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Full text of "Historical collections of Virginia : containing a collection of the most interesting facts, traditions, biographical sketches, anecdotes, &c. relating to its history and antiquities, together with geographical and statistical descriptions : to which is appended an historical and descriptive sketch of the District of Columbia"

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HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS 



VIRGINIA; 

CONTAINING 

A COLLECTION OF THE MOST INTERESTING FACTS, TRADITIONS, 
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES, ANECDOTES, &c. 

RELATING TO 

ITS HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES, 

TOGETHER WITH 

GEOGRAPHICAL AND STATISTICAL DESCRIPTIONS. 

TO WHICH IS APPENDED, 

AN HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE SKETCH 

OF THE 

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 

ILLUSTRATED BY 

OVER 100 ENGRAVINGS, 

GIVINO 

VIEWS OF THE PRINCIPAL TOWNS,— SEATS OF EMINENT MEN,— 
PUBLIC BUILDINGS,— RELICS OF ANTIQUITY,— HISTORIC 
LOCALITIES, NATURAL SCENERY, ETC., ETC. 

BY irElfRrY~HOAV E . 

[Arms of Virginia.] 




^ l hua nlw;\y» with tyrants.] 



CHARLESTON, S. C. 
PUBLISHED BY W. R. BABCOCK. 



1847. 



ENTERED, 
According to the Act of Congress, in the year 1845^ 
BY BABCOCK & CO., 
In the office of the Clerk of the District Court op 
SOUTH CAROLINA. 



OUTLINE 



HISTORY OF VIRGINIA. 



CHAKTER I. 

INTRODUCTION, PROGRESS OF COMMERCE, ROANOKE SETTLEMENTS. 

Discovery of America. — England. — Want of Comrnerce in early times. — Voyages of 
the Cabois. — Progress of English discovery — Frobisher — Gilbert — Raleigh. — Fail, 
ure of the Roanoke settlements. 

The claims of the Icelanders, the Welsh, and even the Norwe- 
gians,* to the discovery of America, seem in modern times to be 
universally set aside in favor of a native of a milder clime. In- 
deed, the evidence by which their respective claims were sought to 
be established was so vague, contradictory, and unsatisfactory,! 
and their discoveries, if proved, so entirely accidental, and useless 
to mankind, that it is not at all astonishin": that all the merit 
should be given to that individual whose brilliant genius first de- 
monstrated a priori the existence of a continent in the western 
waters, and whose adventurous daringj led him to risk his life in 
the search of a world, of the existence of which he was only in- 
formed by his science, with little aid of any human experience ; 
or that posterity should give to Coluivibus the undivided glory of an 
exploit for which he received only the ignominy of his contempo- 
raries, and to Italy the honor due the birthplace of so distinguish- 
ed a son, from whose brilliant achievements she has received little 
else. 

In 1460, the Portuguese discovered the Cape de Verd islands, 
and afterwards extended their discoveries farther south. This near 
prospect of an easier and more direct route to India, had already 
begun to excite the jealousy of the Venetians, who then nearly 
monopolized the trade of India, and to elevate the hopes of the 
Portuguese, who expected to enjoy a portion of the wealth and 
luxury which the Venetians derived from that trade ; when the 
minds of both, and indeed of all Europe, were turned in another 



* Winterbotham's America, vol. I. p. 1 and 2, and Hinton's United States, 
t Bancroft's Hist. U- States, vol. I. p. 6, and notes. 

X " L'ltalie reparut, avec les divins tresors que les Grecs fugitifs rapport^rent dans 
son sein; le ciei lui r^v^la ses lois : Vaudace de ses enfants decouvrit tin vouvel hernia 
pAere."— De Stael— Corinne. 



12 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



direction by the occurrence of an event in the history of maritime 
discovery, compared with which all others sunk into insignifi- 
cance. 

This event was the discovery of America, by Christopher Colum- 
Oct 11 1492 The education of this daring mariner, his dis- 

' ' * appointments and dangers, his difficulties and his 
brilliant success, or the melancholy story of his sad reverses, and 
the example afforded in him of the ingratitude of kings, it is not 
the purpose of the writer to narrate. He refrains from recounting 
so temptingly interesting a narrative, because it would lead him 
too far from his purpose, which is only to narrate succinctly the 
progress of navigation and discovery to the time of the first colo- 
ny settled in Virginia, — and because the same story has been so 
well told by Robertson, Irving, and others, that it ought to be fa- 
miliar to all. 

Notwithstanding the advances in navigation which have been 
enumerated, the art of ship-building was still in such a rude and 
imperfect state, that the vessels in which Columbus embarked on 
an unknown sea, a modern mariner, with all the advantages of 
modern science, would scarcely venture in, to cross the Atlantic. 
The largest was a vessel of no considerable burden,* and the two 
others scarcely superior in burden to large boats, and the united 
crews of the three only amounted to ninety men, including officers, 
and a few gentlemen, adventurers from Isabella's court. 

But notwithstanding these inadequate means for the prosecution 
of maritime discovery, the ardor of enterprise was so much ex- 
cited by the brilliant achievements of Columbus, the greedy thirst 
for gain, and hope of finding some country abounding in gold, to- 
gether with the eager desire which still prevailed of discovering 
some passage through the great continent of America, which might 
lead to India, that in twenty-six years from the first discovery of 
land by Columbus, the Spaniards had visited all of the islands of 
the West Indies — they had sailed on the eastern coast of America 
from the Rio de la Plata to the western extremity of the Mexican 
Gulf — they had discovered the great Southern Ocean, and had ac- 
quired considerable knowledge of the coast of Florida. It is also 
said that these voyages in search of a nearer passage to the East 
Indies, had extended much farther north, but not however until 
that country had been discovered by the seamen of another na- 
tion, of whose exploits in the field of maritime adventure we shall 
presently speak. 

The great interior was still unknown, the whole western and 
the extreme southeastern coasts were still undiscovered, and the 
long line of coast from Florida to Labrador had only been seen, 
and touched upon in a few places. 

England did not at an early period make those advances in nav- 
igation, to which the eminent advantages of her insular situation 



* Robertson — Hist. America, 49. 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 13 

invited, and fi^ave no promise of that maritime distinction, and 
commercial wi'alth. to \\ liicli the wise pohcy of her subsequent 
rulers hiive leil her to attain. From the times of tli(^ conquest to 
the discovery of America, England had been enjra^i^ed in ])erpetual 
Avars, either foreign or domestic ; and thus, while the southern por- 
tion of Europe and the free cities on the Rhine were advancing so 
rapidly in opulence and power, England was destitute of even the 
germ of that naval strength to which she is so much indebted for 
her present greatness. Every article of foreign growth or fabric 
which she consumed, was wafted to lier shores in the barks of 
other nations, and the subsequent mistress of the seas scarcely 
dared to float her flag beyond the limits of her own narrow juris- 
diction. Scarcely an English ship traded with Spain or Portugal 
before the beginning of the lifteenth century, and it required an- 
other half century to give the British mariner courage enough to 
venture to the east of the Pillars of Hercules.* 

Feeble as the marine of England then was, her reigning monarch, 
Henry YIL, did not lack the spirit required for undertaking great 
enterprises, and accident only deprived him of the glory of being 
the patron of the discoverer of America. Columbus, after the 
failure of his own native country of Genoa to encourage his great 
enterprise, and his second rebuff from his adopted country, Portu- 
gal, fearing another refusal from the king of Castile, to whose 
court he then directed his steps, dispatched his brother Bartholo- 
mew to England to solicit the aid of Henry VII., who being then at 
peace, was supposed to have leisure to undertake a great enter- 
prise which promised such renown to himself and emolument to 
England. Bartholomew was captured by pirates on his voyage, 
and robbed of all his effects, which, with an illness that followed, 
prevented him from presenting himself at court, after he arrived 
in England, until he could provide himself with suitable apparel 
Feb 13 1488 t ^^^^^ drawing maps and sea-charts. He 

' *' brought himself to the notice of Henry by present- 
ing him with a map, and upon his representiiiir to him the propo- 
sal of Columbus, he accepted it with "a joyful countenance, and 
bade him fetch his brother." So much delay had been produced 
by the circumstances mentioned, that Bartholomew, hastening to 
Castile, learned at Paris, from Charles, king of France, that his 
brother Christopher's efforts had already been crowned with the 
most brilliant success. 

When we reflect upon the difliculties which were thrown in the 
way of Columbus at the court of Ferdinand and Isabella, even 
after they became convinced of the practicability of his scheme, 

* Robertson's Virginia, p. 19. 

t This date is preserved in some curions verses upon the map, of which wc jjive a spe- 
cimen : " Bartholmew Colon do Term Rubra." " The ycere of Grace, a thousand and 
four hundred and fourscore'' "And ci<Tht, and on the thirteentli day of February more,"" 
" In London published this worke. To Christ all laud therefore." Hacklyt, vol. Ill 
p. 22. 



14 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



and the 'yet more arduous difficulties which he encountered on his 
voyage, from the mutinous timidity of his crew, we may well doubt 
whether Henry's courage would have sustained him in the actual 
accomplishment of the enterprise, or whether England at that 
time afforded mariners sufficiently hardy to have persevered a suf- 
ficient length of time in a seemingly endless voyage upon an un- 
known sea. 

Fortunately, perhaps, for mankind, the courage of England was 
June 24 1497 ^^^^ making the first great adven- 

' * ture ; and whether she would have succeeded in 
that or not, she was not destitute of sufficient courage to under- 
take an enterprise of very considerable magnitude at that day, 
soon after the existence of land in our western hemisphere had 
been discovered. 

The merit of this new enterprise is also due to a native of Italy, 
and his motive was the same which prevailed in most of the ad- 
ventures of the time, — the desire to discover a new route to India. 

Giovanni Gaboto, better known by his anglicised name of John 
Cabot, a Venetian merchant who had settled at Bristol, obtained 
from Henry a charter for himself and his three sons, Lewis, Sebas- 
tian, and Santius, allowing them full power and authority to sail 
into all places in the eastern, western, or northern sea, under the 
banners of England, with five ships, at their own proper costs and 
charges, to discover countries before unknown to Christians, to 
plant the banners of England in all such places, and to take pos- 
session of them, to hold as vassals of England, to have the exclu- 
sive monopoly of the trade of all such places, paying to the king 
one-fifth of the clear profits of every voyage. All other persons 
were prohibited from visiting such places, and the Cabots were 
bound always to land on their return only at Bristol. 

Under this patent, containing "the worst features of colonial 
monopoly and commercial restriction," John Cabot, and his cele- 
brated son Sebastian, embarked for the west. The object of Cabot 
being to discover the passage to India, he pursued a course more 
northwardly than any selected by previous navigators, and the 
first land he reached was the coast of Newfoundland, which on 
that account he named Prima Vista; next the Island of St. John; 
and finally the continent, among the "polar bears, the rude sav- 
ages and dismal cliffs of Labrador ;" and this seems to have been 
the only fruit of the first British voyage to America. 

In the following year a new patent was given to John Cabot, 
Feb 3 1498 enterprise was conducted by his adventurous 

' ■ and distinguished son, Sebastian. In this expedition, 
which was undertaken for the purposes of trade as well as dis- 
covery, several merchants of London took part, and even the king 
himself Cabot sailed in a northwest course, in hopes of finding a 
northwest passage to India, as far probably as the 58th or 60th 
degree of latitude, until he was stopped by the quantities of ice 
which he encountered, and the extreme severity of the weather; 



OUTLIVE IIISTORV. 



15 



he then turned his course southward and followed tlie coast, ac- 
cording- to some writers to the coast of Virginia, and in the opinion 
of som(% as I'ar as the coast of Florida. The only coniniodilies 
with which he returned to Enghand, as far as our accounts inform 
us, w^ere three of the natives of the newly discovered countries. 
He found, upon his return, the king immersed in his preparations 
for a war with Scotland, which prevented his engaging in any 
further prosecution of his discoveries, or entertaining any design 
of setth^ment. 

It is not our purpose to notice the Portuguese discoveries under 
Cotereal, the French under Verrazzani and Cartier, or their abor- 
tive attempt at settlements in Canada and New England. Nor 
shall we notice the extensive inland expedition of the Spaniards 
under Soto from Florida, through the states of Georgia, Alabama, 
Mississippi, across the Mississippi, and into Louisiana, — or the at- 
tempts of the French at settlement in Florida and the Carolinas, — 
these matters belong rather to the history of the United States, 
than to the sketch of the history of Virginia which we propose to 
give. We pass at once to the British attempts at colonization in 
America. 

The progress of maritime adventure extended rapidly. The 
evidence exists of several English voyages having been made not 
only to the coast of North America, but the Levant, the harbors 
1548 northern Africa and Brazil. The visits to the fisheries 

of Newfoundland had become fretjuent ; and the commerce 
from that source had become of such importance, and had been 
the subject of such long and oppressive exactions, as to require 
the action of parliament for their prohibition. 

India was still the great object with the merchants, and the dis- 
1550 ^^^'^^y ^ nearer passage than that offered by the Cape 

of Good Hope, the great desideratum with mariners. The 
northwestern passage had been attempted thrice by the Cabots in 
vain ; a northeastern expedition was fitted out, and sailed under 
the command of Willoughby and Chancellor. Willoughby with 
his ship's company were found in their vessel frozen to death in a 
Lapland harbor ; Chancellor with his vessel entered the port of 
j^^^ Archangel, mid "discovered" the vast empire of Russia, till 

then unknown to Western Europe. This discovery led to 
the hope of establishing an intercourse by means of caravans 

across the continent to Persia, and thence to the distant 

empn-e oi Cathay. 
Elizabeth affoided every encouragement to the maritime enter- 
prises of her subjects, and especially encouraged the newly estab- 

lished intercourse with Russia. The hope of discovering a 

northwest passage was by no means as yet relinquished. 
Martin Frobisher, after revolving in his mind the subject for fif- 
teen years, believed that it might be accomplished, and "deter- 
mined and resolved within himself to go and make full proof there- 
of," "knowing this to be the only thing in the world that was left 



16 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



yet undone, whereby a notable mind might be made famous and 
fortunate." Frobisher was too poor to supply himself with the 
means of carrying his designs into execution ; but after much solici- 
tation at court he was pa^tronised by Dudley, Earl of Warwick, 
who supplied him with two small barks, the one of twenty and 
the other of twenty-five tons burden, and a pinnace of ten tons. 
With this little fleet he set sail. The expedition was entirely unfor- 
tunate. One of his barks deserted and returned home, the pinnace 
went down in a storm, " whereby he lost only four men :" with such 
small vessels and crews did the hardy mariners of that day ven- 
ture to cross the Atlantic. The Admiral's mast was sprung, and 
the top-mast blown overboard, by the same storm in which he lost 
the pinnace ; but, nothing daunted, he persevered, and entered Hud- 
son's Bay. The only thing accomplished b3^.the voyage was the 
taking possession of the cold and barren wilderness in the name 
of Elizabeth, carrying home some of the gravel and stones, one 
of the latter of which, resembling gold, or probably having some 
gold artificially mingled with it after it reached London, caused 
the gold refiners nearly to go mad, and the merchants to under- 
take one of the wildest expeditions recorded in the annals of dis- 
covery ; besides this show of gold, which was pronounced very 
rich for the quantity, the only other acquisition was a poor native, 
whose simplicity was imposed upon by the most treacherous de- 
vices, until he was decoyed to the English vessel, and then seized 
by force, and carried away from his friends. He bit off his tongue 
from despair, and died soon after his arrival in England, from cold 
taken on the voyage. 

The mania which the story of the little bit of gold produced in 
j^^^ London caused a fleet of several vessels to be fitted out, of 
which the queen herself furnished one, to bring home the 
rich produce of these icy mines. The ships returned with black 
earth, but no gold. 

The spirit of avarice w^as not to be stopped in her career by a 
j^^g single failure; a new fleet of fifteen vessels was fitted out, 
and to Martin Frobisher was given the command. A colony 
was to be planted for the purpose of working the mines, while 
twelve vessels were to be sent home with ore. After almost in- 
credible difficulties, encountered amid storms and " mountains of 
floating ice on every side," the loss of some vessels, and the deser- 
tion of others, they reached the northern Potosi, and the ships were 
well laden with the black earth ; but the colonists, being disheartened 
by their hardships, declined settling on the coast, and all returned 
to England. We are not informed of the value of the proceeds of 
the cargo. 

While the British queen and her merchants were indulging 
themselves in fancies as brilliant and as evanescent as the icebergs 
which encumbered the scene of the delusion, Sir Humphrey Gilbert, 
a man of insuperable energy and fearless enterprise, formed a design 
of promoting the fisheries, and engaging in useful colonization. 



OL'TLINE HISTORY. 



17 



With this view he obtained a patent of the same character with 
Y , , , most of those which w(Te grant(>d to tlie i^irly pro- 
June , Di • ,-,-jQ|;(.j.^ of colonization in America, confcrriii;;^ un- 
bounded privileges upon the proprietor, and guarantying no 
rights to the colonists. The first expedition, in which Gilbert had 
j^pyo expended much of his private fortune, failed, — from what 

■ cause is uncertain. 

The second expedition, undertaken four years afterwards, was 
1583 ^^^'^ more unfortunate ; for it lost to the world the gallant 

■ and accomplished projector of the expedition. Five vessels 
sailed from Plymouth on Tuesday, the 11th of .June, 1583. Two 
davs afterward, the vice-admiral complained of sickness aboard, 
and returned with the finest ship in the fieet to Plymouth. The 
admiral, nevertheless, continued his course with his little squadron, 
and took possession, with the feudal ceremony, of Newfoundland, 
to be held by him as a fief of the crown of England, in accordance 
with the terms of his charter. 

The looseness of morals displayed by the mariners of that day 
is truly disgusting, and increases our wonder at the daring of men 
who could venture so far from home, in such frail barks, with 
almost a certainty of encountering on the great highway, in their 
fellow-men, greater perils than were presented by all the terrors 
of the deep. Robbery by sea was too common, and often com- 
mitted in violation of the most sacred obligations, even upon per- 
sons engaged in the very act of relieving the distress of the depre- 
dators.* Gilbert seems to have been cursed with a remarkably 
riotous and insubordinate company. The sick and disaffected 
were left at Newfoundland to be sent home with the Swallow, and 
the admiral proceeded with his three remaining barks. 

On Tuesday the 20th of August they sailed from the harbor of 
St. Johns, and on the 29th, in about latitude 44 degrees, the largest 
remaining vessel, by the carelessness of the crew, struck, and went 
to pieces, and the other barks were forced by a high sea and a lee 
shore to struggle for their own preservation, which they accom- 
plished with difficulty, — alleging, at the same time, that they could 
see none of the crew of the wreck floating upon timbers, but all 
seemed to have gone down when the ship broke up. A few, how- 
ever, escaped to Newfoundland in the ship's pinnace, as was after- 
wards discovered. 

This calamity, followed by continual storms, in an unknown and 
shoaly sea, enhanced by an extreme scantiness of provisions, and 
want of clothes and comforts in the two little barks which yet 
Au 31 induced the admiral, at the earnest solicita- 

^* ' tion of his men. to retuin homeward. Sir Humphrey 
Gilbert was vehemently pei'suaded by the crew of the Golden Hind 
to remain with them during the voyage ; but, as some malicious 
taunts had been thrown out by some evil-disposed person, accusing 

* See a remarkable instance in Hacklvt, vol. HI., 191, 196, &c. 

3 



18 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



him of being afraid of the sea, he chose to continue to sail in his 
little pinnace, the Squirrel, which was burdened beyond her 
strength. 

After the vessels had left the Azores to the south, and reached 
the latitude of England, they encountered violent and continued 
storms. On Monda}', the 9th of September, the Squirrel w^as nearly 
cast away, but recovered, and the admiral was seen sitting abaft 
with a book in his hand, and heard to cry out to those in the Hind, 
" We are as near to heaven by sea as by land." That same night, 
at 12 o'clock, the Squirrel being in advance, her light suddenly 
disappeared, and her hardy crew, with their gallant commander, 
Se t 22 ^^^'^^P ^'O'^^^^^^^ deep. The Hind reached Falmouth 

P ' 'in safety, but after encountering eminent peril to the last 
moment.* 

The daring spirit of the mariners of that dary is amazing. Sir 

Walter Raleigh, the step-brother of Sir Humphrey Gilbert, so far 

from being intimidated by the melancholy fate of his relative, or 

disheartened by the unprofitable and disastrous termination of 

T\T i„ r»r 1 r a a most of thc vovagcs to America, undertook in the 
March 25, 1584. , - ° j-*- ^ +1, c ^i. 

' very next year an expedition to the coast 01 the 

present United States. He easily obtained one of the usual un- 
limited patents from Elizabeth, and, leaving the cold north, with 
its barren snows, its storms, icebergs, and certain evils, together 
with its imaginary wealth, he spread his sails for the sweet south, 
where he was sure to find a fertile soil and a delightful climate, 
though his ship's company might not all be enriched by the dis- 
covery of gold. 

On the second of July they found shoal water, " and smelt so 
sweet and strong a smell, as if they had been in the midst of 
some delicate garden abounding with all kinds of odoriferous 
flowers." 

On the 13th they entered Ocracock inlet, on the coast of the 
present state of North Carolina, and landed on Wocoken Island. 
They commenced an intercourse with the natives, who proved to 
be bold, confiding, intelligent, and honorable to their friends, but 
treacherous, revengeful, and cruel towards their enemies. 

The English explored a little the surrounding islands and bays, 
and returned home in September, carrying with them two natives, 
Manteo and Wanchese. The glowing description given by the 
adventurers, on their return, of the beauty of the country, the fer- 
tility of the soil, and pleasantness of the climate, delighted the 
queen, and induced her to name the country of which she had 
taken possession, Virginia, in commemoration of her unmarried 
life. 

It might be expected that so favorable an account would soon 
j^Q^ lead to a new expedition. Accordingly, another was pre- 
pared for the succeeding year, consisting of seven vessels. 

* Hacklyt, III., 184 to 202 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



19 



Ralph Lane was appointed by Ralcif^h governor of the colony, 
which consisted of one hundred and eight persons. Sir Richard 
Grenville took command of the (leet, and several learned and 
accomplished men attended the expedition, one of whom has trans- 
mitted to posterity many interesting particuhirs of the nature of 
the country, and the habits, manners, and government of its in- 
habitants. 

The English soon began to maltreat the harmless, unpretending, 
J 1 ' 11 1'8G ^^^^ simple natives, and they, on the other hand, to 
^ ^ ' ^ • gi'ow jealous of the power of the overbearing 
strangers. They soon learned the inordinate passion of the new- 
comers for gold, and, taking advantage of their credulity, inflicted 
upon them the labor of many fruitless expeditions in search of 
pretended mines, — hoping at the same time, by these divisions, to 
weaken the power of the little colony to such a degree that they 
might be able to destroy it in detachment ; but the English were 
too cautious for this, and went too short a distance, and in force 
too powerful for the Indians to encounter with the great disparity 
of arms. The greatest advantage which accrued from these expe- 
ditions, and indeed from the whole attempt at a settlement, was 
the discovery of Chesapeake Bay. 

The little colony, finding no gold, and receiving no supplies from 
England, had begun to despond, when most unexpectedly Sir 
Francis Drake arrived, on his return from his expedition against 
the Spaniards in South America, with a fleet of three and twenty 
ships. The sagacity of Drake perceived in a moment what was 
necessary for the colony, and his generosity supplied them with 
provisions, vessels, and other things necessary to maintain their 
position, extend their researches, and, if necessary, to return to 
England ; but the accomplishment of his purpose was defeated by 
a violent storm which suddenly arose, and nearly wrecked his 
whole fleet, driving the vessel of provisions intended for the colony 
to sea, and destroying the vessels which had been set apart to be 
left for their use. He would have supplied others ; but the colony, 
June 19 ^^'^^^^ their governor at their head, earnestly requesting 
permission to return to England, he complied with their 
wishes. Thus terminated the first English settlement in America. 

This little colony, during its sojourn with the Indians, had ac- 
quired something of their fondness for the use of tobacco, and 
learned to regard it with almost the same superstitious reverence, 
as a powerful medicinal agent. I'pon their return, they introduced 
the use of this plant into England ; and a weed at fiist disgusting 
and nauseating to all who use it, has become gradually the favor- 
ite luxury (and indeed with many a necessary of life) of all classes 
of society, and of both the young and the old throughout the world, 
— and this, after experience has proved that in most cases it is an 
injury rather than a benefit to the health. 

A few days after Lane's departure, an English vessel arrived on 
the coast with every necessary for the colony, but finding it do- 



20 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



serted, returned home. Sir Richard Grenville arrived soon after 
with three ships, well furnished with stores for the colony ; but not 
finding it, he also returned, leaving fifteen men on Roanoke Island, 
to keep possession in the name of Great Britain. 

The genius of Sir Walter Raleigh was not of a nature to suc- 
j^Q^ cumb to slight failures, or ordinary difficulties. The suc- 
ceeding year another colony was dispatched to settle in 
Virginia ; and that they might consider their settlement perma- 
nent, and Virginia their home, many persons with wives and fami- 
lies were sent. 

j^^^ ^ A charter of incorporation was granted for a town, to be 
called the City of Raleigh, a name revived in after times 
in the present metropolis of North Carolina. John White was 
appointed governor, and, with eleven assistants, constituted the 
administration for the control of the colony. Ample provision was 
made by the noble and liberal proprietor for the comfort of the 
colonists, and a plentiful stock of instruments of husbandry pro- 
vided, to enable them to supply their own future wants, and estab- 
lish themselves on the only footing which could possibly be expected 
to be permanent. 

A ril 26 '^'^^ company embarked in April, and arrived in July 
P ^ 'at the place where they expected to find the fifteen un- 
fortunate men whom Grenville had left. But their grounds were 
grown up in weeds, their tenantless dwellings had become the 
abode of the wild animals of the forest, and their scattered bones, 
blanching in the sun, were the last sad memorials which told their 
fate to their anxious countrymen. Whether they fell by civil dis- 
sensions among themselves, by famine or disease, or were yet more 
miserably cut oft^ by the overpowering numbers of a savage host, 
taking advantage of their desolate situation, (deprived of sympa- 
thy, and destitute of the hope of succor,) is one of the mysteries 
of history which the ken of man may not unravel. 

The sagacity of Raleigh had directed the new^ settlement to be 
made on the shores of the magnificent Chesapeake, and there was 
the new city to be built ; but the naval officer, preferring trade 
Julv 23 ^^'^ West Indies to exploring the coast, left White on 
^ ' Roanoke Island, and compelled him to establish himself 
there. 

The colony soon became involved in difficulties with the natives, 
Jul ^ 28 P^^'^^y from accident, and partly from the previously en- 
^ * gendered hostility of some of the tribes. Indeed, it would 
seem impossible a priori, (even if we had not, unfortunately, too 
much experience of the fact,) that two nations of such different 
degrees of civilization, manners, and habits, with such difl^erent 
designs, could long remain together in peace, harmony, and on the 
footing of equals. It would seem to be the nature of man that the 
ignorant tribe should be jealous, treacherous, and vindictive, — that 
the more civilized should be greedy, rapacious, and overbearing. 
And when a spirit of suspicion is once excited, the imprudence of 




< APIAIN JUHN SMITH. 
Krom a fKirlrHil ^-tiouiit;: i.iin in the fushionalil'- dress ot in«- \>vnod lu wlwli lif Ined, 



I 



OITLINE IlISTilRY. 



21 



a single individual too often- involves in a quarrel all of the citizens 
of the little communities : nothing is extenuated, and nothing is 
attributed to accident ; but suspicion in the injured party supplies 
the place of malice in the aggressor. These dilllculties made the 
colonists feel more anxiously their dependence upon England, and 
forced upon them a melancholy foreboding, that without fre(}uent 
and elfectual assistance from the mother country, thry could not 
long sustain themselves in a strange and distant land, the naiives 
of which had become bitterly hostile. Under this impression, 
W'hen their last ship was about to depart from England, they forced 
their reluctant governor, by excessive importunity, to desert his 
charge, in order that he might lend his personal aid and influence 
Auo- 27 ^^"ding them succor from home. He sailed with the 
°* ' ship, but not until after his daughter, Eleanor Dare, the 
wife of one of the assistant governors, had presented him with the 
Auf^ 18 ^^^^ '^vhite child born on the continent of North America. 

®' ' This child was christened Virginia Dare, and, with her 
mother, w^as esteemed a sufficient pledge of the exertions of the 
governor in aid of the colony, and of his speedy return. 

White found all England engaged in anxious preparation to 
j^gg meet the threatened Spanish invasion, but this did not pre- 
vent the generous Raleigh from dispatching him with two 
ships of supplies for the relief of the colony. But the spirit of 
gain overcame the spirit of humanity, and even the tender ties of 
A ril 22 P^^^^^^^^ affection : instead of going at once to the colo- 

" * ny, he employed himself in takino: Spanish prizes, and 
was at last himself overcome and rifled, which compelled him to 
return to England, much to the chagrin of the noble proprietor, 
and probably the destruction of the neglected colony. 

The Invincible Armada of Spain had to be overcome, and the 
safety of England herself to be secured, before another eflbrt 
could be made to succor the little colony at Roanoke ; and when 
this was accomplished, leisure found the noble patron of the en- 
terprise too much impoverished by his previous unprofitable exer- 
tions to fit out, at his own expense, another expedition. He was 
obliged to assign an extensive portion of his powers to a company 
of merchants and others who might carry his schemes into execu- 
tion ; but with his protuse liberality, the active spring wiiich had 
quickened previous expeditions was gone, the spirit of gain rather 
than of glory presided over the destinies of infant America, and it 
1590 ^^'^^ until another year had elapsed, that White was 
sent in quest of his subjects and his daughter. 

When he arrived the colony was gone ; an inscription on the 
bark of a tree, indicating Croatan as the place whither they had 
gone, was the last record of their existence seen by a civilized eye. 
Conjecture has pointed to an amalgamation with the tribe of Hat- 
teras Indians as the history of their destiny, and old Indian tradi- 
tions and the physical characteristics of that tribe are said 
to confirm the idea ; but while humanity may indulge a hope, 



22 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



credulity itself must entertain a doubt of the truth of the hy- 
pothesis. 

White returned to England as soon as he found out that the 
colony was gone, and Raleigh is said to have sent five several 
times in vain, to search for his liege-men, but no tidings were ever 
received of their existence or their fate. Thus terminated the 
attempts at settlement on the coast of North Carolina, then called 
Virginia ; the scene next opens upon the broad bosom of the 
" mother of the waters."* 



CHAPTER II. 

SETTLEMENT AT JAMESTOWN SUFFERINGS OF THE COLONISTS ADVEN- 
TURES OF SMITH. 

New Company raised — its charter. — Jamestown. — Machinations against Smith. — Dif- 
ficulties of the colony. — Smith taken prisoner — his release. — Arrival of Newport. — 
Discovery of earthbelieved to be gold. — Departure of Newport. — Survey of the Chesa- 
peake and its waters by Smith. — Smith made president. — Second arrival of Newport. — 
Judicious conduct of Smith. — New charter. — New arrival of emigrants. — Badness of 
the selection. — New settlements. — Accident to Smith — his departure — his character. 

We have now approached the period in which the British were 
destined to make a permanent settlement in America. England 
already possessed a population considered redundant, in conse- 
quence of the inadequate means of support afforded by her limited 
commerce and inefficient agriculture. The pacific and timid 
character of James I. threw out of employment many of the brave 
spirits who had served under Elizabeth, and left them the choice 
of only two means of acquiring wealth or distinction, — and these 
were either to draw a mercenary sword in the quarrels of stran- 
gers, or to serve their king and country by transplanting their 
energy and enterprise to a new world. 

Bartholomew Gosnold chose the latter. He was a person of 
rank and intelligence, and had already acquired distinction by his 
courage and skill in arms. He solicited his friends for aid for 
many years in vain, but at length attracted the attention of the 
distinguished adventurer Capt. John Smith, , Edward Maria Wing- 
field, a merchant, and Robert Hunt, a clergyman, who, after tak- 
ing a year for reflection, entered zealously into his projects. 

Nothing, however, could be effected until persons of wealth and 
distinction could be found to patronise by their favor and aid by 



* This is the translation usually given of the Indian name " Chesapeake," but Chilly 
Mcintosh, the celebrated Georgia Creek chief, now removed v^^est of the Mississippi, 
with his tribe, told the writer another meaning, which he said was the true one, but 
which the writer has forgotten ; but which was, however, not so unlike the one given 
above but that the same word might well convey the two different impressions, in dif 
rent idioms of the same language. 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



23 



their capital the enthusiasm of the adventurers. Sir Ferdinand 
Gorges, a man of wealth, rank, and influence, had be(>n informing 
himself, by conversation with several American Indians \vho had 
been carried to England by previous voyages, and by every other 
means in his power, of the nature of the country; and from the 
information he obtained became exceedingly anxious to possess a 
domain on the western side of the Atlantic, lie persuaded Sir 
John Popham, lord chief-justice of England, to unite in his views. 
Richard Hacklyt, the distinguished compiler of narratives of mari- 
time adventures, and one of the assignees of Raleigh, had not yet 
relinquished his hopes of a permanent settlement in America, not- 
withstanding the frequent previous discouraging failures, and 
cheerfully joined in this new scheme of American colonization. 
The exertions of these energetic and distinguished individuals 
speedily raised a company, and procured a charter from King 
James. 

As this was the first charter under which a permanent settlement was made, it may 
be worth attention to notice some of its prominent features. The charter bears date on 
the tcntli of April, sixteen hundred and six.* It grants all the country from four-and- 
thirty to five-and-forty degrees of north latitude, and all islands witliin one lumdred 
miles of the coast. This immense extent of country was divided by the charter between 
two companies, for the more speedy accomplishment of their purpose, — which have been 
ever since designated as the London and the Plymouth companies. The London com- 
pany wished to estabhsh a colony between the 34th and 41st degrees of latitud»% and 
the Plymouth between the 38th and 4')th, and the grants were made in conformity to 
their wishes. But as there was room for collision between the 38th and 41st degrees of 
latitude, the colony which first settled was to possess the land for fifty miles north and 
south of its location, and the other colony was forbidden to settle within one hundred 
miles of the colony first planted. Each of the colonies was to be governed bv a council 
of thirteen! persons, under the management and direction of a council of thirteen in 
England, which was to regulate both colonies. The council in the colonics were to 
govern according to laws, ordinances, and instructions prescribed by the king himself. 
The colonies had full power given to search for and work mines, paying to the king a 
fifth part of the gold and silver obtained, and a fifteenth of the copper ; and they were 
further allowed to coin money to pass current in the colonies. They were also empow- 
ered to levy a duty of two and a half per cent, upon the property of the king's subjects 
trading within their limits, and five per cent, upon all others so trading, for the use of the 
colony for twenty-one years, and afterwards for the use of the king. 

Certain articles of necessity were allowed to be carried to the colonies from any part 
of the king's dominions free of duty for the first seven years ; and the colonists and 
their descendants were to have forever the privileges, franchises, and immunities of 
native-born Englishmen. 

The English council was to have power to name the persons who were to compose 
the colonial council, and the latter elected their own president, and supplied vacancies 
in their own body. The religion of the church of England was established ; lands were 
to de^scend as at common law ; manslaughter, adultery, and dangerous tumults and 
seditions, were to be punished with death. The })resident and council constituted the 
supreme tribunal in all cases. The property of the colonists was to continue in joint 
stock for five years. 

One hundred and nine years from the discovery of the xCorth 
Dec 19 160G -^"^^''^^^^ continent by Cabot, three small vessels, 
' * whose joint tonnage amounted to only one hundred 

* See this charter preserved in Stith, — Ucnning's Stat, at Large, p. 60, and in T. 
Rynier. 

t It appears afterwards that only seven were appointed ; no reason is assigned for 
the change. 



24 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



and sixty tons burden, sailed for the coast of Virginia with a 
colony of one hundred and five men. They were detained for six 
weeks in sight of England by adverse winds. The voyage was 
prosecuted under the command of Captain Newport, who sailed 
by the old route of the Canaries and the West India islands ; thus 
consuming the valuable time and provisions of the colonists, in a 
voyage unnecessarily long and circuitous. He did not arrive in 
the Chesapeake until the 26th of April. 

Dissensions had sprung up in the course of the voyage, which 
there was no- competent authority to quell, as the absurd affecta- 
tion of diplomatic mystery on the part of King James had sealed 
up his instructions, and the names of those who were to constitute 
the council, in a box which was not to be opened until after they 
arrived in, Virginia. 

The southern cape of the Chesapeake received the name of 
Henry, and the northern that of Charles, after the names of the 
sons of James. After landing on Cape Henry, the box of instruc- 
tions was opened, and ^mith* was found to be named as one of 
the council, but he was excluded by the jealous malignity of the 
rest. Wingfield was chosen president. 

Soon alter passing the capes, they reached the mouth of a large 
and beautilul river, which they named after their sovereign James, 
but which the natives called Powhatan. About fifty miles from 
the mouth of this river, the}^ selected a spot for their settlement, 
Ma ^13 which they gave the name of James Town. There 
^ * could not, perhaps, be a company more unfitted for the 
duty which it had to perform, than that which now commenced 
the foundation of the British empire in America. The colonists 
were in a wilderness, surrounded by savages, without a fortifica- 
tion to repel their incursions, possessed of a scanty supply of pro- 
visions, without means of planting, — and without a habitation to 
protect them from the weather, save such as they might them- 
selves erect ; yet in the whole company there were but four car- 
penters, and twelve laborers, to fifty-four gentlemen. At first, how- 
ever, this rare collection of pioneers fell to work with spirit, each 
to his appropriate duty. The president, who seems to have been 
a very weak man, and ill-suited for his station, was too jealous of 
his own men to allow exercises at arms, or a fortification to be 
erected ; and the only protection provided, was a sort of half- 
moon formed of the boughs of trees, by the exertions of Kendall. 
Newport, Smith, and twenty others were sent to discover the head 
of the river. In six days they arrived at a town called Powhatan, 
belonging to King Powhatan, situated at the falls of the river, 
near the site of the present city of Richmond. They were kindly 
treated by the Indians. When the expedition returned, they found 
that Jamestown had been attacked by the savages, and seventeen 



* The council named, was Bart. Gosnold, John Smith, Edward Wingfield, Christo- 
pher Newport, .lohn Ratcliffe, John Martin, and George Kendall. 



OUTLINE insTORY. 



25 



men wounded, and a boy killed. They were attacked while at 
work, and tlieir arms out of order; so that the whole were only 
saved from destruction by the timely aid of the vessels. After this 
experience of his folly, the president permitted the place to be 
fortified ; and the labor necessary to effect this, with so small a 
force, while it was necessary, at the same time, to guard their 
workmen by day, to watch by night, to prepare ground lor corn, 
and lumber to relade the ships, may be better conceived than de- 
scribed. After a stay of six weeks, Newport prepared to depart, 
and the council affecting a tender regard for the character of Smith, 
whom ihey had falsely accused of a treacherous design to usurp 
royal authority in the colony, and kept out of his seat in the council 
under these charges, now proposed, that he might not be utterly 
ruined by a trial, to send him home to the council, to be disposed of 
as they might think proper. But Smith, conscious of innocence of 
the absurd charge, boldly defied them, and demanded a trial. His 
accusers suborned witnesses, who, instead of answering the expec- 
tations of their employers, only exposed the subornation. The 
company were so incensed at the infamous conduct of his accu- 
sers, that they condemned the president to pay him £200, which, 
when received, he generously threw into the common stock. 
Newport sailed on the 15th of June, leaving one hundred men in 
Virginia. 

The condition of the men tlius left, was the most melancholy that can well be im- 
afrined. They consisted, for the most part, of men entirely unused to labor or hard- 
ship ; who were doomed to encounter every kind of dit^iciilty, in the midst of sununcr, 
in a hot and sickly climate. In ten days from the departure of Newport, scarce ten 
men could stand, from sickness and weakness. The food was scanty in quantity, and 
of the most unwholesome quality. The allowance of each man was half a pint of 
wheat, and as much barley, boiled in water, which was served out from a common 
kettle, and which having been clo.sely stowed in the ship's hold for twenty-six weeks, 
in a warm and moist atmosphere, was reduced to a condition any thinor but tempting'. 
Smith, the narrator of these sufferings, humorously remarks : " If we had been as free 
from all sins, as from gluttony and drunkenness, we might have been canonized for 
saints." As might be supposed in such an unfortunate state of affairs, great mortality 
prevailed, and fifty were buried between May and Sej)tember ; and thosp that survived 
relied principally for their subsistence upon sturgeon and sea-crabs. The suffering, in 
this state of atfairs, must have been greatly aggravated by the knowledge that the 
president was indulging himself in every luxury which the .stores atlbrded — and his de- 
tection in an attempt to escape in the pinnace, from the sufilring colony. This last 
act of treachery was more than the little colony could endure ; and weak as it was, it 
deposed him, and Kendall, his accomplice. RatclitVe was made president. The coun- 
cil do not seem to have exercised the power granted them in their charter, of filling up 
vacancies, and it was now reduced to three — Rutdiffe, Smith, and Mfirtin ; Gostiold 
had perished, Newport sailed for England, and Wingfield and Kendall had been 
deposed. 

The president and Martin being unpopular men, and very defi- 
cient in judgment and energy, committed the control of affairs 
nearly entirely to Smith, who, by his example and his skill in 
managing men, speedily reduced affairs to order, induced the men 
to work, and provided comfortable habitations. His next object 
was to obtain a supply of corn for the immediate necessity of the 
people, which he did elfectuallv, by frightening the people of 

4 



26 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



Kecoughtan, an Indian village, situated near the site of the present 
town of Hampton — after first trying every means to purchase 
their provision. Smith now constituted the only hope, not only for 
the existence of the colony, as such, but for the lives of the in- 
dividuals of whom it consisted. Their recent wretchedness was 
not a sufficient warning to them to preserve order, and to husband 
their resources with prudence, now that plenty was provided ; but 
they lived as wastefully as if they had boundless magazines at 
command. Smith, seeing this, caused the pinnace to be fitted up 
for a cruise ; and, in the mean time, availed himself of the oppor- 
tunity to become acquainted with the country lying on the 
Chickahominy. 

During one of these temporary absences of Smith, Wingfield 
and Kendall, who had lived in disgrace since^they were deposed, 
laid a plot to carry off" the pinnace to England, which the fortu- 
nate return of Smith, before they had time to efl^ect their purpose, 
prevented. But not even then were they defeated without firing 
on the pinnace, by which means Kendall lost his life. 

Smith having gained possession of the pinnace, ascended the 
Chickahominy, and procured an abundance of corn. Winter com- 
ing on soon after, afforded an amply supply of game and wild fowl, 
so that plenty was once more restored, and thought no longer en- 
tertained of going to England. 

Little souls cannot look upon the greatest exploits of nobler 
creatures, without suffering a captious and jealous malignity to 
detract from their merit. The very beings whom Smith had pre- 
served by his good conduct, now murmured against him their 
absurd complaints — because he had not discovered the head of the 
Chickahominy, although he had returned only to supply them with 
food. His spirit could not brook reproach, how^ever undeserved, 
for any thing w^hich was yet possible to be accomplished. He 
again ascended the Chickahominy as far as was practicable in the 
pinnace, and leaving it in a position which he supposed to be safe, 
he advanced yet higher, with two whites and two Indians, in a 
canoe. He left his men with his little boat, and taking only his 
Indian guide, advanced into the forest with his gun to procure 
them provision. Unfortunately, in disobedience to his orders, the 
men in the pinnace went ashore, and one of them was taken by 
the Indians, who learned from their prisoner whither the captain 
had gone. The savages pursued him, and slew the men left with 
the canoe while they slept. They next sought Smith, but found 
him no easy prey ; for, tying his guide to his arm as a buckler to 
keep off" their arrows, he defended himself so gallantly that they 
dared not approach him, until, falling accidentally into a marsh, he 
was at length forced by cold and fatigue to surrender. The sav- 
ages conducted him to their chief, Opechankanough, king of 
Pamunkee. Smith endeavored to impress the king with a high 
idea of his powers, by presenting him with a mariner's compass, 
explaining its uses, and instructing him in the rudiments of astron- 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



27 



omy, by explaining the motion of the earth, its shape, and the 
motion of the sun, moon, and planets; truths wliich it is dillicult 
to believe he could make the savage comprehend, especially as he 
had but liitle knowledge of their language. It is more probable 
that the king was pleased with the ivory case of th(i compass, and 
the mysterious play of the needle, which he could see but not 
touch, and which moved without an apparent cause. Accord- 
ingly, we lind when his men had tied Smith to a tree and were 
about to slay him, the king did not att(;mpt to prevent it by 
explaining the motion of the earth around the sun, but merely held 
up the compass, the sight of which seems to have been sullicient 
to disarm their wrath. 

For six or seven weeks Smith w^as led about in triumph by 
these simple people, and exhibited to the tribes between the James 
and Potomac rivers, during the whole of which time he w^as in 
hourly apprehension of being put to death ; but was generally 
well treated, and provided with most of the luxuries which their 
simple state afforded. At length he was brought before their em- 
peror, Powhatan, who received him with all the formal pomp and 
state known to his savage court. A long consultation was held 
by the' council there assembled, upon the disposition to be made 
of him, which terminated unfavorably. He was seized by a num- 
ber of the savages, and his head laid upon two great stones which 
had been brought th(M-e for the purpose. His executioners had 
already raised their clubs to dash out his brains, and thus at once 
end his toil and difficulties, and cut olf the only hope of the colony, 
when an advocate appeared, as unexpected as would have been 
the appearance of an angel sent immediately from heaven to ask 
his release. This was Pocahontas, the emperor's favorite daugh- 
ter, who generously stepped Ibrth and entreated, with tears, that 
Smith might be spared. And when she Ibund this unavailing with 
the inexorable judges, she seized his head, and placed it under her 
own, to protect it from the blows. This sight so moved Powhatan, 
that he permitted Smith to live, intending to retain him to make 
trinkets and utensils lor his family and himself. But a few days 
afterwards Powhatan told him they would be friends again, and 
sent him back to Jamestown, with an oiler ol' a large district of 
country in exchange for two great guns and a grindstone ; but the 
party who were to carry these things found them so heavy, and 
were so much terrified by the efiect of the guns, when discharged 
at a tree, that they were well satisfied to return without them, 
having received a few paltry baubles and ti inkets. Smith's return 
again prevented a party from runnin<i: off with the pinnace; which 
so incensed them that they laid a plot to slay him, by a mock trial 
for the death of the two men he had left in the canoe, and who 
were slain by the savages ; but he was too prompt for the conspir- 
ators, whom he seized and kept close prisoners until he had 
an opportunity of sending them to England for trial. The 
colony was now only preserved from perishing by the kind- 



28 OUTLINE HISTORY. 

ness of Pocahontas, who brought ample supplies every four or 
five days. 

During this time the little colony had not been forgotten by the company in England, 
but Newport, soon after his return, was again dispatched, in company with another ves- 
sel, commanded by Francis Nelson, iurnished with all things which could be imagined 
necessary either for the crews or the colonists. Nelson, when in sight of Cape Henry, 
was driven by a storm so far to sea, that he was obliged to land in the West Indies 
to refit and renew his supply of water. Newport arrived without an accident. Before 
the arrival of this supply. Smith had established a regular intercourse with the savages, 
and bought their provisions at moderate prices, which the high estimation in which he 
was held by them, and the awe which his name inspired, enabled him to fix for himself. 
But now the poor colonists were so grateful to the mariners who had come to their re- 
lief, that they were permitted to trade at such prices as they thought proper, by which 
means, it followed, in a short time, that a pound of copper would not purchase what had 
before sold for an ounce. Newport thought proper to pay a visit of ceremony to Pow- 
hatan, who received the party with great dignity and state. During this visit, a 
contest of wits took place between the two parties, in which Powhatan evinced infinitely 
greater diplomatic skill than Captain Newport ; and by working upon his pride, was 
very* near consummating a highly advantageous bargain ; but he in his turn was out- 
witted by the ingenuity of Smith, who, having passed many baubles before his eyes, 
and finding that his attention was attracted by some blue beads, affected to value them 
exceedingly, and 'ntimated that they were not to be worn except by the greatest per- 
sonages. This inflamed the desire of the emperor to such an extent, that he cheerfully 
gave several hundred bushels of corn for a pound or two of these rare jewels, whose 
beautiful color resembled the pure ether of heaven. The same stratagem was afterwards 
played off by Smith, with equal success, upon Opechankanough, king of Pamunkee. 

Unfortunately, when Smith and Newport returned to Jamestown with this new sup- 
ply, and added it to their former store, it took fire and the greater part was consumed, 
together with many of their dry-thatched dwellings, a portion of their palisade fortifica- 
tions, and some of their arms, bedding, and apparel. 

Instead of returning home with all possible expedition, Newport remained fourteen 
weeks in the colony, consuming the precious provisions which should have been applied 
to the support of the unfortunate individuals he was to leave behind him. Unfortu- 
nately, too, he had brought out some gold refiners in his .ship, who having discovered 
a glittering earth near Jamestown, thought it gold; and all hands were diverted from 
their useful toil, for the purpose of lading his ship with this worthless article. To such 
an extent did this mania prevail, that Smith says, " there was no talk, no hope, no work, 
but dig gold, wash gold, refine gold, load gold." Newport, having completed his cargo, 
at length returned home. Soon after his departure, the Phoenix, the vessel of Nelson, 
which had been given up for lost, arrived, with all his men in safety, and a good stock 
of provisions ; which he freely and fairly gave to the colonists to the extent of his 
ability. The next subject for consideration v/as the return cargo ; to obtain which, 
the president wished Smith to examine the commodities to be found in the country above 
the falls ; others wished the lading to be of the same gold with which Newport was 
freighted ; but Smith, more prudent than either, succeeded in loading the Phcenix 
with cedar, which was the first available cargo sent from Virginia to England. 

Smith accompanied the Phoenix, as far as Cape Henry, in a 
June 2 1608 ^"^'^^^ open barge with fourteen men, with which 
' * equipment he proposed to accomplish his long cher- 
ished object of exphiring the Chesapeake and its tributary waters. 
It is not our purpose to follow him through his two wonderful 
voyages, undertaken for this purpose, but we will merely present 
an outline of his course from the pen of an able modern author,* 
from whom we have before quoted. " Two voyages, made in an 
open boat, wilh a few companions, over whom his superior cour- 
age, rather than his station as a magistrate, gave him authority, 



* Bancroft, Hist. U. States, vol I. p. 149 



OUTLINE HISTORV. 



29 



occupied him about three months of the summer, and embraced a 
navigation of nearly three thousand mih's. The sknthM-ncss of 
his means has been contrasted with the difj:nily and uliiily of his 
discoveries, and his name has been placed in the highest nuik with 
the distinguished men who have enlarged the bounds of geograph- 
ical knowledge, and -opened the way by their inves' igations lor 
colonies and commerce. He surveyed the bay of the Chesapeake 
to the Susquehannah, and left oidy the borders of that remote 
river to remain for some years longer the fabled dwelling-place 
of a giant progeny. The Patapsco was discovered and ex})lored, 
and Smith probably entered the harbor of Baltimore. The majestic 
Potomac, which at its mouth is seven miles broad, especially in- 
vited curiosity ; and passing beyond the heights of Mount Vernon 
and the City of Washington, he ascended to the falls above George- 
town. Nor did he merely explore the river and inlers. He pen- 
etrated the territories, established Iriendly relations with the 
native tribes, and laid the Ibundation for future beneficial inter- 
course. The map which he prepared and sent to the company in 
London is still extant, and delineates correctly the great outlines 
of nature. The expedition was worthy the romantic age of 
American history." The map is indeed astonishingly accurate. 
We cannot forbear adding the corroborating testimony of the dis- 
tinguished Robertson* upon this subject, which is also quoted and 
approved by ^Marshall.f "He brought with him an account of 
that large portion of the American continent now comprehended 
in the two provinces of Virginia and ^laryland, so full and exact, 
that after the progress of information and research for a century 
and a half, his map exhibits no inaccurate view of both countries, 
and is the original upon which all subsequent descriptions have 
been formed." 

When Smith returned to Jamestown he found that little had 
Se t 7 1608 ^^^'^ done, and a whole summer, which was a season 
* ' "of plenty, was wasted in idleness by the folly and 
imbecility of the president, whose conduct was so outrageous that 
the company had been at last forced to depose and imprison him. 

Smith was now elected president, and his energetic conduct 

Se t 10 speedily brought affairs into good order, and repaired 
P ' 'as far as possible the injuries occasioned by the mis- 
conduct of his predecessor. 

Soon after Smith's election Newport again arrived, with the 
preposterous order, supposed to have been procured by his own 
representations, not to return without a lump of gold, discovery 
of a passage to the south sea, or one of the lost company sent out 
by Sir Walter Raleigh. He also absurdly brought some costly 
articles for the royal household of Powhatan, which served only to 
inflate the pride, without conciliating the affection of that prince. 
Some Poles and Dutchmen were also brought for the purpose of 

* See Robertson's Hi^t. of Va. p. 71. 

t Marshall's lutroductiou to Life of Washington, p. 41. 



30 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



manufacturing pitch, tar, glass, ashes, &lc., which would have been 
well enough it' the colony had been in a condition always to defy 
famine, but which it was impossible to accomplish now, when 
ever}^ man's exertions were necessary to procure a sufficiency of 
food. Notwithstanding Smith's remonstrances, Newport insisted 
upon his trip of discovery above the falls of James River, for the 
purpose of discovering a route to the south sea, although Powhatan 
had assured them that the story they had heard of there being a 
sea in that direction was utterly false. The party returned, as 
Smith had predicted, disappointed and disheartened. Since this 
project had failed, Smith having first procured a supply of provisions 
which A^ewport and the rest with all their vain boasting and their 
costly presents had failed to do, and knowing that it was as im- 
possible to find a lump of gold, or one of Raleigh's company, as it 
was to find the south sea on James River, set "himself to work to 
supply a cargo of tar, pitch, boards, ashes, and such articles 
as they had it in their power to procure, although with great 
difficulty and labor. So effectually did he exert himself, and so 
much authority had he acquired over the delicate gentlemen under 
his control, whose tender hands blistered with the use of the axe, 
that in a short time he had provided a sufficient cargo for Captain 
Newport, who at length departed, leaving two hundred souls in 
the colony. By the return of the vessel Smith wrote to the coun- 
cil a letter detailing the cause of their mishaps, assuring them that 
they need not expect a sudden acquisition of wealth, and that 
nothing was to be obtained but by labor. He complained of the 
want of judgment and economy in the expenditure for the benefit 
of the colony, which prevented them from reaping an advantage 
of greater value than a hundred pounds judiciously expended 
would purchase, from an actual outlay by the company of two or 
three thousand. He also especially complained of the habits and 
character of the men sent out, and entreated them when the}^ sent 
again, rather to send "but thirty carpenters, husbandmen, garden- 
ers, fishermen, blacksmiths, masons, and diggers up of tree-roots, 
well provided, than a thousand such as they had ; for unless they 
could both lodge and feed them, they would perish with want before 
they could be made good for any thing." 

From the departure of the ship until the next arrival, the men 
1609 ^^^^^ ^^^fy preserved from perishing by the most active and 
unremitting exertions of their president, the detail of 
whose conduct in his intercourse with the savages, and his man- 
agement of the ill-assorted, disorderly, turbulent spirits under his 
control, is one of the most interesting stories in history, and proves 
him to have been a man of extraordinary abilities. 

Although the fond anticipations of the Virginia company had been entirely disap- 
pointed, a spirit seems to have prevailed, which was rather disposed to surmount all 
difficulties by increased exertion, than to succumb to the accumulated misfortunes which 
had already been encountered. 

The company seemed to have perceived their error in expecting a sudden acquisition 



OUTLINE llIt>TURV. 31 

of wealth from their American possessions ; and llic defects in the government cstab- 
Ma '^3 1609 ''^'^^^ ^''^^ ^^^^ charter. To remedy these evils a new charter was 
" ' ' obtained, in which many individuals and corporate bodies were ii\chided, 
of great wealth, power, and reputation. 

By the new charter the power which had before been reserved bv the king was now 
transferred to the company itself; which was to have the power of choosing the supreme 
council in England, and of legislating in all cases for the colony. The powers of the 
governor were enlarged from those of a mere president of the council, to supreme and 
absolute civil and military control ; the instructions and regulations of the supreme 
council being his only guide or check. Tliere can be no doubt but that this was the oidy 
practicable government which could be otfered to a colony in the situation and composed 
of the materials which then existed in Virginia. The members of the council had only 
been so many petty tyrants, — the indolent and weak thwarting the exertions of the 
industrious and intelligent, and the cowardly and factious disputing the authority and 
impugning the motives of such as were brave and honorable. In truth, whenever any 
thing good had thus far been done, it was by the exercise of absolute authority by a mind 
superior to the rest; and whatever had gone wrong, might with truth be attributed almost 
as much to the opposing views of the various members of the council, as to the disposi- 
tion of some to do wrong. 

Lord De La Ware received the appointment of governor for life 
under the new charter, and an avarice which would listen to no 
possibility of defeat, and which already dreamed of a flourishing 
empire in America, surrounded him with stately officers, suited by 
their titles and nominal charges to the dignity of an opulent king- 
dom. The condition of the public mind favored colonization ; 
swarms of people desired to be transported ; and the adventurers 
with cheerful alacrity contributed free-will offerings. The widely 
diffused enthusiasm soon enabled the company to dispatch a fleet 
of nine vessels, containing more than Ave hundred emigrants. 
Newport was made admiral, and was joint commissioner with Sir 
Thomas Gates and Sir George Somers to administer the aflairs of 
the colony until the arrival of the governor. But these three indi- 
viduals, with a ceremonious punctilio characteristic of little minds, 
seeking that distinction from artificial positions in society which 
they cannot obtain by their own merit, could not agree in a con- 
test for precedence, and hence were compelled, as a compromise, 
all to go in the same ship : thus exposing the colony to all the 
danger of anarchy rather than that one should appear by the ship 
he occupied to be a greater man than the other. 

They accordingly embarked with their commission, their direc- 
tions, and much of the provision, in the Sea Venture. When near 
the coast of Virginia they encountered a violent storm which de- 
stroyed one small vessel, and drove the Sea Venture so far to sea 
that she stranded on the rocks of the Bermudas. Seven ships 
arrived in safety. 

When Smith heard of the arrival of this immense fleet, he at first supposed it belonged 
to Spain, and was sent to take possession of the colony ; he accordingly made all things 
ready, with his usual promptness and enercry of character, to give them a warm reception, 
and little fear was entertained of the result. Smith had by this time by his good con- 
duct brought the savages so completely into subjection, by their admiration for his quali- 
ties and fear of his power, that they had become subjects and siTvants. planting and work- 
ing for him as he required ; and now, when it was thought he was about to be attacked 
by the Spaniards, they bnit him all the aid in their power. 

The company in England had not attended to the wise advice of Smith in the selec- 



* 



32 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



tion of their colonists, for it must be remarked that he had no friend at home, while hi's 
enemies were suffered there to make their own representations. In the new batch of 
officers Ratcliffe and Archer were sent back, who had been sent home in disgrace for 
their idle, dissolute, and mutinous conduct. They prejudiced the minds of the other 
officers so much against Smith, on the voyage, that they hated him mortally before they 
Kad seen him. The historian of the times regrets that the fleet was not composed of 
Spaniards instead of Englishmen, and thinks it would have been better for the colony. 

The newly-imported " unruly gallants, packed hither by their friends to escape 
ill destinies," taking sides with Ratcliffe, Archer, and their confederates against the 
president, whose commission they affected to consider as having been superseded by the 
new commission, conducted themselves very riotously, and refused to remain in subor- 
dination to any authority. Smith bore this for some time patiently, expecting every 
moment the arrival of the new commission, and wishing, when that event happened, to 
depart for England, and leave the scene of his great sufferings and glorious exertions ; 
being willing to quit the service of a company, who could so unceremoniously dispense 
with his authority, for the purpose of putting individuals over him who had no claims 
upon them, and who knew nothing of the management of the colony. Fortunately the 
commissioners had been stranded, and did not arrive, and Smith could no longer suffer 
affairs to remain in confusion. After his resolution was taken, he quickly laid by the 
heels the most factious, who had been perpetually plotting his destruction, and engaging 
in all kinds of mischief, until he could have leisure to do them justice. 

The number still remaining at large in Jamestown being too great for that position, 
and more than could be well supported or easily managed, he dispatched West with a 
hundred and twenty of the best men he could select, to form a settlement at the falls ; 
and Martin, with nearly as many more, to Nansemond ; providing them with a fair 
proportion of food and other necessary articles. Martin managed badly ; his jealous 
fears induced him to attack the savages in his neighborhood, who had treated him 
well, and take possession of a large quantity of their corn and other property — while 
his cowardly caution or criminal tenderness permitted them to rally, and in their turn 
attack his men with impunity, to kill and wound several, and retake all they had lost. 
He sent to Jamestown for a reinforcement, which he did not employ when he received, 
but hastened thither himself, cowering under the protection of Smith's prowess, and 
leaving his men to their fate. 

The president set out for the falls, a few days after West had 
departed, and found that he had located himself in an exceedingly 
inconvenient station, subject to inundation, and surrounded by 
other intolerable inconveniences. He offered a fair proposition to 
Powhatan, for the purchase of his place called Powhatan, which 
he was willing to accept ; but the disorderly spirits he had sent 
thither, who were dreaming that the country immediately above 
them was full of gold, to which they wished no one to have access 
but themselves, refused the place or to ratify the contract, despis- 
ing alike his kindness and his authority. The president, with his 
five men, went boldly among them, and seized the ringleaders of 
the mutiny ; but the whole number of a hundred and twenty 
gathering in upon him, forced him to retire, but not without seiz- 
ing one of their boats, with which he took possession of the ship, 
in which their provision was lodged. Fortunately for Smith, he 
was sustained by the mariners, who had learned his character 
from his old soldiers and their own observations of his conduct, 
as well as by several of the officers, who had learned the error 
of their first prejudices, deserted his adversaries, and become his 
firm friends. The Indians came to Smith, whom they considered 
as their friend and protector, complaining bitterly of the maltreat- 
ment of the party at the falls, stating that they were worse than 
their old enemies the Monocans, from whom it was the duty of the 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



33 



party to protect them ; and seeing their turbuU^nt disobedience, 
they offered their aid to chastise them. Smith remained nine 
days longer trying to heal these differences, and to convince them 
of the absurdity of their "gilded hopes of the South sea mines." 
But finding all in vain, he set out for Jamestown. Such vision- 
ary and disorderly persons were the first civilized inhabitants of 
the present polished, intelligent, and hospitable city of llichmond. 
No sooner was Smith's voyage commenced down the river, than 
the savages attacked those he left behind him, and slew many, 
and so frightened the rest, that they suffered the prisoners they 
held in custody to escape. The terrified wretches fled for safety 
to Smith, whose ship had grounded, and submitted, without stipu- 
lation, to his mercy. He seized six or seven of the ringleaders, 
and imprisoned them ; the rest he placed in the savage fort Pow- 
hatan, which from the beauty of its position, the excellence of its 
houses and fortifications, and other advantages, was called Non- 
such. He also satisfied the savages. This fair prospect was 
again marred by the imbecility of West, who listened to the deceit- 
ful tales and whining entreaties of the prisoners, and released 
them, which again threw all things into disorder ; the evil dis- 
posed being the more encouraged in their mutinous conduct now, 
by the possession of their provisions and stores, which had been 
returned to them at the time of their previous submission. They 
abandoned Non-such, and returned to their former inconvenient 
station at West's fort. Smith, finding it impossible to restore tran- 
quillity, again set sail down the river. 

In his progress an unfortunate accident occurred, which deprived 
the colony of his services, and was near depriving him of life. 
His powder-bag accidentally exploded while he was sleeping, 
and tore the flesh from his body and thighs in a horrible manner. 
The pain was so acute that he threw himself into the river to cool 
the burning sensation, and was near drowning before he could be 
recovered. He had yet to go nearly one hundred miles in this 
situation, before he could reach a surgeon, or have any soothing 
application applied to his wound. 

When he returned to Jamestown, the time for the trial of Rat- 
cliffe and Archer was approaching, and these worthies, fearing the 
result, hired an assassin to murder him in his bed, but the heart 
of the wretch failed him ere he could fire the fatal shot. Failing 
in this, their next hope was to save their lives, by possessing them- 
selves of the government ; but in this they were disappointed by 
Smith, who, having in vain urged all those he thought most 
worthy to accept the presidency, resigned it to Mr. Percy, who 
was about to sail for England, but was induced to stay under the 
present embarrassing circumstances, to prevent the supreme con- 
trol of the colony from falling into the hands of the miscreants 
who aspired to it. 

Smith, finding himself disabled by his wound, the pain of which 
almost deprived him of his reason, and seeing that there was not 

5 



34 OUTLINE HISTORY. 

sufficient surgical skill in the colony to restore him, determined to 
depart for England. He well knew that, in his disabled state, the 
colony was no place for him ; for it had required his utmost exertion 
in health to suppress faction at home, keep the Indians in awe, and, 
by the most unceasing activity, supply the colony with provision. 
He departed under the most mortifying circumstances ; " his com- 
mission was suppressed, he knew not why — himself and soldiers 
to be rewarded, he knew not how — and a new commission granted, 
they knew not to whom." After his determination w^as known, 
the ships, which were to have departed the next day, were retained 
three weeks, while the mutinous captains were perfecting some 
colorable charges to send home against him. Never had the colony 
sustained such a loss. His conduct and his character will be best 
given in the language of those who knew him best. A writer, 
who was with him in his troubles, speaking of the attempt to 
usurp the government immediately before his departure, says : 

" But had that unhappy blast not happened, he would quickly 
have qualified the heat of those humors and factions, had the ships 
but once left them and us to our fortunes ; and have made the 
provision from among the savages, as we neither feared Spaniard, 
savage, nor famine ; nor would have left Virginia nor our lawful 
authority, but at as dear a price as we had bought it and paid for 
it. What shall I say but thus : we left him, that in all his proceed- 
ings, made justice his first guide, and experience his second, even 
hating baseness, sloth, pride, and indignity, more than any danger, 
— that never allowed more for himself, than his soldiers with him 
that upon no danger would send them where he would not lead 
them himself; — that would never see us want what he either had, 
or could by any means get us ; — that would rather want than bor- 
row, or starve than not pay ; — that loved action more than words, 
and hated falsehood and covetousness worse than death ; whose 
adventures were our lives, and whose loss our deaths." 



CHAPTER III. 

PROGRESS OF THE COLONY MASSACRE OF 1622 DISSOLUTION OF THE 

LONDON COMPANY. 

State of the colony at Smithes departure — its conduct and consequent sufferings. — Arri- 
val of Gates — of Lord De La Ware — his departure. — Arrival of Dale. — Martial Law . 
— Gates Governor. — Grants of land to individuals. — New charter. — Marriage of 
Pocahontas. — Friendly relations with the Indians. — Cultivation of Tobacco. — Tenure 
. of lands. — Tyranny of Argall. — Propriety of Reform in the government. — Yeardley 
Governor. — First colonial assembly in 1619. — Introduction of women. — Introduction 
of negroes by the Dutch in 1620. — Constitution brought over by Sir Francis Wyatt. 
— Relations with the Indians. — Massacre of the 22d of March, 1622 — its conse. 
quences. — Struggles between the king and the company. — Coinmissioners seiit to Vir- 
ginia. — Firmness of the Virginians. — Dissolution of the company. 

When Smith left the colony, it contained four hundred and 
ninety odd persons. The harvest was newly gathered, and there 



OUTLINE IirSTORV. 



35 



was provision for ten weeks in tlie stores. The savages were in 
a ^ood state of subjection, and readily yi<'lded at a reasonable price 
whatever they could spare. All things were in such a condition 
that prudent management might have ensured the most brilliant 
success, but the wildest confusion and anarchy prevailed. The 
new president was so ill that he could not attend to business, and 
twenty others endeavored to hold the reins of government. When 
the savages Ibund that Smith was gone, they speedily attacked and 
broke up the establishments at Powhatan and Nansemond, driving 
in the remnant of the men their butcheries lel't, to subsist upon the 
rapidly wasting provisions of Jamestown, llatclilfe with a ves- 
sel and thirty men attempting to trade With Powhatan, was by his 
carelessness cut off, and he himself with all his company perished 
except two, who were saved by the humanity of Pocahontas. 
West with a crew of thirty escaped in a ship to become pirates.* 
The miserable company, now left without control or authority, and 
composed with a few exceptions of "gentlemen, tradesmen, serv- 
ing-men, libertines, and such-like, ten times more fit to spoil a com- 
monwealth, than either begin one, or but help to maintain one," 
now gave free rein to all their evil dispositions. Each one sought 
only to gratify his passions or preserve his own life, without regard 
to the wants or sutferings of the rest. There was no union, no 
concert, no harmony. A'ice stalked abroad in her naked deformity, 
and her handmaids, misery and famine, followed in her train. The 
savages attacked and slew the whites upon every occasion, and 
forming a systematic plan to starve the remainder, they would 
supply no further provisions ; after they had bought every disposa- 
ble article at the I'ort, even to most of their arms, at such a price 
as they chose to exact. The corn was speedily consumed ; next 
followed the domestic animals, poultry, hogs, goats, sheep, and 
finally the horses ; all were consumed, even to their skins. The 
only resource was in roots, acorns, berries, and such other unwhole- 
some stuff as could be found ; nay, so pinching was the hunger, 
that savages who had been slain and buried were disinterred to 
be consumed, and even some of the whites who had perished were 
used to preserve life by the rest. Of nearly five hundred that 
Smith left, in six months only sixty emaciated beings remained 
alive ; and these were without the possibility of support for longer 
than ten days. 

Wlien Gates and Sumner were shipwrecked on the Bermuda rocks, their good man- 
ajrenicnt saved tlie life of every individual, and a lar^e proportion of tlicir provision and 
stores. On this island, although uninhahited, nature was so bountiful, and presented 
spontaneously such a rich variety of productions suitable to the sustenance of nKui,that 
three hundred and fifty men lived in ease and abundance for nearly ten months. The 
disagreeable idea of remaining thus upon an island, cut ofl' from all intercourse with the 
rest of the world, stimulated them to the exertion necessary to build two barks, with 
such rude instruments as they possessed, from the wreck of their old ship and the cedars 
of the island. In these they embarked fpr Virginia, expecting to find, in the comforts 



* Smith in book 4, p. 2, says, "sailed for England." — Bancroft, 156, says, on the 
authority of Stith, " became pirates." 



36 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



and plenty of a flourishing colony, ample solace for all their toils and difficulties. What, 
Ma 23 astonishment, when they reached Jamestown, (after a more 

y ■ prosperous voyage than they could have expected in their crazy vessels,) to 
meet, instead of the warm and joyful welcome of their countrymen, in the full fruition 
of health and plenty, only the greedy cravings of a few miserable wretches, begging for 
a sufficiency of food to preserve their existence. Not anticipating this melancholy situ- 
ation, they had only provided themselves with enough provision for their voyage, and 
were unable to reheve the necessities of their fellow-creatures, whose suffijrings it was 
8o painful to witness. It was impossible, in this situation, to remain longer in the colony. 
All were embarked on board the vessels, Jamestown was abandoned, and it was with 
difficulty that its departing citizens could be prevented from setting fire to the habitations 
in which they had suffi^red so much misery. All the provisions which could be raised 
did not amount to more than would support them for 16 days, at the most limited allow- 
ance ; yet with this they set out with the hope to reach Newfoundland, where they 
expected to be relieved by the British fishing-vessels. 

But although it had been the will of Heaven to permit the colo- 
nists to receive an awful chastisement for their misconduct, yet it 
was not decreed by the Ruler of all human affairs that the colony 
should be entirely abandoned, and so much labor and suffering be 
useless to mankind, or so fine a country left in its original wild 
and unimproved condition. Before Gates and his associates had 
reached the mouth of James River, they were met by Lord De La 
Ware, with three ships, having on board a number of new settlers, 
an ample stock of provisions, and every thing requisite for defence 
or cultivation. By persuasion and authority he prevailed upon 
June 10 1610 ^^^"^ return to Jamestown, where they found 
' ' their fort and houses and magazines in the same 
situation in which they had been left. A society with so bad a 
constitution, and such a weak and disordered frame, required skilful 
and tender nursing to restore it to vigor. Lord De La Ware was 
fully competent to his station. He held a long consultation to 
ascertain the cause of the previous difficulties, and concluded, 
after listening to their mutual accusations, by a speech full of 
wholesome advice, recommending the course they should pursue, 
and assuring them that he should not hesitate to exercise his law- 
ful authority in punishing the insubordinate, dissolute, and idle. 
By unwearied assiduity, by the respect due to an amiable and 
beneficent character, by knowing how to mingle severity with 
indulgence, and when to assume the dignity of his oflice, as well 
as when to display the gentleness natural to his own temper, he 
gradually reconciled men corrupted by anarchy to subordination 
and discipline, he turned the attention of the idle and profligate to 
industry, and taught the Indians again to reverence and dread the 
English name. Under such an administration, the colony began 
March 28 1611 ^"^^ more to assume a promising appearance, 
' * w^hen, unhappily for it, a complication of diseases 
brought on by the climate obliged Lord De La Ware to quit the 
country, the government of which he committed to Mr. Percy. 
The colony at this time consisted of about two hundred men ; but 
the departure of the governor was a disastrous event, which pro- 
duced not only a despondency at Jamestown, but chilled the zeal- 
ous warmth, of the London company, and caused a decided reac- 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



37 



tion in the popular mind in England, which was exhibited in the 
manner in which popular feeling delights to display itself — by- 
exhibiting the Virginia colony as a subject of derision upon the 
stage. 

Before the departure of Lord De La Ware, the company in 
England had dispatched Sir Thomas Dale with supplies ; and it 
Ma ^ 10 ^^'^^ ^^^^^ arrived so soon, for the company were al- 
* ready fast relapsing to their former state of idleness and 
improvidence, and had neglected to plant corn, which he caused 
to be done immediately. The company having found all their 
previous systems of government inefficient, granted to Sir Thonlas 
Dale more absolute authority than had been granted to any of his 
predecessors, — impowering him to rule by martial law, a short 
code of which, founded on the practice of the armies in the Low 
Countries, (the most rigid school at that time in Europe,) they sent 
out with him. This system of violent and arbitrary government 
was recommended by Sir Francis Bacon, the most enlightened phi- 
losopher, and one of the most eminent lawyers of his age. It 
proves the depth of his sagacity ; for it would have been absurd 
to apply the refined speculative theories of civil government to a 
set of mutinous, undisciplined, idle, ignorant creatures, shut up in 
a fort, surrounded by hostile nations, and dependent upon their own 
exertions for support. Surely, in such a case a strong government 
was as necessary as in a ship at sea, and more so than in ordinary 
military stations, where habitual discipline preserves order and 
ensures respect to the officers. 

The governor who was now intrusted with this great but neces- 
sary power, exercised it with prudence and moderation. By the 
vigor which the summary mode of military punishment gave to 
his administration, he introduced into the colony more perfect order 
than had ever been established there ; and at the same time he 
tempered its vigor with so much discretion, that no alarm seems 
to have been given by this innovation. 

In May, Sir Thomas Dale wrote to England full information of 
the weakness of the colony, but recommending in strong terms 
the importance of the place. His favorable representations were 
fully confirmed by Lord De La Ware and Sir Thomas Gates. The 
hopes of the company were resuscitated, and in August, Gates 
?irrived at Jamestown with six ships and three hundred emigrants. 
The colony, which now consisted of seven hundred men, was sur- 
rendered into the hands of Gates ; and Dale, by his permission, 
made a settlement with three hundred and fifty chosen men upon 
a neck nearly surrounded by the river, which, in honor of Prince 
Henry, he called Henrico. 

One of the greatest checks to industry which had hitherto existed in the colony was 
the community of property in the provisions and stores. The idle and dissipated, seeing 
that they were to have a full share, had no stimulus to exertion, and the industrious 
were disheartened by seeing the larger portion of the fruits of their industry consumed 
by the idle members of the little society. So discouraging was this state of things to 
exertion, that frequently, in the best times, the labor of thirty did not accomplish more 



38 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



than was done under a different system by three. Gates perceived the evil and applied 
the remedy. He distributed a certain portion of land to each individual to be worked 
for his own benefit, still paying, however, a small portion of his produce to the general 
store to provide against contingencies. This policy was found so advantageous that 
every encouragement was afforded to individual enterprise in the acquisition of wealth. 
But little respect was paid to the rights of the Indians ; for some depredation or injury 
from the tribe of Apamatuck, they were dispossessed of their corn and their cabins, 
which, " considering the position commodious," were unceremoniously appropriated by 
the English to their own benefit. 

The colony now having extended considerably, assumed a more regular form, by pur- 
March 1*^ 1612 ^"^"S ^ more consistent system of polic}^ ; and beginning to promise 
' permanency, a new charter was granted by James. This confirmed 
and enlarged all the privileges and immunities which had been previously granted, 
extended the time of exemption from duties, and enlarged their territory and jurisdiction 
to all islands and seats within three hundred miles of the coast. This included the 
newly discovered, fertile Bermudas, which were soon after sold by the company to one 
hundred and twenty of its members. 

This new charter made some changes in the constitution of the company, by giving 
more power to the company itself and less to the council ; it also conferred the power 
of raising money by lottery for the benefit of the colony, vvhi"ch was the first introduc- 
March 1621 ^^'^^ ^'^^^ pernicious system of taxation into England, and which was 
' ■ soon after prohibited by act of Parliament, but not until the company 
had raised nearly thirty thousand pounds by the privilege. 

As the new system of policy had increased the independence and preserved the num- 
bers of the colony, so had it increased its strength and the respect of the savages. One 
powerful tribe now voluntarily sought British protection, and became British subjects ; 
another was brought to a close and friendly alliance by a tenderer tie than fear could 
afford. 

Captain Argall, in a voyage to the Potomac for the purpose of 
purchasing corn, fell in with an old chief named lapazaws, to 
whom Powhatan had intrusted Pocahontas, which he disclosed to 
Argall, and offered to sell her to him for a copper kettle. The 
bargain was made, and Pocahontas being enticed on board by the 
cunning of her guardian, was carried off without once suspecting 
the treachery of the old hypocrite. The authorities at Jamestown 
availed themselves of the possession of this lucky prize to endeavor 
to extort from Powhatan a high ransom ; but the old emperor, 
though he really loved his daughter, seemed to be so highly af- 
fronted at the indignity offered him, that he preferred fighting 
those who had robbed him of his daughter to purchasing her free- 
dom. But while this matter was in agitation, a treaty of a differ- 
ent character was going forward between the young princess her- 
self and Mr. Rolfe, a highly respectable young gentleman of 
Jamestown, who, struck by her beauty, and fascinated by her man- 
ners, so far superior to the rest of her race, wooed and won her 
affections, and obtained a promise of her hand. The news of this 
amicable adjustment of all difficulties soon reached the ears of 
Powhatan, and met with his cordial approbation. He sent the 
uncle and two brothers of Pocahontas to witness the nuptial cere- 
monies at Jamestown, which were solemnized with great pomp, 
according to the rites of the English church. From this marriage 
several of the most highly respected families in Virginia trace 
their descent. Happy would it have been for both races, if this 
amalgamation had been promoted by other instances, but this is 
the only case upon record. This marriage secured the permanent 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



39 



friendship of Powhatan, and all und(T his influence ; and the 
Chickahominics, his next neif^hbors, when they heard of it, sent 
deputies, and submitted by solemn treaty to become subjects to 
King James, and to submit to his governor in the colony, — to pay 
tribute, — and furnish men to fight against whatever enemies should 
attack the colony ; only stipulating that at home they should con- 
tinue to be governed by their own laws. 

We have already mention(>d a partial distribution of lands by 
Sir Thomas Dale, for the purjiose of encouraging individual indus- 
try; it may be well to explain more in detail the tenure by which 
lands were held by individuals. At the favored Bermudas plan- 
tation, near the mouth of the Appomattox, either on account of 
the greater merit, longer service, or some favorable circumstances 
attending the expense of the emigration of the tenants, th(^ lands 
were held by a rent of two and a half barrels of corn annually to 
the general stock, and one month's service, which was not to be 
in time of sowing or of harvest. Those who had been brought 
over at the expense of the company, had three acres of land allot- 
ted them, and two bushels of corn from the public store, and with 
this scanty allowance were required to support themselves by one 
month's labor ; the othei* eleven being required by the company. 
This species of laborers had decreased in 1617 to fifry-four, includ- 
ing all classes; and these were finally released entirely I'rom their 
vassalage by Sir George Yeardley, in 1617. The original bounty 
to emigrants coming at their own expense, or that of others than 
the company, had been one hundred acres of land ; but after the 
colony became better settled, it was reduced to fifty, the actual 
occupancy of which gave a right to as many more. The payment 
of twelve pounds and ten shillings to the treasurer of the company, 
entitled the adventurer to a grant of one hundred acres, the occu- 
pancy of which also secured a right to as many more.* 

The labor of the colony, which had been for a long time misdirected in the manufac- 
ture of ashes, soap, glass, and tar, in which they could by no means compete with 
Sweden and Russia, and also in planting vinos which require infinite labor and atten- 
tion, and for which subsequent experiments have Indicated the climate to be unfit, was 
at length directed, by the extended use of tobacco in England,! ahnost exclusively to 
the cultivation of that article. This commodity always finding a ready price, and af- 

1615 ^^''^^ being now so regulated that each one could enjoy the fruits of liis labor, 
was cultivated so assiduously, as to take off the attimtion of the planters too 
much from raising corn, so that it became scarce, and supplies had again to be looked 
for from England, or purchased of the Indians. The fields, gardens, public squares, and 



* Smith, Book IV. p. 18. Bancroft, I. p. 1G7. Burke. 

t Note by Robertson. — " It is a matter of some curiosity, to trace the progress of the 
consumption of this unnecessary commodity. The use of tobacco seems to liavc been 
first Introduced into England about the year 1586. Possibly a few seafaring persons 
may have ac(]uired a relish for it, by their Intercourse with the Spaniards, previous to 
that period ; but it could by no means be denominated a national habit anterior to that 
date. Upon an average of the seven years immediately preceding the year l&2'2, the 
whoU' Import of tobacco into England aniounted to a hundred and forty-two thousand 
and eighty-five pounds weight. Stith, p. Hiij. From this it appears that the taste had 
spread with a rapidity which is remarkable. But Ijow inconsiderable is that quantity 
to what is consumed now in Great Britain I" or uow I ! 



40 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



even the streets of Jamestown, were planted with tobacco, and thus becoming an ar- 
ticle of universal desire, it became, to a great extent, the circulating medium of the col- 
ony. Not only private debts, but salaries and officers' fees were paid in tobacco ; and 
the statute-book to this day rarely mentions the payment of money, that it does not add, 
as an equivalent, " or tobacco " 

Early in the year 1614, Sir Thomas Gates had returned to Eng- 
land, leaving the colony, which then consisted of about four hun- 
dred men, under the command of Sir Thomas Dale, who in his 
turn desiring to visit England and his family, left the colony in 
1616, under the protection and control of Sir Thomas Yeardley. 

With Dale, Mr. Rolfe and his interesting bride, Pocahontas, 
sailed. By a communication from Smith, her amiable and valua- 
ble conduct was made known at court, and every attention was 
shown her, both by the queen and many of the nobility. This ex- 
cellent princess, whose deportment was sq far superior to that 
which the condition of her race would authorize one to expect, 
that it won for her universal admiration and esteem, was destined 
never more to behold her father or her native land. She died at 
Gravesend, where she was preparing to embark with her husband 
and child for Virginia. Peace to her gentle spirit ! Her memory 
will not perish while the commonwealth of Virginia endures, or 
noble and generous actions are valued by her sons. 

Yeardley's administration was similar to that of his predeces- 
sors, enforcing obedience from his own men, and the respect of the 
savages. He was succeeded, in 1617, by Captain Argall, who was 
a rough seaman, accustomed to the despotic sway of his own ship, 
naturally tyrannical in his disposition, cruel and covetous, in short, 
a person utterly unfit to be trusted with the administration of the 
arbitrary government which then existed in Virginia. For al- 
though we have considered such a government the only practica- 
ble one which could have been then established, yet it required the 
utmost firmness in the governor, tempered by mildness, prudence, 
and discretion, to make it tolerable. Such had been the case under 
the administration of Gates, Dale, and Yeardley, and under them 
the colony had prospered more than it had ever done before ; but 
such was not the disposition of this new governor. Instead of 
holding the severity of the laws in terrorem over them, and not 
actually resorting to the extent of his power, except in cases of 
extreme necessity, he sought to bring innocent actions within the 
letter of the law, which indeed was not very difficult with the 
bloody military code which then existed. These ^irbitrary exer- 
tions of power were principally used in the gratification of his 
inordinate rapacity, which, in its indiscriminate grasp, sought not 
only to clutch the property of the colonists, but also trespassed 
upon the profits of the company. Not satisfied with perverting 
the labor, of the free colonists to his own use or pleasures, he con- 
sumed the time of the servants of the company upon his own 
plantations. At length his conduct was so flagitious, in the case 
of one Brewster, who was left by Lord Delaware to manage his 



POCAHONTAS. 



The al)ove is copied from an engraving said to be an exact copy of an original drawing 
of the " Lady Hedkcca," or Pocahontas, as she is usually called, it shows her in the 
fashionable En^ilish dress of the time in which she lived. The following is inscribed 
around and underneath the original portrait. 

"Matoka als Rebecca Filia Potentiss Pkinc: Povvhatani Imp: ViRGirii.i:.*' 
" Matoahs als Rtbecka, daughter to the mighty Prince Powhatan, Empenmr of Attuiiotiuh-' 
homoiick als Viri:iniu, cuuvtrlcd ami baptised in the Chritstian faith, and wife to the ivor^' Mr. 
Juh Roiffy ••>E/af/s 21 .1. L». IGIU." 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



4] 



estate, and who only sought to prevent Argall trom utterly despoil- 
ing it, that neither the colony nor company could bear his tyranny 
longer, l)ut he was deposed and Sir George Yeardley sent in his 
place. Yet he contrived to escape punishment, by the misman- 
ag(»ment of some and the connivance of others, and preserved all 
of his ill-gotten booty. 

One of the first acts of Yeardley was to emancipate the remaininfj servants of the 
colony. The labor now being free, each man enjoying the fruits of liis own industry, 

j^gjq and anxious to increase his store, tliere was no fear of scarcity, and no time or 
opportunity for mutiny amontr the scattered and industrious planters. With 
the increasing strength and independence* of the colony, all fear of the savages had 
vanished. It is manifest that in tiiese altered circumstances, a modification of the de- 
spotic government ought to have been made, because its severity was no longer neces- 
sary, and while the power existed it might be abused, as the colony seriously experien- 
ced in the case of Argall. The only use of government is to ensure the safety of the 
state from external foes, to secure justice and the free disposition of person and property 
to each individual, and sometimes to aid in the prosecution of such objects of general 
utility as individual enterprise cannot accomplish. The moment the colonists began to 
take an interest in the country, by the enjoyment of their own labor, and the possession 
of property, it was right tliat they should have some share in that government, in the 
prudent conduct of which they were most interested. Yeardley was aware of this, for 
without any authority from home which we can trace, he called together a General As- 
sembly consisting of two members from every town, borough, or hundred, besides the 
governor and council, which met at Jamestown, near the end of June, 1619. In this 
assembly seven corporations were represented, and four more were laid off in the course 
of the same suuuner. 

In this first North American legislature, wherein were " debated all matters thought 
expedient for the good of the colony," several acts were passed which were pronounced 
by the treasurer of the company to be " well and judiciously carried," but which are 
unfortunately lost to posterity. This was an eventful year to the colony, for in addition 
to their assembly, a college was established in Henrico, with a liberal endowment. King 
James had exacted jCIo.OOO from the several bishops of his kingdom for the purpose of 
educating Indian children, and 10,000 acres of land were now added by the company ; 
and the original design was extended to make it a seminary of learning also lor the 
English. One hundred idle and dissolute persons, in custody for various misdemeanors, 
were transported by the authority of the king and against the wishes of .the company to 
Virginia. They were distributed through the colony as servants to the planters ; and 
the degradation of the colonial character produced by such a process, was endured for 
tlie assistance derived from them in executing the various plans of industry, that were 
daily extending themselves. This beginning excited in the colonists a desire for using 
more extensively other labor than their own, an o})portunity for the gratification of which, 
unfortunately, too soon occurred. In this eventful year, too, a new article was intro- 
duced into the trade of the company with the colony, by the good policy of the treasurer, 
Sir Edward Sandys, which produced a material change in the views and feelings of the 
colonists with regard to the country. At the accession of Sir Edwin to office, after 
twelve years labor, and an expenditure of eighty thousand pounds by the company, 
there were in the colony no more than six hundred persons, men, women, and children. 
In one year he provided a passage for twelve hundred and sixty-one new emigrants. 
Among these were ninety agreeable young women, poor but respectable and incorrupt, 
to furnish wives to the colonists. The wisdom of this policy is evident, — the men had 
hitherto regarded Virginia only as a place of temporary sojourn for the acquisition of 
wealth, and never dreamed of making a permanent residence in a place where it was 
impossible to enjoy any of the comforts of domestic life. They had con.sequently none 
of those endearing ties of home and kindred to bind them to the country, or attach 
them to its interests, which are so necessary to make a good citizen. This new com- 
modity was transported at the expense of the colony, and sold to the young planters, 
and the following year another consignment was made of sixty young maids of virtuous 



*The savages now sometimes purchased corn of the English, instead of supplying 
them as formerly. 

6 



42 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



education, young, handsome, and well recommended. A wife in the first lot sold gen 
erally for one hundred pounds of tobacco, but as the value of the new article became 
known in the market, the price rose, and a wife would bring a hundred and fifty pounds 
of tobacco. A debt for a wife was of higher dignity than other debts, and to be paid 
first. As an additional inducement to marriage, married men were generally preferred 
in the selection of officers for the colony. Domestic ties were formed, habits of thrift 
ensued, comforts were increased, and happiness diff"used ; the tide of emigration swelled : 
within three years fifty patents for land were granted, and three thousand five hundred 
persons found their way to Virginia. 

In the month of August of this year an event occurred which stamped its impress 
1620 "P°^ constitution of Virginia, and indeed of the whole southern portion of 
America so deeply, that it will be difficult to erase it save by the destruction of 
society. This was the introduction of twenty African slaves by a Dutch vessel, which 
availed itself of the freedom of commerce, which had been released from the shackles 
of the company's monopoly in the early part of this year, to rivet forever the bonds of 
slavery upon a portion of their fellow-creatures and their descendants. The indented 
and covenanted servants which had been long known in Virginia, and whose condition 
was little better than that of slavery, was a small evil and easily removed, because they 
were of the same color and country with their masters ; when they were emancipated 
they leaped at once from their shackles to the full dignity of freedom. No one scorned 
to associate with them, and no one spurned their alliance ; if honorable and worthy in 
other respects, they were equal to their masters, and might even rise to distinction. But 
not so the poor African. Nature has fixed upon him a stamp which cannot be erased 
or forgotten, the badge of his bondage is borne with him, when his fetters have crumbled 
to the dust. 

The overbearing disposition of King James created a powerful 
popular party in England, which being unable to establish a liberal 
government at home, was determined to secure for free principles a 
safe asylum in the colonies. The accomplishment of this determina- 
tion was accelerated by the disposition of the king to intermeddle 
with this very subject. He was exceedingly jealous of the company, 
in which the patriot party prevailed, and suspicious of the liberal 
principles discussed in its meetings with uncontrolled freedom : he 
feared it as the school "of debate, and nursery of parliamentary 
leaders. Upon the resignation of Sir Edwin Sandys of his office 
Ma 17 1620 treasurer, the king determined to try the extent 
^ ' * of his influence in the election of a successor to 
this first office in the company. He accordingly sent in a nomina- 
tion of four individuals, to one of whom he desired the office to be 
given ; but he proved unsuccessful in his attempt at dictation, and 
none of his nominees were elected, but the choice fell upon the Earl 
of Southampton. 

The company having thus vindicated its own privileges, pro- 
ceeded next to guaranty freedom to the colonists, by a constitution 
remarkably liberal for the time and circumstances. This charter 
of freedom, the principles of which the Virginians never could be 
brought subsequently to relinquish, has been preserved to posterity 
in " Summary of the ordinance and constitution of the treasurer, 
council and company in England, for a council of state, and 
another council to be called the General Assembly in Virginia, 
contained in a commission to Sir Francis Wyatt (the first governor 
under that ordinance and constitution) and his council," dated July 
24, 1621. 

The council of state was to be chosen by the treasurer, council 



OUTLINE HISTORY 



43 



and company in England, with the power of removal at pleasure ; 
their duty was to advise and assist the p^overnor, and to constitute 
a portion of the General Assembly. This General Assembly was 
to be called by the governor once a year, and not oftener, unless 
on very extraordinary and important occasions ; it was to consist, 
in addition to the council of state, of two burgesses, out of every 
town, hundred, or other particular plantation, to be respectively 
chosen by the inhabitants ; in which council all matters were to 
be decided, determined, and ordered, by the greater part of the 
voices then present, reserving to the governor always a negative 
voice. ''And this General Assembly was 1o have lull power, to 
treat, consult, and conclude, as well of all emergent occasions con- 
cerning the public weal of the said colony, and every part thereof, 
as also to make, ordain, and enact such general laws and orders, 
for the behoof of said colony, and the good government thereof, 
as from time to time might seem necessary." 

The General Assembly and council of state were required to 
imitate and follow the policy of the form of government, laws, 
customs, and manner of trial, and of the administration of justice, 
used in the realm of England, as near as might be, as the com- 
pany itself was required to do, by its charter. No law or ordi- 
nance was to continue in force or validity unless it was solemnly 
ratified in a general quarterly court of the company, and returned 
under seal ; and it was promised that as soon as the government 
of the colony should once have been well framed and settled, that 
no orders of court should afterwards })ind the colony, unless they 
were ratified in the same manner by the General Assembly. 

When Sir Francis arrived, he found that negligence and security among the colo- 
nists, which is the inevitable consequence of a long peace. Old Powhatan had died in 
1618, honored by the esteem and respect of all who knew him — his own people holding 
in grateful remembrance his prowess and policy in youth, and his mildness in age — and 
his English friends and brethren admiring his firm support of his dignity, his paternal 
affection, his mild simplicity, and his native intelligence. He was succeeded in his 
power by Opechancanough, his younger brother, who was cunning, treaclicrous. revenge- 
ful, and crufl. He renewed the former treaties, with every assurance of good iaith, and 
wore the mask of peace and friendship so successfully as completely to lull the whites 
to security. But this crafty prince had always viewed with peculiar jealousy and hate 
the progress of the colony. He had given nmch trouble, and engaged in frequent hos- 
tilities, while he was king of Pamunkee, and it was not to be supposed that he would 
patiently submit to the continued and rapid encroachments of the whites upon his lands, 
to the entire extermination or banishment of his people, now that he possessed the em- 
pire of his brother. But to meet them in the field was impossible, the disparity in arms 
was too groat, and the numbers in fighting men now equal ; the attempt would be mad- 
ness and desperation, and lead to that extermination of his race winch he wished to 
avoid. His only resource was to strike .some great and sudden blow which should anni- 
hilate the power of the colony at once. He had ajjplied to a king who resided on tiie 
Eastern Shore, to purchase a subtle poii^on which grew only in his dominions, but this 
king being on good terms with the whites, and wishing to enjoy their trade, refused to 
gratify him. His next resource was in a general massacre, to lake effect upon all of 
tlie scattered plantations on the same day. The situation of the whites favored this 
design ; they not only placed confidence in the words of the savages, which had now 
been so long faithfully kept, but in their weakness and cowardice. They had extended 
their plantations over a space of one hundred and forty miles, on both sides of James 
River, and made some settlements in the neighborhood of the Potomac ; in short, wher- 
ever a rich spot invited to the cultivation of tobacco, there were they established, and 
an absence of neighbors was preferred. The planters were careless with their arms, 



44 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



never using their swords, and their fire-arms only for game. The old layr making it 
criminal to teach a savage the use of arms was forgotten, and they were fowlers and 
hunters for many of the planters, by which means they became well acquainted with 
the use of arms and the places in which they were kept. One great object with the 
settlers, and with the company, in whose instructions we find it perpetually enjoined, 
had been the conversion of the Indians to the Christian religion. To promote this pious 
object, they had always been received in the most friendly manner; they became mar- 
ket people to the planters, and they were fed at their tables, and lodged in their bed- 
chambers as friends and brothers. 

Opechancanough had renewed the treaty with Governor Wyatt, 
and took ever}^ other means in his power to avoid suspicion. He 
told a messenger, about the middle of March, that the sky should 
fall ere he would violate the treaty of peace ; only two days before 
the fatal 22d, the English were guided in safety and kindness 
through the forest by the unsuspected Indians ; and a Mr. Browne, 
who had been sent to live among them to learn their language, 
was sent safely to his friends ; — nay, so well was the dread secret 
kept, that the English boats were borrowed to transport the In- 
dians over the river to consult on the "devilish murder that ensued ;" 
and even on the day itself, as well as on the evening before, they 
came as usual unarmed into the settlements with deer, turkeys, 
fish, fruits, and other provisions to sell, and in some places sat dow^n 
to breakfast with the English. The concert and secrecy of this 
great plot is the more astonishing, when we reflect that the savages 
were not living together as one nation, and did not have for most 
purposes unity of action, but were dispersed in little hamlets con- 
taining from thirty to two hundred in a company ; " yet they all 
had warning given them one from another in all their habitations, 
March 22 1622 asunder, to meet at the day and hour 

' * appointed for the destruction of the English at 
their several plantations ; some directed to one place, some to 
another, all to be done at the time appointed, which they did 
accordingly : some entering their houses under color of trading, so 
took their advantage ; others drawing them abroad under fair pre- 
tences, and the rest suddenly falling upon those that w^ere at their 
labors." They spared no age, sex, or condition, and were so sud- 
den in their indiscriminate slaughter that few could discern the 
blow or weapon which brought them to destruction. Their fami- 
liarity with the whites led them with fatal precision to the points 
at which they were certain to be found, and that " fatal morning 
fell under the bloody and barbarous hands of that perfidious and 
inhuman people, three hundred and fort3'^-seven men, women, and 
children, principally by their own weapons." Not content with 
this destruction, they brutally defaced and mangled the dead 
bodies, as if they would perpetrate a new murder, and bore off 
the several portions in fiendish triurpph. Those who had treated 
them with especial kindness, and conferred many benefits upon 
them, who confided so much in them that to the last moment they 
could not believe mischief was intended, fared no better than the 
rest. The ties of love and gratitude, the sacred rights of hospi- 
tality and reciprocal friendship, oaths, pledges, and promises, and 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



45 



even the recent and solemn profession of fidelity to an all-merciful 
and omnipotent God, were broken asunder or forj^otten in obedi- 
ence to the command of their chief, for the execution of a great 
but diabolical stroke of state policy. With one, and only one, of 
all who had been cherished by the whites, did gratitude for their 
kindness and fidelity to his new religion prevail over his allegi- 
ance to his king and afiection for his people. A converted Indian 
who resided with a Mr. Pace, and who was treated by him as a 
son, revealed the plot to him in the night of the 21st. Pace imme- 
diately secured his house and rowed himself up to Jamestown, 
where he disclosed it to the governor, by which means that place 
and all the neighboring plantations, to which intelligence could be 
conveyed, was saved from destruction ; for the cowardly Indians 
when they saw the whites upon their guard immediately retreated. 
Some other places were also preserved by the undaunted courage 
of the occupants, who never failed to beat off their assailants, if 
they were not slain before their suspicions were excited. By these 
means was Virginia preserved from total annihilation in a single 
hour, by this well-conceived, well-concealed, and well-executed 
plot of her weak and simple adversaries. The larger portion of 
the colon}' was saved : for a year after the massacre it contained 
two thousand five hundred persons; but the consternation pro- 
duced by it, caused the adoption of a ruinous policy. Instead of 
marching at once boldly to meet the adversary, and driving him 
from the country, or reducing him to subjection by a bloody retalia- 
tion, the colonists were huddled together from their eighty planta- 
tions into eight, the college, manufactories, and other works of 
public utility were abandoned, and cultivation confined to a space 
almost too limited, merely for subsistence. These crowded quar- 
ters produced sickness, and some were so disheartened that they 
sailed for England. 

In England this disastrous intelligence, so far from dispiriting the company, excited 
their sympathies to such a degree, that it aroused them to renewed exertion, and a more 
obstinate determination to secure, at all hazards, a country which had cost so much 
blood and treasure. Supplies were promptly dispatched ; and even the king was moved 
to the generosity of giving some old rusty arms from the tower, which he never meant 
to use, and promising further assistance, which he never meant to render. 

Serious discussions now took place in the coilrtsof the company as to the course proper 
to be pursued with the Indians, and some advocated their entire subjection, in imitation 
of the example of the Spaniards, — which policy would surely have been more merciful 
than that war of extermination which was carried into ctfect, whether by deliberate de- 
sign or a system of temporary expedients does not appear. Smith offered the company 
to protect all their planters from the James to the Potomac, with a permanent force of 
one hundred soldiers and thirty sailors, with one small bark, and means to build several 
shallops ; and there is no doubt but that he would have accomplished it, by which means 
the planters could have employed theni.selves much more successfully in attending to 
their crops, than when they had to keep perpetual watch, and occasionally to take up 
arms to defend themselves or make an attack upon the enemy. Smith received for 
answer that the company was impoverished, but that he had leave to carry his proposal 
into effect, if he could find means in the colony and would give the comj)any hall' the 
booty he should acquire : upon which answer he observes, that except some little corn, 
he would not give twenty pounds for all tlie booty to be made from the savages for 120 
years. The colonists, although they could not be soon again lulled to their former se- 
curity, Bpeedily recovered from their recent panic, and on July of the same year sullied 



46 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



forth with three hundred men to seize the corn and inflict other punishpient on the 
Indians. But they suffered themselves to be deceived by false pretences until the corn 
was removed from their reach, so that they got but little ; they succeeded, however, in 
burning many of their villages and destroying much of their property, by which they 
said they were likely to suffer much during the ensuing winter. We find that a law 
was passed on the following session, by the General Assembly, requiring that on the 
beginning of July next, the inhabitants of every corporation should fall upon the adjoin- 
ing savages, as had been done the last year ; and enacting that those who were hurt 
should be cured at the public charge, and such as were maimed should be maintained 
by the country, according to their quality. We find it also further enacted in 1630, 
" that the war begun upon the Indians be effectually followed, and that no peace be 
concluded with them ; and that all expeditions undertaken against them should be pros- 
ecuted with diligence." This state of fierce warfare continued to rage with uninterrupted 
fary until a peace was concluded in 1632, under the administration of Gov. Harvey. 
In the course of this warfare the Indians were not treated with the same tenderness with 
which they had generally been before the massacre, but their habitations, cleared lands, 
and pleasant sites, when once taken possession of, were generally retained by the victors, 
and the vanquished forced to take refuge in the woods and marshes. 

While these events were transpiring in the-colony, an important 
1623 ^^^^S^ character of their government was about to 

take place in England. The company had been unsuccess- 
ful : the fact could no longer be denied. They had transported 
more than nine thousand persons, at an expense exceeding a hun- 
dred thousand pounds ; and yet, in nearly 18 years, there were only 
about two thousand persons in the colony, and its annual exports 
did not exceed twenty thousand pounds in value. The king took 
advantage of the present unfortunate state of affairs, to push his 
plans for the dissolution of the company. He carefully fomented 
the dissensions which arose, and encouraged the weaker party, 
which readily sought the aid of his powerful arm. He had long 
disliked the democratic freedom of their discussions, and had of late 
become envious of their little profits on the trade of the colonists, 
w^hich he felt every disposition to divert into his own coffers ; and he 
'determined to make good use of the present state of despondency 
in most of the company, and unpopularity with the public, to eff'ect 
his designs. Wishing, however, to gain his end by stealth, and 
1623 ^^^^^^ influence with their officers, rather than by open vio- 
lence, he again tried his strength in the nomination of four 
individuals from whom the company were to choose their treasurer. 
But he wds again signally defeated, and the Earl of Southampton 
re-elected by a large majority, the king's candidates receiving only 
eight votes in seventy. 

Failing in this, it was manifest that the company was not to be 
browbeaten into submission to his dictation, and he only considered 
how the charter of the company might be revoked, with the least 
violation to the laws of England. To effect this with plausible 
decency some allegation of improper conduct was to be made, and 
some proof ferreted out. The first of these objects w^as effected 
by two long petitions by members of the royal faction in the 
company, setting forth at full length every evil which had accrued 
to the colony, from its earliest establishment to that hour, and 
charging all upon the mismanagement of the company. For 
many of these charges there was too much truth, and the faults of 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



47 



the company could be easily seen after the accidents had happened ; 
but whether they were not necessarily incidental to the situation 
of things in Virginia, or they might have been avoid<'(l by tlie king 
or a corporation ditlerently constituted, are questions (lilhcult to 
answer; but these petitions contained, mingled wiih these truths, 
a great proportion of glaring falsehood as to the physical and moral 
condition of the colony. They had been prepared and presented 
with great secrecy ; but the company contrived to obtain copies of 
them, and refuted their slanders by the most irrefragable testimony, 
many facts being in the cognizance of the members themselves, 
and others established by the evidence of respectable persons who 
had long resided in Virginia. This mass of evidence was laid 
before the king, in the vain hope that he might be induced to dis- 
regard the petitions ; but part of his object was now gained, the 
charges were made, the next step was to procure a semblance of 
proof: for this purpose, in a few days, in answer to the prayer in 
one of the petitions, he issued a commission, under the great seal, 
to seven persons, to inquire into all matters respecting Virginia, 
from the beginning of its settlement. 

The better to enable these commissioners to conduct their inves- 
tigations, by an order of the privy council, all the records of the 
company, of whatsoever nature, were seized, the deputy treasurer 
was imprisoned, and on the arrival of a ship from Virginia, all the 
papers on board were inspected. 

The report of these commissioners has never transpired, but it 
October 1623 without doubt, such as the king wished and 

' * expected ; for by an order in council he made 
known, that having taken into his princely consideration the dis- 
tressed state of Virginia, occasioned by the ill-government of the 
company, he had resolved, by a new charter, to appoint a governor 
and twelve assistants to reside in England ; and a governor and 
twelve assistants to reside in Virginia ; the former to be nominated 
by his majesty in council, the latter to be nominated by the governor 
and assistants in England, and be appointed by the king in council ; 
and that all proceedings should be subject to the royal direction. 
This was a return at one step to the charter of 160G. The com- 
pany was called together to consider upon this arbitrary edict, 
under an alternative similar to the one given to witches upon their 
trial : if they could swim with a heavy weight about their necks, 
they were burned as guilty ; if they sunk and drowned, they were 
acquitted : the king gave the company the privilege of accepting 
his proposition and resigning its charter, or of refusing and having- 
the charter annulled. 

The company, which had refused to g^ratify the king in the choice of its officers, was 
less disposed to comply with this suicidal n'quisition. The astounding order was read 
over three several times hefore they could convince themselves that their ears informed 
them correctly of its pury)ort. At lentil li the vote was taken, and one hundred and 
twelve votes were against the relinquishment, and twenty. six, the precise number of the 
king's faction, in favor of it. The company asked further time for a more deliberate 
decision, as there had not been sufficient notice, few members were present, and it was 



48 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



one of those matters of importance which could not be decided, by the terms of their 
charter, except at a regular quarterly meeting ; but the council would not listen to the 
proposition, ordering the company to meet again in three days, and give a clear, direct, 
and final answer. In obedience to this order, an extraordinary court was summoned, 
and the question of surrender submitted to their consideration, upon which only nine of 
the seventy present voted in its favor ; an answer was returned that they would defend 
their charter. The knowledge of these proceedings transpiring produced a shock to the 
credit of the company, which palsied for the time the spirit of commercial enterprise ; 
to remedy this evil the privy council declared that the private property of every one 
should be protected, and secured by additional guarantees if necessary : that they should 
proceed with their regular business ; and all ships bound for Virginia should sail. To 
endeavor to discover something more authentic against the company than his secret 
conclave of commissioners had yet been able to obtain, the king now thought proper to 
Oct 24 1623 ^^"^ John Harvey, John Pory, Abraham Piersey, Samuel Matthews, and 
' ■ John Jefferson, as commissioners to Virginia, " To make more particu- 
lar and diligent inquiry touching divers matters, which concerned the state of Virginia ; 
and in order to facilitate this inquiry, the governor and council of Virginia were ordered 
to assist the commissioners, in this scrutiny, by all their knowledge and influence." 

The commissioners early in the ensuing 'year arrived in the 
1624 ^^^^'^y* ^^^^ controversy between the king and the 

' company, the colony not supposing its chartered rights were 
likely to be violated by either party, and feeling little interest in 
the discussion of rights which belonged entirely to others, and which 
they never supposed they were to possess ; had acted with entire 
neutrality, and cared little whether they were to be under the 
general superintendence of the courts of the company, or a council 
chosen by the king, so long as they could regulate their own affairs 
by their own General Assembly.* 

In such a mood would the commissioners have found the colony 
and General Assembly, had they not procured copies of the two 
slanderous petitions, in spite of all the precautions of the king, and 
the secrecy of his council and commissioners. Although they felt 
little interest in the controversy, they felt great interest in defend- 
ing themselves from defamation, and their country from false and 
malicious representations, w^ell calculated to disparage and depre- 
ciate it in the estimation of those with whom they wished it to 
Feb 20 1624 ^^^^^ In six days from their meeting they 

' * had prepared spirited and able answers to these 
petitions ; declaring in their preamble, " that they, holding it a 
sin against God and their own sufferings, to permit the world to 
be abused with false reports, and to give to vice the reward of 
virtue, — They, in the name of the whole colony of Virginia, in 
their General Assembly met, many of them having been eye-wit- 

* The king and company quarrelled, and, by a mixture of law and force, the latter 
were ousted of all their rights, without retribution, after having expended jClOO,000 in 
establishing the colony, without the smallest aid from the government. King James 
suspended their powers by proclamation of July 15, 1624, and Charles I. took the 
government into his own hands. Both sides had their partisans in the colony ; but in 
truth the people of the colony in general thought themselves little concerned in the 
dispute. There being three parties interested in these several charters, what passed 
between the first and second it was thought could not affect the third. If the king 
seized on the powers of the company, they only passed into other hands, without in- 
crease or diminution, while the rights of the people remained as they were. Jefferson's 
Notes on Va., p. 152-3. 



OUTLINE mSlURY. 



49 



nesscs and sufferers in those times, had framed, out of tlieir 
duty to their country and love of truth, the following answer 
given to the praises of Sir T. Smith's government, in the said 
dechiration." 

They n(^xt drafted a petition to the king, which, with a 
letter to the privy council and the other papers, were com- 
mitted to the care of Mr. John Pountis, a member of the coun- 
cil, who was selected to go to England to represent the gen- 
eral interests of the colony before his majesty and the privy 
council ; and whose expenses were provided for b}^ a tax of 
four pounds of the best merchantable tobacco for every male 
person sixteen years of age, who had been in the country lor one 
year. This gentleman unfortunately died on his passage. The 
letter to the privy council marks very strongly the value whicli 
they set even at that early day upon the right of legislating lor 
themselves; the principal prayer in it being, " that the governors 
may not have absolute power, and that they might still retain the 
liberty of popular assemblies, than which, nothing could more con- 
duce to the public satisfaction and public utility." 

A contest of wits was commenced between the commissioners and the Assembly 
The former, under various pretexts, withheld from the latter a sight of their commission, 
and the other papers with which they had been charged ; and the governor and the 
Assembly thought proper to preserve an equal mystery as to their own proceedings. In 
this dilemma Mr. Pory, who was one of the commi.<sioners, and who had been secretary 
to the company, and discharged from his post for betraying its councils to the earl of 
Warwick, now suborned Edward Sliarpless, a clerk of the council, to give him copies 
of the proceedings of that body and of the Assembly. This treachery was discovered, 
and tlie clerk was punished with the loss of his ears; while an account was sent home 
to the company, expressive of the greatest abhorrence at the baseness and treachery of 
Pory. The commissioners finding their secret manumvring defeated, next endeavored, 
by the i7iost artfid wheedling, to induce the Assembly to petilion the crown for a revo- 
cation of the charter. In reply to this the Assembly asked for their authority to make 
such a proposition, which of course they could not give without betraying their secret 
instructions, and were compelled to answer the requisition in general terms and profes- 
sions. The Assembly took no farther notice of tiie commissioners, but proceeded with 
their ordinary legislation. 

