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Piscataquis County Historical 





Piscataquis County, Maine 


Piscataquis County Historical Society 


The North Eastern Boundary 
Controversy and the Aroostook War 

With Documentary Matter Pertaining Thereto 





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D. OF B« 

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An Address Delivered Before the Piscataquis 
County Historical Society by Its President, 
John Francis Sprague, at Sebec, Maine, July 
23, 1908, 1 

Early History of the Town of Sebec. Its Incor- 
poration and Development. Read at the 
meeting of the society in Sebec July 23, 1 908, 
by Major Wainwright Cushing, 10 

Some Facts in Regard to the Early History of the 

Town of Guilford. By Hemy Hudson, Esq., 35 

Some Facts Relating to the Early History of 
Greenville and Moosehead Lake. Presented 
by Charles D. Shaw, Esq., 52 

History of the Baptist Churches in Piscataquis 

County. By Rev. F. H. Pratt, 66 

Universalism in Piscataquis County. By Rev, A. 

Gertrude Earle. 86 

Foxcroft Academy. By Hon. Willis E. Parsons, 100 

Historical Sketch of Monson Academy. By John 

Francis Sprague, 118 

Early Navigation on Sebec Lake. By Charles W. 

Hayes, Esq., 127 

Peter Brawn and His Celebrated Bear Fight on 

Sebec Lake. By Edgar Crosby Smith, 138 



Sketch of Hunter John Ellis. By Sarah A. Martin, 142 
Edgar Wilson N}'e. By John Francis Sprague, 147 

Sketches of Some Revolutionary Soldiers of Pis-. 

cataquis County. By Edgar Crosby Smith, 154 
Notes of the Crosby Family and a Sketch of the 

Life of Josiah Crosby. By S. P. Crosby, 204 

The North Eastern Boundary Controversy and the 

Aroostook War. By John Francis Sprague, 216 
Documentary History of the North Eastern Bound- 
ary Controversy, 
State Papers Relative to the North Eastern 

Boundary Controversy, 
History of the Shaw Family with a Sketch of 
Milton G. Shaw of Greenville. Presented by 
Charles D. Shaw, 424 

William Bingham and the Million Acre I'ract. 

By .John Francis Sprague, 434 

The Blanchard Family of Blanchard. By Edward 

P. Blanchard, 442 

Resolutions on the Death of Dr. William Buck of 

Foxcroft, 446 

Resolutions on the Death of Columbus W. Ellis of 

Guilford. 449 


An Address Delivered Before the Pis- 
cataquis County Historical Society by 
its President, John Francis Sprague, 
at Sebec, Maine, July 23, 1908 

Members of the Piscataquis County Historical Society. 
Ladies and Gentlemen : 

IT is customai'v with the members of historical soci- 
eties to have an outing, or, as it is usually called, 
a "field day," at least once a year, and the places 
usually selected, are those of especial historical interest, 
thus combining the work which they are engaged in with 
pleasure and recreation. 

Your standing committee concluded, and I think 
wisely, to have our first outing at this sylvan lake, and 
in this pretty and picturesque little village, quietly 
reposing at its gateway, and which was one of the earliest 
settlements in our count3\ 

At first thought it might seem that while they desig- 
nated a most delightful spot for pleasure and enjoyment 
it is not of particular historical interest; that it is only 
one of hundreds of other lakes in our Pine Tree State 
where nature has been lavish in fashioning the scenery, 
the beauty and the grandeur about it — that it is after 
all only Sebec Lake, bearing the same name as the town 
of Sebec. 

This would appear to be true to the casual observer, 
but possibly it will occur to the more thoughtful that we 


may be to-day upon what is really and in fact historic 
ground. In the early part of the present year some 
prominent men from the new State of Oklahoma, who 
were interested in the Indians, their reservations, lands 
and varied interests in their state, called upon President 
Roosevelt to present to him some plans or projects rela- 
tive to those Indians. In his reply Mr. Roosevelt gave 
utterance to one of his characteristic expressions that, 
"It should ever be remembered that the Indian was the 
first American." 

We are now within the limits of a route traveled 
when this was all a vast wilderness by the first Americans 
for untold centuries, before the white man ever saw it, 
in their journey ings from the land of the Delawares, the 
Iroquois, and other more western nations to the country 
now known as Canada, and especially to and from what 
is now known as Mount Kineo, midway of Moosehead 

The rock formation of Kineo mountain is what in com- 
mon language we know as hornstone or horn flint and 
is peculiar to itself in many ways, so that whenever a 
mineralogist or geological student familiar with it finds 
its fragments in any part of the country he can immedi- 
ately recognize it as the Kineo rock. 

Jackson in his report on the geology of Maine, in 
1838, says of this mountain, "Hornstone, which will 
answer for flints, occurs in various parts of the State, 
where trap-rocks have acted upon silicious slate. The 
largest mass of this stone known in this country is 
Mount Kineo, upon Moosehead Lake, which appears to 
be entirely composed of it, and rises 700 feet above the 
lake level. This variety of hornstone I have seen in 
every part of New England in the form of Indian arrow- 
heads, hatchets, chisels, etc., which were probably 


obtained from this mountain by the aboriginal inhab- 
itants of the country." 

Henry D. Thoreau in his valuable work, which has 
done so much to make our magnificent forestry famous 
throughout the world, "The Maine Woods," referring 
to this subject says: "I have myself found hundreds of 
aiTow-heads made of the same material, ' ' 

The late Honorable Augustus Choate Hamlin of Ban- 
gor, besides being an eminent physician and surgeon, 
was also a mineralogist of considerable fame, and several 
of his books upon these subjects were published from 
1866 to 1870. 

He once informed me that the Kineo rock was in 
some respects so much different from the ordinary horn- 
stone that scientists could easily distinguish it from that 
found in any other localities, and that arrow-heads, etc., 
made from this rock had been discovered much farther 
south and west than the boundaries of New England. 
Thus the evidence seems to be conclusive that aboriginals 
traveled from distant parts of the country to obtain this 
rock, which they made into crude implements for their 
use in war and in peace and in the pursuit of game. 

We are now within the limits of their great thorough- 
fare from the Penobscot River to Kineo and Canada, 
which has, perhaps, been trodden by millions during 
ages which Me know not of. 

To substantiate this contention I will refer to "An 
account of a journey from Fort Pownal, now Fort Point, 
up the Penobscot River to Quebec, in 1764, by Joseph 
Chadwick, surveyor," who was employed by the Colony 
of Massachusetts to make a survey and exploration of a 
route for a highway from Fort Pownal to Quebec, which 
was published in Vol. 4 (1898) of the Bangor Historical 
Magazine, edited by the late Col. Joseph W. Porter, 


who was a most accurate student of the histoiy of east- 
ern Maine. 

A journal of the work of Mr. Chad wick, accompanied 
by a plan of the territory over which he passed, is now 
in the archives of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 
a copy of which was furnished to this magazine by 
Doctor John F. Pratt of Chelsea, Mass. 

He (Chadwick) was a stranger and had no knowledge 
of the countiy and had to depend entirely upon Indian 
guides whom he employed at Old Town. The party 
consisted of John Preble, who acted as captain and in- 
terpreter, and who was afterwards much employed dur- 
ing the Revolutionary War in that capacity and in 
dealing with the Indians. He died in Portland in 1787. 
Also Joseph Chadwick, surveyor ; Doctor William Craw- 
ford, second surveyor; Philip Nuton, assistant; and 
Joseph Askequenent, Sock Tomah, Asson}' Neptune, 
Messer Edaweit, Sac Allexis, Joseph Mary, Sakabis and 
Francis, who were the Indian guides. 

Here was a man penetrating an unknown wilderness, 
relying entirely upon the knowledge and good faith of 
the Indians to lead him and point out the way to Que- 
bec. The Indians were friendly and had no object in 
traversing other than the old trails which they and all 
of their ancestors had ever traversed so far as they knew. 

From the Penobscot River they went up the Piscata- 
quis, which in Chadwick 's journal is spelled Perscatie- 
quess, and the notes are that it, "Is a rapid stream and 
rocky, rough land, but in some parts are good tracts of 
land on which grow pine and other timber." 

The next place noted in the journal is Soback Pond, 
and now known as Sebec Lake. The name given the 
beautiful and charming Lake Onawa is Obernestzame- 
booh Pond, and the notes mentioned Borestone Mountain 
by saying that, "It has a very remarkable mountain 


which serves to rectify our reckoning about 50 miles 
each way." 

Moosehead Lake is called Lake Sebem or Moose Hills, 
and Chesuncook Lake is named Gesencook, while Mount 
Katahdin is given the name of Satinhungemoss Hill. 

These unfamiliar names for places, which conflict with 
our ideas regarding their original Indian names, can be 
accounted for from the fact well known to students of 
Indian history and tradition, that different tribes often 
had different names for the same places. 

We find in this journal further evidence that this had 
been a wa}- long used by the Indians when it states: 
"At Quebec some of the gentlemen being desirous of 
forwarding so good a design of opening a road to New 
England, they began an inquiry of their hunters and 
Indian traders, who all advised that the above passage is 
the nighest and most practicable part of the country for 
opening a road from Quebec to New England," etc. 

When one contemplates the awful story of that disas- 
trous and fatal expedition of Arnold's up the treacherous 
Dead River and through the Maine woods to Quebec, 
and thinks of its tragedies, its cruelties, its terrible 
sufferings, of soldiers resorting to eating all of their dogs 
except one which belonged to the beautiful half-breed 
girl enamoured of Aaron Burr, and who accompanied 
the little army, as did two or three other women who 
were the wives of officers, and at last boiling their moc- 
casins for a soup in their desperate efforts to sustain life, 
he cannot but speculate as to what might have been the 
result if they had gone up the Penobscot instead of the 

It is among the possibilities that if Washington and 
Arnold had informed themselves regarding this passage 
where we are to-day, and had found and studied this 
Chadwick survey and sailed to Penobscot Bay and not to 


Merrvmeeting Bay, the history of North America might 
have been changed. 

Those of you whose imaginative powers are developed 
along poetic lines, who are often inspired by the muse, 
may here, at this moment, upon this ground, in vour 
mental visions behold myriads of red men for ages un- 
counted paddling their birch canoes over these shimmer- 
ing waters and softly treading these shores, or you may 
see the deadly arrows and tomahawks aimed at enemies 
and hear the war-whoops and conflict of tribal battles; 
or your strange reveries may lead you into the realms 
of mysterious romances, of a mysterious past peopled by 
sleek and swift-footed hunters, valiant and brave warriors 
and coy and fascinating maidens. 

As has been expressed by our sweet singer of Piscata- 
quis, Anna Boynton Averill, we may well imagine that, 

In the sunbeams Paleface fairies hide their tiny spark; 
In the raindrops Indian fairies veil their faces dark. 
Brightness hides the sunbeam fairies, smiling, fair and warm; 
Shadows shroud the dusky fairies, dwellers of the storm. 

As this is the first meeting of our society since its 
organization, a word in regard to its objects may not 
be out of place. 

History, concisely speaking, is a record of human 
events. Since the earliest dawn of civilization man has 
preserved this record and it has ever served as a beacon 
light to guide his footsteps in his advancement and prog- 

The rise and fall of the republics of history aided our 
forefathers in laying the firm foundation for our govern- 
ment for freedom and liberty. And the history of the 
formation of the integral parts of our nation such as 
states, counties, cities and towns, is in a smaller way of 
the utmost importance and value to the generations as 
they appear and disappear in the mysterious procession 


of human existence, having in their keeping the 
material, poHtical, moral and intellectual welfare of the 
community while engaged in life's activities. 

For these reasons historical societies are formed for 
the purpose of collecting and preserving such incidents 
in the lives of men and women, and such events in 
the history of localities as would necessarily be overlooked 
b}' the wTiters of general history. In this work we 
gather from state, county and town archives, recorded 
facts relating to the founding of municipalities and the 
lives of the founders; we save from destruction the con- 
tents of fugitive papers, letters, scrap-books and docu- 
ments, and rescue from the weakening memories of aged 
citizens facts and traditions which are rapidly passing 
into oblivion. 

Then we make record of contemporaneous facts and 
events as we have knowledge of them ourselves, for the 
best time to write history is when it is being made. 
Such labors are not onh' an inspiration to those engaged 
in them, but their fruition will be of inestimable worth 
to those who will soon come after us. 

The Maine Historical Society was organized in 1822 
and has had a most prosperous career ever since, and 
has performed a great work for the State; but it cannot 
do for the subordinate communities all that ought to be 
done, hence local societies have been formed and are 
being formed to carry on this work. 

Piscataquis County, although not chartered until 
1838, was composed of towns taken from Somerset 
County, organized in 1809, and Penobscot County, or- 
ganized in 1816. 

When the representatives of the people of the Prov- 
ince of Maine assembled at Portland on the eleventh of 
October, 1819, for the purpose of forming a constitution 
for the new State of Maine, five towns from Penobscot 



County, which are now a part of Piscataquis County, 
were represented upon the floor of the convention as 
follows: Foxcroft, Samuel Chamberlain; Guilford, 
Joseph Kelsey; Sangerville, Benjamin C. Goss; Sebec, 
William Lowney ; Atkinson, Eliazier W. Snow. 

Among other members of this convention whose 
names are interwoven with the history of our county 
may be mentioned Col. Joseph E. Foxcroft of New 
Gloucester, proprietor of the township of what is now 
known as the town of Foxcroft ; Sanford Kingsbury of 
Gardiner, once .proprietor of Kingsbury Plantation, and 
for whom it was named; and Alexander Greenwood of 
Hebron, who subsequently became a citizen of Monson 
and a land surveyor of note in this county. 

Ten of our municipalities have been named for men of 
prominence in the affairs of their day and generation as 
follows: Atkinson, Blanchard, Brownville, Foxcroft, 
Orneville, Parkman, Sangerville, Williamsburg, Elliotts- 
ville Plantation and Kingsbury Plantation. 

Thus it will be seen that we have a field for exertion 
which reaches back into and is a part of the early history 
of our State. Very little, as compared with other parts 
of Maine, has been written of Piscataquis County, and 
yet its history, if compiled, would be of great interest 
to all. 

The liberal policy which our Legislature has pursued 
in aid of the Maine Historical Society and similar in- 
stitutions is an earnest that we may not be too optimistic 
in believing that our society may receive some assistance 
from the same source. 

I sincerely hope that we may be enabled to publish 
occasional volumes of the proceedings of these meetings 
and the papers and collections which may come to us 
from our members regarding the early days of our 
county, its pioneers, its civil, religious, political, indus- 


trial and military history, its Indian traditions and 
legends, its schools, churches, etc. 

Whether the objects of this society are ever fully ac- 
complished will depend on the efforts which the members 
put forth and upon the sympathy and aid which we re- 
ceive from our fellow citizens generally. 

We invite, therefore, the cooperation of all in carry- 
ing forward the work which we have begun. 

Early History of the Town of Sebec 

Its Incorporation and Development 

THE following paper was reatl bv Major Wainwright 
Gushing July 23, 1908, at the meeting of Pis- 
cataquis County Historical Society in Sebec. Mr. 
Gushing took pains to examine the early records of the 
county in Boston in order to get facts : 

Petition for the incorporation of the town of Sebec 
which was circulated for signatures in the spring of 

To the Honorable Senate and House of Representa- 
tives of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in General 
Court assembled : 

Your petitioners, inhabitants of township number 4 
in the seventh range, north of Waldo patent in the 
County of Hancock, beg leave to represent that although 
it is now but about eight years since the commencement 
of the settlement of said township, it already contains 
between thirty and forty settlers, and that we are sub- 
ject to all the great and many evils that arise from our 
unincorporated state, we your petitioners therefore pray 
that said township may be incorporated into a town by 
the name of Sebec, vested with all the powers and 
privileges that other towns do or may enjoy in the Com- 
monwealth, and your petitioners are in duty bound and 
will ever pray. 


No. 4, range 7, County of Hancock, May 1811. 

James Lyford Alex Thompson 

Hez Hall Joseph Dennett 

Daniel Hall John Smart 

John Wentworth John Brien 

Ric'd Downing Noah Cross 

Clement Bunker Abiel Gould 

Jason Hassell Joseph Noyes 

Silas Herriman Abel Chase 

Geo. Knight Peter Morrill 

Jonathan Lyford James Douglass 

Jeremiah Douglass John Keene 

Wm. Douglass, Jr. Wm. Douglass 

Seth Dowman Jacob Doe 

Joel Crockett Wm. McKinney 

Patrick Morrill James Dennett 
Moses Page 

Boston, Mass., June 11th, 1811. 
Read and committed to the Committee of towns. 
Sent up for concurrence. 

Joseph W. Story, Speaker. 

In the Senate June 11th. Read and concurred. 

Samuel Dana, President. 

Remonstrance against the incorporation of the town 
of Sebec. 

To the Honorable Senate and House of Representa- 
tives, Commonwealth of Massachusetts in General Court 

Humbly represent your memorialists inhabitants of 
township 4 range 7 north of Waldo patent in the 
County of Hancock, that a petition was presented to 
your Honorable Body last session praying that this 


township might be incorporated into a town by the name 
of Sebec, which prayer your memorialists, some of whom 
were subscribers to said petition, beg leave to say ought 
not to be granted. Because the signatures to said peti- 
tion were obtained in an improper manner, and under 
the influence of false representations, inasmuch as there 
was never any meeting of the inhabitants to consult 
upon the subject, or any means to take the sense col- 
lectively, but the petition was originated by a few in- 
dividuals and presented to the inhabitants separately, 
with a representation to each that the other inhabitants 
were mostly if not altogether in favor of the measure, 
that not only the inhabitants but the non-resident 
proprietors were desirous of incorporation, and that if 
the inhabitants would not petition the proprietors in- 
tended to take measures to procure an assessment of 
taxes on them which representations and the reasoning 
obviously drawn from them, were the prevailing if not 
the sole motives which induced many, among whom are 
some of your memorialists to sign the said petition, and 
it was circulated through the township with such rapidity 
that though the representations under the influence of 
which they signed said petition, have been since found to 
be wholly without foundation in truth, yet there was no 
opportunity to detect the deception which had been 
practiced upon them to obtain their signatures until it 
was too late to make a proper representation of their 
case at the last session of the Legislature. Therefore 
your memorialists pray that the petitioners for the in- 
corporation of the township aforesaid may have leave to 
withdraw their petition, and the prayer thereof may not 
at present be granted. As in duty bound will ever 
pray. Aug. 1811. 

Ezra Gould Ezekiel Chase 

Moses Cross Jeremiah Moulton 


Caleb Cross John Johnston, Jr. 

Thomas Roberts Jonathan Chase 

John Webster Luke Perry 

Jonathan Carter Noah Cross 

Abel Chase Richard Townsend 

Bill to establish the town of Sebec. 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the year of our 
Lord one thousand eight hundred and twelve. 

An act to establish the town of Sebec in the County 
of Hancock. 

Section 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and House 
of Representatives in General Court assembled, and by 
the authority of the same, that the township numbered 
four in the seventh range of the Waldo Patent in the 
County of Hancock, be and hereby is established as a 
town by the name of Sebec, and by the following bound- 
aries, viz: East by number three in the same range. 
South by the river Piscataquis, West by number five in 
the same range now incorporated as Foxcroft, North by 
number six in the eighth range. And the said town of 
Sebec is hereby vested with all the corporate powers and 
privileges and subject to the like duties and requisitions 
of other towns according to the constitution and laws 
of the Commonwealth. 

Section 2. Be it further enacted that any Justice of 
the Peace for the County of Hancock is hereby author- 
ized upon application therefor to issue a warrant directed 
to a freeholder and inhabitant of the said town of 
Sebec requiring him to notify and warn the inhabitants 
thereof to meet at such convenient time and place as 
shall be appointed in said warrant for the choice of such 
officers as towns are by law required to choose at their 
annual town meetings. 

This bill having had two general readings passed to 


be engrossed. Send down for concurrence. In Senate 
Feb. 25th, 1812. 

Samuel Dana, President. 

In the House of Representatives. 
Feb. 20th, 1812. 
This bill having had three several readings passed to 
be engrossed. 

In concurrence. E. W. Ripley, Speaker. 

For some reason the town of Sebec did not vote at 
the annual election in 1813. 

The first vote recorded was in 1814. 
For Governor 
Samuel Dexter, 33 votes 

Caleb Strong, 21 votes 

For Lieutenant Governor 
William Gray, 29 votes 

William Phillips, 22 votes 


To James Lyford one of the freeholders of the town 
of Sebec. 
Greeting : 

(L. S, ) You are hereby required in the name of the 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts to notify and warn the 
freeholders and other inhabitants living within the 
territorial limits of Number 4, seventh range North of 
the Waldo Patent now incorporated into a town by the 
name of Sebec, qualified by law to vote in town meet- 
ings, viz: Such male citizens as are twenty-one years of 
age and upwards, liable to be taxed, who have resided 
within said number four one year preceding his voting, 
to meet and assemble at the dwelling house of James 
Lyford in said town on Saturday the twenty-first instant 


at ten o'clock in the forenoon to act on the following 
articles, viz: 

First, to choose a town clerk. 

Second, to choose a moderator to govern said meeting. 

Third, to choose three able and discreet persons for 

Fourth, to choose a suitable person to be treasurer. 

Fifth, to choose three meete persons to be assessors. 

Sixth, to choose a constable. 

Seventh, to choose a meete person to be collector of 

Eighth, to choose two or more suitable persons for 
surveyors of lumber. 

Ninth, to choose one or more suitable persons for 
surveyors and measurers of boards, plank timber and 

Tenth, to choose surveyors of shingles and clapboards. 

Eleventh, to choose two or more judicious and dis- 
creet freeholders for fence viewers. 

Twelvth, to choose a tythingman. 

Thirteenth, to choose a fish warden. 

Fourteenth, to choose two or more persons to be hog 

Fifteenth, to choose a pound keeper. 

Sixteenth, to choose a field driver. 

Seventeenth, to choose a school committee if the town 
see fit. 

Eighteenth, to agree in what manner they will have 
the future town meetings warned, or act anything rela- 
tive to the subject. 

Nineteenth, to make such by-laws as the town sees 
fit, and choose all such committees as the town think 

Given under my hand and seal the seventeenth day 



of March in the year of our Lord eighteen hundred and 

John Whitney, 
Justice of the Peace. 
Hancock, S. S. March 17th, 1812. Then personally 
appeared the within named James Lyford and made oath 
that he would faithfully and impartialh' notify and warn 
the inhabitants of Sebec as herein required agreeably to 

Before me, John Whitney, 

Justice of the Peace. 
Pursuant to the within warrant I have summoned and 
notified the inhabitants of said town qualified as herein 
expressed to assemble at the time and place and for the 
purposes within mentioned. 

James Lyford. 

Pursuant to the foregoing warrant the inhabitants 
assembled at the dwelling house of James Lyford on 
Saturday the 21st day of March 1812. Meeting opened 
by James Lyford. 

Sworn Voted Jason Hassell Town Clerk 

Voted James Lyford Moderator 
Selectmen voted 
Sworn John Sleeper, First 

Sworn James Lyford, Second 

Sworn Alexander Thompson, Third 

Town Treasurer voted 
Sworn Jeremiah Molton 

Assessors voted 
Sworn John Sleeper, James Lyford and Alexander 


Constable and Collector voted Abel Chase, he ap- 
peared and took the oath prescribed by law. 


Voted to choose three surveyors of highways. 

Voted, James Lj^ford, George Knight and George 
Brier (sworn. ) 

Surveyors of Boards, Plank Timber and Slitwork, 
voted Jonathan Chase and George Thompson (sworn. ) 

SurveA'ors of Clapboards and Shingles, voted Jonathan 
Chase and George Thompson (sworn. ) 

Fence Viewers, voted Jeremiah Molton and Silas 
Harriman (sworn. ) 

Tythingman, voted Moses Cross (sworn.) 

Fish Wardens, voted, William Douglass, Jr., Heze- 
kiah Hall, Moses Cross, Jr., Peter Morrill and Jeremiah 
Douglass (sworn. ) 

Hog Reeves, voted, Jason Hassell and Luke Perry. 

(Sworn) Pound Keeper, voted, James Lyford. 

(Sworn) Field Driver, voted, George Knight and 
John Sleeper. 

Voted to adjourn the meeting until the first Monday 
in April next at ten of the clock in the forenoon to this 

Met according to adjournment. 

Voted to choose five school committee men. Voted, 
Jason Hassell, William P. Lowny, Peter Morrill, Jere- 
miah Molton and James Lyford. 

Voted to hold future annual town meetings on the 
second Monday in March. Voted that future town 
meetings should be warned by posting up written noti- 
fication in some one central place. 

Voted to choose a committee to settle with the select- 
men at the close of the year. Committee voted, Silas 
Harriman, Jonathan Lyford and Ezra Gould. Voted 
to dissolve the meeting. 

Jason Hassell, Town Clerk. 


(Early in the summer of 1812 the British were mak- 
ing their way up the Penobscot and the town of Sebec 
made preparation to repel the invaders.) 

These are to notify and warn the freeholders of the 
town of Sebec qualified by law to vote in said town 
affairs to meet at the barn of James Lyford near the 
centre of said town at three of the clock in the after- 
noon to act on the following articles that is. 

1st. To choose a moderator to govern said meeting. 

2d. To see if the town will vote to equip themselves. 

3d. To vote in what way and manner they will equip 

4th. To act on any other things relating to the 
above articles if thought proper. 
Sebec, Julv 8th, 1812. 

John Sleeper, 1 o i 4. 

'■ \ Selectmen. 

James Lyford, j 

James Lyford, 

Pursuant to the foregoing warrant the inhabitants of 
the town of Sebec assembled at the barn of James 
Lyford in said Sebec. 

Voted Mr. William R. Lowny, moderator. 

Voted the town should equip themselves. 

Voted the arms should be bought at the expense of 
the town. 

Voted to choose a committee to send for the arms. 

Voted the committee should consist of but one. 

Voted Mr. James Lyford be the committee. 

Voted to send for forty-five guns and sixty pounds of 

Voted the connnittee get what lead and balls he shall 
think proper. 

Voted the committee shall get cartridge boxes or 
materials to make them as he thinks best. 

Voted to close the meeting. 

Jason Hassell, Town Clerk. 


Formation of Militia Company Aug. 1st, 1812. 
Ezekiel Chase, Captain. 
Jason Hassel, Lieutenant. 
Jonathan Chase, Ensign. 

In the year 1812, the following sheep marks were 
registered : 

May 5th. Abel Gould's artificial mark for sheep a 
swallow tail out of the left ear. 

June 6th. James Ly ford's artificial mark for sheep 
crop off the right ear and a slit in the left. 

June 6th. James Douglass' artificial mark for sheep 
a crop from under the left ear. 

June 6th. Abel Chase's artificial mark for sheep a 
swallow tail in left ear. 

June 6th. Hezekiah Hall's artificial mark for sheep 
a crop off the left ear and a slit in the same. 

June 6th. Daniel Hall's artificial mark for sheep a 
crop off the right ear and a slit in the left. 

June 10th. John Sleeper's artificial mark for sheep 
a crop off of the left ear. 

June 11th. Wm. R. Lowny's artificial mark for 
sheep a slit in the right ear, and a slit and a hapenny in 
the left. 

Jason Hassell, Town Clerk. 

In the election held Monday, Sept. 10th, 1821, the 
inhabitants of Sebec brought in their votes as follows: 

For Governor, 

For Senator, < 

For Representative to 
Legislature of Maine, 

Albion K. Paris, 50 

Gen. Joshua Wingate, 9 

Dr. Isaac Case, 61 

Simeon Stetson, 3 

( Wm. R. Lowny, Esq., 


j Ichabod Thomas, Esq., 


C Moses Greenleaf, Esq., 



Sebec was originally Number Four, Seventh Range, 
the eastern of the Bowdoin College Townships. Its 
area is 22,228 acres. It was lotted in 1802 by Moses 
Hodgdon. In May, 1803, the treasurer of Bowdoin 
College deeded 16,000 acres to Richard Pike of New- 
buryport, Mass. He paid about seventy cents an acre. 
At the outlet of Sebec Lake among the hills lies Sebec 
Village. In a short distance there is a fall of 18 feet, 
making an excellent mill privilege. In 1804 Mark 
Trafton, Samuel Kimball and others built a dam and 
erected a mill, the first framed building raised in the 

Roger Chase of Carratunk built the water-wheels and 
put a saw and grist-mill into operation. In these mills 
the first boards were sawed and the first grain ground in 
the county. For 25 years Sebec Village was the leading 
business center of the count}. Large amounts of 
lumber were sawed and rafted down the rivers to Bangor. 

Capt. Ezekiel Chase, a soldier of the Revolution, was 
the first settler, locating near where the Hon. A. J. 
Chase now lives, in 1802. Capt. Chase was a self-taught 
physician, very skilful among the sick. He was active 
in politics and was chosen a presidential elector by the 
Democrats. A grandson, Jonathan A. Chase, still lives 
on the farm which was settled by his father, Ezekiel 
Chase, Jr. A great-grandson, Ezekiel L. Chase of 
Brownville, is one of the deputy sheriffs for the County 
of Piscataquis. 

In 1803 James Lyford settled on what is now known 
as the John Lyford place, now occupied b}' a son of 
Fremont Livermore. Later he was followed by his 
brother Jonathan. The Lyfords came from Canter- 
bury, N. H. James Lyford, Silas Harriman, John 
Morrill and Bylie Lyford, who settled in Atkinson, married 
sisters, whose maiden name was Lyford. John Morrill 


was my maternal grandfather and father of Joseph 
Morrill, who was for many years prominent in town 
aifairs and was at one time one of the county commis- 
sioners. The late A. M. Robinson told me this story 
of Joseph Morrill: During a session of the Supreme 
Judicial Court Uncle Joseph was foreman of one of the 
juries. A pauper case was on trial between the towns of 
Atkinson and Foxcroft; the case was tried and after the 
jury retired a ballot was taken and the vote was 11 to 
one. Uncle Joe was the one. They commenced to dis- 
cuss the matter, and after a five hours' session the 11 
men changed their views and a verdict was given accord- 

Wm. R. Lowny settled in Sebec in 1812. He was 
prominent in town affairs, and in 1819 was a member of 
the convention which framed the Constitution of the 
new State of Maine and was the first member elected to 
the Maine Legislature from this section. 

The "Minister's lot" so called, was voted in town 
meeting to Elder Asa Burnham, a Free Will Baptist 
minister, who labored in town for 40 years. 

In 1816 Ichabod Young put a fulling-mill in oper- 
ation, the first in the county, and at a later date a card- 
ing mill, the second in the county. John and Nathaniel 
Bodwell succeeded Mr. Young. In 1835 the Bodwells 
sold out to my father, Joseph W. Cushing. The next 
year a woolen factory company was incorporated, a 
building was erected and two sets of machinery were put 
in operation. Mr. Cushing ran the mill for five years, 
when he moved to Milo and erected a new mill. The 
first store at Sebec Village was opened in 1821 by Mr. 
Towle, and soon after Solomon Parsons became his 
partner. In 1823 Jos. Lamson, Sr. , and his son, Jos. 
Lamson, Jr., opened a second store. I have in my 
possession a day-book kept by J. Lamson & Son. The 


most frequent charges were for New England rum. Isaac 
Terrill comes to town from Bowerbank. The following 
charges in the day-book will follow: Isaac Terrill to 
glass rum 4 cts. ; before returning to Bowerbank Isaac 
makes another purchase, Isaac Terrill to two qts. N. 
E. rum 25 cts., to one jug 12 cts. 

In 1830 Benj. P. and John Gilman succeeded Towle 
& Parsons and also acquired the Morrison lumber mills 
and did a large business. B. P. Gilman afterwards 
moved to Orono, where he formed a partnership with 
Hon. John Morrison in lumbering and in manufacturing 
lumber. At Mr. Gilman's decease he left a goodly 
estate. Mr, John H. Gilman lived in Sebec for many 
years, was prominent in town affairs, represented his class 
in the State Legislature, and in the early sixties, during 
Israel Washburn's term as governor, served as a member 
of the executive council. He was an incorrigible wag 
and many stories have been handed down of his oddities. 
Once while at home on a furlough during the Civil War 
I called on Mr. Gilman. He had an ill turn and was 
lying on the lounge. While chatting with him his wife 
came into the room, and he said to her: "While Wain- 
wright is here I want to make a request of you ; I am not 
feeling well and am liable to be taken away suddenly, 
and I want you to promise me that when I die you won't 
have an}^ d— d copperheads for bearers, for if you do I 
shall rise right up in my coffin and protest." Mrs. 
Gilman assured him that his wishes would be respected. 
Mr. Gilman moved to Foxcroft and later to Orono, where 
he resided until his death. 

J. W. Jewett opened another store in 1832, and in 
1833 Theodore Wyman formed a co-partnership with 
him. The business is still continued by Theodore H. 
Wyman. Mr. Theodore Wyman was prominent in town 
affairs and at his decease he had the respect of every one 


in the community. He was an honored member of the 
Piscataquis Lodge, F. & A. M. At his funeral services 
the members evinced their respect by being present in 
large numbers. 

The first lawyer to open an office in Sebec was Henry 
Parsons. He was followed by John Appleton, who after- 
wards moved to Bangor and became Chief Justice of 
Maine. He was succeeded by his brother Moses in 1833, 
who after a few years also moved to Bangor. In 1838 
Hon. A. M. Robinson opened an office at the village. 
After six years he moved to Chase's Corner and later to 
Dover where he resided until he died. 

David Shepherd was the only physician in town from 
1825 to 1863, when he was elected Register of Deeds 
and moved to Dover. He was an estimable citizen and 
at one time represented Piscataquis County in the Maine 
Senate and held many offices of trust in town. 

By the courtesy of Judge Martin L. Durgin of Milo 
I am enabled to make extracts from an address made by 
him at the celebration of the eightieth anniversary of 
the formation of Piscataquis Lodge, F. & A. M., which 
was organized at Sebec Village: Eighty years ago last 
December 19th a certain number of Master Masons met 
at the house of Advardis Shaw in Sebec to discuss the 
expediency of establishing a lodge of Free Masons in that 
vicinity, and there were present at that meeting the 
following named brethren, Advardis Shaw, Eben 
Greenleaf, Josiah Towle, Moses Greenleaf, Jason Hassell, 
Col. Wm. Morrison, Eben Weston, Esq., Daniel Chase, 
Esq., John W. Thompson, Jonathan Robinson, Moses 
Morrill and Capt. Ephraim Moulton. These brethren 
came together again on January 2d, 1823, and it was 
voted that they thought it expedient to organize a lodge, 
and Moses Greenleaf, Josiah Towle and Wm. Morrison 


were chosen a committee to transact all business neces- 
sary thereto. 

On Februar}^ 13th a meeting was held and it was then 
voted to postpone the designation of a name for the 
lodge until the next meeting when each brother was to 
propose a name. At the next meeting held on March 
13th, 1823, it was voted unanimously to adopt the name 
of Piscataquis Lodge. At this meeting for the first 
time a record was made designating the three chair 
officers by their proper titles and Moses Greenleaf was 
acting as Master, Jason Hassell as Senior Warden and 
Wm. Morrison as Junior Warden. From that time on 
meetings were held at stated intervals. 

On April 10th a petition was addressed to the Grand 
Lodge praA'ing to be constituted a regular lodge, and 
Worshipful Master Moses Greenleaf was chosen a com- 
mittee to attend the next meeting of Penobscot and 
Rising Virtue Lodges, (being the two nearest) relative to 
the organization of Piscataquis Lodge. On November 
6th Moses Greenleaf, Josiah Towle and Solomon Parsons 
were selected as a committee to procure the charter, 
jewels and furniture for the lodge ; also a place to hold 
its meetings and to prepare a code of b3'-laws for the 
government of the lodge. And it is here worthy to note 
that the code of by-laws presented by the committee 80 
years ago is practically unchanged to this day. I have 
learned that during the space of about a year Brother 
Towle was building a convenient hall for the accommo- 
dation of the lodge, and that the committee was procur- 
ing furniture, jewels, etc., as fast as the state of the 
treasury would permit. 

On receiving the charter, which bears the date of Octo- 
ber 28th, 1823, from the Grand Lodge of Maine, a meet- 
ing was held on March 31st, 1825, and for the first time 
an election of officers was held, resulting as follows : Moses 


Greeiileaf, W. M. ; David Shepherd, S. W. ; Solomon 
Parsons, J. W. ; Wm. Morrison, Treas, ; Eben Greenleaf, 
Sec'y ; Josiah Towle, S. D. ; Jason Hassell, J. D. ; 
Ephraim Moulton, S. S. ; Jonathan Robinson, J. S. ; J. 
W. Thompson, Tyler. In January, 1826, our breth- 
ren were asked to donate something for a monument to 
Washington. Just how much that fund was swelled 
by the brethren of Piscataquis Lodge I am unable to 
say. In September and October there were no commun- 
ications of the lodge by reason of the unparalleled 
prevalence of fevers in Sebec. At the December meet- 
ing a petition was received from sundry brethren in 
Sanger\ ille, praying for the right to form a lodge in that 
town to be known as Mosaic Lodge. The petition was 
unanimously granted. Mosaic Lodge is now located at 
Foxcroft. Our brethren in those days did not let lodge 
matters interfere with business, for the Secretary tells us 
that on account of the pressure of other business in 
September and October, 1828, the members held no 
meetings of the lodge. 

In April, 1829, owing to the extreme "badness" of 
the traveling no lodge was held. In September of this 
year action was taken looking to the surrender of the 
charter of the lodge and personal notice was given to 
each member to be present at next meeting to discuss 
the matter. In October and November owing in part to 
the inclemency of the weather, but more to the apathy 
of the members, meetings of the lodge were not held. 
December 10th, however, a meeting was held and it was 
decided inexpedient to surrender the charter. I desire 
to call attention to three brothers who attended this 
meeting, namely, David Shepherd, Joseph Chase and 
Abner Ford, and you will agree with me that these men 
had tenacity of purpose, that they possessed what we 
term in these later days staying qualities. At this meet- 


ing proposals were made to change by-laws so that our 
meetings should be held quarterly in the months of 
January, April, July and October. After some discus- 
sion a decision upon the foregoing was postponed until 
our next communication. 

On November 22d, 1831, nearly two years later, the 
next meeting of the lodge was held. This was a special 
called by the Master and the lodge was honored by a 
visit from the D. D. G. M. of the seventh district, 
Dr. David Shepherd. At this meeting the question of 
amending the by-laws relative to time of meeting where 
it had been for two years, and it was sought to further 
amend it by having semiannual communications in the 
months of March and September and that a yearly tax 
of 25 cents be collected from each member as dues. It 
was finally decided to postpone the decision of this 
question until the next communication of the lodge; but 
I fear that when the next meeting was held the commit- 
tee to whom this matter had been referred had passed to 
"that land where ends our dark uncertain travel," for I 
have failed to find their names recorded in any of the 
proceedings since. The members of that committee 
were Moses Greenleaf, Solomon Parsons and Advardis 
Shaw, I feel, however, that these brothers were excus- 
able for not being present at the next communication, 
or for dying before it was held, for twenty-three years, 
two months and twent3'-two days elapsed before the next 
communication was held. Now permit me to revert to 
the three named brothers I spoke of as possessing so 
much tenacity of purpose. Brothers David Shepherd, 
Joseph Chase and Abner Ford. At the meeting of this 
lodge held in November, 1831, they were present and 
holding office. At the next meeting in February, 1855, 
thoy were present and acted as W. M. , S. W. and J. W. 
What, many of you may ask, was the cause of this long 


hiatus of nearly 24 years? I am told however that one 
William Morgan was claimed to have told tales out of 
school in 1826 and later he disappeared. He published in 
1826 a pretended exposition of Masonry which attracted at 
the time more attention than it deserved. Morgan soon 
after disappeared, and the Masons were charged by some 
of the enemies of the order with having removed him by 
foul means. There were various myths of his disap- 
pearance, and his subsequent living in other countries. 
They may or may not be true, but it is certain that 
there is no evidence of his death that would be admitted 
in a Court of Probate. I am told that feeling in the 
matter ran high, enemies of the order were certain that 
Morgan was slain by members of the fraternity and 
missed no opportunity to injure the craft wherever 
dispersed, and we know that Masons are forbidden to 
talk back. The result was the craft suffered until time 
somewhat cooled the passions of men and reason once 
again asserted itself. This may have been one of the 
causes at least why Piscataquis Lodge lay fallow for so 
man}' years. 

On March 14th, 1855, officers were once more regu- 
larly elected, and installed March 30th by R. W. , E. B. 
Averill, Past Master. Following are the names of officers 
installed : David Shepherd, W. M. ; Edward Nason, S. 
W. ; Abner Ford, J. W. ; Russell Kittredge, Secretary 
and Treasurer, by proxy ; Wm. H. Stanchfield, S. D. ; 
James W. Burton, J. D. 

At the Grand Lodge session held in Portland May 
4th, 1855, it was voted that Piscataquis Lodge be 
restored to the list of lodges under the jurisdiction and 
that it be removed from Sebec to Milo and that a dis- 
pensation be issued by the Grand Master for that 


Note. — Mr. Gushing in his sketch of Sebec carries 
the history of Piscataquis Lodge no farther than its 
connection with that town ; the following is the rest of 
the history as prepared by Judge Durgin. [Ed.] 

On May 25th, 1855, Piscataquis Lodge, No. 44, met 
at Temperance Hall in Milo. At this meeting four 
petitions were received — a very good start in Temperance 

On September 21st Piscataquis Lodge met at their 
lodge room and later at their hall instead of at Tem- 
perance Hall. At the November meeting Brothers J. 
S. Sampson, Russell Kittredge and William Stanchfield 
were chosen as a committee to furnish and fit up the 
hall. On December 7th our late Brother Stephen D. 
Millett was initiated. December 31st occurred the 
election of officers, and we find Abner Ford and David 
Shepherd still "in it," and W. E. Gould was elected S. 
D. It was decided not to install until the next regular 
communication, and that each Mason have the right to 
invite his wife or spouse. In these days we would say 
his "best girl." At this meeting Joseph Chase disap- 
peared from the stage with a "Card." 

On July 18th, 1856, Caleb J. Ford, father of our 
present Brother Ford, was raised as a M. M. 

On January 24th Brother Henry Snow of Mechanics 
Lodge, Orono, visited this lodge. 

On February 1st, 1856, occurred the first public 
installation, the installing officer being Brother E. B. 
Averill of Dover. Before the services began they listened 
to music from the choir, and closed with the same. 

May 16th stated communication was substituted for 
regular communication. 

On February 12th announcement was made that a 
Masonic convention would be held at Dover on the 12th 


of the next November. Surely no one could say that 
he hadn't sufficient notice. 

December 4th, 1856, our present esteemed Brother 
William E. Gould, was elected W. M. We doubt if 
any other lodge in the State can present a P. M. of 
46 3'ears' standing. 

On December 18th a special meeting was held for the 
purpose of installing officers which was done publicly by 
P. M., E. B. Averill, assisted by the perennial David 
Shepherd. After the installation a very appropriate 
address was given by Brother Averill. 

In October, 1857, Brother Caleb Tolman of Hender- 
son, Ky. , was a visitor. 

On January 12th, 1858, the lodge was called off and 
its members met the ladies of Milo, who presented to 
them the Holy Writings, after which a prayer was offered, 
and the officers installed. 

At a meeting held December 24th, 1858, a committee 
on resolutions on the death of Brother Abner Ford 
reported. From this report I learn that he died at Sebec 
November 10th, 1858. On June 10th, 1859, this lodge 
was incorporated. 

In December, 1859, another public installation 
occurred, after which a collation was prepared. 

On May 24th, 1860, the lodge attended the funeral 
services of Brother James Burton, who was buried with 
Masonic honors. 

On June 29th the late Sheriff E. S. Ireland was 
initiated. December 5th, 1862, the committee of guard- 
ians was succeeded by our present committee of enquiry. 

In September, 1863, the lodge purchased the hall in 
which it met, of Russell Kittredge. 

Fearing to weary your patience I pass over years of 
our existence, as nothing of importance transpired of 
particular interest, except to the fraternity. I find 


scarcel}' a meeting recorded when there was not some- 
thing doing in the way of work, however. 

On December 1st, 1865, there was an election of offi- 
cers, and Isaac Leonard was elected Treasurer, Charles 
S. Leonard, Secretary, and Abial E. Leonard, J. D. 
Members of this family have been much in evidence as 
officers of this lodge, ever since. 

On January 22d, 1869, it was decided unanimously 
to let the Odd Fellows have the use of the hall at 
SI 2. 50 per quarter. 

March 3d, 1871, consent was given for the formation 
of a Masonic Lodge at Brownville. 

September 22d Russell Kittredge was selected to 
complete the history of our lodge for the last decade. 

On November 24th consent was given for the forma- 
tion of a Masonic Lodge at La Grange. 

April ]9th, 1872, a committee, consisting of our late 
Brother S. D. Millett, and Brothers J. M. Palmer and H. 
F. Daggett, was chosen to ascertain on what terms our hall 
could be sold, and to confer with other societies, etc., 
relative to building a new hall. 

At the next meeting the committee, as is usual in 
such matters, asked for further time. At the following 
meeting the committee was released and it was decided to 
take no action that summer. 

On December 13th it was decided to have a public 
installation and a cordial invitation was voted to be given 
to Pleasant River and Composite Lodges of Brownville 
and La Grange. 

In March, 1878, another committee was appointed 
to consider the question of building a new hall, and our 
late Brothers AVm. P. Young, Lambert Sands and W. H. 
Owen were appointed. This committee at the April 
meeting reported and asked for further time. In 


September it was decided to accept an offer from Brother 
Fenno of S300 for our hall. 

On August 29th, 1879, the stated communication 
was held at the office of W. P. Young. On September 
26th the long anticipated moment had arrived when the 
Secretary could record the fact that Piscataquis Lodge 
met at its new hall, since which time this room has been 
our Masonic home. The furnishings of this room were 
but scanty. Hard wooden chairs and wooden settees 
with never a soft spot in them. Cloth curtains and bare 
walls; a debt that was as hard to get rid of as the pro- 
verbial seven years' sar-cop-tus scabeie, but thanks to the 
prudence and good judgment of "the boys" the debt 
has now become only a nightmare of the past. 

Some years ago a committee on improvements was 
chosen and is still in harness. As a result of its labors 
you now see these tasty and comfortable furnishings. 
Our latch-string is always out and we are always at 
home, to the craft. 

I have given you in a slipshod manner something of 
the history of this lodge covering a period of some sixty 
3'ears, and leave that part of my subject. May I add a 
word relative to our ancient institution as a whole.'' 

No great moral force for the uplift of humanity was 
ever organized in this world that did not meet a counter 
force, whose tendency was to degrade. Take for instance 
the Christian Church, founded as it is upon the pure pre- 
cepts enunciated by the Nazarene, yet it has been encom- 
passed roundabout continually by the forces of sin, 
watching for opportunity to destroy it. The church, 
however, is stronger to-day than in the beginning because 
of its inherent principles of right. 

Truth and right may be obscured for a while by the 
dust of abuse and error, but in the end must prevail, 
because it is truth and right. 


Standing not long since in the Cliff House at the 
Golden Gate, I watched for an hour the great waves as 
they came rolling in from across the bay. Like an army 
of white-plumed knights they came, tossing their foamy 
banners on high, and hurling themselves against the 
giant cliffs that disputed their farther progress. Again 
and again they came in their mad fury, beating like 
great demons at those silent, time-stained rocks, only 
to be hurled back into old ocean, and their white banners 
flung mountain high in air, and those grim and storm- 
beaten sentinels, whose foundations are as strong as the 
Eternal Will, will stand there bidding defiance to every 
onslaught of those mad, relentless waves until time shall 
cease writing her record across their weather-beaten 
faces. So it is with our ancient institution. Founded 
upon the rock of Truth, which is eternal, it has stood 
unwavering against the onslaught of every opposition. 

Twenty-nine years ago, when living' in Idaho, I had 
occasion to go to the towii of Fairview on the summit of 
Wai- Eagle Mountain. From this place, on a clear day, 
one may look off to the east and see lying before him 
the green valley of the Snake River, and traversing the 
valley from west to east I could mark here and there the 
glistening waters of the Shoshone or Snake River. On 
this da}' the clouds and mist had dropped down fi-om the 
mountain tops and had spread like a dark funeral pall 
over the valley, and in imagination I was looking down 
into the Valley of the Shadow. Now and then light 
winds with deft fingers would draw aside those misty 
curtains, opening to my view long, dim aisles leading 
down into that gloomy underworld, while here and 
there I could see dusky glimmers of the river Styx, with 
Charon waiting at the crossing. Suddenly, as I looked, 
the sun came out from behind a cloud and shot a raj- of 
light down into that restless valley of cloud and mist. 


In an instant those particles of mist became grains of 
gold and precious stones, and lo, instead of the Valley of 
the Shadow, I was looking upon the city of the New 
Jerusalem coming down out of heaven prepared as a 
bride adorned for her husband. Looking out over the 
valley of glorified color, I could see the golden streets, 
its walls of jasper and gates of pearl, while below, glis- 
tening with radiant light, I could see the River of the 
Water of Life proceeding out from the throne of God 
and of the Lamb. Once again the scene shifted, the 
city with golden streets and jasper walls had slowly 
drifted away on the wings of the lazy summer wind, and 
there was once more the broad valley of the Shoshone 
lying like a great emerald between the mountains and 
the sea. 

Just when or where Masonry had its birth I am not 
able to say, but at some period in the remote ages it 
came as a ray of light out of the blackness of the night, 
leading man up from the gray, desolate barrens of Super- 
stition into the peopled cities of Reason ; up out of the 
slough of Disappointment into the broad highway of 
Hope. A study of the art has broadened the intellect, 
and given to man a more profound and comprehensive 
understanding of life. It has taught you and me to 
answer that question that man has been asking ever since 
the morning of life, "If a man die, shall he live again.?" 
It has helped its true adherents to divest their minds 
and consciences of at least some of the vices and super- 
fluities of life, thus fitting them as living stones for that 
spiritual building eternal and in the heavens. It is not 
an opponent of Christianity, but walks hand in hand 
with it. Fierce antagonism and papal decree have 
sought to destroy the institution, but as some white- 
winged ship sails serenely on thi'ough troubled waters 
and past dangerous rocks to finally moor itself in a sun- 


kissed harbor of safety, so also will our grand institution 
survive and outride all the perils of antagonism and 

I beg not to be misunderstood as taking this occasion 
to advertise the institution. Such an idea is farthest 
from my thought. I would as soon think of advertising 
the majesty of some lofty mountain standing in its silent 
grandeur amid the decay of the centuries, or some 
mighty rolling river sweeping along in all its restless and 
resistless power toward the sea ; or the golden sunshine 
that kisses the green sod of the valley; or the gentle 
rain that falls upon the just and unjust. My chief 
desire is no more than to pay humble tribute with my 
brethren, and to bring this simple testimony before 3'ou 
of my great esteem for an institution that is a part of 
the world's history. 

"To him that overcometh will I give to eat of the 
hidden manna, and will give him a white stone, and in 
the stone a new name written, which no man knoweth 
saving he that receiveth it." As Free Masons we know 
what it is to be overcomers, and have received the white 
stone with the new name. 

Some Facts in Regard to the Early 
History of the Town of Guilford 

By Henry Hudson, Esq. 

ON May 1, 1794, the committee of the Common- 
wealth of Massachusetts for the sale of eastern 
lands, through Daniel Carey, issued letters of in- 
structions to Samuel Weston to proceed and survey three 
ranges of townships between Penobscot River and the 
east line of the million acres, located on the river Ken- 
nebec, to be bounded west on the million acres, south on 
the sixth range and a line extended east from the north- 
east corner of township number one in the sixth range 
aforesaid to Penobscot River, easterly on Penobscot 
River and north on unlocated lands to be numbered the 
seventh, eighth and ninth ranges progressing northerly, 
and the townships to be laid out six miles square except- 
ing those bordering on the Penobscot River. A copy of 
these instructions I embodied in my sketch. Under this 
letter of instructions Samuel Weston did in the year 
1794 locate said three ranges and divide the ranges up 
into townships. I have also incorporated and made part 
of my sketch a letter written by Samuel Weston to the 
committee for sale of eastern lands under date of October 
15, 1801. It would appear that complaint had been 
made in regard to the survey of township 4, range 7, 
and a request was made for a resurvey of that township. 
Township 4, range 7, is now the town of Sebec. This 


letter is a full explanation of the way in which said 
ranges and townships in the ranges were located. I 
incorporate a copy of these two original documents as a 
matter of historical interest to be preserved. These 
copies were obtained at considerable expense. I will say 
that in the case in this county between Edward Stetson 
and others and Sprague Adams and others these two 
documents were used as evidence. 

On February 25, 1795, the Commonwealth of Massa- 
chusetts granted to Bowdoin College four townships of 
land. These townships were number four, five, six and 
seven in the seventh range of townships north of Waldo 
Patent. These townships subsequently became the 
towns of Sebec, Foxcroft, Guilford and Abbot. Guil- 
ford was township number six, range seven. The north 
line of Waldo Patent is the south line of the towns of 
Hampden and Dixmont. The ranges, therefore, are 
numbered consecutively commencing at the south line of 
Hampden and Dixmont. 

In 1803 Deacon Robert Lowe and Deacon Robert 
Herring, both of New Gloucester, bought from Bowdoin 
College a few thousand acres of land in township six, 
range seven, now Guilford. Immediately after said pur- 
chase they began to make preparations for forming a 
settlement therein. 

In the plantation records of the town of Guilford is a 
short historical sketch, no doubt written by Robert 
Lowe. In this sketch he says that, "These men (mean- 
ing no doubt Deacon Robert HeiTing and Deacon 
Robert Lowe) formed a determination to admit on their 
part no person as a settler who was not industrious, 
orderly, moral and well disposed. In this they so far 
succeeded that for many years thereafter contentions, 
lawsuits and broils among neighbors were known only 
in name among the inhabitants." 


We quote further from the historical sketch as follows : 
"In A. D. 1804, trees were felled in several places in the 
town and the next year corn was raised. On the 16th 
day of February, A. D. 1806, the first family moved into 
the town, and about the middle of March the second 
family came, together with several men who worked dur- 
ing the summer, and remained here the winter following. " 

These two families were those of Deacon Robert 
Lowe, Jr., and Deacon Robert Herring, Jr. Robert 
Lowe, Jr., settled on the farm now occupied by Joseph 
H. Deering. Robert Herring, Jr., settled on the farm 
now occupied by Herbert L. Crafts. 

In 1806 there were seven men residing in said town- 
ship. These men were Robert Lowe, Jr., Robert 
Herring, Jr., David Lowe, John Bennett, Isaac 
Bennett, Nathaniel Bennett and John Everton. 

These men, deeming that there should be some suitable 
regulations to preserve good order and harmony, met and 
made such by-laws for one year as were deemed necessary. 
They chose a clerk to keep a record of their doings and 
such other officers as were thought necessary to carry 
these laws into execution. These laws so adopted were 
respected and rarely ever known to be evaded. 

The public schools were supported by private sub- 
scription. Public worship was carried on constantly 
from about the time of the first settlement. Robert 
Lowe records the fact in regard to the obedience to 
these laws as follows: "Here let it be noticed that 
although the only barrier which supported the execution 
of these laws was a pledge of honor, they were rarely 
known to be evaded. ' ' 

From the records we find that Robert Herring was 
born June 1, 1764, and his wife, Sally Herring, May 20, 
1765. The record further shows that they had eleven 
children. The eldest of these children was Robert 


Herring, Jr., who was born January 1, 1784, Robert 
Herring, Jr., was married as early as 1806 according to 
the above statement, and was, with Robert Lowe, Jr., 
the first settlers in the town of Guilford. Robert 
Herring, Jr. , married Polly Herring, who was born April 
25, 1782. They had eleven children. Robert Herring, 
Jr., died in Guilford in 1847. At the date of his death 
he owned the mills at North Guilford now owned by 
Ellis & Wise. The sons of Robert Herring settled in 
Guilford. Some of the girls, however, after marriage 
went to other places. 

Robert Lowe, Jr., was born in New Boston, N. 
H., March 1, 1781. His wife, Rebecca Lowe, was 
born in New Gloucester September 1, 1782. 

John Everton was born in Dorchester, Mass., April 
5, 1765. Rebecca Everton, his wife, was born in North 
Yarmouth, Me., 1771. His second wife was born in 
North Yarmouth in 1767. 

John Everton had three children, two sons and a 
daughter. John Everton settled on the road from Dover 
to Guilford on what is known as the Maxfield flat. We 
find nothing on the records in regard to what became of 
Mr. Everton and his family. 

John Bennett was born in New Gloucester January 29, 
1773. His wife, Sally Bennett, was born in New 
Gloucester March 14, 1772. They had eight children, 
— seven sons and one daughter. The daughter, Sally 
Bennett, was the wife of Isaac Edes, whose descendants 
now live in Guilford. The seven sons all settled, lived 
and died in Guilford. Many of their descendants are 
now living in town. John Bennett was known as 
Captain John Bennett. 

Nathaniel Bennett was born in New Gloucester Novem- 
ber 19, 1768. His wife Rachel was born in North Yar- 
mouth June 22, 1774. Nathaniel Bennett had by his 


first wife eight children, — two sons and six daughters. 
Nathaniel Bennett's second wife was born in Lewiston 
July 9, 1778. She was the widow of James Douglass. 
At the time of her marriage to Nathaniel Bennett she 
had four children by her first husband, James Douglass, 
all boys. The youngest of the four was George H. 
Douglass, a respected citizen of our town and father of 
Henry Douglass, who recently died in our town. 
Nathaniel Bennett by his second marriage had six chil- 
dren, — four sons and two daughters. 

Isaac Bennett was born in New Gloucester December 
8, 1770. His wife Peggy was born in New Gloucester 
May 29, 1771. They had eleven children, — six sons and 
five daughters. 

I have given a sketch of the first seven men who 
settled in Guilford, except David Lowe. I find no 
mention of David Lowe in the records. The three 
Bennetts were brothers. The descendants of some of 
these first settlers are still living with us. 

In the conveyance of township six, range seven, now 
Guilford, by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts to 
Bowdoin College, four lots of 320 acres each were reserved 
for public uses. These uses were as follows : One for 
the first settled minister, one for the ministry, one for 
the schools and one for the future disposition of the 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts. These lots after 
Guilford was incorporated as a town were located. 

In the plantation records, at a warrant issued by the 
assessors for a meeting to be held on the 22d day of 
April, 1815, we find the following article: "To see 
if the plantation will agree to give Elder Thomas 
Macomber an invitation to settle here as a town minister 
on such conditions as shall be thought proper when 
met." At the doings of said meeting, "It was voted to 
give Elder Thomas Macomber an invitation to settle here 


as a town minister on the condition following, to wit : 
That he shall serve the town as their minister ten years, 
but should he or the people be dissatisfied, or should he 
leave the town before ten years, then to have such pro- 
portion of the land appropriated for the first settled 
minister as the time he shall serve as aforesaid shall bear 
to ten years. ' ' 

It would seem that after this vote was called the people 
must have thought that the terms were rather exacting 
with their pastor, therefore a meeting was held on the 
15th day of June, 1815. We find the article in the 
warrant for that meeting to be: "To see if the plan- 
tation will agree to settle Elder Thomas Macomber as a 
town minister." At this meeting it was voted that 
Elder Thomas Macomber be the minister of the town 
when it shall be incorporated so long as he and a 
majority of the people of the town are agreed. 

We will say that Elder Thomas Macomber did settle 
as minister and preached at Guilford Center for many 
years. He died in Guilford. Some of his descendants 
now live in Guilford. 

Thomas Macomber was born in Marshfield, Mass., 
August 17, 1773. His wife Phebe was born in Bedford, 
N. H., August 25, 1778. 

On the 6th day of October, 1812, Phillip Leavitt of 
Athens, by virtue of a warrant from the treasurer of the 
County of Somerset, issued his warrant for organizing 
the township into a plantation. On November 11, 
1812, said township was organized into a plantation. 
Robert I^owe was chosen clerk. Robert Herring, 
Nathaniel Graves and Robert Lowe were chosen assess- 
ors. Isaac Herring was chosen collector. 

On July 7, 1813, the first road in the plantation was 
accepted by the plantation. This was known as the 


river road and extended from the Foxcroft town line to 
Abbot town line on the north side of the river. 

On February 8, 1816, Guilford was incorporated as a 
town. The original township line of township six, range 
seven, Guilford, was south of the Piscataquis River from 
the southwest corner of said township to a point nearly 
opposite to the buildings recently occupied by Mr. 
Samuel Crafts. When the town of Sangerville was 
incorporated June 13, 1813, its northern bound was the 
Piscataquis River. When Guilford was incorporated its 
southern bound was the original township line. There is 
therefore a small piece of land at the extreme southern 
bound of the Crafts farm nearlv opposite the buildings 
which w^as not incorporated in either town. The center 
of the Piscataquis River, however, is the true division 
line between said towns. 

The burden of supporting two of the bridges on the 
Piscataquis River was upon the towns of Guilford and 
Sangerville. Within three miles and a half there are 
three bridges across the Piscataquis River. The most 
westerly bridge is at Guilford village, entirely within the 
limits of the town of Guilford. The other two bridges 
are supported by said Sangerville and said Guilford as 
before stated. 

From careful examination of the plantation records 
and of the early records of the town of Guilford facts 
have been learned which in some instances are different 
from what the popular opinion has been. The first 
record upon the record books of the plantation and of the 
town of Guilford in regard to any bridge is in the year 
1822. On September 9, 1822, the voters in town meet- 
ing assembled voted to accept one half of the bridge 
across the Piscataquis River between Joseph Kelsey's and 
Carleton Mills. The first bridge across the Piscataquis 
River within the limits of the town of Guilford was built 


where Sangerville station now is. Prior to building the 
bridge at this place the river was forded. In 1821 we 
are informed that a bridge was built at this place by sub- 
scription. It was a primitive affair but it served its 
purpose. In the spring of 1824 this bridge was carried 
out by the freshet. 

At a special town meeting on April 16, 1824, the 
town raised the sum of two hundred dollars to be applied 
to the building of the bridge across the Piscataquis River 
near J. Kelsey's. At the same meeting a committee of 
three was chosen to act with a like committee, chosen by 
the town of Sangerville. This committee was Joseph 
Kelsey, Seth Nelson and Stedman Davis. The town, 
"Voted to allow Joseph Kelsey one dollar and fift}' cents 
per week to attend the ferry until the bridge or some 
other thing shall render it unnecessary, provided that the 
town of Sangerville shall agree to pay to the town of 
Guilford one half of said expense and one half of the 
expense of a boat. ' ' The bridge which was then con- 
structed at this place was more substantial than the 
former one. There was a trestle in the middle of the 
river which supported the bridge. 

Mr. Loring, in his history of Piscataquis County, 
says that this bridge was carried away by the high 
freshet in 1832. The bridge, however, at that time 
must have gone to decay considerably because we find on 
the records where a meeting was held on the 4th day of 
June, 1831, when the town voted, "That the selectmen 
cause Sangerville bridge, so-called, to be repaired in the 
cheapest and best possible way they can consistently with 
the interests of the town considering it is an old bridge 
and unworthy of expensive repairs," and voted, "To 
raise fift}' dollars in corn or grain as we raised it in 
March last to pay the expense which may arise in repair- 
ing said bridge." 


The first record, however, which we find in regai'd to 
our rebuilding the bridge after it was carried out by the 
freshet was held on September 8, 1834. The town at 
this time passed a vote to take measures to have the road 
across the river at this point discontinued. Sangerville 
would not agree to this. Thereupon the town chose a 
committee to rebuild the bridge. This meeting was 
held on the 29th day of September, 1834. Joseph 
Kelsey, Robert Herring, Jr., and Seth Nelson were 
chosen a committee to superintend the building of the 

At the annual town meeting held on March 2, 1835, 
the town raised six hundred and eight^'-one dollars to 
defray the expense of building a bridge near Joseph 
Kelse3^'s. The bridge, therefore, must have been built 
in 1835. Mr. Loring, in his history, states that the 
bridge was completed in the fall of 1835. The records 
of the town of Guilford substantiate his statement. 
We are aware that the popular opinion has been for 
many years that this bridge was built in the year 1833. 
For many years there were the figures 1833 on the south 
end of the present bridge. The bridge is now in fair 
repair although it has done service for seventy-two 3'ears. 
It now is the oldest bridge on the Piscataquis River. 

Where the places of business now are in Guilford vil- 
lage, on the north side of the river, there was a very thick 
cedar swamp. In 1824 Robert Herring, Jr., and S. 
and J. Morgan built a dam across the Piscataquis River 
and in the fall of that year put a sawmill in operation. 
In the fall of 1825 Addison Martin built the first store. 
This store was built on the spot where the building now 
is which is occupied by Straw & Martin. The road from 
what was called the river road near the old meeting-house 
to the river Mas accepted on September 12, 1825. 
Moses Stevens purchased from Bowdoin College all the 


land on the north side of the river where the places of 
business now are. From him titles were taken. Moses 
Stevens lived where David Stevens lived in his lifetime 
near the station. On April 3, 1826, the town accepted 
the road from Herring and Morgan's mill towards 
Moses Stevens'. This now is Water Street. 

In the early part of the year 1828 it had become 
necessary to have a bridge across the Piscataquis River 
at Herring and Morgan's mill. During the summer of 
that year a bridge was started to be built by subscription 
across the river, substantially where the present bridge 
now is. On September 8, 1828, a town meeting was 
called. Article four in the warrant was, "To see if the 
town will assist in building a bridge over the river near 
Herring's Mills." The town voted to pass over the 
article. At this time no road had been located across 
the river at this point or near the point. There must 
have been considerable contention as to just where the 
road should be located and the bridge built. We find 
upon the record where there was an attempt to locate the 
road and bridge across the river near the west end of the 
lot now occupied by Dr. Cowie. There was also an 
attempt to locate the road and bridge near where Hussey 
& Goldthwaite's elevator now is. Thereupon there must 
have been considerable agitation because we find that on 
the third day of November, 1828, there was an article, 
"To see if the town will petition to the Legislature to 
set off that part of the town lying between the river and 
the town of Parkman to the town of Parkman. " The 
town in town meeting, however, voted to pass over this 

There were numerous town meetings held in regard to 
the building of the bridge across the river at Herring 
and Morgan's mill. We do not find, however, any 
definite action taken by the town towards the construction 


of the bridge until the town meeting held on the 19th 
day of November, 1829. At that meeting the record 
states, "There are considerable sums subscribed by indi- 
viduals to expend on the bridge aforenamed. " "Voted 
that after so much of the sum that can be collected has 
been expended the town will finish it in manner herein- 
after described." The town voted that a town agent be 
chosen to superintend the finishing of the bridge and 
made provision as to the amount to be paid for the ser- 
vices rendered, fixing the compensation of such persons. 
Isaac Smith was chosen such agent. The town voted, 
"That a man and his oxen shall be entitled to eight 
cents an hour." In the fall of 1830 the town held 
meetings and passed votes towards the completion of this 
bridge. We do not find that the bridge which was 
built at this time was carried away by the freshet of 
1832. Mr. Loring states that it was. We find, how- 
ever, that after the year 1832 considerable sums of 
money were raised to build the bridge at Guilford village. 
We are of the opinion that this bridge was either carried 
away by freshet or became so unfit for service that it was 
necessary to build a new bridge, for the reason that in 
the year 1839 the records state that the bridge was not 
safe for travel, and a new bridge was built at that time. 
This bridge which was built was carried away in the 
spring of 1855 by the high freshet. During that season 
the bridge which has recently been removed was built. 
Willard W. Harris and Isaac B. Wharff took the con- 
tract to do the stonework and build the bridge. The 
selectmen for the year 1855 were George H. Douglass, 
Charles Loring and Isaac Weston. In the high freshet 
in the spring of 1857 this bridge received some injury 
and the town raised money that spring to repair it. 

The first bridge built, where the bridge now known as 
Lowe's bridge is, was in the year 1830. This bridge was 


damaged seriously by the freshet in the spring of 1837. 
It became necessary to rebuild this bridge and it was re- 
built in 1843. In the high freshet in the spring of 1857 
the bridge was carried away. During the summer of 
1857 this bridge was rebuilt. Isaac B. Wharff did the 
stonework. We wish to say that the abutments under 
this bridge show the thoroughness with which the work 
was done, and are a credit to the man who did it. 

Mr. Loring, in his history, states that there have been 
nine bridges upon the Piscataquis River. From the 
statements above it can be seen that there have been 
three at Lowe's bridge, three at Sangerville and three at 
Guilford village prior to the present structure. The 
burden upon the town in its early years must necessarily 
have been large. It will be noted, however, that there 
must have been public sentiment in favor of them be- 
cause we find no record of any dissensions except possibly 
the one when the bridge was carried out at Sangerville 
in the year 1832. 

Note. — The following letter of instructions to Samuel 
Weston, Esq., from the committee for the sale of east- 
ern lands, and a letter from Mr. Weston to the com- 
mittee, both relating to the survey of certain townships 
of lands in Piscataquis County, of which Guilford is one, 
are appended to Mr. Hvidson's paper. These are not 
only important in so far as they relate to Guilford, but 
are valuable documents in considering the history of all 
the towns and townships in the seventh, eighth and 
ninth ranges. [Ed.] 

Copy of Instructions 

to Samuel Weston, Esquire. 

May 1, 1794. 

In behalf of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts the 


Committee for the Sale of Eastern Lands to Samuel 
Weston, Esquire, Surveyor — Sir you are hereby Author- 
ised and directed with Judicious Chainmen under oath 
to proceed and Survey three Ranges of townships between 
Penobscot River and the East line of the Million Acres 
located on the River Kenebeck and to be bounded West 
on the Said Million Acres South on the Sixth Range 
already Surveyed and a line to be extended east from the 
North East corner of township number one in the Sixth 
Range aforesaid to Penobscot River — Easterly on Penob- 
scot River — and North on unlocated lands — all the lines 
are to be run and well Spotted and the corners of each 
township marked the Ranges to extend from east to west 
and to be numbered the Seventh, Eighth and Ninth 
Range progressing northerly — and the townships to be 
numbered in each range and to be laid out Six miles 
Square excepting those bordering on Penobscot River — 
which townships are to contain as nearly the quantity of 
Six miles Square as the course of the River and the 
adjoining townships will permit — the number of Acres 
to be noted on the plan in each to\vnship which contains 
a greater or less quantit}- than six miles square — And 
you will Survey accurately- the Western bank or Water 
Edge of Penobscot River so far as the three Ranges 
aforesaid join on the same — taking proper care in the 
whole of this Survey to inspect the Chainmen ascending 
and descending the hills and dales, and make such allow- 
ance as to have the lines hold out horizontal measure. 

And you are to make Return of the Survey with 
Duplicate plans representing the lines of the towniships 
a border or margin of the adjoining lands the Rivers, 
Streams, Lakes, Ponds, and the most prominent heights 

— and to be accompanied with such notes, minutes, and 
a field-book as may be necessary to illustrate the Survey 

— Shewing the quality of the Soil — the growth of the 


timber, and the quantity of Land covered with water 
— Such Return to be made into our office at Boston or 
to either of the Committee as soon as may be after the 
business is completed — for which Service you shall be 
entitled to receive including all expense attending this 
business when completed twelve pounds for each township 
Surveyed and returned in manner as aforesaid, 

r in behalf 
DANIEL CAREY, ) of the 

( Committee. 

HaUowell, May 1, 1794. 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Office of the Secretary, 

Boston, Sept. 10, 1895. 
Compared with the Original and found Correctly 



Mr. Weston's Letter. 

Canaan, Oct. 15, 1801. 
To the Committee for Sale of Eastern Lands. 
Gentlemen : 

In compliance with the directions forwarded on 
the back of the Resolve of the Genl. Court authorizing 
a resurvey of Township No. 4 in the seventh range north 
of the Waldo Patent, I have employed by Brother 
Stephen Weston who assisted in the Original Survey to 
perform that business, after first writing to the College 
Com. to know what was the ground of the application 
for a resurvey not knowing whether an}' error was sup- 
posed to be discovered in the contents of the Towti- 
ship or only in Numbering. 

I did not suppose there was any need of employing 
more than two persons as my Brother aforesaid had 


measured the line that divides the No. 3 and 4 ranges 
and found the three ranges to overrun 18 M but 6 rods 
only, he therefore from his own measure performed under 
oath has run a line West about, or nearly to the Million 
acre line, and consequently has rectified the error in all 
the Townships West in the 6 and 7 ranges. 

How the mistake or error has crept into this business 
is at this time an absolutely mystery to me. 

When the 7, 8 and 9th ranges were surveyed I 
employed my Brother to run the N. line and one Mr. 
John O'Neil to run the line between the 8th and 9th 
ranges with particular instructions where to leave the 
Million acre line. I proceeded up the Penobscot by 
water to the N. E. corner of Township No. 1, in the 
sixth ranges thence run east to the Penobscot. I then 
surveyed said River up and by casting the northing 
Easting dis I found where to make the corners of the 
TovMiships on the Range lines — until I came to the N. 
E. corner of the Township No. 1, 9th range — and there 
I waited until m}' brother arrived, and so tme were my 
calculations and measure that my brother struck the 
River with his line within Six rods of my Station before 
made — and by repeated measurations said three Town- 
ships are honestly 18 miles wide together I have never 
had any reason to doubt but the Stations I had so care- 
fully made on the Penobscot were true and lines extend- 
ing from them west would be the true dividing line for 
the ranges — Master O'Neil met with so many obstacles 
from low swampy land and ponds on the line between the 
8 and 9 ranges that he did arrive at Penobscot untill 
after my brother and I had left and gone to checking off 
the Towns — But he came down to the mouth of tlie Pis- 
cataquis and found me there and gave me some account 
of his voyage, and I rather concluded he had struck the 
River above my station made for him to come out at and 


concluded there might be some difference in the Com- 
passes w. h. in so long a line had'^ * * * ^^^ easily dis- 
covered. I then sent my own land up to the corner I 
had made for him and gave up my * * * * own com- 
pass and fitted him out for to in the dividing * * * * 
line between the 7 and 8 range complained of by the 
* * * * trustees of Bowdoin College — under these cir- 
cumstances I confess I cannot tell how to account for the 
difference in the width of the 7 and 8 ranges as alto- 
gether the measure is good — and Master O'Neil has been 
a practical Surveyor, is called a man of ability and good 
undei'standing and the objection any person made against 
him when I enquired into his ability to undertake the 
task assigned him, was that he would be rather to nice, 
and curious to have the work performed Just so — which 
I thought would not by any means unqualify him — as 
the amount of the objections was that he would do the 
work well — but it would take the longer — But that he 
never would slight it nor can I now think that it is 
slighted — as an Instance of his faithfulness — he was so 
afraid lest a line be crosses and made a corner thereon 
which was undoubtedly the million acre line — should not 
prove so eventually that he continued running West 
until he had got within four miles of Kennebec River — 
and his being so much behind with the lines he ran pre- 
vented a discovery of the Error — Absolute exactness 
cannot be expected in so broken a country as that is, so 
many obstacles from ponds with all their arms legs inlets 
and outlets, swamps, bogs, thickets morasses. Mountain 
Cliffs and Gullies in so close a succession render it much 
more difficult to close lines than might often be wished 
for — sometimes interested persons wish to exaggerate 
any little errors, or rather they appear greater when 
found by the measure of persons influenced by interest 

*Where asterisks are inserted words are missing in the original. 


altho' I do not pretend this to be the case in this instance 
I am conscious of the most upright and honest intentions 
in the whole progress of the survey of those ranges of 
Townships and the error in the amended line must have 
proved from and ought I think to be consi rod * * * * 
as a misfortune — and I hope I shall be exc * * * * j 
say that I think the expense ought rath * * * * fall 
on the Government than on the Committee. 

most obed. Hum. Ser. 


State of Maine. 
Land Office, Augusta, Jan. 15, 1897. 

I certify the above to be a true copy of the original 
as filed in this office. 


Land Agent. 

Some Facts Relating to the Early 
History of Greenville and Moosehead 

Presented by Charles D. Shaw 

"Memories waking happy tears, 
Bringing back the yester-years." 

THE friends of other days often come before us, and 
then we see once more their pleasant faces and almost 
converse with them again. "Some moments there 
are that send their glad ripple down through life's stream 
to the very verge of the grave, and truly blest is one who 
can smile upon and kiss those memory waves and draw 
from them a bliss that never fails. ' ' To gratify a desire 
to review the past, we will invite the memory to bring 
back the scenes of other days, and write something 
remembered about Greenville and Moosehead Lake. 

In the fall of the year 1844 Josiah Hinckley and 
Milton G. Shaw bought of Charles Gower the first hotel 
ever built at Greenville and also the farm connected with 
the same. What is now Greenville Village consisted at 
that time of one hotel, one store, two dwelling-houses, 
two blacksmith shops and a schoolhouse. One dwelling- 
house and one blacksmith shop was owned and occupied 
by old Mr. Hildreth ; the other dwelling-house was built, 
owned and occupied by Mr. Benjamin Bigney. After 
Mr. Gower sold the hotel he occupied the tenement over 
his store. The store is still standing and owned by M. 


G. Shaw Lumber Company. Mr. Hildreth's blacksmith 
shop was on the corner of the street where D. T. 
Sanders' store now stands; the other blacksmith shop 
was on the corner of the street leading to West Cove, 
then so called. It was occupied by John Atwood. He 
was then unmarried and boarded at the hotel. 

The hotel was two stories high, with ell running back 
to the north. It had been enlarged from time to time as 
the interests of business demanded, and at the time it 
was burned (March 15, 1849) would accommodate from 
fifty to sixty guests. (It was rebuilt in part the next 
year by Capt. Joshua Fogg.) It was not an uncommon 
thing during the winters from 1844 to 1849 for from 
thirt}' to forty teamsters to stop there overnight. They 
were called toters ; their business was hauling supplies 
for lumbermen about the lake and its tributaries, and on 
the waters of the Penobscot River. 

In the year 1844 there was a hotel at Sandbar kept 
by Mr. Ephraim Nason and one at Kineo kept by H. G. 
O. Barrows. There were shanties kept as follows : One at 
the foot of the lake near what is now Eveleth wharf by 
John Pollard, one at Deer Island by Gen. Capen and his 
son Aaron, one at Lily Bay by Hildreth Bros,, one at 
Roach River by Deacon Ford, one ten miles beyond on 
the road to Chesuncook Lake by Thomas Grant, 
one at the head of Chesuncook Lake by Ansel Smith. 
There was a hotel two miles from the foot of the lake on 
the road to Shirley kept by B. F. Greeley. 

According to tradition the first settlers came to Green- 
ville by a road leading from Monson Village directly 
north to the easterly part of the town of Greenville, 
and the first settlements in town were along that road. 
The names of those living there in the year 1844 were 
as foUows: Mr. Wilson, William Shaw, Dea. Darling, 
Silas Cummings, Oliver Young, Orrin Grant, Joel 


Sawyer, Isaac Sawyer. Names of inhabitants living on 
the road leading from Greenville to Lily Bay were Jerry 
Varney, John Tyler, Rev. James Withee, Ed Scammon. 
Names of inhabitants living on the road leading from 
Greenville to Shirley were Charles Meserve, B. F. 
Greeley, William Connor, Hiram Mansell, Jefferson 
Mansell. Those on the road leading from foot of lake 
to the east part of the town were George Simpson, 
Elijah Young, Thomas Young. Those on the road 
leading to West Cove were John Masterman, Samuel 
Cole, James Nash. Mr. Cole was a farmer by occu- 
pation, and in connection with farming owned and 
operated a sawmill, the power of which was an overshot 
wheel. The saw was an up and down saw. As a matter 
of course each board had a stub-short. The mill could 
be run only in times of freshet, but with his mill he could 
supply the demand for boards in that vicinity. 

At that time shingles were made by hand. They 
were made of cedar and pine trees. The trees were 
sawed into blocks and were then split and shaved by 
hand. It was called a day's work for a man to split, 
saw, shave and bunch one thousand shingles. Some 
shingle weavers, as they were then called, became experts, 
and some men claimed that after the shingles were 
split and ready to shave they could shave and throw them 
across the room where they were to be bunched and keep 
one in the air all the time. It may not be easy to prove 
such a statement now, but it is quite certain that some 
men could shave them very fast. Bangor was then the 
principal market for shingles. Pine shingles were then 
worth $4.00 per M. 

The principal business of the inhabitants then was 
farming. They raised cattle, sheep and horses; sold to 
the lumbermen hay, grain and other products of the soil. 
As a rule they were industrious, prudent, discreet, honest 


and prosperous. Their land at that time, being new, 
yielded large returns. One farmer at one time went to 
Foxcroft to mill with a grist of ninety bushels of wheat. 
This of course was an exceptional case but it emphasizes 
the push and energy of the early settlers of Greenville. 

In the year 1844 the shipping of the lake consisted of 
one steamboat called the Amphitrite. She was aljout 
ninety feet long and very wide on the beam. Her 
boiler and engine were of primitive make and her rate of 
speed was about six miles an hour. She was used in the 
spring of the year for towing logs, and in the fall for 
carrying lumbermen's teams, crews and supplies, but she 
was too slow for a passenger-boat. She was commanded 
by Capt. King. There was also a two-masted schooner 
commanded by Capt. George Varney. She was also used 
for carrying heavy freight for lumbering business. There 
were two smaller one-masted vessels, one commanded by 
Captain Fletcher Flint, the other by Captain Monroe 
Brown. They were both fine vessels of their kind, and 
did a good business for several years. There were several 
kinds of small boats ; one was the bateau, sometimes 
called the Maynard boat, and used mostly for river driv- 
ing, the other was the birch canoe made by the Indians. 
It was often the case that a canoe was made of the bark 
of one tree, and all of one piece. 

At that time there was felt a pressing need of a pas- 
senger-boat with steam-power; sailing vessels often 
required too much time. The Amphitrite was lacking 
in too many points to meet the demand of the times. 
Business men demanded more speed, tourist and pleasure 
parties wanted more style, stockholders wanted quicker 
returns. Public sentiment would be satisfied with 
nothing short of a new and better steamboat, and the 
stock raised for that purpose was sold almost as soon as 
it was put onto the market. In the year 1848 the 



steamer Moosehead was built at Varney's landing, Mr. 
Benjamin Bigney, master builder. She was built 
expressly for a passenger-boat, her finish and furnishings 
were fully up to date, a locomotive-boiler and engine 
with modern improvements gave her speed of fourteen 
miles per hour. She was very attractive in appearance, 
and gave general satisfaction to all concerned, as a pas- 
senger-boat. In early spring the Moosehead was used 
for towing logs, but in the summer she was used for pas- 
senger work, making two trips per week from Greenville 
to Northeast Carry, stopping at Kineo, going and com- 
ing, and at other points as business demanded, also one 
trip per week from Greenville to Kineo. She was com- 
manded by Captain Thomas Robinson. 

At that time logs were towed from Moose River and 
North Bay by steamboat, and from Spencer Bay and the 
lower part of the lake by head works : a big raft made of 
logs with a small house on one end, where the men cooked, 
ate and slept. On the other end of the raft was the 
capstan. A rope one half mile long was attached to the 
capstan, the other end to an anchor. The anchor was 
carried out to the end of the rope and thrown over- 
board ; the rope was then wound in on the capstan by 
twelve men with six bars. In this way a raft of twenty 
acres of logs could be moved one half mile an hour. 

During the years from 1844 to 1854 the means of con- 
ve^'ance to and from Greenville was by stage. One route 
was from Greenville to Bangor, the other from Greenville 
to Skowhegan. The last named made three round trips 
per week. The names of the drivers in the order named 
were: Warren Potter, Henry Potter, John Downing, 
William Young, William Blackden. Heavy freight was 
then hauled from Bangor to Greenville, with two, four 
and six-horse teams, making one trip per week. 

In the year 1849 a wooden railroad was built from 


the shore of the lake to the bank of the Penobscot River 
at Northeast Carry, distance two miles, twenty-seven 
rods. As the water at the shore of the lake was very 
shoal, it was necessary to build a pier forty rods from 
the shore and continue the track to the pier, making the 
entire length of the road two miles, sixty-seven rods. 
It had a wooden track and a platform car, drawn by one 
horse, weight of common load about two tons, making 
four trips per day. The business of the road was taking 
lumbermen's supplies from the steamboat pier to the West 
Branch of the Penobscot River. The cost of building 
and equipping the road was about $3,000, price of 
freightage $4.00 per ton, length of business season 
about two months each year. It went to decay and was 
discontinued in about ten years, and a turnpike road was 
built in its place. 

The principal fishermen during the early history of 
Moosehead Lake were Mr. Bard and the Cross brothers. 
Mr. Bard, in the winter, had a house on runners and 
hauled it from place to place. He lived in his house and 
fished in deep water. The Cross brothers fished in the 
thoroughfares. They were all quite successful in their 
line of business. The leading hunters and trappers were 
Uncle John Ellis and William Lyford. They both 
lived in the woods nearly all of their lives. Uncle John 
Ellis, as he was called, was a great story-teller, and when 
he was in company with those who liked to hear him talk 
he would relate his adventures with wild animals, (mostly 
bull moose) by the hour. He continued in the hunting 
business until he was an old man. His last camping 
place was near Spencer Bay ; the smoke of it could be 
plainly seen from Mr. Capen's house at Deer Island. 
They, knowing that he was liable to fall into distress at 
any time, kept a close watch for the smoke of his cabin, 
and one day there was no smoke to be seen. Mr. Capen 


went immediately to his place and found him sick and 
miable to help himself. Mr. Capen, like the good 
Samaritan, took him to his own home (which was an inn) 
and took care of him. It proved to be his last sickness. 
He had a family and accumulated quite a good propert\\ 

]\Ir. Lyford was quite a fur hunter, and enjoyed telling 
his adventures with bears and wolves. He, too, was 
quite a successful hunter and trapper and followed the 
business until he was quite old. 

Until the year 1850 there were no laws to protect 
large game in Maine. At that time moose and deer 
were very plenty in northern Maine, especially along 
the West Branch of the Penobscot River and around 
Moosehead Lake. No one seemed disposed to kill more 
than he needed for his own private use. In the 
}'ear 1850 lai-ge numbers of St. Francis Indians came 
through from Canada and made great slaughter of 
moose, taking nothing but their hides, leaving their car- 
casses along the shores of the lake and the West Branch 
of the Penobscot and in the woods in almost every 
direction. So certain did it seem that large game would 
become extinct that complaints were made by the Penob- 
scot Indians, and large numbers of citizens petitioned 
the Legislature to pass laws to protect large game, and 
in response to the request of the people, laws were 
passed to that end and game wardens appointed, 
Isaac Labree being the first game warden in the vicinity 
of Moosehead Lake. 

In the early days of game-laws the warden's duties 
were not always pleasant or even safe, as in the case of 
Calvin Graves, who killed Wardens Hill and Niles of 
C'alais, Maine. The violators of the game-laws would 
shield themselves with the fact that they were in the 
solitude of the great wilderness of Maine and would 
sometimes sav that there was no law where there was no 


stone wall, and their means of defense was their rifle and 

Notwithstanding the liabilities incident to the enforce- 
ment of the game-laws, Warden Labree went to the 
Northeast Carry to meet a party of Indians who were 
coming up the West Branch of the Penobscot with their 
canoes loaded with dried moose hides. (The Indians' 
method for preparing moose hides to be carried in large 
quantities in their canoes was to stretch them on poles, 
shave off" the hair, dry, fold and pack them in bales.) 
He read to them the game-laws of Maine and the penal- 
ties. The\' seemed very much surprised, and Avith much 
indignation assumed a very savage and threatening 
position, and it looked for a while as though something- 
serious might take place, but after much parleying they 
were allowed to go with their booty, on condition that 
they were not to come to Maine again to kill moose, 
deer, or caribou. But large game had got such a set- 
back that after fifty years it has hardly recovered 
from the loss. 

Warden Labree in making his report gives the follow- 
ing reasons for making the settlement before named : 

1. To have seized the property, canoes, rifles and 
hides would doubtless have resulted in bloodshed, and 
perhaps in loss of life and limb. 

2. The property confiscated would have been nearly 
worthless to the State. 

3. The property would not in an}' way make good 
the loss or replace the large game that had been destroyed. 

Therefore by the advice of his associates he concluded 
to settle as before-named. 


The first death by droAvning known to white men, 
occurred in the fall of 1849. The circumstances were 


as follows: Three voung men, viz., Downs, non-resident, 
Charles Stratton of Boston, Mass., clerk in the Eveleth 
store, and William Meserve, son of Charles Meserve of 
Greenville, went to Squaw Bay on a hunting excursion in 
a small boat, and when they returned they came through 
the narrows between Moose Island and Harford's Point. 
The wind was blowing a gale from the north and as they 
came around the point their boat filled with water. 
Downs jumped overboard and swam ashore. He said 
the boat was only a few rods from the land. After 
reaching the shore he said he told the boys to jump over- 
board and swim. Stratton jumped into the water but 
went down when about half-way to land. Meserve was 
in the boat when last seen by Dowtis. He started 
immediately for Greenville by the shore of the lake, 
where he arrived near night. Two boats were manned 
and started at once to search for the boys. The wind 
was blowing hard and the lake was rough. It was nearly 
dark when they reached the place. The boat was found 
on the shore of a small island, but neither of the boys 
were found that night. The next morning the search 
was renewed and the body of the Stratton boy was found 
near the place where Downs said he went down, but 
the body of William Meserve was never found. The 
search was continued for several days. The bottom was 
dragged with grapples many times over from Harford's 
Point to the place where the boat was lodged. Thus 
the tragedy was left somewhat surrounded in mystery. 

In the early winter of the same year John Capen was 
drowned while out skating. He was alone at the time, 
and his body was found by means of his mittens being 
frozen to the ice where he broke in. 

In the year 1851 or 1852 Freeman Shaw of Greenville 
was drowned from off the steamer Moosehead, near 
Scammon's landing. He was leaning over the gang rail 


dipping a pail of water. When the pail dipped the 
water, the rail came out of its socket and he went over- 
board into the water. It was supposed that he was 
struck by the wheel, as he did not come to the surface. 
The water was very deep, and the bottom uneven and 
ledgy. After several days of searching, the body was 
found by a professional diver from Bangor. 


In the early fifties Louis Annance, chief of the St. 
Francis tribe of Indians, came to Maine with his family 
and resided here during the remainder of his life. He 
gave as a reason for leaving his tribe that they had practi- 
cally lost their visibility as a race of North American 
Indians, the lineage of which he himself was truly proud. 
He said that they had so mixed with the Canadian French 
that it was impossible to tell where the Indian left off 
and the French began. 

Louis Annance was a true type of the North Ameri- 
can Indian. He was tall, straight, broad-shouldered, 
copper-colored, high cheek-boned, athletic in his general 
make-up. He was educated and graduated at Dart- 
mouth College, according to a treaty once made between 
the English Government and the St. Francis tribe. He 
spoke pure English. He was a great reader and an easy 
speaker. Although he lived in the solitude of the 
wilderness, nearly all of the time he kept himself well up 
on current events of the times. He could sit down with 
an educated person and converse with him on almost 
any subject. He was gentlemanly in his appearance, a 
member of the Congregational church, and also of the 
Free and Accepted Masons. 

In the summer of 1852 Dr. John Hubbard, then 
Governor of Maine, made a tour through northern 
Maine with his two sons, twelve and fourteen years of 


age. They went to Greenville, across the lake to North- 
east Carry, and down the West Branch of the Penobscot 
River to Katahdin Mountain. At the Northeast Carry 
he met his old college classmate, Louis Annance, for the 
first time since they left college. Contrary to former 
plans, Mr. Hubbard stopped over at the Carry one day 
to talk with Mr. Annance. It was a privilege of a life- 
time to listen to their conversation, not because two 
educated men were conversing, but because the chief 
executive of the State was conversing on a literary level 
with an Indian whose glory was in the hunt and the 


Previous to the year 1855 the only institution of 
learning in Greenville was the "little red schoolhouse, " 
situated about forty rods north of Hotel No. 1. This 
memorable, unpretentious little building served the town 
for many years as schoolhouse, town house, church and 
city hall. Here the scholars in town received their first 
school education, and all the education they ever received, 
(eight weeks in summer and ten weeks in the winter) 
except such as were able to go away from home to older 
and larger towns, and yet it is true that the literary 
attainments of the scholars of Greenville at that time 
were fully up to the average rural towns of the State. 
Many of them could pass an academic graduating exami- 
nation with honors, and in history and passing events and 
many other branches they could lead the scholarship of 
fifty years later date. The latter may know a little of 
more things, but the former were so thoroughly estab- 
lished in the essential principles of a complete education 
that each seemed to be led in the active duties of life, 
making them useful and successful more or less. 

The municipal records of Greenville will show that 


the early settlers were self-supporting almost without 
exception, a state of things due largeh- to early instruc- 
tion. Their early education not only aided them in 
selecting the vocation for which they were best suited, 
but for the development of the resources found every- 
where in the vicinity of Moosehead Lake. It is a 
remarkable fact, and almost without parallel, that nearly 
all of the enterprises of northern Maine (railroads 
excepted) were instituted, improved and operated at the 
present time by home talent and home capital. 

The few brief thoughts already presented can but 
inspire feelings of gratitude and sincere respect for the 
ancestral blood to which eveiy institution of Greenville 
today is largely indebted. "It is easy to say how we 
love new friends and what we think of them, but words 
can never trace out all the fibres that bind us to the 


Entertainments even of small importance were few and 
far between, although family visits were highly enjoyed 
and of frequent occurrence ; but many of the society 
entertainments as they are enjoyed at the present time, 
were then unknown. Cheap traveling shows were quite 
common and patronized to some extent, but the results of 
those entertainments were not very encouraging to the 
proprietors. Dancing-schools, balls and social dances 
were indulged in to some extent, and as a rule were with- 
out the damaging effects to society that are often realized 
in later times. It is sometimes said that persons with 
strong and healthy constitutions may come in contact 
with germs of contagious diseases without serious effects, 
and sometimes it is the case that persons of strong moral 
training are not seriously affected by that which is 
classed as moral evil. This thought is not offered as an 


apolog}' for any moral wrong, but as a reason for the 
moral stamina that characterized the early settlers of 
Greenville and vicinity. 

Open air excursions were some of the entertainments 
that were highly enjoyed by the people of Greenville, 
and were held at different points of interest around and 
in the vicinity of Moosehead Lake, All who have ever 
enjoyed an occasion of that kind will bear witness that 
words cannot express the enjoyment of such. To sail 
on the silvery sea, the pride of Maine, with your face 
Mount Kineo-ward, with Mount Katahdin on the 
right hand and Mount Squaw on the left, fills one with 
feelings too sublime to be expressed in words. It is a 
sensation that can be appreciated only by actual experi- 
ence. To creep along the crest of grand old Mount 
Kineo, whose fame is the joy of the world, to drink from 
that crystal fountain whose pure waters are sent up by a 
power known only to the Eternal Creator, to stand on 
the very top of Mount Kineo, to breathe the pure air 
among the clouds nearly 1,000 feet above the lake, to 
look upon the surrounding scenery as God has created it, 
as far as the eye can reach, is to feel that one is standing 
in the presence of the Infinite. 

Moral and Religious. 

Some things have already been mentioned about the 
morals of the early settlers of Greenville, and perhaps 
if more is said some may think that there is an attempt 
at flattery, but if such were the case it would only be 
saying some good things of those who have gone to that 
bourne from whence no traveler ever returns. Suffice it 
to say that the municipal and judicial records will show 
conclusively that the early settlers were not given to over 
much litigation or home disturbances, but as a rule were 
not only moral but religious, according to their most 


serious convictions of true orthodoxy. The recognized 
leader in religious things was the Rev. James Withee. 
Mr. Withee was a farmer by occupation. He received but 
very little by way of salary but he was a man who had 
the spiritual interest of the people at heart. It is not 
certain that he ever developed any angel's wings, and it 
is very doubtful whether or not religious sentiment at 
that time would have allowed the use of such appendages 
if he had been in possession of them. But he was a 
true and faithful pastor of the people. Preaching to 
them the word of life on the Sabbath, "giving to each 
his portion of meat in due season," whenever and 
wherever opportunity opened the way, attending the 
funerals of the departed loved ones and solemnizing the 
marriages in town. As a man and pastor he was loved 
and respected by all. Mr. Withee was of the Methodist 
persuasion, but the people were divided among the differ- 
ent denominations. Some were Free Baptists, some 
regular Baptists, some Methodists and some Congrega- 
tionalists, but in their religious work denominational 
lines were left in the background, and by common con- 
sent all were allowed to worship God according to the 
dictates of their own consciences. 

History of the Baptist Churches in 
Piscataquis County 

By Rev. F. H. Pratt 

VERY properly should the history of the churches 
become a part of the history of Piscataquis. This 
is the more appreciated and the more necessary 
because of the almost entire lack of the history of the 
churches in the secular histories of the state and nation. 
Not that the churches are not mentioned in such histories, 
they are mentioned, but little more than that, and this 
despite the fact of the large place the Christian church 
has held in the lives of the people of the state and 
nation. The church historians have done something 
along the line above mentioned but very often this has 
been found to be incomplete. 

