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Contrasting the Ohio of 1816 with 1886-90 

From Drawings by the Author in 1846 and Photographs Taken 

Solely for it in 1886, 1887, 1888, 1889, and 1890, of 

Cities and Chief Towns, Public Buildings 

STOrio Localities, MoNUivrENTS, 

Curiosities, Antiquities, 

Portraits, Maps, 





Volume II. 







Adena, Seat of Gov. Worthington 501 

Akron School System 636 

Alder Among the Indians 169 

Alder, Jonathan 168 

Alger, Gen. Russell A 210 

Allen, Gov. William 516 

Alliance Disaster 622 

Allison, Senator Wm. B 831 

Among the Graves 81 

Ancient Relics 118, 2.55, 350 

Ancient Works 411, 7.53, 787 

Anderson, Gov. Chas 298 

Andrevps, Rev.Dr. I. W 804 

Andrews' Raid 841 

Anecdotes of Corwin 761 

Animal Intelligence 120 

Appleseed, Johnny 484 

Ashley, Hon. J. M 162 

Attack on Fort Recovery 232 

Atwater, Caleb 416 

An Early Traveler's Visit to Granville.. 79 

An Educational Hero 653 

An Immigrant's Experiences 893 

An Indian's Sense of Honor 101 


Bacon, Delia 651 

Bacon, Rev. David, Missionary and Col- 
onizer 643 

Bacon, Rev. Dr. Leonard 651 

Badger, Rev. Joseph 662 

Baldwin, Hon. Michael 518 

Bancroft, H. H 89 

Bartley, Gov. Mordecai ... 489 

Battle near Fort St. Clair 452 

" Battle of Point Pleasant," Song 411 

Beall, Gen. Reasin 828 

Beard, James H 52 

Beard, Wm.H 52 

Between-the-Logs 892 

Bigot, Rev. Wm ., 605 

Birchard, Sardis..., 550 

Big Sycamore 8S5 

Birds of Ohio 418 

Black Hand Narrows 93 

Blennerhassetts, The 795 

Blue Rock Mine Disaster 341 

Brady, the Indian Fighter 440 

Brave Judge, A 696 

Brayton Mystery 892 

Brice, Senator Calvin S 321 

Briggs, Dr. Caleb 64 

Brinkerhoff, Gen. Roeliff 483 

Brinkerhoff, Judge Jacob 489 

British Duplicity 140 

Bromine, Manufacture of. 699 

Brown, John, of Osawatomie, 646 

Brown, John Porter.... 518 

Brown, the Counterfeiter 682 

Browniee, Judge James 184 

Bonser, Major Isaac- 567 

" Boston Bankers " 442 

Bosworth, SaJa , 804 

Buchtel College 637 

Buckingham, Ebenezer S39 

Buckingham, Alvah 839 

Buckland, Gen. R. P 651 

Buell, Gen. Don Carlos 806 

Building of Fort Meigs 851 

Burley Trial at Port Clinton S60 

Burlingame, Hon. Anson 579 

Burlington Storm 66 

Burning a Bewitched Horse 57 

Burning of Col. Crawford 879 

Bushnell, Dr. Wm 484 


Campbell, John 63 

Campbell, Judge John V 448 

Campbell, Mrs. Mary Small 754 

Campus Martins , 781 

Capture and Suicide of a Fugitive Slave 277 

Cass, Gov. Lewis 338 

Catholic Church, Oldest in Ohio 384 

Cattle Business 511 

Celeron DeBienville's Expedition. ..557, 597 

Chambers, Charles Julius 106 

Charcoal Furnaces 377 

Charities at the White House 547 

Children's Home 448, 811 

Children's Homes, Origin of. 811 

Claflin Family 87 

Clarke's Expedition 244 

Cholera 449, 726 

Coal andiron of Perry County 382 

Coal Mining in Mahoning County 181 

Coggshall, Wm. T 210 

Col. Ball's Skirmish 529 

Couily, Gen. James M 398 

Communist Settlement at Zoar 626 

Cox, Hon. S. S 338 

Cooke, Jay 368 

Cornstalk, The Indian Chief 408 

Corwin, Gov. Thomas 448 

County Seat Conflict 423 

Cox, Geu.J. D 675 

Cox, Kenyon 676 

Cooper, Daniel C 291 

Cradlebaugh, Judge John..... 417 

Crane Town 885 

Crawford's Campaign 875 

Crawford's Interview with Wingenund 878 

Creignton, Dr. William 517 

Crook, Gen. George.... 294 

CulpeperFlag 656 

Cumberland Road 331 

Curry, Col. James 704 

Curry, Otway 711 

Curtis, Gen. S. R 89 

Curtis, Henry B 89 

Cutler, Charles 801 




Cutler, Jervis ,.„...,.,... , 301 

Cutler, Judge Ephraim............. ...„„„.„ 801 

Cutler, Hon. Wm. P... „...,....„..„„..„„, 801 

Cutler, Rev Dr. Manasseh.,........„.o.„. 79& 

Day at Speigel Grove..... 531 

Dalzell, James M. ("Private").............. 355 

Davis, Dr. E. H... 510 

Dawes, Gen. R. R... 805 

Dawes, Gov. James W.... ...,„..,...., 314 

Dean Rafts 665 

" Devil's Tea Table " 306 

Devoll, Capt. Jonathan 803 

Dickeus, Charles, at Upper Sandusky.. 900 

Discourse on Salt 219 

Double-IIeaded Baby 318 

Douglass, Richard 518 

Driesbach, Herr, the Lion Tamer......... 831 

Drinking Habits in old Times............ 817 

Drouth of 1838.. 155 

Drummer Boy of Shiloh .............. V3 

Duel of Gov. Lucas............. 568 

Dunlevy, Judge Francis 758 

Dunmore's Expedition........................ 404 


Early Experiences in the Scioto Valley 494 

Early Iron Trade 62 

Early Settlements and Incidents ......... 433 

Earthquakes..., 277 

Eaton, Gen. John..... 805 

Eckert, Gen.T. T 830 

Edwards, John M. ....................... ........ 442 

Edwards, Rev. William........................ 692 

Elliott, Capt.................. 401 

Elkins, Hon. Stephen B 398 

Elm, ChiUicothe............ 514 

Elm, Logan ........ 410 

Elm, Marietta...... 815 

Ely, Seneca W 509 

Emigration of 1817-18. 666 

?:mmitt, Hon. James........................... 420 

Erection of Fort Harmar .................... 778 

Ewing, Mrs. Catherine Fay ................. 812 

Execution of Deserters........ 499 

"Exiles," Poem......... 211 

Experience of Col. Cans..................... 672 

Experience of the Kellys 57 

Fairchild, Gen. Lucius... 442 

Fallen Timbers, Battle of.. 137 

Father Wilson 388 

Fearing, Gen. B. D 805 

Forts (Ancient, 770), (Harmar, 778), 
(Laurens, 692), (Loramie, 594), 
(Meigs, 851), (Seneca 572), (St. Clair, 
452), (Stephenson or Sandusky, 523) . 

Finley, Rev. J. B ....456, 890 

Finney, Rev. Chas. G 134 

First Discovery of Petroleum 353 

First Laws in Ohio 792 

First Library iti Ohio 792 

First Mail to the Reserve 663 

First Oil Well in Ohio 353 

First Steamer on the Muskingum 309 

First White Child Born in Ohio 688 

Flagg. Hon. Wni. J 571 

Flint Ridge 93 

Floating Mills 312 

Forests, Cutting Down 380 


Foster, Secretary Charles 579, 590 

Four Spies............... 659 

Fourth of July Celebrations 569, 728, 791 

" Frailty's Shield," Poem. 212 

French Grant 565 

French Settlers, Characteristics of 565 

Friendship of Mrs. Hayes 546 

Fuller, Francis 829 

Fuller, Gen, John W 160 

Fuller, Metta.... 830 


Gage, Mrs. Frances Dana 806 

Garfield, President James A 45 

Garner Case 794 

Gas, Oil, Lime, etc 871 

German Catholic Community 605 

Gibraltar, A Visit to 364 

Gibson, Gen. Wm. H 577 

Gilmore.Col.Wm. E 510 

Gilmore, Gen. Q. A 134 

Girls Stolen by Indians 457 

Glass, A. M. Francis 293 

Gnadenhutten Monument 687 

Goddard, Gen. Chas. B 338 

" Governor Tod," Song 709 

Graded Way 421 

Grand Army Veterans 670 

Granger Family..... 339 

Grant, Jesse.... 439 

Greeley's Influence on the Reserve 673 

Greentown Indians 475 

Grimke, Judge Frederick 514 

Hagan, Rev. John J.... 692 

Hamilton, Capt. H. C 710 

Hancock, Dr, Johu 518 

Hanging Rock Iron Region 59 

Harris, Bishop Wm. H 489 

Harrison Convention at Dayton, 1840... 289 

Harrison, Peril of ." 573 

Harter^ Hon, M. D 483 

Harvey, Prof. Thomas W 54 

Hayes, Ex-Pres. R. B 523, 536 

Hayes, Speech of Gen..... 372 

Hayes, Mrs. Lucy Webb 511, 541 

Heckewelder, Maria 691 

Heckewelder, Rev. John G. E 689 

Hendricks, Col. Geo. D 449 

Hendricks, Vice-Pres. Thos. A 337 

Heroic Adventures of the Johnson Boys 263 

Heroism and Agility of Kennan 229 

Hewitt, The Hermit 428 

Hildreth, Dr. S. P 803 

Hill, Gen. Chas. W 160 

Hillman, Col. James 173 

Hinckley Hunt 203 

Hinsdale, Prof. B. A 210 

Hog Stories 664 

Home in the Wilderness 465 

Horton, Hon. Valentine B 217 

Horton, Samuel D 218 

How the First Settlers Came to Ohio... 787 

Hood, Walter C 398 

Hoops and Staves, How Made 376 

Hudson's Settlement on the Reserve 626 

Huford, Alexander 613 

Humorous Versification 523 

Humphrey, Gov. L. U 621 

Huntington, Gov. Samuel 233 


niflFJohnW 398 

Indian Council on Death of Tarhe 884 

" Indian Death Song" 765 

Indian Decoy Boats 558 

Indian Execution for Witchcraft 574 

Indian Gratitude 437 

Indian Trails 437, 821 

Indian Treaties 574 


Jewett, Hon. Hugh J 337 

Johnston, Col. John 259 

Jones, Tom 84 

Tung, Rev. Michael G92 

Jungmau, Rev. John G 692 


Keel-Boats, How Manned 561 

Kent, Marvin 443 

Kenton., Anecdotes of Simon 885 

Keyes. James 567 

Klippart,Prof.J.H 618 

Knight, Dr. Edw. H 107 

Knowles, Wm 87 

Kountz, John S 163 

Ladd, Rev. Dr. G. T.. 54 

Lakeside, A Visit to 369 

Langham's Desperate Enterprise 852 

Langston, Prof. John M 135 

Laselle, Antoiue 145 

Last Indian Treaty in Ohio 882 

Last Revolutionary Soldier 356 

Lawrence, Judge William 108 

Legend of Duncan Falls 346 

Legend of Roche de Boeuf. 155 

Legend of Veronica ^. 388 

"Let's Shake," Poem.. 774 

Lieut. Lowry 453 

Limestone Quarries 447 

Little Turtle, The Indian Chief. 454 

Live Stock Sales at Londan 165 

Locke, David R. (Petroleum Nasby) 162 

Log-Cabin Campaign 707 

Log-Cabin Song 708 

Logan's Expedition 98 

Logan, Last Years of. 410 

Logan's Speech 406 

Loramie, Peter 593 

Loramie Portgage and Reser\'oir 606 

Lorraine's Narrative 858 

Lost Children 840 

Lost in the Woods 132 

Louis Phillippe, King of France 329 

Lucas, Gov. Robert 420 

Lutz, Samuel 418 

MacGahan, Januarius Aloysius 394 

Madeira, Col. John... 512 

Magnetic Springs 705, 718 

Mails and Supplies for Pioneers 208 

" Make it Four, Yer Honor," Poem 443 

Manderson, Sen. Chas. F 621 

Manor, Uncle Pete 153 

Mansfield, E. D 765 

Mansfield, Col. Jared 476 

Marietta Centennial 

Marietta College 

Marietta Society at an Early Day 

Marquis, Hon. Wm. V...... 

Massie, Gen. Nathaniel ..502, 

Match Industry 

Medill, Hon. Joseph 

Meigs, Gov. Return J onathan 

Mineral Water 

Mob, Market House 

Mode of Clearing off Virgin Forests. .. 

Monster Grape Vine 

Moravian Missions 

Moravian Mission 

Moravian Missionaries 

Moravian Missionary, First in Ohio 

Morehouse, Gov. Albert P 

Morgan's Raid.. 220, 

Mormons, The.. 

Morrow, Gov. Jeremiah 

Morse, Hon. John F 

Mortimer, Rev. Benj 

" Morns Wulticaulis Mania" 

Mother Solomon 

Mott, Hon. Richard 

Mound Cemetery 

Mount Union College 

Murder of Waw-wil-a-way 

Muskingum River Improvement 

McArthur and Davis, Adventure of 

McArthur, Gov. Duncan 

McCartney, Dan'l, The Memory Prodigy 

McDonald, Col. John 

McDowell's Story 

McGregor, Archibald 

Mclntire, John 

McKee, Col.... • 

McKinley, Jr., Maj. William 

McLean, Justice John 

McPherson, Gen. James B 

McPherson, James... 

National. Normal University.. 

Natural Bridge 

Navarre, Peter 

Nettle Shirts., 

Neutral Nation...... 521 

Newark Earthworks 71 

Newberry, Dr. John S 652 

Nicksaw, Death of... 436 

Noble, "Judge" Calvin L •• 376 

Nye's Reminiscences..... 783 

Oberlin College... 125 

Ohio Canal, Opening of. 71 

Ohio Eagle ■ 509 

Ohio and Michigan War.... 149 

Ohio Southern Boundary Line 722 

Oil, Gas and Salt 308 

Okey, Judge J. W 264 

Old Constitution Table 509 

Old Portage...... - 626 

Old Salt Works 659 

Old State Capitol 509 

Omish Settlement 464 

Ordinance of 1787 783 

Palaeolithic Man in Ohio 679 

Parsons, Rev. Charles C — 135 



Patterson, Col. Robert.............. 270 

Patrick, Judge James 682 

Paulding, John. 374 

Paulding Reservoir, Destructon of. 379 

Peninsula, The 359 

Pennsylvania and Ohio Canal 637 

Perilous Adventure of Capt. Benham... 741 

Perkins, Hon. Henry B 675 

Perkins, Gen. Simon 673 

Perkins, Jacob 675 

Perkins, Simon 675 

Perry, Commodore O. H 398 

Perry's Victory 362 

Piatt, Col. Donn 113 

Piatt, Col. Jacob 109 

Piatt, Gen. A.Sanders Ill 

Piatt, John James..... 112 

Piatt, Judge Benjamin N 110 

Piatt, Mrs. Louise Kirby 115 

Piatt, Mrs. Sarah M. B 113 

Pickawillauy 597 

Pickaway Plains 401 

Pike, Gen. Z. B 420 

Pioneer Incidents 838 

Pioneer Pastor 89 

Pioneer Railroad of the West...... 156 

Pioneer Reminiscences 468 

Plimpton, Florus B...... 443 

Poe, Adam, The Indian Fighter..... 826 

" Poetic Miscellany and World's Won- 
der" 551 

Post, Rev. Christian Frederick 689 

Pugh, Achilles , 769 

Putnam, Gen. Rufus 797 

, The Portsmouth. 564 


Race Hatred........... 427 

Rtilroads, Value of... 156 

Rarey, John S., the Horse Tamer.. 833 

Real Bear Story '. 838 

Recollections of Mrs. Charlotte E. 

Bothwell 933 

Recollectinos of Pioneer Times 424 

Recollections of Yamoyden 765 

Refugee Tract 67 

Reminiscences of Abraham Thomas.... 325 
Reminiscences of W. Willshire Riley.... 723 

Renick, Felix 512 

Rescue Case, Oberlin-Wellington 131 

Reservoir, Mercer County 238 

Ride in a Caboose 447 

Riddle, Hon. A. G 443 

Riley, Capt. James 721 

Riley, James Watson 237 

Riot, The Granville.. 80 

Rohn-yen-ness and Poe................ 889 

Rosecrans, Gen 86 

Rosecrans, Bishop 86 

Roth, Rev. John 691 

Royce, Pres. James E 89 

Running Fight with Indians 608 

Running the Gauntlet 530 

Rusk, Sec'yJ. M 314 

Ryan, Hon, Daniel J...... 570 


Sacrificing Dogs to the Great Spirit.575, 664 
Sad Fate of Richard Dillingham.......... 319 

Safford, Judge William H..... 619 

" Sainclaire's Defeat," a Song 231 

Sand Ridges.................... 133 

Saud Ridges 720 

Sargent, Major Winthrop... 803 

Saxton,John... 614 

Scene at the Death of Corwin 763 

Schenck, Rev. John J 692 

Schenck, Commodore J. F 198 

Schenck, Gen. Robt. C 297 

" Scioto Company".. 76 

Scott, Jessup W 160 

Scott, Judge Thomas 517 

Scott, Hon. James 769 

Second Siege of Fort Meigs 867 

Senseman, Rev. Gottlieb 692 

Settlement at Portsmouth in 1785 560 

Sewer Pipe Industry 634 

Shaker Community....... 750 

Shawnoese and Wyandot Vocabularies.. 600 

Shearer, Hon. John H 717 

Sheridan, Gen. Phil 387, 389 

Sheridan's Ride 392 

Sherman, Senator John 480, 487 

Sherwood, Gen. I. R....... 620 

Sherwood, Mrs. Kate Brownlee 184 

Siege of F^ort Laurens........... 694 

Siege of Fort Meigs.... 855 

Slave, Protection to a. 709 

Sloane, Hon. John....... 829 

Sleigh Rides, The Great...... 209 

Smith, The Mormon Prophet.. /87 

Smith and Rigdon Tarred and Feath- 
ered 445 

Smith, Gen. Wm. Sooy 519 

Smith, Hon. Wm. Henry..... 711 

Smith's Narrative 580 

Smucker, Hon. Isaac 89 

Snake Stories ........566, 655, 660 

Snake Stories ..........77, 187, 243 

Soldiers' Home, The National.............. 286 . 

Soldiers' Memorial, Sidney 597 

Soldier's Memorial, Akron ........ 636 

Soldiers' Memorial Chapel, Marion 192 

Soldiers' Memorial, Toledo .... 158 

Soldiers' Reunion 357 

Spafford Exchange Hotel 869 

Sproat, Col. Ebenezei 803 

Squire, Ephraim G 510 

Squire Brown and the Slave Hunters... 663 

Stable in a Hollow Tree 515 

Stage Coach Journey Across Ohio 193 

Standing Stone... 442 

Stanton, Hon. Benj..... 106 

State Seal 515 

St. Clair's Defeat.......... 223 

Stewart, John, the Missionary 889 

Steedman, Gen. J. B 159 

Stigwanish, The Indian Chief. 42 

Stratton, H. D 135 

Strawn, Jacob 398 

Storrs, Rev. Dr. Henry M 650 

Stow, Joshua... 654 

Story of a Bell..... 869 

Story, Rev. Daniel - 799 

Sturges, Solomon .- 339 

" Success to you, Tom Corwin," Song... 293 

Summit City - . . 637 

Sum-mun-de-wat, the Indian Chief. 888 

Sutliff, Judge Milton 676 

Swamp, The Black 470 

Sword Presented to Maj. Crogan. ........ 499 

Sycamore of Fifteen Horsemen 568 

System of Local Government. 794 


Tallmadge, the Christian Colony 635 

Tappau, Senator Benj 433, 438, G27, 698 

Taylor, Judge Ezra B...... 677 

Thanksgiving at the White House.... .. 544 

"The Great Hereafter," Poem 711 

" The Teacher's Dream," Poem 773 

" The Bloom was on the Alder and the 

Tassel on the Corn," Poem.... . 116 

" The Bronze Statue of Washington," 

Poem 116 

"The Hour Glass," Poem 211 

Thomas, Miss Edith M 211 

Thomson, Bishop Edward 829 

Thurman, Judge Allen G 515 

Tiffin, Gov. Edw 499 

" Tippecanoe and Tyler, too," Song 708 

Tod, Gov. David 182 

Tomahawk Improvements..... 792 

Trees, Famous 350 

Trees, Great ... 815 

Trumbull Family 657 

Tupper, Gen. Benj 803 

Tupper, Maj. Anselm , ........... 803 

"Turchin's Thieves " .. , . 937 

Underwood's Narrative...,..., 
United States Bank Contest. 

Vanausdal's Store... 451 

Van Cleve, Benj..„...... 291 

Van Cleve, John W............. ....- 292 

Van Horn, Gen. Isaac 338 

Venable, Dr. W H 772 

Vinton, Hon. S. F 731 

Virginia Military District.,......: 401 

Wabash and Erie Canal 

Waggoner. Clark 

Waite, Justice M. R 

Wakatoniaca Campaign 

Ward, Gen. Durbin 

Ward, Mrs. Fannie B 

Wayne. Gen. Anthony 

Wayne's Spies 

Wells, Capt. William 

West, Judge Wm. H 

Western Reserve Academy 

" When My Ship Comes Home," Poem.. 

" When We Saw Thee," Poem 

White, Hon. Samuel 

White, Maj. Haffield 

Whipple, Commodore Abraham 

Whistler. Capt. John 

Whittlesey, Hon. Elisha 

Why Gov. St, Clair was Removed 

Williams, David ... 

Wine Islands of Lake Erie 

Worthington, Gov. Thomas 

Working Home for the Blind 

Wood, Gen. Thos. J 

Woods, Justice Wm. B 

Woods, Gen. C. R 

Wooster University 

Wright, Col. Crafts 

Wright, Judge John C 696, 

Wyandot Execution 

Wyandot Indians, History of. - 

Wyandot Mission > 

Young. Gen. Chas. L 

Zaue, Isaac 

Zeisberger, Rev. David.. 


Cities, Towns and Villages 




Adamsville ..,.............= 349 

Adelphi 519 

Adrian 592 

Akron 631 

Alexandria 97 

Alliance ...... 621 

Anna 606 

Antwerp 381 

Apple Creek 844 

Ashville ...... 418 

Attica 592 


Bainbridge. 519 

Bairdstown...... .................................. 884 

Batesville 358 

Beach City 625 

Beallsville. ................................... ...... 269 

Beavertown........ 432 

Belmore...... 473 

Belpre 829 

Belle Center.............................. ........ 117 

Bellefontaine... 104 

Bellville............ ............... .................. 490 

Berlin .... ....................... ,„..„......... 607 

Bettsville........................ ............ ........ 592 

Beverly.............................................. 829 

Blake's Mills....................................... 703 

Bloomfield. ................. ........ 678 

Bloomville 592 

Bolivar............ 703 

Bowling Green 880 

Bradford 260 

Bradner. 883 

Broadway ., 718 

Brookville........... 302 

Bryan 846 

Buena Vista.. 571 

Burlington... 63 

Burbank 844 

Butlerville 776 


Calais.......................... 269 

Caledonia ........................................ 198 

Caldwell 351 

Camden 462 

Cameron 269 

Canal Dover. 699 

Canal Fulton 624 

Canton 610 

Canfield............. 187 

Cardington...... 323 

Carey 911 

Carroll.... 372 

Casstown 260 

Cecil 381 


Celina.... 236 

Centerville (Morrow Co.)............ 323 

Centerville (Montgomery Co.) 302 

Chambersburg. 302 

Chester.... 221 

Chesterfield 314 

Chillicothe...... 495 

Chippewa Lake 212 

Circleville 411 

Clarington.. 269 

Clarksburg.,.. 520 

Clinton 655 

Clyde 556 

Coldwater 243 

Columbus Grove 473 

Commercial Point.. 419 

Congress. 844 

Convoy 730 

Copley Centre 655 

Corning...... 399 

Cortland 678 

Covington 259 

Creston 844 

Cuyahoga Falls. 646 


Dague „. 381 

Dalton 844 

Darbyville 419 

Dayton.. 279 

Deavertown .•:.. 314 

De Graff 117 

Delphos 730 

Dennison 702 

Dexter City.. 358 

Doylestown ... 844 

Dresden.. 348 

Dupont 473 


Eagleport 314 

Eaton 448 

Edgerton 857 

Edinburg 445 

Edison.... 323 

Edon 857 

Eldorado 463 

Elmore 372 

Elyria 120 


Fairport 43 

Farmersville 302 

Fort Jennings 474 

Fort Seneca. ........ 592 

Foster's Crossings................. 776 

Fostoria 590 





Freeport .....>.... 

Fremont ..- • 


Garrettsville ■•■ ^^^ 

Galena "'^ 

Genoa • 372 

Germantown fl\ 

Gibsonburg • °^% 

Gilboa .-• 473 

Girard. • ^vJ 

Glandorf • • 474 

Gnadenhutten , '"^ 

Grafton i5° 

Grand Rapids 


Graysville , 

Green Camp 

Green Spring 

Greentown •• 





Hanging Rock „ 


Hardin .•••• 


Hartford • 

Harveysburg = l'^ 

Haskins ^°i 

Hebron - 

Hiram • 

Homer • ■•-' «° 

Hubbard • •••"••• 678 

Hudson ■ -Ht 

Huntersville - 299 

Huntsville- • •• •• ^^^ 

Independence 490 

Ironton • ''" 


Jersey City ...., 


Johnsville ...... 

Junction City. 


Kalida • 

Kent ^^^ 

King's Mills 776 

•Kingston 519 

Kinsman -"= 



La Grange., 

La Rue 

Lakeside .. 

Latty ,, 

Lebanon ... 

Lena- , 

Lewisburg -......., 463 

Lexington... 490 

Limaville 624 

Liudsey 556 

Liverpool 212 

Lockington 606 

Lodi.... 212 

London KJ* 

Lorain - .■.-. 135 

Louisville 624 

Lowell 829 

Lowellville 188 

Lower Newport 829 

Lucas 490 

Lucasville 571 

McArthur 736 

Macksburg 829 

Madison 54 

Magnetic Springs 718 

Magnolia 625 

Maineville 776 

Malta 306 

Manchester 655 

Mansfield 477 

Mantua 445 

Mantua Station 445 

Mapleton 625 

Marengo ••••• 323 

Marion • 190 

Marietta .- 784 

Marlboro 625 

Marseilles 911 

Marshallville 844 

Marysville 705 

Mason 776 

Massillon 615 

Matamoras 829 

Maumee Cit^ 145 

McConnellsville 305 

Medina .............. 200 

Mercer...... 243 

Mendon 243 

Mentor..,.. — 64 

Miamisburg. 299 

Middlebury 635 

Middlepoint 730 

Middleport ,. 221 

Midway ,, — ............................ 174 

Millbury 884 

Millersport .......=......... 64 

Milford Centre ................................... 718 

Mineral City 703 

Minersville 221 

Mineral Ridge.................................... 678 

Mt. Giiead."'.r.r.r.r.'.r.r.*.!'.°.r.r.r.'."... ....... 316 

Mt. Sterling............................. 174 

Mogadore 656 

Montpelier „ 857 

Montra 006 

Morrow 774 

Mount Eaton ., ................=....- 844 

Mount Union .„„.„-...».... ...- 624 

Murdoch . ....................... 776 


National Soldier's Home., 

Navarre ,...,..;,.... 


New Berlin 


Newcomerstown 703 

New Bloomington 198 

New Concord 347 

New Franklin , 625 

New Holland 418 

New Lebanon 302 

New Lexington 393 

New Paris 463 

New Philadelphia 694 

New Riegel 592 

New Straitsville 399 

Newton Falls 678 

Nevada 911 

Niles 677 

North Amherst 129 

North Baltimore 883 

North Lawrence 624 

Oak Harbor 372 

Oakwood 381 

Oberliu 124 

Orrville 843 

Osnaburg 625 

Ottawa 467 

Seville 212 

Shane's Crossings 242 

Shanesville... „ 703 

Shawnee 399 

Shelby 490 

Shiloh 490 

Shreve 844 

Sidney 594 

Somerset.......... 386 

Somerford ........... 174 

South Bloomfield...., 418 

South Salem „ 520 

South Solon .....^. ...... 174 

Sparta.......... 323 

Springboro. 775 

Springdale 33 

Stafford... 269 

Sterling 844 

Stryker... , 857 

Sycamore.. 911 

St Henry 243 

Stockport 314 

Summerfield 358 

Sylvania 162 

Syracuse 221 

PainesviUe 41 

Palmyra 446 

Pataskala 96 

Paulding 375 

Payne 381 

Pemberville 883 

Peninsula 656 

Perrysburg 878 

Petersburg o............... ........ 188 

Piketon 420 

Pioneer ....o...... 857 

Piqua 248 

Plain City 173 

Pleasant Hill 260 

Plymouth 490 

Poland 187 

Pomeroy .... 217 

Port Clinton 360 

Port Jefferson 606 

Port Washington ,. 702 

Portsmouth 562 

Proctorville 64 

Prospect 198 

Put-In-Bay 372 


Quincy 117 

Racine 221 

Randolph 446 

Ravenna 433 

Rendville 400 

Republic 592 

Richfield 656 

Richwood 718 

Ridgeville 775 

Rising Sun 884 

Roseville 348 

Rushsylvania 117 

Tallmauge.... 656 

Tarlton 419 

Taylorsville 348 

Three Locusts............... 198 

Thornport... 400 

Thornville... 400 

Tiffin 576 

Tippecanoe .........; 259 

Toledo 148 

Tontogany 883 

Townsend 556 

Troy 247 

Twinsburg 656 


Uhrichsville 702 

Unioutown 349 

Uniontown 625 

Unionville 718 

Upper Newport 829 

Upper Sandusky 895 

Utica 96 

Vanda]ia._ , ,. 302 

Van Wert... 720 



Sarah sville ... 
Sciotoville ... 


Waldo 198 

Warren 669 

Washingtonville 188 

Waterford 829 

Waverly 424 

Waynesburg 624 

Waynesville 775 

Wellington 131 

Weston a83 

West Alexandria 463 

Westchester V03 

WestElkton ......„,..,.... 463 

Western Star 056 

West Salem , 844 

West Union . 867 



West Jefferson 174 

West Liberty 117 

West Mansfield 117 

West Middleburg 117 

West Milton 260 

Wharton 911 

Wheelersburg 572 

Whisler 419 

Wilkesviile 739 

Williamsport 418 

Wi'loughby 34 

Willshire 730 

Wilmot (i24 

Winchester 403 



Windham 446 

Woodsfield 264 

Woodville 656 

Wooster... 832 

York 718 

Youngstown 178 


Zauesfield . 
Zanesville . 


(lake to ^\^'ANDOT.) 


Lake 33 

Lawrence 56 

Licking 65 

Logan 97 

Lorain 118 

Lucas 136 

Madison 164 

Mahoning , 176 

Marion 189 

Medina 199 

Meigs , ... 213 

Mercer 222 

Miami 243 

Monroe 260 

Montgomery 270 

Morgan 303 

Morrow 315 

Muskingum 324 

Noble 349 

Ottawa 359 

Paulding 373 

Perry 382 

Pickaway 400 


Pike 419 

Portage 432 

Preble 446 

Putnam 464 

.Richland 474 

Ross 491 

Sandusky 520 

Scioto 557 

Seneca 572 

Shelby 593 

Stark 607 

Summit 625 

Trumbull 657 

Tuscarawas 679 

Union 704 

Van Wert 719 

Vinton 731 

Warren 740 

Washington , 777 

Wayne 830 

Williams..., 845 

Wood 858 

Wyandot 885 





Adena r,00 

Akron iu 184(i.., 033 

Akron in 1886 633 

Alder, Jonathan, Cabin of. 171 

Alger, Hon. Russell A 210 

Allen, Gov Wni., Portrait of . 503 

Alliance Disaster 303 

Allison, Senator Wni. B., Portrait of..... 841 

Amherst Quarries , 130 

Ancient Works at Newark 68 

Ancieni Fortifications at Circleville 414 

Ancient Works at Mariettn 788 

Andrews, Rev Dr. I. W., Portrait of..... 844 
Appleseed Johnnie 484 

Bacon, Rev. David, Portrait of 638 

Bacon Monument 638 

Banner of the Golden Wedding 92 

Baptist College at Granville 78 

Battles of the Mauniee, Plan of. 139 

Beard, James H 53 

Between-the-Logs, portrait of. 901 

Bee Hive Factory 202 

Bellefontaine in 1846 103 

Bellefontaine in 1886.. 103 

Big Sycamore Tree 796 

Birchard Librarj- . .524 

Birthplace of Vice-Pres. Hendricks 327 

Blennerhasselt, Herman, Portrait of..... 808 

Blennerhassett Mansion 805 

Blue Mine Disaster, Scene of 343 

Bowling Green.. , 882 

Brady's Leap , 441 

Brady's Pond ..^ 441 

Brier Hill Furnace , 180 

Brice, .Senator Calvin S 322 

Brinkerhoff, Gen. RoelifF, Portrait of 482 

Brown John, of Ossawatomie, Portrait of 648 

Brownlce, Judge James 184 

Brownlee, Kate Sherwood 184 

Bryan in 1886., 847 

Bryan in 1890 847 

Buckhorn Cottage 620 

Buckland, Gen. R. P., Portrait of. 551 

Buell, Gen. D. C, Portrait of. 816 

Caldwell 352 

Campbell, Gov. James E 904 

Campbell, John 58 

Campus Martins 780 

Canton m 1846 611 

Canton in 1886 611 

Capital, First State 508 

Celina in 1890.. 235 

Children's Home 823 

Chilhrothe in 1846 497 

Chillicothe Court-House .... 508 

Church, The Old 115 

Church, Rev. Dr. Cutler's 795 

Circleville in 1846 .. .. 413 

Circleville in 1886 413 

Circleville, Birdseye View, 1836 412 

Clem, Johnnie, Drummer Boy of Sliiloh 92 

Coal Mines nt Shawnee... » 883 

Corwin, Gov Thomas, Portrait of 747 

Corwiu Door Knocker 747 

Corwin Mansion 747 

Country School-House 771 

Cooke, Jay, Portrait of. .... 366 

Cooper Female Academy 281 

Cox, Hon. S. S 338 

Cox, Gen J D.. Portrait of.. 674 

Crawford's Battle-Grouud .. 891 

Crawford's Monument , 891 

Crook, Gen. George 295 

Curry, Otway, Portrait of 713 

Cutler, Judge Ephraim, Portrait of. 812 

Culler, Rev. Dr. Manasseh, Portrait of.. 810 

Cuyahoga Falls 647 

Cuyahoga Falls, Ravine at 647 

Dalzell, Private 356 

Dayton, Central View, 1846 279 

Dayton, Residence Street, 1846 280 

Dayton, Public Buildings in 189) 285 

Dayton, Public Library 286 

Dennison University 78 

Devil's Tea Table 310 

Double-Headed Baby 317 

Dover in 1846 699 

Driesbach, Hcrr, Portrait of 842 

Dueber-Hampden Watch Factories 616 

Eaglesport 310 

Eaton in 184G 450 

Eaton in 18Wt 450 

Elm, The Chillicothe 613 

Elm, The Logan 409 

Elyria in 1846 122 

Elyriainl886 122 

Emigrating to New Connecticut 668 

Emlen Institute 241 

Episcopal Female Academy at Granville 78 
Ewing, Mrs. C. F., Portrait of.... 823 

Farmer's Castle 1S3 

Finley, Rev. J. B., Portrait of. 457 

First Millstones and Salt Kettle iu Ohio 818 

Fort Ancient 764 

Fort Frve 783 

Fort Harmar 778 

Fort Meigs and Environs 864 

Fort Sanclusky and Environs 525 

Fort Sandusky, Plan of 525 

Fostoria 691 

Foster, Sec'y Charles, Portrait of.. ... 591 
Fragment of Shell, Length and Breadth 672 

Fragment of Shell, Thickness 672 

Franklin in 1846 756 


Garfiei'l, Antop^aph of Pres. J. A +4 

Garfield, Pres. J. A_ 44 

Garfield School House— „ 343 

Garfield Study._ 47 

Germantowu i'a 184« „ 300 

Gibraltar from Put-In-Bay „ 3«*> 

Gibson, Gen. W. H^ Portrait of.„ 579 

Gilmore, Gen. Q. A_ _ 134 

Graded Way, The _ 422 

Granvil'e Female College™. 78 

Gran\-ille, First House in — _._ 77 

Gray, John 352 

Gray, John, Grave of_ „ 352 

Gnadenhutten Monument ~ 683 

Hannar from the Virginia Shore 826 

Harter, Hon. 3L D., Portrait of. 482 

Hayes, Gen. R. B., Portrait of „ 536 

Haves, Lncy Webb, Portraitof. _ 536 

Haves Home, Plan of. „ _ 533 

Heckewelder, Rev. John _ 690 

Heckewelder, Johanna Maria 690 

Hec!a Furnace ™ 58 

Hermit's Cave 429 

Hildreth, Dr. Samuel P., Portraitof. 814 

Hinckley Hunt, The Great. 205 

Hiram College - 444 

Hoop Pole Shanty.„ „ „.. 378 

Humphrey, Gov. Lyman C, Portrait of 621 

Ironton 61 

Jail, The Indian „ 908 

JeMrett, Hon Hugh J „ 337 

Johnston, CoL Johnl ~ 258 

Jones, Thos. D, Sculptor „ 88 

Jones, Thomas D , Monument at Welsh 

Hills Cemetery. 82 

Kennedy, Gen. Robt. P 106 

Kenton,' Simon, Grave of_ 105 

Klippart, Prof J. H., Portrait of. 618 

Kountz, John 3_ 163 

Lake Cuyahoga, Map of 623 

Lawufield, the Garfield Home. 44 

Lawrence, Judge WilUam.. 108 

Lebanon in 1345 744 

Lebanon in 18»6 744 

London in 1346. 166 

London in l^.'^ 166 

Lower Sandnsky (Fremonti _ 524 

LowrVs Monument. - 457 

Mac-O-Chee 115 

Male Academv at Granville 78 

Mansfield, E. D., Portrait of. 766 

Mansfield in li46 „ _ 479 

Mansfield in 1886 ._ 479 

Mansfield, CoL Jared, Portraitof. 482 

Marion in 1.846 _ 191 

Marion inl8S6 191 

Marietta and Harmar, 17s8._ 789 

ilarietia and Ha? mar, 1888 „... 789 

ilarietta College „ 785 

Marietta from West VTrgiuia Shore 785 

Massie, Gen. NathanieL Portrait of. 513 

Massillon in 1846 619 

Massillon in \h!if> _ _ 619 

Manmee City in 1S46_ 147 

Marvsvillein 1346 _ 706 

Mar^^inlle in 1886 7(J6 

Medill, Hon. Joseph, Portrait of. 620 

Medina Public Square in 1846 202 

Medina Public Square in 1886 202 

Meigs, Gov. Return J., Portrait of. _ 809 

Mercer Couutv Reservoir. _ 235 

Mercer, Gen. Hugh _ 222 

Miami County Court-House. 249 

Miamisbnrgin 1346. 300 

Miamisburg, Great Mound Near 300 

Middlebnry from Tallmadge Road _ 635 

Mononcne, Portrait of 901 

Morrow, Gov. ]eremiah. Portrait of..._ 756 

Mormon Temple at Kirtland. 36 

Mother Solomon 900 

Mound at Marietta. 791 

Mt. Oilead 317 

Muskingum College. „ 348 

McArthur, Gov. Duncan, Portrait of..._ 503 

McConnellsville in \M^ _ 307 

McConnellsville in 1886. 307 

Mclntire's Hotel 327 

McKinlev, Major Wm., Portraitof _ 617 

McKinW, Home of 617 

McLean, Judge John, Portrait of. 759 

McPherson, Gen.J. B., Portraitof - 554 

McPhersou Monument. 554 

Navarre, Peter 152 

X^arkin 184(5 75 

Newark in 1886. 75 

Newberrv, Dr. John S., Portrait of 653 

New Philadelphia in 1846 „ 695 

New Philadelphia in 1886.„ 695 

OberUn in 1846. 127 

Ohio in 130.5, Map 154 

Ohio Company's Office.™ — 796 

Ohio Valleys. 'Map of._ - 471 

Ottawa '. _ - 471 

Ottawa Countv Court-House 361 

Painesville in 1S46.„ „ 39 

PainesviUein 1336.... 39 

Patterson, CoL Robert. 295 

Paulding Furnace „ . 387 

Paj-ne, Senator Henry B., Portrait of. — 478 

Perkins, Gen. Simon, Portrait of. 674 

Perkins Homestead. _ 674 

Perry County Court-House, New Lex- 
ington. - 385 

Perry, Commodore O. H., Portrait of. — 385 

Perrvsburg - 882 

Piatt, Col. Jacob 109 

Piatt, Judge Benj. M 109 

Piatt, Gen. \. Sanders Ill 

Piatt, Sarah IL B_ U2 

Piatt, John J „ 112 

Piatt, CoL Donn 114 

Pi tt, Louise Kirby. 114 

Pickawav Plains, Map of. 402 

Piketon'in 1846 _ 429 

Pioneer Railroad of the West. 157 

Piqua in 1346 252 

Piqua in 1386 252 

Plimpton. Florus B., Portrait of — 444 

Port Clinton Lighthouse 861 

Portsmouth Landing in 1846 563 

Pomeroy, From Coal Mines. 216 

Pomeroy in 1336 — 216 

Presbyterian Female Seminary at Gran- 
ville 78 



Pugh, Achilles, Portrait of,... 

Putnam, Gen. Rufus, Portrait of., 

Putnam in 1846 

Putnam Female Seminary 

Township Roads, Plan of.. 
Two-Horn Church 


Ravenna in 1846 434 

Ravenna in 1886 434 

Riddle, Hon. A. G., Portrait of 444 

Rusk, Secretary Jeremiah 310 

Ryan, Hon. Daniel J., Portrait of. 570 

Schenck, Gen. Robert C. 

Scott, J. W 

Shakers Dancing., 


Shakespearian Epitaph 

Shephardson's Female College 78 

Sheridan, Gen. Philip, Portrait of 390 

Sheridan, Gen. Philip, Boyhood Homeof 390 
Sherman, Senator John, Portrait of..... 478 

Sherwood, Gen. I. R. .Portrait of 620 

Sidney in 1846 596 

Sidney in 1886 596 

Slab College at Oberlin 127 

Smith, Joseph, Portrait of 445 

Smith, Wm. Henry, Portrait of. 713 

Soldiers' Home, Birdseye View 288 

Soldier's Hospital, Mrs. Hayes in 543 

Soldiers' Memorial Building, Toledo 158 

Soldier's Memorial Building, Zanesville 336 

Somerset in 1846 385 

SpaflFord's Hotel 879 

Spiegel Grove 533 

Steadman, Jas. B 161 

St. Clair's Battlefield, plan of. 228 

St. Joseph's Church and Convent 384 

Table, The Old Constitution 500 

Thomas, Miss Edith 210 

Tiffin, Gov. Edward, Portrait of 500 

Tiffin in 1846 578 

Tiffin in 1886 578 

Toledo in 1846 147 

Tomb, The Piatt 115 

Troy in 1846 246 

Troy in 1886 246 

Union County Court-House 713 

Union Furnace and Village 60 

Upper Piqua 258 

Van Wert in 1886 722 

Venable, Dr W. H., Portrait of. 771 

Vinton County Court-House 735 

Vinton, Hon. S. F., Portrait of 735 

Waite, Chief-Justice M. R 161 

Ward, Gen. Durbin, Portrait of. 768 

Warren inl846 671 

Warren in 1886 671 

Waverlyin 1886 422 

Wayne's Battle-Ground 147 

Wedded Trees of the Great Miami 257 

Wellington, Central View 130 

West, judge Wm. H 106 

Western Reserve College 630 

Whipple, Commodore Abraham, Por- 
trait of 790 

Winter Quarters of Col. Hayes and Fam- 
ily 543 

Wilderness, A Home in the 466 

Willoughbyin 1846 36 

Wolf Creek Mills 800 

Worthington, Gov. Thomas, Portrait of 503 

Woods, Justice Wm. B 68 

Woodsfield in 1846 265 

Woodsfield in 1886 265 

Woosterin 1846 834 

Wooster in 1886 834 

Wyandot Mission Church, 1846 898 

Wyandot Mission Church, 1888 900 

Yamoyden 766 

Y Bridge at Zanesville 340 

Youngstown in 1846 181 

Youngstown in 1890 180 

Zanesville in 1846 332 

Zanesville in 1890 332 

Zoarin 1846 700 



Sketch of Gov. Campbell '. 904 

List of State Officers, 1890-1891 905 

List of Members of the Sixty-ninth General Assembly 905 

List of Members of the Fifty-first and Fifty-second Congress from Ohio 906 

List of Members of the Third State Constitutional Convention 907 

General Index to Counties, Cities and Villages, with Census of 1880 and 1890, with 
Volume and Page wherein Described. 



Lake Couxty was formed March 6, 1840, from Geauga and Cuyahoga, and 
so named from its bordering on Lake Erie. Tlie surface is more rolling than 
level ; the soil is good, and generally clayey loam, iuterspereed with ridges of 
sand and gravel. This county is peculiar for the quality and quantity of its 
fruit, as apples, pears, peaches, plums, grapes, etc. Its situation tends to the pres- 
ervation of the fruit from the early frosts, the warm lake winds often preventing 
its destruction, while that some twenty miles inland is cut off. 

Area about 215 square miles. In 1887 the acres cultivated were 55,817 ; 
in pasture, 38,401; woodland, 18,181 ; lying waste, 2,221 ; produced in wheat, 
81,789 bushels; rye, 14,942; buckwheat, 1,046; oats, 249,240 ; barley, 9,017 ; 
corn, 194,241; meadow hay, 15,949 tons; clover hay, 8,396; flaxseed, 5,321 
bushels; potatoes, 59,562 ; tobacco, 7,830 lbs. ; butter, 307,705 ; cheese, 166,372 ; 
sorghum, 19 gallons; maple sugar, 32,983 lbs.; honey, 6,762; eggs, 129,435 
dozen; grapes, 1,169,435 lbs.; wine, 787 gallons; apples, 146,471 bushels; 
peaches, 15,674 ; pears, 3,042 ; wool, 68,02.3 lbs. ; milch cows owned, 3,816. 
School census, 1888, 4,387 ; teachers, 160. Miles of railroad ti-ack, 118. 

Townships and Census. 



Townships and Census. 1840. 





Mentor, 1,245 





Painesville, 2,580 





Perry, 1,337 





Willoughby, 1,943 


Population of Lake in 1840 was 13,717 ; 1860, 15,576 ; 1880, 16,326, of 
whom 10,583 were born in Ohio ; 1,905 New York ; 549 Pennsylvania ; 43 
Virginia; 32 Indiana ; 19 Kentucky; 649 Ireland ; 481 England and Wales; 
244 British America; 141 German Empire; 19 Scotland; 4 France, and 11 
Sweden and Norway. Census of 1890, 18,235. 

First Settlement. 
Mentor, according to the statement of Mrs. Tappan, in the MSS. of the Ash- 
tabula Historical Society, was the first place settled in this county. In the sum- 
mer of 1799 two families were there. Among the earliest settlers of Lake was 
the Hon. John Walworth, who was born at New London, Ct., in 1765. 

When a young man he spent five years at hemlock trees, where all, men, women and 

sea and in Demerara, South America. About children, passed an agreeable night, its earlier 

the year 1792 he removed, with his family, hours being enlivened by good cheer and 

to the then new country east of Cayuga lake, social converse. The next afternoon they 

New York. In 1799 he visited Clevelaod, and arrived at Presque Isle (now Erie, Pa.), 

after his return, in the fall of that year, where, leaving his family, INIr. Walworth 

journeyed to Connecticut, purchased over went back to Buffalo for his goods. On his 

two thousand acres of land in the present return to Erie, he, with his hired man and 

t-ownship of Painesville, with the design of two horses and a yoke of oxen, followed the 

making a settlement. On the 20th of Feb- lake shore, and arrived in safety at his new 

ruary, 1800, he commenced the removal of purchase. His nearest neighbors east were 

his family and eifects. They were brought at Harpersfield, 15 miles distant. On the 

on as far as Buffalo, in sleighs. At that west, a few miles distant, within or near the 

place, after some little detention, the party, present limits of Mentor, was what was then 

being enlarged by the addition of some others, called the Marsh settlement, where was then 

drove in two sleighs on the ice of the lake, living Judge Jesse Phelps, Jared Wood, 

and proceeded until abreast of Cattaraugus Ebenezer Merry. Charles Parker and Moses 

creek, at which point they were about ten Parks. Mr. Walworth soon returned to 

miles from land. At dusk, leaving their Erie, on foot, and brought out his family 

sleighs and horses some 50 or 60 rods from .and effects in a flat boat, all arriving safe 

shore, they made their camp under some at the new home on the 7th of April. The 


first fortnight they lived in a tent, during collector of customs for the district of Erie, 

which period the sun was not seen. About In August he opened the collector's office at 

the expiration of this time Gen. Edward Cleveland, and in the March ensuing re- 

Paine — the first delegate to the legislature moved his family thither. He held various 

from the Lake county, in the winter of offices until his decease, September 10, 1812, 

1801-2 — arrived with seven or eight hired and was an extensive land agent. Judge 

men, and settled about a mile distant. Mu- Walworth was small in stature, and of weakly 

tually assisting each other, cabins were soon constitution. Prior to his removal to the 

erected for shelter, and gradually the con- West it was supposed he had the consump- 

veniences of civilization clustered around tion ; but to the hardships and fatigue heen- 

them. dured, and change of climate, his physicians 

Shortly after the formation of the State attributed the prolongation of his life many 

government (states the Barr MSS.) Mr. years. He was a fearless man, and possessed 

Walworth, Solomon Griswold, of Windsor, of that indomitable perseverance and strength 

and Calvin Austin, of Warren, were ap- of will especially important in overcoming 

pointed associate judges of Trumbull county. the obstacles in the path of the pioneer. 
In 1805 Judge Walworth was appointed 

WiLLOUGHBY is on the Chagrin river, 3 miles from Lake Erie and 11 miles 
southwest of Painesville, on the L. S. & M. S. R. R. and N. Y. C. & St. L. R. R. 
Newspaper : Independent, Independent, J. H. Merrill, editor and publisher. 
Churches : 1 Congregationalist, 1 Methodist Episcopal, 1 Episcopal, 1 Disciples, 
1 Catholic. Bank : Willoughby, S. W. Smart, president, S. H. Smart, cashier. 
Population, 1880, 1,001. School census, 1888, 323. 

Willoughby in 18^6. — The village and township were originally called Chagrin, 
and changed, in 1834, to the present name, in honor of Prof. Willoughby, of 
Herkimer county, N. Y. It was settled about the year 1799, by David Abbot 
(see page 579), Peter French, Jacob West, Ebenezer Smith, Elisha Graham, and 
others. Abbot built the first grist mill on the site of the Willoughby mills : 
Smith was the first man who received a regular deed of his land from the Con- 
necticut land company. In 1796 Charles Parker, one of the surveyors, built a 
house at the mouth of the river, and a number of huts for the use of the land 
company ; the house was the first erected in the township, and probably the first 
in the county. Parker became a settler in 1802 ; in 1803 and 1804 John Mil- 
ler, Christopher Colson, James Lewis and Jacob West settled in Willoughby. 
Dr. Henderson, the first regular physician, came in 1813, and the first organized 
town meeting was held April 3, 1815. A bloody battle, says tradition, was fought 
at an early day between the Indians, on the spot where the medical college stands : 
human bones have been discovered, supposed to be of those who fell in that 

The village of Willoughby contains 4 stores, 2 churches, 18 mechanic shops, 1 
fulling mill, and in 1840 had 390 inhabitants. The engraving shows, on the 
right, the Presbyterian church ; on the left, the Methodist church, and in the 
centre, on a jileasant green, the Medical IJuiversity, a spacious brick edifice. 
This flourishing and well-conducted institution was founded in 1834 : its number 
of pupils has been gradually increasing, and in 1846 its annual circular showed 
174 students in attendance. — Old Edition. This institution was removed, in 1846, 
to Columbus, and became the foundation for Starling Medical College. 

The Mormons. 

Nine miles southwest from Painesville, on the east branch of Chagrin river, 
in a beautiful farming country, is the little village of Kirtland, so famous in 
the history of Mormonism. We reproduce here from our old edition the account 
we tlien gave as to the origin of the sect and their position at that time. 

Kirtland is widely known, from having formerly been the headquarters of the 
Mormons. While here, in the height of their prosperity, they numbered nearly 
3,000 persons. On their abandoning it, most of the dwellings went to decay, and 
it now has somewhat the appearance of a depopulated and broken-down place. 
The view taken shows the most prominent buildings in the village. In the 


centre is seen the Mormon Temple ; on the right, the Teachers' Seminary, and 
on the left, on a line with the front of the temple, the old banking honse of the 
Mormons. The temple, the main point of attraction, is 60 by 80 feet, and 
measures from its base to the top of the spire 142 feet. It is of rougli stone, 
plastered over, colored blue, and marked to imitate regular courses of masonry. 
It cost about 140,000. In front, over the large window, is a tablet, bearing 
the inscription : " House of the Lord, built by the Church of the Latter Day 
Saints, A. d. 1834." The first and second stories are divided into two "grand 
rooms" for public worship. The attic is partitioned oiF into about a dozen small 
apartments. The lower grand room is fitted up with seats as an ordinary church, 
with canvas curtains hanging from the ceiling, which, on the occasion of prayer 
meetings, are let down to the tops of the slips, dividing the room into several 
different apartments, for the use of the separate collections of worshippers. At 
each end of the room is a set of pulpits, four in number, rising behind each 
other. Each pulpit is calculated for three persons, so that, when they are full, 
twelve pei-sons occupy each set, or twenty-four persons the two sets. These pul- 
pits were for the officers of the priesthood. The set at the farther end of the 
room are for the Melchisedek priesthood, or those who minister in spiritual con- 
cerns. The set opposite, near the entrance to the room, are for the Aaronic priest- 
hood, whose duty it is to simply attend to the temporal affairs of the society. 
These pulpits all bear initials, signifying the rank of their occujjants. 

On the ISIelchisedek side are the initials P. E., %. e., President of the Elders ; 
M. P. H., President of the High Priests ; P. M. H., President of the High 
Council, and M. P. C, President of the Full Church. On the Aaronic pulpits 
are the initials P. D., i. e., President of Deacons ; P. T. A., President of the 
Teachers ; P. A. P., President of the Aaronic Priesthood, and B. P. A., Bishop 
of the Aaronic Priesthood. The Aaronic priesthood were rarely allowed to preach, 
that being the especial duty of the higher order, the Melchisedek. 

We have received a communication from a resident of Kirtland, dated in the 
autumn of 1846. It contains some facts of value, and is of interest as coming 
from an honest man, who has been a subject of the Mormon delusion, but whose 
faith, we are of opinion, is of late somewhat shaken. 

The Mormons derive their name from of gathering. There is a president with his 

their belief in the book of Mormon, which two counsellors, to preside over this stake, 

is said to have been translated from gold The president is the highest officer ; next is 

plates found in a hOl, in Palmj-ra, N. Y. the nigh priest, below whom are the elders — 

They came to this place in 1832, and com- all of the Melchisedek priesthood. The lesser 

menced building their temple, which they priesthood are composed of priests, teachers 

finished in 1835. When they commenced and deacons. They have twelve apostles, 

building the temple they were few in num- whose duty it is to travel and preach the 

ber, but before they had finished it they had gcspel. There are seventy elders or seventies, 

increased to two thousand. a number of whom are travelling preachers : 

There are in the church two Priesthoods seven of the seventies preside over them. 
— the Melchisedek and the Aaronic, including There were two seventies organized in Kirt- 
the Levitical, from which they derive their land. They ordain most of the male mem- 
officers. This place, which they hold to be a hers to some office. They have a bishop with 
stake of Zion, was laid off in half acres for two counsellors to conduct the affairs of the 
a space of one square mile. When it was church in temporal things, and sit in judg- 
mostly sold, they bought a number of farms ment upon difficulties which may arise 
in this vicinity, at a very high price, and between members ; but there is a higher 
were deeply in debt for goods in New York, court to which they can appeal, called the 
which were the causes of their eventually high council, which consists of twelve high 
leaving for Blissouri. They established a priests. The president and his council sit as 
bank at Kirtland, from which they issued judges over either of these courts. There 
a number of thousand more dollars than they are, however, three presidents who preside 
had specie, which gave their enemies power over the whole in all the world — so termed, 
over them, and those bills became useless. ' The method of conducting worship among 

They adhered to their proiihet, Smith, in the Mormons is similar to other denomina- 

all things, and left here in 1837, seven hun- tions. The first ordinance is baptism for the 

dred in one day. They still hold this place remission of sins ; they lay on hands for the 

to be a stake of Zion, to be eventually a place gift of the Holy Grhost, and to heal the sick ; 

Public Buildings in Willoughby. 

Drami in llmnj IJoue ai 1846. 

Mormon Temple at Kietland. 



anoint with oil ; administer the sacrament ; 
take little children and bless them ; they hold 
to all the gifts of the Apostolic church, be- 
lieving there is no true church without them, 
and have the gift of speaking in diflFerent 
tongues ; they sometimes interpret for them- 
selves, but commonly there is some one to 
interpret for them. 

A prophet has lately risen among the 
Mormons, viz., James J. Strang of Wisconsin, 
who claims to be the successor of Joseph 
Smith. He has been with them only about 
two years, and was a young lawyer of Western 
New York. He claims to have received 
communications from Heaven at the very 
hour of Smith's death, commissioning him 
to lead the 'people. He has estabUshed a 
stake in Walworth county, Wisconsin, called 
the city of Voree, by interpretation signify- 

ing "Garden of Peace," to which they are 
gathering from Nauvoo and other places. 
He has lately visited Kirtland and re-estab- 
lished it as a stake of Zion, and organized 
the church with all its officers. There are 
now here about one hundred members, who 
are daily increasing, and it is thought that 
the place will be built up. 

Strang is said to have found plates of 
brass or some other metal. He was directed 
by an angel, who gave him a stone to look 
through, by which he made the discoverj'. 
They were found three feet under ground, 
beneath an oak of a foot in diameter. These 
he has translated : they give an account of a 
race who once inhabited that land and became 
a fallen people. Strang preaches pure Bible 
doctrine, and receives only those who walk 
humbly before their God. 

The Mormons still use the temple at Kirtland. This sect is now divided into 
three factions, viz. : the Rigdonites, the Twelveites, and the Strangites. The 
Rigdonites are the followers of Sidney Rigdon, and are bnt a few in number. 
Ine Twelveites — so named after their twelve apostles — are very fanatical, 
and hold to the spiritual wife system and the plurality of Gods. The Strangites 
maintain the original doctrines of Mormonism, and are located at this place 
and Voree. 

We derive, from a published source, a brief historical sketch of Mormonism. 

Joseph Smith, the founder of Mormonism, 
was born in Sharon, Vermont, December 23, 
1805, and removed to Manchester, Ontario 
county, N. Y., about the year 1815, at an 
early age, with his parents, who were in quite 
humble circumstances. He was occasionally 
employed in Palmyra as a laborer, and bore 
the reputation of a lazy and ignorant young 
man. According to the testimony of respect- 
able individuals in that place. Smith and his 
father were persons of doubtful moral char- 
acter, addicted to disreputable habits, and, 
moreover, extremely superetitious, believing 
in the existence of witchcraft. They at one 
time procured a mineral rod, and dug in 
various places for money. Smith testified 
that when digging he had seen the pot or 
chest containing the treasure, but never was 
fortunate enough to get it into his hands. 
He placed a singular-looking stone in his hat. 
and pretended by the light of it to malcB 
many wonderful discoveries of gold, silver 
and other treasures, deposited in the earth. 
He commenced his career as the founder of 
the new sect, when about the age of eighteen 
or nineteen, and appointed a number of 
meetings in PalmjTa for the purpose of 
declaring the divine revelations which he said 
were made to him. He was, however, unable 
to produce any excitement in the village ; 
but very few had curiosity sufficient to listen 
to him. Not having means to print his 
revelations he applied to Mr. Crane, of the 
Society of Friends, declaring that he was 
moved by the Spirit to call upon him for 
assistance. This gentleman bid him go to 
work or the State prison would end his 
career. Smith had better success with Martin 

Harris, an industrious and thrifty farmer of 
Palmyra, who was worth about $10,000, and 
who became one of his leading disciples. By 
his assistance 5,000 copies of the Mormon 
bible (so called) were published, at an expense 
of about $3,000. It is possible that Harris 
might have made the advances with the 
expectation of a profitable speculation, as a 
great sale was anticipated. This work is a 
duodecimo volume, containing five hundred 
and ninety pages, and is, perhaps, one of the 
weakest productions ever attempted to be 
palmed off as a divine revelation. It is 
mostly a blind mass of words, interwoven 
with scriptural language and quotations, with- 
out much of a leading plan or design. 

_ Soon after the publication of the Mormon 
bible, one Parley B. Pratt, a resident of 
Lorrain county, Ohio, happening to pass 
through Palmyra, on the canal, and hearing 
of the new religion, called on the prophet, 
and was soon converted. Pratt was intimate 
with Sidney Rigdon, a very popular preacher 
of the denomination called "'Reformers," 
or "Disciples." About the time of the 
arrival of Pratt at Manchester, the Smiths 
were fitting out an expedition for the western 
country, under the command of Cowdery, in 
order to convert the Indians, or Lamanites, 
as they termed them. In Octojier, 1830, 
this mission, consisting of Cowdery, Pratt, 
Peterson and Whitmer, arrived at Mentor, 
Ohio, the residence of Rigdon, well supplied 
with the new bibles. Near this place, in 
Kirtland, there were a few families belong- 
ing to Rigdon' s congregation, who, having 
become extremely fanatical, were daily look- 
ing for some wonderful event to take place in 



the world : seventeen of these persons readily 
believed in Mormonism, and were all re- 
immersed in one night by Cowdery. By 
the conversion of Rigdon soon after, Mor- 
monism received a powerful impetus, and 
more than one hundred converts were speedily 
added. Rigdon visited Smith at Palmyra, 
where he tarried about two months, receiving 
revelations, preaching, etc. He then returned 
to Kirtland, Ohio, and was followed a few 
days after by the prophet. Smith, and his 
connections. Thus, from a state of almost 
beggary, the family of Smith were furnished 
with the "fat of the land" by their dis- 
ciples, many of whom were wealthy. 

A Mormon temple was erected at Kirtland, 
at an expense of about $40,000. In this 
building there was a sacred apartment, a kind 
of holy of holies, in which none but the 
priests were allowed to enter. An unsuccess- 
ful application was made to the Legislature 
for the charter of a bank. Upon the refusal 
they established an unchartered institution, 
commenced their banking operations, issued 
their notes, and made extensive loans. The 
society now rapidly increased in wealth and 
numbers, of whom many were doubtless 
drawn thither by mercenary motives. But 
the bubble atlast burst. The bank being an 
unchartered institution, the debts due were 
not legally collectable. _ With the failure of 
this institution the society rapidly declined. 

and Smith was obliged to leave the State to 
avoid the sheriflF. Most of the sect, with 
their leader, removed to Missouri, where 
many outrages were perpetrated against 
them. The Mormons raised an armed force 
to "drive off the infidels," but were finally 
obliged to leave the State. 

The last stand taken by the Mormons was 
at Nauvoo, 111., a beautiful location on the 
Mississippi river. Here they erected a 
splendid temple, one hundred and twenty feet 
in length by eighty in width, around which 
they built their city, which at one time con- 
tained about 10,000 inhabitants. Being deter- 
mined to have their own laws and regulations, 
the difiiculties which attended their sojourn 
in other places followed them here, and there 
was constant collision between them and the 
surrounding inhabitants. By some process 
of law, Joseph Smith (the prophet) and his 
brother Hyram were confined in the debtor's 
apartment in the jail at Carthage, in the 
vicinity of Nauvoo, and a guard of eight or 
ten men were stationed at the jail for their 
protection. While here, it appears a mob 
of about sixty men, in disguise, oroke through 
the guard, and firing into the prison, killed 
both Joseph Smith and his brother Hyram, 
June 27, 1844. Their difficulties still con- 
tinued, and they determined to remove once 

In 1840 a work was published at Painesville, by E. D. Howe, called a 
"History of Mormonism," which gives almost conclusive evidence that the 
historical part of the book of Mormon M'as written by one Solomon Spalding. 
From this work we derive the following facts : 

Mr. Spalding was born in Connecticut, in 1761 ; graduated at Dartmouth, and 
having failed in mercantile business; removed in 1809 to Conneaut, in the adjoin- 
ing county of Ashtabula. About the year 1812 his brother John visited him at 
that place. He gives the following testimony : 

He then told me that he had been writing 
a book, which he intended to have printed, 
the avails of which he thought would enable 
him to pay all his debts. The book was en- 
titled the "Manuscript Found," of which he 
read to me many passages. It was an his- 
torical romance of the first settlers of Amer- 
ica, endeavoring to show that the American 
Indians are the descendants of the Jews, or 
the lost tribes. It gave a detailed account 
of their journey from Jerusalem, by land and 
sea, till they arrived in America, under the 
command of Nephi and Lehi. They after- 
wards had quarrels and contentions, and sep- 
arated into two distinct nations, one of which 
he denominated Nephites, and the other 
Lamanites. Cruel and bloody wars ensued, 
in which great multitudes were slain. They 
buried their dead in large heaps, which 

caused the mounds so common in this coun- 
try. Their arts, sciences and civilization 
were brought into view, in order to account 
for all the curious antiquities found in various 
parts of North and South America. I have 
recently read the "Book of Mormon," and to 
my great surprise, I find nearly the same 
historical matter, names, etc., as they were 
in my brother's writings. I well remember 
that he wrote in the old style, and commenced 
about every sentence with "and it came to 
pass," the same as in the "Book of Mor- 
mon," and according; to the best of my recol- 
lection and belief, it is the same as my brother 
Solomon wrote, with the exception of the 
religious matter. By what means it has 
fallen into the hands of Joseph Smith, Jr., 
I am unable to determine. 

John Spalding. 

Mr. Henry Lake, of Conneaut, also states ; 

1 left the State of New York late in tin 
year 18F, and arrived at this place the Is 

of January following. Soon after mv arrival 
I formed a copartnership with Solomon 

Draum by Hmrij Hoice in 184G. 

View in Painesville. 
The Public Buildiugs on the left face the south end of the Public Square. 

W. Barnard^ Photo., PavieniUe, 1 

View in Painesville. 
The Public Square and Soldiers* Monumenl are ahown in the distance. 



Spalding, for the purpose of rebuilding a 
forge which he had commenced a year or two 
before. He very frequently read to me fi-om 
a manuscript which he was writing, which 
he entitled the " Manuscript Found," and 
which he represented as being found in this 
town. I spent many hours in hearing him 
read said writings, and became well acquainted 
with its contents. He wished me to assist 
him in getting his production printed, alleging 
that a book of that kind would meet with a 
rapid sale. I designed doin^ so, but the 
forge not meeting our anticipations, we failed 
in business, when I declined having anything 
to do with the publication of the book. This 
book represented the American Indians as 
the descendants of the lost tribes, gave an 
account of their leaving Jerusalem, their 
contentions and wars, which were many and 
great. One time, when he was reading to 
me the tragic account of Laban, I pointed 
out to him what I considered an inconsist- 
ency, which he promised to correct : but by 
referring to the "Book of Mormon," I find 
to my surprise that it stands there just as he 

read it to me then. Some months ago I bor- 
rowed the Golden Bible, put it into my 
pocket, carried it home, and thought no 
more of it. About a week after, my wife 
found the book in my coat pocket, as it hung 
up, and commenced reading it aloud as I lay 
upon the bed. She had not read twenty 
minutes till I was astonished to find the same 
passages in it that Spalding had read to me 
more than twenty years before, from his 
"Manuscript Found." Since that, I have 
more fully examined the said Golden Bible, 
and have no hesitation in saying that the his- 
torical part of it is principally if not wholly 
taken from the "Manuscript Found." I 
well recollect telling IMr. Spalding that the 
so frequent use of the words "And it came 
to pass," " Now it came to pass," rendered 
it ridiculous. Spalding left here in 1812, 
and I furnished him means to carry him to 
Pittsburg, where he said he would get the 
book printed, and pay me. But I never 
heard any more from him or his writings, 
till I saw them in the "Book of IMormon." 
Henry Lake. 

The testimony of six other witnesses is produced in the work of Mr. Howe, 
all confirming the main facts as above given. As Mr. Spalding was vain of his 
writings, and was constantly showing them to his neighbors, reliable testimony to 
the same general facts might have been greatly multiplied. 

The disposition Spalding made of his manuscripts is not known. From Con- 
neaut Spalding removed to Pittsburg, about the year 1813, remained there a year 
or two, and from thence went to Amity, in the same State, where he died in 1816. 
His widow stated that, while they resided at Pittsburg, she thinks that tlie " Man- 
uscript Found " was once taken to the printing office of Patterson & Lambdin, 
but did not know whether it was ever returned. We again quote verbatim from 
the work of Mr. Howe : 

Having established the fact, therefore, that 
most of the names and leading incidents con- 
tained in the Mormon Bible originated with 
Solomon Spalding, it is not very material, as 
we conceive, to show the why and manner by 
which they fell into the hands of the Smith 
family. To do this, however, we have made 
some inquiries. 

It was inferred at once that some light 
might be shed upon the subject, and the 
mystery revealed, by applying to Patterson 
& Lambdin, in Pittsburg. But here again 
death had interposed a barrier. That estab- 
lishment was dissolved and broken up many 
years since, and Lambdin died about eight 
years ago. Mr. Patterson says he has no 
recollection of any such manuscript being 
brought there for publication, neither would 
he have been likely to have seen it, as the 
business of printing was conducted wholly 
by Lambdin at that time. He says, however, 
that many manuscript books and pamphlets 
were brought to the office about that time, 
which remained ujion their shelves for years, 
without being printed or even examined. 
Now, as Spalding's book can nowhere be 
found, or anything heard of it after being 
carried to this establishment, there is the 
strongest presumption that it remained there 

in seclusion, till about the year 1823 or '24. 
at which time Sidney Rigdon located himself 
in that city. We have been credibly informed 
that he was on terms of intimacy with Lamb- 
din, being seen frequently in his shop. Rig- 
don resided in Pittsburg about three years, 
and during the whole of that time, as he has 
since frequently asserted, abandoned preach- 
ing and all other employment, for the pur- 
pose pf studying the Bible. He left there, 
and came into the county where he now re- 
sides, about the time Lambdin died, and 
commenced preaching some new points of 
doctrine, which were afterwards found to be 
inculcated in the Mormon Bible. He resided 
in this vicinity for about four years previous 
to the appearance of the book, during which 
time he made several long visits to Pittsburg, 
and perhai>s to the Susquehanna, where 
Smith was then digging for money, or pre- 
tending to be translating plates. It may be 
observed also, that about the time Rigdon 
left Pittsburg, the Smith family began to 
tell about finding a book that would contain 
a history of the first inhabitants of America, 
and that two years elapsed before they finally 
got possession of it. 

We are, then, led to this conclusion : — tliat 
Lambdin, after having failed in business, had 



recourse to the old manuscripts then in his 
possession, in order to raise the wind, by a 
book speculation, and placed the "Manuscript 
Found," of Solomon Spalding, in the hands 
of Rigdon, to be embellished, altered, and 
added to, as he might think expedient ; and 
three years' study of the Bible we should 
deem little time enough to garble it, as it is 
transferred to the Mormon book. Tiie former 
dying, left the latter the sole proprietor, who 
was obliged to resort to his wits, and in a 
miraculous way to bring it before the world ; 
for in no other manner could such a book be 
published without great sacrifice. And where 
could a more suitable character be found than 
Jo Smith, whose necromantic fame of arts 
and of deception had already extended to a 
considerable distance ? That Lambdin was a 
person every way qualified and fitted for such 
an enterprise we have the testimony of his 
partner in business and others of his ac- 
quaintance. Add to all these circumstances 

the facts, that Rigdon had prepared the 
minds in a great measure of nearly a hun- 
dred of those who had attended his ministra- 
tion, to be in readiness to embrace the first 
mysterious ism that should be presented — the 
appearance of Cowdery at his residence as 
soon as the book was printed — his sudden 
conversion, after many pretensions to disbe- 
lieve it — his immediately repairing to the 
residence of Smith, 300 miles distant, where 
he was forthwith appointed an elder, high 
priest, and a scribe to the rrophet — the pre- 
tended vision that his resiaence in Ohio was 
the "promised land," — the immediate re- 
moval of the whole Smith family thither, 
wliere they were soon raised from a state of 
poverty to comparative affluence. We, there 
fore, must hold out Sidney Rigdon to the 
world, as being the original "author and pro 
prietor" of the whole Mormon conspiracy 
until further light is elicited upon the 'osi 
writings of Solomon Spalding. 

When the main body of the Mormons left Kirtland the family of Mr. and 
Mrs. Stratton held the key of the temple and claimed to have a title to it. A 
few years since a body calling themselves the " Reorganized Church of Latter 
Day Saints " returned to Kirtland and laid claim to the old deserted temple. 
Mr. George A. Robertson, writing of this society, says : 

This new body is aggressive, dogmatical, 
earnest. Its missionaries go forth into all 
regions and preach the gospel to the lowly. 
They returned four years ago [1883] and laid 
claim to the old deserted temple. Mrs. 
Electa Stratton still held the key. A few 
dollars expended in renovating made the old 
building a presentable structure, as good or 
better than the ordinary country church. 
The "Reorganized " branch laid claim to the 
property and have obtained at length a clear 
title to it. Kirtland, which for fifty years 
has been stranded away from the beaten 
routes of travel, is again having a "'bourn." 
It is the Mecca of a church. It is the centre 
of a conference, and here resides one of the 
principal bishops. 

The conference which has just closed its 
sessions here is the largest ever held by the 

denomination. Its deliberations wera par- 
ticipated in by all the prominent men of the 
church, and near its close Joseph Smith II., 
the son and heir of the prophet, on whom 
the prophetic mantle fell, delivered an impor- 
tant revelation from the spirit. 

These anti-polygamous Mormons are grow- 
ing in the estimation of the public. Barring 
their alleged fanaticism and their faithful 
belief in Joseph Smith as a prophet, they do 
not differ materially from other Christian 
sects. They very strenuously oppose the 
use of liquor or tobacco, and are particular 
about the observance ordinances of the New 
Testament as they understand them. They 
are certain to take no mean place, so far 
as membership goes, in the denominations 
of the world. 

Painesville in 184-6. — Painesville, the county-seat, and the largest village between 
Cleveland and Erie, Pa., is thirty-one miles east of Cleveland, and one hundred 
and seventy miles northeast of Columbus. The Grand river skirts the village 
on the east, in a deep and picturesque valley. Painesville is one of the most 
beautiful villages in the West : it is somewhat scattered, leaving ample room 
for the cultivation of gardens, ornamental trees and shrubbery. A handsome 
public square of several acres, adorned with young trees, is laid out near the 
centre of the town, on which face some public buildings and private mansions. 
The view represents the principal public buildings in the place. The first on the 
left is the Methodist church ; the building next, .vithout a spire, tower or cupola, 
is the Disciples church ; the one beyond, the Presbyterian church, and that most 
distant, the court-house : these last two front the west side of the public square. 
Painesville is a flourishing town, containing 1 Episcopal, 1 Presbyterian, 1 Dis- 
cii)les and 1 Methodist church, 14 mercantile stores, 1 flouring mill, 1 bank, 1 
newspaper printing ofiice, and has increased since 1840, when it had 1,014 


inhabitauts. The Painesville Academy is a classical institution for both sexes, 
and in fine repute : a large brick building is appropriated for its uses. Near the 
town is the Geauga furnace, which employs a heavy capital. 

Painesville was laid out about the year 1805, by Henry Champion, and origin- 
ally named Champion : it was afterwards changed to that of the township whicli 
derived its name from Gen. Ed. Paine, a native of Connecticut, an officer of the 
Revolution, and an early settler : he died only a few years since, at an advanced 
age, leaving the reputation of a warm hearted and excellent man. 

Among the aborigines familiarly known to the early settlers at Painesville, was 
a fine specimen of manhood, called by the whites, Seneca ; by the Indians, 
Stigwaymh, which being rendered in English, signifies the Standing Stone. Says 
an old pioneer, in the Barr MSS : 

Whoever once saw him, and could not at wife dined with us at Painesville, he took 

once perceive the dignity of a Roman senator, much trouble to instruct her in the use of the 

the honesty of Aristides and the jihilan- knife and fork. Vain attempt! his usual 

thropy of William Penn, must be un- poUteness forsook him, and bursts of im- 

acquainted with physiognomy. He was never moderate laughter succeeded, in which we 

known to ask a donation, but would accept were all compelled to join. The last time I 

one exactly as he ought, when oiFered. But saw Seneca — the fine old fellow — was at Judge 

it was not suflFered to rest there; an appro- Walworth's, in Cleveland, a short time before 

priate return was sure to be made, and he hostilities commenced with Great Britain, 

would frequently be in advance. He drank He expressed to me a fear that war was 

cider or Malaga wine moderately, but was so inevitable, and that the Indians, instigated 

much of a teetotaller, as to have abjured by the British, would overwhelm our weak 

ardent spirits since the time when, in a settlements; but gave the strongest assur- 

drunken frenzy, he aimed a blow with his ances that if it should be possible, he would 

tomahawk at his wife, which split the head give us seasonable notice. _ If he was not 

of the papoose on her back. He seldom prevented by age or infirmities from redeem- 

wanted credit in his trading transactions, and ing his pledge, he was probably killed by his 

when he did, there was no difiiculty in obtain- own people while endeavoring to leave their 

ing it, as he was sure to make punctual pay- lines, or by some of ours, through a mistake 

ment in specie. Once, when himself and of his character. 

The Hon. Samuel Huntington, who was Governor of. the State from 1808 to 
1810, resided at Painesville in the latter part of his life, and died there in 1817. 
Prior to his removal to Painesville, he resided at Cleveland. One evening, while 
travelling towards Cleveland from the east, he was attacked about two miles from 
the town, by a pack of wolves, and such was their ferocity that he broke his 
umbrella to pieces in keeping them off, to which, and the fleetness of his horse, 
he owed the preservation of his life. — Old Edition. 

Painesville, county-seat of Lake, is 150 miles northeast of Columbus, 
twenty-nine miles northeast of Cleveland, on the L. S. & M. S., N. Y. C. & St. 
L. and P. P. & F. Railroads. Fairport Harbor is about two miles north of the 

County Officers : Auditor, ^\n\ie\• C. Tisdel ; Clerk, John C. Ward ; Commis- 
sioners, Charles A. Moodey, Stephen B. Baker, Henry C. Rand ; Coroner, Henry 
M. Mosher ; Infirmary Directors, Benjamin H. Woodman, John W. Crocker, 
Charles M. Thompson ; Probate Judge,"George H. Shepherd ; Prosecuting Attor- 
'ney, Homer Harper ; Recorder, Henry B. Green ; SheriflT, Albert Button ; Sur- 
veyor, Horatio N. Munson ; Treasurers, Harcy Armstrong, William D. Mather. 
—State Report, 1888. 

City Officers : S. K. Gray, Mayor ; H. P. Sanford, Clerk ; A. D. Crofut, Mar- 
shal ; S. L. Thompson, Treasurer ; S. T. Woodman, Chief of Fire Department ; 
Horace Alvord, Solicitor. Newspapers: Advertiser, Republican, Robert N. 
Tra vers, editor and publisher; Democrat, Democratic, D. G. Morrison, editor; 
Northern Oliio Journal, Democratic, James E. Chambers, editor; Telegraph. Re- 
publican, J. F. Scofield, editor. Churches : 1 Catholic, 1 Episcopal, 1 Baptist, 1 
Disciples, 1 Methodist. Banks : Lake County, Aaron Wilcox & Co. ; Painesville 


National, I. P. Axtell, president, C. D. Adams, cashiei-; Painesville Saving and 
Loan Association, H. Steele, president, R. K. Paige, oasiiier. 

Manufactures and Employees. — Coe & Wilkes, machine work, 21 hands; The 
Paige j\fanutacturing Co., machine work, 48 ; Solon Hall, iron castings ; R. I^aroe, 
sasir, doors, etc. ; Painesville Manufactnring Go., window shade rollers, 26 ; Moody 
& Co., flour, etc. ; S. Bigler & Co., flour, etc. ; Swezey & Johnson, butchers' 
skewei-s, 43 ; Geauga Stove Co., stoves. — State Report, 188S. 

Population in 1880, 3,841. School census, 1888, 1,121. G. W. Ready, school 
superintendent. Capital invested in industrial establishments, $232,000. Value 
of annual product, $340,500.— OAJo Labor Statistics, 1888. 
Census, 1890, 4,612. 

An interesting fact in connection with Painesville is that here is .ocated the 
" Lake Erie Female Seminary," an institution of high repute. Its site is on 
the border of the town, in the midst of its finest residences. The seminary build- 
ings are large and imposing, and placed on an attractive lawn of noble trees. 

Fairport in i<94(5.— Three miles below Painesville, at the mouth of Grand river, 
is Fairport, laid out in 1812, by Samuel Huntington, Abraham Skinner, Seymour 
and Calvin Austin, and Simon" Perkins. The fii-st warehouse in this region, and 
perhaps on the lake, was built about 1803, on the river, two miles above, by 
Abraham Skinner, near which, in the dwelling of Mr. Skinner, the first court in 
the old county of Geauga was held. Fairport has one of the best harbors on the 
lake, and so well defended from winds and easy of access that vessels run in when 
they cannot easily make other ports. The water is deep enough for any lake craft, 
and about $60,000 has been expended in improving the harbor by the general 
government. Lake steamers stop here and considerable commerce is carried on. 
Fairport contains eight forwarding houses, several groceries, from twenty to forty 
dwellings and a light-house, and a beacon to guide the mariner on the fresh 
water sea. 

Richmond, one mile above Fairport, on the opposite and west side of the river, 
was laid out about ten years ago in the era of speculation. A large village was 
built, a steamboat was owned there, and great things promised. Not having the 
natural elements of prosperity it soon waned ; seme of its dwellings were removed 
to Painesville, while many others, deserted and decaying, are left to mark the spot. 
—Old Edition. 

In 1835 the Painesville and Faii-port Railroad Company was chartered, and in 
1837 was running horse cars over hard wood rail. In 1836 the Fairport and 
Wellsville Railroad Company was chartered, and in fifteen days $274,800 stock 
subscriptions M'ere made. Other railroads were projected and Fairport's prospects 
were booming, when the panic of 1836-37 came on and the boom burst. At one 
time Fairport, with contiguous towns and territory, was considered a rival of 
Cleveland, but the latter secured the terminus of the Ohio canal, early railroad 
connections, and Fairport ceased to be a rival at a very early day. 

The wonderful develoj^ment, however, of the lake commerce within the past 
few years has again attracted attention to the natural advantages of Fairport as a 
shipping point to and from the great Northwest. In view of this a communica- 
tion from Mr. George E. Paine, setting forth the present condition of aifairs, with 
a prediction for the future, will be of interest : 

"Before December, 1889. over 8,000 feet Fairport via Pittsburg to Baltimore being less 

of new docks will be completed at Fairport than the distance by rail from Bufifalo to New 

and Richmond, equal to the best on the lakes, York. 

and equipped with the very best machinery "Grand river, with its old river bed ex- 

for handling ore and coal ; and elevators for tending westward five miles, affords in all 

handUng Duluth wheat, with warehouses for sixteen 'miles of water front, witli flats and 

the rapidly growing Northwestern trade, will bayous, into which slips can be cut to any 

soon be built, to be used by the Baltimore desired extent, making hundreds of acres of 

and Ohio Railroad, the distance by rail from land accessible alike to vessels and cars, avail 

■MAJ ^^ 

3E' ; Eli 


Barnard, Photo., 1887. 



able for ore and coal docks, lumber yards, distance of eight miles, covered with ore. 

wareliouses and elevators, iron mills and fac- coal and lumber docks, iron mills, elevators 

tories of all kinds, which require large quan- and warehouses, and crowded with steamers, 

titles of iron, steel and wood. And this har- vessels and tugs. 

bor, with its wonderful natural advantages, "And the prediction is now made that the 
can be reached by railroads from the Mahon- Grand river valley, including the old river 
ing valley at Niles, Ohio, and from the She- bed in Mentor, will become the centre of the 
nango valley, just above Sharpsville, Pa. , on greatest iron and steel manufacturing district 
maximum grades not to exceed thirty ifeet in the world, within the next hundred years, 
per mile either way, with no costly bridges or as the best iron ores in the world and the best 
earthwork. There is no other direct route fuel of all kinds will meet there at the cheap- 
for a railroad from the Shenango and Maho- est average rates ; and when made into iron 
ning valle3's to any other lake port at less and steel, and the ten thousand forms of fin- 
than seventy-eight feet maximum grade per ished goods required by the civilized world, 
mile. " the shipping facilities by water and by rail- 
"!Many now living will see Grand river road to all parts of the globe, taken alto- 
valley, liom ' New Market ' to ' Slentor ^ether, will be surpassed by no other manu- 
Marsh ' (the mouth of the old river bed), a facturing locality, domestic or foreign." 


James Abram Garfield, twentieth president of the United States, was born 
in Orange, Cuyahoga county, Ohio, Nov. 19, 1831, and died in Elberon, N. J., 
Sept. 19, 1881. His father, Abram Garfield, was a native of New York and of 
English Puritan ancestry. His mother, Eliza Ballon, was born in New Hamp- 
shire and was of Huguenot descent. 

In 1830 Abram Garfield removed to the " Western Reserve," to found a home 
for himself and family in the then " wilderness." Shortly after settling here he 
died of a sudden attack of fever, and left his wife with four small children. With 
grand courage and fortitude, the self-sacrificing mother fought against poverty 
and privation, impressing upon her four children a high standard of moral and 
intellectual worth. 

At three years of age James Garfield commenced his education in a log hut. 
From this time on he attended such schools. as the district afforded, working at 
manual labor betimes at home and on the farms of neighbors. He seized with 
avidity upon all books that came within his reach, and early developed a habit of 
voluminous reading that remained with him through life. The Bible and Ameri- 
can history M-ere especially familiar to him. One book of sea tales, which he read 
while a boy, filletl him with an intense desire for the sea, and at sixteen yeai-s of 
age he tried to ship as a sailor on a Lake Erie schooner at Cleveland, but failing 
in this, he drove for a canal boat for some months, from the coal mines of Gov, 
ernor Tod at Brier Hill to Cleveland. 

At this time Governor Tod, having occasion to visit the boat one Sunday, found 
all the hands playing cards, except young Garfield, who was seated in the forward 
part of the boat studying United States history. An anecdote of one of his canal 
boat experiences shows that at this time he \\as, as in after life, of strong physique, 
courageous, manly and generous. He had offended one of the canal boatmen, a 
great hulking fellow, who started to thrash him. Dave ruslied upon him, with 
his head down, like an enraged bull. As he came on, Garfield sprang to one side, 
and dealt him a powerful blow just back of and under the left ear. Dave went 
to the bottom of the boat, with his head between two beams, and his now heated 
foe went after him, seized him by the throat, and lifted the same clenched hand 
for another buffet. " Pound the d — d fool to death, Jim," called the appreciative 
captain. " If he haint no more sense than to git mad at an accident, he orto die." 
And as the youth hesitated, " Why don't j-ou strike? D — n me, if I'll interfere." 
He could not. The man \vas down, helpless, in his power. Dave expressed re- 
gret at his i-age. Garfield gave him his hand, and they were better friends than 

In the winter of 1849-50 he attended Geauga Seminary at Chester, Ohio, prac- 
tising the trade of carpenter during vacations, helping at harvesting, teaching 


Bchoolj and doing whatever came to hand to pay for his schooling. At Chester 
he first met Miss Liicretia Rudolph, a school teacher, who became his wife, Nov. 
11, 1858, at which time he was President of Hiram College. Of this marriage 
four sons and one daughter were living in 1887. 

His early training was strongly religious, his mother being a staunch Camp- 
bellite, and while at Chester he was baptized and received into that denomination. 

In 1851 he entered Hiram College ; three years later entered Williams College, 
from which he graduated in 1856 with the highest honors of his class. He then 
returned to Ohio as a teacher of Latin and Greek at Hiram College and a year 
later was made its president. 

While acting in the capacity of a very successful educator, he entered his name 
as a student-at-law in the office of Williamson & Riddle, of Cleveland, Ohio, 
although studying in Hiram, and in 1858 was admitted to the bar. A year later, 
without solicitation on his part, he was elected to the Ohio Senate. 

In this new field his industry and versatility were conspicuous. He made 
investigations and reports on geology, education, finance and parliamentary law ; 
and although at this time it was not believed that the South would take up arms, 
he was somewhat apprehensive, and gave especial study to the militia system of 
the State. 

The war came, and in August, 1861, he was commissioned lieutenant-colonel in 
the Forty-second Ohio Volunteer Infantry. 

We give a chronological record of Garfield's career ; to give anything like a full 
sketch M'ould exceed the limitations and scope of our work. His life, however, is 
such a remarkable example of what may be accomplished by honest, persistent 
endeavor, by those of the most humble origin and surroundings, that it should be 
studied in its details by every child in the land : 

1831. Nov. 19, born at Orange, Cuyahoga 

county, Ohio. 
1848. Drives for a canal boat. 
1849-50. Attends Geauga Seminary, where 

he meets Miss Lucretia Rudolph, his 

future wife. Is baptized and received 

into the Disciples Church. 
1851. Enters Hiram College as a student. 
1854. Ent«rs Williams College. 

1856. Graduates from Williams College with 
the highest honors of his class. Re- 
turns to Ohio, to teach Greek and Latin 
in Hiram College. 

1857. Is made president of Hiram College. 
Preacher in the Disciples Church. 

1858. Nov. 11, is united in marriage with 
Miss Lucretia Rudolph, at Hudson, 

Admitted to the bar by the Supreme 
Court at Columbus. Elected to the 
Ohio Senate. 

In August commissioned lieutenant- 
colonel in the Forty-second Ohio Vol- 
unteers. In December reports to Gen. 
Buell, in Louisville, Ky. 

1862. Out-generals Gen. Marshall and, re- 
enforced by Generals Granger and 
Sheldon, defeats Mar.shall at Middle 
Creek, Ky., January 10. In recogni- 
tion of this service is commissioned 
brigadier-general. April 7. takes part 
in the second day's fight at Shiloh. 
Engaged in all the operations in front 
of Corinth. In June rebuilds bridges 
on Memphis and Charleston Railroad. 
July 30, returns to Hiram from ill 



health. Sept. 25, on court-martial 
duty at Washington, and, on Nov. 25, 
assigned to the case of -Gen. Fitz-John 

1863. In Feb. returns to duty in the Army 
of the Cumberland, and made chief of 
staff under Gen. Rosecrans. At the 
battle of Chickamauga, Sept. 19, Gar- 
field volunteered to take the news of 
the defeat on the right to Gen. Geo. 
H. Thomas, who held the left of the 
line. It was a bold ride, under con- 
stant fire ; but he reached Thomas and 
gave the information that saved the 
Army of the Cumberland. For this 
was made major-general. Dec. 3, re- 
signs from the army to take seat in 
Congress, to which he had been elected 
fifteen months previously. 

1864. Jan. 14, delivers first speech in Con- 
gress. Placed on Committee on Mili- 
tary Affairs. 

1865. Jan. 1 3, discusses constitutional amend- 
ment to abolish slavery. • Changed 
from Committee on Military Affairs to 
Ways and Means Committee. 

April 15, delivers from the balcony 
of the New York Custom House, to c 
mob frenzied by the news of President 
Lincoln's death, the following speech : 

" Fellow-citize:iis : Clntids and dark- 
ness are around him; his pavilion is 
dark waters and thidc clouds : justice 
and judgment are the establishment of 
his throne; mercy and truth shall go 
before his face I FeUow-citizens : God 

Garfield's Study at Lawnfield. 
The room and its objects are just as left by him wheu last there. 


reigns, and the Government at Wash- Senate. April 23, ^ 

ington lives r in House of Representatives. June 8, 

1866. In March made his first speech on nominated for the presidency. Nov. 
public debt, foreshadowing resumption 2, elected President. 

of specie payments. 1881. March 23, nominates William H. Rob- 

1867. Made Chairman of Committee on Mil- ertson to be Collector of the Port of 
itary Affairs. New York. May 5, withdraws all 

1869-71. Chairman of new committee of New York nominations. May 16, 

Forty-first Congress on Banking and Senators Conkling and Piatt resign. 

Currency. May 18, Collector Robertson confirmed. 

1871-75. Forty-second and Forty-third Con- July 2, shot by Guiteau. Sept. 6, 

gresses. Chairman of Committee on taken to Elberon, N. J. Sept. 19, 

Appropriations. died of blood-poisoning from pistol- 

1875. Member of Ways and Means Com- shot wound. Sept. 21, remains car- 

mittee. (House Democratic, Forty- ried to Washington. Sept. 22 and 23, 

fourth. Forty-fifth and Forty-sixth remains lie in state in rotunda of 

Congresses.) ^ _ ^ Capitol. 

1877. Chosen member of Presidential Elec- 1882. Sept. 26, remains placed in Lake View 

toral Commission. Cemetery at Cleveland, Ohio. 

1880. January 13, elected to United States 

" Garfield's tragic death," writes a biographer, " assures to him the attention of 
history. It will credit him with great services rendered in various fields, and 
with a character formed by a singular union of the best qualities, industry, per- 
severance, truthfulness, honesty, courage ; all acting as faithful servants to a lofty 
and unselfish ambition. Without genius, which can rarely do more than produce 
extraordinary results in one direction, his powers were so many and well trained 
that he produced excellent results in many. If history shall call Garfield great, 
it will be because the development of these powers was so complete and har- 

The speeches of Garfield are almost a compendium of the political history of 
the stirring era between 1864 and 1880. Said ex-President Hayes : "Beyond 
almost any man I have known, he had the faculty of gathering information from 
all sources and then imparting it to an audience in instructive and attractive 

A Visit to Lawnfield, thb Garfield Home. 

The home of the murdered President will always be a place of melancholy in- 
terest. Lawnfield is near the village of Mentor, twenty-two miles east of Cleve- 
land, about seven west of Painesville and three from the lake. It is a level, 
grassy region, from which it derives its name. 

On Tuesday morning, Sept. 28, 1886, I left Painesville by the cars. Lawn- 
field is over a mile from the Mentor depot, and, on arriving, I started directly 
thither on foot, in a pouring rain and with no umbrella. I soon reached the 
Mentor school-house ; a plain brick building standing back from the road, with a 
grove in front. Half a dozen boys were in the doorway, like so many flies, to get 
out of the rain. I went in for shelter and to inquire my way. 

The Hilarious School Children. 

It was the noon recess. Some dozen boys and girls were in the room and liad 
disposed of their noon lunch, and seeing I was wet from the rain, put in more 
wood in the box-stove and set a chair for me. As I was drying myself mid the 
roarings of the burning wood, I looked around upon the children, who were full 
of glee. One boy, dancing after a girl, said, " I'll put a head on you ! " This 
seemed entirely superfluous ; .she had one good head already. Another called out, 
" To-morrow is Wiggins day — the world is going to be destroyed ! " This was 
from a weather prediction of Wiggins, a Canadian crank. 

Prophecies of the end of the world, coming at certain dates, have been common 
in the past centuries. The most notable prophet of our time was William Miller, 


a Baptist preacher, 'who began his predictions in 1831 and had over 50,000 con- 
verts, wiio were called Millcrites. They eventually formed a religious denomina- 
tion known as " The Second Adventists," who believed that the second appear- 
ance of Christ was then near at hand. In my town, about the time of the 
exi)ected fulfilment of one of the prophecies, one winter night, in the midst of a 
heavy fall of snow, the heavens were lighted up with an ominous glow, and every 
snow-flake came down lighted like a flake of fire; the like had not been seen 
before, and many cheeks grew pale ; not those of Black Milly, a pious old negress, 
a great shouter at Methodist meetings. Next day, in telling of it, she said, "I 
felt sin-e my blessed Jesus was a coming, and I got up and put on my best clothes, 
and lighted my candles, and set my house in order and waited, singing and pray- 
ing, to give him a welcome; and oh, I was so happy !" 

This unusual phenomena was occasioned by the burning of paper-mills three 
miles away, and the snow-flakes being large and moist reflected the light. In a 
term of years, prior to each of these dates, several different times were set by the 
prophet, as others had failed of being correct. Some of his adherents sold their 
propert}', to get the free use of cash for the short time they felt they were to stay 
here below. One of these went to a neighbor to sell a young pig. The latter 
demurred ; " too young." " No," rejoined the Millerite, " he'll grow." " Not 
much ; for, according to your belief, he will be roasted pig altogether too soon for 
my use." 

Well dried and warmed, I arose to leave the gleeful group, and as I opened the 
nearest door, an urchin behind me called out, " You are going into the girls' 
closet ! " Sure enough, a little room, with bonnets and wraps, opened to my 
vision. Female paraphernalia is always interesting ; and this sight of the clothing 
of the innocents was not an exception. 

Cyrus and his Garfield Fund. 

I inquired the way to Mrs. Garfield's, when one of the boys called out, " She's 
got lots of money." " Yes, I knew about how that came ;" but did not pause to 
tell the lad what I tell here. 

The death of President Garfield was a sad shock to the nation, and as it was 
understood the widow and young family were left in restricted circumstances, 
Cyrus W. Field, of Atlantic cable fame, originated a popular subscription in their 
behalf Happening to call upon him at that juncture, I found this man of mil- 
lions in a plainly furnished office, in a back room on Broadway ; a rather tall, 
slender old gentleman of sixty years ; quick, nervous, agile as a j'outh, kindly in 
maimer, a rapid, voluble talker, bending over to one as he talked, with the man- 
ner, " no matter who you are, I'll hear you ; your wants are as great to you 
as mine are to me." With him was a confidential clerk, advanced in life, evi- 
dently a fossil from old England, for he had the cockney dialect ; and then at a 
side table sat a plainly-dressed boy of twelve, apparently a German lad, and he 
attracted me. Before him was perhaps a half peck of letters, just in by the mail, 
with contributions for the Garfield Fund. These the lad was opening, taking 
the names of the donors, with the amounts from each, for publication in the next 
day's papers, and piling up the bills and checks. In a few days the fund amounted 
to over $360,000, in sums from single contributors, varying from the single dol- 
lar to the thousands ; it came some from working people ; some from millionaires. 
The money poured in so bounteously that Mr. Field had to shut down receiving, 
and he so published. 

It was about this time or a little later that Mr. Field erected a monument to 
the British spy. Major Andre, on American soil. He did this out of his exuber- 
ance of good feeling to those "bloody Britishers;" for they had allowed him to 
fasten one end of his big wire rope around their tight little island, and then, what 
was more, loaned him their biggest ship, the " Great Eastern," to stow away the 
remainder when she started for our shores, paying it out as she steamed until she 


reached our side. ^VTiereupon their great man, John Bright, for his success, had 
called Cyrus the "Columbus of modern times, who, by his cable, had moored the 
new world alongside the old." 

That compliment and fact made no difference, and so one dark night some 
enterprising j^eople, who had no stomachs yawning to glorify the memory of a 
British spy, put under the monument on the North river at least half an ounce of 
i^unpowder, set a match to it ; so, when the sun arose next morning, it failed to 
catch any of its glowing rays. But the big rope still remains at the bottom of 
the ocean, continually wagging at both ends, telling people on both sides " what's 
up." In this respect it is like old Mother Tucker, of Tuckerton, on the Jersey 
coast, a great talker, of whom it was said, " her tongue hung in the middle, and 
she talked with both ends." This was the story I heard in my youth, but I never 
believed so wonderful a thing could be done until this demonstration of the cable 
of Cyrus. 

Lawnfield, the Garfield Home. 

I write the above for the benefit of the Mentor children who may read it. Five 
minutes after leaving them I was at the Garfield place. It is on a level spot, with 
broad green fields in front and around, and an orchard in the rear. The buildings 
occupy much ground. The old Garfield home which fronts the cluster is a wooden 
building; its entire front a vine-clad porch of say fifty feet in length. Behind 
the cluster is a small barn-like structure called the " Campaign Building." Dur- 
ing the Garfield campaign a bevy of clerks were kept there busy mailing cam- 
paign documents, and from it telegraphic wires extended over the Union up to 
the night of the election and victory. 

A serving-man answered my ring. He had the exquisite suavity common to 
his class — they outdo their lords. I laid my card on his waiter. He bowed and 
left, and soon i-eturning, I was ushered into a sort of double room. It was dark 
there ; the overhanging portico and the rainy, murky sky outside uniting to that 
end. The room and ceilings were low and I could discern but little. Pictures 
were on the walls, apjjarently old family portraits ; but I could not tell male from 
female, the place and day were so dark. The rooms around opened into each 
other, and the interior seemed comfortable, old-fashioned and home-lilvC. 

As I sat there musing in the gloom, I suddenly felt the presence of some one 
by my side. I looked up, and there stood a young man of say twenty-five ; 
slender, reticent, dark-eyed, hollow cheeks, olive complexion — looked like a 
thinker. It was Harry A. Garfield, the eldest of the sons. His mother was 
occupied with guests, and Grandmamma Garfield was away. No matter, it was 
business I was upon, and I arranged with him for my sending a photographer to 
take some views, wliich are given. He subsequently gave me by letter the items 
in the following paragraph : 

The Mentor farm was purchased by Mr. Garfield about the year 1877. His 
idea was to eventually run the farm into cattle, raising good stock upon it, etc. ; 
and this is what the family are now trying to carry out. The house was origin- 
ally a story and a half high. In 1880 a story and a larger piazza were added. 
In 1885 Mrs. Garfield added to the modest frame house of her husband a jialatial 
" Queen Anne structure of stone." It was in accordance with an intent expressed 
by Mr. Garfield while living, as a repository for his extensive collection of books. 

To the foregoing items I annex a published description of that period, by a 
visitor who had a facile pen with which to write, and a bright day in which to 
observe : 

"The new part of the Garfield mansion is with the addition. There are probablj' thirty 

behind and wholly subservient to the old rooms in both old and new houses. They 

house in which the President lived. This are all furnished in modern style and with 

still remains the head and front of the Gar- considerable elegance. Although the house 

field home, although remodelled to conform is far in the country it has all the eonven- 


iences of a city home, in plumbing, gas-fit- conflictmg reports of my condition. It is (nie 

ting and steam-heating. A natural gas well I am still weak, hut am gaining even/ day, 

has been bored on the form and the yard is and need only time and patience to bring me 

kept lighted day and night. The main en- through. Give my love to all the friends and 

trance is through the old house. In the hall relatives, and especially Aunt Hetty. 

facing the door is an old wall-sweep clock. Your loving so7i. 

To the left is the smoking-room. To the James A. Garfield. 

ri|;ht is the old parlor, now a reception-room. 

Bibles and other books are upon the tables, There is less simplicity in other parts of the 

and the furniture is much the same as when great house. The paintings in the parlors 

the family left for Washington. are works of art. But the one great idea in 

To the left is a modest little room occupied this home is Garfield the fixther, Garfield the 
by the aged "Grandma" Garfield. She is statesman. Pictures and busts of him are 
eighty -five, but a vigorous old lady yet, who everywhere. On the stairway leading to the 
reads her Bible every day. Her room is libr.ary is an oil portrait of him, made in 1862, 
modestly but richly furnished, and the face when he came from the war. Above it hang 
of her son looks upon her from every side. his swords. The library is the refuge-room. 
A handsome fire-screen, with a transparency It is in the upper story of the new part, and 
of the dead, stands before the hearth. A an ideal spot for rest or literary labor. There 
half dozen other portraits of him hang where are about 2,000 volumes here arranged for 
the eye meets them at every turn. Over the convenience. The tables are loaded with art, 
mirror of the dresser is a picture of him as a books and magazines. Where there are walls 
young man, taken in 1852. On an opposite above the books, pictures of authors with 
wall is a picture in colors of the old pioneer their autographs attached are hung. The 
home of the Garfield family. But the great autographic portraits of Bismarck and Gam- 
relic of this room is the last letter of the son betta occupy prominent places, 
to his mother, of which so many thousand With Mrs. Garfield live her father, Mr. 
facsimile copies were sold. Here is the Rudolph, a brother and his family. A half 
original : dozen men are employed on the farm, which 
Washington, Aug. 11, 1881. consists of 160 acres." 

Dear Mother : Do not be disturbed by 

Three Oi.d Men and the Money-Grabber. 

On leaving the mansion it was still raining, and I sought shelter in the post- 
office opposite the school-house. It was a small place. The postmaster, an elderly- 
personage, was behind the letters in his cage. Three old men were seated out in 
front of the cage talking : the business of life about wound up with them. I told 
them where I had been, and then they were loud in the praises of the Garfields. 
Mrs. Garfield paid generously the people who worked for her on her place ; and 
as for Mr. Garfield, in his lifetime, he was one of the most social, genial of spirits. 
One of them said, " He got me to build him a manger, and he came down and 
watched the job ; and I found he knew more than I did about mangers. He 
talked with everybody about their business ; learned all they knew ; added it to 
what he knew, and then knew more than all the rest of us put together." 

I got back to the depot at three o'clock. Tlie cars were to return at six. There 
was no tavern. A sign, " Boarding House," was over tiie door of a two-story 
dwelling. I knocked and entered. Two ladies well along in the afternoon of 
their eartlily pilgrimage were there, with "their things on," ready to go out. I 
made known my wants. One, a bright, cheery soul, threw off her wraps, saying 
to her friend, " You go on ; I'll join you soon ; I'll get his dinner. I'm a money- 
grabber — I want the two shillings." Soon I heard the stove roaring in the ad- 
joining room, and in a trice my dinner was ready — stewed chicken (poultry of her 
own raising), cold pork, vegetables, fruits, apples, pears, grapes, pie and hot coffee, 
and on my part a relishing appetite. 

While I was at table she started the fire in the box-stove in the room I was in, 
and it roared for my drying ; for I was wet through from knees down. Then 
she left me todry and cogitate ; and hanging myself over two chairs, I smoked 
my cigar and meditated, while the old clock ticked away the hours from its wall- 

To the young waiting is dreary ; action and acquisition is their occupation. To 
the old the passing of time is as nothing. The leaves of the book of life are full, 
when memory glides in and turns over to their vision page after page of the mor- 


tal panorama, made sacred in the dim hallowed light of the vanished years. And 
when the life has been imprinted with blessing thoughts and deeds, these retro- 
spective hours are as calming to the spirit as the mellow suffusing glow of an 
autumnal sunset. 

A Well-Fixed People. 

The cars came. My cigar was in ashes, my clothes dry ; and I was done with 
Mentor. Three hours later I was seated ruminating in a chair on the pavement 
in front of the Stockwell House, Painesville. The storm had passed ; the stars 
looked down with their silent eyes, and my ears were open. Two old men were 
sitting near me in the darkness, sounding the praises of the Western Reserve ; 
and they both agreed. One of them was a retired general officer of our army, 
over seventy years of age. He had lived in every part of our country ; at the far 
East and the far West ; in Kansas and California ; was familiar with Canada and 
every part of the Mississippi valley. " Elsewhere," said he, " in places they pro- 
duce larger single crops, some in corn, some in wheat, and some grow more hogs ; 
but here the soil is rich and of that nature that it gives a wonderful variety of 
everything ; grain, fruit, vegetables, etc., which, with the climate, makes it the 
choicest spot of our land." 

And he might have added a word more upon the people, their general thrift 
and intelligence, fortified with tlie truthful statement that the Reserve exceeds all 
other populations of equal number in the amount of domestic correspondence, and 
books, magazines and newspapers received thi-ough the mails. This old veteran 
who spake with such enthusiasm, was General R. B. Potter, President of the Mil- 
itary Commission before whom C. L. Vallandigham was tried for treason. The 
old soldier has since that night answered his last roll-call. 


John Flavial Morse, born in Massachusetts in October, 1801, removed 
with his father to Kirtland in 1816. He was a third time member of the Ohio 
legislature in 1848, when, in connection with Dr. N. S. Townshend, he was in- 
strumental in the election of Salmon P. Chase to the United States Senate, and in 
the i-epeal of the Black Laws. (See Vol. I., page 100.) In 1851 he was Speaker 
of the Ohio house of representatives; in 1860 elected to the State senate. In 
1861 was captain of the Twenty-ninth Ohio Volunteer Infantry. In 1862 Sec- 
retary Chase offered him employment on the public buildings, in which service he 
continued until 1876. Mr. Morse died January 30, 1884. 

William H. Beard was born in Painesville, April 13, 1825. He is famous 
for his caricatures of the vanities and the foibles of men through the portrayal of 
their prototypes in the animal kingdom. He began his professional career about 
1846 as a travelling portrait painter. In 1856 visited and studied in Europe. 
In 1860 settled in New York city, and two years later was elected a member of 
the National Academy. 

His brother, James H. Beard, was born in Buft'alo, N. Y., in 1814, and then 
in infancy was brought to Painesville, where he spent his boyhood days. Later 
was for a number of years engaged in portrait and other jiainting in Cinciimati. 
In 1870 he settled permanently in New York, and two years later was elected a 
full member of the National Academy, of which he had been an honorary mem- 
ber since 1848. Of late years he has devoted himself to animal painting, and has 
attained great eminence as an artist. 

The works of the brothers are largely permeated with the spirit of humor. 
James H. has several sons, all artists of fine capacity. When in Cincinnati James 
H. designed the engraving, for distribution by the Western Art Union, entitled 
" Poor Relations." A family of aristocratic dogs, consisting of a mother dog, 
with her plump, well-fed pups, are in their jiarlor receiving their poor relations, 
consisting of a mother dog, with her pups, lean and of a half-starved look, who 



have just entered the door. The expressions of contempt and pride on the faces 
of the first are in marked contrast with those of the visitoi-s, wliose abject, crouch- 
ing^ forms are pitiful to behold. 

While in Cincinnati Beard painted his celebrated picture, "The Last Man," 
which for a long term of years has been hanging on the walls of the Burnet 
House there, and has been the admiration of thousands of the guests of that famous 
hostelrie. The last man is the last victim of the ancient flood, who awaits, on a 
crag, the closing in upon him of the angry waters. His wife has perished, and 
floats in the surges at his feet. The rain still beats down from the black wind- 
tossed sky. The storm-pelted man knows his fate, and awaits it with a stern sad- 
ness and a grand fortitude. Few paintings equal this as a dramatic conception, 
and few arouse the same deep feeling by suggestion. 

In the Amencan Magazine for December, 1889, is an article upon Mr. Beard, 
by Leon Adams, from which the following is derived. It is entitled " The Ap- 
prenticeship of an Academician." Mr. Mead begins with an extraordinary fact : 

" James H. Beard has devoted i 


sixty years to the art of painting, and has 
Ion" been a member of the National Academy 
of Design. He has painted the portraits of 
some eminent personages, and, both as por- 

trait painter and animal painter, has had 
numerous admirers that have paid good 
prices for his productions ; and yet, he has 
never had any instruction in either drawing 
or color, has never studied the anatomy of 
either man or beast, and has not had more 
than a year's schooling in his life. This ca- 
reer is a noteworthy instance of how a strong 
natural bent will assert itself in spite of very 
discouraging obstacles. " _ 

Mr. Beard was born in Buffalo. His 
father, James Beard, a shipmaster on the 
lakes, commanded the first brig that sailed 
on Lake Erie. His wife was the first white 
woman that visited the post where Chicago 
now stands. The subject of this sketch be- 

gan to draw when he was a small boy, and 
grew to manhood in Painesville, Ohio, and 
Cleveland. At sixteen he met at Painesville 
a wandering sign and portrait painter, and 
concluded to try his own luck with the brush. 
He found sitters who were not very critical, 
and painted them in red, white and brown — 
the only colors he could find at a cabinet- 
maker's. He made his own implements, 
except the brushes, and prepared his own 
canvas. There was sometliing about his pic- 
tures that rendered them a success, and in- 
sured his popularity. At length he visited 
Ravenna and painted a full-length portrait 
for ten dollars, a sum that he considered 
munificent, for it cost him hut $1 .2.5 a week 
for his board, lodging and washing at the 
Ravenna hotel. 

From this time until he was eighteen Beard 
was a wanderer chiefly, and experienced many 
hardships. He reached Pittsburg, and saw 
for the first time in his life a paved street 
and the wonders of an early Western museum. 
A keelboat, on which he worked his passage, 
brought him to this city. At Cincinnati he 
was paid off with the rest of the hands, and 
within an hour after landing he parted with 
his friend, the sign-painter, having deter- 
mined to cake a trij) to Louisville. The deck 
pa.ssage was two dollars, but no one came to 
collect his fare, and so he enjoyed a free sail, 
though it was not his intention to defraud 
the steamboat company. Not knowing but 
that he was entitled to them, he took his 
meals regularly in the cabin. At night, to- 
gether with a j'oung man who had two blank- 
ets, he slept on a pile of pig iron. He spent 
a week wandering about Louisville, adding 
several unimportant experiences to his bud- 
get, and then retiirned to Cincinnati with 
about eight dollars in his pocket. 