Thirty-five acts of this Assembly have been preserved to the present time, and exhibit, 
with great strength, the propriety and good sense with which men can pass laws for the re- 
gulation of their own interests and concerns. One of these acts establishes at once, in the 
most simple and intelligible language, the great right of exemption from taxation without 
representation ; it runs in these words : — " The governor shall not lay any taxes or impo- 
sitions upon the colony, their lands or commodities, other way thati by the authority of 
the General Assembly, to be levied and employed as the said Assembly shall appoint." 
By a subsequent act it was declared that the governor should not withdraw the inhabitants 
from their private labors to any service of his own, upon any color whatsoever and in case 
the public service required the employment of many hands, before the holding of a Cicnerul 
Assembly, he was to order it, and the levy of men was to be made by the governor and 
whole body of the council, in such maimer as would be least burdensome to the j)cople 
and most free from partiality. To encourage good conduct, the old planters who had 
been in the colony since the last arrival of Gates, were exempted from taxation or mili- 
tary duty. Many acts of general utility were passed; the members of the Assembly 
were privilegt-d from arrest ; lands were to be surveyed and their boundaries recorded, 
which is no doubt the origin of our highly beneficial recording statutes ; vessels arriving 
were prohibited from breaking their cargoes until they had reported themselves ; inspec- 
tors of tobacco were established in every settlement ; the use of sealed weights and 
measures was enforced ; provision was made for paying the public debt, *' brought on by 
the late troubles ;" no person was, upon the rumor of supposed change and alteration, to 

t 



50 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



presume to be disobedient to the present government, or servants to their private officers, 
masters, or overseers, at their uttermost perils. 

Wise regulations were likewise made to prevent surprises by the Indians ; every house 
was to be fortified with palisadoes ; no man should go or send abroad without a party 
sufficiently armed, or to work without their arms, wita a sentinel over them ; the inhabi- 
tants were forbidden to go aboard ships or elsewhere in such numbers as to endanger the 
safety of their plantations ; every planter was to take care to have sufficient arms and 
ammunition in good order ; watch was to be kept by night ; and no planter was to suffer 
powder to be expended in amusement or entertainments. To promote corn-planting, 
and ensure plenty of provision, no limit was fixed to its price ; viewers were appointed 
to see that every man planted a sufficiency for his family, and all trade with the savages 
for corn was strictly prohibited. 

Having thus given a specimen of colonial spirit, and colonial 
legislation, we return to the little intrigues of James, who was 
striving by every means in his power to become possessed of the 
control of the colony ; partly to gratify his love of arbitrary author- 
ity and of money, and partly to gratify his royal s€lf-complacency, 
by framing a code of laws for a people with whose character and 
condition he was utterly unacquainted, and who, from the speci- 
mens recently given, appeared to be fully competent to the man- 
agement of their own affairs, without the dictation or advice of 
this royal guardian ; who, while he displayed the craft without 
the talent of a Philip, aspired to the character of a Solon. The 
recent acts of the king led to a solemn council of the company on 
the state of their affairs, in which they confirmed by an overwhelm- 
ing majority the previous determination to defend their charter, 
and asked for a restitution of their papers for the purpose of pre- 
paring their defence. This request was pronounced reasonable 
by the attorney-general, and complied with. While these papers 
were in the hands of the company, they were transcribed, and the 
copy has been fortunately preserved, and presents a faithful record 
of many portions of Virginia history, which it would be otherwise 
impossible to elucidate.* 

The king had caused a quo w^arranto to be issued against the 
Nov 10 1624 ^^^P^^y after the appointment of his com- 
' * missioners to go to Virginia, and the cause was 
tried in the King's Bench, in Trinity Term of 1624. A cause 
which their royal master had so much at heart could not long be 
doubtful with judges entirely dependent upon his will for their 
places ; it is even credibly reported that this important case, 
whereby the rights of a powerful corporation were divested, and 
the possibility of a remuneration for all of their trouble and 
expense forever cut off, was decided upon a mere technical ques- 
tion of special pleading If 

* Burke, p. 274-5. Stith compiled his history principally from these documents. 

t Note to Bancroft, p. 207. Stith, p. 329, 330, doubts if judgment was passed. 
The doubt may be removed. " Before the end of the same term, a judgment was de- 
clared by the Lord Chief Justice Ley, against the company and their charter, only upon 
Jailer or mistake in pleading." See a Short Collection of the most Remarkable Pas- 
sages from the Original to the Dissolution of the Virginia Company : London, 1651, 
p. 15. See also Hazard, vol. L p. 19 ; Chalmers, p. 62 ; Proud's Pennsylvania, vol. 
I., p. 107. 



OUTLINK HISTORY. 



51 



In the mean time the commissioners had returned, and reported 
very favorably of the soil and climate of Mrtjinia, but censuring 
deeply the conduct of the comp;iny, — recommending^ the govern- 
ment of th(^ original charter of 1()()(), and declai-in^ that a l)ody so 
large and so democratic in its forms as the company, could never 
persevere in a consistent course of policy, but must veer about as the ^ 
different factions should prevail. In this it must be admitted that 
there was much truth, and all hopes of profit having for some time 
expired, and the company only being kept up l)y the distinguished 
men of its members, from patriotic motives and as an instrument 
of power lor thwarting the kinjr, in which capacity its piesent 
unpopularity rendered it of little use — it was now suffered to 
expire und(u- the judicial edict, without a groan. The expiration 
of the charter brought little immediate change to the actual gov- 
ernment of the colony : — a large committee was formed by the 
king, consisting principally of his privy council, to discharge the 
functions of the extinct company ; Sir Francis Wyatt was reap- 
pointed governor, and he and his council only empowered to 
govern " as fully and amply as any governor and council resident 
there, at any time within the space of five years last past" — 
which was the exact period of their representative government. 
The king, in appointing the council in Virginia, refused to appoint 
embittered partisans of the court faction, but formed the govern- 
ment of men of moderation. 

• So leaving Virginia free, while his royal highness is graciously 
pleased to gratify his own vanity in preparing a new code of laws 
to regulate her affairs, we pass on to a new chapter. 



CHAPTER IV. 

PROGRESS OF THE COLONY FROM THE DISSOLUTION OF THE LONDON COMPANY, 
TO THE BREAKING OUT OF BACOn's REBELLION IN 1675. 

Accession of Charles I. — Tobacco trade. — Yeardley governor — his commission favora- 
ble — his death and character. — Lord Baltimore's reception. — State of religion — legis- 
lation upon the subject. — Invitation to the Puritans to settle on Delaware Bay. — 
Harvey governor. — Grant of Carolina and Maryland. — Harvey deposed — restored. — 
Wyatt governor. — Acts of the Legislature improperly censured. — Berkeley governor. 
— Indian relations. — Opechancnnough prisoner — his death. — Change of government 
in England. — Fleet and army sent to reduce Virginia. — Preparation for defence by 
Berkeley. — Agreement entered into hrtirren the colony and the covunissioncrs of the 
commonwealth. — Indian ho.'^tilities. — Matthews elected governor. — Difficulties between 
the governor and the legislature — adjusted. — State of the colony and its trade. — Com- 
missioners sent to England. — The Restoration. — General legislation. 

The dissolution of the London Company was soon followed by 
Mnr Vi 97 iRQf; death of James, and the accession of his son, 
marcn z /, ib^5. q^^^^^^ j j^e king troubled himself little about 
the political rights and privileges of the colony, and suffered them 



52 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



to grow to the strength of established usage by his wholesome 
neglect; while he was employed in obtaining a monopoly of their 
tobacco. This valuable article, the use of which extended with 
such unaccountable rapidity, had early attracted the avidity of 
King James. The 19th article of the charter of 1609 had exempted 
the company, their agents, factors, and assignees, from the pay- 
ment of all subsidies and customs in Virginia for the space of one 
and twenty years, and from all taxes and impositions forever, upon 
any goods imported thither, or exported thence into any of the 
realms or dominions of England ; except the five per cent, usual 
by the ancient trade of merchants. But notwithstanding the ex- 
press words of this charter, a tax was laid by the farmers of the 
customs, in the year 1620, upon the tobacco of the colony ; which 
was not only high of itself, but the more oppressive because it laid 
the same tax upon Virginia and Spanish tobacco, when the latter 
sold in the market for three times the price of the former. In the 
same year the same prince was guilty of another violation of the 
charter, in forcing the company to bring all of their tobacco into 
England ; when he found that a portion of their trade had been 
diverted into Holland, and establishments made at Middleburg 
and Flushing. The charters all guarantied to the colony all of 
the rights, privileges, franchises, and immunities of native born 
Englishmen, and this act of usurpation was the first attempt on 
the part of the mother country to monopolize the trade of the 
colony. The next year the king, either his avidity being unsatis- 
fied, or not liking the usurped and precarious tenure by which his 
gains w^ere held, inveigled the Virginia and Somer Isles com- 
pany into an arrangement, by which they were to become the sole 
importers of tobacco ; being bound, however, to import not less 
th?ai forty nor more than sixty thousand pounds of Spanish vari- 
nas, and paying to the king, in addition to the sixpence duty be- 
fore paid, one-third part of all the tobacco landed in the realms. 
The king, on his part, was to prohibit all other importation and all 
planting in England and Ireland ; and that which w^as already 
planted was to be confiscated. 

When the company petitioned parliament to prolong its existence, 
in opposition to the efforts of the king, they failed — but that por- 
tion of their petition, which asked for the exclusive monopoly of 
Se 29 1624 ^^^^^^^ Virginia and the Somer Isles, was grant- 
' ' ed, and a royal proclamation issued accordingly. 
Whether this exclusiveness was understood with the limitation in 
the previous contract between the king and the two companies, it 
is impossible to say, as the original documents are not accessible 
to the writer.* But the probabilities are greatly against the 
limitation. 

Charles had not been long on the throne before he issued a 



* Burke, I. 291, and Bancroft, I. 206— quoting Stith, Cobbett's Parliament. Hist 
and Hazard. 



OUTLINE lilSTURV. 



53 



A ril 162' proclamation, confirming tlic exclusive privileges 
pn • , > o. ^j^^ A'irginia and Somer Isles tobacco ; and i)ro- 
hibiting a violation of their monopoly, under penalty of censure by 
the dread star-chamber. This was soon lollowed by another, in 
which he carefully set forth the Ibrfeiture of their eharter l)y the 
company, and the innnediate dependence of the colony upon the 
crown ; concluding by a plain intimation .of his intention to become 
their sole factor. 

Soon after this, a rumor reached the colonies that an individual 
was in treaty with the king for an exclusive contract for tobacco ; 
one of the conditions of which would have led to the importation 
of so large an amount of Spanish tobacco, as would have driven 
that of the colonists from the market. The earnest representations 
of the colony on this subject caused an abandonment of the scheme; 
but in return, the colony was obliged to excuse itself from a charge 
of trade with the Low Countries, and pi'omise to trade only with 
England. But the king's eagerness for the possession of this 
monopoly was not to be baffled thus. He made a formal proposi- 
tion to the colony for their exclusive trade, in much the same 
language as one tradesman would use to another ; and desired 
that the General Assembly might be convened for the purpose of 
Mar 26 16'^8 ^^'^^^^^I'^^'^S proposition. The answer by the 
' " ■ General Assembly to this proposition is preserved. 
It sets forth in strong, but respectful language the injury which 
had been done the planters, by the mere report of an intention to 
subject their trade to a monopoly : they stale the reasons for not 
engaging in the production of the other staples mentioned by the 
king; and dissent from his proposition as to the purchase of their 
tobacco ; demanding a higher price and better terms of admission, 
in exchange for the exclusive monopoly which he wished. 

In the mean time, the death of his father rendered it necessary 
1626 Francis Wyatt to return to Europe, to attend to his 

private affairs ; and the king appointed Sir George Yeard- 
ley his successor. This was itself a sufficient guarantee of the 
political privileges of the colony ; as he had had the honor of calling 
the first colonial assembly. But in addition to this, his powers 
were, like those of his predecessor, limited to the executive au- 
thority exercised by the governor within live years last past. These 
circumstances taken in connection with the express sanction 
given by Charles to the power of a leirislative assembly, with re- 
gard to his proffered contract for tobacco, sufficiently prove that 
he had no design of interfering with the highly prized privilege of 
self-government enjoyed by the colonists : and fully justifies the 
General Assembly in putting the most I'avorable construction upon 
the king's ambiguous words, announcing his determination to pre- 
serve inviolate all the "former interests" of Virginia, which occur 
in his letter of 1627. 

Thus were those free principles established in Virginia, for 
which the mother country had to struggle for some time longer. 



54 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



The colony rose in the estimation of the public, and a thousand new 
emigrants arrived in one year; which of course much enhanced 
the price of provision. 

Death now closed the career of Yeardley. The character of his 
Nov 14 1627 ^^^•^i'^i^^'^^^io'^ is ^^hibited in the history of the colony; 

' ' and the estimate placed upon his character by those 
who were best acquainted with his conduct, and who were little 
disposed to flatter undeservedly either the living or the dead, is to 
be found in a eulogy written by the government of Virginia to the 
privy council, announcing his death. In obedience to the king's 
commission to the council, they elected Francis West governor, 
the day after the burial of Yeardley. He held the commission 
until the 5th of March, 1628, when, designing to sail for England, 
John Pott was chosen to succeed him. Pott did not continue 
long in office, for the king, when the death of Yeardley was known, 
issued his commission to Sir John Harvey, who arrived some time 
between October, 1628, and March, 1629. 

In the interval between the death of Yeardley and the arrival of Harvey, occurred the 
first act of religi(>us intolerance which defiles the annals of Virginia. 

Lord Baltimore, a Catholic nobleman, allured by the rising reputation of the colony, 
abandoned his settlement in Newfoundland and came to Virginia ; where, instead of be- 
ing received with the cheerful welcome of a friend and a brother, he was greeted with 
the oath of allegiance and supremacy ; the latter of which, it was well known, his 
conscience would not allow him to take. 

Much allowance is to be made for this trespass upon religious freedom before we at- 
tribute it to a wilful violation of natural liberty. The times and circumstances ought to 
be considered. The colony had grown into life while the violent struggles between the 
Romish and Protestant churches were yet rife. The ancient tyranny and oppression 
of the Holy See were yet fresh in the memory of all ; its cruelties and harsh intolerance 
in England were recent ; and yet continuing in the countries in which its votaries had 
the control of the civil government. The light of Protestantism itself was the first 
dawn of religious freedom ; and the thraldom in which mankind had been held by 
Catholic fetters for so many ages, was too terrible to risk the possibility of their ac- 
quiring any authority in government. Eye-witnesses of the severities of Mary were 
yet alive in England, and doubtless many of the colonists had heard fearful relations of 
the religious sutFerings during her reign, probably some had suffered in their own families: 
most of them had emigrated while the excitement against the Papists was still raging 
in England with its greatest fury, and continually kept in action by the discovery, or 
pretended discovery, of Popish plots to obtain possession of the government. Was it 
wonderful, then, that a colony which, with a remarkable uniformity of sentiment, pro- 
fessed a different religion, should be jealous of a faith which sought by every means in 
its power to obtain supreme control, and used that control for the extermination, by the 
harshest means, of all other creeds ? 

The colony in Virginia was planted when the incestuous and monstrous connection 
of church and state had not been severed in any civilized country on the globe ; at a 
period when it would have been heresy to attempt such a divorce, because it required 
all the aid of the civil power to give men sufficient freedom to " profess, and by argu- 
ment to maintain," any other creed than one — and that one the creed of Rome. The 
anxiety of the British government upon this subject, so far from being unnatural, was 
highly laudable, since all its efforts were necessary to sustain its new-born power of 
professing its own creed. The awful effect of (/atholic supremacy, displayed in a 
neighboring kingdom, afforded a warning too terrible* to be easily forgotten ; and it 
would have been as unwise to allow the Catholics equal civil privileges at that day, as 
it would be impolitic and unjust now to exclude them. We find this regard for religious 



* The massacre of the Protestants by the Catholics on St. Bartholomew's day, in 
France, in 1572. 



OUTLINK HISTORY. 



55 



freedom, (for emancipation from the Pope's authority was a great step in rolifrioiis free- 
dom,") carefully fostered in the colonies. Every charter rei|uires the establishment of 
the church of Enjrlaiid, and autiiorizes the infliction of puiiisluncnt for drawinjf otf the 
people from their relijiion. as a matter of equal imi)ortancc with their allcfruince. For 
ut tiiat period, before any important diflerences between the Protestants had arisen, 
when but two religions were struirgling for existence, not to be of the church of England 
was to be a Papist, and not to acknowledge the secular supremacy of the king, was to bow 
to the authority of the pope. The Catholics, as the only subject of terror, were the only 
subjects of intolerance ; no suflicient number of dissenters had availed themselves of 
the great example of Protestantism, in rejecting any creed which did not precisely sat- 
isfy their consciences, to become formidable to mother church ; nor hud she frrown so 
strong and haughty in her new-fledged power, as to level her blows at any but licr lirst 
great antagonist.* 

The colony in Virginia consisted of church of England men ; and 
many of the first acts of their legislature relate to provision for the 
church. Glebe lands were earl}' laid oil", and livings provided. The 
ministers were considered not as pious and charitable individuals, but 
as officers of the state, bound to promote the true faith and sound 
moralit}', by authority of the community by which they were paid, 
and to which they were held responsible for the performance of their 
duty. The very first act of Assembly which was passed, required 
that in ever}' settlement in which the people met to worship God, 
a house should be appropriated exclusively to that purpose, and 
a place paled in to be used solely as a burying-ground ; the second 
act imposed a penalty of a pound of tobacco for absence from 
divine service on Sunday, without sufficient excuse, and fifty 
pounds for a month's absence ; the third, required uniformity, as 
nearly as might be, with the canons in England ; the fourth, en- 
joined the observance of the holy days, (adding the 2"2d of March, 
the day of the iNIassacre, to the number.) dispensing with some, 
"by reason of our necessities;" the fifth, punished any minister 
absenting himself from his church above two months in the year, 
with forfeiture of half his estate — and four months, his whole estate 
and curacy ; the sixth, punished disparagement of a minister ; the 
seventh, prohibited any man from disposing of his tobacco or 
corn, until the minister's portion was first paid. This sacred duty 
discharged, the Assembly next enact salutary regulations for the 
state. We find at the session of 1G29, the act requiring attend- 
ance at church on the Sabbath, specially enforced, and a clause 
added, forbidding profanation of that day by travelling or work ; 
also an act, declaring that all those who work in the ground shall 
pay tithes to the minister. Wo find requisition of uniformity with 
the canons of the English church not only repeated, in every new 
commission from England, but re-enacted by the legislature of 
1629-30, and in 1631-32, as well as in the several revisals of the 



* The persecution of the Puritans was an exception to this. They were persecuted 
with considerable rigor, but their numbers were small, consisting only of two churches, 
and most of those who then existed went to Holland with their leaders, John Hobinsorv 
and Wiiliiim Brewster, in 1607 and 8, and settled in Amsterdam, whence they removed 
to Leyden in 1609, whence they sailed to America in 1620, and landed in Cape Cod 
Harbor on the 7th of November, and seitlod Plymouth on the 31st of December follow 
ing. — Holmes" Am. An. 156-203. 



56 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



laws. - In the acts of 1631-32, we find many acts conveying the 
idea advanced of ministers being considered public officers ; and 
churchwardens required to take an oath, to present ofi'eiices 
against decency or morality, which made them in effect censors 
of the public morals. In these acts, it is made the duty of minis- 
ters to teach children the Lord's prayer, commandments, and the 
articles of faith ; also to attend all persons dangerously sick, to 
instruct and comfort them in their distress ; to keep registers of 
christening, marriages, and deaths ; and to preserve in themselves 
strict moral conduct, as an advancement to religion and an ex- 
ample to others. We find, also, frequent acts passed providing for 
the payment of ministers, until the session of 1657-58. when 
church and state seem to have been effectually divorced ; for, 
though no act of religious freedom was passed, but all were still 
expected, rather than compelled, to conform to the church of Eng- 
land, yet the compulsory payment of ministers was abandoned, 
and all matters relating to the church were left entirely to the 
control of the people. 

From the review which we have given of the religious condi- 
tion of England and the colony, it must be manifest that the ten- 
der of the oath of supremacy to Lord Baltimore, was not only a 
religious but a civil duty in the council, which they could by no 
means have omitted, without a violation of their own oaths, laws, 
and charters. But if any further proof were necessary, to show 
that it flowed from this source, and not from a disposition to reli- 
gious intolerance — it is aftbrded by the liberal invitation given in 
the instructions to Captain Bass to the Puritans, who had settled at 
New Plymouth, to desert their cold and barren soil, and come and 
settle upon Delaware Bay, which was in the limits of Virginia. 

Harvey met his first General Assembly in March, and its acts, 
1629 those of several succeeding sessions, only consist of the 
usual business acts of the colony. We have now ap- 
proached a period in our history, upon which the few scattered 
and glimmering lights which exist, have rather served to mislead 
than to guide historians. It is a period replete with charges made 
by historians, of the most heinous character, against the governor, 
with no evidence upon record to support them. The truth is, that 
Sir John Harvey was deposed and sent home by the colony for 
some improper conduct : but what that was, does not fully appear, 
and historians seem to have thought it their duty to supply the 
defect in the record, by a,busing his administration as arbitrary and 
tyrannical from the first : the charge is without evidence, and 
every probability is against its truth. During the whole of his 
administration, the General Assembly met and transacted their 
business as usual. The fundamental laws which they had passed, 
to which we have before referred, restraining the powers of the 
governor, and asserting the powers of the Assembly, were passed 
again as of course. There could manifestly be no oppression from 
this source. The General Assembly ordered the building of forts, 



OlITLIXE HISTORY. 



57 



made the contracts, provided the payments, provided f^^arrisons and 
soldiers for the field when necessary, and dis})anded them when 
the occasion for their services had ceased. The Assembly and the 
soldiers were planters, and they could be little disposed to oppress 
themselves, their families and friends. The only evid(!nc(^ which 
exists a^^ainst Harvey, is the fact of his being deposed, and sent 
home with commissioners to complain of his conduct to the king ; 
but this did not occur until 1635, after the extensive grants had 
been made to Lord Baltimore and others, w^hich dismembered the 
colony, and were so displeasing to the planters ; and we shall see 
that aid or connivance in these grants were the probable causes 
of Harvey's unpopularity. 

The first act of tyranny towards the colony which we find re- 
corded against Charles, was his grant in 1G30 to Sir Robert Heath 
of a large portion of the lands of the colony — commencing at the 
36th degree of latitude, and including the whole southern portion 
of the United States, under the name of Carolina. But as this 
country was not settled until lon>g afterwards, and the charter be- 
came void by non-compliance with its terms, it could not be re- 
garded as injurious by the colony, except as an evidence of the 
facility with which their chartered rights could be divested. An- 
1632 ^^^^^ instance of a more objectionable character soon oc- 
curred. Cecilius Calvert, Lord Baltimore, obtained a grant 
of that portion of Virginia which is now included in the state of 
Maryland, and immediately commenced a settlement upon it, not- 
withstanding the value which the Virginians set upon it, and their 
having actually made settlements within its limits. William 
Claiborne, who had been a member of the council, and secretary 
of state for Virginia, had obtained a license from the king to 
" traflic in those parts of America where there was no license," 
which had been confirmed by Harvey. In pursuance of this au- 
thority he had settled himself at Kent Island, near the city of An- 
napolis, and seemed by no means inclined tamely to relinquish his 
possessions. He resisted the encroachments of ^Maryland by force. 
This was the first controversy between the whites which ever took 
place on the waters of the Chesapeake. Claiborne was indicted, 
and found of guilty of murder, piracy, and sedition ; and to escape 
punishment he fled to Virginia. When the Maryland commission- 
ers demanded him, Harvey refused to give him up, but sent him to 
England to be tried. It is highly probable that the conduct of 
Harvey in giving up instead ol' protecting Claiborne, incensed the 
colony against him ; for they clearly thought the ^laryland charter 
an infringement of their rights, and they were little inclined to 
submit to imposition from any quarter. 

The account which we have of the trial of Harvey is extremely 
meager, detailing neither the accusations nor the evidence, but 
only the tact. The manner of proceeding, however, as it appears 
on the record, is as little like that of an enslaved people, as it is 
like a *• transport of popular rage and indignation." The whole 

8 



58 OUTLINE HISTORY. 

matter seems to have been conducted with calm deliberation, as a 
free people acting upon the conduct of an unworthy servant. The 
first entry upon the subject runs thus : " An assembly to be called 
to receive complaints against Sir John Harvey, on the petition of 
many inhabitants, to meet 7th of May." Could as much coolness, 
deliberation, and publicity be given to action against a tyrant who 
had already trodden liberty under foot ? or is a transport of popu- 
lar rage so slow in action ? The next entry upon this subject is 
the following: "On the 28th of April, 1635, Sir John Harvey 
thrust out of his government, and Capt. John West acts as gover- 
nor, till the king's pleasure known." It appears that before the 
Assembly met which was to have heard complaints against Har- 
vey, he agreed in council to go to England to answer them ; and 
upon that. West was elected governor. 

How long West governed is uncertain ; ^but it appears by a 
paper among the records, that Harvey was governor again in Jan- 
uary, 1636. It appears that Charles regarded the conduct of the 
colony as an unwarrantable piece of insolence, little short of trea- 
son, and would not even hear them, lest the spectacle of so noble 
an example might inflame the growing discontents in his own 
kingdom, which finally rose to such a pitch, as not only to take the 
same unwarrantable liberty of deposing him, but even laid violent 
hands upon his sacred person. He accordingly sent the commis- 
sioners home with their grievances untold, and Harvey was rein- 
stated in his power without undergoing even a trial. The conduct 
of the colony appears to have been a salutary lesson to him, and 
he probabty feared that for the next offence they would take 
justice into their own hands ; for we hear no complaints of him 
during his administration, which expired in November, 1639. Sir 
Francis Wyatt succeeded him. 

In 1634 the colony was divided into eight shires,* which were 
to be governed as the shires in England: lieutenants were to be 
appointed in the same manner as in England, and it was their 
especial duty to pay attention to the war against the Indians. 
Sheriff's, sergeants, and bailiffs, were also to be elected as in Eng- 
land. In 1628-9 commissions were issued to hold monthly courts 
in the different settlements, which was the origin of our county 
court system. 

At the first assembly which was held after the return of Wyatt, 
several acts were passed, which, from the inattention of historians 
to the circumstances of the times, have received universal repro- 
bation, but which, when properly considered, will be found to be 
marked with great shrewdness, and dictated by the soundest 
policy. 

The act declares that, " tobacco by reason of excessive quantities being made, being 
so low, that the planters could not subsist by it, or be enabled to raise more staple com- 



* Viz., James City, Henrico, Charles City, Elizabeth City, Warwick River, Warros 
quoyoke, Charles River, and Accomack. 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



59 



modities, or pay their debts : therefore it was eiuirtrd, that tlie tohiicoo of that year be 
viewed by sworn viewers, and the rotten ancJ unniorchantahlc. and half the good, to be 
burned. So the whole quantity made would come to 1,;)00,0(I() lbs., without strippitiir rind 
smoothins; ; and the ne.\t two years 170 lbs. tobacco per poll, stripped and smoothed, was 
to be made, which would make, in the whole, about 1,3()U,UUU lbs., and all n editors 
were to take 4U lbs. for a hundred." By a second act, it was declared that " no man 
should be obliired to perform above half his covenants about fieifilitinor tobacco in l(j3y." 
Nothinir could be more absurd than such acts at the })re.«<ent day, and hence they have 
been pronounced absurd at that time. But let us look to the circunihtances. Except 
the little tobacco made in the Sonier Isles, Virginia at that time had the monopoly of 
the Eiiirlisli market. The taste for tobacco was new, existed with few, and could not 
be suddenly extended ; consequently the consumption could not be increast'd in propor- 
tion to the increase of supply, but those who used it would obtain it at a price propor- 
tionably less. Thus a superabundant supply so glutted the market as to reduce the 
article to a price ruinous to the planters. On the other hand, with those who had 
acquired a taste for tobacco, it was nearly indispensable, and if less than a usual cr()p 
was made, the demand enhanced the value of the remainder beyond that of llie full 
crop ; hence the propriety of burning half of the good tobacco. This seems to have 
been perceived, and we have seen no fault found with the first portion of the act ; but 
the latter part, forcing creditors to take less than their full dues, has been pronounced 
flagrantly unjust. But if this had not been done, what would have been the condition 
of the planter ? If he had made a hundred pounds, and owed fifty, the burning and 
his creditor would deprive him of his whole crop, while the creditor receiving the fifty 
pounds at its enhanced value, would receive more than double what was due him. This 
would have been highly oppressive to the debtor, and made the whole act redound en- 
tirely to the benefit of the creditor. Whereas, making him take forty pounds in the 
lumdred, when that forty was enhanced to more than the value of the hundred, was no 
hardship. 

In the early stages of the colony, the planters wanted the comforts of life from Eng- 
land, and not money, for money could purchase nothing in America. It would have been 
wasteful extravagance to have brought it. The Virginians had but one article of export, 
— all trading vessels came for tobacco, — hence that would purchase every thing, and 
became, on that account, useful to every man, and an article of universal desire, as 
money is in other countries, and hence the standard of value and circulating medium of 
the colony. We find, when money first began to be introduced, as the keeping accounts 
in tobacco was inconvenient to the foreign merchants who came to trade, an act was 
passed with the following preamble : — " Whereas it haih been the usual custom of 
merchants and others dealing intermutually in this colony, to make all bargains, con- 
tracts, and to keep all accounts in tobacco, and not in money," &c. It then goes on to enact 
that in future they should be kept in money, and that in all pleas and actions the value 
should be represented in money. This was in 1633. But it was found so inconvenient 
to represent value by an arbitrary standard, the representative of which did not exist in 
the colony, that another act was passed in January, Kill, declaring that, — " Whereas 
many and great inconveniences do daily arise by dealing for money. Be il cjiacted and 
confirmed by the authority of this present Grand Assembly, that all money-debts made 
since the 26th day of March, 1642, or wliich hereafter shall be made, shall not be 
pleadable or recoverable in any court of justice under this government." An exception 
was afterwards made in 1642-3, in favor of debts contracted for horses or shee|), but 
money-debts generally were not even made recoverable again until 16.56. We thus see 
that tobacco was the currency, and an excess as injurious as an over-i.ssue of bank-paper, 
depreciating itself in the market, or, in common parlance, causing every thing to rise 
We see, moreover, the cause of the excessive care taken in burning bad tobacco, since 
that was as important to the uniformity of their currency as the exclusion of counter- 
feits in a money currency. All the viewings, censorships, inspections, regulations of the 
amount to be cultivated by each planter, each hand, — the quantity to be trathered from 
each plant, — the regulations prescribed as to curing it, — are to he regarded more as iimit 
regulations than as regulations of agricultural industry. Indeed, we find the attempt 
to sell or pay bad tobacco, is made a crime precisely as it is now to sell or pay coimter- 
feit money. This act of Assembly then allowed debtors to discharge themselves by 
paying half their debts in amount, did, in efiect, make them pav all in value, a id can 
by no means be compared to the acts of states or princes in debasing the coin, and 
allowing it to retain its old nominal value, or by introducing valueless paper money ; in 
these cases, the debt is paid nominally, or in words, but not in value, whereas in Vir- 



60 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



ginia it was not paid nominally, as it had been contracted for so many pounds of 
tobacco, but it was paid in fewer pounds, rendered of greater actual value than the 
debt would have amounted to if paid in pounds before the burning of half the quantity 
made. 

Wyatt remained governor only for one year and a few months, 
when he was succeeded by Sir William Berkeley. Historians who 
have not been aware of the intermediate administration of Wyatt 
and have heard no complaint of Berkeley, have delighted to deck 
his character in the gayest colors, in contrast to the black charac- 
ter which they have drawn of Harvey. There can be no doubt 
that he was esteemed an accomplished and chivalric gentleman ; 
but his accession brought no increase of political freedom to Vir- 
ginia, and his commission did not differ from those of his prede- 
cessors. On the contrary, the instructions which he brought, so 
far from granting new franchises, imposed new, severe, and un- 
warrantable restrictions on the liberty of trade ; England claiming 
that monopoly of colonial commerce, which was ultimately enforc- 
ed by the navigation act, and which was a perpetual source of 
contention, until all differences were finally healed by the revo- 
lution. 

Berkeley arrived in February, 1642 ; an assembly met in March, 
and soon after passed a solemn protest against a petition which 
Sir George Sandys had presented to Parliament for the restoration 
of the company. This paper is drawn with great ability, and sets 
forth the objections to the petition in very strong and striking 
terms. They enlarge especially upon the wish and power of the 
company to monopolize their trade ; the advantages and happiness 
secured to them by their present form of government, with its an- 
nual assemblies and trial by jurj^ ; the fact, that a restitution of the 
power of the company would be an admission of the illegality of 
the king's authority, and a consequent nullification of the grants 
and commissions issued by him ; and the impossibility of men, 
however wise, at such a distance, and unacquainted with the cli- 
mate or condition of the country, to govern the colony as well as 
it could be governed by their own Grand Assembly. The king, in 
reply to this, declared his purpose not to change a form of govern- 
ment in which they received so much content and satisfaction. 

Other important matters were settled at this legislature. A tax for the benefit of the 
governor was abolished. The punishment by condemnation to temporary service was 
abolished, which had existed ever since the foundation of the colony ; and this protec- 
tion to liberty was considered as so important to the Assembly, that they declared it was 
to be considered as a record by the inhabitants of their birthright as Englishmen, and 
that Ihe oppression of the late company was quite extinguished. The governor proba- 
bly received some benefit from these considerations, for lie is praised for giving his as- 
sent to an act in which he preferred the public freedom to his particular profit. A near- 
er approach was made to the laws and customs of England in proceedings of courts and 
tririls of causes. Better regulations were prescribed for discussing and deciding land 
titles. The bounds of parishes were more accurately marked. A treaty with Mary- 
land, opening the trade of the Chesapeake, was matured ; and peace with the Indians 
confirmed. Taxes were proportioned more to men's estates and abilities than to the 
numbers, by which the poor were much relieved, "but which through the strangeness 
thereof could not but require much time and debating." They published a list of their 
acts in order to show to the colony that they had not swerved from " the true intent of 



OUTLINE IIISTORV. 



tlicir happy constitution," wliich roquirod thcni to " enact pood and wholesome laws, 
and rectily and relieve such disorders and grievances as arc ineiileni to all .slat'-s and re- 
publics; but that their late consultations would redound ^rreally to the benefit of the 
colony and their posterity." In the conclusion of that list, they slate, that the [/racious 
inclitiation of his majesty, ever ready to protect them, and now more purli(;idai ly assu- 
red to them, to;rether with tlie concurrence of a happy Parliament in Enjriand, were the 
motives which induced Uiein to take this opp'.)rtunity to *• establisli ihtir ld)erti<'S and 
privileges, and settle their estates, often before assaulted and threatened, and lately inva- 
ded by the corporation ; and to prevent the future desi:rii3 of monopolizers, contractors, 
and pre-emptors, ever usurping the benefit of their labors; and they apprehended that no 
time could be niisspent, or labor misplaced, in gaining a firm peace to themselves and 
posterity, and a future immunity and case to themselves from tuxes and impositions, 
which they expected to be the fruits of their endeavors." 

The Indians had been driven back, and weakened by a p(M'[)('t- 
ual succession of hostilities, from the time of the great massacre, 
until the year lOU. During the latter years of this period, we 
have little account of their proceedings, but the rapid increase of 
the settlements had driven them from the rich borders of the 
rivers in the lower country, higher into the interior, and the new 
grants were every day driving them still farther from the homes 
of their fathers. This incessant warfare, while it weakened them 
164i ^ nation, had increased their cunning and skill in par- 
tisan warfare. Opechancanough, thouijh now so old that 
he had to be carried in a litter, and so feeble that he could not 
raise his eyelids without assistance, still retained sufficient strength 
of mind to embody a combination of the various tribes under his 
control, and make a sudden and violent attack upon many ol' the 
frontier settlements at once. Little is known of the circumstances 
attending this second great massacre. An act of Assembly of 
1645, making the eighteenth day of April a holiday and day of 
thanksgiving, for escape from the Indians, marks the period of the 
massacre. Other evidence makes the number of their vic:ims 
three hundred.* The precautions which the whites had been 
taught to take by the previous massacre, in trading with them only 
at particular places, in always going armed, in never admitting 
them to the same familiarity, effectually prevented them, \\ ith all 
their caution in approach, and violence of attack, from committing 
as great slaughter as they had upon the former occasion. The 
whites do not seem to have been stricken with a panic now as for- 
merly, but quickly sallied upon their assailants, and drove them 
back so rapidly that their venerable chieftain himself had to be 
deserted by his attendants, and was taken by Sir William Berke- 
ley, at the head of a squadron of light cavalry. He was carried 
to Jamestown, and manifested, in his imprisonment, the same 
haughty dignity which had always distinguished him. He pre- 
served a proud and disdainful silence, and such indifference to the 
passing scenes, that he rarely requested his eyelids to be raised. 
In this melancholy condition, he was basely shot in the back by 
his sentinel, with whom recollection of Ibrmer injuries overcame 



* Bancroft, p. 224. — Burke, v. II. p. 55, says— on authority of Beverley — " five hun- 
dred." 



62 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



all respect for helpless age, or former greatness. The only subject 
which called forth any show of regret from him was a flash of an- 
gry indignation, at being exposed in his dying hours to the idle and 
curious gaze of his enemies. 

So Utile regard was now paid to the Indian hostilities, that, on 
the following June, Sir William Berkeley sailed for England, and 
the council elected Richard Kemp to occupy his post dntil his re- 
turn. In the mean time, the warfare with the Indians continued 
without remission. It appears by an act of the latter part of the 
year 1644, that many of the inhabitants, probably on the frontiers, 
had been collected in large bodies ; but leave was then given them 
to dispose of themselves for their best advantage and conve- 
nience, provided that in places of danger there should not be less 
than ten men allowed to settle." 

Sir William Berkeley again took possession of his government 
Oct 5 1646 J^^^^' ^^^^ ' and in the following year a treaty of 
' ' ^ ' peace was concluded with the Indians, by which 
Necotowance, the successor of Opechancanough, acknowledged 
that he held his kingdom of the crown of England, and agreed 
that his successors should be appointed or confirmed by the king's 
governor ; on the other hand, the Assembly, on behalf of the colo- 
ny, undertook to protect him against rebels and all enemies what- 
soever. In this treaty, the Indians were permitted to dwell on the 
north side of York River, but ceded to the whites all the country 
from the falls of the James and York to the bay, forever ; and any 
Indian coming upon that territory was to sufier death, unless he 
bore the badge of a messenger. The Indians were also to surren- 
der all prisoners, negroes, and arms taken. Other articles were 
added, prescribing the form of intercourse. Thus were the abo- 
rigines at length finally excluded from their father-land, leaving 
no monument of their having existed, save the names of the wa- 
ters and mountains, and the barrows containing the ashes of their 
ancestors.* 

Thus the colony of Virginia acquired the management of all its 
concerns ; war was levied, and peace concluded, and territory ac- 
quired, in conformity to the acts of the representatives of the peo- 
ple ; while the people of the mother country had just acquired 
these privileges, after a long and bloody conflict with their former 
sovereign. Possessed of security and quiet, abundance of land, a 
free market for their staple, and, practically, all the rights of an 
independent state — having England for its guardian against for- 
eign oppression, rather than its ruler — the colonists enjoyed all the 
prosperity which a virgin soil, equal laws, and general uniformity 



* I know of no such thing existing as an Indian monument — of labor on the large 
scale. I think there is no, remain as respectable as would be a common ditch for the 
draining of lands; unless, indeed, it would be the barrows, of which many are to be 
found all over the country. That they were repositories of the dead, has been obvious 
to all ; but on what particular occasion constructed, was a matter of doubt. — ^Jefferson's 
Notes on Va., p. 132. 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



63 



of condition and industry, could bestow. Their numbers increased ; 
the cottatres were fiMed with children, as the ports were with ships 
and emi^j^rants. At Christmas, 1(148. there were trading^ in \'irgiiiia, 
ten ships trom London, two from Bristol, twelve Hollanders, and 
seven from New England. The number of the colonists was al- 
ready twenty thousand, and they, who had sustained no griefs, 
were not teiYipted to engage in the feuds by which the mother 
country was divided. They were attached to the cause of Charles, 
not because they loved monarchy, but because they cherished the 
1G49 ^^^^^^i^s which he had left them in the undisturb(>d pos- 
session ; and after his execution, though there were not' 
wantinir some who tavored republicanism, the government recog- 
nised his son without dispute. 

The loyalty of the Virginians did not escape the attention of 
June 1650 ^^^^ royal exile : from his retreat in Breda he trans- 
' * mitted to Berkeley a new commission, and Charles the 
Second, a fugitive from England, was still the sovereign of Vir- 
ginia. 

But the Parliament did not long permit its authority to be de- 
nied. Having, by the vigorous energy and fearless enthusiasm of 
republicanism, triumphed over all its enemies in Europe, it turned 
its attention to the colonies ^ and a memorable ordinance at once 
empowered the council of state to reduce the rebellious colonies to 
obedience, and at the same time established it as a law that for- 
eign ships should not trade at any of the ports "in Barbadoes, 
Antigua, Bermudas, and A'irginia." Thus giving the first example 
of that wholesale blockade, afterwards rendered so notorious by 
the celebrated orders in council during the wars of the French 
revolution. Maryland, which was not expressly included in the 
ordinance, had taken care to acknowledge the new order of things ; 
and Massachusetts, alike unwilling to encounter the hostility of 
Parliament, and jealous of the rights of independent legislation, 
by its own enactment, prohibited all intercourse with A^irginia till 
the supremacy of the commonwealth should be established, — al- 
though the order, when it was found to be injurious to commerce, 
was promptly repealed, even while royalty still tlourished at 
Jamestown. 

A powerful fleet, with a considerable body of land forces on 
board, sent out to bring the colonies to submission, having subdued 
Barbadoes and Antifjua, cast anchor before Jamestown. Sir Wil- 
liam Berkeley and his hardy colonists had not been inactive : the 
growing strength of the colony had recently been increased by the 
acquisition of many veteran cavaliers from the king's army, and it 
now presented no contemptible force. vSeveral Dutch ships which 
were lying in the river, and which, as trading contrary to the 
prohibition of Parliament, were armed, to provide ae^ainst surprise 
by the commonwealth's fleets, were also pressed into service. 
This show of resistance induced the commissioners of Parliament 
to hesitate, before they attempted to reduce the colony to obedience 



64 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



by force, and to offer them fair and honorable terms of submission. 
The terms offered being such as completely satisfied the Virgini- 
ans that their freedom was to be preserved inviolate, and their 
present happy constitution guarantied, while they were to suffer 
nothing for past conduct, they readily acquiesced, since they gained 
all by such a surrender which they could effect by the most successful 
warfare. It appears that they never anticipated any thing more 
than the preservation of their own liberties from wanton violation 
from the new and untried power which now held the reins of 
government in England, and could scarcely have been mad 
enough to hope to effect any thing favorable to the king by their 
resistance. 

The articles of surrender are concluded between the commissioners of the common- 
wealth, and the council of state and Grand Assembly of Virginia, as equarl treating with 
equal. It secures — 

1st. That this should be considered a voluntary act, not''forced or constrained by a 
conquest vpon the country ; and that the colonists should have and enjoy such freedoms 
and privileges as belong to the freeborn people of England. 

2dly. That the Grand Assembly, as formerly, should convene and transact the affairs 
of Virginia, doing nothing contrary to the government of the commonwealth or laws of 
England. 

3dly. That there should be a full and total remission of all acts, words, or writings 
against the Parliament. 

4thly. That Virginia should have her ancient bounds and limits, granted by the char- 
ters of the former kings, and that a new charter was to be sought from Parliament to 
that effect, against such as had trespassed upon their ancient rights. [This clause 
would seem to be aimed at some of the neighboring colonies.] 

5thly. That all patents of land under the seal of the colony, granted by the governor, 
should remain in full force. 

6thly. That the privilege of fifty acres of land for every person emigrating to the 
colony, should remain in full force. 

7thly. That the people of Virginia have free trade, as the people of England enjoy, 
with all places and nations, according to the laws of the commonwealth ; and that 
Virginia should enjoy equal privileges, in every respect, with any other colony in 
America. 

8thly. That Virginia should be free from all taxes, customs, and impositions whatso- 
ever ; and that none should be imposed upon them without the consent of their Grand 
Assembly ; and no forts or castles be erected, or garrison maintained, without their con- 
sent. 

9thly. That no charge should be required from the country on account of the expense 
incurred in the present fleet. 

lOthly. That this agreement should be tendered to all persons, and that such as should 
refuse to subscribe to it, should have a year's time to remove themselves and effects from 
Virginia, and in the mean time enjoy equ:.,l justice. 

The remaining articles were of less importance. This was followed by a supple- 
mental treaty, for the benefit of the governor and council, and such soldiers as had 
served against the commonwealth in England, — allowing them the most favorable 
terms. 

If this was a conquest, happy would it be for most colonies to 
be conquered. Every privilege was secured which could possibly 
be asked, and the liberties of the colony were established more 
thoroughly than they had ever been ; and the conquest was only 
less favorable to Virginia than her declaration of independence, 
by having her rights depending upon the pledged faith of another 
nation, instead of having them entirely under her own control. 
The correspondence between the rights now secured, and the rights 



« 



OUTLLVE HlSTORV. 



65 



mentioned in the Declaration of Independence as violated by the 
British king, is remarkable. 

All matters were thus happily and amicably arranjred ; and, as 
Sir William Berkeley was too loyal a subject to be willing to take 
oflice under Parliament, Richard Bennett, one of the commissioners, 
was elected governor. A council was also elected, with powers 
to act in conformity to the instructions they should receive from the 
Parliament, the known law of England, and the Acts of Assembly, 
and such other powers as the Assembly should think proper from 
time to time to give them. It was declared, at the same session, 
that it was best that officers should be elected by the Burgesses, 
*' the representatives of the people and after discussion upon the 
propriety of allowing the governor and council to be members of 
the Assembly, it was determined that they might, by taking the 
same oath which was taken by the Burgesses. The Assembly 
thus having no written constitution as their guide, took upon them- 
selves the office of a convention of the people, and granted or re- 
sumed powers as it might seem best for the good of the country. 

The whites and the remnants of the neighboring Indian tribes 
continued to be upon good terms, and the latter were kindly and 
humanely treated by the guardian care of the Assembly. A slight 
irruption of the Rappahannocks seems to have been soon termi- 
nated. But a new scene in the history of the colony now present- 
ed itself. The Rechahecrians, a fierce and warlike tribe, came 
down from the mountains, and took up a strong position on the 
falls of James River, with six or seven hundred warriors. This 
excited no little uneasiness, as it had been very difficult to extir- 
pate the Indians who had formerly possessed the spot. The first 
expedition against them failed ; a new one was prepared, and 
the subject Indians being called upon for aid, furnished a hundred 
warriors, most of whom, with their chief, Totopotomoi, fell fighting 
gallantly. 

When Bennett retired from office, and the Assembly elected Ed- 
March 31 1655 ^^ ^^^^ I^'&o^'s his successor, the commissioners of 
' ' the commonwealth had little to do with control- 
ling the destinies of Virginia, but were engaged in settling the 
afl^airs and adjusting the boundaries of Maryland. 

The Assembly reciting the articles of agreement with the com- 

TVT I, io i£.-o missioners of Parliament, which admitted that 
March IS, lbo8. , . r n /r i- *i i 

the election oi all ollicers ol the colony apper- 
tained to the Burgesses, the representatives of the people pro- 
ceeded to the election of a governor and council until the next 
Assembly; and the choice fell upon ''worlhy Samuel Matthews, 
an old planter, of nearly forty years standing, — a most deserving 
commonwealth's man, who kept a good house, lived bravely, and 
was a true lover of Alrginia." But this worthy old gentleman 
seems to have conceived higher ideas of his powers than the As- 
sembly was willing to allow. Tlie Assembly had determined not 
to dissolve itself, but only to adjourn until the first of November 

^ 9 



66 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



4 



They then proceeded with their ordinary business, making, how- 
ever, one important change in the constitution, — which was, to 
require that all propositions and laws presented by a committee 
should be first discussed by the House of Burgesses in private, 
before the admission of the governor and council. The governor 
and council, on the first of April, sent a message declaring that 
they thought fit then to dissolve the Assembly, and requiring the 
speaker to dismiss the Burgesses. To this the Assembly returned 
for answer, that the act was illegal, and without precedent, and 
requested a revocation of it, as they expected speedily to finish 
their business. The house then declared, that any member who 
should depart should be censured, as betraying the trust reposed 
in him by his country ; and that the remainder should act in all 
things, and to all intents and purposes, as an entire house ; that 
the speaker should sign nothing without the.consent of a majority 
of the house, and that the members should take an oath not to 
disclose the acts or debates of that body. The governor replied 
to the communication from the house, that he was willing that the 
house should conclude its business speedily, and refer the dispute 
as to the legality of his power to dissolve, to the decision of the 
Lord Protector. The house unanimously decided this answer to 
be unsatisfactory, expressed an earnest desire that public business 
might be soon dispatched, and requested the governor and council 
to declare the house undissolved, in order that a speedy period 
might be put to public affairs. In reply to this, the governor and 
council revoked the order of dissolution, upon their promise of a 
speedy conclusion, and again referred the matter of disputed right 
to the Lord Protector. The house, still unsatisfied with this an- 
swer, appointed a committee to draw up a report in vindication 
of the conduct of the Assembly, and in support of its power. In 
the report, the Burgesses declare that they have in themselves full 
power of election and appointment of all officers in the country, 
until they should have an order to the contrary from the supreme 
power in England ; that the house of Burgesses, the representa- 
tives of the people, were not dissolvable by any power yet extant 
in Virginia, except their own ; that the former election of gover- 
nor and council was null, and that, in future, no one should be ad- 
mitted a counsellor unless he was nominated, appointed, and con- 
firmed by the house of Burgesses. 

They then directed an order to the sheriff' of James City coun- 
ty, who was their sergeant-at-arms, that he should execute no war- 
rant, precept, or command, directed to him by any other power or 
person than the Speaker of the House. They then ordered, that 
*' as the supreme power of the country of Virginia had been de- 
clared resident in the Burgesses," the secretary of state should be 
required to deliver up the public records to the speaker. An oath 
was prescribed for the governor and council to take, and the same 
governor was elected and most of the same council. Thus were 
all difficulties adjusted, and popular sovereignty fully established. 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



67 



Upon the death of Cromwell, tlie House of Burj^esses unani- 
Ma 1 1659 "^^^^b' recognised his son llichard, and adopted an 

arc 1, o . g^jjj,(.gg praying a conlirmation of their former priv- 
ileges, in which address the governor was required to join, after 
solemnly acknowledging, in the presence of the whole Assembly, 
that the supreme power of electing ollicers was, by the present 
laws, resident in the Grand Assembly ; which was alleged to be 
required for this reason, that what was their privilege now might 
belong to their posterity hereafter. 

Matthews died, leaving the colony of Virginia without a gover- 
March 1660 ^^^'^^ ^^^^ same time that the resignation of 

' ^ * Richard Cromwell left England without a head. In 
this emergency the Assembly, reciting that the late frequent dis- 
tractions in England preventing any power IVom being generally 
confessed ; that the supreme power of the colony should be vested 
in the Assembly, and that all writs should issue in its name, until 
such a command and commission should come from England as 
should by the Assembly be adjudged lawful. Sir William Berke- 
ley was then elected governor, \vith the express stipulation that 
he should call an Assembly once in two years at least, and should 
not dissolve the Assembly without its own consent. This old roy- 
alist, probably thinking now that there w^as a prospect of the res- 
toration, accepted the oifice under the prescribed conditions, and 
acknowledged himself to be but the servant of the Assembly. 

During; the suspension of the royal government in England, Virginia attained un- 
limited liberty of commerce, which they regulated by independent laws. The ordinance 
of 1650 was rendered void by the act of capitulation ; the navig-ation act of Cromwell 
was not designed for her oppression, and was not enforced within her borders. Only 
one confiscation aj)pears to have taken place, and that was entirely by the authority of 
the Grand Assembly. The war between England and Holland necessarily interrupted 
the intercourse of the Dutch with the English colonies ; but, if after the treaty of peace 
the trade was considered contraband, the English restrictions were entirely disregarded. 

1655 ^oni'^'issioners were sent to England to undeceive Cromwell with regard to the 
course Virginia had taken with reference to the boundary of Maryland, with 

regard to which he had been misinformed ; and to present a remonstrance demanding 
unlimited freedom of trade ; which, it appears, was not refused, for some months before 
the Protector's death, the Virghiians invited tne " Dutch and all foreigners"' to trade with 
them on payment of no higher duty than that which was levied on such English vessels 
as were bound for a foreign port. Proposals of peace and commerce be; ween New- 
Netherland and Virginia were discussed without scruple by the respective colonial gov. 
ernments ; and at last a special statute of Virginia e.vtended to every Christian nation, 
in amity with England, a promise of liberty of trade and equal justice. 

1660 restoration, Virginia enjoyed freedom of com- 

merce with the whole world. 
Virginia was the hrst state in the world composed of separate 
townships, diffused over an extensive surface, w^iere the govern- 
IQ^^ ment w^as organized on the principle of universal suff'rage. 
All freemen, without exception, were entitled to vote. The 

1656 suffrage was once restricted, but it was soon after 
determined to be " hard and unagreeable to reason, that 

any person shall pay ecjual taxes and yet have no vote in the elec- 
tion and the eh^ctoral franchise was restored to all freemen. 



(38 



OUTLINE HISTORY, 



Servauts, when the time of their bondage was completed, at once 
became electors ; and might be chosen burgesses. Thus Virginia 
established upon her soil the supremacy of the popular branch, the 
freedom of trade, the independence of religious societies, the secu- 
rity from foreign taxation, and the universal elective franchise. If 
in the following years she departed from either of these principles, 
and yielded a reluctant consent to change, it was from the influ- 
ence of foreign authority. Virginia had herself established a 
nearly independent democracy. Prosperity advanced with free- 
dom ; dreams of new staples and infinite wealth were indulged ; 
w^hile the population of Virginia at the epoch of the restoration 
may have been about thirty thousand. Many of the recent emi- 
grants had been royalists in England, good officers in the war, 
men of education, of property, and of condition. But the waters 
of the Atlantic divided them from the political strifes of Europe ; 
their industry was employed in making the best advantage of their 
plantations ; the interests and liberties of Virginia, the land which 
they adopted as their country, were dearer to them than the mo- 
narchical principles which they had espoused in England ; and 
therefore no bitterness could exist between the partisans of the 
Stuarts and the friends of republican liberty. Virginia had long 
been the home of its inhabitants — "Among many other blessings," 
said their statute-book, " God Almighty hath vouchsafed increase 
of children to this colony ; who are now multiplied to a consider- 
able number and the huts in the wilderness were as full as the 
birds' nests of the woods. 

The genial climate and transparent atmosphere delighted those 
who had come from the denser air of England. Every object in 
nature was new and wonderful. 

The hospitality of the Virginians became proverbial. Labor 
was valuable ; land was cheap ; competence promptly followed 
industry. There was no need of a scramble ; abundance gushed 
from the earth for all. The morasses were alive with water-fowl ; 
the forests were nimble with game ; the woods rustled with covies 
of quails and wild turkeys, while they sung with the merry notes 
of the singing birds ; and hogs, swarming like vermin, ran at large 
in troops. It was " the best poor man's country in the world." 
"If a happy peace be settled in poor England," it had been said, 
" then they in Virginia shall be as happy a people as any under 
heaven." But plenty encouraged indolence. No domestic manu- 
factures were established; every thing was imported from England. 
The chief branch of industry, for the purpose of exchanges, was 
tobacco planting ; and the spirit of invention was enfeebled by the 
uniformity of pursuit. 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



69 



CHAPTER V. 

bacon's rebellion HOSTILE DESIGNS OF THE FRENCH. 

Indifference to change in England. — Navigation Act. — Convicts. — Conspiracy detected. 
— Discontents. — Cessation from tobacco planting for one year. — Royal grants. — 
Virginia's remonstrance. — Success of deputies. — Indian hostilities. — Army raised 
and disbanded by governor. — People petition for an army — elect Bacon commander 
-he marches without commission and defeats Indians — pursued by goccrnor, who 
retreats on hearing of rising at Jamestown. — Governor makes concessions. — Bacon 
prisoner — is pardoned. — People force commission from governor. — Bacon marches to 
meet Indians — hears he is declared a rebel by Berkeley — inarches to meet him — he 
flees to Accomac. — Convention called and free government established. — Baron de. 
feats the Indians. — Berkeley obtains possession of the shipping, and occupies James- 
town — is besieged by Bacon, and driven out. — Jamestown burnt — Death of Bacon — 
character of his enterprise. — Predatory warfare — treaty between governor and his 
opponents. — Cruelty of Berkeley. — King^s commissioners. — Departure of Berkeley, 
and his death. — Acts of Assembly passed during Baron's influence. — Conduct of 
king's commissioners. — Culpepcr governor. — Discontents. — Conduct of Beverly. — 
Hoxcard governor. — General conduct of Virginia and progress of affairs. — Plan of 
Collier for dividing the British colonies. 

As Virginia had provided for herself a government substan- 
tially free, the political changes in England could have little elfect 
upon her repose, provided no attempt was made to interfere with* 
the freedom of her trade, or her local government. She seemed 
content to be under the protection, rather than control, of what- 
ever power the people of En^rland thought proper to place at the 
head of affairs, provided that power did not seek to extend the 
conceded authority. In this mood she had adhered to Charh^s I. 
until the Parliament, by its commissioners, promised a preserva- 
tion of all her privileges; she acknowledged Cromwell upon a 
similar promise, and his son Richard under the same idea; upon 
his resignation she held herself aloof, thus proving how perfect 
and how independent was her own local government, until the 
voice of England should declare who should rule ; and upon the 
accession of Charles II. she gave in her allegiance to him. As in 
all these British changes she remained unconcerned and unmoved, 
so the last caused neither extraordinary joy nor regret. The colo- 
nists, thus free from external sources of uneasiness, proceeded to 
legislate upon internal matters ; providing rewards for the en- 
couragement of silk and other staples : negotiating with Carolina 
and Maryland for the adoption of uniform measures for the im- 
provement of tobacco, and diminishinij its quantity; and provid- 
ing for the erection of public buildings, the improvement of James- 
town, and other subjects of general utility. 

While the colonists were proceeding in this useful occupation, 
1663 ^^^^y ^^'^^^ alarmed by the intelligence of the re-enaction 
of the navigation act, odious with new prohibitions, and 
armed with new penalties. The Virginians had long enjoyed a 
very beneficial trade with other countries besides England, and 
had early perceived its advantages, often urging the propriety of 



70 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



its continuance, and contending that " freedom of trade was the 
life of a commonwealth." But the object of the navigation act 
was to confine its trade exclusively to England, for the encourage- 
ment of English shipping, and the emolument of English merchants, 
as well as the promotion of the king's revenue ; without regard to 
the gross injury done to the colony by depriving her of the benefit 
of competition in her harbors. The colony remonstrated in vain, 
and continued boldly her trade with all such foreigners as would 
venture to encounter the risk of being taken by the English crui- 
sers, and encountering the penalties of the act. 

Jt appears to have been for some time the practice to send felons 
and other obnoxious persons to the colony, to expiate their ofl^'ences 
by serving the planters for a term of years. At the restoration 
many of the veteran soldiers of Cromwell, to whom it was antici- 
pated the return of the ancien regime would not be particularly 
palatable, were shipped to Virginia to work off" their spleen in the 
cultivation of tobacco. It appears that this new business was not 
as agreeable to them as they had found the psalm-singing and 
plundering of the royalists, under the command of their devout 
leader ; and they accordingly quickly organized an insurrection, 
by the operation of which they were to change places with such 
of their masters as were left alive by the process. But this out- 
breaking, which seems to have been well planned and extensively 
organized, was prevented by the compunction of one of their asso- 
ciates, who disclosed the whole affair to the governor the evening 
before it was to have gone into effect ; and adequate means were 
Feb 13 ^^^^'^ prevent the design. Four of the conspirators 
* were executed. But this evil of importing jail-birds, as 
they were called, increased to such an extent that it was prohib- 
ited by the General Court, in 1670, under severe penalties. 

The increase in the amount of tobacco raised by the increase of 
June 5 1666 colony and the settlement of Maryland and 
' * Carolina, far outstripped the increase of taste for it, 
rapid as that was, and caused such a glut of the commodity that 
its price fell to an amount utterly ruinous to the planter. In this 
the exclusive privilege of purchase which England enjoyed, not- 
withstanding the extensive contraband trade, no doubt largely 
contributed ; but this the planters could not prevent, and their 
only remaining resource was in diminishing the amount of tobacco 
raised. To eftect this various schemes had been devised, but they 
were all liable to be evaded, and were, if successful, too partial 
in their operation to effect the object desired. Nothing could be' 
efficient, short of a total cessation from planting for one year, and 
this was at last accomplished after long negotiations with Mary- 
land and Carolina. 

Many other staples had been recommended from time to time to 
the planters, and even encouraged by bounties and rewards, and 
this year, it was thought, would give them more leisure to attend 
to the subject. But it is not probable that many engaged in the , 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



71 



occupations proposed, which re({uircd the iiivfstment of capit.'il, 
the acquisition of skill, and the aid of time to render them profit- 
able ; and the year's leisure only served to increase the growing 
discontent, especially as towards its end Maryland began to be 
suspected of bad faith. 

There wvrv other causes of discontent which probably prevailed 
between different classes of society. Loud com{)laint was made 
of the manner in which taxes were levied, (Mitircly on persons 
without regard to propert}', which, as there must have been a very 
large class of poor free i)ersons now existing, from the frequent 
emancipation, and expiration of the terms of those who came over 
as servants, besides those who were free but poor when they came 
to the country, must have created considerable excitement. An 
etibrt was made to remedy this evil by laying a tax on property, 
but inelfectually ; the only result being a small export duty on to- 
bacco, in aid of the general revenue. 

While the taxes bore thus hard upon the poorer portion of the 
community, they also had just reason to complain of exclusion 
from the right of suffrage b}- an act of 1670, and from the Legis- 
lature, to which none but freeholders could be chosen ; as well as 
of the enormous pay which the Burgesses appropriated to them- 
selves, of one hundred and fifty pounds of tobacco per diem, and 
one hundred for their horses and servants. The forts were also 
complained of as a source of heavy expenditure, without any 
benefit ; their chief use, indeed, being rather injurious, as they kept 
oif traders who violated the navigation acts. 

But these evils in domestic legislation were trivial, compared 
with those produced by the criminal prodigality of Charles, who 
wantonly made exorbitant grants to his favorites of large tracts 
of lands, without a knowledge of localities, and conse(|uenily with- 
out regard to the claims or even the settlements of others. To 
cap the climax of royal munificence, the gay monarch, in, perhaps, 
a fnerry mood, granted to Lords Culpeper and Arlington the whole 
colony of Virginia, for thirty-one years, with privileges ellectually 
royal as . far as the colony was concerned, only reserving some 
mark of homage to himselt". This might be considered at court, 
perhaps, as a small bounty to a favorite, but was taken in a very 
serious light by the forty thousand people thus unceremoniously 
transferred. The Assembly, in its extravagance, only took from 
them a great proportion of their profits ; but the king was filching 
their capital, their lands, and their homes, which they had inherited 
from their fathers, or laboriously acquired by their own strenuous 
exertion. 

The Legislature sent three deputies to England, to remonstrate 
with the king against these intolerable grants, to endeavor to pro- 
cure his assent to some charter which might secure them against 
such impositions for the future ; and if they should iail in the first 
of these objects, to endeavor to buy out the rights of the patentees. 
To bear the expense of these three deputies, Mr. Ludwell, Mr. 



72 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



Morryson, and Mr. Smith, the enormous annual tax of fifty pounds 
of tobacco was laid upon every tilheable person for two years, 
which, though it was for a popular object, was considered as of 
itself an intolerable grievance, at which we cannot wonder when 
we reflect that many who had to pay this tax did not own a foot 
of land. The amount can only be accounted for, by supposing 
much of it was to be used as secret service money, with such of 
his majesty's minions as could only see justice through a golden 
medium. 

These deputies exerted themselves with remarkable success, 
and procured from the king an order for a charter, precisely in 
conformity to the petition which they presented, and providing 
against the grievances of which they complained ; especially 
grants from the crown without information from the governor and 
council in Virginia that such grants would be of no injury; de- 
pendence immediately upon the crown of England, and not on 
any subfeudatory ; and exemption from taxation without consent 
of the Grand x\ssembly. His majesty ordered the solicitor-general 
and attorney-general to prepare a bill embodying these and the 
other matters embraced in their petition, in due legal form, for his 
signature ; but the matter, notwithstanding the most assiduous 
attention of the deputies, was so long delayed in going through 
the official forms that it was finally stopped, before its completion, 
in the Hanaper office, by the news of Bacon's Rebellion. 

Soon after the deputies left Virginia, the difficulties of the colony 
had been increased by the addition of an Indian war, which, al- 
though not now, as formerly, a matter causing danger of destruction 
to the whole colony, and requiring all its strength to repel it, was 
yet a subject of great terror and annoyance to the frontier. 

A standing army of five hundred men, one-fourth of which was 
Mar 7 1675 consist of cavalry, was raised by the Legislature, 
' ■ and every provision made for their support and regu- 
lation ; but after it was raised, and in a complete state of prepa- 
ration to march against the Indians, it was suddenly disbanded by 
the governor without any apparent cause. This was followed by 
earnest petitions to the governor from various quarters of the coun- 
try, to grant a commission to some person to chastise the Indians, 
the petitioners offering to serve in the expedition at their own ex- 
pense. This reasonable request was refused, and the people, see- 
ing their country left defenceless to the inroads of a savage foe, 
assembled of themselves in their primary capacity, in virtue of 
their right of self-defence, to march against the enemy. They 
chose for their leader Nathaniel Bacon, junior, a young gentleman 
of highly respectable family and education, who, although he had 
returned to Virginia but three years before, from the completion 
of his studies in England, had already received the honor of a 
colonel's rank in the militia, and a seat in the Legislature for Hen- 
rico, in which county his estate lay, — exposed by its situation to 
the fury of the Indians. He stood high in the colony, and was 



OUTLINE III:«T()RV. 



73 



possessed of courage, talent, and address, which fitted him well 
for such an enterprise. After Bacon had been selected by this 
volunteer army as their leader, his first step was to apply to the 
governor for a conmiission, in order, if possible, to have the sanc- 
tion of the h>;:itim<'itc authorities for his conduct. The f^overnor 
evaded this rational and res])ectful recjut^st, by saying that he could 
not decide upon so important a matter without his council, which 
he summoned to consult, at the same time artfully hinting to Ba- 
con the injury which he might probably do himself by persevering 
in his course. Bacon dispatched messengers to Jami stown to 
receive the commission, which he did not doubt would be ulti- 
mately granted ; and as public impatience would not abide the 
dilatory proceedings of the governor, and he was probably net- 
tled at the insinuations addressed to his seltishness, in the gov- 
ernor's communication, — he proceeded on his expedition, authoriz- 
ed only by the will of the people, the danger of the country, 
and the anxious wish of those who trusted their lives to his 
control. 

Sir William Berkeley, (whoso conduct, notwithstanding the 
high encomiums bestowed upon him, seems to have been marked 
in ordinary times only by a haughty condescension, which in his 
excellency was called suavity of manners, and in those times of 
dilHcuFty, by vacillating imbecility,) after temporizing in the most 
conciliating manner with Bacon until his de])arture, now denounc- 
ed him and his followers as mutineers and traitors, I'or daring to 
defend their country after his excellency had refused them a com- 
mission ; and gathering together such forces as he could collect, 
consisting principally of the wealthy aristocrats in the settled 
country, who probably liked the mode of taxation which was 
least injurious to them, and who sutrered little from Indian incur- 
sions upon the frontier, he marched to put down the rebellious 
troops. He had not proceeded further than the fulls of James 
River, when he received intelligence of a rising in the neighbor- 
hood of Jamestown of a more formidable nature than Bacon's, 
which compelled him to retreat and take care of affairs at home. 
This new ebullition of feeling was headed by Ingram and Walk- 
late, and was probably produced by the indignation of the common 
people at the absurd conduct of the governor in first refusing: a 
commission to Bacon, and then marching to destroy him, while 
engaged in so useful an occupation. Be this as it may, we find 
them insisting upon dismantling the forts, which were intolerably 
oppressive, without producing any good effect against an enemy 
whose progress was by stealth, whose onset was sudden and 
furious, and whose retreat was immediate. Against such an en- 
emy active operations in the field were required, and the vigorous 
prosecution of the war in his own country. The forts, probably, 
were regarded by the poor as instruments of power in the hands 
of the rich ; which they kept up by oppressive acts, while they 
took measures to put down Bcicon's operations, which constituted 

10 



74 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



the Only hope which the people had for protection. The governor 
was obliged to yield to the storm. The forts were ordered to be 
dismantled, and the obnoxious assembly was dissolved, and writs , 
issued for a new election, in which, for the first time, freemen, as 
distinguished from freeholders, were elected. 

In the mean time, Bacon had been very successful in defeating 
the Indians, destroying their towns, and taking them captive ; and 
was returning leisurely to Jamestown when he heard of the 
revolution there. This induced him to leave his little army, and, 
with a few followers, embark for Jamestown; but he was taken 
on his voyage by Gardiner^ who was cruising to intercept him, and 
sent a prisoner to the governor. Bacon had been elected a mem- 
ber for Henrico in the new legislature, and was pardoned and per- 
mitted to take his seat upon his confessing the impropriety and 
disobedience of his conduct, praying pardon of the governor, and 
promising I'uture obedience. Credible report says, that he was 
induced to make this full and humiliating acknowledgment upon 
a promise by the governor, not only of pardon, but of a commis- 
sion : and, indeed, without supposing it the result of a compro- 
mise, it is difficult to account either for this act or his subsequent 
conduct. The causes which induced his next step are not suffi- 
ciently explained by the historians of the times, but it was proba- 
bly produced by the solicitations of his friends in the legislature, 
who found that they could gain no redress of grievances. He 
collected troops in the country, and marched to Jamestown ; he 
surrounded the state house with his enraged soldiers, demanding a 
commission for him ; which, by the earnest solicitation of the 
council and assembly, was at length obtained from the governor, 
together with a full act of indemnity for his present conduct, and 
a letter, highly applauding his designs and his proceedings, ad- 
dressed to the king, and signed by the burgesses, the council, and 
the governor. 

Thus relieved from all former sources of fear, and provided 
against future contingencies, Bacon again sallied forth towards the 
frontier. But the governor had not long been relieved from his 
presence before he dissolved the assembly, and retiring into Glou- 
cester, again declared Bacon a rebel, and his army traitors, and 
raised the standard of opposition. Upon being informed of this, 
Bacon immediately fell back by forced marches upon Gloucester, 
and compelled his puissant excellency to retreat with precipitation 
to Accomac. This county was at that time considered as a distinct 
territory, although under the control of Virginia, and Bacon, taking 
advantage of this against an unpopular governor, called a con- 
vention lor the purpose of settling the government, declaring that 
the governor had abdicated. This convention met at Middle Plan- 
tation on the 3d of August, 1676, and declared that the govern- 
ment was vacant by the abdication of Sir William Berkelej', and 
that, by invariable usage, the council or the people might fill the 
vacancy until the king's pleasure should be known* Writs wxre 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



75 



thru issued by five* mombers of the coiinoil for ;i now election of 
bur^xesses. The convention next declared Sir William Berkeley 
guilty of aidini; and abetting certain evil disposed persons in 
Ibmenting and stirring up the people to civil war: and that they 
would aid in discovering all such evil disposed persons, and op- 
posing their forces, until the king be fully informed of the state of 
the case ; and that they would aid Bacon and his army against the 
common enemy, and in suppressing the horrid outrages and mur- 
ders daily committed by them. 

Bacon liaving now provided a regular government for the coun- 
try, proeeeded once more against the Indians, who had tbrmed a 
contederacy and gained several advantages since his retreat. lie 
destroyed the Pamunky, Chickahominy, and Mattaponi towns 
and their corn, in retaliation of the late excesses. The Indians 
retreated before him, with occasional skirmishes, until they reach- 
ed their place of general rendezvous near the falls of James River. 
He there tbiind their whole Ibrce posted on an eminence over- 
hanging a stream, which, from the sanguinary nature of the con- 
flict, has been since called Bloody Run. They were protected by 
a stockade fort, which was stormed by the impetuous ardor of 
Bacon and his followers, who made great slaughter among them, 
encumbered as they were with their old men, women, and children. 

In the mean time, Berkeley had not met with that warm recep- 
tion which he had anticipated among the loyalists of Accomac ; 
but, on the other hand, he had been presented with a strong and 
spirited remonstrance against the objectionable acts of Parliament, 
and a requisition that they should be suspended, at least so far as 
regarded that portion of the country. How the matter termi- 
nated we are not intbrmed. 

The governor was not allowed to remain undisturbed in Acco- 
mac, until he could again succeed in raising a Ibrce which might 
give trouble. Bacon's party was in possession of all the vessels 
in the colony, and two of his friends, Giles Bland and William 
Carver, went with their force to cut olf supplies from the governor, 
or, as his friends surmised, to surprise him. But if such was their 
object they were defeated, for Captain Larimore. from whom one 
of the vessels had been taken, gave intimation to the governor's 
friends that he would betray his vessel into the hands of a party 
sufliciently strong to keep possession. The proposal was acceded 
to, and at midnight six and twenty men, obeying Larimore's signal, 
were along side of his ship, and had possession almost before the 
crew were aroused frona their slumbers ; the other vessels were 
then easily taken. Thus, Sir William finding himself in posses- 
sion of the whole' naval force of the colony, while Bacon was 
absent on his expedition against the Indians, he collected together 



* Burke, vol. II. p 179, says, "by Bacon and four other nicmhcrs of the council," 
but the member of the council was Nathaniel Bacon, s«n., and the general was Xa 
thaniel Bacon, jun., delegute for Henrico. — Heuing, vol. 11. p. 5-i4-j. 



11^ • 



76 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



a forqe of some six hundred men, consisting mostly of aristocratic 
gentlemen and their servile dependents, and took possession once 
more of Jamestown. As usual, his first act in returning to power, 
was to disavow his acts in favor of Bacon as made under duress, 
and again to declare him a rebel, and his soldiers traitors. 

Bacon was on his return from his successful campaign when 
this news reached him ; most of his followers had dispersed, but 
he hastened on with the remainder, without regard to their 
fatigues in the recent campaign. He arrived before Jamestown 
late in the evening, fired his artillery and sounded a defiance, and 
then coolly dismounted and laid off his trenches. His men that 
very night, by the aid of trees, earth, and brushwood, formed a 
tolerable breastv/ork, and the next morning advanced to the pali- 
sadoes of the town, and fired upon the guard, without loss. Sir 
William Berkeley, well knowing that time would increase the 
force of his adversary, while it diminished his own, next resolved 
to try the effects of a sally ; and some of his men at first behaved 
with some show of courage, but the whole body soon retreated in 
disorder before the well-directed fire of Bacon's men, leaving their 
drum and their dead as trophies to the victors. Bacon would not 
allow the victory to be followed up, as it would have placed his 
men under the range of the guns of the shipping. To prevent the 
use which might be made by this auxiliary, he planted several 
great guns so as to bear on the ships, which served also to alarm, 
though they could not annoy the town. 

Now the marked difierence which existed between the charac- 
ter of Bacon's troops and those of the governor was exhibited, 
and that, too, in a manner well calculated to exhibit the character 
of Bacon's proceedings. Berkeley's troops, consisting principally 
of mercenary wretches, whom he had scraped together by the 
hopes of plunder, deserted every day when they found that the 
governor was determined to defend the place, and that they were 
likely to get more blows than booty in the contest, until at last the 
governor was left with little more than twenty gentlemen, whose 
sense of honor would not allow them to desert his person. Bacon's 
troops, on the other hand, were daily reinforced by accessions from 
the country people, who clearly considered him as an intrepid sol- 
dier, who had delivered them from the butcheries of the savages ; 
and a patriot, who was now endeavoring to put down an odious 
and oppressive government. 

The governor, finding his followers reduced to so small a num- 
ber that it would be madness to attempt to defend the place, at 
length yielded to the earnest solicitations of those about him, and 
deceiving his adversaries as to his real design, 'by exhibiting evi- 
dences of a contemplated attack, he went on board a ship at mid- 
night, and was seen next morning riding at anchor, beyond the 
reach of the guns in the fort at Jamestown. Bacon, with his fol- 
lowers, after their week's siege, marched into the empty town the 
next morning, the governor and his party having carried off or 



OUTLINE IIISTORV. 



77 



destroyed every article of value. The possession of Jamestown, 
in this situation, was ol" no advantage to Bacon or his followers. 
The men who had left their homes to delend their country* from 
the incursions of the Indians, could not remain together for the 
purpose of defending the capital from their hostile governor, who 
was quietly waiting in the river for them to depart, in order that 
he mij^ht again resume possession. What could he done with a 
cown which could not be delended, and, if defended, was of no 
value to the possessors ; but which was all-important to the ene- 
my ? I'he answer to this question was manifest, and Bacon's 
proposal lor its destruction was received with acclamation ; seve- 
ral of his followers, who owned the most valuable houses, apply- 
ing the firebrand with their own hands to their own property. 
The sight of the flames started Sir William Berkeley on a cruise 
to Accomac ; and Bacon having overcome all opposition to the 
government established by the convention, dismissed the troops to 
their homes. 

We have little account of Bacon's proceedinp;s after this successful termination of his 
labors ; we presume he did not do much, as he was ill of a disease caught by sleeping 
exposed in the trenches before Jamestown, which in a short time terminated his exist- 
ence. He died at the house of a .Mr. Pate, in Gloucester county Thus died the 
distinguished individual, who overcame both the foreign and domestic enemies of his 
country, and left it enjoying the blessings of a free government. Had he lived precisely 
a century later, he would have been one of the distinguished heroes of the revolution, 
and historians would have deliirlited as murh in eulogizing his conduct, as they have, 
under existing circumstances, in blackening his character. He accomplished all which 
it was possible for him to do. He never opposed the British government, but only 
foreign enemies, and domestic nial-administration, which he succeeded in defeating. 
He seems always to have acted by the consent and wish of the people, and never to 
have sought self-aggrandizement. It was manifestly impossible for him to elevate him- 
self to absolute power in Virginia, without the consent of the government of England, 
and the people of Virginia; and the idea of resisting both of these powers was absurd. 
For all tlie evils which accrued to the country' after his death, and the restoration of 
•Sir William Berkeley, he has been unjustlv made responsible, while he has received no 
credit for his good conduct, or the beneficial acts passed by the legislature during his 
ascendency. In short, we can see no ditierence between his course, and that pursued in 
the previous expulsion of Sir John Harvey from the government, or the subsequent treat- 
ment of Lord Dunmorc, and many other royal governors, at the commencement of the 
revolution. The only difference between the patriots of KJTli and 1T7H, was in the estab- 
lishment of a free government, subject to the general control of Great Britain, which was 
all that could be done in IGTG, and the establishment of a fjce government indep«ndent 
of Great Britain, which was accomplished in ITTti. The unfortunate death of Bacon, 
and the power of the mother country, destroyed in a great measure the benefit ol the 
exertion of the little band of patriots of the iirst period, while the benefits of the latter 
have continued to exist. The loyal writers, after the re-establishment of Berkeley, 
sought to hide his pusillanimity by extolling his virtues, and blackening his adversary, 
in which they have been blindlv followed by other writers, who have attributed the 
subsequent misery to the previous rebellion, instead of to the avarice, malignity, and re- 
venge of the governor and his party, seeking to overawe and suppress popular indigna- 
lion, and break the strength of the popular party, by the forcible exertion of arbitrary 
authority, as well as to avenge themselves for the indignities to which iheir own folly 
subjected them. On the other hand, the j)atriots of the revolution haveonlv receivedvthe 
just reward of their merit, in the lavish praises of a grateful posterity ; and the loyal 
party of their day has been justly handed down to universal execration. 

The death of Bacon, by leaving the republicans without a head, 
revived the courage of the governor so lar, that he ventured in his 
ships to move about u^ion the bay and rivers, and attack the inhabit- 



78 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



ants wherever he could find them defenceless, and snatch a little 
plunder to gratify his need}^ followers ; always retiring when the 
opposite party appeared to oppose him. This predatory species of 
warfare preventing the quiet pursuit of agricultural labors, and 
destro} ing all the comfort and happiness of society, without pro- 
ducing any beneficial result, soon grew wearisome to both parties. 
Sir William Berkeley, whose cruelties, especially to his prisoners, 
had gone far to keep up the enthusiasm of popular excitement, 
finding that his name had ceased to strike that awe which habitual 
respect for one high in authority had formerly given it, and that 
his punishments excited indignation rather than terror, felt disposed 
to take advantage, by milder means, of the returning pacific dispo- 
sition on the part of a people whose stubborn tempers could not 
be brought into obedience by force. With this view, he treated 
his prisoners with more liberality, published an act of general in- 
demnity, and proposed a treaty of peace to Ingram and Walklate, 
the principal leaders of the opposing party since the death of Ba- 
con. So anxious were the people to be relieved from the present 
confusion and anarchy, and the governor once more to rule with 
uncurbed sway, that a treaty Vv^as speedily concluded, only stipu- 
lating, on the part of the governor, a general oblivion, and indem- 
nity of past oflfences ; and, on the part of his opponents, a surrender 
of their arms, and a restoration of such property as they had taken. 
Thus easily did these unfortunate men deliver themselves again 
into the lion's power, after having defeated him at all points, and 
inflicted deep and irremediable wounds upon his inflated vanity, 
and pompous mock-dignity. The governor, when he had his ene- 
mies in his power, instead of trying to heal the wounds of the 
bleeding state by mildness and conciliation, only added to its suf- 
ferings by a bloody retribution for all the trouble which he had 
been made to endure. Fines and confiscations, for the benefit of 
his excellency, became the order of the day, and an occasional 
execution, as an extra treat to his vengeance. He at first attempted 
to wrest the honest juries of the county to his purpose, but in vain, 
— ten prisoners were acquitted in a single day. Finding that his 
enemies were thus likely to escape his grasp, by the unflinching 
integrity and sense of justice prevailing among the people, he 
determined to avoid the use of a court constituted upon principles 
of the English constitution, which he found so little subservient to 
his will, and tried his next victims under martial law. He here 
found a court of more congenial spirits. The commissioners of 
the king give an account of some of these trials, such as they 
were carried on even after their arrival, which mark well the 
spirit of the times. " We also observed some of the royal party, 
that sat on the bench with us at the trial, to be so forward in 
impeaching, accusing, reviling, the prisoners at bar, with that in- 
veteracy, as if they had been the worst of witnesses, rather than 
justices of the commission ; both accusing and condemning at the 
same time. This severe way of proceeding represented to the 



OUTLINE IIISTURV. 



79 



assembly, fhry votrd an address to the jjovernor, lliat ho would 
desist from any lurthf^r sanguinary punishments, for none couhl tell 
when or where it would t(M-minate. »So the t^o\ ernor was j)re vailed 
on to hold his hands, after h(ni<ri/ig twenty-three." 

A notable way which the governor adopted to replenish his purse, 
after the disasters of the war, was to relieve the rcbc/s from a trial 
in one of his courts-martial, in which they were to b(! condemned, 
upon their payiiii? him a fjreat portion of their estates, by way of 
compromise. This method of disposing of meii's estates, without 
trial or conviction, was protest(»d against by his majesty's commis- 
sioners, as a gross violation of the laws of England, but which Sir 
William's friends seem to think only a just retribution tor the 
losses sustained by himself and the royal party during the rebellion. 
Enormous lines, payable in pi ovision, were also found a convenient 
method ot" providing for the king's troops which had been sent over 
to subdue the colony. 

His majesty's commissioners fortunately arrived in time to stay 
the wrath of the vindictive old man, who would, as an eye-wit- 
ness says, *' he verily believes, have hanged half the county if they 
had let him alone." They urged him in vain to publish the king's 
proclamation of a general pardon and indemnity ; and then pro- 
ceeded to hold their commission for hearing and redressing griev- 
ances. As the proceedings of the governor dilfiised a gloom, the 
generality of which was co-extensive with the immense numbers 
that were engaged in the rebellion, so did the proceedings of the 
commissioners spread a universal joy. Crowds of persons now 
came forward to present their grievances — widows and orphans to 
ask for the confiscated estates of their husbands and fathers, m ho 
had been butchered .by tlie military tribunals of the governor; 
others came in to complain of the seizing of their estates without 
the form of a trial ; and many, who had submitted themselves upon 
the governor's proclamation of indemnity and pardon, complained 
of subsequent imprisonment and confiscations of their property. 

The commissioners state in their report to the king and council, 
that " in the whole course of their proceedings they had avoided 
receiving any complaints of public grievances, but by and under 
the hand of the most credible, loyal, and sober persons of each 
county with caution ; that they did not do it in any mutinous manner, 
and without mixture of their old leaven, but in such sort as might 
become dutiful subjects, and sober, rational men to present." 
When they found that all their representations to Sir William 
Berkeley, to endeavor to induce him to restore the confiscated es- 
tates, which were in the poss(^ssion of himself or his most faithful 
friends, were in vain, they ascertained as many of the possessors 
as possible, and made them give security to take care of them 
until his majesty should determine as to the restitution which they 
should recommend him to make. The commissioners also devis<^d 
several matters of utility lor the peace, good government, and 
safety of the colony ; which they recommended his majesty to 



80 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



iadopt'. Sir William Berkeley returned in the fleet to England, 
leaving Sir Herbert Jeffries, who had been sent over w^ith the 
commissioners, as gov^ernor. Upon his arrival, he found that his 
cruel conduct in Virginia was looked upon with horror by most 
of his former friends and the council, and was not sustained by 
the king, subservient loyalty to whom had been the source and 
spring of his high-handed measures. The old knight, thus finding 
himself execrated in Virginia, and despised in England, soon lan- 
guish( d and died under the load of infam}" with which he had 
crushed the fair fame of his earlier years. Thus ended the life of 
Sir William Berkeley — agovernor, whose early character historians 
have delighted to honor, and whose subsequent conduct they have 
sought to excuse ; but of whom we can find nothing better upon 
record, than the negative merit of not opposing the legislature in 
its schemes of government in the early part of his reign ; but whose 
latter years are disgraced by cowardly imbecility, and stained with 
crime. 

Before we take leave of the transaction which has been termed, in complaisance to 
the royal governor, Bacon's rebellion, it may not be amiss to cast a hurried glance at 
the laws passed by the legislature which met under his influence ; which must go far 
with posterity iu determining, whether the name of rebels or patriots would be most 
consistent with the character of their acts. They strike first at the most important and 
pressing subject, and the one which had been most neglected — the Indian war. They 
provide eflicient means for conducting it, and for regulating the army. The next act 
prescribed regulations for Indian trading, the abuse of which was thought to have been 
very mischievous. They next pray his majesty's governor and council, that the lands 
which had been set apart at the last peace exclusively for the Indians, and which had 
been or might be subsequently deserted by them, might not be granted away to in- 
dividuals, but might be used for the purpose of defraying the expenses of the war. The 
fourth act looks very little like an encouragement of rebellion — reciting that tumults, 
riots, and unlawful assemblies, had recently been frequent ; they make it the duty of 
every officer, civil and military, in the country to aid in suppressing them, and the duty 
of all citizens to assist such officers under penalty of punishment for refusal ; and the 
governor is specially requested to assemble a force at the public charge with all possible 
expedition, to suppress such tumults, and mflict condign punishment upon the oft'enders, 
which, says the act, " will conduce to the great safety and peace of this country, and 
enable us the better to defend ourselves against the barbarous and common enemy." 
This single act sheds more light upon the history of the times, and exhibits more plainly 
the history of the views of the principal actors, than any, or perhaps all, other docu- 
ments ; we see in it the reason why no private persons took advantage of the unsettled 
state of affairs to disturb the public peace, and that there was no tumult or armed force, 
except the regular army, raised by tlie assembly and put under Bacon's command ; and 
no rebellious assembly, except the miscreant crew raised by Berkeley in opposition to 
the government established by the people. 

Having thus provided for safety from foes without and for peace within, the assembly 
next proceeded to the investigation of abuses by civil officers. Under this head they 
made several provisions for the prevention of abuses, which have been found so well 
devised, that they have continued in use to the present day. They next provide against 
the long continuance of vestries in office ; for the election of burgesses by freemen as 
well as freeholders; and against false returns of burgesses. Their eighth act provides 
against abuses committed by the justices in laying county levies ; and requires, that a 
number of discreet men, chosen by the people, equal iu number to the justices appointed 
by the governor, should act with the justices in laying the county levy. They next 
empowered the county courts to select their own collectors of county levies and dues ; and 
prohibit any member of the council from sitting on the county court bench. Passing 
some acts of less general importance, but which were wise and useful, we come to an 
act of general pardon and indeninity for all crimes committed between the 1st of March 
and 25th of June, passed " out of a hearty and pious desire to put an end to all suits 



I 



OUTLINt: mSTuRV. 



^4 

81 



and controversies, that by occasion of the late fatal distractions have arisen," " and to 
bury all seeds of future discord and renuMubrance of any thinjj whereby the citizens 
mijrht be obnoxious to any pains or pciallies whatsoever." 

Their last act deprives Edward Hill and John Stith for ever of the rijfht to hold any 
oftice of trust, judicuture, or profit, b(>causf it was notoriously luanifcsl that th^-y had 
been the greatest instruments in raisinj^, pron)otin<r, and stirriii<r u[) the late ditl'erences 
and inisunderstandinfr that had arisen l)et\veen tiie liouorable fjovernor and his majesty's 
good and loyal subjects. The acts of this Assembly were sif^ncd by Berkeley in all due 
form, but were subsequently all declared void, thouirh many of them were re-enacted by 
the Legislature, which, under the influence and control of licrkeley, declared thenj void. 

Although the people of Virgiiiia had laid down their arms, they 
were not isubdued, but continued to manil'est, through ihtnr Legisla- 
ture, the same undaunted tenacity of their rights which had ever 
characterized them. This was exhibited towards the king's com- 
missioners in one of the boldest defences of privilege which the 
records of any nation can exhibit, and shows how strongly imbued 
with the spirit of freedom the people must have been, when they 
could simlF the approach of tyranny at such a distance, and put 
themselves on their defence against their friends, lest their ene- 
mies might take advantage of their concessions. The king's com- 
missioners were empowered to call for persons and papers, for the 
purpose of prosecuting more elfeetually their inquiries into the 
grievances of the colony. In conformity with their powers they 
called upon the secretary of the Legislature for its journals, but 
Avere surprised to find, that although their proceedings were popu- 
lar, and their object was to investigate and redress grievances of 
which these very men complained, that they refused to allow 
them to inspect their journals, returning for answer, that it was a 
dangerous precedent, which might be used in violation of their 
privileges. At this time, the governor and commissioners had 
complete physical power over the colony, by the entire absence of 
any thing like organized opposition, and from the presence of the 
king's troops ; and availing themselves of this power, they did not 
hesitate to wrest the journals of the Assembly from the hands of 
its officer by force. Upon which the Virginia Assembly published 
a bold and manly declaration, setting lorth. "that his majesty's 
commissioners having called for and ibrced from the clerk of the 
Assembly, all the original journals of the Assembly, which power 
they sup])osed his majesty would not grant them, lor that they find 
not the same to have been practised by any of the kings ol" Eng- 
land, and did therefore take the same to be a violation of their 
privileges, desiring withal satisfaction to be given them, that they 
might be assured no such violation of their privileges should be 
offered for the future." The king was so much displeased with 
this declaration, that although he i)ard()ned the members of the 
Legislature, he directed the record of it to be erased, and required 
the governor to propose a bill to the next General Assembly con- 
demning the proceeding, and declaring the right of his majesty 
and his officers to call for all the public records and journals, 
whenever they shall think it necessary for his royal service. 

Sir Herbert Jclirics deserves the merit due to an advantageous 

11 



82 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



treaty with the Indians, and a successful opposition to the petty 
intrigues of the loyalists. He died in 1678, leaving the colony in 
the hands of the lieutenant-governor. Sir Henry Chickerly, during 
whose administration magazines and forts were established at the 
heads of the four great rivers, to overawe the savages, and a silly 
act passed prohibiting the importation of tobacco from Carolina 
and Maryland, for the purpose of transhipment, which practice, if 
they had suffered it to continue, might have proved very profitable 
to the colony, besides putting the tobacco trade more exclusively 
into its own hands. In the succeeding spring. Sir Henry delivered 
the government to Lord Culpeper. The first act of his lordship 
was to declare full and unqualified indemnity to all for their con- 
duct in Bacon's rebellion, and allowing reparation to those who 
should be reproached for their conduct upon that occasion. This 
popular act, added to the pleasing and conciliatory manners of his 
lordship, so won upon the good-natured simplicity of the Assem- 
bly, that they passed an act which probably no force could have 
extorted from them. They raised the duties and made them per- 
petual, instead of annual, as before, and, what was at once sur- 
rendering up the great bulwark of that freedom, for the safety of, 
which they had been so long contending, they made the duties 
henceforth subject to his majesty's sole direction and disposal. 

The king rewarded Culpeper's address in obtaining this acquisi- 
tion to his power, by the addition of a thousand pounds to his 
salary, and one hundred and sixty pounds per annum for his rent. 
The Assembl}^ too, as if they could not do enough for a royal gov- 
enor who could condescend to smile upon them, granted his excel- 
lency a regular duty proportionate to the tonnage of every vessel 
trading to Virginia. Culpeper having thus obtained a consider- 
able increase to his revenue by his trip to Virginia, proceeded to 
England, to enjoy it, leaving the colony once more with Sir Henry 
Chickerly. 

The discontents of the people again began to extend to a degree 
which could scarcely be kept within bounds. The troops which 
had been sent over to suppress Bacon's rebellion were still kept 
up. There were no barracks, and the people positively refused to 
receive these idle and troublesome drones into their houses, al- 
though they were regularly billeted by the government. The low 
price of tobacco, too, was a never-failing source of complaint, as 
well as the commercial regulations which aided in producing it. 
The colony had urged Culpeper to exert his influence at court to 
procure a cessation from planting, to which they had for some time 
in vain endeavored to obtain the assent of Carolina and Maryland. 

To these evils another was now added, which struck another 
blow at commerce. The idea had been conceived that the colony 
could not prosper without towns, and to promote their growth the 
planters, living principally on the shores of the magnificent Chesa- 
peake, and the broad navigable rivers of Virginia, were required 
to bring their produce to particular spots for the purpose of being; 



OUTLINE HISTORV. 



83 



shippod. Thus taxinj^ the plant(^r with unnocossary froiglit and 
commission for the benefit of such idlers as might congregate in 
the towns. These acts were enforced by heavy penalties, and as 
they contributed very much to the benefit of the town's people, the 
penalty for the violation was rigorously enforced. These prose- 
cutions drove many traders from the country, and tlu' poor plant- 
ers, to whom it was physically impossible to convey their crops to 
these paper-towns, wen^ doomed to see their crops rotting on their 
hands by this injudicious legislation, or, if they attempted to evade 
the law, have them wrested from them in the shape of penalties. 
These several subjects of complaint induced the people of several 
counties to petition the deputy governor to call an assembly, to 
endeavor to provide a remedy lor the evils. At the meeting of the 
Assembly, there was much debate and declamation upon the con- 
dition of the country, but no measure of relief was adopted. By 
order of the king, however, the two companies of infantry were 
paid off and disbanded, which put an end to one of the subjects of 
difliculty. The dissolution of the Assembly without effecting any 
thing, caused the impatience of the poor and ignorant people of 
several of the counties to break through all restraint, and expend 
their wrath in the destruction of tobacco-plants, at a season of the 
year when it was too late to sow more seed. 8ir Henry Chickerl v, 
with commendable moderation, only took measures to stop these 
misguided people, without resorting to harsh punishments ; but lest 
it should be drawn into a precedent, the Legislature not long after- 
wards made it treason. In the mean time. Lord Culpeper ar- 
rived, and his haughty bearing to the Council and the Burgesses 
soon gave intimation to them that his lordship's feelings towards 
the colony had undergone a change, lie enlarged, in his speech 
to the Assembly, much upon the favor of his majesty in disband- 
ing the troops, and spoke of permission which he had obtained to 
raise the value of the current coin ; he then went on to declare 
that the colonists did not deserve these gracious favors, but rather 
punishment for their recent turbulence ; he also expressed his 
majesty's great dissatisfaction at the refusal of the journals, and 
desired that that portion of their proceedings should be expunged. 

The Assembly expressed their s^ratitude for the concessions which had been made by 
the kino^, but at the same time, with admirable <rood sense, and a kno\vled;je of the prin- 
ciples of commerce, which sliows tliat they were not acliiij^ blindfold witli reirard to the 
alterations in tlie price of tobacco heretofore alluded to. protested, by a lar<re majority, 
a<;ainst raising the value of the coin ; statinjr, as a reason, that the exercise of this dan- 
gerous power would be made a precedent, and specie, which of course as the standard 
of other value should be as fixed as possible itself, would be blown about by the breath 
of the governor, and the people would have no certainty of the value of the coin in their 
pockets. They stated, moreover, that it was the duty of the legislature to enact all 
laws for the regulation «f commerce, and, of course, to prescribe the current price of 
specie, and they accordingly introduced a bill for that purpose ; but this bill, which was 
necessary, as the coins of n)any diHerent countries were in circulation, was st()p[)ed short 
in its progress by the governor, who declared that it was trespassing upon executive prerog- 
ative, and that he would veto any bill whicli the legislature might pass upon the sul)ject. 
He then proceeded to fix the value himself by proclamation, raisinw the current price 
considerably, but making exception of his own salary and the revenue of the king. 



84 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



This exception was, in effect, nothing more or less than a new tax of the most odious 
and oppressive character, and the colony plainly recognised it as such, and refused to 
regard the exceptions, but paid the revenue as other del)ts, according to the new stand 
ard. And the governor, afraid to bring such a case before any court of law, Avhich he 
well knew would expose his contemptible meanness, and yet afraid to allow his procla- 
mation to be openly disregarded, which would have put an end at once to the authority 
of his edicts, was compelled, by the dilemma, to lower the value of the coin as suddenly 
as he had raised it. This was at once realizing all the worst anticipations of the legis- 
lature as to the arbitrary fluctuations in the standard of value, besides being highly un- 
just and oppressive to such persons as had made payment of debts according to the new 
standard, and such as had given credit during the time of the alteration. The gov- 
ernors had, by some means, been suffered to exercise the power of dissolving the Assem- 
blies, and this having now grown into a usage, was a favorite method of silencing their 
clamors ; and they having rashly made the provision for the revenue perpetual, and put 
the control of that subject into the king's hands, were bound hand and foot, and could 
not control executive usurpation by stopping the wheels of government. The governor 
now made use of this dangerous power and dissolved the Assembly. The governor, thus 
left without a watch or control over his actions, proceeded to a vigorous exercise of ex- 
ecutive powers. The unfortunate plant-cutters, who had merely been imprisoned, and 
such of them dismissed from time to time as would give as-surance of penitence, and 
promise a peaceable demeanor, were now proceeded against with the utmost rigor, for 
what the king was pleased to call their treasonable conduct. But the noblest victim for 
tyrannical persecution was Robert Beverly, the former clerk of the Assembly, who had 
refused to give up its papers without authority from " his masters, the house of Burgess- 
es." For some reason, it seems that an inspection of journals was demanded by the 
council again in 1682, and Beverly again refusing to deliver them, was thrown into pri- 
son, in a king's ship, the Duke of York, then lying in the river, his persecutors being 
afraid to trust him to the keeping of the jails among his countrymen. While he was in 
prison, a committee of the council was appointed to seize the papers, which he, foresee- 
ing this event, had secreted. The pretences for this imprisonment were the most frivo- 
lous that can well be imagined ; he is accused of fomenting discord, and stirring up the 
late partial insurrections, but the only specific act of which he was accused, was setting 
on foot petitions for an Assembly. Under these arbitrary proceedings, he was detained 
a prisoner, denied the writ of habeas corpus, and hurried about from prison to prison, 
until the governor at last thought proper, after two years searching for charges, to com- 
mence a regular prosecution. 

The accusation consisted of three heads : — 

1st. That he had broken open public letters directed to the Secretary's office, with 
the writs enclosed for calling an Assembly, in April, 1682, and took upon him the exer- 
cise of that part of the government which belongs to the Secretary's office, and was con- 
trary to his; — 

2d. That he had made up the journal, and inserted his majesty's letter therein (which 
was first communicated to the house of Burgesses at their prorogation) after their pro- 
rogation ; — 

3d. That he had refused to deliver copies of the journal of the house of Burgesses in 
1682, to the lieutenant-governor and council, saying, " that he might not do it without 
leave of his masters." 

This was all which could be charged against this faithful officer, after so long an im- 
prisonment, and so long a preparation for the prosecution. But of course they will not 
bear scrutiny, being only a flimsy veil thrown over their designs, rather indicating a wish 
to hide the naked deformity of the prosecution, than actually concealing it. 

Before this notable prosecution was ended, Lord Culpeper for- 
feited his commission, and was superseded by Lord Howard, who 
took the oaths of office on the 28th of February, 1684. His first 
mea.sure was to caU an assembly, which, as a popular act, induced 
the colony to hope some degree of mildness in his administration ; 
but these hopes were soon dissipated. He pursued the unfortunate 
plant-cutters with renovated vigor, and such of them as had been 
excepted in a proclamation of general pardon were now executed, 
and their estates, after pajing ofiicer's fees, appropriated to the 
governor's own use. 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



85 



The assembly met and refused to proceed with business for the 
want of a clerk, as their former clerk was in prison, and they re- 
fused to elect another. In this situation of affairs the matter seems 
to have been compromised, the governor no doubt d('s])airing of 
his convictio!! upon the absurd charges made, and ]>everly and his 
friends willing to end his long imprisonment and sullcrings, by ask- 
ing pardon, at the same tim(; not giving up the papers or the prin- 
ciples for which he suffered. Be this as it may, Beverly threw 
himself upon the mercy of the court, declining to employ counsel or 
make any defence, and was pardoned. Probably these long-con- 
tinued sutferings, with other })ersecutions afterwards endured, in- 
jured the constitution of Beverly, lor we ffnd that he died prior to 
Aj^ril, 1(387. His noble conduct induced king James, the then reign- 
ing monarch, to deprive the Burgesses of the election of their own 
clerk, ordering the governor to elect him, and requiring the assembly 
to make the clerk, so elected, the usual allowance for his services. 

The accession of James II. was proclaimed with the usual de- 

■c^ u 1- i^o- monstrations of respect in the colony, and compli- 
reo. lo. lG8o. , r i *i j j 

mentaiy assurances ot loyalty on the one side, and 

gracious regard on the other, were exchanged between his subjects 
jind the assembly. But nothing was done to secure the freedom 
of the colony, and Lord Howard took advantage of the succeeding 
recess of the assembly, to enlarge the fees and perquisites ol" his 
office, and to impose new ones without the advice or aulhority of 
the assembly. This body, which met in November, immediately 
took into consideration these arbitrary exactions, and passed spir- 
ited resolutions in reprobation of them, and made provision for the 
defence of the citizens from similar encroachments in future. To 
these acts the governor applied his negative, without assigning any 
reason. Lord Howard, not satisfied with thus stopping the legisla- 
tion of the colony, proceeded in eff'ect to acts of executive legisla- 
tion, by issuing a proclamation, in obedience, he said, to the king's 
instructions, repealing several acts of the legislature, which were 
themselves repeals of former acts, and declaring the acts repealed 
by that body to be revived, and in full Ibrce, as beibrt^ the passage 
of the repealing acts. This proclamation the assembly protested 
against as illegal and unwarrantable, as utterly subversive of the 
government, annihilating the right of the popular branch, and 
bringing all to bow in humble submission to the mercy of the pre- 
rogative. The spirited conduct of the Burgesses could not be en- 

4. nrk ^ooc dured by the governor, and he prorogued them. 
Uct. 20, 1000. nil *^ 11 ^ 4. T ^ i' .1 

Ihe governor had sent to James an account 01 the 

conduct of this assembly. This representation produc(^d in reply 
from James, a furious, quarrelsome order, calling their conduct 
mutinous, and attributing it to their unquiet dispositions and sin- 
ister intentions to protract the time of their sitting to the great op- 
j)ression of his subjects, from whom they rec(uved wages;" con- 
cluding by an order for the prosecution of their clerk Beverly, to 
whom he ascribes all of these evils. 



86 OUTLINE HISTORY. 

In 'the same year, several persons were imprisoned and punished 
for treasonable expressions. The council was now as servile as 
the governor could wish, and he proceeded without interruption in 
his system of arbitrary innovation upon the established usages of 
the colony, and the liberties of its citizens. 

The province of New York belonged to the king as proprietor as 
Nov 10 1687 ^^^^ sovereign; and, in order to strengthen this 
' * his own estate, he sent orders for all the other colo- 
nies to assist in building forts, and supplying garrisons for its west- 
ern frontier, alleging that these measures were equally necessary 
for the protection of all. In conformity to these orders a message 
was received from governor Dungan, requiring the quota of Vir- 
ginia; but the legislature refused to appropriate a man or a far- 
thing for purposes from which they were to derive no benefit, but 
rather an injury, as the protection of the north-western frontier 
would drive the Indians further south, where they might commit 
their depredations upon the unprotected citizens with more im- 
punity. 

While the colony was contending against their governor, a revo- 
1689 l^^i^^" England had dethroned the sovereign, and placed 
William and Mary upon the throne. This change, while it 
placed the council, which had made many loyal professions to 
James, in an awkward position, was an event producing unalloyed 
joy to the people of Virginia, as they could now hope for justice to 
be done to their oppressive governor. 

Soon after this occurrence, the war broke out between the allied 
powers and Louis XIV. of France, and the colony was ordered to 
place itself in the best posture of defence. 

The complaints of the Virginia legislature against their gover- 
nor at length were taken up by the privy council, and although the 
charges against Howard were not tried, yet redress against his 
usurpation was granted, at the same time that the principles upon 
which they contended that their rights had been violated, were de- 
nied to be correct. Howard pleading ill-health, was not deprived 
of his commission for not returning to the colony ; but as it was ne- 
cessary that there should be a governor upon the eve of a war, 
Sir Francis Nicholson was sent over. His conduct was mild and 
conciliatory, and consequently popular ; among other highly benefi- 
cial acts passed under his government, was one for the establish- 
ment of a college, which was very liberally endowed. 

He was succeeded by Sir Edmund Andros as governor-in-chief, 
Sept 20 1692 ^^^^^ represented to have been actuated in his 
' ' administration by a sound judgment and a liberal 
policy ; to have been exact, diligent, and methodical in the manage- 
ment of business ; of a conciliatory deportment, and great gener- 
osity. Sir Francis Nicholson was again made governor-in-chief, 
in November, 1G98. He was an ambitious man, who had served 
in the capacity of a governor and deputy governor in several of 
the colonies, and taken great pains to become popular, and to make 



OUTLINE HIJ^TURY. 



87 



himself wrll acquainted witli situation of all the colonies, 
their wants, their trade, and their capabilities, with a view to 
unite th(^m, if possible, under one government, over which he hoped 
to obtain the appointment of governor-g(Mieral. 'J'he pressui-e of 
war, with the combined force of the FrcMich and Indians, which 
seemed now about to fall u})on the colonies, and r<'n(lered some 
union necessary for the purpose of defence, seemed highly favora- 
ble to his design. 

The French, at an early day, conceived a correct idea of the 
importance of the British colonies in America. The Count De 
Callier, governor of Montreal, during his residence in Canada, after 
a long experience, derived from observations on the spot, had formed 
the bold project of separating in two the English colonies by the 
capture of A'ew York. The success of this scheme would mani- 
festly have destroyed that concert so necessary to harmony and 
efficiency of co-operation, and left the other colonies liable to be 
cut off in detail, and would effectually establish the safety of 
Canada, by enabling the French to keep in check the powerful 
savage confederation, composed of the Five Nations, which had 
lately, by a furious irruption, laid waste the country, even to the 
gates of Montreal and Quebec. This ])lan of Callier's was adopted 
Se t 1G9"^ French government. A fleet was sent to the 

^ ' ^" bay of New York, with orders to retain possession of 
it until December, when, if no further orders were received, it was 
to sail for Port Royal, land its munition and stores, and return to 
France. The land force were to have marched from Quebec by 
the route of the Sorel River and Lake Champlain. This expedi- 
tion was defeated by a destructive inroad of the Five Nations, 
which carried death and desolation over the whole country, even 
to the very gates of the capital. This unforeseen occurrence ren- 
dered it necessary to retain the whole Ibrce at home, in measures 
of self-defence, and saved New York, without her having to strike 
a blow in her own behalf. 

The British government, daily becoming more sensible of the 
importance of the North American colonics, and seeing the danger 
to which they were exposed by the plan of De Callier. set on foot 
a plan of general defence in the year 1()95, adjusting the quotas 
of each colony to the ratio of its population, and forwarding the 
scale to the different governors, to recommend for the adoption of 
the respective colonial, assemblies. vSeveral of the colonies re- 
jected this scheme, because several of those which were thought 
most exposed wished to em})loy it as their own interest dictated. 
Among the refractory was A'irginia, which could not be pre- 
vailed upon, by all the art and ingenuity of the governor, aided by 
his great enthusiasm in this his favorite plan, to vote a cent to 
the enterprise, to his inconceivable chagrin and mortification. 
Nicholson, finding his own efforts utterly unavailing, laid the mat- 
ter before the king, and urged the propriety of forcing ^ irginia to 
see her true interests upon, this occasion. William, in reply, recom- 



88 



OUTLINE HISTOBY. 



mended a new consideration of the matter by the General Assem- 
bly, alleging, upon the authority of Nicholson's report, " that New 
York was the barrier of Virginia against the Indians and French 
of Canada ; and as such, it was but justice she should defend 
it." The assembly deemed it but due respect to his majesty to 
take the subject again into consideration, but found no reason to 
change their former opinion, declaring "that neither the forts then 
in being, nor any others that might be built in the province of 
New York, could in the least avail in the defence or security of 
Virginia ; for that either the French, or the northern Indians, might 
invade the colonv, and not come within a hundred miles of such 
fort." 

The failure of this great subject irritated the governor beyond 
expression ; and excited in his mind the most inordinate antipathy 
to the assembly. He charged the conduct of the assembly to a 
spirit of rebellion, and inveighed against wliat he called its parsi- 
mony, in the most unmeasured terms, offering to pay the quota of 
Virginia out of his own pocket, and boasting afterwards that he 
had done it ; but, at the same time, taking the obligation of the 
gentleman to whom he gave the bills, that no use should be made 
of them until the queen should remit money to pay them. This 
affectation of generosity was designed to gain popularity with the 
other colonies. 



CHAPTER VI. 

EVENTS FROM THE YEAR 1705 TO THE TERMINATION OF THE FRENCH AND 

INDIAN WAR. 

Gov. Nicholson superseded by Nott, and he hy Jennings. — Administration of Gov. 
Spotswood — he effects a passage over the Blue Ridge.— Drysdale governor — suc- 
ceeded by Gooch. — Death of Rev. James Blair. — Notice of Col. Wm. Byrd. — Gooch^s 
charge to the Grand Jury, against Presbyterians, Methodists, ^c. — Burning of the 
Capitol at Williamsburg. — Revision of the Colonial Laws. — Departure of Gooch. — • 
Dinwiddie governor. — Encroachments of the French. — Mission of George Washing- 
ton beyond the Alleganies, to the French Commandant of a Fort — its inauspicious 
results. — Gov. Dinwiddie prepares to repel the encroachments of the French — Expe- 
dition against them under Col. Fry, and the erection of Fort Duquesne. — Washing- 
ton's skirmish with Jumonville — he erects Fort Necessity — he surrenders to the 
French, and marches back to Virginia. — The Burgesses pass a vote of thanks to him. 
Gov. Dinwiddie resolves to prosecute the war — the futility of his projects. — Arrival 
of Gen. Braddock. — Braddock's defeat. — Bravery of Washington and the Virginia 
troops. — Frontiers open to incursions from the savages. — Fauquier governor. — 
Troops destined for the conquest of Duquesne rendezvous at Raystown. — Defeat of 
Major Grant, and heroism of Capt. Bullet. — Fort Duquesne evacuated. — End of the 
War. 