The present treatise claims to be a history of but one 
branch of the church, and therefore is not a history of 
the church in the county. 

If there is to be a history of the county written, of 
which various papers presented in the meetings of this 
historical society are to become a part, the other 
Christian bodies should be represented. 

One hundred years ago the settlements in this part of 
the State of Maine were hardly beyond the experimental 
stage. People came into the forest and made their 
homes on sites that promised well for the work of their 
lives, which was largely farming. In many instances 


these places of settlement did not prove to be the centers 
of future populations, when the liistory of manufactur- 
ing was well under way. Of course this would affect the 
churches that might have been formed by the first 
settlers. Very often the financial resources of the 
settlers were very meager which prevented the support 
of pastors or the erection of places of worship, thus the 
church at its birth would be shorn of what would be 
called in this day the strong pillars under the structure 
of the church's existence. Besides this, the country was 
almost without roads and the means of transportation, 
and of course had no railroads and few mail routes. 
Hence traveling for the strengthening of the weak 
churches, and the sending of literature (of which there 
was very little at best) for their encouragement was 
difficult. Those were the days of sharp disputes and 
strong prejudices preventing the uniting of weak and 
struggling church interests, and besides these things 
many other elements of division, and these would hinder 
the organization of the churches and tend to their disso- 
lution after they were organized. Hence the weakness 
of some of the early attempts to give these frontier 
settlements permanent church homes. 

According to Rev. Amasa Loring's History of Pis- 
cataquis County, the Baptists were the first to preach 
gospel truth in these parts. He says towards the close 
of 1807 Elder Thomas Macomber of Sumner and Elder 
Nathaniel Gould of Vassalborough were sent by the 
Baptist Society on an exploring tour into these frontier 
settlements. In Amestown, now Sangerville, they found 
only thirteen families. Here they preached the word, 
an interest sprang up and very soon twelve persons were 
ready to be organized into a Baptist church, and in 
January of the following year one was organized, the 
first Baptist church in the county ; in fact we are told by 


other authorities that it was the first church of any kind 
in this county. The number of members above named 
was increased to sixteen. Splendid help was given the 
church by Rev. H. Kendall. William Oakes, who had 
fallen away from the faith, was reclaimed about this time 
and was soon licensed to preach, and he also rendered 
valuable service. During the interest above mentioned 
several from Guilford were converted and united with the 

Rev. Joshua Millett says further concerning the church : 
"In 1809 the church reported to Bowdoinham Associa- 
tion twenty-one members, but being small, and without 
a leader, and situated at so great a distance from the 
places where the association usually met, it withdrew its 
relation from that body, and remained isolated and alone 
until it lost its visibility. In 1823 it was again organ- 
ized with several members from Guilford, and Rev. 
Daniel Bartlett became the pastor. It united again 
with the Bowdoinham Association with thirty-four 
members. Rev. Mr. Bartlett officiated until 1828, when 
he resigned, leaving the church with its numbers increased 
to seventy-two — by a revival in 1827. This was the 
most prosperous period of the church. The year 1831 
was a fruitful one for the church, their numbers being 
increased by fift3^-four by baptism. It has since had one 
pastor, Rev. A. Clark, from 1836 two or three years. A 
train of trials now began, which for some years disturbed 
the peace of the church, and although aided by the semi- 
monthly labors of Rev. W. E. Cressy, in 1838 and 1839, 
and C. P. Sinclair, in 1841, yet constant internal com- 
motion and the separation of some of the members to 
form a new church, have operated to reduce the numbers 
to the small total of twenty-one. These brethren are in 
a low, discouraged state." It might be well to say 
in addition to what the gentleman has stated, that the 


Sangerville church has ceased to exist as a church. The 
writer above quoted speaks of a number of the members 
of the church withdrawing to form another church. 
This church, composed of eleven members, was formed in 
1839, and was located in the south part of the town. 
It maintained worship a part of the time until 1847, 
when it was dropped from the association. This church 
was always small. This makes three Baptist churches 
that have had an existence in the town, but of course 
not all in the same part of the town. None of these 
churches survive to the present. None of them ever 
owned a church building. The second church that was 
organized in 1823 started to build a house of worship in 
1830, but it was not completed until 1835, and then it 
was partl}^ owned by other denominations. 

Mr. Loring speaks of a church that was organized in 
"Atkinson and Milton," now Orneville, in 1825, in the 
south part of the town, but does not say in which of the 
towTis, He speaks of Mr. Jonathan Page being instru- 
mental in the organization of the church, and this 
brother being set apart as an evangelist by this church. 
The church at one time had thirty-four members, but is 
now extinct. 

Before the town of Blanchard was incorporated a 
Baptist church was organized there in 1828. It resulted 
from the labors of Rev. Zenas Hall and William Oakes. 
It was a hard field to cultivate, but the church at one 
time had thirty members. It ceased to exist in 1837. 

The historian above named mentions a church that 
was organized in one of the towns of Greenville or Shir- 
ley, but does not mention which town, (perhaps organ- 
ized to accommodate both towns) in 1843, by O. B. 
Walker, he becoming this same year the pastor of the 
church in Dover. The church did not long survive. 

A church was organized in Bowerbank in 1836 and at 


one time had thirty members, but its earthly career was 

Another church of as short a life as some of the others 
was organized in Foxcroft. Many of the older settlers 
were Congregationalists, but as the population increased, 
quite a number of Baptists wei^e sprinkled through it. 
A church was organized at what is now called "Foxcroft 
Four Corners," in March, 1832, composed of nineteen 
members. The following September they were increased 
to thirty-two by a revival; in 1838 nineteen more were 
added by baptism. The church received only occasional 
preaching and after the organization of the Dover village 
church, now known as the People's Baptist church, the 
church in Foxcroft was disbanded and the most of the 
members of the church united with the church in Dover. 

Many of the churches of the present time feel that 
they have a hard struggle for life in the mad rage of 
worldliness that is coming in like a flood, but the strug- 
gles of the present time are not worthy to be compared 
with the trials and hardships of the brethren of the for- 
mer time. All that is true of the Baptist churches is 
also true of the other churches. Man}' of them lived only 
to be overcome with the hastening feet of time which 
takes away the worthiest and best, and the changing 
character of the population, and above all the great 
indifference to the things of the spirit, for the rank and 
file of the people are after the things that make for 
wealth rather than the things of the soul. Among the 
people, however, were some of the staunchest and the 
most saintly of the children of God anywhere, but they 
were unable to stem the tides of opposition that set 
against them ; yet many lived their lives and closed the 
full measure of their days in the faith of the Lord and 
the apostolic zeal of the early fathers. 

The first permanent Baptist church that was formed 


in the county, of which we have any record, was organized 
in Guilford. Settlement began here in 1806. Among 
those who came in 1808 was Deacon Robert Herring, 
a member of the church in New Gloucester. As this 
was about the time of some of the special revivals in 
Sangerville, and as people were going from Guilford to 
Sangerville to attend services, special desire was exercised 
as to the beginning of work in Guilford. Deacon 
Herring began with a prayer service in his own home. 
It is said that while a number of believers were engaged 
in prayer at this place, and praying that a messenger of 
God would be sent to them, they were surprised by the 
coming of Rev. John Daggett, who came as a missionary 
among them. He is reported to have been of great 
strength to these believers in this far-away wilderness. 

After others had moved to these parts, some coming 
from New Gloucester, Elder Robert Lowe, the pastor, 
organized a church in Guilford in 1813. This was what 
is now known as Guilford Center. The visits of the last 
named gentlemen were continued for several years, some 
of the visits being before the organization of the church. 
There were thirteen members when the church began its 
visible existence. There was considerable growth for 
several years, and in 1815 he visited the place and meas- 
ures were taken to make him the pastor of the church, 
and he received the minister's lot of land of 320 acres. 
The next year he moved to the place and remained pas- 
tor of the church for nineteen years. The pastorate was 
as profitable as it was prolonged, for soon after his set- 
tlement, and again in 1827, strong revivals were sent to 
them, and in a little while the church numbered one 
hundred members. 

In the spring of 1831 the church raised a meeting- 
house, the first in the town, and dedicated the same July 
4, 1833. Rev. R. C. Spaulding preached the dedica- 


tory sermon. This was a day of religious as well as ot 
patriotic joy for this people. In 1835 Mr. Macomber 
resigned, but preached here and at other places, as he 
was able, his health being impaired. Without the edu- 
cation of the schools, this brother was a well-learned man 
in the things of God and the school of experience, and 
served his day and generation well, receiving one hundred 
and eighteen persons to the church during his pastorate. 
Aside from the lot of land, he had received no compen- 
sation for his services, that could in these days be 
called a salary. He remained the rest of his days in 
the to\m, and died December 18, 1852, aged sevent}'- 
eight, loved and honored by all for his loving service 
for the kingdom, and his stalwart Christian character. 

After Mr. Macomber' s retirement there was an effort 
to raise the church to the dignity of paying the pastor a 
salar}', and to it they raDied grandly. This was prob- 
ably because an educated ministry was now sought. 
Elder D. E. Burbank was the first beneficiary of this 
new arrangement, a student of AVaterville College, the 
present Colby College. His labors were much blessed 
but ill health soon terminated his days in the pulpit, 
after a two years' pastorate, and he died in AVinthrop at 
an early age. Rev. Lucius Bradford came to the pastor- 
ate in 1838, and was followed by T. Goldthwaite, L. 
Kingman, O. B. Walker and others for short periods 
from 1837 to 1873, dividing their labors with some 
neighboring church or churches. Rev. Sewall Browne, 
who is well known in these parts, was for quite a long 
time pastor, and saw great prosperity of the church, 
many being gathered into the fold. 

During all the years the church has had many trials, 
but has met them in the spirit of fairness and firm deal- 
ing; liberal to the causes represented across the seas in 
heathen lands, a missionary. Rev. James F. Norris, being 


for some time pastor of the church. The church at one 
time had a parsonage, and still has a small fund of 
money in the bank and some real estate besides the 
church property. It has however been in a weakened 
condition for some years and receives only transient 
pastoral help. The pastor and people at Dover have 
given it considerable aid lately. Some splendid men 
have been reared in this church, among them being 
Revs. C. M. Herring, A. J. Nelson and E. B. Haskell, 
and Elders Zenas Hall and Daniel Bartlett. The 
churches in Monson, Parkman, Sangerville and Abbot 
have received members from this church. While no 
church should rest on its laurels, the church in Guilford 
would have some excuse, if not reason, for doing so, for 
their gifts to the Christian world have been by no 
means small. 

The next church by way of seniority is the church at 
South Dover, which came into existence in June, 1818, 
composed of six members. The forest here Avas first 
broken by the settlers in 1803, who at first were few 
and scattered, but some of them were members of 
distant churches and of course longed for the church 
privileges of their home surroundings. Besides this they 
saw their children and those of their neighbors' grow- 
ing up in ignorance and carelessness as to their moral 
and spiritual concerns. Without any help from out- 
side the place, so far as we can learn, they called the 
council that recognized the church on the above date. 
Before long there were a few additions, as the result of 
missionary work done among them, but the first three 
years were ones of trial, much of which was caused by 
Christians of other names who resided in the place, and 
church discipline, which they seemed to be obliged to 
administer. In 1821 Elder Nathaniel Robinson of 
Cherryfield visited them, and by their request became 


their pastor in 1822, and he received the one half lot of 
land and lived thereon and retained the pastorate till 
1834. This church was the first religious society in 
town, and this brother was probably the first pastor in 
the town. This is interesting, since in the whole town 
there are now seven. 

Mr. Robinson left the church to engage in the exten- 
sion of Bible work among all churches. Elder E. 
Hunting was then employed for several months, and in 
1835 Elder J. F. Page became the pastor. In 1838 a 
house of worship was built, and dedicated Oct. 10, Rev. 
Adam Wilson preaching the sermon. In 1826 the Free 
Baptists were organized in the same neighborhood, and 
eventually they obtained an interest in the church on 
condition that they support preaching one half the time. 
This excellent arrangement still continues. During 
much of the time since, the church has received pastoral 
care from the village church, that was later organized. 
For several years Rev. George H. Hamilton (a Methodist 
clergyman who was reared here and who had come back 
to regain his health) has been engaged by the two 
churches to supply jointly the pulpit, he giving much of 
his time to labor on his farm. 

The church in South Dover did not long antedate the 
church in Parkman for in two months and nine days from 
the organization of the South Dover church, the church 
in Parkman was organized, Aug. 29, 1818. Many of 
the early settlers in the town were Baptists, some coming 
from Greene, those who first came uniting with the 
church in Guilford in 1813, and although the roads 
hardly deserved the name and the distance was consider- 
able, attendance on the covenant and other meetings was 
well kept up. It was not long after this however that 
William Cole, Peter Cunimings and Joshua Coburn began 
holding meetings in their own town. Elders Macomber 


and Zenas Hall assisted these brethren considerably, and 
in 1818 a special work of grace among them made it 
possible to organize an independent church, and on the 
date above named they were duly organized with sixteen 
members. Peter Cummings and Joshua Coburn were 
made the deacons of the new church. Zenas Hall had 
been licensed by the Guilford church, and the people of 
Parkman becoming attached to him, he was invited to 
become the pastor and on the 14th of January, 1819, 
he was ordained. He received a salar}- of from S60 to 
$100 per year and the minister's lot of land, a part of 
which he afterwards relinquished to the Universalists and 
the Methodists. 

Notwithstanding this the Baptists seem to have been 
the only ones that held religious services in the town, 
and as the showers of divine grace were frequent the 
growth of the church was steady and its life healthy. 
Their present house was dedicated Dec. 20, 1831, during 
the sessions of a quarterly meeting that was being held 
with them, at which time also a special work of grace 
was begun among them and not a few were brought into 
the church, and in the years 1839 and 1843 great showers 
of blessings came upon them and the church was much 

Mr. Hall, the pastor, was unceasing in his labors, not 
for his own town alone but for the other parts also. 
The churches in Dexter and Blanchard owed their exist- 
ence to Mr. Hall and the members of the Parkman 
church. This brother was also active in his interest in 
the matter of politics and was clerk and selectman of his 
town, and was also sent to the Legislature and was withal 
a very active and useful man. At the time of the great 
temperance movement in the town Mr. Hall took no part 
and those that were carrying it on did not consult him, 
which would have been a very wise thing to do because 


of his prestige and the benefit it would have been to the 
cause. He was as great in confessing his faults as in the 
other elements of his character. His political views 
being such as they were he opposed the war of secession 
but after moving to Ohio he changed his views on this 
point, and when he returned made full confession of his 
change of political faith on that point. He probably 
opposed the Maine law and the town of Parkman rolled 
up a larger vote against that measure than any other 
town in the count}'. Mr. Hall was, however, always 
temperate in his personal habits. 

The church in Parkman had in 1845 two hundred 
members. In after years when it was somewhat weak- 
ened, it made an arrangement with the PVee Baptists to 
occupy the house of worship with them. Still later, the 
Free Baptists having failed somewhat in keeping up the 
arrangement, they made terms with the Maine Baptist 
Missionary Convention in 1890, by which they relin- 
quished the use of their house and gave up their own 
society on condition that the Baptists hold regular serv- 
ices in the church. Rev. W. H. Clark was the first 
pastor under this arrangement, and the work carried on 
by him and his talented wife was successful. At the 
present time this church is an example of what help 
can be given through the wise expenditure of denomina- 
tional funds. While at the present time it is not 
large it may be called a strong church. About three 
years ago the church bought a parsonage. 

The next in the order of seniority is the church in 
Monson. Like many of the other churches the reason 
for the organization of a church there was the immi- 
gration of Baptists from other towns, but we are not 
told from where. The church was organized August 10, 
1827, consisting of fourteen members. It only had 
occasional supplies till 1842, when the Rev. Lebbeus 


Kingman became the pastor. In 1845 a house of wor- 
ship was built and the Rev. Lucius Bradford was from 
this time the pastor for six years. In 1853 Rev. Dudley 
P. Bailey became the pastor, spending half the time in 
other places in preaching the Gospel ; the length of his 
pastorate being eighteen years. From 1871 to 1880 
there were several short pastorates. In connection with 
these Rev. W. S. Knowlton's name appears three times 
in the annual minutes of the association, and the name 
of Rev. J. S. Bicknell once. Since that time have been 
such men as Rev. E. C. Long, the sainted B. F. Shaw, 
D. D., Revs. A. C. Chipman, C. F. Whitcomb, E. M. 
Bartlett, H. C. Speed and E. S. Drew. At the present 
time the church is without a pastor. It reports one 
hundred and one members. The last few years have 
been on the whole fruitful ones, and the pastors have 
done well for the church. 

The church in Abbot should be treated next. This 
was organized in 1829. This has been a small interest, 
and at the present time (1909) the light has nearly gone 
out. At the beginning of the life of the church they 
had nine members, coming from different parts of the 
settlement, they having only partial acquaintance with 
each other. Very soon the voice of young converts 
gladdened their hearts and the wilderness rang with the 
songs of praise. In 1831 Joseph Hall was qualified to 
preach, and until difficulties arose he was successful, but 
this pastorate lasted for only two or three years, and in 
1835 the church nearly became extinct. Life was 
revived again by the efforts of Rev. Thomas Macomber 
of Guilford and William Oakes of Sangerville, who gave 
them help in 1836 and 1837. In 1840 they united with 
other denominations in building a church. Among these 
was the Free Baptist, which church has for some years 
been extinct. At the present time there are but very 


few members left and the matter of dropping them from 
the list of the churches of the association has several 
times been discussed. There are however one or two 
strong Christian believers left. 

The church of Sebec claims for itself to have begun 
its organized life in 1836. But 1859 is given as the 
probable date, and I can find no record of its existence 
before that date, yet Rev. Thomas Macomber is said to 
have preached there, and he died in 1852. We shall 
have to say the beginnings in Sebec are doubtful so far 
as the exact date is concerned. No record of the exist- 
ence of the church is found in the reports of the asso- 
ciation for several years before 1878, when the church 
is supposed to have been reorganized. At this time a 
pastor was secured and the church building in the village 
belonging to the Congregationalists was secured and 
repaired. At times the outlook for the church has been 
regarded as hopeful. For more than twenty years it 
has been in a very weakened condition and has had no 
pastor for much longer than that, but has occasional 

Baptist beginnings came in Milo in June, 1840. The 
church then had twelve members, the number of the 
twelve apostles, and the number of the associations in 
the State. Like almost every other church, the Baptists 
came here by immigration, some of them probably soon 
after the town was incorporated in 1823. Here, also, 
the Rev. Thomas Macomber did efficient service in the 
early days of the church, preaching monthly. These 
monthly services continued through 1842, when a revival 
came to them, and in 1843 they had preaching every 
third Sunday by Elder A. G. Tibbetts. They built a 
union meeting-house in 1853, uniting with the Free Bap- 
tists, and alternating with them in the use of the house. 
This church is now owned by the Free Baptists. 


In 1888 they built a very attractive church of their 
own, and then began their separate existence from other 
churches. They have been prospered in men and money, 
and the church and the work of the same, has grown and 
been strengthened. Because of increasing numbers they 
were obhged to enlarge, and therefore the present beauti- 
ful edifice was erected in 1907, being an enlargement of 
the structure built in 1888. This church has had a suc- 
cession of faithful pastors, and with the increase of the 
business that has come to the town within a few years, 
the church has kept pace. All departments of the 
church life are well kept up and it probably has one of 
the largest, if not the largest Sunday-schools in the 
county. As there are only three churches in the town, 
including Milo Junction, if rightly managed they are 
all bound to be progressive and useful and eminently suc- 
cessful. The church has a very convenient parsonage. 

The church in Dover was not long in following the 
church in Milo in seeing the light. It came August 26 
of the same 3'ear, 1840, two months later than the 
church in Milo. Members of this church came from the 
church in Foxcroft before referred to, and tradition has 
it that some came from the church at South Dover also 
referred to before. This church became necessary and 
possible because of the growth at the village commonly 
known as the "Falls." The council met in Foxcroft 
village schoolhouse on the above mentioned date and 
after discussion the church was organized under the 
name of the "Foxcroft and Dover Village Baptist 
Church," Rev. Z. Bradford being moderator of the 
council. The members were : William Farnham, B. B. 
Vaughan, Joshua Jordan, Dr. Samuel Laughton, John 
Ames, Benjamin T. Buck, Joshua Hazelton, Elizabeth 
Farnham, Almira Tucker, Martha Jordan, Rachel Rob- 
inson and Almira Buck, twelve members in all. The 


articles of faith and church covenant of Piscataquis Asso- 
ciation were adopted, together with a strong temperance 
pledge. After this the moderator of the council 
preached from John 21:22, "What is that to thee? 
follow thou me." William Farnham was elected deacon 
and B. B. Vaughan clerk. The public services of the 
church were held in the schoolhouse, the vestry of the 
Congregational church and other places. It is quite 
likely the moderator of the council, Mr. Bradford, 
helped the church in a pastoral way for some time, but 
two histories assert that Rev. C. P. St. Clair became 
the first regular supply, who preached twice a month, 
and this was followed by an arrangement by which the 
church had preaching monthly. Rev. O. B. Walker 
came in 1843 and remained till 1846. The first church 
was built in 1842 and dedicated in December of that 
}^ear, the land being bought of Messrs. Harmon and 
Douglass for one hundred dollars. The pastors of the 
church besides Mr. Walker have been Rev. S. Adlum, 
Rev. J. M. Follett, Rev. C. M. Herring, Rev. A. D. 
F. Palmer, Rev. A. B. Pendleton, second pastorate 
of J. M. Follett, Rev. E. A. Van Kleek, Rev. S. P. 
Pendleton, Rev. George E. Tufts, Rev. Thomas N. 
Lord, Rev. C. C. Tilley, Rev. William J. Clouse, Rev. 
T. M. Butler, Rev. H. R. Mitchell, Rev. H. B. Tilden, 
and the present pastor, Rev. F. H. Pratt, who came here 
in 1901. The first church, which was built in 1842, was 
used as a part of the present People's Baptist church that 
now stands on the old lot. The vestry of the present 
church is a part of the old church, which however had 
in 1851 been enlarged. The new church was built in 
1886 and 1887, and the part containing the present 
auditorium and tower was entirely new, the entire cost of 
rebuilding amounting to $5,375.75. The church was 
dedicated September 21, 1888, G. D. B. Pepper, D. D., 


L. L. D., president of Colby University, preaching the 
sermon. The building committee was G. A. Meder 
Daniel S. Dexter and H. J. Dexter; James T. RobertI 
bemg the treasurer of the building committee. This 
church is modern in all its appointments, and now after 
more than twenty years, stands as a model of church 
architecture, having the largest seating capacity of any 
church in the town. The annual reports of 1908 give 
the church a membership of 188, the largest of any 
church of the same order in the county or the asso- 
ciation. It ought to continue to be one of the strong 
village churches in the State. During the pastorate of 
Rev. H. R. Mitchell, a parsonage was built, costing 
S3, 500 above the foundation. 

The church in Wellington was organized in 1896. 
Rev. A. A. Walsh was quite instrumental in the organi- 
zation of the church, he being at the time pastor of the 
church in Cambridge. A neat church was built at about 
this time, also one at "Burdin's Corner" so called in the 
same town. The church holds its services in the former 
that is located at what is called "Wellington Stores " 
Mrs. A. A. Walsh, the wife of the man who organized 
the church, is the pastor at the present time, he being 
engaged in evangelistic work in different parts of the 
State and country. They report a membership of 
thirty-three. While young, they are rich in faith, and 
while they are small in numbers as yet, they entertained 
the quarterly meeting of Piscataquis Association in the 
summer of 1908. 

This completes the churches in the Baptist denomi- 
nation belonging in Piscataquis County. But this 
history, to be of the greatest use, particularly of the 
church above named, should contain the history of 
Piscataquis Association. This will be referred to later. 


Other churches that should be referred to are in the 
main as follows : 

The first of these to deserve mention is the church in 
Cambridge. This church is located in Somerset County 
and is one of the two belonging to this association that 
are located in that county. This church was organized 
in 1822. The name of the town was formerly "Ripley," 
and before that "No. 5." In the winter of 1808 Rev. 
Thomas Macomber, while doing mission work under the 
Maine Mission Society, passed through the place visiting 
the different openings in the forest, and called at the 
house of Mr. Jacob Hale for the night. He found them 
sympathetic with the work he had come to perform, and 
he was asked to preach that evening, and word being 
sent to their nearest neighbor, who lived four miles away, 
he preached to the two families. In 1809 Rev. H. 
Kendall visited the place and reported that at this time 
there were two pious families in the place and they lived 
a mile apart and a swamp between them in the midst of 
which they used to meet and pray. About two years 
after this Mr. Kendall again visited the place and bap- 
tized Mr. Hale and his wife, the first to receive the 
ordinance in Ripley. In 1822 Rev. Isaac Case, the man 
famous for the preaching of the Gospel in many parts of 
the State and a man of great power and influence, visited 
the opening in the forest. He reported there had been 
a revival, the fruits of a pious school-teacher, and Mr. 
Case reported "The new settlement resounded with the 
praise of God." Before Mr. Case left, the present 
church was organized, and Jacob Hatch became the 
pastor, he being ordained for the purpose, under whose 
pastorate the church gradually increased. In 1828 
Deacon Forrest Hatch was ordained pastor and was very 
successful until his death in 1834. During his pastorate 
he baptized twenty-two persons, his sister, daughter and 


aged father being among them. The church has seen 
its days of prosperity and adversity, but after these many 
years it still sheds forth its light and is a very useful 
church of Christ, and I believe has never in its history 
received any outside aid towards its financial support. 
Many years ago a very useful house of worship was built 
and later a tower was built and a bell placed in position. 
The fruit of this church may be seen when it is under- 
stood that the present secretary of the Maine Baptist 
Missionary Convention, I. B. Mower, D. D., came from 
this church; also Rev. B. F. Turner, another useful 
pastor in this State; and Rev. T. E. Ham, who lives in the 
place, and has on many instances at present supplied the 
church, beside the fact of preaching to many surrounding 
churches. This is one of our good rural churches. 

The only church belonging to the association in 
Penobscot County is the church in Dexter. The pastor 
of the Parkman church. Elder Zenas Hall, amid the 
very busy life he lived found time to do much religious 
work at Dexter as well as at many other points. For 
many years this interest was carried on as a branch of 
the Parkman church, Mr. Hall giving a part of his 
ministry to that church. It became independent in 
1825, and from 1826 to 1832 Elder Jacob Hatch was its 
pastor, coming here from Cambridge, but from 1830 he 
gave them only a part of his time. Elder W. Marshall 
taking his place. In 1839 they built their house of 
worship ; later a vestry was built on the same level as the 
floor of the church, and still later a splendid parsonage 
was also built, and after this the church was remodeled. 
The present pastor is Rev. J. Chester Hyde, coming to 
them from Newport, R. I. The present membership is 
158 and it is one of our progressive and hopeful 


The last church to be mentioned is the church in Hart- 
land. This is also in Somerset County. This was 
organized somewhere between 1843 and 1849 and has 
usually been one of the weak churches so far as men and 
means are concerned. In 1854 it reported only sixteen 
members. Many of its years have been sad ones, but 
the last few years have been more prosperous, it having 
called to its pastorate, Rev. H. L. Caulkins, bought 
a parsonage, and is enjoying a state of prosperity 
seldom before known. 

Among the Baptists the State organization is known 
as the Maine Baptist Missionary Convention. The 
object of this organization is to support the weak 
churches by collecting from all and distributing to those 
in need. Existing under this convention are the associ- 
ations of which there are twelve. The association to 
which the churches here belong takes its name from the 
county and is known as Piscataquis Association. For 
the most part the churches composing it belonged to 
Penobscot Association. The churches composing it were 
dismissed from that association in 1838 and the first 
meeting was held in Parkman in 1839 where the asso- 
ciation was organized with the above name. Including 
the churches that were received at this time that had 
been but a short time organized, together with the older 
ones, the association contained sixteen churches, ten 
ordained ministers, two licensed preachers and 807 mem- 
bers. Rev. Joshua Millett in his book, "Maine Bap- 
tists," says concerning the churches of the association: 
"There is no cause of benevolence or wide spreading sin 
that receives the attention of other associations, that is 
indifferently passed over by this body. Their resolutions 
are copious and spirited and their zeal corresponds to 
their resolves. In their minutes of 1843 instead of the 
usual long list of resolves published by the associations 


almost annually, they inserted the following one as 
expressing the will and spirit of the churches : Resolved ; 
That our views in regard to all the benevolent operations 
have not changed, nor our zeal abated. And we recom- 
mend more of the book of Acts and less of the book of 
resolves. Although the association has usually been 
small as to numbers of the churches and the aggregate 
membership they have always maintained the spirit as 
above. ' ' 

At the present time there is a movement to bring the 
Baptist and the Free Baptist churches together. This 
will doubtless be consummated in a few 3^ ears at the most. 
When this is done it will be a very desirable union of 
forces between two bodies that are very much alike, the 
differences that divided them about one hundred years 
ago having largely disappeared. The intended union 
will include all the bodies in the entire nation in so far 
as each individual church chooses to unite with it, which 
will be very far-reaching. 

Universalism in Piscataquis County 

By Rev. A. Gertrude Earle 

THE history of Universalism in Piscataquis County 
antedates the organization of the county itself. 
Universalism had its beginning in Maine in the later 
years of the eighteenth century, in the towns of New 
Gloucester, Gray, Turner and Norway. 

The Eastern Association of Universalists was organized 
in 1799, later merged into the State Convention at its 
organization in 1828. Soon after the beginning of 
settlements in this part of the State, Sylvanus Cobb and 
other Universalist preachers paid visits here and were 
heard by large numbers. Rev. William Frost was the 
first minister to live in the county. 

On March 7, 1825, an informal meeting was held at 
the schoolhouse in District Number 1, of such of the 
inhabitants of Dover, Foxcroft and Sangerville as were 
desirous of forming themselves into a Universalist 
society. This resulted in the organization of a society 
on April 4, 1825. Nathaniel Chamberlain was the 
moderator of this meeting and Isaac Allen the clerk. A 
committee was appointed to enact by-laws, and a dele- 
gate to the General Convention to be holden the follow- 
ing July was chosen. It was voted to meet every Sab- 
bath whether we have preaching or not. 

It would be interesting to know whether this worthy 
plan was carried out, but the records do not tell us. 


Rev. William Frost is the only minister mentioned in 
this early period. At one annual parish meeting he 
was invited to preach one half the time, at another, such 
part of the year as the funds would permit. 

In 1827, assistant clerks were chosen, William Campbell 
for Sangerville and Nathaniel Chamberlain for Foxcroft. 

The constitution of this early society is interesting. 
Its opening paragraphs read as follows : 

"Whereas the Almighty has manifested the most per- 
fect order in all his works it is reasonable that we, hb 
offspring, should pattern after him in all that we do. 
Under this impression we, the undersigned, have formed 
ourselves into a society to be known by the name of the 
First Universalist Society of Dover, Foxcroft and Sanger- 
ville, and have adopted the following rules for our own 
government and regulation. 

"1st. Any person may become a member of this 
society who professes a belief in the doctrine of Uni- 
versal Salvation by Jesus Christ, and supports a good 
moral character. 

"2d. There shall be a committee chosen annually for 
the purpose of admitting members, whose duty it shall 
be to examine all who apply to them for membership as 
to their sentiments and moral character and to report the 
names of all they admit to the clerk, who shall record the 
same in a book kept for that purpose, whereupon they 
shall become members. 

"3d. It shall be the duty of the standing committee 
to admonish disorderly members in love and meekness." 

The signers are William Frost, John Spaulding, Seth 
Spaulding, Artemus Spaulding, Allen Dwelley, Bela 
Hammond, Thomas Rose, Asa Sprague, Henry Coy, 
William Campbell, Isaac Beaver, David Bryant, Moses 
Buck, William Thayer, Pelham Bryant, Nathaniel 
Chamberlain, Daniel Brown, Jonathan S. Plummer, 


M. H. Plummer, Adoniram Blake, Benjamin Spaulding, 
James Call, Moses Sawyer, Zarah Hammond, Daniel 
Buck, Owen Record, Isaac A. Thayer. 

Meetings were called at the schoolhouse in District 
Number 1, at Potter's store, at J. S. Philbrick's hall 
and at Patten's store. There is no record of the place 
where preaching services were held, but it is perhaps fair 
to assume that it was the schoolhouse. This was 
undoubtedly the first schoolhouse built in Dover village, 
on the lot where the Blethen House now stands. 

These earliest records end with 1830. The next record 
which has been preserved is of the organization in 1837 
of a society called the Dover and Foxcroft Universalist 
Society. The meeting for this organization was called 
at "the Meeting House in Dover upper village." This 
must be the meeting-house which stood on the lot now 
occupied by the Do\ er schoolhouse. The land was given 
by John Merrick and Charles ^'aughan, i)roprietors of 
the town. No records of the erection of this church 
are preserved, but an old Bible in the Thompson Free 
Library records that it was dedicated in 1833 by Rev. 
George Bates of Turner. 

This old Bible has the following list of ministers: 
J. R. Fulmer, 1834 

Gibson Smith, ) 1S35 

Joel JNliller, j 

B. Tasker, 1836 

A. A. Richards, ] 1837 

Joel Miller, j" 

Joel Miller, 1838 

J. M. Dennis, 1839-41 

E. B. Averill, 1842-45 

W. A. P. Dillingham, 1850-51 

Other information enables us to add the names of W. 
C. George, W. W. Wilson' and Hiram P. Osgood. 


No mention in records or in print is found of a 
minister named Burnham, but some of the older people 
tell of a minister of that name who lived in a house just 
beyond the Dover bridge. The tradition is that he 
wore a full beard, which was an offense to the congre- 
gation. In deference to opinion he shaved and con- 
tracted a cold which led to his death. 

Some interesting items appear in the records. Mr. 
Tasker was engaged for one half the time at Dover, one 
fourth at Guilford and one fourth at Charleston. A. A. 
Richards came from Milo and was engaged for six or 
seven Sabbaths at six dollars a day. 

The ministry of that period was itinerant in its 
methods. The "Gospel Banner" of the thirties and 
forties mentions many different preachers who visited the 
Dover church, preaching at the same time in the neigh- 
boring towns. In 1851, the care of the meeting-house, 
sweeping, building fires, etc., for the ensuing year, was 
let out to the lowest bidder. It was bid off by E. B. 
Averill for S6.T0. It is related that it was a son of 
that gentleman who did all the work, and evidently the 
lad thought the price too low, for the next year the 
amount voted was $12, and the name of the son, George 
Averill, appears as the recipient. If a boy must work 
for so small pay, surely he would prefer to receive the 
money in his own name. 

During the fifties, this church was very prosperous. 
Its choir was led by Ann Holmes. Dr. Elliott played 
the violin, Isaac Plummer the bass viol, Gilbert Chandler 
the melodeon, and Mordecai Mitchell the clarionet. 

The public exhibitions of Foxcroft Academy were 
often held in this church, and the building was used as a 
court house from 1838 to 1845. 

In the winter of 1838, when the bill establishing 
Piscataquis County was before the Legislature, one of the 


objections to it was the expense of county buildings. 
To obviate this difficulty the proprietors of the 
Universalist church in Dover signed a written obligation 
that the county might use their church as a court house 
so long as desired, free of expense, provided that Dover 
be established as the shire town. They finished off a 
jury room in the church and cut down the pulpit so as to 
make a more convenient judge's desk, and took out two 
of the body pews. 

The first court held in the county was the session of 
the S. J. Court held in Dover in the Universalist meet- 
ing-house June 25, 1838. Nathan Weston, chief justice, 

The first term of the Court of Common Pleas held in 
Dover in the Universalist meeting-house convened Sep- 
tember 18, 1888, Judge David Perham presiding. 
Other justices who presided over this court in the meet- 
ing-house were Asa Redington, Anson G. Chandler, 
Frederick H. Allen. 

The prosperity and prestige which have come to Dover 
because of its rank as the county seat are due to the far- 
seeing public spirit of the proprietors of this old 

William W. Wilson, minister of this church from 
1851 to 1856, lived in Foxcroft, in the house now known 
as the Pillsbur}' house. Some extracts from his diary 
are very interesting : 

"December 17, 1851. Thermometer sixteen degrees 
below zero. Persons froze their faces in going a few 

"March 27, 1852. Snow four feet deep. Went out 
this morning with several children and spent two hours 
sliding down hill on a hand sled. Fine time; it revived 
the scenes of boA'hood days. 

"April 29, A. M., wrote sermon. P. M., walked six 
miles and made calls. 


"April 30, 1853. Opened the Court of Common Pleas 
with prayer, by request of the High Sheriff. 

"February 19, 1854. Sunday. I felt obliged to 
rebuke certain nois}^ mirth-making persons in the singers' 
gallery, for their improper conduct during divine service 
today. Doubtless I gave offense, but I thought it was 
my duty. 

"March 12, 1855. Town meeting. Unanimously 
elected Superintendent of Schools for the coming year. 

"March 30, 1856. Close my labors with this parish 
today. Under God my labors have been measurably 
successful. Solemnized twenty marriages, attended fifty- 
five funerals, revived the observance of the communion 
and admitted five members to the church by water 

But during these years that the church in Dover was 
flourishing, there was preaching of the faith in other 
towns in the county. In Milo, Sangerville, Guilford, 
Parkman and Abbot the faith was preached with more 
or less regularity. 

Among the early settlers of Guilford were two Bennett 
brothers, who came from New Gloucester and had been 
identified with the Universalist movement there. Captain 
John Bennett died in Guilford in 1854, aged eighty-one, 
and of him it was written, "If every one believing our 
heavenly faith would do as Father Bennett did, the 
desert would rejoice and blossom as the rose." Joshua 
Buck, another early settler of Guilford, married Lovisa 
Barnes, daughter of Rev. Thomas Barnes, the first 
Universalist minister to settle in Maine. 

Mr. Moses Carr, the oldest resident of Sangerville, 
now nearly ninety-nine years old, and who came to San- 
gerville as a young man, was also a Universalist. 

At Sangerville, the Universalists owned some pews in 
the church built by the Baptists. At Guilford, Joseph 


Kelsey, Universalist, and Abel Curtis, Methodist, built 
a union or free meeting-house and sold the pews to get 
their pay. Mr. Kelsey was a member of the Consti- 
tutional Convention of Maine and held many offices in 
the gift of his town. Later Mr. Curtis sold his interest 
in the church to Mr. Kelsey. This building still stands 
in the village of Guilford, transformed into a dwelling- 
house. The land upon which it stands was deeded to the 
proprietors of the Guilford Free Meeting-house in 1834 
by Jesse Washburn. 

Amos A. Richards was the first minister to live in 
Milo. He was there in 1837, when the Dover church 
engaged him for six Sabbaths. An item in the Gospel 
Banner in 1838, states that the cause was in a flourishing 
condition in Milo at that time. 

In 1838, the Maine Convention met at Sangerville. 
The invitation, published in the Gospel Banner, is signed 
by Barnabas Burseley. Some paragraphs from the invita- 
tion are of interest: 

"You will meet at the convention a great multitude 
of people who have never attended a meeting of the 
kind, and many perhaps of whom have never been cor- 
rectly informed as to the doctrines which will be advanced 
on the occasion. 

"The convention will be a new thing under the sun to 
many, and will excite an interest which would not be felt 
in an older part of the State. In no community more 
than in this is the spirit of inquiry abroad. 

"Our friends from abroad, as the}' arrive in the village, 
will please call on Brothers Stephen Lowell and Moses 
Parshley who will conduct them to places of entertain- 
ment. " 

The minutes of the convention tell us that twenty- 
eight preachers and twenty-five delegates were present. 
The prophecy of the invitation that the occasion would 


excite much interest was fulfilled. Not half the people 
could get into the church. Simultaneous meetings were 
held in the church at Sangerville and in the schoolhouse, 
and on one day at Guilford. The first business meeting 
for organization was held at the home of Barnabas 
Burseley, and subsequent business sessions at the school- 
house. Three ministers were ordained during the session. 
Delegates named from this county were Joseph Kelsey, 
Guilford; A. S. Patten and J. Miller, Dover; B. Davis, 

Rev. William A. Drew, editor of the Gospel Banner, 
describes his journey from Augusta to Sangerville. It 
was made by team, of course, and he was joined by others 
on the way. He speaks of the rich resources of the 
new county and is surprised to find the season two weeks 
behind Kennebec County. He declares that he shall long 
remember the convention both on account of the spiritual 
blessings and also on account of the brethren who enter- 
tained so hospitably. 

No parish records have been discovered in either Guil- 
ford or Sangerville, so the only facts obtainable are the 
somewhat uncertain memories of the older people. 

Rev. Charles Hussey is said to have been the first 
minister to live in Sangerville, This was about 1848 or 
"49. The names of Robert Blacker, A. A. Richards, 
D. T. Stevens, Nathaniel Gunnison and J. M. H. Smith 
are mentioned as preaching both at Guilford and Sanger- 

In 1843, the church at East Sangerville was built by 
the Baptists, Methodists and Universalists, and occasional 
services were held there by Universalist preachers. It 
was in that church that one of the good Methodist 
sisters made a famous mistake. She was accustomed to 
fan herself during service with a turkey-tail fan, and 
murmur gently as her favorite preachers discoursed, ' 'Do, 


Lord. Do, Lord." But one day the preacher was a 
Universalist but no one had told the good sister, so she 
fanned herself as usual and murmured her approval. 
Presently some one whispered to her the denomination of 
the preacher. The turkey-tail fan still waved, but the 
murmur was promptly changed to "Don't, Lord. Don't, 

In those days of itinerant preachers, these mistakes often 
occurred. It was also in the town of SangerviUe that a 
Baptist deacon in his favorite seat in the schoolhouse, 
slept calmly through the sermon, all unconscious that 
the heresy of Universalism was being preached. At the 
close of the sermon opportunity was given for all who 
wished to speak, and the deacon, now awake, rose and 
testified to the truth of the preaching, much to the 
amusement of his Universalist neighbors. 

But with the dawn of the sixties came a new teaching 
into the county — that of Spiritualism. Hiram P. 
Osgood, minister of the church at Dover, and some other 
leaders, embraced it. In Milo and in SangerviUe the 
same influence was felt. Throughout the county, Uni- 
versalism suffered a decline. 

The doors of the old church at Dover were closed and 
the building fell into decay. Efforts were made to 
reopen it by the Spiritualists and by Unitarians, but 
unsuccessfully. The land reverted to the Merrick heirs 
and was secured by the town for the schoolhouse. The 
old church was torn down and the lumber used for the 
construction of the building used as a grist-mill, just 
east of Foxcroft bridge. 

Universalism seems to have held its own longer in 
Guilford than in any other town, for in May, 1866, a 
Sunday-school was organized with fifty-four scholars and 
sessions held once in two weeks. Amasa Loring, in his 
county history, published in 1880, speaks of Guilford as 


the only place then maintaining Universalist preaching 
and that only in the summer. Thus ends the first 
chapter in the history of Universalism in Piscataquis 

But with the present generation has come a renaissance 
of this faith. In the seventies, a Ladies' Circle was 
organized in Sangerville and through their efforts a min- 
ister named Carr was engaged, who drove from Milo to 
preach on Sunday afternoons. 

In the early days, no names are mentioned in con- 
nection with the work except those of men, but from this 
point on the women are prominent and are often the 

It was also in the seventies that the Universalists of 
Milo built a church in union with the Adventists. But 
after a time both societies declined and the church has 
been made into a tenement house. 

In the spring of 1884, a few Universalist people in 
Monson, desiring to hear their own faith preached, sent 
for the State superintendent. Rev. J. H. Little. He 
came and preached two Sundays. A parish was organ- 
ized with T. P. Elliott as clerk, and a Ladies' Circle 
with Mrs. A. B. Crockett as president. Dr. J. C. Snow 
and Rev. G. G. Hamilton each preached two Sundays 
during the summer of 1884. 

In 1885, Rev. C. F. Mclntire, then a student in Tufts 
Divinity School, preached three months in Tarr's Hall. 
Other services were held in the academy, the Congre- 
gational or the Baptist church. 

Dr. O. F. Safford, at that time editor of the Sunday 
School Helper, preached during the summer of 1886 and 
1887. In 1887, Dr. Safford was engaged in wTiting the 
life of Hosea Ballou, one of the earliest and greatest of 
Universalist theologians. It was his custom to gather 
the people together on Sunday mornings and read to them 


'«vhat he had written during the week, while in the after- 
noon was held the preaching service. Since his time, no 
preaching has been held in Monson, but a fund raised by 
the ladies during their acti\ity is now in the hands of the 
State Convention, held in trust for Universalist work in 

In 1889, Kev. R. H. Aldrich came to Guilford, an 
event of the utmost importance to Universalism in Pis- 
cataquis County. A young man with the genuine 
missionary spirit, he is the leading figure in the reorgani- 
zation of the Universalist church in this county. 

During May, 1890, a new parish was organized in 
Guilford with M. L. Hussey as moderator; John 
Houston, clerk ; Z. L. Turner, treasurer ; S. Webber, Z. 
Grover, and A. Beal, standing committee. In July of 
the same year it was voted to buy the lot upon which the 
present church stands. The church itself was completed 
in 1891. In 1903, a parsonage was added to the prop- 
erty of the parish. The ministers have been R. H. 
Aldrich, 1889-1901; A. M. Bradley, 1901-1904; C. F. 
Mclntire, 1904-1906; and Rev. F. L. Payson, who is 
the present incumbent. 

Mr. Aldrich preached also at Sangerville, and in 1890 
a parish was organized with S. M. Gile as moderator; H. 
C. Ford, clerk; Chester Coburn, collector; E. N. Mc- 
Kechnie, treasurer. In 1897, it was voted to solicit 
funds for building a church. Rev. R. H. Aldrich, F. 
H. Carr and H. L. Thomas were the building com- 

The church was dedicated in 1898. In 1904, largely 
through the generosity of Mr. Moses Carr, the church 
was freed from debt. The ministers have been R. H. 
Aldrich and A. M. Bradley, both of whom served also 
at Guilford, and Harry Enos Rouillard and Hannah 
Jewett Powell, who have preached at Sangerville only. 


At about the same time that the new movement began 
in Guilford and Sangerville, there were stirrings of hfe in 
Dover and Foxcroft. During the years 1887-1889 there 
were occasional preaching services by Rev. H. K. White 
of Dexter, Rev. E. F. Pember of Bangor and Dr. O. 
F. SafFord, who came from Monson. In the late fall of 
1890, a little band of thirteen women met at the home 
of Mrs. E. B. Averill and organized the "Ladies' Uni- 
versalist Circle." 

It was not until March, 1894, that the parish was 
organized in the Town Hall, Foxcroft. D. F. Ayer was 
moderator; V. A. Gray, C. W. Hayes, O. P. Martin and 

A. M. Warren, trustees; K. P. Sargent, treasurer, and 
Anna B. Averill, clerk. The second meeting of the 
parish was held at the home of A. M. Warren. At this 
time it was suggested that the Ladies' Circle purchase 
the Brann lot, so called, on Pleasant Street. It was 
voted at the same meeting to extend a call to Rev. F. E. 

In 1896, the erection of the present church edifice 
was begun. The building committee was Rev. M. B. 
Townsend, then the pastor, Geo. W. GofF, C. W. Hayes, 

B. L. Batchelor and K. P. Sargent. The church was 
completed in the spring of 1897 and dedicated in June 
of that year. 

In June, 1898, the parish entertained the State Con- 
vention, sixty years after that gathering in Sangerville 
in the first year of the organization of the county. The 
pastors of this church have been Rev. F. E. Wheeler, 
1894-1895; Rev. Manley B. Townsend, 1895-1898; 
Rev. Harry L. Canfield, 1898-1902; Rev. A. Gertrude 
Earle, 1903 to the present date. During Mr. Canfield 's 
pastorate the parish was freed from debt. 

About 1897, Rev. W. W. Hooper, then State super- 
intendent, visited Milo and aroused enough interest so 


that preaching was supported two summers in connection 
with La Grange. Efforts to secure a permanent organ- 
ization at Milo were continued by Rev. F. E. Barton, 
Mr. Hooper's successor, and by Rev. H. H. Hoyt, the 
present State superintendent. 

A parish and a Ladies' Circle have been organized and 
a lot of land purchased. Mr. Hoyt preaches once a 
month in the Free Baptist church, and also at ]Milo 
Junction in the office of the Bangor & Aroostook Rail- 

In the town of Greenville, there was occasional preach- 
ing of Universalism in the early days. Father French, 
W. W. Lovejoy of Old Town and J. M. H. Smith of 
Guilford were among the preachers. These services were 
held in the Union church. Among early Universalists 
were Mr. and Mrs. B. S. Bigney, Mr. and Mrs. Joel 
Sawyer, Mr. and Mrs. George O. Varney, Mrs. Marshall 
Walden and D. T. Sanders. 

March 13, 1899, an organization of the ladies was 
formed under the direction of Rev. W. W. Hooper, 
State superintendent. The officers were : President, Mrs. 
D. T. Sanders; first vice president, Mrs. C. D. Shaw; 
second \'\ce president, Mrs. L. H. Folsom ; secretary and 
treasurer, Miss E. Adeline Bigney. 

In 1903, a chapel costing $5,000 was built, the land 
being given by D. T. Sanders and Harry Sanders. It 
was dedicated in September, 1904, immediately after the 
session of the Piscataquis Association of Universalists, 
held at Dover. Occasional preaching services are held 
under the direction of the State superintendent. 

The present status of L^niversalism in the county is : 

Four parishes: Guilford, Sangerville, Dover and Fox- 
croft, Milo. 

Three churches : Guilford, Sangerville, Dover and Fox- 


One chapel : Greenville. 

Land owned for church : Milo, 

Three settled ministers : Guilford, Sangerville, Dover 
and Foxcroft. 

The work at Greenville and at Milo is under the 
direction of the State superintendent, Rev, H. H. Hoyt. 

April 1, 1909. 

Foxcroft Academy 

By Hon. Willis E. Parsons 

THE town of Foxcroft, which is one of the six 
townships granted to Bowdoin College by the 
Massachusetts Assembly in 1794, and purchased of 
that college by Joseph Ellery Foxcroft in 1800, received 
its first permanent settler in 1806. 

Although incorporated as a town six years later, or 
February 29, 1812, clearing the forest and establishing 
homes in the wilderness proved a slow process, even for 
the sturdy pioneers of those early days, and when the act 
of separation from Massachusetts took effect in 1820, 
Foxcroft numbered but 211 souls. 

Common schools, furnishing the rudiments of edu- 
cation, were then supported by Foxcroft and the sur- 
rounding towns, but nothing like a high school was 
attempted until 1822. 

Early in that year James Stewart Holmes, a brilliant 
young lawyer and graduate of Brown University, opened 
at Foxcroft the first law office in the county. Presuma- 
bly while waiting for his first clients and seeing the great 
necessity of a higher branch of learning in the county, 
Mr. Holmes organized a high school in Foxcroft, acting 
himself, as preceptor. 

This high school immediately became the Mecca of 
learning for the more advanced students of Foxcroft and 
other towns, and so much enthusiasm was created among 
the inhabitants by this young lawyer, that the next 


Legislature was asked for a charter for an academy, which 
was promptly granted, January 31st, 1823, 

That charter the institution is still working under; 
hence, Foxcroft Academy lacks but three years of being 
as old as the State and it was the first one incorporated 
after Maine became a separate commonwealth. 

By the act of incorporation certain conditions were 
imposed, which, if not complied with, would render the 
charter null and void. From a perusal of that act we 
may understand something of what this then poor and 
sparsely populated town had to contend with in order to 
establish for themselves and posterity this higher insti- 
tution of learning, or what they termed "poor man's 
college. ' ' 

Act of Incorporation, 
state of maine. 

In the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred 
and twenty three. 

An Act establishing Foxcroft Academy. 

Section 1st. Be it enacted by the Senate and House 
of Representatives in Legislature assembled. That 
William Emerson, Daniel Wilkins, Thomas Williams, 
John Bradbury, Samuel Chamberlain, James S. Holmes, 
Philip Greeley, Joshua Carpenter, Joseph Kelsey, Samuel 
McClanathan, Samuel C. Clark and Jason Hassell and 
their successors forever, be and they hereby are consti- 
tuted a body politic by the name of the Trustees of 
Foxcroft Academy, with power to prosecute and defend 
suits at law ; to have a common seal and to alter it at 
pleasure, to establish an academy at Foxcroft in the 
county of Penobscot for the promotion of literature, 
science, morality and piety ; to make any by-laws for the 
management of their affairs, not repugnant to the laws 
of the State ; and to choose such officers as they may 


deem proper, to hold any property, real and personal, 
by gift, grant or otherwise, the yearly income of which 
shall not exceed the sum of $3,000, and to receive all 
property which may heretofore have been given or sub- 
scribed for the benefit of such Academy. 

Section 2d. Be it further enacted. That said tmstees 
may at any time remove an}- one of their number whom 
they shall adjudge incapable of discharging such trust, 
and choose additional trustees, and fill vacancies in said 
board by ballot. Provided, however, that the number 
of said trustees shall at no time be less than nine, nor 
more than fifteen, any five of whom shall constitute a 

Section 3d. Be it further enacted. That Joshua 
Carpenter, Esq., is hereby authorized to call the first 
meeting of said trustees, in such manner as he shall deem 
proper ; provided, however, that the Legislature shall at 
any time have power to alter or repeal the provisions of 
this act; and provided further, that unless the said 
trustees shall within one year from the passing of this 
act, be in possession of funds or property for the use of 
said academy or vested in a building for the same purpose 
which together shall amount to at least fifteen hundred 
dollars, and have also commenced instruction in said 
institution, within that time, the powers granted by this 
act shall be null and void. 

It will be seen by the act that the trustees must, 
within one year from its passage, have in possession funds 
or property for the use of said academy, or vested in a 
building for the same purpose, which together should 
amount to at least $1,500, and also commence instructions 
in said institution within that time. 

The voters of Foxcroft in 1823, as shown by the 
records of the town meeting held in April of that year. 


numbered but fifty-seven. The whole assessment for 
town purposes in 1823 was but $1,140, $900 of which 
was to be paid in work on the highways, $100 was for 
schools, $90 for town charges and $50 for powder and 
balls. The records do not show whether the powder and 
balls were to be used for shooting bears or Indians, but 
the aggregate was $1,140, or $360 less than was required 
to be raised by subscription for the academy in a single 
year. The same ratio above our assessment last year 
would have given a fund of over $35, 000. 

How should that large amount be raised in so short a 
time? The records of the academy disclose something 
of the difficulty which those trustees and the inhabitants 

Here was an amount to be raised by voluntarj- sub- 
scription, largely from those fifty-seven voters, many of 
whom with difficulty maintained their families and kept 
their children in the common schools, which could 
only be acquired through great personal sacrifice and 
heroic devotion to their children and posterity. 

A meeting was promptly called, however, on February 
22, 1823, by Joshua Carpenter, Esq., as authorized 
in the act, at the house of John Bradbury, located where 
the Exchange now stands, and the trustees proceeded to 
organize under the act. 

David Wilkins, Esq. , was chosen president and James 
S. Holmes, secretary, which position he held for many 
years, and Samuel Chamberlain, Esq., was chosen 

At this meeting a committee consisting of John 
Bradbur}', Joshua Carpenter, Samuel McClanathan, 
Jason Hassell, Thomas Williams, Samuel C. Clark and 
Daniel Wilkins was appointed to ascertain "what sum 
of money could be obtained for the purpose of erecting 


a building for an Academy and as funds for the use and 
benefit of the same." 

And the records further say that "Nathaniel 
Chamberlain, Esq., then came before the Board of 
Trustees and informed the president that Joseph E. 
Foxcroft, Esq., had deposited in his hands $50 to be 
paid over to the treasurer of the Board of Trustees of 
Foxcroft Academy for the use and benefit of said 
Academy, provided the Trustees should fulfiU the 
requisition of the act establishing the same. 

"It was then voted that we accept the very liberal 
donation of Joseph E. Foxcroft, Esq., and that the 
Secretary be directed to return him the thanks of this 
Board for his generosity and the early encouragement he 
has given to an object so deeply interesting to them 

Other meetings were held in rapid succession to hear 
reports of committees on subscription and to discuss 
generally ways and means of raising the coveted amount. 
The subscriptions were made to be paid in labor, boards, 
shingles, and other necessary materials, with small sums 
of money, and so much encouragement was given that on 
March 8th of the same year a committee consisting of 
Joshua Carpenter, John Bradbury and Rev. Thomas 
Wilkins was appointed to select a site for the building. 

This committee a few days later reported in favor of a 
half acre of land "situate and lying between the house of 
David Greeley, Esq., and his sawmill." This half acre 
was secured and is the present site of the academy. The 
house of David Greeley, Esq., stood where the Congre- 
gational chapel is now located and his sawmill occupied 
the present site of Mayo Si. Son's woolen-mill. 

On the 28th day of the following May, Col. Joshua 
Carpenter was appointed agent to superintend the 
erection of a building for an academy, and a general 


superintending committee from whom the agent should 
receive instructions, was appointed, composed of John 
Bradbury, Tliomas Davee and the Rev. Thomas 

Work was soon begun, but the building was not ready 
for a school until 1825, although it was let for religious 
services as early as October 1, 1824. 

One of the provisions of the act of incorporation was 
that instruction should be begun within one year from 
the passage of the act, and December 31, 1823, at a 
meeting of the trustees, a committee consisting of 
James S. Holmes, Thomas Williams and Thomas Davee, 
was appointed to notify the Legislature that they had 
complied with the conditions of the act, showing that a 
fall term must have been held in 1823, although not hi 
the academy building. 

The records also disclose the fact that James Gooch 
taught from March, 1824, until the following June, as a 
committee was then appointed to settle with him ; and 
no other teacher being mentioned, it is presumed that he 
taught the previous fall term. 

Then followed Charles P. Chandler, as preceptor, for 
several terms and Foxcroft Academy was well launched on 
its long career of usefulness. 

That the trustees understood the value of continuous 
educational work is shown by the by-laws, Avhich provided 
for three terms a year of twelve weeks each ; and that 
they also stood upon a proper amount of decorum is 
evidenced by the fact that one of the first of the by-laws 
provided that no trustee should speak in any meeting of 
the board without first rising and addressing the presi- 

In 1825 a half township of land was granted to the 
academy by the Legislature, being what is now the north 
half of the town of Springfield. This half township 


embraced 11,020 acres and was sold the same year for 
30 1-2 cents per acre, thus creating a fund for the use of 
the academy of $3,361.10. A small tuition of .$2.50 
per term was charged, but in some instances even this 
was abated. 

At the annual meeting in 1829, James S. Holmes, 
Charles P. Chandler, Thomas Williams and Thomas 
Davee were chosen a committee to "look into the pro- 
priety of purchasing some land to be connected with the 
academy whereby scholars, if they desire, may have the 
privilege of working thereon and thereby pay a part of 
their expenses, and further to consult the public opinion 
on that subject." 

Two years later, in 1831, a committee was appointed 
to inquire into the expediency of having a mechanic shop 
connected with the academy. So much interest was 
manifested that the committee was reappointed the next 
year although no such building was erected. They did, 
however, by their action anticipate instruction in manual 
training which is a comparatively new idea among edu- 
cators in this country. 

In 1832 a committee was chosen "to finish off the 
chamber and entry of the acadera}-. " 

That the academy was formerly used by the preceptors 
as a stepping stone to the professions is shown by a vote 
taken in 1838, not to engage as preceptor any person 
"who is or may be studying for any profession or 
engaged in any other business than the care and attention 
of the academy. " Certain it is, as will be seen by a 
perusal of the list of preceptors annexed to this article, 
that many did rise to professional distinction in later 

The academy in the early days, the same as now, was 
a great blessing to the entire community. Students 
gathered within its walls from near and far and in 1843 


there were one hundred and thirt}' pupils. Young men 
did not cease their attendance on arriving at the age of 
twentA'-one, Not having the present advantage of thirty- 
six weeks a year in the common schools, but only a short 
term in the fall and winter, or winter and spring, rarely 
more than two terms a 3'ear, the young men and women 
were usually of a maturer age on entering the academy 
than now. 

I remember well of hearing my father, Le\ i Parsons, 
who fitted himself for teaching in this institution, speak 
of the young men who attended after the}' had become 

The students had their exhibitions and one was given 
in 1840, which continued six hours. It does not state 
whether the auditors sat on benches or in cushioned 

The young men had, too, their lyceums, or debating 
societies. The first one in the academ}^ was organized 
October 4, ] 842, and it may interest the good people of 
the present day to know that the first question opened 
for debate was in relation to temperance: "Resolved 
that the old temperance society has done more towards 
advancing the temperance reformation than the Washing- 
tonian society, now in operation." 

A story is told of A. G. Lebroke, when a student in 
the academy, that indicated at least that masterly oratory 
for which he afterwards became famous. He had entered 
into the spirit of one of the debates with such vigor 
that it was promptly decided in his favor. He there- 
upon asked for the privilege of speaking again, A\hich 
was granted. He then took the other side, tore his 
former argument into fragments and won that side of the 
question, the students then and there voting that he had 
beaten himself. 


In 1859 the first academy building, which had long 
been inadequate to the needs of the school, was removed 
to the north end of Foxcroft bridge on the east side of 
Main Street, where it is now occupied as a store and 
workshop, and in 1860 a much larger and more commo- 
dious building was erected. Although this was done 
partly by subscription, it reduced very materially the 
funds of the institution. 

In 1868, by Chapter 277 of the Resolves, the Legis- 
lature granted $1,000 to the trustees of the academy to 
be deposited in the treasury of State, the annual interest 
to be paid annually to the trustees of said academy. 
The annuity of $60, thus created, is received regularly 
by the trustees. 

The second academy building, like the former, stood 
on stone posts and was heated with stoves. Its rooms 
were ill arranged, with poor ventilation, and in 1891 the 
trustees voted to make general repairs. A cellar was dug, 
a good stone foundation put under the building, large 
furnaces installed for heating, and the rooms generally 
remodeled, at an expense of about $2,500, which was 
paid out of the balance of the fund and liberal subscrip- 
tions of the citizens. Also a large piazza was thrown 
across the front end of the building, adding much to its 
architectural appearance as well as the comfort of the 

The piazza was the liberal gift of the late Eliza Ann 
Mayo, who later joined her husband, Hon. Josiah B. 
Mayo, in presenting to the trustees the imposing three- 
story structure which, annexed to the former, makes one 
of the finest academy buildings in the State. 

Many students from Dover as well as Foxcroft fitted 
for college, or completed their education in this old 
institution, and for many years there was a strong feel- 
ing on the part of some that it would be an advantage 


to both towns to unite in the support of Foxcroft 

Finally, in 1903, the voters of Dover discontinued 
their high school and voted to expend their free high 
school money in Foxcroft Academy, to pay tuition for 
such of their high school scholars as wished to attend 
that school. 

By this move the student body was increased about one 
third and, although additional seats were provided and 
everything done that could be to make room for the 
increase, the old building proved wholly inadequate, and 
an enlargement of the building became absolutely neces- 
sar}'. Architects were employed to draw plans and speci- 
fications for a new building on the front of the old and 
annexed to it so as to make one large school building. 

At a meeting of the trustees held March 4, 1904, the 
plans were examined and approved by the trustees, but 
as the academy had no fund for the purpose, the erection 
of a large three-story structure provided with an expen- 
sive heating plant, school furniture and necessary equip- 
ment, seemed an almost hopeless undertaking. It must 
be done by voluntary contribution. 

While the ways and means were being discussed in a 
not too cheerful mood, one of the trustees, Edward J. 
Mayo, in behalf of his father and mother, Mr. and Mrs. 
Josiah B. Mayo, made the following offer : That if the 
trustees and other citizens would raise a fund sufficient to 
put in a good heating plant, build the foundation for the 
new building and thoroughly equip the school, Mr. and 
Mrs. Mayo would erect the building, according to the 
architects' plans. 

The generous offer was promptly accepted and an 
earnest vote of thanks and hearty appreciation of the 
same then and there spread upon the records. Two of 
the trustees, James Bathgate and W. E. Parsons, acted 


as soliciting committee, and not only the tiTistees but 
citizens of both towns responded generously, raising a 
fund of about 83,100 for the purpose. 

Three trustees, E. J. Mayo, C. C. Hall and W. E. 
Parsons, were appointed a building committee, and work 
was immediately begun on the new building and the next 
year saw the present large and beautiful structure which 
faces Foxcroft Square, fully completed and thoroughly 
equipped as one of the best fitting schools in Maine. 

In June, 1905, the new building was dedicated and 
formal presentation of the keys made by Mr. J. B. Mayo 
to the treasurer, W. E. Parsons, in the presence of a 
grateful throng of Dover and Foxcroft citizens. 

In addition to the contributions previously spoken of, 
Mr. John G. Mayo gave S600, for the purchase of a 
laboratory equipment, which is of great advantage in 
physics and chemistry. 

The school is now thoroughly equipped and in a 
prosperous condition, being well patronized by the sur- 
rounding towns. What it needs most is an endowment 
fund. Some years ago a small endowment fund was 
raised of about $2,700, of which Josiah B. Mayo and 
Sarah C. Vaughan gave $1,000 each. Hannah E. and 
Julia R. Gilman by soliciting made up largely the balance, 
while Evans S. Pillsbury, one of its alumni, gave $100. 

Last fall it was found that some of the students who 
sought admission to the academy had to return to their 
homes because boarding places for them could not be 
found either in Foxcroft or Dover. The trustees then 
purchased with the endowment fund the large house on 
Grange Street known as the Chamberlain house, to be 
furnished the coming summer for a dormitory for the out 
of town students. 

The school has always been non-sectarian and has 
gathered within its portals for mental training and 


advancement the well-meaning seekers of knowledge of 
every sect or denomination in the county. It has ever 
been the aim of the trustees to furnish a school where 
students could not only fit for college but where the 
great majority who could not afford to attend higher 
institutions of learning, could equip themselves for busi- 
ness and the great duties of life, and well they have 

The long list of illustrious names among its alumni 
testifies to that success. After the early struggles of 
this institution, followed b}' a noble career of usefulness, 
its future seems now assured. Its commodious building, 
its thorough equipment, and loyal support of Dover and 
Foxcroft bespeaks for it that success which must meet 
the expectations of its most sanguine supporters. 

The recent development of the school has been such 
that reference to it can scarcely be made without giving 
credit to the board of trustees, who labored so zealously 
for its accomplishment. The board of trustees in lOO'i 
consisted of E. A. Thompson of Dover, president; J. 
B. Mayo of Foxcroft, vice president; Willis E. Parsons 
of Foxcroft, secretary and treasurer; the remaining 
trustees being also residents of Dover and Foxcroft : S. 
O. Brown, J. B. Cochrane, J. B. Peaks, C. C. Hall, F. 
E. Guernsey and Henry S. Towne of Dover, and 
William Buck, A. W. Gilman, W. T. Stubbs, John F. 
Hughes, E, J. Mayo and James Bathgate of Foxcroft; 
the fifteen trustees being divided as nearly as possible 
between the two towns, with a preponderance of one in 
favor of Dover. 

Foxcroft Academy has no doubt had some poor 
instructors, but on the whole during its long career has 
been remarkably successful in its preceptors, thus enabling 
it to keep abreast of like institutions and up to date in 
its educational methods, being ranked to-day as one of the 


best fitting schools in Maine. In fact, it has been on the 
preferred list for several years, and is one of the few fit- 
ting schools of our State whose graduates are admitted 
to the New England colleges on certificate, without 

A four years' commercial course is now well established, 
whose graduates are qualified to perform intelligent work 
in offices and business houses, for, unlike business colleges, 
no one can be admitted who has not had at least two 
years in the academy or its equivalent. No grammar 
school scholars can gain admission to the commercial 

A feature of the school is the school city government, 
introduced by Principal Fred U. Ward in 1905, with 
consent of the trustees, which has proved a great success, 
and was the first to be undertaken b}' any school in 
Maine. It is no longer an experiment. Space will not 
permit an explanation of its workings, but by it the 
students take pride in not only maintaining the best of 
discipline in the assembly-room, but in all departments 
of the school, so that the expense of one teacher is 
practically saved to the institution each year. And the 
students are also getting valuable training in the forms 
and duties of municipal government. 

The graduating class of 1906, at an expense of $100, 
furnished with desks and chairs a room in the third story 
of the academy for the school city government. 

Other gifts have been made by friends of the insti- 
tution. The Cosmopolitan Club gave the institution 
$50 for shelves and furniture in the library, and, 
recently, $50 towards furnishing a reception-room in the 
dormitory, the balance required to be made up by the 
club as needed. 

The C. S. Douty Circle, Number 11, Ladies of the 
Grand Army of the Republic, of Foxcroft, gave $75 


for furnishing an additional recitation room ; the citizens, 
$105 to furnish cabinets for the laboratory; and the 
carnival committee gave a balance on hand of $30 to 
the academy. Hon. J. B. Mayo donated some electric 
lights, and Sarah J. Lebroke a cluster of electric lights 
in the library in memory of her deceased husband, A. 
G. Lebroke, and daughter, Harriet Beecher ; these recent 
gifts showing the kind regards which the people have 
for the academy. Others have suggested furnishing 
rooms in the new dormitory the coming summer, this 
substantial aid from time to time being greatly appre- 
ciated by the trustees. 

The student body is increasing steadily, the Freshman 
class alone numbering fifty at the beginning of the 
present school year. 

The career of Foxcroft Academy has been in many 
respects a remarkable one and the value to the county 
and State of eighty-six years of uninterrupted educa- 
tional work is beyond estimate. There have been many 
dark days, however, and this article would not be com- 
plete without a list of those trustees who in the past 
have given liberally of their time and moneys that it 
should not falter, but be preserved in all its usefulness to 
future generations. 

A List of the Trustees and Date of Their 

Appointed by the act of incorporation were: Joseph 
E. Foxcroft, William Emerson, Daniel Wilkins, Thomas 
Williams, John Bradbury, Samuel Chamberlain, James 
S. Holmes, Philip Crosby, Joshua Carpenter, Joseph 
Kelsey, Samuel McClanathan, Samuel C. Clark and Jason 

Trustees elected: February 22, 1823, Thomas Davee; 
May 28, 1823, Oliver Crosby and Nathaniel Robinson; 


November 17, 1824, Samuel Whitney; November 15, 
1825, Isaac E. Wilkins; November 15, 1826, Isaac 
Macomber and Charles P. Chandler; October 15, 1828, 
Costillo Hamlin, Nathan Carpenter and Nathan W. 
Shelden; November 24, 1829, James Norcross; October 
20, 1830, David R. Straw; October 19, 1831, Dennis 
Lambert, Anson Hubbard and Solomon Parsons; Octo- 
ber 17, 1832, Moses Greenleaf; October 16, 1833, 
Jonathan C. Everett and John H. Loring; October 15, 

1834, Gilman Clark and Abram Sanborn; October 21, 

1835, Gilman Burleigh; October 19, 1836, Jonathan F. 
Page, Caleb Prentiss and Harvey Evans; October 18, 
1837, William Oakes, Benjamin P. Gilman and Stephen 
P. Brown; October 17, 1838, Calvin Chamberlain; Octo- 
ber 16, 1839, Richard R. Rice and James S. Wiley; 
October 20, 1842, Salmon Holmes; October 21, 1846, 
Benjamin Johnson; October 15, 1850, Woster Parker 
and Alex. M. Robinson; October 16, 1855, Simeon 
Mudgett and Elihu B. Averill; October 19, 1858, 
Thomas S. Pullen; October 15, 1861, Ephraim Flint; 
October 21, 1867, Edwin P. Snow, Stanley T. Pullen 
and S. Orman Brown; October 18, 1870, Elbridge A. 
Thompson, Theodore Wyman and David R. Straw, Jr. ; 
October 15, 1872, Elias J. Hale and William Buck; 
October 21, 1873, William P. Oakes; October 19, 
1875, Ezra Towne and Benjamin F. Hammond; October 
17, 1876, Augustus W. Gilman; October 15, 1878, 
Augustus G. Lebroke; October 19, 1880, Josiah B. 
Mayo; October 18, 1887, Willis E. Parsons, James B. 
Cochrane and William T. Stubbs; October 15, 1889, 
Joseph B. Peaks and John F. Hughes; October 25, 
1892, Crowell C. Hall; October 30, 1894, Edward J. 
Mayo; October 23, 1895, James Bathgate; October 27, 
1898, Frank E. Guernsey; October 29, 1900, Henry S. 


Towne; October 31, 1906, Charles W. Hayes; October 
29, 1908, Walter J. Mayo. 

Much credit is due to those members in the early days, 
who, living at a distance, were constant at the meetings 
of the tiiistees and active in their support of the insti- 
tution, notably Colonel William Oakes of Sangerville 
and Joseph Kelsey of Guilford, both of whom were at 
different times president of the board. 

The presidents of the board, in their order, have been 
Daniel Wilkins, Thomas Williams, Nathaniel Robinson, 
Abram Sanborn, Thomas Davee, Joseph Kelsey, Dennis 
Lambert, James S. Holmes, William Oakes, Elihu B. 
Averill, Stephen P. Brown, Ephraim Flint, Elias J. 
Hale, Calvin Chamberlain, Alexander M. Robinson, 
Elbridge A. Thompson and the present incumbent, 
Josiah B. Mayo. 

The secretaries have been six in number, James S. 
Holmes, Thomas Davee, John Bradbury, Caleb Prentiss, 
James S. Wiley and Willis E. Parsons. 

In eighty-six years there have also been six treasurers, 
Samuel Chamberlain, sixteen years ; Charles P. Chandler, 
twenty years ; James S. Wile}', three years ; Freeland S. 
Holmes, a part of two years ; Ephraim Flint, three 
years ; James S. Wiley, again, twenty-five years ; since 
1889, WiUis E. Parsons. 

From the records of the secretary and books of the 
treasurer, a list of preceptors is gleaned and here given 
in the order in which they were employed and approxi- 
mately their terms of service: 

James S. Holmes, 1822-3; James Gooch, spring of 
1824; Charles P. Chandler, faU of 1824 and until 1827; 
Samuel H. Blake, spring of 1827; Charles P. Chandler, 
fall of 1827; Randall A. Sanborn, Mr. Richardson, 
Dr. Stevens, William H. Ropes and James S. Wile}', 


then fill up the time to 1838; Thomas Moulton, fall 
term of 1838; Robert Wyman, spring term of 1839, 
and Samuel Johnson, fall term of 1839; Mr. Dole, 
1840; Ezra Abbot, 1841; Thomas Tash from 1842 to 
1848. In 1845, David Bugbee, late of Bangor, held 
his first wTiting school in the academy. Samuel F. 
Humphrey taught, 1848 to 1851 ; J. F. Butterfield, 
1851-3; Freeland S. Holmes, 1854; Warren Johnson, 
fall of 1854; Silas Hardy, 1855; F. C. Davis, 1856-7; 
S. C. Belcher, 1858-60: Mark Pitman, 1861-3; Stanley 
T. Pullen, 1864; William S. Knowlton, 1865; M. C. 
Fernald, 1866-8; J. G. Soule, 1868-70; James S. 
RoweU, 1871-3; Thomas N. Lord, 1873; William S. 
Rix, 1874 ; William Goldthwaite, spring of 1875 ; James 
R. Brackett, fall of 1875 to 1878; Edwin P. Sampson, 
1878-83; Stephen A. Lowell, 1883-4; Frank Rollins, 
1884; R. E. Donald, 1885-8; C. E. B. Libby and G. 
H. Libby, 1888-90; Eugene L. Sampson, 1890-4; 
William F. Sims, 1895; W. R. Fletcher, 1896-8; 
Lyman K. Lee, 1898-1903; Fred U. Ward, 1903-7; 
since September, 1907, Louis B. Farnham. 

Among the alumni of Foxcroft Academy have been 
many who have distinguished themselves in civil and 
military life. Hon. Josiah Crosby, late of Dexter, is 
remembered for his great ability and legal acumen. Hon. 
N. A. Luce, once State superintendent of schools, is 
still remembered. 

Mrs. L, M. N. Stevens, president of the National 
Woman's Christian Temperance Union, received her 
early training in this academy, as did Hon. Charles E. 
Littlefield, late distinguished member of Congress; the 
late Hon. Samuel F. Humphrey of Bangor; Hon. Alfred 
E. Buck, late minister to Japan, now deceased ; the late 
Hon. A. G. Lebroke of Foxcroft, and Hon. A. M. 
Robinson of Dover. The late Hon. Lewis Barker, the 


lawyer, and David Barker, the poet, were both educated 
in this institution. 

M. C. Fernald, so long president of the college at 
Orono, received a part of his training here, and there 
were the military heroes, General Jameson, Col. Calvin 
S. Douty, Col. Charles P. Chandler, Col. Lowell, Col. 
Clark, and a hundred more, gallant defenders of the 
Union in her hour of peril, better qualified to serve 
their country by reason of the instructions received in 
the old academy. 

The roll of honor, embracing many distinguished 
citizens, both living and dead, is a long one; too long to 
be included here, as this article must be brought to a 

Already Maine is indebted to this academv as to but 
few others within her borders, and may the years to come 
increase its power and prolong its usefulness to the State 
and nation. 

It stands to-day a monument to those sturdy pioneers 
who, by great sacrifice and heroic devotion to the cause 
of education, wrought valiantly in establishing for their 
own and succeeding generations such an institution of 

Historical Sketch of Monson Academy 

By John Francis Sprague 

THE very earliest settlement of what is now the town 
of Monson was in 1815, and seven years later in 
1822 it was incorporated as a town by an act of 
the Legislature, and only two years after what was 
formerly the District of Maine was admitted into the 
Union of States. 

Many of the earliest settlers came from Monson, 
Massachusetts, and located on the east half of the town- 
ship which had been granted to Monson (Massachusetts) 
Academy, and our town derived its name from the fact. 

The west half of the township was granted to Hebron 
(Maine) Academy, hence quite a number of men, many 
with families came here from that town and vicinity and 
made homes in that part of Monson. 

These hardy pioneers penetrated the depths and the 
shadowy fastnesses of the forest primeval and were sub- 
ject to such hardships and privations, and encountered 
such obstacles as all are subject to and as all encounter 
who emigrate to untrodden soil. But they were the 
intrepid descendants of brave men who had been Separa- 
tists, Puritans, Round Heads and followers of John 
Calvin in England, and the iron blood of the Puritan 
flowed in their veins. 

These brave-hearted men who chopped down the huge 
trees, subdued the wilds of nature, cleared the land and 


made happy homes for themselves and their posterity ; 
built mills, cut out the roots of fallen giants of the for- 
est and made highways, also stood for something besides 
the material advancement of the new settlement. 

They had high ideals and noble aspirations. Next to 
their abounding zeal for their austere religion was a belief 
inherent in their breasts that a community could never 
be well and safely founded unless intelligence and learn- 
ing were among its bed-rocks. 

They were the sons of men who had shed blood for the 
maintainance of principles from which had evolved the 
freedom of universal education. 

And so it is not at all strange that among the many 
plans which the progressive ones discussed very much in 
the first days, the one for an academy was ever upper- 
most in their minds. Some of the older citizens who 
have since passed into the unseen have told me when they 
were here, that when our village consisted of only a small 
cluster of dwellings, a crude saw and grist-mill, a black- 
smith shop, a store and a schoolhouse at the foot of the 
pond, "academy talk" was even then heard among those 
who had the public welfare at heart ; and it may well be 
presumed that the good parson, Lot Ryder, and his 
devout successors would seldom reach the "fifthly" in 
their sermons without alluding to it and were often 
mindful of it when addressing the throne of grace. 

There were pessimists then as now, those who are 
born with a cold sneer upon their lips, who seem to be 
created for the sole purpose of engaging their cheap 
abilities in the work of obstructing the advance of the 
world about them, and undoubtedly the advocates of 
this worthy enterprise met with many rebuffs and many 
a scornful laugh. 

But they were not to be discouraged by croakers, and 
what was for a long time considered bv such as onlv a 


fanciful dream of a vague vision was finally fully realized. 
The persistent cultivation of a lofty ideal produced 
the desired fruition. The Legislature passed an act to 
incorporate the "Stockholders of Monson Academy," 
which is Chap. 62, Private Laws of 1847, and it was 
approved by Gov. Dana on July 26th of that year, as 
follows : 

Chapter 62. Private Laws of 1847. 

An act to incorporate the Stockholders of Monson 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representa- 
tives in Legislature assembled, as follows : 

Ephraim Flint, Zenas Scales, Aretus Chapin, Peabody 
H. Rice, Horace Pullen, Lucius Bradford, Samuel 
Jenkins, Hiram Folsom, Josiah Jordan, Horatio Ilsley, 
Heniy Mills, Alpheus Davison, Benjamin Ward, Will D. 
Horn, S. B. Kittredge, Abner Brown, Horace Flanders, 
James K. Whiting, George H. Gates, Benjamin R. 
Scribner, John H. Rice, Joseph M. Curtis, James H. 
Whitne}', Leonard S. Crafts, E. C. Buker, Josiah P. 
Haynes, Robert Barbour, Horace Adams, Paul S. 
Merrill, Josiah Xorris, Samuel Pillsbury, Jr., John E. 
Sawyer, Bowman \'arney. Nelson Savage, Joshua Buck, 
Norman S. Williams, William Tenney, Roland Taylor, 
Alonzo H. Davee, Isaac Philips, Hiram Vinton, Henry 
Hills, Ozias Blanchard, Leonard Howard, Robert 
Barbour, Jr., John Pollard, Charles ^V. Gower, Davis 
N. Gower, Samuel Cole, Stephen BrowTi, Solomon F. 
Dane, Charles Blanchard, Solomon Cushman and Justin 
E. Crafts, their associates, successors and assigns, are 
hereb}' constituted a corporation by the name of the 
Stockholders of Monson Academy ; and by this name 
may sue and be sued ; have a common seal ; appoint 


trustees to manage their affairs ; take and hold any estate, 
personal or real, that they may receive by donation or 
otherwise, the annual income of which not to exceed 
two thousand dollars; said income to be faithfully 
applied to the purpose of education ; and the stock- 
holders aforesaid, are authorized to make any by-laws 
they may deem necessaiy, not repugnant to the laws of 
the State, and to have all the powers and privileges 
incident to similar corporations. 

This act was approved by Gov. Dana July 26th, 
1847. So far as known these incorporators have all 
passed away except John H. Rice, who is now (1908) 
living in Chicago, at the advanced age of 92 years. 

By virtue of this authority an organization was formed 
for the purposes indicated and has been maintained ever 
since. Its bj-laws provide for a board of trustees con- 
sisting of not less than nine nor more than fifteen per- 
sons. At the first election October 25th, 1847, fifteen 
trustees were elected as follows : 

Charles W. Gower, Isaac Philips, P. H. Rice, Ozias 
Blanchard, Horatio Ilsley, AVilHam Tenney, Leonard 
Howard, Wm. D. Hoar, Alpheus Davison, Samuel 
Pillsbury, Hiram Folsom, Horace Pullen, Roland Taylor, 
J. Henry Pullen and Abner Brown. 

A notice of this meeting was published in the Piscata- 
quis Farmer, 

The trustees at their first meeting chose Lucius 
Bradford, president; Zenas Scales, vice-president; 
Ephraim Flint, clerk ; Aretus Chapin, treasurer. 

Elder Lucius Bradford, who was a resident Baptist 
minister, served as president until 1861. Zenas Scales 
was chosen for the years 1861-2. There is no record of 
an election of officers for the years 1863-4. In 1865 
Wm. Tenney was chosen president and served until 


1870. Since then the presidents have been Charles 
Davison, 1870-1877; Sumner A. Patten, 1877-1879; 
Horace Pullen, 1881-1902. In 1903 Alvin Gray was 
chosen president and is holding this office at the present 

The treasurers have been Aretus Chapin, Roland 
Taylor, H. E. Homer, Alvin Gray and Albert F. 

The principals of this academ}- from 1849 to 1873 
were W. H. Seavey, Mr. Hunt, Jacob Tuck, V. B. 
Oakes, Eben B. Higgins, F. W. Hardy, T. F. 
McFadden, T. F. Batchelder, J. W. Staples, George 
Webster, Reuben A. Rideout, W. S. Knowlton, Justin 
S. Thompson, Miss Gilman and Thomas N. Lord ; and 
from 1873 to 1908, have been Fred B. Osgood, G. B. 
Hescock, James Jenkins, Edgar H. Crosby, C. E. B. 
Libby, L. E. Moulton, H. AV. Dunn, W. S. Knowlton, 
John L. Dyer, W. H, Russell and John D. Whittier. 

It is quite impossible for us of the present day to fully 
appreciate exactly what it meant for those men to per- 
form their self-imposed task of founding and maintain- 
ing this institution. 

The men that came here from old Monson and other 
parts did not bring riches but only strong hands and 
stout hearts. They had to dig out of these wilderness 
hillsides the means for existence and a competency to 
"save for a rainy day;" hence their methods and habits 
of life were most strenuously frugal. 

The}- were farmers and laborers in the woods and on 
the "drives," with farm produce and labor bringing very 
low remuneration, while whatever they purchased from 
the store was in price extremely high. 

Cotton cloth, brown sugar, lamp-oil and coffee were 
luxuries which only the "forehanded" ones could afford. 
It was men thus conditioned who united together and by 


a popular subscription marshaled labor and materials for 
the wherewith to erect a building to be used for the edu- 
cational work which the State had imposed upon them 
by this act of the Legislature. 

The policy of the State of Maine then was to aid 
academies, schools and colleges by donating to them 
wild lands owned by the State ; in fact, the politicians of 
those days favored anything that would be an excuse for 
selling these lands to their favorites and friends, who 
stood ready to grab anything for sale at prices so low 
that we now look back upon the system as manifestly a 
disgrace to our State. The trustees of our academy 
very properly took advantage of that condition of pub- 
lic affairs and in 1848 succeeded in obtaining a resolve 
from the Legislature appropriating one quarter of a town- 
ship of wild land in Aroostook County, which resolve 
was, however, rescinded by the Legislature in 1849, 
(Chap. 154, Private Laws, 1849) and at the same time 
"one-half of a township of land from any of the lands 

* * * * j^QJ- otherwnse appropriated" was granted 
to this academy "not to exceed in value $3,000." 

In 1860 a devastating fire swept over the village of 
Monson and destroyed the academy buildings, and again 
the Legislature aided it (Chap. 22, Resolves 1861) by 
giving it one fourth of another township of land. 

It is from these sources that our "academy fund" of 
$4,000 was derived. 

From the time of the erection of the first academy 
building until the late James Tan* built a public hall in 
Monson Village, which is now known as Spencer's Hall, 
the upper story was used for town meetings, elections, 
and other public purposes. 

At the present time the entire building is used for 
school work. Quite a large number of the graduates of 
Monson Academy have become public men of prominence, 


among whom may be mentioned Hon. Dudley P. Bailey, 
a well known citizen of Everett, Mass., and a practicing 
lawyer in Boston, and who has served in the Legislature 
of his commonwealth two or three terms as representa- 
tive from the city of Everett ; Hon. Evans S. Pillsbury, 
a lawyer in Cahfornia, and who has held the office of U. 
S. district attorney and other positions of trust; the 
late Leonard D. Carver of Augusta, Maine, who formerly 
practiced law in Kennebec County, and was for many 
years the able and faithful librarian of the Maine State 
Library ; Prof. Norris H. Hart of Orono, Maine, now 
professor of mathematics and astronomy in the Uni- 
versity of Maine, and Artemus Gates, who became a 
lawyer and financier of prominence in New York City. 

Among the business men of note may be named Charles 
W. Curtis of Dexter, Maine, who was for many years at 
the head of the banking business of that town; the 
late Walter D. Eaton, formerly a merchant in Dexter 
and later in life engaged in mercantile business in Boston, 
Mass., and Malcolm Hart, who holds in the West an 
important position as civil engineer. It was the evident 
design of the founders of this institution that it should 
never become an annex to or a preparatory school for any 
sectarian or denominational college or university, as the 
original stockholders Avere of different religious faiths and 
nothing appears in the old records to suggest any differ- 
ent conclusion. 

There were among them Congregationalists, Baptists 
and Universalists ; the Rices belonged to the latter 
denomination, while the late Hon. Ephraim Flint was 
always a pronounced Unitarian. 

It was established upon absolutely independent and 
entirely non-sectarian grounds. 

I herewith append the resolves of the Legislature rela- 


ting to these academy grants which I have herein referred 
to as follows : 

Chapter 73. 
Resolve in Favor of Monson Academy. 

Resolved. That the land agent of this State is hereby 
authorized and directed to convey to the trustees of Mon- 
son Academy, one-half township of land situated in the 
County of Aroostook; said land to be selected by the 
land agent, and to be equal in value per acre as near as 
may be to the east half of toAVTiship number three, range 
four, in the County of Aroostook, at the time said half 
township was conveyed to the trustees of Lee Normal 
School; provided however, that the land agent shall not 
make the conveyance herein provided for unless the said 
trustees of said Monson Academy shall, on or before the 
first Monday of October, in the year of our Lord 
eighteen hundred and forty-nine prove to the satisfaction 
of the governor and council that the corporators apply- 
ing for such conveyance shall have furnished a good and 
convenient academical building and actually commenced 
school herein and shall have corporate pi'operty at least 
to the amount of twelve hundred dollars over and 
above the debts of said corporation. 

(Approved July 14th, 1848.) 

Chapter 154. 

Resolve in Favor of Monson Academy. 

Resolved. That the land agent of this State is hereby 
authorized and directed to convey to the trustees of 
Monson Academy one half township of land from any of 
the lands in which the State is interested in severalty or 
in common, not otherwise appropriated ; said land to be 


selected by the land agent; provided said half township 
shall not exceed in value three thousand dollars. Pro- 
vided, however, that the land agent shall not make the 
conveyance herein provided for, unless the trustees of said 
Monson A cad em 3^ shall, on or before the first Monday 
of October, in the year of our Lord eighteen hundred 
and forty-nine, prove to the satisfaction of the governor 
and council that the corporators applying for such 
conveyance, shall have furnished a good and conve- 
nient academical building, and actually commenced school 
therein, and shall have corporate property at least, to 
the amount of twelve hundred dollars over and above 
the debts of said corporation. 

Resolved. That a resolve in favor of Monson 
Academy, approved July fourteenth, eighteen hundred 
and forty-eight is hereby rescinded. 

(Approved August 7th, 1 849. ) 

Chapter 22. 

Resolved. That the land agent be and hereby is 
authorized and directed to convey to the trustees of 
Monson Academy, Monmouth Academy, Limington 
Academy and Corinna Union Academy, one to\\Tiship of 
land of average quality and price in common and undi- 
vided, in proportions of one fourth to each of said insti- 

(Approved February 23, 1861.) 

Early Navigation on Sebec Lake 

By Charles W. Hayes, Esq, 

BEFORE the era of the overland thoroughfares, the 
turnpikes, and the railroads, the waterways of the 
country were the great highways of commerce. 
Not only did Lo, the poor Indian, avail himself of these 
waterways for the transportation of himself, and the 
spoils of the chase, but succeeding him, our early settlers 
used the lakes and rivers as a means of transportation. 
It was owing to this advantage, as well as to the power 
developed b}' falls in our rivers, that led the early settlers 
to choose as sites of their settlements, the banks of 
rivers and lakes. 

I have been informed that the first farms cleared and 
settled in Foxcroft, were those near the shore of Sebec 
Lake, at and near the site of the old town farm, called, 
in the olden time, the ' 'North Cant, ' ' because this place, 
by means of Sebec Lake, gave them cheap and easy 
access to the grist-mills and lumber mills of Sebec 

The birch canoe of the Indian was succeeded by the 
more substantial boat of the white man, but both pro- 
pelled by "one-man power," on Sebec Lake till about 
1857. Just one half a century elapsed from the time 
when Fulton's crude and primitive steamboat first suc- 
cessfully navigated the Hudson River, when attention 
was given to a power boat for navigating Sebec Lake. 


The first attempt to propel a boat on Sebec Lake by 
power, was made, apparently by Thomas A. Keating 
and G. E. S. Bryant, and they conceived the idea of 
using for power, the horse-power of the treadmill type. 
And, although they did not invest a very considerable 
sum in financing the enterprise, yet they felt that they 
could not risk even what they did invest, unless protected 
by legislative monopoly ; for we find that the Legislature 
of Maine, in 1857, by a private act of that year, being 
Private Laws, Chapter 49, granted to them a charter by 
the name of Sebec Pond Boat Company, made them a 
corporate body, authorized them to build a boat or boats 
to be propelled by horse-power, and to hold real and 
personal property to an amount not exceeding $12,000. 
And, provided they should organize before the next 
October, and should place upon Sebec Pond at least one 
horse-boat in proper condition for conveying passengers, 
they should have and enjoy the exclusive right for eight 
years from the date of organization to operate a horse- 
boat on Sebec Pond. The act provided that the county 
commissioners for Piscataquis County might establish 
prices for carriage of passengers and freight, and might 
establish a ferry over any part of said pond, and place 
such boats thereon as they might deem proper. They 
should forfeit their monopoh', if they should fail for 
thirty days to run a horse-boat on said pond during the 
months of July and August every year. 

Thus armed with their "Magna Charta, " and pro- 
tected from competition by the Legislature, they pro- 
ceeded to organize, and they went down the Piscataquis 
River, somewhere, and bought, or had given them an 
old ferry-boat, which they transported to Sebec Pond. 
They built a floor on it, equipped it with side paddle- 
wheels and a shaft, connected this to a treadmill horse- 
power, and when they had put in a pair of fairly heavy 


horses, and the wind was not adverse, they were enabled 
to navigate the length of the pond in the remarkable 
time of about four hours. In bad or rough weather, 
auxiliary power must be furnished by human exertion, or 
navigation must temporarih- cease. 

Probably a cruder boat, or a more uncertain method of 
transportation was never devised or operated by man ; 
yet it was a novelty, and commanded the trade of the 
blueberry pickers, and campers on the mountains and 
shores of the lake, which trade the enterprising proprie- 
tors stimulated by the use of printer's ink. The follow- 
ing is a copy of an advertisement in The Piscataquis 
Observer of August 4, 1859, wherein the uncertainty of 
the running time must be noticeable : 


The subscribers would hereby give public 
notice that they will run a 


Daily, for a few weeks, commencing August 
1st, 1859, from Whittem ore's Landing, to the 
head of 


for the accommodation of those who wish to 
engage in the delightful enjoyment of Fishing 
in the Lake and Stream, or 


on the surrounding mountains, or enjoying 
Nature spread out in unsurpassed loveliness in 
both Lake and Mountain Scenery. 

The boat is large and safe, capable of carry- 
ing from seventy-five to one hundred pas- 

Leave Whittemore's Landing at 7 1-2 
o'clock, A. M., Returning the same evening. 

Parties from a distance, so wishing, by noti- 


fying us, will be accommodated so they can take 
the Boat at 1 o'clock P. M. 

Fare up and back only 50 cents. 


Observing the advantages and disadvantages of this 
enterprise, it must have occurred to certain people that 
a boat operated by steam would afford a better and more 
certain mode of navigation, and while Bryant and Keating 
had authority and the exclusive right to operate a horse- 
boat, their charter gave them no exclusive right, and in 
the express terms of their charter, no right, to operate 
a steamboat. And so, in 1861, Lathrop C. Jones and 
William N. Thompson, both of Foxcroft, procured a 
charter from the Legislature to navigate Sebec Lake by 

This charter is Chapter 15, of the Private Laws of 
1861, and creates the said proprietors into a body cor- 
porate by the name of Sebec Lake Steamboat Company ; 
authorized them to operate a steamboat or steamboats 
on Sebec Lake, to hold real and personal property not 
exceeding $15,000; gave them the monopoly of the 
exclusive right of steam-navigation of said lake for a 
period of fourteen years, from July 1, 1862; gave the 
county commissioners the right to fix rates, if they 
should see fit ; and obligated them, in order to maintain 
the monopoly, to build and put in running order on said 
lake, at least one steamboat of not less than fifteen tons, 
and not more than fifty tons burden, and to run such 
boat every day, Sundays excepted, during the months of 
July and August of each of said fourteen years, from 
Sebec Village to the head of the lake. Now a legisla- 
tive charter is of the nature of a contract. The Consti- 
tution of the United States provides that no state shall 
pass any law impairing the obligation of contracts. 


Bryant and Keating had such charter as was above 
described, which would not expire for more than four 
years after the charter of Jones and Thompson was 
granted. And so the Legislature inserted into Jones and 
Thompson's charter this section: Sect. 4, Nothing 
herein contained shall be construed to interfere with 
rights and privileges granted to Thomas A. Keating and 
G. E. S. Bryant and their associates, by "an act to 
incorporate the Sebec Pond Compam" approved March 
30th, 1857. 