Putting on a bold face, Beard obtained 
work in Cincinnati as a chair painter who had 
had "experience." No one ever discovered 
that he was not an experienced chair painter. 
During his leisure time he used to make pen- 
cil drawings at the house where he boarded, 
of different things, and drop them carelessly 
on the floor so that they would attract atten- 
tion. The landlord possessed a strong, char- 



acteristic face, and Beard drew him in uni- 
form, he being a colonel in the militia. The 
young artist also dropped this drawing on the 
floor of his chamber. His chief ambition 
was to get to painting portraits again. He 
thought this drawing would please the colo- 
nel, and it did. In short, it led to Beard's 
receiving a commission to paint the portraits 
of the colonel and his entire family, consist- 
ing of five members, at five dollars a piece. 
With this work to occupy him. Beard left 
the chair factory and resumed his portrait 
painting. But the income was precarious, 
and he was often " hard up." 

The article concludes as follows : Mr. Beard 
was about twenty-two when he married Miss 
Mary Caroline Carter. Her father. Colonel 
Carter, was a river-trader. Soon afterwards 
he went down the river, taking charge of one 
of the boats of his father-in-law. Before 
reaching New Orleans he confronted many 
dangers, and passed through many adven- 
tures with the river pirates and dishonest 

On one of his trips to New Orleans Mr. 
Beard stopped at Baton Rouge, and painted 
a three-quarter length life-size portrait of 
Gen. Taylor. At this time it was generally 
conceded that Taylor would be nominated for 
the Presidency. One day, while at work on 
the portrait, the artist said to his distin- 
guished sitter, " General, I will vote for you, 
but under protest. I never knew you as a 
statesman, and I am not certain that a mil- 
itary man is qualified for the oflSce." Taylor 
replied, " You are right. I am no more fit 
to be President than you are. Don't vote for 
me." Afterward Mr. Beard made a copy of 
this portrait of Gen. Taylor, and sold it to a 

gentleman who presented it to the city of 
Charleston. In 1840 he painted for the city 
of Cincinnati a full-length portrait of Gen. 
Wm. Henry Harrison. 

Since 1863 he has devoted himself princi- 
pally to animal painting. His animal pic- 
tures appeal to popular taste, being generally 
intended to tell a story, humorous or pathetic, 
and the intention of the painter is easily dis- 
cernible. There is no better example of his 
work in that line than " The Streets of New 
York," which he sold for $3,000. 

Mr. Beard, with a studio in New York, 
resides at Flushing, L. I., where he is pass- 
ing a serene old age, delighting his visitors 
with some of the incidents of his varied ex- 
perience. Well preserved, tall, erect, with a 
yellowish grey beard and abundant white 
curly hair flowing down his shoulders, wher- 
ever he appears he is a striking figure, pic- 
turesque and patriarchal. 

We have spoken of the great suggestion 
in Mr. Beard's "The Last Man." ^One of 
his most recent paintings, "It's Very Queer, 
Isn't It?" is almost equal to a dissertation 
on Darwinian theory. No one could ever 
tire of a picture marked by such concentrated 
humor and philosophy. The contrasted 
skulls of the man and of the monkey are a 
powerful illustration— but who can say of 

This picture shows an old monkey, with 
the face of a sage, seated in a chair in a 
meditative mood. On one side of him is the 
skull of a man, on the other that of an ape. 
It is evident that they have been a subject of 
study, and he is pondering whether man 
came from the monkey or the monkey from 
the man. 

George Trumbull Ladd was born in Painesville, Ohio, Jan. 19, 1842; 
graduated at Western Reserve College in 1864. He preaclied in Edinburgli, Ohio, 
for two years. In 1879 was professor of moral and intellectual philosophy in 
Bowdoin College. In 1881 was called to the chair of philosophy in Yale Col- 
lege. The same year the Western Reserve College conferred on him the degree 
of D. D. He is the author of " Doctrine of Sacred Scripture " (New York and 
Edinburgh, 1883) and other publications. 

Thomas W. Harvey was born in New Hampshire in 1821, and removed to 
Lake county when twelve years of age. He early developed a strong desire for 
a good education, made a beginning under adverse circumstances, and through life 
has been a hard student and able worker in the development of education in Oiiio. 
Prof. Harvey is recognized as one of the leading educators of the State. He was 
for fourteen years superintendent of schools in Massillon, and has served many 
years in a similar capacity at Painesville. He was three years State commissioner 
of common schools. As a lecturer and instructor he has a widespread rejnitation,. 
and a number of valuable text-books bear testimony to his ability as an author. 

Madison is eleven miles east of Painesville, on the L. S. & M. S. R. R., and 
on the old stage route from Cleveland to Buffalo, and a station on the Under- 
ground Railroad. The George Harris of " Uncle Tom's Cabin " was arrested here 
and rescued at Unionville. Newspaper : Monitor, Independent, F. A. Williams, 
editor and publisher. Bank : Exchange, L. H. Kimball, president; A. S. Strat- 
ion, cashier. Churches : 1 Baptist, 1 Congregational, 1 Methodist Episcopal. 1 
Catholic. Population, 1880, 793. School census, 1888, 197. 

Mentor is near Lake Erie, six miles west of Painesville, on the L. S. & M. S. 


and N. Y. C & St. L. Railroads. It has 1 Methodist Episcopal and 1 Catholic 
church. Population, 1880, 540. School census, 1888, 218. 

L'Mh Mountain is .said to be about the highest point of land on the Western 
Reserve. It is seven miles south of Painesville ; a small and abrupt eminence 
of about 200 feet in height above the surrounding country, and can be seen from 
a far distance. It is much visited, and commands a beautiful prospect of the ad- 
jacent country and Lake Erie, distant ten miles. A cool breeze generally blows 
from the lake to brace the nerves of the visitor^ while around and below the earth 
is clad in beauty. 



Lawrence County was organized March 1, 1816, and named from Capt. 
James Lawrence, a native of Burlington, N. J., and a gallant naval officer of the 
war of 1812. Most of the county consists of high, abrupt hills, in which large 
quantities of sand or free-stone exist : soil mostly clay. There is some rich land 
on the creek bottoms, and on that of the Ohio river, on which, and at the iron 
furnaces, are the principal settlements. _ This county is rich in minerals, and is 
the greatest iron manufacturing county in Ohio. Coal abounds in the western 
part, while clay, suitable for stoneware, is found under the ore, in the whole of 
the iron region. The agricultural products, which are small in quantity, are 
wheat, corn, oats, potatoes, hay and apples. 

Area about 440 square miles. In 1887 the acres cultivated were, 50,421 
in pasture, 37,048 ; woodland; 37,094 ; lying waste, 20,145 ; produced in wheat. 
122,070 bushels; rye, 410; buckwheat, 64; oats, 65,693; barley, 145; 
corn, 371,191 ; meadow hay, 6,179 tons; clover hay, 841 ; potatoes, 29,633 bushels: 
tobacco, 11,940 pounds; butter, 210,159 ; sorghum, 47,371 gallons; maple syrup, 
60; honey, 11,018 pounds; eggs, 148,371 dozen; grapes, 3,280 pounds: 
wine, 520 gallons ; sweet potatoes, 7,291 bushels ; apples, 39,403 ; peaches, 5,835 
pears, 212 ; wool, 10,343 pounds ; jnilch cows owned, 2,839. Ohio mining 
statistics, 1888 : Coal mined, 137,086 tons ; employing 248 miners and 63 out- 
side employees. Iron ore, 104,140 tons. Fire-clay, 15,280 tons. Limestone, 
114,652 tons, burned for fluxing. School census, 1888, 13,942 ; teachers, 202. 
Miles of railroad track, 55. 

Townships and Census. 1840. 1880. 





















Townships and Census. 1840. 1880. 

Aid, 610 1,530 

Decatur, 594 2,043 

Elizabeth, 1,534 4,586 

Fayette, 841 2,308 

Hamilton, 1,168 

Lawrence, 425 1,788 

Mason, 695 2,021 

Population of Lawrence in 1820 was 3,499 ; 1830, 6,366 ; 1840, 9,745 ; 
1860, 23,249 ; 1880, 39,068, of .whom 29,079 were born in Ohio ; 2,597, 
Kentucky; 2,291, Virginia; 937, Pennsylvania; 118, Indiana; 117, New 
York; 1,116, German Empire ; 615, Ireland; 513, England and Wales; 33, 
France ; 22, Scotland ; and 22, British America. Census, 1890, 39,556. 

In the Indian War, prior to the treaty of Greenville, many boats, descend- 
ing the Ohio, were attacked by the Indians, and the whites in them cruelly 
massacred. After the war had closed, wrecks of boats were frequently seen on 
the shore, to remind the traveller of the unhappy fate of those who had fallen a 
prey to the rifle, tomahawk and scalping-knife. Among the unpublished 
incidents of this nature is one that belongs to the history of this county, obtained 
by us orally from one acquainted with the circumstances : 

Among the early settlers of Mason county, • Pennsylvania. They embarked at Maysville, 
Ky., was Mr. James Kelly, who emigrated in a large canoe, with two men as passengers, 

from Westmoreland, Pa. Shortly after his 
arrival, the Indians carried on their murder- 
ous incursions with so much energy, as to 
seriously threaten the annihilation of the 
infant settlements. His father, alarmed for 
his safety, sent another son, William, to Ken- 
tucky, to bring his brother and family back to 

who were to assist in navigating the 
When about a mile below the mouth of the 
Big Guyandotte, and near the Virginia shore, 
they were suddenly fired upon by a party of 
Indians, secreted behind the trees on that 
bank of the river. William, who had risen 
u]) in the boat, was shot through the body, 



wnen James sprang up to save him from foil- 
ing into the river, and receiving a death 
wound, fell forwards in the boat. The two 
men, as yet unharmed, steered for the Ohio 
shore. The instant the boat touched land, 
one of them, panic-stricken, sprang ashore, 
and, running into the recesses of the forest, 
was never heard of more. 

The other passenger, however, was a man 
of undaunted courage. He determined to 
protect Mrs. Kelly and her little children, 
consisting of James, a boy of about five 
years of age, and an infant named Jane. 
They landed, and turned their course for 
Gallipolis, about thirty miles distant. In 
their haste they had forgotten to get any 
provisions from the boat, and the prospect 
of reaching there, through a wilderness 
swarming with Indians, was gloomy. To add 
to the horrors of their situation, they had gone 
but a few miles, when Mrs. Kelly was bitten 
in the foot by a copper-head, and was unable 
to make further progress. As the only resort 
her companion told her that he must leave 
her alone in the woods, and travel to Gallipolis, 
procure a boat and a party, and come for her. 
Having secreted them among some paw- 
paws, he started on his solitary and perilous 
journey. The Indians were soon on his track, 
in hot pursuit ; and taking inland to avoid 
them, three or four days elapsed before he 

arrived at his destination. He cnere obtained 
a keel boat, and a party of thirty men, and 
started down the Ohio, with but a faint hope 
of finding Mrs. Kelly and her little ones alive. 

During his absence Mrs. Kelly had been 
accustomed daily to send her little son to the 
river's edge, to hail any boats that might pass. 
Fearing a decoy from the Indians, several 
went by without paying any attention to his 
cries. An hour or two before the arrival of 
the aid from Gallipolis, another boat from 
farther up the river passed down. At first 
but little attention was given to the hailing of 
little James ; but feelings of humanity pre- 
vailed over their fears, and reflecting also 
upon the improbability of the Indians send- 
ing such a mere child as a decoy, they took 
courage, turned to the shore, and took the 
suflFerers aboard. They were then in a starving 
and deplorable condition ; but food was soon 
given them by the kind-hearted boatmen, and 
their perDs were over. Soon the Gallipolis 
boat hove in sight, and they were taken on 
board, and eventually to Pennsylvania. 

Mrs. Kelly, in the course of a few years, 
married again. The infant Jane grew up to 
womanhood, and was remarkable for her 
beauty. The little boy James finally emi- 
grated to the Muskingum country. From 
him and his mother our informant derived 
these facts. 

Lawrence was settled about 1797, by people from Pennsylvania and A'^irginia, 
who were principally of Dutch and Irish descent. When the iron works were 
first established, only about one-eighth of the land was entered, since which the 
workmen have accumulated means to purchase more. At that day the inhabitants 
were principally hunters, and for months together, our informant says, he did not 
see one wear a coat or shoes ; hunting-shirts and moccasons being the substitutes. 

When Lawrence was first organized, the commissioners neglected to lay a tax, 
and the expenses of the county were carried on by orders, ^\'hich so depreciated 
that the clerk had to pay S6, in orders, for a quire of paper. The county was 
finally sued on an order, and judgment obtained for the plaintiff, but as the pub- 
lic property could not be levied upon, not anything was then recovered. Event- 
ually, the legislature passed laws compelling the commissioners to lay a tax, by 
which the orders were paid in full, with interest. 

Burning a Bewitched Horse. 

The annexed report of a case, that came befoi'e the Court of Common Pleas in 
this county, is from the pen of a legal gentleman of high standing. It shows 
that in our day the belief in witchcraft has not entirely vanished. 

Lawrence Common 
Pleas. Term 1828. 
Enoch H. Fleece. ] Action on the case, for 
a false warranty in the sale of a horse. Flea, 

The plaintifiF having proved the sale and 
warranty, called a witness to prove the 
defendant's knowledge of the unsoundness of 
the horse at the time of sale. This witness 
testified, that both he and defendant lived at 
Union Furnace, in Lawrence county, and that 
the latter was by trade a tanner ; that he, 
witness, knew the horse previous to the sale 
to the plaintiff, and before he was owned by 

defendant, and was then, and at the time 
defendant purchased him, in bad health. He 
saw him daily employed in defendant's bark 
mill, and was fast declining, and when un- 
employed, drooping in his appearance, and 
so continued until sold to the plaintiff. Hav- 
ing been present at the sale, and hearing the 
warranty, the witness afterwards inquired of 
the defendant why he had done so, knowing 
the horse to be unsound. He answered by 
insisting that the horse was in no way dis- 
eased, or in unsound health, but that the 
drooping appearance arose from his being he- 
witched, which be did not call unsoundness. 

Aged 82 years, the veteran irou-master. " Father and Founder of Irouton.' 

J. N. BraAfmd, drl, 0^ S. Vni 

The Old Heci.a Furnace. 

The celebrated gun known as the "Swamp Angel," of Charleston Harbor, was cast from Hecla 



and so soon as they could be got out of the 
horse he would then be as well as ever. 

The defendant further stat«d, that the 
same witches which were in that horse had 
been in one or two persons, and some cows, 
in the same settlement, and could only be 
driven out by a witch doctor, living on the 
head waters of the Little Scioto, in Pike 
county, or by burning the animal in which 
they were found ; that this doctor had some 
time before been sent for to see a young 
woman who was in a had loay, and on exami- 
nation found her bewitched. He soon ex- 
pelled them, and also succeeded in ascertain- 
ing that an old woman not far off was the 
witch going about in that way, and she could 
be got rid of only by killing her. At some 
subsequent time, when defendant was from 
home, his wife sent for witness and others, to 
see and find out what was the matter with her 
cow, in a lot near the house. They found it 
frantic, running, and pitching at everything 
which came near. It was their opinion, after 
observing it considerably, that it had the 
cajiine madness. The defendant, however, 
returned before the witness and others left 
the lot ; he inspected the cow with much 
attention, and gave it as his opinion that 
they were mistaken as to the true cause of 
her conduct — she was not mad, but bewitched ; 
the same which had been in the horse had 
transferred itself to the cow. By this time 
the animal, from exhaustion or other cause, 
had lain down. The defendant then went 
into the lot, and requested the persons 
present to assist in putting a rope about her 
horns, and then make the other end fast to a 
tree, where he could burn her. They 
laughed at the man's notion, but finally 
assisted him, seeing she remained quiet— still 
having no belief that he really intended 
burning her. 

This being done, the defendant piled up 
logs, brush and other things around, and 
finally over the poor cow, and then set fire 
to them. The defendant continued to add 
fuel, until she was entirely consumed, and 
afterwards told the witness he had never seen 
any creature so hard to die ; that she con- 
tinued to moan after most of the flesh had 
fallen from her bones, and he felt a pity for 
her, but die she must; that nothing but 
the witches in her kept her alive so long, and 
it was his belief they would be so burnt be- 
fore getting out, that they never would come 
back. Night having set in before the burn- 
ing was finished, the defendant and his 
family set up to ascertain if the witches could 
be seen about the pile of embers. Late at 
night, some one of the family called the 
defendant to the window— the house being 

near the place — and pointed to two witches, 
hopping around, over and across the pile of 
embers, and now and then seizing a brand 
and throwing it into the air, and in a short 
while disappeared. The next morning, on 
examination, the defendant saw their tracks 
through the embers in all directions. At a 
subsequent time, he told the same witness 
and others, that from that time the witches 
had wholly disappeared from the neighbor- 
hood, and would never return— and to burn 
the animal alive, in which they were found, 
was the only way to get clear of them : he 
had been very fearful tliey would torment his 

The writer found, after the above trial, 
from a conversation with the defendant, that 
he had a settled belief in such things, and in 
the truth of the above statement. 

In our edition of 1846 we stated that the 
iron region is about eight miles wide. It ex- 
tends through the east part of Scioto, and 
the west part of this county, and enters 
Jackson county on the north, and Greenup 
county, Ky. , on the south. Most of the iron 
in Lawrence is made into pig metal, which 
stands high for castings, and is equal to 
Scotch pig for foundry furnaces : it is also 
excellent for bar iron. The principal markets 
are Pittsburg and Cincinnati. The four 
counties of Jackson, Lawrence, Scioto and 
Greenup, Ky., make about 37,450 tons an- 
nually, which, at $30 per ton, the current 
market price, amounts to $1,123,500. There 
are 21 furnaces in the iron region, of which 
the following are in Lawrence, viz., Union, 
Pine Grove, Lawrence, Centre, Mount Ver- 
non, Buckhorn, Etna, Vesuvius, La Grange, 
Hecla and Olive. The oldest of these, in 
this county, is Union, built in 1826 by John 
Means, a view of which is given, showing on 
the left the furnace, in the middle ground 
the log-huts of the workmen, with the store 
of the proprietors, while around is wild, hilly 
scenery, amid which these furnaces are usu- 
ally embosomed. Each of the 21 furnaces 
employs, on an average, 70 yoke of oxen, 
"100 hands, sustains 500 persons, consumes 
560 barrels of flour, 1,000 bushels of corn 
meal, 10,000 bushels of corn, 50,000 pounds 
of bacon, 20,000 pounds of beef, 1,500 bush- 
els of potatoes, beside other provisions, and 
tea, sugar and coffee in proportion." From 
this it will be seen, that their existence is 
highly important to the agriculturist. In the 
winter season about 500 men come from 
abroad, to cut wood for the furnaces in Law- 
rence; some of whom walk distances of 
hundreds of miles from their cabin homes 
among the mountains of Virginia and Ken- 

The Hanging Rock Iron Region is now understood to comprise an area 
of country embracing more than 1,000 square miles, extending into the States of 
Kentucky and West Virginia, and Scioto, Lawrence, Jackson and Vinton counties 
in Ohio, with its centre at Ironton. This vast mineral region, containing, besides 
its valuable iron ores, large and accessible deposits of coal, limestone and fire- 
clays, was in 1825 almost an unknown wilderness ; in 1845, as given in our orig- 


Drawn by Henry Hone m 1846 

Union Fuknace and Village. 

inar edition, it had 21 furnaces, while the Geological State Report of 1884 says 
of that part of it lying \vithin Ohio : " This region comprises some 42 furnaces 
in blast and some in course of erection in the counties of Vinton, Jackson, Gallia, 
Scioto and Lawrence." 

The purity of the iron ores in this district is attributable in a large measure to 
the fact that the plane of the veins lies far enough above the general water level 
to drain the water that accumulates from the rain fall, through the minerals and 
out into the streams. The dip of the strata being about 30 feet to the mile to the 
south of east, the inclination of all coals, ores, etc., gives a rapid fall in the direc- 
tion of the dip and renders it possible to run all material out on tram tracks by 
gravitation, as well as to get rid of the water without expense. 

The Hanging Rock ores are peculiarly adapted to the production of an iron of 
great strength and durability ; they are of the red hematite variety — the " hill- 
top " ores being largely used with underlying limestone ore. The productions of 
the Hecla furnace of this region are famous, being in special demand for 
machinery and car-wheels. 

Prior to the late war the government made 
a test of irons with reference to ordnance, in 
which ' ' the cold-blast Hecla was equalled only 
by results obtained from tT70 furnaces, re- 
spectively located at Toledo, Spain, and in 
Asia Minor." During the late war every 
ton of Hecla iron (excepting armor plates) 
was used at the Fort Pitt Works, Pittsburg, 
for casting heavy ordnance and field guns, 
and ran far above the government required 
test for tenacity. The celebrated gun known 
as the " Swamp Angel," of Charleston Har- 
bor, was cast from Hecla iron. There is 
direct authority for stating that car wheels of 
this iron have been in use for twenty years. 
In a memorial to Congress (1862) for the es- 

tablishment of a national foundry at Ironton, 
we find the statement of one who was em- 
ployed by the English government in 1855, 
that "while thus employed, my particular 
duties were to make selection and mixture of 
metal for heavy ordnance for service in the 
Crimea. This employment required the 
making of numerous tests on diiFerent metals, 
to determine their tenacity, deflection and 
specific gravity." The cold-blast pig made 
in Lawrence county, Ohio, was found supe- 
rior not only to the irons of a similar make 
in other portions of the United States, but 
also, "as compared with the best English 
iron, the difi'erence is about thirty per cent, 
in favor of this metal." 

Ironton, county-seat of Lawrence, is on the Ohio river, ten miles from 
the southernmost point in Ohio, 100 miles south of Columbus, 142 miles above 
Cincinnati, and 325 miles from Pittsburg. It is the centre of the Hanging Rock 
iron region, celebrated for the quantity and quality of iron ore, lime and coal, 
found in close proximity. The timber regions of the Virginias and Kentucky 
supply one of the large industries of the city, and large quantities of fire and pot- 


ters' clay found in this vicinity create another great industry. Ironton was laid 
out in 1 848, by the Ohio Iron and Coal Co., and was incorporated as a city in 
1865- The first iron smelted in the region was at a cupola built in 1815, by 
Richard Deeriug. In 1852 the county-seat was removed here from Burlington. 
Railroads : D. Ft. W. & C, S. V., and the Ironton, while by transfer across the 
Ohio river connection is had with the C. & O. Railroad. County Officers : An- . 
ditor, Mark S. Bai-tram ; Clerk, John W. Sayre ; Commissionei's, Charles Bramer, 
Elisha T. Edwards, Thompson F. Payne ; Coroner, John S. Henry ; Infirmary Di- 
rectors, Isaac Massie, Zachary T. Fugitt, William H. Heiner ; Probate Judge, 
Lot Davis ; Prosecuting Attorney, George AV. Keye ; Recorder, Paschal F. Gil- 
lett ; Sheriff, John L. Fisher ; Surveyor, James T. Egerton ; Treasurer, Joseph 
A. Turley. City Officers : John M. Corns, Mayor ; Halsey C. Burr, Clerk ; 
John Hayes, Treasurer ; John K. Richards, Solicitor ; J. R. C. Brown, Engineer ; 
W. L. Vanhorn, Marshal ; John Culkins, Street Commissioner ; William George, 
Chief Fire Department. Newspapers : Register, Republican, E. S. Wilson, edi- 
tor ; Republican, Republican, Hayden & McCall, proprietors ; Irontonian, Dem- 
ocratic, L. P. Ort, proprietor ; Wachter am Ohio, German, Independent, Christian 
Feuchter, editor. Churches : two Catholic, two Methodist Episcopal, one Baptist, 
one Lutheran, one Congregational, one Calvinistic Methodist, one German Re- 
formed, one Presbyterian, one Episcopalian, one German Methodist, one Christian 
and three Colored. Banks : Exchange (W. D. Kelly), W. D. Kelly, cashier ; 
First National, George Willard, president, H. B. Wilson, cashier ; Second Na- 
tional, C. C. Clarke, president, Richard Mather, cashier ; Halsey C. Burr & Co. 

Manufactures and Employees. — C. H. Crowell, lumber, 12 hands; D., Ft. W. 
& C. Railroad Shop, railroad repairs, 25; Phillips Carriage Works, 10; the 
Foster Stove Co., stoves and ranges, 50 ; Whitman Stove Co., stoves and ranges, 
60 ; Sarah Furnace, pig-iron, 50 ; Standard Gas Retort and Fire-brick Co., 30 ; 
Etna Furnace, pig-iron, 100 ; Ironton Fire-brick Co., 30 ; R. N. Fearon, lumber, 
12; Ironton Lumber Co., lumber, 6 ; the Kelly Nail and Iron Co., 375; New- 
man & Spanner, lumber, 60 ; Ironton Furnace Co., pig-iron, 50 ; Ironton Car- 
riage Works, carriages and buggies ; Ironton Soap Works, soap ; Lawrence Iron 
and Steel Co., 300 ; Lambert. Bros. & Co., furnace machinery, etc., 50 ; R. S. 
Dupuy, oak harness leather, 11; Eagle Brewery, 10 ; the Goldcamp Milling 
Co., d.— State Report, 1888. Population in 1880, 8,857. School census, 1888, 
3,528 ; R. S. Page, school superintendent. Capital invested in industrial estab- 
lishments, $1,790,900. Value of annual product, $1,518,225.— OAio Labor Sta- 
tistics, 1887. U. S. census, 1890, 10,939. 

From a newspaper correspondence published in 1887, we extract some inter- 
items of history and reminiscences of the early iron trade : 

In 1819 there went from Spartanburg, S. the Union Furnace of his father, and ever 

C, to Hanging Kock, on the Ohio side of since he has been connected with it as lessee 

the river, a certain man named John Means, or owner. At first they made from three to 

carrying his slaves with him. He was an four tons a day, and when they increased the 

abohtionist, but not being able to manumit outnut to thirty tons a week, it was consid- 

his slaves in his native State, he sold his pos- erea a wonderful performance, 

sessions there, and with his family and ne- Speaking of those days, Mr. ^Means said : 

groes emigrated to the nearest point where " When I leased Union Furnace corn sold for 

he could set them free. In 1826 John Means twelve and a half cents a bushel, and wheat 

built a charcoal furnace near his home, and for from twenty-four to twenty-six cents, 

began the manufacture of pig-iron. The Wages for competent laborers were only ten 

Union, as he named it, was the first iron dollars amonth. I made a trip to New Orleans 

furnace north of the Ohio in this district. and saw wheat sold there for a quarter of a 

In Ashland your correspondent met Mr. dollar a bushel, and corn on the cob at the 

Thomas W. Means, a son of the pioneer fur- same price per barrel. 

nace-builder. This gentleman, now 83 years " We used only maple sugar in those days, 
old, has a vivid recollection of those early and paid for the commonest molasses thirty- 
times, and of the hardships which all who two cents a gallon. Our woollen goods were 
made iron had to endure because of free- woven on hand-looms. It took six yards of 
trade tendencies and laws. In 1837 he leased calico to make a dress, and the material cost 



half a dollar a yard. There are more people 
in Ironton now than there were then in the 
county. We saw no gold, and little silver 
coin, excPTit in small pieces. Our circulation 
was chiefly bills of State banks, and those 
were continually breaking. From 1854 to 
1861 I kept my furnaces going, but sold very 
little iron — only enough to keep me in ready 

" Charcoal iron was then worth from $10 to 
$14 a ton. In 1863 I had an accumulated 
stock of 16,000 tons. Next year it advanced 
to $40, which I thought a fine lift, but in 
1864 it netted me $80 a ton. For eight years 
before the war, nearly all the furnace -owners 
were in debt, but creditors did not distress 
them, for they were afraid of iron, the only 
asset they could get, and so they carried their 
customers the best they could, hoping all 
round for better times. We are all right and 
so is the country, if the fools will quit tariff- 
meddling. ' ' 

John Casipbell was born near Ripley, 
Ohio, January 14, 1S08. In 1834 he re- 
moved to Hanging Rock, and became identi- 
fied with the iron interests of this region, 
building in connection with Robert Hamilton 
the Mount Vernon Furnace. The " Bio- 
graphical Cyclopaedia of Ohio ' ' says of him : 
" It was here that he made the change of 
placing the boilers and hot blast over the 
tunnel head, thus utOizing the waste gases — 
a proceeding now generally adopted oy the 
charcoal furnaces of that locality and others 
elsewhere in the United States." In 1837, 
through the guarantee against any loss by Mr. 
Campoell and three other iron-masters, 

Furnace was induced to test the hot 
blast principle. This, the first hot blast ever 
erected in America, was put up by William 
Firmstone, and though, by those opposed to 
the principle, it was contended that by it the 
iron would be weakened and rendered unfit 
for casting purposes, the result proved satis- 
factory to all concerned in producing an in- 
creased quantity of iron of the desired quality 
for foundry use. 

"In 1849 he became prime mover and 
principal stockholder in the organization of 
the Ohio Iron and Coal Company, and was 
made its president. This company purchased 
four hundred acres of land three miles above 
Hanging Rock, and laid out the town of Iron- 
ton, to which Mr. Campbell gave its name." 

He is justly accorded the honor of being 
called the "father and founder of Ironton. 

In 1850 he removed from Hanging Rock 
to the newly founded town, and has ever 
since been prominently identified with its 
remarkable growth and development, as well 
as that of the entire surrounding region. 

In 1852 he purchased the celebrated Heola 
cold blast furnace. 

He now enjoys in his old age the venera- 
tion and respect of all who know of him and 
his grand life-work, in developing the indus- 
tries and wealth of this region, cringing as 
it has increased comforts and happiness to a 
large number of his fellow-men. 

To no other single individual is so much 
due for developing the resources of Hanging 
Rock Iron Region. 

For a personal description of Mr. Campbell 
see Vol. I. , page 237. 

Hanging Rock in ISIfi. — Hanging Rock, seventeen miles below the county- 
seat, on the Ohio river, contains I chiu-ch, 4 stores, a forge, a rolling mill, and a 
foundry — where excellent bar iron is made — and about 150 inhabitants. It is 
the great iron emporium of the county, and nearly all the iron is shipped there. 
It is contemplated to build a railroad from this place, of about fifteen miles in 
length, to the iron region, connecting it with the various furnaces. The village is 
named from a noted cliff of sandstone, about four hundred feet in height, called 
the " Hanging Rock," the upper portion of which projects over, like the cornier 
of a house. 

Some years since, a wealthy iron-master was buried at Hanging Rock, in com- 
pliance ^vith his request, above ground, in an iron coffin. It was raised about 
two feet from the ground, supported by iron pillars, resting on a flat stone. Over 
all was placed an octagonal building of wood, about twelve feet diameter and 
fifteen high, painted white, with a cupola-like roof, surmounted by a ball. It 
was, in fact, a tomb, but of so novel a description as to attract crowds of 
strangers, to the no small annoyance of the friends of the deceased, who, in 
consequence, removed the building, and sunk the coffin into a grave near the 
spot. — Old Edition. 

Hanging Rock is on the Ohio river, four miles below Ironton. Population, 
1880, 624. School census, 1888, 214. 

Burlington in I84.6. — Burlington, the county-seat, is on the southernmost 
point of the Ohio river in the State, one hundred and thirty-three miles south- 
easterly from Columbus. It is a small village, containing 4 stores, an academy, 1 
or 2 churches, a newspaper printing office, and from 40 to 60 dwellings. — Edition 


It lies about ten miles southeast of Ironton, the present county-seat, nearly 
opposite Catlettsburg, Ky., and in 1888 its school census was 211. 

MiLLERSPORT, P. O. Millee's, is thirty-three miles above Ironton, on the 
Ohio river. Population, 1880, 250. School census, 1888, 82. 

Peoctorvilee is on the Ohio river, twenty miles above Ironton. News- 
paper : Ohio Valley News, Republican, Dwight W. Custer, editor and publisher. 
It has 1 Methodist Episcopal church. Population, 1880, 385. 

The development of the mineral resources of Southeastern Ohio is due largely to 
the study of its geology by Dr. Caleb Briggs, born in North Rochester, Mass., May 
24, 1812, but long a resident of Ironton, O., where he died September 24, 1884. 
He was educated for a physician. He was engaged in the first survey of the coal 
and iron regions of Ohio, entering upon the work in June, 1837, and exploring 
Athens, Gallia, Hocking, Jackson, Lawrence and Scioto counties. Subsequently 
he also made surveys in Crawford, Tuscarawas, Wood, and perhaps other counties, 
terminating his earliest labors in 1839, after which he was employed in similar 
work in the western counties of Virginia. He was an extremely intelligent, use- 
ful, broad-minded and benevolent citizen, giving to Ironton, the city of hi» 
adoption, $26,000 with which to found a public lilbrary. 



Licking County was erected from Fairfield, ]\Iarch 1, 1808, and named from 
its principal stream, called by the whites Licking — by the Indians, Fataskula. 
The surface is slightly hilly ou the east, the western part is level, and the soil 
generally yellow clay ; the valleys are rich allnvium, inclining many of them to 
gravel. ' Coal is in the eastern part, and iron ore of a good quality. The soil 
is generally very fertile, and it is a wealthy agricultural county. Area about 
680 square miles. In 1887 the acres cultivated were 144,092; iu pasture, 
172,844; woodland, 55,038; lying waste, 2,868; produced in wheat, 510,655 
bushels; rye, 7,490; buckwheat, 1,111; oats, 324,441; barley, 6,045 ; corn, 
1,518,435; broom-corn, 18,545 lbs. brush; meadow hay, 47,277 tons; clover 
hay, 6,862; flaxseed, 1,752 bushels; potatoes, 92,930; tobacco, 100 lbs.; butter, 
909,118; cheese, 7,052; sorghum, 2,114 gallons; maple syrup, 21,1.38; honey, 
3,399 lbs.; eggs, 908,128 dozen; grapes, 28,935 lbs.; wine, 20 gallons; sweet 
potatoes, 152 bushels; apples, 15,794; peaches, 14,448; pears, 1,667; wool, 
1,155,992 lbs.; milch cows owned, 8,908; sheep, the largest number of any 
county in Ohio, namely, 174,672. School census, 1888, 12,602; teachers, 440. 
Miles of railroad track, 159. _ 

Townships and Census. 1840. 1880. Townships and Census. 





Bowling Green, 















Mary Anne, 
























St. Albans, 




































Population of Licking in 1820 was 11,861; 1830, 20,864; 1840, 35,096; 
1860, 37,011; 1880, 40,050, of whom 32,736 were born in Ohio; 1,461 
Virginia; 1,336 Pennsylvania; 669 New York; 156 Indiana ; 51 Kentucky; 
782 England and Wales; 611 Ireland; 511 German Empire; 54 Scotland; 49 
British America, and 29 France. Census, 1890, 43,279. 

With Butler county, which has 1,000 bridges in use, this couuty is also noted 
for its bridges. The streams which unite to torm the Licking spread over it like 
the fingers of the hand. Hence it takes as much bridging as half-a-dozen of the 
counties on the dividing ridge of the State. 

This county contains a mixed population ; its inhabitants originated from 
Pennsylvania, Virginia, New Jersey, New England, Wales, and Germany. 
Among the early settlers were John Channel, Isaac Stadden, John Van Buskirk, 
Benjamin Green, Samuel Parr, Samuel Elliott, John and Washington Evans, 
Geo. Archer, John Jones, and many Welsh. It was first settled, shortly afler 
Wayne's treaty of 1795, by John Eatliff and Ellis Hughes, in some old Indian 
corn-fields, about five miles below Newark, on the Licking. These men were 
from Western Virginia. They lived mainly by hunting, raising, however, a little 
corn, the cultivation of which was left, in a great measure, to their wives. 



Hughes had been bred in the hotbed of 
Indian warfare. The Indians having, at an 
early day, murdered a young woman to whom 
he was attached, and subsequently his father, 
the return of peace did not mitigate his 
hatred of the race. One night, in April, 
1800, two Indians stole the horses of Hughes 
and RatliflF from a little enclosure near their 
cabins. Missing them in the morning, they 
started oiF, well armed, in pursuit, accom- 
panied by a man named Bland. They fol- 
lowed their trail in a northern direction all 
day, and at night camped in the woods. At 
the gray of the morning they came upon the 
Indians, who were asleep and unconscious of 
danger. Concealing themselves behind the 
trees, they waited until the Indians had 
awakened, and were commencing prepara- 
tions for their journey. They drew up their 
rifles to shoot, and just at that moment one 
of the Indians discovered them, and instinc- 
tively clapping his hand on his breast, as if 
to ward off the fatal ball, "^ exclaimed in tones 
of affright, "me bad Indian !— me no do so 
more ! " The appeal was in vain, the smoke 
curled from the glistening barrels, the report 
rang in the morning air, and the poor Indians 
fell dead. They returned to their cabins with 
the horses and "plunder" taken from the 
Indians, and swore mutual secrecy for this 
violation of law. 

One evening, some time after, Hughes was 
quietly sitting in his cabin, when he was 
startled by the entrance of two cowerful and 
well-armed savages. Concealing his emotions, 
he gave them a welcome and ofi^ered them 
seats. His wife, a muscular, squaw-like look- 
ing female, stepped aside and privately sent 
for Ratliff, whose cabin was near. Presently, 
Ratliff, who had made a detour, entered with 
his rifle, from an opposite direction, as if he 
had been out hunting. He found Hughes 
talking with the Indians about the murder. 
Hughes had his tomahawk and scalping-knife, 
as was his custom, in a belt around his per- 
son, but his rifle hung from the cabin wall, 
which he deemed it imprudent to attempt to 
obtain. There all the long night sat the 
parties, mutually fearing each other, and 
neither summoning sufficient courage to stir. 
When morning dawned, the Indians left, 
shaking hands and bidding farewell, but, in 
their retreat, were very cautious not to be 
shot in ambush by the hardy borderers. 

Hughes died near Utica, in this county, 
in March, 1845, at an advanced age, in the 
hope of a happy future. His early life had 
been one of much adventure ; he was, it is 
supposed, the last survivor of the bloody 
battle of Point Pleasant. He was buried 
with military honors and other demonstra- 
tions of respect. 

The Burlington Storm. 
On the 18th of May, 1825, occurred one of the most violent tornadoes ever 
known in Ohio. It has been commonly designated as " th^ Burlington stoi-m," 
because in Burlington township, in this county, its effects were more severely felt 
than in any other part of its track. This event is told in the language of a 

It commenced between the hours of one and 
two P.,M., in the southeast part of Delaware 
county. After passing for a few miles upon 
the surface of the ground, in an easterly 
direction, it appeared to rise so high from the 
earth that the tallest trees were not affected 
by it, and then again descended to the surface, 
and with greatly increased violence and force 
proceeded through the townships of Ben- 
nington and Burlington, in Licking county, 
and then passed into Knox county, and 
thence to Coshocton county. Its general 
course was a little north of east. For force 
and violence of wind this storm has rarely 
been surpassed in any country in the same 
latitude. Forests and orchards were com- 

Sletely uprooted and levelled, buildings blown 
own, and their parts scattered in every 
direction and earned by the force of the 
wind many miles distant. Cattle were taken 
from the ground and carried one hundred 
rods or more. The creek, which had been 
swollen by recent rains, had but little water 
in its bed after the storm had passed. The 
roads and fields, recently plowed, were quite 
muddy from previous rams ; but after the 
storm had passed by, both roads and fields 
were clean and dry. Its track through Lick- 

ing county was from one-third to three-fifths 
of a mile wide, but became wider as it ad- 
vanced farther to the eastward. Those who 
were so fortunate as to be witnesses of its 
progress, without being victims of its fury, 
represent the appearance of the fragments 
of trees, buildings, etc. , high in the air, to 
resemble large numbers of birds, such as 
buzzards, or ravens. The ground, also, 
seemed to tremble, as it is asserted bj'_ many 
credible persons, who were, at the time, a 
mile from the tornado itself The roar of 
the wind, the trembling of the ground, and 
the crash of the falling timber and building.s, 
is represented by all who were witnesses as 
being peculiarly dreadful. 

Colonel Wright and others, who witnessed 
its progress, think it advanced at the rate of 
a mile per minute, and did not last more than 
a minute and a half or two minutes. The 
cloud was exceedingly black, and sometimes 
bore hard upon the ground, and at others 
seemed to rise a little above the surface. 
One peculiarity was, that the fallen timber 
lay in every direction, so that the course of 
the storm could not be determined from the 
position of the fallen trees. 

Many incidents are related by the inhabi- 



tants calculated to illustrate the power, as 
well as the terror, of the storm, among 
which are the following. A chain from three 
to four feet long, and of the size of a common 
plow-chain, was taken from the ground near 
the house of John M'Clintock, and carried 
about half a mile, and lodged in the top of 
a sugar-tree stub, about twenty-five feet from 
the ground. An ox, belonging to Col. Wait 
Wright, was carried about eighty rods and 
left unhurt, although surrounded by the 
fallen timber, so that it required several 
hours chopping to release him. A cow, also, 
was taken from the same field and carried 
about forty rods, and lodged in the top of 
a tree, which was blown down, and when 
found was dead and about eight feet from 
ground. Whether the cow was blown against 
the tree-top before it was blown down, or was 
lodged in it afler it fell, cannot be deter- 
mined. A heavy ox-cart was taken from 
the yard of Colonel Wright and carried about 
forty rods, and struck the ground with such 
force as to break the axle and entirely to 
demolish one wheel. A son of Colonel 
Wright, upwards of fourteen years of age, 
was standing in the house holding the door. 
The house, which was built of logs, was torn 
to pieces, and the lad was thrown with such 
violence across tlie room as to kill him in- 
stantly. A coat, which was hanging in the 
same room, was found, in the following 
November, in Coshocton county, more than 
forty miles distant, and was afterwards 
brought to Burlington, and was identified 
by Colonel Wright's family. Other articles, 
such as shingles, pieces of timber and of 
furniture, were carried twenty, and even 

thirty miles. Miss Sarah llobb, about twelve 
years of age, was taken from her father's 
house and carried some distance, she could 
not tell how far ; but when consciousness re- 
turned, found hereelf about forty rods from 
the house, and walking towards it. She was 
much bruised, but not essentially injured. 
The family of a Mr. Vance, on seeing the 
storm approach, fled from the house to the 
orchard adjoining. The upper part of the 
house was blown off and carried through the 
orchard ; the lower part of the house re- 
mained. Two sons of Mr. Vance were killed 
• — one immediately, and the other died in a 
day or two from his wounds. These, and the 
son of Colonel Wright, above mentioned, 
were all the lives known to be lost by the 
storm. A house, built of large logs, in 
which was a family, and which a number of 
workmen had entered for shelter from the 
storm, was raised up on one side and rolled 
off the place on which it stood without in- 
juring any one. A yoke of oxen, belonging 
to Wm. H. Cooley, were standing in the 
yoke in the field, and after the storm were 
found completely enclosed and covered with 
fallen timber, so that they were not released 
till the next day, but were not essentially 
injured. A black walnut tree, two and a half 
feet in diameter, which had lain on the 

f round for many years, and had become em- 
edded in the earth to nearly one-half its 
size, was taken from its bed and carried across 
the creek, and left as many as thirty rods 
from its former location. A crockery crate, 
in which several fowls were confined, was 
carried by the wind several miles, and, with 
its contents, set down without injury. 

The Refijgee Tract. 

Abridged from an article publielied in the Newarli American, by Isaac Sniiicker, entitled "A Bit of 
Important History Appertaining to Licking County." 

During the Revolutionary war many of the people of the British provinces 
so strongly sympathized with the cause of the American colonies that they were 
obnoxious to their neighbors, and were ultimately obliged to abandon their "homes 
and property, and seek refuge in the colonies, where some entered the Revolu- 
tionary army. The property of such was confiscated, and they became permanent 
citizens of the United States. 

By resolutions passed by Congress, April 
23, 1783, and April 13, 1785, the refugees 
were, "on account of their attachment to the 
interest of the United States, recommended 
to the humanity and particular attention of 
the several States in which they reside," and 
informed that, "whenever Congress can con- 
sistently reward them by grants of land they 
will do so, by making such reasonable and 
adequate provision for them on our public 
domain as will amply remunerate them." 

The realization of these promises held out 
to the refugees was a work of time depend- 
ing upon the passage of the celebrated or- 
dinance of 1787, which established civil 
government in the Northwest Territory, and 
opened the public lands to survey and settle- 

ment. On the 17th of April, 1798, Congress 
progressed t j the point of inviting all refu- 
gees who were claimants of land to make 
their claims apparent to the War Department 
within two years from the date of said action, 
by "rendering a full and true account of 
their claims to the bounty of Congress." 

The refugees thereupon made proofs of 
their respective services, sacrifices and suffer- 
ings in consequence of their attachment to 
the cause of the colonies against the mother 
country, and when the legal limit had ex- 
pired, within which proof of claims must be 
maile, the Secretary of War divided the 
refugees into a number of classes, awarding 
to the first class 2,240 acres, and to the lowest 
160 acres. 

Judge of United States Supreme Court. 

Ancient Works, Newark, Ohio. 


The following is a list of the refugees and 
the quantities awarded tu them, to wit : 

To the followiiiR, 2,'^40 acres: Mi\rt\ia Walker, 
widow, John Edyar, Samuel Rodgers, James 
Boyd's heirs, P. Francis Cazeau, John Ailing, 
Seth Harding. 

To the following, 1,280 acres : Jonathan Eddy, 
Col. James Livington, Parker Clark, John 
Dodge's heirs. 

The following, 960 acres : Nathaniel Reynolds' 
heirs, Thomas Faulkner, Edward Faiilkner. 
David Gav, Martin Brooks, Lienteuant-Colonel 
Bradford, "Noah Miller, Joshua Lamb, Atwood 
Fales, John Starr, William How, Ebenezer Gard- 
ner, Lewis F. Delesdernier, John M'Gowan, 
Jonas C. Minot, Simeon Chester's heirs, Charlotte 
Hasen, widow, Chloe Shannon, widow, Mrs. 
Obadiah Ayer, widow, Israel Rutland's heirs, 
Elijah Ayer's heirs, Edward Antell's heirs, 
Joshua Sprague's heirs. 

The following, 640 acres : Jacob Venderhayden, 
John Livingston, Jacob Crawford, Isaac Danks, 
Major B. Von Heer, Benjamin Thompson, Joseph 
Binden, Joseph Levittre, Lieutenant Wm. Max- 
well, John D. Mercer, Seth Noble, Martha Bogart, 
widow, John Halsted, Robert Sharp, John Fulton, 
John Morrison. 

The following, 320 acres: David Jenks, Am- 
brose Cole, James Cole, Adam Johnson, Jeremiah 
Dugan's widow and heirs, Daniel Earl, Jr., John 
Paskell, Edward Chinn, Joseph Cone, John 
Torreyre, Elijah Ayer, Jr., Anthony Burk's heirs, 
James Sprague, David Dickey, John Taylor, and 
Gilbert Seaman's heirs. To Samuel Fales alone 
was awarded 160 acres. 

Thus the land vras divided into sixty-nine 
parts, amounting to 65,280 acres, to which 
should be added seven sections, or nearly 
5,000 acres more, awarded to the inhabitants 
by Congress for school purposes, making in 
all about 70,000 acres. The locations were 
made by law on the 2d of January. 1802, 
and patents were promptly issued. 

Newark in 184-6. — Newark, the county-seat, is thirty-seven miles, by the mail 
route, easterly from Columbus, at the confluence of the three principal branches 
of the Licking. It is on the line of the Ohio canal, and of the railroad now 
constructing from Sandusky City to Columbus, a branch from which, of about 
twenty-four miles in length, will probably diverge from this place to Zanesville. 
Newark is a beautiful and well-built town, on a level site, and it ha.s the most 
spacious and elegant public square in the State. It was laid out, with broad streets, 
in 1801, on the" plan of Newark, N. J., by General William C. Schenk, George 
W. Burnet, Esq., and John M. Cummings, who owned this military section, com- 
prising 4,000 acres. 

On February 18, 1801 , Congress took action 
upon the report of the Secretary by appro- 
priating about 100,000 acres, which they 
deemed sufficient to meet all the awards. 
This was a tract four and a half miles wide, 
and extending eastward from the Scioto 
river towards the Muskingum, about forty- 
eight miles, terminating in 3Iuskingum 
county not far east of Gratiot. 

Two and a half miles of this four and a 
half miles strip, as originally surveyed, 
belonged to the United States military tract, 
and the remaining two miles was Congress 

This line, dividing the military from the 
Congress land, running through the refugee 
tract, forms the southern boundary of lick- 
ing county, and the northern boundary of 
Fairfield and Perry counties. Thus all three 
of these counties have each a strip of the 
refiigee tract. 

Although the refugee tract, as originally 
appropriated, extended into Muskingum 
county, but few, if any, refugee locations 
were made there, because it was land in ex- 
cess of the awards, and so reverted to the 

The little notch on one and a half by two 
and a half miles, taken out of the south- 
eastern corner of Licking county, was also 
doubtless part of the refugee tract. It is 
supposed that it was at this notch that the 
refiigee locations terminated, for the reason 
there were no more refugee claims to satisfy. 

The national road runs almost the entire 
forty-eight miles from the Scioto river to 
Hopewell township, Muskingum county, 
within the refugee tract. The southern 
boundary of Licking county was also the 
southern boundary of the United States 
military tract of 1,500,000 acres. 

The first hewed-log houses were built in 
1 802, on the public square, by Samuel Elliott 
and Samuel Parr. The first tavern, a hewed- 
log structure, with a stone chimney, was 
opened on the site of the Franklin House, by 
James Black. In 1804 there were about fif- 
teen or twenty families, mostly young married 
people. Among the early settlers were Mor- 
ris A. Newman, Adam Hatfield, Jas. Black, 
John Johnson, Patrick Cunningham, Wm. 
Claypole, Abraham Miller, Samuel H. Smith, 
Annaniah Pugh, James Petticord, John and 
Aquila Belt, Dr. John J. Brice, and widow 
Pegg. About the year 1808 a log building 

was erected on or near the site of the court- 
house, which was used as a court-house and 
a church, common for all denominations. 
The Presbyterians built the first regular 
church, about 1817, just west of the court- 
house, on the public square. The first ser- 
mon delivered in Newark, by a Presbyterian, 
and probably the first by any denomination 
in the county, was preached under peculiar 

In 1803 Rev. John Wright, missionary of 
the Western Missionary Society at Pittsburg, 
arrived on a Saturday afternoori at Newark, 
which then contained five or six log-cabins 


and Black's log tavern, at which he put up. was a clergyman, they sent an apology for 

On inquiring of the landlady, he found there their conduct, and requested him to postpone 

was but one Presbyterian in the place, and i)reaching until afternoon, when the race was 

as he was very poor, he concluded to remain over. The apology was accepted, but he 

at the tavern rather than intrude upon his preached in the morning to a few 

hospitality. The town was filled with people and in the afternoon to a large congregation, 
attending a horse-race, which, not proving The sermon, which was upon the sanctifica- 
satisfactory, they determined to try over the tion of the Sabbath, was practical and pun- 
next day.' Mr. Wright retired to rest at an gent. When he concluded, a person arose 
early hour, but was intruded upon by the and addressed the congregation, telling them 
horse-racers, who swore that he must either that the preacher had told the truth; and 
join and drink with them or be ducked under although he was at the horse-race, it was 
a pump, which last operation was coolly per- wrong, and that they must take up a con- 
formed upon one of the company in his pres- tribution for Mr. Wright. Over seven dollars 
ence. About midnighthesought and obtained were collected. In 1804 Mr. Wright settled 
admittance in the house of the Presbyterian, in Lancaster, and after great difficulty, as the 
where he rested on the floor, not without population was much addicted to vice, suc- 
strenuous urging from the worthy couple to ceeded, in about 1807, through the aid of 
occupy their bed. The next morning, which Mr. David Moore, in organizing the first 
was Sunday, when the guests ascertained he Presbyterian church in Newark. 

Newark contains two Presbyterian, one Baptist, one Episcopal, one Methodist, 
one Welsli Methodist, one German Lutheran, one "Welsh Presbyterian and one 
Catholic cliurch ; three newspaper printing-offices, two grist-mills, one foundry, 
one woollen-factory, six forwarding-houses, ten groceries, one book, two hardware, 
and eighteen dry-goods stores. In 1830 it had 999 inhabitants ; in 1840, 2,705 ; 
in 1847, 3,406.— OZd Edition. 

Newark, county-seat of Licking, is on the Licking river, thirty-three miles 
east of Columbus, on the P. C. & St. L., C. O., and S. M. & N. Eailroads. The 
Magnetic Springs, a noted health and pleasure resort, are just at the corporation 
line. Newark is the centre of a prolific grain and wool-producing district, and 
is also a manufacturing centre. County officers : Auditor, Allen B. Coffman ; 
Clerk, Thomas F. Lennox ; Commissioners : Henry Shipley, John Tucker, Bar- 
clay I. Jones ; Coroner, David M. Smith ; Infirmary Directors, Nathaniel Rugg, 
Benjamin B. Moats, Finley StaiFord ; Probate Judge, Jonathan Eees ; Prosecut- 
ing Attorney, John M. Swartz ; Recorder, JonatJban V. Hilliard ; Sheriff, An- 
drew J. Crilly ; Surveyor, George P. Webb ; Treasurer, William H. Davis. 
City officers : Mayor, Moses P. Smith ; Clerk, William Allen Veach ; Solicitor, 
William D. Fulton ; Street Commissioner, Albert Daugherty ; Marshal, H. J. 
Rickenbaugh ; Chief of Police, C. L. Brooke ; Treasurer, W. H. Davis. News- 
papers : Advocate, Democratic, J. H. Newton, editor ; American, Republican, 
Lyon & Ickes, proprietors ; Banner, Republican, Milton R. Scott, editor ; 
Express, German, F. Kochendorter, proprietor ; Licking County Republican, Re- 
publican, M. P. Smith, editor and publisher. Churches : one Congregational, one 
Welsh Congregational, one Lutheran, one German Lutheran, one Advent, one 
Methodist Episcopal, one German Methodist, one African Methodist Episcopal, 
two Presbyterian, one German Presbyterian, one Catholic, one Baptist, two Prot- 
estant Episcopal. Banks: First National, J. Buckingham, president, F. S. 
Wright, cashier ; Franklin, Bobbins, Winegarner, Wing & Co ; People's Na- 
tional, Gibson Atherton, president, J. H. Franklin, Jr., cashier. 

Manufactures and Employees. — Charles Kibler, Jr., & Co., stoves, 45 hands ; 
Newark (Ohio) Wire-Cloth Co., brass and copper wire-cloth, 22 ; The Edward 
H. Everett Co., fruit-jars and bottles, 230 ; Moses & Wehrle, stoves and ranges, 
55 ; Excelsior Rolling Mills, flour and feed ; Loudenslager & Atkins, brass and 
copper wire-cloth ; Nutter & Haines, mouldings, etc. ; Newark Paper Co-, 21 ; 
T. H. Holman, carriages, wagons, etc., 15; Dorsey Bros., flour and feed; John 
H. McNamar, traction engines, etc., 35 ; Bourner & Phillips, doors, sash, etc., 16 ; 
Garber & Vance, doors, sash, etc., 25 ; D. Thomas & Co., flour and feed ; R. 
Scheidler, traction engines, 25 ; Newark Steam Laundry, laimdrying, 9 ; James 
E. Thomas, founders and machinists, 45 ; Loudenslager & Sites, flour and feed ; 


Ball & Ward, carriages and buggies, 22; Union Iron Works, traetion-engiues ; 
Newark Wind-Engine Co., wind-engines ; Newark Daily Amencan, printing, etc., 
14 ; B. & O. Eailroad Shops, railroad repairs, 550 ; Advocate Printing Co., print- 
ing and binding, 22 ; Lane Bros., structural iron works, 25. — State Report, 1888. 
Population in 1880, 9,600. School census, 1888, 3,857 ; J. C. Hartzler, school 
superintendent. Capital invested in industrial establishments, $410,300. Value 
of annual product, $737,200. U. S. census, 1890, 14,270. 

The Neimrk Earthworks are the most extensive, numerous and diversified in 
style and character, of an}' within the State. The purpose of their erection seems 
as difficult of explanation at the present day as when first discovered in 1800. 
The first impression in viewing them is, that they were constructed for military 
purposes ; but a closer examination explodes this theory, and fails to substitute 
any more rational one. Suffice it to say, that we must consider these works as 
one of the mysteries of the past, unless the science of archaeology, which has 
made such wonderful advances in the past few years, shall solve its mysteries 
for us. 

The following description of these works is extracted from an article by Hon. 
Isaac Smacker, published in the "American Antiquarian : " 

The Raccoon and South Fork creeks unite numbers, of parallel walls or embankments, 

on the southern borders of Newark, and these of no great but tolerably uniform height ; of 

ancient works cover an area of three or four small circles, partial or incompleted circles, 

square miles between these streams and con- semi or open circles, all of low but well- 

tiguous to them, extending about two miles marked embankments or walls ; of enclosures 

up the Raccoon and a less distance up the of various forms and heights, such as large 

South Pork. These works are situated on circles — one parallelogram, one octagon, and, 

an elevated plain, thirty or forty feet above others which may have become partially or 

these streams, the Raccoon forming the north- wholly obliterated under the operation of tlie 

erly boundary of said plain, and the South plow, or through the devastating action of 

Fork its southwestern boundary. The streams the elements, their banks having been orig- 

come together nearly at right angles, the three inally of small elevation, and among them one 

or four square miles of land, therefore, cov- of the class designated as "effigy mounds." 

ered with these ancient works, situated be- This remains in a good state of preservation, 

tween said creeks, and extending several miles situated within and about the centre of the 

up both of them from their junction, are, in largest circular enclosure, known as "The 

form, very nearly an equilateral triangle. Old Fort." It is a representation of an im- 

The foregoing works consisted of earth mense bird "on the wing," and is called 

mounds, both large and small, in considerable " Eagle Mound." 

In the terrible railroad strike and riot in July, 1877, in the West, by which 
many lives were lost in Pittsburg, Chicago and elsewhere, there was great trouble 
at Newark, the strikers there resorting to force by side-tracking trains. The 
acting Governor, Thomas L. Young, called out and assembled at Newark troops 
from Cincinnati, Dayton and elsewhere, and by personal consultation with the 
leaders of the strike, and by his cool, judicious management, restored peace and 
order without bloodshed. 

Opening of Ohio Canal. 

The opening of the Ohio Canal was a matter of very great import to the people 
of Ohio, and although the canal met with its due share of opposition, the people 
generally expected great things through the canal and were determined that it 
should be commenced with due pomp and ceremony. Governor Clinton had 
been invited and accepted the invitation to be present and dig the first shovelful 
of earth. 

The commissioners had decided on the advice of Judge D. S. Bates, of New 
York, the chief engineer of the work, that the opening should take place on the 
Licking Summit, in Licking county, about three miles west, on the 4th of July, 

Governor CUntons Reception at Cleve- the steamboat Superior on the last day of 
land. — Governor Clinton entered Ohio on June. Crowds assembled to meet him. Mr. 


George B. Merwin, who as a boy witnessed 
the ceremonies of the reception at Cleveland, 
thus describes them. 

"It was a heavenly day, not a cloud in the 
sky, the lake calm as the river, its glistening 
bosom reflecting the fierce rays of an almost 
tropical sun ; the boat soon passed Water 
street, dressed with all her flags, and came to 
anchor about a mile opposite the mouth of 
the river and fired her usual signal gun. 

Her commander, Captain Fisk, ordered the 
steps to be let down and her yawl boat 
placed along side of them ; then taking 
Governor Chnton by the hand seated him in 
the stern of the boat, and was followed by 
his aids, Colonel Jones, Colonel Read and 
Colonel Solomon Van Rensselaer, who had 
traversed the State when a wilderness, as an 
officer under General Wayne, Messrs. Rath- 
bone and Lord, who had loaned us the money 
with which to commence the canal, and 
Judge Conkling, United States District Judge, 
of New York. 

They came up the river, the stars and 
stripes waving over them, and landed at the 
foot of Superior street, where the reception 
committee with carriages and a large con- 
course of citizens awaited them and took 
them to the Mansion House, then kept by 
my father, where Governor Clinton was 
addressed by the late Judge Samuel Cowles, 
who had been selected by the committee to 
make the reception address. 

Governor Clinton made a eloquent reply. 
In a part of his remarks he made the state- 
ment, _ ' that when our canals were made, 
even if they had cost five million dollars, 
they would be worth three times that sum ; 
that the increased price of our productions 
in twenty years would be worth five million 
dollars ; that the money saved on the trans- 
portation of goods, to our people, during the 
same period would be five millions of dollars, 
and that the canals would finally by their 
tolls refund their entire cost, principal and 
interest.' " 

The First Spadeful of Earth— The next 
day the party departed by stage for Licking 
county. There they were received on behalf 
of Licking county by Judge Wilson and 
Alexander Homes, and on the part of Fair- 
field by Judge Elnathan Scofield and Colonel 
John Noble. The latter has described the 
opening ceremonies in the Columbus Gazette 
as follows : 

"The ceremonies commenced as had been 
agreed upon. Governor Clinton received the 
spade, thrust it into the rich soil of Ohio, 
and raised the first spadeful of earth, amidst 
the most enthusiastic shouts of the thousands 
present. This earth was placed in what 
they called a canal wheel-barrow. Then the 
spade was passed to Governor Morrow, the 
then Governor of Ohio, a statesman and 
farmer. He soon sunk the spade its full 
depth, and raised the second spadeful. Then 
commenced a hustle for who should raise the 
next. Captain Ned King, as we familiarly 
called him, having the command of an in- 
fantry company present from Chillicothe, 

raised the third ; then some of the guests in 
Governor Clinton's company, and finally, the 
barrow being full, Captain King took hold 
of the handles and wheeled it out to a bank. 
For me at this time to attempt to describe 
the scene is impossible — the most enthusi- 
astic excitement by all the thousands, and 
shouts of joy went to the All-Giver. The 
feeling was so great that tears fell from manly 
eyes, the strong expression of the heart. Mr. 
Thomas Ewing, of Lancaster, was orator of 
the day. The stand for speaking was in the 
woods. The crowd was so great that one 
company of cavalry were formed in a hollow 
square, around the back and sides of the 
stand for speaking. The flies, after a three 
days' rain, were so troublesome that the 
horses kept up a constant tramping, which 
induced the following remark from my old 
friend Caleb Atwater, that evening at Lan- 
caster : 'Well,' says he, 'I suppose it was 
all right to have the horses in front of the 
speaker's stand, for they cannot read and we 
can. ' ' ' 

Wages on the Ohio Canal — Governor 
Clinton and friends. Governor Morrow, 
Messrs. Rathburn and Lord, and many 
others were invited to visit Lancaster, where 
they were handsomely entertained by the 
citizens. They then passed north to Colum- 
bus. The Lancaster, Ohio, Bank was the 
first to -make terms with the Fund Com- 
missioners to receive and disburse the money, 
in payment of work as estimated every month, 
on the Roaring Canal, as the boys on the 
work were pleased to call it. Boys on the 
work — only think of it, ye eight hour men ! 
Their wages were eight dollars per 2(i working 
dry days, or 30| cents per day, and from sun- 
rise to sunset. They were fed well and 
lodged in shanties, and had their jiggers of 
whiskey the first four months. 

Reniarkaile Increase in Values — 3Ien 
came from Fairfield, Hocking, Gallia, and 
Meigs counties, and all the country around 
came forward. Farmers and their sons 
wanted to earn this amount of wages, as it 
was cash, and they must have it to pay taxes 
and other cash expenses. Wheat sold at 25 
cents per bushel, corn 12J cents delivered 
in Lancaster or at distillery, oats ten cents. 
But before the canal was finished south of the 
Summit, the .North End, from Dresden to 
Cleveland, was in operation. Then wheat 
sold on the canal at 75 cents per bushel, and 
corn rose in proportion, and then the enemies 
of the canal, all of whom were large land- 
holders or large tax-payers, began to have 
their eyes opened. One of these I will name. 
A Mr. Shoemaker, of Pickaway county, 
below Tarlton, was a rich land-owner, and 
had opposed the building of the canal, as it 
would increase his tax, and then be a fiiilure. 
This same gentleman, for such he was, told 
me his boys had, with one yoke of oxen and 
farm-cart, hauled to Circleville potatoes and 
sold them for forty cents per bushel, until 
they had more money than paid all his taxes 
for the year. This was an article they never 
had sold before, and he was now a convert 


to the improvement. Wheat raised from And now let me say, as I have lived to 

25 cents to $1.00 per bushel before the canal see all to this time, the Ohio canal was the 
was finished. beginning of the State's prosperity." 


The Drummer Boy of Shiloh. — Newark takes pride in her reputation of having 
supplied the youngest and smallest recruit to the Union army, and in the person 
of Johnnie Clem, sometimes called the Drummer Boy of Shiloh, and .some- 
times of Chiekamauga. Lossiug says he was probably the youngest person who 
ever bore arms in battle. His ifull name is John Winton Clem, but the family 
spell the name Klem and not Clem. He was born in Newark, August 13, 1851, 
and ran awaj' from home when less than ten years of age and enlisted as a 
drummer boy in the army ; was in many battles and won singular distinction. 

Johnnie Clem's parents were French-Germans, his mother from Alsace. His 
father was a market-gardener and huckster, and used to send Johnnie, accom- 
panied by his sister, Lizzie (now Mrs. Adams), two years younger, from house to 
house to sell vegetables. Johnnie was a universal favorite with the people, 
being a bright, sprightly bo}', and very small of his age — only thirty inches 

The family are now living in garden-like surroundings on the outskirts, on 
the Granville road, where I went to have an interview to get the facts of his 
history. I knocked at the side-door of an humble home. A sturdy, erect, com- 
pact little woman answered my knock, and to my query replied, "I am his 
sister and can tell you everything. Please take a seat and I'll be ready in a few 
moments." She was the Lizzie spoken of above. It was the kitchen I was in : 
two young children were by her side, and some pies, with their jackets on, on the 
table about ready for the oven, and only requiriug the trimming off of the over- 
hanging dough, which she did dextrously, twirling them on the tips of her up- 
lifted fingers during the operation. Placing them in the oven, and then " tidying 
up things a little," she took a seat and thus opened up her story for my benefit, 
while the children in silence looked at me with Mondering eyes and listened also : 

Lizzie's Narrative. 

It being Sunday, May 24, 1861, and the as having been in Mount Vernon ; and then 

great rebellion in progress, Johnnie said at for two years nothing more was heard and we 

dinner-table: "Father, I'd like mighty well mourned him as dead, not even dreaming 

to be a drummer boy. Can't I go into the that he could be in the army, he was so very 

Union army ? " "Tut, what nonsense, boy ! " small, nothing but a child, 

replied father, "}'ou are not ten years old." It seems he went up on the train to Mount 

Yet when he had disappeared it is strange Vernon and appeared next day at the house 

we had no thoughts that he had gone into of Mrs. Dennis Cochrane, an old neighbor 

the service. of ours. He told her that his father had 

When dinner was over Johnnie took charge sent him there to peddle vegetables which 
of us, I being seven years old and our were to come up from Newark. None arriv- 
brother, Lewis, five years, and we started for ing, Mrs. Cochrane surmised the truth, and 
the Francis de Sales Sunday-school. As it at the end of the week, fearful he would 
was early he left us at the church door, say- escape, fastened to him a dog chain and put 
ing, " I will go and take a swim and be back him in charge of a Newark railroad con- 
in time." He was a fine swimmer. That ductor to deliver to his home, which he could 
was the last we saw of him for two years. readily do as it was near the depot. On his 

The distress of our father and step-mother arrival here he worked on the sympathies of 

at Johnnie's disappearance was beyond meas- the conductor to let him go free, saying his 

ure. Our own mother had met with a shock- father would whip him dreadfully if he was 

ing death the year before : had been run over delivered to him. This father wouldn't have 

by a yard engine as she was crossing the done — he would have been but too glad to 

track to avoid another train. No own mother have got him. 

could be more kind to us than was our step- The train carried him to Columbus, where 

mother. Father, thinking Johnnie must have he enlisted as a drummer boy in the 24th 

been drowned, had the water drawn from the Ohio. Finding an uncle in that organization 

head of the canal. Mother travelled hither he left it and went as a drummer boy in the 

and yon to find him. It was all in vain. 22d Michigan. He was an expert drummer. 

Several weeks elapsed when we heard of him and being a bright, cheery child, soon made 



his way into the affections of officers and 

Ee was in many battles : at Shiloh, Perry- 
vOle, Murfreesboro', Chattanooga, Chicka- 
mauga, Nashville, Kenesaw, and others, in 
which the army of the Cumberland was 
engaged. He was at one time taken prisoner 
down in Georgia. The rebels stripped him 
of everything, his clothes, liis shoes, his little 
gun — an ordinary musket. I suppose, cut 
short— and his little cap. He said he did not 
care about anything but his cap. He did 
want to save that, and it hurt him sorely to 
part with it, for it had three bullet holes 
through it. 

When he was exchanged as a prisoner he 
came home for a week. He was wasted to a 
skeleton. He had been starved almost to death. 
I was but a little thing then, but I never shall 
forget his dreadful corpse-like aspect when 
the carriage which brought him stopped at 
our door. He seemed like as if he was done 
up in a mass of rags. There were no soldier 
clothes small enough to fit him, and he was 
so small and wan and not much larger than a 
babe, about thirty inches high, and couldn't 
have weighed over sixty pounds. 

He returned to the array and served on the 

staff of General Thomas until the close of 
the war. After it, he studied at West Point, 
but could not regularly enter as a cadet on 
account of his diminutive size. General 
Grant, however, commissioned him as a 
Lieutenant. He is now (1886) Captain of 
the 24th U. S. Infantry, and is stationed at 
Fort McHenry, Md. He is still small : height, 
only five feet, and weight, 105 pounds. He 
married. May 24, 1875, Annita, daughter of 
the late General Wm. H. French, U. S. A. 
Like her husband, she is under size, short 
and delicate; oan'tweigh overseventy pounds. 
They have had six children, only one of whom 
is living. 

I have told you of the dreadful death of 
our mother, run over by a yard engine. My 
brother Louis, five years old on that noted 
Sunday, also came to a shocking end. 1 
think father will never get over mourning for 
him. He grew to be very tall, full six feet, 
but of slender frame and feeble health. He 
was off West on a furlough for his health 
when he went with Custer, as a guest, on his 
last ill-fated expedition, and was with the 
others massacred by the Sioux, under Sitting 
Bull, in the battle of Little Big Horn, in 
Montana, June 25, 1876. 

On closing her narrative Mrs. Adams showed me a portrait of her brother as a 
captain. He is a perfect blonde with large blue eyes, large straight nose, and a 
calm, amiable expression Another as a child standing by the side of General 
McClennan, who looks pleased, the natural result of having such a sweet-looking 
little fellow by him. He was a great favorite with all the generals, as Grant, 
Rosecrans and Thomas, the latter keeping up with him a fatherly correspondence 
as long as he lived. 

To the foregoing narrative from Mrs. 
Adams we have some items to add of his 
war experiences, fi-om an equally authentic 
source. . 

When he joined the 22d Michigan, being 
too young to be mustered in, he went with 
the regiment as a volunteer, until at length he 
was beating the long roll in front of Shiloh. 
His drum was smashed by a piece of shell, 
which occurrence won for him the appellation 
of "Johnnie Shiloh," as a title of distinction 
for his bravery. He was afterwards regularly 
mustered in and served also as a marker, and 
with his little musket so served on the battle- 
field of Chattanooga. At the close of that 
bloody day, the brigade in which he was was 
partly surrounded by rebels and was retreat- 
ing, when he, being unable to fall back as fast 
as the rest of the line, was singled out by a 
rebel colonel, who rode up to him with the 
summons, scoundrel, "Halt! surrender, you 

little Yankee ! " By way of order 

Johnnie halted, brought his piece to the posi- 
tion of charge bayonet, thus throwing the 
colonel off his guard. In another moment 
the piece was cocked, fired, and the colonel 
fell dead from his horse. Simultaneously 
with this the regiment was fired into, when 
Johnnie fell as though he had been shot, and 
laid there until darkness closed in, when he 
arose and made his way toward Chattanooga 

after the rest of the army. A few days later 
he was taken prisoner with others whilst 
detailed to bring up the supply trains from 

When he returned to service. General 
Thomas was in command of the army of the 
Cumberland. He received him with the 
warmest enthusiasm, made him an orderly 
sergeant, and attached him to his staff. At 
Chickamauga he was struck with a fragment 
of a shell in the hip, and at Atlanta, while he 
was in the act of delivering a despatch from 
General Thomas to General Logan, when a 
ball struck his pony obliquely near the top of 
his head, killing him and wounding his fear- 
less little atom of a rider in the right ear. 

For his heroic conduct he was made a 
sergeant by Rosecrans, who placed him upon 
the Roll of Honor, and attached him to the 
head-quarters of the army of the Cumberland, 
while a daughter of Chief-Justice Chase 
presented him with a silver medal inscribed, 
"Sergeant Johnnie Clem, Twenty-second 
Michigan Volunteer Infantry, from N. M. 
C," which he worthily wears as a priceless 
badge of honor upon his left breast, in con- 
nection with his Grand Army medal. 

Now (1890) Captain Clem is holding the 
important positions of Depot Quartermaster, 
Depot Commissary, ordnance ofiice, Colum- 
bus, Ohio. 

Dnc bj Ueni^ Howe III I 

Public Sqoarb, Newark. 

Frank Henry Howe, Pholo., 1890. 

PiTBLic Square, Newark. 



Gh-anville in 184-6. — Granville is six miles west of Newark on Raccoon creek, a 
branch of the Licking, and is connected with the Ohio canal by a side cut of six 
miles in length. It is a neat, well-built town, noted for the morality and intelli- 
gence of its inhabitants and its flourishing and well-conducted literary institutions. 
It contains 6 churches, 6 stores, 3 academies — (beside a large brick building, 
which accommodates in each of its stories a distinct school, — and had, in 1840, 
727 inhabitants. The Granville College belongs to the Baptists, and was chartered 
in 1832. It is on a commanding site, one mile southwest of the village; its 
faculty consists of a president, two professors and two tutors. The four institu- 
tions at Granville have, unitedly, from 15 to 20 instructors, and enjoy a generous 
patronage from all parts of the State. When all the schools and institutions are 
in operation, there are, within a mile, usually from 400 to 600 scholars. — Old 

Granville is six miles west of Newark, on the T. & O. C. E. R., about thirty- 
five miles from Columbus. It is the seat of Dennison University, Granville 
Female College and Shepardson's Institute for Women. Newspaper: Times, 
Republican, Kussmaul & Sliepardson, editors and publishers. Churches : 1 
Presbyterian, 1 Episcopal, 1 Baptist, 1 Welsh Congregational, and 1 Welsh Cal- 
vinistic. Bank : Granville (Wright, Sinnett & Wright), Theodore F. Wright, 
cashier. Population, 1880, 1,127. School census, 1888, 363. Citv officers, 
1888: T. J. Durant, Ma3^or; H. A. Church, Clerk; W. J. Pond, treasurer; 
Abner Evans, Marshal. Census, 1890, 1,293. 

The annexed historical sketch of Granville township is from the published 
sketches of the Rev. Jacob Little. 

In 1804 a company was formed at Granville, Mass., with the intention of 
making a settlement in Ohio. This, called " the Scioto Company," was the third 
of that name which effected settlements in Ohio. The project met with great 
favor, and much enthusiasm was elicited ; in illustration of which, a song was 
composed and sung to the tune of " Pleasant Ohio," by the young people in the 
house and at labor in the field. We annex two stanzas, which are more curious 
tlian poetical. 

When rambling o'er these mountains 

And rooks, where ivies grow 
Thick as the hairs upon your head, 

'Mongst which you cannot go ; 
Great storms of snow, cold winds that blow, 

We scarce can undergo ; 
Says I, my boys, we'll leave this place 

For the pleasant Ohio. 

Our precious friends that stay behind. 

We're sorry now to leave ; 
But if they'll stay and break their shins, 

For them we'll never grieve ; 
Adieu, my friends ! come on, my dears, 

This journey we'll forego. 
And settle Licking creek, 

In yonder Ohio. 

The Scioto Company consisted of 114 pro- 
prietors, who made a purchase of 28,000 
acres. In the autumn of 1805, 234 persons, 
mostly from East Granville, Mass., came 
on to the purchase. Although they had 
been forty-two days on the road, their first 
business, on their arrival, having organized a 
church before they left the East, was to hear 
a sermon. The first tree cut was that by 
which public worship was held, which stood 
just front of the site of the Presbyterian 
church. On the first Sabbath, November 

16, although only about a dozen trees had 
been cut, they held divine worship, both 
forenoon and afternoon, at that spot. The 
novelty of worshipping in the woods, the forest 
extending hundreds of miles every way, the 
hardships of the journey, the winter setting 
in, the fresh thoughts of home, with all the 
friends and privileges left behind, and the 
impression that such must be the accommo- 
dations of a new country, all rushed on their 
nerves and made this a day of varied interest. 
When they began to sing, the echo of their 
voices among the trees was so difierent from 
what it was in the beautiful meeting-house 
they had left, that they could no longer 
restrain their tears. They icept when they 
remembered Zion. The voices of part of the 
choir were for a season suppressed with 

An interesting incident occurred, which 
some Mrs. Sigourney should put into a 
poetical dress. Deacon Theoiihilus Reese, a 
Welsh Baptist, had two or three years before 
built a cabin a mile and a half north, and 
lived all this time without public worehip. 
He had lost his cows, and hearing a lowing 
of the oxen belonging to the company, set 
out towards them. As he ascended the hills 
overlooking the town-plot, he heard the sing- 
ing of the choir. The reverberation of the 



sound from hill-tops and trees threw the 
good man into a serious dilemma. The 
music at first seemed to be behind, then in 
the tops of the trees or the clouds. He 
stopped, till by accurate listening, he caught 
the ciirection of the sound, and went on, till 
passing the brow of the hill, when he saw 
the audience sitting on the level below. He 
went home and told his wife that "the 
promise of God is a bond ; " a Welsh phrase, 
signifying that we have security, equal to a 
bond, that religion will prevail everywhere. 
He said "These must be good people. I am 
not afraid to go amon^them." Though he 
could not understand English, he constantly 
attended the reading meeting. Hearing the 
music on that occasion made such an im- 
pres.sion on his mind, that when he became 
old and met the first settlers, he would always 
tell over this story. The first cabin built 
was that in which they worshipped succeeding 
Sabbaths, and before the close of winter they 
had a school and school-house. That church, 
in forty years, has been favored with ten 

revivals, and received about one thousand 

Morals and Religion. — The first Baptist 
sermon was preached in the log church by 
Elder Jones, in 1806. The Welsh Baptist 
church was organized in the cabin of David 
Thomas, September 4, 1808. " The Baptist 
church in Christ and St. Albans," was 
organized June 6, 1819. On the 21st of 
April, 1827, the Granville members were 
organized into "the Granville church," and 
the corner-stone of their church was laid 
September 21, 1829. In the fall, the first 
Methodist sermon was preached under a 
black walnut ; the first class organized in 
1810, and first church erected in 1824. An 
Episcopal church was organized May 9, 1827, 
and a church consecrated in 1838. More 
recently, the Welsh Congregationalists and 
Calvinistic Methodists have built houses of 
worship, making seven congregations, of 
whom three worship in the Welsh language. 
There are, in the township, 405 families, of 
which 214 sustain family worship; 1431 

FiKST House in Gkanville. 

persons over 14 years ( 
800 belong to the 

' age, of whom nearly 
several churches. The 
town has 1.50 families, of which 80 have 
family worship. Twenty years ago, the 
township furnished 40 school-teachers, and in 
1846 70, of whom 62 prayed in school. In 
1846, the township took 621 periodical 
papers, besides three small monthlies. The 
first temperance society west of the mountains 
was organized July 15, 1828, and in 1831, the 
Congregational church adopted a by-law, to 
accept no member who trafficked in or used 
ardent spirits. 

Snake Hunt. — There are but six men now 
living who came on with families the first fall, 
viz : Hugh Kelly, Roswell Graves, Elias Gill- 
man, William Gavit, Levi and Hiram Rose. 
Other males, who arrived in 1805, then 
mostly childnen. and still surviving, are, El- 
kannah Linnel, Spencer, Thomas and Timothy 
Spelman, Dennis Kelly, William Jones, 
Franklin and Ezekiel Gavit, Cotton, Alex- 
ander and William Thrall, Augustine Munson, 
Amos Carpenter, Timothy, Samuel, Heland, 

Lemuel, C. C. and Hiram P. Rose, Justin 
and Truman Hillyer, Silvanus, Gideon, Isaac 
and Archibald Cornel, Simeon and Alfred 
Avery, Frederick More, Worthy Pratt, Ez- 
ekiel, Samuel and Truman Wells, Albert, 
Mitchell, Joshua, Knowles and Benjamin 
Linnel, Lester and Hiram Case, Harry and 
Lewis Clemens, Leverett, Harry and Charles 
Butler, and Titus Knox : which, added to 
the others, make forty-one persons. 

When Granville was first settled, it was 
supposed that Worthington would be the 
capital of Ohio, between which and Zanes- 
ville, this would make a great half-way town. 
At this time, snakes, wolves and Indians 
abounded in this region. On the pleasant 
spring mornings, large numbers of snakes 
were found running on the flat stones. Upon 
prying up the stones, there was found a 
singular fact respecting the social nature of 
serpents. Dens were found containing very 
discordant materials, twenty or thirty rattle- 
snakes, black-snakes and copper-heads, all 
coiled up together. Their liberal terms of 



SHEPARDiUN'.S C'jLLLOE FhK \\"(j.meN. 

Granville Female College. 

t^tmimi ,„^^„, 

' Srr jj n i( ■«& ih , ?4»4t " !t ! L !i :: '.: i 

Denmson BAPTI<^^ Um\fi -iri, Liu K\i -i 1nstit[ rioNs Ckanmiii I'n^O 

DraiMi 6.!/ Henry Howe. 

Literary Institutions, Granville, 1846. • 

On left lower is the Baptist College; on the right lower Male Academy; on 
left upper Presbyterian Female Seminary ; and on right upper Episcopal Female 



admission only seemed to require evidence 
of snalieship. Besides various turnouts to 
kill them, the inhabitants had one general 
hunt. Elias Gillman and Justin Hillj-er were 
the captains, who chose sides, and the party 
beaten were to pay three gallons of whiskey. 
Tradition is divided as to the number killed 
that day. Some say 300. They killed that 
year between TOO and 800 rattle-snakes and 
copper-heads, keeping no account of the 
blacK and other harmless serpents. The 
young men would seize them by the neck and 
thrash them against the trees, before they 
had time to bite or curl round their arms. 
The copper-head, though smaller, was much 
more feared. The rattle-snake was larger, 
sooner seen, and a true Southerner, always 
living up to the laws of honor. He would 
not bite without provocation, and by his 
rattles gave the challenge in an honorable 
way. Instead of this well-bred warfare, the 
copper-head is a wrathy little felon, whose 
ire IS always up, and he will make at the hand 
or foot in the leaves or grass before he is 
seen, and his bite is as poisonous as that of 
his brother of the larger fang. The young 
men tested his temper, and found that in his 
wrath he would bite a red-hot coal. Very 
few were bitten by the rattle-snake, and all 
speak well of his good disposition and gentle- 
manly manners ; but so many were bitten in 

consequence of the fractious temper of the 
copper-head, that he has left no one behind 
him to sound a note in his praise. 

The limb bitten became immediately swol- 
len, turned the color of the snake, and the 
patient was soon unable to walk. In some 
cases the poison broke out annually, and in 
others the limb was exposed to frequent 
swellings. After all that was suffered from 
poisonous reptiles, it was proved to a demon- 
stration that no animal is so poisonous asi 
man. Carrying more poison in his mouth 
than any other creature, he can poison a 
venomous serpent to death, quicker than the 
serpent can him. Martin Root and two other 
young men, chopping together, saw a rattle- 
snake, set a fork over his neck, and put in 
his mouth a new quid from one of their 
mouths. They raised the fork, and the poor 
creature did not crawl more tlian his length 
before he convulsed, swelled up and died, 
poisoned to death by virus froin the mouth 
of one of the lords of creation. Deacon 
Hayes and Worthy Pratt tried the same 
experiment upon copper-heads, with the 
same results. Many others killed venomous 
reptiles in the same way, and one man pre- 
tended that, by the moderate use, he had 
taught a copper-head to take tobacco without 

An Early Traveller's Visit to Gran^^ille. 

From the narrative of the visit to the American churches by the divines, |leed 
and INIathesou, deputies from the Congregational Union of England and Wales, 
published in 1835, we make an extract descriptive of the religious state of 
Granville as they found it. It was certainly an unique community : it is doubtful 
if in the entire Union then — and much less so now — was there another like it. 
The writer of this account was Rev. Dr. Reed. The pastor of whom he speaks 
was the Rev. Jacob Little, the author of the foregoing historical sketch, who 
ministered here from 1828 to 1864, over thirty-seven years, as we learn from 
Rev. Henry Bushnell's valuable History of Granville, recently published. 

Some of the new-made towns present a 
delightfully religious aspect. Of these, I 
might name Columbus. Zanesville and Gran- 
ville. The first has 3,000 persons, 3 churches, 
and 5 ministers. The second has 3,200 per- 
sons and 6 churches ; and Granville is a small 
town, which I believe is wholly religious. 
As a settlement it deserves notice. 

It was made by a party of ninety persons 
from New England. On arriving at this spot 
they gave themselves to prayer, that they 
might be directed in choosing their resting- 
place in the wilderness and enjoy the blessing 
of God. At first they rested with their little 
ones in the wagons ; and the first permanent 
building they erected was a church. The 
people retain the simple and pious manners 
of their fathers. 

They all go to church, and there are four 
hundred in a state of communion. They give 
$1,000 a year to religious institutions. One 
plain man, who never allowed himself the 
luxury of a set of fire-irons, besides what he 

does at home, gives $100 a year to religious 
objects. The present pastor is a devoted 
man and very prosperous in the care of his 
flock. Some of his little methods are peculiar, 
and might be objectionable or impracticable 
elsewhere. He meets his people in districts 
once a week in turn for instruction. He 
keeps an alphabetical list of the members, 
and places each name opposite a day of the 
month throughout the year, and on that day 
all the church are to pray for that mem-ber. 

He has overseers in the districts, who are 
to make an entry of all points of conduct 
under separate heads during the year, and to 
furnish mil reports to him at its close. This 
report, and the names of the parties, he reads 
from the pulpit, with rebuke or commenda- 
tion, and the year begins afresh. 

Every one, therefore, knows that he is sub- 
ject to report, and in a small community, 
where there is neither power nor will to resist, 
it must act as a strong restraint. Of course, 
the drunkard, the fornicator, the Sabbath- 



breaker, are not found here ; and what is 
yet better, on the last report there was 

only one family that had not domestic wor- 

The Granville Riot. 

lu 1834 the mdi-alavei^y movement was first agitated in Granville township. 
Theodore D. Weld, after a narrow escape from death by drowning, arrived in 
Granville, Friday, April 3, 1835. He had been an agent of the American Col- 
onization Society in Alabama, an inmate of Judge Birney's family, and was one 
of forty-two young men, who, influenced by the reputation of Dr. Beecher, had 
gathered at Lane Seminary to study for the ministry. Not satisfied with the 
position taken by that institution on the anti-slavery question, they had left in a 

He lectured at the conference-room of the 
Congregational Society, and the mob pelted 
him and his audience with eggs, not sparing 
the ladies. On another occasion he was ad- 
dressing an audience from a window of a pri- 
vate dwelling-house — every public building 
in the village being closed against him — the 
male portion of his hearers were in the en- 
closed yard about the house, when a man in 
the crowd was heard muttering threats against 
the speaker. One of the Whiteheads, of 
Jersey, a man of great strength, stepped 
quietly up to the disturber, and grasping him 
under one arm, lifted him over the picket- 
fence and set him down in the street, saying, 
"There, my little man, keep quiet ! We do 
not allow such language in the yard. Do not 
make any noise." The meeting proceeded 
without further disturbance. 

Thursday, April 27, 1836, the Ohio State 
Anti-Slavery Convention held its anniversary 
in Granville. No room could be obtained for 
it in the village. A remonstrance was signed 
by seventy-five men — including the mayor, 
recorder, and members of the council — many 
of them prominent citizens and of two classes : 
those who abominated abolition and those 
whose motive was to avoid a disturbance of 
the peace. 

The anti-slavery party yii 
to meet in the village, and gathered in a larg 
loam owned by Mr. A. A. Bancroft. This 
they named "The Hall of Freedom." 

The day of the Convention the village was 
crowded with men of opposing factions. The 
anti-slavery faction was headed by such men 
as President Mahan and Professor Cowles, 
of Oberlin College ; Hon. J. G. Birney, of 
Cincinnati, and kindred spirits. The other, 
numbering about 200 men, was a miscellaneous 
mob gathered from all parts of the county 
and without definite plan or leaders. They 
tried to get a militia captain to organize and 
lead them, but failed ; they spent the day in 
harangues, in hohhing abolitionists' horses, 
and in drilling by squads. 

The mayor purposely absented himself that 
day, and the constable declined to act until the 
afternoon brought violence. 

The abolitionists quietly assembled and pro- 

with their business. Word was sent 
to thern that if they did not adjourn by a 
given time, thev would be assailed. They 

determined on self-defence, if attacked, and 
Mr. Bancroft, with a log-chain, secured the 
gate leading to the barn, thus making it nec- 
essary for assailants to scale the fence. A 
load of hoop-poles was brought from James 
Langdon's cooper-shop ; each one was cut in 
two, affording an abundant supply of shil- 
lalahs in case of necessity. 

At 2 P. M. the Convention had finished its 
business and adjourned sine die. In the mean- 
while the mob had gathered in the village, at 
the corner of Prospect and Broad streets, 
and were prepared to meet the members of 
the Convention as they came up the street in 
procession, with the ladies' school of Misses 
Grant and Bridges (which had suspended for 
the day to attend the Convention) in the 

The two crowds came in collision. A part 
of the mob gave way and allowed the proces- 
sion to move partially through its outskirts ; 
but the mass of them resisted, and the pro- 
cession was crowded into the middle of the 
street. As the excitement increased the mob 
began to hoot and cry for Samuel White and 
William Whitney — abolition lecturers con- 
spicuous among the escort. 

The procession closed in together and 
quickened their pace as the mob pressed 
upon them. One prominent citizen was 
heard to shout, ' ' Egg the squaws ! ' ' Eggs 
and other missiles began to fly. Efforts were 
made to trip the ladies in the procession. 

Near the centre of the town a student of 
the college and a lady he was escorting were 
pushed into a ditch. Hastening to place the 
lady among friends, the student returned, 
found his assailant, and knocked him down. 
This incident precipitated a general free fight. 
The student made a gallant fight, laying sev- 
eral of the mob in the dust before he was 
overpowered by numbers. At the rear of 
the procession a furnace man got an aboli- 
tionist down, and was pounding him unmer- 
cifully, when a citizen interfered, crying, 
"Get off; you're killing him ! " "Wh-wh- 
why," said the man, who was a stammerer, , 
"I s' posed I'd g-g-got to k-k-kill him, and 
he 'aint d-d-dead yet!" and he gave him 
another blow. A little farther on, several of 
the mob laid hands on two of the young 
ladies. Citizens endeavored to hold back tho 
mob and protect them until they could reach 


places of safety, when one of them sank to 
the ground from fright, but soon gained cour- 
age enough to flee to a place of refuge. 

The march had changed to the double- 
quick and almost a rout. But the ladies all 
reached places of safety, as did most of the 
men. Individual abolitionists were caught 
and assaulted. Eggs were thrown and there 
was more or less itersonal injury. Mr. An- 
derson, the constable, came upon the scene 
of action on horseback, and sought to use his 
authority. He was very unceremoniously 
dragged from his horse and treated with in- 
dignity. The closing scene was the ride of 
Judge Birney past the mob, now re-assem- 
bling at the hotel. He started from Dr. 

Bancroft's, on his awfully hohhed horse, rode 
slowly by the mob, while they pelted him on 
every side with eggs ; and wnen past the 
reach of their missiles, he put spurs to his 
horse, and in that plight rode out of town. 
An immediate reaction followed tliis out- 
break, and the citizens were filled with shame 
that such violence should be dune in their 
midst. The same evening an abolition meet- 
ing was held in the stone school-house on the 
Welsh Hills, without molestation. The abo- 
lition party received great accessions as a re- 
sult of the day's work, and soon Granville 
became a well-known station on the Great 
Northwestern Underground Railroad. 


Granville is, perhaps, the most peculiar, unique village in the State. It 
was for a long period " a chmik " of the old-time New England set down in 
Central Ohio. There is much in the place to remind one of those ancient days, 
especially in the graveyard.s. Granville, at this hour, is a spot where learning 
welcomes you as you enter, looks down upon you from the hills as )'ou })ass 
through, and bids you farewell as you leave at the farther end. In other words, 
at each end of the main street is a female seminary, while on a hill, overlooking 
all, stands Dennison University. 

got a good grip upon this favored spot when 
the century was young. 

The next morning, by a gentle-winding 
path, I went up the hill that overhangs the 
village, on which stands the University, and 
resting under some trees enjoyed the scene. 
I looked down upon the nestling village 
below me with its rising spires, and then 
stretching for miles away the broad and 
beautiful valley of the Raccoon, a rolling 
landscape of gentle hills, with here and there 
golden wheat-fields in a setting of livid green 
— there were farms, forests and sentinel trees 
upon the slopes and in the meadows of the 
valley, while over all was the tender blue sky 
and floating cumulus snowy-white clouds to 
flit their shadows. And hfe was around mc, 
the moving figures of refined-looking youths 
and maidens on the grassy hill-side, their 
laughing voices gladdening the air as they 
l>assed by me to the college chapel. Pres- 
ently the sound of music arose from therein, 
then died away, and the day wore on, calmly 
wore on over a picture of earthly beauty. 
The strange, unknown people who built the 
ancient works knew the superlative attractions 
of this favored valley, and from here to 
Newark, for a space of six miles, have left 
numerous monuments of their labors, showing 
it was once densely populated. 

I came over from Newark Thursday after- 
noon. June ITth, in a hack — a ride of six 
miles through the broad and beautiful valley 
of the Raccoon. I noticed some fine elms on 
the margin of wheat-fields ; one of perfect 
symmetry, shaped like a weeping-willow. 
The Ohio elm has not the height nor the 
grandeur of the New England elm. Enter- 
ing the village about 4 P. M., I found it to be 
class-day at the greeting institution. The 
exercises were over, but on the lawn, under 
the trees, was a bevy of maidens in white, 
with one gray-bearded patriarch among them 
— probably the teaching sire of the flock. 
The village street was ornamented with the 
moving figures of the nymphs, and, entering 
a photograph gallery, I found it filled with 
them, looking their prettiest for their sun 

Granville is mainly on a single street called 
Broadway, lOQ feet wide from curb to curb. 
It is well lined with trees, while the dwelhngs 
stand well back, half concealed in masses of 
shrubbery. The village has a peculiar air of 
refined neatness and purity, rendering it one 
of the sweetest spots I know of anywhere. 
The Baptist Church in its centre is a structure 
of unusual beauty : it is in Gothic archi- 
tecture, and built of light-blue limestone 
from Sandusky. The Welsh Baptists and 
the New England Congregationalists alike 

A Day Among the Graves 

Excepting that at Marietta I know of no ancient graveyard in Ohio to compare 
in interest with tliat at Granville. It is called the "Old Buiying Ground," and 
■was established in 1805. It is in the valley, within five minutes walk of the 


centre of the village, contaius three acres, and is partly enclosed by a stone wall, 
T visited it June 18, in company with Mr. Chas. W. Bryant, President of the 
Granville Historical Society. 

The dead who lie buried here are about 2,000 in number, thus nearly doubling 
the living population of the village. The spot is thickly dotted with grave 
stones, largely sandstone slabs, many of the older ones with elaborately carved 
artistic, eccentric devices and quaint inscriptions. Many of the stones are leaning 
over and in varied directions, making it evident that their friends, whose duty it 
is to keep them in order, have also passed away or gone hence. Sunken graves 
abound densely carpeted with myrtle, concealing the treacherous hollows beneath, 
and rendering careful footsteps in certain places a necessity. 

I here copy from my notes while among 
the graves. "This is a spot for melancholy 
and purifying emotion. Such a graveyard 
with its relics of the past is invested with 
tenfold the interest of a modern, ornate 
cemetery. Here the fathers sleep under 
their sculptured monuments, which not only 
preserve the art of their time, but give the 
theological ideas and the simple-hearted 
culture which guided their lives and made 
them a strong, heroic people. This place, 
with its never-ending lesson of the brevity of 
life, with its dilapidated leaning stones and 
time-eaten inscriptions, should be held sacred 
by_ the villagers with the same sort of vener- 
ation as that which puts a continued watch 
over the most famous of all graves — that of 

"Such are the thoughts I pencil upon the 
spot in the sun of a fine June morning, with 
a persistent robin singing from a cedar hard 
bye, joined in with an occasional note from a 
Baltimore oriole, whose whereabouts I am 
unable to learn. I write seated upon the 
edge of the base of an overturned slab, which 
is elaborately carved in alto-relievo on top 
with vase and cloth. The slab lies buried flat 
in the grass and myrtle growth, and with all 
due respect to the memory of her who lies 
buried here I rest my feet upon the in- 
scription, which reads : 

" ' Sacred to the memory of Mrs. Abigail 
Boardman, relict of Moses Boardman, who 
departed this life Feb. 1st, 1820, in the 51st 
year of her age. 

" 'To the grave her children resigned her 
consoled with the assured hope that her 
departed spirit is at rest with Christ, and 
that in the resurrection of the dead she will 
be raised and appear with him in glory.' 

"The tears shed for her demise have long 
been exhaled. The grass of sixty-six suc- 
cessive years has come and gone from over 
this spot. That of the present year now 
dots the graveyard in picturesque cones of 
fragrance, while a tethered cow six rods away 
is busy swinging her tail and gathering 
sustenance from the cropped herbage in the 
little vale on the margin of the place. 

upon old muley, who teaches by 
example the virtues of meekness and 
humility ! 

" In this venerated spot lie bu»ed, not only 
several soldiers of the American Revolution, 
but at least one of the old French and Indian 
war who, for aught we know, was with Wolf9 
at the storming of Quebec. On his stone is 
inscribed : 

" 'Jonathan Benjamin, died August 26th, 
1841, aged 102 years, and 10 months, and 12 
days.— Blessed are the dead which die in the 
Lord, yea saith the Spirit that they may rest 
from their labors and their works do follov/ 
them.' " 

This ends my notes in the graveyard. Mr. 
Bryant, who was the Old Mortality of this 
region, had copied into a book all the inscrip- 
tions that could be deciphered, and therein 
they are numbered, 928 in all. Among them 
are those of the parents of Hubert Howe 
Bancroft, the historian of the Pacific 

We copy a few inscriptions from his book. 
The first is that of Deacon Rose. It gives 
interesting personal items. The old style 
graveyards are rich in history and biography, 
for the lack of which the modern cemetery 
is shorn of one great source of interest and 

' ' Erected to the memory of Deacon Lemuel 
Rose, who died September 13, 1835, aged 71 
years and 4 months. Born in Granville, 
Mass. A Revolutionary soldier. Emigrated 
with the first company of settlers. Drove 
the first team on the town-plot. Led the 
devotions of the first Sabbath assembly. Was 
twenty-two years deacon of the Granville 
Congregational Church. Was faithful, con- 
sistent, generous. His graces shone with a 
brighter and brighter lustre till his death." 

A large number of the inscriptions are of 
children, some of which I copy entirely and 
others only their elegial verse. 

No. 928. An infant son of Eliza and 
Clarissa Abbot, died October 21, 1824. 
Joyless sojourner was I, 
Only born to gasp and die. 

No. 694. Norman William, son of Aaron 
and Phoebe Bean, died July 13, 1828, aged 
1 8 months and 1 3 days : 

The Saviour called me from the earth 

Ere I engaged in sinful mirth, 

From Plivlograph by Elliott, Columhim. 

Portrait of T. D. JONES, Sculptor. 

S. p. Trf.Mjf. Hinl.j , uraurille. 

The Welsh Ejlls Bukying-grottnd. 


To sing with saints in ceaseless light. 
Around tlie throne with cherubs bright ; 
Where babes like me are ever blest 
And in the arms of Jesus rest ! 

No. 547. 

The Gardener came and with one stroke 
He from the root the offspring took, 
Took from the soil wherein it grew 
And hid it from the parents' view. 

No. 557.^ 
Oh, William, dear, my darling child, 

The treasure of my heart ; 
Why was it that I should be called 

With thee so soon to part ? 

Time is winging us away 
To our eternal home : 

Life is but a winter day, 
A journey to the tomb. 

No. 763. Sereno Wright also talks from 
the grave : 

poor worm of the dust and food for worms ! 
Header 1 the same, the same fate awaits theS 

too ; 
And soon, too soon, that such a being ever 

Will not be known. 

No. 871. To the memory of Samuel Thrall, 
Jr., who died February 10, 1830, aged 42 
years : 
Oh, think not that you are safe when in 

your health : 
The kick of a horse was the means of my 


No. 668. 
To home, my friends ; dry up your tears ; 
For I shall rise when Christ appears. 

From the old burying-ground Mr. Bryant dnjve me to the Wei-sh Hills 
Cemetery. What is called the Welsh quarter comprises the northeastern part 
of Granville and goes under the general name of the Welsh Hills. Mr. Bryant 
told me that the Welsh were fast losing their national characteristic : the young 
people go much to other churches. The Welsh I have met seemed to me a wiry 
people with thoughtful faces, and with a capacity for the best sort of things. A 
fat, pussy, flabby Welshman is a rara avis. 

The artistic work on the Granville sandstone monuments was largely done by 
two Welsh stone-cutters, one Hughes and my old friend " Poor Tom Jones," whom, 
from his genius, Donn Piatt called " an inspired stone-cutter." He began on 
monuments before essaying busts. Mr. Bryant showed me a statuette, the first 
work of art by Jones other than on monuments. It is the bust of an old man 
cut from a block of sandstone, wearing spectacles, cravat, and hat, and quite 
comic in character. 

It is an interesting historical fact that in this very township were two such 
diverse colonies as Yankees and Welshmen, each equally strong in religion, only 
differing in the use of the kind of words in which they expressed their ideas 
and the use of water in church ministrations, for these were A^'elsh Baptists. 
Alike in their hearts, they could but acknowledge the force of the truth so 
touchiugly told in the verse of Longfellow in the utterance of Sir Humphrey 
Gilbert : 

" He sat upon the deck. 

The book was in his hand ; 
Do not fear : ' Heaven is near,' 
He said, ' by wafer as by land.' " 

Hitching the horse at the gate we entered 
the cemetery, whereupon myriads of grass- 
hoppers arose at every step and literally came 
" as grasshoppers for multitude," and such 
that no man could number. They appeared 
to have been holding a levee just there, which 
was a sandy, sun-exposed spot. I know of no 
creature that gets so much hilarity out of 
short jumps as the grasshopper ; the toad is 
altogether too solemn and contemplative, and 
when at last he decides to go it is but a feeble 

In the old style graveyards of our fathers 
»t the East, they being generally located upon 

poor sandy soil, grasshoppers, I found, used 
to abound. So that the grasshopper has 
naturally a graveyard association, even if we 
did not find it scripturally so. 

''And the GRASSHOPPER sJiall be a burden, 
and desire shall fail; because man f/oeth to 
his long home and the mourners go about the 
streets. ' 

The cemetery is on the summit of a very 
high hill, an expansive lonely spot, with a 
grand out-look of miles to the east-southeast 
over a magnificent pastoral region. I am 
told that Granville is the banner township of 
Ohio in its number of sheep and cattle, and 



from the looks of the country around me I 
could well believe it. 

We early came to a large marble slab, six 
feet by three feet, one end upon the ground 
and the other resting upon a pile of stones, 
about four feet high, sloping like a roof On 
its upturned face was this inscription : 

On this spot was erected in 1809 the first 
meeting-house of the Welsh Hills Baptist 
Church. Here also was organized in 1811 
the Muskingum Baptist Association. The 
church was organized some forty rods east in 
the cabin of David Thomas, September 4, 
1808, with the following members, viz. : 
Theophilus Kees, Elizabeth Rees, 
David Thomas, Mary Thomas, 
Thomas Powell, Elizabeth James, 
David Lobdell, Joshua Lobdell, 
Nathan AUyn. 
Near this is the monument of the Deacon 
Theophilus Bees, the pioneer of the Welsh 
colony, of whom is given a pleasant anecdote 
on page 329. The inscription is as follows : 

In memory of Theophilus Rees, who died 
February 1C\ 1814, aged 67 years. He was a 
native of Caermarthenshire, near Mildrem, 
South Wales. 

"Poor Tom Jones," the sculptor, died in 
Columbus, and was brought here for burial 
among the scenes of his boyhood. Near the 
summit is his burial spot, his monument, a 
huge granite boulder, his own device, with 
the simple inscription, as shown: "T. D. 
Jones, sculptor, 12-12-1811 ; 2-27-1881." 
His father, a farmer, had several sons. He 
gave each the middle name of David. 

The best known work of Jones is the Lin- 
coln Memorial in the rotundo of the State 
House at Columbus, for which he was com- 
missioned by the Ohio Monument Associa- 
tion. It was unveiled January 19, 1870, and 
is fourteen feet in height. 

On its centre face is carved in alto-rilievo 
the scene of the surrender at Vicksburg, 
July 4, 1863, of Pemberton toGrant,_each_of 
whom are shown accompanied by their prin- 
cipal officers. It is surmounted by a co- 
lossal bust of Lincoln of pure white Carrara 
marble. On its base stands forth Lincoln's 
simple grand request : 

Care for him icJio sliaU have borne the hat- 
tie, and his widoio and his orphans. 

Tom Jones truly was "an inspired stone- 
cutter." I knew Tom well. He was a fel- 
low-townsman of mine in Cincinnati for 
many years. In person he was rather short, 
powerfully built, with dark complexion, 
strong features, and walked the streets with 
a quick, firm, well-accented tread, showing 
he meant to "get there." He sculptured 
more busts of our eminent men, such as 
Chase, Seward, Lincoln, etc., than probably 
any other artist, and his work was masterly. 
His nature was eminently social. He was an 
amusing, interesting talker, enjoyed a good 
laugh, and was replete with anecdotes of the 
noted characters whom' he had for sitters 
and whose lips he managed to unseal for 

the outpouring of words of wisdom and hu- 

Our early artists had generally but a sorry 
time, and Tom was no exception. To wed 
Art was to make one a polygamist, for he 
had to take with her another bride, Poverty. 
Tom's struggle for existence rendered his 
last days melancholy and he died a poor, 
broken-hearted man. 

There were some graves on this Welsh 
, ground that rather surprised me, evidently 
those of young people. They were bordered 
with clam shells, the rounded sides upwards. 
Others were framed with bits of white 
marble, with gravel stones over the graves 
instead of turf or flowers. Still othei-s there 
were sprinkled over with bits of marble. It 
is common in Wales to adorn graves with 
bright stones and shells from the sea, dis- 
posed in the form of a cross and otherwise. 
The soO in rocky places on the coast is often 
too scant for even flowers, and their bloom is 
at best but transient, while stones and shells 
abound there to please the eye the entire 
year around. 

The inscription below from a neat marble 
shaft was the last one I copied. While so 
engaged I was interrupted by a visit from a 
slender, nimble little black dog, a stranger, 
all joy in this sad place, who came up to be 
petted, and, succeeding, then rolled over 
just once in the grass and so suddenly disap- 
peared I think he must have been a spirit. 

John v., son of John and Catherine Price. 
Born July 26, 1843. Died March 24, 1867. 
Aged 23 years, 7 months, 28 days. 

Sickness was my portion, 

Medicine was my food ; 
Groans was my devotion. 

Drugs did me no good. 

The Lord took pity on me. 

Because he saw it best, 
And took me to his bosom. 

And now my soul is at rest. 

In my youth in my historical tours over 
the difi'erent States of the East it was my 
habit to visit the old graveyards and copy in- 
scriptions. It was a melancholy sort of 
pleasure, but refining and instructive. One 
exceeding common was : 

Remember, stranger, as you pass by. 
As you are now, so once was I ; 
As i am now you soon must be. 
Therefore prepare to follow me. 

This inscription is not to my knowledge in 
any place in Ohio, excepting on a grave- 
stone in Serpent Mound Park, in Adams 
county, and to that some profane wag has 
added : 

To follow you I am not content 
Until I learn which way you went. 

Another inscription also very 
olden times at the East I know of but in one 
place in Ohio, and that is in the old Method- 



ist Burying-Ground at Worthington, which 
was settled in 1803 by the same sort of people 
as Granville. My attention was called to it 
by one of Ohio's ancient inhabitants, Gen. 
Joseph Geiger, of Columbus, whose funny 
speeches on the stump in the Whig cam- 
paigns of 1840 and later made him laughingly 
known all overOhio. Mrs. Pearce'sinscription 
was copied direct from the stone by Mr. J. 
M. Milne, July 19, 1890, and it is now put 
where her memory will last longer than her 

Died, Sept. 7, 1847, Sarah, wife of Wm. 
Pearce, aged 59 years. 

Sarah Pierce is my name, 
Baltimore county is my nation, 

Ohio is my dwelling-place, 
And Christ is my salvation. 

Now I am dead and in my grave. 
Where all my bones are rotten ; 

When this you see remember me 
Lest I should be forgotten. 

the line learned in childhood 
that came obtruding into my mind while I 
was there, viz., that "Taify was a Welsh- 
man," I left with Mr. Bryant to see the 
Alligator. It is a mound so called from its 
form. It is about a mile below Granville, on 
a spur of land on the south side of the val- 
ley of the Raccoon. It has been thus de- 
scribed : 

"Its extreme length is 205 feet ; average 
height is 4 feet, parts of it being 6 feet. 
The greatest breadth of body is 20 feet and 
the length of legs or paws is 25 feet, the ends 
being broader than the links, as if the spread 
of the toes was indicated. The superstruc- 
ture is of clay, which must have been brought 
from a distance. Upon the inner side of the 
effigy and about 20 feet from it is a raised 
space covered with stones which have been 
exposed to the action of fire, denominated an 
altar, and from this leading to the top is a 
narrow graded way now barely traceable." 

Prof Wilson, in his work on pre-historic 
man, describes this effigy and says "that it 

some object of especial awe or 
veneration, thus reared on one of the ' high 
places ' of the nation, with its accompanying 
altar on which the ancient people of the val- 
ley could witness the rites of their worship, 
its site having been obviously selected as the 
most prominent natural feature in a popu- 
lous district abounding with military, civic 
and religious structures." 

Squier and Davis say it is analogous to the 
Serpent Mound in Adams county. 

We walked up to the summit of the 
rounded hill by an easy ascent, and there 
again before us was the same magnificent 
valley I have before described, its patches of 
golden wheat in the soft repose of the 
lengthening shadows of the June afternoon. 
As my eye took in the peaceful scene 1 felt 
I was enveloped in the glory of our world. 

There was little to be seen of the Alligator, 
the place was so overgrown with herbage, es- 
pecially hoarhound, "enough," said Mr. 
Bryant, in a professional way, for he was a 
druggist, "to cure all the colds in the United 
States." Hoarhound is in some places cul- 
tivated by old ladies in their gardens. It is 
about two feet in height and looks not unlike 
catnip, indeed, belongs to the same family. 
It was in blossom. It blooms earlier than 
the catnip, is about two feet high and has a 
leaf only about half the size of the other, 
but has no such startling exhilarating eflFect 
upon puss. 

From the Alligator we passed to Maple 
Grove, the new cemetery near the village, 
laid out about 1864, a very pleasant spot, 
with handsome monuments, a profusion of 
evergreens and luxuriant junipers full fifteen 
feet in height and in perfect graceful sym- 
metry. Also a new feature — low, bush-like 
trees, say twenty feet in height, completely 
enveloped in an outer garb of wild grape- 
vines, hanging to the ground and affording 
underneath an enticing arbor from the noon- 
day heat. 

Thus ended my day among the graves. 
Shortly after my visit my obliging, gentle- 
manly companion, in the very prime of his 
life, fell sick unto death, when he, too, became 
a tenant of a grave. 


Homer, near the north line of the county, has produced some much-noted 
characters. From Homer went Zenophon" Wheeler, a Judge of the Supreme 
Court of Tennessee. At Homer were passed the boyhood days of the Rosecrans 
— the General and Bishop Rosocrans. The father of these two eminent men was 
Crandall Rosecrans, of Amsterdam ancestry; the name in Dutch signifies a 
*' wreath of roses." Their mother was Jemima Hopkins, of the family of the 
Timothy Hopkins whose trembling signature appears on the Declaration of In- 
dependence. They emigrated from the Wyoming valley to Ohio in 1808. The 
family lived in a double cabin. 

While other boys were at play, they were able to commit almost entire books. The 

noted for their studious habits. The general family were Methodists, but he was event- 

from youth was interested in religious study. ually converted to Catholicism, and influ- 

He possessed an extraordinary memory, being enced his younger brother, Sj'lvester Horton, 



to also adopt that faith. The latter graduated 
at Kenyon with distinguished honor, and 
died at Columbus in 1878, at the age of 51 
years. "Bishop Rosecrans' life was one of 
great simplicity and self-denial. All that he 
had he gave to the poor, and he was often 
obliged to walk long distances, even when in 
delicate health, because he had not the money 
to pay his car-hire. All the money that was 
in his possession at his death was two silver 

In Homer, for a term of years, lived the 
Claflin family, out of whose loins came 
those two women of strange, inexplicable 
career, then known respectively as Victoria 
and Tennie C. Claflin — the one now Lady 
Bidulph Martin, and the other Lady Frances 
Cook, and Viscountess of Montserrat as well, 
who live to-day in London in great wealth 
and high social distinction. No one could 
have anticipated such an outcome for two 
poor girls from a small Ohio village. 