The first half of the eighteenth century, to the breaking out of 
the f^rench and Indian war, is extremely barren of incident in the 
history of Virginia. Very little more can be given than a list of 



OUTLINE IIISTOUV. 



89 



the various colonial governors, with the dates of their appoint- 
ments and removals, and a synopsis of tlieir characters. This 
])i'>vity ai'ises t'rom the lact that it w.ms mainly a tinn; ol' peace, 
which usually leaves but little of strikiiij^ incident to record, of 
marked interest to the general reader, — although a narration of 
laws, and causes which advance or retard the wellare of society, 
or those things which exhibit a true portraiture of it, would arrest 
the attention of the political economist, and, to some degree, of all. 
Again, the annals of Virginia, during this period, are brief and 
unsatisfactory; and, doubtless, much highly valuable material is, 
in consequence, forever lost. Pi'obably a thorough inspection of 
documents in possession of the British government would throw 
much light upon this period, and the colonial history of Virginia 
generally, and settle some points which, for lack of information, 
are now in controversy. 

Gov. Nicholson continued in office until 1705, when he was su- 
perseded by Edward Nott, who survived his appointment but a 
few months. The death of Nott devolved the government on Ed- 
mund Jennings, the president, and the council. A commission, 
meanwhile, had issued, appointing Brigadier Gen. Hunter lieuten- 
ant-governor, under the Earl of Orkney ; but he having been 
taken on his passage by the French, Col. Alexander Spotswood 
was appointed his successor. His administration commenced in 
1710. He was an accomplished and enterprising man ; and had 
his suggestions to the British ministry been iully and promptly 
executed, they would have proved highly useful to the interests of 
Britain in America, at a time when France was endeavoring to 
wrest from her the trade and riches of the new world. Early in 
his administration, Spotswood, at the head of a troop of horse, 
effected a passage over the Blue Ridge, which had previously been 
considered an impenetrable barrier to the ambition of the whites, 
and discovered the beautiful valley which lies beyond. In com- 
memoration of this event, he received from the king the honor of 
knighthood, and was presented with a miniature golden horse- 
shoe, on which was inscribed the motto, " *S7c* jurat transcendere 
monies" — " Thus he swears to cross the mountains." 

In 1723, Spotswood was succeeded by Sir Hugh Drysdale. In 
1739, when hostilities were commenced against Spain, and soon 
after against France, Spotswood was again called into service, 
and honored with the command of the colonial troops ; but he did 
not live to enjoy the returning smiles of royal favor. Drysdale 
was succeeded in office by Gooch, a brigadier-general on the Brit- 
ish establishment, who passed acts of the Assembly for the first 
time in 1727. During his administration, he command(xl the colo- 
nial troops in the unsuccessful expedition against Cartha^^ena. In 
1743, died the Rev. James Blair, th(^ first j)resident of William and 
Mary. He was an eminent and learned divine, to whose exer- 
tions the institution owed much of its prosperity. His death oc- 
casioned a vacancy in the council, which was iilled by William 

12 



90 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



Fairfax, son of the proprietor of the Northern Neck. Col. Wm. 
Byrd, also a member of the council, died about this period. He 
was a wealthy gentleman, of extensiv^e acquirements, and one of 
the commissioners who had been appointed to run the dividing line 
between Virginia and North Carolina. His journal of the survey, 
which has descended to our times, is " marked by a spirit of unaf- 
fected humor, that does equal honor to his heart and understand- 
ing." 

In April, 1745, Gov. Gooch made an address to the grand jury 
of the General Court, in opposition to the Presbyterians, Method- 
ists, and other denominations of Christians, who had at this time 
become numerous in Virginia. It illustrates the state of religious 
intolerance at that time, and, singular as it may seem to us of the 
present day, it met with the approval of the most gifted minds in 
the colon3% " among whom were some that afterwards became dis- 
tinguished champions of an unqualified freedom in every thing that 
rfelated to the human mind."* 

In the year 1746, the public buildings in Williamsburg were 
burnt ; and the subject was shortly after agitated of removing the 
seat of government to some more central part of the colony. In 
the session of 1748, the assembly appointed the following named 
gentlemen a committee to revise the colonial laws : — Peyton Ran- 
dolph, Philip Ludwell, Beverly Whiting, Carter Burvvell, and Ben- 
jamin Waller. Gooch, who had been governor of Virginia for 
upwards of 20 years, sailed for England in 1749, amidst the bless- 
ings and tears of the people, among whom he had lived as a 
wise and beneficent father." The government now devolved on 
Robinson, the president of the council. At his death a few days 
after, Thomas Lee, who had succeeded him in the presidency, was 
advanced to the chair of government. 

In the year 1752, Governor Dinwiddle arrived in Virginia. Since 
the failure of De Calliers design upon New York, in 1692, the 
French in Canada and Louisiana, acting in concert, continued to 
extend their forts and strengthen their power by alliances with the 
Indians : thus at once endeavoring to unite their possessions, to 
monopolize the Indian trade, and to limit the British settlements. 
Gov. Dinwiddle, viewing with just alarm the encroachments of 
the French, in Oct., 1753, dispatched George Washington, then 
but 21 years of age, on a mission to the French commandant of 
a fort on a branch of French Creek, about 15 miles south of 
Lake Erie. 

This commission was delicate and hazardous, and required experience in the modes 
of travelling through the woods, and a knowledge of the Indian character. The dis- 
tance was nearly 600 miles, over rugged mountains and mostly through a howling wil- 
derness. The party consisted of eight persons : Jacob Vanbraam, interpreter, Mr. 
Gist, guide, and four others, two of whom were Indian traders. After much toil in an 
inclement season, in marching over snow-covered mountains and crossing rivers on frail 
rafts, they at length reached the junction of the Monongahela with the Allegany. 
Wasliington examined the place, and by his recommendation the fortification was erected 
there that altervvards became so much'celebrated. 

* For this adJicss see Burke's History of Va., vol. ill., p. 119. 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



91 



Twenty miles below the Forks of the Ohio, at Lopr.stown, lie called togfcthcr some of 
the Indian ehirfs and delivered to them the tjovernor's messarro, solicitin}^ a j;u;ird to the 
French encampments. The principal sachem was Tanacharison, alias the Half- King. 
The sachems having met in council, Washiiijjton addressed them, explaining the ohjecta 
of his mission. The Half- King made a piu-ific reply, and, in cotnpany with him and 
three other Indians, Washington finally set otFand reacln-d the Fn-Mcli tort. M. de St. 
Pierre, tMe eonunandant, reecivt-d him courteonsly. Washington presented his commis- 
sion and li'tter from (iov. Dinwiddie. This letter asserted that the lands on the Ohio 
belonged to the British crown, and urged a speedy and peaceful departure of the French. 
St. Pierre's reply was respectful, but uncomplying and detenuincd. He said that the 
message should have been sent to tlie French governor in C'anada, and that he would 
not retire unless ordered by him. While there, Washington was very politely enter- 
tained ; but the French commandant used arlilice to detain the Indians. Finalfy, after 
much perplexity, the whole party embarked in. a canoe on their return, and j)roceeded 
down as far as Venango, which tiicy reached in six days. The passage was full of 
peril from rocks, shallows, and drifting trees. At Venango they Ibund their horses, in 
an emaciated condition. To lighten their burden, Washington proceeded on foot, in an 
Indian walking dress, in com{)any with Messrs. Gist and Vanbraam, the horses being 
under the direction of the drivers. After three days travel, Washington, with Mr. Gist, 
left the party and wcnl on ahead, each with a loaded knapsack and a gun. The next 
day they met an Indian, whom they engaged to pilot them to the forks of the Allegany. 
The Indian acted very suspiciously, and it was soon conjectured iVom his conduct that 
he intended to nuirder them. They managed, however, to get rid of him, and travelled 
all night. The next evening, at dusk, they arrived at tlic Allegany river. Weary and 
exhausted, they passed the night on the bank, making their bed on the snow, and ex- 
posed to the inclemencies of the weather. When morning arrived they prepared to 
cross the river. 

" There was no way of getting over," says Washington, " but on a raft ; which we 
set about making with but one poor hatchet, and linished just after snnsetting. This 
Was a whole day's work. We next got it launched, and went on board of it ; then set 
off. But, before we were half way over, we were jammed in the ice in such a ma iner, 
that we expected every moment our raft would sink, and onrselves perish. I put out 
my setting-pole to try to stop the raft, that the ice might pass by ; when the rapidity of 
the stream threw it with so much violence against the pole, that it jerked me out inta 
ten feet water. But I fortunately saved myself by catching hold of one of the raft- 
logs. Notwithstanding all our efforts, we could not get the raft to either shore, but 
were obliged, as wc were near an island, to quit our raft and make to it.'' 

This was a desert island. They passed tiie night in extreme surt'ering, from the in- 
tense cold, and Mr. Gist's hands and feet were frozen. When morning dawned, a 
gleam of hope appeared. The ice had congealed to the eastern shore sufficiently hard 
to allow them to cross to it. At length, after an absence of sixteen weeks, they arrived 
at Williamsburg. 

The intentions of the French bein": now understood, the Gov- 
ernor of \^irginia acted with enerijy to resist their encroachments. 
The journal of Washington was also puljlished. It was reprinted 
in London, and considered by the government as unfolding the 
hostile views of the French, and the h'rst proof of their intentions. 
A rejiiment was raised in Virginia, under the command of Colonel 
Joshua Fry, for the purpose of erecting a tort at the forks of the 
Ohio. Washington was appointed sc^cond in command, with the 
rank of lieute^iant-colonel. A small party of Captain Trent's 
company was hastily sent forward to commence the fort, but w^ere 
interrupted by the arrival of Captain Contrecoeur, with a thousand 
French and Indians, who drove away the English, and erected 
Fort Duquesn(\ This was the first act of open hostility. The news 
reached Colonel Washington while he was poster at Will's creek 
(at which place Fort Cumberland was ai'terwaids erected) with 
three companies, waiting the arrival of Colonel Fry with the 



92 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



remainder of the regiment and the artillery. He wrote immedi- 
ately I'or reinforcements, and pushed forward with his companies 
towards the Monongahela, as fast as the process of cutting a new 
road through the wilderness would permit. His intention was to 
reach the mouth of Redstone, there to wait for the arrival of the 
artillery and reinforcements under Colonel Fry, and then drop 
down the Monongahela by water, to the Forks. He had designed 
to descend the Yough'ogheny, but after an examination of the 
falls, abandoned the design. 

" Learning that the French were coming out to meet him, Washington hurried for- 
ward to the Great Meadows, and threw up a hasty intrenchment. This place is ten 
miles east from Uuiontown, a few rods south of the present national road, between the 
fifty-second and fifty-third miles from Cumberland. Commanded, as it is, by elevated 
ground on both sides, within one hundred yards of the fort, it would seem to be injudi- 
ciously chosen for defence ; but Washington knew the French and Indians pould bring 
no artillery, and the meado\vs being entirely free from timber, the enemy would be com- 
pelled to emerge upon the open plain, beyond the protection of the woods, before he 
could efficiently attack the fort. Washington learned from Tanacharison, the half-king, 
a chief of the Six Nations, and from Mr, Gist, that La Force was out, from Fort 
Duquesne, with a party of French and Indians, and their tracks had been seen within 
five miles of the Great Meadows. He immediately dispatched a party of seventy-five 
on horseback, to reconnoitre their position, but they were not to be found. Washington 
writes on 29th May, 1754 : 

" About nine o'clock the same night, I received an express from the half-king, who 
was encamped with several of his people about six miles off, that he had seen the tracks 
of two Frenchmen crossing the road ; and that, behind, the whole body were lying not 
far off, as he had an account of that number passing Mr. Gist's. I set out with forty 
men before ten, and it was from that time till near sunrise before we reached the In- 
dians' camp, having marched in small paths through a heavy rain, and a night as dark 
as it is possil)le to conceive. We were frequently tumbling one over another, and 
often so lost that fifteen or twenty minutes' search would not find the path again." 

" When we came to the half-king, I counselled with him, and got his assent to go hand 
in hand and strike the French. Accordingly he, Monocawaclia, and a few other In- 
dians, set out with us, and when we came to the place where the tracks were, the half- 
king sent two Indians to follow their tracks, and discover their lodgment, which they 
did at half a mile from the road, in a very obscure place surrounded with rocks. I 
thereupon, in conjunction with the half.king and Monocawacha, formed a disposition 
to attack them on all sides — which we accordingly did ; and, after an engagement of 
about fifteen minutes, we killed ten, wounded one, and took twenty-one prisoners. The 
principal officers taken, are M. Drouillon and M. La Force, of whom your honor has 
often heard me speak, as a bold, enterprising man, and a person of great subtlety and 
cunning. With these are two cadets." 

" In this engagement we had only one man killed, and two or three wounded, (among 
whom was Lieutenant Waggener, slightly) — a most miraculous escape, as our right 
wing was much exposed to their fire, and received it all." 

In his journal he had also noted : 

" As I marched on with the prisoners, (after the action,) they informed me that they 
had been sent with a summons for me to depart — a specious pretext, that they might 
discover our camp, and reconnoitre our force and situation. This was so evident, that 
I was astonished at their assurance in telling me that they came as an embassy. By 
their instructions, they were to obtain a knowledge of the roads, rivers, and country, as 
far as the Potomac. Instead of coming as ambassadors — public, and in an open man- 
ner — they came secretly, and sought out the most hidden retreats, much better suited for 
deserters than ambassadors. Here they encamped ; here tb.ey remained concealed for 
whole days together, within five miles of us. They sent out spies to reconnoitre our 
camp. The whole body then moved back two miles. Thence they sent messengers, 
as directed in the instructions, to acquaint M. Contrecoeur with the place we were in, 
and with our disposition, that he might forward his detachments to enforce the summons 
as soon as it should be given. An ambassador has no need of spies ; his character is 
always sacred. ISince they had so good an intention, why should they remain two 



OLTLINE HISTORY. 



1)3 



days within five miles of us. without fjivin^ ine notice of the summons, or of any tlnnjf 
which related to their embassy ? Tliis alone would be sulFicient to raise the strongest 
suspicions; and the justice is certainly due them, that, as they wished to conceal 
themselves, they could not liave chosen better places than they did." 

" They pretend th-il they called to us, as soon as we were discovered ; wliicii is aI)SO- 
lutely falsi! — for I was at the head of the party in approachin;; them, and I can atlirm, 
that as soon as they saw us they ran to their arms, without calling, which I should have 
heard if they had done so." 

And in a subsequent letter to Governor Dinwiddie, Wasliington says, speaking of 
some deserters from the French : " These di serters corroborate what the others said, 
and we suspected. La Force's party were sent out as spies, and were to show that 
summons if discovered or overpowered by a superior party of ours. They say the 
commander was blamed for sending so small a party."* 

" Washington having sent his prisoners to the governor, prepared his intrenchmcnts, by 
erecting a stockade, for receiving a more formidable attack from the French, which he 
had good reason to expect, alter they should have heard of the loss of .Ii.nnonville's 
party. To this stockade he gave the name of Fort Necessity. Colonel Fry had died 
in Virginia, and the chief command devolved on Colonel Washington. Captain .Mackay, 
of the royaV army, with an independent company of one hundred men, arrived at the 
Great Meadows. Washington, leaving him in command of the fort, pushed on over 
Laurel-hill, cutting the road with extreme labor through the wilderness, as fur as Ciist's 
plantation. This tedious march occupied them two weeks. During the march, they 
were joined by the Half-king, and a numerous body of Indians, with their families, who 
had espoused the English cause. 

" A strong detachment was at length announced, as being on their march from F'ort 
Duquesne, under the command of Monsieur de Villiers. It was at first determined to 
receive them at Gist's ; but on further information of the enemy's force, supposed to 



* No transaction in the life of Washington has been so much misrepresented, or so 
little understood, as this skirmish with Jumonville. It being the first conflict of arms 
in the war, a notoriety was given to it, particularly in I^urope, altogether disproportioned 
to its importance. War had not yet been declared between Great Britain and France, 
and, indeed, the diplomatists on both sides were making great professions of friendship. 
It was the policy of each nation to exaggerate the proceedings of the other on their 
colonial frontiers, and to make them a handle for recrimination and complaints, by 
throwing upon the adverse party the blame of committing the first acts of aggression. 
Hence, when the intelligence of the skirmish with Jumonville got to Fans, it wa.s offi- 
cially published by the government, in connection with a memoir and various papers ; 
and his death was called a murder. It was said, that while bearing a summons, as a 
civil messenger, without any hostile intentions, he was waylaid and assassinated. The 
report was industriously circulated, and gained credence with the niultitude. Mr. 
Thomas, a poet, and scholar of repute, seized the occasion to write an epic, entitled, 
' Jumi)nville,^ in which he tasked his invention to draw a tragical picture of the fate 
of his hero. The fabric of the story, and the incidents, were alike fictitious. But the 
tale passed from fiction to history, and to this day it is repeated by the French histo- 
rians, who in other respects lender justice to the character of Washington ; and who 
can find no other aj)ology for this act than his youth and inexperience, and the ferocity 
of his men. 

*' The mistakes of the French writers were not unknown to Washington ; but, con- 
scious of having acted in strict conformity with his orders and military usage, he took 
no pains to correct them, except in a single letter to a friend, written several years 
afterwards, which related mostly to the errors in the French account of the subsequent 
action of the (ireat Meadows. Unfortunately, all his correspondence, and the other 
papers which he wrote during this campaiirn, were lost the next year at the battle of the 
Monongahela, atid he was thus deprived of the only authentic materials that could be 
used for explanation and defence. The most im|)ortant of these papers have recently 
been found, [by .Mr. Sparks, in his researches in England,] and tliey aflford not only a 
complete vindication of Colonel Washinirlon in this affair, but show that it met with 
the unqualified approbation of the govt rnor and legislature of Virginia, and of the 
British ministry." — Sparks'' L>fe and Wrilin'js of Wnshinston — where the inciilenfs 
of this pamp;iign are ably and fully delineated, and the conduct of Washington, both in 
this affair and the capitulation at the Great Meadows, are clearly explained and tri- 
umphantly vindicated against the charges of the French. 



94 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



be niiYe hundred men, it was determined to retreat to Fort Necessity, and, if possible, 
to Wills' creek. Their provisions were short, their horses worn down, and it was 
with excessive labor and fatigue that they reached the fort, after a forced march of two 
days. Here only a small quantity of flour was found ; but supplies were hourly ex- 
pected, and it was therefore determined to fortify the place as well as circumstances 
would permit, and abide the event. 

" On the 3d July the enemy appeared, and commenced firing from the woods, but 
without effect, Washington had drawn up his men outside of the fort, with the 
view of inviting an encounter in the open field. This the French and Indians 
declined, hoping to draw him into the woods. It rained constantly during the day, 
and the muskets became wet, and were used with difficulty. Washington's troops 
withdrew within the trenches, and fired as opportunities occurred. In the evening 
the French proposed a parley, which Washington at first declined, suspecting a design 
to gain an entrance to the fort, and discover his weakness ; but he afterwards consented 
to send an officer to them. Captain Vanbraam, a Dutchman, who pretended to un- 
derstand French, was sent to them, and returned with proposals, in the French lan- 
guage, for capitulation. These proposals, after being modified in some particulars by 
the besieged party, were agreed to. The garrison was to be permitted to leave the fort 
with the honors of war, taking their baggage, except their ^artillery, with them. They 
were not to be molested by the French, nor, as far as it could be prevented, by the In- 
dians. Since their caitle and horses had been killed in the action, they were to be permitted 
to conceal such of their effijcts as could not be carried away, and to leave a guard with 
them until they could return with horses to take them away ; but on condition that 
they should not, within one year, attempt any establishment there, or on that side of the 
mountains. The prisoners taken at the time of Jumonville''s death * were to be re- 
turned, and Captains Vanbraam and Stobo were to be retained by the French as hos- 
tages, until the return of the prisoners.! On the following morning, Washington, with 

* " In the French proposals this expression was insidiously written, ' d Passassinat de 
M. Jumonville ;^ and as Vanbraam, the stupid interpreter, did not explain the force 
of the expression to Washington, the capitulation was signed in that shape." 

t It seems (according to Burke) that La Force, one of the prisoners taken by Wash- 
ington in the skirmish in May, had made strenuous exertions to instigate the Indians to 
hostilities, and that he had been travelling on the frontiers of Virginia to obtain informa- 
tion of its resources. When taken, there were found upon him papers, in part disclos- 
ing the designs and policy of France. 

Viewing him in the character of a spy. Governor Diii;.v,.ioi e threw him into prison at 
Williamsburg. To' redeem this man, was the principal design of De Villier in demand- 
ing these hostages. La Force escaped from prison, and the people of the country were 
alarmed. " The opinion," says Burke, " that before prevailed of his extraordinary address 
and activity, his desperate courage, and fertility in resources, was by this new feat wrought 
into a mingled agony of terror and astonishment. Already had he reached King and 
Queen courthouse, without any knowledge of the country through which he passed, 
without a compass, and not daring to ask a question, when he attracted the notice of a 
back-woodsman. Their route lay the same way ; and it occurred to La Force, that by 
the friendship and fidelity of this man, he might escape in spite of the difficulties and 
dangers of his situation. Some questions proposed by La Force, relative to the distance 
and direction of Fort Duquesne, confirmed the woodsman in his suspicions, and he arrest- 
ed him as he was about to cross the ferry at West Point. In vain did La Force tempt 
the woodsman with an immediate offer of money, and with promises of wealth and pre- 
ferment, on condition that he accompanied him to Fort Duquesne. He was proof against 
every allurement, inconsistent with his duty, and he led him back to Williamsburg. The 
condition of La Force, after this attempt, became in the highest degree distressing. He 
was loaded with a double weight of irons, and chained to the floor of his dungeon. 

" Such was the si! nation of affairs when Colonel Washington, after his resignation, ar- 
rived in Williamsburg. Here, for the first time, he heard of the imprisonment and per- 
secution of La Force, and he felt himself compelled to remonstrate with Mr. Dinwiddle 
against them, as an infraction of the articles of capitulation, and of the laws of honor 
acknowledged by soldiers. His application was strongly backed by the sympathy of the 
people, which now began to run strongly in favor of the prisoner; but the governor was 
inexorable. Meanwhile, the hostages, Stobo and Vanbraam, had been ordered, for 
greater security, to Quebec, and in retaliation of the sufferings of La Force, they too were 
confined in prison, but without any additional severity. Almost at the same moment 
that Lu Force had broken his prison, Stobo and Vanbraam, by efforts equally extraor- 



OUTLIN'E HISTORY. 



95 



tlie g;arrison, left the fort, taking such bagffjajTc as llioy could carry, and transporting 
the wounded upon their backs. The Indians, contrary to the stipulation, annoyed thetn 
exceedingly, and pilfered their bagfjajre. After a toilsome march, tluy at length arrived 
at Wills' creek, wiicre they found rest and refresiunent." 

From tlience Wa^ihin'^toQ proceeded to Willianisl)ur<j:, and com- 
municated llie events of ihe campaign to Governor Dinwiddie. 

As soon as the House of Burgesses assembled, they passed a 
vote of thanks to Col. Washington and his officers, for their brave- 
ry and gallant conduct. Thus ended the lirst campaign of Wash- 
ington. "Although as yet a mere youth, with small experience, 
unskilled in war, and relying on his own resources, he had behaved 
with the prudence, address, courage, and lirmness of a veteran 
commander. Rigid in discipline, but sharing the hardships, and 
solicitous for the welfare of his soldiers, he had secured their obe- 
dience and won their esteem, amidst privations, sufferings, and 
perils, that have seldom been surpassed." 

Gov. Dinwiddie resolved to prosecute the war, but being wholly 
ignorant of military affairs, his preliminary measures, in underta- 
king to organize an army, were injudicious. In August, he wrote 
to W^ashington, who was at Winchester, to fill up the companies 
of his regiment by enlistment, and lead them without delay to 
Wills' creek, where Col. Innes, with some troops from the Caro- 
linas and New York, were building Fort Cumberland. From 
thence, it was the governor's project that the united forces should 
immediately cross the AUeganies and drive the French from Fort 
Duquesne, or build another fort beyond the mountains. Washing- 
ton, astonished at the absurdity of the scheme, contemplated at a 
season when the mountains would be covered with snow, and the 
army enfeebled and destitute of supplies, made such a strong re- 
monstrance that the project was abandoned. 

The governor was opposed by the assembly, who would not yield 
to all his demands, and he never ceased to complain of their " re- 
publican way of thinking.*' He had lately proiogued them, to 
punish their obstinacy, and wrote to the ministry that he was sat- 
isfied the French would never be effectually opposed unless the 
colonies were compelled, independently of assemblies, to contribute 
to the common cause. When the Burgess<'S again met. they con- 
tributed £20,000 for the public service, which was soon increased 
to £3().0;)0 by specie sent from England. 

In po-^session of funds, the governor now enlarged the army to 
ten companies of 100 men each, and placed them upon the estab- 
lishment of independent companies, by which the highest officers 
in the Virginia re^^iment, among whom was Washington, would be 

dinary, had escaped from Quebec, and were passing the causeway leading from the city, 
at the moment tliat the governor of Canada was airing in his carriage. Stobo succeeded 
in effecting his escape ; but Vanbraam, fainting with fatigue and hunger, and despairing 
of being able to effect his escape, called out to th»' governor from beneath the arch of llic 
causeway, where he concealed himscll, and desired to surrender. The governor received 
him in his carriage, and remanded him to prison, but without any extraordinary severity. 
Even these facts were not unknown to Mr. Dinwiddie ; yet, without being touched by 
so generous an example, he persisted in his unjustifiable rigor towards La Force." 



4 



96 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



captains. He thereupon resigned his commission and retired from 
the service. 

Early in the ensuing spring, (1755,) Major-Gen. Edward Brad- 
dock arrived in the country wiih the 44th and 48th regiments of 
royal troops, under Sir Peter Halkett and Col. Dunbar. The peo- 
ple seemed elated v^ith joy, and in their imagination the intruding 
French seemed about to be driven back like a torrent upon the 
frontiers of Canada. Col. Washington, who now was to take an 
active part in the fearful scenes to be enacted, accepted the ap- 
pointment of aid-de-camp to Gen. Braddock. At Wills' Creek, 
(Fort Cumberland,) the royal forces were joined by about 1000 
Virginians, but the army was detained for want of horses, wagons, 
and Ibrage. By the energy of Dr. Franklin, then postmaster-gen- 
eral of the provinces, the deficiency was supplied. The army mov- 
ed at length on the 8th and 9th of June,j3ut soon found them- 
selves so encumbered with baggage and wagons, that it was de- 
termined, at the suggestion of Washington, to divide the force, 
pushing forward a small, but chosen band, with such artillery and 
light stores as were necessary, leaving the heavy artillery, bag- 
gage, &c., to follow by slow and easy marches. 

The general, with 1,200 chosen men, and Sir Peter Halkett, as brigadier, Lieut. Col. 
Gage, (afterwards Gen. Gage,) Lieut. Col. Burton, and Major Sparks, went forward, 
leaving Col. Dunbar to follow with the remainder of the troops and baggage. Col. 
Washington, who had been very ill with a fever, was left in charge of Col. Dunbar, but 
with a promise from Gen. Braddock that he should be brought up with the advanced 
corps before they reached Fort Duquesne. He joined it at the mouth of. the Yough'- 
ogheny, on the 8th July. On the 9th, the day of Braddock's defeat, he says, " I at- 
tended the general ou horseback, though very low and weak. The army crossed to the 
left bank of the Monongahela, a little below the mouth of Yough'ogheny, being prevent- 
ed by rugged hills from continuing along the right bank to the fort." 

" Washington was often heard to say during his lifetime, that the most beautiful spec- 
tacle he ever beheld was the display of the British troops on this eventful morning. — 
Every man was neatly dressed in full uniform ; the soldiers were arranged in columns 
and marched in exact order ; the sun gleamed from their burnished arms; the river 
flowed tranquilly on their right, and the deep forest overshadowed them with solemn 
grandeur on their left. Officers and men were equally inspirited with cheering hopes and 
confident anticipations." 

" In this manner they marched forward until about noon, when they arrived at the 
second crossing place, ten miles from Fort Duquesne. They halted but a little time, and 
then began to ford the river and regain its northern bank. As soon as they had crossed 
they came upon a level plain, elevated only a few feet above the surface of the river, and 
extending northward nearly half a mile from its margin. Then commenced a gradual 
ascent at an angle of about three degrees, which terminated in hills of a considerable 
height at no great distance beyond. The road from the fording place to Fort Duquesne 
led across the plain and up this ascent, and thence proceeded through an uneven country 
at that time covered with wood. 

*' By the order of march, a body of 300 men under Col. Gage made the advanced 
party, which was immediately followed by another of 200. Next came the general with 
the columns of artillery, the main body of the army, and the baggage. At one o'clock, 
the whole had crossed the river, and almost at this moment a sharp firing was heard upon 
the advanced parties, who were now ascending the hill, and had proceeded about a hun- 
dred yards from the termination of ihe plain. A heavy discharge of musketry was 
poured in upon their front, which was the first intelligence they had of the proximity of 
an enemy, and this was suddenly followed by another on the right flank. They were 
filled with the greater consternation, as no enerny was in sight, and the firing seemed to 
proceed from an invisible foe. They fired in turn, however, but quite at random, and 
obviously without effect. 



OtfLINE HISTORY. 



97 



"The ^neral hastened forward to the relief of the advanred parties ; but before he 
could reach the spot which they occupied, they g^vv way and iVll hack upon the artil- 
lery and the other columns of tlie army, causiritr extrrnic confu>ion, and str.kin^ the 
whole mass with such a panic that no order could afterwards be rcstort-d. The general 
and the otHcers behaved with the utn)0st courage, and usi-d every etVort to mlly the men, 
and bring them to order, but all in vain. In this state they continued nearly three hours, 
huddled together in confused bodies, tiring irregularly, shooting down their own officers 
and men, and doing no perceptible harm to the enemy. The Virginia* provincials were 
the only troops who seemed to retain their senses, and they behaved with a bravery and 
resolution wortliv of a better fate. They adopted the Indian mode, and tonght each 
man for himself, behind a tree. This was prohibited by the general, who endeavored to 
form his men into platoons and columns, as if they had been manouuvring on the plains 
of Flanders. Meantime the French and Inriiuns, concealed in the ravines and behind 
trees, kej)t up a deadly and unceasing discharge of musketry, singling out their objects, 
taking deliberate aim, and producing a carnage almost unparalleled in the annals of 
modern warfare. The general himself received a mortal wound,t and many of his best 
officers tell by his side. 

" During the whole of the action, as reported by an officer who witnessed his conduct. 
Col. Washington behaved with ' the greatest courage and resolution.' Captains Orme 
and Morris, the two other aids-de-camp, were wounded and disabled, and the duty of 
distributing the general's orders devolved on him alone. He rode in every direction, and 
was a conspicuous mark for the enemy's sharpshooters. ' By the all-powerful dispensa- 



* Washington said — " The Virginia troops showed a good deal of bravery, and were 
nearly all killed ; for, I believe, out of three companies that were there, scarcely 30 men 
are left alive. Capt. Peyrouny, and all his officers down to a corporal, were killed. 
Capt. Poison had nearly as hard a fate, for only one of his was left. In short, the das- 
tardly behavior of those they call regulars, exposed all others that were inclined to do 
their duty, to almost certain death ; and, at last, in despite of all the effi)rts of the officers 
to the contrary, they ran as sheep pursued by dogs, and it was impossible to rally them. 
.... It is conjectured, (1 believe with much truth,) that two-thirds of our killed and 
wounded received their shot from our own cowardly regulars, who gathered themselves 
into a body, contrary to orders, ten or twelve deep — would tlien level, fire, and shoot down 
the men before them." 

t " TTtere had long existed a tradition that Braddock was killed by one of his own men, 
and more recent developments leave little or no doubt of the fact. A recent writer says : 

"' When my father was removing with his family to the west, one of the Fausetts 
kept a public house to the eastward from, and near where Uniontown now stands, as 
the county seat of Fayette, Penn. This man's house we lodged in about the tenth of 
October, 1781, twenty-six years and a few mouths after Braddock's defeat, and there it 
was made auy thing but a secret that one of the family dealt the death-blow to the 
British general. 

" ' Thirteen years afterwards I met Thomas Fausett in Fayette co., then, as he told 
me, in his 70th year. To him I put the plain question, and received a plain reply, " / 
did shoot him He then went on to insist, that, by doing so, he contributed to save 
what was left of the army. In brief, in my youth, I never heard the fact either doubted 
or blamed, that Fausett shot Braddock.' 

" Hon. Andrew Stewart, of Uniontown, says he knew, and often conversed with Tom 
Fausett, who did not hesitate to avow, in the presence of his friends, that he shot Gen. 
Braddock. Fausett was a man of gigantic frame, of uncivilized half-savage propensi- 
ties, and spent most of his life among the mountains, as a hermit, living on the game 
which he killed. He would occasionally come into town, and get drunk. Sometimes 
he would repel inquiries into the affair of Braddock's death, by putting his fingers to his 
lips and uttering a sort of buzzing sound ; at others, he would burst into tears, and 
appear greatly agitated by conflicting passions. 

" In spite of Braddock's silly order, that the troops should not protect themselves 
behind trees, Joseph Fausett had taken such a position, when Braddock rode up, in a 
passion, and struck him down with his sword. Tom Fausett, who was but a short dis- 
tance from his brother, saw the whole transaction, and immediately drew up his rifle 
and shot Braddock through the lungs, partly in revenge for the outrage upon his brother, 
and partly, as he always alleged, to get the general out of the way, and thus save the 
remainder of the gallant band, who had been sacrificed to his obstinacy, and want of 
experience in frontier warfare." — Day's Penn. 

13 



98 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



tions of Providence,' said he, in a letter to liis brother, ' I have been protected beyond 
all human probability or expectation, for I had four bullets through my coat, and two 
horses shot under me, yet I escaped unhurt, although death was levelling my companions 
on every side of me.'* So bloody a contest has rarely been witnessed. The number of 
officers in the engagement was 86, of whom 26 were killed, and 37 were wounded. 
The killed and wounded of the privates amounted to 714. On the other hand, the 
enemy's loss was small. Their force amounted, at least, to 850 men, of whom 600 were 
Indians. According to the returns, not more than 40 were killed. They fought in 
deep ravines, concealed by the bushes, and the balls of the English passed over their 
heads. 

" The remnant of Braddock's army being put to flight, and having re-crossed the 
river. Col. Washington hastened to meet Col. Dunbar, and order up horses and wagona 
for the wounded. Three days were occupied in retreating to Gist's plantation. The 
enemy did not pursue them. Satiated with carnage and plunder, the Indians could not 
be tempted from the battle-field, and the French were too few to act without their aid. 
The unfortunate general, dying of his wounds, was transported first in a tumbril, then 
on a horse, and at last was carried by the soldiers. He expired the fourth day, and was 
buried in the road near Fort Necessity. A new panic seized the troops ; disorder and 
confusion reigned ; the artillery was destroyed ; the public stores and heavy baggage 
were burnt, no one could tell by whose orders; nor were"^ discipline and tranquillity re- 
stored, till the straggling and bewildered companies arrived at Fort Cumberland. 

" Such was the termination of an enterprise, one of the most memorable in American 
history, and almost unparalleled for its disasters and the universal disappointment and 
consteruation it occasioned. Notwithstanding its total and even disgraceful failure, the 
bitter invectives everywhere poured out against its principal conductors, and the re- 
proaches heaped upon the memory of its ill-fated commander, yet the fame and charac- 
ter of Washington were greatly enhanced by it. It was known that he gave prudent 
counsel to General Braddock, which was little heeded. During the march, a body of 
Indians offered their services, which, at the earnest request and recommendation of Wash- 
ington, were accepted, but in so cold a manner, and the Indians were treated with so 
much neglect, that they withdrew, one after another, in disgust. On the evening pre- 
ceding the action, they came again to camp and renewed their offer. Again Col. Wash- 
ington interposed, and urged the importance of these men as scouts and outguards, their 
knowledge of the grounds and skill in fighting among woods. Relying on the prowess 
of his regular troops, and disdaining such allies, the general peremptorily refused to re- 
ceive them, in a tone not more decided than ungracious. Had a scouting party of a dozen 
Indians preceded the army after it crossed the Monongahela, they would have detected 
the enemy in the ravines, and reversed the fortunes of the day."t 

After the defeat of Braddock, Col. Dunbar, who succeeded to the 
command, marched his troops to Philadelphia. The whole fron- 
tier, even to the Blue Ridge, was now harassed and horror-strick- 
en by the bloody incursions of the French Indians. Col. Wash- 
ington, in his capacity as adjutant-general of militia, circulated 
orders for them to assemble in their respective districts for exer- 
cise and review. Volunteer companies were organized, and the 
martial spirit of the people revived. Addresses were made to 
them from the pulpit, in one of which, the eloquent Samuel Davies 
of Hanover, after complimenting the bravery shown by the Vir- 
ginia troops, added the following encomium, which seems almost 

* When Washington went to the Ohio, in 1770, to explore wild lands near the mouth 
of the Kenhawa River, he met an aged Indian chief, who told him, through an inter- 
preter, that during the battle of Braddock's field, he had singled him out as a conspicu- 
ous object, fired his rifle at him many times, and directed his young warriors to do the 
same ; but none of his balls took effect. He was then persuaded that the young hero 
was under the special guardianship of the Great Spirit, and ceased firing at him. He 
had now come a long way to pay homage to the man who was the particular favorite of 
heaven, and who could never die in battle. 

t Sparks' Life, of Washington, from which much important information relating to 
this war is inserted in this chapter. 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



99 



prophetic. " As a remarkabh* instance of this. I may point out to 
the public that heroic youth. Col. Washington, whom I cannot but 
hope Providence has hitherto preserved in so signal a manner for 
some important service to his country." 

In consequence of the desperate state of affairs, Gov. Dinwiddie 
convened the Assembly on the 4th of August. They voted £40,- 
000 for the public service, and enlarged their regiment to sixteen 
companies. ^loney was also granted to Col. Washington and the 
other ollicers and privates, " for their gallant behavior and losses," 
in the late disastrous battle. To Col. Washington was given the 
command of all the forces raised and to be raised in ^'irginia, 
with the unusual privilege of selecting his own field-officers. He 
now applied himself with his wonted energy to the discharge of 
the high responsibility conferred upon him. Lieut. Col. Adam Ste- 
phens, and Major Andrew Lewis, were the field ollicers next in 
rank. Washington's head quarters were at Winchester. After 
putting alfairs in train, he performed a tour of inspection among 
the mountains, visiting all the outposts in the frontier, from Fort 
Cumberland to Fort Dinwiddie, on Jackson's river. He then start- 
ed lor Williamsburg, to confer with the governor on the plan of 
operations, when he was overtaken below Fredericksburg by an 
express, announcing a new irruption of the savages upon the back 
settlements. He hastened back, mustered a force, and gave a 
timely and effectual check to the invaders, but not such as to quiet 
the fears of the settlers, many of whom, with their families, fled 
into the lower country, and increased the general terror. 

The defects of the militia system were such as to put the pa- 
tience of Col. Washington to a severe trial. He represented in 
strong language, to the government of the colony, these defects, 
and their fatal consecjuences, and at last prevailed. A new law 
was passed providing a remedy, but too late in the year for him to 
undertake otfensive operations. 

In April of the ensuing year, (1756,) when the Assembly again 
met at Williamsburg, Col. Washington hastened thither to mature 
a plan for defence during the summ(M\ Had the sev«^ral colonies 
united, the intruding French might have been driven from the 
Ohio ; but local jealousies prevented a union, and ^'iririnia saw 
that the most strenuous exertions were necessary to detend their 
long line of frontier. The Assembly determined to augment the 
army to 1500 men. A bill was passed tor draiting militia to sup- 
ply the deficiency of recruits. Col. Washington returned to Win- 
chester. But a few men were stationed there, most of the regi- 
ment being scattered at different posts for the better protection of 
the frontiers. The enemy, encouraged by the successes of the pre- 
ceding year, were continually on the alert, and accounts were 
daily received of fresh massacres by them. Scouting parties, and 
even forts were attacked, and some of the bravest troops killed. 
Serious apprehensions were felt for the saf ety of Winchester. The 
number of troops was wholly insutTicient for the protection of the 



100 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



settlers. Col. Washington, deeply affected by the scenes he wit- 
nessed, addressed a letter to the governor, in which he said : 

" I see their situation, I know their danger, and participate their sufferings, without 
having it in my power to give them further relief than uncertain promises. In short, 1 
see inevitable destruction in so clear a light, that, unless vigorous measures are taken 
by the Assembly, and speedy assistance sent from below, the poor inhabitants now in 
forts must unavoidably fall, while the remainder are flying before the barbarous foe. 
In fine, the melancholy situation of the people, the little prospect of assistance, the gross 
and scandalous abuses cast upon the officers in general, which is reflecting on me in par- 
ticular, for suffering misconduct of such extraordinary kind, and the distant prospect, 
if any, of gaining reputation in the service, cause me to lament the hour that gave me 
a commission, and would induce me, at any other time than this of imminent danger, 
to resign, without one hesitating moment, a command from which I never expect to 
reap either honor or benefit ; but, on the contrary, have almost an absolute certainty of 
incurring displeasure below, while the murder of helpless families may be laid to my ac- 
count here. 

" The supplicating tears of the women, and moving petitions of the men, melt me 
with such deadly sorrow, that I solemnly declare, if I know my awn mind, I could offer 
myself a willing sacrifice to the butchering enemy, provided that would contribute to 
the people's ease." 

These agonizing sensations were heightened by base calumnies 
against the army, and indirectly against the commander-in-chief, 
which seemed for a while to gain public credence. 

" By degrees," says Sparks, " the plot was unravelled. The governor, being a Scotch- 
man, was surrounded by a knot of his Caledonian friends, who wished to profit by this 
alliance, and obtain for themselves a larger share of consideration than they could com- 
mand in the present order of things. The discontented, and such as thought their 
merits undervalued, naturally fell into this faction. To create dissatisfaction in the 
army, and cause the officers to resign from disgust, would not only distract the councils 
of the ruling party, but make room" for new promotions. Col. Innes, the governor's 
favorite, would ascend to the chief command, and the subordinate places would be re- 
served for his adherents. Hence false rumors were set afloat, and the pen of detraction 
was busy to disseminate them. The artifice was easily seen through, and its aims were 
defeated by the leaders on the patriotic side, who looked to Col. Washington as a pillar 
to support their cause." 

The campaign being solely a defensive one, no opportunities 
were allowed for obtaining laurels. The scenes of the past year 
were re-enacted, the savages continued their murderous incursions, 
there was the same tardiness in enlistments, the same troubles with 
the militia, and to increase the difficulties, the governor, tenacious 
of his authority, intrusted insufficient power to Col. Washington. 
" Totally unskilled in military affairs, and residing 200 miles from 
the scene of action, he yet undertook to regulate the principal 
operations ; sending expresses back and forth, and issuing vague, 
contradictory orders, seldom adapted to circumstances — frequently 
impracticable. The summer and autumn were passed in skirmishes 
with the Indians, repairing the old forts, and building new ones. 
By the advice of Col. AVashington, a large fort was begun at 
Winchester, as a depository for the military stores, and a rallying 
point for the settlers and troops, should they be driven from the 
frontiers. It was called Fort Loudoun, in honor of the Earl of 
Loudoun, who had now succeeded Gen. Shirley in the American 
command." Traces of this fortification remain to the present day. 

As the year, drew to a close, Col. Washington drew up a paper 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



101 



of the military affairs of the province, which he transmitttnl to 
Lord Loudoun. It contained a history of the war and valuable 
suggestions for future o})erations. It was courteously received. 
In March, (1757,) Washington attended a meeting, at Philadelphia, 
of several governors and principal officers, sununonc^d by Lord 
Loudoun, to consult upon a comprehensive plan for thr next cam- 
paign. It was decided that the principal efibrts should be made 
on the lakes and Canada border, while the southern and middle 
colonies were left on the defensive. Col. Washington strenuously 
recommended an expedition against Fort Duquesne. Had his 
views been adoi)ted it would have saved the expense of another 
campaign, and secured the borders from the savage incursions. 
From this conference Washington returned to Winchester, where 
he had spent the two preceding years. His routine of duties was 
the same. The Indians still continued their hostilities. 

The assembly, prorogued to the 27th of October, (1757,) was dis- 
solved on the 9th of November, and writs were issued for a new 
assembly to meet on the 22d of the same month. A day of 
fasting and prayer was appointed. 

While the Assembly were deliberating upon measures of de- 
fence, the French general, Montcalm, took the posts of Oswego 
and Ontario, and his savage allies continued their murderous in- 
roads upon the frontiers. Col. Armstrong, at the head of about 
300 provincials, attacked one of their towns situated about 25 
miles above Fort Duquesne, killed 40 Indians, and rescued eleven 
prisoners. 

Dinwiddie sailed for England in January, 1758, much to the 
satisfaction of the people of Virginia. Originally a petty clerk of 
customs in the West Indies, he had brought himself under the 
notice of government by the detection of an enormous system of 
fraud on the part of his principal, and was thereupon immediatel)' 
rewarded by the appointment of governor of \'irginia. In this 
situation, charges were brought against him of extorting illegal 
fees, and appropriating the public funds to his private purposes. 
His public course was vacillating, his deportment arrogant, and he 
was w holly devoid of those qualities becoming his station, and 
particularly requisite at the perilous time he was intrusted with 
such high powers. Lord Loudoun had been commissioned as 
his successor, but his military duties at the north prevented him 
from entering upon the duties of his ofiice. His place was filled, 
temporarily, l)y John Blair, president of the council, until the arri- 
val, on the 7th of June, of Gov. Francis Fauquier. 

Mr. Pitt having acceded to the British ministry in the spring of 
this year, (1758.) he resolved to prosecute the war with energy in 
America. Gen. Forbes was appointed to the command of an ex- 
pedition against Fort Duquesne, To further his plans, he wrote 
a circular letter to several of the colonies to incite them to action, 
and offering certain supplies at the expense of the king. The 
Virginia Assembly augmented their force to 2000 men. They 



102 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



•were divided into two regiments : the first under Col. Washing- 
ton, who still continued commander-in-chief of all the Virginia 
troops ; the second under Col. Byrd. Early in July, Washington 
marched from Winchester with the principal part of the Virginia 
troops, to Fort Cumberland. Six companies of the 1st regiment 
proceeded by another route, and joined Col. Boquef at Raystown, 
the general place of rendezvous for the 6000 troops destined for 
the conquest of Duquesne. Wliile at Fort Cumberland, Col. 
Washington learned that Gen. Forbes thought of constructing a 
new road to Duquesne, instead of following the one made by 
Braddock. He made the most strenuous objection against the 
plan, " when," as he said, there was " scarce time left to tread the 
beaten track, universally confessed to be the best passage through 
the mountains." His efforts were in vain. Col. Boquet was or- 
dered by Gen. Forbes, who was absent, to s^nd forward parties to 
work upon the new road. " Six weeks had been thus spent, when 
Gen. Forbes arrived at Raystown, about the middle of September. 
Forty-five miles only had been gained by the advanced party, then 
constructing a fort at Loyal Hanna, the main army being still at 
Raystown, and the larger part of the Virginia troops at Fort Cum- 
berland. At that moment the whole army might have been before 
the walls of Fort Duquesne, if they had marched as advised by 
Washington. An easy victory would have ensued ; for it was 
ascertained that the French at that time, including Indians, num- 
bered not more than 800 men." 

From Loyal Hanna, Colonel Boquet rashly detached Major 
Grant, a British officer, with a force of 800 men, to reconnoitre in 
the vicinity of Fort Duquesne. 

" This officer reached a hill near the fort during the night, and having posted his men 
in different columns, he sent forward a party to examine the works and discover the 
situation of the enemy. He also detached Major Andrew Lewis with a baggage guard 
about two miles in his rear ; and having made such other arrangements as he deemed 
necessary, he believed himself secure, and, with more parade than prudence, ordered the 
reveille, or alarm, to be beaten. During all this time silence reigned in the fort, which 
Grant imputed to the terrors imposed- by his appearance. But the calm was a dreadful 
precursor of a storm, which burst with resistless fury and unexpected ruin. The mo- 
ment the Indians and French were ready for the attack, they issued from the fort, spread- 
ing death and dismay among the provincial troops. As soon as the attack was an- 
nounced by the firing of guns. Major Lewis, with his rear-guard, advanced to the assistance 
of Grant, leaving only fiity men, under the command of Captain Bullet, to guard the 
baggage. Their united forces, however, were unable to withstand the impetuous assault 
of the savages, whose warwhoop is always a forerunner of havoc and destruction. The 
fire of the rifle requires coolness and deliberation, whereas the tomahawk and scalping- 
knife are fitted for sanguinary dispatch. No quarter was given by the Indians. Major 
Grant saved his life only by surrendering to a French officer. In the same way the 
brave Major Lewis escaped, after defending himself against several Indians succes- 
sively. The two principal officers being now in the hands of the enemy, the rout be- 
came general among their troops. In their pursuit, the Indians exercised every cruelty 
which savage ferocity could inflict upon the hapless victims whom the sad fortune of 
the day delivered into their hands. The situation of the retreating troops, at this time, 
must appear truly desperate. They were in an enemy's country, far from any English 
settlement, as well as from any immediate prospect of succor ; routed and dispersed by 
a bloody and vindictive foe, whose intimate knowledge of the woods and superior agility 
seemed to threaten a total destruction of the party. Their escape, however, was effected 
by the j^rudence and heroism of Captain Bullet, of the baggage guard, by a manoeuvre 



OUTLINE HI^TORV. 



103 



no less fortunate for his men than honorable to himsflf. Tliis officer, immediately on 
discovering the rout of the troops, dispatched on tlic strongest horses the most neces- 
sary part of the bagfjage, and disposing the rcniainder on an advantageous part of the 
road, as a kind ot' breastwork, he posted his men behind it, and endeavored not only to 
rally the fugitives as they came up, but by a well-directed tire to check the violence of 
the pursuers. Finding the eneniy growing too strong to be withstood by his feeble 
force, he ord( red his men, according to previous agreement, to reverse their arms and 
march up in front of their assailaJJts, holding out a signal for capituliition, as if going to 
surrender. The impatience of the Indians to bathe their tomahawks in English blood, 
would scarcely allow them to suspend their attacks, while the latter appeared in the act 
of suing for mercy. The moment they had arrived within about eighty yards of the 
enemy, Bullet gave the word to fire: — a dreadful volley was instantly poured upon the 
Indians, and was followed by a furious charge with fixed bayonets. The enemy were 
unable to resist this bold and unexj)ected attack, and believing that the army of the 
English was at hand, they fled with precipitation ; nor did they stop until they reached 
the French regulars. Bullet, instead of pursuing them, wisely retreated towards the 
main body of the army, collecting in his march the wounded and wandering soldiers, 
who had escaped from the field of battle without knowing whither to direct their course 
In this fatal action, about twenty officers, and two hundred and seventy-three private 
soldiers, were either killed or taken prisoners. 

" The Virginia troops on this occasion behaved with courage, and suffered severely in 
the action ; but the gallant con'duct of Caytain Bullet is almost without a parallel in 
American history. His situation, after the defeat of Grant, to an officer of less discern- 
ment must have appeared desperate. To resist the triumphant savages with a handful 
of men, would seem madness; and to have fled without any hopes of escape, would 
have been folly. In this dilemma, with scarcely time to deliberate. Bullet adopted the 
only plan which could preserve himself and his men from the most cruel death, or the 
most distressing captivity."' 

The dilatory and unwise method of carrying on the expedition 
alarmed the Virginia Assembly for the fate of the expedition, and 
they resolved to recall their troops and place them upon the pro- 
tection of their own I'rontier. But subsequent information occa- 
sioned them to revoke these resolves. 

On General Forbes' arrival at Raystown he called a council of 
war, and, at his desire. Col. Washington drew up a line of march. 
Washington, at his own request, was placed in the advance, with 
a division of 1000 men. "The month of November had set in 
before General Forbes, with the artillery and main body of the 
army, arrived at Loyal Hanna. More than 50 miles, through 
pathless and rugged wilds, still intervened between the army and 
Fort Duquesne. A council of war was held, and it was decided 
to be unadvisable, if not impracticable, to prosecute the campaign 
any further till the next season, and that a winter encampment 
among the mountains, or a retreat to the frontier settlements, was 
the only alternative that remained. Thus far all the anticipations 
of Washington had been realized." A mere accident reversed this 
decision. Three prisoners were taken, who gave such representa- 
tions of the weak state of the garrison that it was determined to 
push on. 

On the 25th of November, 175H, the army took peaceable pos- 
session of Fort Du(juesne, or rather the place where it stood, for 
the enemy had burnt and abandoned it the day before, and gone 
down the Ohio in boats. This Ibrtress, after being repaired and 
garrisoned, was named Fort Pitt, now the sile of the flourishing 
city of Pittsburg, which place was then considered within the 



104 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



jurii^diction of Virginia. The remains of Major Grant's men 
were buried by Gen. Forbes in one coninnon tomb, the whole army 
assisting at the solemn ceremony. 

Gen. Forbes returned to Philadelphia, where he died in a few 
weeks, and Washington soon directed his course to Williamsburg, 
as a member of the General Assembly from Frederick county. 
The capture of Duquesne restored quiet and general joy through- 
out the colony. The war was soon prosecuted at the North with 
vigor. In the succeeding summer of 1759, Niagara and Crown 
Point fell into the possession of the British crown, and on the 18th 
of September, Quebec surrendered to the brave and gallant Wolfe. 
The treaty of Fontainbleau, in November, 1762, put an end to the 
war. 



CHAPTER VII. ' 

FROM THE TERMINATION OF THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR TO THE SUR- 
RENDER OF CORNWALLIS. 

Encroachments of Britain upon the American colonies. — Spirited conduct of Virginia 
thereon. — Patrick Henry^s resolution on the right to tax America. — Death of Gover. 
nor Fauquier. — Arrival of Lord Bottetourt. — Continued aggressions of the mother 
country. — Death of Bottetourt. — Lord Dunmore governor. — Dunmore^s war. — Bat. 
tie of Point Pleasant. — Speech of Logan.— End of the Indian war. — Meeting of the 
Continental Congress. — Dunmore removes the gunpowder of the colony from the 
magazine at Williamsburg. — Patrick Henry marches down at the head of a body of 
■volunteers and forces the Receiver-general to make compensation. — Battle of Lexing- 
ton. — Dunmore flees on hoard the Fowey man-of-war. — Termination of the Royal 
government in Virginia. — Meeting of the Virginia Convention. — Dunmore, with the 
British fleet, attacks Hampton. — Affair in Princess Anne. — Defeat of the enemy at 
Great Bridge. — Norfolk burnt. — Delegates in Congress instructed by the General 
Convention of Virginia to propose the Declaration of Independence. — A Constitution 
for the State Government adopted. — Patrick Henry governor. — Joyous reception in 
Virginia of the news of the Declaration of Independence. — Dunmore driven from 
Gwynn's Island. — First meeting of the Legislature under the State Constitution. — 
Indian war. — Col. Christian makes peace with the Creek and Cherokee nations. — 
Revision of the State laws. — Glance at the war at the north. — Col. Rogers Clark 
takes Kaskaskias and Fort St. Vincent. — Illinois erected into a count'^. — Vir- 
ginia cedes her Western Territory to the United States. — Sir Henry Clinton 
appointed Commander-in-chief of the British, army. — He transfers the seat of the war 
to the south. — Sir George Collier, with a Britisp, fleet, enters Hampton Roads. — 
Fort Nelson abandoned. — The enemy take possession of Portsmouth, and burn Suf. 
folk. — They embark for New York. — The reduction of Virginia determined on by 
the enemy. — Gen. Leslie invades Virginia, and lands at Portsmouth. — The gov- 
ernment prepares to resist the enemy. — Leslie leaves Virginia. — Battle of the Cow- 
pens. — Arnold invades Virginia, lands at Westover, and marches to Richmond. — He 
returns to Westover, and arrives at Portsmouth. — Washington forms a plan to cut 
off his retreat. — Clinton detaches Gen. Philips to the assistance of Arnold. — Defence- 
less situation of Virginia. — Philips takes possession of Petersburg, and coinmits de- 
predations in the vicinity. — Death of Gen. Philips. — Cornwallis enters Petersburg. — 
Tarleton's expedition to Charlotteville. — Various movements of the two armies. — 
Cornwallis concentrates his army at York and Gloucester. — Surrender of Corn, 
wallis. 

" Questions touching the power of the British Parliament to in- 
terfere with the concerns of the colonies had arisen more than once 



% 



OUTLINE mSTuRV. 



105 



before the war, and during its continuance the delicate question 
arose, of the iiroportions which the several colonies should pay lor 
the common defence. The British ministry proposed that deputies 
should meet and determine the amount necessary, and draw on 
the British treasury, which in turn should be reimbursed by an 
equal tax on all the colonies, to be laid by Parliament ; but the 
colonies were afraid to let the lion put his paw in their pockets, 
even to take back his own ; and this being no time to raise dilTicul- 
ties, the colonial legislatures were left to their own discretion in 
voting supplies, which they did with a liberality so disproportioned 
to tlieir ability, as to excite the praise, and in some instances to 
induce a reimbursement on the part of the mother country. Vir- 
ginia had always resisted any interference on the part of Parlia- 
ment, especially in the navigation acts, and asserted as early as 
1G24, that she only had the undoubted right ' to lay taxes and im- 
positions, and none other/ and afterwards refused to let any mem- 
ber of the council of Governor Berkeley, in the height of his popu- 
larity, (fssist them in determining the amount of the public levy. 
Again in 1G76, even stronger language was used and acquiesced 
in by the king, to whom it was immediately addressed. 

" The slight taxes imposed for the regulation of commerce, and 
the support of a post-office, were borne by the colonies without a 
murmur, being considered only a fair compensation for a benefit 
received. In ^larch, 1764, the ministers declared it 'expedient to 
raise a revenue on stamps in America, to be paid into the king's 
exchequer.* The discussion of this was postponed until the next 
year in Parliament, but commenced immediately in America, and 
the proposition was met by every form of respectful petition and 
indignant remonstrance ; which were, however, equally unavailing, 
and the stamp act passed in 1765. The passage of this act excited 
universal and indignant hostility throughout the colonies, which 
was displayed in the forms of mourning and the cessation of busi- 
ness ; the courts refused to sanction the act by sitting, and the bar 
by using the stamps. In the succeeding \'irginia legislature, 
Patrick Henry introduced and carried, among others, the following 
resolution : — 

" Resolved, That the General Assembly of this colony, toijethcr with his majesty, or 
substitute, have, in their representative capacity, the only exclusive right and power 
to lay taxes and impositions upon the inhabitants of this colony : and that every at- 
tempt to vest such power in any person or persons whatsoever, other than the General 
Assembly aforesaid, is illegal, unconstitutional, and unjust, and has a mauiifest tendency 
to destroy British as well as American freedom." 

" After the passage of Henry's resolutions, the governor dissolved 
the Assembly ; but the people re-elected the friends, and excluded 
the opposers of the resolutions. The spirited conduct of Virginia 
fired the ardor of the other colonies ; they passc^d similar resolu- 
tions, and a general Congress was proposed. The d<>puties of nine 
states met in New York on the 1st of October; they drafted a 
declaration of rights, a petition to the king, commons, and lords 

14 



4 



106 OUTLINE HISTORY. 

The 'stamp act was repealed, and Virginia sent an address of 
thanks to the king and parliament." 

Francis Fauquier, Lieut. Governor of Virginia, died in 1767, and 
the government devolved on John Blair, until the arrival of Lord 
Bottetourt, the following year. 

" The joy of the colonies at the repeal of the stamp act was 
short-lived. British ministers imagined that they could cheat the 
colonies oat of their opposition to taxation without representation, 
by laying an import duty instead of a direct tax; and accordingly, 
a duty was laid upon glass, tea, paper, and painter's colors ; but 
this was equally against the spirit of the British constitution, and 
met with a warmer and more indignant resistance on the part of 
the colonies, who now began to believe they had little hope from 
the justice of parliament. The legislature of Virginia passed very 
spirited resolutions, which it ordered to be sent only to the king ; 
upon the passage of which the governor dissolved it ; and the 
members immediately met and entered unanimously into a non- 
importation agreement. 

" The British ministers perceived their error, and determined to 
pause in their violence ; to effect this object the governors were 
directed to inform the colonies, that his majesty's ministers did not 
intend to raise a revenue in America, and the duties objected to 
should be speedily repealed. These assurances, made to Virginia 
by Lord Bottetourt, a governor whom they highly respected, served, 
with his own good conduct, for a time to allay her suspicions of 
the ministry ; but the course they pursued towards Massachusetts 
was more than sufficient to rekindle her jealousy. She passed a 
protest, declaring that partial remedies could not heal the present 
disorders, and renewed their non-importation agreement. In 1771 
Bottetourt died, and Virginia erected a statue to his memory, which 
still stands in the town of Williamsburg. Wm. Nelson, then 
president of the council, occupied the chair of government until 
the arrival of Lord Dunmore, in 1772. The delay of Lord Dun- 
more in New York for some months a^fter his appointment to the 
gubernatorial chair of Virginia, excited the prejudices of the col- 
ony, which his sending a man of some military distinction as a 
clerk, and raising a salary and fees for him out of the colony, w^ere 
by no means calculated to dissipate. The first legislature that 
met compelled the governor to dispense with the emoluments of 
his secretary, Capt. Foy ; and the next, after thanking him for his 
activity in apprehending some counterfeiters of the colony paper, 
strongly reproved him for dispensing with the usual forms and 
ceremonies with which the law^ has guarded the liberty of the 
citizen. The same legislature, having provided for the soundness 
and security of the currency, the punishment of the guilty, and 
required the governor to respect the law, turned their eyes to their 
sister colonies, and apj)ointed a committee of correspondence* to 



* This committee were Peyton Randolph, Robert Carter Nicholas, Richard Bland, 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



107 



inquire into the various violations of th(Mr constitutional rij^hts by 
the British ministry, While A^irj^inia \vas employed in animating 
her sister states to resistance, her governor was employed in the 
ignoble occupation of fomenting jealousies and feuds between the 
province, which it should have been his duty to piotect from such 
a calamity, and Pennsylvania, by raising dilFicult questions of 
boundary, and exciting the inhabitants of the disputed territory to 
forswear allegiance to the latter province ; hoping thus, by aflbrd- 
ing a more immediately exciting question, to draw otf the atten- 
tion of these two important provinces from the encroachments of 
Great Britain. This scheme, as contemptible as it was iniquitous, 
wholly failed, through the good sense and magnanimity of the 
Virginia council. Lord North, full of his feeble and futile schemes 
of clwatim;: the colonies out of their rights, took otf the obnoxious 
duties with the exception of three pence per pound on tea; and, 
with th(^ ridiculous idea that he might fix the principle upon the 
colonies by a precedent, which should strip it of all that was 
odious, offered a draw-back equal to the import duty. This in- 
duced the importation of tea into Boston harbor, which, being 
thrown overboard by some of the citizens, called down upon their 
city all the rigor of the celebrated Boston port bill. A draft of 
this bill reached the Virginia legislature while in session; an ani- 
mated protest, and a dissolution of the ass(Mnbly by the governor, 
of course followed. On the following diiy the members convened 
in the Raleigh tavern, and, in an able and manly paper, expressed 
to their constituents and their government those sentiments and 
opinions which they had not been allowed to express in a legisla- 
tive form. This meeting recommended a cessation of trade with 
the East India Company, a Congress of deputies from all the col- 
onies, ' declaring their opinion, that an attack uj)()n one of the 
colonies was an attack upon all British America,' and a convention 
of the people of Virginia. The sentiments of the people accorded 
with those of their late delegates ; they elected members who met 
in convention at Williamsburg, on the 1st of August, 1774. This 
convention went into a detailed view of their rights and grievan- 
ces, discussed measures of redress for the latter, and deelared their 
determination never to relinquish the former; they appointed dep- 
uties to attend a general Congress, and they instructed them how 
to proceed. The Congress met in Philadelphia, on the llh of Sep- 
tember, 1774. While Virginia was engaged in her efforts for the 
general good, she was not without her peculiar troubles at home. 
The Indians had been for some time waging a horrid war upon the 
frontiers, when the indignation of the people at length comptdled 
the reluctant governor to take up arms, and march to suppress the 
v(M'y savages he was thought to have (Micouraged and excited to 
hostility by his intrigues. 



Richard Henry Lee, Benjamin Harrison, Edmund Pendleton, Patrick Henry, Dudley 
Diggcs, Dabuey Carr, Archibald Carey, and Thomas Jefferson. 



108 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



" Lord Dun more marched the army in two divisions : the one un- 
der Col. Andrew Lewis he sent to the junction of the Great Kana- 
wha with the Ohio, while he himself marched to a higher point 
on the latter river, with pretended purpose of destroying the In- 
dian towns and joining Lewis at Point Pleasant ; but it was be- 
lieved with the real* objc^ct of sending the whole Indian force to 
annihilate Lewis' detachment, and thereby weaken the power and 
break down the spirit of Virginia. If such was his object he was 
signally defeated through the gallantry of the detachment, which 
met and defeated the superior numbers of the enemy at Point 
Pleasant, after an exceeding hard-fought day, and the loss of nearly 
all its officers. The day after the victory, an express arrived from 
Dunmore with orders for the detachment to join him at a distance 
of 80 miles, through an enemy's country, without any conceivable 
object but the destruction of the corps. As these orders were 
given without a knowledge of the victory, Col. Lewis was pro- 
ceeding to the destruction of the Shawanese villages, when he 
was informed the governor had made peace. 

*' When the treaty was commenced, Cornstalk, the celebrated Shawanese chieftain, 
made a speech, in which he charged upon the whites the cause of the war, in conse- 
quence, principally, of the murder of Logan's family. Logan was a Mingo chief. 
* For magnanimity in war, and greatness of soul in peace, few, if any, in any nation, 
ever surpassed Logan.' ' His form was striking and manly, his countenance calm and 
noble, and he spoke the English language with fluency and correctness.' Logan did 
not make his appearance among the Indian deputies. ' He disdained to be seen among 
the suppliants. But, lest the sincerity of a treaty should be disturbed, from which so 
distinguished a chief absented himself, he sent, by Gen. John Gibson, t the following 
speech, to be delivered to Lord Dunmore.' 

*' ' I appeal to any white man to say, if ever he entered Logan's cabin hungry, and he 
gave him not meat : if ever he came cold and naked, and he clothed him not. During 
the course of the last long and bloody war, Logan remained idle in his cabin, an advocate 
for peace. Such was my love for the whites, that my countrymen pointed, as they passed, 
and said, ' Logan is the friend of white men.' I had even thought to have lived with 
you, but for the injuries of one man. Colonel Cresap,t the last spring, in cold blood, and 
unprovoked, murdered all the relations of Logan, not even sparing my women and child- 
ren. There runs not a drop of my blood in the veins of any living creature. This 
called on me for revenge. I have sought it : I have killed many : I have fully glutted 
my vengeance : for my country I rejoice at the beams of peace. But do not harbor a 
thought that mine is the joy of fear. Logan never felt fear. He will not turn on his 
heel to save his life. Who is there to mourn for Logan ? — Not one.' " 

The affairs between Britain and her American colonies were 
now verging to a crisis. The hostile attitude of the latter, soon 
occasioned orders to be issued to their governors to remove- the 
military stores out of their reach. Accordingly, on the 20th of 
April, 1775, Dunmore secretly removed the gunpowder from the 



* See Memoir of Indian wars, &c., by the late Col. Stuart of Greenbrier, presented 
to the Virginia Historical and Philosophical Society by Charles A. Stuart, of Au- 
gusta county, and the Chronicles of Border Warfare, by Alexander C. Withers, for a 
strong corroboration of these suspicions. 

t The authenticity of this speech has been much questioned. The reader will find 
the deposition of Gen. Gibson in the American Pioneer, which gives full and satisfactory 
confirmation of its genuineness. 

X Various evidence is given, in the Pioneer, that it was Capt. Michael Cresap, not 
Col. Cresap, who murdered the Indians on the Ohio. 



1 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 1G9 

magazine at Williamsburg, to the Magdalen man-of-war, ancliored 
otr Vorktown. Thereupon, the volunteers of VV^illiamsburg imme- 
diat<*ly Hew to arms, and could with dilliculty be restrained Iroin 
seizing the person of the governor. The peo{)le of the town sent 
a deputation to Dunmore, who remonstrated with him for this act, 
especially at a time when they feai-ed an insurrection ol' the slaves. 
His reply '* was everywhere considered as a mean and scandalous 
evasion." Fearful of the consequences of his conduct, he estab- 
lished a guard of negroes at his palace. Exasperated to the high- 
est degree, he openly swore, '* by the living God," that if any injury 
was otiered to himself, or the oflicers who had acted under his 
direction in the atfair of the gunpowder, he would proclaim free- 
dom to the slaves, and reduce Williamsburg to ashes. These 
savage threats wrought the indignation of the people to the high- 
est pitch, which spread like electricity throughout the colony. 
Over six hundred people of the upper country armed themselves, 
assembled at Fredericksburg, and offered their services to defend, 
it' nec;»ssary, Williamsburg from the threatened attack of Dunmore. 
Thousands also, in all parts of Virginia, stood ready, at a moment's 
warning, to lend their aid. In the mean time, those ardent patriots, 
Peyton Randolph and Edmund Pendleton, transmitted their advice 
to the Fredericksburg meeting to abstain, for the present, from 
hostilities, until Congress should decide on a general plan of resist- 
ance. 

" On the receipt of tliis advice, they held a council, consistinfr of over one hundred 
members, who, by a majority of one only, concluded to disperse for the present. They, 
however, drafted an address, which was almost tantamount to a declaration of independ- 
ence, in which they 'firmly resolved to resist all attempts airainst their ricrhts and privi- 
leo^es, from whatever quarter they mijjht be assailed. They pledj^ed themselves to each 
other to be in readiness, at a moment's warnintr, to reassemble, and, iiY force ok arms, 
to defend the laws, the liberties, and the rights of this or any sister colony, from 
unjust and wicked invasion. They then sent dispatches to troops assembled in Caroline, 
Berkt^ley, Frederick, and Dunmore counties, thanking them for their ofiVr of service, and 
acquaintino^ them with their determinations. The address was read at the head of each 
company, and unanimously approved. It concluded with these impressive words GOD 
SAVE THE LIBERTIES OF AMERICA!'" 

The volunteers of Hanover, however, determined to recover the 
powder, or perish in the attempt. With Patrick Henry at their 
head, they marched from Hanover town to Doncastle's ordinary, 
within 16 miles of the capitol. their numbers swelled by accessions 
of volunteers from King William and New Kent. They here 
disband(^d, (May 4th,) and returned to their homes, Patrick Henry 
having received ampl(> compensation for the powder from Richard 
Corbin, the king's receiver-general. Two days after the above, 
Dunmore issued a proclamation against " .1 certain Patrick Henry, 
of the county of Hanover, and a number of deluded followers," and 
forbade all persons to countenance him, or others concerned in like 
combinations. On the 11th, Henry left Virginia to attend the 
Continental Congress, of which he was a member. 

By this time, every county in Virginia was lairly aroused to the 
dangers that beset them. County committees were formed, who 



110 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



anticipated measures of defence, by arming and raising minute- 
men, and taking all practicable means to make an effectual resist- 
ance. The people sympathized with the sufferings of the Bos- 
tonians, and the citizens of Williamsburg assembled, and unani- 
mously resolved to subscribe money for their aid. The news of 
the battle of Lexington reached Virginia about this time. 

The proclamation of Dunmore had scarce made its appearance, 
when some persons privately entered the magazine and carried 
away a great number of arms and military equipments. New 
causes of irritation between the governor and the people were con- 
tinually arising. 

When Patrick Henry marched down to make reprisals for the 
gunpowder, Dunmore dispatched a messenger to the Fowey man- 
of-war, anchored off Yorktown, for aid. A detachment of 40 ma- 
rines and sailors was sent to Williamsburg* where they remained 
about 10 days. Previous to their landing at Yorktown, Capt. ]Mon- 
tague sent a letter from on board the Fowey to Col. Thomas Nel- 
son, threatening to fire upon the town if the troops were molested 
or attacked, — a message which still further increased the indigna- 
tion of the people. 

On the 1st of June the governor convened the Assembly, and 
addressed them in a speech. With this commenced a political 
correspondence between him and the House of Burgesses, which 
was, on the part of the latter, a clear and forcible defence of the 
rights of the colonies. On the 8th of June, the governor, with his 
family, fled on board the Fowe}^ off Yorktow^n, from ill-grounded 
apprehensions of his safety at Williamsburg. Several communi- 
cations passed between him and the Assembly, relative to public 
business generally, the late disturbances respecting the removal 
of the gunpowder, and the governor's proclamation and course of 
conduct. 

Dunmore " refused, upon invitation of the Assembly, to return 
to his palace or to sign bills of the utmost importance to the colony, 
and refused to perform this branch of duty, unless the Assembly 
would come and hold their meetings under the guns of his ship at 
Yorktown. In this emergency, the governor was declared to have 
, abdicated, and the president of the council appointed to act in his 
1 place. His lordship, on the termination of the intercourse between 
himself and the Assembly, which was tow^ards the close of June, 
sailed down the river." Thus ended the royal government in Vir- 
ginia. 

The Assembly now dissolved, and, pursuant to agreement, the. 
delegates, on the 17th of July, met in convention at Richmond, to 
organize a provincial form of government and a plan of defence. 
The following illustrious characters composed the committee of 
safety : — Edmund Pendleton, George Mason, John Page, Richard 
Bland, Thomas Ludwell Lee, Paul Carrington, Dudley Digges, 
James Mercer, Carter Braxton, William Cabell, and John Tabb. 
The convention made arrangements to raise troops for defence, 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



Ill 



and the general committee met at Hanover Town, in ITnnover 
county, on business connected with the military estahlish'ment, 
and thou adjourned to Williamsburg about the hist of S(»pt ember. 

Previously. iIk^ committee ol" safety recommend<'d to the elis- 
trict committees to direct the contractors in each district to pro- 
vide, among other things, a stand of colors, bearing on one side 
the name of the district, on the other,'' Virginia for Constitutional 
Liberty.'^ 

In October, by Dunmore's orders, a party of men, under cover of 
tlieir men-of-war, kinded at Norfolk, and ibrcibly carried on board 
their vess(ds the press and types of a newspaper imbued with the 
j)ati'iotic ])rinciples of the day. Shortly after, Dunmore marched 
to Kempsvill(% in Princess Anne, d(^stroyed some lire-arms d(>posited 
there, and took prisoner Capt. Matthews, of the minute-men. About 
this time an attack was made on Hampton, by some vessels com- 
manded by Capt. Squires, who had threatened to burn the town. 
The enemy were beaten off with loss, while not a single A'irginian 
was killed. 

In the mean time, numbers of armed people from the upper 
country were arriving at Williamsburg. Dunmore, hearing that 
the 2d Mrginia Regiment and the Culpeper Battalion had been 
ordered to Norfolk, directed the Kingfisher and three large tenders 
to move up to Burwell's Ferry, to prevent their crossing the James. 
These vessels, on their arrival, finding an American skipper at the 
landing, commenced firing upon her, and in a peremptory tone or- 
dered her to come alongside the Kingfisher. Some Virginian 
riflemen, on the bank, directed her master not to obey the order. 
Upon this the man-of-war commenced a brisk fire upon the vessel, 
but without eflject. Twice the Kingfisher sent a large boat full 
of men to take possession, and twice they were beaten ofi* by the 
unerring aim of the riflemen. Foiled in this attempt, the enemy 
the next day attempted to land a boat filled with armed men at 
Jamestown. They were again repulsed b}' somci rifle sentinels on 
the shore. In this month (November) Dunmore, with a superior 
Ibrce, surprised about 200 militia of Princess Anne, on their march 
to join the troops. Their colonel, with several others, was made 
prisoner. 

Under date of November 7th, Dunmore issued his proclamation, 
in which he proclaimed martial law, declared all capable of bear- 
ing arms who did not resort to his majesty's standard traitors, and 
offered freedom to all slaves ''appertaining to rebels" who would 
join his majesty's troops. On this Dunmore had staked his best 
hopes. Had he had a formidable Ibrce at hand to execute his threats, 
some apprehensions might have been excited. But as it was, it 
only harmonized public opinion, increased public irritation, and 
engendered a burning detestation of the means to which their late 
governor unblushingly stooped to awe them into submission. His 
lordship set up his standard in Norfolk and Princess Anne, issued 
orders to the militia captains to raise a body of troops to oppose 



112 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



the colonial army, prescribed, and, in some cases, extorted an oath 
of allegiance. A multitude of motley partisans flocking to his 
standard, he designed to destroy the provisions collected at Suf- 
folk for the Virginia troops. To prevent this, Col. Woodford, on 
the 20th of November, detached 215 light troops, under Col. Scott 
and Major Marshall, to that place, and on the 25th arrived there 
with the main body of the Virginia troops. 

About this time evidence was brought to light of a diabolical scheme, matured by 
Dunniore, against that colony of which he pretended to be a friend. This was a co- 
operation of the various Indian tribes with the tories on the frontiers. John Connelly, 
a Pennsylvanian, an artful, enterprising man, was the projector of the intrigue. In 
July he nearly matured the plan with the governor. Ample rewards were offered to the 
militia captains inclined to the royal cause, and willing to act under Connelly. To con- 
nect its extensive ramifications, he was dispatched to General Gage, at Boston, and 
returned about the 15th of October, with instructions from the latter. These invested 
him with the rank of Lieut.-Colonel of a regiment of loyalists, to be raised on the fron- 
tier. Fort Pitt was to be the rendezvous of all the forces to act under him, among 
which were several companies of the Royal Irish, then at Fort Gage, in the Illinois country. 
From thence they would march through Virginia, and join Dunmore on the 20th of 
April at Alexandria, where an army was to land under the cannon of ships-of-war and 
possess themselves of the town. For a time, fortune favored this formidable plot, in the 
prosecution of which Connelly often travelled long distances in various directions. Sus- 
picions were at length aroused : an emissary of the governor's was arrested, upon whom 
were found papers partly disclosing the plot. These led to the arrestation of Connelly 
He, with two confederates, Allen Cameron and Dr. John Smyth, both Scotchmen, were 
taken near Hagerstown, Maryland, on their way to Detroit. Upon searching their bag. 
gage, a general plan of the whole scheme was found, with large sums of money, and a 
letter from Dunmore to one of the Indian chiefs. " Thus was a plot, originally con- 
trived with profound and amazing secrecy, and in its subsequent stages managed with 
consummate skill, brought by patriotic vigilance to an untimely issue." 

The only avenue from Suffolk to Norfolk — to which place he 
was destined — by which Col. Woodford could march, was by the 
Great Bridge, about 12 miles from the latter. The enemy were 
posted there in a stockade fort, on his arrival with the Virginian 
troops. Woodford constructed a breastwork within cannon-shot 
of the fort. 

On the 9th of December, Capt. Fordyce, at the head of a party 
of British grenadiers, in attempting to storm the breastwork, was 
repulsed by a most destructive and bloody fire. After this, Dun- 
more, with most of his followers, took refuge on board his vessels. 
The Virginians marched into Norfolk, and annoyed the enemy by 
firing into the-ir vessels. In retaliation, Dunmore cannonaded the 
town, and on the night of the 1st of January, 1776, landed a party, 
who, under cover of their cannon, set fire to the houses on the 
river which had sheltered the provincials. The committee of 
safety ordered Col. Robert Howe to destroy the remainder of the 
town, to prevent the British from making it a permanent post. 
Norfolk, then the most populous town in Virginia, contained near 
6,000 inhabitants. 

Colonels Woodford and Stevens assisted Col. Howe in the com- 
mand at Norfolk. Besides the two regiments already raised, the 
Convention resolved to raise seven more. Six of these were placed 
on the continental establishment, to w^hose officers Congress granted 



4 



UlTLlNE IIISTORV. 113 

commissions, in order, ])eginniii5 witli Col. Ilrnry, of the 1st, and 
ending with Col. Buckner, of* the Oth Rejximent.* 

Col. Patrick Henry resigned his commission, much to the regret 
of the regiment, and was thereupon chosen a member of the Con- 
vention from Hanover. 

The General Convention of Virginia met at the capital, May 
Cth, 177(5, and appointed J'idmund l*endleton, President, and John 
Tazewell, Clerk. Since the lliglit ot' Dunmore, the House of Bur- 
gesses had met twice, pursuant to adjournment, but on neither 
occasion was there a quorum. They now met on the same day 
with the Convention, but " did neither proceed to business, nor 
adjourn as a House of Burgesses." Considering their meeting as 
illegal, not in conlbrmity with a summons from a governor, they 
unanimously dissolved themselves. " Thus was the tottering fabric 
of the royal government utterly demolished in Virginia ; to substi- 
tute in its stead a structure of more elegant and more solid form, 
was now the task of the Convention." 

On the 15th of this month, the convention, after appealing to 
"the Searcher of hearts" for the sincerity of their former declara- 
tions in favor of peace and union \\ix\i the mother country, adopted 
unanimously the following resolution : 

" That the delegates appointed to repr<>sent this colony in General Congress, be in- 
structed to propose to that respectable body, to declare the united colonies free and inde- 
pendent States, absolved from all allegiance to, or dependence on the crown or parlia- 
ment of Great Britain ; and that they give the assent of this colony to such declaration, 
and whatever measures may be thought necessary by Congress for forming foreign alliances, 
and a confederation of the colonies, at such time, and in the manner that to them shall 
seem best: provided, that the j)o\ver of forming governments for, and the regulations of 
the internal concerns of each colony, be left to the colonial legislatures." 

The convention appointed a committee to prepare a Declaration 
of Rights, and a Plan ofGovermnent, for the colony. The former 
was adopted on the 12th of June. On the 29th a constitution 
was unanimously adopted; "the first which was framed ^^•ith a 
view to a permanent separation from Great Britain since those of 
South Carolina and New Hampshire, which alone preceded it, 
were to continue only until a reconciliation could be effected be- 
tween the mother country and the colonies. This plan of govern- 
ment was proposed by the celebrated George Mason, f and had 
been adopted in committee before the arrival of one which Mr. 
Jefferson, then in Congress, had prepared. They however ac- 
cepted Mr. Jefferson's preamble, which is nearly the same as the 
recital of wrongs in the Declaration of lndependence."J 

* The following were appointed field-officers : — 



Rroriment. Colonels. Liput.-Colonels. Majors. 

Third, Hugh Mercer, (Jeorge Weedon, Thomas Marshall. 

Fourth, Adam Steven, Isaac Read, R. Lavvson. 

Fifth, William Peachy, Wm. Crawford, J. Parker. 

Sixth, Mnrdecai Buckner, Thomas Elliott, J. Hendricks. 

Seventh, Win. Dangrrfuld, Alex. .M'Clanahan, Wm. Nelson. 

Eighth, Peter Muhlenburg, A. Bowman, P. Helvistone. 

Ninth, Thomas Fleming, Georife ."Matthews, M. Donavon. 



t The Declaration of Rights was also drawn up bv liim. X Tucker's Life of Jefferson. 

15 



114 OUTLINE HISTORY. 

The following appointments were made under the constitution : 

Patrick Henry, Esq., governor. John Page, Dudley Digges, 
John Tayloe, John Blair, Benjamin Harrison of Berkeley, Barthol- 
omew Dandridge, Charles Carter of Shirley, and Benjamin Harri- 
son of Brandon, counsellors of state. Thomas Whiting, John 
Hutchings, Champion Travis, Thomas Newton, jun., and George 
Webb, Esquires, commissioners of admiralty. Thomas Everard 
and James Cocke, Esquires, commissioners for settling accounts. 
Edmund Randolph, Esq., attorney-general. 

On the 5th of July the convention adjourned. Though the ses- 
sion was brief, it was an important one. Among other acts besides 
the formation of a government, they passed an ordinance for erect- 
ing salt works in the colony : for establishing a board of com- 
missioners to superintend and direct the naval affairs of the colony : 
for raising six troops of horse : for arranging the counties into 
districts for electing senators, &c. They also resolved to expunge 
from the litany such parts as related to the king and royal family, 
and substituted, in the morning and evening service, such forms of 
expression as were better suited to the new state of affairs. 

The Declaration of Independence, so strongly recommended by 
the Virginia convention, was passed in Congress on the 4th of 
July, 1770; and, agreeably to an order of the privy council, it was 
proclaimed on the 25th of the same month at the capitol, the 
court-house, and the palace at Williamsburg, amidst the acclama- 
tions of the people, and the firing of cannon and musketry. 

The energetic measures that had been adopted by the Virginia 
troops in precluding the flotilla of Dunmore from obtaining sup- 
plies, had at last obliged them to burn the intrenchments they had 
erected near the ruins of Norfolk, and seek a refuge on board their 
ships, where disease and hunger pursued them. The presence of 
his lordship in the lower country had given countenance to the 
disaffected, who were there numerous. A vigorous course was 
ordered to be pursued towards them. Col. Woodford, stationed 
at Kemps' Landing, (now Kempsville, Princess Anne,) humanely 
executed these orders, which were intrusted to him by the commit- 
tee of safety, through Maj. Gen. Chas. Lee. 

Dunmore, with his fleet, left Hampton Roads about the 1st of 
June, landed and erected fortifications on Gwynn's island, within 
the limits of what is now Matthew's county. On the 9th of July 
he was attacked by the Virginians, under Brig. Gen. Andrew 
Lewis, and forced to abandon the island. Shortly after, Dunmore 
dispatched the miserable remnant of his followers to Florida and 
the West Indies, and sailing himself to the north, forever left the 
shores of Virginia. 

The nefarious plot of Connelly was only part of an extensive 
scheme of operations, which the British had meditated in seeking 
an alliance with the savages. By their instigation the Indians 
were harassing the frontiers of the southern states to such a de- 
gree that a combination was formed to destroy their settlements 



OUTLINE HIBTORY. 



115 



on the borders. Col. Christian, on the part of this state, marched 
with a body of Virginia troops into the Cherokee country, burnt 
four of their towns, and compelh^d them to sue for peace. 

On the 7th of October, 177G, the Assembly of Virginia met for 
the lirsttime; Edmund Pendh'ton was chosen Spe;iker of the 
House of Delegates, and Archibald Carey of the Senate. One of 
the earliest of their labors was the repeal of all acts of Parliament 
against dissenters, which was the tirst direct blow s;ruck at the 
established church in the slate. 

In the session of this fall, the Assembly appointed Thomas Jef- 
ferson, Edmund Pendleton, George Wythe, George Mason, and 
Thomas Ludwell Lee, Esquires, a committee to revise the State 
laws, and prepare a code more suitable to the new state of afiairs: 
the execution of the work devolved on the three first. 

At the north, the war was proorrcssiiig with various success. The Americans had 
been defeated at Long- Island, New York came into the possession of the British, 
and General Montj^ornery fell before the walls of Quebec, and his army retret^ted 
from Canada. Washinj^ton's army, reduced to 3,500 ctfcctive men, retreated through 
New Jersey, before the overwlielming force of tiie enemy, and crossed the Delaware. 
On the :2.)th of December, 1776, Washincrton recrossed the Delaware, and the victories 
of Trenton and Princeton, the first on the :2tjth of December, and the last on the 3d of 
January, at this the darkest period of tlie revolution, reanimated the hopes of the friends 
of liberty. 

The principal object of the British in the campaign of 1777, was to open a commu- 
nication between New York city and Canada, and to separate New England from the 
other states. Early in the year, Burgoyne was sent for this purpose, with 7,000 men, 
from Canada. He was arrested by Gen. Gates, and on the 1 7th of October, was com- 
pelled to surrender his whole army to him. The capture of Burgoyne spread joy through, 
out the country. Washington, in the mean while, was in anxious suspense, watching the 
operations of Sir Wm. Ilowe, who had sailed from New York with It^.UOO men, and a 
large fleet commanded by Lord Howe. Apprchen.<;ive it was a ruse, desio^ned to draw 
him to the south, and leave the north open to their attacks. Washington proceeded to 
Bucks CO., Penn., and there waited the destination of the enemy. 

The British fleet sailed up the Chesapeake, and landed the army in Ma-yland which 
soon after defeated the Americans at Brandywine and Germantown. In the former 
action, the Virginia brigades, under Wayne and Weedon, distinguished themselves. 
The British did not follow up these victories with vigor. While the Americans lost only 
a few hundred men, these conflicts improved them in discipline, and better fitted them 
for the contest. 

Althou<xh the seat of the war was for so long a period transfer- 
red from A^irginia, her soil was doomed soon to be again trod by 
the loot of the invader. Previous, however, to giving an abstract 
of the military operations which occurred here in the last few 
years of the revolutionary struggle, we shall glance at a few mat- 
ters too important to be omitted in even this bri(^f sketch of her 
history. 

While the events above alluded to were transpiring at the 
north, N'irginia was ex(^rting evc^-y nerve, in furnishing additional 
men and means, for the common cause, and adopting energetic 
measures against the disalfected within her own bosom. Among 
them were many British merchants, settled in the towns, in whose 
hands was much of the trade. These were compelled to leave the 
state, or be taken in custody. An oath of allegiance to the com- 
monwealth, was also required of all frcc-born male inhabitants 



116 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



over JO years of age. At this time, a taste for elegant literature 
and profound research prevailed throughout Virginia. The learned 
Dr. Small, of William and Mary College, had chiefly contributed 
to the diffusion of that taste before the war, through the encour- 
agement of Gov. Fauquier, " the ablest character who had then 
ever filled the chair of government in Virginia." A literary and 
scientific society was instituted, amid the excitement of revolution- 
ary scenes, of which Mr. John Page* was president, and Prof. 
James Madisonf one of the secretaries. They held a meeting in 
the capitol, and several valuable philosophical papers were read. 
The calls of war, unfortunately, prevented a ripe development of 
the association. 

A loan-ofiice was opened at Williamsburg, to effect two resolu- 
tions of Congress for the obtaining a loan of continental money 
for the use of the United States. Another loan-office was estab- 
lished by the state, for borrowing, on the part of the commonwealth, 
one million of dollars, to supersede the necessity of emitting more 
paper money. 

It was fortuviate for Virginia that she had at this time, on her western borders, an 
individual of rare military genius, in the person of Col. George Rogers Clarke, " the 
Hannibal of the West,^'' who not only saved her back settlements from Indian fury, but 
planted her standard far beyond the Ohio. The governor of the Canadian settlements 
in the Illinois country, by every possible method, instigated the Indians to annoy the 
frontier. Virginia placed a small force of about 250 men under Clarke, who descending 
the Ohio, hid their boats, and marched northwardly, with their provisions on their backs. 
These being consumed, they subsisted for two days on roots, and, in a state of famine, 
appeared before Kaskaskias, unseen and unheard. At midnight, they surprised and 
took the town and fort, which had resisted a much larger force ; then seizing the golden 
moment, sent a detachment who with equal success surprised three other towns. Roche- 
blave, the obnoxious governor, was sent to Virginia. On his person were found written 
instructions from Quebec, to excite the Indians to hostilities, and reward them for the 
scalps of the Americans. The settlers transferred their allegiance to Virginia, and she, 
as the territory belonged to her by conquest and charter, in the autumnal session of 1778 
erected it into a county to be called Illinois. Insulated in the heart of the Indian coun- 
try, in the midst of the most ferocious tribes, few men but Clarke could have preserved 
this acquisition. Hamilton, the governor of Detroit, a bold and tyrannical personage, 
determined, with an overwhelming force of British and Indians, to penetrate up the Ohio 
to Fort Pitt, to sweep all the principal settlements in his way, and besiege Kaskaskias. 
Clarke despaired of keeping possession of the country, but he resolved to preserve this 
post, or die in its defence. While he was strengthening the fortifications, he received 
information that Hamilton, who was at Fort St. Vincent, had weakened his force by 
sending some Indians against the frontiers. This information, to the genius of Clarke, 
disclosed, with the rapidity of an electric flash, not only safety but new glory. To resolve 
to attack Hamilton before he could collect tbe Indians, was the work of a moment, — the 
only hope of saving the country. With a band of 150 gallant and hardy comrades, he 
marched across the country. It was in February, 1779. When within nine miles of 
the enemy, it took these intrepid men five days to cross the drowned lands of the Wa- 
bash, having often to wade up to their breasts in water. Had not the weather been 
remarkably mild, they must have perished. On the evening of the 23d, they landed 
in sight of the Ibrt, before the enemy knew any thing of their approach. After a siege 
of eighteen hours it surrendered, without the loss of a man to the besiegers. The 
governor was sent prisoner to Williamsburg, and considerable stores fell into the posses, 
sion of the conqueror. Other auspicious circumstances crowned this result. Clarke, 
intercepting a convoy from Canada, on their way to this post, took the mail, 40 prisoners, 
and goods to the value of ^45,000 ; and to crown all, his express from Virginia arrived 



* Afterwards governor of Virginia. t Subsequently bishop of the Episcopal Church, 



OL'TI.IXE HISTORV. 



117 



with the thanks of the assembly to Iiiin and liis {rallaiit h.md, fur thf^ir reduction of the 
country about Kaskaskias. Tliis year Virginia extended her western establishments, 
throuirh the aijency of Col. Clarke, and had several fortifications erected, amontr which 
was Fort Jetlersun, on tlie ."Missis.sij)j)i. 

On the ;2d of January, ITt^l, the assembly, in conformity to the wishes of Conjjress, 
ceded to the United iStates her larjro territory northwest of the Ohio. To this liberal 
measure, Viririnia was induced by a desire of accelerating the general ratification of the 
articles for tlie confederation of the Union. 

On the accession of Sir Henry Clinton, in the place of Sir Wil- 
liam Howe, to the chief command, the war was carried on with 
greater energy. The reduction of the south seemed an object less 
ditlicult, and of as much value as the north ; hence the j)lan of 
conquest was somewhat altered. Georgia was threatened with 
subjection by an expedition under Lieut. Col. Campbell, while JSir 
Henry Clinton prepared, in person, to invade South Carolina. 

The central position of Virginia had hitherto, in a measure, 
saved her from the incursions of the enemy. Sir Henry Clinton 
saw that the resistance of the southern states would depend much 
upon Virginia, and he was determined to humble her pride and 
destroy her resources. For this purpose an expedition was 
planned, and early in ]\Iay, 1779, their squadron, under Sir George 
Collier, anchored in Hampton Roads. Fort xXelson, just below 
Portsmouth, was abandoned to them, and on the 11th, the British 
general, Matthews, took possession of Portsmouth. The enem}' 
destroyed large quantities of naval and military stores at Gosport 
and rVi'orfolk ; burnt Sutfolk, and many private houses, and destroy- 
ed upwards of 100 vessels. The army shortly embarked lor Xew 
York with their plunder. 

" This destruction of private property, which ought to be held 
sacred by civilized nations at war, called for the interference of 
the Assembl3\ A resolve was passed in that body, requiring the 
governor to remonstrate against this cruel mode of carrying on the 
war. The fall of Charleston, and the success of the British arms 
in the south, under Lord Cornwallis, portended much evil to Vir- 
ginia. Her reduction was determined on by the commander-in- 
chief, and a plan, apparently big w'nh success, was laid for that 
purpose. As soon as Clinton was informed of the defeat of the 
southern army by Lord Cornwallis, he dispatched Brigadier- 
General Leslie, with a force of a])out three thousand men, against 
Virginia. The co-operation of this detachment with the army 
under Cornwallis, who was expected to enter N'irginia on the south, 
appeared fully adequate to the object in view. 

" Leslie arrived in the Chesapeake bay in October, 1780, and 
landing at Portsmouth, took possession of such vessels and other 
properly as could be found on the coast. The defeat of Major 
Ferguson, who had been ordercnl to manoeuvre through the north- 
ern parts of South Carolina, and was expected to join Cornwallis 
at Charlotte, caused the la:terto al er liis phins, and prevented his 
junction with Leslie. Some time elapsed belore Le^lie could ob- 
tain information of the situation of Cornwallis, and the circum 



118 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



Stances that occurred to prevent the important junction with that 
officer. Meanwhile the governor of Virginia was earnestly em- 
ployed in preparing to oppose the invaders. Thomas Jelierson, 
successor of Patrick Henry, was then governor of the state, and 
the assembly, composed of men selected for their wisdom and 
patriotism, was in session. At this crisis, General Greene, who 
had been appointed to succeed Gates in the command of the south- 
ern army, arrived in Richmond, on his way to the south. As much 
reliance had been placed on the supplies to be received from Vir- 
ginia, Greene was not a little embarrassed to find her in such a 
weak and exposed situation. Afier making such arrangements as 
he deemed necessary, he continued his journey to the south, leav- 
ing Baron Steuben to direct the defence of the state. General 
Gates had removed his head-quarters to Charlotte, and there he 
surrendered into the hands of Greene the command of the southern 
army. In the mean time. General Leslie, leaving the shores of 
Virginia, sailed for Charleston, where he found orders requiring 
him to repair with his army to Camden. On the 19th of Decem- 
ber he began his march, with about fifteen hundred men, to effect 
a junction with the army under Cornwallis. This he accomplished 
without difficulty. On the 11th of January, Cornwallis advanced 
towards North Carolina. Wishing to disperse the force under 
General Morgan, who had been manoeuvring in the western parts 
of the state, he dispatched Colonel Tarleton in pursuit of him. 
The splendid victory of the Cowpens checked the ardor of the 
pursuers, and revived the drooping spirits of the Americans. The 
southern army was, however, unable to face their enemy in the 
field ; and the movements of Cornwallis indicating a design to 
bring Greene to action, compelled the latter to retreat towards 
Virginia. This he safely accomplished, notwithstanding the vigor- 
ous pursuit of the British general, who had destroyed his baggage 
in order to effect his movements with more celerity. The van of 
the British army arrived just after the rear of the American had 
passed the Dan, which forms the dividing line between the two 
states. The next day General Greene wrote to Mr. Jefferson, 
governor of Virginia, and to Baron Steuben, giving information of 
his situation, and requesting reinforcements. 

" Early in December, 1780, Governor Jefierson received a letter 
from General Washington, informing him that preparations were 
making by the enem}^ at New York, for an expedition to the south, 
which was probably designed against Virginia. On the 30th, 
Brigadier-General Arnold, with near fifty sail of vessels, arrived in 
the Chesapeake, and embarking in lighter vessels, proceeded up 
James River. On receiving news of this approaching squadron, 
Mr. Jefferson dispatched General Nelson to collect and arrange a 
force with as much haste as possible, while Baron Steuben, with 
about two hundred men, marched to Petersburg. On the 4th of 
January, Arnold landed his force, consisting of about nine hundred 
men, at Westover, the seat of Mr. Byrd, and marched to Richmond 



OUTLINE HISTORV. 119 

without opposition. Thus was the metropolis of Virginia exposed 
to th(" insult and depredation of a traitor ; iier stores and archiv^es 
j)lunden'd. and her *:overnor com})elh'd to seek securiiy by imme- 
diale (liglit. From Richmond, Lieutenant-Coloiud Simcoe was 
disj)atehed to Westham, where he destroyed the only cannon foun- 
dry in the state. At this place they also destroyed the military 
stores, which had, on the alarm caused by Arnold's approach, been 
removed from Richmond. After two days s[)ent in ])illaging public 
and private property, General Arnold returned to VV^'stover, where 
on tlie lOlh he re-embarked his men, and descended the river. On 
his way he landed detachments at ^lackay's mill, and at vSmithheld, 
where they tiestroyed some public stores; and on the 20th, arrived 
at Portsmouth. 

" Major-General Steuben, assisted by General Nelson, having 
collected a considerable force, marched in pursuit of Arnold. But 
the movements of the latter were too rapid to be interrupted by 
the tardy advances of undisciplined militia. They were, however, 
able to prevent similar incursions, and by remaining in the vicinity 
of Portsmouih, they confined the enemy to their entrenchments. 
On hearing of the invasion of Virginia by the traitor Arnold, and 
his encampment at Portsmouth, General Washington formed a plan 
to cut off his retreat. He intimated to Count Rochambeau and 
Admiral D'Estouches, the importance of an immediate movement 
of the French fleet to the Chesapeake ; and at the same time de- 
tached the iMarquis De la Fayette, with twelve hundred men, to 
Virginia. Tiie French admiral, not entering fully into the views 
of Washington, detached only a small part of his squadron, who, 
from their inability to effect the desired purpose, returned to thftf 
fleet at Rhode Island. The situation of Arnold had induced Sir 
H. Clinton to detach to his aid Major-General Phillips, to whom 
the command of the British forces in Viririnia was committed. 
The united detachments under Arnold and Phillips Ibrmcd a body 
of about three thousand live hundred men. Being able to act on 
the offensive, General Phillips left one thousand men in Portsmouth, 
and proceeded with the remainder up James River, lor the purpose 
of completing the destruction of the internal slrenirth and resources 
of the state. Opposite to Williamsburg he landed, and from thence 
sent to Yorktown a detachment, who destroyed the naval stores in 
that place. Re-embarkinfr, they ascended the river to City Point, 
Avhere James River receives the waters of the Appamattox. At 
this place Phillips landed, and directed his march to Petersburg, 
which stands on the bank of the last-mentioned stream, about 
twelve miles from its junction with the Ibrmer. 

N'irginia was at this time in a defenceless situation ; all the 
regular force of the state was under Greene, in South Carolina, 
and her whole reliance was upon militia, of whom about two thou- 
sand were now in the held. This tbrce, half of which was stationed 
on each side of James River, was under the command of Baron 
Steuben and General Nelson. Steuben directed the southern divi- 



120 OUTLINE HISTORY. 

sion,,on whom the defence of Petersburg devolved, and from which 
place he was compelled to retreat by the superior force of Phillips. 
During his stay in Petersburg, General Phillips destroyed the ware- 
houses, and spread terror and devastation, the constant attendants 
of British invasion, through the town. Leaving Petersburg, he 
crossed the Appamattox into Chesterlield, and detaching Arnold to 
0.sborne's to destroy the tobacco at that place, he proceeded him- 
self to ChesterMeld court-house, where he destroyed the barracks 
and stores which had been formed there for the accommodation of 
recruits designed for the southern army. The two divisions of the 
army uniting again, marched into Manchester, where was renewed 
the scene of pillage and devastation transacted in Petersburg and 
Chesterfield. The fortunate arrival of the Marquis De la Fayette 
at Richmond, with a body of regular troops, saved the metropolis 
from a similar fate. From Manchester, General Phillips proceeded 
down the river to Bermuda hundred, opposite City Point, where 
his fleet remained during his incursion. Here he re-embarked his 
troops, and fell down the river, while the marquis followed on the 
north side to watch his movements. He soon learned that Phillips, 
instead of returning to Portsmouth, had suddenly relanded his 
army on the south side of the river, one division at Brandon, and 
the other at City Point, and was on his march to Petersburg. It 
immediately occurred to the marquis, that a junction with Corn- 
wallis, w*ho was then approaching Virginia, was the object which 
Phillips had in view, and to prevent which he determined to throw 
himself, by forced marches, into Petersburg before the arrival of 
that general. Phillips, however, reached that place first, and La- 
fayette halting, recrossed the river, and posted himself a few^ 
miles below Richmond. The death of General Phillips, soon after 
his arrival in Petersburg, devolved the command of the army 
again on General Arnold. 

" Cornwallis w^as now on his way to Petersburg, and having 
crossed the Roanoke, he detached Colonel Tarleton to secure the 
fords of the Meherrin, while Colonel Simcoe, with the rangers, was 
sent for the same purpose to the Nottoway. The enemy effected 
his passage over these rivers without interruption, and on the 20th 
of May entered Petersburg. In addition to this united force, which 
seemed fully sufficient to crush every germ of opposition in Vir- 
ginia, General Leslie had again made his appearance on the coast, 
with a reinforcement of two regiments and two battalions, part 
of which was stationed in Portsmouth, under the command of that 
officer. The Marquis De la Fayette continued near Richmond, 
with a force of about four thousand men, nearly three-fourths of 
whom were militia. Steuben, who was on the south side of James 
River, proceeding with about six hundred levies to reinforce Gen- 
eral Greene, was suddenly recalled, and ordered to take a position 
at the Point of Fork, where were deposited some military stores. 
General Weedon was requested to collect a force near Fredericks- 
burg, for the purpose of protecting an important manufactory of 



OKTLINE HISTORY. 



arms at Falmouth. In addition to these different forces, General 
Wayne was on his way to Mrginia, with a detachment iVom the 
northern army of about nine hundred men. The stren<<th of the 
enemy was, however, too great lor any force Virginia could bring 
into the field, and her fate, as far as superior numbers and disci- 
pline could intluence it, seemed now to be decided. 

" Cornwallis, after resting four days in Petersburg, proceeded 
down the south side of Appamattox and James rivers, until he 
came opposite Westover, wlierc he determined to cross. Lafay- 
ette, informed of the enemy's movement, left his encampment 
below Richmond, and retreated behind the Chickahomony River, 
keeping the direction' towards Fredericksburg. The enemy pursued 
him across ihat stream, anxious to bring him to battle before his 
junction with Wayne. Lafayette, however, escaped th(; impend- 
ing blo^v, and hastening across the Pamunky and Mattapony, the 
confluence of whose streams form York River, he endeavored to 
gain the road on which Wayne was approaching. The British 
commander, failing in his project of bringing the marquis to battle, 
thought proper to change his course, and determined to penetrate 
with his detachments the interior of the state. Lieutenant-Colonel 
Simcoe was directed to attack Baron Steuben at Point of Fork, (a 
point of land Ibrmed by the junction of the Rivanna and Fluvanna 
rivers,) and destroy the stores at that place ; while Colonel Tarle- 
ton advanced to Charlottesville, where the General Assembly was 
then convened. 

" Simcoe succeeded in driving Steuben from his post, and destroy- 
ing the magazines under his protection ; while Tarleton pushed on 
to Charlottesville, eager to add to his numerous ex})loits the capture 
of a corps of republican legislators. His approach, however, was 
discovered by the Assembly in time for the members to make their 
escape. Mr. Jefferson, the governor, on hearing of their approach, 
sought an asylum in the wilds of the mountain adjacent to his 
house. After destroying some military stores, which had been 
deposited in Charlottesville as a place of safety, Tarleton proceeded 
down the Rivanna, towards the Point of Fork, near to which 
Cornwallis had arrived with the main body of the army. Uniting 
with his army the difl'erent detachments, the British commander 
marched to Richmond, which he entered on the 10th of June. 
Meanwhile Lafayette had formed a junction with Wayne, and 
was watching with a cautious eye the movements of the toe. 

" After halting a few days in Richmond, Cornwallis resumed his 
march towards the coast, and on the 25th of the month arrived in 
Williamsburg, while the marquis, with a ibrce of between tour 
and five thousand men, Ibllowed close on his rear. From that place 
the British commander detached Colonel Simcoe to the Chicka- 
homony, for the purpose of destroying some boats and stores on 
that river. Colonel Butler, with a detachment from the American 
camp, was immediately sent against this party, and a severe con- 
flict ensued, in which each side claimed the victory. x\ftcr remain- 

IG 



122 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



ing about a week in Williamsburg, the British commander pre- 
pared to cross the river, and selected James City island as the most 
eligible place to effect a passage. In the mean time, Lafayette 
and the intrepid General Wayne pressed close on his rear, with a 
view to strike as soon as the enemy should be weakened by the 
van having crossed the river. Under a mistaken belief that the 
separation of the enemy's force had actually taken place, an attack 
was made on the whole strength of the British army drawn up in 
order of battle. The approach of night saved the American army, 
who effected a retreat after losing, in killed, wounded and prison- 
ers, upwards of a hundred men. From a belief that a grand at- 
tack was intended on New York by the combined army. Sir H. 
Clinton had ordered Cornwallis to take a position near Portsmouth 
or Williamsburg, on tide-water, with a view to facilitate the trans- 
portation of his forces to New York, or such aid as might be 
deemed necessary. In obedience to this command, Cornwallis 
selected York and Gloucester as the most eligible situations, where 
he immediately concentrated his army. The bold and discerning 
mind of Washington soon formed a plan to strike his lordship while 
encamped at York — a plan no less wisely devised than successfully 
executed. The arrival of the French fleet in the Chesapeake, at 
this juncture, contributed essentially to the completion of his de- 
signs. Count De Grasse, on obtaining intelligence from Lafay- 
ette of the situation of the enemy, immediately detached four ships 
of the line to block up York River. Washington, fearful that 
Cornwallis might attempt to retreat to the south, sent orders to La- 
fayette to take effective measures to prevent his escape ; and also 
wrote to Mr. Jefferson, who was still governor of Virginia, urging 
him to yield every aid which his situation could afford, and which 
the importance of the object required. On the 14th of September, 
General Washington arrived in Williamsburg, which was now the 
head-quarters of Lafayette, and proceeding to Hampton, the plan 
of siege was concerted with the Count De Grasse. About the 25th 
of the month the troops of the north arrived, and formed a junction 
with those under De la Fayette. The whole regular force thus 
combined, consisted of about twelve thousand men. In addition to 
these, there was a body of Virginia militia under the command of 
the brave and patriotic General Nelson. The trenches were 
opened by the combined forces on the 6th of October, at the dis- 
tance of six hundred yards from the enemy's works. On the 19th 
the posts of York and Gloucester were surrendered to the combined 
forces of America and France." 

The news of the surrender of Cornwallis spread universal joy 
throughout the country. The termination of the war was evidently 
near, — a war for constitutional liberty. In its trying scenes, Vir- 
ginia was among the foremost. When the colonies had gone too 
far to allow a hope for an honorable submission, she was the first 
to adopt a perfectly independent constitution — the first to recom- 
mend the Declaration of Independence : her great son was the first 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



123 



among the leaders of the armies of the nation, and her officers and 
soldiers, whether in the shock of battle, or niarchin<2: half-clad, ill-frd, 
and barefooted, amid the snows of the north, through pestilential 
marshes, and under a burning sun at the far south, evinced a 
bravery and fortitude unsurpassed. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

FROM THE CLOSE OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION TO THE PRESENT TIME. 

End of the war. — Action of the Virginia Convention upon the Federal Constitution. — 
Origin of the Federal and Democratic parties. — Opposition to the Alien and Sedition 
Laws in Virginia. — Report of Mr. Madison thereon. — War of 1812. — Revision of the 
State Constitution in 1829-30. — Action of Virginia upon the subject of Slavery in 
1831-2. — Policy of the state in reference to Internal Improvement and Education. 

Although active military operations were prolonged in various 
parts of the country, especially at the south, afier the capture o 
Cornwallis's army, it may be said that the war was eliectually 
extinguished in Virginia by that memorable event. Most of the 
troops which had been raised for the defence of the state were in a 
short time disbanded, and although the negotiations for peace be- 
tween the two countries were rather slow in their progress, yet 
the conviction soon became general, that the signal defeat of the 
enemy at Yorktown would lead to that happy result. The states- 
men of Virginia took an active part in the discussions which fol- 
lowed the treaty of peace, growing out of the acknowledged in- 
competency of the articles of confederation to bind the states to- 
gether by ties sufficiently strong. The firmest patriots were alarm- 
ed at the symptoms of approaching dis.'^olution, and none were 
more conspicuous in their efforts to avert that catastrophe than the 
great man who led the armies of the llepublic, and achieved its in- 
dependence. The Convention which assembled in Ivichmond, in 
June, 1788, to ratify the federal constitution, was composed of some 
of the most illustrious men in the state. The names of jMar- 
shall,* Madison,* Monroe,* Mason,t Nicholas,}; Henry,§ Ran- 



* Chief-Justice Marshall, and Presidents Madison and Monroe. 

t Tliere were two Masons in the convention : Georire Mason, a man of transcendent 
talents, and an active participator in the formation of the first Constitution of Virginia, in 
1776 ; and .Stevens Thompson Mason, who was also a man of fine abilities, and a Sena- 
tor in Congress during Washington's administration. 

t There were two gentlemen of the name of Nicholas ; Wilson Carey Nicholas, af- 
terwards governor of Virginia, and (icorge Nicholas, his brother, who rAnoved to Ken. 
tucky, and was a prominent man in tliat state. They have an only surviving brother 
Judge Philip N. Nicliolas, of Richmond. 