Thus was the constitutional safeguard against the 
impairment of contracts avoided, although the Jones 
and Thompson charter did, as the Legislature well knew 
it would, kill the rights of Bryant and Keating under 
their charter, even more effectually than would a direct 
violation of it, by the authorizing of another company 
to operate a horse-boat. 

Pursuant to their charter, and the monopoly thereby 
granted, Jones and Thompson, in the winter and spring 
of 1861, got together about $150 worth of material 
with which to construct a steamboat. And here, Capt. 
A. G. Crockett, then a young man of about thirty years 
of age, and who had been employed on Bryant and 
Keating's horse-boat more or less, becomes the prominent 
figure in steam-navigation of Sebec Lake. He bought 
out the interest of Mr. Thompson, and he, with Mr. 
Jones, proceeded to construct a steamboat, which they 
put in commission during the summer of 1861, which 
they named the Favorite. For power, they placed in 
her, at first a 4 h. p. donkey, or hoisting-engine, 
which they connected to a shaft by wooden gearing, or 
by one iron and one wood gear. She was a side-wheel 
steamer. I have been unable to get her dimensions, or 
amount of displacement. Crockett and Mr. Jones oper- 
ated her with only moderate financial success till 1865, 


when Capt. Crockett bought out the interest of Mr. 
Jones. Meanwhile, in 1862, their charter was amended, 
by changing the compulsory running season, from July 
and August, to six weeks from the fifth day of July. 
Capt. Crockett's and Mr. Jones' operation of the 
"Favorite," it will be observed, was the period covered 
bv the Civil War, and naturally such an enterprise was 
greatly hampered by that great struggle. 

The motive power of the Favorite was changed, 
after two years, to an 8 h. p. Hoadly engine, con- 
nected with the wheel shaft by a belt. This engine was 
owned by Mr. Charles H. Chandler, and while his engine 
provided the power, he was a partner with Crockett and 
Jones. The engine was put in the boat each summer, 
and taken out each fall, being hauled to and from Fox- 
croft village. Again, in 1866, the motive power was 
changed to a 15 h. p. Hoadly engine, which was bought 
second-hand by Mr. Crockett. 

This last engine was for the first few years used in the 
summer on the Favorite, and later on the Rippling 
Wave, and in the winter, it was taken to Foxcroft Four 
Corners, and used in sawing shingles. 

After 1865, Capt. Crockett was the sole proprietor 
of the steamboat Favorite. In 1866 and 1867, it proved 
quite a financial success, and the business grew to such 
an extent, that, in 1868, Capt. Crockett determined to 
place on the lake, a larger and more convenient steamer. 
Accordingly, in that year, he built the Rippling Wave, 
a boat which all of the older residents easily remember. 
She was built from lumber cut from the township of 
Bowerbank, the knees being taken from juniper swamps 
in Sebec. Her keel was 87 feet, 13 1-2 beam, 92 feet 
over all, and with overhanging guards, making her entire 
width in the widest part, 24 feet. She was double- 
decked, had a commodious cabin in the stern of the 


lower deck, and in the bow and between the cabin and the 
engine-house were large spaces for baggage. In front of 
the engine-house was a ticket office and a confectionery 
store in one small room. The upper deck had a seat 
extending around the entire boat, forming a guard-rail, 
as well as seats for passengers. It had a small pilot- 
house on the upper deck. Stairs from the space in front 
of the cabin to the upper deck, gave the passengers safe 
and ample means of reaching the upper deck. Her 
power was the last engine described as being in the 
Favorite. Her draft was small, only about 36 inches. 
Her paddle-wheels were 12 feet in diameter, and were 
well boxed in, the wheel-boxes extending about three feet 
above the upper deck. She was a very convenient 
steamer, capable of carrying five hundred passengers, 
although her small draft of water, as compared with the 
size of her hull, gave great wind resistance. 

She was placed in commission in the summer of 1 868, 
and replaced the Favorite, which was not thereafter run. 

Joseph Lamson, Esq., of Sebec, Maine, a man who 
figured quite prominently in the history of Piscataquis 
County, was among other things, quite an artist, and 
painted a picture of the Favorite and also of the Rip- 
pling Wave. Capt. Crockett has preserved these 
pictures, and has kindly loaned them to the writer, who 
has placed them in the hands of F. H. Thompson, who 
has redrawn and reduced them, and they are here for the 
inspection of the society, and will remain in the archives 
of the society as a part of this paper. 

The writer's father, William C. Hayes, ever since 
1866, and so long as Capt. Crockett operated the said 
steamers, and for a few seasons after, was employed on 
the above-named steamers, either in the capacity of 
master or engineer, and so I have a very early recollection 
of the scenes and happenings on the lake. I remember 


that a day's trip up the lake was the iie plus ultra of 
enjoyment, the sail in the refreshing air, the boy's fasci- 
nation with machinery, and the partaking of Aunt 
Sarah's (Mrs. Crockett's) good dinners, consisting in 
part, always, of blueberry pie, all made an enjoyable 
day. That other and older people also were interested 
in outings at Sebec Lake is evidenced by an article in 
The Piscataquis (Observer of May T, 1868, concerning 
the building of the Rippling Wave. 

from Capt. A. G. Crockett that work on his new boat, 
which was commenced about a month ago, is progressing 
favorably as was anticipated, and that it will probably 
be ready for a trip on the 4th of July next. This boat 
is 80 feet keel and 90 feet over all ; 24 feet beam, and 
24 feet across the guards. It will have a cabin and six 
or eight state-rooms. The boat will be about fifty tons 
burthen with a capacity of 500 passengers, and will be 
carried by a twenty horse-power engine. Its cost is 
estimated at $5,000. The building of this boat is under 
the superintendence of Major Bigney, who built the 
Moosehead Lake boat, "Fairy of the Lake." It is 
intended to launch this craft about the last of June ; due 
notice of which will be given. Capt. Crockett deserves 
much credit for the energy with which he has undertaken 
an enterprise that the convenience of the public has so 
long demanded, and we heartily wish him success." 

I can also remember in my very young days, of read- 
ing, I think, in the Observer, a little poem from the pen 
of Piscataquis County's well-known and well-appreciated 
poetess, Anna Boynton Averill,* which showed the 

'Since writing the above, Miss Averill denies the authorship of 
the quoted lines and the writer is unable to find the original paper 
but remembers the lines distinctly. 


poet's appreciation of the lake and the boat, and beauties 
of the lake. I think the first stanza was something as 
follows : 

"Over the lake, the Lake Sebec, 
On the breezy deck, 
Of the Rippling Wave, 

Staunch little steamer 
True and brave." 

I have searched the pages of her book of poems, 
"Birch Stream and Other Poems," and regret that I fail 
to find the poem there. 

In 1876, the charter for the exclusive right of steam- 
navigation on Sebec Lake was renewed to Capt. Crockett. 
He operated the steamer till 1878, when he sold out his 
boat to John Morrison of Corinth, who built her over, 
and ran it for two or three years, and finally abandoned 
her and allowed his monopoly to become lapsed. 

The navigation of the lake since that time is within 
the memory of most men now living here, and I pur- 
posely close the history at this point. It can be readily 
seen that the histoiy of navigation on Sebec Lake could 
not have been written without the aid of Capt. Crockett, 
and the writer acknowledges the great assistance which 
he derived in an interview with him in the fall of 1908, 
when I found the Captain confined to his bed by rheu- 

Capt. Crockett told the writer that he lost by drown- 
ing accident only one person while he was engaged in the 
steamboat business: Daniel W. Hayes, in 1870. He 
told me the story and it so closely accords with the 
account given in the Observer, August 18, 1870, that I 
am inserting it. 

named Daniel Hayes, about twenty years of age, and 
employed on the steamer Rippling Wave, was drowned 


in Sebec Lake on Friday afternoon last. A passenger on 
losing his hat overboard, the engine reversed steam, and 
young Haj^es jumped into a small boat attached to the 
steamer, secured the hat and on approaching the steamer 
ran his boat too near and was knocked overboard by the 
guards of the boat. He arose, and under excitement it 
is thought, or by being strangled, commenced swimming 
towards the shore, and away from the steamer and small 
boat, but was noticed soon to falter, and before assistance 
could be rendered he sank for the last time, within a few 
rods of the steamer. Grapples were soon procured and 
parties commenced dragging the pond until Saturday 
afternoon, when his body was found near where he sank 
in about thirty feet of water. His body was brought to 
Foxcroft, where funeral services were held on Sunday, 
attended largely by the people." 

In the early days of navigation on the lake, there was 
no hotel at the head of the lake, there were no cottages 
along its shores, no industry at Willi mantic, but it was 
almost as it was when first formed by the hand of Nature, 
unimproved and unmarred by the hand of man. The 
surface of the lake was as left by Nature, the charter for 
the Sebec dam being granted in 1866. Mr. Crockett 
remembers the great benefit to steamboating occasioned 
by the raising of the waters of the lake by that dam. 
In more modern times, the management of that same 
dam has caused more or less anno}'ance to owners of 
boats and cottages on the lake. 

Wm. D. Blethen and Geo. W. Gilman built the Lake 
House in 1865. Capt. Crockett said that the house 
took $2,000 the first eight weeks after it was opened. 
It was thereafter run by different individuals, Nelson 
Thompson having it in charge at one time. Crockett 
took a lease of it for .^10 a year for fifteen years, and 


later bought it. From this history of the house, it would 
appear that its first glories fast faded, and from some 
chance remarks dropped by the Captain, it might be 
inferred that the strict enforcement of the prohibitory 
law had something to do with the reduction of its 

Of the cottages now standing on the shores of Sebec 
Lake, the first was built by Hon. A. G. Lebroke, on 
Wilson Stream, part way up Granite Mountain. Hon. 
Ephraim Flint had built and occupied a cottage on the 
stream near Greeley's Falls, some ten or twelve years 
before the Lebroke cottage was built. Now cottages 
line nearly all the shores of the lake, an enumeration of 
which would appear almost like a city directory. 

Thinking of these changes. Captain Crockett told this 
story : 

Sometime not far from 1850, William Davis, the 
father of H. S. Davis and B. H. Davis, was standing, 
with Mr. Crockett on Dundee, the highest point of land 
in Foxcroft, from which point a great part of the lake 
can be seen. Mr. Davis, speaking to Mr. Crockett, and 
pointing towards the lake, said: "Mr. Crockett, that is 
going to be a great resort. There will be steamboats 
running on the lake, and there will be hundreds and 
hundreds of people go there, but I shall be gone before 
this happens." 

When we remember that at that remote period summer 
resorting was almost unknown, and Maine had not then 
been discovered as the playground of the United States, 
this prophecy and its accurate fulfillment seems truly 
remarkable, and reflects great credit on the foresight of 
Mr. Davis. 

Peter Brawn and His Celebrated Bear- 
Fight on Sebec Lake 

By Edgar Crosby Smith 

NO history of the settlements about the shores of 
Sebec Lake, and of the characters who contributed 
to make that history, would be complete without an 
account of Peter Brawn. 

But little is known of his ancestry. He was born in 
Lowell, Massachusetts, about 1770, and moved to what 
is now the town of Madison, probably in the latter part 
of the eighteenth century. 

He first came to Piscataquis County about 1805, when 
he came to Dover and took up a tract of land on Lot 
2, Range 12, which was afterwards known as the 
Spaulding place. After making something of a clearing 
and erecting a log cabin, in the spring of 1806 he 
brought his family to Dover. During the next year he 
lost his wife, and in 1808 he sold out his possessions in 
Dover and moved to Moorstown, now Abbot. He was 
the second or third settler of that town. Here he lived 
until the memorable cold seasons of 1815-16, and becom- 
ing discouraged with the prospects of farming in that 
locality, he again sold out and removed to Foxci'oft. 
Just where he lived or what his occupation was while in 
Foxcroft is not known. He remained there until 1826, 
when the first clearing was made at the head of Sebec 
Lake. He took up a lot of land on the shore of the 


lake and Wilson Stream, and in compan}- with John 
Greeley, who erected the first mills there the same year, 
moved his family thither. 

I do not find that he paid so much attention to farm- 
ing while living at the lake, as he did to the occupation 
of a shingle shaver. It was during his residence here 
and his connection with the mill, that one incident 
occurred which will preserve his memory to future gener- 
ations, even if all other things about him should be for- 
gotten. I refer to his celebrated bear-fight on Sebec 
Lake, of which I give an account below. 

Mr. Brawn lived at the head of the lake for twenty 
years or more, until Mr. Greeley sold out the mills, and 
they were abandoned. He then moved to Guilford, in 
that locality now known as the Brawn neighborhood, 
and there passed his declining years. 

In personal appearance Mr. Brawn was tall and erect. 
His first wife was Catherine Becky, a woman of Scotch 
descent, whom he probably married during his residence 
in Madison. As above stated, she died in Dover in 
1808, and was buried in Foxcroft. His second wife was 
Betsey Kincaid, whom he married during his residence in 

Mr. Brawn died in 1855, about eightj-five years of 
age, and his remains rest in the Brawn cemeter}', or 
what was then known as the Poplar Hill yard, in an 
unmarked grave. 

I have been fortunate enough to secure an account 
of the celebrated bear-fight above referred to, the account 
being written just about the time the event occurred, 
and one which I believe to be fully authentic. 

Every one who has read Seba Smith's "Way Down 
East Stories'" remembers the story of "Uncle Pete and 
the Bear." It is said that Peter Brawn was the character 


upon whom this story was founded. Whether or not 
this is correct, I am unable to state. 

The story as recorded, is as follows : 

"A few days since as Brawn and a Mr. Ayer were 
coming down the Sebec Lake with a load of shingles, in 
a batteau, they discovered a bear swimming in the water, 
and they gave chase to him. As they approached him 
the bear turned upon them and showed belligerent 
symptoms, displaying a set of formidable teeth, and per- 
forming his evolutions with an activity that convinced 
them that they had no insignificant enemy to contend 
with. Being, however, armed with a small axe, they 
were not disposed to retreat. The moment they reached 
him he raised his fore feet and placed them on the side 
of the boat. Ayer struck at him with the axe, but it 
glanced down his cheek cutting off a slice of it. Before 
he could strike another blow. Bruin was on board the 
boat and seizing Ayer by the wTist with his teeth, he 
struck him a blow with his paw that tore the flesh from 
his side to the ribs, and they both fell overboard together. 
The bear relinquished his hold, and Ayer sank in the 
water. 'And now,' said Uncle Peter as he told his 
story, 'I begun to think it was time for me to be stir- 
rin' myself. The bear had canted the boat and let a 
couple of barrels of water in, and had like to tumblus 
all into the puddle together, and the shingles were piled 
so there want much gittin' about, but as I seed the old 
feller swimmin' round waitin' for Ayer to come up so as 
to make another grab at him, I swoing the boat round a 
little, and showed mvself. 

" 'At that the bear come grinnin' towards me as lovin' 
as a meat axe. I had nothin' but a paddle to defend 
myself with, but I gin' him a wipe with it over the 
nose, an' he shook his head and snuffled a little, and 
kinder turned broad side to me; so I hit him a nudge in 


the ribs — it didn't set eas}-, and he made off. I'd jest 
time to give him a friendly lick on the hinder by the way 
of a partin' salute, and the varmint was out of my 
reach makin' his way across the pond. Well, Ayer had 
been comin' up and going down two or three times, and 
was about sinkin' for the last time, when I made a grab 
at him and ketched him by the hair and hauled him in. 
He'd got to be good for nothin' by this time, for he 
couldn't help me nor help himself. There he lay a drip- 
pin' as wet as a drownded rat and as bloody as a stuck 
pig. He had lost his hatchet in his grapple with the 
bear, and we had nothin' to fight with. I couldn't make 
much headway along with the boat and the shingles and 
two barrels of water, so we lost the bear. I tacked 
about and run ashore — got Ayer up to Stearns' and left 
him to have his scratches dressed, and hired Clark to help 
me down with the shingles.' 'And now,' said Uncle 
Peter, raising his arms and placing himself in the atti- 
tude of taking aim, 'if ever that bear crosses my track 
agin on the Sebec Pond he'll find me ready to give him 
a blue pill from the barrel of my old fusee. ' ' ' 

J. L. 

Sketch of Hunter John EUis 

By Sarah A. Martin 

HUNTER John Ellis is one of the familiar figures 
which stands out as a remarkably original char- 
acter in my remembrance of earlier days in my 
native town, Guilford. 

John Ellis was born in Smithfield, Me., in 1784, 
resided for a time in Mercer and came to Guilford in 
August, 1844, and from that time until his death in 
1867, spent most of his time as hunter and guide in the 
forests about Moosehead Lake. 

He was a hunter before coming to Guilford, even in 
his youth. 

Asa boy he had a cat which he had trained to accom- 
pany him in his quest for squirrels and other small game, 
and who was as sagacious and helpful as a dog. The 
delight he took with this intelligent companion in these 
early days ma}^ have been largely influential in making 
him a lover of life in the woods. 

Yet he was no hermit. He enjoyed his fellows, was 
a genuine wit, and his return from the woods was an 
occasion for rejoicing in the village; while the circle in 
the loafing places had to be enlarged when Hunter Ellis 
returned, that all might listen to his stories and 

Could these stories but be collected, they would make 
a valuable asset to the literature of the county ; and yet 


they would lack the inimitable setting of his magnetic 

When planning for one of his long trips he began for 
at least a month to place together articles he might 

This characteristic care saved him from leaving the 
needed or being burdened with unneeded articles. 

When trapping or hunting by himself, his camp was 
made where suited best his purpose, but hospitably 
open to the chance sportsman. The floor was the trodden 
earth. On one occasion he made use of an Indian mound 
as a pillow for his head. "How can you sleep with your 
head on that mound?" said a visitor: "Why," said 
Hunter, "I fear no live Indian; why a dead one.''" 

In trapping, hunting and fishing his skill was unsur- 
passed. Spare of figure, lithe as an Indian, no white 
man was his equal in his chosen craft. 

From his trips he ever returned laden with furs, often 
most valuable; frequently with four or five hundred 
muskrat skins and in the earlier days with wolfskins. 
Frequently he was alone for weeks and perhaps months, 
seeing no white face. As a guide, his services were 
eagerly sought by sportsmen who rarely failed to render 
him due courtesy. 

However on one occasion, one of a party of New 
York men failed to show him the respect to which 
Hunter was accustomed. Ellis bided his time. One 
day "New York" complained that his watch, an elegant 
gold one, had stopped. Hunter said he was used to 
watches and could take it apart all right and see what 
ailed it. He did so and told the sportsman it was but a 
bit of dirt which had got in and he had removed it. 
"Well put it together now." "O!" says old Hunter, 
"I can't put watches together; I can only take them 
apart." "New York" took his valuable watch home 


tied up in a handkerchief — but he didn't chaff old 
Hunter any more. 

There are stories of wonderful adventures, the partic- 
ulars of which are hard to get at this late date when 
they are rarely obtainable from those who listened to 
them, but from a later generation as told them by their 
fathers. There is the story of the struggle with the 
two bears ; the second putting in an active appearance 
while Hunter was busy with the first. For a time it 
was a question who would win out. Old Hunter, how- 
ever, came into camp with two bearskins. 

Another is an exploit with a moose who took him on 
his antlers and carried him across a brook. An account 
of this was published in the Somerset Journal in 1824 to 
the files of which I have not had access. 

Old John had a quiet way of overcapping the big fish 
stories as often told by sportsmen. The following story 
to that effect is as told in The Piscataquis Observer of 
November 15, 1860: "Around the fireside at the Kineo 
House a party of sportsmen were recounting the wonders 
which they had at various times accomplished in the way 
of trout-catching. Hunter John listened for a while in 
silence. At length with a contemptuous whiff from the 
pipe which he was smoking, he broke in: "Call that 
fishing do you boys.'* Let me tell you: I get trout on 
this lake anywhere, day or night any time or any season 
of the year. Let me tell you : I was crossing the North 
Bend last winter; ice three feet thick; I happened to 
have with me a one-inch auger which I was going to use 
for some purpose or other. The thought struck me: 
wonder if trout could be found here this time of year ! 
No sooner said than done. I had a bit of twine and a 
pointed nail in m}' pocket. I just took the auger, bored 
a hole in the ice, and in less than five minutes had a 
sixteen-pound laker on the ice before me. What do 


you think of that?' The crowd was dumb with astonish- 
ment, while the hunter smoked his pipe in triumph. 
Presently one of the number, turning suddenly, 
exclaimed : 'Uncle John, how came that sixteen-pound 
trout through that one-inch auger hole?' 'Goodness 
gracious!' exclaimed the old man, starting to his feet 
and clapping his hands together, 'I never thought of 
that. ' Laughter went round at once, but no more big 
fish stories were told that night." 

I have spoken of him as ever companionable, but he 
did not believe in new-fangled notions. The late Dwight 
Maxfield in an article published in the Dexter Gazette in 
1882 tells this storv : "Once some sort of a reformer 
lectured in the old schoolhouse against eating animal 
food. Hunter was there and was terribly disgusted and 
interrupted the man by asking him, ''What can we fry our 
doughnuts in if we can't use lard?' and other pertinent 
questions which the lecturer found hard to answer. 
Finally old Hunter was too disgusted to remain any 
longer, whereupon he arose, pointed his finger at the 
speaker and said: 'Mister 3-our talk is all mune-shine. 
You'd better go to a woman's skule awhile and then 
maybe you'll know sunthin. ' He then went out of the 
room followed by the whole assembly, for the meeting 
was essentially done for. ' ' 

Your historian herself recalls an episode in which 
Hunter Ellis figured in that same old schoolhouse. The 
lyceum was a feature of Guilford life then, where ques- 
tions serious or otherwise were wisely discussed by the 
village men-folk. I remember as a little girl once listen- 
ing to a discussion by the dignitaries on this question : 
"Resolved; that women are less intelligent than men." 
The subject was discussed with much vigor, and my 
girlish heart swelled with anguish as the affirmative 
seemed to clinch the argument by asserting and appar- 


ently proving by figures that women's brains are 
smaller than men's. Old Hunter Ellis was sitting 
quietly in the corner but he rose angrily and exclaimed 
as he stalked vigorously from the house, "Calves have 
large brains. " The negative won out, and your histo- 
rian ever after loved Hunter Ellis. 

But the days of the old Guilford lyceum are past, 
and the huntsman hunts no more. His last venture was 
in the fall of 1866. Camping alone far beyond Spencer 
Bay, he was taken seriously ill, and crawled ten miles on 
hands and knees to reach human aid. Word was sent 
to his family at Guilford. It was late in November and 
the lake w^as not frozen over. Mr. Joseph Cousins, the 
husband of his step -daughter, to whom I am indebted 
for reliable data, went with a logging sled, the long dis- 
tance around the lake and brought the worn hunter 

It was in February of 1867 they laid him away in 
beautiful Elmwood Cemetery, and the sparkhng waters 
of the lovely Piscataquis come murmuring by, whisper- 
ing softly of the woods and streams he loved. He rests 
with the many who with him had dwelt happily together 
in the dear old town "in the old days." 

"There bide the true friends — 
The first and the best; 

There clings the green grass 
Close where they rest; 

Would they were here ? No; — 
Would we were there ! 

The old days— the lost days- 
How lovely they were ! ' ' 

Edgar Wilson Nye 

By John Francis Sprague 

PISCATAQUIS Count}' has produced men who have 
become famous in the professional, industrial and 
military life of the country. 
Two of her sons have acquired international renown, 
although in widely different spheres. Sir Hiram Stevens 
Maxim, the great inventor and the inventor of the origi- 
nal machine gun, was born in the town of Sangerville ; 
and Edgar Wilson Nye, known in the world of letters 
as Bill Nye, the prolific humorous writer and lecturer, 
was born in the to%vn of Shirley, Maine, February 26th, 
1850, and died in Asheville, North Carolina, February 
22, 1896. 

He was the son of Franklin Nye, who was a direct 
descendant of Benjamin Nye, who came to this country 
from England in 1637. He married Elizabeth Loring 
of Shirley, November 5th, 1846; the marriage ceremony 
having been performed by Stephen Brown, Esquire, a 
justice of the peace. 

Elizabeth Loring was one of the well-known family of 
Lorings in Piscataquis County, who were prominent in 
its early history. The Rev. Amasa Loring, a clergyman 
of the Congregational denomination, and the author of 
Loring's History of Piscataquis County, was of this 

When Edgar Wilson Nye was about three years of 
age his parents emigrated to Wisconsin. The territory 


of Wisconsin had then been a state less than two years, 
and its early settlers were subject to all of the hard- 
ships, sacrifices and sufferings which are the fate of all 
pioneers in a new country. 

The Nyes had but little except their own hands for 
capital with which to start in life, hence his boyhood 
days were spent in the dark shadows of a family struggle 
with poverty. 

He was what is popularly known as a self-made man, 
never having obtained from schools any education except 
what he was able to acquire when a youth from the crude 
system of district schools, which the poor and struggling 
Wisconsin pioneers were able to maintain in those days. 
His son, Frank Nye of New York, at a reunion of the 
Nye family in Sandwich, Massachusetts, in an address 
delivered at that meeting, is authority for the statement 
that his father never attended a high school. 

Apropos to this may be cited an anecdote of him 
related in this same address. Once he was sitting at the 
breakfast table of a Sunday morning with James 
Whitcomb Riley. Riley said to him : "Bill did it ever 
strike you that all of this praise and adoration offered 
God has never spoiled him?" And Mr. Nye's quick 
retort was : "Yes, Jim, and I sometimes think he is self- 
made. " 

Bill Nye failed as a farmer, a miller, a teacher, a book- 
agent and a lawyer. At the age of twenty-four he went 
to Toring, Wyoming, where he did his first literary 
work as a correspondent for a small weekly newspaper 
published in a new mining towni, for which he received as 
compensation the sum of one dollar a column. Years 
afterwards he quaintly describes this event by saying, 
"The column was short, the type was large and I needed 
the dollar." 

He became postmaster and it was his letters to the 


officials in Washington, written in a humorous vein, 
which first brought him into the public view. 

Later he moved to Laramie, where he first met Miss 
Clara T. Smith, who was destined to become his wife. 

Of this Frank Nye has said: "He went to the 
station one night in search of any news he could find 
there and saw Miss Clara T. Smith alight from the 
train. She saw Mr. Nye ; Mr. Nye saw her, and imme- 
diatel}' the sensation of love at first sight thrilled two 
hearts. Anyway, they finally visited the parson and 
she became the wife of Mr. Nye." 

His own humorous version of the affair was that he 
' 'had two reasons for marrying ; the first was to get rid of 
one more Smith; the second was that Miss Smith being 
an orphan there would be no mother-in-law sequel to 
the wedding. ' ' 

He subsequently became a citizen of New York, where 
he resided several years. It is most often the fate of 
genius to influence mankind in the serious and tragic 
aspects of life, to lead the race in the gloom of human 
passion, avarice, and the cruelty of one to another. 

It was Bill Nye's mission to make the children of 
earth laugh and to cheer the hearts of the weary, the 
sorrowing and the despondent. 

Who can say that his mission was not as noble as that 
of the warrior, the preacher or the statesman? His 
tarry in this life was brief but it cast a broad ray of 
sunshine athwart the path of men while it endured. 

During his life he visited Shirley and the following is 
from his account of that visit as published in Wit and 
Humor : 

"A man ought not to criticise his birthplace, I 
presume, and yet, if I were to do it all over again, I do 
not know whether I would select that particular spot or 
not. Sometimes I think I would not. And yet, what 


memories cluster about that old house ! There was the 
place where I first met my parents. It was at that time 
that an acquaintance sprang up which has ripened in 
later years into mutual respect and esteem. 

"It was there that what might be termed a casual 
meeting took place, that has, under the alchemy of resist- 
less years, turned to golden links, forming a pleasant but 
powerful bond of union between my parents and myself. 
For that reason, I hope that I may be spared to my 
parents for man}' years to come. 

"Many memories now cluster about that old home, as 
I have said. There is, also, other bric-a-brac which has 
accumulated since I was born there. I took a small stone 
from the front yard as a kind of memento of the occa- 
sion and the place. I do not think it has been detected 

"There was another stone in the yard, so it may be 
weeks before any one finds out that I took one of them. 

"How humble the home, and yet what a lesson it 
should teach the boys of America! Here, amid the 
barren and inhospitable waste of rocks and cold, the 
last place in the world that a great man would naturally 
select to be born in, began the life of one, who, by his 
own unaided effort, in after years rose to the proud 
height of postmaster at Laramie City, Wy. T., and 
with an estimate of the future that seemed almost 
prophetic, resigned before he could be characterized as 
an offensive partisan. 

"Here on the banks of the raging Piscataquis, where 
winter lingers in the lap of spring till it occasions a good 
deal of talk, there began a career which has been the 
wonder and admiration of every vigilance committee 
west of the turbulent Missouri. 

"There on that spot, with no inheritance but a predis- 
position to baldness and a bitter hatred of rum ; with no 


personal property but a misfit suspender and a stone- 
bruise, began a life historj' which has never ceased to be 
a warning to people who have sold goods on credit. 

"It should teach the 3'outh of our great broad land 
what glorious possibilities may lie concealed in the rough 
and tough bosom of the reluctant present. It shows 
how steady perseverance and a good appetite will always 
win in the end. It teaches us that wealth is not indis- 
pensable, and that if we live as we should, draw out of 
politics at the proper time, and die a few days before the 
public absolutely demands it, the matter of our birth- 
place will not be considered. 

"Still, my birthplace is all right as a birthplace. It 
was a good quiet place in which to be born. All the 
old neighbors said that Shirley was a very quiet place 
up to the time I was born there, and when I took my 
parents by the hand and gently led them away in the 
spring of '53, saying, 'Parents, this is no place for us,' 
it again became quiet. 

"It is the only birthplace that I have, however, and I 
hope that all the readers of this sketch will feel perfectly 
free to go there any time and visit it and carry their 
dinner as I did. 

"Extravagant cordiality and overflowing hospitality 
have always kept my birthplace back. ' ' 

He died near Asheville, North Carolina, February 22, 

Among his published books are: 

Bill Nye and Boomerang, (1881); Forty Liars, 
(1883); Remarks, (1886); Fun, Wit and Humor, 
(1889) with James Whitcomb Riley; Comic History 
of the United States, (1894); Comic History of Eng- 
land, (1896) and Baled Hay. 


I received the following letter from Honorable Frank 
Mellen Nye, a member of Congress from Minneapolis, 
Minnesota, and a brother of Bill ^ye, in response to a 
letter requesting information relative to his family 
history : 

Washington, D. C. , 

January 26th, 1909. 
Mr. J. F. Sprague, 

Monson, Maine. 
My dear Sir: 

Several days ago Mr. Guernsey handed 
me your letter requesting some further facts 
concerning my family. I have been exceed- 
ingly busy, and hardly know now exactly what 
3'^ou want. You seem to Icnow something of 
my mother and father, and brother, Edgar 
Wilson Nye, who died in February 1896. My 
parents moved to Wisconsin when I was two 
years old. I grew up on a farm, attained a 
common school education, and attended the 
academy at River Falls, Wis. ; studied law, 
and was admitted to practice in the spring of 
1878. Practiced law in Wisconsin until 
1886. Was prosecuting attorney in Polk 
County, Wis., and a member of the Wisconsin 
Legislature in 1884. Removed to Minneapolis 
in '86, where I have since resided. Have been 
prosecuting attorney four years in Minneapolis, 
and continued actively in my profession until 
1906 when I was elected to Congress. Was 
reelected last fall to the 61st Congress. I have 
one brother living, nine years younger, whose 
name is Carrol A. Nye, and whose home is 
Moorehead, Minn. He is also a lawyer, hav- 


ing met with unusual success. He is now on 
a trip around the world. My father has been 
dead twentj'-two years. Mother is still living, 
and is now in New York City with an adopted 
sister of mine. She is in her 82d year. As 
you say she was a Loring. I shall be glad to 
answer any further specific questions you may 
desire to ask. 

Sincerely yours, 

Frank M. Nye. 

Sketches of Some Revolutionary Sol- 
diers of Piscataquis County 

By Edgar Crosby Smith 

DURING the period covered by the Revolutionary 
War the territor}^ which is now Piscataquis 
County was but a wilderness, visited only by the 
Indian and an occasional trapper; hence hers could not 
be the honor of furnishing any of her sturdy sons to her 
country. However, a number of the veterans of that war 
were among the early settlers of the county. 

In the sketches which follow, will be found chronicled 
some account of the lives of a number of these pioneers, 
but at present the writer has been unable to obtain data 
to any degree of completeness regarding them all. 

PHINEAS AMES. Sangerville. 

Phineas Ames was the son of Samuel Ames and 
Sarah (Ball) Ames, and was born in Rutland, Mass., 
October 26, 1757. 

His first service in the Continental Army appears to 
have been eleven days, commencing August 20, 1777. 
The battle of Bennington occurred August 16, 1777, 
and although the result was a complete victory for the 
Americans, the whole northern country was up in arms. 
Men poured in from New York and New England. A 
company was detached from Rutland to march to Ben- 


nington, and Phineas Ames was a member of this com- 
pany. The captain was David Bent, and he was in Col. 
Nathan Sparhawk's regiment. As the British were so 
completely routed it was not deemed necessary to keep a 
large force at the place, and most of the companies 
ordered out for this special service were discharged and 
sent home. Ames returned to Rutland with his company 
after a service of eleven days. 

His second service of which we have any record is that 
of his enlistment of September 27, 1777. After the 
battle of Bemis' Heights, September 19, 1777, reserves 
were hurried on to Saratoga to assist Gen. Gates. Ames 
enlisted in Capt. John Boynton's company. Col. 
Sparhawk's regiment, under the command of Major Jonas 
Wilder, and this regiment was ordered to join the army 
of the Northern Department. It is probable that he 
arrived at the seat of war in season to participate in the 
battle of October 7. Burgoyne surrendered and laid 
down his arms October 17, 1777, and many of the militia 
companies were then discharged. Phineas Ames' dis- 
charge was dated October 18, 1777, the day after 
Burgoyne' s surrender. Service, twenty-nine days. 

This is all the recorded service that can be found on 
the rolls credited to Phineas Ames, but he undoubtedly 
saw other service as he frequently used to relate his 
experiences, "while with the army in 'Jarsey'." 

About 1780 he removed from Rutland to Hancock, 
N. H., and in 1785 he married Mehitable Jewett of 
Hollis, N. H. During the years 1781 and 1782 he was 
one of the selectmen of Hancock. His two oldest chil- 
dren, Daniel and Samuel, were born here. In 1796 he 
moved to Harmony, Me., and was one of the first set- 
tlers there. 

It was in 1801 or 1802 that he first came into Piscata- 
quis County. He then came across from Harmony and 


cleared an opening in Sangerville on the north side of 
Marr Pond, near Lane's Corner. In the fall of 1803 he 
moved in with his family, and became the first settler in 
Sangerville. His trip here, like all others of those early 
settlers, was attended with hardship. He came by the 
way of a spotted line, his wife on horseback, carrying in 
her arms a babe only a few months old; but they 
reached their destination in safety, and went to work 
with a will to make for themselves a comfortable home. 
The township was then called Amestown. 

From 1803 to 1810 were busy years for Mr. Ames; 
besides clearing his farm and getting a number of acres 
under cultivation, he built a grist-mill on Black Stream, 
on the upper falls, and sometime before 1807 he surveyed 
Col. Sanger's lots in the town. On account of the crude 
construction of the mill it was not a success, and did not 
prove to be a source of profit to the owner. About 
1810 Mr. Ames exchanged the mill and privilege with 
Col. Sanger for thi'ee lots of land. On one of these he 
settled, leaving his place on Marr Pond. He lived here 
but a short time and then exchanged with Edward 
Magoon and settled near Knowlton's Mills, 

Mr. Ames was always prominent in the deliberations 
of the settlement, plantation and town. He was called 
King Ames, and his counsel was frequently sought, and 
generall}' accepted in affairs of moment. It was he who 
advised moderation when the Indian scare pervaded the 
settlements at the declaration of war with Great Britain 
in 1812. The settlers all along the Piscataquis River 
were much alarmed, fearing the Indians, incited by the 
British, would take to the tomahawk and scalping-knife. 
A mass-meeting was held at Foxcroft in August, 1812, 
to see what means should be taken for mutual defense. 
After listening to the remarks of various settlers express- 
ing their views, who had as many ideas as there were 


speakers, King Ames was called for. He told them that 
the Indians, if they took any part at all in the hostilities, 
would undoubtedly attach themselves to some portion of 
the enemy's army, and that in his opinion little need be 
feared at present from the red men. His view of the 
situation was generally accepted and the people retired 
to their homes with their fears somewhat abated. 

Mr. Ames lived at Knowlton's Mills until 1824, when 
he, with his son Samuel, moved to West Dover and set- 
tled upon what is now the Dover poor farm. Here he 
lived for a number of years, but his last days were spent 
in the family of his daughter Betsey, who married James 
C. Doore, and lived near South Dover. He died in 
1839, at the age of 82, and is buried in an unmarked 
grave in the South Dover cemetery. 

Phineas Ames was a man of many occupations; the 
records of Hancock, N. H. , give him as a carpenter ; he 
was also a farmer, blacksmith, land-surveyor and mill- 
wright. He reared a family of eight children. The 
town of Sangerville was known as Amestown until its 
incorporation in 1815, and it is said that Col. Sanger 
made Mrs. Ames a present of quite a substantial sum in 
cash for the privilege of changing the name to Sanger- 


Enoch Brown was born in the year 1751, but of what 
place he was a native it is impossible to obtain any 
information. It may have been Arrowsic, as he was a 
resident there in 1777, but this is mere conjecture. Of 
his ancestry, like that of many of our pioneers, time has 
obliterated the last trace. Interviews with all his living 
descendants fail to bring to light a thread which it is 
possible to take up and unravel to any solution. 


The Arrowsic settlement is one of the oldest in Maine, 
yet but little is preserved regarding its early families, 
and it has been impossible to glean any information 
relative to Mr. Brown's family from any early records. 

He enlisted in 1777. The best record obtainable of 
his service in the Continental Army is that over his own 
signature, made in his application for state bounty in 
1835. It is as follows: 

"I Enoch Brown of Sebec in the county of Piscata- 
quis and State of Maine, aged eighty-four years, do, 
upon oath declare, in order to obtain the benefit of a 
Resolve of the Legislature of Maine, passed March 17, 
1835, entitled a 'Resolve in favor of certain Officers and 
Soldiers of the Revolutionary War, and the Widows of 
the Deceased Officers and Soldiers, ' that I enlisted in the 
year 1777 for one year into and joined a Company in 
Portland, Commanded by Capt. Blaisdell, went to Ticon- 
deroga in Capt. Johnson's Company and Col. Brewer's 
regiment. At the close of the year I was discharged at 
Albany. In the month of December following, I enlisted 
at Ticonderoga under Lieut. James Lunt, for during the 
war and joined Capt. Stetson's Company and Col. 
Alden's regiment, and employed William Wallace to take 
my place by giving him two hundred dollars, who was 
accepted in my place, and who fulfilled my time, for dur- 
ing the war and I was then discharged. I am now upon 
the U. States pension roll of the Maine agency, 

"I do further on oath declare that at the time of my 
said enlistment, I was an inhabitant of Rousick Island 
(Arrowsic) in the then district of Maine, and was on 
the 17th day of March, 1835, have been ever since, and 
am now an inhabitant of the State of Maine, residing in 
Sebec aforesaid, where I have resided for several j^ears 
past. That neither I, nor anyone claiming under me, 
has ever received a grant of Land, or money in lieu 


thereof, from the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, for 
my said service, or any other service during the Revo- 
lutionary War, and that I am justly entitled to the 
benefit of said resolve. 

Witness his 

Joseph Lamson Enoch X Brown 

George P. Logan mark 

Dated September 12, 1835." 

From the Massachusetts Archives we find Enoch Brown 
credited to Capt. Samuel Johnson's company, and Col. 
Wigglesworth's regiment. 

After his service in the army he returned to Arrowsic, 
and he probably lived there until his removal to Sebec. 
Here we are again at a loss for accui'ate information ; 
just when Mr. Brown came to Sebec it is impossible to 
determine. His son Samuel came there quite early, 
probably not far from 1820, and took up lot number one, 
range eight, being the lot just across the road from the 
old town farm. After the son had made a clearing and 
built a cabin he brought his parents from Arrowsic to 
his new home. Samuel at this time was unmarried ; he 
afterwards married Mary Angove, and their first child 
was born in 1829. This child, Mrs. Sarah Bartlett, is 
now (1908), living in Dover. 

The remainder of his life Mr. Brown lived with his 
son Samuel, on the homestead that their labors had 
rescued from the wilderness. The simple, rugged life of 
the pioneer combined with a strong constitution meted 
out to him a long span of life ; he lived to the age of 93 
years, and died December 17, 1844. His ashes rest in 
the little cemetery just south of his old home, but there 
is nothing to mark the grave, and its exact location has 
now been forgotten. He received a pension for his 
Revolutionary service January 8, 1819. 


Where or when he married, or the maiden name of his 
wife, are not known. Her Christian name was Phebia. 
She died March 10, 1843. 


Ezekiel Chase was born in Hallowell, July 9th, 
1761, his father being one of the early settlers at 
"The Hook," as the locality was then known. At the 
breaking out of the Revolution he was very anxious to 
enlist, though but a boy of fourteen ; his parents, how- 
ever, kept him at home, but as the months passed the 
desire grew stronger, and the first of the year of 1778, 
hearing that his brothers, Jacob and Jonathan, who then 
were at Kittery, intended to enlist, he ran away from 
home and joined them there and with them went on to 
Roxbury where they enlisted. Ezekiel was enrolled for 
the town of Milton, Mass., May 18, 1778. 

He was in Capt. Cox's company. Col. North's regi- 
ment, but a part of this regiment was turned over to 
Major Stephen Badlam and was conducted by Capt. 
Benjamin Burton of Col. Sherburne's regiment to Brig. 
Gen. Jonathan Warner at Fishkill, N. Y. , agreeable to 
the order of the General Court of April 20, 1778. 
Here he was transferred to Gen. Varnum's brigade, and 
in June marched for Rhode Island, and was in the action 
at Newport. His regiment went into winter quarters 
at Bristol and remained there until the British marched 
on the place in the fall. 

Mr. Chase was transferred a number of times to differ- 
ent commands. He was in Capt. Scott's company. Col. 
H. Ogden's regiment, also in Capt. Hastings' company. 
Col. Jackson's regiment. It was in the latter regiment 
that he served the longest. While in Capt. Scott's 
company he was under the command of Gen. de La 


Fayette. The winter of 1779-80 his regiment was in 
winter quarters at Morristown, N. J. The winter of 
1780-81 his winter quarters were at West Point. It 
was here that he reenhsted for "during the war," Janu- 
ary 7, 1781, and was again attached to Capt. Hastings' 
company, Col. Jackson's regiment. 

On his reenlistment he was granted a furlough of 
three months, and he visited his parents in Hallowell. 
At the expiration of his furlough he started to return to 
his regiment, and was on his way to Philadelphia by 
water, when he was taken prisoner by the British ship 
Reno%vn, and was confined in the Jersey Prison Ship in 
New York harbor. Here Mr. Chase remained for nearly 
two years and suffered the greatest tortures. While here 
he had the smallpox and yellow fever. The treatment 
of the prisoners on board this ship is said to have been 
most inhuman ; over eleven thousand died from exposure, 
neglect and disease. As said before Mr. Chase remained 
here for about two years, or until the close of the war, 
being released at the declaration of peace. His two 
brothers with whom he enlisted never reached home, one 
being killed in battle, and the other dying from disease. 
After his release he was for some time unable to return 
home on account of his feeble condition, but finally was 
taken to Boston in a horse cart. 

After his return to HaUoweU he married Betsey 
Goodwin, and moved to and settled in Bingham, then 
called Caratunk. Here some of his childi-en were born. 
In the summer of 1802 he came to Sebec and felled an 
opening on the intervale near the present Atkinson 
bridge. He returned to Bingham for the winter, but 
came back in the spring of 1803 and put in a crop, and 
in September of the latter year he moved in his family 
and became the first settler in Sebec, and the second in 
the county. 


He had raised a crop of corn, and stacked quite an 
amount of meadow-hay during the summer, and when he 
came with his family he drove in some stock, which was 
the first on the Piscataquis River. On July 15, 1804, 
a son was born, Charles Vaughan Chase, the first white 
child born within the limits of Piscataquis County. 

Mr. Chase, during his residence on the Kennebec, had 
commanded a rifle company, and consequently ever after 
was known as Captain. He was a great hunter and 
trapper, and on one trip is said to have taken over four 
hundred dollars' worth of furs. During his service in the 
army, and his long confinement on the prison ship he 
acquired quite a knowledge of medicine, and for many 
years after his settlement in Sebec his services as a physi- 
cian were in demand in all the nearby settlements. 

In September, 1814, when the British occupied Ban- 
gor, much anxiety was felt in the up-river districts as to 
Avhat the outcome would be; fearing that the Indians 
might be induced to start on the war-path, also that the 
inhabitants of Bangor might need assistance to repel the 
invaders. A company was formed of citizens of Dover, 
Foxcroft and Sebec, and Ezekiel Chase was elected 
captain. They started on their march for Bangor, but 
before reaching there they received the humiliating news 
of the capitulation, and they turned about for home. 

Capt. Chase lived for a number of years in his log 
cabin, built when he first settled in Sebec, and then he 
built himself a frame house on the shore of the river 
near the present Atkinson bridge. This house is still 
standing, and is now occupied by Andrew J. Chase, hav- 
ing been moved a few rods north from its original loca- 
tion and somewhat remodeled. 

Ezekiel Chase received a pension in 1818 for his army 
sei'vice. He died September 14, 1843, and is buried in 
the Chase cemetery at Sebec Station. He has numerous 
descendants living in Piscataquis County. 


EBENEZER DEAN. Blaxchard. 

Ebenezer Dean was born December 5, 1760, or 
1762. Probably 1760 is the correct date. The 
record of births and deaths of the town of Blanchard 
give the date 1762, but in the list of Revolutionary pen- 
sioners published in connection with the census returns 
of 1840, and compiled from information collected by the 
enumerators, his age is given then 80 years; in his' per- 
sonal application for State bounty, dated September 14, 
1836, he there states his age to be 75 ; and in the notice 
of his death in the New England Historical and Genea- 
logical Recorder the date of his birth is given 1760. 
All these seem to indicate that the date given on the 
Blanchard records is an error. 

Mr. Dean was the fifth in descent from William Dean 
of Woburn, Mass. The line is as follows: William Dean 
by his wife Martha Bateman, had John, born 1677; 
John by his wife Mary Farmer, had Ebenezer, born 1709; 
Ebenezer by his wife Mary, had Ebenezer, born 1733;' 

Ebenezer by his wife , had Ebenezer the subject 

of this sketch, born 1760. Where Mr. Dean was born 
I am unable to state, but it is quite probable that it was 
in Woburn, Mass., as this was the home of his ancestors 
for a number of generations. 

He was one of the very early settlers of Canaan, of 
that part now Skowhegan, and he enlisted into the Revo- 
lutionary army from that town in 1781. His Revolu- 
tionary service was in Col. Jackson's regiment of the 
Massachusetts Line. He enlisted for three years in 
1781, and received an honorable discharge at the close 
of the war. 

In an article in The Piscataquis Observer of June 22, 
1876, dealing with the early settlement of Blanchard in 
this county, and signed "Historicus, " reference is made 


to Mr. Dean as follows : "E. Dean had been in the Revo- 
lutionary army, but for good reasons had left hastily, 
not stopping for an 'honorable discharge,' and never 
obtaining a pension." That this is incorrect is certain, 
and it was possibly malicious. He was a pensioner in 
1836, on the Maine agency, as is evidenced in his appli- 
cation for State bounty, and in this application he makes 
particular mention of his "honorable discharge." The 
census returns of 1840 list him as a hving pensioner, 
then a resident of Madison. There is no question about 
his having been a pensioner of many years' standing. 

The town of Abbot was settled in 1807 and Ebenezer 
Dean was among the first settlers, coming there about 
1810, possibly before. He hved in Abbot but a few 
years, five or six, and then moved to Blanchard, and 
became the first settler of that town, coming there May 
5, 1815. 

The story of how he became the first settler of 
Blanchard, winning his choice of land, and his strategy 
in so doing, is told in Loring's History of Piscataquis 
County; another account of it was published in The 
Piscataquis Observer in 1876, agreeing in the main with 
Mr. Loring's, from which the following is taken: 
"Moorstown, (now Abbot) was settled in 1807; and at 
the time of this event several families were residing there. 
Among them were A. Moore, Peter Brawn, E. Richards, 
Eben Dean, and others. * * * * Brawn had 
moved to Moorstown from Dover, and was now plan- 
ning another up-river move. So one afternoon in June, 
probably in 1810 or '11, he passed his neighbor Dean, 
and tells him : 'Tomorrow I start for the great intervale, 
up river, to fall a piece of trees there.' Dean said 
nothing, but when Brawn had passed out of sight, he 
and his oldest son, Eben, ground up their axes, packed 
up provision, shouldered their burdens and started for 


the same intervale. Ten miles of rough, unbroken, path- 
less forest lay before them ; the night was dark. Rocks, 
ledges and fallen trees obstructed their way. Swamps, 
marshes and brooks must be crossed, for, as the river was 
their only guide they must keep near its rippling current. 
But they were 'stealing a march' to gain preoccupancy, 
and they quailed at nothing, and by daylight next morn- 
ing, stood upon those coveted acres. Near the middle 
of the intervale they unslung their packs, lunched hastily 
with a keen appetite, and began to level those monarchs 
of the vale, breaking the stillness of the forest with the 
echoes of their axes. Brawn, too, started that same 
morning, axe in hand and pack upon his back, to make 
an onslaught upon those sturdy maples. Towards noon, 
as he drew near, those echoes fell upon his ear and he 
began to fear that someone had stepped in before him ; 
and so it proved, for a half acre of trees was already 
felled. But when he saw who had supplanted him, loud 
talk and bad adjectives made the air very blue. Had 
there not been two of the Deans there probably would 
have been a pitched battle, as it was words alone vented 
the volcano and ended the strife. Brawn gave up set- 
tling in that part and went elsewhere. Dean stuck to 
the intervale, cut out a road to the settlement below and 
moved in his family. * * * * * " 

The date of the event as given in this narrative as 
1810 or '11, is incorrect; 1813 was the year. Mr. 
Dean, as stated previously, moved his family into Blanch- 
ard in 1815. He lived there on his intervale farm for 
twenty-one years and then sold out his possessions and 
in June, 1836, moved to Madison, where he resided the 
rest of his life. 

While in Blanchard Mr. Dean was a successful farmer ; 
he raised the first crops the year he moved in, 1815. 
That year he had four or five acres of wheat and nine 


acres of corn. In 1817 he put in twenty acres of rye 
and raised three hundred and fifty bushels. 

When the town was incorporated in 1831 he was its 
first fence-viewer, also was pound-keeper. 

He was twice married; to his second wife, Jane, he 
was united in marriage at about the time he moved into 
Piscataquis County. The first child born in Blanchard 
was John Dean, born December 31, 1817, son of 
Ebenezer and Jane. Who his first wife was is not known, 
but at least two children were born to this marriage, 
Ebenezer, Jr., and Daniel, who Hved with their father 
during his residence in this county, and assisted him in 
clearing his lands in Abbot and Blanchard. Frank 
Butler now (1909) hves on the farm in Blanchard, taken 
up by Mr. Dean. 

Ebenezer Dean died in Madison, INle., June 24, 
1857, at the age of 97 years. 


Allen Dwelley was a native of Massachusetts, probably 
of the toAVTi of Pembroke, as he enlisted into the Conti- 
nental Army from that town when but eighteen or nine- 
teen years of age. He was born in 1762 or 1763. Of 
his ancestry and life prior to his settlement in Paris, 
Me., I am^ unable to find anything, other than the 
record of his service in the Revolution. 

He enlisted April 3, 1781, for three years, into Capt. 
Lebbeus Drew's company. Col. Shepard's regiment, 
(4th Mass. Line). He served with his regiment until 
the proclamation disbanding the army in October, 1783, 
and soon after received an honorable discharge. A part 
of his service was under Capt. Clapp, but in Shepard's 
regiment. He received a pension for his war services 
under the act of March 18, 1818, being placed on the 
pension rolls September 7, 1819, commencing to draw 


from April 29, 1818, from which time until his death he 
received his annual allowance of ninet3^-six dollars. 

The town of Paris, Me., was settled about the close 
of the war, and among the early settlers was Allen 
Dwelle}-; just when he came there, there are no records 
to determine, but he was one of the petitioners for the 
incorporation of the town, October 11, 1792. He 
lived there until 1808 or 1809 when he removed to 
Dover. We take from the Paris records the following, 
showing his continued residence in that town : October, 
1792, he was one of the petitioners for the incorporation 
of the town; in 1796 he was one of the hog-reeves ; in 
1798 he was taxed for fifty acres of land, valued at two 
hundred dollars; in September, 1802, he was one of the 
petitioners for the division of the town ; and from an old 
deed, dated December 3, 1807, his residence is given as 

In P'ebruary, 1808 or 1809, Mr. Dwelley moved to 
Dover. I think it more probable in 1808, as he had 
purchased land here in December, 1807, with the evident 
intention of coming here, so he quite likely came at 
once. He bought of Jeremiah Fifield, lot 1, in range 12, 
the deed being dated December 3, 1807. This land is 
on the south side of the river just west of the present 
village, a part of which is now owned by Volney A. 
Gray, and on which his homestead stands. 

Of Mr. Dwelley 's trip from Paris to Dovei-, Mr. 
Loring in his history of Piscataquis County, gives an 
account, and from which I quote, as showing some of 
the hardships encountered by the early settlers in reaching 
these then remote settlements. He says: "He started 
from Paris, but on reaching Mr. Hale's in Ripley, the 
road was so poor, and his team was so worn out, that he 
could not proceed with his load. Upon hearing of his 
condition, Capt. John Bennett started from Lowstown, 


(Guilford) with a team to help him through. On 
Bennett's arrival at Hale's, Mr. Dwelley started, leaving 
one daughter there sick and another to nurse her, but 
taking his wife and seven other children, and their lading 
with them. Full ten miles of unbroken forest lay 
between Hale's and the next settlement. Deep and 
loose snow impeded their progress ; they soon concluded 
that without more team they could not get through the 
woods before night, so they sent William Dwelley (a lad 
of thirteen) forward on horseback, to raise more help. 
But darkness overtook him before he reached inhabitants, 
and he tied his horse to a tree and camped out as best he 
could, for the night. In the morning he found he was 
only a half a mile from a habitation. Making known his 
message, the people promptly started to aid the slow- 
coming party, and met them only about half way through 
the woods. They, too, had camped out through the 
night. With these recruits they pressed on, but were 
all day in getting to Dexter. 

He finally reached his coveted destination in the new 
settlement, where he took up his abode and reared him- 
self a home, and where he lived comfortably for about 
twenty years. 

In June, 1825, Mr. Dwelley sold his Dover property 
to John Bradbury of Foxcroft, and soon after moved 
away. While in Dover he was interested in the pros- 
perity of the community, and from 1814 to 1825 he 
held various minor offices. Mr. Loring says he moved 
to Old Town. In June, 1836, when he applied for land 
granted to Revolutionary soldiers, he resided in the town 
of Springfield. In 1840, when the census was taken, 
the government published a list of all the hving pen- 
sioners, giving their residences and in whose family they 
resided. In that list we find Allen Dwelley residing in 
the west half of Township No. 6, Penobscot County. 


That is the present town of Lee; he maintained a home 
of his own ; his age was given as 78 years. He undoubt- 
edly died there shortly after. He has descendants still 
living in that locality. 

JOHN HART. Atkinson. 

The ancestry of John Hart cannot be accurately 
determined. He was born in the month of July, 1766, 
probably in the town of Gilmanton, N. H. He was 
brought up in the family of Capt. Jacob Sherburne of 
that town, and until his removal to Piscataquis County 
was closely connected with Capt. Sherburne in business 

When barely sixteen years of age he enlisted into the 
army. His enlistment papers bear date of July 1, 
1782, and he was in Capt. Chase's company, Col. George 
Reid's regiment, of the New Hampshire Line. During 
all of Mr. Hart's service in the army his regiment was 
stationed in the state of New York, at Saratoga and on 
the Mohawk River. 

He was not of large stature, and at the time of his 
joining the army he was obliged to stretch up to his 
extreme height, almost standing upon his toes, to pass 
muster, and in addition declare himself a few weeks 
older than his actual age; but his ardor to give his 
country his assistance in her time of need was such that 
he finally passed all the requirements, and was permitted 
to attain the coveted place, a member of the Continental 

Although his regiment, after his enlistment, did not 
engage in any great battles, yet he suffered all the hard- 
ship attendant on the life of a soldier in camp. The 
men were poorh' clothed, and during the winter his feet 
were frozen, necessitating the amputatitm of his toes, 
leaving him with that halting walk for the remainder of 


his life as a reminder of tlie suffering and sacrifice neces- 
sary in giving his service to his country. 

He received his discharge July 10, 1783, making him 
a few days over a year of service; he then returned to 
Gilmanton to the family of Capt. Sherburne. 

About 1790, probably a little before, Capt. Sherburne 
settled in Orland, Me. , taking up a lot in partnership 
with Ebenezer Eastman, on which the}^ built a sawmill 
and erected a dwelling house; Mr. Hart came with them. 
On October 5, 1791, Mr. Hart bought out Eastman's 
interest in the property, Mr. Eastman returning to New 
Hampshire. Mr. Hart lived here but a few years and 
then moAcd to Penobscot. AVe find by the Registry of 
Deeds in Hancock County that he was a resident of the 
last named town on August 2, 1794, that being the date 
on which he purchased of Abraham Stover, one hundred 
acres of land, being the same on which Mr. Stover then 
lived, and lying between that of his two sons, Jeremiah 
and Jonathan, and fronting the bay. 

During Mr. Hart's residence in Penobscot he married 
Elizabeth, the daughter of Abraham Stover ; the exact 
date of which I am unable to determine, but about the 
year 1795. He lived in that town until 1813, when he 
exchanged his place in Penobscot with James Hadlock of 
Atkinson, Hadlock being desirous of moving to the coast, 
and Mr. Hart being particularly anxious of getting back 
into the country on account of his boys, John and Peleg, 
who early showed an inclination to follow the sea, much 
to the distress of their mother. 

The land he purchased in Atkinson was lot 14, range 
5, and a part of lot 13 in the same i-ange, according to 
the plan of Andrew Strong. Here he brought his family, 
consisting of his wife and five children, Olive, Polly, 
John, Peleg and Lucy ; the last two being twins. His 


farm was originally taken up by Deacon Harvey, who sold 
to Mr. Hadloek. 

Mr, Hart lived a useful and energetic life, and spent 
the remainder of his days on his Atkinson property. 
His wife died November 9, 1839, and he survived her but 
a little over two years, departing this life December 21, 
1841, at the age of 75 years and five months. 

He is buried in the Hart cemetery, within a stone's 
throw of his old homestead; he and his life companion 
resting side by side, their graves being marked with 
modest marble slabs, his bearing the simple inscription : 

John Hart 

a soldier of the 



Dec. 21, 1841 

M 75 yrs. & 5 ms. 


Nimrod Hinds was the son of Benjamin and Elizabeth 
(Temple) Hinds, and was born in West Boylston, Mass. , 
January 12, 1758. 

He was the fifth in descent from James Hinds, the 
immigrant, who probabh' came from England and settled 
in Salem, Mass., as early as 1637. The line of descent 
is as follows : John, son of James, born in Salem 1 639, 
died in Lancaster, Mass., 1720; Jacob, son of John, 
born in Brookfield, Mass., 1685, died in West Bojdston 
about 1765; Benjamin, son of Jacob, born in Shrews- 
bury, Mass., 1725, died in 1794; Nimrod, the subject of 
this sketch, was the son of Benjamin. 

Benjamin Hinds settled in West Boylston in 1746; he 
was a farmer, and apparently a very prosperous one as he 
loaned the Continental Congress the sum of $60,000 


to assist in carrying on the war of the Revolution, and 
received a part of his pay, at least, in Continental 

Nimrod Hinds' first enlistment in the Continental 
Army was May 4, 1777, as a private in Capt. Isaac 
Martin's company. Col. Joseph Whitney's regiment. 
His regiment was under Maj. Gen. Spencer in Rhode 
Island, and he served at this time two months and eight 
days. On August 12, 1777, he enlisted in Capt. Francis 
Wilson's company. Col. Danforth Keyes' regiment, and 
was finally discharged January 3, 1778. During all of 
his service he was stationed in Rhode Island. 

In 1779 Mr. Hinds came to Maine, and was one of 
the early settlers of Norridgewock, In March, 1794, at 
Fairfield, he was united in marriage to Betsey Pishon, 
and went to reside in Fairfax (now Albion). He lived 
in Fairfax until about 1800, when he returned to Nor- 
ridgewock; he lived there until about 1812 and then 
settled in Bloomfield, now a part of Skowhegan. He 
made his home in Bloomfield until the early thirties, 
when he came to Dover. 

We are able to trace his itinerary by his family record, 
which fortunately has been preserved. From his tomb- 
stone in the Dover village cemetery we take the inform- 
ation that he "was born in Boylston, Mass., and was 
one of the early settlers of Norridgewock in 1779." 
Three children were born in Fairfax, Nimrod in 1795, 
Betsey Temple in 1797 and Jason in 1798; five were 
born in Norridgewock, Peter in 1800, Mary in 1802, 
Lydia in 1805, Amos in 1807 and Ulmer in 1809; and 
three children in Bloomfield, Rebecca in 1812, Asher in 
1815 and Charles in 1819. 

The life of the pioneer must have held fascinations for 
Mr. Hinds, as we find him among the earliest settlers in 
several Maine towns. In 1779 the settlers in Norridge- 


wock were few and far between, but it was about this 
time that a number of men, who had seen service in the 
Revolutionary War, came into the town and took up 
lots. William Allen in his history of the town says: 
"The first settlers of this town were mostly young men, 
whose robust constitutions had been formed by the hard 
services of the camp, in the army, and by breathing the 
bracing air of poverty in their youths. ' ' This was true 
of Mr. Hinds, except possibly the poverty ; it seems 
that his father was a man of some considerable means, 
but it also appears that his sons were nevertheless enured 
to hardship, and their early training had been one that 
taught that honest toil was an element of future success. 

Fairfax was quite an old settlement at the time he 
lived there, yet it was small and a long distance from the 
larger towns where more of the comforts of civilization 
might be had. Mr. Hinds was an early settler of Bloom- 
field, going there about the time it was set off from 
Canaan and incorporated as a separate town. 

I have been unable to establish the exact date of his 
coming to Dover, but it was in the early thirties. He 
preceded his son Nimrod a short time. He took up a farm 
on the Dexter road, about a mile south of the village, 
on what is now familiar to all as Hinds' Hill. Nimrod 
Hinds, Jr., the son, came here in 1835 at about the 
time his father died; moved onto the premises made 
vacant by his father's death, and here spent the remain- 
der of his life. Nimrod Hinds, Sr., died February 12, 
1835, at the age of 77 years and one month. His wife 
Betsey survived him more than thirty years, living until 
October 20, 1866, having attained the advanced age of 
91 years and seven months. They are buried in the 
Dover village cemetery, their graves being marked by a 
marble slab. 


Mr. Hinds, Sr. , living such a short time after his 
settlement in Dover, left but little impress on the history 
of this county, but his son Nimrod was prominent in the 
affairs of the county and town during his residence of 
forty years in Dover. He is remembered for his upright 
life, honesty, and firm convictions. He was county 
treasurer in 1847 and in 1870, '71 and '72; representa- 
tive to the Legislature in 1856 and '57; he helped to 
form the Abolition party in Piscataquis County, and 
early joined in the temperance reform movement. He 
had fi\e children, one dving when very young, the other 
four living only to attain young manhood and woman- 
hood. He died June 19, 1875, at the age of 80 years. 
He was the last of his race in this county, father, 
mother, brothers, sisters, wife and all his children had 
gone before him, and with him the line in this section of 
the State became extinct. 

Nimrod Hinds, Sr. , received a pension for his Revo- 
lutionary services July 19, 1833, with back pay from 
March 4, 1831. 

Ten graves side by side in the village cemetery are all 
that remain except the memories. Father and son, the 
father the soldier of the Revolution, the son a veteran of 
the War of 1812, peacefully sleeping, and attended by 
all their loved ones. 

ENOCH LEATHERS. Sangerville. 

Enoch Leathers was born in Dover, N. H., October 
2, 1763. In June, 1782, he enlisted in the Continental 
Army in the company of Capt. Samuel Cherry, in Col. 
George Reid's regiment. He served two years, and 
received an honorable discharge in June, 1784. 

Soon after leaving the army Mr. Leathers settled in 
Maine. On November 15, 1788, he married Mary 

Kxoi H Leathkhs 


Cilley of Westbrook, and settled in Buckfield ; here he 
lived a number of years, but h\ter removed to Brooks. 
He was a resident of Brooks in 1810. From Brooks he 
went to Etna, then called Crosbyto^m ; he was a resident 
of the latter town in 1818. 

Like many others of the early settlers in Maine, Mr. 
Leathers seemed to have a desire to keep on the frontier 
of civilization ; he was one of the very early settlers in 
all of the last named towns. 

When hostilities commenced in the War of 1812, he 
again enlisted; he was in Capt. V^ose's company and 
Col. Ripley's regiment, and took part in several engage- 
ments, among them was the battle of Lundy's Lane. 

On November 26, 1829, his youngest daughter, Lois 
Asenath, married Jonathan Roberts, a young man who 
had just settled in Sangerville, and the newly married 
couple went to live in their new home, which the husband 
was making in Piscataquis County. Mr. Leathers, who 
was a man quite advanced in years, being then 66, came 
with them and ever after made his home in their family. 

Mr. Roberts moved to Foxcroft in 1849, and Mr. 
Leathers died there May 28, 1858, in the 95th year of 
his age. His remains rest in the cemetery at East San- 
gerville. His wife Mary died August 31, 1852, at the 
age of 87, and she is buried beside him. He was 
granted a pension September 7, 1819. 

An obituary notice appeared in The Piscataquis 
Observer in the issue of June 24, 1858, in part as 
follows : 

«;*«** Died^ ii^ Foxcroft, on the 28th of 
May last, at the residence of his son-in-law, Jonathan 
Roberts, Esq., Mr. Enoch Leathers, a Revolutionary 
soldier and pensioner, aged 94 years, seven months and 
26 davs. 


"He took part in several engagements during the war 
of the Revolution, and in 1812, when our country was 
again invaded, that same patriotic love of liberty that 
fired his youthful bosom, called him to go forth and 
vindicate his country's rights, and he again enlisted; he 
was in the battle of Chisterfield (by him called) in which 
the Americans attacked the fort ; on both sides a num- 
ber were killed and wounded. 

"Conversing with a friend in relation to the battle, he 
thus remarked : 'I had serious reflections of the propriety 
of war ;' said he fired forty-four rounds, and how many 
proved fatal he did not know, but he prayed that God 
would save him from any more battles, and his prayer 
was answered. 

"He was, during the remainder of the war, when not 
in the hospital, stationed on the frontier to guard the 
inhabitants against the Indians. 

"Mr. Leathers was blessed with a very retentive 
memory and could until a few weeks before his death, 
relate the story of the Revolution and other events, very 
accurately. Being of a social temperament and one who 
had seen much of this world, his society was much sought 
for and enjoyed by all; his age and the events with 
which he had been connected, added to his virtues, caused 
him to be respected by all who knew him, and if there 
was ever a man without an enemy, he was one. * * * 
He was a firm supporter of the political principles of 
Washington and Jefferson, and if he ever went averse 
therefrom, the dereliction should be ascribed to that of 
the hand, not of the heart. 

"He lived to see his country's flag, the emblem of his 
nation's glory, that he had in two wars helped to 
sustain, proudly waving its stars and stripes over thirty- 
two independent states of the Union. 


" * * * * The places that knew him will know 
him no more, but though gone from this earth, his 
memory is embalmed in the hearts of all who knew him, 
and his name is enrolled with patriots of the Revolution 
— there it will remain, honored and cherished bv the 
friends of his country, and by all who loved liberty, 
long after we, who are now enjoying the blessings of 
that legacy bequeathed to us by the man of that day, 
shall have passed away. ' ' 

HENRY LELAND. Sangerville. 

Henry Leland was a native of Sherburne, Mass., and 
was born April 30, 1761. He was the son of 
Henry and Mary (Morse) Leland. His father was cap- 
tain of a company of militia in Col. John BuUard's 
regiment, and was one of Sherburne's minute-men who 
were called out on the memorable alarm of April 19, 
1775. The elder Leland was under arms eleven days at 
this time. 

The son, Henry, inherited the patriotism of the father, 
for when he was a few days less than sixteen years of age 
he enlisted as a soldier of the Revolution. The return 
of Nathaniel Barber, muster master for Suffolk County, 
shows that he was mustered in April 27, 1777, for three 
years' service. He was in Capt. Alexander's company 
of Col. Edward Wiggles worth's regiment, of the 13th 
regiment of the Massachusetts Line, and was engaged 
for the town of Sherburne. In an affidavit signed by 
his widow, in an application for lands granted to Revo- 
lutionary soldiers, she states, that he served the whole 
of the three years, excepting about three months, when 
he was at home on a furlough on account of sickness. 

To follow the career of Col. Wiggles worth will give 
the career of his soldiers. He first received a commis- 


sion as colonel in June 1776; his regiment was raised in 
the counties of Essex, York and Cumberland, principally 
from the District of Maine. During the winter of 1777 
he returned to his home in Newbuiyport to raise a second 
regiment, and it was then, in April, that Mr. Leland 
enlisted with him ; but before a full complement of men 
could be recruited, he was ordered to march to Ticon- 
deroga, to join the army of the Northern Department 
under Gen. Schuyler, to assist in repelling Burgoyne's 
invasion. Mr. Leland undoubtedly took part in the 
battle of Saratoga. He was at Valley Forge and suffered 
the terrible hardships of that winter, and then took part 
in the battle of Monmouth. After completing his three 
years' service, he received his discharge in the spring of 

After leaving the army he returned to Sherburne, and 
in 1783 married Sarah Phipps. His children were 
Walter, Kesiah, Lowell, Henry B., Jedediah P., Sarah, 
Lucy and Mary, all born in Sherburne. In 1802 he 
removed to Hubbardston, Mass., where he resided until 
1816, when he came to Maine, and settled in Sangerville. 

The first member of Mr. Leland's family to come to 
Sangerville was his daughter Kesiah, wife of Samuel 
McLanathan, they emigrating there in 1807. His son 
Walter was the second of the family to come to the 
town, he settling there in 1809. Walter was a nephew 
of Col. Sanger, the proprietor, and acted as his agent. 
In 1810 Sangerville had a population of one hundred 
and twenty-six, and in 1820 it had increased to three 
hundred and ten, being the third largest town in what is 
now Piscataquis County ; Sebec and Guilford being larger. 
There is no doubt but what the judicious management 
of the resident agent contributed in no small degree to 
the rapid settlement of the place. 


Henry Leland was of the fifth generation from Henry 
Leland, the common ancestor of nearly all the Lelands in 
America. All bore the name of Henry with one 
exception; this was Hopestill, the eldest son of the first 

The common ancestor came to America about 1652 
and settled in Dorchester. He lived there but a short 
time when he removed to what is now Sherburne, then 
an unincorporated place. The ancestors of the subject 
of this sketch all were born and died there, and there 
Mr. Leland lived until 1802. 

In an unbroken line from the common ancestor, the 
Lelands have been farmers, so it is not at all surprising 
that the Lelands of to-day in Piscataquis County, are 
successful farmers, they having the blood of seven and 
eight generations of farmers behind them. 

Henry Leland was quite a tall, spare man, of medium 
complexion and very active. He was an exceptionally 
good shot, and at the shoots held on Thanksgiving days, 
it was said, if he chose, he could take his bird at every 
shot. He would make misses in order not to dishearten 
the other contestants. At one of the shoots, at his first 
shot he took his goose; a neighbor of Mr. Leland's was 
present with a stranger who was a visitor ; the neighbor 
said to the visitor, "You notice the small knoll at the 
left of the birds, well, you'll see the dust fly there this 
time." True to liis prophecy it did. Mr. Leland 
missed his bird purposely, and so on throughout the 
shoot when he saw fit he won his prize or missed, as 
pleased him. 

He settled in Sangerville on the farm now (1908) 
owned by Edgar H. Leland, a great grandson. He died 
June 26, 1835, at a little over 74 years of age. His 
wife survived him about three years, dying May 26, 
1838. They are buried in the Knowlton Mills cemetery, 


Sangerville, their graves being appropriately marked by 
a marble slab. 


As near as can be ascertained, Zachariah Longley was 
born in Groton, Mass., about the year 1758. His 
father's name was Zachariah, and the subject of this 
sketch sometimes had "junior" attached to his name, 
and at other times it was omitted, so that in some 
instances it is difficult to tell whether the father or the 
son is intended in the records. 

Zachariah Longley enlisted from Groton April 7, 
1777, for three years. He first joined Capt. William 
H. Ballard's company, Col. Ichabod Alden's regiment, 
as a fifer. While in the records of the pension depart- 
ment he is given as attached to that company and regi- 
ment during the whole of his three years' service, the 
records in the Massachusetts archives show him some- 
times under other commands. For a short time he was 
in Capt. Watson's company. During the last few 
months of his service he appears to have been in Col. 
John Brook's regiment, and in the company of Capt. 
White. He completed his full three-3'ears' term, and 
received his discharge April 12, 1780. 

He again enlisted as a fifer in a regiment raised for the 
Rhode Island service for three months. The date of 
this enlistment was July 27, 1780, and he was discharged 
October 30. He was in Capt. John Porter's company. 
Col. Cyprian How's regiment and Col. Commandant 
Jacobs' brigade. 

Mr. Longley was in the battle of Saratoga, and he 
used to tell of witnessing the surrender of Gen. 

After his last service he returned to Groton, and in 
1781, he, with his father and another brother, removed 


to Norridgewock, Me., and settled on lots C and D in 
that town. He lived here for more than twenty-five 
years, married, and raised up a family. 

In 1806 his son Jonas came over into Piscataquis 
County, and took up the northwest corner lot in number 
3, range 6, now Dover, cleared a part of it and got it 
under cultivation. He and his brother Luke were here 
most all of the time working on the land and building a 
house until 1808, when their father Zachariah moved in 
with his whole family. 

It was from this family that the first death in the 
town of Dover occurred. Luke, the oldest brother, 
while attempting to tow a raft of logs across the river 
to the mill in Foxcroft, in the fall of 1807, was drowned. 
He was in a boat and was towing the logs, and it is 
thought that he got ensnarled in the rigging, lost his 
balance and fell overboard. His body was not recovered 
until the following spring, when it was found lodged 
on some rocks at the Great Falls ; it was buried on the 
bank of the river not far from the eastern end of the 
present Dover bridge. 

When Zachariah Longley came to Dover in 1 808, he 
settled on the northwest corner lot, on which his sons 
had made improvements, and he lived there the remain- 
der of his days. On his trip from Norridgewock he 
brought with him a bushel and a half of potatoes, and 
these he planted on his new farm, from which was 
obtained the great 3'ield of seventy bushels. 

The second son, Jonas, met with an untimely death, 
in Decevnber, 1811. He started out with his dog fox- 
hunting; it is probable that he strayed farther away 
from home than he intended, and traveled so far that he 
was overcome with exhaustion, and died from exposure. 
It is hardly possible that he was lost at the time of his 
death, as his body was found on the Woodbury hill, not 


far from where James Woodbury afterwards built his 
house, and in plain hearing of the sound of the falls. 
His track showed that he was taking a straight course 
for the falls. 

Zachariah Longley had quite a large family. Among 
his children were Betsey, who was the second wife of Eli 
Towne, the first settler of Dover; Susan, who married 
Isaac Blethen ; and S} Ivanus, who remained a resident 
of Dover until his death. Sylvanus was one of the 
committee elected by the plantation in 1816 to present 
the petition to the General Court, when it was voted to 
petition the Legislature of Massachusetts for an act of 
incorporation under the name of Manley, "in honor of 
the brave Commodore Manley. " The act was not passed 
on account of some opposition. 

Mr. Longley held various offices under the plantation 
organization: In 1812 he was elected one of the com- 
mittee to see how much the plantation was in debt; in 
1813 he was a fish-warden, highway surveyor, tithing- 
man, and a member of the committee to lay out a bury- 
ing ground; in 1814 a member of the school committee; 
in 1816 and 1817 a tithingman; and in 1817 a highway 

In July, 1824, he conveyed his farm near the village to 
his son Sylvanus and the following year, June 28, 1825, 
he died. His Avidow Betsey survived him a number of 
years. He was undoubtedly buried in the Dover village 
cemetery, but his grave is unmarked and cannot be 
located to-day. 

Mr. Longley received a pension under the first act 
granting pensions to Revolutionary soldiers, and his 
widow received a land bounty from the State of Maine 
after his death. 



Mr. J. M. Marshall in his history of Buxton says: "It 
was asserted, on the authority of Nathaniel Gorham, and 
has been reported by others, but on what authority I am 
not informed, that the to^^^l of Buxton, in proportion to 
the number of her inhabitants, furnished more soldiers 
to the Continental army than any other town under the 
government of Massachusetts Bay." It was in this old 
York County town, in the year 1759, that Jeremiah 
Rolfe was born. Nothing is known of his ancestry ; 
one Samuel Rolfe was one of the early settlers of the 
town, being located there as early as 1751. John was 
another of that name, who came there early. Jeremiah 
was undoubtedly the son of one of these settlers. 

Mr. Rolfe lived in Buxton up to the time of his 
enlistment in the Continental Army, which took place 
late in 1781 or early in 1782. The only official record of 
his service is under the name of Jeremiah Ralf, and this 
dated from March 1, 1782, twelve months, in Col. 
Benjamin Tupper's (10th) regiment. In his applica- 
tion for State bounty, dated September 20, 1836, he 
states: "I enlisted as a private in the year 1781 for 
three years into Captain Abbot's Company & Col. 
Tupper's regiment, and received an honorable discharge. 
The said regiment was in the Mass. Line, for which ser- 
vice I am now a pensioner of the United States upon the 
Maine Agency." Mr. Loring's statement in his history 
of Piscataquis County that, "He * * * fought on 
the field of Saratoga and after Burgoyne surrendered, 
marched with Gen. Gates to South Carolina," is clearly 
incorrect, as we have Mr, Rolfe 's owai statement that he 
did not enlist until 1781. 

After the close of the war he lived for a short time in 
Rochester, N. H., but soon moved back to his native 


State, and settled in Buckfield. On April 2, 1799, he 
bought a parcel of land in the town of Paris, being lot 
29, in the 7th range, and probably settled there at 
about that time, for the following year, 1800, the 
records show that he was one of the officers of the town, 
being elected a tythingman. In Paris he cleared a good 
farm, and while there was more or less prominent in the 
affairs of the town. 

It was in 1808 that Mr. Rolfe first came to Piscata- 
quis County. He settled in Foxcroft and cleared up a 
part of the Daniel Buck lot. He lived in Foxcroft only 
four years, when he sold out his interests, and in 1812 
located in Guilford. He lived in the latter town until 
1818 on what is now known as the Webber farm, and 
then removed to Abbot, where he spent the remainder 
of his days. Here he cleared up one of the finest farms 
in the county, located about one mile south of Abbot 
Village, and under his diligent and skilful tilling it became 
one of the most productive agricultural properties in the 

If there was nothing else to rescue his name from 
oblivion, one thing alone will preserve and perpetuate his 
memoiy ; that is the apple which bears his name — -the 

The following is a sketch of its origin : 

A small part of the land bought by Mr. Rolfe when 
he settled in Abbot had been cleared and cultivated, and 
a former owner had planted some apple seeds taken from 
the variety known as the Blue Pearmain. When these 
seedlings became large enough to transplant, the farm 
was in the possession of Mr. Rolfe. He presented twelve 
of the small trees to Rev. Thomas Macomber of Guil- 
ford, who set out eleven of them on his own homestead, 
and the twelfth Mr. Macomber gave to his son, who lived 
on a fiirm adjoining his father's. The son's farm came 


into the possession of the father before any of the trees 
came into bearing. Curiously enough, the one tree out 
of all the seedlings which produced fruit of any par- 
ticular merit, was the one planted on the son's farm; 
and many were the apple-hungry youngsters chased from 
under the young tree by the Elder's good wife in her 
efforts to preserve enough of the fruit for a sample for 
the old folks. 

The apple is medium to large, yellowish in color, 
shaded and striped with red, flesh white, fine-grained, 
tender and juicy. Withal a most luscious fruit. 

The original tree is dead, but a sprout which sprang 
up from its roots developed into a hardy tree, and this 
is still alive and bearing fruit on its native soil. The 
apple was first called the Rolfe and then for a time was 
called by some the Macomber, owing to its being first 
grown on the Rev. Macomber's farm ; but gradually the 
name Rolfe supplanted the other, and to-day Rolfe is 
the only name by which the apple is known. 

In his later years Mr. Rolfe was familiarly known as 
"Uncle Rolfe." He died at his home in Abbot April 
1, 1841, at the age of 82 years. 

An obituary notice in The Piscataquis Observer says : 
"He was one of the first settlers of Abbot. He endured 
every hardship and privation of which human nature is 
susceptible, and was a very industrious citizen. The 
best days of his life he spent in the struggle with the 
mother country for Independence and Liberty — his heart 
burning with the love of country ; he manifested it by 
periling his life in the faithful performance of a soldier. 
He aided in securing the blessings that Columbia's sons 
now enjoy, and lived long to admonish them not to 
depart from the virtues of their fathers ; and at the event- 
ful hour of death, though in much pain of body, met 
his faith with composure and resignation, and went 


down to the grave like a shock of corn that is fully ripe, 
and is gathered to the sepulchre of his fathers." 


Unfortunatelv, records and documents relating to the 
early history of our nav}^ and the men who served in it, 
have not been so carefully preserved as those relating to 
the army, and to obtain official records of the service of 
ordinary seamen is very difficult and oftentimes impossi- 
ble. Each individual state kept the records of its sol- 
diers, but the sailors for a single ship were often recruited 
from widely scattered points, and the only record of 
their names was the roster kept on board the vessel, and 
in some instances this has been lost. 

That Isaac Royal, the subject of this sketch, was a 
sailor, or rather a cabin-boy, under the command of 
John Paul Jones, is well settled. Many are still living 
who have heard the story told by his sons, as told to the 
sons by Mr. Royal himself, yet no official proof is now 

Diligent search has been made, and correspondence 
had with all those members of the family whom it was 
thought might be able to furnish information regarding 
the ancestry and place of birth of Isaac Royal, but it 
has been impossible to obtain any data; but it seems 
more than probable that he was born in New Hampshire, 
at or near Portsmouth. The family Bible which is still 
in the possession of a descendant, gives the date of his 
birth, March 10, 1765. 

Probably the memory of no one of those early settlers 
of this count}^ Avho served their country in the war of 
the Revolution is better preserved in this locality, than 
that of Isaac Royal; quite likely from the fact that he 
served under that eminent naval hero, Paul Jones. 


Popular local tradition has it that he served with Jones 
on the Bon Homme Richard and took part in the cele- 
brated fight with the Serapis, but those of Mr. Royal's 
descendants who best remember the stories of his service, 
as told by him, which have been handed down to the 
present generation, fail to recollect anything ever related 
by him about that great fight. Take all the facts obtain- 
able and compare them with the history of John Paul 
Jones and of his several commands, it seems quite con- 
clusive that Mr. Royal was a cabin-boy on the Ranger, 
and that his service was confined to that ship. 

Mrs. Mary L. Proctor of Maynard, Mass., is a 
descendant who seems to have the history of her ancestor 
best preserved in memory, and she writes: "I got the 
impression when I was very young that the Royals came 
from New Hampshire. ***** j \^^yQ always 
understood that my great grandfather (Isaac Royal) 
enlisted as a cabin-bo}' at the age of twelve years, on 
board John Paul Jones' vessel, the Bon Homme 
Richard." Mrs. Proctor is undoubtedly correct, except 
that the ship was the Ranger instead of the Richard. 
A large part of the Ranger's crew was recruited in Ports- 
mouth, and she sailed from that port November 1, 1777; 
at that time Mr. Royal would have been twelve years 
old, so this corresponds with the family tradition of his 
enlistment at the age of twelve. 

The crew of the Bon Homme Richard numbered three 
hundred and seventy-five, but not more than fifty of 
these were Americans, and these fifty were nearly all 
exchanged prisoners from England. There is a complete 
roster of the Richard in existence, including the cabin- 
boys, and the name of Isaac Royal does not appear there. 
So while we must somewhat reluctantly deny him the 
honor of being a member of that celebrated ship's crew, 
the honor of having served on the Ranger, the ship 


which first caused an English ship of war to lower her 
colors to an enemy of equal or inferior strength, is 
hardly a lesser one. 

No official roster of the crew of the Ranger is in 
existence, hence it is impossible to determine authorita- 
tively the service of all those who made up her comple- 
ment of sailors and apprentice boys. 

The story of the cruise of the Ranger, bearing the 
official dispatches to our commissioners in France, con- 
taining the news of Burgoyne's surrender, the prizes 
captured by her, and the fight with the Drake, are mat- 
ters of history of which there is no need of repeating 
here. Those were the stirring scenes in which Isaac 
Royal in his humble position as a cabin-boy, took part. 

Maclay, in his History of the Navy, in describing the 
make-up of the crew of a war frigate at the time of the 
Revolution, says of the cabin-boy: "Then came that 
institution peculiar to sea life known as the 'boy. ' He 
was employed chiefly as a servant to officers and messes, 
but in time of battle he was called a 'powder monkey,' 
for then he was required to bring ammunition from the 
passing scuttles to the guns. The captain of a frigate 
usually had both a steward and a boy who acted as his 
servants, while the lieutenants, purser, surgeon and sail- 
ing master were entitled to one boy each. * * * * 
One boy was allotted to the gunner, boatswain and a 
few others as a special favor, while a man and a boy were 
appointed to a certain number of midshipmen." 

The following story was told to me by a great grand- 
son of Isaac Royal, who said it was one of the many 
told him by his grandfather, John Royal. Mr. John 
Royal had heard it related man}' times by his father 
Isaac. "At one time when I was a cabin-boy with John 
Paul Jones, we were cruising in English waters and fell 
in with an English merchant ship, at night, and anchored 


near her. I think we were flying the EngHsh flag. In 
the early morning Capt. Jones invited the English captain 
on board for breakfast. The Englishman accepted the 
invitation and came to our ship with several of his offi- 
cers. While at breakfast, Jones, unbeknown to the 
Englishmen, ordered the American flag to be run up to 
the masthead. Breakfast over the visitors were escorted 
on deck and Capt. Jones, directing their attention to the 
colors, said, 'Look at the handsome flag at the masthead, 
the colors under which I sail.' They did so, and to 
their intense chagrin and wrath saw the stars and stripes. 
They were made prisoners, and their vessel was taken as 
a prize." 

Very little can be learned about Isaac Royal prior to 
his settlement in Dover. He was married to his wife 
Tabitha probably in 1786; their first child, Olive, was 
born May 7, 1787. In 1806 he was a resident of Frank- 
fort, Me., and it is quite likely that this was his first 
place of settlement in this State. The fact of his resi- 
dence in Frankfort is established by a reference to the 
family record of the son, John, which record states that 
he, John, was born in Frankfort, July 18, 1806. 

Isaac Royal settled in Dover about the year 1810, 
possibly a little earlier, on lot 12, in the 10th 
range, and partially cleared the farm now (1909) owned 
by Lincoln Dow. He brought with him his family of 
ten or eleven children, and the first land cleared was the 
field south of the present house of Mr. Dow. 

He lived only a few years after his settlement in 
Dover. He died of typhus fever November 20, 1816, 
and is buried on the land that he first cleared when he 
came to Dover. The grave has never been desecrated by 
the several owners, and although at times the land all 
around it has been cultivated, the plow has never turned 
these hallowed sods since the time when that which was 


mortal of Mr. Royal was placed there. One daughter, 
Dorcas, who died April 1, 1814, at the age of about 
sixteen years, is buried beside him. 

Mr. Royal was the father of eleven children : Olive, 
Jacob, Mitchell, Isaac, Ephraim, Dorcas, Eunice, Lucy, 
Esther, John and Richard. 

In 1896 some of the public spirited citizens of Dover 
thought that the village cemetery would be a more fitting 
resting place for the remains of Mr. Royal than the field 
where they had lain so long. An article was inserted in 
the warrant for the annual town meeting for that year, 
to see if the town would vote to remove them to the vil- 
lage cemetery and erect a suitable stone to mark the 
spot. The towTi voted so to do, and appropriated fifty 
dollars to purchase a monument. After this action by 
the town, communication was had with some of the liv- 
ing descendants, and it was discovered that it was one 
of the last expressed wishes of Mr. Royal that he be 
buried in the field that he had labored so hard to redeem 
to cultivation, and at their request his wish was respected. 

ELEAZER SPAULDING. Foxcroft— Dover. 

Eleazer Spaulding was born in Pepperell, Mass. , Janu- 
ary 21, 1759, was the son of Eleazer, and was the oldest 
of a family of seven children. He enlisted in the Con- 
tinental Army as a private April 25, 1775, in Capt. Asa 
Lawrence's company, Col. William Prescott's regiment, 
of the Massachusetts Line, and served at this enlistment 
three months and eight days. Later he reenlisted in the 
same regiment, and his total service was about two years. 
He was in the battles of Bunker Hill and White Plains. 

In 1778 Eleazer Spaulding, Sr., with his four sons, 
Eleazer, Josiah, John and Seth, moved to Norridgewock 
in the District of Maine, and were among the early set- 


tiers of that place. In 1784, Eleazer, Jr., married 
Sarah Spaulding, the daughter of Lemuel Spaulding. 
He reared a family of eight children, all of whom 
were born in Norridgewock. In 1806 he removed to 
Foxcroft with his family and became one of the first 
three settlers of the town. For a number of years the 
place was called Spauldingtown, from the three brothers, 
John, Eleazer and Seth, who were the three first settlers. 

Eleazer, with his two brothers above mentioned, built 
the first dam and erected the first saw and grist-mill in 
Foxcroft. Col. Joseph E. Foxcroft, the proprietor, con- 
tracted with John Spaulding and Abel Blood in 1805 to 
build the dam and mills, and in 1806 Mr. Blood sold out 
his interests to Eleazer and Seth Spaulding, and the three 
brothers completed the contract, which was to have the 
mills in operation on or before January 1, 1807. This 
was the first dam across the Piscataquis River. 

When one stops to consider the difficulties encountered 
in undertaking such a contract he will then understand 
something of the character of these sturdy pioneers who 
settled our territory. Hardly a horse could be had to 
haul the timber for the dam and mills ; every timber and 
board was hewed and prepared by hand ; all the machinery 
and hardware used in the construction were brought up 
from Bangor, and for about twenty miles the road was 
nothing but a trail through the forest, not passable for 
wagons; there were no bridges across the streams and 
bogs ; the load was hauled on two long shafts, the ends 
of which dragged on the ground; and the horse stuck 
fast in the mire, or the load dumped into a stream, were 
not infrequent occurrences. Yet, in spite of all these 
obstacles, the dam and mills were completed within the 
contract limit. 

When Eleazer Spaulding came to Foxcroft he settled 
on lot number 11, near the falls, where the village 


now is, and built himself a log- house. Within a very 
few years after the completion of the dam and mills all 
the Spauldings sold out their interests in Foxcroft and 
settled in Dover. Eleazer took up lot 27, in the center 
range, Perham's surve}-, located on the south side of the 
river about two miles east of the present village. Here 
he cleared up a farm, erected comfortable buildings, and 
lived the remainder of his days. During the last few 
years of his life he lived in the family of his son Joseph, 
to whom he deeded his farm in consideration of his life 

He died April 19, 1850, aged 91 years and three 
months, and his remains rest in the Dover village ceme- 
tery. In 1818 he received a pension for his Revolu- 
tionary services. 


Samuel Stickney was the son of William Stickney and 
Mary (Sawyer) Stickney, and was born in Rowley, 
Mass., May 13, and baptized in Bayfield May 16, 1762. 
He was the eighth of a family of nine children. 

Mr. Stickney enlisted in the army four times. His 
first enlistment was July 6, 1778, as a fifer in Capt. 
Simeon Brown's company. Col. Nathan Wade's regi- 
ment, for six months. This was for service at Rhode 
Island. He was discharged at East Greenwich, R. I., at 
the expiration of his service. His second enlistment was 
as a sergeant in Capt. Benjamin Peabody's company. 
Col. Jacob Gerrish's regiment, October 14, 1779; was 
discharged November 22, 1779, and was allowed one 
month and nineteen days' service, which included eleven 
days' travel home, which was a distance of two hundred 
and twenty miles. 

Mr. Stickney again enlisted July 31, 1780, and this 


time for the town of Bradford, Mass., and marched from 
that place July 24, 1780, and arrived at Springfield 
July 30, and then marched to camp the day following in 
Capt. Moses Greenleaf s company, where he enlisted. 
He is described as eighteen years old ; stature five feet, 
nine inches ; complexion ruddy. This enlistment was for 
six months and he was discharged at West Point, Decem- 
ber 16, 1780, and was allowed five months and four days' 
service, giving him travel home, two hundred and forty 
miles. On August 4, 1781, he again entered the service 
as a fifer in Capt. John Robinson's company. Col. 
William Turner's regiment. He served until November 
27 of that year in Rhode Island, when he received an 
honorable discharge with the rank of major. 

After his army service he returned to his home in 
Rowley, and on May 11, 1784, he married Irene 
Rawlings of Newbury. Not long after his marriage he 
removed to Newbury and resided there until the death of 
his wife, which occurred in September, 1787. Two chil- 
dren, Irene and Samuel, were born to them. Soon after 
the death of his wife he removed to Bradford, Mass., 
and on April 29, 1792, he married Patty Atwood. He 
moved from Bradford to Ware, N. H., before 1799. 

He came to Brown ville. Me., in 1809, and was an 
early settler here. By his second marriage he had eleven 
children, making in all thirteen, all but three of whom 
lived to grow to manhood and womanhood. When he 
came to Brownville he settled on the farm that is known 
to-day as the Stickney place, about a mile east of the 
village, on the road to Lake View, and that farm is still 
occupied (1909) by one of his direct descendants, Clinton 
Stickney, a great grandson. 

Mr. Stickney was a man of strong physique, although 
not of great stature, and many stories are told of his 
great endurance and strength, many of which have 


undoubtedly lost nothing in their repetition. He was 
the first mail-carrier between Brownville and Bangor, 
and some of the tales of the great loads carried by him 
are remarkable. On one of his trips, it is said, he car- 
ried on his back from Sebec to Brownville an old-fashioned 
hand-loom. When he commenced his duties as mail- 
carrier the trips were made on foot, and on one occasion 
as he started to step over a fallen tree, an old she bear 
rose up from the other side and was about to attack him. 
He had nothing with which to defend himself, but on his 
shoulder he was carrying a bag of potatoes; this he 
threw, striking the bear full in the head, causing her to 
beat a hasty retreat. He then gathered up his potatoes 
and went on his journey unmolested. 

He resided in Brownville until his death, which 
occurred January 9, 1835, at the age of 72 years and 
eight months. He had lived long enough to see that 
which was a wilderness when he settled there, grow into 
a prosperous community, and from his homestead on 
Stickney Hill he could look down onto the village, 
where, when he came to make a home for himself, there 
were only two or three buildings. 

His wife Patty survived him over ten years, residing 
with her son Simeon on the old homestead. In 1840 she 
received a pension as a widow of a Revolutionary soldier. 
She died October 2, 1845; aged 73 years. They are 
buried in the Brownville village cemetery, and a suitable 
monument marks their last earthly resting place. 


Although Asa Sturtevant was not a long-time resident 
of Piscataquis County, yet he lived in Dover for a num- 
ber of years in the family of his son Asa ; long enough 
to be considered a permanent resident here, and he has 
numerous descendants still living in the town. 


He was born in the town of Halifax, Mass., in the 
year 1761. 

Mr. Sturtevant had a long and varied career in the 
Continental Army. His first service was as a private in 
Lieut. Joshua Perkins' detachment from Capt. George 
Hammond's company, Col. Thomas Lothrop's regiment, 
on an alarm. This detachment marched to Bristol, 
R. I., in March, 1777, and was in the service fourteen 
days. His second enlistment was September 3, 1777, as 
a private in Capt. Edward Sparrow's company. Col. 
Danforth Key's regiment, to serve in the New England 
States, and he served with his regiment in Rhode Island. 
He received his discharge January 2, 1778, giving him 
four months of service. 

On February 3, 1778, he again enlisted, this time for 
the remainder of the first three years. He was mustered 
into Capt. Joshua Benson's company and Col. Rufus 
Putnam's regiment of the Massachusetts Line. He was 
discharged May 14, 1780, at the Highlands, near West 
Point. His whole service at this enlistment was two 
years, three months and twenty days, the last nineteen 
months of which he had the rank of a fifer. He was 
one of the twelve hundred men under Mad Anthony 
Wayne, who participated in the storming and capture of 
Stony Point, July 16, 1779. 