A lady of high respectability, now living 
in Newark, who was a school-mate with the 
daughters, and a neighbor breathing the 
same Homeric air, upon whom we called 
for information, said to us : 

"The parents were originally, I believe, from 
Pennsylvania, the children born in Homer. 
The father went by the name of Buck Claf- 
lin. He was a lawj'er in a small way, and 
owned a saw-mill. The mother was a Ger- 
man woman and a religious enthusiast. At 
revivals she was accustomed to walk up and 
down the aisle of the Methodist Church, of 
which she was a member, clap her hands. 

and shout, ' Alleluiah ! ' At other times she 
dropped down on her knees in her garden 
and prayed in tones that went out over the 
neighborhood. This was about the year 1852. 
The children were curiously named — Queen 
Victoria, Utica Vantitia, Tennessee Celeste ; 
a babe that died Odessa Malvina, and two 
sons respectively Maiden and Hebron. The 
last became a cancer doctor, travelled, and 
placarded the towns as Judge Hebron, the 
great cancer doctor. Victoria was then about 
14 and Tennessee about 8 years old. There 
was nothing especially marked in these girls 
in intellectuality, that I could discover. The 
family were considered as a queer, slip-shod 
set ; never did anything like other people. 
To illustrate : They used sometimes to send 
to our house for milk ; instead of a bucket, 
they brought a green glass flask, which pro- 
voked my mother, who found it difiicult to 
pour milk through a nozzle. The family 
were disliked exceedingly, when there came 
a catastrophe — the saw-mill, which had been 
insured, was burned. How the fire origin- 
ated was a mystery. Upon this, the clamor 
against them became so strong that one night 
they left the town." 

Another and a good authority, writing to 
us from Homer, says : 

"Buckman Claflin and family came from 
Pennsylvania about the year 1844. He was 
a man of much native genius, and became 
postmaster at Homer, and built a large, 
splendid grist-mill,^and his daughters, Vic- 
toria and Tennessee, were ladies of unusual 

There died in Homer, April 28, 1889, William Knowles, at the age of 83 
years, where he had long been a resident. He was born in England, emigrated 
when a young man, and was always poor in purse, but rich in Christian faith, 
and for a long time brightened the toilsome labor of making brooms for the sup- 
port of a large family by venturing on airy ilights in the realms of poetry. One 
of his poems, " Betsy and I are One," a sequel to Carleton's " Betsy and 1 are 
Out," appeared in the Toledo Blade, and received wide commendation. " In a 
volume preserving the results of his winged excursions is another, wherein he 
epitomizes his own thoughts in the way of the desirable. 


By William Knowles. 

I'm building a splendid castle. 
With marble walls — and a dome ; 

' Twill be finished in the summer — ■ 
When my ship comes home. 

I'll have beautiful statues and paintings 
From famous old Greece and Rome ; 

And costly carpets and mirrors — 
When my ship comes home. 

I'll have a grand old library. 
With many a rare old tome. 

Where I can feast with the Muses — 
When my ship comes home. 

I'll have enchanting gardens. 
Where beauty delights to roam ; 

With flowers, and fountains, and grottos — 
When my ship comes home. 

I'll have carriages, horses, and servants. 
Who all at my bidding will come ; 

I'll have pastures for sheep and for cattle— 
When my ship comes home. 

The good ship Phantom sailed 

Full fifty years ago ; 
My old friend Hope is the Captain, 

She'll soon be home, I know. 

She has frequently doubled the cape, 
Where the wild hurricanes blow ; 

Her crew are all brave and light-hearted — 
She will soon be in harbor, I know. 


She is freighted with untold treasure, 
A rainbow is spanning heij bow ; 

She's been gallantly plowing the ocean, 
And is homeward bound ere now. 

Strong head winds have kept her from land- 
Till my head is as white as the snow ; 
There she comes through the foam of the 
breakers ! 
She will soon be in harbor, I know. 

What hosts of kind friends then will meet me 
Beneath my magnificent dome ; 

And beauty will smile as she greets me, 
When my wonderful ship comes home. 

The needy shall feast on my bounty, 

The wolf fly from every door ; 
There shall not be a tear in the county, — 

I'll be rich in the prayers of the poor. 

Oh Fancy ! Thou friend of the beggar I 
On thy wings let me soar as I sing. 

And though poor as Job's bony old turkey, 
I'm happier than many a king. 

A portrait of Mr. Knowles, before us, fully bears out the concluding verse of 
his poem. It is the full front face of a hajjpy old man, looking directly in yours ; 
at peace with earth and heaven, and who feels to his inmost heart — 

" My conscience is my crown ; 
Contented thoughts my rest ; 
My heart is_ happy in itself; 
My bliss is in my breast. 

I feel no care of coin ; 

Well-doing is my wealth ; 
My mind to me a kingdom is, 

While grace afFordeth wealth." 

Justice William Burnham Woods, of 
the United States Supreme Court, who died 
in Washington, May 14, 1887, was born in 
Newark, Ohio, August 3, 1824. He graduated 
at Western Reserve College, Hudson, Ohio, 
in 1841, and from Yale in 1845, being the 
valedictorian at Yale. Two years later he 
was admitted to the bar and his oratorical 
powers attracted such attention that he was 
elected mayor of Newark in 1855, and sent 
to the Ohio Legislature in 1857 as a Demo- 
crat, being speaker in 1 858-9. As the leader 
on the Democratic side, April 18, 1861, he 
succeeded in supporting the war loan to put 
Ohio on the defensive and had the vote made 
unanimous. In the following November he 
became lieutenant-colonel of the Seventy- 
sixth Ohio regiment. He served until the 
war closed, when he was mustered out with 
the rank of brigadier-general and brevet 
major-general. He was mustered out in 
Alabama, where he located and was a leading 
Republican. Returning to legal duties and 
political life, he was chosen a state chancellor 
for six years, but after serving in this position 
for two years was appointed circuit judge of 
the United States Court for the Fifth district, 
which office he held while residing in Mobile 
for a number of years. His promotion to the 
United States Supreme Court was made by 
President Hayes in 1880, and this position he 
filled most satisfactorily. He participated in 
the battles of Fort Donelson, Pittsburg Land- 
ing, Chickasaw Bayou, Arkansas Post (in 
which he was slightly wounded), Resaca, 
Dallas, Atlanta (July 22 and 28), Jonesboro, 
Lovejoy Station and Bentonville, and in the 
sieges of Vicksburg and Jackson and in many 
minor affairs and skirmishes. 

Charles Robert Woods, his brother, 

was born in Newark, February 19, 1827, and 
died there, February 26, 1885. He graduated 
at West Point ; served on the frontier till 
the outbreak of the war. He was appointed 
Colonel of the Seventy-sixth 0. V. I. , October 
13, 1861 ; was at Fort Donelson and Shiloh ; 
commanded a brigade at the siege of Corinth; 
led a brigade at Lookout Mountain and 
Missionary Ridge. He was promoted for 
bravery at Arkansas Post, and mustered out 
of the volunteer service in 1866, a brevet 
major-general. He was familiarly called 
' ' Susan Woods ' ' by the cadets at West 
Point, a sobriquet which clung to him in 
the army. He was a gallant and faithful 
officer and participated in every skirmish or 
battle in which his command was engaged. 
General Sherman once spoke of him as a 
" magnificent officer." 

James Edward Roye (colored) was born 
in Newark, February 3, 1815, and was 
educated at the high school and at Ohio 
University at Athens. He kept a barber 
shop in Newark, but emigrated to Liberia in 
1846, where he became a wealthy merchant 
and was the first Liberian to make shipments 
in his own vessel to the United States and 

He was elected to the Liberian house of 
representatives, chosen speaker in ] 849, was 
chief-justice 1865-68, and in 1870 was elected 
president. He attempted to usurp the office 
for a second term, but was condemned to im- 
prisonment. While attempting to escape he 
was drowned, February 2, 1872, in the 
harbor of Monrovia. 

Samuel White was born in Granville, 
March 4, 1813. The history of his brief but 
brilliant career is well given in an address del- 
ivered by the Hon. Isaac Smucker, on the 
occasion of the Pioneer meeting at New- 
ark, July 4, 1885. "He early developed 
talents of a high order and was ambitious to 
acquire an education. He went to school on 
the Hills when opportunity offered, often 
barefooted, even in mid-winter, sometimes 
when snow covered the ground, although the 
school-house was a mile or more away. His 
method was to heat a small board quite hot, 
wrap it up, then start at his best speed 


toward the school-house and run until his 
ieet became very cold, when he would lay his 
hot board down and stand on it until his feet 
became comfortable ; then he would start 
again. There was a half-way house at which 
he stopped to warm up his board before 
arriving at the school-house. It would be 
safe to predict that such a boywould not go 
through life without an education." 

In 1831 he was the first student to enter 
Granville (now Dennison) University, but 
left this institution to complete his education 
at Oberlin, on account of his views on the 
slavery question. In 1838 he began the 
practice of law. He became one of the 
editors of the Newark Gazette. Was elected 
to the Legislature in 1843 ; was a Whig candi- 
date for Congress in 1844, but died at Dela- 
ware, Ohio, July 28, 1844, and Columbus 
Delano, who took his place on the Whig 
ticket, was elected. Mr. Smuoker saj'S : " Sam 
White was a man of remarkable force and 
power as a public speaker ; he was fearless, 
independent, outspoken, frank, honest, never 
giving utterance to opinions he did not 
beKeve, and always ready to give expression 
to thoughts that he entertained without 
fear, favor, or affection." In the famous 
crusades of his time against slavery, intem- 
perance, and the abridgment of freedom of 
speech he was always in the front ranks, 
playing the part of Richard, the Lion-hearted, 
and playing it best when and where the fight 
was hottest. ' ' 

On one occasion, in the western portion of 
Hartford township, "he, an overpowered, 
helpless victim, fell into the hands of a satanic, 
inhuman mob, who rode him on a rail, and 
inflicted upon him other indignities accom- 
panied by circumstances of humiliating 
degradation ; many of the mobocrats even 
favoring the proposition to blacken him with 
lampblack and oil, and threatened to inflict 
still other and more ofi"ensive indignities upon 
him, which, if those fiendish mobocrats had 
not relented and moderated their ferocious 
temper, would have ended in murder." 

Hubert Howe E.^ncroft was born in 
Granville, May 5, 1832. He entered the 
book-store of his brother-in-law at Buff'alo, 
in 1848, and four years later removed to 
California and established a branch store. 
While there he gathered an immense amount 
of valuable books and documents relating to 
the early history of the Pacific coast. He 
also preserved much pioneer and other valu- 
able historical matter, which was dictated to 
him or his assistants, by pioneers, settlers, 
and others. His valuable library numbers 
nearly 50,000 volumes. His business affairs 
were prosperous, and in 1868 he retired from 
the management of his business, and has since 
been engaged on a series of publications, 
embracing the history of the whole Pacific coast 

from Central America to Alaska. This com- 
pleted work will consist of thirty-nine vol- 
umes, about half of which have already been 

Samuel Ryan Curtis was born near 
Champlain, New York, February 3, 1807, 
and died in Council BluflFs, Iowa, December 
25, 1866. His parents removed to Ohio the 
year of his birth ; graduated from West 
Point, in 1831 ; resigned from the army the 
succeeding year, and studied and practised 
law in Newark. From 1837 to 1840 he was 
chief-engineer of the Muskingum river im- 
provements. In 1 846 he was ruade Adjutant- 
General of Ohio, for the special purpose of 
organizing the State's quota of volunteera 
for the Mexican war. He served in that war 
as Colonel of the 2d Ohio, acting as Military 
Governor of Camargo, a large military depot, 
which he held February 18, 1847, against 
a large force of Mexicans, under General 
Urrea. In 1855 he commenced the practice 
of law in Keokuk, Iowa, and was three times 
elected to Congress : resigning in 1861, he be- 
came a major-general. He was a member of 
the Peace Commission in 1861. From Sep- 
tember, 1862, till May, 1863, he was at the 
head of the Department of Missouri, and 
that of Kansas, from January, 1864, till Feb- 
ruary, 1865. He aided in the pursuit and de- 
feat of General Price's army in 1864. From 
February to July, 1865, he commanded the 
Department of the Northwest. 

His elder brother, Henry B. Curtis, who 
died in Chicago, November 5, 1885, was an 
eminent lawyer of Mount Vernon, active in 
public works, and an authority on banking 
and monetary aifairs. He was instrumental 
in the selection of the site and founding of 
Kenyon College in Knox county. 

Isaac Smucker ranks among its early 
settlers, and one of the best known and most 
respected citizens of Newark. He was a 
native of the Shenandoah Valley in Virginia, 
born in 1807 and removed to Newark in 1825. 
He attended the common schools, and also 
had the benefit of a brief academical course 
of instruction. He has written many valu- 
able articles for county histories and other 
publications of a historical character ; also, 
for the Ohio Reports of Secretary of State, 
and for numerous scientific and miscellaneous 
periodical publications. 

Mr. Smucker has served in public offices 
in the interest of common schools, and 
classical education as well. He was for sev- 
eral years a member of the State Legislature : 
also, a member of the City Council and Board 
of Education. He was one of the Grant 
presidential electors in 1872, and since its 
organization, in 1867, has been secretary of 
the _" Licking County Pioneer Historical and 
Antiquarian Society. ' ' 

A Day with a Pioneer Pastor, and his Golden Wedding. 
At Newark, a literary gentleman of the place, Mr. A. B. Clark, 
that I should stop off on my way to Columbus at Pataskala, and see Rev, 


Timothy Winter Howe, the Nestor of the Presbyterian ministers in this part of 
Ohio, whose golden wedding he had three years before attended, and read a poem 
which he had written for the occasion. 

Pataskala is a pretty name. It is one of the good things that came down to ns from 
the ancient inhabitants. It is a name that can be sung; the last syllable, "la," is 
especially musical. The name does double duty — designates a branch of the 
Licking, and a village which has about eight hundred people. It is on the 
B. & O. and Pan Handle Railroad, half-way between Newark and Columbus. 

bottom, and in places was so shallow that 
shining pebbles glinted in the sun. 

A Witty Guest. — Returning to the house 
I found the old friend present, Rev. Dr. J. 
D. B. He was a very learned divine and 
professor from IMadison, Wis. — could talk I 
don't know how many languages ; could talk 
good sense in each of them, while most 
people have a hard time of it to always talk 
good sense in one. He was on his way to 
meet his old classmates in Middlebury, from 
whence he had graduated fifty years ago. 
Such a visitor, full of learning and abound- 
ing in apt quotation and in cheery wit, would 
indeed have been an acquisition anywhere. 
He helped to make it a field-day in this open 
cottage of the orchard and the lawn. He 
told me one thing that was of especial inter- 
est, which if I had known I had forgotten ; 
that is, the insciiption which is in Latin on 
the tombstone of Col. David Humphries, the 
aide of Washington, which is in the Hill- 
house Cemetery, at New Haven, Conn., was 
written by Prof. Jas. L. Kingsley, of Yale 
College. Humphries, while minister to 
Spain, introduced the Merino sheep into the 
United States and thereby rendered an in- 
estimable service. Mr. Kingsley, in this 
inscription, celebrates him as having imported 
the sheep with a vellere vere aures, i. e., "a 
fleece truly golden." 

We sat down to the noon meal. I need 
not say how appetizing everything was : 
meats tender and brown, and vegetables and 
fruits fresh from the very grounds around, 
and with that indescribable flavor which will 
never keep long enough for use on any city- 
spread table. With two divines present it 
would have been unpardonable not to have 
had a blessing ; and so one of them raised 
his voice on high. I took occasion to speak 
of the decadence of the custom even in so- 
called Christian families, whereupon the 
professor expressed his regrets : such might 
be expected among swine who always eat 
without looking up, for, said he, this is accord- 
ing to the English proverb, "^ piff has no 
prospects." A moment later the professor 
dropped another good thing. "What 
you leave on your plate is a sacrifice to 
Satan. ' ' 

The meal finished, with its cheerful talk 
and happy faces, each in turn was called 
upon to repeat a verse. _What mine was I 
need not say ; but there is one that will do 
for some travelling man like myself: "And 
into whatsoever city ye enter, and they 
receive you, eat such things as are set before 
you." And if said travelling man is not 

I got ofi" the cars at Pataskala, Wednesday 
morning, June 23, 1886. The name of the 
spot was sq«5retty that it made the alighting 
doubly pleaaint ; and as I walked ofi" in the 
midst of the sunshine and green things, it 
seemed as though every step sung a syllable — 
Pa-ta»rka-Ja ! In two minutes I had pa-tas- 
ka-la'd to a cottage. It stood in the midst 
of its own home acre, one hundred feet back 
from the road. A huge black walnut was 
on duty as sentinel at the gate ; as I ap- 
proached it presented arms. Its leaves 
rustled in welcome. Then behind and ar»und 
the house was the orchard and garden with 
small fruits, which a good old lady there, 
three hours later, said to me, "are a great 
comfort to us. ' ' 

The cottage has four rooms on the ground- 
floor, also a summer kitchen. The doors 
stood invitingly open. I entered, and was 
invited to a seat by a tall, fresh-looking grand- 
mother, who had enjoyed her golden wedding 
and was three years on her way to the 
diamond. Her face was yet all golden ; more 
than fifty years of a beautiful wedded life 
filled with good works had made it to shine 
as an angel's. I did not tell her who I was, 
but said I wanted to see Mr. Howe. Three 
minutes later a side-door to a bedroom opened, 
an aged head, with a partofacoatless body, was 
thrust through, and the words fell upon my 
ear: "If you have any business with me 
you will have to be quick, for I am dressing 
to go to the cars to meet an old friend I've 
not seen in thirty years." I replied, "I've 
no business ; take your time ; see your friend. 
I'm in no haste ; have the entire day." 

In a few moments in he came, a slender, 
wiry old gentleman, eighty-two years old. I 
passed my card. He read it ; his face broke 
mto a smile : "Why, I've heard that you 
were travelling the State, but I did not sup- 
pose you would call on me." But I did ; he 
^as just the man I wanted to see — a vener- 
able father in Israel, who had set up his 
tabernacle in the wilderness, a great moral 
light, and had ministered to the same people 
for thirty-seven years, in joy and in soitow, 
from the cradle to the grave. I told him I 
would leave him for a while. He could go 
to the cars for his friend ; that I wanted to 
see the village and look upon the shining face 
of the Pataskala. I made my way to the 
little stream. It wound around the remote 
border of the village and frisked by gardens 
and flower-beds, where the people were at work 
poking in the earth and tying up the vines. I 
found It scarce three rods wide and crossed by a 
covered bridge. It ran clear over a pebbly 



pleased with this we copy some other scrip- 
ture for his edification and adoption. " There 
was a man in the land of Uz whose name was 
Job." And this man of Uz said, "For my 
sighing Cometh hefore I eat, and my roarings 
are poured out like the waters." 

The verse-repeating finished each kneeled 
before his or her chair ; a short prayer of 
thanks went up and then all adjourned to the 
sitting-room adjacent, when to my request 
my venerable host gave me the following 
facts in his history which I repeat essentially 
as he related it, arranging them in the form 
of a personal narrative. It is valuable as 
illustrating the life of a class of men, now 
mostly passed away, the old-time country- 
settled-for-life pastor. 

The Pastor's Stoiy. — My father, Amasa 
Howe, was a soldier of the American Revolu- 
tion, and in the beginning of this century 
was living in Highgate, Vermont, where I 
was born, Saturday, May 12, 1804. In 1813, 
when I was a lad of nine years, he removed to 
Granville, this county, and there I was 
brought up and became a school-teacher. 
In 1828, when twenty- four years of age, I 
went into Virginia to teach school ; but I 
was soon caught up and educated for the 
ministry of the Presbyterian church, in the 
Prince Edward Theological Seminary, where 
I graduated in 1832. I preached for several 
years in Amelia county. In the fall of 1833 
I came north and married, on November 15th, 
Chloe Harris. She was the daughter of the 
Rev. Mr. Harris, the first minister of Gran- 
ville. We had known each other from child- 
hood and I took her back with me. 

Slaveholders Timidity. — After a while, 
consequent upon the Southampton insurrection 
in Virginia, by which many persons were 
killed by the slaves, and the continued growth 
of the anti-slavery sentiment, and agitation 
of the abolition project at the North, my 
situation became unpleasant. Rumors were 
prevalent among the common and more 
Ignorant class that the abolitionists were 
coming south to kill the whites and free the 
negroes. I had been accustomed to preach 
to the whites in the morning and on Sundays 
and then after a short recess to the slaves. 
After a while rumors of dissatisfaction came 
to me for this and a talk of ornamenting me 
with a coat of tar and feathers reached my 

On a certain Sunday morning an elder 
asked me if I was going to preach to the 
slaves after service ? I replied, ' ' Yes. ' ' He 
rejoined, "This must be stopped; it wont do 
for the negroes to assemble ; they will plot 
mischief." I replied, " My appointment is 
out to preach and I shall keep it, and you 
must stay here and hear me, for I want you 
as a witness." 

It was the last time I preached to them in 
a body. I sometimes _ preached on single 
plantations to whites in presence of their 
negroes, some of whom were anxious to have 
their servants taught the gospel. Some of 
the planters were at heart anti-slavery like 
myself, but singly felt they were powerless to 

help the matter. Mrs. Howe and myself 
liked the Virginia people exceedingly, they 
were so social, frank and kindly. 

Slave Children Yearning for Knowledge. 
— It was against the law to teach the negro 
children to read. Often they would come to 
Mrs. Howe with the torn leaf of an old spell- 
ing book and request her to teach them the 
letters. While instructing her own children 
the young negroes often listened carefully, 
heard the word, and then without seeing a 
letter spelled it out carefully to themselves ; 
this too while sweeping the room or making 
a bed or doing some other work. It seemed 
hard not to be allowed to teach them. 

Driven from Virginia. — Finally the oppo- 
sition to me became so strong that we were 
obliged to leave Virginia, and on October 13, 
1838, I began preaching in Pataskak in the 
church being then just organized. My 
parish exteniled twelve miles east and west, 
and five miles north and south, an area of 
sixty square miles. For seven years there 
was no church-building. With a single excep- 
tion every member of my church lived in a 
log-cabin. I preached in log school-houses 
and barns • administered the sacrament three 
times in barns. In 1845 the first church 
was built ; it was at Kirkersville and later at 
Pataskala, and I preached at each place 
alternately. My ministry extended over 
thirty-seven years, until I was obliged to dis- 
continue it from the infirmities of age. I 
have married 415 couple, buried 588 persons, 
and baptized I do not know how many. My 
salary from the beginning was $400 per 
annum, never more, never less. I have 
always had food in abundance. The clothes 
question was sometimes a puzzle. My 
golden wedding was on November 6, 1883. 

The little room in which we sat was joyous 
with the insignia of that famous golden 
wedding that had rounded out so completely 
the fifty united years of this venerable couple. 
I cannot describe the various things that 
loving hands had made for their joy. 

The most prominent object was a banner 
of brown satin. Fifty golden links worked in 
gold thread, each representing a year of their 
wedded life, extending from the bottom to the 
top, " 1833 to 1883. " Roses were worked on 
the side with four buds, each representing a 
child. Four gold crescents, each enclosing a 
gold star within its horn, carried the same 
idea. They were enclosed in a ring and the 
rings were suspended from the banner and 
finished with tassels. Another was a placque 
hanging from the wall and thereon was 
painted a drear November landscape repre- 
senting the month of their wedding. There 
on a dead branch in the foreground rested 
two birds mated surveying the scene, turtle- 
doves of course they were, happy in each 
other irrespective of the sombre seasoii in 
^vhich they had mated, knowing that spring- 
time must come, and fruits and flowers fol- 
low in due season. 

Our patriarch had, as stated, mamed four 
hundred and fifteen couple. I did not inquire 
if all the knots he had thus tied were sue- 

The Drummer Boy of Shiloh. 

J. tl. Bradford, del, 0. S. Vnivertity. 

The Banner op the Golden Wedding. 


cesses. I judged him to be a perfect work- urally be on the great plain of Gobi in Chi- 

nian at that business, and there would be no nese Tartary. 

slipping. But I once did of another of like Another case I knew, that would be funny 

great experience, and that other laughingly if it was not sad. On the morning after the 

replied : "Not exactly ; for I once marrietl a marriage the groom turns to his bride, and 

couple in the morning and in the afternoon saj's : "Sally" — perhaps Sally at the mo- 

the bridegroom ran away." Whereupon I ment was doing up her back hair — "Sally. 

had to tell him of one I knew that was not what are you going to do for a living ? ' 

that lasting. Upon this the poor creature wilted, and soon 


en tnat lastmg. 

On the conclusion of the ceremony, at 

went to grass. 

which I was present, both went out of the Luckily in her case, eventually came along 

minister's house together, parted at the door an honest man, and she again entered the 

without a word or a look, turned their backs bonds of felicity — 

to each other, when the woman went east and 

the man went west; and T felt sure if they " No goose so gray and none so late 

should meet again it would be after a half But at last she finds an honest gander for a 

circuit of the globe, each coming in opposite mate." 

directions, and that meeting-spot must nat- 

The noted " Narrows of Licking " are in the eastern part of the county. 
" This is a very picturesque spot ; cliffs of sandstone rock, fifty feet in height, line 
the sides of the canal, especially on the lefl bank of the stream. In some places 
they hang over in a semicircular form, the upper portion projecting and defending 
the lower from the rains and weather. In one of these spots the aborigines chose 
to display their ingenuity at pictorial writing by figuring on the smooth face of 
the cliff, at an elevation of eight or ten feet above the water, the outlines of wild 
animals, and among the rest the figure of a huge black human hand. From this 
circumstance the spot is known to all the old hunters and inhabitants of this 
vicinity by the name of ' the black hand narrows.' It is the scene of many an 
ancient legend and wild hunting story." In quarrying for the Ohio Canal the 
black hand was destroved. 

The War Experiences of Major N. Bostwick. 

An oflScer of the 20th Ohio Volunteer Infantry giving the details of his capture by the Confederates, 
imprisonment and escape through the mountains as related by his commander, Col. Charles 
Whittlesey, in his " War Memoranda." 

Enlists in the Army. — In 1861 Major N. Bostwick was a farmer in Licking 
county, and an active member of the County Agricultural Society. His farm 
was well stocked with high-bred cattle, horses, hogs and sheep. He was not 
subject to military duty, but his ancestors had fought in the army of the Revolu- 
tion, and he was inspired to do the same in the Southern rebellion. One son was 
of military age, another was not ; but both joined the company raised by their 
father for the 20th Ohio Volunteers. Mrs. Bostwick and the younger children 
were left in charge of the premises and stock. 

Sun-struck— At the battle of Champion Hills, on the 6th of May, 1863, the 
20th Ohio was compelled, by the exigencies of the day, to lie on the ground in a 
hot sun several hours, awaiting the order to charge. A number of the men and 
officers were sun-struck, from which cause they fell out as tiie regiment moved 
up the hill on the rebel line. Capt. Melick died, with several men, and Major 
Bostwick was so much prostrated that the effects remain to this time. 

3fade Prisoner. — About 2 p. M. of the 22d of July, 1864, he was captured by 
three rebel soldiers, during the battle of Atlanta, and led by them to a captain 
and thirty-nine men, near to town, who guarded the ))risoners. His sad expe- 
rience from that hour in Southern prisons, and his sufferings during a month in 
the mountains, effecting au escape, appear like a horrid romance. But most of 
the details are from his own lips. The whole cannot be reported here, but only 
the salient events. 


Inhuman Treatment. — Before reaching the rebel guard a soldier shot at him, 
the ball striking a corner of one eye. A piece of the ball went inside of the 
socket, the main part making an ugly and painful wound on the cheek, cutting 
an artery, which bled profusely. He had just received a new outfit, including a 
beaver hat, a twelve-dollar pair of boots, and a sword. The captain took liis 
hat, swoi'd and watch, and said : " Damn you, I want those boots." " You can't 
have them while I am alive." The officer then threatened to kill him, and 
stooped to seize the boots. Major B. gave him a kick in the breast, which sent 
him several feet, sprawling on the ground. The major, expecting to be killed, 
gave the Masonic grand hail of distress, to which the rebel captain responded, 
" Well, keep your boots." He then put his own hat on one of his soldiers, 
whose ragged and worthless hat he jammed on the major's head, down over the 
wounded eye. It was ten days before the fragment of lead was taken out. 

Taken to Charleston. — They were marched about ten miles, and lay down. 
Among them were Capt. Humiston, Lieut. Colby and Lieut. Rush, of the 20th 
Ohio. They had nothing to eat until the 24th, when they received a tincup of 
corn-meal. The men were taken to Andersonville, the officers to Griffin. Col. 
Shed, of the 30th Illinois, and Col. Scott, of the 68th Ohio, were with them. 
The latter leaped from the train at night, but was caught by hounds and brought 
to Macon. 

Major Bostwick's Own Story. 

Here were about 1,800 officers, with no shelter for two weeks. The captains 
and field-officers were ordered to Charleston, S. C, the lieutenants to Savannah. 
At Charleston we were put in the old workhouse, where I had bilious fever. 
Col. Scott nursed me until he was sent away. Our rations were mouldy cakes 
of rice and bad pork. Dr. Todd, a brother of Mrs. Lincoln, was our surgeon, 
who treated us kindly, but could get little medicine, and no proper hospital 

Plaiis for Escape. — We planned an escape, making a saw of an old knife, to 
cut away the bars. I also got an impression of the key to the lock of a door on 
the second sfory. Cols. Shed and Scott opened the door with my key. I went 
again with Capt. Pease, and the key would not work. Some of the Georgia men 
on guard favored our escape. I might have been exchanged with Cols. Shed and 
Scott, but was too sick to travel. Capt. McFadden, of the 59th New York, 
nursed me. At 8 a. m. of October 6th we were put into cattle-cars that had 
not been cleaned, and started for Columbia, S. C. I sat against the side of the 
car sick all day and night. The next morning we were left in a field, in a pour- 
ing rain, under guard of the provost-marshal. 

A Mere Skeleton. — The next day the prisoners were taken across the Combanee 
river. I could not walk. The guards cursed me, and pushed me with their 
bayonets. There were others as bad as myself. About 1 p. m. we reached camp. 
I was a mere skeleton. For three weeks we had neither medicines nor medical 
attendance ; our rations the same as at Charleston. At last Dr. Ladrones came 
as our surgeon ; a kind, cheerful man, who placed me and twelve others on 
stretchers, and put us in a tent. We were almost eaten up by lice. He said : 
" You shall not die ; don't think of escaping ; I will get you paroled." He gave 
me fifteen grains of quinine at a dose. I had also lung fever, but in about three 
weeks could walk, and went to the Saluda river, where there was a Union family, 
who gave me milk, butter and biscuit. Every day our men would lie down and 
die; there were about 1,100 left. Some escaped through the vaults to the river. 
I determined to escape. The good Union women brought good cooked food to 
our hospital tent. 

Union SoutJierners. — It might not be prudent, even at this time, to publish the 
names of the Union men who helped us to escape. We were not betrayed by 



any of them, their wives or families. Our gratitude to them all is as great, as 
there are words to express, but we might do tiiem au injury by relating their acts 
of kindness toward us. There was Capt. McFadden, Lieut. H. C. Paine, myself, 
and two officers of the Army of the Potomac, who determined to take the risks 
of reaching the Federal lines. For many days we made haversacks, collected 
provisions and clothing, got directions as to the route, and laid our plans to get 
out of the stockade one by one. 

The Escape. — There was a rumor of a 
change of prisons, which caused us to leave 
one day earlier and before we were entirely 
ready. On the 1st day of December, 1864, 
by many stratagems and the help pf many 
true friends, we succeeded in scattering 
through the woods. Our rendezvous that 
night was near the farmhouse of a Union 
friend, who was to put us across the Congaree 
in a dug-out. This was eleven miles from 
Columbia. We made about twenty -five 
miles that night. On the night of the 2d- 
3d the two lieutenants of the Army of the 
Potomac left us and started for the coast. 
We never heard of them afterwards. 

Travels at Night. — With my pocket-knife 
I cut each of us a stout hickory stick, which 
were the only weapons we had. These we 
carried through to Knoxville, Tenn. We 
travelled only at night, and in single file 
within sight of each other. As the day be- 
gan to dawn we turned into the woods and 
lay during the day, but dare not make a fire. 
On the 5th, near Newberry, just before "morn- 
ing, we met a colored man. He told us to go 
up one of the forks, where he had a brother. 
McFadden mistrusted this man and would 
not go with us, but Paine and myself went. 
That night he brought us some cooked spare- 
ribs, coffee and milk, and showed us the way 
to his brother's. This man's wife was tickled 
to death to see us, and he wanted to go with 
us. He put some red pepper and onions into a 
bottle of turpentine, and said if we rubbed 
this on our feet and legs the hounds would 
not follow us. He kept watch outside the 
cabin and went eight miles with us on the 
way. but refused to take any pay from us . 

We kept to the east of Greenville, S. C. , 
because there were troops at that station. 
Being out of rations we ate turnips and 
stumps of cabbages, which made us sick. I 
went to a negro cabin where they got us a 
supper and cooked a peck of sweet potatoes 
to put in our haversacks. Perhaps I shall 
not place everything in the right order, for 
I lost my memoranda before I got to the 

Captures a Guard. — At Tyger's river, on 
the waters of the Saluda, we came to a bridge 
where there was a guard, all of whom ap- 
peared to be asleep. The stream could not 
be crossed except at this bridge, and one sat 
near one end with his head on his knees. I 
was to strike him on the head with my cane, 
and all of us to spring on the other two. 
My man fell off into the water. We seized 
the muskets of the others and bound them 
with their knapsack straps. We hurried along 
the road with them about two miles. They 

begged so piteously (promised not to tell and 
told us about the roads) that we did not kill 
them. We bound them to some trees and 
hurried on. By daylight we thought we had 
made twenty-five mUes and were in the 
vicinity of Hendersonville. 

Bloodhounds on their Track. — At the 
Saluda pass of the Blue Kidge was a fire 
ahead of us on the road, and there appeared 
to be men standing around it. We went 
back up a mountain and got into a rock 
shelter. The next day we saw there were no 
pickets, but only stumps around the fire. In 
that shelter I left my diary, knife, fork and 
spoon. Soon after we saw a tent and some 
men at a bridge, about 9 P. M. There was a 
fearful storm. We crossed the stream among 
the rocks below the bridge, climbed a preci- 
pice over one hundred feet high by grasping 
the laurels, and got into the road beyond. 
About this time, towards morning, we heard 
the bloodhounds bellow. Then horns began 
to blow and other hounds to answer in all 
directions. We crept along a fence into a 
brook, and went up it in the water. As we 
lay on our blankets two hounds attacked us, 
whom we killed with our clubs. 

Challenged hy a Rebel Picket. — We wished 
' to get on the west side of the French Broad 
river, and believing we were on the wrong 
road, came out of the woods that night, when 
we heard a halloo. I went into the road and 
saw a rebel picket, who called halt. "Where 
do you belong? "said he. "Charleston." 


ere are you goms 

'To Flat Rock." 
You are deserters. " " Th»t' s so. " " Well, 
[ would desert too, but I have a wife here. 
You can pass." We came upon a number of 
houses, and went behind a large elm log, 
from which the bark had partly shd off. In 
the morning we thought it was the town of 
Asheville. It rained and snowed three inches 
deep, with a strong wind. Our pains were 
dreadful, but we dared not stir that day. 
The place was Hendersonville, thirty-five 
miles from Asheville. ( 

Friendliness of Negroes. — That night we 
had so nearly perished that we went to the 
negro quarters of a fine house to dry our 
blankets. The man was not at home, but his 
wife said it would not do to stay in their 
cabin. She was the most sympathetic person 
we had met, and went to the still house, 
built a fire, gave us a bottle of apple-jack, 
gave me a pair of socks, made a pouch for 
me, and when her husband came home he 
offered to pilot us to the house of a Union 
white man in the mountains, who had charge 
o*" the underground railroad. 
An Underground Railroad Official. — It 


was midnight when we found his house, with 
great difficulty. He doubted us, and held a 
parley through the door. I convinced him 
by showing a letter from home. He said 
they were watched day and night ; it would 
not do for us to be seen there, but his colored 
man would show us to the stable ; they would 
send us something to eat and this man would 

show us the way to Mr. , twelve miles. 

He said it was reported that Col. Kirk's 
Federal Rangers were on the French Broad, 
and that the rebel pickets had withdrawn to 

I do not give the name of this heroic man 
and family, for fear there may be yet in that 
region some rebel devils who would retali- 

Reaches the Union Lines. — He gave us his 
sign manual on a piece of paper, a peculiar 
scrawl which all the underground white men 
of the mountains understood, and helped the 

prisoners forward. At Mr. 's were only 

his wife and daughter ; he was obliged to 
stay in the woods, or be shot. We showed 
our sign manual. We stayed two nights in 
the centre of a hay stack. They directed us 

to 's ; and he to 's. From there we 

crossed the French Broad, in a dug-out, to 
Painted Rocks, where the Federal pickets 
were. There were nineteen escaped prisoners 
there. Paine started alone for the next 
station in the night. He met a sentinel, who 
fired at him in the dark, but did not hit him. 
The prisoners went on without guns or a 
guard. Near night, when we thought all 
danger was past, about a dozen guerillas rose 
up in the bushes and fired at us. Only one 
man was hit, whose under Hp was entirely 
carried away. They stripped us of our 
blankets and all other valuables. It was the 
last day of December when we reached Knox- 

In the southeastern part of this county, commencing about eight miles from 
Newark and extending eastward toward Zanesville, and into Hopewell township, 
Muskingum county, is what is called " The Flint Ridge." It was the principal 
source of supply for Indian arrow-heads and other flint implements, not only for 
the aborigines of Ohio but for a large extent of country beyond the present 
limits of this State. 

The flint forms the cap-rock of this ridge, 
which for a distance of almost ten miles is 
scarred with trenches and pits, left by the 
aboriginal diggers, while surrounding fields 
and farms are covered with large quantities 
of chippings where the flint was dressed. 

The stone, varying greatly in difi^erent parts, 
is mainly buhr-stone, jasper, and chalcedony. 
Much of it is very beautiful, capable of a 
very high polish ; certain kinds of it are 
sometimes mistaken for moss-agate. It is 
found in many colors, as white, red, blue, 
brown, yellow, green, black, and some of it 

The stone is found at varying depths from 
the surface of three to eighty feet; the 
aborigines would remove the superincumbent 

earth, and then build fires, which cracked 
and loosened the rock, pieces of which suit- 
able to their purpose were then removed to 
some adjoining field or camp, and by means 
of stone hammers dressed to convenient 
shape and size for transportation. In many 
instances these dressed stones were carried 
great distances before they were worked into 
their finished shapes, as is evidenced by the 
finding of large quantities of flint chippings 
hundreds of miles from the " Ridge." This 
"Flint Ridge" must have been as valuable 
to the Indians and other aborigines as the 
coal and iron mines of Ohio and Pennsyl- 
vania are to the white men of the present 

Pataskala is fifteen miles southwest of Newark, on the B. & O. R. R. News- 
paper : Standard, Independent, A. Q. Beem, editor and publisher. Churches : 
1 Methodist, 1 Presbyterian. School census, 1888, 261. Population al)out 800. 

Utica is fourteen miles north of Newark, on the B. & O. R. R. Newspaper : 
Herald, Republican, H. E. Harris, editor and publisher. Churches : 1 Pres- 
byterian, 1 Methodist Episcopal, 1 Reformed Presbyterian, 1 United Presbyterian, 
1 Christian. Bank : Utica (Sperry & Wilson). Population, 1880, 702. School 
census, 1888, 233; I. C. Gunther, school superintendent. 

Homer is four miles west of Utica. It has 1 Presbyterian, 1 Baptist, 1 
Methodist church, and about 300 inhabitants. 

Hebron is nine miles southwest of Newark, on the T. & O. C. R. R. and 
Ohio Canal. Churches : 1 Methodist Episcopal, 2 Baptist, 1 Disciples. Popula- 
tion, 1880, 489. School census, 1888, 163. 

Hanover is eight miles east of Newark, on the P. C. & St. L. R. R. 
Churches: 1 Methodist and 1 Presbyterian. Population, 1880, 302. School 
census, 1888, 159. 


Hartford is twenty miles northeast of Newark, on the T. & O. C. R. R. 
Population, 1880, 349." School census, 1888, 116. 

Alexandria is eleven miles west of Newark, on the T. & O. C. R. R. 
Population, 1880, 269. 

Johnstown is sixteen miles northwest of Newark, on the T. & O. C. R. R. 
Newspaper : Independent, Democratic, Wm. A. Ashbrooke, editor and publisher. 
Bank : Johnstown ; C. Derthick, president ; C. V. Armstrong, cashier. Popula- 
tion, 1880, 278. School census, 1888, 163. 

The following are the names of the villages in this county, in 1840, with their 
populations. The first six named were on tiie old National Road. Brownsville,, 
313; Hebron, 473; Jacksontown, 215; Kirkersville, 179; Luray, 109 
Gratiot, 147; Alexander, 200; Chatham, 173; Etna, 219; Fredonia, 107 
Hartford, 106; Havana, 54; Homer, 201; Linnville, 101; Lockport, 125 
and Utica, 355. 


Logan County derived its name from General Benjamin Logan ; it was 
formed March 1, 1817, and the courts ordered to be holden at the house of Ed- 
win Matthews, or some other convenient place in the town of Bellville, until a 
permanent seat of justice should be established. The soil, which is various, is 
generally good ; the surface broken around the head waters of Mad river, else- 
where rolling or level ; in the western part are eight small lakes, covering each 
from two to seventy acres. 

Area about 440 square miles. In 1887 the acres cultivated were 138,272 ; in 
pasture, 47,314 ; woodland, 50,765 ; lying waste, 1,643 ; produced in wheat, 
630,487 bushels; rye, 1,856; buckwheat, 1,253; oats, 197,399; barley, 1,331 ; 
corn, 1,283,173; broom-corn, 350 lbs. brush; meadow hay, 17,454 tons; clover 
hay, 6,588; flaxseed, 220 bushels; potatoes, 44,793 ; tobacco, 110 lbs.; butter, 
582,708; cheese, 3,160; sorghum, 2,855 gallons; maple sugar, 158,587 lbs.; 
honey, 9,249; eggs, 517,596 dozen; grapes, 5,910 lbs.; wine, 14 gallons; sweet 
potatoes, 605 bushels; apples, 4,735; peaches, 911 ; pears, 1,383; wool, 287,130 
lbs. ; milch cows owned, 6,040. School census, 1888, 8,316 ; teachers, 273. Miles 
of railroad track, 61. 

Townships and Census. 1840. 1880. Townships and Census. 1840. 1880. 





Boke's Creek, 











Rush Creek, 


































Population of Logan in 1820 was 3,181; in 1830, 6,432; 1840, 14,013; 
1860, 20,996 ; 1880, 26,267, of whom 21,766 were born in Ohio ; 1,236 in Penn- 
sylvania; 836 in Virginia; 234 in Indiana; 208 in New York; 160 in Ken- 


tucky; 476 in Ireland; 163 in German Empire; 59 in England and Wales; 43 
in Scotland; 39 in British America, and 17 in France. Census, 1890, 27,386. 
The territory comprised within the limits of this county was a favorite abode 
of the Shawanoe Indians, who had several villages on Mad river, called the Mack- 
-a-chack, or Mac-o-chee towns, the names and position of three of which are 
given to us by an old settler. The first, called Mac-o-chee, stood near "West Lib- 
erty, on the farm of Judge Benjamin Piatt ; the second. Pigeon Town, was about 
three miles nortliwest, on the farm of George F. Dunn, and the third, Wappato- 
mica, was just below Zanesfield. 

Logan's Expedition against the Mac-o-chee Towns. 

The Mac-o-chee towns were destroyed in 1786 by a body of Kentuckians under 
General Benjamin Logan. The narrative of this expedition is from the pen of 
General William Lytle, who was an actor in the scenes he describes. 

March to the Mac-o-chee Towns. — It was 
in the autumn of this year that Gen. Clarke 
raised the forces of the Wabash expedition. 
They constituted a numerous corps. Colonel 
Logan was detached from the army at the 
falls of the Ohio, to raise a considerable force 
with which to proceed against the Indian vil- 
lages on the head waters of Mad river and 
the Great Blinmi. I was then aged 16, and 
too young to come within the legal requisi- 
tion ; but I offered myself as a volunteer. 
Colonel Logan went on to his destination, 
and would have surprised the Indian towns 
against which he had marched, had not one 
of his men deserted to the enemy, not long 
before they reached the town, who gave no- 
tice of their approach. As it was, he burned 
eight large towns, and destroyed many fields 
of corn. He took seventy or eighty prisoners 
and killed twenty warriors, and among them 
the head chief of the nation. This last act 
caused deep regret, humiliation and shame 
to the commander-in-chief and his troops. 

Attack on the Towns. — We came in view 
of the first two towns, one of which stood on 
the west bank of Mad river, and the other 
on the northeast of it. They were separated 
by a prairie half a mile in extent. The town 
on the northeast was situated on a high, com- 
manding point of land, that projected a small 
distance into the prairie, at the foot of which 
eminence broke out several fine springs. This 
was the residence of the famous chief of the 
nation. His flag.was flying at the time from 
the top of a pole sixty feet high. We had 
advanced in three lines, the commander with 
some of the horsemen marching at the head 
of the centre line, and the footmen in their 
rear. Colonel Robert Patterson commanded 
the left, and I think Colonel Thomas Ken- 
nedy the right. When we came in sight of 
the towns, the spies of the front guard made 
a halt, and sent a man back to inform the 
commander of the situation of the two towns. 
He ordered Colonel Patterson to attack the 
towns on the left bank of Mad river. Col. 
Kennedy was also charged to incline a little 
to the right of the town on the east side of 
the prairie. He determined himself to charge 
with the centre division immediately on the 

upper town. I heard the commander give 
his orders, and caution the colonels against 
allowing their men to kill any among the en- 
emy that they might suppose to be prisoners. 
He then ordered them to advance, and as 
soon as they should discover the enemy, to 
charge upon them. I had my doubts touch- 
ing the propriety of some of the arrange- 
ments. I was willing, however, to view the 
affair with the diflidence of youth and inex- 
perience. At any rate, I was determined to 
be at hand, to see all that was going on, and 
to be as near the head of the line as m^ col- 
onel would permit. I was extremely solicitous 
to try myself in battle. The commander of 
the centre line waved his sword over his head 
as a signal for the troops to advance. Colonel 
Daniel Boone and Major (since General) 
Kenton commanded the advance, and Colonel 
Trotter the rear. As we approached within 
half a mile of the town on the left, and about 
three-fourths from that on the right, we saw 
the savages retreating in all directions, mak- 
ing for the thickets, swamps and high prairie 
grass, to secure them from their enemy. I 
was animated with the energy with which the 
commander conducted the head of his line. 
He waved his sword, and in a voice of thun- 
der exclaimed, " Charge from right to left ! " 
Capture of Mohmtha. — The horses appeared 
as impatient for the onset as their riders. As 
we came up with the flying savages, I was 
disappointed, discovering that we should 
have little to do. I heard but one savage, 
with the exception of the chief, cry for 
quarter. They fought with desperation, as 
long as they could raise knife, gun or toma- 
hawk, after they found they could not screen 
themselves. We dispatched all the warriors 
we overtook, and sent the women and chil- 
dren prisoners to the rear. We pushed ahead, 
still hoijing to overtake a larger body, where we 
might have something like a general engage- 
ment. I was mounted on a very fleet gray 
horse. Fifty of my companions followed me. 
I had not advanced more than a mile, before 
I discovered some of the enemy, running 
along the edge of a thicket of hazel and 
plum bushes. I made signs to the men in 
my rear to come on. At the same time. 



pointing to the flying enemy, I obliqued 
across tne plain, so as to get in advance of 
them. ^Vhe^ I arrived within fifty yards of 
them I dismounted and raised my gun. I 
discovered, at this moment, some men of the 
right wing coming up on the left. The 
warrior I was about to shoot held up his 
band in token of surrender, and I heard him 
order the other Indians to stop. By this 
time the men behind had arrived, and were 
in the act of firing upon the Indians. I 
called to them not to fire, for the enemy bad 
surrendered. The warrior that had sur- 
rendered to me came walking towards me, 
calling bis women and children to follow him. 
I advanced to meet him, with my right hand 
extended ; but before I could reach him the 
men of the right wing of our force had sur- 
rounded him. I rushed in among their horses. 
While he was giving me bis hand several of 
our men wished to tomahawk bim. I in- 
formed them they would have to tomahawk 
me first. We led him back to the place 
where bis flag had been. We bad taken 
thirteen prisoners. Among them were the 
chief, his three wives — one of them a young 
and handsome woman, another of them the 
famous grenadier squaw, upwards of six feet 
high — and two or three fine young lads. The 
rest were children. One of these lads was a 
remarkably interesting youth, about my own 
age and size. He clung closely to me, and 
appeared keenly to notice everj'thing that 
was going on. 

Brutal Murder of Moluntha. — When we 
arrived at the town a crowd of our men 
pressed around to see the chief I stepped 
aside to fasten my horse, and my prisoner 
lad clung close te my side. A young man by 
the name of Curner had been to one of the 
springs to drink. He discovered the young 
savage by my side, and came running towards 
us. The young Indian supposed he was 
advancing to kill him. As I turned around, 
in the twinkling of an eye he let fly an 
arrow at Curner, for he was armed with a 
bow. I had just time to catch his arm. as he 
discharged the arrow. It passed through 
Curner's dress, and grazed his side. The 
jerk I gave his arm undoubtedly prevented 
nis killing Curner on the spot. I took away 
his arrows, and sternly reprimanded him. I 
then led him back to the crowd which sur- 
rounded the prisoners. At the same moment 
Col. McGary, the same man who had caused 
the disaster at the Blue Licks, some years 
before, coming up. Gen. Logan's eye caught 
that of McGary. " Col. McGary, " said he. 
" you must not molest these prisoners." "1 
will see to that, ' ' said McGary in reply. I 
forced my way through tie crowd to the 
chief, with my young charge by the hand. 
McGary ordered the crowd to open and 
let him in. He came up to the chief, and 
the first salutation was in the question. 
"Were you at the defeat of the Blue Licks?" 
The Indian, not knowing the meaning of the 
words, or pot understanding the purport of 
the question, answered, "Yes." McGary 
instantly seized an axe from the bands of the 

grenadier squaw, and raised it to make a 
blow at the chief I threw up my arm, to 
ward off the blow. The hand of the axe 
struck me across the left wrist, and came 
near breaking it. The axe sunk in the head 
of the chief to the eyes, and be fell dead at 
my feet. Provoked beyond measure at this 
wanton barbarity, I drew my knife, for the 
purpose of avenging bis cruelty by dispatch- 
ing him. My arm was arrested by one of our 
men, which prevented me inflicting the thrust. 
McGary escaped from the crowd. 

A Foot-Race after Hogs. — A detachment 
was then ordered off to two other towns, 
distant six or eight miles. The men and 
prisoners were ordered to march down to the 
lower town and camp. As we marched out 
of the upper town, we fired it, collecting a 
large pile of corn for our horses, and beans, 
pumpkins, etc., for our own use. 1 told 
Capt. Stucker, who messed with me, that I 
had seen several hogs running about the 
town, which appeared to be in good order, 
and I thought that a piece of fresh pork 
would relish well with our stock of vegetables. 
He readily assenting to it, we went in pursuit 
of them ; but as orders had been given not 
to shoot unless at an enemy, after finding the 
hogs we had to run them down on foot, until 
we got near enough to tomahawk them. 

An Indian s Gallant Fight. — Being engaged 
at this for some time before we killed one, 
while Capt. S. was in the act of striking the 
hog, I cast my eye along the edge of the 
woods that skirted the prairie, and saw an 
Indian coming along with a deer on his back. 
The fellow happened to raise his head at that 
moment, and looking across the prairie to 
the upper town saw it all in flames. At the 
same moment I spake to Stucker in a low 
voice that here was an Indian coming. In 
the act of turning my bead round to speak to 
Stucker I discovered Hugh Ross, brother- 
in-law to Col. Kennedy, at the distance of 
about sixty or seventy yards, approaching us. 
I made a motion with my hand to Ross to 
squat down ; then, taking a tree between me 
and the Indian, I slipped somewhat nearer, 
to get a fairer shot, when at the instant I 
raised my gun past the tree, the Indian 
being about one hundred yards distant, Ross's 
ball whistled by me, so close that I felt the 
wind of it, and struck the Indian on the calf 
of one of his legs. The Indian that moment 
dropped his deer, and sprang into the high 
grass of the prairie. All this occurred so 
quickly that I had not time to draw a sight 
on him, before he was hid by the grass. I 
was provoked at Ross for shooting when I 
was near enough to have killed him, and now 
the consequence would be that probably 
some of our men would lose their lives, as _a 
wounded Indian only would give up with bis 
life. Capt. Irwin rode up at that moment, 
with bis troop of horse, and asked me where 
the Indian was. I pointed as nearly as I 
could to the spot where I last saw him in the 
grass, cautioning the captain, if be missed 
him the first charge, to pass on out of his 
reach before he wheeled to recharge, or the 


Indian would kill some of his men in the act Indian with our tomahawks. Before we had 
of wheeling. Whether the captain heard got him dispatched he had made ready the 

me I cannot say ; at any rate the warning powder in his gun, and a ball in his mouth, 
was not attended to, for after passing the preparing for a third fire, with bullet holes in 
Indian a few steps Captain Irwin ordered his breast that might have all been covered 
his men to wheel and recharge across the with a man's open hand. We found with 
woods, and in the act of executing the move- him Capt. Beasley's rifle— the captain having 
ment the Indian raised up and shot the been killed at the Lower Blue Licks, a few 
captain dead on the spot — still keeping below days before the army passed through that 
the level of the grass, to deprive us of any place on their way to the towns, 
opportunity of putting a bullet through him. An English Block-home Burned.— '^ext 
The troop charged again ; but the Indian was morning Gen. Logan ordered another detach- 
so active that he had darted into the grass, ment to attack a town that lay seven or eight 
some rods from where he had fired at Irwin, miles to the north or northwest of where we 
and they again missed him. By this time then were. This town was also burnt, together 
several footmen had got up. Capt. Stucker with a large block -house that the English 
and myself had each taken a tree that stood had built there, of a huge size and thickness ; 
out in the edge of the prairie, among the and the detachment returned that evening to 

frass, when a Mr. Stafford came up, and put the main body. Mr. Isaac Zane was at that 

is head first past one side and then the other time living at this last village, he being 

of the tree I was behind. I told him not to married to a squaw, and having at the place 

expose himself that way, or he would get his wife and several children at the time, 

shot in a moment. I had hardly expressed The name of the Indian chief killed by 

the last word when the Indian again raised McGary was Molnntha, the great sachem of 

up out of the grass. His gun, Stueker's, the Shawnees. The grenadier squaw was the 

and my own, with four or five behind us, all sister to Cornstalk, who fell (basely murdered) 

cracked at the same instant. Stafford fell at at Point Pleasant, 
my side, while we rushed on the wounded 

Jonathan Alder (see Madison County) was at this time living with the Indians. 

From his narrative it appears that the news of the approach of tlie Ken- 
tuckians was communicated to the Indians by a Frenchman, a deserter from the 
former. Nevertheless, as the whites arrived sooner than they expected, the sur- 
prise was complete. Most of the Indians were at the time absent hunting, and 
the town became an easy conquest to the whites. Early one morning an Indian 
runner came into the village in which Alder lived, and gave the information 
that Mac-o-chee had been destroyed, and that the whites were approaching. 
Alder, with the people of the village, who were principally squaws and children, 
retreated for two days, until they arrived somewhere near the head waters of the 
Scioto, where they suffered much for want of food. There was not a man among 
them capable of hunting, and they were compelled to subsist on paw-paws, 
muscles and craw-fisii. In about eight days they returned to Zane's town, tarried 
a short time, and from thence removed to Hog creek, where they wintered : their 
principal living, at that place, was " raccoons, and that with little or no salt, with- 
out a single bite of bread, hommony, or sweet corn." In the spring they moved 
back to the site of their village, where nothing remained but the ashes of the 
dwellings and their corn burnt to charcoal. They remained during the sugar 
season, and then removed to Blanchard's fork, where, being obliged to clear the 
land, they were enabled to raise but a scanty crop of corn. While this was grow- 
ing, they fared hard, and managed to eke out a bare subsistence by eating a 
" kind of wild potato " and poor raccoons, that had been suckled down so poor 
that dogs would hardly eat them : " for fear of losing a little, they threw them 
on the fire, singed the hair off, and ate the skin and all." 

The Indian lad to whom General Lytle alludes was taken, with others of the 
prisoners, into Kentucky. The commander of the expedition was so much pleased 
with him that he made him a member of his own family, in which he resided 
some years, and was at length jiermittcd to return. He was ever afterwards 
known by tiie name of Logan, to which the prefix of captain \\as eventually at- 
tached. His Indian name was Spcinica Lawba, i. e., " tiie Higii Horn." He sub- 
sequently rose to the rank of a civil chief, on account of iiis many estimable in- 
tellectual and moral qualities. His personal appearance was (commanding, being 
six feet in height, and weighing near two hundred pounds. He from that time 


continued the unwavering friend of the Americans, and fought on tlieir side with 
great constancy. He lost his life in the fall of 1812, under melancholy circum- 
stances, which evinced that he was a man of the keenest sense of honor. The 
facts follow, from Drake's Tecumseh. 

Logan's Indignation at False Accusations. 
— In November of 1812 General Harrison 
directed Logan to take a small party of his 
tribe, and reconnoitre the country in the direc- 
tion of the rapids of the Maumee. When 
near this point they were met by a body of 
the enemy, superior to their own in number, 
and compelled to retreat. Logan, Captain 
Johnny [see vol. i. , p. 602] and Bright-horn, 
who composed the party, effected their es- 
cape to the left wing of the army, then under 
the command of Gen. Winchester, who was 
duly informed of the circumstances of their 
adventure. An officer of the Kentucky 
troops, Gen. P., the second in command, 
without the slightest ground for such a charge, 
accused Logan of infidelity to our cause, and 
of giving intelligence to the enemy. Indig- 
nant at tliis foul accusation, the noble chief 
at once resolved to meet it in a manner that 
would leave no doubt as to his faithfulness to 
the United States. He called on his friend 
Oliver [now Major Wm. Oliver, of Cincin- 
nati], and having told him of the imputation 
that had been upon his reputation, said 
that he would start from the camp next 
morning, and either leave his body bleaching 
in the woods, or return with such trophies 
from the enemy as would relieve his char- 
acter from the suspicion that had been wan 
tonly cast upon it by an American officer. 

Logan Captured hy Winnemac. — Accord- 
ingly, on the morning of the 22d, he started 
down the Maumee, attended by his two faith- 
ful companions. Captain Johnny and Bright- 
horn. About noon, having stopped for the 
purpose of taking rest, they were suddenly sur- 
prised by a party of seven of the enemy, among 
whom were young Elliott, a half-breed, hold- 
ing a commission in the British service, and 
the celebrated Potawatamie chief, Winnemac. 
Logan made no resistance, but, with great 
presence of mind, extending his hand to 
Winnemac, who was an old acquaintance, 
proceeded to inform him that he and his two 
companions, tired of the American service, 
were just leaving Gen. Winchester's army, 
for the purpose of joining the British. Win- 
nemac, being familiar with Indian strategy, 
was not satisfied with this declaration, but 
proceeded to disarm Logan and his comrades, 
and placing his party ar<>und them, so as to 
prevent their escape, started for the British 
camp at the foot of the rapids. In the 
course of the afternoon Logan's address was 
such as to inspire confidence in his sincerity, 
and induce Winnemac to restore to him and 
his companions their arms. Logan now 
formed the plan of attacking his captors on 
the first favorable opportunity ; and while 
marching along succeeded in communicating 
the substance of it to Captain Johnny and 
Bright-horn. Their guns being already 
loaded, they had little further preparation to 

make than to put bullets into their mouths, 
to facilitate the reloading of their arms. In 
e^arrying on this process Captain Johnny, as 
he afterwards related, fearing that the man 
marching by his side had observed the oper- 
ation, adroitly did away the impression by 
remarking, " Me chaw heap tobac." 

Fight and Escape of Logan s Party. — The 
evening being now at han^, the British In- 
dians determined to encamp on the bank of 
Turkeyfoot creek, about twenty miles from 
Fort Winchester. Confiding in the idea that 
Logan had really deserted the American 
service, a part of his captors rambled around 
the place of their encampment in search of 
blackhaws. They were no sooner out of 
sight than Logan gave the signal of attack 
upon those who remained behind ; they fired, 
and two of the enemy fell dead — the third, 
being only wounded, required a second shot 
to dispatch him ; and in the mean time the 
remainder of the party, who were near hy, 
returned the fire, and all of them "treed." 
There being four of the enemy, and only 
three of Logan's party, the latter could not 
watch all the movements of their antagonists. 
Thus circumstanced, and during an active 
fight, the fourth man of the enemy passed 
round until Logan was uncovered by his tree, 
and shot him through the body. By this 
time Logan's party had wounded two of the 
surviving four, which caused them to fall 
back. 'Taking advantage of this state of 
things. Captain Johnny mounted Logan, now 
suifering the pain of a mortal wound, and 
Bright-horn, also wounded, on two of the 
enemy's horses, and started them for Win- 
chester's camp, which they reached about 
midnight. Captain Johnny, having already 
secured the scalp of Winnemac, followed im- 
mediately on foot, and gained the same point 
early on the following morning. It was sub- 
sequently ascertained that the two Indians of 
the British party, who were last wounded, 
died of their wounds, making in all five out 
of the seven who were slain by Logan and 
his companions. 

Logan Laughs while in the Death-throes. — 
When the news of this gallant affair had 
spread through the carup, and, especially, 
after it was known that Logan was mortally 
wounded, it created a deep and mournful sen- 
sation. No one, it is believed, more deeply 
regretted the fatal catastrophe than the 
author of the charge upon Logan's integrity, 
which had led to this unhappy result. 

Logan's popularity was very great ; indeed, 
he was almost universally esteemed in the 
army for his fidelity to our cause, his un- 
questioned bravery, and the nobleness of his 
nature. He lived two or three days after 
reaching camp, but in extreme bodily agony ; 
he was buried by the officers of the army at 
Fort Winchester, with the honors of war. 


Previous to his death he related the particu- As soon as peace and tranquillity were restored 
lars of this fatal enterprise to his friend among the Indians, I made application to the 
Oliver, declaring to him that he prized his chiefs to fulfil the wish of their dead friend 
honor more than life ; and having now vin- to deliver up the boys, that I might Jiave 
dicated his reputation from the imputation them conveyed to Frankford, the residence 
cast upon it, he died satisfied. In the course of Major Hardin. The chiefs were em- 
of this interview, and while writhing with barrassed, and manifested an unwillingness 
pain, he was observed to smile ; upon being to comply, and in this they were warmly sup- 
questioned as to the cause, he replied, that ported by the mother of the children. On 
when he recalled to his mind the manner in no account would they consent to send them 
which Captain Johnny took off the scalp of so far away as Kentucky, but agreed that I 
Winnemac, while at the same time dexter- should take and have them schooled at Piqua ; 
ously watching the movements of the enemy, it being the best I could do, in compliance 
he could not refrain from laughing — an inci- with the dying words of Logan, they were 
dent in savage life which shows the "ruling brought in. I had them put to school, and 
passion strong in death." It would, per- boarded in a religious, respectable family, 
haps, be difficult, in the history of savage The mother of the boys, who was a bad 
warfare, to point out an enterprise, the exe- woman, thwarted all my plans for their im- 
cution of which reflects higher credit upon provement, frequently taking them oflF for 
the address and daring conduct of its authors weeks, giving them bad advice, and even, on 
than this does upon Logan and his two com- one or two occasions, brought whiskey to the 
panions. Indeed, a spirit even less indomit- school-house and made them drunk. In this 
able, a sense of honor less acute, and a way she continued to annoy me, and finally 
patriotic devotion to a good cause less active, took them altogether to raise with herself 
than were manifested ty this gallant chief- among the Shawanese, at Wapaghkonetta. 
tain of the woods, might, under other circum- I made several other attempts, during my 
stances, have well conferred immortality upon connection with the Indians, to educate and 
his name. train up to civilized life many of their youth. 

Col. John Johnston, in speaking of Logan, without any encouraging results — all of them 

in a communication to us, says : proved failures. The children of Logan, 

Logan s Children. — Logan left a dying re- with their mother, emigrated to the West 

quest to myself that his two sons should be twenty years ago, and have there become 

sent to Kentucky, and there educated and some of the wildest of their race, 
brought up under the care of Major Hardin. 

Logan county continued to be a favorite place of residence with the Indians 
for years after the destruction of these towns. Major Galloway, who was here 
about the year 1800, gives the following, from memory, respecting the localities 
and names of their towns at that time. Zane's town, now Zanesfield, was a Wy- 
andot village ; Wapatomica, three miles below, on Mad river, Was then deserted ; 
McKee's town, on McKee's creek, about four miles south of Bellefontaine, so 
named from the infamous McKee, and was at that time a trading station ; Read's 
town, in the vicinity of Bellefontaine, which then had a few cabins ; Lewis' town, 
on the Great Miami, and Solomon's town, at which then lived the Wyandot chief, 
Tarhe, " The Crane." From an old settler we learn, also, that on the site of 
Bellefontaine was Blue Jacket's town, and three miles north the town of Buckon- 
gelielas. Blue Jacket, or Weyapiersensaw, and Buckongehelas, were noted chiefs, 
and were at the treaty of Greenville ; the first was a Shawnee and the last a Del- 
aware. At Wayne's victory Blue Jacket had the chief control, and, in opposition 
to Little Turtle, advocated giving the whites battle with so much force as to over- 
power the better counsels of the other. 

By the treaty of September 29, 1817, at the foot of the Maumee Rapids, the 
Senecas and Shawnees had a reservation around Lewistown, in this county ; by a 
treaty, ratified April 6, 1832, the Indians vacated their lands and removed to the 
Far West. On this last occasion. James B. Gardiner was Commissioner, John 
McElvain, Agent, and David Robb, Sub-Agent. 

The village of Lewistown derived its name from Captain John Lewis, a noted 
Shawnee chief When the county was first settled, there was living with him, to 
do his drudgery, an aged white woman named Polly Keyser. She was taken 
prisoner in early life, near Lexington, Ky., and adopted by the Indians. She 
had an Indian husband and two half-breed daughters. There were several other 
whites living in the county who had been adopted by the Indians. We give be- 

Krciifii ty nriiry Howe in Isif), 

Public Square, Bellefontaine. 


Public Square, Bellefontaine. 


low sketches of two of them : the first is from N. Z. McCulloch, Esq., a grand- \ 
son of Isaac Zaue — the last from Colonel John Johnston. ; 

Isaac Zane was born about the year 1753, James McPherson, or Sq^ta-la-ka-lce, i 

on the south branch of the Potomac, in Vir- "the red-faced man," was a native of Car- ^ 

ginia, and at the age of about 9 years was Hsle, Cumberland county, Pa. He was taken ( 

taken prisoner by the Wyandots, and carried prisoner by the Indians on the Ohio, at or ■ 

to Detroit. He remained with his captors near the mouth of the Big Miami, in Lough- 1 

until the age of manhood, when, hke most ry's defeat ; was for many years engaged in \ 

prisoners taken in youth, he refused to return the British Indian Department, under Elliott 

to his home and friends. He married a Wy- and McKee, married a fellow-prisoner, came '. 

andot woman from Canada, of half French into our service after Wayne's treaty of 1T95, 

blood, and took no part in the war of the and continued in charge of the Shawanese 
revolution. After the treaty of Greenville, ■ and Senecas of Lewistown until his removal 

in 1795, he bought a tract of 1,800 acres, on from office, in 1830, since which he has i 

the site of Zanesfield, where he lived until died, 

his death in 1816. I 

Logan county was first settled about the year 1806. The names of the early ; 

settlers recollected are Eobert and William Moore, Benjamin and John Schuyler, , 

Philip and Andrew Mathews, John Makimsom, John and Levi Garwood, Abisha ; 

Warner, Joshua Sharp and brother, Samuel, David and Robert Marmon ; Samuel 
and Thomas Newell, and Benjamin J. Cox. In the late war the settlements in this : 

county were on the verge of civilization, and the troops destined for the Northwest , 

passed through here. There were several block-house stations in the county, 
namely : Manary's, McPherson's, Vance's and Zane's. Manary's, built by Capt. | 

James Manary, of Ross county, was throe miles north of Bellefontaine, on the ! 

farm of Joiin Laney ; McPherson's stood three-fourths of a mile northwest, and 
was built by Captain Maltby, of Green county ; Vance's, built by ex-Governor 
Vance, then captain of a rifle company, stood on a high bluif on the margin of a 
prairie, about a mile east of Logansville ; Zane's block-house was at Zanesfield. 
At the breaking out of the war many hundreds of friendly Indians were collected 
and stationed at Zane's and McPherson's block-hopses, under the protection of 
the government, who for a short time kept a guard of soldiers over them. It was 
at first feared that they would take up arms against the Americans, but subsequent ; 

events dissi-^ating these apprehensions, they were allowed to disperse. 

Bellefontuine in 184-6. — Bellefontaine, the county-seat, is on the line of the Cin- i 

cinnati & Sandusky City Railroad, fifty miles northwest of Columbus. It was j 

laid out March 18, 1820, on the land of John Tulles and William Powell, and | 

named from the fine springs abounding in the vicinity. The first of the above ! 

lived at the time in a cabin on the town plot, yet standing in the south part of 
Bellefontaine. After the town was laid out Joseph Gordon built a cabin, now 
standing, on the corner opposite Slicer's Hotel. Anthony Ballard erected the ' 

first frame dwelling ; William Scott kept the first tavern, where J. C. Scarifs 
drug-store now is. Slicer's tavern was built for a temporary court-house. Joseph ! 

Gordon, Nathaniel Dodge, Anthony Ballard, William Gutridge, Thomas Haynes I 

and John Rhodes were among the first settlers of the town, the last of whom was \ 

the first merchant. The Methodists built the first church, a brick structure, de- \ 

stroyed by fire, which stood on the site of their present church. Bellefontaiua 
contains two Presbyterian, one Episcopal Methodist, and one Lutheran church ; 
one newspaper printing office, eleven dry-goods stores, and had, in October, 1846, 
610 inhabitants. — Old Edition. \ 

About five miles northeast of Bellefontaine, on the head waters of Mad river, ; 

is the grave of General Simon Kenton. He resided for the last few years of his \ 

life in the small log-house shown on the right of the engraving, where he breathed 
his last. He was buried on a small grassy knoll, beside the grave of a Mr. Solo- \ 

mon Praetor, shown on the left. Around his grave is a rude and now dilapidated ' 

picketing, and over it a small slab bearing the following inscription ; > 


In Memory 

General Simon Kenton, 
Who was boru April 3, 1755, in Culpepper county, 
Va., and died April 29, 1836, aged 81 years and 
26 days. His fellow-citizens of the West will 
long remember him as the skillful pioneer of 
early times, the brave soldier and the honest man. 

The above is from the old edition. The remains of General Kenton, many 
years after my visit, were removed to Oakdale Cemetery, Urbana, where now 
stands an elegant monument, erected at the expense of the State. For full par- 

Gbave of Simon Kenton— Drawn by Henry Howe in 

ticulars, with a sketch of Kenton, see Vol. I., page 377, do. For the particulars 
of my making the above sketch, now forty-four years gone, and our first entrance 
into Bellefontaine, and its appearance then, see page 236. 

Bellefontaixe, county-seat of Logan, seventy-seven miles northwest of Co- 
lumbus, 112 miles north of Cincinnati, at the crossing of the C. C. C. & I. and 
I. B. & W. Railroads, is situated in a fine agricultural district, the principal pro- 
ducts being live-stock, wool and grain. Bellefontaine is near Hogue's Hill, the 
highest known point in the State; the elevation is 1,540 feet above tide-water. 
County Officers, 1888 : Auditor, Christie Williams ; Clerk, Sol. A. McCulloch; 
Commissioners, James M. Putnam, Edward Higgins, Alonzo C. McClure; Coro- 
ner, John Q. A. Bennett ; Infirmavy Directors, Joseph M. Porter, Layman Dow, 
Abiel Horn ; Probate Judge, Thomas Miltenberger ; Prosecuting Attorney, ^\'^alter 
S. Plum; Recorder, Benjamin Underwood; Sheriif, Wallner W. Roach; Sur- 
veyor, James C. "Wonders ; Treasurer, John D. Inskeep. City Officers, 1888: 
J. A. Odor, ]\Iayor ; R. B. Johnson, Clerk ; W. W. Roach, Marshal ; J. M. Nelson, 
Treasurer; J. D. McLaughlin, Solicitor; Joseph Stover, Street Commissioner. 
Newspapers: Republican, Republican, J. Q. A. Campbell, editor and publisher; 
Examiner, Democratic, E. O. Hubbard, editor and publisher; Logan County 
Index, Republican, Roebuck & Brand, editors and publishers. Churches : one 
Methodist Episcopal, one African Methodist Episcojjal, one Catholic, one Re- 
formed Presbj-terian, one Baptist, one Colored Baptist, one Presbyterian, one 
United Presb}i:erian, one Reformed Presbyterian, one Christian, one Lutheran. 
Banks : Bellefontaine National, William Lawrence, president, James Leis- 
ter, cashier; People's National, Abner Riddle, president, Robert Lamb, 



Manufactures and Employees. — Miller Carriage Co. ; Mack, Dickinson & Co., 
chair stock, etc., 64 hands ; Chichester & Haviland, chairs, 37 ; Bellefontaine 
Carriage Body Co., carriage bodies, etc., 25 ; A. J. Miller & Co., carriage wood- 
work, 12; Colton Bros., flour, etc., 16; Miller & Kiplinger, carriages, etc.; 
Williamson & Lesourd, doors, sash, etc. ; Miller Carriage Co., carriage bodies, 33 ; 
David C. Green, lumber.— ^Stofe Eeporf, 1888. Population in 1880, 3,998. 
School census, 1888, 1,127; Henry Whitworth, school superintendent. Capital 
invested in industrial establishments, $178,200. Value of annual product, 
$723,500.— 0/uo Labor Stntistics, 1887. Census, 1890, 4,238. 

The town owns its own water- and gas-works, has about six miles of Berea flag- 
ging sidewalks, and its streets are nicely graded and shaded. The bar is one of the 
strongest in the State, embracing Judges Lawrence, West, Price and Gen. Kennedy. 


Bellefontaine has supplied three Lieuten- 
ant-Governors for Ohio. 

1st. Benjamin Stanton, born of Quaker 
parentage on Short creek, Belmont county, 
Ohio, March 4, 1809. Was bred _a tailor, 
which appears to have been a favorite trade 
for young Friends, probably from its human- 
itarian aspects — "clothing the naked." Stud- 
ied law and was admitted to the bar at Steu- 
benville in 1833; came to Bellefontaine in 
1834 ; then was successively prosecuting attor- 
ney, State Senator, member of the Ohio Con- 
stitutional Convention in 1851 ; served several 
terms as member of Congress and in 1861 
was elected Lieutenant-Governor of Ohio, 
and on the same ticket with Governor David 
Tod ; in 1866 removed to West Virginia, prac- 
tised law there and died a few years since. 

2d. Robert P. Kennedy was born in 
Bellefontaine, January 23, 1 840. Entered the 
Union army in 1861, came out Brevet Brig.- 
General in 1865 ; studied and practised the 
law ; was Collector of Internal Revenue 1878 
to 1883 ; elected to the 50th Congress, re- 
elected to the 51st Congress; was elected 
Lieutenant-Governor on the ticket with J. B. 

The Blind Man Eloquent. 

Foraker in 1 885 and resigned in 1 887. In the 
stormy session of 1886, as President of the 
Senate, his rulings in regard to the seating of 
the Hamilton county Democratic Senators, 
their election being contested, gave him 

3d. Wm. Vance Marquis was elected 
Lieutenant-Governor in 1889, on the ticket 
with Mr. Jas. E. Campbell. He is of Scotch- 
Irish Presbyterian ancestry ; was born in Mt. 
Vernon in 1828 ; came here when a boy of 
five years ; was bred to merchandising, his 
present vocation. 

A house is pointed out in Bellefontaine 
where was born, November 21, 1850, Charles 
Julius Chambers, author and journalist, 
now managing editor of the N. Y. Herald. 

Logan county is rich to excess in names of 
men known to the nation as possessed of rare 
intellect, wide attainments and great force of 
character. High on this list stands unques- 
tioned that of William H. West. He comes 
from a class once known to our country that 
is now extinct. Wt refer to the hard-handed, 
knotty-headed sons of small farmers, who 
from early boyhood worked in the summer 



for a schooling in the winter, and then taught 
school half the year to sustain themselves 
while securing a profession. This class has 
a brilliant constellation in history to carry its 
glory into after generations. We have only 
to mention the names of Clay, Webster, Cor- 
win, Lincoln, Benton, Ewing and a host of 
others to make good our assertion, and to 
this roll of honor we add the name of William 
H. West. 

William was born at Millsborough, Wash- 
ington county. Pa. His father removed to 
Knox county, Ohio, in 1 830. He graduated 
at Jeifei-son College, Penn., in 1846, dividing 
the honors with Gen. A. B. Sharpe. He 
taught school in Kentucky until 1848, when 
he accepted a tutorship of Jefferson College, 
and a year later was chosen adjunct professor 
at Hampden-Sidney College, Va. In 1850 
he entered as student the law oflSce of Judge 
William Lawrence, Bellefontaine, Ohio, with 
whom he formed a partnership on his admis- 
sion to the bar. He was recognized from the 
start as an able attorney, and so worked his 
way to the head of his profession. 

There were two qualities that rendered 
Judge West eminent. One of these was his 
capacity to assimilate the law he studied to 
his remarkable intellectuarqualities, and the 
other a strange facility and felicity of utter- 
ance. When to these we add a delicate or- 
ganization, that seemed to vibrate to the touch 
of passion, we have the powerful advocate 
who in court convinced the judge and won 
jury, and was so great before a crowd that he 
won a national reputation under the name of 
"the Blind Man Eloquent." Small wonder 
that Judge West has been the marvel of the 
legal fraternity at the West. He has a wide 
reputation as authority on civil and corporate 
law, equalled by few and surpassed by none. 
While on the Supreme Bench of Ohio, he' 
was so unfortunate as to lose his sight — but 
with it came no loss of power. His well- 
trained mind and powerful memory enabled 
him to dispense with his eyes, and it has been 
for years one of the most interesting spec- 
tacles to the bar to hear Judge West conduct 
a case in court. Without assLstance from any 
one, he handles facts and law with the greatest 
accuracy and power. There is no pause, not 
the slightest hesitation, as he calls up and un- 
ravels facts and quot«s the law applicable to 
their case. 

Judge West entered politics at an early 
day, and soon assumed a leadership that was 
his by force of intellect and character. He 
made one of the few prominent men who 
formed the Republican party. It was in 1 854 
that he joined in an appeal to all parties after 
the repeal of the Missouri Compromise, that 
brought out a convention at Columbus, Ohio, 
when West was one of the most proininent 
speakers, and Joseph R. Swan was nominated 
as a candidate for Judge of the Supreme 
Court of Ohio, and through the aid of another 
newly formed political organization called the 
"Know Nothing" was elected by a majority 
of more than 75,000. 

In 1857 and in 1861 Judge West was a 

member of the State Legislature, serving in 
the House, and in 1863 ne was returned to 
the Senate. Afterward his party in the Logan 
Congressional district sent him as their dele- 
gate to the Chicago Convention, when he took 
fart in the nomination of Abraham Lincoln, 
n 1865 and 1867 he was chosen Attorney- 
General of Ohio, and in 1869 tendered the po- 
sition of Consul to Rio Janeiro, but declined. 
In 1871 he was elected Judge of the Supreme 
Court of Ohio, and was making his mark as 
an able jurist, when his failing sight forced 
him to resign. 

The marked event of his political life oc- 
curred in 1877, when he was nominated by 
his party, in State convention assembled, its 
candidate for Governor. The great railroad 
strikes, that arrested the wheels of nearly all 
the locomotives of 150,000 miles of ojierating 
railroads, was on hand, and the newly named 
candidate for Governor had to meet the issue 
involved in the strife. It was one Judge 
West had studied and mastered. He knew 
what Capital and Labor meant, and he felt 
keenly all that it signified. He saw then 
what has developed since, that it was fated to 
be the great issue of civilization, and had to 
be faced and solved before the wheels of 
progress could continue to revolve. To the 
amazement and horror of his political asso- 
ciates, in his first utterance after nomination, 
he took the side of toil against the corpora- 
tions. Of course he was defeated. He lost 
the proud privilege of appointing notaries pub- 
lic and pardoning criminals, but he carried 
back to private life the honor that comes of a 
courageous defence of principle. 

Judge West twice married, is the father of 
an interesting family, and for the sake of his 
two sons, who inherit much of the father' abil- 
ity, he continues, at Bellefontaine, the practice 
of his profession, although in feeble health. 
There, loved by his friends and family and 
universally respected and admired, "the blind 
man eloquent" passes to his honored age. 

Edward Henry Knight was born in Lon 
don, England, June 1, 1824, and died in Belle- 
fontaine. .January 22, 1883, where he had had 
legal residence the last twenty-five years of his 
life, although absent a large part of the time in 
Washington, Paris, and England. He was ed- 
ucated in England, where he learned the art of 
steel-engravingandtook acourseinsurgerj'. In 
1846 settled in'Cincinnati as a patent attorney. 

In 1864hewasemploj'edin the Patent Office 
at Washington, where he originated the pres- 
ent system of classification. In 1 873 he issued 
his most important work, the "American Me- 
chanical Dictionary."^ He was a member of 
the International Juries at the World's Fairs 
in Philadelphia, in 1876, and Paris, in 1878 ; 
was U. S. Commissioner at the latter, receiv- 
ing the appointment of Chevalier of the Le- 
gion of Honor from the French government, 
in recognition of his services. He was a mem- 
ber of many scientific societies, both American 
and European. In 1876 he received the degree 
of LL. D. from Iowa Wesleyan University. 

He compiled what is known as Bryant's 
"Library of Poetry and Song;" was the 



author of a number of valuable scientific and 
other works, and one of the most useful men 
in research and literature that America has 

His knowledge of books, men and things 
is said to have been marvellous. After death 
his brain was found to weigh sixty-four 
ounces, being the heaviest on record, except- 
ing that of Cuvier. The average weight of 
the brain of Europeans is 49 J ounces (av.) 
Among the large brains on record are those 
of Agassiz, 53.4; Lord Campbell, 53.5; 
Daniel Webster, 53.5 ; Abercrombie, 63 ; 
Knight, 64 ; Cuvier, 64.5. 

Judge William Lawrence was born in 
Jefferson county, Ohio, in 1819 ; graduated 
at Franklin College, Ohio, in 1838 ; was 
«ducated for the law; from 1856-1861 was 
Judge of Common Pleas ; Colonel of the 
84th Ohio in the war ; served in Congress, 
1865, to December, 1871 ; from 1880 to 1885 
was 1st Comptroller of the U. S. Treasury, 
and the only one whose decisions were regu- 
larly published. He has published quite a 
number of law books: one, "The Law of 
Religious Societies and Church Corpora- 
tions. ' ' 

While acting as judge his circuit included 
Marion county. The author of the County 
History thus writes of him : "He was always 
pleasant and affable. At the opening of a 
court in May, 1861, when the people were 
excited about the war, he ordered the sheriff to 
raise the national flag over the cupola of the 
Court-house in Marion, which order the 
sheriff refused to obey. The latter was, 
therefore, brought into court and fined for 
contempt. He then hoisted the flag accord- 
ing to the original order. In 1862 the Judge 
went to the front with a regiment, of_ which 
he was Colonel. While in the service his 
salary as Judge continued, which he drew 
and distributed to the school districts through- 
out his circuit, for the benefit of the families 
of the soldiers. ' ' 

The author speaks of the Judge as though 
he had passed away, but he remains very 
much of a live gentleman. When we last 
saw him, in June, 1889, he seemed the 
embodiment of manly vigor and cheerfulness, 
full in figure, full-chested, remarkably neat in 
apparel, and wearing a button-hole bouquet 
on the lapel of his coat — in all respects, morally 
and physically, a fragrant presence ; and what 
we believe has helped to make him such has 
been his life-practice of the principle illus- 
trated in the name he gave to a daughter — 
Mary Temperance Lawrence. 

His law arguments would make several 
volumes. An able writer, familiar with these 
and referring to a voluminous opinion he gave 
as to property rights growing out of the 
schism in the Church of the United Brethren 
in Christ, in 1889, said : 

"Judge Lawrence is one of the most 
eminent of living American lawyers. His 
opinion must be regarded as entirely impar- 
tial, and it is maintained with marked ability 
and forcible argument from beginning to 

"Judge Lawrence's reports and speeches 
while in the Ohio Legislature and in Congress 
would make volumes, many of them on Con- 
stitutional Law and on all the great questions 
in Congress during the period of twelve years 
following the rebeUion. His report in Con- 
gress, February, 1869, on the New York 
election frauds, led to important legislation 
there and in Congress to preserve the purity 
of elections. He first urged in Congress the 
law establishing the ' Department of Justice, ' 
and is author of most of its provisions con- 
verting the ' ofiice ' of Attorney-General into 
a 'Department.' He is the author of the 
law giving to each soldier as a homestead 160 
acres of the ' alternate reserved sections ' in 
the railroad land grants, under which so many 
homes have been secured to these deserving 

" He was the first in Congress to urge, in 


the interest of securing the public lands to 
actual settlers, that Indian treaty sales of 
these lands should be prohibited, as they were 
by act of March 3, 1871; thus breaking up 
one of the most gigantic agencies for squan- 
dering the public lands and creating monopo- 
lies. On the 7th of July, 1876, he carried 
through the House a bill, called the ' Law- 
rence Bill,' requiring the Pacific railroad com- 
panies to indemnify the government against 
liability and loss oq account of the govern- 
ment loan of credit to the companies, as esti- 
mated, of $1.50,000,000. The railroad com- 
panies resisted this, emploving Hon. Lyman 
'Trumbull, of Illinois, and Hon. Wm. M. 
Evarts, of New York, and others, whose 
elaborate arguments before the Judiciary 
Committee were met by a voluminous report 
and speech by Judge Lawrence, answering 
every opposing argument." — Biog. Cyc. Ohio. 


of the American Revolutio 

The Piatts of Logan. 

[Originallj- published in the Urbaua Daily Citizen.'] 

The Piatt Family is of French origin and Huguenot blood. Of couree two 
centuries of births on this continent and a liberal admixture of Dutch and Irish 
blood have modified the original conditions that forced the French Puritans 
from their homes to a life in the wilderness. It is a fact, however, that where 
any trace of the Huguenot is found, it is marked by the old quality that turned a 
class into a race of strong, solid, persistent men. In the persecutions that fol- 
lowed the revocation of the edict of Nantes, the family fled from the Province 
of Dauphiue to Holland, where John Piatt married a Van Vliet, and from 
thence John and his wife emigrated to Cuba, and from there to New York, find- 
ing a home at last in New Jersey. 

From this ancestry came CoL. Jacob 
Piatt, grandfather of A. Sanders and Donn 
Piatt. He was born May 17, 1747. When 
the war of the Revolution came on he was 
elected captain of a military company, com- 
posed of ninety young farmers. Not long 
afterwards he was commissioned captain in 
the regular service, and from that on served 
through the entire war, taking part in all the 
great Dattles, and was promoted to the rank 
of colonel to serve on the staff of General 
Washington. He was wont to tell how, at 
the battle of Brandywine, his command was 
on the extreme left as it lay entrenched on 
the banks of the Brandywine creek. 

Before the battle, as they stood in line, 
looking at the English, Washington rode 
down, and stopping near Captain Jacob 
Piatt, observed : '' Do you see those gentle- 
men over there ? ' ' pointing at the red coats. 
"We do," wasanswered. He then continued, 
" If they come nearer give them a knock and 
send them back again. This will be a glorious 
day for America." At the battle of Mon- 
mouth, Major Piatt was under Lee, who had 
been ordered to advance, while Washington 
brought the reserve. History tells us that 
Lee disobeyed orders and was in full retreat 
when Washington met him. The meetii^ 

happened in the presence of Major Piatt, 
who, seated on a pile of rails, was binding up 
a wound in his leg. The two generals swore 
at each other in the most furious manner. 
The old Calvinistic Huguenot approved of his 
general's profanity on the ground that it was 

Colonel Jacob Piatt was in the first 
expedition against Quebec, and in the im- 
portant battles of Germantown, Brandywine, 
Short Hills, and Monmouth. At the last 
mentioned engagement he was wounded, as 
we have said, and, although seriously, clung 
to the service, never even for a day off duty. 
He enjoyed the confidence of his great com- 
mander. After the war he married and 
settled on the Ohio, in Boone county, Ken- 
tucky. He was an extremely austere man, 
as pious as he was patriotic, giving all of his 
pension to the support of a clergyman of his 
own faith. He lies buried on the farm, 
under a quaint old tombstone, that had 
engraved upon it the simple yet poetic 
inscription : 

Jacob Piatt. 

Born May 17, 1747 ; died August 14, 1834. 

A Soldier of the Revolution 


A Soldier of the Cross. 


Benjamin M. Piatt, eldest son of Colonel 
Jacob Piatt, and long and lovingly known to 
tte people of Logan county, was born in 
New Jersey, December 26, 1779; died at 
Mac-o-chee, April 28, 1863. 

Judge Benjamin M. Piatt is well remem- 
bered by his surviving friends and neighbors 
of Logan county, as a man of marked 
attributes and of reticent but amiable tem- 
perament. Something of a student be pos- 
sessed a thoughtful turn of mind that made 
him more of a philosopher than a man of 
active life. He had his share of adventure, 
however, as he began his business career 
boating produce from Kentucky to New 
Orleans before the day of steam -boating, 
when the flat boat_ and broad horn were 
floated down in continuous peril from floods 
and foes, to be broken up and sold at New 
Orleans, when these primitive merchants 
returned on horseback with their compensa- 
tion in gold about their persons. In that 
unsettled condition of a _ sparsely settled 
country, one carried his coin and life in per- 
petual danger. Many were the adventures 
of the two brothers, Benjamin M. and John 
H. Piatt, that chilled the blood of listeners in 
after life. At the earnest solicitation of his 
wife, Benjamin M. Piatt abandoned this 
hazardous but lucrative life of river merchant, 
and, studying law, was admitted to the bar. 
Not long after he was appointed district 
attorney for the southern district of Illinois. 
This was an arduous position and as it 
required his continuous presence in that State 
he decided to move his family also. He 
selected as a residence Kaskaskia, a settle- 
ment on the Mississippi, at the mouth of the 
Kaskaskia river. 

While practising his profession at Kaskaskia aa 
event occurred strikingly illustrative of his 
character. He was defending a man charged 
with manslaughter in the court at Kaskaskia, 
when his client in an unguarded moment seized 
the sheriff's rifle and fled. The sheriff made an 
appeal for a posse. Mr. Piatt, indignant at his 
client, said he would bring the man back if au- 
thorized by the court. This being given he 
hurried home, procured his rifle and horse, and 
went in pursuit. He overtook the criminal at the 
Mississippi river. The man had secured a boat 
and was some distance from shore. Mr. Piatt dis- 
mounted and ordered the fugitive back. He was 
only jeered at. Mr. Piatt brought hia rifle to bear 
at the instant the fugitive did his. But it was 
well known throughout the country that Benjamin 
M. Piatt was a most remarkable shot with the 
rifle, as he continued, until his failing sight 
robbed him in his old age of this accomplish- 
ment. The desperado knew this and looking 
along the deadly level of his lawyer's rifle 
dropped his own and returned to shore. 

At this moment the sheriff arrived and the 
lawyer delivered his prisoner to the ofiicer. To 
disarm and fasten the late fugitive to a horse was 
the work of a few moments. The man's legs were 
tied under the horse's belly, his arms strapped to 
his sides and his hands left enough at liberty to 
handle the reins. He was ordered to ride forward 
and sheriff and lawyer followed. They had 
scarcely got under way when the sheriff motioned 
his companion to ride more slowly. When far 
enough back not to be overheard the sheriff said 
in a low tone : 

Now, Benny, let's fix him for slow travelling 

bullets through his trotters." " You cowardly 
brute," cried Mr. Piatt, his eyes blazing fire, " do 
you think I would consent to mutilate a helpless 
man ? " "I wont be answerable for his return 
then." " Nobody asks you. I was authorized to 
arrest him. You get away from here. I will do 
it my own way." The indignant sheriff did 
ride away, and Mr. Piatt calling to the prisoner 
to halt, rode up and cutting his bonds said: "Now 
we'll ride into town like gentlemen," and they 

The life in Kaskaskia was one of trial and 
hardship. Mr. and Mrs. Piatt found themselves 
among strangers, who spoke a different language, 
poor and struggling for the necessaries of life. 
There was little to encourage Mr. Piatt in the 
practice of his profession, yet he would willingly 
have persevered, had not his family been sub- 
jected to such great privations. His wife's devo- 
tion and untiring exertions overtaxed her strength, 
and she lost an infant, soon after his birth. 
Following immediately upon this Mr. Piatt was 
stricken with a serious illness brought on by 
exposure in the performance of his duties. There 
was also a constant dread of earthquakes, several 
convulsions having occurred. The proximity of 
the Indians was also a source of great uneasiness 
to Mrs. Piatt. 

After the war of 1812 the encroachments of the 
Indians became more alarming, and Mr. Piatt 
determined to return to Cincinnati. At Cincin- 
nati he formed a partnership with the celebrated 
Nicholas Longworth, and between the practice of 
law and judicious investments in real estate he 
accumulated quite a fortune for that day. In 
course of time he was appointed to fill a vacancy 
on the common pleas bench. After, in 1816, he 
was elected a member of the State legislature, and 
as the records show, wns the first to introduce a 
bill establishing the common school system. He 
proposed, however, that the State should meet 
half the cost of a pupil's schooling, and this should 
not go beyond reading, writing and arithmetic. 
The motion made subsequently to give every 
child a collegiate course he considered not only 
impossible but likely to break down the system 
" You make a system," he said, " where one boy 
gets a full meal and fifty boys go hungry." 

In the prime of life aud amid a most prosperous 
business career, Judge Piatt bought his farm of 
seventeen hundred acres, and building a double 
log-cabin for himself and family, devoted the rest 
of his life to agricultural pursuits, made pleasant 
by books and studies for which he had a mind 
and temperament to enjoy. 

There is a singular strain of contradiction 
in the Piatt blood. Their ancestors left 
France because they would not be Catholics, 
and yet, "left to" themselves, have nearly 
all returned to the Catholic faith. While 
Colonel Jacob Piatt of the revolution and his 
son Benjamin M. were extreme Federalists, 
believing in Hamilton and a strong central 
government, their children to-day are ultra 

When the late civil war broke upon us 
Judge Piatt was aroused to great indignation 
at what he called the infamous crime of the 
Southern leaders, and engaged actively in 
sustaining the government. He not only 
gave freely from his means to organize 
volunteers but sent his sons and grandsons 
to the field. When in the midst of the wai 
he was stricken down with a grave sickness, 


and the suggestion made that his children be 
sent for, he said : " No, they cannot prolong 
my life, but they cau and are serving their 
country ; let them alone. " 

And so the grand old patriot .passed to his 
final rest, when the war whose drum-beats 
his very heart echoed in its last throbs was 
drawing to a triumphant end. " I do thank 
God," he said, " that my dying eyes will not 
close on a dissevered Union. So long as 1 
have children to remember me, let them 
remember this, my last will and testament to 

Benjamin M. Piatt's quiet, philosophical 
life was in striking contrast to that of his 
younger brother, John H., and recalls the 
lines of the German poet as translated by 
Longfellow : 

"The one on earth in silence wrought. 
And his grave in silence sought ; 
But the younger, brighter form 
Passed in battle and in storm." 


General A. Sanders Platt's stately 
home stands sentinel where the Mac-o-chee 
meets the Mad river valley, and the noisy 
little stream glides like an eel, through the 
narrow opening of the wooded hills. General 
Piatt was a born soldier — tall, erect and 
well proportioned, and_ with great force of 
character. His career in the army was brief 
but brilliant. He was among the first to 
volunteer in response to President Lincoln's 
call for seventy -five tbousand men, and he 
left the field only after being disabled by an 
attack of typhoid fever, from which he has 
never entirely recovered. For a brief mention 
of his services we quote from "Ohio in the 
War ; " and can but add that in his patriotic 
efi'ort to raise a brigade at his own expense, 
he brought on financial embarrassments from 
which he yet sufiers, so that both in body 
and fortune he carries scars that are decora- 
tions to one who is without fear and without 
reproach. Whitelaw Reid says : 

" He solicited and received ;iutliority from Mr. 
Lincoln to enlist a brigade tor the war. Relying 
upon his own means he selected a camp, and or- 
ganized the first Zouave regiment (so called, 
though for no reason save that they wore a fancy 
red-leggeil uniform which they were soon forced 
to discard) in Ohio. 

" He subsisted his regiment for one month and 
six days, and was then commissioned as colonel 
and ordered to Camp Dennison. The regiment 
was designated the 34th. He continued recruit- 
ing, with permission from the State authorities, 
and a second regiment was subsequently organ- 
ized and designated the 5-4th. This second regi- 
ment was being rapidly filled up when Colonel 
Piattwas ordered to report with the 34th to General 
Rosecrans, then commanding in West Virginia. 

" On his way to join Rosecrans he met an 
organized band of rebels in a strongly fortified 
position near Chapmansville, West Virginia. 

"After making a reconnoissance he attacked 
and drove the enemy in utter rout from his 
position, and wounded and cairtured the com- 
mander of the force, Colonel J. W. Davis. 

" Colonel Piatt next attacked and defeated a 
rebel force at Hurricane, which was co-operating 

ith General Floyd, theu at Cotton 

In IMarch, 1862, he was obliged to return 
to Ohio on account of a serious attack of 
typhoid fever. Before his recovery he was 
commissioned brigadier-general. 

In July he was assigned from General 
Sigel's command to a brigade in General 
McClellan's army, and a month later took 
a very gallant part in the battle of Manassas 
Junction. Reid saj's : 

"Here he halted his brigade while the one in 
front marched on toward Washington. General 
Piatt remarked to General Sturgis that he had 
gone far enough in that direction in search of 
General Porter, and that with his permission he 
would march to the battle-field. He then ordered 
his men into the road, iua guided by the sound 
of artillery he arrived at the battle-ground of 
Bull Run at 2 o'clock P. M. The brigade went 
into action on the left, and acquitted itself with 
great courage. General Pope, in his ofiicial re- 
port, complimented General Piatt very highly 
for 'the soldierly feeling which prompted him, 
after being misled and with the bad example of 
the other brigade before his eyes, to push forward 
with such zeal and alacrity to the field of battle.' 

" In the battle of Fredericksburg General Piatt 
occupied the right, and had the satisfaction of 
being assured by his superior ofiicer that his 
brigade performed well the duty assigned to it." 

Since his return from the army General 
Piatt has lived the retired life of a farmer, 
enlivened by books and literary pursuits. He 
is a clever wielder of the pen, and not only 
an essayist but a poet. His contributions to 
the magazines, notably the North American 
Revieiv, mark him as a clear thinker, of a vig- 
orous, incisive stj'le. He has taken part in 
politics always as a Democrat when not a 
Greenbacker ; as of the last he was once 
nominated by that party as their candidate 
for Governor, and would have received a 
heavy vote but for the fact that the two 
candidates in the field at the time, being 
Hon. Chas. Foster and Hon. Thomas Ewing, 
were something of Greenbackers themselves. 

General Piatt has the temperament and 


all the qualities that go to make a successful 
leader of men. In illustration of this we 
have an event told by a correspondent of the 
New York World. 

It was after the gathering upon the fields 
of Chickaniauga of Union and Confederate 
officers to designate the lines of battle and 
prepare the ground for a great National Park. 
General Piatt made one of the number on a 
belated train of the Queen and Crespent 
when a frightful collision occurred. The 
correspondent says : 

" We were thrown out of our seats by the con- 
cussion that had a deafening crash and then a 
no less deafening escape of steam. Although 
much shaken up the passengers were unhurt, and 
we hastily tumbled out. The scene that met our 
eyes was terrible. The two huge locomotives 
were jammed into each other, a great mass of 
wrenched and broken iron. The freight train 
loaded with ties was scattered in piles each side 
of the track. The baggage car was telescoped in 
the postal car, and the two made a stack of 
broken boards and timber piled on each other. 
As we swarmed about the ruins I saw the tall, 
soldierly form of General Sanders Piatt climbing 
upon the wreck. He suddenly began gesticulating, 
but what he said we could not hear. Suddenly 
the escaping steam ceased, and then the startling 

cry came to us from General Piatt : ' There are live 
men under this wreck ; come on ! ' Sure enough, 
we could hear the feeble moans of one and the 
agonizing screams of another. 

" It was singular to see how one man could take 
control in the. emergency as General Piatt. He 
not only worked himself, but directed the others, 
officers of the railroad, veterans of the army and 
passengers. It was not only a heroic eflbrt of a 
strong man, but an intelligent one. I noticed two 
men armed with axes cutting at a part of the 
under car that remained intact. General Piatt 
saw them. ' For God's sake don't do that,' he cried, 
' you will bring down tons on us.' In an hour, 
that seemed five to us, the hurt men were got at. 
It was pitiful to see their mangled forms lifted 
tenderly out by the laborers, then as black as 
negroes from the soot that had settled on every- 
thing. The gallant old veteran who directed the 
work was so exhausted when the work was done 
that we had to carry him back to the passenger car 
that yet remained upon the track. General Piatt 
had won his laurels on hard-fought battles of the 
war, but no brighter crown could be awarded him 
than his labors on this occasion." 

A. Sanders Piatt was born in Cincinnati, 
May 2, 1821. But for a brief period of his 
life in Boone county, Ky., he has been a 
resident of Logan, where he yet will have, 
we trust, many years of happy life. 



John James and Sarah M. B. Piatt.— 
It is difficult to think of these two poets 
separate and apart from each other. Yet 
while both are poets and possess a like 
delicacy of touch and deftness of expression, 
they are really wide apart in their several 
spheres of thought and feeling. John James 
is of the sunny woods and nelds made dear 
and familiar by sweet human gossip. With 
a verse all his own he tells of the "Pioneer 
Chimney" with a touching pathos that 
comes of clear knowledge of the inner 
thoughts, feelings and motives of humble, 
honest life. The love of home, the loftier 
love of country called patriotism, are his, 
while the wife is the poet of motherhood. 

Her power is circled by the home made 
merry by the musical laugh of children, and 
so quaint in their infiint imaginings and odd 
fancies that are full of infiint wisdom and 
delicate humor. Then again the mother in- 
tervenes, and there is a page one reads 
through tears. Her power is only second to 
that of Mrs. Browning ; if, indeed, in her 
peculiar walk, she is not the better of the 

John J. Piatt, now fifty years of age, began 
his literary life with Wm. D. Howells, the 
two when quite young publishing a volume of 
verse. They have drifted apart, though remain- 
ing warm friends, and eacli in his way winning 
the laurel crown of fame if not of fortune. 


Nearly all the literary people of the United 
States petitioned President Arthur to give 
John James a consulate. The prayer was 
granted, and since then, as United States 
consul at Cork, he has resided with his 
beautiful family at a picturesque old home 
covered with ivy near Queenstown. John is 
a Republican, as his poetry proves, and when 
President Cleveland was inaugurated there 
was a fearful rush made for this post at Cork. 
The President sent for John's record at the 
State Department together with the recom- 
mendations that gave Mr. Piatt the position. 
"Why," said the President, "we don't want 
a poet consul anywhere. " " No, ' ' responded 
Secretary Bayard, "we do not, but we do 
want an honest, capable man, and if you will 
look at Mr. Piatt's record you will find that 
he is all that. Then, again, here are Joseph 
McDonald, John G. Carlisle, Frank Hurd, 
Dan Voorhees and fifty more Democrats 
asking his promotion. I think at least we 
had better let him remain." And remain 
he did and does. We give as a specimen 
a poem of John J. Piatt's : 

The Bronze Statue of Washington. 

(April, 1S61.) 

Uplifted when the April sun was dowu, 
Gold-lighted by the tremulous, fluttering beam, 
Toucliing his glimmering steed with spurs in 

The great Virginia Colonel into town 
Eode, with the scabbard emptied on his thigh, 
The Leader's hat upon his head, and lo ! 
The old still manhood on his face aglow, 
And the old generalship quick in his eye ! 
" O father I " said I, speaking in my heart, 
" Though but thy bronzed form is ours alone, 
And marble lips here in tliy chosen place, 
Rides not thy spirit in to keep thine own, 
Or weeps thy land, an orphan in the mart? " 
. . . The twilight dying lit the deathless face. 

Sarah M. B. Piatt, whose delicately beau- 
tiful head we reproduce, was Bliss Sarah M. 
Bryant, of Kentucky. She contributed po- 
etry to the Louisville Journal, when the 
witty Prentice was editor, and John James 
assistant editor. Both were struck by the 
girl's originality and beauty of expression. 
The admiration so won on the younger jour- 
nalist that he made a pilgrimage to the inte- 
rior of Kentucky to see the gifted one. 
Admiration melted into love, and won the 
inspired maiden. We give as a specimen, 
taken at random, one of Mrs. Piatt's poems : 

"When Sajv We Thee?' 
by sakah m. b. piatt. 

Then shall He answer how He lifted up, 
In the cathedral there, at Lille, to me 

The same still mouth that drank the Passion-cup, 
And how I turned away and did not see. 

In a mad Paris street, one glittering night. 
Three times drawn backward by his beauty'i 
I gave him — not a farthing for the sight. 

How in that shadowy temple at Cologne, 
Through all the mighty music, I did wring 

The agony of his last mortal moan 
From that blind soul I gave not anything. 

And how at Bruges, at a beggar's breast, 
There by the windmill where the leaves whirled 

I saw Him nursing, passed Him with the rest, 
Followed by Hi.9 starved mother's stare of woe. 

But, my Lord Christ, Thou knowest I had not 
And had to keep that which I had for grace 
To look, forsooth, where some dead painter's 
Had left Thy thorn-wound or Thy mother's face. 

Therefore, O my Lord Christ, I pray of Thee, 
That of Thy great compassion Thou wilt save. 

Laid up from moth and rust, somewhere, for me. 
High in the heavens — the coins I never gave. 

Col. DoNN Piatt was born in Cincinnati. 
Ohio, June 29, 1819. He was educateii 
partly in Urbana and at the Athenseum (now 
St. Xavier College, Cincinnati), but left 
that school before completing his course. Ho 
studied law under his father, and was, for a 
time, a pupil of Tom Corwin. In 1851 he 
was appointed Judge of the Court of Com- 
mon Pleas of Hamilton county. He was 
made Secretary of the Legation at Paris, 
under Hon. John Y. Mason, of Virginia, 
during Pierce's and Buchanan's administra- 
tions. When the minister died in October, 
1859, Colonel Piatt served as charge d af- 
faires for nearly a year. 

On his return home he engaged actively in 
the presidential canvass, in oehalf of Abra- 
ham Lincoln. In company with General 
Robert C. Schenck he stumped Southern 
Illinois, and his services were publicly ac- 
knowledged by the President-elect. 

During the civil war he served on the stafiF 
of General Robert C. Schenck, who was in 
command of the Bliddle Department, with 
headquarters at Baltimore. While General 
Schenck was temporarily absent from his 
post, and Colonel Piatt, as chief of statf, in 
command, he issued an order, contrary to the 
policy of the administration at that time, to 
General William G. Birney, who was then in 
Maryland, to recruit a brigade of negro sol- 
diers — to enlist none but slaves. 

The eflPect of this order was to at once eman- 
cipate every slave in Maryland, and it was 
thought to greatly embarrass Mr. Lincoln 
and the cabinet. Colonel Piatt had taken 
the step against General Schenck's wishes, 
at the advice of Henry Winter Davis, Judge 
Bond and other distinguished Union men 
from Maryland ; and against the wishes of 
Reverdy Johnson, Montgomery Blair and 
other earnest Union men and slaveholders. 
He was summoned to Washington and threat- 
ened by Mr. Lincoln, in a stormy interview, 
with shameful dismissal from the army. 
This he was spared by the intercession of 




Secretary Stanton, and permitted to retain 
his ranic in the army, though, on account of 
. this rash act, he was always thereafter denied 
further promotion. But it was a consolation 
for him to know that his one act had made 
Maryland a free State. Word went out and 
spread like wild-fire that "Mr. Linkum was 
acallin' on de slaves tofightfo' fredum," and 
flie hoe-handle was dropped, never again to 
\e, taken up by unrequited toil. The poor 
creatures poured into Baltimore with their 
families, on foot, on horseback, in old wag- 
ons, and even on sleds stolen from their 
masters. The late masters became clamorous 
for compensation, and Mr. Lincoln ordered a 
commission to assess damages. Secretary 
Stanton put in a proviso that those cases 
only should be considered wherein the claim- 
ant could take the iron-clad oath of allegiance. 
So, of course, no slaves were paid for. 

Having been sent to observe the situation 
at Winchester, Va., previous to Lee's inva- 
sion of Pennsylvania, Colonel Piatt, on his 
own motion, ordered General Robert H. 
Milroy to evacuate that indefensible town 
and fall back on Harper's Ferry. The order 
was countermanded by General Halleck. 
Three days afterwards, Milroy, surrounded 
by the Confederate advance, was forced to 
cut his way out, with a loss of 2,000 prison- 
ers. Had Colonel Piatt's order been carried 
out, the command would have been saved, 
and two regiments of brave men (who under 
Schenck and Milroy were the only force that 
ever whipped Stonewall Jackson) not need- 
lessly sacrificed. He was Judge-Advocate 
of the commission which investigated the 
charges against General Buell, and favored 
his acquittal. 

After the war he became the Washington 
correspondent of the Cincinnati Commercial, 
distinguishing himself as a writer of great 

Col. JPiatt subsequently founded and edited 
the Washington Capital for two years, mak- 

ing it so odious to government officials that 
at their instance during the presidential con- 
troversy of 1876 he was indicted — but, as he 
naively says, " though trying very hard, 
never got into jail. ' ' On the contrary he sold 
the Capital at a very handsome figure and 
returned to the peace and quiet of Mac-o-chee, 
where he has since been engaged in literary 
work and farming. "In all his writings he 
is apt to take a peculiar and generally un- 
popular view of his subject," says an eminent 
critic, and the observation is just. 

His entertaining volume, ' ' Memories of 
the Men who Saved the Union," whom he 
designates as Lincoln, Stanton, Chase, Sew- 
ard and General George H. Thomas, is 
sharply critical, and severe on General Grant. 
But its strong passages and just appreciation 
of the great deeds of the other great men 
atone for this fault. Its sale has been large 
and is steadily increasing. The Westminster 
Review describes it as ' ' The record of great 
geniuses, told by a genius." 

Col. Piatt has published a delightful little 
book of love stories, true to life and of pa- 
thetic interest, mostly war incidents, called 
"The Lone Grave of the Shenandoah and 
Other Tales." In 1888 he edited Bel/ord's 
Magazine as a free trade journal, and made 
the tariff issue strangely interesting and pict- 
uresque. He contributes regularly to the 
leading English reviews, and is at present en- 
gaged withGeneral Chavles M. Cist, of Cin- 
cinnati, in preparing a life of General George 
H. Thomas. 

In 1865 he was elected as a Republican as 
Representative from Logan county to the 
Ohio Legislature. "I made a iSght for 
negro suffrage," says he, "and won, by a 
decreased majority. Then, after spending a 
couple of winters at Columbus, I quit, by 
unanimous consent." He had opposed local 
legislation, taken an active part in pusliin" 
the negro-suffrage amendnunt through, ana 
was accused of doing more legislating for 


Cincinnati, his old home, than all the Hamil- 
ton couutj delegation together. His ability 
as a speaker and u^et'ulnes^ in the committee- 
room were widely recognized and juai^ed. 

(fVani Henry Howe, Photo., 1890.) 

Maco-chee, Col. Piatt's Residence. 

Who can describe the beauty and charm of 
Mac-o-chee Valley? As seen from his great 
stone mansion it presents one of the fairest 
prospects that ever delighted the vision of 
man. There is no description truer than 
Tom Corwin's: "A man can better live and 
die here than in any place I have ever seen." 
Above is an excellent picture of the ivj-- 
crowned west and south fronts, and entrance 
into one of the best libraries in Ohio. The 
beautiful residence harmonizes with the grand 
scenery about it — like the castles along the 
historic Rhine, one of which it closely re- 
.scmbles aud is modelled after. 


Near the old mill on the direct road from 
Col. Piatt's to Urbana is the family burying- 
ground, just back of the old log Catholic 
church, which is now almost destroyed. Here 
the Piatts for four generations have wor- 
shipped and near by many are buried. 

In 'the hillside just below the old church 
Col. Piatt has had erected a substantial stone 
vault. It is the tomb of the wife of his 
early manhood, a gifted and charming lady. 