§ The celebrated Patrick Henry. -j 



124 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



dolph,* Pendleton,t Lee,J Washington,§ Wythe,|| Innes,l[ Har- 
rison,** Bland,tt Grayson4t ^^^^ ^ ^^st of others, shed a lustre 
upon the deliberations of that august body, which has never 
been surpassed in the annals of the commonwealth. " The de- 
bates as given to the public, though no doubt imperfect, exhibit a 
display of eloquence and talents, certainly at that time unequalled 
in the country. "§§ 

Yet it may appear strange to the present generation, that such 
was the diversity of opinion which prevailed, and so serious were 
the apprehensions entertained by many, that too much power was 
conceded to the general government by the instrument proposed 
for adoption, that it was only ratified by a lean majority of ten, out 
of 168 members, who voted on the final question. The opposite 
political opinions which were developed on that occasion, were 
strongly impressed upon the public mind, and traces of their influ- 
ence may be easily distinguished in the subs'equent history of par- 
ties in Virginia. The name of federalist, which was originally ap- 
plied to those who were in favor of adopting the Constitution, 
was afterwards used to designate the party which favored that 
construction of the instrument supposed to give greater efficiency 
to the powers it conferred ; while those, for the most part, who 
were hostile to the new form of government, preferred to be distin- 
guished by the title of democrats, or republicans.|||| These dis- 
tinctions, were aggravated and widened by the subsequent action 
of Congress, and especially by the passage of the Alien and Sedi- 
tion laws, in Mr. Adams's administration. These measures en- 
countered the most decided opposition in Virginia. Mr. Madison, 
who was one of the ablest and most distinguished advocates of the 
federal constitution, conceived that its true meaning had been 
grossly perverted by the measures referred to — and having been 

* Edmund Randolph, a distinguished lawyer; governor of Virginia, and a member of 
Washington's first Cabinet. 

t Edmund Pendleton, an eminent jurist, and president of the Court of Appeals. 

I Henry Lee, an active partisan officer of the revolution, and afterwards governor of 
the state. He was the historian of the Southern war. 

§ Bushrod Washington, nephew of George Washington, and a judge of the Supreme 
Court of the United States. 

II The venerable Judge Wythe, Chancellor of the state. 

^ James Innes, an eloquent and eminent lawyer, and attorney-general of the 
state. 

** Benjamin Harrison, the father of President Harrison ; a signer of the Declaration 
of Independence, and governor of the state in 1781. 

ft Theodorick Bland, an active officer of the revolution, in the family of Wasliingtcn. 

t\ Mr. Grayson, an eminent lawyer and statesman, of surpassing merit. 

Political' and Civil History of"' the United States ; by the Hon. Timothy Pitkin, of 
Connecticut. 

nil The great orator, Patrick Henry, was one of the most prominent opponents to the 
adoption of the federal constitution ; but after its adoption, he determined to support the 
government in the exercise of those powers which he believed to have been legitimately 
conferred, but against the giving of which he had so earnestly contended. Accordingly 
he was elei ted fo the Legislature, in the spring of 1799, resolved to sustain in that body 
the constitutionality of the Alien and Sedition laws. His death, which occurred before 
the meeting of the Legislature, spared him the great and perhaps unequal conflict. — See 
Wirt's Life of Henry. 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



125 



elected to the state legislature for the session of 1799, prepared 
his celebrated report, which received the sanction of that l)ody, 
by a considerable majority. This report, ever since its adoption, 
has been regarded by the state-rights, or democratic parly, as a 
political text-book, or authoritative exposition of the federal con- 
stitution ; yet it is ailirmed by {hv.'ir op})onents, that i s reasons and 
deductions have been fr<'quently applied to cases which were not 
within the contemplation of its original framer, or of many oth- 
ers, who sanctioned its application to the Alien and {Sedition 
laws. 

Passing over the minor events in the annals of the state, it may 
be sulHcient to observe, that she gave a constant and cordial sup- 
port to the measures of her presidents. Jefferson and Madison, 
which were preliminary to the war of 1812, declan^d against Great 
Britain. During the existence of that war, she contributed liber- 
ally her treasure, and the services of her people, to the defence of 
the country. To say nothing of the distinguished men and nu- 
merous recruits with which she supplied the land and naval forces 
of the Union, instances were not w^anting of the display of heroic 
valor within her own borders, in repelling the predatory and san- 
guinary depredations of the enemy. Hampton, Craney Island, the 
White House, and various other points on the Potomac, will long 
be remembered as scenes of gallant enterprise or patient endurance 
of the hardships of war. Her sons from the mountains and val- 
leys of her extensive w^estern domain, marched with alacrity to 
the seaboard, and submitted, without murmuring, to the toils and 
perils of the camp ; and hundreds paid the forfeit of their lives in 
a climate which, to them, habit and nature had rendered uncon- 
genial and fatal. 

Although the state was a cordial and zealous supporter of the 
war, and perhaps suffered less than some of the more exposed of 
her sister commonwealths, yet she was by no means disinclined to 
peace ; although, in the opinion of many, the terms upon which 
that blessing was acquired were not precisely consist<Mit with the 
objects for which the war was declared. This, however, is one of 
the usual contingencies upon which the mortal contlicts of nations 
are waged. They fight for principle, but are obliged to make 
peace from necessity ; and there is no truth which is taught us by 
experience more salutary, than that peace, even with its at- 
tendant disadvantages, is more tolerable than war, which places 
every thing at hazard, and is always followed by multiplied hor- 
rors. 

Nothing, perhaps, occurred of sufficient consequence to be no- 
ticed by the general annalist or historian, after the peace of 1815, 
until the period which brought about the General Convention of 
1829, assembled for the purpose of revising the state constitution; 
a frame of government which had been established prior to the 
Declaration of Independence, and which was, therelbre, consecrated 
in the affections of a large portion of the people by being asso- 



126 



OUTLINE HISTORY. 



■ciat^d with revolutionary scenes and recollections. It is not to be 
denied, however, that some of the complaints of those who were 
clamorous for reform, were in themselves reasonable, even if no 
serious inconvenience and mischief had been experienced in prac- 
tice. The grievance which had been most earnestly dwelt upon 
in the popular discussions, was the great inequality of representa- 
tion in the state legislature. Counties of unequal size, wealth, 
and population, were represented in the state councils by an equal 
number of delegates ; and although perhaps the interests of large 
sections or divisions were fully protected in the practical operation 
of government, yet the sense of local wrong was too powerful to 
be resisted. The call of a convention was sanctioned by a ma- 
jority of the people, and that body assembled in Richmond in Oc- 
tober, 1829. No set of men of more varied talents, or of riper 
-experience and wisdom, had been organized as a public body in 
Virginia, since the meeting of the state convention which ratified 
the federal constitution ; and there are many conspicuous names 
found in the proceedings of both those distinguished assemblies.* 
How strikingly different were the results of the deliberations of 
the two conventions ! The first in the order of time contributed 
essentially to cement the union of the states, by the substitution of 
a solid fabric of government for a feeble confederation, which, in 
the language of the day, had been aptly compared to a " rope of 
sand." The labors of the latter, in the opinion of able minds, have 
not only resulted in no essential good, but in much practical mis- 
chief Whether the opinion be or be not well-founded, it is not 
necessary to decide ; but it is certain that the amended constitu- 
tion has dissatisfied many, and that propositions have already been 
made to the legislature to adopt preliminary measures for a third 
convention. 

Virginia having the most extensive territory of any of the states 
of the Union, and being the largest slaveholder, has always been 
peculiarly sensitive in regard to that species of property. As far 
back as the first administration of Gov. Monroe, at the commence- 
ment of the present century, a well-organized insurrection of the 
slaves in the immediate vicinity of the seat of government, was 
only prevented from resulting in the most frightful consequences 
to the persons and property of the whites, by the timely interposi- 
tion of Providence. From the best authenticated accounts, found- 
ed upon evidence taken at the time by the constituted authorities, 
a large body of slaves, supposed to be a thousand in number, head- 
ed by skilful leaders, and provided with the means of ofTensive 



* Ex-presidents Madison and Monroe, and Chief-Justice Marshall, were mem- 
bers of both conventions. Among the conspicuous leaders in the last, may be men- 
tioned the names of B. W. Leigh, and his brother, Judge Leigh, John Randolph of 
Roanoke, Gov. Giles, Chapman Johnson, Judge Philip P. Barbour, Judge Stanard, 
Charles F. Mercer, Jno. R. Cooke, Richard Morris, Judge Summers, Judge Scott, Philip 
Dodridge, Judge Green, Littleton W. Tazewell, Gen. Robert B. Taylor, Gov. Pleas- 
ants, Judge Abel P. Upshur, and many others. 



OUTLINE HISTORV. 



rj7 



warfare, assembled by preconcert, in the night, about six miles 
from Richmond, and resolved to attack the town before daybreak. 
No suspicion having been excited, the police was feeble and inert ; 
the inhabitants were lulled into perfect security, and nothing, it is 
believed, saved them from massacre and pillaj^p, but a sudden and 
violent storm, accompanied by heavy rains, which rendered impas- 
sable a stream lying between the insurgents and the city. A 
young negro, attached to his master and family, was s(Mzed with 
compunction for his criminal designs, and swam the stream, at the 
hazard of life, to give information of the plot. The whole city 
was roused — troops were ordered out — the insurrection was sup- 
pressed, and the ringleaders expiated their otfimce on the gallows. 
The severity of the punishment inflicted upon these unhappy suf- 
ferers, it was supposed, for a long period of time, would prevent 
any similar disturbance in the state ; but unhappily, in the year 
1831, during the administration of Gov. Floyd, a still more alarm- 
ing insurrection occurred in the county of Southampton, which 
was attended by the most tragical results. A tVmatical slave by 
the name of Nat Turner, with his brother, who was still more fa- 
natical, and who styled himself the prophet, rallied a band of des- 
perate followers, and, in open day, carried death and desolation 
into all the surrounding neighborhoods. Whole families of men, 
women, and children, were slaughtered without mercy, under cir- 
cumstances of peculiar barbarity ; and the insurrection was only 
suppressed by the prompt interlerence of the military authority. 
After the fullest investigation, the conduct of these sanguinary 
wretches could not be accounted for upon any of the usual mo- 
tives which govern men in a servile condition. As slaves, they 
were not treated with particular uiikindness or severity ; and the 
only plausible solution of the problem is to be found in the sug- 
gestions of a, wild superstition, excited by the unnatural and extra- 
ordinary appearance of the sun at that particular period — a phe 
nomenon which was recorded at the time, and is still well recol- 
lected. 

This painful and startling event made a deep impression upon 
the public mind. Men began to think and reason ;il)out the evils 
and insecurity of slavery ; the subject of emancipation was dis- 
cussed both publicly and privately, and was prominently introduced 
into the popular branch of the legislature at the ensuing session 
of 1831-32. The House of Delegates contained, at that time, 
many young members of shining abilities, besides others of ma- 
turer years and more established reputation ; and the debate 
which sprang up, upon the abstract proposition declaring it expe- 
dient to abolish slavery, was characterized by all the powers of 
argument and all the graces of eloquence. It was a topic emi- 
nently fitted to arouse the strongest passions of our nature, and to 
enlist the long-cherished prejudices of a portion of the Virginia 
people. After an animated contest, the question was settled by a 
kind of compromise, in which the evils of slavery were distinctly 



128 



MISCELLANIES. 



recognised, but that views of expediency required that further 
action on the subject should be postponed. That a question so 
vitally important would have been renewed with more success at 
an early subsequent period, seems more than probable, if the cur- 
rent opinions of the day . can be relied on ; but there were obvious 
causes in operation which paralyzed the friends of abolition, and 
have had the effect of silencing all agitation on the subject. The 
abolitionists in the northern and eastern states, gradually increas- 
ing their strength as a party, became louder in their denunciations 
of slavery, and more and more reckless in the means adopted for 
assailing the constitutional rights of the south. The open and 
avowed security given to fugitive slaves, not only by the efforts of 
private societies, but by public official acts in some of the free 
states, together with the constant circulation of incendiary tracts, 
calculated to endanger the safety of slave-holding communities, 
have awakened a spirit of proud and deterrfiined resistance ; and 
it is now almost impossible to tell when the passions shall have 
sufficiently cooled for a calm consideration of the subject. 

If Virginia has not successfully rivalled some of the more 
wealthy and populous states in the cause of general education, 
and in works of internal improvement, she has at least devoted to 
those important objects all the resources she could command with- 
out impairing her credit by too great a pecuniary responsibility. 
It is an honorable trait, that she has been careful to fulfil her en- 
gagements in the most embarrassing times. 



MISCELLANIES, 

HISTORICAL, STATISTICAL, AND DESCRIPTIVE. 

The annexed concise geographical and statistical description of Virginia, is abridged 
from Sherman &. Smith's Gazetteer of the United States, and contains the results of the 
statistics and census of 1840, published by the general government. 

Virginia is 370 miles long, and 200 broad at its greatest width, containing 64,000 
square miles, or 40,960,000 acres. The population in 1790, was 747,610 in 1800, 
886,149; in 1810, 974,622 ; in 1820,1,065,366; in 1830, 1,211,272; in 1840, 1,239,797, 
of which 448,987 were slaves. Of the free white population, 371,223 were white 
males; 369,745 ditto, females; 23,814 were colored males; 26,020 ditto, females. 
Employed in agriculture, 318,771 ; in commerce, 6,361 ; in manufactures and trades, 
54,147 ; navigating the ocean, 582 ; ditto, canals, rivers, and lakes, 2,952 ; learned pro- 
fessions, &c., 3,866. 

The state is divided into 123 counties and 2 districts — Eastern and Western. The 
Eastern district comprises that part of the state east of the Blue Ridge, and has 67 
counties. Population in 1840: whites, 369,398 ; free colored, 42,294 ; slaves, 395,250 ; 
total, 806,942. The Western district comprises that part of the state west of the Blue 
Ridge, and has 56 counties. Population: whites, 371,570 ; free colored, 7,548; slaves, 
53,737 ; total, 432,855. 

Richmond is the capital of the state, situated on the north side of James River, at 
the head of tidewater, and just below its lower falls. This state has a great variety 



MISCELLANIES. 



of surface and soil. From tlie Atlantic to the lower falls on the river, which includes a 
tract of from IIU to 130 miles in width, the country is low and Hat, in some places 
raarsliy, but extensively sandy, covered with the pitch-pine. On th«* martjin of the rivers, 
the soil is olten rich. 'I'his is denominated the low coiuitry, and is uniieulthy Iroin 
August to October. Between the head of tidewater and the IJlue Ridfje, the country 
becomes uneven and hilly, and more so as it approaches the mountains. The soil in 
this region is some of it sandy and poor; some of it is fertile, particularly on the margins 
of the rivers. Towards the mountains the country is stony and broken, though the soil 
is often rich. The first ridge of mountains in this state is generally about ].)0 miles 
from the ocean. Beyond this the country is mountainous, traversed by successive 
ridges of the Alleghany, which occupies a greater breadth of country in Virginia than 
in any other state. Between the various ridges, however, there are long valleys or table- 
lands, parallel with them, often of considerable breadth, and containing some of the 
best and most pleasant land in Virginia. The farms are here smaller than in other parts 
of the state, better cultivated, and there are fewer slaves. The climate in this region 
is very healthy. 

The soil in the tidewater country is generally poor, producing Indian corn, oats, and 
peas. Wheat is raised in some parts of it, and a little rice in the swamps in its southern 
part. Between tidewater and the mountains is the tobacco. country ; but in the nortliern 
upland counties wheat has extensively superseded tobacco ; and south of James River, 
sutficient cotton is raised for home consumption. The southeastern counties produce 
apples and peaches in great abundance. Among the mountains, the farmers raise large 
numbers of cattle and hogs. Indian corn is cultivated throughout the state. The 
country west of the mountains, towards the Ohio, is rough and wild — sometimes, but not 
generally, fertile ; but very rich as a mineral region. 

There were m this state in 1840, .3:2(j,438 horses and mules ; 1,024,148 neat cattle; 
1,293. 77'2 sheep; 1,992,155 swine; poultry to the value of ,*$754,r)!)8. There were 
produced 10,109.716 bushels of wheat ; 87.430 of b;irlev ; 13.451,062 of oats; 1,482,799 
of rye; 243.822 of buckwheat; 34.577,591 of Indian corn; 2,538,374 pounds of 
wool; 10,597 of hops ; 65,020 of wax ; 2,944,600 bushels of potatoes; 364,708 tons of 
hay; 25.594 of hemp and flax ; 75,347,106 pounds of tobacco; 2,956 of rice; 3,494.483 
of cotton : 3.191 of silk cocoons; 1,541,833 of sugar. The products of the dairy 
were valued at $1.4^0,488; of the orchard .$705,705; value of lumber produced 
§538,092 ; 13,911 gallons of wine were made. 

The mineral wealth of Virginia is very great. Gold, copper, lead, iron, coal, salt, lime- 
stone, and marble are found, together with a number of valuable mineral springs. An atten- 
tion to the business of mining has recently been excited, and in 1840, 2.000 persons 
were employed in it. The belt of country in which gold is found, extends through 
Spotsylvania county and the adjacent country, and in a southwest direction passes 
into North and South Carolina, Georgia, and Alabama. The gold in this state is not 
sufficiently concentrated to render it profitable, excepting in a few places, to engage in 
mining it. The coal fields in Virginia are very extensive, and afford both the bitumin- 
ous and anthracite. Large quantities have been obtained and exported from the vicinity 
of Richmond. Salt springs have been found in various places, and salt has been ex- 
tensively manufactured on the Great Kanawha River, near ClKirleston. The state 
abounds in mineral springs, which are much resorted to ; the principal are, the W hite 
and Blue Sulphur, in (ireenbriar; the Salt and Red Sulphur, and Sweet, in .Monroe; 
Hot and Warm, in Bath ; Berkeley, in Morgan ; Fauquier White Sulpliur, in Fauquier ; 
Shannondale, in Frederick ; Alum, in Rockbridge ; Jordan's White Sulphur, in Freder- 
ick ; Red, in Alleghany ; Grayson, in Carroll ; Bottetourt, in Roanoke ; Holston, in 
Scott ; Augusta Springs ; and Dagrrers Springs, in Bottetourt. 

The staple productions of the state are wheat and tobacco. The Potomac River 
separates this state from Maryland. James River is the largest which belongs to this 
state. It is 500 miles in length, and flows from the mountains in the interior, behind 
the Blue Ridge, through which it passes. It is navigable for sloops 120 miles, and for 
boats much further, and enters into Chesapeake B;iy. The Apfximattox is 130 miles 
long, and enters James River 100 miles above Hampton Roads, and is navigable 12 miles, 
to Petersburg. The Rappahannock rises in the Blue Ridge, is 130 miles long, is nav- 
igable 1 10 miles for sloops, and enters into the Chesapeake. York River enters the 
Chesapeake 30 miles below the Rappahannock, and is navigable 40 miles for ships. The 
Shenandoah enters thpi Potomac just before its p;issage throufrh the Blue Ridge. Of the 
rivers west of the mountains, the Great K.uiawlia ri^es in North C^aroliua. passes through 
this state, and enters the Ohio. The Little Kanawha als*) enters the Ohio. The Ma 
longahela rises in this state, though it runs chiefly in Pennsylvania. 

17 



130 



MISCELLANIES. 



The lower part of Chesapeake Bay lies wholly in this state, is 15 miles wide at its 
mouth, and enters the Atlantic between Cape Charles and Cape Henry. Norfolk, 8 
miles from Hampton Roads, has a fine harbor, much the best in the state, spacious, safe, 
and well defended ; and it is the most commercial place in Virginia ; but Richmond and 
Petersburg are more populous, and have an extensive trade. Besides these, Wheeling, 
Lynchburg, Fredericksburg, and Winchester, are the principal places. 

The exports of this state, in 1840, amounted to ,^4,778,220 ; and the imports to 
$545, G85. There were 31 commercial and 64 commission houses engaged in foreign 
trade, with a capital of $4,299,500 ; 2,736 retail drygoods and other stores, with a cap- 
ital of $16,684,413; 1,454 persons employed in the lumber trade, with a capital of 
$113,210; 931 persons engaged in internal transportation, who, with 103 butchers, 
packers, &lc., employed a capital of $100,680 ; 556 persons employed in the fisheries, 
with a capital of $28,383. 

The manufactures of Virginia are not so extensive as those of some states inferior to 
it in territory and population. There were, in 1840, domestic or family manufactures to 
the amount of $2,441,672 ; 41 woollen manufactories and 47 fulling-mills, employmg 
222 persons, producing articles to the amount of $147,792, with a capital of $112,350 ; 
22 cotton manufactories, with 42,262 spindles, employing 1,816 persons, producing arti- 
cles to the amount of $446,063, with a capital of $1,299,020 ; 42 furnaces producing 
18,810 tons of cast-iron, and 52 forges &lc., producing 5,866 tons of bar-iron, the whole 
employing 1,742 persons, and a capital of $1,246,650; 11 smelting houses employed 
131 persons, and produced gold to the amount of $51,758, employing a capital of 
$103,650 ; 5 smelting houses employed 73 persons, and produced 878,648 pounds of lead, 
employing a capital of $21,500 ; 12 paper manufactories, producmg articles to the 
amount of $216,245, and other paper manufactories producing $1,260, the whole em- 
ploying 181 persons, and a capital of $287,750 ; 3,342 persons manufactured tobacco to 
the amount of $2,406,671, employing a capital of $1,526,080 ; hats and caps were 9 
manufactured to the amount of $155,778, and straw bonnets to the amount of $14,700, 
the whole employing 340 persons, and a capital of $85^^40 ; 660 tanneries employed 
1,422 persons, and a capital of $838,141 ; 982 other leather manufactories, as saddleries, 
&LC., produced articles to the amount of $826,597, and employed a capital of $341,957 ; 
4 glass-houses and 2 glass-cutting establishments employed 164 persons, producing ar- 
ticles to the value of $146,500, with a capital of $132,000 ; 33 potteries employed 64 
persons, producing articles to the amount of $31,380, with a capital of $10,225; 36 
persons produced drugs, paints, &c., to the amount of $66,633, with a capital of 
$61,727 ; 445 persons produced machinery to the amount of $429,858 ; 150 persons 
produced hardware and cutlery to the amount of $50,504 ; 262 persons manufactured 
9,330 small-arms ; 40 persons manufactured granite and marble to the amount of 
$16,652; 1,004 persons produced bricks and lime to the amount of $393,253; car- 
riages and wagons were manufactured to the amount of $647,815, employing 1,592 
persons, and a capital of $311,625 ; 1,454 distilleries produced 865,725 gallons, and 5 
breweries produced 32,960 gallons, employing 1,631 persons, and acapitalof $187,212; 
764 flouring-mills produced 1,041,526 barrels of flour, and with other mills employed 
3,964 persons, producing ariicles to the amount of $7,855,499, with a capital of 
$5,184,669 ; ships were built to the amount of $136,807 ; 675 persons manufactured 
furniture to the amount of $289,391 ; 402 brick or stone, and 2,604 wooden houses 
were built, employing 4,694 persons, and cost $1,367,393 ; 50 printing offices, and 13 
binderies, 4 daily, 12 semi-weekly, and 35 weekly newspapers, and 5 periodicals, em- 
ployed 310 persons, and a capital of $168,850. The whole amomit of capital employed 
in manufactures in the state was $11,360,861. 

William and Mary College, at Williamsburg, is the oldest in the state, and one of the 
oldest in the country, and was founded in 1691. Hampden Sidney College, in Prince 
Edward county, was founded in 1783, and is flourishing. Washington College, at 
Lexington, was founded in 1812. Randolph Macon College, was founded at Boydton 
in 1832. Emory and Henry College, Washington county, was founded in 1839. Rec- 
tor College, Prunty Town, Taylor county, was founded in 1839. Bethany College, 
Brooke county, was founded in 1841. There are theological schools at Richmond, in 
Prince Edward county, and in Fairfax county. But the most important literary institu- 
tion in the state, is the University of Virginia, at Charlottesville, founded in 1819. Its 
plan is extensive, its endowment has been munificent, and it is a prosperous institution. 
In all these, with a few smaller institutions, there were in 1840, 1,097 students ; there 
were in the state, also, 382 academies, with 11,083 students ; 1,561 common and primary 
schools, with 35,331 scholars ; and 58,787 white persons over 20 years of age who 
could neither read nor wriie. 



MISCELLANIES. 



131 



The Baptist', the most numerous rclij^ioiis denomination, liavi^ about 437 churches ; 
the Presbvteri;ins 120; the Episcopalians, (35 ministers; the Methodists 170. There 
are also u few Lutherans, Catliolics, Unitarians, Friends, and Jews. 

In January, 18-10, there were in tliis state 8 banks and branches, with a caj)ital of 
$3, (1.37. 100, 'and a circulation of .$3,51:^,412. At the close of the same year the pub- 
lic debt ainouiitcd to }$().^<57,161. There is a state j)enitcnliary located at liiehmond. 

The tirst constitution of V'irrrinia was formed in 177t). "^Miis was altered and amended 
by a convention assembled for that purpose, in 18.30. The executive power is vested 
in a jTovernor, elected by the joint vote of the two houses of the (ieneral Assembly. He 
is chosen for three years, but is ineligible for the next three. There i.s a council of state, 
elected in like manner for three years, the scat of one bein^ vacated every year. The 
senior councillor is licutenant-g'wernor. The senators can never be more than 3t), and 
the delcfjates than '50; and both are apportioned anew among the counties every 10 
years, commencing with 1811. The senators were elected lor 4 years, and the seats of 
one fourth of them are vacated every year. The delegates are chosen annually. All 
ai)pointments to any otlice of trust, honor, or profit, by the legislature, arc given openly, 
or vim voce, and not by ballot. The judges of the sujjreuie court of appeals, and of 
the superior court/?, are elected by the joint vote of both houses of the general assembly, 
and hold their offices during good behavior, or until removed by a jomt vote of two- 
thirds of the legislature. 

The right of sutlrage is extended to every resident white male citizen of 21 years ot 
age, entitled to vote by the former constitution ; or who owns a freehold valued at ,$25 ; 
or a joint interest in a freehold to that amount ; or who has a life-estate, or a reversionary 
title to land valued at $50, having been so possessed for (! months; or who shall own, 
or be in occupation of, a leasehold estate, having been recorded 2 months, for a term not 
less than 5 years, to the annual value or rent of $200 ; or who for 12 months shall have 
been a housekeeper and head of a family, and paid the taxes assessed by the common- 
wealth. 

Virginia has undertaken several important works of internal improvement, by char- 
tering private companies, several of which have been liberally aided by the state. The 
Dismal JSwamp Canal connects Chesapeake Hay with Albemarle Sound, extending from 
Deep Creek to Joyce's Creek, 23 miles, at a cost of $879,864. It has branches of 11 
miles. The Alexandria Canal extends 7^ miles, from Georgetown to Alexandria. The 
James River and Kanawha C.mal extends 146 miles, from Richmond to Lynch- 
burg. The Richmond, Fredericksburg, and Potomac Railroad extends 75 miles, to 
Aquia Creek. Louisa branch, 25 miles from Richmond, proceeds 49 miles, to (Jordons- 
ville. Richmond and Petersburg Railroad, from Richmond, extends 23 ujiles, to Peters- 
burg. Petersburg and Roanoke Railroad extends from Petersburg, 59 miles, to Weldon. 
Greensville Railroad extends from near Hickslord, for 18 miles, to Gaston, N. C. 
City Point Railroad extends from Petersburg, 12 miles, to City Point. Chesterfield 
RaUroad extends from Coal Mines, 13^ miles, to Richmond. Portsmouth and Roanoke 
Railroad extends from Portsmouth, 8 miles, to Wcldon, X. C. Winchester and Poto- 
mac Railroad extends from Harper's Ferry, 32 miles, to Winchester. 



ORIGIN OF THE APPELLATION " OLD DOMINION."* 

There is in the possession of the Massachusetts Historical Society, a coin of the fol- 
lowing description : on one side is a head, and the words " Georgius III. Rex. ;" on the 
other side is a shield, on which are quartered the arms of England, Scotland, Ireland, 
and Virginia. The whole surmounted by a crown, and encircled with the word, " Vir- 
ginia, 1773." 

A similar coin was dug up a few years since, and the following statement was pub- 
lished with the description of it : During the usurpation of C'romwell, the colony of Vir- 
ginia refused to acknowledge his authority, and declared itself independent. Shortly 
after, finding that Cromwell threatened to send a fleet and an arn)y to reduce Virginia 
to subjection, and fearing the ability of this feeble state to withstand this force, she 
sent, in a small ship, a messenger to Charles II., then an exile in Breda, Flanders 
Charles accepted the invitation to come over, and be king of Virginia, and was on the 
eve of embarking when he was recalled to the throne of England. As soon as he was 
restored to the crown of EuLrland, in gratitude for the loyalty of Virginia, he caused her 
coat of arms to be quartered with those of England, Scotland, and Ireland, as an inde- 
pendent member of the empire. 



From the Savannah Georgian. 



132 



MISCELLANIES. 



The, above coin is clearly confirmatory of these facts. Hence the origin of the phrase 
" Old Dominion," frequently applied to Virginia. 

History does not confirm all these statements, though it establishes some, and suffi- 
ciently discloses, in the conduct of Virginia during the Protectorate of Cromwell, a cause 
for the origin of the name Old Doyninion, frequently applied to Virginia. The facts, as 
gathered from a variety of creditable historians, appear to be these : 

After the death of king Charles I., and the installation of Oliver Cromwell as Protec- 
tor, the colony of Virginia refused to acknowledge his authority ; and Parliament having 
subdued opposition elsewhere, were not disposed to submit to such a resistance of its 
authority by the 20,000 inliabitants of Virginia. It issued an ordinance declaring them 
notorious robbers and traitors ; prohibited all intercourse with the refractory colonists, 
either by the people of England, the inhabitants of the other American settlements, or 
with foreign nations ; and finally, sent over a fleet, under Sir George Ayscue, to over, 
power the provincial royalists, and extinguish the last traces of monarchial authority 
that still lingered in extremities of the empire. The commissioners appointed to ac- 
company this expedition were empnv/ered to try, in the first instance, the efficacy of par- 
dons and other conciliatory propositions, in reducing the colonists to obedience ; but if 
their pacific overtures should prove ineffectual, they were then to employ every species 
of hostile operations. 

From Barbadoes, Captain Ayscue dispatched Capt. Dennis with a small squadron to 
the Chesapeake, to land his forces, and drive Sir William Berkeley out of Virginia ; for 
during the whole preceding struggle of Charles I. and the Parliament, the Virginians 
were firm on the side of their king, and enacted a declaration, " that they were born un- 
der a monarchy, and would never degenerate from the condition of their birth, by being 
subject to any other government." After the king was beheaded, they acknowledged 
the authority of the fugitive prince, and actually continued the provincial government 
under a commission which he sent to Sir William Berkeley from his retreat at Breda. 
The young prince was not, however, actually invited over to establish a kingdom in 
Virginia ; though, according to Clarendon, Sir William Berkeley was so assured of the 
loyalty of the inhabitants, and so impressed with confidence of ultimate success, that he 
wrote to him, almost inviting him to America .'" In these acts consisted the enmity 
of the Parliament to the governor ; and for this open defiance of its power, Virginia 
was to be ravaged by a fleet in her waters, and insidious assassins on her soil. Histo- 
rians differ greatly as to the proceedings of Sir William, after the arrival of the fleet 
within the Capes of Virginia. Several, as Beverly, (p. 45 ;) Oldmixon, (i. 375 ;) Burke, 
(F^uropean Settlements, ii. 223 ;) Graham, (i. 99,) have asserted that he made a great 
show of resistance, assisted by the Dutch ships in the harbor, and the royalists, who 
were a majority of the population. 

Bancroft, (i. 223,) citing contemporary authorities of the highest value, says, no 
sooner had the Guinea frigate entered within the waters of the Chesapeake, than (quo- 
ting from Clarendon) all thoughts of resistance were laid aside. It marks, continues 
Bancroft, the character of the Virginians ; that they refused to surrender to force, but 
yielded by a voluntary deed and mutual compact." " By the articles of surrender a com- 
plete indemnity was stipulated for all past offences; and the colonists recognising the 
authority, were admitted into the bosom of the English commonwealth, and expressly 
assured of an equal participation in all the privileges of the free people of England. In 
particular, it provided that the Provincial Assembly should retam its wonted functions, 
and that the people of Virginia should have as free trade as the people of England to 
all places and all nations," and *' shall be free from all taxes, customs, and impositions 
whatsoever, without the consent of their own Assembly." Berkeley disdained to make 
any stipulation for himself, with those whom his principles of loyalty taught him to re- 
gard as usurpers. Without leaving Virginia, he withdrew to a retired situation, where 
he continued to reside as a private individual, universally beloved and respected till a 
new revolution was to summon him once more to defy the republican forces of England 
and restore the ascendancy of royalty in the colony. 

This was in March, 1652: and affairs continued much m this state until 1660. In 
the mean time, Richard Bennet, Edward Digges, and Samuel Matthews, had been sever- 
ally elected by the Burgesses, Governor of Virginia, under allegiance to Oliver Crom- 
well, and on his death, 1658, to Richard Cromwell. But ifi 1660, Gov. Matthews died ; 
and the people, discontented with some commercial restrictions imposed by the Protec- 
torate, did not wait for a new commission from England, but elected Sir William Berke- 
ley, and " by an obliging violence compelled him to accept the government." He, however, 
refused to act under the usurpation of the Cromwells, and would not consent, unless they 
joined with him in joining their lives and fortunes for the king who was then an exile. 



MISCELLANIES. 



133 



" This," savs Bcvprly, " was their dearest wish, and thoroforp, with h unanimous 
voice, they told him that th<'y were ready to hazard all for the kinjr." Now, this was 
actually before the king's return to England, and proceeded froni a broad principle of 
loyalty for which they had no example. Sir William Berkeley embraced their choice, 
aitd forthwith proclnimed Charles 1 1, kimr of England, Srotlund, Ireland, and Tir- 
ginia, and caused all processes to be issued in his name. Thus his mnjesty was actu- 
ally kins Viririnia before he teas in England. On the restoration of the king he 
Bent Sir Willianj a new commission, aud granted him permission to visit England. 

He was received by the monarch with much kindness ; and there is recorded a tradi- 
tion, that the king, in compliment to that colony, wore at his coronation a robe made of 
the silk which was sent from thence. Such is a condensed narration of the causes and 
incidents wliich gave to Virginia the honored title of the " Old Dominion." 



SLAVERY AND TOBACCO. 

The following relates to the introduction of slaves, and the cultivation of tobacco, 
with their influence on the character and condition of the inhabitants of Virginia. It is 
drawn from the Life of Jefferson, by Prof. George Tucker, of the University of Virginia; 
a work written with perspicuity and candor, and incidentally elucidating important points 
in the civil and political history of the state. 

In 1744, at the period of the birth of Mr. Jefferson, the settlements had extended about 
200 miles from the sea-coast, and in the northern part of the colony, had passed the Blue 
Ridge. The population was then about 200,000, of whom from a quarter to a third were 
slaves. 

The cultivation of tobacco, and the introduction of slaves, soon after Virginia was set- 
tled, have had a marked influence upon the habits, character, and fortunes of the coun- 
try. The ititroduction of tobacco, in England, about 20 years before the settlement of 
Jamestown, led to a rapid extension of its use. A demand being thus created, and a 
heavy price paid, encouraged the first settlers of Virginia to cultivate il for market, to 
the neglect of other crops. It long continued the sole article of export, and from the in- 
adequate supply of the precious metals, it became ihe general measure of value, the prin- 
cipal currency of the colony. In 1758, the quantity exported had increased to about 70 
millions of pounds, since which time the product has somewhat diminished. 

" As this plant requires land of the greatest fertility, and its finer sorts are produced 
only in virgin soil, which it soon exhausts, its culture has been steadily advancing wesU 
wardly, where fresh land is more abundant, leaving the eastern region it has impoverish- 
ed to the production of Indian corn, wheat, and other grain. Its cultivation has thus 
generally ceased in the country below the falls of the great rivers, and in its progress to 
the west, the centre of the tobacco region is now two hundred miles from the coast. 

" The business of cultivating tobacco, and preparing it for market, recjuircs such contin- 
ual attention, and so much, and so many sorts of handling, as to allow to the planter little 
time for any of the other useful processes of husbandry : and thus the mana<:ement of his 
dairy and orchard, and the useful operations of manuring, irrigation, and cultivating arti- 
ficial grasses, are either conducted in a slovenly way, or neglected altogether. The to- 
bacco district nowhere exhibits the same external face of verdure, or marks of rural 
comfort and taste, as are to be seen in those countries in which its culture has been 
abandoned. 

But the most serious consequence of the tobacco cultivation is to be found in the in- 
crease of slaves ; for though it did not occasion their first introduction, it greatly en- 
couraged their importation afterwards. It is to the spirit of commerce, which in its un- 
distinguished pursuit of gain, ministers to our vices no less than to our necessary wants, 
that Virginia owes this portentous accession to her population. A Dutch ship from the 
coast of Guinea entered James River, in l(j20, thirteen years after the first settlementot 
Jamestown, and sold twenty of her slaves to the colonists. 

" The large profits which could be made from the labor of slave, while tobacco so'd at 
three shillings .sterlinir a pound, equal to about ten times its ordinary price now, greatly 
encouraged their further importation, by giving to the planters the means of purchasing as 
well as the inclination; and the effect would have been much greater, if they had not 
been continually supplied with labor from the paupers, and sometimes the convicts, who 
were brought from England and sold to the planters for a term of years, to defray tli© 
expeascii of their transportation. 



134 



Ml;CELLANIE3. 



" T^is supply of English servants, together with the gradual fall in the price of tobacco, 
had so checked the importation of slaves, ihat in the year 1671, according to an official 
communication from the governor, Sir William Berkeley, while the whole population 
was but 40,000, the number of indented servants was 6,UU0, and that of the slaves was 
but 2,000. The importations of the latter, he says, did not exceed two or three cargoes in 
seven years, but that of servants, of whom he says, ' most were English, few Scotch, and 
fewer Irish,' he estimates at 1,500 annually. 

" But in process of time, slave labor was found preferable to that of indented white ser- 
vants, partly because the negro slaves were more cheaply fed and clothed than ihe labor- 
ers who were of the same race as the masters, but principally because they were less able 
to escape from bondage, and were more easily retaken. The colonial statute book af- 
fords abundant evidence of the frequency and facility with which the indented servants 
ran away from their masters ; and the extent of the mischief may be inferred from the se- 
verity of its punishment. In 1642, runaway servants were liable, for a second offence, to 
be branded on the cheek ; tliough fifteen years afterwards the law was so far mitigated as 
to transfer this mark of ignominy to the shoulder. In 1662, their term of service, which 
did not (iften exceed four or five years, might, for the offence of running away, be pro- 
longed, at the discretion of a magistrate, and the master might superadd ' moderate cor- 
poreal punishment.' In the following year, this class of persons, prompted by the con- 
victs who had been sent over after the restoration of Charjes the Second, formed a con- 
spiracy of insurrection and murder, which was discovered just in time to be defeated. 
Seven years afterwards, in 1670, the governor and council took upon themselves to pro- 
hibit the further importation of convicts, whom they call 'jail birds;' and they assign 
this conspiracy as one of their motives for the order. The privilege, too, enjoyed by the 
servant of complaining to the magistrate for the harsh treatmeut of his master, either as 
to food, clothing, or punishment, formed, no doubt, a further ground of preference for 
slaves, who had no such inconvenient rights. 

" Under the united influence of these circumstances the number of negro slaves so in- 
creased, that in 1732, the legislature thought proper to discourage their further importa- 
tion by a tax on each slave imported ; and not to alarm the commercial jealousy of Eng- 
land, the law, conforming to the notions of the age, formally provided for what no mode 
of levying the tax could have prevented, that the duty should be paid by the purchaser. 
This duty was at first five per cent, on the value of the slave, but in a few years after- 
wards, (1740,) it was increased to ten per cent., from which it was never reduced. It did 
not, however, prevent large importations, for we find the number to have increased in 119 
years, in the ratio of 1 to 146 ; that is, from 2,000 in the year 1671, to 293,427 in 1 790 ; 
while in the same pciod the whites had increased only as 1 to 12, or from 38,000 to 
454,881. In the forty years which have elapsed, from the first to the last census, it is 
gratifying to perceive that the increase of the free population in Virginia has been some- 
what greater than that of the slaves, in the proportion of 63 per cent, to 60, and that this 
comparative gain seems to be gradually increasing. 

" As Eastern Virginia is everywhere intersected by navigable rivers, which are skirted 
on either side by rich alluvial lands, the early settlers, whose plantations were principally 
along the margins of the rivers, were able to carry on a direct intercourse with foreign 
countries, from their separate dwellings. Thus commerce, by the very diffusion of its 
most important natural facilities, did not here concentrate in a few favorable spots, and 
foster the growth of towns, as in most of the other colonies ; and at the beginning of the 
revolution, Williamsburg, the seat of government, and the largest town in Virginia, itself 
the most populous of the colonies, did not contain 2,000 inhabitants. But as the bees 
which form no hive, collect no honey, the commerce, which was thus dispersed, accumu- 
lated no wealth. The disadvantages of this dispersion were eventually perceived by 
the colonists, and many efforts were made by the legislature to remedy the mischief by 
authorizing the establishment of towns on selected sites, and giving special privileges and 
immunities to those who built, or those who resided on them. Their purpose was also 
favored, and even stimulated by the government, from fiscal considerations. But most 
of these legislative efforts failed, and none were very successful. Thus in 1680, as many 
as twenty towns were authorized by act of assembly, being one for each county ; yet at 
not more than three or four of the designated spots is there even a village remaining to 
attest the propriety of the selection. 

" There were indeed wanting in tlie colony all the ordinary constituents of a large 
town. Here were no manufactories to bring together and employ the ingenious and in- 
dustrious. The colonists, devoting themselves exclusively to agriculture, owned no ship- 
ping, which might have induced them to congregate for the sake of carrying on their 
foreign commerce to more advantage : here was no court, which by its splendor and 



MISCELLANIES. 



135 



amuscinents nii<;ht attract the pay, the voluptuous, and the ri(;ii : tficrc was not oven a 
class of opulent landlords, to whom it is as easy to live on their rents in town as in the 
countrv, and far nmre afrreeable. Hut the very richest planters all cultivated their own 
land with their own slaves ; and while those lands furnished most of the materials of a 
giMj' Tous, and even profuse hospitality, they could he consumed only wht^rc they were 
produced, and could neither he trans|)orted to a distance, nor converted into money. 
The tol)aee(», which constituted the only article of export, served to pay for the foreign 
luxuries which the planter required; yet, with his social habits, it was barely sufiicient 
for that purpose, and not a few of the larir(>st estates were deeply in debt to the Scotch 
or Eniilish merchants, who carried on tJie whole commerce of the country. Nor was 
this system of credit more eatrerly soutrht by the improvident planter, tlian it was {jivcn 
by the thrifty and sajjacious trader ; for it ati'orded to him a sure pledjjc for the consig'n- 
meiit of the debtor's crop, on the sales of wiiieh his fair per(|uisites amounted to a liberal 
profit, and if he was disposed to abuse his trust, his Qn'int^ were enormous. The mer- 
chants were therefore ready to ship fijoods, and accept bills of exchanjre, on the credit of 
future crops, while their factors in the colony took care in season to make the debt safe 
by a mortgaije on the lands and slaves of the planter. Some idea of the pecuniary 
thraldom to which the Virginia planter was formerly subjected may be formed from the 
fact, that twice a year, at a creneral meeting of the merchants and factors in Williams- 
burg, they settled the price of tobacco, the advance on the sterling cost of goods, and 
the rate of exchange with England. It can scarcely be doubted that the regulations 
were framed as much to the advantage of the merchanla as they believed it practii able 
to execute. Yet it atfords evidence of the sagacious moderation with which this deli- 
cate duty was exercised, that it was not so abused as to destroy itself. 

" This state of things exerted a decided influence on the manners and character of the 
colonists, untrained to habits of business and possessed of the means of hospitality. 
They were open-handed and open-hearted ; fond of society, indulging in all its pleas- 
ures, and practising all its couitesies. Rut these social virtues also occasionally ran into 
the kindred vices of love of show, haughtiness, sensuality — and many of the wealthier 
class were to be seen seeking relief from the vacuity of iclleness, not merely in the al- 
lowable pleasures of the chase and the turf, but in the debasing ones of cock-fighting, 
gatning, and drinking. Literature was neglected, or cultiva ed by the small number 
who had been educated in England, rather as an accomplishment and a mark of distinc- 
tion, than for the substantial benefits it confers. 

"Let us not, however, overrate the extent of these consequences of slavery. If the ha- 
bitual exercise of authority, united to a want of steady occupation, deteriorated the char- 
acter of some, it seemed to give a greater elevation of virtue to others. Domestic slave- 
ry, in fact, places the master in a state of moral discipline, and according to the use he 
makes of it, is he made better or worse. If he exercises his unrestricted power over the 
slave, in giving ready indulgence to his humors or caprice — if he habitually yields to 
impulses of anger, and punishes whenever he is disobeyed, or obeyed imperfectly, he is 
certainly the worse for the institution which has thus afforded aliment to his evil pro- 
pensities. But if, on the other hand, he has been taught to curb these sallies of passion, 
or freaks of caprice, or has subjec:cd himself to a course of salutary restraint, he is con- 
tinually strengtliening himself in the virtues of self-denial, forbearance, and moderation, 
and he is all the better for the institution which has afforded so much occasion lor the 
practice of tliose virtues.* If, therefore, in a slave-holding country, we see some of the 
masters made irascible, cruel, and tyrannical, we see many others as remarkable for their 
mddness, moderation, and self-command ; because, in truth, both the virtues of the one 
and the vices of the other are carried to the greater extreme by the self-same process of 
habitual exercise." 



INDIANS OF EASTERN VIRGINIA.t 

According to the account of Captain John Smith, that part of Virginia that lies be- 
tween the sea and the mountains, was inhabited by forty-three different tribes of Indians. 
Thirty of these were united in a grand confederacy under the emperor Powhatan. The 
dominions of this mighty chief, wlio was long the most powerful rival, and most impla- 



* The character of the Presidents which Virginia has furnished, may be appealed to 
for a confirmation of this view ; and many living ill istr itions will readily present them- 
selves to all who have a personal knowledge of ihe southern states. 

t This article is from the various histories of Virginia, 



136 



MISCELLANIES. 



cable foe, with whom the English had to contend, extended over that part of the country 
that lies south of the Potomac, between the coast and the falls of the rivers. 

In comparison with civilized countries, this extensive territory contained but a scanty 
population. The Powhatan confederacy consisted of but about eight thousand inhabit- 
ants. 




Indian in a summer dress. Indian Priest. 



Besides this confederacy, there were two others which were combined against that of 
Powhatan. These were the Mannahoacks and Manakins ; the former of whom, con- 
sisting of eight tribes, occupied the country lying between Rappahannock and York 
rivers ; and the latter, consisting of five tribes, was settled between York and James 
rivers, above the falls. Besides these, were the Nottoways, the Meherricks, the Tute- 
loes, and several other scattering and independent tribes. 

The hereditary dominions of Powhatan lay on James River, which originally bore 
his name.* He had a seat on this river, about a mile below the falls, where Richmond 
now stands, and another at Werowocomoco on the north side of York River, within the 
present county of Gloucester. 

This monarch was remarkable for the strength and vigor of his body, as well as for 
the energies of his mind. He possessed great skill in intrigue and great courage in bat- 
tle. His equanimity in the career of victory, was only equalled by his fortitude in the 
hour of adversity. If he had many vices incident to the savage life, he had some vir- 
tues seldom found among the civilized. He commanded a respect rarely paid by sav- 
ages to their werowance, and maintained a dignity and splendor worthy the monarch of 
thirty nations. He was constantly attended by a guard of forty warriors, and during 
the night a sentry regularly watched his palace. Though unlimited by custom in the 
number of his wives, his seraglio exhibited the apathy of the Indian character. When he 0* 



* Powhatan, Arrowhattock, Appamattock, Pamunkey, Youghtanund, and Mattapo- 
ment, descended to him from his ancestors. 



MISCKLLAXIES. 



1.37 



slept, one of his womrn sat at his head and another at his fcot. Whrn he dined they 
attended liiin with water, or broiij^ht him ii hunch of feathers to wi|M- Ins hands. His 
retralla, free from the j:fhtter of art, showtnl only the simple royalty of the savage. Ho 
wore a robe composed of skins; and sat on a throne spread with mats, and decked with 
pearls and witli heads. The furniture of his palace, like the qualities of his mind, was 
adapted to war, and fhe implements of death, rather than of pleasure, garnished his 
halls. 

The figures in tlie annexed engravinj;, representing an Indian in his summer dress, 
and an Indian priest, were copit-d from those i;iven in Beverly's History of Virtjinia, 
published in London, in l'i'22. The fi;j;ure on the left, (the Indian in his sununer dre'ss,) 
is thus described : 

The upper part of his hair is cut short to make a ridge, which stands up like the 
comb of a cock, the rest iB either shorn otl' or knotted behind his ear. On his head are 
stuck three feathers of tlie wild turkey, pheasant, hawk, or such like. At his ear is 
hung a fine shell, with pearl drops. At his breast is a tablet or fine shell, smooth as pol- 
ished marble, which also hath sometimes etched on it a star, half-moon. or otlier figure, 
according to the maker's fancy : upon his neck and wrists hang strings of heads, peak, 
and roenoke. His aj)ron is m ade of a deer skin, gashed around the ed^es, whicli hang 
like tassels or fringe ; at the up[)er end of the fringe is an edging of peak, to make it 
finer. His quiver is of a thin bark ; but sometimes they make it of the skin of a fox. or 
young wolf, with the head hanj^ing to it, which has a wild sort of terror in it ; and to 
make it yet more warlike they tie it on with the tail of a panther, buftalo, or such like, 
letting the end hang down between their legs. The pricked lines on his shoulders, breast, 
and legs, represent the figures painted thereon. In his left hand he holds a bow, and in 
his right an arrow. The mark upon his shoulder-blade, is a distinction used by the 
Indians in travelling, to show the nation they are ot' — and perhaps is the same with 
that which Baron Lahontan calls the arms and heraldry of the Indians. Thus, the 
several lettered marks are used by several other nations about Virginia, when they make 
a journey to their friends and allies. 

The habit of the Indian priest, is a cloak made in the form of a woman's petticoat ; 
but instead of tying it about their middle, they fasten the gatherings about their neck, 
and tie it upon the right shoulder, always keeping one arm out to use upon occasion. 
This cloak hangs even at the bottom, but reaches no lower than the middle of the 
thiah ; but what is most particular in it is, that it is constantly made out of a skin dress;'d 
soft, with the pelt or fur on the outside, and reversed ; insonmch that when the cloak 
has been a little worn, the hair falls down in flakes, and looks very shagged and 
frightful. 

The cut of their hair is likewise peculiar to their function ; for 'tis all shaved close, 
except a thin crest, like a cock's comb, which stands bristlinsj up, and runs in a semi- 
circle from the forehead up along the crown to the nape of the neck. They likewise 
have a border of hair over the forehead, which, by its own natural strength, and by the 
stifl^ening it receives from grease and paint, will stand out like the peak of a bonnet. 

The face of the Indian, when Arrived at maturity, is a dark brown and chesnut. By a 
free use of bear's grease, and a continual exposure to the sun and weather, it becomes 
harder and darker. This, however, is not the natural complexion. In infancy they are 
much fairer.* Their hair is almost ^variably of a coal black, straight, and long : their 
cheek bones are hi<rh,and their eyes olack and full of a character of wildness and fero- 
city that mark their unappeasable thirst of vengeance, and their free and uncontrolled in- 
dulgence of every fierce and violent passion. But the education of an Indian, which com. 
mences almost with his birth, teaches him that dissimulation, which masks the thought 
and smootlis the countenance, is the most useful of virtues ; and there is a continual etlort 
to check the fierce sallies of the eye, and keep down the consuming rage of his bo.som. 
His eye, therefore, is generally averted or bent downwards. The terrible complacency 
of the tiger is no inapt illustration of an Indian visage. 

The fisjure of an Indian is admirably proportioned beyond any thing that has hitherto 
been seen of the human form. Tall, straijrht ; their muscles hardened by the contiimal 
action of the weather ; their limbs supjde by exercise, and perhaps by the use of oil, they 



• " They are very swarthy," Says Charlevoix, speaking of the Canadians, " and of a 
dirty dark red. But this is not tlieir natural complexion. The frequent frictions they 
use give them this red, and it is surprising that they are not blacker : being continually 
exposed to the smoke in winter, to the great heat in summer, and in all seasons to the 
inclemencies of the air." 

18 



138 



MISCELLANIES. 



outstrip the bear, and run clown the buck and the elk. No such thing is to be found as a 
dwarfish, crooked, bandylegored, or otherwise misshapen Indian. 

The power and qualities of their minds are such as we should expect from their state 
of society. In a state of nature the mind of man differs but little from the animals 
around liim. Occupied in supplying his wants or gratifying his resentments, he has but 
little time or inclination for the labors of calculation or the refinements of abstraction. 
The sensible objects with which he is most conversant, impress themselves on his memory 
in the order and degrees of their importance ; but their classification, and the faculty 
of generalizing them by an idea and term that shall take in all the particulars and 
classes, are th« result of deep thought and intense reflection. For this, leisure and ap- 
plication are necessary. But the time of the Indian, after returning successful from the 
chase, or victorious from tlie battle, is too valuable to be employed in such trifles. His 
duty it is to spread tlic feast ; to hear 'the praises of the old men, and the congratula- 
tions of tiie women ; to attend the great coinicil of the nation, and to sing the history of 
his own exploits. If any time remain after discharging those duties, he exercises him- 
self in shooting the arrow or throwing the tomahawk ; or stretched at length along the 
grass, enjoys that luxury of indolence which constitutes the supreme blessing of hi§ ex- 
istence. 

The idea of numbers is, therefore, very limited among the tribes. Some of them can 
reckon a thousand, while others cannot exceed ten ; to ex-press any greater number they 
are compelled to resort to something indefinite. As numerous as the pigeons in the 
woods, or tlie stars in the heavens, is a mode of expression for any greater number. For 
the same reason, their language has no term for the abstract ideas of time, space, univer- 
sal, &c. There is, however, a conjecture, which, if true, will prove that the Indians of 
Virginia had a more copious arithmetic. It is suggested that Tomocomoco or Uttomac- 
comac was sent to England by Powhatan, for the purpose of procuring an exact account 
of the number of tiic people of England. Tomocomoco made the attempt till his arith- 
metic failed ; but before he would be sent on such an errand, he must have been able to 
reckon the Powhatans, and these, according even to the lowest estimates, amounted to 
eight thousand. 

It has been said that the Indian is the most improvident of animals ; that, satisfied 
with his present enjoyments, he wastes no thought on the morrow, and that repeated 
calamities have added nothing to his care or foresight. This may have been true of 
some of the tribes in South America, or in the islands. The North American, and more 
especially the Virginian, always had their public stock hoarded. Powhatan and the 
other sachems carried on a continual trade with the first colonists for corn, and we find 
that Raleigh, Baltimore, and Penn, derived their principal support from similar sources. 
But the quantity of labor and industry required for raising this superfluity was compara- 
tively nothing. A few did not, as in established societies, work for the support of the 
whole, and lor the purpose of enabling the rich to vend their surplus commodities in for- 
eign markets. Here every man labored for himself, or for the common stock, and a few 
days in every year were sufficient for the maintenance of each man, and by conse- 
quence, of all the members of the tribe. 

The Indians of Virginia have no written laws, but their customs, handed down from 
age to age in the traditions of their old men, have all the force of the best-defined and 
positive institutions. Nor is this respect acquired by the fear of punishment. The 
aborigines of Virginia, whatever may be pretended, enjoyed complete freedom. Their 
sachems made their own tools and instruments of husbandry. They worked in the 
ground in common with the other Indians. They could enter into no measure of a pub- 
lic nature without the concurrence of the -raatchacomoco or grand council ; and even 
after this body had decided on the merits of the question, the consent of the people at 
large was necessary to sanction their proceedings. If the voice of this council be in 
favor of war, the young men express their approbation by painting themselves of various 
colors, so as to render their appearance horrible to their enemies. In this state they 
rush luriously into the council-: they begin the war dance, accompanying their steps 
with fierce gestures, expressive oi their thirst of vengeance ; and describing the mode in 
which they will surprise, wound, kill, and scalp their enemies. After this they sing 
their own glories; they recount the exploits of their ancestors, and the ancient glories of 
iheir nation. ' '. 

The Indian festival dance, says Beverly, is performed by the "dancers themselves 
forming a ring, and moving round a circle of carved posts, that are set up for that pur- 
pose ; or else round a fir(>,. luade in a convenient part of the town ; and then each has 
J)is rattle in his hand, or whal. other thing he fancies niost, as his bow and arrows, or his 
tomahawk. They also dress themselves up with branches of trees, or son)e other strange 



MISCELLAXir.S. 



139 



accoutrements. Thus tliey proerocl, dancin<r and sintrinir, with all the antic posturci 
they can invent ; and he is the bravest fellow that has the most proditjious gestures." 




Indian Festival Dance 

Wlien any matter is proposed in the national council, it is common for the chiefs of 
the several tribes to consult thereon apart with their counsellors, and when they have 
atrreed, to deliver the opinion of the tribe at the national council, and as their govern- 
ment seems to rest wholly on persuasion, they endeavor, by mutual concessions, to obtain 
unanimity. Their only controls are their manners and their moral sense of right and 
wrong, which, like tasting*and snjelling, in every man makes part of his nature. 

An offence against these is punished by contempt, by exclusion from society, or when 
the case is serious, as in murdeq, by the individuals whom it concerns. 

The Indians of Virginia had no idea of distinct and exclusive propf^rty ; the laiuls were 
in common, and every man had a right to choose or abandon his situation at pleasnre. 
Their mode of computation, as with us, was by units, tens, and hundreds. There is no 
liijht on the records by which we may discover its limits or extent. Analogy at^brds no 
helps on this occasion. The Iroquois could reckon a thousand, wiiile other tribes, al- 
most in their neighborhood, could count no further than ten. 

They reckon their years by winters, or cohonks, as they call them, which was a name 
taken from the note of the wild ofeese, intimating so many times of the wild geese com- 
ing to them, which is every winter. 

They distinguish the several parts of the year by live seasons, vi/.. : th<' building or 
blossoming of the spring ; the earing of the corn, or roasting ear Umc ; the summer, or 
highest sun ; the corn-gatlu'ring, or fall of the leaf ; and the winter, or mlionkn. 

They count the nionths by the moons, though nf)t with any relation to so many in a 
year as we do ; but they make them return again by the same luune, as the moon of 
stags, the corn moon, the first and second moon of cohonks.'' 

They have no distinction of the hours of the day, but divide it only into three parts, 
the rise, the power, and lowering of the sun ; and they keep their accounts by knots on 
a string, or notches on a stick, not urdike the IVruvian Quippoes. 

If we believe the accounts of Smith and Beverly, the Indians of Virginia were grossly 
superstitious, and even idolatrous. Tlu* annexed engravinof is a representatioti of their 
idol Okcp, Qitinrrna. or Kiiraf^n, copied from one in Beverly's History. "They do not 
look upon it as one single being, but reckon there are m itiy of the same nature ; they 
likewise believe that there are tutelar deities in every town." 

Altliongh they have no set days for performing th'- rites of religion, thev have a num- 
ber of festivals, which are celeljrated with the ntniot;t festivity. They solenmize a day 
for the plentiful coming of their wild fowl, such as geese, ducks, teal, ifcc. : for the re- 
turns of their hunting seasons ; and for the ripening of certain fruits. But the greatest 
annual festival they have is at the time of th< ir corn-jjathering, at which thev revel 
several days together. To these they universally contribute, as they do to the gathering 
of the corn: On this oceasion tli»'y liave their great(>st variefv of pastimes, and more 
especially of their war dances and heroic Muigs; in which ihcy boast that their corn 
beinir now oathered, they have store cnougli for their women and cliildren, and huvw 
nothmg to do but go to war, travel, and to seek for new advcnturee. 



140 



MISCELLANIES. 



There is a second annual festival, conducted with still greater solemnity. It com- 
mences with a fast, which exceeds any thing of abstinence known among the most mor- 
tified hermits. This fast is succeeded by a feast. The old fire is put out, and a new fire, 
called the drill fire, elicited by the friction of two pieces of wood. They sprinkle sand 
on the hearths, and, to make the lustration complete, an emetic is taken by the whole 
nation. At this meeting all crimes, except murder, are pardoned, and the bare mention 
of them afterwards is considered as disreputable. At the close of this festival, which 
continues four days, a funeral procession commences, the signification of which is that 
thay bury all the past in oblivion, and the criminals having tasted of the decoction of 
casina, are permitted to sit down by the men they have injured. 

The ceremony of huskanawing returns after an interval of fourteen or sixteen years, 
or more frequently, as the young men happen to arrive at maturity. This is intended 
as a state of probation, prepHratory to their being initiated into the class of warriors and 
counsellors. The candidates are first taken into the thickest part of the forest, and kept 
in close and solitary confinement for several months, with scarcely any sustenance 
besides an infusion or decoction of some intoxicating roots. This diet, added to the 
severity of the discipline, invariably induces madness, and the fit is protracted for 
eighteen days. During the paroxysms they are shut up in a strong enclosure, called an 
huskanaw pen, " one of which," says Beverly, " I saw belonging to the Pamaunkie 
Indians, in the year 1694. It was in shape like a sugar-leaf, and every way open like 
a lattice for the air to pass through." When their doctors suppose they have drunk a 




Indian Idul. 

sufficient portion of the intoxicating juice, they gradually restore them to their senses by 
lessening the quantity of the potion, and before they recover their senses they are 
brought back to the town. This process is intended to operate like Lethe on their mem- 
ory : " To release the youth from all their childish impressions, and from that strong 
partiality to persons and things which is contracted before reason takes place. So that 
when the young men come to themselves again, their reason may act freely without be- 
ing biased by tlie cheats of custom and education. Thus they also become discharged 
from any tics by blood ; and are established in a state of equality and perfect freedom, to 
order their actions and dispose of their persons as they think proper, without any other 
control than the law of nature." 

Marriage, or the union of husband and wife, stood precisely on the same footing as 
among the other American tribes. A man might keep as many wives as he could 
support : but in general they had but one, whom, without being obliged to assign any 
reason, they might at any time abandon, and immediately form a new engagement. 
The rights of the woman are the same, with tliis difference, that she cannot marry 
again until the next annual festival. 



MISCELLAN'IES. 



141 



Courtship was short, and, like their in;irria{re, unenihnrrasspd by corrniony. If the 
presents of a youner warrior are accepted by his mistress, she is considered as havin(r 
ag[rccd to become his wife, and without any further explanations to her fatnily, she poes 
home to his hut. The principles that arc to reg;ulate tlieir future conduct are well und.-r- 
stood. He agrees to perform the more laborious duties of huntings and tishinfj ; of fidliufj 
the tree, erectino^ the hut. coustrurtiu«r the canoe, and of fijjhtiu!; the enemies of the 
tribe. To Ijit, custom had assiiriu>d aluiost all tiie domestic duties ; to prepare the food ; 
to watch over the infancy of tlie cliildreu. The nature of their lives and eireunistauces 
added anotljer, which, with more propriety, takinjj in a p^eneral view, should Ijave been 
exercised bv the male. It belouired to the women to plant the corn, and attend all the 
other productions of an Indian ijarden or plantation. But the labor required for raising 
these articles was tritlinor. and the warriors, beiuir engajjed in huntinir and war, had 
neither leisure nor inclination to attend to objects of such inferior consideration. 

To compeusale for this secminj; hardship or nen^lect, the women had .several valuable 
privileges, that prove their importance, and the respect entertained for them by the 
men. All the honors of an Indian community arc maternal, and the children, in the 
event of a separation, belono^ to the wife. The husband is considered only as a visitor; 
and, should any diflerence arise, he takes up his gun and departs. Nor does this sepa- 
ration entail any disgrace upon tlie parties. 

If any credit be due to the accounts of our early historians, the women in the Pow- 
hatan confederacy had considerable weight. Some of the tribes had even fen)ale 
sachems, a regulation which could not have been tolerated by freemen and warriors, if, 
as has been imagined by some historians, they had been regarded only as objects of con- 
tempt and ill-usage. What agitation and sorrow were not excited by the death of Poca- 
Jiontas, and how anxious the infjuiries of her family respecting her health and her feel- 
ings, her content and iier return 1 

It was no uncommon spectacle to sec groups of young women, almost naked, frisking 
with wanton mode.'>ty in the wild gambols of the dance. Even the decent Pocahontas 
did not disdain to mingle iu those pastimes. Crowned' with a wreath of leaves and 
flowers, she sometimes led the chorus and presided in the dance. Nor should this be 
regarded as a deviation from the rules of modesty and innocence. They acted agreeably 
to the usage of-their country and the dictates of nature. Every object inspired happi- 
ness and content, and their only care was to crowd as many pleasures as possible into 
tlie short span of a fleeting existence. 

The following summary account of the Indians in Virginia, as they were about the 
year 1700, is from Beverly's History of Virginia. 

The Indians of Virginia, east of the Blue Ridge, are almost wasted, but such towns 
or people as retain their names and live in bodies, arc hereunder set down ; all which 
together cannot raise five hundred tigiiting men. They live poorly, and much in fear of 
the neighboring Indians. Each town, by the articles of peace, I(j77, pays three Indian 
arrows for their land, and twenty beaver-skins for protection, every year. 

In .\ccnmack are eight towns, viz : .Matomkin is much decreased of late by the small- 
pox, that was carried thither. Gingotcque ; the few remains of this town are joined 
with a nation of the Maryland Indians. Kiequntank is reduced to. a very few men. 
IMatchopungo has a small number yet living. Occahanock has a small number yet 
living. Pungoteque ; governed by a queen, but a small nation. Oanancock has but 
four or five families. Chiconesscx has very few, who just keep the name. Nanduye : 
a seat of the empress ; not above twenty families, but she hath all the nations of the 
shore under tribute. In Northampton, (iangascoe, which is almost as numerous as all 
the foregoing nations put together. In Prince George, \Vyanf)ke is extinct. In Charles 
City, Appamattox, extinct. In Surry, Nottaways, which are about a hundred bowmen, 
of late a thriving and increasing people. By Nansamond : .Meuheering, has about 
thirty bowmen, who keep at a stand. Nansamond: about thirty bowmen: they 
have increased much of late. In King William's county, Pamunkic has about forty 
bowmen, who decrease. Chickahomonie, which had about sixteen bowmen, but lately 
increased. In Essex: Rappahannock, extinct. In Richmond: Port Tabago, extinct. 
In Northumberland : Wiccomocco has but few men living, which yet keep up their 
kingdom, and retain their fashion ; yet live by themselves, separate from all other In- 
dians, and from the English. 



142 



MISCELL.\NIES. 



The following able article, from Tucker's Life of Jefferson, relates to the " Abolition 
of Entails. — Primogeniture. — Their effects considered. — Church establishment in Vir- 
ginia — its gradual aboHtion. — Entire freedom of religion." 

On the 11th of October, 1776, three days after Mr. Jefferson had taken his seat in 
the legislature, he brought in a bill for the establishment of Courts of Justice, which 
was subsequently approved by the House and passed. Three days afterwards, he intro- 
duced a bill to convert estates in tail into fee-simple. This, he avows, was a blow at 
the aristocracy of Virginia. 

In that colony, in the earlier periods of its history, large grants of land had been ob- 
tained from the crown by a few favored individuals, which had been preserved in their 
families by means of entails, so as to have formed, by degrees, a patrician class among 
the colonists. These modes of continuing the same estates in the same family, found a 
protection here which they could not obtain in the mother country ; for, by an act passed 
in the year 1705, the practice of docking entails, which had previously prevailed in 
Virginia as in England, was expressly prohibited ; and whenever the peculiar exigen- 
cies of a family made it necessary that this restraint or alienation should be done away, 
it could be effected only by a special act of Assembly. ^ 

The class which thus piovided for the perpetuation of its wealth, also monopolized 
the civil honors of the colony. The counsellors of the state were selected from it, by 
reason of which the whole body commonly had a strong bias in favor of the crown, in 
all questions between popular right and regal prerogative. It is but an act of justice to 
this class to state, that althoug-h some of them might have been timid and hesitating in 
the dispute with the mother country — disposed to drain the cup of conciliation to the 
dregs — yet, others were among the foremost in patriotic self-devotion and generous sac- 
rifices ; and there was but a small proportion of them who were actually tories, as those 
who sided with (ireat Britain were then denominated. 

Mr. Jefferson was probably influenced less by a regard to the conduct of the wealthy 
families in the contest, than by the general reason which he thus gives : " To annul 
this privilege, and instead of an aristocracy of wealth, of more harm and danger than 
benefit to society, to make an opening for the aristocracy of virtue and talent, which 
nature has wisely provided for the direction of the interests of society, and scattered 
with an equal hand through all its conditions, was deemed essential to a well-ordered 
republic." 

The repeal of this law was effected, not without a struggle. It was opposed by Mr. 
Pendleton, who, both from age and temper, was cautious of innovation ; and who, find- 
ing some change inevitable, proposed to modify the law so far as to give to the tenant 
in tail the power of conveying in fee-simple. This would have left the entail in force, 
where the power of abolishing it was not exercised ; and he was within a few votes of 
saving so much of the old law. 

This law, and another subsequently introduced by Mr. Jefferson, to abolish the prefer- 
ence given to the male sex, and to the first-born, under the English common law, have 
effectually answered their intended purpose of destroying the gross inequality of for- 
tunes which formerly prevailed in Virginia. They have not merely altered the distribution 
of that part of the landed property, which is transmitted to surviving relatives by the 
silent operation of the law, but they have also operated on public opinion, so as to influ- 
ence the testamentary disposition of it by the proprietors, without which last effect the 
purpose of the Legislature might have been readily defeated. The cases are now very 
rare, in which a parent makes, by his will, a much more unequal distribution of his pro- 
perty among his children than the law itself' would make. It is thus that laws, them- 
selves the creatures of public opinion, often powerfully react on it. 

The effects of this change in the distribution of property are very visible. There is 
no longer a class of persons possessed of large inherited estates, who, in a luxurious and 
ostentatious style of living, greatly exceed the rest of the community; a much larger 
number of those who are wealthy, have acquired their estates by their own talents or 
enterprise ; and most of these last are commonly content with reaching the average of 
that more moderate standard of expense which public opinion requires, rather than the 
higher scale which it tolerates.* 

Thus, there were formerly many in Virginia who drove a coach and six, and nov/ 



* A large portion of the matter on this page was appropriated by Lord Brougliamj 
in his Miscellanies, without any acknowledgment whatsoever. 



MISCELLANIES. 



143 



yiich an pqiiipap^e is nevor seen. There were, probably, twice or three tiincs as many 
four-horse carriajrcs before the revolution, as there are at present ; but the number uf 
two-horse carriajjes may now be ten, or even twenty times as great, as at the former 
period. A few families, too, could boast of more })late than can now be met with ; but 
the whole quantity in the country has now increased twenty, if not fifty fold. 

Some nice but querulous observers, have thoii<rhl that they perceived a corres{)ondent 
chauire in the manners and iiitellectMal cultivation of the two periods; and. while they 
admit that the mass of the people maybe less frross, and more infellifrcnt than the back- 
woodsman, the tobacco-rollcr,* or the rustic population generally under the regal govern- 
ment, yet they insist that we have now no such cl;iss as that which formerly constituted 
the Virginia gentlenjanof chivalrous honor and polished manners — at once high-minded, 
liberal, delicate, and munificent; and that as to mental cultivation, our best educated 
men of the present day cannot compare with the Lees, the Randolphs, the Jcffcrsons, 
Pcndletons, and Wythes, of that period. 

Tliis comparison, however, cannot easily be made with fairness; for there are few 
who have lived long enough to compare the two periods, and those few are liable to be 
biased on one side or the other, according to their early predilections and peculiar 
tastes. But apart from these individual influences, there is a general one to which we 
are all exposed. Time throws a mellow light over our recollections of the past, by 
which their beauties acquire a more touching softness, and their harsher parts are thrown 
into shade. Who that consults his reason can believe, if those scenes of his early days, 
to which he most fondly looks back, were again placed before him, that he would again 
see them such as memory depicts them ' His more discriminating eye, and his less 
e.xcitablc sensibility, would now see faults wliich then escaped his inexperience, and he 
would look tranquilly, if not with indilierence, on what had once produced an intoxica- 
tion of delight. Yet such is the comparison which every one must make between the 
men and things of his early and his later life; and the traditionary accounts of a yet 
earlier period arc liable to the same objection, for they all originate with those who de- 
scribe what they remember, rather than what they actually observed. We must, there- 
fore, make a liberal allowance for this common illusion, when we are told of the superior 
virtues and accomplishments of our ancestors. 

The intellectual comparison may be more satisfactorily made. Wiiile it is admitted 
that Virginia could, at the breaking out of the Revolution, boast of men that could hold 
a respectable rank in any society ; yet, after making allowance for the spirit-stirring 
occasion, which then called forth all their talent^i and faculties, there seems to be no 
reason to suppose that there is any inferiority in the present generation. It must be re- 
collected, that by the more general difiusion of the benefits of education, and the con 
tinned advancement of mental culture, wc have a higher standard of excellence in the 
present day than formerly, and in the progressive improvement which our country has 
experienced in this particular, the intellectual etibrts which in one generation confer dis- 
tinction, would in that which succeeds it scarcely attract notice. It may be safely said, 
that a well-written newspaper essay would then have conferred celebrity on its author, 
and a pamphlet would then have been regarded as great an achievement in letters as an 
octavo volume at present. Nor does there pass any session of the legislature, without 
calling forth reports and speeches, which exhibit a degree of ability and political infor- 
mation, that would, forty years ago, have made the author's name reverberate from one 
end of British America to the other. The supposed effect of this change in the distri- 
bution of propertv, in deteriorating manners, and lowering the standard of intellectual 
merit, may then well be called in question. 

Another law, materially atlectlng the polity of the state, and the condition of so- 
ciety, owes its origin in part to .Mr. Jeiierson. This was the act to abolish the church 
establishment, and to put all religious sects on a footing. The means of effecting this 
change were very simple. They were merely to declare that no man should be com- 
pelled to support any preacher, but should be free to choose his sect, and to regulate his 
contribution for the support of that sect at pleasure. 

From the first settlement of Virginia, the Church of England had been established 

* The tobacco was formerly not transported in wagons, as at present, but by a much 
simpler process. The hogshead, in which it was packed, had a wooden pin driven into 
each head, to which were adjusted a pair of rude shafts, and thus, in the way of a gar- 
den roller it was drawn to niarket by horses. Those who followed this busines of to- 
bacco-rolling, formed a class by themselves — hardy, reckless, proverbially rude, and 
often indulging in coar.se humor at the expense of the traveller who chanced to be well- 
dressed, or ridnig iu a carriage. 



144 



MISCELLANIES. 



in the colony. The inhabited parts were laid off into parishes, in each of which was a 
minister, who had a fixed salary in tobacco, together with a glebe and a parsonage 
house. There was a general assessment on all the inhabitants, to meet the expenses. 
Mr. Jefferson thus explains the success of rival sects : — 

" In process of time, however, other sectarisms were introduced, chiefly of the Pres- 
byterian family ; and the established clergy, secure for life in their glebes and salaries, 
adding to these generally the emoluments of a classical school, found employment 
enough in their farms and school rooms for the rest of the week, and devoted Sunday 
only for the edification of their flock, by service and a sermon, at their parish church. 
Their other pastoral functions were little attended to. Against this inactivity, the zeal 
and industry of sectarian preachers had an open and undisputed field ; and by the time 
of the Revolution, a majority* of the inhabitants had become dissenters from the estab- 
lished church, but were still obliged to pay contributions to support the pastors of the 
minority. This unrighteous compulsion, to maintain teacliers of what they deemed 
religious errors, was grievously felt during the regal government and without a hope of 
relief." 

The successive steps by which an institution, which was deeply rooted in the affec- 
tions of many of the principal citizens, was deprived of its power and property, without 
disturbing the public tranquillity, may be not unworthy of notice. 

In the bill of rights whicli was drawn by George Mason^ June 12, 1776, the principle 
of religious freedom is distinctly asserted in the last article, which declares, " that reli- 
gion, or the duty which we owe to our Creator, and the manner of discharging it, can 
only be directed by reason and conviction, not by force or violence ; and, therefore, all 
men are equally entitled to the free exercise of religion, according to the dictates of con- 
science." But the constitution itself, passed June 29th, is silent on the subject of reli- 
gion, except that it renders " all ministers of the Gospel" incapable of being members of 
either House of Assembly, or of the Executive Council. 

At the first session of the legislature, in the same year, under the new constitution, 
numerous petitions were received for abolishing the general assessment for the estab- 
lished church ; and at this session, Mr. Jefferson drafted and supported a law for the 
relief of the dissenters, which, he says, brought on the severest contests in which he 
was ever engaged. Here, too, he encountered the formidable opposition of Mr. Pendle- 
ton and Mr. R. C. Nicholas, both zealous churchmen. The bill finally passed, but 
modified by its opponents. It declared all acts of Parliament, which proscribe or punish 
the maintenance of any opinions in matters of religion, the forbearing to repair to 
church, or the exercising any mode of worship whatsoever, to be of no validity within 
the commonwealth ; it exempts dissenters from all contributions for the support of the 
established church ; and, as this exemption might in some places make the support of 
the clergy too burdensome on the members of the church, it suspends, until the end of 
the succeeding session, all acts which provide salaries for the clergy, (except as to ar- 
rears then due,) and leaves them to voluntary contributions. But, at the same time, it 
reserves to the established church its glebe lands and other property, and it defers " to 
the discussion and final determination of a future Assembly," the question, whether 
every one should not be subjected by law to a general assessment for the support of the 
pastor of his choice ; or, " every religious society should be left to voluntary contribu- 
tions." The church party had previously succeeded so far as to obtain a declaration in 
committee, " that rehgious assemblies ought to be regulated, and that provision ought to 
be made for continuing the succession of the clergy, and superintending their conduct." 

In the following years, the question of providing for the ministers of religion by law, 
or leaving it to individual contributions, was renewed ; but the advocates of the latter 
plan were only able to obtain, at each session, a suspension of those laws which pro- 
vided salaries for the clergy — the natural progress in favor of liberal sentiments being 
counterbalanced by the fact, that some of the dissenting sects, with the exception of 
the Ba{)tists, satisfied with having been relieved from a tax which they felt to be both 
unjust and degrading, had no objection to a general assessment; and, on this question, 
voted with the friends of the church. But the advocates of religious freedom finally 
prevailed, and after five suspending acts, the laws for the support of the clergy were, at 
the second session of 1779, unconditionally repealed. And although Mr. Jefferson was 
not then a member of the legislature, it is probable that his influence, as governor of 
the commonwealth, was sufficiently exerted towards its repeal. But to protect the 
rights of conscience, it was not deemed enough to remove past injustice, it was thought 
also prudent to prevent its recurrence. Among the bills, therefore, reported by I le re- 



* This probably greatly overrates their number. 



MiSCELLAMF.g. 



145 



risers, was thr colobratcd act of rpliirious frrodoin, drawn by Mr. Jcffrrson : which not 
merely reasserts the principles of reIi<rioiis liberty contained in the bill of righU*, but aims 
to g'we Iheni permanence, by an argument equally clear, simple, and conclusive. 

This bill, with many others, was not acted upon by the K';.nsl iture for several years ; 
but in the mean time, the friends of \he Episcopal church prepared to make one more 
effort to recover a portion of its ancient privilcijes, by a greneral assessment. Their first 
object was to ^ct an act of incorporation lor the church, to enable it the bitter to retain 
and dtfend the larjre property it held, as well as to facilitate further acquisitions. A re- 
solutidn havinjr passed by a large majority, in favor of iiicorporatinjr *' all societies of 
the Christie religion" which desired it, leave was immediately qIvvh to bring in a bill 
" to incorporate the Protestant Episcopal C'liurch,"' by which the minister and vestry 
in each paristi were made a body corporate, for holding and acquiring property, and re- 
gulating the concerns of the church, and which finally passed into a law. The plan of 
a general assessment met with more difficulty. The petitions which had been got up 
among the people gave it the show of popularity, and it received the jjowerful aid of 
Patrick Henry's elotiuence. Thus supported, it seemed likely to obtain a majf»rity. when 
those who were opposed to the measure on principle, for the purpose of gaining time, 
proposed to refer the matter to the people before the legislature acted u])on it, and they 
succeeded in postponing it. George Mason, George Nicholas, and others of this party, 
then proposed to ^Ir. Madison to prepare a remonstrance to the next legislature against 
the assessment, to be circulated through the state for signatures. This wa.s done, and 
the paper which he prepared exhibited the same candid, dispassionate, and forcible rea- 
soning, which had ever characterized the productions of his pen, convincing those who 
before doubted, so that there was a general disapprobation of the measure among all 
sects and parties ; and, at the next session, the table could scarcely hold the petitions 
and remonstrances against the proposed assessment. Such a manifestation of the pub- 
lic will was not to be resisted. The measure was abandoned, and Mr. Jefferson's bill, 
with some slight alterations, was then passed without difficulty. 

To conclude this history of religious establishments in Virginia : the law could not 
fairly claim the praise of impartiality, so long as a single church had the benefits of in- 
corporation ; and the injustice was the greater, if, as the other sects maintained, most 
of the large property it held it owed to the public bounty. In two years afterwards the 
act allowing religious incorporations was repealed, but with a saving to all religious so- 
cieties of the property they possessed, with the right of appointing trustees for its man- 
agement. In 1799, all tliesc laws, as well as those made for the benefit of the dis- 
senters and the church, were repealed, as inconsistent with the bill of rights and the 
])rinciples of religious freedom ; and lastly, in 1801, the overseers of the poor in each 
county were authorized to sell all its glebe lands, as soon as they shall become vacant 
by the death or the removal of the incumbent for the time ; but reserving, the rights of 
all private donations before 1777. By the execution of this act, the last vestige of lega) 
privilege which this church had over other sects, was completely eradicated. 



LISTS OF VIRGINIANS WHO HAVE HELD HIGH PUBLIC STATIONS, 

List of Governors of the Slaie of Virginia. 



June 29, 1776- . . . Patrick Henr^-. 
" 1, 1779 .... Thomas JetTerson. 
" 12, 1781.... Thoma.s Nelson. 

Nov. 30, 17R1 Benj. Harrison. 

Dec, 1784 Patrick Henn*. 

17f<6 Edmund Ranilolph. 

" 17^18 Beverley Randolph. 

" 1791....Henn- 

1794.... Rol)eri Brooke. 
" 17%. .. .James Wood. 

" 1799 James Monroe. 

" 1802... .John Page. 
•' 180.1.... \Vm. H. Cabell. 
" 1808 ... John Tvler. 
Jan- 4, 181 1 ... . James Stonroe. 
Dec. 5, 1811... Geo. \V. Smith, burnt in the thea- 
tre, Dec. 26. 
Jjin. 3, 1812. . . . J-imes B ubour. 
Dec, 18l4....WiLon Carey .Nicholas 

I 



Dec, 1816 James P. Preston. 

" 1819 Thomas M. Randolph. 

" 1822. .. . James Pleajiants. 

" l.-'2.'> Tolin Tyler, (late Pres. of U. S.) 

.March, 1>'27. • U iii. B. (;ilcs. 
'• 18.10.... John Fiovd. 
" 1834 .. . Littleton \V. Tazewell ; resided 
.10th .April. 1836. 
April, 1836....Wyndham Robertson, Lient.-Gov- 
ernor — actinji (Jovernor. 
March, 1837. ... David Campbell. 

" 1840 Thomas W. Clilmer ; resigned, 

March. 1841. 
" 1841.. ..John Rutherlord, I/ient.-GovernoT 
and nftinff (Jovernor. 

1842 John M. (Jreirnry. Lirut.-GovemoT 

and acting (Governor. 
Jan., 1843 .. . James McDowell. 



146 



MISCELLANIES. 



The following are lists of Virginians who have held high public stations tinder the general govern- 
ment. They are complete only lo the year 1842. 

Presidents of the United States. — George Washington, elected 1789 ; died Dec. 14, 1799, aged 67. 
Thoin is Jefferson, elected 1801 ; died July 4, 1826, aged 83. Jnmes Madison, elected 1809; died June 
28th, 1831), ■,'g'^d 84. James Monroe, elected 1817 ; died July 4, 1831, aged 72. William Henry Harrison, 
electefi in 1841 ; died April 4, 1841, nged fi8. John Tyler, 1841. 

Vice-Presidents of the United States— Thomas Jefferson, elected 1797. John Tyler, elected 1841. 

Secretaries of State.— Thoim^ Jefferson, 1789. Edmund Randolph, 1794; died Sept. 12, 1813. Joha 
Marsh'Ul, 1800; died July 6, 1835, aged 79. James Madison, 1801. James Monroe, 1811. Henry Clay, 
(born in Va..) 1825. Abel P. Upihur, 1843 ; died Feb. 28, 1844. John Forsyth, (born in Va.,) 1834 ; died 
Oct. 22, 1841, aged 61. 

Secretaries of War. — James Monroe, 1814. James Barbour, 1825 ; died June 8, 1842, aged 66. 
Secretaries of the JVa?;?/.— Abel P. Upshur, 1841. Thomas W. Gilmer, 1843; died Feb. 28, 1844. John 
Y. Mason, 1844. 

Mtorney--GeneraJ.s.—TAm\\nA Randolph, 1789. Charles Lee, 1795; died June 24, 1815, aged 58, 
William Wirt, (D. C.,) 1817 ; died Feb. 18, 1834, aged 61. Peter V. Daniel, appointed in 1833, but de 
clined. 

Chief-Justices of the Svpreme Court.— John Marshall, 1801 to 1835. 

Jissociata rfo.— John Bl iir, 1789 to 1796; died Amr. 31, 1800, aged 68. Bushrod Washington, 1798 to 
1829 ; died June 14, 1832. ajied 7:^ Thomas Todd, J807 to 1826 ; died Feb. 1826. Philip P. Barbour, 1836 
to 1841 ; died Feb. 25, lH4i, aped (30. Peter V. Daniel, 1841. 

Foreign Ministers. — James Monroe, Minister Plenipotentiary to Great Britain in 1803, 1806, and 1808. 
James Barbour, do. to do. in 1828. Andrew Stevenson, do. to do. in 1836. William Short, Charge de Af- 
faires to France in 1790. James Monroe, Minister Plenipotentiary to do. in 1794. Patrick Henry, Min. 
Plen. to do. in 1799; did ncrt accept. Wm. C. Rives, Min. Plen. and Egvoy Extraordinary to do. in 1829. 
Wm. Short, Blinister Resident in Spain, 1794. James Monroe, Min. Plen. to Spain, 1804. John Forsyth, 
(born in Va.,) Min. Plen. 1819. Hugh Nebon, Min. Plen. and En. Ex. to Spain, 1823. Wm. Short, Min. 
Res. to Netherlands, 1792. John Graham, Min. Plen. to Brazil, 1819. Thomas L. L. Brent, Charge de 
Affaires to do., 1825. Henry Clay, (born in Va.,) to Prussia, 1823. John Randolph, about 1831, Min. Plen. 
to Russia. Richard C. Anderson, Min. Plen. to Colombia, 1823. Wm. Boulware, Charg6 de Affaires 
Two Sicilies, 1841. Wm. Brent, Charge d' Affaires to Buenos Avres, 1844. Henry A. Wise, Minister to 
Brazil in 1844. Wm. M. Blackford, Charg6 d'Affaires to New'Grenada, 1842. Wm. Crump, Charg6 
d' Affaires to Chili, 1844. • 

U. S. Senators, from the adoption of the Constitution. — Wm. S. Archer, 1842 to 1847. James Barbour, 
1815 to 1825. Richard Brent, 1809 to 1815. John W. Eppes, 1817 to 1819 ; died Sept. 1830, aged 50. Wm. 
B. Giles, 1804 to 1816 ; died Dec. 8, 1830. William Grayson, 1789 to 1790 ; died March 12, 1790. Richard 
H. Lee, 1789 to 1792; died 19th June, 1794, aged 62. Benjamin Watkins Leigh, 1834 to 1838. A. T. 
Mason, 1815 to 1817 ; died 6th Feb. 1819, aged 33. James IMonroe, 1790 to 1794. Andrew Moore, 1804 to 
1809. Wilson C. Nicholas. 1799 to 1804 ; died 10th Oct. 1820. James Pleasants, 1819 to 1822. John Ran- 
dolph, 1825 to 1827 ; died 24th May. 1833, aged 60. William C. Rives, 1832 to 3834, 1836 to 1839, 1842 to 
1845. John T .ylor. about 1803. Henrv Tazewell, 1794" to 1799. Littleton W. Tazewell, 1824 to 1833. 
John Tyler, 1827 to 1836. Abraham B. Venable, 1803 to 1804 ; perished in the Richmond Theatre, 26th 
Dec. 1811. John Walker, 1790. 

Members of tlie Old Congress from 1774 to 1188, inclusive. — Thomas Adams, 1778 to 1780. John Banis- 
ter, 1778 to ]'779. Richard Bland, 1774 to 1776; died in 1778. Theodorick Bland, 1780 to 1783; died in 
1790, aged 48. Carter Braxton, 1776; died 1797, aged 61. Edward Carrington, 1785 to 1786; died 1810, 
aged 61. John Fit/.hugh, 1779 to 1780; died in 1809, aged 83. Wm. Grayson, 1784 to 1787. Cyrus Grif- 
fin, 1778 to 1781, 1787 to 1788; died in 1810. aged G2. Samuel Hardy, 1783 to 1785. John Harvie, 1778 to 
1779. Benjamin Harrison, 1774 to 1778: died in 1791. James Henry, 1780 to 1781 ; died in 1805. Pat- 
rick Henry, 1774 to 1776. Thomas Jefferson, 1775 to 1777, 1783 to 1785. Joseph Jones, 1777 to 1778, 1780 
lo 1783. Arthur I>ee, 1781 to 1784; died 14th Dec. 1782, aged 42. Francis L. Lee, 1775 to 1780; died 
1797, aged 63. Henry Lee, 1785 to 1788; died in 1818, aged 62. Richard H. Lee, 1774 to 1780, 1784 to 
1787 ; died in 1794, aged 62. James Madison, jr., 1780 to 1783, 1786 to 1788 : died in 1836. James Mercer, 
1779 to 1780. James Monroe, 1783 to 1786 ; died Julv 4,1831. Thomas Nelson, 1775 to 1777, 1779 to 
1780; died.fan. 4. ]789.aged Mann Page, 1777. Edmund Pendleton, 1774 to 1775 ; died in 1823, aged 
82. Edmund Randolph, 1779 to 1782 ; died in 1813. Peyton Randolph, 1774 to 1775 ; died 22d Oct. 1775, 
aged .52. Meriwether Smith, 1778 to 1782. George Washington, 1774 to 1775. George Wythe, 1775 to 
1777 ; died 6th June, 1806, aged 80. 

Members of the Convention from Va. ichich formed the Constitution of the United States. — John Blair, 
James Madison, Jr., George Mason, James M'Clurg, Edmund Randolph, George Washington, and George 
Wythe. Messrs. Mason, M'Clurg, Randolph, and Wythe, did not sign the constitution. 



List of members from 



Vir^nia, of the LT. S. House of Representatives, from the adoption of the Federal 
Constitution to the 4th of 3Iarch, 1845. 



Alexander, Mark 


1819-33 


Allen, John J. 


1833-35 


Allen, Robert 


1827-33 


Archer, Wm. S. 


S 1820-33 
} 1833-35 


Armstrong, Wm. 


182.5-33 


Atkinson, A. 


1843-45 


Austin, Archibald 


1817-19 


Baker, John 


1811-13 


Ball, Wm. L. 


3817-24 


Banks, Linn 


1837-43 


Barbour, John S. 


1823-33 


Barbour, Philip P. 


< 1814-25 
I 1827-30 


Barton, Richard W 


1841-43 
( 180.5-13 


Bassett, Burwell 


< 181. 5-1 i) 


( 1821-31 



Bayley, T. H. 
Barley, Thomas M. 
BeAle, J. M. H. 
Beirne, Andrew 
Bland, Theodore 
Rotts, John M. 
Bouldin, Thomas T. 
P.cmldin, J. W. 
Breckenridge, James 

Brent, Richard 

Browne, John 
Burwell, Wm. A. 
Cabell, Samuel J. 
C.iperton, Hugh 
Cary, George B. 
Chapman, A. A. 
Chiun, Joseph W 



1843 

1813-15 

1833-37 

1837-41 

1789-90 

1839-43 

1829-33 

1833-39 

1809-17 

1795-99 

1801-03 

1789-92 

1806-21 

1795-03 

1813-15 

1841-43 

1843 

1831-35 



Chilton, Samuel 
Claiborne, John 
Claiborne, Nathaniel H. 

Claiborne, Thomas 

iClark, Christopher 
jClay, Matthew 

Clopton, John 

Coke, Richard 

Coles, Isaac 

Coles, Walter 
;Col«ton, Edward 
'Crai2, Robert B. 
Craig. Robert 
Crump, John 
Davenport, Thomas 



1843 
1805-08 

1825- 37 
1793-99 
1801-05 
1804-06 
1797-13 
1795-99 
1801-16 
1829-33 
1789-91 
1793-97 
1835-45 
1817-19 
1829-33 
183.5-41 

1826- 27 
1825-35 



MISCELLANIES. 



!47 



Dawson. John 
Diultlrid«e, Philip 

Draper, Joseph 

Droni'ioole, Geo. C. 

Eguloston. John 

Eppes, Jolin \V. 

Estill. Henj imin 
Evaii-i, 'riiniuas 
Floyd. John 
Fullon, John H. 
(Jarlanil, P.ivid 
(■arl iiHl, Jnnies 
(JarnoU, Janiuii M. 
(Jarnet, Rolu-rt S. 
(iholson, Thoni K 
Ghoison, James II. 

Giles, VVm. B. 

Gihner, Thomas W 
(Josiflin. \Vm. L. 
Goode, S inuiel 
Goode. W.O. 
(Joodwin. Peterson 
Gordon, Win. V. 
Gray, Edwin 
Gr.-iy, Joiin C. 
Griffin, S imuel 
Grithn, Thomas 
Hancock, Georjie 
H irri-ion, Carter B. 
Harris, Wm. .V. 
Hawes. Aylett 
Hays, P imucl L. 
Heath, John 
Hill, John T. 
Holleman, Joel 
Holmes, 1) ivid 
Hopkins, (i. W. 
Hubard, Edm. \V. 
Hunaerford, John P. 
Hunter, R. M. T. 
Juckson, Edward B. 

Jackson, John George 

Johnson, James 

Johnson, Joseph 

Johnson, Chas. C. 
Jones, James 
Jones, John W 

Jones, Walter 

Kerr, John 



1797-M 

( lS30-:il, 

ih:i.V41 

179ri-()l 
\ 1803-1 1 

\ iHi:i-i.> 

1797-01 
lH17---n) 

iKi:}-:{5 

1H09-11 

],>i:r)-4i 

If^D.VO'.t 
1H17--J7 
1H08-U> 

S 1790-llH 
\ lS()l-(h» 
l?!41-43 
1H39 
1799-01 
1H41-43 
IHO-J-l-t 
]H-2!)-3.1 
1799-13 
lH-JO-i>l 
17H9-9.'> 

1793-97 
1793-!)9 
1S41-43 
lf^ll-i7 
lf'41-43 
1793-97 
183SM1 
1839-41 
1797-09 
HS3.> 
1841 ' 
1813-17 
1H37-43 
1820-23 
C 1795-97 
{ 1799-10 
( 1813-17 
1813-20 
{ 1823-27 
I 1835-41 
1831-3P 
1819-/3 
183.-)->i5 
{ 1797-99 
I 1H03-11 
1813-17 



I-ee, Henry 
I-ee. Kichard lUand 
Lettler, Isaac 
Loltwich, Jabez 
Lewis, Joseph 
Lewis, Wm. J. 
Love, John 
Lucas, Edward 

Lucas, Wm. F. 

Loyall, George 
Machir, James 
Madison, James 

.Mallory, Francis 

Marshall. John 
.Mason, John V. 
Mason, James M. 
.Maxwell, Lewis 
McC irly. Wm. M 
McConns, Wuj. 
.M'Cov, Wm. 
M'Kinley. Wm. 
.Mercer, Chas. Fenton 

.Moore, Andrew 

Moore, Thomas L. 
.Moore, S. McD. 
.Morean, Daniel 
Morgan, Wm. S. 
Morrow, "^ohn 
Xelson, lln<rh 
Nelson, Tllonias M. 
Nevel, Jo-ieiih 
New, Anth^oy 

Newton, Thomas 

Newton, W. 
Nicholas, Wilson Carey 
Nicholas, John 
Pa>;c, John 
Page, Robert 
Parker, Josiah 
Parker, Severn E. 
Patton, John M. 
Pennyhacker, L S. 
Pegr.im, John 
Pindall, James 
Pleasants, James 
Powell, Alfred H. 
Powell, Cuthbert 
Powell, Levin 
Preston, Francis 



Randolph, John 



1790-01 'Randolph, Thomas M. 
1789-9.) Kives, Francis E. 
iKJT-'Jii Kives, Williiim C. 

Roane, John 

1817-19' Roane, Jolm J. 

1807-1 II Roane, J, din T, 

183:j-37|R.. ,iie, Wm. H. 
5 183!Ml R..l)ert;nii, John 
\ 1843-45 Rutherlord. Rolx-rt 

1831-37 Samuel, (;reen II. 

1797-99 Shetiey , I ) m ie 1 

1789-97 Smith, Arlluir 
( 1837-39 Smith, IJallard 
} 1841-43 Smilli, John 

1799-00 Smith, Wm. 

Smyth, Alexander 

1827-33 Sleenrod, Lewis J. 
1839-41 j 

1833-.37! Stephenson, James 
1811-33] 

1810- 11 Steuart, .Archibald 
1817-39 Smart, Ale.t. 11. H. 

{ 1789-97 Stevenson, Andrew 
( 1803-04iStratton, John 

1820-23 Strother. George F. 

1833-35 Summers, Georjie W. 

1797-99 Swearingin, Thomas V 

183.5-39 Swoope, Jacob 

1805-091 

1811- "3 

lHlG-19 T'llialerro, John 
1793-9.51 

1793-05 Tate, Magnus 

J 1801-29 Taylor, Robert 

I 1831-33 Taylor, Wm. P. 
1843-45 Taylor, Wm. 
1807-09 Tazewell, Littleton W. 
1793-01 Thompson, Philip R. 
178'.M)7 Trezvant, James 
1799-(»1 Tricj:, Abram 
1789-01 Trice John 
1819-21 Tucker. Henry St. Gcorpe 1815-19 
1830-37 Tyler, John (late President 
1837-39 of U. S.) 181f)-21 
18].-^19 Venable, A. B. 1791-99 
1817-20 Walker, Francis 179:MJ5 
1811-19 White, Alexander 1789-93 
1825-27 White, Francis, 1813-15 
1841-43 Williams, Jared 1819-25 
1799-01 Wilson, Alexander 1804-09 
1793-97 Wilson, Edgar C. 1833-35 

{1799-13 Wilson. Thomas 1811-13 
181.5-17 Wise, Henry A. 1833-43 
1819-25, 
1827-29, 



1P03-07 
1K17-41 
1H2.3 -.x.) 
J IK2T-3I 
I ]f'3.-)-37 
1831 -;i3 
lH0<t-15 

i^^i.vn 
i7'.i:t-97 

l''39-41 
1H)9-17 
1^*21-25 
IH 1.5-21 
lHOl-15 
lH-21-27 
J lH|7-r, 
( 1827-30 
lKUt-45 
i lHi;j-(i5 
/ l^(l'.»-ll 
( 1K22-25 
H:t7-39 

].-n-i3 

1 -J 1-33 
lf^()l-03 
1 ,"^17-20 
1841-45 
l.-^li>-22 
l.-^09-ll 
r 18U1-03 
J lHll-13 
^ 1824-31 
[ 183.>-43 
181.5-17 
182.V27 
183:}-35 
1843 

1800- 01 

1801- 07 
18r>-31 
1797-09 
1797-04 



List of persons who hate lived 110 years and over. 

Place. When riiVd. Ag*. 

William M'Kim, Richmond, • 1^18 .... 130 

John de la SomeU 17tH) .... 1.30 

Wonder Booker, (a negro.) •• Prince Edward co. 1819 .... 126 

Eleanor Spicer, Accomac co 1773 121 

Charles Lauge, Campbell co. 1821 .... 121 

Charles Roberts Bullskin 1790 .... 116 

Philip Crull, Fairfax co 1813 .... 115 

Wm. Taylor, Pittsylvania co 1^..... 17m .... 114 

Frank, (a negro,) Wooilstock, . 1820 .... 114 

Alex. Berkley Charlotte to 1825 .... 114 

Priscilla Carmichael, Surry co 1H18 .... 113 

Sarah Carter, Petersburg, 1825 112 

Mrs. A. Berkley, Charlotte 18215 .... Ill 

VVm. Wootten,' 1773 .... Ill 

A negro, Richmond. 1818 1,30 

Mrs. Harrison Brunswick co. 1805 110 

John Cuffee, (a slave,) Norfolk, 1836 .... 120 

John, (a negro.) Wa-<hinirton, D. C 1838 115 

Gilbert, (a negro,) Augusta co 1844 ■ • • • 1 12 



MS 



MISCELLANIES. 



OBITUARY. 

Below are obituary notices, drawn from the Obituary in the American Almanac, 
of public individuals, natives and residents of Virginia and the District of Columbia, 
who have died within the last ten or twelve years. The perusal will create retrospec- 
tions, too often lost amid the engrossing scenes of the present, and the demands of the 
future. 

1832 

Oct. 13.— At Norfolk, John E. Holt, nearly twenty years mayor of that borough. 

Nov. 19. — At Washington city, aged 60, Philip Doddridge, a member of Congress, a distinguished 
lawyer, and one of the ablest men in the body of which he was a member. 

1833. 

Jan. 29.— At Warrenton, N. C, in his 64th year, John Hall, recently judge of the Supreme Court of 
N. Carolina. He was born in Staunton, Va., and when a young man removed to N. C. His life was 
pure, and his integrity unspotted. 

May 24. — At Philadelphia, aged 60, John Randolph of Roanoke. 

Nov. 17— At Columbus, S. C, aged about 90, Colonel Thomas Taylor. He was born in Amelia CO., 
Va., in 1743. He has been styled " the patriarch of the states-right party of South Carolina." 

Dec. 21. — At Twiford, in Westmoreland co., Va., in his 74th year, John P. Hungerford. He was an 
officer in the revolutionary war, and afterwards a member of Congress. 

1834. 

Feb. 11.— In the Capitol at Washington, Thomas Tyler Bouldin, M. C. Before he was elected a mem- 
ber of Congress, he had been a lawyer of high rank, an able and upright judge ; and he was highly 
respected for his integrity. 

Feb. 18. — At Wasliington city, in his 62d year, the Hon. William Wirt, the author of the Life .of 
Patrick Henry, and of the British Spy. 

April 13.— .\t Nor'olk, Gen. Robert B. Taylor, an eminent lawyer, and a judge of the General or 
District Court of Va. ; a man greatly respected, and much lamented. 

Oct. — At Petersburg, of cholera, aged about 48, Gen. William H. Brodnax, of Dinwiddle Co., Va., 
distinguished as a lawyer and a philanthropist, and for several years a very prominent member of the 
House of Delegates. He signalized himself in the debates on the abolition of slavery in 1831, advocating 
a gradual and cautious abolition ; and also, in opposition to the doctrines of President Jackson's Procla- 
mation of Dec, 1832. 

Near Monongahela, Va., aged 97, Col. John Evans ; a commander of a regiment of militia in the 
revolution, and a member of the convention that formed the first constitution. 

1835. 

March 2. — In Bath co.,Va., aged about 77, Gen. Samuel Blackburn, a soldier of the revolution, an 
eminent lawyer, and for many years a consjjicuous member of the legislature. At his death he libera- 
ted his slaves, forty-six in number, charging his estate with the e.xpense of transporting them to Liberia. 

April 7. — At Philadelphia, in his 73d year, .James Brown, who was born in Virginia in Oct. 1766. In 
1812, he was elected a member of the U. S. Senate from Louisiana, and in 1823 appointed minister to 
France. He was distinguished as a lawyer and a statesman. 

April 25. — Aged about 40, Jonathan P. Gushing, Presiilent of Hampden-Sidney College, which office 
he had held for fourteen years. He was born in New Hampshire. The institution over which he pre- 
sided was greatly indebted to his well-directed zeal, talents, and influence, and he was highly esteemed 
for his virtues. By his will he emancipated his slaves, sixty in number, providing amply for their 
jremoval to Liberia ; and also gave about $40,000 to establish schools in Albemarle, and the adjoining 
county 

May 13.— In Brunswick county, in his 84th year. Rev. Edward Dromgoole, father of the Hon. George 
C. Dromgoole ; a minister of the gospel sixty-three years, and a magistrate and member of the county 
court f(:.rty-five years. 

July 1. — At Richmond, in his 77th year, Maj. James Gibbon, collector of customs of the port of Rich- 
mond, and a gallant officer of the revolutionary army, known as "the hero of Stony-Point." Col. Gib- 
bon, on the 16ih of July, 1779, then a lieutenant, led one of the two " forlorn hopes," of twenty men, 
when <3en. Wayne carried the fortress of Stony-Point by storm. Of his twenty men, seventeen were 
killed or wounded. He was greatly respected and esteemed, and his remains were interred with the 
highest honors. 

July 6. — At Philadelphia, in his 80th year, John Marshall, Chief- Justice of the United States. 

June 28. — At Baltimore, Md., aged aI)OUt 50, of a fractured skull, from the tall of a chimney, Thomas 
Marshall, of Fauquier Co., the eldest son of Chief-Justice Marshall, being on a journey to attend the 
death-bed of his father. He graduated in Princeton in 1803; was distinguished as a scholar, a law- 
yer, and a niember of the legislature ; and was highly esteemed for his talents, his many virtues, and his 
exemplary and useful life. 

May 26.— At Columbia, S. C, aced 70, Gen. Francis Preston, of Washington Co., Va.. a member of 
Congress from 1793 to 1797, and father of the Hon. William C. Preston. 

Nov.— At Lexington, Va., George Baxter, a distinguished lawyer. 

Nov. — In Caroline co., aged about 48, John Dickenson, an eminent lawyer. 

Oct. 7.— In Alabama, Charles Tail, in his 68th year. He was born in Louisa county, but removed at an 
early age to Georuia, where he was, for several years, a judge of the Superior Court, and a senator in 
Congress, from 1809 to 1819. 

Dec. 3.— At Washington city, aged 47, Richard Wallack, a distinguished lawyer. 

1836. 

March 22.— At Washington, D. C, in his 82d year. Gen. Mountjoy Baily, an officer of the revolution. 
Jan. 28.— At yVhingdon, John H. Fulton, a respected member of the 23d" Congress. 

April 29.— In Logan co., Ohio, Gin. Simon Kenton, aged 82, a native of Virginia. He was a compan- 
ion of Col. Boone, in exploring the west, and in commencing its settlement, and he endured many hard- 
ships. 

March 25.— At Belmont, Loudon co., Va., age(J 76, I,y.dwdl l.ee, second son of Richard Henry Lee, a 
jgentleman highly respected. 



MISCELLANIES. 



149 



Nov. 9. — At his rr<!i(irnre, in Goochland ro., Vn., ap'd 07, Jnmrs PIrnsants, M. C. from IPll to 1819; 
U. S. Senator from 1819 to : governor of Virsiinia from l&i'l to lH"Jo, and ii iiicnilx r i>f the conven- 
tion for Irf-JIKIO, lor aniendmf; the slate constitution. He was twice a|i|Miintr(l tw the h<'iicli, Imt declined, 
from a distrust of his own qualifications. He was a man of rare modesty, greatly res|K.'cted and 
esteemed Inr pulilic and private virtues 

Oct. 10.— In Allieiiiarle co., Va., aged upwards of 70, Mrs. Martha Randolph, widow of Gov. Thomas 
M. R:indt>iph, and the last surviving daughter of Thomas Jelferson ; a lady distinguished for her talents 
and virtues. 

1837. 

Jan. 8. — At his seat in Culpeper co., aged 03, Dabney Carr, a judge of llie Virginia Court of .Ap- 
peals ; a man much res|)ecied and esu-emed for his amiable character, his Uilenls, learning, industry, 
solidity of mind, and uncouunonly line colloquial powers. 

.\ug. l(i.— At the Sweet Springs, Jvhn Floyd, M. C. from 1817 to 1819, and governor of Virginia from 
18-29 to 18:i4. 

.•\l)ril 1'2. — In Beaver co., Penn., Gen. Mner Lacock, in his 67th year. He was horn in Virginia, re- 
moved early in lite to Pennsylvania, and was, from 1813 to 1819, a member of the U. S. Senate. 

June -28, 183G.-.\t MontiK'lier, Orange co. Va. in his 86th year, James Madison, the 4th President of the 
United States. 

.March 18, 18;W).— In Albemarle, Vfi.Huffh jXclsov, formerly sjieaker of the House of Delegates, a judge 
of the (Jeneral Conn, a member o( Congress from 1811 to 1823, and afterwards U. S. Minister to Spain. 

June 3. — In Viririnia, in his .)3d ycur.. illen Tfly/or, judge of the General Court, 17th Circuit. 

Jan. 7.— At Needham, in his 7Uih year. Creed Taylor, late chancellor of the Richmond and Lynch 
burs District. 

Nov. '). — \<se6 57, David Brigirs, an eminent attorney, formerly mayor of Fredericksburg, and coun- 
sellor of state. 

Nov. -20. — At his father's residence, in Bedford co.. .John Thompson Brown, of Petersburg, Va., aced 
36. He was for several years a very distinguished member of the legislature, was rising rapidly at the 
bar. and was reL'arded as one of the most eminent uien of his age in the state. 

Oct. 7. — .At Vorktowa, aged 64, Major Thomas Griffin, second in command at the battle of Hampton, 
and .M. C. in 1803-.'). 

Nov. 30. 1836. — .At Bellegrove, jlfajor /j.-«flr an officer in the revolutionary war. 

Dec. 15. — At Gosport, in his 85lh year, Capt. .lohn Cor. who, early in the revolution, was commissioned 
as a captain in the naval service of Virginia, and was one of the most distinguished and etlicient patriots 
in the contest. 

Dec. '2. — In Goochland co., aged 62, Dr. .indrew Kcan, one of the most eminent physicians of Vir- 
ginia. 

Sept. 8. — In .Albemarie co., ajjed 85. Mrs. Lucy Marks, the mother of Meriwether Lewis, who, with 
William Clarke, e.xplored the Rocky .Mountains; a woman of unconunon energy and strength of mind. 

Sept. 19. — .\t Clinton, Fauquier co., aged 83, Capt. Hilliam Payne, who commanded the Falmouth 
Blues tor several years in the early part of the revolution ; and a company of volunteers at the siege 
of York town. 

July -22. — In Kanawha co., aged 71, Philip R. Thompson, M. C. from Virginia in 1801-7. 

1838. 

March 26. — In Missouri, Gen. JVUliam H. .Ishiey, first lieutenant-governor of that state, and a native 
of Pt)whatan co., Va. 

May 7. — .At Washington, D. C, .Abraham Bradley, for many years assistant postinaster-tieneral. 

Feb. 2. — In Stafford co., John CoitJter, formerly a judge of the Circuit Court and Court of .Appeals. 

Jan. 9. — .At Staunton, aged 36, John J. Craig, a man much respected ; distinguished for his uilents as 
a lawyer, and a member of the legislature. 

Feb. 6. — .At Charlotte, C. H., aged 40, J^ash Le Grand, for several years a member of the state 
council. 