In June, 1781, Mr. Sturtevant again enlisted for 
another three years' service, making the fourth gift of 
his services to his countrj- in her great struggle for inde- 
pendence. I will use his own words, found in an affidavit 
signed by him in his application for a pension, to describe 
this term. He states: "I again enlisted into the Revo- 
lutionary War, against the common enemy, in the month 
of June, 1781, for the term of three years, into the 
company commanded by Captain (Henry) Sewall and 
regt. commanded by Col. (Ebeneazer) Sproat, of the 


Mass. Line. After a few months I was transferred into 
Capt. Robt. Bradford's company in the same regt. and 
line. I continued to serve until the 18th day of Dec. 
1783, when at West Point I received my final discharge 
from the Army. My discharge was signed by Genl. 
Knox. It has since been burnt in and with my camps 
in the woods. My last three years above stated in the 
Continental establishment, was as a private soldier." 
So, from 1777 until the final discharge of the soldiers 
in 1783, Mr. Sturtevant was almost constantly in the 
service ; a record to be proud of, and an honorable legacy 
to his heirs. 

It is impossible to obtain data so as to give any con- 
nected history of his life, as he seemed to be of a roving 
disposition, and enjoyed the society of strangers to that 
of intimates ; even in his old age he preferred to be alone 
and by himself, rather than to be with his relatives. 

As stated before, he was born in Halifax; three of 
his enlistments seem to be credited to the towTi of 
Plympton, Mass., and one to Middleboro, all Plymouth 
County towns. 

On June 3, 1786, he married Sally Washburn. It 
was probably about this time that he came to Maine. 
He settled on lot 4, range 9, in the place then called 
Number 4, the present town of Paris. Just how long he 
lived here cannot be ascertained. He was one of the re- 
monstrants against the incorporation of the town in the 
autumn of 1792; in 1798 he appears on the list of tax- 
payers in the town, being the possessor of lands valued 
at one hundred and twenty dollars; in 1802 a movement 
was made to divide the town, and Mr. Sturtevant' s name 
appears on a petition in favor of the measure, and later 
he, with others, signed a second petition against the 
proposed division, stating that the first petition was 
signed under a misapprehension of the existing facts. 


In 1804 he sold his interest in lot 6, range 9, to Deacon 
Caleb Prentiss. His wife Sally died October 3, 1805. 
His children by this wife were William, Jonah, Asa and 
Mary (?). 

April 16, 1806, he married Eunice Morse, who died 
in June or July, 1813. By her he had four children, 
Mary A,, Mercy, Azubah and Eunice. It appears that 
he lived in Paris until his second wife's death, in 1813, 
as we have it on very good authority that his daughter 
Eunice was born there in 1812 or 1813. 

From the last named date up to the time of his death 
his itinerary cannot be accurately ti-aced. He applied 
for a pension April 25, 1818, and in his application 
gives his residence as Fairfax, (now Albion). In 1820, 
in affidavits filed in the pension department, he gives his 
residence, Winslow; in this paper he mentions a third 
wife, named Dorcas. 

His son Asa was an early settler in the town of Dover, 
Me., and for a number of years Mr. Sturtevant resided 
with him. On April 30, 1835, he applied for State 
bounty granted to Revolutionary soldiers, and gave his 
residence as Dover. He lived here for a time after this, 
but not long after removed ; to what place is unknown. 
His descendants here and in other parts of Maine have 
no trace of him after leaving Dover. 

When he died, or where he is buried, are unknown to 
any of the living. 

"All that tread 
The globe are but a handful to the tribes 
That slumber in its bosom." 


ICHABOD THOMAS. Brownville. 
Ichabod Thomas was born in Duxbury, :Mass., the 
latter part of the year 1757 or early in 1758. His 
parents, Joseph and Eleanor Thomas, were of Quaker 


Being one of the non-fighting Quakers, he did not 
enlist in the army of his own accord, but was drafted for 
the service. In the fall of 1776, after the disastrous 
battle of Long Island and the evacuation of New York, 
there was a great need of troops, and many were drafted, 
and Ichabod Thomas was one of the many. 

He entered the service September 23, 1776, and served 
fifty-eight days with the Massachusetts militia in Rhode 
Island. He was in Capt. Calvin Partridge's company, 
and Col. John Cushing's regiment. After the particular 
exigency for which the militia was called out had passed, 
he received his discharge. Mr. Thomas did not again 
enlist ; probably on account of his religious views. 

Many of the early settlers of the town of Sidney, in 
Kennebec County, were Friends, and Mr. Thomas 
removed from Duxbury to this settlement at about the 
close of the Revolution, or in a short time afterwards. 
Sidney was incorporated as a town January 30, 1792, 
and for many years Mr. Thomas was one of its most 
prominent citizens. He was the first town clerk, in 
1792 ; he also held that office in 1798 and in 1813. He 
served five successive terms as selectman, from 1795 to 
1800. He was town treasurer in 1802 and again in 
1804. He represented his class in the General Court of 
Massachusetts for two terms, 1812 and 1813. During 
his residence in Sidney he married Mehitable Crosby. 

In April, 1815, he purchased the north half of town- 
ship number 6, range 9, N. W. P., now known as 
Katahdin Iron Works township, gave up his comfortable 


home in Sidney, and moved into a new and rugged 
country. He lived in Williamsburg for about a year 
before going onto his new possession. He leased a farm 
there, in that part now Barnard, and had a temporary 
home while he was engaged in opening a road to his 
lands, building him a house and making something of a 
clearing for his farm. 

It was in the year 1816 that he moved onto his farm 
in number 6, with his family. The place is located on 
the intervale about three miles above the present settle- 
ment, and at that time he was ten miles or more from 
his nearest neighbors in Williamsburg and Brownville. 
He lived there but a few years, and in 1821 sold his Iron 
Works property and moved to Brownville. His reason 
for so doing I am unable to state, but it seems quite 
probable that the isolation of the place, and the lone- 
someness and inconvenience in living so far from any 
other habitation, might have tended towards the change. 

On January 8, 1821, he bought of Moses Brown, the 
proprietor of Brownville, five hundred acres of land in 
Brownville and immediately moved his family to that 
town. His old home is still standing, known as the 
Joseph W. Davis place, (1908), and Stephen A. Thomas, 
a grandson of Ichabod, is still living on another part of 
the farm in the buildings erected by one of Ichabod' s 
sons. The farm at Katahdin Iron Works has never been 
occupied since Mr. Thomas abandoned it, although it 
has always been cultivated, and it is one of the productive 
farms of the county to-day. 

After his removal to Brownville, Mr. Thomas at once 
assumed a prominent position in the affairs of the town. 
He held various offices under the plantation organization, 
and in 1824, when the town was incorporated, he was 
elected one of the selectmen, also a tithing-man; he was 
also elected to various minor offices such as pound-keeper, 


fish- warden, etc. In 1821 he received every vote cast in 
his town for representative to the Legislature, but did 
not receive the election. 

Mr. Thomas always dressed in the garb of the 
Quakers, and a very few of the oldest residents of 
Brownville remember him as he appeared in the long 
drab coat and broad-brim hat commonly worn by the 

He died in Brownville February 25, 1845, at the age 
of 87 years. His remains are buried in the Brownville 
village cemetery, beside his wife and mother, and the 
spot is marked by a marble shaft. He received a pension 
for his military services March 10, 1834. 


Thomas Towne was the son of Elisha and Mercy 
(Foster) Towne, and was born at Topsfield, Mass., 
February 8, 1743. He was the fifth generation from 
William Towne, who was the common ancestor of nearly 
aU the Townes of New England, and who came to this 
continent about 1640 and first settled in Salem, but 
shortly after removed to Topsfield, Mass. 

Thomas Towne first married Elizabeth Towne of 
Thompson, Conn. She lived but a short time after her 
marriage, and for a second wife he married Sarah Burton 
of Wilton, N. H. He was the father of a family of 
thirteen children; the first, Sarah, born in 1775, and 
the last, Mary, born March 4, 1790. 

Mr. Towne was one of the early settlers of Wilton, 
N. H., which was incorporated in 1762, but in the year 
1778 or 1779 he changed his residence to Temple in the 
same state, where he resided until he came to Maine in 
1802; except he possibly may have lived for a short time 
in Lyndeborough. 


Thomas Towne's first service in the Continental Army 
was in Capt. Benjamin Taylor's company of militia, 
which marched from Amherst, N. H., December 8, 1775, 
to join the regulars at Winter Hill, near Boston. Just 
how long his service was at this time is not certain, but 
it appears that he served until after the evacuation of 
Boston by the British, March 17, 1776. His next 
enlistment was in Capt. John Goss' company, Nichols' 
regiment and Gen. Stark's brigade, with the Northerti 
Department. He enlisted July 20, 1777, and was in the 
service at this time two months and eight days, receiving 
his discharge September 27, 1777. He was one of those 
patriots who won enduring fame and glory at the battle 
of Bennington, on August 16, 1777, and who assisted 
Gen. Stark in winning for his services the just recognition 
of merit so long deferred. 

These soldiers under Stark to the number of about 
eight hundred, were gathered together hurriedly, and 
were entirely independent of the regular army ; in fact, 
the whole conduct of the Genertil in the matter was a 
piece of insubordination, but such splendid success 
crowned his doings that the insubordination was over- 
looked, and the man and his services were accepted at 
their true worth. 

Thomas Towne's military services are credited to the 
town of Wilton, N. H., where he resided at the time. 

As above stated, he removed to Temple, N. H., in 
1778 or 1779, and hved there until 1802 when he came 
to Maine. He came to that part of Piscataquis County 
which is now Dover, in the fall of 1801, on a hunting 
expedition, accompanied by his son Moses. While here 
Moses bargained with Abel Blood for a part of a tract 
of land which Blood had bought of the proprietors, and 
on which he was then making a clearing. In the spring 
of 1802, Thomas, with two of his sons, Moses and Eli, 


returned and made a clearing, planted a small crop, and 
built a cabin. Their land was located on the site of the 
present village of East Dover. They remained here 
until fall, when Eli went back to Temple, having made 
arrangements to return the following spring with his 
famih'. Thomas and Moses spent the winter of 1802-3 
on their new possessions, subsisting on the small crop 
they had harvested in the autumn, but no doubt well 
supplied with fish and game by the old gentleman, whose 
prowess as a hunter is unquestioned. 

After the corn had been harvested Mr. Towne fash- 
ioned from stone, a mortar and pestle by the means of 
which, with considerable labor, they reduced the corn to 
a coarse meal, or, as then called, samp, an article of diet 
originating with the American Indians. Father and son 
wintered in good health and with a fair degree of com- 
fort, and were ready and waiting to welcome Eli, who 
arrived with his wife and child on May 8, 1803. Eli 
was the first settler who came into Piscataquis County 
with his famih', and became a permanent resident. 
Moses sold out his interest to Eli and soon after took up 
another tract of land nearby, but the father, Thomas, 
always made his home with Eli. 

Thomas Towne was a famous hunter. He once made 
the remark, "I never lost any game for fear of being 
bitten or scratched, sir." Some of the stories told of 
him are well avouched for and are worth repeating. 
Once a loupcervier was discovered in a cornfield not far 
from the cabin, and one of his sons started out to capture 
it ; the old gentleman followed close in his wake, and as 
the younger man was about to fire, his father cautioned : 
"Take good sight, son, take good sight." The shot 
was fired, but the wound was not fatal, and before the 
son could reload his firearm, Mr. Towne had rushed apon 
the animal and throttled it. 


On another occasion he had fired a shot at a bear 
swimming across a pond, and as the shot did not take 
effect in a vital part, the bear kept on swimming for the 
shore. As he neared the land the hunter's dog rushed 
in and grappled with him ; the bear, in self-defense, 
started to put up a vigorous fight, and succeeded in 
dragging the dog under water where he soon would have 
drowned. Uncle Thomas seeing the danger to his favor- 
ite comrade, took to the water himself with the cry, 
"Drown my dog, will ye!" and soon, with his own 
hands, came off the conqueror, and came to the shore 
with a dead bear and a live dog. 

Thomas Towne first received a pension under the act 
of 1818, which benefit he drew until his death. During 
the later years of his life his eyesight began to fail, and 
for a few years before he died he became totally blind. 
He lived to a ripe old age and before he passed away he 
had seen the unbroken wilderness about his primitive 
homestead assume the aspects of civilization ; a thriving 
settlement grown up about his humble cabin, and Piscat- 
aquis County, instead of having one lone family for its 
inhabitants, supporting a population numbered by 
thousands, with twelve incorporated towns and settle- 
ments on nearly as many more townships. 

Mr. Towne died May 28, 1824, at the age of 81 
years. His remains rest in an unmarked grave in the 
East Dover cemetery, almost within the shadow of his 
first dwelling place here. He has numerous descendants 
in this locality. 

Notes of the Crosby Family and a 
Sketch of the Life of Josiah Crosby 

By S. P. Crosby 
To THE Piscataquis Couxri- Historical Society: 

I HAVE the honor of being asked by your president to 
contribute a paper upon the ancestry of the Crosby 
family, and especially a sketch of my father's life, the 
late Josiah Crosby of Dexter, Me. 

In consenting to undertake this work I have decided 
to state the facts as well as I remember them in a plain 
and simple manner, without rhetorical or literary effect. 

Having visited the "Old Crosby Home" and farm in 
Atkinson many times in my boyhood and manhood, and 
usually in company with my father and other relations, 
and having had many conversations with my father and 
his brothers and sisters concerning the lives of their 
parents, I feel somewhat informed concerning them. 

My grandfather, Oliver Crosby, was born in Billerica, 
Mass., March 17th, 1769; graduated from Harvard 
College in 1795, (standing second in class rank) and 
married Harriet Chase of Portsmouth, N. H., Septem- 
ber 11, 1800. 

It was in Billerica that grandfather heard the first 
guns fired at Lexington, the commencement of the Revo- 
lution. Later in life he frequently stated this thrilling 
fact to his children, also giving many incidents of those 

He moved with his family from Billerica to Dover, 


N. H., where he was admitted to the bar and practiced 
law until 1822. 

In 1812 he was part owner in a sailing vessel which 
was seized by the British; and in 1817-22 he was owner 
of a cotton manufacturing plant in Dover. 

In 1820 there was an exodus from the interior and 
southern parts of New England to a more eastern part 
of that section of the country, where land was selling 
cheap. It was this movement, in part at least, that 
induced Grandfather Oliver Crosby to leave the pleasant 
and prosperous village of Dover and to seek a home in 
the "woods of Maine." 

This act of his, leaving a cultivated locality, happy 
surroundings, the comforts of life, was not only criti- 
cised by his family but met with many objections. 

But the man being the head of the household (a com- 
mon characteristic in the Crosby family) the move was 
decided upon. The move was made by team. Atkinson 
in Piscataquis County was the destination. A log house 
was constructed, which was located about eight hundred 
feet south of the large and commodious frame house subse- 
quently built. This latter building yet stands in a fair 
state of preservation. 

It will be remembered by the elder residents of Piscat- 
aquis that the "Old Crosby Place," so-called, is about 
one mile east and a little north of Atkinson Corner. 
The members of the family have often spoken of the 
happy days spent in the log house, which served well for 
several j^ears, until the commodious frame "mansion" 
was erected. One peculiarity of the latter house is the 
sliding shutters on the windows, sliding into and through 
the casings and into the walls, but when pulled out over 
the windows excluding every ray of light, thus making 
the rooms almost sealed, and more private than any mod- 
ern curtain or blind. 


The old clock in the hall, with its dignified propor- 
tions, the fireplaces, one in each room, a speaking-tube 
from cellar to garret, the old well with its windlass and 
oaken bucket in the ell of the house, with its never fail- 
ing supply of water, sparkling and cold, were among the 
many things of interest in the old house. 

The towns of Atkinson and Charleston were originally 
o^v'ned by Atkinson, Livermore and Crosby, the three 
owning about equal parts. 

When a boy I occasionally met a man who would say 
during conversation, "I bought my land from your grand- 
father. ' ' He sold many thousand acres, finally reserv- 
ing for himself between three and four hundred acres for 
his homestead, and farmed it all. Although before 
the days of railroads, or even common highways, and 
farm machinery and modern methods unknown, he made 
farming on a large scale very successful. 

In those primitive days more thought, or much 
thought, was bestowed by the progressive citizen upon 
rearing and educating a large family of children, build- 
ing up character, and instilling into them strong man- 
hood and womanhood, rather than concentrating their 
forces upon accumulating large wealth. 

In haying time about twenty extra men were employed. 
They slept in the attic upon camp-beds. It was one of 
my father's childhood delights during heavy rain-storms 
to go up and sleep with the men, and hear the big drops 
of rain patter on the roof. 

In its day the old place was well known in that part of 
the State, and its many social gatherings brought friends 
from long distances. The old-fashioned "carryall" 
being the only vehicle of comfort in doubtful weather, 
was always used by friends from Bangor and other places 
in what was called a "carryall drive." Some came on 


The old bam-raisiiigs, huskiiig-bees and paring-bees 
were in vogue in those days. Appropriate poetry was 
written by someone upon the raising of the long barn on 
the old place, and many years after this poem was 
resurrected and published in the Bangor Commercial. 
I remember the poem recited something about the refresh- 
ments, and that one happy-spirited fellow climbed up 
the newly erected frame to the ridge-pole and there pro- 
posed a toast, and threw his bottle to the ground. I do 
not think the nature of the contents of said bottle were 
mentioned. It must not be forgotten, however, that the 
temperance question did not engage the minds of the 
people in those da}s so strongly and decisively as at the 
present time, and prohibition had not achieved such 

My grandfather had the acquaintance and friendship 
of all the more prominent and intellectual families in 
that vicinity, some of whom became especially eminent. 
The late Chief Justice John Appleton lived at Sebec, 
about three miles away, and was a frequent visitor, as 
was also Hon. Abram Sanborn, Judge Kent and others 
from Bangor. There were many visitors from Foxcroft 
and Dover, and in fact from over Piscataquis County 
and Penobscot, whose names I shall not attempt to give. 
But it was safe to say the latch-string was always out at 
the "Old Crosby Homestead." 

The Piscataquis River runs through the farm on the 
north, and in the days of which we are writing, salmon 
abounded in plenty in the old river. They must have been 
plentiful, as this delicious fish then retailed at three cents 
a pound. 

There were six children born to my grandparents: 
Harriet, born June 12, 1801, married Ephraim T. 
Morrill, and for a while they carried on the old farm. 
She died in Bangor. Their children were Oliver Crosby 


Morrill, Caroline Frothingliam, George Prentice and 
DeWitt Clinton. Caroline (or Carrie) is the only sur- 
vivor ; she married a ■Nlr. Brown, deceased, and the 
widow now lives in the South. She has a grown son and 

Oliver, the second child, was born in Dover, N. H., 
November 30, 1802 ; married Elizabeth Foss. They car- 
ried on a small farm in Atkinson, about half a mile from 
the old place, nearer "the Corner." They moved to 
Fountaindale, 111., in the early seventies, where they are 
now survived by their two children, Harriet Chase (Mrs. 
Edward Bebb) and Frances or Fannie. 

William Chase, the third child, was born in Dover, 
N. H., December 2, 1806. Early in life he was a farmer 
in Atkinson and built the house now standing nearl}^ 
opposite the old home. Later he became a lawyer in 
Bangor, whose counsel was much engaged in a certain class 
of cases, especially in city affairs and bankruptcy pro- 
ceedings. He married Mary Wilson, November 26, 
1832, who died October 28, 1865. Their children were 
Wilson, born October 18, 1834; Horace, born June 6, 
1838; Mary, born December 24, 1839; and William, 
born July 3, 1843. The survivors are Horace, residing 
in New Rochelle, N. Y. ; William, residing in California, 
and Mary, residing in Bangor. William was married 
the second time to Susan W. Dunmore, now deceased; 
no children, 

Cornelia, the fourth child, was born in Dover, N. H., 
March 20, 1810, married to Dr. Amasa Barett in 1844, 
resided in Bangor for a number of years, and later on a 
farm in Brewer. Their children were Martha and 
Harriet. Martha died many years ago but Harriet still 
lives. She married Jules Golay, now deceased, and later 
one Powers. She now resides in Machiasport, Me., with 
her married daughters. 


Henrietta, the fifth child, was born in Dover, N. H,, 
November 27, 1814; she married George W. Ingersoll 
of Bangor; at one time he was attorney general for 
Maine. Three children were born: Edward Chase, 
Alice C. , and Frances H. The only survivor is Frances, 
who now resides in Washington, D. C. , and holds an 
important government position. 

Josiah, the youngest child of Oliver and Harriet, will 
be mentioned under a separate heading. 

There are now no survivors of the original family of 
Oliver Crosby of Atkinson, the last to pass away being 
Cornelia, in 1906, in the 95th year of her age. The 
remains of Oliver and Harriet are interred in the old 
family burying-ground on the farm, a short distance west 
of the house. 

The artistic stone wall surrounding this sacred place 
is made of stones in their natural shape, with uniform 
faces; an artistic iron gate forms the entrance, placed 
there a few years ago by my brother Oliver, the name- 
sake of the family. Some of the stately old evergreen 
trees still remain, and others have grown up. Two plain 
marble slabs stand erect, and silent. Upon the one 
marking grandfather's resting place is a brief epitaph 
mentioning some of the principal events of his life, and 
closing with the Scriptural verse: "Mark the just man, 
and behold the upright, for the end of that man is 
peace. ' ' 

In writing of our ancestors we are naturally partial, 
and no doubt lean in their direction in extolling their 
virtues, perhaps unduly. While I never saw my grand- 
parents I have talked with many who knew them well, 
many besides the relations, and I believe I have portrayed 
them truthfully. Grandfather was a man eminently just 
in all things, but I do not think his mannerisms or mode 
of speech were always attractive, being somewhat com- 


manding and exacting of others, possibly a little self- 
centered, and might not, if living at the present day, 
be a very popular man. It is true, however, that those 
who knew him best were his warmest friends. He was 
classed as a rustic gentleman ; but if not possessed of 
those finishing touches and suaveness of manner, he car- 
ried through life those essentially sterling qualities which 
make the man. 

His wife was a woman of strong intellect and most 
thoroughly informed for her sex. Was very benevolent. 
She adhered to the old orthodox religion and its literal 
teachings till late in life when she seemed to have out- 
grown the old creeds and dogmas, and embraced the more 
rational faith of the Golden Rule and the Sermon on the 

About twenty years ago quite an unusual incident 
happened on my grandmother's side of the family. Her 
father, Stephen Chase of Portsmouth, N. H., was a 
ship owner, and engaged in the carrying trade. Three 
vessels, one with a cargo, were seized and confiscated by 
the French, in the days of Napoleon; these acts of 
depredation giving rise to the so-called French Spoliation 
Claims. It will be remembered that our government 
received its indemnity from France by arbitration a few 
years after ; but not until many years later and after a 
presidential veto, and then after a change of adminis- 
tration, were any of these claims allowed by Uncle Sam, 
and then only in part. The value of a single vessel was 
allowed and paid, which inured to the heirs of Stephen 
Chase, either as heirs or by right of representation. 
When divided a small sum was received by each of 

It has given me great pleasure to present the above. 



Josiah Crosby was born in Dover, N. H. , November 
24, 1816. He was the youngest son of Oliver and 
Harriet Crosby. He prepared for college at Foxcroft 
Academy, and by private instruction, and entered Bow- 
doin College, from which institution he was graduated in 
1835, standing with the first five in his class in rank. 
He was admitted to the Piscataquis County bar in 
1838, and after commencing practice in Kenduskeag (then 
Levant) and for a short time at Exeter, also, he located 
permanently at Dexter in 1845, where he resided and 
practiced law for fifty-nine years, being a member of the 
Maine State bar for sixty-six years, and continued in 
active practice up to the time of his death. 

Josiah Crosby married Henrietta Hill of Exeter, 
February 15, 1844, who died December 29, 1846. Two 
children were born, but both died in infancy. 

He married Mary Bradbury Foss of Dexter, daugh- 
ter of Simon Foss, February 27, 1849, and to them nine 
children were born, seven of whom are now living. 

The old homestead in Dexter, beautifully situated on 
Zion's Hill, a commodious structure with extensive 
grounds, is quite a landmark. It was always the pleasure 
of my parents to keep "open house" for friends, and 
strangers were always welcomed. A short distance below 
the beautiful terraces and among the stately elms is 
located the law office, where for more than half a century 
continuously clients were received, advice given, cases 
prepared for court, and the practice of law pursued in 
all its various forms. If those old walls could speak 
they could tell of a vast amount of hard work. My 
father was a great worker. Besides knowing the facts 
of a case as represented to him, and the law as well, he 
would give his most concentrated thought and reason as 


to how and in what way his case would best impress itself 
upon the court and jury. During all my close relations 
with him in the same office during m}^ student days, I 
never heard him utter or hint, by a suggestive word to a 
witness to modify or change his testimony; but, on the 
contrary, I have repeatedly heard him frankly advise 
clients to drop a case, or lose a verdict absolutely, than 
to attempt to win by questionable methods. 

As a lawyer he believed his clients' rights should be 
protected, and nothing left undone in their behalf, 
and never failed to thrust his spear into the hole in his 
brother lawyer's armor whenever he saw an opportunity. 
Lawyers will concede that this is permissible, in a legal 

Lawyer Crosby in the court room was quite a different 
man than when in his home, on the street, or in his 
office. I mean by this that while his honor and man- 
hood were never forgotten, the gentle, amiable, unassum- 
ing man out of court was a big contrast to this advocate 
in the legal forum. In court his faculties were aroused 
to a superlative degree, and, gladiatorlike, he was ready 
for any new fact or legal question that might arise. He 
had that characteristic quality of quick thought with 
wise judgment, so that when opposing counsel changed 
position and took a new tack he was equal to the occa- 
sion. It was these qualities he possessed, of which many 
more could be mentioned, together with his painstaking 
preparation of cases that made him so successful in the 
trial court. In the trial of a case he could not get his 
mind off the matter in hand from start to finish, and 
during the pendency of a case would eat lightly and 
sleep but little. 

In the room he always occupied in the Blethen House 
in Dover he could be seen burning the midnight oil pre- 
paring for the next day's battle. 


Among some of the noted cases he successfully tried 
were, the arson case of the State vs. Trustam H. Hurd, 
(associated with him being the late Hon. A. M. 
Robinson,) for the burning of a dwelling-house in the 
night time, a crime punishable by death at that time; 
verdict, not guilty; State vs. Mrs. Hall (arson) of 
Ripley ; verdict, not guilty ; State vs. Chadbournes 
(murder) of Parkman ; verdict, guilty ; (the elder 
Chadboume died in prison, and a pardon was secured for 
the son later;) State vs. Dr. Weed, charged with rob- 
bing Peter Bennett of Plymouth of $30,000; verdict, 
not guilty. 

Lawyer Crosby's practice was large and successful upon 
the civil side of the court, in law and equity. During 
the last twenty years of his practice he was greatly 
relieved and assisted by his son, J. Willis Crosby, who 
became his partner, and has since succeeded to the busi- 
ness, and who is held in high respect. 

The most friendly relations existed between Josiah 
Crosby and the members of the bench and bar. He was 
often associated with legal brethren in important cases, 
and with whom he would always take the part wherein 
he could be most useful ; bending his energies towards 
good results rather than for the glory or the emoluments 
of the case. 

In politics he was quite prominent, but in no sense 
could he be called a politician as the term is understood 
nowadays. He was a Whig until the Republican party 
came into existence, of which he was one of the original, 
and had a hand in the making of this popular party. 
He stood by his party until the early eighties, when he 
differed with its leaders upon the high protective policy 
and what seemed to him a strong leaning to favor the 
trusts and those who had accumulated large wealth, and 
ignoring the people at large who were the consumers and 


paid for these luxuries. From this time he joined the 
Democratic ranks. As to whether he acted wisely or 
otherwise I shall not attempt to say or express an opinion, 
but will unhesitatingly assert that his change in politics 
was not on account of disappointment of office nor 
because he was personally disgruntled. 

By this time he had liberally educated nearl}^ all of 
his children, which had been the great ambition of his 
life. He was enjoying a good law practice, and in com- 
fortable circumstances, and had no time or liking for 
many of the modern political methods used in getting 
elected to office. 

In 1856, 1863 and 1865 he was a member of the 
House of Representatives of Maine, and in 1867-8 he 
was a member of the Senate from Penobscot County, and 
was elected president of the Senate in 1868, being op- 
posed in the election by Nelson Dingle}- and Frederick 
Robie, both of whom were subsequently elected Gov- 
ernors of the State. He took a conspicuous part in im- 
portant legislation and made many effective speeches. 

Without solicitation he was nominated as the Demo- 
cratic candidate for Congress in 1890 from the Fourth 
District. He did not look for victoiy and spent the 
campaign period in Minnesota and Colorado, as he in- 
formed the convention he should do when nominated. 
He had no objection to being called a "mug-wump, " 
a political name of this time which will be remembered. 

My father was one of the happiest men in his family, 
and the children well knew they could always learn from 
him. It was while carrying on conversation with mem- 
bers of his family and friends that some of the resources 
of his mind were most noticeable. He would not be 
considered a stranger when invited into a.ny new field of 
knowledge; and as to what had been accomplished in the 
literary world he was easily at home in discussing. He 


was a great reader, and the books he especially liked he 
would be found reading again and again. He was a 
great admirer of the literature of the Bible; of some 
portions of it beyond all other books. His familiarity 
with Shakespeare was something remarkable. 

His habits were abstemious, but he preferred high 
license and local option to prohibition. He thought 
cider a blessing to the human race, notwithstanding its 
occasional abuse. 

His habit of bathing in cold water out of doors 
summer and winter, every morning, or jumping into the 
newly fallen snow as a substitute, might be called his 
eccentricity ; but he prized the daily practice as a means 
of preventing fevers, and giving to him the health and 
vigor which he enjoyed. 

He had travelled much in his own country and in 
1887 visited many parts of Europe. 

In one respect, that of being town-meeting moderator, 
he held the State record. From 1857 to 1887 he was 
continuously Dexter' s town-meeting moderator, and 
after his trip abroad he was again several times elected. 

The surviving children are Etta (now Mrs. James 
Bird), residing in Anacortes, Wash. ; May (Mrs. A. B. 
Stickney), residing in St. Paul, Minn. ; Oliver of St. 
Paul; S. P. of Braham, Minn.; J. Willis of Dexter, 
Me. ; Annie C. of St. Mary's College, Dallas, Tex., and 
Clara I., (Mrs. Chas. Altenberg), of Fairmont, Minn. ; 
and I am happy to add, all are in good health. 

In closing this brief sketch I will say that no more 
fitting words could be written of my father than those 
selected by the writer, concurred in by the family and 
engraved upon his monument: "His life was gentle; 
and the elements so mixed in him that Nature might 
stand up and say to all the world: This was a man." 

The North Eastern Boundary Contro- 
versy and the Aroostook War 

By John Francis Sprague 

A SERIOUS disagreement existed between the 
United States and Great Britain from the treaty 
of peace (1783) to the Webster-Ashburton treaty 
(1842), respecting the boundary Hne between what is 
now and was in 1842, the State of Maine and Canada, 
and known in history as the Northeast Frontier. 

In tracing back to the sources of this contention, 
which was acute for more than a half century, it 
seems to me that two causes were among the earliest and 
most predominating which led up to the general confu- 

The first was the fact that the English sovereigns 
were very ignorant of American geography and were 
perpetually making grants of lands irreconciliably and 
often grotesquely conflicting, and the second was the 
instinctive desire of the Anglo Saxon to possess himself 
of all of the territory of this earth within his reach. 

In 1493, Alexander VI, Pope of Rome, issued a bull, 
granting the New World, which Columbus had discov- 
ered, to the sovereigns of Spain and Portugal. 

In that age a papal bull was generally regarded by 
Christian nations as a sufficient title to heathen lands, 
and under this title Spain claimed the entire North 
American coast from Cape Florida to Cape Breton. 

John I" \ I ii I I i;i.i) 
("iovi;nN(in or .Main i:. 

I S.Sfl 


France, although a Catholic nation, was in unison 
with England, which had then become Protestant, in 
protesting against such an exclusive and unfair grant. 

So far as there was an issue between England and 
Spain about American territory it was settled by Sir 
Francis Drake in 1588, by the victory over the Spanish 
Armada in the British Channel, which has been the scene 
of so many famous naval battles and where so much of 
the world's history has been made. 

But England had not submitted to the slow process of 
waiting for the God of battles to determine her rights 
by discovery and conquest as they then stood in the 
western hemisphere. In 1495-6, three years after its 
discovery and before Columbus had seen it, Henry VII, 
King of England, issued a commission to John Cabot 
and his sons, "to seek out, discover and find whatsoever 
Isles, Countries, Regions or Provinces of the heathens 
and infidels" hitherto unknown to all Christians, and, 
as vassals of the king, to hold the same by his authority. 

In 1502, the same king issued authority to Hugh 
Eliot and Thomas Ashurst to discover and take possession 
of the "Islands and Continents" in America. 

As early as 1524 and many years before England had 
actually asserted jurisdictional rights on this continent, 
Francis I, King of France, doubted the "clause in 
Adam's will" which made this continent the incontro- 
vertible possession of "his brothers of Spain and Portu- 
gal" and sent out discoverers and explorers, who explored 
the entire coast from the thirtieth to the fiftieth degree 
of latitude, and named the whole region New France. 

Ten years later Jacques Quartier, known in English 
history as "Cartier, " commissioned by the same king, 
made several voyages to America and took possession of 
Canada. The French government maintained it ever 
after until its titles were lost by treaties and conquest. 


On the 8th of November, 1603, Henry IV, King of 
France, appointed Pier de Monts, his lieutenant-general, 
in the country, territories, coast and limits of Cadia, 
(la Cadia) since called Acadia, commencing at the fortieth 
degree and thence to the forty-sixth degree. 

B}^ charter of the 10th of September, 1621, James I 
granted to Sir William Alexander, a certain territory, 
under the name of "Nova Scotia," with the following 
boundaries: "Beginning at Cape Sable, in forty-three 
degrees north latitude, or thereabout, extending thence 
westwardly along the seashore, to the road commonly 
called St. Mar3'"'s Ba}-; thence towards the north by a 
direct line crossing the entrance or mouth of that great 
ship road, which runs into the eastern tract of land 
between the territories of the Souriquois and of the 
Etchemins, (Bay of Fundy) to the river commonly 
called St. Croix, and to the most remote spring or 
source, which, from the western part thereof, first 
mingles itself with the river aforesaid; from thence, by 
an imaginary direct line, which ma}' be conceived to 
stretch through the land, or to run towards the north, to 
the nearest road, river or spring emptying itself into the 
great river de Canada (River St. Lawrence); and from 
thence proceeding eastwardly along the seashores of the 
said river de Canada, to the river, road, port, or shore, 
commonh' known and called by the name of Gachepe or 
Gaspe; and thence south-eastwardly to the islands 
called Baccaleos or Cape Breton, leaving these islands on 
the right and the gulf of the said river de Canada or of 
the great ship road and the lands of Newfoundland, with 
the islands to the same pertaining, on the left; and 
thence to the head land or promontory of Cape Breton 
aforesaid, lying near the latitude of forty-five degrees, or 
thereabout; and from the said promontory of Cape 
Breton, towards the south and west, to Cape Sable afore- 


said, where the perambulation began, ***** 
all which lands aforesaid, shall at all times hereafter be 
called and known by the name of Nova Scotia, or New 
Scotland, in America." 

Albert Gallatin in his introduction to "The Right of 
the United States of America to the North Eastern 
Boundary Claimed by Them," (1840) says: 

"The western boundary thereby assigned to Nova 
Scotia differs from the eastern boundary of the United 
States, as described by the treaty of peace of 1783, in 
the following particulars. 

"1st. The western source of the river St. Croix was 
intended by Sir William Alexander's charter; but by 
the treaty of 1783, the said river from its mouth to its 
source, without particularly designating which source, is 
made the boundary ; and this has been decided to be the 
river from its mouth to the source of its north branch. 

"2nd. The line from the source of the River St. 
Croix, is, according to the charter, to run towards the 
north; (versus septentrionem ;) by the treaty, it must 
run due north, or directly north. 

"3rd. The said line, by the charter, extends to the 
river St. Lawrence, and, by the treaty, to the highlands 
dividing the rivers, &c. " 

On the 3d of April, 1639, Charles I granted to 
Ferdinand Gorges, by the name of Province or Country 
of Maine, a territory bounded on the west by Piscata- 
way Harbor and the river Newichewanocke, (Piscataqua 
River) to the farthest head thereof, and thence one hun- 
dred and twenty miles northwestwards, extending from 
Piscataway Harbor, northeastwards, along the seacoast 
to Sagadahock, (the river Kennebec below the confluence 
of the river Androscoggin, ) and up the river thereof to 
Kynybecky River, and, through the same, to the head 
thereof, and into the land northwestwards one hundred 


and twenty miles from the mouth of Sagadahock, Etc. 

This last named grant was purchased in the year 1674, 
by the Colony of Massachusetts. 

By the twelfth article of the treaty of Utrecht, in 
1713, "the Most Christian King of France" ceded to 
the Queen of England in perpetuity Acadia or Nova 
Scotia entire, ' 'according to its ancient boundaries, ' ' Etc. 

But what its "ancient boundaries" were was for 
nearly fifty years after the treaty of Utrecht a matter of 
dispute between England and France and more especially 
between the pioneers and settlers of New France, and the 
Massachusetts Colony and the inhabitants of the Province 
of Maine, who had settled east of the Kennebec River. 

The Governor of New France contended that the 
ancient bounds of Acadia extended as far west as the 
Kennebec River under the grant of Charles I to Gorges, 
and had never been changed by any act of England. 

Attempts at a settlement were made between the two 
governments at various times but the results were futile. 

When Wolfe conquered Quebec in 1759, all of Canada 
passed to the domain of the English by conquest and the 
minor questions of boundary lines were lost sight of. 

Incidental to this long contention as to what was the 
westerly line of Acadia, was the destruction of the Jesuit 
Mission at Norridgewock and the killing of its missionary. 
Father Sebastian Rale, in 1724, by the Massachusetts 

Gallatin in the work above referred to, in speaking of 
this Gorges grant and its subsequent purchase by the 
Colony of Massachusetts, asserts that it throws no light 
on the question as to how England acquired any title to 
the teiTitory between the Kennebec and St. Croix, and 
says: "Although the name of Maine has since been 
extended to the country, eastwardly, as far as the bounda- 
ries of Nova Scotia, the ancient Province of Maine, 


according to the aforesaid original grant, was bounded 
on the east by the river Sadahock or Kennebec." 

These facts are only referred to here, parenthetically, 
for the purpose of calling attention to the generally 
chaotic condition of the sources of the jurisdictional 
rights of England in the Province of Maine, at the time 
of the treaty of peace in 1783. 

The English had themselves, whether wrongfully or 
rightfully, whether by overt acts or not, made permanent 
the title of Massachusetts to the Province of Maine as far 
east as the St. Croix River, but how far north it extended 
was another matter and one of the principal causes of all 
the trouble between the people of Maine and New 
Brunswick and the American and English governments. 

In the several treaties between France and England 
ceding to each other Acadia, no specific mention is made 
of boundaries, so the student is obliged to rely upon the 
grants from the English crown to its subjects for informa- 
tion as to what was the original intent of the English 
government, regarding the northerly line of the Province 
of Maine. 

On the 12th day of March, 1663, Charles II granted 
to his brother James, Duke of York, "all that part of 
the main land of New England, beginning at a certain 
place, called or known by the name of St. Croix adjoin- 
ing to New Scotland in America, and from thence extend- 
ing along the sea coast, into a place called Pemaquin or 
Pemaquid, and so up the river thereof to the furtherest 
head of the same as it tendeth northward to the river of 
Kennebec and so up, by the shortest course, to the river 
of Canada, northwards." 

All authorities agreed that the name "Maine" at some 
time in some way extended over all the above described 
territory and that the river Kennebec was what was in 


the ancient maps Sadahock, and that ' 'the river Canada' ' 
was the river St. Lawrence. 

October 7th, 1691, William and Mary, by grant, 
annexed to the charter of the Massachusetts Colony, 
Nova Scotia, the ancient Province of Maine, and Saga- 
dahock, or the Duke of York's grant, containing how- 
ever, this proviso, "and it is our royal will and pleasure 
that no grants of any lands lying or extending from the 
river Sagadahock (Kennebec) to the Gulf of St. Lawrence 
and Canada rivers, (St. Lawrence River) and to the main 
sea northward and eastward, to be made or passed by 
the Governor and General Assembly of our said Province, 
be of any force, validity, or effect, until we, our assigns 
and successors shall have signified our or their approba- 
tion of the same." 

This grant is valuable herein, only for the purpose of 
showing that the English then claimed territory as far 
north as the St. Lawrence. 

There does not seem to be any reason for this grant of 
Nova Scotia or Acadia to Massachusetts, which had been 
restored to France by the ti'eaty of Breda, other than the 
fact that a state of war existed between the nations in 

By the treaty of Ryswick, (1697) Great Britain, how- 
ever, agreed to restore to France "all countries, islands, 
forts and colonies, wheresoever situated, which the 
French did possess before the declaration of war. ' ' 

The Massachusetts Colony asserted jurisdiction over 
all of that part of the Province of Maine annexed to 
their charter by William and Mary, which was situated 
east of the Kennebec River, and the last claim of the 
French to this territory was extinguished with the 
destruction of the Kennebec Mission in 1724. 

Subsequent to this a question arose among the colonists 
as to their legal title to the territory between the Kenne- 


bee and St. Croix, which was referred to the attorney 
and solicitor general of the crowTi, who gave it as their 
opinion (Aug. 11, 1731) "that all the tract of land 
lying between the rivers of Kennebec and St. Croix, is 
granted by their charter to the inhabitants of the said 
Province ; that the rights of government granted to the 
said Province extend over this tract of land. ' ' 

In Mitchell's map in the year 1755, the river St. 
Croix, in accordance with their decision, and a due north 
line from its source to the river St. Lawrence, are made 
the boundary between Nova Scotia and New England. 

And Gallatin says that "in this map the river St. 
Croix, and a due north line from its source to the river 
St. Lawrence, are, accordingly, made the boundary 
between Nova Scotia and New England; embracing, 
under this last designation, the eastern part of Massa- 
chusetts, by the name of Sagadahock. ' ' 

Both Nova Scotia and New England are, in that map, 
published with the approbation of the board of trade, 
bounded to the north by the river St. Lawrence. And 
that river continued, accordingly, to be the northern 
boundary of both, till the 7th of October, 1763; when 
Canada, and all the possessions claimed by France in 
that quarter, having, by virtue of the treaty of peace 
of February, 1763, been definitively ceded by her to 
Great Britain, His Britannic Majesty issued a proclama- 
tion establishing new governments, and, amongst others, 
that of Quebec. 

The boundaries of that government were, by the said 
proclamation, fixed as follows: "Bounded on the Labra- 
dor Coast by the river St. John ; and from thence, by a 
line drawn from the head of that river, through the Lake 
St. John, to the south end of the Lake Nipissing, from 
whence the said line, crossing the river St. Lawrence and 
the Lake Champlain, in forty-five degrees of north lati- 


tude, passes along the Highlands which divide the rivers 
that empty themselves into the said river St. Lawrence 
from those which fall into the sea, and also along the 
north coast of the Bay des Chaleurs and the Coast of the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence, to Cape Hosiers ; and from thence, 
crossing the mouth of the river St. Lawrence, by the 
west end of the island of Anticosti, terminates at the 
aforesaid river St. John." 

The Highlands designated above were thus assigned as 
the southern boundary of the province of Quebec and 
became the northern boundary of Nova Scotia; the 
northwest corner of which, instead of being, as hereto- 
fore, on the banks of the St. Lawrence, was thereby 
placed on the Highlands. 

This boundary of the Province of Quebec was again 
ratified by the British government by the act of Parlia- 
ment of the 14th, Geo. HI, Chap. 83, (1774) commonly 
called the Quebec Act. 

The treaty of peace between the Colonies and England 
at the close of the war of the Revolution and known in 
history as the treaty of 1783, provides — "And that all 
disputes, which might arise in the future on the subject 
of the boundaries of the said United States, may be 
prevented, it is hereby agreed and declared, that the 
following are and shall be their boundaries, viz: From 
the northwest angle of Nova Scotia, viz: that angle 
which is formed by a line drawn due north from the 
source of the St. Croix River, to the Highlands, which 
divide those rivers, that empty themselves into the river 
St. Lawrence from those which fall into the Atlantic 
Ocean, to the northwesternmost head of Connecticut 
River ; east, by a line to be drawn along the middle of 
the river St. Croix, from its mouth in the Bay of Fundy 
to its source ; and from its source, directly north, to the 
aforesaid Highlands, which divide the rivers which fall 


into the Atlantic Ocean from those that fall into the 
river St. Lawrence." 

Subsequent to this treaty doubts arose as to which was 
the St. Croix River, and commissioners were appointed 
under the provisions of its fifth article who declared 
October 25, 1798, that a river called "Scoodiac, " and 
the northern branch of it (called "Cheputnaticook") to 
be the true river St. Croix as intended by the treaty, 
that its mouth was in the Bay of Passamaquoddy at a 
place called Joe's Point, and its source at the northern- 
most head spring of the northern branch aforesaid. 

During the War of 1812 the British seized and held 
Moose Island on which the city of Eastport now stands, 
and at the treaty of Ghent they refused to restore it. 

It was generally stipulated that all territory, places, 
and possessions taken b}' either party during the war 
should be restored, and it was specially provided that such 
of the islands in Passamaquoddy Bay as were claimed by 
both parties, should remain in the possession of the party 
in whose occupation they might be at the time of the 
exchange or the ratification of the treaty, without 
prejudice to either party, till the question of title should 
be settled. For such a settlement Art. IV provided 
that the question should be referred to two commis- 
sioners to be appointed by the two governments. 

The King of Great Britain appointed Thomas Barclay 
and President Madison appointed John Holmes, who was 
a resident of the Province or District of Maine. 

Their decision, which was rendered November 24, 
1817, seems to have been acquiesced in by all parties 
and with a few exceptions I do not find that it was very 
seriously criticised by the writers at that time.* 

*The first question that arose before these commissioners was, 
which of the three rivers falling into the Bay of Fundy was the St. 
Croix contemplated by the treaty of 1783. [over] 


It was well understood by both governments that the 
boundary line of Nova Scotia was left very indefinite by 
the treaty of 1783, but as there were but few settlers on 
the disputed territory and but little business or com- 
merce, and as both nations were engrossed in struggles 
with each other of more consequence, there was but little 
controversy^ about it. 

The fact was, however, recognized b}' the treaty of 
Ghent (1814) and they made provision for its adjustment 

These rivers had all been known and described at various times by 
the name of St. Croix. The most easterlj' had likewise been called 
the Magaquadavic; the intermediate, the Schoodic; the most west- 
erly, the Cobscook. 

The decision of the commissioners was that the middle river, 
known sometimes as the Schoodic, was the true St. Croix River. It 
having been thus fixed, it was so regarded by both governments, at 
the treaty of Ghent, and in the proceedings when the whole matter 
was finally adjusted by the Webster-Ashburton treaty. 

It has, however, been the opinion of students of history who have 
since investigated the subject, that a grave error was committed, by 
which the American government, and ultimately the State of Maine, 
were grossly wronged, that if the subject had been properly con- 
sidered and fairly adjudicated, the easterly river, rather than the 
Schoodic or the intermediate river, would have been the easterly 
boundary of the State of Maine. 

Probably no man in the days of this controversy gave the subject 
more consideration than the late Col. John G. Deane of Portland, 
and formerly of Ellsworth. He was a leading member of the Legis- 
lature during that time and was the author of several official reports 
relating to the North Eastern Boundary, and he was firmlj' con- 
vinced that the commissioners selected the wrong river for the St. 

By this blunder, if such it were. Col. Deane estimated that the 
State of Maine "lost a strip of territory from fifteen to twenty 
miles in breadth, and one hundred and seventy-five miles in 

(See a sketch of the life of John G. Deane, Maine Hist. Coll. 
2d Series, Vol. 1, p. 179. "The North Eastern Boundary," by 
Israel Washburn, Jr., read before the Maine Historical Society, 
May 15, 1879.) 


b\' the fifth article of this treaty, a part of which is as 
follows : 

"Whereas neither that point of the Highlands lying 
due north from the source of the River St. Croix, and 
designated in the former treaty of Peace between the 
two Powers, as the north-west angle of Nova Scotia, nor 
the north-western most head of the Connecticut River, 
has yet been ascertained ; and whereas that part of the 
boundary line between the Dominions of the two Powers, 
which extends from the source of the River St. Croix, 
directly north, to the above-mentioned north-west angle 
of Nova Scotia; thence, along the said Highlands which 
divide those rivers that empty themselves into the River 
St. Lawrence from those which fall into the Atlantic 
Ocean, to the north-western most head of Connecticut 
River ; thence, down along the middle of that river, to 
the forty-fifth degree of north latitude ; thence, by a line 
due west, on said latitude, until it strikes the River 
Iroquois or Cataraquy, has not yet been surveyed ; it is 
agreed that for those several purposes, two Commissioners 
shall be appointed, sworn and authorized to act, &c. 
******* 'pj^g gg^jjj Commissioners shall 
have power to ascertain and determine the points above 
mentioned, in conformity with the provisions of the said 
treaty of Peace of 1783, and shall cause the boundary 
aforesaid, from the source of the River St. Croix to the 
River Iroquois or Cataraquy, to be surveyed and marked 
according to the said provisions. The said Commission- 
ers shall make a map of the said boundary and annex to 
it a declaration under their hands and seals, certifying it 
to be the true map of the said boundary, and particular- 
izing the latitude and longitude of the north-west angle 
of Nova Scotia, of the north-western most head of Con- 
necticut River, and of such other points of the said 
boundary as they may deem proper. And both parties 


agree to consider such map and declaration as finally 
and conclusively fixing the said boundary." 

The same article further provided for a reference to a 
friendly sovereign or state, in the event of the commis- 
sioners being unable to agree. 

The two governments appointed commissioners con- 
formitory with this provision, namely, George III 
appointed on the part of Great Britain, Thomas Barclay, 
September 4, 1815, and President Madison appointed 
Cornelius Van Ness, April 3, 1816. Mr. Van Ness was 
a native of New York but at the time of his appoint- 
ment resided in Vermont, and it appears that John 
Holmes, who was one of the commissioners to adjudicate 
in regard to the titles of the islands in Passamaquoddy 
Bay, also acted with them. Henry H. Orne was 
appointed secretary to this commission. Mr. Orne, who 
in the record was simply described as "a citizen of the 
United States," was presumably Judge Henry Orne of 
Boston, from whom the town of Orneville in the county 
of Piscataquis derived its name. 

This commission, after sitting for five years, could not 
even agree on a plan for a general map of the country 
exhibiting the boundaries respectively claimed by each 
party ; much less could they settle any of the matters 
referred to them. 

They accordingly dissolved and made separate reports 
to both governments, stating the points on which they 
differed, and the grounds of their difference. 

Soon after the close of the War of 1812, settlements, 
not only in the northeastern parts of the Province of 
Maine, but in Nova Scotia and Quebec as well, began to 
increase; business was expanding and land under both 
flags was becoming more valuable. 

All of these things tended to reawaken the interest in 


the question of boundary lines between the two 

Maine became a state in 1820, and by the Articles of 
Separation the Commonwealth of Massachusetts re- 
served to herself one half of the unincorporated lands 
within the Province of Maine.* 

Hence not only the inhabitants of eastern Maine, but 
both of these states were intensely interested in having 
the matter decided. 

Finally the statesmen of both governments concluded 
that a condition had arisen which made it necessary to 
refer the points of difference to a friendly sovereign under 
the terms of the treaty of Ghent ; and on the 29th day 
of September, 1827, a convention to that effect was con- 

Consequently in 1826, Albert Gallatin, who was one 
of the commissioners of the United States at Ghent in 
1814, went to England as minister of the United States, 
charged with the duty of arranging various questions of 
difference and among them the North Eastern Boundary. 
He had many conferences with the plenipotentiaries rep- 
resenting that government, the principal result of which 
was the convention to refer the matter to a friendly 
sovereign under the provision of the treaty of Ghent 
herein before referred to. 

The statements of the United States were prepared 
and submitted to the arbitrator by Mr. Gallatin who had 
associated with him Wm. Pitt Preble of Portland, f 

*Act of Separation passed by Legislature of Massachusetts June 
19, 1819, Sec. 1, part first. 

tWilliam P. Preble was a resident of Portland and was born in 
York, Me., November '21, 1783, and died October 11, 1857. He was 
graduated from Harvard College in 1806, studied law with Benjamin 
Hasey at Topsham and Mr. Orr in Brunswick. Practiced law in 
Alfred and Saco before he removed to Portland in 1818. In 1814 he 


It was stipulated therein that Mitchell's map, by 
which the framers of the treaty of 1783 had regulated 
their joint and official proceedings, and a map denomi- 
nated A, had been agreed upon by the contracting 
parties, as a delineation of the water courses and a 
general outline of the territory. 

The King of the Netherlands was selected as arbiter 
and when he heard the case of the high contracting 
parties, changes of magnitude had taken place in both 
the American and English possessions since the treaty of 

The Province of Maine was independent from the 
mother Commonwealth of Massachusetts and had entered 
upon her career as a sovereign state of the Union. 

Nova Scotia had been divided and a new province 
erected called New Brunswick, within the borders of 
which was the territory about which the contention had 
arisen, and Quebec had been made into two provinces, 
then known as Upper Canada and Lower Canada. 

The task imposed upon the arbiter was an onerous one 
but the duties were plain and not at all obscure. 

He was to construe the provisions of the treaty of 
1783, which related to this boundary, and make a deci- 
sion which, if ratified by the two governments, would be 
binding upon them. 

This necessitated his making findings among other 
things as to the following questions: 

received the appointment of U. S. District Attorney from President 

In IH'20 he was selected as one of the three judges composing the 
highest judicial court of the new State of Maine. 

In 1828 he resigned from the bench and entered upon diplomatic 

President Jackson appointed him Minister Plenipotentiary to The 
Hague, and he was serving in this capacity when the King of Hol- 
land rendered his decision. He was in various ways active in the 
affairs of the North Eastern Boundary question until its final settle- 
ment by the Webster-Ashburton treaty. 


1. What was the "north-west angle of Nova Scotia?" 

2. The "Source" of the St. Croix River? 

3. What were the "Highlands," which "divide 
those rivers that empty themselves into the River St. 
Lawrence from those which fall into the Atlantic Ocean?" 

4. What was the "Northwesternmost head of the 
Connecticut River?" 

Incidental with, or subordinate to these were other 
questions which arose in the investigations and discus- 
sions as the case progressed before him, but I regard the 
foregoing as the principal or leading points in the con- 

It was undoubtedly unfortunate for all parties to this 
imbroglio, that, in designating the northerly boundary 
between the territory of Massachusetts (Province of 
Maine) and Nova Scotia, in the treaty of 1783, the 
term "Highlands" should have been used. It was 
indefinite and susceptible of widely different construction. 
No writer has since maintained or even insinuated that 
the word was placed there by either party designedly or 
for any ulterior purpose. 

It was without doubt, purely and simply, a case of 
careless and inconsiderate use of language. It should 
be observed that this word was not used in these treaties 
except in the sense of dividing rivers, and that in the 
early grants the intention of making the St. Lawrence 
River the northerly boundary of Maine seemed to be 

This was the position taken by the American commis- 
sioners before the King of the Netherlands, and it was 
furthermore contended by them that, taking the whole 
article together, the word "Highlands" as therein 
expressed, referred to an unexplored country and was 
applicable to any ground, whatever might be its nature 
or elevation, along which the line dividing the rivers 


should be found to pass; and that the fact that the 
ground dividing rivers was necessarily more elevated than 
those rivers and their banks, was sufficient to entitle it 
to the designation of "Highlands" in relation to those 

The United States claimed that a line from the source 
of the river St. Croix "directly north'" reaches a ridge 
or "Highland" which divides tributary streams of the 
St, John River, which falls into the Bay of Fundy, from 
the waters of the Ristigouche River, which falls through 
the Bay des Chaleurs, into the Gulf of St. Lawrence; 
that this line crosses no other rivers for a distance 
exceeding ninety miles, but tributary streams of the 
St. John and that Tiver itself. And furthermore that 
it was not necessary to find an}- continuous range of 
mountains, but continuous land which divided these 

To be exact I copy the following from Gallatin's notes 
on the "American line" (page 17) which he compiled 
from the statements laid before the King of the Nether- 
lands : 

"At about ninety-seven miles from the source of the 
River St. Croix, the due north line reaches a ridge or 
Highland which di%ides tributary streams of the River 
St. John, which falls into the Bay of Fund}-, from the 
waters of the River Ristigouche, which falls through the 
Bay des Chaleurs, into the Gulf of St. Lawrence. And, 
in its further north course, the said line, after crossing 
several upper branches of the River Ristigouche, reaches, 
at the distance of about 140 miles from the source of 
the River St. Croix the Highlands, which divide the 
waters of the said River Ristigouche from the tributary 
streams of the River Metis, which falls into the River 
St. Lawrence. It is clear that there is no other possible 
choice but between those two places, and that the north- 


west angle of Nova Scotia must, of necessity, be found 
at the intersection of the said due north line with, either 
the Highlands which divide the waters of the River St. 
John from those of the River Ristigouche, or the High- 
lands which divide the waters of the River Ristigouche 
from those of the River Metis; since there is no other 
point, through the whole course of the due north line, 
which divides any other waters but such as empty them- 
selves into the same river. 

"The selection between those two dividing Highlands 
evidently depends on what is meant, according to the 
treaty of 1783, by rivers that empty themselves or fall 
into the River St. Lawrence, and by rivers which fall 
into the Atlantic Ocean. 

"The treaty recognizes but two classes of rivers. The 
first class embraces only the rivers falling into a river, 
designated by its specific name, and cannot be construed 
to include an}' rivers that do not empty themselves into 
the river thus specially designated. All the rivers, met 
b}- the due north line, which do not actually empty 
themselves into the River St. Lawi'ence, according to its 
known limits, are, by the treaty, considered as falling 
into the Atlantic Ocean." 

The British theory from first to last was that "High- 
lands" represented a mountainous or hilly country or 

They would not admit its American significance as a 
continuous line dividing rivers regardless of whether such 
line was mountainous or not. 

There may have been some reason for this as the}^ had 
been familiar witii the term as applied to a region of 
Highlands in Scotland which distinguished it from the 
Lowlands, Etc. 

Their writers from time immemorial had thus described 
sections which were of high elevation and had not gener- 


ally used the word in the American sense as a dividing 
line, a ridge or a range. 

In the same notes (page 18) Mr. Gallatin says: 

"It is denied on the part of Great Britain, that the 
boundary thus claimed by the United States, is that 
which is prescribed or intended by the treaty principally, 
if not exclusively, on two grounds: 

"1st. That the Bay of Fund}', as mentioned in the 
treat}' of 1783, is, (as well as the Gulf of St. Law- 
rence,) intended to be separate and distinct from the 
Atlantic Ocean ; and that the River St. John, which 
falls into the Bay of Fundy, (as well as the River 
Ristigouche which, through the Bay des Chaleurs, faUs 
into the Gulf of St. Lawrence, ) is intended, on that as 
well as on separate grounds, to be excepted from that 
class of rivers which are described in the treaty as falling 
into the Atlantic Ocean. 

"2ndly. That the ground over which the boundary 
line claimed by the United States does pass, has neither 
the mountainous character, nor the continuous elevation 
necessary to entitle it to the designation of 'High- 
lands,' as intended by the treaty; and therefore, that 
the Highlands, claimed on the part of the U^nited States, 
conform neither in position or character, to the conditions 
imposed on them by the treaty. 

"From those premises, and with reference particularly 
to the assertion, that the River St. John must be 
excepted from that class of rivers described in the treaty 
as falling into the Atlantic Ocean, it is inferred, on the 
part of Great Britain, that, consequently the Higlilands 
described in the treaty must lie to the southward of that 
River. And it is further affirmed, that the Highlands, 
claimed, on the part of Great Britain, as those desig- 
nated in the treaty of 1783, conform, in every particu- 
lar, to the conditions imposed on them by that treaty." 


The north line would terminate at Mars Hill as the 
British construed the treaty, while under the American 
construction it would run as far north as the sources of 
the Ristigouche River, which empties into the Bay des 

The St. John River was midway between the two 
lines, or in about the central part of the disputed terri- 

Had the British claim prevailed, all of what is now 
Aroostook County, north of Mars Hill, and the most of 
what is now Piscataquis County, northerly of the Penob- 
scot waters, would be a part of Canada; and if the 
Americans had finally been sustained in all that they con- 
tended for, the rich St. John River valley and a large 
stretch of territory northerly, easterly and northwesterly 
would now be a part of the State of Maine. 

For the purpose of this sketch it is not necessary to 
consider the numerous subjects which were involved when 
the case was tried out before the arbiter. Thirty or 
more maps published in London subsequent to the proc- 
lamation of 1763, were among the exhibits placed before 
him by the United States, eighteen of which were pub- 
lished before the treaty of 1783. 

The English made the point that the negotiators of 
the treaty of 1783 had no evidence before them of the 
actual geography of the country, and hence the words of 
the treaty were not effectual, and yet these last-named 
eighteen maps all made plain the situation of the basin 
of the St. John, the sources of the Penobscot, which 
Avere rivers and streams falling into the Atlantic, and 
those of the tributary streams of the St. LawTcnce. 

The negotiators of that treaty had access to these 
maps and made use of them, consequently the Americans 
contended that the highland or ridge of land which 
divided these tributary streams, was the "Highlands'' 


described in the treaty, and that it constituted a well- 
defined boundary line which could be found upon the face 
of the earth, and that there was no reason whatever for 
assuming that when those words were mutually written 
into the treaty their significance and meaning were 
not fully understood. 

It would seem that the gist of the entire issue before 
the King of the Netherlands was, what were the inten- 
tions of the negotiators of the treaty of 1783, and it is 
difficult to perceive just how any acts of jurisdiction 
subsequently exercised by either party over the contested 
territory, could have thrown any light on these inten- 
tions or affected in any manner the terms of the treaty. 

And yet both sides were allowed to and did present 
evidence of this nature, some of which is interesting even 
though its materiality at that time may be doubted. 

It appeared that in the year 1784, a native Indian 
was tried and convicted b}' a court of the Province of 
Quebec, and accordingly executed for a murder com- 
mitted, as was suggested, on the waters of the river St. 
John; that between the years, 1789 and 1791, two suits 
were instituted and judgment obtained, before the courts 
of Quebec by some inhabitants of Canada against persons 
residing on the river Madawaska; that an extract from 
a list of the parishes in the Province of Quebec, taken 
from the minutes of the Executive Council for 1791, 
includes .that of Madawaska,* and that, in the year 

*A part of the disputed territory was during the entire contro- 
versy over the North Eastern Boundary, known as Madawaska. 
Upon a part of this is now situated the town of Madawaska in the 
State of Maine. This territory was anciently called the Fief of 
Madawaska; the original concession of it having been made by the 
Government of Canada to the children of the Sieur Charles Auburt 
de la Chenaye, November -25, 1683. This concession contained the 
following condition: 

"Subject to the Foi et homraage, which the grantees, their heirs 


1785, that council issued an order for opening a road 
from Kamarouska on the river St. Lawrence to Lake 
Temisquata, which Hes on the southeastern side of the 
dividing Higlilands, claimed as their boundary by the 
L^nited States. 

Seldom has an international question been so thor- 
oughly discussed as was that of this disputed boundary. * 

and assigns, shall he holden to render at the Castle of St. Louis of 
Quebec of which they are to hold, and subject to the customary 
rights and dues in conformity with the Contume de Paris." 

By an adjudication of the Prevotal Court of Quebec, dated Octo- 
ber ^9th, 1709, this Seigniory of Madawaska was seized by virtue of 
a sentence of that court and was sold to Joseph Blondeau dit la 
Franchise. as the highest bidder at a public judicial sale for the sum 
of 1,300 livres, and was accordingly adjudged to the said Joseph 

On the 15th day of February, 17:23, it appears, by some kind of a 
judicial proceeding or report, that "on the Fief of Madawaska there 
was a domain, on which the buildings had been burnt by the 
Indians, and that there were six 'arpens" of land cleared, but at that 
time no settlement." 

By an adjudication by the Prevotal Court of Quebec, dated July 
29th, 1753, founded on what was called a "voluntary judicial sale," 
Madawaska passed to Pierre Claverie. After Canada became a part 
of the dominion of Great Britain by conquest, the title to this terri- 
tory passed by judicial sale to Richard Murray and on August 2, 
1768, by deed of assignment by Richard Murray to Malcolm Fraser. 

The latest deed of Madawaska under these titles that we have evi- 
dence of was dated August 2, 1802, but between this and the last 
named date there had been several transfers by judicial sale and 

This chain of titles was introduced before the King of the Nether- 
lands, by the British commissioners, to show continuous possession 
and ownership by Great Britain to Madawaska. The reply of the 
United States to this contention was, that since the conquest no one 
had performed acts of fealty and homage under the condition of 
the original concession of 1683, and hence the title had been for- 
feited and abandoned by reason of the failure to comply with these 
feudal services. 

(Appendix to the first British Statement before the King of the 

*History and Digest of International Arbitrations, Vol. I, p. 91. 


Gallatin asserted that he devoted nearly two years in 
studying and preparing the case, and bestowed on it 
more time than he ever did on any other question.* 

Finally on the 10th day of January, 1831, the deci- 
sion of the King of the Netherlands was made public 
and it was a surprise to both governments and to all 
parties of interest. 

When his award was analyzed, it was found that he 
had sustained in words the American contention that the 
term "Highlands" was applicable to ground which, with- 
out being mountainous or hilly, divided rivers flowing in 
the opposite directions ; but that it was not shown that 
the boundaries desci'ibed in the treaty of 1783 coincided 
with the ancient limits of the British provinces; and 
that neither the line of Highlands claimed by Great 
Britain so nearly answered the requirements of the treaty 
of 1783 in respect to division of rivers as to give prefer- 
ence one over the other. 

Abandoning therefore the attempt to determine this 
part of the boundary' according to the treaty of 1783, 
he recommended what was termed a line of "conven- 
ience" t or hi other words, he made an arbitrary line, 
not found in Mitchell's map. Map A, or in any of the 
maps used by the negotiators of the treaty of 1783, of 
the treaty of Ghent, or by either party before him. 

It was evidently intended by him as a compromise, 
pure and simple. 

On the 12th day of January, 1831, Mr. Preble, 
who was then envoy-extraordinary of the United States 
at The Hague, addressed to the British Minister of 
Foreign Affairs, a note, respectfully protesting against 
the award and reserving the rights and interests of the 

*Adams' Writings of Gallatin, Vol. II, p. 549. 

fHistory and Digest of International Arbitrations, Vol. I, p. 136. 


United States on the ground that the proceedings of the 
arbitrator constituted a departure from his powers, 

Mr. Preble also took the ground that the object of 
the arbitration was to have executed the terms of the 
treaty of 1783 and that if this could not be done, the 
question of boundaries ought never again be submitted 
to any sovereign. And he thus formally entered his 
protest against the proceedings. 

The British government, while apparently not satis- 
fled with the award, expressed its acquiescence in it, but 
authorized its minister privately to intimate to the 
United States that it would not consider the formal 
acceptance of the award as precluding modifications of 
the line by mutual exchange and consideration. 

The government at Washington for a time hesitated 
as to what course to pursue. Mr. Preble's protest had 
been entered without instructions from his government 
and President Jackson was at first inclined to accept the 

As the action of the King of the Netherlands became 
more fully understood by the people of Maine and 
Massachusetts, its discussion by newspapers and public 
men became bitter and its criticism more and more 
intense; and the President's political enemies in both 
states were severely blaming him for his procrastination 
in the matter. 

At one time he was disposed to issue a proclamation, 
accepting of the terms of the award without consulting 
the Senate, but was driven from this course by his politi- 
cal friends in Maine, who represented to him that such 
a course would change the politics of the State.* 

It is said that he regretted in after years that he did 

*Webster's Works, Vol. 1, p. 119. 


not follow out his own inclinations in regard to the 

President Jackson therefore submitted the (juestion of 
acceptance or rejection to the Senate on the 7th day 
of December, 1831, and in June, 1832, the award was 
rejected by a vote of 35 to 8, and the Senate at the 
same time advised the President to open a new negotia- 
tion with Great Britain for the ascertainment of the line. 

The British government promised to enter upon the 
negotiations in a friendly spirit ; and it was stipulated 
and agreed that both sides should refrain from exercising 
any jurisdiction be3'ond the boundaries which they actu- 
ally possessed. 

Meanwhile the govei-nment of the United States made 
earnest though unsuccessful attempts to obtain from the 
State of Maine full authority to adjust the matter with 
Great Britain. 

The proposition was for Maine to provisionally sur- 
render to the Federal government all of her right to the 
disputed territory for the purpose of a settlement. 

These offers were, however, all rejected by the State 
of Maine and then the British government formally with- 
drew its offer to accept the compromise recommended by 
the King of the Netherlands. 

No real progress was made and nothing accomplished 
towards a settlement of the controversy during the 
remainder of President Jackson's administration. 

President Van Buren sent a message to the Senate 
March 20, 1838, with recent correspondence about the 
subject between the Secretary of State, Mr. Forsyth, 
and the British Minister, Mr. Fox. 

Mr. Forsyth recommended a new conventional line, or 
another submission to arbitration and the President in 

♦Webster's Works, Vol. 1, p. 119. 


his message expressed the hope that "an early and satis- 
factory adjustment of it could be effected." 

Governor Kent submitted the question to the Legis- 
lature of Maine, which body on the 23d day of March, 
1838, resolved that it was not expedient to assent to the 
Federal government's treating for a conventional line, but 
that the State should insist on the line established by the 
treaty of 1783, and that the senators and representatives 
in Congress be requested to urge the passage of a bill 
then pending for a survey of the boundary. 

In 1839, Messrs. Featherstonhaugh and Mudge, 
employed by the English authorities, surveyed a part of 
the line and the government at Washington provided 
for a survey in 1840. 

Nothing of importance resulted from either of these 

For a decade of years subsequent to the award of the 
King of the Netherlands it was a theme of vast interest 
to the people of Maine and of Massachusetts as well. 

The General Court of that commonwealth made vari- 
ous reports regarding it at different times. The Gov- 
ernors of Maine discussed it in their messages and the 
Legislature made several exhaustive reports upon it. 

Indissolubly interwoven with this controversy is the 
arrest, imprisonment and punishment of one John Baker, 
a resident of what was known as the Madawaska Settle- 

The rights of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts to 
Madawaska and adjacent lands on the Aroostook River 
were recognized at an early period after the source of 
the St. Croix was settled by the convention of 1794. 

Grants were accordingly made by the Legislature of 
Massachusetts of lots of land embracing both branches 
of the Aroostook River* and bordering on the boundary 

*This river was originally known as "Restook" and "Ristook." 


line, namely : One to the town of Plymouth and one to 
General Eaton. 

Locations and surveys of these lands were made under 
authority of Massachusetts. 

Among other grants was that of a lot of land to John 
Baker "of a plantation called and known by the name 
of Madawaska Settlement, in the County of Penobscot, 
and State of Maine," the deed of which was executed 
jointly by "George W. Coffin, agent for the Common- 
wealth of Massachusetts, and James Irish, agent for the 
State of Maine," on the third day of October, 1825. 
Another deed of land situated below Baker's was made 
to James Bacon. 

Baker had a farm and a small store, and also a grist 
and sawmill. Other settlers soon became his neighbors 
and his place was a center and headquarters for the 
American settlers in that locality. 

One George Morehouse resided in Tobique, in a parish 
then recently formed and known as Kent. 

He held a magistrate's commission from the Province 
of New Brunswick, and the first of the Madawaska 
troubles seem to have arisen from a practice which he 
had instituted as magistrate, although there is no evi- 
dence that he was in the first instance in any way 
authorized or instructed by the province authorities to 
pursue it. 

This was no less a procedure than issuing precepts 
directed to the constables of the Parish of Kent, for the 
recovery of small demands against the inhabitants along 
the Aroostook River. 

Criminal processes against these inhabitants were also 
occasionally issued by Magistrate Morehouse. 

The serving of these precepts was often resisted by 
them and sometimes by force. 


That Baker was a leader among these settlers is true 
and that he may have advised them to thus resist the 
officers which he believed had no authority or jurisdiction 
there, is also undoubtedly a fact. 

Thus the strife between Morehouse and his followers 
on the one hand, and the American settlers, led by 
Baker, on the other hand, continually increased until it 
seemed to have culminated some time in the early fall 
of 1827 by an incident which now seems more amusing 
than tragic. 

The Americans had erected a staff, or what might 
have been known as a "liberty pole," although it does 
not appear that they had any flag, and upon the top of 
it had attached a rude representation of the American 

The Americans had occasional gatherings and festivi- 
ties around this national emblem, which it may be 
imagined, were more or less convivial, and they sometimes 
jeered and perhaps annoyed passers-by from the province 
who acknowledged allegiance to the Sovereign of Eng- 

When Morehouse learned of this he became enraged 
and called upon Baker and ordered him to remove it. 
This Baker refused to do, whereupon Morehouse procured 
a subpoena from Thomas Wetmore, Esq., attorney- 
general of New Brunswick, dated September 17, 1827, 
for his arrest. 

Early in the morning of September 25th, while Baker 
and his family were asleep, his house was surrounded by 
an armed force and he was arrested and taken before 
Magistrate Morehouse,* who committed him to the jail in 

*Report of Charles S. Davies to the Governor of Maine, January 
31, 1831, p. 29. There may be some doubt however about this 
statement as the subpoena commanded him to appear before the 
court in Fredericton. 


Fredericton without even examination or trial, if the 
accounts of the transaction pubHshed at the time are to 
be believed. 

But while Morehouse may or may not have been 
incited by the New Brunswick authorities to do these 
unlawful acts, they were themselves responsible for some 
things equally as illegal, among which was that of assess- 
ing and levA'ing a special and wholly illegal tax upon 
these settlers which was known as the ' 'Alien tax. ' ' * 

Baker was prosecuted at various times and one of the 
alleged grounds for action against him and for several 
other similar proceedings against Americans in Mada- 
waska and along the Aroostook River was, that they 
were trespassers on crown lands. Lumber that had 
been sawed at Baker's mill was seized and confiscated 
while being transported down the St. John. 

Magistrate Morehouse seems to have spent consider- 
able time in harassing the settlers on the Aroostook in 
devious ways. 

Early in the spring of 1827 he assumed to have author- 
ity to prevent them from working on the lands which they 
occupied, and forbade their doing so, and also posted up 
wi'itten notices to this effect on the Eaton Grant, and 
in different places; and marked some small piles of tim- 
ber which they had cut, for seizure.! 

He did not even treat them as English subjects but 
apparently regarded them as outlaws and intruders with- 
out a country, and without rights which anyone was 
bound to respect. 

In July, 1827, Daniel Craig, a deputy sheriff of the 
Parish of Kent, who was sent by Morehouse, delivered 
summonses to all of the inhabitants to appear before the 

*Gov. Lincoln's letter to the Secretary of State of the United 
States, September 3, 1827. 
tDavies' Report, p. 10. 


court in Fredericton in pleas of trespass and intrusion 
on crown lands,* 

This sudden and unexpected proceeding naturally 
created a state of consternation and alarm. 

The precepts were served only a few days before the 
court was to convene. Some went to Fredericton only 
to learn that the cases were delayed until the next winter. 
Some went part way and then returned home, while many 
did not heed the summonses at all. 

It was said that those who did go suffered much hard- 
ship as they were far from home without means of suste- 

One man, James Armstrong, was seized in the house 
of his brother, Ferdinand Armstrong, placed in a canoe 
and forcibly deported beyond the territory, t 

Their market was at Houlton and their only means of 
transportation was down the St. John River, but as 
their produce was often seized while en route and as they 
were subject to so much oppression from the provincial 
officers, in the fall and winter of 1827-8 they deter- 
mined to cut out a woods road to Houlton which should 
be wholly on undisputed American soil. 

The first attempt at this was a failure as the explorers 
who were employed to "spot" out the road, lost their 
way and after much suffering and privation, found them- 
selves in Foxcroft. J 

It is evident that these American settlers desired to 
live quiet and peaceful lives, for the means which they 
resorted to to circumvent provincial authority fully 
demonstrate this. 

When they had endured the methods and practices of 
Morehouse and others as long as they felt it was possible, 

*Davies' Report, p. 11. 
tib. p. 12. 
Jib. p. 12. 


instead of organizing an armed revolt which might have 
been natural under the circumstances, they conceived the 
idea of a general agreement to avoid all resort to courts 
or legal proceedings whatever. 

The plan was simple and yet unique and perhaps in a 
degree communistic. 

A paper was accordingly drawn up and signed by the 
American inhabitants generalh^ constituting a sort of 
compact, by which they mutually agreed to adjust all 
disputes of whatever nature which might arise among 
themselves, by virtue of referees, without admission of 
British authority, and that they would support each 
other in abiding by this determination. 

This was to be a provisional agreement, to continue 
in force only for one \'ear ; and, in the meantime, appli- 
cation was to be made to the government, in order to 
obtain, if possible, the benefit of some regular authority. * 

Thus these isolated and primitive people in that deso- 
late and remote region, buffeted by the persecutions of 
one government, and forsaken and abandoned to their 
own resources by another government, more than half a 
century after the treaty of 1783, proposed to free them- 
selves from the tyranny of all magistrates, courts, 
lawyers and officers. 

This paper or written agreement among the inhabi- 
tants of Madawaska, was, as will hereafter appear, one of 
the grounds for the indictment against Baker and others 
for alleged conspiracy and sedition. 

The redoubtable Morehouse, as might have been 
anticipated, appeared upon the scene as soon as he 
learned of the existence of this written agreement and 
demanded it of them, but it was in their estimation, too 
sacred a document to part with, and they refused to 

*Davies' Report, p. 23. 


deliver it up as did the people of Connecticut refuse to 
surrender their ancient charter to James II in 1687. 

At the Hilary term* of the Supreme Court in 1828, 
the grand jury for the County of York in the Province 
of New Brunswick found a true bill of indictment against 
John Baker, James Bacon and Charles Studson, for 

The defendants, Bacon and Studson, were never taken 
into custody, but John Baker was arrested and arraigned 
Thursday, May 8, 1828, before the Honorable Chief 
Justice Saunders, Mr. Justice Bliss and Mr, Jvistice 

The indictment alleged that the defendants "being 
persons greatly disaffected to our said lord the now 
King, and his Government, within this his Majesty's 
Province of New Brunswick, and being factiously and 
seditiously disposed, on the fourth day of July in the 
eighth year of the reign of our said Sovereign Lord 
George the Fourth, with force and arms, at the parish 
aforesaid, in the county aforesaid, did amongst them- 
selves, conspire, combine, confederate, and agree together, 
falsely, maliciously, factiously, and seditiously, and to 
bring hatred and contempt on our said lord the King, 
etc, etc. ' ' 

The first overt act complained of in this indictment 
was that on the said fourth day of July at the place 
above named, the defendants "in pursuance of, and 
according to said conspiracy," * * * * ^^jj^j "cause 
to be raised and erected, a certain Hag-staff, and did 
place thereon a certain flag, as the Standard of the 
United States of America." 

*HiIary Term. In English law. A term of court, beginning on 
the 11th and ending on the 31st of January in each year. Super- 
seded (1875) by Hilary sittings, which begin January 11th. and end 
on the Wednesday before Easter. 


The second overt act relates to the provisional paper 
which the inhabitants had signed as above referred to 
and alleged that the defendants had "applied to divers 
liege subjects of our said lord the King, and then and 
there presented to the same subjects a paper writing, 
which they the said John Baker, James Bacon and 
Charles Studson, then and there requested the said sub- 
jects to sign, then and there declaring that, by the said 
paper, they the said subjects, would bind themselves to 
oppose the execution of the laws of Great Britain, to 
wit, in the Madawaska settlement, so called." 

The third overt act states that the defendants "did 
oppose and obstruct the post man" in carrying the mail 
through Madawaska settlement, etc. 

The attorney general appeared and prosecuted the 
case for the crown while the defendant Baker appeared 
without counsel and defended himself during the trial. 
Baker was found guilty, and sentenced to two months 
imprisonment, and to pay a fine of £25 to the king. 

Prior to the arrest of Baker he and James Bacon had 
been selected by the inhabitants as "a deputation" to 
proceed to the seat of government of Maine with a 
request to have their case laid before the Legislature at 
its next session ; and to enquire of the executive authority 
whether they were recognized as citizens of the State of 
Maine and entitled to its protection. 

These two men attended to this duty by traveling on 
foot and by canoe much of the way ; they then "returned 
through the wilderness by the way they came." 

One of the results of their mission was the following 
proclamation by the Governor of Maine : 

"Whereas it has been made known to this State, that 
one of its citizens has been conveyed from it, by a 
Foreign Power, to a gaol in the Province of New Bruns- 
wick ; and that many trespasses have been committed by 


inhabitants of the same Province upon the sovereignty 
of Maine and the rights of those she is bound to 

"Be it also known, that, relying on the government 
and people of the Union, the proper exertion will be 
applied to obtain reparation and security. 

"Those, therefore, suffering wrong, or threatened 
with it, and those interested by sympathy, on account 
of the violation of our territory and immunities, are 
exhorted to forbearance and peace, so that the prepara- 
tions for preventing the removal of our land marks, and 
guarding the sacred and inestimable rights of American 
citizens may not be embarrassed by any unauthorized 


Portland, November 9, 1827." 

The Legislature of 1828 also passed this resolve: 
"Whereas the sovereignty of this State has been 
repeatedly violated by the acts of the agents and officers 
of the Government of the British Province of New 
Brunswick, and that government, by its agents and 
officers, has wantonly and injuriously harassed the citi- 
zens of this State, residing on the North Eastern frontier 
of the same, and within its limits, by assuming to exer- 
cise jurisdiction over them, in issuing and executing civil 
and criminal process against them, by which their 
property has been seized, and some of them arrested and 
conveyed out of the State, and subjected to the opera- 
tion of the laws of that Province; and in establishing 
military companies within the territory of this State; 
imposing fines for neglect of military duty ; imposing 
upon our said citizens an alien tax, and requiring pay- 
ment of the same; and Whereas, by the exercise of the 
aforesaid unwarranted acts of jurisdiction by the govern- 


ment of the said Province, some of our citizens have 
been deprived of their liberty, their property destroyed, 
many of them driven from their lands and dwellings, 
the tranquility and peace of all of them disturbed, and 
the settlement and population of that part of the State 
adjoining said Province, greatly retarded, if not wholly 
prevented : Therefore, 

"RESOLVED, That the present is a crisis, in which 
the government and people of this State, have good 
cause to look to the government of the United States 
for defence and protection against foreign aggression. 

"RESOLVED FURTHER, That if new aggressions 
shall be made by the government of the Province of 
New-Brunswick upon the territory of this State, and 
upon its citizens, and seasonable protection shall not be 
given by the LTnited States, the Governor be, and he 
hereby is requested to use all proper and constitutional 
means in his power, to protect and defend the citizens 
aforesaid in the enjoj-ment of their rights. 

"RESOLVED FURTHER, That, in the opinion of 
this Legislature, the Executive of the LTnited States 
ought, without delay, to demand of the British Govern- 
ment the immediate restoration of John Baker, a citizen 
of this State, who has been seized by the officers of the 
Province of New Brunswick, within the territory of the 
State of Maine, and by them conveyed to Fredericton, 
in said Province, where he is now confined in prison ; and 
to take such measures as will effect his early release. 

"RESOLVED FURTHER, That the Governor be, 
and he hereby is, authorized and requested, with the 
advice and consent of Council, from time to time, to 
extend to the family of the said John Baker, such relief 
as shall be deemed necessary ; and he is hereby author- 
ized to draw his warrant on the Treasury for such sum 
or sums as shall be required for that purpose. 


In the House of Representatives, Feb. 16, 1828. 
Read and passed, 

Attest, James L. Child, Clerk. 

In Senate, February 18, 1828, 
Read and passed, 
ROBERT P. DUNLAP, President. 
Attest, Ebenezer Hutchinson, Sec'y. 

February 18, 1828 — Approved, 


In 1831 the attempt of certain persons to hold an 
election at Madawaska Settlement under the laws of 
Maine, led to their arrest and trial by the authorities of 
New Brunswick. 

They were convicted and sentenced to fine and impris- 
onment, but were afterwards released on the request of 
the Linited States government, their action having been 
disavowed by the authorities of Maine. 

In June, 1837, Ebenezer Greeley of Dover, Maine, 
was employed by the State of Maine as an agent to take 
the census of the people of Madawaska, and at the same 
time, to distribute their share of the surplus money 
which had accumulated in the L^nited States Treasury. * 

A provincial constable arrested Mr. Greeley and car- 
ried him as a prisoner to Fredericton, N. B. 

But while the Fredericton officials had for some time 
unhesitatingly imprisoned humble and uninfluential citi- 
zens of Maine when brought to them in custody, they 
were alarmed at this bold procedure. The sheriff there 
feared to detain in gaol an agent or officer of the State 
of Maine while in the discharge of his duties, and 
refused to receive the prisoner. After being liberated, 

•Abbot's History of Maine, p. 431. 


Mr. Greeley returned to the Aroostook and resumed his 
labors as census taker. 

In a short time after this, however, Governor Harvey 
of New Brunswick, hearing that Mr. Greeley was distrib- 
uting money to the people,* assumed, without making 
any attempt to obtain evidence of the facts, that it was 
done as a bribe to induce the inhabitants to continue 
their allegiance to the United States. 

He therefore ordered Mr. Greeley to be rearrested, 
and he was lodged in Fredericton jail.t 

Governor Dunlap of Maine issued a general order 
announcing that the soil of the State had been invaded 
by a foreign power and the militia was called upon to 
hold itself in readiness for momentary and active service. 

A few weeks later, the British authorities, influenced 
by a message from President Van Buren, again liberated 
Mr. Greeley, who once more returned to the turbulent 
Aroostook and remained there until he had completed 
his services. J 

That the people of the new State of Maine were 
actuated by a spirit of patriotism, in vigorously oppos- 
ing the encroachment of the officials of the Province of 
New Brunswick, upon what they believed to be their terri- 
tory ; that the feeling, when the District of Maine was 
separated from the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, in 
1820, and admitted into the Union of States, was intense 
and increased year by year, as they saw what they deemed 
to be their unquestioned rights, trampled upon by the 

*This was the famous "distribution of the surplus" under 
Pres. Jackson which was one of the most notable events of his 

t Abbot's History of Maine, p. 431. 

JMr. Greeley was released "without trial or explanation and 
returned to his home." (Message of Gov. Kent, 1839.) 


province, supported and protected by Great Britain, was 
bitter and uncompromising, is true. 

William King, the first Governor of Maine, in his 
message to the Legislature, June 2, 1820, refers to the 
importance of the North Eastern Boundary question, to 
both Maine and Massachusetts. 

Governor Paris, in 1822, expressed "great anxiety," 
because of the disagreement of the commissioners, under 
the treaty of Ghent, "in relation to the true boundary, 
between the United States and the British Provinces," 
and he again referred to it in his message, in 1824. 

In 1825, he also called attention to it, and to the fact 
' 'that depredations, to a very considerable extent, have 
been committed on our timber lands, lying on the Aroos- 
took and Mawascah and other streams, ' ' and that ' 'these 
depredations were committed by British Subjects," 

And in 1826, a considerable part of his annual mes- 
sage is devoted to this subject. 

On January 17, 1826, the Joint Standing Committee 
on State Lands, made a report to the Legislature, rela- 
tive to the boundary question accompanied by the follow- 
ing resolve, which received a passage : 

"Resolved, That the Governor, for the time being, 
be authorized and requested to take such measures as he 
may think expedient and effectual, to procure for the 
use of the State, copies of all such maps, documents, 
publications, papers and surveys, relating to the North 
Eastern Boundary of the United States, described in the 
treaty of 1783, and such other information on that sub- 
ject, as he may deem necessary and useful for this State 
to be possessed of; and that the sum of five hundred 
dollars be appropriated to carry into effect the provisions 
of this Resolve ; and that the Governor be authorized to 
draw his warrants on the treasury for the same, as occa- 


sion, from time to time, may require, he to be accoanta- 
ble for the same. 

"Resolved, That the Governor of this State, in con- 
junction with the Governor of the Commonwealth of 
Massachusetts, (provided said Commonwealth shall con- 
cur in the measure, ) be authorized to cause the Eastern 
and Northern lines of the State of Maine to be 
explored, and the monuments, upon those lines, men- 
tioned in the treaty of 1783, to be ascertained in such 
manner as may be deemed most expedient." 

In 1829, Gov. Lincoln said in his message, "that the 
decision of the dispute, as to our North Eastern 
Boundary, is referred to the King of the Netherlands, 
and while I submit that no reference in such a case, was 
warrantable, yet there seems to be no objection to the 
personage selected, for how can he, the subject of 
impartial history, and not apparently dependent on any 
advantage from either party, being an umpire between 
nations, act but as the magnanimous dispenser of justice, 
who has the power to achieve the most glorious victory 
by the suppression of the most extreme error?" 

When the Legislature of Maine convened, in 1831, 
the King of the Netherlands had rendered his decision. 

An official communication from President Van Buren 
to Governor Smith, together with a translation of the 
full text of the award, was transmitted to the Legisla- 
ture, with a special message by the Governor, who had 
also devoted a considerable portion of his annual mes- 
sage to the matter. 

A joint select committee was appointed by the Legis- 
lature to consider the whole subject, who submitted an 
elaborate and exhaustive report, full of indignation at 
the findings of the arbitrator, signed by its chairman, 
John G. Deane. 


It not only attacked the impartiality of the arbitrator, 
but strongly intimated, that he was not in fact, a sover- 
eign, within the true meaning of the convention, which 
clothed him with the power and authority to act. 

These resolutions closed as follows: 

"Whereas, By the convention of September, 1827, 
an independent sovereign was to be selected by the gov- 
ernments of the United States and Great Britain, to 
arbitrate and settle such disputes as had arisen, and the 
King of the Netherlands was pursuant to that convention 
selected the arbiter, while an independent sovereign, in 
the plentitude of his power, exercising dominion and 
authority over more than 6,000,000 of subjects: 

"And Whereas, By the force of the prevalence of 
liberal opinions in Belgium, the Belgians overthrew his 
power and deprived him of more than half of his 
dominions and reduced him to the former dominions of 
the Stadtholder, leaving him with the empty title of the 
King of the Netherlands while he is only the King of 
Holland, and thereby increasing his dependence upon 
Great Britain for holding his power even in Holland, 
which from Public appearances, he held from a very 
doubtful tenure in the affections of the Dutch. 

"And Whereas, The King of the Netherlands had 
not decided before his Kingdom was dismembered and he 
consented to the division, and his public character had 
changed, so that he had ceased to be that public char- 
acter, and occupying that independent station among the 
sovereigns of Europe contemplated by the convention of 
September, 1827, and which led to his selection. 

"Therefore Resolved in the opinion of this Legis- 
lature, That the decision of the King of the Nether- 
lands, cannot and ought not to be considered obligatory 
upon the government of the United States, either on the 
principles of right and justice, or of honor. 


"Resolved Further — for the reasons before stated, 
That no decision made by any umpire under any circum- 
stances, if the decision dismembers a state, has or can 
have, any constitutional force or obligation upon the 
State thus dismembered unless the State adopt and sanc- 
tion the decision. ' ' 

At the session of the Legislature of 1831, an act was 
passed to incorporate the town of Madawaska, including 
territory southward of the river St. John, and the dis- 
puted territory northward* of that river. 

In 1832, Governor Smith, in his annual message said: 

"In the month of October last, information was 
received that a number of the inhabitants of Madawaska 
had organized themselves into a corporation, chosen 
municipal officers, and subsequently a representative; 
and that in consequence of these acts, the lieutenant- 
governor and other authorities of New Brunswick, accom- 
panied with a military force, had proceeded to Mada- 
waska, and arrested a number of American citizens, who 
were carried to Fredericton, and there imprisoned. 

"Though the measures adopted by the inhabitants, 
voluntarily organizing themselves into a corporation at 
that place, then claimed to be under the actual juris- 
diction of the Province of New Brunswick, were unex- 
pected by me, and undertaken without my knowledge; 
yet, as they acted in territory known to be within the 
limits of Maine, and in obedience to the laws and con- 
stitution, I considered that the}^ were entitled to the aid 
and protection of their government. 

"Immediately, therefore, on receiving evidence of 
these transactions, they were communicated, together 
with all the circumstances in relation to them within my 
knowledge, to the Department of State of the United 

*Now Upper Madawaska in the Province of New Brunswick. 


States, with a request that the proper measures might 
be adopted by the General Government to procure the 
release of our citizens, and to protect the territory of 
our State from invasion. Upon the receipt of this com- 
munication, though the proceedings of the inhabitants 
of Madawaska were considered to be a breach of the 
arrangement made with the British Minister, for preserv- 
ing the state of things as it then existed on both sides, 
till a final disposition of the question, those measures 
were promptly adopted by the President, which resulted 
in the release of our citizens from imprisonment, and 
rendered further proceedings on the part of this State, 
in reference to that object, unnecessary." 

A special committee was appointed, to which was 
referred that part of Governor Smith's message that re- 
lated to the North Eastern Boundary. Among its 
members appear the names of Reuel Williams and Nathan 
Clifford. They submitted the following resolves : 

"Resolved, That the Constitution of the United 
States does not invest the General Government with 
unlimited and absolute powers, but confers only a special 
and modified sovereignty, without authority to cede to 
a foreign power any portion of territory belonging to a 
State, without its consent. 

"Resolved, That if there is any attribute of State 
Sovereignty which is unqualified and undeniable, it is the 
right of jurisdiction to the utmost limits of State Terri- 
tory ; and if a single obligation under the Constitution 
rests upon the Confederacy, it is to guarantee the integ- 
rity of this territory to the quiet and undisturbed enjoy- 
ment of the States. 

"Resolved, That the doings of the King of Holland, 
on the subject of the boundary between the United 
States and Great Britain, are not a decision of the 
question submitted to the King of the Netherlands ; and 


that his recommendation of a suitable or convenient line 
of boundary is not obligatory upon the parties to the 

"Resolved, That this State protests against the 
adoption, by the Government of the United States, of 
the line of boundary recommended by the King of 
Holland as a suitable boundary between Great Britain 
and the United States ; inasmuch as it will be a violation 
of the rights of Maine,— rights acknowledged and insisted 
upon by the General Government,— and will be a prece- 
dent which endangers the integrity, as well as the inde- 
pendence, of every State in the Union. 

"Resolved, That while the people of this State are 
disposed to yield a ready obedience to the Constitution 
and laws of the United States, they will never consent to 
surrender any portion of their territory, on the recom- 
mendation of a foreign power. 

"Resolved, That the Governor, with advice of 
Council, be authorized to appoint a competent agent, 
whose duty it shall be, as soon as may be, to repair to 
the City of Washington, and deliver to the President of 
the United States a copy of the preceding Report and 
these Resolutions, with a request that he will lay the 
same before the Senate of the United States; and also 
deliver a copy to the Vice President, to each of the 
Heads of Departments, and to each member of the 
Senate, and to our Representative in Congress. 

"Resolved, That our Senators in Congress be 
instructed, and our Representatives requested, to use 
their best efforts to prevent our State from being dis- 
membered, our territory alienated, and our just rights 
prostrated, by the adoption of a new line for our North 
Eastern Boundary, as recommended by the King of 


"Resolved, That the agent to be appointed by the 
Governor and Council, be instructed to cooperate with 
our Senators and Representatives, in advocating and 
enforcing the principles advanced, and positions taken, 
in the foregoing Resolutions, and in supporting all such 
measures as shall be deemed best calculated to preserve 
the integrity of our State, and prevent any portion of 
our territory and citizens from being transferred to a 
Foreign Power. ' ' 

Governor Dunlap, in 1834, notes that this question 
is still unsettled, but considers that the way "is now open 
for the ultimate attainment of our rights," inasmuch 
that the President of the United States had announced 
as the policy of the national administration, in negoti- 
ations with foreign powers, to "submit to nothing that 
is wrong. " 

In the years 1834, 1835 and 1836 the Governoi-s' 
messages refer to it only as "yet being in an unsettled 
state," but in 1837, Governor Dunlap regrets that he 
has "received no information to warrant the opinion 
that a speedy adjustment is expected," and asserts that 
"our soil and our sovereignty have been invaded." 

A joint committee at this session of the Legislature 
was appointed to investigate and report. John Holmes 
was its chairman on the part of the House. 