A more appropriate epitaph, or one so 
touching, could hardly be written than that 
chiselled in marble on the reverse side of the 
medallion, shown in the picture. It was 
written by Col. Piatt and reads as follows : 

To thy dear memory, darling, and my own, 
I build in grief this monumental stone ; 
All that itlells of life in death is thine, 
All that it tells of death in life is mine ; 
For that which made thy pure spirit blest, 
In anguish deep has brought my sovd unrest 
You dying, live to find a life divine, 
I living, die till death shall make me thine. 

Mrs. Louise Kirby Piatt, wife of Col. 
Bonn Piatt, was born in Cincinnati, Novembei 
25, 1826 ; died at Mac-o-chee, Ohio, October 
2, ] 864. She was the daughter of Timothy 
Kirby, a prominent and wealthy banker, and 
agent of the United States Bank in Cin- 
cinnati, closed by President Jackson, and a 
devoted Whig in days when partisan bitter- 
ness ran at fever height ; but Col. Piatt was 
an equally zealous young Democrat, and, for 
this reason, principally, Mr. Kirby strongly 
opposed his daughter's marriage to him. 
The circumstances of his courtship and 
marriage by Col. Piatt were, indeed, highly 
romantic. The license was quietly procured 
from his relative, Mr. Jacob W. Piatt, then 
clerk of Hamilton county, and the marriage 
ceremony as quietly performed at the Catholic 
Cathedral by Rev. Fr. Edward Purcell, since 
Archbishop. Immediately after, the newly 
made bride left in her mother's carriage for 
her home, and the husband boarded the train . 
for Mac-o-chee. 

Six weeks after the marriage was discovered, 
and Mr. Kirby, a man of firm purpose, in 
his wrath, as he had threatened, turned the 
young people out to care for themselves. It 
was years before he softened and forgave 
them. The reconciliation came none too soon. 
The life of poverty and privation that fol- 
lowed the marriage proved too much fo' 
the sensitive, delicate organization of the 
daughter, who, when she did return to 
the shelter of her father's house, returned 
to die. 

Her brief life was beautiful in the charm 
of sense and sensibility, that were ever a part 


of, and about her, like a rose-tinted atmos- has written runs a vein of happy wit and 

phere, heavy with the perfiime of flowers. merriment highly enjoyable to this day. 

She was not only a brilliant conversationalist, The brief story of her life is told in a mon- 

but a fascinating one as well, forshe won the ument that adorns one of the sweetest scenes 

sympathy, as well as admiration, of her at Mac-o-chee. On one side can be read : 

listeners. There was in her manner a strange 

mixture of shyness with a frank way that To the memory of one 

was very winning. A fine linguist she lived Whose voice has charmed 

in the English classics with a love that made And presence graced 

her akin to their genius. Her contributions These solitudes, 

to literature were not great, but enough to 

prove the excellence she might have achieved On the reverse are engraved : 

had life been spared. She had to perfection 

a rare quality in woman, and that was a Louise kirby piatt. 

keen sense of humor. When not encroached 

upon it was exceedingly delicate and quaint. She rested on life's dizzy verge 

Soon after her marriage her husband was So like a being of a better world, 

appointed as Secretary of Legation at Paris, Men wondered not, when, as an evening cloud 

and she accompanied him abroad, and in his That grows more lovely as it steals near night, 

promotion to charge d'affaires attracted Her gentle spirit drifted down 

much attention at the court of Louis Napoleon The dread abyss of death, 
under the second Empire, where she soon 

became a favorite with the Empress Eugenie. On the reverse side of the shaft of the 

During her residence in Paris her con- monument, on which is a well-executed me- 

tributions to the Ladies Home Journal dallion of her fair face, is also the touching 

were greatly admired and widely read, and epitaph written by her husband and printed 

these were, in 1856, published under the on the preceding page. 

title of " Belle Smith Abroad." They com- We conclude here with the poem so widely 

prise one of the most interesting volumes of popular — a tribute from him to her while 

foreign travel of that period. Her descriptive giving the sunshine of h-!r living presence to 

powers were excellent, and through all she warm his heart and gladden his home : 


I heard the bob-white whistle in the dewy breath of morn ; 
The bloom was on the alder and the tassel on the corn. 
I stood with beating heart beside the babbling Mac-o-ehee, 
To see my love come down the glen to keep her tryst with me. 

i saw her pace, with quiet grace, the shaded path along, 

And pause to pluck a flower, or hear the thrush's song. 
Denied by ' ■> r- .i •. ■ i 

She came 

Denied by her proud father as a suitor to be seen, 

me to me with loving trust, my gracious little queen. 

Above my station, heaven knows, that gentle maiden shone. 
For she was belle and wide-beloved, and I a youth unknown. 
The rich and great about her thronged, and sought on beinied knee 
For love this gracious princess gave with all her heart to me. 

So like a startled fawn, before my longing eyes she stood. 

With all the freshness of a girl in flush of womanhood. 

I trembled as I put my arm about her form divine, 

And stammered as,- in awkward speech, I begged her to be mine. 

'Tis sweet to hear the pattering rain that lulls a dim-lit dream ; 
'Tis sweet to hear the song of birds, and sweet the rippjing stream : 
'Tis sweet amid the mountain pines to hear the south wind sigh — 
More sweet than these and all besides was th' loving, low reply. 

The little hana I held in mine held all 1 had in life. 

To mould its better destiny and soothe to sleep its strife. 

"Tis said that angels watch o'er men couiniissioned from above; 

My angel walked with me on earth and gave to me her love. 

Ah ! dearest wife, my heart is stiiTed, my eyes are dimmed with tears ; 
I think upon the loving faith of all these by-gone years ; 
For now we stand upon this spot, as in that dewy morn, 
With the bloom upon the alder and the tassel on the corn. 


The Lewistown Eeservoir for supplying the Miami canal is in the north- 
western part of the county; its area is 7,200 acres, or nearly 12 square miles; 
extreme length 5 miles and width 4 miles. 

West Liberty is 8 miles south of Bellefontaine, on the I. B. & W. R. R., 
and upon JNIad River, one of the best mill streams in Ohio, the valley of which 
is here two or three miles wide, and of unsurpassed fertility and great beauty. 
The Mac-o-chee L^re joins it. Newspaper : Banner, Republican ; Don C. Bailey, 
editor and publisher. Churches: Presbyterian, Methodist, Christian, Lutheran. 
Bank : West Libertv Banking Co., W. Z. Nickerson & Co. ; W. Z. Nickei-son, 
cashier. Population, 1880, 715. School census, 1888, 367. 

West Mansfield is 12 miles northeast of Bellefontaine. Population, 1880, 
333. School census, 1888, 160. 

Belle Centre is 12 miles north of Bellefontaine, on the I. B. & W. R. R. 
It has 4 churches, viz. : 1 Methodist, 1 Presbyterian, 1 Disciples, 1 Reformed 
Presbyterian. Newspapers: Neivs- Gazette, also Bulletin. Bank: Belle Centre, 
J. H. Clark, president; Wm. Ramsey, cashier. Population, 1880, 434. School 
census, 1888, 298. 

Zanesfield is 5 miles east of Bellefontaine. Population in 1880, 307, 
School census 1888, 128. 

Htxntsville is 6 miles north of Bellefontaine, on the I. B. & W. R. R. It 
has 3 churches. Population, 1880, 429. School census, 1888, 216. 

De Graff is 9 miles southwest of Bellefontaine, on the C. C. C. & I. R. R. 
Newspaper : Buckeye, Independent, D. S. Spellman, editor. Bank : Citizens', 
Loufbourrow & Williams; I. S. Williams, cashier. Population, 1880, 965. 
School census, 1888, 330. 

QuiNCY is 12 miles southwest of Bellefontaine, on the Great Miami river and 
the C. C. C. & I. R. R. Population, 1880, 442. School census, 1888, 127. 

RusHSYLVAjaA is 9 miles northeast of Bellefontaine, on the C. C. C. & I. R. 
R. Newspaper : Times, Independent ; Henry M. Daniels, editor and publisher. 
Bank : Citizens', W. McAdams, president ; O. R. Pegg, cashier. Population, 
1880, 445. School census, 1888, 184. 

West Middlebxirg is 10 miles southeast of Bellefontaine. Population, 1880, 



Lorain Cotjnty was formed December 26, 1822, from Huron, Cuyahoga 
and Medina. The surface is level, and the soil fertile and generally clayey. 
Parallel with the lake shore are three sand ridges, which vary from 40 to 150 
rods in width ; they are respectively about 3, 7 and 9 miles from the lake, and 
are fertile. Area about 500 square miles. In 1887 the acres cultivated were 
110,032; in pasture, 106,403; woodland, 37,191 ; lying waste, 2,817; produced 
in wheat, 324,480 bushels; rye, 1,346; buckwheat, 104; oats, 763,875; barley, 
6,405 ; corn, 423,270 ; broom-corn, 500 lbs. brush ; meadow hay, 47,843 tons ; 
clover hay, 2,434; flax, 34,100 lbs. fibre; potatoes, 115,446 bushels; butter, 
843,460 lbs. ; cheese, 3,233,589 (the greatest in the State) ; sorghum, 1,433 gal- 
lons ; maple sugar, 54,786 lbs. ; honey, 5,020 lbs. ; eggs, 422,855 dozen ; grapes, 
1,259,200 lbs.; wine, 334 gallons; sweet potatoes, 1,009 bushels; apples, 72,312; 
peaches, 14,308; pears, 833; wool, 121,809 lbs.; milch cows owned, 15,171, next 
to Ashtabula county, largest in the State. School census, 1888, 11,418 ; teachers, 
345. Miles of railroad track, 179. 

wNSHips AND Census. 



Townships and Census. 












La Grange, 



Black Eiver, 























































Population of Lorain in 1830, 5,696; 1840, 18,451; 1860, 29,744; 1880, 
35,526, of whom 22,448 were born in Ohio; 2,717 New York; 668 Pennsylva- 
nia; 225 Virginia; 115 Indiana; 99 Kentucky ; 2,819 German Empire; 1,759 
England and Wales; 767 Ireland; 458 British America; 172 Scotland; 76 
France, and 33 Sweden and Norway. Census, 1890, 40,295. 

There was found in this county, a few years since, a curious ancient relic, which 
is thus described in the Lorain Republican, of June 7, 1843 : 

" In connection with our friend, Mr. L. M. Parsons, we have procured two views 
or sketclies of the engravings upon a stone column or idol, found upon the farm 
of Mr. Alfred Lamb, in Brighton, in this county^, in 1838. The following is a 
side view of the pillar or column. 

" It was found about three-fourths of a mile from Mr. Lamb's house, covered 
with a thick coat of moss. Upon three different places are engraved the figures 
1533. The horns represented are now broken off, but their place is easily defined. 
A flat stone, eight inches in diameter and one and a half inches thick, was found 
beneath this column, on removing it from its erect jjosition, upon which the figures 
1533 were discovered also engraved. Another stone Nvas found about ten feet 
distant, of like quality. It was about six inches long and three in diameter (six 
sided), su])porlcd b}' three pillars about three inches long, of pyramidal form. No 
marks of tools were upon it. Upon tlie top part of the first mentioned pillars, 


above shown, was an engraving of a vessel under full sail, in form, as near as 
now can be ascertained, as herein. The engraving was most unfortunately nearly 
obliterated by the boys cracking hickory-nuts upon it. These are about all the 
facts connected with these curious relics which have come to our knowledge." 

Early History. 

Moravian Mission. — The first actual settle- 
ment in Lorain county was made by the Mora- 
vian missionaries who came from Detroit in 
1786, with the design of going to their old 
home on the Tuscarawas, the scene of the 
massacre of 1782. They had reached a point 
on the Cuyahoga, as far as Independence 
township, known as "Pilgrim's Rest," when 
they received such information that they were 
fearful of proceeding farther inland. After 
remaining about a year, they journeyed west- 
ward until they arrived at the mouth of Black 
river, where they designed to make a perma- 
nent settlement. A few days only elapsed, 
when a chief of the Delawares sent them a 
message warning them to depart. They then 
settled on the Huron river, two miles north 
of Milan, remained five or six years, were 
persecuted and driven away, and found a 
permanent asylum on the river Thames, in 

A trading-post was established in 1807 by 
Nathan Perry at the mouth of Black river. 
Actual clearers of the woods, said to have 
been from Vermont, planted themselves at 
that point in 1810. In 1808 Columbia re- 
ceived her first settlers ; Ridgeville, Amherst 
and Eaton in 1810, all mostly fromWater- 
bury. Conn. Very few settlers came into the 
county until the close of the war of 1812. 
The first settlement made in Elyria was in 
1816, and by a Mr. Beach, with "his family, 
who settled in the western part near the site 
of the present Haags Mill. 

Col. James Smith, who was taken prisoner 
by the Indians in 1755 in Pennsylvania, in 
the narrative of his captivity, gives some of 
his experiences in this county which are quite 
interesting. He speaks of the Canesadooharie, 
the Indian name for Black river, which a party 
he was with struck near its source, and finally 

followed south until they came near the East 
Falls, now within the corporate limits of 
Elyria, where they buried their canoe and 
erected a winter cabin, which is supposed to 
have been located on Evergreen Point. The 
narrative then says : 

"'Indian Hunting. — ' It was some time,' 
writes Smith, 'in December when we finished 
our winter cabin ; but then another difficulty 
arose — we had nothing to eat. While the 
hunters were all out exerting their utmost 
ability, the squaws and boys (in which class I 
was) were scattered in the bottom, hunting 
red haws and hickory-nuts. We did not suc- 
ceed in getting many haws, but had tolerable 
success in scratching up hickory-nuts from 
under a light snow. The hunters returned 
with only two small turkeys, which were but 
little among eight hunters and thirteen 
squaws, boys and children. But they were 
divided equally. The next day the hunters 
turned out again, and succeeded in killing one 
deer and three bears. One of the bears was 
remarkably large and fat. All hands turned 
out the next morning to bring in the meat. 

" ' During the winter a party of four went 
out to the borders of Pennsylvania to procure 
horses and scalps, leaving the same number 
in camp to provide meat for the women and 
children. They returned towards spring with 
two scalps and four horses. After the depart- 
ure of the warriors we had hard times, and 
though not out of provisions, we were brought 
to short allowance. At length Tontileaugo 
had fair success, and brought into camp suf- 
ficient to last ten days. Tontileaugo then 
took me with him in order to encamp some 
distance from the winter cabin. We steered 
south up the creek ten or twelve miles and 
went into camp.' " 

Elyria Founded. — In the spring of 1817 


Heman Ely, of West Springfield, Mass., in our first edition that this terminatiou was 

becoming the possessor of 12,500 acres of from that of the name of his first wife, 

land lying around the falls of Black river, Maria, an error both in application and in 

originally the property of the Connecticut fact, as her name was Celia. In the winter 

Land Company, came out to make prepara- of 1821-2 Mr. Ely visited Columbus to se- 

tions for settlement. He had buDt a dam cure an act for the organization of the county, 

and erected a grist and saw-mill on the east He became lost in the woods the first day 

branch, near the foot of the present Broad from home ; he finally made his way out, 

street, Elyria. He also had built a log-house returned home, and on another day made a 

where were boarded the men engaged in the successful effort. The county took its name 

construction of the mills. from Lorraine, in France, in which province 

Returning home, he sent, about the 1st of Mr. Ely spent some time while in Europe. 

January, from Massachusetts, three men The village of Elyria was incorporated in 

with axes in their hands, to commence clear- 1833. The township was slow in settling. 

ing land. They made the entire distance, Mr. Ely was eminently just as a landed pro- 

ily ar- prietor ; he usually sold 
rived in March, they made quite a hole in years' time. He was a thorough business 

600 miles, on foot, and before Mr. Ely ar- prietor ; he usually sold his land on four 

the woods. man ; was for a while member of the State 

The township of Elyria was organized in Board of Equalization, and also Associate 

1819, and included the present township of Judge of the county. 

Carlisle, and named by adding to Mr. Ely's Early in life he was a shipping merchant 

name the syllable "ria," suggested by the in New York, during which period it was he 

Greek name lUyria. It was wrongly stated was in France. 

Elyria in 184-6. — Elyria, the county-seat, is seven miles from Lake Erie, 
twenty-four west of Cleveland, and 130 northeast of Columbus. The first settler 
in the town and township was Mr. Heman Ely, from West Springfield, Mass., 
who came out here in March, 1817, and built a cabin about twelve rods southeast 
of his present residence. He brought with him some hired men, to make im- 
provements on his land, a large tract of which he had purchased at this place and 
vicinity. The village was soon laid out, and some time in the succeeding year 
Mr. Ely moved into his present residence, the first frame house erected in the 
township. Upon the organization of the county, the old court-house was built, 
which was used as a church by the Presbyterians, until they built a house of wor- 
ship, the first erected in the village. Elyria is a beautiful and thriving village; 
in its centre is a handsome public square, shown in the engraving ; the large 
building in front is the court-house ; beyond, on the right, is the public square, 
on which are seen, facing " Beebe's block," the " Mansion House " and the " brick 
block." The Gothic structure on the left is the Presbyterian church, designed by 
R. A. Sheldon, of New York, and erected in 1846-7 by H. J. & S. C. Brooks, 
of Elyria ; it is one of the most elegant churches in Ohio, built of sandstone, 
and finished throughout in a tasteful and suhstantial manner, at an expense of 
about $8,000. 

The village stands on a peninsula, formed by the forks of Black river, on 
which, near the town, are two beautiful falls, of forty feet perpendicular descent, 
highly valuable for manufacturing purposes. At the falls on the west fork the 
scenery is wild and picturesque ; the rocks are lofty and overhang the valley for, 
perhaps, some thirty feet. At that point is a large cavern, of a semi-circular 
form, about seventy -five feet deep, 100 broad at the entrance, with a level floor, 
and wall from five to nine feet high, forming a cool and romantic retreat from the 
heats of summer. The sandstone bounding the valley is of an excellent quality, 
and is much used for building purposes. Elyria contains one Episcopal, one 
Methodist, one Baptist, one Disciples, and one or two Congregational churches ; 
one classical academy, six dry-goods, three grocery and three drug-stores ; one 
newspaper printing-office, one woollen, one axe, and sash and blind factory ; one 
furnace, one machine-shop, threeflouring-mills and 1,500 inhabitants. — Old Edition. 

Elyria, county-seat of Lorain, twenty-six miles southwest of Cleveland, 110 
miles northeast of Columbus, on the C. L. & W. and L. S. & M. S. Railroads, 
is the centre of an agricultural district, dairying being the special feature. County 
officers, 1888 : Auditor, Oscar Herrick ; Clerk, Henry J. Lewis; Commissioners, 
Alfred Fauver, David Wallace. Tasso D. Phelon •. Coroner, Ranson E. Braman ; 


Infirmary Directors, Albert Foster, Isaac S. Straw, Daniel M. Hall ; Probate 
Judge, Edgar H. Hinman ; Prosecuting Attorney, Amos R. Webber ; Recorder, 
William E. Gaboon ; Sheriff, Melville A. Pounds ; Surveyor, Clemon H. Snow ; 
Treasurers, Everett E. Williams, Judson E. Williard. City officers, 1888: 
N. B. Gates, Mayor ; L. C. Kelsey, Clerk ; T. M. Brush, Treasurer ; C. H. Snow, 
Civil Engineer ; N. A. Redmond, Marshal ; Daniel Eason, Street Commissioner. 
Newsjjapers : Democrat, Democratic, F. S. Reefy, editor and publisher ; Republi- 
can, Republican, George Washburn, editor and publisher. Churches : one Epis- 
copalian, one German Reformed, one German Lutheran, one Catholic, one Baptist, 
one Congregational and one Methodist. Banks : National of Elyria, Heman Ely, 
president, John W. Hulbert, cashiei- ; Savings Deposit, T. L. Nelson, president, 
J. C. Hill, cashier. 

3Ianufactures and Employees. — Ohio Co-operative Shear Co., shears, 60 hands ; 
Henry Copas, road machines, etc., 4 ; C. W. Plotcher Bottling Co., bottling works, 
6 ; Thomas Armstrong, general machinery, 3 ; the Topliff & Ely Co., carriage 
hardware, etc., 44; C. Parsch, planing-mill, 18; J. W. Hart, planing-mill, 17; 
Elyria Canning Co., canned goods, 147 ; Western Automatic Machine Screw Co., 
machine screws, 78 ; G. Reublin, flour and feed, 3 ; Ross & Ingersoll, general 
machinerv, 8.— State Rejwrt, 1888. Population, 1880, 4,777. School census, 
1888, 1,621 ; School Superintendent, H. M. Parker. Census, 1890, 5,611. 


Elyria, in a certain sense, may be regarded as a sort of suburb of Cleveland, 
it being a ride by cars of only about forty minutes between the two places, and 
the communication frequent. Hence, many doing business in that city have their 
homes in Elyria. The situation, on a plain in and around the forks of Black 
river, is very pleasant. As the depot is but two minutes' walk from the public 
square, no time is lost by excess of pedestrianism at either end, as the cars at the 
Cleveland end also stop near its business centre, at the Superior-street station. 

The public square at Elyria is an oblong of about four acres. Ai-ound or near 
it are the principal churches, the hotels and business blocks. Upon it is an ele- 
gant coui-t-house, the floors of which are laid with the noted Zanesville encaustic 
tile, equal to the English tile. It cost about $175,000, but this does not fully give 
an idea of its real value, as its material is a home production, the beautiful sandstone 
on which the town rests. It is this possession that has enabled El}'ria to lay 
down many miles of sandstone pavement with slabs of the full width of the side- 
walk — in this respect having a valued distinction above most towns of Ohio. 

The public square has upon it a soldiers' Lorain and the western part of Cuyahoga 
monument; a fine grove of maples is orna- counties are underlaid with sandstone. Mr. 
mented with a pretty fountain, flower-beds, Eugene K. Mussey took me to see the grind- 
rustic seats and board placards, "Keep off stone quarries of H. E. Mussey & Co., on 
the grass." A library of 10,000 volumes, the west fork of Black river, about a mile 
open to the public, is close by, founded by west of the town. As we neared the place, 
the late Charles Arthur Ely, who lived to do he told me that a stranger pedestrian, on his 
good to mankind ; and for a term of years, way thither, said he discovered he was close 
up to the war period, Elyria had a flourishing by, " for," said he, "I took out my knife, and 
Natural History Society ; under its auspices was enabled to sharpen it on a fence-board, 
free lectures were weekly given by various and so found it was grit." On our way 
gentlemen, residents of Elyria, and their ed- thither we passed along the margin of the 
ucating influence was very great upon the river. In places it was shallow, and in others 
citizens. there was no water ; but everywhere, instead 

At Elyria are located the works of the of earth, its bed was a sandstone floor. The 

Western Automatic Screw Company, em- quarries produce some building-stone, but are 

ploying_ about 125 hands. It makes screws almost exclusively used in the manufacture 

of various sizes ; some — watch-screws — so of grindstones, varying from twelve pounds 

small that 200 can be put into a lady's thim- to 700 pounds in weight, which are shipped 

We. The machine is more than human in its to all parts of this country and Canada. 
Tork, as the screws are simply perfect. Tlie sandstone deposit in this vicinitj' is 

Mussq/s Quarry. — The northern part of very deep, being now worked to a depth of 

Drawn by H^imi It,noe in 1846. 

PcBLic Square, Elyria. 

O. F. Lee, Photo., Elyria, 1887. 

Public Square, Elyria. 



about seventy-five feet, while drilling shows 
the deposit to be one hundred and seventy- 
two feet deep. 

The largest quari-y was, perhaps, one hun- 
dred feet square, a huge box-like hole, and 
seventy-five feet deep. Standing on the mar- 
gin and looking down the workmen seemed 
dwindled in size. Huge blocks were being 
cut to be hoisted out by derricks and deposited 
in rail cars, to be taken to the buildings to 
be modelled by machinery into the requisite 
form. It was pleasant to look upon the 
smooth sides and floors of the quarries. The 
work could not have looked smoother if the 
material had been cheese instead of rock. 

FaUs and Caves of Black River.— 'ih^ 
forks of the Black river, which unite at Elyria, 
just north of the centre, have each a perpen- 
dicular fall of forty feet. Below the falls 
the river gorge is seventy or eighty feet deep, 
with a very wild picturesque scenery, in 
places dense woods with aged hemlocks 
springing up, their roots finding nurture 
through the fissures in the rocks. Mr. Geo. 
E. Washburn took me down into the gorge 
at the foot of the falls on the west branch, to 
show me a noted cave. It is formed by a 
shelving_ rock. It is in the form of a semi- 
circle, with a chord of about one hundred 
and twenty feet ; in front, about fourteen 
feet high, and then the wall, which is massive 
and arched, gradually sinks until at a distance 
of about ninety feet it terminates, the rear 
wall being only three or four feet high. The 
floor was rocky, cleared of incumbrances and 
the place would hold a multitude. It was 
evidently much visited. Public meetings 
could be held there, but no speaking had, 
owing to the roar of the cataract, close upon 
which it intrudes. 

Upon the wall above the cave numerous 
names have been painted, which to inscribe 
must have required ladders. There, about 
twenty feet high, is painted as below : 

Q. A. GILMORE, 1844. 

This is the mark of General Gilmore, the 
distinguished engineer officer, who at that 
date was a pupil of the high school in Elyria. 
His name, as well as others, were in black 
paint ; and it stood from the surface in bas- 
relief The oil in the paint had preserved 
the stone from the influence of water, sun 
and air upon the general surface of the rock, 
which where expo-sed had worn away. 

There was a time when the forks had 
united to the north of their present junction, 
which is now a few hundred yards to the east 
of the west falls. 

21ie Black River Basin. — The ancient place 
of union of the forks was at a locality called 
the " Basin," a wide expansion of the river 
into which the East fork poured directly by 
its cataract, and the West fork after having 
reached the level of the basin by its then 
cataract a short distance only above. This 
basin covers about an acre or two. Below it is 
an isliinil covered with majestic woods, provided 
with rustic seats. Pic-nic parties assemble 

here and enjoy the wild and beautiful scenery 
of the basin, which is indescribably ^rand ; 
rocks are piled on rocks in endless contusion. 

Black River icrites its histoi-y like Niagara 
as it works its way into the interior. As we 
returned to the town my companion pointed 
to me a huge rock in the bottom of the gorge, 
just below the east falls. This had been a 
shelving rock until a few years ago. A 
fissure had been discovered at its rear. It 
gradually widened, and as a precaution a path 
in front which led to a mill was fenced, as it 
seemed but a work of time when it would 

A Rock Fall. — About six o'clock, Tuesday 
morning, July 23, 1872, the whole town-was 
aroused by a deep dull sound, followed by 
the rattling of windows and causing many to 
rush from their houses as though it had been 
an earthquake. It was the fall of this rock 
I saw, which fell about forty feet. Its 
dimensions taken at the time were as follows : 
length, 90 feet ; breadth, 25 feet ; height, 
30 feet ; estimated weight, 4,500 tons ; and 
with the detached portions about 6,500 

The freezing of water in rock fissures in 
time will split the strongest stone. Mr. 
Washburn, after pointing out this rock, said : 
■' My father, a New Hampshire farmer, split 
granite rocks in his mica quarry by drilling 
ileep holes, then filling them with water, 
which upon freezing split the largest rocks 
asunder. The more modern rocks were 
frequently split by drilling channels and 
driving in pine wedges, which being expanded 
by either frost or water would separate the 

A Secluded Retreat. — 1 know of no town 
anywhere that has such a secluded retreat 
within two minutes' walk of its very centre 
as has El}Tia in Washington avenue. It 
lies north of the town in a loop of the East 
fork, on a spot which only a few years ago 
was an ancient and magnificent forest of pine, 
oak, ash and maple. The avenue was laid 
out one hundred feet broad, on ground level 
as a floor. It is entered by an iron bridge 
one hundred and eighty-five feet long across 
the stream, just above the falls, and not over 
six hundred feet in a direct line from the 
public square. 

The residences there are fine home lots, 
large, without fences and every place backs 
upon the stream, while around are the grand 
old woods. Mr. David C. Baldwin is espe- 
cially favored in his home, as he can look 
down from the forest retreat, which he has 

grovided with rustic seats, upon the falls of 
lack river and listen to their unceasing roar. 
They call the spot the " Nixen-Wald," the 
water-spirits' wood. Nothing can be more 
wild than the gorge at that spot, with its 
falling waters, overhanging clifi's, dark solemn 
woods, where hemlocks spring from out of 
the crevices of the everlasting rocks and cast 
their sombre shades. As I teft there in the 
gathering shadows of a summer evening, a 
bird sent forth from his seclusion one solitary, 
delicious note. " What is that ? " linquired. 



sixty to eighty years of age, who have mostly 
finished the active business of life, and 
engage in the game with the zeal and hilarity 
of so many boys. It is not probable thereis 
another just such a club anywhere ; but its 
influence upon the health, spirits and social 
welfiire make it an excellent example for 
those "in the sere and yellow leaf " every- 
where, for it fortifies the limbs against rheu- 
matic twinges and takes the mind from grave- 
yard contemplations. 

"That," replied Mns. B., "is the wood- 
robin, Audubon's favorite bird." I thought, 
as she told me, to us men it enhances the 
pleasure of hearing a pleasant thing when it 
comes from the lips of woman. 

Old Men's Croquet Chib. — Near the brink 
of the East Falls, at this spot, the old gentle- 
men of Elyria have put up a building devoted 
to the game of croquet. They oft go early 
in the day and play and talk into the night. 
It is in charge of a janitor, and in winter is 
heated and lighted. Here gather men from 

In his " Antiquity of Man " the late Col. Charles Whittlesey published an 
account of what he calls the " Elyria Shelter Cave," and therein states that 
it was " on the west bank of Black river, a short distance beloio the forks at 
Elyria, in a romantic gorge through which the river flows." It was examined 
by him in April, 1851, in company with Prof E. W. Hubbard and Prof J. 
Brainerd. This shelter rock is still there, and also another on the same side of 
the river, but higher up above the junction on the west fork, where many Indian 
relics have been found. We did not visit either of them. Below is Mr. Whit- 
tlesey's description : 

This is one of numerous instances where 
the "grindstone grit" of Northern Ohio, 
resting upon soft snale, presents a projecting 
ledge, forming a grotto capable of sheltering 
a large number of persons, being about fifty 
feet in length by fifteen feet broad. This and 
others in the vicinity which have not been 
explored correspond to the European ' ' shel- 
ter cavern " where human remains are always 
found. These retreats constituted the domi- 
cils of our race while in their rudest condi- 
tion. We dug to the depth of four feet on 
the floor of this cave, composed of charcoal, 
ashes and bones of the wolf, bear, deer, 
rabbit, squirrel, fishes, snakes and birds, all 
of which existed in this region when it became 
known to the whites. 

The place was thoroughly protected against 
rains. At the bottom, lying extended upon 
clean yellow sand, their heads to the rear and 
feet outwards, were parts of three human 
skeletons ; two of them nearly entire. Two 

of them were preserved by Professor Brainerd. 
They were decided to belong to the North 
American race of red men by those who had 
an opportunity to examine them. 
_ These skulls were exhibited at the Cin- 
cinnati meeting of the American Association, 
in 1851, but were afterwards destroyed by a 
mob, together with the entire museum of the 
HomcBopathic College at Cleveland. The 
position of the skeletons indicated that they 
were crushed by a large slab of the over- 
hanging sandstone falling upon the party 
while they were asleep at the back part of 
the grotto. One of the skulls was that oi' 
an old woman, the other of a young man. 
Flint arrowheads, such as the Indians once 
used, were scattered throughout this mass of 
animal remains. Judging from the appear- 
ance of the bones, and the depth of the 
accumulations over them, two thousand years 
may have elapsed since the human skeletons 
were laid on the floor of this cave. 

The most noteworthy event, perhaps, in the history of education in Ohio was 
the establishing of Oberlin. In its early days it was regarded by many well- 
meaning people as a sort of monstrosity, but time has demonstrated the strength 
of its foundation ideas, and to-day it is a highly prospering institution with an 
imperishable history. In 1883 was held its semi-centennial anniversary, since 
which five new college buildings have been added, built of the beautiful brown 
sandstone quarried in the neighborhood. What it was on the issue of our first 
edition is here told. 

Oberlin in 184-6. — Eiglit miles southwest of Elyria is the village of Oberlin, 
so named from Rev. John Frederic Oberlin, pastor of Waldbach, Switzerland, 
who was remarkable for his great benevolence of character. He was born in 
Strasbourg, in 1740, and died at Waldbach, in 1826. The town is situated on a 
beautiful and level plan, girted around by the original forest in its primitive 
majesty. Tiie dwellings at Oberlin are usually two stories in height, built of 
wood, and painted white, after the manner of the villages of Ncv England, to 
which this has a striking resemblance. Oberlin contains 3 dry-goods and 1 book 
store, a Presbyterian church, the collegiate buiidingj and about 150 dwellings. 



The Oherlin Evangelist, which has a circulation ofl 5,000, and the Oberlin 
Quartei'ly Bet'ieio are published here. The engraving shoM'S, on the right, the 
Presbyterian church, a substantial brick building, neatly finished externally and 
internally, and capable of holding a congregation of 3,000 persons ; beyond it, 
on a green of about 12 acres, stands Tappan Hall ; and facing the green, com- 
mencing on the left, are seen Oberlin Hall, Ladies' Hall and Colonial Hall, all 
of which buildings belong to the Institute. By the annual catalogue of 1846-7 
there were at Oberlin 492 pupils, viz. : in the theological department, 25 ; college, 
106; teachers' department, 16 ; shorter course, 4 ; male preparatory, 174; young 
ladies' course, 140 ; and ladies' preparatory, 28. Of these there were males, 
314 ; and females, 178. 

The annexed sketch of Oberlin was written by J. A. Harris, editor of the 
Cleveland Herald, and published in that print in 1845 : 

The Oberlin Collegiate Institute is emphat- 
ically the people's college, and although 
some of its leading characteristics are peculiar 
to the institution, and are at variance with 
the general pubho opinion and prejudices, 
the college exerts a wide and healthy influ- 
ence. It places a useful and thoroughly 
practical education within the reach of indi- 
gent and industrious young men and women, 
as well as those in affluent circumstances ; 
and many in all ranks of life avail themselves 
of the rare advantages enjoyed at Oberlin. 
The average number of students the last five 
years is five hundred and twenty-eight, and 
this, too, be it remembered, in an institution 
that has sprung up in what was a dense 
wilderness but a dozen years ago. To remove 
all incredulity, we will give a concise history 
of its origin and progress. 

The Rev. John J. Shipherd was a prom- 
inent founder of Oberhn. His enterpris- 
ing spirit led in the devising and incipient 
steps. Without any fund in the start, in 
August, 1832, he rode over the ground for 
inspection, where the village of Oberlin now 
stands. It was then a dense, heavy, unbroken 
forest, the land level and wet, almost inacces- 
sible by roads, and the prospects for a settle- 
ment forbidding in the extreme. In Novem- 
ber, 1832, Mr Shipherd, in company with a 
few others, selected the site. Five hundred 
acres of land were conditionally pledged by 
Messrs. Street & Hughes, of New Haven, 
Conn., on which the college buildings now 
stand. A voluntary board of trustees held 
their first meeting in the winter of 1832. in 
a small Indian opening on the site. The 
Legislature of 1833-4 granted a charter with 
university privileges. Improvements were 
commenced, a log-house or two were erected, 
people began to locate in the colony, and in 
1834 the board of trustees resolved to open 
the school for the reception of colored persons 
of both sexes, to be regarded as on an 
equality with others. In January, 183.5, 
Messrs. Mahan, Finney and Morgan were 
appointed as teachers, and in May of that 
year Mr. Mahan commenced housekeeping 
in a small log-dwelling. Such was the becin- 
oing — and the present result is a striking 
exemplification of what obstacles can be over- 
come and what good can be accomj^lished 

under our free institutions by the indomitable 
energy, earnest zeal, and unfaltering perse- 
verance of a few men, when they engage 
heart and soul in a great philanthropic enter- 

Oberlin is now a pleasant, thriving village 
of about tvro thousand souls, with necessary 
stores and mechanics' shops, the largest 
church in the State, and a good temperance 
hotel. It is a community of teetotallers, from 
the highest to the lowest, the sale of ardent 
spirits never having been permitted within its 
borders. The college buildings number seven 
commodious edifices. Rev. A. Mahan is 
president of the College Institute, assisted 
by fifteen able professors and teachers. En- 
dowments — eight professorships are supported 
in part by pledges ; 500 acres of land at Ober- 
lin, and 10,000 acres in Western Virginia. 

Objects of the Institution. 

1. To educate youths of both sexes, so as 
to secure the development of a strong mind 
in a sound body, connected with a permanent, 
vigorous, progressive piety — all to be aideo 
by a judicious system of manual labor. 

2. To beget and to confirm in the process 
of education the habit of self-denial, patient 
endurance, a chastened moral courage, and a 
devout consecration of the whole being to 
God, in seeking the best good of man. 

3. To establish universal liberty by the 
abolition of every form of sin. 

4. To avoid the debasing association of the 
heathen classics, and make the Bible a text- 
book in all the departments of education. 

5. To raise up a church and ministers who 
shall be known and read of all men in deep 
sj'mpathy with Christ, in holy living, and in 
efficient action against -all which God forbids. 

6. To furnish a seminary, aflfording thor- 
ough instruction in all the branches of an 
education for both sexes, and in which col- 
ored persons, of both sexes, shall be freely 
admitted, and on the terms of equality and 

We confess that much of our prejudice 
against the Oberlin College has been removed 
by a visit to the institution. Tim r-jiurse of 
training ana stuaies pursuea mere avjpear ad- 
mirably calculated o rear up a class of healthy^ 



useful, self-educated and self-relying men and 
women — a class which the poor man's son and 
daughter may enter on equal terms with oth- 
ers, with an opportunity to outstrip in the 
race, as they often do. It is the only college 
in the United States where females enjoy the 
privileges of males in acquiring an education, 
and where degrees are conferred on ladies ; 
and this peculiar feature of the instruction 
has proved highly useful. By combining 
manual labor with study, the physical system 
keeps pace with the mind instrength and de- 
velopment, and the result in most cases is 
"sound minds in healthy bodies." Labor 
and attention to household duties are made 
familiar and honorable, and pleased as we 
were to note the intelligent and healthful 
countenances of the young ladies seated at 

the boarding-house dinner table, the gratifica- 
tion was heightened shortly after by observing 
the same graceful forms clad in tidy, long 
aprons, and busily engaged in putting the 
dining-hall in order. And the literary exer- 
cises of the same ladies proved that tiie labor 
of the hands in the institution had been no 
hindrance in the acquisition of knowledge. 

Young in years as is Oberlin, the institu- 
tion has sent abroad many well-qualified and 
diligent laborers in the great moral field of 
the world. Her graduates may be found in 
nearly every missionary clime, and her schol- 
ars are active co-workers in many of the phil- 
anthropic movements that distinguish the 
age. It is the people's college, and long 
may it prove an increasing blessing to the 
people. — Old Edition. 

Obeelin is nine miles southwest of El3ria, ou the L. S. & M. S. Eailroad. 
It is the seat of Oberlin College and Oberlin Conservatory of Music. City 
officers, 1888 : C. A. Metcalf, Mayor ; W. P. M. Gilbert, Clerk ; H. H. Barnum, 
Treasurer ; I. L. Newton, Marshal ; D. G. Probert, Street Commissioner. News- 
papers : Loi-ain County Exponent, Prohibitionist, L. Webster, editor ; iVew'S, Re- 
publican, William H. Pearce, editor and publisher ; Review, Colored, Union Li- 
brary Association, editors and publishers ; Faith Missionary, Evangelist, O. M. 
Brown, editor and publisher ; Bibliotheca Sacra, Congregationalist, G. Frederick 
Wright, W. G. Ballautine and Frank H. Foster, editors. Churches : two Con- 
gregationalist, two Methodist, one Baptist, one Episcopal. Bank : Citizens' Na- 
tional, Montraville Stone, president ; Charles H. Randall, cashier. Population, 
1880, 3,242. School census, 1888, 1,260 ; George W. Waite, school superin- 

The founders of Oberlin were not originally abolitionists, but rather favored 
the colonization scheme. They were Whigs in politics. About the year 1835 it 
received a great impulse from accessions from Lane Seminary, which institution 
was for the time broken up because the students there had been forbidden by the 
trustees to discuss the subject of slavery. Four-fifths of the Lane students in 
consequence left, and most of them, with Professor Morgan and Rev. Asa Mahan, 
also Rev. Mr. Finney, of New York city, came to Oberlin. Here was then es- 
tablished for their wants a theological department, and, by their suggestion, a 
rule adopted that all persons irrespective of color should be admitted into the 
seminary. This, with large donations from Arthur Tappan, of New York, and 
other abolitionists, enabled them to put up the necessary buildings, and placed the 
institution on a lasting foundation. At Oberlin the subject of immediate abolition 
was then freely discussed, with the result of converting the Oberlin people to the 
views of the seceders of Lane, so that Oberlin soon became a hive from which 
swarmed forth lecturers under the auspices of the American Anti-Slavery Society. 
Through the influence largely of Oberlin, Northern Ohio became strongly leavened 
with anti-slavery sentiment, finding devoted friends, bitter enemies and encounter- 
ing ferocious mobs. 

Oberlin was not designed as an institution 
for blacks. But its founders, taking the teach- 
ings of Ohrist as their guide, coultl not find 
any reason for their exclusion, and so they 
were admitted. Of the 20,000 difl^erent pu- 
pils from the beginning, 19,000 have been 
white. Of both sexes only sixty colored per- 
sons, thirty-two males and twenty-eight fe- 
males, have completed a course. 

Oberlin has always been a temperance com- 
munity. Tobacco is prohibited. If used by 

a student, he is required to resign. No moni- 
torial system is adopted ; no grading of schol- 
arship and no distribution of honors. For the 
first twenty-five years a majority of the grad- 
utes supported themselves by school-teaching 
and manual labor, and many now do the same. 
At the beginning seventy-five cents a week 
was paid for board in the hall, if the stu- 
dents dispensed with meat ; twenty-five cents 
was added for meat twice a day. Then the 
entire expense of living, aside from clothing. 

■ "^/yS-^'-'^^SBi^fi^ 

Slab Hall. Oberlin. 

The beginnings of a College in the 

Vravm by Henry Howe in 1846. 

College Buildings, Oberlin. 
The building with a tower on the right was the only one standing in : 



ranged from fifty-eight to eighty-nine dollars 
during the forty weeks of term time. Now 
board can be had for three dollars per week. 
The average annual expense of a student, 
outside of clothing, etc. , is about two hun- 
dred and fifty dollars. 

The teaching of music, more especially sa- 
cred music, is now a prominent feature here. 
The number of teachers Oberlin has sent 
forth, as well as missionaries to foreign lands, 
is extraordinary, probably unequalled any- 

Thfr central idea of Oberlin was as a mis- 
sionary centre. In this idea not education, 

but religion. Christianity, as comprehensive, 
active, aggressive and progressive, is supreme. 
The Oberlin philosophy as defined by Mr. 
Finney was that " the foundation of moral 
obligation is the good of being, and that true 
virtue or righteousness consists in willing this 
good of being, including one's own, so that 
the whole life will be devoted to its promo- 
tion. This is the love enjoined in the Scrip- 
tures, the fulfilling of the law." In other 
words, the true end of life is found in doing 
good, and that was the principle on which 
Oberlin was founded. The education of youth 
had that as its sole aim. 

Oberlin was an important station on the underground railroad, and of the mul- 
titudes of fugitives who came, not one was ever finally taken back to bondage. 
Every device was resorted to for their concealment and safe embarkation to Canada. 
Says President Fairchild in his work, " Oberlin, the Colony and the College : " 

die Ridge road, six miles north of Oberlin, a 
guide-board put by the authorities stood for 
years, pointing the way to Oberlin, not by the 
ordinary index finger, but by the full-length 
figure of afugitive running with all his might to 
reach the place. The tavern sign, four miles 
east, was ornamented on its Oberlin face with 
the representation of a fugitive slave pursued 
by a tiger. Where the general feeling yielded 
such result, not much could be expected in 
the way of sympathy for fugitives. But even 
among these people the slave-catcher had 
little favor. Tney would thwart his pursuit 
in every way, and shelter the fugitive if they 
could. Only the meanest and most mercenary 
could be hired to betray the victim. Now 
and then an official felt called upon to extend 
aid and comfort to the slave-hunter who 
claimed his service, but he could expect no 
toleration from his neighbors in such a course. 
A whole neighborhood would suddenly find 
themselves abolitionists upon the appearance 
of a slave-hunter among them, and by re- 
peated occurrences of this kind, as much as 
by any other means, Lorain county and all 
of Northern Ohio became, at length, intensely 
anti-slavery in feeling and action." 

" Not to deliver to his master the servant 
that had escaped from his master, seemed to 
the people of Oberlin a solemn and pressing 
duty. This attitude exposed the college and 
the community to much reproach, and some- 
times apparently to serious danger. Threats 
came from abroad that the college buildings 
should be burned. A Democratic Legislature 
at diiferent times agitated the question of re- 
pealing the college charter. The fourth and 
last attempt was made in 1843, when the bill 
for repeal was indefinitely postponed in the 
House by a vote of thirty-six to twenty-nine. 

"The people in the neighboring towns were, 
at the outset, not in sympathy with Oberlin 
in its anti-slavery position. They agreed with 
the rest of the world in regarding it as unmiti- 
gated fanaticism. The feeling was often bitter 
and intense, and an Oberlin man going out 
from home in any direction was liable to be 
assailed with bitter words ; and if he ventured 
to lecture upon the unpopular theme, he was 
fortunate if he encountered words only. Of 
course the self-respectful part of the commu- 
nity would take no part in such abuse, but 
fellows of the baser sort felt themselves sus- 
tained by the common feeling. On the Mid- 

It was on a Saturday afternoon in July that I approached Oberlin in the cars ; 
the tall spires loomed up on a perfectly level country half a mile from the depot. 
On alighting I was accosted by an old lady, perhaps sixty years old, with a basket 
of fresh newspapers which she was selling. She had a refined face, and the in- 
congruity of her vocation, with her evident cultivation, was striking as she pre- 
sented a countenance aglow with its best selling-smile. I was told she had a 
green-house near by and cultivated flowers, and this was a diversion. 

Eccentricities are to be expected in such a 
place as Oberlin, with its extraordinary his- 
tory, which began fifty years ago, outraging 
popular ideas of that day on the questions ot 
the equal claims of all men, irrespective of 
race, and the co-education of the sexes ; and 
with the resultof winning a topmost position in 
the regards of the regardful. 1 believe Oberlin 
has sent forth more female teachers to our 
own country, and more missionaries to foreign 
lands, than any other spot anywhert. 

Oberlin is well spread out for the uses of 
its peculiar population, whose business is the 
capture of knowledge, and not for learning's 
sake, but for its use m the amelioration of hu- 
man woe. The walk to the centre was through a 
fine avenue of homes, homes largely without 
fences, open to view ; some with luxuriant 
arbor vitae liedges. Their odor was fragrant, 
and grateful was the sight of plump-bodisd 
robins hopping on the lawns. 

Arrived at tie cect'« I found a surprising 



change. The newness, the crudity of the old 
time had vanished ; but one of the buildings 
shown in the view of 1846 is standing. The 
square is an open space of some twelve acres, 
the college buildings mainly detached, and in 
scattered spots around it. These are noble 
structures of Amherst and LaGrange sand- 
stone ; no material can be more elegant or 
more substantial ; the old signs of a poor and 
struggling institution had vanished. 

A handsome soldiers' monument is there 
to attest the heroism of the sons of Oberlin. 
The foundation idea of Oberlin had con- 

quered. Through agony, through blood, the 
great question, "Am I not a man, and a 
brother?" had been answered in the affirm- 

As I left this unique place to resume my 
seat in the cars, I passed a young woman of 
regular features, refined and thoughtful ex- 

§ression, although of full black complexion, 
he was one of the transformations of Ober- 
lin. Its founders had got the best tliey could 
find from a very old book and applied it direct 
in the line of humanity, and lo ! — songs of 
gladness for the clank of chains. 

North Amherst is six miles northwest from Eiyria, on the L. S. & M. S. 
Railroad. Newspaper : Reporter, Independent, H. K. Clock, editor and publisher. 
Churches : one Baptist, one Catholic, one Congregational, one Evangelical, one 
Evangelical Eeformed, one Lutheran. Population in 1880, 1,542. 

One of the most important quarry districts in the United States mainly lies in 
the counties of Lorain, Cuyahoga and Erie. The sandstone goes under the gen- 
eral name of Berea grit. These quarries are now mainly under the control of 
the Cleveland Stone Company. (See pages 525-6.) North Amherst has grown 
almost entirely from the development of its stone industry. " The whole northern 
and western part of the township, and extending in Browuhelm, may be said to 
fairly bristle with heavy, iron-rigged derricks, which, worked by powerful engines, 
swing ponderous blocks of stone from the deep, rugged-walled caverns, to the 
ground above, and deposit them upon railroad cars or swing them to the saw-mill 
and turning-lathe. Hundreds of men, assisted by the giant slave — steam — are 
toiling in the ledges and pits, taking out the rough stone to be modelled into 
shapes of grace, beauty and strength, to lend majesty to the buildings in the great 
marts of the world." 

Vast amounts of stone have been taken 
out of these quarries at Amherst, Brownhelm 
and vicinity. The material obtained goes 
under the general name of the Amherst build- 
ing stone, and is regarded as the best building 
stoneupon the earth. The supply is practi- 
cally inexhaustible. Estimating the thickness 
of the stone at an average of fifty feet — and 
good authorities say it must be nearer 100 — 
the number of cubic feet in an acre would be 
over 2,000,000, which to quarry out would 
take 100 men ten years. The stone lies 
almost entirely above the ground, and above 
the drainage level, and the huge blocks sent 
to all parts of the United States and Canada, 
and even South America, are quarried with- 
out any of the obstructions found in other 
parts of the country. The close proximity 
of the great railroads gives another great ad- 
vantage for transportation. 

The texture of the stone is fine and homo- 
geneous, usually without iron and with very 
few flaws or breaks. Its strength is equal to 
10,000 pounds to the square inch, four times 
that of the best brick, and much stronger 
than the best marble or granite, and, as was 
illustrated in the great Chicago fire, it will 
resist the action of fire where limestone, 
marble and granite are entirely destroyed. 
Its durability is greater than any other sedj- The floor of the quarry, moreover, consists 

mentary rock ; being nearly pure silex it of good stone, which has been drilled for 
resists the erosive action of the atmosphere twelve feet, indicating a still greater thickness 
to a wonderful degree, equalling the very best of stone which could be extracted. 
Scotch granite. The other quarries of the region exhibit a 

The foregoing facts are from Jay Terrell's 
articles in Williams' " County History." Or- 
ton's "Geological Report" supplies the re- 

The Amherst quarries, in Lorain county, 
are located in a series of ledges, which were 
once the shore cliffs of Lake Erie. The ele- 
vated posidon of these is a very great advan- 
tage, since the light and uniform color is due 
to the fact that this elevation produces a free 
drainage, and the stones have been traversed 
by atmospheric waters to such a degree that 
all processes of oxidation which are possible 
have been nearly completed. 

An idea of the arrangement of the strata in 
quarries can be obtained from the following 
section, which is exhibited in the Holderman 
quarry at Amherst : 

Drift material .... I to 

3 feet. 

Worthless shell-rock . . 6 " 

10 " 

Soft rock , for grindstones only 

12 " 

Building stone .... 

3 " 

Bridge stone 


2 " 

2 " 

Building stone or grindstone 

10 " 

Building stone . . . . 4 " 

7 " 

Building stone or grindstone 

12 " 

J. N. Bradford^ del., Ohio bUtte inutrsity. 

Centrai. View in Wellington. 
From a picture in possession of Col. Frank C. Love)and, U. S. Pension Agent, New York. 




similar diversity of material, although the 
arrangement is not often the same. As re 
gards color, the stones may be divided into 
two classes, called buff and blue. The buff 
stone is above the line of perfect drainage, 
and in the section above given, this extends 
as far down us the two feet of bridge stone, 
forming a total depth of twenty-three to 
twenty-seven feet. In most of the Amherst 
quarries the relative amount of buff stone is 

As will be noted from this section, the dif- 
ferent strata are not applicable alike to the 
same jnirposes, and the uses for which the 
different griules of material can be employed 
depend priiifiiciUy upon the texture and the 
hardness of the stone. The softest and mo.'^t 
uniform in texture is especially applicable for 
certain kinds of grinding, and is used for 
grindstones only, and the production of these 
lorms an important part of the quarry in- 

The stone which is especially applicable for 
purposes of construction is also variable ; 
that which is of medium hardness and of 
uniform texture is used for building pur- 
poses or for grindstones ; some is too hard or 
not sufficiently uniform in texture for grind- 
stones, and is used for building purposes only ; 
and the material, sometimes found, which is 
difficult to quarry and to dress, is used for 
bridge-building purposes only. 

As regards appearances, there is much di- 
versity in the material produced in this region. 

There are differences due to the diversity of 
textures, of colors, and of methods of strati- 
fication ; yet these are seldom recognized by 
the casual observer. Differences in color give 
rise to the terms "blue" and "buff," pre- 
viously referred to, and differences in meth- 
ods of stratificatioii give rise to the terms 
"split-rock," "spider-web," and "liver- 
rock." The regularly and evenly stratified 
stone is classified as split-rock ; that in which 
the stratification is irregular and marked by 
fine, transverse and wavy lines is classified as 
spider-web : the homogeneous stone, which 
exhibits little or no stratification, is classified 
as liver-rock. 

When first taken from the quarry it con- 
tains several per cent, of water, and as long 
as this is retained the stones cut easily ; upon 
its loss they harden. The stone is extracted 
during only eight months of the year, since 
it is injured by being quarried in the winter 
and subjected to hard iVeezing while contain- 
ing this quarry water. The winter months 
are, therefore, occupied in stripping and 

Many very fine buildings, both in the 
United States and Canada, have been built 
of the so-called Amherst stone, among which 
may be mentioned the Canadian Parliament 
buildings, and most of the public buildings 
in Toronto ; and there is no city in the Union 
in which stone is extensively used where 
examples cannot be found in which this stone 
is used for trimmings and ornamental work. 

Wellington is thirty-six miles southwest from Cleveland, fifteen miles south- 
west of Elyria, on the C. C. C. & I. R. R. & L. E. & W. R. R. City officers, 
1888: W. R. Wean, Mayor; R. N. Goodwin, Clerk; Wm. Cusliing, Jr., 
Treasurer ; Edw. Hackett, Marshal. Newspaper : Enterprise, Republican, J. B. 
Smith, editor and publisher. Churches : 1 Alethodist, 1 Baptist, 1 Catholic, 1 
Congregational. Bank : First National, S. S. Warner, president ; R. A. Horr, 
cashier. Popidation, 1880, 1811. School census, 1888, 592; R. W. Kinnison, 
school superintendent. 

This coiuity is the greatest cheese-producing county in Ohio. Its annual pro- 
duction about enough for a pound to every man, woman and child in the State, 
while Wellington bears with Little Falls, New York, the reputation of being one 
of the two greatest cheese-producing places in the Uniou. 

The greatest event in the history of Wellington is that widely known as 

The Obeklln- Wellington Rescue Case. 

About the last attempt to recover a fugitive in Northern Ohio, under the 
fugitive slave law of 1850, occurred September 13, 1858. John Price, a fugitive 
slave from Kentucky, had been some time in Oberlin, when by a ruse he was 
seized by United States IMarshal Lowe and his deputy, Samuel Davis, of Colum- 
bus, accom]ianied by two Kentuckians, Messrs. ]\Iitchell and Jennings, and driven 
over to Wellington, eight miles, to Wadsworth's Hotel, M'ith tlie design of taking 
him south by the first train. 

There was a large crowd in Wellington, drawn by the occurrence of a fire, and 
soon word was received of the fact, and being joined by a large body from 
Oberlin, they surrounded the hotel and rescued the fugitive. 

The Grand Jurj' of the United States Dis- thirteen persons in Wellington and twenty- 
trict Court found bills of indictment against four in Oberhn, leading cimens, for aiding 



in the rescue, and arrested them. On April 
5 their cases were called at Cleveland before 
the United States Court, when the Welling- 
ton defendants, with a single exception 
(Matthew Gillet), entered a plea of nolle con- 
tendre, were fined each twenty dollars and 
costs and sent to jail for twenty-four hours. 

They were, Matthew Gillet, Matthew De 
Wolf Loring Wadsworth, Eh Boise, John 
Mandeville, Henry Niles, Walter Soules, 
Lewis Hines, William Siples and Abner Love- 
land : a son of the latter is Col. Fra,nk C. 
Loveland, successor of Gen. Sigel in the 
highly responsible position of United States 
Pension Agent in New York. 

Two of the Oberlin men, Simeon Bushnell 
and Charles H. Langston, were convicted and 
sentenced : Bushnell to sixty days imprison- 
ment and a fine of six hundred dollars ; 
Langston, a colored man, who made a strong 
speech for }iis course, was fined one hundred 
dollars and sentenced for twenty days. Twelve 
of the Oberlin men remained in the jail in 

The prisoners on the whole had a rather 
enjoyable time. On the 24th of May an 
immense mass meeting was held at Cleveland, 
attended by people fromall parts of Northern 
Ohio, to express their intense hatred of the 
fugitive slave law. There was great enthu- 
siasm ; an immense procession with banners 
marched through the streets and gathered in 
front of the jail. They were addressed by 
Joshua R. Giddings, Gov. Chase and others. 
The first was bold and defiant, Mr. Chase 
wary and circumspect ; but the resolutions 
were decided and radical, savoring strongly 
of " State rights." Visitors came in throngs 
to see the prisoners, and letters of sympathy 
and funds to meet expenses poured in upon 

Mr. Fitch, of Oberlin, one of the prisoners, 
had been superintendent of the Sabbath- 
school there for sixteen years. The children, 
numbering four hundred, came over in a 
body to visit him by invitation, and as guests 
of the Sabbath-school children of Plymouth 
Church, Cleveland. Then they filed into the 
jail, filling all its corridors and open spaces, 
when brief addresses, interspersed with 

music, were given. 

When the prisoners were released, after 
an imprisonment of months, it was a day of 
jubilee. They were escorted from the jsrison 
to the train by several hundred citizens, 
headed by Heoker's band playing "Home, 
Sweet Home," and the firing of a hundred 
guns on the public square. 

On their arrival at Oberlin they were 
escorted to the great church where, until 
midnight, the pent-up feeling of the people 
found expression in song and prayer and 
familiar talk over the experiences of the pre- 
ceding weeks. A Cleveland administration 
paper that evening said: "So the govern- 
ment, at last, has been beaten, with law, 
justice and facts all on its side, and Oberlin 
with its rebellious higher law creed triumph- 

President James H. Fairchild, of Oberlin, 

describes an attempt to obtain relief during 
this imprisonment, by an appeal to the State 
Courts. Its possible consequences are of great 
historic interest : 

"A writ of habeas corpus was granted by 
one of the judges of the Supreme Court, 
commanding the sheriff to bring Bushnell 
and Langston before that court, that the 
reason of their imprisonment might be con- 
sidered. The case was ably argued before 
the full bench, at Columbus, for a week ; but 
the court, three to two, declined to grant a 
release. This was a severe blow to the men 
in jail, They had counted with much con- 
fidence upon relief from that quarter. It is 
idle to speculate upon the possible results if 
a single judge had held a different opinion. 
Salmon P. Chase was governor at that time, 
and it was well understood that he would 
sustain a decision releasing the prisoners by 
all the power at his command ; and the 
United States government was as fully com- 
mitted to the execution of the fugitive-slave 
law. This would have placed Ohio in conflict 
with the general government in defence of 
State rights, and if the party of freedom 
throughout the North had rallied, as seemed 
probable, the war might have come in 1859, 
instead of 1861, with a secession of the 
Northern instead of the Southern States. A 
single vote apparently turned the scale, and 
after a little delay the party of freedom took 
possession of the government, and the party 
of slavery became the seceders. ' ' 

There was no sufiicient proof of title to 
John as his slave, in the claimant who issued 
the power of attorney, and on the 6th of 
July the prisoners were all released. The 
four men who had seized him had been 
indicted on the charge of kidnapping in 
Lorain county, became alarmed, and so, by 
mutual consent, all further proceedings on 
both sides were stopped. 

Lost in the Woods. 

The county history gives several instances 
of persons being lost in the woods at an early 
day. One, the case of Mrs. Terrell Tillotson, 
who came in 1810 withher husband and three 
children from Waterbury, Conn. Mr. Tillot- 
son put up the first cabin in Ridgeville. One 
morning Mrs. Tillotson went to a spring some 
thirty rods from her cabin to get a pail of 
water, and then concluded to go a little far- 
ther to see how her husband was progressing 
with a new cabin he was building. She 
started, as she supposed, in the right direc- 
tion, but soon became bewildered and lost in 
the dense woods, and could find neither hus- 
band nor home where she had left little chil- 
dren. After wandering about in the woods 
nearly all day through brush and over logs, 
she came by chance upon the Indian trail 
which led to the mouth of Black river. This 
she took and finally arrived at home in a 
wretched and terribly worn condition. 

Mr. David Beebe, a neighbor of Mrs. Til- 
lotson, was lost in the fall of 1811, and passed 
four days and three nights in the woods. 



Early in the morning he went in search of his 
horses, and the day being cloudy he became 
lost and wandered about all day without the 
least idea of where he was or the direction he 
was going. Night overtaking, he crept into 
a hollow tree, and there passed a sleepless 
night. The next day he moved about unceas- 
ingly to discover some object he knew, but in 
vain, when to his great amazement in looking 
for a lodging place he discovered the same 
hollow tree in which he had passed the pre- 
ceding night. 

Convinced by this that he had been travel- 
ling in a circle, he adopted the plan the fol- 
lowing day of selecting three or more trees in 
a range, and in this way was enabled to travel 
in a direct course. Another night was spent 
in the woods, making his bed under one of 
the trees selected in line. On the forenoon 
of the fourth day he reached the lake shore 
in Avon, and, making his wav westward, 
reached the cabin of John S. lleid at the 
mouth of Black river. While in the woods 
he had subsisted on a few hickory-nuts he had 
carried in his pockets ; but he was in a weak 
and almost famished condition. Every pos- 
sible effort had been made to find the unfor- 
tunate man, men from adjoining towns assist- 
ing neighbore in the search. It was common 
then when parties gathered to search for the 
lost to go with horns to blow and give notice 
to the bewildered one. To illustrate the often 
lonely condition of the first settlers, when 
the Beebe family emigrated to Ohio Mrs. 
Beebe was the first white woman that Mrs. 
Terrell had seen in three mouths. They had 
been neighbors in Connecticut, and were so 
overcome at meeting that neither could for 
some time speak a word. 

The sensation on being lost in the woods is 
most graphically described by Col. Charles 
Whittlesey in his essay, "Two Months in the 
Copper Region," in 1845. He had himself 
twice experienced it. He says it is a species 
of delirium. It oppresses and injures every 
faculty like any other intense and overwhelm- 
ing emotion. Even the most experienced 
woodsmen, Indians and Indian guides, fre- 
quently become subjected to it, become be- 
wildered, miscalculate their position, make 
false reckoning of distances, lose courage and 
abandon themselves to despair and to tears. 
He thus details the sensation : 

"With the mind in a state of perplexity, 
the fatigue of travelling is greater than usual, 
and excessive fatigue in time weakens not 
only the power of exertion but of resolution 
also. The wanderer is finally overtaken with 
an indescribable sensation — one that must be 
experienced to be understood — that of l,0ST- 


"At a moment when all his faculties, in- 
stincts and perceptions are in foil demand, he 
finds them all confused, irregular and weak. 
When every physical power is required to 
carry him forward, his limbs seem to be yield- 
ing to the disorders of his mind. He is filled 
with an oppressive sense of his inefficiency, 
with an indefinite idea of alarm, apprehension 
and dismay. He reasons, but trusts to no 

conclusions. He decides upon the prepon- 
derance of reason and i'act, and is sure to de- 
cide wrong. 

"If he stumble into a trail he has passed 
before, even within a few hours, he does not 
recognize it, or if he should at last, and con- 
clude to follow it, a fatal lunacy impels him 
to take the wrong end. His own tracks are 
the prints or the feet of some other man, and 
if the sun should at last penetrate the fogs 
and clouds that envelop his path, the world 
for a time seems to be turned end for end. 
The sun is out of place : perhaps to his addled 
brain far in the north coursing around to the 
south, or in the west moving towards the east. 
At length, like a dream, the delusion wears 
away, objects put on their natural dress, the 
sun takes up its usual track, streams run to- 
wards their mouths, the compass points to the 
northward ; dejection and weakness give place 
to confidence and elasticity of mind. 

Sand Ridges. 

A very interesting feature of the lake coun- 
ties are the beautiful sand ridges which run 
through this country nearly jiarallel with the 
lake east and west. Upon these ridges the 
pioneer built his first cabin ; upon them ran 
the first roads, and these were the first ulaces 
cultivated, because of their light sandy soil 
and easy cultivation. There are three contin- 
uous sand ridges running through the county 
beside several local ones, and the belief is by 
some geologists that they are old beach lines 
left by the receding waters in their successive 
stages of rest. They vary from forty to one 
hundred and fifty rods in width, and are re- 
spectively three, seven and nine miles from 
the lake, the highest— Butternut ridge— the 
one farther inland, being the first formed. It 
has an altitude of two hundred and four feet 
above the lake, while North ridge, the one 
nearest to it and parallel, has an altitude of 
only from ninety to one hundred feet. Cen- 
tre ridge, which formed a continuous ridge 
nearly if not the entire length of the lake, has 
an altitude of one hundred and sixty-two feet. 
This ridge was used as the first wagon road in 
the county, and was the old stage road be- 
tween Buffalo and Detroit. Jay Terrell says : 
"The ridges were formed from the sand that 
was worn from the rocks by the action of 
water ; hence these ridges are only found 
within the limits of the horizon of sand rock 
exposure. . . . The main ridges all run par- 
allel with the lake, and hence presented a 
natural barrier to the drainage of the land. 
The water coming down from the higher lands 
south settled in behind these ridges, forming 
ponds or small lakes which, as vegetation 
slowly accumulated, finally became swamps. 
Hence are found swamps on the north side 
of all the ridges. ' ' 

In the July number of Sniiman's Journal, 
1850, Col. Whittlesey says : "My opinion has 
been for a number of years that the ridges 
are not 'ancient beaches' of the lake, although 
some of the terraces may be. It is indispen- 
sable to abeach that its foot or water line shotild 



be perfectly horizontal. The lake ridges are 
not so ; and this fact, taken in connection with 
the external form which they assume, clearly 
gives them the character of sub-marine de- 
posits. ' ' 

There are points on this coast where there 
are four ridges rising in succession from the 
lake, as in" the town of Ridgeville, Lorain 
county. In other places there are three, as 
from Geneva to Ashtabula; from Euclid 
through Painesville to Geneva, two ; and 
from Cleveland to Euclid, one. There are 
places where it is difficult to trace any ; and 

in others, as in the city of Cleveland, where 
there are two branches or divisions of one 
ridge for short distances, all about the same 
level and liable to terminate suddenly. The 
ridges are sometimes on the crest of a terrace, 
and sometimes lie like a highway of water- 
washed sand, on the gently inclined surface 
of a plain that descends towards the lake. 
From a regular and beautiful elevated road- 
way the ridge occasionally breaks into sand- 
knolls, as at Avon Centre, Lorain county ; 
at Ohio City, near Cleveland, and at Paines- 
ville, Lake county. 


QuiNCY Adams Gilljiore was born in Black River (now Lorain), Lorain 
county, O., February 25, 1825, and died in Brooklyn, N. Y., April 11, 1888. 
His early life was passed on a farm. In 1849 he graduated at West Point at 
the head of his class. 

His first great distinction was achieved in the siege and capture of Fort Pulaski, 
Georgia, February 19 to April 11, 1862. As commander of the forces engaged 
in this siege, he boldly discarded the traditions of attack upon fortified places, 
and planting his breaching batteries at distances never thought of before, succeeded 
in less than two days' bombardment in rendering untenable a work which the 
most eminent engineers had, in view of its peculiar situation, pronounced impreg- 

In fact. General Gillmore's cannonade and capture of Fort Pulaski revolutionized 
the naval gunnery of the world, and extended his fame throughout Europe as well 
as America. 

For this service he received the brevet of 
lieutenant-colonel, and was made brigadier- 
general of volunteers, April 28, 1862. 













His next notable success was with the noted 
"Swamp Angel," a gun used in the siege of 

Charleston. The gun was apparently planted 
in the edge of the sea, but really in the shal- 
low marsh between Morris and James islands. 
There a firm foundation was laid, a low breast- 
work put up in a circle around the gun, and 
one-hundred-pound shells were "dropped" 
into Charleston. But it was only fired thirty- 
six times, exploding at the last discharge. 
Other guns soon after did as eflFective work, 
but the " Swamp Angel" is remembered be- 
cause it first proved the practicability of the 

Later, with his (Tenth) corps, he took part 
in the final operations of the army on the 
James river. He received brevets of briga- 
dier-general and major-general for services be- 
fore Charleston, resigning his volunteer com- 
mission as major-general in December, 1865. 

After the war he was engaged upon iin- 
portant engineering works, and his name is 
most intimately associated with the improve- 
ment of the harbors at Charleston and Savan- 
nah, with other like works along the Atlantic 
coast, and as president of the Mississippi 
River Commission with the great works 
which have been projected for the rectifica- 
tion of that important water-way. Outside 
of his military record. General Gillmore gained 
a high reputation by his published studies in 
cements and mortars, concretes and building 
stone, and road-making and paving, and his 
treatises on these subjects are regarded as of 
the highest authority. 

Asa Mahan was born in Vernon, N. Y., 
November 9, 1800. Graduated at Hamilton 



College in 1824, and at Andover Theological 
Seminary in 1827. In 1831 he was pastor of 
a Presbyterian church at Cincinnati, and four 
years later accepted the i^residcncy of Oberlin 
College, which he held for fifteen years. 
After leaving Oberlin he was president of 
Cleveland University, and later, Adrian Col- 
lege, Michigan. He received the degrees of 
D. D. and LL. D., and after 1871 resided in 
England. He is the author of a number of 
theological works. 

Charles Grandison Finney was born in 
Warren, Conn., August 29, 1792, and died 
at Oberlin, Ohio, August 16, 1875. As a 
young man he began the study of law, but 
having been converted in 1 821 , was licensed 
to preach in the Presbyterian church. He 
was a very successful evangelist. In 1835 
he accepted the professorship of theology at 
Oberlin. From 1851 to 1866 he was president 
of Oberlin, during which period he spent 
three years as a revivalist in England, and 

remaining there seven years. He was ap- 
pointed by President Grant a member of the 
Board of Healtli of the District of Columbia, 
and was elected its secretary in 1875. In 
1877-85 he was United States Minister and 
Consul-General in Hayti. On his return to 
this country he was appointed president of 
the Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute 
in Petersburg, which office he now (1887) 
holds. In addition to various addresses and 
papers on political, biographical, literary and 
scientific subjects, Mr. Langston is the author 
of a volume of select addresses entitled 
' Freedom and Citizenship,' Washington, 

Chas. Carroll Parsons was born in Ely- 
ria in 1838 ; graduated at West Point in 1861. 
In the war he took command of a battery, 
"Parsons' battery," which was famous in 
both Union and Confederate armies, and 
many stories are told of his courage and dar- 
ing. In one instance he remained with his 
guns until dragged from them by the order 
of Gen. JlcCook. 

After the war he was chief of artillery in 
Gen. Hancock's Indian expedition. Later 
he took orders in the Protestant Episcopal 
church. _ He died September 7, 1878, at 
jremphis, during the yellow-fever epidemic, 
from overwork in his heroic ministrations as 
nurse and clergyman. 

Stevenson Burke, so eminent as a law- 
yer, jurist, president of many railw-^ys and 
other corporations, passed his early youth 
and manhood in this county, where he was 
admitted to the bar in 1 848, and is now re- 
siding in Cleveland. From penury he fought 
his way to such success that few great cases 
have been tried in Northern Ohio within the 
last twenty-five years in which he_ has not 
been engaged. He possesses untiring pow- 

ers of ajiplieation, executive capacity, 
genial, winning ways. 

gained a very great reputation for i 

His " Lectures on Revivals" was translated 

into several foreign languages. 

John Mercee Langston was born in 
Louisa county. Va., December 14, 1829. At 
the age of six he was emancipated from 
slavery. Appleton's " Cyclopaedia of Amer- 
ican Biography" says of him: "He was 
graduated at Oberlin in 1849, and at the the- 
ological department in 1853. After studying 
law he was admitted to the bar of Ohio in 
1854, and practised his profession there until 
1869, during which time he was clerk of sev- 
eral townships in Ohio, being the first colored 
man elected to an office of any sort by pop- 
ular vote. He was also a member of the 
Board of Education of Oberlin. In 1869 he 
was called to a professorship of law in How- 
ard University, Washington, D. C, and 
became dean of the faculty of the law de- 
partment, and active in its organization, 

Lorain is on Lake Erie, at the mouth of the Black river, on the N. Y. C. & 
St. L. and C. L. & W. Railroads. It is eight miles from Elyria, thirty miles 
from Sandusky, and twenty-eight from Cleveland. City officers : INIayor, Otto 
Braun; Clerk, John Stack; Treasurer, T. F. Daniels; Marshal, H. Osgood; 
Street Commissioner, James White. Newspaper : Lorain Times, ludejjendent, 
Thomas G. Chapman, editor. Churches : one Methodist, one Congregational, one 
Disciples, one German Evangelical, one German Lutheran, one Catholic, and one 
Baptist. Bank : First National, David Wallace, president, T. F. Daniels, cashier. 

Maimfadures and Employees. — The United Co., brass goods, 310 hands ; 
Lorain Iron Foundry, castings, 6 ; C. L. & W. R. R. Shojjs, railroad cars, 36 ; 
C. L. & W. R. R. Repair Shop, railroad repairs, 90 ; Lorain Lumber and Manu- 
facturing Co., planing mill, 5 ; Williams, Barrows & Co., flour, etc., 6. — State 
ReporU, 1887. Population, 1880, 1,595. School census, 1888, 1,059. Capital 
invested in manufactures, §105,000. Value of annual product, $130,000. — 
Ohio Labor Statistics, 1SS8. 

Lorain, as a village, is comparatively new ; but, being at the mouth of Black 
river, the point has long been an important one. The harbor here is one of the 
best on the lake. For over three miles the stream exceeds a widtli of 200 feet, 
with an average depth of about fifteen feet, sufficient for the largest craft on the 
lake. It has long been an important point for shipbuilding. ' In 1836 was 
formed here an association called the " Black River Steamboat A.ssociation." Up 


to 1876 the number of steamboats, brigs, schooners, barks and sloops built here 
had aggregated 125, besides many scows — beginning with the " General Hunting- 
ton," built in 1819. The place was first called Black River. In 1836 the village 
was incorporated as Charleston, and was growing into importance as a shipping 
point for grain, when the Cleveland & Toledo and other railroads diverted its 
trade, and the place fell into ruin. In 1874 it was reincorporated under its 
present name, having obtained railroad connections and giving evidence of a 
returning life. 

Grafton is about eight miles southeast of Elyria, on the C. C. C. & I. and 
C. L. & W. Railroads. It has churches : one Presbyterian, one Methodist, and 
one Catholic, and about 700 population. 

La Grange is on the C. C. C. & I. Railroad, seven miles easterly from Wel- 
lington, and has about 500 inhabitants. School census, 1888, 156. 


Lucas County, named from the Hon. Robert Lucas, Governor of Ohio from 
1832 to 1836, was formed in June, 1835. The surface is level, a portion of it 
covered by the black swamp, and the northern part a sandy soil. 

Area about 440 square miles. In 1887 the acres cultivated were 67,552 ; in 
pasture, 8,659 ; woodland, 22,789 ; lying waste, 2,662 ; produced in wheat, 
223,061 bushels ; rye, 35,900 ; buckwheat, 3,834 ; oats, 338,045 ; barley, 14,034 ; 
corn, 582,549; broom-corn, 600 lbs. brush; meadow hay, 13,622 tons; clover 
hay, 5,779; flaxseed, 1,604 bushels; potatoes, 156,618 bushels; butter, 412,986 
lbs.; sorghum, 766 gallons ; maple sugar, 75 lbs. ; honey, 4,835 lbs. ; eggs, 
298,618 dozen; grapes, 640,289 lbs.; wine, 25,126 gallons ; apples, 90,136 
bushels; peaches, 3,036; pears, 2,913; wool, 26,837 lbs.; milch cows owned, 
4,968. School census, 1888, 30,401 ; teachers, 372. Miles of railroad track, 256. 

Townships and Census. 1840. 1880. Townships and Census. 1840. 1880. 












Swan Creek, 













Toledo (City), 












Port Lawrence, 















Royal ton, 


Population of Lucas in 1840, 9,392; 1860, 25,831; 1880, 67,377, of 
whom 37,283 were born in Ohio; 4,263 in New York ; 1,599, Pennsylvania; 
762, Indiana; 237, Virginia; 225, Kentucky; 8,267, German Empire'; 3,284, 
Ireland ; 1,688, British America ; 1,338, England and Wales ; 419, France ; 213, 
Scotland, and 73, Sweden and Norway. Census of 1890, 102,296. 


Battle of the Fallen Timbers. 

This region of country — the Maumee valley — has been the theatre of 
impoi-taut historical incidents. The greatest event, Wayne's victory, or " the 
battle of Fallen Timbers," was fought August 20, 1794, within the limits of 
this county. 

On the "28th of July, Wayne having been joined by General Scott, with 1,600 
mounted Kentuckians, moved forward to the Maumee. By the 8th of August 
the army had arrived near the junction of the Auglaize with that stream, and 
commenced the erection of Fort Defiance, at that point. The Indians, having 
learned from a deserter of the approach of Wayne's army, hastily abandoned 
their headquarters at Auglaize, and thus defeated the plan of Wayne to surprise 
them, for which object he had cut two roads, intending to march by either. At Fort 
Defiance, Wavne received full information of the Indians, and the assistance they 
were to derive from the volunteers at Detroit and vicinity. On the 13th of 
August, true to the spirit of peace advised by Washington, he sent Christian 
Miller, who had been naturalized among the Shawanese, as a special messenger 
to oiTer terms of friendship. Impatient of delay, he moved forward, and on the 
16th met INIiller On his return with the message, that if the Americans would 
wait ten days at Grand Glaize (Fort Defiance) they — the Indians — would decide 
for peace or war. On the 18th the army arrived at Roche de Bmif, just south 
of the site of Waterville, where they erected some light works as a place of 
deposit for their heavy baggage, which was named Fort Deposit. During the 
19th the army labored at their works, and about eight o'clock on the morning 
of the 20th moved forward to attack the Indians, who were encamped on the 
bank of the Maumee, at and around a hill called " Presque Isle," about two miles 
south of the site of Maumee City, and four south of the British Fort Miami. 
From Wayne's report of the battle we make the following extract : 

The legion was on the right, its flank advance and support the first ; and directed 
covered by the Maumee: one brigade of Major-General Scott to gain and turn the 
mounted volunteers on the left, under Brig.- right flank of the savages with the whole 
Gen. Todd, and the other in the rear, under force of the mounted volunteers b}' a circuit- 
Brig. -Gen. Barbee. A select battalion of ous route; at the same time I ordered the 
mounted volunteers moved in front of the front line to advance and charge with trailed 
legion, commanded by Major Price, who was arms, and rouse the Indians from their 
directed to keep sufficiently advanced so as coverts at the point of the bayonet, and 
to give timely notice for the troops to form when up, to deliver a close and well-_di- 
in case of action, it being yet undetermined rected fire on their backs, followed by a brisk 
whether the Indians would decide for peace charge, so as not to give them time to load 
or war. again. 

After advancing about five miles. Major I also ordered Captain Campbell, who corn- 
Price's corps received so severe a fire from manded the legionary cavalry, to turn the 
the enemy, who were secreted in the wood left flank of the enemy next the river, and 
and high grass, as to compel them to re- which afibrded a favorable field for that corps 
treat. The legion was immediately formed to act in. All these orders were obeyed with 
in two lines, principally in a close thick wood, spirit and promptitude; but such was the 
which extended for miles on our left, and for impetuosity of the charge by the first lineof 
a very considerable distance in front ; the infantry, that the Indians and Canadian 
ground being covered with old fallen timber, militia and volunteers were drove from all 
probably occasioned by a tornado, which their coverts in so short a time that, although 
rendered it impracticable for the cavalry to every possible exertion was used by the 
act with eflFect, and afi"orded the enemy the officers of the second line of the legion, and 
most favorable covert for their mode of war- by Generals Scott, Todd and Barbee, of the 
fare. The savages were formed in three mounted volunteers, to gain their proper 
lines, within supporting distance of each positions, but part of each could get up in 
other, and extending for near two miles at season to participate in the action ; the 
right angles with the river. I soon discovered, enemy being drove, in the course of one hour, 
from the weight of the fire and extent of more than two miles through the thick woods 
their lines, that the enemy were in full force already mentioned, by less than one-half their 
in front, in possession of their favorite ground numbers. From every account the enemy 
and endeavoring to turn our left flank. I amounted to two thousand combatants. The 
therefore gave orders for the second line to troops actually engaged against them were 


shortof nine hundred. This horde of savages, the most essential service by communicating 

with their allies, abandoned themselves to my orders in every direction, and by their 

flight, and dispersed with terror and dismay, conduct and bravery exciting the troops to 

leaving our victorious army in full and quiet press for victory. 

possession of the field of battle, which ter- The loss of the enemy was more than that 

minated under the influence of the guns of of the federal army. The woods were 

the British garrison. . . . strewed for a considerable distance with the 

The bravery and conduct of every ofiicer dead bodies of Indians and their white auxil- 

belonging to the army, from the generals iaries, the latter armed with British muskets 

down to the ensigns, merit my highest appro- and bayonets. 

bation. There were, however, some whose We remained three days and nights on the 
rank and situation placed their conduct in a banks of the Maumee, in front of the field 
very conspicuous point of view, and which I of battle, during which time all the houses 
observed with pleasiire, and the most lively and corn-fields were consumed and destroyed 
gratitude ; among whom I must beg leave for a considerable distance, both above and 
to mention Brigadier-General Wilkinson and below Fort Miami, as well as within pistol- 
Colonel Hamtramck, the commandants of shot of the garrison, who were compelled to 
the right and left wings of the legion, whose remain tacit spectators to this general devasta- 
brave example inspired the troops._ To those tion and conflagration, among which were the 
I must add the names of my faithful and houses, stores and property of Colonel 
gallant aides-de-camp, Captains De Butt and McKee, the British Indian agent and princi- 
T. Lewis, and Lieutenant Harrison, who, with pal stimulator of the war now existing 
the Adjutant-General, Major Mills, rendered between the United States and the savages. 

The loss of the Americans in this battle was 33 killed and 100 wounded, in- 
cluding 5 officers among the killed, and 19 wounded. 

One of the Canadians taken in the action estimated the force of the Indians 
at about 1,400. He also stated that about seventy Canadians were with them, 
and that Col. McKee, Capt. Elliott and Simon Girty were in tiie field, but at a 
respectful distance, and near the river. When the broken remains of the Indian 
army were pursued under the British fort, the soldiers could scarcely be restrained 
from storming it. This, independent of its results in bringing on a war with 
Great Britain, would have been a desperate measure, as the fort mounted ten 
pieces of artillery, and was garrisoned by four hundred and fifty men, while 
Wayne had no armament proper to attack such a strongly fortified place. While 
the troops remained in the vicinity, there did not appear to be any communication 
between the garrison and the savages. 

The gates were shut against them, and their rout and slaughter witnessed with 
apparent unconcern by the British. That the Indians were astonished at the 
lukewarmness of their real allies, and regarded the fort, in case of defeat, as a 
place of refuge, is evident from various circumstances, not the least of which was 
the well-known reproach of Tecumseh, in his celebrated speech to Proctor, after 
Perry's victory. The near approach of the troops brought forth a letter of re- 
monstrance from Major Campbell, the British commandant, to General Wayne. 
A sharp correspondence ensued, but without any especial results. The morning 
before the army left. General Wayne, after arranging his force in such a maimer 
as to show they were all on the alert, advanced witii his numerous staff and a small 
body of cavalry to the glacis of the British fort, reconnoitring it with great 
deliberation, while the garrison were seen with lighted matches, prepared for any 
emergency. It is said that Wayne's party overheard one of the British subordinate 
officers ajjpeal to jMajnr Cauipljell for permission to fire upon the cavalcade, and 
avenge such an insulting parade under his majesty's guns; but that officer chided 
him with the abrupt exclamation, "Be a gentleman ! be a gentleman ! " On the 
27th Wayne's army returned to Fort Defiance, by easy marches,. laying waste the 
villages and corn-fields of the Indians, for about fifty miles on each side of the 
Maumee : this was done with the hope tliat the fear of famine would prove a 
powerful auxiliary in producing peace. 

Jonathan Alder, wiio was at this time living with the Indians, has given in his 
MS. autobiography the Indian account of the battle of Fallen Timbere. He 
says, after describing the attack un P'ort Recovery and the retreat to Defiance: 



We remained here (Defiaiict) about two 
weeks, until we heard of the approaL'li of 
Wayne, when we packed up our goods and 
started for the old English fort at the Maumee 
rapids. Here we prepared ourselves for 
battle, and sent the women and children down 
about three miles below the fort ; and as I 
did not wish to fight, they sent nje to San- 
dusky, to inform some Wyandots there of 
the great battle that was about to take place. 
I remained at Sandusky until the battle was 
over. The Indians did not wait more than 
three or four days, before Wayne made his 
appearance at the head of a long prairie on 
the river, where he halted, and waited for an 
opportunity to suit himself Now the Indians 
are very curious about fighting ; for when 
they know they are going into a battle they 
will not eat anything just previous. They 
say that if a man is shot in the body when 
he is entirely empty, there is not half as 
much danger of the ball passing through the 
bowels as when they are full. So they started 
the first morning without eating anything, 
and moving up to the end of the prairie, 
ranged^ themselves in order of battle at the 
edge of the timber. There they waited all day 
without any food, and at night returned and 
partook of their suppers. The second morn- 
ing they again placed themselves in the same 
position, and again returned at night and 
supped. By this time they had begun to get 
weak from eating only once a daj', and con- 
cluded they would eat breakfast before they 
again started. So the next morning they 
began to cook and eat. Some were eating, 
and others, who had finished, had moved for- 
ward to their stations, when Wayne's army 
was seen approaching. Soon as they were 
within gunshot, the Indians began firing upon 
them ; but Wayne, making no halt, rushed 
on upon them. Only a small part of the 
Indians being on the ground they were 
obliged to give back, and finding Wayne too 
strong for them, attempted to retreat. Those 
who were on the way heard the noise and 
spraiig to their assistance. So some were 
running from and others to the battle, which 
created great confusion. In the meantime 
the light horse had gone entirely around, and 
came in upon their rear, blowing their horns 
and closing in upon them. The Indians now 
found that they were completely sun'ounded, 
and all that could made their escape, and the 
balance were all killed, which was no small 
number. Among these last, with one or two 
exceptions, were all the Wyandots that lived 
at Sandusky at the time I went to inform them 
of the expected battle. The main body of 
the Indians were back nearly two miles from 
the battle-ground, and Wayne had taken 
them by surprise, and made such a slaughter 
among them that they were entirely discour- 
aged, and m,ade the best of their way to their 
respective homes. 

Explanations. — The map shows about 8 miles of 
the country along each side of the Mauniee, in- 
cluding the towns of Perrysburgh, Maumee City 
and Waterville. 

Roch %d t 
de Boy.t.\t,ti 

Just previous to the battle of the Fallen Tim- 
bers, in August, 1794, Wayne'sarmy was encamped 
at a locality called Euclie de Bosvf, a short dis- 
tance above the site of Waterville. The battle 
commenced at the Piesque Isle Hill. The routed 
Indians were pursued to even under the guns of 
the British Fort Miami. 

Fort Meigs, memorable for having sustained two 
sieges in the year 1813, is shown on the east side 
of the Maumee, with the British batteries ou both 
sides of the river, and above the British fort, the 
position of Proctor's encampment. For a more full 
delineation of this last, see AVood County. 


We insert below some anecdotes of the battle, the first three of which are 
derived from a published source, and the last second-hand from Gen. Harrison. 

At the time Capt. Campbell was endeavor- 
ing to turn the left flank of the enemy three 
Indians, being hemmed in by the cavalry and 
infantry, plunged into the river and endeav- 
ored to swim to the opposite side. Two 
negroes of the army, on the opposite bank, 
concealed themselves behind a log to intercept 
them. When within shooting distance, one 
of them shot the foremost through the head. 
The othar two took hold of him to drag him 
to shore, when the second pegro fired and 
killed another. The remaining Indian being 
now in shoal water, endeavored to tow the 
dead bodies to the hank. In the meantime 
the first negro had reloaded, and, firing upon 
the survivor, mortally wounded him. On ap- 
proaching them, the negroes judged from 
their striking resemblance and devotion that 
they were JDrothers. After scalping them 
they let their bodies float down the stream. 

Another circumstance goes to show with 
what obstinacy the conflict was maintained 
by individuals in both armies. A soldier who 
had got detached a short distance from the 
army met a single Indian in the woods, when 
they attacked each other — the soldier with 
his bayonet, the Indian with his tomahawk. 
Two days after, they were found dead ; the 

soldier with his bayonet in the body of the 
Indian — the Indian with his tomahawk in the 
head of the soldier 

Several months after the battle of Fallen 
Timbers a number of Potawatamie Indians 
arrived at Fort Wayne, where they expressed 
a desire to see '''The Wind" as they called 
Gen. Wayne. On being asked for an explana- 
tion of the name, they replied, that at the 
battle of the 20th of August he was exactly 
like a hurricane, which drives and tears every- 
thing before it. 

General Wayne was a man of most ardent 
impulses, and in the heat of action apt to 
forget that he was the general — not the sol- 
dier. When the attack on the Indians, who 
were concealed behind the fallen timbers, was 
commenced by ordering the regulars up, the 
late General Harrison, then aide to Wayne, 
being lieutenant with the title of major, ad- 
dressed his superior — "General Wayne, I'm 
afraid you'll get into the fight yourself, and 
forget to give me the necessary field orders." 
"Perhaps I may," replied Wayne, " and if 
I do, recollect the standing order for the day 
is, charge the d d rascals with the bayo- 
nets ! ' ' 

That this Indian war was in a great measure sustained by British influence 
admits of ample proof. That they lent their aid in this campaign and battle is 
fully confirmed in the extract given from a letter from General Harrison to Hon. 
Themas Chilton, dated North Bend, February 17, 1834 : 

That the Northwestern and Indian war was 
a continuation of the Revolutionary contest 
is susceptible of proof The Indians in that 
quarter had been engaged in the first seven 
years of the war as the allies of Great Brit- 
ain, and tkey had no inclination to continue 
it after the peace of 1783. It is to British 
influence that their subsequent hostilities are 
to be attributed. The agents of that govern- 
ment never ceased to stimulate their enmity 
against the government of the United States, 
and to represent the peace which had been 
made as a temporary truce, at the expiration 
of which "their great fathers would unite 
with them in the war, and drive the long 
knives from the lands which they had so 
unjustly usurped from his red children." 
This was the cause of the detention of the 
posts of Detroit, Mackinaw and Niagara so 
long after the treaty of 1783. The reasons 
assigned for so doing deceived nobody after 
the failure of the negotiation attempted by 
General Lincoln, Governor Randolph and 
Colonel Pickering, under British mediation 
voluntarily tendered. 

'The bare suggestion of a wish by the 
British authorities would have been sufficient 
to induce the Indians to accept the terms 

groposed bj the American Commissioners. 
'Ut at any rate the withholding the supplies 
with which the Indians had been previously 

furnished would have left no other alternative 
but to make peace. From that period, how- 
ever, the war was no longer carried on " in 
disguise." Acts of open hostility were com- 
mitted. In June, 1794, the Indians assem- 
bled at the Miami of the Lake, and were 
completely equipped out of the King's store, 
from the fort (a large and regularly fortified 
Wf'k) which had been built there in the 
preceding spring, for the purpose of sup- 
porting the operations of the Indians 
against the army of General Wayne. 
Nor was the assistance limited to the supply 
of provisions and munitions of war. On the 
advance of the Indians they were attended 
by a captain of the British army, a sergeant, 
and six matrosses, provided with fixed ammu- 
nition, suited to the calibre of two ield- 
pieces which had been taken from General 
St. Clair and deposited in a creek near the 
scene of his defeat in 1791. Thus attended, 
they appeared before Fort Recovery (the ad- 
vanced post of our army), on the 4th of July, 
1 794, and having defeated a large detachment 
of our troops, encamped under its walls, and 
would probably have succeeded in taking the 
fort if the guns which they expected to find 
had not been previously discovered and re- 
moved. In this action Captain Hartshorn, 
of the First Sub-legion, was wounded by the 
Indians, and afterwards killed in a struggle 



with Captain McKee, of the British army. 
[It is proper to state that Captain MeKee 
asserted that he interfered to save Hartshorn, 
but that he refused quarter and attempted to 
kill him (McKee), and would have succeeded 
if he had not been anticipated by his (Mc- 
Kee's) servant] 

Upon the advance of the American army 
in the following month, the British fort at 
the Rapids was again a point of rendezvous 
for the Indians. There the deficiencies in 
arms, ammunition and equipments were 
again supplied ; and there they were fed with 
regular rations from the king's stores, con- 
sisting of flour and Irish beef, until the arri- 
val ot General Wayne with his army on the 
20th of August. In the general action of 
that day there were two militia companies 
from Amherstburg and Detroit. The captain 
of the cutter (who was also the clerk of the 
court at that place) was found among the 
killed, and one of his privates taken prisoner. 
These unequivocal acts of hostility on the 
part of Great Britain did not pass unnoticed 
by our government, and although anxious to 
avoid a general war, the President determined 
that the aggression on our territory by the 
erection of a fortress so far within our ac- 
knowledged limits required some decisive 

Authority was therefore given to General 

Wayne to dispossess the intruders, if, in his 
opinion, it was necessary to the success of his 
operations against the Indians. 

Although the qualification of this order, in 
its literal sense, might be opposed to its exe- 
cution after the entire defeat of the Indians 
— the daring violation of neutrality which 
was professed, by the supply of food, arms 
and ammunition to the enemy on the very 
morning of the action, afforded, in the opin- 
ion of General Wayne, a sufficient justifica- 
tion for its being carried into effect. An ac- 
curate examination, however, of the defences 
of the fort, made by the general at great per- 
sonal hazard, showed but too clearly that our 
small howitzers, which had been transported 
on the backs of horses, our only artillery, 
could make no impression upon its massive 
earthen parapet, while the deep fosse and 
frasing by which it was surrounded afforded 

no prospect of the success of an 

but at an expense of valuable lives, which 

the occasion did not seem to call for. 

From my situation as aide-de-camp to the 
general-in-chief I mention these things from 
personal knowledge. If, then, the relation 
I have given is correct, it must be admitted 
that the war of the Revolution continued in the 
western connti-y until the peace of Greenville 
in 1795. 

There were some individuals on both sides who took an active part, either in 
the battle or its connecting events, who demand more than a passing notice. 
Among these were the faithful spies of Wayne, whose exploits McDonald in his 
sketches thus describes : 

General Wayne, having a bold, vigilant 
and dexterous enemy to contend with, found 
it indispensably necessary to use the utmost 
caution in his movements to guard against 
surprise. To secure his army against the 
possibiUty of being ambuscaded, he employed 
a number of the best woodsmen the frontier 
afforded to act as spies. Captain Ephraim 
Kibby, one of the first settlers at Columbia, 
who had distinguished himself as a bold and 
intrepid soldier, commanded the principal 
part of this corps. 

A very effective division of the spies was 
commanded by Captain William Wells. At- 
tached to Wells' command were the following 
men : Robert McClellan, one of the most 
active men on foot that ever lived. Next to 
him was Henry ]Miller, who deserves here a 
passing notice. He and a younger brother, 
named Christopher, had been made captives 
by the Indians while quite young, and adopted 
into an Indian family. He lived with them 
until about 24 years of age, when, although 
he had adopted all their customs, he began 
to think of returning to his relatives among 
the whites. His resolution continually gain- 
ing strength by reflection, he determined to 
make the attempt, and endeavored to induce 
his brother to accompany him in his flight, 
but to no purpose. Christopher was young 
when captured ; he was now a good hunter, 

an expert woodsman and a free and indepen- 
dent Indian. Henry Miller, however, escaped 
through the woods, and arrived safe among 
his friends in Kentucky. Captain Wells was 
ftimiliar with Miller during his captivity, and 
knew that he possessed that firm intrepidity 
which would render him a valuable compan- 
ion in time of need. To these were added 
Hickman, May and Thorp, all men of tried 
worth in Indian warfare. 

Captain Wells and his four companions 
were confidential and privileged gentlemen 
in camp, who were only called upon to do 
duty upon very particular and interesting oc- 
casions. They were permitted a carte blanche 
among the horses of the dragoons, and when 
on duty always went well mounted ; while 
the spies, commanded by Captain Kibby, went 
on foot and were kept constantly on the alert 
scouring the country in every direction. 

In June, 1794, while the headquarters of 
the army was at Greenville, Wayne dispatched 
Wells with his corps, with orders to bring an 
Indian into the camp as prisoner. Accord- 
ingly, he proceeded cautiously with his party 
through the Indian country. They crossed 
the St. Mary's, and thence to the Auglaize, 
without meeting with any straggling parties 
of Indians. In passing up the latter they 
discovered a smoke, dismounted, tied up 
their horses and cautiously reconnoitred. 


They found three Indians encamped on a 
high, open piece of ground, clear of brush or 
any undergrowth, rendering it difficult to ap- 
proach them without being aiscovered. While 
reconnoitring they saw not very distant from 
the camp a fallen tree. They returned and 
went round, so as to get it between them and 
the Indians. The tree top being full of 
leaves would serve to screen them from ob- 
servation. They crept forward on their hands 
and knees with the caution of the cat, until 
they reached it, when they were within sev- 
enty or eighty yards of the camp. The In- 
dians were sitting or standing about the fire, 
roasting their venison, laughing and making 
merry antics, little dreaming that death was 
about stealing a march upon them. Arrived 
at the fallen tree, their plans were settled. 
McClellan, who was almost as swift of foot as 
a deer, was to catch the centre Indian, while 
Wells and Miller were to kill the other two, 
one shooting to the right and the other to the 
left. Resting the muzzles of their rifles on a 
log of the fallen tree, they aimed for the In- 
dians' hearts. Whiz went the balls, and 
both Indians fell. Before the smoke had 
risen two feet, McClellan was running with 
uplifted tomahawk for the remaining Indian, 
who bounded down the river, but finding 
himself likely to be headed if he continued 
in that direction, he turned and made for the 
river, which at that place had a bluff bank 
about twenty feet high. On reaching it he 
sprang ofiF into the stream and sunk to his 
middle in the soft mud at its bottom. Mc- 
Clellan came after and instantly sprang upon 
him, as he was wallowing and endeavoring to 
extricate himself from the mire. The Indian 
drew his knife, the other raised his tomahawk 
and bade him throw down his knife or he 
would kill him instantly. He did so, and 
surrendered without further opposition. 

By this time Wells and his companion came 
to the bank, and discovered the two quietly 
sticking in the mud. Their prisoner being 
secure, they selected a place where the bank 
was less precipitous, went down, dragged the 
captive out and tied him. He was sulky and 
refused to speak either Indian or English. 
Some of the party went back for their horses, 
while the others washed the mud and paint 
from the prisoner. When cleaned he turned 
out to be a white man, but still refused to 
speak, or give any account of himself. The 
party scalped the two Indians whom they had 
shot, and then set oiF for headquarters. 
Henry Miller having some suspicions that 
their prisoner might possibly be his brother 
Christopher, whom he had left with the In- 
dians years previous, rode up along side of 
him, and called him by his Indian name. At 
the sound he started, stared around, and 
eagerly inquired how he came to know his 
name. The mystery was soon explained. 
Their prisoner was indeed Christopher Miller ! 
A mysterious providence ajjpeared to have 
placed him in a situation in the camp by 
which his life was preserved. Had he been 
standing either to the richt or to the left, he 
would inevitably have been killed, and an 

even chance, too, if not by his own brother. 
But that fate which appears to have doomed 
the Indian race to extinction permitted the 
white man to live. 

When they arrived at Greenville their pris- 
oner was placed in the guard-house. Wayne 
often interrogated him as to what he knew of 
the future intentions of the Indians. Captain 
Wells and his brother Henry were almost 
constantly with him, urging him to abandon 
the idea of ever again joining the Indians, 
and to unite with the whites. For some time 
he was reserved and sulky, but at length be- 
came more cheerful, and agreed that if they 
would release him from his confinement he 
would remain among them. Captain WelLs 
and Henry Miller urged Wayne to release 
him, who did so, with the observation that 
should he deceive them and return to the 
enemy they would be one the stronger. He 
appeared pleased with his change of situation, 
and was mounted on a fine horse, and other- 
wise equipped for war. He joined the com- 
pany of Wells, and continued through the 
war a brave and intrepid soldier. 

As soon as Wells and his company had 
rested themselves, they were anxious for an- 
other hout with the red men. Time without 
action was irksome to such stirring spirits. 
Accordingly, in July they left Greenville, 
their number strengthened by the addition of 
Christopher Miller, with orders to bring in 
prisoners. When on these excursions they 
were always mounted on elegant horses, and 
dressed and painted in Indian style. They 
arrived in the country near the Auglaize, 
when they met a single Indian, and called 
upon him to surrender. Notwithstanding 
there were six against him, he refused, lev- 
elled his rifle, and as they approached him 
on horseback, fired, missed his mark and then 
ran. The thick underbrush enabling him to 
gain upon them, Christopher Miller and 
McClellan dismounted and pursued, and the 
latter soon overtook him. Upon this he 
turned and made a blow at McClellan with 
his rifle, which was parried. As it was 
McClellan' s intention not to kill, he kept him 
at bay until Christopher came up, when they 
closed in and made him prisoner without re- 
ceiving injur}'. They then turned about and 
arrived with him at Greenville. He was re- 
ported to be a Pottawatamie chief of scarcely 
equalled courage and prowess. As Christo- 
pher Miller had performed his part on this 
occasion to the entire satisfaction of the brave 
spirits with whom he acted, he had, as he 
merited, their entire confidence. 

On one of Captain Wells' peregrinations 
through the Indian country, as he came to 
the bank of the St. Mary's, he discovered a 
family of Indians coming up the river in a 
canoe. He dismounted from his horse and 
concealed his men, while he went to the bank 
of the river in open view, and called to the 
Indians to come over. As he was dressed in 
Indian costume and spoke in that language, 
they crossed to him unsuspicious of danger. 
The moment the canoe struck the shore 
Wells heard the nicking of the cocks of his 


comrades' rifles as they prepared to shoot the 
Indians ; but who should be in the canoe but 
his Indian father and mother with their chil- 
dren ! The others were now coming forward 
with their rifles cocked and readj' to pour in 
a deadly fire upon this family. Wells shouted 
to them to desist, informing them who the 
Indians were, solemnly declaring that the first 
man who attempted to injure one of them 
should receive a ball in his head. "That 
family," said he to his men, "had fed him 
when hungry, clothed him when naked, and 
nursed him when sick, aed had treated him 
as affectionately as their own children." This 
short speech moved the sympathetic hearts 
of his leather-hunting-shirt comrades, who 
entered at once into his feelings and approved 
of his lenity. Dropping their tomahawks and 
rifles, they went to the canoe and shook hands 
with the trembling Indians in the most friendly 
manner. Wells assured them they had noth- 
ing to fear ; and after talking with them for 
some time, to dispel their anxiety he told 
them "that General Wayne was approaching 
with an overwhelming force ; that the best 
thing the Indians could do was to make peace, 
and that the whites did not wish to continue 
the war. He urged his Indian father to keep 
for the future out of danger ;" he then bade 
them farewell. They appeared grateful for 
his clemency, pushed off their canoe, and 
paddled with their utmost rapidity down 
stream. Captain Wells and his comrades, 
though perfect desperadoes in fight, upon 
this occasion proved that they largely pos- 
sessed that gratitude and benevolence which 
does honor to human kind. 

WhUe Wayne's army lay at the Indian vil- 
lage at the confluence of the Auglaize and 
Maumee, building Fort Defiance, the general 
wishing to be informed of the intentions of 
the enemy, dispatched Captain Wells' party 
to bring in another prisoner. They consisted 
of Wells, McClellan, the Millers, May and 
Mahaffy. They proceeded cautiously down 
the_ Maumee until opposite the site of Fort 
Meigs, where was an Indian village. This 
was on the 11th of August, nine days before 
the battle. Wells and his party boldly rode 
into this t«wn as if they had come from the 
British fort, and occasionally stopped and 
talked with the Indians in their language. 
The savages believed them to be Indians 
from a distance, who had come to take part 
in the expected battle. After passing through 
the village they met some distance from it an 
Indian man and woman on horseback, who 
were returning to town from hunting. They 
made them captives without resistance, and 
set off for Defiance. 

A little after dark they came near a large 
encampment of Indians, merrily amusing 
themselves around their camp fires. Order- 
ing their prisoners to he silent under pain of 
instant death, they went around the camp 
until they got about half a mile above it. 
They then held_ a consultation, tied and 

fagged their prisoners, and rode into the 
ndian camp with their rifles lying across the 
pummels of their saddles. They inquired 

when they had heard last of General Wayne 
and the movements of his army, and how 
soon and where the expected battle would be 
fought. The Indians standing about Wells 
and his party were very communicative, and 
answered the questions without any suspi- 
cions of deceit in their visitors. At length 
an Indian who was sitting at some distance 
said in an undertone in another tongue to 
some who were near him that he suspected 
these strangers had some mischief in their 
heads. Wells overheard it, gave the precon- 
certed signal, and each fired his rifle into the 
body of an Indian at not more than six feet 
distance. The moment the Indian had made 
the remark, he and his companions rose up 
with their rifles in hand, but not before each 
of the others had shot their man. The mo- 
ment after Wells and party had flred thi;y 
put spurs to their horses, lying with their 
breasts on the animals' necks, so as to lessen 
the mark to fire at, and before they had got 
out of the light of the camp fires the Indians 
had fired upon them. As McClellan lay in 
this position, a ball entered beneath his 
shoulder-blade and came out at the top of 
his shoulder; Wells' arm was broken by a 
ball, and his rifle dropped to the ground ; 
51ay was chased to the smooth rock in the 
Maumee, where, his horse falling, he was 
taken prisoner. 

The rest of the party escaped without in- 
jury, and rode full speed to where their pris- 
oners were confined, and mounting them upon 
horses, continued their route. Wells and 
McClellan being severely wounded, and their 
march slow and painful to Defiance, a distance 
of about thirty miles, ere they could receive 
surgical aid, a messenger was dispatched to 
hasten to the post for a surgeon and a guard. 
As soon as he arrived with the tidings of the 
wounds and perilous situation of these heroic 
and faithful spies, very great sympathy was 
manifested. Wayne's feeling for the suffer- 
ing soldier was at all times quick and sensi- 
tive. We can, then, imagine the intensity of 
his solicitude when informed of the sufferings 
and perils of his confidential and chosen band. 
He instantly dispatched a surgeon and a com- 
pany of the swiftest dragoons to meet, assist 
and guard these brave fellows to headquar- 
ters, where they arrived safe, and the wounded 
in due time recovered. 

May, who was taken prisoner, having for- 
merly lived and ran away from the Indians, was 
recognized. They told him the second day 
before the battle : "We know you ; you speak 
Indian language ; you not content to live with 
us; to-morrow we take you to that tree" — 
pointing to a very large burr oak at the edge 
of the clearing near the British fort— "we 
will tie you up and make a mark on your 
breast, and we will try what Indian can shoot 
nearest it." According!}', the next day he 
was tied to that tree, a mark made on his 
breast, and his body riddled with at least fifty 
bullets. Thus ended poor May ! 

This little band of spies, during the cam- 
paign, performed more real service than any 
other corps of equal number belonging to the 


army. They brought in at different times not 
less than twenty prisoners, and killed more 
than an equal number. As they had no rivals 
in the army, they aimed in each excursion to 
outdo their former exploits. What confidence, 
what self-possession was displayed by these 
men in their terrific encounters ! To ride 
boldly into the enemy's camp, in full view of 

their blazing camp-fires, and enter into con- 
versation with them without betraying the 
least appearance of trepidation and confusion, 
and openly commence the work of death, 
prove how well their souls were steeled against 
fear. They had come off unscathed in so 
many desperate conflicts that they became 
callous to danger. 

Wm. Wells was such an extraordinary man as to deserve a fuller notice. When 
a child he was captured by the Indians, and became the adopted son of Little 
Turtle, the most eminent forest warrior and statesman of his time. 

In the defeats of Harmar and St. Clair he 
took a distinguished part, commanding in the 
latter action three hundred young Indian 
warriors, who were posted immediately in 
front of the artillery, and caused such car- 
nage among those who served it. He arranged 
his party behind logs and trees, immediately 
under the knoll on which the guns were, and 
thence, almost uninjured, picked off the 
artillerists, until, it is said, their bodies were 
heaped up almost to the height of their 
pieces. After this sanguinary affair, his fore- 
cast enabled him to anticipate the final ascen- 
dency of the whites, who would be aroused 
by their reverses to such exertions as must be 
successful with their preponderance of power, 
and he resolved to abandon the savages. His 
mode of announcing this determination was 
in accordance with the simple and sententious 
habits of a forest life. He was traversing the 
woods in the morning, with his adopted 
father, the Little Turtle, when, pointing to 
the heavens, he said, " When the sun reaches 
the meridian I leave you for the whites ; and 
whenever you meet me in battle, you must kill 
me as I shall endeavor to do by you. ' ' The bonds 
of affection and respectwhich had bound these 
two singular and highly-gifted men together 
were not severed or weakened by this abrupt 
dereliction. Capt. Wells soon after joined 
Wayne's army, and by his intimacy with the 
wilderness, and his perfect knowledge of the 
Indian haunts, habits and modes of Indian 
warfare, became an invaluable auxiliary to the 
Americans. He served faithfully and fought 
bravely through the campaign, and at the 
close, when peace had restored amity between 
the Indians and the whites, rejoined his 
foster-father, the Little Turtle ; and their 
friendship and connection was broken only 
by the death of the latter. When his body 
was found among the slain at Chicago, in 
August, 1812, the Indians are said to have 
drunk his blood, from a superstitious belief 
that they should thus imbibe his warlike 
endowments, which had been considered by 
them as pre-eminent. 

The above paragraph respecting Wells is 
copied from the discourse of Henry Whiting, 
Esq. , before the Historical Society of Michi- 
gan ; that below, relating to his death, is 
from the MSS. of Col. John .Johnston. 

William Wells, interpreter for the Miamies, 

and whose wife was of that nation, himself 
uncle to Mrs. Heald, the lady of the com- 
mandant at Port Dearborn, Chicago, went 
from Fort Wayne with a party of twelve or 
fifteen Miamies to that place, with a view of 
favoring the escape of the garrison to Fort 
Wayne. Nothing could have been more un- 
fortunate than this, for Wells was peculiarly 
obnoxious to the Putawatimies, and especially 
to the chief, " the Black Bird," who was the 
leading warrior on the occasion. The Puta- 
watimies were alone in arms against us at the 
time, in that part of the country. The pres- 
ence of Wells was fatal to the safety of the 
troops ; the chief Blackbird had often spoken 
to myself in very bitter terms against him. 
On the 14th of August, 1812, a council was 
held between the officers and the chiefs, 
at which it was agreed that the whole 
garrison with their arms, ammunition sufii- 
cient for the journey and clothing should 
retire unmolested to Fort Wayne, and that 
the garrison, with all that it contained, should 
be delivered up to the Indians. In the night 
preceding the evacuation all the powder and 
whiskey in the fort were thrown into a canal, 
communicating from the garrison to the 
Chicago river. The powder floated out and 
discovered the deception to the Indians ; this 
greatly exasperated them and, no doubt, 
brought matters to a crisis. On the morning 
of the l.'ith of August the troops marched 
out to commence their journey, and had pro- 
ceeded but a short distance when they were 
attacked by the Indians. Wells seeing that 
all was lost, and not wishing to fall into their 
hands, as he well knew that in that case a 
cruel and lingering death awaited him, wetted 
powder and blacked his face, as a token of 
defiance, mounted his horse and commenced 
addressing the Indians with all the oiipro- 
brious and jnsulting language he could think 
of His purpose evidently was to induce 
them to dispatch him forthwith. His object 
was accomplished. They became so enraged 
at last with his taunts and jeers, that one of 
them shot him off his horse, and immediately 
pouncing upon him, cut his body open, took 
out his heart and eat it. The troops were 
massacred, the commanding officer and wife 
were saved. . . . Chicago means in Putawa- 
timie, "the place of the polecat." 

In the battle of the Fallen Timbers Wayne's army took a white man prisoner, 
by the name of Lasselle. Col. John Johnston says respecting him : 



Antoiwb Lasselle I well knew : this 
man, a Canadian, was taken prisoner at 
Wayne's battle, painted, dressed and dis- 
guised as an Indian. He was tried by court- 
martial at Roche de Boeuf, and sentenced to 
be hung. A gallows was erected and the execu- 
tion ordered, when Col. John F. Hamtranck — 
a native of Canada, who joined the American 
standard under Montgomery, in the Revolu- 
tionary war, and was, in 1794, colonel of the 

1st regiment of infantry, under Wayne- 
interposed and begged the life of the prisoner. 
Gen. Wayne afterwards granted to Lasselle 
license to trade at Fort Wayne, and he was 
there as such many years during my agency 
at the post. He was a man of wit and 
drollery, and would often clasp his neck with 
both hands, to show how near he had been 
to hanging by order of mad Anthony. 