Jan. 6. — .At Richmond, Va.. suddenly, aged about 35, Edward V. Sparhawk, editor of the Petersburg 
Intellisiencer ; a gentleman of fine talents, extensive acquirements, and a highly respectiible and useful 
member of society. 

Dec. — .At Richmond, aged 60, John Brockenbrovrrh. jud^e of the Court of ,Apj)eals. 

Sept. 1. — .At St. Louis, in his 69th year, fVilliam Clarke, a n.ttive of Viruinia, companion of Meri- 
wether Lewis in the expedition across the Rocky MounUiins, and governor of Missouri Territory, from 
1813 to 1820. 

Sept. 15. — .At Huntsville, Ala., Col. William Lindsay, a native of Va., and a highly resjKJctable man 
and officer of the U. S. army. 

Dec. 21.— At Ale.xandria,'D. C, Thompson F. Mason, jud'^c of the Criminal Court of the District of 
Columbia. 

1839. 

April 8.— .At Wheeling, .Alexander Caldwell, judjie of the T'. S. Court in the Western District of Va. 

Nov. 3. — In Hanover CO., in his 72d year, suddenly, while feeling the pulse of a dying patient, Dr. 
Carter Berkeley, a lineal descendant of Sir William Berkeley, a graduate of the Edinburgh .Medical 
Pch(Mil, a distinguished physician, and much respected for his upright, bi'nevolent, and religious 
character. 

Nov. 20. — .At Lynchburg, in his 69th year, William Daniel, a conspicuous member of the lesrislature 
in 1798-99 ; and, for the last twenty-three years, a judge of the General and Circuit Courts ; a man 
much resjjected for his UUents ami legal knowledire. 

Nov. — .At New Orleans, Capt. Gilbert T. FVancL',. a native of Va. His life wa.s romantic and eventful, 
and he pissed through surprising adventures in foreign countries. Thouirh of defective eilucalion, his 
great energy of chanicter and e.vtensive travels made him the most entertaining of companions. 

()rt. 2. — In ('uli>ej)er co., in his 88ih year. Col. Darid Jamt.ton, an active militia officer of the revplu- 
tion ; atVrwards a member of the House of Delegates, a respected magistrate, and a member of the 
county court. 

1840. 

May 20. — At Richmond, aijed about 75, Daniel Call, brother-in-law to Chief-Justice Marshall, an able 
and eminent lawyer, author of 6 vol*, of l;i\v re|H>rt>. known as " Call's ReiMirts." 

Jan.— .\t Richmond, a<:ed about W'J. Cha.t. .Shirley Carter, an eminent lawyer and advocate, attorney 
of the st:ite in the Circuit Cf.urt of Henricct co. : formerly a distinL'uished member of the legislature. 

Oct.— At the University of N irgiaia. aged about 4<<, Chas. Bonnycastlc, Prof, of Mathematics. He was 



150 



MISCELLANIES. 



a native'of England, and a son of John Bonnycastle, the author of a celebrated alfrebra. He was a man 
of profound and vigorous mind, and author of a valuable work upon Inductive Geometry. 

Nov. 14. — At the University of Va., (of a pistol-shot discharged by a disguised student,) aged 39, John 
A. G. Davis, Prof of Law in the University. He was a man of a high order of intellect, of untiring in- 
dustry, of amiable and philanthropic character, and he was an exempli:ry member of the Episcopal 
church. He published, in 1838, a valuable law-book — "A Treatise on Criminal Law, and a Guide to 
Justices of the Peace." As a successful instructor, he could hardly be surpassed ; and it is thought, 
since graduates of his law school have taken their places at the bar, the profession in Virginia has 
breathed a more enlarged spirit, and displayed a wider and a higher tone. 

Dec. — At Nashville, Tenn., Felix Grundy, a native of Berkeley co., Va., and a distinguished member of 
the U. S. Senate from Tennessee. 

Nov. — In Va., aged about 63, Richard E. Parker, a judge of the Supreme Court of Appeals. 

Jan. 19. — At Morven, Loudon co., in his 75th year, Thomas Swan, an eminent lawyer, and formerly 
attorney of the U. S. for the Dist. of Columbia. " He attained the highest rank in his profession, uniting 
to the most extensive learning the most effective eloquence as a pleader. His influence over juries, aris- 
ing from this cause, and partly from the universal confidence in the purity of his character, is believed to 
have been seldom, if ever, surpassed, in the instance of any other American advocate." 

1841. 

Feb. 25. — At Washington, D. C, aged about 60, Philip P. Barbour, of Orange co., an associate judge of 
the Supreme Court of the U. S. 

April 24. — In Va., aged 77, George Baxter, D.D., Prof, in the Union Theo. Sem. in Prince Edward co. ; 
formerly president of Wash. College, at Lexington, and one of the most eminent and respected Presbyte- 
rian clergymen in Virginia. 

Oct. 22. — At Washington, D. C, (of bilious fever,) aged 61, John Forsijtk, of Georgia, a man of talents 
and eloquence, and secretary of state in Mr. Van Huron's administration. He was born in Fredericks- 
burg, Va.. in 1781. 

April 4. — At Washington city, in his 69th year, William Henry Harrison, President of the U. States. 
He was born in Charles City co., Va., on the 9th of Feb. 1773. 

June 10. — At Washington city, in his 92d year, Richard Harrison, late auditor of the treasury', and a 
man highly respected. 

April 27. — At Washington city, aged about 80, Rev. Andrew T. McCornish, a respected clergyman, for 
23 years minister of the first Episcopal church formed in Washington. 

June. — At Washington city, George Washington Movtgomery, who was born in Valencia, in Spain, of 
a distinguished Irish family, and a man of superior talents and education. He came in early life to this 
country, and was long employed in the department of State. He was the author of Bernardo del Carpio, 
"an exquisite historical novel of the 8th century, and the translation of Irving's Conquest of Granada." 

Sept. 1. — Near Georgetown, D. C, in his 88th year, Joseph JVourse, register of the U. S. Treasury from 
1789 to 1829, and one of the vice-presidents of the American Bible Society, and a man much respected. 
He was born in London in 1754 ; emigrated with his family to Virginia, and entered the revolutionary 
army in 1776. and served in different departments connected with it till the close of the war. 

1842. 

Feb. 24. — In Madison co., Hon. Linn Banks, from 1818 to 1838 speaker of the House of Delegates. 
June 8. — In Orange co., Hon. James Barbour, ex-governor of Virginia, aged 66. 

Aug. 13. — John P. Emmett, Esq., Prof, of Chem. in the University of Va. He was the son of the late 
Thomas Addis Emmett, and a man of talents and learning. 

Jan. 5. — At Savannah, Ga., Col. Thomas Haynes, aged 55, who was born in Va. He was treasurer of 
Georgia, and commanded respect and great public influence. 

1843. 

Nov. 23. — In Fauquier co., Thomas Fitzhugh, aged 81. He was a highly respected citizen, and had been 
for many years presiding judge of the County Court. 

Dec. 14. — In Washington city, Chas. W. Goldsborough, chief of the bureau of provisions and clothing 
of the navy department, and author of a naval history of the U. S. He was one of the oldest and most 
respected inhabitants of the city. 

Nov. 30. — In Rappahannock co., Maj. John Roberts, aged 85. He served in the revolutionary army, 
and negotiated the exchange for tlie prisoners obtained by the convention at Saratoga in 1777. After- 
wards he was a member of the legislature for 13 successive years, and had great influence in its deliber- 
ations. 

Aug. 27.— At the White Sulphur Springs, Hon. Lewis Summers, of Kanawha, aged 65, for 24 years one 
of the judges of the General Court of Va. 

1844. 

Feb. 10. — At Fredericksburg, Carter Beverley, Esq., aged 72. 

Feb. 28.— By the accident on board the U. S. steamer Princeton, Thomas W. Gilmer, of Charlottesville, 
secretary of the navy. His various public trusts he discharged with great ability. He was respected in 
public, and beloved in private life. 

March 29.— At Norfolk, Co/n. E. Pendleton Kennedy, of the U. S. N., aged 65. At the time of his death, 
he was commander of the line-of-battle ship Pennsylvania. 

Feb. 28. — By the accident on board the steamer Princeton, Com. Beverley Kennov, chief of the bureau 
of construction, repairs, and equipment, in the navy department. He had long been attached to the naval 
service, in which he had attained a distinguished reputation. 

Feb. 28.— By the accident on board the Princeton, Hon. A. P. Upshur, secretary of state, aged 54. He 
was born in Northampton co. in 1790. 



EXTRACTS FROM THE ANCIENT LAWS OF VIRGINIA. 

1662. — Every person who refuses to have his child baptized by a lawful minister, 
fihall be amerced 2000 lbs. of tobacco ; half to the parish, half to the informer. 

The whole liturgy of the Church of England shall be thoroughly read at church or 
chapel, every Sunday ; and the canons for divine service and sacraments duly 
observed. 

Church-wardens shall present at the comity court, twice every year, in December 



MISCELLANIES. 



151 



and April, such misdemeanors of swearing, drunkenness, fornication, Slc, as by their 
own knowledge, or common fame, have been committed during their being church- 
wardens. 

To steal, or unlawfully to kill any hog that is not his own, upon sufTicient proof, the 
otfendor shall pay to the owner lOUO lbs. of tobacco, and as much to tin- informer; and 
in case of inability, shall serve two years, one to the owner, and one to the informer. . 

The man and woman committing fornication, shall pay each 50U lbs. of tobacco, and to" 
be bound to their good behavior. If either of them be a servant, the master shall pay 
the 5U0 lbs. of tobacco, and the servant shall serve half a year longer than his time. 
If the master shall refuse to pay, then the servant to be whipped. If a bastard be got 
and born, then the woman to serve her master two years longer than her time, or pay 
him :2U0U lbs. of tobacco ; and the reputed father to give security to keep the child. 

No marriage shall be reputed valid in law but such as is made by the minister, ac- 
cording to the laws of England. And no minister shall marry any person without a 
license from the governor or his deputy, or thrice publication of bans, according to the 
rubrick in the common-prayer book. The minister that doth marry contrary to this 
act, shall be tined lU.ODO Ihs. of tobacco. 

All persons keeping tipling-houses without license, shall be fined 2000 lbs. of tobacco ; 
half to the county, and half to the informer. 

No ma.ster of any ship, vessel, &c., shall transport any person out of this colony 
without a pass, under the secretary's hand, upon the penalty of paying all such debts 
as any such person shall owe at his dcj)arture, and 1000 lbs. of tobacco to the 
secretary. 

The court in every county shall cause to be set up near the court-house, a pillory, a 
pair of stocks, a whipping-post, and a ducking-stool, in such place as they shall think 
convenient : which not being set up within six months after the date of this act, the 
said court shall be fined 5000 lbs. of tobacco. 

In actions of slander occasioned by a man's wife, after judgtnent passed for damages, 
the woman shall be punished by ducking, and if the slander be such as the damages 
shall be adjudged at above 500 lbs. of tobacco, then the woman shall have ducking for 
every 500 lbs. of tobacco adjudged against her husband, if he refuse to pay the 
tobacco. 

Enacted that the Lord's Day be kept holy, and no journeys be made on that day, 
unless upon necessity. And all persons inhabiting in tliis country having no lawful ex- 
cuse, shall every Sunday resort to the parish church or chapel, and there abide orderly 
during the common prayer, preaching, and divine service, upon the penalty of being 
fined 50 lbs. of tobacco by the county court. 

This act shall not extend to Quakers, or other recusants, who totally absent them- 
selves, but they shall be liable to the penalty imposed by the stat. '23 Eliz., viz. £'2(} 
sterling for every month's absence, &c. ; and all Quakers assembling in unlawful con- 
venticles, shall be fined, every man so taken, 200 lbs, of tobacco, for every time of such 
meeting. 

All ministers officiating in any public cure, and six of their family, shall be exempted 
from public taxes. 

1663. — If any Quakers, or other separatists whatsoever, in this colony, assemble 
themselves together to the number of five or more, of the age of sixteen years, or up- 
wards, under the pretence of joining in a religious worshij) not authorized in England 
or this country, the parties so otfending, being thereof lawfully convicted by verdict, 
confessions, or notorious evidence of the fact, shall, for the first otTence, forfeit and pay 
200 lbs. of tobacco ; for the second offence, 500 lbs. of tobacco, to be levied by warrant 
from any justice of the peace, upon the goods of the party convicted; but if he be 
unable, then upon the goods of any other of the separatists or Quakers then present. 
And for the third offence, the offender being convicted as aforesaid, shall be banished 
the colony of Virginia. 

Every master of a ship or vessel, that shall bring in any Quakers to reside here, after 
the .1st of July next, shall be fined 5000 lbs. of tobacco, to be levied by distress and 
sale of his goods, and enjoined to carry him, her, or them, out of the country again. 

Any person inhabiting this country, and entertaining any Quaker in or near his house, 
to preach or teach, shall, for every time of such entertainment, be fined 5000 lbs. of 
tobacco. 

1668. — The 27th of August, appointed for a day of humiliation, fasting, and prayer, 
to implore God's mercy ; if any person be found upon that day gaming, drinking, or 
working, (works of necessity excepted,) upon presentment by the church-wurdcns, and 



152 



MISCELLANIES. 



proof, 'he shall be fined 100 lbs. of tobacco, half to the informer, and half to the poor 
of the parish. 

1670. — None but freeholders and housekeepers shall have any voice in the election of 
Burgesses — every county not sending two Burgesses to every session of the Assembly, 
shall be fined 10,000 lbs. of tobacco, to the^use of the public. 

1676. — The allowance of every Burgess for the future, shall be 120 lbs. of tobacco 
and cask, per day ; to commence two days before every Assembly, and continue two 
days after. And for their travelling charges, there shall be allowed to those that come 
by land, 10 lbs. of tobacco per day for every horse so used. And for water passage, 
they shall be allowed proportionably. 

1679. — The first offence of hog stealing, shall be punished according to the former 
law ; upon a second conviction, the offender shall stand two hours in the pillory, and 
lose his ears ; and for the third offence, he shall be tried by the laws of England, as in 
case of felony. 

1680. — No licensed attorney shall demand or receive, for bringing any cause to 
judgment in the general court, more than 500 lbs. of tobacco and cask ; and in the 
county court, 150 lbs. of tobacco and cask ; which fees are allowed him without any 
pre-agreement. 

If any attorney shall refuse to plead any cause in the respective courts aforesaid, for 
the aforesaid fees, he shall forfeit as much as his fees shoilld have been. 



LIFE IN WESTERN VIRGINIA. 

Much of "Western Virginia is yet a new country, and thinly settled ; and in some of 
the more remote and inaccessible counties, the manner of living and the habits of the 
people are quite primitive. Many of these mountain counties are so far from markets, 
that it is a common saying among the inhabitants that they can only sell those things 
which will " walk away'"' — meaning cattle, horses, swine, &c. Of the latter, immense 
droves are sent to the east annually from this country, and Tennessee, Kentucky, and 
Ohio. The feeding of the swine, as they pass through the country in the autumn of 
each year, supplies a market for much of the corn which is produced. Aside from this, 
there is but little inducement for each one to raise more grain than his own family will 
consume ; and consequently, there is but little room for enterprise on the part of the agri- 
culturist. His products, when they sell at all, bring but a trivial sum. For instance, 
corn, the chief product, brings but from 17 to 25 cents per bushel ; oats, 12 1-2 cts. do. ; 
pork, beef, and venison, $2 to ^2 50 neat per 100 lbs. ; and other things in proportion. 
This pay, too, is frequently in store-goods, on which the merchant, owing to his small 
amount of custom, charges heavy profits. For foreign luxuries, the agriculturist pays 
the highest prices, — the expense of transportation from the north — where they are usu- 
ally purchased by the merchant — to the wild parts of Western Virginia, being 3 or 4 
cents per pound : so for bulky articles, as sugar, coffee, <Slc., the consumer is obliged to 
pay several cents a pound more than an inhabitant of the older portions of the state. 
He, however, graduates his wants to his means ; and although he may not have the 
fine house, equipage, dress, &c., of the wealthy planter, yet he leads a manly life, and 
breathes the pure air of the hills with the contented spirit of a freeman. Living 

" Far from the maddening crowd's ignoble strife, 
His sober wishes never learn to stray ; 
Along the cool, sequestered vale of life, 
He keeps the noiseless tenor of his way." 

The inhabitants of the mountain counties are almost perfectly independent. Many a 
young man with but a few worldly goods, marries, and, with an axe on one shoulder 
and a rifle on the other, goes into the recesses of the mountains, where land can be had 
for almost nothing. In a few days he has a log-house and a small clearing. Visit him 
some fine day thirty years afterwards, and you will find he has eight or ten children — 
the usual number here — a hardy, healthy set ; forty or fifty acres cleared, mostly culti- 
vated in corn ; a rude square log bin, built in cob-house fashion, and filled with corn in 
the cob, stands beside his cabin ; near it is a similar structure, in which is a horse ; and 
scattered about are half a dozen hay-ricks ; an immense drove of hogs, and some cat- 
tle, are roaming at large in the adjoining forest. And if it is what is called " mast year'* 
— that is, if the forests abound in nuts, acorns, &c. — these animals will be found to be 
very fat, and display evidence of good living 



« 



MISCELLANIES. 153 



Enter the dwcllinfj. The lady of the house, and all hor children, are attired in home- 
spun. Her drtss is lar^c, of convenient form, and entirely free from the fashionable 
lacing universal elsewhere. It is contined totrother witli button"?, injstead of hooks and 
eyes. Siie looks strong and healthy — so do her daufrhtcrs— and as ro.sy and bloominir us 
" tlowers by the way- side'' Her sons, too, are a stnrdy-U)okin;T set, who soon (if not 
now) will be enabled to fell a tree or shoot a deer witli facility. The house and furni- 
ture are exceedinjrly plain and simple, and, with the exception of what belonjrs to the 
cupboard, principally manufactured in the neiirhborhood. The husband is absent, hunt- 
ing. At certain seasons of the year, what tinic ho can spare from his little farm ho 
passes in the excitement of the chase, and sells the skins of his ^ame. 

Soon he enters with a buck or bear he has shot, (for he is a skilful marksn)an,) or per- 
haps some other game. He is fifty years of age, yet in his prime — a stout, athletic man ; 
his countenance is bronzed by exposure, and his frame seems almost of iron ; he is 
robed in*a huntiii',r-shirt of pictiiresi|ue form, made, too, of homcsptm, and ornamented 
with variegated fringe ; and a pair of moccasins are on his tVet. He receives you with 
a blunt, honest wcjcome, and as he gives you his hand, his heart goes with if ; for 
he looks upon you as a friend ; he has passed his life among the mountains, in the midst 
of a simple-hearted people, who have but little practical knowledge of the deceit which 
those living" in densely-populated communities, ^mong the competitive avocations of so- 
ciety, are tempted to practice. His wife prepares dinner. A neat white cloth is spread, 
and soon the table is covered with good things. On it is a plate of hot corn-bread, pre- 
serves of various kinds, bacon, venison, and more than probable three varieties of meat. 
Your host may ask a blessing — thanks to the itinerating system of the Methodists, 
which has even readied this remote spot — his wife pours you out a " dish of coflce," 
the great luxury of the country, and frequently used at every meal : it is thickened with 
cream — not milk — and sweetened with sugar from the maple grove just front of the 
house. The ho.st bids you help yourself, and, if not squeamish, you " go into it," and 
enif)y that plain, substantial meal better than you ever did a dinner at Astor's. 

Now mount your nag and be off I As you descend the mountain. path faintly dis- 
cerned before you, and breathe the pure, fresh air of the hills, cast your eyes upon the 
most impressive of scenes, for Nature is there in all her glory. Far down in the valley, 
to the right, winds a lovely stream ; there hid by the foliage overarching its bright waters 
— anon it ajjpears in a clearing — again, concealed by a sweep of the mountain you are 
descending — siill beyond, it seems diminished to a silvery thread. To the right and 
front is a huge mountain, in luxuriant verdure, at places curving far into the plain, — and 
at those points, and at tiie summits, bathed in a sea of golden light, — at others, receding; 
thrown into dark, sombre, forbidding shades. Beyond are mountains piled on moun- 
tains, like an uptossed sea of ridges, until they melt away in distance, and imagination 
fancies others still farther on. High in blue ether float yon clouds of snowy white, and 
far above them, in majestic flight, sails the bird of the mountain, with an air as wild, as 
free, as the spirit of liberty. How every thing is rejoicing all around I Innumerable 
songsters are warbling sweetest music ; tliosc wild flowers, with scarce the morning dew 
from off their lips, are opening their bright cheeks to the sun ; and even the tiny insects 
flitting through the air, join in the universal hallelujah ! Now fast losing the scene, 
you are entering the dark, solemn forest, densely matted above with vines, almost ex- 
cluding the light of day. You are soon at the base of the mountains, and from the copse 
before you out starts a deer ! the graceful animal pricks up its ears, distends its nostrils 
in fear, and, gathering its slender limbs ready for a spring, then bounds away, over hil- 
locks and through ravines, and is seen no more. The stream, broad and shallow, is 
wending its way across your road with gentle murmurings, — splash I splash I goes your 
horse's feet into the water ; forty times in ten miles docs it cross your road, and in vari- 
.0U8 places for many hundred yards your course is directly through it. There are no 
bridges upon it : there are comparatively few in Western Virginia. 

»*»«*»»»»« 

The above picture of a mountaineer, with a sketch of the wild and romantic scenery 
among which he lives, is a common, though not a universal one ; but between him and 
the wealthy inhabitant of a large village, who lives in the enjoyment of every blessing, 
are all grades. Many cannot read or write, and many that can, know nothing of geo- 
graphy and other branches. The country is too thiidy settfed to carry out a system of 
connmon schools, although the state makes liberal appropriations for that purpose. The 
mountaineer who lives not within half a day's travel of a school-house, cannot afford, 
hke the wealthy lowland planter, to hhc a private ' iastructor, and pay him u heavy 
sdary. 

20 



154 



MISCELLANIES. 



Among these mountain fastnesses is much latent talent, which requires only an op- 
portunity for its development. Many of the*pcople are of Scotch-Irish descent, and 
possess the bravery and other noble traits of their ancestry. Almost entirely isolated 
from the world, fashion, with her iron sway, has not stereotyped njanners, modes of 
thought, and expression ; and, therefore, an amusing originality and ingenuity in meta- 
phor is frequently displayed. The educated of this mountain region are often men of 
high intelligence, fine address, and are possessed of all that which gives zest to social 
intercourse. 

To further illustrate the subject we are upon, the manners and customs of the moun- 
taineers, we will introduce an article — already elsewhere published by us — giving our ad- 
ventures in one of the wildest counties in the state : 




A Religious Encampment in a Forest. 

Towards the close of an autumnal day, while travelling through this thinly-settled re- 
gion, I came up with a substantial looking farmer, leaning on a fence by the road-side. 
I accompanied him to his house to spend the night. It stood in a field, a quarter of a 
mile from the road, and was one of the better sort of log-dwellings, inasmuch as it had 
two stories and two or three small windows. In its rear was a small log structure, about 
fifteen feet square, the weaving-shop of the family. On entering the house, I found a 
numerous family, all clothed in substantial garments of their own manufacture. The 
floor was unadorned by a carpet, and tiie room devoid of superfluous furniture ; yet all 
that necessity required to make them comfortable. One needs but little experience like 
this to discover how few are our real wants, how easily most luxuries of dress, equipage, 
and furniture can be dispensed with. After my arrival, two or three chickens were 
knocked down in the yard, and ere long supper was ready. It consisted of chickens, " 
bacon, hoe-cake, and buckwheat cakes. Our beverage was milk, which is used at all 
meals in Virginia, and coflee thickened with cream and sweetened by maple sugar. 

Soon as it grew dark, my hostess took down a small candle-mould for three candles, 
hanging from the wall on a frame-work just in front of the fire-place, in company with 
a rifle, long strings of dried pumpkins, and other articles of household property. With 
this, she " run" her lights for the evening. On retiring, I was conducted to the room 
overhead, to which I ascended by stairs out of doors. My bed-fellow was the county 
sheriff, a young man of about my age ; and as we lay together, a fine field was had for 
astronomical observations through the chinks of the logs. On my informing him that 
this was one of the first log dwellings in which I had ever spent a nigiit, he regarded 
uic with astonishment, and proceeded to enlighten me upon life in the backwoods, giving 



MISCELLANIES. 



155 



ixie details I could scarcely credit, but which subsequ»^nt experience fully verified. The 
next inorninir. after risinor. I was looking for the washinir apparatus, when he tapped me 
on the shoulder as a signal to accompany him to a brook just back of the house, in whose 
pure, crystal waters we performed our morniufr ablutions, and wiped ourselves dry with 
a coarse towel. 

After breakfast, throufrh the persuasion of the sheriff, who appeared to have taken a 
sort of fancy to me. I a'jreed to (jo across the country by his house. He was on horse- 
back — 1 on foot. For six miles, our route lay through a pathless forest, on leaving which 
we passed through '* the Court-House," the only village in the county, composed of 
about a dozen houses, mostly log, and a brick court-house. A mile beyond, my com- 
panion }X)inted to a small log structure as the place where he was initiated into the mys- 
teries of reading and writing. It was what is called, in V^irginia, " an old field school- 
house," an expression, originating in the circumstance that these buildings, in the older 
portions of the state, are erected upon worn-out lands. Soon after, we came to a Meth- 
odist encampment. The roads are here too riule to transport tents, hence the Methodists 
and Baptists, in this country, build log structures which stand from year to year, and 
aiibrd much better shelter than tents. This encampment was formed of three continu- 
ous lines, each occu{)ying a side of a square, and about one hundred and fifty feet in 
length. Each row was divided into six or eight cabins, with partitions between. The 
height of the rows on the inner side of the enclosed area, was about ten feet ; on the 
outer about six, to which the roof sloped shed-like. The door of each cabin opened on 
the inner side of the area, and at the back was a log chimney, which came up even 
with the roof. At the upper extremity of the enclosure formed by these three lines of 
cabins, was a shed, say thirty by fifty feet, in which was a coarse pulpit and log seats ; 
a few tall trees were standing in the area, and many stumps scattered here and there. 
The whole establishment was in the depth of a forest, and wild and rude as can well be 
imagined. Religious pride would demand a more elegant temple ; but where could the 
humble more appropriately worship ? We read that 

"The erovos were Gwl's fir<t temples. Ere man learned 
To hew the shaft, and lay the architrave. 
And spread the roof above them. — rrc he framed 
The lofty vault, to p.iiher and roll back 
The sound of anthems ; in the darklini: wood, 
Amid the cool and silem e, he knelt down 
And offered to the Mightiest solemn thanks 
And supplication." 

In many of these sparsely-inhabited counties, there are no .settled clergymen, and rare- 
ly do the people hear any other than the Methodist and Bapti-^^t preachers. Here is the 
itinerating system of Wesley exhibited in its full usefulness. The circuits usually are of 
three weeks duration, in which the clergymen preach about every day : so it rarely hap- 
pens, in some neighborhoods, when they have public worship, that it is on the Sabbath. 
Most of these preachers are men of indefatigable energy, and often endure great priva- 
tions. " 

After sketching the encampment, I came in a few minutes to the dwelling of the 
sheriff. Close by it, were about a dozen mountaineers, and several highland lassies, 
seated around a log corn-bin, twelve feet square, ten high, and open at the top, into 
which these neieflibors of my companion were casting ears of corn, fast as they could 
husk them. Right merrily did they perform the task. The men were large and hardy, 
— the damsels plump and rosy, dressed in good, warm, homespun garments, which, in- 
stead of being hooked and eyed, were buttoned up behind. The sheriff informed me 
that he owned about two thousand acres of land around his dwelling, and that its whole 
value was about one thousand dollars, or fifty cents per acre I I entered his house, which 
was of logs, one story in height, about twenty feet square, and divided into two small 
rooms, without any windows or openings for them, and no place to let in liirht, except 
by a door in its front, and one in the rear. I soon partook of a meal, in which we had 
quite a variety of luxuries, among which was hearts meat. A blessing was asked at 
table by one of the neiahbors. After supper, the bottle, as usual at corn-huskings, was 
circulated. The sheriff learning I was a Washingtonian, with the politeness of one of 
nature's gentlemen, refrained from urging me to participate. The men drank very mod- 
erately. Indeed, in my trave ls over nearly the whole of Virginia, I have seen far less 
intemperance than in my similar wanderings at the north. We all drew aroimd the 
fire, the light of which was the only one we iiad. Hunting stories, and kindred topics, 
served to talk down the hours until bed-time. There were in the room two beds. One 
was occupied by a married couple the other by myself; but there were no curtains be- 
tween. 



156 



MISCELLANIES. 



On awaking in the morning-, I saw two ladies cooking breakfast in my bed-room, and 
three gentlemen seated over the fire, watching that interesting operation. 

Having completed my toilet, my host, from a spring hard by, dipped a pitcher and 
poured the water into my hands, for rne to wash myself. After breakfast, I bade the 
sheriff farewell, buckled on my knapsack, and left, fie was a generous, warm-hearted 
man, and on my offering a remuneration, he replied, " you are welcome ; call again 
when this way." 

In the course of two hours, I came to a cabin by the way-side. There being no gate, 
I sprang over the fence, entered the open door, and was received with a hearty welcome. 
It was a humble dwelling, the abode of poverty. There was a neatness in the arrange- 
ment of the few articles of furniture extremely pleasing. In a corner stood two beds, 
one hung with curtains, and both spread with coverlets of snowy white, forming a con- 
trast to the dingy log walls, rude furniture, and rough boarded floor of this, the only 
room of the dwelling. Around a cheerful fire was seated an interesting family group. 
In one corner, on the hearth, sat the mother, who had given up her chair to me, smo- 
king a pipe. Next to her was a little girl, in a little chair, holding a little kitten. In the 
opposite corner sat the father, a venerable old man of Herculean stature, robed in a 
hunting-shirt, and with a countenance as majestic and impressive as a Roman senator. 
In the centre of the group was a young maiden, about eighteen, modest and retiring, 
not beautiful, except in that moral beauty virtue gives. She was reading to them from 
a little book. She was the only one in the family who could read, and she could do so 
but imperfectly. In that book, which cost perhaps two shillings, was the whole secret 
of the neatness and happiness found in this lowly cot. That little book was the New 
Testament ! 

I conversed with the father. He was, he said, " a poor mountaineer, ignorant of the 
world:" He was, it is true ; but he had the independence of a man — the humihty of a 
Christian. As I left the cottage, the snow-flakes were slowly falling, and I pursued my 
lonely way through the forest, with buoyant feelings, reflecting upon this beautiful exhi- 
bition of the religion of the meek and lowly One. How exquisite are these lines, as ap- 
plied to a similar scene : 

"Compared with this, how poor Religion's pride, 

In all the pomp of method and of art, 
When men display to congregations wide 

Devotion's every grace, except the heart. 
But happy we, in some cot far apart. 

May hear, well pleased, the language of the soul." 



LIFE IN EASTERN VIRGINIA. 

In the foreground of the engraving illustrating the Home of the Planter, is a colored 
woman strutting across the yard with a tub of water on her head. Near her is a group 
of white and black miniature specimens of humanity, playing in great glee. In the 
middle ground is the mansion of the planter, pleasantly embowered in a grove of locusts. 
The mansion itself has the chimneys on the outside, a peculiar feature in the domestic 
architecture of the southern states. Under the shade of the porch sits the planter, with 
a pail of water by his side, from which, iir warm weather, he is accustomed to take 
frequent draughts. At the door are a gentleman and lady, about making a social visit. 
On the right are the quarters of the blacks, where is seen the overseer, with some 
servants. In the distance is shown a river ; the finest plantations being generally on 
the fertile banks of some calm, flowing stream. This completes the picture, which we 
trust will prove a familiar one to most of our readers. 

It is, perhaps, unnecessary to describe in detail the life of a planter, as it is incident- 
ally illustrated in several places in this volume. The term planter, originally applied in 
this state to those who cultivated the tobacco-plant, is now an expression commonly 
used in reference to all agriculturists of the lowlands. This class forms the great bulk 
of the inhabitants, and from it have arisen most of the distinguished statesmen who 
have shed such lustre upon the name of Virginia. Settled, as this portion of the state 
was, by old English cavaliers, their descendants have many of the same traits of char- 
acter. The introduction of slaves has given them the leisure to cultivate the elegancies 
of life, to mix much in social intercourse, and to become familiar with all current polit- 
ical topics. From this, too, has arisen much of the hospitality for which the planter is 
proverbial. Nowhere are the wishes and wants of the stranger guest more regarded, 
and nowhere is the character of a true gentleman held more sacred. The planter is also 



MISCELLANIES. 



157 



noted for his franknoss? and sincerity. And wliy should he not be ? He docs not en- 
gage in the strife and turmoil of trade. He has no business secrets. His better nature 
has not been shocked, and his feeliiiirs bhuited, by familiarity with tlic devices of tlie 
business worhl. Hence, his address is frank and free, and tln-re is often a chiUl-iikc 
siinphcity and inirf nuousness of manner that charms the stran^^er, and wins his stronjr. 
est ati'eclions. The current of the i)lanter's life runs smooth ; and if possessed of a suf- 
ficiency, none can hve more imh-pendently, more tree from the distrnctin<r cares which 
often cut short the days of the man of business, and render his pilgrimage here one 
constant scene of struggle and perplexity. 

We herewith present a description of the condition of the slaves. It is from the 
pen of a judge of one of the Virginia courts, and was published in a work a few years 
since. It is in the form of answers to certain queries made by the author of that 
work ; 

" I am not certain that I understand the scope of tiie first inquiry : ' The laws for tho 
government of the master and the slave in Virginia.' Properly speaking, there are no 
laws atlecting this relation. Both arc under the protection of the law to a certain extent. 
The master would be punished for any mayh»^m or felony committed on tiie slave; but 
it has been decided that no prosecution will lie against him, even for excessive beating, 
not amounting to mayhem or felony. It has never been found necessary to enact laws 
for the govermnent of the master in his treatment of the slave, for reasons that will 
appear hereat'ter. 

" We have many laws respecting slaves, controlling them in certain particulars. 
Thus, they are not allowed to keep or carry military weapons — nor to leave home with- 
out a written permission — nor to assemble at any meeting-house or other place in the 
night, under pretence of religious worship — nor at any school, for the purpose of being 
taught to read or write — nor to trade and go at large as freemen- -nor to hire them.selves 
out — nor to preach or exhort. Some of the penalties for a violation of these laws are 
imposed upon the ma<<ter, for permitting his slave to do certain acts ; in other cases, the 
slave is liable to be taken before a justice of the peace, and punished by stripes, never 
exceeding thirty-nine. 

*' Slaves emancipated by their masters, are directed to leave the state within twelve 
months from the date of their emancipation. 

" These laws, and every other having the appearance of rigor towards the slave, are 
nearly dead letters upon our statute book, unless during times of excitement, or since 
the etforts of the abolitionists have reanimated them. I have, until lately, scarcely 
known an instance in which they have been enforced. 

" It is equally rare to witness the trial of a slave for any except very serious crimes. 
There are many offences committed by them, for which a freeman would be sent to the 
penitentiary, that are not noticed at all, or punished by a few stripes under the directions 
of the master. 

" \\'hen tried for a crime, it is before a court of at least five magistrates, who must 
be unanimous to convict. They are not entitled to a trial by jury, but it is acknow- 
ledged on all hands that this is a benefit, and not a disadvantage. The magistrates are 
more respectable than common jurors ; and, being generally slave-holders themselves, 
they feel a certain sympathy with the prisoner, or, at all events, an absence of that pre- 
judice to which common jurors are very subject. 

" Slaves m;iy be taught, and many of them arc taught, in their owner's family. They 
are allowed to attend religious worship conducted by white ministers, and to receive 
from them religious instruction. In point of fact, they go where they please on Sun- 
days, and at all other times when they are not engaged in labor. 

" '2. ' The rights and duties of slaves,' as a distinct class, are not defined hv law. 
They depend upon usage or custom, which controls the will of the master. Thus, the 
law does not recognise their right to hold property, but no instance is known of the 
master's interfering with thiMr little ac(juisitions ; and it often happens, that they are 
considerable enough to purchase themselves and family. In such cases I have never 
known the master to exact from the slave the I'nll price that he miglit have obtained 
from others. In the same manner, the (juaiitity and quality of food and clothing, the 
hours of labor and rest, the holidays, the privileges, &,c., of the slave, are regulated by 
custom, to depart materially from which, would disgrace the master in public opinion. 

" 3. ' The domestic relations of the master and slave.' On this subject the grossest 
misrepresentations have been made. It seems to be imagined at the North that our 
society is divided horizontally. AIL above the line, tyrants — all below it, trembling, 
crouching slaves. Nothing can be more unlike the real picture. The intercourse be- 



158 



MISCELLANIES. 



tween the master and slave is kind, respectful, and approaching to intimacy. It must 
be recollected, that they have been brought up together, and often form attachments 
that are never broken. The servants about the house are treated rather as humble 
friends than otherwise. Those employed differently have less intercourse with the 
white family ; but, when they meet, there is a civil, and often cordial greeting on both 
sides. The slaves generally look upon their masters and mistresses as their protectors 
and friends. Born slaves, and familiarized with their condition, they have no wish to 
change it when left to themselves. When they compare it with that of the poor labor- 
ing whites in their own neighborhood, no envy is excited, but an opposite sentiment. 
The slave of a gentleman, universally considers himself a superior being to ^ poor v^hite 
folks.' They take pride in their master's prosperity ; identify his interest with their 
own ; frequently assume his name, and even his title, and speak of his farm, his crops, 
and other possessions, as their own ; and well, indeed, may they employ this language, 
for they know that the greater part of the profits is liberally devoted to their use. 

" In their nature the slaves arc generally affectionate ; and particularly so to the 
children of the family, which lays the foundation of the attachments I have spoken of, 
continuing through liJe. The children are always favorites, and the feeling is reciprocated. 
It is a great mistake to suppose that the children are permitted to tyrannize over the 
slaves, young or old ; and that they learn in this way domipecring habits. Some may, 
but more frequently there is rather too much familiarity between the white females and 
children of a family, and the slaves of the same description. The children play together 
on terms of great equalit}?^ ; and if the white child gives a blow, he is apt to have it returned 
with interest. At many tables ) ou will find the white children rising from them, with 
their little hands full of the best of every thing, to carry to their nurses or playmates ; 
and I have often known them to deny themselves for the sake of their favorites. These 
propensities are encouraged, and every thing like violence or tyranny strictly prohibited. 
The consequence is, that when the young master (or mistress) is installed into his full 
rights of property, he finds around him no alien hirelings, ready to quit his service upon 
the slightest provocation, but attached and faithful friends, known to him from his in- 
fancy, and willing to share his fortunes, wherever they may carry him. The connection 
is more that of the Scottish clansman, than of the English serf in times past ; 
and it influences all their future intercourse. The old gray-headed servants are address- 
ed by almost every member of the white family as uncles or aunts. The others are 
treated with at least as much respectful familiarity as if they were white laborers, and 
I should say with more. Fully aware of their standing and consequence, they never 
hesitate to apply to their masters and mistresses in every difficulty. If they have any 
want, they expect to be relieved — if they are maltreated, they ask redress at their 
hands. Seldom or never are appeals of this kind made in vain. Injury to the slave 
from any quarter, is regarded as an injury to the master. On no subject is a Virginian 
more sensitive ; for he considers himself bound, by every moral obligation, to protect 
and defend his slave. If he is carried before a justice for any offence, the master ac- 
companies him ; if he is arraigned before the courts, the master employs counsel, and 
does every thing in his power to see that he has justice. In fact, th.e disposition is to 
screen the slave by every possible means, even when his guilt is apparent, and I have 
known this carried to very unjustifiable lengths. In short, as far as my observation has 
extended, and I have been in free as well as slave states, I do not hesitate to affirm, 
that the domestic relations of the master and slave are of a more familiar, confidential, 
and even respectful character, than those of the employer and hireling elsewhere. 

" 4. ' The usual duration of the labor of the slave,' is from sunrise to sunset, with the 
exception of about one hour and a half allowed for breakfast, 'and from 12 to 2 o'clock 
for dinner. In harvest-time they get out somewhat earlier. But any extraordinary dili- 
gence during this period is more than made up by their being allowed, at its termination, 
a few days to labor for themselves, or for others who have not finished, and from whom 
they receive wages. The women in this part of the state do very little field-work. 
They are engaged in spinning, cooking for the out-hanJs, and taking care of the chil- 
dren. Few women are worth their victuals and clothes. Their labors are very light 
and profitless. A white laboring woman will do double as much. 

" 5. 'The liberty usually allowed him, his holidays and amusements, the manner in 
which they usually pass their evenings and holidays.' Under these heads may be class- 
ed various privileges enjoyed by the slave. When he is not at work he is under no 
restriction or surveillance. He goes where he pleases, seldom taking the trouble to ask 
for a pass ; and if he is on the farm at the appointed hours, no inquiry is made how he 
has employed the interval. The regular holidays are two at Easter, two at Whitsuntide, 



MISCELLANIES. 159 



and a week at Christmas. These he enjoys by prescription ; and others, such as 
•Saturday evenin{;s, by the indulgence of his master. He passes tliem in any way he 
pleases. Generally, ihey are spent in visiting from lunise to hmise, and in variou.s 
unuiseinents. His favDrite one, if he can raise a violin, is dancin<r. lUit this, unfor- 
tunattly, is going out of fashion, both with whiles and blacks, and no good substitute 
has been foutid for it. They, however, assemble at tiieir cabins to laugh, chat, sing, 
and tell stories, with all imaginable glee. No present care seems to annoy, no antici- 
pated sorrow to deject them, but they surrender themselves fully and entirely to the en- 
joyment of the passing moments. They know that, under all circumstances, their 
masters must provide for them. Of course they have no anxiety about their families, 
or the failure of crops, or the course of the seasons, or the horrors of debt, or any other 
of the many circumstances which embitter the life of the freeman, and render i^ad or 
thoughtful the gayest disposition. 

'•OiIrt of tlif slaves, who ;ire more provident, employ a portion of their holidays and evoninfts in 
working tor llu'inscives. E ich hciul of a family, or marri^-d man or woman, has a cabin alloiicd tor his 
or her accommodation. These caliins are usually made of lops, chinked an«l plastered, with plank or • 
din tioors. Some proprietors biuld them of brick or stone, or framed wood, but 1 do not believe the 
slaves fzcnerally prefer iheni. They like the large, open fireplace of the cabin, where a do/.en or more 
can sit roiuid the bla/.ins: hearth, filled with as nuich wood as would supply a patent stove fi)r ten days. 
Stoves they abonunate, and small Rund'ordized fireplaces. IS'ear their cabins they have cround allotted 
for their garden and putch of corn. In their gardens they have every vegetable they choose to cultivate, 
besides raising pumpkins, broom-corn, &.c. in their masters' corn-fields. Most of them are permitted to 
raise a hog, to dispo>e of as they please ; and these hogs are invariably the largest and fattest on the 
farm. Tliey also raise fowls of every description, and sell them for the most part to their owners, at a 
fair price. Their allowance of fixxi is never diminished on these accounts. Their hog. their fowls, their 
vegetables, their brooms, and baskets, and fiag-chairs, and many other articles, they are allowed to sell, 
for the purjiose of purchasing Sunday clothes and finery, to show otf at meetings and other public occa- 
sion*. In this way, those who are at all industrious, are enabled to appear as well dressed as any peas- 
antry in the world. 

" G. ' The provi>ion made for their food and clothing, for those who are too young or too old to labor.' 
The slaves always prefer Indian corn-meal to flour. Of this, the old and young, in tliis pari of Virginia, 
are allowed just as much as they can eat or destroi/. They liave, besides, a certain quantity of bacon 
given oat every week, amounting to about half a pound a day for each laborer or grown person. When 
they have beef or fish, the allowance of bacon is less ; but, as it is the food they love best, they have 
always a portion of it. Besides thi'', they have milk and vegetables on most farms in abundance, with- 
out touching their own stores. The old and infirm fare like the rest, unless their situation re- 
quires cort'ee, sugar, &.C., which are always provided. The young slaves have also their meats, but less 
in quantity, and they dejK^nd more u\Hm Itread, milk, and vesietabtes. To look at them, you w<mld see at 
once they are well led. On small farms the slaves tare better than on large ones, there being little dif- 
ference in the Ibod of the \\ hiles and blacks, except in articles of mere luxury. Hut, on the largest, 
their u^ual allowance is that which I have mentioned. They have three meals a day, and it is rare to 
see them eating what they call dry bread at any one. 

" Their allowance of clothing is quite uniform ; and consists of a hat, a blanket, two suits of clothes, 
three shirts or shifts, and two jwir of shoes, a year. The winter suit is of strong linsey cloth ; the sum- 
mer, of linen for the men, and striped coUon lor tlie women. The men's cloth is dr» s>ed and fulled. 
The children have linsey and cotton garments, but no shoes or hat, until they are ten or eleven years 
old, and begin to do something. Their beds are sometimes of feather, generally of straw, and are well 
furnished; some prefer to lie like the Indians, on their blankets. 

"Comparing their situation with respect to food and clothing with our own white laborers, I would say 
that it is generally prefi'rable. In each case, much depends on the industry and management of tho 
parly ; but there is this dirierence, that the slave, however lazy or improvident, is lurnished with fi)od 
ami clothing at regular periods, which the wliite man of the same temperament is unable to procure- 
When the white man, too, is so old and infirm that he can no longer lalnir, his situation is truly deplo- 
rable, if he has laid up nothing for sujiport. lit the old and infirm slave is still sup|M)rted by his master, 
with the same care and attention as before. He cannot even set him free without providing for his 
maintenance, for our law makes his estate liable. 

"7. ' Their treatment when sick.' Being considered a.s valinblc pro[)erty, it niicht natunilly l)e con- 
cluded th it they would be properly attended to when sick. Hut better feelings than any connected with 
their value as projH-rty, prompt the white family to pay ever>- attenti»)n to the sick slave. If it is deemed 
at all necessary, a physician is immediately called in. On large farms he is trequently employed by the 
year ; but, if not, he is sent tor whenever there is occasion fi)r his services. If the slave is a hireling,, 
our law comjKMs the owner, not the hirer, to pay the physician's fees, so that the latter h.as every motive 
of interest to send lor a physician, without being liable for the ex|)ense. Whi-re there are many slaves 
together, the proprietor sometimes erects an ho>pital. provided with nurses and the u>u:il accommoda- 
tions. In all cases comini; under my observation, w hatever is neci-ssary for the comfort of the sick is 
furnished, as far as the master has means. They are frequently visited by the white family, and what- 
ever they wish to have is supplied. Such indulgence, and even tenderness, is extended to tliem (tn these 
occasions, that it sometimes induces the lazy to feiiin sickni'ss : but I have never known Ihem, in these 
suspected cases, to be hurried lo their work until their deception tw came manifest, or the report of the 
physician justified it. It is my deciiled conviction, that the jMior laborers of no country under heaven are 
btMter taken care of than the sick slaves in V'irainia. There may l»e, and no doubt are, ♦•xceptions to 
many of these observations; but I speak of their general treatment as I have known it, or heard it 
reported. 

"8. • Their rewards and punishment*!.' Of rewards, properly speakine, the slaves have few — of in- 
dulgences they have many; but tliryare not employed as rewards, lor all usuilly partake in them with- 
out discrimination. The system ol rewards has not, to my knowledge, l)een fiirly tried. Sometimes 
slaves who have conducted themselves well, or laliored diligently, are allowed more time than «)lhers to 
attend to their own affairs, or jK-rmittt'd to trade on their own acc<iunt, piyin? some small sum ; and they 
are treated, of course, with gn-ater respect and confidence than the idle and worlhiess. But I know oi 



I* 



160 



MISCELLANIES. 



no instance in which specific rewards have been offered for specific acts of good conduct. In this respect 
they are treated much like soldiers and sailors. 

" As to their jiunishnienis, they are rare, and seldom disproportioned to the offence. Our laws are 
mild, and make little discrimination between slaves and free whites, except in a few political offences. 
The punishments infiicted by the master partake of the same character. The moral sense of the com- 
munity would not tolerate cruelty in a master. I know of nothing that would bring him more surely 
into disgrace. On a farm where there may be one liundred slaves, there will not, perhaps, be one pun- 
ished on account of his work during the year, altliou<;h it is often done in a careless, slovenly manner, 
and not half as much as a white laborer would do. For insolent and unruly conduct to their overseers, 
for quarrelling and fighting with each other, for theft and other oflences, vi'hich would send the white 
man to the whipping-post or penitentiary, they are punished more frequently, but always with modera- 
tion. Very often they escape altogether, when the white man would certainly be punished. I have lived 
in different parts of Virginia for more than 30 years, since my attention has been directed to such sub- 
jects ; and I do not recollect half a dozen instances in which I ever saw a grown slave stripped and 
whipped. Such a spectacle is almost as rare as to see a similar punishment inflicted on a white man. 
When it is considered that, except for the highest grade of crimes, the punishment of the slave is left 
pretty much (practically) to his master's discretion, I am persuaded it will be found that they are in this 
respect in no worse condition than laborers elsewhere. No other punishment is inflicted except stripes 
or blows. They are not imprisoned, or placed upon short allowance, or condemned to any cruel or un- 
usual punishments from which white persons are exempted. 

"The worst feature in our society, and the most revolting, is the purchase and sale of slaves; and it 
is this which renders their situations precarious and uncomfortiible, and occasions them more uneasiness 
than all other causes combined. On this subject I will submit a few observations before I close this let- 
ter. So far as the traflic is confined to the neighborhood, it is of little consequence, and is often done for 
the accommodation of the slave. It breaks no ties of kindred, and _,occasions only a momentary pang, 
by transferring the slave from the master who, perhaps, is no longer able to keep him, to one as good, 
who is able, or wlio purchases because he owns his wife or child, &c. It is the sale to negro-buyers by 
profession, which is in general so odious to the slave, although there are instances in which these artful 
men prevail with them to apply to their owners to be sold. Such sales, except in the rare instance just 
alluded to, are never voluntarily made of slaves whose conduct and character are good. Masters will not 
part with their slaves but from sheer necessity, or for flagrant delinquencies, which in other countries 
would be punished by deportation at least. Thousands retain them when they know full well that their 
pecxmiary condition would be greatly improved by selling, or even giving them awaj'. It is the last pro- 
perty the master can be induced to part with. Nothing but the dread of a jail will prevail with him. 
Negro-traders, although there are many among us, are universally despised by the master, and detested 
by the body of the slaves. Their trade is supported by the misfortunes of the master, and the crimes or 
misconduct of the slave, and not by the will of either pq^rty, except in a few instances. Sometimes the 
slave, after committing a theft or other crime, will abscond, for fear of detection ; or will be enticed away 
from his master's service by holding out to him false hopes ; and perhaps the negro-buyer himself is the 
decoy. If caught, he is generally sold, for the sake of the example to other slaves. From these sources 
the negro-buyers are supplied ; but it does not happen, in one case out of a thousand, that the master 
willingly sells an honest, faithful slave. The man doing so would be looked upon as a sordid, inhuman 
wretch ; and be shunned by his neighbors and countrymen of respectable standing. 

"I believe, if any plan could be fallen upon to remove our slaves to a place where they would be 
willing to go, and where their condition would be probably improved, that many, very many masters 
would be ready to manumit them. An opinion is entertained by increasing numbers, that slave labor is 
too expensive to be continued in a grain-growing state, if its place can be supplied by freemen. In other 
words, that the free laborer would cost less, and work harder, than the slave. But the slaves themselves 
are unwilling to go to Liberia, and very few would accept their freedom on that condition. Some, 
already emancipated, remain in the state, incurring the const int risk of being sold as slaves. To send 
them to any part of our own country without worldly knowledge or capital, is deemed by most masters 
false humanity; and to retain them here in the condition of free negroes is impossible. 

" Until some i)lan can be suggested to remove these difficulties, under the guidance and direction of 
the constituted authorities, we are averse to all agitation of the subject. We know it will be attended 
with danger to one class, and will increase the burdens and privations of the other. Hence our indigna- 
tion at the movements of the Northern abolitionists, who are meddling with a subject they know nothing 
about. Let them come among us, and see the actual condition of the slaves, as well as of the whites, 
and I am persuaded that all whose intentions are really good, would, on their return, advise their de- 
luded co-operators to desist from agitation." 



STATISTICS AND CENSUS OF THE COUNTIES OF VIRGINIA. 

The subjoined statistical table of the various counties of Virginia, is from the U. S. 
statistics and census of 1840. It presents a view of the relative agricultural, manu- 
facturing, and mercantile wealth of the various counties. 

Explanation of the Table. — The columns of neat cattle, sheep, and swine, show the 
number of thousands of those animals. The columns of wheat, rye, Indian corn, oats, 
and potatoes, give the number of thousand bushels annually produced. The columns 
of tobacco and cotton, give the number of thousand pounds produced. The columns 
of capital in stores, and in manufactures, give the number of thousand dollars thus 
invested. The column of scholars in schools and academies, as well as those of the 
slaves and population, are carried out in full. 

It will be observed there are some blanks. These are left so, either from the fact 
that there are no statistics of sufficient amount for record, or that the marshals employed 
to take them, made no returns to the general government. 



MISCELLANIES. 



IGl 



Countiei. 


z, 


1 Sheep. 1 




S 
$ 




c 

•5 


a 
O 


Potatoei. 


Tobacco. 


e 
o 

o 
O 


- i 
6 " 


E S 

Is 

■ = 

o = 


a 

H 
■ 1 

'Ji 


m 

m 


e 

o 

■n 

3 


Acconiac . 


14 


10 


27 




14 




643 453 


113 






125 


73 


751 


4.630 


17,096 


Albemarle 


15 


21 


35 


327 


117 


712 216 


29 


2409 




302 


261 


786 


13,809 22,924 


Allcfjhany 


3 


4 


5 


25 


9 


71 


59 


9 


42 




2 


29 


88 


547 


2,749 


Amelia 


6 




13 


51 




245 


106 


58 


1871 


6 


42 


21 


206 


/,023 


10,320 


Amherst . . 


8 


I 


17 


113 


11 


381 


145 




2106 


2 


78 


112 


674 


5,577 


12,576 


Augusta • . 


•21 


2U 34 


324 


92 384 


245 


48 




• 


117 


138 


693 


4,145 


19,628 


liath . . . 


9 






31 




118 


79 


32 






32 


4(1 


196 


347 


4,300 


Bedford . . 


l(i 


15 


31 


206 


7 


537 




22 


3442 




70 


11 


197 


8,8()4 


20,203 


Berkley . . 


9 


13 


25 


287 


38 39l'l36 








123 


356 


727 


1,919 


10,972 


Botetourt . . 


9 


1321 


197 


22 299 


185 




708 




152 


23 




2,925 


11,679 


Braxton . . 


3 


3 


6 


9 




67 


21 




4 




11 


21 




064 


2,;>«o 


Brooke . . 


5 


34 


11 


140 


5 


135 


144 


63 






83 


450 


746 


091 


7,948 


Brunswick 


1 1 
* ' 


6 


19 


27 




329 


116 




2141 


13 


56 


25 


282 


8,805 


14,346 


Buckingham 


12 


15 


22 


169 


1 


439 


227 


21 


2453 


11 


191 


226 


656 


10,014 


18,786 


Cabell . . . 


9 


10 


2(1 


39 


h 379 


96 


17 


6 




67 


32 


339 


5b/ 


0,1 oj 


Campbell . . 




14 


21 


178 




482 


228 


23 3257 


4 


1690 


398 


585 


1,045 


21,030 


Caroline . . 


10 


9 


19 


81 


13 


576 


120 


19 


774 


20 


132 


5 


589 


9,314 


17,813 


Charles City 


2 





6 


36 




118 


45 


4 




2 


16 


11 


140 


2,433 


4,774 


Charlotte . . 


10 


'5 


22 


65 




509,247 


15 


4181 


19 


134 


44 


585 


9,260 


14,595 


Chesterfield . 


7 




1' 


34 




285 


156 


10 


680 


6 


20 


935 


420 


6,781 


17,148 


Clarke . . 


6 


8 


15 


2.58 




267 


91 


20 








60 


281 


3,325 


6,353 


Culpepcr 


11 


15 


20 


122 


14 390 


128 


21 


29 




126 


78 


769 


6,069 


11,393 


Cumberland . 


6 


10 


10 


61 




247 


122 




2896 


23 


163 


107 


263 


6,781 


10,399 


Dinwiddle 


10 


B 


20 


37 




284 


137 


18 2219 


71 


1921 


781 


894 


9,947 


22,.558 


Elizabeth City 


2 






19 




80 


14 


11 






46 


23 


274 


1,708 


3,706 


Essex . . . 


7 


\ 


13 


74 


X 

4 


419 


40 


15 


4 


15 


140 


53 


378 


6,756 


11,309 


Fairfax . . 


13 




10 


27 


6 


158 




8 


13 








265 


3,453 


9,370 


Floyd . . . 


6 




13 


24 


13 


73 


/ / 


20 


18 




11 


4 


160 


321 


4,453 


Fauquier . • 


26 


35 37 


362 


35 


670 307 


57 


55 




381 


126 


1521 


10,708 21,897 


Fluvanna . . 


5 


G 


9 


62 




182 


71 


8 


1279 




126 


97 


418 


4,146 


8,812 


Franklin . . 


12 


12 32 


97 


7 


430 


184 


18 


2508 


3 


119 


74 


367 




15,832 


Frederick . . 


7 


13 


13 


173 


31 


300 


135 


37 






237 


226 


274 


2,302 


14,242 


Fayette . . 


4 


5 


7 


11 


4 


105 


64 


15 






20 


30 




133 


3.924 


Giles . . . 


7 


10 


13 


45 


35 


163 


69 


17 


13 




34 


33 


223 


574 


5,307 


Gloucester 


8 


5 


il 


56 




307 


62 


13 


8 




87 


28 


314 


5,791 


10,715 


Goochland 


6 


5 




80 




2.59 


170 


10 


4501 


5 


80 


2 


139 


5,500 


9,760 


Grayson 


14 


18 


1 


28 


J7 


219 


143 


34 






40 


5 


252 


492 


9,087 


Greene . . 


3 


3 




40 


I J: 


124 


33 


8 


490 


1 


21 


24 


372 


1.740 


4,232 


Greenbrier 


14 


19 


12 


69 


43 


207 


198 


32 






112 


69 


231 


1,214 


8.695 


Greensville . 


5 


4 


16 


9 




230 


93 


11 


346 573 


39 


27 


200 


4,102 


6.366 


Halifax . . 


14 


17 


31 


78 




598 281 


1616209 


22 


171 


209 


809 


14,216 


25,936 


Hampshire . 


15127 


18 


179 


52 


471 


174 


71 






158 


63 


577 


1,403 


12,295 


Hanover . . 


10 


9 


14 


48 


18 


.350 


177 


26 


615 


23 


20 


36 


417 


8,394 


14,968 


Hardy . . . 


24 


15 


13 


87 




411 


41 


32 






69 


75 


218 


1,131 


7,622 


Harrison . . 




3 


33 


136 


'i 


421 


226 


62 


23 




99 


131 


436 


693 


17,699 


Henrico . . 


I 


2 


12 


39 




248 


138 


12 


33 




5340 


1384 


1862 


13,237 


33,076 


Henrv • . • 


6 


5 


16 


40 




206 


74 


12 


1623 


3 


33 


14 


466 


2,852 


7,335 


Isle of Wight 


t 


i23 


4 




291 


29 


77 




31 


67 


36 


397 


3,786 


9,972 


Jackson . . 




3 


11 


28 




117 


^? 


5 


5 




16 


2 


153 


87 


4,890 


James City . 




1 


5 


17 




86 


35 


3 


8 


6 


21 


6 


129 


1,947 


3,779 


Jefferson . . 




67 


72 


517 


43 


99 


72 


151 






320 


344 


737 


4,157 


14,082 


Kanawha . , 


7 


4 


8 


14 




203 


23 


8 






117 


50 


408 


2,560 


13,567 


rvmg miu v^jueen 


8 


3 






3 


343 


36 


14 


8 


42 




60 


548 


5,937 


10,862 


King George . 


5 


5 


7 


38 


4 


254 


37 


6 


23 


4 


21 




189 


3,382 


5,927 


King William 


6 


5 


13 


59 


6 


350 


45 


17 


11 


56 


54 




349 


5,780 


9,258 


Lancaster 


3 


2 


8 


26 






44 


7 




10 


30 


'I 


140 


2,478 


4,628 


Lee .... 


10 


1034 


37 


7 


446 


103 


23 


23 




17 




138 


5t?0 


8,441 


Lewis . .• . 


12 


15 


20 


47 


5 


2.53 


80 


24 


12 




59 




219 


124 


8,151 


Logan . . 


5 


2 


10 


7 




871 


28 


11 


9 




28 




370 


15U 


4,309 



21 



162 



MISCELLANIES. 



Counties. 


S 

S 


Q. 

1 

w 


W 


Wheal. 


Pi 


■5 
'"' 


O 


Potatoes. 


Tobacco. 


1 Cotton. 


Capital in 
stores. 


Cap. in ma- 
nulactories. 


Scholars in 
schools. 


i 
% 

M 


Population. 


Loudon 


27 


32 


39 


573 


82 


892 


225 


53 


> 1 




07C 
2lD 


inc." 

lyb 


1 07/1 

1^/4 


5,273 


20,431 


Louisa . . 


11 


13 


20 


221 


1 




158 


15 


2431 




111 


7n 
70 


cn 1 
091 


9^010 


15,433 


Lunenburg 


7 


9 


16 


07 
J / 




275 


138 






1 Q 

ly 


111 
111 




OQH 


6,707 


11 AC C 

ll,Uoo 


Madison . . 


7 


9 


13 


101 


24 


272 


33 


13 


149 


n 

y 


A O 

4b 


1 OO 

loo 


0Q7 

oy / 


4,308 


8,107 


Mason 


8 


9 


17 


70 


2 


299 






9 




OO 
OO 


o 
8 


0/1 1 


808 


6,777 


Marshall . 


5 


7 


9 


83 


2 


146 


103 


30 






1 n 

ly 


13 


7n 
/U 


46 


6,937 


Matthews 


4 


2 


9 


9 




171 


54 


17 




2d 


O A 

o4 


35 


o ( n 
o4y 


3,309 


7,442 


Mecklenburg 


14 


14 


32 


77 




472 


224 


20 


4124 


1 o 


OAO 

oUo 


50 


Kon 
o2U 


11,915 


20,724 


Mercer 


3 


4 


5 


13 


5 


56 


28 


8 


3 




4 


65 


o,i 
24 


98 


2,233 


Middlesex 


4 


3 


7 


17 


1 


122 


21 


8 


1 


Q 

o 


o£; 
2o 


29 


OnO 
202 


2,209 


4,392 


Monongalia • 


16 


29 


20 


166 


6 


381 


320 


d2 


15 




bb 


43 


CcO 

boo 


260 


17,368 


Monroe 


12 


20 


14 


68 


39 


209 


124 


oo 

23 






oon 
22v 


65 


1 7Q 

1 /y 


868 


8,422 


Montgomery 


10 


13 


17 


106 


21 


209 


114 


18 


241 




126 


59 


442 


1,473 


7,405 


Morgan 


3 


4 


6 


38 


14 


63 


42 


17 


1 




44 


9 


17 

o4/ 


134 


4,253 


Nansemond . 


7 


t 


23 


5 




316 


34 


bO 




1 KA 

104 


1 K7' 

-15/ 


70 


ACiA 

424 


4,530 


10,795 


New Kent 


i 


3 


9 


22 




140 


51 


8 




A 

4 


Ol 

21 




287 


3,385 


6,230 


Nicholas . • 


4 


5 


5 


4 


3 


56 


38 


11 


4 




40 


7 


77 


72 


2,515 


Norfolk . . 


t 


3 


19 


o 
o 




260 


35 


oD 




1 


lybo 


2o\J 


1 no c 
lUbo 


7,845 


21,092 


Northampton 


4 


5 


12 


i 




297 


197 


CO 

52 




f> 
o 


on 
o9 


41 


186 


3,620 


7,715 


Northumberl'nd 


6 


4 


12 






179 


55 


on 
2v 




1 o 
12 


Ob 


lU 


1 OA 
IbU 


3,243 


7,924 


Nottoway 


6 


7 


10 


42 




249 


70 


b 


2213 


Ol 
21 


00 


49 


195 


7,071 


9,719 


Nelson 


8 


8 


20 


128 


36 


327 


91 


19 


2229 


1 


OCQ 

25b 


50 


345 


5,967 


12,287 


Ohio . . . 


4 


27 


10 


IOC 


2 


254 


146 


4d 






4bo 


COA 

520 


1 Aon 

luby 


212 


l3,357 


Orange • • 


7 


11 


15 


no 
98 


8 


395 


92 


21 


416 


o 
2 


n c; 
90 


115 


348 


5,364 


9,125 


Pap"e 


5 


: 


13 




30 


156 


29 


Id 


7 




QQ 

yy 


07 

87 


Or;7 
2d I 


781 


6,194 


Patrick 


7 


6 


24 




3 


223 


69 


1 

lo 


618 




Ol 

2i 


14 


1 OA 

L2U 


1,842 


8,032 


Pendleton 


14 


21 


13 


(id 

Ob 


36 


130 


51 


OO 






bo 


K 1 
Ol 


oo^ 
26d 


462 


6,940 


Pittsylvania . 


19 


19 


42 




6 


679 


334 


9/1 

/i4 


c A on 
b4o9 


1 ft 
10 


onn 


ooo 

222 


1 f i 1 


11,588 


OC OAQ 

2b,oyb 


Pocahontas . . 


7 


10 


5 


1 o 

lb 


21 


41 


50 


2i 






1 o 
12 


28 


1 oo 
loo 


219 


2,922 


Powhatan 


5 


7 


9 


o4 




189 


138 


7 


1850 




Oft 
2o 


A O 

4o 


O 1 o 


5,129 


7,924 


Preston . 


7 


12 


9 


o 
O 


18 


43 


130 


oo 


4 




1 no 

luy 


45 




91 


6,866 


Prince Edward 


8 


12 


15 


/ 




304 


129 


lo 


3107 


11 


1 0/1 

124 


OA ,( 

204 


K 1 7 
Ol i 


8,576 


14,069 


Princess Anne 


11 


7 


21 


7 




299 


85 


Q7 
O / 




1 


2 


10 


OOO 

23o 


3,087 


7,285 


Prince William 


7 


8 


9 


4/ 


4 


180 


105 


c 
D 


5 




bb 


OO 

22 


1 1 Q 
1 lb 


2,767 


8,144 


Prince George 


3 


3 


6 


1 1 
Ol 




177 


35 


D 


115 


Oo 

23 


c 
O 


12 


I 1 7 

II / 


4,004 


7,175 


Pulaski 


7 


10 


12 


40 


17 


144 


80 


lo 






04 


OO 

32 


lob 


954 


3,739 


Randolph . 


10 


14 


9 




7 


151 


87 


oU 


7 




bO 


07 

2 1 


1 nft 
lUo 


216 


OAQ 

b,20o 


Rappahannock 


9 


13 


18 


1 on 
180 




310 


94 


O 1 
24 


5 




QO 

yo 


35 


CLAO 

dU2 


3,663 


9,257 


Roanoke . > 


5 


6 


11 


1 A 1 

141 


14 


182 


98 





599 




4 / 


A(\ 

4U 


1 Qfi 

lyb 


1,553 


c /I -1 n 
0,44y 


Rockbridge 


13 


20 


26 


2b4 


70 


505 


249 


OD 


294 




iby 


131 


bbo 


3,510 


14,284 


Rockingham . 


20 


24 


39 




91 


470 


248 


41 


37 




on 1 
oU4 


174 


O A 1 

b44 


1,899 


17,344 


Russell . 


14 


15 


27 


o9 


8 


294 


142 


Ol 
21 






OQ 
2v 


29 


A 1 

41 


700 


7,878 


Scott 


10 


,14 


24 


40 


2 


294 


112 


1 7 
1 / 


7 




Ol 
ol 


22 


OAC 


344 


7,303 


Shenandoah . 


11 


!l2 


16 


164 


32 


298 


105 


o c 
OO 






Ibb 


178 


o c c 
355 


1,033 


ll,6l8 


Smythe 


9 


'll 


16 


o2 


7 


221 


178 


O A 

o4 






OQ 
2v 


8 


OAO 

2yo 


838 


6,522 


Southampton 


10 


1 8 


44 


10 


3 


554 


71 


bb 


25 


OCT 

bol 


Ob 


6 


449 


6,555 


14,525 


Spottsylvania 


8 


1 8 


12 


58 




303 


102 


1 n 

lU 


353 


/I 
4 


oyo 


153 


b4y 


7,590 


15,161 


Stafford 


5 


5 


9 


31 


4 


212 


68 


12 


34 


7f;n 


1 ft 
lb 


2 


1 A C 

lyo 


3,596 


8,454 


Surrey 


4 


4 


13 


9 




185 


36 


34 


5 


64 


47 


7 


186 


2,853 


6,480 


Sussex 


9 


1 8 


24 


19 




405 


104 




176 


477 


36 


6 


363 


6,38^^ 


11,229 


Tazewell . . 


10 


11 


15 


34 


13 


150 


126 


16 




45 


41 


11 




786 


6,290 


Tyler . . . 


6 


12 


13 


53 


2 


223 


58 


35 


1 




29 


42 


416 


85 


6,954 


Warwick . . 


2 


1 1 


4 


11 




46 


9 


2 




1 


63 


218 


52 


831 


1,456 


Warren . . 


5 




13 


148 


17 


219 


58 


16 






83 


115 


234 


1,434 


5,627 


Washington . 


14 19 


,32 


107 


8 


397 


296 


60 






304 


43 


551 


2,058 


13,001 


Westmoreland 


5 


4 




60 


1 


244 


28 


7 


1 


5 


67 


10 


163 


3,590 


8,019 


Wood . . . 


8 14 


'12 


71 




204 


85 


22 


87 




99 


17 


626 


624 


7,923 


Wythe . . 


14'l8 


j23 


86 


47 


234 


152 


38 






173 


72 


309 


1,618 


9,375 


York . . . 




I 






















170 




4,720 



ACCOM AC COUNTY. 



163 



ACCOMAC COUNTY. 

This is the northernmost of the two counties forming the " east- 
ern shore of Virginia," which is cut olf from the rest of the state 
by Chesapeake Bay. Accomac was formed from Northampton 
CO., in l(i7*2. The term Accainnacke — as it was anciently spelt — 
is derived from a tribe of Indians who once inhabited this region. 
It is about 48 miles long, and 10 wide ; its surface is level, and the 
soil, though generally light, is in many parts fertile. It produces 
well, wheat, corn, cotton, oats, &c., and an abundance of table 
vegetables. Pop. 1830, 19,()5(>; 1840, whites 9,518, slaves 4,030, 
free colored 2,848 ; total 17,090. 

Accomac C. H., or Drummondstown. in the heart of the county, 
212 miles e. of Richmond, contains about 40 dwellings. Horn- 
town, Modest-town, and Pungoteague, are small villages. 

Upon the Atlantic coast are numerous islands, stretching along 
the whole length of the " eastern shore." The two northernmost are 
Chincoteague and Assateague. The first is about 8 miles long, 
and contains nearly a hundred families. About one-third of their 
bread-corn is raised upon the island ; the sea and wrecks furnish 
the remainder of their subsistence. Assateague, though many 
times larger, has but few inhabitants, and is untit ibr the cultiva- 
tion of corn. Its rich bent-growing lands are subject to inunda- 
tion from the spring tides. The scenery around Chincoteague is in 
many places inexpressibly sublime, and the view of the ocean and 
the surrounding cluster of islands, from the elevated sand-hills of 
Assateague, is enchanting. The Farmers Register, from which 
this article is abridged, says that the Hebrides of Scotland, so pro- 
fitable to their proprietors, do Jiot possess a hundredth part of the 
advantages of these Atlantic islands for all the purposes of com- 
fortable living and extensive stock-raising ; yet, for want of enter- 
prise, they are neglected. These islands are flat, sandy, and soft, 
producing abundance of excellent grass. 

Some thirty years since, an immense number of wild liorscs were raised upon tliese 
islands, with no other care than to brand and castrate the colts. Their winter subsist- 
ence was supplied abundantly by nature. The tall, heavy rich {jrass of the flatlands 
atrordingr them green food nearly the whole of the winter, the tops of which alone were 
killed by the frosts, mild as usual so near the ocean. It was customary to have annual 
gatherings in June, to drive these wild horses into pens, where they were seized by 
islanders accustomed to such adventures, who pushed fearlessly in among them. On 
being broken, more docile and tractable animals could not be found. The horses have 
been gradually diminishing, until on one island they are nearly extinct, and the rustic 
splendor, the crowds, and the wild festivity of the Assateague horse-pennings, are 
among the things that were. 

The multitudes of both sexes that formerly attended these occasions of festal mirth 
were astonishing. The adjoining islands were literally emptied of their simple and 
frolic-loving inhabitants, and the peninsula itself contributed to swell the crowd. For 
fifty miles above and below the point of meeting, all the beauty and fashion of a certain 
order of the female population, who had funds or favorites to command a pa.'«jage, were 
sure to be there. All who loved wild adventure, whose hearts danced at the prospect 
of a distant water excursion, and a scene of no ordinary revel, where the ocean rolled 
his billows almost to their feet ; all who had a new gown to show, or a pretty face to 
exhibit, who could dance well or sing ; belles that sighed for beaux, or beaux that wanted 



164 



ALBEMARLE COUNTY. 



sweethearts ; all who loved to kiss or be kissed, to caress or be caressed ; all, in short, 
whose hearts delighted in romance without knowing its name, hurried away to this 
anxiously-expected scene of extravagant jollity, on the narrow thread of beach that the 
ocean seemed every moment to usurp. The imagination can scarcely conceive the ex- 
travagant enthusiasm with which this exciting sport was anticipated and enjoyed. It 
was a frantic carnival, without its debauchery. The young of both sexes had their 
imaginations inflamed by the poetical narratives of their mothers and maiden aunts, 
who in their more juvenile days were wont to grace those sylvan fetes of the mad flight 
of wild horses careering away along a narrow, naked, level sand-beach, at the top of 
their speed, with manes and tails waving in the wind, before a company of mounted men 
upon the fleetest steeds, shouting and hallooing in the wildest notes of triumph, and 
forcing the animals into the angular pen of pine logs prepared to enclose them. And 
then the deafening peals of loud huzzas from the thousand half- frenzied spectators, 
crowding into a solid mass around the enclosure, to behold the beautiful wild horse in 
all his native vigor, subdued by man, panting in the toils, and furious with heat, rage, 
and fright ; or hear the clamorous triumphs of the adventurous riders, each of whom 
had performed more than one miracle of equestrian skill on that day of glorious daring ; 
and the less discordant neighing of colts that had lost their mothers, and mothers that 
had lost their colts, m the melee of the sweeping drive, wij^h the maddened snorts and 
whinnying of the whole gang — all, all together formed a scene of unrivalled noise, up- 
roar, and excitement, which few can imagine who had not witnessed it, and none can 
adequately describe. 

But the play of spirits ended not here. The booths were soon filled, and loads of sub- 
stantial provision were opened, and fish and water-fowl, secured for the occasion, were 
fried and barbecued by hundreds, for appetites whetted to marvellous keenness by early 
rising, a scanty breakfast, exercise, and sea air. The runlets of water, and the jugs of 
more exhilarating liquor, were lightened of their burdens. Then softer joys succeeded ; 
and music and dance, and love and courtship, held their undisputed empire until deep 
in the night, when all sought shelter and repose on board of their boats, moored by the 
shore, or among their island friends, who gladly entertained them with characteristic 
hospitality. Many a winter's evening tale did the incidents of those merry-making oc- 
casions supply, and many a peaceful young bosom, of retired rural beauty, was assailed 
with other emotions than the rough sports of an Assateague horse-penning inspired ; 
and from one anniversary of this half-savage festivity to another, all was talk of the joy 
and transports of the past, and anticipations of the future. 



ALBEMARLE. 

Albemarle was formed, in 1744, from Goochland. Its length, 
from sw. to ne., is 35 miles, and its mean width 20 miles. The 
northern part is drained by the Rivanna and its branches ; the 
southern by the Hardware and its branches. The surface is gener- 
ally hilly or mountainous, the scenery picturesque, and much of 
the soil highly productive in corn and tobacco. Pop. 1830, 22,618 ; 
1840, whites 10,512, slaves 13,809; total 22,924. 

Scottsville is on the n. bank of the James River canal, 20 miles 
from Charlottesville, and 79 from Richmond. It is the largest and 
most flourishing village on the canal, between Richmond and 
Lynchburg, and does a heavy business ; it contains 1 Presbyte- 
rian, 1 Methodist, and 1 Reformed Baptist church, and about 160 
houses. 

Charlottesville, the county seat, is 121 miles from Washington 
City, and 85 northwesterly from Richmond. It is beautifully situated 
in a fertile and well-watered valley, on the right bank of the Ri- 
vanna River. It contains many mercantile and mechanical estab- 



AI-REMARLE COI NTY. 



lishments, and has grratly improved ^vithin the last few years. 
The religious societies are Episcopal, Presbyterian, Baptist, and 
Methodist. The population is not far from 2000 : much of the 
society of the town and county is highly refined. Albemarle has 
given birth to several eminent men : among wliom may be men- 
tioned Jederson, the late Gov. CJilmer, Dr. Gilmer, author of 
" Sketches and Essays of Public Characters," Meriwether Lewis, 
and others. 

The University of Virginia is one mile west of Charlottc^sville, 
and although of a deservedly high reputation, it is an institution 
of recent origin. The legislature of the state, at the session of 
1817-18, adopted measures for establishing the university, which, 
however, did not go into operation until 1825. The institution 
was erected and endowed by the state ; and it owes its origin and 
peculiar organization to Mr. Jefferson. It has a line collection of 
buildings, consisting of four parallel ranges about GOO feet in 
length, and 200 feet apart, suited to the accommodation of 9 pro- 
fessorships, and upwards of 200 students ; which, together with 
the real estate, cost over 8300,000. It possesses valuable libraries, 
amounting to 10,000 vols., and is amply provided with philosophi- 
cal and chemical apparatus, together with a fine cabinet of min- 
erals and fossils, and an anatomical and miscellaneous museum. 
The observatory, a short distance from the university, is furnished 
with the requisite astronomical instruments. "The plan of the uni- 
versity differs materially from that of other institutions in the 
Union. The students are not divided into four classes, with a 
course of studies embracing lour years; but the different branches 
are styled schools, and the student is at liberty to attend which he 
pleases, and graduate in each when prepared. In order to attain 
the title of " Master of Arts of the University of Virginia," the 
student must graduate in the several schools of mathematics, 
ancient languages, moral philosophy, natural philosophy, chemistry, 
and in some two of the modern languages. TIk^ chairman of the 
faculty is annually chosen from the faculty, by the board of visit- 
ors. This board is appointed by the governor and council every 
four years, and chooses its own rector. This institution is, in 
every respect, organized and justly regarded as an university of 
the first class. The number of students, including the law and 
medical departments, is not far from 200." 

The British and German prisoners taken at Saratoga, in the 
revolution, and known as the " Courrntio/L troops,'^ were sent to 
Charlottesville in the beginning of the year 1779. On their first 
arrival a momentary embarrassment was felt for the want of ne- 
cessary accommodations. A British officer by the name of Anbu- 
ry, whose travels have been published, was among the prisoners. 
On this point he says : 

But on our arrival at Charlottesville, no pen cnn describe the scene of misery and confusion that en- 
sticd; the othrors of the first and sciond lirisrrulHs wore in the town, and our arrival addfd to their dis- 
tress; this famous plac« we Lad heard so much of, consialed only of a court-house, one tavern, auU 



166 



ALBEMARLE COUNTY. 



about a dozen houses ; all of which were crowded with officers, — those of our brigade, therefore, were 
obliged to ride about the country, and entreat tlie inhabitants to take us in. As to the men, the situation 
was truly horrible, after the hard shifts they had experienced in their march from the Potomack ; they 
were, instead of comfortable barracks, conducted into a wood, where a few log huts were just begun to 
be built, the most part not covered over, and all of them full of snow; these the men were obliged to 
clear out, and cover over to secure themselves from the inclemency of the weather, as quick as they 
could, and in the course of two or three days, rendered them a habitable, but by no means a comfortable 
retirement. What added greatly to the distresses of the men, was the want of provisions, as none had 
as yet arrived for the troops, and for six days they subsisted on the meal of indian corn niade into cakes. 
The person who had the management of every thing, informed us that we were not expected till 
spring. Never was a country so destitute of every comfort ; provisions were not to be purchased fur ten 
days : the officers subsisted upon salt pork and indian corn made into cakes ; not a drop of any kind of 
spirit, what little there had been, was already consumed by the first and second brigades ; many officers, 
to comfort themselves, put red pepper into water, to drink by way of cordial. 

Upon a representation of our situation, by Brigadier-General Hamilton, to Colonel Bland, who com- 
manded the American troops, he promised to render the situation of the men as comfortable as possible, 
and with all expedition. As to the officers, upon signing a parole, they might go to Richmond, and other 
adjacent towns, to procure themselves quarters; accordingly, a parole was signed, which allowed a cir- 
cuit of near one hundred miles. And after the officers had drawn lots, as three were to remain in the 
barracks with the men, or at Charlottesville, the principal part of them set otf for Richmond, many of 
them are at plantations, twenty or thirty miles from the barracks. I am quartered with Major Master 
and four other officers of our regiment, at this plantation, about twenty miles from the barracks ; the 
owner has given up his house, and gone to reside at his overseer's, and for the use of his house, we pay 
him two guineas a week. On the arrival of the troops at Charlottesville, the officers, what with vexa- 
tion, and to keep out the cold, drank rather freely of an abominable linuor, called peach brandy, which, 
if drunk to excess, the fumes raise an absolute delirium, and in their cups, several were guilty of deeds 
that would admit of no apology ; the inhabitants must have actually thought us mad, for in the coui'se 
of three or four days, there were no less than six or seven duels fought. 

The Baroness de Riedesel was also with the convention troops. 
This gifted and heroic lady, also says, in her memoirs : 

At first they suffered many privations ; they were billeted in block-houses without windows or doors, 
and but poorly defended from the cold. But they went diligently to work to construct better dwellings, 
and in a short time the place assumed the appearance of a neat little town. In the rear of each house 
they had trim gardens, and enclosed places for poultry. Afterwards, when the old provisions were con- 
sumed, they received fresh meat, and flour to make bread ; and as this latter was of wheat, they could 
even make cakes and pies. They wanted nothing but money, of which the English sent but little ; and 
as it was difficult to purchase any thing on credit, the soldiers were in many perplexities on that ac- 
count 

Mr. Jefferson, who then resided in the vicinity, did his utmost to 
render the situation of the troops and officers as pleasant as possi- 
ble. To the latter, he offered the hospitalities of his mansion, 
threw open his library for their inspection, and contributed, by 
neighborly intercourse and attention, to render them happy. His 
efforts in their behalf called forth the strongest expressions of 
gratitude and esteem. These troops remained here until October, 
1780, when the state being invaded by Leslie, the public safety de- 
manded the removal of the British portion of them to Fort Fred- 
erick, in Maryland. The Germans, however, continued longer. 

In May, 1781, when Cornwallis invaded Virginia, the legisla- 
ture adjourned from Richmond to Charlottesville, as a place of 
greater safety. In June, the celebrated partisan officer, Tarleton, 
was detached to Charlottesville, with 180 cavalry of his legion, 
and 70 mounted infantry, with directions to surprise the General 
Assembly, seize the person of Jefferson, then the governor, and to 
do other mischief. He was then to join Simcoe, who had been 
detached to the Point of Fork, in Fluvanna county. The subjoin- 
ed details of this event, are from Tuckers Life of Jefferson : 

A gentleman who was in the neig-hborhood of the British army, and who suspected 
Tarleton's object, was able, by means of a fleet horse, and a nearer road, to give two 
hours notice of his approach.* As it was, all the members of the Assembly, except 



* Another incident contributed to defeat Colonel Tarleton's purpose. The following 



ALREMARLE COUNTY. 



107 



seven, effected their escape, and rcassonibU'd on t!ie 7tli of June, at Staunton, about 
forty miles west of Charlottesville. Tarleton, heariiiir that there wvrc many jrcnth-men 
of the lower country then at the houses of Dr. Walker, and .Mr. John \V;iIk('r, which 
lay near his route, lor a moment lost si<rhl of his principal ohjfct, and ri'solvcd to maku 
them prisoners. lie accordinf^ly diviiled his force, and sent a part to .Mr. John Walk- 
er's, while he liiniself stopped at the house of Dr. Walker. Several gentlemen were here 
made caj>tivfS. 

When Tarleton approached within ten miles of Charlottesville, he drtarlird a party of 
horse, under caj)taiu .M'Leod, to Monticello, to seize Mr. JeflVrson. But he had, about 
sunrise, received the intellijjence of Tarleton's approach. Several members of the leiris- 
lature, includin<; the speakers of both houses, were then his (guests, and they hastened 
to Charlottesville, to adjourn the legislature. Mrs. Jefferson and her three children 
hurried otY in a carriage to Colonel Edward Carter's, about si.v miles to the south. Mr. 
Jetlerson followed afterwards on horseback, and had not left his house ten minutes be- 
fore the British entered it. Hi.s property, books, and papers, were all respected, with the 
exception of the waste which was committed in his cellars, by a few of the men, with- 
out the knowledge of the commanding ofHccr. Tarleton entered Cliarlottesville on the 
4th of June, four days after Mr. JelVerson's term of office expired. He, on the next day, 
rejoined Lord Cornwallis, who had established his head-quarters at Elk Hill, a planta- 
tion near the Point of Fork, beloiigincr to Mr. JefFerson. Here every sort of wanton 
mischief was perpetrated. Besides making a free use of the cattle, and carrying ofi" all 
the horsej fit for service, as was to be expected, the throats of the young horses were 
cut, the growing crops of corn and tobacco were destroyed ; those of the preceding year, 
together w ith the barns which contained them, and all the fences on the plantation were 
burnt. Other plantations shared a similar fate, though not to the same extent. Thirty 
thousand slaves were taken from Virginia by the British in these invasions, of wliom 
twenty-seven thousand were computed to have died of the small-pox, or camp fever. 
The whole amount of. property carried off, and destroyed, during the six months prece- 
ding Cornwallis's surrender, has been estimated at X'3,U00,0UU sterling. 

Monticello,* the seat of Thomas Jefferson, is three miles south- 
east of Charlottesville. The annexed glowing description, is from 
Wirt's Eulogy upon Adams and Jefferson : 

The Mansi^^ou'^e, at Monticello, was built and furnished in the d;iys of his prosperity. In its di- 
men.sions, its architecture, its arrangements and ornaments, it is such a one as became the character and 
fortune of the man. It stands upon an eHii)tic plain, formed by cutting down the apex of a mountiiin , 
and, to the west, stretching away to the north and the soutli, it connnands a view of the Blue Ridfie for 
a hundred and fifty miles, and i)rinss under tjie eye one of the boldest and most beautiful horizons in the 
world ; while on the east, it pr(>sents an extent of prospect bounded only by the spherical form of the 
earth, in which nature seems to sleep in eternal repose, as if to form one of her finest contrasts with the 
rude and rolling grandeur of the west. In the wide prospect, and scattered to tin; north and south, are 
several deUiched mountains, which contribute to animate and diversify this enchantinu landscape; and 
among them, to the south Willis's mountain, which is so interestingly depicted in his .Ndtes. From this 
summit, the philosopher was wont to enjoy that spectacle, among tnc sublimi-si of Nature's operations, 
the looming of the dist int mountains ; an<l to watch the motions of the plan«'t<, and the greater revolu- 
tion of the celestial sphere. From this summit, loo, the patriot could look df)wn with uruiiterrupted vis- 
ion, upon the wide expanse of the world around, for which he considered himself born ; and upward to 
the o|)cn and vaulted heavens, which he seemed to approach, as if to keep him continually in mind of 
his high responsibility. It is indeed a prospect in w hich you see and feel, at once, that nothing mean or 
little could live. It is a scene fit to nourish those great and high-souled principles which formed the ele- 
ments of his character, and was a most noble and appropriate jhwI for such a sentinel, over the rights 
and liberties of men. 

Approaching the house on the east, the visiter instinctively paused to cast around one thrilling glance 
at this magnificent panorama : and then passed to the vestibule, where, if he had not been previously 



facts are stated on the authority of a gentleman who received them from Dr. Walker' 
himself: On Tarleton's arrival at his house, he had ordered breakfast to be prepared 
for the colonel and the officers ; but the operations of the cook appearing to be utmsu- 
ally tardy, and his guest manifesting great impatience, he went to the kitchen himself to 
inquire the cau.se of the delay ; and was there told by the cook that he was then engaged 
in prep tring the third breakfast, the two first having been taken from him by some of 
Colonel Tarleton's men : oti which the doctor told his guest, that if he wished for break- 
fast, he must place a guard of soldiers to protect the cook, which was accordingly done. 
The time that was thus lust, it appeared, on comparing notes afterwards, saved the del- 
egates from capture. 

* Monticello, in Italian, signifies " Little Mountaiti." 



168 



.V 

ALBEMARLE COUNTY. 



infoumed, he woxild immccliately perceive that he was entering the house of no common niJin. In the 
spacious and lofty hall which opens before him, he marks no tawdry and unmeaning ornaments : \mt be- 
fore, on the right, on the left, all around, the eye is struck and gratified by objects of science and taste, 
so classed and arranged, as to produce their finest efl^ect. On one side, specimens of sculpture set out in 
such order as to exhibit, at a coup d'reil, the historical progress of that art, from the first rude attempts 
of the aborigines of our country, up to that exquisite and finished bust of the great patriot himself from 
the master hand of Carracci. On the other side the visiter sees displayed a vast collection of specimens 
of the Indian art, their paintings, weapons, ornaments, and manufactures ; on another an array of the 
fossil productions of our country, mineral and animal ; the polished remains of those colossal monsters 
that once trod our forests, and are no more ; and a variegated display of the branching honors of those 
" monarchs of the waste," that still people the wilds of the American continent. 




Monticello, the seat of Thomas Jefferson. 

From this hall he was ushered into a nohle saloon, from which the glorious landscape of the west 
again bursts upon his view ; and which, within, is hung thick around with the finest productions of the 
pencil — historical paintings of the most striking subjects, from all countries, and all ages ; the portraits 
of distinguished men and patriots, both of Europe and America, and medallions, and engravings in end- 
less profusion. 

While the visiter was yet lost in the contemplation of these treasures of the arts and sciences, he was 
startled by the approach of a strong and sprightly step, and turning with instinctive reverence to the door 
of entrance, he was met by the tali, and animated, and stately figure of the patriot himself— his counte- 
nance beaming with intelligence and benignity, and his outstretched hand, with its strong and cordial 
pressure, confirming the courteous welcome of his lips. And then came the charm of manner and con- 
versation that passes all description — so cheerful — so unassuming — so free, and easy, and frank, and 
kind, and gay, — that even the young and overawed, and embarrassed visiter forgets his fears, and felt 
himself by the side of an old and familiar friend. 



The subjoined metnoir of the author of the Declaration of American Independence 
is abridged principally from the American Portrait-Gallery. 

Thomas Jefferson was born 
at Shadwell, in this county, 
April 2d, 1743. His ancestors 
were among the early settlers 
of Virginia, and his father., 
Peter Jefferson, was an in- 
fluential public man, who, ai 
his death, left his son an ara- 
Fac-simileof Thomas Jefferson's Signature. pie fortune. Jefferson passed 

through his collegiate course 
at William and Mary, with distinction, and became a student of law under the celebrated 
George Wythe. When of age, he was admitted to the bar, and was soon elected a 
representive from Albemarle to the legislature. From youth his mind was imbued with 
the most liberal political sentiments. On one of his seals, about this time, was engraved 
the motto, " Resistance to tyrants is obedience to God." These feelings strengthened 
with the position of public affairs. 

In 1772 he married Miss Wayles, an amiable and accomplished lady. She died in 
about ten years, leaving two infant daughters. In 1773, Jefferson devised and arranged 




4 



1 

I 



ALBEMARLE COUNTY. 



169 



the first organized system of colonial resistance, which was the formation of committees 

of correspoiulc'tico in the ditVcrfnt provinces. Its adoption v.ms strikin::Iy IxMicticial. 
As tlie crisis of jjulilic; alFurs api)ro:u !)«'(l, not content with iiis roiislinit l ilinrs ;is a 
men)bt'r of the U'lr-shit are, he wrote iind ()iil)h>hi'd " A Siiiiiuiary Virw of the lii^'hts of 
British America." For this j)iihhcatioii liord Duninore tiircateiK-d to prosrcutc him on 
a charge of hij^h treu^son, and dissolved the legislature who had snstained the same 
doctrines. When tlie conciliatory propositions of the British ministry were sent out in 
the following year, the coniinittee of tlie legislature presented a reply from the pen of 
Jefferson, which has ever been considered a state pajjcr of the highest order. In June, 
1775, he took his scat as a delegate to the General C'ongrcss. In the succeeding sum- 
mer, Jctlerson was chairman of the committee, and drew up the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, which, after a few allerations, was adopted by Conirn-ss, July '1th, 1776. 
In the autumn of this year, he was appointed one of the cJSmmis.sioners to the court of 
France ; but ill-heullh, and considerations of a i)ublic nature, prevented his acceptance. 
He shortly after resigned his seat in Congress, and being elected to the fiixt legislature 
under the new constitution of Virginia, he introduced, and, with the aid of able coadju- 
tors, carried through imi)ortant laws, founded on just and great principles of the social 
compact. The first of these was a bill preventing the importation of slaves; this he 
followed up by destroying entails and abolishing tlic rights of primogeniture, the over- 
throw of the church establishment, which had been introduced in imitation of that of 
England. Besides these, he reduced to a system the various irregular enactments of 
the colonial government and mother country. It was a most severe labor. It consisted 
of 126 bills, comprising and remodelling the whole statutory law; and though not all 
enacted as he contemplated, they have formed the admirable basis of the jurisprudence 
of Virginia. 

In June, 1779, he was elected governor of Virginia, and re-elected the next year. 
It was a season of imminent peril ; the state was invaded by Tarleton and Arnold, and 
he himself made the object of particular pursuit. At the expiration of his term, the 
legislature passed a unanimous resolution expressive of their high opinion of his ability 
and integrity. In June, i'lU'.i, he was again elected to Congress, ayd there prepared the 
beautiful address, imtdc by Congress to Washington, on taking leave of public lii'e. lie 
was, also, the chairman of a committee a[)pointed to lorm a plan for tem|)orary govern- 
ment in the vast and then unsettled western territory. He introduced a clause for- 
bidding the existence of slavery in it after the year 18U0. In the summer of 17H4, he 
was sent as a minister plenipotentiary to France. He remained in Europe until Nov., 
17t<9, during which time he visited England, and, in concert with Mr. Adams, inetiec- 
tually endeavored to etl'ect a comnicrcial treaty with Britain. While in France, he was 
engaged in many diplomatic negotiations of considerable importance to his country. 
Among men of letters, and high })olitical distinction, he was received with marked kind- 
ness, and he graced the most brilliant social circles of Paris. When he returned to the 
United States, he occupied the ofhce of secretary of state under Washington, instead 
of resuming, as he had intended, the post of minister to France. Of the great mass of 
the constitution, which had been formed during his absence, he approved, though there 
were points in it, in which he thought there was no adequate security for political rights. 
In its practical interpretations, he adopted the niore popular view ; and he beeame the 
head of the party which sustained it. While in the department of state, he laid down 
the great, and ever since aj)provcd, maxims relative to our foreign intercour.se. Among 
other negotiations, he became especially engaged in one with the ministers from the 
French republic, which seriously involved the political rights of the United States as a 
neutral nation, and led to the adoption of that policy of preserving peace, commerce, 
and friendship with all nations, but entering into entangling alliances with none. His 
report on an uniform svstem of currency, weights, and measures, was one of those 
measures of domestic policy appropriate to his ollice, and is said to have abounded with 
the most eidightened views. lie also presented to Congress a valuable memoir on the 
subject of the cod and whale fisheries. His last act as s(>cretary of state, was a report on 
the nature and extent of the privileges and restrictions of the commercial intercouise 
of the United States with other countries, and on the best means of counteracting them. 
It attracted much attention, and was a document of great ability. It was the founda- 
tion of a series of resolutions proposed by Mr. .Madison, sanctioning the views it em- 
braced, and it became, in fact, the ostensible subject on which the federal and republican 
parties distinctly arrayed themselves against each other. 

In Dec, 17I>.3, Jeticrson resigned his olHce and retired to Alonticello. The Diikc de 
Liancourt, a French traveller, has given in his work a pleasing narrative of the manner 
iu which the life of the retired statesman was passed. " His conversation," ho says, 

22 



170 



ALBEMARLE COUNTY. 



" is of the most ajrreeable kind, and he possesses a stock of information not inferior to any 
other man. In Europe he would hold a distinguished rank among men of letters, and 
as such he has already appeared there. At present, he is employed with activity and 
perseverance in the management of his farms and buildings ; and he orders, directs, and 
pursues, in the minutest detail, every branch of business relating to them. I found him 
in the midst of harvest, from which the scorching heat of the sun does not prevent his 
attendance. His negroes are nourished, clothed, and treated as well as white servants 
could be. Every article is made on his farm ; his negroes being cabinet-makers, car- 
penters, and masons. The children he employs in a nail factory ; and the young and 
old negresses spin for the clothing of the rest. He animates them all by rewards and 
distinctions. In fine, his superior mind directs the management of his domestic con- 
cerns with the same abilities, activity, and regularity, which he evinced in the conduct 
of public affairs, and which he is calculated to display in every situation of life." It 
was at this period of retirement that he was unanimously elected president of the 
American Philosophical Society. 

Jefferson was not, however, long permitted to enjoy the tranquillity of private life. 
On the retirement of Washington from the presidency, Mr. Jefferson was selected by the 
democratic party as their candidate for that office, and Mr. Adams by the federal party. 
The highest number of votes appearing for the latter, he was declared president and 
Jefferson vice-president. For the succeeding four years most of his time was passed 
tranquilly at Monticello. When the period for another election arrived he was again 
a candidate for the presidential chair. On canvassing the votes of the electors, it was 
found that Mr. Jefferson and Mr. Burr had each seventy-three votes, Mr. Adams sixty- 
five, and C. C. Pinckney sixty-four. As the constitution provided that the person 
having the greatest number of votes should be president, and Mr. Jefferson and Mr. 
Burr, having an equal number, it became the duty of the House of Representatives, voting 
by states, to decide between these two gentlemen. The ballot was taken several days 
in succession. The federal party, generally, supported Mr. Burr ; the democratic party 
Mr. Jefferson. On the thirty-sixth ballot Mr. Jefferson was elected president, and Mr. 
Burr vice-president. 

On the 4th of March, 1801, Mr. Jefferson entered on his first presidential term. In 
his inaugural address, he stated, with great eloquence of language and admirable 
clearness and precision, the political principles ^y' which he intended to be governed in 
the administration of public affairs. 

His administration embraces a long and interesting period in the history of our coun- 
try, and measures of lasting importance were Carried through. The aggressions of the 
Tripolitans were promptly chastised ; the encroachments of the agents of the Spanish 
government to deprive us of the right of navigating the Mississippi, were repelled ; 
Louisiana was purchased ; the internal policy of the Union underwent important 
changes ; measures were adopted for the speedy discharge of the public debt ; the judi- 
ciary was restored to the original plan ; strict economy was observed in carrying on the 
government, and useless offices suppressed. 

So much was his administration approved, that when his term of service expired, he 
was again elected by a very large majority. He had scarcely entered on his office when 
the conspiracy of Burr was discovered. The foreign relations of the Union, however, 
assumed an importance exceeding all domestic affairs. The aggressions of Great Britain 
and France upon our commerce left no honorable course but that of retaliation. On 
the 22d of December, 1807, the Embargo Act was passed, on the recommendation of 
Mr. Jefferson. In January, 1809, overtures were made by the British government in- 
dicative of a disposition to recede from the ground they had assumed ; and these were 
preceded by a repeal of their most objectionable measures. In this situation were the 
foreign relations of the United States when Mr. Jefferson's second term of office expired, 
on the 3d of March, 1809, and his political career closed. 

He had been engaged, almost without interruption, for forty years, in the most ardu- 
ous public duties. From this time, until his death, he resided at Monticello. His home 
was the abode of hospitality, and the seat of" dignified retirement ; he forgot the busy 
times of his political existence, in the calm and congenial pleasures of science, and his 
mind, clear and penetrating, wandered with fresh activity and delight through all the 
regions of thought. Among the plans for the public welfare in which he was engaged, 
the establishment of the University of Virginia was with him a favorite scheme. The 
legislature approved of his plan, and appointed him rector. Until the time of his death, 
his most cherished hopes and endeavors were for its success. 

Mr. Jefferson died July 4th, 1826, at the age of 83 years. His family and servants 
were called around his dying bed. After declaring himself gratified by their affectionat* 



ALBEMARLE COT'NTY. 



171 



solicitude and havin<j distinrtly articulated those words, " T rcsirrn injsclf to my God, 

and my child to mv country.'' lie expired without ;i irroan. 

'l^ie neiijhhoriiood of Monticello udords iniuunerahle iiKMiutnculs of th*' hciicvolcncc 
and liberality of Mr. JetFersou ; and on his own estate, such was the coiulition of hi.s 
slaves, that in tlieir comfort, his own interest was too often entirely for{rotten. His at- 
tachment to his friends was nnvaryiuir, and few public men have had warmer, ilis do- 
mestic habits were simple, his a})plieation was excessive, and he coudurti'd all his bu- 
siness with great exactness and metliod. His corresjjondcnce was wonderfully exten- 
sive. 

In person, Mr. Jefferson was six feet two inches in height, erect and well formed, 
though thin ; his eyes were light, and full of intelligence ; his hair, originally of a yel- 
lowish red, was in his latter years silvered with ag(; ; his complexion was fair, his fore- 
liead broad, and the whole face S(]uare and expressive of deep thmking; his cf)untenance 
was remarkablv intelligent, and open as day, its general exj)ression fidl of goo'l will and 
kindness, and when the occasion excited it, beaming with enthusiasm ; his address was 
cordial, confirming the good will of his lips; his motions were flexible and easy, his step 
firm and sprightly ; and such were his strength and agility, that he was accustomed in 
the society of children, of which he was fond, to practise feats that few could imitate. 
His manner was simple, mingled with native dignity, but cheerful, unassuming, frank, 
and kind ; his language was remarkable for vivacity and correctness : and in his con- 
versation, which was witliout apparent effort, he poured forth knowledge, the most va- 
rious, from an exhaustless fountain, yet so modestly and engagingly that he seemed 
rather to seek than to impart information. 

He lies buried in a small burying, near the road, which winds around it to Monti- 
cello. It has a slight enclosure, and is surrounded by the native wood. In it lie the 
remains of members of the family, some two or three of whom have tablets of niarble. 
On his own grave, his executor has erected a granite obelisk, eight feet high, and on a 
piece of marble, inserted on its southern face, are inscribed the three acts for which he 
thought he best deserved to be remembered by posterity. This inscription was found 
among his papers after liis death, in his own handwriting, and it is iu these words: 

HERE LIES BURIED 

THOMAS JEFFERSON, ^ 
Author of the Declaration of American Independence, 
Of the Statute of Virginia for Religious Freedom, 
And Father of the University of Virginia. 

" Mr. Jefferson's religious creed," says Tucker, " as described in his correspondence, 
cannot perhaps be classed with that of any particular sect, but was nearer the Socinian 
than any other. In the last years of his life, when questioned by any friends on this 
subject, he used to say he was a Unitarian." 

Meriwether Lewis, tlie son of a wealthy farmer, was horn near Charlottesville, in 
1774. At 18 years of age, he relinquished his academic studies and engaged in agricul- 
ture. Two years after, he acted as a volunteer, to suppress the whiskey insurrection, 
from which situation he was removed to the regular service. From about 1801 to IHO.'?, 
he was the private seo-retary of Mr. Jefferson, when he, with Wm. Clarke, went in their 
celebrated exploring expedition to the Rocky Mountains. .Mr. Jetferson, in recoimnend- 
ing him to this dutv, gave him a high character, as jxissossing courage, intlexible perse- 
verance, intimate knowledge of the Indian character, iidi-lity, intelligence, and all those 
peculiar combinations of qualities that eminently fitted him lor .so arduous an underta- 
king. Thry were absent three years, and were highly succcsstul in the accomplishment 
of their duties. When, shortly after his return, in If^Ofi, he was ai)pointed governor of 
the territory of Louisiana, and finding it the seat of internal dissensions, he by his moder- 
ation, firmness, and impartiality, broutrht matters into a systematic train. He was sub- 
ject to constitutional hypochondria, and while under the influence of a severe attack shot 
himself on the borders of Teimessee, in f^O!), at the age of 35. This event was ascribed 
to the protest of some bills, which he drew on the public account. The account of his 
expedition, which he wrote, was j)ublished in The mother of .Mr. Lewis died iu 

this county, only a few years since. She possessed very strong powers of mind. 

William Wirt, the distintruished author of the British Spy, who was bom at Bladens- 
burg, for a time resided in this county. In ITD'J, when i20 years of age, he commenced 
the practice of law at Fairfax, iu the neighboring county oi" Culpeper. 



172 ALLEGHANY COUNTY. 

" In 1795, he married the eldest daughter of Dr. George Gilmer, a distinguished physi- 
cian, and took up his residence at Pen Park, the seat of his father-in-law, near Char- 
lottesville ; and here he was introduced to the acquaintance of Jefferson, Madison, 
Monroe, and other persons of celebrity. 

" In 1799 his wife died, and he was soon after elected clerk of the House of Delegates. 
Having performed the duties of his ofiice two years, he was in 1802 appointed chancellor of 
the Eastern District of Virginia, and tlicn took up his residence at WiUiamsburg ; and the 
same year he married the daughter of Col. Gamble, of Richmond. He soon after resigned 
his chancellorship, and at the close of the year 1803 removed to Norfolk, and entered 
upon the assiduous practice of his profession. Just before he removed to Norfolk, he 
wrote the letters published in the Richmond Argus, under the title of ' the British Spy,' 
which were afterwards collected in a small volume, and have passed through many 
editions. In 1806 he took up his residence in Richmond, and in the following year he 
greatly distinguished himself in the trial of Col. Burr. In 1812 he wrote the greater 
part of a series of essays, which were originally published in the Richmond Enquirer, 
under the title of ' The Old Bachelor,' and have since, in a collected form, passed through 
several editions. The ' liife of Patrick Henry,' his largest literary production, was first 
published in 1817. In 1816 he was appointed, by Mr. Madison, the U. S. Attorney for 
Virginia; and in 1817, by Mr. Monroe, attorney-general of the United States, a post 
which he occupied with distinguished reputation until 182f9, through the entire adminis- 
trations of Monroe and Adams. In 18.30, he took up his residence in Baltimore for the 
remainder of his life. He died Feb. 18th, 1834, at Washington City, in his 62d year. 
As a public and professional man, Mr. Wirt ranked among the first of his time ; and in 
all the relations of private life, as a man and a Christian, he was most exemplary, and 
was regarded with singular atfection and veneration." 



ALLEGHANY. 

Alleghany was formed in 1822, from Bath, Bottetourt, and 
Monroe. Its mean length is twenty-six, mean breadth twenty 
miles: Most of this county is a high mountain valley, drained by 
the head waters of the James. The main Alleghany chain forms 
its boundary on the west ; Peter's mountain and Warm Spring 
mountain divide the county into two nearly equal parts, having only 
a narrow gap at Covington, and Middle Mountain and Rich Patch 
form its southeastern boundary. The passage of Jackson's River 
through Waite's mountain, is a sublime feature of the natural 
scenery of the county. Population in 1830,2,816; 1840, whites 
2,142, slaves 547, free colored 60 ; total, 2,749. 

Covington, the county-seat, lies one hundred and ninety-six miles 
west of Richmond, at the head of the James River navigation, on 
Jackson's River, fifteen above its confluence with the Cow-Pasture, 
both of w^hich by their union constitute the James. It contains, at 
present, about fifty dwellings. At some future period, it is con- 
templated that the James River Canal will be continued to here ; 
in which case, it will be the depot between the land and water 
communication in the chain of the James River and Kanawha 
improvements, and will then command the trade of a large and 
fertile region of country. Near Covington, a fort, called Fort 
Young, was built in the early settlement of the country, as a pro- 
tection against the Indians. 

Petcr^s Mountain derived its name from Peter Wright, a famous hunter at the time 
of the first settlement, who was accustomed to hunt upon it. He resided near the 



AMELIA COUNTY. 



173 



present site of Covlnfiton. Near the house of INIr. John Lewis, there is, on tho roadside, 
u large slielviiiir rock, culled Peter's Rock, wlier*', says tradition, lie sought shcit. r in a 
snow storm. There he lay for several (hiys, until the snow was four feel dei-p, when ho 
was ohiiired to eat his moccasins to prcvi-nt starvin<r. lie ut length diseovcn-d and 
shot a deer, which furnished him with food, lie left, at his death, two sons, both of 
whom emigrated to the west many years since. 

There was an eecenlrie female, who lived in this section of the country towards the 
latter part of the last century. H'^r name was Ann Bailey. !Shc was horn in Liver- 
pool, and had been the wife of an English soldier. iShe generally went by the cogno- 
men of ALid Ann. During the wars with tlie Indians, she very often acted as a 
messenger, and conveyed letters from the fort, at Covington, to Point Pleasant. On 
these occasions she was mounted on a favorite horse of great sagacity, and rode like a 
man, with a ritle over her shoulder, and a tomahawk and a hutcher's-knife in her belt. 
At night she slept in the woods. Iler custom was to let her horse go free, and then 
walk some distance back on his trail, to escape being discovered by the Indians. After 
the Indian wars she spent some time in hunting. fShe pursued and shot deer and bears 
with the skill of a backwoodsman. tShe was a short, stout woman, very masculine and 
coarse in her appearance, and seldom or never wore a gown, but usually had on a petti- 
coat, with a man's coat over it, and buckskin breeches. The services she rendered in 
the wars with the Indians, endeared her to the people. Mad Ann, and her black pony 
Liverpool, were always welcome at every house. Often, she gathered the honest, sim- 
ple-hearted mountaineers around, and related her adventures and trials, while the 
sympathetic tear would course down their cheeks. She was profane, often became in- 
toxicated, and could box with the skill of one of the fancy. Mad Ann possessed 
considerable intelligence, and could read and write. IShe died in Ohio many years since. 

In 1764, a party of about fifty Indians came into this region, and then dividing into 
two, one went towards the Roanoke and Catawba settlements, and the other in the direc- 
tion of Jackson's River, where each connnitted murders and depredations. Captain 
Paul, who commanded at Fort Dinwiddie, went in pursuit of the latter party, and acci- 
dentally came upon the other, about midnight, encamjjcd on New River, at the mouth 
of Indian Creek. In an instant after firing upon them, Captain Paul and his n)en 
rushed forward to secure the wounded and prevent further escapes, as most of them had 
ran. One of the party raised his tomahawk to strike, as he supposed, a squaw, who sat 
composedly awaiting the result. As tiie tomahawk was descending. Captain Paul 
threw himself between the assailant and his victim, and received the blow on his arm, 
exclaiming : " It is a shame to hurt a woman, even a squaw !" She proved to be Mrs. 
Catharine Gunn, an English woman, an acquaintance of Captain Paul, taken prisoner 
on the Catawba a few days before, when her husband and two children were killed. On 
being asked why she had not made known she was a prisoner, by crying out, she re- 
plied : "I had as soon be killed as not — my husband is murdered — my children are 
sliiin — my parents are dead. I have not a relation in America — every thing dear to me 
here is gone — I have no wbhes, no hopes, no fears — I would not have risen to my feet 
to have saved my life." 



AMELIA. 

Amelia was formed in 173 1, from part of Prince Grorge. Its 
length is about 30, mean breadth 10 miles. It is drained by the 
Appomattox. The surface is agreeably di versified ; the soil on the 
hills poor and usually much worn, on the bottoms fertile, and it 
has generally much deteriorated from its original fertility, owing 
to the injudicious modes of cultivation pursued by its early set- 
tlers. Pop. 1830, 11,031; in IHIO, whites 3,074, slaves 7,023, 
free colored, i>23 ; total, 10,3-JO. 

