mer- 
chant's and take his English goods at whatever price he pleases to ask. 

" Wherefore they unanimously and firmly resolved, 1st. That for them to buy any more 
Scotch or English goods from merchants, was in fact a sure wicked way to qualify Britain 
tyrannically and inflexibly, from time to time to impose upon Americans whatsoever new 
laws, new admiralty courts, or bishop's courts they pleased, to take away our civil and re- 
ligious liberties piecemeal, until we and our posterity were finally enslaved as deep as any 
Spaniard or African. 

** 2d. That therefore, whosoever of their town, durst presume to buy any more of said 
British goods, before the restoring of our liberty, should be held, reputed, deemed, and 
treated by all liis neighbors as an open enemy to all the civil and religious interests of their 
country, &c. &c. 

*' I have heard that a great many towns, through the inland parts of this, and the other 
provinces, are beginning to bo greatly alarmed with the fears of their new admiralty courts, 
and bishop's courts, &c., and therefore are forming retolves of the same nature. Now if 
you do in those circumstances import goods, you will be ruined. Look round and see 
how many merchants have been sent to jail, and their famiUes ruined by importing English 
goods, and not getting them sold to any advantage. Yours, &c." 

From the New York Gazette, March 29, 1770. 

** Last Saturday night about 11 o'clock, 14 or 15 soldiers were seen about die liberty, 
pole in this city, which one of them had ascended, with an intent to take off and carry 
away the topmast and vane ; as soon as Uicy were discovered, five or six young men who 
were accidentally crossing the green at that time made up towards the pole, to see what 
they were abuut, but they were immediately attacked and driven off the green by the soU 
diers ; who, finding that they were discovered, and being apprehensive that the inhabitants 
would be alarmed, they made off. Soon after some persons went into town and acquainted 
their friends with the proceedings of the soldiers, upon which 14 or 15 persons came up to 
the green, and going to the pole were there surrounded by 40 or 50 soldien, with their cat- 


laases drawn ; upon which 4 or 5 of them retreated to the house of Mr. Bicker, and were 
followed by part of the soldierSf who immediately called out for the soldiers from the ^. 
racks ; upon which they were joined by a very considerable body who came over the bar. 
rack fence. Mr. Bicker seeing himself and fxunily in danger, and exposed to the insults of 
a licentious and brutal soldiery, stood with his bayonet fixed, determined to defend himself 
to the last extremity, and declared that he would shoot the first man that should attelnpt to 
enter ; they several times attempted to force the under door, the upper door being open« 
which Mr. Bicker kept shut by fixing the point of his bayonet against it, while they kept 
cutting and hacking the barrel of his gun, in attempting to cut him down with their cut- 
lasses, — but he soon after got the upper door shut and barred ; upon which they strove Jp 
break open the front windows, which were also shut, one of which they forced open, btdb 
the panes of glass, and cut all the frame to pieces, in order to get into the house. S<w^ 
people who were in the house seeing the imminent danger to which Mr. Bicker and his 
fiimily were exposed, got out the back way and ran to alarm the citizens. The chapel bell 
was immediately rung, upon the hearing of which, the soldiers retreated precipitately. A 
number of the citizens were up all night and under arms, which probably prevented any 
mischief being done, as they repeatedly swore that they would set fire to the house, and 
bum or destroy every person in it. Col. Robertson, the commanding officer of the regi. 
ment, repaired to the barracks, as soon as he had notice of the disturbance ; he immediately 
ordered the centinels to be confined, and remained up all night to prevent any further mis. 
chief being done ; and as a number of inhabitants nightly guarded the pole, till the Trans, 
ports with the soldiers were sailed, they were disappointed in efiecting their designs 
against it, although they positively swore that they would carry off some part of it with them.** 

From the sanies December 24, 1767 

" '^ be disposed of— the remaining time, being about three years, of three Grerman ser- 
vants, one a baker by trade, one a butcher, and the other a laborer. They are very in. 
dustrious good men, whose honesty has been tried, and may be had on reasonable terms. 
Inquire of the printer hereof." 

** Last Thursday being the anniversary of His Majesty's, when he entered his 
30th year, the same was observed here with great solemnity. About 11 o'clock the de. 
tachment of the train, with the 17th and 46th regiments, were paraded on the battery, and 
marched in order by, and saluted his Excellency, General Gage ; at the same time his Ex. 
cellency, Sir Henry Moore, the members of His Majesty's council for this province, his 
worship the mayor, and the rest of the corporation, and most of the other gentlemen of 
the city, w