Their report of ten pages was one of the most search- 
ing that had been made, and they submitted the follow- 
ing resolutions : 

"Resolved, That we view with much solicitude the 
British usurpations and encroachments on the north- 
eastern part of the territory of this State. 

"Resolved, That pretensions so groundless and 
extravagant indicate a spirit of hostility which we had no 
reason to expect from a nation with whom we are at 


"Resolved, That vigilance, resolution, firmness and 
union on the part of this State, are necessary in this 
state of the controversy. 

"Resolved, That the Governor be authorized and 
requested to call on the President of the United States 
to cause the North Eastern Boundary of this State to be 
explored and surveyed and monuments erected according 
to the Treaty of 1783. 

"Resolved, That the cooperation of Massachusetts 
be requested. 

"Resolved, That our Senators in Congress be 
instructed, and our Representatives requested to endeavor 
to obtain a speedy adjustment of the controversy. 

"Resolved, That copies of this report and resolutions 
be transmitted to the Governor of Massachusetts, the 
President of the United States, to each of our Senators 
and Representatives in Congress and other Senators in 
Congress, and the Governors of the several States." 

When the Legislature of 1838 had assembled, the 
people of Maine had become exasperated, for since the 
adjournment of the last Legislature, the depredations 
and trespasses upon territory that was in dispute, also 
upon portions of territory to which the title of Maine 
was practically undisputed, had increased to an alarming 

The province people, evidently fully supported by their 
officials and the government of Great Britain, had never 
before been so arrogant, defiant and insolent in extend- 
ing by force and unlawful means, their alleged jurisdic- 
tional rights, as during the years then drawing to a 
close. The conditions were acute and the situation 

The Whigs had gained the ascendancy in Maine and 
had elected Edward Kent, governor. Governor Kent 
was an able lawyer and a profound jurist, and was for 


many years after, one of the ablest, members of the 
Supreme Court of this State. He had informed himself 
fully of the complex conditions and had given the whole 
matter careful consideration, hence, his elaboration of it 
in his annual message is such a lucid history of the 
events to that time, and the rights of Maine as viewed 
from a conservative and judicial standpoint, that copious 
extracts are herein made from it. Among other things 
he said: 

"Constitutional Law is the broad and ample shield 
under which a whole people rest in security and peace. 
Like the atmosphere in which we move, it presses with 
immense, but equal and balanced power, to sustain the 
body politic. It protects the infant in its cradle and the 
magistrate in the seat of Justice. It gives the conscious- 
ness of security and safety to the unarmed and the peace- 
ful, and is more than bolts and bars in guarding every 
man's castle^ — his own domestic hearth. The weak fear 
not the strength of the powerful, and the poor and 
despised tremble not at the oppressor's frown. To such 
law every good citizen bows in cheerful submission, and 
with ready acquiescence, for it is but the embodied 
expression of his own sovereignty. But when, instead 
of the law of legislation, we have the law of the strong- 
est, and, instead of judicial and executive administration, 
the summary inflictions of an infuriated mob, stung to 
madness by temporary rage, savage, remorseless and irre- 
sponsible, excited by some imagined insult or real injury, 
or perhaps by the expression of obnoxious and unpopular 
sentiments — we have a state of society at which the 
boldest may well tremble, and the most ardent despair. 

"It is certainly a remarkable fact, that fifty-five years 
after the recognition of American independence by 
Great Britain, and the formal and precise demarkation 


of our limits, in the treaty of peace, the extent of those 
limits, and the territory rightfully subject to our juris- 
diction, should be a matter of dispute and difference. 
I feel it to be my duty, in this my first official act, to 
call your attention to that vitally important question, 
the true limits of our State, and to express to you and 
the people my views of the claim set up by a foreign 
State to the rightful possession of a large part of our 

"I do not intend to enter into a historical detail, or 
an elaborate argument to sustain the American claim on 
our North Eastern Boundary. The whole subject has 
been for years before the people, and our rights, and the 
grounds upon which they rest, have been ably main- 
tained, and clearly set forth, in our formal documents 
and informal discussions. 

"I will not trespass needlessly upon your time and 
patience b}^ a recapitulation. If there is any meaning 
in plain language, and any binding force in treaty 
engagements — if recognition and acquiescence for a long 
series of years on the part of Great Britain in one uni- 
form expression and construction of the boundaries of 
her Provinces of Canada and Nova Scotia, is of any 
weight, then the right of Maine to the territory in 
dispute is as clear and unquestionable as to the spot upon 
which we now stand. It requires, indeed, the exercise 
of charity to reconcile the claim now made by Great 
Britain with her professions of strict integrity and high 
sense of justice in her dealings with other nations; for it 
is a claim of very recent origin, growing from an 
admitted right in us, and proceeding, first, to a request 
to vary our acknowledged line for an equivalent, and then, 
upon a denial, to a wavering doubt, and from thence to 
an absolute claim. 


"It has required and still requires, all the talents of 
her statesmen, and skill of her diplomatists, to render 
that obscure and indefinite, which is clear and unam- 
biguous. I cannot for a moment doubt that if the same 
question should arise in private life, in relation of the 
boundaries of two adjacent farms, with the same evidence 
and the same arguments, it would be decided by any 
court, in any civilized country, without hesitation or 
doubt, according to our claim. 

"But Great Britain was anxious for a direct communi- 
cation between her provinces. She sought it first as a 
favor and a grant. She now demands about one third 
part of our territory as her right. 

"The pertinacity and apparent earnestness and confi- 
dence with which this claim is urged, in the very face of 
the treaty, and the facts bearing upon the question, 
have been increased, I fear, by the probably unexpected 
forbearance, if not favor, with which they have been 
received and treated by the American authorities. It 
can hardly be a matter of surprise that the claim is 
pressed upon us, when instead of standing upon the 
treaty — plain, definite and capable of execution as it 
manifestly is— our o\vn General Government has volun- 
tarily suggested a variation of that line, certainly in 
their favor, b}' running west of the due north line of the 
treaty, and thei*e to seek the highlands ; thus yielding up 
the starting point, the northwest angle of Nova Scotia, 
and throwing the whole matter into uncertainty and con- 
fusion. Fortunately for us, the English negotiators, 
thinking, probably, that a nation which would yield 
so much, would probably yield more, declined the 
proposition, unless other concessions were made. The 
remarkable adjudication made by the arbiter selected 
under the treaty, resulting merely in advice, the move- 
ment on the part of Maine, in 1832, in the negotiation 


to yielding up the territory for an equivalent, the appar- 
ent apathy and indifference of the General Government 
to the encroaching jurisdiction by New Brunswick, her 
unopposed establishment of a wardenship over the terri- 
tory — the repeated incarceration of the citizens of 
Maine, for acts done on this her territory, almost with- 
out a murmur of disapprobation or remonstrance, and 
the delay of the President to run the line as authorized 
by Congress, have all, I fear, served to strengthen and 
encourage the claim, which was first put forth with doubt 
and argued with many misgivings. 

"The commission and arbitration under treaty having 
failed, and our ultra liberal offers either declined or 
neglected, the parties are turned back to their rights and 
their limits under the treaties of 1783 and 1814. 

"But in truth, the only question in dispute, or about 
which there was any difference between the two govern- 
ments, until since the last war and the last treaty, was 
to which river was the true St, Croix of the treaty. 
This being settled, and its head or source fixed, (as it 
has been) the line is to run due north to the south line 
of Canada, and the northwest angle of Nova Scotia. 
That line should be run without delay, as authorized by 

"We warrant the information and the facts; we wish 
to examine the heighth of land which divides the waters 
flowing into the St. Lawrence from those running into 
the Atlantic, and ascertain its elevation and character. 
We wish to have our land marks placed on our exterior 
limits, and maintain our own. 

"We wish to test the truth of the assertion, that 
there is no northwest angle of Nova Scotia, and no such 
dividing heighth of land as the treaty contemplates, by 
a correct and scientific examination on the face of the 
earth. Surely rights of examination, which are secured 


to individual claimants, are not to be denied to sovereign 

"Our situation in relation to this question, owing to 
the peculiar nature of our government and institutions, 
is interesting, viewed either with reference to the foreign 
power with which we are at issue, or our own General 
Government. Our right and title, clear and perfect as 
we believe them to be, are, it must be admitted, subjects 
of dispute, and the first and great question is, how is 
this dispute to be settled? The line disputed is the 
Eastern boundary of the United States and of the State 
of Maine. The General Government is the only power 
which b}' the constitution can treat with a foreign 
government, or be acknowledged or known l)y that 
government, in negotiations. Maine acknowledges the 
right of the General Government to establish the line, 
according to the terms of the treaty of 1783, and claims 
a performance of that duty without delay. But whilst 
she concedes that power, she insists with equal confidence 
upon the position, that no variation of the treaty line, 
no concession of any part of our territory, and no con- 
ventional line can be granted or adopted, without the 
consent of this State. 

''Whatever territory is included within the line run- 
ning from the northwest angle of Nova Scotia west- 
wardly along the highlands which divide those rivers that 
empty themselves into the St. Lawrence, from those 
which fall into the Atlantic ocean, to the northwestern- 
most head of the Connecticut river, and the line running 
directly south from said angle to the established source 
of the St. Croix, is within the State of Maine. 

"If there is a dispute as to the location of that angle, 
and those lines — that question, and that question only, 
is to be settled by the general government. 


"In making this assertion, we do not more distinctly 
acknowledge a power than claim the performance of a 
duty. In the first sentence of the Constitution of the 
United States, one of the important objects in the 
information of that constitution, as there expressed, is 
'to provide for the common defence,' and this duty is 
afterwards in the same instrument, more specifically 
pointed out in the provision, that, 'The United States 
shall guarantee to every State in this Union a republican 
form of government, and shall protect each of them 
against invasion. ' ITnder that constitution, the exer- 
cise of certain rights was denied to the States ; all not 
expressly taken away were reserved to the States — and 
certain new rights were created. 

"Foremost, and most important, of these newly 
created State rights, is the right, on the part of each 
State, to demand the aid of all, by the action of the 
general government, whenever any foreign power inter- 
feres with the territorial rights of such State. 

"No State is to be left to defend its soil and maintain 
its just rights single handed and alone, — to engage in 
border skirmishes and partizan warfare, and sustain that 
warfare at its own expense. 

"It is the duty of a State to claim and assert its 
rights to jurisdiction, and it is the duty of the general 
government to protect and maintain them, if just and 
well founded. The acknowledgement of this State right 
to protection is particularly important to Maine, 
environed by foreign territory, and forming a frontier 
State in the Union. Denied the power to negotiate 
with foreign governments, or to declare and carry on 
war in defence of her rights, this State can call, in a 
strong voice, upon that government to which has been 
delegated those high powers, for protection in the exer- 
cise of her jurisdictional rights. Perfect unity of pur- 


pose and frankness in disclosures ought to characterise 
all intercourse between the State and National Govern- 
ments, on this topic. No course is so well calculated to 
lead to distrust and embarrassment, and to inspire confi- 
dence in the opposing claimants, as diplomatic evasions 
and jarring and discordant correspondence. We would 
use no threats of disunion or resistance. We trust that 
it will never be necessary for a State to assume a hostile 
attitude, or threatening language, to enforce practically 
its claims to protection. 

"But Maine has a right to know, fully and explicitly, 
the opinion and determination of the general govern- 
ment, and whether she is to be protected, or left to 
struggle alone and unaided. I see little to hope from 
the forbearance or action of the British government. 
Their policy, it is apparent, is to delay a settlement of 
the question, and to extend their actual jurisdiction over 
the territory, that it may ripen into a right, or at least in 
future controversies give them the advantage of pos- 

"The loose and extremely undefined jurisdiction over 
the small French Settlement at Madawaska, has been the 
foundation of a claim to actual jurisdiction, and the 
establishment of wardenship over the whole territory. 
In pursuance of this plan and policy, they have seized, 
at various times, heretofore, American citizens, and 
thrust them into prison, for alleged offences, — and dur- 
ing the past season, the Lieut. Governor of New Bruns- 
wick has visited the territory in person, and received the 
loyal assurance of such of its inhabitants as were ready 
to acknowledge their allegiance. A citizen of our State, 
Ebenezer S. Greeley, now lies imprisoned at Fredericton, 
seized, as it is said, for exercising power delegated to 
him under a law of this State. The facts connected 


with this arrest are unknown to me, and I therefore for- 
bear to comment at this time upon them. 

"If the facts are, that he was so seized, for such a 
lawful act, the dignity and sovereignty of the State and 
nation demand his immediate release. 

"I am aware that we are met by the assertion that 
the parties have agreed to permit the actual jurisdiction 
to remain, pending the negotiation as it existed before. 
I have yet seen no evidence that such an agreement was 
ever formally entered into by the parties. But certainly 
Maine was no party to such an understanding, and at all 
events it could never have been intended to be perpetu- 
ally binding, or to extend beyond the termination of the 
then pending negotiation. That negotiation is ended. 
The old ground of claim at Mars Hill is abandoned ; a 
new allegation is made — that the treaty cannot be exe- 
cuted and must be laid aside. In the meantime this 
wardenship is established, and the claim to absolute 
jurisdiction, not merely at Madawaska, but over the 
whole territory north, is asserted and enforced. 

"If this jurisdiction is to be tolerated and acquiesced 
in indefinitely, we can easily see why negotiation lags, 
and two years elapse between a proposition and the 
reply. They have all they want, and the jurisdiction is 
claimed by them so absolutely that we cannot send an 
agent to number the people, and must hesitate before 
the disputed line can be run, to fix our limits and ascer- 
tain important facts. 

"The first duty of Maine, as it seems to me, is to claim 
the immediate action of the general government, to 
move efficiently and decidedly, to bring the controversy 
to a conclusion. We have had years of negotiation, 
and we are told that we are apparently no nearer to a 
termination than at the commencement. Maine has 


waited with most exemplary patience, until even her 
large stock is almost exhausted. 

"She has no disposition to embarrass the action of the 
General Government, but she asks that some action be 
had — some movement made with a determined purpose 
to end the controversy. 

"She cannot quietly submit to have her territory 
wrested from her, her citizens imprisoned, her territorial 
jurisdiction annihilated, and her rights lost by the bold 
and persevering and unopposed claims of a foreign 
power. She cannot consent to be left alone in the con- 
troversy, or to be left in doubt as to the aid or counte- 
nance she may receive from the authorities of the Union 
in maintaining her acknowledged rights. She asks the 
quiet and undisturbed possession of her territory, accord- 
ing to the treaty, and that foreign and intrusive posses- 
sion be put an end to ; and by this claim she will abide. 
She will do nothing rashly, and indulge in no spirit of 
nullification ; and it will not be until all hope of settling 
the vexed question by negotiation, and all requests for 
other aid are denied or neglected, that she will throw 
herself entirely upon her own resources, and maintain, 
unaided and alone, her just rights, in the determined 
spirit of injured freemen. But those rights must be 
vindicated and maintained ; and if all appeals for aid and 
protection are in vain, and her constitutional rights are 
disregarded, forbearance must cease to be a virtue — and, 
in the language of the lamented Lincoln, Maine may be 
'compelled to deliberate on an alternative which will 
test the strictness of her principles and the firmness of 
her temper. ' The recent movement in Congress by one 
of our Representatives — sustained, as we confidently 
trust, by his colleagues, gives some encouragement to 
hope that the day for decisive action is at hand. 

"To you — delegated guardians of the people's rights 


— I submit these remarks, and to you I leave the consid- 
eration of this momentous subject, confident that you 
will not yield to an unjust claim, or jeopardize our 
rights by delay in asserting them. It is for you to say 
upon mature reflection, whether, in speaking in the 
name of Maine, I have exceeded the bounds of prudence, 
or mistaken the feelings of the people. I confess that 
my convictions are strong, that Maine has been wronged 
by a foreign government, and neglected by our own — 
and I do not understand the diplomatic art of softening 
the expression of unpalatable truths. 

"I can only assure you that I most cheerfully co-op- 
erate in maintaining our rights to protection in the exer- 
cise of our rightful jurisdiction." 

From the time when the King of the Netherlands in 
1831, rendered his decision until the whole matter came 
to a crisis in Maine in 1839, the Federal government 
did not make any decisive move that would be a notice 
to the world that her frontier in Maine was to be pro- 
tected at all hazards. 

History often repeats itself. Then even more than 
now the party in power was inclined to consider first of 
all what effect such action would have upon its political 

President Jackson had not acted with his usual vigor 
and aggressiveness in any attempts to settle this question 
with England and preserve our rights, maintain our 
national honor, and protect the rights and honor of a 
sovereign state against the overt acts of a foreign power. 
He had disappointed his political friends and lent 
encouragement to his enemies in both Maine and Massa- 

President Van Buren took his seat in 1838, and, 
although the situation was much more serious than at 
any time during Jackson's administration, he was equally 


as inclined to procrastinate if not to vacillate about this 
subject of such vast importance, as was his predecessor. 

During this period Maine had be^n ably represented 
in both houses of Congress. 

In the Senate had been such men as Ether Shepley, 
Peleg Sprague, John Holmes and Reuel Williams. 

In the lower house had been George Evans, F. O. J. 
Smith, Gorham Parks, Leonard Jarvis and Virgil D. 
Paris. It was at this time, 1837-39, that Thomas 
Davee of Blanchard was a representative. 

The Maine delegation heartily supported by the 
Massachusetts delegation had been incessant in their 
efforts to force the administration to action. 

Of their vigilance and faithfulness in this respect and 
their endeavors to constantly keep this issue a prominent 
one before the country there can be no doubt. 

And yet eloquent speeches in Congress, convincing 
passages in Governors' messages and exciting reports and 
resolves of legislative committees, however much they 
might have aroused public sentiment in Maine, failed of 
having any salutory effect upon our arrogant neighbors 
across the border, sustained as they were by the power- 
ful arm of Great Britain, so long as the policy of the 
national government was a passive one. 

Rather did their magistrates become more defiant in 
claiming jurisdictional rights over the disputed territory, 
by issuing civil and criminal processes against the settlers 
along the Aroostook, Madawaska and upper St. John 
Rivers, and their officers more bold and domineering, 
and trespassing on these lands was increasing. 

On the 14th of December, 1838, the land agents of 
Massachusetts and Maine, appointed George W. Buck- 
more an agent to proceed to the Fish Rivers, and investi- 
gate the trespassing by New Brunswick parties and pre- 
vent such trespassing if possible. 


Based upon the report which Buckmore made to the 
land agent and other similar reports Governor Fairfield, 
January 23, 1839, submitted to the Legislature a mes- 
sage, in which he asserted that, "B}' this report it 
appears that a large number of men, man}- of them, I 
am informed, from the British provinces, are trespassing 
very extensively upon the lands belonging to this State: 
that, they not only refuse to desist, but defy the power 
of this government to prevent their cutting timber to 
any extent they please. 

"Upon the Grand River, it is estimated there are from 
forty to fifty men at work. On the Green River, from 
twenty to thirty. 

"On the Fish River, from fifty to seventy-five men 
with sixteen yoke of oxen and ten pair of horses, and 
more daily expected to go in. On township H ten men, 
six oxen and one pair of horses. On the little Mada- 
waska seventy-five men, with twenty yoke of oxen and 
ten horses. At the Aroostook Falls fifteen men with 
six yoke of oxen. 

"The quantity of timber which these trespassers will 
cut the present winter is estimated in value, by the 
Land Agent at one hundred thousand dollars. ' ' 

And the Governor very pertinently remarked that it 
was not merely the property that was at stake, but "the 
character of the State is clearly involved." 

He recommended to the Legislature that the land 
agent be instructed forthwith to proceed to the place of 
operation on the Aroostook and Fish Rivers wuth a suf- 
ficient number of men suitably equipped, to "seize the 
teams and provisions, break up the camps, and disperse 
those who are engaged in this work of devastation and 
pillage. ' ' 






, J^ #1 H 









"■• .. 

" '"'»» 

Knrs MtlNTiiu: 
Land AdKxr oi Matxk. lS:i!t 


In this report Mr. Buckmore* says: "During my 
stop at the Madawaska settlement, I was called upon by 
Francis Rice, and Leonard R. Coombs, Esquires, two of 
the Magistrates living at Madawaska, to learn my busi- 
ness on the St. John River, which I freely communicated. 
They said they were authorized by the Governor to arrest 
all persons attempting to exercise jurisdiction, on the 
part of the American Government, in the Madawaska 
settlement, and that they should forward a copy 
of my instructions to the Governor at Fredericton. " 

January 24, 1839, the Legislature passed a resolve 
instructing and empowering the land agent to carry out 
the recommendations of the Governor and appropriating 
ten thousand dollars for the purpose. 

In 1838, the Democrats had defeated Governor Kent, 
the Whig governor, and were again in power in Maine 
and had elected John Fairfield, governor, who was 
inaugurated in 1839. 

He appointed Rufus Mclntire of Parsonsfield, land 

Mr. Mclntire was unquestionabh' a man of ability and 
integrity. He was a lawyer and had represented his 
district in Congress four terms. 

Pursuant to the legislative resolve above referred to, 
Governor Fairfield ordered the land agent to go to the 
Aroostook and Madawaska country for the purpose of 
carrying out the provisions of the resolve. 

Mr. Mclntire employed Major Hastings Strickland of 
Bangor, then sheriff of Penobscot County, to accompany 
and assist him in this work. 

Consequently an expedition left Bangor during the 
first week of February, 1839, consisting of the land 
agent. Major Hastings Strickland, with a large civil 

*Buckmore's report was made to Elijah L. Hamlin, land agent, 
in 1838. 


posse, Ebenezer Webstei" and Captain Stover Rines of 
Orono, and Gustavus G. Cushman of Bangor. 

They proceeded to the mouth of the Little Madawaska 
River, where they encamped. 

During the night of P'ebruary 12, the house or camp 
where Mclntire slept was surrounded by about forty 
armed men. Mclntire and those with him were awak- 
ened, placed under arrest and ordered to be ready at 
once to march to Fredericton. Mclntire demanded by 
what authority they arrested him, and the commander 
pointing his musket at Mclntire's breast, said, "This is 
our authority." 

They were taken before a magistrate at AVoodstock, 
who issued a warrant against Land Agent Mclntire, 
Gustavus G. Cushman and Thomas B. Bartlett of Ban- 
gor, and they were forthwith marched to Fredericton 
and lodged in jail. 

On Sunda}', Februaiy 17th, the citizens of Bangor 
enjo3'ed the sight of two of the leading men among the 
province trespassers, Mr. McLaughlin, warden of the 
public lands in New Brunswick, and Captain Tibbets of 
the Tobique settlement, being escorted as prisoners 
through the streets of that city. 

They had been captured by the Maine soldiers a few 
days before and were taken to Bangor, but unlike the 
prisoners captured by the British they were not lodged 
in the Bangor jail, but were lodged in the Bangor House 
and fared sumptuously.* 

*The Bangor Whijj, in speaking of this occurrence, editorially, 
remarked : 

"It is worthy of remark and remembrance, that our Land Agent, 
when passing through Woodstock, was greeted with jeers and 
insults by British Subjects, but when the British Land Agent rode 
through this city, although there were over a thousand people assem- 
bled in the streets, he was suflFered to pass in silence. Not a lip 
was opened or an insult offered." 


On March 1, 1839, news was received in Bangor that 
a regiment of eight hundred Fvisileers had arrived in 
the city of St. John, from Cork, Ireland, and would 
march forthwith to the disputed territory. Five 
hundred British Regulars had arrived at Madawaska 
from the city of Quebec, and eight pieces of cannon 
had been transported up the St. John River from 
Fredericton. The people of Maine were kept informed 
of the doings at the "Seat of War" by special mes- 
sengers, stages and express teams, daily coming into 
Bangor. The Bangor Whig was published daily, and 
was one of the most enterprising of the Maine news- 
papers of the day. 

It kept a "war correspondent" at Houlton and had 
a column or more in every issue for several weeks, giving 
graphic descriptions of the scenes of "war," of the 
hardships which were encountered, and of the soldiers 
tenting on the melting snow-drifts, all the way from 
Houlton to Madawaska. Some of this correspondence 
would have done credit to the "stories" of the 
"yellow" journals of today. 

In one of these letters, published March Tth, the 
writer says: * * * * "i^^ ^g gjyg every hireling 
and subject of a monarchy, that grant to territory, 
which King Harold of yore was willing to give to the 
Norwegian King — seven feet by two." 

The news of that day and the editorials in the papers 
at the time, were more or less colored by the issues of 
Maine politics. The Bangor Whig was violently parti- 
san and for a time did not give Governor Fairfield, who 
was a Democrat, and had been chosen governor over 
Governor Kent, credit for being either competent or 
patriotic. But as the public mind became intensified 
in favor of protecting our border, it changed its course 
and was soon supporting his official acts as loyally as did 


The Argus, The Age, or any of the Democratic papers. 

When Sheriff Strickland first went to the Aroostook 
with his posse, and when Mclntire was taken prisoner 
by Sir John Harvey's officers, the Whig papers contended 
that Mclntire* left his camp and troops and went within 
a mile of the enemy to obtain a feather bed to sleep 
upon, and was thus seen and captured, and that if he 
had been content to have reposed upon spruce boughs he 
would not have fallen into the toils of the enemy. 

Some slurs were also cast upon Hastings Strickland for 
what they termed his ' 'untimely haste, ' ' in escaping from 
the British officers, intimating that he was cowardly, 
and retreated very unceremoniously. The facts however 
were that he was alert enough not to be taken prisoner, 
as some of his companions were, and perceived at once 
the necessity for immediate and decisive action on the 
part of Governor Fairfield and Adjutant General 
Hodgdon, if Maine's rights were to be protected. Being 
a man of great energy he went from Madawaska to 
Augusta as rapidly as relays of swift horses would carry 
himt for the purpose of prevailing upon the State gov- 
ernment at Augusta to mobilize troops upon the border 
without further delav. Maj. Strickland was a man of 
political sagacity and a leader of influence in the Demo- 
cratic party, and one that Governor Fairfield relied upon 
for advice and counsel. 

Naturally both political parties tried to make political 
capital for themselves ; the effect of which was to hinder 
efficient progress in protecting our frontier. 

The Democrats criticized Governor Kent in 1838, and 

*When Mclntire was imprisoned Governor Fairfield appointed 
Colonel Charles Jarvis provisional land agent. 

tBangor newspapers stated that Major Strickland did not even 
stop at his home in Bangor but proceeded directly to Augusta. 

.M A.ioH Hastings SriiUKi.AM) 
Siii;i!ii I oi' Pkn()1!S( or Corxiv. IS.'}S-() 


in turn the Whigs blamed Governor Fairfield whenever 
it was possible to do so. 

As the "Aroostook War" or the military movement 
of troops to the frontier was made under Governor Fair- 
field, the AVhigs for many years thereafter, kept up an 
incessant fire of ridicule against him, and Land Agent 
Mclntire and Major Strickland. 

In this way it became a false tradition that the latter 
ran away from a conflict to escape imprisonment. One 
of the doggerels of the day commenced: 

"Run, Strickland, run! 

Fire, Stover, fire! 

Were the last words of Mclntire." 

In the meantime the situation was becoming more and 
' more inflammatory. It was the subject of discussion and 
agitation in England as well as America. On the 7th 
of March, 1839, both Loi*d Brougham and the Duke of 
Wellington made speeches regarding it in the House of 
Lords, calling attention to information which had been 
received from Canada and New Brunswick to the effect 
that lawless Yankees were invading and trespassing upon 
the British soil. 

When the people of Maine received news of the proc- 
lamation of Sir John Harve}', lieutenant-governor of 
New Brunswick, of February 13, 1839, which was a dec- 
laration of war, and the imprisonment of the land agent, 
the feeling of indignation was deep and universal. 

The Legislature appropriated eight hundred thousand 
dollars to be used by the Governor for the protection of 
the public lands. 

A draft was also ordered for ten thousand three hun- 
dred and forty-three men from the militia to be ready 
for immediate action. 

General Bachelder was commander of the western 
division of militia. Many volunteers from Penobscot 


and Piscataquis Counties and other eastern portions of 
the State were also enhsted. 

A\'^ithin a week ten thousand American troops were 
either in the Aroostook region, or on the march there. 

The national government was at last awake to the 
seriousness of the situation. Congress passed a bill 
authorizing the President of the United States to raise 
fifty thousand troops for the support of Maine, and 
appropriating ten million dollars to meet the expense if 
war became unavoidable. 

General Scott was ordered to the scene of action, 
informing Governor Fairfield that he was "specially 
charged with maintaining the peace and safety of the 
entire northern and eastern frontiers." He arrived in 
Augusta with his staff the fifth of March, 1839, and 
opened headquarters. 

General Scott was also clothed with full power to act 
as mediator between the State of Maine and the Province 
of New Brunswick and on entering upon negotiations 
which would if possible end further hostilities. He 
immediately communicated officially with Governor 
Fairfield and Sir John Harvey. 

The result was that on March 23, 1839, Sir John 
Harvey agreed to the terms of settlement negotiated by 
General Scott, and on March 25 the same were ratified 
by Governor Faii-field, who immediately issued orders to 
recall the troops from the Aroostook and the prisoners 
on both sides were liberated. 

Thus ended the famous "Aroostook War," and 
fortunately for the people of the State and the province it 
was a bloodless one. It has been derided and scoffed at 
and regarded as a huge international joke, and often 
has it been the subject for jest and laughter on the 
stump, and ever a fertile field for the grotesque wit of 
newspaper writers. 


And yet it is an incident in international history, in 
the history of the nation, and of the State of Maine, 
that is of supreme importance and interest. 

For years its solution puzzled the wisest of our states- 
men. The people of Maine believed that the territory 
which they possessed, and to which no one else had any 
rightful or lawful interest, was being wrongfully and 
illegally taken from them and that the government at 
Washington delayed the assertion of our rights unnec- 
essarily, because it feared Great Britain. 

Two expeditions were made to the Aroostook and 
Madawaska country. The first one as we have seen, was 
by the land agent, accompanied by Major Strickland 
as sheriff of Penobscot County, with a posse of men, 
for the purpose of driving ofl' trespassers upon Maine 
soil. The second expedition was a military one to repel 
an invasion of the State, which the lieutenant-governor 
of New Brunswick, Sir John Harvey, had threatened to 

Patriotic sons of the Pine Tree State left their homes 
and firesides in the most inclement season known to our 
rigorous climate and marched through the deep snows of 
a wilderness, two hundred miles, to defend our frontier 
from foreign invasion, when the Federal government was 
needlessly procrastinating and turning a deaf ear to the 
cries of suffering and oppressed pioneers in the upper St. 
John valley. 

Because the good fortunes of diplomacy triumphed 
and averted the shedding of blood, is no reason why they 
are not entitled to a high place in the roll of honor, with 
all of the other hosts of patriotic defenders of our 
country, and the protection of her glory and renown. 

In his annual message January 2, 1840, Governor 
Fairfield in referring to the Resolves of the Legislatui-e, 
passed in March, 1839, explains the withdrawal of the 


troops, by saying: "Soon after the adoption of the 
resolution, I received the written assent of the Lieu- 
tenant Governor of New Brunswick to the following, 
made to him by Major General Scott, to wit: 'That it 
is not the intention of the Lieutenant Governor of Her 
Britannic Majesty's Province of New Brunswick, under 
the expected renewal of negotiations between the Cabi- 
nets of London and Washington on the subject of said 
disputed territory, without renewed instructions to that 
effect, from his government, to seek to take military 
possession of that territory, or to seek by military force, 
to expel the armed civil posse or the troops of Maine.' " 

L^pon the basis of this arrangement the troops were 
recaUed by the Governor, but he kept quite a large force 
or civil posse there after the withdrawal of the troops, 
under the direction and control of the land agent. 

But war between the United States and P^ngland was 
averted through friendly diplomacy. What is known as 
the Webster- Ashburton treaty in American history was 
its final adjustment. This treaty was negotiated by 
Daniel Webster and Lord Alexander Baring Ashburton 
in August, 1842, and subsequently accepted and ratified 
by both governments. 

The commissioners who represented the State of Maine 
at the hearings before Webster and Ashburton were 
Edward Kavanagh, Edward Kent, Wm. P. Preble and 
John Otis. 

On the part of Massachusetts appeared Abbot 
Lawrence, John Mills and Charles Allen. 

At this treaty the frontier line between the State of 
Maine and Canada was settled for all time. 

By it, seven twelfths of the disputed ground, including 
that part of Madawaska that lies on the southerly side 
of the St. John River, w ere given to the LTnited States, 
and five twelfths of the ground to Great Britain; but it 


secured a better military frontier for England, and 
included heights commanding the St. Lawrence, which 
the award of the King of the Netherlands had assigned 
to the Americans. 

Documentary History of the North 
Eastern Boundary Controversy. 

(From State Papers, 2nd Sess. 20th Cong. 1828-9, 
Doc. No. 90.) 
Report of the trial of Jolni Baker, at the Bar of the 

Supreme Court, on Thursday, the 8th May, 1828, 

for conspiracy. 

In the Hilar}' term of the Supreme Court, the Grand 
Jury for the county of York found a true bill of indict- 
ment against John Baker, James Bacon and Charles 
Studson, for conspiracy. The two defendants, James 
Bacon and Charles Studson, were not taken ; but the 
defendant, John Baker, being in custody, was brought 
to the bar and arraigned, and thereupon pleaded not 
guilty, at the same time protesting against the proceed- 
ings, and that he was not amenable to the jurisdiction 
of this court. 

He was afterwards, during the term, admitted to bail, 
and entered into recognizance, himself in £100, and two 
sureties in £50 each, for his appearance at the present 
term, to traverse the indictment, and in the meantime 
to keep the peace and be of good behavior. 

On Wednesday, the 7th instant, the Attorney General 
states to the Court, that, having understood the defend- 
ant, John Baker, was in attendance, he should be ready, 
at the opening of the Court on the next day, to proceed 
with the trial. One of the bail for the defendant then 
said that the defendant would appear whenever he was 


required. Thursday was, therefore, appointed by the 
Court for the trial. 

Thursday, May 8, 1828. 
The Honorable Chief Justice Saunders, 
Mr. Justice Bliss, 
Mr. Justice Chipman, 
came into court, and took their seats. 

The defendant, John Baker, was called, and appeared, 
and declared he was ready for his trial : Mr. Attorney 
General then inoved for trial, and the clerk of the crown 
proceeded to call over the names of the jury. 

Mr. Justice Chipman stated to the defendant that he 
might challenge any of the jurors for cause, but he 
declined availing himself of this privilege. 

The following jurors were called, and sworn in the 
order they appeared : 

Michael Fisher, Joseph Estabrooks, Jr., 

William Miller, John Collins, 

Edward Cambridge, Samuel Curry, 

John Bain, Thomas W. Peters, 

Joseph Sutherland, William S. Esty, 

Donald McLeod, Anthony Stewart. 

The clerk of the crown then read the indictment, 
which is as follows: 

York, to wit. The jurors for our lord the King, 
upon their oath, present, that John Baker, late of the 
parish of Kent, in the county of York, laliorer, James 
Bacon, late of the same place, laborer, and Charles 
Studson, late of the same place, laborer, being persons 
greatly disaffected to our said lord the now King, and 
his govei'nment, within this, His Majesty's Province of 
New Brunswick, and being factiously and seditiously 
disposed, on the fourth day of July, in the eighth year 
of the reign of our said sovereign lord George the 


Fourth, with force and arms, at the parish aforesaid, 
in the county aforesaid, did, amongst themselves, con- 
spire, combine, confederate, and agree together, falsely, 
maliciously, factiously, and seditiously, to molest and 
disturb the peace and common tranquility of this Prov- 
ince, and to bring into hatred and contempt our said 
lord the King, and his Government, and to create false 
opinions and suspicions in the subjects of our said lord 
the King, of and concerning the Government and 
administration of our said lord the King, and of the 
royal power and prerogative of our said lord the King 
within this Province. 

First overt act. And the jurors aforesaid, upon 
their oath aforesaid, do further present, that the said 
John liaker, James IJacon, and Charles Studson, after- 
wards, to wit, on the same day and year aforesaid, at 
the parish aforesaid, in the county aforesaid, in pursu- 
ance of, and according to, the said conspiracy, combina- 
tion, confederacy and agreement, amongst themselves 
had as aforesaid, did erect, and cause to be raised and 
erected, a certain flag staff, and did place thereon a cer- 
tain flag, as the standard of the United States of 
America, and did then and there declare, in the presence 
and hearing of divers liege subjects of our said lord the 
King, that the said place on which the same flag staffs 
was so erected was a part of the territory of the said 
United States, and that they, the said liege subjects, 
must thereafter, look upon themselves as subjects of the 
said United States. 

Second overt act. And the jurors aforesaid, upon 
their oath aforesaid, do further present, that the said 
John Baker, James Bacon, and Charles Studson, after- 
wards, to wit, on the 15th day of July aforesaid, in the 
year aforesaid, at the parish aforesaid, in the county 
aforesaid, in further pursuance of, and according to, the 


said conspiracy, combination, confederacy and agreement, 
amongst themselves had as aforesaid, applied to divers 
liege subjects of our said lord the King, and then and 
there presented to the same subjects a paper writing, 
which they, the said John Baker, James Bacon, and 
Charles Studson, then and there requested the said sub- 
jects to sign, then and there declaring that, by the said 
paper, they, the said subjects would bind themselves to 
oppose the execution of the laws of Great Britain, to 
wit, in the Madawaska settlement, so called. 

Third overt act. And the jurors aforesaid, upon 
their oath aforesaid, do further present, that the said 
John Baker, James Bacon, and Charles Studson, after- 
wards, to wit, on the 18th day of July, in the year 
aforesaid, in further pursuance of, and according to, the 
said conspiracy, combination, confederacy, and agree- 
ment, amongst themselves had as aforesaid, did oppose 
and obstruct the postman then and there having the 
custody and carriage of His Majesty's mail to the 
Province of Lower Canada, in the prosecution of his 
journey with the said mail; they, the said John Baker, 
James Bacon, and Charles Studson, declaring to the said 
postman that the British Government had no right to 
send its mails by that route, meaning through that part 
of the said parish of Kent called the Madawaska settle- 
ment ; and that they, the said John Baker, James Bacon, 
and Charles Studson, had received orders from the Gov- 
ernment of the said United States to stop the carriage 
of the said mail through the same. 

Fourth overt act. And the jurors aforesaid, upon 
their oath aforesaid, do further present, that the said 
John Baker, James Bacon, and Charles Studson, after- 
wards, to wit, on the tenth day of August, in the year 
aforesaid, at the parish aforesaid, in the county aforesaid, 
in further pursuance of, and according to, the said con- 


spiracy, combination, confederacy, and agreement, 
amongst themselves had as aforesaid, did hoist the flag 
of the said United States of America on a certain flag 
staff there erected and placed ; they, the said John Baker, 
James Bacon, and Charles Studson, then and there 
declaring, in the presence and hearing of divers subjects 
of our said lord the King, that they, the said John 
Baker, James Bacon, and Charles Studson, had so hoisted 
the same flag, and that they had mutually entered into a 
written agreement to keep the same flag there, and that 
nothing but a force superior to their own should take it 
down ; and further, that they considered, and had a 
right to consider, themselves then and there on the terri- 
tory of the said United States ; and that they had bound 
themselves to resist by force the execution of the laws of 
Great Britain among them there; in very great con- 
tempt of our said lord the King and his laws, to the evil 
example of all others in the like case offending, and 
against the peace of our said lord the King, his crown 
and dignity. 

The Attorney General, who conducted the prosecution, 
then opened the case to the jury, and stated generally 
the nature of the offence, and the facts necessary to be 
proved in order to support the indictment: he then 
briefly set forth the evidence which he intended to adduce 
to substantiate the charge ; and particularly stated it 
would be shown that the jurisdiction of this Province 
had always extended over the part of this country where 
the offence was committed: that the defendants were 
acting under no authority whatever; and this was an 
indictment found by the grand jury in the ordinary 
exercise of their duties. He desired the jury to dismiss 
from their mind every thing that they had heard or seen 
written on this case, and decide on the guilt or innocence 
of the party by the evidence alone; and, if they could 


not conscientiously say he was guilty, to acquit him. 
Several authorities were then read; but as the whole case 
was most fully and ably gone into by the learned judge 
who charged the jury, and the same view of the law and 
facts taken bv him as bv the Attorney General, it is not 
necessary to go into a full detail of the opening speech. 

Mr. Attorney General then proceeded to call the wit- 

William Feirio, one of the witnesses recognized at 
the last term, was called but did not appear. 

George ^Morehouse was the first witness examined : 
his evidence was as follows : 

I am a Justice of the Peace for the county of York, 
and reside in the parish of Kent, on the river St. John, 
about thirty miles below the Grand Falls. The Mada- 
waska settlers commence a few miles above the Falls, 
and extend up forty to fifty miles. I have been settled 
where I now live six }'ears ; but my acquaintance with 
the Madawaska settlement commenced in the year 1819- 
At this time the inhabitants were principally French; 
there were a few American citizens. I cannot say 
whether defendant was there then ; his brother Nathan 
was. I do not recollect the defendant's being there 
until September, 1822: he and the other Americans had 
formed a lumbering establishment at the head of the 
Madawaska settlement, on the east side of the river St. 
John, by the Meriumpticook stream. That part of the 
country where the French and Americans were has been 
invariably under the jurisdiction and laws of this Province 
since I knew it. I have been in the constant habit, as 
a Magistrate, of sending my writs and warrants there, 
and no interruption or objection was made to the service 
of them until last August, until then, it was my belief 
that all the inhabitants there considered themselves 
under the jurisdiction of, and subject to, the laws of 


this Province, both American citizens and French set- 

AVhen I speak of last August, I mean that this was 
the first intimation I had of any objection being made 
to the exercise of the jurisdiction of this Province there. 
That intimation was made by a report or communication 
from Mr. Rice, that John Baker, the defendant, had 
been guilty of seditious practices. I forwarded the 
communication to the Secretary of the Province ; a few 
days after, about the third of August, I received writ- 
ten instructions from His Majesty's Attorney General to 
proceed to Madawaska and take depositions, and get a 
copy of the written paper which it was reported the 
defendants had handed about for signature. I accord- 
ingly proceeded to Madawaska on the seventh of August, 
and arrived at the place where Baker's house is situate, 
and went into the house of James Bacon, and asked him 
to let me see the paper which had been handed about for 
signature: he said he had it not. I then requested 
Bacon to go with me to Baker's to look for the paper; 
he dechned going: I then went towards Baker's house, 
and met him on his mill dam. The mill dam is made 
across the river Meriumpticook. I stated to him that 
it had been reported to Government that he and other 
American citizens residing there had been guilty of 
seditious practices; that I was authorized to make 
inquiry. I told him it was reported that he had drawn 
up, and circulated among the settlers, a paper, the 
purport of which was that they were American citizens, 
and had bound themselves to resist the execution of the 
laws of Great Britain : he neither admitted or denied it, 
but said that he had been charged with an attempt to 
stop the mail, which was false. I requested him to show 
me the paper which had been handed round for signa- 
ture: he said he believed it was not in his possession. 


but did not deny the existence of such a paper : he said 
he did not know whether it was in his possession or not ; 
he thought Studson had it. I requested him to go to 
his house and search his papers ; perhaps he might find 
it; we proceeded together towards his house; between 
his residence and the mill, there is a new house, where 
ten or twelve Americans were assembled. I did not know 
them to be Americans : but supposed them to be so ; they 
were not French settlers : when we got there. Baker took 
two or three aside, and consulted with them a few 
minutes; he then came back, and said to me, "Mr. 
Morehouse, I have consulted with the committee, and 
we have determined that you shall not see this paper : 
we have formerly shown you papers in similar cases, 
which has been very prejudicial to us." I observed, 
when I went there, a flag staff erected on the point of 
land where Baker lives ; the point is formed by the 
junction of the Meriumpticook river with the St. John ; 
there was then no flag on it, but after coming out of 
Bacon's, I observed a flag hoisted — a white flag, with an 
American eagle and semicircle of stars, red. In the 
conversation I had with Bacon he deprecated Baker's 
practices, and said he would not desist until he brought 
the Americans there into trouble. I think the persons 
Baker took aside to consult with, were Bartlett and 
Savage. After I had received the answer before men- 
tioned, I pointed to the flag, and asked Baker what that 
was. He said, "the American flag, Mr. Morehouse: 
did you never see it before, if not, you can see it now. ' ' 
I asked him who planted it there: he said, "he and the 
other Americans there." Bacon was present at the 
time: I required him in His Majesty's name to pull it 
down. He replied, "no, I will not; we have placed it 
there, and we are determined we will support it, and 
nothing but a superior force to ourselves shall take it 


down ; we are on American territory ; Great Britain has 
no jurisdiction here; what we are doing we will be 
supported in ; we have a right to be protected, and will 
be protected, in what we are doing, by our Govern- 

He did not produce or exhibit any authority. I then 
turned to Bacon, and said, "Bacon, you have heard 
Baker's declaration, do you mean to support him in it?" 
He said, "of course I do. " I then left him and came 
away. Baker, about the 1st February, 1825, applied 
to me, as a Magistrate, for summonses against some of 
the Madawaska settlers to collect debts. I gave him 
six summonses against persons all living in the Mada- 
waska settlement: the return made to me was that the 
debts were paid when the writs were served. 

Baker has a considerable improvement, and raises more 
or less grain every year. In 1823, I was at the place 
where he resides. I understood from what passed, that 
Baker and Bacon both acknowledged they had signed 
the paper ; they spoke of having bound themselves by a 
written agreement to resist the laws of England. 

The direct examination having closed, the defendant 
was informed he might cross-question the witness: he 
declined doing it, saA'ing, under the circumstances which 
he stood there, he did not intend asking any questions. 

To questions then put by the Court, the witness 
stated : 

The Madawaska settlement proper terminates at the 
Madawaska river ; above the river, there are a few miles 
interval, with a few scattering houses; the main settle- 
ment then commences about nine miles above the Mada- 
waska, and extends seven or eight miles. The Meri- 
umpticook is about eighteen miles above the Madawaska. 
This settlement has formerly gone by the name of Chat- 
eaugay : Lately it has been called Sainte Emilie by the 


French settlers in the settlement. I mean distinctly 
that the upper as well as the lower settlement has been 
subject to the British laws. It is at the head of the 
settlement the Americans reside. The whole settlement 
has gone by the general name of Madawaska Settlement 
throughout the country ; the name Chateaugay caused 
some difference amongst themselves ; the Priest changed 
it to Sainte Emilie ; there has been no distinction in the 
actual exercise of jurisdiction between the upper and 
lower part of this settlement ; the lower bound of the 
parish of Kent is eighteen miles below my residence. 

Francis Rice sworn. I reside in the Madawaska settle- 
ment, at the head or the first part. I am adjutant of 
the fourth battalion York county militia: the Mada- 
waska settlers are enrolled in this battalion. I have 
been in court, and heard Mr. Morehouse's evidence. I 
made a report to him, as he has stated. I did not know 
the facts myself; they were reported to me. I accom- 
panied Mr. Morehouse on his visit to the settlement on 
the 7th August last, and was present at the conversations 
with Baker and Bacon : the facts all took place as he has 
stated: I can say nothing more. The Madawaska set- 
tlers attend and turn out at the militia training pretty 
regularly, both above and below the confluence of the 

The French settlers not being able to speak English 
distinctly, the witness, Francis Rice, had previously 
been sworn as interpreter, and acted as such throughout 
the trial. 

Abraham Chamberlain sworn. I live in the upper 
part of the Madawaska settlement, above the Mada- 
waska river; have resided there four years this Summer; 
was born at Bay Chaleur; came from there to this 
Province four years ago and have always lived since in 
the Madawaska settlement. Charles Studson presented 


me a paper, I think in Jul}' last. I don't remember 
seeing Baker. Bacon and Emery, and some other 
Americans, were present. I was passing b}^ ; they were 
drinking rum; they asked me to take some; I agreed. 
When they handed the paper, I asked whether any of 
the French had signed it; they said, not yet. 

The witness being then asked as to the contents of the 
paper, and the propriety of such evidence being ques- 
tioned by the court, the Attorney General cited the 
case of Rex versus Hunt and others, 3 Barn, and Aid. 
566, where it was decided, on an indictment for con- 
spiracy, that secondary evidence of the contents of a 
paper which was in the defendant's possession was 
admissible without producing the original, or giving 
notice to produce it; and that parole evidence of 
inscriptions and devices on banners and flags is also 
admissible. The question was then put; but the wit- 
ness could say nothing as to the contents, stating that 
it was read to him, but, being in English, he did not 
understand it. They asked him to sign it; but he did 
not understand for what reason. He wanted to know 
whether any of the French had signed it. This took 
place at the point of land near the mill. There was a 
flag hoisted with an eagle and stars on it ; they did not 
say anything about having signed the paper themselves. 

Peter Marque sworn. I live in the St. Emilie settle- 
ment, (the upper one.) Bacon and Studson, some time 
last Summer, tried to make me sign a paper. Studson 
handed it to me; I do not know for what reason: they 
read the paper, but I did not understand it, and asked 
whether the French had signed it : they said, not yet. I 
then said I would not sign it. I told Mr. Morehouse 
they wanted me to sign a paper. This was at the place 
where the pole stands. I never understood the purpose 
for which I was called to sign the paper. I worked 


eleven days for Baker last year, at the time of getting 
hay : I now work for myself. They told me Chamber- 
lain had signed the paper. I dont remember anything 

Peter Sileste sworn. I was employed last Summer to 
carry the mail from Madawaska to Lake Timisconatee : 
as I was taking it up the river, polling up in a canoe, I 
met John Baker coming down the river on a raft; he 
came off to me in a small skiff; neither of us stopped. 
Baker asked me in English, "Do you carry the mail?" 
I said "Yes." He said he had orders from America 
not to let the mail pass that way. I replied, I had no 
orders to stop there. This was all that passed. This 
was, I think, in July. 

Joseph Sanfason sworn. I live in the Madawaska 
settlement, half a mile below the Green river: the Green 
river is below the Madawaska. I was born at Mada- 
waska. I bought land from J. Souci : he had a grant 
from the government of this Province. I bought it 
six years ago. I have been a constable for two years 
for the parish of Kent. I was obstructed in my duty 
of constable by Baker, Bacon, Bartlett, Savage, Shelly, 
and Jones. I had an execution from Mr. Morehouse 
against J. Bacon. I asked Bacon if he would come? 
He said he would not leave the place. Baker said, it 
is of no use for you to go there; you shall not have 
the man. Bacon talked about settling it. Baker said, 
Bacon you must not settle it now ; you must settle it 
another time; I will not allow any officer to go up 
there. He asked me if I had any authority to go 
there. I showed him the warrant : he said, if it came 
from the States he would mind it ; but it was only from 
Mr. Morehouse, and he would not mind it. They pre- 
vented my taking Bacon, who refused to go. This 
took place near Baker's mill. 


Edward William Miller, Esq., sworn. I am high 
sheriff of the county of York, and have been so since 
1814. I have been acquainted with the Madawaska 
settlement seven years. I never could make any division 
in the settlement between the upper and the lower. 
When I first knew it, it extended to seven miles from 
the Falls ; lately, it has come within three or four miles. 
I know the Meriumpticook river. I have been in the 
habit of serving writs throughout the whole of the 
settlement, the same as in any other part of my baili- 
wick. AVhen I first became acquainted with the settle- 
ment, I considered the inhabitants under the jurisdic- 
tion and government of this Province, without any dis- 
pute whatever. The distance is so great, I have never 
summoned them as jurors: it would be so inconvenient 
to attend: the inhabitants serve in the militia. I never 
met with any obstruction in the discharge of mv duty. 

Peter Eraser, Esq., sworn. I have been an inhabit- 
ant of this Province since 1784: am acquainted with the 
Madawaska settlement. It is about seven or eight years 
since I was first there ; but I have been acquainted with 
the settlers since 1787. I considered them always under 
the government of this Province. The first settler I 
knew was Capt. Duperree, a captain of the militia of 
this Province: the date of his commission was between 
1787 and 1790. He resided in the settlement. The 
settlers have voted at elections: there was some difficulty 
at first in their doing so, on account of the oath which 
was required to be taken, as the}- were Catholics; but 
when this was altered, they have voted without diffi- 
culty. To my own knowledge, they voted in 1809, 
and ever since. I consider the Madawaska settlement as 
extending from the Great Falls to the Canada line. I 
have been where Baker lives; and alwaj's deemed the 
part above the Madawaska river as in the Madawaska 


settlement. There is no distinction, in this respect, 
between what is above and below that river. The 
Madawaska settlers are enrolled in the militia of this 
Province; in Captain Duperree's time, there were two 
companies. In 1824, they were formed into a separate 
battalion, consisting of five companies: I am major of 
the battalion. They turn out very regularly. I never 
heard of their making any objections to training. 

Henry Clopper sworn. I am clerk of the peace and 
register of deeds for this county. I was appointed 
clerk in 1823, and register in 1821. I succeeded my 
father in both offices. I have discharged the duties 
since 1820, having acted for him before receiving the 
appointment myself. Parish officers were appointed by 
the sessions for the parish of Kent. There was a separ- 
ate list for the Madawaska district, in that parish. I 
have been as far up the river as ten miles above the 
Grand Falls. There are a great many deeds registered 
in my office of land in Madawaska, where the parties are 
the Madawaska settlers, some as long since as twenty - 
five or thirty years back. As clerk of the peace, I 
receive the money given as bounty for grain raised on 
new ground in this county. In May, 1825, the defend- 
ant, John Baker, applied to me for the bounty for grain 
raised b}' him on new land. He received the bounty 
from me. The paper now produced by me is the docu- 
ment under which he became entitled to it. I observed 
to him that he was an alien, and I was not aware whether 
he was strictly entitled to it. He said his certificate had 
passed the session. The paper I now hold is the certifi- 
cate, and the only one ; it has been on file in my office 

The paper was here put in, and read by the clerk of 
the Crown, and is as follows: 

"I, John Baker, of Kent, do swear that ninety 


bushels of wheat were really and truh* raised on the land 
occupied by me, and are actualh' of the crop of the year 
1823, (1822) and that the wood was cut down, burnt, 
or cleared off from the land on which the same was 
raised within two years previous to the time that the 
said crop was taken off, and that they were of the first 
and only crop of grain raised on land from which the 
said wood was so cut down, burnt, or cleared off, as 

"John Baker. 
"Sworn before me, at Woodstock, the 2d of July, 
1825, (1823.) 

"John Bedell, Justice of the Peace. 
"I verily believe the facts above stated to be just and 

"John Bedell." 

I paid him by a check on Mr. Needham ; the amourit 
was £4 OS 3d; this is the order I gave Mr. Needham. 

Cross-examined by defendant. Have you got the 
receipt I gave for the money? The witness here pro- 
duced the schedule and signature to it by Baker, and 
said this is the onh^ receipt he gave me, except the one 
given to Mr. Needham. 

Mark Needham sworn. I remember the circumstance 
of paying this order; the words "received payment" on 
it are in my writing. I have no doubt I paid it, but 
have not now any particular recollection of the defendant. 
I considered it paid, and charged Mr. Clopper with it. 

George I. Dibblee sworn. I am acquainted with the 
hand- writing of the defendant, John Baker — have seen 
him write ; the signature to the receipt on the order is his 
hand-writing; I have no doubt of it. 

Simon Abear, or Hibert, sworn. I live two miles 
below Madawaska river; have lived there four (forty) 
years next month; I moved there from the French vil- 


lage about ten miles above Frederickton. I have a grant 
of my land from this Province ; it is the first grant in 
the Madawaska, and was made about two or three years 
after I moved up. I live under this government, and 
have always lived under it ; all the Madawaska settlers 
live under the same Government. I vote at elections; 
the first time was about eight years ago. Baker came 
last year to my house ; he asked me what time I go to 
train my company; I am a captain of militia; he said 
there is not much occasion to train at Madawaska. I 
inquired the reason; he said nothing; I told him I 
would go next Saturday — he must be stronger than me 
to prevent me. I know where Baker lives ; he came five 
or six years ago; he has always lived at the same place — 
raised grain there; I believe he cultivated no where else. 
Baker said I had better not train but did (not) ask me 
not to train. 

George West sworn. I know the defendant, Baker; 
have known him since 1820; he was then settled at the 
Bay Chaleur; I saw him next at the jMadawaska; this 
was when Judge Bliss was President, I believe 1824. I 
seized 300 logs from him ; I was then a seizing officer ; 
he said he wished to become a British subject, as he had 
been here the necessary time; he inquired of me what 
steps it would be necessary for him to take ; I told him 
as far as my information went; this was at the place 
where he lives; it is called Baker's mill stream; he spoke 
as if he considered himself a resident within this Prov- 
ince, and wished to have all the lenity shown him on 
that account ; it was shown him ; he was allowed to 
redeem the loss at the rate of 2s 6d per thousand feet, 
counting three logs to a thousand. The logs were seized 
as cut on Crown lands without license. I have seen him 
since ; there was a warrant of survey sent to me to execute 
of this land where Baker resides; it was in Samuel 


Nevers' name ; Baker himself attended the execution of 
the warrant, and directed the course of the hnes ; the 
privilege was considered Baker's, but taken in Nevers' 
name, as Baker was not a British subject: I think this 
was about two years ago. 

The evidence on the part of the prosecution having 
here closed, the defendant was called upon for his defence ; 
he addressed the court nearly as follows : 

"I am a citizen of the United States, and owe alleg- 
iance to that country. I have lately received my deed 
from the States of Maine and Massachusetts. I hold 
myself bound to their Courts. I live in American terri- 
tory, and hold myself only liable to the courts of that 
place, being the county of Penobscot, in the State of 
Maine. I enter no defence, and call no evidence. I do 
decline the jurisdiction of this court. " 

The defendant alluded to a letter he had, in the 
course of the trial, handed to the Chief Justice ; which 
was delivered to him, and he was informed he might, if 
he chose, read it as part of his defense, but declined 
doing so. 

The Attorney General then addressed the Court, and 
said, that, as he had, in his opening, stated generally 
the nature of the case and e\ idence, and the defendant 
had not made any defence, he did not think it necessary, 
after so much time had been taken up and the evidence 
so fully gone into, to address the jur}', but would merely 
read two or three additional authorities, (which he did, 
from Starkie's Evidence, Compyn's Digest, Blackstone's 
Commentaries, and Archbold's Criminal Pleading,) and 
then leave the case in the hands of the Court. 

Mr. Justice Chipman charged the Jury. He began 
by stating the indictment and plea, the general nature 
of the offence, and the proofs requisite to support the 
charge. He said that the body of the offence was the 


conspiracy, and combining and confederating together 
with the intent laid in the indictment. In the present 
case, the intent charged was to bring into contempt the 
King's authority, to spread false opinions among his 
subjects as to his power and prerogative over them, and 
in fact completely to unsettle their minds as to their 
allegiance to the Government under which they lived. 
This mind and intention must be made manifest by overt 
acts. It was usual, though held not to be absolutely 
necessary, to set forth overt acts in the indictment; 
but if, from the facts proved in evidence, the jury 
should be satisfied that the defendant. Baker, now on 
trial, did combine and confederate with one or both of 
the other defendants named in the indictment with the 
intent imputed to them, that would be sufficient to 
make up the offence. As the essence of the crime was 
the combining, two persons at least must be engaged in 
it. The Judge then stated that before going into a 
consideration of the evidence, he would dispose of the 
ground which the defendant had set up when called 
upon his defence : which was, that the place where the 
acts were committed was in the territory of the United 
States, and that he, the defendant, was not amenable 
to the laws, or subject to the jurisdiction of the Courts 
of this Province. The Judge then stated that the 
question as to the national rights to this territor}^, now 
well known to be in controversy, is one which this Court 
is utterly incompetent to enter into, and can have 
nothing to do with. It is a matter of state, to be 
settled between the two nations. Great Britain and the 
United States ; to be dealt with by the Governments of 
the two countries, and not by this Court. The Com't 
will only inquire whether the place in question is 
actually in the possession and under the jurisdiction, and 
laws of this Province ; and if so, the Court will maintain 


that jurisdiction, and continue the exercise and protec- 
tion of those laws, until some act of the King's Govern- 
ment shall effect a change. There can be no stronger 
evidence of the possession of a country than the free and 
uncontrolled exercise of jurisdiction within it; and the 
Court is bound by its allegiance to the Crown, and its 
duty to the King's subjects, to act upon this, which it 
considers as the only principle truly applicable to the 
case. This principle has already been acted upon in this 

The learned Judge then referred to the case of the 
sloop Falmouth, adjudged in the Court of Vice Admir- 
alty of this Province many years ago, (1806.) He 
stated this to have been the case of a seizure by a British 
officer of an American vessel lying in the waters of 
Passamaquoddy Bay, for landing her cargo within this 
Province ; no foreign vessels being at that time admis- 
sible into the ports of these colonies. The counsel for 
the prosecution in that case went at large into the ques- 
tion of right to all the islands in that bay, under the 
provisions of the treaty of 1783, and contended that, by 
virtue of that treaty, all the islands, including Moose, 
Dudley, and Frederick Islands, then in the actual pos- 
session of the United States, of right belonged to Great 
Britain; and that no foreign vessel could lawfully lade 
(land) a cargo in any part of that bay ; but the learned 
judge of that Court at that time, now one of the Judges 
of this Court, (Mr. Justice Botsford,) in pronouncing 
judgment, would not enter upon the question of right 
to the islands, which he considered a matter of state for 
the two Governments to decide upon ; but finding the 
three islands beforenamed to be under the actual pos- 
session and jurisdiction of the United States, he applied 
the principle of the law of nations applicable to a water 
boundary between two different countries, and directed 


his attention solely to the point whether the vessel 
laded her cargo on the British side of a middle line drawn 
between these islands then in the possession of the 
United States, and the British islands opposite. It 
thus appears that this doctrine of taking the actual 
state of things as we find them, and applying the law 
accordingly, has been already acted upon in this Prov- 
ince, in an instance where it was favorable to citizens 
of the United States; and this Court has no hesitation 
in applying the same doctrine, which it considers as 
the true doctrine, to the present case. It is to be 
observed that the defendant in the present case has 
given no evidence whatever of the place in question 
being in the possession or under the jurisdiction of 
the United States; that he does not appear to be in 
any respect an agent of that Government, or acting 
under its authority ; and that what has been done must 
be considered as being altogether the acts of unauthor- 
ized individuals. The place where the transaction 
occurred goes by the general name of the Madawaska 
settlement; and if this settlement shall appear to be, 
in point of fact, under the jurisdiction of this Province, 
the case must receive the same consideration, and the 
conduct of the defendant be viewed in the same light, as 
if the acts complained of had been committed in any 
other part of the Province, one hundred miles further 
down on the river St. John, or even in this town of 

The learned Judge then proceeded to read over the 
whole of the testimony from his notes, commenting upon 
the several parts of it as he went on. He considered the 
overt acts as to hoisting of the flag of the United 
States with the express intention of subverting British 
authority, as most distinctly and fully proved and asked 
what more unequivocal indication there could be of an 


intention to bring the King's Government into con- 
tempt, and of unsettling the administration of the laws 
of the Province, than the erecting of a foreign standard 
with this declared purpose. With respect to the trans- 
action with the postman he directed the jur}- that if 
they considered the acts of the defendant in this instance 
to have proceeded from the combination and confederacy 
to subvert the King's authority, the defendant was 
properl}' chargeable with them under this indictment; 
and that, in forming their judgment of this and all the 
other facts detailed in evidence, they should take into 
view all the circumstances of time and place, and of 
action, in determining the character of the several 
transactions. With respect to the written agreement, 
b} which they bound themselves to resist the British 
laws, he thought that was sufficiently proved with 
regard to the American citizens; but it was not made 
out in proof that this was the same paper which was 
handed to the French settlers; but the learned Judge 
said that he could not admit of any distinction in this 
respect between aliens being under the jurisdiction and 
protection of the British laws and natural born subjects; 
the former owed a local allegiance ; and what would be a 
breach of the laws by the one, would be so by the other, 
The learned Judge, in closing, stated, that if, in 
determining the present case, this court was to under- 
take to enter upon a question of a conflict of rights 
between the two nations, it might be disposed to 
approach it with a degree of trepidation : but this case 
was altogether unembarrassed by any such considerations. 
It presented a chain of evidence of clear possession and 
undisturbed jurisdiction on the part of this Province 
from the period of its first erection down to the present 
time — a space of more than forty years. One of the 
oldest inhabitants in the Madawaska settlement had 


proved that he removed thither from the lower part of 
this Province forty years ago; that he, and all the set- 
tlers there, always considered themselves as living under 
this Government. It is also proved that these inhabi- 
tants have received grants of land from this Govern- 
ment, and have, from the beginning, been enrolled in 
the militia; that they have voted at elections for the 
county of York; have applied to the Provincial courts 
for redress in all suits at law ; and have uniformly exer- 
cised all the privileges, and been subject to all the duties, 
of other inhabitants of the Province; excepting only 
that the sheriff states that he has not summoned them 
to attend on juries at Frederickton by reason of their 
great distance; but he expressly declared that he has 
always been in the habit of serving writs throughout 
the whole of that settlement, as much as in an}' other 
part of his bailiwick. It appears also that the defend- 
ant. Baker, considered himself as living within the terri- 
tory, and under the jurisdiction of this Province; that 
he applied to Mr. Morehouse, the Provincial magistrate 
for processes to recover his debts from inhabitants in the 
Madawaska settlement; that he received the Provincial 
bounty for grain raised on land, which there can be no 
question is the land on which he now resides, and this on 
his own affidavit, stating himself to be John Baker, of 
the parish of Kent. It further appears that he attended 
a Provincial Surveyor in laying out this very land, for 
which a warrant of survey, under the authority of the 
Province, was in a course of execution, giving directions 
as to the course of the lines ; the grant being intended 
for the benefit of Baker, although it was to be taken 
out in the name of Nevers, a British subject. Baker 
himself, also, had an intention of being naturalized, and 
stated to one of the witnesses, Mr. George West, that 
he had resided the necessary time, and wished to know 


what other steps were necessary for this purpose. This 
conversation taking place on the spot where he lived, at 
the head of the Madawaska settlement, and at a time 
when logs cut by him had been seized as being cut on 
crown lands without license; and Baker claimed to be 
dealt favorably with by reason of his residence within 
the Province, and his intention to become naturalized. 
The learned Judge also stated that it appeared from the 
evidence that there was no line of division to be drawn 
between any parts of that whole settlement, as to the 
possession and exercise of jurisdiction by this Province; 
that he could not imagine any principle upon which any 
such line of division could be made; that one of the 
witnesses spoke of the settlement having, when he first 
knew it, commenced seven miles above the Great Falls; 
that it has since extended downwards to within two or 
three miles of the Falls. It has also been gradually 
extending upwards, and all the inhabitants, in every part 
of it, were equally under the jurisdiction of this Prov- 
ince, and entitled to the benefit and protection of its 
laws; and if they were to be transferred from this juris- 
diction and protection, it must be by some act of the 
King's Government, competent for that purpose. 

The learned Judge, with these observations, left the 
case to the Jury, directing them to consider it in the 
same light, and to give the defendant the benefit of the 
same considerations, that they would in the case of any 
other inhabitants of the Province. 

The jury retired from the box, and, after about an 
hour's deliberation, returned into court with a verdict of 

The defendant was then required to enter into recog- 
nizance to appear on Monday next to receive the sentence 
of the court. The same bail were accepted as before, in 
the same amount. 


The Attorney Genei'al stated to the court that he 
should enter a noli prosequi on the ex-officio information 
which had been filed against the defendant; and also on 
the indictment which had been found against John Baker 
and six others for a riot, so far as regarded the present 

The witnesses were informed that their further attend- 
ance would not be required. 

Monday, May 12, 1828. 

Present : His Honor the Chief Justice, Judge Bliss, 
and Judge Chipman. 

The defendant being called, and appearing, the Attor- 
ney General proceeded to make several observations on 
the case, and concluded b}' moving the judgment of the 

His Honor, Mr. Justice Bliss, then inquired of the 
defendant if he had anything to say in mitigation, or 
any affidavits to produce. 

The defendant said he had little to say. He was 
brought there, and made amenable to the jurisdiction of 
the court, and must of course submit. He had no affi- 
davits to produce : there were some facts, which, if they 
had been brought forward, might have been material ; 
but as he was not prepared with the whole, he had 
thought it better not to adduce any proof. He con- 
cluded by submitting himself to the consideration of the 

Mr. Justice Bliss then proceeded to pass sentence to 
the following effect : 

That the defendant had been indicted by the grand 
jury of the county of York for a seditious conspiracy, 
entered into by him and others, within the jurisdiction 
of this court, to which he had pleaded not guilty, alleg- 
ing, at the same time, that he did not consider himself 


amenable to the process of this court, being a citizen of 
the United States, and that the offence charged was 
committed within their territory ; but the court could 
not admit this to be the case, it appearing clearly that 
the Madawaska settlement where the offence was com- 
mitted, has been, from the first erection of the Province, 
hitherto under our laws, and subject to our jurisdiction; 
and that the defendant, after a very fair and full investi- 
gation of the case, had been convicted by a jury of the 
country ; and it now remains for the court to pass their 
sentence upon him for this offence; in doing which their 
object was to treat him with that lenity which, so far as 
was consistent with the end of justice, is uniformly 
extended to His Majesty's natural born subjects; and, 
although the court considered the offence of which he 
had been found guilt}' of a veiy aggravated nature, they 
have had regard to his previous long imprisonment; and 
their object being to secure the futui'e peace of the 
country, and not to pass a vindictive sentence personally 
against him, they had awarded the punishment accord- 
ingly ; and did sentence him to be imprisoned in the 
common gaol of the county of York for the term of two 
calendar months, and to pay a fine to our lord the King 
of twenty five pounds, and remain committed until the 
same was paid. 

The defendant John Baker was then taken into custody 
bv the Sheriff. 

Defence of the Fuontiek of Maine. 

A communication in relation to this subject has been 
made by the Secretary of War, in compliance with a 
resolution, to the U. S. Senate. It contains a variety 
of documents, and among them the reports of Gen. 
Wool and Major Graham, of a reconnoissance of our 


Frontier made by them the past summer. This recon- 
noissance was made in obedience to instructions from the 
War Department, given in consequence of the repre- 
sentations to the department by Gov. Kent, and the 
earnest solicitations made by him of the importance of 
such a movement, and the necessity of having our 
frontier better fortified. "We shall give such portions 
of these reports as will be of interest to our readers, 
commencina; with Gen. Wool's. 

From the Report of Brigadier General John E. Wool to 
the Secretary of the Treasury. 

Head Quarters, Troy, N. Y. \ 

October 30, 1838. f 


Herewith, I have the honor to transmit a report of 
the military reconnoissance of the frontier of Maine, 
made during the summer past, in obedience to instruc- 
tions received from the War Department, dated the 12th 
May and 16th of June last. 

Agreeably to your verbal instructions communicated 
at Washington, I repaired to Augusta, (Maine.) and 
conferred with his Excellency Edward Kent, on the sub- 
ject of the reconnoissance required. He not only 
appeared much pleased with the object, but offered every 
assistance in his power to aid in its prosecution. I 
remained at Augusta vmtil I was joined, the 28th June, 
by Major Graham and Lieutenant Johnson, of the topo- 
graphical engineers. On the 29th of June, we pro- 
ceeded to Bangor, where I was delayed until the 3d of 
July, in consequence of some preparations on the part 
of Major Graham, before he could commence his topo- 
graphical sketches or surveys. The Major having com- 
pleted his arrangements, we set out on the 3d of July 


for the examination of the northwestern frontier of the 
State, confining ourselves within the undisputed limits, 
as prescribed by your instructions of the 16th June. 

After exploring Moosehead lake, Moose River, and 
the country west of Moosehead lake as far as the high- 
lands which divide the State of Maine from Lower 
Canada, I selected a position for the establishment of a 
military post for the protection and defense of the 
northwestern frontier of the State, on the height about 
one mile north of Moose river, fourteen miles south of 
the line, on the road called the Canada road, leading to 
Quebec. This position is a commanding one, and would 
be highly important if by any circumstance England 
should be induced to invade Maine, from the direction of 
Quebec or Lower Canada. It is situated on the only 
route by which a military force would attempt to pene- 
trate the country from Lower Canada. Any other route 
would be attended with almost insurmountable difficulties, 
and could not fail to retard the advance of any army. 
On either side of the Canada road, for nearly or quite 
forty miles south of the line, the country is unsettled 
and covered with a dense forest, through which roads 
must be cut and made, streams bridged, and boats built, 
and where neither forage, provisions or any other sup- 
plies could be obtained. If England, however, should 
make war upon the United States in order to secure the 
possession of the disputed territory in question, she 
would not waste her resources by contending for it in the 
wilds or dense forests of Maine. Having an army and 
a navy at her disposal, she would endeavor to compel 
the U. States to a cession of it by the destruction of 
our commerce, navy depots, commercial cities and 
frontier towns. These, with the present disposition of 
the military establishment of the country constitute our 
vulnerable points, and of which England would not fail 


to take advantage. She would neither send her armies 
into our forests, nor into the heart of the country, from 
whence it is not probable they would return. She may, 
however, threaten Maine, from Quebec, and perhaps 
carry on a predatory warfare, by means of the Canada 
road. To protect the frontier and prevent such inroads 
upon the people, I would establish a post with two com- 
panies of infantry, near Moose river, with a post of 
observation on the height of land dividing Maine from 
Lower Canada. The depot of supplies for those posts I 
would establish on the south side of Moose river, one 
mile from the principal post. The Kennebec forks I 
would designate as a principal depot and place of con- 
centration for the militia of that section of the country. 

The heights surrounding the forks are well calculated 
for defence, and would enable a small force, well directed, 
to hold a larger one in check until the militia of the 
country could be collected. 

Before closing this part of my report it may not be 
improper to remark, that a road has been cut out, but 
not made, north of the military position selected near 
Moose river, leading from the Canada road to the head 
of Moosehead Lake. It has been suggested that a mili- 
tary force from Quebec or Lower Canada, might pene- 
trate Maine by that road and Moosehead lake. In 
answer to which I have only to observe that no general, 
who understood his profession, would invade Maine by 
any route destitute of forage, provisions, or the means 
of transportation. On the contrary, he would take the 
route that would furnish the greatest amount of supplies, 
and the greatest facilities of marching into the heart of 
the country. To take the route referred to, he would 
be compelled to make roads, construct bridges and boats, 
and to carry with him his forage, provisions, and the 
means of land transportation. In such a case, it would 


require no foresight to predict the result. He would 
beyond all question be defeated, if the people of Maine 
were true to themselves, and true to the country. 

Deeming no other posts than those above mentioned 
necessary for the defence or protection of the north- 
western frontier of Maine, I returned to Bangor, leaving 
Major Graham and Lieutenant Johnson to make the 
required surveys and sketches. 

On the 16th of July, accompanied by his Excellency 
Edward Kent, I set out to examine the eastern and 
northeastern frontier of the State. — On the 17th, we 
examined the military position at Houlton, which I con- 
sider well calculated for the defence and protection of 
that region of country. With proper works, and a gar- 
rison composed of six companies of infantry, and two of 
artillery, I do not believe any attempt would be made 
from New Brunswick to invade the disputed territory, or 
by that route to invade the settled parts of Maine. A 
general commanding at Fredericton, or St. Johns, with 
a large disposable force, might attempt an enterprise 
against the garrison at Houlton, intercept its communi- 
cation with, and cut off its retreat to Bangor. — This 
might be done by way of Woodstock, Eel river, or the 
Lakes Magaguadaweek and Chiputnaticook, or Grand 
Lake. From Woodstock, through by roads, the Mili- 
tary road could be reached five miles south and in the 
rear of Houlton. By Eel river and Duim's on the 
Calais road, the same point could be reached. By the 
lakes above mentioned, and Butterfield's on the Calais 
road, the military road could be intercepted by a cross 
road, eight miles south of the Mattawamkeag forks, and 
about thirty eight miles south of Houlton. 

This route will be the shortest from Fredericton and 
in the winter the easiest to be accomplished. It is, 
however, not probable that in the present wild state of 


the country, no roads being made except from Fredericton 
to Woodstock, any movement of the kind would be 
made with eight companies of regular troops at Houlton 
and a respectable force at Calais. Such a movement by 
the British forces would undoubtedly produce a cor- 
responding one on the part of the United States troops 
at Calais, against Fredericton or St. Johns, which, unless 
the British were in great force at those places, would 
produce a recall of any movement against Houlton or 
the disputed territory. No military commander would 
hazard an enterprise against Houlton or the disputed 
territory, if by such a movement he could possibly lose 
Fredericton or St. Johns which would give to the con- 
querors the finest part of New Brunswick. 

To guard against any movement as suggested, I would 
recommend that a regiment of infantry and two com- 
panies of artillery be stationed at Calais, and one com- 
pany of infantry and one of artillery at Eastport, with 
posts of observation at Butterfield's and Dunn's on the 
Calais road, leading to Houlton. From Calais, Frederic- 
ton or St. Johns might be reached in three days. Should 
the above recommendations be adopted, I would desig- 
nate Calais as a proper place for the main depot of sup- 
plies and concentration of the militia for the defence of 
the eastern frontier; and the Mattawamkeag forks for 
the depot and concentration of the militia for the defence 
of the disputed territory and the northeastern frontier. 

In addition to the above, I would recommend the 
erection of an arsenal near Bangor, on the rigljt or left 
bank of the Penobscot. Also a fortification and garri- 
son at the entrance of both the Penobscot and Kenne- 

From a statement received from his excellency Edward 
Kent, it would appear that the militia of Maine exceeds 
forty-one thousand. 



Of these, in the course of ten days, 4,500 could be 
collected at the forks of the Kennebec, 4,000 at the 
Mattawamkeag forks, and 2,500 at Calais. In twenty 
days there could be 12,000 collected at the Kennebec 
forks, 10,000 at the Mattawamkeag forks and 8,000 at 

The above calculation, however, is made up on the 
supposition that they would be called out as organized by 
regiments and brigades. A draft would take a longer 
period, but the same number of men could be obtained. 

It would also appear, from the same statement, that 
the State has in depot 9,000 muskets, 2,200 rifles, 350 
pistols, and 850 swords, and a good supply of equip- 
ments, all in good order and fit for service. The arms 
and equipments, however, in the possession of the 
militia, are generally small, and too light for active ser- 

I am, very respectfully, your obedient survent, 

To the Hon. J. R. Poinsett, 

Secretarv of War. 

Fredericton, Feb. 13, 1839. 

By His Excellency Major General Sir John Harvey, K. 
C. B. and K. C. H., Lieut. Governor and Com- 
mander in Chief of the Province of New Brunswick, 
etc. etc. etc. 

John Harvey. 

A Proclamation. 

Whereas, I have received information that a party of 
armed persons to the number of two hundred or more, 
have invaded a portion of this province, under the juris- 
diction of Her Majesty's Government, from the neighbor- 


ing State of Maine, for the professed object of exercis- 
ing authority, and driving off persons stated to be cut- 
ting therein — and that divers other persons have m ithout 
a.ny legal authority, taken up arms for the purpose of 
resisting such in\"asion and outrage, and have broken 
open certain stores in Woodstock, in which Arms and 
Ammunition belonging to Her Majest}' were deposited, 
and have taken the same away for that purpose — I do 
hereby charge and command all persons concerned in 
such illegal acts, forthwith to return the Arms and 
Ammunition, so illegalh^ taken, to their place of deposite, 
as the Government of the Province will take care to 
adopt all necessar}' measures for resisting any hostile 
invasion or outrage that may be attempted upon any 
part of Her Majesty's Territory or Subjects. 

And I do hereby charge and command all Magistrates, 
Sheriffs, and other officers, to be vigilent, aiding and 
assisting in the apprehension of all persons so offending, 
and to bring them to justice. And in order to aid and 
assist the Civil Power in that respect, if necessary, I 
have ordered sufficient Military Force to proceed forth- 
Avith to the places where these Outrages are represented 
to have been committed as well to prevent Foreign 
invasion, as to prevent the illegal assumption of Arms 
by her Majesty's Subjects in this Province. 

And further, in order to be prepared, if necessary to 
call in the aid of the Constitutional Militia Force of the 
■country. I do hereby charge and command the officers 
commanding the first and second Battalions of the militia 
of the County of Carleton, forthwith to proceed as the 
Law directs, to the drafting of a body of men, to con- 
sist of one fourth of the strength of each of these battal- 
ions, to be in readiness for actual service, should occa- 
sion require. 


Given under my Hand and Seal at Fredericton, the 
Thirteenth day of February, in the year of our 
Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty- 
nine, and in the second year of Her Majesty's 

By his Excellency's Command. 


(Whig Editorial, Feb. ti. 1S39.) 
Thk Akoostook ExI'EDITIOX. 

When we first heard of the capture of the Land Agent 
and several others, and the sudden retreat of the Sheriff 
with his posse, we supposed in common with most of 
our fellow citizens here, that this was effected by a small 
bod}- of trespassers, who would hold together onl}' a few 
days, and that the prisoners would be released after a 
short detention — and that this whole matter in the way 
it had been conducted and terminated, was a fair sub- 
ject of ridicule, and was treated accordingl}'. It was a 
proper subject of game, which any one had a right to 
hunt down. We wish, however, to be understood, that 
we are wholly in favor of the object of this expedition, 
we feel desirous of seeing our country protected and 
jurisdiction enforced within our territorial lines according 
to the treaty of 1783. 

If the Provincial Government have interferred in this 
matter by arresting and imprisoning any of our citizens, 
in the rightful exercise of their legal duties within our 
own territory, we stand ready to shoulder our musket 
and take our chance in the front rank of our militia — 
and entertain not the slightest doubt but that the whole 
body of our citizens would rise as one man, to defend 
the territory purchased by the blood of our fathers.. 


But we have the right to demand that wise counsellors 
and energetic men shall move in this business and stand 
at the head of affairs — not such brawling and noisy 
politicians, such weak, inefficient and feather-bed men as 
have recently been shoved forward into this Aroostook 
expedition and have disgraced it. We have no desire to 
throw the slightest obstacle in the way of this affair, and 
it gives us great pleasure to learn that Jonathan P. 
Rogers, Esq. has been despatched by the Governor and 
Council, to hold an interview with Sir John Harvey, in 
reference to this business. 

If Gov. Fairfield had taken this step in the first place, 
as Gov. Kent did in reference to the Boundary Commis- 
sioners, there would have been little or no trouble in 
driving off the trespassers from the disputed territory. 
But this, the Governor was unwilling to do, after his 
party had reviled and ridiculed Gov. Kent, in the man- 
ner they have done, for the course he took. Having 
now begun this business upon the Whig policy pursued 
by Gov. Kent, we cannot doubt of a successful issue. 

(Editorial in Whig, Feb. 22, 1839.) 


Our State has been for the '3d time invaded and our 
citizens forcibly arrested, carried away and incarcerated 
in a FOREIGN JAIL. The first time, Mr. Baker and 
his neighbors, next Mr. Greely, and now the Land 
Agent and his assistants. We have remonstrated and 
entreated long enough and to no purpose. We now 
appeal to arms. We now appeal to the law of nature, 
recognized by all communities, for that protection which 
has been denied us by the General Government. Be the 
issue what it may, upon this question the whole State is 
united to a man, and will carry into the conflict its 

SI 6 


undivided energies. As we are in this city in the midst 
of a great excitement it behooves us all to keep calm 
and cool and proceed with the utmost deliberation. 
Expresses are passing every day through this city from 
the Aroostook and from the Province to Augusta and 
back — our streets for the last two days have been filled 
with the busy preparations for the Aroostook expedition. 
The artillery has been forwarded and large quantities of 
amunition, provisions, forage, etc. Twenty men are 
engaged at the Foundry casting balls. Bodies of volun- 
teers from the country are passing through the city 
hourly, and not less than 500 are now between this 
place and Matawamkeag Point. The draft of one thous- 
and men has been made in this division, and they will all 
be on the march to morrow. 

(Whig Correspondence.) 

Friday, 9 o'clock. A. M. 

Aroostook Expedition. 

The remainder of the detachment have left the city, 
and somewhat of the intense excitement is abated which 
has pervaded our own citizens, and the crowd of specta- 
tors which have thronged the city. Most of the detach- 
ment left the city yesterday in small squads, and this 
arrangement of the march we hope will secure comfortable 
and warm quarters to the zealous and patriotic Militia. 
Every aid will be given by the citizens along the line to 
the proper officers, and the men will be received in the 
most kind and hospitable manner. The appearance of 
the troops was such as excited our surprise and admira- 
tion. Coming together at a moments notice, every man 
seemed to be prepared for duty and eager to reach the 
scene of operations. The Commander in Chief ordered, 


we understand, a rendezvous of the force on Thursday 
at 10 o'clock, most of which, we have said, left town the 
same day, and the remainder this morning. The 
promptitude with which the call of the Commanding 
General has been obeyed and the order and enthusiasm 
of the troops and the universal impression of the ability 
and energy of the Commanding General, has impressed 
the whole community with a full confidence in its success. 

(Editorial in Whig, Feb. 23, 1839.) 

The Assertion of the Age. 

The assertion of the Age, that we wished to cast 
ridicule on the Aroostook Expedition, is wholly false» 
We shall not bandy words with a paper which thus 
attempts to turn the present crisis to political account. 
We did think it strange that the person entrusted with 
the command, should have suffered himself to have been 
taken in the manner he was. We are not opposed to the 
Expedition, and never have been, and as long as it is 
conducted properly we shall not utter a syllable against 
it. The AVhigs of the State have but one wish, one 
opinion, in regard to the course to be pursued — they are 
anxious that Gov. Fairfield should go on, without falter- 
ing in the least ; — we hope that he will not, and that the 
State will not retrace a single step, in the position she 
has taken. A holier spirit than that of party, should 
now animate the people. The crisis demands the united 
energy and action of all parties, and we doubt not, that 
the one sentiment, the one feeling, the deep enthusiasm 
which pervades every bosom, will continue thus universal, 
until the rights of our noble State are established beyond 
a doubt and fully and honorably recognized. The honor 
and interest of the whole State must be maintained at 
all hazards. We shall have no fears of the issue of the 



conflict, knowing as we do, that the citizens of Maine 
will not prove recreant to duty, and the obligations now 
resting upon them. 

While we would not have the Whigs, as a party for- 
get for a moment, the ancient landmarks, of their political 
faith, and the strong grounds of their opposition to the 
State and National Administrations, — so neither would 
we have them, in the least, abate in their ardor and 
anxiety to bring our boundary rights to a successful 
termination. Though we may have occasion, hereafter, 
to revert to the conduct and management of certain 
individuals at the commencement of this interesting 
enterprise, we shall not be backward in upholding the 
great object which the State, as one people, lias in view. 
The present movement we should regard as National, 
and we shall not be found wanting in the bold mainte- 
nance of the honor and welfare of the State. 

(Whig Correspondence.) 

Tuesday, 9 o'clock A. M. 
An express has just arrived from the Aroostook bring- 
ing the information that our Land Agent has been put 
into close jail. Just look at the contrast. The British 
Land Agent was brought here in a coach \\'ith four 
horses, a prisoner, carried to the Bangor House, and 
invited to one of the best rooms in the House, and 
received the best of fare, while our Agent was dragged 
on a horse sled to Frederickton and incarcerated within 
the walls of a prison. Should not such treatment cause 
the blood of every American to boil with indignation.? 

11 o'clock A. M.- 
The Augusta Light Infantry Company has just arrived 
in this city. 


(Whig Correspondence.) 

Saturday, 5 o'clock, P. M. 

A company of Cavalry, consisting of 48 men, have 
just arrived in this city from Waldo county. 

We have just seen a gentleman who left the Aroostook 
on Thursda}'. The volunteers have erected a fort with 
logs, and have five field pieces mounted. They were all 
in fine spirits. The AValdo volunteers, the Piscataquis 
volunteers, and the Brewer volunteers, arrived at No. 4, 
about 36 miles this side of the camp on Thursday night. 
The Bangor Artiller\' and Dexter Artillery arrived at 
Lincoln on Friday night, and the Dexter Rifle corps were 
about 5 miles this side of Lincoln on Saturday morning. 

Four of the British Regular troops, deserters from the 
Provinces, arrived at Lincoln on Friday night. Deser- 
tions are taking place daily, and some of these liberty- 
loving fellows have already enlisted in one of the com- 
panies of the 3d Division. The "stars and stripes" 
will coax many of her Majesty's subjects to their ample 

Gov. Faiufikld's Addrkss to ThOOI'S. 

Fellow Soldiers: — An unfounded, unjust, and insult- 
ing claim of title has been made by the British Govern- 
ment to more than one-third of the whole territory of 
your State. More than this, it insists upon having 
exclusive jurisdiction and possession until its claims of 
title is settled — while in the meantime its subjects are 
stripping this territory of its valuable growth of timber, 
in defiance of your authority and your power. A few 
days since you sent a civil force under your Land Agent, 
to drive off these bands of armed plunderers and protect 
your property from their work of devastation. But the 
Agent while employed in the performance of this duty, 


with two of his assistants, were seized, transported 
beyond the bounds of the State, and incarcerated in a 
foreign jail under British authorities. Those who remain 
are threatened with a forcible expulsion by British 
troops, if they do not immediately leave the territory 
and abandon your property to proffered protection of 
Her Majesty's Lieutenant Governor. And perhaps 
before this moment, your soil has not only been polluted 
by the invader's footsteps, but the blood of our citizens 
may have been shed by British Myrmidons. 

The Age states that part of the detachment left for 
the frontier on Wednesday, and the remainder on Thurs- 
day morning. 

(From Maine Newspapers, 1839.) 
The Soldiers Song. 

Tune— Auld Lang Syne. 

We are marching on to Madawask. 
To fight the trespassers; 
We'll teach the British how to walk — 
And come off conquerors. 

We'll have our land right good and clear, 
For all the English say; 
They shall not cut another log, 
Nor stay another day. 

They need not think to have our land. 
We Yankees can fight well; 
We've whipped them twice most manfully, 
As every child can tell. 

And if the Tyrants say one word, 
A third time we will show, 
How high the Yankee spirit runs, 
And what our guns can do. 

They better much all stay at home. 
And mind their business there; 
The way we treated them before. 
Made all the Nations stare. 


Come on! brace fellows, one and all! 
The Red-coats ne'er shall say, 
We Yankees, feared to meet them armed. 
So gave our land away. 

We'll feed them well with ball and shot. 
We'll cut these Red-coats down, 
Before we yield to them an inch 
Or title of our ground. 

Ye Husbands, Fathers, Brothers, Sons, 
From every quarter come! 
March, to the bugle and the fife! 
March, to the beating drum! 

Onward! my Lads so brave and true 
Our Country's right demands 
With justice, and with glory fight, 
For these Aroostook lands. 

Bangor, Feb. 21, 1839. 

(From Maine Newspapers, 1839.) 
Maine Battle Song. 

Come, sogers! take your muskets up, 

And grasp your faithful rifles; 
We're going to lick the red coat men, 

Who call us yankees, "trifles." 
Bring out the big gun made of brass. 

Which forges July thunder; 
Bring out the flag of Bennington, 

And strike the foe with wonder. 

We'll lick the red coats any how. 

And drive them from our border; 
The loggers are awake — and all 

Await the Gin'rals order; 
Britannia shall not rule the Maine, 

Nor shall she ride the water; 
They've sung that song full long enough, 

Much longer than they oughter. 

The Aroostook's right slick stream. 
Has nation sights of woodlands. 

And hang the feller that would lose 
His footing on such good lands. 



And all along the boundary line 
There's pasturing for cattle; 

But where that line of boundary is. 
We must decide by battle. 

We do not care about the land. 

But they shan't hook it frono us; 

Our country, right or wrong, we cry- 
No budging or compromise. 

So — beat the sheepskin blow the fife. 
And march in training order; 

Our wave is through the wilderness. 
And all along the border. 

Head Quarters, Eastern Division, ) 

United States, Army, > 

Augusta, Me. March 21, 1839."^ ) 

The undersigned, a Major General in the Army of 
the United States being specially charged with maintain- 
ing the peace and safet}^ of their entire Northern and 
Eastern Frontiers, having cause to appi-ehend a collision 
of arms between the proximate forces of New Brunswick 
and the State of Maine on the disputed territory which 
is claimed by both, has the honor, in the sincere desire 
of the United States to preserve the relations of peace 
and amity with Great Britain — relations which might be 
much endangered by such untoward collison — to invite 
from His Excellency INIajor General Sir John Harvey, 
Lieutenant Governor, etc. etc., — a general declaration 
to this effect. 

That it is not the intention of the Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor of Her Brittannic Majesty's Province of New 
Brunswick, under the expected renewal of negociations 
between the Cabinets of London and Washington on the 
subject of the said disputed territory, without renewed 
instructions to that effect from his Government, to seek 
to take the Military possession of that territory, or to 


seek to expel therefrom the armed Civil posse, or the 
troops of Maine. 

Should the undersigned have the honor to be favored 
with such declaration or assurance to be by him com- 
municated to his Excellency the Governor of the State 
of Maine, the undersigned does not in the least doubt 
that he would be immediately and fully authorized by 
the Governor of Maine to communicate to his Excellency, 
the Lieutenant Governor of New Brunswick a corre- 
sponding pacific declaration to this effect: — 

That in the hope of a speedy and satisfactory settle- 
ment, by negociation between the Governments of the 
United States and Great Britain of the principal or 
boundary question between the State of Maine and the 
Province of New Brunswick, it is not the intention of 
the Governor of Maine, without renewed instructions 
from the Legislature of the State, to attempt to disturb 
by arms, the said Province in the possession of the 
Madawaska settlements, or to attempt to interrupt the 
usual communications between that Province and Her 
Majesty's Upper Provinces; and that he is willing in the 
mean time, to leave the question of possession and juris- 
diction as the}' at present stand; that is, Great Britain, 
holding, in fact, possession of a part of the said territory 
and the Government of Maine denying her right to such 
possession ; and the State of Maine holding, in fact, 
possession of another portion of the same territor}' to 
which her right is denied by Great Britain. 

With this understanding the Governor of Maine will, 
without unnecessar}- dela}-, withdraw the Military force 
of the State from the said disputed territory — leaving 
only, under a Land Agent, a small civil posse, armed 
or unarmed, to protect the timber recently cut, and to 
prevent future depredations. 


Reciprocal assurance of the foregoing friendly char- 
acter having been, through the undersigned, inter- 
changed, all danger of collision between the immediate 
parties to the controversy will be at once removed, and 
time allowed the United States and Great Britain to 
settle amicably the great question of limits. 

The undersigned has much pleasure in renewing to 
His Excellency, Major General Sir John Harvey the 
assurances of his ancient high consideration and respect. 


To a copy of the foregoing, Sir John Harvey annexed 
the following : — 

The undersigned, Major General Sir John Harvey, 
Lieutenant Governor of Her Britannic Majesty's Province 
of New Brunswick, having received a proposition from 
Major General Winfield Scott of the United States 
Army, of which the foregoing is a copy, hereby, on his 
part, signifies his concurrence and acquiescence therein. 

Sir John Harvey renews with great pleasure to Major 
General Scott, the assurance of his warmest personal 
consideration, regard and respect. 


Government House, Fredericton, 

New Brunswick, March 23, 1839. 

To a paper containing the note of General Scott, 
and the acceptance of Sir John Harvey, Governor 
Fairfield annexed his acceptance in these words : 

Executive Department, ) 

Augusta, March 25, 1839. f 
The undersigned. Governor of Maine, in consideration 
of the foregoing, the exigency for calling out the troops 
of Maine have ceased, has no hesitation in signifying his 
entire acquiescence in the proposition of Major General 


The undersigned has the honor to tender to Major 
General Scott the assurance of his high respect and 


(From Bangor Whig, April 12, 1839.) 
The Soldier's Return. 

On Wednesday evening, about 6 o'clock, the Bangor 
Independent Volunteers marched into the city, under 
command of Lieut. Dunning, on their return from the 
Aroostook. The Company numbered about fifty, princi- 
pally young men, who are known as among the most 
respectable and enterprising of the city. We were 
rejoiced to preceive so much interest and spirit mani- 
fested at their return. They marched with a firm and 
elastic step, to the tune of Home ! Sweet Home ! The 
appropriateness of the music to the ocassion, excited one 
common impulse of satisfaction. We have rarely known 
an instance which appealed so directly to the heart. 

Tuesday evening, the Hancock Guards, a rifle com- 
pany, under command of Capt. Wing, arrived, also. 
This is a fine company, from Castine and Bluehill. They 
were furnished for the campaign with Hall's Patent 

The appearance and bearing of these Companies do 
honor to the Militia of the State, and to their com- 
mander, Gen. Hodsdon. They have discipline and skill, 
almost equal to regular troops and perform the duties of 
the soldier in a manner deserving great praise. Let 
those who have been induced to speak lightly of the 
militia system, view these men and ask themselves, 
where else they would look for defence of our country 
against foreign aggression. And who are the men who 


deserve sympathy and respect, if not those who so 
willingly have borne the hardships and privations of a 
winter campaign exposed to all the fatigues they are 
called upon to endure. 