There are no villages in the county of any note. Amelia C. H., 
which is centrally situated, 45 miles sw. of Richmond, contains 
but a few dwellings. 

William Archer, Col.-commandant of the county, made himself so conspicuous by 
his zeal in the revolutionary cause, that he was made prisoner by Tarleton, on his r«turn 



174 



AMELIA COUNTY. 



from Kis excursion to New London. He was conveyed to one of the prison-ships at Nor- 
folk, so well known for the sufferings of which they were the scenes. There he was re- 
tained until he became a victim of the small-pox. He was finally permitted to land, 
but in so advanced a stage of the disease that he died in a few days, without restora- 
tion to his family. One of his sons, Lieut. Joseph Archer, was killed at the battle of 
Brandy wine. Another of his sons, Major John Archer — the father of the present mem- 
ber of the U. S. Senate, the Hon. Wm. S. Archer — was an aid to one of the American 
generals. He was sent to remove public stores, when a detachment from the army of 
Lord Cornwallis made the celebrated dash on Charlottesville. Delaying too long in the 
discharge of his duty, he was overtaken in the rapid advance of the enemy. The Eng- 
lish officer to whom he surrendered his sword, received and passed it entirely through his 
body. The speedy retreat of the enemy permitting immediate assistance, he had the 
good fortune to recover, and lived many years. 

Major Joseph Eggleston was a native of Amelia. He was a highly meritorious of- 
ficer of Lee's legion, and served through the whole of the southern campaigns. At the 
conclusion of the war he turned his attention to literature. He was a member of Con- 
gress in 1798-9, where he served with credit. He was cut off in the flower of his age, 
by the effects of an amputation of a disordered limb. 

The residence of the late distinguished William Branch Giles, 
was near the margin of the Appomattox, in this county. He sprang 
from humble, but respectable parentage, and was educated at 
Princeton. He was for many years a member of Congress from 
Virginia, both in the Senate and House of Representatives, where 
he arrived, as a debater, to very high rank. 

" He resigned his seat in the Senate, in 1815. He was governor of Virginia from 
1826 to 1829, and died in 1830, at an advanced age. He published a speech on the 
embargo laws in 1808 ; political letters to the people of Virginia, in 1813 ; a series of 
letters, signed a Constituent, in the Richmond Enquirer of Jan. 1818, against the plan 
for a general education ; in April, 1824, a letter of invective against President Monroe 
and Henry Clay, for their ' hobbies,' the South American cause, the Greek cause, In- 
ternal Lnprovements, and the Tariff in Nov. 1825 ; he addressed a letter to Judge 
Marshall, disclaiming the expressions, not the general sentiments in regard to Washing- 
ton, ascribed to him in the Life of Washington. He has also appeared before the public 
as the correspondent of John Quincy Adams." Mr. Giles was also one of the most dis- 
tinguished members of the convention that revised the constitution of Virginia, in 1830. 

In 1843, there died in this county, at an advanced age, a negro preacher of considera- 
ble local celebrity, who went by the name of Uncle Jack. He was kidnapped, and 
brought from Africa at seven years of age, and landed at Osborne's, on James River, 
from what it is supposed was the last slave-ship which deposited its cargo in Virginia. 
Such was his worth of character, that, on the death of his master, several benevolent 
individuals by their contributions purchased his freedom. One, who knew him well, 
said, " I regard this old African as a burning light, raised up by Christian principles 
alone, to a degree of moral purity seldom equalled and never exceeded in any country." 
The late Rev. Dr. Rice also remarked, " The old man's acquaintance with the scriptures 
is wonderful. Many of his interpretations of obscure passages of scripture are singularly 
just and striking. In many respects, indeed, he is the most remarkable man I ever knew." 

His views of the leading doctrines of Christianity were thorough and evangelical. 
His preaching abounded with quotations surprisingly minute, and his illustrations were 
vivid and correct. His knowledge of human nature was profound ; and hence his 
extensive usefulness among the African population, as well as an extensive circle of 
whites. His language was pure English, without the vulgarities of the blacks. In his 
intercourse with all classes he was governed by Christian humility, and he abhorred cant 
and grimace. " He uniformly opposed, both in public and private, every thing like noise 
and disorder in the house of God. His colored audience were very prone to indulge 
themselves in this way. But, whenever they did, he uniformly suspended the exercises 
until they became silent. On one of these occasions, he rebuked his hearers substan- 
tially, as follows : ' You noisy Christians remind me of the little branches after a heavy 
rain. They are soon full — then noisy — and as soon empty. I had a great deal rather 
see you like the broad, deep river, which is quiet because it is broad and deep.' " 

Of this worthy and strong-minded old man, we take the liberty of annexing a few 



AMHERST COUNTY. 



175 



anecdotes, drawn from his memoir in tlie Watchman of the South. In speakinjT of tfie 
excitniuMit and noise at a protracted mt'Cting, lie. rt'iiiarkcd, I was rcniindi'd of wfiat 
I have noticed in the \voods : when the wind bh)w.s hard, the dry leaves rnakf a irreat 
deal more noise than the ^reen ones," When persons scotled at his n'h<rioii, hij» nsual 
ditiidence and reserve wouUl fjive way to a hriu and difjnilied dt feiKU', and nu)st happdy 
would he "answer a tool accordinj^ to his lolly-" A person addicted to horse-racirij; and 
card-playinor stopped him one day on the road, and said — Old man, you Christians say 
a great deal about the way to heaven bein^ very narrow. Now, if this be so, a great 
many who prol'ess to be travelling it will not Hnd it half wide enough." " That's very 
true," was the reply, *' of all who have merely a nan)e to live, and all like you." " Why 
refer to me ?" asked the man ; if the road is wide enough for any, it is for mc." " By 
no means," replied Uncle Jack ; " when you set out you will want to take along a 
card-table, and a race-horsc or two. Now, there's no room along this way I'or such 
things, and what would you do, even in heaven, without them •" An individual accus- 
tomed to treat religion rather sportively, and who prided himself upon his morality, said 
to him, " Old man, 1 am as good as I need be ; 1 can't help thinking so, because (iod 
blesses me as much as he does you Christians, and I don't know what more I want than 
he gives me." To this the old preacher replied, with great seriousness, "Just so with 
the hogs. I have often looked at them, rooting among the leaves in the woods, and 
finding just as many acorns as they needed ; and yet 1 never saw one of them look up 
to the tree from whence the acorns fell." In speaking of the low state of religion, he 
said, " there seems to be great coldness and deadness on the subject of religion every, 
where ; the fire has almost gone out, and nothing is left but a few smoking chumps, 
lying about in places." 

The laws of Virginia prohibit religious as well as other assemblies of slaves, unless 
at least two white persons are present. Such, however, was the universally acknow- 
ledged happy influence of Uncle Jack's meetings, that in his case it was not deemed 
necessary to enforce the law. On one occasion, some mischievous persons undertook to 
arrest and whip him and several of his hearers. After the arrest, one of the number 
thus accosted Uncle Jack: "Well, old fellow, you are tlie ringleader of all these meet- 
ings, and we have been anxious to catch you ; now, what have you got to say for your- 
self?" "Nothing at all, master," was the reply. " What I nothing to say against 
being whipped I how i.s that?" "I have been wondering for a long time," said he, 
"how it was that so good a man as the Apostle Paul should have been whipped three 
times for preaching the gospel, while such an unworthy man as I am should have been 
permitted to preach for 20 years, without ever getting a lick." It is hardly necessary 
to add, that these young men immediately released him. 

His influence over the members of his church was almost unbounded. As evidence 
of the fact, take the following : — 

A gentleman who resided in the neighborhood, on walking out over his farm, detected 
one of his servants, who belonged to Uncle Jack's flock, in some very improper conduct. 
The only notice he took of it, was to threaten that lie would inform iliat spiritual man. 
When he arose on the following morning and came to the door, he found this servant 
waiting and anxious to see him. " VVhy, Tom," said he, " what is the matter ; why 
don't you go to your work '?" "Why, master," replied the servant, "if you would 
please whip me yourself, and don't tell Uncle Jack." 

We would like to extend this notice, but want of space forbids. Uncle Jack died at 
the age of nearly lOU years. He was one of those characters, that, under propitious 
circumstances, might have left an undying name. But in the limited sphere of his in- 
fluence, his humble and consistent hie won for him the aii'cctious of the best people 
in the comraimity 



AMHERST. 

Amherst was formed in 1761, from Albemarle. It is about 22 
miles long, and 19 wide. The James River Ibrms its s\v. and se. 
boundary, and the Blue Ridge its northwest. The James River 
Canal passes through the sr.. part of the county. The soil is 
natui-ally fertile, and of a dark, rich, red hue, and the scenery 



176 AMHERST COUNTY. 

beautifully diversified. Pop. in 1830, 12,072; in 1840, whites 
6,426, slaves 5,577, free colored 373; total, 12,576. 

Amherst C. H., on the road from Lynchburg- to Charlottesville, 
about 15 miles n. of the former, and New Glasgow, are small 
villages. 




Pass of the James River through the Blue Ridge. 

The pass of the James River through the Blue Ridge, is on the 
line of this and the county of Rockbridge. There a canal, seven 
miles in length, has been constructed around Balcony Falls, which 
will form the bed of the James River Canal, whenever that work 
is continued westward. The stage road from Lynchburg to the 
Natural Bridge winds along the side of the mountain, through 
wild and romantic scenery, which, to the lowlander accustomed 
only to the flatlands and pine-barrens of eastern Virginia, is 
striking. As he enters the gap from the east, the road gradually. 



AUGUSTA COUNTV. 



177 



follows its tortuous course up the mountain's side, until it gains 

an elevation of hundreds of feet above the river, which it appears 
to nearlv overhang. Gigantic mountains hem hini in on every 
side ; while far, from ihv dark ravine below, comes up the roar of 
the rapids. A little mountain rivulet, from amid the primeval 
forest, dashes across his path, and, leaping from rock to rock, hur- 
ries on to swell the stream below. Emerging from the pass, a 
beautiful and fertile country opens before him, and still westward 
the blue outlines of distant mountains in Rockbridge meet his 
view. 



AUGUSTA. 

Augusta was formed from Orange, in 1738. " Previous!}', all that 
part of Virginia lying west of the Blue Ridge was included in 
Orange ; but in the fall session of this year it was divided into the 
counties of Frederick and Augusta. Frederick county was bounded 
by the Potomac on the north, the Blue Ridge on the east, and a 
line to be run from the head spring of Hedgman to head spring 
of the Potomac, on the south and west ; the remainder of Virginia, 
west of the Blu(^ Ridge, to constitute Augusta. This immense ter- 
ritory, at the ])resent time, comprises four entire states, and nearly 
40 counties in western V irginia. As the population increased, 
the limits of Augusta were reduced until it reached its present 
boundaries in 1790." It is about 35 miles long, and 30 broad. The 
surface is generally uneven, and in the e. and w. mountainous. 
There are, however, some extensive bottoms of very fertile land. 
It is drained by tributaries of the James and Shenandoah rivers. 
Pop. 1830, 19,925; 1840, whites 15,072, slaves 4,145, free colored 
421 ; total 19,628. 

There are several fine villages in the county, besides the large 
and flourishing town of Staunton. Greenville and jNIiddlebrook, 
the first 12 miles ssw. and the last 11 miles sw. of Staunton, 
contain each about sixt}' dwellings. Waynesboro*, at the western 
base of the Blue Ridge, on the main stage road from Charlottes- 
ville to Staunton, 12 miles easterly from the latter, is a wealthy 
and flourishing village, containing about 100 dwellings. Mount 
Sydney, 10 miles ne. of Staunton, contains about 40 dwellings. 
Mount Solon, Spring Hill, Mount Meridian, and New Hope, are 
small places, at the first of which there is considerable manufac- 
turing carried on. There the Moss Creek Spring rises from a hill, 
and furnishes the power for a forge, a furnace, and 1 paper and 1 
merchant mill. 

The Augusta Springs are 12 miles nw. of Staunton. The 
water is stronaly impretrnated with sulphuretted hydrogen, and is 
said to equal the celebrated springs of Harrowgate. England. The 
improvements at this place are ample, and the situation extremely 

23 



178 AUGUSTA COUInTY. 

picturesque. About 12 miles s\v. of Staunton, is one of those 
ebbing and flowing springs, so common in western Virginia. 




Virginia Lvnatic Asylum at Staunton. 

Staunton, the county-seat, lies 116 ms. northwesterly from Rich- 
mond, 163 from Washington Cit^r, on one of the extreme head 
branches of the e. fork of Shenandoah River, in a fine valley be- 
tween the Blue Ridge and north mountain chains. 




It contains 1 newspaper printing office, 2 female seminaries, 2 
male academies, 1 Presbyterian, 1 Episcopal, 1 Lutheran, and 1 
Methodist church, and a population of about 2,200. It has 
many mercantile and mechanical establishments, and does a 
large business with the surrounding country. An excellent mac- 



AUGUSTA COUNTV. 179 

adamisod road loads from lirre to Winchrstrr. Tlio Wostrrn Lu- 
natic Asyluiu is located at this place, and is a noble })ile of brick 
buildings. By the U. S. census of 1810, the whole number of in- 
sane and idiotic persons in Virginia was89'2, or 1 to every 800 per- 
sons. The Virginia Institution for the Deaf and Dumb and the 
Blind, has been established within a lew years. A beautiful brick 
buikling is now erecting for it, near the town, on an elevated and 
picturesque site. By the U. S. census for 1840, the number of 
deaf and dumb in the state was 003, or 1 to every :;^.()5t) of the 
population ; the number of blind 802, or one to every 1390 of the 
population. 

" When Tarleton, in the war of the revolution, pursued the legis- 
ture to Charlottesville, to which place they had adjourned Irom 
Richmond, they again fled and met at Staunton, where they finish- 
ed their session. At some future day it will probably become the 
seat of government. It was at this place that two large conven- 
tions were held, to deliberate on Ibrming the constitution of Vir- 
ginia. The last met in July, 1825, and made an appeal to the 
legislature, who thereupon submitted the question to the people, 
and it linally resulted in the adoption of the new constitution." 

This county has been the birth-})lace or the residence of several 
prominent characters. Among th(^m may be mentioned the Hon. 
Daniel Shelley ; Gen. Robert Porterlield, a gallant oliicer of the 
rev^olution ; and Judge Archibald Stuart, father of the Hon. Alex. 
H. H. Stuart. 

Damfl Sheffey was born at Frederick, Md., in 1770, and was bred a slioemaker, in 
his father's shop. His education was inconsiderable ; but possessinu an ardent desire for 
knowledge, he passed his leisure in reading, and becan)e particularly fond of astronom- 
ical and mathematical studies. Arrived at manhood, he travelled on foot, with his 
" kit" on his oack, to Winchester. From thence he walked through the valley of Vir- 
ginia, stopping at various villages on his route, and earning sufficient money by his 
trade, to pay his expenses, until he at last arrived at Abbeville, Wythe county. He 
was a stranger, friendless and destitute. " Here he conmicnred his trade once more. 
The novelty and originality of his character, and the flashes of genius which enlivened 
his conversation, often compelled his new-tried friends to look on the ccceritr;c youth 
with wonder." Becoming popular, he was received into the office of Alexander Smyth, 
Esq., and after being admitted to the bar of Wytlie county, was employed in the most 
important suits. After some years he settled in Staunton, and obtained a lucrative 
practice. He often represented Augusta in the House of Delegates, and, in 1811, was 
chosen as a member of Congress. " His speech, in favor of a renewal of the charter 
of the first bank of the United States, was a masterly combination of sound judgment 
and conclusive facts: for three hours profound silence reigned ; and the most experienced 
statesmen were astonished at this exhibition of his talents." Uv was opposed to the 
declaration of war in 181:2. On one occasion, he gave John Randolph, whose bitter 
sarcasm few could withstand, a most severe retort. In commenting upon a speech of 
Mr. Sheffey 's, he said that " the shoemaker ought not to go beyond his /as/." In an 
instant Sheffey retorted, " if that gentleman had ever been onthe bench, he never would 
have left it.'' 

Mr. Sheffey was a plain man ; his accent German, his pronunciation not agreeable ; 
yet the most refined audience always p;iid him profound attention. He seized upon the 
strong points of a case, and maintained them with unconquerable zeal. " Like Patrick 
Henry, he was the artificer of his own fortune, and like him, in after-life, lamented that 



* Kercheval's MSS. for a 2d edition of his History of the Valley. 



180 



AUGUSTA COUNTY. 



in his e^rly days the lamp of life had shed but a feeble ray along the path which it was 
his destiny to travel."* He died in 1830. 




Cyclopean Towers, Augusta Co. 



The Cyclopean towers, which are near the Augusta Springs, are 
among the greatest curiosities of nature in the Union. Yet for 
many years they were known only in the vicinity, and bore the 
rude appellation of " the chimneys." They are about 60 or 70 feet 
in height. We annex the following from a published description 
by a gentleman who visited the towers in 1834, and gave them 



Southern Literary Messenger. 



AUGUSTA COUNTY. 



181 



thrir present name. It commencos with a description of the 
country as he approached towards them : 

After passinrr over a hilly and picturesque country, the road opened upon a fertile 
valley, which ihoujjh in places nurrow, was of considerable lenirtli — and when seen 
from an elevated poi^ition, ap])eared like the bed of an ancient luk»', or as it really is, 
the alluvial border of a flowinj; stream. The strata of limestone hills followed their 
usual order of parallrl lines to the trreat mountains of our continent, as thoufjh a strons; 
current had once swept throusjh this maijnilieent valley, forming; in its course islands 
and promontories, which are now discoverable in numerous short hills and rocky blutls, 
that are either naked and barren, or covered with a growth of stately trees. It was at 
such a projection, that we first descried the jjray summits of what seemed a ruinous 
castle — resembling those which wore raised in feudal times to guard the passes of the 
Riiine, or like such as are still seen in mouldering majesty on many an Alpine rock. 
These summits or towers, of whicli there were seven, lifted their heads above tlie lofty 
elms, like so many antique chimneys in the midst of a grove ; but, on approaching them 
nearer, our pleasure was greatly increased to find them rise almost perpendicularly from 
the bed of a stream, which, winding around their base, serves as a natural moat to a 
building not made with mortal hands. 

These rocks in their formation resemble the palisades on the Hudson River — but are 
more regular in their strata, which ai)pears to have been arranged in huge masses 
of perfect workmanship, with projections like cornices of Gothic architecture, in a state 
of dilapidation. Those who are acquainted with the structure of the Cyclopean walls 
of the ancients, would be struck with the resemblance. 

A narrative of the circumstances connected with the settlement of 
Augusta county, by the Lewis family, collected from authentic rec- 
ords, and traditions of the family, and cominunicated for this work 
by a gentleman of the county : 

John Lewis was a native and citizen of Ireland, descended from a family of Hugue- 
nots, who took refuge in that kingdom from the persecutions that followed the assassina- 
tion of flenry IV., of France. His rank was that of an Es(juire, and he inherited a 
handsome estate, which he increased by industry and frugality, until he became the 
lessee of a contiguous property, of considerable value. He married Margaret Lynn, 
daughter of the laird of Loch Lynn, who was a descendant of the chieftains of a once 
powerful clan in the Scottish Highlands. By this marriage he had four sons, three of 
them, Thomas, Andrew, and William, born in Ireland, and Charles, the child of his old 
age, born a few months after tlicir settlement in their niouJitain home. 

The emigration of John Lewis to Virginia, was tli° result of one of those bloody af- 
frays, which at that time so often occurred to disturb the repose, and destroy the hap- 
piness of Irish families. The owner of the fee out of which the leasehold of Lewis was 
carved, a nobleman of profligate habits and ungovernable passions, seeing the prosperity 
of his lessee, and repenting the bargain he had concluded, under pretence of entering for 
an alleged breach of condition, attempted by the aid of a band of ruffians, hired for his 
purpose, to take forcible possession of the premises. For this end, he surrounded 
the house with his ruffians, and called upon Lewis to evacuate the j)rcmiscs without de- 
lay, a demand which was instantly and indignantly refused by Lewis ; though sur- 
prised with a sick brother, his wife, and infant cliildren in the house, and with no aid but 
such as could be afforded by a few faithf'ul domestics. With this small force, scarce 
equal to one-fourth the number of his assailants, he resolved to maintain his legal rights 
at every hazard. The enraged nobleman commenced the afiray by discharging his 
fowling-piece into the house, by which the invalid brother of Lewis was kdled, and Mar- 
garet herself severely wounded. Upon this, the enraged husband and brotlier, rushed 
from the house, attended by his devoted little b ind, and soon succeeded in dispersing the 
assailants, though not until the noble author of the mischief, as well as his steward, had 
perished by the hand of Lewis. By this time the family weie surrounded by their sym- 
pithizing friends and neighbors, who, after bestowing every aid in their power, advised' 
Lewis to tly the country, a measure rendered necessary by the high standing of his late 
antagonist, tlie desperate character of his surviving assailants, and the want of evi- 
dence by which he could have established the facts of the case. He therefore, after 
drawing up a detaik-d statement of the atiair, which he directed to the proper authorities, 
embarked on board a vessel bound for America, attended by his family and a band of 



182 



AUGUSTA COUNTY. 



about thirty of his faithful tenantry. In due time the emigrants landed on the sliores of 
Virginia, and fixed their residence amid the till then unbroken forests of west Augusta- 
John Lewis's settlement was a few miles below the site of the town of Staunton, on the 
banks of the stream which still bears his name. It may be proper to remark here, that 
when the circumstances of the affray became known, after due investigation, a par- 
don was granted to John Lewis, and patents are still extant, by which his majesty 
granted to him a large portion of the fair domain of western Virginia. 

For many years after the settlement at Fort Lewis, great amity and good will existed 
between the neighboring Indians and the while settlers, whose numbers increased apace, 
until they became quite a formidable colony. It was then that the jealousy of their red 
neighbors became aroused, and a war broke out, which, for cool though desperate cour- 
age and activity on the part of the whites, and ferocity, cunning, and barbarity on the 
part of the Indians, was never equalled in any age or country. John Lewis was, by this 
time, well stricken in years, but his four sons, who were now grown up, were well quali- 
fied to fill his place, and to act the part of leaders to the gallant little band, who so no- 
bly battled for the protection of their homes and families. It is not my purpose to go 
into the details of a warfare, during which scarcely a settlement was exempt from 
monthly attacks of the savages, and during which Charles Lewis, the youngest son of 
John, is said never to have spent one mouth at a time out of active and arduous service. 
Charles was the hero of many a gallant exploit, which is st}.\\ treasured in the memories 
of the descendants of the border riflemen, and there are few families among the Allegha- 
nies where the name and deeds of Charles Lewis are not familiar as household words. 
On one occasion, Charles was captured by the Indians while on a hunting excursion, and 
after having travelled some two hundred miles, barefoot, his arms pinioned behind him, 
goaded on by the knives of his remorseless captors, he effected his escape. While travel- 
ling along the bank of a precipice some twenty feet in height, he suddenly, by a strong 
muscular exertion, burst the cords which bound him, and plunged down the steep into the 
bed of a mountain torrent. His persecutors hesitated not to follow. In a race of several 
hundred yards, Lewis had gained some few yards upon his pursuers, when, upon leaping 
a prostrate tree which lay across his course, his strength suddenly failed, and he fell pros- 
trate among the weeds which had grown up in great luxuriance around the body of the 
tree. Three of the Indians sprang over the tree within a few feet of where their prey lay 
concealed ; but with a feeling of the most devout thankfulness to a kind and superin- 
tending Providence, he saw them one by one disappear in the dark recesses of the forest. 
He now bethought himself of rising from his uneasy bed, when lo ! a new enemy appear- 
ed, in the shape of an enormous rattlesnake, who had thrown himself into the deadly 
coil so near his face that his fangs were within a few inches of his nose ; and his enor- 
mous rattle, as it waved to and fro, once rested upon his ear. A single contraction of the 
eyelid — a convulsive shudder — the relaxation of a single muscle, and the deadly beast 
would have sprung upon him. In this situation he lay for several minutes, when the 
reptile, probably supposing him to be dead, crawled over his body and moved slowly away. 
" I had eaten nothing," said Lewis to his companions, after his return, " for many days ; 
I had no fire-arms, and I ran the risk of dying with hunger, ere I could reach the settle- 
ment ; but rather would I have died, than made a meal of the generous beast." During 
this war, an attack was made upon the settlement of Fort Lewis, at a time when the 
whole force of the settlement was out on active duty. So great was the surprise, that 
many of the women and children were captured in sight of the fort, though far the great- 
er part escaped, and concealed themselves in their hiding places, in the woods. The 
fort was occupied by John Lewis, tlien very old and infirm, his wife, and two young wo- 
men, who were so much alarmed that they scarce moved from their seats upon the 
ground floor of the fort. John Lewis, however, opened a port-hole, where he stationed 
himself, firing at the savages, while Margaret reloaded the guns. In tiiis manner he 
sustained a siege of six hours, during which he killed upwards of a score of savages, when 
he was relieved by the appearance of his party. 

Thomas Lewis, the eldest son of John Lewis and Margaret Lynn, labored under a 
defect of viaiion, which disabled him as a marksman, and he was, therefore, less efficient 
during the Indian wars than his brethren. He was, however, a man of learning and 
sound judgment, and represented the county of Augusta for many years in the House 
of Burgesses ; was a member of the convention which ratified the constitution of the Uni- 
ted States, and formed the constitution of Virginia, and afterwards sat for the county of 
Rockingham in the House of Delegates of Virginia. In 17G5, he was in the House of 
Burgesses, and voted for Patrick lienry's celebrated resolutions. Thomas Lewis had 
four sons actively participating in the war of the revolution; the youngest of whom, 
Thomas, who is now living, bore an ensign's commission when but fourteen years of age 



ALUt.sJiA CUU.NIV. 



183 



Andrew, the second sou of Jolin Lewis and Marfjarct liyiiu, is the CJen. Lewis who 
commanded at llie battle ol Point Tleasant (See liis memoir in Holtetourt co.) 

Chdrles Lewis, the youngest of the sons of John Lewis, fell at the head of his rejri- 
ment, wlien leiidin<x on the attaek at Point Pleasant. Charles was esteemed the most 
skilful of all the leaders of the border warfare, and was as much beloved for liis noble 
and amiable qualities as he was admired for his military talents. 




Vieio in Weyer's ( . ■ . 

William, the third son, was an active participator in the border wars, and was an offi- 
cer of the revolutionary army, in which one of his sons was killed, and another maimed 
for life. When the British force under Tarleton drove the legislature from Charlottes- 
ville to Staunton, the stillness of the Sabbath eve was broken in the latter town by 
the beat of the drum, and volunteers were called for to prevent the passage of the British 
throuiih the mountains at Rockfish Gap. The elder sons of Wm. Lewis, whothvn re- 
sided at the old fort, were absent with the northern army. Three sons, however, were at 
home, whose acres were 17, 1.5, and 13 years. Wm. Lewis was confined to his room by 
sickness, but his wife, with the firmness of a R(jman matron, called them to her, and 
bade them fly to the defence of their native land. " Go my children," said she, " I spare 
not my youiii^est, my fair-haired boy, the comfort of my declininuf years. I devote you 
all to my country. Keep back the foot of the invader from the soil of Augusta, or see 
my face no more."' When this incident was related to W ashintrton, shortly after its oc- 
currence, he enthusiastically exclaimed, " Leave me but a banner to plant upon the 
mountains of Aufjusta, and I will rally around me the men who will lift our bleeding 
country from the dust, and set her free." 

I have frequently heard, when a boy, an anecdote related by an old settler, somewhat 
to this effect: The white, or wild clover, is of indiiT'mous crowth, and abounded on the 
banks of the rivers, »S:c. The red was introduced by John Lewis, and it was currently 
reported by tlieir prophets, and believed by the Indians generally, that the blood of the 
red man slain by the Lewises and their followers, had dyed the trefoil to its sanguine 
hue. The Lidians, however, always did the whites the justice to .say, that the red man 
was the acgrressor in their first quarrel, and that the wliite men of western Virginia had 
always evinced a disposition to treat their red brethren with moderation and justice. 

Weyer's Cave, is 17 milos X. of Staunton, in a hill a short dis- 
tance west of the Blue Ridjre. It derives its name from Bernard 
Weyer, who discovered it in 1804, while hunting. 



184 



AUGUSTA COUNTY. 



Within a few hundred yards of it, is Madison's cave, described by Jefferson. , This, 
however, has superior attractions. No language can convey an adequate idea of the 
vastness and sublimity of some, or the exquisite beauty and grandeur of other of its innu- 
merable apartments, with their snovvy-wljite concrctious of a thousand various forms. 
Muny of these, with their striking and picturesque objects, have names exceedingly in- 
appropriate, which to mention would degrade any description, however well written, by 
the association of the beautiful and sublime, with the vulgar and hackneyed. Washing- 
ton Hall, the largest apartment, is 25U feet in length. A foreign traveller who visited 
the cave at an annual illumination, lias, in a finely written description, the following no- 
tice of this hall : 

" There is a fine sheet of rock-work running up the centre of this room, and giving it 
the aspect of two separate and noble galleries, till you look above, where you observe the 
partition rises only 20 feet towards the roof, and leaves the fine arch expanding over your 
head untouched. There is a beautiful concretion here, standing out in the room, which 
certainly has the form and drapery of a gigantic statue ; it bears the name of the Na- 
tion's Hero, and the whole place is filled with those projections, appearances which ex- 
cite the imagination by suggesting resemblances, and leaving them unfinished. The 
general eifect, too, was perhaps indescribable. The fine perspective of this room, four 
times the length of an ordinary church ; the numerous tapers, when near you, so encum- 
bered by deep shadows as to give only a dim religious light ; and when at a distance, 
appearing in their various attitudes like twinkling stars on a deep dark heaven ; the ama- 
zing vaulted roof spread over you, with its carved and knotted surface, to which the 
streaming lights below in vain endeavored to convey their radiance ; together with the 
impression that you had made so deep an entrance, and were so entirely cut off" from the 
living world and ordinary things ; produces an effect which, perhaps, the mind can re- 
ceive but once, and will retain forever." 

Weyer's Cave," says the writer above quoted, " is in my judgment one of the 
great natural wonders of this new world ; and for its eminence in its own class", deserves 
to be ranked with the Natural Bridge and Niagara, while it is far less known than either. 
Its dimensions, by the most direct course, are more than 1,600 feet ; and by the more 
vi'inding paths, twice that length ; and its objects are remarkable for their variety, for- 
mation, and beauty. In both respects, it will, I think, compare, without injury to itself, 
with the celebrated Grotto of Antiparos. For myself, I acknowledge the spectacle to 
have been most interesting; but, to be so, it must be illuminated, as on this occasion. I 
had thought that this circumstance might give to the whole a toyish effect ; but the influ- 
ence of 2,000 or 3,000 lights on these immense caverns is only such as to reveal the ob- 
jects, without disturbing the solemn and sublime obscurity which sleeps on every thing. 
(Scarcely any scenes can awaken so many passions at once, and so deeply. Curiosity, 
apprehension, terror, surprise, admiration, and delight, by turns and together, arrest and 
possess you. I have had before, from other objects, one simple impression made with 
greater power ; but I never had so many impressions made, and with so much power, 
before. If the interesting and the awful are the elements of the sublime, here subhmity 
reigns, as in her own domain, in darkness, silence, and deeps profound." 

There died in this county, in February, 1844, a slave, named Gilbert, aged 112 years. 
He was a servant to Washington at the time of Braddock's defeat, and was afterwards 
present, in the same capacity, at the surrender of Cornwallis. 



BATH. 

Bath was formed in 1701, from Augusta, Bottetourt, and Green- 
briar. It is about 35 miles long and 25 broad. It is watered by 
the head-branches of the James, Cow Pasture and Jackson Rivers. 
Some of the valley lands are very fertile, but the greatest propor- 
tion of the county is uncultivated, and covered with mountains. 
Pop. 1830, 4,008 ; 1840, whites 3,170, slaves 347, free colored 83; 
total 4,300. 

Warm Springs, the county-seat, is 1G4 miles W. of Richmond, 
and 40 miles N. E. of the White Sulphur Springs of Greenbriar. 



RATH COUNTY. 185 

Besides the county buildings, and the elegant hotels for the accom- 
modation of visiters at the springs, there are but a few dwellings. 
The situation of the place is delightful, in a narrow and lertile 
valley, between two high mountains, and oilers numerous attrac- 
tions to its many visiters. 

The tradition rcspectinnf the discovery of the sprlnirs is, that a party of Indians hunt- 
ing, spent a ni<;lit in the valley. One of their nuinher discovering the spring, bathed ia 
it, and being much fatigued, he was induced, by the delicious sensation and warmth 
imparted by it, to remain all night. The next morning he was enabled to scale the mountain 
before his companions. As the country became settled, the fame of the waters gradually 
exteiuled : and at tirst, vi.-iters from the low country dwelt here in rude huts. For a 
long time, botii this and the Hot Spiing were only surroinuled by brush, and open at top. 

The subjoined analysis of these waters was made by Prof. Rogers : 

" The bath is an octagon, 38 feet in diameter, and IG feet 9 inches inside — its area is 
1163.77 feet. The ordinary depth of water being 5 feet, the cubic capacity is 581b.8G 
feet, or 43.")33.32 gallons. Notwithstanding the leaks, this quantity of water will flow into 
the reservoir in one hour. The average temperature of the bath is 98 deg. Fahrenheit. 
The gas which rises in the bath consists of nitrogen, with minute quantities of sulphur- 
etted lu/dro>ren and carbonic acid. 

" Besides tliis gas, each gallon of water contains 4.5 cubic inches of gas, consisting 
of nitrogen, 3.1).) cubic inches ; sulphuretled hydrogen, 0.25 do. ; carbonic acid, 1. 00 do. 

" The saline contents of one gallon of the water, are as follows : muriate of lime, 3.9(j8 ; 
sulphate of magnesia, 9.984 ; carbonate of hme, 4.288 ; sulphate of lime, 5.466 ; a trace 
of soda, no doubt, in the state of muriate. 

" While the Warm Springs alTord the most luxurious bath in the world, they contain 
neutral salts and various gases, which act as a gentle aperient, diuretic and sudorific, and 
give tone and vigor to the human system. It is well a.scertained in other countries, that 
waters of a high temperature tend more to strengthen the digestive organs than those of 
a low temperature ; but it is foimd, by actual ex])eriinont, that the water at the Warm 
Springs retains a considerable portion of its u-setul qualities when bottled in the spring, 
and then cooled by immersing the bottles in cold water, or even ice ; and this plan ia 
adopted by many of those who have a repugnance to the use of warm water." 

The approach to the Warm Springs from the east, is over the 
mountain of the same name. The road which leads across it is 
five miles, Ibur-fif.hs of which is on the east side of the ridge, 
where to the traveller a succession of deep precipices and glens 
present themselves, environed with gloomy woods and obscure 
bottoms. From the summit of the mountain at the Warm Spring 
Rock, which is much visited, there is a sublime view of parallel 
ridges of mountains, extending for 40 or 50 miles, one behind the 
other, as far as the eye can reach, " like a dark blue sea of giant 
billows, instantly stricken solid by nature's mngic wand." Some 
70 years since, the principal route of emigration was across this 
mountain, at which time there was no wagon-road over it. The 
emigrants came in wagons to the camping-ground," a level spot 
near what is now Brinckley's tavern, at the eastern base of the 
mountain. From thence they transported their baggage to the 
west on pack-horses, while their wagons returned cast loaded with 
veni.son, hams, &c. 

One mile west of the little village of Milboro' Spring, and 12 
miles east of the Warm Springs, on the road between the twa 
places, in a high ledge on the bank of the Cow- Pasture River, is 
th<^ celebrated bloiriiiir-cave," described in Jefferson's Notes. The 
mouth of the cave is '20 or 30 feet above the road, in shape semi- 
circular, and in height about 4 feet. It has been explored for a 

24 



186 



BARBOUR COUNTY. 



considerable distance. It is said that a small dog who entered 
found his way out through some unknown passage. When the 
internal and external atmosphere are the same, there is no percep- 
tible current issuing from it. In intense hot weather, the air comes 
out with so much force as to prostrate the weeds at the entrance. 
In a warm day in June, in 1843, as Dr. John Brockenbrough, the 
principal proprietor of the Warm Springs, was passing in his 
carriage, he sent a little child to the mouth of the cave, who let 
go before it a handkerchief, which was blown by the current over 
the horses' heads in the road, a distance of 30 or 40 feet. In in- 
tense cold weather, the air draws in. There is a fiowijig and ebb- 
ing spring on the same stream with the blowing-cave, which sup- 
plies water-power for a grist-mill, a distillery, and a tan-yard. It 
flows irregularly. When it commences, the water bursts out in 
a body as if let loose from a dam. 

Gen. Samuel Blackburn, who resided in this county, -was born about the year 1758. 
He was one of the most successful orators and criminal lawyers of his time in Virginia, 
He was the father of the anti-duelling law of the state, which we believe was the first 
passed in the country after the war of the revolution. Among other penalties, it pro- 
hibited any one who had been engaged in a duel from holding offices of trust in the gift of 
the state. Some years after, a gentleman who had challenged another was elected to the 
legislature. When he came forward to take the customary oath, his violation of this 
law was urged against him. Some, however, contended that the circumstances of the 
case were so aggravating that its provisions ought to be disregarded, and fears were enter- 
tained that this sentiment might prevail. Then it was that Gen. Blackburn, who was a 
member, came forward with a speech of great power in opposition. The result was the 
triumph of the law in the rejection of the member. Gen. B. died in 1835, aged about 77. 
He was a man of much benevolence. At his death, he by will manumitted all his slaves, 
and provided for their transportation to Liberia. 

The Hot Springs are 5 miles from the Warm, in the same beau- 
tiful valley with the latter. These springs stand high in public 
favor. There are several baths here, called the Hot Spouts. Their 
highest temperature is 106 degrees. 

" The beneficial effects of hot spouts, topically applied, are so miraculous, in many 
painful and obstinate complaints, that words cannot adequately describe them ; therefore 
the prisoners of pain are strongly recommended to expose their rheumatic joints, gouty 
toes, and enlarged livers, to the comfortable outpourings of these healing steams. The 
water of the Hot Springs contains nitrogen and carbonic acid, carbonate of lime, sulphate 
of lime, sulpliate of soda, sulphate of magnesia, muriate of soda, silica, and a trace of 
oxide of iron. It may be taken internally with much advantage, particularly as a sure 
and gentle diuretic. 

*' The effect of this bath on rheumatic and gouty affections, and on old deep-seated 
and chronic complaints, that medicine does not seem to reach, is very beneficial. It 
restores the surface to a good condition, and promotes the healthy action of the skin ; 
and every person who drinks the water of the various sulphur springs, should afterwards 
stop here two or three weeks, and try the virtue of the boiler. There are, near the hotel, 
a hot and cold spring issuing so near each other, that you can dip the thumb eind fore- 
finger of the same hand into hot and cold water at the same time." 



BARBOUR. 



Barbour was formed in 1843, from Harrison, Lewis, and Ran- 
dolph, and named from the distinguished Barbour family : it is 30 



BARBOUR COUNTY. 



187 



miles long and 15 wide. The eastern part is mountainous, the 
western hilly, and much of the soil is lertile and adapted to gra- 
zing. It is thickly settled at the heads of Simpson's and Elk 
creeks, and on Buchannon and Tygart's Valley Rivers. Eslimated 
population 5,000. Fhilippi. the county-seat, — formerly Bootlie's 
Ferry of Randolph, — is situated 2 10 miles nw. of Richmond, and 
30 SK. of Clarksburg, on the east bank of Tygart's Valley River, 
in a fertile country. It contains about a dozen dwellings, and has 
in its vicinity an abundance of coal and iron ore of an excellent 
quality. 

The tract of country comprehended in the limits of this county, 
was the first permanently settled in northwestern Virginia. The 
following, relating to the settling of this portion of Virginia, is 
drawn from Withers' Border Warl'are, published in 183 1, — a work 
from which we have obtained considerable information respecting 
this portion of the state. 

The comparative security which succeeded the treaty of 170.3, contributed to advance the prosperity 
of the Virj^inia frontiers, and soon induced the seltlinp of several places on the Monongahela and its 
branches, and on the Ohio river. The first settlement was that made on the Buchannon. a fork of the 
Tygart's Valley River, and was induced by the flattering account given by two brothers, who hud dwelt 
there under rather unpleasant circumst ince-^. 

In ITlil, four soldiers deserted from Fort Pitt, and after some wanderings, encamped in the glades over 
to the head of the Youiiho'g my, where they renjained about twelve month*. Two of them, in an excur- 
sion among the settlers ;it Looney creek, were recognised and ai)i»rehen(led as deserters ; but .lolin and 
Samuel Pringle escaped to their camp in the glades, wliere they remained till some time in the year 
17C>4. 

During this year, and while in the employ of John Simpson, (a trapj)er who had come there in quest 
of furs,) they determined on removing further west. Simpson was induced to this by the prospect of en- 
joying the wood-; tree from the intrusion of other hunters, (the glades h iving begun to be a common 
hunting-ground for the inhabitants of the South Branch :) while a regard for their |K>rsonal safety, caused 
the Pringles to avoid a situation in vvliich they might be exposed to the observation of other men. 

In journeying through the wilderness, and alter having crossed Che it River, at the Horse-Shoe, a quar- 
tel arose between Simjxon and one of the Pringles; and iiotw ith-tisiiding th-.it peace and harmony were 
so necess;iry to their mutual safety and comlort, yet each so tar indulged the angry passions which had 
been excited, as at length to produce a separation. 

Sim|)son crossed over the Valley River, near the mouth of Pleasant creek, and passing on to the head 
of another water course, gave to it the name of Simpson's creek. Thence lie went westwardly, and fell 
over on a stream which he called Elk : at the mouth of this he erected a camp, and continued to reside 
for more than twelve months. During this time he neither saw the Pringles, nor any other human being ; 
and at the expiration of it, went to the South Branch, where he disposed of his furs and skins, and then 
returned to and continued at his encampment at the mouth of Elk, until permanent settlements were 
made in its vicinity. 

The Pringles kept up the Valley River till they observed a large right-hnnd fork, (now Buchannon.) 
which they ascended some miles; and at the mouth of a small branch, (afterwards ctilled Turkey run,) 
they took up their abode in the cavity of a large sycamore tree. The stump of this is still to be seen, 
and is an object of no little veneration with the iminediate descendants of the first s(>ttler<. 

The situation of these men, during a residence here of several years, although rendered somewhat ne- 
cessary by their previous conduct, could not have been very enviable, l)eserter^ from the army, a con- 
stant fear of discovery filled their minds with inquietude. In the vicinity of u sav ige foe, the tomahawk 
and scilping-knife were ever jjresent to their imaginations. Remote from civili/.ed man, their solitude 
was hourly interrupted by the frightful shrieks of the panther, or the hideous bowlings of the wolf. 
And though the herds of butlalo, elk, and deer, which gambolled sportively around, enabled them easily 
to supply their larder; yet, the want of salt, of bread, and of every s[H'cies of kitchen veiretable, must 
have ai)ated their relish for the otherwise delicious loin of the (tne, and haunch of the others. The low 
state of their little magazine, too, while it limited their hunting to the bare procuration of articles of 
subsistence, caused them, from a fear of discovery, to shrink at the idea of being driven to the settle- 
ments for a supply of anununition. And not until they were actually reduced to two loads of powder, 
could they be induced to venture again into the vicinity of their fellow-men. In the latter part of the 
year 1707, John left his brother, and intending to make for a trading post on the Shenandoah, appointed 
the period of his return. 

S.imunl Pringle, in the absence of John, suffered a good deal. The stock of provisions left him be- 
came entirely exhausted — one of his loads of |)owder was expended in a fruitless attempt to shoot a 
buck — his brother had already <ielay»'d his return several days loniri-r than was intended, and he was n\)- 
prehensive that he had been recognised, t;iken to Fort Pitt, and would probably n< ver get back. With 
his remaining load of ptjwder, however, he wa.s fortunate enough to kill a fine buffalo; and John soon 
after returned with the news of peace, both with the Indians and French. The two brothers agreed to 
leave their retirement. 

Their wilderness habitation was not left without some regret. Every object anmnd had become more 
or les< endeared to them. The tre.-, in whose hollow they had been so frequently sheltered from s|orm 
and tempest, was regarded by them with so great reverence, that thi'y resolved, so soon as they could 
prevail on a few others to accompany them, again to return to this asylum of their exile. 

In a population such as then composed the chief part of the South Branch seltlemcul this was no dif- 



188 



BEDFORD COUNTY. 



ficult matter. All of them were used to the frontier manner of living; the most of them had gone thith- 
er to acquire land ; many had failed entirely in this object, while others were obliged to occupy poor and 
broken situations off the river, the fertile bottoms having been previously located. Add to this the pas- 
sion for hunt.ng, (which was a ruling one with many,) and the comparative scarcity of game in their 
neighborhood, and it need not excite ^urprisc th it the proposition of the Pringles to i'onu a settlement in 
such a country as they represented th it on Buchannon to be, was eagerly embraced by many. 

In the fall of the ensuing year, (ITGS,) H uuuci Fringle, and several others who wished first to examine 
for themselves, visited the country which h;iil been so long occupied by the Pringles alone. Being pleas- 
ed with it, they in the following spring, with a lew (itlieis, rep lired thither with the view of cultivating 
as much corn as would serve their faniilii'-; tliL' lir-t \i-.r niter their emigration. And having examined 
the country, for the jmrpose of selecting tlio hkisI (ii sii:ib!e situ:ilions, some of them proceeded to im- 
prove the spots of their choice. .John .LickMin (wlid was licconipanied by his sons, George and Edward) 
settled at the mouth of Turkey inn, whciY- his d iupiitcr, JMrs. Davis, now lives — John Hacker higher up 
on the Buchannon River, where Bush's tort was at'tei u aids established, and Nicholas Heavenor now lives 
— Alexander and Thomas Sleeth, near to .Jackson's, on what is now known as the Forenash pi mtation. 
The others of the party (William Hacker, Thomas and .lesse Hughes, John and William Radclilf, and 
John Brown) appear to have employed their lime exclii ively in hunting; neither of them making any 
improvement of land for his own benefit. Yet were they of very considerable service to the new settle- 
ment. Those who had connncnced clearing iand, were supplied by them with abundance of meat, while 
in their hunting excursions through the country, a better knowledge of it was obtained, than could have 
been acquired had they been engaged in urikiug improvements. 

In one of these expeditions tliey discdvcicd, aiul gave name to Stone-coal creek; which flowing west- 
wardly, induced the supposition that it di-charged itself directly into the Ohio. Descending this creek, 
to ascertain the fact, they came to its conlluence with a river, which they then called, and has since been 
known as the We-;t Fork. After having gone some distance down the river they returned by a different 
route to the settlement, better pleased with the land on it and some of its tributaries, than with that on 
Buchannon. 

Soon after this, other emigrants arrived under the guidance of Samuel Pringle. Among them were 
John and Benjamin Cutright, who settled on Buchannon, wiicre John Outright the younger, now lives; 
and Henry Rule, who imj)roved just above the mouth of Fink's run. Before the arrival of Samuel Prin- 
gle, John Hacker had begun to improve the sj)ot which Pringlo h id chosen for himself. To prevent any 
unpleasant re>ult. Hacker agreed tiiat if Pringle would clear as much land on a creek which had been 
recently di- covered by the hunters, as he had on Buchannon, they could then exchange places. Cotnply- 
ing with this condition, Pringle took po-scssion of the farm on Buchannon, and Hacker of the land im- 
proved by Pringle on the creek, which was hence called Hacker's creek. John and William RadclifF 
then likewise settled on this stream — the former on the farm where the Rev. John Mitchel now lives ; 
the latter at the place now owned by William Powers, Esq. These comprise all the improvements which 
were made on the U|)per branches of the Rlononga.hela, in the years 1709 and 1770. 

At the close of the working season of 17(i9, some of tliese adventurers went to their families on the 
South Branch ; and when they returned to gather their crops in the fall, found them entirely destroyed. 
In their absence the buffaloes, no longer awed by the presence of man, had trespassed on their enclo- 
sures and eaten their cor.i to the ground ; this delayed the removal of their families till the winter 
of 1770. 

Soon after the happening of this event, other settlements were made on the tipper branches of the 
Monongahela River. Capt. James Booth and John Thomas established themselves on what has been 
since called Booth's creek — the former at the place now owned by Jesse Martin, and the latter where 
William Martin at present resides, and which is, perhaps, the most valuable landed estate in northwest- 
ern Virginia, off" the Ohio River. 

Previous, however, to the actual settlement of the country above the forks of the Monongahela, some 
few families (in 1767) had established themselves in the vicinity of Fort Redstone, now Brownsville, in 
Pennsylvania. 



BEDFORD. 

Bedford was formed from Lunenburg county, in 1753. It is 35 
miles long, with an average breadth of 25. The surface is un- 
even, and the soil is naturally very fertile, but has been injured by 
the injudicious cultivation of tobacco. It is bounded on the north 
by the James River, and on the south by the Staunton. Gouse and 
Otter creeks flow through it, the latter of which gives name to the 
noted Peaks of Otter. Population in 1830, 20,253 ; in 1840, whites 
11,016, slaves 8,864, free colored 323— total 20,203. 

Liberty, the county-seat, is on the Lynchburgh and Salem turn- 
pike, 26 miles sw. of the former, and contains five mercantile 
stores, one Baptist, one Presbyterian, one Episcopal, and one Meth- 
odist church, a large and handsome court-house, built in 1834, and 
a population of about 600. This neat and flourishing village is 
the admiration of travellers, — being surrounded by a beautiful, 
rolling, fertile country, bounded by a back-ground of great subliin- 



BKoroui) corxTV. 



189 



ity. Tho I'luc Ridijp, riinnin<^ to tlic ri^lit and left acro-s the 
horizon lor many nriile^s, here towers to its greatest hei^^ht in the 
celebrated peaks of Otter, which, although seven miles distant, 
appear in the immediate vicinity. These apparently isolated 
peaks, with one or two exceptions, are the loftiest mountains in 
the southern states. The estimated height of the most elevated, 




The Peaks of Otter from near Liberty. 



the northern peak, is 4200 feet above the plain, and 5307 feet above 
the level of the ocean, which is more than a mile in height. The 
most southerly, or the conical peak, is much visited. A writer in 
the Southern Literary Messenger gives the following glowing de- 
scription of a trip to the peaks : 

After ridinj; about a mile and a qinrter, we crime to the point beyond whirh hor^^es cannot be fiken, 
and disinoniitin!: our steeds, conunenced ascendin{» on foot. The way was very steep, and the day so 
warm, tliat we had to h ilt often to t ike breath. .A.s we approached the sunnnit. the trees were ail of a 
dwarfish growtii, and twisted and snarle<l by the storms of that hiuh region. There were, also, a few 
blackberry- bushes, iH'ariiii: their fruit ions: after the season had passed below. .\ few minutes lonper 
brought us to where the trees ceav(>d to jirow ; but a huire mass ol rock^ piled w ildly on the top of each 
other, finished the termination of the |)e;ik. Our path lay lor some distince around the base of it, and 
under the overhmsiuR battlements: and rather di'srendin}; for awhile until it led to a part of the pile, 
which could with some etiort be scah-d. Tliere wa.s no ladder, nor any artificial step< — and the only 
means ()f .tsccnt was by climliinc over the succe-isive roc4vs. We soon stood ui)on the wild platlbrm of 
one of nature's most nri'rnificent ob-^ervatories — i<ol ited, and apparently above ;ill things cNe terres- 
tri;il, and looking down ujHjn, and over, a beautiful, variecited, and at the same time irrand, wilrl, won- 
derful, and almo-it boundless panonnt i. Indeed, it wii.s litemlly boundless ; for there was ii con>iilerablo 
haze restin? upon some parts of " the world below ;" so that, in the distant horizon, the earth and sky 
seemed insensibly to mingle with each other. 

I had l)oen tl.ere before, I rememher when a hoy of little ruore than ten years old. to have been 
taken to that spot, and how my uiipr icti^ed nerves for-ook me at the awful sublimity of the scene. On 
this day it was as new as ever; a* wild, wonderful, and sublime, as if I had never betore l(M)ked from 
those isolated nx-ks, or stood on that lofty suumiit. On one side, towards eastern Vir-rinia, 1 ly a c<-rii. 
paratively level countrj-, in the distance, bearicig a strong resemblance to the ocean ; on the other band, 



190 



BERKELEY COUNTY. 



were ranges of high mountains, interspersed with cultivated spots, and then terminating in piles of 
mountains, followin<i! in successive ranges, until they were lostalso in the hnze. Ahove and iielow, the Blue 
Ridge and Alleghanies ran off in long lines; sometimes relieved hy knolls and peaks, and in one place 
above us making a graceful curve, and then again running ofi'in a ditiereiit line of direction. Very near us 
stood the rounded top of the other peak, looking like a sullen sentiriel for its neighbor. We paused in silence 
for a time. We were there almost cut otf from the world below, standing where it was fearful even to 
look down. It was more hazy than at the time of my last visit, but not too much so to destroy the in- 
terest of the scene. 

There was almost a sense of pain, at the stillness which seemed to reign. We could hear the flapping 
of the wings of the hawks and buzzards, as they seemed to be gathering a new impetus after sailing 
through one of their circles in the air below us. North of us, and on the other side of the Valley of 
Virginia, were the mountains near Lexington, just as seen from that beautiful village — the Jump, North, 
and House Mountains succeeding each other; they were familiar with a thousand associations of our 
childhood, seeming mysteriously, when away from the spot, to bring my early home before me — not in 
imagination, such as had often haunted me when I first left it to find another in the world, but in sub- 
stantial reality. Further on down the valley, and at a great distance, was the top of a large mountain, 
which was thought to be the great North Mountain, away down in Shenandoah county — I am afraid to 
say how far oti'. Intermediate between these mountains, and extending opposite and far above us, was 
the Valley of Virginia, with its numerous and highly cultivated farms. Across this valley, and in the 
distance, lay the remotest ranges of the Alleghany and the mountains about ; and I suppose beyond the 
White Sulphur S))rings. Nearer u*;, and separating eastern and western Virginia, was the Blue Ridge, 
more than ever showing the propriety of its cognomen of the " b sckbone ;" and on which we could 
distinctly see two zigzag turnpikes, the one leading to Fincastle, and the other to Buchanan; and over 
which latter we had travelled a few days before. With the spyglass we could distinguish the houses in 
the village of Fincastle, some twenty-five or thirty miles ofl^, and the road leading to the town. 

Turning towards the direction of our morning's ride, we had beneath us Bedford county, with its 
smaller mountains, farms and farm-houses — the beautiful village of Kiberty, the county roads, and occa- 
sionally a mill-pond, reflecting the sun like a sheet of polished silver. The houses on the hill at Lynch- 
burg, twenty-five .or thirty miles distant, are distinctly visible on a clear day, and also Willis' Mountain 
away down in Buckingham county. 

I had often visited Bedford, and had been more or less familiar with it from childhood ; but at our 
elevation, distances were so annihilated, and appearances so changed, that we could scarcely recognise 
the most familiar objects. After some difficulty, we at length made out the residence of Dr. M., we had 
that morning left, and at that moment rendered more than usually interesting, by containing, in addition 
to the other very dear relatives, two certain ladies, who sustained a very interesting connexion with the 
doctor and myself, and one of whom had scarcely laid aside the blushes of her bridal hour. 

A little beyond this, I recognised the former residence of a beloved sister, now living in a distant 
southern state. It was the same steep hill ascending to the gate, the same grove around the house, as 
when she lived there, and the same as when I played there in my boyhood. And it was the first time I 
had seen it since 'he change of owners. I then saw it from the Peaks of Otter: but it touched a thou- 
sand tender cords ; and I almost wept when 1 thought, that those I once there loved were far away, 
and that the scenes of my youthful days could not return. 

Myself and companions had, some time before, gotten on different rocks, that we might not interrupt 
each other in our contemplations. I could not refrain, however, from saying to one of them, " What 
little things we are ! how factitious our ideas of what is extensive in territory and distance !" A splendid 
estate was about the size I could step over ; and I could stand and look at the very house whence I 
used often to start in days gone by, and follow with my eye my day's journey to the spot where, wearied 
and worn down, I dismounted with the setting sun. Yet I could look over what seemed .so great a space, 
with a single glance. I could also look away down the Valley of Virginia, and trace the country, and, 
in imagination, the stage-coach, as it slowly wound its way, day and night for successive days, to reach 
the termination of what I could throw my eye over in a moment. I was impressively reminded of the 
extreme littleness with which these things of earth would all appear, when the tie of life which binds 
us here is broken, and we shall be able to look back and down upon them from another world. The 
scene and place are well calculated to excite such thoughts. 

It is said that John Randolph once spent the night on these elevated rocks, attended by no one but his 
servant ; and that, when in the morning he had witnessed the sun rising over the majestic scene, he 
turned to his servant, having no other to whom he could express his thoughts, and charged him, never 
from that time to believe any one who told him there was no God." 

I confess, also, that my mind was most forcibly carried to the judgment-day ; and I could but call the 
attention of my companions to what would, probably, then be the sublime terror of the scene we now 
beheld, when the mountains we saw and stood upon, should all be melted down like wax ; when the 
flames should be driving over the immense expanse before us ; when the heavens over us should be 
" passing away with a great noise ;" and when the air beneath and around us should be filled with the 
very inhabitants now dwelling and busied in that world beneath us. 



BERKELEY. 

Berkeley was formed in 1772, from Frederick. Its mean length 
is 221 miles ; mean breadth, 13 miles. The surface is much broken 
and mountainous. Back and Opequan creeks run through the county 
and empty into the Potomac. Some of the land bordering these 
streams and the Potomac River, is very fertile. Anthracite coal 
is found in the western section of this county. Population: 1830, 
10,528; 1840, whites 8,760, slaves 1,919, free colored 293; total 



BERKELEY COUNTY. 



191 



10,972. Darksville and Gorardstown contain each from 1^0 to 40 
dwellings. ^Martinsburfj. the coiinty-srat, lies on ihe line of the 
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, HVJ miles nnw. of Richmond, 77 
from Washington, and 20 from Harper's Ferry. 




Central View in Martinsburg. 



It is compactly built, and contains 2 newspaper printing offices ; 
7 stores ; a market ; 1 Presbyterian, 1 Lutheran, 1 Episcopal, 1 
German Reformed, 1 Methodist, and 1 Catholic church ; and a 
population of about 1700. This town was laid out by Adam 
Stephen, Esq., and established by law in 1778, when the following 
gentlemen were appointed trustees: James M'Alister, Joseph 
Mitchell, Anthony Noble, James Strode, Robert Carter Willis, 
W^illiam Patterson, and Philip Pendleton. It derived its name 
from the late Col. T. B. Martin. The Baltimore and Ohio Rail- 
road passes through the village. 

The public building, in the centre of the view, is the court-house, 
which was built a year after the formation of the county, in the 
reign of George III. The jail at this place is rarely tenanted, and 
but one individual has been sent to the penitentiary within the 
last 12 years. Traces of the road cut by Braddock's army on their 
unfortunate expedition to the west, are discernible near the town. 
In St. Clair's defeat, about 80 citizens of the county were killed. 
In the vicinity of Leetown, (in the adjoining county of Jefferson,) 
there lived within a few miles of each other, after the war of the 
revolution, three general olHcers of the American army — Alexan- 
der Stephens, Horatio Gates, and Charles Lee. The w^ill of the 
latter is now in the clerk's office, in this county. The accompany- 
ing extract from it, is in keeping with its eccentric author: 

" I desire most earnestly that 1 may not be buried in any church 
or church-yard, or within a mile of any Presbyterian or Anabap- 
tist meeting-house, for since I have resided in this country, I have 
kept so much bad company while living, that 1 do not choose to 
continue it when dead." 



192 



BERKELEY COUNTY. 



General Lee's unbounded ambition led him to envy the great fame of Washington, 

and it 'was supposed his aim was to supersede him in the supreme command. He wrote 
a pamphlet, filled with scurrilous imputations upon the military talents of the com- 
mander-iu-cliief. In consequence, he was challenged by Col. Laurens, one of Wash- 
ington's aids, and was wounded in the duel which ensued. Degraded in the opinions of 
the wise and virtuous, he retired to this section of country, where, secluded from so- 
ciety, he lived in a rude hovel, without windows or plastering, or even a decent article 
of furniture, and with but few or no companions but his books and dogs. In 1780, 
Congress resolved that they had no further occasion for his services in the army. In 
the autumn of 1782, wearied with his forlorn situation and broken in spirits, he went to 
Philadelphia, where, in his lodgings in an obscure public-house he soon died, a martyr 
to chagrin and disappointment. In his dying moments, he was, in imagination, on the 
field of battle : the last words he was heard to utter were, " Stand by mc, my brave 
grenadiers ."' 

Gen. Gates, of whom the prediction of Gen. Lee was verified, 
" that his northern laurels would be covered with southern willow,^^ 
was, after the disastrous battle of Camden, suspended from mili- 
tary command until 1782, when the great scenes of the war were 
over. Gates was one of the infamous cabai who designed to sup- 
plant Washington : but he lived to do justice to the character of 
that great man. 

After the war, Gates lived about seven years on his plantation in Virginia, the re^ 
mainder of his life he passed near New York city. In 1800, he' was elected to the 
legislature of that state by the anti-federal party. He died in 1806, aged 78 years. " A 
few years before his death, he generously gave freedom to his slaves, making provision 
for the old and infirm, while several testified their attachment to him by remaining in 
his family. In the characteristic virtue of a planter's hospitality. Gates had no com- 
petitor, and his reputation may well be supposed to put this virtue to a hard test. He 
had a handsome person, and was gentlemanly in his manners, remarkably courteous to 
all, and carrying good humor sometimes beyond the nice limit of dignity." Both Lee 
and Gates were natives of England, and all three, Lee, Gates, and Stephens, had com- 
mand of Virginia troops. 

Many of the early settlers of the county were Scotch-Irish, who 
were Presbyterians. " It is said that the spot where Tuscarora 
meeting-house now stands, is the first place w^here the gospel was. 
publicly preached and divine service performed, west of the Blue 
Ridge. This was, and still remains, a Presbyterian edifice. Mr. 
Se^Tiple, in his history of the Virginia Baptists, states that in the 
year 1754, Mr. Stearns, a preacher of this denomination, w^ith 
several others, removed from New England. ' They halted first 
at Opequon, in Berkeley county, Va., where he formed a Baptist 
church, under the care of the Rev. John Gerard.' This w^as 
probably the first Baptist church founded west of the Blue 
Ridge." 

There is an interesting anecdote, related by Kercheval, in his account of Indian in- 
cursions and massacres in this region, of a young and beautiful girl, named Isabella 
Stockton, who was taken prisoner in the attack on Neally's fort, and carried and sold 
to a Canadian in Canada. A young Frenchman, named Plata, becoming enamored 
with her, made proposals of matrimony. This she declined, unless her parents' con- 
sent could be obtained — a strong proof of her filial affection and good sense. The 
Frenchman conducted her home, readily believing that his generous devotion and at- 
tachment to the daughter would win their consent. But the prejud ges then existing 
against the French, made her parents and friends peremptorily reject his overtures. Isa- 
bella then agreed to elope with him, and mounting two of her father's horses, they fled. 



BROOKE CO U.N TV. 



193 



but were overtaken by her two brothers in pursuit, by whom site was lorriblv torn froio 
her lover and protector and carrit d back to h» r parents, while the pf)or Frcnchinaa was 
warned that his life should be the forfeit of any farther attempts. 



The Hon. Felix GrundT \^a6 born on the 11th of Sept., 1777, in a lojr house on 
Sleepy Creek, in this county. His father was a native of En^rjand. When Felix was 
but two years of arre, his familv removed to what is now Brownsville, IVmi.. and in 
17^0 to Kentucky, where he lived from childhood to maturity, and in or ISOb, re- 

moved to Tennes<ee. 

Mr. Grundy was one of the most distinfriiished lawyers and statesmen of the western 
states. When in the councils of the nation, he had but few superiors. He was always 
a zealous and most etlieient supporter of the democratic party. " His manners were 
amiable, his conversation instructive, aboundinof in humor and occasionally sarcastic. 
His cheerful disposition ^aint-d him friends amoiicr his |)()liticul ojiponcnts, and rendered 
him the deliorht of the domestic circle. His morals were drawn from the pure fountain 
of Christianity, and, while severe with himself, he was charitable to others. Integrity 
and justice controlled his transactions with his fellow-men." 

'* CoL. Crawford emigrated from Berkeley county in 17G8. with his family, to Penn- 
sylvania. He was a captain in Forbes' expedition, in 1758. He was the intimate 
friend of Washinsrton, who was frequently an inmate of his humble dwelling, duringr his 
visits to the then west, for the purpose of locating lauds and attendin^r to public busi- 
ness. Col. Crawford was OJie of the bravest men on the frontier, and often took the 
lead in parties ao;ainst the Indians across the Ohio. His records and papers were never 
preserved, and very little else than a few brief anecdotes remain to perpetuate his fame. 
At the commencement of the Revolution, he raised a retriment by his own exertions, 
and held the commission of colonel in the continental army. In 178:2, he accepted, 
with grreat reluctance, the command of an expedition to ravage the Wyandott and Mo- 
ravian Indian towns on the Muskingum. On this expedition, at the age of 50, he was 
taken prisoner, and put to death by the most excruciating tortures." 



BRAXTON. 

Braxtox was formed in 1830, from Lewis, Kanawha, and Nicho- 
las, and named from Carter Braxton, one of the signers of the 
Dechiratiou of American Independence : it is about 45 miles long, 
with a mean width of 20 miles. It is watered by Elk and Little 
Kanawha Rivers, and their branches. The country is rough, but 
well watered, and fertile. Pop. 1840, whites 2,509 : slaves 64 
free coFd. 2 ; total, 2,575. 

Sutton, the county-.seat, on Elk River, 2S9 miles w. of Rich- 
mond, is a small village ; the only public buildinirs being those 
beloniring to the county. The locality ealhnl BuUtown, wh'^re 
there is a post-office, was so named from the fact that about sixty 
years since, it was the residence of a small tribe of Indians, the 
name of whose chief was Captain Bull. 



BROOKE. 

Brooke was formed from Ohio co.. in 1797. It is the most north- 
erly county in the state, and is a portion of the narrow neck of land 
lyins: between Pennsylvania and the Ohio River called the "pan- 
handle." Its mean length is 31 miles, mean breadth (3 1-2. The sur- 

25 



194 



BROOKE COUNTY. 



face is hilly, but much of the soil is fertile. The county abounds in 
coal. Large quantities are quarried on the side hills on the Ohio. 
Ttiere is not at the present time, (Sept. 1843,) a licensed tavern in 
the county, for retailing ardent spirits, and not one distillery ; nor has 
there been a criminal prosecution for more than two years. Pop. 
1830,7,040 ; 1840, whites 7,080, slaves 91, free col'd. 77 ; total, 7,948. 

Fairview, or New Manchester, lies on the Ohio, 22 miles n. of 
Wellsburg, on an elevated and healthy situation. It contains about 
2.5 dwellings. The churches are Presbyterian and Methodist. 
HoUiday's Cove is a long and scattering village, about 7 miles 
above Wellsburg, in a beautiful and fertile valley, of a semi-cir- 
cular form. It contains 1 Union church, 1 Christian Disciples' 
church, an academy, and about 60 dwellings. Flour of a superior 
quality is manufactured at the mills on Harmon's Creek, in this 
valley. Bethany is beautifully situated, 8 miles e. of Wellsburg. 
It contains a few dwellings only. It is the'residence of Dr. Alex- 
ander Campbell, the founder of the denomination generally known 
as " the Campbellite Baptists :" a name, however, which they 
themselves do not recognise, taking that of " Disciples, or Christian 
Baptists." 




Bethany College, Brooke County. 



Bethany Ccjlege was founded by Dr. Alexander Campbell, in 
1841. Its instructors are the president, (Dr. Campbell,) and 4 pro- 
fessors. The institution is flourishing, numbering something like 
a hundred pupils, including the preparatory department. The 
buildings prepared for their reception are spacious and conve- 
nient. 

The following historical sketch of " the Disciples of Christ," with 
a view of their religious opinions, is from Hay ward's Book of Re- 
ligions : 

-4 



BROOKE COUNTY. 



195 



The risp of this society, if we only look bark to the drawing of the lines of dcmnrcntion between It and 
other iiri)rfss()r<i. is of recent origin. About the conimencement of the |>res»'nt teiimr>, the Bihie alone, 
without any human addition in the furui of creeds or confessions of f:ii:h. hi cm to be preached by many 
distiiiL'uished ministers of ditierent denominations, both in Euroi)e and Amt ric:i. 

Wiih various success, aiul with many of the opinions of the various seci-s imjK>rcrptilily cnrried with 
Hu'm trom the deniuuinations to which they once helon<:ed, did the advocates of the Hihle cau-e plead 
for the union of Christians t)f i-very name, on the broad basis of the aiM)>tU's' leachini;. Hut it was not 
Until the year l-*j;< ih it a restoration t)f the ori^rinal irosprl and order of thinff.^, be:i in to be advocated in 
a periodlc'il edited by Alexander Campbell, oflu-thany, Virginia, entitled "The Christian Hipii«t." 

He and his lather. Thomas Campl)ell, renounced the Presbyterian system, and were immerM-d. in the 
year If^l-J. They, and the conprepations which they had formed, united with the Ri tNtone Ilipti^t As- 
sociation, protesting against all human creeds as bonds of luiion. a!id professing subjection to the Dible 
alone. This union took place in the year JH13. Hut, in pressinj! u[)on the attention of that society and 
the public the all-sutficiency of the sacrfd Scriptures liir every tiimg necessary to the |)erlection of 
Christian character. — whether in the private or social relations of lite, in the church, or in the world. — 
they began to be opposed by a strong creed-pirty in that ass(»ciation. After some ten years' debating and 
contending tor the Bible alone, and the apostles' doctrine, Alexander Campbell, and the church to which 
he belonged, united with the Mahoning association, in the Western Reserve of Ohio; that association 
beins: more fivorable to his views of retorn). 

In his debates on the subject and action of baptism wit)> Mr. Walker, a seceding minister in the year 
18-20. and with Mr. M'Calla. a PresbUerian minister of Kentucky, in the year his views of retorma- 
Uon began to be developed, and were very generally received by the Baptist society, as far as these works 
were re ad. 

But in his "Christian Baptist," which began July 4, 1823, his views of the need of reformation were 
more tully exposed ; and, as these gained ground by the pleading of varitms ministers of the Baptist de- 
nomination, a party in opposition began to exert itself, and to oppose the spread of what they were 
pie ised to call heterodoxy. But not till alter great numbers began to act upon these principles, was there 
any attempt towards separation. After the Mahoning association appointed Mr. Walter ticott, an evan- 
gelist, in the year 1827, ami when great numbers began to be immer^oil into Christ, under his labors, and 
new churches l)egan to be erected by iiim and other laborers in the field, did the Baptist associations be- 
gin to declare non-fellowship with the brethren of the reformation. Thus, by constraint, not of choice, 
they were obliged to form societies out of those comuumities that split, upon the ground of adherence to 
tlie apostles' doctrine. The distinguishing characteristics of their views and practices are the follow - 
ing :— 

They regard all the sects and parties of the Christian world as having, in greater or less degree, de 
parted from the simplicity of t'aith and manners of the first Christians, and as forming what the apostle 
Paul calls '• the apost icy." This defection they attribute to the great varieties of speculation and met i- 
physic il dogmatism of the countless creeds, formularies, liturgies, and bf)oks of discipline, adopted and 
inculcated as bonds of union, and platforms of communion in all the pa»ties which have sprung trom the 
Lutheran reforiintion. Theetiect of these synodic il covenant-^, convention.il articles of belief, and rules 
of ecclesiastical polity, has been the introduction of a new nomenclature. — a human vocabulary of reli- 
gious words, phrases, and technicalities, which has di-^placed the style of the living oracles, and affixed 
to the sacred diction ideas wholly unknown to the apostles of Christ. 

To remedy and obviate these aberrations, they propose to ascertain from the Holy f^rriptures, accord- 
ing to the commonly recei\ eil and well-estiblished rules of interpretation, the ideas attached to the lead- 
ing terms and sentences found in the Holy Scriptiues, and then to use the words of the Holy Spirit in the 
apostolic acceptation of them. 

By thus expressing the ideas communicated by the Holy Spirit, in the terms and phrases learned from 
the apostles, and by avoiding the artificial and technical language of scholastic theology, they propose to 
restore a pure speech to the household of faith ; and, by accustoming the family of God to u-ie the lan- 
guage and dialect of the Heavenly Father, they expect to promote the sanctitication of one another through 
Uie Imth, and to terminate those di^conls and debates which have always originated from the words 
which man's wisdom teaches, and from a reverential regard and esteem for the style of the great masters 
of polemic divinity; believing that speaking the same things in the same style, is the only certain way 
to thinking the same things. 

They make a very marked difTerence between faith and opinion ; l)etween the testimor.y of God and 
the reasonings of men ; the words of the Spirit and human inferences. Faith in the u-stimony of God, 
and obedience to the commandments of Jesus, are their bond of union, and not an agreement in any ab- 
stract views or opinions upon what is written or spoken by divine authority. Hence all the speculations, 
questions, debates of words, and abstract reasonings, found in hum m creeds, have no place in their reli- 
gious fellowship. Regrvrding Calvinism and .\rminianism, Trinit irianism and I'nit irianism, and all the 
opposing theories of religious secUiries, as extremes iK-gotteii by each other, they cautiously avoid them, 
as equidistant from the simiilicity and practical tendency of the promises and precepts, of the doctrine 
and facts, of the exhortations and precedents, of the Christian institution. 

They look for unity of sjiirit and the bonds of |)eace in the practical acknowledgment of one faith, one 
Lord, one immersion, one hope, one body, one Spirit, one God and Father of all; not in unity of opinions, 
nor in unity of forms, ceremonies, or modes of worship. 

The Holy Scriptures of both Testaments they retjard as containinc revelations from God, and as all 
necess.iry io make tlie man of God perfect, and accomitlished for every g<HKl word and work: the .New 
Testament, or the living oracles of Jesus Christ, they understand as containing the Christian religion ; the 
testimonies of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, they view as illu<tr iting and iirovini; the great proposi- 
tion on which our religion rests, viz., that Jesus of Nazareth is the .Messiah, the only begotten and well- 
beloved Son ofGojj, and the only . 'Saviour of the world; the .\ctsof the .\[x>^tles as a divinely authorized 
namitive of the liesinning and progress of the reign or kingdom of JesU-; Christ, recording the full develop- 
ment of the gosp«'l by the Holy Spirit sent down from heaven, .and the procedure of the aiKj^tles in setting 
up the Church of Christ on earth ; the Epistles as carrying out and applyinc the doctrine of the apostles 
to the pnictice of individuals and congregations, and as developing the tendencies of the gos|>el in the 
behavior of its professors ; and all as forming a complete stand. ird of Christian fiith ami mor lU, adapted 
to the interval lietween the ascension of Christ and his return with the kingdom which he has received 
from (Jod ; the .•\po<;alyp<e. or Revelation of Je<us Christ to John, in P.iimos, as .a figurative and pros- 
pective view of all the lortunes of Christianity, from its d ite to the return of the Saviour. 

Ev. TV one who sincerely believes the testimony which (.\m1 gave of Jesus of Naz ireth. sayinc, "This 
is my Son, the beloved, in whom I delight," or, in other words, believes what the cvangelisu and apos- 
tles have testified concerning him, from his concepliou to his coronation in heaven as Lord of all, and 



196 



BROOKE COUNTY. 



who is \yiHin<i to obey him in every thing, they rejrnrd as a proper subject of immersion, and no one else. 
They consider iiiiiiiersion into the name of the Fatlier, Son, and Holy Spirit, after a i)ul)lic, sincere, and 
intellisent confession of the faith in Jesus, as necessary to admission to the privileges of the kingdom of 
the Me-siah, and as a solemn pledge, on the part of Heaven, of the actual remission of all past sins, and 
of adoption into the family of God. 

The Holy Spirit is promised only to those who believe and obey the Saviour. No one is taught to ex- 
pect the reception of that heavenly Monitor and Comforter, as a resident in his heart, till he obeys the 
gospel. 

Thus, while they pmclnim faith and repentance, or faith and a change of heart, as preparatory to im- 
mersion, remission, and the Holy Spirit, they say to all penitents, or all those who believe and repent of 
their sins, as Peter said to the first audience ^uldressed alter the Holy Spirit was bestowed, after the glori- 
fication of Jesus, "Be immersed, every one oi ynii, in the n:\n\e of the Lord Jesus, for the remission of 
sins, and you shall receive the gift of the Holy Si.ii it." 'i'hcj le:irh sinners that God commands all men, 
everywhere, to reform, or turn to God; that the Holy Spirit strives with thejn, so to do, by the apostles 
and propliets ; that God Ix^sei ches them to be reconciled, through Jesus Christ ; and that it is the duty of 
all men to believe the gospel, and turn to Cod. 

The immersed believers ;i re congregated into societies, accowling to their propinquity to each other, and 
tauiiht to meet every first day of the week, in honor and connuemoration of the resurrection of Jesus, and 
to break the loaf which coHiniemorates the death of the Son of God, to read and hear the living oracles, 
to teach and admonish one another, to unit<^ in all prayer and praise, to contribute to the necessities of 
saints, and to perfect holiness in the fear of the Lor'l. 

Every congregation clioo es it-; own nyrrrn'r:-- and denrons, who preside over and administer the affairs 
of the congregations; and every church, {'i'li.T Ir. m itself, or in cooperation with others, sends out, as 
opportimity offers, one or nii)re cvanH -li-ts, or jinx lainiers of the word, to preach the word, and to immerse 
those who believe, Kjgath.cr cnnirregatiiins, ami toe.xtend the knowledge of salvation wliere it is necessary, 
as faras their means allow. But every c'lurch regards these evang<^lists as its servants; and, therefore, 
they have no control over any congregation, each couL'regation being Subject to its own choice of presi 
dents or elders, whom they have ap[)oinled. Perseverance in all the work of faith, labor of love, and pa- 
tience of hoi)e, is inculcated, l)y all the disciples, as essentiiil to admission into the heavenly kingdom. 

Such are the prominent outlines of the faith and practices of those who wish to be known as the Disci- 
ples of Christ ; but no society among them would agree to make the preceding items either a confession of 
faith or a standard of practice, but, for the information of those who wish an acquaintance with them, are 
willing to give, at any time, a reason for their faith, hope, and practice. 




View of Wellsburg, Brooke County. 

Wellsburg, the seat of justice for the county, is beautifully situated 
on the Ohio River, 337 miles from Richmond and 16 above Wheeling. 
It is a thrivinf?, business place, and contains 9 mercantile stores, 2 
academies, 1 Presbyterian, 1 Methodist, 1 Christian Baptist, and 1 
Episcopal church, 1 white flint-glass works, 1 glass-cutting establish- 
ment, 1 paper-mill, 1 large cotton factory, 2 extensive potteries, 1 
steam saw-mil], 5 large warehouses, 1 newspaper printing oflice, 6 
extensive flouring-mills in it and the vicinity, 1 woollen factory, a 
branch of the N. W. Va. Bank, and a population of over 2,000. 
Inexhaustible beds of stone-coal abound on all sides of the place, 
which is furnished at a few cents per bushel to the numerous manu 



RROOKE COUXTV. 



197 



factories loca*rd here. About 50,000 barrels of Hour are annually 
exported I'rom here to New Orleans, in steam and Hat boats. 

\V(dlsbur)L!: was laid out in 1789, by Charles Prather, the uri<;inal 
pr()j)rietor, iVoui whom it was named Charleston. 'I'here being 
two other towns in the state of a similar name, it w as afterwards 
chaniicd to its present name from Alexander Wells, who built a 
flour warehouse at the point, the lirst ever erected on the Ohio. 
The tirst settlers came before the revolution : they were three 
brothers, Isaac, George, and Friend Cox, who built a lort, as a 
protection against the Indians, about a mile above the village. 
Most ol'the early settlers were from New En<^land. The inhabit- 
ants in the town and vicinity, at an early date, whose names are 
recollected, were Wm. AFFarland, Capt. Oliver Brown, Capt. Sam- 
uel Brown. Dr. Joseph and Philip Dodridge, James and Thomas 
jMarshall, Major M'Alahon, who was killed in Wayne's campaign, 
Samuel Brady, the famous Indian hunter, James and Ilezekiah 
GiiMeth, Isaac Reeves, and James Perry. About a mile below 
town, on the river, at a place now called Indian Side, a Mi s. Buskirk 
was killed and scalped by the Indians. The Mingo tribe of Indians 
had a settlement three miles above Wellsburg, on the opposite 
side of the river. 

Philip Dodridge, who died at Washington, in 183*2, while a 
member of Congress, was from Wellsburg. He was scarcely less 
celebrated in western Virginia, for his eloquence and splendid 
talents, than was Patrick Henry, in his day, in the oldest portions 
of the state. Dr. S. P. Ilildrelh, in the American Pioneer, has 
given the subjoined sketch : 

Mr. Dodridire, as is w« ll known to tlie early inhabitants of western Pennsylvania 
and Virfrinia, was ibr many y(\irs one ol" the most noted men in that region, for his 
splendid talents at the bar ; and has i)robably never been excelled, if he has been 
equalled, for his discrimination in fathoming the depths of an intricate case, or his 
powerful and logical reasoning in unfolding it. His father was among the earliest set- 
tiers of northwestern Virginia, in the vicinity of wha* was then called Charleston, but now 
Wellsburg. His constitution being not very robust, at the age of sixteen or eighteen years 
he was taken from the plough, put to school, and commenced the study of Latin. His 
vigorous mind drank in knowledge with the rapidity of thought, or as a dry sponge absorbs 
water. It soon became a habit with liim to exercise his memory, in changing the com- 
mon conversation around him into the idiom of his studies ; and following his father in 
his evening and morning devotions, he soon learned to render his })rayers into very good 
Latin, and to converse with his teacher fluently. This close a|)plication to his books, 
although it invigorated his mental powers, yet enfeebled his body, and it became neces. 
sary for a while to suspend his studies. At this period, the region in which he lived had 
become so much improved as to afford considerable surplus produce beyond the wants 
of the inhabitants, the only market for which was to be found on the Mississippi Kiver 
or at New Orleans. Son)e of his cousins, young men of his own age, having loaded a 
boat with flour, invited him to go with them, and recruit his enfeebled frame by a' 
voyage to the south. Nothing very interesting occurred until they reached Natchez, 
at that time in the po^;session of the Spaniards. Tliey were very strict in their police, 
forbidding any strangers or boatmen to go up into the town, seated on a high hlutF, 
without a written permission from the commandant or governor of the place. Young 
Dodridge feeling the ill eflccts of confinement to tiie narrow limits of the boat, and that 
he needed exercise, detcrjuined to take a walk and visit the town on the hill. He had 
ascended about half way, when he was met by a well-dressed man, who accosted him 
in the Spanish language. Dodridge did not fully understand him. but thought it similar 
to the Latin, and answered him in thai tongue. It so happened that the individual who 



198 



BROOKE COUNTY. 



addressed him was no less a personage than the governor of Natchez, and was weit 
versecl in the Latin, having been liberally educated in Spain. Tliey soon fell into a 
very familiar and animated discourse, without Philip's once suspecting the station of 
his new acqnainta:ice. Learning that he had visited the Mississippi country on account 
of his delicate health, and that he was now walking for exercise, after long confinement 
to the boat, and withal astonished and delighted to have discovered so learned a man in 
an up-country boatman, he invited him to his house. Tlie sprightly wit and uncommon 
intellect of the young stranger soon won his whole heart, and interested the Spanish 
commandant deeply in his welfare. His admiration was not the less excited, from 
having pointed out to him on a large map of the western country, which hung against the 
wall, the spot near the head of the Ohio River, where he was born, and from whence he 
departed on the present voyage. While thus agreeably engaged, a black servant drove up 
to the door with a neat Spanish carriage and pair of horses, accompanied with an invitation 
from the governor to step in and ride as far as he pleased. With many thanks, not the 
less acceptable to his benefactor from their being clothed in the Latin tongue, Philip 
accepted the offered kindness, and extended his ride to some distance around the suburbs 
of Natchez. When about to depart, he was i.ivited to call every day as long as he re- 
mained, and the carriage and servant should be ready for his service. This pleasing in- 
tercourse was continued for about a week ; and when he finally took his leave, the 
governor gave him letters of introduction to several of the first men in New Orleans, 
accompanied with many flattering expressions of his admiration for his uncommon ac- 
quirements, and the pleasure his acquaintance had afforded him ; thus demonstrating 
the homage that is ever paid by the wise and good to learning and worth, even when 
accompanied with poverty and among strangers. His companions looked with wonder and 
astonishment at the gracious reception and attention paid to their cousin by the governor, 
while they were barely allowed to step on shore, and not suffered to leave the vicinity 
of the landing. Philip laughingly told them it was all owing to his good looks, which 
they could hardly believe, as in this particular they were decidedly superior to their 
cousin. On reaching New Orleans, his letters procured him ready admission to the 
tables and the society of the most prominent men in the city ; and the few weeks he staid 
there were passed in a round of amusements, freely bestowed by the hospitable Span- 
iards. At his departure they loaded him with their good wishes and assurances, that 
they should never forget his name, or the pleasure they had received from the brilliant 
sallies of his humor and wit. 

The Rev. Dr. Joseph Dodridge, a brother of the above, was an 
Episcopal clergyman, in Wellsburg. He was the author of the 
work, entitled, " Notes on the settlement and Indian Wars of the 
v^estern parts of Virginia and Pennsylvania, from the year 1763 
until the year 1783, inclusive, together with a view of the state 
of society and manners of the first settlers of that country." 
From this interesting and graphic volume, we have, in our work, 
made several extracts. We here present the reader with his de- 
scription of the weddings among the earl}" pioneers : 

For a long time after the first settlement of this country, the inhabitants in general 
married young. There was no distinction of rank, and very little of fortune. On these 
accounts the first impression of love resulted in marriage ; and a family establishment 
cost but a little labor, and nothing else. A description of a wedding, from the beginning 
to the end, will serve to show the manners of our forefathers, and mark the grade of 
civilization which has succeeded to their rude state of society in the course of a few 
years. At an early period, the practice of celebrating the marriage at the house of the 
ibride began, and, it should seem, with great propriety. She also had the choice of the 
priest to perform the ceremony. 

A wedding engaged the attention of a whole neighborhood ; and the frolic was an- 
ticipated by old and young with eager expectation. This is not to be wondered at, when 
it is told that a wedding was almost the only gathering which was not accompanied 
with the labor of reaping, log-rolling, building a cabin, or planning some scout or 
campaign. 

In the morning of the wedding-day, the groom and his attendants assembled at the 
house of his father, for the purpose of reaching the mansion of his bride by noon, which 



BROOKE COLXTY. 



199 



was the usual time for celebrating the nuptials, whicli for certain must tak»^ place hcforo 
dinner 

Let the reader imagine an assemblage of people, without a store, tailor, or inantua- 
maker, within a hundred miles ; and an asse?nblage of horses, without a blacksmith or 
saddler within an ecjual distance. The gentkinen dressed in shoe-packs, moccasins, 
leather breeclies, leggins, linsey hunting-shirts, and all home-made. 'Vlw 1 idies dressed 
in linsey petticoats, and linsey or linen bed-gowns, coarse shoes, stDckings, h.mdker. 
chiefs, and buckskin gloves, if any. If there were any buekh s, rings, buttons, or ruf- 
fles, they were the relics of old times ; family pieces, from j)areiits or grand-parents. 
The horses were caparisoned with old saddles, old bridles or halters, and pack-snddles, 
with a bag or blanket thrown over. them ; a rope or string as often constituted the girth, 
as a piece of leather. 

The march, in double file, was often interrupted by the narrowness and ol)struction»^ 
of our horse-paths, as they were called, for we had no roads; and these difficulties 
were often increased, sometimes by the good, and sometimes by the ill-will of neitrlibors, 
by tailing trees, and tying L^rape-vincs across the way. JSometimcs an ambuscade was 
formed by the wayside, and an unexpected discharge of several guns took place, so as 
to cover the wedding-party with smoke. Let the reader imagine the scene which fol- 
lowed this discharge ; the sudden spring of the horses, the shrieks of the girls, and the 
chivalric bustle of their partners to save them from falling. Sometimes, in spite of all 
that could be done to prevent it, some were thrown to the ground. If a wrist, elbow, 
or ankle happened to be sprained, it was tied with a handkerchief, and little more was 
thought or Said about it. 

Another ceremony commonly took place before the party reached the house of the 
bride, after the practice of making whiskey began, which was at an early period ; when 
the party were about a mile from the place of their destination, two young men would 
single out to run for the bottle ; the worse the path, the more logs, brush, and deep 
hollows, the better, as these obstacles afforded an opportunity for the greater display 
of intrepidity and horsemanship. The English fox-chase, in point of danger to the 
riders and their horses, is nothing to this race for the bottle. The start was announced 
by an Indian yell ; logs, brush, muddy hollows, hill and glen, were speedily passed by 
the rival ponies. The bottle was always filled for the occasion, so that there was no 
use forjudges; for the first who reached the door was presented with the prize, with 
which he returned in triumph to the company. On approaching them, he announced 
his victory over his rival by a shrill whoop. At the liead of the troop, he gave the 
bottle first to the groom and his attendants, and then to each pair in succession to the 
rear of the line, giving each a dram ; and then putting the bottle in the bosom of his 
hunting-shirt, took his station in the company. 

The ceremony of the marriage preceded the dinner, which was a substantial back- 
woods feast, of beef, pork, fowls, and sometimes venison and bear-meat, roasted and 
boiled, with plenty of potatoes, cabbage, and other vegetables. During the dinner the 
greatest hilarity always prevailed, although the table might be a large slab of timber, 
hewed out with a broadaxe, supported by four sticks set in auger-holes ; and the furni- 
ture, some old pewter dishes and plates ; the rest, wooden bowls and trenchers ; a few 
pewter spoons, much battered about the edges, were to be seen at some tables. The 
rest were made of horns. If knives were scarce, the deficiency was jnade up by the 
scalping-knives, which were carried in sheaths suspended to the belt of the hunting-shirt. 

After dinner the dancing commenced, and generally lasted till the next morning. 
The figures of the dances were three and four-handed reels, or square setts and jiiis. 
Tlie commencement was always a square four, which was followed by what was called 
jigging it ofl'; that is, two of the four would sini^le out for a jig, and were followed by 
the remaining couple. The jigs were often accompanied with what was called cutting 
out ; that is, when either of the parties became tired of the dance, on intimation the 
place was supplied by some one of the company without any interruption of the dance. 
In this way a dance was often continued till the musician was heartily tired of his 
situation. Towards the latter part of the night, if any of the company, through weari- 
ness, attempted to conceal themselves, for the purpose of sleeping, they were hunted 
lip, paraded on the floor, and the fiddler ordered to play, " Hang out till to-morrow 
mornins:." 

About nine or ten o'clock, a deputation of the young ladies stole off" the bride, and 
put her to bed. In doing this, it frequently happened that they had to a.scend a ladder 
instead of a pair of stairs, leading from the dining and ball-room to the loft, the floor 
of whit h was made of clapboards, lying loose, and without nails. As the foot of the 
ladder was commonly behind the door, which was purposely opened for the occasion, 



200 



BROOKE COUNTY. 



and its rounds at the inner ends were well hung with huntin^r-shirts, petticoats, and 
othef- articles of clothing, the candles being on the opposite side of the house, the exit 
of the bride was noticed but by few. This done, a deputation of young men in like 
manner stole ofTthe groom, and placed him snugly by the side of his bride. The dance 
still continued ; and if seats happened to be scarce, which was often the case, every 
young man, when not engaged in the dance, was obliged to offer his lap as a seat for 
one of the girls ; and the offer was sure to be accepted. In the midst of this hilarity 
the bride and groom were not forgotten. Pretty late in the night, some one would re- 
mind the company that the new couple must jland in need of some refreshment ; black 
Betty, which was the name of the bottle, was called for, and sent up the ladder; but 
sometimes black Betty did not go alone. I have many times seen as much bread, beef, 
pork, and cabbage, sent along with her, as would afford a good meal for half a dozen 
hungry men. The young couple were compelled to eat and drink, more or less, of 
whatever was offered them. 

It often happened that some neighbors or relations, not being asked to the wedding, 
took offence ; and the mode of revenge adopted by them on such occasions, was that of 
cutting off the manes, foretops, and tails of the horses of the wedding company. 

On returning to the infare, the order of procession, and the race for black Betty, was 
the same as before. The feasting and dancing often lasted for several days, at the end 
of which the whole company were so exhausted with loss of sleep, that several days 
rest were requisite to fit them to return to their ordinary labors. 

Should I be asked why I have presented this unpleasant portrait of the rude manners 
of our forefathers — I in my turn would ask my reader, why are you pleased with the his- 
tories of the blood and carnage of battles ? Why are you delighted with the fictions 
of poetry, the novel, and romance ? I have related truth, and only truth, strange as it 
may seem. I have depicted a state of society and manners which are fast vanishing 
from the memory of man, with a view to give the youth of our country a knowledge 
of the advantages of civilization, and to give contentment to the aged, by preventing 
them from saying, " that former times were better than the present." 

Capt. Samuel Brady resided at one time at Wellsburg. He was 
tall, rather slender, and very active, and of a dark complexion. 
When in the forest, engaged in war or hunting, he usually wore, 
instead of a hat, a black handkerchief bound around his head. 

He bore towards the Indians an implacable hatred, in consequence of the murder of 
his father and brother by them, and took a solemn oath of vengeance. Gen. Hugh 
Brady, of the U. S. army, is either a brother or nephew of him. He was at the siege 
of Boston; a lieutenant at the massacre of Paoli ; and in 1779-80-81, while Gen. 
Broadhead held command at Fort Pitt, was captam of a company of rangers. To fully 
detail his adventures would require a volume, and we have space but for a few anecdotes, 
drawn from various sources, illustrative of his courage and sagacity, 

A party of Indians having made an inroad into the Sewickly settlement, and com- 
mitted barbarous murders and carried off some prisoners, Brady set off in pursuit with 
only five men and his pet Indian. He came up with them, and discovered they were en- 
camped on the banks of the Mahoning. Having reconnoitred their position, Brady returned 
to and posted his men, and in the deepest silence all awaited the break of day. When 
it appeared, the Indians arose and stood around their fires; exulting, doubtless, in the 
scalps they had taken, the plunder they had acquired, and the injury they had inflicted 
on their enemies. Precarious joy — short-lived triumph ! The avenger of hlood was 
beside them ! At a signal given, seven rifles cracked, and five Indians were dead ere they 
fell. Brady's well-known war-cry was heard, his party was among them, and their guns 
(mostly empty) were all secured. The remaining Indians instantly fled and disappeared. 

Brady being out with his party, on one occasion had reached Slippery Rock Creek, 
a branch of the Beaver, without seeing signs of Indians. Here, however, he came on 
an Indian trail in the evening, whi-Rh he followed till dark without overtaking the In- 
dians. The next morning he renev\red the pursuit, and overtook them while they were 
engaged at their morning meal. Unfortunately for him, another party of Indians were 
in his rear. They had fallen upon his trail, and pursued him, doubtless, with as much 
ardor as his pursuit had been characterized by ; and at the moment he fired upon the 
Indians in his front, he was, in turn, fired upon by those in his rear. He was now be- 
tween two fires, and vastly outnumbered. Two of his men fell ; his tomahawk was 
shot from his side, and the battle-yell was given by the party in his rear, and loudly re- 
turned and repeated by those in his front. There was no time for hesitation ; no safety 



BROOKE COr.NTY. 



201 



in delay ; no chance of successful defence in their present position. Tlie bnive captain 
and his ranircre had to Hee before their enemies, who pressed on their flyintr footsteps 
with no laijijintj speed. Bratly ran towards the creek, lie was known hy many, if not 
all of them; and many and deep were the scores to be settled between him and them. 
They knew the country well : he did not ; and from his runnitior tow ards the creek they 
were certain of takinir him prisoner. The creek was, for a lony distance above and be- 
low the point he was approachinjjf, washed in its channel to a threat depth. In the cvr- 
tain expectation of catching him there, the private soldiers of his party wi-n' disregarded ; 
and throwing down their guns, and drawing their tomaiiawks, all pressed forward to 
seize their victim. Quick of eye, fearless of heart, and determined never to be a captive 
to the Indians, Brady comprehended their object, and his only chance of escape, the 
moment he saw the creek ; and by one mighty effort of courage and activity, defeated 
the one and eilected the other. He sprang across the abyss of waters, and stood, rifle 
in hand, on the opposite bank, in safety. As quick as lightning his rifle was primed ; 
for it was liis invariable practice in loading to prime first. The next minute t!ie pow- 
der-horn was at the gun's muzzle ; when, as he was in this act, a l.irge Indian, who had 
been foremost in the pur.-uit, came to the opposite bank, and with the manliness of a 
generous loe, who scorns to undervalue the qualities of an enemy, said in a loud voice, 
and tolerable English," Blady make good jump I'' It may indeed be doubted whether the 
compliment was uttered in deri ion ; for the moment he had said so he took to his heels, 
and, as if fearful of the return it'might merit, ran as crooked as a worm-fence — some- 
times leaping high, at others suddenly squatting down, he appeared no way certain that 
Brady would not answer from the lips of his rifle. But the rifle was not yet loaded. 
The captain was at the place afterwards, and ascertained that his leap was about 2.3 
feet, and that the water was '20 feet deep. Brady's next eflort was to gather up his 
men. They had a place designated at which to meet, in case they should happen to be 
separated ; and thither he went, and found the other three there. They immediately 
commenced their homeward march, and returned to Pittsburg about half defeated. 
Three Indians had been .seen to fall from the fire they gave them at breakfast. 

In Sept., 178*2. immediiitely alter the Indian.s had been defeated 
in their attempt to take the fort at Wheeling, they sent 100 pick- 
ed warriors to take Rice'.s Fort, which was situated on Buiralo 
Creek, about 12 or 15 miles from its mouth. This fort* consisted 
of some cabins and a small blockhouse, and, in dans^erous times, 
was the refuge of a few iamilies in the neighborhood. 

* " The reader will understand by this term, not only a place of defence, but the 
residence of a small number of families belonging to the same neighborhood. As the 
Indian mode of warfare was an indiscriminate slaughter of all ages, and both se.xes, it 
was as requisite to provide for the safety of the women and children as for that of the 
men. 

" The fort consisted of cabins, blockhouses, and stockades. A range of cabins com- 
monly forined one side at least of the fort. Divisions, or partitions of logs, separated the 
cabins from each other. The walls on the outside were tenor twelve feet higli, the slope 
of the roof being turned wholly inward. A very few of these cabins had puncheon floors, 
the greater part were earthen. The blockhouses were built at the angles of the fort. 
They projected about two feet beyond the outer walls of the cabins and stockades. 
Their upper stories were about eighteen inches every way larger in dimension than tlie 
under one, Ieaviii<r an opening at the commencement of the second story to prevent the 
enemy from making a lodirment under tluir walls. In some forts, instead of block- 
houses, the angles of the fort were furnished with bastions. A large I'olding gate, made 
of thick slabs, nearest the spring, closed the fort. The stockades, bastions, cabins, and 
blockhouse wall;<. were funiished with port-hole.H at 'proper heights and distances. The 
whole of the outside was made completely buUet-pryof. 

" It may be truly said that necessity is the mother of invention ; for the whole of this 
work was made without the aid of a single nail or spike of iron ; and for this reason, 
such things were not to be had. In some places, less exposed, a single blockhouse, with 
a cabin or two, constituted the whole fort. Such places of rel'ugo mav appear very 
trifling to those who have been in the habit of seeing the formidable military garrisons 
of Europe and America ; but they answered the purpose, as the Indians had no artillery. 
They seldom attacked, and scarcely ever took one of them." — Dodridgc's Notes. 

26 



202 



BOTETOURT COUNTY. 



T^he Indians surrounded the fort at night ere they were discovered, and soon made 
an attack, which continued at intervals until 2 o'clock in the morniri!^. In the intervals 
of the firing the Indians frequently called out to the people of the fort, " Give up, give 
up, too many Indian. Indian too big. No kill." They were answered with defiance. 
" Come on, you cowards ; we arc ready for you. Show us your yellow hides and we 
will make holes in them for you." They were only six men in the fort, yet such was 
their skill and bravery, that the Indians were finally obliged to retreat with the loss of a 
number of their men. 

" Thus was this little place defended by a Spartan band of six men, against 100 
chosen warriors, exasperated to madness by their failure at Wheeling Fort. Their names 
shall be inscribed in the list of the heroes of our early times. They were Jacob Miller, 
George Leflcr, Peter Fullenweider, Daniel Rice, George Felebaum, and Jacob Lefler, 
jun. George Felebaum was shot in the forehead, through a port-hole at the second 
fire of the Indians, and instantly expired, so that in reality the defence of the place was 
made by only five men." 



BOTETOURT. 

Botetourt was formed in 1769 from Augusta, and named from 
Gov. Botetourt. Its length is 44 miles, with mean breadth of 18 
miles. The Blue Ridge forms its e. boundary, and much of the 
county is mountainous. The James River runs through the n. part. 
Much of the soil is fertile. 




Fincastle from Grove Hill. 

FiNCASTLE, the county-seat, lies 175 miles west of Richmond. This 
town was established by law in 1772, on forty acres given for the pur- 
pose by Israel Christian, and named after the seat of Lord Bote- 
tourt in England. It is compactly built in a beautiful rolling 
country. It contains 5 mercantile stores, 1 newspaper printing 
office, 2 academies ; 1 Presbyterian, 1 Baptist, 1 Episcopal, and 
1 Methodist church ; and a population of about 700. The above 
view shows the principal part of the village as it appears from 
Anderson's or (Jrove Hill. The public building on the left is the 
Episcopal, and that on the right the Presbyterian church. The 



BOTETOURT COUNTY. 



North mountain, 5 mi\vs distant, appears in tin? backj^round. 
Pattonsburg and Buchanon lie immediately opposite each other, 
on the James River, 1'2 miles n. of Fincastle. They are connected 
tog(^ther by a tine bridge, and in a general df-scriplion would b(; 
consid(M-ed as one villa«ie. They are beaulil'ully situated in a val- 
h^y, between the lUue Kidge and Purgatory mountain, at the head 
oC navigation on James River, though in high water, batteaux go 
up as far as Covington in Alleghany co. These villages were in- 
corporated in 183'2-3, and contain at present 1 newspaper printing 
office, a branch of the Va. bank, 5 stores, a tobacco insjx'ction, 2 
tobacco tactories ; 1 Free, 1 Presbyterian, and 1 Episcopal church ; 
and a ])opulation of about 450. Eventually the James River 
Canal will pass through here to Covington, and probably a mac- 
adamized road from Staunton to Knoxville, Tennc^ssee. 

J)(/o-^ers Sjji i/ii^s are situated in the northern part oi'the county, 
near the James River, 18 miles from Fincastle, 16 from Buchanon, 
22 from Lexington. The scenery in the vicinity is very fine. Some 
years since extensive improvements were made there for the accom- 
modation of the guests. 

"The ino-it active mineral ingredients in the water are rarlwnated alkalies. In tliis it dirti rs materially 
from the White and Salt Sulphur, and is more nearly assimilated in its qualities to the Red and Gray 
Sulphur. It is, however, more decidedly alkaline than either of those sprin-rs. This peculiarity will 
ever recommend it to jx-rsons suhject to acidities of the stomach, and to the other concomitants of dys- 
jiepsia. while the larire quantity of hydrojien that it contains will render it useful in all of those coui- 
pluiiits for which sulphur-water is usually prescribed." 

At the small village of Amsterdam. .5 miles s. of Fincastle, there 
is a large brick church, lately built by the Dunkards. The Dun- 
kers at Amsterdam are descendants of Germans who emigrated to 
Pennsylvania. The following, regarding the tenets and practices 
of this sect, is from a published account : 

The Tunkers are a denomination of Seventh-Day Baptists, whicli took it.s rise in the year 17-24. It was 
founded by a, German, who, weary of the world, retired to an agreeable solitude, within sixty miles ot 
Philadelphia, for the more free exercise of relifiious contemplation. Curiosity attracted followers, anrl his 
simple and enaairini: manners made them proselytes. They soon settled a little colony, c.illeii Ephnla, 
in allusion to the Hebrews, who used to sing psalms on the border of the river Kuphrues. 'I'his denom- 
ination seem to have obtained their name from their b iptizing their new converts by jilunging. They are 
also called Tumb/crs. trom the manner in which they perform b iptism, v\ hich is liy putting the j)erson, 
while kneeling, head first underwater, so as to resemble the motion of the body in the action of tumblinc 
They use the trine inunersion, with laying on the hand-* and pniyer. even wh n the fR'rson b.i|)tized is in 
the water. Their habit seems to be peculiar to themselves, consi-^ting of a long tunic or coit. reaching 
down to their heels, with a sash or girdle round the waist, and a cap or hiH>d hanging from tlie shoulders. 
They do not sh ive the head or beard. 

Tlie men and women have separate habitations and distinct governments. For these purposes, they 
erected two large wooden budding-!, one of which is occupied by the brethren, the other by the sisters of 
the society; ;ind in each of them there is a buHjueting-room, .and an aj)artment lor public worship; for 
the brethren and sisters do not meet together even at tlieir devotions. 

They u-;ed to live chietly upon roots and other veget ibles. the rules of their society not allowing them 
flesh, except upon pirticul ir occasions, when they hold what they c ill a love-feast; .it whicli time the 
brethren and sisters dine tojrether in a large apartment, and e.it mutton, but no other meat. In each of 
their little cells they h ive a bench tixed. to serve the purp<»se of a bed, and a small block of woml for a 
pillow. They allow of marriages, but consider celil) icy as a virtue. 

The principal tenet of the Tunkers ap|)ears to be this— that future happiness is only to bo obtained by 
penance and outward mortifications in this life, and that, as Je-u-; Chri-t, by his meritorious sutlerings, 
became the Redeemer of m inkind in generil, so each individu il of the human rice, by a life of absti- 
nence and restraint, may work out his own salvation. N ly, they go so far as to admit of works of su|)cr- 
erogation. and declare that a man m tydo nmch niore than hi' is in ju-itice or equity obliged to do, and that 
his su})eribundant works may, therefore, be applied to the salvation of others. 

This <lenomination deny the eternity of tuture punishments, and believe that the dead have the gospel 
preached to them by our Saviour, and that the souls of the ju-^t are employed to preach the gos^nM to those 
who have had no revelation in this life. They sup[M»se the Jewish S ibbath, sabbatical year, and vearof 
jubilee, are typical of certain |)eriods after the gi'iieral ju<lgment, in which the souls of those who ;ire not 
then admitted into happiness are purified from thfir corruption. If any, within those smiller periods, are 
so far humbled as to acknowledge the (x-rfections of (Jod, and to own Christ as their only Saviour, they 
are received to felicity; while those who continue obstinate are reserved in torments, until the grancl 
g^riod, rj'pified by the jubilee, arrives, in which all shall be made happy ia the endless fruition of the 



204 



BOTETOURT COUNTY. 



They also deny the imputation of Adam's sin to his posterity. They disclaim violence, even in cases 
of self-defence, and suffer themselves to be defr.iuded, or wronged, rather than go to law. Their church 
government and discipline are the same with other B iptists, except that every brother is allowed to speak 
in the congregation; and their best speaker is usually ordained to be the minister. They have deacons 
and deaconesses from among their ancient widows and exhorters, who are all licensed to use their gifts 
statedly. The Tunkers are not so rigid in their dress and manner of life as formerly; still they retain 
the faith of their fathers, and lead lives of great industry, frugality, and purity. 

In 1761, about sixty Shawanee warriors penetrated the settle- 
ments on James River, committed several murders, and carried off 
several prisoners, among whom were Mrs. Renix and her five 
children. The Indians were overtaken in their retreat by a party 
of whites, and nine of their number killed, after which they pro- 
ceeded towards their villages without further molestation. The 
remainder of the story is given by Withers : 

In Boquet's treaty with the Ohio Indians, it was stipulated that the whites detained by them in cap- 
tivity were to be brought in and redeemed. In compliance with this stipulation, Mrs. Renix was brought 
to Staunton in 1707 and ransomed, together with two of her sons, William, the late Col. Renix, of Green- 
brier, and Robert, also of Greenbrier — Betsy, her daughter, had died on the Miami. Thomas returned in 
1783, but soon after removed, and settled on the Sci(jto. near Cliilicothe. Joshua never came back ; he 
took an Indian wife, and became a chief among the Miamies — he amassed a considerable fortune, and 
died near Detroit in 1810. " * 

Hannah Dennis was separated from the other captives, and allotted to live at the Chilicothe towns. 
She learned their language, painted herself as they do, and in many respects conformed to their manners 
and customs. She was attentive to sick jjersons, and was highly esteemed by the Indians, as one well 
skilled in the art of curing diseases. Poinding them very superstitious, and believers in necromancy, she 
professed witchcraft, and aflected to be a prophetess. In this m >nner she conducted herself till she be- 
CHme so irre:it h favorite with them tlrtt they gave her full liberty, and honored her as a queen. Not- 
withstanding this. Mrs. Dennis was always determined to clfect her escape, when a favorable opportunity 
should occur ; and hH vinL^ remained so long with them, apparently well satisfied, they ceased to entertain 
any suspicions of such a design. 

In June, 17G3. she left the Chilicothe towns, ostensibly io procure herbs for medicinal purposes, (as she 
had before frequently done,) but really to attempt an escape. As she did not return that night her inten- 
tion became suspected, and in the morning some warriors were sent in pursuit of her. In order to leave 
as little trail as i)i)>sil)le, she had crossed the Scioto River three times, and was ju<t getting over the fourth 
time, 40 miles below the town, when she was discovered by her pursuers. They fired at her across the 
river without effect ; but, in endeavoring to make a rapid flight, she had one of her feet severely cut by a 
sharp stone. 

The Indians then rushed across the river to overtake and catch her, but she eluded them by crawling 
into the hollow limb of a large fallen sycamore. They searched around for her some time, frequently 
stepping on the log which concealed her, and encamped near it that night. On the next day they went on 
to the Ohio River, but finding no trace of her, they returned home. 

Mrs. Dennis remained at that place three days, doctoring her wound, and then set off for home. She 
crossed the Ohio River, at the mouth of Great Kenawha, on a log of drift-wood, travelling only during 
the night for fear of discovery. She subsisted on roots, herbs, green grapes, wild cherries, and river mus- 
sels — and, entirely exhausted by fatigue and hunger, sat down by the side of Greenbrier River, with no 
expectation of ever proceeding further. In this situation she was found by Thomas Athol and three 
others trom Clendennin's settlement, which she had passed without knowing it. She had been then 
upwards of twenty days on her disconsolate journey, alone, on foot ; but, till then, cheered with the hope 
of again being with her friends. 

She was taken back to Clendennin's, where they kindly ministered to her, till she became so far invigor 
ated as to travel on horseback, with an escort, to Fort Young on Jackson's River, from whence she was 
carried home to her relations. 

Gen. Andrew Lewis resided on the Roanoke, in this county. He 
was one of the six sons of that Lewis who, with Mackey and Sal- 
ling, had been foremost in settling Augusta co., and the most dis- 
tinguished of a family who behaved so bravely in defending the 
infant settlements against the Indians. 

In Braddock's war, he was in a company in which were all his brothers, the eldest, 
Samuel Lewis, being the captain. This corps distinguished themselves at Braddock's 
defeat. They, with some other of the Virginia troops, were in the advance, and the tirst 
attacked by the enemy. Severed front the rest of the army, they cut their way through 
the enemy to their companions, with the loss of many men. His conduct at Major 
(Grant's defeat, in his attack upon Fort Duquesne, acquired for him the highest reputa- 
tion for prudence and courage. He was at this time a major. In this action, the Scotch 
Highlanders, under Grant, were surrounded by the Indians ; when the work of death 
went on quite rapidly, and in a mamier quite novel to the Highlanders, who, in all their 
European wars, had never before seen men's heads skinned. When Major Lewis was 
advancing to the relief of Grant with his 200 provincials, he met one of the Highland- 
ers under speedy flight, and inquiring of him iiow the battle was going, he said they 



BRLN!?\V1CK COU^'TY. 