Col. Johnston also says, respecting Col. McKee and Capt. Elliott, who were 
both alleged to have been in the action, and were notorious enemies of the 
Americans in the wars in tiie Northwest : 

McKee and Ei.LiOTT were Pennsylvanians, 
and the latter, I think, of Irish birth. They 
resided, at the commencement of the Revolu- 
tionary war, at Path Valley, Pa. A brother 
and a brother-in-law of mine lived in the 
same neighborhood ; I therefore have un- 
doubted authority for the facts. A number 
of lories resided in the township, McKee and 
Elliott being leaders. A large proportion of 
the inhabitants being whigs, the place became 
too warm to hold them. They fled to the 
enemy, and leagued with the Shawanese 
Indians in committing depredations on the 
frontier settlers. Both of these incendiaries 
had Indian wives and children, and finally 

their influence became so great among the 
savages that they were appointed agents for 
Indian afi'airs by the British government, and 
continued as such until their death. Matthew 
Elliott was an uncle, by his father's side, to 
the late Commodore Elliott, and had a son 
killed in the late war, by the Indians under 
Logan. [See p. 353.] On the death of 
McKee, his son, a half-breed, was a deputy 
agent in Upper Canada. He was a splendid- 
looking man, and married an accomplished 
white lady. He had too much of the Indian 
nature, and the marriage turned out some- 
what unhappily. 

In, 1814, several letters were published in the National Intelligencer, 
from Col. McKee to Col. England, the British commandant at Detroit during the 
campaign of "Wayne, the originals of which, the editor stated, were then in his 
possession. McKee was at this time superintendent of the Indians under his 
majesty. Some brief extracts below pile up the evidence already adduced of his 
hostility, and that' of the English, to the Americans : 

Rapids, July .5, 1794. Sir :— I send this 
by a party of Saginas, who returned yesterday 
from Fort Recovery, where the whole body 
of the Indians, except the Delawares, who 
had gone another route, imprudently attacked 
the ibrt on Monday, the 30th of last month. 
. . . Everything had been settled prior to 
their leaving the Fallen Timber, and it had 
been agreed upon to confine themselves to 
taking convoys and attacking at a distance 
from the forts, if they should have the 
address to entice the enemy out. . . 

Rapids, Aitq. 13, 1794. SiR :— I was 
honored last night with your lettter of the 
11th, and am extremely glad to find you 
maldng such exertions to supply the Indians 
with provisions. . . . Scouts are sent up to 
view the situation of the army [Wayne's,] 
and WE now muster 1,000 Indians. All the 
Lake Indians, from Sagina downwards, 
should not lose one moment in joining their 
brethren, as every accession of strength is an 
addition to their spirits. 

3Iaumee City in 184-6. — Maumee City, the county-seat, is one hundred and 
twenty-four miles northwest of Columbus, aud eight miles south of Toledo. It 
was laid out under the name of Maumee in 1817, by Maj. Wm. Oliver and others, 
within what had been the reservation of twelve miles square, at the foot of the 
rapids of the Maumee, granted to the Indians at the treaty of Greenville, in 1795. 
The town is situated at the head of navigation on the Maumee, aud on the 
W^abash and Erie canal, opposite Perrysburg and Fort Meigs. 

The river banks upon which Maumee City and its neighbor, Perrysburg, stand, 
are elevated near one hundred feet above the water level. Both banks, at this 
point, curve gracefully inward, while the river above and below is somewhat con- 
tracted, thus forming a vast amjihitheatre of about two miles in length and nearly 
one in breadth, while a beautiful cultivated island of two hundred acre.^^, and 


several small islets embosomed in its centre, enhance a scene rich in picturesque 

From a very early day this was a favorite point with the Indians. As early 
as 1680 the French had a trading station just below the town, where, later in 
the spring of 1794, was built the Britisli fort Miami, the ruins of whicli are still 
consjiicuous. Part of Wayne's battle was within the limits of the town ; the 
action commenced two or three miles soutli. At that point, by the road-side, is a 
noted rock of several tons weight, near the foot of Presque Isle Hill, where it is 
said an Indian chief, named Turkey Foot, rallied a few of his men and stood 
upon it fighting until his strength becoming exhausted from loss of blood, he fell and 
breathed his last. Upon it have been carved by the Indians representations of 
turkeys' feet, now plainly to be seen, and it is said " the early settlers of and 
travellers through the Maumee valley usually found small pieces of tobacco de- 
posited on this rock, whicli had been placed there by the Indians as devotional 
acts by way of sacrifice, to appease the indignant spirit of the departed hero." 
During the siege of Fort Meigs, in the late war, the British encamped below the 
town, and erected several batteries within it, which played upon tiie American 
fort. These having been stormed and taken by Col. Dudley, on the 5tli of May, 
1813, that officer pushed his victory too far, and was, in turn, attacked by the 
enemy, who had been reinforced from below, and defeated witli great slaughter 
on the site of the town. (See Wood County.) 

The view of Maumee City, taken from the site of Fort Meigs, shows in front 
Maumee river and the bridge ; beyond, on the left, the canal ; and on the summit 
of the liill a small portion of the town, which is much scattered. On tlie right 
is seen the Presbyterian church, on the left the Methodist, and between, the Cath- 
olic; the Episcopal church does not appear in this view. Maumee City is a 
thriving town, and has an extensive water-power, which, if fully improved, would 
be sufficient for 250 runs of stone. It now contains sixteen dry-goods, eight 
grocery and three drug-stores ; one or two newspaper printing-offices ; four flour- 
ing, one oil and two saw-mills ; one pail factory, one tannery, a wool-carding and 
cloth-dressing establishment, and had, in 1840, 840 inhabitants, since which it 
has much increased. A number of vessels, steamboats, propellers and canal boats, 
have been built here. A spirit of rivalry exists between the towns at the foot of 
the rapids, Maumee City and Perrysburg, with Toledo. While the latter has 
outstripped them in prosperity, there is, perhajjs, but little question that -if the 
navigation of the river was improved, Maumee City and Perrysburg would draw 
to themselves a vast accession of business, and be important points for the ship- 
ment and transshipment of freight. The Maumee is navigable, in its present con- 
dition, for steamboats and schooners drawing seven feet of water ; but since the 
construction of boats of a heavier draught, it is necessai'y that an improvement, 
by excavating the channel along what is called "fAe rock bar," should be made. 
This bar, which is of blue limestone, commences about a mile and a lialf below 
Perrysburg. At a common stage the water upon it is about six and a half feet 
deep". To open a clear and unobstructed channel upon it for the largest lake 
boats, it lias been estimated, would cost about $30,000. Government has fre- 
quently but ineffectually been petitioned to make this improvement. — Old Edition. 

Maumee (formerly South Toledo) is nine miles southwest of Toletlo, on the 
Maumee river, Miami & Erie Canal and W. St. L. & P. and T. St. L. & K. C. 
Railroads. City officers, 1888: James M. Wolcott, Mayor; Frank D. Crain, 
Clerk ; John A. Mollenkopf, Treasurer ; Philip Hartman, Marshal. Newspaper : 
New Era, Frank D. Crain, editor and jjublisher. Churches : one Presbyterian, 
two Methodist, one Catliolic. Bank : Union Deposit, R. B. Mitchell, president, 
J. Henrv Wyman, cashier. Ponulatiou, 1880, 1,780. School census, 1888, 592. 
United States census, 1890, 1,645. 

WaINL's liVTlLh. 

The view shows on the left Maumee River; in 
front Presque Isle Hill ; on the right by the road- 
side where the figures are standing is the noted 
Turkey Foot Rock. 

b,ac,l , H^ H re I 11846 

Harbor of Toledo. 

Drawn by Heunj Eowe in 1846. 

Maumee City from Fort Meigs. 




Toledo is on the left bank of the Maumee river, and on the Wabash & Erie 
Canal, 134 miles northwest of Columbus, 246 by canal north of Cincinnati, about 
fifty south of Detroit, about 100 west of Cleveland, and thirty-three miles from 
Adrian, Michigan, where a railroad from Toledo intersects with the Southern 
Michigan Railroad. Toledo stretches along the river bank for more than a mile, 
and has two points at which business concentrates, called respectively the upper 
and the lower landing. It was originally two distinct settlements — the upper, 
Port Lawrence, the lower, Vistula. Bet^veen these two points Toledo is thinly 
settled ; but at them, and particularly at the upper, the stores, warehouses and 
dwellings are densely packed together. The view of the harbor from the upper 
landing is very fine — the eye takes in a distance of several miles of the river, 
bounded by well-defined projecting headlands, and often showing a large number 
of sails, presenting not only a scene of beauty, but evidence of the extensive 
commerce of which this place is the centre. 

Toledo covers the site of a stockade fort, called Fort Industry, erected about the 
year 1800, near what is now Summit street. A treaty was held in this fort with 
the Indians, July 4, 1805, by which the Indian title to the "fire-lands" was ex- 
tinguished. Charles Jouet was United States Commissioner, and the Ottawa, 
Chippewa, Pottawatomie, Wyandot, Shawanee, Munsee and Delaware tribes 
represented by their respective chiefs. The insignificant settlements of Port 
Lawrence and Vistula were later formed, and have now lost their identity in 
Toledo, the history, present condition and prospects of which we annex, in a 
communication from a gentleman of the place. 

In the summer of 1832, under the impetus 
given it by Captain Samuel Allen, from Lock- 
port, N. Y., and Maj. Stickney, Vistula made 
quite a noise as a promising place for a town. 
People from various quarters were met by 
the writer in June of that year at tlie resi- 
dence of Major Stickney. All seemed san- 
guine of a sudden and large growth for the 
new town, and many made purchases in and 
about it. At the same time arrangements 
were being made by Major Oliver and Mica- 
jah T. Williams, of Cincinnati, with Daniel 
0. Comstock and Stephen B. Comstock, 
brothers, from Lookport, for tlie resuscitation 
of Port Lawrence, at the mouth of Swan 
creek. The Comstocks took an interest, and 
became the agents for the Port Lawrence 
property, now known as Upper Toledo. No 
sales of any importance were made before 
1833. In Vistula the first store was started 
by Mr. E. Briggs ; W. J. Daniels, now a 
leading man, was his clerk. Soon after Flagg 
& Bissell opened a more extensive store of 
goods — probably the first good assortment 
for the use of white people. In 1833 not 
much progress was made toward building a 
town in Vistula or Port Lawrence. In the 
latter the first Toledo steamer was built, and 
called the " Detroit." She was of 120 tons, 
and commanded by Captain Baldwin, son of 
a sea captain of that name, who was one of 
the earliest settlers of Port Lawrence. The 
best lots in Port Lawrence, sixty feet front 
by 120 deep, were oifered by Stephen B. 
Comstock for $50, coupled with a condition 
to make some little improvements. Four of 
these lots, if they were now not buik upon, 
would sell lor $5,000 each. Three of them 

are nearly covered by three-story brick build- 
ings, and form the centre of business of 
Toledo. They are corners on Monroe and 
Summit streets. 

In 1834 speculation in lots began, and with 
slight intermission continued until the spring 
of 1837. Mr. Edward Bissell, from_ Lock- 
port, a man of enterprise and activity, be- 
came a part owner, and gave a great impetus 
to the growth of Vistula. Through him and 
the Port Lawrence owners many men of in- 
fluence became interested in the new towns. 
Among these Judge Mason, from Livingston 
county, N. Y., deserves mention, as he be- 
came agent of Bissell and the chief owners, 
and made Vistula his residence. 

In 1836 the Wabash & Erie Canal was lo- 
cated, having three terminations — one at 
Maumee, one at Toledo and one at Manhat- 
tan. Great exertions were made to induce 
the Commissioners to terminate it at the foot 
of the Eapids ; and also to have it continued 
below, on the high bank. All the points 
were accommodated, and the State has had 
a heavy bill to foot as the consequence. In 
1837 the canal was let and the contractors 
entered vigorously on its construction. The 
Commissioners held out the opinion that it 
would be completed in two years. Under the 
expectation of its early completion many of 
the inhabitants of Toledo, who had been 
brought there by the speculations of 1835 
and 1 836, and the business it gave, held on 
in order to participate in the business it was 
expected to furnish. The seasons of 1838 
and 1 839 were uncommonly sickly, not only 
at Toledo, but along the entire line of the 
canal. This kept back the work on the canal, 



and itwas not completed, so as to make its busi- 
ness sensibly felt, before the season of 1S45. 
The Miami & Erie Canal was opened through, 
from river to lake, the same season, and for 
a time had a great rush of business through 
it. But it was so imjierfeet that great pre- 
judice was excited against it as a channel of 
commerce. During the season of 1846 it 
was kept in good order, and recovered a por- 
tion of its lost popularity. 

The productions of the south and south- 
west that reached Toledo by these two canals 
during the sea.son of 1846 exceeded S3, 000,- 
000 in value, and more than doubled the 
receipts of the preceding year. The value 
sent up from Toledo can scarcely have been 
less than $5,000,000. The aggregate of 
breadstuffs exported exceeded 3,000,000 bush- 
els, being greater than that of any other port 
around the lakes, except Cleveland, that 
shipped by lake. It is expected that the 
business of these canals this year will very 
nearly double that of the season of 1846. 
The Wabash & Erie Canal will then be ex- 
tended forty-nine miles farther down the 
Wabash ; and the country on the lines of 
both canals being new, is being opened_ to 
cultivation, and having the roads that bring 
trade to the canals every year extended 
farther from their borders, and made better. 
By position and the aid of these canals, To- 
ledo is evidently destined to be one of the 
greatest of the gathering points of agricultu- 
ral productions in the country. Its situation 
is equally favorable for the distribution over 
the lakes of Southern productions — sugar, to- 
bacco, etc. The Jliami & Erie Canal is the 
best channel for the goods destined from the 

Eastern cities to the great river valley below 

The Wabash & Erie canal, when com- 
pleted to Evansville, on the Ohio, will be 
four hundred and sixty miles in length, and 
control most of the external trade of Indiana 
and Eastern Illinois. The Miami & Erie 
canal, connecting Tolado and Cincinnati, is 
two hundred and forty-seven miles long. 
This, it is believed, will one day become one 
of the most important canals in the world. 

Within the last two years Toledo has ex- 
pended near one hundred thousand dollars in 
grading and other permanent improvements 
that tend to give facility to commercial opera- 
tions. Like all other towns on Lake Erie, it 
has suffered, during the early years of its 
life, from sickness ; and, perhaps, it has suf- 
fered still more in its growth and prospects, 
from the exaggerations which public rumor has 
spread over the country, respecting its insalu- 
brity. And yet it would be difficult to find a 
healthier-looking or a more vigorous set of 
men than are the first settlers of Toledo and 
other places on the harbor. Toledo has had 
sickness, but not more than Cleveland or San- 
dusky and Monroe, at the same period of 
their growth. The excavations for the canal 
and the grades have undoubtedly contributed 
to the prevalence of interrnittents, which is 
the chief cause for complaint. Every year 
will witness an improvement in this respect, 
until, like Cleveland, it will be forgotten as a 
place especially fruitful of malaria, and be 
spoken of chiefly for the activity and the 
extent of its commerce, and the rapidity of 
its progress towards the high destiny which 
reflecting men have long anticipated for it. 

Toledo was incorporated as a city in 1836, and has 1 Presbyterian, 1 Catholic, 
1 Methodist, 1 Episcopal and 1 Lutheran church, 37 mercantile establishments — 
inchiding 3 drug and 2 book stores — 9 forwarding and commission houses, 2 
banks, and its population is estimated at 2,400 ; in 1840 it had 1,322 inhabitants. 
A daily steamboat line connects Toledo with Buifalo, and another with Detroit. 
A railroad has been chartered and surveyed between Toledo and the west line of 
Indiana, in the direction of the Falls of Illinois, or towards Chicago. 

Toledo was the centre of the military operations in the " Ohio and Michigan 
War," so called, which at the time threatened serious results, but was accom- 
panied with so much of the ludicrous as to be usually adverted to with emotions 
of merriment. In the language of " an actor in the scene which he depicts " the 
narrative below is given : 

The dispute of Ohio and Michigan, about 
the line of division between them, originated 
in this wise. The ordinance of 1787 pro- 
vided for the division of the Northwestern 
Territory into not less than three nor more 
than five States ; and, if into five, then the 
three southern were to be divided from the 
two northern, by a line drawn east and west 
through the southern point of Lake Michigan, 
extending eastward to the territorial line in 
Lake Erie. The constitution of Ohio con- 
tained a provision, that if the said line should 
not go so far north as the north cape of the 
Maumee bay, then the northern boundary of 

Ohio should be a line drawn from the south- 
erly part of Lake Michigan to the north cape 
of the Maumee bay. With this constitution, 
Ohio was admitted into the Union. The line 
of the ordinance was an impossible line, 
inasmuch as it would never touch the terri- 
torial line by extending it eastward, but would, 
on the contrary, leave north of it a consider- 
able portion of that part of Ohio known as 
the Western Reserve. 

When Michigan became a Territory, the 
people living between the two lines — that 
claimed by Michigan, known as the FiiJlon 
line, and that claimed by Ohio, as the Harris 



line— found it more convenient to be attached 
to Michigan, and agreeably to their wish, the 
territorial laws were extended over the dis- 
puted territory. In 1833 it appeared im- 
portant that the boundary should be settled, 
and at the suggestion of J. W. Scott, Esq., 
of Toledo, Senator Tilden, of Norwalk, Ohio, 
brought the matter before the Legislature, 
which passed a resolution asking Congress to 
act upon the subject, for the purpose of 
quieting the claim of Ohio. 

In 1835 the matter came before Congress, 
and J. Q. Adams made an elaborate report 
against the claim of Ohio. Through the 
exertions of A. Palmer, S. B. Comstock, W. 
P. Daniels and others, the former was im- 
mediately dispatched to Columbus, with a 
Eetition from most of the inhabitants, to the 
legislature of Ohio, then in session, asking 
the extension of the laws of Ohio over the 
territory. An act was soon after 
for that purpose, and the disputed 
territory was attached to the counties of 
Wood, Henry and Williams. This occasioned 
a counteraction on the part of Michigan. A 
double set of officers were created at the 
spring election, and war became inevitable. 
The inhabitants were mostly for the Ohio 
claim, but enough sided with Michigan to fill 
all the_ offices. These soon needed the aid 
of their neighbors of Monroe county, who 
were organized, and made some inroads 
under the sheriif's posse, and carried off to 
Monroe some of the would-be citizens of 

Thereupon, Ohio levied troops, and Gov- 
ernor Lucas came on at their head, early in 
the spring of 1835. In the meantime 
Governor Mason mustered troops from Michi- 
gan ; and while Governor Lucas was encamped 
at old Fort Miami, eight miles above Toledo 
and four mUes above the disputed territory, 
Mason marched into Toledo, overrun all the 
water-melon patches, made fowls very source, 
and demolished utterly the ice-house of Major 
Stickney, burst in the front door of his resi- 
dence, and triumphantly carried him off a 
prisoner of war to Monroe. 

Many amusing incidents are related of the 
actors in this war. Dr. Russ, of New York, 

was with the forces of Mason on their manA 
from Monroe to Toledo, and gave to the 
writer a vivid description of the mixture of 
frolic and fear among the new soldiers. Re- 
ports were constantly being circulated of the 
great number of sharp-shooting Buckeyes 
who were ready, with poised rifles, to greet 
their arrival at Toledo, and so terror-stricken 
were the warriors by these stories of the 
wags, that nearly half of those who marched 
boldly from Monroe availed themselves of 
the bushes by the road-side to withdraw 
from the dangerous enterprise. 

About this time appeared from the court 
of Washington two ambassadors, with full 
powers to negotiate with the belligerents, for 
an amicable settlement of difficulties. These 
were Richard Rush, of Pennsylvania, and 
Colonel Howard, of Maryland. They were 
successful in their mission, chiefly because 
Michigan was satisfied with the laurels won, 
and Onio was willing to stand on her dignity 
— eight miles from the ground in dispute. At 
the court next holden in Wood county the 
prosecuting attorney presented bills of indict- 
ment against Governor Mason and divers 
others, in like manner offending ; but the 
bills were thrown out by the grand jury. 
Thus was Ohio defeated in her resort to law, 
as she had before been in her passage at arms. 
At the next session of Congress the matter 
was taken up, and able arguments in favor of 
Ohio were made in the House by Samuel F. 
Vinton, and in the Senate by Thomas Ewing. 
Here Ohio carried the day. Michigan, 
in.stead of the narrow strip, averaging about 
eight miles wide _ on her southern border, 
received as an equivalent the large peninsula 
between Lakes Huron, Michigan and Su- 
perior, now so well known for its rich deposit 
of copper and other minerals. The chief 
value to Ohio, of the territory in dispute, was 
the harbor at Toledo, formed by the mouth 
of the Maumee, essential, as her public men 
believed, to enable her to reap the benefit of 
the commerce made by her canals to Cin- 
cinnati and Indiana. The result has shown 
that they judged correctly. Toledo has 
proved to be the true point for the meeting 
of lake and canal commerce. — Old Edition. 

Toledo, county-seat of Lucas, is a port of entry on the Maumee river, five 
miles from its mouth in Maumee bay, eight miles from the western extremity of 
Lake Erie, ninety-two miles west of Cleveland, fifty-three southwest of Detroit, 
Mich., and 120 miles northwest of Columbus. It has the finest harbor on the 
lakes, with nineteen miles of completed docks ; is in the natural gas and oil re- 
gions ; has large manufacturing and railroad interests ; is a great market for lime, 
plaster and cement ; and a shipping point for large quantities of provisions, live- 
stock, wheat, whiskey, iron, hides, tobacco, wool, lumber and coal. Its railroads 
are the C. H. & D. ; C. J. & M. ; C. H. V. & T. ; F. & P. M. ; L. S. & M. S.; 
M. C. ; N. W. O. ; T. A. A. & N. M. ; T. C. & S. ; W. St. L. & P. ; W. & L. 
E. ; T. S. & M., and T. & O. C. County officers, 1888 : Auditor, Charles A. 
Vordtriede ; Clerk, Jolm P. Bronson ; Commissioners, John Ryan, Warren W. 
Cooke, Jacob Engolhardt; Coroner, Cliarles F. Roulet; Infirmary Directors, 
George W. Reynolds, George Mack, William W. Coder ; Probate Judge, Joseph 
W. Cumraings ; Prosecuting Attorney, James H. Southard ; Recorder, William 


V. McMaken; Sheriff, John S. Harbeck, Jr.; Surveyor, Henry W. Wilhelm; 
Treasurer, Horace J. Potter. City officers, 1888 : J. K. Hamilton, Mayor ; W. 
T. AValker, Auditor ; George H. Cole, Clerk ; Guy AV. Kinney, Solicitor ; Thos. 
R. Wickendou, Civil Engineer ; William Kirby, Superintendent Infirmary ; John 
Bayer, Street Commissioner ; James McNeely, Harbor Master. Newspapers : 
Bee, Democratic, Elmer AVhite, editor ; Blade, Republican, Robinson Locke, editor ; 
Commercial, Republican, Toletlo Commercial Co., editors and publishers ; Evening 
News, Independent, News Publishing Co., editors and proprietors ; Express, Ger- 
man, Independent Republican, Julius Vordtriede, editor ; Freie Presse, German, 
Toledo Freie Press Co., editors and publishers ; American, Democratic, American 
Printing and Publishing Co., editors and publishers ; Sunday Herald and Times, 
Democratic, R. Sellner & Co., editors and publishers ; Sunday Journal, Inde- 
pendent, C. C. Packard, editor ; Volksfreimd, German, Democratic, E. V. E. 
Rausch, editor and publisher. Besides these there are about twenty other journals 
devoted to medicine, agriculture, railway service, fraternities, etc. Churches : in 
1886 these numbered 55 and 11 missions; in many of them services were in 
German. Baptist, 5 ; Congregational, 4 ; Lutheran, 9 ; IMethodist Episcopal, 13 ; 
Presbyterian, 4 ; Protestant Episcopal, 3 ; Roman Catholic, 10 ; United Brethren, 
1 ; German Evangelical Reformed, 1 ; Christian, 1 ; Jewish, 1. The city has a 
manual training school, the " Toledo University of Arts and Trades," and a public 
library of 24,000 volumes. Banks : First National, V. H. Ketcham, president, 
S. D. Carr, cashier ; Merchants' National, Reed V. Boice, president, C. C. Doolit- 
tle, cashier ; Merchants' and Clerks' Savings Institution, John A. Moore, presi- 
dent, O. S. Bond, treasurer ; Northern National, W. Cummings, president, W. 
A. Egglestou, cashier ; Second National, George W. Davis, president, Charles F. 
Adams, cashier; Toledo National, Samuel L. Young, president, E. H. Van 
Hoesen, cashier; Toledo Savings Bank and Trust Co., Richard Mott, president, 
John J. Barker, cashier ; Keeler, Holcomb & Co.; J. B. Ketcham, F. S. Terry, 
cashier ; Spitzer & Co. 

Manufactures and Employees (whei-e numbering 40 hands and over). — The Co- 
nant Bros., furniture, 72 ; Witker Manufacturing Co., sash, doors and blinds, 87 ; 
W. H. H. Smith & Co., saw and lath mill, 57 ; Toledo Foundry and Machine Co., 
engines, excavators, etc., 70 ; Western IManufacturing Co., sash, doors and blinds, 
70 ; The Schauss INIanufacturing Co., furniture, 52 ; Vulcan Foundry and Ma- 
chine "Co., general machine work, 64 ; Toledo Carriage Woodwork Co., 60 ; Roth 
& Freedman, hosiery and mittens, 197 ; Leland, Smith & Co., 38 ; The B. F. 
Wade Co., printing and binding, 49 ; E. C. Shaw & Co., clothing, 53 ; Blade 
Printing and Paper Co., printing, etc., 99 ; The Goulet Manufacturing Co., sash, 
doors, etc., 45 ; Shaw, Kendall & Co., general machinery, etc., 156 ; J. L. Cris- 
well, galvanized iron cornice, 66 ; The Toledo Bolt and Nut Co., bolts and nuts, 
152 ; Diamond Planing Mill Co., sash, doors, etc., 59 ; William Peter, sash, doors, 
etc., 250 ; Grasser & Brand Brewing Co., lager beer, 40 ; H. B. Milmine & Co., 
foundry work, 105 ; George W. Thomas & Co., wheelbarrows, 37 ; Herbert Ba- 
ker, foundry work, etc., 68 ; The C. H. Schroeder Co., sash, doors, etc., 82 ; 
N. Houghton Foundry and Machine Co., 33 ; Toledo Brewing and Malting Co., 
lager beer, 60 ; Union Manufacturing Co., sewing machines, etc., 186 ; B. A. 
Stevens, refrigerators, etc., 79 ; John S. Eck & Co., sash, doors, etc., 42 ; E. P. 
Breckenridge, tin packages, 110; Toledo Knitting Co., knit goods, 96 ; Toledo 
Tinware Co., tinware, 35 ; Buckeye Brewing Co., lager beer, 54 ; A. Black & Co., 
cloaks, 160 ; Toledo Moulding Co., picture frames, etc., 220 ; Glendon Iron 
Wheel Co., children's carriages, 213 ; C. Z. Kroh & Co., carriages, etc., 42 ; To- 
ledo Cot and Wringer ^Manufacturing Co., cots, wringers, etc., 66 ; Smith Bridge 
Co., 90 ; Consolidated Rolling Stock Co., railroad cars, 71 ; Great Western Pin 
Co., pins, 41 ; LaDue & Moorman, oars, sculls, etc., 72 ; Chase, Isherwood & 
Co., tobacco, 50 ; Amos Bonner Co., brushes, 95 ; Toledo Bending Co., carriage 
woodwork, 75 ; Northwestern Elevator and Mill Co., flour, etc., 54 ; Finlay 



Brewing Co., lager beer, 85 ; Milburn Wagon Co., carriages, etc., 632 ; Toledo 
Overall Co., pants and overalls, 72 ; Mitchell & Rowland Lumber Co., planing 
mill, 365 ; Wabash Railroad Shops, railroad repairs, 300 ; Jewel Manufacturing 
Co., sewing machines, etc., 93 ; Toledo Window Glass Co., window glass, 81 ; 
W. L. Libbey & Son Co., glassware, 165 ; Maumee Rolling Mill Co., rolling mill, 

Population in 1880, 50,137. School census, 1888, 24,413; H. W. Compton, 
school superintendent. Capital invested in industrial establishments, $15,517,600. 
Value of annual product, $23,018,800.— 0/w'o Labor Statistics, 1887. Census 
of 1890,81,434. 

Toledo has 134 daily passenger trains; yearly receipts of grain, 45,000,000 
bushels ; ditto, of lumber and staves, 459,000,000 feet ; ditto, of coal, 2,500,000 
tons ; ditto, of iron ore, 250,000 tons, and the city has 750 manufacturing estab- 

MISCELLANIES {Historical, Biographical, etc.). 

The first known white settlers of the 
Maumee valley were Gabriel Godfrey 
and John Baptiste Beaugrand, who es- 
tablisiied a trading post at the foot of 
the Maumee Rapids about 1790. Other 
French settlers came, including La 
Point, Momenee and Peltier. James 
Carlin, a blacksmith, and his son, Squire 
Carlin (now of Hancock county), came 
from Monroe about 1807. At that 
time six American families were there. 
David Hull, a nephew of a scout of 
General Harrison, General Isaac Hull, 
resided at Maumee. Near the mouth 
of the Maumee river, and opposite 
Manhattan, a small French settlement 
was established about 1807. It was 
near to a village of Ottawa Indians, 
which is said to have existed frorii the 
time of the Pontiac conspiracy (1763), 
and the widow of Pontiac, with her 
son (Kan-tuck-ee-gun), and his son 
(Otussa), were yet there. Mesh-kee- 
ma, a cousin of Otussa, was a chief of 
the west side of the river, where he 
was prominent as an orator. A-bee-wa, 
a young chief, was poisoned, and died 
while young. At this time there were 
in this region about 8,000 Ottawas, living chiefly by fishing and hunting. Of 
these, the remnant, made up largely of vagabonds, were removed to the West in 


No name is more prominent among the 
early settlers of the Maumee valley than is 
that of Peter Navarre. He was said to 
be a grandson of a French army officer, who 
visited this section in 1745. Peter was born 
at Detroit in 1785, where his father before 
him was born. In 1807, with his brother 
Robert, he erected a cabin near the mouth 
of the Maumee (east side), which continued 
to be his residence while he lived. 

Canadian French he could speak the Potta- 
watomie Indian dialect, and partially those 
of other tribes. In woodcraft and Indian 
methods he was very skilful, while his bear- 
ing was ever that of a "born gentleman." 
For several years he was employed by a De- 
troit house in buj'ing furs of the Miamis near 
Fort Wayne, Indiana, where he made the 
acquaintance and friendship of chief Little 
Turtle. The war of 1812-15 closed the fur 



trade, when Peter and his three brotliers— 
Robert, Alexis and Jaquot (Jauies) — tendered 
their services to General Hull. He also be- 
sought General Hull to accept the services 
of the Mianiis, which were declined, and 
they afterwards took part with the British. 
Before seeing active service, the Navarres 
were included in the surrender of General 
Hull, and paroled, although they denied the 
right to treat him as a prisoner of war, and 
at once took an active part for the United 
States ; whereupon General Proctor, the 
British commander, offered a reward of 
$1,000 for Peter's head or scalp. 

Until the close of the war he acted as scout 
for General Harrison. He used to say that 
the worst night he ever spent was as bearer 
of a despatch from General Harrison, then at 

Fort Meigs, to Fort Stephenson (now Fre- 
mont). Amid a thunderstorm of great fury 
and fall of water, he made the trip of over 
thirty miles through the unbroken wilderness, 
and the morning following delivered to General 
Harrison a reply. Because his name was not 
on an enlistment roll, the law provided no 
pension for his great service, but by special 
act of Congress his last days were made more 
comfortable by pecuniary relief At the close 
of the war he returned to his home, near the 
mouth of the Maumee river, where he spent 
the balance of his life, dying in East Toledo, 
March 20, 1874, in his eighth-ninth year. 
For sever&l years previous to his death he 
served as President of the Maumee Valley 
Pioneer Association. 

The foregoing sketch of Peter Navarre is from Clark Waggoner's History of 
Toledo and Lucas County. Col. D. W. Howard (see vol. 1, page 662) has given 
us the following sketch of another interesting character in the person of Uncle 
Pete Manor. 

Uncle Pete Manor was one of the last 
representatives of his class, the French 
trader, now only found in the northern and 
northwestern wilds of Upper Canada. When 
quite a young man he entered the employ of 
the Northwestern Fur Company, then carry- 
ing on the fur trade with the Indian tribes of 
the Northwest. This trade was a very 
laborious and to some extent a dangerous 
one, and none were employed but the most 
robust and intelligent of their class. Goods 
were transported by bark canoes and on the 
backs of men for hundreds of miles, and in 
the winter season on snow-shoes, over fields 
of ice and snow, to the far regions of the 
Lake of the Woods and Hudson's bay. 

Mr. jManor served several years in this 
lucrative trade, but left it about the breaking 
out of the war of 1812, came to the Mau- 
mee, opened a trading-house and commenced 
the fur trade with the tribes in this region, 
consisting of Pottawattamies, Ottawas, Shaw- 
uees, Delawares and Miamies. 

I simply desire to give in this sketch the 
character of this good and brave man — for 
he was both good and brave. His trading- 
house was located under the hill on the Mau- 
mee just east of the Claflin Paper Mill in 
Maumee City, and immediately on the trail 
travelled by the Indians when passing up and 
down the river. 

During the early days of the war of 1812 
Uncle Peter proved his bravery and his 
kindness to his fellow-men. There were a 
number of white families settled on the south 
side of the river, near Fort Meigs, the Spaf- 
fords, Capt. Pratt and his family, Wilkinson 
and some others, who had not heeded the 
warning of Uncle Peter to take their families 
to a place of safety, for the Indians were 
many of them friendly to the British, and it 
was only a question of time when they would 
strike the white settlers. Finally, one even- 
ing, just at dark, an Indian scout, a friend 

of Manor, made his appearance at the cabin 
of Uncle Peter, and after feasting on Uncle 
Peter's venison and hominy, and smoking his 
tobacco, told him in an Indian's quiet way, 
that in four days 1,000 Pottawattamies would 
be there to scalp the pale-faces, and would 
come to see him, but, as he was the Indian's 
friend and had been made a chief and adopted 
into the tribe, that he and his family would 
be safe. 

Uncle Peter had been looking for this 
news for some time, and as soon as the Indian 
scout had rolled himself in his blanket and 
gone to sleep, he crossed the river in the 
dark, and notified the white settlers to leave 
that night, for the Indians would surely 

But after all he could urge of the necessity 
of leaving at once they did not go. On the 
morning of the fourth day, at daylight, the 
friendly scout made his reappearance at the 
cabin of Manor, and told him that the Indians 
would be there at ten o'clock, pointing to the 
place where the sun would be at that hour. 
Manor was anxious, knowing that all would 
be massacred that could be found when the 
Indians should arrive. He urged his wife to 
feed the scout bountifully, while he made an 
excuse to the Indian and hurriedly crossed 
the river, arousing his still sleeping neighbors, 
many of whom were women and children, 
who joined Manor in entreaties to fly at 

They succeeded in getting started a little 
after sunrise, their route running through the 
Black Swamp in the direction of Fort Find- 
lay and passing through a small prairie, where 
Blanor and others had been cutting hay. 

The chiefs at once demanded to know 
where the white men were, and were told 
that they had been gone several days. A 
chief drew his tomahawk and demanded of 
Manor to tell the truth or he should die. 
Manor knew the Indian well and knew that 

Constructed by Rev. Henry Bushnell, A. M., for liis History of G-ranville, 



he did not jest, and if they found out that the 
whites had just gone he would not be spared. 
His situation was critical in the extreme, for 
the Indian scouts just come in from the south 
side of the river had seen the fresh tracks of 
the cattle and wagons of the fl3'ing refuges. 
As quick as thought Manor pointed to the 
fresh-mown hay in his stack, and said that 
the tracks they saw were those of his men 
drawing hay, and after consulting with the 
scouts this explanation seemed to satisfy the 
chiefs, who did not follow the helpless 
families, but contented themselves with feast- 
ing on beef and green corn. They killed the 
cattle and destroyed the crops of Manor, as 
well as those of the other settlers, and burned 
most of the houses, plundered his store and 
took his ponies; in fact, plundered and 
destroyed everything within reach, but did 
not molest Manor or his family. 

After the war closed a petition was signed 
by all who had lost property by this raid, and 
the Government paid them for their losses. 
Strange as it may seem, after risking his life 
and the loss of all his property to save them, 
Mr. Blanor was not requested to sign the 
petition for redress, and, in fact, knew noth- 
ing of it until long after (as I have heard him 
relate the circumstances many times), and he 
never received one cent for all his risk and 

The Indians, more generous than the 
whites, gave Uncle Peter a section and a 
half (nine hundred and sixty acres) of land 
for his many kindnesses to them. This grant 
was located at the head of the Rapids, most 
of which was very fine land ; it also covered 
a splendid and valuable water-power, which is 
now well improved. 

Mr. Manor laid out the village of Provi- 
dence, and it was at one time, during the flour- 
ishing days of the canal, a lively business place, 
but the decline of the canal destroyed its busi- 
ness. Fire and the cholera of 1 850-52 destroyed 
the town and its inhabitants, and to-day there 
is but one house, the old brick residence of 
Uncle Peter, standing to mark the spot of 
this once flourishing village. 

Uncle Peter lies buried on the farm, taking 

his last long sleep in the bosom of this his- 
toric soil. I shall ever remember the kind- 
hearted Frenchman for his universal deeds 
of kindness to our family and the settlers in 
the dark days of the early pioneers. His wife 
was equally noble and generous with himself. 

too, has been dead many 



Uncle Peter and his good wife left quite a 
large family, the eldest, Frank Manor, now 
living on the old grant at the Rapids ; John 
J. Manor, in the city of Toledo ; the daughter 
in Defiance ; one son, Joseph, a farmer in 
Indiana, near Fort Wayne ; and two sons in 
California, Alexander and Louis, Alexander 
being a large wheat fiirmer of that State. 

Legend of Roche de Bcehf. 

The following legend of the Roche de Boeuf. 
was told by Peter Manor, the celebrated Indian 
scout and guide. Evidences of its truth are 
found in the many relics and skeletons found 
in this vicinity : 

" At the time when the plum, thorn-apple 
and wild grape were the only products, and 
long prior to the advent of the pale-faces, the 
Ottawas were camped here, engaged in their 
games and pastimes, as was usual when not 
clad in war-paint and on the lookout for an 
enemy. One of the young tribe, engaged in 
playing on Roche de Boeuf (Rock in the 
River), fell over the precipice and was instantly 
killed. The dusky husband, on his return 
from the council fires, on being informed of 
the fate of his prospective successor, at once 
sent the mother in search of her papoose, by 
pushing her over the rocky sides into the 
shallow waters of the Maumee. Her next- 
of-kin, according to Indian law, executed the 
murdering husband, and was in turn executed 
in the same manner, until the frantic passions 
were checked by the arrival of the principal 
chiefs of the tribe. This sudden outburst 
cost the tribe nearly two-thirds of its mem- 
bers, whose bodies were taken from the 
river and buried with full Indian honors the 
next day. ' ' 

The Great Drouth of 1838. 

One of the greatest drouths in the history of the State was that which occurred 
in the summer of 1838, iu that area south of the lake bounded by the rivers 
Eaisin and Huron. No rain fell from May until the middle of October ; disease 
was never so prevalent as during that year and the mortality was very great. 
Some peculiar natural phenomena occurred which have been recorded by Dr, 
Daniel Drake. 

"All the smaller streams throughout the whole region were exhausted and their 
beds became dusty. Wild animals of every kind found in that region collected 
on the banks of the larger rivers, and even approached the towns. Deer and 
raccoons were numerous between Toledo and Maumee City ; quails passed over 
the town plat ; and frogs of the shallow and sedgy waters of the old bed of Swan 
creek, now dried up, migrated in countless numbers through the streets of 
Toledo to the Maumee river. The M'et prairies of the interior were dried, and 
the grass of the dried ones withered ; the marshes and pools of the post-tertiarj- 


uplands, even those of the Black Swamp, from the Maumee to the Sandusky 
river, were evaporated, their bottoms cracked open from the shrinking, the 
leaves of many of the trees growing in them perished, and, in some instances, 
the trees themselves were killed." 

Pioneer Kaileoad of the West. 

In the winter of 1832-33 Dr. Samuel O. Comstock projected the "Pioneer 
Eailroad of the West," viz. : the Erie & Kalamazoo. The charter was granted 
by the State of Michigan " on the ground that it was a mere fanciful object, out 
of which could come no harm, and it would greatly please the Comstocks of 
Toledo." The company was organized in 1835, and the next year the road was 
built to Adrian, Edw. Bissell, of Toledo, and George Crane, of Adrian, being 
the most active agents in locating and constructing the road. The original plan 
was to use oak rails four inches square and draw the cars by horses, but before 
the road was completed it was decided to lay " strap-rail " and use steam-power. 
The " strap-rails " were iron five-eighths of an inch thick and two-and-a-half 
inches wide, fastened to the wooden rail with spikes. 

The road opened for business in the Fall of 1836 with horse-power. The 
passenger rate from Toledo to Adrian (thirty-three miles) was $1.50, with fifty 
pounds of baggage allowed. Freight charges were fifty cents per hundred and a 
trip and a half was made every twenty-four hours. In June, 1837, the first 
locomotive was put on the route, and the following October a contract was made 
with the United States Government for carrying the mails. The rate of speed 
at this time was less than ten miles per hour, but it was confidently stated that a 
speed of twenty miles per hour could be attained. This same year " the accom- 
modations of the road were increased by the arrival of a new passenger car of 
pretty, though singular and fanciful model." It was called the " Pleasure Car." 

The " Pleasure Car " shown in the picture was about the size of a street rail- 
way car of the present day. When full it held twenty-four passengei-s, eight in 
each compartment. The lower middle door opened from a place for stowing 

TJie original projectors of the road had an experience not unknown at the 
present day, for, after fighting great obstacles and placing the road in good run- 
ning condition, they were levied upon by the sheriff in June, 1842, and the road 
subsequently became a part of the Michigan Southern system. 

Value of Ohio Railroads. 

The history of transportation in Ohio is marked by three eras ■ the first, that of 
the stage-coach and freight-wagon ; the second, the canal ; the third, the railroad. 
The opening of the canals at once brought a wonderful improvement in the 
material progress of the State. The introduction of railroads was more gradual, 
but vastly more important in its effects. 

The first railroad chartered and constructed in the State of Ohio was the Mad 
River & Lake Erie (Sandusky to Dayton). Its charter -was granted in 1832, and 
the road opened to Bellevue (16 miles) in 1839 ; and through to Dayton in 1844. 

The first road constructed in Ohio was the Erie and Kalamazoo, under a char- 
ter from the State of Michigan, and opened from Toledo to Adrian, Mich., in 

Since then the railroad system of Ohio has developed until, in 1889, there is 
within the State a total of 10,144 miles of track, valued at $101,273,801. 

As an illustration of the far-reaching beneficial results accruing from railroads, 
we quote from an excellent address on the " History of the Lake Shore & Michi- 
gan Southern Railway," which was delivered in 1887 before the Civil Engineers' 
Club of Cleveland. 



Mr. C. P. Leland, the author of the address, is the Auditor of the L. S. & M. 
S. R. R., and during the thirty years he has been connected with this road has 
given much study and research to the history of the development of raih-oads in 
this country. He says : 

" When next you hire an express-wagon to haul a load of stuff a mile, paying 
therefor a dollar, which is cheap enough, just remember this fatt, that the average 
pay received by this road in 1886 for transporting one hundred tons one mile 
(about six large car-load^;) was sixty-four cents. Small as this was, it was nine 
cents more than the average of 1885. 

" ^yhat was the result of this slight improvement which hurt nobody ? It was 
the signal of the dawn of better times, after the long night of dej)ression, and, 
instantly, fires were started in idle rolling mills, locomotive and car works, and 
every industry in this great land, even gas and oil and real estate booms, felt the 
imin-ovement in the trade barometer. This little improvement gave the long- 
suffering four thousand stockholders of the L. S. & ]\I. S. R. R. a little dividend 
of two per cent., or a million dollars, to be poured into the arteries of trade. 

"As this road operates only a little more than one per cent, of the railroad 
mileage of tlie United States, I leave it to your imagination to estimate the aggre- 
gate benefit of a little more pay for this mighty torrent of freight. . . . 

"There are on the pay-rolls of the L. S. & M. S. R. R. the names of 10,400 

The Pioneer Railroad of the West 

men, among whom were distributed $510,000 in INIarch. Then there is another 
large army of men working for the company indirectly — making steel rails, build- 
ing locomotives and cars, mining the 1,250 tons of coal consumed every day, and 
manufacturing the many supplies used. It is safe to say that one-tenth of the 
large population of the United States gain a livelihood by working for railroads, 
either directly or indirectly. 

"The introduction of the Bessemer steel rails brought about a great reduction in 
the rates for freight; the rate for 1887 being but thu-ty per cent, of the rate for 
1886, and every dollar of this benefit has been enjoyed by the consumer and not 
by the railroads. 

"The L. S. & M. S. R. R. earned in 1886 $15,859,455, and it has averaged 
for seventeen years $16,006,161 per annum. Now, it is my opinion, after con- 
siderable thought and research, that the aggregate earnings of all the craft trading 
upon this great chain of lakes, from the St. Lawrence to the heads of Lake 
Superior and Lake Michigan, never in the most jirosperous year enjoyed earned 
ten milli(jn dollars, which is considerably less than this road earned from freight 
alone in 1866, even at the low rates I have given." 


Memorial Building. 

The Soldiers' Memorial Association was organized in 1879, for the purpose of 
securing tlie erection of some suitable memorial to the memory of the soldiers who 
lost their lives in the Civil War. 

It was resolved to erect a building, the first of its kind in the country, to be 

Toledo Soldiers' Memorial Building. 

not only a beautiful memorial to the honored dead, but of material benefit to 
the city. 

The corner-stone of the building was laid with Masonic ceremonies on July 4, 
1883. The means necessary for the construction of the building were largely 
voluntary contributions from the citizens of Toledo, but there not being a suffi- 
cient amount raised to properly complete the work, it was tamed over to the city 
in June, 1884^ and city bonds issued to the sum of $30,000 to provide for its 

The building was formally opened with appropriate ceremonies on Washinton's 
Birthday (February 22), 1886. At the close of the ceremonies it was dedicated by 
Mayor Forbes, in the following wo.'ds : " On behalf of the citizens of Toledo, I 
hereby dedicate this building to the honor of the soldiers and sailors of Lucas 
county in the late war, and in memory of those who gave up their lives in the 
maintenance of our country, and to be the home of the military of our city for- 
ever. And may the God of battles smile auspiciously upon this memento of 
\)atriotism and loyalty." 

Memorial Hall is situated on the corner of Adams and Ontario streets, in the 
heart of the city. It is constructed of brick with Berea stone trimmings. Inter- 
nally the building is arranged to meet the requirements of a ^Memorial Hall and 
military establishment. The basement is set apart for artillery and infantry com- 
panies. On the upper floors are the headquarters of the Memorial Association, 
the Library, Memorial and Memorial Annex Halls ; also, on the third story, a 
large Military Hall, 64 by 103 feet, with reception-rooms and side-rcjoms for 
companies. This room is the largest and finest assembly and drill hall in 
the State. 

The cost of the building complete, exclusive of site, was $65,000. 

Morrison Kemick WArrE was born in ated at Yab in 1837, a classmate of William 

Lyme, Conn., November 29, 1816, and died M. Evarts and Samuel J. Tilden. He first 

in Washington, D. C, March 23, 1888. _ He studied law in his Other's oflSce, but emi- 

was descended from a long line of eminent grated to Maumee City, Ohio, in 1839 ; was 

jurists ; his Pilgrim ancestor was a son of one admitted to the bar and formed a partnership 

of the judges who condemned King Charles with Samuel M. Young. In 1849-50 he was 

I. His father was a Justice of the Supreme a member of the Legislature. In 1850 he 

Court of Connecticut. Morrison R. gradu- removed to Toledo, and three years later the 



firm of Young & Waite was dissolved, and 
Mr. Waite foruied a partnership with his 
younger brother llichard. 

His studious habits, sincere love for his 
profession, legal acumen, upright character 
and quiet, unostentatious manner, won for 
him a leading position at the Ohio bar. His 
assertions on questions of law were said to 
be indisputable. Before the days of the Re- 
publican party he was a Whig, but on the 
organization of the former he became a 
staunch Republican and remained one through 
life. After his defeat in 1862 as Representa- 
tive for Congress, he would not ace#pt candi- 
dacy for office, although repeatedly oflFered 
State and Federal positions. 

The first position in which his abilities at- 
tracted the attention of the whole country, 
was that of counsel for the United States 
in the tribunal of arbitration which met at 
Geneva in 1871-72. He was associated in 
the matter with Caleb Cashing and William 
I\I. Evarts, and their skill terminated the 
difficulty arising out of the civil war between 
the United States and the United Kingdom. 

In 1874, while presiding over the Ohio 
Constitutional Convention, he was nominated 
to the high office of Chief Justice of the 
United States. A telegram was brought to 
Rufus King, a member of the convention, 
who arose and read the announcement of 5Ir. 
Waite's appointment, whereupon the con- 
vention burst into vociferous applause. The 
nomination was unanimously confirmed, and 
on March 4, 1874, Justice Waite took the 
oath of office and at once entered upon its 

This nomination was brought about on the 
occasion of President Grant's visit to Toledo, 
when Sir. Waite made the address of welcome 
to Grant. This address was so full of good 
sense, and so free from adulation, that Grant 
was delighted with it. He had been pleased 
with Waite's action at Geneva, and he Jcnew 
Waite to be a .man of the utmost probity 
and no political aspirations. He extended 
his inquiries, and concluded that he was the 
man to be appointed Chief Justice of the 
United States, and sent in his name to the 
Senate. Waite accepted it, and the country 
gained by his act. 

The most important of Justice Waite's de- 
cisions were in the civil rights cases, 1878 ; 
polygamy cases, 1879; .the constitutional 
amendments, 1880, and three decisions in 
1881. These were — one regarding the power 
of removal by the President, one on polj'gamy 
cases, and one on the Virginia bond case. 
In 18S3 two important decisions were given, 
covering the civil rights act. In 1884 came 
the decision in the Alabama claims, the legal 
tender act, and the Virginia claim cases. 
The decision in the noted Chicago anarchist 
case attracted considerable attention from 
the interest attaching to their execution. 
The last of Justice ^*aite's most important 
decisions was in the Bell telephone case. 

The degree of LL. D. was conferred upon 
him by Yale and by Kenyon in 1874, and by 
Ohio University in 1879. "Appleton's Cy- 

clopasdia of American Biography" describes 
his person as follows : "Chief Justice Waite 
was of medium height, broad-shouldered, 
compactly built and erect. His step was 
light and firm, and all his movements were 
quick and decisive. His well-poised, classi- 
cally shaped head was massive and thickly 
covered with handsome grayish hair. His 
manners were graceful and winning, but un- 
assuming. He was one of the most genial 
of men, and his whole bearing commanded 
instant respect. His private character was 
singularly pure and noble. Judge Waite was 
a member of the Protestant Episcopal church 
and a regular attendant on its services." 

James Barrkit Steedman was born of ■ 
Scotch descent in Northumberland county, 
Pa., July 29, 1817, and died at Toledo, Ohio, 
October 18, 1883. At the age of fifteen he 
entered the printing office of the Lewisburg 
Democrat. A few years later he came West 
and acquired control of the Northwestern 
Democrat, at Napoleon, Ohio. He also en- 
gaged in contract work, and gave proofs of 
great executive ability in the construction, in 
connection with General Gibson, of the To- 
ledo, Wabash & Western Railroad. In 1847- 
48 he was a member of the Ohio Legislature. 
In 1849 he was one of the "argonauts of 
'49" going to California, but returned to 
Ohio shortly after. 

In 1 857 he was Public Printer under Bu- 
chanan's administration, and in 1860 was a 
delegate to the Chaileston National Demo- 
cratic Convention. 

At the outbreak of the war he became 
colonel of the Fourth Ohio Regiment. He 
was promoted brigadier-general, July 17, 
1862, for valuable services at Perryville. In 
July, 1863, he was given command of ihe 
First Division of the Reserve Corps of 
the Army of the Cumberland. For his ser- 
vices at the battle of Chickamauga he was 
promoted major-general, July 24, 1864. The 
following account of these services is quoted 
from the Toledo Blade : 

" But it was at the battle of Chickamauga 
that General Steedman's true character as 
a general and a commander shines out. His 
division was posted at "Red House bridge," 
over the Chickamauga river, and he was 
ordered to ' hold it at all hazards. ' The 
battle commenced ; he knew there was no 
enemy in front ; he also knew that Thomas 
was hard pressed. Longstreet's corps, from 
Richmond, had reinforced Bragg's army, 
and early on that Sunday morning in Sep- 
tember the battle was renewed with fierce 
and relentless ardor. The right and left of 
the Union forces were both broken and fly- 
ing from the field. Rosecrans had given 
up all hope of reorganizino; the disordered 
forces. Gen. Thomas and his brave Four- 
teenth corps, though driven from the posi- 
tion they occupied early in tiie morning, 
had rallied and stood like a wall of fire re- 
pelling assault after assault of the whole 
rebel line. But they were worn by the 
force of superior numbers and their ammu- 
nition was almost exhausted. To this field 



Steedman marched his men by the sound 
of cannon and no other guide. He came 
just in time to turn a defeat into a glorious 
victory. The news that Steedman had come 
to the rescue inspired the worn-out, half- 
dispirited veterans with fresh ardor and cour- 

"It was at a critical moment in this en- 
gagement that Steedman ordered his men 
to advance in the teeth of a tempest of bul- 
lets. His men hesitated. Up he rode to 
the color-sergeant and, grasping the flag, 
shouted, ' Go back if you like, boys, but the 
colors can't go back with you.' Onward he 
spurred his horse into the thickest of the 
fight. The column at once closed up, grew 
firm, and the soldiers charged with a hearty 
cheer, sweeping everything before them. 

"Then and there the soldier boys gave 
him the title of ' Old Chickamauga. ' His 
conduct called forth the warmest admiration 
and eulogy, and led to his promotion to the 
rank of major-general. 

" General Steedman took active and prom- 
inent part in the campaign of Atlanta, and 
when Sherman started out on the ' march to 
the sea,' Steedman was left in command of 
the 'district of Etowah.' At the battle of 
Nashville General Steedman displayed his 
usual dash and vigor. On the next day he 
aided General Woods in storming Overton 

He resigned from the army July 19, 1866, 
after serving as provisional governor of Geor- 
gia, and was appointed collector of internal 
revenue at New Orleans. Later he returned 
to Ohio and was elected to the State Senate 
in 1879. He was elected chief of police in 
Toledo in May, 1883 ; was editoi; and owner 
of the Toledo Democrat. 

A fine monument to his memory was un- 
veiled in Toledo May 26, 1887— a gift to the 
city from his life-long friend. Colonel William 
J. Finlay. 

The credit for ordering General Steedman's 
movement at Chickamauga is sometimes 
given to General Gordon Granger ; but un- 
doubted testimony proves that to General 
Steedman, and to him alone, does this honor 

General H. V. Boynton, in a letter to the 
Cincinnati Commercial- Gazette, written at 
the time of the unveiling of the Steedman 
monument, said : 

" Every soldier who knew General Steed- 
man, whether present or absent, will unite 
with those at Toledo who are to do suitable 
honor to his memory. No better soldier went 
into the field. No city in the land has more 
reason to be proud of the valorous deeds 
which any one of their citizens performed 
under the flag. Others rose to higher rank, 
and, in the ordinary sense, achieved greater 
renown | but within the limits which were 
given him to serve, none was more active, 
none more alert, none more daring, none 
more successful, none more worthy of remem- 
brance for soldierly bearing and for soldierly 
deeds, than he. 

" It was worth a lifetime of the ordinary 

emotions of these quiet days to see him at 
the head of liis troops in action. No one 
ever saw him elsewhere when they were en- 
gaged. In energetic action and reckless 
daring he was the John Logan of the Ohio 
troops. ' ' 

A few years after the close of the war 
General DePeyster asked General Thomas, 
"Who was the best division commander you 
had under you, most trustworthy, most effi- 
cient ? ' ' Thomas answered, ' ' Steedman. ' ' 

Besides General Steedman, Toledo fur- 
nished a number of most eflicient officers for 
the Union cause. Prominent among these 
are General John W. Fuller, who was born 
in England, came to this country when five 
years of age, and during the war gave such 
valuable service that at its close he had at- 
tained the rank of brevet major-general, well 
earned by very gallant service. From 1874 
to 1878 he served as Collector of Customs at 
Toledo. Isaac R. Sherwood enlisted as a 
Ijrivate the day after President Lincoln's call 
for voluteers. His faithful setvice brought 
repeated promotion, until, at the close of 
the war, he was mustered out with rank of 
brigadier-general. A notice of his talented 
wife, Kate B. Sherwood, will be found in the 
chapter of the county of her birth, Mahoning. 
Charles W. Hill rendered valuable service 
early in the war in West Virginia, and, as 
adjutant-general under Governor Tod, most 
efficiently organized Ohio's volunteer forces. 
Through injustice on the part of General Mc- 
Clellan he did not receive, until 1865, his 
well-deserved promotion of major-general. 
Charles L. Young was said to have been 
the youngest man in the Union army in com- 
mand of a regiment. He was a very gallant 
officer. At Spottsylvania, May 12, 1864, in 
response to a call for volunteers, these three 
only answered, viz. , General J. H. Hobart 
Ward, Assistant Inspector-General Young, 
and Assistant Adjutant-General Ayres (of 
General Mott's staff), and galloped upon the 
breastworks at the "bloody angle." Gen- 
erals Ward and Young returned ; Ayres fell, 
riddled with bullets. His wife, Mrs. Young, 
has been actively engaged in various benevo- 
lent and charitable works. 

Jesse Wakeman Scott was born in Ridge- 
field, Conn., in 1789, and died at Toledo in 
1874. He was the earliest journahst of this 
region. In 1833, while engaged in the prac- 
tice of the law, he started the pioneer paper 
of the Maumee valley — the Miami of the 
Lake, that then being the appellation of 
the Maumee river. In 1844 he first made 
Toledo his residence, and for years edited the 
Toledo Blade. As early as 1828, while living 
in the South, he formed his views upon the 
ultimate results of population and trade in 
respect to interior cities, and especially his 
belief that the future great city of the world 
would be found, not on the seaboard, but in 
the interior. This belief led him to emigrate, 
and finally to settle in Toledo, whicli he felt 
was to be the Great City of the Future. And 
this conviction he promulgated through life, 
thereby attracting wide-spread notice from 

1 ^ 




the boldness of his statement and the ability 
with which he presented facts in its support. 
In liis day, Mr. Scott was a great power in all 


matters appertaining to the public welfare. 
He supplied some original material for the 
first edition of this work. His son, Frank J. 
Scott, is a literary gentleman, a resident of 
Toledo. He is the author of an elegantly 
illustrated work, published by the Appletons, 
on the art of beautifying suburban homes. 

David Boss Locke was born in Vestal, 
N. Y., September 20, 1833, and died in 
Toledo, February 15, 1888. He learned the 
printer's trade in the office of the Cortland 
Democrat. As a travelling journeyman 
printer he drifted from point to point. From 
1852 to 1860, he was connected, either as 
reporter, editor or publisher, with the Ply- 
mouth Advei-tiser, Bucyrus Journal, Mans- 
field Herald, Bellefontaine Republican and 
Findlay Jeffersonian. It was while editor of 
the latter that he commenced the develop- 
ment of the character of Petroleum Vesuvius 
Nasby," a whiskey-drinking, illiterate Ken- 
tucky politician who wanted to be postmaster, 
and desired the perpetuation of slavery. The 
first letter appeared in the Jeffersonian, 

April 21, 1861 ; later they were continued in 
the Toledo Blade, of which Mr. Locke 
became proprietor and editor. 

These political satires sprang at once into 
tremendous popularity. They were copied in- 
to newspapers everywhere, quoted in speeches, 
read around camp-fires of Union armies and 
exercised an enormous influence in holding 
public opinion in the north in favor of a 
vigorous prosecution of the war. Secretary 
Boutwell declared in a speech at Cooper 
Union, New York, at the close of the war, 
that the success of the Union arms was due 
to three causes — "the army, the navy and 
the Nasby letters." 

Among other publications of Mr. Locke 
are "Ekkoes from Kentucky," "About Ben 
Adhem," "Struggles of P. V. Nasby," 
" Swingin' Round the Cirkle," " A Paper 
City," and "Nasby in Exile," the latter 
written during an extended trip in Europe. 

James Monroe Ashley was born in Penn- 
sylvania, November 14, 1824 ; entered the drug 
business in Toledo in 1 85 1 , but was burned 
out in 1857, without insurance. He had 
studied law and been admitted to the bar, 
and in 1856 was a delegate to the National 
Republican Convention which nominated 
Fremont. Turning his attention to politics, 
he was for five successive terms elected to 
Congress, serving from 1859 to 1869. He was 
an active supporter of Lincoln's administra- 
tion, strongly opposed to slavery and early in 
proposing reconstruction measures. 

In 1869 he was appointed by President 
Grant Governor of Slontana Territory. 
Later, he returned to Toledo, where he prac- 
tised law. He achieved a reputation as a fine 
public speaker and politician. 

Clark Waggoner, journalist and his- 
torian, was born in Milan in 1 820 ; was edu- 
cated at what Dr. Franklin termed the "Poor 
Boy's College," the printing-office, and as a 
trophy of his life-work shows fifty bound 
volumes of newspapers of which he was pub- 
lisher and editor. They cover an aggregate 
of thirty-five j'ears, and include twelve years 
of weekly and twenty-three years of daily 
journals : among them are the Blade and the 
Commercial. In the administration of Mr. 
Hayes he was appointed Collector of Internal 
Revenue for this district. Through his efibrts 
largely, and against strong opposition, the 
public schools of Toledo were opened to 
colored children. Mr. Waggoner's last 
achievement is a history of Toledo and Lucas 
county, a work of immense labor, wherein 
is embraced much valuable historic material 
that otherwise would have been lost. 

L. S. & M. S. R. R. 

Sylvania is ten miles northwest of Toledo, on 
Population, 1880, 523. School census, 1888, 1,38. 

Whitehouse is seventeen miles southwest of Toledo, on the W., St. 
R, R. Population, 1880, 554. School census, 1888, 158. 

Richard Mott was born of Quaker pa- 
rentage av. Mamaroneck, N. Y., in July, 1804, 
and died in Toledo, 0., January 22, 1888. 

At sixteen he began school teaching to put 
himself through college, but failed in this, 
and in 1824 accepted a clerkship in the Bank 



of New Tork. In 1836 he removed to To- 
ledo, where he engaged in the commission 
and grain business until 1S60. He built the 
first grain warehouse in Toledo. He had 
charge of the laige landed inteiests of Gov. 
Washington Hunt and the Hicks family ; 
was president from March, 1838, to April, 
1839, of the pioneer railroad of the West 
(Erie and Kalamazoo). In 1844 he was 
elected Mayor of Toledo and le-elected in 
1846 ; was a member of Congress for two 
terms, from 1854 to 1858, when he declined 
a renomination and retired from active par- 
ticipation in politics. 

His inclinations were for literary pursuits. 
He was a man of high intellectual attain- 
ments and averse to active participation in 
political and official life. Until 1848 he was 
in sympathy with the principles of the Demo- 
cratic party, but his strong Anti-Slavery senti- 
ments carried him into the Free-Soil party, 
in which he became an active worker. 

His pronounced views and unwavering al- 
legiance to the Anti-Slavery cause led to his 
being classed by Southern slave-holders with 
Wm. Lloyd Garrison, Horace Greeley and 
other Abolitionists by placing a price on his 

In early life he began to take an interest in 
the Woman's Rights reform movement, and 
Mrs. Lueretia Mott. the illustrious wife of his 
elder brother, found in him a hopeful and en- 
couraging coadjutor. In 1869, on the forma- 
tion in Toledo of an association for the po- 
litical enfranchisement of women, Mr. Mott 
tendered the association a permanent home 
in his Fort Industry Block. 

Mr. Mott had been so largely identified 
with the social, moral, educational and hu- 
manitarian interests of Toledo that his name 
and labors have been important foctors in 
almost every enterprise that in a long term of 
years have inured to the welfare and progress 
of his fellow-citizens. At the time of his de- 
cease he was probably the most venerated 
character of the Maumee valley. 

John S. Kountz was bom in Richfield 
Centre, Lucas county, 0., March 25, 1846. 
At fifteen and a half years of age he enlisted 
as a drummer-boy in the 37th 0. V. I. In 
the army he showed great courage ; in one 
instance, at the imminent risk of his own 
life, he rescued from drowning a soldier who 
had broken through the ice of the Kanawha 
river. He took part in a number of battles. 
In the charge at Mission Ridge he was hit in 
the thigh by an English explosive ball, ren- 
dering necessary amputation of the limb. 

When at Jlission Ridge the order came to 
charge the enemy's works the boy, Kountz, 
threw away his drum, and seizing a musket 
from one of the slain, charged with the 
men and fell under the enemy's work.s. This 
incident furnished the subject of a descrijjtive 
poem from Jlrs. Kate B. Sherwood, entitled 
'The Drummer-boy of Mission Ridge,"' of 
which we annex two verses : 

A moment more, and our flags had swung 
o'er muzzle of murderous gun ; 

But a raking fire had swept the van, and he 
fell 'mid tiie wounded and the slain. 

With his wee wan face turned up to Him 
who feeleth His children's pain. 

glory of Mission Ridge ! stream on like 

the roseate light of morn. 
On the sons that now are living, on the sons 

that are yet unborn ! 
And cheers for our comrades living, and 

tears as they pass away,— 
And three times three for the Drummer-boy, 

who fought at the front that day ! 

At the age of twenty-five he was elected 
county treasurer, and later recorder. Retir- 
ing from political life in 1877, he entered the 
fire insurance and real estate business. 

He has ardently devoted himself to the 
interests of the Grand Army of the Republic, 


pressed to the front our lad so leal and 
the works were almost won ; 

The Drummer-Boy of Mission Ridge. 

occupying various positions with such marked 
efficiency that in July, 1884, he was chosen 
its Commander-in-Chief, being the only pri- 
vate soldier who has been called to that 
eminent position. 

He was one of the originators of the Sol- 
diers' 5Iemorial Building in Toledo, and has 
occupied many positions of trust. 

Of Gen. Kountz it has been justly said . 
"He is a man of fine natural abilities, ener- 
getic and industrious, and most faithful in 
the discharge of any duty assigned to him. 
In his Grand Army work he has few equals 
and no superiors. It was his work as Com- 
mander of the Department of Ohio that gave 
the organization its great impetus in this 
State, and started it on its upward march to 
become the banner department of the order. 
As Commander-in-Chief his work was equally 
as great." 



Madison County was organized in March, 1810, and named from James 
Madison, the fourth President of the Uniteu States. The soil is clayey., and the 
surface level. Almost one-third of the surface is prairie land. It is largely a 
stock-raising county. 

Area about 470 square miles. In 1887 the acres cultivated were 106,169; 
in pasture, 97,489; woodland, 19,118; produced in wheat, 429,299 bushels; 
rye, 2,763; buckwheat, 755; oats, 103,205; barley, 720; corn, 2,288,745; 
broom corn, 34,000 lbs. brush ; meadow hay, 20,910 tons ; clover hay, "3,083 ; 
potatoes, 19,544 bushels ; butter, 377,235 lbs. ; cheese, 600 ; sorghum, 474 gallons ; 
maple sugar, 300 lbs. ; honey, 3,752 lbs. ; eggs, 460,915 dozen ; grapes, 18,100 
lbs. ; wine, 50 gallons ; apples, 3,565 bushels ; peaches, 334 ; pears, 383 ; wool, 
362,386 lbs. ; milch cows owned, 4,540 ; stallions, 108. School census, 1888, 
6,046 ; teachers, 169. Miles of railroad track, 53. 

Townships and Census. 1840. 1880. Townships and Census. 1840. 1880. 












Deer Creek, 























Oak Eun, 





Population of Madison in 1820 was 4,799 ; 1830, 6,191 ; 1840, 9,025 ; 1860, 
13,015; 1880, 20,129, of whom 16,398 were born in Ohio; 754, Virginia; 
397, Pennsylvania; 273, Kentucky; 196, New York ; 90, Indiana; 917, Ireland ; 
195, German Empire; 103, England and Wales ; 37, British America ; 11, Scot- 
land ; 7, France. Census of 1890, 20,057. 

This county is a high table land between the Miami and Scioto rivers. Tiie 
railroad surveys show London to be 389 feet higher than Columbus. Earl}' in 
the century about half the surface was covered with water. Ponds were numer- 
ous, the resort of cranes, ducks and other water-fowl. The land was then con- 
sidered worthless ; by cleaning and draining it has become highly valuable. 

About half the county is clay soil. Sheep, swine and bulls are largely raised. 
Formerly the farms were very large, going sometimes into thousands of acres. 
By deaths and the subsequent divisions of estates they are rapidly diminishing. 
The larger farms are generally sub-let to tenants, largely Irish, who are generally 

Deer Creek, in this county, was so called by tlie Indians, because of the many 
deer that used to frequent it to eat the moss that grew plentifully upon its banks. 
It was considered by the Indians the best hunting-ground for deer in this \\iiole 
region of country. 

The first court in this county was held in a cabin, Judge Thompson, of 
Chillicotlie, presiding. The grand jury retired to deliberate to an oak and liazel 
thicket that stood near. The principal business, for the first year or two, was to 
try men for fighting. 

London in 184-6. — London, the county-scat, is twenty-five miles westerly from 
Columbus. It was laid off in 1810 or '11, as seat of justice, liy Patrick MoLene, 
by order of the commissioners; and by the autumn of 1812 had six or eight 


families. The view shows on the left the court house, and in the distance the 
academy. London contains 1 Presbyterian and 1 Methodist church, a classical 
academy, 1 newspaper printing office, 8 stores, and by the census of 1840 its 
population was 297. — Old Edition. 

London, county-seat of Madison, twenty-five miles weet of Columbus, and 
ninety-five miles northeast of Cincinnati, is on tlie P. C. & St. L. and I. B. & 
W. Railroads. The county is a rich agricultural district, and Loudon is a wheat- 
shipping centre and famous for its cattle sales. 

County Officers, 1888 : Auditor, William C. Ward ; Clerk, M. Fmncler Dunn ; 
Commissiouei-s, William E. Beals, Alfred C. Willett, John P. Bowei-s ; Coroner, 
Daniel T. Fox ; Infirmary Directors, Patrick McGuire, James C. Peck, Valen- 
tine Wilson, Jr. ; Probate Judge, Oliver P. Crabb ; Prosecuting Attorney, Cor- 
win Locke ; Recorder, Samuel Trumper ; Sheriff, John T. Vent ; Surveyor, 
William Reeder; Treasurer, William M. Jones. City Ofiicers, 1888: Geo. H. 
Hamilton, Mayor ; W. j\I. Ferguson, Clerk ; Charles INIaguire, Marshal ; John 
E. Lotspiech, Chief Fire Department. Newspapers : Enterprise, Republican, 
John Wallace, editor ; Madison County Democrcd, Democratic, M. L. Bryan, 
editor and publisher ; Times, Republican, Carson & Gunsaulus, editors and pub- 
lishers ; T75'?7ani, Prohibitionist, F. A. Taylor, editor. Churches: 1 Methodist 
Episcopal, 1 Baptist, 1 Presbyterian, 1 African Methodist Episcopal, 1 Catholic, 
1 Episcopal and 1 Lutheran. Banks : Central, Thos. J. Stutson, president, 
William Farrar, cashier; London Exchange, Robert Boyd, president, A. C. 
AVatson, cashier ; Madison National, Stephen Watson, president, B. F. Clark, 

Manufactures and Employees. — G. W. Shank, handles, 32 hands ; J. B. Van- 
wagner, grain elevator, 3 ; F. Placier, flour and feed, 5 ; Wm. M. Jones & Sons, 
carriages and buggies, 12; William Holland, carriages and buggies, 17; E. R. 
Florence, washing machines, etc., 7 ; E. J. Gould, doors, sash, etc., 6. — State 
Report, 1888. Population in 1880, 3,067. School census, 1888, 1,048 ; school 
superintendent. J. W. MacKinnon. Capital invested in industrial establishments. 
$49,000. Census, 1890, 3,292. 

The London Live-Stock Sales. 
By Hon. John F. Locke. 

The live-stock sales at London, Madison county, Ohio, have justly obtained a 
wide distinction throughout the Central and Western States among cattle and 
horse-dealers. For many years prior to 1856 Madison county had been espe- 
cially a grazing country, where large herds of cattle were raised and shipped 
to the Eastern markets. There were many large farms, and all their owners 
were engaged, more or less, in raising, buying and selling cattle. Early in the 
year 1856 a few of the leading cattle-dealers met in London for the purpose of 
arranging for monthly sales to occur in London, where buyers and sellers could 
more conveniently be brought together, and purchases and sales be more easily 
effected. It was agreed to hold the first sale on the first Tuesday in March, 
1856, and thereafter on the first Tuesday of each and every month. 

The first sale was accordingly held on the first Tuesday of March, 1856, and they' 
have continued as regularly as the first Tuesday of tiie month came, from that day 
until the present, a period of over thirty years. But four sales have been missed 
— the July sale, 1 863, when the " fall of Vicksburg " was celebrated ; the October 
sale, 1863, being election day, and a very exciting one, being in the celebrated 
Vallandigham campaign ; the July sale, 1865, beiug the Fourth of July, in cele- 
bration of the "downfall of the rebellion," and the September sale, 1868, on ac- 
count of the " cattle plague." The sales were begun without organization, and 
have continued to run without organization or officers ever since. They have 
been controlled by no ring, and in no interests but the interests of buyers and 
purchasers alike. 

Drawnbn Ilennj Howe i„ 1S46. 

View in London. 
The Court-House is showu on the left, and the Academy on the right in the distance. 

O. C. ITah; ri.nlo , I 

View in London. 
The Court-House is on the left, on the site of that ahove. 


The method of their operations is simple. On tlie clay before the sale, and 
often on the day of the sale, various droves of cattle may be seen coming on the 
several roads to London. Those brought the day before are kept in lots and fed 
over night, ready for the sale the next day. About 10 o'clock of the day of sale 
from two to three thousand people have assembled on the streets to witness the 
sales, see each other and transact business, and do trading which has been put off 
until "Salesday." Tills crowd is unusually orderly, and is about the 
same every salesday, regardless of the weather or other events. The public 
square near the Court-house is the market place. A drove of cattle is driven into 
the square, and the auctioneer announces the number, age and weight of the cattle, 
and bidding begins and continues until they are sold to the highest bidder at so 
much per liead. 

The cattle are then driven out, delivered to the buyer by the seller, and another 
Jrove is sold in the same way. Often three or four droves are being sold at the 
same time, and the hue and cry of the noisy auctioneei-s is strange and amusing 
to one imfamiliar with it. 

The chief auctioneer is John C. Bridgman, a man with a strong frame, loud 
voice, a good judge of cattle and a keen trader, and who, because of his especial 
qualifications and large experience, is without doubt the best auctioneer of live- 
stock in the whole country. He has been constantly at the business for over a 
quarter of a century, and has sold under the hammer at public auction more cattle 
than any other man living or dead. 

These sales have been remarkably successful, and have become an established 
and permanent institution peculiar to Madison county. Attempts have been made 
to imitate them in various parts of the State and 1>he West, but without success, 
except in Paris, Ky., where there exists its only rival. The chief causes of their 
success ai-e not attributable to any particular efforts of men, or a set of men, but to 
the fortunate situation and favorable conditions of Madison county for the estab- 
lishment and growth of this institution, so especially its own. Madison county lies 
in the centre of the great blue-grass region of Ohio. This favorite and celebrated 
territory includes about half of the counties adjoining, and on the dividing ridge 
between the Scioto and Little Miami i-ivers. 

Its soil is particularly well adapted for the production of the rich and nutri- 
tious blue-gras? so necessary in producing the very best quality of live-stock of 
all kinds. Its farms are mostly unusually large, affording an extensive range for 
herds of cattle. Most of our farmers keep a few cattle, and many of them keep 
very large herds. There are over two hundred farms in the county containing 
from four hundred to four thousand acres. There are two or three sections or 
neighborhoods in the county containing from twenty to thirty thousand acres in 
one body owned by ten or twelve men. 

Cattle brought to this market can always find a buyer who is prepared to buy 
a herd and turn them at once to graze upon his pastures. In counties where the 
farms are small the farmer is not prepared to accommodate but a few cattle. 
This is one reason of success here. Cattle are regularly brought here from all 
parts of the State, and frequently from Michigan, Indiana, Illinois and other 
States. They find ready purchasers at the highest market price. The cattle con- 
sist mostly of one, two and three-year-old steere, sometimes a few heifers, but 
never any fat or shipping cattle. These stock cattle are purchased by the large 
grazers, turned u|)on their pastures, fattened and shipped to New York, Boston 
and Liverpool. The cattle sold at these sales by no means represent the amount 
or number of cattle sold in the county. The fat cattle sold and shipped from 
here annually equal, if not exceed in value, those sold at the monthly sales. 

The number of cattle sales and the amount of the annual sales have been grad- 
ually on the increase, until within the last few years, when the cattle trade has 
been dull throughout the country. 

The following table shows the number of cattle sold each year, and the amount 


of sales each year, for the last thirty years, ending March, 1886. There are only 
nine sales in 1856 and six in 1886 reported and included in this table : 

No. of stock Amount of No. of stock Amount of 


1856 993 $31,762.50 1873 5,886 $292,640.22 

1857 4,704 105,753.68 1874 5,016 215,895.54 

1858 3,109 61,335.44 1875 5,997 266,482.52 

3,684 94,648.96 1876 3,121 128,861.22 

sales. Year. sold. sales. 

1860 3,644 92,549.54 1877 6,350 279,690.13 

2,591 47,292.81 1878 6,282 239,664.33 

3,429 58,886.57 1879 7,344 243,563.56 

2,943 51,013.51 1880 6,391 247,657.37 

1,720 53,146.77 1881 '... 6,812 315,707.26 

2,052 81,446.41 1882 7,259 341,582.96 

2,793 147,439.48 1883 5,354 279,123.99 

3,586 175,080.34 1884 4,299 208,010.77 

5,514 229,467.00 1885 3,644 178,094.14 

5,930 328,994.15 1886 2,400 111,374.54 

1870 5,480 300,962.94 


ll',145 425',506:90 30 years 145,416 $5,813,902.25 

The following table shows the number of different kinds of stock sold during 
the thirty years, and the average price per head : 

Number. Kind of stock. Average price per head. 

240 Four-year-olds $ 64.53 

29,460 Three-year-olds 49.04 

57,441 Two-vear-olds 39.20 

32,414 One-year-olds 25.33 

1,428 Two-year heifers 27.38 

1,893 One-year heifers 21.12 

2,404 Calves 14.92 

1,734 Dry and fat cows 32.93 

1,087 Milch cows 36.69 

130,452 Total cattle. 

7,717 Sheep 3.12 

417 Mules 87.51 

6,830 Horses 118.73 


During the early years of sales all kinds of live-stock were sold, but 
now there are chiefly only cattle and horses. Mules were sold at almost every 
sale until after the war, since which but few are ever offered in the market. 
Sheep were also sold until 1868, since which time none have been offered. 

During the first ten years of the sales but few horses are reported as sold, but 
since the war the sale of horses has been largely on the increase, and prices are 
better. This is undoubtedly owing to the fact that a demand for larger draft 
horses for use in the East has made their production more general. Several car- 
loads of horses are sold and shipped from here each sale-day. 

John M. Eoberts has reported these sales for the Democrat for many years, and 
it is from his reports that the report herein given is compiled. In years to come 
these reports will be valuable in enabling a correct history of this institution to 
be written. 

There is no indication that the sales will cease, nor is there any good reason 
why they should. Tiiey have accomplished well the purpose intended, and have 
reflected great credit upon Madison county, and all feel a just pride in them. 

On my original tour there was then living on the Big Darby, in Canaan town- 
ship, Jonathan Alder, who, when a boy in the Revolutionary war, was taken 
captive by the Indians and lived with them many yeai-s. He had dictated to his 
son Henry the history of his captivity. It comprised about one hundred MSS. 
pages, and I copied from it all tiiat was of value. 

Jonathan Alder died three years later. He looked like an Indian, and though 



not rich he lived in comfort and was much respected. His name a])pears among 
the first juries of Madison county, and his neighbors said he was a very kindly 
man, " honest as the sun." 

We are indebted to Dr. J. N. Beach, of West Jctfei-son, who saw him when he 
was a child of five yeai-s, for the following facts, after which comes oui original 
account : 

Jonathan Alder is buried at Foster Chapel cemetery, Jefferson township, 
INIadison county, four miles north of the village of West Jefferson. His grave 
is marked by a plain slab, four and a half by two feet in size, on which is the 
inscription as given below. 

His cabin stands one mile north of the cemetery, opposite the residence of his 
grandson, Seth Alder, in the southwest angle formed by the crossing of the east 
pike by the Lucas pike. An addition, larger than the original cabin, has been 
built on the east side. This cabin was first built about two hundred yards east 
of its present location, or a little east of the present family residence. It was 
removed to its present location by a son of Mr. Alder and the addition made for 
residence purposes. I think there is no doubt but that the west half of the 
present structure located in the angle of the roads is the original Alder cabin, 
and presents much the same appearance as when it stood farther east when 
first built. 

During his residence with the Indians, he spent one winter in a cabin on the 
east bank of Darby creek, just opposite where he is buried, on the farm now 
owned by Knowlton Bailey. While here he became disabled in someway in one 
of his feet, entirely incapacitating him from hunting, the only means he had for 
subsistence, and in consequence was reduced to almost a starving condition. 
Fortunately, however, two Indian boys happened to stumble upon his camp just 
at a time when the question of food was becoming a serious one, and more fortu- 
nately the cry of a deer being torn by the wolves was just then heard. The 
boys sprang out to take a hand in the struggle, but Mr. Alder said, " Boys, wait 
until the deer quits crying and then we will be sure of some venison." The deer 
became quiet, when the boys went out and, driving off the wolves, soon returned 
with the carcase. 

Captivitt and Lipe of Jonathan Alder 
among the indians. 

Jonathan Alder was born in New Jersey, 
about eight miles from Philadelphia, Septem- 
ber 17, 1773. When at about the age of 
seven years his parents removed to Wythe 
county, Va. , and his father soon after died. 

In the succeeding March (1782), while out 
with his brother David, hunting for a mare 
and her colt, he was taken prisoner by a 
small party of Indians. His brother, on the 
first alarm, ran, and was pursued by some of 
the party. "At length," saj's Alder, "I 
saw them returning, leading my brother, 
while one was holding the handle of a spear, 
that he had thrown at him and run into his 
body. As they approached, one of them 
stepped up and grasped him around the 
body, while another pulled out the spear. I 
observed some flesh on the end of it, which 
looked white, which I suppcsed came from 
his entrails. I moved to him and inquired if 
he was hurt, and he replied that he was. 
These were the last words that passed between 
us. At that moment he turned pale and 
began to sink, and I was hurried on, and 
shortly after saw one of the barbarous wretches 
coming up with the scalp of my brother in 
his hand, shaking oflF the blood," 



Sept. 17, 1773, 

Taken by the Indians, 1781 : 
Returned to his Mother in 180 


Jan. 30, 1849, 

About 76 years. 

Inscription on the Grave or Jonathan 



The Indians also having taken a prisoner, a 
Mrs. Martin, a neighbor to the Alders, with 
her young child, aged about four or five years, 
retreated towards their towns. Their route 
lay through the woods to the Big Sandy, 
down that stream to the Ohio, which they 
crossed, and from thence went overland to the 
Scioto, near Chillicothe, and so on to a Mingo 
village on Mad river. 

Finding the child of Mrs. Martin burden- 
some, they soon killed and scalped it. The 
last member of her family was now destroyed, 
and she screamed in agony of grief Upon 
this one of the Indians caught her by her 
hair, and drawing the edge of his knife across 
her forehead, cried, "sculp! sculp!" with 
the hope of stilling her cries. But, indiffer- 
ent to life, she continued her screams, when 
they procured some switches and whipped 
her until she was silent. The next day, young 
Alder having not risen, through fatigue, from 
eating, at the moment the word was given, 
saw, as his face was to the north, the shadow 
of a man's arm with an uplifted tomahawk. 
He turned, and there stood an Indian, ready 
for the fatal blow. Upon this he let down 
his arm and commenced feeling of his head. 
He afterwards told Alder it had been his 
intention to have killed him ; but, as he 
turned he looked so smiling and pleasant that 
he could not strike, and on feeling of his 
head and noticing that his hair was very 
black, the thought struck him, that if he 
could only get him to his tribe he would 
make a good Indian ; but that all that saved 
his life was the color of his hair. 

After they crossed the Ohio they killed a 
bear, and remained four days to dry the meat 
for packing, and to fry out the oil, which last 
they put in the intestines, having first turned 
and cleaned them. 

The village to which Alder was taken be- 
longed to the Mingo tribe, and was on the 
north side of Mad river, which we should 
judge was somewhere within or near the 
limits of what is now Logan county. As he 
entered he was obliged to run the gauntlet, 
formed by young children armed with 
switches. He passed through this ordeal 
with little or no injury, and was adopted into 
an Indian family. His Indian mother thor- 
oughly washed him with soap and warm 
water with herbs in it, previous to dressing 
him in the Indian costume, consisting of a 
calico shirt, breech-clout, leggings and mocca- 
sons. The family having thus converted him 
into an Indian, were much pleased with their 
new member. But Jonathan was at first 
very homesick, thinking of his mother and 
brothers. Everything was strange about 
him ; he was unable to speak a word of their 
language ; their food disagreed with him ; 
and, childlike, he used to go out daily for 
more than a month, and sit under a large 
walnut tree near the village, and cry for hours 
at a time over his deplorable situation. His 
Indian father was a chief of the Mingo tribe, 
named Succohanos ; his Indian mother was 
named Whinecheoh, and their daughters 
respectively answered to the good old Eng- 

lish names of Mary, Hannah and Sally. Suc- 
cohanos and Whinecheo were old people, and 
had lost a son, in whose place they had 
adopted Jonathan. They took pity on the 
little fellow, and did their best to comfort him, 
telling him that he would one day be restored 
to his mother and brothers. He says of 
them, " They could not have used their own 
son better, for which they shall always be 
held in most grateful remembrance by me." 
His Indian sister, Sally, however, treated 
him " like a slave," and when out of humor, 
applied to him, in the Indian tongue, the 
unladylike epithet of " onorary [mean], lousy 
prisoner! " Jonathan for a time lived with 
Mary, who had become the wife of the chief. 
Col. Lewis (see Logan County). " In the fall 
of the year," says he, "the Indians would 
generally collect at our camp, evenings, to 
talk over their hunting expeditions. I would 
sit up to listen to their stories, and frequently 
fell asleep just where I was sitting. After 
they left, Mary would fix my bed, and, with 
Col. Lewis, would carefully take me up and 
carry me to it. On these occasions they 
would often say — supposing me to be asleep 
— ' Poor fellow ! we have sat up too long for 
him, and he has fallen asleep on the cold 
ground ; ' and then how softly would they lay 
me down and cover me up ! Oh ! never have 
I, nor can I, express the afiFection I had for 
these two persons. ' ' 

Jonathan, with other boys, went into Mad 
river to bathe, and on one occasion came near 
drowning. He was taken out senseless, and 
some time elapsed ere he recovered. He 
says, "I remember, after I got over my 
strangle, I became very sleepy, and I thought 
I could draw my breath as well as ever. 
Being overcome with drowsiness, I laid down 
tm..sleep, which was the last I remember. 
The act of drowning is nothing, but the 
coming to life is distressing. The boys, after 
they had brought me to, gave me a silver 
buckle as an inducement not to tell the old 
folks of the occurrence, for fear they would 
not let me come with them again ; and so the 
afiair was kept secret. " 

When Alder had learned to speak the In- 
dian language he became more contented. 
He says : "I would have lived very happy, 
if I could have had health ; but for three or 
four years I was subject to very severe at- 
tacks of fever and ague. Their diet went 
very hard with me for a long time. Their 
chief living was meat and hominy ; but we 
rarely had bread, and very little salt, which 
was extremely scarce and dear, as well as 
milk and butter. Honey and sugar were 
plentiful, and used a great deal in their cook- 
ing, as well as on their food. ' ' 

When he was old enough he was given an 
old English musket, and told that he must 
go out and learn to hunt. So he used to 
follow along the water-courses, where mud 
turtles were plenty, and commenced his first 
essay upon them. He generally aimed under 
them, as they lay basking on the rocks ; and 
when he struck the stones, they flew some- 
times several feet in the air, which afforded 


great sport for the youthful marksman. Oc- 
casionally he killed a wild turkey, or a rac- 
coon ; and when he returned to the village 

with his game generally received high praise 
for his skill — the Indians telling him he would 
make " a great hunter one of these days." 

We cannot, within our assigned limits, give all of the incidents and anecdotes 
related by Alder, or anything like a connected history of his life among the In- 
dians. In the June after he was taken occurred Crawford's defeat. He describes 
the anxiety of the squaws while the men were gone to the battle, and their joy on 
their returning with scalps and other trophies of the victory. He defends Simon 
Girty from the charge of being the instigator of the burning of Crawford, and 
states that he could not have saved his life because he had no influence in the 
Delaware tribe, whose prisoner Crawford was. Alder was dwelling at the Mack- 
achack towns (see Logan County) when they were destroyed by Logan in 1786 ; 
was in the attack on Fort Recovery in 1794 (see Mercer County), and went on 
an expedition into " Kaintucky to steal horses " from the settlers. 

Alder remained with the Indians until 
after Wayne's treaty, in 1 795. He was urged 
by them to be jjresent on the occasion, to 
obtain a reservation of land, which was to 
be given to each of the prisoners; but, igno- 
rant of its importance, he neglected going, 
and lost the land. Peace having been re- 
stored, Alder says, "I could now lie down 
without fear, and rise up and shake hands 
with both the Indian and the white man." 

The summer after the treaty, while living 
on Big Darby, Lucas Sullivant (see p. 610) 
made his appearance in that region, surveying 
land, and soon became on terms of intimacy 
■with Alder, who related to him a history of 
his life, and generously gave him the piece 
of land on which he dwelt ; but there being 
some little difficulty aBout the title, Alder 
did not contest, and so lost it. 

When the settlers first made their appear- 
ance on the Darby, Alder could scarcely speak 
a word of English. He was then about 24 
years of age, fifteen of which he had passed 
with the Indians. Two of the settlers kindly 
taught him to converse in English. He had 
taken up with a squaw for a wife some time 
previous, and now began to farm like the 
whites. He kept hogs, cows and horses ; 
sold milk and butter to the Indians, horses 
and pork to the whites, and accumulated 
property. He soon was able to hire white 
laborers, and being dissatisfied with his squaw 
— a cross, peevish woman — wished to put her 
aside, get a wife from among the settlers, 
and live like them. Thoughts, too, of his 
mother and brothers, began to obtrude, and 
the more he reflected, his desire strengthened 
to know if they were living, and to see them 
once more. He made inquiries for them, but 
was at a loss to know how to begin, being 
ignorant of the name of even the State in 
which they were. When talking one day 
with John Moore, a companion of his, the 
latter questioned him where he was from. 
Alder replied that he was taken prisoner 
somewhere _ near a place called Greenbriar, 
and that his people lived by a lead mine, to 
which he frequently used to go to see the 
hands dig ore. Moore then asked him if he 
could recollect the names of any of his neigh- 

bors. After a little reflection he replied, 
" Yes ! a family of Gulions that lived close 
by us." Upon this, Moore dropped his head, 
as if lost in thought, and muttered to himself, 
" Gulion ! Gulion ! " and then raising up, 
replied, "My father and myself were out in 
that country, and we stopped at their house 
over one night, and if your people are living 
I can find them." 

Mr. Moore after this went to Wythe county 
and inquired for the family of Alder ; but 
without success, as they had removed from 
their former residence. He put up advertise- 
ments in various places, stating the facts, and 
where Alder was to be found, and then re- 
turned. Alder now abandoned all hopes of 
finding his family, supposing them to be 
dead. Some time after he and Moore were 
at Franklinton, where he was informed that 
there was a letter for him in the postoffice. 
It was from his brother Paul, stating that 
one of the advertisements was put up within 
six miles of him, and that he got it the next 
day. It contained the joyful news that his 
mother and brothers were alive. 

Alder, in making preparations to start for 
Virginia, agreed to separate from his Indian 
wife, divide the property equally, and take 
and leave her with her own people at San- 
dusky. But some difficulty occurred in sat- 
isfying her. He gave her all the cows, fourteen 
in number, worth $20 each, seven horses and 
much other property, reserving to himself 
only two horses and the swine. Besides 
these was a small box, about six inches long, 
four inches wide and four deep, filled with 
silver, amounting probably to about $200, 
which he intended to take, to make an equal 
division. But to this she objected, saying 
the box was hers before marriage, and she 
would not only have it, but all it contained. 
Alder says, " I saw I could not get it without 
making a fuss, and probably having a fight, 
and told her that if she would promise never 
to trouble nor come back to me, she might 
have it ; to which she agreed." 

Moore accompanied him to his brother's 
house, as he was unaccustomed to travel 
among the whites. They arrived there on 
horseback at noon, the Sunday after New 


Year's. They walked up to the house and around me, while tears rolled down her 
requested to have their noises fed, and pre- cheeks. The first words she spoke, after she 
tending they were entire strangers, inquired grasped me in her arms, were, ' How you 
who lived there. "I had concluded," said have grown!' and then she told me of a 
Alder, "not to make myself known for some dream she had. Says she, ' I dreamed that 
time, and eyed my brother very close, but you had come to see me, and that you was a 
did not recollect his features. I had always little ononiiy [mean] looking fellow, and I 
thought I should have recognized my mother would not own you for my son ; but now I 
by a mole on her face. In the corner sat an find I was mistaken, that it is entirely the 
old lady who I supposed was her, although I reverse, and I am proud to own you for my 
could not tell, for when I was taken by the son.' I told her I could remind her of a few 
Indians her head was as black as a crow, and circumstances that she would recollect, that 
now it was almost perfectly white. Two took place before I was made cajitive. I 
j'oung women were present, who eyed me then related various things, among which 
very close, and I heard one of them whisper was that the negroes, on passing our house 
to the other, ' He looks very much like ]Mark ' on Saturday evenings, to spend feunday with 
(my brother). I saw they were about to dis- their wives, would beg pumpkins of her, and 
cover me, and accordingly turned my chair get her to roast them for them against their 
around to my brother, and said, ' You say return on Monday morning. She recollected 
your name is Alder ? ' 'Yes,' he replied, these circumstances, and said she had now no 
' my name is Paul Alder.' 'Well,' I rejoined, doubt of my being her son. We passed the 
' my name is Alder too. ' Now it is hardly balance of the day in agreeable conversation, 
necessary to describe our feelings at that and I related to them the history of my cap- 
time ; but they were very difi'erent ti-om those tivity, my fears and doubts, of iny grief and 
I had when I was taken prisoner, and saw misery the first year after I was taken. My 
the Indian coming with my brother's scalp brothers at this time were all married, and 
in his hand, shaking ofi' the blood. Mark and John had moved from there. They 
" When I told my brother that my name was were sent for and came to see me ; but my 
Alder, he rose to shake hands with me, so half-brother John had moved so far that I 
overjoyed that he could scarcely utter a word, never got to see him at all. " 
and my old mother ran, threw her arms 

This county was first settled by the whites in 1796. In the fall of 1795 Ben- 
jamin Springer came from Kentucky, selected some land about a mile north of 
Amity, on the west bank of Big Darby, which stream was named by the Indians 
from a Wyandot chief named Darby, who for a long time resided upon it, near 
the line of this and Union counties. Springer having made a clearing and built 
a cabin, moved his family to the place in the spring of 1796. The next year 
William Lapin, Joshua and James Ewing, settled in the same neighborhood. 
The last-named is now living. 

Springer settled near Alder, and taught him the English language, which much 
endeared the latter to him. He reciprocated this benefit, by not only supplying 
him with meat, but others of the early settlers, who, had "it not been for him, 
would have been in danger of starvation. He also, on difiTerent occasions, saved 
some of the settlers from being killed by the Indians. 

In 1800 INIr. Joshua Ewing brought four sheep to his place, which were 
strange animals to the Indians. One day an Indian was passing by, when the 
dog of the latter caught one of the sheep, and Ewing shot him. The Indian 
would have shot Ewing in retaliation, had not Alder, who was present, with much 
difficulty prevailed upon him to refrain. 

On the outbreak of hostilities in 1812 the Indian chiefs held a council and sent 
a deputation to Alder, to learn which side to espouse, saying that the British 
wished them to go and fight for them, holding out the promise that in such case 
they would support their families. He advised them to remain at first neutral, 
and told them they need not be afraid of the Americans harming their women and 
children. They followed Alder's advice, for a while remained neutral, and event- 
ually became warm friends of the Americans. 

Plain City is eighteen miles northeast of London, at the Union county line, 
and on the C. St. L. & P. E. E. It is the main business point for the rich'farms 
on Darby plains. Newspaper : Dealer, Independent, J. H. Zimmerman, editor, 
C. W. Horn, proprietor. Churches : one Methodist, one Presbyterian, and one 


Universalist. Banks : Farmers', Z. T. Lewis, president, C. F. Morgan, ; 
Plain City, Alvah Smith, president, C. B. Smith, cashier. 

Manufactu7-es and Employees. — W. I. Ballinger & Sons, flour, etc., 5 hands ; 
Andrew & Koehler, grain elevator, 4 ; E. H. Dry, carriages and buggies, 6 ; 
Barlow, Kent & Co., furniture, 32 ; McCune & Beard, lumber, etc., 7 ; Beach & 
Dominv, flooring, siding, etc., 4 ; K. L. Wood, wrapping paper, 23. — Ohio State 
Report, 1888. Population in 1880, 665. School census, 1888, 294. Capital in- 
vested in manufacturing establishments, $68,000. Value of annual product, 
$137,000.— OAio Labor Statistics, 1888. 

West Jefferson is ten miles northeast of London, and fourteen miles west 
of Columbus, on the P. C. & St. L. R. R. Bank : Commercial, Gregg & Colli- 
ver, J. B. Hill, cashier. Population, 1880, 720. School census 1888, 253. At 
an early day a block-house was built on the east bank of the Little Darby, about 
twenty rods south of where the national road crosses the creek, near the village. 

Mount Steeling is fifteen miles southeast of London, on the C. & C. M. R. 
R. Newspaper : Tribune, Independent, J. W. Hanawalt, editor and publisher. 
Churches : one Presbyterian, one Methodist, and one Christian. Bank : Farm- 
ers', William McCaiferty, president, J. G. Louf bourrow, cashier. Population, 
1880, 482. School census, 1888, 244 ; L. W. Sheppard, school superintendent. 
Capital invested in industrial establishments, $80,300. Value of annual product, 
$150,500.— OAw Labor Statistics, 1887. 

Midway is eleven miles south of London. Postoffice is Sedalia. Population, 
1880, 284. School census, 1888, 128. 

SoMERFORD is fivc miles northeast of London. Population, 1880, 323. 

South Solon is eighteen miles southwest of London, on the O. S. R. R. News- 
paper : Standard, Independent, J. C. Morrow, editor and publisher. Population, 
1880, 262. 



Mahoning County was formed from Trumhull and Columbia, March 1, 
1846. It derived its name from Mahoning river. The name Mahoning is, ac- 
cording to Heckwelder, deri\'ed from eitiier the Indian word Mahoni, signifying 
"a lick," or 3fahonink, "at the lick." The surface is rolling and the soil finely 
adapted to wheat and corn. Large quantities of the finer qualities of wool are 
raised. The valley of the Mahoning abounds in excellent bituminous coal, which 
is well adapted to the smelting of iron ore. There are fifteen townships in the 
county ; the five southernmost, viz.. Smith, Goshen, Green, Beaver and Spring- 
field, originally formed part of Columbiana, and the others the southern part of 
Trumbull, the last of which are within the Western Reserve. Area about 420 
square miles. In 1887 the acres cultivated were 105,207 ; in pasture, 70,454 ; 
woodland, 33,881 ; Iving waste, 2,076 ; produced in wheat, 181,007 bushels; rye, 
3,359; buckwheat, 995; oats, 501,949; barley, 1,489; corn, 469,737 ; broom 
corn, 300 lbs. brush ; meadow hay, 36,623 tons; clover hay, 9,610 ; flax, 51,600 
lbs. fibre ; potatoes, 95,773 bushels ; tobacco, 100 lbs. ; butter, 695,277 ; cheese, 
79,450 ; sorghum, 637 gallons ; maple syrup, 33,942 ; honey, 19,649 lbs. ; eggs, 
371,039 dozen ; grapes, 20,265 lbs. ; wine, 267 gallons ; apples, 188,271 bushels ; 
peaches, 16,413; pears, 3,335; wool, 251,921 lbs.; milch cows owned, 7,521. — 
Ohio State Report, 1888. 

Coal mined in this county, 231,035 tons, employing 496 miners and 71 outside 
employees; iron ore, 13,779; fire clay, 400 tons; limestone, 53,627 tons burned 
for fluxing, 14,000 cubic feet of dimension stone. — Ohio Mining Statistics, 1888. 

School census, 1888, 16,908 ; teachers, 336 ; miles of railroad track, 168. 





Green, ■ 















Board man, 



























Population of Mahoning in 1840, 21,712 ; 1860, 25,894; 1880, 42,871 ; of 
whom 26,672 were born in Ohio; 5,418, Pennsylvania; 593, New York ; 311, 
Virginia ; 93, Indiana ; 56, Kentucky ; 3,280, England and Wales ; 2,494, Ire- 
land ; 1,471, German Empire ; 705, Scotland ; 280, British America ; . 65, France, 
and 90 in Sweden and Norway. Census, 1890, 55,979. 

In our original edition we said, " The following sketch from a resident of the 
county not only describes interesting incidents in the life of one of the first settlers 
on the Reserve, but gives facts of importance connected with the history of this 

Col. James Hillman, of Youngstown. Pa., and in 1784 was a soldier under General 
was one of the pioneers of the West, and Harmar, and was discharged at Fort Mcln- 
rendered essential service to the early settlers tosh, at Beaver town, on the Ohio in August, 
of the Western Reserve. He is still living, 178.5, after the treaty with the Indians, 
and at the age of eighty-four enjoys good His acquaintance with the country now 
health and spirits, and walks with as much known as the Western Reserve commenced 
elasticity of step as most men thirty years in the spring of 1786, at which time he en- 
younger. He was born in Northampton, tered into the service of Duncan & Wilson, 



of Pittsburg. They were engaged in for- 
warding goods and provisions upon pack- 
horses across the country to the mouth of 
the Cuyahoga (now Cleveland), thence to be 
shipped on the schooner Mackinaw to De- 
troit. During the summer of 1786 he made 
six trips — the caravan consisting of ten men 
and ninety horses. They usually crossed the 
Big Beaver, four miles below the mouth of 
the Shenango, thence up the left bank of the 
Mahoning, crossing it about three miles above 
the village of Youngstown, thence by way 
of the Salt Springs, in_ the township of 
Weathersfield, through Milton and Ravenna, 
crossing the Cuyahoga at the mouth of Break- 
neck, and again at the mouth of Tinker's 
creek, in Bedford, and thence down the river 
to its mouth, where they erected a log hut 
for the safe-keeping of their goods, which 
was the first house built in Cleveland. 

At the mouth of Tinker's creek were a few 
houses built by the Moravian missionaries. 
They were then vacant, the Indians having 
occupied them one year only, previous to 
their removal to the Tuscarawas river. These 
and three or four cabins at the Salt Springs 
were the only buildings erected by the whites 
between the Ohio river and Lake Erie. Those 
at the Salt Springs were erected for the ac- 
commodation of persons sent there to make 
salt, and the tenants were dispossessed during 
the summer of 1785^ by order of General 
Harmar. During this year, 1786, Kribs, 
who was left in one of the cabins to take care 
of goods belonging to Duncan & Wilson, was 
murdered by the Indians, and his body was 
found by Hillman's party, shockingly man- 
gled by the wolves. During the same season 
James Morrow and SamSimerson, returning 
from Sandusky, were killed by the Indians 
at Eagle creek, west of Cleveland. Mr. Hill- 
man was married in 1786, and in 1788 settled 
at Beaver town, where Duncan & Wilson 
had a store for the purpose of trading with 
the Indians. 

From 1788 to 1796 Mr. Hillman resided in 
Pittsburg, and traded with the Indians in 
Ohio, principally on the Reserve, bringing 
his goods in canoes up the Mahoning. His 
intercourse with the Indians during these 
eight years, and before, afforded him the op- 
portunity of acquiring a knowledge of their 
language and gaining their confidence, both 
of which he obtained, and by means of which 
he was enabled afterwards to be of great ser- 
vice to the early settlers of the Reserve. 

In 1796, when returning from one of his 
trading expeditions alone in his canoe, down 
the Mahoning river, he discovered a smoke 
on the bank near the present site of the vil- 
lage of Youngstown, and on proceeding to 
the spot he found Mr. Young (the proprietor 
of the township), who, with Mr. Wolcott, 
had just arrived to make a survey of his 
lands. The cargo of Mr. Hillman was not 
entirely disposed of there remaining among 
other things some whisky, the price of which 
was to the Indians one dollar a quart in the 
currency of the country — a deerskin being a 
legal tender for one dollar and a doeskin half 

a dollar. Mr. Young proposed purchasing r 
quart, and having a frolic on its contents 
during the evening, and insisted upon paying 
Hillman his customary price for it. Hillman 
urged that inasmuch as they were strangers 
in the country, and just arrived upon his ter- 
ritory, civility required him to furnish the 
means of the entertainment. He, however, 
yielded to Mr. Young, who immediately took 
the deerskin he had spread for his bed (the 
only one he had), and paid for his quart of 
whisky. His descendants in the State of 
New York, in relating the hardships of their 
ancestors, have not forgotten that Judge 
Young exchanged his htd for a quart of 

Mr. Hillman remained with them a few 
days, when they accompanied him to Beaver 
town, to celebrate the Fourth of July, and 
Mr. H. was induced to return and commence 
the settlement of the town by building a 
house. This was about the first settlement 
made on the Western Reserve. In the fall 
of 1797 Mr. Brown and another person came 
on. It was during this season that Uriah 
Holmes of Litchfield county. Conn., and 
Titus Hayes arrived in Youngstown the same 
day, both having started from Connecticut 
on the same day, the one taking the route 
through the State of New York, via Buffalo, 
and the other through Pennsylvania. 

The settlement of the country proceeded 
prosperously until the murder of the two In- 
dians, Captain George and Spotted John, at 
the Salt Springs, by MclManon and Story. 
This affair had nearly proved fatal to the set- 
tlements, and probably would but for the 
efforts of Mr. Hillman. _ 1'he next day after 
the murder, for such it undoubtedly was, 
Colonel Hillman, with Mr. Young and the 
late Judge Pease, of Warren, who had just 
arrived, went to the Salt Springs with a view 
of pacifying the Indians ; but tliey had gone, 
not however without having buried the bodies 
of their murdered companions. Colonel Hill- 
man and others expected trouble, and in order 
to show the Indians that the whites did not 
sanction the act, judged it advisable to take 
McMahon and Story prisoners ; which they 
accordingly did the same day at Warren. 
Colonel H. had JIcMahon in custody, but 
Story, who was guarded by John Lane, es- 
caped during the night. On the next day 
McMahon was brought to Youngstown, the 
settlers resolving to send him to Pittsburg, 
to be kept in confinement until he could be 

The affairs of the settlement were at that 
time in a critical and alarming state, so much 
so that all of the inhabitants, both of Youngs- 
town and Warren, packed up their goods and 
were upon the point of removing from the 
country, as they had every reason to appre- 
hend that the Indians would take speedy 
vengeance. It was at this juncture that the 
firmness and good sense of Colonel Hillman 
was the means of saving tlie infant settlement 
from destruction. He advised sending a 
deputation to the Indians then encamped on 
the Mahoning, near where Judge Price's 



mills now stand, and endeavor to avert the 
threatened danger. It was an undertaking 
imminently hazardous. Few men would have 
dared to go, and it is quite certain no other 
man in the settlement would have had any 
chance of success. He was acquainted with 
their language, and knew their principal 
men, and was aware that in his trading inter- 
course with them he had acquired their con- 
fidence, and therefore felt no fear. Although 
urged to do so, he would not take any weapon 
of defence, but, accompanied by one Ran- 
dall, started very early the next morning on 
his hazardous enterprise, and came in sight 
of the Indians before sunrise. The Indians, 
seventeen in number, were asleep, each with 
his gun and powder-horn resting upon a 
forked stick at his head. Being in advance 
of Randall he came within three rods of them 
before he was discovered. A squaw was the 
only one awake. She immediately gave the 
alarm, which started every warrior to his feet 
with gun in hand. But seeing Colonel H. 
and his companion riding into their encamp- 
ment without arms, and unsuspicious of 
treachery or harm, they dropped their guns 
and immediately gathered around their vis- 

Onondaigua George, the principal man or 
chief, knew Hillman, and the late murder 
became the subject of a very earnest conver- 
sation ; the chief exhibiting much feeling 
while talking about it. Hillman told him 
frankly the object of his visit, and talked 
freely of the aflFair, condemning McMahon 
and assuring him that McJIahon was then on 
his way to Pittsburg, and should stand a trial 
for the murder he had committed. Nothing 
could be done, however, until Capt. Peters 
should arrive with his braves. They were 
then encamped farther up the river, near the 
present site of Deerfield, and were expected 
to arrive that day, a message having been 
sent for that purpose. 

In the course of the day they came. The 
countenance of Capt. Peters, as soon as he 
saw a white man present, scowled with hatred, 
reveuge and defiance. Hillman endeavored 
to pacify him, but with little effect. During 
the interview, a conversation was had between 
Captains George and Peters in the Seneca 
language, in which Capt. Peters endeavored 
to persuade the other that they ought to kill 
Hillman and Randall, and before the whites 
could unite in defence dispatch them in 
detail. But Capt. George would not agree to 
it,_unwLlling that Hillman, lo whom he had con- 
ceived a liking, should be killed. It was not 
known to either that Hillman was acquainted 
with the Seneca language, in which this 
conversation was held ; he was, however, and 
it may be conceived with what interest he 
listened to it. Hillman succeeded after sev- 
eral attempts in drawing Capt. Peters aside, 
and oflFered him a considerable sum, if he 
would go to Cuyahoga on some business for 
the whites. This hrihe, it seems, had its 
desired effect. The Indians retired a short 
distance and held a consultation, during which 
Randall became so much alarmed that he 

proposed that each should take his horse and 
endeavor to make his escape. Hillman would 
not go, but observing that the Indians had 
left t neir guns leaning upon two trees near by 
told Randall to station himself, and if, on 
their return, one of their number should be 
painted black (which Hillman knew was their 
custom when one was to be killed) then each 
should seize upon the guns and sell his life 
as dearly as possible. 

After a long time, however, they returned; 
Capt. Peters holding up a wampum belt with 
three strings, and saying that they had agreed 
to hold a council with the whites, on con- 
dition that three things should be done, as 
their wampum indicated. 1st, that George 
Foulk should act as interpreter ; 2d, that the 
council should be held within six days ; and, 
3d, that McMahon should be kept until the 
council. These things being agreed to, Hill- 
man and Randall returned the same day to 
Youngstown, where they found all the inhabi- 
tants assembled, waiting in anxious suspense 
to learn the result of the expedition, and 
every preparation made for a sudden flight, 
in case it should have proved unsuccessful. 
Great was their joy on seeing Hillman and 
his companion arrive in safety, and telling 
what had been done. 

The inhabitants immediately set themselves 
about making the necessary preparations for 
the council. On the day appointed, two 
Indians made their appearance, and were 
conducted by INIr. Hillman to the place pre- 
pared to hold their council. After the cere- 
mony of smoking, commenced the speeches, 
and it was generally conceded that Capt. 
Peters had the best of the argument, gnd 
throughout the whole of the consultation 
showed a decided superiority over the whites 
opposed to him, in adroitness and force of 
argument, although our people had appointed 
three of their best men for that purpose (the 
late Judge Pease, of Warren, and Gov. 
Huntington being of the number), all of 
whom had prepared themselves for this 
encounter with Indian shrewdness. The re- 
sult of the council was satisfactory to both 
parties ; that McMahon should be tried by a 
jury of his own color, according to the laws 
of his own country. There were about three 
hundred people present at the council, among 
whom was Mr. Hudson, of Portage county, 
and Mr. Ely, of Deei-field. Thus was tran- 
quillity restored, mainly through the instru- 
mentality of Mr. Hillman, a service which 
was so highly appreciated by Ephraim Root, 
the agent of the Connecticut Land Com- 
pany, that he agreed on the part of the 
company that he would give him one hundred 
acres of land ; the promise, however, was 
never redeemed. 