Gen. Hodsdon, a few days ago, ordered Col. Stevens to 
Bangor, to cause temporary Barracks to be erected on 
Thomas's Hill for the accommodation of the troops on 
their return. They will rendezvous at this place and be 
paid off as fast as may be convenient. It will however, 
be a work of several days. The men were principally 
supplied with arms by the State, and their old guns will 
be returned to them when the State's arms are surrended. 
As the troops will come in by companies or small detach- 
ments, some days must necessarily elapse, before they 
can be paid off and disbanded. 

We think Gen. Hodsdon deserves much praise for his 
forethought in this matter. We all recollect the incon- 
venience of quartering 600 men under Gen. Bachelder's 
command in the midst of the city. Besides, these 
soldiers deserve better treatment, after their long march 
through the mud, than to be crowded in large companies 
of 50 or 60 men, into a room or two, 15 by 18, at this 
season of the year. We suppose they will be reviewed 
here by Gen. Hodsdon, and our citizens gratified by a 
display of their military discipline. 

Letter from Jamks Sullivan. 

Scoodiac Falls, Sept'r 29th, 1796. 
Brother : 

I came here with a hope to see you — I am 
agent for the United States to appear before men who 
are appointed to find the river the United States and the 
King called St. Croix when the States became a great 


nation. The men who are come and coming, want to 
hear what your old men can tell them truly on that 
question. I invite you to come before them with three 
or four of your old men at St. Andrews on friday the 
next week. I want you to tell them what is there 
and I will pay you for your time what ever is right — 

Brother : 

You know that the United States is your 
friend — you know that Massachusetts considers your 
tribe as her children and you will not be unwilling to 
come at their call to tell the truth. 

I am your Brother 

To Francis Joseph Governor the 

Passimaquody Indians. 

State Papers Relative to the North 
Eastern Boundary Controversy 

THE following is a part of the original correspond- 
ence between the executive departments of the 
United States and of the State of Maine relative to 
this international dispute. The original documents are 
deposited in the Maine State Library. 

His Excellency, Albion K. Parris. 

Governor of Maine, Portland, 
Department of State, 

Washington, 25 November, 1825. 

I have the honour to transmit herewith to your 
Excellency, a copy of a Note with its accompany- 
ments, received at this Department, from the British 
Minister ; and to request that you will afford me such 
information on the subject matter of it, as shall enable 
me to present to the British Minister satisfactory expla- 
nations of the transactions to which his communication 
refers. It will occur to you, of course, as being proper 
that I should be informed whether the persons acting as 
the Agents of Massachusetts and Maine have been duly 
constituted such; what they have been authorized and 
directed to do, and by what authority, and what in fact 
have been their official transactions, at least, so far as 
regards the complaint of the L^ Governor of New Bruns- 


wick, I will be obliged to your Excellency for the 
information desired as soon as your convenience will admit 
of its transmission. In the meantime I offer you assur- 
ances of the distinguished consideration of your Obedient 

H. Clay. 

Washington, Nov"" 15th, 1825. 

I have the honor to lay before you a copy of a letter 
with its enclosures, which I have received from Sir 
Howard Douglass. His Britannic Majesty's L^ Gov- 
ernor of New Brunswick. 

It appears that two Amei'ican citizens representing 
themselves to be accredited Agents of the Common- 
wealth of Massachusetts, and the State of Maine, have 
circulated a Notice among the settlers upon the Rivers 
St. John & Madawaska, that they were authorized to 
execute deeds of conveyance of Lands in those Districts ; 
and the same persons on their passage through the settle- 
ment of Madawaska, endeavored to induce the men 
belonging to the Militia not to attend the general train- 
ing, asserting that they could not be fined for their 
absence, as the territory which they occupied belonged 
to the United States. 

I regret that the difference of opinion which has 
resulted from the deliberations of the Commissioners 
under the 5th article of the Treaty of Ghent, for fixing 
the boundary between the possessions of His Britannic 
Majesty and the territory of the United States has not 
yet been adjusted, and that an opening is thereby left 
for complaints of the Nature I am now called upon to 
represent to you — I am sure, however, that you will con- 
cur with me in opinion, that so long as the question of 


the boundary remains in the present undecided state, it 
will be the duty of our Governments to controul, mutu- 
ally, any conduct on the part of their respective sub- 
jects which is calculated to produce disunion and dis- 

I trust, therefore, that the conduct of the individuals 
which I have thought it my duty to bring before you, 
will meet with the disapprobation and discountenance of 
the Government of the Ignited States. 

I have the honor to request. Sir, that you will accept 
the assurances of m\' highest consideration. 

Signed — Cha*. R. Vaughan. 

The Hon'^'*^ Henrv Clav &c. &c. 

Frederickton New Brunswick, 
October <e4th 1825. 

I have the honor to transmit to your Excellency, 
copies of two papers communicated to me from Peter 
Fraser Esq., one of the Magistrates, and commandant 
of a Battalion of Militia in the county of York in this 
province, stating the conduct of two American Subjects 
who have represented themselves as accredited agents of 
the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and State of 

I submit to your Excellency's consideration the pro- 
priety of making a representation to the American Gov- 
ernment, and demanding that an immediate stop be put 
to practices which have such a marked tendency to sow 
dissension, and insubordination in settlements long since 
established by grant from His Majesty, and considered 
as subject to the British Crown, and which, if persisted 
in, may lead to serious consequences which it will not be 
in my power to prevent. 


I have the honour &c. 
Signed' Howard Douglas 
The Right Hon. Cha^ Vaughan &c &c &c. 

We the subscribers, Land Agents for the Common- 
wealth of Massachusetts, and State of Maine, hereby 
give notice, that We are authorized and directed by the 
I^egislatures of said Commonwealth and State, to make 
and execute good and sufficient deeds conveying to each 
settler on the Saint Johns and Madawaska Rivers, now 
in actual possession, their heirs or assigns, one hundred 
acres each of the land by them possessed to include their 
improvements on their respective lots, they paying to 
the Undersigned for the use of said Commonwealth and 
State, ten dollars each, and the expense of surveying the 
same. — 

Those persons desirous of availing themselves of the 
above advantage may obtain the same by applying to 
Samuel Cook Esq. of Houlton Plantation, who will be 
authorised to survey the same, and deeds will be executed 
comformable to said Cook's survey whenever the same is 
made and plans returned to us. — 

Signed' George W. Coffin- 
Signed' James Ii'ish- 

Madawaska Oc^'. 3d 1825. 

Madawaska Ocf. 8th 1825. 

On the second inst. two Americans passed through 
here to Bakers, at the head of the settlement on the S^ 
Johns River. They are Land Agents from the Common- 
wealth of Massachusetts, and the State of Maine — They 
returned on tuesday, and on their way down offered 


money to the Militia men not to appear at the general 
training, on that day, and said to them, that this part 
of the country belonged to them, we could not fine them 
for non-attendance. They also left at Captain Firman 
Thibedaus, on the same day, the enclosed paper for him 
to make public in the settlement, which you will be 
pleased to lay before His Excellency, the Governor. — 

These Americans came, and returned so rapidly, that 
I had it not in my power to see them personally, for, if 
I had received the enclosed paper, and the information 
of their having offered Money to prevent the Men from 
attending the training, before their departure from here, 
I would have considered it my duty to have sent them 

down prisoners to Frederickton. 

I have the honor &c &c. 
P. Fraser Major Com^ 
4(?) Bat". Y. C. Mihtia. 
The Hon"'''' L^ Col. Geo. Shore 
Adjut. Gen" Y. C. Militia- 

His Excellency Albion K. Parris, 

Governor of the State of Maine. 

Department of State 
Washington 29 January 1827. 

I have the honor to transmit to your Excellency the 
Copy of a Letter from the British Minister here, under 
date the 16th of this month, upon the subject of the 
Eastern line of Boundary vmder the Treaty of Ghent, 
and complaining, at the suggestion & upon the informa- 
tion of the Lieut. Governor of New Brunswick, of 
further proceedings of Persons calling themselves Land- 
Agents and Surveyors, under the authority of the State 


of Massachusetts and Maine, in laying out Townships in 
the disputed Territory in that quarter. 

I am fully persuaded of your Excellency's disposition 
to take the steps required by the occasion for arresting 
the proceedings complained of- on the part of the Citi- 
sens of Maine, so far as they may be found repugnant to 
the conciliatory Course recommended by the President, 
in the Letter, which I had the honor, by his direction, 
to address to you on the 4th January 1826, and it is 
with this view that I now transmit to your Excellency 
the Copy of Mr. Vaughan's Letter, above referred to. 
I am, with great Respect, your obed*. Servt. 

H. Clay. 


16*^ January 1827. 


About the latter end of the year 1825 and about 
the beginning of the last year, a correspondence took 
place between us, relative to encroachments of persons 
calling themselves Agents from the States of Maine, and 
Massachusetts, in the Territory in dispute between His 
Majesty's Government, and that of the United States, 
in consequence of the unsettled state of the North 
Eastern Line of Boundary under the Treaty of Ghent. 

The representation which I had the honour to make 
was promptly answered by the Government of the United 
States. An enquiry into the circumstances of the 
encroachments complained of took place, and a spirit of 
forbearance and moderation was inculcated by the 
directions of the President, which induced me to hope 
that I should not have occasion to recur again to a 
representation of a similar nature. 

I have received however, a Letter from Sir Howard 


Douglas, His Majesty's L*. Governor of New Bruns- 
wick acquainting me with some further proceedings of 
persons calling themselves Land-Agents, and Surveyors, 
acting under the authority of the Governments of the 
States of Maine, and Massachusetts, in surveying, and 
laying out Townships in the disputed Territory in 

The particular Acts which have excited uneasiness in 
the Government of New Brunswick, are, the laying out 
of Land into Townships, and marking out roads within 
a Territory, the assignment of which is not yet made to 
either of the Parties under the Treaty of Ghent. 

My former representation was met by you in so con- 
ciliatory a spirit, that I am encouraged to hope, that 
the intervention of the Government of the United 
States will be effectually exerted to induce the Govern- 
ments of the States of Maine and Massachusetts to 
abstain from measures which can be construed into a 
premature exercise of authority in a disputed Territory, 
and which may lead to collision of a most disagreeable 
nature })etween the Settlers in that Territory. 

I think it adviseable to make you acquainted without 
delay with the complaint which I have received from the 
lA. Governor of New Brunswick, whom I beg leave to 
assure you cautiously abstains on his part from exercising 
any authority in the disputed Territory which could invite 
an encroachment, as a measure of retaliation. 

I have the honor to request, that you will accept the 
assurances of my distinguished Consideration. 

Signed' Cha*. R. Vaughan. 
The Hon"^'^' 

Henry Cla}^, 

&c. &c. &c. 


Executive Department of Massachusetts. 

To his Excellency Enoch Lincoln 

I recently received from the Department of State of 
the United States, a communication covering a copy of 
a note, addressed by the British Minister resident at 
Washington, to M^". Clay, in which the former complains, 
in behalf of his Government, of acts of encroachment 
and aggression by American Citizens, upon the territory 
claimed to be within the Jurisdictional limits of his 

Majesty'* Province of New Brunswick. The occasion of 

the communication referred to may probably have relation 
to the exercise of the rights of property and possession 
under the authority of this Commonwealth, and the 
State of Maine, in the Surveys and division of the pub- 
lic lands and the location of the Road from the Matta- 
wamkeag Stream, to the mouth of Fish River, the last 
season. Presuming that you have likewise been addressed 
by the secretary of State on the subject of Mr. 
Vaughan's note, I beg indulgence in asking your corres- 
pondence upon the facts which are supposed to exist, 
and the benefit of such information as you possess of the 
merits ik. probable issue of the controversy, concerning 
our North eastern Boundary, — And the evidence by 
which it may be justly established by title, or by posses- 
sion and occupancy, on our part, and acquiescence on the 
part of the British. The difficulty seems to lie in the 
application of the description of the Boundary, as 
defined by the Treaty of 1783, to the face of the 
Country. A practical construction, coeval with the date 
of the compact would have much force, in determining 
the intention of the parties. While it Cannot be 
admitted, that there is anything uncertain or ambiguous 
in the language of the Treaty, the pertinency of it, to 
the indiciae of the Line, upon which we insist, can only 


be maintained by facts and appearances obvious to 
distinct and certain observation. 

Will you also be pleased to favour me with your 
advice of the Measures, which the Government of Maine 
propose in regard to the Management of the propert}- of 
this part of our Territory. It certainly is desirable that 
while we insist upon the rights of the States to their full 
extent, and omit nothing by which they may be success- 
fully vindicated, we forbear in respectful deference to 
the suggestion of the Natural Executive, all unneccessary 
Acts of proprietorship and Jurisdictional Authority, 
which would lead to collisions between the citizens and 
subjects of the respective Governments, or create embar- 
rasment in the progress of negociation, for a final settle- 
ment of the controversy. 

May we not without serious predjudice suspend the 
making of the Fish River Road, Another Session? I 
am not aware that any other definite work, has been 
proposed, the execution of which would conflict with the 
wishes, expressed in the Letter of the Secretary. 

With earnest and interesting assurances of that great 
regard, which belongs to our ofiicial as well as personal 
relations I am &c 

Levi Lincoln. 

His Excellency Enoch Lincoln, Governor of Maine. 

Department of State. 
Washington 27 March 1827. 

I have to acknowledge the receipt of the Letter 
which your excellency did me the honor to address to me 
on the 20th instant, with a Copy of the report of the 
Joint Select Committee of the Senate and House of 
Representatives of the State of Maine, enclosed, both of 


which I have submitted to the President. The deep 
interest which is taken b}" the State of Maine in the 
settlement of our North Eastern Boundary with Great 
Britain, is very natural. And I assure you that it is a 
subject on which the President feels the most lively 
solicitude. Mr. Gallatin is charged with, and has 
actually entered on, a negotiation concerning it, but 
which was not brought to a close at the last dates from 
him, nor is it probably yet terminated. At that period, 
the prospect was, that there would be no other alterna- 
tive than that of referring the difference between the 
two governments to arbitration, according to the pro- 
visions of the treaty of Ghent. Much difficulty was 
experienced even in adjusting certain preliminary points 
necessarily connected with the reference, and they have 
not yet been finally arranged. 

When an application was made, during the Session of 
Congress prior to the last, by the Senators of Maine, 
for Copies of all the papers in this Department respect- 
ing the disputed boundary, it was not deemed expedient 
to furnish copies of the Reports and arguments of the 
Commissioners, the publication of which, it was believed, 
would be prejudicial. Copies of any surveys. Maps, or 
documentary evidence, were offered. The same con- 
siderations, which then existed, are still believed to be 
opposed to letting Copies go from the Department of 
those reports and arguments. With that exception, 
copies of any of the other papers returned by the Com- 
missioners will be furnished whenever application is 
made for them. 

It is stated in the Report of the joint select Com- 
mittee that "We cannot view the acts complained of by 
the British Governments as encroachments upon the 
rights of New Brunswick or Great Britain, for they 
relate and were onlv intended to relate to the territory 


within the description of the treaty." Although the 
President might be disposed entirely to coincide in this 
opinion with the State of Maine, it must not be for- 
gotten that an opposite opinion is entertained by Great 
Britain with whom we are now treating. If, whilst the 
controversy is unsetled, and during the progress of a 
negotiation, each party proceeds to take possession of 
what he claims to belong to him, as both assert title to 
the same territory, an immediate collision is unavoid- 
able. British Government has abstained, according to 
the assurances given through their Minister here, from 
the performance of any new Acts which might be con- 
strued into an exercise of the rights of soverignty or 
soil over the disputed territory; and they so abstained 
on our representation, and at our instance. Under these 
circumstances the President continues to think, that it 
is most advisable that we should practice the like for- 
bearance as recommended in the Letters, which I had 
the honor of addressing to your Excellency on the 4**^ 
January of the last, and the 29^'' of January of the 
present, year. This mutual forbearance is believed to 
be essential to the harmony between the two Countries, 
and may have a favorable tendency in the amicable 
adjustment of the difference between them. 

It is worthy also of consideration that, although 
Maine is most, she is not the only State, interested in 
the settlement of this question. 

Your Excellency may be perfectly persuaded, that 
every effort will be employed to obtain a satisfactory and 
as speedy a decision of this matter as may be practicable ; 
and that not less attention will be paid to it, than has 
been shown on the part of the Executive of the United 
States in the adjustment of their boundary in another 
part of the Union to which you refer, whilst it is hoped 


that some unpleasant incidents, which occurred there, 
may be avoided in the North East. 

I transmit herewith, for the consideration of your 
Excellency, an extract from a despatch of Mr. Gallatin 
under the date the 30^'' October last. 

I am, with great Respect, 
Your Excellencys obed-Servt. 

H. Clay. 

Extract of a letter from Mr. Gallatin to the Secretary 
of State, dated London 30. Oct^' 1826. 

"Permit me to add an observation on the subject of 
compromise. Agents had been appointed by the States 
of Massachusetts and Maine, whose operations have 
since been suspended at the request of the General Gov- 
ernment, for purposes connected with the rights of 
soverignty and soil of those States to the disputed terri- 
tory, — It would seem, from certain proceedings of the 
Legislature of New Brunswick, that some of those agents, 
besides performing their duties, suggested that an 
amicable arrangement of the boundary might take 
place, by making the river S*" John's the line of division. 
This suggestion appears to me incautious; and I think 
that the States ought to be put on their guard on that 
subject. It must not be forgotten that the chance of an 
arrangement by compromise is extremely uncertain, and 
the necessity of resorting to the arbitration very prob- 
able. An umpire, whether he be king or a farmer, 
rarely decides on strict principles of law : he has always 
a bias to try if possible to split the difference: and with 
that bias, he is very apt to consider any previous pro- 
posal from either party as a concession that his title was 
defective, and as justifying a decision on his part that 
will not displease too much either party, instead of one 


founded on a strict investigation of the title. It seems, 
indeed, that in any negotiation which may take place 
for a compromise, an}^ proposition on our part inconsist- 
ent with our construction of the treaty, and which would 
not secure to us all the waters that empty into the S* 
John's West of the line running North from the source 
of the S^ Croix, would be dangerous. If such proposal, 
deemed on the whole better than to run the chance of an 
arbitration, comes from Great Britain, it may then, 
but, I think, not till then, be taken into consideration. ' ' 

Department of State. 
Washington 7 May, 1827. 
To His Excellency E. Lincoln: 

I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of 
your excellency's letter of the 16*^ ult ™**, and to inform 
)ou that I have submitted it to the President. The solici- 
tude which is felt by your Excellency and the Legislature 
of Maine, in regard to the settlement of our northeastern 
boundary, so interesting to that state, and so important 
to the whole LTnion, is perfectly natural, and justly 
appreciated by the President. And he is intirely dis- 
posed to communicate any information in the possession 
of the Executive of the United States on that subject 
which can, in his opinion, be communicated without the 
danger of public detriment. Accordingly, when, at the 
session of Congress before the last, an application was 
made at this Department, by the Senators from Maine, 
for copies of all the papers, maps, and other documents 
reported by the Commissioners who were appointed under 
the fifth article of the Treaty of Ghent, it was stated to 
those gentlemen that the copies would be furnished 
whenever requested, with the exception of the reports 


and arguments of the Commissioners, transcripts from 
which, considering their peculiar character, in the then 
state of the question, the President did not think it 
expedient to allow to be taken. The Senators from 
Maine availed themselves of the permission, and obtained 
copies of some of the maps. Copies of all the papers 
reported by the Commissioners, which are very volumi- 
nous, would require the services of two or three copyists 
for many weeks; but the labour of preparing them 
would be cheerfully encountered for the accomodation of 
the State of Maine. 

The negotiation with Great Britain is still pending, 
but there is reason to expect that it will soon be brought 
to some conclusion ; perhaps in a shorter time than would 
be requisite to copy and transmit the papers reported by 
the Commissioners, to your Excellency. The President 
continues to think that the public interest requires that 
the communication of transcripts of the reports and 
arguments of the Commissioners, even under the limita- 
tion proposed by your Excellency, should be postponed 
for the present, and until it can be made without the 
wish of any injurious effect upon the state of the nego- 
tiation. Your Excellency's experience in public affairs 
will enable you to make a just estimate of the reserve 
and delicacy which ought to be observed in all negotia- 
tions with foreign Powers involving subjects of deep 
national interest. This consideration has such weight 
that it is the uniform practice of Congress, as no one 
knows better than your Excellency, to annex a qualifi- 
cation to the calls which are from time to time made, 
for papers relating to the Foreign negotiations of the 
Government. There would not be the smallest objection 
to an exhibition to the inspection of your Excellency, 
or confidentially, to any person that you might think 


proper to designate, of all the papers, without exception, 
reported by the Commissioners. 

I abstain from a particular notice of many of the 
topics of 3' our Excellency's letter, not from the least 
want of respect, (on the contrary I entertain the high- 
est, personally and officially) for your Excellency, but 
from a persuasion that the discussion of them is without 
utility. It has been thought most profitable to limit my 
answer to the specific requests contained in your letter. 
I transmit, herewith, in conformity with your wish, a 
list of the papers reported by the Commissioners, copies 
of any of which may be procured, for the use of the 
State of Maine, whenever desired, with the exception 
which has been stated. 

I am, 

With great respect. Sir, 
your obed. hu. serv* 
H. Clav. 

A List of Books, papers Sec. relative to the V"' Article 
of the Treaty of Ghent, 


Vol. I. Journal of Commission. 
Vol. II. Claims of Agents. 

Contains Claim of the Agent of the United States. 
First Memorial concerning the Northwest 
Angle of Nova Scotia and the Northwest- 
ernmost head of Connecticut River Sec. 

By the Agent of H. B. Majesty. 
Second Memorial concerning Same. 
By Same. 



Vol. III. Answers of Agents, 

Contains A reply to the Memorial of the Agent of 
the United States filed 8"^ June 1821 exhibit- 
ing the line of the boundary of the U. States 
from the Source of the River S^ Croix to the 
Iroquois or Cataraquy. 

Answer of the Agent of the U. States to 
the claim and opening argument of the Agent 
of H. B. Majesty. 

Reed August 10^^ 1821. 

Vol. IV. Replies of the Agents. 

Contains The Reply of the Agent of the United States 
to the answer of the Agent of H. B. Majesty 
to the claim and opening argument of the 
Agent of the United States &c. 

Reed Sept^ ST**^ 1821. 
Observations upon the Answer of the Agent 
of the United States to the Claim and open- 
ing argument of the Agent of H. B. Majesty. 

Vol. V. General Appendix. 

Contains Reports of the Surveyors and Astronomers, 
and Documents referred to in the Arguments 
of the Agents. 

Appendix to British Agent's Reply. 
(Duplicate) Report of Commissioners 
C. P. Van Ness. 
Report of the Commissioner of H. B. Majesty 
Addressed to the Government of the United States. 

Appendix to the Report of H. B. Majesty's Com- 

344 historical collections 


Numbers referred to in the U. S. Numbers referred in the Brit- 

Argument, ish Arguments. 

1. M'" Johnson's Survey of the Line north from 

the S* Croix in 1817 1 

2. Col, Bouchett's Survey of the same Line, 1817 2 
2. M*" Johnson's Further Survey of the North 

Line and adjacent country in 1818 . . 3 

4. M'" Odell's Further Survey of the North Line H 

5. Cap* Partridge's Section of the Country from 

Point Levi to Hallowell, 
Maine 1819 of the different 
Heights, through the Grand 
Portage of Matawasca and 
S* John Rivers of Mars Hill 4 

6. Survey of the Restook Sec- 
tion of the Same and of 
Mars Hill 5 

7. M'" Odell's Survey of the Restook with a 

Sketch of the Country as viewed from 
Mars Hill and the vicinity of the Houlton 
Plantation G 

8. M"" Hunter's Survey of the Allaguash River 6 

9. " " "of the Penobscot, First 

Part 7 

10. " " " of the Penobscot, second 

part 8 

11. M*' Burnham's Survey of the Branches of 

Connecticut River B 

12. Doc. Tiark's Survey of Connecticut River and 

its Tributary Streams A 

13. M*' Burnham's Survey of Memkeswee and 

Gi'een Rivers, and 
Beaver Stream . . 9 


14. M^ Burnham's survey of Tuladie River and 

Grand Portage . . 10 

15. Doc. Tiark's Survey of Tuladie and Green 

Rivers 11 

16. M^ Loring's Survey of Penobscot River . . 12 

17. M*" Loring"*s Survey of Moose River . . 13 

18. M'" Campbell's Sketch of the Height of Land 

annexed to M^'Odell's Report of the Sur- 
vey of 1819 F 

19. M"* Hunter's Survey of the River S' John 14 

20. M^' Loss' Survey of the River S^ John . .15 

21. jVF Partridges' Survey of the Chandiere, the 

source of the Dead River, and the east 
Branch of the Connecticut . . . . 16 

22. M^" Carlile's Survey of the Head Waters of 

the Chaudiere & Kennebeck Rivers . . 17 

23. M'" Burnham's Survey of the River Quelle & 

of the Source of Black River . . . 18 

24. M*' Carlile's Survey of the Same Rivers . 19 

25. M'' Burnham's Survey of the Sources of the 

Metjarmette, Penobscot and S* John 
Rivers 20 

26. M^ Carlile's Survey of the same Sources . 21 

27. Col"^ Bouchett's Barometrical Section of the 

Line north from the S*^ Croix ... 22 

28. Extract from Carrigan's Map of New Hamp- 

shire C 

From Mitchell's Map of Connecticut 

River D 

Col° Bouchett' concerning the 
parellel line E 

29. Extract from Mitchel's Map as first tiled by 

the British Agents. 

30. Plan of the former Survey of the Latitude of 

Forty five degrees North in 1774. 

s46 historical collections 


Map of the Country explored in the years 
1817, 1818, 1819 & 1820 by order of 
the Commissioners under the 5^'^ article 
of the Treaty of Ghent. 

Map referred to in the British Agent's Reply. 

A. Map of Connecticut River by Doctor Tiarks. 

B. Streams Tributary to Connecticut River by M'" 


C. Extract from Carrigains' map of New Hampshire. 

D. Extract from Mitchells Map shewing the heads 

of Connecticut River 

E. Col. Bouchett's plan showing the different lines 

considered as the parallel of 45"^ North 

F. M. Campbell's Sketch of the height of land 

annexed to M*" Odell's Report of the Survey 
of 1819 

G. M. Odell's plan of the Survey of the Restook with 

a Sketch of the Country as viewed Hill and 
the vicinity of Houlton 
H. Extract from M. Odell's plan of the due North 

Line explored in 1818 
I. General extract from Mitchell's map . 
K. Corrected Copy of same Extract .... 

Filed August 14, 1821 
(signed) S. Hale, Secretary. 

Title of the British Copy. 

This atlas (containing the Copies of Maps and parts 
of Maps and plans with the exception of the last 
Mitchell's Map which was filed as thereon stated) accom- 
panied the answering argument of the Agent of H. B. 
Majesty filed on the 14^^ of August last. 


Department of State, 
Washington, 9th June, 1827. 
His Excellency Enoch Lincoln : 

The President has received the letter which 
your Excellency addressed to him, under date the 29th 
ultimo ; and I am charged by him to convey to you his 
assurances that your observations on the interesting sub- 
ject of our Northeastern boundary shall receive attentive 
and respectful consideration. I beg leave to add that in 
no contingency is any arbitration of the difference 
between the United States and Great Britain, relative to 
that boundary, contemplated, but that for which pro- 
vision has been solemnly made by treaty. It would 
afford great satisfaction to the President if a resort to 
that alternative for quieting the dispute could be avoided, 
by obtaining from Great Britain an explicit acknowledg- 
ment of the territorial claims of Maine, in their whole 
extent. Candor, however, compels me to state, that the 
prospects of such an acknowledgment, at the present 
time, are not encouraging. 

I avail myself of this occasion to renew to your Excel- 
lency assurances of the high respect and consideration of 

Your obedient servant, 

H. Clay. 

Department of State 
Washington 15 June, 1827. 
His Excellency Enoch Lincoln 
Governor of Maine. 

I was directed by the Secretary, before his 
departure from this City, a few days ago, on a visit to 


Kentucky, to have copies prepared of the Books &c. &c. 
requested in your Letter to him of the 29^^ of May, 
and to transmit them to your Excellency, with all possi- 
ble despatch; and I have just collected together the 
manuscript Books containing the arguments of Mr. 
Chipman and Mr. Sullivan, agents under the Commission 
for determining the true St. Croix, and those containing 
the arguments of Mr. Austin and Mr. Chipman, agents 
under the 4*^ Article of the Treaty of Ghent, together 
with the Reports of the Commissioners in both cases, 
fourteen in number, and averaging, each, about two 
hundred and fifty pages of close writing on foolscap 
paper ; transcripts of these being particularly noticed by 
you as wanting. Added to those, the Arguments, 
Reports and Papers, including the Maps, under the 5^^ 
Article of the Treaty of Ghent w^hich come, it would 
seem to me, within the scope of your request, embrace 
a mass of wTiting nearly as voluminous as that of these 
Books. I take the liberty under these circumstances, of 
troubling your Excellency with this Communication, to 
apprise you of the extent of the transcripts which appear 
to be thus required, and of the delay which must, of 
consequence, attend this execution of your Excellencys 
commission, as it is, at present, understood by me. 

I beg leave, however, to state that the subject is in- 
volved in so much obscurity from the prolix and compli- 
cated arguments, reports and replies of the several 
Commissioners, Agents, Astronomers and Surveyors, 
that I do not like to venture upon making a selection 
for the copyists, though I feel fully persuaded that this 
might be advantageously done, to the great abridgment 
of their work and to the expediting of the fulfilment oi 
your wish. The Senators from your State, ^Messrs 
Holmes and Chandler, have seen the Books, and, as well 
I recollect, were furnished with copious extracted from 


them ; and perhaps, they might favour this Department, 
through your Excellency, with some suggestions leading 
to a convenient curtailment, which should, nevertheless, 
be entirely compatible with your excellency's object, in 
reference to the copies required by you. 

I have the honour to be, with the highest 
respect, your Excellency's obedient humble 
servant, — Daniel Brent. 

Monmouth 4 July 1827 
Hon Enoch Lincoln 
Governor of Maine 

I have the Honor to receive your Communi- 
cation of the 27 June, in reply to which will observe, 
that, although I saw the Books containing the argu- 
ments of the agents, Mr Chapman and Mr Sullivan 
under the commission for determining the true St. Croix, 
and those containing the arguments of Mr. Austin and 
Mr. Chapman agents under the 4 article of the treaty of 
Ghent, together with the reports of the commissioners 
in both cases also the notes of the Surveyors, and the 
estronomical observations, but it was some time ago and 
it would be impossible for me to form an opinion what 
part of either could be abridged with any advantage to 
the State, unless you should think that the estronomical 
part may be, of this you can Judge much better than I 
can. with respect to all the other part it would Seem to 
me that the Legislature expected the whole, & I Should 
think it necessary. Indeed they ought and I presume 
will be furnished without expense to the State, we have 
a right to expect it. it would be very extraordinary if 
after paying our proportion of Millions for making roads 
& canals in other States we should be called upon to pay 


for copying papers in one of the departments, which are 
important to the State as it respects Jurisdiction and Ter- 
ritory, both of which are disputed by a foreign Countr}', 
and as it would be impossible to say what you could dis- 
pense with in Justice to the State, I Should think it the 
Safer Course to ask for the whole. I would say nothing 
about paying for copying, nor would I pay a cent for it, 
the appropriation not withstanding, let them ask the 
State to pay for copies of papers necessary for a State, 
they never will do it, we shall not be indebted to the 
general government if we git the whole, and I would ask 
for the whole. Mr Brent mentions Mr Holmes ik my 
selfe having had extracts. I do not Recolect what we 
took, except a map, all we did take however was for- 
warded to the executive department of this State, you 
will pardon me for the positive manner in which I give 
an opinion when I assure you nothing improper is in- 

Very Respectfully 

your Humble Serv* 
John Chandler 

To his Excellency Enoch Lincoln, Governor of the State 
of Maine 

We, whose names are hereto signed have been chosen 
and sent by a considerable portion of the American 
Citizens, residing in the Madawascah Settlement so 
called to make a representation of their condition to the 
public authorities of this State, and the Legislature not 
being in session, we pray leave to make the same to your 
excellency, the chief magistrate thereof. 

In performance of this duty they would humbly make 
known to you, that themselves and their constituants 
are situated far from their own government, and exposed 


to and actual!}' suffer anno3'ance and oppression from 
the foreign go\ernment of New lirunsw ick. 

That they themselves hold their title to their lands by 
virtue of deeds from Massachusetts and Maine Agents; 
and that all our constituents have also applied for the 
like, and authorized us to act in that behalf for them ; 
but that the govenmient of the adjoining province 
regards and treats them in all civil respects as ahens. 
It denies their right to hold their lands there situated in 
fee simple on the ground alleged of their being aliens. 
It assesses upon them and demands the alien tax. It 
refuses to allow them the right of transmitting their 
produce as American; and has actually seized such, 
refusing to receive the duty thereon — and manifest a 
disposition to harrass and drive us by force and violence 
out of the country. 

When the agents of the two States were with us they 
authorized the undersigned James Bacon to receive ap- 
plications for timber and to give license for selling the 
same; Whereupon a person by the name of Morehouse, 
under taking to exhibit himself as a magistrate, forbade 
my acting and threatened to imprison me if I should 
proceed. He also demanded the deed of the said John 
Baker upon similar threats. And the government of 
the Province has claimed the timber cut on lands thus 
conveyed and treats the same as forfeited. 

On the fourth of July last we were met together in a 
peaceable manner, upon the land conveyed as before 
said, to commemorate the anniversary of American Inde- 
pendence; and the same gentleman M"" Morehouse appear- 
ing and acting as a magistrate commanded us in the 
name of the King to pull down our flag, raised on that 

Over the other inhabitants situated in the same district 
the English agents and officers, acting as magistrates &c 


undertake to exercise the same authority and power that 
they do over the natural subjects of the Province. They 
require them to train in mihtia, impose fines for not per- 
forming such service, and seize and sell their property by 
distress, therefor. They also send their civil writs and 
precepts in the same manner among us all, requiring us 
all alike, as the case may be, to appear before their 
magistrates in New Brunswick and attend their courts at 
Fredericton- And in all these particulars ourselves and 
our fellow citizens in the same conditions with ourselves 
are exposed to and do actually Experience great 


That their constituents are very anxious and uneasy 
on account of the long delay of settling the line with 
New Brunswick, labouring in the meantime under the 
want of protection from the state, and of all the advan- 
tages of government. 

That there are not far from three thousand inhabitants 
in the District of Madawascah. That the main branch 
of the St. Johns is boatable an hundred and eighty miles 
or more, above the intersectiary boundary line, with a 
great number of streams entering into it and navigable 
in the same manner, particularly the Alleguash, which 
contains several lakes, and there are two considerable 
lakes at the head of the main branch of the St Johns ;- 
the St Johns winding round to a low portage adjacent to 
the Penobscot, distant about a mile and a half between. 
And the Alleguash comes within two miles of a lake 
issuing into the Penobscot, making also a portage. The 
said Baker believes he is the first American that visited 
and surveyed the first above mentioned portage- and 
has been six seasons successivily hunting among the head 
branches of the great St. Johns, and they both per- 
formed their present journey by the river Alleguash, 
and traversing so round through Moosehead Lakes, in 


their canoe to the Kennebec. That the said Baker is 
thereby enabled specially to state that the St. Johns 
river embraces and waters a very extensive and valuable 
territory, generally good land, and the most part of it 
highly fertile, more so probably than any part of the 
State. That the same contains a large body of valuable 
white pine timber- that the quality of the land for set- 
tlement is very fine and the proportions fit therefore 
very large, as much in their opinion as three fourths 
thereof and quite free from swamps, ledges, &c. Great 
crops have been raised in Madavvascah for several years 
past- Latterly sufficient for their own consumption and 
the support of emigrants thither, besides Exporting 
four or five thousand bushels to Canada. The lands 
between the main waters of the St Johns and the St 
Lawrence are principally high- but some of the tribu- 
tary streams of both are very nigh, descending from the 
same eminence- and the principal communications with 
the country on the St Lawrence are by the Madawascah 
and St. Francis.- Inhabitants are frequently coming in,- 
but substantial people are afraid to vest their property 
in such an unsettled state of the country, and the natural 
increase of population and settlement is by these causes 
much embarressed and obstructed,- But for these causes, 
in their opinion, a constant influx of useful and valuable 
settlers might be expected into this tract of country 
forming their families and establishments around them 
and conducing to the strength, security, cultivation and 
prosperity of the State. 

Your petitioners are unable fully and circumstantially 
to set forth all the evils and disadvantages under which 
they lie, from the absence of the protecting and foster- 
ing hand of government, and indeed from the total 
privation of any regular established authority of their 
own.- They therefore on behalf of their constituents 


earnestly supplicate that the guardian care of the state 
may in some measure be extended over them, as citizens 
of this state and of the United States ; that they may 
be enabled to exercise and enjoy a suitable portion of 
the proper rights of a civil community, and that they 
may at a due period be admitted to the invaluable rights 
and franchises belonging to members of districts or 
plantations, of being provided with their own officers and 
magistrates, and being represented in the councils of the 

John Baker ( Committee of American Citizens 
James Bacon f of Madawascah. 

Cumberland ss Sepf V^ 1827 The above signed John 
Baker and James Bacon personally appeared and made 
oath to the truth of the foregoing declarations accord- 
ing to their best knowledge and beleif respectively 

C. S. Da vies Justice of the Peace. 

His Excellency Enoch Lincoln, 
Portland, Maine. 

department of State 
Washington 14 Sepf 1827. 


I have received the Letter which your Excellency 
did me the honor to address to me on the third instant, 
and I have lost no time in transmitting a Copy of it to 
the President of the United States who will no doubt 
give to it the most respectful and deliberate examination. 
In the mean time, I have also transmitted an Extract 
from it to the British Minister, accompanied by the 
expression of a confident expectation that the necessary 
orders will be given, on the part of the British Govern- 
ment, to enforce mutual forbearance from any new acts 


tending to strengthen the claims of either party to the 
disputed territory, which it has been understood in the 
correspondence between M*" Vaughan and myself, would 
be observed, on both sides, 

I have the honor to be 
With great respect, 
Your Excellency's ob. Servt, 
H. Clay 

Department of State. 
Washington, lO^** September 1827. 
His Excellency Enoch Lincoln, 
Governor of Maine. 

I have the honor to transmit to Your Excellency 
the enclosed copy of a letter from the British Minister, 
with copies of its enclosures, in answer to the communi- 
cation which I made to him on the 14th. instant, and to 
which I referred in my letter to Your Excellency of that 
date, upon the subject of an alleged undue exercise of 
jurisdiction in a settlement upon the river St. John, 
within the territory in dispute between the United 
States and Great Britain. 

You will observe that Mr. Vaughan states that the 
American settlers on the St. Johns have recently estab- 
lished themselves there, within an antient British settle- 
ment; and that their titles have been lately obtained 
from the Agents of the States of Maine and Massachu- 
setts. I should be glad to be put in possession of any 
information which Your Excellency ma}^ have shewing 
whether that statement be correct or not. 

I am, with great respect. 
Your Excellency's obedient servant. 

H. Clay 


M^ Vaughan to M' Clay. 

The Undersigned, His Britannick Majesty's 
Envoy Extraordinary & Minister Plenipotentiary, has 
the honour to acknowledge the receipt of Mr. Clay's 
note of the 14th inst. communicating a representation 
made to the Government of the United States by His 
Excellency Enoch Lincoln, Governor of the State of 
Maine, respecting certain acts of the Government of 
New Brunswick, which are considered as an undue exer- 
cise of jurisdiction in a settlement upon the river St. 
John, within the territory in dispute between Great 
Britain and the United States. 

It appears from Governour Lincoln's Statement, that 
the settlement in question is a British settlement upon 
the River St, John, westward of the Madawaska, and 
that it is composed of the families of the original set- 
tlers, and of emigrants from the United States. The 
inhabitants of the latter description, it is stated, are 
considered by the Government of New Brunswick, as 
aliens, and they are therefore not entitled to hold real 
estate, are assessed to pay an alien tax, and cannot trans- 
mit the produce of their land as Americans. — Some of 
these emigrants, the Governour observes, hold land under 
deeds from the States of Maine and Massachusetts. 

The Undersigned begs leave to remind Mr. Clay, that 
in the months of November and December 1825- and 
again in the month of January 1827, he had occasion to 
remonstrate against the conduct of persons calling them- 
selves Agents accredited by the States of Maine and 
Massachusetts for offering to sale in the British settle- 
ment upon the Madawaska River, grants of lands, and 
for surveying and laying out new settlements in that 
direction within the territory in dispute between Great 
Britain and the United States. 


Ever since the Province of New Brunswick was estab- 
lished in the year 1784, the Territory in dispute has 
always been considered as forming part of it, and previ- 
ously to that period, it was laid down as forming part of 
the Province of Nova Scotia, in a map published by the 
Boai'd of Trade in 1755.- The rights of Soverignty 
have, in consequence, been exercised by the British Gov- 
ernment, and the Undersigned must protest against the 
validity of any title to lands in the ancient British settle- 
ments granted by the State of Maine and Massachusetts, 
until a change in the right of possession shall have been 
effected, in consequence of the Fifth Article of the 
Treaty of Ghent. 

According to the statement of Governor Lincoln, the 
inhabitants of the settlement in question upon the St. 
John's River westward of the Madawaska, who are not 
emigrants from the United States, are treated by the 
Government of New Brunswick as British subjects, and 
it is observed that they are called upon to perform mili- 
tary service, an act of jurisdiction which may be made 
to imply a "rightfulness" of that jurisdiction. 

The Undersigned is persuaded that no act of juris- 
diction, exercised in the settlements made by Great 
Britain, and still in her possession, though that possession 
may be disputed, can influence, in any shape, the decisin 
of the question of Boundary under the Treaty of Ghent. 

The Undersigned will transmit a copy of Mr. Clay's 
note containing the representation of Governour Lincoln 
to His Majesty's Lieutenant Governour of New Bruns- 
wick, whose wish and whose duty it has always been to 
avoid giving the slightest uneasiness to the Government 
of the United States, on the Temtory which has, 
unfortunately remained so long in dispute between the 
two Governments. 

No attempt has ever been made to form new settle- 


ments, and the Lieutenant Governour has abstained from 
exercisinjTf any authority over the unoccupied parts of the 
disputed territory, excepting for the purpose of preserv- 
ing it in its present state. In proof of the friendly dis- 
position which animates him, the Undersigned has the 
honour to enclose a copy of a letter which Sir Howard 
Douglas addressed in the month of March last to the 
magistrates residing in the neighbourhood of the disputed 
territory, and a copy of a Letter dated the 13th of 
April, in which His Excellency informs the Undersigned, 
that he had directed the Attorney General of New 
Brunswick to prosecute some British subjects who had 
cut down timber upon the St. John's river. 

The undersigned begs leave to assure Mr. Clay that 
he will submit to His Majesty's Government a copy of 
his note, and he cannot help expressing an anxious wish 
that the negotiations which are now going on in London, 
may finally terminate the question of Boundary between 
New Brunswick and the Territory of the United States, 
and put an end to the collision of authority for the 
future in the Territory which is now in dispute. 

The Undersigned avails himself of this occasion to 
renew to Mr. Clay the assurances of his distinguished 

Signed — Cha's. R. Vaughan. 

Washington, September 17th. 1827. 
The Hon'ble Henry Clay &c &c &c. 

Copy. - Received with Mr. Vaughan's Letter 
^ of the 17th September 1827.- 

Secretary's Office. 
Fredericton, 9**^ March 1827. 

Satisfactory assurances having been conveyed to H. 


M's Gov* of the earnest wish of the Gov* of the U. S. 
to reciprocate the conciliatory disposition shewn in regard 
to the disputed Territory at the upper part of the River 
St. John it is most desirable until the question thereto 
shall be finally settled that no new settlements shall be 
made or any timber or other trees felled in the wilder- 
ness part of that Territory nor any act done which may 
change the state of the question as it existed when the 
Treaty of Ghent was executed. 

I am therefore commanded by H. E. the Lt. Governor 
to desire that you will be vigilant and use your utmost 
diligence to discover any attempt which may be made by 
any of H. M's subjects to intrude upon that Territory 
with a view to make settlements, or to procure timber, 
and to make immediate representation thereof to H. M's 
Attorney General that legal steps may be taken to pun- 
ish such intruders and trespassers. And should you dis- 
cover similar attempts to be made by any other persons 
whether unauthorized or appearing to act under color of 
authority, that you will use your best endeavours to 
ascertain the names of such persons and report the same 
to me, with affidavits to establish the facts for H. E. 


I have &c. 

signed- W. F. Odell. 

Copy.- Received with Mr. Vaughan's, as above. 

Fredericton, 13th. April 1827. 

In my letter of the W^^ ulto. I had the honor to 

transmit to your E. a copy of a circular letter, which I 
had directed to be sent to all magistrates residing in the 
vicinity of the disputed territory, instructing them how 
to act in the event of any depredations being attempted 
by either party on the lands in question. 


I have just received a report, stating that a quantity 
of pine timber had been cut by certain British subjects 
on the waste lands now subject to negotiation; and I lose 
no time in putting your E. in possession of documents 
which will shew the prompt steps I have taken to repress 
and punish these depredations. 

I beg further to acquaint Your Excellency that I 
immediately sent, by express, instructions to the nearest 
magistrates to repair to the spot, to procure information, 
and proper proof of the acts charged, and to transmit 
these to H. M's. Attorney General, who has already 
received my directions to proceed against the parties 
implicated in this transaction, without delay. 

I have &c &c. 
(signed) H. Douglas. 

The Right Hon*'^'' 

Charles. R. Vaughan. 
&c &c &c. 

Bingham Oct. 11. 1827— 
Honourable Enoch Lincoln 

Enclosed are certain papers one a petition from sundry 
inhabitants of Matawascah in behalf of John Baker of 
Sd. Matawascah and the other a coppy of writ on which 
the said Baker has been ai'ested — and conveyed to 
Fredrciton Jail in New Brunswick — 

After the arrest of the said Baker the Americans resi- 
dent at Matawascah Dispatched two persons Viz Asal 
Baker & Fineas K. Hafford with said papers addressed 
to your Honour — but after considering that should it 
be your pleasure to interfere in behalf and in favour of 
the said Bakeur, you would probably have corispondence 
with the authorities of New Brunswick-it was therefore 
thought advisable that the messengers Should immedi- 


ately return by the rout they came through the Wilder- 
ness to Matawascah, and the papers be forwarded by 
mail. — 

In addition to what you will Learn by said papers the 
sd. Asal & Fineas, state that the Sheriff used the said 
Bakeur very roughly, and Stated in their hearing that 
the province of N. Brunswick would exersize Jurispru- 
dence over said Madawascah and that Baker should 
Suffer for his opposition to their Laws- and threatened 

him with the confiscation of his property They 

further state that the Said John Bakeur was arrested 
in addition to the writ of Ejectment, uppon an Alien 
Tax, and are of opinion that the authorities intend to 
try him for high Treason, and rebellion, for opposing 
the Laws of New Brunswick, at Matawascah- at any 
rate it is to be feared that the said Baker will suffer 
the riger of their Laws without mercy, and without a 
fair Trial, - 

Therefore considering the distressed situation of the 
said Baker- He being a Scitezan of this state and a man 
of peacible Habbits, and whose intentions according to 
our knowledge has been fair and peacible with all men, we 
pray your Honour, to enquire into, the Case, and pro- 
tect the person, and property of the said Baker as far 
as it is in your power, and agreable with your pleasure- 
and we also request this favour, being acquainted with, 
& Friends to the said Baker, that you will give us 
information of the result of your interposition (by let- 
ter, ) Should you please to interfere in behalf of the Said 

And as in duty bond will ever pray- 
Joseph Russell Asa Baker 

Oliver C. Blunt- Levi G Fletcher 

Charles Pierce 
Elijah Chapman 


(L. S) George the Fourth by the Grace of God of 

the United Kingdom of Great Gritain and 
Ireland King defendor of the faith &c, To 
John Baker. Greeting: We command you 
firmly enjoining that Laying aside all Excuses 
whatsoever you be in your proper person 
before our Justices of our Supreme Court of 

(Copy) Judicature for our Province of New Brunswick 
at Fredericton on the Second tuesday in Octo- 
ber next to answer to us of and concerning 
certain matters which on our behalf shall be 
then and there objected against you and this 
you are by no means to omit under the pen- 
alty of one hundred pounds which we will 
cause to be levied on Your Goods and chattels, 
Lands and tenements to our use if you neglect 
to obey this our present command Witness 
John Sannders Esquire our Chief Justice at 
Fredericton the Seventeenth day of Septem- 
ber in the eighth year of our Reign. 
By the Justices 

(Signed) Putnam 

(Indorsed) At the Suit of the Attorney General for 
trespass and Intrusion on the Crown Lands 
T. Wetmore 
atty Gen^ 
17*^ September 1827. 

To his Excelency Enoch Lincln Esq. 
Govennor of the State of Main 
Honourable Sir we received your Answer to our petition 
with highest Gratitude & esteem and unamimously return 
our sincere thanks for your Excelencys enedeavours to 
assist us — For unless we obtain speedy Releif we can- 


not subsist in this place the British our Neighbours are 
growing outrageous Immediately on the return of our 
Agents A party of aremd Men consisting partly of men 
from below and the Remainder the Melitia of Mata- 
wascah Headed by the High SherrifF from Fredericton 
and four of his depuites broke into the House of Mr. J. 
Baker on the morning of the ^5^^ Inst after surrounding 
the House with a strong Guard they tore him out of 
Bed, and before any assistance could be obtained Hur- 
ried him away declaring that they Arrested him for act- 
ing against British Authority in this place & not paying 
the alien tax And Subverting other to do the same they 
likewise declared they had a writ of Rejectment to turn 
him out of his property. Mr Baker demanded the 
Sheriff authority when he received the aforementioned 
Reply his Answer was that he submitted as an American 
to a superor force what his fate is we Know not but we 
presume that he is confined in Fredericton Goal he has 
left his famaly in a lonely situation to Lament the 
absence of their best benafactor & friend and our little 
society to mourn the loss of its best Members they threat- 
ened in case they did not obtain their ends they would 
burn the building & likewise that they had authority to 
take Mr. Bacon & some others whitch they intended soon 
to accomplish. We earnestl}' entrust your Excellency, 
the General Government, & our fellow Citizens, to use 
some means to stop this growing evil and Releave Mr 
Baker should they keep him close confind for which we 
shall consider our selves under the gratest obligation we 
send enclosed a copy of the Writ obtained from the 

Walter Powers 

Cyrus Cannon 

Charles M^pharson 

Miles Emery 


Nathaniel Bartlett 
Daniel Savage 
Franklin Heald 
James Bacon 
John Skadder 
Matthias acorn 
David Pollard 
John HafFord junior 

John Harford 
Elecious Oaks 
Louis Bodly 
Phineas R. Harford 
Asahel Baker 

Bangor Oct 28 1827 
Enoch Lincoln Esq 

Gov of the State of Maine 

I send enclosed the statements of William Dalton 
and Jonathan Wilson, made on oath before me, relative 
to the difficulties and complaints of the settlers near our 
North Eastern Boundary. The depositions were taken 
at the request of the Attorney General who attended 
the examination — and at his request I now enclose them 
to you — It is unnecessary for me to make any other re- 
mark, than that deponents appeared to be men of in- 
telligence and integrity and so far as my observation 
enabled me to judge, I should think them entitled to 
full credence and belief 

With respect 

Your obd servt 
Edward Kent 


I William Dalton, born in Bloomfield State of Maine, 
county of Somerset say — that for the last 3 years I have 
resided on the Aroostic River 30 miles within the line 
on the American Side 33 miles up said river- Many of 
the settlers on the river are emigrants from New Bruns- 
wick others from the States- Many of these settlers are 
poor- The constables and officers of the provinces have 
been in the habit, under the pretence of collecting debts 
of coming to the settlement where I lived, with precepts 
and taking and carrying away every species of property 
they could find They generally carried it to the Parish 
of Kent or Fredericton and there sold it at auction.— As 
an instance of the violent proceedings of the officers and 
subjects of the provinces- I would state that at the set- 
tlement where I lived a certain man named Joseph 
Arnold had a dispute with one William McCray about a 
cow- which was refei-red to 3 referees chosen among the 
neighbours- who decided that Arnold Should Keep the 
cow & McCray then went to one Esq Moorhouse said to 
be a magistrate in the parish of Kent- Moorhouse sent 
McNeil a constable of that parish to the Aroostic Settle- 
ment- the constable came with 5 men, armed with guns, 
pistols and sword, and took the cow by force from 
Arnold- Whilst they were there, I asked the constable 
for his precept and for his authority to come into the 
american territory- He said Moorhouse told him to go 
and take the animal and the man wherever he could find 
them — I saw the writ- it an order to replevy in the 
parish of Kent, I asked him if he did not Know that he 
was out of the parish of Kent. He said he did not care, 
for Moorhouse would bear him out in anything he did. 
I told him he had better not come again on any such 
business— He said, "When I come again I shall not be 

obliged to show my authority to a parcel of d d 

yankee settlers of Aroostic, that if 25 or 50 men would 


not do he would bring 500 armed and equipped and 
take every Soul, men, women and children to Frederic- 
ton jail."" He did not pretend that he was in the 
parish of Kent- he said "he was doing his duty and 
would go wherever his master shoLild send him." 

In consequence of this state of things, I have sold out 
all I possessed for what I could get and left the country, 
to return to China in the county of Kennebec in the State 
of Maine- I raised this year 150 bushels of wheat- 175 
of oats- 60 of corn, 200 potatoes and garden vegetables. 
I had built a decent and comfortable log house and a 
barn I had 5 swine; cow & farming utensels- I had 
cleared 30 acres- I sold all my property for $184,528- 
all on credit except $32 in cash. I made the sacrifice 
solely on account of public difficulties. My farm, I 
think was as good land as any in North America, and 
the whole of the country on the Aroostic is very excellent 
land- and would be rapidly settled if it were not for 
public difficulties- My family were contented before the 
trouble- and had it not been for them I would not have 
taken $700 for my property- 

For the last seven weeks the inhabitants of the 
Aroostic settlement have been unwilling and afraid to 
sleep in their own houses and have retired to the lower 
part of the settlement and spent the night on the banks 
of the river and in the woods and Keep watch night and 
day as in an Indian war — 

I arrived here at Bangor the 27^'' of October 1827 
direct from Aroostic 

Wm Dalton 

State of Maine 

Penobscot ss. Town of Bangor, on the 27th of 
October 1827 the aforesaid William Dalton personally 


appeared and made oath to the truth of the foregoing 

Before nie Edward Kent Jus Peace 

I Jonathan Wilson of Fairfield, county of Somerset State 
of Maine on oath depose and say that I left Fairfield 
about the 1st of October inst for Houlton Plantation and 
the British provinces to collect Some debts due me and 
others- I arrived at Houlton about the 10*'* inst and 
from thence went to Woodstock in the Province of New 
Brunswick to collect debts- Woodstock is about 65 miles 
above Fredericton. I there learned that Mr Baker had 
been arrested by the British authorities. I was told this 
by Jos Harvey formerly of Bangor State of Maine, that 
he was arrested by 45 men sent up in barges armed- that 
he was taken from his bed in the night- that the charge 
against Baker was for refusing & objecting to permit the 
British mail to pass over his land- that they confined 
Baker in jail, have Since tried him and sentenced him to 
pay a fine of 150 pounds and to 6 months imprisonment 
in jail which to nn- knowledge is extremely loathsome, 
filthy and dangerous to health- and that Baker is now 
confined there- Baker lived on Madawasca river, within 
the American line. I also learnt at Houlton by my son 
Leonard Wilson who has recently been at the Aroostic, 
that the settlers there complained bitterly of the oppres- 
sion of the officers and Subjects of the provinces- that 
there property was forcible}^ taken from them and carried 
off even to the last cow. 

Jonathan Wilson 
State of Maine 

Penobscot ss- Town of Bangor. On the 27*^** of Octo- 
ber 1827 the aforesaid deponent personally appeared and 
made oath to the truth of the foregoing Statement 
Before me- 

Edward Kent Jus Peace 


His Excellency Enoch Lincoln, 

Governor of the State of Maine, 

Department of State 
AVashington, 30 October 1827 

I have committed to the charge of M'" William 
Prentis, who will have the honor to deliver them and 
this Letter to your Excellency, and who is imployed for 
that purpose. Twenty four manuscript volumes of 
Books, according to the accompanying List, on the 
subject of the North and North Easterly Boundary Lines 
of the United States, prepared at this office for the 
State of Maine, conformably with the suggestions and 
desire expressed by your Excellency.- Erom the extent of 
these manuscripts, it is more than probable that they 
embrace Copies of a great deal more, in Documents, 
discussion and argument than was in the contempla- 
tion of your Excellency, or than was desired for the 
use of your State; but to secure a full Compliance with 
your Excellency's views, and to guard against any defi- 
ciency, I gave directions to have a Transcript made 
of every thing which might b}' possibility be useful or 
interesting upon the occasion, having the remotest 
bearing upon the subject, with the limitation stated 
in my previous correspondence; and as the selection 
was necessarily committed to others, who may not have 
had a very accurate view of the extent of the Commission 
entrusted to them, it is not improbable that it may 
comprise much which may be found superflous. 

I send also forty two Copies of Maps, likewise pre- 
pared with the same views, and under the same circum- 
stances, which M*" Prentis will also have the honor to 
deliver to your Excellency. 

I am, with great Respect, 

Your Excellency's Obed* & hu. sev* 
H. Clay 


Department of State 
Washington 10"^ Nov^ 1827. 
To His Excellency 

Enoch Lincoln 

Governor of the State of Maine. 

I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your 
Excellency's letter of the 2°^ Instant, transmitting 
copies of the affidavits of William Dalton and Jonathan 
Wilson, all of which I have submitted to the President. 
The copy of the proclamation mentioned by your Excel- 
lency, as also being enclosed in your letter, was not 
among the papers, and has not been received. 

Information would be very acceptable as to the periods 
when the settlements were first respectively formed on 
the Madawasca and on the Aroostic over which the 
British Government is now attempting to exercise a 
jurisdiction; and also whether they were established 
under British or American authority, whether they were 
made by American citizens or British Subjects, and when 
the British Government first began to exercise any juris- 
diction within them. 

According to late accounts from M*" Gallatin, it is 
probable that a convention has been concluded at Lon- 
don making provisions, in regard to the reference of the 
dispute between the two countries, to arbitration, agree- 
ably to the stipulations of the Treaty of Ghent- We 
shall, in a short time, know whether it has been actually 
signed or not, as well as the precise purport of the arti- 
cles composing it. 

I have the honor to be 

With great respect 
Your Excellency's Obed^ Serv* 
H. Clay. 


Worcester Mass. November 13 1827 
To His Excellency Enoch Lincoln 

Governor of the State of Maine 

The interesting relations between this Common- 
wealth and the State of Maine have never ceased to be a 
subject of deep and earnest regard by the Executive of 
Massachusetts. From the time of my induction to 
office, the unsettled and disturbed question of the North 
Eastern Boundary, immediately affecting a large amount 
of common property, and made the more important from 
jurisdictional rights involved in the decision, has met a 
solicious and watchful attention. The general views 
entertained by me, on this subject, were early, altho 
breifly expressed, in a communication to the l^egislature, 
at the commencement of the January Session 1826, pub- 
lished with the Resolves, and forwarded to the Executive 
of Maine, to which I beg leave to refer, and the opinions 
then declared, have frequently since, and on all proper 
occasions, been repeated. 

It has indeed been looked for, that the Government 
of the United States, aliice impressed with the urgency 
of establishing their frontier Line of National Boundary, 
as sensible to the obligation of vindicating the rights of 
the States particularly interested in the soil and Sover- 
ignty of the Territory, would, ere this period, have 
efFectuall}- maintained the integrity of an actual posses- 
sion, and removed, by a clear and distinct designation of 
Monuments, all cause of challenge and controversy with 
a foreign Government, and of collisions and violence 
between their respective Citizens and Subjects. The 
Treaty of Ghent referred this question to a qualified 
arbitrament, not for the surrender or compromise of 
rights, but for the determination of them, as they pre 
existed. Commissioners appointed under that Instru- 


ment, having failed to agree upon the Boundary, the 
matter was made, as has been understood, of paramount 
attention with the American Minister at the Court of St. 
James, who, so far as is now known, has been ahke 
unsuccessful in procuring a recognition of the just 
demands of the United States, to the establishment of 
the Boundary, by the description in the Treaty of 1783. 
In the intermediate time, the patience of the Govern- 
ments, and the Citizens, both of Massachusetts and 
Maine, has been severely taxed by the embarrassment 
created to the improvement and disposition of their 
property in the soil, to which are now superadded com- 
plaints of flagrant acts of injustice and outrage, and 
violations of the personal liberty of American Citizens, 
by British Authority, claiming allegience from those 
who are purchasers and Settlers upon the land, under 
grants from the State Soverignties. 

I need not, Sir, labor to assure you of the sympathy 
of Massachusetts in the injuries thus suffered, more 
immediately, by the People and Government of Maine. 
The Citizens of this Commonwealth have been too 
recently and too intimately in connexion and association 
with the younger Sister, to be insensible to any occur- 
rence which may inflict wrongs upon her. But, in the 
present instance, a community of interest and joint suf- 
fering will require and ensure a ready participation in 
all justiflable and constitutional means to obtain redress, 
and to vindicate the cause of injured individuals and a 
violated State, 

With their views, I beg to be officially informed of 
the precise character and extent of the recent aggression, 
which have been committed at Madawasca, or elsewhere, 
within the State of Maine, under the pretext of orders 
from the Provincial Government of New Brunswick, and 
to be made acquainted with all other circumstances and 


considerations, known to your Excellency, as important 

to a true understanding of the honor and interest of the 

Commonwealth, which, in this communication, I have 

the duty and the responsibility to represent. — 

With Sentiments of the highest 

personal regard, and 

official consideration 

most faithfully 

Your Obedient Servant 

Levi Lincoln 

Fredericton, New Brunswick. 
15^^ November 1827. 


I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your 
Excellency's letter of the 22"^'^ October, requesting me 
to communicate all the circumstances respecting the 
arrest of the individual named in your Excellency's 

It is not for me to question the propriety of your 
Excellency's opening a correspondence with the Govern- 
ment of this Province, on a question now pending in 
Negotiation between His Majesty's Government, and the 
Government of the United States, as contracted under 
the Treaty of Ghent; but it would neither be consistent 
with my sense of duty, nor in conformity with my 
Instructions, to give the explanations your Excellency 
requests to any Persons excepting those with whom I am 
directed to correspond or under whose orders I am 

Should any reference be made by the General Govern- 
ment of the United States, to His Majesty's Minister 
upon this or any other matter connected with the Gov- 


ernment of this Province, it will be my duty to afford 
His Excellency the fullest information to enable him to 
give whatever explanation he may deem proper. 

Although for these reasons I must decline any further 
correspondence with Your Excellency on this suljject, 
yet it is in entire unison with the Sentements and dis- 
position which I know to animate His Majesty's Govern- 
ment, that I take this occasion to assure Your Excel- 
lency of my sincere and cordial desire to do all in my 
power, so far as I personally am at libert}' to use any 
discretion in the duties which I am imperatively charged, 
to meet, with respect and consideration, the amicable 
disposition which Your Excellency professes. I trust my 
Conduct will be found to evince a just and manifest 
Solicitude to repress and punish any acts on the disputed 
Territory which might lead to the interruption of a good 
understanding between the two Countries, and to keep 
the question in a state propitious for a speedy and amica- 
ble adjustment. 

I have the honor to be 
With the most respectful consideration. 
Your Excellency's 
Obedient Servant, 
Howard Doufflas. 

Department of State, 
Washington, D. C. Nov. 19, 1827. 
His Excellency Enoch Lincoln, 

Governor of Maine. 

The president being desirous to possess certain 
information in respect to settlements within that part of 
the territorial limits of Maine which is claimed by Great 
Britain, and especially as to the causes of the arrest and 


condemnation of John Baker, an American citizen, has 
authorized me to employ Mr. Barrell to proceed to 
Maine, and, if necessary, to New Brunswick, to collect 
the information desired. I beg leave to present Mr. 
Barrell to your Excellency as a respectable and intelli- 
gent gentleman, worthy of respect and confidence. He 
will communicate to you, particularly, the various points 
on which the President wishes to obtain information ; 
and I have to request of your Excellency such assistance 
to Mr. Barrell, in the execution of his commission, as 
you may think proper to render. 

I am, with great respect. 

Your Excellency's obdt. servt. 

H. Clay 

His Excellency Enoch Lincoln, 
Portland, Maine. 

Department of State 
Washington 27'*^ Nov"" 1827. 

I have to acknowledge the receipt of the Letter 
which your Excellency did me the honor to address to 
me on the 19'^ instant with its accompany ments, all of 
which have been laid before the President. He sees 
with great regret the expression of the sentiment of 
your Excellency that "Maine has not been treated as 
she has endeavored to deserve. ' ' Without engaging, at 
this time, in a discussion of the whole subject of our 
dispute with Great Britain about the North Eastern 
boundary of the LTnited States, in which the State of 
Maine is so deeply interested, which would be altogether 
unprofitable, I am sure I shall obtain 30ur Excellency's 
indulgence for one or two general observations which 
seem called for by the above sentiment. 


By the Treaty of Ghent, in the contingency which 
unhappily occurred, of a nonconcurrence between the 
British and American Commissioners in fixing that 
boundary, they were directed respectively to report to 
their Governments, and the difference thus left unad- 
justed was to be referred to a Soverign Arbitrator. 
Your Excellency, in the course of the correspondence 
which has passed between you and this Department, 
has protested against this reference, and your objections 
to it have received the most respectful Consideration. 
The fulfilment of solemn obligations imposed upon the 
United States by the faith of treaties ; & the duty with 
which the President is charged b}^ the Constitution of 
taking care that the Laws (of which our treaties with 
foreign powers form part) be faithfully executed, did not 
appear to leave him at liberty to decline the stipulated 
reference. If any other practical mode of settling the 
difference had occurred, or been suggested by your 
Excellency, to the President, it would have received 
friendly and diliberate consideration. 

It is certainly most desirable that Nations should 
arrange all differences between them, by direct negotia- 
tion, rather than through the friendly agency of third 
powers. This has been attempted and has failed. The 
Government of the U. States is fully convinced that the 
right to the territory in dispute is with us and not with 
G. Britain. The convictions of Maine are not stronger, 
in respect to the validity of our title, than those which 
are entertained by the President. But Great Britain 
professes to believe the contrary. The parties cannot 
come to the same conclusion. In this state of things 
what ought to be done? National disputes can be 
settled only amicably or by an appeal to the sword. 
All will agree that before resorting to the latter dread- 
ful alternative, every friendly and peaceble measures 


should be tried and have failed. It is a happy expedi- 
ent, where Nations cannot themselves adjust their differ- 
ences, to avail themselves of the Umpirage of a friendly 
and impartial power. It multiplies the chances of 
avoiding the greatest of human calamities. It is true 
that it is a mode not free from all objection, and Mr. 
Gallatin has adverted to one, in the extract, which you 
give from one of his dispatches. But objectionable as 
it may be, it is better and not more uncertain than the 
events of war. Your Excellency seems to think that 
the clearness of our right should prevent the submission 
of the controversy to an Arbitrator. l^ut the other 
party professes to be equally convinced of the indisputa- 
ble nature of his claims ; and if that consideration were 
to operate on the one side it would equally influence the 
other. The consequences will be at once perceived. 
Besides, the clearness of our title will attend it before 
the Arbitrator, and, if we ave not deceived in it, his 
favorable decision is inevitable. 

The President regrets, therefore, that in conducting 
the negotiation with G. Britain, he could not conform 
to the views of your Excellency, by refusing to carry into 
effect a treaty, to the execution of which the good faith 
of the Nation stood pledged, and which was moreover en- 
joined by tlie express terms of the Constitution. But, 
if he could have brought himself to disregard this double 
obligation under which he is placed, how could the 
interests of Maine have been advanced.' She is not in 
possession of the disputed territory, or at most but of a 
small part. Both parties stand pledged to each other to 
practice forbearance, and to abstain from further acts of 
soverignty on the unoccupied waste, until the question 
of right is settled. If that question cannot be settled 
by the parties themselves, and may not be settled 
by arbitration, how is it to be determined.^ The re- 


maiiiing alternative has been suggested. Whether 
the time has arrived for the use of that does not belong 
to the President but to another branch of the Govern- 
ment to deside. 

I cannot but hope that your Excellency, upon a review 
of the whole subject, in a spirit of candor, will be dis- 
posed to think, that the Executive of the U. States has 
been endeavoring, with the utmost zeal, in regard to our 
North Eastern boundary, to promote the true interests 
of the United States and of the State of Maine, and that 
this respectable State has been treated neither with ne- 
glect nor injustice. 

I am, with great respect. 
Your Excellency's Obed*^ Servt. 
H. Clav 

Portland Dec'' P' 1827 

In pursuance of the Commission which I have 
received from the President, the objects of which have 
been fully explained to your Excellency, I have to 
request that your Excellency would be pleased to furnish 
me with any documentarv or other evidence which you 
may possess, or which it may be in your power to pro- 
cure, respecting the period when the right was first 
asserted to exercise authority from the States of Massa- 
chusetts or Maine, over the settlements on the Mada- 
wascah and Aroostic Rivers, branches of the S* Johns, 

or either of them. 

I have the honor to be, 
with great respect, 
Your Excellency's 

Ob^ Serv^ 
S. B. Barrelle. 


His Excellency 

Enoch Lincoln 

Governor of Maine. 

Fredericton N. B. Dec'" 24''^ 1827. 


I have already had the pleasure to acquaint you 
with my arrival here, and the obliging reception of your 
letter by Sir Howard Douglas. I was detained by the 
continuance of His Excellency's indisposition until the 
11^*^ instant. As soon as I understood that his health 
was so far confirmed that he would probably be able to 
attend to business, I prepared an application to him, in 
pursuance of your direction, for the release of John 
Baker, which I addressed to His Excellency, the Lieu- 
tenant Governor of New Brunswick, on that day. I had 
written a note on the same day to the Secretary of the 
Province, requesting him to lay the paper before Sir 
Howard Douglas, as soon as His Excellency's health and 
pleasure should permit. 

Before I despatched it, I received a verbal communi- 
cation from Sir Howard Douglas, delivered by M*^ Odell, 
the Secretary, together with Captain Douglas, His 
Excellency's private Secretary, stating that some time 
before my arrival His Excellenc}- had received a former 
letter from you, to which he had also before my arrival 
returned an answer, acquainting you that it would be 
neither consistent with his sense of duty, nor in con- 
formity with his insti-uctions to give the explanations 
required in that letter to any Persons, except those under 
whose orders he is placed, or with whom he is directed 
to correspond; and that consequently having no Power 
to treat, he could not in any way recognise me as an 
accredited agent from the State of Maine. At the same 


time, it was said, it would afford Sir Howard much sat- 
isfaction, if the government of the State of Maine should 
become fully and correctly informed of circumstances 
respecting which, he said, he regretted to find that very 
erroneous impressions and misrepresentations were preva- 
lent in that State. 

M"" Odell also stated, that he was directed by Sir 
Howard Douglas to express his great regret that he had 
been so long prevented from making any communication 
to me respecting the letter, which I had borne from you, 
and to state that he had taken the very earliest oppor- 
tunity, that his health would permit, to give me the 
above information- and added very polite expressions, 
implying every hospitable regard and attention, that 
could be received by an American stranger passing 
through the Province. 

In reply to M"^ Odell I briefly expressed my regret, 
that His Excellency's health had not allowed me to be 
apprised earlier of a circumstance, which existed at my 
arrival, and the effect of which appeared so decisive. I 
adverted to the mention, that was made by the same 
gentlemen, when they formerly did me the honour to call 
upon me from Sir Howard Douglas for the purpose of 
receiving your letter and preventing any unnecessary 
detention on my part, that a reply had been written to 
your first letter, which I told them had certainly not 
been received when I left Portland, and with the purport 
of which I was not until now made acquainted. 

Touching the point of His Excellency Sir Howard 
Douglas's present communication, I took the liberty to 
allude to the practice prevailing between the adjoining 
states of the American Union and Provincial Gover- 
ments of His Britannic Majesty on the subject, and 
instanced the particular circumstance within our ovvti 
experience as a State, of a like application having been 


made by the Earl of Dalhousie to Governor Parris. I 
wished to leave this circumstance open to the influence 
which it might possibly have in the determination of Sir 
Howard Douglas. I requested M'' Odell to receive the 
note I had prepared and then exhibited to him, and to 
consider the paper which I prepared to present through 
him to His Excellency as proffered also at the same 
time: to which M'" Odell assented, or made no objection. 

I proceeded on the same day to enclose the before 
mentioned application, in a letter to Sir Howard 
Douglas, which I sent with the note to M'' Odell. 

On the following day the paper was returned to me 
b}' M'' Odell, with a note from him signifying, that it 
was by His Excellency's command; and that in pursu- 
ance of the course which his Excellency had laid down 
and in conformity with the terms which he had caused 
to be communicated to me, if my Letter to His Excel- 
lency contained any matter relating to my visit to New 
Brunswick, His Excellency could not receive it. 

In compliance with what I conceived to be the import 
of this communication, I immediately proceeded to reply 
to M'' Odell, that I begged leave to acquaint Sir Howard 
Douglas, that the object of the letter which I had the 
honour to address to His Excellency, on the day before, 
was confined in its terms to an application to him, as 
Lieutenant Governor ike of this Province for the release 
of John Baker, a citizen of the State of Maine, in prison 
in this place in pursuance of my appointment, and in 
obedience to your direction ; that I referred therein to 
an application of a similar nature addressed by the Earl 
of Dalhousie Governor General &c of the Canadas to 
the Hon'^'*^ Albion K. Parris late Governor of Maine, 
which I assured Sir Howard Douglas was most respect- 
fully received : and that I referred no further in my letter 
to the general purposes of my visit to this province. 


namely, to enable the government of Maine to become 
fully and correctly informed concerning the truth of cir- 
cumstances, respecting which His Excellency was pleased 
to express his regret that very erroneous impressions and 
misrepresentations were prevalent in that state,- than 
simply to say, that His Excellency was already apprized 
of those valuable and important purposes, by yourself. 
I persuaded myself that His Excellency was fully 
acquainted with the respectful sentiments and amicable 
dispositions which this proceeding on your part was 
intended to cherish. 

While I could not avoid the occasion of expressing 
the pain I felt on account of the necessity imposed upon 
me of entering into a preliminary explanation of this 
nature, concerning the part of duty, which I was charged 
by yourself as Governor of Maine, with performing for 
such purposes and touching a point of such vital interest 
to the State of Maine, as the liberty of one of its citi- 
zens, I begged leave to renew the tender of my applica- 
tion, together with a copy of the Earl of Dalhousie's, 
for His Excellency's determination. — 

I received a reply from M*" Odell dated the 14''*^ inst. 
on the day subsequent of the date, acquainting me, that 
conformably to my request he transmitted the letter 
enclosed to be laid before Sir Howard Douglas, and had 
received His Excellency's instructions to return the same 
to me, and to state that His Excellency could not depart 
from the course of proceeding which, upon every view of 
the case in question, he had adopted, and which line of 
conduct had been already communicated to me 

This reply left nothing for me but to ascertain 
whether I could depend upon the countenance of Sir 
Howard Douglas, in the manner solicited by you, to 
enable me to proceed upon the further duty to which I 
was directed by you to perform in different parts of the 


country so far as it might lead me through this province; 
and for facility of which you had been pleased to refer 
me to Sir Howard Douglas. The intimation previously 
conveyed to me by His Excellency concerning my visit 
to New Bininswick, had not escaped my notice, but as I 
did not wish to lose the benefit that you intended by 
your recommendation of me to Sir Howard, upon any 
mere ground of inference, in the present condition of 
the country, I was desirous to be made certain on that 

I accordingly addressed a note on this subject the next 
day to M"^ Odell, in which I also took occasion to 
acknowledge the favour he had done me in reducing to 
writing the substance of his verbal communication from 
Sir Howard Douglas to me, of the 11^^ instant; and to 
recapitulate on my part the residue of what passed in 
that conversation. 

Having the benefit of the communication made by 
M^' Odell at that time thus expressed in very distinct 
terms before me, I stated to him in this note, that if 
the remark, that His Excellency Sir Howard Douglas 
had no power to treat, had failed to attract my atten- 
tion, it was because the exercise of no such power was 

I also took occasion in this note to state that in the 
application which I addressed to Sir Howard Douglas 
for the release of Baker, I forbore to make a positive 
demand for the delivery of the persons, who might 
prove to have been active in the affair of the arrest 
and engaged in the abduction of that individual; 
although such further appeal to His Excellency's power 
would have been authorized by principles of public law, 
accordant with the usage existing between the Adjoining 
governments of the United States, and dominions of His 
Britannic Majesty- and especially warranted by the cir- 


cumstances of the case. This was an omission of form, 
which I could only excuse myself for endeavouring to 
reconcile with my duty, by considerations of respect for 
the authority of this government, on which I relied to 
render Such request unnecessary. 

For the polite and condescending terms with which Sir 
Howard Douglas was pleased to accompany his former 
communication in regard to me personally I begged leave 
to express my most grateful and respectful acknowledg- 
ments. — My business however in this province, I 
stated further in my note to M'" Odell, was not of per- 
sonal, but public concern; and that in the line of duty 
that had been marked out for me, it behoved me to 
ascertain what assurance I could have of the countenance 
of Sir Howard Douglas. I explained my view of the 
extent of this question to be, so far as might be required 
for my progress in the execution of the office assigned 
me by the Governor of Maine, to inquire into the nature 
of complaints recently made by citizens of Maine resid- 
ing near the frontier of aggressions committed by inhabi- 
tants of New Brunswick. I particularly expressed my 
wish it might be understood, that I was authorized by 
you, if an opportunity should be afforded, to invite His 
Excellency, Sir Howard Douglas's assistance, in this 
inquiry, with a view of conducing to a mutual, impartial, 
and satisfactory result, and that I had reason to think 
that Some degree of expectation was cherished by you 
that such a course of proceeding would be acceptable to 
His Excellency. 

I added, that it became more interesting for me to be 
informed of the line of conduct, that it might be imper- 
ative on me to pursue, in consequence of the general inti- 
mation from His Excellency to which I have adverted, in 
connection with circumstances also, to which I knew not 
how far it might be suitable for me to advert;- which 


had been more immediately brought to my knowledge 
within a recent period ;- and which were further embar- 
rassed by the superadded difficulty of recognizing any 
right of interposition on the part of the State of Maine 
with the Executive Authority of His Majesty's Province 
of New Brunswick, under such views as might be 

In reply to the inquiry which I respectfully solicited an 
opportunity to make, feeling precluded from any more 
direct communication with Sir Howard Douglas, I 
received a note from the Secretary of the Province, M"" 
Odell, that as he had no other instructions from His 
Excellency, other than those already communicated to 
me, he was not able to give me any answer, nor was he 
authorised to enter into any further correspondence on 
the subject. — 

I received this last and conclusive communication on 
monday the IT**" instant, — and on the Same day I had 
the pleasure of seeing M"" Barrell, who had arrived the 
evening but one before by the way of St. Johns, and 
whom I lost the opportunity of seeing on Sunday by 
being at Oromocto. I was exceedingly gratified by the 
privilege thus presented through your introduction to 
renew an early acquaintance on my part with M"" Barrel, 
and it is a very high satisfaction that he comes recom- 
mended by the President of the United States to seek 
the information so important to us, and to the councils 
of the federal government as it regards, the constitu- 
tional guarantee to each State in the union of an inde- 
pendent republican government, and of the integrity of 
its territory against invasion. 

As you were pleased to express an opinion that my 
distinct agency is not intended to be superceded; but on 
the contrary to signify your determination, that I should 
proceed to the end of my original destination, so as to 


leave no occasion to repeat my visit to this section; 
and at the same time invite me to avail myself of the 
essential advantage, that may be afforded by the valuable 
sanction of M^ Barrell's federal agency and personal in- 
fluence, I beg to assure your Excellency of my most 
cordial cooperation, and that he shall receive that 
friendly and respectful consideration from me, to which 
he is every way entitled. And while I shall faithfully 
indeavour to redeem your Excellency's promise to him of 
every assistance in my power to diminish the fatigue of 
his arduous office, I have already followed your Excel- 
lency's example, as well as directions, in free communi- 
cation with him, and shall proceed in that spirit of per- 
fect confidence which you enjoin and in pursuance of 
those principles, which you have impressed, to act with 
this gentlemen, as a friend, in the most open, frank and 
unreserved manner, in relation to the rights and senti- 
ments of Maine. 

It was not until monday, the 17*^ instant, that I 
received your Excellency's different letters, dated 19**^ 
November, enclosing a copy of a letter from His Excel- 
lency the Governor of Massachusetts, — 26*** November, 
acknowledging the receipt of my letter to you from 
Lubec,- and 3*^ of December containing a copy of M"^ 
Clay's letter to you of the 27**^ November. 

In your letter of the 26'^ November, you stated and 
enforced the propriety of representing to the govern- 
ment of New Brunswick those independent rights of 
Maine as to territory and jurisdiction, of which it has 
been intended to deprive it. You observed it should be 
distinctly understood that the State holds its right to 
jurisdiction especially, as only restrained by the limited 
and concurrent authority which the federal constitution 
has conferred on the government of the United States 
within their acknowledged limits. You remark, that 


this is a point involving by possibility serious results, 
and considering that the occasion only requires the reit- 
eration of sentiment, which, you are pleased to accom- 
pany with the obliging remark, is repeated with the 
single view, of meeting in regard to me, a certain degree 
of responsibihty, you omit to extend the observation. 
I understood your Excellency to be desirous, that I 
should not leave New Brunswick without presenting to 
the government of this Province the views entertained 
by our State in regard to the rights in question ; and 
that you wished me to exhibit those views at large in 
conformity to the facts I might ascertain and the same 
principles I presume, to which you have solicited the 
attention of the Government of the United States- 
This, you consider wiU preclude all future pretense of 
acquiescence in the foreign occupation or exercise of 
jurisdiction by which it is to be feared that the wrongs 
which are growing may be expected to ripen into right. 
The neighbouring government, you say, can never com- 
plain of the want of frankness although we shall with- 
out discussion simply declare, that while the State of 
Maine will without doubt be anxious to maintain a 
friendly communication, it will probably be obliged to 
refuse its acquiescence in any measures interfering with 
with its own territorial rights, or the personal Liberty 
of its citizens. 

The object of my attempt to make a representation 
of the injury lately done to the State of Maine, and to 
ask for the relief and atonement required by the uni- 
versal principles of common justice and the general rules 
of public law having failed, I proceeded immediately to 
relate the occasion and to record the result, in the only 
mode that was open to me, namely, that of a memorial 
of the circumstances; and I endeavoured to fulfil the 
duty enjoined upon me by your instructions according to 


the limited means in my power. I viewed it as proper 
to accompany it with a remonstrance against the exorbi- 
tant pretension set up on the part of the Province of 
New Brunswick to a large proportion of the State of 
Maine, which I know not by what strange means has 
latterly acquired the title of disputed territory ; against 
the unauthorized assumption also of terming it and 
treating it as a subject of negotiation between the Gov- 
ernments of Great Britain and the United States ; and 
against the extraordinary extension of a foreign juris- 
diction over the unquestionable territory of an independ- 
ent State. 

I cannot profess to have prepared this paper in all 
respects as I could wish, or to have put it entirely into 
such a shape as might be most satisfactory to yourself 
or the State. Many particulars also are still to be ascer- 
tained, that belong to the general aggregate of aggres- 
sion. But the broad ground of complaint is not denied - 
It is even officially announced, that the whole of the 
territory, which it is true is now in question, is in the 
actual possession of His Britannic Majesty's Govern- 
ment established in this Province. It was stated last 
year on behalf of the Province of New Brunswick, that 
Great Britain was in possession of the most valuable 
parts of this country, and did not know it. It is pro- 
claimed the present year that the right to possession to 
this whole tract of country is in the crown of Great 
Britain, and that it is in the exclusive occupation of 
the government of this Province. No detail is, obvi- 
ously, necessary to develope the character of this bold 
and formidable usurpation.- - But it is certain that an 
extensive course of judicial proceedings has been adopted 
by the highest legal authority in this Province to eject 
the American settlers from the Territory, indiscrimi- 
nately with all who have gone on without license from 


the British Government. Acts of the most flagrant and 
arbitrary description appear to have been added; but 
their only effect is to aggravate the general charges of 
complaint on the part of Maine to which the govern- 
ment of New Brunswick refuse to listen. It is time in 
my judgment that these facts should be known: and 
especially that the great prominent fact of the Provincial 
claim to the right of actual, entire, and exclusive occu- 
pancy, which goes to overthrow the authority of Maine 
and overwhelm all the rights that can exist under it, 
should also be made known, to the country. 

His Excellency Sir Howard Douglas not having been 
able to give personal audience to any one, on account of 
the State of his health, on Saturday last ^^"^ inst. I 
inquired personally of the Secretary of the Province at 
his office whether a paper of the descripticm I had pre- 
pared, and the nature of which together with your 
instructions to me on the subject I explained to him, 
could be received :- requesting permission to offer it for 
that purpose. He stated that he was not authorized, 
and declined to communicate it to Sir Howard Douglas, 
or to receive it. His Excellency's private Secretary 
being also present and referred to by the Secretary of 
the Province, M"* Odell, confirmed the opinion from his 
positive knowledge of Sir Howard Douglas's determin- 
ation, that a paper of such nature could not be received 
from me. The only method, which was indicated to me, 
by which Such a representation proceeding from the 
Executive authority of Maine could arrive to His Excel- 
lency, was by means of circuitous communication through 
the Secretary of State of the United States to the Brit- 
ish Minister residing at Washington. As it was out of 
my power to avail myself of the benefit of this sugges- 
tion, and should reserve it indeed for your consideration, 
I could only retain the paper, to be disposed of on my 


return, agreeable to your direction. -But for the present 
your purpose is frustrated. 

I beg permission to express the very great satisfaction 
I have experienced from the language of His Excellency 
Governor Lincoln of Massachusetts, in the letter you 
were pleased to communicate to me, in connection with 
the general views and opinions heretofore stated by him 
in his public communications. The decided concurrence 
of the excellent chief magistrate of our original Com- 
monwealth, in the importance of vindicating the respec- 
tive rights of Soil and Sovereignty, appertaining to the 
two Sister States, and which are holden under the ancient 
charter of Massachusetts, recognized, confirmed, and 
established by the Treaty of 1 783, is a circumstance of 
the most gratifying kind ; and the obligation of requir- 
ing a recognition of the just demand of the United 
States, as well as the States of Massachusetts and Maine 
conjointly, and of the latter state in the most peculiar 
and emphatic manner, to the establishment of the 
Boundary by the description in that Treaty, is stated in 
terms worthy of the character of Massachusetts, The 
importance of maintaining the integrity of an actual pos- 
session by the exercise of an effectual Sovereignty, and of 
removing by a clear and distinct designation of monuments 
all cause of challenge and controversy with a foreign 
government, is strikingly illustrated by transactions 
which have lately taken place not merely on our border, 
but within the body of Penobscot. It is grateful to be 
assured, of the sympathy of Massachusetts in the suffer- 
ings occasioned to individuals by acts of injustice and 
outrage committed upon the property and persons of 
individuals, and in the injuries arising to the State from 
the violation and invasion of its territory and the 
obstructions interposed from abroad to its settlement, 
improvement, and prosperity. It will become my duty, 


SO far as may be in my power to aid M'' Barrell in 
acquiring precise information in regard to the character 
and extent of the recent transactions that have been 
committed in the neighborhood of Madawaska and else- 
where, within the State of Maine, under the pretext of 
power from the British government of New Brunswick, 
demanding the allegiance of some as its subjects, who 
are tenants of the soil and settlers under this State and 
acting on American citizens as aliens, who hold the lands 
they live on by actual title of grant from Massachusetts 
and Maine. It is happy for them, and well as for us, 
that we are authorized by a community of interests and 
injui-ies to rely with confidence on a voluntary and cheer- 
ful participation in all legitimate means to obtain 
security and redress ; and that no consideration will be 
wanting to the proper understanding of the true honour 
and interest of the Commonwealth over which His Excel- 
lency has the honour to preside and which he does not 
decline the responsibility for this purpose to represent. 
The remark that the Treaty of Ghent referred the 
question concerning the north-eastern angle of Maine 
only to a qualified arbitrament, not for the surrender or 
compromise of rights, but for the determination of them, 
as they pre-existed, is founded on eternal principles of 
truth and justice. Maine and Massachusetts are bound 
to protest before God and all good men, against any 
execution of the article of the Treaty of Ghent except 
according to the terms of the Treaty of Peace and 

While the Letter of M"^ Clay to your Excellency 
affords reasons to rely that any cause for regret on 
account of the refusal of confidence on the part of the 
federal government toward the State of Maine, will here- 
after be removed, it contains also the direct and full 
recognition of the unquestionable validity of our title to 


the territory in demand; and while the alternative that 
is holden out to an acquiescence in the submission to a 
Sovereign Arbitrator is of an extremely melancholy 
character, as implying that Great Britain resolved to 
effect by force an object she may not otherwise be able 
to accomplish ; — and while we voluntarily yield an 
extensive yet qualified controul to be exerted over the 
subject in question, by the federal government, it is our 
happiness to be encouraged to appeal to the guardian 
wisdom and protecting power, to which we are entitled. 
The public information that the basis of an umpirage 
has been arranged renders it exceedingly desireable to 
ascertain the rules and principles, on which it is to be 
instituted; and to be informed how far the rights of 
Maine are liable to be affected without her accession to 
the articles of agreement. This is quite important to 
the value of our reliance upon the clearness of our title 
before an absolute arbiter. 

The Statement of the President, that the compact 
between the two great parties to the Treaty of Ghent, 
subsequent to the disagreement of the commissioners, 
which has been extended to exclude us from occupying 
the territory, went no further than to avoid any effect 
upon the naked question of right from any new exercise 
of authority, which it was hardly necessary to agree, 
reduces the pretense that has been asserted to defend the 
recent usurpation of territory, within very moderate 
limits. The remark of M*" Clay in his letter to M"" 
Vaughan, in regard the character of some of these fresh 
applications of foreign power, that they could only be 
vindicated as exercises of the most incontestable author- 
ity, is extremely just and pertinent. 

I have been permitted by the sheriff of this county, 
in a very civil manner, to see M*" Baker in prison. Con- 
cerning the particulars of his confinement I shall beg 


leave to refer entirely to M*" Barrell, who has also had 
the privilege of seeing him, and who can consider the 
subject perhaps free from the same bias, which, I am 
sensible, may influence me. M'" Baker appears to be in 
tolerable health, and he writes to me that he finds he 
has to content himself at present in rigid confinement; 
and that he shall wait his deliverance from "the States. " 
I have ascertained the particulars of jVF Baker's arrest. 
Permit me to say, also, that he has never enjoyed the 
title of General, until since that period. He was seized 
in his bed, at dav light, under process from New Bruns- 
wick, by armed persons, on the land he holds under grant 
from Massachusetts and Maine. He is not actually 
accused of stopping, but of threatening the mail to 
Canada. The offense with which he is charged in that 
particular did not take place upon his land, but in a 
canoe, upon the St Johns, a short distance below the 
mouth of the Madawaska, and above where our line 

crosses the St. Johns ; which I have not learned to 

have been navigated by the subjects of His Britannic 
Majesty exclusively, I mean above that line. M"" Baker 
denies the offense with which he is charged, and which I 
understand to be supported by the affidavit of the mail 
carrier, who is ot French extraction, taken ex parte before 
a magestrate of New Brunswick, by the name of 
Morehouse, and who testifies positively as I am told, to 
the menaces of Baker. Baker on the contrary declares 
that he had no wish to stop the mail; but that on the 
other hand he felt an interest in having it pass by his 
property. He says he had heard a report from Mada- 
waska, which by the way is over a hundred miles above 
Woodstock, which M'' Vaughan speaks of, that the mail 
had orders not to go the old route ; and that he paddled 
along by the side of the postman, who was polling up 
the stream, simply to inquire and ascertain the fact. He 


thinks it possible, that his question whether the mail 
had, as he understood, ordei's to stop on that course, 
miijht have been misunderstood by the Frenchman, by a 
very easy transition, as an observation that the mail was 
so ordered, — and conscious that it was important for him 
to be careful in his conduct, he says he added that he 
should be sorry to have it stopped: And entered into 
general conversation with another Frenchman, who sat 
in the bow of the mail carrier's canoe, and who had 
recently been in Canada, and could better converse in 
English, keeping company a few minutes in his own 
canoe. On his return to his raft, he informed the man 
he left upon it, that it was a mistake for the mail was 
actually passing ; and on his return by Madawaska, he 
paid two dollars to the mail contractor for a Quebec 
paper which he concluded to take, as the mail route was 
not changed. — This is his statement. On the other 
hand there are a great many suggestions to his disparage- 
ment and injurious to his fame and his family. But I 
can learn nothing distinctly that derogates from his right 
to be considered an American citizen, or to his claims 
for indemnity from the States of Maine and Massa- 

I beg your Excellency to overlook or correct any inac- 
curacy, in this letter, which may require your indul- 
gence, as M*" Barrell and myself are on the point of set- 
ting off for Houlton tomorrow morning. M'' Barrell 
has the advantage of a letter from M"" Vaughan and been 
furnished with every facility by the government here. 
Although it was an occasion of regret to me on some 
accounts, it was perhaps a happy circumstance, upon the 
whole, that I was detained until the arrival of M' 
Barrell. I find him a friend, as well as a companion, 
and unless I receive your Excellency's directions to return 


from Houlton, I think it more than probable I shall 

attend him to Madawaska. 

I have the honour to be with the greatest respect, 
Your Excellenc3''s obliged & faithful humble servant- 


P. S. I ought not to omit to state to you, that I 
have enjoyed every attention and favour in this place, 
more especially from the gentlemen connected with the 
government; that it is possible to bestow on a stranger 
— and that I conceive I am much indebted in this respect 
to the obliging consideration of Sir Howard Douglas — 

Fredericton N. B. December 11^*^ 1827— 

In obedience to your Excellency's commands I have 
had the honour to communicate to your Excellency the 
authority which I bear on behalf of the State of Maine 
from the Governor of the State for the reclaim of John 
Baker, a citizen thereof, forcibly seized, as has been made 
known to its Supreme Executive, while residing on its 
territory, by persons belonging to this province, and 
conveyed to goal in New Brunswick. — And my com- 
mission extends, of consequence, to enable me to invoke 
the aid of your Excellency in causing the persons, who 
may have been active in such violation of the Laws of 
Maine, to be subjected to the operation of its justice. — 

It cannot be supposed, that such act will receive the 
sanction of your Excellency's Government. 

It is such an insult to an independent State, such an 
aggression upon an established government, is so incom- 
patible with that spirit of amity and respect, which it 
is so important to preserve between adjoining govern- 
ments, and has hitherto subsisted with so much happi- 
ness between the neighbouring States of the union and 


dominions of his Britannic Majesty in North America, 
that the Governor of Maine persuades himself it is only 
necessary to be presented to Your Excellency's knowledge 
to ensure its prompt and just rebuke. — 

Desirous to combine the performance of my immedi- 
ate duty with an observance of the due regard belong- 
ing to your Excellency's government; I abstain from 
further remarking on the character of a transaction, so 
exceedingly at variance with the friendly relations which 
have heretofore prevailed between Maine and New Bruns- 
wick. And I appeal to the high elevation of your 
Excellency's station and sentiments for an exercise of 
that authority, which exerts itself to respect the rights 
of others with the same virtue and moderation that it 
watches its own — I can assure your Excellency, that I 
solicit no interposition on this occasion, which would 
not, on like occasion, be most anxiously accorded by the 
Chief Magistrate of Maine. 

Although Maine may not be able to claim the observ- 
ance of a sovereign power, she is nevertheless subject to 
the duties of an independent state. — Permit me to add, 
that the rights of the citizen are so essentially involved 
in the constitution of the state, are so intimately inter- 
woven with the ties of the national compact, that a 
deep sensibility, on this subject pervades the whole 
community. — 

It needs scarcely to be observed, that the absolute 
obligation of a free government to protect its citizens 
from foreign violence loses none of its force in conse- 
quence of their accidental distance from the seat of 
government ; — and is by no means impaired by the 
consideration of their remote and defenseless exposure to 
the precauious perils of a frontier position. The 
authority of Self-government exists in as full vigour at 
the circumference, as at the centre: and notwith- 


standing the circulation may be impeded, its vital prin- 
ciples extend to the extremities. — The failure of the 
ordinary security of the laws on this occasion makes it 
necessary to resort of your Excellency, to assist in 
erecting a higher moral, virtual barrier, against the 
future. — 

Confiding, therefore, in the universal and inviolable 
principles of public law, and referring to your Excel- 
lency's authority for the terms and measures of the 
atonement, which may be required from any persons, 
who may be lawful subjects of this government and who 
may prove to have been concerned in this act of unlaw- 
ful violence in accordance with the above well estab- 
lished principles, I content myself in the first place, with 
preferring my most respectful application to your Excel- 
lency for the release of the citizen before named in 

In connexion with this application to your Excel- 
lency, I beg leave to communicate open to your Excel- 
lency, a letter from his Excellency the Earl of Dalhousie, 
Captain General and Governor in Chief of the Canadas, 
addressed to the Honourable Albion Keith Parris lately 
Governor of Maine, and which I can assure your Excel- 
lency, was received with the most respectful attention. 