205 



w^re " a' boatrn, and ho hnd seen Donald ."M'Donald up to liis liunkrrs in mud, and a' 
the skeen af his heed.'''' Both Lewis and (iraut were made prisoners. Berorc Lewis 
was taken into tlie fort, he was stripped of all Ijis clothes hut his shirt. An elderly 
Indian insisted upon haviu'^ that ; but he resisted, with the tomuhnwk drawn over hi.s 
head, until a French nlHcer, by sicjns, re(|uested him to deliver it, and then took him to 
his room, and ^ave hinj a completi' dres^ to put on. While they were prisoners, (Irarit 
addressed a h tter to (icii. Forbes, attributinir their detent to Lewis. This U-lltT heiufj 
inspected by the French, who knew the falsehood of the charire, tli( y handed it to 
Lewis. He waited upon Grant,* and ehallcuj^ed him. Upon liis refusal to fii^ht, ho 
spat in his face in the presence of the French officers, and then left him to reHeet upon 
his baseness. Major Lewis was with \Vashini:ton July 4, 1754, at the capitulation of 
Fort Necessity, wheti, by the articles ajjreed U])on, the garrison was to retire and return 
without molestation to the inhabited parts of the country ; and the French commander 
promised that no embarrassment should be interposed either by his own men or the 
savairf^*- NVhile some of the soldiers of each army were intermixed, an Irishman, ex- 
asperated with an Indian near him, cursed the co|)f)er-colored scoundrel,'' and raised 
his musket to shoot him. Lewis, who had been twice wounded in the eniragement, and 
was then hobbling on a stati", raised the Irishman's gun as he was in the act of tiring, 
and thus not only saved the life of the Indian, but probably prevented a general massa. 
ere of the Virginia troops. He was the commander and general of the Virginia troops 
at the battle of Point Pleasant, (see Mason co.,) fought the lOtii of May, 1774. In this 
campaign the Indians were driven west of the Ohio. Washington, in whose regiment 
Lewis had once been a major, had formed so high an opinion of his bravery and military 
skill, that, at the commencement of the revolutionary war, he was induced to recom- 
mend him to Congress as one of the major-generals of the American army — a recom- 
mendation which was slighted, in order to make room for Gen. Stephens. It is also 
said, that when Washington was commissioned as commander-in-chief, he expressed a 
wish that the appointment had been given to Gen. Lewis. Upon this slight in the ap- 
pointnn nt of S'ephens, Washington wrote to Gen. Lewis a letter, which is published in 
his correspondence, expressive of his regret at the course pursued by Congress, and 
promising that he should be prom^ited to the first vacancy. At his solicitation, Lewis 
accepted the cnmnussion of brigadier-general, and was soon aftc ordered to the com- 
mand of a detachment of the army stationed near Williamsburg. He commanded the 
Virginia troops when Lord Dunmore was driven from Gwynn's Island, in 177(), and 
announced his orders for attacking ihe enemy by putting a match to the first gun, an 
eighteen pounder, himself. 

Gen. Lewis resigned his command in 17&U to return home, being seized ill with a 
fever. He died on his way, in Bedford co., about 40 miles from his own house on the 
Roanoke, lamented by all acquainted with his meritorious sen'ices and superior qualities. 

" Gen. Lewis,'' says Stuart, in his Historical Memoir, " was upwards of six feet 
high, of uncommon strength and agility, and his form of the most exact symmetry. 
He had a stern and invincible countenance, and was of a reserved and distant deport- 
ment, which rendered his presence more awful than engaging. He was a commissioner, 
with Dr. Thomas Walker, to hold a treaty, on behalf of the colony of Virginia, with the 
six nations of Indians, together with the commissioners from Pennsylvania, New York, 
and other eastern provinces, held at Fort Stanevix, in the province of New York, in the 
year 1768. It was then remarked by the governor of New York, that 'the earth 
seemed to tremble under him as he walked along.' His independent spirit despised 
sycophantic means of gaining popularity, which never rendered more than his merits ex- 
torted." 



BRUNSWICK. 

Brunswick was formed, in 17*20, from Surry and Isle of Wight. 
It is nearly a square of 20 miles on a side. The southwest angle 

* This was the same Col. Grant who, in 177;), on the floor of the British Parliament, 
said that he had often acted in the same service with the Americans — that he knew 
them w e!l, and, from that knowled<:e, ventured to predict " that they would never daro 
face an Fnglish army, as being dettiiute of every reqni.>ite to constitute good soldiers." 



206 



BUCKINGHAM COUNTY. 



touQhes the Roanoke, and a small section is drained by thai stream ; 
but the bod}^ of the county is comprised in the valleys of Meherrin 
and Nottoway Rivers and declines to the east. Large quantities 
of tobacco and corn are raised, together with some cotton. Pop. 
1830, 15,770; 1840, whites 4,978, slaves 8,805, free colored 5G3 ; 
total, 14,346. 

Lawrenceville, the county-seat, is 73 miles w. of s. from Rich- 
mond. It is a neat village, pleasantly situated on a branch of 
Meherrin River, and contains 2 churches and about 25 dwellings. 
Lewis ville contains about 15 dwellings. 

In the upper end of the county, in the vicinity of Avant's and 
Taylor's creeks, have been found many Indian relics, and this por- 
tion of the county yet shows traces of having been inhabited by 
Indians. It is supposed that when the country was first settled, 
there was a frontier fort, or trading establishment, a few miles 
below Pennington's Bridge, on the Meherrin : an iron cannon now 
lies on a hill near the spot, and in the neighborhood runs a road, 
called to this day " the fort road." There are also excavations in 
the earth constructed for wolf-pits, by the early settlers. Tradi- 
tion says they were formed in the following manner : A hole was 
dug ten or twelve feet deep, small at the top, and growing wider 
on all sides as it descended, sloping inwards so much that no beast 
could climb up. Two sticks were fastened together in the middle 
at right angles ; the longer one confined to the ground, and the 
.shorter — to the inner end of which was attached the bait — swing- 
ing across the middle of the pit, so that when the wolf attempted 
to seize it, he was precipitated to the bottom. 



BUCKINGHAM. 

Buckingham was formed in 1761, from Albemarle. It is 34 miles 
long, with a mean breadth of 24. The James River runs on its 
N. and w. and the Appomattox on its s. boundary. Willis' and 
Slate Rivers rise in the south part. On the margin of the streams 
the land is fertile, but the intervening ridges are frequently sterile 
and desolate, and in many sections uninhabited. The surface is 
generally level, and the only mountain of note is Willis', from 
which is an almost uninterrupted prospect over a vast extent of 
level country. The Buckingham White Sulphur Spring is 12 
miles sE. of the court-house, and there are also one or two other 
mineral springs in the county, none of which have as yet attained 
any celebrity. Buckingham is rich in minerals ; some dozen gold 
mines have been in operation, only three or four of which have 
proved profitable. Limestone found in the county is beginning to 
be used in agriculture, and iron ore abounds. Upon Hunt's Creek, 
within 2 miles of James River Canal, is an inexhaustible slate 
quarry of superior quality. The principal literary institutions of 



lU i KI.\(;ilA.M Coi \ I V. 



the counly are a Collr^ iatc lust it Lit I'ur fcmalt s, under ilic jjatrou- 
age of the ^Methodist church, and the Slate Kivcr Academy, which 
has two professors, and is liberally supported. Tohacco, corn, 
wheat, and oats, are the principal products. Pop. is;j(), IH,.'};")!;. 
1840, whites 7.3-23, slaves 10.014. free colored 44*.); total, 1H,7N(). 

jMaysville, the county-seat, 7!) mih's wvst of Uiclnnond, near th(^ 
centre of the county, on Slate River, 20 miles from its junction 
with the James, is a neat villag^e, containing 1 church, 4 stores, 
and about 200 inhabitants. New Canton contains about 40 dwell- 
ings. Curdsville, a ll()urishin;z village, has 1 Episcopal church, 
stores, and about 250 inhabitants. 

Peter Francisco, a soldier of the Revoliition. and celel)rated for his personal strengrth, 
lived and raised his fatnily in Bnckini;hain, where he died a I'vw yours since. His origin 
was obscure. He supposed that he was a l'ortni;iiese by birth, and that he was ki(hiap. 
ped when an infant, and carried to Ireland, fie had no recollection of his parents, and 
the first knowledge he preserved of himself was in that country when a small boy. 
Hearing mueh of America, and being of an adventu>-ous turn, he indented himself to a 
sea-captain lor seven years, in payment for his passagre. On his arrival he was sold to 
Anthony Winston, Esq., of this county, on whose estate he labored faithfully until the 
breakintr out of the revolution. He was then at the age of IG, and partaking of the 
patriotic enthusiasm of the times, he asked and obtained permission of his owner to 
enlist in the continental army. At the storming of JStony-Toint, he was the first sol- 
dier, after Major tiibbon, who entered the fortress, on which occasion he received a 
bayonet wound in the thigh. He was at Brandy wine, Monmouth, and other battles at 
the north, and was transferred to the south under Greene, where he was engaged in the 
actions of the Cowpens, Camden, Guilford Court-House, &:.c. He was a very brave 
man, and po.ssessed such confidence in his prowess as to be almost fearless. lie used 
a sword havmg a blade five feet in lenirth, which he could wield as a feather, and every 
swordsman who came in contact with him, paid the forfeit of his life. His services 
were so distinguished, that he would have been promoted to an otfice had he been ena- 
bled to write. His stature was G feet and an inch, and his weight 2G() pounds. His 
complexion was dark and swarthy, features bold auii manly, and his hands and feet un- 
commonly large. Such was his j)ersonal strength, that he could easily shoulder a cannon 
weighing 1100 pounds ; and our informant, a highly respectable gentleman now resid- 
ing in this county, in a communication before us, says: " he could take me in his right 
hand and pass over the room with me, and play my head against the ceiling, as thouirh 
I had been a doll-baby. My weiirht was ID.) pounds!" The following anecdote, illus- 
trative of Francisco's valor, has often been published : — 

" While the British army were spreading liavoc and desolation all around them, by 
their plunderings and burnings in Virginia, in 17H1, Francisco had been reconnoitring, 

and while stopping at the house of a Mr. V. then in Amelia, now Notlo-.vay county, 

nine of Tarleton's cavalry came up. with three negroes, and told him he was their pri.s- 
oner. Seeing he was overpowered by numbers, he made no resistance. Believing him 
to be very peaceable, they all went into the house, leaving him and the payujaster to- 
gether. 'Give up instantly all that you possess of value,' said the latter, 'or prepare to 
die.' • I have nothing to give up,' said Francisco, ' so use your pleasure.' ' Deliver in- 
stantly,' rejoined the soldier, ■ those massy silver buckles which you wear in vour slioes.' 
'They were a present from a valued friend,' replied Francisco, * and it would grieve mc 
to part with them. Give them into your hands I never will. You have the power; 
take them, if you think fit.' The sohlier put his sabre uuf^er his arm, and bent down 
to take them. Francisco, finding so favorable an op{)<)rtnnity to rccovei- his liberty, 
stepped one pace in his rear, drew the sword with force from under his arm, and in- 
stantly gave him a blow across the scull. ' .My enemy,' observed Francisco, ' was 
brave, and though severely wounded, drew a pi><t()l, and, in the sanie moment that he 

pulled the triirger, I cut his hand nearly off. The bullet grazed my side. Ben V 

(the man of the house' very un<renerously brought out a musket, and give it to one of 
the British soldiers, and told him to make use of tliut. He UKJunted the only hoi-se they 
could get, and presented it at n>y breast. It missed fire. I rushed on the muz/le of 
the gun. A short struggle ensued. I disarmed and woun4fd him. Tarleton's troop 



208 



BUCKINGHAM COUNTY. 



of fqvr hundred men were in si^ht. All was hurry and confusion, which I increased 
by repeatedly liallooinff, as loud as I could, Come Ofi, my brave boys; now's your time; 
we will soon dispatch these few, and then attuck the main body ! The wounded man 




Francisco's Encounter with Nine British Dragoons. 

[This representation of Peter Francisco's gallant action with nine of Tarlcton's cavalry, in sight of a 
troop of 400 men, which took place in Amelia county, Virsinia, 17*^1, is respectfully inscribed to him, by 
James Webster and James Warrell. — Published Dec. 1st, 1814, by James Webster of Pennsylvania.] 

flew to the troop ; the others were paiiic struck, and fled. I seized V' , and would 

have dispatched him, but the poor wretch bcg-ged for his life; he was not only an ob- 
ject of my contempt, but pity. The eight horses that were left behind, I gave him to 
conceal for me. Discovering Tarleton had disp itched ten more in pursuit of me, I 
made off. I evaded their vi^^ilance. They stopped to refresh themselves. I, like an 

old fox, doubled, and fell on their rear. I went the next day to V- for my horses ; 

he demanded two. for his trouble and generous intentions. Finding n)y situation dan- 
gerous, and surroimded by enemies where I ought to have found friends, I went otF with 
my six horses. I intended to have avenged myself of V '^■■•> at a future day., but Prov- 
idence ordained I should not be his executioner, for he broke his neck by a fall from 
one of the very horses.'" • ' 

JSeverul other anecdotes are related of the strength and bravery of Francisco. At 
Gates' defeat at Camden, after ruiming some distance along a road, he took to the woods 
and sat down to rest; a British trooper came up and ordered him to'sur-ender^ With 
feigned humility, he replied he would, and added, as his musket was erripty, he had no 
further use for it. He then carelessly presented it sideways, and thus throwing the sol- 
dier off his guard, he suddenly levelled the piece, and driving the bayonet through liis ab- 
domen, hurled him off" his horse, mounted it, and continued his retreat. Soon he overtook 
his colonel, William Mayo, of Powhatan, who was on foot. Francisco generously dis- 
mounted and gave up the animal to his retreating otBcer, for which act of kindness the 
colonel subsequently presented him with a thousand acre- of land in Kentucky. 

Francisco possessed strong natural sense, and an amiable disposition was, withal, 

a companionable man, and ever a welcome visitor in the first families in thifcegion of the 
state. He was industrious and temperate, and always advocated the part of the weak 



CAUEF-L COL'NTV. 



and unprotected. On occasions of outbreaks at public gatlierings, ho was better in rush- 
ing in and preserving pubhc peace, ilian all the conservative authorities on the ground. 
Late in life, partly throui^h the intiuence of his friend, Clias. Yancey, Esq., he was ap- 
pointed sergeant-at-anns lo the House of Delegates, in wiiich service he died, in \b'M>, 
and was interred with military honors in the public burying-ground at Richmond. 



CABELL. 

Cabell was created in 1809, from Kanawha, and named from 
Wm. H. Cabell, Gov. of Va., from 1805 to 1808. It is 85 miles 
\ou^, wilh a mean breadth of '20 miles. A considerable portion of 
the county is wild and uneultivaled, and somewhat broken. The 
river bottoms are fertile, and .settled npon. Pop. 1^30, 5.8S 1 ; 18 10, 
whites 7,574, slaves 5G7, free colored 22 ; total, 8,103. Barbours- 
ville,the county-seat, lies on the Guyandotte river, 7 1-2 miles from 
its mouth, and 352 miles wnw. of Richmond. The turnpike, lead- 
ing from the eastern part of the state, by the jrreat watering-place, 
to the Kentucky line, passes through this village, which contains 
about Si) dwellings. Guyandotte lies on the Ohio, at the mouth of 
the Guyandotte River. It is much the most important point of 
steamboat embarkation, as well as debarkation, in western Vir- 
ginia, with the exception of Wheeling. It is a flourishing village, 
containing 1 church, G or 8 stores, a steam saw-mill, and a popula- 
tion of about 800. 

jE^bell county was settled at a comparatively late period. 
Thomas Hannon was one of the earliest setilers, having removed, 
in 179t), irom Botetourt county to Green Bottom, about 18 miles 
above Guyandotte, when the first permanent settlement was made. 
Soon after Guyandotte was settled, at which place Thomas Buf- 
fington was one of the earliest settlers. 

A portion of the beautiful flatland of what is called Green Bot- 
tom, lying partly in this and ^Nlason county, a few years since, be- 
fore the plough of civilization had disturbed the soil, ])resented one 
of those vestiges of a city which are met with in central America, 
and occasionally in the southern and western forests of the United 
States. The traces of a regular, compact, and populous city with 
streets running parallel with the Ohio River, and crossing and in- 
tersecting each other at right angles, covering a space of nearly 
half a mile, as well as the superlicial dimensions of many of the 
houses, are apparent, and well defint^d. Axes and saws of an 
unique form — the former of iron, the latter of cojiper — as well as 
other implements of the mechanic arts, have been Ibund. These 
remains betoken a state of comparative civilization, attained by 
no race of the aborigines of this country now known to have exist- 
ed. Who they were, or whence they sprung, tradition has lost in 
the long lapse of ages. It is a singular fact, that these remains are 
rarely, if e^er, found elsewhere than upon the river bo- toms. or flat 
level land^. 

'27 



210 



CAMPBELL COUNTY. 



CAMPBELL. 

Campbell was formed from Bedford in 1784, and named in honor 
of Gen. William Campbell, a distinguished officer of the American 
revolution. In form, it approximates to a square of about 25 
miles on a side ; its surface is broken, and its soil productive. 
Staunton River runs on its s., and the James on its nw. bound- 
ary ; both of these streams are navigable for boats far above the 
county limits, thus opening a communication with Chesapeake 
Bay and Albemarle Sound. Pop. 1830, 20,330; 1840, whites 
10,213, slaves 10,045, free colored 772 ; total, 21,030. 

Besides the large and flourishing town of Lynchburg, there are 
in the county several small villages, viz. : Campbell C. H., 12 miles 
s. of Lynchburg, Brookneal, Leesville, and New London. 

Lynchburg, the fifth town in population in Virginia, is situated 
on a steep declivity on the south bank of James River, in the 
midst of bold and beautiful scenery, within view of the Blue Ridge 
and the Peaks of Otter, and 116 miles westerly from Richmond. 
This town was established in October, 1786, when it was enacted 
" that 45 acres of land, the property of John Lynch, and lying 
contiguous to Lynch's Ferry, are hereby vested in John Clarke, 
Adam Clement, Charles Lynch, John Callaway, Achilles Douglass^ 
William Martin, Jesse Burton, Joseph Stratton, Micajah Moor- 
man, and Charles Brooks, gentlemen, trustees, to be by them, or any 
six of them, laid off into lots of half an acre each, with convenient 
streets, and established a town by the name of Lynchburg." The 
father of the above-mentioned John Lynch was an Irish emigrant, 
and took up land here previous to the revolution. His place, then 
called Chesnut Hill, afterwards the seat of Judge Edmund Wins- 
ton, was two miles below here. At his death the present site of 
Lynchburg fell to his son John, by whose exertions the town was 
established. The original founder of Lynchburg was a member 
of the denomination of Friends, and a plain man, of strict integrity 
and great benevolence of character. He died about 20 years since, 
at a very advanced age. At the time of the formation of the town, 
there was but a single house, the ferry-house, which stood where 
the toll-house to the bridge now is. A tobacco warehouse and 2 
or 3 stores were thereupon built under the hill, and it was some 
time before any buildings were erected upon the main street. The 
growth of the place has been gradual. In 1804, a Methodist Epis- 
copal church was erected upon the site of the present one, and 
shortly after a market was established. The first Sabbath-school 
in the state was formed in the church above mentioned, in the 
spring of 1817, by George Walker, James McGehee, and John 
Thurman. The next churches built were the First Presbyterian, 
the Baptist, the Protestant Episcopal, the Protestant Methodist, 
the Second Presbyterian, and a Friends' meeting-house in the out- 
skirts of the town. The Catholic and Universalist churches were 
erected in 1843. 



CAMPBELL COT'NTY. 211 



"The I^-nrliburs Water Works, for furnlshinK the town with an unfiiilin-; supply of pure nnii whole- 
some water, wen- ron«itructe(i in IfMH-'Ji), under the dirrction of Allu rt Stein, engineer, Ht iin ex- 
pense of $."Hl.(MK). The height— unprereilentcd in this country — to wliirli it was neri-ssnry to raise the 
water, renders ihis one of tli-^ ino<t interestinfr undertakings of the kind in the I'nitrd Stales. 

" An arm of the .1 imes. tormed by an island alioui "2 miles in length, is rrossod, a short distance aliov«» 
the limits of the corporation, liy a d'lm 10 feet high. .\ canal of half a mile in length conveys the water 
to the pump-hou^e on th«! river hank, at the foot of 3d alley. A double lorcing-pump, on the plan ol I)e 
la Hire, worked by a large breast wheel, imiwls the water through the ascending |ii|><-, which is iO(K} feel 
long, to a reservoir coiit lining -lOO.OOt) gallons, situated between -Ith and Sth stn i t>, and <;( the ih rution 
of 2")3 fett above t/ir level of the river. Fire-plugs are connected with the di-trilmting pipi s, ai pv. ry in- 
UTsection of the alleys with 'id and 3d streets, and afford an admirable security ag.iiii>i the d inger of 
tire. The height of the reservoir, above these streets, gives a jet of water by means of ho-e \n\H:^. of 
from 60 to 80 feet elevation, and throws it, in bold and continuous streams, over the roofs of the highest 
houses. 

"The water-power created by the dtim for the waterworks, is amply sufficient for workinp u larpe 
additional amount of machinery, and waits only for a clearer jwrception by capitalists, of the manufac- 
turing adv int iges of this town, to be brought into extensive u«'e. The cheapness of labor, the abund- 
ance of provisions, and the extent and wealth of the country l»H)king this way for supplies of domestic, 
as well as of foreign goods, unite with the vast water-power actually prepared and ready for any aitpli- 
cation, in inviting the attention of men of capital and enterprise to this imi)ortant subject." These 
works are gradu illy enlarged, from year to year, to meet the wants of an increasing population. 

The annexed account of the celebration of laying the corner stone of the water works, is from a news- 
paper of that (l ite : — 

Interestino Event.— On Saturday last, [August 23d, 182B,] an event deeply interesting to Lynchburg 
took plac»' ; one in which the convenience, health, and safety of us all, are involved. The corner stone 
of the Lynchbi ro Water Works was laid — works, the magnitutle of which exceed any ever attempted 
in Virginia The stone was 1 lid with civic, masonic, and military ceremonies. About 9, a. m., the pro- 
cession was t'onned at the Presbyterian church, at the lower end of Main street, in the following order: — 
The military; the reverend clergy; the engineer: the members of the common council, preceded by 
the watering conmiittee ; the judge of the (ieneril Ccmrt for the circuit, and mayor of the Corporation; 
the recorder and aldermen; the .Masonic fraternity; citizens. 

When the procession, under the directions of tiie marshals of the day — Major James B. Risque, Col. 
Maurice II. Lmghorne, and Capt ains R. R. Phelps, Siimuel I. Wiat, and A. M. Gilliam — reached the 
ground, the artillery and ritie companies fortucd a hollow square, within which were the masons, the 
adjacent banks being thronged with spectators. 

The impressive ceremonies commenced with a prayer appropriate to the occasion, by the Rev. W. S. 
Reid, followed by sutcnm mu<ic. The Rev. F. G. Smith then implored of the Supreme Architect of the 
Universe, a blessing on the undertaking The Masonic fraternity proceeded to lay the corner stone ; the 
plate bears the following inscription: — 

This Stone, the foundation of a work executed by onler of the common council of Lynchburg, for 
supplying the town with water, was laid under the direction (if .lolin \'ictor, John Thurman, John Early, 
David' G. Murrell, and Samuel CI lytor, by the Rt. W. Ilowson S. White, D.l).. G. .Ma>ter, and the Wor- 
shipful .Maurice II. Garland. .M. of Marshall L(j(ige, No. 39, of Free and .Vccepted Masons, on the 23d 
August, .A.M. 5828, A.l). 1828, in presence of the Mayor, Recorder, .Mdermen, and Common Councilmen, 
of s.iid Town ; the members of said Lodge; the Artillery and Kitle Companies, commanded by Captains 
J. E. Xorvell and James W. Pegram, and numerous citizens. Albon McDaniel, E^q., Mayor, John Thur- 
uian, E-q., President of the Council, .\lbcrt Stein, Em\.. Engineer. 

Mr. John Victor, the chairmtin of the watering conunittee, delivered an address; after which the 
military tired a salute, and the gratified heliolders returned to their homes, all, we hope, determined to 
use their eflorts to carry on the work to a successlul termination. We cordially unite with Mr. V. in 
saying, " Let us join hands, nothing doubting that we luo can accomplish what others have so otten 
done." 

We conclude this sketch of LynchburfT^, by givinj? its "statistics, 
as published in a communication to the Lynchburg Republican, in 
1843: 

The census of 1840, showed a population of upwards of five thousand. Since that time, there has 
been a considerable accession to the number of buildings ; from which we in»»y safely nsmune that our 
present population reaches, if it does not exceed tj.(X)0. The extent of the tob icco trade of Lynchburg 
may be judged of Irom the fact that upwards of fifteen thousand hogsheads h:ive alre:idy been insjM'cted 
here the present year — a nund)er which lar exceeds all |)revious calculation. We h ive about 30 tobacco 
factories and slenuueries, giving employment to about IIMM) h inds ; three tlouring-mills, manuf icturing, 
I am told, about 20.000 barrels of flour annually ; 1 cotton factory, oin r iting 1.400 spindles ; iron found- 
ries, which consume, probably, 100 tons pig-ir(m annually. .More than 1(K),IKK) bu<hels of wlieat are sold 
here yearly. 3t)0 tons bar-iron ; 200 tons pig metal, sold to the country : l(HM) tons phister of Paris. About 
50 drj- -goods and grocer^' stores — selling, in the aggregate, more than one million of dollars worth of gcMMls. 
Some f)f our stores are so extensive and elegant, as not to suffer by a comparison with those of Philadelphia 
and \ew York. — 4 apothecaries and druggists ; several cabinet tnanufactjuies ; 4 .saddle and harness 
manufactories ; 10 blacksmith-shops ; several excellent hotels ; 5 jeweller*' establishments ; 2 printing 
offices. 

There arc here branches of the Rank of Virginia, and the Farmer's Bank of Virginia, and also 3 Sa- 
vings' H inks. Seven flourishing Sabbath-Schools, with from 7(l<) to KKHl scholars. One debating society, 
with a library of several thousand volumes, &.c. &c. 4ic. From the hasty view 1 have presented, and 
which by no means does justice to the industry and enterpris,- of our citizens, it will be seen that we 
have already the elements of a flourishing city. Hut I have s.aid nothing of the magnificent line of canal 
now in the "full tide of successful ex|)eriment," U tween this pluce and Richmond, from which we are 
distant 147 miles by water. This splendid work, the pride and boast of Virginia, opens to Lynchburg the 
brightest en which has ever yetdiwned n\Mm her fortunes; s, Turing to us a safe, speedy, and cheap 
navigation for the immense pnxluce shipped iinnu illy to Richmond and the north— and destined, a.s the 
Writer believes, to furnish a great thoroughfare f^or the counKe.ss thousands of produce and merchandise 
tot the western and southwestern part of our state, as well as Tennessee, Alabama, &.c. 



212 



CAMPBELL COUNTY. 



Lynch Law. — Col. Charles Lynch, a brother of the founder oi 
Lynchburg, was an officer of the American revolution. His resi- 
dence was on the Staunton, in the sw. part of this county, now 
the seat of his grandson, Chas. Henry Lynch, Esq. At that time, 
this country was very thinly settled, and infested by a lawless band 
of tories and desperadoes. The necessity of the case involved des- 
perate measures, and Col. Lynch, then a leading whig, apprehend- 
ed and had them punished, without any superfluous legal ceremo- 
ny. Hence the origin of the term " Lynclt LawJ' This practice of 
Lynching continued years after the war, and was applied to many 
eases of mere suspicion of guilt, which could not be regularly prov- 
en. "In 1792," says Wirt's Life of Henry, "there were many 
suits on the south side of James River, for inflicting Lynch's law." 
At the battle of Guilford Court-House, a regiment of riflemen, rais- 
ed in this part of the state, under the command of Col. Lynch, be- 
haved with much gallantry. The colonel died soon after the close 
of the war. Charles Lynch, a governor of Louisiana, wsi9 bis son. 




The Old Court-House, at New London 



New London is on the Salem, turnpike, 1 1 miles sw. of Lynch- 
burg. It contains 2 churches, a classical academy, and a few 
dwellings. It was founded several years prior to the American 
revolution. About the period of the war, it was a place of con- 
siderable importance, and contained, says the Marquis de Chastel- 
lux, in his travels, " at least 70 or 80 houses." There was here 
then, an arsenal, a long wooden structure, which stood opposite 
Echol's tavern. The establishment has long since been removed 
to Harper's Ferry. There was also a long building, used as a mag- 
azine in the war, which was under the guard of some soldiers. In 
July, 1781, Cornwaliis detached Tarleton to this place, for the pur- 
pose of destroying the stores and intercepting some light troops re- 
ported to be on their march to join Lafayette. But neither stores 
n>r troops were found, and on the 15th, he rejoined his lordship in 
Suffolk county. Early in the war, there were several Scotch mer- 
chants largeiy engaged in business here. Refusing to take the 



CAMI'UKLI- rOCX l'V. 



213 



oath of allosiancp, llicy were compelled to break up and leave the 
country. This, with the superior location of Lynchbiirir, gave a 
permanent shock to its prosperity, and it is now a broken down 
village, fast going to decay. 

Xew London was at lirst th(^ county-seat of Lunenburg. In 
1753, on the Ibrmation of Bedford, it was made the county-seat of 
the latter. Still later, under the old district system, the superior 
court was held here. There is now standing in the town, an inter- 
esting relic of a more prosperous era — the old court-house — which, 
in its pristine days, was the scene of important events; but it is 
now dila})idat(Hl, tumbling to ruins, and is used as a barn. Hum- 
ble as tliis building is at present, once admiring audiences, moved 
by the magic eloquence of Patrick Henry, were assembled within 
its walls. Here it was, that he delivered his celebrated speech 
in the Johnny Hook case, the account of which is thus given by his 
biographer : 

Hook was a Scotchman, a man of wealth, and suspected of beiiig^ unfriendls' to the 
American cause. Durincr the distresses of the American army, consequent on tlie joint 
invasion of Cornwallis ann Phillips in 1781, a I\Ir. Venable, an army commissary, had 
taken two of Hook's steers fur the use of the troops. The act had not been strictly 
legal ; and on the establishment of peace, Hook, on the advice of Mr. Cowan, a gentle- 
man of some distinction in the law, thought proper to bring an action of trespass against 
Mr. Venable, in the district court of New London. Mr. Henry appeared for the defend- 
ant, and is said to have deported himself in this cause to the infinite enjoyment of his 
hearers, the unfortunate Hook always excepted. After Mr. Henry became animated in 
the cause, says a correspondent, he appeared to have complete control over the passions 
of his audience: at one time he excited their indignation against Hook ; vengeance was 
visible in every countenance ; again, when he chose to relax and ridicule him, the whole 
audience was in a roar of laughter. He painted the distresses of the American army, 
exposed almost naked to the rigor of a winter's sky, and marking the frozen ground 
over which they marched with the blood of their unshod feet ; where was the man, he 
said, who had an American heart in his bosom, who would not have thrown open his 
fields, his barns, his cellars, the doors of his house, the portals of his breast, to have re- 
ceived with open arms, the meanest soldier in that little band of famished patriots ? 
Where is the man ? — There he stands — but whether tiie heart of an Americau beats in 
his bosom, you,- gentlemen, are to judge. He then carried the jury, by the powers of 
his imagination, to the plains around York, the surrender of which had followed shortly 
after the act complained of: he depicted the surrender in the most glowing and noble 
colors of his eloquence — the audience saw before their eyes the hunuliation and dejec- 
tion of the British, as they marched out of their trenches — they saw the triumph which 
lighted up every patriotic face, and»heard the shouts of victory, and the cry of Wash- 
ington and liberty, as it rung and echoed through the American ranks, and was rever- 
berated from the hills and shores of the neighboring river — but, hark I what notes of 
discord are these which disturb the general joy, and silence the acclamations of victory 
— they are the notes of John Hook, hoarsely bawling through the American camp, 
beef.' beef! beef.'^* 

The whole audience were convulsed : a particular incident will give a better idea of 
the effect, than any general description. The clerk of the court, unable to command 
himself, and unwilling to commit any breach of decorum in his place, rushed out of the 
court-house, and threw himself on the grass, in the most violent paroxysm of laughter^ 
where he was rolling, when Hook, with very difterent feelings, came out for relief into 
the yard also. " Jemmy Steptoe," he said to the clerk, " what the devil ails j'e, mon ?'* 
Mr. Sleptoe was only able to say, that he coulil not help it. " Never mind ye," said 
Hook, "wait till Billy Cowan gets up: hell shoir him the la'.'' Mr. Cowan, howev«'r, 
was so completely overwhelmed by the torrent which bore upon his client, that when ho 
rose to reply to Mr. Henry, he was scarcely able to make an intelligible or audible re- 
mark. The cause was decided almost by acclamation. The jury retired for form 
sake, and instantly returned with a verdict for the defendant. Nor did the efft cl of Mr. 
Henry "s speech stop here. The people were so highly excited by the tory audacity at" 



214 



CAROLINE COUNTY. 



such -a suit, that Hook began to hear around him a cry more terrible than that of heef, 
it was the cry of tar and feathers ; from the apphcatiou of which, it is said, that nothing 
saved him but a precipitate flight and the speed of his horse. 

About half a mile n. of the village is the seat of the above 
mentioned " Jemmy Steptoe." He v^^as clerk of Bedford 40 years : 
an intimate friend of Jefferson, who was a frequent visitor at his 
residence. He died in 1826, esteemed for his amiable and gener- 
ous disposition. 

" Poplar Forest," 3 miles ne. of New London, is the name of the seat of William 
■Cobbs, Esq., which was originally tlie property of Jefferson, and occasionally his resi- 
dence in the summer months. It is an octagonal brick edifice, built by him, on the 
same plan with Monticello, although much smaller. Its situation is commanding, 
witiiin sight of the Blue Ridge, and the grounds around are beautifully laid out, and 
adorned with shrubbery. 

Immediately after Tarieton's incursion to Charlottesville, when Jefferson narrowly 
escaped being made prisoner, he retired with his family to Poplar Forest, where, riding 
upon his farm some time after, he was thrown from his horse and seriously injured. 
" While Mr. Jefferson was confined at Poplar Forest," safys Tucker, " in consequence 
of the fall from his horse, and was in consequence incapable of any active employment, 
public or private, he occupied himself with answering the queries which Mons. De Mar- 
bois, then secretary of the French legation to the United States, had submitted to hira 
respecting the physical and political condition of Virginia ; which answers were after- 
wards published by him, under the title of ' Notes on Virginia.' When we consider 
how difficult it is, even in the present day, to get an accurate knowledge of such details 
in our country, and how jnuch greater the difficulty must then have been, we are surprised 
at the extent of the information which a single individual had thus been enabled to ac- 
quire, as to the physical features of the state — the course, length, and depth of its 
rivers ; its zoological and botanical productions ; its Indian tribes ; its statistics and 
laws. After the lapse of more than half a century, by much the larger part of it still 
gives us the fullest and most accurate information we possess of the subjects on which 
it treats. Some of its physical theories are, indeed, in the rear of modern science ; but 
they form a small portion of the book, and its general speculations are marked with that 
boldness, that utter disregard for received opinions, which always characterized him ; 
and the whole is written in a neat, flowing style, always perspicuous, and often peculiarly 
apt and felicitous." 

Jefferson's notes were printed in Paris, in 1784, soon after his arrival there as minister 
to the court of France. Says the same author: "One of the first objects which en- 
gaged his attention, was the printing his notes on Virginia. Pie had, for the sake of 
gratifying a few friends with copies, wished to publish them in America, but was pre- 
vented by the expense. He now found they could be printed for about a fourth of what 
he had been asked at home. He therefore corrected and enlarged them, and had 200 
copies printed. Of these he presented a few in Europe, and sent the rest to America. 
One of them having fallen into the hands of a bookseller in Paris, he had it translated 
into French, and submitted the translations to the author for revision. It was a tissue 
of blunders, of which only the most material he found it convenient to correct ; and 
it was thus printed. A London bookseller having requested permission to print the 
original, he consented, " to let the world see that it was not really so bad as the French 
translation had made it appear." 



CAROLINE. 

Caroline was formed in 1727, from Essex, King and Queen, and 
King William. It is 30 miles long by 20 broad. The Rappahannock 
flows on its north, the Pamunkey on its south boundary, and the 
Mattapony runs near its centre. The surface is broken, and the 
soil various, but the low grounds of these streams are extremely 
fertile, and admirably adapted to the culture of corn, wheat, and 



CARROL COrXTV. 



215 



tobacco. Caroline was formerly divided into thrro parishes ; Drys- 
dale and St. Mary's, created in 1727, and St. Marj^arctts in 1714 ; 
in each of which a chuich was placed — the latt<'r only n^maiiis. 
The l^aptists are now the prevailini^ denomination. Pop. l^s.'iO, 
17,774; 1810, whites G,725, slaves U,;JM, free colored 77 4: total, 
17.813. 

The principal villages are Bowling Green and Port Royal. The 
first is situated on the main road from Fredericksburg to Richmond, 
22 miles from the former, and a sliort distance only e. of the rail- 
road between these two places. It is the seat of justice lor the 
county, and was originally called New Hope. Its fine location, on 
a beautiful level green, has given rise to its present name. It 
contains 2 churches and about 40 dwellings. Port Royal, on the 
Rappahannock, 22 miles below fVedericksburg, is a somewhat 
larger village. It was founded in 1744, and possesses a fine har- 
bor, capable of admitting vessels drawing 11 feet of water. The 
Concord Academy is an institution in this county in excellent repute. 

Kdmvnd Fendleton- was born in this roniity in 1741. and died in Uichmnnd in 1803. He was presi- 
dent ot" the Court of Appeals, and of the Vir!.'inia convention of 177.5. He was twice appointed a inem- 
her of Congress. In 17dd he was chosen president of the convention of Virginia which met to consider 
the adoption of the Feileral constitution. When the Federal government was organized, he was selected 
by Congress to he district jndue for Virginia, hut declined the ap[X)intment. Wirt says " He had in a great 
measure overcome the disadvant iges of an extremely defective education, and hy the force of good com- 
pany, and the study of correct authors, had attained to great accuracy and perspicuity of style. . . . His 
manners were elevated, gniceful, and in>inuating. His person was spare, but well proportioned, and liis 
countenance one of the finest in the world ; serene, contemplative, benignant; with that expression of 
unclouded intelliirence, and extensive reach, which seemed to denote hiui capable of any thing that could 
be elfected by the power of the hum an mind. His mind it-<clf was of a very tine order. It was clear, 
comprehensive, sagacious, nnd correct ; with a mo<t acute and subtle faculty of discrimination ; a fertility 
of ex[)edient which never could Ik; exhausted : a dexterity of address which never lost an advant.ige and 
never gave one ; and a capacity for continued and unremitting application which was perfectly invincible. 
As a lawyer, and a statesman, he had few equals and no sii|)eriors. For parliamentitry management, he 
was without a rival. With all these advantages of person, manners, address, and intellect, he was also 
a speaker of distinguished eminence. He had that silver voice of which Cicero makes such frequent and 
honorable mention; an articulation uncommonly di>tinct ; a perennial stream of transparent, cool, and 
sweet elocution ; and the power of presenting his arguments with great simplicity and sirikimr ertect. He 
was always graceful, argumentative, persuasive; never vehement, rapid, or abrupt. He could instmct 
and delight; but he had no pretensions to those high powers which are calculated to "shake the hnmaa 
soul." 

General William Woodford, a revolutionary officer of high merit, was bom in Caroline. He early 
distinguished himself in the French and Indian war. Upon the assembling of the Virginia troops at 
Williamsburg in 1775, consequent upon the hostile attitude of Lord Dunmore, he was ap|M)inted colonel 
of the second regiment. In the military operations immediately subsequent, in that section of the state, 
his name is honorably mentioned in history, particularly at the battle of CJreat Bridge, foujiht IVc. 9th, 
upon which occasion he had the chief command, and gained a signal victory over the enemy. He was 
fui ally promoted to theconmiand of the 1st Va. brigade, in which station he served through the war. He 
WHS in v.irious actions, in one of which, the battle of Hrandywine, he was wounded. He was made 
prisoner by the British in 1780, during the siege of Charleston, lind taken to New York, where he died oq 
the 13th ol" November of that year, in the 4()lh year of his age. 

Caroline was aWo the birth-place of Col. John Taylor, "one of the most zealous of the republican 
party," and an intimate associate of Jetierson. " He represented Vircinia in the I'nited States Senate, 
and was distinguished among the great and cood men which this ancient couunonwealih has produced. 
He did much towards advancing the science of agriculture in his native state, and was ever forward in 
jirnmoting obj-'cts conducive to the public sood. .-Vs a statesman. hi> is |)rrhaps l)etler know n by his Con- 
struction Construed ; and an Inquiry into the Principles of the (Jovernment of the United Stales, which 
he published in 1814. He also publishrd several other treati-es on various subjects. He died ir. this 
county. .Vug. iOth, 18-J4. ripe in years and honor," A connty foruied in western Virginia, in the scssioa 
of 1843-4, was named in honor of him. 



CARROL. 

Carrol was formed in 18 12. from the southwestern part of Gray- 
son, and named from Cliarlcs Carrol of Carrolton. It is a wild and 
mountainous tract, and is watered by the Xew River and some of 
the head-branches of the Holston. 



CARROL COUNTY. 



The Grayson Sulphur Springs, formerly in Grayson, are now 
within the lirnits of this county. The improvements at this place 
are quite recent ; but since they have been made, it has grown 
into popular favor, and attracts more visitors than could have been 
expected from its remote situation. " The efficacy of the waters 
in dyspepsia and rheumatism is such as to promise a certain cure.'* 




Ridge, on the bank of New River, about 29 miles s. of Wytheville, 
in the midst of scener}- of a remarkably wild and romantic charac- 
ter, similar to that of Harper's Ferry, in a region perhaps as healthy 
as any in our country, abounding with fish and a variety of game. 
An analysis is subjoined, made by Professors Rogers, of the Uni- 
versity of Virginia, and Aiken, of Baltimore. 

Analysis. — Carbonate of soda, 4' ; carbonate of magnesia, 3 ; 
carbonate of lime, 8 ; sulphate of lime, 2 ; sulphate of magnesia, 
3 ; chloride of sodium, 2 ; chloride of calcium, 3 ; chloride of 
magnesium. If ; sulphate of soda, 4^ ; sulphureted hydrogen car- 
bonic acid gases. 



CHARLES CITY COL'NTV. 



217 



CHARLES CITY. 

Charles City was one of the eight original shires into which 
Virginia was divided in 1634. It then extended on both sides of 
James River, since which its limits have been much reduced. The 
James River bounds it on the s., and the Chickahoniin}- on the e. 
and N. The surface is rolling. There are no vilhiircs in it ; its 
advantageous situation with respect to trade with the neijrhboring 
cities preventing their formation. Pop. 1830. 5,.j00 ; 1840, whites 
1,171, slaves 2,433, free colored G70 : total, 4,774. 

Westover. Ion;: the "rat of the (ii^tinjnii'shed family of Ryrds, i5 on the James River. Itwus oriirinally 
the residence of Col. Win. Byrd, where he Ions lived. In his lime, it was "a beautifully decorated and 
princely mansion, which even at thi< 1 ite day exhiliits adinirihle remains of his Laste, and his ma2niti( ent 
scale oi" expenditure for its gratification." Col. Bvrd was the author of "The History of the Dividing 
Line," and one of the most accomplished men in Virsinia at his day. He was a worthy inheritor of the 
opinions and feeiinss of its old cavaliers. He was for 37 years a member, and at last became president of 
the council of the colony. He died in 1744. at the .-'go of 70 ye:irs. His grave is cr)vered by a white 
marble monument, which yet stands at Westover. The .Marcpiis de Chastelinx, w ho was here in llf^i, 
pives, in his travels, a plowing description of Westover, which he says surpassed all the seats in the 
country- round about " in the maeniticence of the buildinps. the beauty of its situation, and the pleasures 
of society." He eulogizes Mrs. Byrd as a lady of great se\ise, and an agreeable countenance, who ful- 
filled the duties incumbent upon her, as the head of a larjre household, with uncommon skill. To her 
neffToes she did all in her power to render them happy, and served " them herself as a doctor in time of 
sickness." 

Three times, in the course of the revolutionary war, the enemy landed at Westover, under Comwallis 
and Arnold. 

On the evening of Jan. 8th. 1781. the enemy, who were at Bar- 
clay and Westover, sent Lieut. -Col. Simcoe, with a detachment of 
the Queen's Ransrers, to Charles City court-house, where they sur- 
prised a party of 150 militia, of whom they killed one, wounded 
three, and took several prisoners. We here subjoin the account 
of this event, as given in the journal of Simcoe : 

Gen, Arnold directed a patrol to be made on the night of the 8th of January towards 
Lonor Bridcre. in order to procure intcllisrence. Lieut.-Col. Simcoe march'^d with forty 
cavalry, for the most part badly mounted, on such horses as had been picked up in the 
country ; but the patrol had not proceeded above two miles before Scr£feant Kelly, who 
was in advance, was challenged : he parleyed with the videttes till he ^ot nearer to them, 
when, rushing at them, one he got hold of, the other flung himself olT his horse and es- 
caped into the bushes. A negro was also taken, whom these videttes had intercepted 
on his way to the British army. From these people information was obtained that the 
enemy was assembled at Charles City court-house, and tliat the corps which had ap- 
peared in the day-time opposite Westover, nearly to the amount of 400 men, lay about 2 
miles in advance of their main body, and on the road to Westover. The party were 
immediately ordered to the right-about, and to march towards theni. Lieut. Holland, 
who was similar in size to the vidette who had been taken, was placed in advance ; the 
negro had promised to guide the party so as to avoid the high road, and to conduct them 
by an unfrequented pathway which led close to the creek, between the body which was 
supposed to be in advance, and that which was at Charles City court-house. Lieut. 
Col. Simcoe's intention was to beat up the main body of the enemy, who, trusting to 
those in front, miofht reasonably be supposed to be otf their guard ; in case of repulse he 
meant to retreat by the private way on which he advanced, and should he be successful, 
it was optional to attack the advance party or not on his return. The patrol passed 
through a wood, where it halted to collect, and had scarcely got into the road when the 
advance was challenged : Lieut. Holland answered, " A friend," — gave the countersign 
procured from the prisoner — " It is I, me, Charles," the name of the person he persona- 
ted ; he passed one vidette, whom Sergt. Kelly seized, and himself caught hold of the 
other, who in a struggle proved too strong for him, got free, presented and snapped his 
carbine at his breast; luckily it did not go otT, but the man galloped awav, and at some 
distance fired the signal of alarm. The advance division immediately rushed on, and 
soon arrived at the court-house ; a confused and scattered firing began on all sides ; 

28 



218 



CHARLES CITY COUNTY. 



Lieut.-Col. Simcoe sent the bugle-horns, French and Barney, through an enclosure to 
the right, with orders to answer his challenging, and sound when he ordered ; he then 
called loudly for the liglit infantry, and hallooed " Sound the advance ;" the bugles 
were sounded as had been directed, and the enemy fled on all sides, scarcely firing an- 
other shot. The night was very dark, and the party totally unacquainted with the 
ground ; part of the dragoons were dismounted, and mixed with the hussars ; some of 
the enemy were taken, others wounded, and a few were drowned in a mill-dam. In 
saving three armed militia-men from the fury of the soldiers, Lieut.-Col. Simcoe ran a 
great risk, as their pieces were loaded, pointed to his breast, and in their timidity they 
might have discliarged them. From the prisoners he learned that the whole of their force 
was here assembled, and that there was no party in advance : the soldiers were mounted 
as soon as possible, nor could they be permitted to search the houses where many were 
concealed, lest the enemy should gain intelligence of their numbers, and attack them ; 
and this might easily be done, as the darkness of the night prevented the Rangers from 
seeing around them, while they were plainly to be distinguished by the fires which the 
enemy had left. Tt appeared that the militia were commanded by Gen. Nelson, and 
consisted of seven or eight hundred men : they were completely frightened and dis- 
persed, many of them not stopping till they reached Williamsburg. Sergt. Adams, of 
the hussars, was mortally wounded. This gallant soldier, sensible of his situation, said, 
" My beloved colonel, I do not mind dying, but for God'* sake do not leave me in the 
hands of the rebels." Trumpeter French and two hussars were wounded. About a 
dozen horses were seasonably captured. 




Berkeley, the birth-place of President Harrison. 

[This buildingf stands upon the James River, n few hundred yards from its brink. It is an old-fashioned edifice, construct^ 
of bricif, and surrounded by a grove of poplars, iiitenniiigled with other trees. It is now the residence of the widow of the late 
Benjamin Harrison, Esq.] 

William Henry Harrison, the ninth President of the United 
States, was born at Berkeley, Feb. 9th, 1773. His ancestors set- 
tled in Virginia in 1640, and the family name was always among 
the most prominent ia her history. 

His father, Benjamin Harrison, was a conspicuous patriot of the revolution. When 
a very young man, he honorably represented his native district in Ihe House of Bur. 
gesses for many years, and on the 14th of Nov., 1764, was one of those of its distin- 
guished members chosen to prepare an address to the king, a memorial to the lords, and 
a remonstrance to the House of Commons, in opposition to the stamp act. He was a 
delegate from Virginia to the first Continental Congress, which assembled at Philadelphia, 
Sept. 1st, 1774, when he had the gratification of seeing his brother-in-law, Peyton Ran- 
dolph, placed in the presidential cimir. " At the congress of the ibllowing year, 177.'), 
after the deatli of Mr. Randolph, it was the wish of nearly all the southern members 
that Mr, Harrison should succeed him in the presidency ; but as the patriotic John Han- 



CriARLKS CITV COUNTV. 



219 



cock, of Massachusotts, had likewise boon iioniin;it<'(l. Mr. Harrison, to avoid any boc- 
tional joalousy or unkindncss of feeling botwoen the northt-rn and sonlljorn drloiratcs at 
so moniontoiis a crisis, witli a noble s(>lf-(lonial and irciioroNit y rcliii()uisliod his own 
claims, and insistod on the election of .Mr. Hancock, who ac-cordiiitrly had lh<; honor of 
being nnaniinoiisly chosen to that high otHce. Mr. Harrison still, however, continued 
one of the most active and influential moinhors of the Continental Congress. On the 
lUth of June, 1776, as chairman of the committee of the whole house, ho introduced 
the resolution which declared the independenco of the colonies ; and on tho over-memo- 
rable fotirih of Jiili/, he reported tho more formal Declaration of IrKlfpotKicnco. to which 
celebrated documont his signature is aniu'.vod. The legislature of Virginia returned .Mr. 
Harrison four times as a delegate to Congress. On the expiration of his last term of 
congressional service, he was immediately elected to the Hou.so of Burgesses from his 
6wn county, and was at once chosen speaker of that body — an ofliee ho held uninter- 
ruptedly until the year 11&2, when he was elected governor of Virginia, and became one 
of the most popular officers that ever filled the executive chair. This eminent patriot 
died in the year 171)1.'' 

William Henry Harrison was left under tho guardianship of Robert Morris, the distin- 
guished financier, and waseduf^ated at Hampden Sydney Collogo, and turned his attention 
to the study of medicine. " The hostilities of tho Indians on the northwestern frontier 
having begun to excite general attention, the young student resolved to relinquish his 
professional pursuits, and join the army destined to the defence of the Ohio frontier. In 
1791, soon after the death of his father, who died in April of the same year, he received 
from President Washington, when only in his 19th year, tho commission of ensign ; in 
179*2 he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant, and he fought under Gen. Wayno, who 
spoke of his gallant conduct In a very flattering manner. After the desperate battle of 
the Miami Rapids, he was promoted to the rank of captain, and was placed In the com- 
mand of Fort Washington. In 1797 he resigned his commission in the army, and was 
immediately appointed secretary of the .\w. territory. In 1799, at the age of :2G, he was 
elected a delegate from this territory to Congress, and in this office he performed very 
important services for his constituents. On the erection of Indiana into a territorial 
government, he was appointed its first governor, and he hold this office by reappoint- 
ment until 1613. In addition to the duties in the civil and military government of the 
territory, he was commissioner and superintendent of Indian Atfuirs ; and in the course 
of his administration he concluded thirteen Important treatiis with the dltrcrent tribes. 
On the 7ih of Nov., 1811, ho gained over tho Indians tho ceh.'brated battle of Tippeca- 
noe, the news of which was received throughout the country with a burst of enlhusiasni. 
During the last war with Great Britain, he was made commander of the northwestern 
army of the United States, and he bore a conspicuous part in the leading events of the 
campaign of 1812-13 — the defence of Fort Meigs, and the victory of the Thames. In 
1814 he was appointed, in conjunction with his companion in arms, (iov. Shelby, and 
Gen. Cass, to treat with the Indians in the northwest ; and in the following year, he was 
placed at the head of a commission to treat with various other important tribes. 

" In 1816, Gen. Harrison was elected a member of Congress from Ohio; and in 1828 
he was sent minister plenipotentiary to the Republic of Columbia. On his rctuni, he 
took up his residence at North Bend, on the Ohio, 16 m. below Cincinnati, where he 
lived upon his farm in comparative retirement until he was called by the people of the 
United States to preside over the country as its chief magistrate." Of 2!)4 votes for 
president, he received 234. He died April 4th, 1841, just a month after his inaugura- 
tion. His death caused a deep sensation throughout the country. 

John Tvler, the father of the late President of the United States, resided in this 
county. " He was one of the leading revolutionary characters of Virginia, was many 
years a member of the Houseof Delegates, and in 17^1 succeeded .Mr. Benjamin Harri- 
son as speaker. After being governor of Virginia, to which oflico he was elected in 
18()b, he was judge of the District C'ourt of the United States for Virginia, and died at 
his seat in Charles City co., Jan. (ith, 1813. He was simple in his manners, distinguished 
for the uprightness and fidelity with which he discharged his otRcial duties, and enjoyed 
in an uncommon degree the esteem and confidence of his fellow-citizens." 

John Tvler, the 10th President of the United States, and the 
si.rth from V^irginia, was born on tlie James River in this co., in 
1790, about 5 m. below Berkeley. Four miles lower down on the 
river is his present residence. 



220 



CHARLOTTE COUNTY. 



CHARLOTTE. 

Charlotte was formed in 1794, from Lunenburg. It is 22 miles 
long, with a mean breadth of 18 miles. The surface is diversified ; 
the soil on the river bottoms fertile, but on the ridges mostly bar- 
ren ; it is watered by numerous creeks and rivulets, all tributary to 
Staunton river, except the head branches of the Meherrin, on the 
E. and SE. Pop. 1830, 15,252; 1840, whites 5,130; slaves 9,260; 
free colored 307 ; total, 14,595. 

Charlotte C. H., or Marysville, 98 miles svv. of Richmond, and 
30 SE. of Lynchburg, near the centre of the county, contains 1 
Baptist, 1 Presbyterian, and 1 Methodist church, and about 50 
dwellings. Keysville, and Rough Creek Church, are small places 
in the county. 

Charlotte has been the residence of three distinguished Virgini- 
ans, viz. : Patrick Henry, John Randolph, and the late Judge Paul 
Carrington, senr. 

The residence of the latter was near the junction of the L. Roancke, with the Staun- 
ton, on an elevated and beautiful site. He was a member of the bar of Charlotte, in 
1765. After Lord Dunmore had abdicated the government of Virginia, a convention 
met in Richmond, in the year 1775, to organize a provincial form of government, and a 
plan of defence for the colony. Mr. Carrington was one of the committee of public 
safety to whom this plan was submitted. He subsequently became a judge of the court 
of appeals, in which office he remained until a few years before his death. 



1 



Red Hill, the Seat of Patrick Henry. 

Red Hill is on the southwest angle of the county. There lived 
and died Patrick Henry ; the man who, Jefferson said, " was the 
greatest orator that ever lived ;" and to whom Randolph applied 
the words of sacred writ, as being one " who spake as never man 
spake." 

Red Hill is now the seat of his son, John Henry, Esq. The 
larger part of the main building, shown on the left, has been added 
since the decease of its illustrious occupant.* 



* Patrick Henry, when governor, resided at Williamsburg, Richmond ; at. Salisbury, 



CHARLOTTE COl NTV. 



221 



It is bpautifully sitiKilod on an elevated ridjje, the dividiiiir line of Campbell and Char- 
lotte, within a quarter of a mile of the junction of Falliufr River with the Staunton. From 
it the valley of the Staunton stretehes southward about three miles, varyiiiij fnun a 
quarter to nearly a mile in width, and of an oval-like form. Throu^jh niost fertile mead- 
ows, waving^ in their golden luxuriance, slowly winds the river, overhunfj by mossy fuli- 
ajje, while on all sides gently sloi)iiij; hi\\<, rich in verdure, enclose the whole, and im- 
part to it an air of seclusion and repose. From the brow of tiie hill, west of the house, in 
a scene of an entirely difli rent charac er ; the Blue Ridirc, with the lofty Peaks of (Jtter, 
appear in the horizon at a distance of nearly sixty miles. At the foot of the jrarden, un- 
der a den.se cluster of locust and other trees, enclosed by a wooden paling, are the {jraves 
of Patrick Henry and his wife, overrun with myrtle, and without any monuments over 
them. 

Under the trees seen on the left of the picture, in full view of the beautiful valley be- 
neath, the orator was accustomed in pleasant weather lo sit mornincrsaiul evvniufrs, witli 
his chair leanincr against one of their trunks, and a can of cool spring-water by his side, 
from which he took frequent draughts. Occasionally, he walked to and fro in the yard 
from one clump of trees to the other, buried in revery, at which times he was never in- 
terrupted. Among the relics in the house is the arm-chair in which he died, and a 
knife given to him when a boy by his uncle, Patrick Henry, which he carried through 
life, and had in his pocket at the moment of his death. In the parlor hangs his por- 
trait, a masterly production, by Sully, representing him pleading in the British debt 
cause. The dress is black, cravat white, and a red velvet mantle is thrown over the 
shoulders.* He appears three-quarters face, leaning partly back, with his spectacles 
thrown over his forehead ; and the e.vpressiun is one of deep solemnity and impressive, 
ness. 

Under the description of Hanover county, the reader will find a succinct memoir of 
Henry ; and in that of New London, Campbell county, and of the city of Richmond, 
are views of buildings memorable as the scenes of some of his celebrated oratorical ef- 
forts. We now give some reminiscences, collected by us from a reliable source while in 
this section of the state. They are mainly detached facts, without connection, and must 
necessarily be given in that manner. 

When fourteen years of age, .Air. Henry went with his mother in a carriage to the 
Fork church in Hanover, to hear preach the celebrated Samuel Davies, afterwards pres- 
ident of Princeton college. His eloquence made a deep impression on his youthful 
mind, and he always remarked, he was the greatest orator he ever heard. When a mem- 
ber of the Continental Congress, he said the first men in that body were Washington, 
Richard Henry Lee, and Roger Sherman ; and later in life, Roger .Sherman and George 
Mason, the greatest statesmen he ever knew. When governor, he had printed and cir- 
culated in Richmond, at his own expense, Soame Jenyns' View of Christianity, and But- 
ler's Analogy of Natural and Revealed Religion. Sherlock's sermons, he ailirmed, was 
the work which removed all his doubts of the truth of Cliristianity ; a copy of whicli, 
until a short time since, was in the possession of his cliildren, rilled with marginal notes. 
He read it every Sunday evening to his family, after which they all joined in sacred mu-, 
sic, while he accompanied them on the violin. He never quoted poe ry. His quota- 
tions were from the Bible, and his illustrations from the Bible, ancient and modern his- 
tory. He was opposed to the adoption of the Federal constitution, because he thought 
it gave too much power to the general government ; and in conversation with the father 
of a late venerable senator from Prince Edward, he remarked with emphasis : The 
President of the United States will always come in at the head of a party. He will be 
supported in all his acts by a party. You do not now think much of the patronage of the 
President ; but the day is coming when it will be tremendous, and from this power the 
country may sooner or later fall.'' 

In the British debt cause, of which Wirt gives a full account, Air. Henry made great 
preparation. He shut himself up in his otiice for three days, during which he did not 
see his family; his food was handed by a servant through the office-door. The Countess 
of Huntington, then in this country, was among the auditors, and reinarked, after hear- 
ing the arguments of the several speakers.t " that if every one of them had spoken in 

Chesterfield county, and at Lcatherwood, Henry co. Afterwards, he dwelt on the Ap- 
pomattox, in Prince Edward ; at Long Island, Campbell co., and removed to Red Hill 
in 171)5, four years previous to his death. 
* His usual dress while in the legislature. 

f They were, on the part of plaintitl', Messrs. Ronald. Baker, Wickham, and Starke: 
and on that of the defendant, Messrs. Henry, Marshall, Innis, and Alex. Campbell, a 



222 



CHARLOTTE COUNTY. 



Westminster Hall, they would have been honored with a peerage." Mr. Henry had a 
diamond ring on his finger, and, while he was speaking, the Countess exclaimed to the 
Judge, Iredell — who had never before heard him — "The diamond is blazing " Gra- 
cious God !" replied he, " he is an orator indeed." In this cause he injured his voice so 
that it never recovered its original power. 

The following anecdote was related by President Madison, at the conclusion of the 
late war, to a party of gentlemen assembled at his residence in Washington. In the 
revolutionary war, certificates were given by the legislature to the Virginia line on 
continental establishment, stating the amount due to them, which was to be paid at a 
future time. The necessities of the soldiers, in many instances, compelled them to part 
with the certificates to speculators for a trivial sum. Madison brought a bill before the 
legislature to put a stop to it. He had previously asked Mr. Henry if he was willing to 
support it. The reply was "yes;" but having no further communication with him on 
the subject, Mr. Madison, feared he had forgotten the circumstance. After the bill was 
read, he turned to where Mr. Henry sat, with an anxious eye, upon which the latter 
immediately arose and addressed the house. Mr. Madison said that upon that occasion 
he was particularly eloquent. His voice reminded him of a trumpeter on the field of 
battle, calling the troops to a charge. He looked alternately to the house and the audi- 
ence, and saw they were with the orator ; and, at the conclusion, one of the chief specu- 
lators in tickets, then in the galleries, exclaimed in an audible voice — " That bill ought 
to pass !" — it did pass, and unanimously. 

We conclude this article by the subjoined extract from "the Mountaineer," a series 
of Essays, originally published in 1813 in the Republican Farmer, at Staunton, and 
written by Conrad Speece, D.D., pastor of the Augusta church : 

Many years ago, I was at the trial, in one of our district courts, of a man charged with murder. The 
case was i)riefly this : tlie prisoner had gone, in execution of his office as a constable, to arrest a slave 
who had been guilty of some ini.sconduct, and bring him to justice. Expecting opposition in the busi- 
ness, the constable took several men with him, some of them armed. They found the slave on the 
plantation of his master, within view of the house, and proceeded to seize and bind him. His mistress, 
seeing the arrest, came down and remonstrated vehemently against it. Finding her efforts unavailing, 
she went off to a barn where her husband was, who was presently perceived running briskly to the 
house. It was known he always kept a loaded rifle over his door. The constable now desired his com- 
pany to remain where they were, taking c ire to keep the slave in custody, while he himself would go to 
the house to prevent mischief. He accordingly ran towards the hou-;e. When he arrived within a short 
distance of it, the master appeared coming out of the door with his rifle in his hand. Some witnesses 
said that as he came to the door he drew the cock of the piece, and was seen in the act of raising it to 
the position of firing. But upon these points, there was not an entire agreement in the evidence. The 
constable, standing near a small building in the yard, at this instant fired, and the fire had a fatal effect. 
No previous malice was proved against him ; and his plea upon the trial was, that he had taken the life 
of his assailant in necessary self-defence. 

A great mass of testimony was delivered. This was commented upon with considerable ability by 
the lawyer for the commonwealth, and by another lawyer engaged by the friends of the deceased for the 
prosecution. The prisoner was also defended, in elaborate speeches, by two respectable advocates. These 
proceedings brought the day to a close. The general whisper through a crowded house was, that the 
man was guilty and could not be saved. 

About dusk, candles were brought, and Henry arose. His manner was exactly that which the British 
Spy describes with so much felicity ; plain, simple, and entirely unassuming. " Gentlemen of the jury," 
said he, " I dare say we are all very much f ttigued witli this tedious trial. The prisoner at the bar has 
been well defended already; but it is my duty to offer you some further observations in behalf of this 
unfortunate man. I shall aim at brevity. But should I take up more of your time than you expect, I 
hope you will hear me with patience, when you consider that blood is concerned.'" 

I cannot admit the possibility that any one who never heard Henry speak should be made fully to con- 
ceive the force of impression which he gave to these few words, " blood is concerned." I had been on 
my feet through the day, pushed about in the crowd, and was excessively weary. I was strongly of 
opinion, too, notwithstanding all the previous defensive pleadings, that the prisoner was guilty of mur- 
der; and 1 felt anxious to know liow the matter would terminate. Yet when Henry had uttered these 
words, my feelings underwent an instantaneous change; 1 found every thing within me answering at 
once, yes, since blood is concerned, in the name of all that is righteous, go on ; we will hear you with 
patience until the rising of to-morrow's sun. This bowing of the soul mu>t have been universal ; for the 
profoundest silence reigned, as if our very breath had been suspended. The spell of the magician was 
upon us, and we stood like statues around him. Under the touch of his genius, every particular of the 
story assumed a new aspect, and his cau<e became continually more bright and promising. At length he 
arrived at the fatal act \t>e\f. "You have been told, gentlemen, that the prisoner was bound by every 
obligation to avoid the supposed necessity of firing, by leaping behind a house near which he stood at 
that moment. Had he been attacked with a club, or with stones, the argument would have been un- 
answerable, and I should feel myself compelled to give up the defence in despair. But surely I need not 
tell you, gentlemen, how wide is the difference betvi^een sticks or stones, and double-triggered loaded rifles 
cocked at your breast.'' The effect of this terrific image, exhibited in this great orator's peerless man- 
ner, cannot be described. I dare not attempt to delineate the paroxysm of emotion which it excited in 
every heart. The result of the whole was, that the prisoner was acquitted; with the perfect approba- 



cousin of the poet. This case " was discussed with so much learning, argumerit, and 
eloquence, as to have placed the bar of Virginia, in the estimation of the federal judges 
(if the reports of the day may be accredited,) above all others in the United States." 



CflAULOTTE COUNTY. 



223 



lion, I bclii'vo, of llif iiuiiicrnm assembly who attnndod tho trl.il. ^Vhnl w.is it th.it e.ive nirh trrin«ron- 
dent t'orcf to the rltKiui'iuc of lionry ? Hi-i rciisoninir powers wt-ro pnod : but tlicy have Ix-m equalled, 
and more thm ( (luilleil. liy ttio<e of nnny other ni-n. His itn ipiii ition was e\cee,(ll:i!:ly (juirk, and 
couim inded all thr <t(>rf< o!' nature as m it rials I'lir illustratin',' his snlijert. Mis voice and delivery were 
inexpressibly happy. Hut bis nin-t irresistible rh:;rni w is tiie vivid feelintr of his cause with which he 
spoke. Such ioelinj; inl'aliibly coinuiuuicates itself to llie breast of the hearer. 




Roanoke, the seat of Jofm Randolph. 

The residence of the late John Randolph is near the Staunton, in the southern part 
of the county, several miles above its junction with the Dan, and about tliirteen below 
Charlotte court-house. 

Tiie name, Roanoke, is derived from a small creek runnino^ throufrh the plantation. 
The buildings are in a dense forest, which has scarce ever echoed to the woodman's 
axe. On leaving the main road, the traveller threads his way througli the woods by a 
narrow path, for about half a mile, when, a few rods distant, the dwelling's and out- 
houses suddenly appear through the foliage, witjiout any cultivated land or clearing in 
view, seeming, from the wild seclusion and primitive aspect of the spot, to have been 
the abode of a recluse, rather than of a statesman, whose fame extended beyond the 
limits of his native land. 

The two buildings in front were occupied by Mr. Randolph, and those in the rear by 
his domestics. That on the right is clapboarded, and is much the most commodious ; it 
was the one in which he dwelt in summer. On the ground-floor are two rooms, one 
containing his books, the other is the drawing-room, adorned with convenient and neat 
furniture. The library is large, well selected, and contains many rare works. Most of 
the books bear evidence of careful perusal, and the striking passages are marked with 
the pencil. Among tlie many pictures and portraits in these rooms is one of Pocahon- 
tas. The arms are bare to the elbow, displaying an arm and a hand of e.V(]uisite beauty. 
The hair and eye are a raven black, — the latter remarkably expres.sive, and the whole 
countenance surpassing lovely, and beaming with intelliL'^eiice and benignity. 

The dwelling on the left was his winter residence, and the one in which he usually 
partook of his meals. It is a log structure, which is entered through a shed, paved with 
water-worn pebbles and supported by unhewn posts. Notwithstanding its extreme sim- 
plicity, it is richly furnished. Those rooms are also hung with portraits. One of them 
is a fine drawing of his servant Jupiter — or, as he is commonly called, Juba — dressed 
as a sportsman, with a double-barrelled gun on his shoulder. t)ver the fireplac(> in the 
bedroom is a portrait of Mr. Randolph, when twelve years of age. It is a fine oil 
painting, from the easel of the celebrated (iiibert Stuart. In the fresh rosy complexion, 
and round chubby face of this beautiful little boy, it would be ditiicidt to trace any re- 
semblance to the thin, cadaverous lineaments of the original in his latter years. John 
and Juba. the favorite servants of Randolph, yet reside in the small huts shown in the 
background. 



224 



CHARLOTTE COUNTY. 



The first is a man of strong mind, and the general expression, and the high, well- 
developed forehead, denote an intellect of greater than an ordinary cast ; but the latter 
— the affectionate and faithful Juba — was more appreciated for the qualities of his heart. 
As we mounted our horses, on leaving Roanoke, at the close of a fine summer's day in 
1843, we said to him : " Juba, you lost a fine master when Mr. Randolph died." " Ah !" 
replied he, " he was more than a father to me." 

About 100 yards to the right of where the foregoing view was taken, is the grave of 
Randolph. It is in the midst of the forest, with no marble mem.orial ; but two tall pines 
hang their rude limbs over the spot, and the wind mournfully sighs through their 
branches. 

Facsimile of the signature of John Randolph of Roanok 

John Randolph of Roanoke* was born June 2d, 177^3, at Cawson's, Prince George 
county, the family seat of his mother. He was descended in the seventh generation from 
Pocahontas, the Indian princess. This lady died at Gravesend, England, in 1617, at 
the age of twenty-three. Thomas Rolf, her son, became a citizen of Virginia, and left 
at his death a daughter, who married Col. Robert Boiling, by w^hom she had one son 
and five daughters. They married respectively, Col. John Fleming, Dr. Wm. Gay, 
Mr. Thomas Kldridge, Mr. James Murray, and Col. Richard Randolph. John Randolph 
of Roanoke, was the son of John Randolph, a wealthy country gentleman, who died at 
Matoax, his residence on the Appomatto.x, near Petersburg, where he lies hurried. John 
Randolph of Roanoke's mother was Frances Bland, daughter of CoL Theodorick Bland, 
jun., who was a brother of Richard Bland, a member of the continental congress. 
Surviving her first husband, she married secondly, St. George Tucker, the eminent jurist. 
John Randolph's half-brothers, now surviving, are Beverley T. Tucker, professor of law 
at William and Mary, and Henry St. George Tucker, professor of law at the University 
of Va. 

The mother of John Randolph was an exemplary and pious member of the Episcopal 
denomination, and a lady of sprightliness and talent. She brought up her son strictly, 
" teaching him," as he olten remarked, " the Lord's prayer and the ten commandments." 
John Randolph passed a short time at three colleges : Princeton, Columbia, and William 
and Mary ; but he used to say, that he acquired all his knowledge from his library at 
Roanoke, and by intercourse with the world. 

In the spring of 1799, Mr. Randolph presented himself to the electors of Charlotte 
as a candidate for Congress, in competition with Mr. Clement Carrington, a federalist, 
and Mr. Powhatan Boiling, a democrat. On the same occasion he encountered Patrick 
Henry, then a candidate for the state senate, and opposed to those measures Mr. Ran- 
dolph advocated. They met at the court-house, and supported a long and animated 
discussion. Mr. Henry was then in his 67th year ; the measure of his fame was full ; 
the late proceedings of the Virginia assembly, in relation to the alien and sedition laws, 
had filled him with alarm — " had planted his pillow with thorns, and he had quitted his 
retirement to make one more, his last, effort for his country." Enfeebled by age and ill- 
health, with a linen cap upon his head, he mounted the hustings, and commenced with 
diffieuity ; but as he proceeded, his eye lighted up with its wonted fire, his voice assumed 
its wonted majesty ; gradually accumulating strength and animation, his eloquence 
seemed like an avalanche threatening to overwhelm his adversary. Many present con- 
sidered it his best effort. Mr. Moulton remarked, that many of its passages were indeli- 
bly impressed upon his memory. In the course of the speech, Mr. Henry said, " The 
alien and sedition laws were only the fruits of that constitution, the adoption of which 
he opposed If we are wrong, let us all go wrong together," at the same time clasp- 
ing his hands and waving his body to the right and left. His auditory unconsciously 
waved with him. As he finished he literally descended into the arms of the obstreper- 
ous throng, and was borne about in triumph, when Dr. John H. Rice exclaimed, " the 
sun has set in all his glory. 

* Hugh A. Garland, Esq., of Petersburg, is preparing a biography of John Randolph, 
from whom will doubtless be given an authentic and full memoir. 



CHARLOTTE COL'NTV. 



225 



As Mr. Henry left the stand, IVIr. Randolph, with undauntod rourafjo, arose in his 
place. He was then about :2G years of ajre — u mere boy from col!e;rt>, who had, probably, 
never yet addressed a j>olilical assembly — of a youthful and unprepossessinjj appearance. 
The audience, considerin;; it presumptuous for him to speak after Mr. Henry, partially 
dispersed, and an Irishman present exclaimed, '* Tut I tut I it won't do, it's nothinff but 
the butiiitr of an old tin pan after hearing a fine church orjran." But if " the sun of the 
other had set in all his {jlory," his was about to rise with, perhaps, an equal brilliancy. 
He commenced : his sinijular person and peculiar asj)ect ; his novel, slirill. vibratory 
intonations ; his solemn, slow-marchinjj, and swelling^ periods ; his caustic crimination 
of the prevailiiiij political party: his cuttins^ satire; the tout ensemble of his public 
debut, soon calmed the tumultuous crowd, and inclined all to listen to the strangle 
orator, while he replied at lenjjth to the sentiments of their old favorite. When he had 
concluded, loud huzzas ransj throutjh the welkin. 

*' This was a new event to Mr. Henry, He had not been accustomed to a rival, and 
little e.\j)ected one in a beardless boy : lor such was the aspect of the champion who 
now ap{>eared to contend for the palm which he was wont to appropriate to himself. 
He returned to the staore and commenced a second address, in which he soared above 
his usual vehemence and majesty. ?iuch is usually the fruit of emulation and rivalsliip. 
He frequently adverted to his youthful competitor with parental tenderness ; compliment- 
ed his rare talents with the liberality of profusion ; and, while regretting what he depre- 
cated as the political errors of youthful zeal, actually wrought himself and audience into 
an enthusiasm of sympathy and benevolence that issued in an ocean of tears. The 
gesture, intonations, and pathos of Mr. Henry, operated like an epidemic on the trans- 
ported assembly. The contagion was universal. An hysterical phrensy pervaded the 
audience to such a degree, that they were at the same moment literally weeping and 
laughing. At this jimcture the speaker descended from the stage. Shouts of applause 
rent the air, and were echoed from the skies. The whole spectacle as it really was, 
would not only mock every attempt at description, but would almost challenge the im- 
agination of any one who had not witnessed it. With a recollection of the event, Mr 
Randolph, eighteen years afterwards, in his place in the House of Representatives of the 
U. S., speaking of the general-ticket law, which was carried by the democratic party 
by a majority of five votes only in the popular branch of the V^irginia Assenribly, said : 
•Had Patrick Henry lived, and taken his seat in the Assembly, that law would ne^er 
have passed. In that case the electoral vote of Virginia would have been divided, and 
Mr. Jefferson lost his election I Five votes I Mr. Chairman ! Patrick Henry was good 
for five times five votes.' "* 

In this contest Mr. Henry was elected to the Senate of Virginia, but did not live to 
take his seat ; and Mr. Randolph was returned to Congress, in which body he was at 
different intervals for more than twenty-four years, including the time he served in the 
United States Senate. Well did the people of Charlotte obey the last injunction ot, 
Patrick Henry in the speech above described, when he said, " He is a young man of 
promise ; cherish him, he will make an invaluable man." 

Such was Mr. Randolph's youthful appearance, that when he made his first appearance 
at the clerk's table of the House of Representatives to qualify, that gentleman could not 
refrain from inquiring his age : ^^Ask my constituents, sir," was the reply. Mr. Ran- 
dolph soon became one of the leaders of the republican party in Congress, and a de- 
cided politician of the Jeffersonian school. He later was distinguished by iiis opposition 
to the embargo and non-intercourse acts, and the gun-boat svstem of Mr. Jefferson. 

In Madison's administration, Mr. Randolph opposed the declaration of war with Great 
Britain ; but when fears were entertained of the invasion of Virginia, at the time of the 
burning of Washington, he offered himself to the governor for any post he chose to as- 
sign him. He was given an office in the corps of topogra|)liic;il engineers, which he filled 
as long a.s the corps remained in service. In the administration of .Mr. .Monroe, he op- 
posed with ability the (ireck resolutions, and the internal itnprovement system of the 
general government. During the administration of J. Q. Adams, he was elected to the 
U. S. Senate, where he again arrayed himself in opposition to the friends of the presi. 
dent. It was then that he used those violent remarks which occasioned the duel be- 
tween himself and Mr. Clay. 

The account of this duel, which we extract, has been given to the public in a letter 
of Gen. James Hamilton, who accompanied Mr. Randolph to the field on this occasion, 
in conjunction with Col. Tattnal, then a member of Congress from Georgia: 

* From the Memoir of Patrick H.-nry, by E. H. Cummins, A. M. — in the 2d Amer- 
ican edition of the New Edinburgh Encyclopedia, published in 1617 

29 



226 



CHARLOTTE COUNTY. 



Thp night before the duel, Mr. Randolph sent for me in the evening. I fonnd him calm, but in a smgrj- 
larly kind and confiding mood. He told me that he had something on his mind to tell me. He then remarkr 
ed, " Hamilton, I have determined to receive, without returning, Cl-iy's fire ; nothing shall induce me to 
harm a hnir of his head ; I will not miike his wife a widow, or his children orphans. Their tears would 
be shed over his grave ; but when the sod of Virginia rests on my bosom, there is not, in this wide world, 
one individual to pay this tribute upon mine." His eyes filled, and resting his head upon his hand, he 
remained some moments silent. I replied, " My dear friend," (for ours was a sort of posthumous friend- 
ship, bequeathed by our mothers,) " I deeply regret thHt you have mentioned this subject to me, for you 
call upon me to go to the field and to see you shot down, or to assume the responsibility, in regard to your 
own life, in sustaining your determination to throw it away. But on this subject a man's own con- 
science and his own bosom are his best monitors. I will not advise ; but under the enormous and unpro- 
voked personal insult you have offered Mr. Clay, I cannot dissuade. I feel bound, however, to commu- 
nicate to Col. Tattnal your decision." He begged me not to do so, and said, " he was very much afraid 
that Tattnal would tak(! the studs and refuse to go out with him." I however sought Col. Tattnal, and 
we repaired, ab(mt midnight, to Mr. Randolph's lodgings, vvhom we found reading Milton's great Poem. 
For some moments lie did not permit us to say one word in relation to the approaching duel ; and he at 
once commenced one of those delightful criticisms on a passage from this poet, in which he was wont 
so enthusiastically to indulge. After a pause. Col. Tattnal remarked, " Mr. Randolph, I am told you 
have determined not to return Mr. Clay's fire ; I must say to you, my dear sir, if lam only to go out to see 
you shot down, you must find some other friend." Mr. Randolph remarked that it was his determination- 
After much conversation on the suhjcct, I induced Col. Tattnal to allow Mr. Randolph to take his own 
course, as his withdrawal, as one ol' his friends, might lead to very injurious misconstructions. At last 
Mr. Randolph, smiling, said, " Well, Tattnal, I promise you one thing; if I see the devil in Clay's eye, 
and that with malice jjicponse he means to take my life, I may change my mind." — A remark I knew he 
merely made to propitiate the anxiety of his friend. 

Mr. Clay and himself met at 4 o'clock the succeeding evening, oq the banks of the Potomac. But he 
saw " no devil in Clay's eye," but a man fearless, and expressing the mingled sensibility and firmness 
which belonged to the occasion. 

I shall never forget this scene as long as I live. It has been my misfortune to witness several duels, 
hut I never saw one, at least in its sequel, so deeply afl^ecting. 

The sun was just setting behind the blue hills of Randolph's own Virginia. Here were two of the 
most extraordinary men our country in its prodigalitv had produced, about to meet in mortal combat. * * * 
While Tattnal was loading Randolph's pistol, I approached my friend, I believed for the last time; I 
took his hand ; there was not in its touch the quickening of one pulsation. He turned to me and said, 
" Clay is calm, but not vindictive. I hold my purpose, Hamilton, in any event — remember this." On 
handing him his pistol, Col. Tattnal sprung the hair-trigger. Mr. Randolph said, " l attnal, although I 
am one of the best shots in Virginia, with either a pistol or gun, yet I never fire with the hair-trigger; 
besides, I have a thick buckskin glove on, which will destroy the delicacy of my touch, and the trigger 
may fly before I know where I am." But from his great solicitude for his friend, Tattnal insisted upon 
hairing the trigger. On taking their position, the fact turned out as Mr. Randolph anticipated : his pistol 
went off before the word, with the muzzle down. 

The moment this event took place. Gen. Jesup, Mr. Clay's friend, called out that he would instantly 
leave the ground with his friend, if this occurred again. Mr. Clay at once exclaimed it was entirely an 
accident, and begged that the gentleman might be allowed to go on. On the word being given, Mr.., Clay 
fired without effect, Mr. Randolph discharging his pistol in the air. The moment Mr. Clay saw that Mr. 
Randolph had thrown away his fire, with a gush of sehsibility he instantly approached Mr. R. and said, 
with an emotion I never can forget, " I trust in God, my dear sir, you are untouched ; after what has oc- 
curred, I would not have harmed you for a thousand worlds." Deeply affected by this scene, I could not 
refrain from (.'rasping Mr. Clay by the hand, and said, "My good sir, we have been long separated, but 
after the events of to-day, I feel that we must be friends forever." 

The magnanimous conduct of Mr. Randolph on the occasion of this duel excited gen- 
eral admiration. Shortly afterwards he retired from Congress, and in 1829 he was elect- 
ed a m(^mber of the convention for revising the state constitution. Every morning he 
went to the capitol in Richmond, where the convention met, clad in mourning, with a 
black suit, and hat and arms bound with crape. " Have you lost a friend ?" was the 
frequent query. " Oh no !" replied he, in his peculiaily melancholy tones ; " I go in 
mourning for the old constitution: I fear I have come to witness its death and funeral^ 
When he returned from the convention, he intended to retire from public life, and made, 
as he supposed, his farewell address to his constituents at Charlotte court-house. From 
the memory of a gentleman present, we give a slight sketch of his remarks : 

He commenced by saying, " he had lately been very unpleasantly situated ; that he 
was in a convention where Virginian was contending with Virginian for power, and that 
he had taken part in the strife. Fellow-citizens, you know brothers never could divide 
an estate ! The convention agreed to a constitution he had there voted for, and should 
presently go into the court-house and vote for again. But he disliked it. They had ex- 
tended the right of suffrage ; he never could agree to it — never thought it right. There 
many plans for a constitution were submitted ; every man thought himself a constitution- 
maker — every man thought himself a George Mason. But my main business is to take 
leave of you, and what shall I say ? Twenty-eight years ago you took me by the hand when 
a beardless boy, and led me into Congress Hall. The clerk asked me if I was of lawful 
age ; I told him to ask you. You said you had a faithful representative ; I said no man 
ever had suck constituents. You have supported me through evil report and through 
good report. I have served you to the best of my ability, but fear I have been an un- 
profitable servant ; and if justice were meted out to me, should be beaten with many 
stripes. People of Charlotte ! which of you is without SIN ?" — at the same timeshak- 



CHARLOTTE COUNTY. 



227 



ing liis long bony finger, " that javelin of rhetoric," (as it has been termed,) at Iheni ia 
his peculiarly impressive manner. " But I know," continued he, " 1 shall get a verdict 
oractjuittal from my earthly tribunal : 1 see it 1 1 read it in yunr countenances. Ihit it 
is time for me to retire, and prepare to stand before anothir, u iiiirjicr tribunal, where a 
verdict of acquittal will be of inhnite more importance than one from an earthly tribu- 
nal. Here is the trust you placed in my hands twenty-eight years ago" — at the same 
time, suiting the action to the idea, bending forward as though rolling a great weight 
towards them, and exclaiming — Take it back .' take it back /" He then mounted his 
horse and rode otV. 

Early in the administration of President Jacksoji, he was appointed a minister-pleni- 
potentiary to Itiis^ia. He suddenly returned from iiis mission, came into Charli)ttf, and 
raised his standard in opposition to the executive. Death, however, soon tt rmiiialed his 
labors. He died at Philadelphia, May *21th, 18."}.'1, whither he had gone to t-mbark on 
f* board of a vessel for Europe, for the benefit of his liealth. His physician published a 
long and thrilling narrative of his last days. We have, however, but sufficient space to 
quote the concluding scene : 

" After the lapse of about an hour or more, and about 50 minutes before his decease, 
I returned to his sick room ; but now the scene was changed. His keen, penetrating 
eye had lost its expression ; his powerful mind had given way, and he appeared totally 
incapable of giving any correct directions relative to his worldly concerns. To record 
what now took place may not be required, further than to say, that almost to the last 
moment some of his eccentricities could be seen lingering about hiui. He had entered 
within 'the dark valley of the shadow of death,' and what was now passing within bis 
chamber w-as like the distant voice of words which fell with confusion on the ear. The 
further this master-.spirit receded from view, the sounds became less distinct, nntil they 
were lost in the deep recesses of the valley, and all that was mortal of Randolph of 
Roanoke was hushed in death." 

Mr. Randolph never married. He was once engaged to a distinguished heiress; but 
•when the day appointed for the wedding arrived, he declined, and slie sub-e<iuently mar- 
ried a gentleman of distinction. Yet, from the following anecdote, it would seem that 
he had no great predilections for a life of celibacy. Respecting an epistle to a friend, 
congratulati"g him upon liis marriage, written by Mr. Randolph early in life, one who 
saw it has said : " a hotter of more beautil'ul simplicity and feeling, I never read. I 
recollect that while the writer dwelt upon the hapj)iness and advantages to be expected 
from a wedded life, he spoke feelingly of never expecting to enjoy them himself." 

The portrait of Mr. Randolph when a boy, shows him to have been a beautiful child. 
When a young man, he was tall, ungainly, flaxen-haired, and his complexion of a parch- 
ment hue. The expression was unprepossessing ; but when animated, his countenance 
changed in a moment, and that which was before dull and heavy, tiashed up with the 
brightest beams of intellect. His personal appearance late in life is here given from 8 
published account, omitting the extravagances of the original : 

I had frequently heard and read descriptions of Randolph : and one day, as I was 
standing in one of the public streets of Baltimore, I remarked a tall, thin, unique-looking 
being, hurrying towards me with a quick impatient step, evidently much annoyed by a 
crowd of boys following close uf)on him, absorbed in silent and curious wonder. He 
stopped to converse with a gentleman, which gave me an oj)portuMity, unnoticed, to 
observe the Roanoke orator for a considerable length of time, atid really lie was tlie most 
remarkable looking person I ever beheld. 

His limbs, long and thin, were encased in a pair of small-clothes, so tight that they 
seemed part and parcel of the limbs of the wearer. Handsome white stockings were 
fastened with great tidiness at the knees by a small gold buckle, and over them, coming 
about half-way np to the calf, were a pair of what I believe are called hose, coarse and 
country-knit. He wore shoes : they were old-fashioned, and fastened only with buckles 
— huge ones. In walking, he placed liis feet in the strai^ht-iorward Indian manner. It 
was then the fashion to wear a Ian-tailed coat, with a small collar, and buttons far apart 
behind, and a few on the breast. Mr. Randolph's were the reverse of this ; the coat 
was swallow-tailed, the collar immensely large, and the buttons crowded together. His 
waist was remarkably slender, and around it his coat was buttoned very tight, and held 
together by one button. His neck was enveloped in a large high white cravat, without 
any collar being perceptible, although it was then the fashion to wear them very large. 
His complexion was dark and cadaverous, and his face exceedingly wrinkled. His lips 
were thin, compressed, and colorless ; the chin, beardless as a boy's, was broad for the 
size of his face, whicli was small ; his nose was straight, with nothiiiir remarkable in it, 
except it was too short. He wore a fur cap, which he took ott, standing a few minuter 



228 



CHARLOTTE COUNTY. 



uncovered. I observed that his head was quite small ; a characteristic which is said to 
have marked many men of talent — Byron and Chief Justice Marshall, for instance. 

To accurately delineate the character of Mr. Randolph, would require the pen of a 
master, and a long acquaintance with him. While in Congress, he had but few personal 
friends, but those few, it has been said, " he riveted to his heart with hooks of steel." 
His attachments and hatred were alike strong. His affection for his servants was great ; 
and his treatment, kind and generous, excited' that gratitude which is a marked feature 
in tlie African race. The return of " Massa Randolph" from Congress was greeted with 
the utmost demonstration of joy. 

The conversational powers of Mr. Randolph were extraordinary, and when he chose, 
there was irresistible fascination in his voice and manner. His knowledge of books and 
men too was extensive. A friend on board the steamboat with him, on his passage from 
Baltimore to Philadelphia, a few days before his death, stated to the writer, that among 
the crowd that at one time surrounded him, as he reclined upon a settee in the cabin, 
was a gentleman, now a foreign minister ; an individual who, as a writer, has done more 
to enhance the reputation of American literature abroad than any other. Him, the 
statesman, enfeebled in body and mind by disease, was addressing. He hung upon his 
lips as if drawn by a charm, and appeared like a child before its teacher. 

It has been said, that when in the halls of legislation, he never spoke without com- 
manding the most intense interest. At his first gesture, or word, the house and galleries 
were hushed into silence and attention. His voice was shrill and pipe-like, but under 
perfect command ; and in its lower tones, it was music. His tall person, firm eye, and 
peculiarly ' expressive fingers,' assisted very much in giving effect to his delivery. His 
eloquence, taking its character from his unamiable disposition, was generally exerted in 
satire and invective ; but he never attempted pathos without entire success. In quick- 
ness of perception, accuracy of memory, liveliness of imagination, and sharpness of wit, 
be surpassed most men of his day ; but his judgment was feeble, or rarely consulted." 

The aphorism, "a prophet is not without honor save in his own country," did not apply 
to him. He was always an object of wonder and curiosity to all. He often stopped at 
the hotel of Wyatt Cardvvell, Esq., at Charlotte C. H. On those occasions, the multitude, 
though frequently seeing him, would crowd the windows and doors to get a glimpse of 
that man, about whose genius, eccentricities, and physical aspect, there was so much of 
the incomprehensible. 

Mr. Randolph was opposed to that feature in the Federal constitution which gave so 
much power to the president. To that, by his friends, has been ascribed his opposition 
to every executive. 

He went for the independence of the representative. A quotation from one of his 
speeches, supplied by the memory of one present, is here in point. " I was at Federal 
Hall. I saw Washington, but could not hear him take the oath to support the Federal 
constitution. The constitution was in its chrysalis state. I saw what Washington did 
not see ; but two other men in Virginia saw it — George Mason and Patrick Henry — the 
poison under its wings.'^ 

Mr. Randolph had a great veneration for religion, and a most intimate knowledge of 
the Bible. His strongest illustrations were often from Sacred writ, and he could con- 
verse upon it in the most interesting manner. He was peculiarly a being of impulse, 
often reminding one, by his eccentricities, of the saying of Cicero, " that there was but 
a hair's-breadth between a great genius and a madman." When excited, he sometimes 
inadvertently used the name of the Almighty irreverently, upon which, instantly check- 
ing the torrent of his impetuosity, he would with deep humility ask forgiveness, exclaim- 
ing, " God forgive !" Towards the latter part of life, he was accustomed to call his 
servants together on Sundays, when he would preach to them with almost surpassing 
eloquence. He was charitable to the poor in his neighborhood, and beloved by them. 
He was wealthy, and left 318 slaves and 180 horses. At different times he made several 
wills, both written and nuncupative, by some of which he liberated slaves. They have 
become the subject of litigation the most complicated, expensive, and interminable. 

Mr. Randolph has been described as one who "possessed a mind fertilized by every 
stream of literature ; but the use he made of his great acquirements, was calculated 
to make enemies rather than friends ; and, as he once said, ' no man ever had such 
constituents' — a fact which, of itself, speaks volumes in his praise. If he originated no 
great ji^tional benefits, nor did any great positive national good, he prevetiled many evils ; 
and in doing so, he became the benefactor of his country, although not to the extent he 
might otherwise have been." Much of his eccentricity was, doubtless, owing to his 
ezquisitely sensitive nervous organization, which became morbidly susceptible by disease. 



CHESTERFIELD COUNTY. 



239 



CHESTERFIELD. 

Chesterfield was formed from Henrico, in 1748. It is 28 miles 
long, witli an average width of about 18 ; the surface is broken, 
and, excepting on the margin of the streams, the soil is generally 
sterile. It is particularly celebrated for its immense beds of coal, 
which have been worked from a very early day. The James River 
forms its \. and the Appomattox its s. boundary ; and the great 
line of railroads, from th(^ north to the south, passes through its 
eastern portion. Pop. 1830, 11.G89; 1810, whites 7,859, slaves 
8,702, free colored 587; total, 17,148. 

Manchester lies on the James, immediately opposite Richmond, 
with which it is connected by the railroad and ^layo's bridges. In 
the American revolution it was visited by the enemy, and then had 
but a few houses. Ten years ago it contained a population of 
1500, since which it has not increased. The town is very much 
scattered ; there are several tobacco and one or more large cotton 
manufactories. Its beautiful situation has induced wealthy men, 
doing business in Richmond, to make it their residence, who have 
erected some splendid private mansions within its limits. Bellona 
Arsenal, on the river, 12 miles above Richmond, was established 
in 18 16. Formerly it was a depot for military stores, and was 
garrisoned by a company of U. S. troops. Adjacent is the Bellona 
foundry, one of the oldest cannon foundries in the Union. Halls- 
boro' is a small village in the w. part of the county. Salisbury, 
now the seat of Mrs. Johnson, in this county, was once the resi- 
dence of Patrick Henry. 

Warwick, which is on the river, was, previous to the revolution, 
larger than Richmond, and one of the principal shipping ports on 
the river. Formerly large vessels came up there, and it was the 
point where all the coal of this county was shipped. The Marquis 
de Chastellux thus describes it, as it was in 1782 : "We skirted 
James River to a charming place called Warwick^ where a group 
of handsome houses form a sort of village, and there are several 
superb ones in the neighborhood ; among others, that of Col. 
Carey, on the right bank of the river, and Mr. Randolph's [at 
Tuckahoe] on the opposite shore." In the revolution, the bar- 
racks of the American troops at the court-house of this county, 
were burnt by the enemy. 

On the N. brink of the Appomattox, above the falls, and about a mile from Petersburp. is Matoax, where 
resided John Randolph, senr., the father of John K. of Roanoke. The n uiie Maio:ix, (or .Mato ic i.) was 
the private name of Tocahont is. Of tiie house nothing now remains. Here John Randolph of Roanoke 
passed the years of his boyhood. The Bland pa|K'r<. from which this article is abridped, remark that, 
"he is said in after-life, when involved in the turmoil of pt)litics, to have recurred with fond regret to his 
early days a« Matoax, and in particular to his angling amusements there. Numerous arrowheads, stone 
tomahawks, and other Indian rdics found there, would seeni to indicate it as formerly a f ivoriU; haunt 
of the natives." Subjoined are translations from Latin inscriptions engraved ou three tombstones, under 
a clump of oaks, near the site of the Mato;ix house : 

John Randolph, Esq., died 2^ih October, 1775, aged 34. Let not a tomb be wanting to his ashes, nor 
memory to his virtues. 

Jesus, the Saviour of mankind. When shall we cea<e to mourn for Frances Bland Tucker, wife of St. 
George 1 ucker ? She died 18th January-, 17KS, aged 30. 
Martha Hall, di«d 4th of March, 1784. Whom Hymen slighted, Pollux and Apollo cowt«d. 



230 



CHESTERFIELD COUNTY. 



Tlie coal-region of eastern Virginia is supposed to be about 50 
miles long and 12 broad, and occupies part of this and several of 
the adjacent counties. Here, however, the mining has been the 
most successfully prosecuted, and at present the mines in Chester- 
field daily raise, in the aggregate, about 250 tons. We had the 
pleasure, in the summer of 1843, of visiting one of the mines, and 
at the time published a letter in a public print, giving an account 
of our visit. A portion of it is copied below : 

Learning that the Midlothian mines were the most extensively and as skilfully 
wrought as any, I paid them a visit; but my remarks as to the management and quality 
of the coal, w^ill in general apply as well to the remainder. Four shafts have been sunk 
by this company since 1833 ; in two, coal has been reached, one at a depth of 625, and 
the other at 775 feet. The sinking of the deepest occupied three years of labor, at a 
cost of about ,*^30,0()0. The materials were raised by mules, and it is supposed a like 
depth was never before attained by horse-power in any country. These shafts, eleven 
feet square each, are divided by timbers into four equal chambers. _ At the deep shaft, 
two steam-engines on the surface operate in raising coal ;''at the other, one. The extra 
engine at the deep shaft draws coal up an inclined plane down in the mine, to the bottom 
of the shaft. Tliis plane reaches the lowest point of the mine, about 1,000 feet or a 
fifth of a mile from the surface. The coal having thus been brought to the pit, the other 
engine raises it perpendicularly to the surface, when the baskets containing it are placed 
on little cars on a small hand.railway, and are pushed by the negroes a few rods to where 
it is emptied, screened, and shovelled into the large cars on the railroad, connecting with 
tide-water near Richmond, 12 miles distant. While the engine attached to the plane is 
drawing up coal, it is so arranged that pumps, by the same motion, are throwing out the 
" surface water," which, by means of grooves around the shaft, is collected in a reservoir 
made in the rock, 360 feet below the surface This water is conducted about twenty feet 
above ground, to a cistern, from which it is used by the different engines. 

Through the kindness of the president of the company, I was allowed to descend into 
the mines. I was first conducted to a building where I put on a coarse suit, which is 
perhaps worthy of description. Firstly, imagine a figure about five feet and a half in 
height, incased in a pair of pants of the coarsest " hard-times" cloth, coming up nearly 
to his shoulders, with legs as large as the wearer's body. Throw over these a coat ot 
the same material, with a very short skirt, and over its collar place a shirt-collar of sail- 
cloth, turned over " k la Byron," being the upper termination of a garment operating 
most unmercifully as a flesh-brush upon the tender skin of its wearer. Mount this inter- 
esting figure in a pair of negro shoes, crown him with a low black wool hat, stuck just 
on the top of his head ; beneath it place a countenance sunburnt and weatherbeaten to 
the hue of unscraped sole-leather, relieved on each side by huge masses of long light hair, 
and you have a tolerable portrait of the writer as he was about making his debut, at 4 P. 
M., July 13th, A. D. 1843, into the deep pit of the Midlothian coal-mine, in Chesterfield 
county, " Ole Virginny." 

My friend, guide, and self, each with a lighted lamp, sprang into a basket suspended by 
ropes over pulleys and frame- work, above a yawning abyss seven hundred and seventy-five 
feet deep. The signal was given — pufl^"! puff! went the steam-engine, and down, down, 
went we. I endeavored to joke to conceal my trepidation. It was stale business. 
Rapidly glided past the wooden sides of the shaft, — I became dizzy, — shut my eyes, — 
opened them and saw, far, far above, the small faint light of day at top. In one minute — 
it seemed five — we came to the bottom with a butnp ! The under-ground superintendent 
made his appearance, covered with coal-dust and perspiration ; his jolly English face 
and hearty welcome augured well for our subterranean researches. Him we followed, 
each a lighted lamp, through many a labyrinth, down many a ladder, and occa- 

sionally penetrating to the end of a drift, where the men were at work shovelling coal 
into baskets on the cars running on railroads to the mouth of the pit, or boring for blasts. 
We witnessed one or two. Tiie match was put, we retreated a short distance, — then 
came the explosion, echoing and re-echoing among the caverns, — a momentary noise of 
falling coal, like a sudden shower of hail, succeeded, and then all was silence. 

The drifts, or passages, are generally about sixteen feet wide, and ten feet high, with 
large pillars of coal intervening about sixty feet square. I can give the idea by com- 
paring the drifts to the streets, and the pillars to the squares of a city in miniature. 
When the company's limits are reached, the pillars will be taken away. The general 

f 



CIIESTERrir.[-D COUNTY. 



231 



inclination of the passa£rcs is about 30*^. Frequently obstacles are met with, and one 
has to desceiul by bidders, or by steps, cut in sobd rock. Doors used in ventilation were 
olten met uitii, ihruu^b which we crawled. Mules are employed under [ground in trans, 
poitiu}; tlie eoal on tiie small railways, coursiiiir nearly all the drifts. 'I'liey ate in excel- 
lent condition, with tujc g^lossy coats of hair, nearly equal well-kept race-horses, which 
is supposed to rtsult from thcsidphur in the coal, and the even temperature of the mines. 
Well-arrantred stables are there built, and all recpiisite attention paid theui. .Some of 
the animals remain below for years, and when carried to the strong I'Ljht of day, ganibol 
like wild horses. 

Partitions of thin })lank, attached to tin\bers put up in the centre of the main drifts, 
are one of the principal means by which the mines are ventilated, aided by a strong 
furnace near the upcast shaft. Near this is a blacksmith-shop. The atmospheric air is 
admitted into the mines down the deepest shaft, and after coursinj; the entire drifts, and 
ascendmt; to the rise-workintrs of the mines, is thence conducted to the furnace, where 
it is rarefied, and ascends to the surface, having in its prouress become mixed with the 
carbureted hydrogen gas emitted from the coal. When this gas is evolved in unusual 
quantities, greater speed is given to the air by increasing the fire. If the partitions in 
the drifts (known as brattice. work) should be broken, the circulation would be im- 
peded, and the gas so strongly Impresrnate the air, as in its passage over the furnace to 
ignite, and result in destructive consetiuences. Or, should too much gas be thrown out 
of the coal when the circulation is impeded from any cause, it would explode on the 
application of a common lamp. In such cases, the Davy lamp is used. I heard the 
gas escaping from the coal make a hissing noise, and I saw it set on fire in crevices of 
the walls by the lamp of our conductor ; and although a novice in these matters, enough 
was seen to convince me of the skill of Mr. Marshall, the company's under-ground 
superintendent, in managing the ventilation. 

Some years since, when ventilation was less understood than at present, an explosion 
took place in a neighboring mine of the most fearful character. Of the fifty-four men 
in the u\'m \ only two. who happened to be in some crevices near the mouth of the shaft, 
escaped with life. Nearly all the internal works of the mine were blown to atoms. 
Such was the force of the explosion, that a basket then descending, containing three 
men, was blown nearly one hundred feet into the air. Two fell out, and were crushed 
to death, and the third remained in, and with the basket was thrown son)c seventy or 
eighty feet from the shaft, breaking both his legs and arras. He recovered, and is now 
living. It is believed, from the number of bodies found grouped together in the higher 
parts of the mine, that many survived tiie explosion of the intlainmahle gas, and were 
destroyed by inhaling the carbonic acid gas which succeeds it. This death is said to be 
very pleasant ; fairy visions float around the sufferer, and he drops into the sleep of 
eternity like one passing into delightful dreams. 

To a person unacquainted with mining, no true conception can be fonued of the inte- 
rior of a large and well-arranged coal-mine, unless by examination ; and none but a thor- 
ough adept can give a description of its complicated arrangements. The art of coal- 
mining has progressed rapidly in this vicinity within a few years ; but, unfortunately, 
the trade is now depressed. The Midlothian coal has a beautiful lustre, similar to the 
anthracite. It is believed that no bituminous coal unites qualities so generally adapted 
to all purposes. It has been extensively used in the production of gas and coke, in the 
manufacture of iron, glass, copper, chemicals, for locomotives, steamboats — and for smiths 
and forger it has no superior. As domestic fuel it is equal to the best English coals, and 
far superior to them in strength and durability. It is strange, that with all these qualities, 
a preference should be given at the north to English coal. This is accounted for from 
the fact that formerly large quantities of inferior coal were shipped to the northern ports 
from the north side of James River, and created strong prejudices against Virginia coal 
generally. 

The Midlothian mines employ, in all their operations, some 150 negroes.* They are 

* Shortly iMtor we were at the Midlothian mine, tljc Rev. Mr. Jeter, of Richmond, made it !i visit, and 
hrtvinsr hi'ld divine worsh'p ttiore, published an interesting and graphic narratiua of the scene. A part 
of his dp^^rription here follows : 

The intellieencn of the moeting had spread thronjhout the cavern, and all had (rathrrrd for the service. 
The news h «d gone b«^yond the pit, and brought down st-Vf-nil from above. By means of logs, |)un» heons 
and iKixe-'. the concregation were mostly seated in a wide and wril-ventilated drilL The sm ill brilliant 
lamp<, of which every collier h is one. were vu<p«>nde(l along the walls of our ch.q>el. creating a dazzlmg 
light. The congregation consisted of almut 80 colored, and 10 white |x;rsons. The blacks at my reque<^ 
sung a song. Their singing was grtatly inferior to that c)f their colored brethren in the tobacco factories 
at Richmond. I lined a hymn, which was sung, olTered a prayer, and preached from John liL 1(J. The 



232 



CHESTERFIELD COUNTY. 



well-fed, clothed, and treated, and in case of sickness are sent to a comfortable hospital, 
under the care of a steward, and daily attended by physicians. I couhi not but almost 
envy their well-developed muscular figures. The negroes prefer this labor to any other, 
enjoy many perquisites, and generally the labor of the week is performed in five days. 
Singular as it may seem, persons engaged in mining become exceedingly attached to it. 
I never knew a person more enamored with his profession than our conductor. He 
eloquently descanted, in a rich brogue, upon the pleasure he experienced in the mine. 
Was he sick, the pure air of the pit — the thermometer being about 60* throughout the 
year — would restore him. Was he hot, there he could become cool. Was he cold, there 
become warm. Was he low-spirited, his employment would bring relief. In fine, " the 
pure air of the pit" was a universal panacea, the elixir of life, the infallible remedy for 
all human ills. If his opinion were general, farewell Saratoga, White Sulphur, and 
Rockaway — your glories would be eclipsed by the glories of this ! 

Our conductor, as he took us about, all zeal to show us every thing, and a determina- 
tion that we should not depart until all was seen, would have kept us there I know not 
how long, had not the cry of " All's well !" resounding from cavern to cavern, echoing in 
the recesses and dying in the distance, proclaimed that it was 7 o'clock, the day's work 
finished, and time for us to ascend. Glad was I, for although I had gone through but a 
small portion of the drifts, yet ihe four miles I did travel, of such " going, was enough 
even for as old a pedestrian as myself. I returned as I cS,me, entered the dressing-house, 
and on looking in the glass, saw a face blackened with coal-dust, which, on a due appli- 
cation of soap and water, I recognised as an old acquaintance. Being duly washed, 
combed, and dressed, I leisurely wended my way to a fine old mansion on the hill, em- 
bowered in a grove of waving locusts, the abode of elegant hospitality. There, seated 
under the porch, with the delicious feeling a comfortable seat always inspires when one 
is greatly fatigued, I passed " twilight's witching hour," — my senses lulled by delightful 
music from the adjoining parlor : anon, recovering from my revery, I listened to the 
amusing adventures of Col. A., from Texas, or treasured up the particulars of mining 
operations, and anecdotes given by Major W. The music I must not give : heavenly 
sounds produced by fairy fingers, are too ethereal to be materialized by the printer's imp ! 
but I will give, in conclusion, an anecdote of the Major's, of a most tragical occurrence. 
Usually comedy, but now tragedy will be the finale, ere the curtain drops. 

Some years bince, a gentleman was one autumnal evening hunting in this county in 
the vicinity of some old coal-pits. Straying from his companions, he accidentally slipped 
down the side of an abandoned pit, and caught by one arm a projecting branch on its 
slope. The pit was supposed to be about two hundred feet in perpendicular depth, and 
its bottom a pile of rocks. He heard in the distance the cries of his companions, and 
the yell of the hounds in the chase. He shouted for help, but no answering shout was 
returned, save the echo of his own voice among the recesses of the surrounding forest. 
Soon his companions were far away. Death awaited him — an awful death. His mind 
was intensely excited, and keenly alive to the terrors of his situation. He thought of 
his friends — of all he loved on earth ! and thus to separate ; oh I 'twas agony. Hoarsely 
moaned the wind through the dying leaves of autumn ; coldly shone the moon and 
stars on high, inanimate witnesses of human frailty fast losing its hold upon this life. 
Nature could sustain herself no longer, he bade " farewell to earth," grew weaker and 
weaker, released his grasp and fell — fell about six inches ! This brought him to the 
bottom of the pit, as you, patient reader, are at the bottom of a long letter — all about 
coal too. 



circumstances were impressive and awful. I desired to do good — I spoke without premeditation, and I 
was listened to with devout attention. When I had closed my sermon, I requested my friend N. to follow 
in exhortation and prayer. He arose, attired in the uncouth dress of the mine ; and solemn as was the 
scene, and as much as my heart was in unison with it, I could not avoid smiling at the oddity of his 
appearance. The diversion, however, was momentary only. The exhortation was pertinent, and the 
prayer fervent. Many of us felt that God was present. The colored friends sang another song. I was 
desirous of knowing how many professors of religion there were among them ; and first having all seated, 
I requested those who were professing Christians to arise. Thirty arose ; they are all, or nearly all, 
members of the B:iptist church. I was gratified to learn from the managers, that many of them are orderly 
and consistent in their deportment; and, generally, that there is a marked difference between those 
who do, and those who do not profess religion. A few words of advice and encouragement closed the 
service. The like had never been known in these parts. Mr. Marshall, who had spent many years in 
the English mines, said tha t he had frequently heard social prayer in the pits, but had never before known 
a sermon delivered in one. To address the living, on the solemn subjects of death, judgment, and eter- 
nity, 800 feet beneath the sleeping-place of the dead, in a pit which bears so striking a resemblance to 
that region of outer darkness into which the impenitent shall be cast, cannot but interest and alfect the 
heart. 



CLARKE COUNTY. 



233 



CLARKE. 

Clarkk was formed in 18.30, from Frederick, and named from 
Gen. Geo. Rollers Clarke; it is 17 miles lon<^, and 1.') wide, its 
surface is undulating, and the soil not surpassed in fertility by any 
other county in the state. The Shenandoah runs through the east- 
ern part, at the foot of the Blue Ridge, and the Opequon near its 
western line. Pop., whites 2,807, slaves 3,325, free colored 101 ; 
total, 0,353. 




Washington's Office and Lodgings at " Soldiers Rest." 



Berry ville, the county-seat, is 160 miles nw. of Richmond, and 
12 east of Winchester. It was established Jan. 15, 179H, on 20 
acres of land belonging to Benjamin Berry and Sarah Strebling, 
and the following gentlemen appointed trustees: Damef- Morgan, 
William M'Guire, Archibald Magill, Rawleigh Colston, .John Mil- 
ton, Thomas Strebling, George Blackmore, Charles Smith, and 
Bushrod Taylor. It now contains an Episcopal church, and about 
35 dwellings. About the year 1744, (says Kercheval.) Joseph 
Hampton and two sons came from the eastern shore of Maryland, 
settled on Buck marsh, near Berryville, and lived the greater part 
of the year in a hollow sycamore tree. They enclosed a piece of 
land and made a crop, preparatory to the removal of the iamily. 