Soon after, McMahon was sent by order of 
Gov. St. Clair, under a strong guard, to abide 
his trial at a special court ordered for that 
purpose, to be held in Youngstown by the 
Judges, Return J. Meigs and Benjamin Ive.s. 
Gilman, Backus & Tod were attorneys for 
the people ; and Mr. Simple, John S. 
Edwards and Benjamin Tappan for the pris- 


oner. The court was attended by persons have been acquitted. As soon as Knox swore 

from a great distance, and it was generally that McMahon retreated before he fired, 

believed that many had come with a deter- Capt. Peters gave a characteristic "ugh," 

mination to rescue McMahon, in case he and whispered to Judge Meigs that the jury 

should be found guilty. He was, however, would acquit the prisoner, 

acquitted, principally upon the testimony of Thus terminated this critical affair, after 

one Knox, who swore that McMahon re- which the settlement increased with great 

treated a step or two before he fired, which rapidity, and Col. Hillman from that time 

probably was not true, and was not believed has enjoyed the confidence and respect of his 

by those who had visited the spot on the day fellow-citizens, twice expressed in electing 

after the affair. Capt. Peters was upon the him sheriff, under the territorial government, 

bench during the whole trial, and was satis- and in various other ways, and still lives 

fied that he had received a fair trial, and resp'icted and beloved by all. 
should, according to the laws of the whites, 

Youngstown in 184-6. — Youngstowu is the largest and most flourishing town in 
Mahoning county, beautifully situated on the north bank of .the Mahoning river, 
sixty-five miles from Pittsburg, Penn., nine miles from Canfield, the seat of 
justice for the county of Mahoning, fourteen from Warren, the county-seat of 
Trumbull county, thirty from Ravenna, Portage county, and twenty-seven fi-om 
New Lisbon, Columbiana coun'y. It contains about 1,200 inhabitants, has 12 
mercantile stores, 3 warehouse; for receiving and forwarding goods and jiroduce 
on the canal ; 4 churches — 1 Presbyterian, 1 Episcopal Methodist, 1 Protestant 
Methodist and 1 Disciples. The Pennsylvania and Ohio Canal jjasses through 
the village, and the products of the surrounding country are sent here for ship- 
ment. Few places in Ohio are more beautifully situated ; few have greater 
facilities for manufacturing, or bid fairer to become places of wealth and im- 

Bituminous coal and iron ore abound in the immediate vicinity of the village 
and along the line of the canal, adequate, it is believed, to the wants of a large 
manufacturing place. Several of the coal banks are already opened and success- 
fully and profitably worked. The mines of the Hon. David Tod furnish about 
one hundred tons of coal per day, and those of Crawford, Camp & Co. about 
sixty, all of which have hitherto found a ready market at Cleveland for steamboat 
fuel. It has recently been ascertained that the coal in the valley of the Mahon- 
ing is well adapted in its raw state to the smelting of iron ore, and three furnaces 
similar to the English and Scotch furnaces, each capable of producing from sixty 
to one hundred tons of pig-metal per week, have been erected in the township, 
and near to the village. A large rolling-mill has been erected in the village, at 
which is made the various sizes of bar, rod and hoop iron ; also sheet iron, nails 
and spikes. The " Youngstown Iron Company " and the " Eagle Iron and Steel 
Company " contemplate the erection of machinery for the purpose of making the 
T and H rails ; and it is more than probable that the various railroads now pro- 
jected in Ohio and the adjoining States will be supplied with rails from this 
point. In addition to the above, there is quite a number of small manufacturing 
establishments for making tin-ware, cloth, axes, wagons, buggies, etc., etc. The 
amount of capital invested in the manufacturing of iron is probably $200,000. 

The view given was taken from the southeast, a few hundred yards to the left 
of the road leading to Pittsburg, and near the residence of Mr. Homer Hine, 
shown on the right. In front appears the canal and Mahoning river : on the left 
the rolling-mill of the Youngstown Iron Company. In the distance a part of 
the town is shown ; the spires seen are respectively, commencing on the right, 
those of the Presbyterian, Disciples and Episcopal Methodist churches ; near, on 
the left of the last named, appears the Protestant Methodist church. — Old 

Youngstown, county-seat of Mahoning, is on the Mahoning river, midway 
between Pittsburg and Cleveland, sixty-eight miles from each and about one 
hundred and fifty miles northeast of Columbus. It is located in a rich coal 
and iron region, is a manufacturing and railroad centre, being the first point 


west of New York city where the three great Western trunk lines meet, viz. : L. 
S. & M. S., N. Y. P. & O., and P. Ft. W. & C. ; besides these there are the P. 
P. & F. and P. & L. E. 

County Officers in 1888 : Auditor, Thomas E. Da%'ey ; Clerk, Zebulon P. Curry ; 
Commissionei-s, Frank White, Louis Gluck, David T. Moore ; Coroner, C. Carlos 
Booth ; Infirmary Directors, Nelson K. Gunder, Cyrus Rhodes, Obadiah Peters ; 
Probate Judge, Elliott M. Wilson ; Prosecuting Attorney, Disney Rogers ; Re- 
corder, Abram S. McCurley ; Sheriff, Samuel O. Ewing ; Surveyor, Edwin D. 
Haseltine; Treasurers, George W. Caufield, John W. Smith. City Officers in 
1888: Sara'l A. Steele, Mayor; Jno. M. Webb, Clerk; Wm. A. McLaine, 
Solicitor; Wm. A. Williams, Marshal ; Jas. M. Reno, Civil Engineer; John 
Gibson, Street Commissioner ; Geo. W. Caufield, Treasurer ; ^^^m. H. Moore, 
Chief Fire Department. Newspapers : Tdegram, Republican, Youngstown Print- 
ing Co., editors and publishers ; Rundschau, German Independent, Wm. F. Magg, 
editor and publisher ; Vindicator, Democratic, Webb & Magg, editors and publish- 
ers ; Mining World, Mining, Mining World Co., editors and publishers. Churches : 
3 Episcopal, 1 German Evangelical, 1 Congregational, 2 Presbyterian, 1 United 
Presbyterian, 2 Jewish, 2 Methodist Episcopal, 1 German Reformed, 1 African 
Methodist Episcopal, 2 Lutheran, 2 Catholic, 1 Welsh Congregational, 1 Dis- 
ciples and 3 Baptist. Banks : Commercial National, C. H. A.ndrews, president. 
Mason Evans, cashier; First National, Robt. McCurdy, president, Wm. H. 
Baldwin, cashier ; Maiioning National, H. O. Bonnell, president, J. H. McEwen, 
cashier; Second National, Henry Tod, president, Henry M. Garlick, cashier; 
Wick Bros. & Co., Thos. H. Wilson, cashier. 

Manufactures and Employees. — Brown, Bonnell & Co., merchant iron, 1,870 
hands ; The Arms Bell Co., Ijolts and nuts, 182 ; Enterprise Boiler Works, steam 
boilers, etc., 26 ; William B. Pollock & Co., steam boilers, etc., 55 ; William Tod 
& Co., engines, etc., 92 ; The Youngstown Carriage Manufacturing Co., carriages, 
etc., 93 ; Heller Bros., doors, sash, etc., 16 ; The Lloyd-Booth Co., foundry and 
machine work, 41 ; Homer Baldwin, flour, etc., 10 ; George Turner, iron fencing, 
3 ; Youngstown Stamping Co., tin-ware, 102 ; George Dingledy, planing-mill, 32 ; 
Forsyth Scale Co., U. S. standard scales, 23 ; A. S. "W^illiams, sash, doors, etc., 4 ; 
Hem Rod Furnace, pig-iron, 60 ; Youngstown Lumber Co., planing-mill, 13 ; 
Youngstown Stove Manufacturing Co., stoves, 30 ; Youngstown Rolling Mill 
Co., merchant iron, 425 ; Cartwright, McCurdy & Co., merchant iron, 635 ; John 
Smith's Sons, ale, beer, etc., 20; Youngstown Steam Laundry, lauudrying, 12; 
Brier Hill Iron and Coal Co., pig-iron, 175 ; Youngstown Steel Co., washed iron, 
50 ; Homer Baldwin, flour, etc., 12 ; Mahoning Valley Iron Co., merchant iron, 
1,255; American Tube and Iron Co., wrought iron pipes, etc., 421. — State 
Report, 1888. Population in 1880, 15,435. School census, 1888, 8,084. F. 
Treudly, school superintendent. Capital invested in industrial establishments, 
$5,554,500. Value of annual product, $8,968,760. Census, 1890, 33,220. 

In the history of Mahoning county, Mr. David Loveland gives a sketch of 
the beginning of the manufacture of iron in the Mahoning valley, an industry 
which has created a c\ty almost continuous for a score of miles along the stream. 

It was commenced by two brothers, James and Daniel Heaton, men of enter- 
prising and experimenting disposition. In 1805 or 1806 they erected a furnace 
on Yellow Creek, near Mahoning river, about five miles southeast of Youngs- 
town, which soon went into active operation. Connected with and belonging to 
the furnace proper were about one hundred acres of well-timbered land which 
supplied the charcoal and much of the ore for the works. It was called the 
Heaton furnace. The " blast " was produced by an apparatus of peculiar construc- 
tion and was similar in principle to that produced by the column of water of 
the earl}- furnaces. 

After this furnace had been in opei-ation for some time, James Heaton trans- 
ferred his interest to his brother Daniel, and built the second furnace in this valley 

Brier Hill tURNACE. 


afeacAam & Sabme Photo , 18 


at Niles. Dauiel coiitimied at the old works, and manufactured consideral^le iron, 
much of it consisting of stoves, large kettles, and other castings, the appearance 
of which would he rude for these times. About this time a third furnace was 
built on Yellow creek by Eobert Jlontgomery, about half a mile below the old 
Heaton furnace. Both furnaces went to ruin'aftcr the year 1812. 


Youngstown is the name of both city and township. The name is from John Young. On 
April 9, 1800, the Connecticut Land Company sold the township to him. According to 
tradition he liad located in the township about 1 797. 

He made a plot of the town that year. It was recorded August 19, 1802, with the date 
and name of "Youngstown, 1797." John Young was born at Peterboro. New Hampshire, 
March 8, 1755; was married to Mary Stone White, the daughter of Hugh White, the 
founder of Whitesboro, November 23, 1801. 

Brier Hill, so long famed as the place of the Tod family, is two miles northwest of the centre 
of the city. In this summer (1890) the city limits were extended so as to include it. At Brier 
Hill are three blast-furnaces, which were erected by Gov. Tod, and are still owned and operated 
by his family. They have what is called a wash-metal plant where the pig-iron is resmelted, 
put through a process that relieves it almost entirely of the phosphorus, which is very 
injurious in making steel. 


The system of mining in Mahoning valley, owing to the conditions under 
which the coal was deposited, is peculiar and cin-ious. The coal, which is the 
lower bed of the State series, is subject to sudden changes of level, and is found 
disposed in long, narrow and serpentine basins and troughs. The low ground in 
a coal bed is called a swamp by the miner, and, owing to the structure of the 
swamps found in these mines, peculiar mining skill is required to guide and direct 
the subterranean excavations. 

The cost of opening and equipping a mine in this region often exceeds $20,000, 
but the money usually is soon refunded. The mines have been more profitable 
than those of any other region in Ohio, owing partly to their proximity to Cleve- 
land and Lake Erie, but largely to the superior quality of the coal. Some of 
the mines, however, are losing concerns, owing to a variety of causes, one of 
■which is the too abundant flow of water. The mine of the Leadville Coal Com- 
pany, situated three miles west of Youngstown, is an instance of this kind. 

Difficulties of Shaft- Sinking. —The work 
of sinking this shaft was one of the most 
difficult and costly ever encountered in the 
United States, mainly by reason of the flow 
of water. The time occupied in sinking, in- 
cluding several long stoppages, was about two 
years and six months. The shaft was let by 
contract to three separate parties ; to the 
first at $20 per foot, the second at $35, 
and the third at $50 a foot, but each in 
turn threw up their contracts. 

Messrs. Wicks & Wells (the owners) now 
concluded to sink the shaft by day-work, per- 
sonally superintending the operations. Pump- 
ing machinery was introduced capable of dis- 
charging 3,000 gallons of water per minute, 
but at the depth of 1 1 feet a large crevice in 
the rock was struck, from wliich the water 
rushed with such force as to throw the drill 
high up in the shaft and all the pumps were 
overpowered. They were all withdrawn and 
the shaft filled with water. 



Powerful Pumping. — Afte.. some weeks of 
stoppage all the pumps were again set to 
work, and the water pumped out down to the 
point where the pressure of the water and 
the power of the pumps were balanced. All 
the pumps were run to their fullest capacity 
for four weeks, discharging 3,000 gallons a 
minute, in the hope of emptying, or at least 
controlling, the feeders of water ; but no 
impression was made. A very powerful 
pump, equal to the combined force of the six 
already in use, was procured. With this the 
water was mastered, but it became necessary 
to close up the crevice in the rock. This 
was done by filling with wooden blocks, well 
wedged in and caulked, and the water was 
finally shut off and controlled. The work of 
getting below the crevice was a labor of un- 
paralleled difficulty and danger. The work- 
men, suspended in buckets, and having 
scarcely room to turn around among the mul- 
titude of pumps, labored heroically, though 
drenched with water, which shot in great 
streams across the shaft. During the whole 
undertaking not a single accident occurred. 
The closing up of the crevice reduced the 
flow of water to 500 gallons per minute, and 
no further difficulty was experienced until 
the coal was reached. 

In sinking this shaft six thirty-feet boilers, 
with thirty-six inch head, were used. The 
cost of the work, including the necessary sup- 
plies for sinking, was $71,837, and the whole 
depth of the shaft was but 187 feet. 

Pumps again Overpowered. — As the vast 
volume of water encountered in sinking was 
dammed back over the heads of the miners, 
its liberation by a fall of the roof was only a 
question of time. Fifteen thousand square 
yards had not been excavated till the waters 
broke into the workings. All the miners 
escaped in safety, but the pumps were soon 
overpowered, and the shaft, with all its sub- 
terranean excavations, was again flooded. 
The mine remained idle for five years. 

The Mine Changes Owners. — In the spring 
of 1880 the Leadville Coal Company was or- 
ganized, which bought out Wicks & Wells, 
the owners and projectors of the enterprise. 

New and more powerful pumping machin- 
ery was put in place, and the water was low- 
ered to a depth of 136 feet, when the acci- 
dental droppmg of a wedge into one of the 
purnps stopped operation!?, and the shaft 
again filled with water. 

Narrow Escape. — In a few days the work 
of pumping was again resumed, and six 
weeks later the mine was pumped dry, and 
the miners, after an absence of five years, 
ventured down tht shaft and commenced 
mining operations. The mine having but 
one opening, and the excavations that had 
been made requiring a second opening, as 
provided in the mining law of the State, an 
escape-shaft or travelling-way was sunk into 
the mine, for the egress of miners in case of 
accident to the hoisting-shaft. This travel- 
ling-way was completed only two days when 
the wooden structure covering and surround- 
ing the hoisting-shaft caught fire from a spark 
from the smoke-stack, and was burned to the 
ground. The miners found safe egress through 
the second outlet or travelling-way ; had 
there been but one opening, every soul under 
ground at the time of the fire would have 
speedily and inevitably perished. 

Persistent Enteiprke. — The fire, which oc- 
curred on the 21st of August, 1881, having 
destroyed all the.buildings covering and sur- 
rounding the shaft, and disabled the hoisting 
and pumping machinery, all the subterranean 
excavations were again filled with water. 
The company at once commenced rebuilding 
the works and repairing the machinery, and 
on the 15th of October following the pumps 
were again started up, and a month later the 
mine was once more pumped dry. There is 
an excitement in mining unknown, perhaps, 
to any other industry ; hence, all the misfor- 
tunes of this ill-fated mine have not in the 
least daunted the courage of the mine-owners, 
or alarmed the fearless spirit of the miners, 
and work was resumed with the same degree 
of cheerfulness as in the beginning of the 
enterprise. The foregoing account is abridged 
from Dr. Orton's "Geological Report of 

Davtd Tod, the second of Ohio's War Governors, was born in Youngstown, 
February 21, 1805, and died there November 13, 1868. He was the son of 
Governor Tod, an eminent man who was born in Connecticut, graduated at Yale, 
and emigrated to the Northwest Territory in 1800. He was Secretary of the 
Territory under Governor St. Clair ; was a State Senator after the organization 
of the State of Ohio. He served as Judge of the Supreme Court from 1806 to 
1809, and occupied other important positions. He rendered gallant service in the 
war of 1812 at Fort Meigs, serving as a lieutenant-colonel. 

David Tod was admitted to the bar in 1827. 
As a lawyer he was very successful, and com- 
mencing penniless, he soon accumulated a 
fortune by his talents and industry. He had 
a strong love of politics and was an able 
campaign speaker. In 1838 he was elected 
as a Democrat to the State Senate ; in 1 840 
gained great reputation as an orator while 

canvassing the State for Van Buren. In 
1844 he was the Democratic candidate for 
Governor, being defeated by 1,000 votes; 
from 1847 to 1852 he was United States Min- 
ister to Brazil, under President Polk's ad- 
ministration ; returning to the United States 
he rendered very efi'ective service in the 
campaign resulting in the election of Presi- 



dent Pierce ; in ] 860 he was a delegate to 
the Charleston Convention, was chosen vice- 
president of that bodj^, and presided over it 
when the Southern wing of the party with- 

Whitelaw Keid says in "Ohio in the War :" 
"The executive and business talents of Mr. 
Tod were conspicuously evidenced as the 
President of the Cleveland & Mahoning 
Railroad, the construction of which he was 
one of the first to advocate, and with whose 
success he became identified. To Mr. Tod, 
more than any other man, belongs the honor 
of inaugui-ating the steps which led to the 
development of the vast coal mines of the 
Mahoning valley. 

"Before and after the meeting of the 
Peace Congress at Washington in February, 
Mr. Tod warmly advocated the peace meas- 
ures, and the exhausting of every honorable 
means, rather than that the South should 
inaugurate civil war. But from the moment 
the flag was shot down at Sumter he threw 
oiF all party trammels and was among the 
first public men in the State who took the 
stump advocating the vigorous prosecution 
of the war till every rebel was cut oflf or sur- 
rendered. From that moment, with voice 
and with material aid, he contributed his 
support to the national government. Beside 
subscribing immediately $1,000 to the war 
fund of his township, he furnished Company 
B, Captain Hollingsworth, Nineteeiivli Regi- 
ment, Youngstown, their first uniforms. " 

In 1861 he was nominated for Grovernor of 
Ohio by the Republicans, and elected by a 
msyority of 55,000. 

His administration during the most trying 
years of the war was zealous, painstaking 
and efficient. His continued efforts for re- 
cruiting the army, his fatherly care and sym- 
jjathy with Ohio soldiers in the field and their 
tamilies at home ; his vigorous measures to 
repel invasions of the State, are the distin- 
guishing features of an able administration. 
"Ohio in the War " closes an account of it 
with the following words: "He made some 
mistakes of undue vigor, and some of his 
operations entailed expenses not wholly nec- 
essary. But he was zealous, industrious and 
specially watchful for the welfare of the 
troops, faithful in season and out of season. 
He was at the head of the State in the dark- 
est hours through which she passed. He 
left her affairs in good order, her contribu- 
tions to the nation fully made up, her duties 
to her soldier sons jealously watched, and her 
honor untarnished." 

After the close of his term of service he 
retired to his farm known as "Brier Hill," 
near Youngstown, which formerly belonged 
to his father, and which he repurchased after 
he began to accumulate property, from those 
who had come into its possession. As a boy, 
David Tod was always ready for fun, and 
many amusing anecdotes are told of his 
pranks. We give the following from the 
' Pioneer History of Geauga County : " "On 
one winter day, when a deep cut had been 
shovelled through a snow-bank to give access 

to the school-house. Tod led some of his 
schoolmates to fill the cut with wood, so that 
when the schoolmaster returned from dinner 
he was obliged to climb the pile to get to the 
school -house. " On another occasion he 
played a decidedly practical joke on " Oncle 
John " Ford, the father of Governor Seabury 
Ford. John Ford was an eccentric genius of 
much sterling worth. " The spirit of humor 
overflowed with him, and when Brooks Brad- 
ley drove the cows up the lane at night, they 
would dash back past him, heads and tails 
high in air, and run clear to the woods. 
Brooks, as he chased back after the fright- 
ened cattle, did not see ' Uncle John's ' old 
hat down in front of his bent form, shaking 
out from behind a stump in that lane." He 
played some trick on David Tod, afterwards 
Governor of Ohio. David sawed the top 
bar over which "Uncle John" leaned when 
he poured the swill to his pigs. "Dave" 
and his companions watched the next time 
"Uncle John" fed, and when well on the 
bar it broke, and he fell, with pail and con- 
tents, among the hogs. A suppressed laugh 
from an adjoining fence corner hinted to 
"Uncle John" how it happened; but he 
climbed from the mess and said nothing. 
He saw only one thing in Tod that he called 

Elish,*. Whittlesey was born in Washing- 
ton, Conn., October 19, 1783, and died m 
Washington City, January 7, 1863. He was 
brought up on a farm, studied law and was 
admitted to the bar in 1805. He removed to 
Canfield, 0., in June, 1806. During the war 
of 1812 he rose to the rank of Brigade-Major 
and Inspector under Gen. Perkins, and was 
for a time aid and private secretary to Gen. 
Harrison. On one occasion he was sent with a 
despatch from Gen. Harrison on the Maumee 
to the Governor at Chillicothe, a distance of 
one hundred and sixty miles, part of it 
through the Black Swamp and regions in- 
vested with hostile Indians ; it was a perilous 
undertaking but he accomplished it faith- 

In 1820-21 he was a member of the Ohio 
Legislature. He served in Congress continu- 
ously from 1823 to 1838, when heresigned. His 
scrupulous honesty is evidenced by the fact that 
during this service he would receive no pay 
when absent from his seat on private busi- 

He was one of the founders of the Whig 
party ; was appointed by President Harrison 
in 1841 auditor of the post-office department, 
resigning in 1843. In 1849 was appointed by 
President Taylor first comptroller of the 
treasury, from which office he was removed 
by President Buchanan, but reappointed by 
President Lincoln in 1861 and held office 
until his death. 

As comptroller he was painstaking, watch- 
ful and efficient ; his whole time and study 
were directed to the public good. In 1847 
he was appointed general agent of the Wash- 
ington National Monument Association, re- 
signing in 1849, but was shortly afterwards 
called upon to manage its affairs as president, 


wWch he did until 1855, contributing greatly 
to the success of that enterprise. He was a 
staunch supporter of Christian doctrines and 
enterprises, and throughout all his life his 
conduct was governed by the highest prin- 
ciples. The distinguished Col. Chas. Whit- 
tlesey was his nephew, and it was his pride 
tliat he was his nephew, such was the exalted 
character of the uncle. 

For many years he kept a diary of current 
events, a journal or autobiography, which 
ought to be compiled and given to the 

John M. Edwards was born in New 
Haven, Conn., in 1805. He was great-grand- 
son of Jonathan Edwards, the great theo- 
logian, and son of Henry W. Edwards, a 
Governor of Connecticut and United States 
Senator. He was a graduate of Yale, prac- 
tised law for a number of years in New 
Haven and made extensive visits through the 
South in the interest of the estate of his 
uncle, Eli Whitney, the inventor of the 
cotton gin. 

Later, together with a number of young men 
from Connecticut, he visited the Connecticut 
Western Reserve in Ohio, in which his father, 
Grovernor Edwards, had considerable posses- 
sions through Pierpont Edwards, who was one 
of the original proprietors. Most of these 
young men remained in the Western Reserve 
and helped form that highly intellectual 
community of which Garfield, Giddings, 
Wade, Tod and Whittlesey were representa- 
tives. Mr. Edwards had many important 
positions and was connected with various news- 
paper enterprises during his life and was one 
of the founders of the first newspaper pub- 
lished in the Mahoning Valley. He wrote 
frefl[uently for publication, principally on his- 
torical subjects. He was the leading spirit of 
the Mahoning Valley Historical Society and 
collected a large amount of valuable informa- 
tion concerning the early history of Ohio and 
its people. He was a deeply .studious man and 
a learned and able lawyer. He died suddenly 
at his residence in Youngstown, December 8, 
1886, aged 81 years. 



Kate Sherwood, the poetess of patriotism, is the daughter of 
Judge James Browulee, of Poland, where she was born. While yet in her 
" teens," in 1859, she was married with Gen. Isaac R. Sherwood and early became 
associated with him in journalistic work, writing items, reading proofs, and 
then sometimes 

With dainty fingers deftly picked. 

Their clean-cut faces ranged in telling lines. 

The magic type that talks to all the world. 

As a school-girl in Poland she had shown fine literary capacity, and if there is 


anything that could have given added brightness and breadth to her intellect it 
was just this employment of journalistic work, coming, too, just at tiie opening 
of tile stupendous events of the great civil war. 

Her youthful husband enlisted and the old Covenanters' blood in her veins 
became heated by the spirit of intense jjatriotism, which soon found expression 
in patriotic verse, which has thrilled multitudes and started many a glistening 

Her soldier lyrics have been printed in diiferent lani^uages, found a ])rizcd place 
in varied volumes : one, solely her own, " Camp Fire and JNIemorial Poems." Tliese 
have been recited on every platform in the Union where the veterans of 1861-65 
have had a part, particularlv " Drummer Boy of Mission Ridge," " Forever and 
Forever," " The Old Flag," etc. 

" Forever and Forever " recalls with lifelike vividness the opening scenes of 
the war. It thus begins : 

When men forsook their shops and homes, anJ stood with troubled faces, 
From morn till night, from night till morn in dusky market spaces ; 
When women watched beside their babes in anguish half resisted 
Until the husky message came, "Crorf Iteep you, Fve enlisted!" 

When all day long the drums were rolled in hateful exultation, 
And fife and bugle stung with pain the pulses of the Nation ; 
When woman's hand formed every star that flashed on field of glory, 
When woman's tears were stitched along each stripe in jeweled story — 

What said we then? ^^ Go forth, brave hearts! Go where tJie bullets rattle/ 
For ?(s to plan, for us to pray, for you to toil and battle ! 
Ours to xiphoid, yours to defend, the comiMct none can sever. 
And sacred be your name and fame forever and forever.'" 

"The Old Flag" no true American can hear without a thrill. Its closing verse 
is especially fine, and in the coming higher and still higlier glory of the nation, 
multitudes yet unborn in their love for it will regret that their fathers who fought 
were not with those who fought to save it. We give its closing verse : 

flag of our fathers ! flag of our sons ! flag of a world's desire ! 

Through the night and the light, through the fright and the fight, through the smoke and the 

cloud and the fire. 
There are arms to defend, there are hearts to befriend, there are souls to bear up from the 

While thy cluster of stars broodeth over the wars that justice and mercy befall 1 
There are breasts that will clasp it, when tattered and torn, there are prayers to brood like 

a dove. 
There are fingers to fashion it fold unto fold, and hands that will wave it above, 
W^hile the rub-a-dub, dub, dub, rub-a-dub, dub, is beating the marches of Love i 

Mrs. Sherwood has ennobled her life by constant active public duties in behalf 
of those who suffered from the«war ; as chairman National Pension and Relief 
Committee, "Woman's Relief Corps (auxiliary to the Grand Army of the Repub- 
lic) ; chairman Ohio Soldiers' and Sailors' Home Committee Department of Ohio; 
editor woman's department National Tribune, Washington, etc. Perhaps her 
proudest moment was when she was invited by the ex-Confederate Committee to 
write that poetical bond of Union for North and South, to be read at the ceremony 
of the unveiling of the Albert Sydney Johnston equestrian statue in New Orleans. 
This event took place April 6, 1887, and her poem delighted alike the Blue and 
the Gray ; and well it might, breathing, as it did, the spirit of unity and frater- 
nity, as these two verses alone evince : 

Now five and twenty years are gone, and lo ! to-day they come 
The Blue and Gray in proud array, with throbbing fife and drum ; 
But not as rivals, not as foes, as brothers reconciled 
To twine love's fragrant roses where the thorns of hate grew wild. 


0, veterans of the Blue and Gray who fought on Shiloh field, 
The purposes of God are true, his judgments stand revealed ; 
The pangs of war have rent the veil and lo his high decree : 
One heart, one hope, one destiny, one flag from sea to sea ! 

The object of this monument was not as an insignia of regret that the cause 
was lost, but as a memorial of the splendid heroism of its soldiers : and all honor 
that sentiment. In the ease of Albert Sidney Johnston, he, although born in the 
South, was the son of a Litchfield county, Conn., country physician, and his heart 
was not in the Lost Cause. He loved the Union, and witnessed " with unalloyed 
grief the culmination of the irresistible conflict." Could his spirit have been pres- 
ent, it would doubtless have responded, " Yes, ' The Union forever and forever ; 
one heart, one hope, one destiny, one flag from sea to sea.' " 

Among Mrs. Sherwood's varied poems is one historical, " The Pioneers of the 
Mahoning Valley," read at the meeting of the Pioneei-s at Youngstown, Se])tember 
10, 1877. It begins at the beginning, when the " sturdy Yankee came," and 
marks the changes in the valley to our day and in thirty-three verses. Among 
them are these three, which certainly, to use an expression General Grant once 
used -to compliment Grace Greenwood upon her " California Letters," as Grace 
herself told us, are " pretty reading : " 

The axes ring, the clearings spread, And from the hearths of glowing logs 
The cornfields wimple in the sun, The children's shouts begin to ring ; 

The cabin walls are overspread Or in the lanes and through the fogs 
With trophies of the trap and gun. They carry water from the spring. 

Stout rosy boys and girls are they 
Whose heads scarce touch the dripping boughs ; 

Who learned their first philosophy 
While driving home the lagging cows. 

After listening to her poem, and especially these closing verses, we do not doubt 
that the old folk from their hearts exclaimed, " Yea, verily, have we not a goodly 
heritage ? and see, our cows have come home ! " 

sweet Mahoning, like a queen valley where the panting forge 

Set crowned and dowered in the West, Has stirred the bosom of the world. 

The wealth of kingdoms gleams between Till lo ! on every hillside gorge 

Thy jeweled brow and jeweled breast. The flags of labor are unfurled. 

valley rich in fertile plain, valley rich in sturdy toil. 

In mighty forest proud and tall, In all that makes a people great, _ 

In waving fields of corn and grain. We hail thee Queen of Buckeye soil. 

In ferny glen and waterfall ! And fling our challenge to the State. 

We hail thee queec whose beauty won 

Our fathers in their golden years ; 
A shout for greater days begun, 

A sigh for sleeping pioneers. 

Judge James Brownlee, of Poland, was balanced mind, a buoyant temperament, a 

born February, 1801, at the family home- kindly, affable manner, an inflexible will, 

stead of Torfoot, near Glasgow, Scotland, strict integrity, and that rare appreciation of 

where for many generations had resided his the humorous, with large hope, which ever 

ancestors, who on both sides distinguished blunts the stings of adversity. His physical 

themselves in the ranks of the White Flag endowments were equally commanding, with 

of the Covenant. He inherited from them fine, clear-cut features, dark, expressive eye, 

a vigorous constitution, a clear, strong, well- so that when he appeared at Youngstown in 


the fall of 1827, the young Scotchman met lution so audacious that the others of the 

with a most cordial welcome from the pio- committee feared to adopt it, it seeming 

neers of Mahoning. _ treasonable. He offered it personally, and it 

Developing when at school into a youth of was carried in a whirl of enthusiasm. It 

unusual abihty, his father had designed him was : 

for a professional career ; but that was not Resolved, That come life, come death, 

his choice. In 1830 his father and family come fine or imprisonment, we will neither 

followed him to America, when his father aid nor abet the capture of a fugitive slave, 

bought the beautiful tract of land at the but on the contrary teiU harbor and feed, 

junction of Yellow creek and Mahoning, clotJie and assist, and give htm a practical 

building a handsome homestead thereon, God-speed toward liberty. 

where all the family resided until 1840, when In the stirring times of the war he was so 

Judge Brownlee was married to Miss Re- active in the forming of companies and recruit- 

becca MulUn, of Bedford Springs, Pa. ing without commission or remuneration, that 

Shortly after his father died, and the judge Governor Tod sent him a " squirrel hunter's" 

built a new residence on the hilltop overlook- discharge, as an appreciation of hearty ser- 

ing the river, where his three children were vices. 

born, the first now Mrs. Kate Brownlee Judge Brownlee held many positions of 

Sherwood. public and private trust, among others that 

For his first thirty years in this country of Assessor of Internal Revenue at Youngs- 
Judge Brownlee was engaged chiefly in the town. For years he held his Hfe in jeopardy, 
buying and selling of cattle, purchasing yearly having repeatedly heard the bullets whistling 
thousands and thousands of cows and beeves around his head when obliged to visit certain 
for the great markets of the West and East. localities — still remembered for their opposi- 
He was always active in politics, an enthu- tion to the war and the operations of the 
siastic and ardent Whig ; but while acting revenue system. He died January 20, 1879. 
with the Whigs, he astonished the Abnli- He was a staunch Presbyterian, and his friends 
tionists by attending an indignation meeting were numbered among the rich and the poor, 
held at Canfield against the passage of the who found in him that faith and charity which 
fugitive slave law, when he drew up a reso- make the whole world kin. 

Canfield in 18^6. — Canfield, the county-^ ?at, is 166 miles northeast of Colum- 
bus and sixteen south of ^A''arren. It is on the main stage road from Cleveland 
to Pittsburg, on a gentle elevation. It is a neat, pleasant village, embowered in 
trees and shrubbery, among which the Lombardy poplar stands conspicuous. It 
contained in 1846 three stores, a newspaper printing-office, one Presbyterian, one 
Episcopal, one IMethodist, one Congregational, and one Lutheran church, and 
about 300 people. Since then the county buildings have been erected, and from 
being made the county-seat, it will probably, by the time this reaches the eye of 
the reader, have nearly doubled in population and business importance. — Old 

Poland in 184.6. — Poland is eight miles from Canfield, on Yellow creek, a 
branch of the INIahoning. It is one of the neatest villages in the State. The 
dwellings are usually painted white, and have an air of comfort. Considerable 
business centres here from the surrounding country, which is fertile. In the vicinity 
are coal and iron ore of an excellent quality. Limestone of a very superior kind 
abounds in the towTiship ; it is burned and largely exported for building purposes 
and manure. Poland contains five stores, one Presbyterian and one Methodist 
church, an academy, an iron foundry, one grist, one saw, one oil and one clothing 
mill, and about 100 dwellings. — Old Edition. 

Snakes. — In a tamarack and cranberry swamp in this vicinity " are found large 
numbers of a small black or very dark brown rattlesnake, about twelve or four- 
teen inches in length, and of a proportionate thickness. They have usually three 
or four rattles. This species seem to be confined to the tamarack swamps, and 
are found nowhere else but in their vicinities, wandering in the summer months a 
short distance only from their borders. When l}"ing basking in the sun, they 
resemble a short, broken, dirty stick or twig, being generally discolored with mud, 
over which they are frequentl)' moving. Their bite is not very venomous, yet 
they are much dreaded by the neighboring people. Their habitations are retired 
and unfrequented, so that few persons are ever bitten. The Indian name for this 
snake is Massasauga." — Old Edition. 


A Wedding Incident. — Poland township is ceremony. To this all agreed, it seeming 
the southeastern township of tjie Western eminently the proper thing to do. How long 
Reserve, but not that of the county, the a time this occupied is not stated, or how 
southernmost tier of townships having been many drinks they took. But when the judge 
taken from Columbiana county. Jonathan had taken his "one or more," as the case 
Fowler and family came into it May 20, 1799, might have been, and was ready for tying 
and were its first white settlers. About the the knot, lo ! that Episcopal jjrayer-book had 
year 1800 occurred the first marriage, between disappeared — could not be found. In this 
John Blackburn and Nancy Bryan. There dilemma the judge said they must get along 
'teing no one legally authorized to marry without it, and asked Nancy if she was will- 
them, Judge Kirtland agreed to assume the ing to take John for a loving husband, and 
responsibility by using his Episcopal prayer- she said "yes;" and asked John if he was 
book. About seventy persons were present. willing to take Nancy for a loving wife, and 
A stool was placed in front of the judge, and he said " yes ;" and — that was about all there 
upon it a white cover. On this the judge was of it. And thus ended what was prob- 
placed his book, when some one proposed ably the first wedding on the Western Be- 
that they take a drink all around before the serve— with whisky or without whisky. 

Canfield is twenty-two miles by rail, ten miles by road southwest of Youngs- 
town ; is on the N. Y. P. & O. Railroad (N. & N. L. Branch). It is the seat of 
the Northeastern Normal College. City officers, 1888: S. K. Crooks, Mayor; 
S. W. Brainard, Clerk ; Hosea Hoover, Treasurer ; C. W. Wehr, Street Com- 
missioner ; Eli Rhodes, Marshal. Newspaper : Mahoning Dispatch, Independent, 
Fowler & Son, editors and publishers. Churches : one Presbyterian, one Meth- 
odist Episcopal, one Disciples, one German Lutheran and one Congregational. 
Bank : Van Hyning & Co., Hosca Hoover, president, G. W. Brainerd, cashier. 
Population, 1880, 650. School census, 1888, 196. 

PoLAXD is six miles southeast of Youngstown, on the Beaver river. Bank : 
Farmers' Deposit and Saving, R. L. Walker, president, Clark Stough, cashier. 
Population in 1880, 452. School census, 1888, 206. 

Petersburg is fifteen miles southeast of Youngstown. It has one newspaper, 
the Petersburg Press, E. E. Stone, editor. Churches : one Methodist Episcopal, 
one Evangelical Lutheran, one Presbyterian. School census, 1888, 162. 

LowELLviLLE is eight miles southeast of Youngstown, on the Ohio Canal and 
A. & P., P. & W., and P. & L. E. Railroads. School census, 1888, 241. 

Washingtonville is sixteen miles southwest from Youngstown, part in 
Columbiana and part in Mahoning county. It is on the N. & N. L. Branch of 
the N. Y. P. & O. Railroad. School census, 1888, 122. 



Marion County was organized March 1, 1824, and named from General 
Francis Marion, of Sontli Carolina, a partisan officer of tiie Revolution. Tiie 
surface is level, except on the extreme east. The Sandusky plain, which is 
pi-airie land, covers that part of the county north of Marion and west of the 
Whetstone, and is well adapted to grazing : the remaining part, comjirising about 
two-thirds of the surface, is best adapted to wheat. The soil is fertile. Tiie 
principal farm-crops are corn, wheat and grass, a large jiroportion of the prairie 
land being appropriated to grazing : much live-stock and wool I's produced in the 

Area about 430 square miles. In 1887 the acres cultivated were 118,256 ; 
in pasture, 48,900; woodland, 29,570; Iviug waste, 913; produced in wheat, 
367,801 bushels; rye, 1,188; buckwheat," 446 ; oats, 400,809; barley, 3,201; 
corn, 1,193,790; broom-corn, 200 lbs. brush; meadow hay, 18,492 tons; 
clover hay, 7,412; flaxseed, 1,788 bushels ; potatoes, 42,267 ; tobacco, 104 lbs. ; 
butter, 437,341 ; sorghum, 1,256 gallons; maple sugar, 3,647 lbs.; honey, 4,005; 
eggs, 679,743 dozen; grapes, 7,775 lbs.; wine, 179 gallons; sweet potatoes, 95 
bushels; apples, 7,221; peaches, 355; pears, 619; wool, 323,938 lbs.; milch 
cows owned, 5,066. School census, 1888, 7,299 ; teachers, 279. Miles of rail- 
road track, 161. 

Townships and Census. 1840. 1880. Townships and Census. 1840. 1880. 

Big Island, 554 1,226 Morven, 976 

Bowling Green, 324 1,219 Pleasant, 1,414 1,188 

Canaan, 1,027 Prospect, 1,724 

Claridon, ' 1,084 1,771 Richland, 1,138 1,210 

Gilead, 1,150 Salt Rock, 607 551 

Grand, 605 485 Scott, 854 553 

Grand Prairie, 716 485 Tullv, 870 878 

Green Camp, 361 1,362 Waldo, 997 

Marion, 1,638 5,151 Washington, 880 

Montgomery, 552 1,765 

Population ot Marion in 1830, 6,558 ; 1840, 18,352; 1860,15,490; 1880, 
20,565, of whom 16,332 were born in Ohio; 1,057, Pennsylvania ; 268, New 
York ; 202, Virginia ; 133, Indiana ; 33, Kentucky ; 1,017, German Empire ; 
450, Ireland ; 193, England and Wales; 69, British America; 16, Scotland, and 
16, France. Census, 1890, 24,727. 

Soil, Surface, Climate and Wind. — This county is on the broad watershed 
between Lake Erie and the Ohio, about fifty miles south of the west end of the 
lake. It is watered by the Scioto and its affluents, and by affluents of the Little 
Sandusky and Tymochtee. It is mostly flat and has a black prairie soil, and its 
streams are but from four to six feet below the level of the land. Good gravel 
for road-making is found in the south part and potters' clay abounds. Good 
building stone is quarried. The winters seldom keep the ground frozen, and from 
November to April there is a continual strife for mastery between the cold zone 
of the north and the hot of the south. Its yearly average of thermometer is 
50°1 ; 2° warmer than Cleveland and 2° to 5° colder than Cincinnati. The 
average depth of rain, including snow as melted, is forty inches; on the lake 
shore, thirty-three inches ; Cincinnati, forty-six inches. From May to October 
the average temperature is delightful. Hail storms and hurricanes seldom occur. 
In June, 1835, a frost killed the wheat and the yoimg leaves of the forests. In 


1855 there was frost every month. In 1824 the famous tornado which arose near 
West Liberty, Ijogan county, destroyed a number of buildings in Bellefontaine, 
carrying bits of shingle and clothing into Big Island township, a distance of thirty 
miles ; it there wrestled with the big forest, lost its breath and succumbed. 
Another tornado, the year after, began in Scott township and extended beyond 
New Haven, in Huron county, going northeast, making sad havoc. The cabin 
of one " old Jake Stateler " was in its track ; he was alone, saw it coming, pulled 
up a puncheon from the floor and darted under. When he crawled out his cabin 
had vanished and a clearing made through the forest of a quarter of a mile wide. 
He was astonished, but being alone " there was no use of talking." 

By the treaty con(;luded at the foot of the Maumee rapids, September 29, 1817, 
Lewis Cass and Duncan McArthur being commissioners on the part of the United 
States, there was granted to the Delaware Indians a reservation of three miles 
square, on or near tlie northern boundary of this county, and adjoining the 
Wyandot reservation of twelve miles square. This reservation was to be equally 
divided among the following persons : Captain Pipe, Zeshauau or James Arm- 
strong, Mahautoo or Johu Armstrong, Saaoudoyeasquaw or Silas Armstrong, 
Teorow or Black Raccoon, Hawdorouwatistie or Billy Montour, Buck Wheat, 
William Dondee, Thomas Lyons, Johnny Cake, Captain Wolf, Isaac and John 
Hill, Tishatahoones or Widow Armstrong, Ayenucere, Hoomaurou or John Ming, 
and Youdoi-ast. Some of these Indians had lived at Jeromeville, in Ashland and 
Greentown, in Richland county, which last village was burnt by the whites early 
in the late war. By the treaty concluded at Little Sandusky, August 3, 1829, John 
McElvaiu being United States commissioner, the Delawares ceded this reserva- 
tion to the United States for $3,000, and removed west of the Mississippi. — 
Old Edition. 

Marion in 184-6. — Marion, the county-seat, is forty-four miles north of 
Columbus. It was laid out in 1821 by Eber Baker and Alexander Holmes, who 
were proprietors of the soil. It is compactly built • the view, taken in front of 
the Marion hotel, shows one of tlie principal streets : the court-house appears on 
the left, the Mirror office on the right, and Berry's hill in the distance. General 
Harrison passed through this region in the late war, and encamped with his 
troops just south of the site of the village, on the edge of the prairie, at a place 
known as " Jacob's well." The town is improving steadily, and has some fine 
brick buildings : it contains 1 Presbyterian, 1 Methodist and 1 German church, 
an academy, 2 newspaper printing offices, 15 dry goods, 1 drug and 5 grocery 
stores, 1 saw, 1 fulling, oil and carding mill, and about 800 inhabitants; in 1840 
it had a population of 570. — Old Edition. 

Marion, county-seat of Marion, about forty miles north of Columbus, is the 
centre of a fine agricultural and grazing country. It is on the N. Y. P. & O., 
C. C. C. & I., C. H. V. & T. and C. & A. Railroads, and is noted for its exten- 
sive quari'ies and lime-kilns. 

County Officers, 1888 : Auditor, William L. Clark ; Clerk, Harry R. Young; 
Commissioners, Isaac A. Merchant, William L. Raub, Phillip Loyer ; Coroner, 
James A. McMurray; Infirmary Directors, Horace W. Riley, Zaccheus W. 
Hipsher, Jacob D. Lust ; Probate Judge, John H. Criswell ; Prosecuting Attorney, 
Daniel R. Crissinger ; Recorder, Charles Harraman ; Sheriff", Patrick Kelly ; 
Surveyor, James W. Scott; Treasurer, George W. Cook. City officers, 1888: 
C. P. Galley, Mayor ; A. L. Clark, Clerk ; Chas. Meyers, treasurer ; W. E. 
Schofield, Solicitor ; John Welsch, Street Commissioner ; John Cunningham, 
Surveyor; Charles Buenneke, Marslial. Newspapers: (Sar, Independent, W. G. 
Harding, editor; Independent, Republican, George Crawford, editor; Democratic 
Mirror, Democratic, Ned Thatcher, editor. Churches : 2 Methodist, 1 Catholic, 
3 Albright, 2 Lutheran, 1 African Methodist Episcopal, 2 Baptist, 1 Episcopal, 
1 United Baptist, 1 German Reformed, and 1 Presbyterian. Banks : Fahey's, 
Timothy Fahey, president, A. C. Edmondson, cashier ; Farmers', Robert Kerr, 

Drau-n bi/ Henri/ llout' in IS 

View in Marion. 

|-.,i. H ilu.^re. Photo , Marion, 1887. 

View in Marion. 


president, J. J. Hane, cashier ; Marion County, James S. Reed, president, R. H. 
Johnson, cashier ; Marion Deposit, T. P. Wallace, cashier. 

Manufactures and Employees. — F. Dale, staves and headings, 13 hands; Marion 
Malleable Iron Co., 50 ; Bryan & Prendergast, planing mill work, 20 ; B. J. 
Camp, turning and scroll sawing, 3; Reiber Flouring Mill Co., 3; Marion Steam 
^Shovel Co., 80 ; Gregory & Sears, flour, meal and feed, 6 ; Huber Manufacturing 
Co., traction engines, etc., 179; Huber Manufacturing Co., boilers, 34; Marion 
Manufacturing Co., thrashers, luillers, etc., 41 ; Linsley & Lawrence, flooring, 
siding, etc., 6.— State Reports, 1SS8. Population in 1880, 3,899. School census, 
1888, 1,655 ; A. G. Crouse, scliool supej-intendent. Capital invested in industrial 
establishments, $443,200. Value of annual product, $854,500.— 0/iio Labor 
Statistics, 1887. Census, 1890, 8,327. 

The most interesting object in Marion is the Soldiers' Memorial, Chapel, 
inasmuch as it is an ever-pleasing object-lesson to inculcate patriotism. It was 
dedicated August 22, 1888. It is all stone, marble, slate and iron — no wood 
except the doors. Twenty-eight hundred names of soldiers are inscribed on 
marble tablets within its enclosure, giving company, regiment, etc. 

The War of 1812 led to a large knowledge of this county, several " war roads " 
passing directly through it to the seat of war. The most clearly defined was that 
up the Scioto, by a spot now in Pleasant township called "Rocky Point." This 
was a favorite camping-ground, possessing a fine spring of water around magnifi- 
cent forests, filled with game. An encampment of troops under General Green at 
Rocky Point gave rise to the name " Green's Camp," now become Green Camp 
township ; while " Jacob's Well," on a hill near Marion, is a spot where General 
' Harrison also paused. Up to 1812 but few attempts were made to invade the 
country still reserved to the Indians, except as the restless hunters and traders 
.=?ought the fine game reserves of the plains for meat or peltries. The bee-hunters, 
a venturesome, vagabondish set, who preferred to " line " a " bee-tree " to any 
other pursuit, brought back rich treasures of sweets that the wild bees had stored 
in the woods along the borders of the plains, beyond the line of settlement. Their 
trail came in eastward from Knox, or up the valley of the Scioto from Delaware, 

The first tract of land enter^A^ithm the. Mr. Baker, which, with additions, became 

confines of Marion county, north of the treaty the first tavern. In 1825 the place had three 

line, was by Mr. G. H. Griswold, of Worth- taverns, three stores, and seventeen families, 

ington, a teamster for government, and it The tavern rates were six and a quarter cents 

comprised the fractional section at Rocky a lodging, twice that— or a " York shilling " 

Point. He was a man of sagacity, and he — forahorse'sfeed, and thrice that for a meal, 

had become "captivated with the beauty of To movers, emigrants passing through for 

the valley and the second bottom lands. "The farther West, a large discount was made 

river sweeping in comes through arches of from these prices. 

overhimging maples; the immense walnut, Old- Time Style of Doing Business. — How 

oak, and other hard woods that attained here the business of the place was conducted be- 

their finest development ; the plentiful game fore the era of railroads, Mr. J. S. Reed, in 

supplies ; the springs and runs all seemed to the " County History," thus states : 

make an ideal tract." South of the treaty "The first stores opened in Marion were 

lines, the first settlements were made between branches from other towns, unless the Holmes 

the years 1805 and 1814, in Waldo and Pros- firm formed an exception. The village was 

pect townships, by the Brudiges. Drakes, laid out in 1822. In 1824, when the county 

Wyatts, Ephraim Markley, Evan Evans, etc. was organized, there were three stores, three 

It is not known for certain who was the taverns, and several workshops and cabins, 

first settler in Marion. Eber Baker, who The stocks of goods were small and consisted 

laid it out, came here in 1821. He influ- of whisky, tobacco, powder and lead, cotton 

enced the commissioners to select it as the cloth and calico. These were the staples, and 

county-seat in 1 822. There were rival claims, there was no money in the country. Every 

but when decided upon the few settlers here one wanted to buy, but no one had anything 

got up a great jollification, and having no to pay with. Coon, mink and deerskins were 

artillery, bored holes in several oak trees, and legal tender, and great quantities of them 

putting in powder, shattered some of them were gathered in by traders. Credit was 

to fragments. The first structure put up given freely to the people, and as a large part 

after this was a double log-cabin, built by of them were transient and single, there were 


many Sittings, and loans were about equal 
to gains. Occasionally an exceptionally mean 
transaction was advertised, and the office of 
Judge Lynch was threatened in plain terms 
by the people, to deter a repetition of similar 

"With slow growth the village made its 
way up to 1839. Goods were sold at enor- 
mous prices, and credits were the rule. But 
little money entered into trade. Very few 
made both ends meet ; no one made anything 
beyond a living. As an illustration of the 
independence of the old regime merchants, 
we mention an instance that occurred on the 
lot now occupied by Moore's grocery, where 
Joel D. Butler kept a store. Butler came 
from Delaware and established a branch store 
for a firm in that place. Everything was 
kept neatly in place, and no crowd could in- 
duce him to wrinkle and tumble his goods. 
A lady came in one day and was a little hard 
to please, as ladies are, once in a while, now- 
a-daj's. After what would be called a brief 
showing by modern clerks, Butler left the 
lady, came round the counter, filled and Ht 
his pipe, and sat down, saying, 'You don't 

want a d d thing, and you had better clear 

out, the sooner the better.' With all his 
brusqueness the man managed to own his 
store, and the room next north, which he 
afterwards sold to J. S. Reed & Co., who 
occupied it for a long term of years. He 
did, however, fail, having adhered to old 
methods of business until he used himself 
up in the unequal contest. He took money 
ol the farmers, paid them interest by the 
year, kept no regular account of his indebt- 
edness, made no provision for payment, and 
by and by, when his creditors called for 
money, failed. 

"About this time a Yankee merchant 
opened out, and cut down the old system, by 
selling for cash at small profits. The old 

out training, were shocked. Every effort was 
made to drive off the Yankee, but in vain ; 
he had come to stay. Gradually the business 
of the county changed into better shape. 
Farmere prospered, for they saved half their 
expense ; merchants prospered, tor they 
ceased to lose their profits in bad debts. In 
place of stocks of goods amounting to $2,000 
or $3,000, stocks of $20,000 or more began to 
be common. 

" It was a ^reat undertaking to get off the 
wheat taken m for goods during tlie winter, 
and to sell and reinvest in goods, and get 
them back into store again. There were so 
many changes in value, so many expenses 
and risks, that but few merchants succeeded. 
The statistics of Marion county mercantile 
business establish failure as the rule, and 
success as the exception. 

"The long string of covered wagons, fre- 
quently fifty in one line, loaded with grain 
for the lakes, each with bed and lunch-box, 
which slowly and patiently toiled over the 
long distance, with its night encampment, its 
camp fires and pleasant group of story-tellers 
have disappeared, and are now known only 
by tradition. The old-fashioned store, with 
its scant stock of staples ; its handy whisky- 
bottle and tin cup ; its ample daybook and 
its ledger ; its quaint salesman with few 
words and plain dress, and meagre pay ; its 
fearfiri prices with Noah's ark fashions ; all 
these have gone to the death to be seen no 
more ! Young America with its ' make or 
bust;' its plate-glass windows ; its expensive, 
fashionable goods ; dandy-dressed clerks, dia- 
monds and lavish salary, and the woman of 
the period, equal in fashionable extravagance ; 
all these have come in, and the cost and ex- 
pense of the modern machine would have 
shocked the old-timer and driven him to sui- 
cide. ' ' 

A Stage Coach Journey Across Ohio in 1834. 
About the year 1834 a deputation was sent by the Congregational Union of 
Great Britain on a visit to America. It consisted of Rev. Messrs. Eead and 
Matthewson. Mr. Read published their experiences of travel under the title of 
" Visit to American Churches." He rode, without his companion, across the 
State from Sandusky, which he reached by boat from Buffalo, and passed through 
Marion on his way to Cincinnati. The observations of an intelligent gentleman 
and an accomplished descriptive writer at that early date render his narrative un- 
usually instructive. As the county was then largely a wilderness and he passed 
through the grand solemn forests and by the cabins of the new-comers in the 
little clearings, his account makes a profound woodsy impression upon the reader : 

I went to the best inn in the town. It had 
been better had it been cleaner. It was, how- 
ever, welcome to me, as a heavy thunder- 
storm was just beginning to put forth its 
tremendous power. I congratulated myself 
on my safety, but my confidence was quickly 
moderated, for the rain soon found its way 
within the house and came spattering down the 
walls of the room in strange style. By-the- 
bye, few things seem to be water-proof here. 

In the middle of the day we reached San- 
dusky. It has not more than seven or eight 
hundred inhabitants ; but it is, nevertheless, 
a city with its corporate rights and ofiieers. 

Sanduslcy Described. — It is tnily a city in 
a forest ; for the large stumps of the original 
pines are still standing in the main street, and 
over the spots that have been cleared for 
settlement, the new wood is springing up with 
amazing vigor, as if to defy the hand of m» a. 



A second time, my luggage soaked through. 
I had placed it imder the upper deck of the 
vessel as a place of perfect security, but a 
searching rain came on in the night, the deck 
leaked and my portmanteau suffered. How- 
ever, I had made up my mind in starting 
not to be disturbed by anything that might 
be injured, lost, or stolen on the way — a pre- 
caution that had certainly more wisdom in it 
than I was aware of — for without it I might 
have had a pretty good share of disturbance. 
Already, much was injured, and some was 
stolen ; of the future I could not speak, but 
if things went on in the same promising 
manner I had the prospect of being returned 
to New York in a coatless, shirtless and very 
bootless condition. 

There are two jjlaces of worship here : one 
for the Presbyterians and the other for the 
Episcopal Jlethodists. The first is without 
a minister, and neither of them in a very 
flourishing state. They stand on the green 
sward ; they are about thirty feet square and 
for want of paint have a worn and dirty 
aspect. The good people here reverse the 
Dutch proverb: it is not " paint costs noth- 
ing," but "wood costs nothing," and they 
act accordingly. They will, however, improve 
with the town, and at present they oifer 
accommodation enough for its wants, but half 
the adult population certainly go nowhere. 

Rough Peojyle. — Indeed, the state of relig- 
ious and moral feeling was evidently very low 
here ; and I heard more swearing and saw 
more Sabbath-breaking than I had before wit- 
nessed. There were many groceries, as th^ 
call themselves here ; groggeries, as then- 
enemies call them ; and they were all full. 
Manners, which are consequent on religion 
and morality, were proportionally affected. I 
felt that I was introduced to a new state of 
things which demanded my best attention. 

Stage Coach Experience. — Having rested 
here over the Sabbath, I arranged to leave 
by coach early in the morning for Columbus. 
I rose, therefore, at two. Soon after I had 
risen the bar-agent came to say that the 
coach was ready and would start in ten 
minutes. As the rain had made the roads 
bad this was rather an ominous as well as 
untimely intimation, so I went down to take 
my place. I had no sooner begun to enter 
the coach than splash went my foot in mud 
and water. I exclaimed with surprise. " Soon 
be dry, sir," was the reply, while he with- 
drew the light, that I might not explore the 
cause of complaint. The fact was that the 
vehicle, like the hotel and the steamboat, was 
not water-tight, and the rain had found an 

There was, indeed, in this coach, as in most 
others, a provision in the bottom — of holes — 
to let off both water and dirt ; but here the 
dirt had become mud and thickened about 
the orifices so as to prevent escape. I found 
I was the only passenger ; the morning was 
damp and chilly; the state of the coach 
added to the sensation, and I eagerly looked 
about for some means of protection. I drew 
up the wooden windows — out of five smal' 

panes of glass in the sashes three were 
broken. I endeavored to secure the curtains ; 
two of them had most of the ties broken and 
flapped in one's face. I could see nothing ; 
everywhere I could feel the wind draw in 
upon me ; and as for sounds, I the call 
of the driver, the screeching of the wheels 
and the song of the bull-frog for my enter- 

But the worst of my solitary situation was 
to come. All that had been intimated about 
bad roads now came upon me. Thej' were 
not only bad, they were intolerable ; they were 
rather like a stony ditch than a road. The 
horses on the first stages could only walk 
most of the way ; we were frequently in up to 
the axle-tree, and I had no sooner recovered 
from a terrible plunge on one side than there 
came another in the opposite direction. I 
was literally thrown about like a ball. Let 
me dismiss the subject of bad roads for this 
journey by stating, in illustration, that with 
an empty coach and four horses, we were 
seven hours in going twenty-three miles ; and 
that we were twenty-eight hours in getting to 
Columbus, a distance of one hundred and ten 
miles. Yet this line of conveyance was adver- 
tised as a "splendid line, equal to any in the 
States. ' ' 

Riisseir s Tavern. — At six o'clock we ar- 
rived at Russell's tavern, where we were to 
take breakfast. This is a nice inn ; in good 
order, very clean, and the best provision. 
There was an abundant supply, but most of 
it was prepared with butter and the frying- 
pan ; still there were good coffee and eggs, 
and delightful bread. Most of the family 
and the driver sat down at table, and the two 
daughters of our host waited on us. Mr. 
Russell, as is commonly the case in such dis- 
tricts, made the occupation of innkeeper sub- 
sidiary to that of farming. You commanded 
the whole of his farm from the door, and it 
was really a fine picture, the young crops 
blooming and promising in the midst of the 

Pious Family. — From the good manners 
of this family, and from the good husbandry 
and respectable carriage of the father, I hoped 
to find a regard for religion here. I turned 
to the rack of the bar and found there three 
books ; they were, the Gazetteer of Ohio, 
Popular Geography and the Bible ; they all de- 
noted intelligence ; the last was the most used. 

The Grand Prame. —Things now began to 
mend with me ; daylight had come ; the 
atmosphere was getting warm and bland. I 
had the benefit of a good breakfast ; the road 
was in some measure improved ; it was 
possible to look abroad and everything was 
inviting attention. We were now passing 
over what is called the Grand Prairie, and the 
prairies of this Western country are conspic- 
uous among its phenomena. The first im- 
pression did not please me so much as I 
expected. It rather interests by its singularity 
than otherwise. If there be any other source 
of interest it may be found in its expansion 
over a wide region. 

Land here is worth about two dollars and a 



half per acre ; and you may get a piece of 
five acres, cleared, and a good eight-railed 
fence round it for fifty dollars. 

German Settlers.— Most of the recent 
settlers along this road seem to be Germans. 
We passed a little settlement of eight families 
who had arrived this season. The log-house 
is the only description of house in these 
new and scattered settlements. I passed one 
occupied by a doctor of medicine, and 
another tenanted by two bachelors, one of 
theui being a judge. 

Gnnulcur of the Forests. — The most inter- 
esting sight to me was the forest. It now ap- 
peared in all its pristine state and grandeur, 
tall, magnificent, boundless. I had been some- 
what disappointed in not finding vegetation 
develop itself in larger forms in New England 
than with us; but there was 110 place for 
disappointment here. I shall fail, however, 
to give you the impression it makes on one. 
Did it arise from height, or figure, or group- 
ing, it might readily be conveyed to you ; but 
it arises chiefly from combination. You must 
see in it all the stages of growth, decay, 
dissolution and regeneration ; you must see 
it pressing on you and overshadowing you by 
its silent forms, and at other times spreading 
itself before you like a natural park ; you 
must see that all the clearances made by the 
human hand bear no higher relation to it than 
does a mountain to tlie globe ; you must 
travel in it in solitariness, hour after hour, 
and day after day, frequently gazing on iv 
with solemn delight, and occasionally casting 
the eye round in search of some pause, some 
end without finding any, before you can fully 
understand the impression. Men say there 
is nothing in America to give you the sense 
of antiquity, and they mean that, as there 
are no works of art to produce this efi'ect, 
there can be nothing else. You cannot think 
that I would depreciate what they mean to 
extol ; but I hope you will sympathize with 
me when I say that I have met with nothing 
among the most venerable forms of art which 
impresses you so thoroughl.v with the idea of 
indefinite distance and endless continuity of 
antiquity shrouded in all its mystery of soli- 
tude, illimitable and eternal. 

The_ Clearances, too, which appeared in 
this ride, were on so small a scale as to 
strengthen this impression, and to convey a 
distinct impression of their own. On them 
the vast trees of the forest had been girdled, 
to prevent the foliage from appearing to over- 
shadow the ground ; and the land at their 
feet was grubbed up and sown with corn, 
which was expanding on the surface in all its 
luxuriance. The thin stems of Indian-corn 
were strangely contrasted with the huge 
trunks of the pine and oak, and the verdant 
surface below was as strangely opposed to 
the skeleton trees towering above, spreading 
out their leafless arms to the warm sun and 
the refreshing rains, and doing it in vain. 
Life and desolation were never brought closer 

About noon we arrived at a little town and 
stopped at an inn, which was announced as 

the dining-place. My very early breakfast, 
and my violent exercise, had not indisposed 
me for dinner. _ The dinner was a very poor 
aflFair. The chief dish was ham fried in but- 
ter — originally hard, and the harder for fry- 
ing. I tried to get my teeth through it, and 
failed. There remained bread, cheese and 
cranberries ; and of these I made my repast. 
While here, a Gorman woman, one of the 
recent settlers, passed by on her way home. 
Her husband had taken the fever and died. 
She had come to buy a cofiSn for him, and 
other articles of domestic use at the same 
time. She was now walking home beside the 
man who bore the coffin ; and with her other 
purchases under her arm. This was a sad 
specimen either of German phlegm or of the 
hardening efi'ect of poverty. 

Mormon Emigrants. — Here, also, was a 
set of Mormonites, passing through to the 
"Far West." They are among the most 
deluded fanatics. A gentleman inquired of 
one of them, why they left their own coun- 
try ? " Oh," he said, " there is ruin comiog 
on it." " How do j'ou know ? " " It was re- 
vealed to me." "How was it revealed to 
you?" "I saw five letters in the sky." 
"Indeed! what were they?" " F-A-M- 
I-N," was the reply; a reply which created 
much ridicule and some profanity. 

Hissengers Aboard. — We now took in three 
persons who were going on to Marion. One 
was a colonel, though in mind, manners and 
Appearance among the plainest of men ; 
another was a lawyer and magistrate ; the 
third was a considerable farmer. 

All of them, by their station and avocation, 
ought to have been gentlemen ; but if just 
terms are to be applied to them, they must 
be the opposite of this. To me they were 
always civil ; but among themselves they 
were evidently accustomed to blasphemous 
and corrupt conversation. The colonel, who 
had admitted himself to be a Methodist, was 
the best, and sought to impose restraints on 
himself and companions ; but he gained very 
little credit for them. I was grieved and 
disapjiointed ; for I had met with nothing so 
bad. What I had witnessed at Sandusky 
was from a difierent and lower class of per- 
sons ; but here were the first three men in 
respectable life with whom I had met in this 
State ; and these put promiscuously be- 
fore me— and all bad. It was necessary to 
guard against a hasty and prejudiced conclu- 

Marion. — On reaching Marion I was re- 
leased from my unpleasant companions. I 
had to travel through most of the night ; but 
no refreshment was provided. I joined in a 
meal that was nearly closed by another party, 
and prepared to go forward at the call of the 
driver. I soon found I was to be in difi^erent 
circumstances. We were nine persons and a 
child, within. Of course, after having been 
tossed about in an empty coach all day, like 
a boat on the ocean, I was not unwilling to 
have the prospect of sitting steadily in my 
corner ; but when I got fairly pinned inside, 
knees and feet, the hard seat and the harder 



ribs of the coach began to search out my 
bruises, and I was still a sufferer. However, 
there were now some qualifying considera- 
tions. The road was improving, and with it 
the scenery. I had come for fifty miles over 
a dead flat, with only one inclination, and 
that not greater than the pitch of Ludgate 
hill ; the land was now finely undulated. My 
company, too, though there was something 
too much of it, was not objectionable ; some 
of it was pleasing. 

There were among them the lady of a judge 
and her daughter. The mother was afiable 
and fond of conversation. She was glad we 
had such agreeable society in the stage, as 
"that did not always happen." She talked 
freely on many subjects, and sometimes as 
became a judge's lady of refinement and edu- 
cation ; but she did it in broken grammar, 
and in happy ignorance that it was broken. 
As the night shut in, she, without the least 
embarrassment, struck up and sang off, very 
fairly, "Home, Sweet Home." This was 
all unasked, and before strangers ; yet none 
were surprised but myself I name this 
merely as a point of manners. The lady 
herself was unquestionably modest, intelli- 
gent, and, as I think, pious. 

Delaware. — At nearly 1 o'clock we arrived 
at Delaware. Here I was promised a night's 
rest. You shall judge whether that promise 
was kept or broken. There was no refresh- 
ment of any kind prepared or offered ; so we 
demanded our lights to retire. The judge's 
lady and daughter were shown into a closet, 
called a room. There was no fastening to 
the door, and she protested that she would 
not use it. I insisted that it was not proper 
treatment. All the amendment that could 
be gained was a proposition "to fetch a nail, 
and she could nail herself in, and be snug 

I was shown into a similar closet. There 
were no dressing accommodations. I re- 
quired them, and was told that those things 
were in common below. I refused to use 
them ; and at length, by showing a little 
firmness and a little kindness, obtained soap, 
bowi and towel. I dressed. By this time it 
was nearly 2 o'clock. I was to be called at 
half-past :', : and I threw myself on the bed 
to try to sleep with the soothing impression 
that I must awake in half an hour. 

Worthington. — At half-past 2. 1 was sum- 
moned, ani having put myself in readiness, 
and paid for a nigMs lodging^ I was again 
on my way. The day broke on us jjleasantly, 
and the country was very beautiful. We 
forded the Whetstone, a lively river, which 
ornamented the ride. We passed through 
Worthington, a smart town, prettily placed, 
and having a good college, and arrived at 
Columbus, the capital, at 9 o'clock. 

Columliis has a good location in the heart 
of the State. It contains about 4,000 per- 
sons, and is in a very advancing condition. 
This indeed is true of all the settlements in 
this State, and you will hardly think it can 
be otherwise when I inform you that forty 
years ago there were only {00 persons 'n the 

whole territory, and that now there are abouf 
a million. 

The inn at which we stopped is the rendez- 
vous of the stages. Among others there 
were two ready to start for Cincinnati. On 
seeking to engage my place the inquiry was, 
'_' Which will you go by, sir ? the fast or slow 
line?" Weary as I was of the slow line, I 
exclaimed, " Oh, the fast line, certainly ! " I 
quickly found myself enclosed in a good 
coach, carrying the mail, and only six per- 
sons inside. In this journey we had but 

Rough Travelling. — In demanding to go 
by the fast line I was not aware of all the 
effects of my choice. It is certainly a de- 
lightful thing to move with some rapidity 
over a good road ; but on a bad road, with 
stubborn springs, it is really terrible. Foi 
miles out of Columbus the road is shamefully 
bad ; and as our horses were kept on a trot, 
however slow, I was not only tumbled and 
shaken as on the previous day, but so jarred 
and jolted as to threaten serious mischief 
Instead, therefore, of finding a lounge, 01 
sleep, as I had hoped, in this comfortable 
coach, I was obliged to be on the alert for 
every jerk. , And after all I could do, my 
teeth were jarred, my hat was many times 
thrown from my head, and all my bruises 
bruised over again. It was really an amuse- 
ment to see us laboring to keep our places. 

Jefferson. — About noon we paused at the 
town called Jefferson. We were to wait half 
an hour ; there would be no other chance of 
dinner • but there were no signs of dinner 
here. However, I had been on very short 
supplies for_ the last twenty-four hours, and 
considered it my duty to eat if I could. I 
applied to the good woman of the inn, and in 
a very short time she placed venison, fruit- 
tarts ar.d tea before me ; all very clean and 
the venison excellent. It was a refreshing 
repast, and the demand on my purse was only 
twenty-five cents. 

"How long have you been here?" I said 
to my hostess, who stood by me fanning the 
dishes to keep off the flies. "Only came last 
fall, sir. " " How old is this town ? " "Twen- 
ty-three months, sir — then the first house 
was built." 

There are now about 500 persons settled 
here, and there are three good hotels. There 
is something very striking in t_hese_ rapid 
movements of Ufe and civilization in the 
heart of the forest. 

Nohle Forests. — On leaving Jefferson we 
plunged agam into the forest, and towards 
evening we got on the greensward or natural 
road. This was mostly good and uncut, and 
we bowled along inserpentine lines, so as to 
clear the stumps with much freedom . The 
scenery now, even for the forest, was becom- 
ing unusually grand. It repeatedly broke 
away from you, so as to accumulate the ob- 
jects in the picture, and to furnish all the 
beauties of light, shade and perspective. 
The trees, too,_ were mostly oak, and of finest 
growth. Their noble stems ran up some 
hundred feet above you, and were beautifuily 


feathered with verdant foliage. There, they 
ran off in the distance, park-like, hut grander 
far. in admirable grouping, forming avenues, 
galleries and recesses, redolent with solemn 
loveliness ; and here, they stood before you 
like the thousand pillars of one vast imper- 
ishable temple for the worship of the Great 
Invisible. Well might our stout forefithers 
choose the primitive forests for their sanc- 
tuaries. All that art has done in our finest 
Gothic structures is but a poor, poor imi- 
tation ! 

Yellow Springs and Springfield. — I passed 
in this day's ride the Yellow Springs and 
Springfield. The former is a watering-place. 
There is a fine spring of chalybeate and an 
establishment capable of receiving from 150 
to 200 visitors ; it is resorted to for the pur- 
poses of health, hunting and fishing. Spring- 
field is a flourishing town, built among the 
handsome hills that abound in this vicinity. 
It is one of the cleanest, brightest, and most 
inviting that I have seen. But all the 
habitations were as nothing compared with 
the forest. I had been travelling through it 
for two days and nights, and still it was the 
same. Now, you came to a woodsman's hut 
in the solitudes ; now to a farm ; and now to 
a village, by courtesy called a town or a city ; 
but it was still the forest. You drove on for 
miles through it unbroken ; then you came to 
a small clearance and a young settleinent ; and 
then again you plunged into the wide, ever- 
lasting forest to be with nature and with 
God. This night I had also to travel and, 
weary as I was, I was kept quite on the alert. 
A Thunderstorm. — I had longed to witness 
a storm in the forest, and this was to happen 
earlier than my anticipations. The day had 
been hot, but fine ; the night came on sultry, 
close and silent. The beautiful fire-flies ap- 
peared in abundance ; summer lightning 
Degan to flash across the heavens. All this 
time clouds were moving from every part of 
the circumference to the centre of the sky. 
At length they formed a heavy, dense, black 
canopy over our heads, leaving the horizon 
clear and bright. The lightnings, which at 
first appeared to have no centre, had now 
consolidated their forces behind this im- 
mense cloud, and were playing round its whole 
circle with great magnificence and brilliancy ; 
continually the prodigious cloud was getting 
larger and darker, and descending nearer to 
us, so as powerfully to awaken expectation. 
The splendid coruscations which played round 
its margin now ceased and all was still. In 
an instant the forked lightning broke from 
the very centre of the cloud ; the thunder, 
deep and loud, shook the earth, and rolled 
and pealed through the heavens ; the heavy 
rain dashed in unbroken channels to the 
ground, and the mighty winds burst forth in 
their fury and roared and croaned among the 
giant trees of the wood. There were we, in 
the deep forest and in the deep night and in 
the midst of a storm such as I had never 
witnessed. Oh, it was grand ! God's own 
voice in God's own temple I Never did I see 

so much of the poetic trutii and beauty of 
that admirable ode, "The voice of the 
Lord," etc. It eeased as suddenly as it began. 
The winds which bore the cloud away left all 
behind calm ; and the fire-fly, which had been 
eclipsed or affrighted, reappeared and sparkled 
over us in the profound darkness, and pres- 
ently the stars of a higher sphere looked 
forth benignantly on the lower elements and 
all was peace. 

Lebanon. — The early morning found me 
still travelling, and getting seriously unwell. 
I thought I must have remained at Lebanon, 
a town about twenty miles from Cincinnati, 
to sicken and suffer without a friend ; and 
then all the loneliness of my situation came 
over me. The stage halted here an hour ; 
this allowed me some time to recover, and I 
resolved, if it were possible, to go forward to 
what I might regard as a resting-place. 

Happily, everything was now improving. 
The road was not unworthy of MacAdam, and 
we bowled over it at the rate of nine miles 
an hour. The country was covered with hills, 
finely wooded, and all about them were spread 
farms, in a handsome and thriving state of 
cultivation. Many ornamental cottages now 
appeared, and the whole suburbs put on a 
cheerful and beautiful aspect. At last we 
drove into the Western metropolis. I had 
travelled three days and three nights, and 
was so wearied, bruised and hurt that I could 
not, with comfort, sit, lie, or walk. The 
remainder of this day I spent in my chan>ber. 

Cincinnati is really worthy to be styled a 
city, and it is a city "born in a day and in 
the wilderness." It has a population of 
30,000 persons, and is not more than thirty- 
six years old. Its streets are composed of 
transverse lines ; the straight lines are broken 
by the undulating surface of the ground ; the 
surrounding hills stand up beautifully at the 
head of all the streets, and the Ohio runs off 
finely at its feet. There are several good 
streets ; some enlivened by business, and 
others ornamented by comfortable dwellings 
and the spreading acacia, but there are no 
very striking objects. 

Some of the churches are good, but not 
remarkable, except the old Presbyterian 
church in the main street, which is large and 
Dutch-built, with a brick face, with two brick 
towers projecting on it, which towers have 
turrets as heavy as themselves, and which 
turrets are chiefly remarkable for two dials 
which exactly agree. Wiieu I saw them they 
both wanted three minutes to six. and I 
doubt not if I could see them now they still 
want just three minutes to six. Besides this 
there is, as it is called, " Trollope's Folly," 
an erection in which that lady, tlius compli- 
mented, exhausted her means and certainly 
did not show her taste. 

I was struck by the number of barbers' 
shops and groceries, or grog-shops ; it should 
seem that no man here shaves himself, and 
that temperance has not yet fulfilled its com- 
mission. I believe there are not less than 
two hundred grog-stores in Cincinnati. 


Caledonia is nine miles northeast of Marion, on the C. C. C. & I. and N. 
Y. P. & O. Eailroads. Newspaper : Argus, Independent, A. D. Fulton, editor 
and publisher. Churches : 1 Universalist, 1 Methodist Episcopal and 1 Presby- 
terian. Bank : Caledonia Deposit, William Eowse, president, C. H. Eowse, 
cashier. Population, 1880, 627. School census, 1888, 250. 

La Rue is fourteen miles west of Marion, on the Scioto river and C. C. C. &. 
I. R. R. Newspaper : News, Independent, S. C. Koons, editor and publisher. 
Population, 1880, 614. School census, 1888, 242. 

Prospect is ten miles south of Marion, on the C. H. V. & T. R. R. and 
Scioto river. Newspapers : Advance, Independent, Clowes & Pettit, editors and 
publishers; Monitor, Independent, S. W. Van Winkle, editor and publisher. 
Ciiurches : 1 Presbyterfan, 1 Methodist Episcopal, 1 Baptist, 1 German Reformed 
and 1 Lutheran. Banks : Citizens', F. C. Freeman, president, Joseph Cratty, 
cashier ; Prospect, B. K. Herbster, i)resident, George W. Cook, cashier. Popula- 
tion, 1880, 600. School census, 1888, 262. Capital invested in manufacturing 
establishments, $10,000. Value of annual product, $9,500. — OAio Labor 
Statistics, 1888. 

New Bloomington, in the western part of the county. Population, 1880. 
271. School census, 1888, 150. 

Waldo, seven miles southeast of Marion, on the west branch of the Olen- 
tangy river. Population, 1880, 248. School census, 1888, 51, 

Green Camp is six miles southwest of Marion, on the Scioto river and N. V. 
P. &0. R. R. Population, 1880, 312. School census, 1888, 117. 

Three Locusts is a post-office and village at the junction of the C. C. C. & 1., 
P. & O. and O. C. in the northeast part of the county. The village was platted 
in 1881. Mr. John M. Baker, who owned the first house built here, apjilied to 
the Department at Washington to have a post-office here and named " Baker." 
On their refusal to give this name, some of the citizens assembled under the 
friendly shade of a beautiful group of three locusts that were standing there, for 
it was a hot summer's day, and, while discussing the matter, one of them looking 
up \vas seized with an inspiring thought and said, " Why not call it ' Three 
Locusts?' " The suggestion was acted upon and Mr. Baker became the first post- 
master of the only Three Locusts on the globe. 

Big Island township got its name from a big grove in the midst of prairie land 



Medina County was formed February 18, 1812, "from that part of the 
Reserve west of the 11th range, south of the numbers 5, and east of the 20th 
range, and attached to Portage county until organized." It was organized in 
April, 1818. The county was settled principally from Connecticut, though within 
the last few yeare there has been a considerable accession of Germans. The sur- 
face is generally rolling, with much bottom land of easy tillage ; the soil is princi- 
pally clay and gravelly loam — the clayey portion scantily watered, the gravelly 
abundantly. The soil is better adapted to grass than grain. 

Area about 400 square miles. In 1887 the acres cultivated were, 103,232; 
in pasture, 80,523 ; woodland, 34,475 ; lying waste, 427 ; produced in wheat, 
391,559 bushels ; rye, 641 ; buckwheat,' 54 ; oats, 647,262 ; barley, 414 ; 
corn, 447,268 ; broom-corn, 3,240 lbs. brush ; meadow hay, 26,527 tons ; 
clover hay, 14,785; flax, 362,664 lbs. fibre; potatoes, 68,019 bushels; 
tobacco, 87,311 lbs. ; butter, 847,995 ; cheese, 860,715 ; maple sugar, 
92,162; honey, 17,140; eggs, 472,338 dozen; grapes, 5,200 pounds; wine, 
5 gallons; sweet potatoes, 20 bushels; apples, 71,504 ; peaches, 4,807 ; pears, 
1,160; wool, 241,748 pounds; milch cows owned, 8,826. Ohio mining 
statistics, 1888 : Coal mined, 198,452 tons ; employing 370 miners and 43 out- 
side employees. School census, 1888, 6,572 ; teachers, 273. Miles of railroad 
track, 48. 

Townships and Census. 1840. 1880. Townships and Census. 1840. . 1880. 

La Favette, 

Population of Medina in 1820 was 3,090; 1830, 7,560; 1840, 18,360; 
1860, 22,517 ; 1880, 21,543, of whom 15,111 were born in Ohio ; 1,805, 
Pennsylvania; 1,379, New York; 68, Kentucky; 57, Virginia; 18, Indiana; 
590, England and Wales; 587, German Empire; 144, British America ; 125, 
Ireland ; 66, Scotland ; and 39, France. Census, 1890, 21,742. 

The first regular settlement in the county was made at Harrisville, on the 14th 
of February, 1811, by Joseph Harris, Esq., who removed fi-om Randolph, Por- 
tage county, with his famil)', consisting of his wife and one child. The nearest 
white people were at Wooster, seventeen miles distant. 

The first trail made through the county north, toward the lake, was from 
Wooster, a short time after the declaration of war with Great Britain. Tiie parly 
consisted of George Poe (son of Adam, the Indian fighter), Joseph H. Larwill 
(a famous surveyor of Wayne county), and Roswell M. ]\Iason. They carried 
their provision in packs, and laid out the first night on their blankets in the open 
air, on the south side of " the big swamp." It was amusing, as they lay, to 
listen to the howling of the wolves, and hear the raccoons catch frogs and devour 
them, making, in their mastication, a peculiar and inimitable noise, which sounded 
loud in the stillness of the night. In the course of the evening they heard bells 
of cattle north of them, and in the morning discovered the settlement of Mr. 
Harris. From thence they proceeded down to the falls of Black river, at whait 












































is now Elyria, and at the mouth of the stream found a settler, named Read, 
whose habitation, excepting that of Mr. Harris, was the only one between there 
and Wooster. 

In the June following Mr. Harris's arrival he was joined by Russell Burr and 
George Burr and family, direct from Litchfield, Conn. In the summer after, on 
the breaking out of the war, Messrs. Harris and Burr removed their families for 
a few mouths to Portage county, from fear of the Indians, and returned them- 
selves in October to Harrisville. The following winter provision was carried 
from the Middlebury mills, by the residence of Judge Harris, to Fort Stephenson, 
his cabin being the last on the route. The season is adverted to by the old 
settlers as " the cold winter." Snow lay to the depth of eighteen inches, from the 
1st of January to the 27th of February, during which the air was so cold that it 
did not diminish an inch in depth during the whole time. 

An Indian trail from Sandusky to the Tuscarawas passed by the residence of 
Mr. Harris. It was a narrow, hard-trodden bridle-path. In the fall the Indians 
came upon it from the west to this region, remained through the winter to hunt 
and returned in the spring, their horses laden with furs, jerked venison and bear's 
oil, the last an extensive article of trade. The horses were loose and followed 
each other in single file. It was not uncommon to see a single hunter returning 
with as many as twenty horses laden with his winter's work and usually accom- 
panied by his squaw and papooses, all mounted. The Indians often built their 
wigwams in this vicinity, near water, frequently a dozen within a few rods. They 
were usually made of split logs or poles covered with bark. Some of the chiefs 
had theirs made of flags, which they rolled up and carried with them. The Indians 
were generally very friendly with the settlers, and it was rare to find one deficient 
in mental acuteness. 

In the fall of the same year that Mr. Harris settled at Harrisville, William 
Litey, a native of Ireland, with his family, settled in Bath township, on or near 
the border of Portage county. In the winter of 1815, after the close of the 
war, the settlements began to increase. Among the earlj- settlers are recol- 
lected the names of Esquire Van Heinen, Zcnas Hamilton, Eufus Ferris, 
James Moore, the Ingersolls, Jones, Sibleys, Friezes, Roots, Demings, Warner, 
Hoyt, Dean and Durham. 

Medina in 184-6. — Medina, the county-seat, is on the stage road from Cleveland 
to Columbus, twenty-eight miles from the and one hundred and seventeen 
from the latter. It was originally called Mecca — and is so marked on the early 
maps of Ohio — from the Arabian city famous as the birth-place of Mahomet. It 
was afterwards changed to its present name, being the seventh place on the globe 
of that name. The others are, Medina, a town of Arabia Deserta, celebrated as 
the burial-place of Mahomet ; Medina, the capital of the kingdom of Woolly, 
West Africa ; Medina, a town and fort on the island of Bahrein, near the Arabian 
shore of the Persian gulf; Medina, a town in Estremadura, Spain; Medina, 
Orleans county, N. Y., and Medina, Lenawee county, Miciiigan. 

On the organization of the county in 1818, the first court was held in a barn, 
now standing half a mile north of the court-house. The village was laid out that 
year, and the next season a few settlers moved iu. The township had been pre- 
viously partially settled. In 1813 Zenas Hamilton moved into the central part 
with his family, from Danbury, Conn. His nearest neighbor was some eight or 
ten miles distant. Shortly after came the families of Rufus Ferris, Timothy 
Doane, Lathrop Seymour, James Moore, Isaac Barnes, Joseph Northrop, 
Friend Ives, Abijah Mann, James Palmer, William Painter, Frederick Apple- 
ton, etc., etc. 

Rev. Roger Searle, an Episcopalian, was the first clergyman, and the first 
church was in the eastern part of the township where was then the most popula- 
tion. It was a log structure, erected in 1817. One morning all the material.'* 


were standing, forming a part of the forest, and in the afternoon Kev. Mr. Searle 
preaclied a sermon in the finished church.* 

From an early day religious worship in some form was held in the township on 
the Sabbath. The men brought their families to " meeting " in ox-teams, in which 
they generally had an axe and an anger to mend their carts in case of accidents, 
the roads being very bad. The first wedding M'as in March, 1818, at which the 
whole settlement were present. When the ceremony and rejoicings \\ere over each 
man lighted his flambeau of hickory bark and made his way home tiinnigii the 
forest. The early settlers got their meal ground at a log-mill at Middlchiiry ; 
although but about twenty miles distant, the journey there and back occupied five 
days. They had only ox -teams, and the rough roads they cut through the woods, 
after being passed over a few times, became impassable from mud, compelling 
them to continually open new ones. 

Owing to the want of a market the products of agriculture were very low. Thou- 
sands of bushels of wheat could at one time be bought for less than twenty-five cents 
per bushel, and cases occurred where ten bushels were offered for a single pound of 
tea, and refused. As an example : Mr. Joel Blakeslee, of Medina, about the 
year 1822, sowed fifly-five acres in wheat, which he could only sell by bartering 
with his neighbors. He fed out most of it in bundles to his cattle and swine. 
All that he managed to dispose of for cash was a small quantity sold to a traveller, 
at 12| cents per bushel, as feed for his horse. Other products were in proportion. 
One man brought an ox-wagon filled with corn from Granger, eight miles distant, 
which he gladly exchanged for three yards of satinet for a pair of pantaloons. 
It was not until the opening of the Erie canal that the settlers had a market. 
From that time the course of prosperity has been onward. The early settlers, 
after wearing out their woollen pantaloons, were obliged to have them seated and 
kneed with buckskin, in which attire they attended church. It was almost im- 
possible to raise wool, in consequence of the abundance of wolves, who destroyed 
the sheep. 

The view given on the annexed page of the public square in Medina was taken 
from the steps of the new court-house ; the old court-house and the Baptist church 
are seen on the right. The village contains 1 Presbyterian, 1 Episcopal, 1 Bap- 
tist, 1 Free Will Baptist, 1 Methodist and 1 Universalist church, 7 dry goods, 5 
grocery, 1 book and 2 apothecary stores, 1 newspaper printing office, 1 woollen 
and 1 axe factory, 1 flouring mill, 1 furnace, and had, in 1840, 655 inhabitants, 
since which it has increased. — Old Edition. 

Medina, county-seat of Medina, twenty-eight miles southwest of Cleveland, 
about one hundred miles northeast of Columbus, is the centre of a farming region, 
the principal products of which are grain, butter and cheese. It is on the C. L. 
& W. K. E. 

County Officers, 1888 : Auditor, Alfred L. Corman ; Clerk, Nicholas Van 
Epp ; Commissioners, Richard Freeman, John Pearson, Noaii N. Yoder ; Coroner, 
Aaron Sanders ; Infirmary Directors, William F. Nye, Henry Mills, Samuel B. 
Curtis ; Probate Judge, John T. Graves ; Prosecuting Attorney, Jesse W. Sey- 
mour ; Recorder, Jacob Long ; Sheriff, Norman P. Nichols ; Surveyor, Amos D. 
Sheldon ; Treasurer, Joseph Hebel. City officers, 1888 : F. O. Phillips, Mayor; 
Hiram Goodwin, Clerk ; Wm. F. Sipher, Treasurer ; Frank Heath, Solicitor ; 
John Esdate, Street Commissioner ; S. Frazier, Marshal. Newspapers : 3Tedina 
County Gazette and News, Republican, Green & Neil, editors and }iul)lishers; 
Sentinel, Democrat, M. L. Dorman, editor and publisher ; Gleanings in Bee Cul- 
ture, A. I. Root, editor and publisher. Churches : 1 Congregational, 1 Episcopal, 

* Father Finley, in his autobiography published by the Methodist Booli Concern in 1853, states, 
" Mr. Howe, in his History of Ohio, says : ' The first sermon preached in Medina township was by an 
Episcopal clergyman,' but it was a fact that Mr. (John C.) Brooke had preached there the year before, 
and had a regular preaching place." 

low doth the busy bee 
Improve each shining hour!" 

Bee-Hive Factory, Medina. 

Drawn by Henni Hoire in lS4t> 

Pdblic Square, Medina. 

A G Fu,n, n In Me Una, ISS7 

Public Square, Medina. 



1 Methodist, 1 Disciples, 1 Baptist, 1 Catholie. Bank : I'lirriiix National, J. H. 
Albro, president, R. M. McDowell, cashier. 

3Ianufaciures and Employees. — B. H. Brown & Co., planing mill, 14 hands; 
A. B. Bishop, carriages and wagons, 6 ; George 'NVeber & Co., stove hollow-ware, 
25 ; A. I. Boot, bee supplies, 96 ; Medina Carriage Co., carriages and wagon.s, 4 ; 
Hickox Brothei-s, planing mill, 3 ; O. C. Shepard, flour and feed, 3. — State lie- 
port, 188S. Population in 1880, 1,484. School census, 1888, 505; J. R. 
Kennan, school superintendent. Census, 1890, 2,073. 

]\Ie<lina has an extensive bee culture interest, combining the cultivation of bees 
with the manufacture of implements conne<'ted therewith. Its beginnings and 
growth are related in the catalogue of A. I. Root, whose immense establishment 
covers nearly three acres of land. The grounds are beautifully laid out with 
shrubbery and vines, and contain nearly one thousand hives of bees. Says 
Mr. Root : 

In 1865 a swarm of bees chanced to pass 
overhead where I was working. A fellow- 
workman asked what I would give for them. 
I answered, "A dollar," little dreaming that 
he would succeed in getting them. To my 
astajiisliment, he returned with the swarm. 
Witli this as a nucleus of what is now a large 
business, I began the study of bees in earnest. 
In spite of the fact that some of my good 
friends assured me that " bees didn't pay any 
more," and in spite of th^ usual blunders 
of a beginner, my apiary began to increase, 
and my enthusiasm developed into the un- 
mistakable "bee-fever." In 1867 from 20 
stocks I took the first thousand pounds of 
honey ever taken with an extractor, and 
increased to 35. In 1S09 I extracted 6,162 

pounds of honey from 48 colonies, and sold 
the product at 25 cents per pound. xVs the 
hives then in use were ill adapted for the ex- 
tractor, I saw no other way than to manufac- 
ture the implements I recommended. 

The sale of supplies gradually developed 
into a very extensive business, until at the 
present time this establishment's capacity is 
about 1,000 hives per day, besides a large 
amount of other work. A newspaper is pub- 
lished devoted to bee culture interests, and 
the shipments during the busy season some- 
times aggregate a car-load and a half by 
freight and a car-load of express matter per 
day. It is the largest establishment of the 
kind in the Union. 

We are indebted to Captain Milton P. Peirce for several valuable articles upon 
early events in the history of this region which here follow. The first is upon 
the " Great Hinckley Hunt," which he originally published in the Amer 
ican Field, of Chicago, January 4, 1890. It is reproduced, together with the 
engraving, which, of itself, is an oddity, inasmuch as the artist represents the 
Western Reserve farmers going hunting in dressing gowns and with such counte- 
nances as one might have found among the bogs of the Emerald Isle, but then 
there is compensation in the natural a.spect of the bears, wolves, panthers, tur- 
keys, etc. 

Probably the most successful well-managed 
hunt for wild game ever known in this 
country occurred December 24, 1818, in the 
county of Jledina, Ohio. Several accounts 
of the matter were published many years ago, 
but quite imperfect, particularly in introduc- 
tory matter. 

The first settlement of the Western Ke- 
serve was made at Cleveland, and a large 
portion of the tract was sold by townships, 
each five miles square, to numerous wealthy 
residents of Massachusetts and Connecticut. 
Many of these parties gave their own names to 
townships owned by them. Judge Hinckley, 
of Northampton. Mass.. owned three town- 
ships, one of which took his name. This is 
the northeast township of Medina county, 
and the centre of the township is about fifteen 
miles due south from the city of Cleveland. 
It was heavily timbered, and this forest wa,« 

full of game, embracing bears, deer, wolves 
panthers, turkeys and a great variety of 
smaller game. It was settled mainly by 
Massachusetts and Connecticut people, mostly 
agriculturists. Comparatively few of these 
people had a penchant for hunting, but those 
who did were never excelled as hunters. 
They had the best of arms and knew how to 
use them. 

The writer of this sketch was born in the 
Green Mountain range, in Western Massa- 
chusetts, and, being left an orphan at an 
early age, was brought by relatives to the 
Western Reserve while a small boy, over fifty 
years ago. Immense quantities of game were 
still left, but before I was large enough to 
manage a rifle the bears and wolves were 
gone. But I had an opportunity to shoot a 
few deer and many wild turkeys. I never 
lost an opportunity to spend an evening with 



some of the old hunters, many of whom still 
lived in the region, and I never tired hearing 
them relate their hunting experiences. The 
more notable of these is as vividly impressed 
upon my memory as it was the next day after 
hearing it. I knew several of those who 
particijiatcd in the celebrated Hinckley hunt, 
and particularly one man who was one season 
a "month hand" upon our farm, and a 
thoroughly reliable man. This man was about 
twenty years of age at the time of the hunt 
and remembered the details vividly. In the 
different accounts of the hunt which I heard 
from the lips of the participators, as well as 
those which I haye read, there has been but 
little variation, and that caused by the fact 
that at the commencement of the "drive" 
these men were on different lines, five miles 
apart, and the incidents naturally varied 

It is proper to state here that these New 
England settlers were thoroughly accustomed 
to raising sheep while in their native States, 
and they very naturally desired to engage in 
the industry at their new homes, but were 
seriously embarrassed by reason of the super- 
abundance of wolves. Their pig-pens were 
also frequently raided by bears. I can my- 
self remember when over one hundred sheep 
were killed by wolves in one night, ujion a 
few farms in our immediate neighborhood, 
our own flock sufiFering. And I vividly re- 
member that my thumbs and fingers subse- 
quently suffered from "pulling the wool" 
from the same sheep. In the early days of 
sheep-raising upon the "Reserve," quite a 
number of hunts were organized, in which 
quite large tracts of forest were surrounded 
by the settlers and many bears, wolves and 
deer were killed. Quite a number of persons 
were also wounded by careless firing of guns, 
and one or more killed. 

Judge Hinckley made no effort to dispose 
of the lands in the township bearing his 
name for some years, and each of the adjoin- 
ing townships had, by 1818, gained a good 
many settlers who cleared numerous tracts of 
land. Hinckley was still an unbroken, virgin 
forest of the heaviest timber, and became a 
harbor for large game which devastated the 
surrounding settlements. It was not unusual 
for a settler to lose his entire little flock of 
sheep in a single night, even though. penned 
within the shadow of his buildings. Finally, 
late in the fall of 1818, quite a number of 
meetings were held in the townships sur- 
rounding Hinckley, to make arrangements 
for a war of extermination upon the bears 
and wolves. Committees were appointed, and 
the various committees met for consultation, 
and made arrangements for a grand hunt 
which should embrace the entire township of 
Hinckley and forest lands adjacent thereto. 
Four captains were appointed, one of whom 
had supreme command of the entire battalion. 
Surveyors blazed a line of trees upon a circle 
half a mile around the centre of the town- 
ship. The programme, which was advertised 
m t'arious ways so that it was fully known for 
twenty miles in every direction around 

Hinckley, was as follows : The drive was to 
take place on December 24. Able-bodied men 
and large boys joining in the huat were to 
assemble as follows : Those from Cleveland, 
Newburg and Royalton and adjacent neigh- 
borhoods, on the north line of the township 
of Hinckley. Those from Brecksville, Rich- 
field and adjacent neighborhoods, on the east 
line. Those from Bath, Granger and adjacent 
neighborhoods, on the south line. Those from 
Medina, Brunswick, Liverpool and adjacent 
neighborhoods, on the west line. All were 
instructed to be on the ground at sunrise. 

As the last war with Great Britain had 
closed only three years before, there were 
plenty of ofllcers who understood the hand- 
ling of such bodies of men. Most famihes 
also had serviceable muskets, such as the laws 
of their respective States had required each 
able-bodied man between the ages of eighteen 
and forty-five to own. But still, there were 
not sufiioient firearms to go round. Bayonets 
were mounted upou poles, butcher-knives and 
improvised lances were similarly mounted, 
and some carried axes, while many cSrried 
hatchets and butcher-knives in waist belts. 
It should be understood that the virgin 
forests of that region were of large timber, 
few with limbs nearer than thirty feet from 
the ground, and as there was but little under- 
brush in the forest, it was practicable to drive 
a team with sled, wherever there were no 
streams to interfere. Many of those from a 
distance came on sleds, and some reached the 
ground on the evening of December 23. 
Nearly six hundred men and large boys were 
on the lines at sunrise, eager for a start, 
for a few deer and turkeys had been killed 
before reaching the lines, and many had been 
driven in. 

Soon after sunrise the commanding officer 
gave the words, "All ready!" The words 
were loudly repeated around the lines to the 
right, and came round to the starting point 
in just forty seconds, showing a good organ- 
ization. Many of the boys and some of the 
men were provided with horns and conch- 
shells, and most of them with sonorous 
voices. The signal to start was by the horns, 
shouts, etc. The captains and their assistants 
along each line kept their lines properly 
spaced (like skirmishers) and each line made 
its share of noise. In a few moments deer 
began to show themselves along all the lines, 
but were quickly fired upon. Many escaped, 
but about one hundred had been killed before 
the half-mile limit had been reached ; also, a 
few turkeys. 

By previous arrangement, a general halt 
was made at the line of blazed trees, half a 
mile from the centre of the township. There 
was occasionally a large fallen tree, the top 
of which aflbrded hiding-places for the bears 
and deer. All such within the circle were 
subsequently found to be occupied by these 
animals, too much frightened to show fight. 
Quite a number of dogs had been led by boys 
and men who did not have firearms. Deer 
were to be seen running in every direction 
within the circle, and occasionally a bear or 


wolf. The dogs, at a given signal, were re- 
leased and soon created great commotion 
within the circle. The frightened deer made 
constant attempts to break through the cordon 
of men and boys, but most of them were 
shot upon nearing the circle. The officers 
constantly cautioned the men not to fire, ex- 
(•<'I>t t(i\v:ircl the centre. Finally, after the fire 
li:i(l slackriMd iiiaterially and upon a given 
.■^iL'iiiil. ilii- ludsi experienced hunters, pre- 
viniisly selected, advanced toward the centre 
with orders to kill all the bears and wolves, 
if they could without endangering each other 
or those in the lines. They soon succeeded 
in killing most of those animals within' the 
circle. Then, upon signal, the hunters climbed 
trees in order to make plunging shots and not 
endanger those in the circular line, who were 
ordered to advance upon tbe centre without 
firing, except after an animal had succeeded 
in passing through the Hne. A stream, now 
frozen over and with high banks, was soon 
reached by a portion of the line. An excel- 
lent hiding-place was afi'orded by this stream, 
and bears, wolves, deer and turkeys were 
found under the edge of its banks. As 
plunging shots could be safely fired here, a 
lively rattle of musketry took place, and most 
of the game there hidden was killed. The 
hunters in the central trees were now kept 
busy, and many with muskets and ammuni- 
tion joined them as the line doubled and trebled 
in ranks by concentration. Finally, late in the 
afternoon the slaughterceased, asthe game was 
all killed. Most of the turkeys saved them- 
selves by dint of their wings, but several were 
killed ; one was killed by a farmer with a long- 
handled hay-fork, as it flew low over his head. 
Several deer were killed with bayonets, pikes, 
hay-forks, etc., while jumping over the heads 
of those forming the circle. 

Orders were then given to each line to re- 
turn and bring all the game into the centre. 
The boys and old men had kept the teams 
well up to the lines, and these were brought 
into requisition where necessary. The first 
work in order was the gathering and scalping 
of the wolves, for their scalps had a fixed 
cash value (a $15 bounty, according to le- 
gend), and a tnistworthy man was started 
with these (with horse and sled), to purchase 
sundry supplies. He returned before dark, 
and found over 400 men awaiting his coming. 
Over fifty of the men and most of the boys 
had returned home to do the chores. The 
game had all been collected at the centre and 
counted. A large bear had been dressed and 
prepared for a barbecue, and was being 
roasted when the man returned with the 
supplies. Said supplies were quickly set 
upon one head while tiie other head was as 
quickly knocked in with an ax. Tin cups 
were brought into requisition with surprising 
rapidity. Soon the fat was dripping copiously 
from the roasting bear, and one of the lively 
men, rendered extra frisky perhaps by the 
cheering nature of the supplies just partaken 

of, cut ofi' a large chunk of the fat and run 
a muck through the crowd, oiling scores oi 
faces in a hasty attempt to oil hair and whis- 
kers. Bears' oil was known to be specially 
beneficial for both hair and whiskers, and 
several others who had already tested its effi- 
cacy for a few minutes also sliced off lumiis 
of the fat and showed a willingness to let all 
share in the benefits of the high-toned un- 
guent. Within a very brief space of time 
every person in the crowd knew how it was 
himself, and every face glistened in the glare 
of the fires now blazing around the camp", for 
it had by this time oecome a full-fledged 
camp 'for the night. Those who came pre- 
pared to stay all night had ample supplies 
of cakes, bread, salt, etc. , and, with an ample 
supply of bear and venison meat, enjoyed a 
rare game feast as well as a night of hilarity 
seldom experienced, even during the lifetime 
of the average frontiersman. All accounts 
agree that, among that entire party, not one 
became intoxicated, but the old survivors 
(and there are several still living) say it was 
because of the honest whisky made in those 

A beautiful Christmas morning dawned 
upon the jolly campers, who were soon vis- 
ited by numerous parties from surrounding 
settlements, and some even from twenty or 
more miles away, who had come to see the 
game and to spend a jolly Christmas, make 
acquaintances among neighboring settlers, 
and have a rare time generally. And they 
scored a decided success. 

A committee was appointed to make an 
equitable division of the game, which they 
did among the four parties forming the four 
lines that surrounded the township the pre- 
vious morning. The few deer which were 
killed outside the township lines, while the 
parties were coming to their respective lines 
in the early morning, were not brought in, 
but were taken on the return home by those 
who killed them. An accurate enumeration 
of the game collected at the centre resulted 
as . follows : seventeen wolves, twenty-one 
bears, 300 deer. The few turkeys killed were 
not taken into account, they being taken 
home by parties returning the first night. A 
few foxes and coons were killed, but were 
not taken into account. When a part of the 
line reached the frozen stream where the 
large accumulation of game was hiding, a 
load of buckshot fired from a musket at a 
glancing angle happened to be in range of a 
man at a considerable distance away, and he 
received a buckshot in the shoulder and 
another in the leg, both flesh wounds, pain- 
ful but not dangerous. There was no other 
casualty whatever. 

During the past fifty years the writer has 
read sufficient hunting literature to form sev- 
eral large volumes, and doubts whether there 
has ever been recorded so successful a hunt 
in America, or one so well planned and man- 


Mode of Clearing Off the Vikgin Forests. 

When the hardy sons of New Enghind reached the Western Reserve they were 
confronted by dense forests of gifrantic timber, of wliicli the land had to he cleared 
before it could be cultivated. The fii-st work after locating the farm was to clear 
away a few trees and build a cabin. Once established therein, the herculean task 
of clearing the forest commencetl. Although inured to hard work, but few of 
these settlers had had much experience in clearing off virgin forest.s, and trees 
were cut one at a time, the brush and limbs piled into huge heaps, trunks cut into 
logging lengths, and the land thus cleared sown with grain. It sometimes took a 
single man from three to four weeks to chop down a single acre of hard-wooded 

Soon after the grain had been harvested 
and during a dry spell the brush and log 
heaps were fired. The brush heaps were 
soon consumed, but the log heaps required 
weeks of laborious attendance unless the 
weather remained dry. The logs required 
constant rolling together and re-puing, which 
was heavy and dirty work. 

The second year some attempt was made 
to plow between the stumps and break off 
such roots as were sufficiently rotted. These 
were piled, and when dried were burned. 
The second crops were generally corn, with 
sufficient potatoes for family use. 

After fifteen or twenty acr^s had been 
cleared as described, a different plan was gen- 
erally adopted, namelj', that of "slashing." 
This was a more rapid and cheaper plan, but 
required an expert to manage it successfully. 

Slashing Described. — The slasher carefully 
studied his field of operations to ascertain 
which side the prevailing winds would strike 
with the greatest force. He then examined 
the trees, especially their tops, to learn 
whether they were bushy or not. Depending 
now upon his judgment as to the width of 
the strip which he can surely embrace in his 
"windrow," he commences on the leeward 
side of the tract, chopping the trees perhaps 
half, one-third, or one-fourth off at the stump, 
the amount of chip or "kerf" taken out 
depending upon the inclination of the tree. 
Continuing backward toward the windward 
side of the tract, he thus cuts notches of 
greater or less depth in all the trees over a 
tract of about thirty feet in width, deepening 
the notches as he approaches the windward 
side of the tract. These notches are cut so 
that in falling the trees will incline toward 
the middle of the strip. 

If, upon finishing the notching of the en- 
tire strip, the wind is favorable, the last 
large tree selected for a "starter" is felled 
against its next neighbor in line, which in 
turn falls against its neighbor, and so on un- 
til a terrific crashing is inaugurated which 
commands the instant attention of every liv- 
ing thing in sight or hearing. The inde- 
scribable crashing may continue for some 
minutes, if the tract is a long one. The 
noise is appalling, and only equalled by that 
of a terrific cyclone sweeping through an 
immense forest. When all is still, a marvel- 
lous ch:iiige has oome over the scene. Where 

a few minutes before stood a wide expanse 
of virgin forest, a mighty swath has been 
cut as though some giant reaper had been 
mowing the forest as a farmer does his grain. 
Rising several feet above the earth, there ap- 
pears a prodigious abatis, which would arrest 
the onset of the mightiest army. In this 
manner the slashing progresses, strip by strip, , 
until the entire tract lays in windrows. The 
brief time required to slash a given tract 
seems incredible to those who are not familiar 
with this branch of forest pioneer work. Two 
slashers, accustomed to working together, 
will fell more than double 'the area of forest 
that either one can alone. Good workmen 
will average about one acre per day, if the 
timber is heavy — and the heavier the better. 
Two workmen can in company slash twenty 
acres in nine days. 

It was rarely that an expert slasher could 
be induced to undertake less than ten acres ; 
certainly not without a materially increased 
price, because it would be impossible to slash 
five acres in half the time required to slash 
ten acres. 

Slashings are usually allowed to lay two or 
three years, when, during a dry spell of 
weather and with a favorable wind, they are 
fired. If the tract is a large one, several 
men and boys commence firing simultane- 
ously. After the fire has done its work, the 
remaining trunks of trees are cut into logging 
lengths. This is sometimes done with the 
axe, and sometimes they are "niggered" off. 

Niggering consists in laying large poles or 
small logs crosswise on top of the large logs, 
and kindling a fire at the junction. Although 
the fire soon burns off the pole or upper log, 
it also eats rapidly into the under log. When 
the upper one is nearly off, it is sUpped along 
a foot or more, and the process is repeated. 
By "sawing" the upper piece in the burned 
kerf of the lower one, the charred portions 
are rubbed off, and the fire takes hold with 
renewed activity, rapidly cutting off the 
lower log. One experienced man can attend 
to quite a large area, and nigger off faster 
than the best chopper could do the same 
work with an axe. 

Logging- Bees. — After settlements were well 
established it was the custom to hold "log- 
ging-bees ' ' in most neighborhoods. These 
were occasions for rare fun. A keg of whiskey 
was usually the leadingfaetor in these "bees." 



The women of the household prepared large 
baskets of fried cakes and old-time ginger- 
bread, such as none but Yankee women knew 
how to make. All the men, boys and ox- 
teams of the neighborhood were assembled 
in the logging-field, and divided into ' ' teams. ' ' 
A logging-team consisted of a yoke of oxen, 
their driver, two " lever men," and two boys 
to handle the chain and assist with levers. 
A first-class logging-bee had two captains, 
who chose sides, the field was divided and a 
choice settled by flipping a penny. The cap- 
tain winning the choice gave the word, and 
the work commenced in earnest. The cap- 
tains selected the points for the log heaps, 
preferably where several logs could be piled 
without hauling. The teamster sought the 
nearest log, and as he turned his team to the 
proper end, one of the chain-boys carried the 
end of the chain to the end of the log, where 
the other boy seized it three or four feet from 
the end, and the two drew it under the log, 
which had already been raised sufiiciently for 
the purpose by the two lever men. The chain 
was quickly ' ' hitched, ' ' and the team as 
quickly started for the pile. The lever men 
had properly placed the ' ' skids ' ' before 
leaving the pile, and by the time the boys had 
the chain unfastened the lever men had the log 
rolling to its position on the pile. The large 
logs were systematically laid at the bottom, 
the captains keeping a sharp eye out for 
every possible advantage. 

Jollities. — By the time the whiskey had 
passed around two or three times, the char- 
coal blacking began, especially upon the faces 
of all. Not a white spot was permitted to 
remain on man or boy. Even the white spots 
on the oxen were carefully backened. It was 
a part of the program to test the capacity of 
each side for making a noise. All was bluster 
and commotion. Even the sluggish oxen 
entered into the spirit of the occasion and 
frequently snapped strong chains when their 
log chanced to strike a root or other obstruc- 
tion. There were generally among the lever 
men a few of the strolling, rough element of 
frontiersmen, who scented every logging-bee 
in their region. They filled themselves with 
whiskey and sometimes a fight was the result, 
but on the Reserve there was generally a 
constable or justice, or both, present at the 
gatherings, and fighting was promptly su- 
pressed. The "bee" usually wound up with 
such recreation as wrestling, jumping and 
rifle-shooting. The quantity of logs piled 

at these bees would appear incredible to any 
one who had never witnessed the opera- 

Potash estahlishmentswere. generally located 
in most of the considerable settlements, and 
as soon as the log-heaps were burned, the 
ashes were gathered and leached and the lye 
boiled down to crude potash, thus creating a 
staple article of commerce. 

Clearing off Stumps. — After all the fatigu- 
ing work heretofore described, the ground 
was not in proper condition for the plough. 
Stumps had to be cleared out and this took 
years. The smaller ones from time to time were 
pulled out and burned, but the large, deep- 
rooted ones were allowed to decay or burned 
during a dry spell and the roots ploughed out 
when sufiiciently decayed. After the year 
1900 but few persons will be left on the Re- 
serve who can form an adequate conception 
of the years of toil required to clear the 
forests from that vast fertile area. 

Some years elapsed before crops of grass 
could be secured. Little progress was made 
in "dairying," now such an important in- 
dustry on the Western Reserve. The plan 
essentially as described by Mr. Pelton had to 
sufiice for the pioneer stock. Mr. Pelton was 
one of the early settlers in Litchfield, Medina 
county, and once told me how he managed his 
cattle. He got a better start with cattle than 
most of the neighboring settlers, as he drove 
from the East several head of young cattle 
with two or three milch cows for immediate 
use. The first year they lived almost entirely in 
the woods, but such trees as bore tender shoots 
relished by the cattle were almost daily felled 
for. them to feed upon. The straw from the 
first crop of grain was carefully stacked by 
the cabin and surrounded by an open fence 
which would permit the cattle to get their 
heads between the poles and barely reach the 
straw. A little brine was now sprinkled upon 
the straw and the cattle allowed to get a good 
taste of it. In the meantime fresh trees 
were felled at the edge of the clearing, and 
the dogs were let loose and the cattle driven 
to the newly felled trees. One by one they 
would steal back to the straw stack, to be 
again dogged back to their browse. The pole 
fence was from time to time moved closer to 
the stack to enable the cattle to steal the 
straw. These operations were repeated while 
the straw lasted, "and the cattle kept fat." 
With the possible exception of the last clause 
this was literally true. 

Getting Mails and Supplies for the Pioneers. 