Your Excellency, permit me to say, is already 
apprised of the general purposes of my appointment by 
the Governor of Maine, and made fully aware, I may 
trust, of the respectful sentiments and amicable dis- 
positions which it is intended to foster and promote. 

I beg leave to express the very high consideration and 
respect with which I have the honour to be 
Your Excellency's 
Most Obedient, humble Servant 

C. S. Davies 


His Excellency 

Sir Howard Douglas, Bar^ 

Lieutenant Governor & Commander in 
Chief of the Province of New Brunswick. 

In the Supreme Court 
Exchequer Side 

York to wit, Be it remembered that Thomas Wetmore 
Esquire, Attorney General of our Sovereign Lord 
the King for this His Majesty's Province of New 
Brunswick, who prosecutes for our said Lord the 
King comes in his own proper person into the Court 
of our said Lord the King before the justices of our 
said Lord the King at Fredericton on the seven- 
teenth day of September in the eighth year of the 
Reign of our Sovereign Lord the now King, and 
for our said Lord the King gives the Court here to 
understand and be informed. —THAT WHEREAS, 
a certain Tract or Parcel of Land situate in the 
Parish of Kent in the county of York in the said 
Province and lying on both sides of the River Saint 
John between the Mouth of the Madawaska River 
and the River Saint Francis and containing in the 
whole fifty thousand acres, in the hands and possess- 
ion of our said Lord the King, on the first day of 
February in the first year of his Reign, and before 
and continually after was and of Right ought to be, 
and yet ought to be in the Right of his Imperial 
Crown of the L^nited Kingdom of Great Britain 
and Ireland, and as part of the Dominions of our 
said Lord the King in this Province ; and for so long 
a time as there is no remembrance of any Man to 
the contrary has been in the possession of the said 
Lord the King, and his Predecessors the Kings and 
Queens of Great Britain and Ireland and a part of 


the Dominions of the said Crown - Nevertheless 
one John Baker of the Parish aforesaid in the 
county aforesaid Farmer the Laws of the said Lord 
the King in no wise regarding, but intending the 
disherison of the said Lord the King in the Premises 
in the first day of February in the second year of 
the Reign of our said present Sovereign Lord the 
King and on divers days and times before and since 
with force and arms and without any lawful author- 
itv in and upon the possession of the said Lord the 
King of a part of His said Lands, to wit the 
hundred acres thereof lying on the Westerly side of 
the Land — • Turtle or Marcumpticook River, a 
branch of the said River Saint John at the Parish 
aforesaid in the County aforesaid intruded and 
entered and erected and built thereon a certain 
House and other Edifices and cut and felled divers, 
to wit, five hundred timber and other Trees thereon 
Standing and growing of the value together of one 
hundred pounds and took and carried away the 
Timber and wood arising from the said Trees, and 
of his own will disposed thereof, and the issues and 
profits of the same Lands moving, received and had 
and yet doth receive and have to his own use: and 
still holds and Keeps possession of the same Lands ; 
and the said Trespass aforesaid hitherto and yet 
continuing to the great annoyance of our said Lord 
the King and contrary to His Laws, in contempt of 
our said Lord the King, and against the Peace of 
our said Lord the King- 
Whereupon the said Attorney General of our 
said Lord the King for the said Lord the King prays 
the advice of the Court here in the premises, and 
that the aforesaid John Baker come here to answer 
the said Lord the King in the Premises 


(signed) T Wetmore 

Att^ General. 

I M Bliss. 
Examined by me and certified to be a true Copy 

T R Wetmore 
Clerk to the Att> General- 
28**^ November 1827. 

Fredericktown Jail Nov^ 29*'' 1827 
Charles S. Davis Esq*" 


I wish to inform 30U immediately after my arrival 
from Portland to home I was arrested by some of H. M* 
Officers Conveyed and Commited to Fredericktown Jail 
in which place I made out a report to the governor of 
the State of Main having not rec*^ instructions I remain 
here in great anxiet}- waiting patiently what Method to 
adopt & hope measures will be taken as quick as possible 
to extricate me from this prison I am now placed in a 
very uncomfortable situation leaving a wife & family to 
lenient me ik would feel grateful to you if you would 
forward a note by some trusted person to inform me what 
to do — & would thank you to visit me if it is Consistant 
& by so doing you would much oblige 

Your H Serv* Jn*' Baker 


I make a remark on the statement I saw in the 
Fredericktown gazette Stating that the British govern- 
ment has not sufFerd any Squaters to settle on the dis- 
puted of Territory it is well known that there is many 
settled in Metewescher because if the are not Considered 
as British Subjects the must be Considered as Americans 
it appears the have appointed Millitary Officers over 


them and established Companies Principal}- over the late 
settlers — — — 

Dec'" 6*^ 1827 
Charles S. Davis Esq*", Ag'^ for the State of Main 


I have to state on the 25**^ of Sepf last I was 
arrested at the dawn of day while in mv bed, by some 
of H. M. Officers — Accompanied with armed men, and 
conveyed to Fredricktown jail for the Alleged offence 
for not being Emeneble to the English Government, & 
for Pretended offences of Interupting the mail, and on 
an action of Debt — and have further to observe that 
the rejected me from my land granted me by the legis- 
lature of the state, and that the Attorney general has 
proceeded against me in an Action of Trespass for cut- 
ting down trees on said land- and have been brought 
before the Court & have plead not guilty wherein the 
Court could not proceed to Trial- & having the Privi- 
lege of bail for my appearance at the nixt session for the 
penal sum of £100 & being as aforesaid embaressed still 
remains in jail with respect 

I remain Your Obed^- 
Serv* John Baker 

P. S. I have given the above statement having 
learned that the one I forwarded to the government had 
not been rec** — 

Dec*" 6^^ 1827 Fredricktown 
Charles S. Davis Esq*", 

having made an application to Government of 
the state of Main for Protection- and the Governor by 


his Proclamation having Claimed me as Citizen I should 
wish to know if I am under the necessity of answering 
to H. M, Court in any Case Criminal Or Civil, and 
would be obliged to you if you would give me Instruction 
as I am requested by the Kings Attorney to lay before 
ihe court my plea — 


Respect Sir 

I am Your Obed* Serv^ 
John Baker- 

P. S. 

Any Note you forward me for my instruction 
you may depend shall not be made public unless by 3'our 

Prederickton Dec*" 12"' 1827- 
Char^' S. Davis Esq^" 

has been much said in this Section of the country 
concerning the mail I have to state there was a report 
circulating in Matawascah that the mail had rec'* orders 
to stop going in that direction. I was a few day after- 
wards going down the river in a canoe with a raft saw 
a man whom I supposed carried the mail and asked him 
if he did and I further observed that I heard the mail 
had rec*^' orders to stop, by way of question he not 
giving me a correct answer, I found he did not well under- 
stand the English language & then observed I should be 
sorry to have the mail stop then turned my discourse to 
a man by the name of Moorey on other subjects without 
the least discord the post man still continuing his 
Journey- and also a man with me by the name of Siras 
Cannon by whom the said Statement can be proved, that 


was the only time that I recollect conversing with the 
Post man on that Subject 

I remain with respect 
Sir, Your Obed^ humble Serv' 
Jn° Baker 

Frederickton Jail 23''<* Dec^' 1827 
C. S Davis Esq^" 

I find that I have to content myself at present in 
ridgd confinement and shall untill I receive Assistance 
from the states 

I wish when \'ou retiu'n from Matawasha that you 
would inform me what may occur, give me information 
as ma}' be necessary, and you would much 
Oblige Your Obed* Serv^ 
John Baker 

That we, George W. Coffin Agent for the Common- 
wealth of Massachusetts, and James Irish Agent for the 
State of Maine, upon the subject of the Public Lands 
in said State, by virtue of powers vested in us by resolves 
of the said Commonwealth, dated 11th June 1825, and 
by resolves of said State dated 26"' February 1825, and 
in consideration of the sum of Ten dollars to us paid by 
John Baker of a plantation called and known by the 
name of the Madawaska settlement in the County of 
Penobscot and State aforesaid, situate upon the river 
Saint John, Yeoman for the use of said Commonwealth 
and State, the receipt whereot we do hereby acknowledge, 
do by these presents in behalf of the Commonwealth and 
State aforesaid, give, grant, bargain, sell and convey to 
said John Baker his heirs and assigns forever, the follow- 


ing- pai'cel of land, viz. : — Beginning at Marvumticook 
Stream or point on the S^ John's river, thence running 
west by said river sixty three rods to a stone marked N*' 
1. S. W. thence north three hundred and twenty rods, 
thence east fifty rods, thence south three hundred and 
eleven rods and one half a rod to a stake standing on 
the south side of said stream, thence b}" said stream south 
thirty eight and one half degrees east fifteen rods & 
seventeen links to the bounds first mentioned, containing 
One hundred Acres, be the same more or less. 

To have and to hold the same, with all the privileges 
and appurtenances thereof, to the said John Baker his 
heirs and assigns to his and their use and behoof forever. 
Agents, in behalf of said Commonwealth and 
said State, have hereunto subscribed our names 
and affixed our seals, this third day of Oct'' 
Signed, Sealed and Delivered Geo. AV. Coffin (L. S. ) 
in presence James Irish (I-, S. ) 

of us. Walter Powers 
attest Hiram Baker 

New Brunswick / Michaelmas Term in the eighth 

Supreme Court. \ year of the Reign of King George 
the Fourth. 

York, to AVit, Be it remembered that Thomas 
Whetmore Esquire Attorney General of our Sovereign 
Lord the now King for this His Majesty's Province of 
New Brunswick, who for our said Lord the King prose- 
cutes, in this behalf in his own proper person comes here 
into the Court of our said Lord the King before the 
King himself at Fredericton in the county of York, on 
Saturdav next after the second Tuesdav in October iit 


this same Term, and for our said Lord the King gives 
the court here to understand and be informed That John 
Baker of the Parish of Kent in the count}- of York 
Labourer being a person greatly disaffected to our said 
Lord the now King and his Government within this His 
Majesty's Province of New Brunswick, and contriving, 
endeavouring and unlawfully maliciously, factiously and 
seditiously intending to vex molest and disturb the peace 
and common tranquillity of this Province, and to bring 
into hatred and contempt our most Serene Lord the now 
King and his Government, and for creating false opinions 
and suspicions in the people and subjects of our said 
Lord the King of and concerning the Government and 
administration of our said Lord the King and of the 
Royal power and undisputed prerogative of our said 
I^ord the King within this Province he the said John 
Baker for performing perfecting and effecting his said 
most wicked contrivances and intentions on the fifteenth 
day of July in the eighth year of the Reign of our 
Sovereign Lord King George the Fourth at the Parish of 
Kent aforesaid in the county aforesaid with force and 
arms contemptuously maliciously factiously applied to 
one Peter Markee being one of the Subjects of our said 
Lord the King residing and inhabiting within the said 
Parish and then and there endeavored to persuade and 
seduce the said Peter Markee to depart from and violate 
the allegiance which he owed to our said Lord the King 
and did then and there present to the said Peter Markee 
a written paper then and there requesting and persuad- 
ing him the said Peter Markee to subscribe his name 
thereto then and there stating to the said Peter Markee 
that the same paper was drawn up by him the said John 
Baker and others residing in the Madawaska Settlement 
in the Parish aforesaid and County aforesaid, with an 
intent thereby to bind those who subscribed the same 


paper to defend one another against any act of a British 
Officer civil or militaiy and not to allow the British Laws 
to be put in force among them in the said INladawaska 
Settlement aforesaid (to wit in the Parish aforesaid and 
county aforesaid) he the said John Baker then and there 
declaring that the British Government, meaning the 
Government of our said Lord the King had no right to 
exercise any authority over the Inhabitants of the said 
settlement and that the government of the United States 
of America would protect him the said John Baker and 
others his confiderates as aforesaid in what they were then 
doing. And that he the said John Baker in order 
further to perform, perfect and effect his malicious 
practices and seditious intentions and designs aforesaid 
afterwards, to wit, on the eighteenth day of the same 
month of July in the year aforesaid, at the Parish afore- 
said in the county aforesaid endeavored to oppose and 
obstruct the Postman then and there having the custody 
and carriage of His Majesty's Mail to Canada in the 
prosecution of his Journe}' with the same mail he the 
said John Baker then and there declaring with a loud 
voice in presence and hearing of divers of the subjects 
of our said Lord the King that England had no right to 
send her mails by that rout meaning through that part 
of the Parish of Kent, and that the said John Baker 
had received orders from the said government of the 
United States to stop the conveyance of the said mails 
through the same to the derogation great damage, 
diminution and prejudice of our said Lord the King and 
his Laws, to the evil example of all others in the like 
case offending and against the Peace of our said Lord 
the King his Crown and Dignity. 

A^'^hereupon the said Attorney General of our said 
Lord the King who for our said Lord the King in this 
behalf prosecutes, for our said Lord the King prays the 


consideration of the Court here in the premises, and that 
due process in law ma}^ be awarded against the said John 
Baker in this behalf to make him answer to our said 
Lord the King tending and concerning the premises 


T Wetmore 

Dom : Reg. Gen' 
Examined by me and certified to be a true copy. 

T R Wetmore 
clerk to the Att}' General 
28"' Nov'" 1827- - 

I Asael Baker, aged twenty one 3'ears, declare and say 
I resided as a labourer in the family of John Baker, 
near the mouth of the River Mariumticook at the time 
he returned from a journey in September last. The 
family of said Baker consisted of his wife, and four 
daughters and one son of hers by her former husband, 
and two daughters of said Baker, the youngest about a 
year old. — 

Baker and his wife with the child slept in a room 
adjoining the kitchen. Three da}'s after his return I 
was sleeping in the kitchen and about daylight, was 
awaked by the noise of persons entering violently from 
without into the outer room where I was. The first I 
saw was two persons entering about abreast, followed by 
several others with arms in their hands. I afterwards 
knew one of the two first who entered to be M'' Miller, 

a sheriff of New Brunswick I was startened and 

alarmed and sprung into the bedroom where Baker and 
his wife were sleeping, and was instantly followed by the 
forwai'd persons, who had entered the kitchen. Two 
of the persons that went into the bed room had arms— 


One by the name of Rice, an Irishman, represented to be 
an Adjutant ot mihtia, who carried a pistol, and another 
bore a musket. Baker lay on the back side of the bed, 
and did not immediately awake. They first took hold 
of Mrs. Baker, who was frightened, and cried out to them 
not to kill the child, and begged them to spare her. 
The principal person M^" Miller told her to be civil, and 
he should not hurt her nor her husband, M^' Baker. — 
M*" Baker being awakened, and made sensible, rose out 
of bed, and they were removing him from the apartment, 
but his wife first and then he himself requested them 
to suffer him to put on his clothes,- which was allowed 
to be done. The principal person told him he was the 
one that had caused him so much trouble, as to make 
liim come two hundred miles, This was before Baker 
got out of bed. As I was going towards the outer door 
the person, who carried the pistol, presented it at me 
and threatened to shoot me, if I moved. There were a 
considerable number of persons who followed into the 
house, some of whom had remained at first without- 
and I heard M*" Miller order them to enter. 

I should say there were in all as man}' as a dozen. I 
saw as man}' as half a dozen muskets. There were two 
other persons in the house in the same manner as my- 
self, by the names of Walter Powers and John Scudder. 
- When M^' Baker was seized, he said he had writings 
from the states, which they should see if they would. 
He was answered, that was nothing to them,- that he 
must submit and follow- that he had better be as easy 
as possible, as he did not know which side he should fall 
upon.- M^" Baker proposed to take breakfast and 
requested time to get some mone}'. The principal per- 
son refused the permission and hurried him away, tell- 
ing him he should fare as well as he did himself- I 
should judge it was not more than ten minutes from the 


time the party entered the house until the}^ went away 
with Baker. M*' Baker gave me some general and hasty 
du-ections about his affairs; and his wife in about half 
an hour after followed to have an interview with him on 
the road. I never heard him called General Baker until 
since this affair- I have since seen the person, who pre- 
sented the pistol at me, and he declared that he was so 
ordered- I have very recently seen another person of 
the party who seized Baker, whom I recognized, and 
asked if he was one of the men that took M"" Baker also 
whether he was in the house. He said he was. His 
name I understand is West. He asked me if I was the 
one that slept on the floor, and he said he saw me run. 
He also said it was the King's Express to take Baker 
dead or alive- I named to this person the circumstance 
that Rice presented the pistol at me, and I further said 
that Rice presented it at Powers. — West said, he 
guessed not- and added that Powers came down from the 
chamber and took up a chair and struck one of the fuses, 
that the men held, and broke the breech ; that this man, 
whose name was Battis Misshu, called out for help, and 
that thereupon he (West) went to Powers and drew the 
pistol, and told Powers he had better be civil and 
behave, otherwise he should be obliged to put the law in 
foiTe. I had this conversation with this West, the 13**^ 
of December. — I know the jierson called Battis Misshu. 
He lives at the Grand Falls. I saw him that morning, 
when Baker was seized. — I do not recollect him in the 
house. The door was guarded outside, and Rice, stood 
guai'd at the door inside- and when I attempted to go 
out W Miller spoke to the guard in this manner, - "men, 
stop that man from going out.-"" Thereupon Rice pre- 
sented the pistol to me, and I stopped, and told him to 
lire if he liked- that I was not afraid of him a hair.- 
After M^" Miller and his party had conveyed M'" Baker 


out of the house, and carried him down to the shore we 
had libert}' to come out and I saw Battis Misshu, who 
was carrying a musket and was the last- of the guard 
that remained. He shook hands with me at going away 
and said I must not blame him for he was obliged to do 

as he did. Battis Misshu told me that one of Mrs. 

Baker's daughters got out of the window, and that an 
other got out of the door and that two men took her and 
carried her into the house again, He said one of the 
girls was crj'ing and asked what the}' were going to do 
to M^" Baker- He answered they wei-e not going to hurt 
him. — I understood that these were the two eldest 
daughters, Amanda ik Liser aged about eighteen & six- 
teen - I also heanl another daughter, Sophronia, about 
twelve years of age, declare that she got out of the door 
and was brought back. — I saw the oldest daughter, 
Aniander aged eighteen years after M^ Baker was seized 
in the same room where he was- I understood, but do 
not know, that she attempted to get out at the door, 
and afterwards got out of the window, and afterwards 
came back, I saw her after that time again in the house 
before M'' Baker was removed.- I understood that 
Scudder passed out at the door, and was brought in 
again by the guard. Powers and myself were kept the 
first part of the time in the bedroom with Baker, and 
three persons were stationed in a small passage way into 
the kitchen to prevent our getting out. — After I was 
allowed to go into the kitchen I saw Cyrus Cannon, who 
lived in the neighborhood come into the house and went 
into the room where Baker was coTifined. — I also saw- 
two other friendh' persons belonging to the neighbor- 
hood standing without nameh' Miles Emery who has a 
lot at the mouth of Fish river, and another Matthias 
Acorn who is settled on the second lot above Baker. M"^ 
Baker offered no resistance at anv time, nor did he 


encourage any to my knowledge. — Of the other per- 
sons with M^" Miller, one was William Dibble, who lives 
below the Grand Falls,- another named Soffysaw, who 
undertakes to act as a constable at Matawasca settle- 
ment under the direction of persons residing in New 
Brunswick- another was a M'' Tibbets of Tobique.- I 
saw another named Joseph Deba- Another called 
Wezaw Nedder— both whom I knew belonging to the 
settlement of Madawasca — Another named John Battis 
D Aigle was of the party, and was stationed, as a guard 
at the canoes. — Another brother to Nedder- but I do 
not know his christian name. 

Several of the persons of the party belong to the 
settlement from the Grand Falls along up to the Mada- 
wasca, and individuals of French extraction in the vicin- 
ity, who are required to bear arms and train in the militia 
of the Province of New Brunswick. Rice acts as Adju- 
tant of this militia, and lives near the mouth of the 

Madawasca River. West said to me, at the same time 

I have before mentioned, that they had but-five mus- 
kets, -and he also said they had several pistols. 

Baker has one saw mill with two saws and a gristmill. 
He was also building him a two story house, the present 
habitation he lives in not being sufficiently commodious 
and tenantable for the winter. He had engaged two 
carpenters to finish the house, and a brick layer to com- 
plete the chimney this season- The house remains 
unfinished and the work is stopped.- It is boarded, and 
the window cases and one door case is in,— one side of the 
roof is shingled,- this piece of shingling is all that lias 
been done since M'' Baker's absence,- His family remain 
together in the old house- His business is now all at a 
stand. His wife and familv are left in a lonesome situ- 


ation and M^"* Baker is very anxious and at times exceed- 
ingly distressed, and agitated. 

Asahel Baker. 

I further declare and say, that after the seizure of John 
Baker the American citizens in that vicinity became con- 
siderable uneasy and alarmed, James Bacon said he did 
not know what was to be done, and that he did not know 
but the English would come up and take them all away, 
and appeared to be disheartened and discouraged- for a 
short time. It was noticed and talked of among us, 
although we thought M'" Bacon did not wish to show 

it. jVP" Stutson, one of the settlers was also inquiring 

what was to be done- and I observed to him, that I 
thought he was afraid, He answered that he was afraid, 
that he was almost scared to death, and did not know 
what to do— I was absent immediately after this on a 
journey to Kennebeck, and when I returned Stutson had 
sold out and was gone, liaving moved, I understood, into 

Stutson was a blacksmith and had a shop and a family, 
consisting of a wife and two children, and about fifteen 
acres under improvement. — Jacob Goldthwaite had a 
place where he had been chopping on five or six acres, 
and had some stock, a horse and yoke of oxen. He 
said very little at first - and when it was intimated to 
him that he was alarmed, his answer was that those who 
talked about it most, were most afraid -when I returned 
from the westward, in about six weeks Goldthwaite had 
left his place and was gone- Charles Smart had also 
stock, and was present with Goldthwaite when he made 
the above remark- and declared that he would not make 
any resistance, or get himself into any scrape- On my 
return he also had departed,- Neither of those persons 
have returned- I heard Stephen Grover, say after my 
return, that as the state of things were and had been for 


some time, it might be a year, before it was settled and 
perhaps more and perhaps never. — And that it was 
impossible to live so, while the English were coming up 
to harrass us— and we did not know whether we could 
rely on the States- and had better move off and live 
some where else - and that if nothing should be done for 
them, he had determined to move off next summer. I 
heard Randall Harford say, that he meant to stay as long 
as he could — that he had a years provisions- that if it 
came on too hard, he would live on that, and then clear 
out. A very great and general alarm has prevailed 
among the people of our state in that quarter, in conse- 
quence on the proceedings they have experienced and the 
uncertainty of their dependence upon government— Dur- 
ing my absence, as I was informed after my return some 
person had been at Baker's and also called on several 
other persons to demand the alien tax, on what they 
call the Bear Tax- The same person I was also informed 
went up to S^ Francis to call for it of Americans there.— 
And he is expected again this winter. I was also 
informed that an officer had been up with warrants to 
serve on a number of Americans holding lands there, 
to answer for Trespass and intrusions on Crown Lands 
under penalty of a hundred pounds. I saw copies that 
had been served on John Harford, Samuel Harford, 
Randall Harford, and Daniel Savage, and have also 
understood that there were several others. Fears have 
been entertained and expressed that when the winter- 
going became good the officers would be up there again 
and all carried down to Fredericton. 

Asahel Baker. 

I Charles Stetson, aged thirty four years, was bom in 
Bristol, State of Maine- Lived in Eastport about eight 


years- and moved from there above the river Madawaska 
five years ago last July. I settled within about a hun- 
dred rods of the mouth of the Mariumticook, where John 
Baker was carrying on business at his mills there situ- 
ated. It is generally called the Madawaska up as high 
as we live, but I do not know whether the Madawaska 
settlement, properly so called, extends above the river 
Madawaska. It is not properly Madawaska above the 
Madawaska river, but we generally call it by that name. 
There was no settler for several miles above the mouth 
of Madawaska on the north side of the main river up to 
Joseph Misshu's — but one at a place called the half way 
house for about some space of six miles up on the oppo- 
site side. There were several French Settlers on either 
side of the St Johns, between that vacancy and the place 
where we live,- and the French call at Chattiqua.- On 
the north side of the river from the mouth of the Mada- 
waska towards the Mariumticook where we are, there 
have come on since I went there about twenty French 
settlers, chiefly from Canada— and a good part of them 
have filled in the space above the Madawaska. They 
are about establishing a new Roman Catholic church at 
the settlement.— 

My business is a blacksmith. I settled with my family 
next below James Bacon— There were none but French 
settlers below me The nearest to me lived on an 

island next below a smaller island near the mouth of the 
Mariumticook.— The small island is nearly opposite my 
house,- It was Larrion D'Aigle. He was born in the 
settlement below where his father lives, and had been 
there I understood, three or four years, but I do not 
know exactly how long— The small island contains ten 
or twelve acres— There was no settler on it. There 
were none but settlers of French extraction at the mouth 
of the Madawasca. There was no French settler above 


US — One came on last summer from Canada and set- 
tled on the south side of the St Johns above the mouth 
of the Mariumticook— and he has also a neighbor lately 
moved from the Madawasca settlement below- There 
are two or three English and Irish families settled four 
or five miles up the Madawaska ri\ er- and one Irishman 
lives a little opposite the mouth of that river in a French 

John Harford and his son John were settled with their 
families about fifteen miles above the Mariumticook on 
the Main River and about five miles below the mouth of 
the St Francis.— There were no settlers of any descrip- 
tion between us and the Harfords— Several persons have 
been emplox'ed in teaming, hauling and sawing at Bakers 
mill.- Matthias Acorn, an American came last winter 
and settled next above Bacon, I saw four or five rafts 
of boards and shingles belonging to Baker passing down 
the river, and understood thev were afterwards seized and 
confiscated by tlie govei'ument of New Brunswick. Two 
years ago Baker, Bacon, and myself were called upon to 
pay the alien tax b}' a person having orders he said from 
a colonel or major of Militia. There has been a new 
military compau}^ formed of late among the settlers. 
Some of the new comers among the French set above the 
Madawaska river and above Joseph Misshu's- those near 
us have had to pay fines for not training. The objection 
the}' made, as I understood, was that the}' considered 
themselves under American government,— There has 
been some suing from Tobique among the French at 
Madawascar from Esquire Morehouse. There is no civil 
magistrate any nearer. No civil process has been 
attempted to be served at the Mariumticook until the 
present year. I was not present but understood that 
Saufacon a constable came from Madawascer with a 
writ from George Morehouse Esq to serve on Bacon. I 


understood that an arrest was attempted and repelled 
by the aid of Baker and some of his hired men- that 
the constable was driven off and the debt afterwards set- 
tled. I am not acquainted with the facts. I do not 
know that Bacon made an}' resistance- An American 
by the name of Owen Fitzgerald working at Fish River 
IVlills was arrested about two years ago on a warrant 
from Justice Morehouse, on a complaint foi- stealing 
money from liacon- He was arrested on the point belo^s 
the mills at my shop where I was present. No force was 
used— and no resistance made. He was carried t(f 
Fredericton and accjuitted. It afterwards appeared that 
the money was taken by another person. 

Charles Stetson 

Last 4^'^ of Jul}' we agreed to celebrate on Baker's 
proposal by raising a liberty pole, and hoisting the 
American Flag and having a dinner all at his home. 
We considered ourselves on American ground. The 
number of Americans present was fourteen. We hoisted 
the American Hag befoi'e dinner, all of us Americans 
together. M'" Bakei' was the principal person. Two or 
three of the French were present; one of them Bellony 
Tarrio was the tiddler- and dined with us. I did not 
hear any invitation proposed to any of the French. 
Nobody interfered with us and we interfered with nobody. 
We drank toasts and spent the day together, and then 
went home- The next day Stephen Grover drew up a 
paper, purporting that we would settle our disputes 
among ourselves without having recourse to English laws 
for protection. Baker signed it first ; and then thirteen 
others.- I was present when Miles Emery offered it to 
Peter Markee- Baker was not present- and I am posi- 
tive not at home. 

Three or four weeks afterwards I heard a story from 
the French settlers below that Baker had met the mail 


carrier and asked what mail he had— He said it was the 
Province mail— and that Baker replied if it was the 
English mail he would take it away, but as it was the 
Province mail it might pass.- I heard this from one 
Mattocks- an American who was with us the 4^'^ — and 
he got it from the French. 

I heard that the Carrier complained to AI^' Morehouse 
and told him he was threatened b}' Baker- and did not 
like to carry the mail any more. In August AP" 
Morehouse appeared at Baker's, as I understood from 
Bacon, and ordered Baker to take down the American 
flag which was flying and to cut down the staff. Baker 
told him he considered it on American land, and that he 
should not take it down until he had orders from the 
American government. — He did not take it down- 
and the flag Staff was standing when I came away in 
September last. 

I was not present when Baker was arrested- I saw the 
canoes carrying him down, I think eight in number, 
with two or three persons in each. I never heard that 
the sheriff at that time had an}^ precept against me.— 

About a w'eek after this I received a summons by 
Joseph Sawfacon, a constable, to appear at Fredericton— 
This was in September. It was left at mv house. It 
was to appear at Fredericton under penalty of £100,- 
I brought my summons with me and shewed it here- 
but have mislaid or lost it. I cahnot find it.— 

I remained at Madawaska three or four days after I 
was summoned and then came away. My possession was 
one that I had purchased of Miles Emery, an American. 
It was then a small clearing of about an acre.- I had 
about twelve acres cleared. I had I should judge an 
hundred bushels of potatoes in the ground— and had 
raised 25 or 30 bushels of wheat and 30 bushels of oats 
the present year- I sold out to Barnabas Hunewell for 


eighty dollars- principally paid— I should not have 
parted with m}' property but for the disturbance. I 
came away because I was afraid they would come upon 
me for the £100 penalty. I brought away my wife and 
children and blacksmith's tools— and remain at present 
in Houlton. I would not have taken less than £150 for 
my place, if I could have had a good title and been 
undisturbed- It was good land— I was within a 
hundred rods of a sawmill and gristmill- I had a good 
situation, near a thriving settlement.- and no other 
blacksmith within eighteen miles. 

Charles Stetson. 

Washington ss. Houlton Plantation. Dec 31, 182T 
Personally appeared the aforesigned Charles Stetson and 
made oath that the foregoing statement by him signed 
is wholly true according to his best knowledge & belief 
before me James Houlton Justice Peace. 

I Jacob Goldthwaite, aged thirty three years, was born 
in Stoughton, Massachusetts, went to Madawasca four 
3ears ago- The two first years I was concerned with 
John Baker in lumbering and Sawing and lived '.\ith 
him^ - One year I have worked with Stutson as a black- 
smith and lived in his house the last year I worked for 
Stutson & made my home there. I have no family. - 
I felled about three acres of trees this last summer. I 
]aid to clear an hundred acres- I had one horse, two 
cows, an ox and heifer— and three young creatures 
besides. About a week after the arrest of John Baker I 
received a summons to appear at Fredericton- I did 
not like to attend,- and disposed of m}' personal ))rop- 
erty chiefly to AP' Barnabas Hunewell, an American 
from Kennebec river- I made a barter trade- I 
brought off one horse, one ox and a heifer.— I left the 


land as it was, I sold Hunewell the principal part of 
fifteen tons of hay that I had cut. I did not get the 
Aalue of the |)roperty that I disposed of bv a hundred 
•dollars- It would ha\e made this difference to nie, but 
for my situation. Some of the people appeared to be 
considerably alarmed- I was one of the party on the 
4^" of Jidy. 

Jacob (Toldthwaite. 

AVashington ss. Iloulton iMantation Dec 31. 182T 
The aforesaid Jacob Goldthwaite personally appeared 
and made oath that the foregoing statement by him 
signed is wholly true before 

me James Iloulton Justice of the 


George the I'^ourtli. by tiie Grace of God of 
[L. S. ] the I'nited Kingdom of Great Britain and Ire- 
land King Defender of the Faith &c. To 
Jacob Goldthrite Greeting: We command 
vou firmly enjoining that laving aside all 
excuses whatsoever you be in yoiu' proper per- 
son befo)-e our Justices of our Supreme Court 
of Judicature for our Province of New Hruns- 
[Copy] wick at Fredericton. on the second Tuesday in 
October next, to answer to us of and concerning 
certain matters which on our liehalf shall be 
then and there objected against you. And this 
you are by no means to omit under the penalty 
of one hundred pounds which we will cause to 
be levied on v(»ur Goods and Chattels Lands 
and Tenements to our use if you neglect to 
obey this our present command witness John 
Saunders ILsquire our Chief Justice at Frederic- 



ton the seventeenth day of September in the 
eighth year of our Rei^^n 

By the Justices (signed) 



At the suit of the Attorney General ^ 
for Trespass and Intrusion on the , 
Crown I .ands. 'J' Wetniore Atty : Gen : \ 

17^'' dav of September 1827. 

T Cliark's Smart, aged twenty five years was born in 
Monmouth, comity of Kennebec, went to the Madawaska 
country two yoai-s ago last ()ctol)ei-.- I was engaged 
at Fish River, logging and sawhig at the Mills- I 
was hired by Owen Fit/gerald, and Witham Peters 
became responsible for my compensation- The first 
vear- The next year 1 was employed by Daniel Savage 
and Nathaniel Rartlett- Savage, Bartlett and Fitzgerald 
are American citizens,- I had taken up an island at the 
mouth of St. Francis and cut the hay upon it two years- 
The first year I cut it for Savage and Jiartlett- Last 
year I and Jacob Goldthwaite cut it- It is called Burnt 
Island- I had also taken up a lot at the mouth of the 
St. Francis- which I intended to have commenced clear- 
ing. I left that country in October in consequence 
of the disturbance. I understood that Savage and 
Bartlett at the Fish River, and the Harfords about six 
miles below the St Francis were summoned- and that the 
settlers at the Marinmticook were summoned, to appear 
at Fredericton. 

I understood there were about fifteen American settlers, 
summoned. I came away at the same time with 
Goldthraite and Stutson- I had signed the paper, 
drawn up, by Stephen Grover, as he informed me by 


which the American settlers agreed to have questions 
among themselves settled by referees, chosen by ourselves, 
and without the English laws.- The paper was pre- 
sented to me by AP' Stutson- This was some time 
about the tenth of July- I did not like to remain after 
M*" Baker was taken- did not know what might take 
place. I had no courage to get forward- and did not 
feel secure to do anything at all. I was as liable as any 
one there- and should not feel secure there now- I dis- 
posed of my little property- a yoke of oxen- one cow 
and a horse- and came away- 

Charles Smart 

Washington Dec 29"' 1827 The above said Charles 
Smart personally appeared and made oath that the fore- 
going statement by him signed, is wholly true, according 
to the best of his knowledge and belief before me 

James Houlton, Justice of Peace 

I George Fields, fifty years of age, now of Houlton, 
was born in Pensacola, Avhere I lost my father- My 
mother married again, and moved with me into New- 
Brunswick- I continued there excepting two or three 
years in Canada, until about four 3ears ago.- I then 
went to the Aroostook.- I expected when I went 
there that I was going into the Territory of the United 
States- William Piles, an American went on the same 
year with me. I found there the two Johnson's Lewis 
and Charles, and a man by the name of William M. 
Crea. I settled about twelve miles up the stream- about 
nine miles above the line- The first year a Deputy sur- 
veyor General by the name of West came up from Prince 
William, and seized all my timber on the Aroostook, and 
made me pay a duty of two shillings a ton. The next 
year James Sisson of Tobique Settlement got a license 


to cut timber, and I Avith a number others cut under 

him and other people who had obtained hcenses. and 

from whom we obtained our suppHes- Afterwards we 
worked for ourselves. Last March George Morehouse 
Esq came to the settlement with John Davison to mark 
timber to be seized and forbid the people from working 
or occupying any further. I was then preparing to come 

Two years ago I was arrested by Daniel Craig a 
Deputy Sheriff of New Brunswick for a debt of £65, on 
the suit of William Hallet and carried down the river, 
almost to the St. Johns, a mile and a half below the 
lines— where I met one of mv sons who gave bail for me— 
and I returned home- and afterwards settled the debt b}^ 
letting Hallet have a farm, belonging to me on the St. 
Johns, a few miles below the Aroostook— of which I had 
a grant from the goxernment of New Brunswick. 

Early last March I was sued by Patrick Council >■ 
before Justice Morehouse for three days work which was 
to be paid in work b\ me. The writ was served by 
Stephen M"^" Neal a constable- A yoke of oxen were 
also taken b}- the constable at the same time out of my 
shed on a warrant for a debt of three pounds against my 
son and driven on to the river and he returned and told 
me. I agreed to settle both demands and give my note 
foi" the amount, and promised to pay the costs to the 
justice. I went down the next day to pay the costs 
whicli I did and complained of being sued and came 
home again.— I thought the note was written payalile 

in three months, which Connelly and I agreed upon. 

On a week after my return, the constable came with a 
writ from Esq. Moorhouse on the same note, and took 
my body, about sunrise, as I was going to mills and as I 
could not get bail, carried me before the justice, who 
directed me to attend the next fridav— and released me 


on niv piomise so to do. On thf fViday ;n)poiiite'(l I 
attended to stand trial, because I considered it was in 
the States, and they had no right to sue me there, and 
so told M'" Mooi'house, and talked hard to him about it. 
I ought not to ha\'e gone there- that I knew it was con- 
sidered to belong to the States when I went there, and 
that William l^iles and I (who are brother's in law) did 
it to get into tlie American government- He said it 
was a cage of unclean birds and he did not pity me— 
Also He said that I spoke (Hsi'espectfully of the govern- 
ment, and that if he had not known me from a boy he 
would have sent me to l''rederictoii, I told him he 
could not send me there— He said \\v could tie me neck 
and heels and send me there.— 

The next day the constable came up with the execution 
and seized a Aoke of oxen, five hogs, a couple of two 
year old bulls and my cow.- He got to my liouse 
before I returned from Tobique- I met him about 
three miles below (h'iving them down 'I'hey were car- 
ried to Tobique and Sold— but for not enough to pay 
debt and costs, as I found afterwards. How much it 
was, I did not stop to ask and never knew- My son 
bought the cow at the sale and brought her back to me— 
I was afraid the}- woidd take me next. I then set out 
with my family to come away, and was on mv way on 
the river with my wife and five children under ten years 
of age and the cow. - Nearly opposite Mr Morehouses 
I met the constable with a fresh execution for the balance 
of the costs— upon which he took the com- again. M\- 
wife cried and advised me to gi\e the money we liad, 
which was twenty shillings, to redeem the cow. M^' 
M''Neal said he would take it and pay the rest him- 
self- M'" M^Neal was very civil to us and let me go. 

All the property I have is some household furniture 
which I brought from Aroostook, with about £10. I 


owed some debts upon the river- I had a horse that 
has gone to pay an honest debt- My sons are on the 
St. Johns- the}- are used to the river and do not like to 
leave it. I am afraid of returning to my sons on account 
of my cj-editors- I should have come away, if I had 
not owed a dollar. I left the Aroostook because they 
would not let me live there in peace. They took even- 
thing away from me as fast as I got it. I have a very 
large family and not very good health- and if I got a 
little timber or anything to procure supplies they wouhl 
seize it - I now live in Houlton 

George X Fields 
Washington ss, Houlton Dec. 31, 1827- The above 
-signed George Fields made oath that the foregoing facts 
by him stated are to his best knowledge & belief whollv 
true before me 

James Houlton Justice of the Peace 

History of the Shaw Family With a 
Sketch of Milton G. Shaw of Green- 

Presented by Cliarles D. Shaw 

OV THE dispr()i)()rti()imtely large number of Shaws 
who settled in the New England colonies before 
1650, Roger Shaw, if in New England as early 
as 16-30, as claimed, is the earliest. To him a multi- 
tude of descendants trace their lineage. 


KOGER SHAW, immigrant, came to this country 
about 1630. The compiler of the "Shaw Notes*" gives 
him as the son of Ralph Shaw. The Register of St. 
Peter's, Cornhill, London, England, has the following 
entry: "1594, Sept. 1st, Sunday. Christening of 
Roger Shaw, sonne of Ralph Shaw, Vintnor, at the Sunne 
on Cornhill, born Monday, 26th of August."" By this 
record the occupation of Ralph was that of "Vintnor," 
and Roger the immigrant was a vintner and keeper of 
an ordinarv. The similarity of occupations tends to 
proxe this relationship. Roger Shaw first settled in 
Caml)ridge, Massachusetts, was in attendance on the 
general court in 1636, was made freeman in 1638, hav- 
ing l:>ought one hundred acres of land and l^iilt a house 
on Arrow Street. He served on the jury 1639, was 


town clerk IG-iO. and selectman 1641-45. Roger's 
name appears among the petitioners for the incorpo- 
ration of Mapton, New Hampshire. The town was 
incorporated 1639. He bought land of John Crosse in 
the new town in 1640; in 1647 he was granted a large 
tract of land of King Charles First; in 1648 sold his 
property in Cambridge and removed to Hampton. He 
^\ as a very prominent man ; was representative to the 
general court 1651-53, selectman 1649 and 1654, and 
filled many other offices, was appointed commissioner 
for trying small cases 1651, was chairman of a committee 
to reexamine the book of town land grants, and to lay out 
highways 1658. He was vintner and keeper of the 
ordinary, and was authorized by the general court to sell 

Died, May 29, 1661. 

Married, (first) , Ann , 

daughter of and ( 

( . She was the mother of all his 

children. ]\Iarried, (second) Susanna Tilton, 

widow of William Tiltcm of Lynn. 
Issue : 

1. Margaret Shaw, 

2. Joseph Shaw. 

3. Ann Shaw. 

4. I'jsther Shaw. 

5. Mary Shaw, died young. 

6. Benjamin Shaw, of whom below. 

7. Deliverance Shaw. 


BENJAMIN SHA^V, youngest s(m of Koger and Ami 
Shaw, was born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1641. 


llfSTORU'AI, roLi.Kri-ioxs 

He li\ed with liis tkthei- on tlie lioiiiestead, but uas also 
a merchant and blacksmith. His account book is still 
in existence and is an interesting- relic of this verv 
remarkable man. As soon as possible after the first saw- 
mill was built in that region (about 1658) he built a 
new frame house, which was constructed so as to be used 
as a garrison in times of war- was two stories in 
height and was afterwards enlarged and improved b\- his 
son Edward, but early in the fifties of the last centurv 
it was demolished by his descendants to make room for 
a modern structure. Mis name appears on the list of 
voters prepared by the president and council in 1680, 
from that of the selectmen of each town in New Hamp- 
shire when it was a royal pro\ince, each one named 
therein being eligible to the office of councilman and 
privileged to ^•ote in their meetings. He is said to have 
had great ingenuity and skill in mechanics, and though 
the possessor of great wealth for those days, made the 
gravestone which still marks his grave. In his will 
dated December 26, 1717, he mentions five .sons and six 
daughters. His widow was generously remembered in 
his will and li\'ed on the homestead with her son Edward, 
the two being named therein as executors of that ijistru- 

Died, according lo family records, December 31, 
1717, but according to the inscription on his gravestone, 
January 17, 1718. 

Married, ,Alay 25, 1668, Esthei-, daughter of Ezekiel 
and Susannah Richardson. She died May 16, 1736. at 
the age of ninety-six years. 
Issue : 

1. Mary Shaw. 

2. Esther Shaw. 

3. Sarah Shaw. 

4. Abigail Shaw. 



5. Ruth Shaw. 

6. Benjamin Shaw. 

7. Roger Shaw. 

8. Joseph Shaw. 

9. Edward Shaw, died young. 

10. Edward Shaw. 

11. John Shaw, of whom below 
la. Hannah Shaw. 


JOHN SHAW, eleventh chiki and sixth son of 
Benjamin and Esther (Richardson) Shaw, was living at 
the time of his father's death, and received a bequest in 
his will made in 1717. There is no further record of 


"John Shaw, who died in Holderness, New Hampshire, 
at the age of 103 years, is said to have come from Eng- 
land to New Hampshire early in the eighteenth century, 
and settled in that part of Durham which was incorpo- 
rated January 6, 1766. as the town of Lee. In spite of 
this tradition, however, after a large and fruitless search 
for particulars concerning the fate of John, the son of 
Benjamin Shaw, the youngest son of Roger Shaw, immi- 
graiit from England prior to 1636. who was remembered 
in his father's will made in 1717, but never afterwards 
traced with any certainty by genealogists, " " says Harriette 
F. Farwell, compiler of the "Shaw Records,'" "it is 
believed that the latter may yet be identified as the John 
first mentioned above, having moved from Hampton, 
New Hampshire, where Roger and his son Benjamin, 
with others to localities theretofore unsettled and farther 
removed from the seacoast and civilization. The date 
of this son-s birth must have been between 1680 and 


1690." John Shaw of Lee, New Hampshire, was a 
man of sterling qualities morally, and of the most vig- 
orous constitution physical!}' — never having been sick a 
(lay in his life, passing away suddenly and painlessly at 
the close of a day's labor at chopping wood. When 
in his one hundredth year he made a profession of religion 
and was baptized, being then in full possession of all his 
mental and physical faculties. 

Died, . 

Married, Mercy Vernet. IJttle has been ascertained 
concerning the family of tiiis couple. 
Issue : 

1. John Shaw. 

2. Samuel Shaw. 

3. Daniel Shaw, of whom below. 

4. George Shaw. 


DANIEL SHAW, son of John and Mercy (Vernet) 
Shaw, was born in Lee, New Hampshire, and lived in 
Lee and Tam worth. 

Died, . 

Married, , in Kittery, Maine, 

Elizabeth Staples. 

Issue: (These are not known to be 
recorded in their natural order.) 
James Shaw. 
Olive Shaw. 

Daniel Shaw, of whom below. 
Elizabeth Shaw. 
Mary Shaw. 
Hannah ShaAv. 
Samuel Shaw. 
Noah Shaw. 



DANIEL SHAW (2), third child and second son 
of Daniel (1) (the History of Industry, Maine, calls him 
Samuel) and Elizaheth (Staples) Shaw, was born in Lee, 
Strafford County, New Hampshire, April 16, 1784. He 
removed to Industry, Maine, about the time of his mar- 
riage, and settled and made a farm of several hundred 
acres. He was a man of much business ability and held 
in high esteem by his townsmen. He became an exten- 
sive drover and dealer in country produce, which he often 
shipped east to the British Provinces from Wiscasset, or 
to such other points as promised the most favorable 
market. He had thus accumulated about ten thousand 
dollars in ready money when the great land speculation 
craze of 1835 occurred. Though naturally very cautious 
in business transactions, he was at length drawn into 
speculative ti-ansactions from which he emerged a ruined 
man. He moved to Bangor about 1836 and continued 
in the stock and produce business in connection with 

Died, November 28, 1852, in Industry. 
Married, (first) in Kittery, February 7, 1814, 
Elizabeth Staples, born March 9, 1787, and died in 
Industry, July 29, 1827. Married (second) (published 
June 10, 1831,) Alice (Lewis) Fernald, widow of 
Jonathan Fernald of Cherry field, Maine. She dietl in 
Bangor, April 8, 1860. 

Issue : (All by first wife. ) 

1. Albert Shaw. 

2. Daniel Shaw. 

3. Sarah Shaw. 

4. Benjamin Gil man Shaw. 

5. Emily Newell Shaw. 

6. Milton Gilman Shaw, of whom below. 


' ■ \ Two sons, died voung. 

9. Adeline Shaw. 

10. Mehitable Shaw. 


MILTON OILMAN SHAW, sixth child and 
fourth son of Daniel (2) and Elizabeth (Staples) Shaw, 
was l)orn in Industry, December iJl . 18^>(). He lived on 
the farm his father liad cleared until he was twenty-five 
vears old. When a youni;- man. just setting out in life, 
he went to Chicago, performing a large part of the 
journey on foot. At that time the great metropolis of 
the West was but a small place and offered him no induce- 
ment to stay and lie returned to Maine. In 1841 lie 
went into the woods and engaged in farming and lumber- 
ing at Greenville and at Flagstaff, where Benedict Arnold 
camped and raised his Hag on his famous march to Que- 
bec. Mr. Shaw's first work was for his brothers. Albert 
and Daniel. The latter afterwards became prominent on 
the Chippewa Kivcr in AN'isconsin, and it was not till 
1845 that he began business for himself. In the fall of 
that vear he located at (Greenville, im the southern end 
of Moosehead Lake, which was afterwards the head- 
quarters of his operations. His business was logging 
and selling logs, both pine and spruce, and he lived there 
fort\- years, engaged also in farming and commercial 
pursuits. In 1849 he ]>egan buying lands. He bought 
with others and for himself alone. He did not begin 
the manufacture until 1883, when with his sons he went 
to Bath to build the now massive Shaw mill, which gives 
constant employment to eighty men and annually manu- 
factures several million feet of logs into long and short 


lumber, sucli as honrds. claphoanls. slnuulfs and laths. 
Mr. Shaw had iiiaiiv partners during his Jong business 
career, but his ass(»eiates in his later years were his sons, 
Charles 1).. Albert II.. and William M. The second 
named, Albert H.. was general manager of the Bath 
business, the other two residing at (ii-eenx ille. The M. 
G. Shaw Lumber ('()m|)any was incorporated in 1897, 
with Milton (t. president. Albert II. Shaw, treas- 
urer and managei-. and William M. Shaw, clerk. Mr. 
Sha\v\ hnnbering experience covered the whole of what 
may be called, for lack of a better term, the modern 
history of lumbering in Maine. ^Vhen he began his 
careei- in the early forties the pine on the Moosehead had 
been pretty well cidled. Dui-ing the first four years, 
during which he was working for his brothers, from 1841 
to LSi.5. when lie began logging on his own account, 
began the falling of spruce, the latter being soon the 
most important part of the business, though some pine 
has been cut e\ery year down to this date. 

As before stated, Mr. Shaw's first purcliase of land 
was in 1849. when he bought a half interest in fifteen 
hundred acres at twenty-h"ve cents an acre. Shortly 
after that, he with ex-Governor Coburn, Joseph Brad- 
street. EHas Milliken and a Mr. Drummond, bought 
land for which they paid .^^l.^o and $1.50 an acre. 
Those lands, after being c-ut over again, are now worth 
$S to .S5 an acre, and simie of them more. In the early 
fifties the best pine then i-emaining on Moosehead waters 
could be bought for about a dollar a thousand. Now 
the timber, cutting everything of log size, and with very 
little pine in it is worth *3 to $6 a thousand. 

^'Snien Mr. Sha^- began liis operation the sawmills 
were equippeil with the old style sash saw. Later came 
the Muley and gang, and it was not until about 1860' 
that the rotary or circular saw began its appearance 


in the mills of Maine. Later >till came the band, which 
is now the leading- sawing tool in all the larger mills. 
For more than sixty years Mr. Shaw was a prominent 
figure on Moosehead Lake and the Kennebec River. His 
logs went steadily to market every year after 1845, and he 
not only built up a handsome fortune for himself, but in 
the timber holdings of himself and the company there 
was the foundation for a business of indefinite duration. 
One of his sons, in speaking of the matter, said: "At 
our present rate we shall never cut our timber." The 
rule adopted by the company in logging was to cut 
nothing less than eight inches in top diameter in twenty- 
foot lengths or seven inches in diameter in thirty-foot 
lengths. This means practically twelve inches on the 
stump. The efficacy of this method of logging is shown 
bv the fact that Mr. Shaw cut several times over the 
same land. Coupled with this method of felling was an 
exceptional degree of care in guarding against fire, with 
the result that a very few thousand dollars, perhaps a few 
hundred dollars, would cover the entire loss by forest 
fires. Mr. Shaw was also interested in Maine hotels on 
an extensive scale during his life, having built the 
Moosehead House at Greenville with Josiah Hinckley, 
his father-in-law. This hotel was successfully conducted 
until at last it burned. Mr. Shaw than built a new and 
much larger hotel on the same site, which he conducted 
for a year. He was also interested in the great indus- 
trial development of Rumford Falls several years ago, 
and besides erecting the largest hotel in the place, he 
also owned a large amount of real estate there. While 
a resident of Greenville he did a great deal in the way 
of building up the town, and fiUed at different times all 
the town offices of any importance, and was a member of 
the Maine Legislature in 1859. He was a strong, con- 
servative business man, keeping close control of his vast 


business interests until about ten days before his death. 
He was for rnan}- years president of the First National 
Bank of Bath, and was also a director in the Bath Trust 

Died, December 18, 1903. 

Married, June 6, 1847; in Greenville, Eunice Spinne\', 
born in Industry, Maine, January 6, 1824, daughter of 
Josiah and Nancy (Williams) Hinckley of Industr}-. 

Issue : 

1. Mellen Shaw, born Ma}- 27, 1849; married 

September 19, 1875, M. Ella Mitchell; 
he died March 4, 1880. 

2. Ellen Shaw, born February 1, 1851, died 

April 20, 1863. 

3. Charles D. Shaw, born April 5, 1852, 

married October 25, 1875, Clara F. 

4. Frank Shaw, born June 27, 1855. died 

^ . Mav 16, 1867. 

iwms. -< 1*1, 

I 5. Fred Shaw, born June 27, 1855, died 

! January 27, 1856. 

6. Albert H. Shaw, born April 21, 1857. 

married August 19, 1879, Martha E. 
Mansell, and resided in Bath; he was 
engaged in lumbering and mercantile 
business with his father. 

7. William M. Shaw, born March 3, 1861, 

married October 24, 1865, Ida J. Man- 
sell, and was a member of the firm of 
M. G. Shaw & Sons. 

8. George M. Shaw, born February 20, 

1863, died the following August. 

9. Mary Emma Shaw^, born Septem!)er 6, 

1865, married October 19, 1892, 
Frederick H. Kimball, and resides in 

William Bingham and the MilHon 
Acre Tract 

Ih John Francis Sprague 

IN OLD deeds of land in Eastern Maine, in early 
records of titles in some parts of Western Piscata- 
quis, and in old files of newspapers reference is often 
made to the "million acres"' or "the million acre tract. " 

Three quarters of a century ago and until within the 
past twenty years, the people living in Blanchard, Kings- 
bury and Shirle}' were often called "the million acre 
folks," and there are many records of marriages in the 
■first records of the town of Monson where the magis- 
trate or minister has certified that one of the contract- 
ing parties "resided on the million acres.*" 

Therefore it has seemed to me that a brief history of 
the Million Acre Tract and of its original purchaser, the 
Honorable William Bingham, should find place in the 
-archives of our society. 

Samuel Phillips, Jr., Leonard Jarvis and John Read, 
on July 1st, 1791, conti-acted in writing for the Com- 
(mon wealth of Massachusetts, to sell to Colonel Henry 
.Jackson of Boston and Royal Flint of New York, two 
million acres of land in the district of Maine for ten 
cents per acre. (Col. Jackson commanded a regiment of 
Massachusetts soldiers during the Revolutionary War. ) 
On July 25 of the same month, 1791, Jackson and 
Flint assigned their contract to William Duer of New 


York and Henry Knox, secretary to the department of 
war of the United States of America. 

In December, 1792, Duer and Knox assigned the C()n- 
tract to William Bingham of Philadelphia, and on 
January 28, 1793, the above named Phillips, Jarvis and 
Read convened to hitn by sixteen deeds the above named 
two million acres of land. 

One million acres of this land is within the outlines 
of Hancock and Washington Counties, excepting three 
townships in Penobscot County, and were called "Bing- 
ham's Penobscot Purchase," (B. P. P.) The other 
million acres were on both sides of the Kennebec Ri^'er 
and are all in Somerset County except six townships in 
what is now Piscataquis County and four and a half 
townships in Franklin, and were called "Bingham's 
Kennebec Purchase. " (B. K. P.) The towns of Well- 
ington, Kingsbury (now a plantation), Blanchard, the 
original town of Shirley before a part of Wilson was 
annexed, and two townships called Squaw Mountain, 
are the Bingham towns in Piscataquis Count}'. 

A brief history of this land sale as I have gleaneil it 
from the files of the Bangor Historical Magazine; 
Williamson's History of Maine; Massachusetts Records, 
and other sources, is that at the close of the Revolu- 
tionary War Massachusetts was indebted about 
$5,000,000 and her proportion of the National debt was 
supposed to be about as much. 

There was no revenue but a direct tax, which was 
oppressive, unpopular and not easily collected. Governor 
Hancock called the attention of the General Court to 
the Eastei'n lands in the District of Maine, and although 
there was great confusion regarding titles to land in that 
section of the District, the Commonwealth of Massachu- 
setts did possess a good title to a large portion of its 


Many Massachusetts soldiers who had been discharged, 
not "without honor," save that they were paid off in 
paper money worth about ten cents on a dollar, had emi- 
grated to Maine and become settlers or "squatters" on 
any of these wild lands, wherever their fancy led them, 
regardless of title or ownership. 

Although land was offered at $1.50 per acre to actual 
settlers, not enough was paid to replenish the treasury. 
A land lottery was then proposed, and after much dis- 
cussion the General Court passed an act, November 9, 
1786, entitled "An Act to Bring into the Public Treasury 
£163,200 in Public Securities, by sale of a part of the 
Eastern Lands and to Establish a Lottery for that 
Purpose." This act provided for the selling of fifty 
townships of land, six miles square each, containing in 
all 1,107,396 acres, the most of which was situated in 
what is now Hancock and Washington Counties, 
between the Penobscot and St. Croix Rivers. 

There were in the lottery 1939 tickets, which were to 
be sold for $60.00 each, for which soldiers' notes, and 
all other public securities of the State would be received 
in payment. 

The above named Samuel Phillips, Jr., Leonard Jar vis 
and Rufus Putman were sworn by Justice Samuel Bar- 
rett, October 11, 1787, to "the faithful performance of 
their trust as managers of the lottery. ' ' 

Up to the time of the drawing, October 12, 1787, 437 
tickets had been sold, to about one hundred different 
purchasers. Among them were Harvard College, Rev. 
John Murray of Newbuiyport, and Rev. John Homer of 

But the lottery scheme did not prove as successful as 
its promoters anticipated, and it was determined to make 
another effort to sell the Eastern lands. A new com- 
mittee was appointed, consisting of Messrs. Jarvis, 


Phillips and John Read, who through Col. Jackson and 
Royal Flint sold two million acres as before stated to 
William Bingham of Philadelphia, for ten cents per acre, 
this sale including the lottery lands. Mr. Bingham's 
agent subsequently bought up many, if not all, of the 
lotteiy titles. 

One million acres of these lands were to be at or near 
the head of the Kennebec River and as before stated have 
ever since been known as the Bingham Kennebec Purchase. 

Some very distinguished Maine men have at various 
times acted as agents and attorneys for the owners and 
their descendants in the management of this vast pur- 
chase. Among these have been Gen. David Cobb of 
Taunton, Mass., who removed to Gouldsboro, Me., 
in 1796, (General Cobb lived in Maine for nearly thirty 
years, though the Massachusetts historians have generally 
ignored this fact); John Richards, Esq. ; Col. John Black 
and his son, George N. Black; and later Hon. Eugene 
Hale, now one of our United States Senators; Hon. 
Lucilius A. Emeiy, now Chief Justice of the Supreme 
Judicial Court of Maine, and Hannibal E. Hamlin, the 
present Attorney General of Maine. 

Thus the name of William Bingham has become inter- 
woven with the early history of Eastern Maine, its 
records and land titles. 

Much of this vast domain is yet forest, where 
Maine lumbermen carry on extensive operations and upon 
some of it are bus}' villages and farming communities. 

The ownership to the most of it long since passed from 
the Bingham estate to numerous individuals and cor- 

William Bingham was born in Philadelphia in 1751 
and died in Bath, England, February 7, 1804. He came 
from a long line of distinguished ancestors. His great 
grandfather, who was James Bingham, died in Phila- 


delphia. W^illiam Bingham was one of the wealthiest 
men of his day in America, a factor in the political 
affairs of the colonies and later of the Union, and was 
known abroad as an eminent American citizen, 

Mr. Bingham was graduated from the College of 
Philadelphia in 1768 and received a diplomatic appoint- 
ment under the British government at St. Pierre, 
M}zene, in the West Indies, where he was consul in 

During the Revolutionaiy War he remained there as 
agent for the Continental Congress and performed patri- 
otic service in furnishing money and supplies for the army 
of the colonies. 

He married Aim Willing, a brilliant and beautiful 
society girl of his native city, October 26, 1780, and in 
1784 he visited Europe with his wife, and with her was 
presented at the Court of Louis XVI. In 1786 he was 
elected a member of the Congress of the Confederation, 
and served until 1789. He was captain of a troop of 
dragoons, and did escort duty with his company for 
Mrs. Washington from Chester to Philadelphia, she 
being on her journey to New York to join her husband, 
who had been elected President of the United States. 

In 1790 he was elected a member of the Pennsylvania 
Assembly, serving as speaker in his first term, which was 
an unusual honor, and was reelected in 1791. In 1795 
he was elected to the T'^nited States Senate, and was a 
member until 1801. In 1797 he was elected president 
of the Senate, protempore, and administered the oath of 
office to Vice President Thomas Jefferson, March 4th, 

He was a Federalist and a strong supporter of James 
Adams. AVhile he was in the Senate Aaron Burr and 
Rufus King were the senators from New York. His 
votes upon political questions are generally recorded in 


opposition to Burr in the proceedings of Congress during 
all the time that both belonged to this body. 

He was a liberal patron of the drama and in 1794 his 
name appears with that of Robert Morris in a long list 
of stockholders, who subscribed stock for a new theater 
which was the means of giving players and playing con- 
siderable note in the pious Quaker City, much to the 
consternation of many good people. 

In 1T92, he presented to the Library Company of 
Philadelphia a costly marl^le statue of Franklin. 

Alexander Baring, son of Sir Francis Baring, founder 
of the great banking concern, once of such importance 
and fame throughout the world of finance, was sent to 
the United States, when he had attained the age of man- 
hood, to acquire a knowledge of the commercial rela- 
tions of Great Britain and America. 

While in Philadelphia he moved in the best of society 
and became acquainted with Mr. Bingham's daughter, 
Ann Louise Bingham, who, as her mother had been, was 
a society belle of that city. His acquaintance ripened 
into love, and marriage. While he was residing in 
Philadelphia, their son, William Bingham Baring, was 
born. Another one of their daughters, Maria Matilda, 
married (xVugust 23, 1798) James Alexander Compte de 
Tilly ; for her second husband, Henry Baring, brother of 
Lord Ashburton, and for her third husband, the Marquis 
de Blaise!. She died in the year 1848. 

Alexander Baring afterwards became in England, braiker 
for the United States, and was subsequently made Lord 
Ashburton, and in 1842 he came once more to this 
country, as special ambassador from Great Britain to the 
government at Washington. During this time the 
famous Ashburton- Webster treaty was made, which ended 
a prolonged territorial struggle between the two govern- 
ments, which had caused the bloodless and somewhat 


farcical "Aroostook War," the treaty resulting in the 
State of Maine losing what it is believed was by right 
a part of her domain, and being a strip of land that is 
now a rich and populous portion of the Province of New 

For many years the Bingham s maintained at Lans- 
down, near Philadelphia, a magnificent country seat. 
When Joseph Bonaparte, (ex-King of Spain) came to 
the United States he leased Lansdown and had a per- 
manent residence there for a year. 

Mr. Bingham's residence in Philadelphia, known as 
the "Mansion House," was an elegant structure, and 
considered the most magnificent and elaborate private 
dwelling in America. 

It was enclosed in a close line of Lombardy poplars, 
which he had imported and from which it has been said 
have sprung all the ornamental poplar shade trees now in 
this country. In Watson's Annals of Philadelphia it is 
stated that "the Mansion House built and lived in by 
William Bingham, Esquire, was the admiration of that 
day for its ornaments and magiiiHcence. * * * The 
grounds generally he had laid oat in beautiful style, and 
filled the whole with curious and rare clumps and shades 
of trees." 

He was believed to be the richest man of his time, in 
the colonies, for in addition to the fortune which he 
inherited, he accumulated large wealth in the W^est 
Indies as agent for American privateers. 

It was alleged b\' some that his methods there had 
been dishonest and corrupt, but none of his critics at- 
tempted to bring direct cliarge against him. 

Their accusations were merely innuendoes and hints 
of something mysterious, and appear to have been more 
the malicious carpings of the envious than the utterance 
of anv one who possessed knowledge against his char- 


acter. He was censured and villified and abused by the 
newspapers in a manner that would have done credit to 
some of the so called "yellow" journalistic performances 
of the present day. 

Peter Marcoe, a writer of that period, in a poem 
published in the "Times" in 1788 had this doggerel 
about Mr. Bingham and his enterprise in the West 
Indies : 

"Rapax, the Muse had slightlj' touched by crimes, 
And dares awake thee from thy golden dreams; 
In pecuhitions various thee sits supreme, 
Though to thjr 'Mansion' wits and fops repair. 
To game, to feast, to flatter, and to stare: 
But say, from what bright deeds dost thou derive 
That wealth that bids thee rival British Clive? 
Wrung from the hardy sons of toil and war, 
By arts which petty scoundrels would abhor.'*' 

And yet notwithstanding this tempest of calumny 
which he was for a time subject to, there is no evidence 
that he was other than a person of the highest honor 
and integrity in all of his pu])lic and private affairs of 

AVilliam Bingham was a iinancier of ability, a patriotic 
citi/en, a leader in social and political circles, and a 
cultured gentleman. 

The Blanchard Family of Blanchard 

By Edward P. Blanchard 

THE grandfather of Thomas Blanchard, who first 
came from England in 1639, was one of the 
French Huguenots who Hed from France to Eng- 
land in 1572. 

We know nothing more of their history prior to their 
coming to this country in 1639. 

1. Thomas Blanchard, with his four sons b}- a first 
wife, and his second wife, widow Agnes Barnes, came 
from London, England, and landed in New England 
June 23, 1639. His wife died on the passage, also an 
infant child, and he again married for his third wife 
Mary , who died June 2, 1676. Thomas Blanch- 
ard lived in Braintree, Mass., until February, 1651, when 
he bought a farm of 200 acres on the Mystick side, then 
a part of Charlestown, now the town of Maiden. He 
died on this farm ^lay 21, 1654. 

2. Nathaniel, .son of Thomas, was born in 1636. 
probably in Andover, England ; he died August 27, 
1676, in Weymouth, Mass., where he had resided most 
of his life. He was married December 16, 1658, to 
Susanna Bates. His children were John, Mary, 
Nathaniel, Edward, Mercy and Susanna. 

3. John, eldest son of Nathaniel and Susanna (Bates), 
was born March 27, 1660, in Weymouth and is supposed 
to have passed his life in that town. He was married 


there in 1685 to Abigail Phillips. He died March 10, 
1733. The}^ had nine children. 

4. Nathaniel, sixth son of John and Abigail Blanch- 
ard, was born May 19, 1701, in We\mouth, Mass., and 
removed to North Yarmouth, Maine, in 1743. In 1745 
he was admitted b}' letter from the Weymouth church 
to that at North Yarmouth ; he died in that town 
August 15, 1773. He was married to Hannah Shaw in 
1726; she died about 1770. They had eleven children. 

5. Ozias, third son and ninth child of Nathaniel and 
Hannah (Shaw) Blanchard, was born at ^^^e^•m()uth, 
Mass., July 31, 1742. He was a resident of North 
Yarmouth, Maine, and served as a soldier in the Revolu- 
tionary army. He was a sergeant in Captain George 
Rogers' company, in the Second Cumberland Regiment, 
and served six days in November, 1775. This company 
was detached by order of Colonel Jonathan Mitchell to 
work on the fort at Falmouth. He was a second lieu- 
tenant in Captain John A\^inthrop's North Yarmouth 
company of Colonel Fogg's Cumberland County Regi- 
ment, as shown by the list May 9, 1776. He was also 
a second lieutenant in Captain John Gray's company of 
North Yarmouth, commissioned January 14, 1777. He 
again enlisted for service July 7, 1779, under Captain 
Gray and Col. Jonathan Richards, and was disciiarged 
September 12, 1779. 

He also ser\ed two months and six daj's in the expedi- 
tion to the Penobscot. He was married in January, 
1769, to Mercy Soule, who was born November 27, 
1749, in North Yarmouth, daughter of Barnabas Soule 
and Jane Bradbury. The\- were the parents of Sanuiel, 
Jeremiah, David, Reuben, Daniel, Olive, Jacob, Dorcas, 
John and Rufus. 

Their offspring are entitled to membership in 'J'he 
Society of Mavflower Descendants, and the Sons or 


Daughters of the Revokition ; Mercy Soule having been 
a direct descendant on the one side, of George Soule, and 
on the other side, of John and Priscilla Alden, and the 
father and mother of the latter, Mr. and Mrs. Mullins, 
all of whom were passengers on the Mayflower. 

6. Jeremiah, second son of Ozias and Mercy (Soule) 
Blanchard, was baptized May 16, 1771, in North Yar-- 
mouth, and was one of the original members of the 
Second Church of that town, now the Cumberland 
Church, of which he was the third deacon. He was a 
member of the Massachusetts Legislature when the state 
was divided and Maine became an independent state, 
and worked and voted for that measure. 

He was married to Dorcas Bucknam ; their children 
were Dorcas, Ozias, William and Ann Aurora. 

7. Ozias, son of Jeremiah and Dorcas (Bucknam) 
Blanchard, was born May 24, 1804, in North Yar- 
mouth, Maine. He was married November 18, 1828, 
at Cumberland, to Martha Sweetser, who was born Jan- 
uary 17, 1809, in Cumberland, Maine. After his mar- 
riage he moved to Blanchard, Maine, where he bought a 
farm, held many local offices, was a member of the 
House of Representatives and the Senate, where he was 
largely instrumental in the election of Hon. Hannibal 
Hamlin to the United States Senate. He was too old 
to enter the Civil War in the usual way, but on 
February 28, 1864, on the recommendation of Vice 
President Hamlin, was commissioned by President 
Lincoln, captain and A. Q. M., U. S. Vols., and served 
until August 10, 1865, after which he returned to 
Maine and lived in Dexter until 1870, when he moved 
to Herndon, Virginia. 

In 1876 he was a delegate from Virginia to the Re- 
publican National Convention in Cincinnati, where he 
voted for the nomination of James G. Blaine. 


8. Howard W. , son of Ozias, was born January 18, 
1852, in Blanchard, Maine, where his boyhood was 
passed on a farm. He attended the public schools at 
Blanchard and Dexter, Maine, and Lockhaven, Pennsyl- 
vania, and graduated at George Washington University, 
1). C, with the degree of LL. B. in 1889. In the same 
}ear he was admitted to the bar in the District of 
Columbia and also in Virginia. He was twelve years 
old when he left the State of Maine for Kentucky, where 
his father was in the military service, and returned there 
in 1866, locating at Dexter, where he continued until 
1869. In 1870 he located at Herndon, Virginia, and 
has ever since made his home in that town. 

He is a principal examiner in the U. S. Pension ofiice 
at Washington, where he was appointed in 1880, and is 
a member of the Congregational church, and a Republi- 
can in politics. He is a member of the D. C. Society 
of Mayflower Descendants. 

6. Jacob Blanchard, sixth son of Ozias Blanchard 
and Mercy Soule, was born July 2, 1784. He married 
Abigal Pratt in 1808. 

He lived in Cumberland, Maine; was drowned while 
on a fishing trip July 5, 1815. 

7. Jacob Blanchard, 2nd son of Jacob and Abigal 
Pratt, was born at Cumberland, Maine, January 28, 
1812. He lived in Cumberland until 1833, when he 
moved to Blanchard, Maine. He married, March 8, 
1836, Rachel C. Packard of Hebron. Jacob Blanchard 
was a carpenter, and lived in Blanchard all his life and 
died there January 30, 1899. 

Edward P. Blanchard, son of Jacob Blanchard and 
Rachel Cole Packard, was born at Blanchard, September 
8, 1857. 


Presented on the Death oe Dr. William Buck Before 
Piscataquis County Historical Society January 7, 

Mr. President: 

Since the meeting of this society at Sebec Village last 
July, one of its prominent members, then present and 
today missed from tliis gathering, has been called to a 
higher life. 

Dr. William Buck, a member of this society and one 
of the most prominent physicians and surgeons in this 
section of Maine, died at his residence in Foxcroft on 
the ninth day of August, 1908. William Buck was born 
in Hodgdon, in this State, in 1833, son of Nathaniel 
and Elizabeth (Quail) Buck. His father was a well 
known lumber manufacturer in Miramichi for many 
years, where the Doctor attended the schools, later 
finishing his education in the public schools of Maine 
and in Foxcroft Academy. He studied medicine with 
Dr. Josiah Jordan and Dr. Holmes of Foxcroft and 
graduated from the Maine Medical School in Brunswick 
in the class of 1859. After graduating, he located for 
practice in Harmony, Somerset County, remaining two 

In 1861 he entered the service as assistant surgeon 
of the 6th Maine Regiment, being promoted to surgeon 
in 1863. He was at Bellevue Hospital, New York, in 
1865. He then settled in Foxcroft, where he resided to 
the time of his death, leading a life of usefulness and 


probity, which won from his townsmen a degree of esteem 
and cuntidence which seldom falls to the lot of man. 

Dr. Buck occupied many positions of trust, always 
discharging his duties with fidelity and care. He was 
for many years on the school board of F'oxcroft, and to 
the time of his death was one of the trustees of Foxcrt)ft 
Acadeiu}-. For several years he was chairman of the 
selectmen of Foxcroft. He represented his class in the 
lower branch of the Legislature of 1878, and was county 
treasurer in 1873-74-79-82-89 and 90. For more than 
a third of a century he had been on the Pension Examin- 
ing Board. He was at the time of his death a member 
of the Maine Medical Society, Maine Pharmaceutical 
Association, and was also prominent in Masonic circles, 
having been Worshipful Master of Mosaic Lodge and 
High Priest of Piscataquis Royal Arch Chapter of 

He was the senior member of the firm of William 
Buck ^ Co., which for so many years has conducted a 
drug business in Foxcroft, and was the trusted physician 
of many families in this county, and few men could be 
taken from any communit}- who would be more missed or 
whose loss would be more keenly felt. 

I have given this brief and incomplete sketch of his 
life as a preamble to the resolutions which I now offer : 

Whereas, this society is profoundly sensible of the 
great loss which the county and State have sustained in 
the death of Dr. William Buck, 

And whereas, we desire to express our appreciation of 
his high character as well as our regard for his great 
personal worth, be it 

Resolved, That in the death of Dr. William Buck 
this community has lost one of its most highly esteemed 
and best beloved members, and the State a most valua- 
ble citizen. 


Resolved, That in his death this county has lo^t one 
of its ablest medical advisers, a physician and suri,eon 
eminent in his profession, and ahvays conscientious and 
painstaking in the treatment of those under his care; 
and that in his death one has gone from our midst whose 
noble qualities of heart and generous disposition endeared 
him to all, whose kindly impulses and cheerful presanc.?; 
will to his friends ever remain a pleasant memory. 

Resolved, That these resolutions be entered upon the 
records of this society, and a copy of the same be sent 
to the family of the deceased. 

Willis E. Parsons, ) Committee 

E. A. Thompson, > on 

C. W. Hayes, \ Resolutions. 


Upon the Death of Columbus W. Ellis of Guilford. 
Born January 31, 1837. Died January 3, 1909. 

Presented April 6, 1909. 

Whereas, in the death of Columbus W. Ellis of Guil- 
ford, The Piscataquis County Historical Society has 
been called upon to part with one of its first and most 
esteemed members, it is hereby 

Resolved; That in the death of Mr. Ellis we feel 
that the town of Guilford and the County of Piscataquis 
loses one of the noblest citizens, and the association a 
highly respected and valuable member. 

Resolved ; That in the life of Columbus Ellis we feel 
that there was reflected those sturdy traits of honesty 
and integrity in business relations ; those principles of 
true manhood in his home life and social relations that 
will hold him in our memories as a man who was an 
example of a true Christian. Such a character as makes 
its influence felt in the record left of good things accom- 

Resolved; That the recording of such a life as was 
his, when we can truly say : — He was an honest man, a 
temperate man, a man who served his God — make the 
brightest spots in the history of a community. 

Resolved ; That the members of this society deeply 
mourn the loss of one who has been a close friend of 
many and respected acquaintance of all and that the 


sympathy of the society is extended to the family of Mr. 

Ellis, while all will take comfort in the thought that 

'"Death's a path that must be trod 
If man would ever pass to God."' 

Resolved; That these resolutions be spread upon the 
records of the Piscataquis Historical Society and that a 
copy of the same be sent to the family of Columbus W. 

Henry Hudson, ) Committee 

Wainwhight Cushing, \- on 

Frank W. Ball, ) Resolutions. 


Abbot, village or town, 36, 73, 77, 91, 138, 139, 
164, 166, 184, 185. 

Capt., 183. 

Ezi-a, 116. 
Abbot's History of Maine, 251, 252. 
Abear, or Hibert, Simon, 296. 
Abolition party, 174. 

Corinna Ihiion, 126. 

Foxcroft, 89, history of, pp 100 to 117; men- 
tioned, 446, 447. 

Hebron, 118. 

Limington, 126. 

Monmouth, 126. 

Monson, history of, pp 118 to 126. 
Acadia, 218, 220, 221, 222. 
Acorn, Matthias, 364, 409, 414. 

Act, of incorporation of Foxcroft Academy, 101 ; 
Quebec, 224; of proprietorship, etc., 336; to 
bring £163,200 into public treasury, 436. 
Adams, Horace, 120. 

James, 438. 

Sprague, 36. 
Adams' writings of Gallatin, note 238. 
Adlum, Rev. S., 80. 

Administrations, state and national, 318. 
Adventists, 95. 
Age, The, 276, 317, 320. 
Agents, from the states of Maine and Massachusetts, 333, 


339, 351, 355, 356, 403; for Massachusetts, 402; 
for Maine, 402. 

Albany. N. Y., 158. 

Albion, Me., 172. 

Alden, Colonel, 158. 

Colonel Ichabocl, 180. 
John. 444. 
Priscilla, 444. 

Aldrich, Rev. R. H., 96. 

Alexander, Capt., 177. 

Sir WiUiam, 218, 219. 

Alexander \'I, Pope of Rome, issued a bull granting 
new world to Spain and Portugal, 216. 

Alfred, Me., note 229. 

Ahen tax, 244. 

Alleguash, The, 352. 

Allen, Charles, 280. 
Isaac, 86. 

Justice Frederick H., 90, 
AVilliam, 173. 

Allexis, Sac, 4. 

America, bovs of, 150; mentioned, 179, 217, 219, 221, 
277," 293, 435, 438, 439, 440. 

American, an, 420; authority, 263; citizens, 256, 267, 
287, 288, 302, 329, " 335, 371, 390, 393, 438; 
claim on North Eastern Boundary, 262 ; commis- 
sioners, 375 ; contention, 238 ; eagle and flag, 
289; government, 221, note 226, 273, 330, 
422; history, 280; inhabitants, 246; Indepen- 
dence by Great Britain, 261 ; Independence, 351 ; 
line, 232, 367 ; minister, 371 ; possessions, 230; 
privateers, 440; sense, 234; settlers, 242, 243, 
245, 355, 387, 420 ; side, 365 ; significance, 233 ; 
soil, 245; subjects, 330; submitted as an, 363; 
stranger, 379 ; territory, 217, 298; troops, 278 ; 
Union government, 379 ; vessel, 300 ; Americans 
who reside in Madawascah settlement, 350. 

American Eagle, 243, 289, 351. 

American Flag, 189, 286, 289, 415. 

Americans, attacked fort, 176; mentioned, 235, 243, 
244, 281, 289, 291, 292, 331, 332, 360; resi- 

INDEX 453 

dent at Matawascah, 360; mentioned, 399, 
412; fourteen present at the celebration of John 
Baker and others, 415. 
Ames, Betse}', 157. 

Daniel, 155. 

John, 79. 

Phineas, 154 to 157. 

Samuel, 154, 155, 157. 

Sarah Ball, wife of Samuel, 154. 
Amestown, now Sangerville, 67, 157. 
Amherst, N. H., 201. 

Amphitrite, a Moosehead Lake steamboat, 55. 
Anacortes, Wash., 215. 
Andover, Eng., 442. 
Androscoggin River, 219. 
Anglo Saxon, 216. 

Angove, Mary, married Samuel Brown, 159. 
Annance, Louis, chief of St. Francis Indians, came to 

Maine, 61 ; meets Governor Hubbard, 62. 
Anticosta, Island of, 224. 
Appleton, John, a chief justice of Maine, 23, 207. 

Moses, 23. 
Archbold's Criminal Pleading, 298. 
Argus, The, 276. 
Arms and ammunition, 313. 
Armstrong, Ferdinand, 245. 

James, 245. 
Arnold, Benedict, mentioned 5, 430. 

Joseph, 365. 
Aroostic settlement, 365, 366, 367. 
Aroostook County. 123, 125, 235, 252, 273, 316, 318, 
319, 325,^ (Aroostic, 366) 422. 

Expedition, 314, 315, 316, 317. 

Falls, 272. 

Region or country, 276, 278, 279, 420, 422, 423. 

River, 241, 244, 253, 271, 272, 365, 420, 421, 
originally known as Restook or Ristook, 241, 
spoken of as Aroostic, 366, 369, 377. 

War, 277, 278, 440. 
Arrow Street, 424. 
Arrowsic, Me., 157, 158, 159. 


Articles of Separation, 229, note 229. 

Ashburton, Lord Alexander Baring, 280, 439. 

Ashburton-Webster treaty, 439. 

Asheville, North Corolina, 147, 151. 

Ashurst, Thomas, 217. 

Atkinson, Livermore and Crosbv, owners of Atkinson 

and Charleston, 206. 
Atkinson, town of, 8, 20, 21, 69, 161, 162, 170, 171, 
205, 206, 208. 

Corner, 205, 208. 
Atlantic Ocean, 224, 225, 227, 231, 233, 234, 235, 

264, 265. 
Attorney General, 282, 283, 286, 287, 288, 292, 298, 
305, 359, 360, 362, 364, 397, 398, 400, 403, 
405, 406, 419, 437. 
Atwood, John, 53. 

Patty, second wife of Samuel Stickney, 193. 
Aubert, Sieur Charles, de la Chenaye, note 236. 
Augusta, Me., 124, 276, note 276, 278, 307, 316, 322. 
Augusta Light Infantry Company, 318. 
Austin, Mr., agent under 4th article treaty of Ghent, 

348, 349. 
Averill, Anna Boynton, poetess, 6. 

Anna B. , made clerk of L^niversalist parish, 97. 

E. B., 27, 28, 29. 

Elihu B., 114, 115. 

Mrs. E. B., 97. 

Rev. E. B., 88. 
Ayer, D. F., 97. 

Mr., in Peter Brawn and the Bear, 140. 


Bachelder, General, 277, 326. 

T. F., 122. 
Bacon, James, 242, 248, 282, 284, 285, 286, 288, 290, 
291, 292, 293, 351, 354, 364, 411, 414, 416. 
Badlam, Major Stephen, 160. 
Bailey, Rev. Dudley P., 77, 124. 


Bain, John, 283. 

Baker, Amanda, Liserand Sophronia, daughters of John 
Baker, 409. 
Asahel, 364, 411, 412. 
Asal, 360, 361, 406. 
Hiram, 403. 

John, one of principal figures of Aroostook War, 
mentioned 241, 242, 243, 244, 246, 247, 248, 
250, 282, 283, 284, 285, 286, 288, 289, 290. 
291, 292, 293, 294, 295, 296, 297, 298, 303, 
304, 305, 306, 315, (his place mentioned, 331) 
351, 352, 353, 354, 360, 361, 362, (concerning 
his arrest, 363) 367, 374, 378, 380, 382, 391, 
392. 394, 398, 399, 400, 401, 402, 403, 404, 
405, 406, (his arrest, 407,) (Mrs. Baker, 407, 
411, ) 408, 411, 412, 413, 414, 415, 416, 417, 420. 
Nathan, brother to John, 287. 
Ball, Frank W., 450. 
Ballard, Capt. William H., 180. 

Bangor, 20, 23, 54, 56, 97, 116, 162, 191, 194, 206, 

207, 208, 209, 273, 274, (jail, 274) 275, 

(newspapers, 276) note 276, 307, 310, 311, 

(artillery, 319) 321, 326, 364, 366, 367, 429. 

and Aroostook Railroad office, church services held 

there, 98. 
Commercial, mentioned, 207. 

Whig, note 274; referred to, 275 ; editorial, 314, 
315, 317; correspondence, 316; The Soldier's 
Return, 325. 
Historical Magazine, 435. 
House, 274, 318. 
Independent Volunteers, 325. 
Baptist deacon's mistake, 94. 
Baptists, 65 ; historv of in Piscataquis County, pp 66 to 

85; mentioned 91, 93, 124. 
Barber, Nathaniel, 177. 
Barbour, Robert, 120. 
Robert, Jr., 120. 
Barclay, Thomas, 225, 228. 
Bard, Mr., fisherman on Moosehead Lake, 57. 
Barett, Dr. Amasa, 208. 


Barett, Harriet, married Jules Golay, 208 ; second hus- 
band a Powers, 208. 

Martha, 208. 
Baring, Alexander, 439. 

Henry, 439. 

Sir Francis, 439. 

William Bingham, 439. 
Barker, David, poet, 117. 

Hon. Lewis, 116. 
Barnard, Me., 199. 
Barnes, Agnes, wife of Thomas Blanchard, 442. 

Lovisa, 91. 

Rev. Thomas, 91. 
Barrelle, S. B. , sent to Maine to collect information 
concerning arrest of John Baker and others, 374; 
mentioned 377, 384, 385, 390, 392, .393. 
Barrett, Justice Samuel, 436. 
Barrows, H. G. O., 53. 

Bartlett, referred to in connection with John Baker, 
289, mentioned 293. 

E. M., 77. 

Mrs. Sarah, 159. 

Nathaniel, 364, 419. 

Rev. Daniel, 68, 73. 

Thomas B., 274. 
Barton, Rev. F. E., 98. 
Batchelor, B. L., 97. 
Bates, Rev. George, 88. 

Susanna, married Nathaniel Blanchard, 442. 
Bath, Me., 430, 431, 433; England, 437. 

Trust Company, 433. 
Bathgate, James, 109, 111, 114. 

Battles, of Bennington, 154, 201; of Bemis Heights, 
155; Lundy's Lane, 175; of "Chisterfield," 
176; Saratoga, 178: Monmoutli, 178; Bunker 
Hill, 190; White Plains, 190; storming of Stony 
Point, 195; of Long Island, 198. 
Bay des Chaleurs, 224, 232. 234, 235, 291, 297. 

of Fundy, 218, 224, note 225, 232, 234. 

of Passamaquoddv, 225. 
Bayfield, Mass., 192." 


Beal, A., 96. 

Bear, or Biiiin, Peter Brawn's experience with, 140; 
Samuel Stickney's experience with, 194; Thomas 
Towne's experience with, 203. 
Bear Tax, 412. 
Beaver, Isaac, 87. 
Bedell, John, 296. 
Bedford, N. H., 40. 
Beech er, Harriet, 113. 
Belcher, S. C, 116. 
Belgium and Belgians, 255. 
Bellevue Hospital, 446. 
Bennett, Capt. John, 91, 167, 168. 

Isaac, 37, 39. 

John, 37, 38. 

Nathaniel, 37, 38, 39. 

Peggy, wife of Isaac, 39. 

Peter, 213. 

Rachel, wife of Nathaniel, 38. 

Sally, wife of John, 38. 

Sally, daughter of John and Sally ; wife of Isaac 
Edes, 38. 
Benson, Capt. Joshua, 195. 
Bent, Captain David, 155. 
Bicknell, Rev. J. S., 77. 
Bigne}', Benjamin, 52; built steamboat, 56. 

Major, steamboat builder, 134. 

Miss E. Adeline, 98. 

Mr. and Mrs. B. S., 98. 
Billerica, Mass., 204. 
Bingham, Ann Louise, 439. 

Ann (Willing), wife of William, 438. 

Hon. William, 434. 

James, 437. 

Maria Matilda, 439. 

towns in Piscataquis County, 435. 

William and the Million Acre Tract, pp 434 to 441 . 
Bingham, Me., 161, 360. 
Bingham's Kennebec Purchase, 435, 437. 

Penobscot Purchase, 435. 
Birch Stream and Other Poems, 135. 


Black, Colonel John, 437. 

George N., 487. 
Black Stream, 156. 
Blackden, William, 56. 
Blacker, Robert, preacher, 93. 
Blackstone's Commentaries, 298. 
Blaine, James G., 44-4. 
Blaisdell, Capt., 158. 
Blake, Adoniram, 88. 

Samuel H., 115. 
Blanchard Family of Blanchard, pp 442 to 445. 

Abigail (Phillips), 443. 

Abigail (Pratt), 445. 

Agnes (Barnes), 442, 

Ann Aurora, 444. 

Charles, 120. 

Daniel, 443. 

David, 443. 

Dorcas, 443, 444. 

Dorcas (Bucknam), 444. 

Edward, 442. 

Edward P., 445. 

Hannah (Shaw), 443. 

Howard W., 445. 

Jacob, 443, 445. 

Jeremiah, 443, 444. 

John, 442, 443. 

Martlia (Sweetser), 444. 

Mary, 442. 

Mercy, 442, 

Mercy (Soule), 444, 445. 

Nathaniel, 442, 443. 

Olive, 443. 

Ozias, 120, 121, 443, 444, 445. 

Rachel C, 445. 

Rachel (Cole Packard), 445. 

Reuben, 443. 

Rufus, 443. 

Samuel, 443. 

Susanna, 442. 
Blanchard, Susanna (Bates), 442. 


Blanchard, William, 444. 

Blanchard, Me., 8, 69, 75, 163, 164, 165, 166, 271, 
434, 435, 444, 445. 

Blethen, Wm. D., one of builders of Lake House, Sebec, 
Isaac, 182. 

Blethen House, Dover, 88, 212. 

Bliss, Mr. Justice, 247, 283, 297, 305, 399. 

Blondeau, Joseph, note 237. 

Blood, Abel, 191, 201. 

Bloomfield, now part of Skovvhegan, Me., 172, 173, 365. 

Blue Pearmain apples, 184. 

Bluehill, Me., 325. 

Blunt, Oliver C, 361. 

Boats, kind used on Moosehead Lake, 55 ; horse-boat on 
Sebec Pond, 128; Boat Notice of horse-boat 
service on Sebec Lake, 129. 

Bodlv, Louis, 364. 

Bodwell, John, 21. 
Nathaniel, 21. 

Bonaparte, Joseph, ex-king of Spain, 440. 

Books, of Bill Nye enumerated, 151 ; relating to the 
fifth article of the treaty of Ghent, all named, 
pp 342 to 343 ; others referred to on same, 348 ; 
containing arguments of the agents, mentioned, 
349; on North Eastern Boundary, referred to. 

Borestone Mountain, 4. 

Boston, Mass., 11, 124, 201, 228, 434. 

Botsford, Mr. Justice, 300. 

Bowdoin College, 20, 36, 39, 43, 50, 100, 211; town- 
ships, 20. 

Bowdoinham Association, 68. 

Bowerbank, Me., 22, 69, 132. 

Boylston, Mass., 172. 

Boynton, Captain John, 155. 

Brackett, James R. , 116. 

Bradbury, John, 101, 103, 104, 105, 113, 115, 168. 

Bradford, Capt. Robert, 196. 

Rev. Lucius, 72, 77, 120, 121. 
Rev. Z., 79, 80. 


Bradford, Mass., 193. 

Bradley, Rev. A. M., 96. 

Bradstreet, Joseph, 431. 

Braham, Minn., 215. 

Braintree, Mass., 442. 

Brawn, Peter, his celebrated bear fight on Sebec Lake, 
pp 138 to 141 ; 164, 165. 
Katherine Becky, Peter's first wife, 139. 
Betsey Kincaid, second wife of Peter, 139. 

Brawn cemetery, Foxcroft, 139. 
neighborhood, Foxcroft, 139. 

Brent, Daniel, 349. 
Mr., 350. 

Brewer, Colonel, 158. 

Brewer Volunteers, 319. 

Brien, John, 11. 

Brier, George, 17. 

Bristol, Me., 412. 

R. I., 160, 195. 

British, acts of parliament, 224; authority or authori- 
ties, 246, 252, 320, 363, 367, 371 ; commission- 
ers, 375; crown, 330; government, 239, 240, 
250, 267, 285, 319, 337, 338, 354, 357, 388, 
390, 399, 405, 438; government, authority, 
subjects, etc., 369; islands, 301; land agent, 
note 274, 318; laws, 291, 302; mentioned, 
18, 155, 160, 162, 201, 205, 225, 235, 274, 
335; minister, 238, 257, 328, 332, 335, 
338, 354, 355, 388; Myrmidons, 320; officers, 
276 ; officer and laws, 405 ; provinces, 238, 
253, 272, 429; Regulars, 275, 319; settlements, 
355, 356, 357; ship, 161; soil, 277; statement, 
note 237; subjects, 253, note 274, 297, 298, 
357, 358, 360, 399 ; theory, 233 ; troops, 320 ; 
forces, 311. 

British Channel, 217. 

Brookfield, Mass., 171. 

Brooks, Col. John, 180. 

Brooks, Me., 175. 

Brougham, Lord, 277. 

Brown, Abner, 120, 121. 

INDEX 461 

Brown, Capt. Monroe, 55. 

Capt. Simeon, 192. 

Daniel, 87. 

Enoch, Revolutionary soldier of Sebec. sketch of, 
pp 157 to 160. 

Moses, 199. 

Plebia, wife of Enoch, 160. 

Samuel, son of Enoch, 159. 

S. O., Ill, 114. 

Stephen, 120, 147. 

Stephen P., 114, 115. 
Brown University, 100. 
Browne, Rev. Sewall, 72. 
Brown ville, Me., 8, 20, 193, 194, 199, 200. 
Brown ville Village Cemetery, 194, 200. 
Brunswick, Me., note 229, 446. 
Bryant, David, 87. 

G. E. S. , one of the first to propel boat by power 
on Sebec Lake, 128, 131. 

Pelham, 87. 
Bryant & Keating, horse-boat owners, 130, 131. 
Buck, Almira, 79. 

Benjamin T. , 79. 

Daniel, 88, 184. 

Elizabeth (Quail), 446. 

Hon. Alfred E. , ex-minister to Japan, attended 
Foxcroft Academy, 116. 
'Joshua, 91, 120. 

Moses, 87. 

Nathaniel, 446. 

William, 111, 114, 446, 447. 

Wm. & Co., 447. 
Buckfield, Me., 175, 184. 
Buckmore, George W., 271, 272, 273; his report to 

land agent, note 273. 
Bucknam, Dorcas, married Jeremiah Blanchard, 444. 
Bugbee, David, 116. 
Buker, E. C, 120. 
Bullard, Col. John, 177. 
Bunker, Clement, 11. 
Burbank, Elder D. E., 72. 


Burdin's Corner, 81. 

Burgoyne, his invasion, 178; surrender of, 155, 180, 

183, 188. 
Burleigh, Oilman, 114. 
Burnham, Elder Asa, i^l. 

a minister said to have lived in Dover, 89. 
Burnt Island, 419. 

Burr, Aaron, mentioned, 5, 438, 439. 
Burseley, Barnabas, 92, 93. 
Burton, Sarah, second wife of Thomas Towne, 200. 

Capt. Benjamin, 160. 
Butler, Frank, 166. 

Rev. T. M., 80. 
Butterfield, J. F., 116. 
Butterfield's, on the Calais road, 310, 311. 
Buxton, Me., 183. 

Cabinet of London and Washington, 280. 

Cabot, John, 217. 

Cadia, 218. 

Calais, Me., 310, 311. 

California, 124. 

Call, James, 88. 

Calvin, John, 118. 

Cambridge, P^dward, 283. 

Cambridge, Mass., 424, 425. 
Me., 81, 82, 83. 

Campbell, William, 87. 

Canaan, 163. 

Canada, mentioned, 2, 3, 58, 216, 217; river de, 218; 
mentioned, 220, 235, 236 ; government of, note 
236. mentioned, note 237 ; provinces of, 262 ; men- 
tioned, 309, 277, 280 ; line, 294 ; road, 308, men- 
tioned, 264, 353 ; the Canadas, 380 ; mentioned, 
392, 393; the Canadas, 396; mentioned, 405, 
413, 414, 420. 