The village of Berryville is often called J3f/ (/le to w n, U-om having 
been the scene of many of those pugilistic combats for which 
Gen. Daniel Morgan, of revolutionary memory, was remarkable. 

This officer resided, for a time, about half a mile n. of Buttletown, at a seat called 
" Soldier's Rest." It is a plain two-story dwcllirifr, orifrinallv built by a Mr. Morton, 
and afterwards added to by Moriran. It is now the residence of Mr. John B. Taylor. 

Morgan subsoqucntly built another, a bfantifiil seat, now standing in this county, two 
miles NE. of White Post, which he very appropriately nauird Saralo-ra. It was erected 
by Hessians taken prisoners at Saratofra. About l2U0 yards horn " .Soldier's Rest," 
stands an old log hut, which well-authenticated tradition states was occupied by Wash- 

30 



234 



CLARKE COUNTY. 



ington while surveying land in this region for Lord Fairfax. It is about 12 feet square, 
Hnd is divided into two rooms ; one in the upper, and the other in the lower story. The 
lower apartment was then, and is now, used as a milk-room. A beautiful spring gushes 
up from the rocks by the house, and flows iu a clear, crystal stream, under the building, 
answering admirably the purpose to which it is applied, in cooling this apartment. Many 
years since, both the spring and the building were protected from the heat of the sum- 
mer's sun, by a dense copse of trees. The upper, or attic room, which is about 12 feet 
square, was occupied by Washington as a place of deposite for his surveying instruments, 
and as a lodging — how long, though, is not known. The room was lathed and plas- 
tered. A window was at one end, and a door — up to which led a rough flight of steps 
— at the other. This rude hut is, perhaps, the most interesting relic of that great and 
good man, who became " first in the hearts of his countrymen." It is a memento of 
him in humble life, ere fame had encircled his brows with her choicest laurels, before that 
nation, now among the highest through his exertions, had a being ; but the vicissitudes 
and toils of his youth — as beautifully described in the annexed extract from Bancroft — 
combined to give energy to his character, and that practical, every-day knowledge, 
which better prepared him for the high and important destiny that awaited him : 

At the very time of the Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle, the VA'oods of Virginia sheltered the yonthful 
George Washington, the son of a widow. Born by the side of the Potom:ic, beneath the roof of a West- 
moreland f irmer, almost from infancy his lot had been the lot of !mi orphan. No academy had welcomed 
him to its shades, no college crowned him with its honors: to read, to write, to cipher — these had been 
his degrees in knowledge. And now at sixteen years of age, in quest of an honest maintenance, encoun- 
tering intolerable toil ; cheered onward by being able to write to a schoolboy friend, " Dear Richard, a 
doubloon is my constant gain every day, and sometimes six pistoles ;" " himself his own cooli, having no 
spit but a forked stick, no plate but a large chip ;" roaming over spurs of the Alleghanies, and along the 
banks of the Shenandoah; alive to nature, and sometimes " spending the best of the day in admiring the 
trees and richness of the land ;" among skin-clad savages^ with their scalps and rattles, or uncouth emi- 
grants " that would never speak English ;" rarely sleeping in a bed ; holding a bear-skin a splendid couch ; 
glad of a resting-place for the night upon a little hay, straw, or fodder, and often camping in the forests, 
where the place nearest the fire was a happy luxury ; — this stripling surveyor in the woods, with no 
companion but his unlettered associates, and no implements of science but his compass and chain, con- 
trasted strangely with the imperial magnificence of the Congress of Aix-la-Chapeile. And yet God had 
selected not Kaunitz, nor Newcastle, not a monarch of the house of Hapsburg, nor of Hanover, but the 
Virginia stripling, to give an impulse to human alfiirs, and, as far as events can depend upon an indi- 
vidual, had placed the rights and the destinies of countless millions in the keeping of the widow's son. 

Col. Charles M. Thruston, a patriotic clergyman of the Episco- 
pal denomination, who became an officer of the revolutionary 
army, resided for many years on a beautiful farm in this county, 
called Mount Sion, one mile above the Shenandoah. For a bio- 
graphical sketch, see Gloucester county. 

Four miles ne. of Millwood is the "Old Chapel," built in 1796, 
in which the Rt. Rev. Wm. Meade, Bishop of the Episcopal church 
in Va., officiated for many years. It is a venerable-looking stone 
edifice, partly in a grove, and has adjoining it a grave-yard, in 
which lie buried many respectable people of the neighboring 
country. 

Gen. Rogers Clarke, from whom this county derived its name, was an officer of the 
revolution, of undaunted coolness and courage. In addition to the facts given on p. 116, 
we have a single anecdote to relate, published in the " Notes of an Old Officer." At 
the treaty of Fort Washington, where Clarke had but 70 men, 300 Shawnees appeared 
in the council chamber. Their chief made a boisterous speech, and then placed on the 
table a belt of white and black wampum, to intimate they were ready for either peace 
or war, while his 300 savages applauded him by a terrific yell. At the table sat Clarke, 
with only two or three other persons. Clarke, who was leaning on his elbow with ap- 
parent unconcern, with his rattan coollv pushed the wampum on to the floor. Then rising 
as the savages muttered their indignation, he trampled on the belt, and with a look of 
stern defiance and a voice of thunder, that made the stoutest heart quail, bade them in- 
stantly quit the hall. Thoy involuntarily left, and the next day sued for peace. Gen. 
Clarke died !n Kentucky, in 1817. 

The subject of the above notice had a brother, Gen. Wm. Clarke, who was scarcely 
less distinguished. He was born in this state in 1770. When 14 years old, he removed 
with his father's family to Kentucky, where the city of Louisville now stands. It then 
consisted only of a few cabins surrounding a fort, then recently established by his 
brother, Gen. Rogers Clarke. He entered the army, and was lieutenant in 1790. He 



CLARKE COLNTV. 



235 



was the companion of Lewis on the expedition to the Pacific. In 1806, he was ap- 
pointed governor of the territory of Upper Louisiana, and gfovernor of Missouri from 
IM.'J to when it was admitted i:ito the Tnion. lie held various others, arnonjf 

which was that of superintendent of Indian atlairs. He nmdi' iiKiuy iinjjortant treaties 
with the Indians. He well understood their character and won tln ir most unbounded 
coutidence. " His name was known to the most remote tribes, and his word was every- 
where reverenced by theju. They re^jarded him as a father, and liis siirnuture, which 
was known to the most remote tribes, whenever shown was respected." He died in 
1838, a;jed (i8, at St. Louis, where he had resided for over 3'J years. 

Millwood, 11 miles southoasterly tVoni \Vinch(\stpr, contain.s an 
Episcopal church, and about 30 dwellings. It is the centre of a 
beautiful and fertile country, and enjoys a considerable trade with 
it. White Post,* 12 miles se. of Winchester, contains a church, 
2 mercantile stores, and 16 dwelling.s. 




Greenway Court, the seat of Lord Fairfax. 



Thirteen miles southeast from Winchester, near the village of 
White Post in this county, is Greenway Court, the seat of the late 
Lord Fairfax, the proprietor of the Northern Neck of Virginia ; 
and at present the residence of the Rev. Mr. Kennerly. 

Part of the immense tract among the rich valleys of the Alle- 
ghany mountains, were surveyed by Washington, and divided into 
lots, to enable the proprietor to claim his quit-rents and give legal 
titles. W^ashington set off on his first surveying expedition in 
^larch, 174S, just a month iVom the day he was sixteen years old, 
in company with George Fai^-fax, the eldest son of William Fair- 
fax, whose daughter, Washington's eldest brother, Lawrence, had 
married. Sparks, in his Life of Washington, gives the annexed 
account of the propi ietor of the Northern Neck : 

Lord Fairfax, a distant relative of William Fairfax, was a man of an eccentric turn 
of mind, of jrreat private worth, generous, and hospitable. He h;id been accustomed 
to tlie best society, to which his rank entitled him, in England. While he was at the 



» So named from a whitepost which Lord Fairfax planted as a guide to his dwelling 
—one mile distant. 



236 



CLARKE COUNTY. 



University of Oxford he had a fondness for literature, and his taste and skill in that line 
may be inffcrred from his having written some of the papers in the Spectator. Possess- 
ing by inheritance a vast tract of country,* situate between the Potomac and Rappa- 
hannock Rivers, and stretching across the Alleghany mountains, he made a voyage to 
Virginia to examine this domain. So well pleased was he with the climate and mode 
of life, that he resolved, after going back to England and arranging his affairs, to re- 
turn and spend his days amidst this wild territory. At the time (1748) of which we are 
now speaking, he had just arrived to execute his purpose, and was residing with his 
relatives at Belvoir. This was his home for several years ; but he at length removed 
over the Blue Ridge, built a house in the Shenandoah Valley, called Greenway Court, 
and cultivated a large farm. Here he lived in comparative seclusion, often amusing himself 
with hunting, but chiefly devoted to the care of his estate, to acts of benevolence among 
his tenants, and to such public duties as devolved upon him in the narrow sphere he had 
chosen ; a friend of liberty, honored for his uprightness, esteemed for the amenity of his 
manners, and his practical virtues. 

The prominent building shown in the view at Greenway Court, 
was appropriated to the use of the steward of Fairfax. It was the 
commencement of a series of buildings w^hich Lord Fairfax had 
intended to erect, but did not live to complete. 

His lordship lived and died in a single clap-board story and a half house, which stood 
just in front of the modern brick dwelling of Mr. Kennerly, and was destroyed in 1834. 
There are new several of the original buildings standing at the place: among them is 
a small limestone structure, where quit-rents were given and titles drawn, of his lord- 
ship's domains. Fairfax had, probably, 150 negro servants, who lived in log huts 
scattered about in the woods. 

A few years since, in excavating the ground near the house, the servants of Mr. Ken- 
nerly discovered a large quantity of joes and half-joes, amounting to about ^250 ; they 
were what is termed cob-coin, of a square form, and dated about 17.30. They were 
supposed to have been secreted there by Lord Fairfax. Under a shelving rock, 9 feet 
from the surface, there was also found a human skeleton of gigantic stature ; supposed lo 
be that of an Indian. 

When Lord Dunmore went on his expedition against the Indians in 1774, he came on 
as far as this place with a portion of his troops, and waited here about a fortnight for 
reinforcements. His soldiers encamped in what was then a grove — now a meadow — 
about 300 yards n. of Mr. Kennerly's present residence. The spot is indicated by a 
deep well, supposed to have been dug by them ; an old magazine, destroyed in 1843, 
stood near the well. Washington, when recruiting at Winchester, often visited this 
place. 

Lord Fairfax had but little cultivated ground around his premises, and that was in 
small patches without taste or design. The land was left for a park, and he lived al- 
most wholly from his rents. The following, as well as much of the foregoing, respecting 
him, is traditionary : His lordship was a dark, swarthy man, several inches over 6 feet 
in height, and of a gigantic frame and personal strength. He lived the life of a bachen 
lor, and fared coarse, adopting in that respect the rough customs of the people among 
whom he was. When in the humor, he was generous — giving away whole farms to his 
tenants, and simply demanding for rent some triflie, for instance, a present of a turkey 
for his Christmas dinner. He was passionately fond of hunting, and often passed weeks 
together in the pleasures of the chase. When on these expeditions, he made it a 
rule, that he who got the fox, cut off his tail, and held it up, should share in the jollifi- 
cation which was to follow, free of expense. Soon as a fox was started, the young men 
of the company usually dashed after him with great impetuosity, while Fairfax leisurely 



* The domain of Lord Fairfax, called the Northern Neck of Virginia, included the 
immense territory now comprising the counties of Lancaster, Northumberland, Rich- 
mond, Westmoreland, Stafford, King George, Prince William, Fairfax, Loudoun, Fau- 
quier, Culpeper, Clarke, Madison, Page, Shenandoah, Hardy, Hampshire, Morgan, 
Berkeley, Jefferson, and Frederick. Charles II. granted to the ancestors of Lord Fair- 
lax, all lands lying between the head-waters of the Rappahannock and Potomac to the 
Chesapeake Bay ; a territory comprising about one quarter of the present limits of Vir- 
ginia. For a full history of the Northern Neck, the reader is referred to Kercheval's 
History of the Valley of Virginia. 



CULPEPER COUNTY. 



237 



waited behind, with a favorite servant who was familiar with the water-courses, and of 
a quick ear, to discover the course of the fox. Following his direrlions, his lordship 
would start alter the paine, and, in most instances, secure the prize, and stick the tail 
of the fox in his liat in triumph. 

Lord Fairfax died at the advanced age of ninety. two, in the autumn of 1782,80on after 
the surrender of Cornwallis, an event he is said to have much lamented. He was buried 
at Winchester, under the coramuiiion-table of the old Episcopal church. [See Win- 
chester,] 



CULPEPER. 

CuLPEPER was formed in 1748, from Orano^o, and named from 
Lord Culpepper, ixovernor of Virginia from 1G80 to 1083. It has 
an average leni^th of about 20, with a breadth of 18 miles, and 
has been much reduced from its original limits. The Rappahan- 
nock runs upon its ne. and the Rapid Ann upon its se. and aw, 
boundaries. The surface is beautifully diversified, and the soil of a 
deep red hue and very fertile. Pop. 1830, 24,026 ; 1840, whites 
4,933, slaves 0,009, free colored 491 ; total 11,393. 

Bf^sides the Court-Ilouse there are the villages of JefTersonton 
and Stevensburg ; the first contains a Baptist church and about 
50 dwellings, the last about 30 dwellings. Fairfax, the county- 
seat, was named after Lord Fairfax, the original proprietor of the 
county. It was founded in 1759 ; it is 98 m. from Richmond, and 
82 from Washington city, and contains 1 Episcopal, 1 Presbyterian, 
and 1 Baptist church, 5 stores, and about 700 inhabitants. In one 
of the books in the clerk's oflice, in the ancient and venerable- 
looking court-house in this village, is the annexed entry : 

20th July, 1749, (O. S.)— GEORGE WASHINGTON, Gent., produced a commis- 
sion from the President and Master of William and Mary College, appointing him to be 
surveyor of this county, which was read, and thereupon he took the usual oaths to his 
majesty's person and government, and took and subscribed the abjuration oath and test, 
and then took the oath of surveyor, according to law. 

Culpeper was distinguished early in the war of the revolution 
for the services of Iter gallant minute-.mex, who, as Mr. Randolph 
said in the U. S. Senate, " were raised in a minute, armed in a 
minute, marched in a minute, fought in a minute, and vanquished 
in a minute." 

Immediately on the breaking out of the war in 1775, Patrick Henry, then commander 
of the Virginia troops, sent to this section of the colony for assistance. Upon his sum- 
mons, 150 men from Culpeper, lUO from Orange, and 100 from Fauquier, rendezvoused 
here and encamped in a field now the property of John S. Barber, Esq., half a mile 
west of tlie court-house. An old oak now standing, marks the spot. These were the 
first minute-men raised in Virginia. They formed themselves into a regiment, choosing 
Lawrence Taliaferro of Orange, colonel : Edward Stevens of Culpeper, lieutenant- 
colonel ; and Thomas .Marshall of Fauquier — the fatlier of Chief-Justice Marshall — 
major. The flag used by the Culpeper men is depicted in the accompanying engraving, 
\vith a rattlesnake in the centre. The head of the snake was intended f6r Virginia, and 
the 12 rattles for the other \'2 states. This corps were drcs.»<cd in green himling shirts, 
with the words " LIBERTY OR DEATH I"* in large white letters on their bosoms. 



* A wag, on seeing this, remarked it was too severe for him ; but that he was willing to enlist if the 
words were altered to '• Lil)eriy or be crippled .'" 



238 



CULPEPER COUNTY. 



They'wore in their hats buck-tails, and in their belts tomahawks and scalpin^-knivea 
Their savage, warlike appearance, excited the terror of the inhabitants as they marched 
through the country to Williamsburg. Shortly after their arrival at that place, about 



150 of them — those armed with rifles — marched into Norfolk co., and were engaged in 
the battle of the Great Bridge. Among them was Chief-Justice Marshall, then a lieu- 
tenant, and Gen. Edward Stephens. 

In the course of the war, 8 companies of 84 men each, were formed in Culpeper for 
the continental service. They were raised by the following captains : John Green,* 

John Thornton, George Slaughter, Gabriel Long, Gabriel Jones, John Gillison,t 

M'Clanahan,t and Abraham Buford § 

Virginia raised, in the beginning of the war, 15 continental regiments of about 800 
men, besides 3 state regiments of regular troops, not subject to be ordered out of the 
state. Besides these were Lee's legion, composed of two companies of cavalry and two 
of infantry, a regiment of artillery under Col. Harrison, Col. Baylor's and Col. Bland's 
regiments of cavalry, and the corps of horse raised by Col. Nelson. These, we believe, 
comprised most if not all the regular troops raised by the state. They became reduced 
to one quarter of their original number before the war was over, particularly by disease 
and the casualties of battle in the southern campaigns. From this statement — supplied 
from the memory of a surviving officer of the Virginia line — it will be seen that Culpeper 
bore her full share of the burden of war. On Ihe same authority we state, that in skir- 
mishes, when the numbers were equal, the American troops were superior to the British. 
The former took aim ; the latter fired with their pieces brought on a level with the hip. 
Hence the superiority of the Americans on these occasions. They despised the English 
as being no marksmen. 

Capt. Philip Slaughter, now (1844) residing in this co., is probably the only officer 
living in Virginia who served in the continental establishment throughout the revolution. 
At the age of 17 years he entered the Culpeper minute-men as a private, and marched 
with them to Williamsburg shortly after the hegira of Dunmore. Having received the 
commission of lieutenant, he marched to the north in the fall of 1776 with the 11th Vir- 
ginia continental regiment. Daniel Morgan was then colonel of this corps, and of a 
volunteer rifle regiment. There Slaughter remained until the commencement of the 
year 1780, and was in the battles of Brandywine, Germantown, Monmouth, and at the 
storming of Stony Point. He spent the winter of 1777-78 at Valley Forge. His mess- 



* John Green was afterwards a colonel. While storming a breastwork he was wounded in the shoul- 
der and made a cripple for life. He died about 30 years ago. 

t John Gillison. while gallantly leading on his men to attack the enemy at Brandywine, to prevent 
them making prisoners the company of Capt. Long, was struck in the forehead by a musket ball. The 
surgeon examined the wound, and then lifting up his hands, exclaimed, "Oh, captain! it is a noble 
wound. Right in the middle of the forehead, and no harm done." The wound soon healed, and left a 
scar of which any soldier might have been proud. 

i Capt. M'Clanahan was a Baptist clergyman, and at first regularly preached to his men. His recruits 
were drawn principally from his own denomination, in conformity with the wishes of the legislature, 
who invited the members of particular religious societies, especially Baptist* and Methodists, to organize 
themselves into separate comjianies under officers of their own principles. The Baptists were among the 
most strenuous supporters of liberty. 

<$) Abraham Buford was the Col. Buford defeated by Tarleton, May 29th, 1780, at the Wa.Thaws, near 
the borders of North Carolina. 



p 



m 




m 




CULPF.PER COUNTY. 



239 



mates were Lieut. Robert (afterwards Gen.) Portertleld, Capt. Chas. Porterfield, Capt. 
Johnson, and Lifut. John (afterwards Chiof-Jiistirc) Marsliall. There they were all re- 
duced to vTVdt deprivations in the want of food and clothinij. They hore their snffer- 
int^s without murmur, beinij fortified by an undaunted patriotism. Most of the ofHccrs 
pave to their almost naked soldiers nearly the whole of their clothiufr, reserving only 
that tiiey themselves had on. JSlaugliter was reduced to a single shirt. While this was 
being washed, he wrapped him.sclf in a blanket. From the breast of his only shirt he 
had wristbunds and a collar made, to complete his uniform for parade. Many of his 
brother officers were still worse oft', having no under garment at all ; and not one soldier 
in five had a blanket. Tliey all lived in rude huts, and the snow was knee-deep the 
whole winter. Washington daily invited the ollicers in rotation, to dine with him at his 
private table ; but for want of decent clothing, few were enabled to attend. Slaughter 
being so mui li better provided, frequently went in the place of others, that, as he said. 
" his regiment might be represented." While in this starving condition, the country 
people brought food to the camp. Often the Dutch women were seen riding in, sitting 
on bags on their horses' backs, holding two or three bushels each of apple pies, baked 
sufticit'utly hard to be thrown across the room without breaking. These were purchased 
eagerly, eaten with avidity, and considered a great luxury. 

Slaugliter performed the duties of captain, paymaster, and clothier. He was promoted 
to a captaincy in 177J^, he then being not 20 years of age. He has in his possession a 
brief journal of the movements of the troops during the time he was in service, and 
certificates of his soldier-like conduct from Chief-Justice Marshall, Gen. Robert Porter, 
field, and Col. Jamieson. 

As tending to show the chivalrous feelings among the Virginia officers, we will state, 
lhat one of them, on his promotion to a captaincy, wrote the name of the lady to whom 
he was engaged upon his commission, declaring, at the same time, that it should never 
be disgraced with htr name upon it. It uei'er was disgraced. The same officer, while 
in camp in New Jersey, heard that a wealthy gentleman was laying siege to the affec- 
tions of his bctrotlied, and was advised to return home. Failing in his application for a 
furlough, he dispatched a sergeant on horseback with a letter — there being no mails — to 
the friend in Virginia from whom he received the information, making further inquiries. 
The distance there and back was 5U0 miles. The messenger returned with an answer 
that quieted the apprehensions of the officer, and he married the lady after the war. 

Capt. Slaughter has held various civil offices, among which was that of high sheriff 
of Cidpeper. He has married twice, had 19 children, and numbers among his descend- 
ants nearly 100 souls. From the lips of this venerable and patriotic old man, we have 
received most of the information embodied in the two preceding pages. 

It is well known that dis.senters geneually, and the Baptist cler- 
gymen in particular, were persecuted for opinion's sake in Virginia 
previous to the war of the revolution. (On this point more par- 
ticularly, see Middlesex county.) One among the many suffer- 
ers by this mistaken mode of what was deemed the suppression of 
error, was the Rev. James Ireland, a worthy clergyman of the 
Baptist persuasion, who was forcibly seized and imprisoned in the 
jail of this county. While there confined, several attempts were 
made to murder him, of which he has given the following nar- 
rative : 

A number of my persecutors resorted to the tavern of Mr. Steward, at the court-house, 
wliere they plotted to blow me up with powder that night, as I was informed, but all they 
could collect was half a pound. They fixed it for explosion, expecting I was sitting directlj 
over it, but in this they were mistaken. Fire was put to it, and it went off with consid- 
erable noise, forcing up a small plank, from which I received no damage. The next 
scheme they devised was to smoke me with brimstone and Indian pepper. They had 
to wait certain opportunities to accomplish the same. The lower part of the jail door 
was a few inches above its sill. When the wind was favorable, they would get pods of 
Indian pepper, empty them of their contents, and fill them witli brimstone and set them 
burning, so that the whole j lil would be fi led with the killing smoke, and oblige me to go 
to cracks and put my mouth to them, in order to prevent suffocation. At length a cer- 
tain doctor, and the jailer, formed a scheme to poison me, whicli they actually effected. 

This last-mentioned act of diabolical malevolence, came near 



240 



CUMBERLAND COUNTY 



costing Mr. Ireland his life. He was made extremely ill, and his 
constitution never recovered from the injury. He however bore 
up against these persecutions with Christian fortitude. He said, 
in giving an account of his persecutions: 

My prison then, was a place in which I enjoyed much of the Divine presence ; a day 
seldom passed without some signal token ol' the Divine goodness towards me, wliich 
generally led me to subscribe my letters in these w^ords, " From my Palace in CuL 
peper." 

In a family burying-ground, half a mile n. of Culpeper C. H., is 
a monument bearing the following inscription : 



IN MEMORY OF 

GENERAL EDWARD STEVENS, 

WHO DIED 
AUGUST THE 17tH, 1820, 

At his seat in Culpeper, in the 76th year of his age. 
This gallant officer and upright man, had served his country with reputa- 
tion in the Field and Senate of his native state. IIp took an active part, and 
had a principal share in the war of the revolution, and acquired great dis- 
tinction at the battles of Great Bridge, Brandywine, Germantown, Camden, 
Guilford Court-House, and Siege of York; and although zealous in the 
cause of American Freedom, his conduct was not marked with the least de- 
gree of malevolence, or party spirit. Those who honestly ditfered with him 
in opinion, he always treated with singular tenderness. In strict integrity, 
honest patriotism, and immoveable courage, he was surpassed by none, and 
hid few equals. 



Gen. Stevens resided in the village of Culpeper C. H., in the house on the corner of 
Coleman and Fairfax streets, now occupied by Mrs. Lightfoot. Aside from the above, 
we have but little to add respecting this highly meritorious officer. The histories of the 
revolution make such honorable mention of him, that it is evident his epitaph is no ful- 
some eulogy. At the battle of Guilford Court-House, " the brave and gallant Stevens," 
animated his men by words, and still more by his example. Resolved to make even the 
timid perform their duty, he placed several riflemen in the rear, with peremptory orders 
to shoot down any of his militia that should attempt to escape before a retreat was or- 
dered. In this action he received a ball in the thigh, but he enjoyed the reflection that 
his men had made a noble stand, and displayed an honorable firmness in opposing the 
enemy, by whom they were at last, after an obstinate conflict, driven back by an over- 
whelming force at the bayonet's point. 



CUMBERLAND. 

Cumberland was formed in 1748, from Goochland. It is 32 miles 
long and about 10 broad, with the Appomattox running on its s., 
the James River on its n. boundary, and Willis River through its 
Nw. portion. The surface is undulating, and the soil productive. 
Pop. 1830, 11,689; 1840, whites 3,263, slaves 6,791, free colored 
355; total, 10,399. 

Cartersville, on the James River, contains a church and about 50 
dwellings. Ca Ira, 5 miles w. of the C. H., has an Episcopal church 
and 10 dwellings. Cumberland court-house is in the southern part 
of the county, about 52 miles from Richmond. The village has not 
increased since the Marquis de Chastellux was here, about the 
year 1782. In his travels, he says: 

Besides the court-house and a large tavern, its necessary appendage, there are seven 
or eight houses, inhabited by gentlemen of fortune. I found the tavern full of people, 



CL'MnERT>A\D Cor NTV. 



* 211 



and understood that the judj^os were assomhled to liold a court of claims, that is to say, 
to hear and register the claims of sundry persons who had furnished provisions for th<i 
army. We itnow that in jreneral, but particularly in unexpected inva.<ions, the Ameri- 
can troopsi|>ad no estahlished nuijrazines, and as it was necessary to have subsistence for 
them, provisions and foraire were indiscriminately laid hold of, on {rivin<T the holders a 
receipt, which they called a rrrtifiralc. Durincr the campaign, while the enemy wero 
at hand, little attention was jriven to this sort of loans, which accumulated incessmitly, 
without the sum total bein<j known, or any means taken to ascertain the proots. Vir- 
ginia hc'inrr at leufjth loaded with the>c certificates, it became necessary, sooner or later, 
t.) liquidate these claims. The last assembly of the state of Virginia had accordingly 
thought proper to pass a bill, authorizing the justices of each couytty to take cognizanco 
of these certificates, to authenticate their validity, and to register them, specifying the 
value of the provisions in money, according to the established tarilF. I had the curiosity 
to go to the court-house to see liow this aftair was transacted, and saw it was performed 
witli great order and simplicity. The judges wore their common clothes, but wern 
seated on an elevated tribunal, as at London in the Court of King's Bench, or Common 
Picas. 



Gen. Charles Scott, a distiiii^uished officer of the revolution, 
and subsequently governor of Kentucky, was born near the line 
of this and Powhatan county. The present residence of j\Ir. 
Thomas Palmer, in the upper part of that county, was built by 
him. 

Scott raised the first company of volunteers in Virginia, south of the James River, that 
entered into actual service ; and so distinguished himself prior to 1777, that when 
Powhatan county was formed in that year, the county-seat was named in honor of him. 
When governor of Kentucky, he had some severe battles with the Indians, in which he 
lost two sons. Immediately after St. Clair's defeat, Gen. Scott, at the head of a body 
of Kentucky cavalry, reconnoitred the battle-ground. Finding the Indians still there, 
rejoicing over their victory in a drunken revelry, he surprised and fell upon them. Being 
totally unprepared, they were routed with great slaughter. About two hundred of them 
were killed, and he recovered six hundred rnuskets, and all the artillery and baggage 
remaining in the field. This, the most brilliant aftair of the war, in a measure " dispel- 
led the gloom occasioned by the misfortune of St. Clair, and threw, by the power of 
contrast, a darker shade of disgrace over that unfortunate general's miscarriage." 

Scott was a man of strong natural powers, but sornewljat illiterate and rough in his 
manners. He was eccentric, and many amusing anecdotes are related of him. When 
a candidate for governor, he was oj)posed by Col. Allen, a native of Kentucky, who, in 
an address to the people when Scott was present, made an eloquent appeal. Tho 
friends of the latter, knowing he was no orator, felt distressed for liim, but Scott, no- 
thing daunted, mounted the stump, and addressed the company, nearly as follows : 

"Well, boys, I am sure you must all he well pleasrd with the speech you haveju«t heard. It does my 
heart pood to think we have so smart a man raised up anions us here. He is a native Kcnturkian. I see 
a good many of you here that I bnuisht out to this country when a wilderness. At that time we hardly 
exi)ected we should live to see such u smart man raised up anion': our>el\ es. You. who were with ine in 
those early times, know we had no time for education, no means of inu'fovin? from l)ooks. \Ve dared not 
then go about our most common atiairs without arms in our hands, to defend ourselves ajr;iinst the In- 
dians. But we guarded and protected the country, and now evt>ry one can no \\ her»' he pleases ; and 
you now see what smart fellows are growinj; np to do their country honor. Hut I think it would bo 
a pity to make this man povernor : I tliink it would be better to send him to Cfumress. 1 don't think it 
requires a very smart man tr) make a g(»vernor; if he has sense enoiiL'h to cather smart men abnut 
who ran help him on with the business of state. It would suit a worn-out old wife of a man like 
myself. But. as to this younir man, I am very proud of him ; as nnu h Vo as any of his kin. if any of 
them have l»een here to-day, listeninc to his speech." t^cott then desceiulcU from the stuaip, and the 
huzzas for the old soldier made the welkin ring. 

Scott had the greatest veneration for Washington ; and while governor of Kentucky, 
he visited Philadelphia during the session of Congress. Attired in the rough garb of 
the backwoods, with a hunting-shirt, buckskin leggings, and a long b(>ard, he gave out 
that he was going to visit the president. He was told tljat V/ashington had become 
puffed up with the importance ol' his station, and was too mgch of an aristocrat to wel- 
come him in that garb. Scott, nothing daunted, passed up to the house of the president, 
who, with his lady, hapj)eiu'd to be at the window, and recognising the old soldier, 
rushed out, and each taking liini by the arm, led him in. " Neyer," said Scott, " \ya!| 

31 



242 



DINWIDDIE COUNTY. 



I better treated. I had not believed a word against him ; and I found that he was 
' old boss'* still." 

Major Joseph Scott, a brother of the above, was an officer of the revolutionary 
army, and was appointed marshal of Virginia by Jefferson, under the following circum- 
stances : Major Joseph Eggleston, from Amelia^ who had been a meritorious officer of 
Lee's legion through the whole of the southern campaigns, and a member of Congress in 
1798-99, was tendered the office by the president. This he declined, but recommended 
his old friend and companion in arms, Major Scott, then a steward upon the estate of 
John Randolph. The first intimation Scott had of the matter was the reception of the 
appointment, which was extremely gratifying ; he being at the time in necessitous cir- 
cumstances. 



DINWIDDIE. 

DiNwiDDiE was formed in 1752, from Prince George, and named 
from Robert Dinwiddie, governor of Va. from 1752 to 1758. The 
surface is rolling, and its form hexagonal, with a diameter of about 
28 miles. The Appomattox runs on its n., the Nottaway on its s. 
boundary, and the great southern railroad through its eastern por- 
tion. Pop. 1830, 21,901; 1840, whites 9,847, slaves 9,947, free 
colored 2,764 ; total, 22,558. The court-house is centrally situa- 
ted upon a branch of the Nottaway. 

■ The large, wealthy, and flourishing town of Petersburg, is situ- 
ated at the northeastern angle of the county, on the south bank of 
the Appomattox, 22 miles s. of Richmond, and 9 s. w. of City 
Point, on the line of the great southern railroad, with which last- 
named place there is also a railroad communication. The harbor 
admits vessels of considerable draught, and even ships come up as 
far as WalthalFs Landing, 6 miles below the town, where there is 
a branch railroad about 3 miles in length, connecting with the 
Richmond and Petersburg railroad. It contains 2 Epis., 2 Pres., 
2 Meth., 1 Bap., and 1 Catholic church, besides those for colored 
people. It exports largely tobacco and flour, and there were, in 
1843, belonging to this place, the following cotton manufactories, 
viz : Merchants co., Matoaca co., Ettricks co.. Mechanics co., Bat- 
tersea co.. Canal Mills, Washington Mill, and the Eagle Mill. The 
goods here manufactured have a high reputation. There is also a 
very large number of tobacco factories. There were inspected 
here in 1843, 11,942 hogsheads of tobacco. Petersburg contains 
branches of the Bank of Va., Farmers Bank of Va., and the Ex- 
change Bank of Va. The tonnage in 1840, was 3,098. There 
were 6 commercial and 8 commission houses engaged in foreign 
trade, capital .^875,000; 121 retail stores, capital ^1,026,250; 2 
lumber yards, cap. $6,000 ; 1 furnace, 6 forges, 1 woollen facto- 
ry, 1 pottery, 2 rope- walks, 2 flouring-mills, 1 grist-mill, 2 saw- 
mills, 2 printing offices, 1 semi- weekly newspaper. Cap. in manu- 
facturing $726,555. Pop. in 1830, 8,322 ; 1840, 11,136. • 

As early as 1645-6, a fort called Fort Henry, was established at the falls of the Ap- 



* " Old /toss," was a term frequently applied by the soldiers of the revolution to their couiiuander 
iu -chief. 



DINWIDDIE COUNTY. 



24.3 



pomattox, where Petersburg now is, for the defence of the inhabitants on the south side 
of James river. 

In ItiTo, war being declared ajrainst tlie Indians, 500 men were ordered to proceed to 
the frontier, and eight forUs garrisoned. Amon^ those was the one near the falls of the 
Appomattox, at IVIajor (if^neral Wood's, ''or over ajjuinst him at one t^brt or defensible 
place at Jf^erts, of wliich Major Peter Jones be captairj or chief commaiulcr." 

In 17:28, tifty-tliree years after. Col. Byrd, on his mturn from tiie expedition in which 
he was en<;a<xed as one of the Virjsriiiia coiixmissioners, in runniiiir ihe liuo between this 
state and Sortli Carolina, mentions the site of PetersbnrGf, as follows: "At the end of 
thirty good miles, we arrived in the evening at Col. Boiling's, where from a primitive 
course of life we began to lelax into luxury. This gentleman lives within hearing of 
the falls of Appomattox river, which are very noisy whenever a Hood happens to roll a 
greater stream than ordinary over the rocks. The river is navigable for .small craft as 
high as the falls, and, at some distance from them, fetches a compass and runs nearly 
parallel with James River, almost as high as the mountains." 

By an act passed in 1646, it appears that GOO acres of land adjacent to Fort Henry, 
together with all the " houses and edifices" apj)urtenant thereto, were at that time 
granted to Captain Abraham Wood in fee-simple ; yet he was not the earliest settler ; 
lor, by the same act. it appears that the land on which the fort stood, together with part 
of the adjacent 600 acres, had been granted to Thomas Pitt. He may, therefore, be 
considered the earliest proprietor of the site of Petersburg, it having been granted to 
him previous to 1646. The town derived its name from Peter Jones, who opened a 
trading establishment with the Indians at an early day, a few rods west of what is now 
the junction of Svcamore and Old streets. The locality was called Feter^s Point, sub- 
sequently changed to Petersburg. 

This Peter Jones was an old friend and fellow-traveller of Col. William Byrd, of 
AVestover ; and in llS'.i, accompanied the latter on a journey to Roanoke, on which 
occasion the plan of establishing Richmond and Petersburg was conceived. Byrd says, 
in his journal, " When we got home, we laid the foundation of two large cities — one at 
Shacco's, to be called Richmond, and the other at the point of Appomattox River, to be 
called Petersburg. These Major Mayo ollered to lay oft" into lots, without fee or reward. 
The truth of it is, these two places "being the uppermost landing of James and Appo- 
mattox rivers, are naturally intended for marts, where the traffic of the outer inhabiianta 
must centre. Thus we did not build castles only, but cities, in the air." 

In the October session, in 1748, in the 2'2d year of the reign of King George II., the 
towns of Petersburg and Blandford were established. P^our years later an act was 
passed, allowing a bridge to be built by subscription over the Appomattox, at Boiling's 
Point, to the land of John Boiling, gentleman ;" which was probably the first bridge 
ever built over the river. In 1762, in the preamble to an act enlarging the town, it is 
stated that it had very gfreatly increased, and become a place of considerable trade." 
At that time Robert Boiling, Roger Atkinson, William Eaton, John Bannister, Robert 
Ruffin, Thomas Jones, Henry ^\ alker, George Turnbull, and James Field, gentlemen, 
were appointed trustees for laying out the town. In 11^4, Petersburg was incorporated, 
and Blandford, Pocahontas, and Ravenscrofts, united with it. 

In the war of the revolution, Petersburg was twice visited by the enemy. On the 
22d of April, 1781, the British, under Gen. Phillips, left Williamsburg, sailed up the 
James, and on the 24th landed at City Point. " The next day," says Girardin's Hist, 
of Va., "they marched up to Petersburg, where Baron Steuben received them with a 
body of militia, somewhat under 1000 men. Although the enemy were 2.300 strong, 
Steuben opposed their progress. For two hours, he skilfully and bravely disputed the 
ground with them ; the assailants were twice broken, and precipitately ran back until 
supported by fresh troops. During the interval of time just stated, they gained but a 
mile, and that by inches. The inferiority of the Virginians in numbers obliged them to 
withdraw about 12 miles up the Appomattox, till more militia should be assembled. 
They retired in good order over a bridge, which was taken up as soon as the militia 
passed, so as to secure their retreat. The whole loss of the Virginians, in killed, 
wounded, and taken, amounted to about 60. That sustained by the enemy, was con- 
jectured to be more considerable."* 

From an article entitled " Reminiscences of the British at BoU 



* I.ieut.-Col. Simcoe, In his "Journal of the oi)eritions of the Queen's Rangers," states the loss of llie 
British at one man killed and 10 wounded, of the light infanU)-. 



244 



biNWIDDIE COUNTY. 



lingbrook,^'* published in the Southern Literary Messenger of 
January, 1840, we extract some interesting facts : 

There is, perhaps, no house in Virginia connected with a greater number of military 
revolutionary recollections, than Bollingbrook, in the town of Petersburg. 

On the approach of the enemy, a large portion of the people of the town made their 
escape. General Phillips took up his residence at Bollingbrook. He and the officers of 
his family are said to have treated Mrs. Boiling witli a good deal of courtesy, and (some 
add) addressed her always as Lady Boiling. Arnold is recollected as a handsome man, 
that limped in his gait.t He was fond of caressing the children of the family, and dan- 
dled them on his knee. 

Both the houses on Bollingbrook hill were occupied by British officers.t Mrs. Boiling 
was allowed the use of a room in the rear of the east building. Two sentinels were 
placed at each door of the house with crossed bayonets. The British soldiery repeatedly 
set on fire the fences about Bollingbrook, and frequently " all around was in a light 
blaze."§ Upon these occasions, Mrs. Boiling was obliged to send her servants to arrest 
the flames, and she was thus kept in a state of continual apprehension and alarm. 

On the next day after his arrival, (to wit, the 26th of April,) General Phillips (accord- 
ing to Arnold's letter to Sir Harry Clinton) burnt 4000 hbds. of tobacco. The ware- 
houses which belonged to Mrs. Boiling, at her solicitation, were spared on condition that 
the inhabitants should rtMnove the tobacco from them, which was accordingly done, by 
iextraordinary exertions, during the night of the 25th. This conflagration must have 
presented a striking and picturesque spectacle. The scarlet-dressed soldiers moving 
about amidst the flames, scattering the fire-brands, and officiating in the work of de- 
struction — the burning of the shipping on the river, reflecting its lurid glare on Poca- 
hontas and Blandford — -heightened the effect of the scene. 

Arnold, OTl Cllt^ cautioned Mrs. Boiling to be careful in her intercourse with General 
Phillips, not to irritate him, as he was a man of an ungovernable temper. This lady, 
daring that period of terror, suffered an intense solicitude and anxiety, which discovered 
itself in her unconsciously darning the needles, with which she was knitting, into the 
bed by which she sat. Her conduct during this trying crisis, displayed a heroism which 
doubtless won the respect of the British officers ; who are in general " men of honor 
and cavaliers." 

After committing devastations at Osborne's, Manchester, Warwick, «fec., the enemy 
set sail, and proceeded down James River, until, receiving (near Hog Island) counter- 
manding orders, they returned up the river. On the 7th of May, they landed in a gale 
of wind at Brandon ; and on the 9th, marched 30 miles, and entered Petersburg late in 
the night. They came so unexpectedly as to surprise ten American oflicers, who were 
there for the purpose of collecting boats to convey the army of the Marquis de Lafayette 
across the James River. 

General Phillips entered Petersburg this second time, sick of a bilious fever ; — he ar- 
rived on the 9th of May, and breathed his last on the 13th, at Bollingbrook. He lay 
sick in the west room front of the east building. During the illness of General PhiUips, 
the town was cannonaded by Lafayette from Archer's hill,|| and it is commonly re- 
ported that he died while the cannonade was going on. It seems, however, more pro- 
bable, that this cannonade occurred on the 10th, when Lafayette (according to Ar- 
nold's letter) " appeared with a strong escort on the opposite side of the river, IT and 
having stayed some time to reconnoitre, returned to Osborne's." Cannon-balls fired upon 
that occasion, were preserved in the town some years ago, and may be yet extant. The 
Americans being aware that Bollingbrook was head-quarters, directed their shot par- 

* These reminiscences were written by Chas. Campbell, Esq., of Petersburg, a gen- 
tleman better informed upon the history of eastern Virginia than any one we have met 
in the course of our investigations, and to whom we are indebted for much valuable in- 
formation. 

t From a wound received at Saratoga, where Phillips was made captive with Bur- 
goyne's army. 

t There was then a tavern somewhere near the corner of Old and Market streets, 
called the Golden Ball," at which a number of the British quartered. 

§ Chastellux says, speaking of the enclosure, " It was formerly surrounded by rails 
and she raised a number of fine horses there, but the English burnt the fences, and car* 
ririd away a great number of the horses." 

H On the north side of the river opposite the town. 

^ The Appomattox. 



t 



•A 



niXWIDDIE COUXTY. 245 

t'-cularly at that house,* a mpasuro wliinh, considiTiiijj tiie sickness of (ieneral I'hillips, 
wouhl hardly have been justitiublo, but for the horrid series of devastations in whicli ho 
had just been engaged, in company with that odious traitor Arnold. This olliccr, in 
the early part of the cannonade, was walking across the yard, until a hall having passed 
very near him, he hastened into the house, and directed all the inmates to go down into 
the cellar for shelter.t (General Phillips was removed down there. Mrs. IJollitig a\>() 
took refuge there, with one or two ladies who were with her. Anbureyt (if memory 
serves) mentions that during the firing of the American artillery, Phillips, being then at 
the point of death, exclaimed — Wont they let me die in peace ?" 

Gen. Phillips died on the 1.3lh of May, and was buried in the grave-yard adjoining 
Blandford church. There reposes one, of whom Mr. Jellerson said — "he is the proud- 
est man, of the proudest nation on earth." 

On the 'JOth of May, 1781, just one week after the death of Phillips, Lord Cornwallis 
entered Petersburg on liis route from Wilmington, North Carolina. He remained in 
Petersburg only three or four days, and, as is understood, made his head-(iuarters at Hoi. 
lingbrook. General O'llara, it appears, was (juartered at what is conunonly styled the 
" Long Ornary," — about a mile to the west of Petersburg, on the main road. Mrs. 
Boiling found it necessary to visit this officer at that place, for the purpose of recovering 
certain negroes and horses, which had been taken from her, and were then there. The 
general consented to restore the slaves, but with respect to the horses proved (piite in- 
exorable. He is described as a harsh, uncouth person. He was wounded at the battle 
of Guilford, and surrendered Lord Cornwallis' sword at Yorktovvn. 

At the siege of Toulon, in a sortie made by the youthful Napoleon, a grenadier in 
the darkness of the night drew a wounded prisoner down into a ditch ; that prisoner 
was Major-General O'Hara, of " Long Ornary" memory, commander-in-chief of the 
British forces. 



On the 21st of October, 1812, 103 younof men from this place 
and vicinity embarked in the service of their country, and conse- 
crated their valor at the battle of Fort Meigs, on the r)th of May, 
1813. They were extensively known as the Petersburg Volun- 
teers." They remained in service one year, and on their discharge 
received the following highly commendatory testimonial of their 
gallant and soldier-like conduct. 

General Orders. 

Head -Quarters, Detroit, 17th October, 1813. 
The term of service for which the Pe.lershurg Volunteers were engaged having ex- 
pired, they are permitted to commence their march to Virginia, as soon as they can be 
transported to the south side of the lake. 

I\ granting a discharge to this patriotic and gallant corps, the General feels at a loss 
for words adequate to convey his sense of their exalted merits ; almost exclusively com- 
posed of individuals who had been nursed in the lap of ease, they have, for twelve 
months, borne the hardships and privations of military life in the midst of an inhospita- 
ble wilderness, with a cheerfulness and alacrity which has never been surpassed. Their 
conduct in the field has been excelled by no other corps; and while in camp, they have 
set an example of subordination and respect for military authority to the whole army. 
The General requests Capt. M'Rae, his subalterns, non-c()mmissi()ned officers, and 
privates, to accept his warmest thanks, and bids them an alFcctionate farewell. 

By command, UOHLRT lUJTLER, 

Acting Assistant Adjutant-General 
Herewith is a list of this corps: the italici.sed letters attached to their names signify 

* Two balls struck the house, one of which being spent, lodged in the front wall of 
the house ; the other passed through the house, and killed a negro woman (old Molly) 
who was standing by the kitchen door, in the act of reviling the American troops. 

t On the approach of the enemy. Old Tom, a house servant, was provident enough to 
bur\ certain silver plate, money, &.c., in the cellar; there is also a vague rumor of an 
earthenware tea-pot, full of gold. While Arnold was down in the cellar, he was not 
aware that he was in such desirable company. There is still in preservation in the 
tx)wn, a set of China-ware, which was interred at this time. 

\ In hi^ travels in the interior of North America. 



246 



DINWlDDtfi COUNTY* 



as follows : k. killed at Fort Meigs ; w. wounded at Fort Meigs ; d. died ; p. promoted 
aftd p. a. promoted in the army. 



Captain : 
Richard M'Rae. 

Lieutenants : 
William Tisdale, 1st. 
Henry Gary, 2d. d. 



Ensign : 
Shirley Tisdale, p. 

Sergeants : 
James Stevens, d. 
Robert B. Cook.^. 
Samuel Stevens, w, 
John Henderson, p. 



Corporals : 
N'bn. B. Spotswood, p 
John Perry, d. 
Joseph Scott, w. 
Thomas G. Scott, to. 
Joseph C. Noble, 
G. T. Clough, k. 



Musicians : — Daniel Eshon, w. ; James Jackson, w. 



Privates 



Andrew Andrews, d. 
Richard Adams, 
John Bignall, 
Edward Branch, p. 
Richard H. Branch, 
Thos. B. Bigger, p. a. 
Robert Blick^M?. 
George Burge, 
William Burton, 
Daniel Booker, 
Richard Booker, p. a. 
George Booker, k. 
Joseph R. Bentiey, 
John W. Bentiey, 
Edmund Brown, w. 
Thomas Clarke, 
Reuben Clements, 
Moses Clements, 
Jas. G. Chalmers, p. 
Edward Cheniworth, d. 
James Cabiness, 
Edward H. Cogbill, 



Samuel Cooper, w. 
James Cureton, d. 
William R. Chives, w. 
George Craddock, 
Laven Dunton, 
Wm. B. Degraffenreidt, 
George P. Digges, 
Grieve Drummond, w. 
A. O. Eggleston, p. a. 
James Farrar, p. 
John Frank, 
Edmund Gee, d. 
James Gary, 
Frederick Gary, 
George Grundy, 
George W. Giymes, 
Leroy Graves, 
Edmund M. Giles, p. a. 
William Harrison, 
Nathaniel Harrison, 
Jacob Humbert, 
John C. Hill, 



James JefFers, 
William Lacey, d. 
Herbert C. Lofton, w. 
Benjamin Lawson, 
Alfred Lorain, 
William Lanier, d. 
William R. Leigh, w, 
David Mann, 
Nich. Massenburg, k. 
Anthony Mullen, 
Benjamin J^Iiddleton, 
Roger Mai lory, 
Joseph Mason, w. 
Edwd. Mumford, p. a. 
Samuel Miles, d. 
James Pace, 
James Peterson, 
Richard Pool, 
Benjamin Pegrani, 
Thomas W. Perry, w. 
John Potter, p. a. 
John Ravvlings, 



Wm. P. Rawlings, d. 
Evans Rawlings, 
George Richards, 
Geo. P. Raybourne, d. 
John Shore, k. 
John Shelton, 
Richard Sharp, 
John H. Smith, 
John Spratt, 
Robert Stevens, 
Edward Stith, w. 
Thomas Scott, w. 
John H. Saunders, 
Daniel Worsham, 
Charles Wynne, 
Nath. H. Wills, w. 
Thomas Worsham, 
Samuel Williams, k 
James Williams, 
John F. Wiley, 
David Williams. 



A pleasant anecdote is related of the volunteers in a late num- 
ber of the Pioneer,* as having occurred at Point Pleasant, while 
they were passing through that place to the frontier. The author 
of the Story vv^as then on his way from western New York, with 
his family, bound for Cincinnati. After he had been there about 
a week, the volunteers arrived. The anecdote w^e give in his own 
words : 

Being unable to pass the Ohio on account of the running of the ice, they encamped 
hear the village, and remained about two weeks, during which time the writer had an 
opportunity of learning their character, which soon became of great service to him. 
Soon as the ice permitted, they struck their tents and began to cross the river, rejoicing 
in the prospect of soon reaching the post of danger. Some five or six of these soldiers, 
impatient of delay, were about to take a skiff which belonged to the writer, who was 
then young, inexperienced, and of such very fiery temperament as not to be very pas- 
sive when his rights were invaded, and therefore began rather abruptly, perhaps, to re- 
monstrate with them ; and on their persisting in taking the skiff", high words ensued, in 
which he called them a set of scoundrels. The words were scarcely uttered, when he 
was surrounded by half the company, all of whom seemed to feel that the indignity was 
offered to the whole company. As more and more still gathered around him, they said : 
* We have a right to use any means in our power to get on where our country calls us. 
We bear the character of gentlemen at home : you have called us scoundrels; this you 
must retract, and make us an apology, or we will tear you in pieces.' Thinking I 
knew their character, I instantly resolved on the course to be pursued, as the only 
means of saving myself from the threatened vengeance of men exasperated to the 
highest pitch of excitement. Assuming an apparent courage, which I confess I did not 
feel as strongly as I strove to evince, I turned slowly round upon my heels, .looking them 



* The American Pioneer is a monthly periodical, now published at Cincinnati, by 
John S. Williams. It is devoted to collecting and publishing incidents relative to the 
early settlement and successive improvement of the country. Its materiel is furnished 
by numerous correspondents, interested in historical researches* We take pleasure in 
directing public attention to this excellent work. 



DLVWIDDIE COUNTY. 



247 



full in the face, with all the composure I could command, without uttcrinpr a word. By 
this time several of the citizens were standiiis: on the outside of the crowd that surrounded 
me. The volunteers, not knowini; I was a stran<:t'r there, thoiijrfit I had turned round 
in search of succor from the citizens, and with a view of makiufr niy escape — said to inc, 
♦ You need not look for a place of escape ; if all tiie people of the county were your 
friends, they could not liberate you — nothin£r but an apolo<Ty can save you.' The citi- 
zens were silent witnesses of the dilemma in which the Yankee, as they called me, was 
involved. I replied, ' I am not looking for a place of escape — I am looking on men 
who say they have volunteered to fight their country's battles — who say they are geri' 




The Blandford Church. 



tlemen at home — who doubtless left Petersburg, resolved, if they ever returned, to do so 
with laurels of victory round their brows. And now, I suppose, their first great victory 
is to be achieved before they leave the shores of tlieir native state, by sixty or seventy of 
them tearing oue man to pieces. Think, gentlemen, if indeed you are gentlemen, how 
your fame will be blazoned in the public prints — think of the inmiortality of such a vic- 
tory I You can tear me in pieces ; and, like cannibals, eat me, when you have done. I 
am entirely in your power ; but there is one thing I cannot do. You are soldiers, so am 
I a soldier ; you ask terms of me no soldier can accept ; you cannot, with a threat over 
my head, extort an apology from me ; therefore, I have only to say, the greatest scoun, 
drel among you, strike the first blow I I make no concession.' The result was more 
favorable than I had anticipated. I had expected to have a contest with some one of 
them, for 1 believed the course I had taken would procure me friends enou<:h from among 
themselves, to see me have, what is called ' fair play' in a fisticuft' battle. But I had 
effected more. I had made an appeal to the pride, the bravery, and the noble generosi- 
ty of Virginians — too brave to triumph over an enemy in their power — too generous to 
permit it to be done by any of their number. A simultaneous exclamation was heard ali 
around me, ' He is a soldier ; let him alone* — and in a moment they disj)ersed." 

Blandford is said to be older than Petersburfj^. It was formerly 
superior in architecture and fashion, and might properly have been 
called *' the court end" of the town ; but her ^\ovy has departed, 
and her sister settlement, Petersburg, has absorbed her vitality. 
Its old church, 

" Lone relic of the past I old mouldering pile, 
Where twines the ivy round its ruins gray," 

is one of the most interesting and picturesque ruins in the country. 
Its form is similar to that of the letter T with a short column. Its. 



248 



ELIZABETH CITY COUNTY. 



site is elevated, overlooking the adjacent town, the river, and a 
landscape of beauty. 

Within the limits of Petersburg, " on the north bank of the Appomattox, within a few 
feet of the margin of the river, is a large, dark-gray stone, of a conical form, about five 
feet in height, and somewhat more in diameter. On the side which looks to the east, 
three feet above the ground, there is an oval excavation about twelve inches across, and 
half as many in depth. The stone is solitary, and lifts itself conspicuously above the 
level of the earth. It is called the Basin of Pocahontas, and except in very dry weather, 
is seldom without water." 

John Burk, a lawyer, was a native of Ireland, and settled in Petersburg, where he 
wrote and published, in 1804, three volumes on the history of Virginia, bringing it down 
to the commencement of the American revolution. While here, he wrote plays for an 
histrionic society in the town, and on the boards of its amateur theatre, acted parts in 
them. His work on the state he did not live to complete. At a public table Burk used 
some expressions derogatory to the French nation. A French gentleman accidentally 
present, named Coburg, a stranger in the country, offended by the remarks, challenged 
him. They fought at Hcet's Hill, on the opposite bank of the Appomattox, and Burk 
was killed. The 4th and remaining volume, published in 1816, was written by Skelton. 
Jones and Louis Hue Girardin, the latter of whom was a Frenchman, and, it is stated, 
wrote under the supervision of Jefferson at MonticSllo, who, familiar with the era to 
which it related, imparted valuable information. 

Gen. Winfield Scott, the present commander-in-chief of the U. S. Army, was born 
near Petersburg, June 13th, 1785. As an officer and a soldier his name stands con^ 
spicuous in the annals of our country. 



ELIZABETH CITY. 

Elizabeth City was one of the eight original shires into v/hich 
Virginia was divided in 1634. Its form is nearly a square of 18 
miles on a side. The land is generally fertile ; and that portion 
known as " the back river district," comprising about one-third of 
its area, is remarkably rich. There w^ere in 1840, whites 1,954, 
slaves 1,708, free colored 44 ; total 3,706. 

Hampton, the county-seat, is 96 miles se. of Richmond. It is on 
Hampton Roads, 18 miles from Norfolk, 24 from Yorktown, 36 
from Williamsburg. Hampton is the residence of many of the 
pilots of James River. It contains 2 Methodist, 1 Baptist church, 
and one Episcopalian church. The Methodist society was estab- 
lished in 1789, and the Baptist in 1791. It has 18 stores and shops, 
and a population of about 1200. 

Hampton is an old town, and one of historic interest. Its site 
was visited by Capt. John Smith in 1607, on his first exploratory 
voyage up the Potomac, previous to the settlement of Jamestown. 
Burk says, *' While engaged in seeking a fit place for the first 
settlement, they met five of the natives, who invited them to their 
town, Kecovghtan or Kic/iotan, where Hampton now stands. Here 
they were feasted with cakes made of Indian corn, and ' regaled 
with tobacco and a dance.' In return, they presented the natives 
beads and other trinkets." Hampton was established a town by 
law in 1705, the same year with Norfolk. The locality was set- 
tled in 1610, from Jamestown.* The Episcopal church is the old- 



* Jones' " Present State of Virginia." 



ELIZABETH CITY COUNTV. 



2VJ 



est public buiklins: in the town, and is said to be the third oldest 
church in the state. The oldest inscription in the f^rave-yard at- 
tached to this venerable edifice, is that of Capt. ^\'illis Wilson, 
who died Nov. 19th, 1701. Among the public nwn who lie buried 
there is Dr. George Balfour, who died at Norfolk, in 1830. 
He was a member of the medical stalF in the U. S. Army ; and 
" braved the perils of the west under the gallant Wayne, who, at 
a subsequent period, on Presque Isle, breathed his last in his arms, 
\n 1708, on the organization of the Navy, he was appointed its 
senior surgeon, and })ertbrmed the responsible duties of that oliice 
until 1804, when he retired to private practice in Norfolk." ^Nlajor 
James M. Glassed, who died Nov. 3, 1838, and Lieut. James D, 
Burnham, who died March 6, 18:28, both of whom were of the U. 
8. Army, are interred there. Tradition says, that anciently, the 
king's coat-of-arms was placed upon the steeple ; but that in 
1776, shortly after the Declaration of Independence, the steeple 
was rent lengthwise by lightning, and the insignia of royalty hurl- 
ed to the earth. 

On the Pembroke farm, near Hampton, are four ancient monu- 
ments of black marble. Each is 6 feet long and 3 wide, and sur- 
mounted with a coat-of-arms. Annexed are the inscriptions : 

Here lies ye body of John Nevill, Esq., Vice Admiral of His Majesty's fleet and com- 
mander-in-cliiefe of ye squadron cruising in ye West Indies, wlio dyed on board yo 
Cambridge, ye 17 day of August, 1697, in the ninth yeare of the reign of King William 
ye third, aged 57 years. 

In hopes of a blessed resurrection, here lies ye body of Thomas Curie, gent., who 
was born Nov. 24, 1641, in ye parish of tsuint Michael, in Lewis, in ye county of Surry, 
in England, and dyed May 30, 17U0. 

When a few years are come then shall I go ye way whence I shall not return. — Job, 
16 ch. 2-2 V. 

Here lyeth ye body of ye Reverend Mr. Andrew Thompson, who was born at Stone- 
hive in Scotland, and was minister of this parish 7 yeares, and departed this life ye 11 
Sep. 1719, in ye 46 yeare of his age, leaving ye character of a sober and religious man. 

This stone was given by His Excellency Francis Nicholson, Esq , Lieutenant and 
Governor-General of Virginia, in memory of Peter Heyman, Esq., grandson to Sir Peter 
Heyman of Summcrfield in ye county of Kent — he was collector of ye customs in ye 
lower district of James River, and went voluntarily on board ye king's ship Shore- 
ham, in pursuit of a pyrate who greatly infested this coast — after he had behaved him- 
self 7 hours with undaunted courage, was killed with a small shot, ye 29 day of April, 
1700. In the engagement he stood next the governor upon the quarter deck, and was 
here honorably interred by his order. 

Hampton was attacked by the British in the war of the revolu- 
tion, and also invaded by them in the late war. 

The first was in Oct. 1775, and was, says Burk, dictated by revenge on the part of 
Lord Dunmore, for two schooners which had been burnt by two enterprising young men 
of the name of Barron. These men, afterwards distinguished for their courage and 
success in maritime adventure against the British, commanded, at this time, two pilot 
boats — a species of vessel constructed chiefly with an attention to sailing — and kept th© 
fleet of Dunmore constantly on the alert by the rapidity of their movements. If pur- 
sued, by keeping close in with the shore, they took refuge in Hampton. The peo})le of 
the town, fearing an attack, had applied to the committee of safety for assistance, who 
Bent down " Col. Woodford, with 1(U) mounted riflemen of the Culpeper battalion, with- 
out any other incumbrance than their provisions and blankets. But before the arrivai 

32 



250 



ELIZABETH CITY COUNTY. 



of Woodford, captain Squires, with six tenders full of men, appeared in Hampton creek, 
and commenced an attack on the town. He imagined that the mere display of hi» 
squadron would have paralyzed the courage of the new-raised troops, and that no resist- 
ance would have been attempted. Under this impression, the boats, under cover of a 
fierce cannonade, rowed towards the shore for the purpose of setting fire to the houses,, 
and carrying off whatever property should be spared from the conflagration. A few 
moments disclosed the vanity of these expectations. A shower of bullets soon compelled 
the boats to return to the ships, while the riflemen, disposed in the houses and the bushes 
along the beach, proved that even the tenders were not secure against their fatal preci- 
sion. Checked by a resistance so fierce and unexpected, the tenders hauled further into 
the stream, and further operations were suspended until a reinforcement, which was 
hourly expected, would render an assault more certain and decisive. 

" Meanwhile Woodford, who had used the most extraordinary expedition, arrived at 
daybreak with his riflemen, and as it was certainly known that the enemy would renew 
the attack, a new disposition was made of the American troops. The enemy's fleet had 
spread themselves with the view of dividing the force of the Americans ; and though it 
was intended perhaps only as a diversion, it was not improbable that an attempt would 
be made to land troops at a considerable distance in the rear of the Americans. To 
guard against this, Woodford disposed the minute-men, with a part of the militia, in hia 
rear ; the remainder of the militia was distributed at different points on the creek, to act 
as parties of observation, according to circumstances, while he himself took post with 
the riflemen in the houses, and every other low and covered position that presented itself 
on the beach. 

" At sunrise the e.nemy's fleet was seen standing in for the shore, and having at length 
reached a convenient position, they lay with springs on their cables, and commenced a 
furious cannonade. Double-headed and chain shot, and grape, flew in showers through 
all parts of the town ; and as the position of the ships enabled them to enfilade, it was 
thought impossible to defend it, even for a few minutes. Nothing could exceed the cool 
and steady valor of the Virginians ; and although, with very few exceptions, wholly 
unacquainted with .military service, they displayed the countenance and collection of 
veterans. Woodford's commands to his riflemen, previous to the cannonade, were sim- 
ply to fire with coolness and decision, and observe the profoundest silence. The effects 
of this advice were soon visible ; the riflemen answered the cannonade by a well-directed 
fire against every part of the line, and it soon appeared that no part of the ship was 
secure against their astonishing precision. In a short time the enemy appeared to be in k 
some confusion ; their cannonade gradually slackened, and a signal was given by the 
commander to slip their cables and retire. But even this was attended with the most 
imminent danger. No man could stand at the helm in safety ; if the men went aloft t» 
hand the sails, they were immediately singled out. In this condition two of the schooners 
drifted to the shore. The commander of one of these in vain called on his men to assist 
in keeping her off ; they had all retired to the hold, and declared their utter refusal to 
expose themselves to inevitable destruction. In this exigency, deserted by his men, h© 
jumped into the water and escaped to the opposite shore. The rest of the fleet had 
been fortunate enough to escape, although with some difficulty, and returned to Norfolk."* 

After the British fleet were defeated in their attempt upon Nor- 
folk, in June, 1813, by the gallant defence of Craney Island, they 
proceeded to attack Hampton, which was defended by a garrison 
of 450 militia, protected by some slight fortifications. The annexed 
account of this event is from Perkins' History of the Late War : 

Admiral Cockburn, on the 25th of June, with his forces, advanced towards the town 
in barges and small vessels, throwing shells and rockets, while Sir Sidney Beckwith 
effected a landing below with two thousand men. Cockburn's party were repulsed by 
the garrison, and driven back behind a point, until General Beckwith's troops advanced 
and compelled the garrison to retire. The town being now completely in the possession 
of the British, was given up to pillage. Many of the inhabitants had fled with their 
valuable effects ; those who remained suffered the most shameful barbarities. That 
renegado corps, composed of French prisoners accustomed to plunder and murder in 
Spain, and who had been induced to enter the British service by promises of similar 
indulgence in America, were now to be gratified, and were let loose upon the wretched 
inhabitants of Hampton without restraint. For two days the town was given up to 



*^ The inhabitants had sunk five sloops before the town. 



ELIZABETH CITY COITNTY. 



251 



unreBtrainod pillage ; private property was plundered and wantonly destroyed ; unarmed 
and unotfending individuals grossly abused ; females violated ; and, in one instance, an 
agod sick man murdered in the arms of his wife, who, at the same tim»\ was danjjer- 
ously wounded. A collection of well-attested facts, made by a committee of C^oufrress 
respecting the outrages at Hampton, stand on their journals as lasting monuments of 
disgrace to the British nation. 

Hampton has been the birth-place of several distinguished naval 
officers. Among them were the two Barrons,* of the \'irginia 
navy, who performed several gallant exploits in the revoluMoji. 
The grandfather of Com. Lewis Warrington, who, in 1814, while 
in command of the Peacock, captured the Epervier, was pastor of 
the old Episcopal church in this town. Major Finn, of the army, 
was from this place. Capt. Meredith and Capt. William Cunning- 
ham, of the Virginia navy in the revolution, were also born at 
Hampton. The first was a remarkably bold and enterprising olli- 
cer, and on one moonlight night ventured to sail out to sea in a 
small vessel, passing through a British fleet anchored in Hampton 
Roads. The following notice of the latter is abridged from the U. 
S. Military and Naval Magazine : 

At the beginning of the war of the revolution, Capt. Cunningham enlisted in one of 
the minute companies, and continued in that service until Virginia armed a few fast- 
sailing pilot-boat schooners. Thus was the navy of that state commenced. It, however, 
varied materially ; sometimes amounting to as many as 50 vessels, and occasionally to 
only one. Among them was the schooner Liberty, which was never captured, although 
several times sunk in the rivers to conceal her from the enemy. Capt. Cunningham 
embarked and remained in the Liberty, as her first lieutenant, until the war assumed a 
more regular form. Capt. Cunningham purchased a small schooner, and engaged in 
traffic to the West Indies. Sea-officers were encouraged to engage in commerce as the 
only means of procuring the munitions of war. 

On these occasions, he encountered great risk from the enemy's fleets. Once, in the 
month of June, he suddenly came upon an English frigate, off Cape Henry, in a dense 
fog. The English commander ordered him to strike his colors, and haul down his light 
sails, or he would sink him. By a judicious and skilful stratagem, he made the enemy 
believe that he intended to surrender. He, therefore, suspended his threatened tiring. At 
the moment they discovered that Cunningham intended to escape, the jib-boom of the 
frigate caught in the topping-lift of the schooner's main-boom. Capt. C. .sprang up to 
the stem, with a knife, to free his vessel. While in the act of cutting the rope, a 
British marine shot him through the arm. Nothing daunted, he deliberately effi.'cted his 
object, and amid a shower of grape, his vessel shot away from the frigate, and weis in a 
few moments out of sight. 

Some time after, Capt. Cunningham joined the army on the south side of James 
River, and had the misfortune, while on a foraging expedition, to be taken by the enemy 
and carried into Portsmouth. He had then been recently married. 

One day he said to an uncle of his, (also a prisoner,) that he would see his wife the 
next evening, or perish in the attempt. " IMy dear Will, are you mnd ?" was the reply. 

Tlie prison in which he was confined was a large sugar-house, at the extreme souih end 
of the town, enclosed by a strong stockade fence. At sunsrt every evening, the guard, 
composed of 40 or 50 men, were relieved by fresh troops, and on their arrival, the two 
guards, with their officers, were paraded in front of the prison, on each side of the path, 
way to tlie gate. At this hour, the ceremony observed on the occasion was in progress ; 
the relieved guard had stacked their arms, and were looking up their baggage ; the fresh 
guard were relieving sentinels, and, in a degree, at their ease. This was the time selected 
by Capt. C. The sentinel had just begun to pace his sacred ground, and awful, indeed, 
was the moment. Capt. C. was justly a great favorite with the prisoners, who all, iti 
silent terror, expected to sec their beloved comj)anion pinned to the earth by many bay- 
onets, for expostulation had been exhausted. " My icife, or death was his watchword. 

The sentinel's motions had been sagaciously calculdtcd upon, and as he turned from 

• One of these was the father of the present Coni. James Barron, of the U. S. Navy. 



Q52 ELIZABETH CitY COUNTY. 

the prison, Capt. G. darted out, and butted him over at his full length, and ran past hiM 
through the gate. It was now nearly dark. All was uproar and confusion. Cunning- 
ham soon reached a marsh near the house, and was nowhere to be found. Volley after 
volley was fired after him, and some of the balls whistled over his head. Ere long he 
tirrived at the southern branch of Elizabeth River, which he swam over a little below 
the navy-yard at Gosport, and finally reached the place whither his wife had fled. 

Lieut. Church, who had served as Capt. C.'s first, was determined that his commander 
should not alone encounter the danger of an escape. He, therefore, followed him ; and 
strange as it may appear, he was never heard of, or accounted for. 

Old Point Comfort, on which stands fortress Monroe, is 2^ miles 
from Hampton, and about 12 in a direct line from Norfolk. It is a 
promontory, exactly on lat. 37^, and with the opposing point, Wil- 
loughby, forms the mouth of James River. 

The name was given to it in 1607 by the first colonists of Virginia, who, on their' 
exploratory voyage up the James, previous to landing at Jamestown, called it Point 
Comfort " on account of the good channel and safe anchorage it afforded." The prefix 
of " 0/J," was afterwards given to distinguish it from " New Point Comfort." 

A fort was built on the Point a few years after the first settlement of the country- 
The following act for its erection was passed in March, 1629-30. " Matter of tFortifica- 
tions was againe taken into consideration, and Capt. Samuel Mathewes was content to 
undertake the raysing of a fibrt at Poynt Comfort ; whereupon, Capt. Robert Ffelgate, 
Capt. Thomas Purfury, Capt. Thomas Graies, Capt. John Uty, Capt. Tho. Willoby, Mr. 
Tho. Heyrick, and Leu't. Wm. Perry, by full consent of the whole Assembly, were chosen 
to view the place, conclude what manner of fforte shall bee erected, and to compounde 
and agree with the said Capt. Mathewes for the building, raysing, and finishing the 
same," &lc. 

Count de Grasse, the admiral of the French fleet, threw up some fortifications on old 
Point Comfort a short time previous to the surrender at York. 

The salutary experience, dearly bought in the lessons of the late war, when these waters 
were the resort of British fleets, has doubtless had much influence in prompting the erection 
of the fortresses of Monroe and Calhoun. The first is one of the largest single fortifica- 
tions in the world, and is generally garrisoned by a regiment of U. S. troops. The 
channel leading in from the Capes of Virginia to Hampton Roads, is at Old Point Com- 
fort reduced to a very narrow line. The shoal water, which under the action of the 
sea, and reacted upon by the bar, is kept up in an unremitting ripple, has given the 
name of Rip Raps to this place. When the bar is passed, Hampton Roads affords 
one of the finest anchorages, in which navies could ride in safety. Fort Calhoun, or 
the castle of the Rip Raps, is directly opposite fort Monroe, at the distance of 1900 
yards. The two forts are so constructed as to present immense batteries of cannon at 
an approaching hostile ship ; and the probabihties are, that long before she had com- 
pleted the bendings of the channel, she would be a wreck, or a conflagration from the 
hot shot thrown into her. The Rip Raps structure is a monument of the genius of the 
engineers by whom it was planned. It is formed upon an island, made from the sea 
by casting in rocks in a depth of 20 feet of water, until, by gradual accumulation, it 
emerged above the tides. The present aspect of the place is rough and savage ; the 
music of the surrounding elements of air and sea, is in keeping with the dreariness and 
desolation of the spot. 

The beach at Old Point, affords excellejjt bathing-ground ; this, with a fine hotel, and 
other attractions, make the place much resorted to in the summer months. The officers' 
quarters occupy several neat buildings within the area of the fort, where there is a fine 
level parade-ground, ornamented by clumps of live-oak, which is the most northern 
point in the Union in which that tree is found. 

George Wythe, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, 
was born in this county in 1726. " His education was principally 
directed by his mother. The death of both his parents before 
he became of age, and the uncontrolled possession of a large for- 
tune, led him for some time into a course of amusement and dissi- 
pation. At the age of thirty, however, his conduct underwent an 



ESSEX COUNTY* 



293 



entire change. He applied himself vig:orously to the study of the 
law ; and soon after his admission to the bar, his learninjj^, indus- 
try, and eloquence, made him eminent. For several 3'ears previous 
to the revolution, he was conspicuous in the House of Burj^esses ; 
and in the commencement of the opposition to En^^land, evinced 
an ardent attachment to liberty. In 17(54, he drew up a remon- 
strance to the House of Commons, in a tone of independence too 
decided for that period, and which was greatly modilied by the 
Assembly before assenting to it. In 177.), he was appointed a 
delegate to the Continental Congress in Philadelphia. In the fol- 
lowing year he was appointed, in connection with Mr. Jelferson 
and others, to revise the laws of Virginia — a duty which was per- 
formed with great ability. In 1777, he was appointed Speaker of 
the House of Delegates, and during the same year judge of the 
high court of chancery. On a new organization of the court of 
equity, in the subsequent year, he was appointed sole chancellor — • 
a station which he filled for more than twenty years. In 1787, he 
was a member of the convention which formed the federal con- 
stitution, and during the debates acted, for the most part, as chair- 
man. He was a strenuous advocate of the instrument adopted. 
He subsequently presided twice, successively, in the college of 
electors in Virginia. His death occurred on the 8th of June, 180G, 
in the 81st year of his age. It was supposed that he was poisoned ; 
but the person suspected was acquitted by a jury. In learning, 
industry, and judgment. Chancellor Wythe had few superiors. His 
integrity was never stained, even by a suspicion ; and from the 
moment of his abandonment of the follies of his youth, his repu- 
tation was unspotted. The kindness and benevolence of his heart 
were commensurate with the strength and attainments of his 
mind." 



ESSEX. 

Essex was formed in 1092, from a part of (old) Rappahannock 
county. It lies on the s. side of the Rappahannock, about 30 miles 
ne. of Richmond. Its length is 28 miles; mean breadth 10 miles. 
In the western part it is slightly hilly, and its soil, except on the 
margin of the streams, generally sandy. The comity, however, 
produces large crops of corn, considerable wheat and oats, and 
some cotton and tobacco. Pop. in 1840, whites 3,955, slaves 0,750, 
free colored 598 ; total, 11,309. 

Tappahannoc, port of entry and seat of justice for the county, 
lies on the Rappahannock, 50 miles from its mouth in Chesapeake 
Bay, and contains about 30 dwellings. It has a good harbor, and 
all the shipping belonging to the towns on the riv(»r is entered at 
the custom-house in this place; tonnage in 1840, 4,591. Lo- 
retto is a small village one mile from the Rappahannock, in the 
NE. part of the county. 



254 



FAIRFAX COUNTY* 



FAIRFAX. 

Fairfax was formed in 1742, from Prince William, and named 
after Lord Fairfax, the proprietor of " the Northern Neck." The 
part of Virginia included in the District of Columbia was formed 
from Fairfax. The county is watered by the Potomac and the 
Occoquan, and their branches. Pop., whites 5,469, slaves 3,453, 
free colored 448 ; total, 9,370, 

Fairfax Court House is near the centre of the county, 21 miles 
from Washington City ; it contains the county buildings, and about 
200 inhabitants. Centerville is a village of about the same popu- 
lation, on a high and healthy situation near the southwestern angle 
of the county. 

Much of the land of this county, and, indeed, of the whole of 
the tide- water country of Virginia, is flat 'and sand3^ Some parts, 
it is true, are very fertile and produce large crops ; but these are 
so intermixed with extensive tracts of waste land, worn out by the 
excessive culture of tobacco, and which are almost destitute of 
verdure, that the country has frequently the aspect of barrenness. 
A ruinous system has prevailed to a great extent, of working the 
same piece of land year after year until it was exhausted, when 
new land was cleared, in its turn to be cultivated a few seasons 
and then abandoned. In some parts of the country the lands thus 
left waste throw up a spontaneous growth of low pines and cedars, 
whose sombre aspect, with the sterility of the soil, oppresses the 
traveller with feelings of gloom. However, land thus shaded 
from the rays of the sun, recovers in time its former fertility. 

Several years since, some of the enterprising farmers of German 
origin from Dutchess county. New York, commenced emigrating 
to this county and purchased considerable tracts of worn-out land, 
which they have, in many instances, succeeded in restoring to their 
original fertility. Good land can be bought for $8 or $10 per acre ; 
tolerable fair for about $S ; which, in a few years, can be brought 
up with clover and plaster. Some of the finest farms in New York 
are upon lands, which, a few j^ears ago, were sand, blowing about 
in the wind. The worn-out Virginian lands are not so bad as this, 
and, with a fine climate, are as easily restored. The success thus 
far attending the experiment is encouraging, and emigration still 
continues. These farmers make this movement better than going 
west, for they are sure of a good market, without the whole value 
of their produce being exhausted by the expense of transportation. 
Slave-labor is not employed in resuscitating land; the farmers 
work themselves, with their sons and hired men. 



The following extracts are from Davis's Four and a Half Years 
in America, published in 1803. Davis was a school-teacher in the 
section of country which he describes. His work is dedicated, by 
permission, to Jetferson : — 



FAIRFAX COL'NTV. 



255 



I prosecuted my walk to Nextgaie, where, on the piazza of Mr. Tliornton's tavern, I 
found a party of gentlemen from tlie neifjliboring plantations carousing over a bowl of 
toddy, and smoking cifjars. No people could exceed tlicsr men in politrnrss. ()n my 
asccndinj; the steps to the piazza, every countenance seemed to say, This man has a 
double claim to our attention, for he is a stranger in the place. In a moment there was 
room made for me to sit down ; a new bowl was called for, and every one wlio addressed 
me did it with a smile of conciliation. But no man asked me where I had come from, 
or whither I was going. A gentleman in every country is the same ; and, if good breed- 
ing consists in sentiment, it was found in the circle I had got into. 

The higher Virginians seem to venerate themselves as men ; and I am persuaded thero 
was not one in company who would have felt embarrassed at being admitted to the pres- 
ence and conversation of the greatest monarch on earth. There is a compound of vir- 
tue and vice in every human character; no man was ever yet faultless; t)ut whatever 
may be advanced against Virginians, their good qualities will ever outweigh their de- 
fects ; and when the effervescence of youth has abated, when reason asserts her em- 
pire, there is no man on earth who discovers more exalted sentiments, more contempt of 
baseness, more love of justice, more sensibility of feeling, than a Virginian. 

No walk could be more delightful than that from Occoquan to Colchester, when the 
moon was above the mountains. You traverse the bank of a placid stream, over winch 
impend rocks, in some places bare, but more frequently covered with an odoriferous 
plant that regales the traveller with its fragrance. So serpentine is the course of the 
river, that the mountains which rise from its bank maybe said to form an amphitheatre ; 
and nature seems to have designed the spot for the haunt only of fairies, for Ijere grow 
flowers of purple dye, and here the snake throws her enamelled skin. But into what 
regions, however apparently inaccessible, has not adventurous man penetrated ? The 
awful repose of the night is disturbed by the clack of two huge mills, which drown tiie 
echoes of the mocking-bird, who nightly tells his sorrows to the listening moon. 

Art is pouring fast into the lap of nature the luxuries of exotic refinement. After 
clambering over mountains, almost inaccessible to human toil, you come to the junction 
of the Occoquan with the noble river of the Potomac, and behold a bridge, whose semi- 
elliptical arches are scarcely inferior to those of princely London. And on the side of 
this bridge stands a tavern, where every luxury that money can purchase is to be ob- 
tained at first summons ; where the richest viands cover the table, and where ice cools 
the Madeira that has been thrice across the ocean. * * * Having slept one night 
at this tavern, I rose with the sun and journeyed leisurely to the mills, catching refresh- 
ment from a light air that stirred the leaves of the trees. About eight miles from the 
Occotjuan mills is a house of worship, called Poicheek church ; a name it claims from 
a run that flows near its walls. Hither I rode on Sundays and joined the congregation 
of parson Weems, a minister of the Episcopal persuasion, who was cheerful in his mien, 
that he might win men to religion. A Virginian church-yard, on a Sunday, resembles 
rather a race-course than a sepulchral ground ; the ladies come to it in carriages, and the 
men after dismounting from their horses make them fast to the trees. But the steeples 
to the Virginian churches were designed not for utility but ornament ; for the bell is 
always suspended to a tree a few yards from the church. It is also observable, that the 
gate to the church -yard is ever carefully locked by the sexton, who retires last. * » * 
Wonder and ignorance are ever reciprocal 1 was confounded, on first entering the 
church-yard at Powheek, to hear 

Steed threaten steed with high and boastful neigh. 

Nor was I less stunned with the rattling of carriage-wheels, the cracking of whips, and 
the vociferations of the gentlemen to the negroes who accompanied them. But the dis- 
course of parson Weems calmed every perturbation ; for he preached the great doc« 
trines of salvation, as one who had experienced their power. * * • In his youth- 
Mr. Weems accompanied some young Americans to London, where he prepared him- 
self by diligent study for the profession of the church. * * * Of the congregation 
at Powheek church, about one half was composed of white people, and the other of ne- 
groes. Among many of the negroes were to be discovered the most satisfying evi- 
dences of sincere piety, an artless simplicity, i)assionate aspirations after Christ, and an 
earnest endeavor to know and do the will of God. 

The church described in the foregoing sketch is still standing 
and an object of interest from having been the one Washington 
regularly attended for a long series of years while resident at 



256 



FAIRFAX COUNTY. 



Mount Vernon, distant some 6 or 7 miles. The particular location 

of the church is ascribed to him. At a very early age he was an 
active member of the vestry ; and when its location was under 
consideration and dispute, surveyed and made a map of the whole 
parish, and showed where it ought to be erected. The Rt. Rev. 
Wm. Meade, Bishop of Va., in an official tour taken three or four 
years since, thus describes its appearance as it was at that time ; 
since which it has been repaired : 

My next visit was to Pohick church, in the vicinity <5f Mount Vernon, the seat of 
Gen. Washington. I designed to perform service there on Saturday as well as Sunday, 
but through some mistake no notice was given for the former day. The weather, in- 
deed, was such as to prevent the assembling of any but those who prize such occasions 
BO much as to be deterred only by very strong considerations. It was still raining when 
I approached the house, and found no one there. The wide opened doors invited me to 
enter, as they do invite, day and night through the year, not only the passing traveller, 
but every beast of the field and fowl of the air. These latter, however, seemed to have 
reverenced the house of God, since few marks of their pollution are to be seen through- 
out it. The interior of the house, having been well bitilt, is still good. The chancel, 
communion-table, tables of the law, etc., are still there and in good order. The roof 
only is decayed ; and at the time I was there, the rain was dropping on these sacred 
places, and on other parts of the house. On the doors of the pews, in gilt letters, are 
still to be seen the names of the principal families which once occupied them. How 
could I, while for an hour traversing those long aisles, entering the sacred chancel, as- 
cending the lofty pulpit, forbear to ask : And is this the house of God which was built 
by the Washingtons, the Masons, the McCarties, the Grahams, the Lewises, the Fair- 
faxes — the house in which they used to worship the God of our fathers according to the 
venerable forms of the Episcopal Church, and some of whose names are yet to be found 
on those deserted pews ? Is this, also, destined to moulder piecemeal away — or, when 
some signal is given, to become the prey of spoilers, and to be carried hither and thither, 
and applied to every purpose under heaven ? 

The Rev. M. L. Weems, to whom allusion has been made, was 
the rector of Mount Vernon parish at the time Washington at- 
tended this church. He was the author of a life of Washington, 
and also one of Marion. His memoir of Washington has been a 
very popular work, and has passed through 30 or 40 editions. It 
is a volume extremely fascinating to the youthful mind. " He 
turns all the actions of Washington to the encouragement of vir- 
tue, by a careful application of numerous exemplifications drawn 
from the conduct of the founder of our republic, from his earliest 
life." 

From a clerical friend of the late Mr. Weems, we have gathered these facts respect- 
ing him : The wants of a large family occasioned Mr. Weems to abandon preaching for 
a livelihood, and he became a book-agent for the celebrated Matthew Carey of Phila- 
delphia. He travelled extensively over the southern states, and met with almost unpre- 
cedented success — selling, in one year, 3000 copies of a high-priced Bible. He also sold 
other works, among which were those of his own writing. He was accustomed to be 
present at courts and other large assemblages, where he mingled with the people ; and 
by his faculty of adapting himself to all circumstances, he generally drew crowds of listen- 
ers, whom he would address upon the merits of his works, interspersing his remarks with 
anecdotes and humorous sallies. He wrote and sold a pamphlet entitled " The Drunk, 
ard's Looking -Glass, ''^ illustrated by cuts, showing the progressive stages of the drunk- 
ard, from his first taking the social glass until the final scene of his death. With this 
in hand he entered taverns, and addressing the inmates, would mimic the extravagances 
of an inebriate, and sell the pamphlet. His eccentricities and singular conduct lowered 
his dignity, and occasioned the circulation of many false and ridiculous tales unbecoming 
his clerical profession. He was a man of much benevolence, and a great wit. When 
iravelling, he sometimes received and accepted invitations to preach, His serjDojis were 



FAIRFAX COUNTY. ' 257 

generally moral essays, abounding with humor. On one orrasion, when at Fredericks- 
bur};, lie preached from the text, *' We are tearfully and wonderfully made," — which ser.. 
mon he abruptly concluded by saying^, " I must stop ; for should I go on, some of tho 
youufr billies present would not sleep n wink to-ni<;ht." Mr. Wt-cms was of the medium 
stature, his hair white and lontr. and his countenance expressive and s,iri{jhtly. lie was 
energetic in his movements, and polite. He proved useful in his vocation, being careful 
not to circulate any works but those of a good moral tendency. He died at an advanced 
age, many years since, leaving a highly respectable and well-eduoated family. 




Residence and Tomb of Waahington, Mount Vernon. 



An English traveller in this country, about the close of the revo^ 
lution, gives the following list of the seats on the Potomac existing 
at that time : 

" On the Virginia side of the Potomac, arc the seats of Mr. Alex- 
ander. Gen. \Vashin<:ton, Col. ^l.'irtin, Col. Fairfax, Mr. Lawson, 
near the mouth of Cjuaquon, Col. ^Nlason, Mr. Lee, near the mouth 
of Quantico, Mr. Brent,* Mr. Mercer, Mr. Fitzhugh, Mr. Alexan- 
der, of Boyd Hole and all Chotank, Col. Frank Thornton, oa 



Burnt by the wwiy early in the revolutiorjjwy war. 
33 



258 



FAIRFAX COUNTY. 



Marchodock, Mr. Thacker Washington, Mrs. Blair, Mr. M'Carty^ 
Col. Phil. Lee, of Nominey," &:c. 

Mount Vernon is on the Potomac, 8 miles from Alexandria, and 
15 from Washington City. The mansion is built of wood, cut in 
imitation of free stone. The central part was built by Lawrence 
Washington, brother to the general ; the wings were added by 
Gen. Washington. It is named after Admiral Vernon, in whose 
expedition Lawrence Washington served. 

The following graphic description of a visit to Mount Vernon, 
from the pen of a New Englander, we extract from a recent num- 
ber of the Boston Daily Advertiser and Patriot : 

I had this morning, for the first time, crossed the Potomac, and was under the full in- 
fluence of the sense that I was in a new land, and amid all the historical associations 
of the " Ancient Dominion." The day was soft and balmy, and, though early in March, 
was as warm as our budding days of May. We were in a portion of the great primeval 
forest of America. The crows cawed from the tops of the ancient, half-decayed trees ; 
and the naked trunks and branches of the sycamore, 'and the strange spreading forms 
of the other giants of the wood, were beautifully relieved by the evergreen of the pines 
and cedars. A solemn stillness filled the air. An ancient, sad, half-degenerate, but 
most venerable and soul-stirring character was impressed upon all around us. 

After a few miles of riding through the forest, with occasional openings and cultivated 
spots, in one of which a negro was following his plough through the furrows, my friend 
pointed out a stone sunk in the ground by the road-side, which, he said, marked the begin- 
ning of the Mount Vernon estate. Still, we rode on for a couple of miles of beautiful 
country, left much in its natural condition, without even a fence to line the road-side, 
with a delightful variety of surface, before the gate and porter's lodge came in sight. 

Instead of an iron gate upon stone posts, there was a simple wooden gate, swinging 
from posts of wood, without paint, turned to a gray color, and shutting with a wooden 
latch. An aged negro came out from the porter's house, courtesied as we passed, and an- 
swered civilly the questions as to her health, and whether her mistress was at home. All 
was characteristic of the domestic institutions of Virginia, even to the woman's stand- 
ing still, and letting the gate swing to and latch itself. We had still half a mile before 
us, and the simple carriage-path led us over hills and down dales, with a surface as di- 
versified as that of Mount Auburn, while the trees were more grand and forest-hke, 
though thinly scattered, and with less variety and richness. We crossed a brook, passed 
through a ravine, and felt ourselves so completely in the midst of aboriginal, untouched 
nature, that the sight of the house and its cluster of surrounding buildings, came like a 
surprise upon me. The approach to the house is towards the west front. The high pi- 
azza, reaching from the roof to the ground, and the outline of the building, are familiar 
to us from the engravings ; but its gray and time-worn aspect must be mentioned to those 
whose eyes are accustomed to the freshness of white walls, green Winds, and painted 
bricks. We rode up to the piazza, but an unbroken silence reigned, and there was no 
sign of life, or of any one stirring. Turning away, we passed among the adjoining 
houses, occupied by the blacks, from one of which a servant, attracted by the sound of 
our horses' hoofs, came out, and being recognised by my friend, took our horses from us, 
and we walked towards the house. The door from the piazza opened directly into a large 
room, which we entered. It was no mere habit that lifted the hat from my head, and I 
stepped lightly, as though upon hallowed ground. Fmding that no one had seen us, my 
friend went in search of the family, and left me to walk through the halls. From the 
first room I passed into another, from which a door led me out upon the eastern piazza. 
A warm afternoon breeze shook the branches of the forest which closes in upon the 
house on two sides, and breathed across the lawn and rising knolls with a delicious 
softness. Under this piazza, upon its pavement of flat stones, Washington used to 
walk to and fro, with military regularity, every morning, the noble Potomac in full 
view, spreading out into the width of a bay at* the foot of the mount, and the shore 
of Maryland lining the eastern horizon. By the side of the door hung the spy-glass, 
through which he watched the passing objects upon the water. Little effort was ne- 
cessary to call up the commanding figure of the hero, as he paced to and fro, while 
those pure and noble thoughts, which made his actions great, moved with almost an equal 
order through his simple and majestic understanding. 



FAIRFAX COUNTY. 



259 



My friend approached and told nic he had learned that the family were at dinner, and 
•we left the house privately and walked towards the tomb. At a short distance from tlic 
house, iu a retired spot, stands the new family tomb, a j)lain structure of brick, with a 
barred iron gate, through wfiich are seen two sarcophagi of white marble, side by side, 
containing the remains of Washington and his consort. This had been recently finished, 
as appeared from the freshness of the bricks and mortar, and the bare spots of earth 
about it, upon which the grass had not yet grown. It is painful to see change and nov- 
elty in such connections ; but all has been done by the direction of Washington's will, in 
which he designated the spot where he wished the tomb to be. The old family tomb, in 
which he was hrst placed, is in a more pictures(jue situation, upon a knoll, in lull view 
of the river ; but the present one is more retired, which was reason enough to deti rniine 
the wishes of a modest man. While wc were talking together here, a person approached 
us, dressed in the plain manner of a Virginia gentleman upon his estate. This was the 
young proprietor. After his greeting with my friend, and my introduction, he conducted 
us to the old tomb, which is the one represented in the prints scattered through the coun- 
try. It is now going to decay, being unoccupied, is filling up, and partly overgrown with 
vines and shrubs. The change was made with regret, but a sacred duty seemed to r.-- 
quire it. It is with this tomb that our as.sociations arc connected, and to this the British 
fleet is said to have lowered its flags while passing up the Potomac to make the attack 
upon the capitol. 

To one accustomed to the plantation system and habits of Virginia, this estate may 
have much that is common with others ; but to persons unused to this economy, the 
whole is new and striking. Of things peculiar to the place, are a low rampart of brick, 
now partly overgrown, which Washington had built around the front of the house, and 
an underground passage leading from the bottom of a dry well, and coming out by the 
river side at the foot of the mount. On the west side of the house are two gardens, a 
green-house, and — the usual accompaniments of a plantation — seed-houses, tool-houses, 
and cottages for the negroes — things possessing no particular interest, e.\cept because 
they were standing during W^ashington's life, and were objects of his frequent attention. 
I would not be one to countenance the making public of any thing pertaining to those 
who have received a visitor in confidence and good faith. And I liope not to transgress 
when I say, that if he can judge from what may be seen among those who bear the 
nan)e and inherit the estate of the hero, no Massachusetts man need fear that the bond 
which united the two ancient historical commonwealths, is at all weakened ; or that those 
memory-charge, cabalistic words, Massachusetts and Virginia, have lost any of their 
force with the true sons of either. Among the things of note shown us in the house, 
was the key of the Bastile, sent to Washington from France at the time of the destruc- 
tion of the prison. Along the walls of the room hung engravings, which were mostly 
battle or hunting-pieces. Among them I noticed a print of Bunker Hill, but none of any 
battle in which Vv^ashington himself was engaged. The north room was built by Wash- 
ington for a dining-room, and for the meetings of his friends and political visitors. The 
furniture of the room is just as when he used it, and leads us back to the days when there 
Were met within these walls the great men of that generation who carried the states 
through the revolution, laid tlie foundations of the government, and administered it in 
its purer days. The rooms of the house are spacious, and there is something of elegance 
in their arrangement ; yet the whole is marked by great simplicity. All the regard one 
could wish seems to have been shown to the sacredness of these public relics, and all 
things have been kept very nearly as W^ashington left them. Money made in the 
stocks can purchase the bedizenry of our city drawing-rooms ; but these elevating asso- 
ciations, which no gold can buy, no popular favor win, which can only be inherited, 
these are the heir-looms, the traditionary titles and pensions, inalienable, not conferred, 
which a republic allows to the descendants of lier great servants. 

Let every American, and especially every young American, visit this place, and 
catch, if he can, something of its spirit. It will make an in)f)ression upon him which he 
may keep through life. It will teach him the story and lessons of the past so as no 
printed page can teach them. From amid the small machinery of day and week poli- 
tics, he may learn what was once the tone of public life. It will enlarge his patriotism, 
elevate his notions of the public service, and call out some sense of veneration and loy- 
alty towards the institutions of his country and the memory of ker mighty dead ; so that 
Young America may, as there is some hoj)e she may, bring back the elements which 
dignified the first eight years of our constitutional history. 

As the afternoon rew to a close, and we were obliged to tak« our leave, regret from 
parting from our courteous entertainers, was lost in the grand and solemn imj)ression 



200 



PAIRFAX COUNf V. 



made by all around Us. Nothing was real Every thing acted through the imaglna* 
tion. Each object was dim with associations, and seemed but the exponent of some 
thought or emotion, the shadow of something great and past. The whole was enchanted 
ground ; and the occupants seemed privileged persons, whom the guardian spirits of the 
place allowed to remain its tenants and keepers. When the young proprietor took leave 
of us at the piazza, he stood where Washington had stood to welcome and to part from 
the immortal men of France and America. He stood there his representative to a third 
generation. It may well be supposed that as we rode slowly home, our thoughts were 
in no ordinary course. We repassed the gate, the rivulet, and the open field, but still 
we were on enchanted ground. So impressed was I with this feeling, that had I met a 
procession of the great men of the past, riding slowly towards the mansion of their com- 
panion in arms and in the cabinet, it would have seemed only a natural consummation. 
It was not until we had reached the town^ and our horses' hoofs struck upon the pave- 
ment, that the illusion was fairly broken. 

The following was found inscribed on the back of a small por- 
trait of Washington at Mount Vernon. It was written by some 
unknown visitor, supposed to have been an English traveller : 



WASHINGTON, 
The Defender of his Country.— The Founder of Liberty ; 
The Friend of Man. 
History and Tradition are explored in Vain, 
For a Parallel to his Character. 
In the Annals of Modern Greatness 

He stands alone ; 
And the noblest names of antiquity, 
Lose their Lustre in his Presence. 
Born the Benefactor of Mankind, 
He united all the qualities necessary 
To an illustrious career. 
Nature made him great, 
He made himself virtuous. 
Called by his country to the defence of her Liberties, 
He tritimphantly vindicated the rights of humanity : 
And on the Pillars of National Independence 
Laid the foundations of a great republic. 
Twice invested with supreme magistracy, 
By the unanimous voice of a free people 
He surpassed in the Cabinet 
The Glories of the Field. 
And voluntarily resigning the Sceptre and the Sword, 
tletired to the shades of Private Life. 
A spectacle so new and so sublime 
Was contemplated with the profoundest admiration. 
And the name of Washington, 
Adding new lustre to humanity. 
Resounded to the remotest regions of the earth. 
Magnanimous in youth, 
Glorious through life, 
Great in neath. 
His highest ambition, the Happiness of Mankind ; 
His noblest Victory, the conquest of himself. 
Bequeathing to posterity the inheritance of his fame, 
And building his monument in the hearts of his countrymen. 
He Lived— The Ornament of the 18th Century. 
He Died — Regretted by a Mourning "World. 



Gunston Hall, which was the seat of the celebrated George! 
Mason, stands on an elevated and commanding site overlooking the 
Potomac. 

Mr. Jefferson said that he was " of the first order of wisdom, among those who acted 
on the theatre of the revolution, of expansive mind, profound judgment, cogent in ar- 
gument, learned in the lore of our former constitution, and earnest for the republican 
change on democratic principles. His eloquence was neither flowing nor smooth ; but 
his language was strong, his manner most impressive, and strengthened by a dash of 
biting criticism when provocation made it seasonable." Mr. Mason was the framer of 
the constitution of Virginia, and a member of the convention which formed the federal 
constitution, but he did not sign that instrument. In conjunction with Patrick Henryj 



PAUaUIER COUNtY. 



2G1 



he opposed its adoption in tlic Virginia convention, believing tint it would lend to the 
conversion of the government into a monarchy. He also opposed the slave irude with 
great zeal. He died at his seat in the autumn of ITDt?, aged G7 years. 

The annexed epitaph was copied from a tombstone on th(^ banks 
of Neabsco Creek, in October, 1837. It is, \vithout doubt, the 
oldest monumental inscription in the United States. From the 
earliness of the date, 1008, it is supposed that the deceased was a 
companion of Capt. John Smith on one of his exploratory voyages. 

Here lies ye body of Lieut William Herris, who died May ye 16th, 1608: aged 065 
years ; by birth a Britain, a good soldier ; a good husband and neighbor. 



FAUQUIER. 

Fauquier was created in 1759, from Prince William, and named 
from Francis Fauquier, Gov. of Va. from 1758 to 1767. Its great- 
est length is 45 miles, mean breadth 16. The surface is agreeably 
diversified, and the soil, when judiciously cultivated, susceptible 
of high improvement, and very productive. In the county exist 
valuable beds of magnesia and soapstone, and there are several 
gold mines worked by the farmers with tolerable profit, at inter- 
vals of leisure from their agricultural labors. Pop., whites 10,501, 
slaves 10,708, free colored 688 ; total, 21,891. 

Warrenton, the county-seat, is 102 miles nnw. from Richmond. 
It is a beautiful village in the heart of the county, adorned with 
shade-trees, standing upon an eminence commanding a fine view 
of some of the spurs of the Blue Ridge. It contains about a dozen 
mercantile stores, 1 Episcopal, 1 Presbyterian, and 1 Methodist 
church, a fine male academy where ancient and modern languages 
are taught, a female academy in excellent repute, a newspaper 
printing ofiice, the county buildings, among which is a handsome 
court-house, (shown in the annexed view.) and a population of 
about 1,400. An excellent macadamized road leads from here to 
Alexandria. Among the anecdotes we have gathcM-ed " by the 
way," the one herewith presented is, perhaps, worthy of insertion. 
Some thirty or more years since, at the close of a long summer's 
day, a stranger entered this village. He was alone and on foot, 
and his appearance was any thing but prepossessing. His gar- 
ments, coarse and dust-covered, indicated an individual in the 
humbler walks. From a cane resting across his shoulders was sus- 
pended a handkerchief containing his clothing. Stopping]: in front 
of Turners tavern, he took from his hat a paper and handed it to 
a gentleman standing on the steps : it read as follows — 

The celebrated historian and naturalist, Volnev, needs no recommendation from 

G. Washi.ngton 

There are several other villages in Fauquier. Upperville, at 
the foot of the Blue Ridge, in the xw. angle of the county, is a 
new and flourishing village in a very rich agricultural country, on 



262 



FAUQUIER COUNTY. 



t\te main road from Winchester to Alexandria. It contains 1 Met, 
1 Epis., and 1 Baptist church, and a population of about 500. Paris 





Central View in Warrenton. 

and Somerville contain each about 40, and New Baltimore 20 
dwellings. 

The Fauquier White Sulphur Springs are 6 miles sw. of War- 
renton. The improvements are very extensive, and the grounds 
beautifully adorned with shrubbery. These springs are very popu- 
lar, and of easy access from the eastern cities. 

John Marshall, late 
Chief Justice of the 
United States, was born 
at a locality called Ger- 
mantown, in this coun- 
ty, 9 miles below War- 
renton. The house in 

which he was born is not in existence. When he was quite young, the family moved to 
Goose's Creek, under Manassa's Gap, near the Blue Ridge, and still later to Oak Hill, 
where the family lived at the commencement of the revolution. His father, Thomas 
Marshall, was a planter of limited means and education, but of strong natural powers, 
which, cultivated by observation and reflection, gave him the reputation of extraordinary 
ability. He served with distinction in the revolution, as a colonel in the contmental 
army. John was the eldest of fifteen children. The narrow fortune of Col. Marshall, 
and the sparsely inhabited condition of Fauquier, compelled him to be almost exclu- 
sively the teacher of his children, and to his instructions the Chief-Justice said, "he 
•owed the solid foundation of all his success in life." He early implanted in his eldest 
son a taste for English literature, especially for poetry and history. At the age of twelve, 
John had tfanscribed the whole of Pope's Essay on Man, and some of his Moral Es- 
says ; and had committed to memory many of the most interesting passages of that dis- 
tinguished poet. 

At the age of 14 he was placed with the Rev. Mr. Campbell, in Westmoreland, where, 
for a year, he was instructed in Latin, and had for a fellow-student James Monroe. The 
•succeeding year was passed at his father's, where he continued the study under the Rev. 
Mr. Thompson, a Scotch gentleman, which " was the whole of the classical tuition he 
«ver obtained. By the assistance of his father, however, and the persevering elTorts of 
Ills own mind, he continued to enlarge his knowledge, while he strengthened his body by 
hardy, athletic exercises in the open air. He engaged in field sports ; he indulged his 



FAiariER COUNTY. 



263 



solitary meditations amidst the wildest scenery of nature ; lie di li^hted to brush away 
the earliest dews of the momin£r.' " To these early habits in a nioiintain region ho 
owed a vigorous constitution. The simj)le manner of livinj; ainonjj the j»eople of those, 
regions of that early day, doubtless contribuled its share. He ever recurred with fond- 
ness to that primitive mode of life, when he partook with a keen relish balm tea and 
mush ; and when the females used tiiorns for pins. 

In the sunmier of 1775 he was appointed Lieut, in the " ^linuto Battalion, " and had 
an honorable share in the battle of Great Bridtro. In July, 1776, he was appointed 1st 
Lieut in the 11th Vir;rinia rejrimcnt, on the continental establishment, which marched 
to the north in the ensuino^ winter: and in May, 1777, he was promoted to a captaincy. 
He was in the skirmish at Iron Hill, and at the battles of Brandywine, Germantown, 
and Monmouth. He was one of that body of men, never surpassed in the history of 
the world, who, unpaid, unclothed, unfed, tracked the snows of Valley For<re with the 
blood of their footsteps in the rigorous winter of 1778, and yet turned not their facea 
from their country in resentment, or from their enemies in fear. 

That part of the Virginia line whicli was not ordered to Charleston, (S. C.,) being in 
effect dissolved by the expiration of the term of enlistment of the soldiers, the officers 
(anions whom was Captain Marshall) were, in the winter of 1779-80, directed to return 
home, in order to take charge of such men as the state legislature should raise for them. 
It was during this season of inaction that he availed himself of the opportunity of at- 
tending a course of law lectures given by Mr. Wythe, afterwards chancellor of the state; 
and a course of lectures on natural philosophy, given by Mr. Madison, president of Wil- 
liam and Man,' College in Virginia. He left this college in the sunmier vacation of 
1780, and obtained a license to practise law. In October he returned to the army, and 
continued in service until the termination of Arnold's invasion. After this period, and 
before the invasion of Phillips, in February, 1781, there being a redundancy of officers 
in the Virginia line, he resigned his commission. 

During tlie invasion of Virginia, the courts of law were not reopened until after the 
capitulation of Lord Cornwallis. Immediately after that event, Mr. Marshall com- 
menced the practice of law, and soon rose into distinction at the bar. 

In the spring of 1782, he was elected a member of the state legislature, and in the 
autumn of the same year, a member of the executive council. In January, 178.3, he 
married Miss Ambler, the daughter of a gentleman who was then treasurer of the 
state, and to whom he had become attached before he left the army. This lady lived 
for nearly fifty years after her marriage, to partake and enjoy the distinguished honors 
of her husband. In 1784, he resigned his seat at the council-board in order to return 
to the bar; and he was immediately afterwards again elected a member of the legisla- 
ture for the county of Fauquier, of which he was then only nominally an inhabitant, his 
actual residence being at Richmond. In 1787 he was elected a member from the county 
of Henrico ; and though at that time earnestly engaged in the duties of his profe^ion, 
he embarked largely in the political questions which then agitated the state, and indeed 
the whole confederacy. 

Every person at all read in our domestic history must recollect the dangers and diffi- 
culties of those days. The termination of the revolutionary war left the country im- 
poverished and exhausted by its expenditures, and the national finances at a low state 
of depression. The i)owers of Congress under the confederation, which even during the 
war were often prostrated by the neglect of a single state to enforce them, became in 
the ensuing peace utterly relaxed and inefficient. 

Credit, private as well as public, was destroyed. Agriculture and commerce were 
crippled. The delicate relation of debtor and creditor became daily more and more 
enibarra.ssed and embarrassing; and, as is usual npon such occasions, every sort of ex- 
pedient was resorted to by popular leaders, as well as by men of desperate fortunes, to 
inflame the public mind, and to bring into odium those who labored to preserve the pub- 
lic faith, and to establish a more energetic government. The whole country was soon 
divided into two great parties, the one of which endeavored to put an end to the public 
evils by the establishment of a government over the l^nion, which should be adequate 
to all its exigencies, and act directly on the people; the other was devoted tj state- 
authority, jealous of all federal influence, and determined at every hazard to resist ita 
increase. 

It is almost unnecessary to say, that Mr. Marshall could not remain an idle or indif- 
ferent spectator to such scenes. As little doubt could there be of the part he would tak» 
in such a contest. He was at once arrayed on the side of Washington and Madison. 
In Virginia, aa everywhere else, the principal topics of the day were paper money, th© 



264 



FAUQUIER COUNTY. 



collection of taxes, the preservation of public faith, and the administration of civil ja«. 
tice. The parties were nearly equally divided upon all these topics ; and the contest 
concerning them wa,s continually renewed. In such a state of things, every victory 
was but a temporary and questionable triumph, and every defeat still left enough of hope 
to excite to new and strenuous exertions. The affairs, too, of the confederar;y were 
then at a crisis. The question of the continuance of the Union, or a separation of the 
states, was freely discussed ; and, what is almost startling now to repeat, either side of 
it was maintained without reproach. Mr. Madison was at this time, and had been for 
two or three years, a member of the House of Delegates, and was, in fact, the author of 
the resolution for the general convention at Philadelphia to revise the confederation. 
He was at all times the enlightened advocate of union, and of an efficient federal govern- 
ment, and he received on all occasions the steady support of Mr. Marshall. Many have 
witnessed with no ordinary emotions, tiie pleasure with which both of these gentlemen 
looked back upon their co-operation at that period, and the sentiments of profound re- 
spect with which they habitually regarded each other. 

Both of them were members of the convention subsequently called in Virginia for the 
ratification of the federal constitution. This instrument having come forth under the 
auspices of General Washington and other distinguished patriots of the revolution, was 
at first favorably received in Virginia, but it soon encountered decided hostility. Its 
defence was uniformly and most powerfully maintained- there by Mr. Marshall. He was 
then not thirty years old. It was in these debates 'that Mr. Marshall's mind acquired 
the skill in political discussion which afterwards distinguished him, and which would of 
itself have made him conspicuous as a parliamentarian, had not that talent been over- 
shadowed by his renown in a more soberly illustrious though less dazzling career. Here, 
too, it was that he conceived that deep dread of disunion, and that profound conviction 
of the necessity for closer bonds between the states, which gave the coloring to the whole 
texture of his opinions upon federal politics in after-life. 

The constitution being adopted, Mr. Marshall was prevailed upon to serve in the 
legislature until 1792. From that time until 1795, he devoted himself exclusively to his 
profession. In 1795, when Jay's Treaty was " the absorbing theme of bitter contro- 
versy," he was elected to the House of Delegates, and his speech in its defence, says 
Judge Story, " has always been represented as one of the noblest efforts of his genius. 

His vast powers of reasoning were displayed with the most gratifying success 

The fame of this admirable argument spread through the Union. Even with his poUti- 
cal enemies it enhanced the estimate of his character ; and it brought him at once to 
the notice of some of the most eminent statesmen who then graced the councils of the 
nation," 

Soon after he, with Messrs. Pinkney and Gerry, were sent by President Adams as 
envoys extraordinary to France. The Directory refused to negotiate, and though the 
direct object of the embassy failed, much was effected by the official papers the envoys 
addressed to Talleyrand, her minister of foreign relations, in showing France to be in 
the wrong. These papers — models of skilful reasoning, cle&r illustration, accurate de- 
tail, and urbane and dignified moderation — have always been attributed to Marshall, and 
bear internal marks of it. Such was the impression made by the dispatches, that on the 
arrival of Mr. Marshall in New York, in June, 1798, his entry had the eclat of a tri- 
umph. A public dinner was given to him by both houses of congress, " as an evidence 
of affection for his person, and of their grateful approbation of the patriotic firmness with 
which he sustained the dignity of his country during his important mission ;" and the 
country at large responded with one voice to the sentiment pronounced at this celebra- 
tion : " Millions for defence, but not a cent for tribute.^' 

Mr. Marshall was elected to Congress in 1799. He had been there not three weeks, 
when it became his lot to announce the death of Washington. Never could such an 
event have been told in language more impressive or more appropriate. " Mr. Speaker, 
— The melancholy event, which was yesterday announced with doubt, has been rendered 
too certain. Our Washington is no more ! The hero, the patriot, and the sage of America ; 
the man on whom in times of danger every eye was turned, and all hopes were placed, 
lives now only in his own great actions, and in the hearts of an affectionate and afHicted 
people," (fee, &c. 

That House of Representatives abounded in talent of the first order for debate ; and 
none were more conspicuous than John Marshall. Indeed, when the law or constitu- 
tion were to be discussed, he was, confessedly, the first man in the house. When he 
discussed them, he exhausted them ; nothing more remained to