One of the men who often related incidents of the Hinckley Hunt was quite 
fond of relating the experiences of the early settlers of that part of Medina county 
where he first settled. The settlement was about thirty miles from Cleveland, 
which was the nearest post-office, as well as the nearest point where supplies of 
any kind could be obtained. The men of the settlement took turns in going to 
Cleveland regularly each week for mails, medicines and such light supplies as were 
indispensable. An air-line route had been established by surveyors and trees weJl 
blazed marked the track. 



The trips were made on foot. A large 
haversack was used for carrying the mail and 
supphes. This, with a rifle, comprised the 
outfit of the weekly messenger. Upon one 
oceasinii. wlioii this informant took his turn, 
he had the lluii solitary Cleveland gunsjnith 
oluiMire the cild fashioned percussion "pill" 
lock to tlu' then new "cap" lock, as un- 
scruiMiliius iloalors were in the habit of niix- 
ing mustard or turnip-seed with the little 
percussidii pills, which they so nearly re- 
senihled that it was inipossible to detect the 
cheat. Tiie result was that much game 
was lost and much vexation caused by 
mis-fires. Upon the trip in question, when 
the messenger was about half-way to Cleve- 
land, he discovered that he was being gradu- 
ally surrounded by a very large drove of wild 
hogs, immense numbers of which then roamed 
through the forests of that region. 

Discovering a large fallen tree ahead which 
had turned up by the roots, he hastened to 
and climbed upon the same, perching upon 
the high roots some fifteen feet above the 
grounil. He was not a moment too soon, for 
the ho"s had closed aroun^ him and some of 
the old boars, with their tusks lu-otruding 

from their villanous jaws and the froth 
dripping from their mouths, attempted to 
climb up the roots upon which he was perched. 
He lost no time upon firing upon them when- 
ever he could fire his rifle, which he had to 
snap eight or ten times for each discharge, 
because of the preponderance of seeds 
among his percussion pills. 

However, he killed a dangerous boar at 
each discharge. As each* one fell, with a 
slight squeal of distress, the others would 
go and smell the blood, actually placing their 
ugly snouts to the bullet-hole. They at once 
began to utter a peculiarly ominous grunt and 
one by one withdrew irom the scene and the 
messenger hastened f irwanl, reaching Clove- 
land at a late hour. Harly n.'Xt nioniinL' he 
had the lock of his rifle ultcr.'il, pn.vidc.l 
himself with proper ammunition, _ and with 
his mail and other supplies (medicines, etc.), 
started on his return trip, hoping to have a 
little more experience with the wild hogs. 
He reached the scene of the previous day's 
episode and counted the result of the same, 
finding sixteen dead boars, but no live ones 
about, nor did he see any except a few at a 

The Great Competing Sleigh-Rides of the Winter of 1855 and 1856 
OF Summit, Cuyahoga and Medina Counties. 

The following completes the series of articles by Mr. Peirce, from details largely 
supplied by Hou. Thomas Palmer, of Lafayette, this county. The event at the 
time created interest, not only the leading newspapers in our country giving full 
accounts, but those of Europe. The London Times, among them, it is said, chronicled 
it a.s one of the novelties in the line of amusement the Western Yankees had 

During the winter of 18.5.5 and 18.56 there 
were about one hundred days of almost con- 
tinuous sleighing throughout Northern Ohio. 
In February the people of Solon township, 
Cuyahoga county, organized a sleigh ride 
consisting of seven four-horse teams, and 
drove to Akron, Summit county. It seems 
that there had already been several smaller 
parties there from Medina and several other 
counties, and it was understood that the 
Solon party intended to eclipse any previous 
party, for among other decorations used hy 
them was a small cotton flag (33 x 55 inches) 
painted with the regulation number of stars 
and stripes, and containing in addition a 
profile with thumb to the nose and fingers ex- 
tended . 

This was interpreted by the people of the 
townships through which the party passed as 
a banter and invitation to take the flag if they 
could muster a larger party ; indeed, an 
Akron paper published an evidently author- 
ized challenge to that^efFect. The people of 
the township of Twiiisburg. through which 
the Solon party drove, concluded that they 
could easily capture the flag, and upon trial 
mustered fourteen four-horse teams and went 
to Solon. The flag was gracefully surrendered 

to them and was carried to Twinsburg. The 
people of Royalton, Cuyahoga county, con- 
cluded that the flag must come back to their 
county. They rallied thirty-eight four-horse 
teams and appeared at Twinsburg. when the 
flag was duly surrendered to them. Thematter 
now became a county afl^air ; Cuyahoga, Sum- 
mit and Medina entering into the competition. 
The competing delegation met at Richfield, 
Summit county (which township adjoins both 
Cuyahoga and Medina counties), on the 14th 
day of March. Medina had 144 four-horse 
teams, Cuyahoga had 151, and Summit, 171 ; 
in all 466 four-horse teams and sleighs, each 
containing an average of fourteen persons, 
total, 6,524, and 1,864 horses. In addition to 
these there were a large number of single 
sleighs with their loads, which did not enter 
into the count. In each party were a number 
of brass bands, for in those days nearly every 
township in that part of the Reserve had a 
brass band. Of course, Summit captured the 
flag and took it to Akron. As tiie competi- 
tion had been mostly luiwrcn ( 'ii> alioga and 
Summit counties, the .Mr.|iii:i •]. I,- ii ion upon 
their return trip deci'l- il ilii' ili" correct 
thing would be to have tlie ti.ii,' ivinuved into 
Medina county, and four days later (.March 



18, 1856,) they appeared at Akron about 
noon with 182 four-horse teams, and one team 
of four mules. 

They carried a great number of banners 
and devices, and were accompanied by numer- 
ous brass bands. They were received by the 
citizens of Akron with extravr.gant demon- 
strations, including the ringing of bells, firing 
of cannon and uproarious cheers. \Vord was 
passed back fronpthe head of the line to the 
last load, which commenced cheering, and the 
cheers came swelling back up the line, and 
were taken up by the rapidly congregating 
citizens until the town was in one deafening 

roar of human voices. The flag was pre- 
sented to the delegation by President Peirce, 
of Hudson College, with appropriate remarks, 
which were responded to by Charles E. Bost- 
wick, chief marshal of the delegation. Two 
songs, composed expressly for the occasion, 
were then sung, alter which refreshments 
were served, and the delegation returned to 
Medina county with the flag, probably the 
largest and most joyous party of the kind 
ever assembled. No accident occurred, 
and, like the Hinckley Hunt, no one got 


Burke Aaron Hinsdale, educator, was born in Wad.sworth, this county, 
March 31, 1837. He was a pupil of James A. Garfield, in Hiram College, and 
from 1870 to 1882 was its president, and then four years Superintendent of the 
Public Schools of Cleveland. He is the author of various books, religious, liis- 
torical, educational, and edited the "Life and Works of James A. Garfield," of 
whom he was a strong personal friend and admirer. 


EDITH M. THOMAS— Poetess. 

General Russell A. Alger, ex-Governor of Michigan and ex-Commander- 
in-Chief of the Grand Army of the Republic, and the Republican party of Mich- 
igan's favorite candidate in 1888 for the Presidency, is a native of this county, 
and here he passed his early years. The family graveyard is at West Richfield, 
a short distance east of the Hinckley line in Summit county, where rest the 
remains of his parents and oldest sister. A beautiful monument stands there, 
erected to their memory by the illustrious son and brother. 

William T. Coggeshall, journalist, at one period resided in Wadsworth, 
where, in 1851, his daughter Jessie was born. He was born in Lewistown, Pa., 
and in 1841, then 17 years old, came to Ohio and connected himself with the Cin- 


ciuuati (rftzeWe, publishetl The Genius of the West m 1854-1856, and was State 
Librarian in 1856-1862. In the beginning of the war lie was appuintwl aid to 
Governor Dennison, with the rank of colonel. In 1865 he took cliarge of the 
Ohio State Journal, at Columbus. In 1866 he was appointed Uuiteil States Min- 
ister to Ecuador, hoping that his declining health, brought on by exprosure wlicn 
on secret service in the war time, might be restored by the pure air of Quito ; but 
he died the next year. He wrote much for magazines, published various i)ooks 
— the one, perhaps, of most lasting value, was " Poets and Poetry of the ^^\•st," 
Columbus, 1860. He was a man of cheerful temperament, companionable and 

Edith AI. Thomas, poetess, was born in Chatham, August 12, 1854, daughter 
of a successful and talented teacher. She was educated at Geneva, Ohio, Normal 
Institute, where, until recently, many years of her life have been passed. Now 
New York city is her home. She has contributed largely to the " Century," and 
other first-class magazines, and has published, in book form, " A New Year's 
Masque and Other Poems" (Boston, 1855); "The Round Year" (1866), and 
" Lyrics and Sonnets " (1887). She is deemed by many of the Eastern critics as, 
in that higher class of poetry, the subjective, with few peers. Her poems touch 
the finer chords as from the song of a spirit unseen, and grow into fuller appre- 
ciation by familiarity. R. H. Stoddard calls her " an American Keats," and as 
" possessing the greatest gift any poet can have — quality.'" These specimens illus- 
trate her power : 


They both are exiles ; he who sailed He has no sight of Saxon face, 

Great circles of the day and night, He hears a language harsh and strange ; 

Until the vapory bank unveiled She has not left her native place, ^ 

A land of palm-trees fair to sight. Yet all has undergone a change. 

They both are exiles ; she who still They both are exiles ; nor have they 

Seems to herself to watch, ashore, The same stars shining in their skies ; 

The wind, too fain, his canvas fill. His nightfall is her dawn of day, 

The sunset burning close before. His day springs westward from her eyes. 

Eacli says apart, — There is no land 

So far, so vastly desolate. 
But, had we sought it hand in hand, 

We both had blessed the driving fate. 


Time is no rushing torrent, dark and hoarse. 
As thou hast heard from bards and sages old ; 
Sit here with me (wouldst thou the truth behold) 

And watch the current hour run out its course. 

See how without uproar or sullen force 
Glides the slim, shadowy rill of atom gold. 
Which, when the last slow guileful grain is cola, 

Forever is returned unto its source ! 

This is Time's stream, by whose repeated fall 
Unnumbered fond ones, since the world was new. 
Loitered as we, unwarned of doom the while ; 

Wouldst think so slender stream could cover all ? 
But as we speak, some eddy draws us too — 
Meseems dim grow thine eyes and dim thy smile. 



.k wl 

s tlie fenceless wielil. — 
il.'M iliiiiiislKive frailty's s-hield! 
kic liiiiii iiiitrides the gale 
it has slncil the frigate's sail ; 
li'w skims the breaker's crest ; 
iius thr cuiiile ill its nest ; 
IV. r :i siiiule summer bred 
htly lilts its jaunty head 
(■II is past the storm whose stroke 
il the pride of centuried oak ; 
leie with fire the soil was bathed 
\ white trefoil springs unscathed. 

Frailest things have frailty's shield.. 
Guarded by a charm concealed ; 
So the gaunt and ravening wild i 
Softens towards the weaning child, 
And along the giddy steep 
Safe one glideth, blind with sleep. 

Art thou mighty? — Challenged Fate 
Chooscth thee fir wrestling mate ! 
Art thou feeble ■?— Fate disarmed, 
'I'urning, leaveth thee unharmed. 
Tiiou that bendest shall not break ; 
Smiling in the tempest's wake. 
Thou .shalt rise, and see around 
How the strong ones strew the .eround ; 
Saving lightness thou didst wield, — 
Frailest things have frailty's shield I 




Fraile-t things have frailty's shield : 
Here a fly in amber sealed ; 
There a bauble, tossed aside 
Under ancient lava-tide. 
Meets the musing delver's gaze. 
Time the king's memorial lays. 
Touching it with sportive staff, 
But spares P^rotion's epitaph. 

Wadsworth is eleven miles southeast of Medina, on the N. Y., P. & O. Rail- 
road. Newspapers : Banner, Independent, James E. Cory, editor and publisher; 
Entvrpiise, Independent, John A. Clark, editor and publisher. Ciitn-clies : one Episcopal, one Evangelical Lutheran, one Reformed, one Disciples, one 
Ciiiuicnatidual, one Baptist, one Colored Baptist, one Church of God. Bank : 
W'adsw.irtli, C X. Lvman, president, J. K. Durling, cashier. Population, 1880, 
1,'2I!». School ccn.sii.-;, 1888, 698 ; Arthur Powell, school superintendent. Caj)- 
ital invested in manufacturing establislnnents, $29,700; value of anmml i)roduct, 
131,000.— (0/»'o Labor Statistks, 1888.) The famous Cxariield ejectors and in- 
jectors are made liere. It is in a ricii farming region, with abundance of coal on 
the cast. 

Seville is ten miles south of Medina, on tlie C. L. & W. Railroad. News- 
paper : Times, Inde])endent, C. C. Dav, editor and publisher. Bank : E.xchange 
(Widcman, Shaw & Co.), F. P. Wideman, cashier. Population, 1880, 689. 
School census, 1888, 186. 

Liverpool is on the Rockv river, nine miles northwest of Medina. Popula- 
tion, 1880, 198. 

LoDi is eleven miles southwest of Medina, on the W. & L. E. Railroad. 
Newspaper : Revieir, Independent, H. E. Bas.sett, editor and publisher. Churches : 
one j\Iethodist Episcopal and one Congregational. : Exchange, John Tay- 
lor, president, A. B. Taylor, cashier. School census, 1888, 134. 

Chippewa L.\ke is on the C. L. & \V. Railroad, five miles southerly from 
Medina. There is a hamlet with an United Brethren church, express and tele- 
graph office. The lake is nearly two miles long, half as broad, and in places sixty 
feet deep. The lake is a popular summer resort for fishing and boating. A small 
steamer plies on its waters. There are there a hotel and pleasure groiuids, where 
campers stretch thei" tents. 



Meigs Couxtv, named from Return J. Meigs, elected Governor of Ohio in 
1810, was formed from Gallia and Athens, April 1, 1819, and the courts were 
directed " to be temporarily held at the meeting-house in Salisbury townshij)." 
The surface is broken and hilly. In the west, a portion of the soil is a dark, 
sandy loam, but the general character of the soil is clayey. 

Area about 400 square miles. In 1887 the acres cultivated were 59,039; in 
pasture, 95,062; woodland, 44,112 ; lying waste, 2,825; prwluced in wheat, 
165,436 bushels; rye, 1,298; buckwheat, 269; oats, 73,338; barley, 1,032; 
corn, 313,447; broom-corn, 2,000 lbs. brush; meadow hay, 15,986 tons; 
clover hay, 821 ; potatoes, 66,966 bushels ; butter, 407,854 lbs.; cheese, 
7,410 ; sorghum, 4,050 gallons ; maple syrup, 740 ; honey, 6,377 lbs. ; eggs, 
365,060 dozen; grapes, 9,360 lbs.; wine, 90 gallons ; sweet potatoes, 1,384 
bushels; apples, 31,659; peaches, 11,584; pears, 501; wool, 273,023 lbs.; 
milch cows owned, 4,255. Ohio mining statistics, 1888 : Coal mined, 242,483 
tons ; employing 501 miners and 144 outside employees. School census, 1888, 
10,157 ; teachers, 274. Miles of railroad track, 30. 

Townships AND Census. 1840. 1880. Townships and Census. 1840. ISSO. 





































Population of Meigs in 1820, 4,480; 1830, 6,159; 1840, 11,455; 1860, 
26,534; 1880, 32,325, of whom 24,481 were born in Ohio; 1,554, Virginia; 
1,101, Pennsylvania; 230, New York ; 118, Kentucky; 88, Indiana; 1,148 
German Empire; 780, England and Wales ; 178, Ireland; 69, Scotland; 30, 
France ; and 26, British America. Census, 1890, 29,813. 

The mouth of the Shade river, which empties into the Ohio in the upper jiart 
of the county, is a gloomy, rocky place, formerly called the "Devil's Hole." 
The Indians, returning from their murderous incursions into Western "S'ir- 
giuia, were accustomed to cross the Ohio at that point with tlieir jirisoners and 
plunder, and follow up the valley of Shade river on their way to their towns on 
the Scioto. 

The first settlers of the county were principally of New England origin, 
and emigrated from Washington county, which lies above. From one of tliese, 
now (1846) residing in the county, we have received a communication illustrating 
pioneer life : 

People who have spent tlieir lives in an old a camp of poles seven by four feet, and five 
settled country can form but a faint idea of high, with three sides, and a fire in front. I 
the privations and hardships endured by the furnished myself with a loaf of bread, a 
pioneers of our new, flourishing and prosper- piece of pickled pork, some potatoes, bor- 
ons State. When I look on Ohio as it is, and rowed a frying-pan and commenced house- 
think what it was in 1802. when I first settled keeping. I was not hindered from my work 
here, I am struck with astonishment and can by company ; for the first week I did not see 
hardly credit my own senses. When I emi- a living soul. but. to make amends for the 
grated I was a young man, without any pro- want of it, I had every night a most glorious 
perty, trade or profession, entirely dependent concert of wolves and owls. I soon (like 
on my industry for a living. I purchased Adam) saw the necessity of a helpmate and 
sixty acres of new land on credit, two-and-a- persuaded a young woman to tie her destiny 
half miles from any house or road, and built to mine. I built a log-house twenty feet 



square— ;-quite aristocratic in those days — and 
moved into it. I was fortunate enough to 
possess a jack-knife : with that I made a 
wooden knife and two wooden forks, which 
answered admirably ibr us to eat with. A 
bedstead was wanted ; I took two round poles 
for the posts, inserted a pole in them for a 
side-rail, and two other poles were inserted 
for the end pieces, the ends of which were 
put in the logs of the house — some puncheons 
were then split and laid from the side-rail to 
the erevit-e between the logs of the house, 
which formed a substantial bed-cord, on which 
we laid our straw bed — the only bed we had — 
on which we slept as soundly and woke as 
happy as Albert and Victoria. 

In process of time, a yard-and-a-half of 
calico was wanted ; I started on foot through 
the woods ten miles to Marietta to procure 
it ; but, alas ! when I arrived there I found 
that, in the absence of both money and credit, 
the calico was not to be obtained. The 
dilemma was a serious one, and how to escape 
I could not devise ; but I had no sooner in- 
formed my wife of my failure, than she 
suggested that I had a pair of thin pantaloons, 
which I could very well spare, that would 
make quite a decent frock ; the pants were 
cut up, the frock made, and in due time the 
child was dre.-'Sed. 

The long winter evenings were rather 
tedious, and in order to make them pass more 
smoothly, by great exertion I purchased a 
share in the Belpre library, six miles distant. 
From this I promised myself much entertain- 
ment, but another obstacle presented itself— 
I had no candles ; however, the woods afforded 
plenty of pine knots — with these I made 
torches by which I could read, though I 
nearly spoiled my eyes. Many a night have I 
passed in this manner till twelve or one 
o'clock reading to my wife, while she was 
liatchelling, carding or spinning. Time rolled 

on, the payments for my land became due, 
and money, at that time in Ohio, was a caA 
arlide ; however, I did not despair. I bought 
a few steers ; some I bartered lor, and others 
I got on credit — my credit having somewhat 
improved since the calico expedition— slung a 
knapsack on my back and started alone with 
my cattle for Romney, on the Potomac, where 
I sold them, then travelled on to Litchfield, 
Connecticut, paid fur my land and had just 
$1 left to bear my expenses home, six hundred 
miles distant. Before I returned I worked 
and procured fifty cents in cash ; with this 
and my dollar 1 commenced my journey home- 
ward. I laid out my dollar for cheap hair- 
combs, and these, with a little Yankee pleas- 
antry, kept me very comfortably at the private 
houses where I stopped till I got to Owego, 
on the Susquehanna, where I had a power of 
attorney to collect some money for a neighbor 
in Ohio. 

I might proceed and enumerate scenes 
without number .similar to the above, which 
have passed under my own observation, or 
have been related to me by those whose ve-- 
racity I have no reason to doubt ; but from 
what I have written you will be able to per- 
ceive that the path of the pioneer is not 
strewed with roses, and that the comforts 
which many of our inhabitants now enjoy 
have not been obtained without persevering 
exertions, industry and economy. What, let 
me ask, would the young people of the pres- 
ent day think of their future prospects, were 
they now to be placed in a similar situation 
to mine in 1803 ? How would the young miss 
taken from the fashionable, modern parlor, 
covered with Brussels carpets, and ornamented 
with pianos, mirrors, etc., etc., manage her 
spinning-wheel in a log-cabin, on a puncheon 
floor, with no furniture except, perhaps, a 
bake-oven and a splint broom ? — Old Edition. 


The pioneer, who in 1846, supplied rae with the foregoing sketch of his ex- 
periences also supplied me with what follows upon the early history of Pomeroy, 
and at this late day here give him credit. He was Amos Dunham, then an old 
man, and he was my host while here. Originally froni Connecticut, he had that 
marked pronunciation then almost universal in the rustic regions of New England, 
which has disappeared entirely from every place — a sort of indescribable singing 
nasal tone, an inheritance from their ancestors in the rustic regions of Old Eng- 
land. Mr. Dunham possessed good native shrewdness and I recall his memory 
with pleasure. Would like much once more to hear some of that old-style talk 
with its odd expressions and drawling, lingering tones, the speech of other days. 
But nobody living can display this now departed accomplishment of the fathers 
— " more's the pity." 

" Old times have gone, old manners changed ; 
A stranger fills the Scottish throne. " 

Pomeroy in ISIfi. — Pomeroy, the county-seat, is on the Ohio river, seventy-six 
miles in a direct line southeast of Columbus, eighty below Marietta, and two 
hundred and thirty-four above Cincinnati. It is situated on a narrow strip of 
ground from twenty to thirty rods wide, under a lofty and steep hill, in the midst 


of wild and romantic scenery. It contains one Episcopal, one Metliodist, one 
German Lutheran, and one Presbyterian church ; a newspaper printing office, one 
flouring and two saw mills, two foundries, two carding machines, one machine 
shop, ten mercantile stores, and about 1,600 inhabitants. It is a very flourishing 
town, deriving its importance principally from the coal mines situated here. We 
give below, in the language of a correspondent, an historical sketch of the village, 
with some notice of the coal mines. 

The first settler within the limits of Pom- 
eroy was Mr. Nathaniel Clark, who came 
about the year 1816. The first coal bank 
opened in Pomeroy was in 1819, by David 
Bradshaw. Bentley took 1,200 bushels of 
coal to Louisville, and sold it for twenty-five 
cents a bushel, which was the first coal ex- 
ported from Pomeroy. As early as 180.") or 6 
there had been an attempt at exporting coal 
from Coalport by Hoover & Cashell, but it 
proved unprofitable, and was abandoned after 
sending off one small load. About 1 820 John 
Knight rented a large quantity of coal land 
from Gen. Putnam, at |20 a year, and com- 
menced working the mines. On the loth of 
July, 1825, Samuel Grant entered eighty acres 
and Josiah Dill one hundred and sixty acres 
of Congress land, which lies in the upper 
part of Pomeroy. Subsequently, Mr. Dill 
laid out a few town lots on his land, but it 
did not improve to any extent until the Pom- 
eroy improvement commenced, in 1833. In 
1827 a post-ofiice was established here, called 
Nyesville, and Nial Nye appointed post- 
master. In 1840 the town was incorporated, 
and in June, 1841, made the county-seat. 

In the spring of 1804 Samuel W. Pomeroy, 
an enterprising merchant of Boston, Massa- 
chusetts, purchased of Elbridge Gerry, one of 
the original proprietors in the Ohio Company, 
a full share of land in said company's pur- 
chase, the fi-action of said share (262 acres) 
lying in the now town of Pomeroy. In 1832 
Mr. Pomeroy put 1,000 bushels of coal into 
boxes and shipped them on a flat boat for 
New Orleans, to be sent round to Boston : 
but the boat foundered before it left Coal- 
port, and the expedition fiiiled. In 1833 Mr. 
Pomeroy having purchased most of the coal 
land on the river for four miles, formed a 
company, consisting of himself his two sons, 
Samuel W. Pomeroy, Jr. , and C. R. Pome- 
roy, and his sons-in-law, V. B. Horton and 
C. W. Dabney, under the firm of Pomeroy, 
Sons & Co., and began mining on a large 
scale. They built a steam saw-mill, and com- 
menced building houses for themselves and 
their workmen. In 1834 they moved on, at 
which time there were twelve families in the 
town. In 1835 they built the steam tow-boat 

Condor, which could tow from four to six 
loaded boats or barges, and will tow back 
from eight to twelve empty boats at a trip. It 
takes a week to perform a trip to Cincinnati 
and back, and she consumes 2,000 bushels of 
coal each trip. The company employ about 
twenty-five boats or barges, that carry from 
2,000 to 11,000 bushels of coal, each averag- 
ing, perhaps, 4,000 bushels. The number of 
hands empioj'ed is about 200, and the num- 
ber of bushels dug yearly about two millions ; 
in addition to this, several individuals are 
engaged in the coal business on a small scale. 
Five steamboats have been built in this place 
by the Pomeroy company. 

The mining of coal is mostly done at Coal- 
port, one mile below the corporation line. 
Here the company have laid out a town and 
been at great expense to prepare everything 
necessary for mining and exporting coal ; the 
railways are so constructed that the loaded 
car descending to the river draws up the 
empty one. 

Immediately below Coalport is the town 
of Middleport, lately laid out by Philip 
Jones, which already contains several stores, 
and is building up fast. Adjoining Middle- 
port is Sheffield, a pleasant town, which 
bids fair to become a place of business. In 
all probability the time is not far distant 
when the towns of Pomeroy, Coalport, 
Middleport and Sheffield will be one continu- 
ous village. 

About the year 1791 or 2 Capt. Hamilton 
Carr, a noted spy in the service of the United 
States, in his excursions through these parts 
discovered an enormous sycamore tree below 
the mouth of Carr's run, near where Mur- 
dook & Nye's mill now stands, which was 
subsequently occupied as a dwelling-house. 
Capt. Whitloek, of Coalport. informs me 
that he himself measured that tree and 
f)und the hollow to be eighteen feet in 
diameter. Capt. Whitloek further states, 
that as late as 1821 he took dinner from 
the top of a sugar-tree stump, in a log- 
house near where the court-house now 
stands, the only table the people had in the 

The view shown in the engraving was taken at the mines at Coalport, nearly 
two miles below the main village of Pomeroy. Here horizontal shafts are run 
into the hill, at an elevation of more than one hundred feet above tiie river bed. 
The coal is carried out in cars on railways, and successively emptied from the cars 
on one grade to that below, and so on until the last cars in tiu-n empty into the 
boats on the river, by which it is carried to market. The mining is conducted in 

Drawn by ffnii-y Howe m 1846 

O. F. Feiger, Photo., Pumeroy, 18S6. 


a systematic manner, and most of those employed arc natives of Wales, lainiliar 
with mining from youth. 

Dr. S. P. Hildreth, in the twenty-ninth volume of Siiliman's Journal, writes: 

"The coal strata dips to the north two or hundred grains of nitrate of potash, which 

three feet in a hundred yards, requiring will give to this coal nearly sixty per cent, of 

drains to free them from the water when charcoal. It must, therefore, be valuable for 

opened on the south side of the hill. Above the manufacture of coke, an article that must 

the coal is a deposit of shale and ash-colored ultimately be brought into use in the numer- 

marly clay, of eight or ten feet in thickness, ous furnaces along the great iron deposit, a 

which forms the roof of the mines — superin- few miles south and west of this place. It is 

cumbent on which is a deposit of stratified a curious fact that the coal deposits are very 

sand rock, rather coarse-grained, of nearly thin and rare near the Ohio river, from Pipe's 

one hundred feet in thickness. The shale creek, fifteen miles below Wheeling, to Carr's 

abounds in fine fossil plants. In mining the run, in this county. As the main coal dips 

coal, gunpowder is extensively used, a small under the Ohio at both these places, the 

charge throwing out large masses of coal. inference is that the coal lies below the sur- 

This coal being of the black slaty structure, face and could readily be reached by a shaft, 

abounds in bituminous matter and burns very first ascertaining its distance from the surface 

freely; its specific gravity is 1.27. Twenty by the operation of boring. " — Old Edition. 
grains of the coarse powder decompose one 

PoMEROY, county-seat of Meigs, is 220 miles above Cincinnati, on the Oliio 
river, about eighty-five miles southeast of Columbus, at the terminus of the C. 
H. V. & T. Railroad, also on the K. & O. Railroad. The surrounding country 
is rich in coal and salt. There are two factories here for the manufacture of bro- 
mine from salt. County oiBcers, 1888 : Auditor, J. N. Rathburn ; Clerk, H. C. 
Fish ; Commissioners, S. D. Webb, George Frecker, John N. Hayman ; Coroner, 
J. B. Scott ; Infirmary Directors, John Alkire, John Short, Thomas H. Gold ; 
Probate Judge, Lewis Paine ; Prosecuting Attorney, John H. Lochery ; Recorder, 
Marion Cline ; Sheriff, George Titus ; Surveyor, M. H. Watkins ; Treasurers, 
George P. Stout, Robert- Dyke. City officers, 1888: A. B. Donally, Mayor; 
William H. Huntley, Clerk ; George B. Stout, Treasurer ; Thomas A^Hieatley, 
Marshal ; M. L. Shrader, Street Commissioner. Newspapers : Democrat, Inde- 
pendent, C. I. Barker, editor and publisher ; Telegraph, Republican, E. S. Trus- 
sell, editor and publisher. Churches : 1 Episcopal, 1 Presbj-terian, 1 Methodist, 
2 Colored Methodist, 1 Baptist, 1 Colored Baptist, 1 German Catholic, 1 German 
Methodist, 2 German Lutheran, 2 German Presbyterian, 1 Welsh Presbyterian, 
1 Welsh Congregational, 2 Welsh Baptist. Banks : First City, T. A. Plants, 
president, George W. Plants, cashier ; Pomeroy National, H. S. Horton, president, 
John McQuigg, cashier. 

Ilanufaciures and Employees. — Excelsior Salt Works, 60 hands ; Roller Mill 
Brewing Co., 12 ; Buckeye Salt Co., 40 ; Coal Ridge Salt Co., 60 ; Geyer & 
Newton, flour, etc., 10 ; Sugar Run Mill, flour, etc., 5 ; Pfarr & Genheimer, floor- 
ing, etc., 4; John S. Davis & Son, doorsj sash, etc., 10; the Telegraph, printing, 
8 ; J. C. Probst & Son, furniture, 34 ; McKnight & Fisher, wagons and buggies, 
5 ; Pomeroy Machine Co., engines, etc., 10. — State Report, 1888. Population, 
1880, 5,560. School census, 1888, 1,745 ; Morris Bowers, school superintendent.' 
Capital invested in industrial establishments, $445,500 ; value of annual product, 
$494,000.— 0/iio Labor Statistics, 1887. United States census, 1890, 4,726. 


Valentine B. Hoeton, who died at velop the coal, salt and iron industries of this 
Pomeroy, Janu?ry, 1888, at the age of 86 region. He was a member of the Ohio Con- 
years, was a native of Windsor, Vt. He stitutional Convention in 1850 ; represented 
was educated for the law, practised two years the Republicans in Congress two terms, and 
in Cincinnati, and then came to Pomeroy, in the last (the Thirty-seventh) was on the 
where he engaged for the remainder of his Committee of Waj-s and Means ; was a del- 
life in mining and manufacturing. He did egate in 1801 to the Peace Congress in Wash- 
probably more than any other person to de- ington ; for over forty years was a trustee of 



the State University, and five times a mem- 
ber of the General Convention of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church of the United 
States. Financial reverses marred his de- 
clining years, much to the regret of people 
in this entire region of Ohio, wherein no 
man that ever lived veas more beloved and 
respected. His name was a synonj'm for 
uprightness and humanity. 

One of his daughters is the wife of Gen. 
John Pope, another of Gen. M-. P. Force, 
while a son, Samuel Dana Horton, born 

at Pomeroy, January 16, 1844, educated at 
Harvard and Berlin, has attained a world- 
wide reputation by his monetary works. In 
1870 he published a treatise on "Silver and 
Gold, and their Relation to the Problem of 
Resumption," the first of a series of works 
advocating the settlement of the silver ques- 
tion by a joint action of nations. This policy 
was adopted by Congress, and he has been 
identified with its advancement in Europe as 
delegate to the International Monetary Con- 
ferences of 1878 and 1881, as an author. 


"What's in a name? " Pomeroy. Divide the syllables and you have Pome. — 
apple, roy — ^King ; i. e., Apple King. Pomeroy is a unique spot, fruitful in 
interest, and requires the pen of genius to adequately describe. Failing to find 
such we use our own : 

Pomeroy is the most prominent spot on either of two strings of mining villages , 
one string on the Ohio side of the river and the other directly opposite on the 
West Virginia side. On the Virginia side, beginning at the down-river end, 
they are : XVest Columbia, Newcastle, Clifton, Mason City, Valley City, Hartford 
City and New Haven. On the Ohio side, beginning also at the lower end, are: 
Middleport, Pomeroy, Minersville and Syracuse. Each string is about ten miles 

On the Ohio side the hills mostly so encroach upon the river that it leaves but 
little room for buildings. The adjoining engraving illustrates this, from my 
pencil sketch, taken in 1846, from a point then called Coalport, now Middleport. 
Ascend the hill in the rear of Pomeroy and you will see it is at the north point 
of a bend in the river, the river coming from the south and going to tiie south, 
one to your right, the other to your left. Looking to the north inland you will 
find a I'avine there and then amitiier hill. Behind that is another hill and then 
another ravine, with a third hill and auotlier ravine, and .so on I know not how 
far, in repetition as the crests and hollows of the ocean waves. 

The Coal Mines go into the hills at an 
average of seventy to eighty feet above the 
Ohio. Below the coal is soapstone and fire- 
clay, above the coal is a layer of slate and 
sandstone. The coal veins are about four 
and a half feet thick, and dip about thirty 
feet to the mile, a little to the south of east. 
Each mine has a main passage, then it is 
mined right and left in parallels, the excava- 
tions leaving squares of coal, like streets and 
squares of a city. As a last thing the squares, 
or rather blocks, of coal are taken away, 
leaving only enough coal for pillars as sup- 
ports tor the roof of the mine wherever such 
Here some of the main pas- 
_ in through the river hill, cross the 
ravine, enter the second hill inland, go through 
that, cross a second ravine still farther nortn, 
enter a third hill, a distance of two miles. 
They are still lengthening their lines, and, I 
am told, can penetrate miles farther. The 
coal is brought out on tramways by mules 
and horses. This vein of coal is so inferior to 
that from Pittsburg, and in some other places, 
that Pomeroy coal has lost its old-time im- 
portance, and the industry here is at this 
time depressed. 

At Minersville they are working two mines 

from the surface down, which strikes a lower 
and stronger vein ; one of the shafts is 
eighty-seven feet deep. Both at Middleport 
and Syracuse the valley is so wide that the 
people entirely live in front of the hills. Not 
so at Pomeroy and Minersville. Part dwell 
in the gaps of ravines of the hills, called 
"runs" because little streams run through 
them. At Pomeroy the people obtain their 
home comforts in places respectively named 
Sugar Run, Kerr's Run, Nailor's Run and 
Monkey Run ; at Minersville the runs are 
known as Dutchtown and Welshtown, in 
accordance with the transatlantic origin of 
their inhabitants. The slopes of the ra- 
vines to the right and left are gradual and 
grass and forest clad, while the hills face 
the river in precipitous cliiFs. The dwellings 
perched on the summits above the ravines 
have grand outlooks up and down the river. 
The business places and salt works are on 
the narrow strip of land fronting the ravines 
and cliiFs. 

These towns have a dingy, gloomy aspect. 
The buildings that front the river are gener- 
ally brown, and black as so many charcoal 
bins. The very ground you tread is hard 
and black with coal debris. Numerous smoke- 



stacks belch forth clouds of smoke, mineled 
with the lighter clouds of steam. 

My Second Visit. — It was towards the sun- 
set of a day in March when I came into 
Pomeroy for the second time after the lapse 
of forty years from the first. On the sum- 
mits of the cliffs the trees stood as black 
skeleton forms clear cut against the sky. 
The lights and shadows were long and strong 
over all the varied objects of hill and valley. 
There were din^y-looking, gloomy buildings, 
rising clouds ot smoke from huge smoke- 
stacks mingled with bursts of steam, precip- 
itous cliffs, winding river, opening ravines, 
where the sun burst through and tipped 
every element of gloom in streamers of light, 
and "finally, perched high up in the ravines, 
were the humble cottages of the miners, 
bathed in floods of golden light from the low 
down sun. Nature wore a weird, strange 
aspect, and my emotions were in consonance 
with the scene. 

But Humanity was there. Humanity ever 
interests. I had come among a people who 
delved in the interior of the earth that we 
on the outside might be warmed and do our 
grumbling before blazing, winter-defying fires, 
and say, ' ' Lord, who can stand Thy cold ? ' ' 
But there was one comforting reflection. 
While these men were doomed to spend their 
days down in the bowels of the earth, often 
in bent, constrained attitudes, picking by dim 
lamplight at walls of coal, love lightened the 
task as their thoughts went forth to wife and 
little ones in the cottages.out in the blessed 
sunlight, high on the hills. And to them, 
also, how sweet must seem their homes when 
on each recurring morning, as they go forth 
to their honest labor, the morning sun greets 
them with its blessing light and opens to 
their vision beneath and around a landscape 
of hill, plain, valley and river of wondrous 
beauty. And then many of them have 
another comfort. Down in the valley are 
more than a score of churches, where they 
oft go, where hope gladdens their hearts, 
and they feel the day is coming when they 
shall lay down the pick and delve no more. 

Salt Industry. — In the year 1850 a new 
industry came for this region, the manufac- 
ture of salt, when the first salt well was 
opened at Pomeroy. 

The wells are from 1,000 to 1,200 feet in 
depth, and the water is pumped by steam. 
Including both sides of the river are eighteen 
salt furnaces, and the production of salt is 
about equally divided between the two. The 
daily production is about 3,600 barrels ; value, 
$2,188. Each furnace has its cooper shops, 
where the barrels are made. The hoop-poles 
are of hickory, and come from West Virginia. 
The staves are of swamp elm, from the Black 
Swamp region of Northwest Ohio. The bar- 
rels cost twenty-two cents each. A barrel of 
salt, salt inclusive, wholesales at seventy 
cents, and weighs 280 pounds. 

I entered the packing-houses where the 
salt is piled in bins ; to the eye looking ex- 
actly like huge snow heaps, and in marked 
contrast to the smoke-hued walls against 

which it lay. The employees in the salt works 
are mainly German, the miners Welsh and 
Gorman. On the West Virginia side the 
American element is the strongest. 

<SV(// Rnller. — Cattle require salt as much 
as human beings. The oft neglect by far- 
mers to give it to them is a cruelty without 
excuse. A salesman travelling here showed 
to me a new device, an invention tnr the eattlo 
to help themselves. It was a roller coated 
with salt, about a foot long, two and a half 
inches in diameter, with frame-work, to whici 
above were two roof boards, like the roof of 
a house, to shed the rain. It is I'astened in 
a manger, on a fence or a tree in the field. 
The cattle go up and, licking on the under 
side, it revolves under the tongue. They 
soon learn its use. When the salt on a roller 
is gone it is rejilaced by another roller in the 
same frame-woik. The rollers are sold at 
$1.50 per dozen. 

Discourse on S.\lt. 

Salt is a necessity ; its consumption enor- 
mous. Multiply by thirty-seven the number 
of men, women and children in the United 
States, and the resultant will be the number 
of pounds used therein by man, beast, and 
in the arts. 

Its praises might be on every tongue — the 
tongue of man, the tongue of beast. With 
the thought of salt is a multitude of associa- 
tions. Let us present a few, as Scriptural, 
Monumental and Admonitory, Gastronomical, 
Humorous, Poetical, Sublime, etc. 

Scriptural— ''Ye are the salt of the 
earth." thus illustrating saving virtue. 

Monumental and Admonitory. — Lot's wife 
converted into a pillar to serve as a guide to 
the travelling public and a warning to the 
insatiable curiosity of woman. 

Gastronomical. — Yes, everywhere. With- 
out it, who would go for an egg ?_ How are 
the ice-cream people to make their delicious 
concoctions ? How about sending Biddy, the 
cook, down cellar to the pork barrel ? And 
without any regard to pork, where, without 
salt, would be the attraction in beans? One 
especial bean, however, there was that will 
ever have an historical attraction, the particu- 
lar bean the planting of which led to the 
sudden demise of the giant, slain by Jack, 
the giant-killer. 

Humorous. — The expression on the desir- 
ing youngster's fitoe on being told how, with 
the requisite pinch of fresh salt, he may 
catch the bird ! Then the comical, triumph- 
ant expression on the face of Christopher 
Columbus, who, having shown how to stand 
an egg on its end, reached for the salt and 
ate that egg, as he naturally must have done, 
though History just that moment was called 
off and forgot to record it. 

Poetical. — The tear glistening in the eye 
of Pity ere it is exhaled to the skies. When 
it is exhaled it mingles with the other vajiors 
of cloudland, helps out the sunset glories 
whereupon some imaginative youth gazing 
aloft grows enthusiastic, when lo, a poet is 


Sithlime. — The ocean that girts the earth 
around, heaving its ponderous waves on high 
under the wild fury of a mighty tempest. 
Like the tear it is saline. So saline is it that 
Jack Tars who go down to the sea in ships, 
when they grow old, and rheumatism, it may 
be, gets in her grip on their aged bones, we 
term "Old Salts." 

It is when those rheumatic, gouty twinges 
seize upon old ' ' sea legs ' ' that the eye of 
pity drops one of her most sympathetic 
glistening globules. 

Ere you move into a new house just 

sprinkle the floor with salt, next take in abroom 
and a Bible, then, in accordance with an old 
belief, good luck will abide with you and your 
household ; bursts of laughter and tears of 
joy be your portion. 

There is much in salt — one " may think of 
it— ^ream of it — and will find no end to it, 
while all creation, with the apple king in- 
clusive, will say ' aye. ' ' ' 

And to this all the light little ocean wave- 
lets, as in succession they run and kiss every 
shore the whole world around, will merrily 
laugh and sing, " So mote it be." 

John Morgan's Raid. 
John Morgan's raid came to grief in this county, and to its final demise in 
Columbiana, for the details of which see page 453. The battle of Buffington's 
Island took place in a direct line about thirteen miles from Pomeroy, but by the 
windings of the river full thirty miles. Tlie Ohio twists and curly-cues more 
around the borders of Meigs than any other county of Ohio. The following 
iccount of some of the operations in this county is from a correspondent of full 
•eliability for accuracy : 

When the Confederate General, John 
Morgan, closely pursued by the Federal 
cavalry, entered Meigs county, heading for 
o:ie of the several fording places in the Ohio 
river above and below the towns of Middle- 
port and Pomeroy, he met serious opposition 
from the local militia, who, unlike their 
neighbors of the counties first raided, knew 
of his movements in time to plan for resist- 

It was the fortune of two Middleport 
companies 0. N. Gr. — one of infantry com- 
manded by Captain R. B. Wilson, Lieuten- 
ants 0. P. Skinner and Samuel Grant ; the 
other of artillery. Captain John Schreiner, 
the two numbering about 120 men — to 
render service so valuable that it should 
find a place in history. With other organ- 
izations these companies were ordered to 
rendezvous at Marietta. On the very night 
of their arrival in camp came tidings of the 
enemy's approach to their own town and 
they at once asked for orders to return to the 
defence of their homes. With but little 
delay they were put aboard a steamer and by 
daylight the following morning had disem- 
barked and were several miles out on the 
roads by which Jlorgan was approaching. 
The show of resistance was suflScient to turn 
him aside and he moved off up the river 
toward Buffington's Island, where, on the 
following day, the Federal cavalry overhauled 
him and scattered his forces. Information 
reached Capt. Wilson that one detachment 
would undertake to cross the Ohio at a 
shoal place several miles above Pomeroy, and 
reinforced by about twenty men, iinder 
Daniel Davis of that city, he immediately 
marched to intercept the fiigitives, reaching 
the point late in the evening. 

William Grant, George Womeldorff and 
James Waddell, three of the most reliable 
men of the command, were directed to find 

a point well up the road from which they 
could observe the approach and estimate the 
number of the enemy, and by an agreed 
signal advise headquarters of the facts ascer- 

The "artillery" consisted of an old gun 
that had been used for celebrating the Fourth 
of July, which, loaded with spikes and 
pieces of chain, "commanded" for several 
hundred yards a straight piece of roa<l 
flanked on one side by timber where part of 
our men were concealed, and on the other 
side by a creek with steep banks. Scarcely 
had the dispositions been made when 
the enemy appeared. William Grant and 
his comrades, assisted by the darkness, 
avoided the approaching raiders, who, a few 
moments later, ran upon the picket com- 
manded by Lieut. Samuel Grant and sur- 
rendered without much resistance. They 
were marched to Pomeroy and placed under 
guard in the court-house to be turned over 
as prisoners of war, sixty-eight enlisted men 
and seven officers. 

Scarcely had the company been relieved of 
these prisoners when tidings came that Blor- 
gan's main force was moving down the river 
along the roads running back of the towns 
and would probably attempt a crossing at 
Cheshire or Eight-Mile Island, below Middle- 
port, where there was a good ford at the low 
stage of water then prevailing. At the Pom- 
eroy wharf lay V. B. Horton's side-wheel 
tow-boat, the Condor, a low, fierce-looking, 
long-nosed craft, with suggestive holes in 
her wheel-house, buc very inoffensive. The 
old gun before referred to was conspicu- 
ously placed on her bow, after which the 
vessel steamed away toward Cheshire, reach- 
ing the landing place at the head of the 
island just as the first daring rider of Mor- 
gan's cavalry forced his horse into the Ohio 
to try the ford. Tlie river bank down to tha 


water's edge was lined with the raiders wait- Morgan actually surrendered there but es- 
ing to make the crossing as soon as this caped in the darkness that niglit with his 
pioneer had pointed out the way. He was main body, and led the Uiiicui troops another 
tjcyond range and succeeded in reaching the race up through Athens and Mornuii counties 
shore and eseaning. But as the old Condor until finally captured and lamlcd in the 
" rounded to ' above on the West Virginia Ohio Penitentiary. But i'or thai brave corn- 
shore there was a scampering up the opposite pany of militia he would have escaped 
bank, which apprised us that she had been through West Virginia, 
mistaken for one of the government gunboats, As stated by Captain Wilson the success 
and the time thus gained enabled the Middle- of his company was largely due to the activity 
porters to secure positions on the bank of and' zeal of his first sergeant, who was the 
the river commanding both the upper and only experienced officer in the coniin.nnl. and 
lower fords, which, as Morgan had no artil- who gave him the benefitofknowUilirciraincd 
lery, they could have held against his entire from actual service in the field. That sergeant 
force. He made no further attempt to cross is still living, and widely known as the Rev. 
and an hour later the Union cavalry reached Dr. Earl Cranston, now of the " Wcslcrn 
the scene on the Ohio side. It is said that Methodist Book Concern. " 

A Pomeroy company, commanded by Capt. Cyrus Grant, also did excellent 
work by getting in the raiders' way just at such times and in such places as to 
make him think the " regulars " had reached the river ahead of him. 

MiDDLEPOKT is OH the Ohio river, just below Pomerov, at the terraiims of the 
C. H. V. & T. R. R. and on the K. & O. R. R. City officers, 1888 : C. Down- 
ing, Mayor; Wm. L. McMaster, Clerk; Wm. M. Hartinger, Treasurer; Ghas. 
Hobbs, Marshal ; Geo. B. Skinner, Street Commissioner. Newspapers : Herald, 
Republican, W. C. Russell, editor ; Meigs County Republican, Independent, J. 
W. Dumble, editor and publisher. Churches : 1 Presbyterian, 1 Methodist 
Episcopal, 1 Christian, 1 Universalist, I New Church, 1 Free Will Baptist, 1 
Colored Baptist, 1 Colored Methodist. Bank : Exchange (Moore & Co.), F. L. 
Moore, cashier. 

3Ianufactures aivi Employees. — The German Furniture Co., 82 hands; Ohio 
Machine Co., 22 ; Standard Nail and Iron Co., iron, steel, etc., 500 ; Middle poit 
Flour Co., 12 ; Garrett, McManigal & Co., building brick, etc., 25 ; S. D. ^^'ci.b, 
flooring, etc., 3.— Ohio State Report, ISSS. Population, 1880, 3,032. School 
census, 1888, 854. Capital invested in iudu.strial establishments, §162,500. 
Value of annual product, $208,000. — Ohio Labor Statistic,^ 1887. 

MiXERSViLLE is just abovc and adjoining Pomeroy, on the Ohio, and has .salt 
furnaces, extensive coal mines, and 1 Welsh Congregational, 1 Welsh Presbyterian 
and 1 Methodist church. 

Syracuse is ou the Ohio river, four and a half miles above Pomeroy, nearly 
adjoining Minersville. Its population is largely Welsh. It has 1 Welsh Con- 
gregational, 1 Presbyterian and 1 Methodist church. Its industries are salt and 
coal, one of the shafts going down perpendicularly eighty-seven feet. School census, 
1888, 402. 

Racine is on the Ohio river, ten miles above Pomeroy. Newspaper : Jh-ibune, 
Republican, W. G. Sibley, editor and publisher. Population, 1880, 453. School 
census, 1888, 246. 

Che-ster, anciently the county-seat, and which in 1840 had 273 population, 's 
eight miles iiortiicast of Pomeroy, on Shade river. 



Mercer County was formed from old Indian Territory April 1, 1820. 
The laud is one great flat plain, and while in the forest state wet, when cleared 
and drained very fertile and well adapted to grass, small grain and Indian corn, 
which is its great production. Area about 470 square miles. In 1887 the 
acres cultivated were 140,633; iii pasture, 12,023; woodland, 73,384; lying 
waste, 4,154 ; produced in wheat, 364,235 bushels; rye, 2,733 ; buckwheat, 667 ; 
oats, 632,537 ; barley, 12,881 ; corn, 1,287,610; meadow hay, 15,343 tons; clo- 
ver 'hay, 8,.334; flaxseed, 726 bushels; potatoes, 51,636; tobacco, 1,000 lbs.; 
butter, 415,750 ; cheese, 150 ; sorghum, 14,110 gallons ; maple syrup, 121 ; honey, 
4,806 lbs.; eggs, 634,737 dozen; grapes, 8,300 lbs.; wine, 1,387 gallons; sweet 
potatoes, 42 bushels ; apples, 14,558 ; peaches, 20 ; pears, 145 ; wool, 29,184 lbs. ; 
milch cows owned, 6,931.— 0/iio State Report, 1888. 

School census, 1888, 9,269 ; teachers, 183. Miles of railroad track, 86. 

wNSHips AND Census. 



Townships and Cen 

us. 1840. 


Black Creek, 






























St. Mary's, 
















Population of Mercer in 1830, 1,- 
737; 1840, 8,277; 1860, 14,104; 
1880, 21,808, of whom 17,882 were 
born in Ohio; 586, Indiana; 451, 
Pennsylvania; 154, Virginia ; 93, Ken- 
tucky ; 87, New York; 1,773, Ger- 
man Empire ; 105, Ireland ; 62, 
France ; 42, England and Wales ; 27, 
British America, and 19 in Scotland. 
Census, 1890, 27,220. 

This county was named from Gen- 
eral Hugh Mercer, who fell at the 
battle of Princeton, fought January 3, 
1777. He was born in the city of 
Aberdeen, Scotland, about the year 
1720; he was educated there at the 
University; he held the position of 
assistant surgeon in the army of 
Prince Charles Edward in the year 
1745; in 1747 settled near what is 
now Mercersburg, Pa. ; was wounded 
in Braddock's expedition ; at the out- 
break of the Revolution was practising 
medicine at Fredericksburg, Va. ; in 
1776, by request of Washington, was 
made brigadier-general ; led the column 
of attack at Trenton ; while rallying his men at Princeton was felled by a 



blow from a musket, and, refusing to surrender, was bayonetted five times, 
and died some days afterwards in great agony. His funeral in the eity of 
Philadelphia was attended by 30,000 people. Congress jirovided for the ed- 
ucation of his youngest son, and the St. Andrew's Society of Philadelphia 
reared to his memory a monument on Laurel Hill. 

St. Clair's Defeat. 

This county has been the theatre of a most important event in the early history 
of the West — St. Clair's defeat. It took place on the southwest corner of the 
county, within two or three miles of the Indiana line. 

The great object of St. Clair's campaign was to establish a military post at the 
Miami village, at the junction of the St. Mary and St. Joseph, at what is now 
Fort Wayne, Ind., with intermediate posts of communication between it and Fort 
Washington, to awe and curb the Indians in that quarter, as the only preventive 
of future hostilities. 

Acting under his instructions, St. Clair proceeded to organize his army. At 
the close of April (1791) he was at Pittsburg, to which point troops and munitions 
of war were being forwarded. On the loth of May he reached Fort Washington, 
but owing to various hindrances, among which was the mismanagement of the 
quartermaster's department, the troops, instead of being in readiness to start upon 
the expedition by the 1st of August, as was anticipated, were not prepared until 
many weeks later. From Fort Washington the troops were advariceti tx) Lud- 
low's station, six miles distant. Here the army continued until September 17th, 
when, being 2,300 strong, exclusive of militia, they moved forward to a point 
upon the Great INIiami, where they built Fort Hamilton. From thence they 
moved forty-four miles farther, and built Fort Jefferson, which they left on the 
24th of October, and began their toilsome march through the wilderness. We 
copy below from the notes of Judge Burnet : 

During this time a bodj' of the militia, 
amounting to 300, deserted and returned to 
their homes. The supplies for the army 
being still in the rear, and the general enter- 
taining fears that the deserters might meet 
and seize them for their own use, determined, 
very reluctantly, to send back the first regi- 
ment for the double purpose of bringing up 
the provisions and, if possible, of overtaking 
and arresting some of the deserters. 

Having made that arrangement, the army 
resumed it« march, and, on the 3d of Novem- 
ber, arrived at a creek running to the south- 
west, which was supposed to be the St. 
Mary's, one of the principal branches of the 
]\Iaumee, but was afterwards ascertained to 
be a branch of the Wabash. It being then 
late in the afternoon, and the army much 
fitigued by a laborious march, they were en- 
camped on a commanding piece of ground, 
having the creek in front. 

It was the intention of the general to oc- 
cupy that position till the first regiment, with 
the provisions, should come up. He proposed 
on the next day to commence a work of de- 
fence, agreeably to a plan concerted between 
himself and Major Ferguson, but he was not 
permitted to do either ; for, on the next morn- 
ing, November 4th. half an hour before sun- 
rise, the men having been just dismissed from 
parade, an attack was made on the militia 
posted in front, who gave way and rushed 
back into camp, throwing the army into a 

state of disorder, from which it could not be 
recovered, as the Indians followed close at 
their heels. They were, however, checked a 
short time by the fire of the first line, but 
immediately a very heavy fire was commenced 
on that line, and in a few minutes it was ex- 
tended to the second. 

In each case the great weight of the fire 
was directed to the centre, where the artil- 
lery was placed, from which the men were 
frequently driven with great slaughter. In 
that emergency resort was had to the bayonet. 
Colonel Darke was ojdered to make the 
charge with a part of the second line, which 
order was executed with great spirit. The 
Indians instantly gave way, and were driven 
back several hundred yards, but for want of 
a sufiicient number of riflemen to preserve 
the advantage gained, the enemy soon re- 
newed their attack, and the American troops 
in turn were forced to give way. 

At that instant the Indians entered the 
American camp on the left, having forced 
back the troops stationed at that point. 
Another charge was then ordered and made 
by the battalions of Majors Butler and Clark 
with great success. Several other charges 
were afterwards made, and always with equal 
effect. These attacks, however, were attended 
with a heavy loss of men, and particularly of 
officers. In the charge made by the second 
regiment Major Butler was dangerously 
wounded, and every officer of that regiment 



fell, except three, one o. whom was shot 
through the body. The artillery being si- 
lenced, and all the officers belonging to it 
killed, but Captain Ford, who was danger- 
ously wounded, and half the army having 
fallen, it became necessary to gain the road, 
if possible, and make a retreat. 

For that purpose a successful charge was 
made on the enemy, as if to turn their right 
flank, but in reality to gain the road, which 
was effected. The militia then commenced 

a retreat, followed by the United States troops. 
Major Clark with his battalion covering the 
rear. The retreat, as might be expected, 
soon became a flight. The camp was aban- 
doned, and so was the artillery, for the want 
of horses to remove i^.. The men threw 
away their arms and accoutrements, even 
after the pursuit had ceased, which was not 
continued for more than four miles. The 
road was almost covered with these articles 
for a great distance. 

All the horses of the general were killed 
and he was mounted on a broken-down pack- 
horse that could scarcely be forced out of a 
walk. It was, therefore, impossible for him 
to get forward in person, to command a halt, 
till regularity could be restored, and the orders 
which he dispatched by others for that pur- 
pose were wholly unattended to. The rout 
continued to Fort Jeff'erson, where they ar- 
rived about dark, twenty-seven miles from 
the battle-ground. The retreat began at half- 
past nine in the morning, and as the battle 
commenced half an hour before sunrise, it 
must have lasted three hours, during which 
time, with only one exception, the troops be- 
haved with great bravery. This fact accounts 
for the immense slaughter which took place. 

Among the killed were Major-General But- 
ler, Colonel Oldham, Major Ferguson, Major 
Hart and Major Clark. Among the wounded 
were Colonel Sargeant, the adjutant-general. 
Colonel Darke, Colonel Gibson, Major Butler 
and Viscount Malartie, who served in the 
character of an aid. In addition to these, 
the list of officers killed contained the names 
of Captains Bradford, Phelon, Kirkwood, 
Price, Van Swearingen, Tipton, Purdy, 
Smith, Piatt, Gaither, Crebbs and Newman ; 
Lieutenants Spear, Warren, Boyd, McMath, 
Burgess, Kelso, Read, Little, Hopper and 
Lickins ; also. Ensigns Cobb, Balch, Chase, 
Turner, Wilson, Brooks, Beatty and Purdy ; 
also. Quartermasters Reynolds and Ward, 
Adjt. Anderson and Doc. Grasson. And in 
addition to the wounded officers whose names 
are mentioned above the official list contains 
the names of Captains Doyle, Truman, Ford, 
Buchanan, Darke, and Hough ; also of Lieu- 
tenants Greaton, Davidson, DeButts, Price, 
Morgan, McCrea, Lysle and Thompson ; also 
Adjutants Whistler and Crawford, and En- 
sign Bines. 

The melancholy result of that disastrous 
day was felt and lamented by all who had 
sympathy for private distress or public mis- 

The only charge alleged by the general 
against his army was want of discipline, which 

they could not have acquired during the short 
time they had been in the service. That de- 
fect rendered it impossible, when they were 
thrown into confusion to restore them again 
to order, and is the chief reason why the loss 
fell so heavily on the officers. They were 
compelled to expose themselves in an unusual 
degree in their efi'orts to rally the men and 
remedy the want of discipline. In that duty 
the general set the example, though worn 
down by sickness and suffering under a pain- 
ful disease. It was alleged by the officers 
that the Indians far outnumbered the Amer- 
ican troops. That conclusion was drawn, in 
part, from the fact that they outflanked and 
attacked the American lines with great force, 
at the same time, on every side. 

When the fugitives arrived at Fort Jefi"er- 
son, they found the first regiment, which 
was just returning from the service on which 
it had been sent, without either overtaking 
the deserters or meeting the convoy of pro- 
visions. The absence of that regiment at the 
time of the battle was believed by some to 
be the cause of the defeat. They supposed 
that had it been present the Indians would 
have been defeated, or would not have ven- 
tured an attack at the time they made it ; 
but General St. Clair expressed great doubt 
on that subject. He seemed to think it un- 
certain, judging from the superior number 
of the enemy, whether he ought to consider 
the absence of that corps from the field of 
action as fortunate or otherwise. On the 
whole, he seemed to think it fortunate, as he 
very much doubted whether, if it had been 
in the action, the fortune of the day would 
have been changed ; and if it had not, the 
triumph of the enemy would have been more 
complete, and the country would have been 
left destitute of the means of defence. 

As soon as the troops reached Fort Jeffer- 
son, it became a question whether they ought 
to continue at that place or return to Fort 
Washington. For the purpose of determin- 
ing that question, the general called on the 
surviving field officers, to wit : Col. Darke, 
Major Hamtramck, Maj. Zeigler, and Maj. 
Gaither, and also the Adjutant-General, Col. 
Sargeant, for their advice, as to what would 
be the proper course to be pursued under 
existing circumstances. After discussing the 
subject they reported it to be their unanimous 
opinion, that the troops could not be accom- 
modated in the fort ; that they could not be 
supplied with provisions at that place ; and 
as it was known that there were provisions on 
the road, at the distance of one or two 
marches, it would be proper, without loss of 
time, to proceed and meet them. That advice 
was adopted, and the army put in motion at 
ten o'clock and marched all night. On the 
succeeding day they met a quantity of flour, 
and on the day after a drove of cattle, 
which having been disposed of as the wants 
of the troops required, the march was con- 
tinued to Fort Washington. 

The loss sustained by the country from the 
fall of so many gallant officers and men was 
most seriously regretted. Gen. Butler and 



Maj. Ferpuson were spoken of with peculiar 
interest. The public feeling was, however, in 
some measure alleviated by the fact that 
those brave men, officers and privates, fell 
covered with honor, in defending the cause 
of their country. 

The principal complaint made by the com- 
mander-in-chief was, that some of his orders, 
of great consequence, given to Col. Oldham 
over night, were not executed ; and that some 
very material intelligence, communicated by 
Capt. Hough to Gen. Butler, in the course 
of the night before the action, was not im- 
parted to him ; and that he did not hear of 
It till his arrival at Fort Washington. 

It is important to the fame of the com- 
manding general that in consequence of the 
almost treasonable negligence of the agents 
of government, whose duty it was to furnish 
supplies, the army had been for many days 
oil short allowance, and were so at the tiiiie 
of the battle. That fact had made it indis- 
pensably necessary either to retreat or send 
back the first regiment, which was the flower 
of the army, to bring up the provisions and 
military stores. The latter alternative was 
chosen, and in the absence of that corps the 
attack was made. 

In regard to the negligence charged on the 
War Department, it is a well-authenticated 
fiict, that boxes and packages were so care- 
lessly put up and marked, that during the 
action a box was 'opened marked "flints," 
which was found to contain gun-locks. Sev- 
eral mistakes of the same character were dis- 
covered as f.">r example, a keg of powder 
marked "for the Mifantry " was found to be 
damaged cannon-powder, that could scarcely 
be ignited. 

Under all these disadvantages it wa.s 
generally believed by candid, intelligent men 
that the commanding general was not justly 
liable to much censure, if any. With one 
exception, at the commencement of the 
action, the troops behaved with great bravery. 
They maintained their ground for three 
tedious hours, in one uninterrupted conflict 
with a superior force ; nor did they attempt 
to leave the field till it was covered with 
the bodies of their companions, nor until 
further efforts were unavailing and a retreat 
was ordered. 

The general, less anxious for himself than 
for others, was the last to leave the ground 
after the retreat had been ordered. For some 
time after the disaster he was universally 
censured, but when a thorough investigation 
had been made by a committee of Congress, 
of which Mr. Giles, of Virginia, was the 
chairman, it was found that the campaign 
had been conducted with skill and personal 
bravery ; and that the defeat was chiefly 
owing to the want of discipline in the militia, 
and to the negligence of those whose duty 
it was to procure and forward the i)ro- 
visions and military stores necessary for the 

After the publication of that report, the 
Secretary of War, believing himself to be in- 
jured, addressed a letter to Congress, com- 
plaining that injustice had been done him by 
the committee ; in consequence of which the 
report was recommitted to the same com- 
mittee, who, after hearing the statements 
and explanations of the Secretary and recon- 
sidering the whole matter, reaffirmed theif 
first report. 

Tlii.s defeat of St. Clair drew upon his head, from one part of the country to the 
other, " one loud and merciless outcry of abuse and even detestation." Many a 
general, with far less bravery and military skill, has, when successful, been 
applauded by the unthinking multitude with vehement acclamations. The fol- 
lowing, derived from the narrative of his campaign, shows that he deserved a 
better fjxte : 

During the engagement Gen. St. Clair and 
Gen. Butler were continually going up and 
down the lines ; as one went up one, the 
other went down the opposite. St. Clair was 
so severely afflicted with the gout as to be 
unable to mount or dismount a horse without 
assistance. He had four horses for his use ; 
they had been turned out to feed over night 
and were brought in before the action. The 
first he attempted to mount was a young 
horse, and the firing alarmed him so much 
that he was unable to accomplish it, although 
there were three or four people assisting him. 
He had just moved him to a place where he 
could have some advantage of the ground, 
when the horse was shot through the head, 
and the boy holding him through the arm. A 
second horse was brought and the furniture 
of the first disengaged and put on him ; but 
at the moment it "was done the horse and 

servant who held him were killed. The 
general then ordered the third horse to be 
got ready and follow him to the left of the 
front line, which by that time was warmly 
engaged, and set off on foot to the point 
designated. However, the man and horse 
were never heard of afterward, and were 
supposed to have both been killed. Gen. St. 
Clair's fourth horse was killed under the 
Count de Malartie, one of his aids, whose 
horse had died on the march. 

On the day of the battle St. Clair was not 
in his uniform ; he wore a coarse cappo coat 
and a three-cornered hat. He had a long queue 
and large locks, very gray, flowing beneath 
his beaver. Early in tlie action, when near 
the artillery, a ball grazed the side of his face 
and cut ofi' a portion of one of his locks. It 
is said that during the action eight balls 
passed through his clothes and hat. After 



his horses were killed he exerted himself on 
foot for a considerable time during the action 
with a degree of alertness that surprised 
everybody who saw him. After being on foot 
some time, and when nearly exhausted, a 
pack horse was brought to him. This he rode 
during the remainder of the day, although he 
could scarcely prick him out of a walk. 
Had he not been furnished with a horse, 
although unhurt, he must have remained on 
the field. 

During the action Gen. St. Clair exerted 
himself with a courage and presence of mind 
worthy of the best fortune. He was person- 
ally present at the first charge made upon the 
enemy with the bayonet and gave the order 

to Col. Darke. When the enemy first entered 
the camp by the left flank, he led the troops 
that drove them back, and when a retreat 
became indispensable, he put himself at the 
head of the troops which broke through the 
enemy and opened the way for the rest and 
then remained in the rear, making every ex- 
ertion in his power to obtain a party to 
cover the retreat ; but the panic was so 
great that his exertions were of but little 
avail. In the height of the action a few of 
the men crowded around the fires in the 
centre of the camp. St. Clair was seen draw- 
ing his pistols and threatening some of them, 
and ordering them to turn out and repel 
the enemy. 

Fowler's Story of the Battle. 

In commenting upon his honorable acquittal of all blame by tlie committee of 
Congress appointed to inquire into the causes of the failure of the expedition, 
Judge Marshall, in his Life of Washington, remarks, with his usual felicity of 
manner, " More satisfactory testimony in favor of St. Clair is furnished by the 
circumstance that he still retained the undiminished esteem and good opinion of 
President Washington." 

To the foregoing description of the battle we extract from the narrative of 
Major Jacob Fowler, now (1846) living in Covington, Ky., his own personal 
experience in the events of that fatal day. Mr. Cist, in his Advertiser, in which 
it was published, says : " There was hardly a battle fought in the early struggles 
witli the Indians in which Mr. Fowler did not participate. He is now (July, 
1844) at the age of eighty — his eye has not waxed dim, nor his natural force 
abated. He can still pick off a squirrel with his rifle at one hundred yards dis- 
tance. He can walk as firmly and as fast as most men at fifty, and I cannot per- 
ceive a gray hair in his head. His mind and memory are as vigorous as his 
physical ftmctions." 

Excepting in a single instance, St. Clair 
kept out no scouting parties during his march, 
and we should have been completely surprised 
by the attack when it was made, if it had not 
been that volunteer scouting parties from the 
militia were out on the evening before and the 
constant discharge of rifles throughout the 
niglit warned us to prepare for the event. 
The militia were encamped about a quarter of 
a mile in front of the residue of the army, so 
as to receive, as they did, the first shock of 
the attack, which was made a little after day- 
break. Tlie cam]p was on the bank of a 
small creek, one ot the heads of the Wabash 
river, the ground nearly level and covered 
with a heavy growth of timber. As sur- 
veyor, I drew the pay and rations of a subal- 
tern, but, as an old hunter, was not disposed 
to trust myself among the Indians without 
my rifle. Indeed, I found it very service- 
able during the march, the army being 
upon not more than half rations the whole 

My stock of bullets becoming pretty low 
from hunting, as soon as it was daylight that 
morning I started for the militia camp to 
get a ladle for running some more, when I 
found that the battle had begun, and met the 
mUitia running in to the main body of troops. 

I hailed one of the Kentuckians, who I 
found had been disabled in the right wrist by 
a bullet, asking him if he had balls to spare. 
He told me to take out his pouch and divide 
with him. I poured out a double handful 
and put back what I supposed was the half, 
and was about to leave him, when he said, 
' ' Stop, you had better count them. ' ' It was 
no time for laughing, but I could hardly resist 
the -impulse to laugh, the idea was so ludi- 
crous of counting a handful of bullets when 
they were about to be so plenty as to be had 
for the picking up by those who should be 
lugky enough to escape with their lives. "If 
we get through this day's scrape, my dear 
fellow," said I, " I will return you twice as 
many." But I never saw him again, and 
suppose he shared the fate that befell many a 
gallant spirit on that day. I owe the bullets, 
at any rate, at this moment. 

On returning to the lines I found the 
engagement begun. One of Capt. Piatt's 
men lay near the spot I had left, shot through 
the belly. I saw an Indian behind a small 
tree, not twenty steps off, just outside the 
regular lines. He was loading his piece, 
squatting down as much as possible to screen 
himself I drew .sight at his butt and shot 
him through ; he dropped, and as soon as I 


had fired 1 retreated into our lines to reload 
my rifle. Finding the fire had really ceased 
lit this point. I ran to the rear line, where I 
)iii't Col. l);ukL' leading his men to a charge. 
'iliese wore ot the six months levies. I ibl- 
iowed with my rifle. The Indians were driven 
by this movement clear out ol' i^ight, and the 
colonel called a halt and rallied his men, who 
were about three hundred in number. As an 
cxiierienecd wiioiIsiii;iii and hunter, I claimed 
the privile-e of ^.ug;;e^IiTl.i; to the colonel that 

were we then ,-t 1 — there lieing a pile of 

trees blown out ol' root — would form an excel- 
lent breastwork, being of length sufficient to 
protect the whole force, and that we might 
yet need it ; I .judged by the shouting and 
firing that the Indians behind us had closed 
up the gap we had made in charging, and told 
thecolonel so. "Now, if we return and charge 
on these Indians on our rea.-, we shall have 
them with their backs on us, ?nd will no 
doubt be able to give a good account of them. " 
" Lead the way, then," said he, and rode to 
the rear to march the whole body forward. 
We then charged on the Indians, but they 
were so thick we could do nothing with them. 
"In a few minutes they were around us and 
we found ourselves alongside of the army 
baggage and the artillery, which they had 
been taking possession of I then took a tree 
and after firing twelve or fourteen times, two 
or three rods neing my farthest shot, I dis- 
covered that many of those I had struck were 
not brought down, as I had not sufiieient 
experience to know I must shoot them in 
the hip to bring them down. As to the 
regulars, with their muskets, and in their un- 
protected state, it was little better than firing 
at random. 

By this time there were about thirty men 
of Col. Darke's command left standing, the 
rest beirig all shot down and lying around us, 
either killed or wounded. I ran to the colonel, 
who was in the thickest of it, waving his sword 
to encourage his men, and told him we should 
all be down in five minutes more if we did not 
charge on them. " Charge, then ! " said he 
to the little line that remained, and they did 
so. Fortunat«ly, the army had charged on 
the other side at the same time, which put the 
Indians, for the moment, to flight. I had 
been partially sheltered by a small tree, but 
a couple of Indians, who had taken a larger 
one, both fired at me at once, and feeling the 
steam of their guns at my belly, I supposed 
myself cut to pieces. But no harm had been 
done, and I brought my piece to my side and 
fired, without aiming at the one that stood 
his ground, the fellow being so close to me 
that I could hardly miss him. I shot him 
through the hips, and while he was crawling 
away on all fours Col. Darke, who had dis- 
mounted and stood close by me. made at him 
with his sword and struck his head off. By 
this time the cock of my riflelock had worn 
loose and gave me much trouble ; meeting with 
an acciuaintance from Cincinnati, named 
McClure, who had no gun of his own, but 
picked up one from a militia man, I told him 
my difficulty. "There is a first-rate rifle," 

said he, pointing to one at a uistance. I ran 
and got it, having ascertained that my bullets 
would fit it. 

Here I met Captain J. S. Gano, who was 
unarmed, and handing to him the rifle I 
went into battle with, 1 observed to him that 
we were defeated, and would have to make 
our own escape as speedily as possible ; that 
if we got off, we should need the rifles for 
subsistence in the woods. The battle i-till 
raged, and at one spot might be seen a party 
of soldiers gathered together, having nothing 
to do but to present mere marks for the en- 
emy. They appeared stupefied and bewil- 
dered with the danger. At another spot the 
soldiers had broken into the marquees of the 
ofiicers, eating the breakfast from which 
those had been called into the battle. It 
must be remembered that neither ofiicers nor 
men had eaten anything the whole morning. 
Some of the men were shot down in the very 
act of eating. Just where I stood there were 
no Indians visible, although their rifle-balls 
were striking all around. At last I saw an 
Indian break for a tree about forty yards off, 
behind which he loaded and fired four times, 
bringing down his man at every fire, and with 
such quickness as to give me no chance to 
take sight in the intervals of his firing. At 
length I got a range of two inches inside his 
backbone, and blazed away ; down he fell, 
and I saw no more of him . 

A short time after I heard the cry given 
by St. Clair and his adjutant-sergeant to 
charge to the road, which was accordingly 
done. I ran across the army to where I had 
left my relative. Captain Piatt, and told him 
that the army was broken up and in full re- 
treat. "Don't say so," he replied: "you 
will discourage my men, and I can't believe 
it." I persisted a short time, when, finding 
him obstinate, I said, "If you will rush on 
your fate, in God's name do it." I then ran 
off towards the rear of the army, which was 
making off rapidly. 

Piatt called after me, saying, "Wait for 
me." It was of no use to stop, for by this 
time the savages were in full chase and hardly 
twenty yards behind me. Being uncommonly 
active in those days, I soon got from the rear 
to front of the troops, although I had great 
trouble to avoid the bayonets which the men 
had thrown off in the retreat, with the sharp 
points towards their pursuers. 

It has been stated that the Indians fol- 
lowed us thirty miles ; but this is not true, 
and my duty as surveyor having led me to 
mark the miles every day as we proceeded on 
our march out, it was easy to ascertain how 
far we were pursued. The Indians, after 
every other fire, fell back to load their rifles, 
and gained lost time by running on afresh. . 
. . Even during the last charge of Colonel 
Darke, the bodies of the dead and dying were 
around us, and the freshly-scalped heads were 
reeking with smoke, and in the heavy morn- 
ing frost looked like so many pumpkins 
through a cornfield in December. It was on 
the 4th of November, and the day w;is severely 
cold for the season, My finger- became so 


benumbed at times that I had to take the 
bullets in my mouth and load from it, while I 

had the wiping-stick in my hand to force them 

Plan of St. Clair's Battle-field. 

References. — A. High ground, on which the militia were encamped at the 
commencement of the action. B. C. Encampment of the main army. D. Re- 
treat of the militia at the beginning of the battle. E. St. Clair's trace, on which 
the defeated army reti-eated. F. Place where General Butler and other officers 
were buried. G. Trail to Girty's Town, on the river St. INIary's, at what is now 
the village of St. Mary's. H. Site of Fort Recovery, built by Wayne ; the line 
of Darke and Mercer runs within a few rods of the site of the fort. I. Place 
where a brass cannon was found buried in 1830 ; it is on the bottom where the 
Indians were three times driven to the highland with the bayonet. 

McDowell's Story. 

The map of the battle-ground is from the survey of Mr. John S. Houston, of 
Celina. The localities * were pointed out to him by Mr. McDowell, who was in 
the action, and is now living near Recovery. In a letter dated Celina, March 
20, 1847, Mr. Houston gives me some notes of a conversation with Mr. Mc- 
Dowell : 

Mr. McDowell states that on the morning 
of the battle he and several others had just 
gone out to look after and guard their horses, 
when suddenl^r theyheard the most hideous 
yells from the opposite side of the river, with 
discharges of musketry. He instantly rushed 
to camp, found his regiment preparing for 
action, joined them, and was with the party 
who so gallantly charged the enemy in the 
bottom. On the retreat he was among those 
who defended the rear, and kept the enemy 

in check for several miles. The ground was 
covered with a slushy snow, whicli much re- 
tarded their progress ; and. after a while, 
many of them were so dispirited and hungry 
— having eaten no breakfast — that they threw 
down their arms and made the best of their 
way, pell-mell, among the retreating crowd. 
About this tin>e Mr. McDowell saw a female 
carrying her infant, a year old. She was so 
tired that she was about to fall by the way- 
side, when he took the child and carried it 

* The references A and D were not on the map ; neither was the high ground ( 
river, which we have placed on it from personal recollection. — H. H. 

east side of the 



some distance. Afterwards, to save her own 
life, the woman threw away the child in the 
snow. The Indians took it up, carried it to 
tlie Sandusky towns, and raised it.* Soon 
after this McDowell overtook a youth, some 
eighteen years old, wounded in the leg, hob- 
bling along, and dispirited. He gave him a 
drink of spirits and a little bread (he himself 
had not had time to eat), which refreshed 
and encouraged him. vSoon after a pony 
ciinie dashing by. This McDowell caught, 
and mounting the youth upon it, he safely 
reached the fort. 

At Stillwater creek, twelve miles from the 
battle-ground, the Indians, who were no 
longer numerous, left them and returned to 
share their boot}'. " Oh ! " said an old squaw 
who died many years ago on the St. Mary's, 
" my arm that night was weary scalping white 

Some years ago — said the old man to me — 
and here his cheeks were moistened with 
tears — I was travelling in Kentucky to visit 
a sister I had not seen in many years, when 
1 arrived at Georgetown, and entered my 

name on the ledger with the place of my res- 
idence — Recovery, 0. 

After I had been sitting some time at ease 
before a comfortable fire, a gentleman who 
had noticed the entry of my name and resi- 
dence, opened a friendly conversation about 
the place and country. He soon remarked 
that he was at the defeat of St. Clair, and 
that if it had not been for the assistance of 
a young man of Butler's regiment, he would 
have been there yet. 

After a few more questions and replies 
both parties recognized each other. The 
gentleman was the j-outh who had been shot, 
on the retreat, and whose life — as previously 
stated — was saved by the interposition of 
McDowell. At this discovery their surprise 
and consequent mutual attachment may be 
imagined. The gentleman insisted upon 
taking him to his house and introducing him 
to his wife and daughters. He had become 
wealthy by merchandising, and, on parting 
with SicDowell, gave him a new suit of 
clothes and other presents, which he has 
carefully preserved to this day. 

Heroism and Agility of Kennan. 

McClung, in his " Sketches of Western Adventure," relates some anecdotes, 
siiowiug the heroism and activity of a young man who was in this action : 

The late William Kennan, of Fleming 
county, at that time a young man of eighteen, 
was attached to the corps of rangers who 
accompanied the regular force. He had long 
been remarkable for strength and activity. 
In the course of the march from Fort Wash- 
ington he had repeated opportunities of 
testing his astonishing powers in that respect, 
and was universally admitted to be the swift- 
est runner of the light corps. On the evening 
preceding the action his corps had been ad- 
vanced, as already observed, a few hundred 
yards in front of the first line of infantry, in 
order to give seasonable notice of the enemy's 
approach. Just as day was dawning he ob- 
served about thirty Indians within 100 yards 
of the guards' fire, advancing cautiously 
toward the spot where he stood, together 
with about twenty rangers, the rest being 
considerably in the rear. 

Supposing it to be a mere scouting party, as 
usual, and not superior in number to the ran- 
gers, he sprang forward a few paces in order 
to shelter himself in a spot of peculiarly rank 
grass, and firing with a quick aim upon the 
foremost Indian, he instantly fell flat upon 
his iace, and proceeded with all possible ra- 
pidity to reload his gun, not doubting for a 
moment but that the rangers would maintain 
their position and support him. The Indians, 
however, rushed forward in such overwhelm- 
ing masses that the rangers were compelled 
to fly with precipitation, leaving j'oung Ken- 
nan in total ignorance of his danger. Tortu- 

* It is stated in some accounts that about fifty, 
the action and flight. — H. H. 

nately the captain of his company had 
observed him when he threw himself into 
thegrai=s, and suddenly shouted aloud, "Run, 
Kennan ! or j-ou are a dead man ! " He in- 
stantly sprang to his feet and beheld Indians 
within ten feet of him, while his company 
was already more than 100 yards in front. 

Not a moment was to be lost. He darted 
oflF with every muscle strained to its utmost, 
and was pursued by a dozen of the enemy 
with loud yells. He at first pressed straight 
forward to the usual fording-place in the 
creek, which ran between the rangers and the 
main army ; but several Indians who had 
passed him before he rose from the grass 
threw themselves in the way and completely 
cut him off from the rest. By the most pow- 
erful exertions he had thrown the whole body 
of pursuers behind him, with the exception 
of one chief (probably Messhawa), who dis- 
played a swiftness and iienseverance equal to 
his own. In the circuit which Kennan was 
obliged to take the race continued for more 
than 400 yards. The distance between them 
was about eighteen feet, which Kennan could 
not increase nor his adversary diminish. 
Each for the time put his whole soul into the 

Kennan, as far as he was able, kept his 
eye upon the motions of his pursuer, lest he 
should throw the tomahawk, which he held 
aloft in a menacing attitude, and at length, 
finding that no other Indian was immediately 
at hand, he determined to try the mettle of 

id in others, that nearly 200 women were killed in 



his pursuer in a diflferent manner, and felt 
for his tomahawk in order to turn at bay. 
It had escaped from its sheath, however, 
while he lay in the grass, and his hair had 
almost lifted the cap from his head when he 
saw himself totally disarmed. As he had 
slackened his pace for a moment the Indian 
was almost in reach of him when he recom- 
menced the race ; but the idea of being 
without arms lent wings to his feet, and, for 
the first time, he saw himself gaining ground. 
He had watched the motions of his pursuer 
too closely, however, to pay proper attention 
to the nature of the ground before him, and 
he suddenly found himself in front of a large 
tree which had been blown down, and upon 
whicli brush and other impediments lay to 
the height of eight or nine feet. 

The Indian (who heretofore had not ut- 
tered the slightest sound^ now gave a short, 
quick yell, as if secure of his victim. Ken- 
nan had not a moment to deliberate. He 
must clear the impediment at a leap or per- 
ish. Putting his whole soul into the effort, 
he bounded into the air with a power which 
astonished himself, and clearing limbs, brush 
and everything else, alighted in perfect safety 
upon the other side. A loud yell of aston- 
ishment burst from the band of pursuers, not 
one of whom had the hardihood to attempt 
the same feat. Kennan, as may be readily 
imagined, had no leisure to enjoy his triumph, 
but dashing into the bed of the creek (upon 
the banks of which his feat had been per- 
formed), where the high banks would shield 
him from the fire of the enemy, he ran up 
the stream until a convenient place oifered for 
crossing, and rejoined the rangers in the rear 
of the encampment, panting from the fatigue 
of exertions which have seldom been sur- 
passed. No breathing time was allowed him, 
however. The attack instantly commenced, 
and, as we have already observed, was main- 
tained for three hours with unabated fury. 

When the retreat commenced, Kennan was 
attached to Maj. Clarke's battalion, and had 
the dangerous service of protecting the rear. 
This corps quickly lost its commander, and 
was completely disorganized. Kennan was 
among the hindmost when the fight com- 
menced, but exerting those same powers 
which had saved him in the morning, he 
quickly gained the front, passing several horse- 
men in the flight. Here he beheld a private 
in his own company, an intimate acquaintance, 
lying upon the ground with his thigh broken, 
and in tones of the most piercing distress, 
implored each horseman who hurried by to 
take him up behind him. As soon as he be- 
held Kennan coming up on foot, he stretched 
out his arms and called aloud upon him to 

save him. Notwithstanding the imminent 
peril of the moment, his friend could not 
reject so passionate an appeal, but seizing 
him in his arms he placed him upon his back 
and ran in that manner for several hundred 
yards. Horseman after horseman passed 
them, all of whom refused to relieve him of 
his burden. 

At length the enemy was gaining upon him 
so fast that Kennan saw their death certain 
unless he relinquished his burden. He 
accordingly told his friend that he had used 
every possible exertion to save his life, but in 
vain ; that he must relax his hold around his 
neck or they would both perish. The un- 
happy wretch, heedless of every remonstrance, 
still clung convulsively to his back, and im- 
peded his exertions until the foremost of the 
enemy (armed with tomahawks alone) were 
within twenty yards of them. Kennan then 
drew his knife from its sheath and cut the 
fingers of his companion, thus compelling 
him to relinquish his hold. The unhappy 
man rolled upon the ground in utter helpless- 
ness, and Kennan beheld him tomahawked 
before he had gone thirty yards. Relieved 
from his burden, he darted forward with 
an activity which once more brought him to 
the van. Here again he was compelled to 
neglect his own safety in order to attend to 
that of others. 

The late Governor Madison, of Kentucky, 
who afterwards commanded the corps which 
defended themselves so honorably at Raisin, 
a man who united the most amiable temper 
to the most unconquerable courage, was at 
that time a subaltern in St. Clair's army, and 
being a man of infirm constitution, was totally 
exhausted by the exertions of the morning 
and was now sitting down calmly upon a log, 
awaiting the approach of his eneiuies. 
Kennan hastily accosted him and inquired 
the cause of his delaj'. Madison, pointing to 
a wound which had bled profusely, replied 
that he was unable to walk any further, and 
had no horse. Kennan instantly ran back to 
a spot where he had seen an exhausted horse 
grazing, caught him without difficulty, and 
having assisted Madison to mount, walked by 
his side until they were out of danger. For- 
tunately, the pursuit soon ceased, as the 
plunder of the camp presented irresistible 
attractions to the enemy. The friendship thus 
formed between these two young men endured 
without interruption through life. Mr. 
Kennan never entirely recovered from the 
immense exertions which he was compelled 
to make during this unfortunate expedition. 
He settled in Fleming county, and continued 
for many years a leading member of the 
Baptist church. He died in 1 827. 

The number of Indians engaged in this action can never be ascertained 
with any degree of certainty. They have been variously estimated from 1,000 
to 3,000. 

Col John Johnston, long an Indian agent forming a correct opinion on this subject are 
in this region, and whose opportunities for worthy of consideration, in a communication 


to us (] 846), says : " The number of Indians unable to raise his arm. The principal tribes 

at the defeat of St. Clair, must have been in the battle were the Delawares, Shawanese, 

large. At that time game was plenty and Wyandots, Miamies and Ottawas, with some 

any number could be conveniently subsisted. Chippewas and Putawatimes. The precise 

Wells, one of our interpreters, was there number of the whole I had no accurate 

with and fought for the enemy. To use his means of knowing ; it could not be less than 

own language, he tomahawked and scalped 2,000." 
the wounded, dying and dead, until he was 

The following song is not the best of poetry, but it has frequently been sung 
with sad emotion, and is worthy of preservation as a relic of olden time : 


'Twas November the fourth, in the year of ninety-one, 
We had a sore engagement near to Fort Jefferson ; 
Sindaire was our commander, which may remembered be, 
For there we left nine hundred men in t' West'n Ter'tory. 

At Bunker's Hill and Quebeck. where many a hero fell. 
Likewise at Long Island, (it is I the truth can tell,) 
But such a dreadful carnage may I never see again 
As hap'ned near St. Mary's, upon the river plain. 

Onr army was attacked just as the day did dawn. 
And soon were overpowered and driven from the lawn. 
They killed Major Ouldhain, Levin and Briggs likewise. 
And horrid yells of sav'ges resounded through the skies. 

Major Butler was wounded in the very second fire ; 
His manly bosom swell'd with rage when forc'd to retire ; 
And as he lay in anguish, nor scarcely could he see, 
Exclaim'd, '" Ye hounds of hell, ! revenged I will be." 

We had not been long broken when General Butler found 

Himself so badly wounded, was forced to quit the ground. 

" My God ! " says he, "what shall we do, we're wounded every man? 

Go charge them, valiant heroes, and beat them if you can." 

He leaned his back against a tree, and there resigned his breath. 
And like a valiant soldier sunk in the arms of death ; 
When blessed angels did await, his spirit to convey ; 
And unto the celestial fields he quickly bent his way. 

We charg'd again with courage firm, but soon again gave ground, 
The war-whoop then redoubled, as did the foes around. 
They killed Major Ferguson, which caused his men to cry, 
" Our only safety is in flight, or fighting here to die." 

" Stand to your guns." says valiant Fo7-d, " let's die upon them here 
Before we let the sav'ges know we ever harbored fear." 
Our cannon-balls exhausted, and artill'ry-men all slain. 
Obliged were our musketmen the en'my to sustain. 

Yet three hours more we fought them, and then were forc'd to yield. 
When three hundred bloody warriors lay stretch'd upon the field. 
Says Colonel Gibson to his men, " My boj's, be not dismay' d ; 
I'm sure that true Virginians were never yet afraid. 

Ten thotisand deaths I'd rather die, than they should gain the field ! '' 
With that he got a fatal shot, which caused him to yield. 
Says Major Clark, "My heroes, I can here no longer stand. 
We'll strive to form in order, and retreat the best we can." 

The word, Ketreat, being pass'd around, there was a dismal cry. 
Then helter-skelter through the woods, like wolves and slieep liiey fly. 
This well-appointed army, wlio but a day before. 
Defied and braved all danger, had like a cloud pass'd o'er. 


AJas ! the dying and wounded, how dreadful was the thought, 
To the tomahawk and soalping-knife, in niis'ry are hrought.- 
Some had a thigh and some an arm broke on the field that day. 
Who writhed in torments at the stake, to close the dire affray. 

To mention our brave officers, is what I wish to do ; 

No sons of Mars e'er fought more brave, or with more courage true. 

To Captain Bradford I belonged, in his artillery. 

He fell that day amongst the slain ; a valiant man was he. 

Some time after the defeat of St. Clair, Wilkinson, who had succeeded him in 
the command of Fort Washington, ordered an expedition ta visit the battle- 
ground. Capt. Buntin, who was with the party, afterwards addressed a letter to 
St. Clair, from which we make an extract : 

In my opinion, those unfortunate men who 
fell into the enemy's hands with life were 
used with the greatest torture, having their 
limbs torn off; and the women have been 
treated with the most indecent cruelty, hav- 
ing stakes as thick as a person's arm driven 
through their bodies. 'The first I observed 
when burying the dead ; and the latter was 
discovered by Col. Sargent and Dr. Brown. 
We found three whole carriages ; the other 
five were so much damaged that they were 
rendered useless. By the general's orders pits 
were dug in different places, and all the dead 
bodies that were exposed to view or could be 
conveniently found (the snow being very deep) 
were buried. During this time there were 
sundry parties detached, some for our safety 
and others in examining the course of the 
creek ; and some distance in advance of the 
ground occupied by the militia, they found a 

large camp, not less than three-quarters of a 
mile long, which was supposed to be that of 
the Indians the night before the action. We 
remained on the field that night, and next 
morning fixed geared horses to the carriages 
and moved for Fort Jefferson. ... As there 
is little reason to believe that the enemy have 
carried off the cannon, it is the received 
opinion that they were either buried or 
thrown into the creek, and I think the latter 
the most probable ; but as it was frozen over 
with thick ice, and that covered with a deep 
snow, it was impossible to make a search with 
any prospect of success. In a former part 
of this letter I have mentioned the camp 
occupied by the enemy the night before the 
action ; had Col. Oldham been able to have 
complied with your orders on that evening 
things at this day might have worn a differ- 
ent aspect. 

Mr. McDowell, previously mentioned, 

He states that although the bodies were 
much abused and stripped of all of value 
they recognized and interred them in four 
large graves. Gen. Butler was found in the 
shattered remains of his tent. After he was 
wounded he was borne to the tent, and while 

one of those who visited the battle- 

two surgeons were dressing his wounds a ball 
struck one of them in the hip. At this 
instant, an Indian, who was determined to 
have the scalp of Butler, rushed in and while 
attempting to scalp hiui, was shot by the dy- 
ing surgeon. 

In December, 1793, Gen. Wayne, having arrived with his army at Greenville, 
sent forward a detachment to the spot of St. Clair's defeat. 

They arrived on the ground on Christmas 
day and pitched their tents on the battle- 
ground. When the men went to lie down in 
their tents at night they had to scrape the 
bones together and carry them out to make 
their beds. The next day holes were dug 
and the bones remaining above ground were 
buried, six hundred skulls being found among 
them. The flesh was entirely off the bones, 

and in many cases the sinews yet held them 
together. After this melancholy duty was 
performed a fortification was built and named 
Fort Recovery, in commemoration of its 
being recovered from the Indians, who had 
possession of tho ground in 1791. On the 
completion of the fort one company of artil- 
lery and one of riflemen were left, while the 
rest returned to Greenville. 

Attack on Fort Recovery. 
The site of St. Clair's battle became the scene of a sanguinary affair in the 
summer of 1794, while Wayne's army was encamped at Greenville, of which 
Burnet's Notes give the bfest description we have seen. 



On the 30th of June a very severe and 
bloody battle was fought under the walls of 
Fort Recovery between a detachment of 
American troops, consisting of ninety rifle- 
men and fifty dragoons, commanded by Major 
McMahon, "and a very numerous body of 
Indians and British, who at the same instant 
rushed on the detachment, and assailed the 
fort on ever}' side with great fury. They were 
repulsed with a heavy loss, but again rallied 
and renewed the attack, keeping up a heavy 
and constant fire during the whole day, 
which was returned with spirit and eflFect by 
the garrison. 

The succeeding night was foggy and dark 
and gave the Indians an opportunity of 
carrying ofi' their dead by torch-light, which 
occasionally drew a fire from the garrison. 
They, however, succeeded so well that there 
were but eight or ten bodies left on the 

f round, which were too near the garrison to 
e approached. On the next morning, 
McMahon' s detachment having entered the 
fort, the enemy renewed the attack and con- 
tinued it with great desperation during the 
day, but were ultimately compelled to retreat 
from the same field on which they had 
been proudly victorious on the 4th of Novem- 
ber. 1791. 

The expectation of the assailants must 
have been to surprise the post, and carry it 
by storm, for they could not possibly have 
received intelligence of the movement of the 
escort under Major McJIahon, which only 
marched from Greenville on the morning 
preceding^ and on the same evening depos- 
ited in Fort Recovery the supplies it had 
convoyed. That occurrence could not, there- 
fore, have led to the movement of the sav- 

Judging from the extent of their encamp- 
ment, and their line of march, in seventeen 
columns, forming a wide and extended front, 
and from other circumstances, it was believed 
their numbers could not have been less than 
from 1 ..500 to 2,000 warriors. It was also be- 
lieved that they were in want of provisions, as 
they had kOled and eaten a number of pack- 
horses in their encampment the evening after 
the assault, and also at their encampment on 
their return, seven miles from Recovery, 
where they remained two nights, having 
been much encumbered with their dead and 

From the official return of Major Mills, 
adjutant-general of the army, it appears that 
twenty-two officers and non-commissioned 
officei-s were killed, and thirty wounded. 
Among the former were Major McMahon, 
Capt. Hartshorn and Lieut. Craig : and 
among the wounded, Capt. Taylor of the 
dragoons and Lieut. Darke of the legion. 
Capt. Gib.«on, who commanded the fort, be- 
haved with great gallantry, and received 
the thanks of the commander-in-chief as 
did every ofiicer and soldier of the garrison 
and the escort who were engaged in that 
most gallant and successful defence. 

Immediately after the enemy had retreated 
it was a.scertained that their loss had been 

very heavy ; but the full extent of it was 
not known till it was disclosed at the treaty 
of Greenville. References were made to that 
battle by several of the oliiet's in council, 
from which it was manifest that they had 
not even then ceased to mourn the distressing 
losses sustained on that occasion. Having 
made the attack with a determination to carry 
the fort or perish in the attempt, they ex- 
posed their persons in an unusual degree, and 
of course a large number of the bravest of 
their chiefs and warriors perished before they 
abandoned the enterprise. 

From the facts afterwards communicated 
to the general it was satisfactorily ascertained 
that there were a considerable n\imber of 
British soldiers and Dctniit militia eniraged 
with the savages on tluit nccasinii. A few 
days previous to that aff'uir the general had 
sent out three small parties of Cliirka^aw and 
Choctaw Indians, to take prisoners for the 
purpose of obtaining information. One of 
those parties returned to Greenville on the 
28th, and reported that they had fallen in 
with a large body of Indians at Girty's Town 
(crossing of the St. Mary's), on the evening 
of the 2Tth of June, apparently bending their 
course towards Chillicothe, on the Miami ; 
and that there were a great many white men 
with them. The two other parties followed 
the trail of the hostile Indians, and were in 
sightwhen theassaulton the post commenced. 
They affirm, one and all, that there were a 
large number of armed white men, with 
painted faces, whom they frequently heard 
conversing in English, and encouraging the 
Indians to persevere ; and that there were 
also three British officers, dressed in scarlet, 
who appeared to be men of distinction from 
the great attention and respect which were 
paid to them. These persons kept at a dis- 
tance in the rear of the assailants. Another 
strong, corroborating proof that there were 
British soldiers and militia in the assault, is 
that a number of ounce-balls and buckshot 
were found lodged in the block-houses and 
stockades of the fort ; and that others were 
picked up on the ground, fired at such a dis- 
tance as not to have momentum sufficient to 
enter the logs. 

It was supposed that the British engaged 
in the attack expected to find the artil- 
lery that was lost on the fatal 4th of No- 
vember, which had been hid in the ground 
and covered with logs by the Indians in the 
vicinity of the battle-field. This inference 
was supported by the fact that during the 
conflict they were seen turning over logs and 
examining different places in the neighbor- 
hood, as if searching for something. There 
were many reasons for believing that they de- 
pended on that artillery to aid in the reduc- 
tion of the fort ; but fortunately most of it 
had been previou.';ly found by its legitimate 
owners, and was then employed in its de- 

James Neill, a pack-horse man in the 
American service, who was taken prisoner by 
the Indians during the attack, and tied to a 
stump about half a mile from the fort, after 


Ills return stated to the general that the en- the attack ; and on their return to the Miami 

eniy lost a great number in killed and the Indians stated that no men ever fought 

wounded ; that while he was at the stump he better than they did at Recovery ; and that 

saw about twenty of their dead and a great their party lost twice as many men in that 

many wounded carried off. He understood attack as they did at St. Clair's defeat, 
there were 1,500 Indians and white men in 

Jonathan Alder, who was then living with the Indians, gives in his manuscript 
autobiography an account of the attack on the fort. He states that Simon Girty 
was in the action, and that one of the American officers was killed by Thomas 
McKee, a son of the British agent. Col. Alexander McKee. AVe have room but 
for a single extract, .showing the risk the Indians encouutered to bring off their 

In the morning, when we arose, an old In- standing behind a big tree, Big Turtle or- 
dian addressed us, saying, "We last night dered us not to stop any more, but run in a 
went out to take the fort by surprise, and lost straight line, as we were only giving them 
several of our men killed and wounded. time to load — that those foremost in going 
There is one wounded man lying near the fort should have the liberty of first returning. He 
who must be brought away, for it would be an then pointed out the wounded man, and we 
eternal shame and scandal to the tribe to started in a straight line through a shower of 
allow him to fall into the hands of the whites bullets. When we reached him we were 
to ie massacred. I wish to know who will within sixty yards of the fort. We all seized 
volunteer to go and bring him away." Big him and retreated for our lives, first dodging 
Turtle, who knew where he lay, answered that from one side and then to the other, until 
he would go ; but as no one else volunteered, out of danger. None of us were wounded 
the old Indian pointed out several of us sue- but Big Turtle. A ball grazed his thigh and 
cessively, myself among the number, saying a number of bullets passed through his hunt- 
that we must accompany Big Turtle. Upon ing shirt that hung loose. When we picked 
this we rose up without a word and started. up the wounded man his shirt flew up, and I 
As soon as we came into the edge of the saw that he was shot in the belly. It was 
cleared ground those in the fort began shoot- green all around the bullet holes, and I con- 
ing at us. We then ran crooked, from one eluded that we were risking our lives for a 
tree to another, the bullets in the meanwhile dead man. 
flying about us like hail. At length, while 

A small village, now (1846) containing a k\\ only, was laid off on the 
site of St. Clair's defeat, in 1836, by Larkin and McDaniels. It is twenty-three 
miles north of Greenville. Many relics of the battle have been discovered — 
muskets, swords, tomahawks, scalping knives, cannon balls, grape and musket 
shot, etc. Among the bones found is that of a skull, now in possession of Mr. 
William McDaniels, showing the marks of a bullet, a tomahawk and a scalping 
knife. St. Clair lost several cannon, all of which but one were subsequently 
recovered by Wayne. This was long known to be missing, and about a dozen 
years since was discovered buried in the mud near the mouth of the creek. It is 
now in possession of an artillery company in Cincinnati. When the low ground in 
the valley of the river was cleared, several years since, a large quantity of bullets 
and grape shot were found in the bodies of trees, from twenty to thirty feet above 
the ground, from which it seems that the troops and artillery, having been sta- 
tioned on high ground, fired over the enemy. On burning the trees the lead 
melting ran down their trunks, discoloring them so much as to be perceived at a 
considerable distance. 

The remains of Major McMahon and his companions, who fell at the time of 
the attack on the fort, were buried within its walls. Some years since their bones 
were disinterred and reburied with the honors of war, in one coffin, in the village 
graveyard. McMahon was known from the size of his bones. He was about 6 
feet 6 inches in height. A bullet hole was in his skull, the ball liaving entered 
his temple and come out at the l)ack of his head. He was originally from near 
the Mingo bottom, just below Steiibenville. He was a liunoiis Indian fighter and 
captain, and classed by the borderers on the upper Ohio with Brady and the 
Wetzels.— OW FMxon. 

The Mekcer County Reservoir. 
Said to be the largest artificial lake on the globe. 

Ford Uiais, Photo., Celma, 1890. 

Street View in Celina. 


the right, the Reservoir 


Celina, county-seat of Mercer, on the Wabash river, 100 miles southwest of 
Toledo, about 100 miles north of Cincinnati, and about ninety miles northwest 
of Columbus, is on the L. E. & W., C. J. & M., and T., St. L. & K. C. Rail- 
roads ; is also on the Grand Reservoir, ten miles long — the largest artificial lake 
in the United States, covering 17,000 acres with an average depth of ten feet. 
County officers, 1888: Auditor, Theophihis G. Touvelle ; Clerk, Henry Len- 
nartz ; Commissioners, John H. Siebert, Peter Haubert, Christian Fanger ; Cor- 
oner, Theodore G. McDonald ; Infirmary Directors, Charles F. Lutz, Philip 
Heiby, David Overly ; Probate Judge, Stafford S. Scranton ; Prosecuting Attor- 
ney, Byron M. Clendening ; Recorder, William C. Snyder ; Sheriff", James F. 
Timmonds ; Surveyor, Justin M. DeFord ; Treasurer, Samuel A. Nickerson. 
City officers, 1888 : Joseph May, Mayor ; Charles Gable, Clerk ; H. F. Juneman, 
Treasurer ; George H. Houser, Marshal. Newsj)apers : Der Mercer County Bote, 
German, Democratic, William Stelzer, editor and publisher ; Mercer County Ob- 
server, Republican, Jameson & Ross, editors and publishers ; Mercer County Stand- 
ard, Democratic, A. P. Snyder, editor and publisher. Churches : one Catholic, 
one Lutheran, one Presbyterian, one United Brethren, one Methodist. Banks : 
Citizens', Chr. Schunck, president, J. W. DeFord, cashier ; Godfrey & Milligan. 

Manufactures and. Employees. — Krenning Woollen Mills, blankets, etc., 10 
liands ; Celina Machine Works, machine shop, 7 ; W. B. Nimmons, barrel heads, 
45 ; W. H. Beery, flour and feed, 4 ; Timmonds & Estry, doors, sash, etc., 6 ; A. 
W^'k()ft' & Son, carriages, etc., 10 ; Celina City Mills, flour, etc., 3. — Ohio State 
lie port, 1888. Population, 1880, 1,346. School census, 1888, 752 ; George S. 
Harter, school superintendent. Capital invested in industrial establishments, 
$79,525. Value of annual product, $132,500.— OAro Labor Statistics, 1888. 
Census, 1890, 2,684. 

Celina is steadily prospering ; its manufactures are chiefly wood, as are those of 
northwestern Oliio generally. The centre and south jmrt of the county is a rich 
gas field, while north of Celina extends the oil territory. Celina is a Democratic 
stronghold. It has furnished the Ohio Legislature with two Democratic speakers 
of the House in the persons of ex-Congressman F. C. Le Blond and Hon. A. D. 
Marsh, while Hon. Thomas Jefferson Godfrey in 1868 was president of the Sen- 
ate, and in 1869 was on the Democratic ticket for lieutenant-governor, with 
George H. Pendleton as candidate for governor ; he was a member of the Consti- 
tutional Convention of 1873-1874, and on the judiciary committee. He takes 
much interest in education, and has for years been a trustee of the State Univer- 
sity. The German Catholic element is strong in Celina, and, indeed, in the new 
northwest of Ohio generally, and it makes a thrifty, upright, industrious body 
of pioneers, intensely patriotic and well adapted to cope with a wilderness con- 

The old county-seat was St. Mary's, described on page 302, where stood the 
old fort St. Mary's, built by Wayne. Col. John Johnston gave us this account 
of the last commander of that fort, Capt. John Whistler, who appears to have 
been a remarkable man. 

rie was a suldier froui his youth, came to cession Forts St. Mary's, Wayne and Dear- 
Aujcricain Burgoyne's army, and was taken born, at Chicago. He built the latter without 
prisoner at Saratoga. He remained after- the aid of a horse or ox ; the timber and ma- 
wards in the United States, entered the terials were all hauled by the labor of the 
Western army under St. Clair, and survived soldiers, their commander always at their 
the disastrous defeat of November, 179J, at head assisting. He could recruit more men 
which he acted as sergeant. In 1793 an order and perform more labor than any other oflBcer 
came from the war otfice, purporting that any in the army. Age and hard service at length 
non-commissioned officer who should raise broke him down. He retired from the line 
twenty-five recruits would receive the com- of the army and received the appointment 
mission of an ensign. He succeeded in this of military storekeeper at St. Louis, where 
way in obtaining the office, from which he he died about 1826. 
rose to a captaincy, and commanded in sue 


By the formation of Auglaise county in 1848, St. Mary's was embodied in it, 
although Celina, then as now, was the county-seat. It had but few inhabitants. 
Ceiina was surveyed and laid out by James Watson Riley, for himself, Ilufus W. 
Stearnes, Robert Linzer, 2d, and Peter Aughenbaugh, joint proprietors of the 
land, and the plat recorded September 8, 1834. The name Celina was given after 
that of Salina, N. Y., because, like that place, it stood at the head of a lake. 
. The name was changed in spelling from " Sa " to " Ce," to prevent confusion of 
post-offices. The town slowly got a start, and when the Harrison campaign ensued 
in 1(S40, the county officers had removed here from St. Mary's, and got domiciled 
in log lints, and the court-house had received its roof 

After the excitement of the Harrison campaign was over, a chopping frolic or 
" bee " was held to cut down the timber on tile town site, and give the sun a 
chance to dry up the mud. So, on a beautiful Indian summer day about seventy 
experienced choppers from all the country round came to Celina with their sharp, 
glistening axes ; women, too, came with them to do their cooking ; and, after a 
great day of work, they partook of a generous supper of substantial, and then 
ensued a grand dance, kept up by many until daylight did appear. When they 
cleared the woods they adopted the method described on page 468. 


This is Thursday evening, December 9, and I am in Celina, county-seat of 
Mercer, and the southernmost of the wild counties of Ohio on the Indiana line. 
I got here by rail from Paulding near sunset, in a freight train with a caboose 
attached, and through the woods nearly all the way. This entire wild region of 
woods and swamps of Northwestern Ohio fill one with an indescribable emotion 
of coming greatness from its great fertility when cleared and drained. In the 
meanwhile its wood crop yields full reward for manly toil. 

Celina, with its effeminate, soft-sounding name, is small and has the aspect ot 
newness as though the ])lace itself was but newly arrived. From its name we 
should look for a refined and gentle population. Its main street is very broad, 
and I walked in the beautiful crisp air and in the bright moon to its foot where 
lies the great ai-tificial lake. Boys and girls were there skating — their glad voices 
rang on the air. 

Lines of fish^houses are on the banks. The resort for pic-nic parties, hunting and fish- 
old picture which I took in 1846 of the lake ing, which is reached by a small steamer and 
was at the St. Slary's end, ten miles east. various other boats. The fish are largely 
In it are shown dead forests standing in the caught by nets, as black and rock bass, cat- 
water. These now have disappeared every- fish, roach, bull heads, ring perch, etc. Dur- 
where and in their places stand decayed and ing the spring and autumn of each year wild 
decaying stumps, projecting a few inches fowl gather here in large and incredible num- 
above the water, their many miles of black hers, and as a fishing and hunting resort it is 
heads showing where the forests had been very attractive, and large parties come here 
a singular appearance for the surface of for that purpose from all parts of the 
the lake. Under the water the wood is pre- State. 

served from decay by its continuous immer- It is now nine o'clock and I am in the 
sion. By the rise and fall of the water the depot at Celina, and make this note : " In a 
exposed part of the stumps decay. The de- few minutes shall start South. ' ' It has been 
cayed vegetable matter when the water is low a clear, glorious, sunny winter day ; no over- 
fills the aTr with a horrible odor, which I am coat wanted. Mere existence has been joy- 
told is some summers so sickening as to ous. The sun has set bright over a dead 
almost drive the people away. In time this , level forest country and the full moon risen 
will be remedied by a systematic clearing huge in the East. But the train is approach- 
away of the stumps, or sawing them off below ing; its big head-light looms up in the dis- 
the lowest water-line. tance, seeming to say. " I'm coming to bear 

Several small islands are in the lake, one you on your way." Slow, stumbling "Old 

of which — Eagle's Island— is the abode of a Pomp " has had his day. 
professional fisherman ; another is a pleasure 

The father of Celina was James Watson Riley. He was the son of Captain 



James Riley, the once Arab captive, whose histoiy is given in Van Wert count)-. 
The son was born in 1804, in Middletown, Connecticut, and came with his family 
to Ohio when quite young. The inscription on his monument in Celina ia 
annexed : 

In Heaven Rest. 

Sacred to the Memory of our Father, 



January, 1870. 


65 years, 10 months and 11 days. 

There never lived a better husband, a kinder father, 
a truer friend. 

He was a somewhat tall, wiry man of great energy and push, whom I grate- 
fully remember, he having supplied me with valuable material for my original 
edition. The inscription on his monument is a model. One feels it is true ; an 
emanation from a loving heart. Better than all titleSj^ and all honors, and all 
material possessions, is it, to deserve such an epitaph. 

His life, was, however, great, because given to developing the swamp region of 
the State, and he was the proprietor of the towns of Van Wert, Paulding and 
Celina, all county-seats, which he surveyed and founded. His ambition was to 
enter the wilderness, carve out villages which should serve as centres for young 
prospering communities. To have been the creator of three county-seats is an 
extraordinary honor, not, we think, paralleled anywhere. 

Public office sought him ; at one time he was Register of the United States 
Land Office. He was an ardent Whig in the old Tippecanoe times and made a 
strong contest for Congress in opposition to Hon. Wm. Sawyer. The district 
was hopelessly Democratic, but bv stumping it he reduced Mr. Sawyer's majority 
from 2,500 to 1,000. 

Sawyer represented this Congressional 
district from 1845 to 1849, and he got fastened 
upon him the epithet of "Sausage." And 
this was the way of it : Wm. E. Robinson, 
the waggish reporter "Richelieu," of the 
New York Tribune, had given a comic 
description of the Hon. Wm. Sawyer's bring- 
ing on to the floor of Congress a cold lunch, 
and spreading it on his desk and partaking of 

it with a gusto in the presence of his fellow- 
members while in session. 

Cold sausage, as described, was the prin- 
ciple article of the menu. The Democratic 
majority expelled Mr. Robinson, but he came 
back some years later and took his seat, not 
this time in the reporter's gallery, but on the 
floor of the House, right among the Demo- 
crats, as the Democratic member from the 



Brooklyn, New York, district. Mr. Sawyer 
was ever after known as " Sausage Sawyer." 
It was a cruel epithet to apply to a worthy 

Robinson was a red-headed North of 
Ireland man, educated in this country ; his 
college mates called him "Jack." He oozed 
with fun ; couldn't help it ; was born that 
way. This made him, m his youthful days, 
a favorite on the Whig platform, to which he 
was always called with vociferous yells and 
stampings. We once saw him mount the 
orating stage, throw his hat, an old soft, 
white hat which he had under his arm, at 
his feet and make a comic apostrophe to it 
as an opening to more fun. Jack we believe 
and hope is yet living, and if living must 
have opened this very day with a good joke, 
possibly may have lunched on cold sausage. 
The last we saw of Jack was fourteen years 
ago ; he was on a public platform as a com- 
panion to Dr. John G. Holland, the poet. 
His red hair had bleached to a dull white and 
stood out huge and bushy in all directions, 
which gave to him a sage and venerable 

Slang epithets and fancy names, we believe, 
are universal. Public men are especially 
favored. Napoleon the First was dubbed by 
his soldiers "Little Corporal," and Welling- 
ton travelled as the "Iron Duke." Coming 
to our own country, Andrew Jackson was 
"Old Hickory;" Martin Van Buren, the 
" Little Magician ; " Thomas Benton, " Old 
Bullion;" John Quincy Adams, the "Old 
Man Eloquent ; " Daniel Webster, the " God- 
like Webster " and " Black Dan ; " General 
W infield Scott, " Fuss and Feathers ; " Henry 
Clay, "Mill Boy of the Slashes" and 
"Cooney;" Mr. Blaine, the "Plumed 
Knight; " and General Butler, " Spoons." 