Canfield, Rev. Harry L. , 97. 

Cannon, Cyrus, 363. 

INDEX 463 

Cannon, Siras and Cyrus, 401, 409. 

Canterbury, N. H. , 20. 

Cape Breton, 216; called Baccaleos, 218 

Cape Florida, 216. 

Cape Hosiers, 224. 

Cape Sable, 218. 

Capen, Aaron, 5B. 

Gen., .53. 

John, drowned in Moosehead Lake, 60. 

Mr., at Deer Island, 57, 58. 
Captain General and Governor in Chief of the Canadas, 

Carey, Daniel, 48. 
Carleton, County of, 313. 
Carpenter, Col. Joshua, 101, 102, 103, 104, 113. 

Nathan, 114. 
Carr, F. H., 96. 

minister named, 95. 

Moses, oldest resident of Sangerville, 91, 96. 
Carratunk, 20, 161. 
Carter, Jonathan, 13. 
Carver, Leonard D., 124. 
Case, Dr. Isaac, 19. 

Rev. Isaac, 82. 
Castine, Me., 325. 

Casualties, first drowning in Moosehead Lake, 59. 
Catholic or Catholics, 217, 294. 
Caulkins, Rev. H. L., 84. 
Chadbourne murder trial, 213. 
Chadwick, Joseph, surveyor, 3, 4. 
Chamberlain, Abraham, 291, 293. 

Calvin, 114, 115. 

Nathaniel, 86, 87, 104. 

Samuel, 8, 101, 113, 115. 
Chamberlain house in Foxcroft, for dormitory, 110. 
Chandler, Anson G., Justice, 90. 

Charles H., 132. 

Charles P., preceptor of Foxcroft Academy, 105, 
106, 114. 115, 117. 

Gilbert, 89. 
Chandler, John, 350. 


Chandler, Mr., 348. 

Chapel, one built at Greenville, 98. 

Congregational in Foxcroft, 104. 
Chapin, Aretus, 120, 122. 
Chapman, agent for determining true St. Croix, 349. 

Eliiah, 361. 
Charles I, 219, 220. 

II, 221. 
Charleston, Me., 89, 206. 
Charlestown, Mass., 442, 
Charter for Foxcroft Academv, 101. 
Chase, Abel, 11, 13, 16, 19.' 

Andrew J., 162. 

Capt., 169. 

Captain Ezekiel, 20. 

Charles Vaughan, son of Ezekiel, the first white 
child born in Piscataquis County, 162. 

Daniel, Esq., 23. 

Ezekiel. 12, 19. 

Ezekiel, Revolutionary soldier, sketch of, pp 160 
to 163. 

Ezekiel, Jr., 20. 

Ezekiel L., 20. 

Harriet, married Josiah Crosbv, 204. 

Hon. A. J., 20. 

Jacob, 160. 

Jonathan, 13, 17, 19. 160. 

Jonathan A., 20. 

Joseph, 25, 26, 28. 

Roger, 20. 

Stephen, 210. 
Chase Cemetery, Sebec Station, 162. 
Chase's Corner, 23. 
Chateaugay, Madawaska, 290, 291. 
Cheputnaticook river, northern branch of Scoodiac, 225, 

Cherrv, Capt. Samuel, 174, 
Cherryfield, Me., 73, 429. 
Chester, 438. 
Chesuncook Lake, 5, 53. 

INDEX 465 

Chicago, 111., 1<21, 430. 

Chief Justice, 298, 437. 

Chief Magistrate of Maine, 395. 

Child, James L., 251. 

China, Me., 366. 

Chipman, Mr. Justice, 247, 283, 298, 305, 348. 
Rev. A. C, 77. 

Chippewa river, 430. 

Christians, 217. 

Church, historA' of Baptist in Piscataquis County, pp 66 
to 85 ; history of Universalist in Piscataquis 
County, pp 86 to 99; Universalist church used as 
a court house, 89, 90 ; Guilford Free Meeting- 
house, 92 ; built at East Sangerville, 93 ; Roman 
Catholic in settlement above Madawaska, 413; 
Weymouth, 443 ; second of North Yarmouth, 444 ; 
Cumberland, 444. 

Cilley, Mary, married Enoch Leathers, 175. 

Cincinnati, 444. 

Civil posse, 323. 
Power, 313. 
War, 132, 444. 

Clapp, Captain, 166. 

Clark, Gilman, 114. 

in Peter Brawn's anecdote, 141. 

Rev. A., 68. 

Rev. W. H., 76. 

Samuel C, 101, 103, 113. 

Claverie, Pierre, note 237. 

aav, Hon. H., 329, 330, 333, 334, 335, 339, 342, 
347, 355, 356, 357, 358, 368, 369, 374, 377, 
390, 391. 

Clifford, Nathan, 257. 

Clopper, Henry, 295, 296. 

Clouse, Rev. William J.. 80. 

Cobb, General, 437. 

Sylvanus, Universalist preacher, 86. 

Cobscook, The, note 226. 

Coburn, Chester, 96. 
ex-Governor, 431. 
Joshua, 74, 75. 


Cochrane, J. B., Ill, 114. 

Coffin, George W., 242, 331, 402, 403. 

Colb\' College, 72. 

University, 81. 
Cole, Col. Clark, 117. 

Samuel, 54, 120. 

William, 74. 
College, Colbv, 72. 

Bovvdoin, 20, 36, 39, 43, 50, 100, 211. 

Harvard, 204. 

of Philadelphia, 438. 

Waterville, 72. 
CoUins, John, 283. 
Colorado, 214. 
Columbus, 216, 217. 
Commander in Chief, 316. 
Commanding General, 317. 
Commissioners, to act on treaty of 1783, 227, 228; 

American, 231, 280; Boundary, 315 ; under treaty 

of Ghent, 329, 340, 342 ; for determining true St. 

Croix, 348; commissioners, etc., 348; appointed 

under treaty of Ghent, 370, 
Committee, Joint Select, 336 ; reptu't of, 337 ; of Ameri- 
can citizens, 354. 
Composite Lodge, F. & A. M., 30. 
Compyn's Digest, 298. 
Confederacy, 257. 

Congregational church, 61, 95, 445; chapel, 104; de- 
nomination, 147. 
Congregationalists, 65, 70, 78, 124. 

Congress, mentioned, 214, 241; representative to, 258; 
mentioned, 260, 264, 269, 271, 273, 278, 282; 
session of, 337, 340 ; proceedings of, 439. 
Congress of the Confederation, 438. 
Connecticut, 247. 

River, 224, 227, 231, 265. 
Connelly, Patrick, 421. 
Connor, William, 54. 
Constitution of the U. S., 257, 376. 
Constitutional Militia Force, 313. 
Continental army, 154, 158, 174, 183, 190, 195, 201. 

INDEX 467 

Continental Congress, 171, 488. 

Cook, Samuel, Esq., 381. 

Coombs, Leonard, 5278. 

Corinna Union Academy, 126. 

Corinth, Me., 135. 

Cork, Ireland, 275. 

Cornhill, London, 424. 

Cosmopolitan Club of Dover and Foxcroft, 112. 

Council of Maine, 250, 259. 

Court, first held in Piscataquis County in Universalist 

meeting house, 90 ; mentioned, 299, 300. 
Cousins, Joseph, 146. 
Cowie, Dr., 44. 
Cox, Captain, 160. 
Coy, Henry, 87. 
Crafts, Herbert L., 87. 

Justin E., 120. 

Leonard S., 120. 

Samuel, 41. 
Craig, Daniel, 244, 421. 
Crawford, Dr. William, 4. 
Crea, William M., 420. 
Cressy, Rev. W. E., 68. 
Crockett, Aunt Sarah, 184. 

Capt. A. G., connected with Sebec Lake steamers, 
131, 132, 133, 134, 185, 136, 137. 

Joel, 11. 

Mrs. A. B., 95. 
Crockett & Jones, steamboat owners, 182. 
Crosby, (notes of family, pp 204 to 210.) 

Annie C, 215. 

Clara L, (Mrs. Charles Altenberg), 215. 

Cornelia, wife of Dr. Amasa Barett, 208, 209. 

Edgar H., 122. 

Ehzabeth (Foss), wife of Ohver, 208. 

Etta (Mrs. James Bird), 215. 

Harriet, married Ephraim T. Morrill, 207, 211. 

Harriet Chase, wife of Josiah, 204, 209. 

Harriet Chase (Mrs. Edward Bebb), 208. 

Henrietta, married Geo. W. Ingersoll, 209. 

Henrietta Hill, first wife of Josiah, 211. 


Crosby, Hon. Josiah, 116. 

Horace, 208. 

J. Willis, 213, 215. 

Josiah, of Dexter, 204, 209; sketch of life, pp 211 
to 215. 

Mary, 208. 

Mary Bradbury (Foss), second wife of Josiah, 211. 

Marv Wilson, first wife of William Chase, 208. 

May (Mrs. A. B. Stickney), 215. 

Mehitable, married Ichabod Thomas, 198. 

Oliver, 118, 204, 205, 208, 209, 215. 

Old Crosby Homestead, 207. 

Old Crosbv Place, 205. 

Philip, 113. 

Susan W. Dun more, second wife of William Chase, 

S. P., 215. 

William, 208. 

William Chase, 208. 

Wilson, 208. 
Crosby town, now Etna, 175. 
Cross, Caleb, 13. 

Moses, 12, 17. 

Moses, Jr., 17. 

Noah, 11, 13. 
Cross brothers, Moosehead Lake fishermen, 57. 
Crosse, John, 425. 

Crown, clerk of, 295; lands, 297, 300, 362, 412, 419. 
C. S. Douty Circle, of Foxcroft, 112. 
Cumberland, Me., 444, 445. 

County, 178. 

Regiment, 443. 
Cummings, Peter, 74, 75. 

Silas, 53. 
Curtis, Abel, 92. 

Charles W., 124. 

Joseph M., 120. 
Cushing, Col. John, 198. 

Joseph W., 21. 

Wainwright, 450. 
Cushman, Gustavus G. , 274. 

Solomon. 120. 

INDEX 469 


Daggett, H. F., 30. 

Rev. John, 71. 
D'Aigle, John Battis, 410, 

Larrion, 413. 
Dallas, Tex., 215. 

Dalton, William, 364, 365, 366, 369. 
Dana, Governor, 120, 121. 

Samuel, 11, 14. 
Dane, Solomon F. , 120. 
Darling, Deacon, 53. 
Dartmouth College, 61. 
Davee, Alonzo H., 120. 

Thomas, 105, 106, 113, 115, 271. 
Davies, Charles S., note 243, 354, 394, 396, 399, 400, 

401, 402. 
Davies' Report, note 244, note 245, note 246. 
Davis, B. , 93. 

B. H., 137. 

F. C, 116. 

H. S., 137. 

Joseph \X., 199. 

Stedman, 42. 

William, 137. 
Davison, Alpheus. 120, 121. 

Charles, 122. 

John, 421. 
D. C. Society of Mayflower Descendants, 445. 
Dead River, 5. 
Dean, Daniel, 166. 

Eben, 164. 

Ebenezer, of Blanchard, Revolutionary soldier, 
sketch of, pp 163 to 166. 

Ebenezer, 163. 

Ebenezer, Jr., 166. 

Jane, wife of Eben, 166. 

John, 163. 

John, son of Ebenezer and Jane, first child born in 
Blanchard, 166. 

Martha (Bateman), wife of William, 163. 


Dean, Mary, wife of Ebenezer, 163. 

Mary (Farmer), wife of John, 163. 
William, 163. 
Deane, Colonel John G. , note 226, 254. 
Deba, Joseph, 410. 

Deed, of land to Baker by Maine agents, 402. 
Deer Island, 53, 57. 
Deering, Joseph H., 37. 
Democrat, 273, 275, 276. 
Democratic candidate and ranks, 214; papers, 276; 

party, 276. 
Dennett, James, 11. 

Joseph, 11. 
Dennis, Rev. J. M., 88. 
Department of State of the United States, 256, 328, 

332, 335, 336, 340, 347, 349, 354, 355, 368, 

369, 373, 374. 
Deposition, of William Dalton, 365 ; of Jonathan 

Wilson, 367; of Asael Baker, 406, 411; of 

Charles Stetson, 412, 415; of Jacob Goldthwaite, 

417 ; of Charles Smart, 419. 
Deputy sheriff, 421. 
Dexter, Daniel S. , 81. 
H. J., 81. 
Samuel, 14. 
Dexter, town of, 75, 83, 97, 116, 124, 168, (road, 173,) 

211, 215, 444. 
Dexter, artillery, 319; Gazette, 145; rifle corps, 319. 
Dibble, WiUiam, 410. 
Dibblee, George I., 296. 
Dillingham, Rev. W. A. P., 88. 
Dingley, Nelson, 214. 
District of Columbia, 445. 
Dixmont, 36. 

Documentary, history of the North Eastern Boundary- 
Controversy, pp 282 to 327. 
Doe, Jacob, 11. 

Dole, Mr., a preceptor of Foxcroft Academy, 116. 
Donald, R. E., 116. 
Doore, James C. , 157. 
Dorchester, Mass., 38, 179. 

INDEX 471 

Douglass, George H., 39, 45. 
Henry, 39. 
James, 11, 19, 39. 
Jeremiah, 11, 17. 
Sir Howard. 329, 331, 334, 358, 360, 373, 378, 

379, 380, 381, 382, 383, 384, 388, 394, 397. 
William, 11, 17. 
William, Jr., 11. 
Doutv, Calvin S. , 117. 

Dover, Me., 23, 28, 38, 69, 70, 73, 79, 86, 88, 89, 90, 
91, 93, 94, 97, 98, 99, 108. 109, 110, 111, 116, 
138, 139, 162, 164, 167, 168, 172. 173, 174, 

181, 189, 190, 192, 194, 197, 201, 207,212, 
251 ; poor farm, 157; village cemetery, 172, 173, 

182, 192. 

N. H., 174, 204, 205, 208, 209, 211. 
Dow, Lincoln, 189. 
Dowman, Seth, 11. 
Downing, John, 56. 

Ric'd, 11. 
Drake, Captain Lebbeus, 166. 

Sir Francis, 217. 
Drew, Rev. E. S., 77. 

Rev. William A. , editor of the Gospel Banner, 93. 
Drummond, aMr. , 431. 
Dudley Island, 300. 
Duer, William, 434, 435. 

Dmidee, highest point of land in Foxcroft, 137. 
Dunlap, Governor, 252, 259. 

Robert P., 251. 
Dmimore, Susan AV., 208. 
Dunn, H. W., 122. 
Dunning, Lieut., 325. 
Dunn's, on the Calais road, 310, 311. 
Duperree, Captain, 294, 295. 
Durgin, Judge Martin I^. , 23. 
Durham, N. H., 427. 
Dutch, 255. 
Duxbury, Mass., 198. 
Dwelley, Allen, 87 ; Revolutionary soldier, sketch of, pp 

166 to 169. 
Dyer, John L., 122. 



Earl of Dalhousie, 380, 381, 396. 

Earie, Rev. A. Gertrude, 97. 

East Dover, 202. 

East Dover cemetery, 203. 

East Greenwich, R. I., 192. 

East San;j^erville, 93. 

East Sangerville cemetery, 175. 

Eastern lioundary, 265. 

Eastern lands in district of Maine, 435, 436. 

Eastern Maine, 434, 437. 

Eastman, Ebenezer, 170. 

Eastport, 225, 311, 412. 

Eaton Grant, 244. 

Eaton, Walter D., 124. 

Edaweit, Messer, 4. 

Edes, Isaac, 38. 

Education, early in Greenville, 62. 

Eel River, 310." 

Elliott, Dr., 89. 
Hugh, 217. 
T. r., 95. 

Elliottsville plantation, 8. 

Ellis, Columbus W., 449, 450. 

Uncle John, hunter and trapper, 57 ; paper on him, 
pp 142 to 146. 

Ellis k Wise, 38. 

Ellsworth, Me., note 226. 

Elmwood cemetery, 146. 

Emerson, William, 101, 113. 

Emery, Hon. Lucilius A., chief justice Supreme Judicial 
Court of Maine, 437. 
in Baker trial, 292. 
Miles, 363, 409, 415, 416. 

England, 147, 217, 220, 221, 270, 277, 280, 281, 308, 
405, 424, 427, 439, 442. 

English, agents and officers, 351 ; authorities, 241 ; cap- 
tain, 189; claimed territory, 222; crown, 221; 
families on Madawasca, 414; flag, 189; govern- 
ment, 221; history, 217; law, note 247; laws, 

INDEX 473 

420; mentioned, 220, 221, 235; merchantship, 

188; possessions, 230; ship of war, 188; 

sovereigns, 216 ; subjects, 244; the, 411, 412; 

waters, 188. 
Entertainment, of early days in Greenville, 63, 64. 
Essex County, Mass., 178. 
Estabrooks, Joseph, Jr., 283. 
Esty, William S., 283. 
Etchemins, 218. 
Europe, 215, 255, 438. 
Pi vans, George, 271. 

Harvey, 114. 
Everett, Jonathan C. , 114. 
Everton, John, 37, 38. 

Rebecca, 38. 
Exchange Hotel in Foxcroft, 103. 
Executive Council, 236. 
Exeter, Me., 211. 
Exhibitions, Foxcroft academv, 107. 

Pairfax, now Albion, 172, 173, 197. 
P>.irfield, Governor, 272, 273, 275, 276, note 276, 
277, 278, 279, 315, 317, (his address to troops, 
319,) 324, 325. 
Fairfield, Me., 172, 367. 
Fairmont, Minn., 215. 
Fairview, 32. 
Falmouth, 443. 

sloop, 300. 
Farmer, Mary, married John Dean, 163. 
Farnham, Elizabeth, 79. 

Louis B., 116. 

William, 79, 80. 
Farwell, Harriette F. , 427. 
Featherstonhaugh, Mr., 241. 
Federal Government, 240, 241. 
Federalist, 438. 
Feirio, William, 287. 


Fenno (Brother), 31, 
Fernald, Alice (Lewis), 4^9. 

Jonathan, 429. 

M. C, 116, 117. 
Fields, George, 420, 423. 
Fifield, Jeremiah, 167. 
First National Bank of Bath, 483. 
Fish River, 271, 272, 335, (road, 336,) 409, (mills, 415,) 

Fisher, Michael, 283. 
Fishkill, N. v., 160. 
Fitzgerald, Owen, 415, 419. 

Flag, American, 189, 289, 415; Baker ordered to take 
American flag down, 416; English, 189; of U. 
S. of America, was hoisted by John Baker and 
others, 286 ; same referred to, 289 ; was over 32 
independent states of TTnion, 176. 
Flaggstaff", 430. 
Flanders, Horace, 1 20. 
Fletcher, Levi G., 361. 

W. R., 116. 
Flint, Captain Fletcher, 55. 

Ephraim, 114, 115, 120, 124, 137. 

Royal, 434, 437. 
Fogg, Capt. Joshua, 53. 

Colonel, 443. 
Follett, Rev. J. M., 80. 
Folsom, Hiram, 120, 121. 

Mrs. L. H., 98. 
Ford, Abner, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29. 

Caleb J. , 28. 

Deacon, 53. 

H. C, 96. 
Foreign, jail, 315. 

Negotiations, 341. 

Power, 259. 

Powers, 341. 
Fort Point, 3. 
Fort Pownal, 3. 

Forsyth, Secretary of State, 240. 
Foss, Elizabeth, married Oliver Crosby, 208. 

INDEX 475 

Foss, Mary (Bradbury), married Josiah Crosby, 211. 
Simeon, 211. 

Fountaindale, TIL, 208. 

Fox, British Minister, 240. 

Foxcroft, Col. Joseph E. , proprietor of town of Foxcroft, 
8, 191. 
Joseph Ellerv, 100; offer to Academy accepted, 

Foxcroft, Me., 8, 13, 21, 22, 25, 36, 41, 55, 70, 79, 
86, 90, (bridge, 94.) 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 
102, 108, 110, 111, 112, 116. 127, 136, 137, 
138, 139, 156, 162, 168, 175, 181, 184, (called 
Spauldingtown, 191,) 192, 207, 245, 446, 447. 

Foxcroft Academy, exhibitions held, 89; history of, pp 
100 to 117; mentioned, 211, 446, 447. ^ 

Foxcroft Four Corners, 70, 132. 

Foxcroft Square, 110. 

France, 188, 210, 217, 220, 221, 222, 442. 

Francis, Indian guide, 4. 

Francis I, King of France, 217. 

Frankfort, Me., 189. 

Franklin, marble statue of, 439. 

Franklin, Me., 435. 

Fraser, Major P., 332. 
Malcolm, note 237. 
Peter, Esq., 294, 330. 

Frederick Islands, 300. 

Fredericton, N. B.. note 243, 244, 245, 250, 251, 256, 
267, 274, 275, 297, 301, 303, 310, 311, 312, 
314, 318, 324, 330, 332, 352, 358, 359, 362, 
363, 365, 372, 378, 394, 401, 403, 412, 415, 
416, 417, 419. 422; Gazette, 399; jail, 252, 
360, 363, 366, 399, 400, 402. 

Free Baptists, mentioned 65, 74, 76, 77, 78 ; attempt to 
unite with Baptists in Piscataquis County, 85, 
(church, 98.) 

French, at Madawaska, 414; extraction, 392, 410, 413; 
government, 217; house, 414; Huguenots, 442; 
present at 4th of July celebration, 415; set, 414; 
settlement at Madawaska, 267; settlers, 288, 
289, 291, 302, 413; spoliation claims, 210; 


the, 210, 287, 292, 416; village above Frederic- 
ton, 296. 

French, Father, 98. 

Friends, Society of, 200. 

Frontier, 307. 

Frontiers, Northern and Eastern, 322. 

Frost, Rev. Wm., first Universalist minister to live in 
county, 86, 87. 
Williani, 87. 

Fulmer, Rev. J. R., 88. 

Fusileers, regiment of 800 from Cork, Ireland, 275. 


Gallatin, Albert, historian, 220 ; went to England as 

U. S. minister, 229 ; mentioned, 234, 238, 337, 

339, 369, 376. 
Gatchepe or Gaspe, 218. 
Gates, Artemus, 124. 
General, 155, 183. 
Geo. H., 120. 
General Court, order of. 160; mentioned, 182, 241, 435, 

General Government, 257, 258, 263, 264, 265, 269, 

315, 339, 363, 372. 
George, Rev. W. C, 88. 

III, 228. 

IV, 247, 284, 362, 403, 404, 418. 
George Washington University, 445. 
Gerrish, Col. Jacob, 192. 

Ghent, 229. 

Gile, S. M., 96. 

Gilman, A. W., Ill, 114. 

Benj. P., 22, 114. 

Geo. W., one of builders of Lake House, Sebec, 

Hannah E., 110. 

John, 22. 

John H., 22. 

Julia R., 110. 

INDEX 477 

Oilman, Miss, preceptress M. A., 122. 

Mrs. John H., 22. 
Gilmantown, N. H., 169, 170. 
God of battles, 217. 
GofF, Geo. W., 97. 
Golay, Jules, 208. 

Goldthwaite, Jacob, 411, 417, 418, 419. 
T., 72. 
William, 116. 
Gooch, James, 105, 115. 

Goodwin, Betsej, married Ezekiel Chase, 161. 
Gorges, Ferdinand, 219; his grant, 220. 
Gorham, Nathaniel. 183. 

"Gospel Banner," mentioned, 89; invitation to Maine 
Universalist Convention in Sangerville, 92; editor 
describes journey from Augusta to Sangerville hv 
team in 1838, 93. 
Goss, Benjamin, 8. 

Capt. John, 201. 
Gould, Abel, 19. 
Abiel, 11. 

Elder Nathaniel, 67. 
Ezra, 12, 17. 
W. E., 28, 29. 
Gouldsboro, Me., 437. 

Government, different ones referred to, 241, 249, 258, 
267, 270, 273, 279, 285, 288, 290, 297, 300, 
301, 302, 303, 304, 312, 313, 314, 322, 323, 
330, 333, 334, 335, 336, 356, 357, 359, 370, 
371, 372, 375, 377, 379, 382, 386, 387, 394, 
400, 404, 439. 
Government House, 324. 
Governor and Council, 259, 315. 
Governor and General Assembly of Province of Maine, 

Governor General of the Provinces, 380. 
Governor of New France, 220. 

Governors, of Maine, 241, note 243, 248, 250, 253, 
254, 258, 259, 315, 323, 324, 328, (referred 
to, 332,) 336, 349, 350, 355, 356, 362, 364, 368, 
369, 370, 373, 378, 381, 383, 394, 395, 396, 


400 ; of Massachusetts, 254, S60, 385 ; messages, 
259, 271 ; of the several states, 260. 
Gower, Charles, 52. 

Charles W., 120, 121. 

Davis N., 120. 
Graham, Major, 306, 307, 310. 
Grand Falls, 287, 295, 408, 410. 
Grand Jury, 282. 
Grand Lake, 310. 
Grand Lodge of Masons, 24, 27. 
Grand River, 272. 
Granite Mountain, 137. 
Grant, Orrin, 53. 

Thomas, 53. 
Graves, Calvin, killed wardens, 58. 

Nathaniel, 40. 
Gray, Alvin, 122. 

Captain John, 443. 

V. A., 97. 

Wilham, 14. 
Gray, Me., 86. 

Great Britain, war with in 1812, 156; mentioned, 216, 
222, 223, 228, 234, note 237, 238, 240, 248, 
253, 255, 258, 260, 261, 262, 263, 271, 279, 
280, 285, 286, 288, 290, 299, 300, 322, 323, 
362, 373, 338, 340, 341, 347, 355, 356, 357, 
324, 337, 374, 375, 387, 391, 397, 418, 439. 
Great FaDs, 294, 304. 
Great Falls, Dover, 181. 
Greeley, B. F., 53, 54. 

David, 104. 

Ebenezer, 251, 252, note 252, 267. 

John, 139. 

Mr., incarcerated in a Foreign Jail, 315. 
Greeley's Falls, 137. 
Green River, 272, 293. 
Greene, 74. 
Greenleaf, Capt. Moses, 193. 

Eben, 23, 25. 

Moses, 19, 23, 24, 25, 26, 114. 
Greenville, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 60, 62, 63, 64, 69, 98, 

ixDKx 479 

99, 430, 431, 432, 433. 

Greenwood, Alexander, 8. 

Groton, Mass., 180. 

Grover, Stephen, 411, 415, 419. 
Z., 96. 

Guernsey, F. E., Ill, 11,4, 152. 

Guilford, facts relating t!() its historv, 35 to 51 ; men- 
tioned, 68, 71, 73, 74, (church, 75,) 89, 91, 92, 
93, 94, 96, 97, 98, 115, 139, 142, 145, 146, 
168, 178, 184, 449. 

Guilford Center, 40, 71. 

Gulf of St. Lawrence, 222, 224, 232, 234. 

Gunnison, Nathaniel, 93. 


H township, 272. 
Hadlock, James, 170, 171. 
Haiford, Fineas, 360, 361. 

John, Jr., 364. 
Hale, Elias J., 114, 115. 

Hon. Eugene, 437. 

Jacob, 82. 

Mr., of Ripley, 167, 168. 
Halifax, Mass., 195, 196. 
Hall, C. C, 110, 111, 114. 

Daniel, 11, 19. 

Hez, 11. 

Hezekiah, 17, 19. 

Joseph, 77. 

Mrs., 213. 

Rev. Zenas, 69, 73, 75, 76, 83. 
Hallett. William, 421. 

Hallowell, 48, (called "The Hook," 160,) 161. 
Hall's patent rifles, 325. 
Ham, Rev. T. E., 83. 
Hamilton, Rev. Geo., 74. 

Rev. G. G., 95. 
Harvey, Deacon, 171. 

Governor, 252. 


Harvey, Joseph, 367. 

Sir John, 276, 277, 278, 279, 312, 315, 322, 324. 
Hasey, Benjamin, note 229. 
Haskell, Rev. E. B., 73. 
Hassell, Jason, 11, 16, 17, 18, 19, 23, 24, 25, 101. 

103, 113. 
Hastings, Capt. , 160, 161. 
Hatch, Deacon Forrest, 82. 

Jacob, 82, 83. 
Hayes, C. W., 97, 115, 448. 

Daniel W., drowned in Sebec Lake, 135, 136. 

William C, 133. 
Haynes, Josiah P., 120. 
Hazelton, Joshua, 79. 
Head Quarters, Eastern Division, 322. 
Heald, P'ranklin, 364. 
Hebron, 8, 445. 
Henderson, Ky., 29. 

Her Majesty's, government, 312; lieutenant governor, 
320; reign, 314; subjects, 313; territory or 
subjects, 313; upper provinces, 323; Her 
Brittannic Majesty's Province of New Bruns- 
wick, 322, 324. 
Herndon, Virginia, 444, 445. 
Herriman, Silas, 11. 
Herring, Deacon Robert, 36, 40, 71. 

Deacon Robert, Jr., 37, 38, 43. 

Isaac, 40. 

Pollv, wife of Robert, Jr. , 38. 

Rev." C. M., 73, 80. 

Sally, wife of Robert, 37. 
Herring and Morgan's mill, 44. 
Higgins, Eben B., 122. 

High Priest of Piscataquis Royal Arch Chapter, 447. 
High Sheriff of New Brunswick, 363. 
Highlands, near West Point, 195. 
"Highlands," The, 224, 227, 231, 232, 233, 234, 

235, 237, 238. 
Hilary term, note 247, (sittings, note 247,) 282. 
Hildreth, a blacksmith of Greenville, 52, 53. 
Hildreth Bros., 53. 

INDEX 481 

Hill, Henrietta, married Josiah Crosby, 211. 

Warden, killed bA' Graves, 58. 
Hills, Henry, 120. 
Hinckley, Josiah, 52, 432, 433. 

Mary Williams, 433. 
Hinds, Amos, 172. 
Asher, 172. 
Benjamin, 171. 
Betsey Temple, 172, 173. 
Betsey (Pishon), wife of Nimrod, 172> 
Charles, 172. 
Elizabeth (Temple), 171. 
James, 171. 
Jason, 172. 
Jacob, 171. 
John, 171. 
Lida, 172. 
Mary, 172. 
Nimrod, of Dover, Revolutionary soldier, sketch of, 

pp 171 to 174. 
Nimrod, Jr., 172, 173, 174. . 
Peter, 172. 
Rebecca, 172. 
Ulmer, 172. 
Hinds' HiU, 173. 

His Britannic Majesty, 323, 329, 379. 
His Britannic Majesty's dominions, 882, 395, 397 ; 
envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary, 
356; government in Province, 387; L* Governor 
of New Brunswick, 329; subjects, 392. 
His Majesty, 330. 

His Majesty's, attorney general, 388, 359, 360; court, 
401 ; dominions, 397 ; government, 333, 358, 
372, 373; lieutenant governor, 357; L'' Gov- 
ernor of New Brunswick, 334; mail, 285, 405; 
minister, 372; name, 289; officers, 399, 400; 
Province of New Brunswick, 283, 335, 384, 397, 
404; subjects, 359; territory or government, 
Historicus, 163. 
History repeats itself, 270. 


History and Digest of International Arbitrations, note 

237, note 238. 
History of Industr\^, Me., referred to, 429. 
Hoadlev engine, used in Sebec Lake steamer, 132. 
Hoar, Wm. D., 121. 
Hodgdon, Adjutant General, 276. 

Moses, 20. 
Hodgdon, Me., 446. 
Hodsdon, General, 325, 326. 
Holderness, N. H., 427. 
Holland, 255. 
Hollis, N. H., 155. 
Holmes, Ann, Universalist choir leader, 89. 

Dr. , of Foxcroft, 446. 

Freeland S., 116. 

James S., 100, 103, 105, 106. 113, 115. 

John, 225, 228, 259, 271. 

Mr., 348,350. 

Salmon, 114. 
Home Sweet Home, song mentioned, 325. 
Homer, H. E., 122. 

Rev. John, 436. 
Hooper, Rev. W. W., Universalist State Superintendent, 

97, 98. 
Horn, Will D., 120. 

Hotel in Greenville, 52, 53, 62; at Sandbar, 53; Lake 
House, Sebec, 136; Kineo House, 144; M. G. 
Shaw interested in Maine hotels, 432. 

Houlton, James, 417, 418, 420, 423. 

Houlton, Me., 245, 275, 310, 311, 318, 331, 367, 
393, 394, 411. 417, 418, 420, 423. 

House of Lords, 277. 

House of Representatives, 251. 

Houston, John, 96. 

Howard, Leonard, 120, 121. 

Howe, Col. Cyprian, 180. 

Hoyt, Rev. H. H., Universalist State Superintendent, 

98, 99. 
Hubbard, Anson, 114. 

Dr. John, Governor of Maine, tour through State, 

INDEX 483 

Hubbai'dston, Mass., 178. 

Hudson, Henry, 450. 

Hudson River, 127. 

Hughes, John F., Ill, 114. 

Humphrey, Hon. Samuel F., 116. 

Hunewell, Barnabas, 416, 417. 

Hunt, Mr., a principal of M. A., 122. 

Hunting, Elder E., 74. 

Hussey, M. L., 96. 

Rev. Charles, first Universalist minister in Sanger- 
viUe, 93. 
Hussey & Goldthwaite's elevator, 44. 
Hyde, Rev. J. Chester, 83. 


Idaho, 32. 

Index of numbers relating to the U. S. and British 
arguments, pp 344 to 346. 

Indian, native, was tried and convicted by court of Prov- 
ince of Quebec, 236. 

Indians, American, 202; Penobscot, 58; St. Francis, 
58; violators of game laws, 59; "Lo, the poor 
Indian,'' 127; expression of Hunter Ellis, 143; 
Indian scare, 156 ; compan}^ formed to repel, 162 ; 
governor of, 327; Indian war, 366; men- 
tioned, 2, 4, 5, 6, 61, 103, 157, 176. 

Industry, Me., 429, 430, 433. 

Ingersoil, Ahce C. 209. 
Edward Chase, 209. " 
Francis H.. 209. 
Geo. W.. 209. 

Ireland, Sheriff E. S.. 29. 

Ireland, 362, 397, 418. 

Irish, James, 242, 331, 402. 

Irish families in Madawaska settlement, 414. 

Iroquois River or Cataraquy, 227. 


Jackson, Albert F., 122. 

Colonel, 160, 161, 163. 

Col. Henry, 434, 437. 

a geologian, 2. 

President, note 230, 239, 240, note 252 ; mentioned, 
Jacob, Colonel, 180. 
James I, 218. 
James II, 247. 
James, Duke of York, 221. 
Jameson, Gen., 117. 
Jarvis, Colonel Charles, note 276. 

Leonard, 271, 434, 435, 436. 
Jefferson, Vice-President Thomas, 438. 
Jenkins, James, 122. 

Samuel, 120. 
Jesuit Mission, 220. 
Jewett, J. W., 22. 

Mehitable, married Phineas Ames, 155. 
Joe's Point, 225. 
Johnson, Benjamin, 114. 

Capt. , his company, 1 58. 

Capt. Samuel, 159. 

Charles, 420. 

Lewis. 420. 

Lieutenant, 307, 310. 

Samuel, 116. 

Warren, 116. 
Johnston, John Jr., 13. 

Joint Standing Committee on State Lands, 253. 
Jones, John Paul, mentioned, 186; mention of some of 
his ships, 187, 188, 189. 

Lathrop C, 130, 131; referred to in connection 
with John Baker trial, 293. 
Jones and Thompson's charter for steamboat, 131 ; got 

material for steamboat, 131. 
Jordan, Dr. Josiah, 446. 

Joshua, 79. 

Josiah, 120. 

INDEX 485 

Jordan, Martha, 79. 

Joseph, Francis, Gov. of Passamaquoddy Indians, 827. 

Jury, 298. 

Justice of the Peace, 287. - 


Kamarouska, 237. 

Katahdin Iron Works, 198, 199. 

Katahdin Mountain, 62. 

Kavanagh, Edward, 280. 

Keating, Thomas A., first to attempt propelling boat by 

power on Sebec Lake, 128, 131. 
Keene, John, 11. 
Kelsey, Joseph, member of Constitutional Convention of 

Maine, 92; mentioned 8, 41, 42, 43, 93, 101, 

113, 115. 
Kendall, Rev. H., 68, 82. 
Kenduskeag, 211. 
Kenebec forks, 309, 312. 

Kennebec County, 93, 124, 198, 366, 411, 419. 
Kennebec Mission, 222. 
Kennebec River, (Kenebeck river, 47,) 50, 162, 219, 220, 

221, 222, 223, 311, 353, 417, 432, 435. 
Kent, Governor, 241, note 252, 260, 273, 275, 276, 

307, 315. 
Governor Edward, 260, 280, 310, 311, 364, 367. 
Judge, 207. 
Kent, Parish of, 242, 244, 283, 285, 287, 291, 293, 

295, 303, 365, 366, 397, 404, 405. 
Kentucky, 348, 445. 
Keyes, Colonel Dan forth, 172, 195. 
Kimball, Frederick H., married Mary Emma Shaw, 433. 

Samuel, 20. 
Kineo, 3, 56. 
Kineo House, 144. 
King, Charles I, 425; of England, 217; of France, 217, 

218, 220 ; of Great Britain, 225 ; Harold of yore, 

275; of Holland, note 230, 255, 257, 258; of 

the Netherlands, 230, 231, 236, note 237, 238, 


289, 240, 241, 254, 255, 257, 270, 281; 
Norweoian, 275; said lord the, 247, 248, 283, 
284. 285, 286, 397, 398, 404, 405, 406; 
Sovereign Lord the,- 397, 398 ; the, 326, 351 ; 
king's authority, 299; attorney, 401. 
King, Capt., captain of Amphitrite, 55. 
Rufus, 438. 

William, first governor of Maine, 253. 
Kingman, L., 72. 

Rev. Lebbeus, 77. 
Kingsbury, Sanford, once proprietor of Kingsbury 

Plantation, 8. 
Kingsbury Plantation or town, 8, 434, 435. 
Kittery, 160. 
Kittery, Me., 428. 
Kittredge, Hon. S. B., 120. 
Russell, 27, 28, 29, 30. 
Knight, Geo., 11, 17. 
Knowlton, Rev. W. S., 77, 116, 122. 
Knowlton's Mills, 156, 157. 
Knowlton's Mill's cemeteiy, 179. 
Knox, Gen., 196. 

Henry, secretary to the department of war, United 
States, 435. 
Kynybecky River, 219. 

Labrador Coast, 223. 

Labree, Isaac, first game warden in Moosehead Lake 

vicinity, 58 ; intercepted violators of game laws, 

59 ; makes report, 59. 
Ladies' Circle, organized in Sangerville, 95 ; at Monson, 

95 ; in Dover, 97 ; in Milo, 98. 
Ladies of the G. A. R., of Foxcroft, 112. 
La Fayette, Gen. de, 161. 
La Grange, 30, 98. 
Lake Champlain, 223. 
Lake House, Sebec, 136. 
Lake Nipissing, 223. 


Lake Onawa, 4. 

Lake View, Me., 193. 

Lambert, Dennis, 114, 115. 

Lamson, Jos., Sr. , 21. 
Jos., Jr., 21. 
J. & Son, 21. 
Joseph, Esq., 133, 159. 

Lancaster, Mass., 171. 

Land Agent, 126, 272, note 274, 280, 314, 315, 318, 
319, 323, 331, (and surveyors, 332, 334.) 

Land Bounty, 182. 

Lane's Corner, 156. 

Laramie, Wy., 149, 150. 

Laughton, Dr. Samuel, 79. 

Law, first game laws passed, 58; Private Laws of 1847 
to incorporate Monson Academy, 120; Private 
Laws 1849, 123; of Maine, 251, 394; Consti- 
tutional Law, 261; law directs, 313; Laws of 
New Brunswick, 361 ; of our said Lord the King, 
398, 405 ; British, 405 ; English, 420. 

Lawrence, Abbot, 280. 
Capt. Asa, 190. 

Leathers, Enoch, of Sangerville, Revolutionary soldier, 
sketch of, pp 174 to 177. 
Lois Asenath, 175. 
Mary, wife of Enoch, 175. 

Leavitt, Philip, 40. 

Lebroke, A. G., ability as debator, 107 ; mentioned, 113, 
114, 116, 137!^ 
Sarah J., 113. 

Lee, Lyman K. , 116. 

Lee, Me., 169. 

Lee, N. H., 427, 428, 429. 

Lee Normal School, 125. 

Legislature, petition to Legislature of Massachusetts, 
10; remonstrance to, 11; Act to establish town 
ofSebec, 13; bill establishing Piscataquis county 
before Maine Legislature, 89; asked for charter 
for Foxcroft Academy, 101 ; account of incor- 
poration of this Academy, 101 ; Monson made 
town b}', 118; incorporates stockholders of 


Monson Academy, 120; resolves in favor of 
Monson Academy, 125, 126; granted charter to 
Sebec Pond Boat Company, 128; granted charter 
to Steamboat Company, Sebec Lake, 130; of 
Massachusetts, 182, note 229, 444-; House of 
Representatives, 214; Senate, 214, note 226; of 
Maine, 241, 323; resolve passed, 249; resolves, 
279 ; of Maine and Massachusetts, 331 ; of New- 
Brunswick, 339; House of Representatives and 
Senate of Maine, 444; of 1878, 447; mentioned, 
8, 44, 58, 75, 102, 105, 108, 123, 124, 131, 
158, 200, 248, 250, 253, 254, 255. 256, 259, 
260, 272, 273, 277, 349, 350, 370. 
Leland, Edgar H., 179. 

Henry, of Sangerville, Revolutionary soldier, sketch 
of, pp 177 to 180. 

Henry, father of subject of sketch, 177. 

Henrv B., 178. 

Hopestill, 179. 

Jedediah P., 178. 

Kesiah, 178. 

Lowell, 178, 

Lucy, 178. 

Mary, 178. 

Mary (Morse), 177. 

Sarah, 178. 

Sarah (Phipps), wife of Heiu-y, 178. 

Walter, 178. 
Leonard, Abial, 30. 

Charles S., 30. 

Isaac, 30. 
Letters of. Baker, John, 399, 400, 402. 

Baker, John and James, 350. 

Barrelle, S. B., 378. 

Brent, Daniel, 347 to 349. 

Chandler, John, 349, 350. 

citizens, 362. 

Clay, H., 328, 333, 336 to 339, 347, 354, 355, 
368, 369, 373, 374. 

Davies, C. S., 378 to 394. 

Douglass, Howard, 331, 359, 372. 

INDEX 489 

Fairfield, Governor, 3J24. 

Fraser, Major P., 332. 

Harvey, Sir John, 324. 

Kent, Edward, 364. 

Lincoln, Levi, 335, 370. 

Nye, Frank M., 152. 

Odell, W. F., 358 and 359. 

Sullivail, James, 327. 

Scott, Major Gen. Winfield, 324. 

Vaughan, Charles R., 329, 333, 334, 356. 

Weston, Mr., 48. 
Libby, C. E. E., 116, 122. 

G. H., 116. 
Library Company of Philadelphia, 439. 
Lieut. 'Governor of New Brunswick, 267, 280, 322, 324, 
328, 332, 334, 357, 358, 359, 378, 380, 397. 
Lily Bay, 53, 54. 
Limington Acadehiy, 126. 

Lincohi, Governor Enoch, note 244, 249, 251, 254, 
335, 336, 340, 347, 349, 350, 354, 355, 356, 
357, 360, 362, 364, 368, 369, 370, 373, 374, 

Levi, 336. 

President, 444 ; lamented President, 269. 
Lincoln, Me., 319. 
Line of National Boundary, 370. 
Little, Rev. J. H., Universalist State Superintendent, 

Littlefield, Hon. Chas. E., ex-member of Congress, at- 
tended Foxcroft Academy, 116. 
Livermore, Fremont, 20. 
Lockhaven, Penn., 445. 
Logan, Geo. P., 159. 
Lorabardy poplars, 440. 

London, 235, 280, 322, 339, 358, 369, 424, 442. 
Long, Rev. E. C, 77. 
Longle}^ Betsey, wife of Zachariah, 182. 

Betsey, daughter of Zachariah, married Eli 
Towne, 182. 

Jonas, died from exposure to elements, 181. 

Luke, account of his drowning in Piscataquis 


River, 181. 
Longley, Susan, married Isaac Blethen, 182. 

Sylvanus, 182. 

Zachariah, of Dover, Revolutionary soldier, sketch 
of, pp 180 to 182. 
Lord, Rev. Thomas N., 80, 116, 122. 
Loring, Charles, 45. 

Ehzabeth, 147. 

historian of Piscataquis County, 42, 43, 45, 46, 
67, 69, 94, 147, 168. 

John H., 114. 

Bill Nye's mother was a Loring, 153. 
Loring' s Historv of Piscataquis County, 147, 164, 167, 

Lothrop, Col. Thomas, 195. 
Lottery for sale of land, 436. 
Louis XVI, court of, 438. 
Lovejoy, W. W. , preacher, 98. 
Lowe, David, 37, 39. 

Deacon Robert, 36. 

Deacon Robert, Jr., 37, 38. 

Elder Robert, 71. 

Robert, 40. 
Lowell, Stephen A., 116. 

Colonel, 117. 
Lowell, Mass., 138, 
Lower Canada, 230, 285, 308, 309. 
Lowe's Bridge, 45, 46. 
Lowlands, 233, 
Lowney, William, 8. 

Wilham R., 18. 
Lownv, William P., 17. 

William R., 19. 21. 
Lowstown, 167. 
Lubec, 385. 

Luce, Hon. N. A., 116. 
Lundy's Lane, 175. 
Lunt, Lieutenant James, 158. 
Lyceums of Foxcroft Academy, 107. 
LVford, Byhe, 20. 

Jame"s, 11, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20. 

INDEX 491 

Lyford, John, 20. 

Jonathan, 11, 17, 20. 

William, hunter and trapper, 57 ; tales of his ad- 
ventures, 58. 
Lyndeborough, N. H., 200. 
Lynn, Mass., 425. 


Machiasport, Me., 208. 
Maclay, his history of the nav}-, 188. 
Macomber, Elder or Rev. Thomas, 39 ; settled as town 
minister of Guilford and died after many years 
of preaching, 40; mentioned, 67, 72, 74, 77, 
78, 82, 184. 
Isaac, 114. 

Phebe, wife of Thomas, 40. 
Madawaska, Madawasca or Mawascah, country, 273, 

279, 419; district, 295, 352; inhabitants of, 
257; settlement of, note 237, 241, 242, 244, 
246, 248, 251, 256, 267, 268, 273, 275, 276, 

280, 285, 287, 288, 290, 291, 293, 294, 295, 
301, 302, 303, 304, 306, 329, 331, 350, 353, 
354, 360, 361, 371, 390, 393, 399, 401, 402, 
405. 410, 413, 414, 416, 417; settlers, 287, 
290, 291, 295, 297. 

Madawaska, Fief of, note 236, note 237. 

Madawaska, Madawasca or Mawascah River, 236, note 
236, 253, 271. (Little, 272, 274,) 290, 291, 294, 
296, 329, 331, 353, 356, 357, 367, 369, 377, 
392, 397, 410, 413, 414. 

Madison, President, 225, 228, note 230. 

Madison, Me., 138, 139, 164, 165, 166. 

Magaguadavic, note 226. 

Magaguadaweek Lake, 310. 

Magoon, Edward, 156. 

Maine, province or State of, mentioned, 7, 8, 21, 61, 
64, 66, 91, 101, 112, 117, 123, 137, 158, 174, 
175, 178, 200, 201, 205, 216, 219, 220, 221, 
222, 225, note 226, 228, 229, 230, 231, 235, 


note 236, 239, 240, 241, 242, 248, 249, 250, 
251. 252, 253, 254, 256, 258, 259, 260, 261, 
262, 263, 264, 265, 266, 267, 268, 269, 270, 
271. 273, 274, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 
298. 307, 308, 309, 310, 313, 322, 323, 328, 
329, 330, 331, 332, 333, 335, 336, 337, 338, 
339, 341, 342, 347, 350, 355, 356, 357, 362, 
364, 365, 366, 367, 368. 369, 370, 371, 373, 
374, 375, 376, 377, 378, 380, 381, 384, 386, 
387, 388, 389, 390, 392, 393, 394, 395, 400, 
402, 412, 430, 431, 432, 435, 436, 437, 440, 
444, 445, 446; agents, 351; "Battle Song," 
321; citizens of, 318, 333, 383; district, 118, 
190, 434, 435; enterprises of Northern Me., 63; 
militia of, 311 ; newspapers, 320, 321 ; no game 
laws, 58, 59; Senate and House, 336; senators 
from, 340, 341; State bounty, 164; troops of, 
323, 324. 

Maine Agency, 164, 183. 

Maine Baptist Missionary Convention, 84. 

Maine Historical Coll., note 226. 

Maine Historical Society, 8 ; note 226. 

Maine Medical School, 446. 

Maine Medical Society, 447. 

Maine Mission Society, 82. 

Maine Pharmaceutical Association, 447. 

Maine State Library, 124, 328. 

Maine woods, 3, 5. 

Major General in the army of the United States, 322. 

Maiden, Mass., 442. 

Manley, Commodore, 182. 

Mansell, Hiram, 54. 

Ida J. , married William M. Shaw, 433. 

Jefferson, 54. 

Martha E. , married Albert H. Shaw, 433. 

"Mansion House," 440. 

Mapton, N. H., 425. 

Marcoe, Peter, 441. 

Marks: Enoch Brown's, 159; George Field's, 423. 

Marque, Peter, 292; (Markee, 404, 415.) 

Marquis de Blaisel, 439. 

INDEX 493 

Marr Pond, 156. 

Mars Hill, 235, 268. 

Marshall, Elder N., 83. 

Mr., historian of Buxton, 183. 

Marshfield, Mavss. , 40. 

Martin, Addison, 43. 
Capt. Isaac, 172. 
O. P., 97. 

Mary, Joseph, 4. 

Masonic circles, 447. 

Masons, Free and Accepted, in Piscataquis County, 23 
to 34, 61. 

Massachusetts, Commonwealth or State of, 4, 10, 11, 
13, 14, 36, 39, 48, 148, 221, 223, 229, 230, 
239, 241, 242, 252, 253, 254, 260, 270, 271, 
298, 327, 329, 330, 331, 356, 357, 370, 371, 
377, 389, 390, 392, 393, 402, 417, 424, 434, 
435, 436, 437; agents of, 328, 333, 339, 351, 
355; act of separation, 100; archives, 159, 
180; colonists kill Sebastian Rale, 220; colony, 
220, 222; general court of, 198; militia, 198; 
territory of, 231. 

Massachusetts Assembly, 100. 

Massachusetts Bay, government of, 183. 

Massachusetts Line, 163, 166, 177, 183. 190, 195. 

Massachusetts Records, 435. 

Masterman, John, 54. 

Matawamkeag Point, 316. 

Mattawamkeag forks, 310, 311, 312. 

Mattawamkeag Stream, 335. 

Maxfield, Dwight, 145. 

Maxim, Sir Hiram Stevens, great inventor, mentioned, 

Mayflower, the, 444, 445. 

Maynard, Mass., 187. 

Mavo, Edward J.. 109, 110, 111. 
" Eliza Ann, 108, 109. 
Hon. Josiah B., 108, 109, 110, 111, 115. 
John G., 110. 
Walter J.. 115. 

Mavo & Son's, 104. 


McCray, William, 365. 

McClanathan, Samuel, 101, 103, 113, 178. 

McFadden, T. F., 1J22. 

Mclntire, Rev. C. F., 95, 96. 

Rufus, land agent who figured prominentl}^ in 
Aroostook War, 273, 274, 276. note 276, 277. 
McKechnie, E. N., 96. 
McKinney, Wm.. 11. 
McLanathan, Kesiah (Leland), 178. 
McLaughlin, Mr., warden of public lands in New 

Brunswick, 274. 
McLeod, Donald, 283. 
McNeal, Stephen, 421, 422. 
McNeil, a constable, 365. 
M*"pharson, Charles, 363. 
Mechanics Lodge, F. and A. M., 28. 
Meder, G. A., 81. 
Mercer, Me., 142. 
Meriumpticook, stream, 287; river, 288, 289, 290, 

294, 403, 406, 413, 414; settlers at, 419. 
Merrick, John, 88. 

heirs, 94. 
Merrill, Paul S., 120. 
Merry meeting Bay, 6. 
Meserve, Charles, 54, 60. 

William, son of Charles, drowned at Moosehead 
Lake, 60. 
Methodists, 65, 75, 92, 93; mistake of Methodist sis- 
ter, 93. 
Metis River, 232, 233. 
Michaelmas Term, 403. 
Middleboro, Mass., 196. 
Military force, 313, 323; officers, 399; possessions, 322; 

road, 310. 
Militia, 316, 325, 329, 330, 332, 414; of Matawascah, 

363; of New Brunswick, 410. 
Miller, Edward William, Esq., 294. 

J., 93. 

Rev. Joel, 88. 

William, 283. 
Millet, Stephen D. , 28, 30. 

IXDF.X 495 

Millett, Rev. Joshua, 68 ; as an author, 84. 
Milliken, Elias, 431. 
Million Acres, 47. 
Million Acre Tract, 434. 
Mills, Henry, 120. 

John, 280. 
Milo, 21, 23, 78, 79, 89, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 97, 98, 

Milo Jet., 79, 98. 
Milton, Mass., 160. 
Milton, Me., now Orneville, 69. 
Minister Plenipotentiary to the Hague, note 230. 
Minneapolis, Minn., 152. 
Minnesota, 214. 
Minute-men, 177. 
Miramichi, 446. 
Misshue, Battis, 408, 409. 

Joseph, 413, 414. 
Missouri, 150. 
Mitchell, Colonel Jonathan, 443. 

M. Ella, married Mellen Shaw, 433. 

Mordecai, 89. 

Rev. H. R., 80. 81. 
Mitchell's map, 223, 230, 238. 
Mohawk River, 169. 
Molton, Jeremiah, 16, 17. 
Monmouth Academy, 126. 
Monmouth, battle of, 178. 
Monmouth, Me., 419. 
Monson, Mass., 118. 
Monson, Me., 8, 53, 73, 76, 95, 96, 97, 118, 122, 

123, 152. 
Monson Academy, historical sketch of, pp 118 to 126. 
Moore, A., 164. 
Moorehead, Minn., 152. 
Moorstown, now Abbot, Me., 138, 164. 
"Moosehead, " steamer built for lake of that name, 

56, 60. 
Moosehead House, hotel built by M. G. Shaw at 

Greenville, 432. 
Moosehead Lake, 2, 5, 52, 57, 63, 64, 134, 142, 308, 


309, 352, 430, 431, 432. 
Moose Island, 60; where Eastport, Me,, now stands, 

225, 300. 
Moose River, 56, 308, 309. 

Morehouse, Magistrate George, 242, 243, 244, 245, 
246, 287, 289, 292, 293, 303, 351, 365, 392, 
414, 415, 416, 421, 422. 
Morgan, S. and J., 43. 

Wm., 27. 
Morrill, Caroline Frothinghani, 208 ; married Mr. 
Brown, 208. 
DeWitt, Clinton, 208. 
Ephraim T., 207. 
George Prentice, 208. 
John, 20. 
Joseph, 21. 
Moses, 23. 
Oliver Crosby, 207. 
Patrick, 11. 
Peter, 11, 17. 
Morris, Robert, 439. 
Morrison, Col. Wm., 23, 24. 
Hon. John, 22. 
John, 135. 
Wm., 25. 
Morristown, N. J., 161. 

Morse, Eunice, second wife of Asa Sturtevant, 197. 
Mosaic Lodge, F. & A. M., 25, 447. 
Moulton, Capt. Ephraim, 23. 
Ephraim, 25. 
Jeremiah, 12. 
L. E., 122. 
Thomas, 116. 
Mount Katahdin, 5, 64. 
Mount Kineo, 2, 64. 
Mount Squaw, 64. 

Mower, Rev. I. B., secretary of Maine Baptist Mission- 
ary Asso., 83. 
Mudge, Mr., 241. 
Mudgett, Simeon, 114. 
"Mug-wump," 214. 

INDEX 497 

"Muley" and gang saw, also rotary saw, 431. 

Mullins, Mr. and Mrs., passengers on Mayflower, 444. 

Muri'ay, Rev. John, 436. 

Richard, note 237. 
Mystick side, 44J2. 


Napoleon, i210. 

Nash, James, 54. 

Nason, Edward, 27. 
Ephraini, 53. 

National debt, 435 ; disputes can be settled only, 375. 

Nedder, Wezaw, 410. 

Needham, Mark, 296. 

Nelson, Rev. A. J., 73. 
Seth, 42, 43. 

Neptune, Assony, 4. 

Nevers, Samuel," 298, 303. 

New Boston, N. H., 38. 

New Brunswick, mentioned, 221, 230, 242, 243, 244, 
247, 248. 249, 250, 251, 252, 256, note 256, 
264, 267, 271, 274, 277, 278, 279, 280, 283, 
310, 311, 312, 322, 323, 324, 328, 329. 332, 
334, 335, 337, 339, 351, 352, 356, 357, 
358, 360. 361. 362. 365, 371, 372, 378. 380, 
382, 383, 384, 385, 386, 387, 388, 390, 392, 
394, 395, 397, 403, 404, 406, 410, 414, 418, 
420, 421, 440; referred to by word Province, 
286, 287, 291, 293, 294, 295, 297, 299, 
300. 301, 302, 313, 316, 323, 351, 352, 372, 
379, 380, 397, 416. 

New England, 2, 5, 112, 154, 195, 200, 205, 221, 223; 
colonies, 424. 

New England Historical and Genealogical Recorder, 1 63, 

New France, 217, 220. 

New Gloucester, Me., 8, 36, 38, 39, 71, 86. 

New Hampshire, (line, 169,) 170, 186, 187, 426. 

New Rochelle, N. Y., 208. 

New Scotland, 219, 221. 


New World, 216. 

New York, city or state, 124, 143, 148, 149, 153, 154, 
169, 228, 434, 435, 438, 446; harbor, 161 ; 
evacuation of, 198. 

Newbury, Mass., 193. 

Newburyport, Mass., 20, 178, 436. 

Newfoundland, 218. 

Newichewanoche River, 219. 

Newport, R. I., 83, 160. 

Newton, Mass., 436. 

Nichols' regiment, 201. 

Niles, warden, killed by Graves, 58. 

Norcross, Clara F. , 433. 
James, 114. 

Norridgewock, Me., 172, IcSl, 190, 191, 220. 

Norris, Josiah, 120. 

Rev. James F. , missionary, 72. 

North, Colonel, 160. 

North America, 6, 366, 395. 

North American coast, 216. 

North bay, 56. 

North Bend, 144. 

"North Cant,'' 127. 

North East, 339. 

North Eastern Boundary, 229, note 230, note 236, 254, 
257, 258, 260. (documentary history of, pp 
282 to 321,) 333, 335, 337, 347, 364, (North 
and North Easterl}' Boundar}' lines of the U. S. , 
368,) 370, (referred to, 371,) 374, 377. 

North Eastern Boundary Controversy, and the Aroos- 
took War, bv John Francis Sprague, pp 216 to 

North Guilford, 38. 

North Yarmouth, Me., 38, 443, 444. 

North Yarmouth Company, 443. 

Northeast Carry, 56, 57, 59, 62. 

Northeast Frontier, 216, 249. 

Northern Department, army of, 155, 178; mentioned, 

Norway, Me., 86. 

Nova Scotia, 218, 219, 220, 222, 223, 224, 226, 227, 

INDEX 499 

228, 230, 231, 233, 262, 263, 264, 265, 357. 
Noyes, Joseph, 11. 
Nuton, Philip, 4. 
Nye, Benjamin, 147. 
Carroll A., 152. 
Edgar Wilson, 152; sketch bv John F. Sprague, 

pp 147 to 153. 
Frank, 148, 149, 153. 
Franklin, 147. 

Hon. Frank Mellen, member of Congress, 152, 
Nyes, The, 148. 


Oak, Chas. E., land agent, 51. 
Oakes, Col. William, 115. 

V. B., 122. 

William, 68, 69, 77, 114, 115. 

William P., 114. 
Oaks, Elecious, 364. 
Odell, William F., 314, 359, 378, 379, 380, 381, .S82, 

383, 384, 388. 
Ogden, Cohmel H., 160. 
Ohio, 76. 

Oklahoma, state of, 2. 
"Old Crosbv House," 204. 
Old Town, Me., 4, 98, 168. 
Ohn, Wm. M., 48. 
O'Neil, surveyor, 49. 
Orland, Me., ^170. 
Orne, Judge Henry H., 228. 
Orneville, Me., 8, 228. 
Oromocto, 384. 

Orono, Me., 22, 117, 124, 274. 
Orr, Mr., note 229. 
Osgood, Fred B., 122. 

Rev. Hiram P., 88, 94. 
Otis, John, 280. 
Owen, W. H., 30. 


Packard, Rachel Cole, wife of Jacob Blanchard, 445. 
Page, Elder J. F., 74, 114. 

Jonathan. 69. 

Moses, 11. 
Palmer, J. M., 30. 

Rev. A. D. F., 80. 
Paris, Albion K., 19, (Gov., 253). 

Virgil 1)., ^211. 
Paris, Contume de, note 237. 
Paris, Me., 166, 167, 184, 196, 197. 
Parker, Woster, 114. 
Parkman, 8, 44, 73, 74, 75, 76, (church, 83,) 84. 91. 

Parks, Gorham, 271. 

Parris, Gov. Albion Keith, 328, 332, 380, 396. 
Parsons, Henry, first lawyer in Sebec, 23. 

Solomon, 21, 24. 25, 26, 114. 

Levi, 107. 

W. E., 109, 110, 111, 114, 115. 448. 
Parsonsfield, Me., 273. 
Partridge. Capt. Calvin, 198. 
Passamaquoddy Ray, 225, 228. 
Passimaquody Indians, 327. 
Patten, A. S., 93. 

Sumner A.. 122. 
Patten's store, 88. 
Pay son, Rev. F. L., 96. 
Peabodv, Capt. Renjami)!, 192. 
Peaks, J. R., 111. 114. 
Pema(}uin or Pemaquid, Me., 221. 
Pember. Rev. E. F. , 97. 
Pembroke, Mass., 166. 
Pendleton, Rev. A. B., 80. 

Rev. S. P.. 80. 
Pennsylvania Assembly, 438. 
Penobscot Association. 84. 
Penobscot Ray. 5. 

Penobscot Countv. 7. 83, 101. 168. 207, 214. 24J4. 
273. 277." 279. 298, 389, 402. 435. 


Penobscot, expedition to the, 443. 

Penobscot Lodge, F. & A. M. , 24. 

Penobscot, Me., 170. 

Penobscot River, 3, 4, 5, 18, 35, 4T, 49, 53, 57, 58, 

62, 235, 311, 352, 436. 
Pensacola, 420. 
Pension Act, first granting pension to Revolutionary 

soldiers, 182. 
Pension Examining Board, 447. 
People's Baptist Church of Dover, 80. 
Pepper, G. D. B., (D. D.), (L. L. D. ), president of 

Colby University, 81. 
Pepperell, Mass., 190. 
Perham, Judge David, 90. 
Perham's survey, 192. 
Perkins, Lieut. Joshua, 195. 
Perry, Luke, 13, 17. 
Peters, Thomas W., 283. 

Witham, 419. 
Petition to Governor, 360, 

Philadelphia, Pa., 161, 435, 437, 438, 439, 440. 
Philbrick, J. S., his hall, 88. 
Phillips, Abigail, married John Blanchard, 443, 

Isaac, 120, 121. 

Samuel, Jr., 434, 435, 436, 437. 

Wm., 14. 
Phipps, Sarah, married Henry Leland, 178. 
Pierce, Charles, 36 L 
PierdeMonts, 218. 
Pike, Richard, 20. 
Piles, William, 420, 422. 
Pillsbury, Evans S., 110, 124. 

Samuel, 121. 

Samuel, Jr., 120. 
Pillsbury house, Foxcroft, 90. 
Pine Tree State, 279. 
Piscataquis Association of churches, articles of faith, etc. 

adopted, 80, 81, 84 ; of Universalists, 98. 
Piscataquis County, mentioned, 7, 8, 20, 23, 42, 67, 
81, (bill establishing, 89,) 95, 96, 128, 133, 138, 
147, 154, 155, 158, 167, 169, 175, 178, 179, 


181. 184, 194, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 207, 
(bar, 211,) 228, 235, 278, 435, 449. 

Piscataquis County Historical Society, 1 0, 449. 

Piscataquis Farmer, 121. 

Piscataquis Lodge, F. &A. M., mentioned, 23; its organ- 
ization, 23 ; charter received, 24 ; other facts, 25 
to 34. 

Piscataquis Observer, advertisement in it for Sebec Lake 
boats, 129; advertisement for Rippling Wave, 
134; drowning of Daniel W. Hayes, 135; fish 
story of Hunter Ellis, 144; article concerning 
settlement of Blanchard, 163; story of how E. 
Dean became first settler of Blanchard, 164; 
obituary notice of Enoch Leathers, 175; 
obituary of Jeremiah Rolfe, 185. 

Piscataquis River, mentioned 4, 13, 41, 42, 44, 46, 49, 
146, 150, 156, 162; bridge, 43; first dam across, 
191 ; salmon plentiful, 207. 

Piscataquis Royal Arch Chapter, 447. 

Piscataquis volunteers, 319. 

Piscataway Harbor, 219. 

Pitman, Mark, 116. 

Pleasant River Lodge, F. & A. M., 30. 

Plummer, Isaac, 89. 
Jonathan S. , 87. 
M. H., 88. 

Plymouth County, Mass., 196. 

Plymouth, Mass., 242. 

Plymouth, Me., 213. 

Plympton, Mass., 196. 

Poinsett, Hon. J. R., 312. 

Polk County, Wis., 152. 

Pollard, John, 53, 120. 
David, 364. 

Pope of Rome, 216. 

Poplar Hill yard, 139. 

Porter, Capt. John, 180. 

Col, Joseph W., editor of Bangor Historical Maga- 
zine, 3. 

Portland, Me., 158, note 226, note 229, 249, 328, 354, 
355, 368, 374, 377, 379, 399. 

INDEX 508 

Portsmouth, N. H., 186, 187, 204, 210. 
Portugal, 216, 217. 
Potter, Henry, 56. 

Warren, 56. 
Potter's Store, 88. 
Powell, Rev. Hannah Jewett, 96. 
Powers, Walter, 363, 403, 407, 408, 409. 
Pratt, Abigail, married Jacob Blanchard, 445. 

Dr. John F. , of Chelsea, Mass. , 4. 

Rev. F. H., 80. 
Preble, Wm. Pitt, 229, note 229, 238, 239, 280. 

John, 4. 
Prentis, William, 368. 
Prentiss, Caleb, 114, 115, 197. 
Prescott, Colonel William, 190. 

President of U. S., 257, 258, 259, 260, 264, 278, 333, 
337, 338, 340, 341, 347, 354, 369, 374, 375, 
376, 377, 384, 391, 438. 
Priest, changed name Chateaugay to Sainte Emilie, 291. 
Prince William, 420. 
Proclamation, a, 312. 
Proctor, Mrs. Mary L., 187. 
Protestant, 217. 
Provinces, 319. 
Provincial Surveyor, 303. 
Public Lands in Maine, 402. 
Public Securities, 436. 
Pullen, Horace, 120, 121, 122. 

J. Henry, 121. 

Stanley T., 114, 116. 

Thomas S., 114. 
Puritans, 118. 
Putnam, Col. Rufus, 195. 

Rufus, 436. 

(Signed), 419. 

(Signed), 362. 


Quaker City, 439. 


Quakers, mentioned, 19H, 200. 

Quartier Jacques, known as "Cartier, " 217. 

Quebec, 3, 5, 220, 223, 224, 228, 230, 236, note 237, 

275, 308, 309, (paper, 393,) 430; Prevotal 

court of, note 237. 
Queen of England, 220. 


Railroad, built from Penobscot River to Northeast Carry, 

56, 57 ; lack of, 67. 
Rale, Father Sebastian, was killed, 220. 
Read, John, 434, 435, 437. 
Record, Owen, 88. 
Redington, Justice Asa, 90. 
Register of St. Peters, Cornhill, London, 424. 
Registry of deeds, Hancock County, 170. 
Reid, Colonel George, 169, 174. 
Religion in early days of Greenville, 64, 65. 
Republican National Convention in Cincinnati, 444. 
Republican Party, 213, 445. 
Resolutions, 257, 258, 259. 
Resolutions, on death of Wm. Buck, 446; of Columbus 

Ellis, 449. 
Revolution, The, 160, 176, 177, 186, 188, 198, 204. 
Revolutionary, army, 163, 164, 443; pensioners, 163; 

services, 159, 163, 174; soldier, 182, 194; war, 

4, 154, 158, 159, 195, 434, 435, 438. 
Revolutionary Soldiers, of Piscataquis County and others, 

mentioned, pp 154 to 215; land granted to 

them, 177. 
Rex vs. Hunt case cited, 292. 
Rhode Island. 172, 180, 193, 198. 
Rice, an Irishman, 407, 408. 
Francis, 273, 288, 291. 
John H., 120, 121. 
Peabody H., 120, 121. 
Richard R., 114. 
Rices, The, of Monson, 124. 


Richards, Col. Jonathan, 443. 

E., 164. 

John, Esq., 437. 

Rev. A. A., 88, 89: Hrst minister in Milo, 9^2. 93. 
Richardson, Esther, 427. 

Ezekiel, 426. 

Mr., a preceptor of Foxcroft Academy, 115. 

Susannah, 426. 
Rideout, Reuben A., 122. 

Riley, James Whitcomb, a saying of his, 148. 
Rines, Captain Stover, 274 ; mentioned, 277. 
Ripley, Col., 175. 

E. W., 14. 
* 'Ripley, •■ formerly "No 5," 82, 167, 213. 
Rising Virtue Lodge, F. k A. M., 24. 
Ristigouche River, 232, 233, 234, 235. 
River Falls, Wis., 152. 
River of Canada, 221. 
Rix, William S., 116. 
Roach River, Me., 53. 
Roberts, James T., 81. 

Jonathan, 175. 

Thomas, 13. 
Robie, Frederick, 214. 
Robinson, A. M., 21, 23, 114, 115, 116, 313. 

Capt. John, 193. 

Capt. Thomas, 56. 

Elder Nathaniel, 73, 74. 

Jonathan. 23, 25. 

Nathaniel, 113, 115. 

Rachel, 79. 
Rochester, N. H., 183. 
Rogers, Capt., 443. 

Jonathan P., Esq., 315. 
Rolf, Jeremiah, 183. 

Rolfe, Jeremiah, of Abbot, Revolutionary soldier, sketch 
of, pp 183 to 186. 

John, 183. 

Samuel, 183. 
Rollins, Frank, 116. 

Irene, married Samuel Stickney, 193. 


Roosevelt, President, 2. 
Rose, Thomas, 87. 
Rouillard, Rev. Harry Enos, 96. 
Round-Heads, 118. 
Rousick Island, 158. 
Rowell, James S., 116. 
Rowley, Mass., 192, 193. 
Roxbury, Mass., 160. 
Royal, Dorcas, 190. 

Ephraim, 190. 

Esther, 190. 

Eunice, 190. 

Isaac, of Dover, Revolutionary soldier, sketch of, pp 
186 to 190; liis son Isaac, 190. 

Jacob, 190. 

John, 188, 189, 190. 

Lucy, 190. 

Mitchell, 190. 

Oliver, first child of Isaac and Tabitha, 189. 

Richard, 190. 

Tabitha, wife of Isaac Royal, 189. 
Ruggles, John, 251. 
Rumford Falls, Me., 432. 
Russell, Joseph, 361. 

W. H., 122. 
Rutland, Mass., 154, 155. 
Ryder, Lot, 119. 

Saco, Me., note 229. 

SaflPord, Dr. O. F., 95, 97. 

Sagadahock, eastern part of Massachusetts so called, 223 ; 

(river, 219, 220, 222,) Sagadahock or Kennebec 

River, 221. 
Saint Mary's College, 215. 
Saint Paul, Minn., 215. 
Sainte Emilie, 291, 292. 
Sakabis, Indian guide, 4. 
Salarv of minister in Guilford. 75. 

INDEX 507 

Salem, Mass., 171, 200. 
Sampson, Edwin P., 116. 

Eugene L., 116. 

J. S., 28. 
Sanborn, Abrani, 114, 115. 

Randall A., 115. 
Sandbar, 53. 
Sanders, D. T., 58, 98. 

Harry, 98. 

Mrs. D. T., 98. 
Sands, Lambert, 30. 
Sandwich, Mass., 148. 
Sanfason, Joseph, 293. 
Sanger, Col., 156, 157, 178. 

Sangerville, 8, 41, 42, 43, 46, 67, 71, 73, 86, 91, 94, 
97, 98, 99, 115, 147, 154, 156, 157, 175, 178, 
179 ; Maine Universalist Convention met there, 92. 
Saratoga, 169; battle of, 178, 180; field of, 183; re- 
serves hurried to, 155. 
Sargent, K. P., 97. 

Saunders, Hon. Chief Justice, 247, 283, 362, 418. 
Savage, referred to in connection with John Baker, 

Daniel, 364, 412, 419. 

Nelson, 120. 
Sawfacon, Joseph, 416. 
Sawyer, Joel, 54, 98. 
"^John E., 120. 

Isaac, 54. 

Moses, 88. 

Mrs. Joel, 98. 
Scales, Zenas, 120, 121. 
Scammon, Ed, 54. 
Schoodic, The, note 226. 
Schoolhouse, little red in Greenville, 62 ; in Dover, 88, 

94; at Sangerville, 93, 94; in Monson, 119. 
Schuyler, General, 178. 

Scoodiac River, probably true St. Croix, 225. 
Scotland, 233. 
Scott, Captain, 160. 

Major General Winfield, 278, 280, 324, 325. 


Scribner, Benjamin R. , 120. 
Scudder, John, 407, 409. 
Seat of War, 275. 
Seavey, W. H., 122. 

Sebec, 1, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 18, 20, 21, 23, 29, 
36, (church, 78,) 127, 130, 133, 158, 159, 161, 
162, 178, 194, 207, 446. 
Sebec dam, charter granted, 136. 
Sebec Lake, 20, 127, 128, 130, 134, 135, 136, 137, 

138, 139. 
Sebec Lake Steamboat Co., 130. 
Sebec Pond, 128, 141. 
Sebec Pond Boat Co., 128. 
Second Cumberland Regiment, 443. 

Secretary of Province, 288, 378, 384, 388; letter of, 
336 ; of State, 240, 339, 347 ; letter from Secre- 
tary of Province, 358. 
Secretary of State of the L^nited States, 388. 
Secretary of War, 306, 312. 
Senate, 239, 240, 258. 

Senators and Representatives, 259, 260, 336, 348. 
Separatists, 118. 
Sewall, Capt. Henry, 195. 
Shakespeare, 215. 

Shaw, History of the family with a sketch of Milton G. 
Shaw of Greenville, pp 424 to 433; "Shaw 
notes," 424; "Records," 427; mill at Bath, 430. 
Shaw, Abigail, 426. 

Adeline, 430. 

Advardis, 23, 26. 

Albert, 429, 430. 

Albert H., 431, 433. 

Alice (Lewis) Fernald, 429. 

Ann, 425. 

B. F., (D. D.,) 77. 

Benjamin, 425, 427. 

Benjamin Gilman, 429. 

Charles D., 431, 433. 

Clara F. (Norcross), 433. 

Daniel, 428, 429, 430. 

Deliverance, 425. 

INDEX 509 

Shaw, Edward, 426, 427. 

Elizabeth, 428. 

Elizabeth Staples, 428. 

Ellen, 433. 

Emily Newall, 429. 

Esther, 425, 426. 

Eunice (Spinney), married Milton G. Shaw, 433. 

Frank, 433. 

Fred, 433. 

Freeman, drowned at Moosehead Lake, 60. 

George, 428. 

George M., 433. 

Hannah, 427, 428 ; married Nathaniel Blanchard, 

Ida J. (Mansell), 433. 

James, 428. 

John, 427, 428. 

Joseph, 425, 427. 

M. Ella (Mitchell), 433. 

M. G. & Sons, 433. 

Margaret, 425. 

Mary, 425, 426, 428. 

Mary Emma, married Frederick H. Kimball, 433. 

Martha E. (Mansell), 433. 

Mehitable, 430. 

Mellen, 433. 

Mercv (Vernet), 428. 

Milton G., 52. 

Milton Gilman, 429, 430, 431, 432. 

Mrs. C. D., 98. 

Noah, 428. 

Olive. 428. 

Ralph. 424. 

Roger, 424, 425. 427. 

Ruth. 427. 

Sarah. 426, 429. 

William, 53. 

William xM., 431, 433. 
Shaw Lumber Co., 53. 
Shelden. Nathan W., 114. 
Shellev, referreil to in connection with John Baker, 298. 


Shepherd, Colonel, 166. 

David, 23, 25, 27, 28. 

Dr. David, 26. 
Shepley, Ether, 271. 
Sherburne, Capt. Jacob, 169, 170. 

Colonel, 160. 
Sherburne, Mass., 177, 178, 179. 
Sherburne's Minute Men, 177. 

Ship, Bon Homme Richard, 187; British Renown, 161; 
Drake, 188; English Merchant Ship, 188; 
English Ship of AVar, 188; Jersey Prison, 161; 
Ranger, 187 and 188; Serapis, 187. 
Shirley, Me., 53, 54, 69, 147, 149, 151, 434, 435. 
Shore, Lieut. Colonel George, 332. 
Shrewsbury. Mass.. 171. 
Sidney, Me., 198, 199. 
Sileste, Peter, 293. 
Simpson, George, 54. 
Sims, William F., 116. 
Sinclair, C. P., 68. 
Sisson, James, 420. 
Sixth Maine Regiment, 446. 
Skadder, John, 364. 
Skowhegan, 56, 163, 172. 
Sleeper, John, 16, 17, 18, 19. 
Smart, Charles, 411, 419, 420. 

John, 1 1. 
Smith, Ansel, 53. 

F. O. J., 271. 

Governor, 254, 256, 257. 

Isaac, 45. 

J. M. H., 93, 98. 

Miss Clara T., wife of Bill Nye, 149. 

Rev. Gibson, 88. 

Seba, his "Way Down East Stories," 139. 
Smithfield, Me., 142. 
Snake River, 32. 
Snow, Dr. J. C, 95. 

Edwin P., 114. 

Eleazer W., 8. 

Henry, 28. 

IXDKX 511 

Society of Mayflower Descendants, 443. 

SofFysaw, mentioned as constable in John Baker affairs, 

Soldiers Song, The, 3W. 

Somerset ('(uinty, 7, 40, 82, 365, 367, 435, 446. 
Somerset Journal, moose story of Hunter Ellis, 144. 
Sons or Daughters of the Revolution. 444. 
Souci, J., 293. 
Soule, Barnabas, 443. 

George, 444. 

J. G., 116. 

Jane (Bradbury), 443. 

Mercy, married Ozias Blanchard, 443, 444. 
Souriquois, 218. 
South, The, 208. 
South Carolina, 183. 
South Dover, Me., 73, 74, 79, 157. 
South Dover Cemetery, 157. 
Sovereign Lord the King, 397, 403. 
Sovereign of England, 243. 
Soverign Arbitrator, 375, (Sovereign, 391.) 
Spain, 216, 217. 
Spanish Armada, 217. 
Sparhawk, Colonel Nathan, 155. 
Sparrow, Capt. Edward, 195. 
Spaulding, Artemus, 87. 

Benjamin, 88. 

Eleazer, of Foxcroft-Dover, Revolutionary Soldier, 
sketch of, 190 to 192; his father, 190. 

John, 87, 190, 191. 

Joseph, son of subject of sketch, 192. 

Josiah, 190. 

Lemuel, 191. 

Rev. R. C, 71. 

Sarah, wife of Eleazer, daughter of Lemuel Spauld- 
ing, 191. 

Seth, 87, 190, 191. 
Spaulding Place in Dover, 138. 
Spauldings, sold out interests in Foxcroft, settled in 

Dover, 192. 
Spauldingtown, now Foxcroft, 191. 


Speed, Rev. H. C. , 77. 
Spencer, Major Gen., 172. 
Spencer Bay, 56, 57, 146. 
Spencer's Hall, Monson, 12S. 
Spinney, Eunice, 4'3r3. 

Spiritualism came ijito Piscataquis County, 94. 
Spiritualists, 94. 
Spraf>;ue, Asa, 87. 
Mr. J. F., 152. 
Peles, 271. 
Springfield, Me., 105, 168. 
Sproat, Col. Ebeneazer, 195. 
Squaw Bay, 60. 
Squaw Mountain, 485. 
St. Andrews, 827. 
St. Clair, Rev. C. P., 80. 
St. Croix River, 218, 219, 220, 221, 223, 224, 225, 

note 226, 227, 281, 282, 241, 264, 265, 826, 

340, 436. 
St. Francis, 412, 414. 
St. Francis River, 353, 397, 419. 
St. James, Court of, 871. 
St. John, N. H., 275, 310, 311. 
St. John River, 228, 224, 282, 238, 234, 235, 2,36, 

244, 245, 256, 271, 278, 275, 280, 289, 301, 

329, 831, 389, 840, 852, 358, 355, 856, 357, 

358, 859, 877, 892, 898, 402, 403, 413, 414, 

421, 428. 
St. Lawrence River. 218, 222, 228, 224, 225, 227, 

231, (.uulfand river, 282,) 238, 235, 287. 264, 

265, 281, 858. 
St. l^ouis, Castle of. iiole 287. 
St. Mary's Bay, 218. 

St. Pierre, Mvzene, in the West Indies, 488. 
Stadtholder. 255. 
Stanchfield. Wni. H., 27. 28. 
Staples, Elizabeth, 428 : married Daniel Shaw, 429. 

J. VV., 122. 
Stark, General. 201. 
Starkie's Evidence. 298. 
State Papers, relating lo John Bakers trial, 282; 

INDEX 513 

relative to North Eastern Boundary Controversy, 
pp 3^8 to 423. 
Steamboats, Amphitrite, 55 ; charter for first on Sebec 
Lake, 130; Fair}- of the Lake, a Moosehead 
Lake steamer, 134; Favorite, first steamboat on 
Sebec Lake, 131, 132; Fulton's, 127; Moose- 
head, 56, 60; Rippling Wave, Sebec Lake 
steamer, 132, 133, 134, 135. 
Stearns" (place), 141. 
Stetson, Captain, 158. 

Charles, 412, 415. 417. 
Edward, 36. 
Simeon, 19. 
Stevens, Col., 326. 

D. T. , preacher, 93. 
David, 44. 

Dr., a preceptor of Foxcroft Academy, 115. 
Mrs. L. M. N., president of National Woman's 
Christian Temperance Union, educated at Fox- 
croft Academy, 116. 
Stewart, Anthony, 283. 
Stickney, Clinton, 193, 
Irene, 193. 

Irene (Rollins), first wife of Samuel, 193. 
Mary (Sawyer), 192. 

Patty (Atwood), second wife of Samuel, 193. 
Samuel, of Brownville, Revolutionar}^ soldier, 

sketch of, pp 192 to 194; his son, 193. 
Simeon, son of subject of sketch, 194. 
William, 192. 
Stickney Hill, 194. 

Stockholders of Monson Academy, 120. 
Stony Point, 195. 
Story, Josei)h W., 11. 
Stoughton, Mass., 417. 
Stover, Abraham. 170. 

Elizabeth, married John Hart of Penobscot, 170. 
Jeremiah, 170. 
Jonathan, 170. 
Strafford County, N. H., 429. 
Stratton, Charles, drowned in Moosehead I^ake, 60. 


Straw, David R., 114. 

David R., Jr., 114. 
Straw Si Martin, 43. 

Strickland, Major Hastings of Ranf^or, Sheriff of Penob- 
scot Count V at time of Aroostook War, 273, 276, 
note 276, 277, 279. 
Strong, Andrew, 170. 

Caleb, 14. 
Stubbs, AV. T., Ill, 114. 
Studson, Charles, 247, 248, 282, 284, 285, 286, 289, 

291, 292. 
Sturtevant, Asa, of Dover, Revolutionary soldier, sketch 
of, pp 194 to 197; son Asa. 194, 197. 
Azubah, 197. 

Dorcas, third wife of Asa. 197. 
Eunice, 197. 

Eunice (Morse), second wife of Asa, 197. 
Jonah, 197. 
Mary A., 197. 
Mercy, 197. 

Sally (Washburn), first wife of Asa, 196. 
William, 197. 
Stutson, a blacksmith, 411. 417, 419, 420. 
Suffolk County. 177. 
Sullivan, James, 326, 327. 

Mr., one of agents to determine true St. Croix, 
348, 349. 
Sunmions, of Jacob Goldthrite before Court at Erederic- 

ton, 418. 
Sumner, Me., 67. 
Sunday School Helper, 95. 

Sunday-schools, largest in county, 79; Universalist or- 
ganized in Guilford, 94. 
Supreme Court, 247, 261, 282, 437; of New Bruns- 
wick, 362, 403. 
Supreme Executive, 394. 
Sutherland, Joseph, 283. 
Sweetser, Martha, married Ozias Blanchard, 444. 


Tarn worth, N. H., 428. 

Tarr, James, built public hall, 123. 

Tarrio, Bellony, 415. 

Tarr's Hall, Monson, 95. 

Tash, Thomas, 116. 

Tasker, Rev. B., 88, 89. 

Taunton, Mass., 437. 

Tavlor, Capt. Benjamin, 201. 

Roland, 120, 121, 122. 
Temisquata Lake, 237. 
Temperance Hall in Milo, 28. 
Temple, N. H., 200, 201, 202. 
Tenney, William, 120, 121. 
Terrili, Isaac, 22. 
Thanksgiving days, 179. 
Thaver, Isaac A., 88. 

■^Wm., 87. 
The Hague, 238. 
Thibedaus, Captain Firman, 332. 
Thomas, Eleanor, 198. 

H. L., 96. 

Ichabod, 19; sketch of Revolutionary soldier of 
that name of Brownville, pp 198 to 200. 

Joseph, 198. 

Mehitable (Crosby), wife of subject of sketch, 198. 

Stephen A., 199.' 
Thomas's Hill, 326. 
Thompson, Alex, 11. 

Alexander, 16. 

E. A., Ill, 114, 115, 448. 

F. H., 133. 
George, 17. 
John W., 23, 25. 
Justin S., 122. 
Nelson, 136. 
William N., 130. 

Thompson, Conn., 200. 

Thompson Free Library, Dover, 88. 

Thoreau. Henry D., 3. 


Tibbetts, Capt., 274. 

Elder A. G., 78. 

Mr., 410. 
Ticonderoga, 158, 178. 
Tilden, Rev. H. B., 80. 
Tilley, Rev. C. C, 80. 
Tilly, James Alexander, Compte de, 439. 
Tilton, Susanna, 425. 

William, 425. 
"Times," The, 441. 
Timisconatee I^ake, 293. 
Tobique, 242, 274, 414, 420, 422. 
Tolman, Caleb, 29. 
Tomah, Sock, 4. 
Topsfield, Mass., 200. 
Topsham, Me., note 229. 
Toring, Wyoming, 148. 
Towle, Josiah, 23, 24, 25. 

Mr., 21. 
Towne, Eli, first settler of Dover, 182, 201, 202. 

Elisha, 200. 

Elizabeth (Towne), first wife of Thomas, 200. 

Ezra, 114. 

Henry S., Ill, 115. 

Mercy (Foster), 200. 

Moses, 201, 202. 

Sarah, 200. 

Sarah (Burton), second wife of Thomas, 200. 

Thomas, of Dover, Revolutionary soldier, sketch 
of, 200 to 203. 

William, 200. 
Town Hall, Foxcroft, 97. 
Townsend, Rev. M. B., 97. 

Richard, 13. 
Township No. 6, \6H. 
Trafton, Mark, 20. 
Treasury, 250. 

Treaties', of Breda, 222 ; of Ghent, 225, 226, note 226, 
229, 238, 253, 329, 332, 333, 334, 337, 340, 
(list of books relating to, 342,) 348, 349, 357, 
359, 369, 370, 372, 375, 390, 391 ; of Peace, 

INDEX 517 

(1783,) 216, 219, 224, 227, 230, 231, 233, 234, 
235, 236, 238, 239, 246, 253, 254, 260, 265, 
300, 314, 335, 371, 389; of Ryswick, 222; of 
Utrecht, 220; Webster- Ashburton, 216. 

Troy, N. Y., 307. 

Trustees of Foxcroft Academ}, 101, 104. 

Tuck, Jacob, 122. 

Tucker, Almira, 79. 

Tufts, Rev. George E., 80. 

Tufts Divinity School, 95. 

Tupper, Col. Benjamin, 183. 

Turner, Col. William, 193, 
Rev. B. F., 83. 
Z. L., 96. 

Turner, Me., 86, 88. 

Turtle or Marcumpticook River, 398. 

Tyler, John, 54. 


"Uncle Peter and the Bear," 139. 

Uncle Sam, 210. 

Union, The, 176, 230, 249, 258, 266, 269, 338, 340. 

Union of States, Maine admitted, 118, 252. 

Unitarians 94 124. 

United States,' mentioned, 137, 183, 216, 219, 224, 
228, 232, 234, 235, 237, 2-38, 239, 240, 247, 
250, 251, 252, 253, 255, 257, 258, 259, 265, 
266, 278, 280, 284, 286, 298, 299, 300, 301, 
306, 308, 311, 322, 323, 324, 326, 327, 328, 
329, 333, 335, 340, 347, 354, 355, 356, 357, 
358, 359, 368, 370, 371, 372, 374, 375, 382, 
384, 385, 386, 387, 388, 389, 405, 420, 435, 
438, 439, 440. 

United States Senators, 437. 

U. S. Army, 324. 

District Attorney, note 230. 
Pension Office, 445. 
Sec'y of State, note 244. 
Senate, 306, 438, 444. 


Universalism, History of in Piscataquis County, pp 86 to 

Universalists, 75, 124; Eastern Association of, 86; 

State Convention of, 86 ; first Universalist Society 

of Dover, Foxcroft and Sangerville, rules, etc., 

86, 87. 
University, Colby, 81. 
University of Maine, 124. 
Upper Canada, 230. 
Upper Madawasca, note 256. 

Valley Forge, hardships mentioned, 178. 
Van Buren, Pres., 240, 242, 252, 254, 270. 
VanKleek, Rev. E. A., 80. 
Van Ness, Cornelius, 228. 
Varney, Bowman, 120. 

Capt. George, 55. 

Jerr}-, 54. 

Mr. and Mrs. George O., 98. 
Varnum, General, 160. 
Vassal borough, 67. 
Vaughan, B. B., 79, 80. 

Charles, 88. 

Charles R., 330, 331, 333, 334, 335, 355, 356, 
358, 359, 360, 392, 393. 

Sarah C, 110. 
Vermont, 228. 

Vernet, Mercy, married John Shaw, 428. 
Vice Admiralty, 300. 
Vice President of U. S., 258. 

*'Vintnor," Ralph Shaw, vintner and keeper of the ordi- 
nary, 424; Roger Shaw also a vintner, 424, 
Vinton, Hiram, 120. 
Virginia, 444, 445. 
Vose, Captain, 175. 

INDEX 519 


Wade, Colonel Nathan, 192. 
Walden, Mrs. Marshall, 98. 
Waldo County, 319; volunteers, 319. 
Waldo patent, 10, 11, 13, 14, 36. 
Walker, Rev. O. B., 69, 72, 80. 
Wallace, William, 158. 
Walsh, Mrs. A. A., 81. 

Rev. A. A., 81. 
War Department, 307. 

War of 1812, mentioned 174, 175, 176, 225, 228. 
Ward, Benjamin, 120. 

Principal Fred U., 112, 116. 
Ware, N. H., 193. 
Warner, Brig. Gen. Jonathan, 160. 
Warren, A. M., 97. 
Washburn, Israel, 22. 

Israel, Jr., note 226. 

Sally, married Asa Sturtevant, 1 96. 
Washington, (Geo.), 5. 

Mrs., 438. 
Washington County, 418, 420, 423, 435, 436. 
Washington, D. C", 149, 152, 239, 241, 258, 280, 307, 
322, 328, 329, 332, 335, 336, 340, 347, 354, 
368, 369, 373, 374, 439, 445. 
Washingtonian Society, mentioned, 107. 
Waterville College, 72. 
Watson, Capt., 180. 
Watson's Annals of Philadelphia, 440. 
Wayne, Mad Anthonv, 195. 
Webber, S., 96. 
Webber Farm, Guilford, 184. 
Webster, Daniel, 280. 

Ebenezer, 274. 

George, 122. 

John, 13. 
Webster- Ashburton treaty, 216, note 226, note 230, 

Webster's Works, note 239. 
Weed, Dr., 213. 


Wellington, Duke of, 277. 
Wellington, Me., 81, 435. 
"Wellington Stores," 81. 
Wentworth, John, 11. 
West, a deputy surxevor general, 420. 

George, 297, 803. 

person mentioned in John Baker's arrest, 408. 
West, the, 430. 
West Branch, 57, 58, 59, 62. 
West Boylston, Mass., 171. 
West Cove, 54. 
West Dover, Me., 157. 
West Indies, 438, 440, 441. 
West Point, 161, 193, 195, 196. 
Westbrook, Me., 175. 
Western Piscataquis, 434. 
Weston, Eben, Esq., 23. 

Isaac, 45, 

Nathan, chief justice, first that presided in Piscata- 
quis County, 90. 

Samuel, surveyor of eastern lands, 35 ; letter of 
instructions concerning sale of lands, 46, 47 ; 
his letter to land committee, 48, 49, 51. 
Wetmore, Thomas, Esq., 243, 362, 397, 399, 403, 406, 

Weymouth, Mass., 442, 443. 
Wharff, Isaac B. , 45, 46. 
Wheeler, Rev. F. E., 97. 

Whig or Whigs, mentioned, 213, 260, 277, 317, 318; 
correspondence, 318, 319; governor, 273; 
papers, 276. 
Whitcomb, Rev. C. F., 77. 
White, Capt., 180. 

Rev. H. K., 97. 
Whiting, James K., 120. 
Whitney, Col. Joseph, 172. 

James H., 120. 

John, 16. 

Samuel, 114. 
Whittemore's Landing, 129. 
Whittier, John D., 122. 


Wigglesworth, Colonel Edward, 159, 177. 

Wilder, Major Jonas, 155. 

Wilderness, 361. 

Wiley, James S., 114, 115. 

Wilkins, Daniel, 101, 103, 113, 115. 

David, Esq., 103. 

Isaac, 114. 

Rev. Thomas, 104. 
William and Mar}-, king and queen, 222. 
Williams, Norman S., 120. 

Reuel. 257, 271. 

Rev. Thomas, 101, 103, 105, UK), 113, 115. 
Williamsburg, 8, 199. 
Williamson's History of Maine, 435. 
Willimantic, Me., 136. 

Willing, Ann, married William Bingham, 438. 
Wilson, Capt. Francis, 172. 

Jonathan, 364, 367, 369. 

Leonard, 367. 

Mary, married William Chase Crosby, 208, 

Mr., of Greenville, 53. 

Rev. Adam, 74. 

Rev. W. W., 88. 

Rev. William W., minister of Dover Universalist 
church, 90 ; interesting extracts from his diary, 
pp 90, 91. 
Wilson, Me., 435. 
Wilson Stream, 137, 139. 
Wilton, N. H., 200, 201. 
Wing, Capt, 325. 
Wingate, Gen. Joshua, 19. 
Winslow, Me., 197. 
Winter Hill, near Boston, 201. 
Winthrop, Capt. John, 443. 
Winthrop, Me., 72. 
Wiscasset, Me., 429. 
Wisconsin, 147, 148, 152, 430. 
Withee, Rev. James, 54 ; leader in religious matters in 

Greenville, 65. 
Woburn, Mass., 163. 
Wolfe, 220. 


Woman's Christian Temperance Union, 116. 

AVoodbury, James, 182. 

Woodburv Hill. Dover, 181. 

Woodstock, N. B., 274, note 274, 310, 311, 313, 367, 

Wool, Gen. John E., 306, 307, 312. 
Woolen Mill, Mayo & Son's, 104. 
Worcester, Mass., 370. 
Worshipful Master of Mosaic Lodge, 447. 
Writ, a, Province of New Brunswick vs. John Baker, 

Wyman, Jesse, 92. 

Robert, 116. 

Theodore, 22, 114. 

Theodore H., 22. 

Yankee settlers of "Aroostic, " 365. 
Yankees, 277. 

York County, mentioned, 178. 183, 247, 282, 283, 287, 
(militia, 291,) 294, 303, 305, 330, 397, 403, 
York, Duke of, 222. 
York, Me., note 229. 
Young, Elijah, 54. 

Ichabod, 21. 

Oliver, 53. 

Thomas, 54. 

William, 56. 

AVm. P., 30, 31. 

Zion's Hill, 211, 

W 35 

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