Coming to Ohio we find General W. H. 
Harrison was a "Granny;" Thomas Cor- 
win, a "Wagon Boy;" Gov. Wood, "Tall 
Chief of the Cuyah-ogas ; ' ' Hon. Samuel Me- 
dary, ' ' War Horse of the Democracy ; ' ' Gov. 
Allen, "Chinese Gong" and "Fog Horn," 
from his tremendous voice, and then having 
used in a speech the sentence, " Earthquake 
of indignation," became "Earthquake Al- 
len;" Mr. Ewing was "Solitude Ewing," 
from a speech in the Senate when, speaking 
of the disastrous eifects of the removal of 
the deposits from the United States Bank by 
General Jackson, he had said : "Our canals 

have become a solitude, and the lake a desert 
waste of waters." This term solitude is 
poetical, having in it the element of pleasing 
melancholy. Possibly, in using it Mr. Ewing 
may have been reading "Zimmerman on 
Solitude." If he had lived to our time it 
might have been Algers' "Genius of Soli- 
tude," which last we can commend to all 
thoughtful souls who have aspirations for in- 
dulgence in " pleasing melancholy." 

Coming to tne war period and later, " Old 
Stars" stood for the astronomer, General 
Ormsby Knight Mitchell. He had pointed 
his telescope so much aloft to see what Jupi- 
ter and its trave'ling moons weri3 doing, his 
soldiers thought "Old Stars " was a good fit. 
" Uncle Billy " is a term of endearment for 
Sherman. As they use it the old veterans 
feel drawn closer to the General, their hearts 
beating in unison. They realize in the time 
of trouble he had a brother's love, was ready 
to share his last cracker with them as he is 
now to welcome them and their wives and 
daughters, greeting the latter sometimes with 
the fraternal kiss; "for of such is," etc. 
" Little Breeches " for a while was Mr. For- 
aker's designation, growing out of his youth- 
ful experience ; like the breeches it had no 
permanence, soon was worn out and cast 
away; but Jud^e Tliurman remains "Hon- 
est," while "King Bob" yet wears the 

In private life nicknames are endless. Our 
Indians appear to have none other. "Fool 
Dog " designated a Sioux chief Said a de- 
partment commander of the army to us : 
"Fool Dog was as ^ood a man as I ever 
knew ; he was esceedmgly fond of me. Yes, 
I think Fool Dog would have died forme." 
Every reader must remember some of his 
schoolmates that had eccentric appellations. 
One I had was known as " Scoopendiver 
Bill." How he got it I never knew; but I 
did of another, "Boots." His father had 
sent him with his boots for the mending ; the 
lad drew them over his own boots, and 
shuffling past the school-house when hi.s mates 
were out at play, they filled the air with the 
cry of "Boots! boots! boots!" The epithet 
"Boots" became a permanent fixture. His 
real name passed into oblivion, his school- 
mates never using any other than "Boots." 
He is yet living, but being aged it must be as 
'•Old Boots." 

The Mercer County Reservoir. 

The largest artificial lake, it is said, on the globe, is formed by the reservoir 
supplying the St. Mary's feeder of the Miami extension canal, from which it is 
situated three miles west. The reservoir is about nine miles long and from two 
to four broad. It is on the summit, between the Oliio and the lakes. About one- 
half in its natural state was a prairie, and the remainder a forest. It was formed 
by raising two walls of earth, from ten to twenty-five feet high, called respectively 
the East and West embankment, the first of which is about two miles and the 
last near four in length. These walls, with the elevation of the ground to the 
north and south, form a huge basin to retain the water. 



The reservoir was commenced in 1837 and 
completed in 1845, at an expense of several 
hundred thousand dollars. The west embank- 
ment was completed in 1843. The water filled 
in at the upper end to the depth of several 
feet, but as the ground rose gradually to the 
east it overiJowed for several miles to the 
depth of a few inches only. This vast body 
of water thus exposed to the powerful rays 
of the sun, would, if allowed to have re- 
mained, have bred pestilence through the 
adjacent country. Moreover, whole farms 
that belonged to individuals, yet unpaid for 
by the State, were completely submerged. 
Under these circumstances, about one hun- 
dred and fifty residents of the county turned 
out with spades and shovels and by two days 
of industry tore a passage for the water 
through the embankment. It cost several 
thousand dollars to repair the damage. 
Among those concerned in this aifair were 
persons high in official station and respect- 
ability, some of whom here for the first time 
blistered their hands at manual labor. They 
were all liable to the State law making the 
despoiling of public works a penitentiary of- 
fence, but a grand jury could not be found 
in Mercer to find a bill of indictment. 

The Legislature, by a joint resolution, 
passed in 1837, resolved that no reservoir 

The foregoing account of the reservoir is from our original edition. The 
Mercer County Standard of April, 1871, has a fuller description, from which we 
take some items : 

should be made for public canals without the 
timber being first cleared ; it was unheeded 
by officers 'n charge of this work. The trees 
were only girdled and thus thousands of acres 
of most valuable timber that would have been 
of great value to the Commonwealth in 
building of bridges and other constructions 
on the public works wantonly wasted. 

The view of the reservoir was taken from 
the east embankment, and presents a singular 
scene. In front are dead trees and stumps 
scattered about, and roofs of deserted cabins 
rising from the water. Beyond a cluster of 
green prairie grass waves in the rippling 
waters, while to the right and left thousands 
of acres of dead forest trees, with no sign of 
life but a few scattered willows bending in 
the water, combine to give an air of wintry 
desolation to the scene. The reservoir abounds 
in fish and wild fowl, while innumerable 
frogs make the air vocal with their bellow- 
ings. The water is only a few feet deep, and 
in storms the waves dash up six or eight 
feet and foam like an ocean in miniature. 
A few years since a steamer twenty-five feet 
in length, called the "Seventy-six," with a 
boiler of seventy gallons capacity, a pipe 
four feet in height, and commanded by 
Captain Gustavus Darnold, plied on its 

Justin Hamilton, of Mercer county, intro- 
duced a resolution into the Legislature, which 
was unanimously adopted : "That no water 
should be let into the reservoir before the same 
should be cleared of timber and the parties 
paid for this land." The Legislature appro- 
priated $20,000 for this purpose, but it was 
squandered by the officers and land specu- 

When the water was let in, growing crops 
of wheat belonging to various owners and 
other farm property were submerged. The 
people, indignant, held a public meeting at 
Celina, May 3, 1843 ; chose Samuel Ruckman, 
County Commissioner, President, and sent 
Benjamin Linzee to Piqua to lay their griev- 
ances, with an address, before the head of tlie 
Board of Public Works, Messrs. Spencer and 
Ramsey, etc., who returned the sneering 
answer, ''ffelp yourselves if you can." 

On the 12th the meeting returned ISIr. 
Linzee to Piqua with the answer, that if they 
did not pay for the land and let off the water, 
they would out the bank on the 15th. The 
reply came back, "77ie Piqua Guards will he 
ivith you and rout you on that day." 

John W. Erwin, the old canal engineer, in a recent newspaper publication, 
states : This reservoir often feeds sixty miles or more of canal and discharges»into 
the Maumee, at Defiance, 3,000 cubic feet of water per minute, after having been 
used over a fall of thirt3'-five feet for hydraulic purpose. The water which 
escapes at the west bank of the Grand Eeservoir (by the Wabash river) fiiid.s its 

At seven o'clock on the morning of the 
15th more than one hundred citizens, with 
shovels, spades and wheel-barrows, were on 
the spot. The place selected was the strongest 
on the bank in the old Beaver channel, and, 
careful not to damage the State, the dirt was 
wheeled back on the bank on each side. Next 
day at noon the cutting was complete, and 
was dug six feet below the level of the lake 
with a flimsy breastwork to hold back the 

When the tools were taken out and all 
ready, Samuel Ruckman said, " Wiio will 
start the water?" "I,"- said John Sun- 
day;" "I," said Henry Linzee, and in a 
moment the meandering waters were hurling 
down fifty yards below the bank. It was six 
weeks before the water subsided. 

Warrants were issued for all engaged in the 
work, and this included all the county officers, 
judges, sheriffs, clerks, auditor, etc. As 
stated the grand jury refused to find a bill 
and it cost the State $17,000 to repair the 


way into the Gulf of Mexico, and that which escapes at the east end finds its way 
into the Gulf of St. Lawrence. 

In our oriffinal edition we made the following statement in regard to a colony 
of colored people which amounted to several hundred pei-sons : They live prin- 
cipally by agriculture, and own extensive tracts of land in the townships of 
Granville, Franklin and Mercer. They bear a good reputation for morality, and 
manifest a laudable desire for mental improvement. This settlement was found(d 
by the exertions of Mr. Augustus Wattles, a native of Connecticut, who, instead 

Draini bi/ Ilmry Uoice i)i 1S46. 

Emlex Institute. 

of merely theorizing upon the evils which prevent the moral and mental advance- 
ment of the colored race, has acted in their behalf with a philanthropic, Christian- 
like zeal that evinces he has their real good at heart. The history of this settle- 
ment is given in the annexed extract of a letter from him. 

My early education, as you well know, 
would naturally lead me to look upon learn- 
ing and good morals as of infinite importance 
ill a land of liberty. In the winter of 1833-4 
I providentially became acquainted with the 
colored population of Cincinnati, and found 
about 4,000 totally ignorant of everything 
calculated to make good citizens. Most of 
them had been slaves, shut out from every 
avenue of moral and mental improvement. I 
started a seliool for them and kept it up mth 
two hundred pupils for two years. I then 
proposed to the colored people to move into 
the country and purchase land, arid remove 
from these contaminating influences which 
had so long crushed them in our cities and 
villages. They oromised to do so, provided 
I would accompany them and teach school. 
I travelled through Canada, Michigan and 
Indiana looking for a suitable location, and 
finally settled here, thinking this place con- 
tained more natural advantages than any other 
unoccupied country within my knowledge. 
In 183.5 I made the first purchase for colored 
people in this county. In about three years 
they owned not far from 30,000 acres. I had 
travelled into almost every neighborhood of 
colored people in the State and laid before 

them the benefits of a permanent home for 
themselves and of education for their chil- 
dren. In my first journey through the 
State I established, by the assistance and co- 
operation of abolitionists, twenty-five schools 
for colored children. I collected of the col- 
ored people such money as they had to spare 
and entered land for them. Many, who had 
no money, afterwards succeeded in raising 
some and brought it to me. With this I bought 
land for them. 

I purchased for myself one hundred and 
ninety acres of land to establish a manual 
labor school for colored boys. I had sus- 
tained a school on it, at my own expense, till 
the nth of November, 1842. Being in 
Philadelphia the winter before I be.iame ac- 
quainted with the trustees of the late Samuel 
Lmlen, of New Jersey, a Friend. He left by 
his will $20,000 for the " support and educa- 
tion in school learning and the mechanic arts 
and agriculture such colored boys, of African 
and Indian descent, whose parents would give 
them up to the institute." We united our 
means and they purchased my farm and 
appointed me the superintendent of tlie 
establishment, which they call the Euileu 


In 1846 Judge Leigh, of Virginia, purchased 3,200 acres of land in this settle- 
ment for the freed slaves of John Randolph, of Roanoke. These arrived in the 
summer of 1846 to the number of about four hundred, but were forcibly pre- 
vented from making a settlement by a portion of the inhabitants of the county. 
Since then acts of hostility have been commenced against the people of this settle- 
ment, and threats of greater held out if they do not abandon their lands and 
homes. — Old EdUion. 

From a statement in the county history issued in 1882 we see that a part of 
tlic Randolph negroes succeeded in effecting a settlement at Montezuma, Frank- 
lin township, just south of the reservoir. 

Fort Recovery is on the south bank of the Wabash river, one and a half 
miles east of the Indiana State line, fifteen miles southwest of Celina, on the L. 
E. & W. R. R. Newspapers : News, Independent, Charles L. Patcliell, editor 
and publisher ; Times, Democratic, A. Sutherland, editor and publisher. 
Ciiurches : one Catholic, one Methodist, one Congregational, one Christian, one 
Lutheran. Bank : G. R. McDaniel. School census, 1888, 347 ; D. W. K. 
Martin, school superintendent. 

Fort Recovery is in the midst of a great gas field. On Wednesday, March 
28, 1887, the first well was struck. It was well named " Mad Anthony." It 
came with a mighty roar at only a depth of five hundred and ten feet. " Hats 
went up, cheers rang out " and, writes one, " the glad light of happiness, enthu- 
siasm and prosperity shone in the eyes of our people. The test shows two millions 
of cubic feet daily from this well alone." 

Tlie great .event at this place was the defeat of St. Clair, already largely 
detailed. Since the issue of our original account in 1847, Fort Recovery has been 
the scene of a reminder of that sad day, here detailed. 

BURIAL OF THE REMAINS OF THE SLAIN. Clair's army. The crowd was immense, 
,., ,„^, ,, , ,, and the procession was formed under 
, i >^ 1 ' ,f "•''■. .^'«^^y ""^"^ ^"^ charge of General James Watson Riley and 
washed off the earth, a discovery of a hu- ^.^^^ q^^ hundred and four pall-bearers 
man skull m the streets of Recovery, near ^^^^ different counties headed the proces- 
the site of the old fort, led to a further ^-^^^ -^ ^^ „f ^he coffins, and were fol- 
search, when the skeletons of some sixty j^^^^^ ^ soldiers, ladies and citizens gen- 
persons were exhumed, well preserved It ^,.^„ f^^ming a column a mile long, while 
was resolved to reinter them, with suitable „,^^^^,- to the stand, in full view of the 
ceremonies. They were placed in thirteen t^ttle-g^ound, when Judge Bellamy Storer 
different coffins representing the thirteen ^^y^^^^^^ ^„ eloquent address in his fervid, 
btates of the Union at the time of the ^.j^tj^ stvle. On the close of the pro- 
hntr p hp hnnp« showpd v^arioiis V mnrka '^ ,. ..^ . ...,•. 

battle. The bones showed variously marks 

ceedings, the procession moved to the 

of the bullet, tomahawk and scalping- j^^^ bur'ying-ground, and the thirteen cof- 

A ^j jii fins deposited in one grave just sixty years 

On a fine day, SeptemberlO, ensued the ^^^^^ /he battle. 

ceremony of the burial of the slain of ot. 

Shane's Crossing is eleven miles north of Celina, on the southern division 
of the T. D. & B. and C. J. & M. Railroads. Newspaper: Free Press, D. C. 
Kinder, editor and publisher. Bank: Farmers'. Population, 1880, 404. School 
census, 1888, 308. 

Historically this is an interesting spot. the name of Shanesville, which it retained 

It is on the south bank of St. Mary's river. until 1866, when it was incorporated and 

Originally it was on or near the site of the took its original name as Shane's Crossing. 

Indian village Old Totvn. This was an old When the Shawnese left Ohio for Kansas, 

trading post held and conducted by the In- Shane, then a very old man, went with them, 

dians prior to the war of 1812, and named Shanesville, St. Mary's and "Coil Town" 

from Anthony Shane, a half-breed Indian were the early contestants for the seat of 

trader. At this spot Wayne's army crossed justice for the county. Coil Town passed 

going north, and the spot eventually became away, became a cultivated field. The first 

known as Shane's Crossing. The United term of court was held at Shanesville, Judge 

States granted a reservation here to Shane Low presiding; but St. Mary's won the 

and he laid out a town on his land June 23, prize, and then it later passed to Celina. 

1820; it was recorded at Greenville under Anthony Shane appears in a snake story. 


Mr. John Sutton, an early settler, while hunt- he could shortly with them cure the foot. 

ing medicinal herbs for a sick horse, was bitten Being answered in the negative he killed 

on the foot by a spotted rattlesnake, when. some black chickens, dressed and applied 

as a remedy, his bitten foot was buried in the them to the foot and on the third application 

ground. Anthony Shane was then sent for, pronounced it cured, 
who asked if they had any black cats, saying 

Mexdon is eleven miles northeast of Celina, on the 1). Ft. W. & C. H. K. 
Population, 1880, 242. School census, 1888, 144. 

CoLDWATER is five miles southwest of Celina, on the L. E. & AV. and C. J. 
& M. Railroads. School census, 1888, 269. 

Mercer is eight miles north of Celina, on the D. Ft. W. & C. R. R. School 
census, 1888, 129. 

St. Henry is twelve miles southwest from Celina, on the C. J. & M. R. R. 
School census, 1888, 218. 


Miami County was formed from Montgomery, January 16, 1807, and 
Staunton made the temporary seat of justice. The word Miami, in the Ottawa 
language, is said to signify mother. The name Miami was originally the designa- 
tion of the tribe who anciently bore the name of " Tewighiewee." This tribe were 
the original inhabitants of the Miami valley, and affirmed they were created in 
it. East of the Miami the surface is gently rolling, and a large proportion of it 
a rich alluvial soil ; west of the Miami the surface is generally level, the soil 
a clay loam and better adapted to small grain and grass than corn. The 
county abounds in excellent limestone and has a large amount of water power. 
In agricultural resources this is one of the richest counties in the State. 

Area about 400 square miles. In 1887 the acres cultivated were 137,922 ; 
in pasture, 7,159 ; woodland, 23,601 ; lying waste, 2,338 ; produced in wheat, 
956,331 bushels; rye, 1,578; buckwheat, 87; oats, 454,112; barley, 27,349; 
corn, 1,520,000; broom-corn, 9,690 lbs. brush ; meadow hav, 8,175 tons; clover 
hay, 7,806; flax, 833,800 lbs. fibre ; potatoes, 47,593 bushels ; tobacco, 463,120 
lbs. ; butter, 536,213 ; cheese, 13,400 ; sorghum, 4,731 gallons ; maple svrup, 
8,627 ; honej', 6,225 lbs. ; eggs, 433,940 dozen ; grapes, 26,635 lbs. ; sweet 
potatoes, 1,927 bushels ; apples, 1,395; peaches, 102; pears, 831 ; wool, 22,088 
lbs.; milch cows owned, 6,033. Ohio mining .statistics, 1888 : Limestone, 8,635 
tons burned for lime; 73,096 cubic feet of dimension stone ; 45,275 cubic yards 
of building stone ; 5,007 cubic yards for piers or protection purposes ; 27,582 
square feet of flagging ; 37,850 square feet of paving; 30,558 lineal feet of curb- 
ing ; 8,077 cubic vards of ballast or macadam. School censui, 1888, 12,038 ; 
teachers, 266. Miles of railroad track, 121. 

Townships and Census. 1840. 1880. Townships and Census. 1840. 1880. 

Bethel, 1,586 1,854 Elizabeth, 1,398 1,327 

Brown, 1,230 1,863 Lost Creek, 1,304 1,450 

Concord, 2,408 5,354 Monroe, 1,409 2,829 


Townships and Census. 









Spring Creek, 



Townships and Census. 1840. 1880. 

Staunton, 1,231 1,292 

Union, 2,221 3,859 

Washington, 2,642 7,204 

Population of Miami in 1820, 8,851 ; 1830, 12,807; 1840, 19,804; I860, 
29,959 ; 1880, 36,158, of whom 28,832 were born in Ohio ; 1,882, Pennsylvania ; 
599, Virginia; 570, Indiana ; 321, New York ; 243, Kentucky ; l,376,"German 
Empire; 413, Ireland; 159, England and Wales; 93, France; 48, British 
America; and 14, Scotland. Census, 1890, 39,754. 

Reminiscences of Clarke's Expedition. 

Prior to the settlement of Ohio, Gen. George Rogers Clarke led an expedition 
from Kentucky against the Indians in tiiis region, an account of which follows 
from the reminiscences of Abraham Thomas, originally published in the Troy 
Times. Mr. Thomas, it is said, cut the first sapling on the site of Cincinnati : 

was called the French store. We soon caught 
a Fivncliiuan, tied liini on liorsebaek for our 
puide and arrived at the place in the night. 
The Indians had taken alarm and cleared out ; 
we, however, broke up and burned the 
Frenchman's store, which had for a longtime 
been a place of outfit for Indian marauders 
and returned to the n)ain bodj' early in the 
morning, many of our men well stocked 
with plunder. After burning and otherwise 
destroying everything about upper and lower 
Piqua towns we commenced our return 

In this attack five Indians were killed dur- 
ing the night the expedition lay at Piqua ; the 
Indians lurked around the camp, firing ran- 
dom shots from the hazel thickets without 
doing us any injury ; but two men who were 
in search of their stray horses were fired upon 
and severely wounded ; one of those aied 
shortly after and was buried at what is now 
called " Coe's Ford," where we reerossed 
the Miami on our return. The other, Capt. 
McCracken, lived until we reached the site of 
Cincinnati, where he was buried. On this 
expedition we had with us Capt. Barbee, 
afterwards Judge Barbee, one of my primitive 
neighbors in Miami country, Ohio, a most 
worthy and brave man, with whom I have 
hunted, marched and watched through many 
a long day, and finally removed with him to 

In the year 1782, after corn planting, I 
again volunteered in an expedition under 
General Clarke with the object of destroying 
some Indian villages about Piqua, on the 
Great Miami river. On this occasion nearly 
1,000 men marched out of Kentucky by the 
route of Licking river. We crossed the Ohio 
at the present site of Cincinnati where our 
last year's stockade had been kept up, and a 
few people then resided in lo^-cabins. We 
proceeded immediately onward through the 
woods without regard to our former trail, and 
crossed Mad river not far from the present 
site of Dayton ; we kept up the east side of 
the Miami and crossed it about four miles 
below the Piqua towns. Shortly after gaining 
the bottom on the west side of the river, a 
party of Indians on horseback with their 
squaws came out of a trace that led to some 
Indian villages near the present site of Gran- 
ville. They were going on a frolic, or pow- 
wow, to be held at Piqua, and had with them 
a Mrs. McFall, who was some time before 
taken prisoner from Kentucky ; the Indians 
escaped into the woods leaving their women, 
with Mrs. McFall, to the mercy of our com- 
pany. We took those along with us to Piqua 
and JMrs. McFall returned to Kentucky. On 
arriving at Piqua we found that the Indians 
had fled from the villages, leaving most of 
their eflfects behind. During the following 
night I joined a party to break up an encamp- 
ment of Indians said to be lying about what 

Early Settlements. 
From the " Miami County Traditions," also published in the Troy Times, 
in 1839, we annex some reminiscences of the settlement of the county and 
its early settlers : 

Among the first settlers who established 
ihemselvesin Miamicounty was John Knoop. 
lie removed from Cumberland county,- Penii. . 
ill 1797. In the spring of that year he came 
down the Ohio to Cincinnati and cropped the 
first season on Zeigler's stone-house farm, 
four miles above Cincinnati, then belonging 

to John Smith. During the summer he 
mmle two excursions into the Indian country 
with surveying parties and at that time 
selected the land he now owns and occupies. 
The forest was then full of Indians, priflci- 
pally Shawnees, but there were small bands 
of Mingoes, Delawares, Miamis and Pota- 



watomies, peacefully hunting through the 
country. Early the next spring, in 179S, Mr. 
Knoop removed to near the present, site of 
Staunton village, and in connection with 
Benjamin Knoop, Henry Garard, Benjamin 
Hamlet and John Tildus, established there 
a station for the security of their families. 
Mrs. Knoop, now living, there planted the 
first apple tree introduced into Miami county, 
and one is now standing in the yard of 
their house raised from seed then planted 
that measures little short of nine feet around 
it. . . . 

Dutch Station. — -The inmates of a station 
in the county, called the Dutch station, re- 
mained within it for two years, during which 
time they were occupied in clearing and build- 
ing on their respective farms. Here was 
born in 1 798 JacoD Knoon, the son of John 
Knoop, the first civilized native of Miami 
county. At this time there were three young 
single men living at the mouth of Stony 
creek, and cropping on what was afterwards 
called Freeman's prairie. One of these was 
D. H. Morris, a present resident of Bethel 
township ; at the same time there resided at 
Piqua, Samuel Hilliard, Job Garrard, Shad- 
rach Hudson, Jonah Rollins, Daniel Cox, 

Thomas Rich and Hunter ; these last 

named had removed to Piqua in 1797, and 
together with our company at the Dutch sta- 
tion, comprised all the inhabitants of Miami 
county from 1797 to 1799. In the latter year 
John, afterwards Judge Garrard, Nathaniel 
and Abner Garrard, and the year following, 
Uriah Blue, Joseph Coe and Abraham Hath- 
away, joined us vrith their families. From 
that time all parts of the county began to re- 
ceive numerous immigrants. For many years 
the citizens lived together on_ footings of the 
most social and harmonious intercourse — we 
were all neighbors to each other in the Sa- 
maritan sense of the term — there were some 
speculators and property-hunters among us, 
to be sure, but not enough to disturb our 
tranquility and general confidence. For many 
miles around we knew who was sick, and what 
ailed them, for we took a humane interest in 
the welfare of all. Many times were we - 
called from six to eight miles to assist at a 
rolling or raising, and cheerfully lent our 
assistance to the task. For our accommoda- 
tion we sought the mill of Owen Davis, 
afterwards Smith's mill, on Beaver creek, a 
tributary of the Little Miami, some twenty- 
seven miles distant Our track lay throujrh 
the woods, and two days were consumed in 
the trip, when we usually took two horse- 
loads. Owen was a kind man, considerate of 
his distant customers, and would set up all 
night to oblige them, and his conduct mate- 
rially abridged our mill duties. 

With the Indians we lived on peaceable 
terms ; sometimes, however, panics would 
spread among the women, which disturbed 
us a little, and occasionally we would have a 
horse or so stolen. But one man only was 
killed out of the settlement from 1 797 to 
181 1. This person was one Bojner, who was 
shot by a straggling party of Indians, sup- 

posed through mistake. No one, however, 
liked to trade with the Indians, or have any- 
thing to do with them, beyond the offices of 

Beauty of the Countn/. — The coHntry all 
around the settlement presented the most 
lovely appearance, the earth was like an ash 
heap, and nothing could exceed the luxu- 
riance of primitive vegetation : indeed our 
cattle often died from excess oi feeding, and 
it was somewhat difficult to rear them on that 
account. The white-weed or bee-harvest, as 
it is called, so profusely spread over our bot- 
tom and woodlands, was not then seen among 
us ; the sweet annis, nettles, wild rye and 
pea vine, now so scarce, everywhere abounded 
• — they were almost the entire herbage of our 
bottoms. The two last gave subsistence to 
our cattle, and the first, with our nutritious 
roots, were eaten by our swine with the great- 
est avidity. In the spring and summer 
months a drove of hogs could be scented at 
a considerable distance from their flavor of 
the annis root. Our winters were as cold, 
but more steady than at present. Snow gen- 
erally covered the ground, and drove our 
stock to the barnyard for three months, and 
this was all the trouble we had with them. 
Buffalo signs were frequently met with ; but 
the animals had entirely disappeared before 
the first white inhabitant came into the 
country ; but other game was abundant. As 
many as thirty deer have been counted at 
one time around the bayous and ponds near 
Staunton. The hunter had his full measure 
of sport when he chose to indulge in the 
chase ; but ours was essentially an agricultu- 
ral settlement. From the coon to the buck- 
skin embraced our circulating medium. Our 
imported commodities were first purchased 
at Cincinnati, then at Dayton, and finally 
Peter Felix established an Indian merchan- 
dising store at Staunton, and this was our 
first attempt in that way of traffic. For 
many years we had no exports but skins ; yet 
wheat was steady at fifty cents and corn at 
twenty -five cents per bushel — the latter, how- 
ever, has since fallen as low as twelve and a 
half cents, and a dull market. 

Mining. — For some time the most popular 
milling was at Patterson's, below Dayton, 
and with Owen Davis, on Beaver; but the 
first mill in Miami county is thought to have 
been erected by John Manning, on Piqua 
bend. Nearly the same time Henry Garrard 
erected on Spring creek a corn and saw mill, 
onJand now included within the farm of Col. 
TWinans. It is narrated by the colonel, and 
is a fact worthy of notice, that on the first 
establishment of these mills they would run 
ten months in a year, and sometimes longer, 
by heads. The creek would not now turn 
one pair of stones two months in a year, and 
then only on the recurrence of freshets. It 
is thought this remark is applienble to all 
streams of the upper I'Miami valley, showing 
there is lo>,- spring drainage fidiu the country 
since it has become cleared of its timber and 
consolidated by cultivation 

Dravm by Henry Howe in 1846. 

The County Bdildings, Teoy. 

D. Argerbright, Photo., 1888. 

Central View in Troy. 


Troy in 1846. — Troy, the county-seat, is a beautiful and flourishing village, in 
a jiiglily cultivated and fertile country, upon the west l)ank of the Great Jliaini, 
seventy miles north of Cincinnati and sixty-eight west of Columbus. It was laid out 
about tlic year 1808, as the county-seat, which was first at Staunton, a mile east, 
and now containing but a few houses. Troy is regularly laid off into broad and 
straight streets, crossing each other at right angles, and contains about 550 dwel- 
lings. The view was taken in the principal street of the to^\•n, and shows, on 
the right, the court house and town hall, between which, in the distance, appear 
the spires of the Xew School Presbyterian and P''>piscopal churches. It contains 
2 Presbyterian, 1 ^lethodist Episcopal, 1 Wesleyan Methodist, 1 Episcopal and 1 
Baptist church ; a market, a branch of the State Rank, 2 newspaper printing 
offices. 1 town and 1 masonic hall, 1 academy, 3 flouring and 5 saw-mills, 1 foun- 
dry, 1 macliine shop, 1 shingle and 1 plow factory, and a large number of stores 
and mechanic shops. Its population in 1840 was 1,351; it has since more tlian 
doubled, and is constantly increasing. It is connected with Cincinnati, TTrbana 
and Greenville by turnpikes. 

The line of the ]Miami Canal, from Cincinnati, passes through the towTi from 
south to north : on it are six large and commodious warehouses, for receiving and 
forwarding produce and merchandise, and three more, still larger, are in progress 
of erection, and four smaller, for supplying boats with provisions and other neces- 
saries. The business done during the current year, ending June 1, 1847, in thirty 
of the principal business houses, in the purchase of goods, pro^Tuce and manufac- 
tures, amounts to $523,248, and the sales to $G74,.307. The articles bought and 
sold are as follows: 174.000 bushels of wheat, 290,000 bushels of corn, 100,000 
bushels of rye, barley and oats, 17,000 barrels of whisky, 17,000 barrels of flour. 
1,300 barrels pork, 5,000 hogs, 31,000 pounds butter, 2,000 bushels clover-seed, 
600 Iiarrels fish, 3,000 barrels salt, 30,000 bushels flax-seed, 304,000 pounds bulk 
pork, 136,000 pounds lard, 1,440 thousand feet of sawed lumber, etc. The ship- 
ments to and from the place are about 20,000 tons. — Old Edition. 

Abraham Thomas, from whom we have quoted in the "Miami County Tradi- 
tions," published, was one of the first settlers; he came with his family in 1805, 
and died in 1843. He was a blacksmith and his shop a log-pen. He made his 
own charcoal. The panic during the war of 1812 extended to this then wilder- 
ness, and at the slightest alarm the women and children would flee to the forest 
for safety. The "County History" gives these items: 

At the beginning of things hogs fattened were on the way to church and shot at from 

in the woods and not five bushels of corn were a thicket, when Mr. Corbly and three ehil- 

needed to fatten a hundred hogs. Corn was dren were killed outright. Two younger 

raised only for food, and by hoeing and dig- daughters were knocked down, scalped, and 

ging around the stumps. A man who would left, for dead, but were resuscitated. One of 

go to mill with two bushels of corn was con- these was Mrs. Martin, who lived until 1836 

sidered a prosperous farmer. Potatoes were and reared ten children. Her wounds ex- 

a luxury introduced a long lime after the tended over the crown of her head wide as 

first settlement. Having no fences, bells the two hands. Her hair grew up to the 

were put on the stock, which, notwithstand- scalped surface, which she trained to grow 

ing, wandered ofi" and got lost. The sugar upwards, and served as a protection. At 

used was home-made, the coffee was rye, and times she suffered severe headaches, which 

the tea sassafras and sage. The first grain she attri'juted to the loss of her scalp, 

was cut with sickles, which were considiered Another noted old settler was Andrew Dye, 

a wonderful invention. Sr., who died in 1837 at the age of 87 i'ears. 

Staunton was the first place of permanent having had eight sons and two daughters, 

settlement in the county, and the nucleus from At this time his posterity amounted to about 

which its civilization spread. It was the first five hai.dred of whom three hundred and 

plotted town. Among the earliest settlers sixty w re then living ranging down to the 

of Staunton was Mr. Levi Martin. His wife, fifth gf aeration. 

when a young girl, about the year 1788, then Mosi of the pioneers wore buckskin panta- 

living not far from Red Stone Fort, on the loons. One was Tom Rogers, a great hunter, 

Monongahela, was knocked down and scalped w'jo li red in two sycamore trees in the woods;, 

by the Indians, and left for dead. The family He h-.d long gray whiskers, a skull cap and 

name was Corbly, and hers Delia. T»»ey bucksldn pantaloons. 


The first survey of Troy was made by An- commissioners to purchase the land for the 

drew Wallace in 1807, with additions from seat of justice and lay it off into streets and 

time to time. On the 2d of December of lots. The original lands selected for the 

that year Robert Crawford was appointed now beautiful town of Troy were then a dense 

town director, who gave bonds to the county forest, bought for three dollars per acre. 

Troy, county-seat of Miami, is about sixty-five miles west of Columbus, about 
seventy-five miles north of Cincinnati, on the D. & M., I. B. & W. Railroads, 
and on the Miami river and Miami & Erie Canal. County officers, 1888 : Au- 
ditor, Horatio Pearson ; Clerk, John B. Fouts ; Commissioners, John T. Knoop, 
Robert Martindale, David C. Statler ; Coroner, Joseph W. Means; Infirmary 
Directors, David Arnold, William D. Widner, Thomas C. Bond ; Probate Judge, 
William J. Clyde; Prosecuting Attorney, Samuel C. Jones; Recorder, E. J. 
Ebj' ; Sheriff, A. M. Heywood ; Surveyor, H. O. Evans ; Treasurer, George H. 
Rundle. City officers, 1888 : George S. Long, Mayor; John H. Conklin, (Jlerk; 
Noah Yount, Treasurer ; George Irwin, Marshal ; W. B. McKinney, Solicitor; 
H. O. Evans, Civil Engineer. Newspapers : Trojan, Republican, Charles H. 
Goodrich, editor and publisher ; Democrat, Democratic, J. P. Barron, editor and 
publisher; Miami Union, Republican, C. C. Royce, editor ; Sons of Veterans Cor- 
poral's Guard, Charles W. Kellogg, editor and publisher. Churches : 1 Catholic, 
2 Baptist, 3 Methodist, 1 German Lutheran, 1 English Lutheran, 1 Presbyterian 
and 1 Christian. Banks : First National, H. W. Allen, president, D. W. Smith, 
cashier; Miami County, Heywood, Royce & Co., Noah Yount, cashier. 

Manufactures and Employees. — Troy S[)ring Wagon and Wheel Co., carriages, 
etc., 127 hands; the Troy Buggy Works, buggies, etc., 146; Kelley & Sons, 
windmills, etc., 8 ; John & William Youtsy, lumber, 5. — State Reports, 1888. 
Population, 1880, 3,803. School census, 1888, 1,218; C. L. VanCleve, school 
superintendent. Census, 1890, 4,590. 

Troy has several fine three-story business blocks, and is a favorite place for 
trade for the large, rich agricultural country of which it is the centre. Prior to 
the railroad era it was a noted grain market. 

The new county court-house here is an evidence of the wealth and liberality of 
the people. It is one of the most magnificent structures of the kind to be found 
anywhere. The architect was J. W. Yost, Columbus, and contractor, T. B. 
Townsend, Zanesville. It stands in the centre of a square, with bounding streets 
of 230 by 330 feet. The building itself is highly ornamented, and is 114 feet 
2 inches square ; its material is the beautiful Amherst sand-stone. To the eaves 
it is 60 feet in height, and to the top of the dome 160 feet. Its entire cost with 
its furniture, including the heating and lighting appointments, amounted to about 
$400,000. The first building used for courts was at Stanton, on the east side of 
the Miami. The first court-house was of brick, and stood in the centre of the 
public square ; the second is shown in our old view. 

Piqua in i54^.--Piqua is another beautiful and thriving town, eight miles 
above Troy, and also on the river and canal. It was laid out in 1809 by Messrs. 
Brandon and Manning, under the name of Washington, which it bore for many 
years. The town plot contains an area of more than a mile square, laid out in 
uniform blocks, with broad and regular streets. On the north and east, and op- 
posite the town, are the villages of Rossville and Huntersville, connected with it 
by bridges across the Miami. 

It contains one New and one Old School Presbyterian, one Methodist Episcopal, 
one Methodist Wesleyan, one Episcopal, one Baptist, one Associate Reformed, one 
Lutheran, one Catholic and one Disciples church ; one high school, a town hall, 
and a branch of the State bank. The manufacturing facilities in it and vicinity 
are extensive. The Miami furnishes power for one wool-carding and fulling fac- 
tory, three saw-mills, one grist-mill adjacent to the town, and a saw and grist- 
mill, with an oil-mill, below the town. The water of the canal propels a saw- 
mill, a clothing and fulling factory, with a grist-mill. A steam saw-mill, a steam 

The Miami County Cockt-House, Troy. 


grist-mill and taniiprv. witli two steam iron-turning and machine establishments, 
constitute, with tlie rest, the amount of steam and hydraulic power used. With 
these are over 100 mechanical and manufacturing establishments in the town, 
among which are twenty-five cooper shops — that business being very extensively 
carried on. There are also fifteen grocery and variety stores, twelve dry-goods, 
three leather, one book and three hardware stores ; a printing office, four forward- 
ing and three pork houses: and the exports and imports, by the canal, are very 
heavy. South of the town are seven valuable quarries of blue limestone, at 
which are employed a large number of hands, and adjacent to the town is a large 
boat yard. 

In the town are GOO dwellings, many of which are of brick and have fine 
gardens attached. Along the canal have lately been erected a number of three- 
story brick buildings for business purposes, and the number of business houses is 
ninety-eight. During the year 1846 eighty buildings were erected, and the value 
of the real estate at that time M-as $-176,000. 

The population of Piqua in 1830 was less than 500; in 1840, 1,480; and in 
1847, 3,100. 

The Miami river curves beautifully around the town, leaving between it and 
the village a broad and level plateau, while the opposite bank rises abruptly into 
a hill, called "Cedar Bluff," affording fine walks and a commanding view of the 
surrounding country. In its vicinity are some ancient works. From near its 
base, on the east bank of the river, the view was taken. The church spires shown, 
commencing on the right, are respectively, the Episcopal, Catholic, New School 
Presbyterian, Weslcyan Methodist, Old School Presbyterian and Baptist. The 
town hall is seen on the left.— OM Edition. 

The old view of Piqua was taken a few rods only below the present bridge, 
both occupying the same site. In 1846, when a part of John Eandolph's negroes 
were driven from Mercer county, they camped here at this place in tents. Three 
years later John Robinson's elephant fell through the old bridge. 

From the Miami county traditions we annex some facts respecting the history 
of Piqua. 

JonathanE.otj.ins wasamongthefirstwhite (1839) occupies. While this party resided at 

inhabitants oi Miami county. In connection Piqua, and for years after, the Indians were 

with nine others he contracted with Judge constant visitors and sojourners among them. 

Symmes, for a certain compensation in lots This place appears to have been, to that un- 

and land, to become a pioneer in laying out fortunate race, a most favorite residence, 

town in the Indian country, at around which their attachments and regrets 

the lower Piqua village, where is situated the lingered to the last. They would come here 
J leasant and flourishing town under that to visit the graves of their kindred and weep 
name. The party left Ludlow station, on over the sod that entombed the bones of 
IMill creek, in the spring of 1797, and pro- their fathers. They would sit in melancholy 
c^^eded withiuit difficulty to the proposed groups, surveying the surrounding objects of 
B' e. They there erected cabins and enclosed their earliest attachments and childhood 
grounds for fields and gardens. But the judge sports — the winding river which witnessed 
failing in some of his calculations was unable their first feeble essays with the gig and the 
to fulfil his part of the contract, and the paddle — the trees where first they triumphed 
other parties to it gradually withdrew from with their tiny bow in their boastful craft of 
the association, and squatted around on pub- the hunter — the coppice of their nut gather- 
li' land as best pleased themselves. It was ings— the lawns of their boyhood sports, and 
B'lme years after this when land could be reg- haunts of their early loves — would call forth 
ularly entered in the public offices ; surveying bitter sighs and reproaches on that civiliza- 
parties had been running out the county, but tion which, in its rudest features, was up- 
time was required to organize the newly in- rooting them from their happy home. 
troJuced section system, which has since Pioneer Assertion. — The Indians at Piqua 
proved so highly beneficial to the Western soon found, in the few whites among them, 
States, and so fatal to professional cupidity. stern and inflexible masters rather thas asso- 
Indian Gj-je/.— Some of these hardy ad- ciates and equals. Upon the slightest provo- 
venturers settled in and about Piqua, where cation the discipline of the fist and club, so 
they have left many worthy descendants. humblingtothespiritsof an Indian, was freely 
Mr. Rollins finally took up land on Spring used upon them. One day an exceedingly 
Creek, where he laid out the farm he now large Indian had been made drunk, and for 


some past offence took it in his head to kill the white men, attracted by the outcry, ap- 

one of his wives. He was following her with proached the group. One of thcni, small in 

a knife and tomahawk around their cabin, stature but big in resolution, luadc through 

with a posse of clamorous squaws and pap- the Indian crowd tp the iiflVndcr, strmk liini 

pooses at his heels, who were striving to in the face and felled him tu tlio praund, 

check his violence. They had succeeded in while the surrounding Indians looked on in 

wresting from him his arms, and he was fixed amazement, 
standing against the cabin, when several of 

When the country had developed somewhat flatboats were constructed at Piqua 
on the river bank. They were about seventy feet long and twelve wide. Tliey 
were loaded with flour, bacon, corn on the cob, cherry lumber, furniture and other 
products and taken down the river, sometimes to New Orleans. From thence the 
boatmen often walked all the way home again, passing through what was then 
called the Indian Nations, Choctaws and Chickasaws. 

Navigating the Miami was risky, especially in passing over mill-dams and fol- 
lowing the channel through the " Ninety-nine Islands," a few miles below Troy. 
It required the utmost .skill and quickness to guide the unwieldy craft through 
the swift, crooked turns. 

Piqua is eight miles north of Troy, on the Miami river and the Miami & 
Erie Canal, at the crossing of the P. C. & St. L. and D. & M. Railroads. City 
officers, 1888: G. A. Brooks, Mayor; J. H. Hatch, Clerk; Clarence Langdon, 
Treasurer ; Walter D. Jones, Solicitor ; W. J. Jackson, Engineer ; James Liv- 
ingston, Marslial. Newspapers : Call, Republican, J. W. Morris, editor and 
publisher; Dispatch, Republican, D. M. Fleming, editor; Evening Democnd, 
Democratic, J. Boni Hemsteger, editor and publisher ; Der Correspmvleiit, Ger- 
man, Deraocratit;, J. Boni Hemsteger, editor and publisher ; Leader, Democratic, 
Jerome C. Smiley & Co., editors and publishers; Miami Helmet, Republican, I. 
S. Morris, editor and publisher; Pythian Neivs, Knights of Pythias, Hai-ry S. 
Frye, editor and publisher. Churches : Methodist, 3 ; Presbyterian, 2 ; Baptist, 
3; Lutheran, 1 ; Episcopal, 1 ; Catholic, 2; German Methodist, 1. Banks: Cit- 
izens' National, W. P. Orr, president, Henry Flash, cashier; Piqua National, 
John M. Scott, president, Clarence Langdon, cashier. 

Manufactures and Employees. — Tlie Piqua Straw Board Co., paper and straw 
board, 62 hands; Bowdle Bros., machinery and castings, 13; I. J. Whitlock, 
builders' woodwork, 25 ; C. A. & C. L. Wood, builders' woodwork, 30; the Fritsche 
Bros., furniture, 10 ; the Wood Linseed Oil Co., linseed oil, etc., 8 ; the Piqua 
Manufacturing Co., mattresses, etc., 35; L. W. Fillebron-n, machinery, 5; the 
Piqua Handle Co., agricultural implements, 43 ; the Piqua Straw Board Co., 
paper, 25 ; the Piqua Oat-meal Co., corn-meal, 10 ; Snyder & Son, carriage shafts, 
etc.. Ill ; C. F. Rankin & Co., handlers of malt, etc., 15 ; Leonard Linseed Oil 
Co., linseed oil, etc., 20 ; W. P. Orr Linseed Oil Co., linseed oil, etc., 22 ; J. L. 
Schneyer, lager beer, 4 ; Mrs. L. E. Nicewanner, flour, etc., 5 ; the Piqua Hosiery 
Co., hosiery, 76 ; the F. Gray Co., woollen blankets, etc., 62 ; L. C. & W. L. 
Cron & Co., furniture, 165 ; Cron, Kills & Co., furniture, US.— Ohio State Re- 
ports, 1888. 

The Bentwood Works are the largest of the kind in the Union. Over a million 
bushels of flaxseed are annually crushed, making it the largest linseed oil centre, 
and, excepting Circleville, no other place equals or surpasses it in the production 
of straw board. On the Miami are extensive and valuable limestone quarries. 

Population, 1880, 6,031. School census, 1888, 2,717; C. W. Bennett, school 
superintendent. Capital invested in industrial establishments, $968,500. Value 
of annual product, $1,626,000.— OAi'oioAo?' aSYo^Mc.5, 1887. Census, 1890,9,090. 

The manufacturing prosperity of the city is largely due to its excellent system 
of water-works. The canal is over six miles in length, and contains within its 
prism and reservoirs therewith connected at least 150 acres of water line, at an 
elevation of thirty-eight feet over the city, and three falls, aggregating fifty-two 
feet six inches, for hydraulic power. 

Ihnru Ilcmv in 1846. 

From the east bank of the Miami. The elepliant of John Robin 
broke through (liLs bridge. 

a A. Gale, Photo , riqiia, 1886. 

From the east bank of the Miami. The bridge is the successor of that shown above. 


A recent acquisition of Piqua is in a beautiful library building. It was the 
gift of Mr. J. M. Schmidlapp, a prosperous merciiant of Cincinnati, who wished 
the citizens of this his native town to remember him by what would prove of 
lasting benefit. 

Tiie following historical matter respecting this region is taken from our first 

" The word Piqua is the name of one of the Shawanese tribes, and signifies, 
'a man formed out of the ashes.' The tradition is, that tiie wliolc Shawanese 
tril)e, a long time ago, were assembled at their annual feast and thanksgiving. 
Tlicv were all seated around a large fire, wiiich, having burned down, a great 
puffing was observed in the ashes, when, behold ! a full-formed man came up out 
•of the coals and ashes; and this was the first man of the Piqua tribe. After 
the peace of 1763, tiie Miamis having removed from the Big Miami river, a body 
of Shawanese established themselves at Lower and Upper Picjua, whicli became 
their groat head(]uarters in Ohio. Here they remained until driven off by the 
Kentuckians, when they crossed over to St. Mary's and to Wapaglikonetta. 

" Tlie Upper Piqua is said to have contained, at one period, near 4,000 Shawa- 
nese. The Siiawanese were formerly a numerous people, and very warlike. 
We can trace their history to the time of their residence on the tide-waters of 
Florida, and, as well as the Delawares, they aver that they originally came from 
west of the Mississippi. Black Hoof, who died at "VVapaghkonetta, at the ad- 
vanced age of 105 years, told me [Col. John Johnston] that he remembered, 
when a boy, bathing in the salt waters of Florida ; that his people firmly believed 
white or civilized people had been in the country before them — having found, in 
many instances, the marks of iron tools, axes, upon trees and stumps, over wliich 
the sand had blown. Shawanese means the south, or ' people from the south.' " 

Upper Piqua, three miles north of Piqua, on the canal and Miami river, is a 
locality of much historic interest. It is at present (1846) the residence of Col. 
John Johnston — shown in the view — and was once a favorite dwelling-place of 
the Piqua tribe of the Shawanese. Col. Johnston, now at an advanced age, has 
for the greater part of his life resided at the West as an agent of the United 
States Government over the Indians. His mild and parental care of their inter- 
ests gave him great influence over them, winning their strongest affections and 
causing tliem to regard him in the light of a father. To him we are indebted for 
many valuable facts scattered through this volume, as well as those which follow 
respecting this place. 

Battle at Piqua. — In the French war. Soon after this contest the Miamis and 
which ended with the peace of 1763, a bloody their allies left this part of the country and re- 
battle was fought on the present farm of Col. tired to the Miami of the Lake, at and near 
Johnston at Upper Piqua. At that time Fort Wayne, and never returned. The Shaw- 
the Miamis had their towns here, which are anese took their place and gave names to 
marked on ancient maps, "Tewightewee towns in this vicinity. Col. Johnston's place 
towns." The Miamis, Wyandots, Ottawas " and the now large and flourishing town of 
and other Northern tribes adhered to the Piqua was called Chillicothe, after the tribe 
French, made a stand here'and fortified — the of that name ; the site of his farm after the 
Canadian traders and French assisting. The Piqua tribe. ' ' 

Delawares, Shawanese, Munseys, part of the Fort Piqua, erected prior to the settlement 

Senecas residing in Pennsylvania, Chero- of the country, stood at Upper Piqua on the 

kees, Catawbas, etc. , adhering to the English west bank of the river, near where' the figure 

interest with the Engish traders, attacked the is seen in the distance on the right of the 

French and Indians. The siege continued engraving. It was designed as a place of 

for more than a week ; the fort stood out and deposit for stores for the army of Wayrie. 

could not be taken. Many were slain, the The portage from here to Fort Loramie, 

assailants suffering most severely. The be- fourteen miles, thence to St. Mary's, twelve 

sieged lost a number, and all their exposed miles, was all the land carriage from the 

property was burnt and destroyed. The Ohio to Lake Erie. Loaded boats frequently 

Shawanese chief, Blackhoof one of the be- ascended to Fort Loramie, the loading taken 

siegers, informed Col. Johnston that the out and hauled to St. Mary's, the boats 

ground around was strewn with bullets, so also moved across on wheels, again loaded 

tiat basketf'uls could have been gathered. and launched for Fort Wayne, Defiance 



and the lake. Sometimes, in very high 
water, loaded boats from the Ohio approached 
within six miles of St. Mary's. Before the 
settlement of the country a large propor- 
tion of the army supplies were convened 
up this river. When mill dams were erected 
the navigation was destroyed and boating 

A Massacre. — In 1794 Capt. J. N. Vischer, 
the last commandant of Fort Piqua, was 
stationed here. During that year two freighted 
boats guarded by an oflBcer and twenty-three 
men were attacked by the Indians near the 
fort and the men all massacred. Capt. 
Vischer heard the firing, but from the weak- 
ness of his command could render no assist- 
ance. The plan of the Indians doubtless was 
to make the attack in hearing of the fort and 
tliereby induce them to sally out in aid of 
their countrymen, defeat all and take the fort. 
The commander was a discreet oflBcer and, 
aware of the subtleness of the enemy, had 
the firmness to save the fort. 

The family of Col. Johnston settled at 
Upper Piqua in 1811, the previous eleven 
years having been spent at Fort Wayne. 
Years after the destruction of the boats and 
party on the river, fragments of muskets, 
bayonets and other remains of that disaster 
were found at low water imbedded in the 
sand. The track of the pickets, the form of 
the river bastion, the foundation of chimneys 
in the block-houses still mark the site of 
Fort Piqua. The plow has levelled the graves 
of the brave men — for many sleep here — who 
fell in the service. At this place, Fort Lo- 
ramie, St. Mary's and Fort Wayne, large 
numbers of the regulars and militia volunteers 
were buried in the wars of Wayne, as well as 
iii the last war. 

Friendly Indians. — In the late war the far 
greater number of Indians who remained 
friendly and claimed and received protection 
from the United States were placed under 
the care of Col. Johnston at Piqua. These 
were the Shawanese, Delawares. Wyandots 
in part, Ottawas in part, part of the Senecas, 
all the Munseys and Mohicans ; a small 
number remained at Zanesfield, and some at 
Upper Sandusky, under Maj. B. F. Siickney, 
now (1846) of Toledo. The number here 
amounted, at one period, to six thousand, 
and were doubtless the best protection to the 
frontier. With a view of detaching the 
Indians here from American interest and 
taking them off to the enemy, and knowing 
that so long as Col. Johnston lived this could 
not be accomplished, several plots were con- 
trived to assassinate him. His life was in the 
utmost danger. He arose many mornings 
with but little hope of living until night, and 
the friendly chiefs often warned him of his 
danger, but he was planted at the post ; 
duty, honor and the safety of the frontier 
forbade his abandoning it. His faithful wife 
stayed by him ; the rest of his family, papers 
and valuable effects were removed to a place 
of greater security. 

Escape from Assassins. — On one occasion 
his escape seemed miraculous. Near the 

house, at the road side, by which he daily 
several times passed in visiting the Indian 
camp was a cluster of wild plum bushes. No 
one would have suspected hostile Indians to 
secrete themselves there ; yet, there the 
intended assassins waited to murder him, 
which they must have soon accomplished had 
they not been discovered by some Delaware 
women, who gave the alarm. The Indians — 
three in number — fled ; a party pursued, but 
lost the trail. It afterwards appeared that 
they went up the river some distance, crossed 
to the east side, and passing down nearly 
opposite his residence, determined in being 
foiled of their chief prize not to return empty- 
handed. They killed Mr. Dilbone and his 
wife, who were in a field pulling flax ; their 
children, who were with them, escaped by 
secreting themselves in the weeds. From 
thence, the Indians went lower down, three 
miles, to Loss creek, where they killed David 
Garrard, who was at work a short distance 
from his house. The leader of the party, 
Pash-e-towa, was noted for his cold-blooded 
cruelty, and a short time previous was the 
chief actor in destroying upwards of twenty 
persons — mostly women and children — at 
a place called Pigeon Roost, Indiana. He 
was killed after tne war by one of his own 
people, in satisfaction for the numerous 
cruelties he had committed on unoffending 

Management of Indians. — In the war of 
1812 nothing was more embarrassing to the 
public agents than the management of the 
Indians on the frontier. President Madison, 
from a noble principle, which does his memory 
high honor, positively refused to employ 
them in the war, and this was a cause of ail 
the losses in the couiitry adjacent to the upper 
lakes. Having their families in possession, 
the agents could have placed implicit con- 
fidence in the fidelity of the warriors. As it 
was, they had to manage them as they best 
could. Col. Johnston frequently flirnished 
them with white flags with suitable mottoes, 
to enable them to pass out-posts and scouts 
in safety. On one occasion the militia basely 
fired on one of these parties bearing a flag 
hoisted in full view. They killed two Indians, 
wounded a third, took the survivors prisoners, 
and after robbing them of all they possessed 
conveyed them to the garrison at Greenville, 
to which post the party belonged. 

On reflection, they were convinced they had 
committed an unjustifiable act and became 
alarmed for the consequences. They brought 
the prisoners to Upper Piqua and delivered 
them to Col. Johnston. He took them, wish- 
ing to do the best in his power for the 
Indians, and on deliberation decided to con- 
duct them back to Greenville and restore 
them, with their property, to their people. 

Hazardous Eirand. — Application was made 
by Col. Johnston to the officer commanding 
at Piqua, for a guard on the journey. These 
were Ohio militia, of whom not a man or 
officer dared to go. He then told the com- 
mander if he would aecompany him he would 
go at all hasiards, the distance being twenty- 


five miles, the road entirely uninhabited and 
known to be infested with Indians, who had 
recently killed two girls near Greenville. But 
he alike refused. All his appeals to the pride 
and patriotism oi' officers and men proving 
unavailing he decided to go alone, it being a 
case that required the promptest action to 
prevent evil impressions spreading among the 
Indians. He got his horse ready, bade fare- 
well to his wife, scarcely ever expecting to 
see her again, and reached Greenville in 
safety ; procured nearly all the articles taken 
from the Indians and delivered them back, 
made them a speech, dismissed them, and 
then springing on his horse started back 
alone, and reached his home in safety, to the 
surprise of all, particularly the militia, who, 
dastardly fellows, scarce expected to see him 
alive, and made many apologies for their 

Indian Faithfulness. — During the war Col. 
Johnston had many proofs of the fidelity of 
some of the iriendly Indians. After the sur- 

render of Detroit the frontier of Ohio was 
thrown into the greatest terror and confusion. 
A large body of Indians still resided within 
its limits accessible to the British. In the 
garrison of Fort Wayne, which was threatened, 
were many women and children, who, in case 
of attack, would have been detrimental to its 
defence, and it therefore became necessary to 
have them speedily removed. Col. Johnston 
assembled the Shawanese chiefs, and stating 
the case requested volunteers to bring the 
women and children at FortAVayne toPiqua. 
Logan (see pa^e .352) immediately rose and 
offered his services and soon started with a 
party of mounted Indians, all volunteers. 
They reached the post, received their inter- 
esting and helpless charge and safely brought 
them to the settlements, through a country 
infested with marauding bands of hostile 
savages. The women spoke in the highest 
terms of the vigilance, care and delicacy of 
their faithful conductors. 


On my arnval at Piqua I had the gratification of being taken in charge of by 
the oldest born resident, and to liim I am under " ever so many " obligations. 
This was Major Stephen John.ston, so named from his father, a brother of Col. 
John Johnston. He is by profession a lawyer, and although I met many of his 
profession in this tour, he is the only one that I know of whose father was killed 
and scalped by the Indians and his scalp sold to the British. This happened near 
Fort Wayne, where he was a factory agent. A month later, September 29, 
1812, the Major was born. This was in a farm-house just south of Piqua. 

The stock is historic and heroic. The 
Major's mother's maiden name was Mary 
Caldwell, and she was born inBryant's Station, 
a fort near Lexington, Ky., in 1788, in the 
pristine daj's of Boone, Kenton and Simdii 
Girty and his red-skinned coH//eres, the hair- 
lifting war-whoops. When the Major was 
thirteen years of age he put on a knapsack, 
trudged through the wilderness to Urbana, 
learned to make saddles, and then for fourteen 
yeai-s worked as a journeyman saddler in 
Ohio, Indiana, Kentucky and Pennsylvania. 
In the meanwhile he studied as he stitched 
until in 1850, when thirty-eight years old, he 
launched as a lawyer with six children, as he 
says, "tugging at his coat tail." Prior to this 
he had been county sheriff' and in the Ohio 
Legislature ; since been an officer in the 
Union army, in the Legislature, President 
of the Board of Trustees of the Ohio State 
University, Greenback candidate for Gover- 
nor, etc., everywhere a leading spirit, and 
being such took me in his cheery charge. 

Piqua' s Social Exchange. — After dusk of 
a fine April day he introduced me to the 
Social Exchange of Piqua, located on the 
pavement in front of the tobacco and cigar 
store of Mr. Charles T. Wiltheiss. There I 
found a knot of antediluvians — old gentle- 
men of the town lolHng in chairs smoking 
and chatting over the affaurs of the universe, 

Jupiter and his moons inclusive, which they 
often do there, amid the chirpings of the 
crickets and the amiable disputes of the 
katydids. Taking a chair and a cigar with 
them they answered my questions. One 
happened to be : " Have you any curious 
trees about here?" " Oh, yes ! something 
very remarkable. About two miles north 
between the river and canal, which are but a 
few rods apart, an elm and a sycamore start out 
from the ground together, go up with embrac- 
ing bodies and intermingled branches." The 
next day I walked thither with Mr. Wiltheiss, 
and found it such a great curiosity that I had 
it photographed for the engraving that is 
given and named it the "Wedded Trees of 
the Great Miami." 

Ancient Relics. — Piqua is historically and 
pictorially interesting. The river winds 
around the town broad and mostly shallow, 
with two long old style covered bridges 
half a mile apart stretched across to help 
out the scene, both being in one view. 
Only a few miles above was the earliest 
point of English Indian trade in Ohio. The 
region was a favorite place with the In- 
dians and the mound builders, the remains 
of whose works are extremely numerous 
around and especially above the town in 
the river valley. _ Mr. Wiltheiss has for 
thirty years been in the habit of opening 



mounds, making explorations. He has in his 
cigar store a fine cabinet of relics, and has 
made valuable contributions to various arch- 
aeological museums. He told me that he 
was unlettered. But I found his hobby had 
educated him, added interest to his life and 
made him an interesting man. He had been 
a close observer of Nature, and this is all in 
all. Nature is God's College for Humanity, 
where old Sol sits in the Presidential chair 
and lights up things. No one that closely 
observes and carefully reflects from his facts 
can be called ignorant. 

A Snd Incident. — It was on Saturday 
morning, "April 17th, that Mr. Wiltheiss and 
myself turned our backs on the old upper 
covered bridge for a walk to the wedded 
trees, the canal on our left and the Big Miami 
on our right. We walked on the towing 
path. My companion talked all the way, 
making the walk highly enjoyable. We give 
some details. 

We had gone but a few hundred yards 
when Tie said: "The river at this spot is 
very dangerous ; many boys have been drowned 
here. On the 12th of July, 1858, a Mr. 
Jones, who was going to his work in a thresh- 
ing machine shop, saw two boys struggling 
for their lives in the water, whereupon he 
rushed to their rescue. He waded across the 
canal, ran down the river bank into the 
water and saved them. Both are now living, 
men about 40 years of a^e. Dr. M'Donald 
and E. B. Butterfield. But Jones lost his 
own life, sank through exhaustion and 
perished, leaving a widow, and three children 
fatherless. ' ' 

Island Formation. — The tremendous fresh- 
ets late in the Miami, consequent upon forest 
destruction, make great changes. We soon 
passed an island made by a freshet only two 
years before. It was like a flat iron in shape, 
point down stream, and at its upper part, 
where it was separated by a rivulet from 
other land, it was about 200 feet across. Its 
total length was some 600 feet. It was some 
two feet high, and in places overgrown with 
young sycamore and willow bushes some five 
or six feet high. These, my companion 
said, had sprung up in the intervening two 
years : the willows from broken twigs and the 
sycamores from the seed balls, commonly 
called button balls, that had floated down and 
lodged in the rich alluvium. 

Thorns. — We passed some locust bushes, 
with thorns full five inches in length, where- 
upon he said : "This is what we call the sweet 
locust, because it bears a bean sweet to the 
taste, which children often eat. Some sup- 
pose this to be the identical speciesgrown in 
Palestine, which John the Baptist, when 
crying in the wilderness, ate when he partook 
of ' locusts and wild honey ; ' those thorns 
also may be the identical kind from which 
came the crown of thorns that Christ wore 
at his crucifixion, " How this may be I can't 
say, but doubtless the thorns were like_ those 
sometimes used in lieu of pins by the pioneer 
women. Chief-Justice Marshall somewhere 
speaks of his mother and the old time Vir- 

ginia women using such. This was probably 
as far back as the time when murderers were 
hung on chains by the road side in Virginia, . 
a ghastly sight for travellers in that then . 
wilderness region. Elkanah Watson, who , 
travelled through Virginia in the revolution- 
ary war, speaks of seeing such. 

Presently Mr. Wiltheiss pointed out a field 
where were the relics of a large circular , 
mound. It had been an Indian burial place, 
and proved for him a rich spot for relics. 

Sights, Songs and Sounds. — Pursuing our 
walk along the beautiful river, I found my- 
self enveloped in the delights of Nature. It 
was the breeding season among the birds, and 
they gave us their sweetest love notes. 
Among the cries were those of a pair of red 
birds, the cardinal, from the opposite side of 
the Miami. We stopped and listened. The 
female is red on the breast, and the back and 
wings gray. The male is everywhere red, 
excepting a black ring around the bill, which 
is also red. He has a red top-knot which he 
raises while singing, and lays down when 
silent. "Wait," said Wiltheiss, "I will 
call them over." Starting a peculiar whistle 
in a twinkling over they came in all their 
feathery beauty, and flying around followed 
us with their song. 

The Indians of the Pacific slope to this 
day while hunting call various animals, even 
squirrels, within the range of their rifles. 
How they do it is a secret, for if a white man 
is along they will hide their mouths with 
their hands. This may be called the Art of 
the Woods, to be a lost art with the extinc- 
tion of the Indians. 

Moving on we were soon saluted by the 
cackling of hens, the crowing of roosters, 
the bellowing of a cow, and the hammering 
of a man driving nails in a fence from an old 
brown form cottage near by, and then the 
voices of two men paddling up stream in a 
skiff with fish rods along, going for black- 
bass, it being just the biting season. Vege- 
table felicity finally arrested us : we had 
reached the wedded trees. 

The ivedded trees stand on the line of the 
towing path of the canal, about six rods west 
of the river, the flat space between being 
overgrown with wild hemp and thistles, with 
paw-paws abounding in the vicinity. The 
elm is a large, vigorous tree, but far smaller 
than the sycamore, which embraces and con- 
ceals a larger part of its body and thus they 
go up together, perhaps 15 or 20 feet, 
when they branch, and with interlocking 
branches. Their height is about 70 feet, 
and 6 feet from the ground, by our measure- 
ment, the girth was 24 feet. Observing a 
slit on the river side of the sycamore, I saw 
it was hollow within. I doubted if any 
human being had ever been inside. I did 
not feel it safe to make the venture. It 
might be a harbor for some ugly reptile. A 
sense of duty urged me to the trial. I was 
dedicated to Ohio and must shrink at noth- 
ing, and so in I went. The slit was too nar- 
row for me to get in without the aid of my 
companion, and so I was put in sidewise, much 







The Wedded Tkees of the Great Miami. 




as one would put a board through an upright 
slat fence. My feet sank a foot or so lower 
than the ground outside. I then stood up- 
right, and the top of the slit came up to 
about my waist; but little light came in 
through it. Above me the hole went up in- 
definitely. The walls were covered with 
pendent decaying wood. The place was 
gloomy and musty. I could see but little, 
and was glad to quickly get out, feeling as 
though I could not commend it for any per- 
manent habitation. 

Aged trees, like the sycamore here, are apt 
to be hollow within. This seems to make no 
difference with their duration of life. The 
famous Charter Oak lived about 1.50 years 
after the secretion of the charter within, and 
in its last years it held all the members of 
two fire companies at once. When it was 
blown down in a gale about 1 854, the bells of 
Hartford tolled and a military band played a 
dirge over its remains. 

'1 lie sustaining life of trees appears to be 
within a few inches of their bark. I once 
saw an aged oak that had been destroyed by 
fire, and all that was left of it was less than 
half its outer shell, and this had within a 
surface of charcoal ; yet the shell had sufii- 
cient vim to carry up the sap for its few re- 
maining branches that had put forth leaves. 
That tree, however, was on its last legs. I 
visited the spot a year later and it was gone. 
The old sycamore I was slipped into may yet 
live a centurj'. The Charter Oak was perhaps 
1,000 years of age. ' 

Col. John Johnston.— From near the 
wedded trees I had a view of Upper Piqua, 
shown in our sketch of 1846. He was the 
largest contributor to my original edition. 
He was of Scotch-Irish and Huguenot stock, 
was born in Ballyshannon, Ireland, in 1775, 
and died in Washington, D. C, in 1861. 
When a lad he came to Pennsylvania with 
his father's family; at 17 years was in the 

Quartermaster's Department in Wayne's 
army ; was later Clerk in the War Depart- 
ment ; participated as an officer at the funeral 
services of Wa.shington ; was Indian Agent, 
appointed by Madison, at Upper Piqua for 
30 years, having control of the affairs of 
10,000 Indians, comprising many tribes, and 
giving great satisfaction ; negotiated for a 
treaty of cession of the Wyandots, last of 
the native tribes of Ohio. In 1844, as a 
delegate to the Whig convention in Balti- 
more, he rode on horseback the whole way 
from Piqua, and made speeches for Henry 
Clay along the route. He established with 
his wife the first Sunday-school in Sliami 
county ; was one of the ibunders of Kenyon 
College ; a trustee of Miami ; a uiember of 
the Visiting Board at West Point ; President 
of the Historical and Philosophical Society 
of Ohio, etc., etc. His "Account of the 
Indian Tribes of Ohio" is in the 5th vol- 
ume of the "Collections of the American 
Society Antiquarian." Three of his sons 
were valued officers : one, Stephen, was in 
the nav3', another, A. R., was killed in the 
Mexican war, and a third, James A., was 
killed in the civil war. 

I remember as of yesterday my first inter- 
view with Col. Johnston at Upper Piqua. 
He was a tall, dignified man, and of the 
blonde type, then 71 years of age. He was 
at the time plainly clad, but impressive, 
seeming as one born to command. It was a 
warm summer's day, and he took me to his 
well and gave me a drink of pure cold water, 
the quality of which he praised with the air 
of a prince. No man had the power and in- 
fluence with the Western Indians that he pos- 
sessed, and it arose from his weight of char- 
acter and his high sense of .justice. After 
leaving Upper Piqua he resided for years with 
his daughter, Jlrs. John D.Jones, at Cincinnati. 
He was indeed a sterling man every way, and 
Ohio should never forget him. 

Tippecanoe is 6 miles south of Troy, on the Miami & Erie Canal and D. & 
U'. R. R. City officers, 1888 : Ellis H. Kerr, Mayor; E. A. Jackson, Clerk ; 
John K. Herr, Treasurer; Thos. Hartley, Marshal. Newspaper: Herald. Re- 
publican ; Harry Ho.'ton, editor and publisher. Churches : 1 Methodist, 1 Bap- 
tist, 1 Lutheran and 1 other. Bank : Tippecanoe National, Samuel Sullivan, 
president, A. W. Miles, cashier. 

Manufactures and Employees. — J. L. Norris, Excelsior, 5 ; Trupp, ^V'eakley 
& Co., builders' wood-work, 25 ; Ford & Co., wheels, 51 ; Dietrich Milling Co., 
flour, etc., 5 ; The Tipp Paper Co., straw boards, 34. — State Reports, 1S87. 

Population, 1880, 1,401. School census, 1888, 444; J. T. Bartmess, school 
superintendent. Capital invested in manufacturing establishments, $75,000. 
Value of annual product, $75,000. — Ohio Labor Statistics, 1888. 

CoviXGTOX is 10 miles northwest of Trov, at the crossing of the P. C. & St. 
L. and D. & T. Railroads. City officers, 1888 : J. H. Mallin, Mayor; W. H. 
B. Rontson, Clerk ; A. M. Riihl, Treasurer ; Wm. Gavin, Marshal. News- 
papers : Enterpri,se, Independent, H. J. Pearson, editor and publisher ; Gazette, 
Independent, R. & AV. F. Cantwell, editors and publishers ; Vindicator, Baptist, 
Jos. I. Cover, editor and publisher. Churches : 1 Presbyterian, 1 Christian, 1 
Lutheran, 1 Methodist. Bank : Stillwater Vallev, J, R. Shuman, president, 


A. C. Ciible, cashier. Population, 1880, 1,458. School census, 1888, 504. R, 
F. Bennett, school superintendent. 

Casstown is 4 miles northeast of Troy. It has 1 Methodist, 1 Baptist and 1 
Lutiieran church. Population, 1880, 331. School census, 1888, 121. 

Bradford is 13 miles northwest of Troy, on the I. & C. Div.-o.: the P. C & 
St. L. R. R. It is part in Darke and jmrt in Miami counties. City officers, 
1888 : Enos Yount, Mayor; John S. Moore, Clerk; David Arnold, Treasurer; 
Reuben Enochs, Marshal. Newspaper : Sentinel, Independent, A. F. Little, 
editor and ptiblisher. Churches : 1 Catholic, 1 Cumberland Presbyterian, 1 
Methodist, 1 German Baptist, 1 Baptist, 1 German Reformed. Manufactures : 
Railroad repair shops, lumber, tile and furniture. Population, 1880, 1,373. 
School census, 1888, 281. Capital invested in manufacturing' establishments, 
$75,000. Value of annual product, $75,000.— 0/»'o Labor Statistics, 1888. 

West Milton is 8 miles southwest of Troy, on the D. Ft. W. & C. R. R. 
Newspaper : Buckeye, Republican, H. J. Pearson, editor and publisher. Bank :' 
West Milton, Robert W. Douglas, president, D. F. Douglas, cashier. Popula- 
tion, 1880, 688. School census, 1888, 301, W. W. Evans, school superintendent. 

Fletcher is 10 miles northeast of Troy, on the P. C. & St. L. R. R. Pop- 
ulation, 1880, 384. School census, 1888, 166. 

Lena is 12 miles northeast of Troy, on the P. C. & St. L. R. R. School 
census, 1888, 120. 

Pleasant Hill is 8 miles west of Troy, on the D. Ft. W. & C. R. R. Pop- 
ulation, 1880, 461. School census, 1888, 209. 


MoNROil County was named from James Monroe, President of the United 
States from 1817 to 1825; was formed January 29, 1813, from Belmont, Wash- 
ington and Guernsey. The south and east are very hilly and rough, the north 
and west moderately hilly. Some of the western portion and tlie valleys are fer- 
tile. Area about 470 square miles. In 1887 the acres cultivated were 80*516 ; 
in pasture, 102,206 ; woodland, 65,598 ; lying waste, 8,494 ; produced in wheat, 
193,913 bushels; rye, 2,755; buckwheat, 983 ; oats, 193,581 ; barley, 70; corn, 
464,334 ; broom-corn, 6,559 lbs. brusli ; meadow hav, 30,420 tons ; clover hay, 
854; potatoes, 90,726 bushels; tobacco, 922,447 lbs."; butter, 527,055; cheese, 
691,439; sorghum, 18,685 gallons; maple sugar, 3,662 lbs.; honey, 5,628; 
eggs, 667,898 dozen ; grapes, 20,250 lbs. ; wine, 2,361 gallons ; sweet potatoes, 
232 bushels; apples, 8,647 ; peaches, 1,990; pears, 958; wool, 277,837 lbs.; 
milcii cows owned, 8,994. School census, 1888, 9,178 ; teachers, 229. Miles of 
railroad track, 31. 

Townships and Census. 1840. 1880. Townships and Census. 1840. 1880. 


































Townships and Census. 

Townships and Census. 


























Population of Monroe in 1820 was 4,645; 1830, 8,770; 1840, 18,544; 
1860, 25,741; 1880, 26,496, of whom 22,461 were born in Ohio ; 804, Pcnn- 
.sylvania; 318, Yirsjinia; 49, New York; 33, Indiana; 9, Kentucky; 1224, 
German Empire; 80, Ireland ; 48, France ; 38, England and Wales; 8, Scot- 
land, and 6, British America. Census, 1890, 25,175. 

The principal portion of the population originated from Western Pennsylvania, 
with some AVestern Virginians and a few New Englanders ; one township was 
settled by Swiss, among whom were some highly educated men. 

The valleys of the streams are narrow and are bounded by lofty and rough 
hills. In many of the little i-avines putting into the valleys the scenery is in all 
the wildne&s of untamed nature. In places they are precipitous and scarcely acces- 
sible to the footsteps of man, and often for many hundred yards the rocks bounding 
these gorges hang over some thirty or forty feet, forming natural grottos of suffi- 
cient capacity to shelter many hundreds of persons, and enhancing the gloomy, 
forbidding character of tlie scenery. 

The annexed historical sketch of the county was written in 1846 by Daniel H. 
Wire, Esq., of Woodsfield : 

The first settlement in the county was near 
the mouth of Sunfish about the year 1799. 
This settlement consisted of a few fomilies 
whose chief end was to locate on the best 
hunting ground. A few years alter three 
other small settlements were made. The first 
was near where the town of Beallsvillc now 
stands ; the second on the Clear fork of Lit- 
tle Bluskinguui, consisting of Martin Crow, 
Fred. Crow and two or three other famihes ; 
and the third was on the east fork of Duck 
creek, where some throe or four families of 
the name of Archer settled. Not long after 
this the settlements began to spread, and the 
pioneers were forced to see the bear and the 
wolf leave, and make way for at least more 
friendly neighbors, though perhaps less wel- 
come. The approach of new-comers was 
always looked upon with suspicion, as this 
was the signal for the game to leave. A 
neighbor at the distance of ten mOes was 
considered near enough for all social purposes. 
The first object of a new-comer after selecting 
a location and putting the "hoppers " on the 
horse (if he had any) was to cut some poles 
or logs and build a cabin of suitable dimen- 
sions for the size of bis family; for, as yet, 
rank and condition had not disturbed the 
simple order of societ}'. 

The windows of the cabin were made by 
sawing out about three feet of one of the 
logs, and putting in a few upright pieces ; 
and in the place of glass, they took paper 
and oiled it with bear's oil, or hog's fat, and 
pasted it on the upright pieces. This would 
give considerable light and resist the rain 
tolerably well. After the cabin was completed 
the next thing in order was to clear out a 
piece «f ground for a corn patch. They 

plowed their ground generally with a shovel 
plow, as this was most convenient among the 
roots. Their harness consisted mostly of 
leather-wood bark, except the collar, which 
was made of husks of corn platted and sewed 
together. They ground their corn in a hand- 
mill or pounded it in a mortar, or hominy- 
block, as it was called, which was made by 
burning a hole into the end of a block ot 
wood. They pounded the corn in these mor- 
tars with a pestle, which they made by driv- 
ing an iron wedge into a stick of suitable size. 
Afier the corn was sufficiently pounded, they 
sieved it. and took the finer portion for meal 
to make bread and mush of, and the coarser 
they boiled for hominy. Tiieir meat was 
bear, venison and wild turkey, as it was very 
difficult to raise hogs or sheep on account of 
the wolves and bears ; and hence pork and 
woollen clothes were very scarce. 

The mischievous depredations of the wolves 
rendered their scalps a matter of some im- 
jiortance. They were worth from four to six 
dollars apiece. This made of wolf-hunting 
rather a lucrative business, and, of course, 
called into action the best inventive talent in 
the country ; consequently, many expedients 
and inventions were adopted, one of which I 
will give. 

The hunter took the ovary of a slut — at a 
particular time — and rubbed it on the soles 
of his shoes, then circling through the forest 
where the wolves were most plenty, the male 
wolves would follow his track ; as they ap- 
proached he would secrete himself in a suit- 
able^ place, and as soon as the wolf came in 
the rifle, he received its contents. 



positively practiced, and 

one of the most effectual modes of hunting 



the wolf. A Mr. Terrel, formerly of this 
place, was hunting wolves in this way not far 
from where Woodsfield stands. He found 
liimself closely pursued by a number of 
wolves, and soon discovered from their an- 
gry manner that they intended to attack him. 
He got up into the top of a leaning tree and 
shot four of them before they would leave 
him. This is the only instance of the wolves 
attacking any person in this section of coun- 
try. Hunters, the better to elude, especially 
the ever-watchful eye of the deer and turkey, 
had their hunting-shirts colored to suit the 
season. In the fall of the year they wore the 
color most resembling the fallen leaves ; in 
the winter they used a brown, as near as pos- 
sible the color of the bark of trees. If there 
was snow on the ground, they frequently 
drew a white shirt over their other clothes. 
In the summer they colored their clothes 

In addition to what has already been said, 
it may not be improper to give a few things 
in relation to the social intercourse of the 
early settlers. 

And first I would remark, on good author- 
ity, that a more generous, warm-hearted and 
benevolent people seldom have existed in any 
country. Although they are unwilling to see 
the game driven oif by the rapid influx of 
emigrants, still the stranger, when he ar- 
rived among the hardy pioneers, found among 
them a cordiality, and a generous friend.ship, 
that is not found among those who compose, 
what is erroneously called, the better class of 
society, or the higher circle. There was no 
ilistinction in society, no aristocratic lines 
ilrawn between the upper and lower classes. 
Their social amusements proceeded from 
matters of necessity. A log-rolling or the 
raising of a log-cabin was generally accom- 
panied with a quilting, or something of the 
sort, and this brought together a whole neigh- 
borhood of both sexes, and after the labors 
of the day were ended, they spent the larger 
portion of the night in dancing and other in- 
nocent amusements. If they had no fiddler 
(which was not very uncommon), some one 
of the party would supply the deficiency by 
singing. A wedding frequently called to- 
gether all the young folks for fifteen or twenty 
miles around. These occasions were truly 
convivial ; the parties assembled on the wed- 
ding day at the house of the bride, and after 

the nuptials were celebrated they enjoyed all 
manner of rural hilarity, and most generally 
dancing formed a jiart, unless the old folks 
liad religious scruples a,s to its propriety. 
About 10 o'clock the bride was allowed to re- 
tire by her attendants; and if the groom 
could steal ofi" from his attendants and retire 
also, without their knowledge, they became 
the objects of sport for all the company, and 
were not a little quizzed. The next day the 
party repaired to the house of the groom to 
enjoy the infair. When arrived within a 
mile or two of the house, a part of the com- 
pany would run for the bottle, and whoever 
had the fleetest horse succeeded in getting 
the bottle, which was always ready at the 
house of the groom. The successful racer 
carried back the liquor and met the rest of 
the company and treated them, always taking 
good care to treat the bride and groom first ; 
he then became the hero of that occasion, at 

There are but few incidents relative to the 
Indian war which took place in this county, 
worthy of notice. When Martin Whetzel 
was a prisoner among the Indians they 
brought him about twenty miles (as he sup- 
posed) up Sunfish creek. This would be 
some place near Woodsfield. Whetzel says 
they stopped under a large ledge of rocks, 
and left a guard with him and went ofi^; and 
after having been gone about an hour they 
returned with a large quantity of lead, and 
moulded a great number of bullets. They 
fused the lead in a large wooden ladle, which 
they had hid in the rocks. They put the 
metal in the ladle, and by burning live coals 
on it, succeeded in fusing it. After Whetzel 
escaped from the Indians and returned home, 
he visited the place in search of the lead, but 
could never find it. In fact, he was not cer- 
tain that he had found the right rock. 

At the battle of Captina John Baker was 
killed. He had borrowed Jack Bean's gun, 
which the Indians had taken. This gun was 
recaptured on the waters of Wills' creek, 
about sixteen or eighteen miles west of 
Woodsfield, and still remains in the posses- 
sion of some of the friends of the notorious 
Bean and the lamented Baker, in this county, 
as a memorial of those brave Indian fighters. 
Henry Johnson, who had the fight with the 
Indians when a boy, is now living in the 

In tiie latter part of the last centur\' the celebrated French traveller Volney 
travelled tliroiigh Virginia, and crossed the Ohio into this county from Sistcrs- 
ville. He was under the guidance of two Virginia bear hunters through the 
wilderness. Tiie weather was very cold and severe. In crossing the dry ridge, 
on the Virginia side, the learned infidel became weak with cold and fatigue. He 
was in the midst of an almost boinidless wilderness, deep snows were under his 
feet, and both rain and snow falling upon his head. He frequently insisted on 
giving over the enterprise and dying where he was ; but hia comrades, more ac- 
customed to backwoods fare, urged him on, until he at length gave out, exclaiming, 
" Oh, M'retched and foolish man that I am, to leave my comfortable home and 
fireside, and come to this unfrequented place, where the lion and tiger refuse to 
dwell, and the rain hurries oif! Go on, my friends ! better that one man should 


26 J 

perish tlian three." They then stopped, struck a fire, built a camp of bark and 
limbs, shot a buck, broiled the ham, which, with the salt, bread and other neces- 
saries they had, made a %-ery good supper, and everything being soon comfortable 
and cheery, the learned Frenchman was dilating largely and eloquently upon the 
ingenuity of man. 

Heroic Adventure of the Johnson Boys. 

The account which follows of the heroism of two pioneer boys was given by 
one of them, Henry Johnson, to a Woodsfield paper about 1835 or 1840. Both 
he and his brother John settled in Monroe. John married into the Okey family 
and Henry married Patty Russell. He was the first Mayor of Woodsfield. I 
saw him at Woodsfield in 1846. He was then nearly seventy years of age, a fine 
specimen of tlie fast vanishing race of Indian huntei-s ; tall, erect, with the bear- 
ing of a genuine backwoodsman : 

I was born in Westmoreland county, Pa., 
on the 4lh day of February, 1777. When I 
was about eight years old, my father having 
a large family to provide for, sold his farm 
with the expectation of acquiring larger pos- 
sessions farther West. Thus he was stimu- 
l;ited to encounter the perils of a pioneer life. 
He crossed the Ohio river and bought some 
improvements on what was called Beach 
Bottom flats, two and a half miles from the 
river, and three or four miles above the mouth 
of the Short creek. Soon after he came 
there the Indians became troublesome. They 
stole horses and various other things and 
killed a number of persons in our neighbor- 

When I was between eleven and twelve 
years old, I think it was the fall of 1788, I 
was taken prisoner with my brother John, 
who was about eighteen months older than I. 
The circumstances are as follows : On Satur- 
day evening we were out with an older 
brother, and came home late in the evening ; 
one of us had lost a hat and John and I went 
back the next day to look for it. We found 
the hat, and sat down on a log and were 
cracking nuts. After a short time we saw two 
men coming down from the direction of the 
house ; from their dress we took them to be 
two of our neighbors, James Perdue and J. 
Russell. We paid but little attention to them 
till they came quite near us. To escape by 
flight was now impossible had we been dis- 
posed to try it. We sat still until they came 
up to us. One of them said, " Hnw do. 
broder?" My brother then asked them if 
they were Indians and they answered in 
the affirmative, and said we must go with 

One of them had a blue buckskin, which 
he gave my brother to carry, and without 
further ceremony we took up the line of 
march for the wilderness, not knowing whether 
we should ever return to the cheerful home 
we had left ; and not having much love for 
our commanding officers, of course, we obeyed 
martial orders rather tardily. One of the 
Indians walked about ten steps before and the 
Other about the same distance behind us. 
After travelling some distance we halted in a 
deep hollow and sat down. Tliey took out 

their knives and whet them, and talked some 
time in the Indian tongue, which we could 
not understand. I told my brother that I 
thought they were going to kill us, and I 
believe he thought so too, for he began to 
talk to them, and told them that his father 
was cross to him and made him work hard, 
and that he did not like hard work, that he 
would rather be a hunter and live in the 
woods. This seemed to please them, for they 
put up their knives and talked more lively and 
pleasantly to us. We returned the same 
familiarity and many questions passed be- 
tween us ; all parties were very inquisitive. 
They asked my brother which way home was 
and he told them the contrary way every time 
they would ask him, although he knew the 
way very well ; this would make them laugh ; 
they thought we were lost and that we knew 
no better. 

They conducted us over Short creek hills 
in search of horses, but found none ; so we 
continued on foot. Night came on and we 
halted in alow hollow, about three miles from 
Carpenter's fort and about four from the 
place where they first took us. Our route 
being somewhat circuitous and full of zigzags 
we made headway but slowly. As night began 
to close in around us I became fretful ; my 
brother encouraged me by whispering to me 
that we would kill the Indians that night. 
After they had selected the place of encamp- 
ment one of them scouted around the camp, 
while the other struck fire, which was done 
by stopping the touch-hole of the gun and 
flashing powder in the pan. After the Indian 
got the fire kindled he reprimed the gun and 
went to an old stump to get some dry tinder 
wood for fire ; and while he was thus em- 
ployed my brother John took the gun, cocked 
it, and was about to shoot the Indian ; but I 
was alarmed, fearing that the other might be 
close by and be able to overpower us ; so I 
remonstrated against his shooting and took 
hold of the gun and prevented the shot. I. 
at the same time, begged him to wait till 
night and I would help him to kill them both. 
The Indian that had taken the .scout came 
back about dark. 

We took our suppers, talked some time 
and went to bed on the naked ground to try 


to rest, and study out the best mode of however, was forced to yield to the blows he 
attack. They put us between them that they received upon his head, and, in a short time, 
might be the better able to guard us. After he lay quiet and still at our feet. 
a while one of the Indians, supposing we were After we were satisfied that they were both 
asleep, got up and stretched himself down on . dead, and fearing there were others close by, 
the other side of the fire and soon began to we hurried off and took nothing with us but 
snore. John, who had been watching every the gun I shot with. We took our course 
motion, found they were sound asleep and towards the river, and in about three-quarters 
whispered to me to get up. We got up as of a mile we found a path which led to 
carefully as possible. John took the gun Carpenter's fort. My brother here hung up 
which the Indian struck fire with, cocked it his hat that we might know on our return 
and placed it in the direction of the head of where to turn off to find our camp. We got 
one of the Indians ; he then took a toma- to the fort a little before daybreak. We re- 
hawk and drew it over the head of the other ; lated our adventure, and a small party went 
I pulled the trigger and he struck at the same back with my brother and found the Indian 
instant ; the blow falling too far back on the that had been tomahawked ; the other 
neck only stunned the Indian ; he attempted had crawled away a short distance with the 
to spring to his feet, uttering most hideous gun. A skeleton and a gun were found 
yells. Although my brother repeated the some time after near the place where we had 
blows with some effect the conflict became encamped, 
terrible and somewhat doubtful. The Indian, 

Woodajldd in 1846. — Woodsfield, the, one huudred and eighteen 
miles eaisterly from Columbus, and eighteen from the Ohio river, was founded in 
1815 by Archibald Woods, of Wheeling, George Paul, Benj. Ruggles and Levi 
Barber. It contains one Episcopal Methodist and one Protestant Methodist 
church, a classical academy, one newspaper printing office, six stores and had, in 
1830,157 inhabitants, and in 1840,262 5 estimated population in 1847,450. 
The view was taken in the principal street of the village, on the left of which is 
seen the court-house. At the foot of the street, on the left, but not shown in 
the view, is a natiu-al mound, circular at the base and rising to the height of sixty 
feet. — Old Edition. 

WooD.SFiELD, county-seat of Monroe, one hundred miles east of Columbus, 
on the B. Z. & C. R. E., forty-two miles from Bellaire and seventy from 

County officers, 1888 : Auditor, Henry R. Muhleman ; Clerk, ElishaL. Lynch ; 
Commissioners, John Ruby, J. W. Warner, Alexander Harman ; Coroner, A. G. 
W. Potts ; Infirmary Directors, Jacob Wohnhas, Geo. L. Gillespie, Frederick 
Stoehr ; Probate Judge, Albert J. Pearson ; Prosecuting Attorney, Geo. G. 
Jennings ; Recorder, Edward J. Graham ; Sheriff, Louis Sulsberger ; Surveyor, 
W. S. Jones; Treasurer, Cyrus E. Miller. City officers, 1888: John W. 
Doherty, Mayor ; George P. Dorr, Clerk ; Fritz Reef, Treasurer ; Wm. Lang, 
Marshal. Newspapers : Monroe Gazette, Republican, estate of John W. Doherty, 
editors and publishers ; Monroe Journal, German, Fritz Reef, editor and pub- 
lisher ; Spirit of Demooracy, Democratic, Hamilton and Van Law, editors and 
publishers. Churches : one Christian, one Methodist Episcopal, one Catholic, one 
Evangelical. Banks : Monroe, S. L. Mooney, president, W. C. Mooney, 

Manufactures and Employees. — Gazett,e, newspaper, 4 ; Spi7-it of Demoa>-acy, 
newspaper, 4 ; George Richner & Sons, flour, etc., 4 ; Helbling & Stoehr, doors, 
sash, etc., b.— State Report, 1887. Population in 1880, 861. School census, 
1888, 339. Census, 1890, 1,031. 

John Waterman Okey, at one time chief-justice of the State, was born 
near Woodsfield, January 3, 1827. He was of joint English and Scotch-Irish 
stock, and some of it very long-lived. An inscription on the tombstone of his 
great-grandmother at Woodsfield showed tiiat she lived to the advanced age of 
one hundred and three years. Tlie only institution of learning he ever attended 
was the Monroe Academy. He studied law at Woodsfield ; became Probate 
Judge and Judge of Common Pleas; in 1865 removed to Cincinnati, when, in 
connection with Judge Gholsou, he prepared " Gholson & Okey's Digest of Ohio 

Dr.urn ^;/ Henry Ilmce. 




Reports ; " and also, with S. A. Miller, " Okey & Miller's Municipal Law." In 
1877 he was elected Supreme Judge on the ticket with R. M. Bishop for Gover- 
nor ; again in 1882 on the ticket with Geo. Hoadlv, by a majority of 16,500 over his 
j)rincipal competitor. The Judge had a marvellous memory. There was not a 
single case in tlie whole fifty-seven volumes of Ohio Reports with which he was 
not familiar, and scarcely a which he could not accurately state from 
memory. He died in 1885. 

On this visit in Woodsfield we made the acquaintance of Hon. James R. 
Morris, who was the postmaster of the town. This gentleman represented this 
district in Congress from 1861 to 1865. In 1877 was publishetl an ilhit-trated 
atlas of the Upper Ohio river valley, for M-hich Mr. Morris supplied the historical 
facts appertaining to Monroe. From this, mainly, the following items are derived : 

The First Permanent Settlement of which 
there is any well-authenticated history was 
made in the year 1791. Philip Witten, a 
brother-in-law of the noted Indian scouts and 
fifihters, Kinsey and Vachtel Dickenson, in 
1791 settled in Jackson township. He came 
there with his family from Wheeling, and his 
descendants still live on the same farm. The 
next settlement in order of time was on Buck- 
hill Bottom in 1794. and was made by Robert 
WcEldowney, followed by Jacob Vellom and 
others. Settlements were made at and near 
the mouth of Sunfish creek and Opossum 
creek by the Vandwarters, Henthornes, 
Atkinsons and others, about the years 1 798- 
9. About 1802 a settlement was made on the 
site of Calais. In 1798 an improvement been made there by Aaron Dillie, from 
Dillie's Bottom, Belmont county. About the 
same time a settlement was made by Michael 
Crow and others on Clear Fork creek. Cline's 
settlement on the Little Muskingum was 
begun about the year 1805; that at and 
around the site at Beallsville at about the 
same time, and Dye's settlement, in Perry 
township, in 1812. 

Woodtfidd Founded.— In 1814 the com- 
missioners selected the site of Woodsfield, 
then an unbroken forest, for the county-seat. 
Tradition says that in order to get the streets 
or a part of them cleared out, Mr. Archibald 
Woods, of Wheeling, from whom the town 
was named, and a heavy landholder in this 
region, got a keg of brandy and invited all 
the men and boj's within a circuit of five 
miles to come into the place on a certain Sat- 
urday, have a grand frolic and clear out Main 
street. This was done and the first trees 

In 1 820 Woodsfield contained 18 houses, 
6 of them of hewed logs and the remainder 
cabins. In the fall of 1818 the householders 
of Woodsfield were Patrick A^ams, James 
Carrothers (whose son George was the first 
child born in the town), Joseph Driggs, Ezra 
Driggs, John Snyder, Anson Brewster, Jas. 
Phillips, Messrs. Sayers, Michael Davis, John 
Cole, Henry H. Mott, Stephen Lindley, John 
King. Henry Jackson, Amos B. Jones, 
David Pierson and Mrs. A. G. Hunter. 

Woodsfield was incorporated in 1834, and in 
1886 Henry Johnson (of the Indian killing 
fame) was elected the first Mayor. He died 

at Antioch and is buried in the Woodsfield 

The first court-house and jail combined 
was built of logs in 1816, at a total cost of 
$137. The wood work cost $100, and the 
stone and other work $37. The lower story 
was a jail, and the upper a court-room. The 
second court-house was built of brick in 
1828-29, and burnt in 1867. It was suc- 
ceeded by the present brick structure, which 
cost $40,000. The first court for the county 
was held in 1815, at the house of Levin Okey. 
The first resident lawyer was Seneca S. Salis- 
bury, who came to Woodsfield in 1 821 . In 
1 832 Daniel Arnold, from Cadiz, established 
the first newspaper, the WnodsfieJd Gazette. 
The members of Congress from this county 
have been Joseph Morris, 1843-47 ; Wm. F. 
Hunter, 1849-53; Jas. R. Morris, 1861-65. 

First German and Swiss Settlements. — 
Under the leadership of Father Jacob Tisher, 
in April, 1819, ten German-Swiss families 
embarked on a flat boat on the river Aar at 
the city of Berne. They descended the Aar 
to the Rhine, and thence down the Rhine to 
the city of Antwerp. There they took pas- 
sage on the " I]ugenius," a French vessel for 
New York. After a passage of 48 days they 
landed at Amboy, New Jersey, where they 
purchased teams and six of the famihes 
started overland for Wheeling. The little 
colony now consisted of Father Tisher, Jacob 
Tschappat, Daniel Fankhauser, Nicholas Fank- 
hauser, Jacob Marti and their families, and 
Jacob Nispeli, single. After a tedious jour- 
ney they reached Wheeling, and again em- 
barked on a flat boat, their destination being 
the great Kanawha river. 

Landing at the mouth of Captina, there 
they found two Pennsylvania Germans — Geo. 
Goetz and Henry Sweppe — who informed 
them there was plenty of Government land 
in Monroe county, near by, and a part of 
them were induced to remain, house room 
not being obtainable for all. On the 15th of 
September Father Tisher and a part of his 
little band continued down the river, and 
landed 16 miles below at Bare's landing. 
Jacob Bare, a Marylander, who could speak 
German, persuaded them to settle there. 

Thus this little colony in two bands began 
the first German-Swiss settlements in Mon- 
roe county, the one party in what is now 



in Switzerland township, the other in Ohio 
township. In that region there was scarce 
a settler back from the river, it being an al- 
most unbroken forest. Immigration now 
fairly set in from Germany and fewitzerland, 
and these fertile hills became the happy 
homes of an industrious, virtuous people. 
Their leader, Father Jacob Tisher, was the 
first missionary for the German work of the 
Methodist church, and travelled in this and 
adjoining counties. His circuit was nearly 
200 miles in extent, which he made on foot 
once every four weeks. He was very success- 
ful in organizing societies, and laid the 
foundation of a work now embraced in many 
circuits and stations. He died at the ad- 
vanced age of 86 years. 

Judge Morris illustrates the narrowness 
and intolerance of early times often shown 
by members of diflFerent religious sects to- 
wards each, by an anecdote of a Baptist 
clergyman, who often preached in the Baptist 
church established in 1820 on Opossum 
creek, in Centre township, the firet Baptist 
church in the county. He writes: "Rev. 
Joseph Smith, a pious, zealous and some- 
what eccentric minister, oflSciated at this 
and all the other Baptist churches in the 
county for many years. 

"His eccentricities led him to be very 
hostile to other denominations, especially to 
Methodists. The congregations to which he 
ministered were scattered over a wide extent 
of territory. At one time in making his 
rounds the back of his horse became very 
sore, and he was told by a friend if he would 
get a wolf's skin and put it under the saddle 
it would cure it. He replied : ' I don't know 
where to get one, unless I skin a Methodist 
preacher. ' ' ' 

Suh'scription Sthnoh. — In early times sub- 
scription schools were common. Judge Mor- 
ris, in speaking of a subscription school in 
Greene, opened in 1825, and taught by John 
Miller, thus quotes from a correspondent : 
"The terms of subscription were $1 per 
scholar for a term of three months. The 
teacher boarded around among the scholars ; 
that is, he boarded in the families of the 
scholars for the length of time warranted by 
the number of pupils sent by the family. 

" Before the holidays the teacher was com- 
pelled to sign an article that on Christmas or 
New Year's day he would treat the boys to 
ginger cakes, cider and apples, or they would 
bar him out of the school-house, or if he got 
in first they would smoke him out. If 
he still refused to sign the article, they would 
take him to the nearest creek and duck him. 

" The writer remembers being in a school- 
house in 1829-30, when the teacher was 
barred out ; but he climbed on the roof of 
the school-house, covered the chimney and 
smoked the scholars out. After thus having 
worsted them he still refused to sign the ar- 
ticle : but after some delay, waiting for an 
attack upon him, he treated them bountifully 
and gave them half a holiday, which was 
spent at the various games of amusement 
common in those days." 

Squatters. — The early settlers were more 
numerous in the region around the mouth of 
tiieSunfish than elsewhere. "Most of the 
first settlers," says Morris, "were squatters, 
that is, a family moved into the county and 
settled on Congress land, and when the head 
of the family found himself able, he would 
enter the land upon which he had squatted. 
It was considered a very mean trick in those 
days for a person to ' enter out ' a squatter 
who was doing his best to raise the means to 
p;iy for the home he was making for himself 
and family ; and scarcely any one would 
do it without consent of the squatter, who 
was frequently paid for his improvements 
when he found himself unable to enter the 

Indian Medicine-man.— Dv. N. E. Hent- 
horn, recently deceased, in a letter to John 
B. Noll, Esq., says : " In 1831 I was return- 
ing home from Cincinnati by land and stopped 
over night at Jackson's tavern, in Reading, 
12 miles from the city. When the landlord 
ascertained where I was from, he said that 
his father and an old Indian would like to 
talk with me. 

I went to their room and Mr. Jackson, Sr., 
said he knew my grandfather at the old block 
house at Wheeling ; said that at the time 
Boggs was killed at Boggs' island, the In- 
dians were pursued by the whites, and that 
he, Jackson, wounded this Indian, and when 
about to kill him with his tomahawk, the 
Indian told him he was the medicine-man of 
his tribe, and if he would spare his life he 
would cure a cancer on his (Jackson's) nose, 
which he did; that the Indian had lived 
with him ever since, and was with him in the 
war of 1812, under General Harrison. 

Indian Decoy. — "The Indian told me that 
the Indian name of Sunfish creek was Buck- 
cliitawa, and Opossum creek was in the In- 
dian tongue Eagle creek. He further told 
me of the killing of a big Indian at Buck- 
chitawa, about the time of the settlement at 

Big Indian. — "The Indians had a white 
prisoner whom they forced to decoy boats to 
the shore. A small boat was descending the 
river containing white peojile, when this 
prisoner was placed under the bank to tell 
those in the boat that he had escaped cap- 
tivity and to come to shore and take him in. 
The Indians were concealed, but the big In- 
dian stuck his head out from behind a large 
tree when it was pierced by a bullet from the 
gun of the steersman of the boat. The In- 
dians cried ' Wetzel I ' ' Wetzel ! ' and fled. 
This was the last ever seen of the prisoner. 
The Indians returned the next day and 
buried the big Indian, who. he said, was 
twenty inches taller than he was, and he was 
a tall "man. 

" When Chester Bishop was digging many 
years ago a cellar for Asahel Booth at Clar- 
ington, he came across a skeleton, the bones 
of which were carefully removed by Dr. 
Richard Kirkpatrick, and from his measure- 
ment he estimated the man when living 
would have been 8 feet and 5 inches. It is 


probable that these were the bones of the big 
Indian. He further told me there was lead 

on Eagle, Buckchitawa 
but the veins were thin. 

d Captina ortoks, 


My original visit to Woodsfield was in March, 1846. I came in the character 
of a pedestrian, with my knapsack on my back, loaded with some 14 pounds. A 
steamboat had landed me on the Ohio some 16 miles away, and I came up tiie 
hills meeting scarcely a soul or seeing much else than hills and trees. 

Woodsfield was then much out of the world. Indeed the entire county ^^'^s 
quite primitive; its people largely dwelt in cabins. This seemed to me a gooil 
thing, saving many the worry of having so much to look after. " Great posses- 
sions, great cares." 

Monroe county was away from all travel, except on the river fringe. This is 
29 miles long and the river hurries by, falling in that distance 20 feet 6J inches, 
and mostly in ripples. 

The county had a decided political character 
and was such a sore spot to the old Whigs 
from its stunning Democratic majorities that 
they called it ''^ Dark Monroe." Still, Ithought 
I could travel over it in safety without a 

On my arrival at Woodsfield I had an un- 
usually pleasant reception, and when my 
book was published the indwellers of Dark 
Monroe showed their love for their Ohio land 
by an unusually large patronage. The be- 
havior of the people was such that the jailer's 
office was of little account. His business was 
so poor that if he had depended upon fees 
and board money for a living he must have 
starved. Neither did the sheriff get a chance 
to hang anybody, for a capital crime had 
never been committed in the county. In 
such a condition of things the Woodsfield 
newspaper suffered for want of interesting 
home news to chronicle, excepting after an 
election, when the Democratic rooster showed 
his outstretched plumage. 

I came this last time by the " Poor Man's 
Railroad," described on page 318. When I 
got here I inquired for three old acquaintances 
I had made in 1846, and as usual in such 
cases the answer was, "dead." They were 
Henry Johnson, Daniel H. Wire and Jamie 
Shaw. Henry Johnson, having been born one 
hundred and nine years before, of course was 
dead. He was one of the ever-to-be-re- 
membered two Johnson boys who killed two 
Indians in the old Revolutionary war. He 
died in 18.50, at Antioch, that is, four years 
after I made his acquaintance, and was buried 
at Woodsfield. 

Daniel H. Wire, who gave me the pre- 
ceding historical sketch, died before the war. 
When I saw him he was a young lawyer, and 
at one time prosecuting attorney for the 
county. He ran for Congress on the Demo- 
cratic ticket. This was in 18.5.5, during what 
was termed the "Know-Nothing Craze." 
The Know-Nothings carried that year many 
of the Ohio districts, and this among them. 
Wire's personal popularity was so great that 
it saved the county; its usual majority was 
some 1,600, but it went through by about 
four hundred. 

In the old picture of Woodsfield is the 
figure of an old man leaning on a cane with a 
dog by his side. That is JAMIE Shaw ami 
his dog. He was not on that spot at llii' 
moment I drew the picture, but I introduced 
him as a matter of humor, and in his con- 
templative attitude:Jamie whs the oddih/ d 
Woodsfield and I felt his memory should lie 
preserved for a grateful people. 

I derive the following about Jamie fmni 
conversation with Hon. W. F. Okey. ol 
Woodsfield, and Gen. Jas. 0. Amos, of I lie 
Shelby County Democrat. The last, once :i 
boy in Woodsfield, years later, in Alien s 
administration, mounted epaulets and becanje 
Adjutant-General of Ohio. 

Jamie was a hatter, originally from Greene 
county. Pa., and a soldier of the war of 18rj. 
He was a short, fat man, waddled abcjul 
carrying a cane, and wherever Jamie«wciit 
his dog, like Mary's lamb, was sure to go. 
The dog was like his master, short and tat. 
and his color interesting — yelloio. Whenever 
Jamie stopped or sat down his dog would 
drop on his haunches and look up lovingly in 
his face. The dog in his affection seemed 
the counterpart of Dr. Holland's Blanco. 
And, no doubt, Jamie felt towards him as 
the Doctor did to Blanco, when he wrote : 

My dear dumb friend, low-lying there, 

A willing vassal at my feet ; 
Glad partner of my home and fare. 

My vassal on the street. 

I scan the whole broad earth around. 

For that one heart which, leal and true, 
Bears friendship without end or bound. 

And find that friend in you.- 

Ah, Blanco, did I worship God, 

As truly as you worship me ; 
Or follow where my Mastej' trod 

With your humility — 

Did I sit fondly at his feet. 

As you, dear Blanco, sit at mine ; 

And watch him with a love as sweet, 
My life would grow divine. 


Jamie was an ardent soul and greatly en- no more. But as for his companion, tliere 

joyed his religion. He was a Methodist, and was no record, not even his name ; but we do 

oft carried away in a frenzy of excitement to know he worsliipped Jamie, and the hue of 

the perpetration of ridiculous things and his coat was the hue of those worn by the 

greatly to the amusement of the Woodsfield priests of Boodha, the " sacred yellow." 

youngsters. On one of these occasions, while As for odd characters in the olden time, the 

ijing on the floor, kicking up his heels and country was full of them. Every community 

crying, "Glory to God," one of the mis- had its queer one. What was singular, no two 

chievous urchins dropped a bullet in his of these were ever alike. The isolated lives 

mouth. It came near choking Jamie to death. of the old-time people had much to do with 

A boy named Driggs was arrested and thedevelopment of originality. Now, through 

brought before a Justice and fined for the the influence of the press, we all daily talk 

offence ; but he declared it was not him that the same topics, think the same thoughts and 

did it — it was another boy. It always is. move on the same planes. Individuality is 

Jamie eventually moved to Missouri, where measurably lost in the onrush of the ever- 

he located some soldier's land-warrants surging increasing multitudes, who, in the 

granted him for his services in our last war daily surprise of startling events and wonder- 

against the "red-coats." He lived there a working discoveries, continually lift their 

number of years ; when the word came he was hands and exclaim, " What next ? ' ' 

Clarington is on the Oliio river, at tiie month of the Siinfish, about fifteen 
miles east of Woodsfield. Newspaper : Independent, Independent, W. T. Powell, 
editor • and publisher. Churches : 1 Methodist, 1 German Lutheran and 1 
Christian. Population, 1880, 915. School census, 1888, 251 ; E. B. Thomas, 
school superintendent. Clarington is the most extensive business point on the 
river between Marietta and Bellaire. It was laid out in 1822 by David Pierson, 
who named it after his daughter Clarinda. 

Beali,sville is eight miles northeast of Woodsfield, on the B. Z. & C. R. R. 
It has 1 Presbyterian, 1 Methodist Episcopal, and 1 Christian church. Popula- 
tion, 1880, 391. School census, 1888, 166. 

Graysville is eight miles southwest of Woodsfield. It has 1 Christian, 1 
Methodist and 1 Baptist church. Population, 1880, 174. School census, 
1888, 74. 

Calais is twelve miles northwest of Woodsfield. It has 1 Methodist Episcopal 
church. Population, 1880, 159. School census, 1888, 105. 

Cameron is twelve miles east of Woodsfield. School census, 1888, 140. 

Stafford is ten miles southwest of Woodsfield. It has 1 Christian and J 
Methodist Episcopal church. School census, 1888, 103. 



Montgomery County was uamed from Geu. Richard Montgomery, of the 
American Revolutionary army ; he was born in Ireland, in 1737, and was killed 
in the assault upoii Quebec, Dec. 31, 1775. This county was created May'l, 
1803, fVom Hamilton and Ross, and the temporary seat of justice appointed at 
the house of George Newcom, in Dayton. About one-half of the county \s roll- 
ing and the rest level ; the soil of an excellent quality, clay predominating. East 
of the Miami are many excellent limestone quarries, of a greyish-white hue. 
Large quantities are exported to Cincinnati, where it is used in constructing the 
most elegant edifices ; nearly all the canal locks from Cincinnati to Toledo are 
built with it. This is a great manufacturing county, and abundance of water 
power is furnished by its various streams, and it is very wealthy, with a dense 
agricultural population. The principal products are corn, wheat, rye, oats, barley, 
flaxseed, potatoes, pork, wool and tobacco. 

Area about 470 square miles. In 1887 the acres cultivated were 167,779 ; in 
pasture, 18,402; woodland, 34,134; lying waste, 9,624; produced in wheat, 
639,886 bushels ; rye, 4,655 ; buckwheat, 171 ; oats, 41 5,084 ; barley, 55,960 ; corn, 
1,523,796 ; broom-corn, 67,759 lbs. brush ; meadow hay, 15,104 tons ; clover hay, 
8,628 ; flax, 176,477 lbs. fibre; potatoes, 85,200 bushels; tobacco, 4,717,558 lbs. - 
(largest in the State); butter, 827,943 ; cheese, 2,715; sorghum, 5,872 gallons; 
maple syrup, 13,934; honey, 4,018 lbs.; eggs, 635,473 dozen; grapes, 132,780 
lbs. ; wine, 6,301 gallons ; sweet potatoes, 3,648 bushels ; apples, 563 ; peaches, 
15; pears, 1,725; wool, 15,747 lbs.; milch cows owned, 10,497. Ohio Mining 
Statistics, 1888: Limestone, 5,062 tons burned for lime; 195,537 cubic feet of 
dimension stone ; 33,977 cubic yards of building stone; 422,558 square feet of 
flagging; 9,750 square feet of paving ; 48,586 lineal feet of curbing ; 1,352 cubic 
yards of ballast or macadam. School census, 1888, 26,797 ; teachers, 402. 
Miles of railroad track, 165. 

Townships and Census. 1840. 1880. Townships and Census. 1840. 1880. 










Mad River, 


Dayton (city and 


















Van Buren, 














Population of Montgomery in 1820 was 16,061 ; 1830, 24,374 ; 1840, 31,879 ; 
1860, 52,230; 1880, 78,550; of whom 54,396 were born in Ohio; 4,059 Penn- 
sylvania; 1,197 Indiana; 1,114 New York ; 1,037 Virginia; 813 Kentucky; 
7,894 German Empire ; 2,574 Ireland ; 664 England and Wales ; 270 France ; 
207 British America; 159 Scotland, and 11 Norway and Sweden. 

Census, 1890, 100,852. 

Among the early settlers of Montgomery county was Col. Robert Patterson. 
He was born in Pennsylvania in 1753, and emigrated to Kentucky in 1775. In 
1804 he removed from Kentucky and settled about a mile below Dayton. He 
was the original proprietor of Lexington, Ky., and one-third owner of Cincinnati, 
when it was laid out. He was with Col. George Rogers Clarke in 1778, in his 
celebrated Illinois campaign ; in the following year he was in Bowman's expedi- 
tion against old Chillicothe. In this expedition, accordin